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G.C.S.I., G.B.E:; 





It is a matter of general knowledge that a 
Hindu not infrequently exclaims, when he finds 
anything supremely difficult to achieve or 
understand, "It is like Brahmavidya \ " This 
Brakmavidya, or knowledge of Brahman, the 
attainment of which is thought to be so hard, is 
acquired only gradually, the steps being those 
of religion, theology including scholasticism, 
mysticism and philosophy including science. 
All these are comprehended by the term 
Vedanta. Men's knowledge of science having 
been in its infancy, in the past, it was treated 
not as a separate subject but as a part of philo- 
sophy, which is a rational enquiry regarding 
all that is known to exist. Though philosophy 
or Viclmra comes last, yet it is not introduced 
abruptly at the very end. Every one, each to 
the extent to which one's Buddhi or reasoning 
power admits, is by nature free to exercise this 
faculty, at whatever stage one may be. And 
as a consequence even the preliminary stages 
are mistaken by the ignorant for philosophy 
though the last alone is specifically so called, 
because it is then that one is able to devote 
oneself exclusively to a pursuit of the highest 
or the most comprehensive Truth, by means of 
Buddki (reason). 


In the past, rigorous Yogic (mystic) disci- 
pline, which was not an end in itself, helped to 
so clarify the mind as to enable it to reason 
most correctly. But such discipline is almost 
impossible under present conditions. The 
modern mental outlook is pre-eminently scienti- 
fic owing to the great progress that science has 
made. And the best method of freeing the 
mind from its inaccurate ways of thinking is 
to imbue it as fully as possible with the scienti- 
fic spirit. It is therefore only one who possesses 
a clear knowledge of its methods and results 
i.e., who is able to make reason (Buddhi} the 
highest means of enquiry that would be fit to 
enter upon the study of Vedantic philosophy. 

For, as Vedanta itself admits its highest 
Truth (Atman or Brahman) cannot be reached 
by any path other than that of Buddhi (reason) 
and unless the Buddhi is sharper than the 
'Edge of a razor' (Kath. Up., Ill, 12 and III, 
14), which is also characterized as Mahadhi or 
Mahabuddhi (great or supreme reason) else- 
where (Mandiikya Karika, IV, 89). The Gita 
also supports it in several places (vide X, 10 
and VI, 21). Further, where Manas and Chitta 
are used in the sense of Buddhi in Vedantic 
literature, they are declared to be the highest 
means of attaining such knowledge (Bri/i. 
Up,, IV, 4, 19, Mund. Up., Ill, 1, 9, and Kath. 
Up., IV, 11). Contrariwise, it is expressly 
stated that neither religion, theology nor mystic 
practice is in itself of value in the absence of 


Bi*ddhi(vide Kvth. Up., 1 1 1, 23 and Mund<* III, 
1 , 8). The aim of every one should be to reach this 
supreme level of Buddhi, by continued enquiry, 
though one may feel satisfied with the religion, 
theology or mysticism in which one believes. 
Some have not the patience to pursue il to the 
end. Therefore, the highest stage to which 
most men attain is only the theological (based 
on authority) or the mystic (based on intuition), 
and not the rational. How then, it may be asked, 
is such high order of Buddhi to be reached and 
how so much of patience to be commanded? 
The Vedanta says : 

" None who has not turned away from bad 
conduct, whose senses are not under control, 
whose mind is not collected, or whose mind is 
not at rest, can attain this Atman by means of 
intelligence." (Kath. Up., II, 24.) 

14 This Atman is obtainable by love vi truth, 
by austerity, by correct knowledge, by one's Hfe 
of chastity (Brahmacharya) constantly prac- 
tised.'M^^- 6> III, 1, 4.) 

In a word, purity of life, comprehending 
thought, word, and deed, is the foremost 
requisite for sharpening the Buddhi. 

Recognizing, therefore, the difficulty of the 
nature of the study of Vedanta as a whole, some 
of the leading authorities on it have written a 
number of manuals of introduction. Though 
all these -treatises cover the same ground, refer 
to the same topics of importance, and point to 


the same goal, yet they differ from each other 
in their approach to the subject. Since these 
manuals are meant to lead those in the lower 
stages to rational (Buddhi), i.e., philosophic 
enquiry (Vichara), they largely cover the 
preliminary, i.e., the religious, theological and 
mystic stages of Vedanta, indicating directly 
or indirectly the way to the final, i.e., the 
rational means of attaining the goal. All of 
them rely on the authority of Vedic Revelation 
and mystic or Yogic ecstasy of Samddki. But 
the philosophy, which rises still higher into 
realms of pure Reason, is evidently reserved 
for more advanced enquiry. 

The importance of DTg-DT$ya Viveka as 
an aid to the study of Vedanta has been well 
pointed out by the learned Swami Nikhilanandaji 
in his introduction to this translation. The 
central theme of this work is that Brahman is 
realized through mystic or Yogic Samadhi 
(Concentration). After this state is attained, 
one can see Brahman wherever one turns one's 

" Dhabhimane galite vijnate paramatmani 
Yatra yatra mano yati tatra tatra Samadhayaha " 

" With the disappearance of the attachment 
to the body and with the realization of the 
Supreme Self, to whatever object the mind is 
directed one experiences Sam&dhi" 

Problems such for instance as how to make 
sure that after we attain Samadhi whatever we 


see is the Supreme Being or Brahman and not 
anything else, are matters beyond the scope of 
this small treatise. 

Viveka being very short, it 
necessarily compresses much information into a 
small space. Detailed explanations are indis- 
pensable. Swami Nikhilanandaji has spared 
no pains to make not only the English render- 
ing accurate, but also the notes exhaustive 
and scholarly, which will be found to be of 
immense help to those who wish to proceed to 
a higher study of Vedantic philosophy. 

The Swami's great literary merits are 
already so well and so widely known that this 
work of his needs little introduction from lay- 
men like me. It is a time-honoured belief, a 
belief as old as the oldest Upanishads, that 
Vedantic Truth- is best taught by those that live 
it, but not by those that merely talk it. 
Bhagavan Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the 
* Real Mahatma' of the late Prof. Max Miiller, 
was one such rare and great teacher. And the 
Vedantic works that are published by the 
revered Order of Sannyasins founded by such 
a Guru have so great a spiritual charm that 
they make these works most welcome to all 
earnest seekers after Truth. 



DTg*Dr&ya Viveka, as the name indicates, 
is an inquiry into the distinction of the * Seer ' 
(DTg) and the ' Seen ' (Dyya\ an inquiry 
which is of the utmost importance for the 
understanding of the higher Vedanta Philo- 
sophy. The other name by which this treatise 
is known is Vakya Suddka ascribed to 
Sankaracharya, which is also the name of a 
commentary on it. DTg-DTfya Viveka has 
been acknowledged as a Prakarana treatise of the 
Vedanta Philosophy, i.e., a book which, though 
confined to a particular aspect of the subject- 
matter, explains its chief purpose, viz.* the 
identification of Jiva and Brahman, by follow- 
ing a particular line of argument. The special 
feature of this book is its detailed description 
of the various kinds of Samadhi (Concentration), 
the importance of which is always acknowledged 
by the students of Vedanta. It has also given 
three theories, necessarily empirical in cha- 
racter, regarding the conception of Jiva 
(embodied being). 

This small book of forty-six Slokas, is an 
excellent vade mecum for th study of higher 
Vedanta. Sixteen of the Slokas from Dfg 
DfSya Viveka, from 13 to 31 with the exception 
of 14, 21 and 28> are found in a minor 


Upanishad, called the Saraswati Rahasyopa- 
nishad. It does not seem probable that the 
author of DTg-DT&ya Viveka wrote a treatise of 
forty-six stanzas borrowing sixteen from another 
book. Neither of the two commentators has 
mentioned these sixteen Slokas as quotation 
from the Upanishad in question. Therefore 
it seems to us that the author of the Upa- 
nishad has borrowed these Slokas from DT* 
DT$ya Viveka, which, if true, would indicate 
the importance of the book, 

Three names are generally associated with 
the authorship of the book. Brahmananda 
Bharati, one of the commentators, acknowledges 
Bharati Tirtha as its author. In some manu- 
scripts it is found that Ananda Jnana, another 
commentator, salutes in the colophon Sanka- 
racharya as its author. Nischaladasa, in his 
Vritti Prabhakara, ascribes the book to Vidya- 
ranya, the celebrated author of Panchadai. 
We are led to think that the book was written 
by Bharati Tirtha. Brahmananda Bharati 
probably wrote, as some authorities hold, a 
commentary called Vakya Suddha. Bharati 
Tirtha, the teacher of Vidyaranya, was a Jagad 
Guru of the Sringeri Math founded by Sanka- 
racharya. The old records of the Math state 
that he was the head of the Math from 1328 to 
1380 A.D. An inscription dated 1340 A.D. 
states that Harihara I, the ruler of Vijayanagar* 
and his brothers made grants of land to Bharati 
Tirtha for the maintenance of the Sringeri 


Math. Probably Bharati Tirtha was also 
known as Ananda Bharati Tirtha. Bharati 
Tirtha is associated with the authorship of Drg- 
Df&ya Vivekcii Vaiyasikanyayamala, and a por- 
tion of Panchadasi. Vaiyasikanydyamala is of 
great help to the student in understanding the 
commentary of Sankaracharya on the Brahma- 

There are two commentaries extant of 
Drg-Dr$ya Viveka. One is by Brahmananda 
Bharati and the other by Ananda Jnana or 
Anandagiri. The book has been translated into 
several languages. The Bengali translation 
has been admirably done by Babu Durgacharan 
Chattopadhyaya, the erudite Sanskrit scholar 
of Benares, to whom we are obliged for much 
of the information given in this introduction. 

Drg-Dr&ya Viveka, in dealing with certain 
aspects of the subject-matter, follows a method 
which may be called rational in that it attempts 
to discuss by employing a method which is 
known in logic as the method of Agreement 
and Disagreement or the method of Anvaya 
Vyatireka of the Indian Nyaya system. The 
book, it is hoped, will be of considerable help 
to those who wish to pursue the higher study 
of Vedanta Philosophy. 

For the facility of understanding by the 
average student, we have given, besides the 
meaning of the words of the text and its run- 
ning translation, extensive notes mainly collected 


from the two commentaries mentioned above. 
The Telugu, Malayalam, English, Sanskrit and 
Bengali editions of the book, which we have 
consulted while translating the treatise, have not 
always the same reading. We have not followed 
in toto any of these editions* But Our reading 
will be supported by one or the other of the 
books we have consulted. 

We wish to take this opportunity to 
express our sense of deep gratitude to H. H. 
Sri Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, Maharaja of 
Mysore, for so kindly permitting us to associate 
this book with his name. Sri Ramakrishna 
Asrama at Mysore owes its present position of 
usefulness to his sympathy and generosity. It 
is well known that His Highness 1 noble father 
encouraged Swami Vivekananda to proceed to 
the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago, an 
event which has raised India in the estimation 
of the whole of the civilized world. The 
Maharaja's deep knowledge of philosophy. 
Eastern and Western, besides his remarkable 
acquaintance with modern science has made 
him one of the most cultured and respected of 
India's rulers. 



ll ^ If 

^ form ^4 (is) perceived 5P3R eye ^ (is) 
perceiver ?T^ that ^[4 (is) perceived wre mind 
?^ (is) perceiver sftlrR*- mind's modifications 
^^T: (are) perceived *TT#J Witness ^ ^ (is) 
verily the perceiver 3 but f (it) is not ^<^frf 

1. The form 1 is perceived and the eye 2 
is its perceiver. 3 It (eye) is perceived and the 
mind 1 is its perceiver. The mind with r> its 
modifications is perceived and the Witness (the 
Self) is verily the perceiver, 6 But It 7 (the 
Witness) is not perceived (by any other). 

The direct and immediate knowledge of Atman or 
Self is the means to the attainment of Liberation. 
The understanding of the meaning ^of the great Yedic 
statement '* That thou art " ( cPc^WST ) enables one to- 



realise the goal of life. The meaning of " That thou 
art' 7 is correctly grasped by understanding the sense 
of the words contained in the statement. The first 
five slokas in the treatise explain the significance of 
4 Thou'. 

1 Form The word implies all objects of sense 

2 Eye It stands for all the organs of perception 
such as nose, ears etc. 

3 Ptrceiver The eye is perceiver only in a relative 
sense because it is itself perceived by the mind. 

4 Mind The sense organs, unless the mind is at- 
tached to them, cannot perceive their objects. In a state 
of deep sleep the sense organs do not perceive anything 
because the mind, at that time, ceases to function. 

5 With etc. -This includes Buddhi, Chitta, and 

6 Perceivet The mind is controlled by the con- 
scious Self. Comp. " aTWWWT W^Sf!^ "fa*. VV}) 
44 My mind was elsewhere ; I did not see. " 

7 // The Atman or the innermost Self is the 
ultimate perceiver. If a perceiver of the Atman is 
sought, the enquiry will end in what is known as a 
regressits ad infinitum. All entities from the gross 
objects to the mind are products of Avidya which 
itself is insentient (^^r). Hence they also partake 
of the nature of insentiency. Therefore they are 
objects. The subjective character of some of these is 
only relative. But the Self is the ultimate Seer because 
no other seer is known to exist. The knowledge of 
the Knower is never absent. 

The subject matter of the first sloka 
is explained in detail in the following : 


ll R II 

on account of 
such distinctions as blue, yellow, gross, subtle, 
short, long etc. srRTT^ifir various ^wr forms 
the eye tjCTT as one *fjfa perceives. 

2. The forms (objects of perception) 
appear as various on account of such distinc- 
tions as blue, yellow, gross, subtle, short, long 
etc. The eye, on the other hand, sees them, 
itself remaining one and the same. 

The forms etc. are objects of perception which 
are varying. That which is constant and changeless 
is the perceiver. The different objects appear, no 
doubt, as distinct from one another. But they are 
perceived with their changes, because the eye, 
as perceiver, is a unity. They all belong to one 
category, namely, 3^ or the seen. With reference 
to the objects, the eye is the perceiver. 

The one characteristic of the objects is their 
changeability. Change is possible only in things 
which are imagined with reference to a substratum, 
as is the case with the snake, stick, water-line, 
garland etc., falsely imagined in a rope. These 
ideas are subject to change. The characteristic of 
the Seer is unchangeability. The objects change 
tout their perceiver is constant. The appearances, 
like the snake etc., change but the rope is con- 



The eye, on account of its changeable 
nature* is an object and its perceiver is the 

blindness, dullness and sharp- 
ness, ^rwg characteristics of the eye *R: mind 
as a unity ^m^ cognizes ^ this * 
to ears, skin, etc., ^ also sfteq-^r applies. 

3. Such characteristics of the eye as 
blindness, sharpness or dullness, the mind is 
able to cognize because it is a unity. This 
also applies to (whatever is perceived through) 
the ear, skin etc. 

Though the eye is the perceiver in respect of the 
various forms, yet it becomes the object of perception 
in its relation to the mind. The eye is subject to 
changes which are perceived by the mind ; for it is the 
mind that thinks * I am blind ' etc. The mind knows 
the changes because it is a unity. This applies to the 
other sense-organs as well. Though the nose, the skin, 
the tongue etc. are respectively perceivers with refer- 
ence to their several objects, yet they themselves are 
perceived by the mind. Hence, the mind is perceiver 
and the sense-organs are objects of perception. 


Mind, also like other sense-organs, is 
an object perceived by another. This is 
indicated in the following sloka : 


: II II 

Consciousness s&r*n desire 

determination and doubt srersRfc faith and want 
of faith tpfaft steadiness and its opposite ?>. 
modesty v fr: understanding *ft: fear ^*rr<fa 
and such others tprarr unified qro^ illumines. 

4. Consciousness illumines (such other 
mental states as) desire 1 , determination 2 and 
cloubt, belief 3 and non-belief, constancy 4 and its 
opposite, modesty, understanding, fear and 
others, 5 because it (Consciousness) is a unity. 

1 I Desire Desire for the satisfaction of sensual 

2 Determination Determining the nature of ob- 
jects directly perceived by a sense-organ. 

3 Faith Faith in the result of Karma and the 
existence of God. 

1 Steadiness The mental power which sustains a 
man even while he is physically or otherwise tired. 

5 Others etc. Other states or functions of the 
mind are enumerated in the Aitareya Upanhhctd (8-2). 

The list of the states or functions of the mind has 
been adopted from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (1-5-3). 


That the mind undergoes all these 
changes is known to all. Because of its 
changeable nature, the mind is an object of 


perception and Consciousness is the per- 
ceiver. This is because all these changes 
are perceived by Consciousness. Con- 
sciousness perceives all these states be- 
cause it is a unity. These states, though 
distinct in nature, become unified in Con- 
sciousness or Self. 

frrr II ^ II 

This (Consciousness) T s^T% does not 
rise f s^cTH ^ does not set ire increase *r ^rftr 
does not undergo w decay * farfa) does not 
undergo ^ of itself f^TTKT shines *w on the 
other hand T%?TT without snw aid (of other 
means) ^F^TR other objects Hm?i illumines. 

5. This Consciousness 1 does neither rise 2 
nor set 3 . It does 4 not increase ; nor does it 
suffer decay. Being self-luminous, it illu- 
mines everything 5 else without any other aid. 

1 Conscion$ness It is the eternal Witness of all 
internal changes. 

2 Neither rise ' Rising ' means birth, i.e., com- 
ing into existence of an entity previously non-existent. 
This cannot be predicated of Consciousness as it is the 
Witness of even previous non-existence. Otherwise no 
one will be aw'are of such non-existence. All entities 
from the empirical ego to the gross object perceived 
have a previous non-existing state, because their 
appearance and disappearance are cognized by con- 


3 Set * Setting ' means disappearance of an 
existing entity, i'.*., its becoming non-existent again 
This state, though possible for relative entities, can- 
not be predicated of Consciousness. No disappearance 
or destruction can be cognized without a conscious 

4 Does not etc. Every perceived entity of the 
empirical world possesses six characteristics, viz., birth 

), existence (3?F%c^), growth (ffe), change 
), decay ( STT^q" ) and destruction ( 5TF5T ). 
But Consciousness has none of the characteristics of a 
perceived entity. By negating birth and decay, the 
four other characteristics are also negated in Con- 
sciousness. Growth and decay are only possible for 
those entities which have parts. But Consciousness is 
without parts. 

Everything else -Ail perceived entities. Comp. 

" "it shin- 

ing, all else shines" (K<tfha Ufani*had o-lS)^ It is 
because there is nothing else to illumine the Atman : 
it is self-luminous. 


in the Buddhi (intelligence) 
reflection of Consciousness sjfNrcf: on account 
of entering *TR appearance (of specific know- 
ledge) *r^r happens ft: intelligence (under- 
standing) 3 and Hs^r of two kinds fercfi is 
TTSPT one 3?f?T%: egoity wr^ is wrr other 
^rf.^^w^ of the nature of mind (mental 


6. Buddhi appears to possess luminosity 1 
on account of the reflection of Consciousness 
in it. Intelligence (Buddhi) 2 is of two kinds 3 . 
One is designated egoity (^tff^O, the other as 

1 Luminosity The Conscious Self 

though self-luminous, has no manifestation, because 
from the absolute standpoint there is no other object 
which can be manifested by Consciousness. But on 
account of the superimposition of ignorance (3T%sj[) 
a modification appears known as mind (3TcT:3RQf) which 
though insentient (sre") (being the product of 3U%3U) 
appears as conscious on account of the association of 
consciousness or >Uman with it. The Atman appears 
as Buddhi when associated with Antahkarana. The 
Buddhi, on account of its association with Conscious- 
ness, appears to be endowed with agency, will etc. 

2 Buddhi Buddhi or Dhlh or intelligence is the 
internal organ which is subject to various modifications. 
The modification which makes and endows it with agency 
etc., is known as Ahamkrii or Ahamkara or egoism. 
Another modification is known as memory consisting of 
various faculties by means of which external objects 
are perceived. The Buddhi, by itself, is insentient 
(3f^). But its appearance as subject, object and 
the means of perception is possible on account of the 
reflection of Consciousness (f%^) in it. This reflec- 
tion endows Buddhi with the power of perceiving 

3 Two kinds When Consciousness is reflected in 
Buddhi it undergoes two main modifications. These 
are^the ego and the mind. The ego implies a subject 
(3T?3>rT) as well as its mind (3tcT:3ROT). The inner 
organ, according to its different functions, is known 


as volition and doubt (SRtiQ, determining faculty 
and the faculty of memory (f%xf). 


According to the first sloka, the eye 
and the mind have been described as seers 
with respect to their several objects of 
perception. But they are insentient. There- 
fore a doubt arises as to their power of 
cognition. This doubt is solved by the 
following sloka which says that though the 
mind etc. are insentient, yet on account 
of the reflection of Consciousness (f%^) in 
them, they appear to be conscious. Hence 
knowledge of objects is possible for them. 

!: of the reflection and egoism 
identity cTH anr.ffik^ is like the identity 
of fire and the heated iron ball TOq; opinion 
(of the wise) ^ that 3??*PR egoism 
owing to the identification \^ body 
consciousness 3?^ has attained. 

7. In the opinion of the wise, the identity 
of the reflection (of Consciousness) and of ego 3 
is like the identity 2 of the fire and the (heated) 
iron ball. The body 3 having been identified 
with the ego (which has already identified 
itself with the reflection of Consciousness) 
passes for a conscious 4 entity, 


1 Ego It is associated with the notion of subject, 

2 Identity In the case of a red-hot iron ball, 
fire and iron appear to be identified with each other. 
Similarly the reflection of Consciousness, coming in 
contact with ego, becomes completely identified with 
it and they cannot be separated from each other. This 
reflection of Consciousness which identifies itself 
with the insentient Ahamkara is what is known as Jiva 
or embodied being. 

3 Body Which is otherwise inert and insentient, 
, 4 Conscious enlity That is, movement etc. are 

ascribed to the body on account of this identification. 
Consciousness (srsn^FT^l) imparts the appearance 
of sentiency to all objects from egoism to the gross 
body, because it is the innermost essence of all. The 
body includes the places where the sense-organs are 
located. Therefore there is no separate identification 
with the sense-organ. 


Now is described the nature of the 
identification of Ahamkara with different 
entities : 

of the ego <n^Rr identification 
with the reflection of Conscious- 

ness, body and Witness ^WffiC. respectively 
natural ^*fcf due to past Karma srifhsF^f ^ and 
due to ignorance %fir<* of three kinds (^fct is). 

8. The identification of the ego 1 with the 
reflection of Consciousness, the body and the 


Witness are of three kinds, namely, natural, 2 
due to (past) Karma, 3 and due to ignorance, 4 

1 Rgo See ante, sloka 6. 

2 Natural The moment the reflection of 
Consciousness and the ego (Ahamkara) come into 
existence, they become identified with each other. 
The ego manifests itself under the influence of this 
reflection. Therefore this identification is called 
natural or innate. The experience resulting from this 
identification is, " I know " (3?f SfRfft). 

3 Karma The ego identifies itself with a particular 
body according to its past acts, virtuous or otherwise. 
Birth in a particular body is always determined by 
Karma. The experience resulting from this identifi- 
cation is, " I am man " (3Tf *T3^:). 

4 Ignorance. Ignorance of the real nature of 
Consciousness is called here ^ffcf (delusion) which is 
without beginning and cannot be described as * Real ' 
or * Unreal '. This identification of the Ahamkara 
(ego) with the Witness (*T[$fT%tF3r) is based only upon 
ignorance ($TTfcf). This identification can be removed 
only by knowing the real nature of Consciousness. 
The experience resulting from this identification is, 
** I am or exist " 


How the different identifications of 
the Ahamkara come to an end is thus 
described : 


of the mutually related (ego and 
the reflection of Consciousness) s^t: of those 
that are taken to be real tffsrg? natural (flWcwrer 
of the identification) 3 certainly frifa: annihila- 
tion snfer is not possible ^ the other two WOTT^ 
with the wearing away of the (result of) Karma 
srturw and enlightenment SOTK^ respectively Ref^r 

9. The mutual identification of the ego 
and the reflection of Consciousness, which 1 is 
natural, does 2 not cease so long as they are 
taken to be real. The other 5 two identifications 
disappear after the wearing 4 out of the result 
of Karma and the attainment 5 of the knowledge 
of the highest Reality respectively. 

1 Which etc. The moment the ego (3^R) and 
the reflection of Consciousness come into existence 
they identify themselves with each other. 

2 DJCS not etc. That is, they can never separate 
themselves from each other so long as they are taken 
to be real. It is like the reflection of the sun in the 
water in a pot. The reflection can never separate 
itself from the water. The reflection disappears only 
when the water pot ceases to be. 

1 Other two. The identifications of the ego with the 
body and the Witness 

* Wearing out etc. The identification of the ego 
with the body is due to the past Karma whose effect is 
seen in this body that lasts till the Karma continues 
to produce its effects. But when the body comes to 
an end owing to the complete wearing out of the effects 
of Karma its identification with the ego automatically 

ceases. This phenomenon is also observed at the time 
of swoon and deep sleep when the effects of Karma are 
temporarily suspended, 

c Attainment etc. The identification of the ego 
with the Consciousness (SRMfcfW?) is due to error 
(srffrr) which is destroyed only by the attainment of 
Knowledge. Knowledge (^H) destroys ignorance 
(3TKR) and its effects. Ahamkara or the ego is the 
effect of ignorance. Therefore it is also destroyed by 
Knowledge. Hence Ahamkara can no longer identify 
itself with the Witness after enlightenment, when it 
disappears in Brahman. 

The three kinds of identification described above 
disappear simultaneously when the Jiva realizes itself 
as Brahman. 


Now is ^described the world-bound 
nature of the At man as well as its associa- 
tions with the three states, which are 
possible only when the ego identifies itself 
with the body : 

II ?o ii 

SHI in deep sleep ^l^Rsfr when (the- 
thought of) ego disappears %?: the body 
also 3T%cT*n unconscious wrs; becomes 
fJfarcrnl: the half manifestation of the ego ^fr 
dream (*RT% is) 5 but *n: full (manifestation) 
: waking state (wfcf is). 


10. In the state of deep sleep, when (the 
thought of) ego disappears 1 the body also be- 
comes unconscious. The state in which there 
is the half manifestation of the ego is called the 
dream state 2 and the full 3 manifestation of the 
ego is the state of waking. 

1 Disappears The ego merges itself in the 
causal ignorance which is characterised by the non- 
apprehension of empirical objects. This state in which 
there is no perception of duality is called the state of 
deep sleep. The ego in this state does not identify 
itself with the body. The result of past Karma, then, is 
not noticed. Therefore we become unconscious of our 
body in that state. Comp. " s 

" (^f. 

" (Therefore he who has crossed that bank) if blind, 
ceases to be blind ; if wounded, ceases to be wound- 
ed : if afflicted, ceases to be afflicted.'' 

2 Dream state In the dream state the ego does 
not perceive any object external to itself. The seer, 
the objects seen and the act of seeing which constitute 
the dream experiences are only the mental modifications 
of the ego. Compare 

"There are no (real) chariots in that state, no 
horses, no roads (but he himself creates chariots, 
horses and roads).*' The dream experiences, though 
they appear during the dream state as outside the body 
of the seer, are known to be only modifications of the 
mind from the standpoint of the waking state. There- 
fore from the waking standpoint the dream state is only 
a partial manifestation of the ego. 

3 Full manifestation In the waking state the ego 
experiences the gross external objects by means of its 


internal organs. The ego and the non-ego which 
constitute the entire world of experience are both cog- 
nized in the waking state. In dream it is the mind 
alone of the sleeper which appears both as the ego and 
the non-ego. Therefore the full manifestation of the 
experience covering both ego and non-ego is seen only 
in the waking condition. 


How the experiences of the waking 
and dream states are but the modifications 
of mind is described now : 

the inner organ that is nothing 
but a modification (ir%0 faTcT^rSftRT identity with 
the reflection of Consciousness ^TFTCTT having 
attained ^w in dream ^WTT: ideas ^i^ ima- 
gines ^ in the waking state srlr: with 
respect to the sense-organs ^f|: external 
i%q^i^ objects 3OT3Rt imagines. 

11. The inner 1 organ (mind) which is 
itself but a modification (l%0 identifying 2 
itself with the reflection of Consciousness 
imagines (various) ideas 3 in the dream. And 
the same inner organ (identifying itself with the 
body) imagines 4 objects external to itself in the 
waking stale with respect to the sense-organs. 

1 Inner organ This comprises mind (Jf^), mind- 
stuff (fan:), intellect (H% : ) an d egoism 


2 Identify It is like .the identification of the 
heat (fire) with the iron ball. 

3 Ideas The ideas of the ego and the non-ego as 
well as their mutual relationship. 

4 ImaginesWe remember oiir dream experiences 
in the waking state. The dream experiences which 
have the same nature as the waking ones are known 
to be internal only in the wakmg state. The waking 
experiences are also mere ideas or thoughts of the 
perceiving mind. 


The real nature of the inner organ 
is thus described : 

fipra ?wr II ? R II 

the material cause of mind and 

egosm TB one *&i&w. of the nature of insen- 
tiency f&fr subtle sf^m the three states 
attains wi similarly STRRT is born W*re dies. 

12. The subtle^ body which is the 
material cause of the mind and egoism is one 2 
and of the nature 3 of insentiency. It moves 4 
in the three states and is born and it dies. 

1 Subtle body This is the same as the Antah- 
karana and is called lingam* because it enables the 
Jiva or the embodied being to realise Biahman. This 
subtle body has been described in other Vedantic 
texts as composed of seventeen parts, viz., five .organs 
of perception, five organs of knowledge, five modifica- 
tions of prana, mind (*W^[) and intellect 


2 One -The subtle body () and the 
karfina are really one and identical, though from the 
empirical standpoint they appear as different. Like 
the water and the wave the Antahkirana (HWIT'O and 
the ideas which manifest themselves as powers of know- 
ledge and activity ($TR3n% and T%3ri3TT% which are 
on ly 1% or the modifications of the mind) are identical, 

3 Nature etc. It is because the Ariahkarana is 
the modification of the Avidya which is of the nature 
of insentiency. It appears as sentient on account of 
its identification with the reflection of Consciousness 

4 Moves etc. The identification with the three 
states as well as birth, death etc. can be predicated of 
the ego only and not of Atman or Self who is un- 
associated with these conditions. 


The existence of the material world 
is a matter of indubitable experience. The 
question arises, what is its cause ? Brah- 
man, which is beyond all causal relations, 
cannot create it. Therefore the scriptures 
postulate Maya as the cause of the appear- 
ance of the universe. This Maya is extre- 
mely illusive. It cannot be described either 
as real or unreal. 

The best way to describe Maya is to 
explain its two aspects, which is done in 
the following sloka : 

H \\ u 


of Maya f^mfrarerc of the nature of 
projecting (creating) and veiling ^faCT two 
powers ff without doubt (ztfa exists) T%lrren%: 
projecting power fosrf^ ^T^I^ from the subtle 
body to the (gross) universe *ro^ world &R{ 
creates . 

13. Two powers, undoubtedly, are pre- 
dicated of Maya, viz., those of projecting 1 
and veiling. The projecting power creates 
everything from the subtle 2 body to the gross 

1 Protecting This leads one to think of the pure 
and attnbutelebs Atman to be Viswa, Taijasa and 
Prajna, associated with the experiences of waking, 
dream and deep sleep. It is, again, under the influ- 
ence of this aspect of Maya that the non-dual Brahman 
appears as the manifested manifold. 

2 Subtle body This body consists of seventeen 
parts. See ante, sloka 12. 


From the relative standpoint, Brah- 
man is pointed out as the cause of the 
universe because the mind seeks a cause. 
That Brahman is, really speaking, not 
the cause, can be seen from the following 
sloka which describes the true nature of 
creation : 

ti ? 11 


of the nature of Brahman sft^nrar- 
in the entity which is Existence-Conscious- 

ness-Bliss arwfr in the ocean ^TT%^ like foams 
etc. *r^rro^sRn??TT the manifesting of all names 
and forms efe'. creation wi is called. 

14. The manifesting 1 of all names- and 
forms" in the entity 4 which is Existence- 5 Con- 
sciousness-Bliss and which is the same as 
Brahman, like the foams etc. in the ocean, is 
known as creation. 7 

1 Manifesting This manifestation is due to the 
projecting power of Maya which is potential in Brah- 
man from the causal standpoint. 

2 Names By which things are designated. 

3 Forms That which is expressed by a name. 
Both names and forms are mere forms of thought as 
can be understood by the analysis of names and forms 
experienced in dream, which are nothing but the 
modifications of the mind. 

4 Entity Reality is not a void or negation as 
the Buddhists contend. The appearance of the 
manifold cannot be based on an Absolute negation. 
In empirical experience, every appearance has a posi- 
tive substratum. The illusion of names and forms 
appears from, and disappears in, Brahman. 

5 Existence etc. These are not positive attributes 
of Brahman, which cannot be described by word or 
thought. Words etc. can describe only what is 
perceived in the perceptual world. 

Like etc. This illustration is for the purpose 

of showing the indescribable nature of creation. 

Foams, waves, bubbles etc. are not separate from the 

-ocean, because all these are made of the same stuff 

20 DgG-D$$YA VIV&KA 

as water. Again, they are not identical with the 
ocean, because we do make a distinction between the- 
ocean and the waves, etc. Similarly the manifested 
manifold is not separate from Brahman, as the Sruti" 
says, because no separate universe can be conceived of, 
which, according to the Sruti, is not of the nature of 
Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. Again, from the Sruti 
we know Brahman as separate from the world, which 
we perceive to be gross, solid, extended in time and 1 
space, etc. This appearance of the universe as sepa- 
rate from Brahman is due to Maya. 

7 Creation Vedanta explains the origin of the 
universe by saying that it is the unfolding of Brah- 
man through Its inscrutable power, called Maya. 
As the rope appears in the form of the snake, or as the 
ocean appears in the form of foams, waves etc. or as 
the sleeping man appears to be living in a dream 
world, so also Brahman appears in the form of the 
world. From the causal standpoint, Brahman is both 
the material and efficient cause of the world, 


Now is described the veiling power 
of Maya: 

3TTO 5TT%: the other power (of Maya) 
within ^spRft: ($w) (the distinction) between the 
seer and the seen (objects) wft: outside ^ also- 
afra&fc (3l5) (the distinction) between Brahman 
and the created universe amtfifir conceals *n 
this power ^fawf of the phenomenal universe 
T cause (w% is). 


15. The other 1 power (of Maya) conceals 
the distinction between the perceiver 2 and the 
perceived objects 3 which are cognized within 
the body as well as the distinction between 
Brahman 4 and the phenomenal 5 universe which 
is perceived outside (one's own body). This 
power (STTTR) is the cause of the phenomenal 

power It is known as the Avarana Sakti 
(the veiling power) of Maya. 

2 Perceiver The. Witness (lJT$fT) which is the cause 
of the immediate perception of "I" (see ante, sloka 
1). It considers itself as the enjoyer etc. by identify- 
ing itself with the gross and the subtle body. Really 
speaking, it is the relationiess Atman. 

3 Objects It includes everything from the empirical 
ego to the gross body. The Sakshin is distinct from 
the perceived objects. But the veiling power of Maya 
does not enable us to see the distinction and there- 
fore the Sakshin appears to have identified itself 
with the empirical ego, mind, sense-organs etc. 

4 Brahman Brahman is said to be of the nature 
of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. But through the 
veiling power of Maya It seems to have identified It- 
self with names and forms and thus appears as objects 
of enjoyment. 

5 Phenomenal This is a mere appearance like 
that of silver in the mother-o'-pearl. 

6 This e1c t From the highest standpoint there is 
neither creation nor dissolution. Non-dual Brahman 
alone is and always exists. The appearance of the 
manifold is due to the veiling power of Maya which 
conceals the real non-dual nature of Brahman anii 


presents the appearance of the variegated universe. It 
is just like perceiving dream objects with which the 
sleeper at that time is in no way connected. From the 
subjective standpoint a man becomes a world-bound 
creature on nccount of the identification of the seer 
with the mind, sense-organs etc. (object). Ignorance 
of the distinction between the subject and the object is* 
the cause of one'* sufferings in the world. 

Though it is a custom with the Vedantic writers to 
describe the veiling power (Avarana Sakti) as prior to 
the projecting power (Vikshepa Sakti), the author of this 
treatise makes here a departure. Strictly speaking, the 
Avarana Sakti cannot be said to precede the Vikshepa 
Sakn or rtce vosa. For, the effects of both are seen. 
simultaneously. One cannot be conceived of without 
the other. 


That Maya is the cause of the appear- 
ance of the universe has already been 
stated. The question now arises : what is 
the nature of Jiva who suffers by the law 
of transmigration ? It is the illusory cha- 
racteristic of the universe that is described 
below with a view to discuss later on the 
real nature of Jiva : 

3*31 fllfff f&T 

ii \\\\ 

of the Witness, 3*cT: in immediate 
proximity few the subtle body ^r w ith the 
(physical) body tfffl related HIM shines. (That 
subtle body) f%Ri^T^T^*n^iri: on account of its 


being affected by the reflection of Conscious- 
ness s^T^rffR^: empirical sfan embodied self 

16. The subtle body (Lingam) which 
exists in close proximity to the Witness(Sakshin) 
identifying itself with the gross body becomes 
the embodied empirical 1 self, on account of its 
being affected by the leflection of Consciousness. 

1 Empirical self It is that which thinks itself as 
the agent, enjoyer etc. Jt is this Jiva that appears to 
die and be re born etc. But the Sakshin or Atman is 
bitthless, deathless, immutable and without attributes. 


A doubt arises here. The embodied 
self is unreal and hence liberation is not 
possible for it. Again the Sakshin is ever 
free; therefore no liberation is necessary 
for it. There is no third entity for whom 
the scriptures, pointing to liberation, can 
be prescribed. Therefore scriptures be- 
come futile. The following stanza re- 
moves this doubt by showing that the idea 
of the embodied self is falsely superimposed 
upon the Sakshin or the Witness. 

aq; n ?vs 

of this (the empirical self) *ffac4 the 
nature of being a Jiva STRRRJ. through superim- 
position tfifafa in the Sakshin am also 


appears Wim of the veiling power 5 but f^RSTOT by 
the annihilation, *f% the difference *n% having 
become clear ^ that (the idea of being Jiva), 
a?wr% disappears. 

17. The character of an embodied self 
appears through false 1 superimposition in the 
Sakshin 2 also". With the disappearance of the 
veiling power, the distinction 4 (between the 
seer and the object) becomes clear and with it 
the Jiva character of the Sakshin (Witness) dis- 
appears. 5 

1 False supfrtmpositton This is due to the pro- 
jecting powers of Maya. 

2 Sakshin Thereby the Witness appears as the 
world-bound Jiva* 

3 Also Though the Sakshin is ever free from all 
taint of worldliness. 

4 Distinction Through Knowledge one realizes 
that the Sakshin is ever free from worldliness and is the 
eternal seer and all other ideas, trom the empirical ego 
to the body, are mere objects and hence negatable. 

5 Disappears This is possible only through 
Knowledge which one acquires from the study and the 
understanding of the scriptures. Hence scriptures are 
not futile. 


As in the case of the subject itself 
the Sakshin, through false identification, 
appears to have become the Jiva, so also 
Brahman appears to be identified with the 
objective universe. 


5W Scoffer *R*flIST ftft I 

H U \\ 

cmr similarly TT which ^rra: power 
of 'Brahman and phenomenal universe ^? distinc- 
tion srric^ concealing mfo exists 3&zm through 
its influence % Brahman ftScK^ 1 as being of 
the nature of modification STTORT appears. 

18. Similarly, 1 Brahman, through the in- 
fluence of the power 2 that conceals the distinc- 
tion between It 3 and the phenomenal universe, 
appears as endowed with the attributes 4 of 

1 Similarly As in the case of the Witness and 
the object, with reference to the individual self. 

2 Power The concealing power of Maya 

3 // The real nature of Brahman is that It is 
without attributes. 

4 Attributes The six attributes of the manifested 
manifold, m., birth, existence, growth, change, decay 
and annihilation. Under the influence of Maya, 
Brahman appeals to possess these attributes and to be 
identified with the world. 


When that veiling power is destroyed, 
the distinction between Brahman and the 
phenomenal universe becomes clear and 
then the changes etc. attributed to Brahman 


II I*. II 

in this case also 3?nr%?fT^T with the 
destruction of the veiling power ffjRnHrr. of 
Brahman and the phenomenal universe 5r^: 
distinction T%*m% becomes clear era: therefore 
^f in the phenomenal universe fro*: change 
exists 5T not swfa in Brahman ^i%^ ever 
change exists). 

19. In 1 this case also, the distinction 
between Brahman and the phenomenal universe 
becomes clear with 2 the disappearance of the 
veiling power. Therefore change 3 is perceived 
in the phenomenal universe, but never in Brah- 

1 /;/ etc.-k$ in the case of the individual self. 

2 With etc. As the result of the knowledge of 
the non-dual Brahman. 

3 Change etc. Whose essential characteristics 
are birth, growth, decay etc. 

In the foregoing stanzas we have seen, following 
the methods of agreement and difference, that the word 
"&" ("Thou" in the Vedic statement, "That Thou 
Art '0 indicates the Witness (Sakshin) which is immu- 
table and changeless arid that the word "<Tc indicates 
Brahman which is unrelated to the phenomena. The 
attributes generally associated with *' Thou " and 
"That" are mere appearances and hence unreal. 



Now is shown the identity of " Thou "' 
and "That": 

II Ro || 

(it) exists *TTirr (it) shines (becomes 
cognizable) fo4 (it is) dear ^f form *m name 
^ f[% af^rq^ all these five aspects (characterize 
every entity). W?I?R the first three (are) 
r characteristics of Brahrnan ^^ the next 
two ^^1 characteristics of the universe. 

20. Every entity has five characteristics, 
viz., existence, cognizabilily, 1 attractiveness, 
form and name. Of these, the first three 
belong 2 to Brahman and the next' 1 two to the 

1 Cogmzabihty That which makes one aware of 
the existence of an object. 

2 Belong fo etc. These three characteristics corres- 
pond to Sat, Chit, and Ananda. 

3 Next two Names and forms are the chief charac 
teristics of Maya. 


The meaning of the preceding sloka 
is made clearer in the following by the 
methods of agreement and difference : 


in the Akasha (ether), air, 

fire, water and earth ^fiwwroi^g in gods, 
animals and men *TT%^ra^T: (the attributes of) 
Existence, Consciousness and Bliss affiwr: 
common features ^IJTORT forms and names 

21. The attributes of Existence, Consci- 
ousness and Bliss are equally 1 present in the 
Akasha (ether), air, fire, water and earth as well 
as in gods, animals and men etc. Names and 
forms make 2 one differ from the other. 

1 Equally etc. All objects such as a pot, a picture 
etc. have these common features. These are the 
universal characteristics. 

2 Make etc. We distinguish one object from an- 
other only by their names and forms. Names and forms 
are characteristics of the individual and hence relative. 
Even after the negation of names and forms, there 
exists the common substratum whose nature is Ex- 
istence-Consciousness-Bliss (Absolute). 


Thus following the methods of agree- 
ment and difference, we get the implied 
meaning of "a*" ("That") and " ri " 
(" Thou ") which points to the Satchida- 
nanda Brahman. Therefore Brahman is 
identical with the Jiva. But one should 
practise concentration (Samadhi) in order 
to strengthen this conviction. The methods 
of Samadhi are described below : 


: \\ ^ \\ 

(to) name and form 5 two OT^ being 
indifferent ^rf^^R^rRqr: (*RO being devoted to 
Satchidananda f^ ^r either in the heart, STSRT or 
3rf|: outside *f^r always *wrf3r concentration ^ft^ 
should practise. 

22. Having 1 become indifferent to name- 
and form and being devoted to Satchidananda", 
one should always practise concentration 3 either 
within the heart 4 or outside. 5 

1 Having etc. Names and forms areimpermannte, 
because they appear and disappear. Though names 
and forms give the direct meaning (^pEZJTST) of "That'* 

and "Thou" (?4), yet they are negatable as found 
in deep sleep. 

2 Satchtdanauda This is the implied meaning 
(e5^n^f)of all objects. The characteristics of Existence, 
Consciousness and Bliss are universal and therefore 
they form the common features of the substratum of all 
objects comprehended by "That" and "Thou". 
Therefore these aspects alone, being permanent, as 
distinguished from names and forms, are worthy of 

8 Concentration Concentration or Samadhi means 
the one-pointedness of the mind by which the student 
feels his steady identity with Brahman. 

4 Heart Heart is pointed out, for the facility of 
concentration, as the seat of Paramatman, 

Outside That is, concentration can be practised 
through the help of any external object; such as & 


word, sound, image or any other symbol. These two 
modes of concentration are meant for different 


Samadhi with its twofold division is 
described in the following seven stanzas. 
Concentration within the heart is describ- 
ed in the three following : 


in which the ideas are present, 
in which ideas do not exist ffe (to be 
practised) within the heart swrfa: concentration 
(?fa) ferlR: of two kinds *rfo*7: 3*m%: concentra- 
tion in which ideas are present s^rssfig^Fr 
according to its association with a cognizable 
object or with a sound (as an object) 5*f: again 
firm (are) ol two kinds. 

23. Two kinds of Samadhi to be prac- 
tised in the heart (within one's self) are known 
as Savikalpa 1 and Nirvikalpa. 2 Savikalpa 
Samadhi is again divided into two classes, 
according to its association with a cognizable 
object or a sound (as an object). 

1 Savikalpa In this Samadhi, the practitioner 
concentrates his mind on Brahman without completely 
losing such distinctions as the knower, knowledge 
and the known. This is the initial step in the practice 
of concentration. 


2 Nirvikalpa In this Samadhi the practitioner 
makes himself free from all thought of distinctions, 
as the knower, knowledge and the known. 


Now is described the Samadhi (Savi- 
kalpa) in which concentration is associated 
with an object. 

centred in the mind WJTOI: desire 
etc. S^T: (cognizable) objects %?R Conscious- 
ness cJc*w%^R as their Witness ^T%^ should 
meditate are this sspngftss;. (is) combined with 
cognizable objects srifoeTO: in which ideas are 
present *wfa: concentration. 

24. Desire 1 etc. centred' 2 in the mind are 
to be treated as (cognizable) objects. Meditate 
on Consciousness 8 as their Witness. 4 This is 
what is called Savikalpa Samadhi associated 
with (cognizable) objects. 

1 Desire See an!e y 4. 

2 Centred etc. Because they are the modifications 
of the mind. They disappear with the disappearance 
of the mind as in deep_ sleep. Therefore, they have 
got nothing to do with Atman. 

Consciousness It means Atman, that is, the 
Witness of all these mental modifications. 

4 . Witness Because of the presence of Atman, 
the mind and its modifications are seen to be active. 


Then the process of the meditation is this : When- 
ever any thought appears in the mind, take it to be 
an object and be indifferent to it. But think of the 
Atman as your real nature, eternal and permanent. 
The object which is an idea appears and disappears. 
This sort of concentration is always associated with 
an object of thought. 


Now is described a higher kind of 
Savikalpa Samadhi, with which some sound 
(object) is associated: 

I) aflfrr: unattached *HW^; Exist- 
ence-Consciousness-Bliss ^sw self-luminous 
free from duality 3fl%T am ?% are this 
(is) associated with words ^f^Fra: *wfa: 
Savikalpaka Samadhi, 

25- I am ExistenceMTonsciousness- 
Bliss, unattached, 2 self-luminous 3 and free 4 
from duality. This is known as the (other 
kind of) Savikalpa Samadhi associated with 
sound (object). 

1 Existence etc. Sat, jChit and Ananda are the 
natural characteristics of Atman, 

2 Unattached Unrelated to Chitta or mind whose 
functions are seen as desire, volition etc. Atman is 
also unattached to virtue and \ice, weal and woe, 
(relative) knowledge and ignorance etc. Comp, "S 

"This Purusha is unattached.'' 


3 Self-luminous The existence of Atman can- 
never be doubted even when the relative objects are 
absent as in deep sleep. Compare " 3?g 5? 
(I. S. V*-<n) "* & felt 73%:" (f. V. 
14 (That Brahman) is unseen but seeing, unheard but 
hearing/' ** Thou couldst not see the Seer of sight." 

_ * Free from etc. Nothing else exists besides the 
Atman, because Atman is one and without a second and 
it has no parts and it is not of the nature of 
insentiency. Comp. " TpfiSwifert^ n (3T. S. V^)* 
44 He is, verily, one without a second.'' 

While practising this concentration the practition- 
er thinks, 4 * I am the Witness, the innermost Self". 
The object of his meditation is the non-dual Sejf free 
from the ideas of desire etc. which are foreign to Atman. 
There is only a current of self-consciousness. This 
sort of concentration is called Savikalpaka as it is not 
fiee from ideas altogether. Such ideas as, " I am. 
unattached," etc. are present in this Samadhi. 


Now is described the higher concentra- 
tion free from all ideas whatsoever : 

<5 but ^Tg^jRT^i^i^ on account of com- 
plete absorption in the bliss of realization of the 
Self ^T^T^T both the perceived objects and 
sounds OT^T being indifferent to T%^rcffei^N^ 
like a flame in a place free from wind, T%T%"^T: 

: absorption free from (subject-object) ideas. 



26. But 1 the Nirvikalpa Samadhi is that in 
which the mind 2 becomes steady like the (un- 
flickering flame of a) light kept in a place free 
from wind and in which the student becomes 
indifferent to both 3 objects and sounds on 
account 4 of his complete absorption in the bliss 
of the realization of the Self. 

1 But The Nirvikalpa Samadhi is here distin- 
guished from the Savikalpa Samadhi as described in 
the foregoing slokas. 

2 Mind etc. Through the constant practice of the 
Savikalpa Samadhi, mind becomes free from all distrac- 
tions which is the icsult of attachment to sense-objects. 
Therefore he, then, becomes competent to practise 
Nirvikalpa Samadhi in which the mind becomes steady 
like the unflickering Jiame of a candle kept in a wind- 
less place. Compare 


11 As a lamp in a spot unsheltered from the wind, 
does not flicker, even such has been the simile used 
for a Yogi of subdued mind, practising concentration 
in the Self." 

3 Both etc. These are associated with concentra- 
tion in the Savikalpa Samadhi. Desires etc. are the 
cognizable objects and " J am unattached " etc. are 
sound (objects) or ideas. 

4 On account etc. The word Anubhuti, in the text, 
means " Highest Consciousness " or " Self ". Comp. 


" I bow to that innermost (Subjective) Self, birth- 
less, incomprehensible, infinite, the embodiment of 
Bliss and the background of the World, created by 
Mahat etc. and painted by ignorance (Maya)/' 

The word * Rasa ' means the Supreme Self or the 
nature of the Highest Bliss. Comp. "^r^T: l**rMfaW 
*T3TF%" (ft S. VvM). "He is the Rasa, 

flavour, tor only after perceiving a flavour can any one 
become blessed." 

The word Avesa means complete absorption. Or 
it may mean the 'manifestation' of the Supreme Bliss 
.in the heart as the index of success in the Savikalpa 
Samadhi. Another meaning of the word is * coming ' 
(Slifcr) trom all directions (su) of bliss. Still another 
meaning is the 'possession' i.e. the practitioner be- 
comes possessed, as it were, by the bliss of self-realiza- 
tion and can no longer control himself. 

The Nirvikalpa Samadhi is the highest kind of 
concentration in which the practitioner realises his 
real Self. In this Samadhi the functions of the mind 
are stopped and the practitioner experiences the 
Highest Bliss. Compare 


" The mind, with the utter quiescence of modifi- 
cations conferring upon one Supreme Bliss, is said 
to be Asamprajnata Samadhi that is dear unto the 

This Samadhi is characterized by the absence of 
the knowledge of the subject-object relationship. 
Apparently it is like that state of calmness and 
tranquillity which pervades a stone, because in the 


Nirvikalpa Samadhi the mind stops its functioning. 
But it should not be mistaken for stupor or deep sleep 
in which state alone one experiences absence of 
duality. The difference between deep sleep and 
Nirvikalpa Samadhi is that in the former state there 
is no knowledge of Self, but in the latter there 
exists no feeling of not knowing the Self, because in 
the Nirvikalpa Samadhi one becomes identified with 
the ever-Conscious Atman. Compare 

"The state in which all desires completely dis- 
appear which is (quiescent) like the interior of a 
stone, but which is not characteiized by _swoon or 
deep sleep is admitted as the real nature of Atman.'* 

Nirvikalpa Samadhi which is identical with the 
Highest Knowledge can be attained only as a result 
of discrimination between the real and the unreal, 
After this discrimination, the student becomes indif- 
ferent to everything of the lelative world. Comp. 

Sutra, Samadhi Pada, 

16). "That is extreme non-attachment, which gives up- 
even the qualities and comes from the Knowledge of (the 
real nature of) the Purusha." 

This Samadhi is possible only for him who has be- 
come established in complete renunciation. Comp. 

44 Success is speedy for the extremely energetic." 

In this Samadhi one becomes free from all thoughts 
or ideas but infilled with Supreme Bliss. Compare 



'* It is just like an empty pitcher placed in the 
sky, having nothing inside and outside ; and again; 
it is just like a full pitcher placed in the sea, full (of 
water) both inside and outside. 


By the practice of Samadhi described 
above the practitioner realises his own Self 
which is of the nature of Existence-Con- 
sciousness-Bliss. But this concentration 
can also be practised with the help of any 
object in the external world. By such 
concentration one can realise the nature of 
Brahman and creation. Brahman and Self 
are identical 

n ?vs ii 

as in the heart sn^^rsfa in the external 
region as well 11%^ *GPR& ^gfr in any object 
whatsoever arra of the first kind swrftwRi; con- 
centration is possible tf: that (Samadhi) ^JTI^TT^ 
Erom the Pure Existence (which is Brahman) 
the separation of names and forms. 

27. The first 1 kind of Samadhi is possible 
with the help of any external 2 object as it is 
with the help of an internal 3 object. In that 
Samadhi the name and form are separated 4 from 
what is Pure Existence 5 (Brahman). 

1 First kind etc, i.e. theJSavikalpa Samadhi with 
the help of an object 


2 External By concentration on such external* 
objects, as the sun etc. 

3 Internal etc. Such as desire etc. 

4 Separated Names and forms on account of 
their appearance and disappearance are negatable. 
This is done by concentration on the Satchidananda 
factor of an entity. 

5 Pure Existence The Existence aspect of an 
object can never be negated. 

We have seen in the 24th stanza that concen- 
tration can be practised with the help of an object 
perceived internally. Similar concentration can be 
practised with the help of an external object also. 
Every object, as we have seen, has three unchangeable 
aspects, namely, Existence, Visibility, and Attrac- 
tiveness. The two other changing aspects are names 
and forms. The practitioner should concentrate his 
mind on Pure Existence which is the same as Brahman 
and dissociate himself from the changing aspects of 
name and form. 


Now is described the other kind of 
Savikalpaka Samadhi (^igr%[) associated 
with sound (object) to be practised with the 
help of an external object : 


of the same nature (always) and 
unlimited (by time, space etc.) ^ftr^WF^asfdr 
characterised by Existence-Consciousness-Bliss 
entity (flfam that is Brahman) 5% 


tt such uninterrupted reflectioa 
middle, *T*TTT%: concentration *fa^ is. 

28. The entity which 1 is (always) of the 
same nature and unlimited (by time, space 
etc.) and which is characterised by Existence- 
Consciousness-Bliss, is verily Brahman. Such 
uninterrupted reflection is called the inter- 
mediate 2 absorption, that is, the Savikalpaka 
Samadhi associated with sound (object). 

Which is etc. Which remains the same, that is, 
immutable in the past, present and future and which 
is, not limited by time, space etc. 

, ~ Intermediate Because it is superior to the 
Samadhi described in the foregoing Sloka and inferior 
to the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. 

This Samadhi is similar to the one described 
in Sloka 25. The only difference is that it is associ- 
ated with an external (objective) idea whereas the 
other one is associated with an internal (subjective) 


Now is described the Nirvikalpaka 
Samadhi which can be practised by fol- 
lowing the objective method : 


from the experience of Bliss 
: ^ insensibility (to external objects) 
as in the previous instance 


the third kind of Samadhi *RT: described 
3Ri by the teachers) T^ : q^fa: swifafo: by the 
help of these six kinds of Samadhi T%T^FC 
always *BT time *nr^ should spend. 

29. The insensibility 1 of the mind (to 
external objects) as 3 before, on account of the 
experience" of Bliss, is designated as the third 
kind of Samadhi (Nirvikalpaka). The practi- 
tioner should uninterruptedly 4 spend his time 
in these six 5 kinds of Samadhi. 

1 Insensibility This shows that the mind is 
completely absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman. 

~ As before As in the case of Samadhi described 
in the twenty-sixth Sloka ; here also the practitioner at- 
tains the Nirvikalpaka Samadhi by merging the entire 
illusory phenomena in Brahman and by being indif- 
ferent to the manifested manifold (^3$) and such 
ideas as " indivisible " (a?^:), of the same nature 
(tpB?3f:) etc. Concentration becomes steady like the 
unfiickering flame of a candle in a place free from 

3 Experience etc. This bliss is due to the know- 
ledge of Brahman whom the scriptures describe as an 
entity of Bliss. The Self (subject) is identical with 
Brahman. In the subjective concentration, the Self 
which is the Witness of all mental modifications is 
identical with Brahman. Otherwise such concentra- 
tion, without a substratum, becomes a mere mental 
abstraction and ends in nihilism. Again, in objective 
concentration, Brahman, the unchanging entity in all 
perceived objects, because of its all-pervasive nature, 
is identical with the Self (subject). As the knowledge 
of Brahman is associated with bliss so also the 
knowledge of Self is accompanied by Bliss Eternal. 

VIVE K A 41 

4 Uninterruptedly This Samadhi should be 
practised uninterruptedly for a long time. Then only 
can the practitioner be firmly established in supreme 
knowledge. Cf. (*T) "^t^reA^4^^R%ftd1wqftr: " 
(TT. %, *fflTIT7I3;, vsv). "It becomes firmly grounded 
by long, constant efforts with great love (for the end 
to be attained). " 

5 Six That is, three subjective and three objec- 


As a result of the constant practice 
of Samadhi, described above, it becomes 
subsequently quite natural and spontane- 
ous. Then the student realises Brahman 


the attachment to the body 
with the disappearance of TOTc^fa the Supreme 
Self (MricT (HT%) with the realization of ^^^r^r 
to whatever objects *R: mind ^TRT goes rr^TrT^r 
there ?r?n>w. absorptions (^r^cr are). 

30. With the disappearance of the attach- 
ment 1 to the body and with the realization of 
the Supreme Self, to whatever object- the 
mind is directed one experiences Samadhi.* 

1 Attachment etc. On account of such attachment 
to body, a being feels that he is a man, a Brahmin, 
a so and so, etc. Following the process of enquiry 
Jaid down in Vedanta, the student realises that all 


internal entities from the empirical ego to the body 
are only objects and the subject (Self) is the Witness. 
Therefore, he ceases to identify himself as attached 
to the objects, knowing that appearance and disap- 
pearance are their inevitable nature. Similarly, by an 
analysis of the external world he realises that Brah- 
man is the only permanent entity in the universe, 
while names and forms are changing phenomena. 
Therefore the practitioner becomes indifferent to the 
Internal and external objects and fixes his mind on 
Brahman which is identical with the Self. 

2 Objects As perceived by the senses. 

;H Samadhi That is, as a result of constant piac- 
tice of Yogic Samadhi, as described above, for a long 
time and with the help of the knowledge of Truth, the 
practitioner realises all objects, internal and external, 
as Brahman. Even the names and forms which appear 
to the ignorant as devoid of reality are looked upon 
by the Jnani as ever existent Brahman. He sees every- 
where Brahman only. The knowledge of Brahman 
which is at first attainable by effort becomes, later on, 
quite spontaneous and natural. 


Now is described the result of this 
supreme realization in the language of the 
Mundaka Upanishad (2-8) : 

\\\\ \\ 

. Him who is high and low & bv 

beholding i*pmfrr: fetters of the heart firmer 
is broken flWswr: all doubts fiteRt are solved 


His Wffa ^ all works' (and their effects) 
wear away, 

31. By 1 beholding Him who 2 is high and 
low, the fetters 3 of the heart are broken, all 4 
doubts are solved and all 5 his Karmas (activi- 
ties and their effects) wear away. 

1 By beholding Him That is, by realising 
Brahman throughout the manifested manifold. 

2 Who is high and low The word high (q*[) 
signifies Brahma, what is known as cause of the uni- 
verse. The word low (3^) signifies the universe etc. 
which are the effects. It is the non-dual Turlya 
Brahman alone that exists everywhere, both in the 
cause and in the effect. 

3 Fetters etc. This denotes ideas of agency etc. 
which are falsely superimposed on the Self. This is 
due to ignorance. 

4 All doubts That is, the doubts regarding the 
nature of Self. 

* AlUiis Karmas etc*~- For a Jnani the accumulated 
works (4f%cT3$r) as well as fresh works (3Tf*nT*rar) do 
not yield any result. Only the fructescent works 
(5tt^*'T3*T), as a result of which a man has got his 
present body, continue to produce their result. This 
work yields its result so long as the body lasts. But 
this explanation is offered only from the standpoint of 
the ignorant who see even a Jnani subject to disease, 
misery, hunger, thirst etc. But a Jnani who has made 
himself quite free from the body-idea does not feel the 
effect of any Karma. For him all works and their 
effects are non-existent. Comp. " arerftf n^cf ^f&nfoft 
*2STff:" (ST. s. olvs^). "(But) when he is free of the 
body, then neither pleasure nor pain touches him." 


He who realises Brahman attains liberation 

-which is the highest objective of life. Compare the 
.following Sruti passages : 

"sra* %5 ^ira" **%" (3. s. vv>) 

14 He who knows Brahman, verily, becomes Brah- 

"srefa^raficf TO*" (I. 3\ Wl) 

14 The knower of Brahman attains the Highest." 

44 The knower of Self goes beyond grief. " 

"3f^q | 3RcR Simtsfi-r ;> (f. S. V-1-v) 

44 Oh ! Janaka ! You have attained fearlessness. " 

''TTrfW^ ^8ra5T^T%I% M (f. ^. v-V^X) 

44 Oh, (Maitreyi), thus far goes immortality. " 

44 Knowing it (Self) one goes beyond death/' 

"33RTSSI ^R^TS^ M (f. 5T. VV-^3) 
"When the Self only is all this." 


We have seen the method prescribed 
in this treatise for the realization of the 
Highest Truth. By following this method 
the student understands the real signifi- 
cance of 4< That " and " Thou " and ulti- 
mately realises that identity. All these 
have been described in their proper places. 
The various helps for the attainment of 
such knowledge have been dealt with as 
well as the result of the knowledge of 
identity. The treatise may be said to be 


completed here. But' a doubt may still 
arise in the mind of the student. What 
is the nature of Jiva? If the Witness 
(Sakshin) is really Brahman, then He can- 
not be Jiva. And if He is Jiva, then He 
cannot be Brahman. In any case, the 
teaching is of no use. Therefore, it is 
necessary to explain to the student the 
real nature of Jiva. 

The student will be told in the follow- 
ing slokas that the Jiva in reality is Sakshin 
and identical with Brahman. The Sakshin 
considers itself to be Jiva owing to his 
identification with the Upadhis : 

limited f%^mm: unreal presenta- 
tion of Consciousness g^fto: ^sw^cr. the third 
is as imagined in dream ^KT T%iV<*: these three 
kinds 3fa: embodied being T%iR: should be 
known fi^r among them ^rrer: the first one 
(is) the real nature (of Jiva). 

32. There are three conceptions of Jiva 
(Consciousness), namely, as that limited (by) 
prana etc., as that presented (in the mind) and 
the third one Consciousness as imagined in 
dream (to have assumed the forms of man etc.) 

According to the first theory, Sakshin (the Seer) 
appears to be subject to various Upadhis (limitations) 


of Prana, sense-organ, mind etc. and thus jegards 
himself as Jiva. It is like the infinite space (Akasha) 
portions of which appear to be limited by pots etc. 
According to the second theory, the Consciousness 
(Sakshin) appears to be fallaciously presented in the 
mind and this presentation is known as Jiva. It is 
like the reflection of the sun in water. The reflection 
always partakes of the qualities of the medium in 
which it is reflected as the reflection of the sun is seen 
to be moving etc. with the movement of the water. 
Similarly, the presentation of Consciousness in the 
mind partakes of the qualities of the mind, such as 
agency, desire, volition etc. According to a third 
theory, the nature of Jiva is the same as the nature of 
various beings one sees in dream. In dream, on 
account of the absence of the knowledge of reality, 
one thinks _pf himself as king, god, or beggar etc. 
Similarly, Atman, also, through the ignorance of its 
real nature, thinks of itself as man, or animal etc. 
According to the author of this treatise, the first 
theory (3ftft3W3:) tells us that the real nature of 
Jiva is Brahman. This view is, however, not accept- 
ed by all schools of Vedanta. 


How is it possible for a limited entity 
(Jiva) to be identical with the Absolute 
Brahman ? This is thus explained : 

3 ^RPRT: II u n 

limitation ^rer: w^ is imaginary 

<(illusory) but s^lrer what appears to be 
limited TOOT (is) real rfl%?^ in that (Brahman) 


on account of superimposition 
the Jivahood appears 3 but 
naturally 5TO<* (it is) of the nature of Brahman. 

33. Limitation is illusory 1 but that which 
appears to be limited is real. 2 The Jivahood 3 
(of the Self) is due to the superimposition of 
the illusory attributes. But really it 1 has the 
nature of Brahman. 

1 Illusory The idea of limitation is illusory. 
What is the nature of the limitation that is superimpos- 
ed upon Consciousness (Sakshin) which is without parts 
etc.? This limitation is saicHo be caused by Prana etc. 
Ordinarily, limitation (3^1^:) is seen to be of the 
following kinds : A pillar is limited by the ground on 
which it stands. Or a part of it is covered (3TT^^) by 
roof etc. This sort of limitation is not possible in 
Atman because It is without parts. A frog is seen to 
be swallowed (3T^t^:) by the snake. But prana etc. 
cannot act similarly with regard to Self; for, It is 
always complete, without parts, without activity and 
ever peaceful, Cf. '* RP^Rc5 f*n^^ STRf" (3%. 3". 
V^) without parts, without actions, tranquil. " t JJTO5fr 
ITTfir^" (STtfcfare:) This is full and that is full. An 
elephant is seen to be trimmed (wpt^:) by the 
will of its care-taker. But Prana etc. cannot act like- 
wise with regard to Atman ; for being themselves of 
nsentient natur^, Ptana ej:c. are subservient to Atman. 
Compare "y: sn^rTCRflRfo" (l-^ V^-^) He who 
rules the breath within. 

Hence no kind of limitation by Prana etc. can 
be predicated of Atman. Therefore the limitation which 
appears to be superimposed upon Atman is illusory. 

~ Real. Sakshin or Self is real, because it is the 
same everywhere and at all times. 


3 Jivahood The appearance of Jiva is not possible 
without the association of upadhis. The following 
analogy of a scholiast is interesting. Rahu always exists 
in the firmament. But it cannot be directly perceived 
except in association with the solar or the lunar disc. 
Similarly Sakshin also becomes an object of perception 
(Jiva) only in association with egoism, Prana etc. 

// is etc. The Sakshin is the same as Brahman. 
It may be contended that if the idea of limitation 
(Jivatvam) and what limits it (Prana etc.) be unreal, 
then Sakshin also (what appears to be limited) is unreal. 
But this contention is refuted thus: Sakshin is not 
unreal because it is the same as Brahman. A woman 
wearing anklets, through illusion, considers her feet 
to be entwined by a snake. With the removal of the 
illusion, the snake idea vanishes: but her feet remain 
as they are. Similarly the illusion of limitation and 
what limits, is removed by Knowledge. But the 
Sakshin always exists. 


That the theory of limitation (a 
explains in a better way the identity of 
Jiva and Brahman than the two other 
theories, is now described : 

such Vedic statements as 
" That Thou Art " etc. sref^w ^RW of the 
limited Jiva <5*fiT swn with Brahman that is 
without parts i^Rrf identity ^3' declare *r not 
with the two other Jivas. 


34. Such Vedic statements 1 as "That 
Thou Art" etc. declare 2 the identity of partless 3 
Brahman with the Jiva who appears as such 
from 4 the standpoint of the 'Theory of limit- 
ation' (3T^t%^r?:). But it does not agree with the 5 ' 
other two views (of Jiva). 

Vedic statements The four great Vedic state- 
ments which summarize the entire teachings of tlv 
Vedas are : (1) "That Thou Art " (cTr?W%) ; (2) "I A 
Brahman " (3?f 5f^TI%f); (3) "This Atman is Brahman ^. 
(3T?F 3TRTT 3?l) ; (4) "(Pure) Consciousness is Brn _ 
man" (siffR 5fr). s \ 

2 ifijjare etc. The method followed in arriv fa" 
at surDecfoclusion is what is known as *n*n?n*Tc5$nJT' Je- 

T a method in which the / of 
on both sides are given ir T all 
their l( * el *Y^ 1 Js recognized, noticing caieful 
essence of \^\^^ j s chj t or p ure Consr 

\ 3 p fl > i*i jresenta!- 

v ^ ^ 5-rW/cjj Btahman i.e., Pure Conscio^-j L^ 

4 From the eiL That is, the Jiva as^ ' anc j eniOVS 2 
" Theory of limitation" which decla* f- A J ,^ n 
limited by the Upadhis or Avidy J* va ' , , . 
appears as Jiva. .eilts' 5 and their 

5 ~v 7 rp, *ature of the objects 

The other etc. There ar . / , J 

of Jiva : one in which he ap- ^ (universe). 

and the other in which ' . ,.. ... . , 

^^^o^* 4* ^ o-i ' ac " as cultivation, trade, 
presentation of the Seik^r ., r r i . .^ , . 

T-f,r t *i T- * the Vedas, spiritual practi- 

tjty of these Jivas, acr ^ 

treatise, with Brahma> 

For, they have no rev in this world or in heaven. 

mere imagination. , . - 

theory of limitatk her air fire ' water and earth - 

5 .-Various animate and inanimate objects. 


Brahman can be demonstrated. But the two other 
Jivas are illusory. There cannot be any identity 
between an illusory appearance and a real entity. 


That the appearance of Jiva is due to 
the limitation (^^:) superimposed upon 
(j Brahman is thus described : 

un rv ^ *^ 

we ^[fc^J^^lf flW^^faf Sffi^rat II ^ II 

to ;ai 

illu f^qr^rrf^iWr 5TRT Maya character id by 

as u oiection and concealment ^W^ in a ^^man 
wnat-J r TA i ^^ JDUt" * j 

rests ^ ra ^ m Brahman *F Udi- 
>le nature ^Ti^^r having concea'.. ^^itr 
he world and the Jiva, sre?^ c Ini agines. 

Maya which has the dou6ie-v??erjt 
explai'rfiP and concealment is in 2 Brahman. 
Jiva and indivisible nature of Brahman 
theories, is Prahman) appear as the world 

^nte. lo. 

for the cause of 

'' are told that it (Maya) 
. such v 

" That Thou Art " etc. 

without parts tr^ri identity *3- * y e J n f a e?IS- 
^rc ^^T; with the two other Jivas. 



What is the nature of Jiva and what 
is, again, the nature of the universe ? 
The answer is thus stated : 


located in Buddhi (mind) 
fallacious presentation of Consciousness *&- 
f^the performer of activities HTTRT (^) (as well as) 
the enjoyer f| because (cTOT^ therefore) *for: 
^fftrai becomes Jiva ^rptrraffi consisting of ele- 
ments (^p) and their products (*ft%i) ^Tnr^q- of 
the nature of the objects of enjoyment & ^ all 
this, *FKt universe ^rra: is called. 

36. it is because the fallacious presenta- 
tion of Consciousness (f%5WRp.) located in the 
Buddhi performs various 1 actions and enjoys 3 
their results, therefore it is called Jiva. And all 
this, consisting of the elements 3 and their 
products 4 which are of the nature of the objects 
of enjoyment, is called Jagat (universe). 

1 Various actions Such as cultivation, trade, 
sacrifice, worship, study of the Vedas, spiritual practi- 
ces etc. 

2 Enjoys Either in this world or in heaven. 

3 Elements Ether, air, fire, water and earth. 

4 Products Various animate and inanimate objects. 



Both Jiva and Jagat are the products 
of Maya ; hence they are cognized so long 
as a man is in a state of ignorance. 

^ 3$ these two *TWc<j<f till one attains 
liberation aRif^rewnw from time without be- 
ginning i^5?t K*ffi have only empirical existence 
<nwraL therefore 3^ both TRRPTO (are) em- 
pirical (in nature). 

37. These 1 two, dating from time with- 
out 2 beginning, have (only) empirical 3 existence 
and exist till 4 one attains liberation. There- 
fore both are called empirical. 5 

1 These two The Jiva and Jagat. 

2 Without etc. The origin of Maya which produces- 
the conceptions of time, space and causation cannot 
be proved from the relative or the empirical standpoint. 
It is because we aie in Maya that we cannot know 
the cause of Maya. Compare 

JOT M frBPRRft SKTOft >; (rftaT, 1 V 

"Know both Prakriti and Purusha to be without 

3 Empirical In the state of ignorance the ideas of 
knower, knowledge and known are possible and the 
existence of the universe as well as various activities 
connected with it are possible only through these 


Till one etc. The world 'disappears when one 
attains liberation or Jnanam. Compare 

i 1 STW 

(3- s. VV*) 

"Their fifteen parts enter into their elements, their 
Devas (the senses) into their (cortesponding) I)evas. 
Their deeds and their Self with all his knowledge 
become all one in the Highest Imperishable." 

Empirical The Jiva and Jagat are neither real 
nor illusory (SfTfavufa^). They are empirical 
or phenomenal (2TT^[TR^). 


The following doubt arises : if the 
individual self, as weil as the cognized 
universe, existing from time immemorial, 
should last till one attains liberation, how 
is it possible to explain the scriptural 
passages dealing with creation, preser- 
vation and destruction and also waking, 
dream and deep sleep states? It is thus 
explained : 


located in (associated with) 
Consciousness as wrongly presented fa$nrr?r- 
of the nature of projection and concealment 
sleep $ at first sftwRft the (individual) 


self and the cognized universe anw covering 
g~r new but 3***^ imagines. 

38. Sleep, said to be associated with 
Consciousness wrongly presented (in the mind) 
and of the nature of concealment and projection, 
at first covers the (empirical) individual 1 self 
and the cognized universe, but 2 then imagines 
them (in dream) afresh. 3 

1 Individual etc. The individual self and the 
universe whose existence is perceived in the waking 

2 But This is to show the distinction between 
the Jiva and Jagat perceived in the waking state 
(Vyavaharika) and those of the dream state (Pratibha- 

3 Afresh That is, the Jiva and the Jagat cognized 
in dream which are apparently different from those of 
the waking state. 

One of the scholiasts explains the Sloka in the 
following way : 

Nidra means Avidya, that is, a state in which 
the nature of reality is not known. This Nidra or 
Avidya merges (^T^T-SffeT^F^r) everything within it 
at the time of deep sleep or cosmic dissolution ; Jiva, 
again, imagines them afresh at the time of waking. 
The ^ord "imagines" means that they again become 
objects of experience. Jiva or the Chidabhasa being 
itself a creation of Avidya cannot properly be said to 
be the ground (3Tf9RT) of Avidya. But from common 
experience, " I am ignorant " (3T? 3T|F;), such expres- 
sion may be used, 

It is on account of the belief in causality that 
the mind sees a causal relation between the experi- 
ences of the waking and the dream states. 

V1VEKA 55* 


Why are the Jiva and the Jagat, as 
cognized in dream, imaginary or illusory? 

^ ft 

TTCT these two Jftfttfara tpf rc*RRrr?t on account 
of their having existed only during the period 
of (dream) experience ^1^11%% illusory (&&& 
are called) f| because *?rcrsf^ for one who 
has woke up from sleep ^m in (new) dream 
cRt: of those (Jiva and Jagat) 3?r: again f&ftr: 
existence r not (seen). 

39. These two objects (namely, the 
perceiving self and the perceived world) are 
illusory on account of their having existed only 1 
during the'pferiod of (dream) experience. It is 
because no one after waking up from clream 
sees those objects when one dreams again. 

1 Only These objects do not exist during the 
subsequent waking or clienni states. 

From this analogy it can be said that the entire 
world of experiences, perceived as real during the state 
of ignorance, are illusory or imaginary on account of 
their non-perception after the attainment of Know- 


The following three stanzas point out 
the difference between the Jivas as con- 
ceived from (he three standpoints stated 

56 D$G-n$$YA V1VEKA 

^: who (is) sifcWTftra: illusory (that is 
perceived in dream) ^: Jiva fa: he) ^ that 
TnftrwfM) illusory (perceived in dream) *m^ 
world ^Tr4 real *r^cf thinks g but spar. other 
^ETSFRSJ: empirical ^fan Jiva (<ra; that) few 5% 
unreal (T^fr thinks). 

40. He who is the illusory 3 Jiva thinks 
the illusory world 2 as real 3 but the empirical 4 
Jiva thinks (that world) as unreal 5 . 

1 Illusory Imagined in dream. 

2 IVorld The world that is perceived in dream. 

3 fieal Because such world exists as long as the 
dream Jiva exists in dream. 

4 Zs;//^//-/^/-^Vyavciharika Jiva is he who consi- 
ders himself to be the enjoyer etc., in the waking 
state. This Jiva is the reflection of Consciousness in 
the Buddhi. 

r> Unreal To the Jiva of the waking state the 
entire dream-perceived world of subject and object 
appears as unreal. 

The dream and the waking experiences, on ac- 
count of their mutual contradictions, cannot be said 
to be real. 


Now is described the nature of experi- 
ences of the Paramarthika (Real) Jiva: 


*: who (is) *n*roftsfc empirical ^T*C: Jiva 
H: he ^ that ^I^TT^E empirical *r*r^ world 
^f real srwrf sees <rnc*nflN>: the real (Jiva) 
that) ftrwrr ?f% unreal *T-ar% thinks. 

41. He who is the empirical 1 Jiva sees 
this empirical 2 world as real. 3 But the real 4 
Jiva knows it 3 to be unreal. 

L Empirical See ante, sloka 36. 

Empirical The world of waking experiences 
created by Maya. 

* Real As existing in past, present and future. 
It is because the relative world exists as long as the 
Jiva, its perceiver, exists. 

Real Jiva The Jiva that is the witness of the 
three states, 

5 //The world and its experiences in the 
waking state. 

Because such world and its experiences 
are not perceived in deep sleep. 


The ParaiYiarthika Jiva as distinguish- 
ed from the Jivas of the waking and 
dream experiences is identical with Brah- 

I ^ n 

the real Jiva 5 but 5T$M iden- 
tity with Brahman TrwnShS real stt% knows 


other ?r sft$r% doeiPttot see STWC^T as unreal 
5 but ^faffi" sees. 

42. But the Paramarthika Jiva knows 
its identity with ;1 , Brahman to be (alone) real. 
He does not see the Other, 1 (if he sees the other) 
he knows it to 1>e ffetisory. 2 

1 Other He;doefr not see any existence other 
than Brahman. <5omp. " v& ^F^c^^IrT " (*5T. 

" where one does s $0t see the other". 

3j<j/' (f . g 1 . ^y^iy,) " when the Self is only all this* 7 

2 Illusory -^^fe the Paramarthika Jiva comes back 
to the relative plane of Consciousness he knows the 
world and the reflected Consciousness (Jiva) to be 

The Jiva so long as it does not know the dis- 
tinction between the Witness (^) and the perceived 
world (^\) thinks the aggregate of body, mind, sense- 
organ etc., as the seer and the object (perceived 
world) as real. The Vyavaharika Jiva is he who 
knows the ego (seer) as distinct from the aggregate 
of the mind, body and sense-organ etc., and thinks of 
the world not as real but the creation of the causal 
Self ultimately disappearing in it. He further knows 
this causal Self (Saguna Brahman) alone. to be real. 
But the Paramarthika Jiva knows this causal relation 
to be unreal. The Brahman does not produce or 
manifest the world of ego and non-ego. The idea of 
Jiva is due to a false superimposition upon Brahman. 
It is like the superimposition of the snake-idea on the 


The following doubt arises : The 
Jivas known as VySvah&rika (experiencer 
of the waking state) and PrStibhasika 


(experiencer of the dream. state) on account 
of their being products of Avidya, are 
insentient by nature. Then how can they 
be described as Jiva ? For Jiva is the same 
as the Jivatma as the Sruti says, " Enter- 
ing by this living; self" (Chand. Up. 
6-3-2, 3). The Brahman itself has entered 
into the Devata (shining element), of the 
nature of fire, earth, water, in the form 
of a Jivatma and manifested different 
names and forms. The doubt is thus 
solved : 

Rffa*m*r% ii 99 n 

sweetness, fluidity and cold- 
ness, tfftWT: characteristics of water crfr% in the 
wave f3^wr inhering m%%%ff in the foam of 
which it (wave) is the substratum 3?ft also w 
3?3*ffiT as inheres *nf&W: the inherent charac- 
teristics of Sakshin ^?m-?T: Existence, Consci- 
ousness and Bliss ^r?n<t on account of relation 
52n^flR:% in the Vyavaharika Jiva 5?gn^f?cf inhere 
a^gftT through it 5iif^rii%% in the Pratibhasika 
Jiva cfW similarly (argi^fScf inhere). 

43-44. As such characteristics of water 
as sweetness, fluidity and coldness appear to 
inhere in the waves, 1 and then also in the 


foams of which the waves are the substratum, 
so also Existence, 2 Consciousness and Bliss 
which are the (natural characteristics of Sakshin) 
appear to H inhere in the Vyavaharika Jiva 4 on 
account of its relation 5 (with Sakshin) and 
through it similarly inhere in the Pratibhasika 

1 Waves The substratum of waves is water. The 
characteristics of the substratum appear to inhere in 
that which is substrated. The water appears as waves 
and the waves as foams. There is no difference 
between them except in respect of names and forms. 
Again, the foams, waves and water cannot be separat- 
ed from sweetness, fluidity and coldness. The substance 
is, according to Vedanta, the same as the quality. 

2 Existence etc. These are the natural character- 
istics (^T^T^^fJF) of Sakshin or Brahman. As a matter 
of fact, Sakshin is identical with Satchidananda. 

3 To inhere in It is because the Vyavaharika 
Jiva, including the perceived universe, is the illusory 
appearance (Aropila) falsely superimposed upon Brah- 
man. Therefore the characteristics of Brahman appear 
to inhere in the Jiva and the Jagat. 

4 Jiva Both the Vyavaharika Jiva and the 
Pratibhasika Jiva include the worlds or the non-egos 
perceived in the waking and dream states. 

5 Relation This relation is seen from t'he causal 
or relative standpoint. From the standpoint of 
Brahman there is no Jiva, Vyavaharika or Pratibhasika 
and hence no relation. 

fl Pratibhasika Jiva Both the ego and the non- 
ego cognized in dream also have the characteristics of 
Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. 



This is how the characteristics of 

Atman are superimposed (srsjrcnr) upon the 
seer and the seen. Now comes the negation 
of this erroneous superimposition. 

jq with the disappearance of the 
foam craptff: its characteristics SSRTT: such as 
fluidity etc. <TTW% in the wave *$: exist 
f^sSr with its disappearance again T$T these 
3U as before ^T> in the water fciBi% exist. 

'45. With the disappearance of the foam 1 
(in the wave), its characteristics such as fluidity 
etc. merge in the wave; again with the dis- 
appearance 61' the wave 2 in the water, these cha- 
racteristics merge, as 3 before, in the water. 

1 Foam This is an appearance. The wave 
appears as the foam. 

~ Wave This is' also an appearance of water,. 
which is the ultimate substratum. 

8 As before Fluidity, coldness and sweetness were 
what constituted water before waves and foams appear- 
ed. Now after the disappearance of wave and foam in 
the water, these characteristics are also found to exist 
in their antecedent forms, as water from which they 
cannot be separated. Water always exists. Foams etc. 
have no existence separate from water. They appear 
from and disappear in water. They are nothing but 
water in another form. 



Now the meaning that we get from 
the illustration is applied to the object 
illustrated : 

errsrfa n ^ n 

^r with the disappearance 
of the Pratibhasika Jiva (sft^R^r: the charac- 
teristics of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss) 
in the Vyavaharika (empirical) Jiva 
exist rf?R with the disappearance of that 
characteristics of Existence, Consci- 
ousness and Bliss mqw in Sakshin <r3wn% 

46. With the disappearance of the Prati- 
bhasika 1 Jiva (in the Vyavaharika Jiva) Ex- 
istence, Consciousness and Bliss (which are its 
characteristics) merge in the Vyavaharika Jiva. 
When that also disappears (in Sakshin) these 
characteristics (finally) merge in Sakshin. 2 

1 Pratibhasika Jiva This and the Vyavaharika 
Jiva include the worlds perceived by them respectively. 

2 Sakshin That is, Brahman which is identical 
with Self. Existence, Consciousness and Bliss which 
are imagined to be qualities of Brahman are, in reality, 
the same as Brahman. 

As with the merging of foam, wave etc. in the water, 
their fluidity etc. disappear therein, even so with the 


mergence of the Pratibhasika Jiva and the Vyavaharika 
Jiva in Sakshin (that is, in Brahman at the time of 
deep sleep and Mukti respectively) the characteristics, 
such as Existence etc. inhering in them, disappear in 
Brahman. For names and forms as well as the 
characteristics belonging to them have no other 
existence apart from Brahman. They appear out of 
and disappear in Brahman Brahman or Sakshin. Its 
existence cannot be denied, in the past, the present or 
the future nor in the states of waking, dream or deep 
sleep. The Vyavaharika Jiva and the world that it 
perceives are non-existent before creation and after 
dissolution. They exist only during the period of 
ignorance. They appear out of Brahman, inhere in 
Brahman and finally disappear in iiiahman. As foam 
and wave have no existence apart from water, so also 
the entire universe consisting of the ego and the non- 
ego have no existence apart from Brahman. Verily all 
that exists is Brahman.