DRESSED FOR THE COUNTRY: 1860-1900 'Aft/ J' — DRESSED FOR THE COUNTRY: 1860-1900 Exhibition organized by Edward Maeder and coordinated by Dale Carolyn Gluckman Essay by Evelyn Ackerman LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART DRESSED FOR THE COUNTRY: 1860-1900 '•yii';, _ \ ,)'//' -K^ ,,^^/.C-^^-# ■'"', S^^v^.-^ /-/ '. [Cl h .^v.>t4 1/ ^1////// '^^^ A Los Angeles County Museum of Art Ahmanson Gallery, Fourth Level June 28-September 9, 1984 Edited by Andrea P. A. Belloli Editorial Consultant: Claire Polakoff Designed by Deenie Yudell Production Assistant: Robin Weiss Head Photographer: Lawrence Reynolds Photographers: Peter Brenner, Jack Ross, and Jeff Conley Typeset in Cheltenham faces by Continental Typographies Inc, Chatsworth, California Printed in an edition of 2,500 by Lithographix, Inc., Los Angeles, California Cover: She Goes into Colors from C. D. Gibson, A Widow and Her Friends (New York: R, H. Russell, 1901). Published by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art 5905 Wilshire Boulevard Los Angeles, California 90036 Copyright ©1984 Museum Associates Los Angeles County Museum of Art All rights reserved Printed in the U.S.A. This exhibition was made possible in part by a grant from Home Silk Shop, Inc. Publication of this catalogue was made possible in part by a grant from Home Silk Shop, Inc., and a grant from the Dover Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Dressed for the country, 1860-1900. Exhibition, Los Angeles County Museum of Art June28-Sept. 9, 1984. Bibliography: p. 1. Costume- United States -History- 19th century- Exhibitions. 2. Costume -Europe -History- 19th century- Exhibitions. 3. Sport clothes- United States- History- 19th century- Exhibitions. 4. Sport clothes -Europe -History- 19th century- Exhibitions. I. Maeder, Edward. 11. Ackerman, Evelyn. 111. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. GT610.D74 1984 391 84-9728 ISBN 0-87587-121-6 CONTENTS 7 • INTRODUCTION TO THE EXHIBITION Edward Maeder 10 • DRESSED FOR THE COUNTRY: 1860-1900 Evelyn Ackerman 11 -Men's Clothing: 1860-1900 12 • Women's Clothing: 1840-1870 14 • The Impact of the Sewing Machine 14 • Fashion Publications, Department Stores, and Mail Order Catalogues 17 • New Concepts in Health and Attire 19 • "Hygienic" Clothing and Changing Attitudes in Health Reform 21 • The Feminine Silhouette: 1880-1900 22 • Stepping Out into the Country 30 • SOURCES FOR LINE ILLUSTRATIONS 31 'COLOR PLATES 41 'CHECKLIST 46 • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 48 • TRUSTEES AND SUPERVISORS Figure 1 . Multicolored Printed Silk Girl's Dress; United States, c. 1860-65 (no. 26). INTRODUCTION TO THE EXHIBITION EDWARD MAEDER A hundred years ago, enjoyment of the outdoors as a desirable leisure-time activity was a fairly new phenomenon. Both large and small urban centers in America and Europe had grown to a great extent as a result of increased industrialization. Overpopulation and a lack of proper sanitation had turned many cities into unpleasant and dangerous places. In possession of an increasing amount of spare time, partially as a result of the recent invention of numerous labor-saving devices, city dwellers began to seek more congenial environments to which they might escape on weekends and for vacations. These forays into the countryside for sports and leisure activities were facilitated by the newly developed railroads and the improvement of living standards for the middle classes. The creation of specific types of clothing for particular sports and outdoor activities did not occur until nearly the last decade of the nine- teenth century. People at their leisure in the country were not really dressed comfortably for relaxed pastimes but were dressed, as in the city, to present themselves in a manner that would be acceptable to their peers, for one did not go to the country alone. Virtually every out- door activity was a social one, with the possible exception of fishing. Social activities involved family, both immediate and extended, as well as neighbors and friends. A picnic, for example, was one of the few acceptable situations in which eligible young men could see and be seen by marriageable young ladies (pi. 1). Even children at play wore clothes just a little less elaborate than those they would have worn to church (pi. 2; figs. 1-2). Children were required to maintain a certain decorum and order, and much of their training took place on family outings. Dressed for the Country: 1860-1900 was conceived during curatorial discussions of the museum's exhibition celebrating the 1984 Olympics, A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape. It was felt that a visual presentation of period clothing from America and Europe, shown in the context of photographic blowups of contem- porary pen and ink drawings by the American artist Charles Dana Gib- son, would shed some light on the diverse reasons why people of the late nineteenth century spent more time outdoors. Fashion became vir- tually universal with the simultaneous publication of Harper's Bazar on both sides of the Atlantic after 1868. Thus it is possible to paint a gen- eralized, but accurate picture of the end of the century based on Ameri- can and European (particularly English) costumes in the museum's collection, which includes a broad range of Victorian dress for men, women, and children. Since transformations in men's dress were mini- mal during this era, the focus of the exhibition, and of Evelyn Ackerman's fine essay in this catalogue, is women's clothing, which went through the most extreme changes between 1860 and 1900. These changes are a barometer reflecting trends in society's attitude toward women, toward personal hygiene, and toward sports and leisure them- selves, the subjects of Dressed for the Country: 1860-1900. Figure 2. Burgundy, White, and Gray Silk Taffeta Girl's Dress; United States, c. 1877-80 (no. 34). DRESSED FOR THE COUNTRY: 1860-1900 EVELYN ACKERMAN AS in all ages, clothing in nine- teenth-century America and Europe was a means of express- ing the underlying values of soci- ety and its aesthetic priorities. During the Victorian period both men's and wom- en's dress reflected a recently industri- alized society's preoccupation with material things. Throughout the 1800s the dominant forms in feminine fashions reflected women's dependence and helplessness by rendering them unable to move with ease or do anything stren- uous. This was accomplished by means of tightly laced corsets, heavy undergar- ments, very small armholes, and other means of bodily confinement through dress. Ostentatious women's costume provided a way for the newly rich man to advertise his ability to care for his wife and daughters; their clothing was the most obvious means to let the world know how successful he was. Men were in charge of the Victorian business world. The expanding economy over which they presided in the 1860s was mirrored by the expanded and exag- gerated silhouette of women's clothing. In the 1870s and '80s, when wide skirts disappeared, they were replaced by nar- rower ones that had complicated, over- ornamented surfaces reflecting the conspicuous consumption characteristic of the period. Women's place throughout the century was in the home, as wife, childbearer, and mother. Even middle- class houses were usually large and filled with children. Not only did the well- 10' to-do family man not want his wife to work, he wanted others to know that she did not have to leave the home. Servants were abundantly available from a large labor pool of the less fortunate. As a result of the Industrial Revolution large segments of the rural population in both Europe and America began moving to the urban centers where factories were located. In these new settings men continued to play their traditional village games, while many city dwellers who vis- ited the country or traveled, often by railroad, had contact with sports like hunting and fishing for the first time. The seaside, inland lakes, and rivers were now readily accessible, and increasing numbers of people participated in swim- ming, sailing, and rowing. Such excur- sions placed an emphasis on physical activity, and fashion slowly responded to the demands of more vigorous recreation. The ideal of sportsmanship was first developed in the nineteenth century from team games played in the English public schools. These games spread to univer- sities and specialized clubs in England and America. Besides team games, other athletic pursuits began to be included in the sports curriculum of these institu- tions and organizations. The competitive nature of organized sports led to the need for universal rules. With their adop- tion, teams from widespread localities could play against one another. The need to distinguish between teams led to the development of special sports uniforms. MEN'S CLOTHING: 1860-1900 As economic conditions and edu- cational opportunities improved in the second half of the nine- teenth century, and as leisure time increased, more and more men partici- pated in athletics of some kind. Thus the need arose for appropriate sports cloth- ing for men, who were unhampered by the same codes of modesty to which women were subjected. By the 1860s and 70s a steady stream of new inventions, the introduction of new textiles, and the growth of the ready-made clothing indus- try (trends that, as we shall see, affected women's dress as well) made it possible to begin fulfilling this function. Reflecting the Victorian male's need for conformity and respectability, mas- culine fashions between 1860 and 1900 showed much less variety and flamboy- ance than did feminine fashions of the same period. Throughout the nineteenth century a man's dress generally con- sisted of three basic elements: coat, waistcoat, and trousers. Within these confines more changes appeared in detailing than in cut and style. Fitted, knee-length breeches, the fa- vored form of pants for men during the eighteenth century, survived into the 1800s for horseback riding, especially when hunting. Long trousers were the mode for every day, though their cut var- ied somewhat during the Victorian era. Knickerbockers, a loose kind of breeches, made their appearance in the 1860s, being used for country and sports wear. Their popularity continued well into the twentieth century. During the 1800s the two main types of daytime coat worn by men were the frock coat and morning coat. The former evolved from a military coat worn during the last years of the eighteenth century. In either a single- or double-breasted form it had a long waist, which was seamed, and a short, full skirt. The frock coat was the favored style until the 1850s, when the morning coat, which had evolved from a curved, cutaway coat worn for horseback riding earlier in the century, became dominant. Each coat incor- porated the de rigeur standards of perfect cut and fit set by Beau Brummell, the most influential arbiter of men's fashion during the early part of the century. 11< Brummell insisted that the perfect male image be an uncluttered one that could only be achieved through a perfectly tai- lored coat. As symbols of Victorian re- spectability and products of the English tailor's art, both the frock and morning coats were staples of the masculine wardrobe from the middle to the end of the 1800s. Besides the morning coat and frock coat, by the 1860s a shorter jacket, the lounge jacket, had become a popular form of apparel for informal country and seaside wear. It had a looser cut for greater comfort, resulting in part from the elimination of the waist seam. One of its distinctive features was its visible pockets. Its form survived basically un- changed from 1870 until the end of the century and formed the basis for the man's jacket we know today. At the end of the 1860s an important variation of this style, known as the Norfolk jacket, devel- oped. It was cut full, belted, and pleated front and back. Unlike the lounge jacket, however, it was only worn in the country. Another variation of the short jacket, one with patch pockets, which had been worn somewhat earlier for cricket and tennis, became the forerunner of the popular blazer of the 1880s and '90s, when it was used only for sports wear. WOMEN'S CLOTHING: 1840-1870 Throughout the Victorian age the focal point of the fashionable woman's silhouette was a slender waist. By its exaggerated small- ness, such a waist emphasized the phys- ical and symbolic sites of her woman- hood, her larger breasts and hips, thus imparting the information that her role centered on childbearing in what was basically a family-oriented society. The garment that permitted a woman to achieve the illusion of an extremely slender waist was the corset. Even young girls wore them, compressing their waists to unnaturally narrow dimen- sions. Corsets were often directly respon- sible for women's fainting spells and sometimes caused permanent damage to their health. As early as 1829, a Scot- tish doctor and health reformer, Andrew Combe, had written an article about the ill effects on a woman's physical well- being that might result from a lifelong use of tightly laced corsets.' By mid-cen- tury he had been joined by others as vo- cal as himself, such as the American Amelia Bloomer, after whom bloomers were named.- Although separated by an ocean. Combe and Bloomer shared the belief that women's dress could be healthy, beautiful, utilitarian, and sen- sual. Their ideas, however, were ac- cepted only by a very few.^ Although the most direct method of securing the desired effect of a dimin- ished waist was through the use of a tightly laced corset, other design elements were employed at various times to emphasize and enhance this part of the female anatomy. In the 1840s the popular bell-shaped skirt carried the observer's eye upward in a gentle, but continuous movement from ground to waist. Yet its necessary foundation of numerous layers of petticoats added an even greater restriction to the already tight lacing at the waist. This exaggerated confinement of a woman's body was car- ried yet further by the encasement of her arms in sleeves with armholes posi- tioned two or more inches below the tops of her shoulders. This allowed only very limited movement. The basic symmetry created by the bell-shaped skirt of the 1840s did not change in the '50s, although, like the Vic- torian economy, the skirt's silhouette continued to expand. Replacing the lay- ers of petticoats, which could no longer support the wider skirts, the crinoline became popular. Developed from a horsehair petticoat during the late 1830s, 12' 'Has it occurred to you that there is one article of woman's dress so constructed that, when clasped around the waist, it applies this pressure-not to the extent of in- stant death indeed, but yet to such an extent that those who wear it live at a dying rate? The corset is the name of this instrument of human torture." Caroline E. Hastings, M. D. (quoted in Woolson, ed., 1974, p. 54). and with insertions of steel, whalebone, or cane in its base, the crinoline per- formed its function as an undergarment that supported the skirt with great effi- ciency. Its use continued into the 1860s, although the symmetry of the bell-shaped skirt was modified: its front was flattened and its back was slightly extended (pi. 3). The crinoline was synonymous with the fashion of the 1850s and '60s. An engaging weapon of flirtation, it caused the skirt it supported to sway in sensuous movements. It also may be said to have been an appropriate symbol of the Vic- torian bourgeois world, as the bold expansiveness of the skirt over the crino- line proclaimed the ostentation of the woman who wore it and the economic security of the world she inhabited. THE IMPACT OF THE SEWING MACHINE The sewing machine, although in- vented in the 1840s and improved throughout the following decade, was not mass produced — and was therefore not available to most mid- dle-class consumers — until the 1860s. When it became affordable it revolution- ized the field of fashion for the house- wife, as it already had begun to transform the commercial, ready-made clothing in- dustry.'' It also inspired the creation of new businesses, among which were fam- ily sewing machine and pattern-making companies.'' The need to create strong, durable threads compatible with sewing machine use also spawned a new indus- try. In fact the sewing machine had a significant effect on every aspect of clothing production. Although early sewing machines were expensive, their cost could be justified because of what they could do and the time they could save by comparison with handwork. Sewing machines were one of the first widely advertised consumer products. Perhaps the one maker most instrumental in reaching the retail con- sumer was the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Its owner, Isaac Singer, applied his enormous energies to an aggressive selling campaign directed toward the housewife. He glamorized selling, acquired patents to improve his machines' functions, and eventually brought their price down, making the home sewing machine a practical and affordable consumer appliance. The invention of the sewing machine and the thousands of patents that made it practical contributed to the rapid growth of the mass-produced clothing industry in the nineteenth century, especially in America.*^ New machines for cutting and pressing clothes made their manufacture faster and cheaper. In order to keep this burgeoning industry functioning and growing, it was necessary to have a large labor force, which, in the United States, took the form of immigrants, both skilled and unskilled. Improvements in distribu- tion, retailing, advertising, and sales- manship influenced the spread and ac- ceptance of ready-made clothing. Its mass production was an important aspect of the breakdown of class distinc- tions in America during the late nine- teenth century, for the sameness of the clothing produced by these means tended to blur whatever visible social dif- ferences remained. By the end of the century it was not always possible to tell city dwellers from country folk or rich men from poor ones. FASHION PUBLICATIONS, DEPARTMENT STORES, AND MAIL ORDER CATALOGUES Fashion magazines and news- papers, which had gained a re- spectable group of readers since the eighteenth century, underwent significant changes during the 1860s. Prior to that time most fashion publica- tions were small in size and illustrated with charming, but expensive hand-col- 14' The Singer Manufacturing Co. Sewing Machine Makers for the World. EVERY Singer Sewing Machine IS FORTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE IN SEWING MACHINE MAKING. Light-Running, Noiseless and Durable. Every Conceivable Labor-Saving Device AJSTD IS Sold Direct to the Consumer. THE SIN&ER lANTJrACTlJRIN& CO. COTTi x>a'^P-y Offices iix E-cr-ex'37- Cit^r T-r-i -t]=Le C±A7-±l±25eci "^;^7■o3?lc3-. ored engravings. Their largest audience was the upper middle class. By the 1860s, however, the restructuring of for- mat to include an increased page size, cheaper papers, and less sophisticated illustrations reflected the "invasion of the fashionable world by people of the mid- dle class who depended less on birth and wealth than on ability...."'' The so- ciological signihcance of this further democratization of fashion was far- reaching and lasting. Slightly earlier a new pastime had been added to the daily life of even the most suppressed Victorian housewife: shopping in department stores. This allowed women the freedom to venture into a new sphere of activity, relieved them of the tedium of caring for home and family, and introduced an unprec- edented degree of choice into their lives. The establishment of these emporiums of mass merchandising began as early as 1852 in the United States.*^ Their impor- tance and growth were a result of the variety of services they offered under one 16' roof, available for the first time to all seg- ments of society. These included a one- price policy for everyone, ready-made clothing for the entire family, equal treat- ment regardless of wealth, and the avail- ability of a large range of choices. For those who lacked transportation from their homes to the department stores, newly formed mail order busi- nesses provided a viable solution. One of the first companies to begin selling by mail was Montgomery Ward. Only three years after it opened for business in 1872, its one-page catalogue had grown to sev- enty-two pages. This catalogue finally evolved into a fully illustrated offering of a diversified selection of goods from apparel to home furnishings. Rural resi- dents, who formed a large percentage of the American population during the nineteenth century, were quick to take advantage of the new way to purchase needed commodities. While clothing for all members of the family comprised one of the major cate- gories of merchandise available through mail order catalogues, a profitable ad- junct was the offering of patterns for the housewife to use when sewing her own garments. This not only permitted her to save money but also gave her the oppor- tunity to recreate the fashionable styles disseminated in fashion magazines such as Harper's Bazar Even the fashions of Charles Worth, ^ the premier designer of this period, were widely imitated. Novel mass-produced textiles of great richness and variety were available to help accom- plish this task. NEW CONCEPTS IN HEALTH AND ATTIRE The radical changes in the clothing industry by 1868 were partially responsible for the discontinued use of the crinoline and similar supports. Many factors contributed to a change in the aesthetic of female beauty from idealized frailty to a more full-bod- ied, lush type of female. In women's clothing of this period emphasis was as- signed to the profile. From below the waist — still encased in tight laces to diminish its size — bunched, poufed, and embellished mounds of fabric extended at the back, supported by a bustle, thus pressing the wearer forward into a stance known as the "Grecian bend." By the 1870s serious attention began to be given to the creation of women's clothing that combined considerations of health and exercise with those of contemporary ideals of beauty. A public outpouring of criticism against the evils of crowded cities, the destructiveness of 17' commercial greed, and the disadvan- tages and excesses of ever-changing fashion that occurred around the same time was one of the precursors of a new concept of women and their role in soci- ety — indeed, a new concept of their very essence. Some "strong-minded" women who behaved and dressed daringly were slowly making their presence known both in the public arena and on the printed page. Nevertheless, in a society dominated by men, assailing the male fantasy of the gentle female whose tender ministrations could instantly overcome the daily irritations experienced by the family breadwinner was a monumental endeavor. The struggle for women's rights en- gaged the attention of many reformers, both male and female, during the last forty years of the nineteenth century. There was much powerful opposition to the women's rights movement. In the press and elsewhere, women's rights ad- vocates were constantly accused of being unfeminine; in newspaper descriptions and cartoons the aspects of women re- formers' behavior and dress considered to be masculine were emphasized and distorted. These distortions totally disregarded the fact that elements of male attire occasionally were used in female fashions. Toward the end of the century neckties, boaters, long lapels, and "mannish" shirts had become a part of many feminine wardrobes, such as those depicted in the popular illustra- tions of Charles Dana Gibson's much- admired American beauties. The numerous historical revivals char- acteristic of the Victorian period were, in fact, also protests in favor of certain types of social reform. The Pre-Raphaelites, for example, retreated from the crassly com- mercial world in which they lived to the unreality of medievalism. Although they attempted to recreate the clothing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, they were unsuccessful as fashion innovators. However, they did influence a change in contemporary notions of ideal feminine beauty to a type that echoed the appear- ance of women painted by the Italian Re- naissance artist Sandro Botticelli: long- limbed females with sinuously curving bodies. The dress style most suited to this type of figure was the "princess" gown, which first became popular in the mid-1870s. Cut in one piece with the bodice, it was designed to be close-fit- ting and to flow in a continuous line from shoulder to foot. A gentle curve was the result, but only when the wearer stood upright. One of the major drawbacks of the princess style was that it was uncom- fortable to wear, and it was soon superseded. 18' "HYGIENIC" CLOTHING AND CHANGING ATTITUDES IN HEALTH REFORM In 1873 a noted lecturer and literary essayist, Abba Louisa Goold Woolson, arranged a series of lec- tures that she and four women physi- cians would give in Boston. These lec- tures, published at a later date, were ail on the subject of health reform in dress. Their principal concerns were the unhealthy, even crippling aspects of contemporary dress. Mrs. Woolson summed up her own position in a brief statement: "[Contemporary] dress vio- lates health in three important ways: first, by its compression of vital parts of the body; second, by its great weight; and, third, by the unequal temperature which it induces.""^ Although none of the lec- turers directly confronted the problem of dress as a symbolic affirmation of wom- en's subjugation, Mrs. Woolson — who could as well have been speaking in 1984 — did assert: "With proper clothing and proper training, [girls] will be en- abled to grow up into strong-bodied, strong-limbed, clear-headed, warm- hearted, rosy, happy women, proud of their womanhood, surrounded by hus- band and children, if they prefer domes- tic life, but held in equal honor and es- teem, if, for any reasons which may seem to them good, they choose to devote themselves, with self-reliant energies, to other labors...."" The effect on fashion of people like Mrs. Woolson was minimal. The first se- rious attempt to reach large and diverse segments of the population in order to improve the hygienic aspects of dress occurred in 1884, the year of the Interna- tional Health Exhibition in London. As the most comprehensive exhibition on the subject to take place in the nine- teenth century, it included among the displays clothing specifically designed to be "sanitary." Nonetheless, the feminine fashions shown were meant to enhance the women wearing them. This exhibi- tion had an entire section devoted to dress for sport. One garment, the divided skirt, made its appearance for the first time in one of the displays, consistently arousing spectator curiosity and attract- ing large crowds. For the remainder of the decade, this bifurcated garment was the subject of impassioned controversy. It was only in the 1890s that it gained public acceptance. One influential person involved with the International Health Exhibition was the English architect E. W. Godwin. He agreed with many nineteenth-century physicians that for dress to be hygienic, it was necessary to wear wool next to the skin to purge the body of impurities through perspiration. Also active in the cause of hygienic clothing was a German physician. Dr. Gustav Jaeger, '^ who in- sisted that the wool must be knitted and that it should not be bleached or dyed. His views were already known in Eng- land, and a garment of the type he fa- vored was shown in the International Health Exhibition. Dr. Jaeger's knitted underwear was a boon for the active person, providing two important features: flexibility and warmth. His knitted garment provided the basis for many twentieth-century in- novations. Most clothing reformers in England in the 1890s, however, did not find the sanitary aspects of the garments advocated by Dr. Jaeger to be particularly suitable to their cause. Geared more to the principle of democracy than to hy- giene, they favored the wearing of Eng- lish tweeds, viewing them as appropriate dress because of the fabric's humble ori- gins. These endorsements for the use of tweeds eventually led to their status as high fashion for country wear. Dr. Jaeger's advice regarding the avoidance of dyes in textiles generally went unheeded by the public. Fashion ar- 19' biters, however, possibly under the influ- ence of noted artist James McNeill Whis- tler and of William Morris and his Arts and Crafts associates, did begin to favor more subdued colors. The bright, heavy, or oppressive color schemes (both in fashion and home furnishings) which had dominated Victorian taste for so long were replaced after 1890 by less harsh color combinations and an avoidance of startling contrasts.'-^ THE FEMININE SILHOUETTE: 1880-1900 In a seeming backlash against reform of any kind, by 1884 fashionable women had given up what was thought to be the "natural" appear- ance of the princess cut. It was replaced by a style that almost mimicked the one popular around 1870, whose profile pre- sented its best view. However, the stiff extension at the back just below the waist was now accompanied by a tight- fitting bodice and sleeves, dispensing with all frills, folds, and bows (pi. 4). By 1890 the fullness still evident at the cen- ter back of the straight skirt was the last vestige of the bustle. What had started in the first year of the decade as a small puffed sleeve was expanded to enor- mous widths by 1895.'^ To balance the unusual width of this vast sleeve, the bot- toms of skirts were widened, while their tops lay smoothly over the hips. A series of cleverly cut gores was the basis of this type of skirt construction. After 1895, when sleeve widths began to decrease again, a more sinuous line appeared, one that was greatly influ- enced by the fluid curves of Art Nouveau. The cut of the underlying support — a newly designed corset, flat in front and extended in the back — forced the pos- ture into an undulating configuration. Its ingenious construction not only threw the prominent bust forward but also forced the hips backward; thus did women achieve the desired silhouette and remain in bondage to fashion's dic- tates. The 1890s valued the mature, statu- esque woman. Having the adolescent fig- ure of a young girl was a disadvantage, for clothing was designed to reinforce the well-rounded shape of a robust female. The Victorian ideal of the nurtur- ing, fecund woman continued unaltered, though possibly bruised. As early as 1888 the Rational Dress Society of England had advocated the replacement of the corset with a chemise of strong, supportive fabric to which a divided skirt could be buttoned instead of the usual petticoat. The reformers in this organization were opposed to "any fashion in dress that either deforms the figure, impedes the movement of the body, or in any way tends to injure health"; they advocated "health, comfort. HealHi.Grace.andBeaiitj. 3 HOLHES PATENTS All Sl\k->. Any ladv wlio will p;i\e a little study will discover that what slie has cninplaiucd of in all other i;annents lias been obviated by our new jiatent. We send our iiroducts to every State and 'J'erritory in the I'nion. They are Faultless in Fit, Satisfactory in Results. F.very garment is marker! in- side of sateen lininf; (look for it), "THE HOLMES CO." I'lUy no others tnilil you see our iir-iv piiti-tits- ^\'hen ii(it foiuul with >onr best dealers, SKXn STAMP direct to us for catalogue and ]irice-list. and we will send rules f.ir selt-measurciuent and sam|iles of materials to any jiart of the country, and warrant sat- isfaction. THE HOLMES CO., 109 Kingston St., Boston, 3Iass. 21' and beauty"^5 as the bases for adopting any style of clothing. As late as 1897 the women in this movement were still trying to convince the members of their sex to wear garments that allowed for greater comfort and less fatigue, particularly so that exercise in the open air could be truly beneficial, as well as more enjoy- able. Nevertheless, most women in the 1890s were unwilling to implement the wisdom of this message. The important end-of-the-century innovation in wom- en's fashion, the practical three-piece suit with its plain skirt, tailored jacket, and loose blouse, could be adapted for dress or sports wear with great ease. However, it took two world events that occurred during the early years of the twentieth century — the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 and World War 1— to inspire truly radical changes in the way women perceived themselves and what they wore. STEPPING OUT INTO THE COUNTRY In the second half of the nineteenth century walking was an accepted form of exercise for both men and women. It required neither special clothing nor any equipment and was a necessary adjunct to many social func- tions (pi. 5). Like walking, fishing did not necessarily require special clothes or great strength, and it also was consid- ered a suitable activity for women. Fish- ing offered a socially acceptable oppor- tunity for men and women to be together; in fact it was an advantage for a man to accompany a woman because he could navigate the boat, bait the hook, and remove the fish if her delicate sensibili- ties prevented her from doing so herself. If a woman did not wish to fish but did enjoy the pleasures of boating, rowing and canoeing were athletic activities in which she could participate without incurring the censure of society. For these forms of limited open-air exercise. women did not require special clothing, although a relaxation of some of the more restrictive aspects of fashion was seen, such as the shortening of skirts to barely touch the ground. Horseback riding provided abundant exercise and was used to imply elevated social status. It was an expensive sport, requiring special, costly clothing for both sexes, as well as the ability to maintain or rent horses. Members of the middle class who aspired to a higher social position were free to adopt the accoutrements of horseback riding as an affirmation of their enhanced place in society. Aside from the pleasures derived from the sport, horseback riding was an integral part of the activity of hunting. The wide skirt popular from the 1840s to the '60s did not interfere with an Eng- lishwoman's ability to horseback ride, since she did so on a sidesaddle. In fact fashion's concessions to the needs of the female rider were minimal and did not alter the basic feminine silhouette of the time. Although women wore breeches beneath their riding skirts, these were not revealed until the 1920s, when 22' women, like men, began riding astride. The fine tailoring of English feminine rid- ing habits of the 1860s and 70s was the basis for the tailor-made wool dresses of later years. At about the same time that bustles found wide acceptance, the new sport of roller skating came into vogue. By the 1870s it had become so popular that buildings with beautifully crafted wood floors were constructed specifically for roller skaters in many American cities. Women, with the drapes of their back- ward-thrust skirts and the curls of their backward-poufed hair flying in seeming abandonment as they mastered the in- tricacies of the sport, conquered it with aplomb, creating a picture of supreme confidence that was matched by the aggressive forward-backward push of their fashionable silhouettes. The winter counterpart of roller skat- ing was, of course, ice skating, a sport ideally suited to Victorian culture. Although requiring skill, it could be learned by men and women alike. It was an excellent excuse for courting couples with leisure time to be together in close physical proximity. In most other social situations, touching or holding hands was not permitted. Ice skating did not require special clothing, except for slightly shorter skirts for women (pis. 6- 7). Moreover, the cost of a pair of ice skates was minimal, so that the sport was widely practiced by all classes. The explosion in reform activities dur- ing the Victorian era was paralleled by a similar one in sports activities. Ball games, which had been played mainly by children or country folk for most of the first half of the nineteenth century, had become socially acceptable and widely practiced by the 1860s. Two games that attracted popular attention on both sides of the Atlantic were lawn games: croquet and tennis. Croquet, the first to appear,'^ was enjoyed by both sexes during the 23' 1860s. It was an ideal sport for women of the time, as it required little strength and no special clothing. The wide crinolines worn during the '60s did not interfere with women's ability to participate in this game. Their skirts were altered only by the addition of a looping device with in- terior cords that permitted the skirt to be raised slightly. For formal games men, like women, wore fashionable attire: frock coats and top hats. For games where a casual appearance was accept- able, they wore lounge jackets, knicker- bockers, and hats. Croquet provided advantages beyond its obvious benefits as exercise. Since it could be played by both men and women, it possessed a desirable social attribute. It was not until the 1870s that tennis captured the interest of the English lei- sured classes. Its roots have been traced to a handball game played in ancient Greece, but its more modern form was introduced in England in 1873 by Major Walter C. Wingfield. By the following year it was being played in the United States. In 1877 tennis tournaments began their long history at Wimbledon. This was also the year during which a popular pastime for women was the embroidering of ten- nis aprons — practical clothing acces- sories with pockets in which to carry ten- nis balls — for their own use. At first the influence of tennis on fash- ion was slight. Some women dem- onstrated their need for practicality by wearing special shoes with India rubber soles. Also, jersey fabric for tennis dresses was introduced in 1879, although the dresses were made in the then-current mode. This fabric offered the advantage of ease of movement because of its elasticity. Not until the 1880s was the fitted bodice, then the fashionable style, replaced by a belted jacket with somewhat larger armholes, thus permitting a bit more freedom for the female player. In fact this jacket 24- became one of the forerunners of the 1890s blouse, in turn a component of the three-piece suit for women. By the 1880s the lounge jacket and knickerbockers, commonly worn by men on casual occasions, were also used as clothing for tennis. Trousers were often worn instead of knickerbockers. The double-breasted "reefer," a short, boxy jacket, was popular for tennis until the 1890s, when it was replaced by white or striped flannel blazers with patch pock- ets. Such blazers looked so smart with white flannel trousers that the ensemble made in their design and mechanical parts — wheels (now of the same size) with wire spokes, pneumatic tires, ball bearings, brakes, cushioned saddles, and accessible handlebars — which added to their comfort and safety. Because of the modest cost of cycling, its importance as transportation, and its felicitous effects as a form of exercise, women began cycling in earnest by the late 1880s (pi. 8). Although it gave them unprecedented mobility, the question of what was both proper and possible for women to wear when bicycling often became standard on the tennis court. For additional comfort men took to wearing rubber-soled, soft canvas shoes. The introduction of bicycles caused a great change in the urban scene. Although bicycles were already being produced commercially by 1870, their early forms, such as the "bone-shakers" in England, were not universally popular. Even the high-wheeler, introduced in 1873, was impractical, as it was difficult to balance. Convenient, safe bicycles were developed only in the 1880s. During that entire decade improvements were arose, especially because of the number of accidents caused by their long skirts. By the 1890s feminine cycling dress had been adapted to the new sport. Divided skirts, even knickerbockers, were used. When jackets were worn, they frequently were beautifully tailored, creating attrac- tive ensembles. Golf was another sport that made use of the new styles so appropriate for bi- cycling. Long the national sport of Scot- land, it was not until the 1890s that it gained its first acceptance in America, becoming popular only in the twentieth 25- century. Like riding, golf was a sport con- fined to the leisured upper classes. Usu- ally played at exclusive clubs, it became an affirmation of social status. Although golf appeared to involve a minimum of physical activity, it actually required physical coordination, skill, and stamina. While playing, men wore what by the 1890s had become well- established sports clothing: the Norfolk jacket with knickerbockers. To this they added one frivolous touch, patterned stockings, and one practical touch, a peaked cap made of tweed. Women's main concession to the needs of the sport was the hats they wore. Those bold enough to have begun playing the game in the 1880s might have worn a hat bor- rowed from male attire, the deer stalker, while in the '90s they would have worn a boater, also derived from a man's hat. Over a period of decades, changing social, economic, and artistic concepts influenced — even determined — transformations in Victorian dress. As in all ages fashion was a slowly evolving process, with past and future shapes visible in the clothing of any given moment. Transitions in style resulting from particular ways of propor- tioning and cutting garments bore a direct relationship to existing conditions and the spirit of the age. Nowhere, per- haps, was this more apparent than in the history of leisure and sports wear, whose origin was linked directly to profound changes in everyday life and which has become increasingly important in our own world. 27' NOTES 1. Dr. Combe also wrote a book, published in Edinburgh in 1834, with the ponderous title Princi- ples of Physiology applied to the preservation of Health and to the development of physical Education; see Newton, 1974, p. 20. Contrary to common belief, Amelia Bloomer did not invent bloomers, nor was she the first person to wear them or to sug- gest that others do so. Two American women, Mary Crayen and a Mrs. Noyes, were the first to appear in public (in 1848) wearing bifurcated garments. When Mrs. Bloomer saw them thus attired, she recognized the practical aspects of their unus- ual clothing and began wearing similar trousers herself. She also wrote about them, advocating their use in her journal, The Lily. It was not she, but the press, that first used the word "Bloomer- ism," and it was the public that erroneously attributed the inven- tion of bloomers to her. See Bradfield, 1972, p. 43. Charles Reade, a novelist who wrote in the 1850s, was — like Dr. Combe and Mrs. Bloomer — ahead of his time. He not only valued a woman for her wit and intelligence but also recognized the advantages of bloomers as a practical garment for women. In his short book The Course of True Love Never Did Run Smooth, the beautiful heroine of the second story in the series of three, "The Bloomer," is a woman embodying these quali- ties. Made timid by the realiza- tion that her endorsement of the bloomer's use could ostracize her from society, she was quickly won over to its cause when she comprehended the hypocrisy of its opponents: When the conversation began, Miss Courtenay looked down on the bare idea of the bloomer costume. But its vituperators shook her opinion by a very simple pro- cess, — they gave their reasons. "It is awkward and absurd," said one, as by way of contrast, she glided majestically to the piano to sing. As she spoke her foot went through her dress, to the surprise of — nobody. See Reade, n.d., p. 108. From the germ of an idea that originated in Europe, many men contributed to what came to be a totally American invention, the sewing machine. Overly gen- erous historians have credited Elias Howe, Jr., with having been its sole inventor. Although his first American patent, issued on September 10, 1846, was for his second machine, his contribu- tion was but a small part of a complex process that led to the eventual success and func- tionalism of this versatile appli- ance. Howe's ownership of important patents, however, did provide him with the basis for a successful suit against the Singer Company. Unfortunately it was also the basis for a landslide of similar legal actions within the infant sewing machine in- dustry that almost crippled it early in the 1850s. Orlando B. Potter, the president of one of the important companies of that time, Grover and Baker, solved the problem by convincing the other leading manufacturers in the industry — Howe, Wheeler and Wilson, and Singer — to pool their patent rights and form a combine. They agreed to this strategy, and the name they se- lected was the "Sewing-Machine Trust and/or the Sewing- Machine Combination." See Cooper, 1968, p. 41. Whereas fine tailoring and haute couture, both nineteenth-century phenomena, traditionally have been identified with England and France, respectively, the great paper pattern industry was first founded in the United States. See Arnold, 1966, p.4. 28< "From 1842 to 1895 the United States issued 7,339 patents on sewing machines and acces- sories" (Kidwell and Christman, 1974, p. 75). 7. Newton, 1974, p. 41. "Some firms were outgrowths of dry goods stores, and a few had started as specialty clothing houses. Marshall Field and Car- son Pirie Scott and Co. arrived on the Chicago scene in 1852 and 1854 respectively" (Kidwell and Christman, 1974, p. 157). 9. When the Englishman Charles Worth opened the first haute couture establishment in Paris in 1858, he changed the taste and buying habits of fashion-con- scious women of the upper classes on both sides of the Atlantic. 10. Like many other nineteenth-cen- tury physicians, these four doc- tors deplored the harmful effects of the encasing corsets all women had to wear in order to be fashionable. No one ex- pressed this more succinctly than Dr. Mary J. Safford-Blake when she stated, "The thumb- screws of the inquisition might have been more painful to bear, but they certainly produced less harm than do the unyielding steels of her corset " See Woolson, ed., 1974, pp. 23, 125. 11. Ibid., p. 178. 12. The famous London store that sells beautiful woolen clothing, Jaeger's, was established by Dr. Jaeger; see Newton, 1974, p. 103. 13. Women who followed the dic- tates of the Aesthetic Movement (with which both Whistler and Morris, as well as E. W Godwin, were identified) preferred "dull greens, peacock blue and dull, rich reds, or mellow amber- yellows." See Aslin, 1969, p. 157. Gilbert and Sullivan, in their comic opera Patience, satirized the taste of the proponents of this movement, especially Oscar Wilde and Algernon Swinburne, models for the leading char- acters, Bunthorne and Gros- venor: ...an ultra poetical super-aestfietical, out-of-the-way young man.' A pallid and thin young man, A haggard and lank young man, A greenery, yallery, Grosvenor Gallery, Footin-the grave young man! See Taylor, ed., 1941, pp. 167- 14. In the 1830s the expanded ver- sion of the puffed sleeve was called a gigot (from the French word for "leg of lamb"). In the 1890s, when the puff once again widened, it was known as the "leg-of-mutton" sleeve. The shoulder seam of the gigot sleeve was below the natural shoulder, constricting arm movement, whereas the seam was moved into its natural posi- tion just above the edge of the shoulder for the leg-of-mutton, permitting arm movement. 15. Newton, 1974, pp. 116-17. 16. "True croquet was brought from Ireland to England in the 1850s and Lord Lonsdale, the sporting peer, was one of the first to lay out a court on the lawns of his home in the Lake District" (Cunnington and Mansfield, 1969, p. 61). 29' SOURCES FOR LINE ILLUSTRATIONS The line illustrations used throughout this catalogue are nineteenth-century illustra- tions reproduced from the following periodicals and books: pp. 2-3 A Little Incident, drawing by Charles Dana Gibson from 77?^ Gibson Book I, n.d., not paginated. p. 10 Worth Tailor Gown from Harper's Bazar 26 (1 July 1 893) : 525. p. 13 Corset illustrations from The Delineator 29 (April 1887): 8; rib cage illustra- tions and quotation from Woolson, ed., 1974, 47, 54. p. 15 Singer sewing-machine advertisement from The Delineator 4\ (May 1893): 4. p. 16 Koch and Company Department Store, New York City from The Delineator 43 (April 1894): 436. p. 1 7 Misses ' Coat and Muff from The Delineator 3 1 (January 1 888) : 29. p. 18 Golf outfit, drawing by Charles Dana Gibson from The Gibson Book I, n.d., not paginated. p. 20 Illustration from Woolson, ed., 1974, 182. p. 21 Advertisement from Harper's Bazar 26 (23 September 1893): 787. pp. 22-23 Princesse Panier Polonaise and Walking Skirt from Harper's Bazar 1 2 (16 August 1879): 517. p. 24 Riding Habit for a Lady from Godey 's Lady 's Book 1 07 (June 1 883-January 1884): 124. p. 25 They Take a Morning Run, drawing by Charles Dana Gibson from A Widow and Her Friends by Gibson, 1901, not paginated. p. 26 The First Lesson from Godey 's Lady's Book 107 (June 1 883-January 1884): 396. 30' COLOR PLATES Plate 1 . Brown and Tan Silk Taffeta Dress; United States, c. 1868-72 (no. 2). Plate 2. Cerulean Blue Silk Faille Girl's Dress; United States, c. 1870-75 (no. 31). ■ ^^^^B^^F^ JIP ^^ vL'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l ^^^^1 ^m i^^^m^^^^^^^^^^i ^^^1 ■K l^^^^^^^^^^l^^^^^l ^^H B^ ' jM^ ^'^^ Mm ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 ^^^^1 g^Pf g^j^KKfHk^^P^ ^^^s^^^^^^^^^^^M ^^^^^^^^1 S?m' JuHH^m!^ ^S^^^e ^^^^^^^^^^^1 1 1 j 1 j ^H^H ^gMMp^ ' ^^^^^^Hl ^^1 ^■^"i'J ^^1 <nr ^^^Hn^k-^' -4^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^k ^^^^^^^1 ^^V^^'-f --' '' i I(\^UHt<'1 /.I ^^'i^^^Hn^^k^^^^RI^^^P^ '^^H s ■ Plate 3. Multicolored Silk Taffeta Dress; Red Wool Twill Girl's Dress; Forest Green Wool Twill Boy's Suit; United States 1867-68; 1868-70; c. 1875 (nos. 1, 30, 32). Plate 4. Dull Gold Silk Taffeta Dress; United States, c. 1880 (no. 7). Plate 5. Dark Olive Green Silk Faille Dress; Natural Pongee Silk Boy's Dress; United States 1886; c. 1885 (nos. 11,38). Plate 6. Dark Green Brocaded Wool Twill Dress; United States, c. 1896 (no. 15). Plate 7. Brown, Black, and White Wool Tweed Suit; United States, c. 1895 (no. 14). Plate 8. Blue-gray Wool and Natural Linen Bicycling Attire; United States, 1888 (no. 12). CHECKLIST WOMEN'S CLOTHING 1. Dress (bodice, skirt, and belt witii baci< panels) United States, 1867-68 Multicolored small chine floral sprigs scattered on small black and cream windowpane-checked silk taffeta; banded trim of green silk taffeta edged with black and white silk fringe; green silk taffeta-covered buttons Gift of Dorothy Dixon M.83.231.8a,b,c Dress (bodice and asymmetrical skirt) United States, c. 1868-72 Brown and tan silk taffeta; two-color self trim of alternating rows of bands and ruffles; exterior back pocket; two-color self piping and cream silk button decora- tion; brown silk needle-lace buttons on bodice front Gift of the Estate of Dorothy Gould M.82.272.1a,b 3. Dress (bodice and trained skirt with symmetrical, attached back overskirt) United States, c. 1872 Beige silk and cotton; rust silk box pleat and Van Dyke point trim; silk-covered sculpted buttons Costume Council Fund M.83.194.9a,b 4. Dress (bodice and trained skirt with attached overskirt) England, c. 1875 Pale green silk and wool; knife-pleated self trim; matching silk bows at elbows; self buttons Gift of May Routh M.82.180a,b 5. Walking Dress (bodice and skirt with asymmetrical, attached, draped overskirt) United States (?),c. 1878-80 Dark green wool serge; machine-embroi- dered "paisley"-patterned wool trim; rust silk twill on bodice front and cuffs; self box pleating around hem of skirt Gift of Mrs. Frances Osthaus M.71.106a,b Dress (bodice and symmetrical, puffed- back skirt with train) United States, c. 1880 Green-beige silk faille; self-piped crenelated trim on cuffs, neckline, false revers, and train; self box-pleated hem; carved mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Mrs. Marie Lathrop Tuttle 38.19 41- 7. Dress (bodice and skirt) United States, c. 1880 Label: WATKINS robes, ChesnutSt., Louisville, KY. Dull gold silk taffeta; cream cisele silk velvet on dull gold satin ground in skirt panels and bodice trim; knife pleats at hem; mother-of-pearl buttons v^ith marcasite centers Gift of Mrs. W. R. Kilgore CR.86.57.1a,b Dress (bodice and skirt with attached overskirt) United States, c. 1879-82 Lavender-and-white-striped silk taffeta combined with olive-drab silk taffeta; knife-pleat and flat bow trim; mock polo- naise ("Dolly Varden"); lavender silk needle-lace and crochet-covered buttons Gift of Mrs. James Lockhead CR.346.65.1 a,b Dress (bodice and symmetrical, puffed- back skirt) United States (?),c. 1882 Gray-green silk taffeta; darker green bias ruching, ruffles, and ribbon trim; dyed and carved mother-of-pearl buttons Mrs. Alice F. Schott Bequest M.67.8.59a,b 10. Riding Habit (jacket and shaped skirt) Austria, c. 1885 Label: Holznarth, We in, I. Kdrnthnerstr. 40 Heavy black wool serge; braid trim; silk- covered buttons Gift of the Pasadena Art Museum 63.26.8 a,b 11. Dress (bodice and skirt) United States, 1886 Dark olive green silk faille; blue, red, brown, and gold cisele velvet trim; asym- metrical, vertical knife pleats; hip and bustle drape; matching bonnet with olive green satin ribbon ties Gift of Mrs. Albert Weiland 59.13.1 a,b/.2 12. Bicycling Attire (fitted jacket and three- quarter-length bifurcated skirt) United States, IJ Jacket: blue-gray wool; white wool and metallic gold braid trim; gilt brass mili- tary-style buttons Skirt: natural linen; white cotton tape trim; bifurcation concealed by front panel; mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Bullocks, 7th and Hill streets, Los Angeles M. 74.24.27 a,b 13. Culotte United States, c. 1890- 1900 Unbleached heavy linen; composition buttons Gift of Mrs. Louise D. Wilhelm CR.340.65.5 14. Suit (double-breasted coat, bodice, and skirt) United States, c. 1895 Brown, black, and white wool tweed; leg- of-mutton sleeves; dyed mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Mrs. Grace 0. Johnston Fisher A.2354-5 a,b 42' 15. Dress (bodice and skirt) United States, c. 1896 Dark green wool twill with brocaded mo- tif of white, orange, and red interlocking circles; leg-of-mutton sleeves; false revers W. T. Wohlbruck Collection 37.24.12 a,b 16. Riding Habit Qacket, waistcoat, and skirt) France, c. 1900 Jacket and skirt: black wool broadcloth Waistcoat: copper-colored pattern with rust, blue, green, and gold on charcoal- gray silk satin ground; carved mother-of- pearl buttons Wilma Leithead Wood Bequest 58.34.10 a-c 17. Suit (Norfolk-style jacket and skirt) United States, c. 1900-1905 Tan cotton corduroy; composition buttons Gift of Mrs. William James Kuehn et al. CR.283.64-2 a,b MEN'S CLOTHING 18. Trousers United States, c. 1870 Dark brown, orange, and gray tattersall- checked cotton; button fall front Mrs. Alice F. Schott Bequest M.67.8.2 19. Coat (double-breasted) United States, c. 1880 Gray-green wool twill; black silk satin twill lapel trim; black basket-weave silk buttons W. T. Wohlbruck Collection 37.24.146 20. Country Suit (coat, waistcoat, and breeches) United States, c. 1875-1900 Butternut-colored heavy wool twill; leather buttons Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey J. Hamlin, Jr. CR.69.34 a-c 21. Coat United States, c. 1890 Black heavy felted wool; sheared beaver collar and cuffs; silk braid trim; corded frog-and-toggle fasteners Promised Gift of Kent Elofson TR.7221 22. Suit (modified frock coat, waistcoat, and breeches) England, c. 1900 Label: Sandon and Co. Savile Row, London Heather-gray wool worsted; composition buttons Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey J. Hamlin, Jr. CR.69.41 a-c 23. Formal Day Suit (cutaway jacket, waistcoat, and trousers) United States, c. 1900 Black wool jacket and waistcoat; gray- and-black-striped wool trousers 43' Gift of Mrs. Brandner W. Lee, Jr. M. 66.61.3 a-c 24. Morning Suit (cutaway coat and waistcoat) United States, c. 1900-10 Black wool broadcloth; black silk braid trim; black silk buttons Gift of Mrs. Howard P. Devol CR.74.2.3a,b CHILDREN'S CLOTHING 25. Girl's Dress England, c. 1860 Blue and gray cotton organdy printed in floral and plaid "ribbon" pattern; lace- trimmed, petal-shaped short sleeves Gift of Mrs. P. A. Appleyard M.67.35.2 26. Girl's Dress United States, c. 1860-65 Multicolored printed silk in pink and white ombre "ribbon" and dot pattern (fabric c. 1828); pink silk braid trim; matching triangular fichu; floral- patterned glass buttons Del Valle Collection 34.6.1 a,b 27. Boy's Suit (jacket and pants) United States, c. 1862 Oatmeal-colored wool tweed; rust silk braid trim; flat brass buttons Gift of Mrs. Rens R. Effinger M.36.10.12a,b 28. Boy's Dress (dress and cape) United States, c. 1865 Dress: light orange wool; silk soutache trim; scalloped sleeve edges bound with buttonhole-stitch embroidery; small, conical brass buttons Cape: matching fabric; small, turned- down collar; white china silk lining Gift of Lillian Charlotte Bridgeman A.4666.39-2 a,b 29. Girl's Dress (dress and overskirt) United States, c. 1869 Red-and-white-printed cotton calico; white cotton trim; ruffled overskirt (prob- ably added when dress was updated); mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Mrs. Frances Presley A.2289.30.53 30. Girl's Dress (dress, overskirt, and bolero) United States, c. 1868-70 Red wool twill; black silk velvet ribbon trim; black wool braid edging; glazed cotton lining; faceted black glass buttons Mrs. Alice F. Schott Bequest M.67.8.18a-c 31. Girl's Dress (jacket-bodice and puffed- back skirt) United States, c. 1870-75 Cerulean blue silk faille; matching silk velvet trim; silk velvet buttons Mrs. Alice F. Schott Bequest CR.448.67.15a,b 32. Boy's Suit (jacket and kilt) United States, c. 1875 44- Forest green wool twill; black glass buttons Gift of Mrs. Raymond Hoover CR.293.64-1 a,b 33. Boy's Suit (jacket, waistcoat, and breeches) United States, c. 1875 Black silk velvet; black wool braid "Hussar" trim; wool-covered buttons Gift of Mrs. Janet Felix A.6196.52-1 a-c 34. Girl's Dress United States, c. 1877-80 Burgundy, white, and gray silk taffeta; smocked front; small back bustle; bur- gundy satin bows; mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Mrs. Thomas H. Crawford M.69.28.2 35. Boy's Dress Switzerland, c. 1880 White figured cotton; elaborate machine- embroidered cotton eyelet trim Gift of Mrs. John Arnett M.81.315.4 36. Boy's Suit (shirt and detachable breeches) United States, c. 1880 Cream wool twill; mock laced front; mother-of-pearl buttons Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Dixon 56.19.2 37. Girl's Dress United States, c. 1880 White cotton pique; white cotton machine-embroidered eyelet trim; appliqued white cotton braid in scrolling pattern; mother-of-pearl buttons Mrs. Alice F. Schott Bequest CR.448.67-20 38. Boy's Dress (coat, pleated skirt, and breeches) United States, c. 1885 Natural pongee silk; painted abalone- shell buttons Gift of Mr. N. A. Abell M.78.113.1 a-c 39. Girl's Coat United States, c. 1895 Cream wool; white silk ribbon trim; goat- hair collar edging; carved mother-of- pearl buttons; matching bonnet Gift of Mr. Frank Betz CR.371.66.1 a,b 45" SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fash- ion (1860-1940). London: Wace and Company Ltd., 1966. AsLiN, Elizabeth. The Aesthetic Movement. New York: Excali- bur Books, 1969. Bentley, Nicholas. The Victorian Scene: A Picture Book of the Period 1837-1901. London: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1971. Blum, Stella. Victorian Fashions and Costumes from Harper's Bazar: 1867-1898. New York: Dover Publications, inc., 1974. Boucher, pRANgois. 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., n.d. Bradreld, Nancy. "Cycling in the 1890's." Costume no. 6 (1972): 43-47. Buck, Anne. Victorian Costume and Costume Accessories. London: Herbert Jenkins Ltd., 1961. Cooper, Grace Rogers. The Invention of the Sewing Machine. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. CUNNINGTON, PhILLIS, AND AlaN Mansfield. English Costume for Sports and Outdoor Recre- ation. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1969. The Gallery of English Costume, Picture Book Number Eight: Costume for Sport. Manches- ter: The Art Galleries Commit- tee of the Corporation of Man- chester, 1963.- Green, Harvey. The Light of the Home. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983. Helvenston, Sally. "Advice to American Mothers on the Sub- ject of Children's Dress: 1800- 1920."Dre5s 7 (1981): 30-46. Kidwell, Claudia B., and Mar- garet C. Christman. Suiting Everyone: The Democratiza- tion of Clothing in America. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974. Newton, Stella Mary. Health, Art and Reason. London: John Murray, 1974. Payne, Blanche. History of Cos- tume. New York: Harper and Row, 1965. Rabun, Josette H., and Mary Frances Drake. "Warmth in Clothing: A Victorian Perspec- tive."Dress9 (1983): 24-31. Reade, Charles. The Course of True Love Never Did Run Smooth. Boston: The Fred- erick T Quincy Co., n.d. Rinhart, Floyd and Marion. Sum- mertime: Photographs of Americans at Play 1850-1900. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1978. Saunders, Ann, ed. La Belle Epoque. London: Costume Society, 1968. Taylor, Deems, ed. A Treasury of Gilbert and Sullivan. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1941. Waugh, Norah. The Cut of Men's Clothes 1600-1900. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1964. . The Cut of Women's Clothes 1600-1930. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1968. WooLSON, Abba Goold, ed. Dress- Reform. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1874; New York: Arno Press, 1974. 46" ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is never possible to thank adequately the many individuals who give of their time and talent to an exhibition and catalogue of this kind. The invaluable contri- butions of the following must be acknowledged, however: Dale Gluckman, assis- tant curator, Department of Textiles and Costumes; Evelyn Ackerman; Claire Polakoff; Florence Karant and Nola Ewing, curatorial assistants, and Rae Avrutin, sec- retary. Department of Textiles and Costumes; Deborah Kraak, museum intern; Jennie Macofsky and Jane Feezel, graduate interns; Dallas Lovett, undergraduate intern; an army of volunteers including Sandy Rosenbaum, Lorraine Olson, Helen Caputo, Ger- trude Schwartz, Tzvia Sadja, and Vincent Risuelo; Pat Reeves, conservator, and Nancy Wyatt and Catherine McLean, assistant conservators. Conservation Center; Andrea P. A. Belloli; Deenie Yudell, head graphic designer, and her assistant Robin Weiss, Pub- lications and Graphic Design; Larry Reynolds, supervisor, and his assistants Peter Brenner, Jack Ross, Jeffrey Conley, and Lisa Kahn, Photographic Services; Terry Monteleone, assistant director. Grants and Corporate Giving, Office of Development and Membership; and Myrna Smoot, assistant director for Museum Programs. The exhibition was designed by Dino Di Gerlando of Double Iris Designs. The background illustrations were adapted by Elin Waite from drawings by Charles Dana Gibson, and airbrushed by Tim Kummerow of Air Designs. Mannequins were prepared with the able assistance of sculptor Kent Elofson, moldmaker Inez Owings, painter Lyndall Otto, wigmaker Vikki Wood, and hair stylist Melva Myers. International Silks and Woolens generously donated fabric for the banner; Carolyn De Mers and Ron Honore assisted with its painting. The exhibition has been made possible in part by a grant from Home Silk Shop, Inc., through the generosity of Murray Pepper, and funds from an anonymous patron of the arts. Finally, publication of this catalogue was made possible in part by a grant, through the good offices of Nikki Scheuer, from the Dover Fund. — E.M. 47< TRUSTEES AND SUPERVISORS COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART ^^^^sM^z^^^m^^^^tsm Board of Supervisors, 1984 Deane Dana Chairman Michael D. Antonovich Edmund D. Edelman Kenneth Hahn Peter F. Schabarum Harry L. Hufford Chief Administrative Officer and Director of Personnel Earl A. Powell iii Director Board of Trustees, Fiscal 1983-84 Mrs. F. Daniel Frost Chairman Julian Ganz, Jr. President Norman Barker, Jr. Vice-President Eric Lidow Vice-President Charles E. Ducommun Treasurer Mrs. Harry Wetzel Secretary Donald Spuehler Counsel Honorary Life Trustees Mrs. Freeman Gates Mrs. Alice Heeramaneck Joseph B. Koepfli Mrs. Rudolph Liebig Mrs. Lucille Ellis Simon John Walker Mrs. Herman Weiner Mrs. Howard Ahmanson William H. Ahmanson Howard P. Allen Robert 0. Anderson Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold R. Stanton Avery Daniel N. Belin Mrs. Lionel Bell B. Gerald Cantor Edward W. Carter Hans Cohn Joseph P. Downer Richard J. Flamson iii Arthur Gilbert Stanley Grinstein Dr. Armand Hammer Felix Juda Mrs. Howard B. Keck Mrs. Dwight Kendall Harry Lenart Robert F. Macguire iii Mrs. David H. Murdock Dr. Franklin D. Murphy Mrs. Edwin W Pauley Sidney R. Petersen Henry C. Rogers Richard E. Sherwood Nathan Smooke Ray Stark Mrs. John Van de Kamp Hal B. Wallis Frederick R. Weisman Dr. Charles Z. Wilson, Jr. Robert Wilson 48"