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Full text of "Dr. Burnet's travels : or Letters containing an account of what seemed most remarkable in Switzerland, Italy, France, and Germany, &c."

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Dr: BURNET'S 

TRA V ELS, 

LETTERS 

CONTAINING 

An ACCOUNT 

Of what Seemed moft Remarkable 

IN 

Smtz^rland^France , and 
^taly^ [^Germany ^ &c. 



Written by 

GILBERT BV\NET,DJ)^ 

TO THE 

Honourable R. B, E'q. Fellow of the 

Royal Society. 



■ ^ Ar, AMSTERDAM, 

Printed, for Ptter Savouret and IV, Fcnner in Wurmces- 
flreet near the Dxr/ij i6%-j. 



ADAK!SI15'.3 



THE 

PRINTER. 

TO THE 

READER 







TH E Reverefjd Author s Reflexions 
ufon VarillaV his Hijlory of He- 
rejie , having met with the Reception 
orving to the merit of all his RrodticiionSy 
h.u made me fenfible^ th^t I can i^iever 
mount to a, higher firain of obliging the 
Tub lick, than in Continuing to entertain 

o 

// xvith the Mafierly pieces of the JAme 
hind 5 this Confide rat ion indue d 77ie to 
go to Work upon thefe his incomparable 
Travelling Remarks, and having ifi 
this^ as well as ihtd in the Reflexions, 
the advantage of an Englifli Gentleman 
to CorreB c^nd Over-fee the frefs^ this. 



Edition will he found to be altogether re- 
fined^ from the gro^s and innu^merable 
faults^ with rvhich the imfrefjion of Rot- 
terdam is. not throughout onlj^ hlemiijot^ 
but almoji render* d tmintelligihle. Thtis^ 
kind Reader^ J may well expe^l from 
thee a due Senfe of this my Indt^liriom 
Performance^ and that thou wilt have 
a jmtaile re guard for aPrejent of fuch 
tMefiimAhle valtie,, 

Vale. 

F. Savouret. 



(I) 

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LETTERS, 

CONTAINING • 

An Account of what feemed moft 
remarkable in Snptt%erJa}id ^ 
in various Parts of Germany 
and /-f^/y, &c. 



LETTER I. 



Zunch^ the Fir ft of September^ l6Q§* 



SIR, 

IT is To common to write Travels, tlMt for one 
who has feen fo litrle, and as it were in haftc, ic 
may look like a prefumptuous Affe^lacion to be 
reckoned among Voyagers, if he atccmpts to fay 
any thing upon fo fliort a Ramble, and concerning 
PUccs fg m«ch vificed, and by confequence fo well 

B known: 



known : Yet having had opportunities that do not of- 
fer themfelves to all that travel, and having )oyrted to 
thofe a curiofity almofl equal to- the advantages [ en- 
joyed, I fancy it will not be an ungrateful Entertain- 
ment, if I give you fome accoint of thnfe things that 
pleafed me moft in the Places chroigh which I have 
paffed : but I will avoid faying fuch things as occurr in 
ordinary Books, for which 1 refer you to the Prints ; 
for as you know that I have rio greac mclination to co- 
py what others have (ad}, fo a Traveller has not lei- 
fure nor humour enough for fo dull an E-iiployment. 

As I came aW the way (romParU to Lyms, I was 
amazed to fee fo much mifery as .ipjc ired, not only in 
Villages, but even in big Towns, where all the marks 
of an extream Poverty, flicwed themfelves both in the 
Buildings, the Cloaths, and almod in the Looks of the 
Inhabitants. And a general dii-peophng in all the 
Towns, was a very vifible effea; of the iiardfliips under 
which they lay. 

I need tell you nothing of the i regular and yet mag- 
nificent Situation of L^^ons, of the noble Rivers that 
meet there, of the Rock cut from fo vafi a hei^lit for 
a Prifon,'of the Carthufiam Gardens, of the To wn- 
Houfe, of the Jefuits CoUedge and Library, of the fa- 
mous Nunnery of Sr. Feter, of the Churches, panicu- 
Ijrly St. IrenceSj of the Remnants of the Aq'ndu5h, of 
the Column^ and the oM Mofaickinthe Abbey Dean: 
in fhort, Mr. Spm has given fuch an account of the Cu- 
ricfities there, that it \^ere a very prefumptuous At- 
tempt to otfv-^r to come after him. ^ 

The Speech oiClandim ingravcn on a Plate ot Brals, 
and fet in the end of tlie low Walk in the To^vn-houfe, 
is one of the nobleft Antiquities m the World i by 
ivhich we fee the wav of Writing and Pomtmgm that 
Ac^everv cooiouny. ' The Shield of Silver of twenty 
tv?o pound vVelght, in whiclrfome R.mams oi gilding 
dovetaopear, and that feems to reprefent that gene- 
rous' Adioa ^Scl^v^i, of rcaoringaiair captive to a 



(3) 

Celtiber't.m Prince, is certainly the noblefl piece of 
Place that is now extant : the embofTing of it is Co fine 
and fo entire, that it is indeed unvaluable i and if there 
■vvere an Infcription upon it to put us beyond conje- 
dure, it were yet much morcjneftimable. 

A greJt many Infcriptions are to be feen of the late 
and barbarous A^es, as Bomm Memorium, and Epita- 
phimn hmc. There are twenty three Infcriptions in 
the Garden of the Fathers of Mercy y but fo placed as ic 
ftiews ho\Y little thofe who pofTefF them do either un- 
derftand or value them. I fhall only give you one, be- 
caufe I made a little Reflexion on it, tho' it is not per- 
haps too well grouodedj becaufe none of the Cricicks 
have thought on it. 

The Infcription is this, D. Af. Et Memoriae AEterttae 
Sutiae Antbidu. puae vixit Annii XXV. M, XI. DV. 
S^ucte dum hlimia piafuit, fa^a e^ Impia : ((y Attio Pro- 
batiolo, Cecaliw Califlio Conjux ^ Pater, djf fibi viva 
'ponendum curavh ^ fub afcia dedicavit. This muft be 
towards the barbarous Age, as appears by the falfe La- 
tin in Nimia: But the Infcription feems fo extravagant, 
that a man dedicating a Burial-ftone for his Wife and 
Son, and under which himfelf was to be laid, with 
Ceremonies of Religion, fhould tax his Wife of Im- 
piety, and give fo extraordinary an account of her 
becomiag fo through an excefs of Piety, that ic de- 
ferves feme confideration. 

It feems the Impiety was publick, other wife a HuC- 
band would rot have recorded it in fuch a manner; 
and it is plain that he thought it rofe from an excefs of 
Piety. 

I need not examine the Conjedures of others ; but 
will chufc racher to give you my own, and fubmic ic 
to your cenfure. , 

It feems to me, that this Sutia Anthii was a Chrifli- 
an ; for the Chriilians, becaufe they would not wor- 
fhip the Gods of the Heathens, nor participate with 
them in their facred Rites, were accufed both ©f 

B 2 Atheifm 



(4) 

Acheifm and Impiety. Tliis is fo often objefted, and 
the Fathers in their Apologies have anfwered it fo of- 
ten, that it were lofl labour to prove it; fo this .Wife 
oi Cerealm CaliJhi.\\iL\mg turned Chriflian, icfcems 
he thought he was bound to take iome notice of it in 
the Jnrcription. But by it he gives a honourable Cha- 
rader of the Chriftian Dodrine^ at the fame time that 
he feems to acci^fe it ; that through an excefs of Piety 
his Wif<f was carried to it •, fmce a mind feriouily pof- 
feffed with a true fenfe of Piety could not avoid the 
fallmg under a diftafte of Paganifm, and the becoming 
Ghriftian. 

At Grenoble there is not much to be feen. The learn- 
ed Mt.Chorier has feme Manufcripts of confiderable 
Antiquity. In one oiVei^tm de re MiUtari, there is a 
clear corre<5tion of a PalTage that in all the printed Edi- 
tions is not fenfe. In the Chapter of the fize of the 
Souldiers, he begins •-, Scio femper menfuram a Marin 
Confute exa^am ; a is in no MS, and Mario Confide is a 
miflake for trium cubit orum, for III which are for trium 
have been read M. and C, which ftands for Cvbitorum^ 
as appears by all that follows, was by a mil take read 
CmfhUr, fo the true reading of that Paffage, is, Seta 
menfuram trium Cubitorum fuijfe femper exa^am. He 
fhewed me another i^S*. of about five or fix hundred 
years old, in which St. John's Revelation is contained, 
all exemplified in Figures ; and after that came j¥.fop'& 
Fables, likewife all defigned in Figures : from which 
he inferred, that thofe who defigned thofe two Books 
valued both equally, and fo put them together. 

I will not defcribe the Valley of Dmphine, all to 
Chambery nor entertain you with a4.andskip of the 
€ountty, which deferves a better Pencil than mine, 
and in which the heightb and rudenefs of the Moun- 
tains that almoilfiiut upon it, together with the beau- 
ty, the evennefs, and fruitfulnefs of the Valley, that is 
all along well watered with the River of Lijme, make 
fiich an agreeable ntixture, that this vail diverfity of 

Objtas 



en 

Objefts tliat do ac once fill the Eye, gives ic a very en- 
terrainirn^ Profped. 

Chamber} has nothing in it that defervcs a long Vc^ 
fcripcioni and Genevan too vveJl knowiT to be much 
infiftedon. It isa lircle State, but it has fo many good 
Conftitutionsinit, that the greateft may juftly leartr 
at it. The Chamber of the Corn has always two years 
Provifion for the City in ftore, and forces none but the 
Bakers to buy of ir at a taxed price i and fo it is both 
neceiTary for any Extremities under which the State 
may flill, and is iikewife of great advantage; for it gives 
a good yearly Income, that has helpt the State to pay 
near a Million of Debt contraded during the Wars; 
and the Citizens are not opprefTed by it 5 for every 
Inhabitant may buy his own Corn as he pleafes, only 
Pablick Houfes muft buy from the Chamber. And if 
one will compare the fairh of Rome and Geneva toge- 
ther b)' this particular, he will be enforced to prefer 
the latter ; for if good Works are a flrong prcfumptionr, 
if not a Tare Indication of a good Faith, thenjuftice 
being a good Work of the firif form, Geneva will cer- 
tainly carry it. 

At Rome, the Pope buys in all the Corn of the Patrf- 
mony ; for none of the Landlords can fell it either to 
Merchants or Bakers. He buys it at five Crowns their 
Meafurc, snd ever- that is {lowly and ill paid; fothaE 
there was eight hundred thousand Crowns owing upon 
that fcore when I was at Rome, In felling this out, the 
Mea ure is lefiened a fifth parr, and the price of the 
whole is doubled ; fo that what was bought at five 
Crowns, is fold olitar twelve: ard if the Bakers, who 
are obliged to take a determined quantity of Corn 
from the Chamber, cannot retail out all that is impo- 
kd upon them, but are forced to return fome part of ie 
bark, the Chamber difcounrs to them only the firft 
price of five Crowns : whereas in Geneva the meafure 
by whi h they buy and fell is the fame ; and the Gair3 
i« fo incoiifidcwble, that it is very, little beyond the 

B z como. 



(6) _ 

ebmmon Market price : fo that upon the whole mat- 
ter, the Chamber of the Corn is but the Merchant to 
the State. But if the Publick makes a moderate Gain 
by the Corn, that and all the other Revenues of this 
fmall Commonwealth are fo well employed, that there 
Is no caufe of complaint given in the Adminiftration of 
the publick Purfe ; which vyith the advantaves that 
arife out of the Chamber of the Corn, is about one 
hundred thoufand Crowns Revenue. But there is 
ynuch to go out of this : Three hundred Souldiers are 
payed; an Arfenal is maintained, that in proportion 
to the State is the greatefl in the World ; for it con- 
tains Arms for more men than are in the Srace : there 
is a great number of Minifters and Profeflbrs, in all 
twenty four, payed out of i^, befides all tiie publick; 
Charges and Offices of the Governmenr. Every one 
of the lefler Council of twenty five, having a hundred 
Crowns, and every Syndic having two hundred Crowns 
Penfion : and after all this come the accidental Char- 
ges of the Deputies, that they are obliged to fend ofren 
to Parii, to Savoy ^ and to Zmt7:erland-^ fo thant is- 
very apparent, no man can tnri:h himfelf at the Coft. 
of the Publick. And the appointments of the little 
Council are a very fraall recompence for the geat at- 
tendance that they are obliged to give the Fublicki 
which is commonly four or five hours a day. The Sa^ 
lary for the Profellbrs and Miniflersis mdced fmall, not 
iabove two hundred Crowns ; but ro ballance this, 
■which was a more competent Provifion when it was 
fii-fl fet off a hundred and fifty years ago, the price of 
all things, and the way of living, being now much 
hcightned, thofe Employments are here held in their 
due Reputation, and the richeft Citizens in the Town 
breed up their Children fo as to qualifie rhem for thofe 
Kaces ; And a Minider that is futable to his Charafter, 
js thought fo good a Match, tliat generally they have 
fuchEfiites, either by Succeffion or Marriage, asfup- 
nprt them furably to the rank they hold. And in 



(1 ) 

Geneva there is fo great a regulation upon Expences of 
all forts, thatarniall Sum goes a ^reacvvay. It is ^ 
furprifing thing, to fee fo much Learning at one finds- 
in Qenevay not only among thofe whofe ProfeflSon ob- 
liges them to Study , but among the Magiftrates and 
Citizens •, and if there are not many men of the firft 
form of Learning among them, yet every body almoft 
here has a good tinfture of a learned Education 5 info- 
much that they are Maflers of the Latin, they know 
the ConCiQverfies of Religion and Hiftory, and they 
are i^enerally men of good Cenfe^ 

There is an univerfal Civility, not only towards 
S:rangers, but towards one another, that reigns all tlie 
Town over, and leans to an cxccfs j fo that in them 
one fees a mixture of a French Opennefs, and an Italian^ 
Exaotnefs ; there is indeed a little too much of the 
laft. 

The publick Juflice of the City is quick and goodv- 
and more commended than the private Juliice of thofe 
that deal in Trade; a want of Sincerity is much la- 
mented by thoi'e that know the Town wall. There is 
no publick Lewdncfs ro'ierated, and the diforders of 
that fort are managed with great addrefs. And not- 
withfhnding their Neighbourho .d to the Smt^ers, 
drinking is ery little known among them , One of the 
befl parts of their Law is the way of felhng Efiates; 
which is likewife pradifed in SwitT^erlandy and is call- 
ed Subbajlation, from the Roman Cultom of felling Sub 
haiia. A man that is to buy an Eftate agrees with the 
Owner, and then intimates it to the Government; 
who order three fcvcral Proclamations to be made fix 
Weeks one after ano« ;ier, of the intenc^ed Sale, that is- 
to be on fuch a day; when the day comes, the Credi- 
tors of the Seller, if they apprehend that the Eftate is 
fo!d ac an undtr- value, may out-bid the Buyer ; but if 
they do not interp.»fe, the Buyer delivers the money- 
to the Stare, which upon tliat giv. 5 him his Title to 
the Eflace^wnioh can never, be fo much as^ broughc 

under 



/ - 



(8) 

nnder a Debate inlaw : and tie price is paid into the 
State, and is by them given either to tlie Debtors of 
tht Scllei*, if he owes money , or to the Seller 

liiirfehf. " 

" This'cunbm prevails Iil?e\vife in ^ir/jfj^, where alfo 
twelve Yeafs Pofleffion gives a Prcfcripti-n ; fo that in 
no place of theWorld are rhe Titles toEftatesfo fecurc 
as here. The Conftirution of the Government is the 
fame both in OtmvA. and in moft of \}cit<(vMms. The 
Sovereignty lies in the Council of Two hundred, and 
thi^ Council chufet out of its number Twenty five, who ^ 
are the kflcr Council s and the cenfure of the Twenty , 
five belongs to the great Council: they are cholen by 
a fort of Ballet ; fo that it is not known for whom they 
oive their Votes : which is an cffeaual method to fup- 
prefs Faftions ard Reftntments ; fince in a competition 
no man can know who voted for him or againft him \ 
yet the Eledion i< not fo carried, but that the whole 
Town is in an Intrigue concerningir : for fince the be- 
ing of he little Council leads one to the Sxnitcax Mwzri 
is the chief Honour of the State-, this Dignity is court- 
ed here with as aftive and foUicitcus a:- Ambition, as 
appears elfewkre for greater matters The Two hu^ 
drcdare chofcnard cenfured by theTvvent}' five^ to 
thar tht fe tv.o Councils, which a e borh for Life, are 
checks one upoi another. The Magiftracy is m the 
one, aid the Sovereignty in tlie other. The dumber 
- of Twenty fivcji rcver eKceerJed ir the kPer Council j 
but for the greater, tho' it palTes by the Name of the 
Council rr" Tw^ hunc^red , yet there ate commonly 
eipht or ten r ore r o that norwithfl?nciirg theablence 
or f ckncfs of fome of the Number, rhey may (t»il be 
able to call ro£ether nea; the full Number. There is 
ant ther Ccrrdl befide? thefc two, compofed ot Sixty, 
ccri fling rf rhofe of the Two hundred that have bcrne 
Cffce*. fuc^^ as Auditors. Attornev-Genera's, or thofe 
th:.- have been in other Empio meiiti, which are given 
foi a dcterrruaaic number of Ytdrs; This Conrr has 



(9) 

no Authority, but is Cdljed together by the Twenty 
five, when any exrraordin;ii v occaHon makes it advi- 
fable for them to call for " mote general Concurrence 
in the Rcfolucions diat t'uey arc 'bout to form. And 
this Council is of the nature of a Council of State that 
only ^i?es Advice, but has no power in ir felf to enforce 
its Advices. The whole Body of the Burgefles chufes 
the Sindicks the firft Sunday in the Year, and there 
are fome other Eleftions that do likcwife belong to 
them. The difference between the Burgefles and Ci- 
tizens is, that the fjrmcr degree may be bought or gi- 
ven to Strangers, and they are capable to be of the 
-Two hundred : but none is a Citizen but he that is the 
Son of a Burgefs, and that is bori! within the Town. 

I need fay no more of the Coofkitution of this little 
Republick : Its chief fupport is in the firm Alliance 
that has flood now fo long between it and the Cantons 
of Bern and Zurich ; and it is fo vifibly the Jnterefl of 
all SmtT^eriand to prefer ve it as the Key, by which it 
may be all laid open : that if the Cantmi had not for- 
gotten their Interefl fo palpably in fuffering the French 
to become Maflers of the Franche Comte, one would 
think that they would not be capable of fuftering (?e- 
fieva to be touch'd : for all that can be done in fortify* 
ing the Town, can fignifie no more, but to put it in 
cafe to refid a Surprife or Scalade i iince if a Royal Ar- 
my comes againft it to befiege it in form, it is certain, 
that unlefs the Switi^ers come down with a Force able 
to raifc the Siege, thofe within will be able to make a 
very fhort refinance. 

From Geneva I w^nt throngh the Country of Vaud or 
t\\t Valley^ TrndLaufanne, its chief Town, in my way to 
Bern, The Town of Laufanne is. fituated on three 
Hills, fo that the whole Town is afcent and defcent, 
and that very fleep, chiefly on the fide on which the 
Church fiands, which is a very noble Fabrick. The 
South.wallof the Crofs was fofplitbyan Earthquake 
about thirty years ago, that there wa6 a rent made from 

top 



top to bottom above afoot wide; which was Co clofcd 
up ten yea s afte*- by another Earthquake, that now 
one only iecs where the breach waF. This extrava- 
gant fituation of th. Town was oGcafioned by a Legend 
of fome Miracles wrought near the Church; which 
prevailed fo much on theCredu'ity of that Age, that 
by it the Church, and fo in confequence the Buildings 
near it, wf re added to the old Tr wn, which flood on 
the other Hill, where there was a Town made on the 
High-way from the Lake into SwitzerUnc^, to which 
the chief Priviledges of the Town, particularly the ju- 
dicature of Life and Death, do ftill belong. Between 
Geneva and this, lies the Lake which at the one end is 
called the Lake o^ Geneva, and at the other the Lake of 
Laufame, I need not mention the Dimenfions of ic 
which are fo well known, only in fome Places the 
depth has never been found, for it is more than five 
hundred Fathom : The banks of the Lake are the beau- 
tifullefl Plots cf Ground that can be imagined, for they 
look as if they had been laid by art : the doping js fo 
eafie and fo equal, and the Grounds are fo well culti- 
vated and peopled, that a more delighting Prcfpea 
cannot be fecn any where : The Lake is well ftock'd 
with exccllenr Fifh'; b>u': their Numbers do fenfibly 
decreafe, and one fort is quire loll : it is not only to 
be afcribed to the-ravenoufnefs of the Pikes that abound 
in ir, but to another fort of Fifli that they call AloutaUs, 
which were never taken in the Lake untill within fix 
years laft part : they are in the Lake of Neuf-chaflely 
and fome of the other Lakes of Smtzerland, and it is 
likely that bv fome conveyance under ground they may 
have come into Channels that fall into the Lake: the 
Water of the Lake is allclear and frefh. It is not only, 
a great Pond made by the Kh{ne that runs into it, but 
does not pafs through it unmi>.'d, as fome Travellers 
have fondly imagined, becaufe fometimes-afoftGale 
makes a curling of the Waters in fome places, which 
run- fmooth in the places over which that foft breath 
* of 



(II ) 

)f Wind does not pi s, the Gale varying ics place of ten. 
Sue it is- believed rhao there arc alfo many grcac bouii- 
ams ail over the Lake: thefe Springs d very proba- 
)ly flow from foine vi{\ ."aviries chat are i.i the ncigh- 
>ourini^ xMounrains, whicli are as grear Ciftcrns that* 
luciiarge themfelves "n che Valleys which are covered 
)ver with Lakts. A ;d on the two tides of the -(4/^/, 
)ot"h Nordi and Souch, there is fo greac a number of 
hole JiccJe Sea5. that it may be cafiiy ghefl'ed they 
mil have v;jtl So-ccs than f.ed fo conftanciy rhofc 
luge P mds. Anckwhenone confideri. che height of 
hofe Hills, tlie chain of fo mmy of thcin tof^Lchcr^ 
nd thtir ex^er.c b th in kngth and breadth 'j if at firft 
le chinks of the old Fables of laying one Hill upon the 
op of another, he will beafrtrwards apt tr. Imagine, 
ecording to che ingenica.s Conjedure of one that tra- 
elled over them ofcntr than once, that ti.efe cannot 
ethe primary Produftio.ii of the Author of Nature, 
lUt are che vaA ruines of the firft World, which ac the 
)elugc broke here into fo many Ineqaaliries, 

One Hill not fjr from Geneva, called AfavJit, or Cur- 
zdy of which one Third is always covered with Snow, 
; two nfiiles of perpendicular height, according to the 
>bfervErion of that incomparable MaclKmatician and 
hiloiopher, Nicolcff F it'io DuiHer^ who ac Twenty two 
?'ears of Ageis already one of the grca-efl men of his 
Lge, and Teems to be born to carry Learning fome fizcs 
eyond whar ic has yet attaih'd. 

Bnt now I will entertain you alirtU with the State 
fB^rn, f r that Canton alone is above a third'part of 
U Smt^^erland. 1 will fay nothing of its Beginnings 
or Hiftory : nor will I enlarge upon che Conflitutions 
Jiich are aU well known. It has a Coiiniel of Two 
ondred, that goes by that Name, thoMcconfifts al- 
loflcf Three hnndre'd ; and another of Twenty five, 
\Genev(t. The chief Macjflrates qre two Ad-uoyers^ 
/ho are not annual, as the'Sindicks ofGenevay but arc 
V life, ai:d have an Auchoricy not unlike thac of the 



( li ) 

Roman Confuls ; each being his Year by turns the Ad- 
loyer in Office Afrcr trem there are the four Ban» 
tieretSy who anfwer t^ the Tribunes of the People in 
Rome : then comv the two Burfars or Treafurers, one 
for the ancient German Territory, the other for the 
French Territory or the Country ofl^aud, and the two 
laft, chofen of the Twenty five, arc called the Secrets ; 
for to them all Secrets relating to the Scare are difco- 
vered ; and they have an Authority of ca ling the Two 
hundred tOi:,erher vvhen they think fit, and of accufing 
ihofe of the Magiftracy, the Advoyers themfelves not 
excepted, as they fee caufe i tho' this falls out feldom; ^ 

There are feventy two Bailiages, into which the 
whole Canton of Bern is divided, and in every one of 
thofe there is a Bailiff named by the Council of Two 
hundred, who niuft be a Citizen of Bern, and one of 
the Two hundred, to which Council no man can be 
chofen till he is married. Thefe Bailiages are Imploy- 
mer.ts both of Honour and Profit i for the Bail iff is the 
Governour and Judge in that Jurifdiftion : fince tho* 
he has fome AfTeflbrs who are chofen out of the Baili- 
age, yet he may by his Authority carry matters which 
xvky he will, againfV'all their Opinions: andtheBai- 
iifts have all the Confifcatiofts and Fines j fo that 
Drinking being fo common in the Coumry, and thac 
producing many (Quarrels, the Bailiff makes his advan- 
tage of all thofe diforders: and in the fix years of his 
Government according to the quality of his Bailiage, 
he not only lives by it, but will carry perhaps twenty 
thoufand Crowns with him back to Bern ; on which he 
lives till he can carry another fcailiage ; for one is ca- 
pable of being twice Bailiff: but tho' fome have been 
thrice Bailiffs, this is very extraordinary. The Ex- 
adions of the Bailiff are the only Impofirions or Char- 
lies to which the Inhabit.^nts are lubjeded ; and thefe 
falling only on the Irregularities andDiibrdersofthe 
more debauched, makes thac this Grievance, tho* in 
feme parciculas Cafes it prcffcs hard, yet h not fo uni- 



vtrfally Tek : for a fobcr and regular man is in no^an* 
ger« Many in this Canton are as in Enghndy Lords 
of Caflles and Manners, and have a jurKdiL^ion an- 
nexed to their Ellates, and name their Magiftrate, 
>vho*is called the Cafiellaiu In matters of fmall confe- 
quence there Hes no Appeal from liim to the Bailiff-^ 
but beyond the value pf two Piftoh an Appeallies^ 
and no Sentence of Death is executed till it is con- 
firmed ac Bern, There lies alfo an Appeal from the 
Bailiflfco the Council at Bern. There are many Com- 
plaints of the injuAice of the Bailiffs; but their Law- 
is fliort and clear, fo that a Sute is foon ended: two or 
three Hearings is tjic moft that even an intricate Sute 
amounts to, eiclier in the firfl Inilancc before the Bai- 
liff, or in the fecond Judr ment ac Bern, The Citizens 
of Bern confider thefe Bailiages as their Inheritance, 
and tl^y are courted in this Scare, perhaps, with as 
much Intrigue as was ever ufed among the Romans in 
the diiirihutjcn of their Provinces : and fo licde fig- 
nifie the bcfl Regulations vv^hen ther£ are intrinfick 
Difeafes in a State, chat though there is all poflllble 
Precaution ufed in the Nomination of thefe Bailiffs, 
yec that has noc preferved this State from falling under 
lb great a milchief by thofe little Provinces ; that as it 
has already in a ^reac meafure corrupted their Mo- 
rals, fo it may, likely, turn in Conclufion to the 
Ruine of this Republick, AH the Eleftors give their 
Voices by Ballot^ fothat they are free from all after- 
Game in th 3 Nomination of thePerfon; All the Kin- 
dred of the Pretenders, even to the remotefi degrees, 
are excluded from Voting, as are alfoall their Credi- 
tors *, ^o that none caa vote, but thofe wlio feem to 
have nointerefl in the liTue of the Competition ; and" 
yec there is fa much Intrigue, and fo great Corrupdon 
in the diflribution of thefe Iraployments, Tiiac the 
whole Bufiners, in which all Bern is ever in motion, is 
the catchiiig of the befl Bailiages, on which a Family 
will have its Eye for many Years before they fall. Foi- 

C tlie 



the Counfellors of Bern give a very Tmall fliare of the?r 
Eftates CO their Children when they marry them : all 
that they purpofe is, to make a Bailiage'fure to themt 
for thi« they feaft and drink, and Cpare nothmg by 
which they may make fare a lufficicnc nnmbcr of 
Votej: but it is the Chamber of the Bannerets thu 
admits the Pretenders to the Competition. When 
the Bailiff is chofen, he takes all poffible methods to 
make the beft of it he can, and jets few Crimes pafs 
that carry cither Confifcationsr-or Fines after them j 
his Juflice alfo is generally fufpeaed. It is true, thofe 
of the Bailiage may complain to the Council at Bern, 
as the opprefied Provinces did anciently to the Senate 
o(Rome: and there have been fevere Judgments 
againft feme more exorbirant Bailiffs ; yet as Com- 
plaints are not made, except upon great Occafions, 
which are not often given by the Bailiffs, fo it being 
the general Intereft of the Citizens of Bern to make all 
poflible Advantages of thofe Imployments, the Cen- 
fure'vvill be but gentle, except the Complaint is 

crying. 

In Bern there is very little Trade, only what is ne- 
ceflary for the fupport of the Towns They maintain 
FrofelTors in the Univerfities of Bern and Lan'fanne, 
the one for the German Territory, which is the anci- 
ent Canton , and the other for the new Conqueft, 
which is the French, In the forn>er there are about 
three hundred Parifhes, in the other there are but 
sbouc a hundred and fifty 1 but in the Benefices of the 
German fide, the ancient Rights of the Incumbents 
are generally prcferved, fo that fome Benefices are 
worth a thoufand Crowns j whereas in the PaU des 
Vitud the Provifions are generally from a hundred 
to two hundred Crowns. It is vifible that thofe of 
Wern truft more to the Affcaions and- Fidelity of their 
5ub)eas, than to the flrength of their Walls: for as 
they h^ve never finifiied them, fo what is biilc cannot 
be broup ht to A regular Forsificacion j and it is not 

pre- 



(15) 

preferved with any care, nor furniflied with Canon ; 
but if they have none on their Ramparts, they have 
good ftore in tlipir Arfenal, in which they fay there 
are Arms for forty choufand men. 

The Pcafants are generally rich, chiefly in die Ger' 
man fide, and are all well armed : they pay no Duties 
to the Publick ; and the Soil is capable of great Culti- 
vation, in which fome fucceed fo well, that 1 was 
fhewed fome tliat were by accident at Beruy who, as I 
was told, had of Eftatd to the value of a hundred 
thoufand Crowns, but tliat is not ordinary ; yet tea 
thoufand Crowns for a Peafant is no extraordinary 
matter. They live much on their Milk and Corn, 
which in fome Places, as about Payerny yields an in- 
creafe of fifteen meafures after one : they breed many 
Horfes, which bring them in a great deal of money. 
The worft thing in the Country i* the moiflure of the ' 
Air, which is not only occafioned by themany Lakes 
that are in it, and the Neighbouring Mountains that are 
covered with Snow, fome all the Summer long, and' 
the reft tillMid-fammer j but by the vafl quantity of 
Woods of Fir-trees, which teem to fill very near the 
half of their Soil ; and if thefe were for the moft pare 
rooted our, as they would have much more3oil, fo 
their Air would be much purer -, yet till they find 
either Coal or Turf for their Fewd this cannot be 
done. I was told that they had found Coal in fome 
Places. If the Coal is conveniently (ituated, fo ilwc by 
their Lakes and Rivers it can be eafily carried over tie 
Country, it may fave them a great extent of ground, 
that as it is covered with Wood, fo the Air beconaes 
thereby the more unwholfome* 

They have fofhe Fountains of Sak- water ; but the 
making Salt confumes fo much Wood , that hitherto it 
has nor turn'd to any Account. 

TJie Men are generally -fincere, bnt heavy: they 
think it necc0ary to corre<ft the moiflure of the Ah 
mxh liberal Encertaiaments, and they ve well fur- 

Ci tiilhed 



- ( i<5) 

r;i^ed w?th all neceflary Ingredients : for as their Soil 
produces good Catcef, fo their Lakes abound in Fifh, 
and their Woods in Fowl, the Wine is alfo light and^ 
good. The Women are generally employed in their 
domeftick Afrairs, and the Wives even of the chief 
Magiflrates of Bern look into all the Concerns of tlie 
Hbufe and Kitchin as much as the Wives of the mcan- 
cR Peafants. Men and Women do not convcrfe pro- 
inifcuoufly together i and the Women are fo much 
amufcd with the Management at home, and enter fa 
little into Intrigues, that among them, as an eminent 
Phyfician there told me, they know not what Vapours 
sre, which he imputed to the Idlenefs and Intrigues 
tilat abound clfcwhere, wliereas he faid, among them 
the Blood was cJeanfed by their Labour, and as that 
made them lleep well, fo they did not amufe them- 
Idves with ns-uch thinking, nor did they know what 
Amours were. The third Adultery is punifhed with 
Dearh, which is alfo the punifhment of the fifth Afl of 
Fornication 5 of which 1 faw an inflance while I was 
at Bern: for, a Woman who confcfied her felf guilty 
of many Whoredoms, and defigned to be revenged on 
fome Men that did not furnifh her liberally v^hh Mo- 
ney, was upon that condem.ned and executed ; the 
manner was folemn ; for the Advoyer comes iflto an 
open Bench in the middle of the Street, and for 
the Satisfaftion of the People , the whole Procefs 
was read, and Sentence was pronounced in the hear- 
ing of all '-, the Counfellors both of the great and 
leSer Council ftanding about the Advoyer , who 
after Sentence took the Criminal very gently by 
the hand, and pray'd for her Soul : and after Execu- 
tion, there was a Sermon for the InHruftioa of the 
People. 

tW whole State is difpofcd for War, for e very- 
man that can bear Arms is lifled, ard knows his Poft 
and Arms ; and there are Beacons fo laid -over the 
Country, that the Sig^nal can run over clie whole Cae- 

tos 



( 17) . 

ton m a night : and tlieir Military Lifts are Co laid, thsc 
every man knows whirher he is to come out upon firfl ^ 
or fccond, or not tiJl the general Sumaidris. Tiicy 
allured me at Bern, That upon a general Summons 
they could bring above ci^ity thoufand Men togethcro .. 
The Men are robuft and (Irong, and capable ofgreac 
Hardfhip, and of good Difcipiine, and have generally " 
an extream fenfe of Liberty, and a great Love to their 
Gountry ; but they labour under a wane of Officers. 
And tho' the Subjeds of the State are rich, yet the 
PubJick is poor : they can well refifi a fudden Invaiicn 
Qf their Country,- but they would foon grow weary of 
a long War : and the Soil requires fo much Cultiva- 
tion, that they could not fpare from their Labour the 
Men that would be neceffary to prcfcrve their eounrry» , 
They were indeed as happy as a People could be, 
when the Emperour had Alface on the one hand, and 
the Spaniards had the Francbe Comte on the others 
they had no reafoii to fear their Neighbours ; but nov; 
that both thofe Provinces are in the hands of the 
French^ the cafe is quite altered ; for as B^/// is every 
moment in danger from the Garrifon of Hmningm^ 
that is but a Canon-fho; diftant from it , fo all the Pais 
de KWlies open to the Franche Camte, and has neither 
fortified Places, nor good PalTes to fecureit; fo that 
their Error in fuffering this to fall into the hands of the 
Frencib was fo grofs, that I took fome pains , to be in- 
formed concerning it, and will here give you this Ac- 
count that I had from one who was then in a very emi- 
nent Pcft ; fo that as he certainly knew the Secret, he 
fcemed to fpeakiincerely to me. He told me that the 
Duke of Lorrainhzdt, often moved ifi the Councils of 
War, That the Invafion of Frame ought to be made on 
that fide in which yM?i^e lay open, r.nd was very ill 
fortified: This he -repeated often, and it was known 
'VEt France : fo that the King refolved to pofiefs himfelf 
of the Comte, but l fed that Precaution, that fearing to , 
prcivoke the Smtfers^ he ofTred a Neucrallty on that 

C 3 ' fide; 



Mc : but the Spanltrds who judged right; that it was^- 
as much the intereilof the Cantons, as it was theirs, 
£0 prefcrve the Comti in thdr hands, refufed to confenc 
£0 it j but they took no care to defend it, and feemed 
to leave that to the Smtfers, 

In the mean while the French Money went about ^ 
very hberally at Eern^ and after thofe that were moft 
likely to make oppofition were gained, the French • 
Minilier propofed to them die nccefity in which his 
Mafter found himfelf engaged to fecure himfelf on that 
fide ; but that flill he would gram a Ncutrallity on their • 
accounti if the Spaniards would agree to it j and with 
this, a'l the aflurances that could be given in words 
■were offered to them, that^ they fhould never find the 
Jesf; prejudice front the Neighbourhood of the-- 
French^ but on the contrary all pofTible Proie<^ion,^ 
There was juff caufe given by the Spaniards to confider 
them very little in their Deliberation : for they would - 
neither accept oixht Neutrality^ nor fend a confider- 
abls.force Force to preferve thtComHs fo that it feem'd 
akncil inevitable to give way to the Fr^nc-t propo^- 
.finon'i bttc one propofed that, which an anbyajTed 
ACembly would certainly have accepted, that they 
fhould go themfelves and take the Cow; e, and by fo 
doing they would fecure the Neutrality, which was all; 
£^t the French pretended to defire, and they migh £ ■ 
eaiily fatisfie the- Spaniards and reimburfe themfelves 
of the Expence of ilie Invafwn^ by reAoring the Catnti ^ 
to them when a .General Peace fhould be made. He - 
Jaid out the mifery to which their Country muflbe 
reduced -by fo pov>^erful a Neighbour^ but allwas lofc" 
Jabourj fo he went out in a rage and publifhed through 
^he Town, that the State was Sold and all was loft. 
They no v/ -fee their Error coo late, and would repair' 
kf ii it were pofiTole, but the truth is, many of the . 
particular Members of this Srace, do fo prey upon tliC'^ 
p»blick, that urilefs they do with one confent reform- 
elmfaiabufes, they will Dsver be. io coodicion to do 

? " much s: 



(-19) 

nwth : for in many of their Bailiage?, of which forrrc • 
are Abbeys, the BaiUft'snoc only feed on the Subjed!;,. 
but likevvife on the State, and pretend they are fo' 
far fuper-eiipended, that they difcount a great deal of: 
the publick revenue, of which they are the receivers, 
for their reimburfement; which made Mr. iCErlacl*^ 
once fay, when one of thofe accounts was prefented,- 
that it was very ftrange if the Abbey could not feed' 
the Monks. It is true, the power of their Banneret*^ 
jsTo great, that one would think, they might redrefs 
many Abufes. The City of Bern is divided into fcuf 
Bo<!ics not unlike our Companies oiLondin^ which are 
the Bakers, the Butchers, the Tanners, and the Black*' 
fmiths, and every Citizen of Bern does incorporais 
himfelf into one of rheie Scciecies, which they call 
Abbsys. For ic is likely they were antiently a. fort of 
9- ReiJiiom fratermty: every one of thefe chufes two 
BaiweretSy who bear Office hj turns, from Four Tears' 
to Four Tc^rs^ and every one of them has a BailiagA 
annexed to his Office, which he holds for Life, They 
carry the.r Names from the Banners of the feveral Ab-* 
bey; as th^ Gomfalonkr^ of Italy ; and the Advoyers carry 
flili their Name from the ancieoc Tirles Ecdicm or Ad-» 
vocate, that w?^3 the Title of the chief Magirirates of 
the Towns in the Times of the Roman Emperours, 
The CliSiii er of the four Bannerets that bear Office^ 
has a vaft power, th«y examine and pafs all Accounrsi 
and chey admit all the competitors to any OfSces, f» 
that no man can be ppopofed to the Council of Tjp« 
Hundred without rl?eir ApprohatioR, and this being 
now ths chief Intrigue of their State, they have fa 
abfolure an Authority in fliutting men out from En> 
ployments, that their office, which is for life, is ho 
lefs conflderabic than that of th^ Advdyer^ tho' they 
are inferiour to.him in Rank.. They manage matters 
with g eat add/cfs, of which this infiance was giveo 
me in a competition for the AdvoyerjJjip^ not long ago : 
There .was. one vtiio§- temper- wa5_ vioisnr, that hai 



«*. 



(10-) 

made k fo fure among thofe who were qualified to 
vot€ in ir, as being r.eicher of his Kindred nor Alliance, 
than they believed he would carry it from the other 
Competitor, whom they favoured i To they fet up 'a 
third Competitor, whofe Kindred were the Perfons 
that were made fui:? to him,, whofe Advancement 
they '.ppofed •, and by this means they were all fhuc 
-out fr.m. voting ; fothat the Eleftion went according 
to ±L Eefign of the Bannerets. The chief Man now 
iTt-Bern, who was the reigning Advoyer \M\\tn I was 
there, is hXr.d' Erlac]^^ Nephew to that Mr. d' ErJack^ 
who was Governour of Bri(acl(^, and had a Breaker to 
be a Marfhal of France. This is one of the noblefl Fa- 
milies in Bern, that aded a great part in fhakir.g of the 
AuHrJan Tyranny ; and they have been ever {mcc very 
much difringuifhed there from all the reft of their 
Nobility. The prefent Head of it h a v.ry extraor- 
dinary Man-, he has a great Authority in h'n Canton^ 
not or.Iy as he is Advoyer, bnt by the particular efteem 
which is payed him ',for he is thought tl^e wifeli and 
-worthier Man of the Scare, tho' it is fomewliat {grange 
how he Hiould bear fuch a fway in fuch a Govemmenr, 
l,Y he neither feafts iwr th-inks with the rt A. He is a . 
Man of great Sobriety and Gravity, very refervedj 
ard behaves hirafelf likeraMinifler of Srate in a Mo- 
narchy, than a Magiftrate in a Popwiar Government i 
for one fees in him none of thofe Arts that feem nc- 
ceflary in fuch a Government. He has a great Eflare,. ^ 
and no Children, fo he has no Projeds for his Fa- 
mily, and does what he can to corred the Abufes 
of rh^ State, tho' thedifeafc is inveterate, and Teems 

call Cure. , , 

He had a Misforriine in a War that wa* thirty years 
3P0, m the Year 1656, between the Fo/)?//; and the 
rrctefiant Cantons, t^.e Occafion of which will engage 
trc in a fbort Digreffioro The Peace ofSmt^erland 15 
(hiefiy prcferved by a law agreed on among all the 
- eaucns^ that every Caasorimay make what.Re^fila- 



r 21 ; 

tions concerning Religion they think fie, without prc^ 
judice to the general League. Now the Pepifj Can- 
tons have made Laws, That ic (hall be capital to any 
to change their Religion ; and on a fet djy every year 
they go all to Mafs, and the Maflcrs of Fa/nilies fwear 
to continue true to the State, and firm in their Religi- 
on to their lives end, and (o they pretend they punifTr 
their falling into Herefie with Death and Confifcation 
of Goods, becaufe it is a violation ©f the Faith which 
is fo foleranly fworn. But on the other hand, in the 
Proteflant Cantons ftich as turn are onJy obliged to go 
and live out of the Canton j bwt for their Efiates they 
flill preferve them, and are permitted to fell them. 
One cannot but obfervc more of the merciful Spirit of 
thc Gofpel in the one than in the other. In two Can- 
tons, Appenzelnn&GlarUy both Religions are tollera- 
tcd, and are capable of equal Priviledges j and in fome 
Biiliages that were conquered in common by the Can- 
tons of 5eyn and Fri^«r^, in the Wars with i'rft^qy, the 
two Cantons name the Bailiffs by tarns, and both Re- 
ligions arc fo equally toUerared, that in the fame 
Ghurch they have both Mafs and Se?mon, fo equally, 
that on one Sunday the Mafs b^ins and the Sermori 
follows, the next Sunday the Sermon begins and the 
Mafs coraes next, without the leafl diforder or mur« 
muring. 

But in the year i^$^, feme of the Canton ofSchmt^ 
dianging their Religion, and retiring to Zurich^ their 
Eftates were confifcated ; and fome others that had 
alfo changed, but had not left the Canton, were taken 
and beheaded. Zurich demanded the^Eflatei of the 
Refugies, but inftead of granting this,' the Canton of 
SchwitT^ demanded back their Subje<fh , that they 
might proceed againfVthem 35 Delinquents; and they 
founded this on a Law, by which the Cantons arc ob- 
liged to deliver up the Criminals of another Canton 
when they come among them, if they are demanded 
by the Cantoa to which they belgng; but thofe o£ 



( i^ ) 

Zurich ana Bern thought this was both inhumane and 
unchriftian, tho' the Deputy of Bafil was of another 
mind, and thought that they oughc to be delivered 
up, which eiareamlydifguftedthofe of 2«r/c^. Thole 
of Schwit:^ commiited (bme Tnfolencies upon the 
Subjeds o{ Zurich, and rcfufcd to give Satisfaaion. 
Upon all which a War followed between the Pnte^ 
flant and Popfl) Cantons. The Cantons of Bern and- 
Zurich raifed an Army of twenty five thouland Men,, 
which was commanded by Mr. d' Erlack, but was 
difperfed in feveral Bodies; And the Papifts had not 
above Six thoufand, yet they furprifed Mr . >r fir/^c^ 
with a Body not much fuperiour to theirs; both fides, 
after a fhort Engagement, run : The Canon of the 
Canton of Bern was left inthe Field a whole day j ac 
laft thofe of Lucern feeing that none flayed to defend 
the Canon, carried them off: This lofs raifed fuch a; 
Tumult mBern, that they feeraed refolvied to la- 
crifice U^. d' Erlack; but he came with fuchaPre- 
• fence of Mind, and gave fo fatisfying an Account of the 
Misfortune, that the Tumult ceafed, and foon alter 
the War ended. Upon this many thought, thgt tho 
the Papijfs afted cruelly, yet it was according to their 
laws, and that no other Canton could pretend to m- 
terpofe or quarrel with thofe of Schr^it^, for what they 
did upon that occafion. Within thefe few Years 
tV;ere were fome Quarrels like to anfe in the Can- 
ton of Glarii, where it was faid the equal Pnviiedges 
agreed ©n to both Religions, were not prderved, 
bat on this occafion the Pope's Numh aftedavery 
different Part frorfl that which might have been 
expeaed from him: for whereas the Miniflers of 
that Court have been commonly the incendiaries 
m all the Difputes that concern Relipon, he aded ra- 
ther the part of a Mediator -, and whereas it vvas vm- 
blethat the Injtiftice lav on the fide of the Papilts, 
ht intcrpofed fo effeaually with tho<e oUucerji^vAnch 
is the chief of the Fof?//; Cantons^ that the ditlerence 
wat ccmpofed, , ^^^ 



• C 13 ) 

f 

75ut to return to Bern, The Buildings have nei- 
ther gr^at Magnificence nor many Apartments, bac 
they are conveiiitnc, and fuited to the way of living iti 
the Country. The Streets not only of Bern and the 
bigger Towrs, but even cf the fmalleft Villages, arc 
fumifhed with Fountains that run continually ; which 
as they are oi grear ufe , fo they want not their 
Beauty. The great Church of Bern is a very noUle 
Fabrick: but being built on the top of the Hill on 
which the Town ftands, it fcems the ground began 
to fail; fo to fupport it they have raifcd a vafl Fabrick, 
whicli has coft more than the Church it felf; for there 
is a Platform made, which is a Square to which the 
Church is one fide, and the farther fide is a vafl 
Wail, 'fortified with ButtrefTes about a hundred and 
fifty foot high. They told me, That all the Ground, 
down to the boctcm of the Hill, was dug into Vaults: 
This Platform is the chief Walk of the Town, chiefly 
about Sun-fet: and the River, underneath prefentsa 
very beautiful Profpeft ; for there is a Gut taken off 
from it for the Mills, but all along as this Cut gees 
the Water of Aar runs, over a (loping bank of Stone, 
which they fay was made at a vafl Charge, and makes 
a noble and large Cafcadc. 

The fecond Church is the Dominicans Chappel, 
where I faw the famous Hele that went to an Image in 
the Church, from one of the Cells of the Dominicans , 
which leads me to fet down that Story at tome 
length ; for it was one of the moft fignal Cheats thac 
the World has known ; fo it flillirg out about 20 years 
before the Reformation w^s received in Bern^ it is 
very probable that it conrribured not a little to the' 
preparing of the Spirits of tlie People to that change. 
1 am the more able to give a particular account of it, 
becaufe I read the Original Procefs in the Latin Record 
finned by the Notaries of the Court of the Delegates 
tViac the Pope fent to try the matter. The Record is 
■ a hundred and-chirty Sheets writ clofe and of ail fides. 



It 'being indeed a large Volume : and I found ilie 
Printed Accounts fo defe(fHve, that I was at the paiiic^ 
of reading the whole Procefs j of which I will give 
-here a true Abflraft. 

The two famous Orders that had poflefled them- 
felvesoftheefteem of thofedark Ages were engaged 
in a mighty Rivalry. The Dominic/joi were the more 
learned, They were the eminencefl Preachers of thofe 
Times, and had the Conduft of the Courts of In- 
quifition, and the other chief Offices in the Church m 
their hands. But on the other hand, the Francffcans 
had an outward Appearance of more Severity, a ruder 
Habit, ftfiifler Rules and greater Poverty ; all which 
gave them fuch advantages in the eyes of the fimple 
multitude, as were able to ballance the other ilonours 
of the Domimcan Order, In fhort. The two Orders 
were engaged in a high Rivalry ; but the Devotion 
towards the Virgin being the prevailing PafTion of 
thofe Times, the Francijcans upon this had gr^at Ap- 
" vantages. The Dominicansy that are all engaged in the 
Defence of Thomas Aqmncti'h Opinions, were thereby 
obliged to alTert that fhe was born in Original Sin : this 
Xivas propofed to the People by the Francijcans as no 
le/s than Blafphemy ; and by this the Dominicans began 
to lofe ground cxtreamly in the minds of the People, 
who were llrongly prepoflefled in favours of the im 
maculate Cogception. 

About the beginning of the fifteenth Century, a 
Francifcan happened to preach in Francfort, and one 
Wigand a Dominican coming into the Church, the Cor- 
delier feeing him, brake out into Exclamations, prai- 
fing God that he was not of an Order that profaned 
the Virgin, or that poifoned Princes in the Sacrament, 
/for a Dominican had poifoned the Emperour Henry the 
Seventh with the Sacrament.^ Wigand being extreamly 
provoked with this bloody Reproach, gave him the 
Lye : upon which a Difpute arofe, which ended in a ir 
Tumult, that had almofl coft the t)m/?/c<i8 his life : 

ycc 









' yet l^e pot away. The whole OrJer rcfofved to tike 

their Revenue, and in a Chapter held a c Vimpfenm 

tht Y.ar 1 504. They contrived a mechod for fupacr- 

ting Che CrediC or their Order, which was much funk 

in (i:e ODinion of the l\op!e, and for be^iring down 

the Re; ucddoa of die hraralcuns Four of the J^un^Q 

undercook co ma .age che Defign ; for they faid fince 

the -People were o much dtf'ofed to believe Dreams 

andbjbles, they mu ft dream on their fide, and en- 

de-vour to Clie it vt People as .veil as the orhers had 

done. They refolvevl to make Be) n the Scene in which 

the P.ujea: (hould be put in Execacion; for they 

found che People o( Bern ac that time ^pc to fwailovv 

any chin^, and not difpofed to make levere enquiries 

into elftraofdiiiarv maccers. When they had formed 

their Defij^n, a fie tool prefenced ic fe-r, for one ^er^er 

came to take tiicir habit as a Lav-broclier, who had 

all che difpoficionschat was neceflary for che execution 

ofthei.; Pr. ject : Kor he was excream fmiple, ^nd was 

much inclined CO Auflentieo, fo havi g oblerved his 

temper well, they began co eKccuce dieir Projea:, tlie 

very Night after he cook the habit, wiiich was on 

Lady Day 1 507. One of the Frters conveyed himfelf 

feeretly into his Jell, aud aope red co him as if he had 

been in Purgatory, in a ftrange fi ure, and he had a 

Box near his moutii upon which as he blew, fire feeni- 

ed to come out of his mouth. He had al.o lome Dogs 

about him that ap eared 'as his tormentors, in this 

pofcure he came near the Frier while he was a Bed, 

and took up a >elebrated Scory tliat theyufed toteli 

all their Friers, to beget in them a g, eat dread at the 

laymii afide their habit, which was, thacone of the 

Order, who wa^ Sup.riour of their Koufe at Soloturn 

had ».one .0 Parif, but juying afide his Habit was 

Killed in his Lay-habit. T^ie Frier in the Vizar faid 

he was thac per To.;, and wa? condemned to Purgatory 

for that Crim^; b.t he added That he might be refcued 

cue of it b) his means, and he fecondcd this wich 

D mofl 



( ^« ) 

moft horrible Cries, ex{>refllng the miferies which he 
fuffer'd. The poor Frier C J^K^^ J ^^^ exceffivcly 
frighted, but the other advanced and required a pro- 
mife of him to do that which he fhould defire of him, 
in order to the delivering him out of Ins torment. The 
frighted Frier promifed all that he asked of hi rn, then 
the other faid he knew he was a great Saint, and that 
his Prayers and Mortifications would prevail, but they 
muft be very great and extraordinary.^ The whole 
Monaftery mufl for a week together diiciphne them- 
felves with a Whip, and he muft lie proftrate mthe 
Tormof one on a Crcfs in one of their Chappels, while. 
Mafs was raid in the fight of all that fhould come to- 
gpther to u; and he added, That if he did this, he 
mould find the cffeas of the Love that the B. Virgm 
did bear him, together with many other extraordina- 
ry things • and faid he would appear again accompani- 
%vith two other Spirits, and alTured him that all that 
lie did fufter for his deliverance fhould be molt glori- 
ouHy rewarded. Morning was no fooner come than 
the Frier gave an account of this Apparition to the relt 
of the Convent, who Teemed extreamly furprifed at 
it they ail prefied him to undergo the difciplme that 
was cnjoyned him, and every one undercook to bear 
hlsfliare, fo the poor deluded Frier performed it all 
exaaiy in one of the Chappels of their Church ; This 
drew a vaft number of Spedators together, who a J 
ronfidered the Door Frief as a Saint, and in the mean 
while the four Friers that managed the impofture mag- 
nified the Miracle of the Apparition to the Skies in 
their Sermons. The Friers Confefibr was upon the 
Secret, and by this means they knew all the little paf- 
fages of , the poor Frier's Life, even to his thoughts, 
- which helped them not a little in the Condua of the 
matter. The Confefibr gave him an Hoftie, with a 
piece of Wood, that was, as he pretended, a true 
piece of the Crofs, and by thefe he wastofortifiehim- 
felf, if any other Apparitions fhould ^.pmg, to him, 

• _ ii ce 



( 21) 

(ince evil Spirits would be certainly chained up by 
them. The night after chat the former Apparicibti 
was renewed, and the mafqucd Frier brougrtt two 
others with him in fuch Vizards, that .the F.ier 
thought they were Devils indeed. The Frier pre- 
fented the Hofly to them, which gave them fuch a 
elieck, ' that he was fully fatisfied of the vcrtue of this 
Prcfervative. 

The Friar, that pretended he was fuffering in Puf' 
gamyt faid fo many things to him rela-ting to the fe- 
crets of his Life and Thoughts, which he had from 
the Confeflbr, that the poor Friar was fully polfefled 
with the Opinion of the reality of theAppirition. In 
two of thefe Apparitions, tha^ were both managed in 
the fame manner, the Friar in the Mask talked much 
of the Dominican Order, which he faid was excefifively 
dear to the B. Virgin, who knew her felf to be con- 
ceived in original fin, and that the Do(flor5 who 
taught the contrary were in Purgatory ; that the Story 
of St. Bernard's appearing with a fpot an him, for ha-' 
ving oppofed himfelf to the Feartofthe Conception, 
was a Forgery j but that it was true that fome hide- 
ous Flies had appeared on Sc Bonaventmei Tomb who" ' 
taught the contrary; that the B- Virgjn abhorred the 
Cardelien for making her equal to her Son , that Scotni ; 
was damned, whofe Canonization the Cordeliers were 
then foliciting hard at Rome ; and that the T-own cf 
Bern would be deftroyed for harbouring fuch Plagues 
within their Walls. When the injoyned Dicipline 
was fully performed, the Spirit appeared again, and 
faid, He was now delivered out of Purgatory •, but be- 
fore he could be admitted to Heaven he mufl receive 
the Sacrament, having died without it, and after that 
he would fay Mafs for tho e who had by their great 
Charities refcued him out of his pains. The Fri^ 
fancied the Voice refembled the Priors a little: but 
he was then fo far from fjfpefting any thing, that he 
gave no ^reat heed to this fufpicion. Some days sP- 

D 2 t€? 



V 



( i8 ) ■ ■ 

ter tl3iF,,tlie fame Friar aopeared as a Nun all in gloiry/ ■ 
•. 2nd told the poor Friar that fhe was St. Barbara^ for 
4hom he had a particular Devotion, and added, that 
th<^ B. Virgin was fo much pkafed with his Charity, 
that fhe intended to coriie and vifit him. He imme- 
diately called the Convent together, and gave the reft 
of theFriars an account of this Apparition, which was 
entertained by them all vvith great joy, and the Friar 
■fanguifhed in defires for the accomplfhment of the 
Promife chat St. Barbara had made him. After fome 
days the longed. for delufion appeared to him, cloath- , 
rd as the Virain ufed to be on the great Feafts, and in- 
deed in the fame Hahit^ : there were about her fome 
i\ngel.s, which he afterwards found were the little fta- . 
tues of A.ngeiS which they fet on the Altars on the 
great Holidays, There was alfo a pulley fanned in the 
Room over his head, and a Cord tied to the Angels, 
that made them rife up in die Air, and flte nbouc the 
Virgin, which increafcd the Delufion. The Virgin, 
after fome endearmentb to himfeif, extolling the me- 
rit of hii Charity and Difcipline, told him. That (he 
was conceived in original fin, and that Pope Jul'mthc 
Second, that tlien rejgned, was to put n eiid to the 
Difpute, and was to abolifh the Feaft of her Concep- 
tion, which Shtw tht Fourth hjd innimtcd, and 
that the Friar was to be the Inftrument of perfuading 
the Pope of the truth in that matter. She gave him. 
, three drops of her Sons Blood, which were three tears 
of Blood that he had Ihed over Jeyufalem-, and thh 
fignified that fhe v^as three hours in original Sin, after 
which fhe was, by his mercy, delivered out of that 
State; for it feems the Dominicans were reiolved fo to 
com-ound the matter, that they fhould gain the main 
Point of her Conception in Sin, yet they would com- 
ply fa far with the Reverence for the Virgin, with 
which the World was poffeiVed, that fhe fhould be be- 
lieved to have remained a very fhort while m that 
StstQ>. She give him alfo five drops of Blood in the 
*^ form 



form of a Crcfs, which were Tears of Blood that^e - 
hid (lied while her Son was on the Crofs. And, to 
convince him more fully, (he prcfented an Hofty to * 
him, that appeared as an ordiniry Hofty, and of 4 ' 
fudden it appeared to be of a deep red colour. The 
Cheat of thofe fuppoicd Vifits was often repeated to 
thcabufed Friar ; at lafl the Virgin told him that fhe 
was to give him fuch marks of her Son's Love to him. 
that the matter rtiould be pafl all doubt. She fai'd» 
That the five Wounds of St. Lucia and St. Catharine 
were real Wounds, and that flie would alfo imprinc 
them on him, fo fhe bid him reach his hand: he had 
no great mind to deceive a Favour in which lie was to 
fuffer fo much : but fhe forced his hand and ftruck a 
Nail through it •, the Hole was as big as a Grain of 
Peafe, andhefaw the Candle clearly through it.- this ^ 
threw him out of a fuppofed Tranfport into a real ' 
Agony : but fne Teemed to touch his Hand, and he 
thought he fmelt an Oyntment with which fhe anoint- 
ed It, tho' his Confefibr perlwaded him that that was 
only an Imagination : fo the fuppofed Virgin Jefc him 
for that time. 

The next Night the Apparition returned, and 
brought fome linnen Cloiaths, which had fome real 
or imaginary vertue to allay his torment : and the 
pretended Virgin faid, they were" fome of the linings 
in which Chriji was wrapped, and with that Ihe gave 
him a foporiferous draught, and while he was faft 
afleep, the other four Wounds were imprinted on his 
body in fuch a manner that he felt no pain. 

But m order to the doing of this, the Friars betook ' 
themfelves to Charms, and the Subprior fhewed the 
refl a Book full of them .• but he faid that before they ^■■ 
could be effeftual they mufl: renounce God; and he 
not on!y did this himfelf, but by a formal Aft put in 
Writmg, flgned with his Blood, he dedicated himfcif - 
to the Dtvil: It is true he did not oblige thercflto '• 
thR> but only to r|nounce God, The Gcmpofition 



of the Dfaughtwas a mixcure of ibme Fountam-watcr 
andChrifme. the Hairs of the Eye-brov/s of a Child, 
feme Quick- fi'ver, rome Grains of Incenfe, fomewhac 
ofanEafler WaK-candle, fonie confecrated Salt, and 
the Slood of an mibaptized Child. This Compofition 
was a Secret which the Subprior did net ccmniunicate 
to the other Friars. By this the poor Friar 7ef^er 
\vas made almoin quite infenfible. Wlien he was awake 
and came out of this deep flecp, he felt this wonder- 
ful ImprelTion on his Body> and row he was ra ifhed 
out of meafure, and came to fancy himfelf to be adiiug 
all the. parts of our Saviour's P.iffion. He wai eypcled • 
to the people on the great Akar, to the amazemeiic. 
cf the whole Town, and to the no fmall Mortifrcarjoft 
of the Frarcj[cans. The Dow/k/c^w gave him fome, 
other Draughts, that threw him into Convulfions : ^ 
and when he came out ofthofe, a Voice was heard,. - 
v^hich came through that Hole which yet remains and- 
iruns from one of the CeHs along a great part rf the 
Wall of the Church : for a Friar fpoke- thro' a Pipe, . 
and at the end of the Hole there was an Image of the 
Virgins wich a little Jefift in her Arms, between whom 
2nd' his Mother the Voice feemed to come ; the Image 
giro fccmed to Hied Tears i and a Painter had drawn. 
thofconher Face fo lively,- that the People were de- 
cdv^d by it. The litt'e Jefm ask'd- why fne wept ;- 
3nd(h:cr:3id it was becaife his Honour was given to 
her, fmcc h was faid, That: (he was born without fin. 
In conciuf^on, the Friars did fo over-aft this Matter, 
iliatatlaflev'n the poor deluded Frier himfelf came 
iodifcover it, and refolvcd ro quit the Order. 

it \vas in vain to delude him with more Apparm- 
CBS, for he well nigh kill'd a Frier that came to him. 
}x rfonattng the Virgin in another fhapc, with a Growji 
on her Head. He alio o cr-heard the Friers once talk- 
jug amongll themfelvei of tlie Cortriv i ce and Succe.s 
of thelmpoaure, fo plainly, that he difccvercd the 
wiiolc matter,, and upon thai, as may becafily imagi- 



C 3k) 

Vied, he was filled with all the horror wich which fuch 
a Difcovery could infpire him* 

TheFicrs fearing thac an impofture, which wa& > 
carried on hitherto wirh lo mu. h fucce's, fhouid be - 
quite rpoikd, and be turned a a»nft them, thoughc 
the furtft way was to own the who'e matter to him, 
and to engage him to carry on the C ear. They tc«ld 
him in wtiaceftetm he would be, if he contii^ued to 
fupporttiicRepuratioothar he had acquired, that he . 
would become the chief perlon of the Order, and in 
the end they perfuaded him to goon with the Impo- 
(lure. But ^t Uft they, fearing left he (hould dilco- 
ver al!, reiolved to poyfon him: of which he was fo 
apprehenfive that once a Loaf being broi ghthim thac 
was prepared wich feme Spices, he kept itforfome 
time, and it eroding green, he threw it to fome 
young Wolves Whelps that were in the Monaflery,. 
who died immediately. His Conflitution vvas alfofo 
vigorous, that tho* they gave him Poyibn five feveral 
time?, he vvas not defi'-oved by it. They alfo prcll 
him earnefily to renounce God, which they,]udg'd 
ncceffary, that fo the?; Charms might have their effe^^ 
on Him i bur he would never confent to that; atlaft 
they forced him to take a poifoned Hofly, which yec 
iievomieedup foon after he had fvvallov/ed it down r 
that failing, they ufed him fo cruelly , whipping 
him wich an iron Chain, and girding him about fa 
ftrait with it, that to avoid farther torment, he fworc 
to them, in a mofV imprecating iHle, That he would 
- never difcover the Secret, but would Aili carry it on 2 
and fo he deluded them, till he found an opporti'iiiry 
* of getting out of the Convent, and of throwing him* 
felf mto the Hands of the Magiftrates, to whom he dii^ 
covered all. 

The four Friers were feifed on, and put in Prifon, 
and an account of the whole Matter was fcnt, firA to 
the Bifh->p of Lmjannc and then to Rome ^ and it may 
be.eafi'y imagioed, thac the Francifcans took all poli> 



b?e care to bave it well examired ; ahd the Brfhops of ' 
Laufanne and ofZypn^ with the Provincial of the Dowi- ' 
nfcans , were appointed to form the Procefs. The 
four Friers firft excepted to JttT^rs Credit, but thac ' 
was rejeded \ then being threatned with the Queflion 
they put in a long Plea againfl that ; but tho* the Pre-; 
vincial would not confentto that, yet they were putto 
the Queftion : fome endured it long, but- at lafl they 
all confefled the whole progrefs^f the Impollure. The 
Provincial appeared concerned : for tho* Jetn^r had 
opened the Vv^hole matter to him, yet he would give 
no credit to him ; on the contrary, he charged him to • 
be obedient to them ; and one of the briers (aid plain- 
ly, that he was on the whole Secret, and fo he with- ' 
drew, but he died fome days after at C<jnf?<j«c?, having' 
poifon'd himfelf, as wa? believed* The matter lay 
afleep fome time; but a year after that, a S'/^wi/?; Bi- 
fiiop came, audiorifed with full Powers from Rome^' 
and the whole Cheat being fully proved, the four' 
Friers were folemnly degraded from their Priefthood, ' 
and eight days afrer, it being the lafl of I^ay 1 509, 
they were burnt in a Meadow on the other fide of the ' 
River over againft the great Church. The place of their 
Execution vv as fhewed me, as well as the Hole in the' 
Wall thro' which the Voice was conveyed to the 
Image. It was certainly one of the blackefl, and yet' 
the befl carried on Cheat, that has been ever known ;- 
and no doubt had the poor Frier died before the DiP- 
covery, it had paffeddown to Poflerity as one of the- 
gre»tefl Miracles thai ever wasj and it gives a fhrewd^ 
Sufpicion, that many of the other Miracles of that- 
Church were cfthe fame nature, but more fuccefsfully 
ftnifhtd. ^ 

I fhall not entertain you any farther with the State 
of Bern, bat fhaill only add one general Remark, which 
was too vifible not to be obferved every where, and of 
tco great Importance not to deferve a particular Re- 
flciftions it belongs, in general to all. the G^ntons, buc^ 



( 33 ) 

I give It here bec^nfc I I>ad n ore cccaficn to make it 
in Berrj, liavin^; feen it more, aud fta}cd longer in it 
than in the other Canton, 

SuvuT^erlandhts between France 2Ld Italy y that ire 
30th of them Ccuiirries ineomparabl) mere rich, and 
Detter furnifhcd wirh all the Pltafurts.nd ConYtni- 
tnces of Life chan it is i and )ct Italy is almcfi quite 
difpeopled, ard the Peopk in ir are reduced to a mi-- 
ery, thaucan fcarce be imagined by thole who have 
not feen ic : and FroJiceh in a great meafure difpeo- 
pled, and the Inhabitarts are lecuced to a poverty 
that appears in all the M-rks in which it can (hew ic 
fclf, both in iheir Houfe^, FLrniture, Cicaihs, and 
Looks. 

On the contrary, Srvits^erLmdh c^rream full cf peo- 
|)Ic, and in every place, in the Villages as wdl as in 
heir Towns, one fees ill the Marks he can *ock for of 
plenty and Wealth •• Their Houfes and Windows a^c 
fn good cafe, the High-ways are vvell maintained, all 
peopieare '•^c'l c!oa hed, and every one lives at his 
eafe. This Obfervation furprifed me ^ et more in the 
Country of rhe Grijons^ who have a'mofl ro Soil at all,, 
being fituared in Va 'ey^ rhac are al^'oft wafhed away 
with the Toi rents rhat fiall down from the Hills, and 
fwell their Brooks fometimes fo vio'endy and (o fud* 
denly, that in many places the who!e vSo'l is wafh- 
ed away, and yet rhofe Valleys are well peopled, and 
e^'ery or.c Uves happy and at eare, under a gentle 
Government, whild other rich and plenrifui Countries 
are reduced ^o fuch mifery, that a^ many of the Inha- 
bitants are forced ro chjnge their Sears, fo rho e who 
ftay behi d can feared live and pay thofe grievous Im- 
pcfitions rhar are laid upon them. The rude People 
generaly reafon very (imply when they enter into 
Speculations of Government •, but they feel true, tho' 
they argue falfe •• fo an eafie Government, tho' joYn» 
ed to an ill Soil, and accompanied with great Incon- 
yeaiences draws, or at leafl keeps people m it, where* 



p 



(54) 

ks a fevere Government, tho* in g;eneral Idea's it may 
gppear reafonable, drives its Subj^6ls even cutoftfie 
feeft and moft definable Seats. 

In n-.y way from Bern to this place I pafTcd by 53/0- 
fmn, as I came through Fribourg in my way from Lau- 
fame to Berw, thefe are two of the Chi^f of the PQpi(l3 
Cantons, after Lucerne^ and one fees in them a heat 
^nd a bigottry beyond what appears either in France 
or Italy : long before they come within the Church-- 
doors they kneel down in the Streets when Mafs is a 
faying in it. The Images are cxtrcam grofs. In the chief 
Church of SolotUrn there is an Image of God the Fa- 
tlier, as an Old man with a great black beard, having , 
our Saviour on his knees, and a Pigeon over his head. 
Here alfo begins a devotion at the Ave-Mary-BeH^v/hKh 
!s Icarce known in France, bat it is praftiredall Italy 
over ; At Noon and at Sun-fet the Bell rings, and all 
fay the Ave-Mary^ and a fhort Prayer to the Virgin; 
but whereas iii Italy they content themfclves with put- 
ting off their Hats -, in Srvit^^erland they do for the 
mofl part kneel down in the Streets^ which I faw no 
U'here praftjfedin /r^/y except at Venice^ and there it 
IS not commonly done. But notwithf^anding this ex- 
tream bigotry, all the STvitn^ers fee their common In- 
tercft fo well, that they live in very good underfiand- 
ing one with another. This is indeed chiefly owing 
to the Canton of Imern, where th^re is a Spirit in the 
Government very different from what isjnmofl of 
the ether Fopijh Cantons; the refidencc of the Spamjh 
Anibafladour and of the Nuntio in that Town, contri- 
butes alfo much to the preferving it in fo good a tem- 
per, it being their intereft to unite Smt^erlaTid^ and 
by this means the heat and indifcretion of the refl is 
often moderated. The Jefujts begin to grow as pow'- 
crful in Smt:^erlandzixhc)' are elfewhere : they have 
a roble Colledge and Chappel fituated in the bell 
p'ace of Frihurg, It is not long fjnce they were re- 
ceived at SolotuYni where there was a Revenue -of 



One Thoufand Livres a Year, fee off for the main- 
tenance often cf them, with this prcvjfion, That they 
Ihould never 'exceed that number h but where they 
are once fetled they find means to break through all 
limitations, and they are now become fo rich there, 
that they are raifing a Church and Colledge, which 
will cod before it is finifhed above Four hundred 
Lioufand Livres, to which the French King gives 
:en thoufand Livres for the frontis-piece : For 
rhis bemg the Canton in vvhich his Ambaifadour re- 
fides, bethought it futeable to his glory to have a 
monument of his bounty raifed by an Order that will 
never be wanting to riatter their benefactors, as long 
as they find their account in it. 

In the fame Canton there is an Abbey that has 
One hundredT thoufand Livres of Revenue, there is 
alfo a very rich Houfe cf Nims that wear the Cupu- 
■Mm Habit, that as I wa^ told ha4 Sixty thoufand 
Livres of Revenue, and but Sixty Nuns in it, wiio 
laVing tlius One tnou and Livres a piece, may live in 
ill pcUible plenty in a Country where a very little 
Tioney goes a great way. But that which furpnfes 
Dne moft at Soloturn, is the greac Fortification that 
:hey are buildingof a Wall about the Town, thero- 
Dlefl and folidefl that is any where tobefeen: The 
5tone with which it is faced is a :orc of courfe Marblej 
aut of that bignefs, that many Stonessre tea foot longf, 
ir.d two foot of breadth and thicknefs; but tho*this 
will be a Work of vaft expence and great Beauty, yec 
it would fignifie little againfl a great Army that would 
ittack it vigoroufly. The Wall is finifhed on the fide 
of the River, on which the Town ftand^ : the Ditch 
is very broad, and the Counterfcarp and Glafier are 
alfo finifhed, and they are working at a Fern on the 
other fide of the River, which they intend to fortifie 
in the fame manner. This has ceil them nesr two 
Millions of Li vr^si and this vaf I Expence ha? made 
them often repent the Undertaking .• and it is certain, 

that 






that a Fortification thst is able to refifl tli€ Ra^e d 
their Peatancs in the ca e of a Rebellion, is all thacii 
Peedrul. This Canton has two Advoyersy as Bern : the 
lice e Council confifts of Thirc) fix ^ they have twelve 
Bail'ages belont,ingto the.ri, \\hich are very profitable 
tothofe thit can Carrythem^ they have ontBurfar. 
a d \\it cne Bunnera, All the Cantons have the i 
Bailia^es; hue if there are Diiorders at Bern in the 
Choice of their Biiiffs, there are f^^r greater among 
the P>'i'iih Cantons, ^vhere a^ thini^s are fold, as a Fo 
Tv-ign Minirter that refides there roid me, vvh tho' he 
knew whit mv Reliiiion was did not (tick to owr 
fr : ^k'y to me, That the Catho'ick^ Cantons were not 
ncsr fo well governed as i\\€ Prat eft ant Cantons. |u- 
ilice !S {generally icid among ^hem ; in A in their Trea- 
ties With F rei n Princes, they ha eioiictimss taker 
money b th from the ^>enc/j and Spamfh Ambafladors, 
and have figned coiitradiftory Articles at the iam^ 
time. I 

Baden has nothing in it that is remarkable, except 
Its convenient Situ ition, which makes it the Scat o! 
thege erai D;ec of the Canton, tho' it is not one o 
them, but is a Bailia^e that be'ongs in ccmmon tc 
ci-ht of the ancient Canto IS. At laft i came to this 
Place, which as It u the fir^ and mofl honourable o 
all the Cantois, fo with relat'ontous it haj a prece- 
dence o^ a his/her Nature, It being the firfl that re- 
ceived the Reformat on. 

This Canton ir> much lefs than ^ern^ yet the Pub- 
Jiqk is much rcher; Thev reckon that thev can brin^ 
fifty thoufand Men together upon twenty four hours 
^ani'g: their Sub^fts hve hap^y; for the Bailiffs 
here have re^alaced Apoointme^t^ and have only the 
hunt redth Penny of the Fnes ; 'b that they ar^-^ not 
tem'>ted as thofe of 8?>/7 ar.- to whom the Fine be- 
lon.-s ent re'y . to llnin matters againft their Subjefts ; 
and wh reas a: Bttn the conflant Intrigue of the 
whole Towa is coacerolag chcir Bjilia^ej, here, oa 

the 



i 



the cofltrai7 ic is 5 Service to which the Citizens are 
bourd to lubmt according to rheir C. nflnuticn, bui 
to wh-ch they do ..ot aipnc. The Govcronient ie al- 
molt the lame as at 8rrn, and the Magiliracc that is 
caledthc' -4./7.«;.er at Bern. ,s here cal'ed the fio«/£c- 
mujt,^. rhe Revenue o" the Hare h here jftl vac- 
counted for .0 tha. rhc publick p.rfei^ much richer 
tliauac Sjn; che Arfcr.al is much better furnifhed, 
atid the bor Jhcation^ are more re ular. Tliere is a 
frcat Trade ftimng here, and as their Lal^e that is 
Tvven. V r, ur m-les long nid abourtwo or thrre br wd 
luprltcs them well wich provifions, fo their River 
carrie thtir Man faaure to the Rhine, from wb.en-e 
It IS CO veyed as thev pleafe. One of their chief 
Mant aduries is Crape, which is in all refpea. the 
be(i I ever raw. J uill notdefcribe the Situation of 
the T.wn, but Oiall co tent my feif to tell you that ic 
IS extrea -n pleafa t the Councry about it is Mounta- 
nous, a.d the Winters .re hard ^ for the lake freezes 
^Qice over, only in fome places the -ce never J-es. 
^:.ich IS be leved ; mark that fome Springs rife there, 
Whch «ule that heat; (b alfo in the Lak. of G.«.w 
tho It IS rev. r quite roZen, yet great beards of Ice 
Da"r?n?If 1 ^r- ^"t thefe ar. never feen in foif^ 

dt r.m.r'V'^^^ ^^'^^-^ '' ^^PPO^^^ to flow from 
cii" lame Cauie. 

^ But to return to Zurich, one fees here the true anci- 
en- fimpl.cuv of tlie S^uxers, not ccrrupted with 

'eSilSlT- •■ f'^ "^ """ "°' °"'^ ''° "« ^o* 
{Tl^rt ^ ^vKhMen except th;re of tlverncar 
Si ded, but even on the Streets do not n-.akeanv 
e urns to the Civihty of Strangers ; for it is onlv 
.grangers tht put off their HatstS Won,en, but they 
n ,ke no courtefies : and here as in all S^kri^dan} 
'■/omen are not laluted, but the Civilitv is evt'S 
^ takmg them by the Hand- There i ct^e^ tMna 
gular ,n the Conftitution of Z.nch, th't s thaf 
UkCo«nc.icoDfifts of Fifty Perfom, but there fidn 



■ <38; 

it only Twenty five at a time, and fo the two halve! 
of this Council, as each of them has hi^ piope;.Bourgo- 
maller, have alfo the G.vernmeflt in their ha. ds> by 
turns, and chey Hiifc every (ix M jnthb, at .Aiidjummef 
and Jt Chrift Maj). The whole Ca. ton .s divided into 
nine great Baliages, and 21 Caji Uandries ; in the for- 
mer th^ Bailiff refides cor-ftantly, bat the Cajiellan 
who IS alio one of chegreit Coi nci!, has 10 iicdeto 
do that he lives at Zurich, and goes only at fouie fee- 
times of the Year to do Juftice. 
' The ve tuc of this Canton has appeared fignally in- 
their adhering firmly to the ai.tient Capituiation.s with 
the Frevch. ard not fiacke-ing in any Article, which 
has bee i done by all the ocher Canccns, where Money 
hasaSoverai.ninfl.ence.- but here it has rever pre- 
vailed The> have converted the ancient Revenues 
of the Church, more Ref erally to pious ufes than has 
been done any where elfe, thac 1 knew of. They 
have many Hofpitals well entertained, in one as 1 was 
told, there was Six hur ded and fifty Poor kept : but 
as they lupport the real Charities, whchbeongs to 
fuch Endowments, fo rh y defpife that vain magnifi- 
cence of buildings which n too gene ally affefted elfe- 
where ; for the.rs are very plain, and one cf the 
Government there faid to me very fetifiUy. that thty 
thought it enough to maintain their Poor as Poor, and 
did not judge it proper to lodge them as Prii ces.^ 

The Dean and Chapter *Te likewife dill continued 
as a Corporation, and enjoy the Re- enues which chey 
hadkforethe Reformation, but if they fubfifl pknt;- 
fullv, they labour hard, for they hive ^enerallv two 
or three Sermons a day, and at kaft one : the firft b - 
gins at Five a Clock in tiie mcrning, For at Gcmvay 
and all Smt:(erland over, there arc daily Sermons, 
which wfere fubftituted upon the Reformation to the 
Mafs. But the Sermons are generally too long, and ihe; 
Preachers have deparcedfrom the firft dcfign of thefe. 
Sermons, which wer€ intended to be an exphca.un 

of> 



r 39 > 

of a whole Chapter, andati exhortation upon it, anJ 
if this were fo contrived th it it, were in all not above 
a quarter of an hour long, as it vvould be heard by the 
people with lefs Wearintfs and more R ofit, fo it would 
be a vaft advanrage to th^- Preachers j F^r as it wruld 
oblige th^^m to ffudy the- Scripcures much, fo having 
once made themfelves Mafters of the pradical parts 
of the Scripture , fuch fh)rt and fimple difcourfes 
wou!d coft them lefs painf, rlun rhofe more lab ured 
Semons do, vvhch confume che grcattft part of their 
.time, and too often to very lice e purpofe. 

Among rhc Archives of the Dean and Chapter, 
there is a vaft c -lIe>fiion of Lerrers, vvriitencith r to 
BaH-nger^ or by him ; they are bound uo. and make a 
great many Volumes in Folh^ and out of chcfe no douSt 
bit one might di cover a grear many particulars rela- 
ting to the Hiilory of the R:form.tion I For as EhUil- 
ger lived long, fo he was much efieeTicd, He procu- 
red a V . Y kind reception to be given to feme cf our 
Engliflj Exiles in Queen Marifs Reign, in particular to 
Sands ^ftirwar A fi Arc\\-h](hop of Jl^^^^i to Z/jr/; afr^f' 
wards Biflio"^ of IVincheJier, and to Jlw-jI E fliop of 
S.ilUbu>). Jje ^ive them Lodgings in the Clofe, and 
nfed thrm. with all p-ffiblekind! efs, and as they p;'c- 
fcnt-d lome Silver Cup^ to the Col'cd^e, uith an In- 
fcription acknowledging the kmd recc, tic-n they had" 
found there, wh'ch I favv, fo rhey coniinued to kceu, 
a conflaut Correli^on-ience wich BHllkger^ after the 
h-ippy re-eftablifhmcnc of the RcforiDation unr.'(r, 
Queen Eli:!^ibeth : Of which I read almofi: a wlio'e 
Volume while I was therr : Mofl: of them contain onlv 
the general News, but fome .were more importaRr,. . 
and relate to the Difputes then on foot, concernirig 
the Hab'ts of the Clergy, which gave the firft begin- 
nings to our unhappy divfions: and by the Letters, 
of which I read, the Originals, it appears that th^. 
Bifhops preferved the ancient Habits rather in com- 
pliance with- the Queens inclinations, then oat of any 



Tikmg they HaeJ to tliem^j (o far they were from Ilkine 
them, that they plainly expreft their d-flike of themV' 
ftt^el, in a Letter bearing date the Eighth ot Fe^ 
bymrv^ i <y66. vviOies that the Veflments together with' 
all the other remrjants of Popery riiight be thrown, 
both out of theif Churches, and out of the micds o£. 
die PeOi'le, and laments the Queens fixedi efs to them,' 
fo chat fhe would fdffer no change to be made. And la^ 
JanuM'y the lame year, 5'^n^i writes to the fame pur-, 
pofe,^ Ccntenuitur de vejhbn^ Fapifiicif utenda vel mn> 
iitendk^ dubh Vein hit qmque fiaem, Difputt^ are now' 
on foot concerning the PopiJJj Vtflments whetherthey 
thziiM. be ufed or not, but God will piit an end tot^ 
thofe tlringF. Horn, Bifhop cf Winchefier^ went far-» 
ther: for in a Letter, dated the Sixteenth o( J^uly i $6$*' 
he writes oPthc AS. concerning tha Habits witii i reac 
regret, and exprefies fome hopes that it mi/,ht be re-^ 
pealed, next Seilion cf Parliament, if the Popi/h Party 
dicfiTot hinder it ^ and he feems to ftand in dcubt^' 
v/hsrker he Oiould conform himfeU" to it or not, upon 
-v!-;]ch I'e defites Bullinxer*% Advice. And in many 
LcticrsiNi-i con that Sub)c6t, it is aiferted, TJist; Lotii 
Crammr and i^/^/p)' intended to procure an Ad for 
■abolifhing the Habits, and that they Oj.]y defended 
their Lawfulnefs, but not cheir Fitreis; and thcrefcre 
they blamed private Peribris that refufed to obey the 
Laws. Grhdal, in a Letter daed the Twenty feventh 
of Auguji, 1 555. varices,' That all the EiOiops, who had. 
been beyond Sea, had at their Return dealt \vith the 
Queen to let the matter cf the Habits fall ; but Hie was 
io.prepcileficd, that the* they had .il endeavoirtd to 
divert her from profecuting that matter, fhe conti- 
nued ilill inflexible. This had made them re;olve to 
iiibmit to the Laws, and to .wait for a fit opporti^nity 
to reverfe them. He laments the ill effe<5ts of the op- 
pofitron that fome had made to them, wbicli cxtream- 
ly irritated the Queens Spirit, fo that fhe was now 
spuch more heated in thofe. matters than formerly .• 



(4r) 

fte alfo thanks BuWnger for the Letter that he had- ; 
writ, juRif} ing the lawful ufc of the Habits, which he 
fays had done g^ eat Service Cox, Bilhopcf £//, in 
o:ie of his Letters, laments the A^erfion that they 
found in the Pairliamcnt to all the Propofitions thac 
wcreiTudefor the ref'rraarion ofAbufes. Jewel, in 
aLecrer dared the Two and Twenriech of May 1559,, 
wrings, That the Queen refufed to be called Head of 
the Church, and adds. That that Title could not be 
juftly given to any Mortal, it being due only to Chrifty- 
and thit fuch Titles had been lo much abufed by Anti^ 
chrij}, that they ought not to be any longer continued. 
On all thefe Palfages I will make no Retiedioos here .* 
for I fet them down only to iTiew what was the fenfe 
of our chief Church-men at that time, coucerning' 
thofe matters, which have fince engaged us into fuch: 
warm and angry Difputes ; and this may be no incon- 
fidera'^le Infiuftion to one that intends to write the, 
Hiflory of that time. The lafl particular with which 
I intend to end this Letter, might feem a little toa -, 
learned, if I were vvricing to a lefs knowing Man thaa . 
;ycur.l'elf. 

1 have taken foTie pains in Qiy Travels to examine 
all the Ancient Manufcripts of the New Teftamentj- 
concerning that doubted Piflage of Sujohn^ Epifikj 
Thne are three that bear Witnefi in Heaven^ rfje fathery .. 
ibe W^rd, aihithe Spi'^ir, and thefe three are one* Bid", 
iinga doubred much of it, becaufe he found it not in. ; 
an ancient Latin Manufcript at Zurich^ which fcemstOv 
beabovf eight hundred years old •, for it is written ia -^ 
that hand that bega-'i to be ufcd in 1, harks the Great's 
time, I turned the Manufcript, and found the Pafiage 
T/as net tiiere t but this was certainly the error or- 
omifTr^n of the Copier ; for before the General Epiflles. 
in tha Mmnfcripr, the Preface.',/ St. Jeromes is to be 
found; in which he fay?, that he was the m re exafi: 
in thar T anilation, that fo he n^^ight difcoYcr the Frauclt 
oizhcArrianSy who had firuck out that P^lTage con^ . 

E .3 . eeruing.;: 



f 4T > 

oerning tile Trinity. This Preface is printed in Lira% 
Bible •, Bhc liow ic came to be left out by Emfmm^ in his- 
Edicion of that Father's Works, is that of which I can 
i;ive no Account : for as on the one hand Erafmw'h 
Sincerity ought not to be coo rafhly cenfurcd, fo on ■ 
the other hand, that Preface being in all theManu-' 
fcripsfs, ancient or modern, of thofe Bibles that have 
the other Prefaces in them -that I ever yet faw, it is 
iTOC cafie to imagine what made Erafmui not to publifh , 
icr andit is inrhe Manufciipt Bibles ac B?>flSy where: 
I.eprin'-ed his Edition of St. 7ero/?3*s Works. In the 
old Manufcript Bible oiGemva^ that feeitls to be above 
kven hundred Years old, both the Preface and the 
Fafiage are e5;raiir, bvat with this difference from the 
common Editions, that the common Editions fet the 
Ycrfe concerning the Fathir, the Word, md the Sphit^ 
before that of //;^ V/ater^ the Bloody an i the Spirit '^: 
ivliich comes after it in this Copy. And that I may in ^ 
xhis place end all the Readings 1 found of this Paflage? 
in my Travclj, there is a Manufcript in St. Marl(^s Li- 
brary in V^enice in three Languages, Greel^^ Latin, and 
Arabic^^ that feems not above four hundred Years old, . 
an which thisPalTage is not in the Grcf^^, bat it is in-- 
the Latin fet after the. other three, \Virh a//c«f to joyn -" 
stnwh^ti'oes before. And in a Manufcript Latinv 
Bible in the Library of Si. Laurence ztFhreme, both 
Sr. Jeromes' Preface and this Paffcge are extant : buc 
this PalTage comes afrer the other, and is pinned to ic 
with a y'iiK/', as is that of^pmc^j^yet //c«r isnorin the. 
Geneva ^'anufcript. There are two Gree\ Marufcripts-, 
of the Epirtles at Bafle., that feem to be about frye hun- 
dred years old, in neither of which this Pafl'jge is to •• 
found ; they have al'o an ancient Latin Bible, which - 
i^about eight hu, dred years old ; in wh-ch rho' Sr. Je- 
ro?«^s Prologue is inferred, yet this Paflage is v/ar ting. 
At Strasburg I faw four verv ancient Mtinufcriprs of v' 
the iVfvr Teftament'm Latin; three of theft feemtd to - 
be.aboiit; the time oiCharles the Great 3 but the fourth 

feep?ec3 



C 4 J } 

feeme(1 to be much ancienrer, and may belong to the.- 

'icvenrhCenrury: in it nciciier the Prologue ror the 
Place is excanc y but it is added ar the foor ot the Page 

• wih another hand- In two of rhe other the Prologue 
is c'xrant, bur rhe Place is not ; only in one of cheni is 
IS added on the Margent. »n the fu rh, as rhe Pro- 
lo(zuc IS extanr, fo is the Place likewife ; but it crimes 
after the Vcrfe of the other rhree, and isjoynedtoie 
thus, Sicut tresfunt in coelo. 

It feem'd ft range to me, and it is almoft incredible, 
tJiac ill the P\iticm Library rhere are no aacicnt L^z« 

'' Bibles where above all orhcr places they' ought to be 
lookt for ^ but I (iw none above four hundred years 
old. There is indeed the famous Gref(^Manu[cript of 
great value, which the Chanoine Sheljirat^ rhat was 
Library- Keeper, aflerted to be One thoufand four hun- 
dred years old, and proved ic by rhe great fimili^ude 
of the Charaifters with th fc that .^re upon St. H'lppolhe's 
Statue, which is fo evident, thu if his Statue was 
made about his time, the Anriquitv of cl>is Manufcapc 
is not to be difputed. If eh'. Charafters are not fo fair, 
and have not all rhe marks of Ant-quity that 'appears 
in the King's Manufcript acSr. /jwf/s, yet this has 
been mu Ji better prefervcd, and is much more entire* 

, The P<?fljge that has \rA me into this Digreflio::, is not 
"tobe found in tlieK^a'-fcrm Mjnu'fcript, no more than 
it is in theKii o% Manufctipt. And with tliis I will 
finifh my Acco'.^^nt of ZH-uh. The publick Libr^iry is 
very noble: the Hall in v'«hich it is pliced is large and 
■well fontr ved ; there is a ve. v handfome Cabinet of 
Wedals^ and fo I wi' I break off. But when I have 
l^one fo much farther that I have gathered materials 
for another I eter of this Volume, ^ou may look fc^ 
aXecoRd Entci cainmenc, fuch as ic is, from 

Tour (2^r, 



P S T S C R I p t; 

T told you, tkat in Bern the Bailiage? are giv- n by 
a fore of a Bal'oc, which is fo managed, that no mans 
Vote is known; but I mufl low add, th t fince \ was 
firft there, they have made a confide^able Regulation 
in the way of votirg, when Ofiiees are to be givcn^ 
which approaches much nearer the Venetian method', 
and which eKpofes.the Competitors more to chance, 
and by confcquence may put an end to the Intriiuesj , 
that are fo much in ufe for obtaining tho'e Imploy- 
ments There is a number of Balls put into a Box, 
equal to the number of thofe that hare right to Votcj . 
and rh:t are prefent 5 of thefe the third part is giltj 
and two parts ar^ only filvered ■-, (o every one rakes 
out a Ball j but none can vote, except tho'e who have 
the gilt Balls : fo that hereafter a man may have more 
than two thirds fure, and yet be call in a Competition; 

There is one thinj:; for which the Sronx:'rs, in par- 
ticular thofe of Berr^ cannot be enough commended * 
they have ever finccthe Perftcution began fi;fl in 
France^ opened a San(^ujry to fuch as have retired 
thither, in fo generous and fo cArr/f?'<w a manner, tliac 
it defe ves all (he honourable Remembrances that can 
bemiade of it; fuch Miniflers and othes, that werei 
3C firfr, condemned in Franc^y for the Affair of the 
Cevennes, have not only found a kind Reception here, , 
but all the Support that could be exper ed, and indeed . 
much more than could have been in Tea on expefted. 
For they havr; alTigred the French Minjfttrs a Penfion . 
ofiive Crowns a monrh, if they were unmarried, and 
have jncreafed it to fuch as had Wife and Children, 
fo that fome h d above ten Crowns a month penfjom 
Tl;ey diperfed them o^er a! the Faii de Vaud: but 
ihe greateft number ftaid at L.tuiannr and Vevay. In , 
crder to the fuppcrting of thisCh rge, the Charities 
(DiZiifkh and the other neighbouring i^rore/^xfi/ ScateSs- 



\<ere brought hither. Not only the Froteflanf C^ 
tons, but the Gyifjns, and (bme finall Starts that ard 
under the procetftion of the Canton^, fucli as Ncuf* 
cbajlel, S. G.ill, and loirie ochtrs thdc have tent m 
their Charities to Bernj who d fpcncc tlicm with 
great dilcretJon, and bear v\hat f rther charge this 
relief brings upon them, aud ii. thi> laft total and de- 
plorable difperfion of thofc Churches, the v\h3le 
Country has been atimated with k»ch a Spirit of Cha- 
rity and Compailion, that tvcry Mans houfe and purfc 
has been opened to the Rcfugic s that l\ave pafled thi^ 
ther in Tuch numbers, that fometimes there hav. been 
above Two thoufandin Laufame done,, and of thelfi 
tliere w^rcat one time n^ar Tvvo hu- d cd Mimfiers, 
and they aU mea with arkjndnefs and frecYheartednefs, 
that Jookt more lik^^ fomewhat of the Primitive Age 
revived, than thedegencracy of the Ae in which we 
live. 

^ I jhaJl Conclude this PofVcript, which is already 
fweird CO the b'gnefs of a Letter, with a fad Inftance 
of the Anger and Heat that nfes among Divines con- 
ecrning macte-sj uC. very hh^X cou^ctjucnce. 

The middle way that Amir aid, Vaille. and fome 
Dthers in France took in the matter- that were difpu- 
:;ed in HoUar.d, concerning the Divine Decree* and 
:he extent of the death of Chrift, as it came to be ge- 
aerally followed in France, fo it had :cme affertofs 
both in Gentva and Six>U7^erland, who denied the im- 
putation of Adam's Sin, and afferted tl:e tl.iverfality 
>f Chrift'i death, together with a (ufficient Grace gi- 
'en to all men, alTertiag witli this a particular and free 
i)ecree of Eledion, with an efficacious Grace for thofe 
ncluded in it : thcle came to be called Vniverjdijis^ 
ind began to grow very confiderable in Geneva: two 
)ftheProf£florsor Divinity there being known to fa- 
vour thofe Opinions. Upon this thole uho adhered 
itridly to the oppofite Dodrine, were inflamed, and 
meConcention grew to. th^c height, that almoff the 

.whole 



^tiole f own came to be concerned, an^^ alT were di- 
vided into parties If upon thib the M|iflr2te'had 
enjoyned filence to both parties, they had certainly 
aded wifely : for thtfe are fpccsiations fo little cer- 
tain, and ,0 little cflential to R. li ^on, that a divtrfity" 
©r Opinions ought not to be made the occafion of 
heat or faction. But tho* the part) of the Vrnverja- 
lifts were confiderable in Geneva, it wa^ vc: y fmall in 
Smt:^erLincl, therefore fome Divines there, that ad- 
hered to the Old received Do<5lrine, dr. w up fome; 
Artic'es in which all thee Dodrines were not only 
condemned, together with fome fpeculations thar 
were aflerted concerning Adams Immortality, and* 
other qualities belonging to the ftate of Tnnocency ; 
but bccaufe Capel and fome other Criticks had nor 
pnly aflerted the novelty of the points, but had taken 
the liberty to corre<^ the reading of the Hehrevp ; fup- 
pofingtbat fome Errors had been committed by the 
coppiers of the Bible, both in the vowels and confo- 1 
cants, in oppofition to this, they condemned all I 
correfiions of the Hebrew Bible, and aflerted the 1 
Antiquity of the points, or at Jean -or the power and 
tcadi[)g according to them, by which tho' they did 
fiOt engage al! to be of Buxtorfs Opinion, as to the An- 
tiquity of the points, ytt they fhut the door againfl 
all Corredions of the prtfent putiftuation. If this 
confentof Dodrine, for fothey termed it, had been 
made only the ilandard againft which no mati might 
have taught, without incurring Genfures, the lever ity 
had been more to lerable ; bur they obliged all fuch 
as fhould be admitted either to the Mwiftry, or to a 
Profeflbrs Chair to fign fic fenth, fo I think, and this? 
being fb fetled at Bern and Zurich:, it v;as alfo carried 
by their authority at Geneva : but for thofe in OflficCi 
the Moderator arid Clerk fif.ned it in all t; eii Names: 
end thus they were not contented to make only a Re- 
gulation in thofe niaccers, cut they would needs ac- 
cording to a maxim that liasbeeafo often fatal to the 
^ Church 



r 4r ; 

Church, enter into peo Ics Corrciences, and eithe^ 
iTiut OLic young-men from EmpovncMrs, o. imanea 
Teft upon them, which pcrliaps lome ha e r7t;neo not 
without fl ugliu^s in chcir COi.fcicLce. Y<-C omc thac 
kz on chib Tc{\ or Conicnr, arc mcu of luch extMor- 
J!nary vverii, thar ■ am confident fficy • avr aded in 
:Lis ma ter out of a finctre zciii for chat wh ch ciicy 
Dclicve t.- bt cliC truth, tniy I vvifh ihcy had larger aiid 
"reer Sou 1 5. 

The only confiderabl- Tax under whicli the Swit' 
Xers hc^ is, tlaatwhtn EflAteb arc .old, the fifth pare 
of the Price belongs to rht ^'uS ick- and all the Abate- 
meac that the bailiff can niake is to bring ir to ^ fi^th 
part. This tl.ty cdl the Led, which is derived rem 
Alodium; oiAy there a e fonc L^nds thac are^/- fks 
ilody which iieuoc und^r this Tax: but &,h filing 
)niy on c^x -^^eliers ot Efldtes. it was tbt oght a juft 
Pinifhienc, and a wife reflraint on ill Husbands of 
iiek Ellices. 

- f was t e more coi. firmed in the &^ count I havegi- 
fen you of ti,e Dc.ivacion of Advo)er^ wh« n I fouid 
hdt in fumt- Ima'lTownb m the Canton of Bon the 
liief MagiiirJte is ftil' 10 called; as in Payerre : fa 
hat k make i.o doubt, butast're Ancient Magifirates 
nthe ti e of t' e /lv777«/?jjt! at were to ^iveanaccounc 
>f the Town, vvere cal ed Advocates-, 3p.d afterwards 
he Judge in Civil Matte s, thac was named b> the Bi- 
hops. was cai e 1 ar fiift Advocate, and afterwards Vi' 
lam pr ViC''d)minii4 ; fo this was the Title that was ftill 
:ontinued in Btrn, while they were undf^r the Aufiriah 
Sid German YVe, and was prefer ved by them when 
hey threw it oft, 

I have, perhaps, toueii'd too flightly the lafl diffe- 
ence thac was m Smt7e)land^ whi, h re^aced to the 
ZainouoiGlaiU. In the Canton of Apen:i^tU, as the 
wo Religions are to!e aced, fo they are feparated in 
Ufieient quarters, thcfe of one Religion have the one 
lalf of the Canton, and chofe of th^ other Religion 

have 



f 48 .) 

fiave the other half, fo they live ?part ; hut in GlarU 
thev a e mivc: ani now die number o( the P^'pifts is 
become very lov^ : o e ailurtd ne there wer<^ not 
abov^ two hundred Families of chat R liL.ion, and rhoie 
arealfo fo poor, thit dicir Nectiliciei ditp^fe fomt oi 
lhen5 cverv day roc'ianse rhei Remioa. The other 
P<iphh Ca vtons feeine the danger of lofing rhcir tn- 
te'-ef^ e Jtirclv in rhJtCavon, and bein^; let on by 
the ! ntngue't of a Court tbac has underftood well the 
Po'icy of imbf oiling all other Scaces made grtat ufe of 
fome Complaints that vv<- re brought by th- Paptfii oi 
OUrii. 3S if the prevailing of the ocher Religion expo- 
^d them to much isijul^ice and opprrflion ; and uport 
thatth'-yp opoed rhit the oanton ihould b equally 
divided nt) two ha;ves. as Appenj^-l was: tnb was 
€y;re'miy unjurt, fjnce zhc Pa rfis were nor the tenth 
dr perhap<; the ivventieth i^z t of the Canton. It is 
true it was To fituated in the midflofihe Popj/hdn" 
tO'-'SS that rhe PrneftantC.z'^. ons cou'd not eafi'y come 
to the-r ATiH-ance ; but rh fe of Glam refolved to die 
rather th^n fufftr this injuflce •, and the Pnteftmt 
Canrors refolved ro engage ina W:r wich the Popiffj 
C^r.cr:ns if they iaipofcd his matter on their Brethren 
Tt^Glarif, At !aft fliis Teniper was found, that in all 
Sutes of Law be-ve e ; thofe of diftc: ent Religions, two 
Thirds of the Judges fhould be always of the Religion 
of rhe Defendant. But while chis Conteft was on foot, 
thofe, who as is believed, fomented ir, jftheydidnot 
i%t u on, knew how to miake their advantage of. the 
Goniimfture; for rhen was the Forrificition of Huning- 
hen at the f*ortb of Bafle much advanced, of the impor- 
tance of whi h tley arc now very a.^preheniive when 
ir is too 'are. There' are fix Nobic Families in Bern that 
have ftilj this Priviledg ,That when any of them is cho- 
fen robe of 'he Ci>un il, ^hey take place before all che 
Ancient Counfellors; whereas all the reft ra3te place 
accordinp to the Order ia which ihey were chofen to 

b€e'fthcCou.ndl. " ^ „ 

LETTER 



(49) 



LETTER 



Mittan, the Fird of OUekr, 15350 - 

AFcer a fhort fhiy at Zurich we vvent down the 
■Lake, where we paft under tlie Bridge at Kip^ 
perfyf>o:!ci^ which is a very noble Work for fuch a Coun- 
trey ; the Lake is there, about half a mi!e broa j, the 
Bridge is about twelve foot broad, but hath no Rails 
on either fide, fo that if the wind blows hard, which 
is no extraordinary thing there, a man is in grcac 
daoger of being blown into the Lakes: ai.d this'Jame 
defed I fcund in almofl all the Bridges of Lombaidy^ 
which Teemed very firange ; for fince that defence is 
male i^pon fo fmaH an eKpence, it was amazing to fee 
Bridges fo naked .-and that was more furprizing m fome 
places where the Bridges are bcth high andloogc 
yet 1 never heard of any Mifcliief that followed on 
this, butthofeare fober Countries where drinkirig is 
not much in ufe. Afcer two days journey we came to 
Coire which is the chief Town of the Grijaus-, and 
where we found a general Diet of the three Leagues 
fitting, fo that having ftaid ten days there, i ca;Tie ro 
be informed of a greac many parciculars conceroing 
thofe L eagues, which are noc commonlyjcnown : Tlvc 
Town is but Uctle, and may contain bccv/ecn four and 
five thottfana Souls ', it lieo in a bottom upon a inrall 
brook, that a little below the Town falls into the 
Rhine, h is en ironed widi Mountains onallhatidSj 
j fo that they have a very fhort Summer, for the Sncw 
! « not melted till May or June-, and it began to Snow 
in Septembjr when I was there: On a rifjnggrouni 
ac the £^.^-£Qd gf the Town is the Csvhedral, tlie 

■" -F Biihr/'5 



( 50) 

Bifhop's Pallace, atid the Clofe, where the Dean nn^ 
fix Prebendaries li'vc j all within the Clofe arc Pafiji^-, 
but all the Town are Proteftants, and they live pretty 
Neighbourly together. Above a quarter ot a mile 
high in the Hill one goes up by afleep afccnt to S,Luciii4 
■ Chappcl ; my Gurioficy carrycd me thither, thoV I 
gave no Faith to the Legend of King Lucius, and of 
his coming lo far from home to be the Apoftle of the 
Grifonj, His Ghappel is a Htde Vault about ten Foot 
fquare, where ther is an Altar, and where Mafs isfaid 
upon fome great Feflivites ^ it is (ituated under a natu- 
ral Arch that is in the Rock, which was choughr pro- 
per to be^iven out to have been the Cell of a Hermit, 
from it fome drops of a fmall Fogjjtain fall down near 
the Chappel , the KHiap alTured me it had a miracu • 
lovs vertue for weak eyes, and that it was Oily ; hue 
neitlier Tart nor Feeling could difcovcr to me any 
Oilynefs: I believe it may be very good for the Eyes, 
as all Rock- water is •, but when 1 offered to fhewthe 
good Old Bifhop that the legend o£ Luciits was a Fable 
in a!l the parts of it; but moft remarkably in that 
which related to the Grifom ; and that we had no 
Kings in Briitain at that tin'ie, but were a Province to 
the R:mans-^ that no ancient Authors fpeak of it, Bede 
being the firfl that mentions it; and tliac die preten- 
ded £ctter to Pope Eleutherv^, together widi his An- 
fwer, has evident Charafters of Forgery in it, all this 
fignined nothing to the Sifhop, who aflured me thaj 
they had a Tradicion of that in their Church, and it 
wasinferted in their Breviary which he firmly bcliev'd. 
He alfo told me the other legend of King Lucm'i Sifier 
S. Emeritaf who was burnt there, ani of whofe Veil 
there wasyeta confidcrabje remnant referved among 
their Relickj -, I confeli 1 never faw a Relickfoill 
difguifed, for it is a piece of worn linnen Cloth lately 
waJfht, and the burning did not f^cm to be a month 
old ; and yet when they took it out of the Cafe to fhe^y 
it rtie, there were fome there that with great Devotion 

rubM 



'ub'^'their beads upon ir. The BiHiop had Co':yic Con* 
eds wich his Dean, and being a Prince of the Empire 
ic had profcribed him : the Dean had alfo behaved 
limfclf 10 infolenrly, that by aa order of the Diet, to' 
vhich even the Bifhop, as was believed, confented, 
le was put in Prifon as he came out of the each^rdial. 
Sy the common confcnt both of the Popiih and Fro- 
tflant Communities, a Law was long ago made againft' 
icclcfiaftical Immunities ; this attempt on the Dean 
vas raade four years ago ; as foon as he was let our, 
ic went to Komty and made great Complaints of the 
3ifhop, and ic was thought the Pofifl) Party intended 
o move in the Diet while we were there, for the Re- 
5ea!mg of that Law, butchcydidit nor» Thefoun- 
htion of the quarrel between the BiHiop and Dean, 
vas the Exemptions to which the Dean and Chapter 
)retendedj and upon which the Bifhop made forac 
nvafion. Upon which I took occafion to fhew him 
he novelty of thofe Exemptions, and that in the Pri= 
nitive Church it was believed that theBiOiop had the 
Authority over his Pre^byters'by a Divine Right; and 
fit was by a Divine Right, thentlie Pope cou'd noc 
exempt them from his" Obedience ; but the Billiop 
vouid not_ carry the matter fo high, snd concencei 
limfelf wji^i two maxims ', the one was, That the 
yi[Jnpi^ai Qhx\(i's Vknr in hkDioccfl: and the othe: 
•vas, That wkiit the Pope was in the CdthoUcJ^Ghwch, 
keBijJ^ip was the fame in b'a Viocefi. 
^He was a goad natured m.fin, and did not make ufe 
)t the great Authority that he has over the Pr<pii]s 
:here, to fet them on to hve uneailiy wrh their Neiiiir- 
50urs of another Religion. That Eifliop was ant?- 
-'ntly a great* Prince, and tlie greaceft part of the 
League that carries ftili the Name of The Hoiife of Qod^ 
selongcd to him, tho'i was aiTured that Pregallia, one 
af-thcie Communities was a Free -State above Si^ 
hundred years ago, and that they have Records yet 
extant that. prove this: The other Communities -fo 

F a. , this 



fm league bought their Liberties from fevcral BiHiops 
feme confderablc time "before the Reformation, of 
wh'ch the Deeds are yet extant : So that it is an im- 
pi^dcnc thing to fay, as forae have done. That they 
fhook off his Yoke at that time. 

The Bifhop hsth yet referved a Revenue of about 
One rhoufand pound Ocrling a year, and every one 
of the Prebendaries hath near Two hundred pound a 
year. It is not eafie to imagine out of what the 
Hichf s of this Ccuntrey is raifcd, for one fees nod>in g 
but a t*2<2: of vaA Mountains that fecm barren Rocks, 
and fome litt'e Vallies among them net a mile broad, 
and the befl p^rt of thefe is wafhed av\ay by the/ 
.Vnnf^ and fome Brooks that fall into it ; but their 
"weilth confifts chiefly in their Hills, which afford much 
Pasture, and in the hot Months, in which all the 
Pafiure of Italy is generally parched, the Cattle arc 
driven into thefe Hills, which brings them in a Re- 
venue of above Two hundred thoufand Crowns a 
year. The Publick is indeed very poor, but particu- 
lar pcrfons are fo ridi, that I knew a great many 
jhere, who were believed to have Eftates to the 
value of One hundred rhoufand Crowns, Mr. Schoveftein 
that is accounted the richeft man in the Country, is 
hsiievcd to be worth a million, I mean^of Livres. 
The Government here is purely a Common-wealth, 
for in the Choice of their Magiflrates every mati that 
is above fifteen years Old hath his voice, which is 
a'fo the Conflitution of fome of the fmall Cantons, 
The three Leagues are, the Xeague of the GnfoTif 
that of the Houfe of God^ and that of The Ten Ju- 

The^ believe that upon the incurfions of the Got In 
and Vandalfy as fome fled to the Venetian Iflands, out 
of which arofe tlat famous Common - Wealth ; fc 
.oiliGrs came and Oieltred themfelves in tho'e Valle}'^, 
They told me of an ancient Infcription lately found; 
of a Stone wher? on the one fide is graven Omim 



(51) 

Rhetos Incfomitofy nnd tie pltuVltra is on the other | 
whiciv they pretend w:?s made by Julim dfar ; the 
Scone on Avhich ^his Infcnption is is upon one of 
their Mountains, but I did not pafs tfiac way, fo I can 
make no judgment concerning ir, Afcer the firfl for-, 
ming of this People, they were cafl into little States, 
according to the different Valleys which they inhabi- 
ted, and in which Juftice was adminiftred, and f6 
they fell under the power of feme little Princes that, 
became fevere Mailers ; but when they faw the Ex- 
ample that the Sivit:(ers had fct them, in fhaking off 
the Aujlrinn Yoke above two hundred years ago, they 
Ifkewife combined to fh.ike ofif theirs ; only fome few 
of thofe fmali Princes ufcd their Authority better, 
and concurred with rhe People in Onking off the yoke, 
.mdfo they are flill parts of the body ; only Haldcn^ 
Jh'in h an abfolure Soveranity, it is about two miles., 
from Coire to the IVefl, on the other fide of the Rhine ; . 
the whole Territory is about half a mile long at the 
foot of the Alps, where there is fcarce any breadth. 
The Authority of thefe Barons was formerly more 
abfohtte than it is now, for the Subjeds were their - 
Slaves : but to keep together the little Village, they 
have granted chem a power of na'ming a lift for their .- 
M-jgiflra-es, the perfon being to be named by the. 
Bironi who hath-alfo the Right of Pardoning, aKighc' 
ef Coining, and every thing alfo that befongs to a 
Soveraign. I (aw tlifs little Prince in Coire, in an Equi=« - 
p.ige not fuitable to hisx-[uality, for he was in all points 
hke a very ordinary Gentleman. There are Thrfe 
other Baronies that are memb^s of tjhe Diet, and fub- 
)eatoit j the chitf belonged to the Arch- Dukes cf 
Ififpruck,'-, the other two belong to Mr. Schovenllein and , 
AfnJd Mmt, they are the Heads of thofe Communis - 
ties of which their Baronies are compcfed; they 
name the Magiftratts out of the hfts that are prefen- . 
ted to them by their Subjed^ ; and they nave the . 
I^ight of Pardoning and of Confiications : That be- ' 

F 5 loBging.:. 



( 54 ) 

lodging to the Kotife of Auftnah the b'ggeft, it hath 
five voices in the Diet» and it can raifc Twelve hun- 
dret Men, Ont Tr avers hoMght it oi the Emperour 
in the year 1679. he c tredupon tlie Rights of the 
arcienr Barons, which are fpecificd in an Agreement 
that paft betweeo him and his Peafants, and vcas con- 
firmed by the Emperour. Travers made many in- 
crcachmenrsupcnrhi Priviledges of hisSubjefts, who 
upon that made their complaints ro the league i but 
Travers would hare the matter jiudged at InfprucJ^, and 
the Emperour fupported him in this pretenfion, and 
lent an Agent to the Diet : I was prefent when he had 
his AvJdience, in whiah tliere was nothing but general 
Ccnipkmenis : But the Diet f^»od firm to their Con- 
iiitution, and aflertcd that the Emperour had no Au- 
thoriry to judge in that matter which k«elongcd only 
to tacm, fo Travers was forced to let his Pretenfions 

All the other parrs of this Scare are purely Demo- 

rratical, there ztc Three different Bodies or Leagues, 

and every one of theR- are an inrire Gcvernmenc, and 

thcAITembly or Diet of the Three Leagues, is only a 

Confederacy like the United Provinces or the Cantons: 

There are SiKty-feven Voices in the general. Diet, 

•vvhich are thus divided : the league of the' Cr^fofis hath 

twenty-eight Voices, that of the Bwfe of God hath 

twenty four, and that of the JuYifdiBions hath fifteen. 

The Junldifnons belonged anciently to the Houfe of 

AuMa, but they having Ihakcn off that Authoricy, 

^verc incorporated into the Diet, but in the laA Wars 

of Germany^ tlie Aupims thought to have brought 

them again under their yoke, yet they defended their 

i-iberty with fo much vigour, that the Aufirms it 

fccras thought the Conqueif not worth the while, and 

rba: it would not quit tlie coO. They YN'ere a.%ighted 

by two extraordinai-y aftions-, iaone "^^illage which 

• >vas Quite abandoned bv all the Men belonging to ir, 

vi^lKkftdie Women ia'if, fome. hundreds, as i w^s 

tOidj. 



(5i) 

tolfl, were quartered, and were apprehenfive of my 
danger from their Hofttflcs-, but the W: men intern 
dcd'^ti 'et their Hasbands fee that they were capable 
of contriving and executing a bold dcfign •, tho' u mafi 
be confeft it was a httle too rough and barbarous for 
the Sex: They cntrcdinto a Combination to cut the 
Ti^rcat^ of all the Souldiers at one time ^ the Woman 
that propofed this had four lodged with her, and fhe 
"With her own hands difparcht them all, and fo did all 
the reft, not one Souldier efcaping to carry away the 
News of fo unheard of a Rage, in another place a 
Evdy of the Aujhians came into a Valley that was 
quire abandoned, for the Men that liad no Arms but 
their Clubs and Stares, got up to the Mountains; but 
they took t]:cir meafures fo well, and po&fled them- 
felves fo of the Paffes, that they came down upon 
the Souldiers with fo much fury, that they defeated 
them quite, fo that very fewefcaped, and it is cer- 
tain that the fubduing them would h?.ve proved a 
very hard work. It is true they arc not in a condi- 
.tjon to hold out long, the publick is fo poor ■■, fo that 
tho' particular perfons are extream rich, yet they have 
DO publick Revenue, but every man is concerned to 
prefervehis Libertyj wh ch is moreintire here than 
jn Smt:(frlandy but this often fwelis too much, and 
throws them into great convulficn. The league of 
the Grifons k thefirft and moft ancient, and it is com- 
pofed cf eight and twenty CommunitieSj of which 
there are eighteen Papijls^ and the reft are Proteftantsi 
the Comm.unities of the two Religions live Neigh- 
bourly together, yet they do not f^fler thofe of ano» 
ther Religion to live among them, fo that every Com- 
jnunicy is intirely of 'the fame Religion, and if any 
one changes be muft go into another Community. 
Each Community is an intire State within it felf, and 
^U Perfons muft meet once a year to chi-ferhe Judge 
and his AiTiftants, whom they charge or coRtinne from 
year to year as they fee caufe ; There is no difference 

mads 



maffe between Gentlemaf) and Peafanr, and the Te- 
nant hath a Vote as wdl-as his Landlord, ncr dare hfs 
landlord ufe him ill when he Votes contrary to his 
Intentions, for the Peafants would look upon that as a 
CGinmon (Quarrel. An Appeal lies from the Judge of 
the Community to the AiTcmbly of the Ltag e, w^ere 
all matters end •-, for there lies no Appeal to the gene- 
ra] Diet cf the three Leagues, e"xcept in matters rh^rc 
ecncern the conquered Countries, which belong in 
' common to all the three. There is one chofen by the 
Deputiesfor the Aflembly of the League, who K cal- , 
led the head of tlie League, that can call them toge- 
ther as he fees caufe, and can likewife bring a caufe 
that hath been once judged, to a fecond hearing. 
Jlant!'- is the chief Town of this League, where their 
Diet meets. The fecond Zcague is that of the Haifi 
of Gody in which there are four and tv\ enty Commu- 
ritiesi thcBurgomafterof Coirels always the hend of 
this League ; This League is almofl wholly Pisteftan?^ 
and the two Valleys of theup[er and lower Engedrn 
arepointedout by the Papijis, as little lefs tlian r<»?r- 
nibah towards fuch Catholkkj as come among them ; 
but Frier Sfoncirato, Nephew to Pope Gregory the four- 
teenth, whofe Mother the Marquefscf Eoriomankrd^ 
tbat was in England^ hath married, found the con- 
trary of all this to be true, to his great regret. About 
eighteen years ago he was believed to have wrought 
Miracles, and he became fo much in love with the 
Crown ot Martyrdom, that he v/ent through the 
Engedin, not doubting bit he would find there that 
which he defired. His Brother had come fomctime 
before into the Countrcy to drink mineral V^arers, 
and was well known to the Gentry, fo fome cf thefe 
hearing of the Friers coming, went and waited on 
him •, and he was enrercained by them in their Houfes 
and conveyed him through the v^ountreyi tho' he 
took all poflible ways to provoke them, for he was 
often railing a: -their Pveligion, but to all that they 

made 



I "57 ? 

made no anfwer, only they continued their CivilitidJ' 
(bll, which did fo inrage the warm Frier, that he 
went to Bormio^ and there C as was believ'd ) he died 
of Grief. An accident fell cut five year ago, that 
[he People of tlie Country cftcemed a fort of a Mi- 
racle. The Papijis in their Proccffions go fometimes 
Ducof one Community into another, and when they 
pafs through Froteftar.t Communities they lower tlie 
Crofs, and give over Singing till they arc again upon 
Fopifh ground-, bur then they went on bearing up the 
Crois, and Tinging as they went, upon which the 
Vroteftants Aopc them, and would not fuffer them to 
go on in that manner : they finding that they were 
not equal in number to the ProteflatitSy fent to a Ca- 
Mitli Community, and defired thtm to come to 
their AflTiflance: Two thoufand came, and by all ap- 
pearance the djfpute would have ha^ a bloody ifluc .* 
for the Proteflants were refolved to maintain the 
Rights of their Community, and the others were no 
kfs refolved to force their way : but an extraordinary 
thick milt arofe, and through it the Papijis fancied 
they faw a vaft body of men, which was no other 
then a Wood .• but terrified with the appearance of 
fuch a Number they retired, and this faved a little 
E)atcel that probably would not only have ended in the 
Oiedding much Bleod, but might have rery much 
diforder'd the whole CooflitutioQ and union of their 
ileagnes. 

The Papifls of Quality endeavour much to keep 
their People in order, but they acknowledged to my 
felf, that the Proteflants were much peaceabler than 
the Cathlicl{s, The Jurifdiftions have fifteen Votes in 
the general Diet, yet they are generally called the ten 
Jurifdi^ions, and the greater part of them are likewife 
of the Religion i for upon the general cempuration of 
the three Leagues, the Proteflants are about twa 
thirds, lu their Diets there arc three Tables, one in 
-the middle and two on cither fidc^ ac every Table fits 



r 58 ; 

Jhehead of the League and Secretary near him, and 
*rom the Tab'e there goes down ienches on both 
hands for the Deputies from the communities of 
that league: They hoM their Diets by turns in tie 
chief Towns of the ftveral Leagues, and it hapened' 
to be the turn of the Houfe of God when I was^ 
there, fo they met at Coire. 

The three Leagues have a conquered Country In 
Italy divided into three Diflrias, the Valteline, cha- 
vennes, and Bormio, When ]^obn Galeaffe poffeffed 
himfeif of the Dutchy of Mitan, and drove out BarnA' 
boi^ MaftifiHi one oiBarnabas''iSonSi to whom his Fa- 
ther had given thofe three Branches of the Dutchy of 
Mian, retired to Coire, and being hofpitably received 
and entertained by the Bifhop, when he died he gave 
his Right to thofe Territories to the Cathedral of 
Coire : but here was a Title witliout a force able to 
make it good. But when the Wars of Italy were on 
foot, the three Leagues being much courted by both 
the Clowns, fince thev were MaOer? nf the Paffes by 
^;hich either the Swit^ers or Germans could come into 
Italy, they refolved to lay hold on that opportunity 5 
yet they had not zeal enough for their Bimop to en- 
gage deep upon his account : fo they agreed with hini 
to pay him fuch a Revenue, and he transferred his Ti- 
tle to them r, and they were fo confiderable to the 
Spaniardfy that without much ado, they yielded thofe 
parcels of rhe Dutchy of Mian to them, and by this 
means they are poifefied of them. Thofe Accefifions 
£o this Scate are much better than the principal ; for 
as certainly the Valteline, which is above forty miles 
long and two broad, is one of the richefl Valleys in 
the World , in which there are three Harvefts fome 
years, fo the Chavennes and Bormio are much preferable 
to tlie befl Valleys of rhe Grifons ; yet the engage-menc 
that people have to their native homes appears fignally 
here, fince the Grr/on^ have not forfaken their Coun«% 
try. that they miglu fituate themfelves fo advantage- 

• . ouiiy;* 






(590 

oufly : but they love their rugged Valleys, and think 
tht I'atety tney enjoy in them beyo; d the Piea urcs of 
their acquired Dominions, To they govern rhcm by 
Bai'ift? and FcddU\ and other Cffi crs \vh m ihcy 
fend among them, a d all the advantages that li ey 
draw from them, is, Thar the Alagiftrates vvhon; they 
fcnci CO govern them, do iiiricii themfeh'cs, as the 
BailiftN in Smi:^erLind do. All rhofe Offices go rcund 
the fevera! Communiaes who have the right of Nomi- 
natio.i in their turn : but if there is-nar,e of the Com- 
inunicy proper fot the Emp:oymcnf5 a,)) one ofano- 
:her Comm. nity may buy of chem the Nomination for 
rhatturn, and che Community diflribute among them 
the money that he gives thtm Tl;e Publick draws 
nothing out of thofe Parts, except the Fines, which in 
fonie years amounts to no confiderable Sum, a^^d ten 
or twelve thouiand Crowns is thoaght a great deal to 
5e raifed out wf thcm-in a Year, fo that their SuDJe«Ss 
ive happy and free of all Taxes, which made their 
aft Revolc appear the more extraordinary •, and it was 
ndecd the effcd of a very furprifing Bigotry, wren a 
'eople under the gentleft Yoke in the World, wIk5 
lad no other Grievance, but that now and then their 
Vlagiftrates were of another Rehgion, and that the 
Frotejlam Re'igion was tolerated am'orgfl them, would 
herefore throw off their Mafters, cut the Throats of 
heir Neighbours, and cafl themfelves into the hands 
:ihhc Spaniardf, who are t;he terribleft Mailers in the 
World. 

But to give a more particular relation of that matrer, 
md to tell the Circumftances which fcem a lictlc to kC" 
en tliat Rebellion and Malfacre. I mufl give an account 
)f a part of this C nfticution that is very terrible, and 
'Vhich makes the greatefi men in it to tremble. The 
Peafants come fometimes in great Bodies and demand 
I Chamber of Juftice from the general Diet ; and they 
jre bound to grant it always when it is thus demanded, 
kvhich comes about generally once in twenty years.- 
■ " ' cem'monlyr 



commonly this f umulc of the Peafants is feC on S; 
fome of th'- male-contented Gentry, aad ge.cralh, 
there are a grr^^t many Sacrifices made. Tms Cour; 
is cr^mpofed ''f cen Judges our of every League, anc 
twenty Advocates, who manage fuch AccuDtions a 
are prefeniied to ihem : thib ^-ourc is paramonnt t( 
Law, and ads like a Court of Inquificion ; thy giv( 
the Queftion, and do every thing that they thmk ne 
ceifary to difcover the Truth of fuch Accufations as ar< 
prefented to them ; and the deciiions of this Cour 
can nev r be brought under a feconcf review, tho' then 
!s an Exception to this ; for about a hundred Yean 
ago, one Court of Juftice reverfed all that anocher had 
done : but that is a fingle Inflance. The Peafants are 
in as great a Jealoulle of the Spaniards^ as the Smt^en 
are of the French^ and the good men among them are 
extream fenfible of a great dilfoluiion of Morals that the 
Spamfl) Service brings among them -, for there is -« 
<rrifon Regiment kept ftill in Pay by the SpanUrds 
there are in it twelve Companies of Fifty a-piece, anc 
the Captains have a thoufand Crowns Pay, tho' the] 
are not obliged to attend upon the Service. This i 
tjpon the matter a Penfion paid under a more deceo 
N.ime, to the mod confiderabic Men of the Country 
a:d this is fhared among them without any diftindioi 
of Pmejlant and Papifty and is believed to fway theii 
Councils much. The Peafants are apt to take fire, anc 
to believe they are betrayed by thofe Penfioncrs c 
Spain 5 and when Rumours are blown about amon. 
ghem, they come in great nvimbers to demand a Cham- 
ber ot Juftice. The common queftion that they give 
which isalfoufed all Svpit^^eriandoYcry zr^ in Geneva 
Is, that th y tye the Hands of the fufpefted ptrfon be 
hind his Back, and pull them up to his Head, and fc 
draw them about, by which the Arms, and chiefly 
the Shoulder-blades, are disjoynted. And when a Per 
fon put to the Qiieftion confeiies his Crime, and is up- 
on that condcmaed to die, he is obliged to renew 

■■ -'" hif 



(<5i) 

!iis confertlon upon cat!i ac tke place of execution, 
incf if he goes off fr-.;m it then ,'and faicd that Iiis 
confcflion was extorted by the violence of tlie tor- 
ture, he is put again to the queflion : fdr this palTes 
for a maximethat no man mart die unlefs he con- 
felfech himfclf guiicy ; Generally when the fury of 
de.na :ding this Chamber is fprcad among the peo- 
ple, the Gentry run away and leave the whole mat- 
ter m the power of tlie PeafantJ, for they know not 
where It will end, and (o the Pcafa^.ts beinc named 
to •:'C J ;dge<, the Juftice go s quick till ome facri- 
fices appcafe the rage. Two year ago i.pon the UIq 
of a co'iimon to rhe BiHiDp of Como , to winch he 
had an ancient pretenfion , the Pcafants having no 
more the Jibotrof the common, wer.c inraged ac; 
:heir Ma^iflates, and a report was fpread abroad, 
Df which tile firfl Author could ntVv^- be difcovcred, 
:-nc the SpanUrdf had fe.nt a hund'-ed thoufund 
Crowns: among thenrto corrupt all their Magiflratcs, 
upon this chcy were fo fet on fire , that it vvas gene- 
rsl V thought there would have been many facrifices 
m.ide to thib fury : but the Gentry hapned to be 
then fo much united , that there was none of ther» 
i<ngjged among the Pca'ants , or that managed their 
•age: a Chamber of Juftice was granted, but the 
matter wasfo ordered that it did nor appear that any 
5ne vvas guilty, yet fome that had dealt in that tran" 
aAion were fined,not fo much for any fault of theirs, 
is to raifc a foods to pay the expences of the Chara- 
3er, and becaufe they could not find colour en: ugh 
:o raife fo much out of the fines , there was a fine d€ 
ive hundred Livers laid on every one of the Spanljfi 
"ompanies. I hope this digrertion will not appear 
:edious to you , and the rache-r becaufe you will 
bon fee that ic was a little neceflary to open tfie 
natter of the 'Rebellion and Maflkcrc in the Val- 
tclinc* 

a 



(62) 

In the year i6i2, there was a report fct aboiitj 
that the Spaniards had a treaty on fcoc to tear away 
the Valteltne fram the leagues, this wab fupported 
by the Fort Fuentes , that the Governor of Milan 
was biiiiding upon the Lake of Como , near the 
Valteline. There was one Gunatx^?L Minifler, but a 
bloody, and perfidious Man, that fet on and managed 
theragcof the Pealants, and there was great reaion 
tofufpeft fome underhand dealing , tho he threw ic 
which way he p'ea^ed. A Chamber of Juftice was 
appointed to fit at T(>ffane^ which is a confiderable 
Town twelve miles from Coire, on the way to Italy^ 
nezr Alta Rhetia^ which is a high and fmali Hill, to 
which there is no accc's but on one fidcwhtre there 
are yet the rutnes of a Caflle and a Church » and 
which they believe was the Pallace of Rhetus the 
firft Prince of the Gountrey; There was fevcrc ju- 
ftice done in this Chamber, a Prieft was put to the 
qucftion, and fo ill ufcd that he died in it , which is . 
a crying thing among them. The chief fufpicion lay 
upon one /'z^wf^, who being of one of thebeft Fa- 
milies of the GrZ/ow/, was then one of the Captains 
in the Spani/Jj Regiment \ he withdrew himfclf from 
the ftorm, but the Peafants led on by OariatT^ pursu- 
ed him fo, that at lafl they found him and hevved 
him in pieces, (/^/2.if^himfelf ftriking the firfl llrokc 
with an Ax, .v^fhich was taken up and preferved by 
his Friends, and four and twenty years after fifty or 
iixty of his Friends fell upon Ganat^:^ in CoirCy and 
killed him with the fame Ax, which they brought 
along with them, that they mi^ht execute their de- 
fign by the fame tool with which their Friend was 
niurchertd. Ganat:;^ had duri'g the Wars abandoned 
both his Relig'on and Profeilion, being, indeed, a 
difgrace to both, and had ferved firlt in the Venetian^ 
and then in the SpanifJi Troops. After the peace was 
made he became fo confiderable , being fuppor- 
ted 



(<53) . 

ted by the Spamfl) Faftion , that he was chofen 
Governor of Chavennes , and was come over to 
to'ire to a Diet, he being then in fo important a 
■charge : but he was Co much hated, that tlio the 
murthering of a Magif^rate in Office, and at a pub- 
lick alVemblyin fo terrible a manner ought to have 
been fcvcrely punifhed , yet no inquiry was made 
into the crime, nor was any man fo much as qne- 
ilioncd fcr it. In that Chamber , many that were 
put to the queflion confeffed enough to hang them, 
feme indurtd the quef^ion and efcaped with the 
lofs of the ufe of their Arm. Thofe of the Val' 
rf/f',(fhave made ufe of this feverity, as that which 
^ave the rif^ to the MalTacre, and it is very probable 
-this might have drawn in fome, that would have 
•been otherwife more moderate, and that it did like- 
wife precipitate that barbarous atftion; yetit was af- 
terwards found out that the Plot had been formed 
long before , fo that the induftry and rage of the 

■ Pricfts managed by Spanifh EmilTaries, working upon 
the bigotry of the people was the real caufe, and this 
was only mide ufe of as a pretext to give fome 
more plaufible colours to the MafTacre , which 
wa? executed feme months after this Chamber was 

■ diffolved. It began while the Proteftunts were at 
Church, there were fome hundreds defiroyed. the 
rcfl got all up to the Mountains, and fo efcaped into 
theGountrey of the (rujo/i^, and tho(c oi Chart'ennei 
got Iikcwife up to the Hills, fcr they are fcituated jufr 
at the botcom of them. 

I fhall not profccure the refl of that War, the 
French favv of what advantage it was to them 
not to let this pafs from half into Germany fall 
".-■into tlie hands of the Spaniards j fo BaJJompiere 
was fen t CO Madrid y and obtained a promife, that 
all things fhould be put in the fame flate in which 
they were before the year i5i8, but when that 

G 2 order 



or^er was Tent to the Governour of Milatu, itvvs* 
. plain he had fecret orders to the contrary, for he re- 
fufed to execute it: foa W^r followed, in which 
the Grifins found it was not eafie for them to fup- 
port the charge of it, without imploying theafli- 
franceofthe French. But the Spaniards pretended 
to have no other intcrcfl in die affairs of the Valtstine 
then the prefervarion of the C*if/7j//c^ Religion, and 
tofhewtlieiriincerity , rhey put the Countrey into 
the Pope's hands, knowing fhat he could not pre- 
ferve it bvit by their afiifrance, nor reflore it with- 
out fecuring it from all change of Religion! The 
French willingly under:ook the caufe of tlie GrifonSf 
and becaufe tlie Duke of Roh^n was like ro be the 
moil favourable General, as being of the Religion, 
he was fent to command fome forces that mar- 
ched thither: But he faw that if the French ouc^' 
iliade themfe'ves Maflcrs of the pafies of rlie Coun- 
Uiey, it would !:nrn to their ruine , and finding the 
<Crr//jn/ repoied an inrire confidence in him, he 
thou£<hr it unbccomiug hiiii to be an infirumerjt in 
that which he faw mufl be fatal to them. The 
, Spaniards feeing tb.e French ingage in the quarrel, and 
fearinp leflthey fhould poiTcU themfelves of the paf- 
fes, cffered toreflore all the Territory in Italy, for 
Chavemes and Bormio had Irkewife re oltcd, only die 
Freteftnnts got away fo quick upon the di orders in 
the Valteline, that they prevented the rag^ of the 
Priefls. The Spaniards a^k'd thefe conditions , 
that an Amnefty fhould be granted for what was 
pafi, that there fhould be no exercife of theFro- 
tejiunt Religion tolerated in the Countrey , and 
that even the Bailiffs and other N'agiflratts of the 
Religion, that came to be fent into the Valteline^ 
iliouid have no exercife of their Religion , and a& 
for other pcr.fons, that none of the Religion might 
llay above fix v vceks ac a time in the Countrey. The 
■ ' Puke 



C^5) 

Duke o^Rokin feeing thit conditions of (o much aja 
vantage CO the Leagues were oftl red to them, did 
underhand advi.e thofe or tlie Religion to accept of 
them, at the fame time that he feemed openly ro op- 
pofe the treaty fee en foot on thofe terms, and that he 
might ret out of this imploymcnt vvirh the kQ, dif- 
honour, he ad vi fed their clapping him up in prifon 
till they had finifhed their treaty with the Spaniards^ 
So that they very gratefully to this day own that! 
they owe the preservation of their Coultrey to the 
wife advices of that great Man» Mmy that were of 
the Religion returned to their Houfts and Eftates, 
but the greaeft partfearini; fuch another A/alfacrej^ 
have fince changed their Religion , others have fold 
their Eftares and left the Country, fome ftayftill 
and V o two or three hours journey to fome of the 
Yrotciiant communities, where they have the exer- 
cife of the Religion ; And tho they may not ftay in 
the Valtdwe above fix weeks at a time,yet they aroid 
that by going for a day or two out of the Gountrey 
once witiiin that time , nor is that matter at prefenc 
fo fevereiy exammed, fothat there is a calm among 
them as to thofe matters. But when it comes to the 
turn of the Pftefiant communities to fend one of the 
Religion to thofe imployments, he is often much em- 
barafled by the Bifhop of CowOjto whofe Dioccfs thofe 
Territories belong, for if the Bifhop fancies that they 
do any thing contrary to the Ecclefiaflical immunities, 
he excommunicates them, and the this may appear a 
ridiculous rh^ng , fince they are already in a vvorfe 
flate by being Hereticks,yet it produces a very fenfi- 
b'e efifed, tor the people that are extreamJy fup?rfli» 
tious, will not ..frer that come rear fuch Magiftratcs, 
fo chat about three years ago a Bailiff found himfelf 
obliged to defire to be rccalle i,cho his time was not 
out- fince ^xing excommunicated he could no longer 
maintain the Gciyernment in his own perfon, 

G z Among 



(5(5)- 

i^mons the C?r/>nhe il^w^n Law prevails, mo- 
dified a lictle by their Cuftoms. One tliac was a lutle 
parcicular, w^s executed when \vvas there. 
^ A Man that hath anEflate by his V/ife, enjoys ft 
after her Deach as long as he continues a Widoyver, 
but when he mairies again he is bound to divide it 
amoDs: the Children that he had by her. The Jultice 
is (hor^t and (implex but ic is, oft thought that Bribes 
fcohere, tUp' but meanly in proportion to the' i po- 
verty, as vTell as in ether Places. The mariied W o- 
nien here do fcarce appear abroad except at cmii en, 
tut die young Women have niore Liberty betcre 
they are married. There is fuch a plenty of all 
things, by reafon of the gentlenefs of the Government 
and the indiftry of the leople, that mail the rerKtays 
in which I flayed ^zCoJre, I was but once asK d ^n 
iMms in tl-e Streets. There are two Churches in 
Coire, in the one there, is an Organ that pyns with 
'their Voices in the finging of the Pfahiis ; and there. 
nvas for the honour of the Diet, while we were there, 
2n Anthem fung.?>y a fet of Muficians ^f y/^f ^^17/ 
Id all the Churches both of Snt^^ierUr^d and the btt- 
fm, eycept in this only, the Mimf^er P/f ^J^;;^'^^! 
■ yered, but here he is bare-headed. And 1 oblerved 
a particular Devotion ufcd here in faying ot the 
l^ord'b Praver, that the Miniflers who wear C -p^ put 
them off '.Aen it was faid. The Women nere as in 
Bern, turn all to the S-i/? in time of Prayer, and ^Ifo 
in their pnvate Devctions before and after rhej)ub. 
lick Prayers- many alfo bow at the Name oi/eiu^. 
Thev Chri_flen difcovering the uhole Head,, and pour 
ine the Water on the hind-head, ufinga tnne A.per- 
f.on, which is.alfo the pra^iice of the SmtK_ers. It 
was matter of much.Edificadon, to fee the great 
Numbers both here and ail Switzerland over, that 
come every day to Prayers mnnmg and evening. 
Hhey give here in the middle of the Prayer a gooain- 






terval of Srence for the privare Devotions of "the A(i 
fcniblv. Th Schooh h^ re ^o noc above Latin, Greei^^ 
and Logkl^: a. d for ciW reft c! ey '.end their Chi d:en 
to Zu- kh or Br^fil. The C'crgy here are very mca.»Iy 

Erovidcd: for moft paic chev h.ivenochi< g but the 
enevolencc of their People .• they complained mucli 
to me of a great coldncfs in their People in the mat- 
ters of Religion, ar,d of a great CorruptiOi. in their 
morals. The Co.Tmons are extream inlblcnr, and 
many Crimes go unpnnifhed if the Perfons that com- 
mie them h.ave either great creditor much money- 
The poor Miniflcrs-here are under a terrible {lave'y : 
for the Grifws pretend thacin all rimes rhey had noc 
only the Patronage of their Churches, buc a power to 
difmifs their Ch-.rch-nien as they faw caufe. How it 
is among the Papijisl c<ix\r\ox.it\\, but the Dean of 
the Synod cf the Houfe ofG^d told me they had an ill 
cuftom of ordaining their Minifters without a Title, 
upon an Ex^minacion of their C^ualificationf and Abi- 
lifief, wi^iich took thtm up generaUy fix or feven 
hours : and when th s Tryal was thus difparchcd^ if 
the Perfon was found qualified, they ordained him 5 
and it was too ordinary for thofe that were thus or- 
dained, to endeavoar to undermine the Minificrs al- 
.ready in Employment, if their people grew difguil:- 
ed at them, or as they became drfabied by Age : 
and of.en the Incerell and Kindred of the Intruder 
carried the matter againfl the IncumbeKt without 
any colour or pretence ; and in that cafe the Syfiod 
was bound to rec«.ive the Intruder. Jn one ha!fof 
itheCoun cry they preach in Hig\^ Din^h, and in the 
other half in a corrupt /m//^w, which rhey call Ro- 
manip)^ that is a mixture or French d.nd ItMian.^ In 
every league they hivc a Synod, and as the People 
chufe their MimAcrs, fo in imicatia. of the Sivjit:(ers 
every Syt». d chufes their Autijhs or S perintciidant j 
he is called the Dean among the Giiionsj and hath a 

for£: 



Cd8) 

Tcrt of an Epifccpal Fewer, but lie is accountable t! 
the Synod. Tne Office is for Jife» but tne Synod, 
upon great caufe given, may makeacnange. Tiic 
pe' pie of this Country are much more Jively 
than the Smt:(ers.^ and they begin to have foinc 
tinfture of the Italian Ttrnpcv. They are extream 
civil .'o Strangers ; but it feems in all Commonweahhs 
Inn.keepers think tliey have a righctoexad upon 
Strangcrr, which one finds here as well as in Holland 
or in S wit T^ct land, 

] fhall conclude what Thave to Ciy concerning the 
Gfijons^ with a very extraordinary Story, which I 
had both from the Minifters o^Coire and several other 
Gentle-nen, that faw mJipril 1685. about five hun- 
dred perfons of different Sexes and Ages that pafl 
through the Town, who gave this acccunt of chLm* 
felvcs. They were the Inhabitants of a Val'ey in Ti- 
roL belonging for the greateft part to the Archbi- 
fhoprick oiSaltshmg , but fome of them were in the 
DiccefTcs of Trent & SrejfJ?;chey fe'emed to be a Rem- 
nant of the old WaUenfes^ they woi fhip"ped neither 
Images nor Saints, and they believed che Sacrament 
was only a commemoration ofthe Death ofChrifl; 
and in many other Points they had tlie^r peculiar 
Opinions different from thofe of the Chur. h of Rome: 
they knew nothing neither of Lutheriam nor Cal-in- 
tiiJUy and the Grifons. tho' their NeighScurs, had 
never heard of this nearnefs of theirs to che Fnte-^^ 
Jiam Rchgion, They had Mafs laid among them; 
but fome years fmce fon;e of the Valley going over 
Germany to earn fomev\ha: by their labour, hapnec! 
to go into the Palatinate, where they were better 
inflruded in mattecs of Reli^^ion ; and thefe brought 
back with them into the Valley the Heidelberg Cate- 
thifm, tO)<ether with fome other German cooks, 
v^^hich run over the Valley j and they being before 
ihar in a good difpoficion, thofe Books had fu ch an 



( (59 ) 

.:.cc): Upon them, that they gave over going to Maf% 
my more, and be^an to worfhip God in a way more 
utable to the Rules fet down in Scripture : fome of 
iheiT Piefls concurred with them in tl. is happy 
Change, but others thit adhered ftiil to the Mafs, 
ivcnt and gave the Archh'iihop ofS^iltsbu/i an account 
of it.- upon which he fcnt feme into the Country to 
!xaraiiie the truth of the matter, to cxho.t them to 
•eturn to Ma "s, and t ^ threaten thtm with all feveri- 
:y if they continued obfjinate: fo they feeing a ter- 
rible Storm ready to break u^on rhem, refolved to 
ibandon their Houfes and all they had, rarhcr than 
fin againft their Confcienccs. And the whole inha- 
bitants cf the Viiky, old and young, Men and Wo- 
ucn, to the number of two thoufand, divided them- 
'elves into fe vera] Bodies: iome intended to go to 
BrandenbuYih, others to the Pabtinatey and about 
five hundred took the way of Coirf^ intendini^ to 
difperfe the:nrelves in Switi^erland. The Mirjflers 
Eold me rhey were much edified with their SimpH" 
city and ModeHy,, for a Collcaion being made for 
them, they dcdred only a Jittle Bread to cariry 
them on their way. From Coire we went to Tojfane, 
and from that through the way that is juftly called 
yia Mail, \t is through a bottom between two 
Recks, through which the Koine rtms, but under 
ground for a ^reat part of the way. The Way is cut 
out in the middle of the Rock in fome places, and 
in feveral places the ftcepnefs of the Rock being fuch 
that a Way could not be cut out, there are beams 
driven into it, over which, Boards and Earth are 
laid : this way holds an hour. After that , there 
is for two hour? nood way, and we part through two 
confiderable Villages: there is good- Lodging in 
both. From tlience there is, for two hours. Jour- 
ney, ter ib!c Way, almoft as bad 2l% \.ht Via Mala i 
then an hours Journey good way to Sphgen, which 
isalarge YiiiageofabovetwoJiundrcd Houfes, thac 



( 70 ) 

k?c well builr, and the Inhabitants feem all to live 
ac their eafe, tho' they have no fort of Soil but aliccle 
Meadow ground about them. This is thelafi Pro- 
tcftant Church that was in our Way , it was well en- 
dowed, for the Provifion of the Miaifler was near 
two hundred Crowns. Thofe of this Village ar< 
the Carriers between Indy and Germany^ _(o the^ 
dnve a great Trade, for the c is here a perpetual 
Carriage going and coming, and we were told 
thit there pafs gea. rally a hundred Horfes through 
tliis Town one day with another : and there arc 
above five hundred Carriage-Horfe that belong tc 
this Town. From this place we went mounting 
for three hours, till we got to the top cf the Hills 
%vhere there is only one great Tnn. After that th€ 
v,ay was tollerably good for two hours, and for twc 
hours there is a conflant-defcent, which for the mof 
part is as deep aj if we were all the whiiegoiDg dowi 
Stairs. At the foot of this is a little Village, callec 
' Campdoldn, and here we found vve were in Italy ^ botl 
, by the vafi: difference of the Climate •-, for wherea 
VvC were freezing on the other fide, the heat of th< 
Sun was uneafie here, and alfo by the number of th« 
Beggars, tho' ic may feem the reverfe of what on< 
ought to expea, fmce the richefi Country oi Europ 
IS full of Be ggars -, and the Grifons, thzz arc one of th 
pcoref^ Srace5, have no Beggars at all. One thmg i 
alfo ftrange, that among the Grifons, the rich Win 
of the Valteline, after it is c rried three days Journe) 
is fold cheaper than the Wine of other Countric 
where it grows at the door: but there arenoTaxc 
nor Impofitions here. From Campdokh there is thre 
hours Journey to Chavennes, all in a flow Defcent, an( 
in fome places the way is extream ragged and (lone) 
Chavemes is very pleaiantly fciruated at the very foe 
of the Mountains; there runs through the Town 
plesfancHttle River. It is noblv built, and hath. 
jreat many rich Vineyards about k j and the rebouw 



(11) 

the Sun-beams trom the Mountains^ 

jch fo incrcaie the heats here, that the 

i' is as rich here as in any place of 

jlj. Here one begins to Ice a Noble 

.ichitc6lure in a great many hcufcs 5 

I fliorc all the maiks of a rlcti Soil 

id a free Government appear here. 

he TowlI flood a h'ttle more to the 

Jorch, about five hundred year a^o, buc 

S'ice of the Alps came down upon it, 

id burled it quite, and at the rppeu 

id of the Town there are I'ome Kecks 

lat look like Ruines 5 about which 

lere hath been a very cxrraordinary 

scpence to divide them one from ano- 

ler , and to m.ake them fit places 

)r Forts , and Caftles : the marks of 

le Tools appeared all over the Keck. 

1 one place. I meafured the breadth 

f the one from the other , which is 

i^nty foot , the length is four hun-- 

red and fifty foot, and as v/e could 

ucfs the Rock was two hundred foojc 

ligh, cut down on both fides in a line 

s even as a wall ; towards the top of 

)ne the name Sahm is cut in great 

-etters a little Gothkl^ On the tops of 

hofe R(Kks which are inacceliiblej cx- 

:ept on the one fide,and to that th^ aicenc 

s cxtream uneafie^ they had Garrifoiis 

(furing 



I! 



ffi 



f70 

during the Wars of the Valtellne :thct:c We« 
1500 in GarnTon in that which is in th< 
midd'c : There falls down frequently (lice; 
from the Bx.!: -char do tx ream ly tatcentht 
gi'cund ,\v|^iGh they cuv r, to ila: it be- 
comeb fruitful beyond rxp'* flion , and . 
law a Lime tree; ha was planted 3^>^ar 
ago, in a piece ot ground which had beer 
fo coveredjthat was 'Wo tathom,6c a half 
of compafs. On both fides of the River 
the Town and the Gardens belonging tc 
it, cover the whole botto'ii that lies be- 
tween the Hills , and at the roots of [h< 
Mountains thev dig great Cellars,and groi 
coes, and ftrikea hole about a foot fquare. 
ten or twelve foot in'o the Hiilj which al 
the Summer long blows a frefh Air intc 
the Cellar, fo that the Wine of chofe Cel- 
lars drinks almoii as cold as if it were ir 
Ice; but this wind-pipe did not blow wher 
I was there', which was towards th< 
end of September : For the Sun opening 
the pores of the Earth, dc rarifying'thc ex- 
terior Air.that which is comprcfled with' 
in the cavities that arc in the Mountains, 
rufhes out with a confiant Wind; bui 
when the operation of the Sun is W^^akned. 
this courfe of tbe Air is lefs fenfible. Be 
fore or over thofe Vaults they build littk 
pjeafant Rooms like Summer-houfes^ and 

in 



I 



^.( 85 ) 

n them they go ro Collatiun generally at nidit in 
'ummcr. I never faw bigger Grapes then grow 
here, there is one fore bigger then the biggcft Da^ 
n^jfccnc Plums thac wc have ir\ England- 

There is a lore of Wine he- e and in the VaUelinCy 
vliich I never heard named any where elfe, that is 
ailed ^rsmatick JVind and as the taft makes one 
hink it mult be a comp;Ti:ioti, for ic talis like a 
itrong water drawn ofF Spices, fo i:s ftrcngth b:irg 
!qual to a weak Brandy , difpofes one to believe 
hat it cannot be a natural Wine, and yet it is thci 
)ure juyee of the Grape without any mixture. The 
Jquor being lingular, I informed my felf particu- 
arly of the way o£ ^preparing \$ : the Grapes 
ire red, tho ic drinks white', they let thr Grapes 
UV2, on the Vines till Notember that they arc 
•xtream ripe , then they carry^them to their Gar- 
•ct^, and let them all upright on their ends by one 
another for two or three raunrhs, then they pick 
ill the Grapes and throw away thofe in which there 
s the Icaft appearance of rottennefs , (o that they 
»refs none but found Grapes .* after ihey arc prelTccI' 
hey put the Liquor in an open VcfT^l, in which ic 
:hrows up a fcum, which they tske off twice a day> 
Snd when no more fcum comes up, which accordisg 
CO the difference of the fcafon k fconer or later, fcr 
fomerimes the fcum comes no more after eight days, 
2nd at other times ic continues a Fortnight, the;* 
chey put it in a clofe Vcffcl •, for the firft year it is 
cxrream fweet and lufcicus, but at the end of the 
year they pieree ic a little higher then the middle of 
the Veffel, almoft two thirds from the bottom, an^ 
drink ic off till it cometh To low, and then every 
year they fill it up a new : once a year in the month 
of March it fermcms> and cannot be drunk till that 
is over, which continues a moriih, but their other 
Wine ferment? not at that time, Madam Salk z 
".'' H Udj 



7^ ^ • 

li'ly^pf.. 'that Country who cniercaincd us rhffe d^tjzt 
v.ica a aiagnlticcnce ccjual to what can be clone inC 
jConion or J^arisy, had Wine of: this cumpgfiti.cn th:ic fc 
was Torty years pldj and .was fo very ftrong" thacj, 
one could hardUv drink above a fpoonful , and k\, 
tailed high qf Spicery , ^tho fhe afiurcd me chcre 
was not one grain of Spice m it, nor of any other 
niixcurc whatloever. Thus the feeat that is in this 
Wine, becomes a fire and difti's it felf, rhrowirg up 
the more fpirituous parts of it to the top of the 
I4o^s-Hcad; 

Both here and in the Grifons the meat is very juycyg 
the Fowl is Excellent, their R.oots and Herbs very 
Tcaftful, but the fifli of iheit Lakes is beyond any 
ehing lever faw. They live in a great fimplicity a* 
to their habit and furniture, but they have plenty 
pr,aJl things, and are cxtream Rich, the Family' 
Tv'liere we were fo Nobly Entertained is believed tei 
lYuve. about two hundred thoufand Crowns : here 
rhe Italian cuftom of one only of a Family that 
iV-Iarries takes plac^ generally. There is a fore of 
I^ts of Stone that is u fed not only in all theKitchins- 
feete, butalmoiiall Lcmbardy over, called Lavegr, 
lEhe Stone feels oyly and fcaiy, fo that a fcale fticks^ 
to ones Finger that touches it, and is f( mcwhat cF 
the nature of a tlate, there are but three Mines of" 
5t known in thefc parrs, one near Chavennes, another 
ip the Vahelins^ and the third in the Grifutif, but 
ihefiriH^ much the beft, they generally cut it in the 
Mia^ round-,' of about a foot "and a half Dianieicr, 
;^nd abouc afoot ard a quarter thick, and they woik- 
ir in a Mill, where the Chiz2els that cut the Stprie 
are driven abouc by a Whe.l that is fet a going by 
VVatc*", and whieh is fo ordered that he who man- 
' 2ges rhc Chizzcl, very eafiiy draws forward the 
VViiccIourof thccourfeof th? VVater j they turii- 
c^ J&i-4^sh|!.,|Out>va,i;4..CQi^t ,of;ihis Jt9i^,cU^ it is 

6^3CllY 



C 87 ) ; 

xadly fmoothj and ihen they fcp^rrtte cine Pot afcr 
mother by thole fmaM and hooked Cliiz^els, by which 
;hey make a neil oi Pots all one within another, ih* 
DUtward ani bi^geit beir.g as big ss an ordinary Beet- 
^otj andihcinv/irdPocbeirg nobigg.r th:in a imiH 
?ipkin ; thefc they ar^i with hooks and cii-clcs of 
Smfsjand To they arc lervcd by them in their Kiichins. 
Dnc of thefe Stonc-po-ts takes heac and boils ilcncr, 
than any Pot of Met tic , 3nd|vhercas ths bottoms of 
Mettle-pots tranfiiiit tl^ beat fo inticcly to the Li- 
:]uor within, that tliey are not infuiferably hot, the 
X)ctom ci" this Stone potjWhich is abouttwicc fo rnfck. 
as 1 Pot of Mctticj burns extrcatnly i n ntvercraclis, 
neither gives it any ibrt of lafle to the Liquor thac is 
boiled in ir, buc if it f^lis to the ground it is ver/ 
brittle, yet this is repaired by parching it up, for they- 
piece their broken Pots foclofe, tho without any ce^ 
menr, byfowingwith Iron- wire the broken Parcels 
together, that in the holes which theypiei^e with the 
Wire, there is not the Icailbrco-ch piadc, except chat 
which the Wire both makes and fills. The pafTage tt> 
this Mine is very inconvenient, for they muft cr^cp 
into it for rear hnJf a mile through a Rock that is fo • 
llArd that the paiTage is not above three foot high, 
and To rfiofe that draw out the Stones creep all aiorg; 
upon their Bclly^ having a Candle faftned in their 
forehead, and the Stone laid on a fort of CtJiliIon 
raade for it upon their hips : The Scones are cotxinicG- 
ly two hundred wtight. 

But having mentioned ibme fa'ls of Mountains In 
thofc oart'j I cannot pafs by the extracrdinarv fate 
ef the Town of Flcurs, that was about a league froin 
Chavcnncf to the North in the fame bottom^ but on 
a ground that is a little more raiicd.: The Town was . 
half the bignefs oi Chavennefsi the number of the In- 
habitants was about two and twenty hundred per-. 
fcflSa buck was juuch more nobly ^ujl^; j fi;X htfidcs 

li z " " thff 



ih€ great Palace (f the Franckcn , that cofi. fome 
miflions.. there were many other Palaces thac were 
bfuilc by fei'cral rich Fadors both oF Milan and the 
orher parts of Italy, who liked the fdtpation ancj Air, 
as well as the freedom of the Government of this 
place, fo they ufc'd to come hither,' .during the heats, 
and here they gave th^mfclves all the Indulgences that 
« vaft wealth could furnilli. By one ofthe Pabccs 
that was a little (^iftinc^from the Townj which wa^ 
rot overwhelmed with it, o"be may judge of the reft : 
ft wa5 an ouc-houfe of the Family of the Franckcn^ 
and yet it may compare with many Palaces in Imly* 
£nd certainly Houfe and Gardens could not coll lb 
l-ittle as one hundred thoufand Crowns. - The volup- 
ruoulnefs of this place became very crying, and Ma- 
dm dc Salts, told me thac fti; heard her Mother of- 
texi relate {om^ p^fTagcs of a Prste/rant Minifters Ser- 
mons, that preached in a h'ttle Church, which thofe 
Cf the Religion had there, and warned them. often of 
the terrible judgments of God, which were hanging 
over their heads, and that he believed would fudden- 
}yi)reak out upon them. On the i$th iii AuguH^ 
l6iS: An Inhabitant came and told them to be gone, 
for he faw the Mouncains cleaving, bur he was laugh- 
ed at fur his pains : He had a Daughter whom he 
perfwaded to leave all and go with him, but when 
llie was gone out of Town Vi^ichhim, (he called to 
naind that fhe had not locked the Door of a Roomi-. 
in which (lie had fume things of value, and fo ihc 
•went back to do that,- and was buried with the reft j 
for at the hour of Supper the Hill fell down and bu- 
ried th? Town .ind a!) the Inhabitants, fo that not one 
psrfon efcapcd : The fall of the Mount cins did To ii!l 
fhe Channel of the River, that the firft news thofe ef 
Ckavcnnsi had of it was by the failing of their Rivcri 
for three or four hours th^recamc not a drop of Wa- 
ter; but thc^ Riyer wrought for it fclf a new courfe ■ 

• • ' " ar.d 



,' 



md f eturncJ to rhem. I could hear no parncuhr cha- ' 
aCiter ot tlic Maa who efcjpcd. To I muft leave ihc 
ecrcc rcafonof io lingular a prefcrvacion to che grcac 
Hfcovcry ac che lart day of thofc fteps of Divine i^ro- 
/idencc thac arc now fo unaccouncable. SiMneofthj 
^amily of the Fvancken got Ibme Min rs to work un- 
kr ground, to find out the wealth thjc wys buried in 
hcirPihcej for bcfidcs their Plate and Furnitu:e 
:hcre wai 3 great calhand m:iny Jewjlsin the' Houfc ; 
he Miners pretended they could find nothing, buc 
:hcy went to their Councrcy of 'Urol, and built fine 
Houfcs and a great wealth appeared, of which no 
jthcr viiible account could be given but this,' thac they 
lad found fome of that trcafurc. The chief Faftors 
jf Italy have been Grifom^ and th?y told me thac as 
:hc Trade of Banking began in Lomhardy, fo that all 
Europe over a Lombard and a Bank fignificd the fame 
:hing, fo the greicBankiers of JL-'^w/'^r^^ were Gri-^ 
"hm, and to this day the GrZ/ow/ drirc a great Trade 
h money •, for a Man there of a hundred thoufand 
browns Eftate, hath not perhaps a third part of this 
•vithin theCountrcy, bur puts it out in the neigh- 
Douring States : And the liberty of the Coup.trey is 
fachj that th?^ Natives wh^n they have made up E- 
ftates clfcwhere, are glad to leave even lr<?/_y and the 
brft parts of Gcvmany i and to come and live a- 
mong thfjfc Mountains, of which the very fight is 
enough to fi'l a Man wich horror. 

From Chaienncs wc went for two hours through a 
plain to thtt Lake of Chavenyies , which is a!moil 
roundj and is about two mile Diamttcr, Tbi? Lcike 
falls into the Lake of Comij over ag.iinft ihc Fore 
Vucntcr-i when we pafTcd ther^, the Water was {o 
low that the Boat could nuc eaO'y get over a Bank 
thai! lay between the two Lakes. The Lake of Co;»« 
is about eight and forty miles lo.^.g and fut.ir broad, it • 
runs becw«ri two ranges of Hi'ls : I did not fiav. ,'• 
' -^ " "' " ■ ■ ■" ■ " lorg 



7 *i 



C 90 } 

Ipng enough in Cotm to- give any defcripcion cf lr> 
for I thought to have returned that way from a iittlc 
'X^ur chat I made into the Ba'ia^ci that the Sviiizcr^ 
liave in ItaJy^ o^Luganei Losarmo andBeUinzon:}:, 
But I took another courfe, fo I faw nothirig inCemo j 
the beft thii-g in it is a fine Chappel, "Which the pte* 
fent Pope, who is a native of Co/w? is building. From 
Cofno, we went eight rniics to Co3elag&, which be- 
longs to the Sw'uzsyf, and from thence 10 Lugane 
we had eight miles of Lake ; this Lake doth not run 
in an even current as the other Lakes that rife under 
the Alps •> but the fcituation of the Hills about -ic 
throws it into feveral courfes^. 

T{]€ .Svpitzets have here feveral little Provinces or' 
•Baliages, of which during the Wars cfJ^^/)/, between 
the Dukes of Milan and the two Crowns in firancis 
theFirfl, and C/b/ir/(?/ ths Fifths time, they pofTcffecJ 
ihemfelves as a pledge for payment of their Arrears, 
'ar;d they v/crc then fuch confiderAble Allies, that they 
made both the Competitors for the Ducchy of MtUn 
Court them by turns, and became the peaceable Pof- 
fefforsofalmoft all that Trad that lies between the 
Xakeof Camo, to the Countrey of the VuleJJii or the 
Valleys. The Inhabitants hire are fo well ufed, they 
live to free of aU Impofuions, and the Szmtzcn Go- 
vemmemis fo gentle, that here I mail tell yoU an- 
other Paradox, this istheworft Countrey, the leaft 
Productive, ilie mod expofcd to coM,, and the leaft 
capable of Trade of all Italy, and yet is by far the beft 
peopled of any that I faw in aU Italy : There belongs 
totheBaliageofL«^<2«e alone ninety nine Villages, 
ofwhich a great many are very large, and all are toll 
of people. The twelve ancient Cantons have their 
turns of all the Baliages and other Officers here : but 
when it comes to the turncf thofe of the Religi*n^, 
their Layliff* mufti c contended with private Devoti-; 
ens in their own Hou^Cj but can have no publick exer*; 

cifssj 



cJfes, nor fo much is a Minifter In their Houfcs. For. 
here as in the Valteline when the Spaniards cou^rmcd 
jhe righ: of the Cantons ro thofc Tcrriccrics, they 
made an exprcrs piovidonj that no Religion cxccpc 
the Pop-Jh ihoulj he tolerated here ; lo that the 
Bayliff who is the Prince often hath not the free Li- 
berty cf his Religion in thefe pans. The BayliflTs 
here mak,.- rheir advantages as well as in the othcp 
parts of" Switzerland, buc ycc with more caucion,' 
for they take great care not to give the natives any 
diftaft, thothe miferics ro which they fee ail their 
Neighbours expofed, and the abundance and h'berty 
in which they live fhouli by all appearance deliver 
their Mailers from any great apprehenfions of a re- 
Yolt : A geeat many Mechanicks of all (brts live in 
thefe partj, who go all Summer long over Italj/y and 
cume back hither with what they have gained, and 
live free of all Taxey. 

I was told that fome Nephews of Popes, in par- 
ticular the JBiirimnef had Treated with the Swttzers 
to bay this Country from them, and lo to ere (ft k 
i;ito a principalicy, and that they had refolvcd to 
offer twelve thoufand Crowns to the twelve Canteens, 
but thev found ic would certainly be rejCiTccd, fo 
they made noi; the propoution to tlie Diet of the 
Cantons as they once intended, and i;: is certain 
whcnfoever this Country is brought under a yoke 
iikc that which the refl of Italy bears it wi'l be foori 
abandoned, for there is nothing that draws fo'many 
people to live in fo ill a foil, when they are in ^/ghc 
of the bcft foil of Europe, but the eafincf^ of the 
Goverflmenc. From Lugane I went to the Laga 
'Maggiore^ which is a great and Noble Lake, it is 
fix and fifty miles long, and in moft places (rx miies 
broad', and a Hundred Fathom deep about the mid-die 
of it, it makes a gr^^at Bay to the Weftward, and 
their lift hcfc i-vfo IflAnd? callc4 the Bmomean 

Kisnds 



Cri$ 



( 9* ) 

l^ands.that arc cerrajnly the love. licnrpotscfgroun'dl 
in the World, there is no^iiing in aU Italy that can 
becompatcdtothem, they liavc the full view of the 
Lal^e, and the ground rlfes To i\^eer■y in thfm that 
nuthiiig cxn be imagined like the TerrafTes here, 
they belong to t>vo Counts of the Boryomsan Family, 
1 was only in one of them which belongs to the head 
of 'he Fc^mi^y, who is Nephew to tiTe Famous Car- 
dinal fcnow^n by the name of S. Carlo .\ on the 
Weil-end lies the Palace, which is one of the bcftr 
of Italy, for the lodgings within, tho the Archi- . 
teduiei.i buc ordinary, tlicre is one Noble apartmenc 
above four and twenty foot high, and there is a vaft 
addition making to ir» andhe^ is a gteat Colicdion • 
of Noble Piclures beyond any thing 1 faw out of 
Konie I The whole Ifl\hd is a Garden except a little 
corner to the South fet off for a Vjl^zjgeof about . 
forty little Honfc^, and bccaufe the figure of the' 
Ifl.ind was not made re^2ular by nature, they have 
buiit great Vaults and Fortacdi along the Rock/- 
which are all made Grotefquc, and fo they have 
brought it to a regular foi-m")by laying Earth over 
thofe Vaults. Tlicrc is firft a Garden to the Eafl 
that rifei up from the Lake by five rows of lerrajjef, 
on the three Gdes of the Garden that are watered by 
the Lake^ the Stairs are Noble, the Walls are aU 
covered with Oranges and CirroPFyirid a more beauti- 
ful Tdoc of a Gard:.n cinnc t be icen : There are two" 
builJinsMn thetwo C'lmers of this Garden^ the one 
IS only a milne for fetching up the Waiter, and the' 
otherisanoMe Snmm..r houfc all wainfcottcd, if I 
may fpeak fo, with Alaballer and Marble of a fine 
col >ur inch ing to red, fiom rhis Garden one goes_ !"il 
a 'evc'l CO all the reft of the Allies and partcrrer, Herb- 
Gardens and Flo\ver- Gardens, in ail which there are 
varieties of Fountains and Arbors, but the great par* 
tc'rreisafurprizing thing? for as it is well furnillie4 

with 



f40 

ith Statues and Fountains, and is of a vaf! extent, 
id julHy fcituated to the l-^alace, fo at the further- 
id of it there is a great Mount, that face ot it 
at looks to the Parterre is made hke a Theater all 
11 of Fountains and Statues, the height rifing up 
five feveral rows, it being about Fifty foot high, 
id • about Fourfcore foot in front, and round this 
ount anfwering to the Five rows into whidv the 
heater is divided, there goes as many terraffes ot 
)ble walks, the Walls are all as clofe covered with 
ranges ?nd Citrons as any of our Walls in £«- 
ind are with Lawrel 5 the top of the Mount is 
venty foot long and Foity broad, and here is a 
ift Cillern into which the Mill plays up the Wa- 
r that muil furnifh all the Fountains : The Foun- 
ins were not quite finiflied when I was there, but 
hen all is finifhed this place will look like an Inchan- 
d Illand. The frefhnefs of the Air,it being both in a 
ike and near the Mountains, the fragrant fmell, the 
jautifu] profpea, and the delighting variety that is 
?re makes it fuch a habitation for Summer, that per- 
ips the whole World hath nothing like it. From this 
went to Sejiio, a miferable Village at the end of the 
ike, and here I began to feel a mighty change being 
Dw in Lombardy, which is certainly the beautifullell 
ountry that can be imagined,the ground lies fo even,it 
fo well watered, fo fweetly divided by rows of Trees 
iclofing every piece of ground of an Acre or two 
.cres compafs, that it cannot be denied that here is 
vail extent of foil above Two Hundred miles long, 
nd in many places a" Hundred miles broad, where 
le whole Country is equal to the loveliell fpots in 
11 EngUnd or France, it hath all the fweetnefs that 
(oUand or FUnders have, but with a warmer Sun 
nd a better Air, the Neighbour-hood of the Moun- 
ains caufes a freninefs of Air here, that makes the 
3il the moil deferable place to live in that can be 
ren, if the Government were not fo excejOfively fe- 

I vere 



vere, that there is nothing but poverty over all th 
rich Country. A Traveller in many places finds a 
moil nothing, and is foill furniilied, that if hedoB 
not buy provifions in the great Towns, he will b 
obliged to a very fevere Diet, in a Country that I. 
fhould think flowed .with Milk and Honey ; but 
lliail fay more of this hereafter. The Lago Maggh 
rf difcharges it felf in the River Tefine, which rur 
with fuch a force that we went Thirty miles i 
tiiree hours, having but one Row^er, and the Wate 
was no way fwelled. From this we went into th 
Cande^ which Francii the firft cut from this Riv« 
to the Town of MiUn^ which is about Thirty foo 
broad, and on both its banks there are fuch provifi 
ens to difcharge the Water when it rifes, to fuch 
height, that it can never be fuller of Water then j 
intended it l>.culd be •, it lies alfo fo even that fome 
times for fix miles together one fees xkic line fo ex 
261 that there is not the leaft crook ; it is Thirt 
miles long, and is the bell advantage that the Towj 
of iJ/Z/tiwhath for Water carriage. 

I will not entertain you with a long defcrfptio; 
of this great City, vvIhcH is one of the noblell in th 
World, to be an Inland Town that hath no grea 
Court, no commerce either by Sea or any Naviga 
ble River, and that is now the Metropolis of a ve 
ry fmall State 5 for that which is not MountainoMi 
in this Hate, is not above fixty milesfqjare, and y^ 
it produces a wealth that is furprizing: It pales fo 
an cilabiiiTiment of Seven and Forty Thoufand Men 
and yyt there are not Sixteen Thoufand Souldier 
effedively in it, f) manv are eat up by thofein whof 
hands the Governmetit is lodged : But the vaftnefs 41 
the Town, the Noblenefs of tJie Buildings, and'"jS 
bove all the fu: prizing riches of the Churches anc 
Convents are figns of great wealth : The Dome hati' 
nothing to commend it of Archite<5ture, it beir,s 
built m the rude GotbUi manner, but for the vall- 

ncf< 



(47) 

cfs and riches of the Building, it is equal to any in 
w//, S. Peters it felf not excepted. It is all marble, 
oth pavement, and Walls both outiide and iniide, 
nd on the top it is all flagg'd with Marble ^ and 
lere is the vailefl nutiiber of niches for Statues of 
larble, both within and without, that are any where 
:> be fcen. It is true the Statues in feme of tlieni- 
'ics are not proportioned to the niches themfelves ; 
le Prontifpiece is not yet made, it is to be all o- 
er covered with Statues and bos reliefs ; and the 
illars of which there are Four rows in the body of 
le Church, have each of them Eight niches at the 
)p for {o many Statues , and though one would 
link this Church fo full of Statues, that almoil e- 
ery Saint hath his Ihtue , yet I was afTured thiy 
wanted Seven Thoufand to finifh the defign, but 
lefe mud chiefly belong to the Prontifpiece : The 
Church as I could meafure it by walking over it in 
a equal pace, is Five Hundred foot long, and Two 
[undred wide j the Quire is wainfchotted and carv-- 
i in fo extraordinary a manner, that I never favv 
artion fo well exprelled in Wood 5 it contains Six- 
r Ihlls, and they have almoft all the Kiffories of 
K GofpeV reprefented in them. Jul!: under the 
lupulo lies S. Carlo's body, as I was told, in a 
reat cafe of Crilhl of vaft value, but I could not 
Dme near it j for we were there on two Holy-davs> 
nd there was a perpetual crowd about it ; and the 
iperlHtion of the People for his body, is fuch, that 
n a Holy-day one runs a hazard that comes near ic 
/ithout doing fome reverence. His Canonization 
oft the Town a Hundred Thoufand Crowns, they 
•retend they have miracles too, for Cardinal Fre^ 
erigo Borromee ; but they will not fet abouc his Ca- 
onization, the price is fo high. The Plate and 0- 
her prefents made to S. Carlo are things of a prodi- 
;ious value j fome fervices for the Altar are all of 
iold, fome very mame and fet with Jewels, others 

I ^ fa 



-S V 



f-jl 



(48) 

fo finely wrought that the fashion is thought equal 
to the value ot the mettle ; the Habits a^d all tht 
other Ornaments for th? Pundion of his Canoniza- 
tion are all of an incredible Wealth. He was in- 
deed a Prelate of great merit, and according to the 
anfwer that aFiiermide to Philip de Comines, when 
he asked him how they came to qualifie one 0] 
the worrt of thefr Princes with the Title of Saint 
in an Infcription which he read , which was thai 
they gave th:ft Title to all thf^ir Benefad:ors ; never 
Man defer ved of a Town this Title fo juflly^ sa 
Cardinal Borromee did, for he laid out a prodigious 
Wealth in Mian , leaving nothing to his Family, 
but the honour of having produced fo great a Man, 
which is a real temporal Inheritance to it, for as 
there have been, fince that time, two Cardinals of 
that Family, fo it is efteemed a Cufa. Sanu ; and e- 
very time that it produces an Ecclefiaftick of any 
confiderable merit, he is fure, if he lives to it, to 
be raifed to this Arch-biflioprick, for if there were 
one of the Family capable of it, and that did not 
carry it that alone might difpofe the State to a Re- 
bellion, and he were a bold Man that vvould ad- 
venture on a competition with one of this Family. 
He laid out a great deal on the Dome and confecra- 
ted it, though the work will not be quite finifhed 
yet for fome Ages, that being one of the crafts of 
the lulian Priefts never to finifh a great defign, that 
fo by keeping it flill in an unfiniiht eftate, they may 
be always drawing great donatives to it, from the 
fuperlHtion of the People. He built the Arch-Bi- 
Ihops Palace, which is very noble, and a feminary, 
a Colledge for the Swic^ers^ feveral Parilli Church- 
es, and many Convents. In fiiort the whole Town 
is full of the marks of his Wealth. The riches of 
the Churches of Milan ftrike one with amazement, 
S!he Building, the Painting, the Altars, and the Plate, 
and every thing in the Convents, except their^ Li- 

braircs. 



(49) 

)rairics, are all figns both of great Wealth and ct ^ 
'try 1 oweiful fuperftition, but their Libraircs not 
.nly here, but all Italy over are fcandalous things 
he room is often fine and richly adorned, but tJie 
Jooksarefew, ill bound, and vvoife chofen, and the 
:^norance of the Prielhborh Secular and Regular is . 
jch;, that no Man th^ hath not had occalion to diC- 
over it, can cafily believe it. The Convent of S. 
Wor that is without the Town, is by much tlje 
ichell, it is compofed of Canons Regular, called m 
taly the Order of Mount Olive, or Olivetam, that of 
he Bernabites is extream rich, there is a Pulpit and - 
Confellional all inlaid with Agates of different co- 
Durs, finely fpotted Marbles, and of LapU Uiuli< 
hat are thought almoft ineftimable. S. Laurence has 
.noble Cupulo, and a Pulpit of the fame form with 
hat of the Bermhites, The Jesuits, the Themnes^ 
he Dominicans, and S. Sehafiians are very rich. The 
:ittadel is too well known to need a defcription, it 
rvery resularly built, and is a moll effedlual re- 
Iraint to keep the Town in order, but it could not 
:and out againll a good Army three days ; for it is . 
3 little, and fo f-.ll of buildings, that it could not 
z(\i\ a ihowr of Bombs. The Hofpital is indeed a 
(oyal Building, 1 was told it had Ninety Thoufand ■ 
:rowns Revenue: The old Court is large, and 
vould look noble if it were not for the new Court - 
hat is near it, which is Two Hundred and Fifty foot 
quare, and there are three rows of Corridors or 
Salleries all round the Court, one in every Ihge ac- 
:ording to the Italian manner , which makes the • 
odgings very convenient , and gives a Gallery be- 
ore every door : It is true thefe take up a great 
leal of the Building, being ordinarily Eight or Tea - 
bot broad; but then here is an open fpace that is 
stream cool on that fide where the Sun doth not 
lie, for it is all open to the Air, the Wall being on- 
ly fuDported by Pillars, a: the dillancc of Fifteen or 

1.3 Twenty. 



ifi 



(so) 

Twenty foot one fi-om another. In this Hofpital 
there are not only Galleries full of Beds on botj 
iides, as is ordinary in all Hofpitals ; but there ar 
alio a great many Chambers in which Perfons whof. 
condition was formerly diflinguillied are treated wit] 
a particular care. Thete is an out- licufe which i 
called the La^drette , that is without the Walls 
which belongs to this Hofpital, it is an exa(5l quar- 
t€f of a milq fquaye, and there are Three Hundre( 
and Sixty Rooms in it, and a Gallery runs all alonj 
before the Chambers, fo that as the fervice is ccnve 
nient, the fick have a covered walk before thci. 
Doors. In the middle of this vafl fquare there 
an O^f angular Chappel, fo contrived that the ficl 
from all their Beds may fee the elevation of the Ho- 
flie and adore it : This Houfe is for the Plague oi 
for infedlious Feavers, and the Sick that want a freei 
Air, are alfo removed hither. 

As for the devotions of this place, I faw here th( 
Ambrofiiin Oi^ce, which is difiinguillied from the Ro- 
mjn , both in the Mufick which is much fimpler 
and in fome other rites : the Go(i^el is read in a higl 
Pulpit at the lower end of the t^uire, that fo it maj 
he heard by all the People, though this is needlefs 
lince it is read in a Language that they do not un- 
derhand ; when they go to fay high Mafs, the Prieft.- 
comes from the high Altar to the lovv^r-end of th< 
Quire, where the Oftertory oF the Bread and th( 
Wine is made by fome of the Laity, they were Nun: 
tirat made it when I was there, 1 hea-d a. Capuch 
Pi-each here; it was the hrft Sermon 1 heard in haly. 
and 1 vv.is much furprized at many Comical expref- 
fions and geilures, butmoli: of all with the concluiiJ 
on 5 for there being in all the Pulpits of Italy a Cru- 
cifix on the fide of the Pulpit towards the Altar; he, 
after a long adclrefs to it, at lall m a foiced tranlporr, 
took it in his Arms and hiip,ged it and killed it : But I 
©blervedthat before he !dls!u it, he feeing fome duf^. 

Oil 



t»n it, blew It off very carefully, for I was juft under 
the Pulpit : He entertained it with a long and tender 
carefs, and held it out to the People, and would have 
foiced tears both from himfelf and them, yet I faw 
none fhed. But if the Sermon in the Morning fur- 
prized me, I wondred no lefs at two difcourfes that 
I heard in one Church, at the fame time, in the af- 
ternoon ; for there were two bodies of Men fet down 
in different places of the Church all covered,^ and 
two Lay-men in ordinary habits were entertaining 
them with difcourfes of Religion in a Catechetical 
ftile : Thefe were Confrairies, and thofe were fom.e 
of the more devout that inftru(5led the relh This I 
never faw any where elfe, fo I do not know^. whether 
it is peculiar to Milan or not. My Condudor could 
not fpeak Latin, and the Italian there is fo different 
from the true Tufcan , which 1 only knew, that I 
could not underfland him when he was engaged in a 
long difcouife, fol was not clearly informed of this 
matter; but I am apt to think it might have been 
fome inlUtution of Cardinal Boncmees. The Amhro- 
y/<2w Libi ary founded by Cardinal Freciericli Borrcmee 
is a very noble Room and well furnifhed, only it is 
too full of School-men and Canonifls, which are the 
chief Ikdies of Italy, and it hath too few Books of a 
more folid and ufeful learning. One part of the dif- 
polition of the Room was pleafant, there is a great 
number of Chairs placed all round it at a competent 
diftancefrom one another, and to every Chair theie 
belongs a Desk with an Ecritoire that hath Pen, Ink, 
and Paper in it, fo that every Man finds tools here for 
fuch extrafls as he would make. There is -a little 
Room of Manufcripts at the end of the great Gallery, 
but the Library- keeper knows little of them, a great; 
many cf them relate to their Saint Charles, I faw 
fome fragr^ients of Latin Bibles, but none feemed to 
be above Six Hundred Years old, there are alio fome 
fragments of Saint Ambroses works, and ,of Saint Jc^, 

rom's 



• ^ 



w«f's Epillle that are of the fame antiquity. I was 
forry not to find St. Ambrofe's Works intire, that I 
might have feen whether the Books of the Sacraments 
are afcribed to him in ancient Copies, for perhaps 
they belong to a more modern Author. 

It is true, in thefe Books the Dodrine of a fort of 
a Corporal Prefence is aflerted in very high expref- 
fions j but there is one thing mentioned_ in_ them, 
which is ftronger againft it than all thofe citations caa 
be for it j for the Author gives us the formal words of 
the Prayer of Confecration in his time, which he 
Prefaces with folemnity : Will you know how the 
change is wrought, hear the Heavenly words .-? For 
the Priell faith, but whereas in the prefent Canon of 
the Mafs, the Prayer of Confecration is for a good 
part of it very near in the fame words with thofe 
which he mentions, there is one effential difference, 
for in the Canon thev now pray that the Holly may be 
to them the Body 'and Blood of Chrift, ( which by 
the way doth not agree too well with the notion of 
Tranfubftantiation, and approacheth more to the Do- 
^rine of the Liitherkns : ) whereas in the Prayer, 
cited by that Author, the Hofly is faid to be the fi- 
gure of the Body and Blood of Chriji: here is the lan- 
guage of the whole Church of that time, and m the 
moll important part of the divine Office, which fig- 
nifieth more to me than a Thoufand Quotations out 
of particular Writers, which are but their private 
opinions : But this is the voice of the whofe body in 
its addreffes to God : And itfeems the Church of 
Rome, when the new Doctrine of the Corporal Pre- 
fence was received, faw that this Prayer of Confe- 
cration could not confill with it, which made her 
change fuch a main part of the Office. This gave me 
a curiofity every where to fearch for ancient Offices, 
but I found none in the Abbey o^St.Gemam that 
feemed older than the times of Charles the Great 5 fo 
I found noi^ of any,great Antiquity- in all /«//,. 



( n ; 

rhofe publiHied by Cardinal Boni,and fince by P..V4- 
'illon^ thit were brought from Heidelberg^ are the 
noil ancient that . are in the Vaticm ; but thefe feem 
tot to be above Eight hundred Years old : There are 
tone of the ancient Roman Offices now to be feen in 
he Vaticm, I was amazed to find none of any great 
Vntiq.iity; which made me conclude that cither 
hf y \rere deftroyed, that fo the difference between 
\ncient and Modern Rituals might not be turned a- 
;ainfl: that Church , as an undeniable Evidence to 
Drove the Changes that ibe hath made in divine mat- 
ers, or that they were fo well kept that Hereticks 
-vere not to be fuffered to look into them. ^ But to 
■eturn to the Ambrofian Library, there is in it a Ma- 
lufcript of great Antiquity, though not of fuch great 
:onfequence, which is Ruffinw^s Tranflation of J^oje- 
hw^ tnat is written in the old R(.m^n hand, which 
s very 4iard to read. But there is a deed in the curi- 
)Us Colle(5lion that Count M^lcardo hath made at Ve- 
ona, which by the date appears to have been written 
Q Tl?eodofiM's 'time, which is the fame fort of wri- 
ing with the Manufcript of Ruffinw, fo that it may 
>e reckoned to have be^n writ in Rufmrn's own time, 
nd this is the moll valuable, though the leaft known 
:uriofit7 in the whole Library. 

I need not fay any thing of the curious Works in 
^yftal that are to be feen in Mihn ; the greatell quan- 
ities that are in Europe^ are found in the Alps^ and 
ire wrought here ^ but this is too well known to need 
my further enlargement. At is certain, the Alps have 
nuch Wealth iliut up in their Rocks, if the Inhabi- 
ants knew how to fearch for it : But I heard of no 
vlines that were wroiight except Iron Mines ; yet by 
he . colourings, that in many places, the Fountains 
■nake, as they run along the Rocks, onefeescaufeto 
relieve that there are Mines and Minerals fhut up 
«Mthin them. Gold hath been often found in the Ri- 
irer of -^rve, that runs by Gf?2fv<i. 

- The 



C H ) 

The laft Curiofity that I fliall mention of the Towi 
of MiUn^ is the Cabinet of the Chanoine SetuU 
which is now in his Brothers hands, where there ar< 
a great many very valuable things, both of Art anc 
Nature ; there is a lump of Ore, in which there i 
both Gold, Silver, Emeralds, and Diamonds, whici 
was brought from Peru. There are many curious mo 
tions where by an unfeen Spring, a Ball, after it hatl 
rowled down through many winding defcents, h. 
thrown up, and fo it feems to be a perpetual motion 
This is done in feveral forms, and is wcU enough dif 
guifed to deceive the vulgar. Many motions of Ht'tk 
Animals that run about by Springs, are alfo very pret- 
ty. There is a Loadllone of a vafl force that caniej 
a great Chain : There is alfo a monftrous Child thai 
was lately born in the Hofpital, which is prefervec 
in Spirit of Wine : It is double below, it hath one 
Breaft and Neck, two pair of Ears, a vaft Hand, and 
but one Face. As for the Buildings in MUn^ they are 
big and fublhntial, but they have not much regulai 
or beautiful Architc<5lure : The Governors Palace hath 
fome noble apartments in it : The chief Place of the 
Town is that of the Homodei^ which was built by a 
Bankier. There is one inconvenience in MUn^vjhich 
throws down all the pleafurc that one can find in it ; 
they have no Glafs Windows, fo that one is either 
expofed to the Air, or fhut-up in a Dungeon : and thij 
fo univerfal, that there is not one houfe of ten that 
hath Glafs in their Windows : The fame defect is ir 
Florence, befides all the fmall Towns of Italy, which 
is an effed of their poverty : For what by the oppref- 
fion of the Government, what by the no lefs fqueezing 
opprefifion of their Prieih, who drain all the rcll oi 
their Wealth that is not eat up by the Prince, to inrich 
their Churches and Convents, the People here are re- 
duced to a poverty, that cannot be eafily believed by 
one that fees the Wealth that is in their Churches,and 
this is going on fo conftantly in Miimi that it is 

fcarce 



c 



( fy ; 

:arce accountable from whence Co vaft a trcafure can 
e found 3 but Purgatory is a fond not eafiiyexhauft- 
i. The Wealth of the MiUnefe confifts chiefly in 
leir Silks, and that Trade falls fo mightily by the 
aft Importations that the Eaft-India Companies 
ring into Europe^ that all Italy feels this very fenfi- 
ly, and languilhes extreamly by the great fall that 
in the Silk-Trade : There is a great magnificence in 
iiUn ', the Nobility zffc^ to make a noble appear- 
ice both in their Cloaths, their Coaches, and their 
.ttendants ; and the Women go abroad with more 
'eedom here than in any Town of Italy. And thus 
have told you all that hath hitherto occurred to me, 
lat I thought worth your knowledge. I am 

Tours, 
Pefffcript, 
' N the account that I gave you of Geneva^ I forgot 
, to mention a very extraordinary Perfon that is 
lere, Mrs. lValf{ier ; her Father is of S^^jf Houfe, (he 
>fther fight when (be was but a Year old, by being 
)o near a Stove that was very hot : There refts in 
er Eye fo much fight, that (he diftinguifhes Day from 
[ight ; and when any Perfon flands between her and 
ne light (be will dilHnguifli by the Head and its drefs 
Man from a Woman ; but 'when Ihe turns down 
er Eyes llie ^ces nothing : fhe hath a vail memory ; 
efides the French that is her natural language, fhe 
peakes both Nigh Dutch, Italian and Latine : fhe hath 
ii the Pfalms by heart, in French, and many of them 
1 Dutch and Italian : fhe underftands the Old Philo- 
Dphy well, and is now ftudying the New : fhe hath 
^udied the body of Divinity well, and hath the Text 
•fthe Scriptures veiy ready: On all which matters 1 
i3d long converfations with her j fhe not only fings 
veil, but fhe plays rarely on the Organ j and I was 
old llie played on the Violin, but her Violin was out 
>f order. ' But that which is moll of all, is, (lie writes 
^gibiy ; in order to ha- learning to write, her Father 

who 



( y6 ) 

who is a worthy Man, and hath' fuch tendernefs for 
her, that he furniflieth her with Mailers of all forts, 
ordered Letters to be carved inWood,and fheby feel 
ing the Gharaders formed fuch an Idea of them, that 
flie writes with a Crayon fo diftindiy, that her wri- 
ting can be well read,bf which I have feveral Eflays. 1 
fawher write,{he doth it more nimbly than can be ima- 
gined ; fhe hath a Machine thit holds the Paper, and 
keeps her always in line. But that which is above al! 
the reft, flie is a perfon of extraordinary Devotion, 
great relignation to the Will of God, and a profounc 
humility : The Preceptor that the Father kept in th{ 
. houfe with her, hath likewife a wonderful faculty o 
acquiring Tongues. When he came firft to Geneva 
f for he is of Zurich^ he fpoke not a word of French 
and within Thirteen months he Preacht in Frencl 
correftly, and with a good accent ; He alfo began t< 
ftudy Italian in the month of November^ and befor 
the end of the following February he preacht in Ita- 
lian J his accent was good, and his IHle was florid 
which was very extraordinary, for the Italian langu 
age is not fpoken in Geneva, though the Race of th 
Italians do keep up IHll an Italian Church there. 



T H 



(57) 

THE THIRD 



LETTER 



Florence the ^th, (/November.^ 

r Have now another Month over my head fmct I 
I writ laft to you, and fo I know you expedl an 
L account of the moft confiderable things that have 
xurred to me llnce my laft from MiUn. Twenty 
liles from MiUn we paft through Lodi a miferable 
'arrifon, though a Frontier Town ; but indeed the 
rontiers, both of the Spaniards and the Venetians, as 
ell as thofe of other Princes of Italy, fhew that they 
e not very apprehenfive of one another s and when 
ic pafles through thofe places, which are reprefent- 
l in Hiftory as places of great ftrength, capable of 
fifting a long Siege, he muft acknowledge that the 
»ht ot them, brings the Idea that he had conceived 
: them, a great many degrees lower. Hor Lombard/, 
•hich waslo long the feat of War, could not ftand 
Jt a good Army now for fo many Days, as it did 
len for Years. The Garrifon of Crema, which is the 
rft of the Kf««w« Territory, is no better than that 
^Lodi, only the People in the Venetian Dominion 
vc happier than under the Spaniard. 

The Senate fends Podefla's, much like the Bailifs 
P the S withers, who order the Juftice and the Civil 
fovernment of the Jurifdidtion alTigned them : There 

alfo a Captain General who hath the Military Au- 
lority in his hands -, and thefe two are checks upon 
ae another, as the Baca's and the Cadi's are among 
le Turks. But here in Crema the Town is fo fmall 

K that 



[I 



h 



> (s^ ) 

that both thefe are in one Perfon. We were there hm 

the time of the^-Fair-Linnen Cloath and -Checfe, whiq 

though it goes by the name of Parmefan^ is mad 

chit-fly in Lodi^ are the main Ingredients of the Fan 

The magnificence of the Poiefla appeared very extra 

ordinary, for he went through the Fair with a grea 

train of Coaches, all in his own Livery 5 and the tw< 

Coaches in which he and his Lady ride, were botJ 

extraordinary rich : his was a huge Bed-coach, all th 

out fide black Velvet, and a mighty rich Gold fringe 

lined with black Damask, flowred with Gold. Fron 

Cremn it is Thirty miles to Brefcia^ which is a grea 

Town, and full of Trade and Wealth , here the 

make the belt Barrils for Piflols and Muskets of a] 

luly : There are great Iron Works near it 5 but th 

War with the Turli had occafioned an Order tha 

none be fold without a permiffion from I'^enice : Thc] 

are building a Noble Dome at BrefcU : I was fhewo 

a Nunnery'there,which is now under a great difgrace 

' fome yeais ago a new Bifhop coming thither, bega. 

with the Viiitation of that Nunnery : he difco vera 

two Vaults, by one, Men came ordinarily into it :^ am 

by another the Nuns that were big went and lay-in 

Child-bed : when he was examining the Nuns feverel; 

concerning thole Vaults, fome of them told him, tha 

his own Priefts did much worfe : He fliut _ up th 

Nuns, To that thofe who are prbfelTed live i\i\l thert 

but none come to take the Vail : and by thismean^^th 

Houfe will foon come to an end : The Cittadel lie 

over tl:£ Town on a Rock, and commands it abfo 

lutelv. Both here and in Cremn the Towns have be 

' gun a Complement within thefe hll Ten or Twely 

Years to their Podefta's^ which is a matter of grea 

Ornament to their Palaces, but will -grow to a va( 

charge, for they erecSl Statues to their Podefia's : au( 

tihis being once begun, mull be carried on; otherwili 

thofe, to vvhom the like Honour is not done, wil 

rer^-nt it as a high affront, and the revenges of th( 

Noble 






19 ) 



I 

Ijfoblc VenetUns^ are dreadful things their to Subfeif^s- 

Kiis name ofPo.iefia, is very ancient,fbr in the Romm 

Hmes, the chief Magiflrates of the lelTer Towns was 

ailed the Potefiat^ as appears by that o^Juverd-Fidc- 

unim ,Gabiorumve ejfe potefiaf. 

From BrefcU the beauty of Lomhurdy is a little in- 
:crrupted j for as all the way from MiUn to Brefcin is 
is one Garden, fo here on the one fide we come under 
hc_ MoLmtains, and we pafs by the L^.keof Guards, 
vhich is Forty miles long, and where it is broadeft, is 
Twenty miles broad : The miles indeed, all Lombardy 
|ver, are cxtream fhort, for I walkt often four or 
ive miles in a walk, and I found a Thoufan J paces 
nade their common mile -, but in Tufcam and the 
kingdom o^ Naples, the mile is Fifteen' Hundred pa- 
:es. We pafs through a great Heath for Seven or 
light miles on this fide of Vcrom, which begins to 
)e cultivated.^ Verona is a vaft Town, and much of 
C well built j there are many rich Churches in it ; but 
here is fo little Trade IHrring, and fo little money 
ping, that it is not eafie here to change a Pifiol, 
Rthout raking their coin of bafe alloy, which doth 
ot pafs out of the Veronefe 5 for this feems a (iran.-;e 
aaximo£zhQ Venetians to fuffer thofc fmall fhtes, to 
etain fHll a coin peculiar to them, which is extream 
iconvenient for Commerce. The known Antiquity 
>£Veronais the Amphitheater, one of the lead of all 
hat the Rmxns built, but the beft preferred, for 
hough mort of the great rtones of the out-fide are 
»ickt out ; yet the great flopping Vault on which 
he rows of the feats are alfo intire, they are four 
nd forty rows, every row is a foot and half high, 
nd as much in breadth, fothat a Man fits conveni- 
ntly in them, under the feet of thofe of the higher 
ow : and allowing every Man a foot and a half, the 
I vhole Amphitheater can hold Twenty three thoufand 
i )erfons. In the Vaults, under the rows of feats, were 
■ he Stalls for the Beafts that were prefented ta tcA-^^:- 

K I tain- 






K 



uin the Company : the thicknefs of the building,from 
the outward Wall to the lowcft row of feats,is ninc^ 
foot : B*t this Noble remnant of Antiquity is fo of- 
ten and fo copioufly defcribed,that I will fay no more 
of it. The next thing of value is the famous Mufem 
eakeolarium, now in the hands of the Count Mafcar' 
4o^ where there is a whole apartment of Rooms all 
Eirniihc with Antiquities and Rarities : There are fom< 
old Inscriptions made by two Towns in Africk, to tht 
Honour of M, Craffw : There is a great coUedion <« 
Medals and Medaillons, and of the Roman Weights 
and their Inftruments for their Saaifices, there ar( 
many Curiofities of Nature, and a great collei^ion ol 
Pidures, of which many are of Paulo Veronefe*shit4 
There is a noble Garden in Verona that rifeth up k 
Terrafles the whole heigth of a Hill, in which then 
are many ancient Infcriptions,which belongs to Count 
Oiuflo, As we go from Verona to Vincemfia which ij 
thirty miles, we return to the beauty of Lombardy^ foj 
there is all the way as it were a fucceffion of Gardem 
the Ground is better cultivated here than I faw k k 
any other place of Italy: But the Wine is notgoo^ 
for at the roots of all their Trees they planta Vi» 
which grows up winding about the Tree to which i 
joins ; but the Soil is too rich to produce a rid 
Wine, for that requires a dry ground : There is nea 
the Lake of Guarda a very extraordinary Wine whid 
they call VmSanto, which drinks like the beft fort 
Canary^ it is not made till ChrijimaSj and from ther 
k carries the name of Holy Wine, and it is not to b< 
drunk till Midfummer, for it is fo long before it i 
quite wrought clear, but I have not marked dowi 
Mow long it may be kept : We had it there foc^ 
groat an Englijh quart, 1 wondred that they did no 
Trade with it. All the Cattle of Italy are gray oi 
white, and all their Hogs are black, except in th< 
Bolognefey and there they are red. I will not inquin 
into the reafonsof thefe things: It is certain Hog| 

Flell^ 



FleOi in Italy Is much better than it is in France and 
Englanct^ whetiier the trufis on which they feed much; 
n Winter^ occafion this or not, I know not, the 
lusksof the prcfled Grapes is alfo a mighty noiirifli- 
Tient to them ; but Cattel of that grayifh colour are 
rertainly weaker : The carriage o^ Italy is generally 
performed by them, and this is very hard work in 
lombirdy when it hath rained never fo little, for the 
'round being quite level, and there being no raifed 
rligh-ways or Caufe-ways, the Carts go deep and 
ire hardly drawn. 

Vincenia hath ftill more ©fits ancient liberty re- 
erved than any of thefe Towns, as Paim hath lefs, 
'or it delivered it felf to the Venetians, whereas the 
)ther difputed long with it, and brought it often very 
ow ; one k^s the marks of Liberty in Vincenia in the 
"iches of their Palaces and Churches, of which many 
ire newly built : They have a modern Theater made 
nimitadonof the ancient ilow^n Theaters. Count 
^dlaranos Gardens at the Port of Verona^ is the finell 
hingof the Town, there is in it a very noble Alley 
)f Oranges and Cttrons, fome as big as a Mans body. 
Hit thofe are covered all the Winter long, for in this 
ippears the fenfible difference of Lombardy from thofe ■ 
3arts of Italy^ that lies to the South of the Apeninr^ 
:hat here generally they keep their Oranges andCitrons 
n great Boxes as we do in Englandy that fo they may 
3e lodged in Winter, and defended from the breezes 
4iat blow fometimes fo fharp from the Alps, that o- 
:herwife they would kill thofe delicate Plants : where- 
is in Tufcany they grow as other Trees in their Gar- 
lens, and in the Kingdom of iVip/f/ they grow wild 
^vithout any care or cultivation. We were at Vin^ 
m^i upon a Holy- day, and there 1 faw a prepara- 
tion for a ProceiTion that was to be in the afternoon : . 
I did not wonder-at what a Fmcb Papiil faid to me^ 
that he could hardly bear the Religion of Itdy^ the 
Idolatry in it was fo grofs. The toue of the Virgin. 

was 



(6xy 

was of Wood To Hnely painted, that I thought the 
Head was Wax, it was richly clad, and had a Crowns 
on its Head, and was fet full of Flowers : how theyi 
did when it was carried about, I do not know ; but 
in the morning all People run to it and faid their 
Prayers to it,' ond kiffed the ground before it with 
all the appearances of devotion.- * _ • 

From Vincen^i it is Eighteen miles to Padua all like 
a Garden ;. here one fees the decays of a vaft City, 
which was, oace, one oi the biggeil of all hdv 3 the 
vompafs is the fame that it was, but there is much 
uninhabited ground in it, and Houfes there go almoll 
ibr nothing, their Air is extream good, and there is 
10 great a plenty of all things except money, that a 
little money goes a great way. The Univerfity here, 
though fo much fup,:ortcd by the Venetians, that they 
pay fity ProftfTors, yet finks extreamly : there are 
DO Men of any great fame now in it : and the quar- 
rels araong the SruJents have driren away moll: of the 
ih-ang:is that ufM to come and lludy here, for it 
i^ not fife to llir abroad here after Sun fet ; The 
Dumber of the Palaces heie is incredible , and 
though the Nobility of Padua is almoft quite ruined, 
yet the beauty of their ancient Palaces (hews what 
they once were. The Venetians have been willing to 
kt the ancient quarrels that were in all thofe con^ 
quered Cities continue IHU among them, for while 
one kills another, and the Children of the other take 
tjheir revenges afterwards, hofh com.es under th-e bando 
by this means, and the Conftfcation goes to the Se- 
nate. At fame times of grace when the Senate wants 
Money, and offers a Pardon to all that will.compound 
for it,the numbers of the guilty Perfonsare incrediblei 
In Vincen^a and the Country rhat belongs toit,^ 1 was 
affured by Monfieur Pat in, th2t learned Antiquary, 
that hath been many years a Pro'elTor in Padua, that 
there were Five and thirty thoufand pardoned at the 
lafl Grace 5 this I could, hardly believcj but he bid me 

write 



( 63 ) !- 

write it down upon his word. The Nobility of PaduA 
and of the other Towns,feem not to fee what a profit 
their quarrels bring to the VenetUns.znd how they eat 
out their Families : For one Family in the fame Man's 
time, who was alive while I was there, was redu- 
ced from Fourteen thoufand Ducats revenue to lefs 
than Three thoufand, by its falling at feveral times 
under the bando: But their jealoufies and their reven- 
ges are purfucd by them with fo much vigor, that 
when thefe are in their way, all other things are for- 
got by them. There is here the remnant of the Am- 
phitheater, though nothing but the outward Wall 
rtands : There is here, as well as in Mitariy an mward 
I Town, called the City, and an outward, without 
that, called the Burgo ; but though there is a Ditch 
about the City, the great Ditch and Wall goeth a- 
bout all and Padta is Eight miles in compafs ; it hes 
almoll round: The publick Hall is the Nobleliof/- 
«/y : the Dome is an ancient and mean Buildmg s but 
the Church of St. Anthony, efpecially the Holy Cha- 
pel in it where the Saint lies, is one of the belt pie- 
ces of modern Sculpture j for round the Chapel the 
chief Miracles in the legend of that Saint are reprefeu- 
ted In Meiio rilkvo, in a very furprizing manner : 
The devotion that is paid to this Saint, all Lombard/. 
o^'er, is amazing i he is called by way of excellence // 
Santo, and the Be2;gars generally ask Alms for his 
fake : But among the little Vows that hang without 
the Holy Chapel, there is one that is the higheft pitch^ 
ef Blafphemy that can be imagined Exxuiity fpeaking 
of the Saint quos mn audit ^ ipfe Den4, he hears 
thofe whom God himfelf doth not hear. St. Jujim 
is a Church fo well ordered within, the Architedure 
is fo beautifiil, it is fo well inli^htned, and the Cu- 
pub's are fo advantagiouflv placed that if the outfide 
anfwered the infide, it would be one of the beft 
Churches of Italy, but the Building is of Brick, and 
it hath no Fiontifpicce, there ai'e many new Altars 

made 



^ C ^4 ) 

madfe as fine as they are Idolatrous, all full of S:a- . 
tues of Marble. This Abby hath a Hundred Thou- < 
fand Ducats of Revenue, and fo by its Wealth one ? 
may conclude that it belongs to the Benediffine Order, t 
Cardinal S<tr&fr/go is Bifliop here, hefeems to fet St,i 
C^r/fl before him as his pattern-, he hath founded a 
Noble Seminary fo^the fecular Priefts •, he lives in a 
conftant difcipline himfelf, and endeavours to reform 
his Clergy all he can ; but he is now in ill terms with 
his Canons, who are all Noble Venetians^ and fo al- 
low themfelves great liberties, of which they wiU 
not be willingly abridged ; he is charitable to a high 
degree, and is in all refpe6ls a very extraordinary Man, 
In the Venetian Territory, their fubjeds Uve^ eafie 
and happy, if they could be fo wife as to give over 
their quarrels, but though the taxes are not high, 
they opprefs their Tenants fo fcvercly, that the Pe- 
fants live moft miferably, yet on all hands round a- 
bout them, the opprefTions being more intollerable, 
they know not whither to go for eafe, whereas on the 
contrary, the miferies under which their neighbours- 
groan, chiefly thofe of the Ecclefiaftical ftate, fend 
in anincreaie of People among them, io that they are 
well llockt with People, but the Venetians are Co jea- 
lous of their fubjcdts underlhnding Military matters, 
v/hich may difpofe them to revolt, that they never 
make any Levies among thsm for their Wars, this 
jealoufie is the true ground of that maxim, though- 
another is pretended that is more plaufible, which* 
IS their care of their own People, whom they lluiy 
to preferve, and therefore they hire Strar;gn*s rather 
than expofe their Subjects. It is certain a revolt here 
were no hard matter to effedluate, for the Garrifons 
and Fortifications are foflight,th at thofe great Towns 
could eafily (hake off their yoke, if it were not for the 
fadions that ftill reign among them, by which cite 
party would chufe rather to expofc the other to the 
rigor of the Inguilitors than concur with them irv-af- 

ferting 



i <^5) 

^rf^na fhnr liberty, and the Inquiiitors in fuch cafes 

oSK^^^^^^ yet fo eflfeauallythat none 

i?^s trull anot^^^^^^ ^ fecret of fuch confequence 

nd the opprefTcd Nobility of thofe States retain ftiU 

fo much o7 their old and ""^".^^"^^//fe^ ^^t 
Teat fuch as are under them fo cruelly, that the Ve- 
mians are as fecure in thofe Conquefts, as if they had 
many flrong Cittadels and numerous Garrifons fpread 
island down among them. From P^^^^ ^^1%'^ 

Venice, all along the River ^'^\'^1''a\^^ZI[ 
1 laces of the Noble Venetians on both fides of the Ri- 
ver, built with fo great a variety of Architeaure^ 
^thanhere is not one of them like another here is 
alfo the like diverfity in the laying out of th«r Oar- 
dens, and here they retire during the hot ~s and 
fome allow themfelves all the exccffes of diffolute 
liberty that can poiTibly be imagined. From LtnA 
Fucinl which is ae the mouth of the Brent, we pafs 
for Five or Six miles on the Lagunes or ihallows to 
Venice, thefe fhallows fmk of late fo much that the 
preferving Venice ftill an Ifland, is like to become as 
ircat a charge to the Venetians, as the keeping out 
the Sea is to the Dutch ; for they ufe all poffible in- 
duftry tocleanfe the Channels of their Ugmes,ZTi^ 
to keep them full of water ; and yet many think 
that the water hath failed fo much m this laft age, 
that if it continues to abate at the fame rate, withm 
an age or two more, Venice may become apart ot the 
Terra firma. It is certainly the moft furprizing light 
in the whole World, to fee fo vaft a city, fcituatcd 
thus in the Sea, and fuch a number of Iflands lo u- 
nited together by Bridges brought to fuch a, regular 
figure, the Pilotty fupplyin? the want of earth to 
build on, and all fo nobly built, which is of all the 
things that one can fee the moft amazing.And though 
thisRepublick is much funk from what it was, tK)th 
by the great loffes they have fuffered in their Wars 
with th« Turkh and by the great decay of Trade, yet 



/^^ (66) 1 

there is an incredible Wealth, and a vafl plenty of ali 
things in this place. I will not offer to defcribe nei- 
tner the Church nor the Palace of S. Mjir^, whid 
are too well known to need a Tong digreillon to h< 
made for them The painting of the Walls and th( 
roofs of the Halls^ and publick Rooms in the Palace: 
are of vaft value : Here I faw that Story of Pope ^- 
lexander the III. treading on the neck of the Emperoi 
Frederick BarbaroJJa, The noblenefs of the flair-cafes, 
the riches of the Halls, and the beauty of the whole 
building, are much prejudiced by the beafllinefs o1 
thole that walk along, and that leave their marks 
behind rhem, as if this were rather a common houfe 
ot Office, than fo Noble a Palace: And the great 
Hall, where the whole body of the Nobility meet, 
in the Great Council, hath nothing but the roof 
and walls that anfwers to fuch an AfTembly -, for the 
feats are likcr the benches of an Auditoiy of Schol- 
Jars, than of fo glorious a body. When the two 
iidesof this Palace are built a$ the third, which is the 
mofl hid. It will be one of the glorioufeff Palaces 
that the World can (hew. The two fides that are 
molt feen, the one facing the fquare of St. Afarl^, and 
the other the great Cande, are only of Brick, the 
third being all of Marble, but the War o£ Candy put 
a ffop to the building. St. Mirk's Church hath nothing 
to recommend it, but its great antiquity, and the vafl " 
riches of the building, it is dark and low, but the 
pavement is fo rich a Mofaick, and the whole roof is 
alfo Mofaick, the outfide, and infide are of fuch ex- 
cellent Marble, the fronrifpiece is adorned with fo 
many Pillars of Porphiry and Jafp, and above all 
with the four Horfes of Corinthian Brafs^ that TH- 
. dates brought to Tiberm, which were carried after-" 
wasds to Conflantinople, and were brought from thence 
to Venice, and in which the gilding is ffill very bright, 
that when all this is confidered one doth no where fee 
fo much coll brought together. I did not fee. the 

Gofpel 



( ^7) 

Jofpel of St. Mdrl(_, which is one of the valuablefl 
hln^s of the Treafure 3 but they do not now open ic 

ftrangcrs, yet Do(5lor Grandi, a famous Phyfitiin 
here, told me that, by a particular order, he was fuf- 
;red to open it j he told me it was all writ in Capi- 
al Letters, but the charafters were fo worn out, that 
hough he could difcern the ends of fome Letters, he 
ould not fee enough to help him to diilinguifh them 
r to know whether the M. S. was in Greel^ or Latin, 
will not fay one word of the Arfenal, for as I faw 

: in its woril ftatc, the War that is now on foot hav- 
ng disf. rnifhcd a great deal of it, fo it hath been of- 
en defcribed, and it is known to be the Noblefl: Ma- 
azine, the befl ordered, and of the greatell variety 
hat is in the whole World *, its tioie it is all that this 
tate hath, fo that if the Magazines of other Princes, 
vhich lie fpread up and down in the different places 
>f their dominions were gathered together, they 
vould make a much greater fliew. The Nobleft Con- 
'ent ot Venice is that of the Dominicansy called St. 
hhn, and S. Paul^ the Church, and Chapels are vaft- 
y rich 3 there is one of St. Lufie's Madon£s here as 
hey pretend i the Dormitory is very great j the Room 
or the Library, and every thing in it, except the 
Jooks, is extream fine. But St. George^ which is a 
[Convent of the Benedi^ines in an Ifle intirely pofTeffed 
)y them over againfl the St. Marf(s fquare is much the 
ichefl y the Church is well contrived and-well adorn- 
Jdj and not only the whole building is very magnifi- 
:ent, but which is more extraordinary at Vemce they 
lave a large Garden, and noble walks in it. The 
\^cdemp[ore, and the Salute zrc two Noble Churches 
!:hat are the effecfts of Vows that the Senate made 
jvhen they were afflided with the Plague, the latter 
lis much the finer, it is to the yirgin, and the other is 
3nly to our Saviour -^ fo naturally doth the devotion 
Dfthat Church carry It higher for the Mother than ' 

1 the Son; It is true the Salute is later than the other,ra 
I "■ no 



( ^8 ) 

no wonder if the Archiceifture, and the riches exceed 
that which is more ancient. The School of St. Rock 
and the Chapel, and Hall are full of great pieces o£ 
Tintorets'y 2 Cem o^ Paulo Yeronefe in the Refe<aory 
of St. George, and the Pi£hire of St. Peter the Martyr 
o^Timns are the moft celebrated pieces of Venice : 
Duke Pe faro's Tomb in the Frairy is the Nobleft I ever 
faw. But if the riches of all the Convents, and the 
Parifli Churches of Venice amazed me, the fronts eC. 
pecially, many of which are of white Marble, beau- 
tified with feveral Statues ; the meannefs of the Li- 
brary of St. Marli did no lefs furprize me. There arc 
in the Antichamber to it, Statues of vaft value, and 
the whole roof of the Library is compofed of feveral 
pieces of the greateft Mafters put in feveral frames j 
but the Library harh nothing anfwerable to the riches 
of the cafe, for the Greek Manufcripts are all modern, 
I turned over a great many, and faw none above Fiv« 
Hundred Years old : I was indeed told that the lafl 
Library- keeper was accufed for having conveyed a- 
way many of their Manufcripts ; and that Four Year; 
ago being clapt in Prifon for this by the Inquifitors 
he, to prevent fiirther feverities, poyfoned himfelf. 
went to the Convent of the.S'fm, but I found Fathe 
Paul was not in fuch confideration there, as he is elfJ 
where : I asked for his Tomb, but they made no ac- 
count of him, and feemed not to know where it waS; 
it is true the Perfon to whom I was recommende< 
was not in Venice, fo perhaps they refined too mucl 
in this matter: I had great difcourfe with fomeai 
Venice concerning the memorials out of which F 
Paul drew his Hiftory, which are no doubt all pre 
ferved with great care in their Archives, andfince th< 
tranfaftions of the Council oi Trent, as they are a 
great importance, fo they are become now much con- 
troverted by the different relations that F. Paul, anc 
Cardinal PaUavicini have given the World of tha 
flatter j the only way to put an end to all difpute 



( 69 ) 

rt matter of fa<5i:, is to print the Originals thenifclves : 
L Perfon of great credit at Venice promifed to me to 
!o his utmoil, to get that propofition fet on foot, tho 
he great exadtnefs that the Government there hath 
Iways affeded as to the matter of their Archives, is 
leld fo facred that this made him apprehend t\\zy 
i^ould not give way to any fuch fearch. The affinity 
f the matter brings into my mind a long Converfa-* 
ion that I had with a Perfon of great Eminence at 
^enice^ that as he was long at Co7ijian[imple.y fo was 
earned far beyond what is to be met with in h^ly^ he 
old me he was ^tConjiaminople when the Inquiry into 
he Dodlrine of the Greeli Church was fet on foot, 
Gcafioned by the famous DifpLite between Mr. Arrxui 
nd Mr. CUuie, he being a z: alous Roman Catholick, 
vas dealt with to ailift in that bufinefs ; but being a 
4an of gveat Honour and Sincerity, he excufed him- 
?lf, and faid he couid not meddle in it : He hith a, 
ery low and bad opinion of the Greeks^ and he told 
le that none of their Priefls were more inveterate 
nemies to the Church of Kome^ than thofe that were 
'ted up at Rome 5 for they to free chemfeives o[- the 
Tcjudices that their Countrey-men are apt to con- 
eive againft them, becaufe of their education among 
he Latines do affed: to ihew an oppoGcionto the Li- 
in Church beyond any other Gre^fif. He told me 
hat he knew ths ignorance and corruption of the 
rrecfis was f jch, that as they did not know the Do- 
irinfs of their own Church, foavery little Moneyj 
»r the hope of Protedion from any of the Ambafu- 
lors th^t come from the Wejt, would prevail with 
hem to fign any that that could be defired of them : 
ie added one thing, that though he firmly believed 
franfublhntiation himfelf, he did not thiak they be- 
ieved it i let them fay what they pleafed themfelves, 
le took his meafures of the Dodrine of their Church , 
ather from what they did, than from what they (kid i 

L For 



/** 



Eli 



ti 



(10 ) 

For their R^es not being changed now for a gra 

many ages were the true Indications ot the doctrine 

received among them j whereas they were bothig 

iiorant of the tradition of their doarine, and vet 

art to prevaricate when they faw advantages or pre 

tc'aion fet before them, therefore he concluded tha 

i^ncethey did not adore the Sacrament after the C02; 

fecration, that was an evident lign that thev did IK 

believe the corporal prefence, and was of a force we 

able to balance all their fubfcriptlons : He told me J 

was often fcandaliztd to fee them open the bag ; 

which the Sacrament was prelerved,and Ihew it wit 

no fort of refpea no more than when they ihewc 

any Manufcript, and he looked on adoration as fuc 

a neceflary confequence of Tranfubftantiation, th; 

he could not imagine that the latter was received in 

Church that did not pradlice the former. To this 

will add what an eminent Catholhk at Paru tola ra 

he faid the Originals of thofe attelbtions w^ere in t( 

exad and too corred a llile to have been formed 

Greece, he afllired me they were penned at P^ru 1 

one that was a Mafter of the purity ot the Gre 

tongue. I do not nam.e thofe Perfons becaule tin 

are^yet alive, and this might be aprej.dice :o thei 

One of the chief Ornaments of Vemce was the tame 

youn^ Woman that fpake five Tongues wellpt whi 

the Latin and Greekwc^t two-, ibe palled Doctor 

Phyf ck at Pddiu according to the ordinary forms 5 1 

which was beyond all, fhe was a Perfon of fiich c 

traordinary veitue and piety, that Clie is Ipoken 

as a Saint, (he died fome months before I came 

Venice ■ the was of the noble Family of the Cornard 

though not of the three chief branches, which 5 

SainFmuri-e, Sunt Paul and Calk, who are defcc 

^td from the three Brothers of the renowned C'"^ 

oiQprm, t-.ut the dillmaion of her Family was 

eo^i.i! Her extraordinary m-rit made all People 



( 70 

billing to remember the blemilli of her defcentof the 
tie fide, for though the Cornara's recktn themfelvet 
fizs of Nobility ^bw^ond ail the ocher Familbs of 
'enice, yet her Father having entertained a Gy/iddiers 
)aughtcr fo long that he had fome Children by her, 
'Am for their fikes Married the Mother, and pnyed 
conliierable fine tofave the forfeiture ofNobilit)', 
'hich his Children inurt have undergone, by reafon 
f the mcannefs of the Mothers birth. Tlie Cormras 
irry it fo high that many of the Daughters of that 
amily have made themfelves Nuns, becaufe the^ 
wught their own name was fo Noble that tliey could 
5t induce themfelves to change it with any other, 
id when lately one of that Family married the Heir 
: the Sdgredoy which is a! fo onQ of the ancientell Fa— 
ilies that was extream rich, and {he had fcarce any 
Drtion at all, for the CormnCs are now very low, 
>me of their Friends came to wiih them joy of fo 
Ivantagiousamatch; but they very coldly rejeifted 
le complement, and bid the others go and wifh the 
igreio joy, fince they thought the advantage was 
'holly of their fide. 

There are of the truly ancient Noble Families of 
enice Four and Twenty yet remaining, and even a- 
.ong thefe there are twelve tkat are thought fuperior 
» the rell in rank ; (ince the firil formatio.i of thsir 
?n3te they have created many Senators. In their 
i^ars with Genua, they conferred that honour on 
hirty Families ; feveral of their Generals have had 
lat honour given them as a reward of their fervice : ; 
'hey have alfo offered this honour to fomeRoval Fa- 
lilies : for both the Families of Wifoit and Bourbon 
''ere nobles of Vwj/Vp, and Henry tlie III. Vv^hen he 
mie through Venice from PoUni to take poflelHon of 
le Crown o( Franc ty went and fate among them, an(i 
raw his ballot as a Noble Venetian ; many Popes have 
rocured this, honour for their Nephews: Only the 



-4%.' 



(7i> 

Bkr&'m'wf J" would have the V^m/^wi offer It to them 
without their asking it, 2iid the Venetians would not 
give it without the others asked it, and fo it fiuckat 
this* But during the War of Candy Cardinal fran^ 
.cii Barbem g&YC Twelve Thoufand Crowns a Year 
towards the War, and the temper found for making 
them Noble Venetians was, that the Queen Mother of 
France moved the Senate to grant it. Ln all the Cre- 
ations of Senators before the lalt War of Candy^thty 
were free 5 and the coniide rations were either great 
fer vices, or the great digiiity of thofe on whom they 
bellowed this Honoijr. Thofe new Families are di- 
vided into thofe that are called Ducal Families, and 
. thofe that were called fimply new Families, the rea- 
•fon of the former defignatioa is not rightly under- 
llood i but one that knew all that related to that con- 
^itution particularly well gave me a good account ol 
it: That which naturally occurs as the reafon ofir, 
as, that all thcfe Families that are called Diical, hav^ 
had the Dukedom in their houfe : But as all the old 
families have had the fame honour, though thej 
'/.carry not that Title, fo fome of the new Familiej 
■.'Jiavealfohad it, that yet are not called Ducal ,0. 
tiiCYS fay that thofe Families that have had branches 
v/ho have been maae Dukes, without their being firf 
Procurat;crs of S. Marli, or that have been cho& t< 
that honour, without their pretending to it,, arecal 
jcd Ducal : But the true account of this is, that frort 
iheYear 1450. tothe Year 1^20. for a HundredaiKl 
Seventy Years there was a combination made atrjonf 
thofe new Families to preferve the Dukedom fHll a 
jncngthem: For the old Families carrying it highi 
and excluding the new Familiesflom the chief Hi>| 
nouts. Nineteen of the new Families entred into mu- 
tual engagements to exclude the ancient Nobility f 
It is triie they made the Dukedom fometimes fall 01 
tome of the new Families that v/ere not of this AfTo 

ciation 



r73 ) 

f iatlon 3 but this was more indifferent to tliem, as 
long as the ancient Families were (hut our, and thit 
it appeared that they bore the chief fway in the Ele- 
^ion. This Combination was a thing known to the 
very People,though the Inquifitorsdid all they could 
to break ir, and at leaft to hide it, fo that I never 
met with it in any ot their Authors : But this fiuled 
in the Year 1610, when 3feww/o was chofen D-.ike, 
who was defcended of one of the ancient Nobility, 
which was fo great a mortification to the cafe Ducale 
that one of them (Vevnicro) hanged himfelf, by the 
rage to which that difgrace dro\e him, yet his Man 
came into the room in time before he was dead, and 
cut him down, and he lived long after that in a bet- 
ter mind. Since that time one of the Bembos, two 
of the Cornxros^ and one of the Contrarms, and the 
prefent Prince of the JujUnum, the fir fl of that Fa- 
mily that hath had that honour, have been Dukes, 
who are all of the ancient Families : So that this Fa- 
ction is now fo intirely buried, that it is not gene- 
rally known, even in Wenice it felf, that it was ever 
amongft themj and thus time and other accidents 
bring about happy events, which no care nor induilry 
could produce : For that which all th-e endeavours 
of the Inquifitors could not compafs, was broughc 
about of it felf. 

It is true, the Factions in Venice, though violent 
enough in the perfons of thofe who manage them, yet 
are not derived by them as an inheritance to their Po- 
iterity, as it was among xhtFlorenmes ^ who though 
they value themfelves as a fize of Men much above 
the Vemlans, whom they defpife as a phlegmacick 
and dull race of People, yet {hewed how little they 
underllood with all their vivacity, to condud tiidr 
Ihte, iince by their domeftick heats they loll thdr 
liberty , which the Venetians have had the v/if- 
4om IMli to preferve. This Fadion of the Cafe Du- 

l. 3 c:>le. 



,/'' 



(74 ; 

c^rie was perhaps ^willing to let the matter fall, foi 
"hey loll iTiore than they got byjt j for the ancierr 
Famih'es in revenge, fet.themfelves againil them, and 
excluded them from all the other advantagious im- 
ployments of the State For the others being onl) 
ijnited in that /lagle point relating to the Dukedom 
the ancient Kimiiies let them cany it, but. in all o- 
ther Ccr.ipetitions they fet no always fuch Comped- 
•tors, agaii^lc the pretenders that were of the Ducal Fa- 
milies , that were much more cfleemed than thefe 
v/ere^ fo that th:y 'hut them out of all the bell Offi- 
ces QT the Repuhlhii, Such a Fi<5l:ion as this wa*;. 
if it had been jfiii kept up, might in concluhoa have 
proved fatal to theii Liberty* It is indeed a wondef 

.to.-fce, the Dignity of the Duke (o much courted, foi 

.hs is-only a priianer of ibte, ti«:fd up to fuch rules; 

,£) fevevely K-fqairx^l and O-JUt up as it vi.'ere in an 
iipartniL'.nc of the Palace oF St^.)/jr/;, that it^ is not 

. xlr£nj;e to fee fome of the greaced Families, \% \:?x- 
ricular thf C6r?i,^,i',i'S5 decline it. All the "Family, ii 
ever- (o numerous, mull- retire. o..t- of the Senate. 
w\\QU. a Duke is chofen out of it, only one that \i 
next to him of l^in fits ilill, but without >a^ote ; 

: And the only real Privikdge that the Duke haith, is, 
that he can of h'imfelf, v/ithout communicating "with 

•tJie Savii>, propofe matters, either to the Council o' 

• Ten, to ^Jp^^ Senate, or to ihe Great Council , wlicre- 
as ail other j-ro£of]ticns^ mull be firllou'ered/to tk 
AVu/i, ^and e.^amiaed by. ihem., who have jjfoit ol 
Tfibu-nltitzn power to re;e6l wdi-st they dnlilie , and 

■ then gh they cannot hiffder the Duke to make apro- 
pofTaon , yet they can mortlfc him when lie foth 
Fixdeit :. They can hinJer it to be voted, and after 

• it is Voted they can i^jfpead the execution of it till it 
isexarrilned-over again : And. a Duke that is of an 

. riftiveSpUit mulr refoU'e to endure many of thefe 
. ai^^fticns,,. aud it is ceitaio tkat th? Sniii do fome- 

" ^ ' '■ times 



(70 

" •?$ affeft tofhew the greamefs of their Autho- 
ii.V, and exei-cifs a fort of Tyranny in the rcjedt- 
ing of Proofitlons when they intend to humble 
thofethat make them. Yet the greatdfpait of the 
bell Families court this Honour of Dukedom ex- 
treamlv ; when Segrado was upon the point of beiflg 
chofen Duke, there was fo violent an outcry againfl 
it over all Yenice , becauie of the difgrace, that 
they thought would come on the Republicfiy if they 
had a Prince whole Note had mifcarried in fomc 
unfoitunate diiorders . the S-cnate eomplyed fo far 
with this Avenlon, that the People telliiied, Thac 
though the Inquilitors took caie to hang or drown 
many of the ciiief of the Mutineers, yet they let 
the dehs^n for Sagredo fall : Upon which he was 
fo much di(kulled that he reriicd to a houfe he 
had in the Terra firma, and never appeared more 
at Venice : Durinf^ v.-hich time of his retirement, 
he w^rit.two Books, the ont Meaiorie Oiiornarnche^ 
which is Printed; and he is accouat^d the hefl of 
3II the Modern Au'Jiors: The other was Memo? rcs 
Df the Government . and" Killory of Vf/7/ff, which 
hath never been ?i-ir.ted; and fome fay it is too 
:7ncere, and too particular, fo thst it is thoughc 
it will be referved^ among their Archives. It hath 
bern a fort ef;:n^.2"Aim now for fom2 time , no: 
:o chufe a married Ma'n to be Dake, for the Co- 
ronation of a Diitcheis goes high, and hath cofc 
3bove Hundred thcufand' Ducats. Some of the aa- 
:icnt Families have afi-ed^ed the Title of Prince , 
and ^ have called their braiiches Ptinces of the 
BlooS, and though the Corn:ir£s have done this 
more than any other,- yet. others upon the account 
of feme Principalities, that their Anceftors had in 
the Iflands of xhQ'Ardivcfugo^ have- alfo affe<5led 
thofe vain Titles; But the Inquiiitors hive long; ago 
obliged th.m to'iaf af:;le ail thofe high Tiriis, 

and 



(76) ^ 

and fuch of them that boail too much of their 
Blood, find the diflike which that brings on them 
very fer/ibly 5 for whenfoever they pretend to any 
great Employments , they find themielves always 
excluded. When an Eledion of AmbafTadors was 
propofed, or of any of the chief Offices , it was 
wont to be made in thofe terms, that the Coun- 
cil muf^ chufe one of its principal Members for fuch 
an Employment : Butbecaufe this lookt like a term 
of dillinaion , among the Nobility , they changed 
it Five and twenty Years ago ; and inllead of Prin- 
cipal, they ufe now the term Honourable, which 
comprehends the whole body of the Nobility, With- 
out any difHnaion. It is at Wmke m the Church. 
as well as in the State, that the Head of the Bo- 
dy hath a great Title, and particular Honours don« 
him ; whereas in the mean while this is a meei 
Paseaatry, and under thefe big words there is lodg- 
^d only a liP,ht fliadow of Authority j for theji 
Bidiop has the glorious Title of Patriark, as wel. 
as the Duke is called their Prince, and his fere- 
nicy, and hath his name ftampt upon their Coin 
fo the Patriark with ail his high Title hath real- 
ly no Authority: For not only St. MxrlCs Churcl 
is intirely exempted from his junfdi(5lion , and_ i 
immediately fabjea to the Duke, but his Authorit] 
is in all other things fo fabjea to the Senate 
and fo rei^ulared by them, that he hath no mor. 
power than they are pleafed to allow him : h( 
that the Senate is as really the fupream Governo 
over all Perfons , and in all Caufes as the King] 
of EnHini have pretended to be in their own Do- 
minions fince the Rrformation : But befides all this 
the Clergy of "Venice have a. very extraordinar 
fort of exemption, and are a fort of a Body like" j 
Presbytery independent of the Biihcp : The Curat ■ 
^ are chofea.by the Inhabitants of every Pani^, an( 



ill) 

this makes that no Noble ^imltn is fuiered to 
pretend to any Curacy, for they think it below 
that Dignity to fuffer one of their Body to en- 
gage in a Competition with one of a lower Order, 
and to run the hazard of being rejedted. 

I was told the manner of thofe Ele^ions was the 
moll fcandalous thing poffible, for the feveral Can- 
didates appear on the day of election, and fet out their 
own merits, and defame the other pretenders m the 
foulefl language, and in the moft fcunilous manner 
imaginable j the fecrets of all their lives are pu'^^^^)^^^ 
in moll reproachful terms, and nothing is fo ab;e6t 
and ridiculous that is not put in pradice on thole oc» 
callons : There is a fort of an AiTociation among the 
Curats for judging of their common concerns, and 
feme of the Laity of the feveral Pariihes aflill in thole 
Courts, fo that here is a real Tmhytery. The great 
Jibertinage that is fo undccently pra(5Hfed by moft 
forts of people at Vmke^ extends it felf to the Clergy 
to fudi a degree, that though ignorance and vice 
feem the only indelible charaders that they carry 
generally over all Ttily^ yet thofe appear here in a 
much more confpicuous manner than eifewhere, and 
tipon thofe popular eledions all comes out. The 
Nuns of ^enict have been under much fcandal for a 
great while \ there are fome Mcnafteries that are as 
famous for their Urianefs and exadtnefs to their 
rules, as others are for the liberties they take , chief- 
ly thofe of St. Zichary and St. Lmrms^ v^here 
■,none but Noble VenetUm are admiitted, and where it 
'is not fo much as pretended that they have retired 
: for devotion 5 but it is owned to be done meerly that 
they might not be too great a charge to their Family : 
"They are not vailed, their neck and breaft is bare, 

nd they receive much company : but that which I 
faw was iit a publick Room, in which there were 

iiany grills for feveral Parlors, fothat the coQverfa- 

t30Q 



« v\ 



"\ ■ . (7-8 J. 

tion is very confufed, for there being a different com-.! 
pany at every grill, and the ItdUns fpeaking gene-- 
rally very loud, the noife of fo many loud talkers is I 
very difagreeable. The Nuns talk much and very 
ungracefully, and allow themfelves a liberty in rally- 
ing that other places could not bean About four 
years ago the Patriark intended to bring in a reform 
into chofe Houfes, but the Nuns of St. Lawrence 
with whom he began, told him plainly they were 
Noble Venetians^ who had ch«fen that way of life 
as more convenient for them, but they would not 
fubjeifl themfelves to his regulations, yet he came 
and would fhut up their houfe, fo they went to fet 
fire to it 5 upon which the Senate interpofed and, or-» 
dcred the Patriark to defift. There is no Chriftiaa 
State in the World that hath exprefled a jealoufie 
of Churchmens getting into the publick Councels fa 
much as the VemtJans, for as a Noble Venetian that 
goes into Orders, loofes thereby his right of going 

" to vote in the great Councel, fo when any of them 
are promoted to be Cardinals, the whole kindred 
and family muft during their lives, withdraw from 
the great Couacel, and are alfo incapable of all im-. 
ployments ; And by a claufe which they added when 
they received the Inquifition, which feemed of no 
great confequence, they have made it to become a 
Court abfolutely fubjc(51: to them j for it being pro- 
vided that the Inquihtors fhould.do nothing but In 
the prefence of fuch as (hould be Deputed by the 
Senate to be the witnefTes of their proceedings y thofe 
Deputies either will not come but when tliey think 
fit, or will not ftay longer than they are pleafed with 
their proceedings ; fo that either their abfence or 
their withdrawing diffolves the Court : for a citati- 
on cannot be made, a witnefs cannot be examined, 
nor the lead point of form carried on if the Depu-. 

. ties of the Senate are not prefent : and thus it is, 

*that 



( 79 ) 

thatthbugh^tliere is a Court of Irtqui/ition ^tVenice, 
yst there is fcarce any perfon brought into trouble 
by it, and there are many of the Proteflant Rehgion 
that live there without any trouble ; and though 
[here is a Congregation of them there that hath their 
excrcifes of Religion very regularly, yet the Senate 
gives them no trouble. It is true, the Hofty's not 
being carried about in ProcelTion, but fecretly by 
the Prieftto the Sick, makes that this uneafie difcri- 
mination of Proteflant and Papift doth not offer it 
felf here as in other places, for the Ihaitnefs of the 
Streets and the Channels through which one mult go 
almoll every foot, makes that this could not be 
done in Venice as it is ehewhere, and from Venice 
this rule is carried over their whole Territory, tho 
the like reafon doth not hold in the Tenx Firm 
The Vcnetiiim are generally ignorant of the mat-' 
ters of Religion to afcandal, and they are as uncon- 
ft)ncerned in them as they are ttrangcrs to them, fo 
that all tlist vail pomp_ in their Ceremonies and 
wealth in t hi ir Churches is zffcded rather as a point 
of magnificence, or a matter of emulation among fa- 
milies, then that fupeiftition hath here fuch a power 
over the Spirits of the people as it hath elfewhere ; 
for the Atheifm that is received by many here is the 
dullefl and curfelt thing that can be imagined. The 
young Nobility are fo generally corrupted in their 
Morals, and fo given up to a moft fupine ignorance 
of all fort of knowledge, that a man cannot eafily 
imagine to what a height this is grown, and for 
Military Courage there is fcarce fo much as the am- 
bition ot being thought brave remaining among 
the greater pare of them. It feemed to me a ftrange 
thing to fee the Broglio fo full of graceful young Se- 
najcors and Nobles, when there was fo glorious a Wa 
on foot with the Turl^s, but inllead of being heated 
ifl point of honour to hazard their lives, they rather 

think 



11 



\ 

i 
i 



f2[ 



( 80 ) 

think it an extravagant piece of folly fbr them to gh 
and hazard it when a little money can hire (Irange. 
that do it on fuch eafie terms i and thus their Arn 
are in the hands of Grangers, while they ihy.i 
home managing their intrigues in the Broglio, zr,m^ 
dilTolving their fpirits among their Coartifan 
And the reputation of their fervice is of late years i 
much funk, that it is very ftrange to fee Co man 
come to a fervice fo decried, where there is fo Ir 
tie care had of the Souldiers, and fo little regat 
had to the OflScers ; the arrears are fo flow] 
paid, and the rewards are fo fcantly dillributec 
that if they do not change their maxims th^ 
may come to feel this very fenfibly 5 for as the 
Subjeds are nu acquainted with l\''arlike matter 
fo their Nobility have no fo.t of ambition the 
way, and Grangers are extreamly difgufted. 
is chiefly to the conje<5lure of affairs that the 
owe their fafety, for the feeblenefs of all thei 
Neighbours, the Turl^(_^ the Emperour, the King o^Spah 
the Pope , and the Duke of Mantua , preferv< 
them, from the apprehenfion of an Invafion , an 
the quarrels, and the degeneracy of their Sub 
jtd:s , fave them from the fears of a Revolt 
but a formidable Neighbour would put them hir 
to it. One great occafion of the degeneracy of tfi 
Italians , and in particular of the VenetUn Nob; 
lity, is a maxim that hath been taken up fo 
fome confiderable- time , that for the prefervatio 
of their Families, it is fit than only one of a Fa 
mily ilioald marry; to v/hich 1 will not ad 
that it is generally beHeved that the Wife is i 
common to the whole Family ; By this mean 
the younger Brothers that have appointmen 
for life, and that have no Families that com 
from themi, are not ftirred up by any ambition to fig 
nalize themfelves or to make Families, and fo the; 
give way to all the iasinefs of luxury, and are quid 
enervated by it. Wherea: 



11 
:r 

1 

03 



.11 

0' 

i 



I 



( 8r) 

Whereas the beft fervices done in other Stares Ro'ws 
.■om the necedities as well as the afpirings of younger 
rothers or their Families, whofe blood qualifies 
lem to pretend, as well as their priie and necefll- 
es pufh them on> to acquire firll a reputation, and 
len a fortune : But all this is a myllery to the Kf- 
t/i»j-, who apprehend fo much from the aftive Spi- 
ts of a necefiitous Nobility, that to lay thofe to 
■ep, they incourage them in all thofe things that 
.ay blunt and deprefs their minds, and youth nati- 
lly hates Letters as much as it loves pleafure,when 
is fo far from being retrained, that it is rather 
iflied on to all the licentioufnefs of unlimited dil^ 
ders. 

Yet I muil add one thing, that though Venice, in 
e place in the whole World where pleafure is 
oft ftudied, and where the youth have both the 
eateft Wealth, and the moft leifure to-purfue it : 
t it is the place that I ever faw where true and in- 
•cent pleafure is the lead underftood, in- which I 
ill make a little digreffion that perhaps will not be 
pleafant. As for the pleafjics of friendfhip or 
irriage they are ftrangers to them, far the horri- 
^ diftruft, in which they all live, of one another, 
ikes that it is very rare to find a friend in Icily, 
!t moll: of all in Venice : and though we have been 
Id of feveral ilories of celebrated friendrhips tiiere, 
thefe are now very rare. As for their Wives 
ey are bred to fo much ignorance, they canverfe fo 
tie, that they know nothing but the dull fuperfti- 
m on Holy-days in which they Ihy in the Church- 
as long as they can, and fo prolong the little li- 
rty they have of going abroad on thofe days as 
lildren do their hours of play : They are not im- 
oyed in their domeftick affairs, and generally they 
derftand no fort of work, fo that I was told that 
ty were the indpideft creatures imaginable 3 tliey 
', perhaps, as vftious as in other places3 but it k 

M among 



//? 



( 8z ) 

^mong tKem down-right lewdnefs, for they are n 
drawn into it by the intranglements of amour thiS 
inveigle and lead many perfons much farther ths| 
they imagined ©r intended at firft, but in them the' 
Ml flep without any preamble or preparative, k 
down-right bealUinefs. And an lidian that kneiif 
the World well, faid upon this matter a very livcl) 
1 thing to me, he faid their jealoufie made them re- 
^ ftrain their Daughters, and their Wives fo much. 
that they could have none of thofe domeflick enter- 
tainments of Wit, Converfation, and Friendfhip, 
that the Frencl? or EngUp) have at home : It is true 
txHolehe ^nd hazard a httlethe honour of their Fa- 
' rnilics by t-hat liberty, but the Itdhm by their eX- 
cefllve caution, made that they had none of the true 
delights of a Married State j and notwithihnding al 
their uneafie jealoufie, they wereftillin danger ofs 
cbna-aband Nobility , therefore he thought the) 
would do much better to hazard a little, when li 
•vrbiild produce a certain fatisFaflion, then to watcF 
fo anxiouHy, and thereby have an infipid companidr 
inftead of a lively Friend, though llie might, per- 
haps, have feme ill moments. As for their houfe 
they have nothing convenient at Venice^ for the Ar- 
chitedure is almcll all the fame, one llair-cafe, : 
Hall that runs along the body of the houfe, am 
chambers on both hands, but there are no apart 
inents, no Clofets or Back-llairs \ fo that in houfe 
that are of an excefllve wealth, they have yet m 
fort of convenience j Their Bedheads are of Iron 
becauie of the Veimin that their moilbre produces, 
the bottoms are of boards, upon which they lay fc 
• .many quilts that it is a huge ffep to get up to them. 
their great Chairs are all upright without a flop ir, 
K\vt back, hard in the bottom, and the wood of the 
' arms is not covered j they mix v/ater with theii 
/ Avine in their Hogilieads, fo that for above half the 

; "-year the wine is eiriier dq,^ or four,they do not ieaVeti 

•1:1^3 'iiflx^k i 4?j. theii 



(8?; "J 

• 

their Bread, fothat it is extream heavy, and the 
Oven is too much heated, fo that -the crum is as 
Dough, whea the cruft is hard as a ftone, in all Inns 
they boil Meat firrt before it is roalled , and thus, 
as indeed they make it tender, fo it is quite taftlefs 
and infipid /And as for their Land-carriage all Lom^ 
birdy over , it is extream inconvenient , for their 
Coaches are faftned to the pearch, which makes 
them as uneafie as a Cart : It it true, they begin to 
have at Rorre^ and Naples, Coaches that are faftned 
to a fort of double pearch, that runs round the bot- 
tom of the Coach of both fides, which are thin 
that they ply to the motion of the Coach, and are 
extream eafic, but thofe are not known in Lomhxrdy, 
and befides this, their Caleihes are open, fo that 
one is expofed to the Sun, and duft in Summer, 
and to the Weather in Winter ; But though they 
are covered as ours are, on the other fide of the Af- 
peninsy yet I faw none that were covered in Lom- 
biriy : And thus by an cnumeratioa of many of 
the innocent pleafures, and conveniences of life, it 
appears that the Venetians purfue fo violently for- 
bidden pleafures, that they know aot how to find 
out that which is allowable. Their conftant pra- 
ctices in the BrogUo is their chief bufinefs , where 
thofe that are necellitous are purfuing for Employ- 
ments of advantage, and thofe that are full of wealth 
take a fort of pleafure in croffing their pretentions, 
and in embroiling matters. The walk in which 
the Nobility tread is left to them, for no others dare 
walk among them, and they change the fide of the 
fquare of St. Mark ^s the Sun, and the Weather di- 
redts them. Perhaps a derivation that^Mr. P^t/;? 
gave me of Brolio from the Greek Peribolam, a lit"~ 
tie corrupted is not forced j and fince they mak€ 
,. all their parties, and manage all their intreague in 
,*.:«thofe Walks, I am apt to think that broils, bro- 
.-.-..villons and imbroilments are derived from the 
." Mi agitations 



,., ,C»4) 

tgitations that are' managed in thofe walks. 

As for the hi\ created Nobility of Venice, I cam 
to knov/ fome particulars that I have not yet feen i 
any books, which I fuppofewili not be unacceptabl 
to you. It is certain that if the Venetians could-hav 
forefeen at the beginning of the War of CanJy, th 
vail ex pence in which the length of it engaged then 
th-ev would have abandoned the Iflc, rather Vhan hav 
walled their Treafure, and debafed their Nobilit) 
This ha was extream fenfible to them ; for as th 
dignity of the rank they hold is fo much the more e 
minent as it is reftrained to a fmall number, fo a^ 
the beft Imployments and Honours of the State be 
longing to this body, the admitting fuch a numbf 
into it, as muft rife out ol Seventy Eight Families 
was in effeft the fharing their Inheritance among f; 
many adopted Brothers. This had been lefs Infa ' 
mous if they had communicated that Honour onl] 
to the ancient Citizens of Venice, or to the Nobilif 
of thofe States that they have fubdued in the Tern 
fima 5 for as there are many Citizens who are as an- 
cient as the Nobility, only their Anceftors not hap- 
^ning to be o^that Council that alTumed the Govern- 
ment about Four Hundred Years ago, they have not 
been raifed to that Honour, fo there had been no In- ; 
famy in creating fome of them to be of the Nobility 
It had been alfo brought under confultation long ago, 
upon the reduftion of thofe States in the Terra firmt, 
whether it was not advifable according to the maxims 
of the ancient Romans to communicate that dignity to 
fome of their chief Families, as being the furefl way 
to give fome contentment to thofe States, it being al* 
fo a real as well as a cheap fecurity, when the chief 
Families in thofe Cities, were admitted to a Share in 
all the Honours of the Republick. It is true fome of 
the Nobility of thofe States thought they had Honotff'' 
enough by their birth, and CoZambara ofBrefciare-^ 
Msd to accept an Honour from thofe that had robb^" 

•v'.yyi . - >•• . Ills 



his Country of its liberty, yet his poftcrity are now of 
another mind, for they came and bought in this laft 
fale of honour that which was freely offered to their 
Anceftor, and was rejeded by him. When the Se- 
late found it felf extreamly prefTed for money during 
-he war it was at firft propofed that fome Families, 
the number of Five , might be enobled ; they of^ 
ering Sixty Thoufand Ducats if they were Venetians^ 
ind Seventy Thoufand if they were Strangers : Theie 
V2S but one Perfon that oppofed this in the Senate, fo 
t being pafled there, was prefented to the great Coun- 
il ; and there it was like to have pafied withoHt any 
''fficulty, but one Perfon oppofed it with fo much 
igor, that though the Duke defired him to give o- 
er his oppolition, fince the neceffities of the War 
equired a great fupply, yet he per filled i\i\l j and 
hough one of the Savit fet forth with tears the extre- 
liries to which the State was red weed, he liill infifi:- 
d and fell upon one conceit that turned the whole 
'ouncil, he (aid they were not fure if Five Perfons 
Duld be found that would pur chafe that honour at 
ich a rate, and then it would be a vaft difgrace, to 
ipofe the offer of Nobility firfl to fale, and then 
) the affront of finding no buyers when it was of- 
?red to be fold, and by this means he put by the 
ifolucion for that time : But then another method 
^as taken that was more honourable, and was of a 
lore extended confequence. Ldia was the firll that 
refented a Petition to the great Council, letting forth 
is merits towards the Republick, and defiling that 
e might be thought worthy to offer a Hundred 
'houfand Ducats towards the fervice of the State ^ 
^ was underitood to be the asking to be made noble 
: that price. Deljino faid he thought every Maa 
light be well judged worthy to offer fuch an afifi- ' 
ance to the Publick, and that fuch as brought that 
ipply might expert a fuitable acknowledgment from 
« Senate, who might afterwards of th^ir own ac- 

M 3 cwrd 



(8&) 

cord bellow that honour on thofe that exprefTed A 
much zeal for the Publick -, and this would be to* 
much debafed if it were thus bought and fold'j b^ 
it feems the purchafers had no mind to part with their 
money, and to leave the reward to the gratitude ot 
the Council, fo the Petition was granted in plaift 
terms ; and the Nobility fo acquired was not only td 
defcend to the Children oi him that was enobled, 
but to his Brothers and the whole Family tofuch a 
degree. After LabU a great many more came with tht 
like Petitions, and it was not unpleafant to fee ifi 
what terms Merchants, that came to buy this Ho- 
nour fet forth their merits, which were that they 
had taken care to furnilli the Republick with fucJi 
things as were neceflary for its prefervation. Thert 
was a fort of a Triumvirat formed of a Jew, a Greek> 
and an lialian, who were the Brokers, and found 
out the Merchants j and at lall brought down tht 
piice from a Hundred Thoufand to Sixty Thoufanji 
Ducats, and no other qualifications were required i1 
they had money enough : For when Correge faid t< 
the Duke that he was afraid to ask that honour foj 
want of merit, the Duke asked him if he had a Hun- 
dred Thoufand Ducats, and when- the other anfwet' 
ed the Summ was ready, the Duke told him tha- 
was a great merit. At laft Seventy Eight purchafei 
this honour to the great regret of Labk ; who fai< 
that if he had imagined that Yo many would have fol 
lowed him in that^demand, he v/ould have bid io higl 
for it that it lliould have been out of their powe 
to have done it. • It is true many of the Purchaftr 
were Ancient and Noble Families, but many other 
were not only Merchants, but -were of the lowef 
fort of them j who as they had inriched themfelve 
by Trade, did then impoverifli themfelves bj 
•the acquifition of an honour that as' it oblige 
*them to give over their Trade, and put them in j 
jhigher-way of living, fo it hath not brought then 

•J.- • y ti 



li 



( 87 ) 

^et in any advantage to ballance that lofs ; for they 
•re To much defpifed , that they are generally exi- 
liided when they compete with the ancient Nobi- 
ity, though this is done with that difcretion, that 
he old Families do not declare always againft the 
lew, for that would throw the new into a fadlion 
'ainlt them,which might be a great prejudice to them, 
or the new are much more numerous than the old. 
Another great prejudice that the RepublicJi feels 
>y this great Promotion, is that the chief Families 
)f the Citizens of Venice, who had been long pra- 
aifed in the affairs of State, and out of whom the 
Envoyes, the Secretaries of State , and the Chan- 
:ellour that is the head of the Citizens, as well as 
:he Duke is the head of the Nobility,are to be chofen, 
laving purckafed the chief Honour of the State there 
!5 not now a futficient number of capable Citizens, 
eft for ferving the State in thofe Employments ; 
but this defea: will be redreft with the help of a 
little time. But if this increafe of the Nobility 
hath leflened the Dignity of the ancient Families , 
:here is a r-egulation made in this Age that IHII pre- 
ferves a confiderable diftindion of Authority in 
their hands. Crimes againll the State, when com- 
mitted by any of the Nobility, were always fudged 
by the Inquifitois, and the Council of Ten, but all 
other Crimes were judged by the Council of Forty. 
But in the Year 1624. one of the Nobles was ac- 
oifcd of Peculat committed in one of their Govern- 
ments, and the Avogadore in the pleading, as he fet 
forth his Crime, called hjm a Rogue and a Robber : 
yet though his crimes were mianifeil, there being 
but Six and twenty Judges prefent, Twelve only 
condemned him, and Fourteen acquitted himj this 
gave great offence, for though he was acquitted by 
his Judges, his Crimes were evident 5 fo that his 
fame could not be rellored : for the Depolitions of' 
;ffa? Witncir«#, and .the Avogadms . C ort^e Attorney 
^ . ' •-Gene- 



( 88 ) 

Generals 3 Charge were heard By the People 5 H 
it was propofed to make a difference between th< 
Nobility and the other Subjeifls : and fince all Trial 
before the Forty were publick, and the Trials be- 
fore the Ten were in fecret, it feemed fit toremii 
the Nobility to be tried by the Ten : Some forefavv 
that this would tend to a Tyranny , and raifc th^ 
Dignity of the ancient Families, of whom the Coun- 
cil of Ten is always compofed, too high : There- 
fore they oppofed it upon this ground, That fince 
the Council of Forty fent out many Orders to the 
Governors, it would very much lefTen their Autho- 
rity, if they were not to be the Judges of thofe 
wno obliged to receive their Orders : But to qua- 
lify this Oppofition, a Provifo was made that re- 
ferved to the Council of Forty, a power to Judge 
of the Obedience that was given to their Orders, 
but all other Accufations of the Nobility were re- 
mitted to the Council of Ten : and the body 
of the Nobility were fo pleafed with this DiiHndi- 
on that was put between them and the other Sub- 
jeds, that they did not fee that this did really cn- 
ilave them fo much the more , and brought then» 
under more danger : lince thofe who judge in fecret 
have a freer fcope to their paffions , than thofe 
whofe proceedings are publick , and fo are in. ef- 
ft8i judged by the Publick, which is often a very 
effedual reilraint upon the Judges themfelves. But 
the Council of Ten being generally in the hands of 
the great Families : Whereas thofe of all forts are of 
the Council of Forty, which was the chief Judica- 
tory of the State, and is much Ancienter than that 
of Ten : It had been much more wifely done of 
them to have been ftill Judged by the Forty ; And: 
if they had thought it for their Honour to have a . 
difference made in the way of judging the Nobility,| 
and the other Subjefts, it had been more for their'' I 
fccurity to have brought their. Trials to this, That 

whereas; 1 



- (89) 

I'hereas the Forty Judge all other offenders with 
■pen doors , the Nobility fhoiild be judged the 
oors being {hut, which is a thing they very much 
efire now , butT without any hope of ever obtain- 
ig it : For this power of Judging the Nobility is 
ow confidered as Right of the Ten, and if any 
Ian would go about to change it, the Inquifitors 
/ould be perhaps, very quick with him, as a mover 
»f Sedition, and be, in that cafe, both Judge, and^ 
'artv ; Yet the Inquifitors being apprehenfive of 
"le diftaft that this might breed in the body of the 
Mobility, have made a fort of regulation, though 
: doth not amount to much ; vvhich is, that the 
ability fhall be Judged before the Council of Ten 
}r atrocious cafes, fuch as matter of State , the 
Dbbing the Publick, and other enormous Crimes ; 
ut that for all other matters they are to be Judged 
y theTorty : yet the Council of Ten draws all 
ifes before them, and none dare difpute with them. 

But this leads me to fay a little to you of that 
art of this Conflitution , which is fo much cen- 
tred by Grangers ; but is really both the greateft 
lory , and the chief fecurity of this Republick , 
'hich is the unlimited power of Inquifitors, that 
ictends not only to the chief of the Nobility, but 
) the Duke himfelf, who is fo fubjedl to them, 
lat they may not only give him fevere reprimands, 
ut fearch his Papers, make his Procefs, and in con- 
blion, put him to death without being bound to 
tve ao account of their Proceedings , except to 
le Council of Ten. This is the dread not only 
f all the Subjed-s , but of the whole Nobility, 
id of all that bear Office in the Republick , and 
lakes the greatefl among them tremble , and fo 
bligeth them to an exad condudl. But though it 

not to be denied that upon fome occafions they 
lay have been a little too fudden, particularly ia 
le known f!ory of Fofcmni) yet fuch uojuflifiablc 



revcrities have occurred fofeldom, that as the ... 
dom of this Body in making and {ireferving fuch , 
Inflitutiou, cannot be enough admired, lb the de: 
trous condud of thofe who mannage this vaft tru 
fo as not to force the Body to take it out of th{ 
hands, is likewife highly to be wondered at. 
fiiort, the infolence, the fadions, the revenges, t 
neceffities and ambition that muft needs poifefs 
great many Members of fo vail a Body as is the N 
bility of Venice^ mull have thrown them often in 
many fatal Convulilons , if it were not for t 
dread in which they all ftand of this Court : whi 
hath fo many fpies abroad, chieHy among the Go 
daliers, who cannot fail to difcover all the i 
cret Commerce of Venice ^ befides the fecret a 
vices that are thrown in at fo many of thofe L 
ons mouths that arc in feveral places of St. Man 
Palace, within which there are boxes that are und 
the Keys of the Inquifitors, fo that it is fcarce p( 
fible for a Man to be long in any defign againll t 
State , and not to be difcovered by them. A 
when they find any in fault, they are fo inexorab 
and fo quick, as well as fevere in their JuHice, t\ 
the very fear of this is fo effedml a reftraint, tl 
perhaps the long prefervation of Venice, and of 
Liberty, is owing to this fingle piece of their conJ 
tution : and the Inquifitors are Perfons generally 
diftinguiQied for their merit who muft be all or d 
ferent Families j and their Authority lalls fo fhor 
while, that the advantages of this vaft Authority t) 
is lodged with them, are conftant and yifible j wher 
the uahappy inftances of their being impofed on, a 
carrying their fufpicions too far,are fo few,that wl" 
ever the Nobility grows weary of his yoke,and thro 
it oft, one may reckon the Glory and Profperity of k 
nice at an end. It was terribly attackt not long a20| 
Comaro, when Jerom Coymyo was put to deatE;) 
_]ii§ cQ^refpondcnc^ \vM^. %4;» ii^e wa$ qg& neaf^ 



'V 

(9^ ) 

into the great Family of that name, yet the'Fami- 
• thought their Honour was fo much toucht when 
le of its remoteft branches was condemned of 
reafon , that they offered a Hundred thoufand 
rowns to have faved him, and by confequence to 
ive preferved the Family from that Infamy 5 but 
lOUgh this was not accepted, for he fufFered as he 
ell deferred, yet it was fo vifible that none of the 
imily were concen^ed in his Crimes , that it did 
)t at all turn to their prejudice. But upon the 
•ft occafion that offered it felf after that, to quar- 
1 with the proceeding of the Inquifitors, they laid 
)Id on it , and aggravated the matter extreamly, 
id moved for the limiting of their Authority, but 
e Great Council was wifer than to touch fo (acred 
part of the Governm.ent, fo they retained their 
)wer very entire, but they manage it with all pot 
jle caution; A Forreigner that hath been many 
ars in their Service, told me that the Stories with 
hich Grangers were fi ighted at the Arbitrary pow- 

that was refted in thofe Inquifitors were flight 
ings, in comparifon of the advantages that they 
und from it : And after Eleven Years fpent in their 
rvice, he fa^d, he never was fomuch as oncefent 
r to receive a reprimand from them. And if the 
obility , that have any Commerce with Grangers, 
»nfefs it fii xerely to the Inquifitors, they are in dan- 
■r by it ; by if they conceal it, or any main cir- 
imlhnces of it, their Procefs will be foon difpatch- 
(. Thefe are the moff remarkable things that I 
'Uld pick up, during my flay at Venice. I have 
'aided to fay any thing relating to their feveral 
Cancels, Officers, and Judicatories, or to the other 
«ts of their Government, which are to be found 

all Books ; and the Forms, by which they give 
otes by Ballot, are To well known, that it were 
i abufiiig of your time to enlarge my felf con-= 
THjog them i nor was I fufficiently informed con- 
cerning 



(92) 

cerning the particulars of the Sale of Nobility that 
is now on foot fiiice this lall War with the Turlis^ 
which hath made them willing to take up once a^ 
gain this eafie way of railing of Money : Nor coul^ 
I give credit to that of which a Perfon of great Er 
minence there aflfured me , that there was a poy- 
foner general in Venice^ that had a Salary, and was 
employed by the Inquifitors to difpatch thofe ar 
gainll whom a publick proceeding would make 
too great a noife; this I could not believe, though 
my Author protelhd, that the Brother of one that 
was folicited to accept of the Employment, difcove- 
red it to him. There is no place in the World where 
grangers live with more freedom and I was amazed 
to fee fo Uttle exadnefs among the Searchers of the 
Cufbm-houfe ; for though we had a Mullets load oi 
Trunks and Portmantles, yet none offered to ask us. 
either coming or going, what we were, or what we 
carried with us. But the bed and Nobleft Enter- 
tainment that Venice afforded while I was there, 
was the company of Mr. deU Hxye the French Ambaf- 
fadour, who as he hath fpent his whole life in pub- 
lick EmbalTies, fo he hath acquired fo great a know- 
ledge of the World, with fotruea Judgment, and fc 
obliging a civility, that he may well pafs for a Pat- 
tern J and it is no wonder to fee him iliW engaged ii 
a conftant fucceffion of publick Employments j anc 
his Lady is fo wonderful a Perfon, that I pay then 
both but a very fmall part of what I owe them 
in this acknowledgement, which I judge my fel 
bound to make of their extraordinary civilities t( 
me : and indeed without the advantage of fuch i 
rendezvous as I had there, a fortnights ftay <at Ve- 
nice had been a very tedious matter : From Vema 
we went again to Padiu ; From thence to Kovigo 
which is but a fmall Town, and fo to the Po 
which divides the Territory of the Republic fi, frotr 
the Fenarefey which is now the Po^es Country, aiw 

hen 



( 95 ) 

here one fees what a difference a good and a bad 
Government makes in a Countrcyi for though the 
Soil is the fame on both fides of the River,^ and the 
Fenarefe was once one of the beautifullelt fpots of 
all Italy, as Ferrara was one of its beft Towns, while 
they had Princes of their own, who for a co jrfe of 
[bme Ages were Princes of fuch Eminent virtue, and 
of fo Heroical a Noblenefs, that they were really 
Ae Fathers of their Country, nothing can be ima- 
gined more changed than all this is now. The Soil 
s abandoned,' and uricukivated , nor were there 
fiands enough fo much as to mow their Grafs, 
w^hich we faw withering in their Meadows to our no 
rmall wonder. We were amazed to fee fo rich a 
Soil thus forfaken of its Inhabitants, and much more 
ivhen we palled through that vail Town, which by 
;ts extent (hews what it was aboat an Age ago, and 
s now fo much deferted, that there are whole fides 
)f Streets without Inhabitants, and the poverty of 
he place appears fignally in the Churches, which 
ire mean and poorly adorned, for the funerftitioti 
yi lidy is fo ravenous, and niakes fiich progrefs in 
.his Age, that one may juHly take the meafures 
5f the Wealth of any place from the Churches. The 
5uperlHtion or Vanity of this Age, is fo much be- 
yond that of the pafl, though the contrary to this 
s commonly believed , that all the vail buildings 
5f great Churches or rich Convents, and the fur- r 
arizing Wealth that appears in them on Fellival ^ 
hys are the donatives of the prefent Age 3 fo that •• 
it is a vulgar error that fome have taken up, who 
'ancy thit Superllition is at a Ihnd, if not in a 
lecay, unleft it be acknowledged that the craft of 
:he Prielh hath opened to them a new method to 
fupport their riches, when the old ones of Purga- . ^. 
tbry, and indulgences were become lefs effedual in ^'l 
irt Age of more knowledge, and better enligh'ned^^ \ 
"" that is to engage Men to an emulation and a' ',^- 

N vanity -^ 



( 94 > 

vanity in enriching their Churches, as much as ci- 
ther Italians have in the inriching ther Palaces, fo 
that as they have a plcafure as well as a vanity ift 
feeing fo much dead Wealth in their houfes, th^. 
have tranflated the fame humour to their Churches: 
And the vanity^ of the prefent Age that believes 
little or nothing of thofe contrivances, of Purga- 
tory, or the like, produceth the fame, if not grea^ 
ter eflfeds, in the building and inriching their 
Churches, and fo carries it in expencc and prodi- 
gality from the Super (Htion of the former Ages 
that believed every thing. But to return to Fena- 
ra, I could not but ask all I faw, how it came, 
that fo rich a Soil was fo ft range ly abandoned, 
feme faid the Air was become fo unhealthy, that 
thofe who Hay in it were very ihort lived j but it 
is well kncv/n that Fourfcore Years ago it was well 
peopled j and the ill Air is occafioned by the vsanc 
of inhabitants •, for there not being people fo drain 
the ground and to keep the Ditches clean, this makes 
that the] e is a great deal of Water that lies on the 
ground and rots, which infedls the Air in the fame 
manner as is cbfei ved in that vaft and rich^ but un-* 
inhabited Champaign of Rome, fo that the ill Air 
is the effeft rather than the caufe ot the difpeopling 
of the Fcpcs Dominions. The true caufe is the fc- 
vericy ot 'the Government, and the heavy Taxes, 
and frequent Confifcations, by which the Nephews 
of feveral Pcpes j as they have devoured many 
of the Families of Fenara , fo they have driven 
away m.any more. ^ 'd this appears more vilibly 
by the different ihtc, as well as the Conftitution of 
Balogna^ which is full cf People that abound in 
Wealth, and as the Soil is extream rich , To it k 
cultivated with all due care. For Bclogna delivered 
it fcif to the Popedom upon a capitulation , hSf 
which thtre are many Privikdgcs referved to it'i 
Crimes there arc onlv puaifhed ia the Perfoi^s^ njf 
I ; ■ - .^';::5thofe 



( 9f ) • 

thofe who commit them, but there are no confii^ 
cations of Eilatcs ; and though the Authority, in 
Criminal matters, belongs to the Po^e^ and is man- 
aged by a Legate and his Officers, yet the Gvil 
Government, the Magiflracy, and the power of Ju- 
dicature in Civil matters, is entirely in the hands ot 
the State : And by this regulation it is ,^ that v^ 
the riches of Eolognx amaze a ftranger, it neitherbeir.g 
ow a Navigable River, by which it is not capable 
of much Trade, nor bfing the Center of a Sove- 
raignty where a Court is'-'keptj fo the Taxes that 
the Popes fetch from thence , are lo conftderable, 
that he draws much more from this place of Lir 
berty, than from thofe where his Authority is un- 
limited and abfolute, but that are by thof^ means al- 
moft quite abandoned •, for the greatnefs of a Prince or 
State rifing from the numbers of the Subjeds, thofe 
• maxims that retain the Subje(5ts, and that draw l^rang- 
ers to come among them, are certainly the trueft max- 
ims for advancing the greatnefs of the Mailer. And I 
could not but with much fcorn, obferve the folly of 
fome Frenchmen^ who made ufe of this argumen'. to 
ihew the greatnefs oftheir Nation,thatone found many 
Fremhmen in all places to which one could come, 
whereas there were no Englifh nor Dutch, nor Smt- 
X^rsy and very few Germxns : But is juft contrary 
to the right confequence that ought to be drawn 
from this obfervation. It is certain, that few leave 
their Country, and go to fettle elfcwhere, if they 
are not prelfed with fo much uneaiinefs at home that 
they cannot well live among their Friends and Kiiv- 
red 'y fo that a mild Government drives out no 
fwarms : Whereas it is the fure mark of a feverf^ 
Government that weakens it felf, when many of the 
Sjbjedis find it fo hard to fublift at home., that ther 
are forced to feek that abroad,which thev would mi^ch 
rather do in their own Country, if Impolitions, and ,o~ 
ther feyerities did, not force them to change their ha- 
bitations. N" i But 



< 9^ ) 

m 

Bat to return to the wealth of Bologna, k appeai^l 
h tvcvy corner of the Town , and all round it^ 
til c ugh its fck nation is not very favourable, for ii 
^•es at the foot of the Appenins on the Ncnh-fide^ an| 
^ extream cold in WiiKir. The lioufes are built aa 



is 



2t p-iduLi and Bern, fo that one walks all the Towii 
ever covered under Pidnxs; but the walks here ar$ 
Borfi higher and larger than zny where elfe, theiti 
arc 2nar:y NcM^Pal^c-s all .ovfr the Town, and the 
(IhurCiKS, and Ccn\-cTits are incredibly rich ; withia 
the Town the richeil are the Dominicans, which Is the 
chief houfe of the Order, where their Founders bo- 
dy is laid in one of the bell Chapels of Itafy 5 and 
next to them are the Francifcans, the Servites, th^ 
Jefuites, and the Canons Regular of St. Sah-ator, In 
this laflthereisafcrowlof the J/cbnw Bible, which 
though it is not the tenth part of the Bible , they 
fancy to be the whole Bible 5. and they were made 
believe by fome /fw, that hath no doubt fold it at' 
a high rate , that it was written by E^rah's owa 1 
hand, and this hath pafl long for current -, but the 
Manufcri^t is only a fine Copy like thofe that the 
Jevps ufe in their Synagogues, that may be, perhaps, 
Three or Four Hundred Years old j that part of it 
on which I call my eye was the book of Efiher, (0 
by the bulk of die fcrowl, I judged it to be the coU 
lecflion of thofe fmali books of the Old Tellament 
that the Jews fet after the Law ; but thofe of the 
houfe fancy they h:ive a great treafure in it, and per-l 
haps fuch /fwj'as have feen it are willing to laugh 
at their ignorance, and fo fuffer them to go on ta 
their errcr. The chief Church in the Town is Stv 
i^f^r&nf's, and there one fees the curious and ex?d: 
Mri1i97ial-lir,€y which that rare Ailronomer Cajfinr 
laid along a great part of the pavement in a brafe' 
Circle i it marks the true point of midday from litm 
ta*.7d?;;^*?rvas and is one of the. bed performances th^at 
pefeVthfc .Wo4d .<vei: _ ia>y, ,. Tn the..gr€at- (quaie 






( 97 ) 



before the Church, on the one fide of which is tlis 
Legates Palace, among other Statues one lurrriz^^d 
me much, it was Pope Joins, which is fo named by 
the People of the Town, it is true the Learned Men 
fay it is the Statue of Pope mooloi the IV. who had 
indeed a youthly and womanilli face. But as I look- 
ed at this Statue very attentively, through a lirtb 
profped that I carried with me, it appeared plainly 
to have the face of a voung Woman, and was very 
unlike that of Pope iimlti the IV. which \'^ iti St. 
Mmd M(iggme at Komt : For the Statue of that 
Pope, though it hath no beard, yet hath an age in it 
that is very much different from the Statue at Bobe^na, 
I do not build any thing on this Statue, for Ido'not 
believe that Story at all, and I my felf faw in En-- 
gUnd a Manufcript of MminH6 Polona-f, who is one 
of the ancient Authors of this matter, which did not 
feem to be written long after tlie Author's time; In 
ttthis Siory is not in the Text, but is added on the 
margin by another hand. On the Hill above Bok- 
^»4 Itands the Monaftery of St. Michael in Bojco^v/hAch 
hath a moft charming fcituation, and profpecl, arid 
IS one of thebdl MonallerieS in /w/y 3 it hath many 
Courts, and one that is Cloiftered, and is oauniru^ 
lAfy which IS fo nobly painted in Frefco, that iris 
great pity to fee fuch work expofed to the Air ; All 
was retouched by the famous Guido Reni, yet it is 
JiQW again much decayed : The Dormitory is very Ma- 
gmficent 3 the Chappel is little but very fine, and t>.e 
Stalls are richly carved. On the other- fide of Bo^ 
Sognarm the Bottom, the Cmhufiam have alfo a ve» 
ry rich Monaftery : Four miles fr.om Bologna there is 
ft MAionnoi St. Lukes, and becaufe many eo thither 
in great devotion, there is a portico a building, which 
Wis already carried on almott half way '3 it is walled 
towards the North, but ftands on Pillars to the Somh 

kl'lvT- ^"^'^^ ^^^^ ^^°^^' ^"^ Fifteen Foot 
iMgh, which IS earned on very vigorouliy,^r in fight 

^3 ©r 



€ff Ten Years the half is built, fothatio a little lim^v 
the whole will be very probably finilhed, and this may 
piove the beginning of manyfuch Uke Ponicos m Itt- 
iy, for thinas of this kind want only abegmning, aa^ 
when they are once fet on foot the>' do quickly tpread. 
th-mielves in a Country that is io intirely tubcmtdbj^i 
fjperliition and the artifices of their Pnelts. In ^tf-_ 
Uha they reckon there are Seventy Thoufand Perfons. 
J law not one of the chief glories of this place for tlie 
f^iiious MiUtkhi was out of Town while I was there. 
'•I-faw a Play there, but the Poelie was lb bad, the 
Purees fo rude, and all was to ill aded, that I was not 
a little amazfd to iee the Company expreisfo great a 
4ti-Tf-6>;oo in that which wo.dd have been hits d off 
the Staoe either in EngLind or France, From Bologna, 
we 20 Eioht mil:s in a Plain, and then we engage intQ 
•that lange of Hills that carry the mrvx o^ Apmnt, 
though thst is Ikiaiy given only- to one that^ is the 
highdh All the way to Florence this track ot Hilte 
continue?, though there are feveral botton'.s, and Icme 
c^nnderable little Towns in themv te all. is up^uU 
^nd dr>wn~lnn, r.rd FloT^ncc it lelf is juR at the boc. 
toni of the iaft Hill. The high-ways all along thefe 
liillsarekeotiaio veiygocd cafe, that in ^cw ox the 
■M(i Inhabited Countries doth one find tiit high- ways 
, h well n^intained as in thoi^ f;.rwken Mounrains? 
hv.f this is b ar^at a paHkv^ tha: ad that are con- 
x:erned in it find xh^v accouiic in me c^nce tJi^y la) 
■i 'r u--n iz. Or. the ial> of cheie Hills, tliough m a 
lilOe bottom, inrhemidlVofaHilh iUvAs-Prauhn^, 
r^^of-h^ -.eat Dak:s Palaces, where the retreat in 
^iiiur mull be very ^-eeable, for the Airo. thofe 
M.;.ntainsisexrream thinandpure. The Gardens^ 
^ ' - - made at a erear cqA, the Statues and Foun-j 



•rivy haveno Grav.l to give tnera thole nrnaanu .^^ 
ioliiwalks. that we haye iaEn^Und, (o the conllani 

til '^Si*. 



creennefs of the Box doth fo much plf fe them, that 
fhey preferring the fight to the fmell,, have their Gar- 
dens fo high fentcd by plots made wichm them that 
there is no pleafure to walk in them j they alfo lay ^ 
their walks fo between hedges, that one ismuchcon- 
rined m them. 1 faw firft iiv a Garden at Vmcnif, 
that which I found afterwards m many Gardens in 
luly, which was extream convenient, there went a 
coiirle of Water round about the Walls, about a ^ 
foot from the ground in a channel of Hone that went 
along the fide of vhe Wail; and in this there were- 
holes fo mace, that a pipe of whue Iron or Wood 
put to them, conveyed the Water to fuch plants, as 
In dry feafon, needed watering; and a cock, let the 
Water a running in this courle, fo that without the 
•trouble of carry ins^ Water, one Perfon could ealily 
manage the watring of a great Garden. Flonnce is a 
si)eautifuland noble Town, full ot great Palaces, rich 
iJiurches, and ftately Convents. The Greets are pav- 
."cd in imitation of the old Km^n highway^s, with 
sxtzt Stone bisse; than our common pavement Scon?,- 
-but much thicker, which are fo hoUowed in their 
ioinirffs to one another, that hcrks nna rauni?^g e- 
.4ouoh to their feet : There are many Stat'jes and Foun- 
-'tairs in the Rreet^, fo that in every corner one meets 
'^vh many agreeable cbieas. 1 will not entertain 
ivcu with a defcripticn of the great Dukes Paiace and 
. Gar.ienf, or oFthe old Palace and the Gallery that 
■--ioi^is to it, jnd of the vail Colieaion ot Pi^ures, 
f^aiues„Cabinfts,2nd other cnnofities that miiit needs 
emaze eveiy one that fees than ; the Plate, and la 
" particular the Geld Plate, and the gieat Coach, are- 
all fuch extraordinary things that they would require 
a very coriousc^efcription ; if that had not been done 
-io often, that it were to very httle pm-pofeto eopy 
..what others have faid ; and thefe things are fo exatt.y 
rMeen by every travdler, that I can fay-notningihat is 
:;;more particular. of theie fubjeds then )0U will hnd 



C 100 ; 

m the common Itineraries of all Travellers. Thj 
great Dome is a magnificent building, but the Fron 
tifpiece to the great Gate is not yet made. Th 
CmuIo, is after S. Peters, the greatdland higheft tha 
I (aw in Italy 3 it is Three Hundred foot high, and 
a vaft compafs, "and the whole Architc(5lure of thi 
Fabrick is very fingular as well as regular. Onh 
that which was intended to add to its beauty, leflhe! 
it very much in my thoughts j for the Walls that ar< 
all of Marble being of white and black Maible laic 
in different figures and orders, looked too like a li] 
very^ and had not that air of noblenefs which in m> 
opinion becomes fo glorious a Fabrick. The Bapti-] 
fiery that fhnds before it was a Noble Heathen Tem- 
ple 5 ics Gates of brafs are the beft of that fort that 
are in the World: There are fo many Hillories fol 
well reprefented in bns reliefs in them, with fo much 
cxadlnefs , the work is fo natural and yet fo fine, 
that a curious Man could find entertainment for ma- 
ny days, if he would examine the three Gates of this 
Temple, with a critical exadlnefs. The AnnuncUtay 
S. Mxri{s, S. Crete, and S. Mma NoveUdy are Church- 
es of great beauty and vaft riches 5 but the Church 
and Chappel of S. Laurence exceeds them all as much 
in the riches within, as it is inferior to them in the 
out-fide which is quite flea'd, if I may fo fpeak, but 
on defign to give it a rich out-fide ol Marble. In a 
Chappel within this Church, the Bodies of the great 
Dukes lie depofited, till the famous Chappel is fi- 
niihed. But I was much fcandalized to tee Statues 
with nudities here, which I do not remember to havc; 
feen any where clfe in Churches. I will not offer at i 
a ^efcription of the Glorious Chappel, which as k 
is without doubt the richefl piece of building that 
perhaps the World ever faw, fo it goes on fo flow- 
\y-y that though there are always many at work, yet ; 
it doth not feem to advance proportionably to thc^ 
auHiber of the hands that are imploycd in it. Ar? 

mong-J 






'. iiong the Statues that are to be in it, there is one of 
l\he Virgins made by Michael Angelo^ vi/hich repretent's 
ijAer grief at the Paflion of her BkHed Son,that hath the 
noil life in it of all the Statues I ever law. 

But the famous Library that belongs to this Con- 
'cnt, took up more of my time than all the other Cu- 
iofitiesof Florence 3 for here is a colledionof many 
■tanufcripts, moll of them aie Greef^, that were ga- 
hersvi together bf Pope Clemen the Vil. and given 
D his Country : There are very few Printed Books 
nixed with them ; and thofe Books that are there, 
re fo rare, that they are almoll as curious as Manu- 
:ripts. I faw fome of VirgiU Poems in old Capitals, 
"here is a Manufcript in which fome parts both of 
'Acitw and Apeuleiw are written, and in one place, 
•ne in a different hand hath ^vrit, that he had com- 
•ared thofe Manufcripts : and he adds a date to this 
1 Olibrini's time, which is above Twelve hundred 
''ears ago. I found fome Dipthongs in it cafl into 
Be Letter, v/hich furprized me, for I thought that . 
/ay of writing of then had not been fb ancient : but 
hat which pleafed me moll, v/as, that the Library- 
."ceper alTured me, that one had lately found the fa- 
:lous Epiille of SuChrijo(iomesx.o Cefariii^ in Gree/i^ m,, 
be end of a Volume full of other things, and not * 
inong the Manufcripts of that Fathers Books of 
vhich they have a great many. He thought he re- 
nembred well the place where the Book flood ^ & 
V0 turned over all the Books tliat Hood near it, but , 
!';found it not ; He promifed to look it out for me, if, 
■ tame back that way. But I changing my defign, and 
gyingback another way, could not fee the bottom of ^^ 
nis. It is true, the Famous Magliabecchi, who is the .r 
3reat Dukes Library- keeper, and is a Perfon of moil I 
»(onderful civility and full of candour, as well as he 
^earned beyond imagination, alTured me that this < 
-ould be no other than amiflake of the Library- keep*. ., 
^^i he faid fuch a difcovery could not have been '' 
'^' made 



( tot ) 

made without making (b much noICc that he mui 
have hfard of it. He added there was not one Ma' 
in Florence that either underftood Greef^y or that exs 
mined Manuicripts, fo that he aflured me I could n< 
build on what an Ignorant Library- keeper had tol 
me; So Ifet down this matter as 1 found it withoi 
building much on it. Florence is much funk fioi 
what it was, for they do not reckon that there are j 
bove Fifty thoufand Souls in it : and the other Stan 
that were once great Republicks, fuch as Sien/izn 
Pifi , while they retained their liberty , are noi 
fhrunk almoft into nothing : It is certain that a 
three together are now not fo numerous, as any or 
of them was Two hundred Years ago. Legorn 
full of People ; and all round Florence there are 
great many Villages^ but as one goes over Tufcany k at 
pears fo difpeopled, that one cannot wonder to fina 
Country that hath been a Scene of fo much a^ion an 
fo many Wars, now fo forfaken and fo poor, an 
that in many places the Soil is quite neglefted for waj 
of hands to cultivate it : aad in other places whe> 
there are more People, they look fo poor, and the; 
houfes are fuch miferable ruincs, that it is fcarce ac 
countable how there fliould be fo much poverty in I 
rich a Country, which is all over full of beggars : ar 
here the ilyle of begging was a little altered froj 
what I found in Lombardy 5 for whereas there th& 
begged for the fake of S. Anthony^ here all begge* 
for the Souls that were in Purgatory, and this w; 
the ftile in all the other parts of Itily through whic 
I paffed. In (hort, the difpeopling of Tufcany^ an 
moft of the Principalities of Italyt but chiefly of tl; 
Popes Dominions, which are more abandoned tha i 
any other part of hdy^ fcemed to flow from nothin , 
but the fever ity of the Government and the great de 
cay of Trade : for the greateft Trade of Italy bein 
in Silk, the vaft importation of Silks that the EajI 
Indii Companies bring iato Europe jn^h quite ruined a 



tofe that deal in this manufa^lureiYet this is not the 
lief caufe of the difpeopling of thofe rich Coun- 
ies, the feverity of the Taxes is the true rcafon : not- 
ithihndiHg all that decay of Trade, the Taxes are . 
ill kept up. Befides this, the vaft Wealth of the 
onvents, where the only People of Italy are to be 
und, that live not only at their eafe, but in great 
enty and luxury, makes many forfake all fort of In- 
illry, and feek for a retreation of thofe feats of 
cafure j fo that the People do not enaeafe faft c- 
)ugh to make a new Race to come inflcad of thole 
horn a hard Government drives away. It muft 
t^s furprize an unattentive Traveller to fee, not on- 

the Venetian Territory ; which is indeed a rich 
Duntry, but the Baliages of the Swit^ersy and the 
:>2il of Genoa fo full ot People, when Tufcany, the 
itrimony, and the Kingdom of Naples have fo few 
habitants. In the Coaft of Oenoua , there is for 
any miles as it were a confhnttradt of Towns and 
illages, and all thofe aie well peopled, though they 
vctcarceany Soil at all, lying under the Moun-^ 
ins that are very barren , and that expofed theitf 

a moil uneafie Sun 5 and that they lie upon a boi- 
•ous Sea that is almoft always in a ftorm, and that 
fords very few Fifh : and yet the gentlenefs of the 
overnment draws fuch multitudes thither, and thofe, 
c fo fall of Wealth, that Money goes at Two pet 
nt. But on the other hand to ballance this a little, 

flrange and wild a thing is the nature of Man, at 
aft o^Ita/ims, that I was told that the worft People 
■all Italy ^ ^re.the Genoejes, and the moft generally 
•rrupred in their Morals, as to all fofts of Vice, to 
at though a fevere Government and Slavery arccon- 
ary to the nature of Man, and to human Society, to 
iftice and Equity ; and to that eflential equality 
lat Nature iiath made among Men ; yet on the other 
uid, all Men cannot bear that eafe and liberty that 
KQm^ih human Namrc. The fuperfhtion of Italyy 

and 



( i 04 ) 

and the g?-eat wall of Wealth that one fees in theil 
Churches, particularly thofe prodigious maiTes <j 
Plate with which their Altars are covered on Hofe| 
days, doth alio fink their Trade extreamly ; for So 
ver being in Commerce, what blood is in the Sod^| 
when fo much of that is dead and circulates no more 
it is no wonder if fuch extravafation ( if I may ui 
fo long and hard a word 3 of Silver, occafions a grea 
deadnefs in Trade. I had almoft forgot one Remarl 
that I made in the Hill of the Appenins, juft above Flo 
rence^ that I never faw fuch tall and big Cypreflc 
as grew over allthat Hill,whjch feemed a little ftrangc 
that Tree being apt to be fhrved by a cold Winte 
amon^ us, andthere the Winters are fever e. All th 
way in Tufcany is very rugged, except on the fides o 
the Arne. But the uneafinefs of the Road is muc' 
qualified by the great care that is had of the High 
ways, which axe all m very ^ood cafe : The Inns ar 
"wretched and ill furnilhed b:th for Lodging and Diet 
This is the plague of all haly^ when once one hat] 
palled the Appemins : for, except in the great Town< 
one really fufFers fo much that way, that the pleafur 
of Travelling is much abated by the inconvenience 
that one meets in every Stage through which he pa( 
fcs. lam 



S I R, 



Tours, 



THl 



1 1 3 



w 



BOOK II. - 



vi* 




Tk Fourth Letter. 



Fr$m Rome tJl^e Eight of Decemhcu 

I 6 8 f . 

jittt now in mf UfifiMgetfmy Voftige over IcalyJ 
for (ince my Jafi from ^loreticcy I have not only 
got hither, hut have been in Naples \ and have 
mw Satisfied my Curioftty fo fully , thatlin- 
tend to leave this TImcc within a day or two* and go tn 
Civica»vccchia, andfrom thence by 5eif w Marfcillcij 
-and to avoid an unpleafam H^tnters journey over the 
Alps. It it true I chfe the fight of Turin, Genoa, 
^snd fame €ther Courts : hut the I am told tbefedefervs 
'*aell the pain f of the journey •, yet when one rifet front 
■0 great Meal, no Delicacies > how much foeccr they 
wight tempt him at another time can provoke bis appe- 
tite: fo I confefs freely that the fight of Napks and 
Rome, have fo fil'd my fiomack that way^ that tks 
Curiofity of feeing rtevf Places if now very low with 
tne, and indeedthefe that 1 have oflafl feen arefuch^ 
that "Places which at an other time xvou'd pleafe me 
tTMcb, would now make but a flight an I told Im^ 
^frejfton. 

All the way from Florence , through the Great 

-{)uke*5 Coamry louked (o fad, thai 1 concludrd it 

P: A » mu^ 



r * •] ! 



.'^uft be the moA difpt opied of all Italy : but indeed, 

, I-^hangcd my Note, ivhen I came into the Pofct 
Terriorics at Pont Cetitimi where there was a rich 

: bottom all uncuUivatedj and not fo much aslbcked 

^ with Cattle : But as I pafled from M. Fiafeone to 

riterbo, this appeared yet more amazing, for a vaft 

Champion Country lay alraofl quite c'efertcd. And 

that wide Town which is ef fo great a compafs, 

hath yet fo few Inhabitants, and thole look fo poor 

and mifcrable , that the people in the Ordinary 

Towns in Scotland, and in its worft places,makc a 

better appeal ance* When I wis within a days 

Journey ^fKewe, I fancied that tb« Kcighbombood 

of fo great a City muft mend the matter ; but 1 was 

muchdiiappointed, for a foil that was fo Rich, and 

lay fo fweetly, that it far exceeded any thirg I ever 

faw out ef UaJ)/i had neither Inhabitants in it, nor 

Cattle upon it, to the tenth part of what it could 

b^ar : The furprize that this gave me, cncieafed upon 

.me a$I went cut of Rome on its other Iide, chiefly 

all the jvay to Naples, and on the way to Civita- 

vecchia^ 'ot that vaft and rjch Cha-mpion Countrey 

that runs all along to7erracinay which from ^j"^!' 

ja-vecchia h atove a hundred miles long, and ism 

many places twelve or twenty miles broad, is aban- 

.(doned to fuch a degree, that as far as ones eye can 

carry one, there is often not fo much as a Houfe to be 

,fccn j but on the Hills that are on the North- fide of 

this Valley, and by thisdifpeopling of the Couutry^ 

the Air is now become fo unwholefome, that it is nqt 

iafe to be a night in it all the Summer long, for the 

Water that lies upon many places rot being draine4> 

it rots ; and in the Snmmer this produces fo many 

.noifcmfteams, that k is felt even in Rome k felfj 

and if it were not for the hreefes that ccme from the 

Mountains, the Air would be intollerablc; When 

. one fees «ll this large but vaft Countrey from the Hill 
^©f Mmm twelve miles beyond ^me) he cann9t 

wonder 



Wbnccr enough at rr. In a Avord, it is the rigour <J?^ 
the Government, that bath driven away the Inhabit 
tants, and their being driven away, hath now re- 
tbced it to fuch a pafsj that it is hardly pofTiblc ca 
people it : for fuch as would come to drain and' *. 
cultivate it 5 muft run a g'-eic ha^atd, and few carr 
refoive on that, when they can hope for no othci^ 
reward of their InduRryjbut an uneafie Governmenr.' 
It is the greareft folscifm in Goverument for the 
Prince robe Eiedive, and yet Ajfolute j for an He 
redirary Prince is induced to confider his poflerity, 
and to maintain his people, foihatthofe that coma 
■ after him may ftill fupportrhe rank which they hold 
■in the World .-But arf Eledive Prince ha>:h nothing 
of that in his eye, ualefs he hath a pitch of gererofity 
-"whieh is not ordinary among men, and leaft of all 
among //<j//^w, who have a pafTion for their Fami- 
lies, which is not known in ether places; and thus 
a Po/'c, who Comes in late to this dignity^ which by 
confequcncehe cannot hope to hold long, dothvcr/ 
naturally turn to thofe Councels,by which his Fam.il^ 
may make all the Hay they can during this Sun-ihir.c: 
And rho anciently the CardinaU were a check up'jn 
the Fope, and a fore of Counccl without whom he 
could do nothing even in Temporals ', yet now the^ 
have quite loft that ; and they have no tether fhinre 
in affairs than that to which the Po^^ thinks fit to 
admit them, fo that h? is the rasft abfolute Prince - 
in Europe, It is true as to Spirituals th^y retain iliil 
a large fhare, (o that in cenfurss and definitions, the 
Fope can do fwfhing regularly, without their cony 
" currcnce ; tho it is certain that they have not fo good 
a Title to pretend to that, as to fliare in the Temporal 
Principality. For if the Po/?ff drives any thing from 
St. Te/fr, all that, isfingly inhlmfelf, and it is frae 
to "him to pr' ceed by what method he thinks beft'j 
(ince the Infallibility, according fo their ptctenfions 
rtfts Ong'y in him : Yet bccaufc their was not to 

Aa z mucii- 



. _ r 4 ] 

^iKds toht got by adiag Arbitrarily in tliofe matters^ 
and a Summary way ofcxtrcifing this Authority^ 
toight have tempted the World to have enquired too 
much into the grounds od which it is built j Thtrt * 
■fore the "Po^w fiarclet the Cardmth retain ftill x 
Uiare in this Supremacy over the Church, tho they 
have no claim to it, neither by any Divine nor Ec* 
defiaftical warrant*: Butasforchc endowtncats of 
ihe See of Ro/we, to which they may juftly lay claim> 
as being in a manner the Chapter of that Sec ; there 
is fo much to be got by thh, that the F<^es have en* 
grcffcdit wholly to thcmfelvcs : and thus it is that 
ihc Government of this Principality is very unftcady. 
Sometimes the Pope's Family are extrcamly glorious^ 
and magnificent , at oifeer times, they think of no- 
thing but of cftabli&ing their houfe ; Sometimes the 
Po^c it a man of fcnfc himlcif j Somctiincs he is quire 
funk, andasthebftPof^ was, he become a Child 
again through old age ; Sometimes he hath a parti' 
cular flifnefs of temper , with a great fljwncfs of 
litndrrftanding , and an infatlablc defirc of heaping 
tip wealth, which is thccharader of him that now 
S.eign5. By this diverfity which appears cmincndy 
5n every new Pontificate that commonly avoids thofi: 
«xc(flc$ that made the former Reign odious , rkc 
CouBcelsof the Popedom are weak and disjointed, 
^utifthisisfenfibleto all EuropCy with relation to 
khe general concerns of that Body, it is much more 
vifiblc in the Principality if felf, that is fubjed to 
fo Tariable ahead. There hath been in this Age a 
iucceflior of four ravenous Reigns, and tho there 
was a ihort interruption in ihs Reign of the Rofpi^ 
gliojit that coming after the Barbcfmhihc Pamphiliy 
and the Gib^/s, didinrichit (tli : and yct|itdifor- 
dercd the Revenue by the vaft magnificence in which 
he Reigned, more in twenty nine moiiths time, thua 
any other had done in fo many yc?r$. The Ahieri 
^id, in 3 mofi fcjindalous, manncx; raifc iheaifelvcs 



rn ■ 

^ a very fliorc and difpi fed Reign, and built one of" 
the Noblcft I'abces in Rome. He that Reigns now 
dothnot indeed raile hisFainily avowed)y> but he 
doth noc eafe the people of their Taxes : and as there 
is no magniticcnce in his Court , nor any publick 
buildings now carrying on at Romd fo the many 
vacant Caps, occafion many empty Pa-laces : and by 
this means there is fo little expence now made ac 
Koine, thac it is not poilible for th? people to live 
andpay the Taxes, which hath driven, as is believedj 
a^mol^ a fourth part of the Inhabitants out of Ronte^^y 
during this Pontificate. And as the pre-emption of 
the Corn makes that there is no profit made by the- 
Owners, cue of the cultivation of the Soil, all thac 
going wholly to rhe Tope, fo there are no ways left: 
here of employing one's Mony to any confiderabls- 
advarirage : For the publick Banks, which are all in 
the Po/?e's hand> do not pay in cifc6t ihxQc per cent 
tho they pretend to give four per cent of intercft. 
The fettlemen: isind^^tdfour percent, and this was 
thought ^o great an advantage, that adion^s on the 
Fope'iBink were bought at a hundred and SixteejT 
the hundred. But this P£?p<? broke through all this, 
and declared he would give all men their Money 
agriTn, unlcfs they would pay him thirty per cent 
for the contit^uing of this Interefl *, and thus for 3/' 
hundred Crowns Principal, one not only paid at firft 
one hundred and fiXtcen j but afterwards thirty, in 
all one hund'cd fix and forty for the hundred which is 
almoft the ha' f loft .• For whenfusvcr the Pcpe will 
pay them back their Money, all the red is loft .• And 
vyhile I am here there is a report that the Pope is 
Treating with the Genoefes for Monev at two per cent 
and if he gets ic on thole Terms, then he will pay 
his Debts j and the Subjeds that have put in Money 
in this Bank, will, by this means lofe fix and ftr^'y 
percent^ which is almoft the half of their Stock. A 
man of quality at Ro/we"". and an eminent Church- 

A a 3 manj 



/^r 



aian^ who rook me HkcwJfe for one of their Clergy^ 
fciecaufc I wore the habic of a Chtirch-man, faid ihac 
it was a horribk fcandal co the whole CbrfJiianWorldp 
and made one doubc of the Truch of the Chriftiatt 
Religion, xoSti, more opprclfion and cruelty in their 
iTcrritoryj then was to be found even in lurkey : tho 
it being in the hands of Chrift's Vicar, one Jhould 
cxped to find there the pattern of a mild and gentle 
^Gorernfnenc : and how faid he can a man exped co 
find ills Religion here, where the common maxims 
of Juftice and Mercy were not fo much as known .* 
And X can never forget the lively rcfledion that & 
ILoman Prince m^de. lo me upon the folly of all thofs 
feverc Oppreflionsj whkh as they drive away th« 
Inhabitants, fo they reduce thofethac arc left to fuc!v 
a degeneracy of Spirit by their neceffitics, that the ^ 
Tipsniar^f, whofe Dctninions loc^ fo big in the Map) 
arc now brought fo low •* and if they had kept ftiil 
the poffeflioB they once had of the Vnited-Nether^ 
laniiy they would fignifie no more towards their - 
prcfervation, than their other Proyinces did : which»_ 
by thtir unskilful conduft they have both difpeopleil.^ 
and exhaufied : Whereas by their lofing thofc feveii , 
Froviaces, tbofe States have fallen upon fucb wife 
Kotions of Government, and have drawn fo much 
Wealth, and fuch nnmbers of people together, thac 
Sf»in itfelf was bow prelerved by them, and was 
Caved in this Age by the lofi it made of thofe Pro-* 
vinccs in the laft '• and thofe Stares that if they had 
remained fubjecl to Sfaitty would have fignificd little 
to its fupport, did tbat now much more confiderably 
6y being ^///c/, then they could have done if ifccyhad 
fliikcn off their Yoak, 

Indiped if Sfain had been fo happy as to have fucfi- 
Viceroys and GovernorSj as it has now in tsap'eky 
thfir a^airs could not have declined fo faft as they 
fcavcdone. The Marquis of Carpi^ in his youth in- 
seeded 10 have taken fo k\^c a revenge of an injury, 

ihsc. 



C 7 ] 

tlrat he thought the lace King of Spain did him In Hif 
£mour> that he dcfigned the bli^wing him up by Gnn- 
powder, when he was in the Council Chamber ; but 
that crime was difcovered in tii-nc : and was not only 
forgiven him in confidcration of the grcatnefsof his 
Family} he being the Son of Don LczvU de Haro ,• 
but after that he was made for fcvcral years Ambaffa" 
dor in 'If-ome: He is now Viceroy o^ J^aphi, and is 
the oaly Governor of all the phces through which I 
pa/Ted , that is , without exception beloved and 
cfteemed by all forts of people : for during the few 
years of his Miniftry, he hath rcdrcfTcd fuch abufcs 
that feemcd paft cure, and that required an Age to 
correft them : Hehathreprcffed the info lenccot the 
Spaniardf fo much zt Naplcf, that the Natives have 
no occafion to complain of rhe haughtinefs of their 
Mafters : for he proceeds againftthe Spamavdt with 
no lefs fcvericy, when they give caufe for it, than 
againft the NcafoUtant : He hath taken the fay of 
the Souldiers fo immediately into hisowncarej that 
thevj who before his coming, were half naked, and 
robbed, fuch as pafkd on the ftrcets of Nuplet in day 
light, are now «xa(5tly payed, well difciplincd , and 
fo decently cloathed, that i: is a p^eafure to fee them; 
He examines iheir Muftcrs alfo fo exa^ly, that he is 
fure not to be cheated by falfe lifts : He hath brought 
the Markets and Weights of IS^apks to a true exaft- 
r\cfs : And whereas the Bread waS generally too 
iighc , he has fent for Loaves out of the fevcral 
phces of the Markas and weighed them himfe f : 
And by fome fevcre punillimcnc on thofe that fold 
the Bread roo light? he hath brought this matter to 
a jaft regulation ; He haih aUo brought the Courts 
of Judicature, that were thought generally very 
corrupt , to reputation aga n, and it is believed he 
bath Spies to Watch in cafe the Trade cf Bribes is 
found to be ftill going on: He hach fortified the 
Tabce which was before his iknc;, (h much expcfod, 

that 



/^'7 



tfjattc would have been no hard thing to have mac!^"^| 
a defcent upon ic : But the two things that raife his.-, 
reputjition moft, are his Extirpating of the Banditti 
and the regulation of the Coin, which he hath taken^ 
in hand, it is well enough knowa- what a Plague- 
the Banditi have been to the Kingdora, for they go-; 
ing in Troopi-j not only robbed the Country, but 
Wjit able to rcfift an ordinary Body of SouWiers, if 
they had fet t-n them : Thefe travelled about? feek* 
ingrfi)r Spoylali the Summer long, but in Winter.- 
they were harboured by fo:ne of the Neapolitan Bzr** 
rons, who gave th m Quarters : And thereby did 
noton'y prored their own Lands, but had them afe 
fbmanylnllruments ready to execute their Revengei 
on their Enemies. This was well k^own at Naphf^. 
and there was a Councel that had the care of the re- 
ducing the ^<5wi;^; committed to them, who as they 
catcheJ feme -few, and hanged ihcm, fo they fined- 
fuch Barrons as gave them harbour j and ic was be- 
Ikved that thole Fines amounted to near a hundred* 
and fifty thoufand Crowns a year ; And thus the Di-« 
feafe went on •, only now and then there was a little- 
Blood let, which never went to the bottom of the 
piftempcr. But when the prefert Viceroy entred 
upon the Governmtnt, he refolved to extirpate all 
the Banditi , and :he firll let all the Barons under^ 
fland, that if they harboured them any more, a little 
Fine would not fa ye them : but that h^ would pro-» 
ceed cigainft them wiih the utmoft feverity, a&d byv 
this means the 5iJ.^^/W could find no Winter Quar- 
ters: So they betook thcmfelve^ to fomc faftnefT-S 
among the tlilis, and refolved to m^kc good the 
Pa^es, and to accomraodare themfelvcs the beft they 
could amidft th- Mountains. The Viceroy fenc a 
great Body againfi: them, but they defended th.m- 
lelves for fume time vigbrouf!yi,>nd in one Sdiy 
:hey killed five hundred men : but at 1 aft,- feeing that 
they were, like to be hard preft j and that the Vtcstpy 

in- 



L9l "^ 



IdtenJbdto come againft tliemin Perron, thcy'ae-^ 
c«ptcd of the Termi that he offered them, which vfzs 
a Pardon for what was paft, both as to Life and 
6illicJ, and fix pence a day for theiF entertainment 
in Prifon during Life, or the Viceroy t pleafure j and 
f© they rctdrcd themfclves. Tiicy are kept in a 
large Prifon, and now and then as he fees caufe for 
it, he fends feme few of them up and downtofcrve 
in Garrifons. And thus, beyond all mens expeda- 
lion, he finished this matter in a very few months i 
tnd the Kingdom of Napkt that hath been fo long % 
fcene of Pillage and Robbery > h now fo much 
changed) rhat in no place of f«ro^edo the Subjeft*- 
enjoy a more entire fecurity, As foe the Coin., ir^ 
as all the other Spani/k money y isfofubjcft to clip- 
ping, that the whole money cfNapJef is now lightj 
and far below the true Value, fo the Victroyhith re- 
folved to rcdrefs this : He confiders that the crying 
down of money, that pafTeib upon the Publick cre- 
dit, is a robbing ofthofc in whofc hards the money 
happens to be when fuch Proclamations are put our, 
and therefore he takes a method that is more general, 
In which every one will bear hisihare, fo that none- 
will be cruflied by it, . He hatb laidfomc Taxes on 
the whole Kingdom, and hath got a great many to 
bring in fome Plate to be Coined : And when he harh 
thus prepared fuch a qyancity, a$ may ferve for the 
circulation that is ncceffary, he intends to call in all 
the old money, and to give out new money for it. 
Thus doth this Viceroy, fee fuch a Pattern to the 
. «thcr Minifters of rhc Crown of Spain, that if mary 
would follow it» the State of their affairs would be 
•icon altered. 

The Kingdom of NapUf is the richtft part of all 

• July : for the rcrr Mountains that are near the half? 

ol the Soil, are fruitful, and prodi'ce cither V/inc 

' or Oyl in great abundance. Apulia is a great Ct.rn 

-Gountrej, but is eisiccfTiY^ hocj and in ibme yeats all 

ii. 



■ rioj 

is bi>snt up. The ^efuitf arc the Proprietors o^ 
near the half oiApuhUi and they treat their Tenants 
■with the ilime rigour that the Barons of this King-s 
dom do generally ule towards their Farmers ', for 
the Commons here are fo mifer.ibly oppreffcd, thac-. 
ifj many places they die of hunger , even amidft the 
great plenty of rheir beft years, for the Corn is ex- 
ported to -5]p«//Vi : but neither the Spaniards nor the 
Neapolitans undcrSand Trade fo well as to be their, 
own Merchants or Carriers^ fo that the Engli/hAo 
generally carry away the proHt of this Trade. The 
Oyl of this Kingdom is ftill a vafl Tradcj and the 
Manufacture of the Wool and Soap of England^ 
cenfumfS yearly fome ihoufands of Tuns. The Siik 
Trade is io low that it only ferves chemfelves, buc 
the exportationis inconfiderable: thcflorhand lazi^ 
nefsof this people renders the^i incapable of making 
thofe advantages of fo rich a Soil, that a more indu-. 
ftrious fort of people would findout : For it amazes a 
Stranger to fee in their little TownSj the whole mcH. 
©f the Town walking in the Market places in thek: 
torn Cloaks, and doing nothing j and tho in fome 
big Towns> fuch as Ci?p«<j ,. there is but one Inn, 
yet even thatik fo miferablej that the beft Room and 
Bed in ir, is fo bad, that our Footmen in England 
would make a grievous out-cry if they were no better 
lodged : nor is there any thing to be had in them;: 
the Wine is intoUerable , the Bread ill bakedj no 
Viftuals, except Pigeons, and thcOylis rotten. In; 
fhort, except one carries his v/hcle provinen from 
^tne or NapJcf' he muft rcfolve to endure a good 
deal of mifery in the four days journey that is be- 
tween thofe two plices. And this is what a Tra- 
veller, that ftcs -.he riches of the foil, cannot com- 
prc-hend : but as thev have not hands enough for their 
Sujljfo thofe they have are generally too litrle em- 
ployed, that it is no wonder to fee their Soil produce 
foJiule, thac in the midft of all thac abundance diac 



T 1 '^^ 

I II ] 

l^jture hath fee before rhem, ihey are one of tlte 

poorcft Nations ot Europe, But bcfides this, which 

i I have named, the vali and dead wealth that is in the 

I hands of the Churchmen, is aootlier ej^idcnc caufe of 

their mifcry. - One chat knew the State of this King- 

•,dom well, a/Tured me, that ifrt were divided into five 

parts, upon a ftrid Survey, it would be found thac 

*hc Churchmen had four parts of the five, which he 

made out thus, they have in Soil above the half oi 

the whole, which is two and a half: and in Tithes 

and Gifts and Legacies they have one and a half 

more : forno man dicth without leaving a confidcr- 

able Legacy to fome Church or fomc Convent. The 

Wealth that one kcs in the City of Naples alone, 

pafleth imagination 5 there are fcur and twenty Hou- 

fes of the Order of the Domitiicamt of both Sexes, 

and two and twenty oi the Francifcans, feveaof the 

''feJuUsh b.fides the Convents of the OHvitanesi the 

Clheatines, ihsCarmelitesi ihtEenediBines^ and a^ 

iovc all, fjrfcituaiion and riches, the Cartbttpani on 

the top of the Hill that lycth over the Town. The 

Tichcs o^ ihc i.'innunciata are prodigious : It is the 

.greatcft Hofpiral in the World, the Revenue is faid 

to be four hundred thoufand Crowns a year: the 

-number of the Sick is not fo great, as .at Milan • Yet 

.one convtnicnce for their Sick I pbfervcd in their 

Galleries, which was confiderable, thai e/ery Bed 

.(lood as in an Alcove, and had a Wall on both fides 

vicparating it from the Beds on both 'hands, and as 

jnuch void fpacc of both fides of the Bed, that the 

,Bed it fclf took up but half tlic Room, The young 

Children that they maintain arc fo many, that one 

.Can hardly believe the numbers that they boaft of: 

4br they talk of many thoufands that are not fetn, 

but are at Nurfe : a great part of the Wealth of this 

-Houfc goech to the enriching their Church, whicii 

.will be all over within crufted with inlaying* of lovc- 

.ly Mirbk; in a great varktj and beauty of colours;- 
{_-■--■ -. . ^^^ 



I 12 ] 



(f 



The Plate rtiat IS in the Trcafurc here in4 In tki 
Dome (which is buc a mean building, becaufe hii 
ancient) but hath a Noble Cbappel^ and a yaft Trfa^ 
fure) and in a great many other Churches are fo 
prodigious , that upon the mo4kft cHiniace y thi 
Plate of the Churches oi N0ples amouni^s to elghe 
millionsof Crowns. The new Church of the ^^ 
fuitst that o{S„yobn the Apoftlc, and that of S.Taui 
are furprizingW riib ^ the Gilding and Painting that 
is on the Roofs of thofe Churches have cod millions : 
Aad as there are abouc a hundred Convents hi N#^ 
fles, Co every one of thefe, if it were in another 
placc} would be thought well worth, feeing) tho th* 
fiches of tho greater Convcocs hcrC) make many o^c 
fhemtobc lefs vifited. Every year there is a net* 
Governour of ihcAnnuttci^Mf who perhaps puts in 
bit own Pocket twenty thoufand Crowns*, and to* 
make fome compenfation when he gocth out of Of 
fke, he ^ivetha vaft piece of Plate to the Houfe, a 
Statue fur a Saint in Silver^ or fome Colofs of • 
Ondlefticky forfcvcral of thofc Pieces ofPlatCj arc 
faid CO be worth ten thoufand Crowns \ and thus aU 
the Silver of Nj^/c/ becomes dead andufdefs: The 
^efuitt are great Merchants here : their Wine Cellar 
ii a vaft Vault* and holds above a thoufand Hogs- 
heads, and the bcft Wine of l^afUs is fold by them, 
yet they do not retail it out fo icandaloufly as th# 
Minimi ivit^o live en the great Square before the Vice- 
roys Palace, and fell out their Wine by retail : They 
pay no duty, and have extraordinary good Wine? an4( 
arc in thebeft placc of the Town for this retail. It if 
u\xt the NeafoUtartf are no great Drinkers, fo t^ 
profits of this Tavern arc not fo great as they would 
be incoldcr Countries ; for here men go only in for ^ 
-draught in the mornings, or when they are a tbirft, 
y tt the Houfe groweth cxtream rich> and hath one : 
of thefincft Chappelsthat is in all Naplts , but the* 
Jr-ade fef DM very unbecoming men of tbas Profc/Con, 

■«n4 



T 1 5 J 

ind e>r To ftriil an Order. The CorwcnH hkvt a 
very particular PiivileJgc in this Towa ; fur tbcr 
may buy al! the Hpufes thit lye on either fide, till the 
fiilt ftrcec thi: diicontinuerhthe Houfes j and there 
being fcarcc a ftrcct in Njpks in which there is not a 
Convcn: i by this means, they nuy come ro buy in 
the who^e Town ; And the progrcfs that the wealth 
o£ the Cltrgy makes in this Kingdom, is To viCblcj 
th*r, ifthcrc is not feme (top pjt to it j within an 
Age, rhey will make thcmfeUe, Makers of the whale 
Kingdom : Ic is an amazing thing to fee (o profound 
an ignoi3nce> as Reigns among the Clergy, prevail 
fo effcaually , for tho all the Secular Perfons here 
fpcak ofthcm with all pofTiblc fcorn, yet they arc the 
Mailers of^.hc Spirits' of the people. The Women 
are infinitely ftipcrfliuous , and give their Husbands 
no rcil 5 bur as they dr^w fr©m them great pr^fents 
to the Church. It h :ruc, there are Socic;ics of men 
at N^p/ej cf freer thoughts than Cdn be found in any 
o:her place of Italy : The Greek learning begins lo 
flouriiii there, and rhe new Philofophy is much Stu- 
died 3 and there is ap Aflfembly that is held in D. J#- 
fepb l^jUetas Library (where there is a vaft Col- 
kdion of well chofea Botki") compuftd by saeathat 
have a right raftecf true learning and good fenfc: 
They are ill looked on by the C ergy, and repre* 
fi^nted as afetof Aihcifls, and as the ipawn of f »»>- 
ponuiui^ School : But I found no fuch thing amung 
thcin> fjrlh.;id the Honour to mcec twice or thrice 
wi:h aconfiJerablc numl.er of then, during th^ llaorc 
ilay that I made amo^g them ; There is a learned 
LsLwycr francifco j4,iJt:a that is con/iJeicd as one 
of the moiUnquifitive men of th<; A^cmbly : There 
is aUo a Grard-child of the Great Aiciat, who is v^ 
curious as well as learned. Few Churchmen come in 
to this atrempt for the reviving of Lcarniug among 
ihem : On the contrary, ic is plain, that they drcavi 
at above all things. G?ly one Emiacm Preacher 

B b Rhialdi 



/^J 



[^4] 



ir.' 



Kffisldi J that is Aich-desicn cf Capujt, "A/IocLi 
himfclf with them ; He was once ohUt ^cfuites d 
der, but kfcit i and as that alone fw-rvcd to give ; 
good charai^er of him to me. To upon a long convc: 
ration with him, I found a great many other thing 
that pcflciTcd me with a high value for him. Sonn 
PhyhtiansinA^^p/f/ are brought under the fcindal 6 
Atheifm,and it is certain, that in Italy, men of fearch 
ing undcrftandirgs, who have no other Idea of ih 
ChriRian Religion, but that which they fwC reccivcj 
among ihcm, are very naturally tempted to disbe 
licve it quite ; for they believing it all alike in gro6 
without diftindion, and findirg fueh notorious cheat 
as appear in many parts of their Religion, are upoi 
that induced to disbelieve th: whole. The Preach 
jngsof the Monks in A^/»p/c/ are terrible things, 
faw a Jejuitc go in a fort of a PrcCcfiTion , with ; 
■great company about him, and calling up^n all thai 
.he faw, to follow him to a p'ace where a Mountc 
bank was felling his Medicines, near whom he tool 
liis Room, and entertained the people with a forte 
a Farce, till the Mountebank got him to give over 
fearing leaft his aftion fhould grow tedious, and di( 
pcrfc the comp.iuy that was brought together. Ther 
arc no famous Preachers, nor men of amy reputatio 
nor learning among the ^cfuites ' I was told they ha 
not men capable to teach their Schools, and that the 
were forced to hire Strangers ; The Order of the O 
ratory hath not that reputation in Italy, that it hat. 
gain:d in rrar»:e , and the little Learning that i 
among the Clergy in ISiapkfj is a.mong fome fesv Se 
cular Priefts. 

The new method ofMolinos doth fo rruch prevti' 
in Kapkh that it is believed he hath above twent; 
thoufand followers in this City : And fince this hatl 
;made fome noifc in the World, and yet is gcnerall; 
but little undcrftood , I will give you fome accoun 
^«^f him : He is a Sfamjh Prieft tlu:- fccms to be bu 

ai 



[15] 

m ordinary Divine > and is ccrrai-ilya very ill R^ar'. 
oner when he undertakes to prove bis opinions : Ht 
lu'h writ a Bojk, which is inticuld, llGuiiia S^iri-^ 
\uxJCi which is a fli •)rt abftraifl of the Myllical Divi« 
i:cy ', thcfubft.incw of liiC who'e, is reduced to this, 
hjt in our Prayers and other Devotions, tlie bcft ir.e- 
:iiods arc to retire the mind fiom all gvofs Irnagesj 
ind i'o to form an att of Faithj and thcieby to prclcnt 
jurfclv<-'S before .God, and then to fink into a fi- 
Lrceand ccflation of new ads, and to let God ad 
:ipon usj and fo to follow his conJiKa : This way 
bf prefers to the mu'tipliwation oF many new afts, 
and different forms of De.orions andhcmakcs fma'l 
r.ccou'K cf corporal aufterities, and reduces all the 
ixercifcs of Religion to this fimplicicy of mind : He 
ihinks this is not only to be propofed to Aich as live 
in Religious Houfes, but cvento fecularperfons, and 
I y this he hath propofed a great Reformation of mens 
minds and manners : He hath many Piiefb in lialf^ 
but chitfly in Naples , thai difpof^ thofe who confcfs 
themfclves to them, to follow his methods : The 
^cfuiis have fee themfel^cs much ag=tinft this eon- 
dudj as f^refceirg that ic may much weaken the 
Empire that Superflition hath over the minds cC 
people, that ic may make Religion become a more 
plain and fimple thing, and may alfo open a door 
to Emhufi(f[tns : They al b pretend, that his conduct 
4s faflious and fedirious, that this may breed a Schifin 
in theCljurch. And bcctufc hcfajch in forae phces 
of his Bock , Ihjt the mind maj rife up to fuch a - 
fimplicity in itsaUs^ that it may rife tnfome ofiit 
'tkvotions to God immediately , withnit cantem* 
■ f^hiini the Humanity of Chiiil: they have accufed 
him, as inte.idingto lay a fide the Dodrineof C/;r;^'s 
Humanity, tho it is plain that he fpcaks only of the 
purity offome fing'c ajfls : Upon all thofe heads they 
have fee themfclvcs much againft Mjlinot ; and they 
h.avv a'To pretended that (ome of Us Difcip'-es; ba\^ 



JnfufcJ it Into their Poitcnfs, ih3t they may go an^ 
Communicate as they find themfelvcs difpoicd, with* 
©ut going ftrft to Confeflion , which they thoughc 
weakncd much rhe Yoke, by which the Pricfls fub- 
duc the Conrcier.ces of tbcpccpk ro their Condud : 
Yet he was much furpoKccd both in the Kirgdrm of 
I^aples and in Sic'tJy \ He had alfo many friends and 
ibl'.owcrs at Rewe. So the Je/«/r«j as a Provincial 
of the Order afTured me, finding they could rnxt 
ruine him by their own forcc3 got a great King, that 
h now extream'y in the Intereiis of their Order to. I 
inrerfofe, a«d to rcprefent to the Pope tjie danger ofl 
fuch innovations. It is cerrain the Pope underltandj 
j^e matter very little, andrh:it he is poffc/Tcd wiril 
a ^rcat opinion of hidinoi l^nctity, ycc upon the 
ccmrlaints of fbme Cardinals, that :ccondcd the zeal 
«f ihat King, he and fome of his followers wcr^i 
•Upt in the Inquifition, where they have been new 
foK Tome months, but they are liill well ufed, whic-h- 
.is believed to flow from the good opinion that the 
P©pc haih of himi who f.jith ftiH, that tho he may 
have erred, yet he is cerr;iinly a good man: Upon 
this imprifonmcnt, P^r^w/n faid a pkaTant thing, in 
one week, ore man had been condemned to tlie Gal- 
Vies for fomewhat he had laid , another had been 
hanged for fomcwhat he had writ, andj^olinos was 
clapt in Piifon, whofe Doclrine Confined chiefly in 
liiis, that nr.en ought to bring their minds ro a^tatc 
of inward quictncfs, from which the n^me of i^ietifls 
was given to all his foil uwers : 'J he Pai^ainadi 
tipon al' iiWs,vvas, Si farliaivQ, in GaJcre* fifcrivcm^ 
mo Injpiccatij ji ft atm in quiele ail* Sa'nt Officioy t 
ihe hifigna fare : 7/ v:efpeak. we are fent to the Gal- 
he! ', ifvi^e write, we arc hanged : if ^efiandquieU 
nj&e are cUpt tip in the In.juijuion : what tnuji we do 
then ? Yet his Followers at NapJa «re not ihuwed, 
but they bc!itve he will OJm$ out q( this Trial vido- 
rjous. 



ri7] '9 



TficCIry o^ Naples, as n is the bcft fcirua'eJjand 
in the beft climate, To it is one of the Nob'cft Cidcs 
; of i'Myope, and if it is not above half as big as If art f 
or London^ )cc it haih much more beauty then either 
ot thijm : the Streets arc large and bioad, the pave- 
ment is great and Noble, the Scones being generally 
above a toot fquaie : and it is full of Palaces and 
great Buildings : Th" Town is well fupplicd by dai- 
FyMaikets, lothat provifio;is are ever frcHi and in 
great plentyj the Wine is the beft of Europe, and 
both the Fi/h and Flcfh is cxtrc.im good ; it is fcarce 
ever cold in Winter, and there is a frelh Air comes 
boih from the Sea and the Mountains in Summer, 
The Viceroys Palace is- no extraordinary BuiMing, 
cnly the Stair- cafe is gr^at : But it is now very rich- 
ly furni/hed within, in Pidurcs and Statues : there 
arc in it (ome Statues of the qy£gyptian Deities Vf 
Touchftone, that arc of great value : There are nta 
great Antiquities here, only there is an ancient Ko- 
vja'i Portico that is very Nuble , before St.Pauh 
Church : But wirhout the City near the Church and 
Horpital o{ Sr. Genn^ro, that is wiibout ihe Gates, 
,are ihs "Noble Cataccmbs j which becau'c they were 
beyond any thing I faw in Italyy and ro which tbs 
Catacombs ot Rome are not to be compared, and fii'cc 
I do nor findany acxzount of them, in all the Books 
that I have yet feen concerning NapJch I ibali t!e- 
•fcribe them n:orc paiticulaily. 

They are vaft and long Galleries' cut out of t{>c 
^■Rock : there arc three Stories of them one above 
-anothtr. I was in two of them, but the Rock is 
^fallen in the loweft, (o that one cannot go in to it, 
but I faw the pafiTagetoit: TheQ Galleries are gc 
tlerally about twenty foot broad, and about fifteen 
•foot high : fo rhat tbry arc Noble and f(?5cious 
.places, and not lictle and narrow as the Cjiarjmbf 
-at R.r/»<r, which are only three or four foot bread, 
'ar*dhyc or fu foot high. I was made be'icv. rbit 
* B b 3 thefe 



[ i8] 

^hefe CatAcoinhs of l^af.ett went into the Rock mnc 
roilc longi but for that I have ft only by rcporcji 
ycc if that be true, they may perhaps run towards 
Fuzzoloi and fo they may have been the burial p'*ccs 
of the Towns on that Bay *, but of this I have no, 
certainty. I wa kcd indeed a.^ceat wayj and found 
Galleries going off in all hands without end, ahd 
whereas in the Rotnan Caiacoinbs there are not above-, 
three or fourrows of niches ch.jc arc cut out in the. 
Rock one over another, into which the dead bodies. 
were laid i Here there are generally fix or feven rows 
of tfcofe niches, and they are bosh larger and hightcy 
fbmc niches are for Childrens bodies, and in many, 
places there are in the Floors, as it were great Chefts 
hewn out of [he Rock, to lay th« bones of the dead 
as they dricd» in them ; but I eouM fee no marks 
<ithcr of a cover for tiiefe holes that looked like the 
l>ellics of Chcfti, or of a facing to fhut up the Eichcs 
whcaadead body was laid in tlicm ,• fo that it feems 
they were monftrous un whole fomc and ftinklrg, 
places, where fonac thoufaadsof bodies lay rotting, 
without any thing to (hut in fo loathfome sr fight, 
and fo odious a fmell : For the niches ihcw plainly 
that the Bodies were hid in them only wrapt in the 
4^id dotthi, they being too low for Ccffins. la 
Ibme places of the Rock there is as it were a little 
Chappcl hcwen oui-in the Rock, that goes off- from 
4hc common Gallery, and ihere arc niches all rourrd 
about i but I faw no marks of ary Wall that (hut. 
ia fuch places, tho I am apt ro think thcfc might b« 
burying places appropriated t© particular fami'ics. 
There is in feme places on ihc Walls and Arch, Old 
T^ofaick work, and fome Painting, the Colours arc 
frcili, and the manner and Charid;crs are Goibick, 
which made me conclude rhac this might have been 
done by the Nermant about fix hundred years ago, 
after they drvive out the Saracens : In fome places 
4hctc. are Palm- irecs pointed , and. Vines in other 



f\iilc9. The frcihnefs pf the ColoUts ilicwS thtfip. 
trou'd not have Ucn doi>e while this place wasiair 
ployed for burying, for the ftca^nstnd rot cnnef> of 
the Air , occafioncd by fo much corruption , nr.'uft 
have diiT^lvcd boih Plainer and Colours. In one 
place there is a man Painted with a httlc beard, and 
Faului is written by his head : there u another 
reaching him a Gariandj and by his head liaud ii 
written, and this is repeated in another p'acc right 
over agjinft it. In another place I found a crofi 
Painted, i^nd about the urp^^-r part of it thcfc Letters 
J. C X. O. and in the lower part N J K A. 
arc Painted : A learned Antiquary that went with 
me, agreed wi:h me that the manner oi the Paint- 
ing and Characters did not fcej-n to be above fix hun- 
dred years old , but neichtr of us knew wh?.t to make 
of tkcfc Letters.- The lower ftemed to relate to tliCr 
laft word of the Vifion, which it is faid that Con^ 
fianliae faw with the. Ciofs tjiat appeared to hifn J 
But tho the Hrft two Letters might be for ^efuf, it 
being crdinary in old Coins and Infcriptions to put a 
C. tor an S. and X (l^nds fovCkrl/}-, yet we knew 
net what to make of the O. unlefs it. were fur the. 
Greek 'Tketay and that the little line in the bofom of 
ihz'Xheta was worn our, and then it ftands for Ikcos ; 
and thus the whole Infcription is, ^e^usChrift, GoS 
a-verCGfiJSib, Another Pi^flurc in the Wall had writttn. 
over it S. ^obannesy which was a cl ar fign of a. 
barbarous Age: In another place there is a Piaure 
high in the Wall, and three Piclurts under it? that 
ar top had no Infcription j ihofe be^iow it had ihefa 
lnCci\p:icnSjS. I\,ithari}!a> 5. jd^ape-t and S. IvJar- 
garita •, thcfc: Letters ae clearly modern, befides thar, 
Margaret and J^iker nc arc m< dcri} names , ard the 
addition, of ta a little above the S, were mxnifeft 
tvidcnces that the hi^htft Antiquity that Car^. be 
afcrilcdto this Painting is fix hundred years. I faw- 
iHoaioje. Paint ii\g> and Ibe^aatogrow weary of ths 

daiik-. 



l.^^o J 

darknefs, and the thick Air of the p'ace, fo I ftalil"") 
not above an hour in &he Catacombs. This made me 
reflcft more particularly on the Catacombs ui Rome 
than I had done, I ei>ttlci imagine no rcafon why fo 
little mention is made of thole of Naples , when 
there is fo much faid concerning thofc of Rotne; and • 
cou'd gi\''e my felf no other account of the raatterj 
but that it being a maxim to keep up the repuradoti 
of the Roman Catacombs^ as the Repofroiies of the 
Reliqucsof the primitive Chriftianit jc would have 
much Icflcned their credit, If it had been though 
that there were Catacomhi far beyond them in all 
refpcds, that yet cannot be fuppo'cd to have been 
the work of the prirr.j ive Chrifi'tans \ and indeedj 
norhing feems more evident than that thcfe were the 
common burying places cf the ancient tieathensm 
One enters into them without the Walls of the 
Tow IS, according to the Laws of the twelve Tables, 
and fuch are the Catacombs of ^Qme that I faw, 
which were thofe of 5. Agne^ and S, Scbafian, the 
f ncry ir>to them being without the Town •, this an- 
fwers t«he L^w, rho in cff^d they run under it» for 
in thofe days when they had not the ufe of the 
ncedlcj th?y could not know which way they car- 
ried on thole works when they were once fo fir in- 
gaged under ground as to lofe themfclves. It is a 
vain imagination to think th.u the OniHians, in the 
primitive timei, were able to carry on fuch a work; 
for as this prodigious digging into fuch Rocks, mall 
have been 3 very vifible thing by the Muuntaines of 
Rubbilli that m'lfthave been brought our, and by the 
vaft number of bands that muft have been employed 
in it ■, fo ic is abfiird to think that th?y could ho'd 
their Ajfemblief amiJft the annoyance of fo much cor- 
ruprion. I found the ikams fo firong, that tho I 
'^m as little fubj d: to vapours as nrA\ men, yet I 
had a'l the day lo 'g after I was in them> (^w^ch was 
aot near an hour) a corifufion; and -as it were a boil- 



i 



Tfl"g in my head, ihacdifordercdme ex?rc.imly ,-. snel 
if there is now fo much ftagriiting Air th;rc, this 
niiift have been fenh'blc in a more eminent and in- 
fuff-rablc manner, while there were vail numbers of 
6odics rotting in thofc niche?. But befides this irn- 
proba' ility that prcfcnts it fc'f from the natuie cf 
the thing, I called to mind a pafifjge of a Lctocr of 
CorncUui that was Bifhc p of Rome, after the nr dole 
of the third Cf«/tti7, wiiich is prefcrved by Eujchtuf 
in his fixth Book, Chapter 4^, in which we h-.vc 
the State of the Church of Rome 21 th.it ti^r-e fee 
forth. There were forty dx Frcsbitcr^, f::ven Dea^ 
cons, a$ many Subdeacom^ and ninety four of tliS 
I-nfeiioor Orders of the Clergy among then ; there 
were alfo fifteen handled Widows, , nd oih-r pt'or 
raaintairiedout of the publick Charities. Ir may b« 
rcjfonahly fuppoled th.it the numbers of the Or/- 
fiians wc:eas great when this HpiU'e was writ, as 
they Were at anytime before Confiantine^s dayts j 
for as this wjs wrir at the eni cf that long pea^c, 
of which both S, Cjiprian ^nd LaBantiut rp«„k,- that 
byd continued above a hundred y-^ars ; fo after iliis 
time, thcie was fuch a fuccefHon of Pcifecutions that 
ca:r!C fv th.'ck one upon another, af er fiiort intervals 
©f quiet, that we cannot think the numbers of the 
Chriilians increafed much beyond wh.^t tliey w^re 
at this time. Now there are two particulars in this 
State of ih? Clergy, upon which one ra.iv m^ke a 
probab'e cftimarc of the numbers tf the Ch.tfiiarii 3 
iheone ii their poor, which wcre'a: fifteen hundred, 
Bow upon an exad furvcy , it will be f und ihac 
where the poor ae wcU looked to, their number 
riles genera ly to be the rhirticth or fortieth part of 
mankind ; and this may be wcl! believed to be the 
proportion of the poor among the Chrijltam ^i ihac 
Age : For as their Charixy was vigorous and tinder, 
fo v/c 'ticA Celfus , fulian, Luaan, Porphiryi and 
oihcrsj objwd this to ihcCbrfJftam vi that liraa, th^c 

- thcii; 







their Chanties to the poor drew vaft num')*rs of the 
lower fore among them, who made thimfclvcs Chrifii- 
am that they might be fupplicd by thdr Brechrtn ; 
So that this being the Srace of the Chrijh'an; then, 
^WQ may reckon the poor tlic thirtiech part, and fo 
{if-cen hundred mul:ipUcd by thirty, produce five 
and forty thoufand : And I am the more inclined to 
think that this rifes up near to the fuil fu.irof their 
rumbcrSj by the other Charader vi the numbrrs of 
tlie Clergy, for as there were forty llx Prabytcrfy 
fo there were ninety four of the inferior Orders, who 
were by two more then the double of the number of 
the Priclis } and this was in a time in which the care 
of Souls was morcexadlv looked cicer-, then it has 
been in the more corrupted ^2,^%^ the Clergy having 
then rea'ly more \Norkon their hands, the i;iilruding 
C'f ih?ir Catcckumcnes) the v:fit;ing their S;ckj and 
the fupporcing and comforting the weak, being tasks, 
that.requiredfo much application, that in fo vaft a 
City as 1^or?7e was in thufe daycs, in which it is pro- 
bable the Chrifiians were fcaticrcd over the Clry, 
and mixed in al! the p^rts of it, wc make a conjcdurc • 
that is not ill grounded, wh:-n we reckon that every 
Freshjtcr had perhaps about a thoufand Souh com- " 
ciitted to hiscarej fo this rifes to fi\ and forty tliou- 
fand J which tomes very near the fum that may be 
gathered from the other hint> taken from the number 
of their poor. So that about fifty thoufand is the . 
hi^helt :.ccount to which we can reafonably raifethe 
rumbsrs of the Chri/iians of Rome in that time j 
and of fo many perfons, th-: oldj the young? and the 
women, make more then three fourth parts, fothac- 
men that were in condirion to woik were not above 
twelve thoufand , and by confequencej'-hjy were in no < 
condition to undertake and carry on fo vaft a work. 
If Corneliuf in that Later fp^aks of the numbers of 
the Chri/iians in exceQive Terms, and if lertullian .- 
in his Jpjlo^ctick hath alfo fet out the numbers of the 

Ckriz' 



[23 J 



lU} 



Chrl/lfani of liis lioic, in a very hL'h flialn, that 
is only to b6 alcribcd to a pompous Elocjuence, which 
difpo'eih fc®plc to mngnitie their own party, and wc 
mult allow a gvVed dtal co a hyperbole that is very 
natural to all that fet forth their forces in general 
Tcrm>. It is trwejit is not To dear when thofe vafi; 
cavities were dug out of the Rocks. We know thac 
when the Laws ot the twelve Tables were made^ 
fcpuliurc was then in ufe: and 9^me being th.u 
grown to a vaft bigncfs, no doubt they had rcpofi- 
torits For their dead ', fo that fi nee none of the Roman 
Authors mention any fuch vvorkjit may not be unrea- 
fonab-!e to Imagine that thefe Vaults had been 
wrought and clk cut from the firft begii^.nings cf the 
City, and fo th^- latter A.uthors hid no cccafion to 
take notice c f ir. It is alfj certain, that iho burning 
came to be in ufe among the Romans, yet they re- 
turned back to their firit cui^onVQ of burying bodies 
long before ConHantina time ., fo that ic was not the 
Ch.ifiian Religion rhac produced this change : All 
cur mo Jern Writers take it for granted tha: the change 
was made in the tines o* the ^ntonincf j yet there 
being no Law made conc<!rning ir, and no mention 
being mjde in an Age, ful! of Writers, of any orders 
that were given forburying P'accs> lelCevus's ofwion 
fcems more prqbable, that th>: cul^omc of burning 
wore out by degrees, and fince we are furethat they 
once buryed, ic is more natural to think that the 
flaves snd the meaner fort of people wsre lii'l buried, 
thit being ahfsexpcnce , and a more Gniplc way 
©f bcftowing their bodies than burning, which was 
both ponapous and chargeable, and (if there were 
already burying pLiccs prepared) ic is much eafier to 
Imagine how thecuftomc ofburying grew Univcrfa'j 
without any Law made concerning it. 

I could not for fome time find out upon what 
grounds the Modern Criticks take it for granted, that 
burjing beg^in in the times of the AntQtiinef ^ till I 

~ ^ ' ~ ha4 



/ 



C u ] 

liac! rlir happintTs co ralk of this m uter with ttir 
karHcii Grt/ftijWtt/j who fcems to be fuch a Mailer of 
all «th^ Anticnt learning, as if he hud the Auchors 
lying alway(S open before him : He rol4 m?> that k 
was certain the change from burning to burying was 
not made by the Chiijlian Emperours, for Macrobiust 
(lib. 7. chap. 7.) faycs, in pliin terms, that the Cu- 
ftome of burning the Bodies of chc Dead was quite 
worn out in that Age , which is a clear latimation 
that it was not laid afide fo late as by Conflantlne^ 
and as there was n® Law made by him oa that hcad> 
fbhe> and th- fuccccding Emperours, gave fach an 
entire t^dlcraion to Faganifm, admitting thofe of 
that Rclijiiun to the greateft Imp.oynKnis, that it is 
not to be rmigined thar ther? wa3 any order given" 
againft burningj lb th:it i. is c'ear the HeJihens had 
changed it of tb.eir own accord ■> otherwayes wc 
Siould have found that among the complaints that 
thcy-madc of the gri-vances, under which they lay 
from the Chnfiians i, but it is more difficu't to fix 
the tiiT.c wh^n thii change was made. Gronovius 
fliev/ed me a \>^{^i%(t oi Phkgmh that mentions the 
Bodies :hat were hid in the ground, yc: he did not 
build on that, forii: may have rclariea to thccuftums 
of burying that might be elfcwherc. And To Pe/ro- 
»/«/ gives the account of ihc burial of the Epheftan 
Macrons Husband : but h? made it apparent: tome, 
that burying was commonly pra'SlTed in Comtmiuii 
time \ for XiPhiltnus te'ls us, that in Tertlnax'^ time 
the friends of thufis whom Commoiui ha>d ordered to 
be put to Dcach, had dug up their Bodies, fomc 
bringing out only fom- parts of them, and others 
raifing their entire Bodies. The fame Author "alfo 
tfills us, that ?ertinax buried Csmimdui\ Body, and 
fo iavtd ic from the rag^-of the peop'e, and here is 
a pofitivc Etidci cc, that bU'iying w,as the conimofi 
praf^ifc of that tiir^e. It is true, ic is very probable . 
s^u as wcrecr&jn;r of the B^4mAn Families cuntinyci 



f*5^ . _"' 

to bury their (!ea(3jCv'n when burning was rhc mor^ 
iXfrnmon cuftomc> fo, perhaps, orheis coatinuL\i af- 
ter this to burn th;ir dead, the thing being Indiffe- 
lenr, an<i no Law being made about ir, and there- 
fore ic was particularly objccl»d co the Ckr'ijlians af- 
ter this time , that they abhorred the cullome of 
burning the Bodies of the Dejd, whi<;h is mcncio- 
•ncdby Minutlus JteUx-i but this, or any other evi- 
dences, thatm.iy be brought from Mcddals cf Confc>-' 
crations after this time, will only prove that fonaa 
were ftill burnt, snd that ihQ Cbrsftians pradifcd 
burvio^ llnivcrfallvj as txorefTing; their belief of the 
Refurredion j whereas the Heathcm held the thing 
inJilTercnt. It is alio clear from theo^any genuine 
Inlcriptions that have been fcund in the Caiacombfy 
w'hich bear the dates of the Confuls, thatthcfe were 
the comnon Burial places of a'l thtChri/liatis of th« 
fourth and fifth Cc/jm*-^ j for I do noc rem«ember than 
there is any one date that is Antienter , and yet noB 
one of the Writers of rhof? Ages fpeak of them as 
the work of the Primitive Chrijiijns. They fpe^^k 
inJced of the Burial places of the Martyrs, but that 
'Wi'i prove no more but that the Ckvifiians migl*C^- 
have h?.d clicir Quarters, and their Walks in thoA: 
common Burial places where they laid their Deadi 
'2nd wh-ch misht hav^e been known among; them, tht» 
it is not llke'y chat rhey would in rimc5 or pcrLcuti' 
cn3 make fi'ch Infcriptions as might have expoled the 
Bo lies of their dead Friends to the rage oftheit Enc- 
mies. Aad the Spurious ad* of fume Saints and 
Martyrs are<if too liule credit tb^ive any*fupport to 
thecommjn Opinion. Dawafui^s Poetry is of no 
better atith'>ricy. And ih.) rhofe ^'^s.'is were inclined 
enough r«» givec'edit to Fable?, ye: it fc-ems this 
cf tbofe Ccitac-imhs having been the work of the i'*si- 
mitivc Ckridi.iTis, was too grofs a thin^ to have beeif ^ 
^ fo early irr.pot^d on tl^e World. And thf; fiienc? hv&VL- 
> 'Age,in whkhSuperliitiuRwas goir^ on at ibgrtat a 

C c rutfi 



tare, has much force in ir, for fij vafl; a Work, it 
x-hofe Caiacowhi are^ ir.iul have been well known r© 
zW i\\z Ksmans . Ic were eafie to carry this much 
further, and t«iliew that the bas reliefs rh?.c have 
been found in fomc of thofe Catacombs, have no- 
thing of the beauty of the Ancient snd Roman umc, 
.Thisisalfo more difccrnable in many Infcfiptions 
xhat arc more Goihick then Kr-mani and there arc fo 
many Infcrip'ions relatirg to Fables, that it is plain 
.thefc were of later timcs^, and wc fee by Sc ^erotrh 
that the Monks began , even in his time, to drive a 
.,Tra<lg of Rcliques ^ fo it is no wonder, that to * 
jaiic the credit ol: fuch a heap as was never to be cs- 
hauftcd, they made fome miferablc Sculptures, ani 
Tome Infcriprions *, and pcrhafva-, thut up the entries 
in:o them with much care and ft<rtfy, intending ro 
open them upon fomc dieam or other Artitice, to 
give ihtra the more reputation , which was often 
praSiTed in order to the drawing much Wealth arrd 
great Devotion, even to 'cmc fingle Reli(?]uc ', and 
a few being upon this Secret , either thofe might 
jiavc died, or by the many revolutions time hapncd 
inRofTJC, they might have been difperfeJ before they 
made the diicovery : And thus the knowledge oS 
ihofe places was loft, and came to be difcovcrcd by 
accident iothclaft Age, and hith ever fince fupplied 
them with an ineshauftiblc. Magazine of Bones* 
•Vh ch by all appearance arc no other then the Bones 
cf the Pagan ^mans j which are nuw ftnt over the 
World to feed a Supcrftition that is as blind as ic 
proves cxpeniive. And thus the Bones of the 'Roman 
Slaves* or at leaft thofe uf the rrieaner fortj .are nowf 
fee in Silver and Gold with a great deal of other coft- 
iy garniture, and entertain the fuperdicion of thofe 
who arc willing to be deceived, as well. as tbey fervc 
the ends of thofe that feek to deceive the World. But 
.becaufc ic Cannot be pretended that there was fu<:h a 
ms^^^i oi Chxij^i^m at N^^ks us ccald have wroug^it 

iUcit 



r ^7 J ■ '9 

•filch Catacomhsi anJ if it iiad been once tliotigru thii 
riiofe were the common Burial places ofthcarcicnc 
Heathens, ttiat might have induced the World to" 
ihiryk that the Roman Catacombs were no other; 
theicfoic thtrj i^ath been no care taken to examine 
thc'e, I thouohc this dcferved a large Difcourfe, 
and therefore IhavedAVcIc perliaps a iittlcrcK) long" 
, ©n thi* Subjcd. 1 will not enter upon a long Dcfcrip- 
' tfon of that which is fo well known as M-ount VejU'' 
viO) it had roared fo loud about a month before T 
Came to Napkh that at Naples 'they could hardly 
ikep in the Nights, and Tme oM Houlcs were fo 
Dijken by the Earthquake thit was gccalioncd by this 
convulfion of the Hil), that they fell to the ground: 
And the lafl eruption , above fifty years ago, was fa 
terriblcjthat there was no imaU fear in Naples j tho 
it lies at the diiUnce of fcv<rn miles from the Hill, 
yet the Srorm was choaked nnd.'^r ground , for the It 
iliioakt nuich more than ordinary, yet there was no 
-eruption : It was, indeed, fmoaking not only in the 
mouth of the little Mount thst is formed witliin rhe 
great v-'afi that the Fire hath made, but alfoall a- 
long the bottom j that is bc^ween the outward 
mouth of tiiis Mountain, which is four miks in com- 
pafsi and thac inward Hill. When one fees the 
month of this Fire, anjfogreat a part of rhe Hill, 
which is covered fi^mc foot deep with Afh s and 
Stones of a metallick compofition , that the Fire 
throws out, he cannot but Ihnd amazed, and won- 
. der what can be the fuel of fo lading a burning, thac 
j.-harh ca'cined (o much mntrer, and fpjwed out fueh 
V-prodigioas quantities. It is- plain there are vaft 
■V,*rinsof Sulphur all along in this Soil, and it ffems 
in this Mountain they run along through fome Mines 
and Ricks, and as their {] w confumption, prodit- 
ccrh a perperual froke, fo when the Air within is 
fo much rarifi.d, thit it mult o^cn it felf, it throws 
tjp tliole maiTc? of Mettle and Rock tiiat il^ut nhtt-t 

C c i ' buc 



i; »8 ] 

fcu't how thisFIre draws in A|r to nouni^'itsFIameJ^; 
is not focafily apprehended, unlefs there is cither a 
conveyance of Air under ground, by fwmc undifco- 
vercd vacuity , or a more infcnfiblc tranfmiflion oF 
Air, through tl:c pores of the Earth. The heat of 
this Hill operates fo much upon the Soilthat lies up- 
on it toward the foot of ir, that it produceth the 
richcft Wine about Naples, -dnd it alfo purifieth the 
Air fo much, that the Village at bottom is thought 
the bell Air of theCounti-ey, fo that iivany come from 
'Naples thither for their health. Ijcbtatih^t is an Ifland 
JTior fir from A' ^^/fi*, doth alfo fomctimcs fpew out fire. 
On tl've other fj«?e of "Naples to the Wcjl^ one 
pafTerh through the Cave that pierceth the Faufalip_pc, 
^nd h four hundred and f<->rry pjces long, for I v/a!k- 
ci it on foot to take its true mcafure, it is twenty. 
foot broad, and st firft forty foot high ', but after- 
Wards it is but twenty foot high ; the Stone cut out 
kere is good for building, fo that as this opened the 
l«ay from Buzzoli to Naples, it was alfo a Quarry 
for the building of the Town : All along the way 
here one difcovers a flrange boiling within ih«. 
ground, for a little beyond this grot of Taiifalippe, 
;is we come near the lake of Aniano, there is of the 
one hand, a bath occafioned by a fteam that rifech 
io hot out of the ground, rhnt as foon as oneg<;cth 
a little into it, he finds hinfelf all over in a 
jfwcar, v/hich is very proper for fomeDi Tea Tes, ffpcci* 
ally that which carries its name from Naples ' And'; 
about twenty paces frcm thercc , there is another 
Jittlegroc, that fends out a poifonous fleam, that as 
5c puts out- a Candle, as foon as it comcth rear jr,.J 
io it infallibly killcth any living Creaiure vvithiri 
a minure of time i for in half iliat time a Dog, up- ' 
on which the experiment is commonly tryed , the 
grot being from thence called GK(?/ro ^/Cj«e, fell in-' 
a convulfion. From that one gocth to fee the poor 
ifii^.s vE: Tu-zzoii, and ofajlahat Bay that was orce'; 



1^9 1 

all about a tra.T of Towns, it hiving b:en the rctreai? 
of the li^wJMf J during the hats of the Summer, 
All ihc rariiie. here, have been (o often, and fo co-. 
pioufly lie bribed, thar I am Icniible I cm add no- 
thing to whar is To wcUknown. I w^il fay nothing 
of chc A/jkpbithcJuhcry or oi Cicero and Vtrgih Hou- 
fcs, for which there n nothing but a dubious Tradi- 
tion ; they are ancient Brick buildings of the Koinan- 
way, and the Vaults oiVtrgiVi Houle are flill imire \ 
The Siilfatara is a furprizjiig thing-, -here is a boc* 
torn ouc of whieh the fb cc of the Fire, that breaks 
out llill in nnnyplnees, in a thick fteaming favike, 
thac is fail of liriinUone, did throw up abotic a hun-, 
dr:d and fiuy y r.rs agcv a vafl quantity of Earth 
which was carricrd above three niiies thence, and 
formed the Hill, called M?«fe Nova upon the ruines 
of a Town, that wasoverwhelm-^d with this eruption^* 
w!iich iJ of -a very confiderable heigthj they told mc 
thifhere was betorethar lime a Channel thar went 
from the Bay inro the Lake of Avcrm, of vvh'ch one 
fees the beginnings in the Bay at fomedifKince from 
the Shore ; ircurierh ftill the nnme ci'^uloi Mole^ 
and is believed to. h^vc been mtidchy ^uhu^ OeJh\^ 
Eucbyihe 'welling of the ground upon the ^ruptioji"' 
of the SuJfa'aya, this pa/fags is {^opr, and the A- 
WiW isnowfrdh wat.rj it u eighr.cn fachon:i deep.- 
On the fide t-f it is thar aniazing Cave, v/here the' 
Sibil is fa id to have given oat her infpirations : the 
hewing it oat of the Rock, hath been .i prodigious 
work, for the Pvock is one of the hardcft Stones in 
the- World, and the Cave goeth in fv yen hundred fooc-- 
loDg, twenty foot broad, andas I could gu^fs eigh-K 
tccn foot high ', And from the end of this great Gal- 
lery, there is a narrow p.TfTagc of three foot brioady- 
two hundred foot long, and feven high , rx) a Htt!ev 
apartiTifnt, to which we go in a conllant flv>ping'.' 
defcentfrom the great Cave i Here are three little' 
RooaiSj in one of ihem there arc fome refts of an old 

Cc J ^ .. Mofaitk^ 



jg 



r so ] 

%dofaichj with wliich the Walls and Roof were h'd 
over*, there is a'fo a fpring ©f V/arer, snd a Baih 
in which ii is fuppofcd the Sibil bathid her feif; 
a-ndfrcm this Cave ic is Gid than there runs a Cave all 
along to CwwdT, which is three long miles* but the 
paflages is nowchoaktby the falling in of the Rock 
In fcveral places; This piece of work amazed me. 
I did not much mind the popular opinion that is eafi- 
ly received there, that alj this was dons by the De- 
vil » the marks of the chizzel in all the parts of ths 
Rock fhewcth thac this is not a work ot Nature. 
Certainly they had both much Icifure, ami many 
hands at their command who fet about it, and ic 
feems to have been wrought out with no other de- 
fign but to fubdue the people more intirely to the 
conduft of the Prieftsthac mangcd this Impofturc, 
fo bufie and induftiioushath the ambition and fraud- 
of the Pricfts been in all Ages and in all corrupt Re- 
ligions. But of &11 the Scenes of Noble objs<frs thac 
prefent it felf in the Bay of Fuzzolh th(? rcfls of G/- 
hgulas Bridge arethemoft amazing, forthctv^ are 
yccftanding eight or ten of thePilKirs thar fupporred^ 
the Arches, and offtme of the Arches the half is 
J. yctintire. I had not a line with me to examine the 

t_ depth of the Water where the furthefl of thofe Pillars- 
'** V is built, but my Water-man affured me it was fifty 
H * cubits. V This I cannot balicvc, but ic is certainly fo 
<^A/-'4ecp that one can fcarce imagine how it was p^^filblc • 
' to bur^d infuchadepth, and for the carrying off the- 
Sea, that feems yet more impofTible.' It is a Noble 
Monument ofihc profufe and cxtravagan^t expence of . 
a-Brutal Tyrant, who made one of the vaftert Brid- 
ges that ever was attempted over three or four miles 
of Sea* meerly to Sacrifice To great a Trtafure to his 
vanicy : As for j^^^rip'ina s Tomb, it is no great 
matter 5 only rhe has reliefs are ycr en ire. The 
marvellous Fifn-Pond is a great Bafin of Water 
TWTought like a huge Temple? ftanding upon eight 

and 



r 51 ] 

andforfy greit Pillars, all hewed out cf the Reck; 
and they arc bid over widi four cruAs of the oid 
Plaifter, which is now ns hard as Stone; this is be- 
lieved CO be a work of Nero^s : and about a quarter oC 
i mile fro 01 thence there ii another vaft work which 
goeth into a llock 5 but at the entnnce theic is a 
noble Portico built of Pillars of Brick, and as one. 
enters inco thvRocJs: he finds a great many Rooms 
regularly iliaped, hewed out of the R':ck, and all 
covertd over wi:h Phirter, which is itiU inrire, anj 
io white that one cm hardly think that it hath not 
been walhcd over fincc ic was iiift ni;.de: there arc 
a vait number of thofe Rooms, they are faid to be 
3 Hundred . froi whence thi5 Ca'-e can ieth the name 
of the Centum Catncne : This hath been as cxpenfivc 
a work as^ it is ufclefs, ic is intituled to Ncro-^ and 
here they fay he kept his Prifcners Bli: there is no- 
thing in all this bay that is both fu curious and fo 
ujtful as the Baths , which fccms to flow from the 
lamer.afon, thqt is thecaufe of thofe eruptions ia 
the r ffwf/v and Sulfaiara, and the Groilo; formerly 
mentioned; that as this hear makes fomeFounrains 
there to b^ boiling hot, loic fends up a fteam through 
the Rock that doth not break through the pores of 
the Stone where ic is hard, but where thj R.ck is 
fofc and fpungy, there the fteams comethvough with 
fo mtMng a heat that a m.Tn is r.>on, at it we-e, 
difTo'ved in fvveat ; but if he ftoops low in the paP- 
-fages thatarecut in th:- Rock he finds no heat, be- 
cuif- rheic the Rock is hard. Thi;fe fleams, as they 
are all hot, fo they arc impregn-iited with fuch Mine-' 
rals, 33 th.y find in their way throuoh the Rock ^ 
and near this Bath there are GaKcries hewed out of 
the Rock and faced wirh a building ; in which there 
are, as it were, B-dfieads made in the Wa'lSj uoon 
which, tho.'c thar c<;mc thither, t<> Ave it for their 
•health, lay their Quiks and i:>dcloaih3, and fo con.e 
Kgularly out of their fweats. 

If 



'// 



•It is certain chat a man can no where pafs a d&y of 
his lift both with fo much picafurc, and with futh 
advanrage, as he finds in this journey toPw^-o/Zand 
all along the Bay / but tlio anciently this was all fo 
well built, fo peopled, and fo beautifully laidouc, 
ytt no where doth one fee more vilTbly what a change 
time brings upon all places : for Naples kath (o En- 
tirely enc out this place, and drawn its Inhibi rants 
to ir^ that AS FuzzjU it fcif is but a fma'l Village, fo 
tb.re is now no o^her in all this Bay, which was 
anciently built alnvft all round, for there were lev»cn. 
big Towns upon it. Having thus told you what I 
found molt CO fiderablc in Naples, 1 cannot pafs by 
that Noble remnant of the I ia Appia that rnns along 
thiity n-.i'es of the way between it and Rome, with- 
out making fom€ mention of it: this high-wjy is 
twelve f<;ot broad, all made of huac ftoncs, moft of 
th-m blew, and they are generally a foot and half 
large on all fides; the ftrcngth of this caufe-^vay 
appears in its long duration, for it hath lafted above 
eiiihtecn hundred Years*: and is in moft places for 
fcycral miles together, as intire as when it w.;s firfk 
made : and the botches that have been made for 
mending fuch places^ that have been worn our by 
time , ihews a very vifible difference betwe-.n the 
Ancient and the Modern way of Paving. Or\t thing 
fccms flrangejthar the way is level with the Earth on. 
boch fides : whereas fo much wriaht as thofc Stones 
carry fiiould have funk the ground under them by its 
prcfTurc: I'chdes that the Earth, efpccially in low 
grounds, receives a conftant i icrcafe chiefly by the 
Aui\ which the Winds or Brooks carry down from the 
Hills, both which re.ifonsll]ould ra ikc a more fcr.fiblc^ 
difference between thofc wayes and the foil on both 
fides ; and^rhis makes me apt to bclitve_,that ancfcnt- 
ly the 'e wa yes were a Urrle raifcd. above tlie level of 
the gri>undj and that a eoarfc of fominy Ages hath 
now brought ihcm to an cqijaUty \ Tfauft' wayes wrre 



C 5?] 

chiefly raa8e for fuch as go on foot : for as nothing 
is more plcaCim then to walk along rhcm, (o nothing 
is more inconvenient for Horfes and all forts of car- 
riage, and indeed Mulets arc the only beaits of bur- 
then thac can hold out long in this Road, which 
bests all Hor'es afccr ihcy have gone ir a little while. 
There are feveral rcf^s of Konian Antiquities a^ the 
Mole of Cajeta j but the Ifl« of Caprea, now calkd 
Crapa, which is a little way into the Sea off from 
Aaplcs, gave me a ftrange Idea of libcius's Reignj 
Cncc it is hard to tell whether it was more? extraor- 
dinary to fee a Prince abandon the bell Seats .and 
Palaces of liuJy y and fhu& himielf up in a litt'c 
Iflandj in which I was told there was a Tradition of 
icvcn iitt'e Palaces that he built in it i or to fee fa 
vaft a body as the Roman Empire (o governed by fuch 
a Tyrannical Piince, at fuch a dillance from the chief 
Scene, fothatali might have been revcrfed long be- 
fore that the news of it could have been brought to 
him. And as there is nothing^ more wonderful! in 
Story th;n to fee fo vaft a State that h.-d (o great a 
fenfe of Hberty, fubdued by fo brutal and Co volup-. 
tuous a man ss t^ndony^ and fj raw a youth as 
t^ugufluf \ fo the wonder is much improved when 
we fee a Prince at a hundred and fit''ty miles dift.ince, 
Ihutupinan Iflmd, carry the Reins of fo great a 
body in his iiand, and tarn ic which way he plcaf- 
cd. 

Bur now T come to Ro/;;e, which as it was once 

the Emprcfs of the World in a fuccdf! on of mjny 

Ages, fo hath in ir at prcfent more curious thirgs to 

entertain the attention of a 'IraveUer, then any other 

place in Europe. On the fide of lufcaay, the entry 

into 2^0/Ke is very furprizing to ftr^nger^ for one 

. conrieth along Jor a gre.it many miles, upon the re- 

m ins of the ria Flamm'nia, whichf is rot indeed fo 

•c-rtirc as the Ha ^ppia . yer fhere is enough le^t 

^10 rajfu^ a jail Idc^oi tktB,(/tiJan grcatncis, who hid 

'^ . . fuch 



^/; 



[34] 

fucE caurc-ways sll Italji over. Aad withm the Gate^ 
of th- Poi'ia di Fopuh) there is a NohU CbcUsk, a 
vaft Fountain, two fi'ie little Charches, iikc twa 
Twins rcfembling one another, as well as placed near 
one ai^other, and on fevei^l hantls one fees a long 
J ijtaof ii ecis. There is not a Town in thcfe parts; 
ot the World, where the Churches, Convents, and 
J^a'aces are (o Noble, and where the other BuiKlings 
arc fo mean, which indeed, difcovers very vifiljly ihs 
miferv und^-r which the Rjsmans groan. The Churches 
of Rome are fo well knov^n, that I will not adven- 
ture on any dc^'cription of them, and indeed, I had 
too Tranfi nt a view cf them to make it with that 
degree cf e-xaanefs which chc fubjed requires. St, 
Feters a'one. wou'd make a big Book , not to fay » 
lonL^ Letter, Irs length, hcighth and breadth arc all 
fo exactly pr pntioned , and the eye is (6 equally 
pcflefled with ail thcfe, that the whole, upon th« 
firft view, doth not appear fo vaft as it is found tof 
be ujJon a more particular atteation : and as the fouf 
Pillars u on which the Cupula rifcs, are of fuch a 
prodigious bigncfs, that ope would think they were' 
fireng enough :o bear anv fUpetftrudurc whatfoevcrii 
fo when on-.- climbs up to the top of that val^ heighrh, 
he wonders what Foundation can bear (o huge a 
weight ; for as the Chuch U of a vaft hcighih, fo 
ti\eX^upuJQ lifes four hundred and fifreen big llcps 
above the Roof of the Church. In the heighth of 
the Concave of this G,4pul9i there is a reprefcntation, 
thu rho it can hardly bs ken frona the floor belowj 
unlcfs one hath a good (Tghtj and To it doth notj 
perhnps>give much fcandaljvet it is a grofs indication 
of the Idolatry of tliat Church, for the Divinity is 
there pictured as an ancient mm compsiT.d about 
with Angels. I will fay nothing of ihr gieat Altar, 
of the L.hair of 5. P^/er, of the great Tombs; of 
.which the thiee chief are Paul th? J 1 1. Vrba».. 
the V 1 1 L and Jlexando' the V- X I. nor of the. 



L 35 J 

•vaft A^anlrs under this Church, and the remains oT 
Antiquity chat ars icfervcd in them: nor will i un-» 
deruakc a dclcripcioii of the adjoining Palace, v,he:c 
the Painting oi the CornJ.riy and of many tf tlie 
Rooms by 'l^^^ud tuv.db'Michad An^eh are foiich, 
that one is lorry to foe work of that value laid o^n 
Jrrejcoi and which mt ft by^ronrcqacncc ware out too 
foon, as in fcveral places it is almoft quite loft al- 
ready. I could not but obterve in the SalaKegia 
that' is before the famous Chappcl of Stjlo V. and 
that is all Painted in Frefco, one corner that reprc- 
^ftnts the murthcr of the renowned Adoiia! Cbafii- 
lion, and that hath written und^r it thefe word?» 
Kcx CuUnii nccem frohat : The vaft length of the 
Gallery on one fide, and ©f the Library in another 
do furprjze one j the Gardens hav« many Statues cf 
a moft exeeifivc value, and fome good Fountains 5 
but the G^irdens are ill entertained both here and 
jfl the Palace on the QuirinctL And, indeed, in moft 
of r.he Palaces of Kome^ii there were but a Imall 
-coft laid out to Kcc-pall in good cafe that is brought 
tcgcther at fo vaft a charge, they would make ano- 
ther furt of llicw, and be looked at with much moi-c 
.plcafure : In the apcrrtments of KQme there are .a 
^rcat many things that offend th€ light : The Doors 
are generally mean, and the Locks meaner, except 
in the Palace of Prince Borf^hcfe, where,as there is 
the vaftcft Cdledion of the beft pi.ces, and of the 
hands of the greatcft Mafters that is in all Europe 
■fv the Doors and Locks givv-* not thac diftaft to the 
eye, that one finds e'fewJicre, The Flooring of the 
Pabces is all of Brict; which is fo very mean, that 
one fees the difproporcion that is between the Floors 
: and the reft of the Room, not without a fenfible 
• preception and difiike. It is true, t4iey fay, their 
Air is To cold and moift in Winter that they cannot 
'jjflve with Marble ; and the heat is fometimcs fo §reat 
•.4n ^unrJBcr; that Fleurirg of Wood would crack 
■''-■' with 



r IS ] 

^!th hear 5 as well as be eat up by the vertTili th'sc 
would ncitle in ir. But if they kept in iheir orcar 
l^aljces fervantsto wa(h their Floors, with thar care 
, that is u'cd in BoUan3-> where the Airis moiHerj and 
the climate is more produ^ive of Vermine , they 
would not find fuch cfflds Trom wooden Floors, rf$ 
they pretend. In a wordjihereare none that lay out 
io much wealth allatoncej as the Italians 60 upoft 
the Building and Finiihing of their Palaces and 
Gardens, and that aherwards> bePiOw To little on rh-e 
preferving of them : another thing I obfervcd in their 
Palaces , there is, indeed, a great fcrics of Noble 
rooms one within another., of which their spaic- 
mcnts arecoaipofed, but I did not find, at the en<i 
of the sparcraems, where the Bed Chamber is/ fucit 
a difpofirion of rooms fcr back- flairs, drefling-room?, 
clofecs, fervants rooms, and other convenitnc€S as 
are neceffary for accommodating the Apartment. It f& 
true,thisis not fo neceffary for an apartment of Stare* 
in which Magnificence is more confide-^ed then cort- 
venience^ but I fuund the fame wane in thofe aparc* 
menrsin which thry lodged^ (b that notwi.hlbndirig 1 
alhthe riches of their PaUees, it can not be laid th.^t 
they are wcli Icdgcd in them, and their Gardens are 
yet, Ufs undcrftocd, and worfe kept iheti their Pa- 
laces, It is true,the Villa Barghefe ought to be ex* 
cepted» where as there is a prodigious collciftion 6i 
has rcUef'h with which the Walls are, as it wer?v, 
■covered all over, th.n arc of a vsfl value i fo the 
itatues within, of which fomcare of Porphiry, and 
otlrers of Touchftonc, are amazing things: The 
vyholc grounds of this Park, which is about three 
miles in coitipafs , and in \vhich there -le fix or fevefft 
lodgies, arc laid out fo fwcetly, th?.: I thougi't I wa$ 
in an Englijh Park when I walked over it. The 
Villa Vamphilia is better fcitUrited upon a higbet 
ground, and hath more Water- works, and twice the 
cx;ent of the other in 3oil j but neither dyih the 

Hude 



[ 37 ] 

lioufenor Statues approach to the rkhe? of the --" : 
;iiof are the groundi* to weil laid out am '■ 
: liuc tor ihe Furr.itare ot the Pcil^cr* ci x 
publick jipartments arc all covercti*)ver wifh ^ » .w.^ _.. 
. and for thole ararcmcnrs -'a w-:ixi! they lod^c the/ 
arcgcnciaVy furniih d i:h.r v/ivhrcd Velvet, or ici. 
Damn^k, with a broad »o!c{ Galloon at every r rcadth 
'••of the llutif. and a go;d Fringe at top and botionijbnc 
there is very li':ik lapiiiry iri liaJy, 

1 have bcc-n carri.d into all this digrefllon, from 
ihc geiicrai view, that I was giving you ot the Fopef 
Pa ace. I named one part of it which^wcU ingaic 
tiie inro new digrcfTion, as ic well defers es one, and 
that is the Liorarv of the l^aiican : Tii^ Cife is 
great, but that which islodged in ic is muchgrsater ; 
for here is a collection of Books that iillcch a mans 
eye : Therein firil a great Ha'l, and at the end ofic 
iheieruns outon borh l!des> two GaUcries of lb v aft 
a length; that tho the half of them is already fur- 
nilhed with Books, yet one would hope that there is 
room left lor more new Books then the W>.Tld v^'il! 
xver produce. The HciJclber^ Library Hands by it 
(c\i\ and HUeth the one fide of the Gal ery,-as the 
Dakeof Vrhim Library of Manulcripcs fiUeth the 
other. But tho thdc iall are very fair and bfeautihrl, 
yet they arc not of fjch Antiquity as rhofe of Ha- 
JiJkcrg: \\ hen it- appeared that 1 wj5 come from 
IUt^h:J , King Henry the V 1 I Is. Book of the 
iiven Sjcramcnis, wirh an infcr'ption wric uoon ic 
with his own hand to Pope Leo the X. was llicucd 
me \ iog;;ther with a col.eaion of fome Let. en that 
he wric to t^nn B:jkn of which foDC are in tnghlh-, 
and fomc \ri French. \ that knew hii h^nd wcli ^a^¥■ 
clearly thit they were no for^cri.s. There arc not 
miny Lati>j Manuicripsof great Antiquity in this 
'Library j fomc few of llr^ilf I faw v/rir i \ Capitals. 
But chat wh'ch, took up aim ^ii half of one d^v tlut 
I f ciii ac one daac ia ihis phice, rcU'ted cothe prc%u 

" " D d «iHPute 



V 



[ 18 J 

^ii^Ifpurc that is on foot bctwctiY 'Mr,SchclJlf.He tlic 

Library- keeper , and Mr. Maimhourg , cetKcrr.ing 

the Council of CouHance, The twu points in licbatq 

.arc the words of the decree rrade in the fburih ^Scfljun 

and the *Py/7e/ confirmation. In the fourth St ffioOa 

according to the French Manu cipts, a Dtcree was 

>iBadc, fubjefting the Fdpe , and all other pcrfoM 

whari'oever,, to the Authority of the Council, and 

to the Decrees it was to make, and to the Rttoinu- 

tion ic intended to eftabiiih bvxli in the Head and fh? 

;Mesibers : which as it implies tiiac the Head was 

corriiprcd and needed to be reformed, fo it Xe:s the 

Council fo diredly above the Fope^ that this Sefllon 

.being Confirmed by the P-'f c, putteththofe wlio afTcrt 

ihePo/J^x infallililicy tono'ftnaH ftraits : For if ?o^ 

TvJartitii that approved this Decree was infallib'cj 

>th€n this Decree is good ftill ; nnd if he was not 

infallible, no other Tope was infaliibk :• To all this 

Sckelfiralc anfwcrs from his Manufcripts,that the 

•words of a Reformation, in Head and MembcES, 

are not in the Decree of that Scfllon ; and he did 

ih;W me fcvcral Manufcripts, of which two were 

evidently writ during the fitting of the Council j and 

were not at aU diflied, in which th^fe words \*cr€ 

not. I know the hand and way of writing of thai 

Age too well to be eafily miftaken in my judgemsoi 

xoncerning thofe Manufcriprs : but if thofs wordi 

are wanting} there are other words in them thai 

ittm to be much ftrongcr for the fupciioriry of tht 

Council above that tope. For it is Decreed, thai 

^opes-i and all other perfons, vveuc bound to iubn^ii 

to the dccifions of the Council, as to Faith: whiih' 

words are nor in the Trench Manufcripts : Upon thii 

I told M. Schcljirate that I thought the words i* 

ihefe Manufcripts were Wronger then the other; 

fince the word Reformation, as it v»'as uled in ths 

tjjsne of that Coyncil^ belonged chi4:% to the cor- 

IX ding 



[■ 3^ ] 

re'Ring o^ rifvjfcs, ic being ofcen appHcn to ibe rn^U" 
]ii n< Vixn were made in the M:.naf}ick Oracn ,> 
whcn:hsy Ww^rc brought to a more txa«^obrcivati'jji 
of rlK rule of their Orc^cr : So tho the Council had 
decreed a Reformation both of Head and Members, 
I do not fee tliat this wouli inporr nurc than that 
the i'apjcy hill fal en iiuo loine difordcrs that needed 
a R? formition .• and this b not denied even by thofe 
V'ho alferc the Popes infallibility : but a fubmifTion 
to peirits of F.iirh, ihat is exprcHy affertcd in the 
KorriM Manu cript»> is a much more pufitive evidence 
againll the Fnfet Infallibility; and the word Faith 
is" not Capable of fj large a itnfe as may be ja(tly 
afcriDcd to Reforniarion. But this di^Js-^cnce, in fo 
main a point brtwecn Mmulcripcs concerning fohtc 
a TranCdion, give me an occafion to rcfl;Ct on the 
vaft u'- certainty of Tradition, efptcially of matters • 
that arc at a great diftance from us j when thofe 
ihac were fo lately Tranfaftcd , are fo differently 
rcprcfcn'tcd in Manufcripts, and in which, both thofe 
of VarU and Kome feem to cany ail poflible evidences 
cf fine rjty. As for the Popes confirmation of that 
Decree, it is true by a Gencr^il Bull, Pope Martin 
confirmed the Council of Conpiunce to fuch a period } 
but befiJes that^ he made a particutar Bull, as 
Scbd/irat aflTurcd me, in which he enumerated all 
the Decrees that he confirmed, and among tbo'Cjthis 
Decree concerning the Superiority of the Council is 
nor named \ this icemed to be of much ni'^re impor- 
tance, and therefore I defired to fee ihc Original of 
the Bull: for their feem to be juU r^fafons to appre- 
hend a forgery here: He promifcd to do his endea- 
vours, tho he told me that would not be c^He, for 
the BuUs- were ftritflly kepr *, and the next day when 
I came, hoping to fee it, I couid not be isdinitted : • 
but he niTurc-d u): that if that had not been the \zi\ 
day of my ftay ac R-J/wc, he would have procuicd z 

D d i Warrant 



7> 



r4o] 

Wa-rranr for my feeing rhe Original: To this is a:l^ 
I. Can fay as lo the Autheniicalnefs of thafBuU: 
Rut fuppodng ic to be genuine, I could not agree to 
}4*Schclfirate^h^t theCiencral Bull of ConErmation, 
qu^hc to be limited tothertker that enumerates the 
particular D.cr€/es.' but fincc that particular Euli 
was never di covered till he ha^h found it out, ic 
feems it was fccrctly made, and did not pafs accord- 
ing to the forms of the Con/iliory ; and was a frau- 
dulent thing of which no noife was to be made in 
thki j^ge, and therefore in all the difpute that ful- 
lowed in ihe Concel of Baftl between the Pope and 
theCouncil> upon this very point, no mention was. 
ever made of it by either fide: and thus it oan have 
no furce^ unlefs it be to di/covcr the Artifices and, 
^aud of that Court : that at the fame time in which 
the neceffity of their affjirs obliged the Pa/?c to con- 
firm the Decrees of the Council, he contrived a, 
fccret Bull, which in snothcr^Age miglit be made 
ufc of , to weaken the Authoiity of the Central 
ConBrmation that he gave : and therefore a Bull thac 
doth Rotfafs in due form and is not p o vulgated, it 
of no Amhoriry : andfo this Pretended Bull cannot 
limit the other Bull, There were fome oihcr things^ 
relating to this debate, that were ihewed me by 
2W, ScheJftrateih\^z thtfc being the moft important, 
I mention them only. I will not give you here a 
large account of the learned men at Rome, Eellori 
fsd^fervcdy Famous for hii knowledge if the Gicck 
and ^^gyptlan Antiquities, and for all that belongs 
to the ^iychclogicsand fupcrftitions of xhs Heathens^ 
and hatli aClo!ec richly furniflied with things tclaiir 
to vhcfe matters. Falncttt is juGly celebrntcd for 
his llnderftanding of the Old Roman Archicedure 
and Fabrici^s. Tadre Fahri is the diicf Honour ci|i 
the ^-cft<iL*s CoWeduct xul i' much above the com 
Won raiCj both for rhiiofcphv, Majlicmaticks, arrvj 

/ Churchlt 



(41] 



/^/ 



'Church Hlftory, Arni he to whom I was the moft 
obliged} Abbot Nazari hath (o general a view of 
thcfcveral parts of learning, thohjhach chiefly ap- 
plied himfelf to Philofophy and Mathcirtaiicks, snd 
is a man ot" To irgaging a civility , and ufed my 
fclf in fo particular a manner, th.\c I owe him, as 
"Well as thofe others, whom 1 have menrioncd, and 
whoni I had the Honour to fee, all the ackiiow- 
Icdgnents of cftecra and gratitude chat 1 can j^ofll'jly 
mnkc them. 

One fees in Cardinal d^Ejlrees all the advantr^ges 
of a high birsh gita: parts, a generous civility, and 
a meafure vi knowledge faire above whu can be 
expecled from a pcrfon ef his rank •, but as he gave 
a noble proteiftion to one of the laardneft mea tha: 
ihis Age hath produced , h\r, Laumtoy . who livct* 
many years with him, (o it is vidUle, that he made a . 
great progrcfs by thcconverfacion offo extraordinary 
a peilon-, and as fur Theological learning, there 
h now none of the Coredge eciual ro hi^i. Cardi- 
nal Hoivard is roo wcW kn ?wn in England to need 
any chara«5ier from me. The Hlevation of his pre-i 
fcnt condi ion huh not in the haft changed him ; . 
he huh all the rwcetiiefs and Gentlcnef's of temp-er 
that we iaw in him In Engh-id, and he retains the 
iinaffcClcdri.:->p:icity and humility of a Frier amidft - 
al! the dignity of the Purple, and as he Aieweth 
a'l the generous ere and concern for his Countr^y- 

^ men that they can exp^^ct from him ; To I met widi fo 
nvjch of it, in fo many oblig'ng marks of his good- 
iieAformy f-':f, that wen: tar beyond a comino'n ci- 
vility, iha: I cjn-o: eno'.jgh acknowledge it. Iwas . 
told the Popes Confcff.>r was a very extraordinary 
man tor the Oricnrci Lcarnirg, which is bur !itt'e 
known in Rome : He {i a M.,{ler t)f the Arahick 

'•-T^^ngue, anjharhwrit, a^ Abbot Kaz'^n told ms, 
ihr learned i^ Bock a^alnfl ih- hlahmaan Rdigion, 



[4*,] 

fha:.5h£M'orldl^r.{rh yt'tfeen, but it is not y^et Prmt- 
qd ; Hie isinctfo Hinch cfteemed in Rome ai he wquIc-J 
l3e elfe^viiere} for his Lcarnirg is not in vogue, and 
fbe School Divinity and Cafuillical Learning, bein» 
that for whkh Divines arc moft cftecmed there ', He 
\vhofc; S-rudies iead him another way, is- not fo much 
valufd as he ought to be, and perhops, «:heirni]l ac- 
Cpuni thdt the Pope Hiakes ot Uarneti men, turns- 
fqtrcwhat upon the Conf, ficr, for it is certain, thac 
this Is a Reij^nin which Learning is very liuic encou-} 
raged. ^ ^ 'J 

Upon the general cocrenipt that all the Romans 
have, for theprcfcnr P(?.i//]7wrf5 one made a pleafanc - 
refledion to me, hefaid ihofe Popes that intended to. 
raife their Families, asth.-vfaw thecenfuie that this 
proughtupcn therrj} lo they ftudicd to IcfTen it by. 
Gther things that might foftcn the Spirits of the peo- 
ple. No man dU more for beautifying ^owd for, 
finifliirg. St. ?t'ifn, and the Llhr^vy, andforftirniniT- 
jngKowif with\yaterj then Pope f;»tt/ the V. tho.at 
ih-; firnGtime he did not fjrgct his Family ; and iho 
the other Popes char have rai cd great Families, ha\;c 
P-s;^t done thii to fo cmi.ncnr a degree as he did> 
VLtrhrrc are many remains of their MagniHce; cc, 
"u-hercas thofe Popes that havcrnot rai fed rami'lics,. 
have it Teems thought rh.iC alone was enoogh cp 
maintain their repuration , and fo they have rot 
done much either to rceommcnd their Oovcrnmenc 
lo ihdr 5uhje<flj'5 or their Reign ropo^-ciityi and 
it is very plain? that the prcfcnt Pope takcth no^reatj 
c^re oF this, Hii lif^ hath been certain. y very in-^- 
Koccnr, and free of all thofe publick fcandals ih^t, " 
make a noife in, the World, and tiieie is at preCcnt:" 
a regularity in Kome^ t/iat defervcch gicat c--.m- , 
mendation, for publick Vices arc rot to be Teen 
there; His perfonal fobricty is a fo finizuiar. One 
affurcd mc that the expencis ot his Table did no;. 

amount 



t 43 J 

jjaaoum to a Gown a Jiy, tljothis isj indeed, fliorij 
ot Sifco V. Nvho f,ave order co hii Sfevv.ircl n.vcr 
to tx-TC-! Tivc and rvvciry Ejj'.kes, that is eigh'eta- 
pcrce a Jiy (or, Iiij Diei. The Pope is very circ 
full of his beahii , ?.nti dch never cxpofc ic , for 
i/p-'ii chc lejil «iii"-'i'clcr he- iiiuts himlcif up in his 
ChjiDbcr, anci ofcen kecjcdihi) Bed Uit th^ leart in- 
diip -fition miiiy c^. yes ; but h;s Government is fc- 
verCj <:ndhis Sabjcif^s ate ruined. 

AnJhac cr.c thing conieth into my minj, which^ 
perhaps is not ill arounJed, that thi poverty of a 
Nation, not only diQeop'es it? by driving the peo- 
\Ai oiuofir, bi?c by weakning the natura ferti ity- 
of the SuhjeLbj for as men and vvcjinen well cleat h-*, 
•J, and well fed, that are not exhiuftcd with per- 
petual labour, and with the tearing anxieties thao 
want brings with it , muit be much mure lively^ 
then thofc that arc prefTcd with want j fo i: is vcryi 
Ijkdy th:it the cne mulibemiich mcvcdifpcfGd to 
prcp.Tgate then iIh: other: and this appeared more 
evident lo i^.e, when Ici-mpwrcd the fruitfuir.efs cf ' 

Gcncvj and Sz^jitzcrlaud^ with the barrennefs that 
reigns over all Italy, I faw two ex:r=iordinary in-n, 
ftanccs of the copious produftit-n of Geficva : Mv, 
Jronchin ih.it w.is ProfefTor of Divinity , and t^a- 
ther to the j.idicous and wurchy Profcffjr of the 
fame name, that is now there, died at the age of 
feven-y (>x years , and had a hundred and fine*:!!'. 
pcif.iPS alJa'iv'e, that had ci:h«rdcfcended from him,. 
. cal'ed h'm Fatlicr. And Mr. Cakniirin a pious 
and laborious Preacher of th.at Town , that is dct. 
fccnded from tlie Family of the CaknJnni -^ who - 
receiving the Reformation abou: a hundred c-^n^ 
fifty yc.;rs 3g«, left Lt/cca their Native Cicy with 
the furrcJnii the Dt'jJati-, and thi Bourlamaicbii 
and 1cm: others that came and fettled at Geneva : 
He h now. but feyen and fcrty years oldj and yct^ 

ke 



'C44l 

he Tivith 3 hiin(Jre<l and five peiTons that arc de- 
scended of hU Brothers and Sifters, or married to- 
th:m j (o that if he livech bur co eighty, and thc- 
Fanr.My mulciplicih as ic hath doncj he may fee 
fume hundreds that will be in the fame relation to 
him ; but fuch things as thefe arc not to be found- 
in Itxljf, 

■ There is nothing that de'ights a Stranger morev 
in ^owe, then to fee the grejc Fountains of Water 
that are almoin in all the corners of ic : That o'd 
AjuaduBwhich Taul cheV. reftorcd. comeeh from 
a colledion of Sources, fire and thirty rnilcs di- 
ftanc from 'Jfpme , that runs all the way upon an 
AquaduB in a Channel that is vaulted, and is liker . 
a ilivcr then a Fountain: It bicaketh out in five- 
feveial Fountains, of which fomc give wnter about 
a foot fquare. That of Sixtui the V. the great 
Fountain o^ Aqua 7rJvi ^ hath yet no decoration, ^ 
hut difch^rgedi a prodigious quantity of "Warer.. 
The ^l^ious Fountain in the Piazz^ Navsna, that 
hath ^an air of grcatnefs in it that furprizcth one, 
the Fountain in the Fiazz^ de Spagna, rhole be-- 
fore Si,Teteri ; and the FaJazz'> FarnefeywUhmi- 
nv others, furnifh Ro/we- fo plentifully, that almoft 
cverv pvivate Fluufchatha Fountain that runs con- 
tinual iy : All thcic I fay are noble decorations, 
that carry an ufcfulnefs with them that cannot be 
cnouiih commended : and gives a much greater /(^f<? ■ 
of thoe who have taken care to fupp'y this City, . 
with one of the chief pl-afurcs and conveniences of 
Ffe, then of cih rs who have bid out miliu'ns, 
meerlv to bring quantities of Water to gire the 
eye a little dlvctfion, which would have been laid 
out much more nobly and ufefuHy , and would 
have m:>re cfT-aualiy eternized their Fame, if they 
had l>ecn imployed as the iiotr;an^ did theii Trea- 

fure> in furnifhing great Tvwui wiU'i W a:£r - 

Thsrs . 



r 45 J ^ 

There is an unlvcifal Civility tharreigns among- 
^\\ forts of people at Row?, whiih in a great mca- 
fuic ilows from their Govcrnrrcnc , for every 
mjn J being capable of a' I the advancements <jf 
that State j (ince a fimple EccUfuftick may be- 
come one cf \hs Mon/ignori : and of tbcfc may be 
a CrrJIna', and one of ihefc may be chofen Pop.', 
this makes every man behave himfe^f towards all- 
other perfons with an exaftncfs cf refpecl : for no 
man knows w|iar any other may grow to. But 
this n^akes profcfllons of eftceirj and kindncfi go fo- 
promifcuoofly to all forts of perfons, that one ought 
not to build too much on them. The converfation 
cf Rome is generally upon news, for tho there is 
no news Printed there , yet in the feveral A'ui- 
chambcrs of the Cardinals (v\'^hcre if they make 
any confiderab'.e figure, there are Aficmblics cf rho'e 
that make their Court to them) one is fure to 
hear all the news of Europe together with many 
fpeculaiions upon what paff;th. At the Queen of 
Svjcdcns all that rclatcth to Germjtny or thsNjrh 
is ever to be found, and that Princcrs that mull 
ever reign among all that have a true taftj either 
of wit or learningj hathftiil in htr drawing Rooms- 
the beft Court of the Strangers, and her civility 
together, with tlie vaft variety with whi-chfhe fur- 
riihcth her convcrfation , maketh her to be tlie 
Ghivf of all the living rarities that one fees in 
Banc: I will not u'e her own word to my lelf, 
"which was , that {lie new grew to be one of ih-' 
Antiquities of Rome* The Ambaff-idors cf Crowns^ 
who live Iiere in another form than in any e-tlicr 
Court, and the Cardinals andrrelat(?s ©fthefeveral 
Nations, th^t do all meet and ccnrci here, maketlv 
that there is more news in^me th n any whcie: 
For Vrkih and the men of Pvcii^ious Ciders, write 
larger and more particular Lerrcrs, than any othcs 
(Litiofmcn. liut fuch as apply ihcmfeUcstomake 

ikcir 



[4^1 

ihclr Court h re, are conJc?nn°d to a lo fs of time 
that had need be well rvCompenccdj f-r it is v^ry 
^rcat. As For oneihit S:uiivS An:iqui.ics,Pidurcs, 
S"'atue?j or Mufick, there is more (.ncertainmcnt for 
i]:m 2t '-^wr, than in all the reft of Europe, but 
if be ha:h not a taft of thcfe things, hewill foon 
be weary of a place where the Convcpfacion is al- 
w.ives g nera', and where there is Httlefinccrity or 
opcnnefi prcidifcd , and by confequence y where 
friendfnip is little undeillood- The;, Women here 
begin CO b: a !itdj more convciTablcj tho a Naci- 
cn naurally jea'ous, will hardly allow a great li- 
berty in a City fht is cu^ropofeJ of Ecc'cfiailicks ^. 
\vh J bcifg denied tht priviledgc of Wives of their 
own> arc llifpeilcJ of being fometimest^o bold with 
the Wives of oriicrs : Ih. iiberiies that w.^re taker* 
in the Conftable v^ N^pk^'^s Pal. ice, .had indeed 
di:*g')llc^ the R.owa?}{ much at that freej.'m, which 
had no bound;. But tbc Dutchefs of Bracciano, 
that is a rrench W'omnn y bath by the exadncfs o£ 
her deportmenr, amidft ^\l the innocents Freedoms. 
c>fa bJolde conYerfation, recovered in a great mea- 
fure, the credit of tho'e libcnies, that Ladies beyond 
the TMountains , praftifc with all the llrictnefs of 
Virtue ; For {lie reccivcth vifits at rublick hours, 
and in Pu'lick Room?, and by the li.'elin«r-rs of her 
cunvcrfa^ion, m^keth that her Court is the pica-- 
i'anielt Afifembly of Strangers, thu is to be found 
in any of th.- Palaces of the Italiauf at %we. 

1 win n*.it engage in a d.fcripiion ot JvowC, either 
ancient or modern, this hath been done (o ofr, and 
with fuch exaftnefs, that nothing can be add.d to 
what bach been already publiihed. It is certain 
that wh:-n occ is in the Capitol , and fees thofe 
poor refts of what onceit was, he is Turpi izcd to fee 
a building of fo great a f^mie funk To low, thatonc- 
can fwrce imagine that it was once a Caft'c, fcitu- 



I 



• r 47 ] 

ated upon a Hill able to I. old out ngiinft a Skgc 
ot the Gaulf : The 'Jarpa'an Rock is row of id 
fma'l a tail, that a man wcuki think it no grt-ac 
ir.atcir, t\ v his divcifion, to leap over it and ihe 
fhapc *.f (he ground hath not be^n fo im:ch iVcrcd 
on one fije, as to make u< think it is very m; ch 
changed en ihe oth r. F.r 6evcrtus Tiium^lui 
Avchj which is ac the foot of the Hill m the other 
iidc, is not now buried above two foot within the 
ground, as the vait Amj^hiihcaicr i(7tiuf is not a- 
i)Ove three foot funk under ihe l.vel of the ground, 
Within the Cipirol one fees many Nob'e remnants 
of Antiquicvj but none is more glurious, as well as 
more ufefu', then '.he Tables of their Conh;l which 
nre upcn the WalL : and the In cripti^n on ^he Co- 
lumna K»/?ri://<«; in the time of the firlt [Hintck l^'ar, 
is without doubt the moll va'u:\ble Aariquity in 
Kome. .Fronn this all a'cng the facrcU ways one 
tindcth fuch remnants of Old Kowe in the mines 
of the Temples j i:i the 7riumphal Aichcsy in the 
Fortico'S) and other remains of that Giori'.u^ Bodyj 
that as one cannot ftc the.'c roo often, fo every tir»ie 
one iecs them , they kindle in him vail it/c^s of 
that Republic;:} and make him rel^cvft on thSt wliich 
he learned in his youth with great p'c;>fure. From 
the heigth of the Convent of AraceU, a man hath 
a full view of all the extent of Komc , but lite- 
rally, it \s now i fege sub i Roi}7 a fuii '-, for the pa^-ts 

-of the City, that were molt inhabited apcicndyj 
-are thof^ that aie now laid in great Gardens , or, 

^s they Call them , Vineyards , of which feme are 
half a mile in con-rpafs : 1 he valineTs of the Koman 
mag^^ificcnce and luxury, is that which pafiethinia- 
.ginatson \ the prodigious Amphitheater of Ihus, 
thjt could conveniently receive eighty five thcurand. 
ipeftatorj ; the great extent of the Circui tnaximus » 
:Uie Vaults where the Waters were received that fiir- 

niihcii 



[48] 

nUlied Tnus\ baihs, anti above all DlocJaians bcir'^jj^v 
thobui't when the Empire wns in izs decay, are io ' 
far above a;l modern buiiojngs, ihac ihvie is not k» 
mitch ai room for a c* mparifon. The extent ot thcfc 
baths is above half a mile in compais i rhe valinefsr 
of the rooms in which ihc Bathers might fwimiot 
which the C^^i/j/v^/^^w'/ Church ? that yctjcniains. 
entire, is onej and tiie many great Pilhirs all of one 
ibne of M.ublc» bcau.itu Uj Iported, arc things ol 
whk:h thtfe l:uier Ages are not capable. The beauty 
of tlieir Tcai /ic:, and of the Poritco^f bcfure them 
isamaving, cjiitfly that of the Ro/wwJ^? wh.re the 
Fabrick wici^out looke h .is meinjher.g -.^nly Brickjij^., 
as the Aich todure i. bold : for it ri(eih up in a Vault,., 
and ycc at the Top ihere is an open left of th rcy fooc 
in Diameter, whkhj .as it is the only Window of the 
Church, fo iifiileth it with li^ht, and isthchardkrt 
piece of A'.chitefture that ever wjs made. 

The Pillars of the Portico a c aifo :her,obIeI^ in 

Kotnej they are the higheft and biggeft than one cm 

fee any where all ef one Stone: and thj nnmbcrs oi,; 

thofe Ancient IMHars with which, not only many,, 

of the Churches arc beautified, chitfly St, Mary 

I^aggfvYe:t 3Lnd St.fr>hn in the iMtcvan^ but with 

which even private tioufes are adorned, and of r};e 

fragments of which there are fuch muhituces in all 

the flrects of Komc^ g,ivech a great l^ a oi t!:c ex-, 

pence fu'nefs of the Old Eowajii in their bui'db^gs : 

for the hewing and fetching a tew of thofc Piih^ri, 

muff liave Colt more than whole Pabces do now : 

fmce molt of thorn were braaglit from Greece : 

Many of thcfe Pilars are of Fo'pbr>y, oihers x)f 

Ji//7, others oi Granaicd MMc, but the greatc^ 

jiumbcr is of white Marble: The two Columns > 

Vrajans and Antonins : the two HoriLS that are in" 

the Mount Cavdlo-, and the other two Horlesfntii? 

Capitol; which have EOt indeed the poiburcs aM-* 



l49 ] 

'tnouon of the other, The bmCs Horic that as li 
' Lcli^vcd, carrietb Marcus Amclius j tfie remains of 
^Herd's CoJolfuf, the Temple of Bacchus neat the 
' Catacomb of S, A^nufy which is the entireft and the 
"leaft alcercdof all the Ancient Temples: The great 
Temple of Peace ; thofeof the Sun and Moon : that 
©f Romulus and R emu iy (v.hich I confidercd as the 
• ancientcft Fabrick that is now left, for it is little 
and fimple, and ftanderh in fuchapUcej that when 
tifome grew fo coftly, it could not hx't been let alone 
unchanged, if it had n;.c been thai i: was reverenced 
for its Antiquity ) the many orher Portico's , the 
Arches of Severus, of litufy and Confiantine , in 
'the laft of which, one fees that the Sculpture of his 
^ge, was much funick from what it had been, only in 
"^thc Top there arc fomc has reliefs that are clearly 
of a much ancicntcr timcj an/.i of a be-tcr manner. 
And that which exceedcth all tl:e reft, the many great 
.«-/^3^«<r<i«S^ that come from 3ll hands and run over a 
vail; diftance, arc things which a man cannot fee ofc 
enough , if he would form in himfelf a juft Idea 
©f the vaQnefs of that Republlck, or rath-.r. Empire > 
There are many Statues and Pillars, and other Anti- 
quities of great value dug up in all the quarters of 
KotTie the(e lift hundred and fourfcoic years^ fincc 
Tope Leo the'Xs. time *, who as he was the greateft 
Patron ajp^iilng and Arts, that perhap?, ever was, 
fo was tne^neroufeft Prince that ever Reigned i 
and it was he thit firft fee on foot the inquiring intt» 
the Riches of Old Rome, that lay til! his time, for 
themoft parr, hid under ground, and indeed if he 
had been lefs fcandalousin his Impiety and Athcifm, 
-of which neither he nor his Court were fo much as 
alhamcd , he had been one of the moft celebrated 
^pcifons of any Age. Soon after him Ta^e Paul 
the III. gave the ground of the I^onte Palatim 
to his Family : But 1 was told th-at this large piece 

E e 01 



'j^J 



: f5°J 

of ground. In which one ihould look for the grsatefi 
. Coflcdion of the Antiquhies cf the highcft value, 
fincc this is the ruin of the Palace of the Roman 
Eraperorsj hath never been yet feurched into with 
any exa^tncfs : So that when a curicus Prince GomeUn 
-that is willing to employ many hands in <iigging u^p 
and dowD this Hill, \vc may exped: new Jicenes (» 
"Romatt Antiquities. But a'i this matter would re- 
quire Volumes, and therefoie I have only name4 
thefc things , bccaufc I can add nothing to thofc 
copious defcriptions that have been fo oft made of 
them. Nor will I fay any thing of the- modem 
.Palaces or the Ornaments of them, either in Pifiurcs 
!or Statues, which arc things that carry one fo f^i^ 
iihat It is not cafic to give bounds to the diTcriptions 
liDto which onclindeth himfcif carried, when he onee 
enters upon fo fruitful a fubjeft. The number of the 
Palaces is great, andev^ery one of them hath enough 
to fix the attention of a Traveller^ till a new one 
:idrives the former out of his thoughts ; It is true, the 
TakJ^rmai the Borghejey and the f^rfjc/cshavc fomc- 
>whac in them that leave an imprefTion which no new 
©bjefts can wear out : and as the laft hath a Noble 
fquare before it with two great Fountains in it, fo 
the Statue of HercuJet and the Bull that arc belowi 
and ths Gallery above Stairs are unvaliiablcj the 
Roof of the Gallery is one of the Jgj^JPieces of 
Painting that is extant , bciog ^iW^Warracbio's 
hand, and there are in that Gallery the ^rcatcft 
number of Heads of the Crcf^ Philofophers and Po- 
ets that 1 ever faw together : That of Bomer^ and 
that of 5i3fr^.fe/5 were the two that ftruck me mQ0» 
chiefly the latter, which as ic is, without difputci 
a true Antick, fo it carrieth in it all the charadcrs 
that ?hto and Xenophon give us c( Socrates', the 
flat Nofc, the broad Face, the fimplicity of Look, 

a»id the migix appearance jvhi^h that great Philofo- 

pher 



phcrmaiJcj fo thac I could rtoc return oft enough to 
look upon ic, and was cielighccd with this more thota 
with all the wonders of the EuW^ which is indeed a 
Reck of Marble cut out into a whole Scene of Sra- 
tfe€^5 but as the Hiftory cf it is not well known, fo 
there are fuch Faults in the Sculpture, that ilio ic 
13 a'] cxtrca^m fine , yec one fceth ic hath not the 
cx..(51nci's ot ihe bcTc times. As for the Churches 
and Convents of Ro/wffj as the number, the vaflncfs, 
.the riches, both K>i Fabrick, Furniture^ Painting and 
other Ornaments amaxeone, fo here again a Srran* 
gcr IS Joii 5 and thtf Convent thac or.» feerh laft, is 
alwaycs the moft admired : I confjs the Miicrta, 
^which is ikc Dominicanf, where the Inquifition Tif- 
"tcth, is that whivh makech the moit fcnnble Im- 
'prcfTion upon one iharpafTcth at Rot?ie for an Here- 
tick^ tho except one coitimitteih great follies, he is 
•in nocfangcr there, and the poverty thac reigns in 
that City maketh them find their intercfl fo much 
in u(ing Strangers well, whatfoever theii Religion 
"tjiay be, that no man needs be afTraid 'there ; And I 
have more then ordinary reafon to ackowledge this 
\vho having vcnrured to go thichcr, after all the 
'liberty that J had taken to write my thi^ughtsfree- 
' ly both of the Church and See of Rome, and was . 
. known by all with whom I convcrfcd there, yet met 
with the higheft civilities pofl^blc among all forts of 
, people, and in particular, both among the Englijh 
'' p^A Sc^ttijh ^:fuites, tho they knew well enough 
rihat I was no friend to their Order. 

In th^ Galkry of the Engli/h ^cfuitCh among the 
Pid'Jrei of their Martyr:, I did, not meet with Gar- 
ttet \ for prrhap'' that name is fo well known, ihac 
they would not csp6fc a Pi(aure, with fuchananyc 
on it, toa 1 Srrangcrs, yet OUcorn, being a name 
*Jefs known, is hung rher-v: among their Martvrs, tho 
"^-fec Vya.5 as dourly c -iiviifled of the Gunpouder 



C 5» ] 

Trcafonj as tLc other yvas: and it fcemed i little 

i^range to n\s> to fee that at a time in which, for. 

other rcafunsj the Writers of that Communion have. 

not thought fir, to deny the truth of that Confpi-. 

J'acy, a ^efuU convidtcd of the bltckcft crime that; 

ever was projeftcdj fhoul^ be reckoned among their. 

Marr} TS. I faw h'kewife there the Original of ihefe.. 

Emblematical Prophecies, relating to £«g/4wJ, that 

die ^efmts have had at B^sme near fjxty years, and 

of which I had fome time ago pr< curtd a Copy, . 

fo I found my Copy was true. 1 hapned to be ac 

Kr;/77f, during Sr. Gregorys Fair and Feaft , which 

lafted Icvcral dayes. In his QhwxthihcHoJiy was, 

expo fed : and from thar^ ail that came thither, went 

to the Chappel that was once his Hoijfc> in which 

fi!5 Srarue and the Table ,wiiere he feivcd the poorj 

arc prefcrvcd: I faw fuchvaft numbers of p-cp'e there,. 

ifeat one would have ihuught all Rc/^wc wa gotto-^. 

gcthcr. They all kneeled down to his Sta.ucand 

aftir a prayer faid to* ir» they kiffed hi^ fooi, and 

every one touched the Table wirh his B.*aJs , as 

hoping to draw tome vertuc from it. I wi 1 adc^ 

nothing of the fevcral OSeli^ks and PilUrs that 

are in Rowe, of ihe celc' rated Chappe's that artr in 

fome of the g^reat Churches, in par. :»;alir ih; fe of 

SixtUf the V, and ^ad the V. in Sania Marl^ 

Jflagghre-i of the Wa:er woskiin the ^iturinal.. ihe 

Vatican^ and in many of the Vineyards ;jNur will 

I^go our of Rvmero d fcribe Frefcati , {for' HvoJy 

l4i(inot fee) The vo'ing Prince JBor£;(f/e, who is in-^ 

deed one of tlic glories of RQmCi as well for hiS 

Xeorning as for his Virtue, did me th^ Hcnour ro 

carry mc tiiither wijh ;hofctwo jearncd Abbots f<i* 

hretti and JSa^arij and entertaircdme with a mag; 

rificencc that became him better to give, than mc 

to receive. The Water-works in the AldobranMti 

Falace have a magnificence in them beyond all that 



iJift_ _->: 



L 53 ]■ 

lever faw in France^ the mixture of Wind whhthc 
Water, and the ThunJei s and Storm.- th.it tills ma- 
keth is noble; The W.ncr works ofiheLrnhvifig^ 
and the Mmte Dragon€i have iikewife a greatnels 
in th.m that is naiiural, and indeed the riches thac 
one meets with in all places within Doors in Italyt 
and the poverty that on; feeth every where abroafl^ 
are the moft unfuicable things imaginable: but it 
is very likely that a gr at part of their moveable 
Wealth will :e c;c 1c ng carri.d imo France ', for as 
Toon as any r'icturc cr Statue of great: value is of 
fcred ro be fold; thofc that are irr.ploycd :J5 

King of i-V-?«(:r, do prefcntly buy it u;-; a;> 

that King lia h ahcaoy, the gicateft eoikctioxv cf 
Pitflures that is in Euyope, he will very pro' ' ia 
a j-cw years more, bring together the chief - 
of hay, 

I have now given you an account ot 
pea red moft remarkab e to me in K'n: 
t > rhi: add a very extraordinary piece •^.'. 
Hiflory, that fell out there within ihele two } 
which I had firft from rhofe twokarred i)iib :.t - 
hrctii a:.d Psaz^rt j and thar was ahei'^'.-^d^ . 
authentically connrmcd to me by Cardin;l /i.vu?^-. 
who was one of the Congregation of Cardinl^ tha? 
cxairdned and judged ihs matter. ' iicre were tw«> 
Nans near Rmie, one as I remember was in the Ci- 
ty, and the other not far from it, who, after they 
had been for (om: years in a Nunnery, perceived a 
verf ftrange change in Nature? and that their Sex 
was altered, which grew by fome degrees a toul 
alteration in one : and tho the other was not fo 
entire a change , yet it was vifible llie was m'-re 
Man than Woman *, upon this the matter was look- 
ed into: That which naturally ofFerethic felfherct 
is that thefc two had been alwaycs what they then 
appeared tobc ^ but thac they had gone into a Nun- 



[54] 

si^v in a <3ifguife to gratific a brutal appetite. But 
to this, when I propofed ic , anfw^r.was macic, • 
xhat as the breafts of a Woman that remained ftill, 
did in a great raeafure fhake orf that objeftion> 
fo the proofs wtre given (b fully of rheir having 
been real femalesj that there was no doubt left of 
that> nor had rhey given any fort oflcandal in the 
change of their Sex; And if there had been any, room 
left to furpe(5i a cheat ordifguife, the proceeding? 
would have been both more fevere ?.nd more fecret : 
and thefc perfons would have been burnt, or at leaft 
put to death in fomc terrible manner, Soxe Phyfi.' 
lians and Chyrurgions were appointed to examine the 
xnatter, and at bft, after a long and exaft cnquiryj 
rhey were judged to be abfolved from their vowj« 
and were difmilTed from the obligation of a Reli- 
gious life, and required ro go in mens habit. One 
©f them was a Valet de Chambreto a Rowan Mir- 
quefsj when I was there : I heard of this matter 
only two daycs before I left Rome^ fo that I h^d not 
time to enquire after it more particularly ; but I 
)«dged it fo cxrraordinaryj that I thought it was 
worth communicaiiag it to fo' curious an Inquirer 

Snto nature. 

And fincc I am upon the fubjewtof the changes 
Vhat have been made in nature, 1 (hall add one of 
another fort that I examined while Ivfzs 21 Geneva: 
There is a Minifter of S.Gcrvats, Mr. Godji, who 
hath a Daughter jihat is now Sixteen years oUl : Her 
Kur.'c had an extraordinary chJeknefs of hearing, at 
a year old, the Child fpoke all thofe little words 
that ChilJrea begin ufuallyito learn at that age, 
but Ihe made no progrefs ', yet this was not obfcrvcd, 
till it was too late , and as ihe grew to be two 
years old, they perceived there that fhe had loft her 
hearing, and was fo deaf that ever fince tho fhe hears 
f reac noifcs > yet fhe hc;^rs nothing that one can 

/pi?aJC.. 



r 55 ] ^^ 

fpo.k to her. It Teems while the milk of htrNnrrcj 
was mure abundanc, and tbac ihe Child fuckt more 
moderately thcvfirft. year, rhofe humors in the blood 
and milk had not that cfrc(ft on her, that appeared 
ittcr ilic came to luck mure violenx'y; and that 
her Nurfes milk being ia Icfs quamity, was thicker, 
and more charged with that vapour that occafionci 
the dcafncfs. But this Child hath by obfcrvi . g the 
motions of the mouths and Upsofoihcrs, acquired 
fo many words, tha: out of thcfc llie h=ith fbrmed<a 
fort o{ jargon-, in which rtie can hold converfation 
whole days with thofc that can fpeak her own Lan- 
guage. Icouldunderlbnd fomc of her words, but 
could not comprehend a period, for it fccmed co be a 
confufcd noife: She knows nothing that is r^i.d to 
her, unlefs fhe fceth the motion of their mowths that 
fpeak to her \ fo that in the night, when it is necc/i^ 
fary to Tpeak to her , they muft light a Candle : 
Only one thing appeared the flrangel^ part of the 
whjle narration : She hath a Sifter with whom fhe 
has pradifed her Languag^e more thun with any- 
other : and in the night by laying her hand on her 
Sifters mouth , fhe can perceive by that , what fhe 
fayes, and (o can difcourfe with her in the Night, 
It is true, her Mother told me that this did not go 
far, and that fhe found nut only fome fhort period 
in this manner, but it did not hold out very long : 
Thus this young Woman without any pains taken 
on her , hath meerly by a natural fagacity found 
out a method of holding di.courfe, that doth in a 
great meafure leftln the mifery of ji:r dcaf/iefs, I 
examined this 'matter critically, but only th;.- Sifter 
was not prefent, fo that I could not ftc how the con- 
verfation paft between them in the d^rk. 

But before I give over writtfng concerning this 
place, I cinnot hinder my fclf, from giving you an 
Account of a conyeifutiuniiut I had with one of the 

oioft 



CsO 



mod Ce^cbracevI perfons that lives in ir, I was talh-^ 
ing concerning the credit that the Order of the ^e-- 
fultes had every where j It was hid that alt' ih; 
World miftrufted them, and yet by a ftrangc fort of . 
contradiction all the World trufted them, and tho ^ 
it was well known that every ^cfuite was truer to 
the Intcrefts of his Order, than he could be ro the • 
Intertfts of any Prince wh-ufoeverj yet thofe Princes ' 
that would be very careful not to fufTer fpics to come • 
into their Courts or into their Councils fuffered 
chofc fpics to come into their bieafts and Confciences : ■ 
and tho Princes were not generally very render in . 
thofe part?, yet as they had oft as much guilt, Co 
they had fomeiimes as much fear as other PeoplCj- 
which a Dextrous fpy knew well how to raannage; 
Upon which that perfon that pretended to be a 
zealous Catholickj nddcd, that for their part they 
confidered only the Charader that the Church gave - 
to a Pricft ', and if rhe Church qualified him to do 
the functions of a Prieit, they thought it very need- 
Icfs to inquire after other perfonal Qualities, which 
were but common things , whereas the o'.her was 
a-1 Divine. On the Contrary^ tliey thought it was . 
fo Riuch th; better to have to do with a poor IgnO' 
rant Pricft : for thci they had to do only with the 
Churchjand not with the man, Puifuant to this, 
that perfons Confeff:^r was the greatcft and the moft 
notorious block head that cou'd be found , snd 
•wh-n they were asked why they made ufe of fo weak 
a Man, they anfwered, bccaufe they Could not find 
a w.aker: and when ever they found one better 
qaaliiied that wav? if it were a groom or a foot- 
man that got into Prieft*s Ordcrs> they would cer- 
tainly make ufe of him. For tht-y would ask 
Council of a friend ', but they knew no other ufe 
of a iConfefior, but to Confefs to him, and to re- 
ceive Abfolution from him : and in fo doing, they 
--- ' ' F^ 



• [ 57 ] ^/ 

pretended they aftcd as became a true Catholick, that 
confidcrcd only the power c f the Church in the Priclt> 
without regarding any thing clfc. 

So far hate I entertained you with the fhorc. 
ramble that I raadc, which was too ihort to de- 
fcrve the name of TravcUiag, and therefore the en- 
cjuirics or Obfervatiuns that I could mike j mufl 
be received with the abatement that ou^ht to be. 
made for fo ihort a ftay : and all will be of a piece, 
when the remarks ase as flight,, as the abode I mad? 
|p the places through which I paft was fhort. I' 
have avoided the troubling you wirh things i-hac 
arc commonly known, fo if I have n^t entertained 
you with a long recital of ordinary m^ttfrs, yec 
1 have told you nothing but what 1 faw and knew 
to be true, or that I had from fuch hands, that I 
fcavc very good reafuo to btlieve it: and I fai c/ 
that the things v/hich made the grestcft imprefTion 
K ©n my felf, will be acceptably received by you, to 
? whom, as u?on rru-iny ^^ccounrs, I owe all the exr 
prefli.v.;ns of clleem and g*^acicude thdt I cm ever 
payi Ci I had a more part'Cuiar rcafon that deter- 
mined me to give you, (o full an account of all I 
faw and oSferved : for as y* u wert- pleaftd at par- 
iipg to du me tl'C Honour to defire rac to comm-u- 
niciteto you ll'ch ihin.s ai appeared molt remark- 
able to me, fo I found fuch a vaii advantage in many 
peaces but more particularly at Venice, Rotne and 
^apJeSi by the happinefs I have o' being known to 
you, and of being fo far crnfidercd bv you, thati 
cou'd give a Copious Account both of your pcrioQ 
and SuiJie"?, to thofc in whom your curious difco-; 
veries had kind-ed that eilecm for you, which all the 
V orl ' payeth both to you and to your immortal 
erquiries into na'urc, which are among the pecu- 
liar blcfTiRgs of this Age : and that are read with 
no lefs care and pkafure in Italy ih^iiinEmimd, : 

^ Thii 



r 58 ] 

This Was fo well received, that I found the great 
advantage of this Honour I did mj fclF, in aflfum- 
ing the glorious Tick of one of y^ur friends j and 
I owe a great part of that diftindion which I met 
Vikhi to tiiis favourable charader that I gave my, 
/t|f •, fo that if I made any progr:fs in the enqui- i 
ries, that fe Ihort a ftay could enable one to makej 
I ov'/c ir in fo a peculiar a manner to you, that this 
rerurn rhati nia^e is but a very fmall part' of that I 
owe you, and which I will be endeavouring to' pay. 
joii^to the laft momsm cf nay life. 



T HE 



i 



I 



A^ 



( I ; ^^j 



BOOK III. 



THE FIFTH 

LETTER. 



^ 



From Nimmegen/^^ 2o.^May i6S6. 



s I R, 

I Thought I had made fo full a point at the eon^ 
cluiion of my laft Letter, that I fliould not have 
given you the trouble of reading any more Letters 
of the Volume of the former : But new Scenes and 
new Matter offering themfelves to me, I fancy you 
will be very gentle to me, if I Engage you again 
to two or three Hours reading. From Civiu Vec" 
chin I came to MarfeiUes , where if there were z 
Road as Safe as the Harbour is covered ; and if the 
Harbour were as large as it is convenient, it were 
certainly one of the moft important places in the 
World 5 all is fo well defended , that it is with 
refpe(5l either to Storms or Enemies the fecureft Pore 
that can be fecn any where. The Freedoms of this 
place, though it is now at the mercy of the Cit- 

A a a ' tadel. 



^adel, are f-ich, and its fcituation draweth fo much i 
Trade to it, that there one feeth another appear-^ 
ance of wealth then I found in any Town of Fntfice^ 
and there is a new ftreet lately built there, that 
for the beauty of the buildings, and the largenefs 
of the fheet, is the Nobleft I ever faw. There is 
In that Port a perpetual heat, and the Sun was fo 
ftrong in the Chrifiians week, that I was often dri- ,1 
ven off the Key. I made a Tour from thence '' 
through Prcrvencey Languedoc^ and Dxuphini, I v/iU „ 
ofier you no account o£ Nifmes^ nor of ths Amphi-: 
theatre in it, ©r the Pont du Our near it j which as" 
they are ftupendious things , fo 'they, are fo copi- 
oiifly defcribed by many, and are fo generally knowd 
to the Englifl) Nation, that if you have never gonc^ 
that way your felf , yet you muft needs hive re- 
ceived fo particular a relation of them from thole 
that have ken them on their way to Mompeliery 
that 1 judge it needlefs to enlarge upon them : Nor 
will 1 fay any thing of the Soit , the Towns , 
or any other remarkable things that I found 
there. 

I have a much ftronger inclination to fay (bme- 
what, concerning tlie perfecution which I faw in 
its rage and utmoft fury , and of which I cduld give 
you w^ny inllances that are fo much beyond all 
the common meafures of barbarity and cruelty, that 
I confels they ought not to be believed , unlefs'I 
could give more poiitive proofs of them, than are 
fitting" now to be brought forth : and the paiticu-* 
lars that I could tell you are fucli, that if 1 iliould^ 
relate them with the neceffary circumftances of 
time, place, and peifons, thefe might be fo fatal to 
many that are yet in the power of their Enemies, 
that my regard to them retrains me. In fliort I 
do not think that in any Age there ever was fuch 
a violation of all that is facred, either with rclatioa 
to Gcd or Man : And M'hat 1 faw and knew there 

froai 



(3; ^" 

from the firft hand, hath fo confirmed all the /- 
iex*s that I had taken from Books of the cruelty 
of that Religion, that I hope the impreflion thac 
this hath made upon me Ihall never end but with 
my life : The apphufes that the whole Cleigy give 
to this way of proceeding , the many Panegyrick? 
that are already writ upon it, of which, befides' 
the more pompous ones that appear at FxrU^ there 
are numbers writ by fmaller Authors in every Town 
of any note, there 5 and the Sermons that are all 
flights of flattery upon this lubjedl , are fuch evi- 
dent demonftrations of their fenfe of this matter ; 
that what is now on foot may be well termed the 
Act of the whole Clergy of that Kingdom, Vy'hich 
yet hath been hitherto efteemed the moft moderate 
part of the Romin Communion. If anv are more 
moderate than others j and have not fo far laid off 
human nature as not to go in entirely into thofe 
bloody pradifcs, yet they dare not own it, but 
whifper it in fecret as if it were half Treafon ; buc 
for the greater part, they do not only magnifie all 
that is done, but they animate even the Dragoons to 
higher degrees of rage : and there was fuch a heat - 
fpread over all the Country, on this occafion, thac 
one could not go into any Ordinary, or mix in any 
promifcuous cbnverfation, without finding fjch ef- 
fed:s of it, that it was not eafie for fuch as were 
toucht with the leaft degree of compafTion for the 
miferies that the poor Proteflsnts fuffered, to be a 
witnefs to the Inlultings that they muil meet with 
in ail places. Some perhaps imagine that this hath 
not been approved in Italy , and it is true there 
were not any publick rejoycings upon tt at Rome ; 
no Indulgences nor Te Deums were heard of : And 
the SpiniJ}) fadion being fo prevalent there, it is 
not ftrange if a courfe of proceedings, that is with- 
out an examiple, was fct forth, by all that were of 
that intereft , in its proper colours 3 of which I 

A a a a - raec 



(4) 

met With fome inftances my felf , and could not 
but fmile to fee lome of the Spanijh Fadion fo far 
to forget their Courts of Inquifition as to argue a- 
gainft the Converfions by the Dragoons, as a re- 
proach to the Catholick Religion. Yet the Pope 
was of another mind, for the Duke d'Ejlnes gave 
him an account of the Kings proceedings in this 
matter very copioufly , as he himfelf related it^ 
Upon which the Pope approved all, and exprefled 
a great fatisfadion in every thing that the King had 
done in that m.atter ; and the Pope added, that he 
found fome Cardinals [ as I remember the Duke 
dEflrees faid two ] were not pleafed with it, and 
had taken the liberty to cenfure it, but the Pope 
^id, they were to blame : The Duke d'Eflrees did 
not name the two Cardinals, though he faid he be- 
Jieved he knew who they were : and it is very likely 
that Cardinal Pio was one, for I was told that he 
fpoke freely enough of this matter. I muft take=: 
the liberty to add one thing to you, that I do not 
fee that Great Monarch is to be fo much blamed 
in this matter as his Religion is, which, without 
quelHon, obligeth him to extirpate Hereticks, and 
not to keep his faith to them : fo that inllead of 
cenfuring him , I muft only lament his being bred 
ap in a Religion that doth certainly bblige him to 
devell himfelf of humanity, and to violate his faith, 
whenfocver the caufe of his Church and Religion re- 
quireth it: Or if there is any thing in this condudt 
that cannot be entirely juftified from the principles 
of that Religion, it is this, that he doth not put the 
Hereticks to death out of hand, but that he forceth 
them, by all the extremities poiTible, to fign an ab- 
juration, that all the World muft needs fee is done 
againft their Confciences : and this being the only 
end of their miferies, thofe that would think any 
fort of death a happy conclufion of their fufferingsj 
feeing no profpe^.. of foch, a. glorious IfTue out ot 

their 



] 



en 

their troubles, are prevailed on b/ the many lingviag 
deaths of which they fee no enl, to malce Ship- 
wi ack of their faith : This appearance of mercy m 
not putting men to death, doth truly vcrifie the cha- 
rader that Solomon givcth of the tender mercies of- 
the wicked, that they are cruel. 
^ But I will ibp here, though it is not eafie to re- 
tire from fo copious a fubjedt, that as it affordeth 
fo much matter , fo upon many accounts raifeth 
a heat of thought that is not eafily governed. I 
will now lead you to a Sceae that giveth lefs paf- 
/lon. 

I pafl the Winter at Geneva, with more fatisfa- 

kaion that I had thought it was poflfible for me to 
have found any where out of England : though that 
received great allaies from the moll lamentable 
Stories that we had every day from France : but 
there is a forrow by which the heart is made bet- 
ter. I ought to make the moft publick acknow- 
ledgments polTible for the Extraordinary Civilities 
that I met with in any one particular : but that is 
- too low a Subjed to entertain you with it. That 
which plcafed me moft, was of a more publick na- 
ture, before I left Geneva, the numbers of the En- 
glij}) there was fuch, that I found we could make a 
fmall Congregation. For we were Twelve or Four- 
teen , fo I addrelfed my felf to the Gouncel of 
Twenty five for liberty, to have our own worihip 
m our own Language, according to the Englijh Li- 
turgy. This was immediately granted in fo obli- 
ging a manner , that as there was not one perfon 
that made any exception to it, fo they fent one of 
their body to me, to let me know that in cafe our 
numlper fliould grow to be fo great, that it wera 
fit for us to aifemble m a Church, thcv wouli 
grant us one, which had been done in C^ueen Maria 
reign : but till then we might hold our aflemblie*;' 
as we thought fir. So after that i time, during the 



( ^ y 

reft of my ftay there, we had every Sunday our de- , 
votions according to the Common Prayer, Morn- 
ing and Evening : and at the Evening Prayer, I 
preacht in a Room that was indeed too large for 
our fmall Company, but there being a confiderable 
number in Geneva that Underftand Englifl^ and in 
particular fome of the ProfeiTors and Minillers, we' 
had a ^rcat many Grangers that met with us : and 
the kit Sunday I gave the Sacrament accordmg to- 
thQ v/ay of the Church of EngUni, and upon this^ 
•occafion I found a general joy in the Town, tor 
this that ! had given them an opportunity of ex- 
prefllng the refped they had for our Church, and 
as in their publick Prayers they always prayed tof 
the Churches of Great Brimin, as well as for the 
King, fo in private difcourfe they (hewed all pofli- 
ble elleem for our Conflitutions, and they fpoke ot 
the unhappy divifions among us, and of the Sepa- 
ration that was made from us, upon the account 
of our Govei-nment and Ceremonies with gi'eat re- 
sret and dillike. 1 ihall name to you only two of 
their Profei1^3L!rs, that as they pre Men of great di-- 
<rinaion, fo they were the Perfons with whom I 
ccnverfed the Vnolt. The one is Mr. Turmtn, a^ 
Man of great Learning , that by his Indefatigable 
Study and Labour hasV.uch worn out and waited- 
his ih-cn-rh ; amidfl all'the affluence of a great 
plenty of Fortune to which he was born, one dii^ 
cerns in him all the modelh of a humble and mor- 
tified temper, and of an adive and fervent charity,, 
proportioned to his abundance or rather beyond it^ 
•And there is in him fuch a melting zeal for^ Reli- 
gion, as the prefent ccnjuniflure calk for, with all 
ihe lerioufnefs of piety and devotion, which ihew* 
k felf both in private converfation and in his mioit. 
edifying Seraions by which he enters deep into the 
confclences of his Hearers. The otheris Mr. Tm^ 
chin, a Mar, of ailrong head,, and of a clear aa4j 



1 



r?) 

coi re£l Judgment ; who has all his thoughts well 
digefted ; his converfation has an engaging charm 
in it that cannot be refilled. He is a Man of Ex- 
traordinary virtue and of a readinefs to oblige and 
ferve all Perlbns, that has fcarce any meafures. His 
Sermons have a fublimity in them that ftrikes the 
heaier as well as it ediiies him. His thoughts are 
noble, and his Eloquence is Mafculine and exad, 
and has all the Majelly of the Chair in it, temper- 
ed with all the foftnefs of perfuafion, fo that he not 
only convinces his Hearers, but fubdues them and 
triumphs over chem. ' In fuch Company it was no 
wonder if time feemed to go off too fall, fo that 
I left Geneva with a concern , that I fliould not 
have felt in leaving any place out of the iHe of 
Brhl.iin, 

. From Genev.t, I went a fecond time through Srvh- 
\e)Und. ro B.ifile: h.z Avariibe I faw the NDble frag- 
ments of a great KGmm Work, which feems to have 
kbeen the Pmtico to feme Temple : the heads of the 
Pillsrs are about four foot C^iare of the Jonu\ Order : 
The Temple hath been dedicated to N(p:une or foma 
!5ea god ; for on the fragments of the Arcbiirave^ 
which are very beautiful, there are Dolphins an.] Sdi- 
horfes in ba-relirfsj and the neighbourhood o[ the 
place to the Liice> of Iverdun anj Morat maketh this 
more evident : there is alfo a Pillar Handing up in 
^ its full height, or rather the corner of a building, ia 
which onefteth thereih of areguUr Architedure in 
two ranks of Pillars : If the ground near this were 
carefully fearch'd, no doubt it would difcover more 
reds of that Fabrick. Not far fro;Ti this is Morat , 
and a little on this fide of it is a Chappel, full of t\\Q 
bones of the Burg^undians that were killed by the 
Smt^er^^ when this place was befieged by the famous 
Clurles Diike o^ Burgmdyy who loft a great Army be- 
fore ir, that was entirely cut off by the befieged 3 tha 
infcripcion is very extraordinary, efpecialiy for that 

Age,'. 



(8) 

Age : for the bones being fo piled up that the Chap^ 
pel is quite filled with them : the infcription bears, 
that Cf?Arles Duke of Burgund/s Army having befieg- 
ed Morat, Hoc [ui Menumentum religuit, had left that 
Monument behind it. It cannot but feem ftiange to one 
that views Morat, to imagine how it was poflibk for 
a Town fo fituated, and fo flightly fortified, to hold 
out againll fo powerful a Prince and fo great an Army 
that brought Cannon before it, I met with flothing 
remarkable between this and Bafile, except that I 
ftaid fometime at Bf rw, and knew it better 3 and at 
this fecond time it was , that my Lotd^dvoyer d'Er- 
Uch gave order to (hew me the Original Records of 
the famous Procefs of the four Dominicans ; upon 
which I have retoucht the Letter that I writ to you 
lall year, fo that I now fend it to you with the cor-- 
redions and enlargements, that this fecond ftay at 
Bern gave me occafion to make. 

Bafile is the Town of the greateft extent of ail : 
Switierland, but it is not inhabited in proportion to 
its extent. The Rhine maketh a crook before it : and 
the Town is fituated on a rifing ground, which hath 
a noble effed on the eye, when one is on the Bridge, 
for it looketh like a Theater. Little Bafile on the 
other fide ot the Rhine, is almoll a fourth part of the 
whole : The Town is furrounded with a Wall and 
Ditch, but it is fo expofed on fo many fides, and hativ 
now fo dreadful a Neighbour within a quarter of a 
League of it, the Fort olHuningh, that it hath nothing 
to trull to, humanly fpeaking, but its Union with t\\t 
other Cantons. " The maxims of this Canton have 
hindred its being better peopled than it is, the ad- 
vantages of the Burgerihip are fuch, that the Citi* 
zens will not fliare them with Grangers ; and by this 
means they do not admit them. For I was told, that 
during the laft War, that Alfatia was fo often the 
feat of both Armies, Bafile having then a neutrality; 
it might have been well filled, if it had not been for- 

this 



I 



(9) 

this maxim. And it were a great happlnefs to all 
the Cantons, if they could hayc different degrees of 
Burger{hip, fo that the lower degrees might be given 
to Grangers for their encouragement to come and live 
among them : and the higher degrees which qualifie 
men for the advantagious Employments of the State, 
rnight be referved for the ancient Families of the Na- 
tives. Bafite is divided into fixteen Companies, and 
every one of thcfe hath four Members in the little 
Council, fo that it confiileth of fixty four ; But of 
thofe four, two arc chofen by the Company it felf, 
who ar^ called the Mafters, and the other two are 
chofen by the Councel out of the Company j and thus 
as there are two forts of Councellers , chofen in 
thofe different manners, there are alfo two chief Ma- 

fiftrates. There are two Burghcrmaflers that Reign 
y turns, and two Zunft-Majfers that have alfo their 
turns, and all is for life : And the laft are the heads 
of the Companies, like the Roman Tribunes of the peo- 
ple. The Fabrick of the Stadt-Houfe is ancient 5 
there is very good Painting infre[co upon the Walls ; 
one Piece hath given much offence to the Papifis, 
though they have no reafon to blame the Reforma- 
tion for it j fince it was done feveral years before it, 
in the year i no. It is a reprefentation of the Day 
of Judgement, and after Sentence given, the Devil 
-is reprefented driving many before him to Hell, and 
among thefe there is feveral Eccleliaflicks. But it is 
believed that the Councel which fate fo long in this 
place, a(5ling fo vigoroully againfl the Pope, ingaged 
the Town into fuch a hatred of the Papacy, that this 
might give the rife to this reprefentation. The more 
learned in the Town afcribe the beginning of the Cu- 
ftom in Bafile cf the Clocks anticipating the time a 
full Hour, to the fitting of the Councel, and tiiey fay 
that in order to the advancing of bufinefs, and the 
fhortning their SefTions, they ordered their Clocks to 
be fee for\7ard an Hour , which continueth to this 

day 



(10) 

day. The Cathedral is a great old Gothick building » 
the Chamber where the Counccl fate, is of no grea^ 
reception, and is a very ordinary Room : Era[mHi"s 
Tomb is only a plain Infcription upon a great brafs 
plate : There are many of Holbens's Pidures, who 
was a Native of Bafile, and was recommended by 
Erafmm to King Henry the VIII. the two bcft are a 
Corpo or Chrifi dead, which is certainly one of the 
beft in the World : There is another Piece of his ia 
the Stadt-Houfe, for this is in the j)ublick Library, 
of about three or four foot fquare , iti which, in fix 
feveral Cantons , the feveral parts of our 'Saviours 
Paflion are reprcfented with a life and beauty that can- 
not be enough admired *, it is valued at ten thoufand 
Crowns 5 it is in Wood, but hath that freilincfs of 
Colour on it, thatfeems peculiar to Molbenis Pencil. 
There is alfo a Dance that he painted on the Walls 
of an Houfe where he .ufed to drink, that is fo worn 
out that very little is now to be feen, except fliapes 
andpoftures: but thefe {hew the exquifitenefs of the 
hand. There is another longer Dance that runneth 
all along the fide of the Convent of the Auguftinkns* 
which is now the French Church, which is Deaths 
Dance ; there are above, threefcore figures in it at full \\ 
length of Perfons of all ranks, from Popes, Empe- 
rors and Kings, down to the meaneft forts of People, 
and of all Ages and Profeffions, to whom Death ap- 
peareth in an infolent and furprizing pofture, and 
the feveral paflions that they exprefs are fo well fet 
out, that this was certainly a great defign. But the 
frejco being expofed to the Air, this was fo worn out 
fome time ago, that they ordered the beft Painter 
they had to lay new Colour on it,but thisis fo ill done 
that one had rather fee the dead iTiadows of Holhenis 
Pencil , than this courfe work. There is in Enfile a 
Gun-Smith that maketh Wind-Guns, and he fliewed 
me one that as it received at once Air for ten fliot, lb 
it ha.d this particular to it, which he pretends is his 

own 



l\ 



' 



twn Invention, that he can difcharge all the Air that 
can be parcelled eut in ten (hoc at once, to give a 
home blow. I conf fs thofe are terrible inftruments, 
and it feems the intertll of Mankind to forbid them 
quite, fince they can be imployed to aflaflinate per- 
sons fo dextroufly, that neither noifc nor (ire will 
difcover from what hand the (hot cometh. The 
Library of Bafile is, by much the befl in all Svoitier- 
Ur.d, there is a fine colle(aion of Medals in it, and a 
veryhandfome Library of Manufcriptsj the Room is 
Noble, and difpofed in a very good method. Their 
Manufaipts are chiefly the Utine Fathers, or Utine 
Tianllations of the (/rff^ Fathers, fome good Bibles, 
they have the Gofpels in Gretk Capitals, but they are 
Vitioufly writ in many places : There is an infinite 
number of the Writers of the darker Ages, and there 
are Legends and Sermons without number. All the 
Books that were in the feueral Monaileries at the time 
of the Reformation were carefully preferved i and 
they believe thac the Bifliops. wh<^ fate here in the 
Council, brought with them a great many Manu- 
fcrims which they never carried away. Among their 
Manufcriprs I faw four of Hujl's Letters that he writ 
to the Behemians the day before his death, which are 
very devout, but excefTively fimple. The Manufcripts 
of this Library are far more numerous than thofe of 
Bern, which were gathered by Bongarfiw^ and left by 
him to the publick Library there : They are indeed 
very little confidered there, and are the wodl kept 
that ever I faw : But it is a Noble colleftion of all the 
ancient Latine Authors, they have fome few of the 
bell of the Roman times, writ in great Charafters, 
and iliere are many that are feven or eight hundred 

years old. 

There is in B^fUe one of the befl colle(5lions of 
Medals that ever I faw in private hands j together 
with a Noble Libra r)^, in which there are Manu- 
fcripts of good antiqwty that belong to the Family 

of 



^o. 



J 



(") ., 

of Fefch, and that goeth from one Learned Man oilil! 
the Family to another ; For this Inheritance can on^ " 
ly pafs to a Man of Learning, and when the Fa^ 
mily produceth none, then it is to go to the pub* 
lick. In Bufile as the feveral Companies have been 
more or lefs I!ri6t in admitting fomc to a Freedoni 
in the Company, that have not been of the Trade^ 
fo they retain their priviledges to this day. For la 
fuch Companies that have once received fuch a 
number that have not been of the Trade as grew^. 
to be the majority, the Trade hath never been a- 
ble to recover their intereft. But fome Companies 
have been more cautious, and have never admittedfi 
any but thofe that were of the Trade, fo that they 
retain their intereft fhll in Government. Of thefe 
the Butchers were named for one, fo that there are 
always four Butchers in the Council : The great 
Council confifteth of Two Hundred and Forty, but 
they have no power left them, and they are only 
aflembled upon fome extraordinary occafions, when 
the little Council thinkcth fit to communicate any 
important matter to them. There are but fix Ba- 
liages that belong to Ba^ile-, which are not Employ- 
ments of great advantage j for the befl of them 
doth afford to the Bailif only a Thoufand livres a 
year : They reckon that there are in Baftle Three 
Thoufand Men that can bear Arms, and that they 
could raife Four Thoufand more out of the Canton, 
fo that the Town is almoft the half of this State, 
and the whole maketh Thirty Parifhes. There are | 
Eighteen Profeflbrs in this Univerfity; and there 
is a Spirit of a more free and generous Learning 
ilirring there, then I faw in all thofe parts. There 
is a great decency of habit in Ba^ile and the garb 
both of the Counfellers, Minifters, and Profellors, 
their iHfF Ruffs, and their long Beards, have an Air 
that is Auguft : The appointments are but fmall, 
fyr Counfellers, Minillers and ProfefTors have but 



I 






( I? ) 

a Hundred Crowns a piece ; It is true many Mini* 
fters are ProfefTors fo this mcndeth the matter t 
little: But perhaps it would go better with the 
State of Learning there, if they had but half the 
number of ProfefTors, and if thoie were a little bet- 
ter incouraged. No, where is the rule of St. Paul 
[ of Women having on their heads the badge of 
the authority under which they are brought, which 
by a phrafe that is not extraordinary, he calleth 
power J better obfervcd than at Baiile •, for all the 
Married Women ^o to Church with a coif on 
their heads, that is • fo folded, that as it cometh 
down fo far as to cover their eyes, fo another fold- 
ing covcrcth alfo their Mouth and Chin, fo that 
nothing but the nofe appears , and then all turns 
backward in a folding that hangeth down to their 
midleg. This is always white, lb that there is 
there fuch a fight of white heads in their Churches 
as cannot be found any where elfe : The unmarried 
Women wear hats turned up in the brims before 
and behind J and the brims of the fides being about 
a foot broad, Hand out far on both hands : This 
fai"hion is alfo at Strasburg, and is worn there alfo 
by the Married Women. 

I mentioned formerly the conI!ant danger f» 
which this place is expofed from the neighbour- 
hood of Huninghen j I was told that, at did, it was 
pretended that the French King intended to build 
only a fmall Fort there , and it was believed that 
one of the Burgo-mafters of B^'^Ue , who was 
thought not only the wifeil man of that Canton, 
but of all Smt^erUnd^ was gained to lay all Men 
afleep , and to afllire them that the fuffering this 
Fort to be built fo near them, was of no impor- 
tance to them, but now they fee too late their fatal 
error ; For the place is great, and will hold a Gar- 
rifon of Three or Four Thoufand Men j it is a 
Pmiigcne^ only the fide to the KbiM is fo large , 

Bbb tkax 



2// 



that if it went round on that fide, I believe it mufl 
have been a Hexagone j the Baliions have all Oril- 
lons ^ and in the middle of them there is a void 
ipace, not filled up with earth, where there is a 
Magazine built fo thick in the Vault that it is proof 
againii: Bombs j The Remparts are ftrongly faced , 
there is a large Ditch, and before the Cortine, in 
the middle of the Ditch, theie runs all along a 
Horn- work which is but Ten or Twelve foot high i 
2nd from the bottom of the Rampart, there goeth 
a Vault to this Horn- work, that is for conveying 
of Men for its defence j before this Horn-work 
there is a half Moon, with this that is peculiar to 
thofe new Fortifications, that there is a Ditch that 
cuts the half Moon in an Angle, and maketh one 
half Moon within another : beyond that there is a 
Counter-Scarp about Twelve foot high above the 
Water, with a covered way, and a gluey defigned, 
though not executed. There is alfo a great Horn- 
work befides all this, which runs out a huge way 
with its out- works towards Bayte j there is alfo a 
Bridge laid over the Rhine^ and there being an I- 
lland'in the River, where the Bridge is laid, tiiere 
is a Horn-work that filleth and fortifieth it. The 
Buildings in this Fort are beautiful, and the Square 
can hold above Four Thoufand Men j the Works 
are not yet quite finifhed, but when all is cona- 
pleated, this will be one of the llrongdl places in 
Eunpe : There is a Cavalier on one or two of the 
Bafllons, and there are half Moons before the Ba- 
iHons, fo \\\it t\-\t Swhiers kt their danger no \y, 
when it is not eafie to redrefs it. This place is fci- 
tuated in a great Plain, fo that it is commanded by 
no rifing ground on any fide of it. I made a little 
Tower into Allace^ as far as Mcuntbelliard 3 the Soil 
is cxtream rich,_ but it hath been fo long a Frontier , ; 
Counti-y ; and is , by confequence, fo ill peopled, ' ! 
ihat it is in many places ovcr-giown with Woods : 



( ly ) 

In one refpefl: It is fit to be the feat of War, fof 
it is full of Iron-works, which bring a £;reac deal 
of Money into the Country, I Cxw nothing pecu- 
liar in the Iron- works there ("except that the Ciics 
of the great Bellows were not of Leather but of 
Wood , which faves much Money ) fo I will not 
ftand to defcribe them. The River of the Rhine, 
all from B^iile to Spire^ is fo low, and is on both 
fides fo covered with woods, that one tkat cometh 
down in a Boat hath no fight of the Country : 
The River runneth fometimes with ftich a force, 
that nothing but fuch Woods could preferv^e its 
Banks , and even thefe are not able to fave them 
quite, for the Trees are often walhed away by the 
very Roots, fo that in many places thofe Trees 
lye along in the Channel of the River : It hath 
been alfo thought a fort of a Fortification to both 
fides oi the River, to have it thus faced with Woods, 
which maketh the pafling of Men dangerous, when 
they mud march for fomctime after their pa/Tagc 
through a defile. The firlt night from B^iile we 
came to Briftc, which is a poor and miferable Town, 
but, it is a noble Fortification , and harh on the 
WeJ^-fide of the River, ov'er which a Bridge is laid, 
a regular Fort of Four or Five Bafiions. Vh^ Town 
of Brific rifeth all on a Hill which is a confidera- 
ble heigth ; there were near it two Hills, the one 
is taken v/ithin the Fornficatrort, and the other is 
fo well levelled with the ground, that one cannot 
fo much as find out where it was ; All the ground 
about for many miles is plain , fo thit from the 
Hill, as from a Cavalier, one can fee exactly welf 
efpecially with the help of a Profoevfl, all the mo- 
tions of an Enemy in cafe of a Siege: The Fortifi- 
cation is of a huge compafs, above a French league, 
indeed almofi: a German league ; the Baflions are 
quite filled with Earth, they are faced with brick, 
and have a huge broad Ditch full of Water around 



(16) 

■i^em, the CounteiTcarp, the coveied way, which 
hath a palifade within the Parapet, and the Glacy, 
are all well executed ; there is a half Moon before 
every Cortine : the Baftions have no OriUons except 
one or two, and the Cortines are fo difpofed that 
% good part of them defendeth the BalHon. The 
Garrifon of this place in time of War muft needs 
be Eight or Ten Thoufand Men 5 there hath not 
been much done of late to this place only the Ditch 
is fo adjufted that it.is all defended by the flanks of 
zhc iiajHons. But the nobleil place on the Rhine 
is Straihurg : It is a Town of a huge extent, and 
lia'Ji a do.ble Wall and Ditch all round it-; the 
inner Wall is old and of no }crength, nor is the 
outward Wall very good , it hath a Faujjkbraye, 
and is faced with Brick Twelve or Fifteen Foot a- 
bove the Ditch : the Counterfcarp is in an ill con- 
dition, fo that the Town was not in afe to make 
any long refiftance 5 but it is now ftrongly fortified. 
^Jhere is_a Cittadel built on that- fide that goeth 
""towards the Rhine, that is much fiich a Fort as that 
of Huningh, and on the fide of the Cittadel towards 
the Bridge,^ there is a great Horn-work that runs 
out a great Vvay with out-works belonging to it ; 
there arc alfo fmall Forts at the two chief Gates 
that lead to Alface j by which the City is fo bri- 
dled that thefe can cut off all its communication 
with the Country about, in caife of a revolt ; the 
Bridge is alfo well Fortified 5 there are alfo Forts in 
fome Iflands in the Rhine^ and fome Redoubts : fo 
that all round this place, there is one of the great- 
di Fortifications that is in Europe, 

Hitherto the Capitulation with relation to Reli- 
gion hath been well kept, and there is fo fmall a 
number of new Converts , and thefe are for the 
greateft part fo inconfidcrable, they not being in all 
above Two Hundred as I was told ; The Lmherant 
j>r the grtmil part retain their animofities almoft 

to 



(17) 

to an equal degree both againfl Pupifls anj Cdu?^ ' 
ntlU ^ I was m their Church, where if thf Mufick 
ot their P;alms plcafed me much, the irreverence in 
lingmg, it being free to keep on or put off the Har, 
did apj-^ar very ftrange to me : The Ch jrches are 
mllof Pi^jres, in which the chief palTiges of our 
Saviours hfe are reprelented 5 bjt there is no fort 
ot rehgious refped: payed them , they bow when 
they name the Holy Ghoil, as well as at the name 
ot Je(ii4 y but they have not the Ceremonies that 
the £ttr^fr;««j of Saxony ufe, which Mr. BebeL, their 
Pfoteflor of Oivinity, faid was a great happinefs, 
tor a fimilitude in outward rites might difpofe the 
Ignorant People to change too eafily. I found fe- 
"^A 1°^^ People both of the Lutheran Minillers 
and otheFs, acknowledge that there was fuch a cor- 
^JfP^i^^n ot morals fpread over the whole City, 
that as they had jufUy drawn down on their heads 
the plague of the lofs of their liberty, fo this hi- 
ving toucht them fo little they had reafon to look 
tor leverer llrokes : One feeth, in the ruine of this 
City, what a mifchievous thing the popular pride 
ot a free City is ; they fancied they were able to 
detend themfelves, and fo they refufed to let an Im- 
pmal Garrifon come within their Town -, for if they 
had received only Five Hundred Men, as that fmall 
number would not have been able to have oppreil 
their Liberties, fo it would have fo fecured the 
Town that the French could not have b^fieKd it 
without making War on the Empire : but the' 
Town thought this was a diminution of their Free- 
rj" ' ^[!^ JP f^i^^^ Jl^^her to pay a Garrifon of 
ihree Thoufand Souldiers , which as it exhaufted 
their Revenue, and brought them under great Taxes 
To it proved too weak for their defence when the 
French Army came before them. The Town be- 
gms to fmk m its Trade, notwithftanding the Freat 
•circulation of Money that the expence of the Forfi- 

^ b ^ 3 fications 



ikmms Hath brought ta it j but when that is at: 
an end, it will fink more fenlibly, for it is impof- 
iible for a place of trade, that is to have always 
Eight or Ten Thoufand Souldiers in it, to continue 
long ill a Flourilliing State. There was a great 
animofity between two of the chief Families of the 
Town, Dutricti and Obrecht, the former was the- 
Burgomafter, and was once almoft run down by a^ 
Fa(f}-ion that the other had raifed againrt him 5 but: 
he turned the tide, and got fuch an advantage a- 
gainil Obrecht, who had writ fomewhat againil the- 
condu(5l of their affairs, that he was condemned and« 
Beheaded for writing Libels againfi the Govern-' 
ment. His Son is a Learned Man, and was Profef- 
for of the Civil Law ; and he to have his turn of 
revenge againU Difrr/V^, wtnt to ParU laft Summer, 
and that he might make ^ his Court the better,- 
changed his Religion. Dinrhfi had been always', 
looked on as one of the chief of the French Fadion,, 
though he had been at fir 11: an Imperklift, fo it was 
thought that he fhould have been well rewarded ; 
yet it Vv'as expe(5led that to make himfelf capable of 
that, he fnould have changed his Religion, but he: 
%vas an- antient Man, and would not purchafe his 
Court at that rate: fo without any reafon given , , 
and againfi the exprefs words- of the Capitulation,.' 
he was confined to one of the midland Provinces of 
France^ as I rem.ember it was Lirnofin j and thus he- 
rhat ha|h been, thought the chief caufe of this Towns 
failing under the power of the French, is the firft 
Man that hath felt the tfkds of it. The Library 
here is <:onfiderable, the Cafe is a great Room, ve- 
ry well contrived, for it is- divided into Clofets all" 
over the body of the Room, which runs about thefe- 
as a Gallery, and in thefe Clofets all round there. 
2r€ the Books of the feveral Pi ofeflfions lodged apart; 
there is one for Manufcripts in which there are - 
lome of coflfiderable Atitic^iiity,. I need fay nothing. 



( 19 ) ^O 

to you of the vafl heighth, and the Gothkli Archi- 
tecture of the Steeple and of the great Church , 
nor of the curious Clock where there Is fo vaft z 
variety of motions, for thefe are well known. The 
has ^'f//V/J upon the tops of the great Pillars of the 
Church are not fo vifible, but they are furprizing j 
for this being a Fabrick of Three or Four Hundred 
Years old, it is very Ihange to fee fuch reprefenta- 
tions as are there. There is a Proceflion reprefent- 
cd, in which a Hog carrieth the Pot with the Ho^ 
\y Water, and AfTes and Hogs^ in Prieftly Veftments 
[ follow to make up the Proceflion ; there is alfo an 
\Ak Ihnding before an Altar, as if he were going to 
Confecrate, and one carrieth a Cafe with Reliques,^ 
within which one feeth a Fox, and the trains of all 
that go in this ProcefTion, arc carried up by Mon- 
kies. This feems to have been made in hatred of 
the Monks whom the Secular Clergy abhorred at 
that time, becaufe they had drawn the Wealth, and 
the following of the World after them, and they 
had expofed the Secular Clergy fo much for their 
ignorance, that it is probable after fome Ages, the 
Monks falling under the fame contempt, the^Secalar- 
C'.ergy took their turn in expofing them in fo lafb- 
ing a reprefentation to the fcorn of the World. 
There is alfo in the Pulpit a Nun cut in Wood, 
lying along , and a Frier lying near her with his 
Breviary open before him, and his hand under the 
Nuns habit, and the Nuns feet are fhod with Iron 
Shoes. I confefs I did not look for thefe things, 
for I had not heard of them ; but my Noble Friend 
M-r. AbUncourt viewed them with great exadne^, 
while he was the French Kings Refident at Stratburg^ 
m the company of one of the Magiftrates that wait- 
ed on him ; and it is upon his credit, to which all 
that know his eminent fincerity, know how much 
ii due, that I give you this particular. 
Jrwn Stroiburg.wc went down the Rhine to Phi- 



C 20 ) 

lipslurg^ which lieth at a quarter of a miles diflance 
from the River, it is but a fmall place, the BalHons 
are but little 5 there is a Ravelline before almoll ail 
the Cortines, and there lye fuch Marillies all round 
it, that in thefe lieth the chief ftrength of the place. 
The French had begun a great Crown- work on the , 
lide that lieth to the Rhine , and had caft: ojt a,-. 
Horn-work beyond that 5 but by all that appears 
it feems they intended to continue that Crown work- 
quite round the Town, and to make a fecond Wall 
and Ditch all round it 5 which would have Enlarged 
the place vafHy , and made a compafs capable e- 
noughto lodge above TenThoufand"Men; and this 
would have been fo terrible a Neighb(Hir to the Pa- 
Utinxte and all FranconU that it was a Mafter-piece 
in Charles Lewif, the late Eletftor Palatine, to En- 
gage the Empire into this Siege. He faw well how 
nujch it concerned him to have it out of the hands 
of the French , fo that he took great care to have 
the Duke of Lorrain's Camp fo well fupplied with 
all things neeeifary during the Siege, that the Army 
lay not under the lead uneafineft all the while. 
From thence in three Hours time we came to Spire, 
which is fo naked a Town that if it were attacked, 
it could not make the leail refinance. The Town 
is neither great nor rich, and fubfiikth chiefly by 
the Imperial Chamber that fitteth here, though there 
is a conftant difpute between the Town and the 
Chamber concerning Priviledgesj for the Govern- 
. x^nt of the Town, pretends that the Judges of the 
Chamber, as they are private Men, and out of the 
Court of Judicature, are fubjeft to them 5 and lo 
about a year ago they put one of the Judges in Pri- 
fon ; on the other hand the Judges pretend that their 
Perlons are facred. It was the confideration of the 
Chamber that procured to the Town the neutrality 
that they injoyed all the lall War. I thought to 
have feen the forms of this. Court, and, the way of 

laying 



(«) 

hying up, and preferving their Records, but the 
Court was not then fitting. The Building, the 
Halls and Chambers of this Famous Court are mean 
beyond imagination , and look liker the Halls of 
fome fmall Company, then of fo great a body 3 and 
I could not fee the places where they lay up their 
Archives : The Government of the City is all Lu^- 
theran^ but not only the Cathedral is in the hands 
of the Bifhop and Chapter, but there arc likewife 
fcveral Convents of both Sexes , and the Jejuites 
have alfo a Collcdge there. There-is little remarka- 
ble in the Cathedral, which is a huge building in 
the GcthiiJi manner of the worll fort. The Tombs 
of many Emperours that lie buried there , are re- 
markable for their meannefs j they being only great 
Flag-ftones layed on fome fmall Stone ballifters of a 
foot and a half high : There arc alfo the marks of 
a ridiculous Fable concerning St. Bernard, which is ' 
too foolifh to^bc related, yet fince they have taken 
foch pains to pj^fcrve the remembrance of it, I fhall 
venture to write itir" There arc from the Gate all 
along the Nef of the Church up to the Steps that 
go up to the Quire, Four round Plates of Brafs, a- 
bovc a foot Diameter, and at the dilhnce of Thir- 
ty foot one from another j laid in the pavement, 
on the jfirft of thefe is ingraven : Clemens ^ 
on the fecona, Fia 5 on the third, Felix ; and 
on the fourth , Maria .• The laft is about Thirty 
Foot diftant from a Statue of the Virgins 3 fo they 
fay that St. Bernard came up the whole length of the 
Church at four fteps, and that thofe four plates were 
laid where he ftept : and that at every ftep he pro-- 
nounced the word that is engraven on the Plate, arid 
when became to the laft, the Image of the Virgin 
anfwered him. Salve Bemarde : upon which he an- 
fwered, let a Woman l^eep ftlence in the Church, and 
that the Virgins Statue has kept filence ever fince, 
this Jaft part of the Story is certainly very credible. 

He 



He was a man of Learning that fliewed me this ; and 
he repeated it fo gravely to me, that I faw he either 
believed it, or at leaft that he had a mind to make 
me believe it : and I asked him as gravely if that 
was firmly believed there, he told me that one had 
btely writ a Book to prove the truth of it, as I re- 
member, it was a J^efuit : he acknowledged it was 
not an Article of Faith, fo I wasfatisfied. 
^ There is in the Cloiiler an old Gotbicli reprefenta- 
tion of our Saviours Agony in Stone, with a great 
many Figure^of his Apoftles, and the Company that 
came to feize him, that is not ill Sculpture, for the 
Age in which it was made, it being fome Ages old. 
The Calvinifls have a Church in this Town, but 
their numbers are not confiderable : I was told there 
were fome ancient Manufcripts in the Library, that 
belongeth to the Cathedral; but one of the Preben- 
daries to whom I addreffed my felf, being, accord- 
ing to the Oirman cuftom, a man of greater quality 
than le-'i-ning, told me he heard they had fome anci- 
ent Manuiciipts, but he knew nothing of it, and the 
Dean v*?as abfent, fo I could not fee them, for he kept 
one of the keys. The lower Palatinate is^ certainly 
one of the fweeteft Coimtries of all Germiny : It is a 
great Plain till one cometh to the Hills of Heidelberg : 
the Town is ill fcituated, juft in a bottom between 
two ranges of Hills, yet the Air is mud* commended ; 
I need fay nothing of the Caftle, nor the prodigious 
Wine Cellar, in which, though there is but one cele- 
brated Tun that is feventeen foot high, and twenty 
fix foot long, and is built with a ftrength liker that 
of the ribs of a (hip, than the Staves of a Tun 3 yet 
there arc many other Tunsof fuch a prodigious big- 
nefs, that they would feem very extraordinary if this 
vail one did not Eclipfe them. The late Prince 
Chirks Levpif fhewed his capacity in the peopling and 
and fettling this State, that had been fo entirely ruin- 
ed, heingfor many y-ears the Seat of War, for m four 

years 



(23) 

years time he brought it to a Flourifliing conditio^ 
He railed the Taxes as high as wiS pofliblc without 
difpeopling his Country, and all mens Eflates were 
valued, and they were taxed at five per cent of the va- 
lue of their Eltates ; but their Efhtcs were not va-. 
lued to the rigour, but with fuch abatements as hav« 
been ordinary in EngUnd. in the times of Subfidies j fo 
That when the Son offered to bring the Taxes down to 
two percent of the real value 5 the Sub jeds all defired 
him rather to continue them as they were. There is 
no Prince in Germany that is more abfolute than the 
Ele^or PdUtine^ for he layeth on his Subjeds what 
Taxes he pleafeth, without being limited to any forms 
of Government. And here I faw that which I had 
always believed to be true, that the Subjeds o^ Ger- 
many are only bound to their particular Prince, for 
they fwear Allegiance fimply to the Eledlor, without 
any rcfcrve for the Emperor, and in their Prayers for 
him they name him their Soveraign. It is true the 
Prince is under fome ties to the Emperor, but the 
Subje(5ts are under none. And by this D. Fabritiw, 
a learned and judicious ProfefTor there , explained 
thofe words of Piirei<4S Commentary on the Komms^ 
which had refpedt only to the Princes of the Empire-: 
and were quite mifunderilood by thofe who fancied 
that they favoured Rebellion j for there is no place 
in Europe where all rebellious Doclrine is moTe born 
down than there. I found a ^reat fpirit of modera^ 
tion with relation to thofe fmall controverfies that 
have occafioned fuch heat in the Proteftant Churches 
reigning in the Univerfity there, which is in a great 
meafare owing to the prudence, learning, and . the 
happy temper of mind of D,Fiitoi;/^,andD.iW/>^jwho 
^ they were long in EngUnd^ fo they have that gene- 
Tous largcnefs of Soul, which is the Noble Ornament 
of many of the EngUP) Divines. Prince Charle sLewJ4 
fawthf-it Manheim was marked out by Nature to be 
the mo(t important place of all his Territory', it be- 
ing 



^y^f 



1 



(24) 

lag fcituated in the point where the Necfidr falleth in-^ 
to the Rhine : So that thofe two Rivers defending it 
on two fides, it was capable of a good Fortification : 
It is true the Air is not thought wholfomc 3 and the 
Water is not good, yet he made a fine Town there, 
and a Noble Cittadel with a regular Fortification a- 
bout it, and he deligned a great Palace there, but he 
did not live to build it. He faw of what advantage 
Liberty of Confcience was to the peopling of his 
Country, fo as he fuflfered the Jews to come and fet- 
tle there, he refolved alfo not only to fufifer the three 
Religions tolerated by the Laws of the Empire to be 
profcfTed there, but he built a Church for them all 
three, which he called the Church of the Concord, in 
which both Calvinifts, Lmberans and Papifts had, in 
the order in which I have fet down, the exercife of 
their Religion, and he maintained the peace of his 
Principality fo entirely, that there was not the leaft 
diforder occafioned by this tolleration : This, indeed, 
made him to be lookt on as a Prince that did ^not 
much confider Religion himfelf : He had a wonder- 
ful application to all affairs, and was not only his 
own chief Miniller, but he alone did the work of 
many. 

But I were Injuft, if I (hould not fey fomewhat 
to you of the Princely vertues and the Celebrated 
probity of the prefent Prince Ele<5tor upon whom 
that Dignity is devolved by the extinction of fo many 
Princes that in this Age compofed the moll numerous 
Family of any of that rank in Europe. This Prince 
as he is in many refpedts an honour to the Religion 
that he profefTes, fo is in nothing more to be coni- 
mendcd by thofe who differ from him, than for his 
€xa<5t adhering to the promifes he made his Subjedls 
with relation to their Religion, in which he has not 
even in the fmalleft matters^ broke in upon their efta- 
bliiht Laws, and though an Order of Men, that have 
turned the World uplide down, have great Credit 

with 



( 2f ) 

with him, yet 'it is hitherto vilible that they cannot 
carry it fo far, as to make him do any thing contrary 
to the ellablillied Reh'gion ; and to thofe facred pro- 
miles that he made his Subjeds. For he makes 
it appear to all the World that he does not con- 
fider thole as fo many, words fpoken at ririt to 
lay his people alleep, which he may now explain 
and obferve as he thinks fit 3 but as fo many 
ties upon his Confcience and Honour , which he 
will Religioufly obferve. And as in. the other 
parts of his life he has fet a Noble Pattern to all 
the_ Princes of Europe, fo his exaClnefs to his pro- 
mifes, is that which cannot be too much com- 
..mended : of which this extraordinary Inilance has 
been communicated to me ilnce I am come into 
this Countrey. The Elecftor had a Procelllon in 
his Court lail Corpir^ Chrifli day, upon which one 
of the Miniilers of Heidelberg preacht a very fe- 
vere Sermon againil Popery , and in particular , 
taxed that Procefllon, perhaps, with greater plain- 
nefs than difcretion : This 'being brought to the 
Eledor's ears, he fent prefently an Order to the 
EcclefiafHcal Senate to fufpend him. That Court 
is compofed of fome Secjlar Men , and fome 
Churchmen, and as the Princes authority is dele- 
gated to them, fo they have a fort of an E;.if- 
copal jurifdiction over all the Clergy. This Or- 
der was a furprife to them as being a diredl breach 
upon their Laws and the Liberty of their Reli- 
gion? fo they (ent a Deputation to Court, to 
let the Eledor ^ know the reafons that hindred 
them from obeying his Orders, which were heard 
with fo_ much JulHce and Gentlenefs , that their 
Prince inllead of exprefllng any ditpleafure againft 
them, recalled the Order that he had fent them. 
The way from Heidelber.z to FrMfifo-a, is, for the 
firil twelve or fifteen miles, the beautifuUefl piece 
of. ground that can be imat^ined ; for we went 

C c : ' u TJci' 



under a ridge of little Hills that are: ^11 covered 
with Vines, and from- them, as far as the eye can 
go, there is a beautiful Plain of Corn-fields and 
Meadows , all fweetly divided ^ and inclofed with 
rows of Trees , fo that I fancied I was in Xo?;z- 
hardy again , but with this advantage, that here 
all was not of a piece, as it is in Lombardy : but 
the Hills as they made a pleafant inequality in the 
profped, fo they made the Air purer, and pro- 
duced a pleafant Wine : The way near Darmfiat , 
and all forwards to Frankfort^ becometh more wild 
and more fandy : There is a good Suburb on the 
Soutb-fide of the Main over againft Franfifort, which 
hath a very confiderable Fortification j there is a 
double Wall, and a double Ditch that goeth 
round it, and the outward Wall, as it is regularly 
fortified, fo it is faced with Brick to a confidera- 
ble heighth. The Town of Franhjon is of a great 
extent, and feemed to be but about a third part 
lefs then Stroiburg: The three Religions are alfo to- 
lerated there 5 and though the number of the Pa0s 
is very inconfiderable, yet they have the great Church, 
which is a huge rude building ; they have alfo feve- 
ral other Churches, and fome Convents there. There 
are feveral open iquares for Market places, and the 
Houfes about them look very well without. A- 
mong their Archives they preferve the Original of 
the Bulia, Anrea, which is only a great Parchment 
writ in High Butch^ without any beauty anfwering 
to its Title : and fince I could not have underllood 
it, I was not at the pains of defiringto fee it, for 
that is not obtained without difficulty. The Lmbe^ 
ram have here built a new Church, called St. Cathe' 
nn\ in which there is as much painting as ever I 
faw in anv Fopi/J) Church, and over the high Altar 
there is an huge carved Crucifix, as there are painted 
ones in other places of their Church . The Pulpit 
15 e^tr^am fine of Maibk of different colours very 
^::-b!Q: . :i:; J well 



u* 1 



( 27 ; 

Well polillied and joyned. I was here at a Sermon 
where I uaderftood nothing, but I h"ked one thing 
that I faw both at Strasburg and here, that at the 
end of Pravcrs, there was a confiderahle interval 
ot filencc left , before the conclufion , for all peo- 
ples private devotions. In the Houfe of their pub- 
lick Difciplinc, they retain ftill the old Py.o)f!an Pijlri- 
m or Hand-mill, at which lewd Women are con- 
demned to grind, that is, to drive about the Wheel- 
that maketh the Milllones go. There is a great num- 
l>er of Jews there, though their two Synagogues 
• -are very little, and by confequ-nce the numbers be- 
ing great, they are very nafly. I was told they were 
iii all above twelve hundred. The Women had 
the moft of a tawdry Imbroidery of Gold and Sil- 
ver about them that ever I faw, for they had all 
Mantles of Crape , and both about the top and 
the bottom , there was a border above a hand 
breadth of imbroidery. The Fortification of Fmnli' 
fort is confiderable, their Ditch is very broad, and 
very full of Water j all the Baftions have a Coun- 
ter-mine that runneth along hy^ the brim of the 
Ditch 3 but the Counterfcarp is not faced with 
Brick as the Walls are, and fo in many places it 
is in an ill condition 3 the covered Way and gUcy 
are alfo in an ill cafe : The Town is rjch, and dri- 
veth a great Trade, and is very pleafantly fcituated. 
Not far from hence is Hoc\j,m that yieldeth the 
beft Wine of thofe parts. Since I took Franlifort 
in my way from Heidelberg to Ment^^ I could no: 
pafs by iVorms^ for which I was forry. I had a 
great mind to fee that place where Luther m.idi 
his firfl appearance before the Emperor, and the Diet, 
and in that folcmn audience expreifed an undaunt- 
ed zeal for that Glorious Caufe in which God made 
him fuch a blefled Inftrument. I had another piece 
of Curiofity on me which will, perhaps, appear to 
you foraewhat ridiculous. I had a mind to fee z 

QcQ ^ . Pidure' 



Pl6lure that, as f Hvts told, is over one of the Po' 
fifJ) Altars there, which one would think was In- , 
vented by the Enemies of Tranfubflantiation to"' 
make it appear ridiculous. There is a Windmill,t>. 
and the Virgin throws Chri(} into the Hopper, and- ' 
he comes out at the eye of the Milne all in Wa-'y- 
ters, which fome Prieih take up to give the Peo- 
ple. This is io courfe an Embleme , that one 
would think it too grofs even for LapUndersy but a 
Man that can fwallow Tranfubftantiation it feif, will 
digeil this likewife. Memx is very nobly fcituated, 
on a rifing grounds little below the conjundion'"* 
of the two Rivers, the Rhine^ and the Main ; it is 
of too great a compafs, and too ill Peopled to be 
capable of a great defence : There is a Cittadel up- 
on the higheli: part of the Hill that commandeth 
the Town 3 it is compaffed about with a dry Ditch 
that is confiderably deep. The Walls of the 
Town are faced with Brick and regularly forti- 
fied, but the Counterfcarp is not faced v/ith Brick, 
fo all is in a fad condition ^ and the Fortification 
is weakeft on that fide where the Eledor's I^alace 
i$. There is one fide of a new Palace very nobly 
built in a regular Architedure , only the Germans 
do {lili retain fomewhat of the Gothicfi manner. 
It is of a great length , and the defign is to build 
tjuire round the Court, and then it will be a ve- 
rv magnificent Palace, only the Stone is red ; for 
all the Quarries that are upon the Rhine, from Baiile 
down to Ccbler^i, are of red Stone, which doth net 
look beautifjl. The Eledlor of Ment^^ is an abfolute 
Prince 3 his Subjects prefent Lifts of their Magi- 
flrates to him , but he is not tied to them , and 
may name whom he will : The Ancient Demeafne 
of the Elev5torate is about Forty thoufand Crowns : ^ 
But the Taxes rife to about Three hundred thou- 
fand Crowns j fo that the SubjeCls here are as 
heavily taxed as, in.' ths Falatinate: There is 

- ' Twelve 



('29 ; 

Twelve thoufand Crowns a year "given the Eh- 
dor for his privy Purfe , and the State bsars tha 
reft pf his whole expence: It can Arm Ten thou- 
fand Men, and there is a Girifon of Two thou- 
fand Men in Menti : This Eledtor Iiath three 
Councels, one as he is Chancellour of the Em- 
pire, confuting of three Peribns j the other two 
are for the Policy and JulHce of his Principali- 
ty. He and his Chapter have Months by turns 
for the Nomination of the Prebends. In the Month 
of January he names , if any dies, and they chufe 
m the Room of fuch as die in February, and fo 
all the Year round. The Prebendaries or Dome- 
heeis have about Three thoufand Crowns a year 
a piece. When the Eleftor dieth, the Emperor 
fendeth one to fee the Eledion made, and he re- 
commendeth one , but the Canons may chufe 
whom they pleafe 5 and the prefent Eledor was 
not of the Emperors recommendation. Beiides the 
Palace at Menti , the Eleftor hath another near 
Frankfort , which is thought the belt that is in 
thole parts of Germmy : The Cathedral is a huge 
Gothidi Building 5 there is a great Cupulo in the 
IVefl-end , and there the Quire iingeth Mafs : I 
could not learn whether this was done only be- 
caufe the place here was of greater reception than 
at the Eaft^end , or if any burying place and en- 
dowment obliged them to the Wefi-end. Near the 
Cathedral there is a huge Chapel of great Antiqui- 
ty, and on the North Door there are two great 
Brafs Gates with a long Infcription, which I had 
not time to write out, but I found it was in the 
Emperor Lotbariw's time. There are a vaft num- 
j Ml ph'^,^9hes in this Town , but it is poor 
and ill inhabited. The Rhine here is almoft half 
an Engli/h mile broad , and there is a Bridge of 
^oa« laid over it. From Mm^ all along to Bac- 
Qhmch C which feems to carry its name ( EaM 

Ccc 3 ArA) 



(JO). 

'Jh-a^ from fome famous Altar that the Romans 
probably ereded by reafon of the good Wine that 
grows ia the "neighbourhood.) There is a, great 
Dumber of .very coniiderable Villages on both fidcs 
of the River : Here the Rats Tower is ihewed, 
and the Peoprle of the Country do all firmly be- 
lieve the llory of the Rats eating up an Elector, 
and that though he Fled to this Ifland where he 
built a fmall high Tower, they puri"ued him Ihll, 
and fwiiTimed after him , and eat him up: And 
they told us tlut there were fome of his Bones 
to be feen IHll in the Tower. This extraordinary 
Death make^ nie call to mind a peculiar and un- 
locked for fort of Death, that carried off a poor 
Labourer of}-" the ground a few days before 1 left 
Geneva. The foot of one of his Cattel, as he was 
ploughing , went into a nell of Wafps , "upon 
which the whole fwarm came out , and fet upon 
him that held the Plough, and killed him in a ve- 
ry little time; and his body was prodigioufly fwel- 
led with the poyfon of fo many Stings. 

But to return to the Rhine, all the way from 
Bdccbaracb down to Coblems, there is on both fides 
€fthe PJver hanging grounds, or little Hills, fo laid 
as if many of them had been laid by Art, which 
produce the rich Rbemff} Wine : They are indeed 
as well expofed to the Sun , and covered from 
Storms, as can be imagined ; and the ground on 
thole Hilk,, which are in fome places of a connder- 
able heighth, is fo cultivated that there is not an- 
inch loirthat is capable of improvement, and this 
bringeth fo much wealth into the Country, that all 
along there is a great number of con fider able Villa- 
ges. Ccbkmi is'^the flrongefl place that I faw of all 
that belong to the Empire ; the fcituation is Noble, 
the Rhhe running before it, ^d. the Mofelle palling 
alon^ the lide of the Town ; it is well fortified, the 

Ditch is 'arge, tl^e Couiiterfcarp is high, and the 

coveieo. 



covered way Is in a good condition ; both Walk 
and Counterfcarp are faced with Brick, and there 
are Ravehnes before the Cortines ; but on the fide 
of the Mefelle it is very llightly fortified, and there 
is no Fort at the end of the ft one Bridge that is laid 
over the Mofeile^ fo that it licth quire open on that 
fide, which feemeth a Grange defed in a place of that 
confequence : But thojgh the Fortifications of this 
place are very confiderable, yet its chief defence li- 
cth in the Fort of Mermanftany which is built on the 
top of a very high Hill, that liech on the oth.^r fide 
of the Rhine ; and which commandeth this place fo 
abfolutely, that he who is Mailer of Hemanftan, is 
alwavs Mailer of Cohlenti. This belongeth to the 
Ele^or of Triers, whofe Palace lieth on the Ei(i- 
fide of the Rhine, juft at the foot of the Hill of Her^ 
manjian, and over againli the point where the Mo- 
felle falleth into the Rhine, fo that nothing can be 
more p^eafantly fcituated ; only the ground begins 
to rife juft at the back of the Houfe with fo much 
lleepnefs that there is not Room for Gardens or 
Walks. The Houfe maketh a great fnew upon the 
River, but we were told that the Apai tmentswith- 
ifi were not^ anfwerable to the outfide. I lav we 
were told for the German Princes keep fuch forms, 
that, without a srcat deal of ado, one cannot come 
within their Courts, unlefs it be when .they are a- 
b'-o?.d themfelvesj fothat'v/e neither got within the 
Pahce at Mt:;:^, nor this of '//im^?7/i^w. It is but 
a f^w Hou;s from this to Bonne, where the Elecftor 
of Col/cn keepeth his Court ; the place hath a regu- 
i lar Forth^cation, the Walls are faced with Brick 5 
bur though the Ditch, which is dry, is pretty broad, 
the Counterfcarp is in fo ill a condition, that it is 
not able to make a great defence. This Eleftor is 
the ISToblell born, and the beft provided of all the 
I German Clergy, for he is Brother to the great Maxi- 
^ milian D'dkt 6i B-ivma }, and belldes Cc/^cn, he hath 

Lirie, 



( 32 ) 

Liege^ Munfler, and Hidelfl)eim, which are all great 
Bifliopricks : He hath been alfo Six and Thirty years 
in the EleBorate : His Palace is very mean, conliil- 
ing but of one Court, the half of which is call into 
a little Garden, and the Wood-yard is in the very 
Courts the lower part of the Court was a ftablej 
but he hath made an apartment here that is all fur- 
nifhed with Pidures : where, as there are fome of 
the hands of the greateft Mailers, fo there are a great 
many foils to fet thefe off, that are fcarcc good e- 
nough for Signpolls. , 

The Eledor has a great many gold mcddals, which 
will give me occafion to tell you one of the Extrava-. 
ganteft pieces of forgery that perhaps ever was ; which .' 
happened to be found out at the lall fiege of Bonne : 
for while they were clearing the ground for planting 
a battery, they difcovered a Vault in which there : 
was an Iron Cheft that was full of meddals of gold - 
to the value of looooo Crowns , and oi which I 
was told the Eie^or bought to the value of 30000 • 
Crowns. They are huge big , one weighed 800. 
Ducats, and the gold was ofthe finenefs of Ducat 
goldj but though th^ bore the ImpreffioQS o£ Ro- 
man Meddals , or rather M,?daillons they were all 
Counterfeit 5 and the imitation was fo courfely done 
that one mull be extream Ignorant in Meddals to be 
deceived by them. Some few that feemed true were 
of the late Greek Emperours. Now it is very unac- 
countable what could induce a Man to make a forge-. 
ry upon fuch mettle, and in fo vail a quantity, and 
then to bury all this under ground, efpecially in an | 
Aee in which fo much gold was ten times the value Pi 
ot what is at prefent for it is judged to have been done 
about Four or Five Hundred Years ago. 

The Prince went out a hunting while we were 
there, with* very handfome Guard of aboutTour- 
fcore Horfe, well mounted i fo we faw the Palace , 
but where not fuffcrcd ta fee the Apartment wh^re 

he 



I 



he lodged : There is a great Silver Cafolette gilt, all 
fet with Emeralds and Rubies, that though they made 
a fine appearance, yet were a Compofition of the 
Princes own making : His Officers alio (hewed us a 
Bafon and Ewer, which they faid were of Mercury 
fixed by the Prince himfelf 5 but they added that now 
for many Years he wrought no more in his Laboura- 
tory. I did not eafily believe this, and as the weight 
of the Plate did not approach to that of Quick- Sil- 
ver, fo the Medicinal Virtues of fixed Mercury, if 
there is any fuch thing, are fo extraordinary, that' it 
feemed very llrange to fee -Twentv or Thirty Pound 
of it made up in two pieces of Plfte. A quarter of 
a mile without the Town, the bell Garden of thofe 
parts of Germany is to be feen, in which there is a 
great variety of Water-works, and very many Noble 
Allies in the French manner, and the whole is of a 
very confiderable extent ; but as it hath no Statues of 
any value to adorn it, fo the Houfe about which it 
lieth in,is in ruines : and it is ftrange to fee that fo rich 
and fo great a Prince, during fo lon^ a Regence, 
hath done fo little to Enlarge or beautifie his Buil- 
dings. Bonne '^nd Cx^hlent^ are both poor and fmall 
Towns. CoUen is three Hours diftant from Bonne^ 
it is of a prodigious extent, but ill built and worfe 
Peopled in the remote parts of it; and as the Walls 
are all in an ill cafe, fo it is not poflible to fortifie fo 
vaft a compafs as this Town maketh, as it ought to 
be, without a charge that would eat out the whole 
Wealth of this little State. The Jevps live in a little 
Suburb on the other fide of the River, and may not 
come over without leave obtained, for which they 
pay confiderably. There is no exercife of the Pro- 
teftmt Religion fuffered within the Town, but thofe 
of the Religion are fuffered to live there, and they 
have a Church at two miles diihnce. The Arfenal 
here, is fuitable to the Fortifications, very mean, and 
ill furniflied. The Quire of the great Church is as 

high 



(54) 

high in the r6of, as any Church! ever faw j but it b 
feemeth the Wealth of this place could not finifh the i & 
whole Fabrick, fo as to anfwer the heighth of the h; 
Quire , for the Body of the Church is very low : ; tt 
thofe that are difpofed to believe Legends , have [ cl 
enough here to overfet even a good degree of credu- i ^ 
lity, both in the ftory of the three Kings, whofe Chap- jj tl 
pel is vifitedwith great devotion, and ftandeth at the | \i 
Eaft end of-the great Quire ; and in that more copious | r 
Fable of the Eleven Thoufand'L'r/M//«x,whofe Church i o 
is all over full of rough Tombs, and of a vafl number i| ti 
of Bones that are pil^ up in rows about the Walls of j c 
the Church: Thefe Fables are fo firmly believed bv |( 
the PaHfls there, that the leafl fign which one ^iveth 
of doubting of their truth, pafTeth for an infallible 
mark of an Heretick. The Jefuites have a great and 1 1 
noble Colledge and Church here. Aad for ThauUr's 
fake I went to the Dominicans Houfe and Church j 
which is alfo very great. One grows extreamly 
weary of walking over this great Town, and doth 
not find enough of entertainment in it : The prefoit 
fubjed of their difcourfe is alfo very melancholy : 
The late Rebellion that was there, is fo generally 
known, that I need not (ay much concerning it. A 
report was fet about the Town, by fome Incendia- 
ries, that the Magiftrates did eat up the publick Re- j 
venue, and were hke to mine the City j I could not 
learn what ground there was for thefe reports, for 
it is not ordmary to fee reports of that kind fly, 
through a body of Men, without fome foundation : 
It is certain this came to be fo generally believed, 
that there was a horrible diforder occafioned by it ; 
The Magiflrates were glad to fave themfelves from 
the florm, and abandoned the Town to the popular 
fury, fome of them having been made facrifices to 
it 5 and this rage held long : But within this M 
year, after near two years diforder, thofe that were 
feiit by the Emperor and Diet to Judge the matter, 
-w ' having 



( ^s ) 

havin^'thrcatned to put the Town under the Impertal 
Bann°if it had Hood longer out, \vere received 5 and 
have put theMagitetes again in the poMon ot 
their Authority, and aU the chief Incendiaries were 
claptin Piifon: many have already; luftered, and a 
great many more are Hill in Prifon j they told us 
that feme executions were to be made within a week 
when we were there. Ditffeldorp is the firft confide- 
rable Town below Collen, it is the Seat of the Duke 
of fuliers, who is Duke of Nevoburgh, eldpll Son to 
the prefent Elefhr Pdmne. The Palace is old and 
Gothkk enough j but the Jeluhs have their a fine 
Colledee , and a noble Chanpel, though there are 
manifeft faults in the Architeaure j the Pmejtm Re- 
ligicn is tolerated and they have a Church lately 
built here within thefe few years, that was procu- 
led by the intorccfTion of the Eleaor ot Branden- 
fc«rW;.who obfaving exadtly the liberty of Religion 
that was agreed to in Clev:, had reafon to fee the 
fame as duly oblerved in his Neighborhood, m fa- 
vour ot his own Rel gion. The Fortification here is 
very ordinary, the Ramparts being faced but a tew 
foot high with Brick. But Keiferjtv.trt, forae hours 
lower o>i the fame fide, which belongeth to the Ele- 
^aoro(ColIcn, though it is a much worfe Town then 
Dutjeldorp, vet is much better fortified , it hath a ve- 
ry broad Ditch, and a very regular Fortification j 
the Walls are confiderably high, faced with Brick, 
and fo is the Countei fcarp, which is aifo in a very 
good condition. The fortification o^ Orfoy is now 
quit'- dernoiitlied. FJxneberg continueth as it was, 
buttherorcificatioii is very mean, only of Earth, fo 
chat it is not capable of making a great refiftance. 
And m[ely though it is a very fine Town, yet is a 
very poor Fortification, nor can it ever be made good, 
except at a vaft expence j for the ground all about it 
being fandy, nothing can be made there that will be 
durable, unlefsthe foundation go very deep, or that 

It 



It be laid upon Piloty.* Inallthefe Towns one fees 
another air of Wealth and Abundance than in much 
richer Countries that are exhaufled with taxes. Rees 
and Emmmcli are good Towns, but the Fortifications 
are quite ruined. So that here is a rich and populous 
Country, that hath at prefent very little defence, ex- 
cept what it hath from its fcituation. Cleve is a de- 
licious place, the fcituation and profpC(5l are charm- 
ing, and the Air is very pure, and from thence we 
came hither in three hours. 

I will not fay one word of the Country intQ which 
I am now come, for as I know that is needlefs to you 
on many accounts, fo a Pidbui e that I fee here in the 
Stadthoufe, i uts me in mind of the perfedeft Book 
of its kind that is perhips in being, For Sir WiUUm 
Temple^ whofe Picflure hangeth liere at the upper end 
of the Plenipotentiaries that negotiated the Famous 
Treaty of Nimmegcn^ hath indeed fet a pattern to 
the World, which is done with fuch life, that it may 
julHy make others b'li'li to copy after it, fiice it mull 
be acknowledged, that if we had as perfect an ac- 
count of the other places, as he hath given us of one 
of the leall, but yet one of the Nobieil parcels of the 
Univerfe, Travelling would become a needlefs thing, 
unlefsitwere for diverfion ; fince one findeth no fur- 
ther occaiion for his curiofity in this Country, then 
what is fully fatisii^d by his rai^- performance. Yet I 
cannot give overwriting, without refle(5l:ing on the 
refinance tkat this place made, when fo many other 
places were fo bafelyd-^liverej up, though one doth 
not fee in the ruines of the Fortification here, how 
it could make fo lon^ a refinance : yet it was that 
that ftem'd the tide of a progrefs that made all the 
World ftand amazed ; and.it gave a little time to the 
Dutch to recover themfelves out of the confterna- 
tion, into which fo many blows, that came fo thick 
one after another, had flruck them. 

But then the World faw a change, that though it 

hath 



hath not had fo muchlnccnfe p'wpn *■« ,v l i 

rity oneof the moil tpr Jng Sc«esTH;ft° "°'**: 
that which may be we\\mTA,A I f^''^°''5'' ^"^ 
of the A«„.„ sfate afo 'hT^a' , '/^t' "^X^'^' 

State and Army, that wa5 funV wlh r , ST * 

and thatfaw the hMonTstiL^'?^^^^' 

thebeftGrnfaT:rtrASrS»^^^^^ 
WKhm fight, and fettle his Q,urt .n'one nf/h.Tl 

together for its dSat''' mS t'-e7n"'.K ""^^ 
were forced, that thev miol-^r.,,/^k t'-e Inhabitants 
formidabJe an Enemy Zw [f r ''l'"'^'^" ^""^ '"o 
other occafions is^he mnft J^ !,?'','' '^^"^'^ °" ^II 
to drown fo great a LrrlfJ^'i^" '.° '''™ J ^"d 
vation of thf reft '^rd Lf'' ^-'^ ^°^ ^''^ P'"*''^^- 
the miferies that a Nation .?n7'T 'l^''^" ^'i 

ge-jeral confternatL w ih "hich'fo ^•r'^f '° ^''^ 
Fofle/Ted them, a diftaftL^ ,h;„ ^ ''"'"'"'i =■ S«"« 
threaten them wit^e kit Vofc^l ''°T ^f-?"^ '" 
Army was fo ill difcin\ uIa lu ', ""^ "''^''^ 'heir 

promifethe,rfelvesanvtMnlv^"r''if^ ^"'"'^ force 
after a PeaceaLand^/^lfc'?^^'^^'*!^ Troops, 

ance; and while thicheTAli?',h^^''"~«™- 
edto.pport/;t..-«/|^^o.t.^^^^^^ 



^'^d- any 



■ ( 3S ) 

any confiderable amilance : When! fay a youn;^ Ponce 
came at the head of all this, the very prolpea or 
which would have quite dampt an ordinary couiage, 
he very quickly changed the Scene, he animated the 
Publick Councils with a generous vigour 5 he found 
them finking into a feeblenefs of hearkning to Propo- • 
fitionsforapeace, thatwere as little fafe as they were 
honorable, but he difpofed them to refolve on ha- 
zarding all, rather than to fubmit to fuch Infamous 
. terms. His credit alfo among the populace feemed to 
Infpire them with a new life ; they eafily perfim^^^^^^ 
themfelves that as one WILLI AM Prince of OKANOE 
had formed their State, fo here another of the fame 
name feemed marked out to recover and preferve it. It 
was this Spirit of Courage which he derived from his 
ownbreaif, and infufed into the whole People, as 
well as into rfic Magiftracy that preferved this Com. 
tiy. Some thing there was m all this that was Divine. 
The Publick Councils were again fetled, ^"^^he Peo- 
ple were at cuiet when they faw him veiled with a 
Full authority for that time with Relation to peace 
and war, and concluded they were fafe becaufe 
they were in his hands. It foon appeared how faitl> 
fully he purfued the Intereil of his Country, and how 
littfehe V^ed his own. He rejefted all Pro^^^^^^^ 
tions of Peace that were hurtfuU to his Count^^^^ 
without fo much as confidenng the advantages that 
Tre offered to himfelf, ( in which 70U knowthar 
I write upon fare grounds. ) He refufed the offer of 
the Soveraien^y of its ChiefCity, that was made to 
ht by a fS Deputation, being fatisfied with that 
Zhority which had been fo long maintained t^ h.s 
Anceftors with fo much glory, and being ju^^^^^^^^ 
ble how much the breaking in upon eftabliihed laws 
and liberties, is fatal even to thofe that feem to get-, 
by it He hus began his publick appearance on the 
Sge ^^l all the difad'vanrages that a Spmt afpu^^^^ 
tatiue Glory could wiihfor3 finceitwasVifibleth^.. 



•>• 



(39) 

he had nothing to truft to, but a good caufe, a favo- 
rable Providence, and his ov^'n Integrity and Courage > 
nor was fuccefs wanting to fuch Noble beginnings ; 
for he in a fhort time, with a Condud and Spirit be- 
yond any thing that the World hath )^et feen, reco- 
vered this State, out of fo defperate a dilkmper, took 
feme places by main force, and obliged thp Enemy to 
abandon all that they had acquired in Co feeble a man- 
ner. ■ And if a raw Army had not always fuccefs a- 
gainft more numerous and better trained Troops, and 
if the want of Magazins and Stores in their Allies 
Country, which was the chief Scene of the War, 
made that he could notPoflhis Army, and wait for 
favourable circumftances, fo that he was fcmetimes 
forced to run to a(5lion, with a haft that his necefllties 
impofed upon him 5 yet the forcing of the beginnings 
ofa Vidlory out of the hands of the greateft General 
of the Age, the facing a great Monarch with an Army 
much inferior to his, when the other was too cautious 
to hazard an ingagement, and in fhort the forming the 
Dutch Army to fuch a pitch that it became vifibly Su- 
perior to the French, that feemed to have been fed 
with Coriquefts 3 and the continuing the War, till 
the Prince tha^t had facrificed the quiet of Europe to his 
GLORY, was glad to come and treat for a Peace in 
the Enemies Country, and in this very place, and to 
fct all Engines on work to obtain that, by the media- 
tion of fome, and the jealoufies of other Princes j all 
thefeare fuch performances that pofterity will be dil^ 
pofed to rank them rather among the Ide:i's of what 
an imaginary Hero could do, then with what could be 
really tranfafted in fo fliort a time, and in fuch a 
manner. And in conclufion every place that belong- 
ed to thefe States, and to their Neighbours along the 
Rhiner, together with a great many in Flanders, being 
reftored 5 thefe Provinces do now fee themfelves under 
his happy Condud, re-eftabliflied in their former 
peace and fecurity. And though fome fears of fuch 

Dddl deep 



(4=) 

deep wounds do flill remain, yet they find themfelves 
confidered on all hands, as the Bulwark of Chriften- 
dom, againft the fears of a new Monarchy, and as the 
prefervers of the peace and liberty of Europe, 

Here is a Harveft, not for forced Rhetorick, or 
falfe Eloquence, but for a fevere and fincerc Hiftorian, 
capable of affording a work that will far exceed all 
thofe lufcious Panegyricks of mercenary pens, but a 
fmall or a Counterfeit Jewel muft be fet with all pof- 
fiblc advantages, when a true one of great value needs 
only to be (hewed. I cannot end with a greater fub- 
jedt, and I mull acknowledge my felf to be fo inflam- 
ed with this hint, that as I cannot after this bring my 
pen down to lower matters, fo I dare not truft my 
feif too long, to the heat that fo Noble aia Obje(ft 
iafpires, therefore I break off abruptly. 



YOURS. 



AD- 



I 



I 



(41; 



ADDENDA. 

Ad Page 110, L 12. 
The fame learned Perlbn has fince my firft convcr- 
fation with him upon this fubjeft, fuggcfted to me 
two palFages of Feftn^ PompetMy that ieem to deter- 
mine this whole matter j and that tell us by what 
names thofe Catacombs were known in the RomantimCy 
where abouts they were, and what fort of Perfons 
were laid in them, we have alfo the defignation by 
which the bearers were commonly known, and the 
time when they carried out the dead bodies i and it 
appears particularly by them that in the rcpofitories 
of which that author makes mention, there was no 
care taken to preferve the bodies that were laid in 
them from rotting. His words are. Puticulos anti- 
quiffimum genu^ fepulmx appellatos, quod ibi in puteU [e- 
pelirenier homines : qualU fuerit locm quo nunc cadavera 
projici jolent, extra pnam Efquilinam j quos quod ibi 
putejcerent, inde prim appellitos exijlimat pmiculos ^- 
Lim Callm, qui ait antiqui morU fuijfe, m patres f ami- 
lias in locum publicum extra oppidum mancipia vilia pro- 
jicerent^ atque ita proje^a, quod ibi ea putefcerent^ no- 
rnen ejje factum puticuli. The other paflage runs thus. 
Ve(p£ ^ Ve{pihnes dicuntur, qui funerandis corporibm 
officinm gerunty nois. a minutif illi^ volucribm, jed quia, 
vefpertino tempore eos efferunt^ qui funebri pompa duct 
prGpter inopiam nequeunt. All this agrees fo exactly to 
the thoughts that a general view of thofe repofitories 
give a Man, that ic will not be hard to periuade him 
that thofe burying pieces that are now gFaced with 
the pompous title of Catacom.bs, are no other then 
the Puticoli mentioned by fei\m Pompeim , where 
the "meanell fort of the Kman Slaves were laid, and 

fo 



(40 

fo without any further care about them were left to 
rot. 

Ad pige ttfi. /. I. 
I have fince my being in Ndples iaflruded one that 
was going thither in this particular, and have receiv- 
ed this account from him ; that he had taken care to 
plumm the water at the furthell pillar of Cdigulx'^ 
bridge on the Puwelo fide ; and found it was feven fa- 
thom and a half deep ; but he adds that the Water- 
men aiTured him, that that on the other fide before 
BaiA the water was i6. fathom deep ; but as he had 
not a plummet long enough to try that, fo he be- 
lieved a good deal ought to be abated ; for the Wa- 
termen had afllired him that the water was ten fathom 
deep on the Pu^^olo fiie, though upon tryal he found 
it was only feven and a half 3 and by this meafure one 
may fuppofe that the water is 20. fathom deep on 
the other fide 5 fo that it is one of the moft allonilliing 
things that one can think of that pillars of brick could 
have teen built in fuch a depth of water. 



FINIS. 



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