(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Dr. Southwood Smith; a retrospect"

Ex libris 
: C. K. OGDEN ; 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 



u 



\^ 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2007 witli funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/drsoutliwoodsmitliOOIeweiala 







i*>V,-./'v;' tr/„/f,ll'n-/ I 



J 

DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH 



A RETROSPECT 



HIS GRANDDAUGHTER 

MRS C. L. LEWES 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON 

MDCCCXCVIII 



All Rights reserved 






TO 

MY MOTHER, 

CAROLINE SOUTHWOOD HILL, 

/ DEDICATE THIS MEMOIR 

OF 

HER FATHER. 



1C57526 



PREFACE. 



It is now nearly forty years since the death of 
my grandfather, Dr Southwood Smith, and with 
this distance of time lying between him and us, 
it may not be uninteresting to this generation to 
look back upon the origin of some of the great 
social reforms which have now reached such wide 
proportions, and to see these reforms as gathered 
round the life of a man who was in the forefront 
of the noble army which promoted them. 

He, one of the first to seize a truth, one of the 
most indomitable to persevere in the promulga- 
tion of it when perceived, went straight forward 
until it prevailed, and thus became instrumental 
in conferring some of the widest benefits which 
have come to us in this century. 

From his great grief in early manhood he but 
emerged the stronger. The force of his con- 



viii PREFACE. 

densed sorrow produced an energy which carried 
all before it, and resulted in the strength of his 
middle age and the serenity of his latter years. 
In order that such a life — crowned by its humility 
— might not pass away without some permanent 
record of its nobleness, the following memoir has 
been written. 

I must apologise for the frequent allusion, in 
the midst of grave public questions, to my own 
recollections ; but since all the early years of my 
life were passed at my grandfather's side, it has 
been difficult to avoid this. 

Moreover, I have hoped that something pic- 
turesque and touching would be found in the 
relation of the strong man and little child, who 
worked together at various public causes, playing 
together in the bright intervals, and that some- 
thing of the reverent enthusiasm he inspired in 
that child might pass, through her, to those 
who read these pages. 

GERTRUDE LEWES. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

PAGE 

RECOLLECTIONS OF MY GRANDFATHER I 

CHAPTER I. 

EARLY LIFE, 1788-1820. 

Education. Marriage. Death of his wife. Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. Publication of the ' Illustrations of the Divine 
Government.' Yeovil 7 

CHAPTER II. 

FIRST YEARS IN LONDON — DAWN OF THE SCIENCE OF 
MODERN HYGIENE, 1820-1834. 

Appointment to Fever Hospital. 'Westminster Review' 
articles in 1825. Laws of Epidemics. Principles laid 
the foundation of Sanitary Reform. Its practical im- 
portance. Devotion of himself to the cause. Parha- 
mentary attention attracted to articles. Publication of 
the 'Treatise on Fever,' 1830. Its phenomena, treat- 
ment, and causes. Causes the most important. Con- 
tagious and epidemic diseases. Universal origin of 
epidemics stated to be bad sanitary conditions . . 16 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

LONDON CONTINUED — LITERARY AND OTHER 
WORK, 1 820-1 834. 

* Penny Encyclopedia.' The Medical Schools and dissection. 
Body-snatching. Lectures — physiological, forensic, and 
popular. Lecture over the remains of Bentham. Publi- 
cation of the ' Philosophy of Health ' . . . . 35 

CHAPTER IV. 

WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION, 1 833. 

History of Factories. Laws previous to 1833. Apprentice- 
ship system. Appointed Commissioner. Description 
of state of factories in 1833. Passing of the Factory Act. 
Subsequent additions to Act. Visits to see result of its 
working .......... 49 

CHAPTER V. 

RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT, 1 837. 

Outbreak of fever in London. Personal inspection of 
Bethnal Green and Whitechapel. First Report to 
Poor Law Commissioners. Ventilation in crowded 
districts. Overcrowding of children in workhouses. 
Second Report of Poor Law Commissioners, 1839. 
Takes the Marquis of Normanby (Home Secretary) to 
see spots reported on at Bethnal Green. Takes also 
Lord Ashley. Press and public men take up the cause . 60 

CHAPTER VI. 

PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK, 1840-1848. 

Children's Employment Commission, Mines and Collieries, 
Improvement in the condition of women working therein. 
Report on Trades and Manufactures. Homes of eastern 



CONTENTS. 



dispensary patients. " Sanatorium " founded. Letters 
from Charles Dickens. First model dwellings founded. 
Life at Highgate. My recollections of first " Health of 
Towns Association " Meeting. Feeling of public men . 72 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE TEN YEARS' STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY 
REFORM, 1 838-1 848. 

Causes of delay. History of the sanitary movement at this 
time a series of inquiries and defeated bills. " Health 
of Towns Association" founded to spread knowledge 
and guide legislation. Address to the working classes 
caUing upon them to petition Parliament. Final passing 
of the Public Health Act 102 

CHAPTER VIII. 

OFFICIAL LIFE — GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH, 1848-1854. 

Appointment to the General Board of Health. Letter to 
Lord Morpeth. Work at Whitehall with Lord Ashley and 
Mr Chadwick. Cholera epidemic of 1848-49. System 
of " house-to-house visitation." Lord Brougham's com- 
ments on it. Cholera Report. Quarantine Report. In- 
terment Report. Attacks on the Board in Parliament. 
Fear of centralisation. Triumph of the sanitary prin- 
ciple, but to be carried out by local authorities. Lord 
Palmerston's letter of thanks 127 

CHAPTER IX. 

RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE — ST GEORGE'S 
HILL, WEYBRIDGE, 1854-1860. 

" The Pines," Weybridge. Happiness in its beauty. Need 
of rest. Study of modem physiology for new edition 
of the 'Philosophy of Health.' Publication of 'Results 
of Sanitary Improvement.' Lectures in Edinburgh on 



CONTENTS. 



" Epidemics." Visit to Alnwick. Happiness in the work 
of his granddaughters Miranda and Octavia Hill. Ap- 
preciation of former fellow - labourers. " Recognition." 
His words of thanks. Joy in the success of his great 
cause 139 

CHAPTER X. 

THE SUNSET OF LIFE — ITALY, 1861. 

Visit to Milan. Death of his second wife at "The Pines." 
Florence. Sunset from Ponte Vecchio. Last illness, 
Death. Porta Pinti. "A Knight-Errant" . . .147 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE AFTERGLOW. 

Spread of the social reforms Dr Southwood Smith origin- 
ated. Improvement in the public health and saving of 
life. Memorial bust in the National Portrait Gallery. 
Lines upon it. A people's gratitude . . . .153 

APPENDICES. 

I. LETTER FROM MR TAYLOR, ASSISTANT RETURNING 

OFFICER OF THE WHITECHAPEL UNION . . .159 

II. RECOGNITION OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF DR SOUTH- 
WOOD SMITH 164 

INDEX . . . 167 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

PORTRAIT OF DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH . . Frontispiece 

{Frotn a chalk drawing by Miss Margaret Gillies.) 

DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH AND HIS GRANDCHILD GERTRUDE 



OLD WOMAN CARRYING COAL 
CHILDREN AT WORK. 
WOMAN DRAWING TRUCK . 
CHARLES DICKENS'S LETTER 
DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH'S LETTER 



Facsimile 
Facsimile 



FIRST MEETING OF THE HEALTH OF TOWNS ASSOCIATION 
[From an old print.) 



2 
72 

74 

74 

84 

104 

106 



VIEW FROM PORTA PINTI, FLORENCE, 1 86 1 



152 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



INTRODUCTION. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF MY GRANDFATHER. 

My first recollection of my grandfather is of him 
in his study. As a little child my bed stood in 
his room, and when he got up, as he used to do 
in the early mornings, to write, he would take me 
in his arms, still fast asleep, carry me down-stairs 
to his study with him, and lay me on the sofa, 
wrapped in blankets which had been arranged for 
me overnight. 

So when first I opened my eyes in the silent 
room I saw him there, a man of some fifty years, 
bending over a table covered with papers, the 
light of his shaded reading-lamp shining on his 
forehead and glancing down upon the papers as 

A 



INTRODUCTION. 



he leant over his writing, and the firelight flicker- 
ing on the other parts of the room. 

The silence and the earnestness seemed won- 
derful and beautiful. It was strange to watch him 
when he did not know it. It seemed to me, then, 
that he had been working so through the whole 
night, and that some great good which I could 
only dimly understand was to come of it. 

My lying quiet, however, did not last long, 
for I knew the loving merry welcome I should 
have when, climbing — as I hoped and believed 
quite unperceived — up the back of his arm-chair, 
I should throw myself down into his lap with a 
loud cry of joy, and then we should have a 
famous game, until either he persuaded me to go 
back to my blankets to await a rational hour for 
getting up, or sent me up-stairs to be dressed. 

These two things — the intent, absorbed pur- 
pose, and the power of putting it aside to give 
himself up completely, with simple delight, to 
whatever he loved, whether to a child or to the 
beauty of nature — are the two that seem to 
me specially characteristic of him in all that 
later part of his life which comes within my 
remembrance. 




Dr Southwood Smiik and his grandchild Gerintde. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MY GRANDFATHER. 3 

At this time we lived in Kentish Town, then 
field-surrounded, he going- daily to his consulting- 
rooms in Finsbury Square, returning late and 
giving the early mornings and Sundays to public 
work. These hours were at that period (1840 to 
1842) chiefly devoted to the question of the em- 
ployment of children in coal - mines, the more 
deeply impressed on me because the report 
which he was then writing had illustrations 
showing the terrible condition of people working 
in mines. 

I remember long bright Sunday mornings when 
he was at work endeavouring to remedy these 
evils. He let me do what little I could, such as 
the cutting out of extracts to be fastened on to 
the MS. report with wafers — and very particular 
I was as to the colour of these wafers ! Some- 
times all I could do to help was to be quiet — not 
the least hard work ! Yet I loved these still 
Sunday mornings, and would not willingly have 
been shut out from them any more than from the 
afternoon ride which came later, when, perched 
up in front of him on his own horse, in the little 
railed saddle he had devised for me, we rode 
along the lanes towards Highgate. I can see 



INTRODUCTION. 



now the sunset light falHng on the grass and 
tree -stems of the Kentish Town fields as we 
went along. 

Then came the day when the Act was brought 
into operation which was to regulate the employ- 
ment of children in mines, and I tied blue ribbons 
on to his carriage horses and thought, with a 
child's hopefulness, that all the suffering was at 
once and completely over. " Then, now, they are 
all running over the green fields," I said. 

My grandfather let me think it, and did not 
damp my enthusiasm by letting me know that 
this happy state of things was not arrived at in 
one day ! 

But although he often played merrily with me 
and entered into my childish joys, my grand- 
father was endowed with a most earnest nature 
and with a firmness of character which was very 
remarkable. He never swerved from a purpose, 
never vacillated. One of his sayings was, " Life 
is not long enough for us to reconsider our 
decisions." 

It was probably this quiet determination, com- 
bined with his unfailing gentleness, that made him 
inspire so much confidence in his patients. I can 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MY GRANDFATHER. 5 

fancy, in a house where illness was spreading 
anxiety and sorrow, the restfulness there would 
be in his calm presence, and I can remember the 
faces of those — often the very poor — who used to 
come up to him wishing to thank him for the life 
of some wife, or son, or child which they said he 
had saved. These things used to happen in 
the crowded city streets or courts, and sometimes 
in parts of London far away^ from the place 
where the illness had occurred. The fact that 
these faces were generally forgotten by him, 
whilst his was so well remembered, made a still 
more beautitul mystery over it. It seemed to me 
that there was an honour in belonging to one who 
was a help and support to so many. Such experi- 
ences must be familiar to those who share his 
profession, still I mention it as being my strong 
childish impression ; and even now, looking 
back upon his life, it appears to me that he 
did possess, in a very high degree, not only 
the power of healing, but that of soothing 
mental suffering. 

It was, in fact, this deep sympathy, joined to 
his remarkable insight into the relations between 
effects and their causes, which led him to devote 



INTRODUCTION. 



his life to the promotion of sanitary reform, when 
once it had become obvious to him that all effort 
to improve the condition of the people would be 
impossible until its principles were known and 
acted upon. 



EARLY LIFE. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY LIFE, I788-182O. 

Thomas Southwood Smith was born at Martock 
in Somersetshire in 1788, and was intended by 
his family to become a minister in the body of 
Calvinistic dissenters to which they belonged. 
He was educated with that view at the Baptist 
College in Bristol, where he went in 1802, being 
then fourteen years of age. A scholarship, en- 
titled the " Broadmead Benefaction," was granted 
to him, and he held it for nearly five years. 

But in the course of his earnest reading on 
religious subjects he was led to conclusions op- 
posed in many ways to the doctrines he would 
be expected to teach ; and when, in the autumn 
of 1807, from conscientious scruples, he felt bound 
to declare this to be the case, the benefaction was 
withdrawn. If we consider his youth and his 



DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 



limited means, it is clear that this avowal must 
have cost him no little anguish. He was at this 
time only eighteen. It was an early age at which 
to have been able to make up his mind on ques- 
tions so momentous, to break away from early 
and dear traditions, and to face the displeasure 
of the Principal of the college, Dr Ryland, whom 
he ever revered. But honour demanded the 
sacrifice, and it was made. 

In consequence his family cast him off at once 
and for ever. 

During his college career, however, he had 
visited much at the house of Mr Read, a large 
manufacturer in Bristol, who was a man of noble 
character, and at that time one of the leading 
supporters of the college ; and an attachment had 
sprung up between the young student and Mr 
Read's daughter Anne. This lady seems to have 
possessed both great personal beauty and much 
sweetness and strength of character ; and though 
she in nowise changed her own religious opinions, 
she yet sympathised deeply with him in his earnest 
seeking after truth, and encouraged him to risk 
all — position, friends, everything — rather than act 
against his conscience. 



EARL Y LIFE. 



Mr Read also upheld him through all his diffi- 
culties, and in the following year sanctioned their 
marriage, which brought with it some few very- 
happy years. Two children were born — Caroline,^ 
my mother, and a year afterwards her sister 
Emily.2 

His happiness was to be but of short duration, 
for in 1812 the young wife died, and left him 
alone, at the age of only twenty-four, with two 
little children. With what deep grief he mourned 
her death his early writings show, but he met it 
with a noble courag-e and an undiminished faith. 

The course he took was a strong one. De- 
prived of the profession to which he had looked 
forward, cut off from all intercourse with his 
family, and having lost the wife he so devotedly 
loved, he resolved — leaving his two children 
under the gentle care of their mother's relations — 
to apply himself to the study of medicine. Thus 
he entered as a student at the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in the year 181 3. 

1 Caroline Southwood Smith, married, 1835. Mr James Hill. 

Children of this ?narriage : Miranda Hill, Gertrude Hill 
(Mrs Charles Lewes), Octavia Hill, Emily S. Hill (Mrs 
C. E. Maurice), Florence Hill. 

2 Emily Southwood Smith, born 1810, died 1872. 



lo DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

At first he lived quite alone ; but finding it more 
than he could bear, he returned to England to 
fetch his eldest child, then four years old. 

The father and child (my mother) went from 
Bristol to Edinburgh in a small sailing vessel, 
and encountered a terrible storm, which lasted 
many days. She tells me that she still remembers 
that storm of eighty -five years ago, the thick 
darkness, the war of the winds, the toss of the 
waves, the flash of the lightning illuminating her 
father's face ; but, most of all, she remembers the 
feeling of the strong arm round her, giving the 
sense of safety. 

His interest in religious matters at this period 
was greater than ever ; for the change in his 
opinions, in leading him to take a more loving 
view of the Divine nature, had increased his 
ardour for the truth, and his own personal sorrow 
had heightened his faith and made him wish to 
carry its comfort to others. As well, therefore, 
as pursuing his medical studies, he gathered round 
him in Edinburgh a little congregation for service 
every Sunday. The sermons preached by him 
then, seem to have an added depth of feeling 
when we know the circumstances in which they 



EARLY LIFE. li 



were given ; and the following words, written by 
him at this time, give some insight into the calm 
sublime faith which upheld him, not only then, 
but throughout life. 

" Can there be a more exalted pleasure," he 
writes, " than that which the mind experiences 
when, in moments of reflective solitude — in those 
moments when it becomes tranquil and disposed 
to appreciate the real value of objects — it dwells 
upon the thought that there is, seated on the 
throne of the universe, a Being whose eye never 
slumbers nor sleeps, and who is perfect in power, 
wisdom, and goodness ? How little can the 
storms of life assail his soul who rests his happi- 
ness upon this Rock of Ages ! How little can 
death itself appal his mind who feels that he is 
conducted to the tomb by the hand of the 
Sovereign of the universe ! Yes ! there is a 
reality in religion ; and if that happiness, which 
is so often sought, and so often sought in vain — 
that happiness which is worthy of a rational being, 
and which at once satisfies and exalts him — be 
ever tasted upon earth, it is by him who thus, in 
the solitude of his heart, delights to contemplate 
the idea of a presiding Benignity, the extent of 



12 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

whose dominion is without Hmit, and the duration 
of whose kingdom is without end ! It is a feHcity 
which our Father sometimes sends down to the 
heart that is worthy of it, to give it a foretaste of 
its eternal portion." 

Much interest was felt in the young pale student 
and his little girl. For all this time my mother, 
the little Caroline, lived with him, cheering his 
home-coming from the university to their rooms, 
and drinking in from him at a very early age — as 
I, her daughter, was destined to do many years 
after — lessons of self-devotion to great ends. 

It was at this time of sorrow, and in the 
intervals of medical study, that he wrote his 
* Illustrations of the Divine Government,' the 
object of which is to show how perfect is the 
Love that rules the world, in spite of that which 
seems to clash, — pain, and sorrow, and wrong — 
all that we call evil. 

His medical studies only added to his impres- 
sion of the great Whole as one perfect scheme, 
for he felt an intimate connection between the 
field of scientific research and those religious 
studies to which he had formerly devoted him- 
self exclusively. This is shown in his own 



EARLY LIFE. 13 



words in the preface to the fourth edition of 
the work, which was published in 1844. 

"The contemplation," he writes, "of the 
wonderful processes which constitute Hfe, — the 
exquisite mechanism (as far as that mechanism 
can be traced) by which they are performed — 
the surprising adjustments and harmonies by 
which, in a creature Hke man, such diverse and 
opposite actions are brought into relation with 
each other and made to work in subserviency 
and co-operation; — and the divine object of 
all — the communication of sensation and intelli- 
gence as the inlets and instruments of happi- 
ness — afforded the highest satisfaction to my 
mind. But this beautiful world, into whose 
workings my eye now searched, presented it- 
self to my view as a demonstration that the 
Creative Power is ^^ infinite in goodness, and 
seemed to afford, as if from the essential ele- 
ments and profoundest depths of nature, a proof 
of His love." 

This book came to be a help to many of all 
classes and creeds, and passed through several 
editions. 

He was often urged to reprint it in later life, 



14 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

but held it back, wishing to modify it slightly. 
Not that his opinion of its main principles had 
altered in the least degree, but that he thought 
he had passed too lightly over the sea of misery 
and crime that there is in the world ; he thought 
there was rather too much of the bright hopeful- 
ness of youth about it. Sorrow he had known, 
certainly, in the loss of his wife ; but the sorrow 
that comes from the loss of one who was noble 
and good, and who has been taken from us by 
death, is of quite a different kind from that which 
comes from a closer acquaintance with the mass 
of sin and misery which exists. He did not 
change his view that, even this, rightly under- 
stood, is consistent with the divine benevolence ; 
but he wished to recognise more fully its exist- 
ence, and to enter more largely into the subject. 
Having completed his medical studies and 
obtained his degree, the young physician de- 
termined to take a practice in Yeovil. The 
following extract from a letter, dated August 
5, 1816, addressed by him to a friend in 
Rome,^ shows with what views as to his future 
profession he quitted Scotland. 

1 The Hon. D. G. Halliburton. : 



EARLY LIFE. 15 



" I leave Edinburgh this week," he writes ; 
" I leave it with much regret, for I have found 
friends here whom I shall ever remember with 
respect, affection, and gratitude. I go to Yeo- 
vil, a little town in the west of England, where 
it is my intention to take charge of a con- 
gregation and at the same time to practise 
medicine. This double capacity of physician 
to body and soul does not appear to me to be 
incompatible, but how the plan will succeed can 
be determined only by the test of experience. 

" My expectations are not very sanguine, but 
neither are my desires ambitious." 

" The test of experience " proved that he was 
admirably qualified for the double office he had 
taken upon himself, and for some years he pur- 
sued faithfully the plan he had made. 

But this quiet country life was not to be his 
always. It was decreed that he should come 
up to London and enter into its teeming life, 
to think, and write, and labour, until he had 
done his part towards lessening its mass of 
misery. 



1 6 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 



CHAPTER II. 

FIRST YEARS IN LONDON DAWN OF THE SCIENCE 

OF MODERN HYGIENE, 182O-1834. 

On first arriving in London in 1820, my grand- 
father, who whilst still at Yeovil had married 
for the second time (Mary, daughter of Mr John 
Christie of HsTckney),^ settled in Trinity Square, 
near the Tower. He soon formed a considerable 
private practice, and was appointed physician to 
the London Fever Hospital, and he was thus 
led to give very special attention to the subject 
of fever. He also held the offices of physician 
to the Eastern Dispensary and to the Jews' 
Hospital, situated in the very heart of White- 
chapel. And while his experience in the wards 
of the fever hospital taught him by what means 
that disease can most frequently be cured, his 
acquaintance with it in the homes of his East- 

^ Children of this marriage: Herman Southwood Smith, born 
1819, died 1897; Spencer, Christina, both died in childhood. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 17 

end patients taught him more — how it might be 
prevented. 

Almost the first writings bearing on what came 
to be afterwards called the " Sanitary Question " 
are to be found in the pages of the ' Westminster 
Review.' In the two first numbers of that Review, 
published in the year 1825, there appeared some 
articles on "Contagion and Sanitary Laws." These 
articles, published anonymously, were written by 
Dr Southwood Smith. It must be noted that 
the word "sanitary" had not then the meaning 
it has in these days : sanitary science was un- 
known, and the words " Sanitary Laws " had a 
no wider signification than that of the regulations 
of a quarantine code. 

But from that time these words acquired a new 
meaning. 

In the articles above referred to, facts were 
brought together which had been collected from 
the writings of men who had devoted years to 
the study of pestilences in Spain, in various ports 
of the Mediterranean, in Constantinople, and in 
the West Indies. They had gone where epi- 
demics were raging, had risked their lives that 
they might increase the store of knowledge about 

B 



i8 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

these fearful scourges, and might, if possible, learn 
on what they depend. Amongst these men, one 
of the most distinguished was apparently a Dr 
Maclean, of whom the article tells us that "when 
he was in Spain in 182 1 yellow fever attacked 
Barcelona, and that with his wonted zeal he 
hastened to the spot in order that he might fully 
investigate its nature." Dr Maclean is spoken 
of as " one of those extraordinary men who is 
capable of concentrating all the faculties of his 
mind, and of devoting the best years of his life, 
to the accomplishment of one great and benev- 
olent object." We are told how, "in order to 
demonstrate what epidemic diseases really are, 
and what they are not, and to put an end to 
errors which have so long and so universally 
prevailed on this subject, errors which he believes 
to be the source of incalculable misery and of 
certain death to millions of the human race, Dr 
Maclean, with an energy scarcely to be paralleled, 
has devoted thirty years — a large portion of the 
active life of man. In this cause he has re- 
peatedly risked that life, and for its sake he has 
encountered all sorts of suspicion and abuse." ^ 
^ Westminster Review, 1825, p. 519. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 19 

Generalising, then, from the facts which such 
men had collected and from others observed by 
himself, Dr Southwood Smith endeavours to 
establish the laws of epidemic disease. In the 
first place, he labours to prove that epidemic 
diseases are not, in the strict sense of the word, 
contagious, and that the laws which epidemic 
diseases observe offer a complete contrast to 
those which regulate contagious diseases. 

"It was proved," he thought, to use his own 
words, " that the symptoms of epidemic diseases 
are not determinate and uniform. They vary in 
different countries and different seasons — even in 
the same country and the same season, and do 
not succeed each other in any determinate order. 

" That epidemics observe certain seasons — the 
periods at which they commence, decline, and 
cease, hardly vary. For instance, the plague in 
Egypt begins in March or April, and ends in 
June or July. All epidemics in Great Britain, of 
which we have any record, have raged in the 
autumn. 

" That epidemic diseases prevail most in 
certain countries, in certain districts, in certain 
towns, and in certain parts of the same town. 



20 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

They prevail most in those countries which are 
the least cultivated ; in those districts which are 
the most woody, the most exposed to particular 
winds and to inundations ; in those towns which 
are placed in low and damp situations, and which 
are unprotected from certain winds ; in those 
streets and houses, and even in those apartments 
of the same house, which are the most low and 
damp, the worst built, and the least sheltered. 

" That epidemics commence, spread, and cease 
in a manner perfectly peculiar. They arise, for 
example, in some particular quarter of a town, 
and do not attack the other districts which happen 
to be nearest it in regular succession, but break 
out suddenly in the most distant and most oppo- 
site directions. People are attacked, not in pro- 
portion as the inhabitants of the affected mix with 
the inhabitants of the unaffected places, but in 
proportion as the inhabitants of the unaffected 
expose themselves to the air of the affected places. 

" That the termination of epidemics is peculiar, 
since they cease suddenly at the exact period 
when the greatest number of persons is affected 
by them, and when the greatest mortality prevails. 
This fact is inexplicable under the supposition 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 21 

that epidemics owe their spread from person to 
person. To suppose that a disease which is 
propagated by contagion can rapidly decline and 
even suddenly cease, just when most persons are 
affected and the mortality is greatest — that is, 
when the contagious matter is proved to be in 
its most active and malignant state — is utterly 
absurd. 

"That epidemics attack the same person more 
than once, and that relapses are frequent amongst 
those suffering from them, whereas contagious 
diseases seldom affect the same individual a 
second time, and relapses are most uncommon." 

From all this it will be clear that the object 
of these articles was to prove that all epidemics 
have their origin in the bad sanitary conditions 
(as we now say) of the places in which they 
arise. 

It happened then, as very frequently happens 
in all sciences when the time is ripe for a dis- 
covery, that those working in different fields of 
observation noticed, at the same period, the same 
facts — some, as for example Dr Maclean, in their 
posts of observation during the epidemics in dis- 
tant countries ; Dr Southwood Smith in the fever- 



DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 



haunts of London. But it remained for him, 
collecting together all the experience and gener- 
alising from it, to announce the law on which 
they depend. 

Those who thus arrived at the great principle 
of the connection between defective sanitary con- 
ditions and disease, laid the foundation of Sani- 
tary Reform. That connection is an old truth 
now, — one of those about which it is difficult 
to realise that it could ever have been unknown 
to the world ; but in those days it was unknown 
and unrecognised, and amongst the few who 
began to recognise it, there were scarcely any 
who saw to what wide practical results such 
truths ought to lead. 

My grandfather, however, saw that if the prin- 
ciple were once established, not only would the 
quarantine laws, at that time absurd and ineffi- 
cacious, be modified ; not only would our mer- 
chant ships be released from spending long 
weary months in unhealthy ports, while their 
crews were perhaps contracting, from their con- 
finement, the very diseases which they were 
supposed to have brought with them from foreign 
lands ; not only would the poor sufferers from 



FIRST YEARS TN LONDON. 23 

plague and yellow fever cease to be imprisoned 
in the poisoned districts whose air had just given 
them the pestilence ; — not only would th^s^ false 
precautions cease, but the true ones would be 
taken : the causes of disease would be removed ; 
and thus, wherever a knowledge of this law 
spread and was acted on, disease and death 
would diminish. 

Might not, he thought, something practical 
be done now and here if these facts were once 
generally known ? Epidemics throughout follow 
the same laws. Were not the very causes which 
produce plague in Egypt operating now to produce 
typhus fever in Bethnal Green and Whitechapel ? 
We might not be able to stop the pestilential, 
moisture - laden wind that came down to Cairo 
each year at the time of the inundation of the 
Nile, but could we not do something towards 
purifying that which crept into the rooms of our 
own poor from undrained courts and stagnant 
pools ? Could we not, if people once believed 
and acted on their belief, banish the yearly 
epidemic fever from the back - streets of our 
large towns ? 

Dr Southwood Smith believed that this great 



24 . DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

result would follow from the general acceptance 
of the truth of the principle he had announced. 
He gave his life to spreading the knowledge of it. 

By the articles in the ' Westminster Review ' 
something was done towards enlightening the 
public mind, for I find that they attracted the 
attention of leading men in and out of Parliament, 
and were often referred to in the debates in both 
Houses. 

Five years more of daily experience and con- 
stant thought passed before his ' Treatise on 
Fever* was published.^ It entered fully into 
all the phenomena of the disease and into the 
question of its treatment. It added largely to 
the knowledge of fever existing at that time, and 
was welcomed by the medical profession. ' The 
Medico-Chirurgical Review,' the highest author- 
ity of that day, pronounced it to be " the best 
work on Fever that ever flowed from the pen 
of physician in any age or country." It was for 
a long time the standard work on the subject 
with which it dealt. The most important part of 
the work, however, as might be expected, is that 
which relates, not to the treatment of disease 
^ Longmans, 1830. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 25 

(which has since his time much changed) but 
to its causes. And here we find an elaboration of 
the principles laid down five years before in his 
articles in the 'Westminster Review.' Those 
articles had been the result of a rapid glance 
which had gone to the very root of things, 
though when they were written their writer had 
held his position at the Fever Hospital for one 
year only, and had therefore not acquired the 
large experience of fever which he subsequently 
attained. But the five years that had passed 
since they were written could not change — 
could only strengthen — his conviction of the 
truth of the principles which he had previously 
expounded. 

In the ' Treatise on Fever,' as In the articles 
just quoted, it is enforced upon us, that since 
epidemics are everywhere the same, when they 
reach our own country we must expect to find 
conditions similar to those which produce pesti- 
lence in foreign countries. He writes as fol- 
lows : — 

** The room of a fever patient, in a small and 
heated apartment of London, with no perflation of 
fresh air, is perfectly analogous to a stagnant pool 



26 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

in Ethiopia full of the bodies of dead locusts. The 
poison generated in both cases is the same ; the dif- 
ference is merely in the degree of its potency. Na- 
ture with her burtiing su7i, her stilled and pent-up 
wind, her stagnant and teeming marsh, manufac- 
tures plague on a large and fearful scale. Poverty 
in her hut, covered with her rags, surrou7ided by 
her filth, striving with all her might to keep out 
the pure air and to increase the heat, imitates 
Nature but too successfully ; the process and the 
product are the same, the only difference is in the 
magnitude of the result. Pemcry and ignorance 
can thus, at any time and in any place, create a 
mortal plague.'' ^ 

Dr Southwood Smith has been accused of 
ignoring the fact that those suffering from fever 
can communicate the disease to others — of " infec- 
tion," as it is called. But he did not. He shows, 
on the contrary, that the atmosphere of a room 
such as that spoken of in the passage just quoted 
must have the power of inducing fever in others 
besides the patient. He even says that " the 
poison formed by the exhalations given off from 
the living bodies of those affected by fever is by 
^ Treatise on Fever, p. 324. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 27 

far the most potent febrile poison derived from 
animal origin." 

Then, it might be asked, of what consequence 
is it to insist on the disease being non-contagious ? 
If fever-patients can give fever to others, it is a 
mere matter of words whether you choose to call 
it " contagious " or " infectious." 

It is, however, of the utmost consequence to 
fix the attention on the difference ; because, if that 
is done, the real seat of the danger will be clearly 
seen, and those whose duty it is to enter the 
rooms of the sick will know that their danger 
rarely lies in touching the patient, and may be 
prevented by abundance of fresh air and scru- 
pulous cleanliness. 

In order to emphasise this side of the truth 
my grandfather wrote as follows (and, though 
it may seem to require qualification, the general 
truth of his remark will be admitted by all) : " No 
fever produced by contamination of the air can be 
communicated to others in a pure air — there 
never was an instance of such communication." 

The form of poison given off from a fever 
patient is, besides, not so much to be feared 
as other forms of that poison, because, though 



28 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

it is potent, it has not a wide range ; when 
let out into the fresh air, it is so far diluted 
that its power is reduced to a minimum. 

An epidemic, he asserts, can only arise from 
some cause sufficient to affect a whole district. 
Continually we are brought back to observe this 
universal cause of fevers ; to see that, whether 
in the sudden falling off of an army to half its 
numbers, or in the prostration of a whole ship's 
crew on approaching shore, or in the plague de- 
vastating Cairo, this one source may be traced 
as the true one. Bad air comes from the marsh 
near which the army is stationed ; bad air, poi- 
soned by decaying vegetation, comes off shore 
to the ship ; bad air enters the houses of Cairo. 
We are shown that Cairo is the birthplace of the 
plague, because it is a city crowded with a poor 
population ; because it is built with close and 
narrow streets ; because it is situated in the 
midst of a sandy plain at the foot of a moun- 
tain, which keeps off the wind, and is therefore 
exposed to stifling heat ; and, above all, because 
it has a great canal which, though filled with 
water at the inundation of the Nile, becomes 
dry as the river gets lower, and thus emits an 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 29 

intolerable smell from the mud and from the 
offensive matter that is thrown into it. 

Besides being thus shown that, in all places 
in which epidemics appear, some sanitary defect 
may be found, we are shown that they come 
back and back to the same places, and that, if 
these defects are removed, the epidemics will 
not return. So we are led on to the great idea 
that they are preventible. 

The facts advanced to prove these principles 
have not, of course, the wide range, the distinct 
statistical exactness, of those which the further 
progress of sanitary science has now enabled 
people to bring forward ; but it is very inter- 
esting to see how all further advance has been 
but a development of the principles brought 
forward in this 'Treatise on Fever,' just as it 
was itself but a development of those brought 
forward five years before. Hardly any investi- 
gations had yet been made, but the results 
which research would bring to light are here 
foreshadowed. Even the direction which such 
research would take is indicated, for we are told, 
at the end of the chapter which treats of the 
** Causes of Fever," that — 



30 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

"Further inquiries are necessary — such as, 
whether the vegetable and animal poisons we 
have been considering be the only true, excit- 
ing cause of fever ; ^ by what means its gen- 
eral diffusion is effected ; on what conditions its 
propagation depends ; by what measures its ex- 
tension may be checked and its power dimin- 
ished or destroyed ; what circumstances in the 
modes of life, in the habits of society, in the 
structure of houses, in the condition of the 
public streets and common sewers, in the state 
of the soil over large districts of the country 
as influenced by the mode of agriculture, drain- 
age, and so on, favour or check the origin and 
propagation of this great curse of civilised, no 
less than of uncivilised, man." 

Not a mere article or book contained the result 
of such inquiries. They occupied the greater part 
of his life, and that of many others. Their out- 
come is the present state of sanitary knowledge. 

If some people think there was nothing new 
in the view of epidemics insisted on in this 

1 Modern investigations have proved, for instance, that con- 
taminated water or milk will produce an epidemic as well as 
contaminated air. But all these poisons arise from bad sani- 
tary conditions. — G. L. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 31 

Treatise, they have only to see what was the 
common opinion at that time amongst medical 
men. A few shared the writer's opinions, but 
the majority of EngHsh physicians then cer- 
tainly took quite the opposite view. When 
Asiatic cholera first broke out in 1831, it was 
of no avail that the physicians of Bengal had 
declared unanimously that "the attempt to pre- 
vent the introduction of cholera by a rigorous 
quarantine had always and utterly failed " ; it 
was of no avail that the articles on " Quaran- 
tine Laws " had, six years before, urged the 
same truth ; the London College of Physicians 
issued, notwithstanding, a notification that, wher- 
ever cholera appeared, the sick should be col- 
lected together in houses, which should be 
marked conspicuously Sick ; and that, even 
after the sufferers had been removed, and the 
houses purified. Caution should be marked on 
them. That the dead from cholera should be 
buried in separate ground ; that food to be de- 
livered at a house where any one was sick 
should be placed outside, and only taken in 
when the person who brought it had gone 
away ; and that no one who had communicated 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH, 



with a cholera patient should, during twenty- 
days after, communicate with the healthy. 

If cholera resisted all these precautions, and 
became fatal in the terrific way it had done in 
other countries, the authorities announced " that 
it might become necessary to draw a strong body 
of troops or police round the affected places." 

This proclamation of the physicians of 1831 
was published throughout the land in the form 
of an Order of the King in Council. It might 
have been more to the purpose to have cleansed 
the affected town. 

" But," says Mr Howell,^ " the strong good 
sense of the public averted many of the mis- 
chiefs which these scientific advisers would 
have produced had their counsels been carried 
into execution. The preventive measures, which 
were eventually adopted by them, consisted in 
prohibiting intercourse between one town and 
another by sea, and permitting it by land : thus 
communication between London and Edinburgh 
by stage-coach was perfectly free and unin- 
terrupted, while communication between those 
capitals by sea was prohibited with such rigour 

^ Origin and Progress of Sanitary Reform. T. Jones Howell. 



FIRST YEARS IN LONDON. 33 

that no interest, however powerful, could pro- 
cure an exemption! Francis Jeffrey — at this 
time holding the high office of Lord Advocate 
of Scotland, and whose influence from his per- 
sonal and official connections was very great — 
was unable to obtain permission for his faithful 
servant, in the last stage of dropsy, to go from 
London to Leith by water, lest he should carry 
with him to his native country by that mode of 
conveyance, not the dropsy which he had, but 
the cholera which he had not. 

" ' You will be sorry,' writes Jeffrey to Miss 
Cockburn, 'to hear that poor old Fergus is so 
ill that I fear he will die very soon. I have 
made great efforts to get him shipped off to 
Scotland, where he wishes much to go ; but 
the quarantine regulations are so absurdly severe 
that, in spite of all my influence with the Privy 
Council, I have not been able to get a passage 
for him, and he is quite tenable to travel by 
land, ... He has decided water in the chest 
and swelling in all his limbs. The doctors say he 
may die any day, and that it is scarcely possible 
he can recover.' "^ 

^ Cockburn's Life of Jeffrey, ii. 247. 
C 



34 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

Mr Howell adds that these examples are not 
adduced for the purpose of casting obloquy on 
the eminent physicians of that day, who vainly 
endeavoured to reduce to practice in the nine- 
teenth century the standard, but obsolete, doc- 
trines taught almost universally in the medical 
schools, but solely for the purpose of displaying 
the state of the science of Public Health in the 
year 1831-32, as far as the physicians of highest 
reputation and largest practice may be taken as 
its exponents. 

It need hardly be said that it is with this 
purpose only that these facts are again cited 
here. 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 35 



CHAPTER III. 

LONDON CONTINUED LITERARY AND OTHER WORK, 

182O-1834. 

The ' Treatise on Fever ' held an important place 
in the development of that sanitary ideal to the 
realisation of which my grandfather afterwards 
devoted himself almost exclusively; but in the 
course of the years which are treated of in this 
chapter, he wrote much on other subjects. 

During this time severe money losses had 
necessitated the breaking up of the establish- 
ment in Trinity Square ; retrenchment became 
a duty ; Mrs Southwood Smith went abroad with 
the three children of the second marriage^ to 
carry on their education ; and (his two elder 
daughters, Caroline and Emily, being engaged 

^ Herman Southwood, born 1820, died 1897 ; Christina and 
Spencer, died in childhood. 



36 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

in teaching away from home) my grandfather 
once more retired to a strictly studious and pro- 
fessional life at his consulting-rooms in New Broad 
Street, giving much time to literary work, includ- 
ing the writing of a large number of physiological 
articles for the * Penny Encyclopaedia.' 

Dr Southwood Smith at this period assisted in 
foundinor the * Westminster Review.' This Re- 
view, supported as it was by men of great ability 
and earnest thought, took, as is well known, a 
leading place in the promotion of the political and 
social reforms of the day. 

His own contributions to it were many. Besides 
the articles on " Quarantine and Sanitary Laws " 
already mentioned, the one on " Education," which 
appeared in the first number, may be specially 
referred to. 

There was also one calling attention to the 
horrors arising from there being no proper pro- 
vision for supplying the anatomical schools with 
the means of dissection, which led to very prac- 
tical results. 

" Body- snatching" is now an extinct crime. 
Such was the name given to the practice of rob- 
bing graves of the bodies of the dead in order 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 37 

to sell them for the purpose of dissection. Such 
practices were an outrage against all the feelings 
which render the resting - places of the dead 
hallowed spots. One can imagine the horror 
which the friends of the newly interred must 
have experienced in finding that their graves 
had been violated during the night ; and worse 
still were the midnight scenes when the work 
was interrupted by the police, and struggles 
ensued. 

The men who carried on this trade were called 
" resurrection-men " : they were a depraved and 
dangerous class, and if the state of things then 
existing had caused no other evil than that of 
educating such a class, it would still have been 
worth much effort to get it remedied. 

Without bodies for dissection medical educa- 
tion was impossible, and at that time there was 
only one legal means by which they could be 
obtained : those of executed criminals were made 
over to the medical profession for the purpose of 
dissection. But this source was, happily, even 
then a scanty one. Until, therefore, some other 
provision was made, the employment of "resur- 
rection-men," though against the law, and in itself 



38 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

revolting to the professors of anatomy, was a 
necessity. 

The difficulty was an increasing one. The 
wretched men whose trade it was to supply the 
medical schools were punished with imprisonment 
and heavy fines, and were, not unnaturally, re- 
garded with abhorrence by the mob — such abhor- 
rence that it was often difficult to protect them 
from its fury when arrested. In Scotland, especi- 
ally, this popular feeling was so strong that dis- 
graceful outrages were committed against those 
even suspected of being concerned in exhumation ; 
the churchyards were watched, and the obstacles 
in obtaining subjects for the schools had become 
so many that the students were fast deserting 
them. Indeed throughout Great Britain it ap- 
peared as if there would soon be a general deser- 
tion of all the native schools, and that students 
would go to Paris for the education they could 
not get at home. 

In the article by Dr Southwood Smith which 
first called public attention to these evils, he 
points out, in a very striking manner, the para- 
mount necessity of a supply of subjects. He 
reminds his readers of the wild theories of former 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 39 

times when anatomical knowledge was not pos- 
sessed, and enforces on their attention the fact 
that this knowledge can only be acquired, with 
any degree of perfection, by means of dissection. 
He further reminds them that no operation can 
be performed without torture to the living, and 
danger to life itself, by the hand of a surgeon 
unpractised in dissection ; and no clear judgment 
formed by the physician on the diseases of the 
human frame — diseases generally seated in organs 
hidden from the eye — without a study of the 
internal structure. 

After shortly passing over the evils of the 
system then prevailing, which have just been 
pointed out — evils which were then very gener- 
ally known — he suggests the remedy, — a very 
simple one. It was, to cease to give the bodies 
of executed criminals for anatomical purposes, 
and thus in a measure to take off the stigma 
on dissection ; and then to appropriate to that 
purpose the bodies of all those who die in hos- 
pitals and workhouses unclaimed by relatives. 

Nothing was done for some time, till in 1828, 
three years after this paper was written, there 
came the horrible discovery that the difficulty 



40 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

of obtaining subjects from the churchyards had 
become so great that two men, Burke and Hare, 
had resorted to murder to supply the need — the 
temptation having been the large price to be 
obtained for bodies. 

When things had come to this climax, legisla- 
lative attention was aroused. At this time the 
article which had appeared in the * Westminster 
Review ' was reprinted as a pamphlet, under the 
title of ' The Use of the Dead to the Living.' 
In this form it went through several editions, a 
copy being presented to members of both Houses 
of Parliament. 

The measures recommended in it were mainly 
adopted by the Legislature, and have proved 
completely successful. 

There is something at first sight sad in a plan 
which lets anything that is painful in the thought 
of such an appropriation of the bodies of the dead 
fall exclusively on the poor. This did not fail to 
suggest itself to my grandfather's mind. But it 
is to the survivors alone that such pain comes, 
and these friendless ones would have none left 
to shrink from this use of their remains. Such 
were to be chosen for the necessary purpose, not 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 41 

because they were "poor," but because they were 
" unclaimed." Neither was any pain arising from 
this arrangement to be compared with that spring- 
ing from the forcible seizure of bodies in the old 
times. Out of that arose, necessarily, scenes of 
horror revolting to all sense of the respect due 
to the dead ; while their quiet removal from the 
hospital to the anatomical school, to be followed, 
after the necessary dissection, by their burial, is 
widely different. It seemed, moreover, that the 
interest of the poor specially demanded a wide- 
spread anatomical knowledge in medical men, 
since they, more than all others, suffered when 
the means of gaining it were limited. " Poverty, 
it is true," my grandfather writes, " is a misfor- 
tune ; poverty, it is true, has terror and pain 
enough in itself. No legislature ought by any 
act to increase its wretchedness ; but the measure 
here proposed is pregnant with good to the poor, 
and would tend, more than can be estimated, to 
lessen the misery of their condition. For it would 
give knowledge to the lowest practitioners of the 
medical art — that is, to persons who are at present 
lamentably deficient, and into whose hands the 
great bulk of the poor fall. And, after all, the 



42 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

true question is, whether the surgeon shall be 
allowed to gain knowledge by operating on the 
bodies of the dead, or driven to obtain it by prac- 
tising on the bodies of the living. If the dead 
bodies of the poor are not appropriated to this use, 
their living bodies must be, and will be. The rich 
will always have it in their power to select, for the 
performance of an operation, the surgeon who has 
signalised himself by success ; but that surgeon, if 
he has not obtained the dexterity which ensures 
success by dissecting and operating on the bodies 
of the dead, must have acquired it by making 
them on the living bodies of the poor." 

It was said at the time by objectors that the 
measure in question would deter patients from 
entering the hospitals, and add terrors to work- 
houses, but experience has proved that my grand- 
father was right : the adoption of his plan has not 
been found to have the slightest effect of the kind. 

In considering the work of this period of my 
grandfather's life, I ought not to omit to mention 
his lectures, which were full of the same earnest- 
ness and originality that characterised all he did. 
He was lecturer at the Webb Street School of 
Anatomy, where he gave a course on " Forensic 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 43 

Medicine," which made much impression at the 
time. He gave also courses of popular lectures 
on physiology at the London Institution and else- 
where. To those at the London Institution ladies 
were admitted — a permission unusual in those 
times. 

One lecture, delivered on a very remarkable 
occasion, must be mentioned here. My grand- 
father was the friend and physician of Jeremy 
Bentham, and was called upon, after his death, 
to perform a duty which he had solemnly under- 
taken. The venerable philosopher died in 1832 
at the age of eighty-five, and by will desired that 
his body should be used for the purposes of dis- 
section. He intrusted to Dr Southwood Smith, 
in conjunction with two other friends, the task 
of seeing this disposition properly fulfilled, trust- 
ing that they would not be deterred by opposition 
or obloquy. 

This disposition of his body was not a recent 
act. By a will, dated as far back as 1769, it 
was left, for the same purpose, to his friend Dr 
Fordyce. The reason at that time assigned for 
this is expressed by Bentham in the following 
remarkable words : — 



44 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

" This my will and special request I make, 
not out of affectation of singularity, but to the 
intent and with the desire that mankind may 
reap some small benefit by my decease, having 
hitherto had small opportunities to contribute 
thereto while living." 

By a memorandum affixed to this document 
it is clear that it had undergone revision as 
lately as two months before his death,- and that 
this part of it, originally made when he was 
twenty-one, was again deliberately and. solemnly 
confirmed by him at eighty-five. 

In thus appropriating his remains to the ser- 
vice of mankind, Bentham carried out, to the 
last moment of his life, and even after his death, 
his principle of " Utility." 

The subject of dissection was agitating the 
public mind: the "Anatomy Bill" was not yet 
passed, and the idea might well present itself to 
a benevolent mind such as his, that to show a 
thorough absence of horror or dislike to the idea 
of being dissected after death would be a means 
of lessening the prejudice which existed against it. 

Whatever may be thought of the " greatest 
happiness principle " of this philosopher, it did 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 45 

not cause him to lead a selfish or epicurean 
life. The long calm expanse of eighty - five 
years was filled with simple pleasures, with hard 
work, and contained many sacrifices to the cause 
of truth. 

My grandfather bears his testimony to the 
wonderful energy and self-devotion of Bentham 
during his life in these words : — 

" Bentham's object was no less a one than to 
construct an all-comprehensive system of morals 
and an all -comprehensive code of laws. For 
the accomplishment of a work so prodigious he 
put forth an energy commensurate to the end. 
The extent of mental labour required for this 
undertaking, and actually brought to it, is truly 
extraordinary. Every day for nearly half a cen- 
tury did he devote to it never less than eight 
hours, often ten, and sometimes twelve." 

And now, when this busy life was stilled, my 
grandfather was bound to carry out as fully as 
possible Bentham's wish that in death too he 
might be useful. He delivered the oration over 
the body, in the Webb Street School of Anat- 
omy, on the evening of the 9th of June 1832. 
One who was there thus writes of it : — 



46 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

" None who were present can ever forget that 
impressive scene. The room is small and cir- 
cular, with no windows, but a central skylight, 
and was filled, with the exception of a class of 
medical students and some eminent members of 
that profession, by friends, disciples, and admirers 
of the deceased philosopher, comprising many 
men celebrated for literary talent, scientific re- 
search, and political activity. The corpse was 
on the table in the centre of the room, directly 
under the light, clothed in a night-dress, with 
only the head and hands exposed. There was 
no rigidity in the features, but an expression of 
placid dignity and benevolence. This was at 
times rendered almost vital by the reflection of 
the lightning playing over them ; for a storm 
arose just as the lecturer commenced, and the 
profound silence in which he was listened to 
was broken, and only broken, by loud peals of 
thunder, which continued to roll at intervals 
throughout the delivery of his most appropriate 
and often affecting^ address. With the feelinpfs 
which touch the heart in the contemplation of 
departed greatness, and in the presence of death, 
there mingled a sense of the power which that 



LITERARY AND OTHER WORK. 47 

lifeless body seemed to be exercising in the con- 
quest of prejudice for the public good, thus co- 
operating with the triumphs of the spirit by 
which it had been animated. It was a worthy 
close of the personal career of the great philoso- 
pher and philanthropist. Never did corpse of 
hero on the battle-field, with his martial cloak 
around him, or funeral obsequies chanted by 
stoled and mitred priests in Gothic aisles, excite 
such emotions as the stern simplicity of that 
hour in which the principle of utility triumphed 
over the imagination and the heart." 

In the year 1834 my grandfather published 
his book entitled 'The Philosophy of Health,'^ 
the preparation of which had been a work of 
great care, and had occupied much time for 
several years before. This book, which was, 
perhaps, the first attempt to bring the truths 
of human physiology within the comprehension 
of the general reader, achieved a marked suc- 
cess. It was full of the clearness and force 
which characterised all the writings of its author. 
The strides of modern science have now, of 
course, left its physiological teaching far behind, 
^ Longmans, 1834. 



48 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

but at the time it did original educational work 
and added lustre to his name. 

His life in chambers must have been an ardu- 
ous one — first at 36 New Broad Street, after- 
wards at 38 Finsbury Square, — his days given 
up to his ever-increasing practice, his mornings 
and evenings to writing : the amount achieved 
was prodigious, and he allowed himself but little 
relaxation. 

I may mention that it was at this time that 
my grandfather first visited at the house of old 
Mr Gillies, a city merchant of refined literary 
tastes and the father of the two distinguished 
women, Mary and Margaret Gillies (author and 
artist), who afterwards became the friends for 
life of himself, his wife, and daughters, and in 
whose home he — and I with him — had rooms 
in Kentish Town and afterwards at Hi^heate, 
though he occupied for professional purposes 
the rooms in the city to which I have before 
referred. 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 49 



CHAPTER IV. 

WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION, 1 833. 

In the year 1833 it became clear that some 
legal interference was necessary with regard to 
Factories. 

In order to understand the abuses which ex- 
isted in factories in 1833, we must revert to 
the system of employment at the end of the 
last century and trace its gradual development. 

At that period all the spinning and weaving 
of the country was domestic, the spinning being 
carried on in farmhouses and scattered cottaofes 
in rural places by the mothers and daughters 
of the families, and the weaving by men working 
in their own homes in towns and villages. This 
peaceful state of things did not last beyond the 
beginning of the present century. The " spin- 
ning-jenny " and "power-loom" were invented, 

D 



50 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

and changes occurred. Large buildings were 
now needed to carry on the work, and mills 
and factories sprang up beside the streams of 
Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lancashire, 
these places being chosen because water was 
required to turn the new machinery. The 
water-wheel now did much of the work which 
had formerly needed the strong arms of men, 
but the small and nimble fingers of children 
were henceforth called into play, as they were 
found to be specially fitted for much of that 
which remained to be done by hand. Thus 
it came about that children's labour, in con- 
sequence of its greater cheapness, was substi- 
tuted for that of grown people. 

In order to get a sufficient supply of chil- 
dren, which the scanty population near the mills 
could not afford, manufacturers applied to the 
managers of the workhouses in London and 
other large towns, for pauper children to be taken 
as apprentices. Hundreds, it is said even thous- 
ands, of children were thus taken away from 
even the slight protection which the tender 
mercies of the workhouse authorities of that 
day might afford, and placed entirely in the 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 51 

power of the master manufacturer, or, worse 
still, of his overseer. 

The evils that resulted from this apprentice- 
ship system resembled those springing from 
slavery. One writer ^ says : — 

" There is abundant evidence on record, and 
preserved in the recollection of some who still 
live, to show that, in many of the manufac- 
turing districts, cruelties the most heartrending 
were practised upon the unoffending and friend- 
less creatures who were thus consigned to the 
care of the master manufacturers ; that they 
were harassed to the brink of death by excess 
of labour, that they were flogged, fettered, and 
tortured to the most exquisite refinements of 
cruelty ; that they were in many cases starved 
to the bone whilst flogged to their work ; and 
that, in some instances, they were driven to 
commit suicide to evade the cruelties of a world 
where, though born into it so recently, their 
happiest moments had been passed in the garb 
and in the coercion of a workhouse. The 
beautiful and romantic valleys of Derbyshire, 
Lancashire, and Nottinghamshire, secluded from 

' M. Fielden, M.P., ' The Curse of the Factory System.' 



52 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

the public eye, became the dismal solitudes of 
torture and of many a murder." 

The Legislature interfered, and in 1802 passed 
an Act for regulating factories and protecting 
the apprentices employed in them. This Act 
was brought in and carried by Sir Robert Peel, 
the father of the statesman who repealed the 
Corn Laws, and himself a large manufacturer. 

A further change in the history of manu- 
facture, however, occurred. The steam - engine 
was invented, and when its power was applied 
to manufacture, it was no longer necessary to 
build factories where water-power was at hand ; 
they were henceforth principally established in 
towns. Apprentices were now but little em- 
ployed ; free, paid child - labour, here to be ob- 
tained in abundance, was preferred by the mill- 
owners. They had never wished for apprentices ; 
the charge of them had always entailed con- 
siderable trouble ; the responsibility was felt 
heavily by conscientious masters, whilst the legal 
restrictions of Sir Robert Peel's Act prevented 
the avaricious and hard-hearted from profiting 
by the abuses of the system. Apprenticeship 
therefore died a natural death. 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 53 

It might be thought that children employed 
under the new plan, receiving wages and living 
at home under the protection of their parents, 
would suffer no hardships calling for legal re- 
straint ; but representations having been made 
to the Government that abuses had crept in, 
a Royal Commission of inquiry was determined 
upon in 1833. 

On this occasion Dr Southwood Smith was 
appointed by the Government a member of 
this Commission, conjointly with Mr Tooke and 
Mr Edwin Chadwick.^ 

Their first work was to send district com- 
missioners into the manufacturing regions to col- 
lect evidence, and the results of those inquiries 
were embodied in the general Report, My 
grandfather took a deep interest in the subject, 
for the evils disclosed by the inspection, if not 
so great as they had been under the apprentice- 
ship system, were still sufficiently appalling : chil- 
dren, some of them not more than five years 
old, were obliged to work the same number of 

' This Commission, for considering the employment of children 
in factories, preceded by eleven years the one relating to their 
employment in mines alluded to in the Introduction. 



54 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

hours as the adult operatives — twelve, fourteen, 
or sixteen hours a - day — sometimes the whole 
night ; their health was thus often ruined for 
life ; neither time nor strength remained for edu- 
cation ; they were growing up totally ignorant ; 
and they were, besides, often unkindly treated. 

It is sad to see in the Report such words 
as these, quoted from the children's lips : "I 
am sick tired, especially in the winter nights." 
"So tired when I leave the mill that I can 
do nothing." " I feel so tired when I gang 
home that I throw myself down, no caring what 
I does." " So tired I am not able to set one 
foot by the other." " Many a time I have been 
so fatigued I could hardly take off my clothes 
at night, or put them on in the morning. My 
mother would be raging at me, because when 
I sat down I could not get up again through 
the house." 

As to their ruined health, such sentences as 
these foretell it : " Many nights I do not get 
a wink of sleep from the pain." " My knees 
failed from the work." Or, " Severe pains would 
come on, particularly in the morning." 

The evidence of the overseers and managers 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 55 

is scarcely less strong than that of the little 
sufferers themselves. 

One manager says : "I have known the chil- 
dren hide themselves in the wool so that they 
could not go home when the work was over. 
I have seen six or eight fetched out of the 
stove and beat out of the mill." 

Another says : " After the children from eight 
to twelve years old had worked eight or nine 
hours, they were nearly ready to faint : only 
kept to their work by being spoken to, or by 
a little chastisement to make them jump up. 
I was sometimes obliged to chastise them when 
they were almost fainting, and it hurt my feel- 
ings ; then they would spring up and work 
pretty well for another hour ; but the last two 
or three hours were my hardest work, for they 
then got so exhausted." 

And a third manager says : "I have seen 
them fall asleep, and they were performing their 
work with their hands, while they were asleep, 
after the 'billy' had stopped and their work 
was over." 

Two great objections were made to any legis- 
lative limitation of the number of hours of chil- 



56 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

dren's labour. One was, that it was impossible 
to shorten their hours of work without also short- 
ening those of the adults, who could not go 
on without them ; the other, that it was wrong 
to restrict the liberty of the subject. 

The first of these was, truly, a difficulty ; but 
if the evil was so very great, it appeared to 
my grandfather and those acting with him that 
some change must be made in the mode of 
working, rather than overtax the children to 
this extent. Relays of children must be ob- 
tained, or grown-up workers must be substi- 
tuted as assistants. 

With regard to the second objection — that it 
would be restricting the liberty of private indi- 
viduals if the law interfered — the Report shows 
that children, at the age at which they suffered 
these injuries, were not free agents, but were 
let out to hire by their parents, by whom their 
wages were appropriated, and who were easily 
rendered callous to their children's wrongs by 
a threat of dismissal, or a bribe of an additional 
penny an hour of wage. If the law did not 
step in to protect these unfortunate little ones 
from parents whose selfishness and ignorance 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 57 

was allowing them to grow up diseased and 
benighted, where, argues the Report, was their 
help to come from ? 

The question as to whether it is right in 
any instance for the Government to intervene 
between parent and child, is now practically 
settled by the many laws and enactments which 
reo-ulate children's education and hours of labour. 
But in those days the idea of any restriction 
of a parent's right over his child excited much 
opposition. It was regarded by many people 
as both impracticable and undesirable. 

The reformers, however, carried their point 
and achieved success. That very year the Fac- 
tory Act passed, and the recommendations of 
the Report were nearly all embodied in it. No 
child was allowed to be employed at all under 
eight years old ; children between eight and 
thirteen were only allowed to work six and a 
half hours a-day ; and all those employed were 
obliged to attend school for three hours a-day. 
Inspectors were appointed to see that the pro- 
visions of the Act were fully carried out. 

Of course there was considerable indignation 
on the part of the millowners, but many of 



58 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

those who at first objected to the restrictions 
were afterwards convinced of their utiHty, and 
as time passed on this conviction spread amongst 
all classes and gathered strength. 

The only modifications of the Act of 1833 
which have been made since, have been mere 
extensions of its principles. The regulations, 
which at first applied to cotton, cloth, and silk 
mills only, have been extended by subsequent 
Acts to bleaching and dyeing works. Powers 
have also been given to compel the fencing of 
machinery, and to enforce other safeguards 
against injury to the workpeople. 

Even after the Factory Commission had fin- 
ished its work, and had ceased to exist, my 
grandfather continued to watch with interest the 
results of what had been done. Five years 
afterwards, the House of Commons having 
ordered a Return showing the working of the 
educational provisions of the Act, he went down 
himself to various mills, and I find his copy 
of the Return thickly pencilled with marginal 
notes like the following : — 

" I visited this mill myself with a view to 
examine the school." " The whole neighbour- 



WORK ON THE FACTORY COMMISSION. 59 

hood was opposed to the direction of the mill. 
They now consider it a great blessing." " The 
children of the higher class of people are anxious 
to get employment in the mills." 

It must have given him great delight to feel 
that, as was said by a writer eleven years later — 

" The present Act has led to an amelioration 
of the treatment, and an improvement in the 
physical and moral character, of the vast juvenile 
population, such as was never before effected 
by an Act of Parliament ; while the benefits 
resulting from it to all parties, the employers 
no less than the employed, are not only rapidly 
multiplying and extending, but are becoming 
more and more the subjects of general acknow- 
ledgment and gratulation. There is reason to 
believe that the total number employed in fac- 
tory labour in the United Kingdom is little 
short of 1,000,000.^ In one district, not by 
any means one of the largest, the number of 
children attending school was increased from 
200 to 2316." 

^ This was in 1844. 



6o DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



CHAPTER V. 

RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT, 1 837. 

Perhaps the most necessary and the most tried 
quahty in a reformer is Patience. Notwithstand- 
ing the pubhcation of the ' Treatise on Fever * 
in 1830, and the tribute paid by the scientific 
world to its masterly exposition of the treatment 
and causes of the disease, notwithstanding the 
constant and ardent endeavours of the author 
to propagate his views, yet seven long years 
passed away before he was able to awaken 
the apathy of the public and the authorities. 

Year after year went by, and the wards of 
the Fever Hospital continued to be supplied 
from the same districts, from the same courts 
and lanes — even from the very same house — as 
before. The preventible suffering, thus daily 
brought before my grandfather's eyes, was a 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT 6i 

daily reminder of the urgent need for help — of 
the necessity for taking practical steps to dim- 
inish it. 

In 1837 the opportunity came for pressing 
forward in the cause. That year a frightful 
epidemic fever broke out in London, arousing 
general alarm, and demanding special inquiry. 
The pressure on the poor-rates became exces- 
sive, and my grandfather was appointed by the 
Poor Law Commissioners to report on the 
eastern districts of London, Drs Arnott and 
Kay being appointed to other districts. 

The title of the Report presented by him 
is at once striking. He called it, " Report on 
the Physical Causes of Sickness and Mortality 
to which the Poor are particularly exposed, and 
which are capable of prevention by Sanitary 
Measures r Its opening words are, — 

"Some of the severest evils at present in- 
cident to the condition of poverty, which have a 
large share in inducing its high rate of sickness 
and mortality, are the consequences of improvi- 
dence. Such evils are capable of being remedied 
only by bringing the poor under the influence of 
the inducements to forethought and prudence. 



62 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

" But there are evils of another class, more 
general and powerful in their operation, which 
can be avoided by no prudence, and removed 
by no exertion, on the part of the poor. Among 
the gravest, and at the same time the most 
remediable, of these latter evils, is the exposure 
to certain noxious agents generated and accumu- 
lated in the localities in which the poor are 
obliged to take up their abode, and to the per- 
nicious influence of which they are constantly, 
and for the most part unconsciously, subjected. 

*' It is the object of the present Report to 
direct attention to the nature and extent of this 
evil, and to show how important it is that its 
mitigation, and, as far as may be found prac- 
ticable, its entire removal, should form a part 
of every exertion that is made for improving 
the physical condition of the poor." 

These words would- seem to strike the key- 
note of Sanitary Reform. 

In order to make the Report more full and 
impressive, Dr Southwood Smith writes an exact 
account of what he saw. He went personally 
over the greater part of the Bethnal Green 
and Whitechapel districts. " I traversed," he 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT. 63 

says, "a circle of from six to seven miles in 
extent. I wrote the account of the places I 
am about to notice on the spot ; I entered many 
of the houses and examined their condition as 
to cleanliness, ventilation, as well as the state 
of the people themselves, who were at the time 
labouring under fever." 

The descriptions that follow are too dreadful 
to be dwelt upon in detail here. We are shown 
individually the houses of Whitechapel : they 
are piled storey above storey, and are teeming 
with people ; the streets, courts, and alleys are 
so built that all current of air is blocked out, 
and no measures whatever are taken to secure 
cleanliness. We are shown Bethnal Green, flat, 
low, damp, wasted. Here the houses are not so 
closely packed — there are open spaces ; but these 
are for the most part undrained marshes, and the 
air coming across them is poisonous rather than 
life-giving. Straggling rows of rickety cottages 
look out upon stagnant swamps ; their miserable 
gardens are scattered over with uncleared dust 
and refuse of all kinds, and are surrounded 
with black and overflowing ditches, to cross 
which you must pass over rotting planks used 



64 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

as bridges : there are houses which contain only- 
two rooms, the larger being 9 feet by 7 and 
7 feet high, the smaller not able to contain an 
ordinary-sized bed. 

If the house has more rooms, it probably con- 
tains many families, and a state of overcrowding 
is produced nearly as fatal as that which pre- 
vails in the parts of London where the houses 
stand more thickly. 

The picture comes vividly before us of the 
dismal homes, with their melancholy gardens 
where the pale children play by the black 
ditches ; their green damp walls ; the rags 
stuffed into the broken windows to keep out the 
tainted outside air ; and the crowds huddled 
together breathing the suffocating air within 
doors. It is easy to realise the hopeless efforts 
of the poor inhabitants to fight against the dirt 
and disease which all those efforts are powerless 
to overcome ! 

No wonder then, that, in the words of his 
Report, we are told that *' in many parts of 
both these districts fever of a malignant kind 
and fatal character is always more or less preva- 
lent ; that in some streets it has recently pre- 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT. 65 

vailed in almost every house; in some in every 
house ; and, in some few instances, in every room 
of every house. Cases are recorded in which 
every member of a family has been attacked 
in succession, of whom, in every such case, 
several have died : some whole families have 
been swept away. Instances are detailed in 
which there have been found, in one small room, 
six persons lying ill of fever together : I have 
myself seen this — four in one bed and two in 
another." 

He once more enforces the preventibleness 
of this dreadful state of things — how entirely 
it was within the power of man to change it 
by wise attention to the laws of health. He 
points out parts of the districts which had always 
remained comparatively healthy, and some, for- 
merly haunts of fever, where during the last 
epidemic no single case had occurred, owing to 
sanitary improvements. 

The necessity for providing in some way for 
the airing of streets and courts in densely popu- 
lated neighbourhoods, by the knocking down 
of houses or other expedients, is insisted upon. 
Its difficulty is admitted, but still it is urged. 



66 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH, 

" Though it might seem a hopeless task," he 
says, ** to set about ventilating such districts 
as Bethnal Green and Whitechapel, yet, if the 
importance of the principle be duly appreciated 
and the object be kept steadily in view, much 
may be accomplished. In some of the worst 
localities in these districts, at moderate expense, 
means might be taken to introduce free cur- 
rents of air, where at present the air is per- 
fectly stagnant and stifling. Some of the im- 
provements recently made in the City of London 
show to what extent it is possible to introduce 
good ventilation into the heart of the most 
densely populated part of the Metropolis." 

In this Report my grandfather also draws 
attention to the state of the Workhouses. He 
was writing to the Poor Law Commissioners, 
and so he could efficiently bring under their 
notice the state of those buildings. 

" From what I have observed I am satisfied," 
he says, " that many existing workhouses are 
extremely deficient in space, ventilation, and 
drainage." 

The overcrowding in the dormitories is especi- 
ally pointed out. He writes : — 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT. 67 

"In going over the Whitechapel Workhouse 
I was struck with the statement of the fact that, 
out of 104 children (girls) resident in that house, 
89 have recently been attacked with fever. On 
examining the dormitory in which these children 
sleep, my wonder ceased. In a room 88 feet 
long, i6| wide, and 7 feet high, with a sloping 
roof rising to 10 feet, all these 104 children, 
together with four women who have the charge 
of them, sleep. The beds are close to each 
other ; in all the beds there are never less than 
four children, in many five ; the ventilation of 
the room is most imperfect. Under such circum- 
stances the breaking out of fever is inevitable. 

" I was likewise struck with the pale and un- 
healthy appearance of a number of children in 
the Whitechapel Workhouse, in a room called 
the ' Infant Nursery.' These children appear to 
be from two to three years of age ; they are 
23 in number, they all sleep in one room, and 
they seldom or never go out of this room either 
for air or exercise. Several attempts have been 
made to send these infants into the country, but a 
majority of the Board of Guardians has hitherto 
succeeded in resisting the proposition. 



68 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

"In the Whitechapel Workhouse there are two 
fever - wards : in the lower ward the beds are 
much too close ; two fever patients are placed 
in each bed ; the ventilation is most imperfect, 
and the room is so close as to be dangerous to 
all who enter it, as well as most injurious to the 
sick." 

The Report mentions, in contrast, the case of 
the Jews' Hospital, where he had been physician. 
In that hospital, though at one time there had 
been a yearly outbreak of fever, since the number 
of beds in the dormitories had been reduced, and 
several large ventilators had been put in, the evil 
had entirely ceased. At the time he wrote eight 
years had passed since the improvements, and 
fever had not once returned as an epidemic. 

After finishing this Report, my grandfather set 
to work to obtain exact statistics as to fever in 
other parts of London ; and by the next year 
(1839) tables had been compiled, which proved, 
by a wider range of experience, the truths he had 
again and again brought forward. Once more he 
wrote a Report to the Poor Law Commissioners 
— of whom Mr (afterwards Sir Edwin) Chadwick 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT. 69 

was one — pointing out the facts which were 
proved by these figures and the duty of act- 
ing on them.^ 

Such accounts as those given by the three 
physicians appointed by the Poor Law Board to 
inquire, could not pass unnoticed. The press, not 
only in London but in all parts of England, took 
up the subject. Public men began to be roused. 

At first the facts were doubted. It was diffi- 
cult to believe that such a dreadful state of things 
could exist ; but attention was awakened, and in- 
quiry followed. 

The Marquis of Normanby, then Secretary of 
State for the Home Department, was much im- 
pressed with what he had read, but he could 
hardly conquer a belief that there must have 
been some exaggeration. My grandfather took 
him to see some of the places in Bethnal Green 
and Whitechapel which the Report had described. 
Lord Normanby was deeply moved, as every one 
must have been who was brought to realise the 
kind of dwellings which were all that these people 
had for homes. " So far," he said, " from any 

1 Report on the Prevalence of Fever in Twenty Metropolitan 
Unions in 1838. 



70 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

exaggeration having crept into the descriptions 
which had been given, they had not conveyed 
to my mind an adequate idea of the truth." 

Lord Ashley, too, always in the forefront to 
relieve the sufferings of the poor, was taken by 
my grandfather on two occasions to see these 
regions personally ; and from that time forth he 
became one of the most ardent supporters of the 
Sanitary Cause, working strenuously for it both 
in and out of Parliament.^ In a letter to a 
friend my grandfather writes : — 

"FiNSBURY Square, 1841. 
" I have just returned from Whitechapel and 
Bethnal Green, over which I have been taking 
Lord Ashley and his brother, and I think they 
have received an impression which will be lasting, 
and which will stimulate them to exert themselves 
for the removal of some of the evils which they 
have witnessed." 

The Bishop of London had the honour of being 
the first to bring the question before Parliament. 

^ For the account of what was shown to Lord Ashley on these 
occasions see Appendix L, p. 159. 



RISE OF THE SANITARY MOVEMENT. 71 

In an earnest and eloquent speech made in the 
House of Lords during the session of 1839, he 
moved for an extension of such inquiries as the 
Poor Law Board had caused to be made in Lon- 
don, to other towns in the United Kingdom. 

It must have seemed to my grandfather a 
glorious moment when the principles he had so 
long advocated were for the first time recognised 
— when the country began to hear with surprise 
and shame of the existing state of things — and 
when the suffering, which he felt so deeply, 
seemed about to be relieved. 

The movement had now begun. Surely it 
would go quickly, since the saving of thousands 
of lives each year depended on its progress ? 



72 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



CHAPTER VI. 

PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK, 184O-1848. 

I HAVE now arrived at the period of my grand- 
father's life which comes within my own memory, 
and which begins with the days described in the 
Introduction when I used to watch him as he sat 
at his writing in the early mornings. He had 
taken me to live with him at three years old, and 
from that time I was with him throughout his life. 
If, in this chapter or elsewhere, I dwell on his care 
and tenderness towards myself, it is only that it 
may indicate the love he invariably showed to all 
near and dear to him. 

My grandfather, though losing no opportunity 
of promoting the cause he had chiefly at heart — 
the great sanitary cause — did not limit his public 
work to it alone : he was at this time engaged in 
reforming the state of coal-mines, being a member 




^-^■'^^''^■Jpj>^^^^ 



Old woman carrying coal. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 73 

of a Royal Commission — the "Children's Employ- 
ment Commission " — the chief object of whose 
labours was to secure the abolition of child-labour 
in mines. It has been mentioned that the Report 
presented to Parliament by this Commission had 
pictures : they were drawn on the spot at my 
grandfather's instigation, and I believe I am right 
in saying it was the only parliamentary report so 
issued. The state of things in the mines was 
sufficiently appalling. Children of tender years 
were employed in opening and shutting little 
gates in narrow passages of coal. They were 
untaught, and seldom breathed the fresh air. 
They were sometimes as young as five years 
old (parents have been known to send them 
even at four years old) ; they sat in small niches, 
scooped out of the coal, for twelve hours at a 
time, to watch the doors, and they were alone and 
in the dark except when a "hurrier" with a 
candle fastened to his forehead passed along, on 
hands and knees, dragging a truck. 

The suffering was not confined to children ; it 
was found that young girls, married women, and 
aged and decrepit women were exposed to bear- 
ing upon their backs burdens of coal weighing 



74 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

from three-quarters of a cwt. to 3 cwt. ; often to 
carry these whilst wading in water up to the 
ankles, sometimes up to the knees, or to carry 
them from the bottom of the mine to the bank up 
steep ladders ; to go through the hard work of 
hewing coal by the side of the men ; to drag 
trucks on all fours harnessed by chains ; and that 
the nature of their work, when hewing coal, con- 
stantly obliged them to dispense with most of 
their clothing. 

The illustrations in the Report brought all 
this before my childish imagination very vividly. 
Perhaps they also, as the Commissioners hoped 
they might do, caught the attention of busy 
members of Parliament and learned lords who 
might not have waded through a lengthy "blue- 
book" to find the facts which these pictures 
showed at a glance. The object of the Commis- 
sioners was to put the facts strikingly, and in 
this they succeeded. 

Lord Ashley's Bill, based on this Report, en- 
countered great opposition, especially in the 
House of Lords, many members of which were 
large proprietors of mines, and in the course 
of its passage through Parliament it was much 





>^-: 


'^tS^' "'-' /''-^''" 'f"'^"^'';?*^'"'*"'— "* 




jj^^? 


k "^ 

k y 




^^^^ ^^^dHE| 


^^*>^^^^^^ 



Children at work. 




Woman drawing truck. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 75 

mutilated. Lord Ashley had hoped to prevent 
any boy under thirteen from working in the 
mines, but the age of exemption was lowered 
to ten years old ; and his attempt to prohibit 
the employment of boys and old men in the 
work of lowering the miners into the pit by 
means of ropes was also defeated. 

Still, the main points were gained ; for by 
Lord Ashley's Bill, which passed in 1844 and 
was founded on the labours of this and the Fac- 
tory Commission, not only was it enacted that 
all children under ten should henceforth be pro- 
hibited from working in mines, but that such 
labour should also be illegal for girls of all ages 
and for women. 

It may be worth noticing that the change in 
the law did not at first give satisfaction to the 
miners. The men considered it a great hardship 
to be deprived of the earnings of their wives and 
children, and the women themselves complained 
sorely of being deprived of their work. But 
time has proved the great benefits of the new 
system. The men now earn nearly as much as 
a man and his wife used to do, the presence 
of the wife in the home causes it to be better 



76 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

cared for, and the children are free to attend 
school. 

The " Children's Employment Commission" in- 
stituted a further inquiry into the state of young 
people employed in branches of trade not as yet 
brought under regulation. This second Report 
of the Commission, on " Trades and Manufac- 
tures/' related to the state of apprentices in the 
South Staffordshire ironworks, and of young 
workers in such trades as earthenware -making, 
calico-printing, paper-making, &c. ; and although 
nothing could be done for them at the time, the 
regulations recommended in the Report have 
since been adopted. 

These Inquiries — important and interesting as 
they were — occupied only the hours which my 
grandfather could spare from his professional 
work as one of the chief consultants in cases of 
fever, and a leading London physician. 

He went daily from our home in Kentish 
Town to his rooms in the City, and often used to 
take me with him as a little child. We usually 
stopped first at the Fever Hospital, which was 
then near King's Cross. The Great Northern 
Railway Station stands now on its site, where I 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 77 

used to sit in the carriage at its gate. His con- 
nection with that Hospital was never broken (at 
his death he had been one of its physicians for 
nearly forty years), and he was, of course, much 
interested in its re-erection when it was removed 
to its present position in Liverpool Road, Isling- 
ton. The new building was made with wards 
having no upper storeys ; each ward had three 
outer walls and a very high ceiling, thus ensuring 
perfect ventilation ; and there were many other 
advantages of arrangement. 

But even the original hospital at King's Cross 
was very carefully managed as to fresh air, and 
my grandfather's implicit belief in his own doc- 
trine of non-contagion was proved by his more 
than once taking me into the fever-wards, though, 
when I was a child and therefore peculiarly sus- 
ceptible, he never would let me breathe the 
tainted air of the courts and lanes of which he 
fearlessly encountered the danger, not only in his 
capacity as a physician, but when making his 
early sanitary investigations. 

Three times in the course of his life he had 
been stricken down with fever. In one of these 
attacks his life had been despaired of, but medi- 



78 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

cal skill, aided by most careful nursing and by 
his naturally strong constitution, at length con- 
quered the disease. 

After the visit to the hospital we went on into 
the City to his consulting-rooms, which were first 
at 36 New Broad Street, and afterwards at 38 
Finsbury Square; and then came the morning 
hours during which he saw patients there, and I 
amused myself until he was ready for the after- 
noon round. Then outdoor work again. Gen- 
erally the visits led us through crowded streets 
where the carriage got blocked in amongst great 
waggons or hemmed in near high warehouses ; 
but at times there came long drives to some 
patient living more in the country at Hackney, 
Dalston, Stoke Newington, or farther off still ; 
and then what a happy time I had with him, 
sitting on his knee and asking endless questions ! 
It was worth many hours of waiting in the car- 
riage, outside doors, to have the times that came 
between. 

Then there was the Eastern Dispensary and 
Jews' Hospital practice, in connection with which 
he daily went to see patients in their own poor 
homes. How well I remember being left in the 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 79 

carriage at the end of streets too narrow for it to 
drive down. I used to amuse myself with looking 
out at the people passing to and fro — children 
without hats and bonnets ; old-clothesmen with 
their bags ; orange-girls ; — many dark faces 
amongst the passers-by — Jews, as I was after- 
wards told. I used to wonder at it all, and make 
up stories about the people and guess on what 
errands they were bent when entering their little 
shops and doorways ; and when tired of all this — 
for I was still too small to see without kneeling 
up on the seat to look out at the window — I 
seated myself on the floor of the carriage and 
was soon deeply engrossed in some book of 
pictures or fairy tales, which my grandfather, in 
the midst of all else, had thoughtfully put into 
the pocket of the carriage for me to "find." 

Then I would climb up again and watch for 
him. At last he would come ! Down the dark, 
narrow street, looking very grave, the reflection 
of some scene just left still resting on his face. 
Out of such thoughts — produced by such places 
— came his afterwork. 

When he came to me, however, the sad 
thoughts passed away, and he was ready to let 



8o DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

his happy nature come through to cheer his little 
girl. He would practically work to relieve such 
misery as he had seen — day and night — at 
all cost — through all opposition, — but he would 
also play merrily with his little grandchild, to 
make joyous for her the homeward drive through 
the evening air. 

My grandfather was much interested at this 
time in another effort of which I have not yet 
spoken. It was the institution of a " Home in 
Sickness " in London for those of the middle 
classes who might be far from their own families, 
or who, from some other cause, could not secure 
favourable surroundings in times of illness. The 
position of such people struck him as very deso- 
late. There were many with homes far away — 
clerks, students, young men engaged in various 
professions, governesses, and other ladies of 
limited income — who might be seized with illness 
under circumstances when a return to their 
family was impossible ; others who had no family 
to which to return. It seemed to him that 
chambers or lodgings which might be tolerably 
convenient for people in health, were utterly 
unsuited to give the requisite comforts when 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 8i 

illness came : the poorer classes had the hospi- 
tals, but for this intermediate class there was no 
provision. 

His plan was, therefore, to found an institution 
into which, by subscribing a small sum annually, 
members could secure a right to be received 
when they were suffering from disease. They 
would each have a separate room where an equal 
temperature could be secured, well prepared diet, 
superior nursing, the advantage of a medical 
officer in the house who could be called in at any 
moment, and the daily advice of skilled physicians 
and surgeons specially appointed ; or should the 
patients prefer it, of their own medical ad- 
visers. For this they were to pay two guineas 
a-week during their residence, or less, should it be 
found that such an establishment could be self- 
supporting at a lower rate : that it should be 
self-supporting was, he thought, essential. 

Such an institution was founded in 1840 under 
very good auspices, and opened under the name 
of " The Sanatorium " at Devonshire House, 
York Gate, Regent's Park, in 1842. My grand- 
father freely gave it his medical services, as well 
as his influence and supervision, for some years. 

F 



82 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

The house stood in a garden in which there 
were tall trees (with rooks in them), making a 
cool green shade and shutting out all other 
houses ; whilst within doors the soft carpets and 
general feeling of quiet and order gave a sense of 
peace. The contrast on turning into that garden 
from the " New Road " ^ was striking. Quiet, 
indeed, was one of the chief boons which the 
Sanatorium could offer. 

Charles Dickens, one of its earliest supporters, 
speaks forcibly of this contrast in a speech made 
in behalf of the Institution. He speaks of the 
noise of crowded streets and busy thoroughfares 
as — 

" That never-ceasing restlessness, that incessant 
tread of feet wearing the rough stones smooth and 
glossy." "Is it not a wonder," he says, — "is it 
not a wonder, how the dwellers in narrow ways 
can bear it ? Think of a sick man in such a place 
as St Martin's Court, listening to the footsteps, 
and in the midst of pain and weariness obliged, 
despite himself (as though it were a task he must 
perform), to detect the child's step from the man's ; 
the slipshod beggar from the hooded exquisite ; 

1 Now Marylebone Road. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 83 

the lounging from the busy. Think of the hum 
and noise always present to his senses, and of 
the stream of life that will not stop, pouring on, 
on, on, through all his restless dreams, as if he 
were condemned to lie dead, but conscious, in a 
noisy churchyard, and had no hope of rest for 
centuries to come." 

After some time it was found that a building 
specially constructed, which should contain many 
small separate rooms, would be more suitable and 
less expensive than Devonshire House. To erect 
this it was necessary to raise a building fund. By 
this time the Institution was supported by a 
powerful list of patrons, with Prince Albert at 
their head ; many large banking-houses and City 
firms had subscribed to it for the sake of their 
clerks and others ; and more than a hundred 
members of the medical profession had visited 
it, and had signed a statement expressing their 
belief in the need of such an establishment, add- 
ing that the Sanatorium had supplied this need 
most satisfactorily, though on a small scale. 

Charles Dickens then lived nearly opposite to 
Devonshire House, and when the building fund 
was opened, he and several other literary men 



84 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

and artists came forward and gave for its benefit 
the first of those amateur performances which 
they repeated at a later period. They acted Ben 
Jonson's " Every Man in his Humour," at St 
James's Theatre, on November 15, 1845, both 
audience and actors being brilliant. Charles 
Dickens, Douglas Jerrold, John Foster, Mark 
Lemon, Frank Stone, and others took part. I 
remember seeing them, as I peeped down from 
a side-box. 

The Sanatorium did not, from a money point 
of view, succeed ; but it was, nevertheless, the 
forerunner of all those "Home Hospitals" and 
"Nursing Homes" which have since proved so 
great a boon to the public. So that in this, also, 
my grandfather was a pioneer. 

As the name of Dickens has been mentioned, it 
may be interesting to refer here to some of the 
letters which show the early and keen interest 
he felt in the removal of the evils with which 
my grandfather was contending, and his readi- 
ness to give his aid to the cause of the poor. 
Here is the first letter, alluding both to the 
Sanatorium and to the Children's Employment 
Commission : — 



J««c^ --^^^H. ^CfM-^ 4X*w-i^ tfT^ /^-^ *W«/'<-«^ 







•^ ^<t>^^l£^ a^U ^^ui.^' 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 85 

I Devonshire Terrace, York Gate, 
Fifteenth December 1 840. 

My dear Sir, — I am greatly obliged to you 
for your kind note and inclosure of to-day. I 
had never seen the Sanatorium pamphlet, and 
have been greatly pleased with it. The reasons 
for such an Institution, and the advantages likely 
to result from it, could not have been more 
forcibly or eloquently put. I have read it twice 
with extreme satisfaction. 

You have given me hardly less pleasure by 
sending me the Instructions of the Children's 
Employment Commission, which seem to me to 
have been devised in a most worthy spirit, and 
to comprehend every point on which humanity 
and forethought could have desired to lay stress. 
The little book reaches me very opportunely ; for 
Lord Ashley sent me his speech on moving the 
Commission only the day before yesterday ; and 
I could not forbear, in writing to him in acknow- 
ledgment of its receipt, cursing the present system 
and its fatal effects in keeping down thousands 
upon thousands of God's images, with all my 
heart and soul. 

It must be a great comfort and happiness to 



86 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

you to be instrumental in bringing about so much 
good. I am proud to be remembered by one 
who is pursuing such ends, and heartily hope that 
we shall know each other better. — My dear Sir, 
faithfully yours, Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWOOD Smith. 

Another characteristic and genial letter, dated 
half a-year later, appears to refer to some pro- 
posed expedition, in the course of which Dickens 
was to see on the spot some place where children 
were at work in a coal-mine : — 

Devonshire Terrace, 
Wednesday y June the Second^ 1841. 

My dear Dr Smith, — I find it can't be done. 
The artists, engravers, printers, and every one 
engaged have so depended on my promises, and 
so fashioned their engagements by them, that I 
cannot with any regard to their comfort or con- 
venience leave town before the nineteenth. At 
any other time I would have gone with you to 
John-o'-Groat's for such a purpose ; and I don't 
thank you the less heartily for not being able to 
go now. 

If you should see one place which you would 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 87 

like me to behold of all others, and should find 
that I could get easy access to it, tell me when 
you come back, and I'll see it on my way to 
Scotland, please God. 

I will send your papers home by hand to- 
morrow. — In haste, believe me with true regards, 
faithfully yours, Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWooD Smith. 

The following year, Dickens, being about to 
proceed to Cornwall, wrote to my grandfather 
asking his advice as follows : — 

Devonshire Terrace, 
Saturday^ October Twenty-second, 1842. 

My dear Sir, — I have an expedition afoot 
in which I think you can assist me. 

I want to see the very dreariest and most 
desolate portion of the sea - coast of Cornwall ; 
and start next Thursday, with a couple of friends, 
for St Michael's Mount. Can you tell me of 
your own knowledge, or through the information 
of any of the Mining Sub-Commissioners, what 
is the next best bleak and barren part ? And 
can you, furthermore, while I am in those regions, 
help me down a mine ? 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



I ought to make many apologies for troubling 
you, but somehow or other I don't — which is your 
fault and not mine. — Always believe me faithfully 
your friend, Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWooD Smith. 

My grandfather's feeling about the Cornish 
coast is given in his answer : — 

36 New Broad Street, October 2^, 1842. 

My dear Sir, — I do not think you will find 
St Michael's Mount particularly desolate, but it 
is nevertheless a very remarkable and interesting 
place. The coast about Land's End, I am told, 
is incomparably more dreary and presents a fine 
specimen of wrecken scenery. But the place 
above all others for dreariness is Tintagel (King 
Arthur's) Castle, near Camelford. There shall 
you see nothing but bleak-looking rocks and an 
everlastingly boisterous sea, both in much the 
same state as when good King Arthur reigned.^ 

You must go through Truro to get to either 

^ It is somewhat curious to note that a similar enthusiasm for 
Tintagel animated the mind of his granddaughter, Octavia Hill : 
she became instrumental, through the National Trust, in preserv- 
ing its wonderful cliff intact for the nation for ever. It was 
bought in 1896. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 89 

place. Your best plan will be to call on Dr 
Charles Barham. He is the physician of those 
parts and a most intelligent man, thoroughly ac- 
quainted with every nook in Cornwall and known 
to every mine. He was one of our best Sub- 
Commissioners ; and he will tell you where best 
to go for your immediate object, and will take you 
with the least loss of time to the best specimen 
of a mine. But pray do not forget that a Cor- 
nish mine is quite different from a coal-mine : 
while much less disagreeable to the senses, far 
more fatal in its effects upon the men and boys 
(they have no women). 

I send you herewith a letter of introduction to 
Dr Barham, whom you will find both able and 
willing to give you all the information and assist- 
ance you may require. — Faithfully yours, 

SouTHWOoD Smith. 

The following merry letter from Dickens, on 
his return, winds up the little correspondence : — 

I Devonshire Terrace, 
York Gate, Eighth November 1842. 

My dear Sir, — I have just come home from 
Cornwall. I did not, after all, deliver your letter. 



90 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

Having Stanfield and Maclise and another friend 
with me, I determined not to do so, unless I 
found it absolutely necessary ; lest the unfor- 
tunate Doctor should consider himself in a state 
of siege. 

I saw all I wanted to see, and a noble coast 
it is. I have sent your letter to Dr Barham 
with a line or two from myself; and am as much 
obliged to you as though I had driven him wild 
with trouble. — Always faithfully yours, 

Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWOOD Smith. 

Before leaving this subject, I will give two 
more of Charles Dickens's letters, which show 
that the interest he had manifested in the first 
beginning of the inquiry into the state of the 
children in coal-pits did not wane, but that, when 
the Report came before him in 1843, he was 
deeply moved, and prepared himself at once to 
take up arms in defence of the children. The 
first letter runs thus : — 

Devonshire Terrace, Sixth March 1843. 
My dear Dr Smith, — I sent a message across 
the way to-day, urging you, in case you should 



. PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 91 

come to the Sanatorium, to call on me if con- 
venient. My reason was this : 

I am so perfectly stricken down by the blue- 
book you have sent me, that I think (as soon 
as I shall have done my month's work) of writing 
and bringing out a very cheap pamphlet called 
" An Appeal to the People of England on be- 
half of the Poor Man's Child," with my name 
attached, of course. 

I should be very glad to take counsel with you 
in the matter, and to receive any suggestions 
from you in reference to it. Suppose I were to 
call on you one evening in the course of ten 
days or so ? What would be the most likely 
hour to find you at home? — In haste, always 
faithfully your friend, Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWooD Smith. 

The next promises a "sledge-hammer" in lieu 
of the pamphlet. 

Devonshire Terrace, Tenth March 1843. 

My dear Dr Smith, — Don't be frightened 

when I tell you that, since I wrote to you last, 

reasons have presented themselves for deferring 

the production of that pamphlet until the end 



92 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

of the year. I am not at liberty to explain them 
further just now ; but rest assured that when you 
know them, and see what I do, and where and how, 
you will certainly feel that a sledge-hammer has 
come down with twenty times the force — twenty 
thousand times the force I could exert by fol- 
lowing out my first idea. Even so recently as 
when I wrote to you the other day I had not 
contemplated the means I shall now, please God, 
use. But they have been suggested to me ; and 
I have girded myself for their seizure — as you 
shall see in due time. 

If you will allow our tete-a-tete and projected 
conversation on the subject still to come off, I will 
write to you as soon as I see my way to the 
end of my month's work. — Always faithfully 
yours, Charles Dickens. 

Dr SouTHWOOD Smith. 

I now turn to another subject. It was dur- 
ing these years that my grandfather conceived 
the idea that houses might be built from which 
fever could be banished even amongst the classes 
and in the districts in which up to that time 
disease had most fatally prevailed. If the ex- 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 93 

periment succeeded, and the amount of sickness 
and death were found to be markedly diminished, 
he felt that a very valuable practical illustration 
would be afforded of the truth of the principles he 
was advocating — of the law which connects bad 
sanitary conditions with disease. He also hoped 
it would be proved that money expended on the 
building of such dwellings would bring in a fair 
return of interest, so that it would be seen to 
be a wise as well as a benevolent expenditure of 
capital, and healthy dwellings might be multiplied. 

To accomplish this purpose he gathered to- 
gether the men who formed the original direc- 
tors of " The Metropolitan Association for Im- 
proving the Dwellings of the Industrious 
Classes" in 1843. 

As this was before the days of "limited lia- 
bility," it was necessary to obtain through the 
Prime Minister a Royal Charter to secure those 
who should furnish money for the experiment 
against serious loss if it failed, and a depu- 
tation (who chose my grandfather as spokes- 
man) waited on Sir Robert Peel on January 
23, 1844, to ask him for this charter, which 
was eventually cordially granted. 



94 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

The course the promoters took resulted in 
the building of the block of, so-called, " Model 
Dwellings" in Old St Pancras Road, on a site 
nearly opposite the Fever Hospital. 

Thus a first step was taken towards providing 
healthy and cheap homes for the poor, and the re- 
sults realised the fullest hopes of the originators. 

In 1844 we removed from Kentish Town 
to our Highgate home. It was very beauti- 
fully situated, the slopes of the West Hill lying 
at the back, and the front looking over Caen 
Wood. When we went there, not even the 
present open park paling divided us from the 
park : there were only a few moss-grown and 
picturesque hurdles bordering the road between 
us and it, and our lane was as quiet as if it 
had been far in the real country. The life 
was, indeed, like that of the country, and full 
of pleasure to a child. We had cows ; and 
my longed-for and much -enjoyed pony in the 
field ; and chickens, and dogs, and a goat, and 
pigs ; a perfect orchard of wonderful apple-trees, 
and a wealth of roses that I have never seen 
equalled. In the summer came hay-making of 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 95 

our own, and all this so near London that 
half an hour's drive of our fast horse Ariel 
took us to its centre. It was indeed inwardly 
and outwardly a beautiful home, and it is the 
one of my childhood which is fullest of recol- 
lections of my grandfather. 

During all my early years he had, as it were, 
two works going on — the profession which oc- 
cupied his days, and the work for the various 
reforms, which occupied the early mornings and 
the quiet Sundays alluded to in the Introduc- 
tion. But now, as the "ten years' struggle" 
advanced, the necessity of attending committees 
and of having interviews with public men, 
whom he was interesting and bringing together, 
made itself felt; and thus not only were the 
early mornings, as hitherto, given up, but, as 
the public health cause advanced, many hours 
were given out of his professional time, and 
he compressed that given to his practice as 
much as possible. He worked enthusiastically, 
and with unfailing energy, beginning to write 
at four or five (sometimes even at three) o'clock 
in the morning, and only returning home to 
dinner about eight o'clock in the evening. 



96 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

Our " Hillside " was a peaceful and lovely 
spot for him to come to after the day's work 
in London, and he made the most of the hours 
spent at home. It was his wish, and our habit, 
during all possible weather to breakfast out in 
the summer-house, which stood at the top of 
that piece of Lord Mansfield's park which was 
our field, so that he might carry the memory 
of its pretty view, and the feeling of its fresh 
morning air, into town with him. We dined 
in the garden in a tent under trees and sur- 
rounded by flower-beds, and had dessert in the 
field, where the view of the wooded slopes in 
the light of the setting sun gave much de- 
light, not only to ourselves, but to many of 
the distinguished friends who frequently joined 
us on those happy evenings. These hours 
were indeed happy ones, whether in summer, 
spent in the field out in the starlight, or in 
winter, round his hospitable fire ; for he liked 
to have, and helped to make, happiness around 
him. 

Sometimes he used to let me tell him the 
story of my day — the wonderful doings of pony, 
dog, or newly - hatched little yellow chickens. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 97 

And then he would tell us of his own work. 
Each time that some onward step of impor- 
tance had been taken he told us about it, but 
when things were uncertain, or depressing, he 
seldom mentioned them. So that an advance 
for the cause came generally with the pleas- 
ure of a sudden surprise, but a defeat we only- 
surmised by seeing him unusually grave. He 
was naturally extremely reserved ; but as he 
advanced in years his desire for sympathy 
overcame this reticence in some degree, so that 
he became ready to share his thoughts on all 
deep subjects with others. He rarely spoke of 
things merely personal, and there was an ab- 
sence of all littleness in his conversation which 
was striking. A mixture of high thought with 
simplicity of expression was characteristic of 
him. I listened to all that passed, and with 
a strange, vague, but gradually - increasing un- 
derstanding, I learned to watch for the suc- 
cess of his different efforts. 

The days were over when the height of the 
carriage-windows had been an obstacle to my 
view out into the streets of Whitechapel in 
our daily drives, but I was still a child at the 

G 



98 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

time of the first public meeting of the " Health 
of Towns Association." To this day the look 
of everything at that meeting is distinctly im- 
pressed upon me : the platform ; the empty 
chairs upon it ; the table and bottle of water ; 
the crowd round us, which were all new to me, 
are remembered as vivid first impressions are. 
And when, after waiting some time, a number 
of men came in — many of them of great im- 
portance — and I saw my grandfather amongst 
them, how proud and glad I felt that his efforts 
to interest others had been successful, and that 
he now had all this strength on his side. 

I did not understand all that passed, but I 
knew when the speakers praised him ; and when 
his speech came, towards the end of the meeting, 
I felt the thrill of his voice, and liked all those 
other people to hear it too — I liked them to feel 
what he was. 

But stronger even than the pride in him was 
the belief that people must be moved by the 
truth that was being brought forward ; for, even 
more than himself, I loved his cause. He lost 
himself in it, and I caught from him the desire, 
above all else, for the progress of the thing itself. 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. 99 

It is pleasant to me now to see the words, only 
partly understood then, in which the public men 
with whom he worked expressed the feeling with 
which he inspired them. "Benevolent," " earnest," 
" indefatigable," — this is what they call him when 
mentioning his name. Again and again he was 
thanked in the House of Commons and House 
of Lords for what he had done. 

" The country was indebted to Dr South wood 
Smith and Mr Slaney," says Sir Robert Harry 
Inglis, M.P., "for its first knowledge of the real 
condition of the poorer classes. Their unwearied 
labours for the instruction of the Legislature and 
the public on these subjects were unrewarded by 
emolument or fame ; though the value of their 
services was beginning to be appreciated, and 
they would be more highly estimated by posterity 
than in their own day." 

And Mr Slaney himself says that " for the 
powerful manner in which he had first described 
the actual condition of the poor in their present 
dwellings ; for the clearness with which he had 
shown that their most grievous sufferings were 
adventitious and removable ; and for the untiring 
zeal with which he had continued to press these 



loo DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

truths on the attention of the Legislature and 
the public, Dr Southwood Smith deserved the 
gratitude of his country." 

In bringing in the first sanitary measure in 
1 84 1, Lord Normanby speaks of what Dr South- 
wood Smith had "taught" him; and in 1847 the 
same tone is still used. 

In bringing in the Health of Towns Bill in 
1848, Lord Morpeth, then Home Secretary, 
gracefully disclaims his own share in the work, 
and alludes to my grandfather, amongst others, 
when saying, — 

" Several persons of very great accomplish- 
ment, and, what is more to the purpose, of most 
ardent benevolence, both in and out of this House, 
have taken great pains, in a way which does 
them infinite credit, to inform and excite the 
public mind on this subject ; and now, mainly by 
the accident of my position, I find myself at the 
last hour (as I trust it may prove to be) entering 
upon the fruit of their labours and gleaning from 
their stores." 

All they could say of his devotion to the cause 
of the people and the saving of life was true. 
Silently, almost unconsciously, and as the most 



PHILANTHROPIC AND MEDICAL WORK. loi 

natural thing he could do, he pursued his point. 
As far as unceasing labour could enable him, he 
carried on both his professional and his public 
work ; but when it became a question between 
private fortune and public good he never hesi- 
tated — he steadily and persistently chose the 
latter. 



I02 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE TEN years' STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY 
REFORM, 1 838- 1 848. 

It is not easy to convince a whole nation of the 
truth of new principles, however closely they may 
in reality affect its welfare ; not easy to produce 
a degree of conviction that shall lead to practical, 
tangible results. The early workers in the public 
movements, such as that for Sanitary Reform, 
have first to spread such a knowledge of existing 
evils as shall create a general feeling of the need 
for improvement. They have to educate the 
public until it believes in that need. And when 
the vis inertia of ignorance and indifference is 
overcome, they have to encounter the active op- 
position of those whose interests are bound up 
with the old abuses, and whose property would 
be affected were the evil swept away. Even 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 103 

when it is decided that something must be done 
they have to bear a long time of waiting until it 
is settled what that something is to be, for de- 
cision is not easy when questions arise which 
closely affect the property of a powerful class. 

From these causes arose the long delay which 
occurred before any mitigation of the suffering 
took place, and hence it was that the great feature 
of the period was a succession of " Inquiries " and 
of bills brought before Parliament and defeated. 

The first step in the House of Commons was 
made in 1840, the year following that which has 
just been spoken of as the one from which dates 
the public beginning of the Sanitary movement, 
when Mr Slaney, M.P. (one of the most earnest 
and energetic of the early labourers in the cause) 
obtained a Committee of the House to " inquire 
into the sanitary state of large towns in England." 
Mr Slaney wished not only to extend the inves- 
tigation, but to bring the striking results already 
obtained directly before Parliament. 

My grandfather was the first witness examined 
by the Committee, and nearly the whole of his 
evidence was transferred to its minutes. Some 
of his words were — 



I04 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

" These miseries will continue till the Gov- 
ernment will pass measures which shall remove 
the sources of poison and disease from these 
places. All this suffering might be averted. 
These poor people are victims that are sacri- 
ficed. The effect is the same as if twenty or 
thirty thousand of them were annually taken 
out of their wretched homes and put to death; 
the only difference being that they are left in 
them to die.'' 

And how long was it before any measure 
to stop this could be carried through Parlia- 
ment ? Dating from the time when he first 
examined Bethnal Green and Whitechapel, ten 
years. Not long, perhaps, in reality, consider- 
ing the difficulties in the way, but very long 
to one who not only believed, but most deeply 
felt and realised, the truth of such words as 
those quoted above. 

The history of events was this. In 1841 
Lord Normanby brought in a " Drainage of 
Buildings Bill." It was by no means a perfect 
one. My grandfather wrote of it many years 
afterwards in the following words : — 

" Subsequent discussion and inquiry greatly 



f^yi^C^ ^/v^'j 



Q 



%/c^.<^C^ 








^' 






/^-^ 



'k^/K- 



.^ 







^ 



^c^tueJi^ 






' U^i^-^ 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 105 

improved both the principles and the details of 
sanitary legislation as compared with the pro- 
posals in this bill. Still, honour to the House 
of Lords who carried it with a cordial and 
noble spirit through their own House and sent 
it down to the Commons ! " 

The session, however, came to an end before 
any discussion could there be held on it. 

Next year, 1842, was presented Mr Edwin 
Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Condition of 
the Labouring Population of Great Britain. He 
was Secretary to the Poor Law Board, and 
this Report was, in fact, a Return to the Bishop 
of London's motion of 1839. It confirmed and 
extended the results of previous inquiries, and 
greatly helped to prepare the way for legislation. 

In 1843 Lord Normanby made a second at- 
tempt. It was again defeated. The Administra- 
tion of which he was a member was broken up 
before much progress had been made with the 
new and improved bill which he had introduced. 

Now came another Inquiry. Sir Robert Peel's 
Government, soon after coming into office, ap- 
pointed a Royal Commission,^ of which the Duke 
^ " The Health of Towns Commission." 



io6 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

of Buccleuch was chairman, "to inquire into 
the state of large towns and populous districts." 
My grandfather was again the first witness ex- 
amined. Their report was presented in June 
1844; but during this session no bill bearing 
on sanitary subjects was even introduced. 

My grandfather, however, who was brought 
daily face to face with the preventible suffering, 
was not likely to forget it, nor to relax his 
efforts. With the calm, persistent earnestness 
which was characteristic of him, he worked on 
and on. The more defeats, the more necessity 
for strenuous exertion. 

Seeing the difficulty of obtaining any practical 
result from all the labour that had been devoted 
to the improvement of the health of the people, 
he now determined to try to bring together the 
distinguished men who had taken an interest in 
the cause, and who had exerted themselves to 
promote it. He hoped that, thus united, they 
would have more power in spreading the infor- 
mation which had been acquired, and in forcing 
it on the attention of the public and the Legis- 
lature ; and he also thought that a body of 
men acquainted with the subject would be useful 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 107. 

in suggesting and discussing remedies, and in 
proposing legislative measures. 

He succeeded in this effort. He founded the 
" Health of Towns Association " already re- 
ferred to, which, numbering amongst its mem- 
bers Lord Normanby, Lord Ashley, Lord Mor- 
peth, Lord Robert Grosvenor, Lord Ebrington, 
Mr Slaney, M.P., and many other influential men 
both in and out of Parliament, proved a highly 
useful instrument in carrying forward the work 
of Sanitary Reform up to the time of the pass- 
ing of the Public Health Act. 

Its first meeting was held in December 1844, 
and the facts which the various speakers elo- 
quently brought out are chiefly summed up in 
the petition which, in accordance with one of 
the resolutions then passed, was presented to 
Parliament. 

Those to whom sanitary truths are familiar 
will have little interest in this repetition of what 
they already know, except as showing what the 
early sanitary work was before a public opinion 
had been formed. But it is somewhat curious 
to look back upon a time when it was necessary 
to state what now appear self- evident truths. 



io8 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

My grandfather gives it as the opinion of the 
meeting, that — 

" From the neglect of sewerage, drainage, a 
due supply of water, air, and light to the interior 
of houses, and an efficient system of house and 
street cleansing, a poisonous atmosphere is en- 
gendered, particularly in the districts occupied 
by the poor, which endangers the health and life 
of the whole community, but which is particu- 
larly injurious to the industrious classes. 

" That it appears from indubitable evidence 
that the amount of deaths attributable to these 
causes is, in England alone, upwards of 40,000 
annually.^ 

" That the great majority of the persons who 
thus prematurely perish are between the ages of 

^ The statements as to the saving of life which would be effected 
if proper sanitary measures were carried out were necessarily- 
various, since the difference which could be made in the death-rate 
was a matter of opinion, and had yet to be proved by experiment. 
If, instead of one death annually in every 46 inhabitants through- 
out England and Wales (the then proportion), there should be an 
improvement sufficient to secure there being one death in every 
50, upwards of 25,000 lives would be saved. Whilst, if the sanitary 
state of towns could be raised to that of healthy counties, there 
would be a saving of 49,000 lives. The Association seems to have 
chosen something between the least probable and the highest 
probable saving of life. — G. L. 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 109 

twenty and forty, the period when they ought 
to be most capable of labour and are heads of 
families ; and that it appears from official returns 
that in some districts nearly one -third of the 
poor-rates are expended in the maintenance of 
destitute widows and orphans rendered destitute 
by the premature death of adult males : that the 
number of widows receiving out- relief was, in 
the year 1844, 86,000; that these widows had 
dependent upon them 111,000 orphan children; 
and that there were, besides, receiving relief 
in the Union houses, 18,000 orphan children. 

" That the expense thus constantly incurred 
for the maintenance of the destitute would in 
many cases defray the cost of putting the district 
into a good sanitary condition, and thus prevent 
the recurrence of these dreadful evils. 

That this poisonous atmosphere, even when 
not sufficient to destroy life, undermines the 
strength, deteriorates the constitution, and ren- 
ders the labourer in a great degree unable to 
work ; and that there is every reason to believe 
that his healthy life and working ability is 
abridged in many districts to the extent of 
twelve years. And lastly — 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



" That the moral and religious improvement of 
the industrious classes is incompatible with such 
a degree of physical degradation as is actually 
prevalent in numerous instances ; and that until 
the dwellings of the poor are rendered capable 
of affording the comforts of a home, the earnest 
and best directed efforts of the schoolmaster and 
clergyman must in a great degree be in vain." 

In 1845 the Government Commission issued 
their second Report. Another bill, founded on 
this and their former Report, was brought for- 
ward ; but it was so late in the year that it could 
not be passed that session. 

Lord Lincoln, who brought it in, avowed that 
his principal motive was that it might be con- 
sidered during the recess. " The Health of 
Towns Association " was here very useful in 
publishing a report (addressed in the first instance 
to its own members) criticising the provisions of 
this bill. My grandfather wrote this report, 
assisted by the notes and suggestions of various 
members, and by Mr Chadwick, who, though not 
connected with the Association, helped greatly on 
this and other occasions. 

Lord Lincoln's bill was not again introduced, 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. in 

and the only sign of progress in these matters 
during 1846 was to be found in the criticisms 
offered on that abortive measure. 

It was at this juncture that it was thought well 
to strengthen the hands of the Government by 
bringing the force of Petition to bear upon the 
Legislature. It thus became important to arouse 
the attention of the working classes to the subject. 

My grandfather, as one move in this direction, 
wrote the following address, which I give in full. 
It was written from his heart, and, with all its 
calm, philosophical mode of expression, burns 
underneath with the white heat of that earnestness 
which made this sanitary cause — this saving of 
life and of suffering — with him almost a crusade. 

An Address to the Working Classes of 
THE United Kingdom on their Duty 
IN THE Present State of the Sanitary 
Question. 

My Fellow-Countrymen, 

The artificial distinctions by which 
the people of a country are divided into different 
classes have no relation to the capacities and 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



endowments of our common nature. No class 
is higher or better than another in the sense of 
having more or different sentient, intellectual, 
moral, and religious faculties. Every property 
by which the human being is distinguished from 
the other creatures of the earth is possessed alike 
by rich and poor. Wealth can give to the rich 
man no additional powers of this kind, nor can 
poverty deprive the poor man of one of them. 
Before these glorious gifts with which our com- 
mon nature is endowed, with which all human 
beings without distinction are enriched, and which 
can be neither added to nor taken away, the little 
distinctions of man's creation sink into absolute 
insignificance. 

It is the universal possession of these noble 
faculties by the human race that makes the gift 
of human life alike a boon to all. It is the exer- 
cise of these noble faculties on objects appro- 
priate to them, and worthy of them, that makes 
life a boon. It is because these faculties, when 
duly exercised and properly directed, strengthen 
and enlarge with time, that the value of life 
increases with its duration. In the mere pos- 
session of the full number of the years that make 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 113 

up the natural term of life there is a larger and 
higher boon than is apparent at first view. What 
the natural term of human life may be is indeed 
altogether unknown ; because, although one of 
the characteristics by which man is distinguished 
from other animals is, that he is capable of under- 
standing the conditions of his existence, and of 
exerting, within a certain limit, a control over 
them, so as to be able materially to shorten or to 
prolong the actual duration of his life, — yet these 
conditions have hitherto been so little regarded 
that there is not a single example on record of a 
community in which the conditions favourable to 
life have been present and constant, and in which 
the conditions unfavourable to it have been ex- 
cluded, in as complete a degree as is obviously 
practicable. History is full of instances in which 
the successive generations of a people have been 
swept away with extraordinary rapidity ; but on 
no page is there to be found the notice of a single 
nation, in ancient or modern times, the great mass 
of the population of which has attained a higher 
longevity ; yet it is certain that a degree of lon- 
gevity never yet witnessed has always been attain- 
able, because such longevity depends on condi- 

H 



114 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

tions which are now known — conditions entirely 
within human control. 

I have said that there is involved in the mere 
length of life a larger and higher boon than is 
apparent without reflection. First, because length 
of life is in general a tolerably accurate measure 
of the amount of health, without a good share of 
which life is comparatively worthless. The in- 
stances are rare in which a person attains to old 
age who has not enjoyed at least a moderate 
share of daily health and vigour. 

Secondly, because length of life is a perfectly 
accurate measure of the amount of enjoyment. 
Long life is incompatible with a condition of 
constant privation and wretchedness. It is one 
of the beneficences of the constitution of our 
nature that when the balance of happiness is 
against us, a limit is fixed to our misery by its 
rapid termination in the insensibility of death. 
In the very brevity of its existence, therefore, 
a human being indicates his own history for evil ; 
the shortness of his life is the sure and correct 
index of the amount of his suffering, physical and 
mental : it is the result, the sum-total, the aggre- 
gate expression, of the ills endured. 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 115 

Thirdly, because length of life is the protraction 
of that portion of life, and only of that portion of 
it, in which the human being is capable of the 
greatest degree of usefulness. I have elsewhere 
shown that every year by which the term of 
human life is extended is really added to the 
period of mature age ; the period when the organs 
of the body have attained their full growth and 
put forth their full strength ; when the physical 
organisation has acquired its utmost perfection ; 
when the senses, the feelings, the emotions, the 
passions, the affections are in the highest degree 
acute, intense, and varied ; when the intellectual 
faculties, completely unfolded and developed, carry 
on their operations with the greatest vigour, sound- 
ness, and continuity : in a word, when the indi- 
vidual is capable of communicating, as well as 
of receiving, the largest amount of the highest 
kind of happiness. 

These considerations give peculiar interest to 
the results of the inquiries recently made into the 
actual duration of life at the present time in our 
cities, towns, and villages. From these inquiries 
it appears not only that the rate of mortality in 
the whole of England at the present day is de- 



ii6 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

plorably high, but that there is an extraordinary 
excess of mortality over and above what is nat- 
ural, supposing the term at present attainable to 
be the natural term of human life. The state- 
ment of this excess presents to the mind an 
appalling picture. From accurate calculations, 
based on the observation of carefully recorded 
facts, it is rendered certain that the annual 
slaughter in England alone by causes that are 
preventible, by causes that produce only one 
disease — namely, typhus fever — is more than 
double the loss sustained by the allied armies in 
the battle of Waterloo ; that 1 36 persons perish 
every day in England alone whose lives might 
be saved ; that in one single city — namely, Man- 
chester — thirteen thousand three hundred and 
sixty-two children have perished in seven years 
over and above the mortality natural to mankind. 
It appears, moreover, that the field in which 
this annual slaughter takes place is always and 
everywhere the locality in which you reside, and 
that it is you and your wives and children who 
are the victims. In some instances in the streets, 
courts, and alleys in which you live, the mortality 
which afflicts you is nearly double, and in others 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 117 

it is quite double, that of the inhabitants of other 
streets in the same district, and in adjoining dis- 
tricts. While the average age at death of the 
gentry and of professional persons and their 
families is forty- four, the average age at death 
attained by you and your families in many in- 
stances is only twenty-two, just one-half, — that is 
to say, comparing your condition with that of the 
professional persons, you and your families are 
deprived of one-half of your natural term of life. 

Though the causes by which you and your 
children are thus immolated are well known ; 
though they have been constantly proclaimed to 
the public and the Government for nearly ten 
years past ; though their truth is universally 
admitted ; and though it is further admitted that 
the causes in question are removable, — yet not 
only has nothing whatever been done to remove 
them, but their operation during this very year 
has been far more fatal than at any period since 
we have had the means of making accurate obser- 
vations on the subject. Thus we are informed 
by the Registrar- General, that in the summer 
quarter of the present year Ten Thousand Lives 
have been destroyed, in a part only of England, 



ii8 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

by causes which there is every reason to believe 
may be removed ; that in the succeeding quarter — 
namely, the quarter ending the 30th of September 
— the number of deaths exceeded the number in 
the corresponding quarter of last year by Fifteen 
Thousand Two Hundred and Twenty - seven ; 
that is to say, in the very last quarter upwards 
of 15,000 persons perished, in a part only of 
England, beyond the mortality of the correspond- 
ing quarter of last year. 

From this same report it appears, further, that 
in many of our large towns and populous districts 
— that is, in the places in which you in great 
numbers carry on your daily toil — the mortality 
has nearly doubled ; in some it has quite doubled, 
and in others it has actually more than doubled ; 
that this is the case among other places in 
Sheffield and Birmingham ; that in Sheffield, for 
example, the number of deaths in the last quarter 
are double those in the corresponding quarter of 
last year and 149 over ; while in Birmingham 
they are double and 239 over. 

"The causes of this high mortality," says the 
Registrar- General, " have been traced to crowded 
lodgings, dirty dwellings, personal uncleanliness, 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 119 

and the concentration of unhealthy emanations 
from narrow streets without fresh air, water, or 
sewerage." 

We are further told by the Registrar-General 
that " the returns of the past quarter prove that 
nothing effectual has been done to put a stop to 
the disease, suffering, and death in which so many 
thousands perish ; that the improvements, chiefly 
of a showy, superficial, outside character, have 
not reached the homes and habits of the people ; 
and that the consequence is that thousands, not 
only of the children, but of the men and women 
themselves, perish of the diseases formerly so 
fatal, for the same reason, in barracks, camps, 
gaols, and ships." 

For every one of the lives of these 15,000 
persons who have thus perished during the last 
quarter, and who might have been saved by 
human agency, those are responsible whose proper 
office it is to interfere and endeavour to stay the 
calamity — who have the power to save, but who 
will not use it. But their apathy is an additional 
reason why you should rouse yourselves, and 
show that you will submit to this dreadful state 
of things no longer. Let a voice come from your 



DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



Streets, lanes, alleys, courts, workshops, and houses 
that shall startle the ear of the public and com- 
mand the attention of the Legislature. The time 
is auspicious for the effort ; it is a case in which 
it is right that you should take a part, in which 
you are bound to take a part, in which your own 
interests and the wellbeing of those most dear to 
you require you to take a part. The Govern- 
ment is disposed to espouse your cause ; but 
narrow, selfish, short - sighted interests will be 
banded against you. Petition both Houses of 
Parliament. Call upon the instructed and benev- 
olent men in the legislative body to sustain your 
just claim to protection and assistance. Petition 
Parliament to give you sewers ; petition Parlia- 
ment to secure to you constant and abundant 
supplies of water — supplies adequate to the un- 
intermitting and effectual cleansing both of your 
sewers and streets ; petition Parliament to remove 
— for it is in the power of Parliament universally 
and completely to remove — the sources of poison 
that surround your dwellings, and that carry dis- 
ease, suffering, and death into your homes. Tell 
them of the parish of St Margaret, in Leicester, 
with a population of 22,000 persons, almost all of 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 121 

whom are artisans, and where the average age 
of death in the whole parish was during the year 
1 846 only eighteen years ; tell them that on taking 
the ages of death in the different streets in this 
parish, it was found that in those streets that 
were drained (and there was not a single street 
in the place properly drained) the average age 
of death was twenty-three and a-half years ; that 
in the streets that were partially drained it was 
seventeen and a-half years ; while in the streets 
that were entirely undrained it was only thirteen 
and a-half years. 

You cannot disclose to them the suffering you 
have endured on your beds of sickness, and by 
which your wives and children have been hurried 
to their early graves — there is no column in the 
tables of the Registrar-General which can show 
that ; but you can tell them that you know, and 
you can remind them that they admit, that by 
proper sanitary regulations the same duration of 
life may be extended to you and your families 
that is at present enjoyed by professional persons, 
and that it is possible to obtain for the whole 
of a town population at least such an average 
duration of life as is already experienced in some 



122 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

parts of it. In your workshops, in your clubs, in 
your institutes, obtain signatures to your petitions : 
get every labourer, every artisan, every tradesman 
whom you can influence, to sign petitions. Other 
things must also be done before your condition 
can be rendered prosperous ; but this must pre- 
cede every real improvement : the sources of the 
poison that infects the atmosphere you breathe 
must be dried up before you can be healthy, and 
uncleanliness must be removed from the exterior 
of your dwellings before you can find or make 
a Home. — I am your friend and servant, 

SouTHWooD Smith. 

\st January 1847. 

In this same year 1847 a Royal Commission — 
"Metropolitan Sanitary Commission" (of which 
my grandfather was a member) — was appointed 
to inquire " whether any, and what, sanitary 
measures were required for London." 

To the country at large, however, it seemed as 
if perhaps there had been enough " inquiring." 
The thing had been considered. Surely some- 
thing might be done; and Lord Morpeth now 
brought forward a Government measure for 
"improving the health of towns in England." 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 123 

In bringing in the bill, Lord Morpeth first 
gives a history of the principal stages of the 
various inquiries and commissions which had 
been helped on by all parties, and by successive 
Governments. He states that he has nothing 
new to bring forward, and can but repeat the 
information gained by others. He goes on to 
show by elaborate statistics the waste of life in 
large towns. 

" Thus the inhabitants of London," he sums 
up, " compared with England at large, lose eight 
years of their lives, of Liverpool nineteen. The 
population of the large towns in England being 
4,000,000, the annual loss is between 21,000 and 
22,000."^ 

But all places are not equally unhealthy, as 
further statistics strikingly show. Where do we 
find the greatest number of deaths ? Is it where 
wages are lowest and the people poorest ? What 
did Lord Morpeth tell the House ? 

" Let it not be said," he urges, " that the 
greater rate of mortality in certain districts is 
owing to extreme poverty and the want of the 

^ Lord Morpeth speaks here of the saving of life in large towns 
only. 



124 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

necessaries of life. The condition of the labourers 
of the west, the lowness of their wages and the 
consequent scantiness of their food and clothing, 
have been the subject of public animadversion. 
The mortality of the south-western district, which 
includes Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset, and 
Wilts, is only i in 52 — not 2 per cent; while that 
of the north - western, including Cheshire and 
Lancashire, is i in 37. With the exception of 
the Cornish miners the condition of labourers 
throughout the western counties is nearly the 
same, yet in Wiltshire, the county of lowest 
wages, the deaths are 1 in 49, in Lancashire 
I in 36. The average age at death in Wiltshire 
was thirty-five, in Lancashire twenty-two. The 
Wiltshire labourer's average age was thirty-five, 
that of the Liverpool operative fifteen. At Man- 
chester, in 1836, the average consumption per head 
of the population was 105 lb. of butcher's meat 
— about 2 lb. a-week (exclusive of bacon, pork, 
fish, and poultry) ; the average age at death was 
twenty years." He then brings forward evidence 
of the preventibleness of most of the premature 
deaths. 

Having proved the extent of the evil. Lord 



STRUGGLE FOR SANITARY REFORM. 125 

Morpeth proceeded to show how it was proposed 
to meet it, — by what machinery of central board, 
inspectors, &c ; and, lastly, he entered into the 
money-saving that would be effected were thorough 
sanitary measures carried out. He cites Dr 
Playfair's estimates, which give the money loss, 
through unnecessary sickness and death, at 
;^ 1 1,000,000 for England and Wales, and at 
;^ 20,000,000 for the United Kingdom. This 
loss arises from many causes : the expenses of 
direct attendance on the sick ; the loss of what 
they would have earned ; the loss caused by the 
premature death of productive contributors to the 
national wealth ; and the expenses of premature 
funerals. 

But the measure which was framed to relieve 
this sum of misery, though well and carefully 
prepared, was again to be thrown out! 

It was weary work. The years were passing 
away, and nothing was being done. My grand- 
father used to come home saddened by each 
new defeat. He was sad at the delay, but he 
was not disheartened ; he knew that the thing 
would be done in time, and that the progress 
must be slow. He could wait calmly in that 



126 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

belief and enjoy fully the beauty of the sunset 
light during the summer evenings passed in our 
beautiful field, overlooking the green slopes and 
large trees of Caen Wood, Highgate. There our 
friends used to come to us, amongst others Pro- 
fessor Owen, Robert Browning, William and 
Mary Howitt, and Hans Christian Andersen ; 
and we spent evenings that I can never forget, 
staying out constantly till the moon rose or the 
stars came out. How he loved nature and all 
happy things ! 

His faith did not err. The work of urging 
had not been in vain ; the movement could not 
be stopped ; the time was ripe. 

The bill had been thrown out in 1847, but in 
1848 the first sanitary law, the Public Health 
Act, passed ! 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 127 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OFFICIAL LIFE GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH, 

1848-1854. 

Immediately after the passing of the PubHc 
Health Act, Lord Morpeth wrote to my grand- 
father that the changes made in the bill during 
its passage through Parliament had prevented 
the creation of any post which could be offered 
to him. Lord Morpeth said, however, that if 
Dr Southwood Smith would give the department 
the advantage both of his presence and counsel 
by accepting a seat on the Board, he hoped 
to provide for him a permanent post, by means 
of a supplementary Act, *' The Diseases Pre- 
vention Act," which the Government expected 
to pass shortly. In answer to this my grand- 
father wrote as follows : — 



128 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 



38 FiNSBURY Square, Sept. 12, 1848. 

My dear Lord Morpeth, — I thank you very 
sincerely for your kind communication. . . . 
Thanks to your Lordship's indefatigable exer- 
tions, a position is now gained from which it 
is possible to attack, with some hope of success, 
the sources of excessive sickness and of pre- 
mature mortality. You have at last laid the 
foundation of Practical Sanitary Improvement ; 
but the structure is still to be raised, and if, 
as your Lordship intimates, both you and the 
Government ,are desirous that I should assist 
you in this labour, no one will apply himself 
with a deeper feeling of responsibility, or with 
greater earnestness, to what her Majesty justly 
calls "this beneficent work." 

Your Lordship will remember how earnest 
I was in December last, on the publication of 
the Bishop of London's Pastoral Letter, that 
we should at once avail ourselves of the power 
of the Contagious Diseases Act ; as well to 
make immediate preparation against the threat- 
ened visitation of cholera, as to check the pro- 
gress of our own native epidemics, then and 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 129 

Still SO frightfully prevalent ; diseases manifestly 
dependent on conditions within our control, and 
highly favourable to the spread of the pestilence 
then menacing, and now still more nearly men- 
acing us. The Bishop of London had called 
earnestly upon the clergymen of his diocese to 
co-operate with the medical profession in this 
object ; and being desirous of ascertaining the 
state of intelliofence and feelino- of this natural 
class of co-operators in such a work, I visited 
privately every clergyman in the Eastern Dis- 
trict of London and discussed the subject with 
them. 

Without a single exception, I found, them im- 
pressed with a sense of the necessity of doing 
something, and with a conviction that they might 
materially help the medical profession in car- 
rying out any plan of operation proposed by 
authority. The necessity of some such general 
plan is greater now than it was then, on account 
of the continual prevalence in their severest 
forms of our own epidemics, and of the nearer 
approach of cholera. The new " Contagious 
Diseases Act," the " Public Health Act," and the 
new " Metropolitan Sewers Act," taken together, 

I 



I30 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

afford greater facilities for meeting this neces- 
sity than ever before existed ; and certainly it 
is now in the power of the Government to do 
more for securing the public health, and im- 
proving the physical condition of the population, 
than has ever yet been attempted in any age 
or nation, — a power which, if wisely and success- 
fully exerted, will reflect the highest honour on 
the Government and the country. 

My intimate relation with the origin and pro- 
gress of this work, and my deep conviction that 
it is one of the most useful to which experience 
and science can be applied, would render it a 
satisfaction to me to spend the remainder of 
my life in assisting to complete it. — I am, my 
Lord, with much esteem and regard, very faith- 
fully yours, SouTHWOOD Smith. 

The dates given at the head of this chapter 
(1848 to 1854) cover the period when the 
Sanitary cause was completely successful, and 
when my grandfather found himself one of the 
heads of a Government department devoted to 
the furtherance of sanitary measures throughout 
the kingdom — a department which was called the 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 131 

General Board of Health. Here, at offices in 
Whitehall, in daily conference with Lord Ashley 
(afterwards the Earl of Shaftesbury) and Mr 
Edwin Chadwick, he could propagate knowledge 
on questions relating to the public health, and 
carry out sanitary measures, as from a powerful 
centre, having the authority of a Government 
department. 

This power of carrying out his convictions to 
practical issues was an immense satisfaction to 
my grandfather's mind, and many were the con- 
gratulations which he received on this public 
appointment. The following, from a Portsmouth 
physician, is interesting : — 

October 8, 1848. 

Sir, — Though personally a stranger, permit 
me to offer my sincere congratulations on your 
appointment by her Majesty's Government to the 
Board of Health, where the talents you have so 
long displayed will have scope for the full share 
of utility. 

I have traced and followed you in the various 
publications issued by the Government and the 
Health of Towns Association for several years 
past, and having myself, though in a much more 



132 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

confined area, mingled with public life, I know 
the heart - burnings, the disappointments and 
annoyances, to which in such a course a man is 
necessarily exposed ; but if reward come at last — 
though the delay has almost made the heart sick 
— one is then amply repaid, especially in a case 
like yours, when a whole kingdom will applaud 
the appointment. 

Permit me again, sir, to beg your acceptance 
of my congratulations. — I am, sir, your obedient 
servant, . 

To Dr SouTHWooD Smith, Whitehall. 

Almost the first work which the Board of 
Health had to do was to take measures to resist 
an epidemic of Asiatic cholera. This it did by 
sending down inspectors from London to instruct 
and aid the local authorities in organising plans 
for systematic cleansing, and for the removal of 
the sick. The Board also issued ** Notifications " 
for the purpose of instructing the public as to 
what precautions were necessary to avert an 
attack. But above all, it organised, at my grand- 
father's instance, what was called the "system of 
house-to-house visitation." My grandfather was 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 133 

of Opinion that in every instance an attack of 
cholera is preceded by a period of a few days 
(sometimes only of a few hours) of premonitory 
symptoms, which, since they are painless, escape 
notice ; and that, unless a specially appointed 
medical visitor goes round to the houses of the 
less educated to inquire, and almost to cross- 
question, as to the existence of these symptoms, 
and to treat the disease at once, this stage rapidly 
passes on into developed cholera, when recovery 
becomes all but hopeless. These facts and ex- 
periences are brought out in the General Board 
of Health's Report on the Cholera Epidemic of 
1848-49, presented to Parliament in 1850. 

In relation to this, Lord Brougham thus wrote 
to my grandfather : — 

"I also proclaimed^ your important statement 
of the preventive cure of cholera, bearing further 
testimony to the soundness of your views from 
Sir J. Mordaunt's account given to me in the 
Malta case. 

" I availed myself of the opportunity to give 
you just praise, and to note your many valuable 
^ In the House of Lords. 



134 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

services to the country. Lord Lansdowne amply 
concurred in the statement by his cheers. But 
such things are never reported. Had you given 
a vote or an opinion on a contested party matter, 
all the papers would have chronicled your merits 
and our eulogies of you. — Ever yours truly, 

" H. Brougham." 

Another of the subjects which the Board of 
Health took up was that of quarantine. Their first 
report on that subject, issued in 1850, was con- 
sidered of sufficient importance to be translated 
into various foreign languages, and was ordered 
to be presented to the Parliaments of France and 
Italy. I think that, even if recent discoveries 
have modified some of the opinions there ad- 
vanced, all the progress which has been made 
in the prevention of disease by quarantine regu- 
lations has been in the direction there indicated — 
that is, in plans for cleanliness, for the letting in 
of light and air, and for the isolation of infected 
persons in pure air, thus diluting the poison — 
rather than in plans for shutting them into con- 
fined quarters as was formerly done, thereby 
concentrating the poison. 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 135 

The question of putting a stop to burials in 
overcrowded churchyards was also taken up by 
the Board. Their report on " A General Scheme 
for Extra-mural Sepulture " was published also in 
the same year (1850), and proved very clearly 
the evils arising- from the crowded state of church- 
yards at that time. 

The Board proposed that a Government de- 
partment should be established which should be 
intrusted with the care of the whole question of 
the burial of the dead ; that, in future, interment 
should take place only in ground remote from 
large towns ; and that everything should be ar- 
ranged decorously and reverently. My grand- 
father, personally, was much interested in adding 
an element of beauty in the form of exquisite and 
appropriate cemetery churches and chapels. But 
only the preventive part of the scheme was 
carried out. What was actually achieved was 
the closing of the overcrowded churchyards ; the 
provision of other grounds has been left for 
private enterprise. 

Thus, for six years, earnest men, at the head 
of a Health Department, spread information and 
gave advice. The newspapers of the period con- 



136 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

tained many notices of the various practical 
measures devised by this department, together 
with comments and leading articles on its re- 
ports on such large and pressing questions as 
cholera, quarantine, extra-mural sepulture, and 
water-supply. The newspapers, indeed, began 
to devote much space to the discussion of health 
questions in all forms, so that at last a wide- 
spread interest was aroused. 

Then came a time when the chief question was, 
not as to the principles, but as to what machinery 
could best be employed to carry out those prin- 
ciples. 

The fear of "centralisation," and the desire for 
local self-government, which is strong in the 
English people, caused opposition in Parliament 
to the continuance of any Government depart- 
ment having such large control over the expendi- 
ture of public money on local objects ; so that in 
1854 the original Board of Health ceased to exist, 
but did not cease till sanitary principles and 
sanitary science, once unknown or despised, were 
acknowledged throughout the country, and recog- 
nised as one of the fundamental needs lying at 
the root of all efforts to benefit the community. 



GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH. 137 

With the ending of this department my grand- 
father's official Hfe came to a close. From a 
personal point of view this cessation of his 
public work was somewhat softened by the 
following letter, written at the desire of the 
Prime Minister : — 

Whitehall, \2th August, 1854. 
Sir — I am directed by Viscount Palmerston to 
inform you that he cannot allow you to quit the 
Board which this day ceases to exist by the ex- 
piration of the Act of Parliament by which it was 
constituted, without conveying to you the full 
approbation of her Majesty's Government of the 
zealous, able, and indefatigable manner in which 
you have performed the important duties which 
have belonged to your official situation ; and his 
Lordship desires me to express to you the great 
regret which he feels, that an adverse decision 
of the House of Commons as to an arrangement 
which his Lordship had proposed for the re- 
construction of the Board of Health has led 
to so abrupt a cessation of your employment. 
— I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

Henry Fitzroy. 

Dr SouTHWooD Smith. 



138 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

According to the rules of the service, my grand- 
father was not entitled to a retiring allowance, 
because so much of the work he had done had 
been unpaid. A few years afterwards, however, 
a Government pension was awarded him in con- 
sideration of the services which he had rendered 
to the country. 



RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE. 139 



CHAPTER IX. 

RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE ST GEORGe's 

HILL, WEYBRIDGE, 1854-1860. 

When his official life came to a close, my grand- 
father retired to a house on Weybridge Heath, 
and he met the sudden cessation of his eager 
public life with the same calm courage with which 
he had met all the other crises in his career. 

This house had been built on a beautiful spot 
as a gathering-place for his much-loved and some- 
what scattered family, and the beauty of its posi- 
tion came to be a great comfort to him when he 
turned his quiet days to the prosecution of literary 
work in his little study, which, opening on to a 
sunny terraced walk, overlooked, through vistas 
of dark - green pines and yellow birch - trees, 
the miles of blue distance which stretched out 
southwards to the Surrey and Hampshire hills. 



I40 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

Through the kindness of Lord Ellesmere, whose 
property adjoined, there was a small private gate 
leading from our own little firwood on to St 
George's Hill itself; and, in the intervals of his 
writing, frequent strolls on to its beautiful slopes 
were a great source of pleasure during that first 
autumn and in all the ensuing years. The heather 
banks and wooded dells brought him much joy ; 
for, as always, it was in the presence of nature 
and in the stillness of the country that he gathered 
strength. The strain of the last few months had 
been great, and it was well that the closing of the 
year brought with it the much-needed rest. 

He now gave a good deal of time to physio- 
logical study, turning to his old subjects with the 
vigour of a younger man, and entering with the 
deepest interest into the discoveries of later 
science. He did this with a view of bringing his 
early book, ' The Philosophy of Health,' which at 
the time of its publication had made so much 
mark, up to the standard of modern knowledge ; 
and though he did not live to complete this task, 
the reading for it gave a living interest to those 
years of quiet country life. 

He had also much satisfaction in writinof and 



RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE. 141 

publishing a pamphlet called ' Results of Sanitary 
Improvement,' based mainly on the experience 
obtained in the " Model Dwellings " for the work- 
ing classes, of which he had been the originator. 
This pamphlet, coming as it did before many 
influential men throughout the country, spread 
the good news of progress far and wide. 

A further instance of the fruit of his labours 
was afforded him by his visit to Edinburgh, 
in November 1855, when he lectured on his 
own subject, " Epidemics," at the Philosophical 
Institution, where a brilliant reception and dis- 
tinguished audience awaited him.^ 

I have a vivid recollection of his pleasure 
in the beauty of Alnwick as we journeyed 
north — of its old castle's warm grey walls, its 
lovely woods and clear running streams, dur- 
ing a sunny Sunday which we passed there, — 
the gold and russet tints of autumn shining 
out against a perfectly blue sky ; and I also 
remember the satisfaction he had in hearing 
from the Mayor, who took us round the town, 

* Epidemics considered with relation to their Common Nature 
and to Climate and Civilisation. Published by Edmonston & 
Douglas, Edinburgh, 1856. 



142 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

of the pure water and good drainage lately 
introduced. Alnwick was, I believe, one of the 
first places which adopted the sanitary meas- 
ures advised by the General Board of Health, 
so that here he had the gratification of seeing 
some of the great reforms practically carried out. 

As I am recalling the various sources of com- 
fort which came to my grandfather during these 
years at Weybridge, I must mention the great 
happiness which arose from the opening out 
of the lives of two of his granddaughters, Mir- 
anda and Octavia Hill ; for it was at this time 
that they — at the ages of nineteen and sixteen 
— took the responsibilities of their lives upon 
themselves, and began the great and good works 
which they have since carried to such wide 
issues. 

In his retirement, letters of appreciation and 
sympathy reached him from many of the public 
men with whom he had worked, expressing in 
various ways that which Lord Shaftesbury, who 
knew him as well as any, gives as his own 
feeling when writing to a mutual friend : — 

" I have known Dr Southwood Smith well, 
having sat with him during four years and in 



RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE. 143 

very trying times at the Board of Health. A 
more able, diligent, zealous, and benevolent man 
does not exist. No work ever seemed too much 
for him if it were to do good. His great services 
will not, I fear, be appreciated in this generation." 

Such words as these cannot but have been 
gratifying to my grandfather; but in 1858 those 
who shared these sentiments resolved to make 
a clearer and more public demonstration of their 
sense of the value of the services which he had 
rendered to the country. At a preliminary meet- 
ing held on the 7th May 1856 it was agreed 
that this recognition should take the form, 
primarily, of a memorial bust, to be presented 
to a suitable public institution. This intention 
was communicated to Dr Southwood Smith at 
the final meeting held at the house of Lord 
Shaftesbury, 24 Grosvenor Square, on the 6th 
of December 1858, and was accompanied by a 
short address. 

I give his own words of thanks, as they show 
not only the pleasure this recognition afforded 
him, but also — what is so characteristic of him 
— his joy in the progress of his cause, quite 
apart from his personal share in it : — 



144 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

" My Lord, I need not say how deeply I 
feel the kindness that prompted the proceeding 
which has led to this meeting. If anything could 
increase the intensity of that feeling, it would 
be the words in which you have given expression 
to your sentiments in this matter, and to those 
of the rest of the subscribers to this recognition. 

"The labourers in the work of sanitary re- 
form have been many ; and it is by the united 
efforts of some of the most enlightened, disin- 
terested, and learned men that shed lustre on 
this century, that this great work has been placed 
in its present position. 

" That such names as those which grace this 
Tablet^ should have united to express their 
sense of the value of any part which I may 
have taken in this work, will ever be to me 
a source, I do not say of happiness only, but 
of that rare and pure happiness which results 
not alone from the inward consciousness of de- 
votion to duty through encouragement and dis- 
couragement, through evil and through good 
report, but also from the knowledge that such 
judges of the matter justify that consciousness, 
^ See Appendix II,, p. 164. 



RETIREMENT FROM PUBLIC LIFE. 145 

and in my own individual case have so placed 
their judgment on record, that it may be present 
to me to the latest day of my life and to my 
children and my children's children. 

" I will only add that the honourable names 
on this Record give me this further delight, 
that they are to me a pledge that Sanitary 
Improvement will go on. They thus bear their 
testimony to their sense of its importance, and 
they, from their position and character, can 
ensure its progress. The first labourers in this 
work may not be permitted to complete it, — 
they seldom are in any great work ; but, who- 
ever may have the satisfaction of completing 
it, that work — whatever obstacles may retard, 
whatever short - sighted and short - lived inter- 
ests may oppose it, however it may seem for 
a while not to advance — that work will be 
done; and the time will come when not only 
the professional man and the educator, but the 
legislator, the statesman, the general, the min- 
ister of religion — in a word, every one to whom 
is entrusted the care, the guidance, and the 
control of numbers, will feel ashamed to be 
ignorant, and indeed will be accounted unfit 

K 



146 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

for his office if he be ignorant, of the laws 
of human health and life." 

Yes ! That his work had lived and would 
live, this was what he cared for. This it was 
that kept him uniformly brave and bright, and 
made him say to me one evening in tones of 
grateful joy — we were sitting on the wide balcony 
watching the moon rise over the fir-tree tops, 
his hand in mine as of old, — 

" I have indeed succeeded ! I have lived 
to see seven millions of the public money ex- 
pended on this great cause. If any one had 
told me, when I began, that this would be, 
I should have considered it absolutely in- 
credible." 



THE SUNSET OF LIFE— ITALY. 147 



CHAPTER X. 

THE SUNSET OF LIFE ITALY, I 86 1. 

My grandfather had travelled abroad but little dur- 
ing- his strenuous life. He had, it is true, been to 
Paris in 1850, accompanied by Mr Charles Mac- 
aulay, Dr John Sutherland, and Mr (afterwards Sir 
Henry) Rawlinson, on business connected with the 
General Board of Health scheme for extra-mural 
sepulture, but, except on that occasion, he had 
not left England. 

So that when in 1857 he was asked to join 
a party of three proceeding to Milan for the 
purpose of examining the irrigation works of 
that city, he gladly undertook the journey, which 
was to lead them via Marseilles and along the 
Cornice Road, then traversed by carriage only. 
The beauty of Italy thus came before him with 
full freshness at the age of seventy, and he re- 
turned strengthened and invigorated. 



148 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

The following year my grandfather lost his 
wife. She died at The Pines, at Weybridge, 
after a short illness, in the summer of 1858. 

Two years later he was able to carry out his 
cherished hope of returning to Italy, and we went 
to Florence, where his daughter Emily had been 
living for some years. She welcomed us to the 
rooms she had secured in an old palace beyond 
the Arno — to the artistic Italian surroundings 
of which she had added something of the atmo- 
sphere of an English home. 

His delight in the art and nature of Florence 
and its environs w^as intense, and the beauty of 
land and sky seems to make a fitting setting 
for the end of such a life as his. 

He stood on the old jeweller's bridge, one 
autumn evening late in November, and watched 
the sun go down behind the western hill of the 
rushing Arno ; and the sunset of his own life 
came soon after. Perhaps he had lingered too 
long gazing at this beautiful scene ; for a chill, 
producing rapid bronchitis, took him from us on 
the loth December 1861. 

Towards the end, when he knew he was pass- 
ing away, after other gentle loving words, almost 
his last were — with a sweet triumphant smile — 



THE SUNSET OF LIFE— ITALY. 149 

" Draw up the blind and let me see the stars ; 
for I still love the beauty." 



At the cemetery at Porta Pinti are some 
sombre gates with, over them, the words "lis 
se reposent de leurs travaux, et leurs oeuvres les 
suivent." Those black gates opened one sunny 
December morning and showed a sloping avenue 
of marble tombs, tangles of pink and of white 
China roses in full flower falling over them, and 
at the end a tall white cross shining in the 
sunlight against the blue Italian sky, — fit type 
of the black gates of death, which had rolled 
back to let him pass into the Eternal Light 
beyond. 

There we left him in completest trust, our 
" Knight Errant," after his life's warfare. 



For there is a poem by Adelaide Procter (on 
whom written I know not) which seems to give, 
with the full force of poetical presentation, the 
spirit of the Life I have tried to depict. It even 
seems to follow the very order of the periods 

of that life — oui' hero following the course of 

m 



ISO DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

hers ; and thus fulfilling Mrs Browning's words 
when she says — 

" Ingemisco, ingemisco ! 
Is ever a lament begun 
By any mourner under sun 
Which, ere it endeth, suits but one ? " 

In my extract-book the following lines have 
lain away for the nearly forty years which have 
passed since he went from us, and they still 
remain, to me, the best expression of what he 
was. I find, in pencil, against the verses the 
place or date which they symbolise. 

If those who have read these pages see their 
aptness, they will learn from them, more than 
from any words of mine, what measure of man 
he was. 

A Knight Errant. 

" Though he hved and died amongst us, Bristol, 
Yet his name may be enrolled Edinburgh, 

With the knights whose deeds of daring 
Ancient chronicles have told. 

Still a stripling he encountered 

Poverty, and suffered long. 
Gathering force from every effort 

Till he knew his arm was strong. 



THE SUNSET OF LIFE— ITALY. 151 

Then his heart and life he offered 

To his radiant mistress — Truth. 
Never thought or dream of faltering 

Marred the promise of his youth. 

So he rode forth to defend her, London, 1820 

And her peerless worth proclaim ; ^^ ^^54- 

Challenging each recreant doubter 
Who aspersed her spotless name. 

First upon his path stood Ignorance, 

Hideous in his brutal might ; 
Hard the blows and long the battle 

Ere the monster took to flight. 

Then, with light and fearless spirit, 

Prejudice he dared to brave. 
Hunting back the lying craven 

To her black sulphureous cave. 

Followed by his servile minions. 

Custom, the old Giant, rose ; 
Yet he, too, at last was conquered 

By the good Knight's weighty blows. 

Once again he rose a conqueror, Weybridge, 

And, though wounded in the fight. 
With a dying smile of triumph 

Saw that Truth had gained her right. 

On his failing ear re-echoing 

Came the shouting round her throne ; 
Little cared he that no future 

With her name would link his own. 



152 DR SOUTH WOOD SMITH. 

Spent with many a hard-fought battle 

Slowly ebbed his life away, 
And the crowd that flocked to greet her 

Trampled on him where he lay. 

Gathering all his strength he saw her Italy. 

Crowned and reigning in her pride, 
Looked his last upon her beauty, 

Raised his eyes to God — and died." 

— A. A. Procter. 



THE AFTERGLOW. 153 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE AFTERGLOW. 



It was at this time that the Prince Consort 
died, and England was full of mourning. Lord 
Shaftesbury speaks, in his diary of December 
16, 1 86 1, of that national loss, and then alludes 
to the death of my grandfather in these words : — 

" I hear, too, that my valued friend and co- 
adjutor in efforts for the sanitary improvement 
of England is gone — the learned, warm-hearted, 
highly-gifted Southwood Smith." 

But the work he had set on foot and the 
principles he had established did not end with 
his life. They have gone on with an ever-in- 
creasing vitality to this day. 

The efforts he made for the non-employment 
of women and young children in mines have 
resulted in the entire cessation of the practice ; 



154 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

while his work for the provision of proper 
schooling for factory children has culminated 
now in a whole system of workhouse and fac- 
tory supervision and in the school-board system 
throughout the land. 

Intramural burial is virtually at an end. And 
the "Home Hospitals" and "Nursing Homes," 
which are established in all our large towns, are 
the successors of that " Sanatorium, or Home 
in Sickness," which he devised, and for which 
Charles Dickens pleaded in its early days. 

The marshy Bethnal Green and Spitalfields, 
where he first visited the individual homes, 
and which he took Lord Normanby and Lord 
Ashley to see, are now comparatively healthy 
places. He found them without water; there 
is now water laid on to every house. He found 
them without drainage ; now a complete and 
scientific system of drainage exists throughout 
the metropolis. The "^7,000,000 of public 
money spent on sanitary reform," over which 
he rejoiced so greatly, is, since he spoke in 1857, 
increased by all the millions spent on such works 
in the last forty years. 

His first set of " Model Dwellings," in the 



THE AFTERGLOW. 155 

St Pancras Road, is now multiplied by the 
countless blocks of such in all the large towns 
of England. Sanitary Law and Sanitary In- 
spection everywhere prevail, and the thousands 
of lives annually saved — the lowered death-rate 
both in town and country — attests the power 
of the laws he was one of the first to perceive 
and proclaim. 

To show the saving of life in London alone, 
the death-rate in the early "forties" was 26 in 
the thousand, it is now 19 ; whilst in the Model 
Dwellings the improvement is even more strik- 
ing, since there it is not more than half that of 
London at large. To show how completely the 
experiment he made to prove the possible health- 
fulness of such dwellings has answered, it is only 
necessary to quote the figures given in the re- 
port just issued for this fifty-third year of the 
Society which he founded. 

" The rate of mortality," we learn, " in the 
Dwellings of the Association, was 9"64'per 1000, 
including 12 deaths which occurred in hospitals, 
infirmaries, &c. In the entire metropolis the 
rate was i8'2 per 1000. As regards infant mor- 
tality, the deaths under one year of age were 



156 DR SOUTHWOOD SMITH. 

at the rate of 79 in every 1000 births ; and in 
the entire metropolis, at the rate of 161 per 
1000 births." 

Allusion has been made to the bust which 
was executed as a tribute to the public services 
of my grandfather by those whom we have called 
the Pioneers of Sanitary Reform — Lord Nor- 
manby, Lord Shaftesbury, Lord Carlisle (for- 
merly Lord Morpeth), Charles Dickens, Mr 
Slaney, and others. This bust is now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, and accompanying it 
are the following lines by Leigh Hunt, which 
proclaim the services of his life in the cause 
of the poor to wider circles still: — 

" Ages shall honour, in their hearts enshrined, 
Thee, Southwood Smith, Physician of Mankind ; 
Bringer of Air, Light, Health into the Home 
Of the rich Poor of happier times to come ! " 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX I. 



Letter from Mr Taylor, Assistant Returning 
Officer of the Whitechapel Union, to Dr 
Southwood Smith ; written at the request of 
the latter, for Lord Ashley's use, after their 
personal inspection of Bethnal Green and White- 
chapel. 

289 Bethnal Green Road, Feb. 5, 1842. 

My dear Doctor,— Lord Ashley, the Hon'''^- Mr 
Ashley, and yourself visited the following places with 
me. I have arranged them in the form of a table : in 
one column is the name of the street, and, opposite, a 
brief notice of its condition, with an occasional remark 
by which his Lordship may recognise it. 

Apologising for the length of time that has elapsed 
since I promised to forward this account to you, I 
remain, dear Doctor, Your Obed"'- Serv'-, 

T. Taylor. 



i6o 



APPENDIX. 



First Visit. 
Back of Chester Place. 
Pitt Street. 



Burnham Square. 
Grosvenor Street. 
Bonner Street. 



Pleasant Place. 
Green Street. 

Baker Street. 
Digby Street. 



James Street. 
Bethnal Green Road 
(eastern end). 



Sanderson's Gardens. 



Pitt Street, Bethnal 
Green Road. 



Open ditch and several pigsties. 

Awretched road, no drainage. Hon. Mr 
Ashley spoke to one of the inhabi- 
tants respecting the state of the road. 

Houses built on undrained ground. 

Undrained houses on one side not sup- 
plied with water (all the houses on 
this estate, to the amount of about 
200 or more, in the same condition, 
the inhabitants having to go to a 
distant pump or beg of their neigh- 
bours, who have had it laid on at 
their own expense, and who for giv- 
ing it are liable to punishment). 
Bonner Street has an open ditch in 
front of part of it. 

Road a perfect quagmire. 

Stagnant water on southern side and 
also on part of the northern. 

Houses back to back, consisting of two 
rooms, each one above the other. 
Privies close to windows of lower 
rooms. Baker's night-yard is in this 
street. 

Another night-yard. 

No drainage, many of the houses having 
10 inches to 2 feet of water in the 
cellars, which are from 3 feet to 3 feet 
8 inches only below the level of the 
road. 

Houses on each side below the level of 
the pathway, which has a gutter in 
the middle. (Lord Ashley spoke to 
one of the inhabitants of this place.) 

A narrow street with only surface 
drainage. (Fever was very prevalent 
here.) 



APPENDIX. 



i6i 



Cambden Gardens. 



Lamb's Fields. 



London Street. 
Rupia Lane. 
Ann's Place. 

Houses at the back of 
Ann's Place. 



A group of streets to the 
north of Slacky Road. 
Warmer Place. 

Wellington Pond. 



A thoroughfare leading 
from bottom of Pol- 
lards Row to Welling- 
ton Row. 

Squirries Street. 

Wellington Row. 



Houses built on the soil, many of them 
not being larger than an 8-feet cube, 
are inhabited. 

An acre at least of complete marsh and 
three open ditches — one on the north, 
another in the middle, and the third 
to the eastern side close to the backs 
of the houses in North Street. 

Undrained. 

Two open ditches. 

Open sewer in front of some of the 
houses. 

The open sewer from Ann's Place passes 
beneath one of the houses and then is 
again open to the houses at the back, 
but is boarded in so that Lord Ashley 
had to mount a boundary stone to ob- 
tain the view of it. 

All the houses stained with damp to a 
height varying from i to 2 or more feet. 

An open sewer in front of the houses 
giving off bubbles of gas very freely. 

A large piece of water into which the 
above sewer drains — gives off con- 
stantly innumerable bubbles of gas, 
and the stench is sometimes abomin- 
able. Persons who have accidentally 
fallen into it, though taken out im- 
mediately, have all died. 

The lucifer match manufactory faces 
this road, into which we all went. 
An open ditch in the most filthy con- 
dition. 

Green stagnant water on each side. 

Lower rooms all damp. An open ditch 
in front Western end soft mud, into 
which the wheels of a waggon sank 
14 or 15 inches as it passed. 



1 62 



APPENDIX. 



North Street and some 
of the houses at the 
back. 

Waterloo Town (several 
streets). 



Lord Ashley saw the landlord of some 
of them. 

All undrained, but part of Manchester 
Street and Albion Street. Many 
variations of level of several feet at 
a distance of a few yards only, as 
Manchester Place, Derbyshire Street, 
Sale Street. Many of the houses 
back to back and consisting of five 
ground-floor rooms only. 



Second Visit. 

George Street. 

Old Bethnal Green 
Road. 

Clare Street, Felix 
Street, Centre Street, 
Cambridge Circus, 
Minerva Street, Ma- 
tilda Street, Hope 
Street, Temple Street, 
Charles Street, Char- 
lotte Street, Durham 
Street. 

Court opposite to Cam- 
bridge Road. 



Nova Scotia Gardens. 



Virginia Row, York 
Street, and the streets 
to the east. 

Rose Court. 

Typen Street 



A centre gutter full of stagnant water. 
Has had a sewer made recently, but 

houses do not communicate with it. 
All built on undrained ground, and the 

houses affected with damp. 



One privy to several houses, and mosses 
growing on the damp brick of the 
houses to the height of 4 or 5 feet 
from the ground. 

Several feet below the road in many 
parts, the drainage of which it re- 
ceives. (Here lived the burkers of 
the Italian boy.) 

Undrained, having stagnant water in 
them. 

Most wretched hovels. 
(Where the child was burnt.) 



APPENDIX. 



163 



Satchwell Rents. 



Mount Street. 



Courts out 

Street. 



of Mount 



Collingvvood Street. 



The privies form part of the ground- 
floor of these houses. Lord Ashley 
inspected the first house ; no yards. 

Level of the houses very uneven ; many 
below the level of the road. The un- 
drained portion of this street suffered 
from fever to an awful extent, while 
the high and drained part had 
scarcely a case. 

Dung- heap in one. Lord Ashley saw 
the landlord of another and spoke to 
him. 

Houses on one side much lower than 
on the other; very badly drained, and 
not a healthy-looking person or child 
in the street. 



i64 APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX II. 



Recognition of the Public Services of 
Dr Southwood Smith. 

At a Meeting held at the residence of the Earl of 
Shaftesbury on the 7th of May 1856 

It was resolved 

That this Meeting, deeply impressed with the 
untiring and successful labours of Dr Southwood Smith 
in the cause of social amelioration, and specially recog- 
nising the value of these labours in the great cause of 

Sanitary Improvement, 

are anxious to tender him some mark of their personal 
esteem. That accordingly a bust of Dr Southwood 
Smith be executed in marble, and presented to some 
suitable institution, as an enduring memorial of his 
eminent services in the promotion of the Public Health. 



APPENDIX. 



165 



The following is a List of the Subscribers : — 



Viscount Palmerston, K.G., 
G.C.B., First Lord of the 
Treasury. 

The Earl of Carlisle, K.G., Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland. 

The Earl of Harrovvby, Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne, 
K.G. 

The Marquis of Normanby, 
K.G., G.C.B., Ambassador at 
Florence. 

The Right Honourable W. F. 
Cowper, M.P., President of 
the Board of Health. 

Thomas Graham, Esq., F.R.S., 
Master of the Mint. 

The Duke of Buccleuch. 

The Duke of Newcastle. 

The Earl of Ellesmere. 

The Earl Fortescue, K.G. 

The Earl of St Germans. 

The Earl of Harrington. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury. 

The Lord Bishop of London. 

The Lord Bishop of St Asapli. 

The Lord Bishop of Ripon. 

The Lord Brougham and Vaux. 

The Viscount Ebrington, M.P. 

The Viscount Goderich, M.P. 

The Lord Robert Grosvenor, 
M.P. 

The Lord Claude Hamilton, 
M.P. 

The Lord Stanley of Bicker- 
staffe, M.P. 



The Honourable A. Kinnaird, 

M.P. 
Sir Edward Borough, Bart. 
Sir E. N. Buxton, Bart. 
The Rev. Sir H. Dukinfield, 

•Bart. 
Sir John Easthope, Bart. 
Sir Ralph Howard, Bart. 
Sir Samuel Morton Peto, Bart. 
Sir John Ramsden, Bart. 
Sir Erskine Perry, Q.C., M.P. 
The Lord Mayor. 
The Dean of Ely. 
Henry Austin, Esq. 

B. G. Babington, Esq., M.D. 
Thomas Baker, Esq. 
Joseph Bateman, Esq., LL.D. 
John Batten, Esq. 

G. Beaman, Esq., M.D. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., F.R.S. 
Joseph Brotherton, Esq., M.P. 
Alexander Browne, Esq., M.D. 
A. Collyer, Esq. 
The Rev. J. Gumming, D.D. 
The Rev. R. S. Daniell, M.A. 
Charles Dickens, Esq. 
John Dillon, Esq. 
William Farr, Esq., M.D. 
Arthur Farre, Esq., M.D. 
John Finlaison, Esq. 

C. Gatlifif, Esq. 

F. D. Goldsmid, Esq. 

R. D. Grainger, Esq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq. 

J. F. Hart, Esq. 

A. Hassall, Esq., M.D. 

James Heywood, Esq., M.P. 



i66 



APPENDIX. 



Rowland Hill, Esq. 

M. D. Hill, Esq., Q.C. 

F. Hill, Esq. 

A. Hill, Esq. 

E. Hill, Esq. 

Gurney Hoare, Esq. 

P. H. Holland, Esq. 

T. Jones Howell, Esq. 

The Rev. Charles Hume, M.A. 

R. W. Kennard, Esq. 

Duncan M'Laren, Esq. 

J. Leslie, Esq. 

Waller Lewis, Esq., M.B., 

F.G.S. 
C. Z. Macau lay, Esq. 
J. J. Mechi, Esq. 
R. Monckton Milnes, Esq., M.P. 



Gavin Milroy, Esq., M.D, 

James Morrison, Esq. 

Professor Owen, F.R.S. 

Tucker Radford, Esq., M.D. 

Robert Rawlinson, Esq. 

J. A. Roebuck, Esq., M.P. 

W. Rogers, Esq. 

S. S. Scriven, Esq, 

R. A. Slaney, Esq., M.P. 

J. J. Smith Esq. 

James Startin, Esq. 

John Sutherland, Esq., M.D. 

Thomas Thornely, Esq., M.P. 

John Thwaites, Esq. 

J. W. Tottie, Esq. 

Thomas Tooke, Esq., F.R.S. 

E. Westall, Esq.^ 



^ It will be seen that a very large number of tlie names on this list 
are those of men who had personally worked with my grandfather or 
had watched and helped as labourers in the Sanitary cause from the 
beginning. — G. L. 



INDEX. 



Ashley, Lord, visits Bethnal Green 
and Whitechapel with Dr South- 
wood Smith, 70 — his Bill relating 
to child labour in mines passed, 
75- 

Bentham, Jeremy, death of, 43 — Dr 
Soulhwood Smith delivers oration 
on, 45. 

"Body-snatching," agitation in con- 
nection with, 36. 

Bristol, Dr Southwood Smith edu- 
cated at Baptist College in, 7. 

" Broadmead Benefaction," Dr 
Southwood .Smith holds the, 7. 

Brougham, Lord, letter from, 133. 

Chadwick, Mr Edwin, member of 
Factory Commission, 53 — reports 
on the sanitary condition of the 
labouring population, 105. 

Children, employment of, in fact- 
ories, 49 et seq. 

" Children's Employment Commis- 
sion," Dr Southwood Smith a 
member of, 73 — report by, ib. — 
report on "Trades and Manu- 
factures," 76. 

Cholera, house - to - house visitation 
as a preventive cure of, 132, 

133- 
Christie, Miss Mary, marriage of Dr 
Southwood Smith to, 16. 

Dickens, Charles, speech by, 82 — 



joins in performance for the bene- 
fit of " The Sanatorium," 84 — 
letters from, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91 
—letter to, 88. 

Edinburgh, Dr Southwood Smith 
enters University as medical stu- 
dent, 9— lectures in Philosophical 
Institution, 141. 

Education, article on, 36. 

"Epidemics," lecture on, 141. 

Factories, need for reform in, 49 et 
seq. — Factory Commission ap- 
pointed, 53 — report by, 54 et 
seq. — Factory Act, 1833, passed, 
57 — return showing working of 
educational provisions of Act, 
58. 

' Factory System, The Curse of the,' 
by M. Fielden, M.P., quoted, 51. 

" General Board of Health," Dr 
Southwood Smith appointed to, 
127 — work on, 132 et seq. — report 
on " A General Scheme for Extra- 
mural Sepulture," 133 — Board 
discontinued, 136. 

Gillies, Mr, Dr Southwood Smith 
becomes acquainted with, 48. 

lialiburton, Hon. D. G., letter to, 

15- 
" Health of Towns Association," 98 
— founding of, 107. 



i68 



INDEX. 



" Health of Towns Commission," 

105. 
Highgate, Dr Southwood Smith's 

home at, 94 e^ seq. 

' Illustrations of the Divine Govern- 
ment,' publication of, 12 — fourtli 
edition of, 13 — quotation from 
preface to, ib. 

Inglis, Sir Robert Harry, M.P., 
quoted, 99. 

Italy, travels in, 147, 148. 

Jeffrey, Lord, quoted, 33. 
Kentish Town, life at, 3 et seq. 

Lincoln, Lord, introduces a Sanitary 
Reform Bill, no. 

London, Bishop of, moves in House 
of Lords for extension of Poor 
*Law Board inquiries, 71. 

London, Dr Southwood Smith re- 
moves to, 16 — report on eastern 
districts of, 61 et seq. 

RLaclean, Dr, referred to, 18. 

Martock, Dr Southwood Smith born 
at, 7. 

"Metropolitan Association for Im- 
proving the Dwellings of the In- 
dustrious Classes," founding of, 93. 

" Metropolitan Sanitary Commis- 
sion " appointed, 122. 

Mines, child labour in, 73. 

"Model Dwellings," building of 
first, 94. 

Morpeth, Lord, quoted, 100 — brings 
forwanl Bill for "Improving the 
Health of Towns in England," 122 
et seq. — letter to, 128. 

Normanby, Marquis of, visits Beth- 
nal Green and Whitechapel with 
Dr Southwood Smith, 69 — referred 
to, 100 — his " Drainage of 
Buildings Bill," 104. 

'Origin and Progress of Sanitary Re- 
form,' by T. Jones Howell, quoted, 
32. 



Palmerston, Viscount, letter from, 

137- 

' Penny Encyclopsedia,' Dr South- 
wood Smith contributes to, 36. 

'Philosophy of Health, The,' 47— 
revision of, 140. 

Procter, Adelaide, quotation from, 

ISO. 
PubUc Health Act, 1848, passed, 126. 

"Quarantine Laws," articles on, 31. 

Read, Miss Anne, attachment of Dr 

Southwood Smith to, 8 — marriage 

of, 9 — death of, ib. 
Recognition of public services of Dr 

Southwood Smith, 143, 162. 
" Report on the Physical Causes of 

Sickness and Mortality," &c., 61 

— extracts from, ib. et seq. 
' ' Report on the Prevalence of Fever 

in Twenty Metropolitan Unions in 

1838," 68. 
' Results of Sanitary Improvement,' 

publication of, 141. 
Ryland, Dr, reference to, 8. 

Sanatorium, founding of the, 81. 

Sanitary Reform, Dr Southwood 
Smith's first writings on, 17 — 
beginning of the movement for, 
60 et seq. — struggle fur, 102 et seq. 
— Parliamentary Committee ap- 
pointed, 103 — Mr Chadwick's re- 
port, 105 — "Health of Towns 
Commission," ib. — " Public Health 
Act, 1848," passed, 126. 

Shaftesbury, Lord, letter from, 142 
— quotation from diary of, 153. 

Slaney, Mr, M.P., quoted, 99 — ob- 
tains committee to inquire into 
sanitary state of large towns in 
England, 103. 

Smith, Caroline Southwood, 9. 

Smith, Emily Southwood, 9. 

Smith, Dr Thomas Southwood, 
author's recollections of, i et seq. 
— birth and early years, 7 — his 
education and preparation for the 
ministry, //'. — cast off by his family 
on account of religious views, 8 — 



INDEX. 



169 



attachment to Miss Anne Read, 
ib. — marriage, 9 — death of his 
wife, ib. — decides to study medi- 
cine and enters Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, ib. — conducts religious 
services in Edinburgh, 10 — writes 
his ' Illustrations of the Divine 
Government,' 12 — starts practice 
at Yeovil, 14 — removes to London, 
16 — second marriage, ib. — ap- 
pointed physician to the London 
Fever Hospital, the Eastern Dis- 
pensary, and the Jews' Hospital, 
ib. — his first writings on the 
" Sanitary Question," 17 — pub- 
lishes his ' Treatise on Fever,' 24 
— house at Trinity Square broken 
up, 35 — contributes to the ' Penny 
Encyclopaedia,' 36 — assists in 
founding the 'Westminster Re- 
view,' ib. — publishes pamphlet on 
' The Use of the Dead to the 
Living,' 40 — lectures at Webb 
Street School of Anatomy, 42 — 
delivers popular lectures at London 
Institution and elsewhere, 43 — 
his oration on Jeremy Bentham, 
46 — publishes ' The Philosophy of 
Health,' 47 — appointed to the 
Factory Commission, 53 — reports 
to the Poor Law Commissioners 
on eastern districts of London, 61 
— member of " Children's Em- 
ployment Commission," 73 — as- 
sists in founding "The Sana- 
torium," 81 — correspondence with 
Charles Dickens, 85 et seq. — forms 
the ' ' Metropolitan Association for 
Improving the Dwellings of the 
Industrious Classes," 93 — removes 
to Highgate, 94 — founds the 



"Health of Towns Association," 
98, 107 — his efforts on behalf of 
Sanitary Reform, 102 et seq. — 
issues an "Address to the Working 
Classes," 11 1 — is appointed mem- 
ber of the " Metropolitan Sanitary 
Commission," 122 — appointed to 
General Board of Health, 127 — 
letter to Lord Morpeth, 128 — re- 
tires from public life, 139 — revises 
' The Philosophy of Health,' 140 
— writes pamphlet on ' Results of 
Sanitary Improvement,' 141 — 
lectures on " Epidemics " at Edin- 
burgh, ib. — receives public recog- 
nition of his services, 143 — travels 
in Italy, 147 — death of his wife, 
148 — returns to Italy, ib. — death, 
ib. 

Taylor, Mr, letter from, 157. 

Tooke, Mr, member of Factory 
Commission, 53. 

'Treatise on Fever,' publication of, 
24 — opinion of ' The Medico- 
Chirurgical Review ' on, ib. — 
quotations from, 25 et seq,, 30. 

' Use of the Dead to the Living, 
The,' 40. 

'Westminster Review,' Dr South- 
wood Smith's contributions to, 17 
— founding of, 36. 

Workhouses, Dr Southwood Smith 
draws attention to state of, 66. 

Yeovil, Dr Southwood Smith begins 
practice and fakes charge of con- 
gregation at, 14 — leaves for Lon- 
don, 16. 



PRINTED BY WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS. 



Catalogue 

of 

JMessrs Blackwood & Sons' 
Publications 



PERIODS OF EUROPEAN LITERATURE. Edited by 

Professor SAINTSBURY. 

THE FLOURISHING OF ROMANCE AND THE RISE OF ALLE- 
GORY. (12th AND 13th Centuries.) By GEORGE SAINTSBURY, M.A., 
Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University. 
Crown 8vo, 58. net. 



By David Hannat. Crown 8vo, 



THE LATER RENAISSANCE. 
5s. net. 

THE AUGUSTAN AGES. By Olivbr Elton. Crown 8vo. 

[In the press. 
THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. By F. J. Snell. Crown 8vo. 

[In the press. 
The other Volumes are : — 

The Mid -Eighteenth 
Century .... J. Hepburn Millar. 

The Romantic Revolt Prof.C.E.Vaughan. 

The Romantic Triumph . T. 8. Oinond. 

The Later Nineteenth 
Century The Editor. 



The Dark Ages . . . Prof. W. P. Kerr. 
The Transition 

Period G. Gregory Smith. 

The Earlier Renaissance. 

The First Half of the Seventeknth 

Century. 

PHILOSOPHICAL CLASSICS 

Edited ty WILLIAM KNIGHT, 
in the University of St Andrews, 
price 3s. 6d. 

Contents of the Series. — Descartes, by 
Professor Mahaffy, Dublin. — Butler, by 
Rev. W. Lucas Collins, M.A. — Berkeley, 
by Professor Campbell Eraser. — Fichte, 
by Professor Adamson, Glasgow. — Kant, 
by Professor Wallace, Oxford. — Hamilton, 
by Professor Veitch, Glasgow. — Heoel, by 
the Master of BallioL— Leibniz, by J. Theo- 



FOR ENGLISH READERS. 

LL.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy 
In crown 8vo Volumes, with Portraits, 

dore Merz.— Vico, by Professor Flint, Edin- 
burgh. — Hobbes, by Professor Groom 
Robertson. — Hume, by the Editor. — 
Spinoza, by the Very Rev. Principal Caird, 
Glasgow. — Bacon : Part I. The Life, by 
Professor Nichol.— Bacon : Part II. Philo- 
sophy, by the same Author. — Locke, by 
I Professor Campbell Eraser. 



FOREIGN CLASSICS FOR ENGLISH READERS. Edited by 

Mrs OLIPHANT. Cheap Re-issue. In limp cloth, fcap. 8vo, price Is. 
each. 

Beady. — Dante, by the Editor. — Vol- 
taire, by General Sir E. B. Hamley, K.C.B. 
— Pascal, by Principal Tulloch. — Pe- 
trarch, by Henry Reeve, C.B. — Goethe, 
by A. Hayward, Q.C.— MoliJire, by the 
Editor and F. Tarver, M.A.— Montaigne, 
by Rev. W. L. Collins. — Rabelais, by Sir 
Walter Besant. — Calderon, by B. J. 
HaseU. 

In preparation. — Saint Simon, by Clifton 



W. CoUins, M.A — Cervantes, by the 
Editor. — CoRNEiLLE AND Racine, by Henry 
M. Trollope. — Madame de S6vion6, by Miss 
Thackeray. — La Fontaine, and other 
French Fabulists, by Rev. W. Lucas 
Collins, M. A.— Schiller, by James Sime, 
M.A. — Tasso, by E. J. HaseU. — Rousseau, 
by Henry Grey Graham. — Alfred db 
MussET, by C. F. Oliphant. 



ANCIENT CLASSICS FOR ENGLISH READERS. Edited by 

the Rev. W. LUCAS COLLINS, M.A. Cheap Re-issue. In limp cloth, 
fcap. 8yo, price Is. each. 



ConttTUs of the Seriw.— Homer : Iliad, 
by the Editor. — Homer: Odyssey, by the 
Editor. — Herodotus, by G. C. Swayne. — 
CiGSAR, by Anthony Trollope. — Virgil, by 
the Editor. — Horace, by Sir Theodore 
Martin. — ^schylus, by Bishop Copleston. 
— Xenophon, by Sir Alex. Grant. — Cicero, 
by the Editor.— Sophocles, by C. W. Col- 
lins. — Plint, by Rev. A. Church and W. J. 
Brodribb. — Euripides, by W. B. Donne. — 
Juvenal, by E. Walford. — Aristophanes, 
by the Editor. — Hesiod and Theoonis, by 



J. Davies. — Plautus and Terence, by the 
Editor. — Tacitus, by W. B. Donne. — 
LuciAN, by the Editor.— Plato, by C. W. 
Collins. — Greek Anthology, by Lord 
Neaves. — Livy, by the Editor.— Ovid, by 
Rev. A. Church. — Catullus, Tibullus, 
AND Propertius, by J. Davies. — Demos- 
thenes, by W. J. Brodribb. — Aristotle, 
by Sir Alex. Grant. — Thucydides, by the 
Editor. — Lucretius, by W. H. Mallock. — 
Pun>AB, by Rev. F. D. Morice. 



CATALOGUE 

OF 

MESSES BLACKWOOD & SONS' 

P U BLICA TION S. 



ALISON. 

History of Europe. By Sir Aechibald Alison, Bart., D.C.L. 

1. From the Commencement of the French Revolution to 

the Battle of Waterloo. 
' Library Edition, 14 vols., with Portraits. Demy 8vo, £10, 10s. 

Another Edition, in 20 vols, crown 8vo, £6. 
People's Edition 13 vols, crown 8vo, £2, lis. 

2. Continuation to the Accession of Louis Napoleon. 

Library Edition, 8 vols. 8vo, £6, 7s. 6d. 
People's Edition, 8 vols, crown 8vo. 34s. 

Epitome of Alison's History of Europe. Thirtieth Thou- 
sand, 78. 6d. 
Atlas to Alison's History of Europe. By A. Keith Johnston. 

Library Edition, demy 4to, £3, 3s. 
People's Edition, 31s. 6d. 

Life of John Duke of Marlborough. With some Account of 

his Contemporaries, and of the War of the Succession. Third Edition. 2 vols. 
8vo. Portraits and Maps, 30s. 

Essays : Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous. 3 vols. 

demy 8vo, 45s. 

ACROSS FRANCE IN A CARAVAN : Beinq some Account 

OF A Journey from Bordeaux to Genoa in the " Escaroot," taken in the Winter 
1889-90. By the Author of ' A Day of my Life at Eton." With fifty Illustrations 
by John Wallace, after Sketches by the Author, and a Map. Cheap Edition, 
demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

ACTA SANCTORUM HIBERNI^ ; Ex Codice Salmanticensi. 

Nunc primum integre edita opMjra Caroli de Smedt et Josephi de Backer, e 
8oc. Jesu, Hagiographorum BoUandlanorum ; Auctore et Sumptus Largiente 
Joanne Patricio Marchione Bothab. In One handsome 4to Volume, bound in 
half roxburghe, £2, 2s. ; in paper cover, 31s. 6d. 

ADOLPHUS. Some Memories of Paris. By F. Adolphus. 

Crown 8vo, 6s. 

AFLALO. A Sketch of the Natural History (Vertebrates) of 

the British Islands. By F. G. Aflalo, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., Author of 'A Sketch 
of the Natural History of Australia,' &c. With numerous Illustrations by Lodge 
and Bennett. Crown 8vo, 68. net. 



List of Books Publtshed by 



AIRMAN. 

Manures and the Principles of Manuring. By C. M. Aikman, 

D.Sc., F.B.S.B., &c., Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow Veterinary College; 
Examiner in Chemistry, University of Glasgow, &c. Crown 8vo, 68. 6d. 

Farmyard Manure : Its Nature, Composition, and Treatment. 

Crown 870, Is. 6d. 

ALLARDYCE. 

The City of Sunshine. By Alexandee Allakdyob, Author of 

'Barlscourt,' &c. New Edition. Crown 8 vo, 68. 

Balmoral : A Romance of the Queen's Country. New Edition. 

Crown 8vo, 6s. 

ANCIENT CLASSICS FOR ENGLISH READERS. Edited 

by Bev. W. Luoaa Collins, M. A. Price Is. each. Vor lAst of Vols, see p. 2. 

ANDERSON. Daniel in the Critics' Den. A Reply to Dean 

Farrar's 'Book of DanieL' By Robert Anderson, LL.D., Barrister-at-Law, 
Assistant Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis ; Author of ' The Coming 
Prince,' ' Human Destiny,' &c. Post 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

AYTOUN. 

Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, and other Poems. By W. 

Edmondstoune Aytoun, D.C.L., Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres in the 
University of Edinburgh. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 38. 6d. 

Another Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Cheap Edition. Is. Cloth, Is. 3d. 

An Illustrated Edition of the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers. 

From designs by Sir Noel Paton. Cheaper Edition. Small 4to, 10s. 6d. 

Bothwell : a Poem. Third Edition. Fcap., 7s. 6d. 

Poems and Ballads of Goethe. Translated by Professor 

Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.B. Third Edition. Fcap., 6s. 

Memoir of William E. Aytoun, D.C.L. By Sir Theodore 

Martin, K.C.B. With Portrait. Post 8vo, 128. 

BADEN-POWELL. The Saving of Ireland. Conditions and 

Remedies: Industrial, Financial, and Political. By Sir Georoe Baden-Powell, 
K.C.M.G., M.P. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

BEDFORD & COLLINS. Annals of the Free Foresters, from 

1856 to the Present Day. By W. K. R Bedford, W. B. W. Collins, and other 
Contributors. With 55 Portraits and 69 other Illustrations. Demy 8vo, 21s. net. 

BELLAIRS. Gossips with Girls and Maidens, Betrothed and 

Free. By Lady Bellairs. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. Cloth, extra 
gilt edges, 58. 

BELLESHEIM. Historv of the Catholic Church of Scotland. 

From the Introduction of Christianity to the Present Day. By Alphons Bel- 
LESHEiM, D.D., Canon of Aix-la-Chapelle. Translated, with Notes and Additions, 
by D. Oswald Hunter Blair, O.S.B., Monk of Fort Augustus. Cheap Edition. 
Complete in 4 vols, demy 8vo, with Maps. Price 21s. net. 

BENTINCK. Racing Life of Lord George Cavendish Bentinck, 

M.P., and other Reminiscences. By John Kent, Private Trainer to the Good- 
wood Stable. Edited by the Hon. Francis Lawley. With Twenty-three full- 
page Plates, and Facsimile Letter. Third Edition. Demy 8vo, 258. 

BICRERDYKE. A Banished Beauty. By John Bickerdyke, 

Author of ' Days in Thule, with Rod, Gun, and Camera,' ' The Book of the All- 
Round Angler.' 'Curiosities of Ale and Beer,' &c. With Illustrations. Cheap 
Edition. Crown 8vo, 28. 



William Blackwood and Sons, 



BINDLOSS. In the Niger Country. By Harold Bindloss. 

With numerous Illustrations. In 1 vol. deiny 8vo. \In the press. 

BIRCH. 

Examples of Stables, Hunting-Boxes, Kennels, Racing Estab- 
lishments, &c. By John Birch, Architect, Author of ' Country Architecture, 
&c. With 30 Plates. Royal 8vo, 7s. 

Examples of Labourers' Cottages, &c. With Plans for Im- 
proving the Dwellings of the Poor in Large Towns. With 34 Plates. Royal 8vo, 7s. 

Picturesque Lodges. A Series of Designs for Gate Lodges, 

Park Entrances, Keepers', Gardeners', Bailiffs', Grooms', Upper and Under Ser- 
vants' Lodges, and other Rural Residences. With 16 Plates. 4to, 12s. 6d. 

BLACKIE. 

The Wisdom of (Joethe. By John Stuart Blackie, Emeritus 

Professor of Greek in the University of Edinburgh. Peap. 8vo. Cloth, extra 
gilt, 68. 

John Stuart Blackie : A Biography. By Anna M. Stoddart. 

With 3 Plates. Third Edition. 2 vols, demy Svo, 21s. 
Popular Edition. With Portrait. Crown Svo 6s. 

BLACKMORE. 

The Maid of Sker. By R. D. Blackmore, Author of ' Lorna 

Doone,' &c. New Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. Cheaper Edition. Crown Svo, 
3s. 6d. 

Dariel : A Romance of Surrey. With 14 Illustrations by 

Chris. Hammond. Crown Svo. 6s. 

BLACKWOOD. 

Annals of a Publishing House. William Blackwood and his 

Sons ; Their Magazine and Friends. By Mrs Oliphant. With Four Portraits. 
Third Edition. Demy Svo. Vols. I. and II. £2, 2s. 

Vol. III. John Blackwood. By his Daughter, Mary 



Porter. With 2 Portraits and View of Strathtyrum. Demy Svo. [In the press. 

Blackwood's Magazine, from Commencement in 1817 to De- 
cember 1897. No8.'l to 986, forming 161 Volumes. 

Index to Blackwood's Magazine. Vols. 1 to 50. Svo, 15s. 
Tales from Blackwood. First Series. Price One Shilling each, 

in Paper Cover. Sold separately at all Railway Bookstalls. 

They may also be had bound in 12 vols., cloth, 18s. Half calf, richly gilt, 308. 
Or the 12 vols, in 6, roxburghe, 21s. Half red morocco, 2Ss. 

Tales from Blackwood. Second Series. Complete in Twenty- 
four Shilling Parts. Handsomely bound in 12 vols., cloth, 30s. In leather back, 
roxburghe style, 378. 6d. Half calf, gilt, 528. 6d. Half morocco, 558. 

Tales from Blackwood. Third Series. Complete in Twelve 

Shilling Parts. Handsomely bound in 6 vols., cloth, 15s.; and in 12 vols., cloth, 
18s. The 6 vols, in roxburghe, 21s. Half calf, 25s. Half morocco, 2Ss. 

Travel, Adventure, and Sport. From ' Blackwood's Magazine. 

Uniform with 'Tales from Blackwood.' In Twelve Parts, each price Is. Hand- 
somely bound in 6 vols., cloth, ISs. And in half calf, 25s. 

New Educational Series. See separate Catalogue. 



List of Boohs Published by 



BLACKWOOD. 

New Uniform Series of Novels (Copyright). 



Crown 8vo, cloth. Price Ss. 6d. each 
The Maid of Sker. By R. D. Blackmore. 
Wenderholmk. By P. Q. Hamerton. 
The Story of Margr^del. By D. Storrar 

Meldrum. 
Miss Marjoribanks. By Mrs Oliphant. 
The Perpetual Curate, and The Rector. 

By the Same. 
Salem Chapel, and The Doctor's Family. 

By the Same. 
A Sensitive Plant. By E. D. Gerard. 
Lady Lee's Widowhood. By General Sir 

B. B. Hamley. 
Katie Stewart, and other Stories. By Mrs 

Oliphant. 
Valentine and his Brother. By the Same. 
Sons and DAuaHTERs. By the Same. 
Marmorne. By P. G. Hamerton. 

Standard Novels. Uniform 

complete in one Volume. 

FLORIN SERIES, lUtxstrated Boards, 



Now ready : — 

Reata. By E. D. Gerard. 

Beooar my Neighbour. By the Same. 

The Waters of Hercules. By the Same. 

Fair to See. By L. W. M. Lockhart. 

Mine is Thine. By the Same. 

Doubles and Quits. By the Same. 

Altiora Peto. By Laurence Oliphant 

Piccadilly. By the Same. With Illustra- 
tions. 

Lady Baby. By D. Gerard. 

The Blacksmith of Voe. By Paul Gushing. 

The Dilemma. By the Author of ' The 
Battle of Dorking.' 

My Trivial Life and Misfortune. By A 
Plain Woman. 

Poor Nellie. By the Same. 

in size and binding. Each 



Tom Cringle's Loo. By Michael Scott. 
The Cruise of the Midge. By the Same. 
Cyril Thornton. By Captain Hamilton. 
Annals of the Parish. By John Gait. 
The Provost, &c. By the Same. 
Sir Andrew Wylie. By the Same. 
The Entail. By the Same. 
Miss Molly. By Beatrice May Butt. 
Reginald Dalton. By J. G. Lockhart. 

SHILLING SERIES, Illustrated Cover. 



Bound in Cloth, 2s. 6d. 



The Rector, and The Doctor's Family. 

By Mrs Oliphant. 
The Life of Mansie Wauch. By D. M. 

Moir. 
Peninsular Scenes and Sketches. By 

F. Hardman. 

BON GAULTIER'S BOOK OF BALLADS. 

tion. With Illustrations by Doyle, Leech, and Crowquill 



Pen Owen. By Dean Hook. 

Adam Blair. By J. G. Lockhart. 

Lady Lee's Widowhood. By General Sir E. 

B. Hamley. 
Salem Chapel. By Mrs Oliphant. 
The Perpetual Curate. By the Same 
Miss Marjoribanks. By the Same. 
John : A Love Story. By the Same. 

Bound in Cloth, Is. 6d. 



Sir Frizzle Pumpkin, Niohts at Mess, 

&c. 
The Subaltern. 

Life in the Far West. By G. F. Ruxton. 
Valerius : A Roman Story. By J. G. 

Lockhart. 

Fifteenth Edi- 

Fcap. 8vo, 58. 



BOWHILL. Questions and Answers in the Theory and Practice 

of Military Topography. By Major J. H. Bowhill. Hrown 8vo, 4s. 6d. net. 
Portfolio containing 34 working plans and diagrams. 3s. 6d. net. 

BRADDON. Thirty Years of Shikar. By Sir Edward Braddon, 

K.C.M.G. With Illustrations by G. D. Giles, and Map of Oudh Forest Tracts 
and Nepal Terai. Demy 8vo, ISs. 

BROUGHAM. Memoirs of the Life and Times of Henry Lord 

Brougham. Written by Himself. 3 vols. 8vo, £2, 8s. The Volumes are sold 
separately, price 16s. each. 

BROWN. The Forester : A Practical Treatise on the Planting 

and Tending of Forest-trees and the General Management of Woodlands. By 
James Brown, LL.D. Sixth Edition, Enlarged. Edited by John Nisbet, D.CEc., 
Author of ' British Forest Trees,' &c. In 2 vols, royal 8vo, with 350 Illustra- 
tions, 42s. net. 

BROWN. A Manual of Botany, Anatomical and Physiological. 

For the Use of Students. By Robert Brown, M.A., Ph.D. Crown 8vo, with 
numerous Illustrations, 128. 6d. 

BRUCE. 

In Clover and Heather. Poems by Wallace Bruce. New 

and Enlarged Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

A limited number of Copies of the First Edition, on large hand-made paper, 12b. 6d. 



William Blackwood ana Sons, 



BRUCE. 

Here's a Hand. Addresses and Poems. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Large Paper Edition, limited to 100 copies, price 2l8. 

BUCHAN. Introductory Text-Book of Meteorology. By Alex- 
ander BucHAN, LL.D., P.B.S.E., Secretary of the Scottish Meteorological 
Society, &c. New Edition. Crown 8vo, with Coloured Charts and Engravings. 

[/n vr&paroXwn. 

BURBIDGE. 

Domestic Floriculture, Windo'*' Gardening, and Floral Decora- 
tions. Being Practical Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement 
of Plants and Flowers as Domestic Ornaments. By P. W. Burbidoe. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo, with numerous Illustrations, 7s. 6d. 

Cultivated Plants : Their Propagation and Improvement. 

Including Natural and Artificial Hybridisation, Raising from Seed, Cuttings, 
and Layers, Orafting and Budding, as applied to the Families and Oenera in 
Cultivation. Crown 8vo, with numerous Illustrations, 12s. 6d. 

BURGESS. The Viking Path : A Tale of the White Christ. 

By J. J. Haldane Buboess, Author of ' Rasmie's Buddie,' 'Shetland Sketches,' 
&c. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

BURKE. The Flowering of the Almond Tree, and other Poems. 

By Christian Burke. Pott 4to, 5s. 

BURROWS. 

Commentaries on the History of England, from the Earliest 

Times to 1865. By Montagu Burrows, Chichele Professor of Modem History 
in the University of Oxford; Captain R.N. ; F.S.A., &c. ; "Officier de I'ln- 
struction Publique," France. Crown 8vo. 78. 6d. 

The History of the Foreign Policy of Great Britain. New 

Edition, revised. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

BURTON. 

The History of Scotland : From Agricola's Invasion to the 

Extinction of the last Jacobite Insurrection. By John Hill Burton, D.C.L., 
Historiographer-Royal for Scotland. Cheaper Edition. In 8 vols. Crown 8vo, 
3s. 6d. each. 

History of the British Empire during the Reign of Queen 

Anne. In 3 vols. 8vo. 36s. 

The Scot Abroad. Cheap Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s, 6d. 
The Book-Hunter. Cheap Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
BUTCHER. Armenosa of Egypt. A Romance of the Arab 

Conquest. By the Very Rev. Dean Butcher, D.D., F.S. A., Chaplain at Cairo. 
Crown 8vo, 6s. ' 

BUTE. The Altus of St Columba. With a Prose Paraphrase 

and Notes. By John, Marquess of Bute, K.T. In paper cover, 28. 6d. 

BUTE, MACPHAIL, and LONSDALE. The Arms of the 

Royal and Parliamentary Burghs of Scotland. By John, Marquess of Bute, 
K.T., J. R. N. Macphail, and H. W. Lonsdale. With 131 Engravings on 
wood, and 11 other Illustratious. Crown 4to. £2, 2s. net. 

BUTLER. The Ancient Church and Parish of Abemethy, 

Perthshire. An Historical Study. By Rev. D. Butler, M.A., Minister of the 
Parish. With 13 Collotype Plates and a Map. Crown 4to, 25s. net. 

BUTT. 

Theatricals : An Interlude. By Beatrice May Butt. Crown 

8vo, 68. 

Miss Molly. Cheap Edition, 28. 

Eugenie. Crown Bvo, 6s. 6d. 

Elizabeth, and other Sketches. Crown Bvo, 6s. 

Delicia. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 



List of Books Published by 



CAIRD. Sermons. By John Cairo, D.D., Principal of the 

University of Glasgow. Seventeenth Thousand. Fcap. 8vo, Ss. 

CALDWELL. Schopenhauer's System in its Philosophical Sig- 
nificance (the Shaw Fellowship Lectures, 1893). By William Caldwell, M.A., 
D.Sc., Professor of Moral and Social Philosophy, Northwestern University, 
U.S.A. ; formerly Assistant to the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Bdin., 
and Examiner in Philosophy in the University of St Andrews. Demy 8vo, 
10s. 6d. net. 

CALL WELL. The Effect of Maritime Command on Land 

Campaigns since Waterloo. By Major C. E. Callwell, R.A. With Plans. 
Post 8vo, 6s. net. 

CAPES The Adventures of the Comte de la Muette during the 

Reign of Terror. By Bernard Capes, Author of ' The Lake of Wine,' ' The Mill 
of Silence,' &c. Crown 8vo, 68. 

CARSTAIRS. 

Human Nature in Rural Lidia. By R. Carstairs. Crown 

8vo, 6s. 

British Work in India. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
CAUVIN. A Treasury of the English and Gterman Languages. 

Compiled from the best Authors and Lexicographers in both Languages. By 
Joseph Cauvin, LL.B. and Ph.D., of the University of Gottingen, &c. Crown 
8vo, 78. 6d. 

CHARTERIS. Canonicity ; or, Early Testimonies to the Exist- 
ence and Use of the Books of the New Testament. Based on Kirchhoffer's 
' Quellensammlung.' Edited by A. H. Charteris, D.D., Professor of Biblical 
Criticism in the University of Edinburgh. 8vo, 188. 

CHENNELLS. Recollections of an Egyptian Princess. By 

her English Governess (Miss E. Chennells). Being a Record of Five Years' 
Residence at the Court of Ismael Pasha, EhMive. Second Edition. With Three 
Portraits. Post 8vo, 78. 6d. 

CHESNEY. The Dilemma. By General Sir George Chesney, 

K.C.B., M.P., Author of 'The Battle of Dorking,' &c. New Edition. Crown 
8vo, 3s. 6d. 

CHRISTISON. Eariy Fortifications in Scotland : Motes, Camps, 

and Fort"?. Being the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1894. By David 
Christison, M.D., F. R.C.P.E., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land. With 379 Plans and Illustrations and 3 Maps. Fcap 4to, 21s. net. 

CHRISTISON. Life of Sir Robert Christison, Bart., M.D., 

D.C.L. Oxon., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in the University of Edin- 
burgh. Edited by his Sons. In 2 vols. 8vo. Vol. I. — Autobiography. 168. 
Vol. II. — Memoirs. 16s. 

CHURCH. Chapters in an Adventurous Life. Sir Richard 

Church in Italy and Greece. By E. M. Chtjrch. With Photogravure 
Portrait. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

CHURCH SERVICE SOCIETY. 

A Book of Common Order : being Forms of Worship issued 

by the Church Service Society. Seventh Edition, carefully revised. In 1 vol. 
crown 8vo, cloth, 38. 6d. ; French morocco, 5s. Also in 2 vols, crown 8vo, 
cloth, 48. ; French morocco, 6s. 6d. 

Daily Offices for Morning and Evening Prayer throughout 

the Week. Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 

Order of Divine Service for Children. Issued by the Church 

Service Society. With Scottish Hymnal. Cloth, Sd. 

CLOUSTON. Popular Tales and Fictions: their Migrations 

and Transformations. By W. A. Clouston, Editor of ' Arabian Poetry for Eng- 
lish Readers,' &c. 2 vols, post 8vo, roxbni^he binding, 258. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 



COCHRAN. A Handy Text-Book of Military Law. Compiled 

chiefly to assist Officers preparing for Examination ; also for all Officers of the 
Regular and Auxiliary Forces. Comprising also a Synopsis of part ot the Army 
Act. By Major P. Cochran, Hampshire Regiment Garrison Instructor, North 
British District. Crown 8vo, Ts. 6d.. 

COLQUHOUN. The Moor and the Loch. Containing Minute 

Instructions in all Highland Sports, with Wanderings over Crag and Corrie, 
Flood and Fell. By John Colquhoun. Cheap Edition. With Illustrations 
Demy 8vo, lOs. 6d. 

COLVILE. Hound the Black Man's Garden. By Lady Z. Col- 
vile, F.R.G.8. With 2 Maps and 50 Illustrations from Drawings by the 
Author and from Photographs. Demy 8vo, 16s. 

CONDER. 

The Bible and the East. By Lieut. -Col. C. R. Conder, 

R.E., LL.D., D.C.L., M.R.A.S., Author of 'Tent Work in Palestine,' Ac. With 
Illustrations and a Map. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

The Hittites and their Language. "With Illustrations and 

Map. Post 8vo, 7s. fid. 

CONSTITUTION AND LAW OF THE CHURCH OF 

SCOTLAND. With an Introductory Note by the late Principsl Tulloch. Ne» 
Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

COTTERILL. Suggested Reforms in Public Schools. By C. C. 

CoTTERiLL, M.A. Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 

COUNTY HISTORIES OF SCOTLAND. In demy 8vo vol- 

unies of about 350 pp. each. With Maps. Price 7s. 6d. net. 

Fife and Kinross. By ^neas J. G. Mackay, LL.D., Sheriff 

of these Counties. 

Dumfries and Galloway. By Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., 
Moray and Nairn. By Charles Rampini, LL.D., Sheriff"- 

Substitute of these Counties. 

Inverness. By J. Cameron Lees, D.D. 

Roxburgh, Peebles, and Selkirk. By Sir George Douglas, 

Bart. [In the press 

CRAWFORD. Saracinesca. By F. Marion Crawford, Author 

of ' Mr Isaacs,' &c., Ac. Cheap Edition. Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 

CRAWFORD. 

The Doctrine of Holy Scripture respecting the Atonement. 

By the late Thomas J. Crawford, D.D., Professor of Divinity in the University 
of Edinburgh. Fifth Edition. 8vo, 128. 

The Fatherhood of God, Considered in its (Jeneral and Special 

Aspects. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, 98. 

The Preaching of the Cross, and other Sermons. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
The Mysteries of Christianity. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
CROSS. Impressions of Dante, and of the New World ; with a 

Few Words on Bimetallism. By J. W. Cross, Editor of ' George Eliot's Life, as 
related in her Letters and Jonmals.' Post 8vo, 68. 

CUMBERLAND. Sport on the Pamirs and Turkistan Steppes. 

By Major C. 8. Cumberland. With Map and Frontispiece. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

CURSE OF INTELLECT. Third Edition. Fcap. Svo, 2s. 6d. net. 
GUSHING. The Blacksmith of Voe. By Paul Cushino, Author 

of ' The Bull i' th' Thorn,' ' Cut with his own Diamond.' Cheap BMition. Crown 
8vo, 88. «d 

DARBISHIRE. Physical Maps for the use of History Students. 

By Bernhard V. Darbisbire, M.A., Trinity ColleKP, Oxford. Two Series:— 
Ancient History (9 maps) ; Modern History (12 maps). [In the press. 



10 List of Books Published by 

DAVIES. Norfolk Broads and Rivers ; or, The Waterways, 

Lagoons, and Decoys of East Anglia. By G. Chbistophkr Davies. Illustrated 
with Seven full-page Plates. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

DE LA WARR. An Eastern Cruise in the ' Edeline.' By the 

Countess Db La Warr. In Illustrated Cover. 28. 

DESCARTES. The Method, Meditations, and Principles of Philo- 
sophy of Descartes. Translated from the Original French and Latin. With a 
New Introductory Essay, Historical and Critical, on the Cartesian Philosophy. 
By Professor Veitcu, LL.D., Glasgow University. Eleventh Edition. 6s. 6d. 

DOGS, OUR DOMESTICATED : Their Treatment in reference 

to Food, Diseases, Habits, Punishment, Accomplishments. By 'Haqkkta.' 
Crown 8vo, 28. 6d. 

DOUGLAS. 

The Ethics of John Stuart Mill. By Charles Douglas, 

M.A., D.Sc, Lecturer in Moral Philosophy, and Assistant to the Professor of 
Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. Post 8vo, 6s. net. 

John Stuart Mill : A Study of his Philosophy. Crown 8vo, 

4s. 6d. net. 

DOUGLAS. Chinese Stories. By Robekt K. Douglas. With 

numerous Illustrations by Parkinson, Forestier, and others. New and Cheaper 
Edition. Small demy 8vo, 58. 

DOUGLAS. Iras : A Mystery. By Theo. Douglas, Author of 

' A Bride Elect.' Cheaper Edition, in Paper Cover specially designed by Womrath. 
Crown Svo, Is. 6d. 

DU CANE. The Odyssey of Homer, Books L-XII. Translated 

into Ensrlish Verse. By Sir Charlks Du Cane, K.C.M.Q. 8vo, lOs. 6d. 

DUNSMORE. Manual of the Law of Scotland as to the Rela- 
tions between Agricultural Tenants and the Landlords, Servants, Merchants, and 
Bowers. By W. Dunsmore. 8vo, Vs. 6d. 

DZIEWICKL Entombed in Flesh. By M. H. Dziewickl 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

ELIOT. 

George Eliot's Life, Related in Her Letters and Journals. 

Arranged and Edited by her husband, J. W. Cross. With Portrait and other 
Illustrations. Third Edition. 3 vols, post Svo, 42s. 

George Eliot's Life. With Portrait and other Illustrations. 

New Edition, in one volume. Crown Svo, Ts. 6d. 

Works of George Eliot (Standard Edition). 21 volumes, 

crown Svo. In buckram cloth, gilt top, 2s. 6d. per vol. ; or in roxburghe 
binding, 3s. 6d. per vol. 

Adam Bede. 2 vols. — The Mill on the Floss. 2 vols. — Felix Holt, thib 
Radical. 2 vols. — Bomola. 2 vols. — Scenes of Clerical Life. 2 vols.— 

MiDDLEMABCH. 3 VOls. — DaNIEL DeRONDA. 3 VOlS.— SiLAS MaRNER. 1 VOl. 

—Jural. 1 vol.— The Spanish Gipsy. 1 vol.— Essays. 1 vol.— Theophras- 
Tus Such. 1 vol. 

Life and Works of George Eliot (Cabinet Edition). 24 

volumes, crown Svo, price £6. Also to be had handsomely bound in half and full 
calf. The Volumes are sold separately, bound in cloth, price 68. each 

Novels by George Eliot. New Cheap Edition. Printed on 

fine laid paper, and uniformly bound. 

Adam Bede. Ss. 6d.— The Mill on the Floss. 3s. 6d.— Scenes of Clerical 
Life. 3s.— Silas Mamer: the Weaver of Raveloe. 2s. 6d.— Felix Holt, the 
RadicaL 3s. 6d.— Romola. 3s. 6d.— Middlemarch. Ts. 6d— Daniel Deronda. 
7s. 6d. 

Essays. New Edition. Crown Svo, 58. 

Impressions of Theophrastus Such. New Edition. Crown 

Svo, 58. 

The Spanish Gypsy. New Edition. Crown Svo, 5s. 



William Blackwood and Sons. ii 



ELIOT. 

The Legend of Jubal, and other Poems, Old and New. 

New Edition. Crown 8vo, 58. 

Scenes of Clerical Life. Pocket Edition, 3 vols, pott 8vo, 

Is. net each ; bound in kather, Is 6d. net each. Popular Edition. Koyal 8vo, 
in paper cover, price 6d, 

Adam Bede. Pocket Edition. 1\\ 3 vols, pott 8vo. [in the press. 
Wise, Witty, and Tender Sayings, m Prose and Verse. Selected 

from the Works of Qeoboi: Eliot. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 38. 6d. 

ELTON. The Augustan Ages. 'Periods of European Litei'a- 

ture.' By Oliver Elton. In 1 vol. crown 8vo. [In the press. 

ESSAYS ON SOCIAL SUBJECTS. Originally published in 

the 'Saturday Review.' New Edition. First and Second Series. 2 vols, crown 
8vo, 68. each. 

FAITHS OF THE WORLD, The. A Concise History of the 

Great Religious Systems of the World. By various Authors. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

FALKNER. The Lost Stradivarius. By J. Meade Falkner. 

Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

FENNELL and O'CALLAGHAN. A Prince of Tyrone. By 

Charlotte Fejojell and J. P. O'Callaghan. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

FERGUSON. Sir Samuel Ferguson in the Ireland of his Day. 

By Lady Ferguson, Author of "The Irish before the Conquest,' ' Life of William 
Reeves, D.D., Lord Bishop of Down, Connor, and Drumore,' &c., &c With 
Two Portraits. 2 vols, post 8vo, 2l8. 

FERGUSSON. Scots Poems. By Robert Fergusson. With 

Photogravure Portrait. Pott Svo, gilt top, bound in cloth, Is. net. 

FERRIER. 

Philosophical Works of the late James F. Ferrier, B.A. 

Oxon., Professor of Moral Philosophy and Political Economy, St Andrews. 
New Edition. Edited by Sir Alexander Grant, Bart., D.C.L., and Professor 

LUSHINOTON. 3 vols. CTOWU 8vo, 34s. 6d. 

Institutes of Metaphysic. Third Edition, 10s. 6d. 

Lectures on the Early Greek Philosophy. 4th Edition. 10s. 6d. 

Philosophical Remains, including the Lectures on Early 

Greek Philosophy. New Edition. 2 vols. 248. 

FLINT. 

Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and 

Switzerland. By Robert Flint, Corresponding Member of the Institute of 
France, Hon. Member of the Royal Society ol Palermo, Professor in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, Ac. Svo, 21 s. 

Agnosticism. Being the Croall Lecture for 1887-88. 

[In the press. 

Theism. Being the Baird Lecture for 1876. Ninth Edition, 

Revised. Crown Svo, Ts. 6d 

Anti-Theistic Theories. Being the Baird Lecture for 1877. 

Fifth Edition. Crown Svo, lOs. 6d. 

FOREIGN CLASSICS FOR ENGLISH READERS. Edited 

by Mrs Oliphant. Price Is. each. For List of Volumes, see page 2. 

FOSTER The Fallen City, and other Poems. By Will Foster. 

Crown Svo, 68. 

FRANCILLON. Gods and Heroes ; or. The Kingdom of Jupiter. 

By R. E. Francillon. With S Illustrations. Crown Svo, 58. 

FRANCIS. Among the Untrodden Ways. By M. E. Francis 

(Mrs Francis Blundell), Author of ' In a North Country Village,' ' A Daughter of 
the Soli,' ' Frieze and Fustian,' &c. Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 



12 List of Books Published by 

FRASER. 

Philosophy of Theism. Being the GiflFord Lectures delivered 

before the University of Edinburgh in 1894-95. First Series. By Alexander 
Campbell Fraser, D.C.L. Oxford ; Emeritus Professor of Logic and Meta- 
physics in the University of Edinburgh. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

Philosophy of Theism. Being the Gitford Lectures delivered 

before the University of Edinburgh in 1895-96. Second Series. Post 8vo, 
78. 6d. tut. 

GALT. 

Novels by John Galt. With General Introduction and 

Prefatory Notes by 8. R. Crockett. The Text Revised and Edited by D. 
Storrar Meldrum, Author of 'The Story of MargrMeL' With Photogravure 
Illustrations Itom Drawings by John Wallace. Fcap. 8vo, 38. net each vol. 
Annals of the Parish, and The Ayrshire Legatees. 2 vols. — Sir Andrew 
WvLiE. 2 vols.— The Entail; or, The Lairds of Grippy. 2 vols.— The Pro- 
vost, and The Last of the Lairds. 2 vols. 

See also Standard Novels, p. 6. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 
Scottish Hymnal, With Appendix Incorporated. Published 

for use in Churches by Authority of the General Assembly. 1. Large type, 
cloth, red edges, 2s. 6d.; French morocco, 4s. 2. Bourgeois type, limp cloth, Is.; 
French morocco, 2s. 3. Nonpareil type, cloth, red edges, 6d.; French morocco, 
Is. 4d. 4. Paper covers, 3d. 5. Sunday-School Edition, paper covers. Id., 
cloth, 2d. No. 1, bound with the Psalms and Paraphrases, French morocco, 88. 
No. 2, bound witli the Psalms and Parapnrases, cloth, 28.; French morocco, 38. 

Prayers for Social and Family Worship. Prepared by a 

Special Committee of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Entirely 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Fcap. Svo, red edges, 28. 

Prayers for Family Worship. A Selection of Four Weeks* 

Prayers. New Edition. Authorised by the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. Fcap. 8vo, red edges, Is. 6d. 

One Hundred Prayers. Prepared by the Committee on Aids 

to Devotion. 16mo, cloth limp, 6d. 

Morning and Evening Prayers for Affixing to Bibles. Prepared 

by the Committee on Aids to Devotion. Id. for 6, or Is. per 100. 

Prayers for Soldiers and Sailorc. Prepared by the Committee 

on Aids to Devotion. Thirtieth Thousand 16mo, cloth limp. 2d. net. 

GERARD. 
, Reata : What's in a Name. By E. D. Gkraed. Cheap 

Edition. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

Beggar my Neighbour. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 
The Waters of Hercules. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 
A Sensitive Plant. Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 
GERARD. 

A Foreigner. An Anglo -German Study. By E. Gerard. 

Crown Svo, 6s. 

The Land beyond the Forest. Facts, Figures, and Fancies 

from Transylvania. With Maps and Illustrations. 2 vols, post Svo, 25b. 

Bis : Some Tales Retold. Crown Svo, 6s. 
A Secret Mission. 2 vols, crown Svo, 178. 
An Electric Shock, and other Stories. Crown Svo, 6s. 
GERARD. 

The Impediment. By Dorothea Gerard. Crown Svo, 6s. 

A Forgotten Sin. Crown Svo, 6s. 

A Spotless Reputation. Third Edition. Crown Svo, 68. 



William Blackwood and Sons, 13 

GERARD. 

The Wrong Man. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Lady Baby. Cheap Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Recha. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

The Rich Miss Riddell. Second Edition. Crown Bvo, 68. 
GERARD. Stonyhurst Latin Grammar. By Rev. John Gbbabd. 

Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, Ss. 

GOOD ALL. Association Football. By John Goodall. Edited 

by S. Archibald DE Bear. With Diagrams. In 1 vol. cro%vn Svo. [In the 'press. 

GORDON CUMMINO. 

At Home in Fiji. By C. F. Gordon Cumjonq. Fourth 

Edition, post 8to. With Illustrations and Map. 7s. 6d. 

A Lady's Cruise in a French Man-of-War. New and Cheaper 

Edition. 8vo. With Illustrations and Map. 12s. 6d. 

Fire-Fountains. The Bangdom of Hawaii : Its Volcanoes, 

and the History of its Missions. With Map and Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo, 25s. 

Wanderings in China. New and Cheaper Edition. 8vo, with 

Illustrations, lOs. 

Granite Crags : The Yo-semit^ Region of California. Dlus- 

trated with 8 Engravings. New and Cheaper Edition. Svo, 8s. 6d. 

GRAHAM. Manual of the Elections (Scot.) (.Corrupt and Illegal 

Practices) Act, 1890. With Analysis, Relative Act of Sederunt, Appendix con- 
taining the Corrupt Practices Acts of 1883 and 1885, and Copious Index. By J. 
Edwabd Graham, Advocate. Svo, 4s. 6d. 

GRAND. 

A Domestic Experiment. By Sarah Grand, Author of 

' The Heavenly Twins,' ' Ideala : A Study from Life.' Crown Svo, 68. 

Singularly Deluded. Crown Svo, 6s. 
GRANT. Bush-Life in Queensland. By A. C. Grant. New 

Edition. Crown Svo, 68. 

GREGG. The Decian Persecution. Being the Hulsean Prize 

Essay for 1896. By John A. F. Gregg, B A, late Scholar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge. Crown Svo, 6s. 

GRIER 

In Furthest Ind. The Narrative of Mr Edward Carlyon of 

EUswether, in the County of Northampton, and late of the Honourable Bast India 
Company's Service, Ctentleman. Wrote by his own hand in the year of grace 1697. 
Edited, with a few Explanatory Notes, by Sydney C. Grier. Post Svo, 6s. 

His Excellency's English Governess. Second Edition. Crown 

Svo, 68. 

An Uncrowned King : A Romance of High Politics. Second 

Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Peace with Honour. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. 

A Crowned Queen: The Romance of a Minister of State. 

Crown Svo, 6s. 

GROOT. A Lotus Flower. By J. Morgan de Groot. Crown 

Svo, 68. 

GUTHRIE -SMITH. Orispus: A Drama. By H. Guthbds- 

Smith. Fcap. 4to, 58. 

HAGGARD. Under Crescent and Star. By Lieut.-Col. Andrew 

Haooard, D.S.O., Author of 'Dodo and I,' 'Tempest Tom,' &c. With a 
Portrait. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. 

HALDANE. Subtropical Cultivations and Climates. A Handy 

Book for Planters, Colonists, and Settlers. By R. C. Haldamk. Post Svo, 98. 



14 List of Books Published by 

HAMERTON. 

Wenderholme : A Story of Lancashire and Yorkshire Life 

By P. O. Hauebton, Author of 'A Painter's Camp.' New Bdition. Crown 
8vo, Ss. 6<1. 

Marmome. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
HAMILTON. 

Lectures on Metaphysics. By Sir William Hamilton, 

Bart., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Bdinborgh. 
Edited by the Bev. H. L. Mansel, B.D., LL.D., Dean of 8t Paul's; and John 
Veitch, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Logic and Rhetoric, Glasgow. Seventh 
Edition. 2 vols. 8vo, 24s. 

Lectures on Logic. Edited by the Same. Third Edition, 

Revised. 2 vols., 24s. 

Discussions on Philosophy and Literature, Education and 

University Reform. Third Edition. 8vo, 2l8. 

Memoir of Sir William Hamilton, Bart., Professor of Logic 

and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. By Professor Veitch, of the 
University of Glasgow. 8vo, with Portrait, 18s. 

Sir William Hamilton : The Man and his Philosophy. Two 

Lectures delivered before the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, January and 
February 1883. By Professor Veitch. Crown 8vo, 28. 

HAMLEY. 

The Operations of War Explained and Illustrated. By 

General Sir Edward Bruce Hamley, K.C.B., E.C.M.G. Fifth Edition, Revised 
throughout. 4to, with numerous Illustrations, 30s. 

National Defence ; Articles and Speeches. Post 8vo, 68. 
Shakespeare's Funeral, and other Papers. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
Thomas Carlyle : An Essay. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 

2s. 6d. 

On Outposts. Second Edition. Svo, 2s. 

Wellington's Career ; A Military and Political Summary. 

Crown 8vo, 28. 

Lady Lee's Widowhood. New Edition. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

Cheaper Edition, 2s. 6d. 

Our Poor Relations. A Philozoic Essay. With Illustrations, 

chiefly by Ernest Griset. Crown Svo, cloth gilt, Ss. 6d. 

The Life of General Sir Edward Bruce Hamley, K.C.B., 

K.C.M.G. By Alexander Innes Shakd. With two Photogravure Portraits and 
other Illustrations. Cheaper Edition. With a Statement by Mr Edward 
Hamley. 2 vols, demy Svo, 10s. 6d. 

HANNAY. The Later Renaissance. By David Hannay. Being 

the second volume of ' Periods of European Literature. ' Edited by Professor 
Saintsbury. Crown Svo, 5s. net. 

HARE. Down the Village Street : Scenes in a West Country 

Hamlet. By Christopher Hare. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 68. 

HARRADEN. 

In Varying Moods : Short Stories. By Beatrice Harraden, 

Author of 'Ships that Pass in the Night.' Twelfth Edition Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 

Hilda Strafford, and The Remittance Man. Two Califomian 

stories. Tenth Edition. Crown Svo, 3s. fid. 

Untold Tales of the Past. With 40 Illustrations by H. R Millar. 

Square crown Svo, gilt top, 6s. 

HARRIS. 

From Batum to Baghdad, vid Tiflis, Tabriz, and Persian 

Kurdistan. By Walter B. Harris, F.R.G.8., Author of 'The Land of an 
African Sultan ; Travels in Morocco,' &c. With numerous Illustrations and 2 
Maps. Demy Svo, 128. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 15 



HAERIS. 

Tafilet. The Narrative of a Journey of Exploration to the 

Atlas Mountains and the Oases of the North-West Sahara. With Illustrations 
by Maurice Romberg from Sketches and Photographs by the Author, and Two 
Maps. Demy 8vo, 128. 

A Journey through the Yemen, and some General Remarks 

upon that Country. With 3 Maps and numerous Illustrations by Porestier and 
Wallace from Sketches and Photographs taken by the Author. Demy 8vo, 168. 

Danovitch, and other Stories. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
HAY. The Works of the Right Rev. Dr George Hay, Bishop of 

Edinburgh. Edited under the Supervision of the Right Rev. Bishop Strain. 
With Memoir and Portrait of the Author. 5 vols, crown 8vo, bound in ertra 
cloth, £1, Is. The following Volumes may be had separately — viz. : 

The Devout Christian Instructed in the Law of Christ from the Written 

Word. 2 vols., 8s. — The Pious Christian Instructed in the Nature and Practice 

of the Principal Exercises of Piety. 1 vol., 38. 

HEATLEY. 

The Horse-Owner's Safeguard. A Handy Medical Guide for 

every Man who owns a Horse. By G. 8. Heatley, M.R.C.V.S. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

The Stock-Owner's Guide. A Handy Medical Treatise for 

every Man who owns an Ox or a Cow. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

HEDDERWICK. Lays of Middle Age ; and other Poems. By 

James Hedserwick, LL.D., Author of 'Backward Glances.' Price 3s. 6d. 

HEMANS. 

The Poetical Works of Mrs Hemans. Copyright Edition. 

Royal 8vo, with Engravings, cloth, gilt edges, 7s. 6d. 

Select Poems of Mrs Hemans. Fcap., cloth, gilt edges, 3s. 
HENDERSON. The Young Estate Manager's Guide. By 

Richard Henderson, Member (by Examination) of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, tlie Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, and 
the Surveyors' Institution. With Plans and Diagrams. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

HERKLESS. Cardinal Beaton: Priest and Politician. By 

John Herkless, Professor of Church History, St Andrews. With a Portrait. 
Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

HEWISON. The Isle of Bute in the Olden Time. With Hlus- 

trations. Maps, and Plans. By James Kino Hewison, M.A., P.8.A. (Scot.), 
Minister of Rothesay. Vol. I., Celtic Saints and Heroes. Crown 4to, 16s. net. 
Vol. II., The Royal Stewards and the Brandanes. Crown 4to, 15s. net. 

HIBBEN. Inductive Logic. By John Grier Hibben, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Logic in Princeton University, U.S.A. Cr. 8vo, 3s. 6d. net. 

HOME PRAYERS. By Ministers of the Church of Scotland 

and Members of the Church Service Society. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, Ss. 

HORNBY. Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, 

G.C.B. A Biography, By Mrs Fred. Egerton. With Three Portraits. Demv 
8vo, 16s. 

HUTCHINSON. Hints on the Game of Golf. By Horace G. 

Hutchinson. Ninth Edition, Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo, cloth. Is. 

HYSLOP. The Elements of Ethics. By James H. Hyslop, 

Ph.D., Instructor in Ethics, Columbia College, New York, Author of 'The 
Elements of Logic' Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

IDDESLEIGH. Life, Letters, and Diaries of Sir Stafford North- 
cote, First Earl of Iddesleigh. By Andrew Lang. With Three Portraits and a 
View of Pynes. Third Edition. 2 vols, post 8vo, 3l8. 6d. 

Popular Edition. With Portrait and View of Pynes. Post 8vo, 78. 6d. 

JEAN JAMBON. Our Trip to Blunderland ; or. Grand Ex- 

cursion to Blundertown and Back. By Jean Jambon. With Sixty Illustrations 
designed by Charles Doyle, engraved by Dalziel. Fourth Thousand. Cloth, 
gUt edges, 68. 6d. Cheap Edition, cloth, Ss. 6d. Boards, 28. 6d. 



1 6 List of Books Published by 

JEBB. 

A Strange Career. The Life and Adventures of John 

Gladwyn Jebb. By his Widow. With an Introduction by H. Rider Haooard, 
and an Electrogravure Portrait of Mr Jebb. Third Edition. Demy 8vo, lOs. 6d. 
Cheap Edition. With Illustrations by John Wallace. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Some Unconventional People. By Mrs Gladwyn Jebb, 

Author of ' Life and Adventures of J. G. Jebb.' With Illustrations. Crown 
8vo, 38. 6d. 

JERNINGHAM. 

Reminiscences of an Attach^. By Hubekt E. H. Jebkinohah. 

Second Edition. Crown Svo, 58 

Diane de Breteuille. A Love Story. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 
JOHNSTON. 

The Chemistry of Common Life. By Professor J. F. W. 

Johnston. New Edition, Revised. By Arthur Herbert Chuech, M. A. Oxon.; 
Author of ' Food : its Sources, Constituents, and Uses,' &c. With Maps and 102 
Engravings. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Elements of Agricultural Chemistry. An entireW New 

Edition from the Edition by Sir Charles A. Cameron, M.D., F.R.C.8.I., &c. 
Revised and brought down to date by C. M. Airman, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.S.E., 
Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow Veterinary College. 17th Edition. Crown Svo, 
6b. 6d. 

Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry. An entirely New 

Edition from the Edition by Sir Charles A. Cameron. Revised and Enlarged 
by C. M. AiKMAN, M.A., &c. 95th Thousand. With numerous Illustrations. 
Crown Svo, Is. 

JOHNSTON. Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts, 1883 and 

1S89 ; and the Ground Game Act, 1880. With Notes, and Summary of Procedure, 
&c. By Christopher N. Johnston, M.A., Advocate. Demy Svo, 5s. 

JOKAL Timar's Two Worlds. By Maurus Jokai. Authorised 

Translation by Mrs Heoan Kennard. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, 68. 

KEBBEL. The Old and the New : English Country Life. By 

T. B. Eebbel, M. a.. Author of ' The Agricultural Labourers,' ' Essays in History 
and Politics,' ' Life of Lord Beaconsfleld.' Crown Svo, 5s. 

KERR. St Andrews in 1645-46. By D. R. Kerb. Crown 

Svo, 2s. 6d. 

KINGLAKE. 

History of the Invasion of the Crimea. By A. W. Kinolake. 

Cabinet Edition, Revised. With an Index to the Complete Work. Illustrated 
with Maps and Plans. Complete in 9 vols., crown Svo, at 6s. each. 

Abridged Edition for Military Students. Revised by 

Lieut.-Col. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, K.C.M.G., R.E. In 1 vol. demy Svo. 

[In the press. 

History of the Livasion of the Crimea. Demy 8vo. Vol. VI. 

Winter Troubles. With a Map, 16s. Vols. VII. and VIII. From the Morrow of 
Inkerman to the Death of Lord Raglan With an Index to the Whole Work. 
With Maps and Flans. 28s 

Eothen. A New Edition, uniform with the Cabinet Edition 

of the ' History of the Invasion of the Crimea.' 6s. 

Cheaper Edition. With Portrait and Biographical Sketch of the Author. 
Crown Svo, 38. 6d. Popular Edition, in paper cover, Is net. 

KIRBY. In Haunts of Wild Game: A Hunter- Naturalist's 

Wanderings from Eatjamba to Libombo. By Frederick Vauohan Eirby, 
F.Z.S. (Maqaqamba). With numerous Illustrations by Charles Whymper, and a 
Map. Large demy Svo, 25s. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 17 



KNEIPP. My Water -Cure. As Tested through more than 

Thirty Years, and Described for the Healing of Diseases and the Preservation of 
Health. By Sebastian Rneipp, Parish Priest of Worishofen (Bavaria). With a 
Portrait and other Illustrations. Authorised English Translation from the 
Thirtieth German Edition, by A. de F. Cheap Edition. With an Appendix, con- 
taining the Latest Developments of Pfarrer Kneipp's System, and a Preface by 
E. Gerard. Crown 8vo, Ss. 6d. 

KNOLLYS. The Elements of Field-ArtUlery. Designed for 

the Use of Infantry and Cavalry Officers. By Henry Knollys, Colonel Royal 
Artillery; Author of 'From Sedan to Saarbriick,' Editor of 'Incidents in the 
Sepoy War,' &c. With Engravings. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

LANG. 

Life, Letters, and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, First 

Earl of Iddesleigh. By Andrew Lang. With Three Portraits and a View of 
Pynes. Third Edition. 2 vols, post 8vo, 31s. 6d. 

Popular Edition. With Portrait and View of Pynes. Post 8vo, Ts. 6d. 

The Highlands of Scotland in 1750. From Manuscript 104 

in the King's Library, British Museum. With an Introduction by Andrew Lano 
Crown 8vo, 5s. net. 

LANG. The Expansion of the Christian Life. The Duff Lec- 
ture for 1«97 By the Rev J. Marshall Lang, D D Crown 8vo, 5s. 

LAPWOEIH. Intermediate Text-Book of Geology. By Pro- 

fessor Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S., &c. Founded on Dr Page's 'Introductory 
Text-Book of Geologj'. ' With Illustrations. In 1 vol. crown 8vo. [Immediately. 

LEES. A Handbook of the Sheriff and Justice of Peace Small 

Debt Courts. With Notes, References, and Forms. By J. M. Lees, Advocate, 
Sheriff of Stirling. Dumbarton, and Clackmannan. 8vo, Ts. fid. 

LENNOX AND STUKROCK. The Elements of Physical Educa- 

tion : ATeaeher's Manual. By David Lennox, M.D., late R.N., Medical Director 
of Dundee Public Gymnasium, and Alexander Stiirrock, Superintendent of 
Dundee Public Gymnasium, Instructor to the University of St Andrews and 
Dundee High School. With Original Musical Accompaniments to the Drill by 
Harry Everitt Loseby. With 130 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 4s. 

LEWES. Dr Southwood Smith : A Ketrospect. By his Grand- 
daughter, Mrs Charles Lewes (Gertrude Hill). With Portraits and other Illus- 
trations. In 1 vol. demy 8vo. [In the press. 

LINDSAY. 

Recent Advances in Theistic Philosophy of Religion. By Rev. 

James Lindsay, M.A., B.D., B.Sc, F.R.8.B., F.G.S., Minister of the Parish of 
St Andrew's, Kilmarnock. Demy 8vo, 12s. 6d. net. 

The Progressiveness of Modem Christian Thought. Crown 

8vo, 6s. 

Essays, Literary and Philosophical. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

The Significance of the Old Testament for Modern Theology. 

Crown 8vo, Is. net. 

The Teaching Function of the Modern Pulpit. Crown 8vo, 

la. net. 

LOCKHART. 

Doubles and Quits. By Laubencb W. M. Lockhart. New 

Edition. Crown 8vo, Ss. 6d. 

Fair to See. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
Mine is Thine. New Edition. Crown Bvo, 3s. 6d. 
LOCKHART. 

The Church of Scotland in the Thirteenth Century. The 

Life and Times of David de Bemham of St Andrews (Bishop), a.d. 1239 to 1253. 
With List of Churches dedicated by him, and Dates. By William Lockhart, 
A.M., D.D., F.8.A. Scot., Minister of Colinton Parish. 2d Edition. Svo, 68. 



1 8 List of Books Published by 



LOCKHART. 

Dies Tristes : Sermons for Seasons of Sorrow. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
LORIMER. 

The Institutes of Law : A Treatise of the Principles of Juris- 
prudence as determined by Nature. By the late James Lorimer, Professor of 
Public Law and of the Law of Nature and Nations in the University of Edin> 
burgh. New Edition, Revised and much Enlarged. 8vo, 18s. 

The Institutes of the Law of Nations. A Treatise of the 

Jural Relation of Separate Political Communities. In 2 vols. 8vo. Volume I., 
price 16s. Volume II., price 20s. 

LUGARD. The Rise of our East African Empire : Early Efforts 

in Uganda and Nyasaland. By F. D. Luoard, Captain Norfolk Regiment. 
With 130 Illustrations from Drawings and Photographs under the personal 
superintendence of the Autlior, and 14 specially prepared Maps. In 2 vols, large 
demy 8vo, 42s. 

MABIE. 

Essays on Nature and Culture. By Hamilton Wright Mabie. 

With Portrait. Fcap. 8vo, 33. 6d. 

Books and Culture. Fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d. 
M^CHESNEY. 

Miriam Cromwell, Royalist : A Romance of the Great Rebel- 
lion. By DoEA Greenwell McChesney. Crown 8vo, Cs. 

Kathleen Clare : Her Book, 1637-41. With Frontispiece, and 

Ave full-page Illustrations by James A. Shearman. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

M'COMBIE. Cattle and Cattle-Breeders. By William M'Combie, 

Tillyfour. New Edition, Enlarged, with Memoir of the Author by Jambs 
Macdonald, F.R.S.E., Secretary Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

M'CRIE. 

Works of the Rev. Thomas M'Crie, D.D. Uniform Edition. 

4 vols, crown 8vo, 24s. 

Life of John Knox. Crown 8vo, 6s. Another Edition, 3s. 6d. 

Life of Andrew Melville. Crown Svo, 6s. 

History of the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation 

in Italy in the Sixteenth Century. Crown 8vo, 4s. 

History of the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation 

in Spain in the Sixteenth Century. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

M'CRIE. The Public Worship of Presbyterian Scotland. Histori- 

cally treated. With copious Notes, Appendices, and Index. The Fourteenth 
Series of the Cunningham Lectures. By the Rev. Charles G. M'Crie, D.D. 
Demy Svo, 10s. 6d. 

MACDONALD. A Manual of the Criminal Law (Scotland) Pro- 
cedure Act, 1887. By Norman Doran Macdonald. Revised by the Lord 
Jdstice-Clerk. 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

MACDOUGALL and DODDS. A Manual of the Local Govern- 

ment (Scotland) Act, 1894. With Introduction, Explanatory Notes, and Copious 
Index. By J. Patten MacDouoall, Legal Secretary to the Lord Advocate, and 
J. M. Dodds. Tenth Thousand, Revised. Crown Svo, 23. 6d. net. 

MACINTYRE. Hindu-Koh : Wanderings and Wild Sports on 

and beyond the Himalayas. By Major-General Donald Macintvbe, V.C, late 
Prince of Wales' Own Goorkhas, F.R.G.8. Dedicated to H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales. New and Cheaper Edition, Revised, with numerous Illustrations. Post 
Svo, 33. 6d. 

MACKAY. 

Elements of Modem Geography. By the Rev. Alexander 

Mackay, LL.D., F.R.G.S. 55th Thousand, Revised to the present time. Crown 
Svo, pp. 300, 38. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 19 

MACKAY. 

The Intermediate Geography. Intended as an Intermediate 

Book between the Author's 'Outlines of Geography' and' Elements of Geo- 
graphy.' Eighteenth Edition, Revised. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 238, 2s. 

Outlines of Modern Geography. 191st Thousand, Kevised to 

the present time. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 128, Is. 

Elements of Physiography. New Edition. Eewritten and 

Enlarged. With numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo. [In the press 

MACKENZIE. Studies in Eoman Law. With Comparative 

Views of the Laws of France, England, and Scotland. By Lord Mackenzie, 
one of the Judges of the Court of Session in Scotland. Seventh Edition, Edited 
by John Kirkpatrick, M.A., LL.B., Advocate, Professor of History in the 
University of Edinburgh. In 1 vol. Svo. [In the press. 

MTHERSON. Golf and Golfers. Past and Present. By J. 

Gordon M'Pherson, Ph.D., F.R.S.E. With an Introduction by the Right Hon. 
A. J. Balfour, and a Portrait of the Author. Fcap. Svo, Is. 6d. 

MACRAE. A Handbook of Deer-Stalking. By Alexander 

Macrae, late Forester to Lord Henry Bentinck. With Introduction by Horatio 
Ross, Esq. Fcap. Svo, ■» ith 2 Photographs from Life. 3s. 6d. 

MAIN. Three Hundred English Sonnets. Chosen and Edited 

by David M. Main. New Edition. Fcap. Svo, 3s. 6d. 

MAIR. A Digest of Laws and Decisions, Ecclesiastical and 

Civil, relating to the Constitution, Practice, and Affairs of the Church of Scot- 
land. With Notes and Forms of Procedure. By the Rev. William Maib, D.D., 
Minister of the Parish of Earlston. New Edition, Revised. Crown Svo, 9s. net. 

MAESHMAN. History of India. From the Earliest Period to 

the present time. By John Clark Marshman, C.S.I. Third and Cheaper 
Edition. Post Svo, with Map, 6s. 

MARTIN. 

The ^neid of Virgil. Books I.-VI. Translated by Sir Theo- 
dore Martin, K.C.B. Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Goethe's Faust. Part I. Translated into English Verse. 

Second Edition, crown Svo, 6s. Ninth Edition, fcap. Svo, 3f>. 6d. 

Goethe's Faust. Part II. Translated into English Verse. 

Second Edition, Revised. Fcap. Svo, 6s. 

The Works of Horace. Translated into English Verse, with 

Life and Notes. 2 vols. New Edition. Crown Svo, 21 s. 

Poems and Ballads of Heinrich Heine. Done into English 

Verse. Third Edition. Small crown Svo, 5s. 

The Song of the Bell, and other Translations from Schiller, 

Goethe, Uhland, and Others. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

Madonna Pia : A Tragedy ; and Three Other Dramas. Crown 

Svo, 7s. 6d. _ _ 

Catullus. With Life and Notes. Second Edition, Revised 

and Corrected. Post Svo, 7*". ed. 

The ' Vita Nuova ' of Dante. Translated, with an Introduction 

and Notes. Third Edition. Small crown Svo, 58. 

Aladdin : A Dramatic Poem. By Adam Oehlenschlaeger. 

Fcap. Svo, 5s. 

Correggio : A Tragedy. By Oehlenschlaeger. With Notes. 

Fcap. Svo, 38. 

MARTIN. On some of Shakespeare's Female Characters. By 

Helena Faucit, Lady Martin. Dedicated hy permission to Her Most Gracious 
Majesty the Queen. Fifth Edition. With a Portrait by Lehmann. Demy Svo, 

7s. 6d. 

MARWICK. Observations on the Law and Practice in regard 

to Municipal Elections and the Conduct of the Business of Town Councils and 
Commissioners of Police in Scotland. By Sir James D. Mabwick, LL.D., 
Town-Clerk of Glasgow. Royal 8to, 808. 



20 List of Books Published by 

MATHESON. 

Can the Old Faith Live with the New ? or, The Problem of 

Evolution and Revelation. By the Rev. Okorok Mathbson, D.D. Third Edi- 
tion. Crown 8vo, 78. 6d. 

The Psalmist and the Scientist ; or, Modem Value of the Reli- 
gious Sentiment. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 58. 

Spiritual Development of St Paul. Fourth Edition, Cr. 8vo, 58. 

The Distinctive Messages of the Old Religions. Second Edi- 
tion. Crown 8vo, 58. 
Sacred Songs. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 
MATHIESON. The Supremacy and Sufficiency of Jesus Christ 

our Lord, as set forth in the Epistle to the Hebrews. By J. E. Mathieson, 
Superintendent of Mildmay Conference Hall, 1880 to 1890. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

MAURICE. The Balance of Military Power in Europe. An 

Examination of the War Resources of Great Britain and the Continental States. 
By Colonel Maurice, R.A., Professor of Military Art and History at the Royal 
Staff College. Crown 8vo, with a Map, 6s. 

MAXWELL. 

The Honourable Sir Charles Murray, K.C.B. A Memoir. 

By Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P., P.S.A., Ac, Author of 'Passages in 
the Life of Sir Lucian Elphin.' With Five Portraits. Demy 8vo, IBs. 

Life and Times of the Rt. Hon. William Henry Smith, M.P. 

With Portraits and numerous Illustrations by Herbert Railton, Q. L. Seymour, 
and Others. 2 vols, demy 8vo, 258. 
Popular Edition. With a Portrait and other Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 

Scottish Land-Names : Their Origin and Meaning. Being 

the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1893. Post 8vo, 68. 

Meridiana : Noontide Essays. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Post Meridiana : Afternoon Essays. Post Bvo, 6s. 

A Duke of Britain. A Romance of the Fourth Century. 

Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, 68. 

Dumfries and Galloway. Being one of the Volumes of the 

County Histories of Scotland. With Four Maps. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

MELDRUM. 

Holland and the Hollanders. By D. Storrar Meldrtjm. 

With numerous Illustrations In 1 vol. square Bvo. [In the jiress. 

The Story of Margrddel Being a Fireside History of a Fife- 
shire Family. Cheap Edition. Crown Bvo, Ss. 6d. 

Grey Mantle and Gold Fringe. Crown Bvo, 6s. 
MELLONE. Studies in Philosophical Criticism and Construction. 

By Sydney Herbert Mellone, M.A. Lond., D.Sc Edin. Post Bvo. 10s. 6d. net. 

MERZ. A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. By John Theodore Merz. Vol. I., post Bvo, 10s. 6d. net. 

MICHIE. 

The Larch : Being a Practical Treatise on its Culture and 

General Management. By Christopher Y. Michie, Forester, Cullen House. 
Crown Bvo, with Illustrations. New and Cheaper Edition, Enlarged, 5s. 

The Practice of Forestry. Crown 8vo, with Illustrations. 6s 
MIDDLETON. The Story of Alastair Bhan Comvn ; or, The 

Tragedy of Dunphail. A Tale of Tradition and Romance. By the Lady Middle- 
ton. Square Bvo, 10s. Cheaper Edition, 58. 

MIDDLETON. Latin Verse Unseens. By G. Middleton, M.A., 

Lecturer in Latin, Aberdeen University ; late Scholar of Emmanuel College. Cam- 
bridge ; Joint-Author of ' Student's Companion to Latin Authors.' Crown Bvo, 
18. 6d. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 31 



MILLER. The Dream of Mr H , the Herbalist. By Hugh 

Miller, P.R.S.E., late H.M. Geological Survey, Author of ' Landscape Geology. 
With a Photogravure Frontispiece. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

MILLS. Greek Verse Unseens. By T. R. Mills, M.A., late 

Lecturer in Greek, Aberdeen University ; formerly Scholar of Wadham College, 
Oxford ; Joint- Author of ' Student's Companion to Latin Authors. Crown 8vo, 
Is. 6d. 

MINTO. 

A Manual of English Prose Literature, Biographical and 

Critical: designed mainly to show Characteristics of Style. By W. Minto, 
M. A., Hon. LL.D. of St Andrews ; Professor of Logic in the University of Aber- 
deen. Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Characteristics of English Poets, from Chaucer to Shirley. 

New Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 78. 6d. 

Plain Principles of Prose Composition. Crown 8vo, Is. 6d. 
The Literature of the Georgian Era. Edited, with a Bio- 
graphical Introduction, by Professor Knight, St Andrews. Post 8vo, 68. 

MOIR. 

Life of Mansie Wauch, Tailor in Dalkeith. By D. M. Moir. 

With Cruikshank's Illustrations. Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 
Another Edition, without Illustrations, fcap. 8vo, Is. 6d. 

Domestic Verses. Centenary Edition. With a Portrait. Crown 

8vo, 2s. 6d. net. 

MOLE. For the Sake of a Slandered Woman. By Marion 

MoLK. Fcap. 8vo, 2s. 6d. net. 

MOMERIE. 

Defects of Modern Christianity, and other Sermons. By Rev. 

Alfred Williams Momerie, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D. Fifth Edition. Crowrj 8vo, 58. 

The Basis of Religion. Being an Examination of Natural 

Religion. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

The Origin of Evil, and other Sermons. Eighth Edition, 

Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Personality. The Beginning and End of Metaphysics, and a Ne- 
cessary Assumption in all Positive Philosophy. Fifth Ed., Revised. Cr. 8vo, 38. 

Agnosticism. Fourth Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 58. 
Preaching and Hearing ; and other Sermons. Fourth Edition, 

Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Belief in God. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Inspiration ; and other Sermons. Second Edition, Enlarged. 

Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Church and Creed. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

The Future of Religion, and other Essays. Second Edition. 

Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 

The English Church and the Romish Schism. Second Edition. 

Crown 8vo, 2s. t)d. 

MONCREIFF. 

The Provost-Marshal. A Romance of the Middle Shires. By 

the Hon. Frederick Moncrkiff. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

The X Jewel. A Romance of the Days of James VI. Cr. 8vo, 6s. 
MONTAGUK Military Topography. Illustrated by Practical 

Examples of a Practical Subject. By Major-General W. E. Montague, C.B., 
P.S.C., late Garrison Instructor Intelligence Department, Author of ' Campaign- 
ing in South Africa.' With Forty-one Diagrams. Crown 8vo, 58. 

MONTALEMBERT. Memoir of Count de Montalembert. A 

Chapter of Recent French History. By Mrs Oliphamt, Anthor of the ' Life of 
Edward Irving,' &c. 2 vols, crown 8vo, £1, 48. 



22 List of Books Published by 



MORISON. 

Doorside Ditties. By Jeanie Morison. With a Frontispiece. 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

iEolus. A Romance in Lyrics. Crown 8vo, 3s. 
There as Here. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

*,* A limUed impression on, hand-made paper, bound in vellum, ?«. 6d. 

Selections from Poems. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

Sordello. An Outline Analysis of Mr Browning's Poem. 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 

Of " Fifine at the Fair," " Christmas Eve and Easter Day," 

and other of Mr Browning's Poems. Crown 8vo, 3s. 

The Purpose of the Ages. Crown Svo, 9s. 
Gordon : An Our-day Idyll. Crown Svo, 3s. 
Saint Isadora, and other Poems. Crown Svo, Is. 6d. 
Snatches of Song. Paper, Is. 6d. ; cloth, 3s. 
Pontius Pilate. Paper, Is. 6d. ; cloth, 3s. 
Mill o' Forres. Crown Svo, Is. 
Ane Booke of Ballades. Fcap. 4to, Is. 
MUNRO. 

John Splendid. The Tale of a Poor Gentleman and the Little 

Wars of Lorn. By Neil Munro. Crown Svo, 63. 

The Lost Pibroch, and other Shelling Stories. Second 

Rdition. Crown Svo, 33. 6d. 

MUNRO. 

Rambles and Studies in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia. 

With an Account of the proceedings of the Congress of Archaeologists and 
Anthropologists held at Sarajevo in 1S94. By Robkrt Munro, M.A., M.D., 
P.R.S.E., Author of the ' Lake Dwellings of Europe,' &c. With numerous illus- 
trations. Demy Svo, 12s. 6d. net. 

Prehistoric Problems. With numerous Illustrations. Demy 

8vo, lOs. net. 

MUNRO. On Valuation of Property. By William Munro, 

M.A., Her Majesty's Assessor of Railways and Canals for Scotland. Second 
Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Svo, 3s. 6d. 

MURDOCH. Manual of the Law of Insolvency and Bankruptcy : 

Comprehending a Summary of the Law of Insolvency, Notour Bankruptcy, 
Composition -Contracts, Trust -Deeds, Cessios, and Sequestrations; and the 
Winding-up of Joint-Stock Companies in Scotland : with Annotations on the 
various Insolvency and Bankruptcy Statutes ; and with Forms of Procedure 
applicable to these Sabjects. By Jambs MaRoocH, Member of the Faculty of 
Procurators in Glasgow. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Svo, 12s. net. 

MYERS. A Manual of Classical Geography. By John L. 

Myers, M.A., Fellow of Magdalene College; Lecturer and Tutor, Christ Church, 
Oxford. In 1 vol. crown Svo. [In the press. 

MY TRIVIAL LIFE AND MISFORTUNE : A Gossip with 

no Plot in Particular. By A Plain Woman. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, 33. 6d. 
By the Same Author. 
POOR NELLIE. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

NAPIER. The Construction of the Wonderful Canon of Loga- 
rithms. By JoH» Napier of Merohiston. Translated, with Notes, and a 
Catalogue of Napier's Works, by William Rae Macdonald. Small 4to, 15s. 
A few larqe-paper copies on, Whatman paper, 30s. 

NEAVES. Songs and Verses, Social and Scientific. By An Old 

Contributor to 'Maga.' By the Hon. Lord Neaves. Fifth Edition. Fcap. 
Svo, 48. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 23 



NICHOLSON. 

A Manual of Zoology, for the Use of Students. With a 

General Introduction on the Principles of Zoology. By Henry Alleynb 
Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, P.L.8., F.G.S., Regius Professor of Natural History in 
the University of Aberdeen. Seventh Edition, Rewritten and Enlarged. Post 
8vo, pp. 956, with 555 Engravings on Wood, 18s. 

Text-Book of Zoology, for Junior Students. Fifth Edition. 

Rewritten and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, with 358 Engravings on Wood, 10s. 6d. 

Introductory Text-Book of Zoology. New Edition. Revised 

by Author and Alexander Brown, M.A., M.B., B.Sc, Lecturer on Zoology in 
the University of Aberdeen. [In the press. 

A Manual of Palaeontology, for the Use of Students. With a 

General Introduction on the Principles of Palaeontology. By Professor H. 
Alleyne Nicholson and Richard Lydekker, B.A. Third Edition, entirely 
Rewritten and greatly Enlarged. 2 vols. 8vo, £3,'3s. 

The Ancient Life-History of the Earth. An Outline of the 

Principles and Leading Facts of Palaiontological Science. Crown 8vo, with 276 
Engravings, 10s. 6d. 

On the " Tabulate Corals " of the Palaeozoic Period, with 

Critical Descriptions of Illustrative Species. Illustrated with 15 Lithographed 
Plates and numerous Engravings. Super-royal 8vo, 21s. 

Synopsis of the Classification of the Animal Kingdom. 8vo, 

with 106 Illustrations, 6s. 

On the Structure and Affinities of the Genus Monticulipora 

and its Sub-Genera, with Critical Descriptions of Illustrative Species. Illustrated 
with numerous Engravings on Wood and Lithographed Plates. Super-royal 
8vo, 18s. 

NICHOLSON. 

Thoth. A Romance. By Joseph Shield Nicholson, M.A., 

D.Sc, Professor of Commercial and Political Economy and Mercantile Law in 
the University of Edinburgh. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

A Dreamer of Dreams. A Modern Romance. Second Edi- 
tion. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

OLIPHANT. 

MasoUam : A Problem of the Period. A Novel. By Laueence 

Oliphant. 3 vols, post 8vo, 25s. 6d. 

Scientific Religion ; or. Higher Possibilities of Life and 

Practice through the Operation of Natural Forces. Second Edition. 8vo, 163. 

Altiora Peto. Cheap Edition. Crown 8vo, boards, 2s. 6d.; 

cloth, 3s. 6d. Illustrated Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 

Piccadilly. With Illustrations .by Richard Doyle. New Edi- 
tion, Ss. 6d. Cheap Edition, boards, 2s. 6d. 

k Traits and Travesties ; Social and Political. Post 8vo, 10s. 6d. 
Episodes in a Life of Adventure; or. Moss from a Rolling 

stone. Cheaper Edition. Post 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Haifa : Life in Modern Palestine. Second Edition. Svo, 7s. 6d. 
The Land of Gilead. With Excursions in the Lebanon. 

With Illustrations and Maps. Demy 8vo, 21s. 

Memoir of the Life of Laurence Oliphant, and of Alice 

Oliphant, his Wife. By Mrs M. O. W. Oliphant. Seventh Edition. 2 vols, 
post 8vo, with Portraits. 2l8. 

Popular Edition. With a New Preface. Post Svo, with Portraits. Ts. 6d. 

OLIPHANT. 

Annals of a Publishing House. William Blackwood and his 

Sons ; Their Magazine and Friends. By Mrs Oliphant. With Four Portraits. 
Third Edition. Demy Svo. Vols. I. and II. £2, 28. 

A Widow's Tale, and other Stories. With an Introductory 

Note by J. M. Babrie. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. 



24 List of Books Published by 

OLIPHANT. 

Who was Lost and is Found. Second Edition. Crown 

8vo, 68. 

Miss Marjoribanks. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

The Perpetual Curate, and The Rector. New Edition. Crown 

8vo, 38. 6d. 

Salem Chapel, and The Doctor's Family. New Edition. 

Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d 

Chronicles of Carlingford. 3 vols, crown 8vo, in uniform 

binding, gilt top, 3s. 6d. each. 

Katie Stewart, and other Stories. New Edition. Crown 8vo, 

cloth, Ss. 6d. 

Katie Stewart. Illustrated boards, 2s. 6d. 

Valentine and his Brother. New Edition. Crown Svo, 38. 6d 

Sons and Daughters. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

Two Stories of the Seen and the Unseen. The Open Door 

—Old Lady Mary. Paper covers, Is. 

OLIPHANT. Notes of a Pilgrimage to Jerusalem and the Holy 

Land. By P. R. Oliphant. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

PAGE. 

Intermediate Text-Book of Geology. By David Page, LL.D., 

Professor of Geology in the Durham University of Physical Science, Newcastle. 
With Engravings and Glossarial Index. New Edition. Revised by Professor 
Lapworth of Mason Science College, Birmingham. [In the press. 

Advanced Text-Book of Geology, Descriptive and Industrial. 

With Engravings, and Glossary of Scientific Terms. New Edition. Revised by 
Professor Lapworth. [In preparation. 

Introductory Text-Book of Physical Geography. With Sketch - 

Maps and Illustrations. Edited by Professor Lapworth, LL.D., F.G.8., &c.. 
Mason Science College, Birmingham. Thirteenth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
2s. 6d. 

Advanced Text- Book of Physical Geography. Third Edition. 

Revised and Enlarged by Professor Lapworth. With Engravings. 58. 

PATERSON. A Manual of Agricultural Botany. From the 

German of Dr A. B. Prank, Professor In the Royal Agricultural College, Berlin 
Translated by John W. Paterson, B.Sc, Ph.D., Free Life Member of the High- 
land and Agricultural Society of Scotland, and of the Royal Agricaltural Society 
of England. With over 100 Illustrations. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

PATON. 

Spindrift. By Sir J. Noel Paton. Fcap., cloth, 5s. 

Poems by a Painter. Fcap., cloth, 5s. 
•PATON. Castlebraes. Drawn from "The Tinlie MSS." By 

James Paton, B.A., Editor of 'Jotn G. Paton: an Autobiography,' Ac, &c 
Crown Svo, 6s. 

PATRICK. The Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus. A Chap- 
ter in the History of Apologetics. By the Rev. J. Patrick, D.D., Professor of 
Biblical Criticism in the University of Edinburgh. Post Svo, 78. 6d. 

PAUL. History of the Royal Company of Archers, the Queen's 

Body-Guard for Scotland. By James Balfour Paul, Advocate of the Scottish 
Bar. Crown 4to, with Portraits and other Illustrations. £2, 28. 

PEARSE. Soldier and Traveller: Bting the Memoirs of 

Alexander Gardner, Colonel of Artillery in the Service of Maharaji Ran.jit 
Singh. Edited by Major Huoh Pearse, 2nd Battalioa the East Surrey Regiment. 
With an Introduction by the Right Hon. Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.8. 1. 
With Two Portraits and Maps. Demy Svo, 15s. 

PEILE. Lawn Tennis as a Game of Skill. By Lieut.-Col. S. C. 

p. Peile, B.S.C. Revised Edition, with new Scoring Rules. Pcap. Svo, cloth, Is. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 2$ 



PERIODS OF EUROPEAN LITERATURE. Edited by Pro- 

fessor Saintsburv. For list of volumes see page 2. 

PETTIGREW. The Handy Book of Bees, and their Profitable 

Management. By A. Pettigrbw. Fifth Edition, Enlarged, with Engravings. 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

PFLEIDERER. Philosophy and Development of Religion. 

Being the Edinburgh Gifford Lectures for 1894. By Otto Pfleiderer, D.D., 
Professor of Theology at Berlin University. In 2 vols, post Svo, 15s. net. 

PHILLIPS. The Knight's Tale. By F. Emily Phillips, Author 

of ' The Education of Antonia.' Crown Svo, 3s. Pd. 

PHILOSOPHICAL CLASSICS FOR ENGLISH READERS. 

Edited by William Knioht, LL.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy, Universitj 
of 8t Andrews. In crown Svo volumes, with Portraits, price 33. 6d. 

[For List of Volumes, see page ?. 

POLLARD. A Study in Municipal Government : The Corpora- 
tion of Berlin. By James Pollard, C.A., Chairman of the Edinburgh Public 
Health Committee, and Secretary of the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce. 
Second Edition, Revised. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 

POLLOK. The Course of Time : A Poem. By Robert Pollok, 

A.M. New Edition With Portrait. Pcap. Svo, gilt top, 28. 6d. 

PORT ROYAL LOGIC. Translated from the French; with 

Introduction, Notes, and Appendix. By Thomas Spencer Baynes, LL.D., Pro- 
fessor in the University of St Andrews. Tenth Edition, 12mo, 48. 

POTTS AND DARNELL. 

Aditus Faciliores : An Easy Latin Construing Book, witl 

Complete Vocabulary By A. W. Potts, M.A., LL.D., and the Rev. C. Darnell, 
M. A., Head-Master of Cargilfleld Preparatory School Edinburgh. Tenth Edition, 
fcap. Svo, 38. 6d. 

Aditus Faciliores Graeci. An Easy Greek Construing Book, 

with Complete Vocabulary. Fifth Edition, Revised. Fcap. Svo, 3s. 

POTTS. School Sermons. By the late Alexander Wm. Potts, 

LL.D., First Head-Master of Fettes College. With a Memoir and Portrait. 
Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

PRINGLE. The Live Stock of the Farm. By Robert O. 

Pringle. Third Edition. Revised and Edited by James MAca)ONALD. Crowr. 
Svo, 78. 6d. 

PUBLIC GENERAL STATUTES AFFECTING SCOTLAND 

from 1707 to 1S47, with Chronological Table and Index. 3 vols, large Svo, £3, 38 

PUBLIC GENERAL STATUTES AFFECTING SCOTLAND, 

COLLECTION OF. Published Annually, with General Index. 

RAMSAY. Scotland and Scotsmen in the Eighteenth Century. 

Edited from the M88. of John Ramsat, Esq. of Ochtertyre, by Alexandep 
Allardyce, Author of 'Memoir of Admiral Lord Keith, K.B.,' Ac. 2 vols. 
Svo, 31a. 6d. 

RANJITSINHJI The Jubilee Book of Cricket. By Princk 

Banjitsinhji. 
Edition db Luxe. Limited to 350 Copies, printed on hand made paper, and 

handsomely bound in buckram. Crown 4to, with 22 Photogravures and 85 

full-page Plates. Bach copy signed by Prince Ranjitsinh.ji. Price £5, 5s. net. 
Pine Paper Edition. Medium Svo, with Photogra\nire Frontispiece and 106 

full-page Plates on art paper. 25.s. net. 
Popular Edition. With 107 full-page Illustrations. Sixth Edition. Lai^ 

crown Svo, 68. 

RANKIN. 

A Handbook of the Church of Scotland. By James Rankin, 

D.D., Minister of Muthill ; Author of 'Character Studies in the Old Testament, 
&c. An entirely New and much Enlarged Edition. Crown Svo, with 2 Maps', 
78. 6d. 

The First Saints. Post Svo, 7s. 6d. 



26 List of Books Published by 



RANKIN. 

The Creed in Scotland. An Exposition of the Apostles' 

Creed. With Extracts from Archbishop Hamilton's Catechism of 1552, John 
Calvin's Catechism of 1556, and a Catena of Ancient Latin and other Hymns. 
Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

The Worthy Communicant. A Guide to the Devout Obser- 
vance of the Lord's Supper. Liinp cloth, Is. 3d. 

The Young Churchman. Lessons on the Creed, the Com- 
mandments, the Means of Grace, and the Church. Limp cloth, Is. 3d. 

First Communion Lessons. 25th Edition. Paper Cover, 2d. 
RANKINE. A Hero of the Dark Continent. Memoir of Rev. 

Wm. Affleck Scott, M. A., M.B., CM., Church of Scotland Missionary at Blantyre, 
British Central Africa. By W. Henry Rankine, B.D., Minister at Titwood. 
With a Portrait and other Illustrations. Cheap Edition. Cro-\vn 8vo, 2s. 

ROBERTSON. 

The Poetry and the Religion of the Psalms. The Croall 

Lectures, 1893-94. By James Robertson, D.D., Professor of Oriental Languages 
in the University of Glasgow. In 1 vol. demy 8vo. \lti the press. 

The Early Religion of Israel. As set forth by Biblical Writers 

and Modern Critical Historians. Being the Baird Lecture for 1888-89. Fourth 
Edition. Crown 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

ROBERTSON. 

Orellana, and other Poems. By J. Logie Robeetson, 

M.A. Fcap. 8vo. Printed on hand-made paper. 6s. 

A History of English Literature. For Secondary Schools. 

With an Introduction by Professor Masson, Edinburgh University. Cr. 8vo, Ss. 

English Verse for Junior Classes. In Two Parts. Part I. — 

Chaucer to Coleridge. Part II. — Nineteenth Century Poets. Crown 8vo, each 
Is. 6d. net. 

Outlines of English Literature for Young Scholars. With 

Illustrative Specimens. Crown 8vo, Is. 6d. 

English Prose for Junior and Senior Classes. Part. I. — Malory 

to Johnson. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. [Part II. in the press. 

ROBINSON. Wild Traits in Tame Animals. Being some 

Familiar Studies in Evolution. By Louis Robinson, M.D. With Illustrations 
by Stephen T. Dadd. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. net. 

RODGER. Aberdeen Doctors at Home and Abroad. The Story 

of a Medical School. By Ella Hill Burton Rodoer. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. 

ROSCOE. Rambles with a Fishing-Rod. By E. S. Roscoe. 

Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

ROSS AND SOMERVILLE. Beggars on Horseback : A Riding 

Tour in North Wsfles. By Martin Ross and E. (E. Somerville. With Illustra- 
tions by E. (E. Somerville. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

RUTLAND. 

Notes of an Irish Tour in 1846. By the Duke of Rutland, 

G.C.B. (Lord John Manners). New Edition. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

Correspondence between the Right Honble. William Pitt 

and Charles Duke of Rutland, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 1781-1787. With 
Introductory Note by John Dukf. of Rutland. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

RUTLAND. 

Gems of German Poetry. Translated by the Duchess of 

Rutland (Lady John Manners). [New Edition in preparation. 

Impressions of Bad-Homburg. Comprising a Short Account 

of the Women's Associations of Germany under the Red Cross. Crown 8vo, Is. 6d. 

Some Personal Recollections of the Later Years of the Earl 

of Beaconsfleld, K.G. Sixth Edition. 6d. 

Employment of Women in the Public Service. 6d. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 27 



KUTLAND. 

Some of the Advantages of Easily Accessible Eeading and 

Becreation Rooms and Free Libraries. With Remarks on Starting and Main- 
taining them. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, Is. 

A Sequel to Rich Men's Dwellings, and other Occasional 

Papers. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

Encouraging Experiences of Reading and Recreation Rooms, 

Aims of Guilds, Nottingham Social Guide, Existing Institutions, &c., &c. 
Crown 8vo, Is. 

SAINTSBURY. The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of 

Allegory (12th and 13th Centuries). ' Periods of European Literature.' By Georoe 
Saintsbury, M.A., Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh 
University. Crown 8vo, 5s. net. 

SCHEFFEL. The Trumpeter. A Romance of the Rhine. By 

Joseph Victor von Scheffel. Translated from the Two Hundredth German 
Edition by Jessie Beck and Louisa Lorimer. With an Introduction by Sir 
Theodore Martin, KC.B. Long8vo, 3s. fid. 

SCHILLER. Wallenstein. A Dramatic Poem. By Friedrich 

VON Schiller. Translated by C. G. N. Lockhart. Feap. 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

SCOTT. Tom Cringle's Log. By Michael Scott. New Edition. 

With 19 Full-page Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 3s. fid. 

SELKIRK. Poems. By J. B. Selkirk, Author of 'Ethics and 

Esthetics of Modem Poetry," 'Bible Truths with Shakespearian Parallels,' &c. 
New and Enlarged Edition. Crown 8vo, printed on antique paper, 6s. 

SELLAR'S Manual of the Acts relating to Education in Scot- 
land. By J. Edward Graham, B.A. Oxon., Advocate. Ninth Edition. Demy 
8vo, 12s. fid. 

SETH. 

Scottish Philosophy. A Comparison of the Scottish and 

German Answers to Hume. Balfour Philosophical Lectures, University of 
Edinburgh. By Andrew Srth, LL.D., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in 
Edinburgh University. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Hegelianism and Personality. Balfour Philosophical Lectures. 

Second Series. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Man's Place in the Cosmos, and other Essays. Post 8vo, 

78. fid. net. 

Two Lectures on Theism. Delivered on the occasion of the 

Sesquicentennial Celebration of Princeton University. Crown 8vo, 2s. fid. 

SETH. A Study of Ethical Principles. By James Seth, M.A., 

Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. Third Edition. 
Revised and Enlarged. Post 8vo, 7s. fid. 

SHARPE. Letters from and to Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe. 

Edited by Alexander Allardyce, Author of ' Memoir of Admiral Lord Keith, 
K.B.,' &c. With a Memoir by the Rev. W. K. R. Bedford. In 2 vols. 8vo. 
Illustrated with Etchings and other Engravings. £2, 128. fid. 

SIM. Margaret Sim's Cookery. With an Introduction by L. B. 

Walford, Author of ' Mr Smith : A Part of his Life,' &c. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

SIMPSON. The Wild Rabbit in a New Aspect: or. Rabbit- 

Warrens that Pay. A book for Landowners, Sportsmen, Land Agents, Farmers, 
Gamekeepers, and Allotment Holders. A Record of Recent Experiments con- 
ducted on the Estate of the Right Hon. the Earl of Wharncliffe at Wortley Hall. 
By J. Simpson. Second Edition, Enlarged. Small crown 8vo, 5s. 

SIMPSON. Side-Lights on Siberia. Some account of the Great 

Siberian Iron Road : The Prisons and Exile System. By J. Y. Simpson, M.A., 
B.Sc. With numerous Illustrations and a Map. Demy 8vo, 16s. 

SINCLAIR. 

Mr and Mrs Neville Tyson. By May Sinclair. In 1 vol, 

crown 8vo. [/» t'ie ■press. 



38 List of Books Published by 

SINCLAIR. Audrey Craven. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
SKELTON 

The Table-Talk of Shirley. By Sir John Skelton, K.CB., 

LL.D., Author of The Essays of Shirley.' With a Frontispiece. Sixth Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. Post 8vo, 78. 6d. 

The Table- Talk of Shirley. Second Series. Summers and 

Winters at Balmawhapple. With Illustrations. Two Volumes. Second Edition. 
Post 8vo, 10s. net. 

Maitland of Lethington ; and the Scotland of Mary Stuart. 

A History. Limited Edition, with Portraits. Demy 8vo, 2 vols. , 288. net. 

The Handbook of Public Health. A New Edition, Revised by 

James Patten Macdougall, Advocate, Legal Member of the Local Government 
Board for Scotland, Joint- Author of 'The Parish Council Guide for Scotland," 
and Abijah Murray, Chief Clerk of the Local Government Beard for Scotland. 
In Two Parts. Crown 8vo. Part I.— The Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897, 
with Notes. Part II. — Circulars of the Local Government Board, &c. The 
Parts will be issued separately, and also comi)lete in one Volume. 

The Local Government (Scotland) Act in Relation to Public 

Health. A Handy Guide for County and District Councillors, Medical Officers, 
Sanitary Inspectors, and Members of Parochial Boards. Second Edition. With 
a new Preface on apt)ointment of Sanitary Officers. Crown 8vo, 28. 

SKRINE. Columba: A Drama. By John Hfntley Skrine, 

Warden of Olenalmond ; Author of ' A Memory of Edward Thring." Fcap. 4to, 6?. 

SMITH. Retrievers, and how to Break them. By Lieutenant- 

Colcnel Sir Henry Smith, K.C.B. With an Introduction by Mr S. E. Shirley, 
President of the Kennel Club. Dedicated by special permission to H.B.H. the 
Duke of York. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

SMITH. 

Thorndale ; or. The Conflict of Opinions. By William Smith, 

Author of ' A Discourse on Ethics,' &c. New Edition. Crown 8vo, lOs. 6d. 

Gravenhurst ; or, Thoughts on Good and Evil, Second Edi- 
tion. With Memoir and Portrait of the Author. Crown 8vo, Ss. 

The Story of William and Lucy Smith. Edited by George 

Merriam. Large post 8vo, 128. 6d. 

SMITH. Greek Testament Lessons for Colleges, Schools, and 

Private Students, consisting chiefly of the Sermon on the Mount and the Parables 
of our Lord. With Notes and Essays. By the Rev. J. Hunter Smith, M.A., 
King Edward's School, Birmingham. Crown 8vo, fis. 

SNELL. The Fourteenth Century. "Periods of European 

Literature." By F. J. Snell. In 1 vol. Crown 8vo. [In the press. 

"SON OF THE MARSHES, A." 

From Spring to Fall ; or, When Life Stirs. By " A Son of 

THE Marshes." Cheap Uniform Edition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Within an Hour of London Town : Among Wild Birds and 

their Haunts. Edited by J. A. Owen. Cheap Uniform Edition. Cr. 8vo, 38. 6d. 

With the Woodlanders and by the Tide. Cheap Uniform 

Edition. Crown Svo, Ss. 6d. 

On Surrey Hills. Cheap Uniform Edition. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
Annals of a Fishing Village. Cheap Uniform Edition. Crown 

8vo, 38. 6d. 

SORLEY. The Ethics of Naturalism. Being the Shaw Fellow- 
ship Lectures, 1884. By W. R. Sorley, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, Professor of Moral Philosophy, University of Aberdeen. Crown Svo, 68. 

SPIELMANN. Millais and his Works. By M. H. Spielmann. 

Author of 'History of Punch.' With 28 Full-page Illustrations. Large crown 
Svo. Paper covers. Is. ; in cloth binding, 2s. 6d. 

SPROTT. The Worship and Offices of the Church of Scotland. 

By Gkobok W. Sprott, D.D., Minister of North Berwick. Crown Svo, Os. 



WilHam Blackwood and Sons. 29 

STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF SCOTLAND. Complete, with 

Index. 15 vols. 8vo, £16, 168. 

STEEVENS. 

Egypt in 1898. By G. W. Steevens, Author of 'Naval 

Policy,' &e. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

The Land of the Dollar. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
With the Conquering Turk. With 4 Maps. Demy 8vo, lOs. 6d. 
STEPHENS. 

The Book of the Farm ; detailing the Labours of the Farmer, 

Farm-Steward, Ploughman, Shepherd, Hedger, Farm-Labourer, Field-Worker, 
and Cattle-man. Illustrated with numerous Portraits of Animals and Engravings 
of Implements, and Plans of Farm Buildings. Fourth Edition. Revised, and 
In great part Re-written, by James Macdonald, F.R.S.E., Secretary Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland. Complete in Six Divisional Volumes, 
bound in cloth, each lOs. 6d., or handsomely tK)and, in 3 volumes, with leather 
back and gilt top, £3, 3s. 
*,* Also being issued in 20 monthly Parts, price 2s. 6d. net each. 

[Parts I. -XVI. ready. 

Catechism of Practical Agriculture. 22d Thousand. Revised 

by James Macdonald, F.R.S.E. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Is. 

The Book of Farm Implements and Machines. By J. Slight 

and R. Scott Burn, Engineers. Edited by Henry Stephens. Large Svo, £2, 2g, 

STEVENSON. British Fungi. (Hymenomycetes.) By Rev. 

John Stevenson, Author of ' Mycologia Scotica,' Hon. Sec. Cryptogamie Society 
of Scotland. Vols. I. and II., post Svo, with lUostrations, price 12s. 6d. net each. 

STEWART. Advice to Purchasers of Horses. By John 

Stewart, V.S. New Edition. 2s. 6d. 

STODDART. 

John Stuart Blackie : A Biography. By Anna M, Stoddaet. 

With 3 Plates. Third Edition. 2 vols, demy Svo, 2l8. 
Popular Edition, with Portrait. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Sir Philip Sidney : Servant of God. Illustrated by Margaret 

L. HuooiNS. With a New Portrait of Sir Philip Sidney. Small 4to, with a 
specially designed Cover. 58. 

STORMONTH. 

Dictionary of the English Language, Pronouncing, Etymo- 
logical, and Explanatory. By the Rev. James Stormonth. Revised by the 
Rev. P. H. Phelp. Library Edition. New and Cheaper Edition, with Supple- 
ment. Imperial Svo, handsomely bound in half morocco, ISs. net. 

Etymological and Pronouncing Dictionary of the English 

Language. Including a very Copious Selection of Scientific Terms. For use in 
Schools and Colleges, and as a Book of General Reference. The Pronunciation 
carefully revised by the Rev. P. H. Phelp, M.A. Cantab. Thirteenth Edition, 
with Supplement. Crown Svo, pp. 800. Ts. 6d. 

The School Dictionary. New Edition, thoroughly Revised. 

By William Bayne. In 1 vol. 16mo. [In the press. 

STORY. The Apostolic Ministry in the Scottish Church (The 

Baird Lecture for 1897). By Robert Herbert Story, U.D. (Edin.), F.8.A. 
Scot., Princii>al of the University of Glasgow, Principal Clerk of the General 
Assembly, and Chaplain to the Queen. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 

STORY. 

Poems. By W. W. Story, Author of 'Roba di Roma,' &c. 2 

vols. 78. 6d. 

Fiammetta. A Summer Idyl. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 
Conversations in a Studio. 2 vols, crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. 
Excursions in Art and Letters. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
A Poet's Portfolio : Later Readings. 18mo, 3s. 6d. 



3© List of Books Published by 

STRACHEY. Talk at a Country House. Fact and Fiction. 

By Sir Edward Strachey, Bart. With a portrait of the Author. Crown 8vo, 
48. 6d. net. 

STURGIS. Little Comedies, Old and New. By Julian Sturgis. 

Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

TAYLOR. The Story of my Life. By the late Colonel 

Meadows Taylor, Author of 'The Confessions of a Thug,' &c., &c. Edited by 
his Daughter. New and Cheaper Edition, being the Fourth. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

THEOBALD. A Text^Book of Agricultural Zoology. By Fred. 

V. Theobald, M.A. (Cantab.), F.E.8., Foreign Member of the Association of 
OfBcial Economic Entomologists, U.S.A., Zoologist to the S.E. Agricultural 
College, Wye, &c. With numerous Illustrations. In 1 vol. crown 8vo. 

[Jn. tte press. 

THOMAS. The Woodland Life. By Edward Thomas. With a 

Frontispiece. Square 8vo, 6s. 

THOMSON. 

The Diversions of a Prime Minister. By Basil Thomson. 

With a Map, numerous Illustrations by J. W. Cawston and others, and Rei)ro- 
ductions of^Bare Plates, from Early Voyages of Sixteenth and Seventeenth Cen- 
turies. Small demy 8vo, 15s. 

South Sea Yarns. With 10 Full-page Illustrations. Cheaper 

E(iition. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

THOMSON. 

Handy Book of the Flower-Garden : Being Practical Direc- 
tions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement of Plants in Flower- 
Gardens all the year round. With Engraved Plans. By David Thomson, 
Gardener to his Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, K.T., at Drumlanrig. Fourth 
and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo, 5s. 

The Handy Book of Fruit-Culture under Glass : Being a 

series of Elaborate Practical Treatises on the Cultivation and Forcing of Pines, 
Vines, Peaches, Figs, Melons, Strawberries, and Cucumbers. With Engravings 
of Hothouses, &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

THOMSON. A Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of the 

Grape Vine. By William Thomson, Tweed Vineyards. Tenth Edition. Svo, 5s. 

THOMSON. Cookery for the Sick and Convalescent. With 

Directions for the Preparation of Poultices, Fomentations, &c. By Barbara 
Thomson. Fcap. Svo, Is. 6d. 

THORBURN. Asiatic Neighbours. By S. S. Thorburn, Bengal 

Civil Service, Author of 'Bannii; or. Our Afghan Frontier,' 'David Leslie: 
A Story of the Afghan Frontier,' ' Musalmans and Money-Lenders in the Pan- 
jab.' With Two Maps. Demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. net. 

THORNTON. Opposites. A Series of Essays on the Unpopular 

Sides of Popular Questions. By Lewis Thornton. 8vo, 12s. 6d. 

TIELE. Elements of the Science of Religion. Part I. — Morpho- 
logical. Being the Gilford Lectures delivered before the University of Edinburgh 
in 1896. By C. P. Tiele, Theol. D., Litt.D. (Bonon.), Hon. M.B.A.S., &c.. Pro- 
fessor of the Science of Religion, in the University of Leiden. In 2 vols. Vol. I. 
post Svo, 78. 6d. net. 

TOKE. French Historical Unseens. For Army Classes. By 

N. E. ToKE, B.A. In 1 vol. crown 8vo. \ln the press. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE HIGHLAND AND AGRICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND. Published annually, price 5s. 

TRAVERS. 

Windyhaugh. By Graham Travers. In 1 vol. Crown Svo. 

[In the press. 

Mona Maclean, Medical Student. A Novel. Thirteenth Edi- 
tion. Crown Svo, 6s. 
Fellow Travellers. Fourth Edition, Crown Svo, 6s. 



William Blackwood and Sons. 31 

TRYON. Life of Vice- Admiral Sir George Tryon, K.C.B. By 

Rear- Admiral C. C. Penrose Fitzgerald. Cheap Edition. With Portrait and 
numerous Illustrations. In 1 vol. demy 8vo. [In the press. 

TULLpCH. 

Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in 

the Seventeenth Century. By John Tulloch, D.D., Principal of St Mary's Col- 
lege in the University of St Andrews, and one of her Majesty's Chaplains in 
Ordinary in Scotland. Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo, 16s. 

Modern Theories in Philosophy and Religion. 8vo, 15s. 
Luther, and other Leaders of the Reformation. Third Edi- 
tion, linlarged. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

Memoir of Principal Tulloch, D.D, LL.D. By Mrs Oliphant, 

Author of ' Life of Eklward Irving.' Third and Cheaper Edition. 8vo, with 
Portrait, Ts. 6d. 

TWEEDIE. The Arabian Horse: His Country and People. 

By Major-General W. Tweedie, C.S.I., Bengal Staff Corps; for many years 
H.B.M.'s Consul- General, Baghdad, and Political Resident for the Government 
of India in Turkish Arabia. In one vol. royal 4to, with Seven Coloured Plates 
and other Illustrations, and a Map of the Country. Price £3, 3s. net. 

TYLER. The Whence and the Whither of Man. A Brief His- 

tory of his Origin and Development through Conformity to Environment. The 
Morse Lectures of 1895. By John M. Tyler, Professor of Biology, Amherst 
College, U.S. A. Post 8vo, 6s. net. 

VEITCH. 

Memoir of John Veitch, LL.D., Professor of Logic and Rhetoric, 

University of Glasgow. By Mary R. L. Bryce. With Portrait and 3 Photo- 
gravure Plates. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

Border Essays. By John Veitch, LL.D., Professor of Logic 

and Rhetoric, University of Glasgow. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. net. 

The History and Poetry of the Scottish Border : their Main 

Features and Relations. New and Enlarged Edition. 2 vols, demy 8vo, 16s. 

Institutes of Logic. Post 8vo, 12s. 6d. 

Merlin and other Poems. Fcap. 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

Knowing and Being. Essays in Philosophy. First Series. 

Crown 8vo, 5s. 

Dualism and Monism ; and other Essays. Essays in Phil- 
osophy. Second Series. With an Introduction by R. M. Wenley. Crown 8vo, 
4s. 6d. net. 

WACE. Christianity and Agnosticism. Reviews of some Recent 

Attacks on the Christian Faith. By Henry Wace, D.D., late Principal of King's 
College, London ; Preaclier of Lincoln's Inn ; Chaplain to the Queen. Second 
Edition. Post 8vo, 10s. 6d. net. 

WADDELL. An Old Kirk Chronicle : Being a History of Auld- 

hame, Tyninghame, and Whitekirk, in East Lothiin. From Session Records, 
1615 to 1850. By Rev. P. Hately Waddell, B.D., Minister of the United 
Parish. Small Paper Edition, 200 Copies. Price £1. Large Paper Edition, 60 
Copies. Price, £1, 10s. 

WALDO. The Ban of the Gubbe. By Cedeic Dane Waldo. 

Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 

WALFORD. Four Biographies from ' Blackwood ' : Jane Taylor, 

Hannah More, Elizabetn Fry, Mary Somerville. By L. B. Walford. Crown 
Svo, 58. 

WARREN'S (SAMUEL) WORKS:— 

Diary of a Late Physician. Cloth, 2s. 6d. ; boards, 2s. 
Ten Thousand A- Year. Cloth, 3s. 6d. : boards, 2s. 6d. 
Now and Then. The Lily and the Bee. Intellectual and 

Moral Development of the Present Age. 48. 6d. 

Essays : Critical, Imaginative, and Juridical. 6s. 



32 Books Published by William Blackwood and Sons. 

WENLEY. 

Socrates and Christ : A Study in the Philosophy of Religion. 

By R. M. Wenley, M.A., D.8c. D.Phil., Professor of Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, U.S.A. Crown 8vo, 68. 

Aspects of Pessimism. Crown 8vo, 68. 
WHITE. 

The Eighteen Christian Centuries. By the Rev. James 

White. Seventh Edition. Post 8vo, with Index, 6s. 

History of France, from the Earliest Times. Sixth Thousand. 

Post 8vo, with Index, 68. 

WHITE. 

Archaeological Sketches in Scotland — Eantyre and Knapdale. 

By Colonel T. P. White, R.E., of the Ordnance Survey. With numerous Illus- 
trations. 2 vols, folio, £4, 4s. Vol. 1., Kintyre, sold separately, £2, 2s. 

The Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom. A Popular 

Account. Crown 8vo, 58. 

WILKES. Latin Historical Unseens. For Army Classes. By 

L. C. Vauohan Wilkes, M.A. Crown 8vo, 2s. 

WILLIAMSON. The Horticultural Handbook and Exhibitor's 

Guide. By W. Williamson, Gardener. Revised by Malcolm Dunn, Gardener 
to his Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Dalkeith Park. Cheap 
Edition. Crown 8vo, paper cover. Is. 

WILLS. Behind an Eastern Veil. A Plain Tale of Events 

occurring in the Experience of a Lady who had a unique opportunity of observ- 
ing the Inner Life of Ladies of the Upper Class in Persia. By C. J. Wills, 
Author of ' In the Land of the Lion and Sun,' 'Persia as it is,' &c., &c. Cheaper 
Edition. Demy 8vo, 5s. 

WILSON. 

Works of Professor Wilson. Edited by his Son -in -Law, 

Professor Ferrier, 12 vols, crown 8vo, £2, 8s. 

Christopher in his Sportii^-Jacket. 2 vols., 8s. 

Isle of Palms, City of the Plague, and other Poems. 4s. 

Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life, and other Tales. 4s. 

Essays, Critical and Imaginative. 4 vols., 168. 

The Noctes Ambrosianae. 4 vols., 16s. 

Homer and his Translators, and the Greek Drama. Crown 

8vo, 48. 

WORSLEY. 

Homer's Odyssey. Translated into English Verse in the 

Spenserian Stanza. By Philip Stanhope Worsley, M.A. New and Cheaper 
Edition. Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

Homer's Iliad. Translated by P. S. Worsley and Prof. Con- 

ington. 2 vols, crown 8vo, 2l8. 

YATE. England and Russia Face to Face in Asia. A Record of 

Travel with the Afghan Boundary Commission. By Captain A. C. Yate, Bombay 
Staff Corps. 8vo, with Maps and Illustrations, 2l8. 

YATE. Northern Afghanistan ; or. Letters from the Afghan 

Boundary Commission. By Colonel C. E. Yate, C.S.I., C.M.Q., Bombay Stafl 
Corps, F.B.G.8. 8vo, with Maps, 18s. 

YULE. Fortification : For the use of Officers in the Army, and 

Readers of Military History. By Colonel Sir Henry Yule, Bengal Engineers. 
8vo, with Numerous Illnstrations, lOs 

ZACK. Life is Life, and other Tales and Episodes. By Zack. 

Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 
8/t(8 



University of Caiifomia 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 



A/01/ 



rn 



UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILnY 



II 


III 


A 001 353 761 


8 



^ 



R 
S66L58 



-^ 



■•^: 



^ 



I