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Full text of "Drawings of Sir E. J. Poynter .."

D R AWINGS 
OF SIR E. J. 
POYNTER, RR.A, 

1 




#■ 



J/' 



DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 




MODERN MASTER 
DRAUGHTSMEN 



{ ISAAC FOOTI 
I ^LIBRARY I 



FRONTISPIECE 




STUDY FOR ADVERTISEMENT OF 
AN ASSURANCE COMPANY 



DR^^WINGS OF 

SIREJ.POYNTER 
BART. PR. A. 




LONDON. GEORGE NEWNES LIMITED 
SOUTHAMPTON STREET. STRANDwc 
NEW YORK .CHARLES SCRIBNERS SONS 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE 



STUDY FOR AN ADVERTISEMENT OF THE 

GUARDIAN ASSURANCE OFFICE . . Frontispiece 

STUDY FOR THE MOSAIC FOR ST. PAUL'S . 

STUDY OF A HERON 

STUDY FOR AN ILLUSTRATION 

STUDY FOR "HORyE SERENtE" 

STUDY FOR "ST. STEPHEN" .... 

STUDY FOR THE FRESCO OF ST. STEPHEN . 

STUDY FOR UNFINISHED PICTURE, " ENDYMION 

STUDY FOR THE FRESCO OF ST. STEPHEN . 

FIRST DESIGN FOR THE ASHANTEE MEDAL 

STUDIES FOR ST. PAUL'S 

FIGURE STUDIES j 

SECOND DESIGN FOR THE ASHANTEE MEDAL j 

STUDY FOR THE DRAPERY OF ATALANTA IN 

"ATALANTA'S RACE" 

STUDY FOR "HORiE SERENA ' .... 
STUDY FOR ATALANTA IN "ATALANTA'S RACE" 
STUDY FOR "ATALANTA'S RACE" .... 

STUDY FOR THE ARMOUR IN THE "ST. GEORGE 
MOSAIC ... .... 

STUDY FOR THE SCIENCE CERTIFICATE, SOUTH 
KENSINGTON 

FUNCHAL, MADEIRA 

STUDY FOR THE "CUP OF TANTALUS" 

PICO GRANDE, MADEIRA 

STUDY OF A TREE-TRUNK 

STUDY FOR "THE QUEEN OF SHEBA " . 



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THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

especially, as an astounding feat of reconstruction from insufficient 
data, to the magnificent reception hall, with its columns of ivory, cedar, 
and gold, in which King Solomon in all his glory is receiving the 
Queen of Sheba. These, to name no others, are testimony enough 
that, as far as architecture is concerned, his innate creative faculties are 
of no mean order. There is the less need, moreover, to labour this 
point in that the artist has himself put on record his own weighty 
estimation of the value to the painter of a well-founded understanding 
of the sister art. In one of his addresses to the students at the Slade 
School of Art, University College, Gower Street, London, delivered 
during his occupation of the Professorial chair, subsequently repeated 
elsewhere, and finally issued as a volume under the title of Ten Lectures 
on Art, he says, speaking of the early Italian masters, " you will not 
find any of whatever school that did not understand the artistic side of 
architecture, even if they did not practise it as a science," whereas, at 
the time he spoke, he doubted " if there be half-a-dozen figure painters 
in England who could introduce correctly a background of Classic or 
Gothic architecture into their pictures, much less design one ; " for 
which reason he concluded, "I intend to make this an important 
object of study in this school, and the subjects I give for composition 
will be generally designed with a view to practice in this art. I 
cannot indeed imagine a better preparation for a student of painting 
than that he should have been in an architect's office." 

The tendency to express himself in terms of sculpture is no less 
evident, though perhaps somewhat less directly apparent to casual or 
unexpert observation. It reveals itself, of course, patently enough in 
the technical correctness of those definite incursions into that field of art 
which he has made from time to time ; for, besides modelling a number 
of bronze portrait medals in the Italian style, he was the designer 
of the medal presented to the victorious troops after the Ashantee War, 
took a not unimportant part in the assthetic improvement of our silver 
coinage some years ago, and devised an exquisite suggestion for a flagon 
and basin representing in a series of panels the story of Cupid and 
Psyche, which unfortunately, owing to the commercial and wholly 
inartistic precipitation of some modern methods of production, was 
never carried into execution ; and it is to be wished that he might yet 
find a sufficient interval of leisure in his busy life to follow the late 
Lord Leighton and Mr. G. F. Watts in their essays on life-size 
sculpture in the round. If less discernible, this sculpturesque stamp is 
equally demonstrable in his pictorial practice, and is shown among 
other more elusive resultants, by his cultivation of mass and line in 
arrangement and composition, his profounder search for and supremer 
2 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

mastery over beauties and subtleties of form than those of colour, a 
soberness and dignity in his conceptions, and, though this may be 
stigmatised as fanciful, by a singular and probably unconscious 
propensity to present face and Hgure in profile. 

The existence and relative intensity of these two intellectual 
undercurrents can scarcely be regarded otherwise than as striking 
examples of the hereditary descent of faculties, the weaker coming 
down from his great-grandfather, Thomas Banks, R.A., a sculptor ot 
some celebrity, the stronger, less remotely, from his father, Ambrose 
Poynter, who did much sound, if no very sensationally distinguished 
work, in a day when English architecture was probably at its lowest 
ebb. Sir Edward himself, had he yielded to his father's intentions, 
would have followed in his footsteps, but a strong natural inclination 
towards painting, coupled in his earlier years with a threatening 
weakness of health, which seemed likely to render him ill-suited to the 
rougher out-of-door work incidental to the architect's profession, led 
him into the diverging path he has pursued with so much success. 
That, had fitting opportunities come to him, a far more vital factor in 
the career of an architect than in that of a painter, who can, to some 
extent, if it lies in him, make his own, he would have risen high in 
that branch of art cannot be doubted, even as his father, had he chosen, 
might unquestionably have attained eminence among the water-colour 
painters of his time, but the loss to British art of the many valuable 
services he has rendered it, both inside and outside the walls of his 
studio, would have been a heavy price to pay. 

It was only with extreme reluctance that the father allowed his son 
to follow his bent, having for some unexplained reason great doubts as 
to the possibility of his achieving anything notev/orthy, and by the 
irony of fate he was never destined to receive ocular demonstration of 
the fact that in thus taking his future into his own hands, in opposition 
to himself, his son had proved himself the wiser. Before the young 
painter had returned to London from finishing his studies in Paris, Mr. 
Poynter had been stricken with total blindness, and was consequently 
never able to judge for himself how erroneous had been his forecast of 
disaster, but he nevertheless followed his son's future career with keen 
interest and enthusiasm, and lived long enough to hear of most of his 
greatest pictorial triumphs, not dying until 1886, nine years after Sir 
Edward had obtained the full Academicianship. 

To these mingled strains of the artist's ancestry we may also, doubt- 
less, attribute his life-long enthusiasm for the work of Michel Angelo, the 
man in whose art Sculpture as an intimate and essential part of Archi- 
tecture attained its highest culmination. This passionate devotion — it 

3 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

can be adequately described in no colder phrase — was of very early 
growth, dating from his first visit to Rome in 1853. The late George 
du Maurier, in the vivid and accurate picture of student life in Paris 
during the later fifties of last century which he has sketched for all the 
reading world in the pages of Trilby, has entertainingly depicted its 
incipient phrases. " Then there was Lorimer," he wrote prophetically 
eleven years ago, " the industrious apprentice, who is now also well pinna- 
cled on high ; himself a pillar of the Royal Academy — probably, if he 
lives long enough, its future President — the duly knighted or baroneted 
Lord Mayor of " all the plastic arts " (except one or two, perhaps, here 
and there, that are not altogether without some importance)." The 
personal description which follows is purposely inaccurate and mis- 
leading, although, with an odd inconsistency, the author, in the 
accompanying illustration, revived, as nearly as memory allowed, his 
model's appearance at the time he wrote of, but the account of his 
mental attitude is, in the main, rigidly veracious. " He was a most 
eager, earnest, and painstaking young enthusiast, of precocious culture, 
who read improving books, and did not share in the amusements of 
the quartier latin, but spent his evenings at home with Handel, Michel 
Angelo, and Dante, on the respectable side of the river." Later on he 
continues, " Enthusiast as he was, he could only worship one god at a 
time. It was either Michel Angelo, Phidias, Paul Veronese, Tintoret, 
Raphael, or Titian — never a modern ; moderns didn't exist ! And so 
thoroughgoing was he in his worship, and so persistent in voicing it, 
that he made those immortals quite unpopular in the Place St. Anatole 
des Arts. We grew to dread their very names. Each of them would 
last him a couple of months or so ; then he would give us a month's 
holiday, and take up another." There is, of course, a touch of 
burlesque, even of extravaganza, in all this, and there is certainly no 
truth in the alleged ephemerality of his admirations, but there is no 
question but that we have here a very exact impression of Poynter's 
intense seriousness as regards his chosen work, for that Lorimer was 
drawn from him is nowadays no more a secret than the fact, which the 
late " Jimmy " Whistler in his real or simulated fury published far and 
wide, that he was the original of the, it must be owned, far from 
flattering, however truthful portrait of the other. The Idle Apprentice, 
Joe Sibley. 

That he did and does fully appreciate the distinguished qualities of 
the other artists named above need not be doubted, but no one of them 
has exercised so deep and lasting an influence on his artistic develop- 
ment as Michel Angelo. On a close and intelligent study of his 
methods he has very largely founded his own, and the spirit that 
4 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTKR 

inspires both may pardonably be denoted a rightly scientific one. In 
an unfinished work by the Italian master in the National Gallery it is 
seen that he was in the habit of first underpainting the whole design in 
green and white, and this careful custom Sir lulward adopted for many 
years. To each the human figure, and more especially the male figure, 
in energetic action irresistibly appeals, and in the subjects which he 
chose when he first began to realise his powers and before other, highly 
important, but none the less distracting duties came to interfere with 
regular painting, in Israel in Egypt^ in T'he Catapult^ in Atalautci's 
RacCy he displayed just such swirl and movement of more or less nude 
forms as Michel Angelo delighted in. In his designs for decorative 
work on a large scale he has testified even more unmistakably to his 
faith, and, on the rare occasions when British indifi^erence to the use of 
the fine arts in ameliorating the sordid conditions of life has allowed 
him the opportunity, he has shown how deeply he had taken to heart 
the lesson learned in the Sistine Chapel at Rome. Convinced that in this 
mural decoration had soared to its highest possible level, he developed 
his own schemes on parallel lines, though without any slavish imitation. 
Unluckily national parsimoniousness, for not even hypocrisy can pretend 
that our poverty is the cause, has in two of his most imposing con- 
ceptions thwarted consummation, and the great fresco for the apse of 
the Lecture Theatre in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the 
mosaic for the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral remain magnificent but un- 
accomplished dreams. 

It is, however, chiefly in those preliminary studies, a number of 
which we are privileged to reproduce in this volume, that the full 
efi^ects of these three influences are most remarkable. In the bold 
vigour of his generalizations, in the minute and searching attention to 
details, and in the broad and masterly use of the material, be it charcoal, 
chalk, or pencil, we perceive how conscientiously he has laid to heart 
the example long since set by Michel Angelo; in the noble casting of 
the draperies and the finely handled flesh-forms we see the bent of 
the Sculptor ; while the determination not to rest content with a 
knowledge, however unfailing, of the mere surface efi^ects but to under- 
stand as thoroughly the muscular movements which give rise to them, 
and, going deeper still, the boney scaffblding on which these in turn 
depend, reveals the constructive mind of the Architect. 

Without indulging in a specious but empty analogy we may 
fittingly compare one of his finished pictures with a completed building. 
Through all his work the preponderating importance of sound and 
perfectly understood construction runs as a first consideration, and that 
also is the keynote of his teaching as embodied in the Ten Lectures on 

5 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

Art, previously referred to, " A profound and thorough knowledge of 
nature," " a knowledge of natural forms and a fully-trained power of 
imitating them," " a continuous and determined study of the figure," 
" an intelligent use of the point in drawing which proceeds naturally 
from the study of the figure," " the lines made in shading should 
always be indicative of the construction," " knowledge of all the 
technical and practical details," " the knowledge of the human form in 
all its infinite varieties of action and position," such are the ideals he 
held up before his pupils. Steady and unwearying industry in order to 
attain merely technical perfection is the first necessity : " the only 
essence of good art is to be found, above all things, in honest and good 
workmanship," "work done really in earnest and with a spirit of patience 
has always in it something of value, and I may add that no good work 
can ever be done without this spirit." " Remember that the first 
essential to a good artist is that he should be a good workman." Not 
that skilful handling, dexterous treatment, even accurate drawing and 
truthful colouring are the sole ends in themselves, as so many painters 
seem to maintain nowadays, " the aim of all high art is — the aim 
of all art (except that which professes to be portraiture) should be to 
create a world in which our imagination should be excited to the 
contemplation of noble and beautiful ideas ; " and again, " the true object 
of art is to create a world : not to imitate constantly what is before our 
eyes," and to do this the artist must have intellectual as well as manual 
training, " it is quite as important for an artist to cultivate his mind as 
his hand." Yet when all is said, the greatest genius that ever lived can 
only create a new world by discovering and rearranging the beauties of 
the one around him ; nor need this inevitable restriction limit his 
possibilities, " nature contains greater depths than we can fathom." It 
is his first task to plumb these ever more and more profoundly, and 
the way to achieve that is pointed out with no hesitancy, " constant 
study from the life-model is the only means .... of arriving at a 
comprehension of the beauty in nature and of avoiding its ugliness and 
deformity ; " study that overlooks nothing, that regards nothing as 
indifferent, that with the eye of assured knowledge can pierce below 
the outer integument and see the hidden principles beneath mere 
surface features. Speaking of the collar-bone, selected simply as an 
illustration of his meaning, he says, " in order that he may draw it with 
accuracy .... it is necessary that he should know its form, the part it 
plays in the construction of the body, where it is attached at either end, 
and by what muscles it is surrounded." And as with the figure so 
with every other detail in the contemplated picture, " trees and rocks 
have as it were bones and sinews which underlie what is apparent to 
6 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR R. J. I'OYNTER 

the superficial observer," and when the general features of the figure 
have been mastered, " then must follow separate studies of the hands, 
feet, heads, and draperies .... and of any other accessories that may- 
be required in the picture." Finally, to bring to an end quotations, 
which might be almost indefinitely extended, from a volume which 
sets up for the student and lover of art a standard, high indeed, but 
pre-eminently sane, sound, and practical, with none of the misty and 
fantastic Utopianism which marks Mr. Ruskin's dogmatic obiter dlcta^ 
" all work should be done with a view to its being final, the touch or 
the line put on should be intended to remain." 

It would be as easy as agreeable to demonstrate at length how 
ceaselessly and untiringly the artist has followed in practice the wise, 
if rigorous, precepts of the author; but the illustrations which follow 
establish the point more convincingly than any written words could do. 
They cover practically the whole of his career, extending in time from 
the first drawing done under definite instruction at Leigh's art school 
in 1855, the subject of which by a singular coincidence happened to be 
the same as Mr. Watts selected for one of his first exhibited works at 
the Royal Academy, A Heron, to one made this spring for the picture 
by which the President is represented in this year's Academy, 
and include studies for many of his most important works, Israel 
in Egypt^ though not I'he Cataptdt^ with which he followed up 
the success of his first great picture, the fresco of T^he Stoning of St. 
Stephen, which, it is to be feared, is too little known to Londoners, 
though it is to be seen no farther away than Dulwich ; the two 
designs for the Ashantee medal, the first and finest of which, conceived 
in a purely classical spirit, failed to secure the approval of Her 
Majesty the late Queen ; Atalanta s Race, the greatest of the four 
large decorative panels painted for the late Lord Wharncliffe to adorn 
the billiard-room at Wortley Hall ; the scheme for the dome of St. 
Paul's, previously referred to ; the splendid ^leen of Sheba's Visit to 
Solomon, which, to England's irreparable loss, has gone to far-away 
Sidney, to set a noble example of imaginative and technical achievement 
before the artists of Australia ; and several of those lighter works 
which the urgent calls upon his time by the serious demands of the 
official work of the National Gallery and the Royal Academy have 
alone allowed him to undertake of recent years, such as Idle Fears, 
Hora Serence, and The Storm Nymphs. The subjects of these 
drawings are as varied as the purposes for which they were made. 
We have a rough sketch of the main lines of the composition and 
the arrangement of light and shade for The Storm Nymphs, and 
a more fully elaborated design for Helena and Hermia. The nude 

7 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

figure, both male and female, holds, naturally enough, in Sir Edward's 
work a leading place, ranging from the careful precision of the earlier 
studies for Israel hi Egypt to the delicate facility of the childish 
figure for The Cup of Tantalus. True to his own teaching of the 
policy of thorough, we find a number of those " separate studies of 
the hands, feet, head, and draperies, " the necessity for which he so 
decisively insists upon. Of his trained appreciation and command of 
the use of these last in especial we have ample evidence, and whether 
in the vivid movement of the flying Atalanta or in the dignified 
repose of the figures for St. Paul's, we may see how complete is his 
knowledge and how sure his taste. Even the smaller accessories, 
which many artists would feel justified in " painting out of their 
heads," receive equally careful attention, witness the studies of vine- 
leaves, apples and pears, and the gnarled and hollow tree-trunk. The 
landscapes and architectural drawings made in Madeira, Italy, and 
Capri, are more in the nature of holiday tasks, the outcome of his 
inexhaustible energy, which will not allow him to be idle when he 
might, and even should, be resting ; but, apart from their individual 
beauty and technical skill, they serve as admirable illustrations of that 
" certainty and celerity " which he inculcates. " It is far from 
sufficient," he says in his eighth lecture, Objects of Study, " that a 
student should be able to get his drawing right in the end ; unless 
he acquires the habit of getting it right at once his accuracy will be 
of little use ro him ; it is certainty and celerity that he has to aim at." 

Patience and industry, a stern refusal to accept in his own work or 
in that of others under his control the deadly " good enough," the 
determination to understand, and above and before all work, work, and 
yet again work, are the secrets of his success, and a brief summary of 
his life-story will explain what that success has been, as an examination 
of the contents of this volume will show how well and hardly it has 
been earned. 

Of direct Huguenot descent Edward John Poynter was born, on 
March 26th, 1836, in Paris, which his parents, though resident in 
London, were temporarily visiting. His childhood was passed partly 
in one of those houses in Poets' Corner, now swept away, under the 
shadow of the venerable Abbey of Westminster, and later in Queen 
Anne's Gate. He was first sent to the adjacent Westminster School, 
but the air of London was considered injurious to his delicate health, 
and he was removed first to Brighton and then to Ipswich Grammar 
School, where the Rev. D. Rigaud, under whom he had been at 
Westminster, was head master. The harsh east-coast climate, however, 
proved no more congenial, and in the autumn of 1852 his school career 
8 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR K. J. POYNTKR 

was brought to a close, and, the doctors fearing a threatening of 
consumption, he was sent to Madeira for the winter, where his time 
was divided l)etween lessons with a tutor and drawing or painting in 
water-colours, the rudiments of which latter art had been imparted to 
him by Mr. Thomas Boys. The next year may be said to have been 
the most critical of his life, since in November he met at Rome 
Frederick Leighton, then at work on the well-known Cimabue 
procession, and thus not only initiated a close personal friendship, 
which lasted till Leighton's death, but determined his own future 
career. He was thenceforth resolved to be a painter, and on his return 
to England he set seriously to work, first at Leigh's, in Newman 
Street, next under the direction of Mr. W. C. T. Dobson, R.A., and 
finally at the Royal Academy. But art instruction in England at that 
time was something worse than futile, and a visit to the Paris Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1855 convinced him that nowhere but in 
that city could he obtain such a thorough training as would alone 
satisfy him. Through the Baron de Triqueti, a sculptor whose work 
may be seen at Windsor, who had married his aunt, he obtained an 
introduction to Gleyre, and under him he worked from 1856 to 1859. 
For a time after leaving Gleyre he shared a studio in the Rue Notre- 
Dame des Champs with George du Maurier, Thomas Lamont the 
lovable " Laird " of Trilby, and Thomas Armstrong, and there he 
painted two pictures. Mercury ivith the Cattle of Apollo and Heavetis 
Messenger from Dante. The first, on his final settlement in London 
in i860 was submitted to the British Institution, now defunct, and 
the second to the Academy, and both were rejected. A pen-and-ink 
drawing of a girl, Alia Veneziaiia, was more fortunate at the Academy 
next year, and in 1862 the previously condemned Heaven s Messenger 
was accorded an unenviable position in close proximity to the ceiling. 
By a quaint chance, when he was elected Academician years later and 
had to deposit a picture during the preparation of his diploma work, 
this was the only one that was available. We must perforce hasten 
over these earlier works, which included cartoons tor stained-glass 
windows, the decoration of the ceiling of Waltham Abbey, and no 
small part in the revival of artistic wood-engraving for purposes of 
illustration which was attempted by the brothers Dalziel. In the 
meantime he was steadily working away at the picture which was 
destined to first draw general attention to him. Devised to begin with 
as a representation of Work at one of the evening meetings ot the 
Langham Sketching Club, this conception of the captive Hebrews 
painfully dragging to its place before an Egyptian temple the immense 
granite Sphynx, received so much applause from the members present 

9 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

that the artist subsequently developed the idea in a water-colour dated 
1862, and finally, after years of patient toil, presented it in 1867 at the 
Royal Academy to public judgment. Its success was instantaneous. 
It received the honour of forming the basis of a cartoon in Punch, and 
was purchased by the famous engineer Sir John Hawkshaw, an 
unqualified testimony to its scientific soundness. The exhibition the 
following year of The Catapult showed beyond cavil that the young 
artist had " arrived," and the same winter he was elected to the 
Associateship. A commission for a Mosaic representing St. George, 
Fortitude, and Purity for the Houses of Parliament came two years 
later, and was soon followed by one for the four pictures for Wortley 
Hall, 'Perseus and Andromeda exhibited in 1872, More of More Hall 
and the Dragon of Wantley, a local legend, Atalantds Race^ and 
Nausicaa, the last of which was finished in 1879, a lapse of 
time explained by the many other engagements which pressed 
upon him. In 1871 he was appointed first Professor of the newly- 
founded Slade School of Art at University College; during 1872 and 
1873 he was employed upon the fresco at St. Stephen's, Dulwich, and 
in 1875 he became Director for Art and Principal of the National Art 
Training Schools at South Kensington, which necessitated his resigna- 
tion of the Slade Professorship. Two years later he became full 
Academician. Despite these conflicting interests he was still busy at 
his easel, and exhibited in 1880 the most beautiful and poetical picture 
he has produced. The Visit to JEsculapius^ to the purchase of which by 
the Chantrey Bequest Trustees not even the most rancorous railer has 
been found to object. Considering how beneficial his influence at South 
Kensington has been, it seems ungrateful to grumble at the incidental 
disadvantages, but it cannot be doubted that the endless interruptions 
arising from his official duties in the Schools and in the Museum did to 
far too great an extent divert his artistic advance towards its apparently 
predestined goal of real greatness. Not indeed altogether, for The Ides 
of March (1883) and The Visit of the Slue en of Sheba to King 
Solomon are among the most powerful and impressive of his pro- 
ductions, and will remain as astounding proofs of what indefatigable 
industry can accomplish under difficulties. The last indeed, with its 
gorgeous wealth of decorative detail and complicated groupings of 
numberless figures, would have been no small achievement for a man 
free to devote his whole time and thought to its creation ; as the result 
of the intervals between other responsible and exacting obligations it is 
no exaggeration to call it marvellous. 

The other works of the period. Under the Sea Wall, A Corner in 
the Villa^ Diadumen(f^ On the Temple Steps, High Noon, Hora Serena, 
10 



THE DRAWINGS OF SIR E. J. POYNTER 

The Ionian Dance, etc., though full of charm and executed with the 
loving care which he accords even to the most triHing task, must ratlicr 
be regarded as the slighter emanations of a preoccupied mind. Space 
has not permitted, hitherto, of any reference to his profound knowledge 
of the history of art and the works of the earlier masters, but this is 
well known, and it was generally recognised when, in 1 894, he 
was offered and accepted the Directorship of the National Gallery, 
that no wiser selection could have been made. During his tenure 
of the office, which, having exceeded the age limit imposed by 
the wisdom of our legislators on all public servants except His 
Majesty's judges, he has recently resigned, a great improvement was 
noticeable, and that it was not even more conspicuous was due in part 
to the ineradicable stinginess of the Treasury, in part to the extra- 
ordinary system by which the desires of the specially appointed expert 
are overruled by the decisions of a more or less irresponsible and dis- 
interested body of Trustees. 

This official stamp of approbation was confirmed in 1896 by his 
fellow artists when, after the death of Sir John Millais, which followed 
with such painful swiftness on that of Lord Leighton, he was elected 
to the office of President of the Royal Academy, on which occasion he 
also received the customary honour of a knighthood, a rank which 
was raised to a baronetage in 1902. 

The demands upon the time of the President are more frequent 
and more varied than is generally realised, but now that, having paid 
an ample tribute to the service of his country, these alone remain to 
distract him, and he therefore finds himself in command of a more 
untrammeled leisure, which for him means only of freer opportunities 
for work, we may reasonably hope that he will yet again rise from the 
lower plane of pretty fancies, to which he has of necessity confined 
himself during recent years, to that lofty level of constructive, imagin- 
ative work to which he has more than once triumphantly attained in 
the past. 



II 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE I 




STUDY FOR THE MOSAIC FOR ST. PAUL'S (1882) 



PL All-: 11 




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o 
en 

UJ 

X 

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O 



Q 
D 

H 



PLATK III 




STUDY FOR AN ILLUSTRATION 



PLATE IV 




STUDY FOR "HOR.T: SEREN/E" (1886) 



I'l.AI'E V 




STUDY FOR "ST. STEPHEN" i 1872 



PLATK \' 







^:Xv'-.^-:- ,:^f^-, :~ 



STUDY FOR THE FRESCO OF ST. STEPHEN (1872) 



m-r: 



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< 

-J 




my>^^/mm^^^ 



PLAll. Mil 




-^'Krf^-A ilia's- ^5^^ >'!;;-4'--^- 






/I 



STUDY FOR THE FRESCO OF ST. STFPIirN (1872-3) 



PLATR IX 




FIRST DESIGN FOR THE ASHANTEE MEDAL ' 1874) 



PI.ATF. X 




STUDIES FOR ST. PAUL'S i 1882) 



PLATE XI 




FIGURE STUDIES 




SECOND DESIGN FOR IHE ASHANTEE MEDAL 0874i 



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STUDY FOR THE DRAPERY OF ATALANTA IN "ATALANTA'S RACE" (1876) 



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STUDY FOR 'HOR.t SEREN.t" (1894) 



I'LAri: XIV 




STUDY FOR ATALANTA IN "ATALANTA'S RACE" <1876) 



PLATE XV 



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PLAIE XVI 




STUDY FOR THE ARMOUR IN THE "ST. GEORGE" MOSAIC (1869) 



PLATE X\ II 




STUDY FOR THE SCIENCE CERTIFICATE, SOUTH KENSINGTON 




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STUDY FOR "THE QUEEN OF SHEBA" (1890) 



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STUDY OF VINE LEAVES (1878) 



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STUDY FOR "DIADUMENE" (1884) 



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PLATE XXX 




STUDY OF APPLES (1881 



PLATE XXXI 




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STUDY FOR "IDLE FEARS" M894i 



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STUDY FOR THE MOSAIC FOR ST. PAUL'S (1882) 



PLATE XXXVIl 






STUDIES FOR "WHEN THE WORLD WAS YOUNG' 



I'LAIL XXXVllI 




STUDY FOR THE HEAD OF THE QUEEN OF SHEBA <I890) 



PI ATF. XXXIX 



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STUDY OF CLIFFS AT TINTAGFL '1901) 



PLATE XL 




STUDY FOR ARCHITECTURE IN THE ACADEMY ADDRESS 
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DESIGN FOR "HERMIA AND HELENA" 



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STUD\' FOR "STORM NYMPHS" (1901 



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