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Full text of "The Druggists circular formula book : in which may be found recipes for hundreds of unofficial preparations in daily demand in the drug store, the laboratory, the boudoir, the household, the work shop, on the farm, and wherever there are men, women and children, domestic animals, poultry, furred and feathered pets, trees and plants; together with a compilation of process outlines, notes, hints and other valuable information and suggestions for retail druggists and dispensing pharmacists"

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Formula Book 


In the drug store, the laboratory, the boudoir, the household, the worl: 
shop, on the farm, and wherever there are men, women and children, 
domestic animals, poultry, furred and feathered pets, trees and 
plants ; together with a compilation of process outlines, notes, 
hints and other valuable information and suggestions 
for retail druggists and dispensing pharmacists 
culled from the pages of The Drug- 
gists Circular and elsewhere 


Published by 
100 William Street New York 


Copyright 1915, by THE DRUGGISTS CIRCULAR. 
Revised, entirely reset, reprinted, and recopyrighted July, 1920. 
Copyright, 1920. by THE DRUGGISTS CIRCULAR, Inc. 


This book is designed to bring together in easily accessible form for 
quick reference some of the valuable information for druggists contained 
in the annual volumes of The Druggists Circular. Of course the limi- 
tations imposed by a volume of this kind exclude much which might with 
propriety be included under the heading which serves as its title. Indeed, 
so much has appeared in the Circular that the work of elimination in 
this compilation has caused a good deal of embarra.^>ment. In view of 
the fact that a new edition of the Pharmacopoeia and a new edition of 
the National Formulary are due, and the further fact that the appear- 
ance of these books will doubtless be followed shortly by new editions 
of the dispensatories and other text-books for pharmacists, we do not, 
except in a very few instances, give in the present work suggestions which 
have appeared in the Circular for improving official formulas. 

In an>wering queries in the Circular we draw from a library in 
which are to be found a large number of books on pharmacy and the 
cognate arts and sciences, as well as formularies, the leading medical and 
pharmaceutical journals, reports of association proceedings. United States 
and State bulletins, etc. In reprinting material found in these books, pam- 
phlets and periodicals, the Circular is careful to give credit where credit 
is due, but in condensing its notes for use in this book it has been guided 
by a desre to eliminate all explanatory matter which seemed not material 
to a proper understanding of the text. We hereby acknowledge our in- 
debtedness to the various publications alluded to, at the same time claim- 
ing originality in the Circular for a large portion of the matter which 
appears therein. Some of the most valuable notes were contributed by 
readers who requested that their names be withheld, while to others the 
names of the contributors are appended. 



That the first edition of The Druggists Circular Formula Book 
met with the approval of the pharmacists and others for whom it was 
intended is adequately proven by the fact that, although we printed a 
generous supply of the book, our stocks were exhausted soon after the 
volume came fom the press. 

Then the World War made paper so scarce and so high in price and 
increased the cost of production so largely that we thought the time not 
auspicious for the printing of a second edition. Recently, however, so 
many of our readers, who have seen the first edition and are familiar 
with its qualities, have advertised for second-hand copies at prices very 
much in excess of the original cost, urging us in the meantime to issue a 
second edition, that we have decided, at length, that we are justified in 
doing so. 

We have, therefore, thoroughly revised the former edition ; adding 
many new formulas which have appeared since 1915 in the columns of the 
Circular, deleting some that have not been altogether satisfactory, and 
improving the text generally. Also, the volume is arranged in chapters, 
which makes it possible for the reader to study a subject without reference 
to the index which, by the way, is remarkably complete and should always 
be consulted when search is being made for any particular formula. 

A limited number of copies have been printed from type and the 
type has since been distributed. 



Elixirs — Emulsions — Liniments — Lozenges — Mixtures — Ointments 
— Pastilles — Pills — Spirits — Suppositories — Syrups — Wines — Mis- 
cellaneous Preparations 

Always Consult the Index When Using This Book 

Distilled water, of each 
a sufficient quantity 

to make 32 ounces. 

Purified talc 1 ounce. 

Prepare according to the directions 
given for the preparation of the U. S. 
P. aromatic elixr. — F. M. Apple. 

The following formulas are published 
for the purpose of furnishing pharma- 
cists and others with information con- 
cerning unofficial preparations fre- 
quently called for by physicians or by 
the laity. 

Elixir Acetanilid Compound 

Acetanilid 160 grains. 

Acetphenetidin 128 grains. 

Phenyl salicylate 64 grains. 

S ium bicarbonate.... 192 grains. 

(Titrated caffeine 64 grains. 

Tartaric acid 32 grains. 




Oil of orange 

Oil of anise 

Oil of cassia 

Oil of peppermint. 
"Water, to make. . 

5 ounces. 
4 ounces. 

3 ounces. 
8 minims. 

4 minims. 
2 minims. 
2 minims. 
1 pint. 

Dissolve the phenyl salicylate, the 
acetanilid and the acetphenetidin in 
the alcohol in a stoppered container; 
and add the oils and the glycerin. Dis- 
solve the sodium bicarbonate in a 
minimum of very cold water (about 
4% ounces); pour this solution upon 
the citrated caffeine and the tartaric 
ac.d in a mortar and triturate until 
the effervescence ceases. Dissolve the 
sugar in this liquid. Pour this syrup 
slowly into the alcoholic solution, 
shaking continuously. Heat the mix- 
ture to about 75° C. in a loosely stop- 
pered vessel, agitating the while until 
the precipitate is re-dissolved. Add a 
little purified talc; shake well and set 
aside for twenty-four hours at the or- 
dinary temperature, shaking occasion- 
ally; then filter rapidly from a covered 
funnel, and add enough water through 
the filter to make 1 pint. Keep in a 
warm place. 

Elixir Aromatic 


Anethol 12 minims. 

Oil of coriander 1% minims. 

Oil of myristica 2 minims. 

Tincture of vanilla.... 1 dram. 

Alcohol 6% ounces. 

Simple syrup. 

Tincture of fresh 
orange peel 

Tincture of fresh 
lemon peel 

Oil of coriander. . . 





15.00 mils. 

3.00 mils. 

0.25 mils. 
230.00 mils. 
125.00 mils. 
320.00 grammes. 
10.00 grammes. 

Water to make' 1,000.00 mils. 

Mix the tinctures and oil with the 
alcohol, add the talc, then the wine, 
and gradually add 420 mils of water; 
shake well; allow the mixture to stand 
overnight; then filter, dissolve the 
sugar in the filtrate, and add water, if 
necessary, to bring the measure up to 
1,000 mils. 

The flavor of this preparation re- 
sembles that of the U. S. P. elixir, but 
is riper and more fruity. The wine used 
has a considerable influence on the 
character of the product. Either sherry 
or a sweet wine, like angelica, catawba 
or tokay is preferable, and, of course, 
the better the wine the better will be 
the result. If a red elixir is desired, 
port wine will give satisfaction. 

Tincture of fresh 

orange peel 10.00 mils. 

Oil of orange... 0.10 mil. 

Oil of caraway... 0.10 mil. 

Oil of Ceylon cin- 
namon 0.10 mil. 

Oil of coriander... 0.10 mil. 

Oil of anise 0.05 mil. 

Alcohol 225.00 mils. 

Wine 125.00 mils. 

Sugar 320.00 grammes. 

Talc 10.00 grammes. 

Water to make 1,000.00 mils. 

Mix the tincture and oils with the 
alcohol, add the wine, then slowly add, 
with shaking, 420 mils of water; and 
proceed as directed above. 

The quantity of wine used is not 
enough to create a distinctly wine 



flavor, but only to brighten and give 
body to the elixir. The general flavor 
is not materially modified. 

For obtaining a distinctive elixir, I 
do not know of any better formulas. 
The products are distinctive in flavor, 
in color and in aroma, and if one did 
not know, one would never suspect 
the presence of wine. — F. M. Apple. 

Aromatic Elixir, Red 

Tincture of cudbear. ... 6 drams. 

Compound tincture of 
cudbear 2 drams. 

Sweet elixir, to make... 16 ounces. 

Mix. Allow to stand for forty-eight 
hours, if possible, and filter. 

Your attention is directed to the 
rich, ruby-red color of this prepara- 
tion, which surpasses that of any pro- 
prietary product that has come to my 
notice. The elixir is neutral in re- 
action — a distinction from compound 
digestive elixir. 

Incidentally, I wish to call attention 
to the fact that when tincture of cud- 
bear N. F. and compound tincture of 
cudbear N. F. are mixed in the above 
proportions, a very beautiful red color 
results upon dilution thereof — one free 
from the purplish tint of the dilutions 
of tincture of cudbear N. F. ; also free 
from the brownish tint of the dilutions 
of compound tincture of cudbear N. F. 

The relatively low cost of these 
elixirs is another factor in their favor. 
— F. M. Apple. 

Elixir of Aspirin 

Aspirin 640 grains. 

Sodium bicarbonate... 300 grains. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Aromatic elixir, enough 

to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the sodium bicarbonate in 
6 ounces of aromatic elixir, add the 
glycerin, then gradually add the 
aspirin, stirring well and avoidng loss 
by effervescence. (The reaction may 
be hastened by warming slightly, but 
excessive heat should be avoided, since 
it would result in loss of flavor.) When 
effervescence has ceased, and the 
aspirin is all in solution, add enough 
aromatic elixir to make 1 pint. 

Elixir Creosote and Heroin 

After ascertaining from the physi- 
cian the amount of creosote and her- 
cian the amount of creosote and 
heroin he wishes to have exhibited in 
each dose of the elixir and the size 
of the desired dose, proceed with this 
formula: — 

Heroin. .. .the determined amount. 
Creosote, .the determined amount. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Fluidextract of wild 

cherry 1 ounce. 

Compound spirit of 

orange 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Distilled water 1 ounce. 

Mix the alcohol and the compound 
spirit of orange; dissolve the heroin 
and the creosote in this liquid; add 
the fluid extract and the glycerin; 
shake well, and add the water. 

Elixir Glycerophosphates, Compound 

Sodium glycerophos- 
phate 80 grains. 

Calcium glycerophos- 
phate 40 grains. 

Manganese glycerophos- 
phate 40 grains. 

Syrup 1 y 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 1% ounces. 

Concentrated phos- 

phoric acid (66.37c). 1 dram. 

Caramel y 2 dram. 

Sherry wine, to make.. 10 ounces. 
Dissolve the glycerophosphates In 
6 ounces of the wine, add the acid, 
the syrup, the glycerin and the cara- 
mel, then enough wine to make up 
the desired quantity. — Australian 
Pharmaceutical Formulary. 

Elixir of Lactated Pepsin 

The Compound Digestive Elixir of 
the N. F. IV is quite satisfactory as a 
basis, but most manufacturers omit 
the pancreatin. Extract of malt may 
also be substituted for the diastase, 
using from one to four drams per 

The strength is stated in terms of 
saccharated pepsin, which is one- 
tenth pepsin. Therefore, a "40 -grain 
per ounce of saccharated pepsin" will 
contain 4 grains per ounce of U. S. P. 
pepsin, or 64 -grains per pint; and an 
"80-grain" will contain 128 grains of 
pepsin per pint. It is also preferred 
to make the color deeper than the 
X. F. calls for. 

The following formula is a modifi- 
cation of the N. F. elixir, embodying 
these suggestions: — - 

Pepsin, U. S. P. 64 or 128 grains. 

Extract of malt. % ounce. 

Lactic acid 15 minims. 

Hydrochloric acid 7% minims. 

Glycerine 3 ounces. 

Powdered cudbear 15 grains. 

Water 2 ounces. 

Aromatic elixir, 

to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the pepsin and extract of 
malt in the water, and add the acids 
and glycerin, then the aromatic elixir. 
Now add the powdered cudbear, and 
allow to stand three days, with fre- 
quent shaking, then filter. 

If preferred, a more pronounced 
orange flavor can be had by substitut- 
ing for the aromatic elixir 30 minims 


of tincture of fresh orange peel and 
10 minims of tincture of fresh lemon 
peel. This is to be dissolved in 3 
ounces of alcohol. Then to the pep- 
sin solution add 4 ounces of sugar 
and enough water to make 13 fluid- 
ounces of solution when the sugar is 
dissolved, and add the cudbear to the 
alcohol mixture. Allow the latter to 
stand 24 hours, with frequent shak- 
ing, then add to the pepsin solution, 
shake occasionally during two days, 
then filter. 

Elixir of Orange Flowers, Compound 

Oil of cinnamon 6 minims. 

Alcohol 6 ounces. 

Stronger orange-flower 

water 6 ounces. 

Simple syrup 12 ounces. 

Distilled water Bounces. 

Purified talc 1 ounce. 

Mix.— F. M. Apple. 

Elixir Pepsin, Bismuth and Strychnine 

Moison and Harphorn give in the 
Chemist and Druggist the following 
formula for an ofttimes perplexing 
preparation: — 

Bismuth tartrate scales 300 grains. 
Stronger glycerin of 

pepsin, B. P. C 2% ounces. 

Solution of strychnine 

hydrochloride y 2 ounce. 

Alcohol (60%) 1 ounce. 

Elixir, to make 20 ounces. 

Stronger Glycerin of Pepsin, B. P. C. 

Pepsin 15 grammes. 

Diluted hydrochloric 

acid 5 mils. 

Glycerin 50 mils. 

Simple elixir 5 mils. 

Distilled water. to 

make 100 mils. 

Elixir Phenolphthalein 
The following formula represents a 
preparation containing 1 grain of the 
drug in each fluid dram: — 

Phenolphthalein ... 28 grammes. 
Compound spirit of 

orans-e 60 mils. 

Alcohol 60 mils. 

Syrup 200 mils. 

Compound tincture 

of cardamom 30 mils. 

Fluidextract of ta- 
raxacum .. 30 mils. 

Purified talc 15 grammes. 

Rose water, enough 

to make 1600 mils. 

Mix the alcohol and the compound 
spirit of orange, and in this mixture 
dissolve the phenolphthalein. Add 
the fluidextract and the tincture; then 

add the syrup in divided portions, 
shaking after each addition. Add the 
talc to the mixed liquids and shake 
well; add 200 mils, of rose water, and 
set the mixture aside for several 
hours, shaking occasionally. Filter 
through double paper, returning the 
first portion of the percolate until the 
liquid comes through clear. Add 
enough rose water through the filter 
to bring the finished product up to 
the required volume. 


Phenolphthalein 3 drams. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Compound elixir of ta- 
raxacum 2 ounces. 

Aromatic elixir, to make 8 ounces. 

Elixir Saw Palmetto and Santal, 

Saw palmetto berries... 8 ounces. 

Sandalwood 2 ounces. 

Corn silk 8 ounces. 

Alcohol 12 ounces. 

Sugar 6 ounces. 

Water, to make 2 pints. 

Mix 12 ounces of alcohol with 36 
ounces of water: with this menstruum 
moisten the previously-ground drugs 
and macerate during twenty-four 
hours. Then pack the mixture firmly 
in a percolator, and pour on the re- 
mainder of the menstruum, allowing 
the percolate to drop slowly. In this 
dissolve the sugar by agitation. Final- 
ly, pass sufficient water through the 
exhausted drugs to make the finished 
product measure 2 pints. 

Caramel may be added, if the color 
is not deep enough. 

Each fluid ounce of this elixir is 
taken to represent, saw palmetto ber- 
ries, 120 grains: corn silk, 120 grains; 
sandalwood, 30 grains. 
• The official partly-dried sabal and 
fresh zea must be used, as therapeut- 
ists tell us that these drugs are value- 
less when dried. The flavor of the 
preparation might be improved by the 
addition of tincture of vanilla. 


Powdered acacia 5 parts. 

Powdered tragacanth 5 parts. 

Sugar 5 parts. 

Starch 5 parts. 

Boric acid 1 part. 

Mix intimately. 

Use 1 part of powder to every 32 
parts of emulsion to be made. Eight 
ounces of the oil to ne emulsified is 
put into a dry 3:1 -ounce bottle, and 
shaken with \'n ounce of acamulsia: 
when the powder is evenly suspended, 
8 ounces of water are added at once, 
and the mixture is well shaken until a 
perfect emulsion is formed. 


Cacao Emulsion of Castor Oil 

Castor oil 2 ounces. 

Powdered acacia 6 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 3 minims. - 

Powdered tragacanth.. . 16 grains. 

Saccharin 4 grains. 

Glycerin 3 drams. 

Cacao 2 drams. 

Water, to make 4 ounces. 

A mixture of the cacao in the glyc- 
erin and water is made by boiling for 
five minutes. A mucilage of the acacia 
and tragacanth is made with 4 drams 
of the cacao mixture and the oils are 
gradually incorporated by trituration 
until emulsified, then the remainder of 
the cacao mixture is added. 

Compound Turpentine Emulsion 

A preparation devised for physicians' 
use by L. Whorton is a compound 
emulsion of oil of turpentine, which he 
prepares fresh at short intervals: — 

The preparation being used for an 
internal antiseptic, it carries 16 grains 
of salol to each ounce, and 1 minim 
of oil of cinnamon, the latter acting as 
a flavor which aids the stomach in 
tolerating the product. A little sugar 
is used as a sweetener, and such other 
flavoring as tincture of lavender. So- 
dium bicarbonate renders it alkaline 
and pancreatin is added as a digestant. 
Twice as much gum as oil is used, and 
twice as much distilled water as gum, 
by weight. This emulsion should be 
prepared in a perfectly dry mortar, by 
rapid trituration with light pressure. 
When the emulsification is complete, 
water, camphor water and other flavor- 
ing may be added. The salol is dis- 
solved in the oils in the first place. 
The result is a "beautifully smooth 
emulsion, pink in color, palatable to 
the taste, and in odor very agreeable." 

Chocolate Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil 

French gelatin % ounce. 

Powdered acacia 2% ounces. 

Powdered tragacanth. 2 ounces. 

Powdered starch ...... 2 ounces. 

Powdered chocolate... 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 pint. 

Cod liver oil 4 pints. 

Sugar 8 ounces. 

Oil of cinnamon 2 drams. 

Oil of eucalyptus 1 dram. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Sodium chloride % ounce. 

Water, to make 1 gallon. 

Melt the gelatin in 2 pints of water 
with the aid of heat; dissolve the 
sugar and the sodium chloride in this 
solution. Mix the acacia, the traga- 
canth, and the starch intimately, add 
the cod liver oil to the mixed powders 
in a dry mortar or emulsifier and mix 

thoroughly. Add slowly to this mix- 
ture the aqueous solution and make 
an emulsion. Heat the glycerin to 
about 100 degrees C. and mix it with 
the chocolate to form a smooth paste. 
Allow this paste to cool; add the emul- 
sion to it in divided portions with con- 
stant stirring; and Anally add the aro- 
matic oils and enough water to make 
the required volume. 

Cod liver oil 500 mils. 

Glycerite of yolk of egg. 175 mils. 

Syrup of chocolate 125 mils. 

Cinnamon water 50 mils. 

Distilled water, to make. .1,000 mils. 

Add the oil in small portions to the 

glycerite, triturating continuously and 

incorporating each portion completely. 

Add the syrup in a similar manner. 

Mix the waters and incorporate them. 

The palatability of the preparation, 

of course, depends much upon the 

syrup of chocolate — and a good syrup 

of chocolate is not easily made. The 

following is a satisfactory formula: — 

Chocolate Syrup 

Powdered chocolate.... 10 drams. 

Tincture of vanilla 1% drams. 

Boiling water 2 ounces. 

Syrup, to make 1 pint. 

Triturate the chocolate with the boil- 
ing water until a smooth paste is ob- 
tained. Mix this thoroughly with 12 
ounces of syrup, previously heated. 
Place the syrup in a suitable container 
over a flame and heat gradually with 
gentle stirring until it begins to boil. 
Allow the liquid to boil about one min- 
ute; remove from the heat; add the 
required amount of syrup, and, when 
cool, add the tincture of vanilla. 

Emulgen or Emulsite 

Emulsion of oils may be prepared by 
using a mixture made according to the 
following formula: — 

Gum tragacanth 10 grammes. 

Gum acacia 5 grammes. 

Gluten 5 grammes. 

Glycerin 20 mils. 

Distilled water 50 mils. 

Alcohol 10 mils. 

Mix the gums and gluten, add the 
glycerin and water, then the alcohol 
and triturate until a homogeneous mix- 
ture is obtained. Keep in well-corked 
bottles. It is employed as an emulsi- 
fying agent in the form of a 10 per 
cent, solution. Mix thoroughly the ap- 
propriate quantity of emulsite with the 
oil and flavoring material and add the 
water gradually with constant tritura- 

Emulsion of Chloroform 

Chloroform, 1 ounce; tincture of sen- 
ega, 2 drams; water enough to make 
20 ounces. 


Emulsions of Coal Tar and Other Oils 

When terpineol is dissolved in coal 
oil and when to the solution an excess 
of tri-olein and caustic potash is added, 
a rather violent reaction takes place 
and a product is formed which is per- 
fectly soluble in alcohol, according to 
Doenhardt (Pharm. Zeit.). The alcoholic 
solution is miscible with water in all 
proportions. Tri-olein may be replaced 
by other oils which are rich in gly- 
cerin oleic acid esters. A similar but 
not as violent a reaction takes place 
with drying oils, such as castor oil. 
poppy oil, linseed oils, etc. In this 
process it is essential that the caustic 
alkali be in excess. 

Emulsions of Cod Liver Oil, Improved 

Borner (Apoth. Zeit.) recommends 
the following formula as producing a 
very white and easily digestible emul- 
sion of cod liver oil with hypophos- 

Cod liver oil 420 grammes. 

Powdered acacia ... 12 grammes. 

Powdered tragacanth 12 grammes. 

Decoction of Irish 

moss Q to 100)... 300 grammes. 

Calcium hypo- 
phosphite 12 grammes. 

Sodium hypophos- 

phite 6 grammes. 

Glycerin 100 grammes. 

Lime water 150 grammes. 

Aromatic spirit (see 

below > 33 grammes. 

Dissolve the salts in the decoction 
and glycerin, and, while boiling, add 
a mixture of the oil and the gums. 
After the mixture has completely 
cooled, add the lime water and the 
aromatic spirit, and beat the whole 
for a short time. 

Aromatic Spirit 

Oil of bitter almond. 
without hydro- 
cyanic acid 2.5 grammes. 

Oil of gaultheria. . . 2.5 grammes. 

Oil of cinnamon. ... 2.5 grammes. 

Saccharin 2.0 grammes. 

Vanillin 0.4 gramme. 

Dried sodium car- 
bonate 0.3 gramme. 

Alcohol 330.0 grammes. 

Mix the saccharin with the sodium 
salt; dissolve in the alcohol: add the 
vanillin and the oils, and make a solu- 

Emulsions of Copaiba 

Hommell (Merck's Report.) offers 
the following formulas for palatable 
and dependable emulsions of copaiba: 
Emulsion of Copaiba 

Copaiba 45.0 mils;. 

Powdered extract 

of glycyrrhiza.. . . 10.0 grammes. 

Powdered acacia... 40.0 grammes. 

Saccharin 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of anise 0.5 mil. 

Cinnamon water, to 

make 250.0 mils. 

Emulsion of Copaiba with Iron. 

Copaiba 45.0 mils. 

Tincture of iron 

chloride 22.5 mils. 

Glycerin 45.0 mils. 

Saccharin 0.5 gramme. 

Dextrin 50.0 grammes. 

Camphor water, to 

make 250.0 mils. 

Emulsion of Cottonseed Oil 

Cottonseed oil 100.0 mils. 

Powdered acacia... 40.0 grammes. 

Oil of gaultheria.. 15 drops. 

Oil of cinnamon.. 15 drops. 

Calcium hypophos- 

phite 3.0 grammes. 

Potassium hypo- 
phosphite 1.5 grammes. 

Sodium hypophos- 

phite 1.5 grammes. 

Syrup 30.0 mils. 

Glycerin 15.0 mils. 

Water, to make. . .300.0 mils. 

Triturate the acacia with the oils; 
add all at once 40 mils of water, and 
triturate lightly and rapidly until a 
thick homogeneous emulsion is pro- 
duced. Dissolve the hypophosphites 
in 40 mils of water; mix with the 
syrup and the glycerin, and add to the 
emulsion gradually with constant tri- 
turation. Lastly add enough water to 
make the finished product measure 
300 mils, and mix thoroughly. 

Emulsion of Fat for Use in Diabetes 

Rochaix employs the fellowing 
emulsion of fats in the treatment of 
diabetes: — 

Oil of peppermint 6 drops. 

Oil of lemon 6 drops. 

Medicinal soap (freshly 

prepared) % dram. 

Cherry laurel water... 5 drams. 

Orange flower water. ..2% ounces. 

Saccharin 3 grains. 

Olive oil (or sesame 

oil), to make 16 ounces. 

Emulsion of Iodoform 

Iodoform, 10 parts; sterile water, 20 
parts; glycerin. 70 parts; alcohol, 

Emulsions of Liquid Petrolatum 

Liquid petrolatum 30.00 mils. 

Powdered acacia.. 15.00 grammes. 

Powdered traga- 
canth 1.36 grammes. 

Oil of cinnamon. . 0.20 mil. 

Elixir of sac- 
charin 0.33 mils. 

Water, to make.. 100.00 mils. 



Mix the first four ingredients in a 
mortar, add 25 mils of water and 
triturate until the emulsion is formed, 
then add the elixir of saccharin and 
the balance of the water. 

The elixir of saccharin — a prepara- 
tion of the British Pharmaceutical 
Codex — consists of 5 grammes of sac- 
charin, 3 grammes of sodium bicar- 
bonate, 12.5 mils of alcohol, and water 
enough to make 100 mils. 

Liquid petrolatum 5 ounces. 

Powdered acacia.. 1% ounces. 

Powdered tragacanth.. . 30 grains. 

Calcium hypophosphite. 80 grains. 

Sodium hypophosphite. . 2 drams. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Water to make 1 pint. 

As to the first recipe the use of sac- 
charin as a sweetener might be sub- 
ject to criticism, although the use of 
that chemical in medicines is permit- 
ted provided the fact of its presence is 
indicated on the label. 

Emulsions of Oil of Cade 

■ Oil of cade 50 to 100 grammes. 

Soap 25 to 50 grammes. 

Water to make 300 grammes. 

Oil of cade-.... 50 to 100 grammes. 

Yolk of 1 or 2 eggs 

Fluid extract of 

quillaja 10 to 20 grammes. 

Water to make 500 grammes. 

Emulsion of Oil of Eucalyptus 

Irish moss 10 drams. 

Hot water. ."... .to make 20 ounces. 

Make a mucilage, 

Oil of eucalyptus 13 drams. 

Olive oil 8 drams. 

Make an emulsion with the mucilage 
of Irish moss. 

To the emulsion add: 

Saccharin 5 grains. 

Dissolved in alcohol. . . 1% ounces. 

Then add: 

Honey • . . . . 8 ounces. 

Mucilage of Irish 
moss to make 32 ounces. 

In the case of medicines sweetened 
with sacharin, the fact must be stated 
on the label. — John Culley. 

Emulsion of Paraldehyde 

The Medical Standard suggests the 
following mixture as a satisfactory 
means of administering paralde- 
hyde: — 

Paraldehyde 1 dram. 

Syrup 1 ^ drams. 

Tincture of orange.... 10 minims. 
Infusion of senega.... 3 drams. 
Water to make 1 ounce. 

The paraldehyde is placed in a dry 
bottle with the infusion and shaken un- 
til homogeneously mixed; the syrup 
is added with more shaking; the tinc- 
ture and enough water are then added; 
and the whole is well shaken. 

Making and Pushing Fresh Emulsions 

At the 1912 meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, W. H. 
Glover stated that some years ago he 
made up his mind to try to build up a 
prescription trade in fresh made emul- 
sions. He believed that if freshly pre- 
pared samples were shown to physi- 
cians and the patients were informed 
that the emulsion was made fresh for 
them, it would result profitably. At 
first the returns were slow in coming 
in, but by persistence his work showed 
results. The next problem was to find 
time to make the emulsions as ordered, 
as to have made them in large quantities 
ahead would have negatived his claim 
that they were freshly prepared. He 
made them by the use of a desk fan, 
removing the propeller blades and at- 
taching a short rod on a reducing gear 
and on the lower end of the rod a 
crossbar, with ends curved up so as to 
fit an ordinary mortar. 

The gum and oil were mixed in the 
mortar until the "primary" was 
formed, then the balance of the in- 
gredients were added. By means of the 
mortar the whole received a good, thor- 
ough mixing, while the operator was 
working at something else. 

In former years Mr. Glover rarely 
had a prescription for an emulsion, but 
now, even in summer, rarely a day 
passes that he does not put up one or 
more. He stated these facts to show 
what can be done if one really pushes 
a certain line. 

Making Emulsions 

By using powdered castile soap in 
the proportion of 1 gramme to each 30 
mils of oil, P. H. Utech has been able 
to prepare stable emulsions of castor 
oil and other fixed oils containing as 
much as 50 per cent, of oil. He thinks 
that the aperient action of the soap 
adds to the effiicacy of emulsion of cas- 
tor oil. 

Thompson's Emulsion of Linseed Oil 

Dr. W. H. Thompson gave in the 
Medical Record the following formula 
for the emulsion of linseed oil which 
has become popular among physicians 
in association with his name: 

Linseed oil 9% ounces. 

Oil of cinnamon SO minims. 

Oil of gaultheria SO minims. 

Diluted hydrocyanic 

acid SO minims. 

Glycerin 190 minims. 



Syrup 6% ounces. 

Mucilage of Irish moss, 

to make 2 pints. 

Dr. Thompson is quoted as having 
said that this emulsion may be pre- 
pared most satisfactorily in a churn. 

Tragacanth Emulsion of Fixed Oil 

Tragacanth, in fine 

powder 6 grammes. 

Alcohol 10 mils. 

Water '240 mils. 

The fixed oil 500 mils. 

Oil of gaultheria .... 4 mils. 

Syrup 100 mils. 

Water, to make. ... 1,000 mils. 

Mix well the alcohol and tragacanth; 
add the water quickly, and stir well 
then add the fixed oil in portions and 
the oil of gaultheria and emulsify by 
shaking. When the mixture has be- 
come thoroughly emulsified, add the 
syrup and enough water to make the 
finished product measure 1,000 mils. — ' 
Bertel Skow. 

Malted Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil 

with Hypophosphite 

Cod liver oil 120 grammes. 

Malt extract 30 grammes. 

Syrup of calcium 

hypophosphite ... 30 grammes. 

Glycerin 15 grammes. 

Powdered acacia.... 15 grammes. 
Cinnamon water, to 

make 250 grammes. 

This emulsion is said to be readily 
taken by children. 

ABC Liniment 

Equal parts of the liniments of aco- 
nite, bellandonna and chloroform. 

Analgesic Balm 

The formula below is from Pormulaire 
de preparations pharmaceutiques de la 
Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers: 

Lanolin 45 grammes. 

Yellow wax 10 grammes. 

Distilled water 15 grammes. 

Menthol 15 grammes. 

Methyl salicylate..'.. 15 grammes. 

Burnett's Hemlock Liniment 

According to the Medical Bulletin, 
Dr. J. A. Burnett recommends the fol- 
lowing as a valuable prescription for 
a stimulating liniment: 

Oil of hemlock 1 ounce. 

Oil of red cedar 1 ounce. 

Oil of sassafras l ounce. 

Oil of turpentine 1 ounce. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Capsicum 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 32 ouvces. 

Califacient Liniment 

F K. Heldmann proposes the follow- 
ing formula for a wanning liniment: 

Oleoresin of capsi- 
cum 0.25 grammes. 

Methyl salicylate.. 20.00 grammes. 

Liniment of soft 

soap 20.00 grammes. 

Wool-fat, to make. 100. 00 grammes. 

"Physicians whom I have induced to 
use this," he' says, "have found it to 
be a splendid remedy." 

Compound Phenol Liniment 

Phenol 2 parts. 

Menthol 2 parts. 

Eugenol 1 part. 

Liquefy the phenol, add the menthol 
and eugenol, and dissolve. 

This produces an excellent tooth- 
ache remedy, far superior to any sim- 
ilar preparation. 

Good Ail-Around Liniment 

At the 1912 meeting of the Tennessee 
Pharmaceutical Association, J. E. Jus- 
tice presented the following formula 
for a good all-around liniment: 

Oil of sassafras 30 mils. 

Oil of origanum 30 mils. 

Methyl salicylate 30 mils. 

Oil of hemlock 30 mils. 

Chloroform 20 mils. 

Tincture of capsicum. 30 mils. 

Alkanet root 15 grammes. 

Alcohol, to make 500 mils. 

Mix the oils and in these suspend 
the alkanet root, enclosed in flannel, 
and macerate for twelve hours; then 
add the chloroform, the tincture and 
the alcohol. 

Household Liniment 

Mix equal measures of spirit of am- 
monia, oil of sassafras, oil of turpen- 
tine and chloroform; dilute one part of 
the mixture with three parts of alcohol 
and in it dissolve a little camphor. 

Jacob's Oil 

Hydrated chloral 2 grammes. 

Camphor 2 grammes. 

Chloroform 2 mils. 

Ether 2 mils. 

Oil of sassafras 1 mil. 

Tincture of opium. ... 1 mil. 
Soap liniment enough 

to make. . • 120 mils. 

Mott's Anodyne Liniment 

Chloroform 15 mils. 

Tincture of aconite 15 mils. 

Tincture of iodine 15 mils. 

Ammonia water 15 mils. 

Soap liniment enough to 
make 120 mils. 



Pain Balm 

Oil of sassafras 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves i± ounce. 

Oil of hemlock V 2 ounce. 

Chloroform Vs ounce. 

Ether % ounce. 

Capsicum ■ . . . . % ounce. 

Camphor V 2 ounce. 

Ammonia water y 2 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Mix them. Macerate for a week or 
ten days, agitating frequently, and then 

Pain Expelling Liniments 


Spirit of camphor 1 ounce. 

Spirit of ammonia 4 drams. 

Oil of sassafras. . . . • 4 drams. 

Oil of cloves 2 drams. 

Chloroform 4 drams. 

Oil of turpentine 4 drams. 

Alcohol to make 5 ounces. 


Soap liniment 3 ounces. 

Tincture of capsicum.... 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 


Camphor 1 ounce. 

Chloral hydrate ^ . 1 ounce. 

Chloroform • 1 ounce. 

Ether 1 ounce. 

Tincture of opium 4 drams. 

Oil of origanum 4 drams. 

Oil of sassafras 4 drams. 

Alcohol to make 5 pints. 

A Hot Liniment 

Oil of mustard 4 mils. 

Chloroform • . . . . 4 mils. 

Ether 16 mils. 

Alcohol to make 10S mils. 

Polar Bear Liniment 

Oil of turpentine 16 ounces. 

Vinegar • 16 ounces. 

Eggs 6 only. 

Camphorated oil 4 ounces. 

Rub- Down for Athletes 

Methyl salicylate 10 ounces. 

Tincture of arnica 4 pints. 

Hammamelis water 12 pints. 

Alcohol 2 gallons. 

Water to make 5 gallons. 

Solidified Liniment 

Oil of origanum 10 grammes. 

Oil of sassafras 10 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine 10 grammes. 

Camphor 10 grammes. 

Oleoresin of capsicum. 5 grammes. 
Fluid extract of aconite 4 grammes. 

Petrolatum 30 grammes. 

White wax 21 grammes. 

Alkanet root to color. 

Suspend the alkanet root, bruised, in 
the petrolatum, heated, until it imparts 
a strong red color. Add the wax, and 
when it is melted, remove the heat. 
Just before the mixture is ready to 
solidify, add the fluid extract and the 
oils in which the camphor has been 
dissolved, and mix. Then add the oleo- 
resin and mix thoroughly. 

The Midland Druggist, which gives 
this formula, adds that the amount of 
capsicum may have to be reduced when 
the liniment is for use on tender skin, 
or the liniment may be diluted with 

Dr. Thompson's Liniment 

In the Practitioner, Dr. T. H. Thomp- 
son gives the following formula for an 
anodyne liniment: — 

Menthol % ounce. 

Camphor y 2 ounce. 

Oil of turpentine y 2 ounce. 

Oil of eucalyptus y 2 ounce. 

Chloroform . . . . • 1 ounce. 

Tincture of capsicum.... 1 ounce. 

Methyl salicylate 1 ounce. 

Liquid petrolatum 1 ounce. 

Laxative Lozenges 

Powdered senna 40 grains. 

Powdered jalap 40 grains. 

Oil of anise 1 drop. 

Oil of lemon 1 drop. 

Powdered white sugar. 40 grains. 

Tamarind paste 4 drams. 

Make a mass and divide into eight 
lozenges, which may be coated with 

Lozenge Bases, B. P. C. 

Cut lozenges constitute a class of 
preparations that is much neglected 
and deserves to be brought to the at- 
tention of physicians. 

Lozenges With Fruit Basis 

Refined sugar 87.90 grammes. 

Gum acacia, in 

powder 3.90 grammes. 

Mucilage of acacia. 7.10 mils. 
Black currant paste 

of commerce 11.35 grammes. 

Distilled water enough. 

Mix and divide into 100 lozenges. 

Lozenges With Tolu Basis 

Refined sugar 96.40 grammes. 

Gum acacia, in 

powder 3.90 grammes. 

Tincture of tolu... 2.10 mils. 
Mucilage of acacia. 7.10 mils. 

Distilled water enough. 

Mix and divide into 100 lozenges. 


: ; 

London Hospital Formulas for Com- 
pound Cascara Mixtures 


Fluidextract of cascara 

sagrada 20 minims. 

Ammonium carbonate. 2 grains. 

Tincture of belladonna 10 minims. 

Tincture of mix vom- 
ica • • 5 minims. 

Glycerin 10 minims. 

Water, to make 1 ounce. 


Magnesium sulphate.. 1 dram. 

Glycerin 1 dram. 

Fluidextract of cascara 

sagrada 1 dram. 

Fluidextract of licor- 
ice 1 dram. 

Tincture of hyoscya- 

mus 20 minims. 

Tincture of nux vom- 
ica 5 minims. 

Compound decoction of 

aloes, to 1 ounce. 

St. Mary's 
Fluidextract of cascara 

sagrada 1 dram. 

Fluidextract of licorice % dram. 

Sodium sulphate 1 dram. 

Ammonia water 5 minims. 

Water, to make 1 ounce. 

St. Thomas' 

Fluidextract of cascara 

sagrada 20 minims. 

Fluidextract of licorice 30 minims. 

Tincture of belladonna 5 minims. 

Tincture of nux vom- 
ica 5 minims. 

Aromatic spirit of am- 
monia 20 minims. 

Chloroform water, to 
make 1 ounce. 


Fluidextract of cas- 
cara sagrada 20 minims. 

Tincture of nux vom- 
ica 5 minims. 

Tincture of bellodonna 4 minims. 

Aromatic spirit of am- 
monia 10 minims. 

Chloroform 1 minim. 

Water, to make 1 ounce. 


Fluidextract of cascara 

sagrada 20 minims. 

Aromatic spirit of am- 
monia 10 minims. 

Fluidextract of licorice 15 minims. 

Peppermint water, to 

make 1 ounce. 


Bismuth subnitrate. . . 30 grammes. 

Vaseline 60 grammes. 

Mix while boiling. 

For a paste for use in the treatment 
of cases of long standing, the formula 
is: — 

Bismuth subnitrate. . . 30 grammes. 

Wax 5 grammes. 

Soft paraffin (120 deg. 

melting point) 5 grammes. 

Vaseline 60 grammes. 

Mix while boiling. 

In a note contributed to The Drug- 
gists Circular Dr. E. T. Beck says: — 

The vaseline (usually yellow vase- 
line is used) is first sterilized by the 
usual method of boiling and is then 
allowed to cool off. Thereupon the 
proper quantities of bismuth subni- 
trate and vaseline are weighed out and 
then are mixed well in a mortar until a 
smooth mass is obtained. It is, of 
course, understood that the bismuth 
subnitrate must be free from impurities 
such as arsenic or dust. Some of the 
preparations of bismuth subnitrate give 
off more nitric acid than others. (See 
an article published by Dr. W. S. Baer, 
Johns Hopkins Bulletin, October. Xo. 
223.) The preparation is then placed 
in enamel jars until such time as it 
may be needed. 

When the preparation is to be used 
the enamel jar containing the same is 
placed in a water bath, the water be- 
ing allowed to boil, and thus the prep- 
aration in the jar becomes liquefied, 
and as soon as it is sufficiently so it 
may be drawn up into a syringe and is 
then ready for injection. 

Care should be exercised to avoid 
the admixture of water during the 
course of preparing the paste. Mixing 
the bismuth subnitrate with the vase- 
line while the latter is boiled (our for- 
mer method of preparation) is not sat- 
isfactory for the reason that the bis- 
muth frequently oxidizes and causes 
the mixture to become black. We have 
never noticed any effervescence taking 
place when mixing the bismuth With 
the boiling vaseline, although that 
might possibly occur when the vase- 
line is too hot. 

There is a warning by Dr. Beck of 
the danger which may be caused by the 
formation of nitrate and by the bis- 
muth itself when this paste is em- 

Beck's Bismuth Paste 

The first of these formulas yields a 
paste used for diagnostic purposes, and 
for the first few injections, in cases of 
tuberculosis: — 

Diagnostic Bismuth Liquid 

Bismuth subcarbonate.120 grammes. 

Acacia 20 grammes. 

Tragacanth 5 grammes. 

Syrup • . . 150 grammes. 

Orange flower water. . 25 grammes 
Water 350 grammes. 



Bismuthated Petrolatum 

Bismuthated petrolatum may be pre- 
pared according to Vicario (L'union 
pharm.) from bismuth subnitrate, or 
bismuth subcarbonate, 20 grammes; 
liquid paraffin, TO grammes; petrola- 
tum, 10 grammes. This preparation, 
which may be sweetened and aroma- 
tized, is readily taken by the patients. 
It is used in hyperacidity and in dress- 
ing ulcers of any nature. It also facili- 
tates* the intestinal radioscopy. 

Dermatologic Formulas 

From the dermatologic formulas in 
the Formulae Magistrales Germanicae 
are taken the following: — 

Boroglycerin Ointment 

Boric acid 2.50 grammes. 

Glycerin 6.25 grammes. 

Paraffin ointment... 6.25 grammes. 

Wool-fat 8.00 grammes. 

Chilblain Balsam 

Camphor 0.2 gramme. 

Powdered tragacanth 0.5 gramme. 

Balsam of Peru 0.5 gramme. 

Tincture of opium 

with saffron 0.5 gramme. 

Potassium iodide. ... 0.S gramme. 

Glycerin 45.5 grammes. 

Compound Resorcinol Ointment 

Salicylic acid •. 0.4 gramme. 

Resorcinol 1.0 gramme. 

Ammonium sulpho- 

ichthyolate 1.0 gramme. 

Petrolatum 17.6 grammes. 

Emulsion of Sulphur 
Precipitated sulphur... 30 grammes. 

Distilled water 30 grammes. 

Alcohol 30 grammes. 

Glycerin 15 grammes. 

Hebra's* Tincture of Ruscus 

Birch tar 35 grammes. 

Ether 6 grammes. 

Alcohol . • 6 grammes. 

Oil of lavender 1 gramme. 

Oil of rue 1 gramme. 

Oil of rosemary 1 gramme. 

Liquid Tar Soap 

Tar 40 grammes. 

Potash soap 60 grammes. 

Alcohol 60 grammes. 

Distilled water enough 

to make 200 grammes. 

Vulnerary Species 
Peppermint leaves. ... 20 grammes. 
Lemon balm leaves... 20 grammes. 

Marjoram leaves 20 grammes. 

Origanum 20 grammes. 

Chamomile ..• 10 grammes. 

Lavender flowers 10 grammes. 

Elder flowers 10 grammes. 

ment of rose water. The proportions of 
the ingredients may be varied to suit 
individual cases, but a mixture of 1 
part of wool -fat to 3 parts of the cold 
cream was generally satisfactory. 

Itch Ointment 

Ichtyhol 2 drams. 

Resorcinol 1 dram. 

Sulphur 1 dram. 

Lanolin 4 drams. 

Petrolatum 4 drams. 

Oxide of Zinc Ointment 

To prepare 1,000 grammes of this 
ointment the Pharmacopoeia directs 
somewhat as follows: — 

Take of — 

Zinc oxide 200 grammes. 

Benzoinated lard... S00 grammes. 

Rub the zinc oxide with an equal 
weight of melted benzoinated lard and 
with this incorporate the remainder 
of the benzoinated lard, previously 
melted. If necessary, strain the oint- 
ment while warm and stir thoroughly 
until it congeals. 

From personal experience I know 
that it is very hard to prepare this 
simple pharmaeopoeial ointment so 
that a perfectly homogeneous mass, 
free from unmixed particles of zinc 
oxide, will result without straining; 
in fact, I admit my inability to accom- 
plish the feat, and from the examina- 
tion of a large number of specimens, 
purchased at different stores, am led 
to believe that other pharmacists have 
failed also. I am also of the opinion, 
from the appearance of nearly all of 
the specimens, that the compounder 
satisfied his professional conscience 
that it was not necessary to strain. 

At best, the pharmaeopoeial method 
is rather mussy, and necessitatis 
quite a bit of labor in the way of 
cleaning up utensils afterward, and I 
have never noticed a particular fond- 
ness for this sort of work on the part 
of licensed pharmacists. 

Select a cylindrical vessel, of suit- 
able capacity, and tie over the open 
end two thicknesses of cheese cloth 
in such a way as to leave it slightly 
depressed in the middle, and upon 
this place the powdered zinc oxide. 
Melt the benzoinated lard, bringing 
the temperature to about 135° F., and 
pour it gradually upon the strainer, 
stirring constantly with a spatula to 
force the operation. It will be found 
that all of the zinc oxide will pass 
through the strainer and be thor- 
oughly incorporated with the melted 
lard. Stir occasionally until it con- 

Ideal Ointment Base 

Fordyce (X. Y. Med. Journ.) says 
that he has found an ideal ointment 
base in a mixture of wool -tat and oint- 

Saratoga Ointment 
Powdered boric acid... 30 grains. 

Zinc oxide 60 grains. 

Oil of eucalyptus 15 drops. 

Petrolatum, to make. ..480 grains. 



Scarlet Red Salve 

There are two kinds of scarlet red, 
one being used exclusively as a dye 
and the other being known as Bieb- 
erich's medicinal. The latter is de- 
scribed as being a dark brownish-red 
bulky powder, with a melting point of 
185° C, insoluble in water, slightly 
soluble in cold alcohol, acetone, ether 
and benzol, but soluble on boiling. It 
is soluble in chloroform (1 in 15) and 
in fixed oils and fats, but not readily 
soluble in petrolatum or paraffin. 

Some recipes for the ointment fol- 
low : — 

Bruhn's Formula 

Scarlet red 5 to 10 grammes. 

Hydrous wool -fat and 
p a r a ffi n ( equal 
parts), to make. . .100 grammes. 
German Hospital, Philadelphia 

Scarlet red 8 grammes. 

Castor oil 10 grammes. 

Petrolatum, to make. 100 grammes. 

Krajca's Formula 

Scarlet red 8 grammes. 

' Chloroform oil enough. 

Yellow petrolatum, 

to make 100 grammes. 

Triturate the scarlet red with 
enough chloroform oil until it is very 
finely divided and suspended and the 
chloroform is evaporated, then in- 
corporate it with the petrolatum. 

By chloroform oil here is meant 
equal parts of chloroform and peanut 

Compound Tamarind Pastilles 

Purified tamarind pulp 10 grammes. 

Senna, in finest powder 3 grammes. 

Powdered white sugar 5 grammes. 

Wheat starch 1 gramme. 

Mix and heat together over a water- 
bath, stirring until a homogeneous 
mass is formed. Divide into eight pas- 
tilles and cover with chocolate. 

Medicated Pastilles, B. P. C. 

These are directed to be made with 
a basis of glycogelatin with which 
when melted in a water-bath, the 
active medicinal agent is incorporated, 
either in solution or suspension. The 
melted mixture is then directed to be 
poured into molds or into a suitable 
tray, allowed to solidify, and then cut 
into the required number of pastilles. 
The formula for this basis for pastilles 
is as follows: 


Gelatin 12.00. 

Glycerin 40.00. 

Distilled water 20.00. 

Orange-flower water 20.00. 

Sugar 5.00. 

Citric acid 2.00. 

Oil of lemon 0.10. 

Solution of caramel enough. 

As an improvement on the foregoing, 
the following has been offered: 

Gelatin 30.0 grammes. 

Glycerin 30.0 grammes. 

Distilled water 56.0 grammes. 

Orange- flower water 7.0 grammes. 

Citric acid 2.5 grammes. 

Alcohol 1.0 gramme. 

Oil of lemon 0.2 gramme. 

Solution of carmine. 1.0 gramme. 

Soak the gelatin in the distilled 
water until quite soft, add the glycerin, 
and dissolve by heating on a water- 
bath. Continue the application of heat 
until the product weighs 90 grammes. 
Remove from the water- bath, and add 
the citric acid previously dissolved in 
the orange- flower water, the oil of 
lemon previously dissolved in the al- 
cohol, and the solution of carmine. 
Mix thoroughly, strain through mus- 
lin, and allow to solidify. 

Mentholated Throat Pastilles 

Refined gelatin 1 ounce. 

Glycerin (by weight).. .2*4 ounces. 

Tolu water 2% ounces. 

Ammoniacal solution of 

carmine enough. 

Shred the gelatin, soak in the tolu 
water for two hours, then transfer to 
a water-bath and heat with the gly- 
cerin until the. gelatin is dissolved. 
Color with the carmine solution and 
pour into an oiled tray to cool. 

The tolu water is made by boiling 
l^i ounces of balsam of tolu in 20 
ounces of water (in a covered vessel) 
and straining off 16 ounces. The car- 
mine solution of the National Formu- 
lary may be used. 

The menthol pastille is made by 
adding 1-6 grain of menthol to 20 
grains of glycogelatin, previously 
melted on a water-bath. This is the 
quantity for one pastille, and while 
still melted, it is poured into a mold. 
Such pastille molds, which may be 
obtained in the market, consist of a 
series of small circular saucers se- 
cured to a metallic base. 

Phenolphthalein Pastilles 

Phenolphthalein 10 grammes. 

Powdered cocoa 10 grammes. 

Sugar 8 grammes. 

Sugar of milk 8 grammes. 

Talc 4 grammes. 

Solution of vanillin < 3 

per cent.) 1 mil. 

Make 100 pastilles. 

"Xew and Non-Official Remedes" 
states that phenolphthalein acts as a 
purgative but appears to possess no 
further physiological action. 

Camphor Pills 

Camphor 10 grammes. 

Powdered soap 10 grammes. 

Powdered althea 10 erammes. 



Simple syrup enough. 

Make a mass and divide into 100 pills. 

Improved Cathartic Pill 

Compound extract of 

colocynth Vz grain. 

Jalapin 1/6 grain. 

Podophyllin Vs grain. 

Leptandrin % grain. 

Extract of hyoscyamus % grain. 

Extract of gentian. ... % grain. 

Capsicum 1/12 grain. 

Oil of peppermint enough. 

General Excipient Powder for Pills 

Powdered licorice root, 40; powdered 
tragacanth, 20: powdered' almond oil 
soap. 20; wheat groats starch, 12; 
powdered sugar. 6; hydrated magnesia, 
6; mix. Liquids or viscous substances 
may be massed with the above alone. 
Powders should first be well mixed 
with a little of the excipient, then 
massed with honey or with gum julep. 
— L. Danzel, through Pharmaceutical 

Pills of Creosote and Balsam of Tolu 

Just mix equal parts of distilled 
water and creosote and add powdered 
balsam of tolu, and see what a fine pill 
mass you can obtain without the addi- 
tion of beeswax or any other substance. 
It is worth trying. — Jose Schwara. 

Pill Excipients 

What the "best paste to use for mak- 
ing pills" is depends largely upon the 
nature of the components of the pill 
mass — there is no one excipient which 
serves equally well in all cases. An- 
other influence in the selection of the 
"best" is the preference of the manipu- 
lator — we have a strong liking for 
glycerite of tragacanth, N. F. Here are 
a few formulas: — 


Powdered tragacanth.. % ounce. 

Glycerin 1% ounces. 

Water V 2 ounce. 

Liquid glucose 3% ounces. 

Remington's Excipient. 

Powdered acacia 90 grains. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Liquid glucose 4 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 1 grain. 


Powdered tragacanth.. 1 dram. 

Alcohol 2 drams. 

Molasses 2 ounces. 

Rub up the tragacanth with the alco- 
hol; then add quickly the molasses pre- 
viously warmed. 

Mutton Suet. 

Hard mutton suet, melting at about 
45° C. (113° F.) forms an excellent ex- 

cipient for those drugs which are in- 
tended to be absorbed in the intestines, 
and which may irritate the stomach, 
such as arsenical or mercurial prepara- 
tions; benzoic, carbolic or salicylic 
acids; creosote, guaiacol and other 
drugs. For this purpose, mutton suet 
is preferable to keratin. Each pill 
should contain not more than 1% grains 
of the suet. 


At a meeting of the London Chemists' 
Assistants' Association P. B. Phillips 
offered the following formula for a pill 
excipient which he said could be used 
in massing practically any combina- 
tion : 

Gelatin 40 grains. 

Glycerin 2 drams. 

Sugar 3 drams. 

Distilled water.. to make 1 ounce. 

Place the gelatin in a tared casserole 
with about % ounce of the water and 
allow it to stand for half an hour. Add 
the glycerin and heat the mixture until 
solution is effected. Add the sugar and 
continue the heating until the mass 
weighs 1 ounce. Transfer the mixture 
to a suitable container and beat it with 
a spatula until it sets, so as to incor- 
porate considerable air in the mass. 
For Oils and Balsams. 

To overcome the difficulty of in- 
corporating liquids, ethereal oils, bal- 
sams, creosote and similar substances 
into pills, Danzel (Bull, comm.) recom- 
mends an excipient prepared according 
to the following formula: 

Extract of licorice 4.0. 

Powdered tragacanth 2.0. 

Powdered soap 2.0. 

Wheat starch 1.2. 

Powdered sugar 0.6. 

Magnesium hydroxide 0.6. 

Solid substances should first be 
mixed with mucilage of acacia, honey, 
etc., before being incorporated with 
this excipient. 

Some Portuguese Ideas. 

An article by G. Griggi, which origi- 
nally appeared in a Portuguese phar- 
maceutical journal, and later in the 
Pharmaceutical Journal, gives the fol- 
lowing list of excipients: 

For antipyrine, sulphonal, trional, 
terpin hydrate, betol, benzonaphthol, 
exalgin. citrophen. salophen:- Rub 
down with milk sugar, add a little mu- 
cilage, water, and then a drop or two 
of glycerin. Manna is an alternative. 

For quinine salts: As above, or use 
honey and manna. 

For calomel, mercuric chloride and 
mercury salts: Manna or gum acacia 
and water; or wheat flour with a little 

For chloral hydrate and unstable 
salts: Canada balsam and beeswax in 



equal" proportions with kaolin to pill 

For alkali and other iodides: Crumb 
of bread or wheat flour; (or as for 
chloral hydrate, above). 

For iron chlorides or bromides: 
Honey or manna, with a little gum 

For gold or silver salts, permanga- 
nates: Recently calcined kaolin mixed 
with equal parts of melted petrolatum 
and hard paraffin; or white bole and 

For aloes, gamboge, ammoniacum: A 
few drops of alcohol, 60 per cent., or 
gentle warmth. 

For Venice turpentine, tolu balsam, 
benzoin: — Mix with hot water, knead 
and roll. 

For creosote, guaiacol, and similar 
substances; for phenol, eucalyptol, cu- 
menol, and orange flower oil: — -(a) 
Warm for about two hours on the 
water-bath with an equal weight of 
powdered almond oil soap; mass with 
soap powder, or powdered licorice, or 
one-twentieth the weight of magnesia, 
and one or two drops of water, (b) 
Mass with powdered benzoin, and roll 
in magnesia. 

For terpin hydrate and terpinol: — 
Mass with sodium benzoate, powdered 
sugar, powdered gum acacia, and 
water, or, better still, Venice turpen- 

For balsam of copaiba, turpentine. 
or tar: — To each 15 grammes add 1 
gramme of magnesia and two drops 
of water; then warm. If powdered 
cubebs are to be added, mix this first 
with wheat flour. 

For camphor, castoreum, musk, asa- 
fetida: — Mass with powdered benzoin 
and alcohol; or with white beeswax 
and Canada balsam melted together. 

For croton oil, thiol, ichthyol: — 
Wheat flour and confection of roses; 
or soap and wheat flour. 

For phosphorus: — Dissolve in oil of 
sweet almonds and mass with pow- 
dered licorice or powdered soap. 

For alkaloids. glucosides. phos- 
phides, and cacodylates: Mix with 
milk sugar and powdered gum acacia; 
mass with honey. 

For iron citrate, oxalate, or tar- 
trate: — Use one drop of glycerin to 
every 15 grammes, and then licorice 

For iodoform, di-iodoform, aristol: 
— Wheat flour, glycerin, powdered 
gum acacia, and manna. 

For pepsin, peptone, pancreatin, 
diastase: — Canada balsam and yellow 
wax. with sufficient kaolin to mass. 

For preparations of animal or- 
gans: — Milk sugar, with one-tenth of 
borax massed with mucilage of 

Preventing Hardening of Pills 

Pills have a tendency to become so 
hard as to remain undissolved, and 

thus to pass through the system. To 
prevent this hardening, Otto (Munch, 
med. Woch.) recommends adding 5 
grammes of manna to 100 grammes of 
pill mass and moistening the mass 
with tincture of gentian. Pills pre- 
pared in such a manner are said to 
retain their soft consistence indefi- 

Carmelite Spirit 

One of the official synonyms of the 
alcoolat de melisse compose of the 
French Codex is eau de melisse des 
Carmes; and the same preparation is 
popularly known as Carmelite water 
and Carmelite spirit. 

The official process for the manu- 
facture of this preparation is as fol- 
lows: — 

Balm (fresh and 

in flower) 90 grammes. 

Lemon peel (fresh) . . 15 grammes. 

Ceylon cinnamon .... 8 grammes. 

Cloves 8 grammes. 

Nutmegs 8 grammes. 

Coriander 4 grammes. 

Angelica root 4 grammes. 

Alcohol (80%) 500 grammes. 

Chop up the balm and the lemon 
peel; crush the other solids, and ma- 
cerate all in the alcohol for four days. 
Transfer to a still and distill to 425 

In the "Pharmaceutical Journal 
Formulary" the appended formula for 
Carmelite water is given: — 

Oil of balm 30 minims. 

Oil of sweet marjoram 3 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon....... 10 minims. 

Oil of angelica 3 minims. 

Oil of citron 30 minims. 

Oil of cloves 15 minims. 

Oil of coriander 5 minims. 

Alcohol (90%) 10 ounces. 

Oil of nutmeg 5 minims. 

Spiritus Ophthalmicus Mittendorf 

Spirit of lavender 1 ounce. 

Spirit of rosemary 1 ounce. 

Brandy 1 ounce. 

Spirit of camphor 1 dram. 

After mixing, the preparation 

should be set aside for a few days 
before being dispensed. 

Glycerin and Cacao Butter Supposi- 

Glycerin 20 grammes. 

Cacao butter 20 grammes. 

Anhydrous wool -f at. . 0.5 gramme. 

Melt together and shake until the 
mass can just be poured out; then 
pour into aluminum or tin molds to 
form suppositories measuring 4 centi- 
meters in length and 1 centimeter in 
diameter. Each such suppository should 
weigh 3 grammes. 



Glycerin and Gelatin Suppositories 

Gelatin ■ 14 parts. 

Glycerin 70 parts. 

Distilled water enough. 

Soak the gelatin in distilled water 
until it is thoroughly softened; add the 
glycerin; make a solution on a water 
bath and evaporate until the mass 
weighs 100 parts. 

Hydrated Chloral Suppositories 

Hydrated chloral... 45.00 grammes. 

White wax 3.15 grammes. 

Melt the wax in a wide-mouthed bot- 
tle; cork; add the chloral, mix thor- 
oughly and run into suitable molds. 

Melt together as in I, equal parts of 
hydrated chloral and stearic acid and 
run into molds. 

Ichthyol in Suppositories 

In the British Pharmaceutical Codex 
glycerin suppository mass B. P. is di- 
rected as the base for ichthyol suppos- 
itories. This mass is made as fol- 
lows: — 

Gelatin (cut small). 14.2 grammes. 

Glycerin 71.0 grammes. 

Distilled water enough. 

Place the gelatin in a weighed evap- 
m-ating dish with enough distilled 
water to cover it; let it stand for two 
minutes; pour off the excess of distilled 
water; set aside until the gelatin is 
quite soft; add the glycerin; dissolve 
on a water-bath; evaporate until the 
mixture weighs 102 grammes. 

In making ichthyol suppositories, a 
sufficient quantity of this mass is 
melted on a water-bath; the desired 
quantity of ichthyol is incorporated and 
the mixture is poured into wet molds. 

Making Suppositories 

In making suppositories with a cacao 
butter vehicle by the cold process, P. 
H. Utech has found that wool -fat or 
petrolatum is better than an expressed 
oil to make the mass plastic. Supposi- 
tories made by the hot process he con- 
siders to have the advantage of melt- 
ing at a lower temperature than those 
made by the cold process. On the other 
hand, the repeated heating -of cacao 
butter tends to hasten rancidity. 

Suppository Base 

V. do Wielen and v. Riehl (Pharm. 
Weekbl.) have found that cacao butter 
containing 2.5 per cent, of yellow wax 
will take up 25 per cent, of its weight 
of liquids (aqueous solutions, glycerin, 
ichthyol, etc.) no separation of the lat- 

ter taking place even after prolonged 
keeping. If 0.3 grammes of iodoform 
are dissolved in 3 grammes of the mix~ 
ture of cacao butter and wax, on cool- 
ing, the iodoform partly remains dis- 
solved and partly crystallizes out in 
the form of minute crystals, while when 
the plain butter is used, it separates 
within a short time in the form of large 
crystals. The mixture of cacao butter 
and wax melts at 31.4 degrees Centi- 

Dunning has found that a mixture of 
10 parts of castor oil and 15 parts of 
wax with 90 parts of cocao butter im- 
proves the latter as a suppository base, 
especially in warm weather. The pro- 
portions may be varied to suit the 
needs of the operator. 

Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla, 
Clover and Burdock 

Fluidextract of sarsa- 
parilla 4 ounces. 

Fluidextract of stillingia 2 ounces. 

Fluidextract of red 

clover 2 ounces. 

Fluidextract of senna.. l 1 /^ ounces. 

Fluidextract of glycyr- 

rhiza 1 ounce. 

Fluidextract of burdock 1 ounce. 

Oil of anise V 2 dram. • 

Oil of sassafras V 2 dram. 

Oil of gaultheria % dram. 

Alcohol (80 per cent.).. 4 ounces. 

Simple syrup, to make.. 4 pints. 

Making and Keeping Syrups 

P. H. Utech believes the whole secret 
of making a permanent syrup is to use 
a high-grade sugar, such as "crystal 
A," free from moisture, distilled — not 
sterilized — water, and a sterile con- 
tainer, and to observe the proper cau- 
tion in keeping the product He says 
that syrup of wild cherry exposed to 
the ordinary light of the store loses its 
characteristic odor and taste in a few 
months He has found that the addi- 
tion of a small quantity of diluted 
hypophosphorous acid to syrup of 
hypophosphites inhibited precipitation. 

Phenolphthalein Laxative Syrup 

The following formula is offered by 
a correspondent of the Journal of the 
American Medical Association; 

Phenolphthalein 128 grains. 

Salicylic acid 10 grains. 

Bitter cake chocolate... 1 ounce. 

Syrup of acacia, to make 1 pint. 

Melt the chocolate and mix with the 
syrup then add the acid and the phe- 

This mixture requires a "shake" 



Soluble Syrup of Indian Cannabis 

Indian cannabis 256 grains. 

Alcohol enough. 

Dried sodium carbonate 1 dram. 

Sugar IS ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Hot water to make.... 2 pints. 

Percolate the Indian cannabis with 
enough alcohol to produce 2 ounces of 
concentrated tincture. Dissolve the so- 
dium salt in a few drams qf hot water, 
and add this solution to the tincture. 
Add the glycerin, and mix well. Dis- 
solve the sugar in enough hot water 
to make 20 ounces of syrup add this, 
while hot, to the mixture already pre- 
pared, and mix them thoroughly. Fil- 
ter the syrup through felt, returning 
the filtrate until it comes through 
clear. Add through the filter enough 
hot water to make 2 pints of finished 

Fig Syrup 

From an article in The Druggists 
Circular for October, 1913, page 628, in 
which a formula for the lenitive elec- 
tuary of the London Pharmacopoeia of 
the middle of the eighteenth century is 
shown to be practically the same as 
that of the modern •fig" syrups, the 
following formula for a type of the lat- 
ter is given: — 

Senna 14 ounces. 

Coriander 6 ounces. 

Figs 24 ounces. 

Tamarinds 18 ounces. 

Cassia pulp 18 ounces. 

Prunes 12 ounces. 

Extract of licorice IY2 ounces. 

Spirit of peppermint. . .1% ounces. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Brown sugar 10 pounds. 

Crush the first six ingredients small, 
boil gently for half an hour in the 
water, then cool and add the other in- 
gredients, stirring until the sugar is 

Syrup of Ferrous Iodide 

Having had trouble in controlling the 
reaction of the iodine and the iron in 
making syrup of iodide of iron, I 
immerse the flask in a vessel of warm 
water. This hastens the reaction at the 
start, and retards the reaction later on, 
because the volume of warm water in 
the vessel, being so much larger, keeps 
the contents of the flask automatically 
at its temperature. It needs but little 
watching while making, and less time 
is required to make it. — E. C. Schaefef. 

Syrup of Figs, B. P. C. 

Figs, cut small 40.00 

Refined sugar 50.00 

Distilled water to make 100.00 

The figs are digested with boiling 
water and the resulting liquor strained 

and evaporated to produce the required 
volume of syrup on the addition of the 

The resulting syrup is rather viscid 
and promises to be an excellent vehicle 
for acrid or bitter substances. 

An excellent illustration of its varied 
uses is: — 

Compound Syrup of Figs, B. P. C. 
Compound tincture of rhubarb 5.00 

Fluid extract of senna 10.00 

Spirit of cinnamon 1.25 

Spirit of nutmeg (1 to 10) 1.25 

Fluid extract of cascara sa- 

grada, aromatic 5.00 

Syrup of figs to make 100.00 

Syrup of Figs 
From the Vienna Formulary: 

Senna pods 6 parts. 

Figs 12 parts. 

Water 58 parts. 

Sugar ' enough. 

Orange flower water... 10 parts. 

Alcohol (90 per cent.).. 20 parts. 

Macerate the figs and the senna pods 
in the water for twelve hours, and 
strain. In 33 parts of the strained 
liquid dissolve 45 parts of sugar; boil 
and clarify. When cold add the 
orange flower water and the alcohol. 

Syrup of Hoarhound 

Hoarhound (Xo. 20 

powder) 200 grammes. 

Sugar 750 grammes. 

Glycerin 125 mils. 

Water . . . .' enough. 

Mix the glycerin with 375 mils of 
water and moisten the drug thoroughly 
with enough of the mixture, then pack 
lightly in a percolator and add enough 
menstruum to saturate and leave a 
layer above the drug and macerate 
for twenty-four hours. Then perco- 
late slowly, using the balance of the 
menstruum and then warm water un- 
til extracted. Reserve the first 500 
mils of percolate and evaporate the 
remainder to 100 mils, then add the 
reserve and dissolve the sugar in the 
liquid, using a slight heat if necessary. 
When cold add enough water to make 
"the preparation measure 1000 mils and 

Syrup of hoarhound so made, says 
George M. Beringer, is clear, brown in 
color and possesses the characteristic 
bitter and aromatic taste of the drug 
and after keeping for more than six 
months has shown not the least ten- 
dency to change. 

Wine of Cod Liver Extract 

.Many therapeutics are agreed that 
the various extracts of cod livers or 
of cod liver oil do not represent the 



remedial virtues of the oil; they axe 
also agreed that such extracts are of 
little use as curative agents. To call 
a combination of these extracts a cod 
liver oil preparation would constitute 
misbranding. Two typical formulas 


Gaduol 256 grains. 

Guaiacol 64 minims. 

Creosote 128 minims. 

Eucalyptol 30 minims. 

Extract of malt 6 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Syrup 8 ounces. 

Diluted hydrocyanic acid 1 dram. 

Compound syrup of hy- 

pophosphites 6 ounces. 

Puller's earth 2 ounces. 

Wine to make 4 pints. 

Mix the gaduol with 2 ounces of al- 
cohol and triturate with the fuller's 
earth, add the syrup and 2 pints of 
wine. Set aside for several days, shak- 
ing occasionally, then filter. Add the 
extract of malt and the syrup of hypo- 
phosphites, let stand for twenty-four 
hours and again filter. Add the guaia- 
col, the creosote and the eucalyptol 
dissolved in 2 ounces of alcohol; add 
the diluted hydrocyanic acid and 
enough wine to make 4 pints. 

Gaduol 2V 2 pints. 

Oil of orange peel 9 ounces. 

Fuller's earth 10 pounds. 

Port wine 17 gallons. 

Compound tincture of 

gentian 5 gallons. 

Fluid extract of wild " 
cherry 2 y 2 gallons. 

Glycerin 5 gallons. 

Extract of malt 4 gallons. 

Compound syrup of hy- 

pophosphites 6% gallons. 

Fluid extract of licorice.l^ gallons. 

Caramel 2 y 2 pints. 

Alcohol 2 y 2 gallons. 

This recipe is for a 40-gallon batch. 

Creosote or guaiacol may be added 
in the desired proportions, dissolved in 
an appropriate amount of alcohol. 

Acetone Collodion. 

Pyroxylin 5 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 2 grammes. 

Amyl acetate 20 grammes. 

Benzol 20 grammes. 

Acetone, to make 100 grammes. 

Shake the pyroxylin with the ace- 
tone; add the other ingredients and 
shade until dissolved. 

dion has replaced the official formula 
for flexible collodion at the Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital: 

Gun cotton 4.0 grammes. 

Alcohol 18.0 mils. 

Tincture of benzoin. 9.0 mils. 

Ether 75.0 mils. 

Corrosive mercuric 

chloride 0.5 gramme. 

Shake the gun cotton with the ether 
until a pulpy mass results; add the 
tincture and again shake; to the mix- 
ture add the alcohol, in which is dis- 
solved the mercury bichloride. 

Antiseptic Flexible Collodion 

The following modification of Hop- 
kins' formula for an antiseptic eollo- 

Antiseptic Solutions. 

Benzoic acid 1 ounce. 

Powdered borax 1 ounce. 

Boric acid 2 ounces. 

Thymol 80 grains. 

Eucalyptol 80 grains. 

Glycerin 4 drams. 

Alcohol 2 pints. 

Hot water enough. 

Water to make 1 gallon. 

Essence of gaultheria. . . to color. 

Dissolve the first three ingredients in 
hot water, and filter. Dissolve the thv- 
mol and eucalyptol in the alcohol, and 
when the first solution is cool, mix 
the two solutions, and add the glycerin 
and the essence of gaultheria. and 
enough water to make 1 gallon. Agi- 
tate several times a day for two days 
and filter. 


Boric acid 4 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 3 ounces. 

Powdered borax 2 ounces. 

Menthol 1 dram. 

Thymol 2 drams. 

Oil of eucalyptus 40 drops. 

Oil of thyme 40 drops. 

Oil of gaultheria 2 drams. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Water to make 1 gallon. 

Proceed essentially as in formula 1. 

Benzoic acid 64 grains. 

Boric acid 128 grains. 

Thymol 30 grains. 

Menthol 35 grains. 

Borax 64 grains. 

Oil of wintergreen 4 drops. 

Oil of eucalyptus 4 drops. 

Oil of horsemint 5 drops. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Water to make 1 pint. 

While a preparation made according 
to one of the above formulas is quite 
similar to, it is not identical with, the 
antiseptic solution of the Pharmaco- 
poeia, and the preparation should not 
be sold under the pharmacopoeia! 



Boro-Thymol Solution. 

One of the most satisfactory formulas 
for the preparation of a solution fre- 
quently sold as boro-thymol, rubi- 
thymol. and under similar names, is as 

Sodium bicarbonate.... 34 drams. 

Sodium borate 34 drams. 

Sodium benzoate 21 grains. 

Sodium salicylate 21 grains. 

Eucalyptol 21 minims. 

Oil of cubebs 10 minims. 

Thymol 42 grains. 

Menthol 30 grains. 

Oil of pine needles 18 minims. 

Oil of peppermint 30 minims. 

Alcohol 24 ounces. 

Glycerin 36 ounces. 

Powdered cudbear 4% drams. 

Solution of carmine 3% drams. 

Talc 4 ounces. 

Distilled water to make 3 gallons. 

Dissolve the sodium salts in about 1 
gallon of water, add the glycerin, dis- 
solve the oils and thymol in the alcohol, 
and mix the two solutions. Add 4 
ounces of talc, the coloring matter, and 
sufficient water to make 3 gallons. Set 
aside for several days and filter. 

Calamine Lotion. 

As given in the British Pharma- 
ceutical Codex, the formula for this lo- 
tion is: 

Prepared calamine 10. 

Zinc oxide 5. 

Glycerin 5. 

Rose water, diluted to 100. 

Triturate the calamine and the zinc 
oxide with the glycerin, and add the 
rose water. 

The same authority describes pre- 
pared calamine as being a native zinc 
carbonate, containing more or less zinc 
silicate, calcined at a moderate tem- 
perature, and freed from gritty par- 
ticles by elutriation. 

Calamine Lotion 

Linimentum Calamina, described by 
John K. Thum at the 1919 meeting of 
the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, has a number of advan- 
tages over the old-time calamine lo- 

"It will be remembered that the or- 
dinary calamine lotion has the great 
disadvantage of drying when applied 
to skin affections where such an effect 
is not desired," explains Mr. Thum. 
"In order to prevent this, more or less 
experimentation was carried out with 
varying formulas, and the following 
was finally adopted as answering 
every requirement: 

Powdered traga- 
canth 4. grammes. 

Phenol ; 1.5 grammes. 

Glycerin 1.5 grammes. 

- Calamine 25. grammes. 

Zinc oxide 25. grammes. 

Cottonseed oil.... 150 grammes. 

Distilled water, 

to make 500 grammes. 

"It will be noticed that this makes 
an emulsion and the pharmacist will, 
of course, proceed to manipulate it in 
the usual way for making this class of 

Mr. Thum claims no originality for 
the formula, and says that it or a 
somewhat similar formula was copied 
from a medical journal some four 
years ago. 

Canthardin . Collodion 

Canthardin 0.2 gramme. 

Castor oil 5.0 grammes. 

Acetone 7.0 grammes. 

"Venice turpentine. . 8.0 grammes. 

Collodion 80.0 grammes. 

Dissolve the cantharidin in the cas- 
tor oil and acetone by gentle and care- 
ful warming, then add the Venice tur- 
pentine and the collodion. 

Celery, Iron and Kola Compound 

Iron and quinine 

citrate (soluble) 40 grains. 

Fluidextract of 

celery seed 90 minims. 

Fluidextract of kola 

nut 2 drams. . 

Angelica wine 1 pint. 

Aromatic elixir, 

to make 2 pints. 

Cod Liver Oil in Jelly Form 

Pure gelatin % ounce. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Syrup 4 ounces. 

Cod liver oil 8 ounces. 

Oil of cinnamon (or 

coriander, etc.) to flavor. 

The gelatin should first be dissolved 
in the water, the latter having been 
previously heated to boiling. The 
syrup, cod liver oil and flavor are then 
to be added, the receptable placed in 
cold water, and the mixture beaten 
for five minutes 'and then allowed to 

Coffee Electuary of Castor Oil 

Finely powdered 

roasted coffee 10 grammes. 

Powdered sugar 20 grammes. 

Castor oil 20 grammes. 

Compound Eucalyptol Spray 

Eucalyptol 80.0 mils. 

Camphor 20.0 grammes. 

Menthol 20.0 grammes. 

Thymol 1.1 grammes. 



Liquid petrolatum 

to make 1,000 mils. 

Dissolve the other ingredients in the 
liquid petrolatum. 

Simple Inhalant 

Oil of eucalyptus 10 mils. 

Oil of pine 5 mils. 

Oil or cassia 5 mils. 

Menthol 5 grammes. 

Thymol 1 gramme. 

Camphor 2 grammes. 

Tincture of benzoin, 

to make 100 mils. 

Mix and make a solution. 

Compound Elixir of Choavia 

Powdered chocolate 2 ounces. 

Spirit of lemon y 2 ounce. 

Tincture of vanilla % ounce. 

Simple elixir... to make 1 pint. 

Compound Syrup of Choavia 

Powdered chocolate 2 ounces. 

Sugar 1 % pounds. 

Tincture of vanilla 1 ounce. 

Aromatic fluidextract 

of yerba santa 1 ounce- 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Boiling water enough. 

Mix the chocolate and sugar with 
enough boiling water to make two 
pints. Allow the syrup to cool and 
then add the other ingredients. 

Solution of Acetanilide, Compound 

Acetphenetidin 256 grains. 

Acetanilide 160 grains. 

Caffeine, citrated 64 grains. 

Phenyl salicylate 64 grains. 

Saccharin 2 grains. 

Oil of orange 5 minims. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Glycerin 5 ounces. 

Water 1 ounce. 

Diluted alcohol enough. 

Mix the alcohol, the glycerin and 
the water. Add to this liquid the acet- 
phenetidin, the acetanilide, the citrated 
caffeine, the phenyl salicylate and the 
saccharin, and effect solution by heat- 
ing the mixture gently in a loosely 
stoppered flask. Add the oil. Pass 
through an extra -porous paper filter 
and add enough diluted alcohol to 
make 1 pint. 

Lemon Flavored Compound Solution 
of Sodium Phosphate 
As a starter we suggest that the 
quantity of citric acid in the official 
formula be increased to 180 grammes 
and that the following mixture be 
added in place of an equal portion of 
distilled water: 

Terpeneless oil of lemon 20 minims. 

Alcohol to make 4 drams. 

The solution should be shaken with 
a little paper pulp before it is filtered. 

For the color we suggest a few drops 
of liquid caramel and a drop or two of 
a weak solution of indigo sulphate. 

Here is another working formula: 

Sodium phosphate, an- 
hydrous 6 Vz ounces. 

Tincture of fresh lemon 

peel 1 dram. 

Phosphoric acid (85 per- 
cent.) 960 grains. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Distilled water. .to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the salt in a mixture of the 
water and the acid; add the glycerin 
and the tincture and filter. 

Under the federal food and drugs act 
and the statutes of many of the States 
neither of these preparations could 
legally be sold under the official name. 


An anonymous writer in the Chemist 
and Druggist says that Sir James Saw- 
yer's brilliant proposal to utilize 
"chocolate cream" as a vehicle for the 
exhibition of medicaments suggests 
an interesting series of new prepara- 
tions. The cream or center portion is 
made first and the chocolate coating 
then applied. Very presentable cre- 
mules may be turned out by any neat 
dispenser without the aid of special 

He outlines his process somewhat as 
given below : 

The first step is the preparation of a 
quantity of "cream," which is made of: 

Sugar (cane) 1 pound. 

Glucose (syrupy) % pound. 

Water to make a solution. 

Boil this solution until the temper- 
ature reaches 240 deg. F. Pour out on 
a clean and damp ointment slab and 
leave until nearly cold. Then work it 
with a spatula as if it were an oint- 
ment until the transparent syrup has 
changed to a smooth white cream. It 
is advisable to knead it with the hands 
to insure smoothness and freedom 
from lumps. 

This is the basis of the cremules, 
and what is not required for immediate 
use may be stored In a covered pot. 
If a damp cloth be placed on top of 
the cream it will keep almost indefi- 

The medicaments are incorporated 
either by trituration in a mortar ex- 
actly as if it were pill mass, or the 
cream may be melted at a low temper- 
ature and the other ingredients 
stirred in. When made on a commer- 
cial scale the creams are formed by 
being run into plaster of par is molds 
in trays filled with powdered starch. 

rHARJI AC EUTICAL, foraiulas 


Unless the pharmacist means to make 
a specialty of some particular cremule 
it is unnecessary to have them molded. 
as the soft plastic medicated cream 
may be quite easily divided into pieces 
of the required weight — 30 to 90 grains 
— according to the amount and char- 
acter of medication. These pieces 
may be roughly formed by hand into 
any of the usual shapes. Mathematical 
uniformity of shape is not at all neces- 
sary. If the creams have been molded 
in starch they require a few hours to 
cool and set, are brushed with a soft 
brush to remove adhering starch, and 
are then ready for coating. 

The coating mixture has the follow- 
ing composition: 

Pure chocolate 5 parts. 

Powdered sugar 3 parts. 

The chocolate is pounded in a warm 
mortar until reduced to a smooth paste 
and the sugar gradually incorporated 
with constant trituration until a 
smooth mixture results. This mixture 
requires plenty of hard rubbing, and 
should be tested for smoothness in the 

The chocolate should melt away 
gradually and evenly, and when this 
condition is reached it is ready for 
use. It may be flavored, if desired, 
with a trace of vanilla. A sufficient 
quantity of this sweetened chocolate 
is melted over a water bath; an oint- 
ment pot in pan of warm water is more 
suitable than a shallow vessel. Into 
this the medicated creams are dropped 
three or four at a time. After a mo- 
ment they are removed singly with a 
fork or long handled spoon and dropped 
on waxed paper; then put in a cool 
place to harden. They require careful 
handling and should be dispensed in 
shallow capsule or cachet boxes, prefer- 
ably each in a small case. 

If carefully manipulated the finished 
chocolates will be similar in appear- 
ance to those sold in the candy shops. 

Before attempting the preparation of 
cremules it is advisable to examine 
critically an assorted lot of the con- 
fectioner's chocolates. These will sug- 
gest many possible variations in the 
consistence of cream, which varies with 
the temperature to which it is boiled, 
color and flavoring. A consideration of 
these points will enable the pharmacist 
to construct formulas which will be 
satisfying to the physician and pleas- 
ant to the patient. 

Although not strictly pertaining to 
the subject the following may be use- 
fully mentioned here: 

Laxative Fruit Cremules. 

Tamarind pulp 10 parts. 

Powdered senna 3 parts. 

Sugar 5 parts. 

Wheat starch 1 part- 
Mix in a water bath and divide into 

pieces of about 40 grains each and coat 
with chocolate. This forms the "Hindu 
dates" of the Austrian Pharmacopoeia 
and is improved by the addition of a 
little oil of coriander. 

A similar preparation may be made 
by preparing confection of senna, B.F., 
stiff enough to be divided into pieces 
and chocolate coating each dose. The 
author of the article in the British 
paper did this once at the request of a 
physician, who wished a gentle laxative 
for a fastidious patient. When asked 
later if they suited the doctor smiled 
and said they were so nice he had 
eaten the lot himself. 

With these as models the practical 
pharmacist may compound many other 
preparations to meet the requirements 
of local doctors. 

To Disguise Cod Liver Oil 
Use 2 or 3 drops of oil of eucalyptus 
to each ounce of cod liver oil. 

Tincture of Ferric Acetate, Ethereal 

Solution of ferric acetate 

( X. F. IV.) 75.0 mils. 

Acetic ether 12.5 mils. 

Alcohol 12.5 mils. 

To make 1 00 mils. . 

Mix the acetic ether and alcohol, and 
gradually add to the solution of ferric 

Keep the product in well-stoppered 
bottles in a cool place, protected from 

Ferruginous Cod Liver Oil. 

The use of iron soaps in combination 
with cod liver oil has been widely sug- 
gested in Europe as a means of ex- 
hibiting iron and an easily digested fat 
in one preparation. Feist and Auer- 
hammer have offered the following 
formula for such a preparation: 

Solution of ferric 

chloride 100 grammes. 

Alcohol 30 grammes. 

Ether 250 grammes. 

Linseed oil 140 grammes. 

Solution of potas- 
sium hydroxide (25 
per cent) 107 grammes. 

Cod liver oil, enough 

to make 1000 grammes. 

Distilled water enough. 

Dried sodium sul- 
phate enough. 

Prepare a potash soap of the linseed 
oil, using the alcohol and a sufficient 
quantity of distilled water (similarly to 
the U. S. P. method for making soft 
soap). Dissolve this soap in 1500 
grammes of distilled water; to this add 
the solution of ferric chloride diluted 
with 500 grammes of distilled water. 
Set this mixture aside for an hour, col- 
lect the precipitate, and dissolve it in 



the ether. Shake this solution with 
some dried sodium sulphate, decant, 
distill off the ether, and dissolve the 
iron soap in the cod liver oil. 

As an improvement of the process of 
the Dutch Pharmacopoeia for a mix- 
ture of cod liver oil and iron benzoate, 
the following has been suggested: 

Sodium benzoate.. 12.0 grammes. 

Iron perchloride 

(sublimed) 12.0 grammes. 

Carbon tetra- 
chloride 12.5 grammes. 

"Water 60.0 grammes. 

Alcohol (90 pc.) . . . 50.0 grammes. 

Cod liver oil 1,000.0 grammes. 

Dissolve the sodium benzoate in the 
water and the iron perchloride in the 
alcohol; mix the two solutions in a 
flask and add the carbon tetrachloride. 
Close the flask with parchment paper 
and warm until the mixture separates 
into two clear liquids. Let the flask 
cool; draw, off the supernatant liquid; 
mix it with the oil and heat the mix- 
ture at 100 deg. C. until a clear solu- 
tion is obtained. 

Glyceride of Red Bone Marrow. 

Red bone marrow.... 25 grammes. 

Chloroform water. ... 50 grammes. 

Glycerin 50 grammes. 

Mix the marrow with the glycerin by 
vigorous trituration, add the chloro- 
form water, and beat the whole to- 
gether frequently during one hour; 
then strain, and make up to 100 
grammes, with equal parts of chloro- 
form water and glycerin. 

Glycerite of Iron Chloride. 

Solution of ferric chlo- 
ride 4fl. drs. 

Citric acid 80 grains. 

Glycerin 13 fl. ozs. 

Ammonia enough. 

Distilled water to make 16 fl. ozs. 

Mix the solution with the glycerin, 
dissolve the acid in 1 fluid ounce of 
water, mix the two liquids, and then 
add ammonia water, gradually, with 
constant stirring, until the liquid is but 
feebly acid. This latter will require 
about 1 fluid ounce. Then dilute with 
water to 16 fluid ounces. 

If twice as much acid be employed, 
the liquor will be greenish instead of 

Each fluid ounce of glycerite (or 
glycerole) is equivalent to 1 fluid dram 
of tincture of ferric chloride. 

injection, to be prepared according to 

Mercury 20 grammes. 

Anhydrous wool-fat.. 30 grammes. 

Butyl -chloral hydrate. 3 grammes 

Liquid petrolatum, to 

make 100 mils. 

Liquid Court Plaster. 

If soluble gun cotton is dissolved in 
acetone in the proportion of about 1 
dram by weight of the former to 35 or 
40 drams by volume of the latter, and 
V 2 dram each of castor oil and glycerin 
be added, a colorless, elastic and flex- 
ible film will form on the skin when 
the liquid is applied. Unlike ordinary 
collodion, this preparation does not 
readily peel off. If tinted very slightly 
with alkanet and saffron, it can be 
made to assume the color of the skin, 
so that when applied it is almost in- 

It is said that a mixture of warm so- 
lution of sodium silicate and casein, 
about 9 parts of the former to 1 part 
of the latter, gelatinizes and forms a 
sort of liquid court plaster. 

The proportions of alcohol and ether 
for a pyroxylin solvent may be varied 
within wide limits, and the relative 
quantity of pyroxylin used is to be de- 
termined by the viscosity required. 
Suitable proportions are 100 volumes of 
ether to 40 volumes of alcohol (prefer- 
ably absolute). Other solvents of py- 
roxylin are acetone (and homologues), 
various simple ethers, esters, camphor 
in absolute alcohol, etc. For epidermis 
application the ether-alcohol collodion 
is the best liquid; it evaporates so 
quickly that a few minutes suffice to 
apply several successive coatings to 
strengthen the film, which is most ad- 
herent. Pyroxylin in various simple or 
compound solvents, alone or associated 
with oily, resinous or pigmental bodies, 
or incorporated with a suitable modify- 
ing agent, as, for example, camphor, 
may be used as a thin laquer, a thick 
varnish, or a plastic solid. 

As a working formula the following 
may be found useful: 

Pyroxylin 1 ounce. 

Amyl acetate 5 ounces. 

Acetone 15 ounces. 

Balsam of fir 2 drams. 

Castor oil 2 drams. 

Oil of cloves 15 minims. 

Dissolve the pyroxylin in the amyl 
acetate, and the acetone and add the 
other ingredients, taking care to keep 
the mixture away from a flame. 

Gray Oil. 

Adams, writing in the Journal of the 
Royal Army Medical Corps, suggests 
the following formula for a mercurial 

Intramuscular Injection of Mercury 

Finnemore (Guy's Hospital Gazette) 
gives the following for a mercury 

ST VIBG1] N lVi 




cream suitable for intramuscular in- 

Corrosive mercuric 

chloride 13.6 grammes. 


acid 100.0 mils. 

Distilled water enough. 

Chlorbutanol 2.0 grammes. 

Wool-fat 15.0 grammes. 

Liquid petrolatum, 

to make 100.0 mils. 

The mercuric chloride is dissolved in 
200 mils of distilled water at 50 deg. 
C; the solution is filtered, and to it is 
added slowly the hypophosphorous acid 
diluted with 200 mils of distilled water. 
The mixture is then heated on a water 
bath at 50 deg. C. for one hour. The 
precipitate is washed by decantation 
with distilled water and triturated 
with the wool-fat in a sterile mortar. 
The chlorbutanol is dissolved in about 
50 mils of liquid petrolatum; this solu- 
tion is mixed intimately with the wool- 
fat mixture and enough liquid petro- 
latum added to make 100 mils. 

Used as an antiseptic and stimulant 
application for the throat. 

Jacobi's Gargle 

Tincture of ferric chloride. 12 mils. 

Glycerin 24 mils. 

Saturated solution of potas- 
sium chlorate enough to 
make 100 mils. 

Owing to the alcoholic content of the 
tincture some of the potassium chlorate 
crystallizes out. For this reason the 
equivalent, about 4 grammes of sodium 
chlorate, can be used, which on account 
of its greater solubility remains in 

Lubricating Jelly 

The following formula for lubricat- 
ing jelly, which has been used at the 
Lankenau Hospital in Philadelphia, 
was published in a recent issue of the 
Journal of the American Medical As- 

Tragacanth, whole.... 3 grammes. 

Glycerin 25 mils. 

Phenol, in proper posi- 
tion 1.5 grammes. 

Distilled water, a suf- 
ficient quantity to 
make 300 mils. 

The tragacanth is broken in small 
pieces and put into a wide mouthed 
bottle; the other ingredients are added 
and the bottle is frequently shaken. 

Mandl's Solution 

Iodine 1.25 grammes. 

Potassium iodide.. . . 5.50 grammes. 
Oil of peppermint... 0.75 mil. 
Glycerin enough to 
make 100 mils. 

Menthol Pencils 

Menthol 100 grammes. 

Benzoic acid 10 grammes. 

Eucalyptol 3 grammes. 

Melt the ingredients together at the 
lowest temperature possible, mold the 
mass into cones, and allow these to 
cool in a covered vessel. 

Modified Compound Tincture of 

Dr. P. E. Hommell contributes to 
Merck's Report what he designates an 
improved formula for compound tinc- 
ture of benzoin. It is: 

Benzoin (40 pow- 
der) 100 grammes. 

Myrrh (moderately 

coarse powder) ... 20 grammes. 

Storax 80 grammes. 

Balsam of tolu 40 grammes. 

Alcohol, to make. . .1,000 mils. 

Swedish Bitters 

This is a name sometimes applied to 
the compound tincture of aloes of the 
German Pharmacopoeia, the formula 
for which is: 

Aloes 6 grammes. 

Rhubarb 1 gramme. 

Gentian 1 gramme. 

Zedoary 1 gramme. 

Saffron 1 gramme. 

Diluted alcohol 200 grammes. 

Normal Salt Solution 

Normal physiological salt solution 
varies in strength according to the 
ideas of those who make it — or for 
whom it is made — from about 6/10 of 
1 per cent, to 9/10 of 1 per cent. 

In a note on this subject in The 
Druggists' Circular the percentage of 
salt in the solution is stated to be from 
0.60 to 0.75, and in a British paper it is 
set down as being from 0.6 to 0.7. 

In a very informative article on 
"Making and Marketing Sterile Salt 
Solution for Surgical Use," by St. 
Claire Ransford-Gay, published in The 
Druggists Circular, "normal physiolog- 
ical salt solution" is said to be an 0.8 
per cent, sterile solution of sodium 
chloride in water. 

Dorian's Medical Dictionary says: 
"Normal or physiologic salt solution is 
one that contains from 0.6 to 0.75 per 
cent, of salt. It resembles in action 
and density most of the animal fluids 
and is used for intravenous injection 
after profuse hemorrhage or severe 



In the United States Dispensatory 
under the heading "Sodium Chloride" 
we read: "A 0.9 per cent, solution is 
largely used under the name of physio- 
logical or normal salt solution in shock 
or hemorrhage." 

This normal physiological salt solu- 
tion should not be confused with the 
normal volumetric solutions used in 


Trojanka is regarded as a cure-all by 
the Swedes and Poles who use it. The 
composition is uncertain, as every dis- 
penser offers something different, ex- 
cept that all agree that the "bitters" 
must contain chamomile and senna. A 
working formula is: 

Orange peel 1 ounce. 

Cut gentian 1 ounce. 

Cardamom % ounce. 

Galangal % ounce. 

Star anise Y 2 ounce. 

Caraway seed % ounce. 

Centaury 1 ounce. 

Red clover blossoms % ounce. 

Blood root y 2 ounce. 

Cinchona 1 ounce. 

Cinnamon 1 ounce. 

Cloves % ounce. 

Senna pods % ounce. 

Orange flowers % ounce. 

Nutmeg 1 only. 

Somewhat less complex is the fol- 

Gentian 50 grammes. 

Galangal 50 grammes. 

Sarsaparilla 50 grammes. 

Red clover blossoms. 50 grammes. 

Centaury 50 grammes. 

Orange peel 15 grammes. 

Star anise 8 grammes. 

Cinnamon 8 grammes. 

Xutmeg 4 grammes. 

Xux vomica 2 grammes. 

Red Mercuric Iodide Hypodermically 

Dr. H. A. B. Dunning states that the 
physicians of his city are satisfied 
with the solutions of red mercuric 
iodide for subcutaneous injection made 
according to the following formulas: 

Red mercuric iodide 0.2 gramme. 
Oil of sesame 50.0 grammes. 

Triturate the finely powdered iodide 
with a small portion of oil of sesame 
to a smooth paste, then add the re- 
mainder of oil and mix thoroughly, in- 
troduce into a suitable container, and 
heat in water, shaking frequently un- 
til solution has been effected, filter 
while hot, and sterilize by immersing 
the container in water and heating to 
boiling for one hour. 


Red mercuric 

Iodide 0.5 gramme. 

Castor oil 18.0 mils. 

Olive oil 32.0 mils. 

Triturate the iodide to a fine pow- 
der and rub to a smooth paste with a 
portion of the mixed oils, and then 
add the remainder of the oils, intro- 
duce into a suitable container, and 
heat in water with frequent agitation 
until solution has been effected; filter 
while hot, and sterilize by immersing 
the container in water and heating to 
boiling for one hour. 

Dr. Dunning finds that castor oil is 
the best solvent 

Nutritive Enema 

Liquid peptone 30.0 mils. 

Glucose (20 P. C.) . .100.0 grammes. 

Pepsin 1.0 gramme. 

Sodium chloride.... 0.5 gi-amme. 
Bouillon, to make. . .250.0 mils. 
Eggs, well beaten.. 2 only. 

Permanganate Pencils 

For preparing permanganate pen- 
cils, potassium permanganate and so- 
dium sulphate are intimately mixed 
and heated until fused. The molten 
mass is then transferred to tin-lined 
or enameled molds of convenient 

Stypic Collodion 


Benzoin 44 grains. 

Pyroxylin 44 grains. 

Tannic acid 1 ounce. 

Absolute alcohol 1 ounce. 

Purified ether 4 ounces. 

Dissolve the benzoin in the abso- 
lute alcohol and filter. In the filtrate 
dissolve the tannic acid, and add the 
other ingredients. Set aside for three 
days, and decant. 



Price Schedules — How to Calculate Alcohol Percentages — Tables of 
Solubilities — Bottle Capping- Formulas — Disguising the Taste of 
Drugs — Colors for Show Bottles — Varnishes for Labels and Other 
Information of Interest to the Prescriptionist. 

N. A. R. 

Always Consult the Index When Using This Book 

D. Prescription Pricing 


(All figures are compounding 

How to Fix Price. — The price of the 
prescription is the compounding fee, -f 
the cost of the container + twice the 
.cost of the material. (Exception: When 
the cost of material is over $1.00. mul- 
tiply cost by iy 2 instead of 2; and fur- 
ther, if the cost is over 50c. and under 
$1.00, adopt the following sliding scale: 
Cost 60c, add $1.10; cost 70c, add 
$1.20; cost SOc, add $1.30; cost 90c, 
add $1.40. These prices are based on 
a $1.50 per hour scale. 

Example.- — If the ingredients of a 
four-ounce mixture cost 12c, compute 
price as follows: Compounding fee. 
35c, + container, 5c, + twice cost of 
material. 25c. (12 X 2)=total, 65c 

1. Liquid Prescriptions. — Minimum 
total charge, 25c All simple or com- 
pound mixtures, internal or external, 
dry or liquids and veterinary prepara- 
tions are included in this table. Eye 
remedies should be charged for as in 
the column, "Dose 1-5 m." 


& Ex- 





. ternal 


1-5 m 

10-25 M 



3i only. 

Vz oz.. 

. .25 





1 oz. 

. .35 





2 oz.. 

. .45 





3 oz. 





4 oz. 




6 oz.. 




8 oz.. 




12 oz.. 




16 oz . 




32 oz.. 




2. Proprietaries. — Original package, 
regular retail price; when costing over 
$2, $4 or $8 per dozen, add 65 per cent, 
to cost; when transferred to new con- 
tainer, add 15 per cent, to regular re- 
tail price. When part of package is 
dispensed, double cost of amount used, 
add charge for container and one-half 
of the compounding fee (see below). 

3. Dry Mixtures. — Minimum total 
charge, 15c These figures are com- 
pounding fees only. 

Pills, Powders, Capsules, Wafers, Etc. 
Number — 

4 6 8 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 50 
Fee — 
15c 20c 25c 30c 35c 40c 45c 50c 60c 75c 90c 

Then every additional 25 up to one 
hundred, 25c After that 20c for every 
additional 25. 

Where powders are prescribed by the 
ounce, charge as follows for compound- 
ing fee: 1 oz., 25c; 2 oz., 35c; 3 oz., 
40c; 4 oz., 45c; 6 oz., 50c; 8 oz., 55c; 
12 oz., 65c; 16 oz., 75c, etc. 

Proprietaries costing 20c per hun- 
dred or less, 10c for labeling and pack- 
age, and 15c for 1 doz., 25c for 2 doz., 
35c for 3 doz., 40c for 4 doz., then 5c 
for each additional dozen. Costing over 
20c and under 50c per hundred, 10c for 
labeling and package, and 20c for 1 
doz., 35c for 2 doz., 50c for 3 doz., 60c 
for 4 doz., then 10c for each additional 
dozen. When the wholesale price is 
over 50c. per hundred, special rates 
may be made. 

4. Fatty Mixtures, Etc. 

Ointments and Cerates. 
y 2 oz 20 4 oz. 

1 oz 25 

2 oz 35 

3 oz 45 


6 oz 65 

8 oz 75 

16 oz 1.00 

Suppositories. Bougies, Etc. 





. .10 

. .90 

5. Veterinary. — Allow a discount of 
25 per cent, from the regular schedule 
on compounding fee only, except that 
for bulk powders the minimum charge 
be 25c for compounding. 

6. Household Remedies, Mixtures, 
Etc.: Add regular retail priee of in- 
gredients (none less than 5c) and 




charge for container. If any compound- 
ing is necessary, charge at rate of $1.50 
per hour. 

7. Containers: Pill and Powder 
Boxes, 5c. Ointment Jars, 1 oz., 5c; 
2-4 oz., 10c; 8 oz., 15c Bottles, 8 oz., 
or less, 5c; 10-16 oz., 10c; 32 oz.. 15c; 
% gal., 20c; 1 gal., 25c Glass Stoppered 
Bottles, three times the price of plain 

8. Marking Price on Prescriptions: 
[f a prescription or copy leaves your 
store, mark it with N. A. R. D. price, as 


9. Admissible Changes: If customer 
is poor, add a star (*) to price mark, 
showing you have gone below schedule 
price. If your present prices are lower 
than above, raise them gradually to 
sechedule prices. 

Pricing Prescriptions. 

David H. Gordon contributes the 
schedule of prescription prices in vogue 
in the store of Coursey & Munn, 
Atlanta, Ga. He says: "This system 
is not without a flaw or exception, but 
we have followed the policy of mark- 
ing a prescription 'special price' when 
not priced according to this chart. In 
looking over the file of about 20,000 
prescriptions we find less than 150 
marked 'special.' " 

The rules for pricing and the sched- 
ule of prices follow: 

Price no prescription at a profit of 
less than 100 per cent, unless it be for 
an original bottle of some specialty or 
"patent" medicine. Use your best judg- 
ment in applying the following rules to 
the prescription and remember that the 
party may want to get a copy and com- 
pare your price with that of other 

1. When handed a copied prescrip- 
tion from a cutter, allow no rule to in- 
fluence you in making a price. 

2. The moral effect is what we are 
aft er. 

3. Always impress the customer with 
the fact that we save them money on 
prescriptions, because we sell "patents" 
at reasonable figures. 

(Where dose is a teaspoonful.) 

For 2 ounces or less $0.25 

From % oz. to 1 oz 35 

From 1 oz. to 2 ozs 40 

From 2 ozs. to 3 ozs 50 

From 3 ozs. to 4 ozs 65 

From 6 ozs. to 8 ozs 85 

From 8 ozs. to 12 ozs 1.00 

(Where dose is two teaspoonfuls.) 

For 1 ounce or less $0.25 

From 1 oz. to 2 ozs 35 

From 2 ozs. to 3 ozs 40 

From 3 ozs. to 4 ozs 50 

From 4 ozs. to 6 ozs 65 

From 8 ozs. to 12 ozs 90 

From 12 ozs. to 16 ozs 1.25 

Liquids for External Use. 

For 1 oz. or less $0.25 

From 1 to 2 ozs 35 

From 2 to 3 ozs 40 

From 3 to 4 ozs 50 

From 4 to 6 ozs 65 

From 6 to 8 ozs 75 

Shop Pills. 

For 12 or less $0.25 

From 12 to 18 35 

From 18 to 24 40 

From 24 to 36 50 

From 36 to 48 65 

Hypodermic Tablets. 
(100 per cent, on net invoice price.) 

For 3 or less $0.25 

For 4 35 

From 4 to 6 50 

From 6 to 8 65 

From 9 to 12 75 

From 12 to 16 1.00 


For 6 or less $0.25 

From 6 to 8 35 

From 8 to 12 40 

From 12 to 15 50 

From 15 to 24 65 

From 24 to 30 75 

From 30 to 36 85 

From 36 to 48 1.00 

From 48 to 60 1.25 


For 4 or less $0.25 

From 4 to 6 35 

From 6 to 8 40 

From 8 to 12 50 

From 12 to 24 75 

From 24 to 36 1.00 


For % oz. or less $0.25 

From % to 1 oz 35 

From 1 to 2 ozs 50 

From 2 to 4 ozs 75 

From 4 to 8 ozs 1.00 

Hand-Made Pills. 

For 6 or less $0.25 

From 6 to 8 35 

From 8 to 12 40 

From 12 to 24 65 

From 24 to 36 85 

Bulk Powders. 

For 1 oz. or less $0.25 

From 1 to 2 ozs 35 

From 2 to 4 ozs 40 

From 4 to 6 ozs 50 

From 6 to 8 ozs 65 

From 8 to 1 6 oz 75 


For 8 or less $0.25 

From 8 to 1 2 35 

From 12 to 15 40 

From 15 to 24 65 

From 24 to 36 75 

From 36 to 48 90 



From 48 to 60 1.00 

From 60 to 7o 1.25 

From 75 to 100 1.50 

Suppositories, 75 cents per dozen (in 
single dozen lots.) 

Cachets, 10 cents each, with a 
charge of 7 1 / & cents in large lots. 

A California Schedule 

At the 1919 meeting of the California 
Pharmaceutical Association the ac- 
companying prescription price sched- 
ule was submitted for consideration 
with the statement that many of the 
druggists in San Francisco were ad- 
hering to it : 
Capsules, pills, powders and tablets: 

Price of 
Number. Price per dose, prescription 
12 5 cents .60 

15-20 4 cents .80 

24-30 3'i cents 1.05 

35-50 3 cents 1.50 

60-100 2.% cents 2.50 

Liquids in teaspoonful doses up to two 

ounces, nothing less than 50 cents. 
Quantity. Doses. Per Dose. Total. 

3 ounces 24 doses 3 cents $ .75 

4 ounces 32 doses 3 cents 1.00 
6 ounces 48 doses 2% cents 1.20 
8 ounces 64 doses 2% cents 1.50 

12 ounces 96 doses 1% cents 1.65 
16 ounces 128 doses 1% cents 2.25 
Dessertspoon doses: 

3 ounces 12 doses 5 cents $ .60 

4 ounces 16 doses 5 cents .80 

6 ounces 24 doses 4 cents .96-1.00 

8 ounces 32 doses 4 cents 1.42-1.50 

12 ounces 48 doses 3% cents 1.65 

16 ounces 64 doses 3 cents 1.90 
Tablespoon doses: 

3 ounces 6 doses 10 cents $ .60 

4 ounces 8 doses 10 cents .80 
6 ounces 12 doses 8 cents 1.00 
8 ounces 16 doses 8 cents 1.25 

12 ounces 24 doses 6 cents 1.50 
16 ounces 32 doses 5% cents 1.75 


1 ounce $ .50 

2 ounces 75 

3 ounces 1.00 

4 ounces 1.25 

6 ounces 1.50 

8 ounces 1.75 

That applies to everything except 
eye ointment. Eye ointment and eye 
water, even if they are just plain boric 
acid, should never be put up for less 
than 50 cents in the case of ordinary 
drugs, and expensive drugs; which are 
very frequent in eye waters, at a 
greater price. It is presumed that in 
an eye preparation we use excessive 


1 and 2 ounces $ .50 

3 ounces 65 

4 ounces 75 

6 ounces 1.00 

8 ounces 1.25 

16 ounces 2.00 

Ruddiman's Scale 

Ruddiman in his work on "Incom- 
patibilities in Prescriptions" (1908) 
gives the following table showing the 
average of prices charged in the vari- 
ous sections of the United States for 
prescriptions not requiring extraordi- 
nary skill or calling for any very ex- 
pensive ingredients: 


1 ounce 20 to 25 cents. 

2 ounces 30 to 35 cents. 

3 ounces 35 to 40 cents. 

4 ounces 40 to 50 cents. 

6 ounces 60 to 65 cents. 

8 ounces 75 cents. 


% ounce 25 cents. 

1 ounce 30 to 35 cents. 

2 ounce 40 to 50 cents. 

Powders, Capsules or Pills. 
1 to 4 15 to 25 cents. 

5 to 6 25 to 30 cents. 

8 30 to 35 cents. 

10 35 to 40 cents. 

12 40 cents. 

24 50 to 75 cents. 


% dozen 40 to 50 cents. 

1 dozen 75 to 100 cents. 

Canadian Association and Prescription 

At its 1910 meeting the Canadian 
Pharmaceutical Association voted to 
recommend to the druggists of the 
Dominion the following scale of prices 
for ordinary prescriptions: 

Mixtures, 8 ounce $1.00 

Mixtures, 6 ounce 75 

Mixtures, 4 ounce 65 

Mixtures, 3 ounce 50 

Mixtures, 2 ounce 40 

Mixtures, 1 ounce 25 

Mixtures, 4 dram 25 

Pills, ready-made, 1 dozen 25 

Pills, hand-made, 1 dozen 50 

Capsules, 1 dozen 50 

Konseals, 1 dozen 50 

Suppositories, 1 dozen 1.00 

Ointments, % ounce 50 

Ointments, 2 ounce 75 

Dispensing Fees in Austria 

According to an official pharmaceu- 
tical price list adopted in Austria a 
few years ago the fees which the phar- 
macists are allowed to charge for dis- 
pensing manipulations are as follows: 

For each act of dispensing a charge 



of 4 cents must be made; for each mix- 
ing of liquids or ointments, double that 
amount; for dividing a substance into 
ten powders, at least 10 cents, and as 
much for each infusion; for all other 
manipulations, including the boiling of 
substances and the making of any 
number of pills up to 100, 16 cents. 
For the weighing of amounts above 1 
centigram a slight additional tax i 
charged, and for smaller quantities 
than that the additional tax is doubled. 

Prescription Percentages 

A pharmacist dispensing more than 
7,000 prescriptions each month in one 
of the Western States has made a 
careful inventory of his files and has 
learned some interesting things con- 
cerning them. 

For instance, he has found that more 
than 68 per cent, of the prescriptions he 
receives call for liquids; almost 10 per 
cent, for capsules, 9 per cent, for pow- 
ders, and 6 per cent, for ointments. 
Only 1 out of every 7,350 prescriptions 
calls for a plaster, and only 6 of them 
for cachets. 

His tabulation shows also the per- 
centage of simple and mixed liquids, 
simple and mixed powders, manufac- 
tured and fresh made pills, etc. The 
figures follow: 

Mixed liquids 3,199 = 43.52+ p. c. 

Single liquids 1,803 = 24.53+ p. c. 

Mixed capsules 473= 6.43+ p. c. 

Mixed powders 427 = 5.00+ p. c. 

Mixed ointments... 290= 3.94+ p. c. 

Simple powders. . . . 250 = 3.40+ p. c. 

Simple capsules.... 224= 3.05+ p. c. 

Manufactured pills. 221= 3.00+ p. c. 

Simple ointments... 169= 2.29+ p. c. 

Prop, suppositories. 87= 1.18+ p. c. 

Fresh made pills. . . 82 = 1.11+ p. c. 

Fr. made s'positories 20 = .27+ p. c. 

Cachets 6= .08+ p. c. 

Plasters 1 = .001+ p. c. 

Not classified 98 = 1.33+ p. c. 

Total 7,350 

This indicates that the several prep- 
arations are in demand in the follow- 
ing order: Liquids, capsules, powders, 
ointments, pills, suppositories, cachets 
and plasters. The figures showing the 
relative percentages are as follows: 

Liquids 5,002 = 68.05+ p. c. 

Capsules 697= 9.48+ p. c. 

Powders 677= 9.21+ p. c. 

Ointments 459= 6.24+ p. c. 

Pills 303 = 4.12+ p. c. 

Suppositories 107 = 1.45+ p. c. 

Cachets 6 = .08+ p. c. 

Plaster 1 = .001+ p. c. 

Not classified 98= 1.33+ p. c. 

Total 7,350 

During 1919 The Druggists' Circular 
published a summary of the answers 

received from a questionnaire in regard 
to the prescription department in 
which it was shown that capsules are 
being more generally used than ever 
before, and the figures above indicate 
that nearly 10 per cent, of all the pre- 
scriptions written are for this class of 
galenicals. Plasters, other than pro- 
prietary, are rarely employed, and pills 
are not so popular as they were a few 
years ago. 

These figures may not apply to all 
stores, but a comparison of them with 
the answers received in reply to the 
questionnaire described above indicates 
that they are about right for the aver- 
age one. 

Calculating Alcoholic Percentage 

1. What is the percentage of ab- 
solute alcohol in the following mix- 
ture ? 

Aromatic fluidextract of 

cascara sagrada 125 mils. 

Fluidextract of senna 75 mils. 

Fluidextract of juglans. ... 65 mils. 

Aromatic elixir 735 mils. 

Syrup 25 mils. 

Alcohol 125 mils. 

Water 200 mils. 

By reference to the official tables we 
find the alcoholic percentages of the 
various preparations, and proceed as 

age of No. of 
alcohol. units. 
Aromatic fluidextract of 

cascara sagrada 3S X 125 = 4750 

Fluidextract of senna.. 43 X 75= 3225 
Fluidextract of juglans. 48 X 65= 3120 

Aromatic elixir 25 X 735 = 18375 

Syrup OX 25= 

Alcohol 95X125 = 11875 

Water 0X200= 

1350 41345 
Dividing 41345 by 1350 we get 30.6, 
which is the alcoholic percentage of the 

2. What is the percentage of alcohol 
in a mixture of — 

Wine of opium 1 ounce. 

Tincture of valerian . . . . 1 V 2 ounces. 

Ether 4 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 1 dram. 

Fluidextract of ipecac. 15 minims. 

Alcohol. enough to make 4 ounces. 

As the units are different, the first 
step is to make them uniform, and this 
may be done by expressing them all in 
drams or minims. In this case it is 
easier to express them in drams, so we 
have — 

age of No. of 
alcohol, units. 

Wine of opium 25 X 8 =200 

Tincture of valerian ..72X12 = 864 


Ether 4X4 = 16 

Oil of peppermint ox 1=0 

Fluidextract of ipecac. 72 X 0.25= 18 
Alcohol (estimated 

quantity i 95X 675 = 641.25 

32 1739.25 

Thirty-two into 1739.25 goes 54.35 + 
times — the percentage of alcohol in the 

Percentage Solutions 

The following information is taken 
from the Hospital Formulary of the 
Department of Public Charities and the 
Department of Bellevue and Allied 
Hospitals of the City of New York, 
which was formerly issued under the 
editorship of Dr. Charles Rice, and 
seems simple and sane, which two 
words cannot with justice be applied to 
all such information that has appeared 
in print : — 

Table for Preparing Percentage Solu- 

One fluid ounce of water, or 480 
minims, weighs 456.4 grains. One pint 
of water, or 7680 minims, weighs 7302, 
or practically 7300 grains. Hence a 10 
per cent, solution, for instance, is one 
which contains 730 grains of some sub- 
stance in 1 pint. 

The following table will show at a 
glance the quantity of any substance, 
by weight, required to prepare 1 pint 
of a solution of the required percent- 
age. When great accuracy is not re- 
quired, the rounded-off figures, in pa- 
rentheses, may be used and the frac- 
tions omitted. 

I. To Prepare One Pint of a Solution. 

Take of the substance the 
below stated amount in 

grrains with enough 
water to make 1 pint. 


Prices Per Pound and Ounce 

The Southern Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal gives the following as a convenient 
table when invoicing: — 


red to 


of a certain substance 

per cent. 















1 in 



1 in 



1 in 



1 in 



1 in 






1 in 



1 in 



1 in 



1 in 



1 in 









1 in 












1 in 



1 in 

















(7V 4 ) 































Price per 

Cents per 

Price per 

Cents per 





At $1.00 


At $S.25 

51 9/16 


7 13/16 






54 11 16 


10 15/16 






57 13 16 


14 1 16 






60 15/16 


17 3/16 






64 1 16 


20 5/16 






67 3 16 


23 7 16 






70 3 16 


26 9 16 






73 7 16 


29 11 16 






76 9 16 


32 13/16 






79 11 16 


35 15/16 






82 13/16 


39 116 






85 15 16 


42 3/16 






S9 1/16 


45 5/16 






92 3 16 


48 7/16 





Metric Weighing and Old-Style Pricing 

If 1 pound (av.) costs.. 100.00% 

1 kilogramme costs. . 220.46% 
100 grammes cost 22.046% 

10 grammes cost 2.205% 

9 grammes cost 1.984% 

8 grammes cost 1.764% 

7 grammes cost 1.544$ 

6 grammes cost 1.323% 

5 grammes cost 1.10 

4 grammes cost .882 

3 grammes cost .662% 

2 grammes cost .441 r ; 

1 gramme costs .221% 

If 1 pint costs 100.00% 

1.000 mils cost 211.3% 

100 mils cost 21 

10 mils cost 2.113% 

9 mils cost 1.902% 

8 mils cost 1.690' 

7 mils cost • 1.479' { 

6 mils cost 1.268 

5 mils cost 1056% 

4 mils cost .845 

3 mils cost 634% 

2 mils cost. 423% 

1 mil costs .21F, 

The application of these tables is ob- 
vious. If we desire to estimate the 
value of the opium in 1.000 mils of 
laudanum, at $4.85 per pound, multiply 
the constant for 100 grammes by the 
cost per pound and we have 4.85X22.046 



=106.92310. Pointing off two more fig- 
ures for per cent., we have 1.06, the cost 
in dollars of the opium. 

solubility of salicylic acid in castor oil, 
mixtures of that with other oils will, of 
course, dissolve more than the latter. 

Solubilities in Glycerin. 

Ossendowski has worked out the fol- 
lowing table of solubilities in glycerin; 
the figures represent the quantity of 
each substance soluble in 100 parts of 
glycerin at 15° to 16° C: 

Ammonium carbonate 20.00 

Ammonium chloride 20.06 

Barium chloride 9.73 

Benzoic acid 10.21 

Boric acid 11.00 

Calcium sulphate 5.17 

Copper acetate 10.00 

Copper sulphate 36.30 

Iodine 2.00 

Mercurous chloride 8.00 

Oxalic acid 15.10 

Phosphorus 0.25 

Potassium arsenate 50.13 

Potassium chlorate 3.54 

Potassium chloride '. . . 3.72 

Potassium cyanide 31.84 

Potassium iodide 39.72 

Quinine 0.47 

Sodium bicarbonate 8.06 

Sodium arsenate 50.00 

Sodium borate 60.00 

Sodium carbonate 98.30 

Sulphur 0.14 

Tannic acid 48.83 

Zinc chloride 49.87 

Zinc iodide 39.78 

Zinc sulphate 35.18 

Temperature Changes When Certain 
Salts Dissolve. 

When hydrated salts are dissolved in 
water they absorb an amount of heat 
equivalent to that given off in their 
crystallization. This accounts for the 
lowering of the temperature when salts 
generally are dissolved. Potassium 
iodide is a striking example. 

Anhydrous salts, on the other hand, 
u nit e chemically with water when dis- 
solved therein and give off heat. So- 
dium iodide is an anhydrous salt. The 
marked rise in temperature when sul- 
phuric acid or quick lime is mixed with 
water is due to the same cause. 

Solubility of Salicylic Acid in Fatty 

Engfelt states the solubility of 
salicylic acid in fatty oils as follows: 

Seal 1.7 pc. Rapeseed. 2.17 pc. 

Cod liver. 1.86 pc Sesame .. 2.61 pc. 
Peanut... 1.88 pc. Linseed .. 3.04 pc. 
Almond . . 2.08 pc. Cottonseed 3.23 pc. 
Olive .... 2.14 pc. Castor .. .12.98 pc. 

Salicylic acid is insoluble in paraffin. 
On account of the relatively high 

Table of Solubilities. 

The solubilities of the more impor- 
tant medicinal chemicals are given in 
the Pharmacopoeia and other works 
which druggists are supposed to pos- 
sess. Knowing the solubility of the 
given salt (or other drug) in the me- 
dium which it is desired to saturate 
with it, a simple mathematical calcu- 
lation will enable the operator to de- 
termine how much of the salt and how 
much of the medium to use in making 
a saturated solution. 

J. Leon Lascoff has given the follow- 
ing figures to aid those who desire to 
make saturated solutions of some of 
the more common medicinal salts in 
water : 

Grammes Grains 

to make to make 

100 c. c. 1 fl. oz. 

Potassium iodide 99.6 456 

Sodium iodide 127.5 584.3 

Strontium iodide 114.9 526 

Potassium bromide.... 50.40 230 

Sodium bromide 72.09 329 

Potassium chlorate 5.69 26 

Magnesium sulphate. .. 56.32 260 

To Convert Thermometer Readings. 

A correspondent of the Lancet (Lon- 
don) offers a new alternative method 
of converting degrees Centigrade into 
degrees Fahrenheit. It consists of mul- 
tiplying the centigrade figures by 2, de- 
ducting one-tenth of the product, and 
adding 32. Example (a), 30° C.= 86° 
F. Method: 30X2=60. 60—6=54. 54 + 
32=86. Example (b), 37° C.=98.6° F. 
Method: 37X2=74. 74—7.4=66.6 66.6 + 
32=98.6. Example (c), 40° C.=104° F. 
Method: 40X2=80. 80—8=72. 72+32= 

C. H. Stocking has found the follow- 
ing rule easy to apply: F — 32 is to 180 
as C. is to 100. For example, 92° F.= 
how many degrees C? 92—32=60, and 
60 : 180 : : 33 1-3 : 100; therefore 92° 
F.=33 1-3° C. 

Neither rule, it seems to us, is as 
easy as those we use, which are: To 
convert degrees Fahrenheit into de- 
grees centigrade, subtract 32, divide by 
9, multiply by 5. For example, take 
212° F., subtract 32, and we have 180; 
into this 9 goes 20 times; and 5 times 
20 is 100. To convert degrees centi- 
grade into degrees Fahrenheit, divide 
by 5 multiply by 9, and add 32. It is 
easy to remember these rules, because 
we know that the boiling point is 212 
on one scale and 100° on the other, ami 
those two figures suggest the applica- 
tion of the rules to themselves, and 



that enables us to remember the fac- 
tors to apply to any other given fig- 

Degrees Baume 

A subscriber requests that we ex- 
plain what is meant by 26 deg. B. at 
15 cleg. C. found on the labels of 28 
per cent, ammonia water. 

B stands for Baume and C for cen- 
tigrade. The temperature at which 
specific gravity is taken is, with chem- 
ists. 15 deg. C, the official temperature 
in most countries. In this country the 
official temperature for taking specific 
gravity is 25 deg. C. An easy and much- 
used method of taking the specific 
gravity of liquids is by using Baume's 
hydrometer. By dropping this instru- 
ment into a liquid it sinks to a depth 
which varies with the weight of the 
liquid. A scale indicates the depth the 
instruments sinks, and by a simple 
computation the figure, or degree, on 
the scale may be made to show the 
specific gravity. The following is the 
rule when the hydrometer for liquids 
lighter than water is used: Divide 140 
by 130 + the degree B. Apply this 

rule to the present case we have 


. the answer being 0.897, 

130 - 26 
which is the specific 
stronger ammonia water. 

travity of 

To Find the Capacity of a Barrel 

To find the capacity of a barrel, 
square the largest diameter, then mul- 
tiply by 2, then add the square of the 
head diameter; multiply this sum by 
the length of the barrel and that prod- 
uct by 0.2618. 

Take, for example, a barrel whose 
largest diameter is 21 inches, head 18 
inches and height 33 inches: 21 X 
21 X 2 = 882; 18 X 18 = 324 + 882 = 
1206; 1206 X 33 = 39,798; 39,79S 
X 0.2618 = 10.419.11 cubic inches. 
Dividing by 231. the number of cubic 
inches in a gallon gives 45*10, the ca- 
pacity, in gallons, of the barrel. 

How to Use an Alcoholometer 

A full explanation of the appliance 
would take much space and should be 
accompanied by an illustration. ( See 
Caspari's Treatise on Pharmacy). Here 
we will say that the alcohol is put into 
an appropriate cylinder, the hydrome- 
ter is floated upon the fluid and the 
percentage of alcohol read off at the 
point where the scale touches the sur- 
face of the liquid. The scale usually 
has two sections: The Richter scale 
indicating percentage of alcohol by 
weight and the Tralles scale giving 
percentage by volume. 

As *o temperature correction, if the 

thermometer sealed within the bulb 
is in Fahrenheit degrees — as is usually 
the case — the factor of correct ion is 
0.15 of 1 per cent, for each degree 
above or below 60 degrees F. ; that is, 
of course, if the hydrometer is stand- 
ardized (as is customary) to that de- 
gree of temperature. 

Thus, if your reading is 93 per cent. 
of alcohol by volume, when the ther- 
mometer shows the temperature of 70 
degrees F.. then the percentage by 
volume at standard (60 degrees F.) 
temperature would be 93 per cent, less 
0.15 X 10, or 93—1.5, or 91.5 per 
cent, of alcohol by volume. On the 
other hand, , if the reading is 93 per 
cent, and the thermometer reading is 
50 degrees F., then the correction 
(0.15 x 10 = 1.5) is made by adding 
1.5 to 93 so the alcohol under observa- 
tion would show 94.5 per cent, by 
volume at 60 degrees F. 

Formula Calculation Helps 

Secretary Lowry (Baltimore branch 
of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation) gives these figures: — 

A gallon is equivalent to 58,418 gr;i 
til, 440 minims. If a formula for a gallon of a 
preparation calculated for 1,000 mils is wanted, 
all that is necessary in the calculation is to 
multiply the quantities in grammes by 58,418, 
and the product will be in grains, which may 
be reduced to avoirdupois pounds, ounces and 
grains. Or multiply the quantities in mils 
by 61.44, and the product will be in minims. 
which may be reduced to pints, fluid ounces, 
drams and minims. 

If tablfs be kept of the number of grains or 
minims in each ounce from 1 to 16 as well as 
tables by 501S, from 500 to 7.0'",. showing the 
equivalents in ounces and grains and in fluid 
ounces, drams and minims, the conversion be- 
comes easy. 

For pints divide either of these factors by 8, 
for quarts by 4, for a multiple number of gal- 
lons multiply by the number of gallons wanted. 

As an example, the U. S. P. formula for 
syrup of orange peel was cited, the quantity 
required being one gallon. 

Tincture sweet orange peel, 50 mils X 
61.44 = 3,012 minims — (5 ounces, 1U2 minims. 

Citric acid. 5 grammes X 58.418 = 292 grains 
= 292 grains. 

Magnesium carbonate, Id grammes X 58.418 
= 584 grains = 1 ounce 147 grains. 

Sugar, 820 grammes X 58.4 1*> = 47903 grains 
= 6 pounds 13 ounces 215 grains. 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make l<i00 
mils X 61.44 = 61440 minims = 1 gallon. 


It is not necessary to use a particu- 
lar kind of hydrometer for urine, and 
another kind for milk, alkali solutions, 
or acid solutions, but it is more con- 
venient. The lactometer, the acidome- 
ter. or any other special kind of hy- 
drometer, is scaled in such manner 
that it is practically unnecessary to 
perform any mathematical calculation 
in determining the fat-content or per- 
centage of total solids in the milk, or 
the percentage strength of the acid 
solution from the reading. Of course, 
any of these characteristics may be 
determined from an ordinary hydrome- 


ter reading, but the calculation in- 
volved is time-consuming - and often 
difficult. With the special kind of hy- 
drometer, on the other hand, it is nec- 
essary Only to consult a table of equiv- 

The Hot Plate 

The hot plate is simply a flat sheet 
of iron which is supported either by 
a metal tripod, or. if purchased, the 
best form is that with removable legs, 
says Joseph L. Mayer in a paper read 
before the New York State Pharma- 
ceutical Association. He added: 

To avoid rusting of glassware., it is 
well to place a sheet of very thin as- 
bestos paper on top of the iron. Of 
course, the heat is an ordinary bun- 
sen burner or any other convenient 

Among other advantages are the 
fact that by moving the material be- 
ing heated, either nearer or further 
away from that portion of the plate 
where the flame is, varying tempera- 
tures are obtained. 

The hot plate is an invaluable aid 
in drying glassware. It has many ad- 
vantages over wire gauze. 

Sterilization of Prescription Vials 

In Heinemann's Laboratory Guide in 
Bacteriology is a section on methods 
of sterilization, and from this we 
quote a paragraph: 

Sterilization by dry heat is applica- 
ble to the sterilization of most glass- 
ware. This method of sterilization is 
carried out by means of hot-air ster- 
ilizers. These hot-air sterilizers are 
boxes with double walls of sheet iron. 
The bottom shelf should always be 
covered with a piece of asbestos, to 
prevent heating the apparatus too 
rapidly. The temperature is main- 
tained at 160 deg. (C.) for one hour. 
The flame enters a holt- provided at 
the bottom of the box. Care should 
be taken to avoid the possibility of 
the flame becoming luminous, other- 
wise the glassware will be covered 
with soot. 

Such sterilizers are on the market. 

The "Explosion" of Solution of Hy- 
drogen Dioxide 
Manufacturers of solution of hydro- 
gen dioxide generally make use of 
some preservative to assure increased 
permanency of their products. The 
most popular preservative seems to be 
acetanilide; phosphoric acid is quite 
efficacious and so are other "mineral" 
acids. As the expulsion of the cork 
of the container is caused by the pres- 
sure of the oxygen given off by the 
solution and confined by the stopper. 
and as it is at best possible only lo 
reduce the rate of decomposition and 

the consequent evolution of oxygen, 
the only practicable and safe method 
of stoppering bottles containing solu- 
tion of hydrogen dioxide is to use a 
sound cork and fit it loosely in the 
neck of the container so as to prevent 
the accumulation of oxygen under 
pressure. As heat favors the decom- 
position of the solution it follows that 
the containers should be kept in a cool 

A "Carron Oil" Suggestion 

Carron oil with the addition of 
about 1 per cent, of compound solu- 
tion of cresol is a nice, white, smooth 
preparation that is far better and 
quicker in action than the regular 
mixture, the cresol solution having an 
antiseptic action which is desirable. — 
Louis J. Stiehl. 

Dispensing Liquids in Capsules 

A reader writes: The soft capsule 
for liquids is superior in every way 
to the hard. Not the least advantage 
of the soft capsule is freedom from 
leakage if the work is carefully done. 

A supply of different sizes of soft 
capsules and racks to hold them while 
being filled need not cost $2. Doctors 
prefer the soft variety because of the 
ease with which they may be swal- 

Some time ago I filled a prescription 
calling for a liquid in capsules, and, 
as usual, dispensed the soft variety. 
The prescription had been tilled in an- 
other store, where hard capsules were 
used. The customer refused to take 
mine because they were not like the 
first lot. I called the doctor and had, 
him tell his patient that my work was 

This introduced be to a physicain 
whom I had never known, who lives in 
a part of the city far from my store. 
If he has a call anywhere near me now 
I get the prescription. 

Labeling Prescription Boxes 

Unless the paper is of unusual char- 
acter any ordinary adhesive ought to 
answer. If the paper is very thin, 
ordinary flour paste, made by boiling 
flour with water until the mixture 
thickens, might prove better than 
others, as if it strikes through no 
stain will result. This paste dries 
slowly. A strong solution of dextrin 
is a good adhesive for use on paper. 
Its odor is slightly objectionable, how- 
ever, but this is not perceptible when 

A moderately thick solution of gum 
arabic is a very good paste for join- 
ing paper to paper, and is practically 
odorless when fresh. 

Manipulation has much to do with 
the matter of wrinkling. If the label 



is evenly coaled and carefully pressed 
down, it will not be apt to wrinkle. 

Large labels may be made to remain 
wrinkleless by wetting them well with 
water on both sides before affixing. 

L be of the Red Cross for Commer- 
cial Purposes 

The act of Congress under which the 
National Red Cross was reincorporated 
in 1905 provides that no person not 
then legally entitled to the use of the 
sign of the red cross shall be per- 
mitted to use it in any commercial 

Severing Test Tubes 

Glass is dissolved by hydrofluoric 
acid, which doubtless could be used in 
removing the lower end of a test tube 
without breaking. To etch a line 
around the outside of the tube, cover 
it with melted wax or paraffin scrape 
the protective covering from the tube 
where you desire to sever it, and ap- 
ply the acid. Repeated applications 
would, of course, in course of time, cut 
the tube in two. 

Hydrofluoric acid should be used with 
caution, and only by those who know 
how to handle dangerous chemicals. 

To Prevent the Walking of Bottles 

?.. A. Murdaugh, Michigan, writes: 
To prevent toilet-water bottles or 
other glassware from 'walking' off the 
glass shelves in show cases, put a 
strip of crepe paper under them. This 
takes up the jar and provides the 
ne:essary friction." 

Removing a Cork from a Bottle 

A cork that has been pushed into a 
bottle may be removed thus: Tie sev- 
eral knots in one end of a string to 
form a large cluster and drop it into 
the bottle, holding on to the other end 
of the string. Turn the bottle over so 
that the cork will fall into the opening 
in the neck; then pull on the string, 
and as the latter comes out of the bot- 
tle the cluster of knots will force out 
the cork. 

Quinine With Acetyl-Salicylic Acid 

Quinine is incompatible . with sev- 
eral organic acids, a poison, quino- 
toxin. being formed under certain con- 
ditions when they remain together. 
Prof. Wilbur L. Scoville has studied 
this subject and reported some of his 
findings in a paper read before the 
Detroit branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association and printed in 
the Journal of the association. In this 
paper mention is made of the decom- 

position of ;l mixture of quinine sul- 
phate and aspirin. 

In Detroit a death is reported as 
having been caused, supposedly, by 
the taking of quinine and aspirin. 
In commenting on this case the Bul- 
letin of Pharmacy well says: "If the 
ciuinine and aspirin combination was 
the cause of death in this instance. 
ami it appears quite likely that it 
was, druggists should be on their 
guard against dispensing such mix- 
tures. As both quinine and aspirin 
are popular home remedies they 
should also advise customers not to 
take the two in conjunction." 

Even when death is not caused by 
the mixture, rash and other distress- 
ing symptoms have frequently fol- 
lowed the taking of the two common 
drugs at the same time. 

Keeping Track of Small Bottlees 

Hague (Meyer Bros., Druggist) says 
that keeping track of small bottles, 
such as one-eighth ounce vials of alka- 
loids and poisonous chemicals, is a 
rather difficult task, as they get 
shoved behind each other and often 
fall from the shelf. To overcome this 
he advises that the druggist procure 
a small wooden box about 4 by 6 
inches, and 1 inch deep. All poisons 
of one class may be placed in this 
box and the front of it plainly marked 
to show what it contains, thus: "This 
box contains silver cyanide, silver ni- 
trate, fused silver nitrate, silver 
oxide." The next box may contain 
strychnine salts, etc. When in need 
of one of these bottles the druggist 
may lift the box from the shelf and 
his entire assortment of one class of 
chemicals is together and before him. 

Bottle Capping With Paraffin or 

If a paraffin capping is desired, the 
simplest method is to stir into melted 
paraffin a suitable amount of pigment, 
and keep the mixture well stirred to 
hold the pigment in suspension while 

If, for instance, a white capping is 
desired. 10 to 20 per cejit. of zinc oxide, 
oi- of had carbonate, or (less opaque) 
of talc, white clay, or chalk, can be 
sifted into the paraffin and well 
stirred. If a red color is desired, use 
jewelers' rouge, or red lead, for 
brown, use iron oxide or burnt sienna, 
for blue use Prussian blue or Turn- 
bull's blue, and for yellow, lead iodide. 

The proportions of each of these will 
vary with the depth of color and 
opacity desired, and some — as the red or 
yellow, might be employed more eco- 
nomically in mixture, as chalk or clay 
with the lead color. 

Another method is to dye the paraffin 



itself by means of an oil-soluble color, 
any shade of which may be obtained 
from the dye dealers. Then if opacity 
is also desired, a pigment may be 
used in addition. 

Many of these opaque and colored 
cappings are made from gelatin. The 
method is similar, but the gelatin be- 
ing more viscous, the pigments re- 
main in suspension better. A good 
mixture for use as a base is gelatin 
20 parts, glycerin 15 parts, water 65 
parts. Soak the gelatin in the water 
for an hour, then add the glycerin 
and heat until the gelatin is dissolved. 
This can be colored with water- 
soluble dyes or rendered opaque with 
one or a combination of the pigments 
enumerated. The brittleness of the 
gelatin mass can be regulated by the 
glycerin, using a larger proportion 
to soften the caps and less to harden 

Glucose can be used in place of 
glycerin, and is economically to be 
preferred, but an antiseptic must be 
incorporated or the caps are liable to 
mold. Dipping them into formalde- 
hyde solution would prevent this, but 
it also hardens the caps. A little 
phenol or salicylic acid in the mass 
would prevent molding. 

heated until the substance has melted. 
Melting points up to 450 degrees C. 
can thus be determined easily. 

Bottle Capping Mixture 

Take 1 pound of gelatin, melt it in 
as little water as necessary, add 1% 
ounces of glycerin and enough 'liquid 
cochineal" to give it color. 


Gelatin 1 ounce. 

Acacia 1 ounce. 

Starch 1 ounce. 

Boric acid 20 grains. 

Water 16 ounces. 

Mix the acacia, gelatin and acid with 
14 ounces of cold water, and stir occa- 
sionally until the gum is dissolved; 
then heat the mixture to boiling in a 
sand-bath: remove the scum and 
strain. Mix the starch intimately with 
the remainder of the water and stir 
this mixture with the hot gelatin solu- 
tion until a uniform product results. 
This preparation should be softened 
for use by the application of heat. 

Determining Melting Points 
Haras (Chem. Zeit.) gives the fol- 
lowing method for determining melt- 
ing points of substances melting at 
high temperatures: A small porcelain 
or nickel crucible is rilled with molten 
soft solder (two parts of tin and one 
part of lead), a thermometer placed in 
the metal, and the substance under 
examination put on the surface of the 
metal. The crucible is then slowly 

Preparing Benzoinated Lard 

To make a good benzoinated lard at 
least three things are necessary, good 
lard, good benzoin and some skill. Lard 
which is good from a pharmaceutical 
standpoint is not to be obtained in the 
grocery store. To be sure of his lard, 
the pharmacist should make it him- 
self. To do this, he should procure 
from a butcher the leaf or flare ob- 
tained from the abdomen of the hog, 
wash the fatty tissue free from blood 
and dirt, dry it with a clean towel, cut 
it into small pieces and heat it in an 
earthen or clean iron vessel over a 
water-bath until the fat has com- 
pletely separated from the tissue, 
which will require a temperature of 
55 degrees C. (131 degrees F.), and 
strain it. Beal, in giving this process, 
adds that if the proper amount of 
crushed benzoin be added at once, and 
the heating and stirring be continued 
for about twenty minutes before 
straining, "the injury due to a second 
heating is avoided." 

Scoville gives practically the same 
process, and also says that "the addi- 
tion of a small piece of elm bark while 
melting aids in clarifying." 

He also says that in following the 
official process for benzoinating lard 
it is more satisfactory first to mix the 
benzoin with an equal bulk of clean 
sand, which will prevent its lumping 
together in the lard. He recommends 
the use of Siam benzoin. 

More heat than the Pharmacopoeia 
directs is to be avoided, as both the 
benzoic acid and a portion of the lard 
are volatile. 

In summer, says Caspari. about 5 
per cent, of white wax should be sub- 
stituted for a like quantity of the lard, 
to render the preparation firmer. He 
also says that a perfectly smooth 
preparation can be obtained only if the 
strained lard be constantly stirred un- 
til a thick, creamy consistence is 
reached, after which it may be set 
aside until cold. 

W. A. Hall says: "Save your ether 
cans, and in the fall obtain from your 
butcher some unrendered leaf lard 
from large hogs. Render this at home 
in the old-fashioned style, unless, of 
course, you have facilities in the shop, 
and fill and cork the cans reserved. 
When the lard is wanted for use. you 
can melt it on a water-bath. I have 
kept lard in this way for over two 
years, perfectly sweet, and with no 
sign of granulation. The ointments 
made from this will likewise keep 
much better." 

In preparing benzoinated lard. P. H. 
Utech mixes the coarsely comminuted 
benzoin with an equal quantity of an- 


hydrous sodium sulphate, finding that 
this prevents the agglutination of the 

Renovating Lard 

While it is possible to remove to a 

certain extent the rancidity of old ben. 

zoinated lard, it is not possible to do 

so without removing also the benzoin. 

lows, therefore, that to restore 

lard it would be necessary to re- 

I it with benzoin. 

I: the quantity of rancid lard is not 
it is more economical to throw it 
away than to attempt to renovate it. 
If the quantity is sufficient to make an 
attempt at renovation desirable, we 
suggest the following process: — 

Melt the lard on a water-bath and 
beat it with about one-fourth its vol- 
ume of 5 per cent, solution of common 
salt for ten minutes. Set aside to cool 
and separate the fat from the watery 
liquid. Repeat this operation. Wash 
the lard twice with hot water., melting 
the lard in water., stirring thoroughly 
and separating the congealed fat from 
the liquid when cold. Then mix the 
lard thoroughly several times with an 
equal volume of 10 per cent, solution 
of sodium carbonate. Wash again with 
hot water. Melt the lard and filter it 
through paper in a warm place or with 
a heated funnel. 

If the filtered lard is neutral to lit- 
mus and responds to the official tests 
for the absence of chlorides, alkalies 
and excess of fatty acids, it may be 
benzoinated in the manner prescribed 
in the Pharmacopoeia. If chlorides or 
alkalies be present they may be re- 
moved by washing with hot water. If 
the fat be acid it should be washed 
again with a solution of sodium car- 
bonate and with hot water. 

Of course, the process is also applica- 
ble to lard that has not been benzoin- 

Keeping of Solid Extracts. 

Such solid extracts as are not used 
frei uently might be filled into collapsi- 
ble tubes, to prevent drying out and 
to facilitate dispensing. The inside of 
the tube is preferably lined with waxed 
paper to prevent the extracts from 
coming into contact with the metal. 

Keeping of Alkaloidal Solutions. 

In cases in which the presence of al- 
cohol is not undesirable alkaloidal 
stock solutions may be preserved by 
the use of a menstruum composed of 
10 parts by volume of alcohol and 90 
parts of water. 

the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. The gist of his remarks, as re- 
ported in The Druggists Circular at 

tiiis time follow: 

AROMATIC WATERS were so simple that 
many druggists did not think them worthy of 
much attention. He advised against expos- 
ing them to low temperature, as cold makes 
the oils in them separate, but when they are 
brought into a warm room the oil goes back 
into solution. 

TINCTURES, too, should not be subjected to 
extremes in temperature. The heat of a high 
shelf caused hydro-alcoholic liquids to deteri- 
orate. Light in many cases was as detri- 
mental as heat and cold, but the precipitate 
from such liquids was usually inert and so left 
the medicinal value of the preparation undis- 
turbed. This, said the speaker jocularly, was 
a provision of nature to protect the careless 
or incompetent pharmacist against himself. 

Sometimes an open space in a partly-filled 
bottle caused deterioration. Especially was 
tlvs true of SYRUPS, as water evaporated and 
condensed in this space 'and when it ran back 
to the surface of the preparation it began to 
spoil for lack of the preservative, and the 
deterioration continued through the entire con- 
tents of the bottle. For the same reason, 
syrups should not be kept in the heat of the 
store, but in the cellar. The speaker had kept 
his syrups on a dumb waiter in the cellar, 
raising them as needed and retiring them to 
the low temperature after use. The fungus 
growth in syrup bottles was best removed by 
washing with lye or paper pulp. A syrup 
bottle should be well dried before the syrup 
was introduced, as water on the surface of 
syrups, as just pointed out, was a cause of de- 

OINTMENTS should be kept in a cool place. 
When a fat melted the heavy medicinal in- 
gredient usually sank to the bottom of the 
jar and it did not become reincorporated when 
the normal temperature was restored, as was 
the case with aromatic waters. The ordinary 
jar did not make a desirable container for oint- 
ments, as the fat would penetrate the glazed 
surface and remain on the porous material of 
the jar. become rancid and remain to do its 
work in spite of ail washing. French porce- 
lain ointment jars would not absorb the fat. 
The speaker had used them for twenty-five 
years without a loss from that cause. Oint- 
ment jars should be cleaned with hot lye and 
well dried. Heat and moisture were disturb- 
ing factors in the case of ointments; dryness 
and coolness the things to be sought. 

PILLS are little made by the retail drug- 
gists these days, but when they are they 
should not be put away until well seasoned. 
Compound cathartic pills should be dried in 
licorice and lycopodium for three or four 
weeks, and then sieved to clean them before 
being bottled. 

POWDERS, fortunately, are not much sub- 
ject to change on account of the action of 
heat and light, although heat will drive off 
their volatile constituents. 

Preservation of Galenicals. 
Prof. Charles Caspari, Jr.. spoke ex- 
temporaneously on this subject before 

Elm Bark to Preserve Lard. 
R. M. Altmann had heard that to 
preserve their winter's store of bear's 
grease the red men melted the fat with 
shredded elm bark. As the physical 
difference between the fat of the bear 
and that of the pig is not great, he 
experimented with the preservative 
properties of the bark as applied to 
lard. He prepared some purified leaf 
lard and melted it on a water-bath 
with pieces of elm bark in the propor- 
tion of 2 drams to the pound of fat. 
When the bubbles had ceased to rise, 
indicating that all the moisture had 
been expelled, the lard was strained 
and stirred until cool. The product 



was divided into a number of portions 
and exposed to the atmosphere at dif- 
ferent temperatures for three weeks. 
At the end of that time none of the 
samples gave any indication of rancid- 
ity when tested with Schiff's reagent. 
An ointment of potassium iodide made 
with a sample of this lard without the 
addition of any potassium carbonate 
remained uncolered after a week's ex- 
posure to the atmosphere. 

Mr. Altman believes that the pre- 
servative influence of elm bark is due 
to the clarifying action of the albu- 
minoids it contains and the dehydrat- 
ing action of the gum. 

Making Aromatic Waters. 

Take the proper proportions of oil 
and talc or other absorbent powder 
and put them into a large mortar, add 
the water, triturate, and then pour the 
mixture into a stock bottle without 
filtering. From time to time pour off a 
small quantity of the liquid, filtering 
it into the shelf bottle. An aromatic 
water made in this way possesses a 
finer flavor than a product which is 
filtered immediately after making. 
Moreover, the full strength is retained 
for a long time. 

Receivers for Liquid Galenicals 

The ordinary 5 -pint stock bottles in 
which elixirs and fluidextracts are 
marketed, make splendid receivers 
where 1000 or 2000 mils of a liquid 
galenical are to be made. To pre- 
pare, scratch a straight line on the 
bottle its full length: on this, scratch 
marks and figures indicating pints, 
quartz and mils. 

For half and one-pint receivers, the 
wide-mouth bottles in which quinine 
capsules are marketed, are excellent. 
Incidentally, when one gets these bot- 
tles, he should save the fine, large 
corks that usually come with them.— 
William Mittelbach. 

Making Tablet Triturates 

J. C. Dills contributes to The Drug- 
gists Circular an article in which he 
says that inaccuracy is one of the 
drawbacks encountered by amateur 
manufacturers. He adds that no 
amount of tables regarding the weight 
of each substance is of use alone. Xo 
table can make up for variations in 
pressure used in filling the molds or 
in the amount of diluent used. Every 
time one gets in a new sample of milk 
sugar he is apt to be confronted by a 
variation in specific gravity on ac- 
count of the difference in the fineness 
of the different powders. Sometimes, 
too, we waste more than at others. 
Any diligent pharmacist can make 
about $1 to $5 an hour making tab- 

lets with a machine that costs about 

Our machine holds an average of 60 
grains of milk sugar. To make 500 
tablet triturates of morphine sulphate, 
we use 125 grains of morphine sul- 
phate and 450 grains of milk sugar 
and moisten with 75 per cent, alcohol 
to make a suitable dampish paste. 
We weigh this, take one-tenth of it 
• for 50 tablets), and fill molds as far 
as it will reach, adding milk sugar and 
moistening the mass until after two or 
three trials the sample just fills the 
molds. We then add to the remaining 
nine-tenths a proportionate amount of 
milk sugar. We have found it admir- 
able to measure the moistening agent 
with a pipette. Using this method, I 
have been able to make 1.000 tablets 
with a variation of not over 1/800 
grain of morphine sulphate per tablet, 
which I am sure is a result that is -not 
exceeded in accuracy of measurement 
by any of the ready-made tablets. 

Coating Compressed Tablets 

In large manufacturing establish- 
ments revolving pans, air blasts, hot- 
air currents and other things not usu- 
ally available in a retail pharmacy are 
used in the process of coating tablets. 
Perhaps an ingenious operator may 
overcome the handicap which the leek 
of proper apparatus places upon him. 

Some of the success of the coating 
operation depends upon the shape of 
the tablet, still more depends upon its 
hardness and dryness, and even more 
depends upon its freedom from a hy- 
groscopic constituent which would ab- 
sorb moisture from the covering ma- 
terial and cause it to swell. In a gen- 
eral way it may be stated that when 
the tablets have come from the com- 
pressing machine they are placed in a 
sieve and the adhering particles of 
dust blown off. If the tablets are mot- 
tled or variegated in color they are 
treated with moist lampblack, to make 
them uniform in appearance. They 
should be dried at a temperature of 
70 degrees F. for twenty-four hours 
before receiving their coats. 

When ready for the coating the tab- 
lets are placed in the revolving pan 
with enough syrup to moisten their 
surface but slightly. Here the air cur- 
rent is needed to dry the syrup 
quickly, so that another coat may be 
applied. In another revolving pan the 
tablets are treated in a similar man- 
ner with a prepared syrup which is to 
give them their characteristic flavor 
and color. They are next revolved in 
a felt-lined pan to give them a polish. 

A formula for chocolate coating is 
given by L. H. Turner in a paper pub- 
lished in the Pharmaceutical Era, 
from which some of the foregoing 
facts are taken. It is as follows: — 

To flavor chocolate-coated tablets, 



place 10 pounds of cacao hulls in a 
cotton bag and boil for five minutes 
in 4 gallons of water. Strain through 
two layers of cheese cloth and add 25 
pounds of lump sugar. To this mix- 
ture add 2 pounds of powdered "cocoa" 
and mix well. 

Chocolate-coated tablets are some- 
times given a more glossy appearance 
by being thinly coated with an alco- 
holic solution of tolu or benzoin. 

Some colors allowable, when unadul- 
terated, for use in foodstuffs are men- 
tioned in food inspection decision 76, 
issued by the Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington. Among those col- 
ors are: — 

Red: — 107. Amaranth: — 56. Pon- 
ceau 3 R.-517. Eryth rosin.' 

Orange: — 85. Orange I. 

Yellow 4. Xaphthol yellow S. 

Green: — 435. Light green S. F. Yel- 

P>lue:— 692. Indigo disulfo-acid. 

Informative articles on tablet-mak- 
ing appear in various issues of The 
Druggists Circular, among them being 
those for July, 1905, page 229: and April 
and December. 1902, pages 73 and 257, 

One of the obections to the use of 
tablets in medicine is the fact that 
many of them do not dissolve readily 
enough in the alimentary canal. w T hile 
now and then one goes all the way 
through without disintegrating at all: 
and coating them certainly does not 
make them more soluble, but rather 
the reverse. 

To Clean Wedgwood Mortars 

Take 3 or 4 ounces of potassium di- 
chromate, powder it fine, and add 
enough sulphuric acid to make a paste. 
Smear this over the mortar, inside and 
out. as well as on the pestle head, be- 
ing careful not to get any of it on the 
wooden handle, and let it remain for 
fifteen minutes. After the mortar has 
stood a suitable time and been rinsed 
with cold water and then washed with 
soap and water, it will be as clean and 
white as when new. The same batch 
ef paste may be used on many mor- 
tars. — Mason G. Beebe. 

Castor Oil Jelly. 

Castor oil 90.0 grammes. 

Stearic acid 4.2 grammes. 

.Sodium hydroxide.. 0.6 grammes. 

Saccharin 0.1 gramme. 

Oil of peppermint... 0.2 mil. 

Alcohol 5.0 mils. 

Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in the 
alcohol and add the stearic acid and 
the castor oil. Heat until combined 
and add the other ingredients. 

The presence of saccharin in the fin- 
ished preparation should be stated on 
the label. 

Tablet Triturates and Hypodermic 

From an article by J. Leon Lascoff, 
that appeared in The Druggists Circu- 
lar, some quotations follow: 

Tablet triturates are made by triturating 
the active ingredients with sugar of milk or 
fine sugar, massing after thorough trituration 
by the addition of alcohol or diluted alcohol, 
and subsequently rubbing the mass into a 
rubber mold, enough excipient having been 
added so that each tablet weighs about 1 or 
V- 2 grains. The weight of those of larger 
size either should be prescribed or is deter- 
mined by the amounts given in the prescrip- 
tion. These may be compressed, in order to 
reduce their size, by the process to be de- 
scribed later. Of course. I need not add that 
in cases where potassium permanganate, sil- 
ver nitrate or other strongly exidizing agents 
are prescribed the excipient should be finely 
powdered kaolin. 

Hypodermic tablets are usually made in a 
smaller rubber mold of % grain size in the 
same manner as the tablet triturates. Great 
care must be taken to have them readily 
soluble. Pure alcohol is the proper excipient 
for them. One-half grain tablets of saccharin 
can be made in the "hypodermic" mold; the 
diluent is sodium bicarbonate and the mass Is 
moistened with absolute alcohol. 

It has been said that sugar from 
goats' milk makes a more soluble tab- 
let than does the sugar from cows' 

A Maceration and Decantation Device. 

In separating the fluid from the drug 
after maceration I have used a device 
which does the work 'more thoroughly 
than is done by simple decantation. I 
make a long narrow sack of straining 
material, large enough at the open end 
to be turned over the lip of the bottle 
and tied. The sack is very easily kept 
expanded and in place by two double 
wires joined at the top. The wires are 
inserted into the bottle, the rings rest- 
ing on the hip, with the sack over the 
wires, and, of course, therefore, in the 
bottle. The bottle is then inverted in 
a funnel over another bottle and its 
contents allowed to drain. I have 
thought that if I made another such 
outfit I would use a spiral wire to 
hold the sides of the strainer apart. — 
C. W. Sackett. 

Dispensing in Ampuls. 

The ampul question may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

Ampuls represent a device for furnishing 
fluid medicaments to the physician or the pa- 
tient in sterile condition and usually in single 
hypodermic doses. This is done by furnishing 
the flu'd in a sealed glass tube. 

The Ampul.— These glass tubes are made 
from a special type of 'glass, which is less 
alkaline than the average glass. F. W. 
Nitardy shows that satisfactory ampuls may be 
made from ordinary test tubes, but such am- 
puls are almost certain to contain enough free 
alkali to precipitate alkaloidal solutions. Am- 
puls are sometimes made with the open end 
flaring like a funnel, in order to facilitate 

Filling Ampuls. — Many filling devices, some 
very complicated and some quite simple, have 
been devised, the aim being to run the fluid 
down through the narrow neck as expeditiously 



as possible, a trick that is really not easy, since 
some provision should be made for exit of air 
as the fluid flows in. Some fill from a burette 
to the top of which is attached a hypodermic 
needle: some use the modern type of large- 
sized graduated all-glass hypodermic syringe 
which can be easily sterilized; while the best 
appliance is one in which by a system of 
valves and air-tight containers the ampuls can 
be exhausted of air before the fluid is intro- 
duced into the container. Because of the par- 
tial vacuum in this container and in the am- 
puls found therein the fluid immediately fills 
the ampuls. 

Sealing the Ampul.— This is accomplished by 
bringing the tip of the filled and cleaned ampul 
into a small but hot flame of a blast lamp. 
This operation is not as simple as first ap- 
pears, but practice will bring the knack. In 
large factories such sealing is done by young 

Sterilization. — This is sometimes accomplished 
by having the ampuls, the fluid and the filler 
all in sterile condition at the moment of filling, 
but the usual procedure is to sterilize the 
sealed ampul by heating in an appropriate 
oven. The oven must of course be provided 
with a thermometer and care taken that the 
temperature be not allowed to rise above that 
which the content of the ampul will bear with- 
out decomposition. It is manifestly very im- 
portant that the oven be kept closed from the 
beginning of the operation until after the 
sterilization is complete and the oven again 
cool, to guard against the risk of injury from 
ampuls which may explode while being heated. 

tops of capsules with pellets of cotton 
moistened with chloroform, using care 
not to have too much chloroform upon 
the pellets. Since following this cus- 
tom he has no trouble of the kind 

Ordinary Capsules for Liquids. 

The required amount of medicament 
to be used for each dose is put into the 
larger portion of the empty capsule 
after the removal of the cap, then the 
edge at the opening of that portion 
containing the medicament is moist- 
ened with water, and before it has time 
to dry the cap is put on and the capsule 
is pressed between the thumb and in- 
dex finger in such a way that the edge 
of the larger portion of the capsule at 
the line of contact with the curved part 
of the cap forms a scalloped edge which 
indicates a welding or cementing. To 
make sure that the capsule is tightly 
sealed the operator should lay each fin- 
ished capsule on a filter paper and 
watch for any leakage. It is advisable 
to fill more than the required number 
of capsules, as there may be among 
them some failures. 

Should the operator not feel sure that 
the capsules are thoroughly sealed and 
fears that a future leakage may appear, 
it is quite practical for him to put the 
finished capsule in an empty capsule of 
a larger size and seal the outer one just 
as the inner one had been sealed. 

Druggists should be sure that the 
liquid dispensed will not dissolve the 
capsule. — George H. Waltz. 

Dispensing Oils in Soft Capsules. 

When filling a prescription calling 
for soft capsules containing oils, it is 
annoying to find one of the capsules 
imperfectly sealed, due generally to a 
small portion of the oil coming in con- 
tact with the scaling lip of the cap- 
sule. F. M. Apple has adopted the 
practice of wiping off carefully the 

Deblooming Petroleum Oils. 

Removing the fluorescence of petro- 
leum oils is more a matter of process 
than of formula. The simplest method 
is to expose the oil, after it has been 
filtered through animal charcoal, to the 
action of sunlight and air. This, how- 
ever, is a slow process and many 
others calling for the use of a chemi- 
cal oxidizer are in use; most of these 
are the subject of letters patent. Some 
of the debloomers in use are nitro- 
naphthalene, dinitrobenzol, nitric acid, 
granular magnetism dioxide, and ferric 
oxide. Usually about 1 per cent, of 
the deblooming agent is employed. 

Bottger's deblooming process con- 
sists in adding to the oil about one- 
eighth its volume of sulphuric acid; 
setting the mixture aside in a closed 
container for about a week, with occa- 
sional agitation; siphoning off the clear 
oil; shaking it with several portions of 
water; and dehydrating with quick- 

Hellmann employs sulphuric acid di- 
luted with five times its volume of 
water, adding one volume of the di- 
luted acid to three of oil. To the mix- 
ture of oil and acid he adds 2 per cent. 
of magnesium dioxide, and boils the 
mixture for about half an hour. This 
gives a yellowish oil which can lie 
made lighter by filtering through ani- 
mal charcoal. But who cares to try 
to boil these highly inflammable 

Rendering Kerosene Uninflammable. 
We do not know how to render kero- 
sene uninflammable without so chang- 
ing its nature that it might almost as 
well not have been kerosene to start 

"Non-Explosive Gasoline." 

Gasoline or benzin intended for use 
as a cleanser, solvent or insecticide 
may be rendered non-explosive by mix- 
ing with it a large proportion of car- 
bon tetrachloride — a proportion so 
large, in fact, that the resulting mix- 
ture is more carbon tetrachloride than 
gasoline or benzin. Although some in- 
vestigators have stated that a mix- 
ture of four volumes of benzin and 
six volumes of carbon tetrachloride i-< 
non-inflammable at ordinary tempera- 
tures, others have found that a mix- 
ture of seven volumes of the tetra- 
chloride and three volumes of benzin 
was inflammable upon the approach of 



a lighted match. Only when the pro- 
portion reached that of nine parts of 
tetrachloride to one of benzin did the 
liquid require heating before becoming 
inflammable, but in this case the flame 
soon became extinguished by itself. 
The fumes of carbon tetrachloride, 
which are heavier than air, have an 
anesthetic effect like those of chloro- 

We know of nothing which may be 
added in small proportions to gasoline 
to render it non-inflammable. 

Various Uses for Kerosene. 

William R. White (A. Ph. A.) said of 
the place of kerosene in pharmacy that 
its synonyms are coal oil, rock oil, solar 
oil, paraffin oil, mineral oil. carbon oil, 
petre, earth oil, photogene, eupione and 
refined petroleum. Specific gravity, 
from 0.744 to 0.829, boils above 77 de- 
grees C„ flashing point from 62 degrees 
to 68 degrees; mixes with such liquids 
as chloroform, ether, volatile oils and 
most of the fixed oils, not well with 
castor oil, glycerin or alcohol; will dis- 
solve 4 or 5 per cent, of iodine if 
warmed and agitated, the solution re- 
sembling very much a certain com- 
mercial preparation; it will take up a 
much larger percentage of iodine if 
mixed with chloroform. 

Its Taste and Odor. 
Saccharin modifies its taste, oils of 
massia, cajeput. cloves, peppermint, 
wintergreen. camphor and bitter al- 
mond disguise, its odor. Shaking it 
with an acid solution of potassium per- 
manganate, potassium dichromate or 
potassium chlorate, decanting and fil- 
tering through freshly slaked lime does 
not entirely deodorize it, although each 
improves it a great deal, the chlorate 
giving the best results. Kerosene in 
an alcoholic solution of potassium hy- 
drate turns the alcoholic solution red 
and the kerosene is almost completely 
deodorized. By the liberation of nas- 
cent hydrogen in kerosene an odor re- 
sembling that of onions is evolved. 

Taken Internally. 
A pint taken internally gave no very 
serious result. It is largely used as a 
rectal injection for amebic dysentery 
in quantities of half a gallon or more, 
with excellent effect, as also in cases 
of croup in children . In from % to 1 
t-aspoonful doses. For coughs and 
colds it is usually mixed with sugar. 

Kerosene Linimrnt. 

Camphor 1.0 gramme. 

Oil of peppermine... . 0.5 mil. 
Oil of wintergreen.... 0.5 mil. 

Oil of cloves 0.2 mil. 

Oil of cassia 4 mils. 

Oil of cottonseed 8.0 mils. 

Oil of cajeput 8.0 mils. 

Oil of turpentine 4.0 mils. 

Kerosene 72.0 mils. 

For Toothache. 
Oil of cloves, oil of cassia and phenol 
dissolved in kerosene make a splendid 
toothache remedy. 

As an Insecticide. 

An ounce sprayed over fifteen square 
feet kills not only larvae and pupae, 
but catches the adults, and is there- 
fore, by virtue of its simplicity, cheap- 
ness and efficiency, the best larvacide 
for many purposes where its odor is not 
offensive. Kerosene does not harm 
fish or aquatic insects that breathe on 
the surface, and acts well in salt 
water. An emulsion of kerosene may 
be made of — 

Green soap 2 grammes. 

Boiling water 32 mils. 

Kerosene 64 mils. 

Dissolve the soap in the boiling water 
and add to the kerosene and agitate 
vigorously. This makes a snow-white 
emulsion which shows little tendency 
to separate. It may be used to spray 
trees, etc., when diluted with water. 

As an Embrocation. 

By adding oil of camphor, oil of 
cajeput, etc., to the emulsion, a splen- 
did liniment may be made. 

For Limber-Neck. 

Kerosene also enjoys some reputa- 
tion as a remedy for the disease known 
as limber-neck in chickens. 

To Remove the Odor of Iodoform. 

Minton (Bull. Pharm.) says that the 
odor of iodoform may be removed from 
the hands by wetting them with water 
and then applying a small quantity of 
potassium carbonate and two or three 
drops of ammonia water. The odor, 
he says, will entirely disappear. 

To Prevent Recrystallization of 
Liquefied Phenol 

In the official description of liquefied 
phenol it is stated that it "begins to 
crystallize when the temperature of the 
liquid is lowered to about 13.5 degrees 
C. (56.3 degrees F.). The use of 
glycerin to replace a portion of the 
added water does not seem to have 
proved satisfactory in practice, as the 
crystallizing point is not thereby 
sufficiently lowered. Alcohol is pre- 
ferable. As little as 25 per cent, of 
alcohol in the diluent will lower the 
crystallizing point to 40 degrees F. 

There is a legal phase to improve- 
ments of this sort, which should be 
borne in mind. 



To Decolorize Reddened Phenol 

Shake each liter of the liqufied 
phenol with about 3 grammes of white 
woolen threads. Zinc dust has been 
recommended for the same purpose. 
Another plan is to add alcohol to the 
phenol and reduce the temperature 
until the latter crystallizes out, color- 

It has been stated that the red color 
which develops in phenol is caused 
by phenoquinone, which, in turn, is 
formed by oxidation and condensation 
when quinone or catechol is present. 
The addition of % of 1 per cent, of sul- 
phurous anhydride to liquefied phenol 
is said to prevent the coloration of the 

To Liquefy Phenol 

Place the required quantity of water 
on top of the crystals in the bottle, 
then invert the bottle. In a short time 
the water permeates the mass and 
solution is effected. 

Sweetening and Flavoring Mineral Oil 

Mineral oil may be sweetened with 
saccharin. To insure good results, the 
sweetener should be dissolved in abso- 
lute alcohol in the proportion of about 
16 grains to the ounce, and a little oleic 
acid added, say from 15 to 30 grains. 
This combination will mix with the 
mineral oil. Only an extra high-grade 
oleic acid should be used for this pur- 
pose. As to flavoring, the usual aro- 
matic oils — peppermint, wintergreen, 
cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, anise, lemon, 
etc. — mix readily with mineral oil. Of 
course, some of these oils will darken 
a "white" mineral oil, and if this re- 
sult is objectionable, care should be 
exercised in the selection of a "white" 

Disguising the Taste of Quinine 

Quinine sulphate 4 grammes. 

Citric acid 10 grammes. 

Syrup 1 mil. 

Syrup of orange peel . 1 mil. 

Distilled w a t e r, to 

make 20 mils. 

The quantity directed for a dose of 
the mixture is given in water contain- 
ing a little sodium bicarbonate. 

Quinine bisulphate. 60.0 grammes. 

Saccharin (soluble) 30.0 grammes. 

Glycerin 100.0 mils. 

Vanillin 0.5 gramme. 

Coumarin 0.1 gramme. 

< 'ompound spirit of 

oranse 5.0 mils. 

Water, to make .... 720.0 mils. 

Dissolve the quinine salt in 540 mils 
of water, and dissolve the saccharin 

in this solution. Dissolve the vanillin 
and the coumarin in the spirit; mix 
with the glycerin, and add to the 
quinine solution, adding as much 
water as may be required. 

The dose of saccharin in this mix- 
ture prohibits its undirected and pro- 
miscuous use, and the attention of 
physicians to whom it may be intro- 
duced should be called to this matter. 

Disguising the Odor and Taste of 
Castor Oil 

In the first place, use fresh castor 
oil; in other words, oil that has not 
become rancid, for rancid butter, ran- 
cid lard or rancid any other kind of 
grease is not palatable. 

Again, some people contend that it 
is the odor and not the taste of cas- 
tor oil that disgusts. Whether or not 
this is true we have not experimented 
to prove, but offer the statement for 
what it is worth. 

Appended are some formulas gath- 
ered from medical and pharmaceutical 
literature: — 

P. H. Utech's Formula 

Benzosulphinide . . 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of anise 2.0 mils. 

Oil of sweet orange 1.0 mil. 

Oil color enough. 

Castor oil to make 1,000.0 mils. 

Dissolve the benzosulphinide in the 
castor oil by the aid of a gentle heat 
(alcohol is not necessary). When cold, 
add the essential oils and oil color suf- 
ficient to make the desired shade. 

The color referred to is made by ex- 
hausting alkanet root in No. 30 pow- 
der with acetone, evaporating the per- 
colate to dryness on a water- bath at 
a heat of not over 55 C, and dissolv- 
ing the resulting anchusin in any con- 
venient amount of castor oil, to be set 
aside and kept as stock. The stock 
color may be used as required. 
A. Weinstein's Formula. 

Castor oil 12 ounces. 

Fluid extract of licorice % ounce. 

Fluid extract of sarsa- 

parilla 3 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 2 drops. 

Oil of anise S drops. 

Oil of lemon 8 drops. 

Glycerine to make 16 ounces. 

"The mucilaginous character of the 
licorice and the glycerin helps to keep 
the castor oil in suspension. If I may 
judge from the sale of this prepara- 
tion, it is very much liked. I dispense 
I ounce with a little carbonated water 
for 10 cents. I also put it up in 2- 
ounce bottles and charge 25 cents, un- 
der a plain label, 'Prepared Castor 
Oil.' " 

J. B. Moore's Formula. 

Compound tincture of 
cardamom 2 drams. 

Cinnamon water 6 drams. 



Castor oil 1 ounce. 

Brandy 5 drops. 

Mix the first two in a glass, add the 
oil carefully, and squirt the brandy on 
the surface. 

An oil mixture so prepared is, of 
se, for immediate use. 

For our own part, we believe that 
we should us^ peppermint water, put- 
ting it into the glass first, then pour 
a layer of castor oil over it, and, in- 
stead 01 the compound tincture of car- 
damom, use compound tincture of lav- 
■ nder, which is lighter and more odor- 
iferous. We should direct this to be 
taken all at one swallow. 

Disguising the Taste of Epsom Salt. 

It is said that 15 grains of citric acid 
to each ounce of the salt in solution 
renders the taste of the latter less ob- 
jectionable to those who object to it, 
especially if the draught be taken when 
it is at a temperature of about 40 de- 
grees F. 

Here is a formula for a so-called 
palatable draft of epsom salt: 

Magnesium sulphate. ... 1 ounce. 

Solution of saccharin- • ■ • 1 dram. 

Oil of peppermint 2 drops. 

Oil of anise 2 drops. 

Water to make 2 ounces. 

It seems that the amount of solution 
of saccharin might be decreased with 
advantage. Its presence should be 
stated en the label. 

Dr. W. T. Swindle (Med. World) says 
he makes an elixir thus: 

r: som salt ! 2 pound. 

Saccharin 12 grains. 

Extract of vanilla 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Water, to make 1 pint. 

Use carmine to color, and filter it. 
The dose is 1 tablespoonful. Each fluid 
ounce contains % ounce of magnesium 
sulphate. It has a fine taste and is a 
splendid remedy. 

Kieselguhr as a Filtering Medium. 

La Wall recommends kieselguhr as a 
filtering medium. The properties most 
desirable in such a medium ar»., first, 
insolubility and neutrality; second, 
freedom from impurities; third, poros- 
ity or absorbing power for liquids. As 
to absorbing power he gives these fig- 
ures: Talcum, 15; precipitated calcium 
phosphate, 18; powdered pumice, 20; 
kieselguhr. 40; magnesium carbonate, 
50. Magnesium carbonate is ruled out 
from most filtering operations on ac- 
count of its alkalinity. Kieselguhr is 
always found to be neutral in reaction 
and free from soluble matter. Com- 
parative experiments on the aromatic 
waters have shown that it has the ad- 
vantage over talc of being more ab- 
sorbent and of not passing through the 

filter to give the first portion of the 
filtrate a cloudy appearance. 

Labeling a Proprietary Remedy. 

The Bureau of Chemistry, at Wash- 
ington. D. C, publishes from time to 
time, in its service and regulatory an- 
nouncements, general information re- 
garding the labeling of food and drugs, 
and assists manufacturers and others 
who submit labels by directing atten- 
tion to applicable provisions of the 
food and drugs act and of the regula- 
tions and to applicable published opin- 
ions. Therefore, it is advisable to sub- 
mit labels to the bureau with the re- 
quest that the officials there pass 
judgment upon them. Also, it may be 
well to submit them to the State health 
board, as there may be laws within the 
State that will require special labeling. 

Manufacturer of Pharmaceuticals Need 

Not Be a Registered Pharmacist. 

A person need not be a registered 
pharmacist to engage in the wholesale 
manufacture and sale of pharmaceuti- 
cal preparations in New York State. 

To Open a Tin Ointment Box. 

Place the thumbs and forefingers of 
the two hands on the circumference of 
the box in the same relative positions 
that would be assumed by two men 
and two women sitting at a whist 
table. Squeeze the box between the 
thumb and forefinger of each hand, 
alternately pressing the lid upward the 

There is no need to use a spatula 
on the refractory lid, or to break the 
finger nails in a vain effort to pry off 
the innocent top-piece. 

Green Vegetable Color for Oils, 

The simplest method of imparting 
a green color to an oil is to dissolve in 
a given amount of the liquid sufficient 
oil-soluble chlorophyl to produce the 
desired shade. This method is proba- 
bly more expensive than others which 
consume more time. If time is not an 
object, a satisfactory method is to 
digest in the oil, for a greater or less 
number of days, in a warm place, some 
crushed hempseed, pistachio nut meats. 
or almost any green leaf. The bright- 
ness of the color is, in a large meas- 
ure, proportionate to the freshness of 
the coloring agent: and care must be 
taken not to use too high a tempera- 
ture during the process, as heat tends 
to produce a brownish shade. By 
carrying on the digestion in a brass 
or copper container a better shade of 
green can be obtained. 

La Wall, after examining a number of.' 



lots of compound oil of hyoscyamus 
made in copper vessels, reported that 
he was unable to detect any trace of 
copper in the preparation. 

Coloring Petrolatum. 

Colorless petrolatum may be colored 
by the admixture of oil-soluble ani- 
lins. A red color may also be imparted 
to it by the use of alkanet root. The 
addition of dye may unfit the petro- 
latum for certain uses. 

Discolored Spirit of Nitrous Ether. 

The general opinion is that the dis- 
coloration is caused by tannin taken 
up by the alcohol from the barrel in 
which it had been stored. Redistilla- 
tion of the alcohol is recommended. 

To Decolor Whisky, Bay Rum, Oils 
and Other Liquids. 

A process of almost universal appli- 
cation is maceration of the colored 
liquid with kaolin, or, better, animal 
charcoal and filtration through that 

To remove iron-rust color from bay 
rum, W. D. Carson adds a small pro- 
portion of tartaric acid and filters. 

The best agent found by W. H. 
Trainer for clearing up alcoholic liquids 
is milk. He adds about 4 ounces to a 
gallon, the casein is precipitated, and 
filtration through paper completes the 

reserve and continue the evaporation 
until the product measures 100 mils. 
If evaporation has been carried too far, 
make up to 100 mils with distilled 
water. Set the product aside for sev- 
eral days to settle; decant the clear 
supernatant layer, and strain the re- 
mainder through muslin. 

The process for each drug and other 
information on the subject may be 
seen in The Druggists Circular for 
November, 1908, pages 549 to 558, and 
in the Proceedings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association for 1908. 


Beringer has worked out a process 
for making glycerin fluidextracts, 
which he names fluidglycerates. His 
type formula, from which he deviates 
when the nature of the drug demands, 
is: — 

The drug (in course 

powder) 100 grammes. 

Glycerin 50 mils. 

Distilled water 150 mils. 

Chloroform water, to 

make 100 mils. 

Mix glycerin and distilled water and 
moisten the drug thoroughly with a 
sufficient quantity of the mixture and 
then pack in very lightly in a cylindri- 
cal percolator and saturate thoroughly 
with menstruum; cork up and cover 
the percolator, and allow the drug to 
macerate for two days, then percolate 
until the drug is exhausted, using first 
the remainder of the menstruum and 
then chloroform water. Reserve the 
first 50 mils of percolate and set this 
aside. Evaporate the remaining per- 
colate on a water-bath, the weaker 
portion first, then the stronger until 
reduced to 60 mils, and then add the 

Pink Coloration of Emulsion of Car- 
bonated Creosote. 

The Heyden Chemical "Works say 
that the pinkish coloration which oc- 
curs in emulsions of creosotal is due 
to an oxidizing ferment (oxydase) 
which is always present in gum arabic, 
and which, by oxidizing certain con- 
stituents of creosote whose chemical 
composition is not yet established, pro- 
duces a class of bodies whose presence 
in the emulsion is shown by the pink- 
ish coloration. If the freshly prepared 
emulsion is exposed to sunlight, the 
oxidizing ferment will be destroyed 
and no coloration will occur. Further- 
more, if an emulsion is just beginning 
to color, exposure to sunlight will cause 

The phenomenon of the redding of 
phenols and phenolic bodies through 
oxidation is a well-known but little 
understood one. It is noteworthy as 
an indication of the complexity of the 
problem that light is an important fac- 
tor in the oxidation of phenol. 

Cudbear Coloring. 

Vegetable red. made from cudbear 
and sold by confectionery houses, is 
useful as a color in pharmacy. 

Gardiner and Raubenheimer collabo- 
rated in extracting the coloring prin- 
ciple from cudbear by percolation with 
acetone, the yield being about 8% per 
cent. When mixed with some dry 
absorbent powder, as kieselguhr, it 
would remain in a pulverulent condi- 
tion. Cudbear, they said, contains 
about 4 per cent, of sodium chloride, 
which interacts with some of the sub- 
stances present in certain mixtures 
with which it is used, with the result 
that the color is destroyed. 

Gardiner gives this formula for a red 
show-globe color: — 

Persionin (the extract 

above mentioned ) 10 grains. 

Wood alcohol 8 ounces. 

Ammonia water 6 drams. 

"Water to make 1 gallon. 

This was only one of the many uses 
to which the coloring principle could 
be put. 



Darkening of Resorcinol Preparations. 

My experiments have proven that 
the coloring of resoreinal is due to the 
presence of very minute impurities 
that cannot economically be removed, 
and when they are mixed with prepa- 
rations containing alkali or salts of 
an alkaline nature, the preparation 
colors very rapidly, but in the pres- 
ence of a small quantity of acetic 
acid, or alcohol slightly oxidized, and 
in that manner containing some acetic 
acid, the preparation will not color. 

I have put up preparations for many 
years, using the above little fact, and 
have found that the goods stood up 
under the light and heat for a con- 
siderable time without coloring. 

It must be remembered., however, 
that if the tonic or preparation con- 
tains vanillin or any of the aldehydes 
of the same group, they will darken in 
the presence of alkali just the same as 
resorcinol. — A. Alexander. 

Colors for Show Bottles 
This subject is fairly well covered 
by the following formulas and sugges- 


Cochineal color N. F. diluted with 
water to the required shade. 


Iodine 2 parts. 

Potassium iodide 2 parts. 

Hydrochloric acid 36 parts. 

Water 960 parts. 


Cobalt carbonate 30 grains. 

Hydrochloric acid enough. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Dissolve the carbonate in just 
enough of the acid to effect solution 
and add to the water. 


Cochineal 4 parts. 

Potassium bitartrate. . . . 2 parts. 

Sulphuric acid 5 parts. 

Alum 4 parts. 

Water 1000 parts. 


Cobalt nitrate _ . . 1 ounce. 

Ammonium carbonate.... enough. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Dissolve the nitrate in 2 pints of the 
water, add a strong solution of am- 
monium carbonate until a precipitate 
formed is redissolved. then add the re- 
mainder of the water. 


Cudbear 2 parts. 

Nitric acid 2 parts. 

Water 92 parts. 


Ammonia water 27 parts. 

Solution ferric chloride. 40 pans. 

Acetic acid 59 parts. 

Alcohol 186 parts. 

Water 6946 parts. 

Add the iron solution to the water, 
then the alcohol, acid and ammonia 
water in the order mentioned. 

A good red may be made by extract- 
ing the coloring principle of cudbear 
by the use of acetone, mixing 10 grains 
of this principle (which has been 
called persionin) with 8 ounces of 
alcohol. 6 drams of ammonia water 
and enough water to make 1 gallon. 
Persionin is somewhat similar to 
orchil — the vegetable red of the con- 
fectionery supply houses. 



Potassium dichromate.... 1 part. 

Nitrate acid 2 parts. 

Water 27 parts. 

Dissolve the potassium salt in the 
•water, add the nitric acid, and filter. 


A solution of potassium dichromate 
is permanent in tint, and a reddish- 
yellow may be made by diluting com- 
pound solution of iodine. U. S. P. 
Neither is really very expensive, since 
a little of the chemicals goes a long 
way. and when the solutions are once 
made they will last for years. 

Potassium dichromate ... 3 parts. 

Sodium carbonate 2 parts. 

Water 95 parts. 

Dissolve the potassium dichromate 
in the water, add the sodium carbon- 
ate, and when solution is complete 


Verdigris 1 part. 

Distilled water 9 parts. 

Sulphuric acid enough. 

Mix the verdigris with the acid, set 
aside for a few minutes, add to the 
distilled water and filter. 


Copper sulphate 1 part. 

Ammonia water 9 parts. 

Water 240 parts. 

Solution of potassium 

dichromate enough. 

Dissolve the copper sulphate in the 
distilled water, add the ammonia 
water and enough of a solution of 
potassium dichromate to give the de- 
sired tint, and filter. 


Copper sulphate 7 parts. 

Ammonium chloride 7 parts. 

Water 186 parts. 




Nickel 85 parts. 

Hydrochloric acid 132 parts. 

Nitric acid 55 parts. 

Water 4000 parts. 

Dissolve the nickel in the hydro- 
chloric acid, add the water, then the 
nitric acid, and filter. 

Olive Green 

Copper sulphate 35 parts. 

Hydrochloric acid 16 parts. 

Iron subcarbonate 4 parts. 

Water 450 parts. 

Dissolve the copper sulphate in the 
water and the iron in the acid; mix 
(he two solutions, and filter. 
Pea Green 

Nickel 1 part. 

Nitric acid 4 parts. 

Water 495 parts. 

Solution of potassium 
dichromate enough. 

Dissolve the nickel in th<' nitric acid, 
add the water and enough of solution 
of potassium dichromate to give the 
desired color. 

Any Shade of Permanent Green 

Copper sulphate 9 parts. 

Hydrochloric acid 8 parts. 

Water _. 84 parts. 

Dissolve the salt in the water and 
add the acid. 

Any possible shade of green (and 
that permanent) may be produced by 
adding to the above mixture the offi- 
cial solution of ferric chloride in 
quantities to suit. 

Yellowish Green. 

Iron sulphate 10 parts. 

Sulphuric acid 10 parts. 

Copper nitrate enough. 

Water 280 parts. 

Dissolve the iron salt and the acid 
separately in 140 parts of water; mix 
the solutions, and add little hy little 
the copper nitrate until the desired 
shade is reached. 

Pretty and Permanent Green. 

Put three or four 1-cent coins in the 
bottom of a graduate, pour on a lit- 
tle nitric acid to cover well and set 
in the open air to allow the fumes to 
escape. When solution is effected 
dilute it with enough water to fill the 


Potassium dichromate... 4 parts. 

Nitric acid 1 part. 

Water 120 parts. 


Powdered dragon's blood..! part. 

Sulphuric acid 4 parts. 

Water enough. 

Macerate the dragon's blood in the 
acid for about half an hour, or until 
solution is complete, and dilute the 
mixture with water until the desired 
tint is obtained. 


Chromic acid 1 dram. 

Hydrochloric acid 2 ounces. 

Nitric acid 2 ounces. 

Water, to make 3 gallons. 


Copper sulphate 14 parts. 

Alum 14 parts. 

Sulphuric acid 13 parts. 

Water 473 parts. 

Dissolve the alum and the copper 
salt in the water, add the sulphuric 
acid in small portions and filter. 

Copper sulphate 10 parts. 

Ammonia water 40 parts. 

Water 950 parts. 


Cudbear 10 parts. 

Water of ammonia 40 parts. 

Water 120 parts. 

Macerate and filter. 

Salicylic; acid 1 part. 

Alcohol 93 parts. 

Tinct. of chloride of iron 4 parts. 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the acid in the alcohol, add 
the tincture and dilute until the de- 
sired color is produced. 

Anilin Colors. 

The anilin colors are convenient for 
use in liquids for show globes, and al- 
though more or less fugitive are still 
desirable. By a little attention in the 
way of adding more color from time to 
time the liquids may be kept in good 
Multicolored Liquid for Show Globes 

First ascertain the capacity of the 
bottle and divide by seven, to find the 
volume of each solution or liquid to be 
employed. The fluids should, in the 
order named, be carefully poured down 
the side of the bottle, held in a slightly 
inclined position, or through a glass 
tube inserted into it. 

1st. one volume of sulphuric acid C. 
P., tinted blue with indigo sulphate; 
2nd, one volume of C. P. chloroform; 
3rd, one volume of glycerin, slight ly 
tinted with caramel; 4th, one volume 
of castor oil, colored with alkanet root 
or alkanin; 5th, one volume of 40 per 
cent, alcohol, slightly tinted with anilin 
green; 6th, one volume of cod liver oil. 
containing 1 per cent, of oil turpentine; 
7th one volume of 94 per cent, alcohol, 
slightly tinted with anilin violet. 

The liquids are held in place by force 
of gravity, and alternate with fluids 
which are not miscible. so that the layers 
are clearly defined and do not mingle 
by diffusion, as is the case when misci- 
ble liquids are brought in direct contact 
with each other. Perhaps it is neces- 
sary to add that the colors suggested 
should be employed in quantities only 



sufficient to impart a pronounced tint 
to the fluids; too deep colors look dead, 
and detract from the brilliancy of the 

It will be noticed that the chloroform 
is 10 be uncolored. This colorless layer 
will produce a striking contrast be- 
tween the blue sulphuric acid layer and 
the yellowish glycerin layer. Of course, 
if desired, the chloroform could be 
tinted. A trace of iodine will give it an 
attractive violet shade. 

Dry Colors for Show Globes. 

These directions are by T. Maltby 
Clague, in the Pharmaceutical Journal: 

Anilin dye 15 to 25 grains. 

Gelatin (not opaque) ... 1 ounce. 

Water 6 ounces. 

Carbolic acid 1 dram. 

Soak the gelatin in water, dissolve 
the dye in warm water, and next add 
the softened gelatin and warm till 
melted, then add the carbolic acid. 
"When the solution has cooled to about 
150 degrees F., pour it into the carboy. 
Place the carboy in a warm position 
until it has acquired a temperature of 
from 90 to 100 degrees F. and the»- re- 
move; now keep turning it upside down 
and round about until the gelatin 
shows signs of setting, then put it on 
its stand and allow the jelly not ad- 
hering to the sides to settle at the bot- 
tom. Leave the stopper out for a few 
hours. If the first attempt is not a 
success it is only necessary to put the 
carboy into a warm place and try 
again. The process is an easy one. 

Mr. Clague said that 15 grains of 
methyl violet gave a rich bluish-red 
color varying according to the shade of 
the dye used, which is designated by 
R.. RR., or RRR. for the red shades 
(the blue ones being similarly indi- 
cated by B.). Flamingo in the same 
proportion gave the nicest red of those 
he had used. Brownish -yellow had 
been obtained by the use of small pro- 
portions of Bismarck brown. Methyl 
orange was wanting in brightness and 

If the window is exposed to the sun, 
the film must be allowed to harden 
well before the bottle is placed in its 
position. The carbolic acid or some 
other preservative is required to pre- 
vent bacteria from liquefying the 

Malachite green and methylene blue 
are good dyes with which to work for 
producing the two colors respectively. 
For heating the globe, a towel dipped 
in hot water and carefully applied has 
been recommended. Globes colored 
with films lack the lens-like appear- 
ance which adds to the attractiveness 
of those filled with colored w r ater. 
This is not altogether a disadvantage, 
as the water-filled globes, acting as 
lenses, have been known to start a 

Varnish for Labels. 


Sandarac 100.0 grammes. 

Camphor 15.0 grammes. 

Venice turpentine. . . 2.5 grammes. 
Alcohol 240.0 mils. 


Celluloid 10 parts. 

Camphor 4 parts. 

Ether 30 parts. 

Acetone 30 parts. 

Amyl acetate 30 parts. 


A quick -drying varnish may be made 
of the following ingredients: — 

White shellac 1 ounce. 

Lead carbonate y 2 ounce. 

Ether 8 ounces. 

Dissolve the shellac in the ether; add 
the lead carbonate; shake thoroughly 
for several minutes, and decant the 
clear liquid. The shellac must not have 
been exposed to the atmosphere any 
more than is necessary in weighing out 
the required amount. 

A more flexible resin varnish can be 
produced in the following manner:- — 

African copal 8 ounces. 

Powdered glass 8 ounces. 

Camphor 2 ounces. 

Ether 40 ounces. 

Absolute alcohol 10 ounces. 

Powder the copal and mix it with 
the powdered glass; dissolve the cam- 
phor in the ether; add the first two 
ingredients to this solution and set 
aside for a month in a suitable con- 
tainer, shaking it frequently during 
the period of maceration. At the end 
of the month add the alcohol and ma- 
cerate again for two weeks. Decant 
the clear liquid. 

All these mixtures are highly inflam^ 
mable and caution should be used in 
both making and using them. 

If the ink used for the labels is af- 
fected by the varnish, the printed sur- 
face should be sized with collodion be- 
fore the varnish is applied. 


S. M. Wojciechowski writes: — 
After pasting- the label on I wait until it is 
perfectly dry. After this I carefully apply a 
coating consisting of a mixture of equal parts 
of ether and collodion. After this is perfect- 
ly dry I brush over with the purest obtainable 
colorless varnish, made very thin. 

Labels treated in this way remain white 
and nice, even when washed once in a while 
with water. 


Seeing the foregoing, John J. Stephen- 
son offered the following modification, 
which, he said, had been in use by him 
with satisfaction for a long time: — 

The label after having been pasted on th* 
bottle and allowed to become perfectly dry is 
coated with a mixture of equal parts of col- 
lodion and ether, applied with a small brush 
Then a coat of gelatin is applied and imrae- 



diately afterward a coat of i" per cent, for- 
maldehyde solution. 

The gelatin should be the same consistence 
as that used for sealing soft elastic capsules 
and should be heated on a water-bath and 
applied hot. Bottles so labeled may be washed 
in either water or alcohol without injury to 
the lettering. My objection to varnish is that 
it is apt to turn yellow. 

L. Vink, in a paper read before an 
annual meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, described 
an economical method of varnishing 
labels as follows: — 

Having tried a number of different 
formulas for a label varnish that would 
be satisfactory in every way, i. e.. mode 
of preparing and of applying, inex- 
pensive and lasting, the following 
formula seems to be more nearly the 
ideal. It is easy to apply, quick dry- 
ing, gives a transparent, glassy appear- 
ance and has the added advantge of 
being waterproof. Labels made of dif- 
ferent stock material were used and 
the result, after applying varnish, was 
in every instance the same; they pre- 
sented an appearance as of irregular 
wet blotches, emphasizing the need of 
a filler or sizing material. Because of 
its comparative cheapness the writer 
is of the opinion that nothing answers 
this purpose better than collodion. 
After the label is attached, allow it to 
stand long enough for the adhesive to 
dry thoroughly before the collodion is 
applied. One coating of collodion, ap- 
plied by means of a hair pencil, should 
be evenly distributed over entire sur- 

face of label. Some inks are soluble 
in this medium and will present a 
streaked appearance. As the collodion 
dries instantly the first coating of var- 
nish may be applied immediately after. 
Two coats of the varnish will suffice 
to give the label all protection neces- 
sary to make it wear well, and, in a 
great many cases, to last as long as 
does the bottle to which it is attached. 
Labels treated in this manner show, 
after ten years' service and exposure to 
dust, air and light, but a slight yel- 
lowish change in color over that when 
first applied. Gum mastic and gum 
sandarac in ethyl alcohol furnish the 
medium whereby the pharmacist may, 
with but little loss of valuable time, 
transform the common paper label into 
a semi -permanent label which en- 
hances the beauty of his bottles on 
their shelves. 

Waterproofing Labels. 

a. Gelatin 100 parts. 

Acetic acid (36%) 300 parts. 

Glycerin 10 parts. 

b. Potassium dichromate.. 20 parts. 

Abater 200 parts. 

For use, equal parts of a and b are 

mixed just prior to being applied. The 
coated label is then exposed to the 
light until dry. If the yellow color of 
this coating is undesirable, solution of 
formaldehyde may be used instead 
of b. 



Cold Creams — Rolling, Massage. Vanishing. Theatrical and Freckle 
Creams — Almond Lotions — Witchhazel Jelly — Sunburn Lotions — 
Shaving Lotions — Face Powder — Rouge — Perspiration Deodor- 
ants — Depilatories — Preparations for the Hands and Xails — Corn 
and Wart Removers — Bath Salts. 

Always Consult the Index When Using This Book 

Making and Selling Toilet Creams. and limitations of the three products 

° should be set forth, somewhat after the 

The notes and formulas which fol- outline just given, but in more detail, 

low are abstracted from a series of ancl with m0 re "reason -whv" matter, 

articles by H. C. Bradford, published If the su bject is approached with an 

in The Druggists'_ Circular during the open m i n d, and the copy prepared ac- 

earlier part of 1915. cordingly, it can have but one result. 

Relative Merits of Different Types. and that is to stimulate the sale of the 

It seems to the writer that the de- standard fatty creams, and to a some- 

mand for casein creams is slowly les- "hat less extent, the stearin products, 

sening. and that thev are being sup- while the casein products will drop to 

planted by the stearin creams. The third place, where they properly be- 

latter have many advantages which long. 

the public is beginning to recognize. Making and Buying Casein, 

especially now that their use and obtained by precipitation 

functions are beginning to be under- 

stood and that thev are no longer con- llum milK - su ' 
fused with the fatty creams. Skimmed fresh sweet 

The casein creams serve only as a milk 500 parts. 

cleansing agent: rubbed into the skin Magnesium sulphate 50 parts. 

they "roll" out, bringing the impuri- Alum 5 parts. 

ties with them. Dissolve the magnesium sulphate in 

Just here it should be remembered just the amount of warm water that 

that a well-made fatty cream will per- will serve; mix the solution with the 

form all the service of a casein or a milk and set the mixture aside for an 

stearin cream. It will cleanse the skin hour or so. Heat it then to about 130 

even better than the casein product. degrees F. (and in no case allow the 

and for healing and soothing all the temperature to exceed 145 degrees F.), 

troublesome little roughnesses, chaps and add the alum, dissolved also in 

and similar discomforts, it is even just sufficient hot water. Continue the 

superior to a stearin cream. The trace heat until it is clear that the casein is 

of grease that it leaves behind, espe- entirely precipitated, then transfer to 

cially when milady is preparing to go a cheesecloth strainer, and wash with 

out, is its chief objection. Another water until the washings are almost 

point that is worthy of consideration tasteless. 

is. that very many people are not at The lack of smoothness is the chief 

all informed of these various points of defect of most massage creams. The 

merit of these various products. It is casein always tends to form granules, 

very highly probable that three- This is almost entirely overcome by a 

fourths of the people who might be small amount of cacao butter. The 

called customers for these goods are only disadvantage of this added fat is 

totally unable to discriminate between that the product is no longer, in the 

them in the manner outlined. Many strict sense of the term, a greaseless 

have learned by experience that a par- cream, but this fact seems to be ig- 

ticular product will give good results nored by the manufacturers of many of 

under certain conditions, and for cer- the products on the market, 
tain purposes but they do not know Dry commercial casein is now an ar- 

the reason for it. In such circum- tide of commerce, and its use not only 

stances a quiet campaign of education obviates the "fussing" with milk, but 

by the pharmacist would be productive may be relied upon to make a smoother 

of a vast amount of benefit to the pub- product, 
lie and to his own trade. The merits In getting the casein for massage 




cream, be sure that the use to which 
it is to be put is specified, as the mak- 
ers of dry casein make many different 

Purification of Cacao Butter, Stearin 
and Fats Generally. 

Prepare some strong lime water by 
shaking caustic lime with soft water. 
Let this settle until perfectly clear, and 

Slice into wafers the rancid cacao 
butter, stearin or other articles to be 
purified, or, what is better, by means 
of a grater or chopper, reduce it to a 
coarse granular powder. The smaller 
the pieces, the quicker and better the 
lime will act. Immerse these chips in 
the lime water, and let them remain 
in the fluid about twenty-four hours, 
stirring occasionally, and taking care 
that they are at all times submerged. 
Then drain off the water, and if any 
trace of the volatile acids remain, re- 
peat the process. This done, wash 
thoroughly in clear water to remove 
all traces of lime, drain well, melt on 
a water-bath, and continue the heat 
until the water adhering to the fat has 
been driven off. Then cast into cakes 
in the usual manner. 

It is quite easy by this process to 
purify and make sweet and wholesome 
a rancid fat, but while this insures good 
material to begin with, it is no help 
towards keeping it sweet. The ten- 
dency of this and other fats to develop 
odorous volatile acids is the greatest 
obstacle to their employment. With a 
local trade, with the quality of ma- 
terial under control, and with care as 
to preservation, and more especially 
manufacturing in small lots and fre- 
quently, it is quite possible to attain 
the very best results with these fats, 
and the users and consumers will be 
correspondingly pleased. It must be 
stated, however, that for a preparation 
of nation-wide sale, or even for one of 
very much less magnitude, these ma- 
terials will not serve. It is impossible 
to say with certainty, but from a very 
cursory examination, coupled with what 
is known of the physical characteris- 
tics of the various materials, it is the 
opinion of the writer that all the prod- 
ucts of this class that have anything 
resembling a general sale, are made 
with mineral oil and wax, and similar 
ingredients, exclusively. Indeed, no 
other would stand the hard conditions 
to which they are subjected. This point 
is important and should be steadily 
borne in mind. 

Mutton Suet. 

Mutton suet is often required by the 
maker of toilet creams, and as it is 
next to impossible to buy it of proper 
quality, it is best to render it for one's 
self as wanted. The kidney and leaf 
fat of the sheep can be obtained from 
any good packing house or butcher; 
this should lie washed in cold water, 

dried with cloths, cut into small pieces, 
and rendered on a water-bath. No more 
heat should be used than is required 
to melt it thoroughly. It should then 
be strained through cheese cloth into 
fruit jars, or other receptacles that 
may be made air tight. It is best to 
cover the top with melted paraffin, then 
stop tightly and store in a cool place. 
So prepared, mutton suet keeps reason, 
ably well, but it is not intended to be 
a permanent product, hence should be 
prepared in small quantities. A dram 
of benzoic acid dissolved in a minimum 
amount of alcohol and added to each 
pound will help to preserve it. It is a 
better plan not to try to preserve such 
a product indefinitely, and the same is 
true of the average toilet cream, of 
which it is a constituent. These animal 
and (to a slightly less extent) vege- 
table fats are not permanent, nor can 
they be made so except by the addition 
of large amounts of preservatives, and 
this is usually unadvisable. 

The Ice Cream Freezer. 

This utensil is the best thing ever 
devised for making a reasonably large 
lot of a cream and is good for many 
other laboratory purposes. The outer 
compartment may be filled with water 
of any desired temperature, to either 
hasten or retard the final setting of the 
cream or other product. In addition to 
this, the beating it will do is far bet- 
ter than can be obtained in any other 
way, even the egg beater being inferior. 
This last implement is well enough for 
amounts not exceeding a pound, though 
even there it requires both hands to 
work it. 

This use of the ice cream freezer is 
so important, and the freezer is appli- 
cable to such a wide range of uses for 
many other products, that it is queer it 
has never been recommended. So far 
as the writer knows, he was the first 
to point out its value tor these pur- 
poses. It is equally valuable in mak- 
ing fatty creams for ointments, tooth 
paste, cataplasm or kaolin, and any 
similar product, and will not only save 
half to two-thirds of the time and labor 
demanded by the ordinary methods and 
appliances, but it will give a product 
in every way superior to that made by 
the older methods. 

The freezer used for this purpose 
should be selected with the greatest 
care. It need not he large, but it should 
be of the best material and construc- 
tion and care should 1>« exercised to 
see that every portion of the metal that 
comes into contact with the product is 
thoroughly tinned. It should be used 
for no other purpose, and should have 
frequent examination to see that it is 
in good condition. A small spot of 
naked iron will quickly ruin a batch of 
cream, and is likely to have an equally 
disastrous effect on other products. 

In the following formulas the mat- 

toilet preparations; 


ter of color and perfume is left optional 
with the operator. Directions for in- 
corporating them in the product are 
given, but the kind and quantity are 
not specified. 

"EveryDay" Cold Cream. 

Mineral oil • . . 6 pints. 

White wax 30 ounces. 

Water 2 pints. 

Sodium borate 1 ounce. 

Dissolve the sodium borate in the 
water: melt the wax, add the oil and 
bring to a temperature of about 200 
deg. F.. or even a little more; heat the 
sodium borate solution to the same 
temperature and pour it into the hot 
oil solution with vigorous stirring. 

If the oil and the aqueous solution 
are both heated almost to boiling, as 
directed, and then mixed, a slight 
amount of vigorous stirring — not beat- 
ing — serves to make a beautiful snow- 
white cream that has an enameled ap- 
pearance, and is light and fluffy. It 
need hardly be said that the vessel in 
which this mixing is done should not 
be more than half filled by the product, 
else it is liable to overflow, and may 
even do so in any case, especially if 
heated too much. 

This cream may be cheapened in 
cost, without in any way reducing the 
quality, by replacing about half the 
mineral oil with an equal volume of 
the culinary cottonseed oil, and by 
using about six ounces of paraffin in- 
stead of an equal weight of the white 
wax. This cream should cost not more 
than 15 cents per pound, exclusive of 
the perfume. 

Theatrical Cold Cream. 

Oil (see previous formula). 1 gallon. 

Paraffin 1 pound. 

"White wax • . . 3 pounds. 

Sodium borate 3 ounces. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Mix as directed in the preceding 

Members of the theatrical profession 
make large use of a cream of a totally 
different sort, though sold under the 
same name, which they employ to re- 
move the grease paint and other 
'make-up" from their faces. (See next 

Make- Up Cold Cream. 

Fresh sweet lard 10 ounces. 

Ca«tor oil 4 ounces. 

rmaceti 2 ounces. 

Sodium borate 20 grains. 

Water 1% ounces. 

Melt the spermaceti, add the lard, 
and then the castor oil. Dissolve the 
sodium borate in the water; heat both 
solutions to about 150 degrees F. and 
pour the aqueous solution into the 
mixture of fats, beating briskly until 
the product is nearly cold. 

This product at times, especially in 

cold weather, is a little stiff. This may 
be remedied by substituting a portion 
of oil of theobroma for an equal 
amount of the spermaceti. 

Oxygenated Cold Cream. 

Paraffin 250 grammes. 

White wax 250 grammes. 

Sweet almond oil. . . .1000 grammes. 

Sodium perborate. ... 10 grammes. 

Water 380 grammes. 

Mix in the usual manner, except that 
here the heat should be no more than 
enough to keep the mixture of wax 
and oil fully liquefied, while the aque- 
ous solution of the perborate should 
be warmed to the same temperature. 
Pour the latter into the former, slowly. 
beating briskly, and continue until the 
product is cold. 

Beating makes the cream light and 
fluffy, but does not give it the glossy 
finish common to creams mixed at high 
temperature with little beating. If 
packed in jars, the top can be made to 
take this glossy finish by holding near 
a source of heat for a moment. 

This is a real oxygen cream. It is 
a gentle but certain whitener for 
cheeks that have been tanned by the 
sun. The perborate could be very 
largely increased if desired, but here 
the object aimed at is not to supply a 
strong bleach, but merely to give a 
first-class oxygen cream. If real 
bleaching is wanted, the article made 
especially for that purpose should be 

Cocoa Butter Cold Cream. 

White wax 6 ounces. 

Paraffin 4 ounces. 

Spermaceti 10 ounces. 

Oil 80 ounces. 

Oil of theobroma 16 ounces. 

Sodium borate 4 ounces. 

Water 60 ounces. 

Mix in the usual manner and beat 
with an egg beater; or, better, in an ice 
cream freezer to make light and fluffy. 

This cream is a most excellent one. 
while reasonable in cost. If vegetable 
oil will be employed it will serve as 
well for "skin food'' as many of the 
products on the market. Oil of theo- 
broma is very largely used by many of 
the "beauty specialists," largely in the 
pure state, and is probably absorbed 
with greater ease and celerity than any 
oil outside the animal kingdom. This 
formula has been subjected to the most 
exacting demands, and has always 
giyen satisfaction. It furnishes an ar- 
ticle that can be offered to the most 
fastidious trade with full assurance 
that it will please. 

Satin Cream. 

Pure sweet unsalted lard. . .220 gm. 

Potassium hydroxide 31 gm. 

Alcohol. 60^7 10 gm. 

Water ^0 gm. 



Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in 
the water, and if there is any sediment 
let the fluid stand until it settles, and 
pour off the clear solution. Put this 
with the lard into a warm pan and mix 
thoroughly, working in the alcohol in 

There is some skill required in this 
mixing. The product is a beautiful one, 
having the appearance of satin. As 
the proportions are stated, they will 
give a product stiff enough for a jar, 
but by increasing the alcohol it can be 
made into a thick liquid. This is an 
unusual and valuable formula, and will 
be a money maker if pushed. Applied 
freely and' wiped off with a piece of 
cloth removes soot, dirt, dust, travel 
stains and all else similar from the 
face and hands much easier, quicker 
and more gently than will the most 
vigorous scrubbing with soap, and the 
trace of fat left behind will be an 
added protection to the skin. 

Cucumber Cream. 

White wax 9 ounces. 

Oil 24 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 15 grains. 

Cucumber juice 10 ounces. 

Mix in the usual manner, the juice 
taking the place of the water in the 
ordinary formula. 

The benzoic acid is superfluous and 
can be omitted if the juice be made 
properly, as directed below. This cream 
is a real advance over the ordinary 
types, in that it does contain cucumber 
juice, which is a cooling, healing and 
bleaching agent for the skin. 
Cucumber Juice. 

Take nice large green cucumbers: 
do not wash, but wipe off all dust with 
a damp cloth. Then cut fine in an or- 
dinary meat chopper. Collect the pulp 
in an enameled pan and heat almost 
to boiling, then drain it in a bag until 
dry. Express the bag thoroughly, but 
do' not mix the expressed juice with 
that which came through by dropping. 
To each gallon of this latter add 1 pin: 
of alcohol in which has been dissolved 
2 ounces of benzoic acid. Mix thor- 
oughly, let stand 24 hours and filter. 
Collect the filtrate and preserve it in 
well-corked bottles. The juice ex- 
pressed from the pulp is subjected to 
the same treatment, except that it 
should first be boiled about one min- 
ute, then passed through a muslin 
strainer. Then it may be treated 
exactly as the other. 

"Skin Foods." 

It has long been recognized that the 
animal fats are more easily absorbed 
than either vegetable or mineral oils, 
hence it is the custom to make so- 
called tissue building creams largely, if 
not entirely, from animal fats. It 
should be remembered that the food 
and drug officials are inclined to look 

askance at any product labelled "skin 
food," it being claimed that there is 
no such thing as "tissue building" by 

Theobroma Skin Food. 

Oil of theobroma 8 ounces. 

Hydrous wool fat 8 ounces. 

Culinary cottonseed oil.. 2 ounces. 

Boric acid 4 drams. 

Tincture of benzoin 4 drams. 

Melt the solid fats on a water-bath, 
and with a small portion of the melted 
mixture rub the boric acid to a smooth 
paste. Put this in with the melted 
fats, and add the oil slowly and with 
constant stirring. Add the tincture in 
the same manner, remove from the 
heat and beat briskly until the product 
is cold, and has been made light and 
fluffy. Transfer at once to jars and 
let them stand open, but protected 
from dust for twenty-four hours. Then 
"gloss" the top by holding near a 
source of heat for a moment, put on 
the cap and the cream is ready for 
sale. The standing open seems to im- 
prove the appearance. 

This product is excellent, but in ex- 
tremely hot weather is a little soft. It 
is a good plan to make all such prod- 
ucts as this a little stiffer in summer 
than in winter, and in this case about 
half the wool fat may be replaced with 
an equal amount of good mutton suet. 

Witchhazel Skin Food. 

Hydrous wool fat 24 ounces. 

Oil 6 ounces. 

Distilled extract of witch 

hazel 6 ounces. 

Mix in the usual manner. 

This cream is very easily mixed. It 
is also rather more expensive than the 
general run, but it is an excellent prep- 

Lotus Skin Food. 

Spermaceti 10 ounces. 

White wax 8 ounces. 

Hydrous wool fat 8 ounces. 

Coconut oil 8 ounces. 

Oil of theobroma 4 ounces. 

Culinary cottonseed oil.. 24 ounces. 

Water 14 ounces. 

Sodium borate 2 drams. 

Tincture of benzoin 4 drams. 

Mix in the usual manner, using an 
ice cream freezer, and beating vigor- 
ously, to make it as light and fluffy as 

This is a valuable formula. It was 
originated by a woman who had some 
reputation as a "beauty specialist." and 
reduced to workable proportions by the 
writer. The latest reports are that 
the preparation is pleasing all users. 

Venus Skin and Flesh Food. 

Hydrous wool fat 16 ounces. 

Oil 8 ounces. 

White wax 2 ounces. 

Mix in the usual manner. 



This particular formula is of Eng- 
lish origin, and yields a product that 
has been sold in London under the 
fcbeve title. 

Brick Toilet Creams. 

It has often been suggested that it 
would be an advantage to elminate 
the water in toilet creams and increase 
the proportion of wax and other hard 
materials, thus producing an article 
not only more concentrated, and hence 
more economical to the user, but also 
one that could be sent into trade with- 
out the container, which is such a 
large part of the total cost of these 
goods. A true cold cream can not be 
made in this way, but must contain 
water. Also for the ordinary uses of 
these products, such as the protection 
of the skin, and the soothing and heal- 
ing action generally, the true cold 
cream is much superior. On the other 
hand, in the realm of the "skin foods," 
the water is unnecessary, and the solid 
or brick variety made with the more 
solid fats will serve perfectly. With 
this distinction kept in mind, good use 
can be made of this brick product. 
These are really cerates, or at least 
very closely allied to them, but for 
best results should be a trifle harder. 

Methods of Molding. 
The casting of these compounds into 
blocks of the proper size is a matter 
of vexation in, most instances. In but 
few cases are proper molds at hand, 
and these are a source of expense when 
purchased. Plaster of paris molds, 
boiled in oil, are not very satisfactory. 
The best molds are made of brass, in 
two parts, so arranged that the mass 
may be pressured. This solidifies the 
blocks, levels inequalities in the sur- 
face, rounds the corners, and may em- 
boss a name or design. Good molds 
may be made of paper if desired. Par- 
affined paper is best; the molds should 
be carefully made over a good model, 
and the joints made impervious to the 
compound. The latter should not be 
poured into the molds until on the 
point of solidification, and if possible 
the molds should be chilled to hasten 
solidification. The writer believes the 
best plan is to form the mixture into 
a slab and cut it to the proper size. 
A rectangular receptacle with perpen- 
dicular sides, and perfect right angles 
at the corners is best. The compound 
should be poured into this carefully, 
when it is perfectly level, until it is 
of the proper depth. It should cool 
slowly, and as quickly as it is hard 
enough to stand cutting with a thin 
knife it should be cut into strips of 
the proper width. These are cut into 
the proper sized pieces. This last 
task will be much facilitated by the 
use of a simple implement, much like 
that used for cutting soap into cakes. 
This is merely two boards fastened 

together, like a carpenter's "mitre 
box," and provided with a fine wire 
fastened at the end, which, drawn 
across the strip, severs it quickly and 

Wrapping and Finishing. 

Three wrappers are necessary in 
finishing these blocks for the market. 
The first should be of waxed paper; 
the second, tin foil, and the last the 
label and wrapper combined. Wrapped 
in this manner, these goods will be 
almost as permanent as if packed in 
jars or boxes, especially if a little 
care be taken to keep them in a cool 
place. It is hardly necessary to say 
that the combination label and wrap- 
per should be a showy one, preferably 
lithographed in colors. 

Madame De Compierre's Beauty 

Spermaceti 1 ounct. 

Mutton tallow 8 ounces. 

Hydrous wool fat 9 ounces. 

Coconut oil 8 ounces. 

Expressed oil of almonds. 8 ounces. 

Melt on a water-bath, mix well and 
pour into jars. 

This formula, as its name indicates, 
is of French origin, and the original 
formula cost a considerable sum. It 
might be advisable in the warm sea- 
son to replace a portion of the al- 
mond oil with oil of theobroma. This 
would increase the hardness and 
would also be a slight addition to the 
merit of the compound. 

Ivorine Cerate. 

White wax 4 ounces. 

Spermaceti 2 ounces. 

Oil of theobroma .2 ounces. 

Culinary cotton seed oil, 

4 to 8 ounces. 

Mix, melt and mold. The amount of 
the oil is varied to suit the tempera- 
ture and conditions. 

This recipe yields a cream that sells 
well, and that has a fair reputation, 
but the writer considers it inferior to 
that made by the previous formula. 
Camphor Ice. 

Paraffin 2 ounces. 

White wax 2 ounces. 

White petrolatum 12 ounces. 

Camphor 3 ounces. . . 

Melt the first three ingredients on 
a water-bath; add the camphor in 
powder, and continue to heat, with 
stirring, until it is dissolved. Then 
pour into molds* 

This is a pure camphor ice of the 
very highest quality. It has become 
fashionable of late to combine gly- 
cerin in this product. If this is de- 
sired, a weight of it equal to the cam- 
phor may be ad/led, after the latter 
has dissolved, but the product will 
then require stirring until it can just 
barely be poured, in order to incorpo- 
rate the glycerin. 



Cocoa Butter Brick Massage Cream. 

Oil of theobroma 16 parts. 

White wax 1 part. 

Coconut oil 1 part. 

Mix, melt and mold. 

As can be seen, this calls for little 
else than oil of theobroma, which fat 
stands very high in the estimation of 
beauty experts, and is often relied on 
almost exclusively for massaging. Its 
chief disadvantage is its great tend- 
ency to turn rancid. The least trace 
3f rancidity debars it from use. 

Phenol Camphor Ice. 

Paraffin 2 ounces. 

White wax 2 ounces. 

White petrolatum 12 ounces 

Camphor 3 ounces. 

Phenol (crystals) 1 ounce. 

Melt the phenol, stir in the cam- 
phor until it is dissolved, and add the 
solution to the oils, previously melted. 

Phenol and camphor combine to 
form a water-white, oily liquid, which 
dissolves perfectly in such mixtures 
as the above. The camphor lessens 
the caustic and corrosive properties of 
the phenol, reducing the combination 
to a powerful antiseptic. This prod- 
uct will soften, soothe and heal even 
the roughened, gnarled, cracked and 
bleeding hands of laborers. 

Perspiration Cream. 

White wax 8 ounces. 

Liquid petrolatum 24 ounces. 

Sodium borate 100 grains. 

Benzoic acid 20 grains. 

Salicylic acid 400 grains. 

Hot water 16 ounces. 

Melt the wax and oil and heat to 
about 160° F. Dissolve the other ma- 
terials in the water, heat to the same 
temperature as the wax solution, and 
pour it into the latter, heating briskly 
until the cream is formed. 

Here a comparatively high temper- 
ature of the solutions, plus a small 
amount of stirring, results in a glossy 
cream. This cream is really more of 
an odor dispeller, or deodorizer, than 
a remedy for perspiration, though the 
two are usually interdependent. Manv 
persons are troubled with an exces- 
sive perspiration on the feet, in the 
armpits, and in other portions of the 
body, and a slight application of this- 
cream to such places will destroy the 
odor. It is also valuable for mam- 
humors and eruptions, especiallv those 
aggravated by exergise and the re- 
sulting perspiration. 

La Rouche Bath Cream. 

Tannic acid 4 grammes. 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 160 grammos. 

1 1 ydrous wool fat . . . 240 grammes. 
Melt, mix and beat until smooth. 
As may be judged from the title, 
this is a French recipe, and the fin- 

ished preparation is much used to close 
the pores, constrict the skin and make 
the flesh firm, after the hot or Turkish 
bath. It is also used as a wrinkle 
cream, though not equal to the one 
given further along. 

Queen Draga's Complexion and Pimple 

Artificial musk 1 gramme. 

Coumarin 5 grammes. 

Ichthyol 150 grammes. 

White petrolatum. . .2500 grammes. 

Mix well, adding the ichthyol last. 

The preparation made by this recipe 
is really more of an ointment than a 
cream, and it is said that it was used 
by the murdered Queen Draga of Ser- 
bia. This cream is merely an oint- 
ment of ichthyol, perfumed with musk 
and coumarin, the perfumes probably 
having some connection with the use- 
fulness of the compound other than as 

Pacific Wrinkle Cream. 

Tincture of benzoin 1 dram. 

Spirit of camphor 1 dram. 

Orange flower water.... 1 dram. 

Gelatin 4 drams. 

Powdered alum 15 grains. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Mutton suet 8 ounces. 

Dissolve the alum in the orange 
flower water., add the gelatin, and soak 
until the latter is thoroughly softened. 
Now add the glycerin and heat on a 
water-bath until the gelatin is dis- 
solved. Melt the suet and add it to 
the gelatin solution, very slowly and 
with constant stirring; follow with the 
remaining ingredients in the same 
manner, then remove from heat, and 
with an egg beater beat briskly until 
the cream is cold, and light and fluffy. 

The product obtained from the recipe 
just -given is a little unusual, but it 
has been the fortune of the writer to 
know that it gives satisfactory results. 
It is to be applied to the wrinkles - at 
night and well massaged into the skin 
for ten to fifteen minutes. The for- 
mula was half way put together by a 
woman on the Pacific slope, but it 
failed to please, and the writer's as- 
sistance was invoked. After some 
trouble it was modified to a form 
somewhat different from the above 
and in that shape turned over to the 
owner. She continued to make inno- 
vations, and finally informed me that 
in the above form it was a great suc- 
cess and brought "repeat" orders. 
Casein Massage Creams. 

It is probable that no single article 
has attracted more attention in phar- 
macy during the last five years than 
massage cream, and it is equally prob- 
able that no article ever created so 
much interest and sold in such quan- 
tities, and yet had so little real merit 
behind it. 

At first the novelty was largely re- 


sponsible for the popularity which 
these creams enjoyed. Now. that this 
has very largely disappeared, the ar- 
ticles are beginning to find their true 
place, and to be appraised at some- 
thing like their real value. 

Greaseless creams, broadly consid- 
ered, are of two general classes. The 
first has usually a base of casein; the 
second is usually a stearin soap. 

That these creams fill a place has 
been amply demonstrated by the fact 
that they have sold steadily. A pecu- 
liar thing is that the public put these 
products in their proper place before 
the manufacturers did. At first, they 
were advertised and pushed very much 
in the same manner as the fatty 
creams. Now there is a very great 
difference, most of the manufacturers 
wisely making a distinction between 
them. In one booklet it was frankly 
stated that the massage cream would 
not perform the service of the fatty 

Just who introduced the casein 
creams it is impossible to say. Milk 
has long ranked high as a cosmetic. 
By baths of milk the women of Rome 
sought to retain their youth and 

Creams are made from the casein 
freshly precipitated from milk, and it 
is here that many failures occur. There 
is little difficulty in the process. The 
list of precipitants is a long one, alum, 
borax, ammonia, magnesium sulphate, 
rennet, heat and many others being 
employed. There seems to be a wide 
divergence of methods. As an example, 
some lay stress upon the thorough 
washing of the freshly precipitated 
product as essential; others say noth- 
ing about it. and the inference is that 
they pay no attention to that part of 
the process. Washing is essential, 
especially if chemicals have been em- 
ployed as precipitants, if only to be 
rid of them. It also removes the albu- 
min, the whey and other liquids, and 
leaves the casein cleaner and more 
manageable. Only fresh, skimmed milk 
should be used. 

The fat of whole milk interferes with 
all the processes. If fat is to be added, 
it should be at the last. 

Under manipulation, casein will take 
up a considerable quantity of water, 
but on being left standing for a time 
it will contract and expel this water, 
and if this should happen after the 
cream has been sold dissatisfaction re- 
sults. Xo one wants a jar of cream 
with a layer of water on the top of it. 
The grainy feel in a casein cream 
may be avoided by the use of a trace 
I of alkali. In the manufacture of case- 
[ in creams the good judgment and skill 
1 of the operator, as well as experience, 
are of the utmost importance; worth 
) more even than the formula, for the 

reason that the raw material with 
which he works is a most variable 
substance. Even milk secured from 
the same source and meeting all the 
tests will still be variable. From the 
birth of the calf, until lactation stops, 
the bovine does not supply the same 
product two days in succession. A proc- 
ess may be worked out to the very 
finest points as to one sample of milk 
and give unqualified success, while with 
. the next lot of milk it will go wrong. 

Casein Cream — Formula No. 1. 

Skimmed fresh sweet 
milk 1% gallons. 

Solution of formalde- 
hyde 2 drams. 

Borax 3% ounces. 

Alum 7?4 ounces. 

Boiling water 4 pints. 

Cold water 2 gallons. 

Mix the formaldehye solution thor- 
oughly with the milk and heat the solu- 
tion to 122 F. Any desired color should 
be added to the milk at this time, for 
it is thus carried down with the curd 
and distributed in a thorough manner. 
Solution of carmine. X. F.. 125 minims, 
has been found to give a satisfactory 
tint to the above quantity. Xow dis- 
solve the borax in 2 pints of boiling 
water and stir briskly into the milk; 
as soon as the mixing is complete 
strain the liquid through muslin or 
cheese cloth. Dissolve the alum in the 
remainder of the boiling water and 
add the solution slowly and with con- 
stant stirring to the milk mixture. It 
is this that really precipitates the case- 
in. Let the curd settle to the bottom 
of the vessel, and if the supernatant 
liquid is not perfectly clear, add more 
alum solution until it is. This done, 
drain off the liquid and wash the curd 
until the washings are tasteless or 
nearly so. This is best done by having 
it in a pail with a faucet at the bottom, 
so the wash water may be drawn off. 
Xow get the curd into a bag of cheese 
cloth and press it with the hands, and 
let it drain until it weighs 3 pounds and 
2. ounces. This will give about the 
proper amount of water. Xext work in 
the perfume, and it is ready for pack- 

If the job has been done properly t! 
cream will be found satisfactory. How- 
ever, if the air has made it "grainy." 
the damaged portion may be rejected; 
or if the graininess be general the 
product should be treated. The remedy 
is a trace of caustic alkali, either po- 
tassium or sodium hydroxide or a mix- 
ture of the two. Ten grains to the 
ounce of product is about the maxi- 
mum, and probably less will serve. 
Dissolve the alkali in a minimum of 
water and rub it evenly into the curd. 
It will dispel those granular spots al- 
most like magic. 



As to Packaging. 
As soon as this is done get the prod- 
uct into the tubes with the least pos- 
sible delay. Tubes are the best packages 
in some respects, and in some others 
they are almost the very worst. The 
chief product of the market is packed 
into a small, wide-mouthed bottle, with 
a ground stopper. That is an ideal 
package, but expensive. A jar, with a 
small, thin "washer" or "gasket" of 
paraffined board or rubber, so that its 
lid would screw down practically air- 
tight, would be ideal. It is easy enough 
to keep the jar in perfect condition 
until sold by running paraffin on top 
of the cream, but after its use is be- 
gun comes the trouble. If used slowly 
it is almost sure to dry and spoil, and 
that kills the sale of a second package. 

Casein Cream — Formula No. 2. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Borax 2 drams. 

Boric acid 1 dram. 

Skimmed fresh sweet milk 1 gallon. 
Mix the milk and the ammonia, then 
put on the fire and heat until the milk 
curdles. Let it stand over night or 
about twelve hours, and strain through 
cheese cloth. If it was heated suffi- 
ciently, and not too much, this will 
give a nice, smooth curd. Let it stand 
another twelve hours, then mix in the 
other ingredients, add the color and 
perfume, and it is ready to package. 

This is a good example of the use of 
heat to curdle the casein, assisted here 
by the ammonia. It will also be noted 
that no washing is required. If prop- 
erly done, all the casein will be pre- 
cipitated and the whey and other 
liquids will flow from the strainer al- 
most clear. This has the advantage of 
making a smooth, soft, even curd, in 
which the other ingredients can be in- 
corporated with little labor. It is fur- 
ther fortified by the glycerin. 

Casein Cream — Formula No. 3. 
Freshly precipitated case- 
in 100 parts. 

Boric acid 20 parts. 

Oil of theobroma 10 parts. 

-Melt the oil of theobroma and rub 
to a paste with the boric acid, and 
triturate to a smooth, even cream with 
the casein, and working in the perfume 
and color at the same time. 

Casein Cream — Formula No. 4. 

1 )ry casein 9 ounces. 

Potassium hydroxide. . .100 grains. 

Sodium hydroxide 20 grains. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Phenol 140 grains. 

Water 32 ounces. 

Dissolve the potassium and sodium 
hydroxides in the water; add the case- 
in, taking care that it is as free from 
lumps as possible. Heat on a water- 

bath until it is dissolved to a smooth, 
heavy cream mass. Work in the gly- 
cerin, color, perfume and phenol, and 
when the whole is thoroughly incorp'o- 
rated. transfer to the packages. 

As the recipe stands, it will make a 
product that is just about right for jars 
or tubes, but it can be made harder or 
softer, as desired, by merely increas- 
ing or decreasing the amount of water. 
This is an advantage in another way. 
which is that in the making this 
can be determined and more water 
may be added, or evaporation may be 
carried a little further. This is a 
marked contrast to watching a bag of 
freshly precipitated moist casein as 
it loses its surplus moisture by the 
slow dropping of the fluid from it, the 
operator in the meanwhile wondering 
whether the proper percentage of 
water has been reached. 

Casein Cream — Formula No. 5. 

Skimmed fresh sweet 

milk 1 gallon. 

Borax 3 ounces. 

Boric acid 3 ounces. 

Powdered alum 6 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 % ounces. 

Sodium benzoate 4 drams. 

Put the borax and the boric acid 
into the milk, stir until dissolved, then 
heat to boiling. The mixture must not 
boil, but should come to the boiling 
point. Remove from the Are, add the 
alum dissolved in the smallest pos- 
sible quantity of hot water, stir thor- 
oughly, and let it stand for twenty- 
four hours. Strain, wash the curd a 
few times by decantation, drain for an 
hour or so, then mix in the glycerin, 
the benzoate, the perfume, and the 
color, and it is ready to package. 

Making Cottage Cheese. 

Briefly stated, the method of making 
"cottage cheese" is as follows: 

Skimmed fresh sweet milk is allowed 
to stand in a warm place until it forms 
a rather firm curd, or "clabber." This 
is now placed over heat and stirred 
constantly until the whey separates 
from the curd. This heating is the deli- 
cate and important part of the process. 
The "clabber" must not stand long 
enough to get too acid, but just long 
enough to make a firm curd. The 
clabber must not be boiled, but be well 
heated to insure a thorough separa- 
tion; anything beyond that point is to 
be avoided. Let the mixture cool, and 
turn it into a sieve to drain. When 
well drained, the curd is beautifully 
white, soft and smooth, and is a de- 
licious food product. After draining, 
it is at once formed into balls, and by 
this manipulation more moisture is ex- 
pelled. The product is then ready to 
be eaten, being usually mixed with 
cream and salted and seasoned to 
taste. The curd is not washed at all. 



Cotton Cheese Massage Cream. 

Curd, as above 8 ounces. 

Phenol 10 minims. 

Put into a mortar and rub into a 
smooth paste. The phenol is added 
as a preservative, but any other anti- 
septic would do as well. Appropriate 
color and perfume should be added. 

It seemed, from the preliminary test, 
that a curd made in this manner pro- 
duced a cream that was smoother and 
softer than the product of any other 
process. It also 'rolled out" well, and 
was apparently the equal if not supe- 
rior of the other types. 

Stearin Creams. 

The combination of stearic acid with 
alkali results in a sort of soap, and 
it is this soap, plus the water, and the 
various other materials that make the 
finished stearin cream. These creams 
contain a great amount of water, but 
despite this they can be made reason- 
ably permanent, though they will 
hardly stand marketing in a wholesale 

Another form of these creams that 
is fairly satisfactory is an emulsion in 
which the stearin* is combined with 
some oil and emulsified by the addition 
of borax or other alkali, or both. Borax 
has a remarkable action on stearin, 
as it is quite possible to make a 
pound of stearin, after emulsification 
with half to three-quarters of a pound 
of borax, hold in the form of a cream 
a gallon of water. 

By common consent, monohydrated 
sodium carbonate has been selected as 
the alkali possessing the greatest mer- 
its and the smallest demerits in the 
making of stearin creams. The various 
formulas propose amounts that vary 
roughly all the way from 3 to 15 per- 
cent, of the stearin employed. It is 
impossible to make a good cream with- 
out an excess of alkali, but a large 
excess should be avoided, since it 
exerts an untoward action on the skin, 
and may result in roughness, or even 
slight burns. 

An excess of alkali is not likely to 
manifest itself until after use of the 
cream, and then it is too late to pre- 
vent trouble. 

An important point is the quality of 
the raw materials. The pharma- 
copceial tests and requirements should 
be rigidly adhered to, and any item 
that fails to meet them should be re- 
jected. Care should also be taken that 
the stearin is not rancid. 

Stearin-Borax Emulsion. 

Borax 5 ounces. 

Stearin (granulated) 8 ounces. 

Distilled water 4 pints. 

Dissolve the borax in the water, and 

* Throughout this article the word "stearin" 
is employed in its technical sense; as a syn- 
onym for stearic acid. 

heat the solution on a water-bath to 
about 212° F. Add the stearin and stir 
vigorously until it is melted, ana thor- 
oughly incorporated with the solution. 
Then remove from the water-bath and 
continue the stirring until the product 
is thoroughly set and cold. The per- 
fume and color should be added when 
the product has cooled down to about 
140° to 150° F., and thoroughly beaten 
in. As soon as the product is cold, 
transfer to containers which should be 
as nearly air-tight as possible. If ordi- 
nary jars or boxes are to be used, run 
a thin layer of melted paraffin on top 
of the cream. This will preserve it 
until the jar is opened. 

The above formula represents the 
simplest of the emulsion processes, and 
the product is highly satisfactory, as 
well as cheap. So far as usefulness 
goes, it is just about as good as any 
stearin cream. The great drawback to 
this is its lack of keeping qualities. 
Packaged in tubes, it does very well, 
and jars handled as above will keep it 
for a reasonable time, but it is not per- 

Stearin-Petrolatum Emulsion. 

Stearin 9 ounces. 

Liquid petrolatum 4 ounces. 

Powdered borax 2 drams. 

Potassium hydroxide. . .137 grains. 

Distilled water 43 ounces. 

.Melt the stearin on a water- bath, add 
the liquid petrolatum, and stir until 
thoroughly combined. Dissolve the 
potassium hydroxide in half the water, 
heat the solution to about 212 degrees 
F., and pour it slowly, in a thin stream, 
into the latter, stirring vigorously all 
the while. Dissolve the borax in the 
remainder of the water, heat the solu- 
tion and add to the other mixture 
exactly as the potassium hydroxide 
solution was added. Remove from heat 
and continue the stirring, or beating, 
until the product is cold. The perfume 
and color should be added in the man- 
ner previously directed. 

This makes a better product than 
the first one given, and the oil tends 
to prevent the water from evaporating 
quickly, so that it is more permanent. 
The oil is also a good addition in other 
respects, adding greatly to the emol- 
lient properties of the product. Of 
course, this is not a true greaseless 
cream, but it does all the work of 
these, and the additional oil makes 
hardly a discoverable difference in the 
after-effects of the application. 
Stearin Soap Creams. 

Next will be considered a class of 
creams made with stearin soap as a 
base. These probably are the only 
products that have anything resembling 
a general sale. They are the most per- 
manent of the stearin creams, and it is 
quite possible to market them nation- 
ally if due precautions are observed. 


They are beautiful products, and their 
physi<te;l characteristics make a power- 
ful appeal to the prospective purchaser. 

Stearin Soap Cream — No. 1. 

Stearin 16 ounces. 

Powdered borax 8 ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Monohyd rated sodium 

carbonate 765 grains. 

Distilled water 6 pounds. 

All these materials are to be care- 
fully weighed, including the water. 
Put the water, glycerin, borax and 
sodium carbonate into a kettle on a 
water-bath and raise the water in the 
bath to the boiling point, stirring until 
solution is complete. The stearin should 
be granulated, then slowly added, with 
constant stirring, to the hot solution. 
Continue the heat and stirring until 
the whole thing becomes an oily-look- 
ing, smooth semi-transparent liquid. 
Remove from the heat, and keep the 
beater or stirrer going until the prod- 
uct is cold, adding the color and per- 
fume when the product has cooled to 
about 140 to 150 degrees F. 

If carefully selected materials are 
used and due care given to their manip- 
ulation, the above formula gives a 
product that is just about as good as, 
if not better, than any cream that has 
•been placed before the trade. 

Stearin Soap Cream — No. 2. 

Stearin 6 ounces. 

Anhydrous wool-fat.... 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 6 ounces. 

Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide 1 ounce. 

Water 32 ounces. 

Monohydrated sodium 

carbonate 5 drams. 

Borax 2 drams. 

Mix the water and glycerin, and heat 
to about 195 degrees F. on a water- 
bath. Add the borax and sodium car- 
bonate and stir until they are dissolved. 
Melt the stearin and wool-fat together, 
and raise the temperature to about 195 
degrees F. Then pour the borax-soda 
solution slowly, in a thin stream, into 
the mixture of melted fats, keeping the 
stirrer going vigorously all the while. 
Continue the heat and stirring until ef- 
fervescence has ceased, and the saponi- 
fication is complete; then let the mix- 
ture cool down to about 105 to 120 de- 
grees F.; add the hydrogen dioxide so- 
lution, the perfume and the coloring, 
and continue to beat until cold. 

This is a good example of a "perox- 
ide cream." Of course, the amount of 
the latter ingredient could be increased 
if desired, but it is best to use caution 
in doing so. Hydrogen dioxide solution 
does not seem to work as well in prac- 
tice for such purposes as this, as a 
theoretical study of the matter would 
lead one to think. The acid — which it 

is apt to contain — seems prone to red- 
den and roughen the skin when applied 
at all freely, so that it has never been 
popular when used for any of the pur- 
poses of a skin bleach. In the amount 
here specified, it will tend to whiten 
the skin, and the amount used is too 
small to produce any untoward results. 

Smoothing Effect of Wool-Fat. 

The small proportion of wool-fat is 
a very useful addition. It greatly as- 
sists the blending or emulsifying of the 
materials, and also tends to impart 
smoothness to the product-. It is highly 
probable that this addition, in about 
this proportion to every formula given 
in this paper, would produce good re- 
sults, and would add to the value and 
appearance of the cream in question. 

Stearin Soap Cream — No. 3. 

Stearin S ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Boric acid 8 grains. 

Potassium carbonate. . . .360 grains. 
Distilled water 40 ounces. 

The manipulation of the above in- 
gredients is as in the previous formula. 
Mix all the materials except the stear- 
in, the perfume and the color; heat to 
the boiling point of the water-bath, add 
the stearin previously granulated, or 
at least cut and broken into small 
pieces, continue the heat and stirring 
until saponification is complete (indi- 
cated by the oily appearance and semi- 
transparent look of the product), then 
remove from heat, and stir until cold, 
beating in the perfume and color in the 
manner already directed. 

This formula has given good results 
in several hands, and was originated 
by an expert in this line. The chief 
difference between it and the preceding 
formula is the proportion of glycerin; 
the absence of borax is also unusual, 
and the writer thinks it would be better 
to add some. The boric acid, in the 
quantity specified, can have nothing 
but an imaginary effect. The use of 
potassium carbonate, rather than the 
sodium salt, is also a step in the wrong 
direction, in the writer's opinion. The 
monohydrated sodium carbonate has 
been used so much, and by so many 
different operators, that its superiority 
for the purpose must be conceded, to 
say nothing of the fact that it costs 12 
to 15 cents a pound less than the potas- 
sium carbonate. Yet the formula has 
given good results, and the product 
made by it has been sold with satisfac- 
tion and profit, and that is the "acid" 
test after all. 

Stearin Soap Cream — No. 4. 

Stearin 30 grammes. 

Oil of theobroma 5 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate ... 20 grammes. 

Powdered borax 5 grammes. 

Glycerin 25 mils. 



Mucilage of acacia... .100 mils. 

Water 400 mils. 

Mix the water, mucilage, glycerin, 
borax and sodium carbonate, and heat 
on a water-bath until dissolved. Melt 
the stearin and the oil of theohroma 
together, and pour into it very slowly, 
and with constant Stirling, the borax- 
soda solution. Continue the heating 
and stirring until effervescence has 
d and the saponification is com- 
plete, then remove from heat and stir 
pntil cold, adding the perfume and 
color during the cooling. 

This product not only contains cacao 
Butter, but also mucilage. In the opin- 
ion of the writer, this last is a poor ad- 
dition, and the product would be much 
better without it, especially if the 
amount of glycerin was slightly in- 
creased. The preparation somewhat re- 
sembles the stearin emulsions, because 
of the large amount of water and other 
diluents present, but it is inferior to 
them. If well made, it is a light, fluffy 
product, and is rather popular in some 

Stearin Soap Cream — No. 5. 

'Witchhazel Foam." 

Stearin (granulated).. 100 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate.... 5 grammes. 

Glycerin 15 grammes. 

Distilled extract of 

witchhazel 500 grammes. 

Distilled w a t e r to 

make 1000 grammes. 

Mix the sodium carbonate and glyc- 
erin with 500 grammes of water, and 
heat on a water-bath until the salt is 
dissolved. Add the stearin and con- 
tinue heating and stirring until saponi- 
fication is complete. Remove from heat 
and wdien the mixture has cooled to 
about 160 to 175 degrees F., add the ex- 
tract of witchhazel slowly, with con- 
stant stirring, and continue to stir 
visorously until cold. 

This recipe yields, when properly 
handled, an excellent, light, fluffy prod- 
uct that gives general satisfaction. 

General Directions for Making Stearin 

Stearin should be practically show- 
white, since dark color is a sure sign 
of inferior quality. It should be free 
from dust, dirt and any other foreign 
matters, and lastly, it should conform 
to the tests of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia as to saponification values 
and melting point. The other mate- 
rials should also answer to pharmaco- 
poeial requirements, and the sodium 
salt, the borax and similar ingredients 
should be preserved in air-tight con- 

The best vessels are aluminum; a 
second choice would be granite, agate 
or enameled ware. Well-tinned vessels 
may be used. The beating and stir- 

ring is best done with a wooden pad- 
dle, made of some odorless hardwood, 
such as ash or hickory, or from white 
pine. Yellow pine and other woods of 
a resinous or odorous nature would 
contaminate the product, and the touch 
of iron would ruin it. 

Be sure to make allowance for ef- 
fervescence and swelling of volume. 
The kettle should be not more than 
half filled by the materials for batch, 
and even less than that would be bet- 
ter. When the granulated stearin is 
added to the borax-soda solution it first 
thickens up into a somewhat gelatin- 
ous-looking mass. Further beating and 
stirring begins to make this fluff up, 
due to the air bubbles rising and 
breaking at the surface. The volume 
also increases greatly at this stage. 
Then, as the process continues, the 
mass melts and dissolves, and comes 
down rather suddenly to the oily- 
looking, semi-transparent liquid, 
and effervescence practically ceases. 
This marks the end of the reaction, 
and shows that the saponification is 
practically complete, but it is best to 
continue heating and stirring a few 
minutes longer. 

No water but distilled should be used, 
although good, clean, rain water that 
has been boiled, cooled and filtered is 
almost as gbod, and may be used if 
the other is not at hand. The consist- 
ency of the finished cream is very 
largely controlled and governed by the 
amount of water left in it. Most for- 
mulas call for what seems to be exces- 
sive amounts of water, but much of 
this is evaporated during the heating 
process. This may or may not be re- 
placed, depending on the desired con- 
sistency of the finished cream. The 
important point is this: add only boil- 
ing hot water to the cream during the 
process, and keep the stirrer going all 
the time. Cold. w r ater at any stage of 
the process will spoil the product. Have 
a kettle full, hot at all times, for use. 

The process should be continuous. 
Have everything ready before you be- 
gin, and w r hen the materials have been 
placed in the bath, stop for nothing 
until the job is done. Keep the heat 
and the paddle going constantly until 
the saponification is complete, then re- 
move the kettle from the bath, and 
keep the paddle going again until the 
product is cold, or at least set. More 
failures have been due to neglect of 
these points than all other causes com- 
bined. The appearance of the product 
would indicate that it could safely be 
packaged up as soon as it had cooled 
down enough to handle, but this is a 
great mistake. Separation is prone to 
occur, and the beating should be con- 
tinuous until it is too stiff to allow 

Putting Fluffiness Into Creams. 

All know what fluffiness means, but 



not all know how to attain it in their 
products, and yet it is one of the most 
important points of the whole process. 
The light, soft, fluffy product is inva- 
riably preferred. This fluffiness is 
caused by beating bubbles of air into 
the product, and the beating, as al- 
ready prescribed, will give a certain 
amount of it, but hardly enough to 
bring desired results. Let the cream 
stand over night after it is finished in 
the manner directed under the formu- 
las. Next morning get an ice cream 
freezer that will not be more than half 
filled by the batch, or at least do not 
try to handle more than half a canful 
at a time. Examine this freezer care- 
fully to see that the tin coating of 
the can and the paddles is perfect. 
If not, take it to a tinsmith and have 
the bare spots covered with pure tin 
if possible, or with the best solder. 
This is to preserve the cream from 
contact with iron, which spoils it. Even 
tin is not to be recommended for a 
container in which to make the cream, 
but it is already made, and the reac- 
tions which might possibly attack the 
metal are all over, so that there is no 
danger in the use of tin in the present 
process. Pill the can about half full 
of the cream and put it into the tub, 
but do not fit in the paddles as yet. 
Now fill the tub with boiling water up 
well to the top of the can. Stir the 
cream gently with the paddle until it 
is seen to be just about melted, then 
fit in the paddles and gearing and be- 
gin to turn. This process is very simi- 
lar to the first step of making ice 
cream ; the materials are first put in, 
and the paddles turned vigorously to 
"beat up ' the materials to about dou- 
ble their original volume, and the 
same thing happens in this case. The 
rapid turning of the paddles beats air 
into the melted cream, and this fluffs 
it up and increases its bulk. The longer 
it is continued, the greater will be the 
effect, so that it is comparatively easy 
to start with the can half full and fin- 
ish with it touching the lid, and it 
must be said here that this will give 
the lightest, fluffiest, softest, smooth- 
est and best cream it is possible to 
make. No other process can compare 
with it, for the reason that no other 
appliance has the power of incorpo- 
rating air so well or in such quantities. 
In doing this it is well to examine 
the product from time to time and see 
what it is doing. The tub should have 
a plug at the bottom so that the water 
can be run off as desired. It is also a 
good plan to have a supply of cold 
water at hand for use if needed. The 
hot water melts the cream and the beat- 
ing puts in the air and gives the other 
physical characteristics sought; as soon 
as these are attained it saves time and 
work to run off the hot water and fill 
the tub with cold. The crank must 
be kept going until the cream is per- 

fectly cold. The directions given und f T 
the formulas will impart more or less 
fluff to the product, and, of course, 
the more it is fluffed in the making, 
the less can be imparted to it in this 
secondary process. The matter is not 
quite as simple as it reads because the 
temperature of the air and of the 
water, the conditions of the cream, the 
speed of turning, the time and dozens 
of other conditions, all have their ef- 
fect on the product, but a little experi- 
ence and a few trials will teach any 
intelligent operator how to secure good 

Perfumes and Toilet Creams. 

The perfume is the very soul of a 
cream, and nothing goes further toward 
selling such a product than an at- 
tractive odor. 

Alkalies of all sorts are almost cer- 
tain to destroy the odor of natural 
oils, and the result is that if they are 
employed the alkali soon decomposes 
the oils, producing a marked change 
in odor. A small amount of the nat- 
ural oil judiciously employed in ad- 
mixture with synthetic perfumes will 
serve well if the selection is made with 

Manufacturers of synthetic odors 
frequently furnish blends put together 
for use in toilet creams. These are 
usually good, but their cost is high, 
and the dealer can just as well buy the 
raw materials and mix his own per- 
fume bases. 

It is a great advantage to have an 
entire line of toilet goods bearing the 
same odor. This not only has an ad- 
vertising value, but also reduces the 
amount necessary to invest in stock. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 1. 

Heliotropin 80 grains. 

Oil of rose SO minims. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 320 minims. 

Alcohol enough. 

Mix the oils, powder the heliotropin 
and then add it to the oil mixture and 
warm very gently on a water-bath with 
constant shaking or stirring until it 
is dissolved. If this does not occur 
quickly, add 3 or 4 ounces of alcohol, 
continuing to heat and to stir until ' 
solution is effected. 

The above amount should perfume 
about 10 pounds of cream. It is a good 
idea to use enough alcohol to bring the 
volume to a definite amount so that 
any desired proportion can be quickly 
measured. Thus, if the finished volume 
be 5 ounces, then Vz fluidounce will be 
sufficient for 1 pound of cream. It is 
best, however, not to skimp in the 
amount of perfume used, since few 
persons object to an excess of a pleas- 
ant odor in a product, while all com- 
plain when too little is used. 

The compound prepared by the re- 
cipe just given, as well as all others 
in similar nature, should be prepared 



in reasonable quantities, and kept 
ready tor use. They improve "with age. 
rve them in glass -stoppered am- 
ber bottles. The ripening will be quick- 
ened by storing the perfume in a warm 

Heliotropin, a synthetic chemical of 
powerful odor, is of variable quality. 
Good results can be obtained only with 
good materials, and with these per- the best is indeed the cheapest. 
The oils mentioned in the recipe should 
be synthetic products, obtainable from 
all dealers in perfumers' supplies. They 
are not only much cheaper than the 
natural oils, but are more uniform, are 
Stronger, and for toilet creams are 
more permanent. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 2. 
Oil of bitter almonds. . . 24 minims. 

Oil of rose 180 minims. 

pineol 540 minims. 

Alcohol, to make 10 ounces. 

.Mix and dissolve. 

This recipe yields a perfume of pow- 
erful odor, and one that is more large- 
ly used in stearin creams than all 
others combined. Terpineol is called 
synthetic oil of lilac. The above amount 
has been found adequate for 40 pounds 
of cream, so that 2 fluid drams of it 
would serve for 1 pound. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 3. 

Heliotropin 5 drams. 

Oil of cloves 3 drops. 

Coumarin 1 dram. 

Oil of jasmine 1 ounce. 

Alcohol, to make 8 ounces. 

Mix and dissolve. 

This recipe yields a powerful concen- 
trated heilotrope otto. One ounce, 
mixed with 15 ounces of alcohol, makes 
a good "quadruple extract," while 1 
ounce will scent 20 pounds of cream. 
The "quadruple extract" produced 
should retail at 35 to 50 cents an ounce. 
It can be made into a toilet water, by 
mixing 3 ounces of the "quadruple ex- 
tract" with about 10 ounces of alcohol, 
and then adding enough water to make 
a pint. Color to suit. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 4. 

Oil of rose (genuine) ... .20 minims. 

Oil of patchouly 4 minims. 

Oil of violet 15 minims. 

Oil of rose 15 minims. 

Oil of jasmine 15 minims. 

Artificial musk 2 grains. 

Alcohol to make 1 ounce. 

Mix and dissolve. 

This recipe gives a concentrated otto 
of the white rose type, and the amount 
given above should be ample for 20 
pounds of cream. When the otto is 
diluted with alcohol to 1 pint it yields 
a "quadruple extract" worth at retail 
at least 50 cents an ounce. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 5. 
Heliotropin 20 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 40 grammes. 

Oil of rose geranium.. 60 grammes. 

Oil of violet 250 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 250 grammes. 

Mix and dissolve. 

This recipe furnishes a cheap, rather 
strong, violet odor, and is really in- 
tended for soaps, but since stearin 
creams contain .more or less free al- 
kali, and since the perfume blend just 
given is devised to resist the action of 
alkali and stand up well, it is well 
adapted as a cream perfume. The 
quantity given in the recipe is enough 
for 200 pounds of either soap or cream, 
and if low-priced synthetic violet cost- 
ing $3 a pound is used, the cost will be 
moderate. In the recipe ionone itself 
may be used. This chemical is popu- 
larly supposed to be the synthetic vio- 
let odor, but this is hardly true, since 
it alone does not give the true violet 
odor. With stearin creams, where a 
very fine effect is not expected, ionone 
will do, and a grade of it costing about 
$6 a pound will, along with the other 
materials directed in the formula, give 
a pleasing odor. The best way to get 
an odor, especially if it is a new one, 
or a special, or anything unusual, is to 
write the makers of perfumers' goods 
and ask for information. But you must 
watch out for the prices, as they vary 
widely with different makers for goods 
of the same name. 

Perfume for Cream — No. 6. 

Artificial musk *. . 1 gramme. 

Oil of rose 1 gramme. 

Oil of jasmine 1 gramme. 

Oil of rose geranium.. 1 gramme. 

Oil of cloves 1 gramme. 

Oil of syringa 10 grammes. 

Terpineol 15 grammes. 

Alcohol, to make 40 grammes. 

Mix and dissolve. 

This recipe produces a strong, lasting- 
musk odor that will please a majority 
of people. The musk and the lilac 
(terpineol) dominate the mixture, 
which is not at all costly. The amount 
directed above is ample to perfume 2 
pounds of cream. 

Rose Perfume for Cream. 

Oil of kanaga root. ... 5 grammes. 

Oil of jasmine 5 grammes. 

Oil of petit grain 25 grammes 

Tincture of Siam ben- 
zoin 50 grammes. 

Oil of rose 55 grammes. 

Tincture of ambrettol.100 grammes 

Oil of rose geranium 

i African) 150 

Mix and dissolve. 

The geranium largely predominates 
in this formula- — almost too much for 
some tastes, but the exact odor can be 
regulated to suit by decreasing the 
geranium, and correspondingly increas- 
ing the rose. Using the best materials 
in the list of the manufacturer who de- 



vised this formula, the cost is about 35 
cents an ounce, or $7.15 for the quan- 
tity given above. This price is based 
on the use of artificial rose, costing 
$2.50 an ounce, a price which can be 
greatly reduced. While the writer has 
not tried it. he believes that both the 
rose and geranium in the formula can 
be replaced by equivalent amounts of 
one of the cheaper artrficial oils. The 
manufacturer noted above quoted to 
the writer a price of $1.50 per ounce for 
the compound in single ounce lots. 
Violet Perfume for Cream. 

Bouvardione (12 per 

cent, solution) 1 dram. 

Oil of rose geranium 4 drams. 

Benzyl acetate 1 ounce. 

Oil of orris, concrete 1 ounce. 

Aubepine — S 4 ounces. 

Alcohol, to make 16 ounces. 

Mix and dissolve, heating gently on a 
water- bath if necessary. 

The above formula makes a violet of 
the orris type. Oil of orris is the base; 
aubepine possesses the odor of haw- 
thorn; bouvardione for borvordial) is 
of very great value in "pointing" and 
••toning" up all sorts of mixtures. It 
combines the odors of honeysuckle, 
rose and violet. The benzyl acetate 
gives pungency to the product, and 
the geranium rounds it off. This com- 
pound is well adapted to the purpose 
for which it was devised, but is not 
suited for sale as a finished perfume, 
since the violet does not stand out 
quite prominently enough. It costs $5.60 
to put it up as it is written above, or 
35 cents per ounce, and the originator 
of the formula claims that 1 ounce is 
sufficient for 20 pounds of cream. The 
writer prefers to use more than that, 
but even when double the amount is 
used, it is still the most inexpensive 
perfume within his knowledge, when 
quality is considered. Its cost would be 
slightly reduced by using synthetic 
liquid concrete oil of orris in place of 
the natural product as specified. 
Lilac Perfume for Cream. 

Otto of rose 2 drams. 

Otto of jasmine 4 drams. 

Artificial musk (100 per 
cent.) 2 drams. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 1 dram. 

Synthetic muguet-blanc. .8 ounces. 

Benzol benzoate 6 ounces. 

Warm the benzol benzoate on a 
water bath, add the musk and stir until 
dissolved. Add the other materials and 
mix well. 

The perfume prepared as written 
above will cost about $7.50. or 47 cents 
an ounce, and an ounce will serve for 
20 pounds of cream. This cost could 
be reduced to a figure not above that 
of the violet perfume just described by 
using synthetic oils instead of the nat- 
ural rose, jasmine and ylang-ylang. 

These only serve to "point"' and "fin 
ish" the odor, as the muguet is the base 
of it. It is the wvite's experience 
that in all such combinations the best 
results and lowest costs are obtained 
by using the best quality for the base 
of the odor (muguet in this case), and 
then letting the cheap grades be era- 
ployed for "pointing" and modifying 
the blend. To substitute artificial or" 
synthetic oils for the naturals here will 
not appreciably affect the quality, and 
will materially reduce the cost. 

How to Make Toilet Creams. 

This is an abstract of a paper by Dr. 
Justin S. Brewer, printed in The Drug- 
gists Circular: — 

Druggists should point out to customers thai 
before applying cream, powder, paint or oint- 
ment, or anything else, the skin should be 
thoroughly cleansed with soft, warm water and 
neutral soap. That brings us to the subject of 
what kind of soaps to recommend and how to 
use them. There are on the market many 
worthless soaps full of free alkali which 
roughen the skin and bring about a deplorable 
condition. Of course, we can go back to the 
old castile soap, which is as neutral and pure 
as any soap can be. but the public wants some- 
thing" that is perfumed and that will lather 

Any one who has a dry. harsh skin, would 
require a greasy skin cream to remedy ;hat 
disorder. A person who has an oily, greassj 
skin, should employ some of the almond 
creams, or perhaps the non-greasy creams] 
although if you get right down to actual fa< - 
these non-greasy creams are not good for the 

These non-greasy creams and disappearing - . 
creams contain stearic acid as a base. 
Many brands of stearic acid are worthl ss 
for this purpose, because they contain a 
large percentage of oleic acid. The manu- 
facturers producing the best grades of 
greaseless creams are those who are using 
imported triple-pressed stearic acid, abso- 
lutely white and pure. 

Now. if you want to make a cream of this 
kind, get an imported stearic acid because 
I do not know of an acid made in this 
country that will give you satisfaction. 
Starting with this, it is a very simple mat- 
ter to make, a greaseless cream provided you 
have the proper proportions. They are in x- 
pensive to make, for they will take up a 
large percentage of water and are harmless If 
you are putting out a line of your own, make 
sure that you are producing something that 
is harmless, even if it is not beneficial. 
There are many of these things on the market 
today which are money makers for the pro- 
ducer, but worthless. Potassium carbonate is 
probably employed more generally as a saponi- 
fying agent than anything else. The mattes 
of its proportion is the great problem. You 
should be very careful not to have an excess. 
This matter of proportion can be regulated 
somewhat by using litmus paper. The cr-am 
can be made much more quickly with stronger 
ammonia than with the potassium or sodium 
carbonate — the reaction is almost immediate. 
With very little trouble you can make sam- 
ples of cream, perhaps five to six ounces, in 
less than fifteen minutes, but while ammonia 
makes a beautiful smooth cream, it is not the 
best saponifying agent for this purpose. 
Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide 
are also sometimes used. These creams will 
take up as much as GO per cent, of water, but 
if you put in too much water the cream s m- 
ply swells up and is full of air bubbles, which 
will come out after it is packed in jars an<J 
the cream will dry up. If they are not her- 
metically sealed they all will in time dry up. 

It is a very hard matter to seal jara — stock' 



Jars — for they have Inns.- fitting covers. Many 
manufacturers have adopted the method of 
sealing their jars with paraffin wax, which is 
a very good thing — others have patent clamp 
covers and other means which are fairly sat- 
isfactory. It is a rather difficult matter to 
preserve these creams, because they will in 
lime become rancid, without some kind of 
preservative. Rorax is not idenl because you 
have to employ it in comparatively large 
quantities. Sodium benzoate works better 
than anything else. If you want to make a 
really good cream, put in, besides stearic 
acid and the saponifying agent, at least 5 
per cent, of glycerin. If no glycerin be added 
the creams are practically worthless — you 
would have just a hard, dry granular sub- 
stance as soon as the water dries out of it, 
which clogs the pores. Glycerin has a peculiar 
faculty of sitting right into the pores of the 
skin, so put in all you can afford and you 
will have something that you can recommend. 
Now. last but not least, is the perfuming 
of the cream. The best materials are the 
lilac bases, which are the cheapest that can 
be used for this purpose, or the rose base, 
and perhaps the oil of violet, although the 
latter oil is expensive and very apt to go to 
pieces and not retain its original ordor for 
any length of time. If you want a cream 
which is cheap I would recommend lilacene 
as a perfume. It is used largely by soap 
makers, with the addition of a little helio- 
trope, or perhaps with a little artificial oil 
of rose and a trace of hyacinth, which latter 
is an artificial compound of great strength and 
which seems to push the other odor out and 
intensify it. This makes a very agreeable 
combination and is reasonable in price. 

Use and Price. 

Women make it a practice to use a non- 
greasy cream in the daytime, because they 
want something that will readily disappear 
and which can be put on and permit the 
user to go right out doors and about her 
duties without any interference. If a cus- 
tomer has an oily skin do not recommend 
a greasy cream. This covers the non-greasy 
creams pretty well except as to the size of 
the package. The best sizes range from 1 
ounce to 4 ounces, which sell all the way 
fi. phi 25 cents to $1. A little quality talk 
often will get you a better price for a jar of 
cream than anything else, especially if the 
customer has confidence in you; and confi- 
dence is the thing to put behind this article. 
, Do not be afraid to charge a good price for it. 

Greasy Cold Creams. 

Greasy cold creams are the most valuable 
agents that can be applied to the skin. Espe- 
cially are they beneficial for the face and 
hands, which are more frequently bathed than 
any other parts of the body. Soap takes the 
natural oils from the skin, and the skin be- 
comes chapped, rough and hard. The most 
beneficial type of these greasy cold creams is 
the rose water ointment. Almond oil and pure 
beeswax are the right combination to give the 
softening effect. This combination seems to 
be more readily absorbed by the skin than 
anything else. Ask any one who knows and 
he or she will tell you that it is the best of 
any. But it doesn't keep. That has opened 
up the way to a very important industry in 
greasy cold cream. Good greasy creams will 
keep anywhere from six months to two years, 
according to the combination and skill used 
in their manufacture. A good cream of this 
type should be composed of best white min- 
eral oil, pure beeswax (ceresin wax intensifies 
the whiteness, but is not recommended), borax 
and distilled water, or rose water. This will 
give an ideal cream and one which will 
stand anywhere from six months to a year, or 
two years, depending upon the exactness of 
the proportions and the method of sealing the 
jar, and upon other less important elements 
which enter into the question. These creams 
are beneficial to the skin, although they are 
not as good as rose water ointment. They are 
practically neutral. They contain nothing 
: njurious. You will be asked whether this 
class of creams is Injurious. They are not. 

These creams are not going to intensify the 
growth of hair. As a perfume for this, use 
synthetic oil of rose, or true or artificial rose 
geranium, with a little pinch of something else 
to sweeten it. 

There is one very important thing to avoid 
in perfuming these creams, and that is dis- 
coloration. You must be very careful to test 
your combination before you put it on the 
market, because sometimes after exposure to 
light or air a discoloration which is very 
marked sets in. A cream to be attractive 
should be pure white. 

The matter of price is something depend- 
ent upon the quality, but manufacturers have 
created a standard for prices: 2-ounee jars 
should not sell for more than 25 cents, and 
4-ounce jars not more than 50 cents. Theatri- 
cal cream is usually put up in M and 1-pound 
cans. Theatrical cold cream contains a little 
more water and oil, to make it soft, because it 
was formerly used to remove make-up. 

Rolling Massage Creams. 

Rolling massage cream is the most trouble- 
some and unsatisfactory cream that any one 
can attempt to make. In the market to- 
day are two types of this kind of casein 
massage cream made from milk or dry 
casein extracted from sweet skimmed milk. 
The butter fat in pure sweet milk is just 
sufficient to keep this cream from hardening 
and drying up. A cream made from casein 
from skimmed milk dries up much more 
quickly. To the milk add borax, which, 
of course, is a solvent for casein, and warm 
to about 50 degrees, then pour in a solution 
of alum. Other precipitants are used, such 
as acetic acid, but alum seems to work the 
best. The whole should be stirred occasion- 
ally for ten to fifteen minutes, and the 
casein allowed to settle and the liquid 
drained from the top, then the whole mass 
is thrown on fine silkoline or cheese cloth 
and allowed to drain, and then for every gal- 
lon of milk used, employ about 5 gallons of 
pure water for washing, because you must 
take out the excess of alum used to pre- 
cipitate the casein. After you are sure that 
all traces of alum have been removed, 
thrown the casein into a press and squeeze out 
all the moisture you can get out. Each gal- 
lon of milk should yield 2 pounds of roll- 
ing massage cream. After the excess mois- 
ture is out, the residue should lie placed into 
some kind of mixing machine. There is a 
machine on the market used for paints that 
works about as well as anything. This may 
be run either by hand or electric power. Add 
a certain percentage of boric acid. Some 
have tried to make this cream using borax, 
hut they got nothing but a rubber-like mass. 
Boric acid keeps the cream in the proper 
condition and will preserve it indefinitely. 
Some manufacturers also add a small quan- 
tity of sodium bicarbonate first and then 
afterwards boric acid and a little sodium 
benzoate. The combination of sodium ben- 
zoate and boric acid works better than boric 
acid alone. These creams are not good for 
the skin. They have an excess of boric acid. 
Advise your customers not to use them often. 

Another type of cream is a rolling massage 
cream made with starch. Of the two creams 
the starch one is less -injurious. It is also 
easier and cheaper to make. This cream, to 
give it the proper consistency, contains a little 
soft soap which is made with a pomade base. 
Usually these starch creams are made by man- 
ufacturers of perfumery who use the pomades 
from wheih they have extracted the flower 
odor. Seventy per cent, of that pomade is 
mixed with the cooked starch. Of course, a 
preservative like sodium benzoate is added to 
enhance the keeping qualities, and then a very 
strong perfume is necessary because starch 
has the tendency to become sour. The method 
of application involves a rubbing into the skin 
until the cream rolls out and brings the dirt 
with it. That is the story told on the label. 
The cream is supposed to remove impurities 
from the pores of the skin ami cleanse the 
skin, but you can wash your hands ten times 
and roll on this cream and it will become just 



as black with clean hands as with dirty hands, 
because the casein or starch has the tendency 
to darken upon being pressed or rolled. 

Almond Creams. 

Old-time almond cream was made from 
blanched almonds— this was not satisfactory, 
it could not be made so it woultl not separate. 
Manufacturers who wanted a good product got 
down to a point where they employed only 
beeswax, a little spermaceti and soap. If you 
heat beeswax and spermaceti with soap and 
water the wax will turn white, just as it does 
with cold cream, and that is exactly what 
happens in these liquid creams; the wax is 
partially saponified and emulsified. Different 
kinds of mucilage are employed to perfect this 
emulsion, and to yield a cream that will not 
separate. Quince seed gives best results, and 
mos1 manufacturers are using this kind of a 
mucilage. This cream to be perfect in appear- 
ance and without separation must contain a 
large percentage of soap, and if one is particu- 
lar one should not leave the cream on over 
night, because the soapy material on the sur- 
face of the skin does not do any good. The 
glycerin or mucilage has a softening effect on 
the skin, and this article has certain benefits 
for relieving chapped or irritated skin. It is 
used after bathing and is not without value 
because it has about 5 per cent, of alcohol and 
has some antiseptic value. 

There are other creams on the markets — all 
kinds of creams; but they all get right back 
to this base of wax, spermaceti and water. 

Beauty specialists recommend at night a pair 
of cotton gloves and the smearing of the 
hands with cold cream. Rub it in and put the 
cotton gloves on. If you follow these direc- 
tions, when you get up in the morning your 
skin will be just as soft as when in a normal 

I suv a very peculiar formula for a cream. 
It consisted of turpentine, camphor, castile 
soap and water. I made up some and I got 
a soapy gelatinous mass, with a considerable 
percentage of turpentine, readily recognized by 
smelling. That cream is healing and antisep- 
tic, and will relieve a roughened or irritated 
skin. In England and Canada it is used 
largely for the removal of body lice— one or two 
applications will do the work. 
Two of Dr. Brewer's formulas follow: 

Casein or Rolling Cream. 

Sweet milk (skimmed 

or normal) 15 gallons. 

Solution of formalde- 
hyde 1 oz. 7 drs. 

Boiling water 4 gallons. 

Borax 1 lb. 14 ozs. 

Alum 3 lbs. 12 ozs. 

Boric acid 7 pounds. 

Cacao butter 1 lb. 10 ozs. 

Hydrous wool-fat . . 1 lb. 10 ozs. 

Solution of carmine. 2 ozs. 2 drs. 

Oil of rose geranium . 135 minims. 

Oil of bitter almond. 45 minims. 

Water ("for washing) 15 gallons. 

Add the solution of formaldehyde to 
the milk; mix well; add the solution of 
carmine; stir; and heat to 122° F. Dis- 
solve the borax in 2 gallons of boiling 
water; add this to the milk mixture; 
stir quickly; heat to 122° F.; and 
strain through muslin. Dissolve the 
alum in the rest of the boiling water; 
add slowly to the other liquid, stir- 
ring constantly. Allow the curd to 
settle; drain off the liquid; wash the 
curd with the water; squeeze off the 
moisture until the curd weighs 25 
pounds. Melt the cacao butter and 
mix it with the wool -tat; add to this 

the boric acid and mix thoroughly. In- 
corporate the fatty mass with the 
curd; add the perfume; mix thor- 
oughly; and fill into jars with air- 
tight covers. 

Vanishing Cream. 

Stearic acid (white. 

triple-pressed) .... 4 lbs. 12 ozs. 

Glycerin S lbs. 8 ozs. 

Distilled water 14 pints. 

S t r o nger ammonia 

water 4 ozs. 6 drs. 

Cologne spirit 1 pint. 

Oil of hyacinth 6 drops. 

Oil of jasmine (ar- 
tificial) 4 drams. 

Artificial musk (crys- 
tal) 20 grains. 

Terpineol 2 ounces. 

Melt the stearic acid on a water-bath 
at 160° to 175° F. Heat 2 pounds of 
glycerin with 12 pints of water to the 
same temperature; add the ammonia 
water; and pour slowly into the melted 
stearic acid, with constant stirring. 
Mix the rest of the glycerin and water 
and heat to 175° F. ; pour this into the 
first mixture, with constant stirring ; 
maintain the temperature and the 
stirring for about fifteen minutes. Re- 
move from the heat and beat until cold. 
Mix the perfuming materials with the 
spirit and add this slowly, while beat- 
ing, to the cream. 

Manufacturing by the Retail Druggist 

Below are a few points made by F. 
W. Nitardy in a paper read before the 
Nebraska Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion: — 

"We usually have our own id>-as as to what 
this or that preparation should be, and differ- 
ent classes of products are demanded in differ- 
ent localities. For that reason a little experi- 
mental work is usually necessary to perfect the 
preparations. Before such work is attempted, 
however, all reference books at your command 
should be consulted, and every formula for pre- 
parations of the nature or class you are tryinu 
to produce should be studied. The various 
hints and formulas that you will find will be 
of great help to you and offer many sugges- 
tions which with your practical knowledtv- cm' 
pharmacy will make the work of producing a 
satisfactory preparation comparatively easy. 

Whenever possible try to Vie original in your 
preparations. That is. your product should not 
suggest itself as an imitation of something al- 
ready known. It should at least be an im- 
provement over what is on the market. In- 
dividuality is always an 'asset. 

As in the manufacture of your pharma- 
ceutical products, it is quite essential to use 
the best of materials in the production of 
toilet articles. It is time enough to consider 
the cost when you have your formula estab- 
lished; you can then adjust your package 
and retaU price so as to give you the proper 

With toilet preparations especially, the 
package is a very important factor, and 
considerable care, thought and judgment 
should be used in designing it. Here, too, 
it is desirable to give your package indi- 
vidual ty. 

Anyone doing or expecting to do a pre- 
scription business and desiring to keep on 
enoil terms with the medical profession 
should nut attempt to market cure-alls for 



every imaginable ailment. No sensible 
physician will objeel to household remedies 

such as are called for by the public for 
111 nor ailments for which physicians would 
not be consulted anyway. But I believe 
that it is not within the province of the 
pharmacist to market dyspepsia or rheu- 
matic cures or any preparation for the 
treatment of diseases or conditions properly the attention of a physician, nor 
to imitate the frequently fraudulent propri- 
etaries on the market. 

A certain amount of advertising will be 
necessary to place your products before the 
public. Of printed advertising, I believe 
circulars or small pamphlets are the most 
effective. If these are gotten up in original 
style, are truthful and well d stributed, you 
may be quite certain of results. Window 
and counter displays are of great value. A 
great deal, in fact, can be said on the mer- 
chandising end of these lines, hut that is 
not within the scope of this paper. 

Almond Bleaching Cream 

Glycerin 1,500 parts. 

Expressed oil of almond 1,250 parts. 

Wool-fat 2.500 parts. 

Borax 100 parts. 

Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide < 30' , ) 65 parts. 

Rose water 1,180 parts. 

Rose extract 10 parts. 

Geraniol 15 parts. 

Terpineol 35 parts. 

F. T. Gordon, in a note to The Drug- 
gists Circular, says: — 

Personally. 1 don't believe that a really ef- 
fective or stable peroxide cream can be 
made I have made lots of experiments and 
failed. Ky its very nature, hydrogen per- 
ox de is too unstable to retain much activity 
when mixed with a cream, and other oxy- 
gen-liberating salts are generally too stable 
or possess undesirable qualities. I have test- 
ed so-called peroxide creams and always 
found most of the peroxide on the labels. 

Other "peroxide" formulas follow: — 

Hydrogen dioxide solu- 
tion 4 ounces. 

Glycerin ?jV 2 ounces. 

Powdered borax 2 drams. 

Expressed oil of al- 
mond 2% ounces. 

Hydrous wool-fat S ounces. 

Triturate the hydrous wool-fat and 
the almond oil until well mixed. Incor- 
porate with this the borax dissolved in 
the glycerin and the hydrogen dioxide 
solution. Any perfume desired may be 
added, say 40 minims of oil of rose 
geranium to the pound. 

take out of the water-bath and when 
cool add water, 2 pints, hydrogen diox- 
ide solution, 4 ounces, alcohol, 1 ounce, 
and perfume, stirring thoroughly until 
well mixed. 

Quince Seed Peroxide Cream 

First make a mucilage of quince seed, 
x k ounce, and boiling water, 12 ounces. 
Strain this when cold. Then heat the 
strained fluid on a water-bath and melt 
in it stearic acid, 16 ounces. In a sep- 
arate container dissolve borax. 90 
grains, and sodium carbonate. 4 drams, 
in water. 20 ounces. Then add this so- 
lution to the mucilage and stearic acid 
mixture very slowly, and with constant 
stirring. When the reaction is complete 

Some Toilet Cream Don'ts 

Don't attempt to make a cream to 
compete with known brands unless it is 
made of equally high-grade material. 

Don't be led into the delusion that 
twenty lines of printed directions are 
all that lie between rolling pills and 
making massage creams. 

Don't believe it possible to mill a 
fine-grained cream in a cracked mortar 
with a pestle that does not fit. 

Or, in other words, get the full bene- 
fit of the fact that the know-how is to 
he formula in making toilet creams as 
fortv is to one. 

Glycerin Balm for the Skin 

Powdered starch % ounce. 

Water 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Bay rum 2 drams. 

Oil of bergamot S drops. 

Oil of rose geranium.... 2 drops. 

Extract of jockey club. . . 2 drams. 

The starch, water and glycerin must 
be mixed over a gentle heat, with con- 
stant stirring, and the other ingredients 
added. A touch of color may be given 
to the cosmetic by the addition of a 
little carmine. 

Pushing a Line of Home-made 
Toilet Preparations. 

Every pharmacist ought to run a se- 
ries of his own toilet preparations, says 
the Chemist and Druggist. It is on the 
individual note that the pharmacist 
scores. The frequently recurring ques- 
tion, "Is this your own make. Mr. ?" 

shows the value the public attaches 
to the pharmacist's personality. It is 
his strong point; it should mark all his 
dealings; it should be suggested by 
everything in his pharmacy, and by 
everything that goes out of it. No- 
where is there greater scope for it than 
in the field of the toilet specialty. Yet 
how infrequently does one find this 

A toilet series may consist of perhaps 
four lines, or it may run to a dozen. 
A good title is essential. Sometimes 
the name of the pharmacy may be used 
with advantage. When one can be 
sure that one is the first in the field, 
the name of the town or district often 
does more for the sales than reams of 
advertisement copy. The pharmacist's 
own name is in many cases the most 
useful title to adopt. The fancy name, 
though, when carefully chosen often 
very distinctive and attractive. n< i ds 



warily seeking for. "Madame A 's 

" and "Professor B 's" are 

played out, and a truly original name 
is difficult to meet with. I suggest, for 
convenience, that we make "Le Beau'.' 
our man, and that we choose as many 
perparations as will be most suitable 
to our own business from the follow- 
ing: Liquid dentrifice, dental cream. 
modern dental powder, skin cream, 
cold cream, benzoin cream, shampoo 
powder, liquid shampoo, hair wash, toi- 
let paraffin and brilliantine. 

To deal with the dentrifice first. A 
liquid dentrifice offers a scope for 
much discrimination in the flavoring 
and can be easily put up in a neat and 
classy style. Moreover, it shows good 
profit. Here is my formula: 
Liquid Dentifrice. 

Salol 5 as - 

Spt. vini rect gxxviij. 

Ol. menth. pip oiss. 

Methyl, salicyl mx. 

Ol. caryoph mxx. 

Ol. cassia? mxxv. 

Saccharin (soluble) jss. 

Aqua; dest 5x1 j. 

A salol prepartion needs careful ad- 
justment. The proportion of saccharin 
is a delicate item: this dentifrice should 
not suffer from over-sweetness. A sweet 
dentifrice is sickly; 15 grammes to the 
pint of 60 per cent, spirit makes a 
preparation sweet enough for the gen- 
eral taste. It should be colored with 
magenta solution. Le Beau's dentifrice 
becomes its own advertiser; a delicate 
red tint and a neat little label — the 
plainer the neater — on a heavy paneled 
bottle. At present prices this will cost 
about 7 shillings ($1.75) per quart. 
Using 2 14 -ounce bottles at 12 shillings 
($3) a gross, and 5-ounce at 15 shillings 
($3.75), and selling at 1 shilling (25 
cents) and 1 shilling 9 pence. (43 cents), 
the profit works. out at 92 per cent, and 
95 per cent., respectively, on the outlay. 

Dental Cream. 

Mellis 5xxviij. 

Aquae §xl. 

Liq. cocci cact 5iv. 

Melt the honey, mixed with the water 
and the liq. cocci, at a gentle heat, then 
strain through a fine sieve. Raise the 
mixture nearly to the boiling point, and 
add the following ingredients, previous- 
ly intimately mixed: — 

Pulv. benzoin , r ( j. 

Pulv. rad. iridis §iv. 

Calc. carb. prsecip lb. j. 

This should be heated on a water 
bath for one hour. When cooling, but 
before it has become too stiff, add: — 

Menthol gr. xx. 

Ol. gaultheria? ,^ij. 

Dental cream requires care in the fill- 
ing of the tubes. A leaky tube is the 
worst of advertisements and a danger 
to all stock in its immediate vicinity. 

With care it can be made a good thing. 
Here again the secret of success lies in 
the flavor. The above is good. The 
following is my 

Modern Dental Powder. 

Thymol gr.x. 

Spt. vini rect q.s. 

Cretan prsecip lb. j. 

Pulv. os. sepia? 5 iss - 

Pulv. sapo dur 5J- 

Mag. carb. pond 5uj. 

Magnes peroxid 5vj. 

Ol. rosse geran ,~>ss. 

To insure thorough admixture the 
thymol should be rubbed down with a 
few drops of spirit and a little chalk, 
and then well incorporated with the 
rest of the powders. If the peroxide is 
rubbed up with the os sepias its com- 
plete diffusion through the whole will 
be facilitated. Every care must be 
taken to keep the ingredients perfectly 
dry: a very slight trace of moisture 
will cause loss of strength in the active 

The tall, American-pattern, nickeled - 
metal boxes, which are indispensable 
where the bulk of the powder has to 
be kept perfectly dry till it is taken for 
use, can be obtained at about 3 shillings 

9 pence (93 cents) per dozen; they hold 
about 3 ounces. I find that, using 1 
pound of chalk, the cost works at 1 
shilling 6 pence (37 cents) per lot, mak- 
ing seven boxes. Selling these at 1 
shilling (25 cents) gives a profit of 100 
per cent, on the outlay. 

A Good Skin Cream 
and especially a rub-in-smooth cream, 
is a sure seller and a handsome profit 
carrier. There are several preparations 
on the market at present which are of- 
fered as a base for this class of cream. 
Such as I have tried are very good and 
make useful creams. The original 
stearin formulas are excellent, but need 
much care in prepartion. My formula 
is: — 

Dissolve 180 grains of sodii carb. in 

10 ounces of water and add, melted, 2 
ounces stearin. Boil the mixture for 
ten minutes and add liq. hamamelidis. 
10 ounces. Raise this to boiling, stir- 
ring constantly, and when well frothed 
pour into a large jar and whip well 
with an egg-whisk till cold. 

The whole success of the preparation 
lies in whipping plenty of air into the 
liquid at first. It is better to leave the 
cream at least twelve hours before 
adding perfume, as there is often a 
slight settling down of the mass. Half 
a dram of ess. roso? gives a distinctive 
odor. If a good perfume is employed 
the scent is better than can be obtained 
by the use of the pure otto. It is a 
good plan to prepare this cream in 
several varieties; a lavender scent is 
something new. which I have found ap- 
peals to some ladies; an eau-de- 



cologne cream is also a satisfactory 
article. What I have found almost 
more successful than any other scent 
is a delicate blend of coumarin and 
heliotropin. This skin cream can be 
put up either in white celluloid covered 
pots, or more effectively in fancy glass 
jars. A special name seems to help 
the sale of this line considerably. I 
suggest that for this series we dub it 
Le Beau's dermic snow. That has 
settled it as a sure seller! The addi- 
tion of 3 drams of liquid paraffin, the 
reduction of the hamamelis to 2 
ounces, and the substitution of a 
couple of drams of tinct. benz. simp, 
give a splendid benzoin cream. With 
this quantity of tinct. benz. other per- 
fume is unnecessary. 

Shampoo -Powder. 

Formulas are much alike. The quan- 
tity of alkali should not be more than 
25 per cent. I have known shampoos, 
with a considerable sale, which con- 
sisted of at least 50 per cent, sodse 
carb.. but in use they proved very 
harsh. It is better to give an excess of 
borax. One pound each of borax and 
soap powder with about 4 ounces of 
sodae carb. give the best results; 15 
grammes of coumarin with half the 
Quantity of heliotropin gives a per- 
fume which is much admired. Put up 
in plain neat envelopes and boxed in 
sevens to sell at 1 shilling (25 cents), 
this line scores by its distinctive scent. 

Le Beau's antiseptic liquid soap is 
simply a 75 per cent, solution of soft 
soap in alcohol, scented with ol. lavan- 
duls-. and made antiseptic. The word 
"antiseptic" takes the public fancy. A 
large sale cannot be expected for a 
liquid soap, but a good deal can be 
made out of it by pushing it for sham- 
poo use, etc. It pays to sell it where 

Toilet Paraffin. 

It has some devotees, and may be 
thought worthy of inclusion in the 
series. It is simply liquid paraffin 
scented either with violet or the 
coumarin -and -heliotropin combination. 
The same note applies to brilliantine. 


Now as to advertising. It is un- 
necessary to do much. Give a promi- 
nent place on your counter or show 
stand to Le Beau and his goods, and 
recommend him to the hesitating cus- 
tomer. Let his goods be sold more on 
your recommendation than for any 
other reason. Keep him well to the 
front and let him wear always the air 
of being Le Beau — something superior, 
something classy. Let him be the 
aristocrat of your stock of toilet 
preparations. His goods are sure to 
sell. Get out a neat little folded card, 
if you like, and tell off the points of 
his things therein. And remember the 
law about a label bearing a false state- 

ment as to the name and address of 
the manufacturer. 

Theatrical Cold Cream 

Paul Caldwell, who has much experi- 
ence in manufacturing theatrical cold 
cream, contributed this formula to 
The Druggists Circular. 

Spermaceti 1 pound. 

White wax 3 pounds. 

Liquid petrolatum 2 gallons. 

Borax 4 ounces. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Perfume enough. 

This, he said, is for a soft cream de- 
signed especially to spread easily and 
quickly, and seemed to meet the de- 
mand of "the profession." 


White wax 1 pound. 

White paraffin oil 4 pints. 

Rose water 3 pints. 

Borax 1 ounce.. 

Melt the wax, add the paraffin oil, 
and continue the heat with constant 
stirring until they are mixed well. Use 
a water-bath to avoid over-heating'. 
Dissolve the borax in the rose water 
by the aid of heat, and while the so- 
lution is still warm., gradually add the 
melted wax and oil, stirring constantly 
until cold. If preferred, distilled water 
may be used in place of rose water, 
and any desired perfume added. 

Theatrical Cold Cream 

Spermaceti 125 grammes. 

White wax 120 grammes. 

Liquid petrolatum. 560 grammes. 

Sodium borate 5 grammes. 

Distilled water 90 grammes. 

To make 1,000 grammes. 

Melt the spermaceti and wax, add the 
liquid petrolatum and continue the heat 
until the mixture is uniform. Dissolve 
the sodium borate in the water and ap- 
ply sufficient heat to bring this solution 
to the temperature of the oily solu- 
tion. Add the aqueous solution all at 
once to the oily solution and stir until 
congealed. . 

It will be noticed that this is a modi- 
fication of the formula for Unguentum 
Aquae Rosae of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, which has been found 
highly satisfactory by the writer (the 
chairman of the committee). During 
cold weather the quantity of liquid 
petrolatum may be slightly increased. 
This cold cream can be perfumed ac- 
cording to taste by using the very ex- 
pensive oil of rose or- the cheaper oil 
of geranium or any other suitable per- 
fume, such as terpineol, neroli, ionone, 
muguet, etc. 



How to Make a Rolling Cream 

Warm skim-milk 1 gallon. 

Tartaric acid 5 ounces. 

Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Sodium benzoate % ounce. 

Water .... enough. 

Solution of carmine. . . . enough. 

Perfume enough. 

Dissolve the acid in a pint of water 
and add to the milk. Strain and wash 
the coagulum. Rub the zinc oxide with 
the glycerin until a perfectly smooth 
paste is obtained; mix this with the 
casein; and add lastly the perfume, the 
color and the benzoate. 

The process of making a casein 
cream resolves itself into two funda- 
mentals. First, the procuring of the 
casein. This is accomplished by pre- 
cipitating it from skim-milk with an 
acid, or alum, or magnesium sulphate. 
Second, the milling of the casein until 
it is perfectly smooth. This necessi- 
tates the addition of a little glycerin, 
cacao butter or wool -fat. or any two 
or all of them, to facilitate the milling 
and to prevent cracking when the 
moisture of the casein evaporates. In 
the hands of the expert cream maker 
the best binder is a mixture of approx- 
imately 1 part of anhydrous wool -fat 
and 4 parts of glycerin; some add a 
little tragacanth, but this generally 
hastens the drying out of the cream; 
and others work in a little soap. 

A small ointment mill is the most 
satisfactory apparatus for making 
small quantities of cream. A shallow 
mortar having a weighted pestle an- 
swers pretty well. 

Rose-Almond Cream 

Blanched sweet al- 
monds 50 grammes. 

Castile soap 3 grammes. 

White wax 3 grammes. 

Oil of sweet almonds. 3 grammes. 

Spermaceti 3 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 3 grammes. 

Oil of lavender flowers 1 gramme. 

Oil of rose geranium. 1 gramme. 

Alcohol (90% ) 75 grammes. 

Rose water 300 grammes. 

Pound the almonds to a 'smooth paste 
and emulsify with the rose water. Melt 
the soap, the wax and the spermaceti 
in the almond oil at a gentle heat; 
transfer this mixture to a warm mor- 
tar and add little by little the emulsion 
of almonds with constant trituration. 
Dissolve the aromatic oils in the alco- 
hol and add in divided portions to the 
other ingredients. 


Spermaceti 1 ounce. 

White wax 4 drams. 

Castile soap 4 drams. 

Blanched sweet almonds- 8 ounce?. 

Alcohol 12 ounces. 

Rose water 2 pints. 

Oil of rose 12 drops. 

Beat the almonds with the rose water. 
Melt the spermaceti, wax and soap on 
a water-bath and stir into the almond 
mixture. Dissolve the oil of rose in the 
alcohol and pour gradually into the 
mixture, stirring constantly. Strain 
through cheese-cloth. 

Alcohol in an emulsion is usually a 
disturbing element. 

Honey and Almond Vanishing Cream 

We have done a little experimenting, 
which we report herewith: — Starting 
with a recipe for honey and almond lo- 
tion (a formula for which is given else- 
where in this book), we prepared a 
base by triturating in a cold mortar 25 
grammes of ointment of rose water. U. 
S. P., with 25 mils of expressed oil of 
almonds and 60 mils of solution of 
sodium hydroxide, U. S. P., until a 
smooth emulsion was obtained. 

This base we then triturated to the 
desired consistency with a greaseless 
cream base. Our experiments showed 
that a mixture of 1 part of the almond 
base with 2 parts of the greaseless 
cream base was somewhat thin, but 
that 1 part of the almond base with 4 
parts of the greaseless cream base was 
quite satisfactory. 

This is merely a suggestion. 

Incidentally, if the preparation is 
true to its label, honey must be added 
to the mixture. 

Pearly Cold Cream 

Almond oil 1,000 grammes. 

White wax 60 grammes. 

Spermaceti 100 grammes. 

Castor oil • . . 10 grammes. 

Rose water 300 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 10 grammes. 

Oil of rose 2 grammes. 

Oil of geranium 2 gramme*. 

Melt the wax and the spermaceti over 
a water-bath; add the almond oil at 
once; when the mixture is clear, re- 
move the container from the heat. Add 
the castor oil, then the rose water, 
beating thoroughly the while. When 
cool incorporate the perfume. If de- 
sired, a trace of methyl violet may be 
added to improve the tint of the fin- 
ished product. 

Stearin and Glycerin Cream 

Stearic Acid (triple- 
pressed white) 3 ounces. 

Monohydrated sodium 

carbonate 48 grains. 

Boric acid 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Distilled water 1 pint. 


Mix the borax, the carbonate, the 
i in and 10 ounces of water and 
htu'. to boiling. Melt the stearic acid 
at a gentle heat and add it to the 
aqeous solution with constant and rapid 
stirring. Then add, continuing the stir- 
ring, the boric acid dissolved in 6 
ounces of distilled water with tlie aid 
of heat. If the resulting cream is too 
soft, less water should be used. 

To perfume the cream, beat in when 
the mass has set a sufficient quantity 
of the following mixture: — 

Artificial musk (crystal). 2 grains. 

Oil of neroli 10 minims. 

Oil of jasmine (artificial) 2 minims. 

( til of patchouly. 2 minims. 

Cologne spirit 1 ounce. 

A Good-Selling Toilet Cream 

Bailey relates in the Chemist and 
Druggist his experience in building up 
a thriving trade in a toilet cream made 
after the following formula: — 

Lard 2*£ ounces. 

White wax .... 2 ounces. 

Powdered white soap. 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Distilled water 16 ounces 

Oil of rose 10 minims. 

Essential oil of al- 
mond 5 minims. 

Oil of clove 5 minims. 

Oil of rose geranium. 5 minims. 

Melt the lard, wax and soap together 
on a water-bath. Heat the water to 
boiling and add it gradually, with con- 
stant stirring, to the melted mixture. 
Beat the mass until cool; then incor- 
porate the essential oils, dissolved in 
the alcohol. 

Filling Tubes With Cream 

The cream was put .up in collapsible 
tubes, which were filled in an ingenious 
manner described as follows by the 
author: — 

I took a 2-pint enameled-iron round douche 
can, attached 3 inches of douche tubing to 
th*- nozzle and closed the tubing with a 
burette clip. I next cut a round piece of 
wood to fit nicely into the top of the can. 
and to this I attached a handle, so that the 
thing worked up and down like the 
i of a syringe. To fill the tubes, the 
can was slightly warmed and the cream 
put into it. Then, when the tubes were 
brought into position under the spout, 
pressure on the piston and the burette clip 
enabled me to fill them with the requisite 
amount of cream without mess or much 
trouble. After filling, the tubes were closed 
with a special pair of pincers having very 
bruad. flat jaws, and after getting a coat 
of compound tincture of benzoin they were 
for labeling. 

Stearin Cream 

Stearic acid 50.0 grammes. 

Monohydrated sodium 

carbonate 7.5 grammes. 

Oil of theobroma 5.0 grammes. 

Glycerin .... 7.5 grammes. 

i'^rfume enough. 

Water to make. 300 grammes. 

Dissolve the sodium carbonate in 100 
mils of water and add to this the 
glycerin. Melt the stearic acid and the 
grated oil of theobroma, add the sodium 
carbonate solution, previously warmed, 
and finally enough water to make the 
required weight. Stir constantly until 

Much of the success in making toilet 
preparations of this character depends 
on the skill of the manipulator, and 
slight variations from set formulae are 
often found to make better products. 
Of course, the variations are deter- 
mined by the experiments which are 
usually necessary before each individ- 
ual manipulator hits the right combi- 

Glycerin Cream 

Almond oil 500 grammes. 

Glycerin • 75 grammes. 

White wax. 30 grammes. 

Marseilles soap 15 grammes. 

Oil of thyme (per- 
fumer's) 5 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 5 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 2 grammes. 

Dissolve the soap in the glycerin; 
melt the wax in the almond oil; add 
the glycerin-soap solution and beat the 
mixture until a homogeneous cream is 
produced; then incorporate the per- 
fuming oils. 

Lanolin Cream 

Lanolin 500 grammes. 

Almond oil 500 grammes. 

White wax 100 grammes. 

Rose water 500 grammes. 

Vanillin 15 grammes. 

• Terpineol • 10 grammes. 

Combine these in a manner similar to 
that directed for either of the preced- 
ing formulas. 

Pushing an Own-Make Cold Cream 

A well-made cream, pure white, deli- 
cately scented, put into a 4-ounce flint- 
glass or opaque ointment pot with 
nickel -plated screw cap. will keep fresh 
until the last bit is used. Adorned with 
a simple strip label, such a package 
costs about 10 cents. The druggist can 
sell it from 25 to 50 cents. My advice 
to him is to push it. Here is the for- 
mula for a perfect cream: — 

White wax 140 grammes. 

Spermaceti 160 grammes. 

White petrolatum 300 grammes. 

Stearic acid 40 grammes. 

Dried sodium carbon- 
ate 10 grammes. 

Water, warm 250 mils. 

Perfume enough. 

Melt the first four ingredients at low 
heat, then add the warm water, in 



which the sodium carbonate has been 
dissolved, and stir until the mass is 
cold and creamy, adding the perfume 
(say oil of rose) last. — F. W. Scott. Jr. 

Eucerin As a Cream Base 

The following is abstracted from a 
paper by Eugene Unna, printed in The 
Druggists Circular for July. 1912: — 

Adeps lanae does not take up water readily. 
Its cooling effect is thereby minimized. In 
eucerin the result is just the reverse, owing 
to its great affinity for water and its lack of 
tenacity. Here we have the full benefit of 
evaporation of the water contained in the oint- 
ment, and the long- ventilated question as to 
a suitable basis for cold cream has found its 
happy solution in the discovery of this 

But in this combination of wax alcohols 
with mineral fats we will find another very 
important property. That is, the facility with 
which the ointments prepared with it can be 
rubbed into the skin. 

Now we have to ask, "What have modern 
therapeutics and cosmetics to demand of a 
perfect cold cream?" 

First— it must have a great absorbing power 
for water; secondly, its fat basis must be 
unchangeable; and, finally, its consistence has 
to be soft, but not greasy or even sticky. ■ All 
these properties we find separated in the 
ointment bases known hitherto, but nowhere 
combined. Adeps lanse has a rather great 
absorbing power for water, is of great tenacity 
and stickiness, and its fat basis cannot be 
kept long. Petrolatum and paraffin, although 
they may be kept long, are lacking in an 
absorbing power for water, and therefore can- 
not be used for the preparation of cold creams. 
Lard has the advantage of great softness and 
blandness, but it does not have the important 
keeping qualities and the capacity for water. 

A mixture of white wax, spermaceti and 
oil of almonds makes an ointment base of 
great softness and blandness, but lacks the 
ability to take up water. The addition of 
oil of almonds overcomes this, but diminishes 
its keeping qualities. 

This has been the situation. It is clear 
that the problem was solved at once when 
we became able to incorporate with any 
stable and harmless ointment base a body 
which gave to it the properties of softness 
and absorbing power for water. This body is 
tucerin wax, discovered by Lifschuetz. Only 
•"> grammes of this wax melted together with 
95 grammes of petrolatum or paraffin oint- 
ment form an ointment base of extraordinary 
softness, which can be kept indefinitely and 
which may be combined with water up to 500 
per cent. 

* Odor for a Toilet Cream 
We have been informed by a man 
with an expert nose that the odor of 
one of the popular proprietary creams 
is imparted to it by muguet, an arti- 
ficial ljlac; another says that it is 
lily of the valley — also known as mu- 
guet — and may be simulated by com- 
bining linalol, heliotrope and oil of 
ylang-ylang. Another formula for 
this odor is as follows: — 


Oil of jasmine (syn- 
thetic) 1 dram. 

Oil of ylang-ylang (syn- 
thetic) 3 drams. 

Solution of heliotropin 
(1 per cent, in 60 per 
cent, alcohol) 8 ounces. 

Solution of terpineol (1 
per cent, in 60 per 
cent, alcohol 20 ounces. 

Another odor suitable for a toilet 
cream is composed of: — 

Extract of rose 45 mils. 

Terpineol 1 mil. 

Linalol 3 mils. 

Spirit of bitter almond. .. .51 mils. 

Cold Cream 

The following cold cream formula 
differs a little from the average run 
of such formulas and has been found 
entirely satisfactory in the experience 
of a retail pharmacist who has sold 
"carloads" of the finished prepara- 
tion: — 

AVhite mineral oil 96 ounces. 

Rose water 53 ounces. 

Spermaceti 12 ounces. 

White wax 32 ounces. 

Boi-ax 1 ounce. 

Melt the spermaceti and wax to- 
gether and add the mineral oil. Heat 
the rose water in a separate vessel 
and dissolve the borax in it. Raise 
the temperature of the rose water- 
borax solution to approximately the 
same temperature as that of the 
melted waxes and oil and mix them. 
Whip with an egg beater or other 
similar implement while cooling and 
when nearly cool add the required 

A mixture of oil of neroli, 25 drops; 
and oil of rose, 5 drops, is quite sat- 
isfactory as a perfume. 

Permanent Cold Cream 

White wax 17.0 grammes. 

Liquid petrolatum. .62:0 grammes. 

Borax 0.5 gramme. 

Glycerin 1.0 gramme. 

Alcohol 2.0 grammes. 

Rose water 1S.0 grammes. 

Perfume as desired. 

Dissolve the borax, glycerin, and al- 
cohol in the rose water; warm the 
solution and add to it the melted wax 
and liquid petrolatum, stirring con- 
stantly. Add the perfume when the 
cream begins to set. 

Wool-Fat Cold Cream 

Hydrous wool-fat 12 ounces. 

White wax 4 ounces. 

Spermaceti 4 ounces. 

Expressed oil of almonds 28 ounces. 

Borax 144 grains. 

Distilled water 19 ounces. 

Oil of pimento 5.minims. 

Oil of rose 20 minims. 

Melt together the wax, spermaceti, 
and almond oil on a water-bath: in- 
corporate this mixture with the wool- 
fat in a warm mortar and stir until 
almost cool. Gradually beat in the 



water in which the borax has been 
dissolved; beat well with an egg- 
whip, adding the perfume. 

Summer Toilet Creams 

For sunburn, prickly heat and other 
ills, the Medical Sentinel recommends 
creams, ointments or salves made ac- 
cording to the formulas appended: — 

Precipitated sulphur 1 ounce. 

Zinc oxide- jounce. 

Expressed oil of almond. 1 ounce. 

Hydrous woo,l-fat 1 ounce. 

Extract of violet to perfume. 


Ichthyol 2 drams. 

Expressed oil of almond. . 2 drams. 

Ointment of rose water.. 6 drams. 

Hydrous wool-fat 6 drams. 

Oil of rose to perfume. 


Olive oil 4 drams. 

Menthol 15 grains. 

Ointment of rose w r ater. . 6 drams. 

Hydrous wool-fat 6 drams. 

Honey and Glycerin Jelly 

Soft soap 1 ounce. 

Honey 3 ounces. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Olive oil ; .... 20 ounces. 

Almond oil 20 ounces. 

Oil of rose 40 minims. 

Distilled water 4 drams. 

Mix the water, the glycerin and the 
honey, and dissolve the soap in this 
mixture. Mix the oils and add them 
gradually in an uninterrupted stream 
to the first mixture, triturating vigor- 
ously the while. 

Molded Face Cream for a Warm 

Agar-agar jelly 

i stiff ) 150.0 grammes. 

Glycerin 300.0 grammes. 

White wax • . . . . 55.0 grammes. 

Spermaceti 55.0 grammes. 

White mineral oil. . .300.0 grammes. 
„ Borax 3.0 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate, 

monohydrated .... 7.5 grammes. 

Stearic acid 30.0 grammes. 

Distilled water 200.0 mils. 

Perfume enough. 

Dissolve the borax in 120 mils, of dis- 
tilled water with the aid of gentle heat; 
melt together the wax, the spermaceti 
and the oil; allow this mixture to cool 
to about 65 degrees C, and, having the 
borax solution at about the same tem- 
perature, pour it all at once into the 
mixed fats and stir briskly until 
creamy. Beat into this cream the agar- 
agar jelly, and continue the beating un- 
til the mixture is cool. Dissolve the 
%odium carbonate in the rest of the 

water and mix with the glycerin. Place 
on a water- bath, and, having added the 
stearic acid, heat gently and stir care- 
fully until carbon dioxide is no longer 
evolved. Remove from the heat, whip 
to a foam with an egg-beater and beat 
in the previously prepared cream, beat- 
ing the whole until it cools. Finally, 
incorporate the desired perfume. 

Separation of Water From Ointment 
of Rose Water 

I have often been annoyed to find 
drops of water had separated from my 
U. S. P. cold cream and it had lost that 
nice, homogeneous appearance it had 
when first made. This was particularly 
noticeable in warm weather. By using 
an equal weight of powdered castile 
soap in place of the sodium borate I 
have overcome this annoyance. 

Of course, any preparation "sold un- 
der or by a name recognized in the 
United States Pharmacopoeia or Na- 
tional Formulary" should not differ 
from the "standard of strength, quality 
or purity as determined by the test 
laid down in those books." — F. W. 
Scott, Jr. 

Witchhazel Cream Jelly 

Glycerin 6 ounces. 

Quince seed • . . 60 grains. 

Hot w r ater 10 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 10 ounces. 

Deodorized alcohol 4 ounces. 

Perfume enough. 

Place the quince seed in a bottle, 
pour the hot water on them and agi- 
tate occasionally until a mucilage is 
formed; then add the hamamelis water, 
slightly warmed, and after mixing 
thoroughly strain through muslin. To 
the strained fluid add the glycerin and 
shake thoroughly. Dissolve the desired 
perfume in the alcohol and add the so- 
lution to the mucilage, agitating briskly 
until of a uniform consistence. 

If a thicker jelly is desired, the 
amount of quince seed may be in- 

Coloring Massage Creams 

Most of the pink massage creams 
are colored with that old standby, so- 
lution of carmine of the National 

Fluffy, Pearly Appearance of Grease- 
less Cream 

We have heard it stated that egg- 
white beaten into greaseless cream 
(after it has become cold, of course) 
w r ill give it that pearly, fluffy appear- 
ance which is so much admired. Per- 
haps the addition of about 1 per cent, 
of fresh castor oil would help to pro- 
duce the desired effect. 


Face Cream in Brick Form 

Oil of theobroma 8 ounces. 

Coconut oil % ounce. 

White wax % ounce. 

Alkanet enough. 

Oil of bitter almonds... 5 minims. 

Melt the oil of theobroma on a water- 
bath, and in it digest the alkanet root, 
enclosed in cloth bag, until the proper 
shade is obtained. Add the other in- 
gredients and when all are melted pour 
into molds to cool, adding the oil of 
bitter almonds just before so doing. 

By varying the amounts of the oil 
and wax the exact consistence desired 
can be obtained. 

Malt Extract as a Healing Cream 

Zernik examined a "universal frost- 
bite cream" and reports (Apoth. Zeit.) 
that it consisted entirely of malt ex- 
tract. It was marketed in collapsible 

Queen Victoria's Hand Cerate 

Scrape into an earthen vessel 1 y 2 
ounces of spermaceti and y 2 ounce of 
white wax; add 6 drams of pounded 
camphor and 4 tablespoonfuls of olive 
pil. The oil must be pure. Let the 
mixture stand near the fire until it 
liquifies, then stir well. 

Before washing the hands rub them 
well with a little of this cerate — then 
wash them as usual. This compound 
should be kept in a covered vessel. 

Sunburn Lotions 

In severe cases the services of a 
physician should be called into re- 
quisition. Mild washes containing 
zinc oxide or tincture of benzoin 
might be sold over the counter. 


Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Sodium borate 4 drams. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Extract of jasmine 1 ounce. 

Bay rum 3 ounces. 

Water, to make 20 ounces. 


Salicylic acid 3 drams. 

Sodium borate 1 ounce. 

Rose water 13 ounces. 

Orange flower water. .. .13 ounces. 

Cologne water 2 ounces. 

Tincture of benzoin 1 ounce. 

Dissolve the first two in a mixture 
of the second two, filter, and add the 
last two. 


Citric acid 2 drams. 

Glycerin 6 ounces. 

Oil of orris y 2 dram. 

Oil Hi bergamot 15 minims. 

Vanillin 5 grains. 

Alcohol 1 dram. 

Orange flower water, to 

make 1 pint* 

Magnesium carbonate... 1 dram. 

Chlorophyl to color. 

Dissolve the vanillin in the alcohol, 
mix with the oils and triturate with 
the magnesium carbonate, gradually 
adding the orange flower water; filter, 
dissolve the acid in the filtrate and 
add the glycerin. 

Glycerinated Camphor Ice 

Powdered camphor. ..20 grammes. 

Liquid petrolatum.. . .20 grammes. 

Paraffin 50 grammes. 

Petrolatum 80 grammes. 

Glycerin 20 grammes. 

Alkanet 5 grammes. 

Mix the two petrolatums and the 
paraffin with the aid of a gentle heat; 
digest the alkanet in the mixture on a 
sand-bath for several hours. Dissolve 
the camphor in the heated mixture; 
add the glycerin; strain; and stir un- 
til cold. 


Camphor, coarse powder.. 2 ounces. 

Hard paraffin 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

White wax 5 ounces. 

White petrolatum 8 ounces. 

Melt the wax, hard paraffin, and pe- 
trolatum together over a water-bath, 
dissolve the camphor in the melted 
mixture, incorporate the glycerin, and 
finally pour into moulds. 


Mutton suet 3 ounces. 

Spermaceti 2 ounces. 

Yellow wax 2 ounces. 

Alpine Jelly 

Glycerin 12 drams. 

White petrolatum 9 drams. 

Hydrous wool-fat 5 drams. 

Oil of rose to perfume. 

Freckle Remover and Skin 

Mercuric chloride, "peroxide creams," 
horseradish, buttermilk, bismuth and 
zinc salts, various acids, and other 
things have found their way into 
household and pharmaceutical formu- 
laries, but in the efficacy of any of 
them we have little faith, and the 
"stronger" of them, as those which 
contain mercury salts, for instance, 
are positively dangerous. 

Lemons, chopped . . . 135.0 grammes. 

Oil of lavender 22.5 grammes. 

Oil of rose 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of cedar 

(perfumers') 6.0 grammes. 



Wine vinegar 650.0 grammes. 

Alcohol (85 P. C.) . . 85.0 grammes. 

Water 85.0 grammes. 

Macerate in a warm place for three 
davs and filter. 


Copper oleate 1 gramme. 

Ointment of zinc oxide 22 grammes. 

Buttermilk 2 ounces. 

Grated horseradish 2 drams. 

Corn meal 2 drams. 

Spread this mixture between sheets 
of thin muslin and allow it to remain 
on the affected parts as long as pos- 
sible, preferably at night. 

Anti-Freckle Preparations 

Macon (Zeit. f. Riech, u. Geschmack- 
stoffe) gives formulas for applications 
for freckles which, with slight modifi- 
cation, are as follows: 

Freckle Cream. 

This is prepared like cold cream 
from the following ingredients: 

White wax 110 parts. 

Oil of sweet almond 580 parts. 

Wool-fat 1.500 parts. 

Borax 150 parts. 

Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide (30 P. C.) 150 parts. 

Rose water 700 parts. 

Ionone (10 P. C.) 5 parts. 

Violet extract 4 parts. 

Oil of bergamot 40 parts. 

Oil of orris 10 parts. 

Freckle Water. 
Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide (30 P. C.) 100 parts. 

Rose water 800 parts. 

Glycerin 100 parts. 

Freckle Cream 

We know of no cream or other prep- 
aration which we care to recommend 
for use in an attempt to remove 
freckles. Pharmaceutical literature, 
including the files of The Druggists' 
Circular, abounds with formulas 
printed under such heads as "Freckle 
Remover" and the like, but we have no 
knowledge of good results having fol- 
lowed the use of such creams, lotions, 
or bleaches. On the contrary, we have 
recorded the death of one young 
woman who used a mixture recom- 
mended in a newspaper for the purpose 
now under discussion; and this after 
one druggist had refused to make the 
mixture for her. 

Even the so-called authorities differ 
as to the best eradicator for freckles, 
some favoring diluted solutions (3 per 
cent.) of lactic or other organic acid, 
while others, including Joseprf, say 
that alkalies are particularly useful in 
this connection, and suggest dilute 

solutions of potassium carbonate. 
Creams containing cucumber juice or 
30 per cent, solution of hydrogen diox- 
ide are extolled by some dermatolo- 
gists; and mixtures of sulphur and 
liniment of soft soap are in favor. 

Druggists might well leave to the 
"beauty doctor" the questionable prac- 
tice of changing faces in an attempt 
to improve upon nature. As an al- 
truist they might advise the use of 
grandmother's remedy, buttermilk and 
horseradish, or lemon juice. 

Sunburn Cream 

Sublimated sulphur % dram. 

Zinc carbonate 1 dram. 

Ointment of zinc oxide... 1 ounce. 

Dangerous Freckle Ointment 

AVhile we are always ready to serve 
the best interests of our readers, we 
must decline to give a recipe for an 
ammoniated mercury ointment for 
freckles. This class of preparations 
is distinctly dangerous. "Notice of 
judgment No. 3540" of the United 
States Department of Agriculture con- 
cerns a freckle cream containing am- 
moniated mercury, which was declared 
misbranded, since it was labeled: "As 
harmless as it is sure"; whereas it con- 
tained the mercury compound, which 
the government officials declared was 
a "harmful, poisonous and deleterious 
substance." The manufacturer of the 
product pleaded guilty and was fined. 





Tincture of tolu 3 drams. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Distilled water... to make 1 pint. 

Mix the glycerin with 4 ounces of 
water and add it gradually to the 
tincture, shaking after each addition. 
Then add the remainder of the water 
in 4-ounce portions. 

Freckle Lotions 

Powdered alum 1 ounce. 

Lemon juice 1 ounce. 

Elderflower water 20 ounces. 

Make a solution. 

This is to be applied to the skin 
twice daily. 


Sodium borate 1 dram. 

Potassium chlorate 4 drams. 

Alcohol 1 dram. 

Glycerin 2 drams. 

Rose water 3 ounces. 

Mix and filter. 

This one is to be applied with a 
soft sponge several times daily. 



After-Shave Menthol Lotion. 


Menthol 1 dram. 

Boric acid 4 drams. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

Water or witchhazel wa- 
ter*. . .• to make 1 gallon. 

Mix. Let it stand for a while, and 

We have perfumed it at times with 
a little oil of bay leaves. We have had 
occasion to manufacture this for a bar- 
bers' supply house, and it seems to be 
a very popular combination. — A. Alex- 


Menthol 10 grains. 

Alcohol - ounces. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Mucilage of Irish moss 2 ounces. 

Boric acid 2 ounces. 

Oil of rose 5 drops. 

Camphor water to make 1 pint. 
• Dissolve the boric acid in the cam- 
phor water mixed with the glycerin, 
using a gentle heat; add the mucilage 
and the alcohol in which have been 
dissolved the menthol and the oil. 

Tragacanth 10 drams. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Menthol 6 drams. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Water to make 1 gallon. 

Solution of carmine.... to color. 

Mix the tragacanth and glycerin, 
using a little water; dissolve the men- 
thol in the alcohol; mix the two; finally 
add the balance of the water, and 

British Acid Cosmetic Lotion. 

Acetic acid (30%) 4 ounces. 

Tincture of benzoin 4 ounces. 

Spirit of camphor 4 ounces. 

Tincture of red sandal- 
wood 6 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 gallon. 

Softening Tanned Skin. 

According to Roller, nothing is bet- 
ter for softening tanned skin than a 
mixture of equal parts of glycerin and 
orange flower water. Of course, rose 
water could be substituted for the 
orange flower water, and. if desired, 
the finished product could be appropri- 
ately colored. 

Quinto Cream. 

Quince seed 90 grains. 

Boric acid 30 grains. 

Salicylic acid 20 grains. 

Glycerin li 2 ounces. 

Cologne water 4 ounces. 

Boiling water 4 ounces. 

Spirit o'f lemon. . .enough to flavor. 

Triturate the quince seed with the 
boiling water, add the acids, and 
strain through muslin. 

Lotion for Barbers. 

A very good lotion for the face after 
it has been shaved is the hamamelis 
water of the Pharmacopoeia. Another 
popular after-shave lotion, formerly 
pharmacopoeial, is spirit of myrcia, 
better known in tonsorial circles as bay 

A Stearate Lotion. 

First make a base so — 

Stearic acid 3 ounces. 

Dried sodium carbonate 80 grains. 

Sodium borate 64 grains. 

Glycerin 3 ounces. 

Expressed oil of almonds 6 drams. 

Water 13 ounces. 

Dissolve the sodium salts in a mix- 
ture of the glycerin and the water, 
heaiting gently. Melt together the 
stearic acid and the oil on a water- 
bath. Having the two liquids at the 
same temperature, about 90 deg. C, 
pour the solution of the sodium salts 
into the mixture of oil and acid, gradu- 
ally, stirring the while. Heat the mix- 
ture on a water-bath, stirring at fre- 
quent intervals, until effervescence 
ceases — about half an hour. Remove 
from the bath and beat until cool. 
The Lotion. 

Stearate base 10 ounces. 

Glycerin 10 ounces. 

Mucilage and quince 

seed (1 to 50) 25 ounces. 

Bitter almond water. ... 20 ounces. 

Rose water 6 ounces. 

Water to make 100 ounces. 

Triturate the base in a cold mortar 
with the mucilage, gradually added; 
continuing the trituration, add the 
glycerin and the aromatic waters; 
transfer the mixture to a bottle, and 
add in divided portions, agitating after 
each addition, enough water to make 
100 ounces. 

A Quince Seed Toilet Lotion. 

This formula, it will be noted, does 
not call for borax or boric acid, which 
are sometimes regarded as irritants. 

Glycerin 6 ounces. 

Quince seed % dram. 

Hot water 21 ounces. 

Deodorized alcohol 5 ounces. 

Oil of rose 16 drops. 

Upon the quince seed in a bottle, 
pour 8 ounces of the hot water, agitate 
well occasionally, until a mucilage j s 
formed, then strain through muslin. 


To the remainder of the hot water, in a 
bottle, add the oil of rose and shake 
well. Then add the mucilage of quince 
seed and the glycerin, and again shake 
well. Lastly, add the deodorized 

When using quince seed in making 
toilet preparations care should be 
taken to have them scrupulously clean, 
as specks of dust or husks are difficult 
to separate from the mucilage. 

Benzoin Lotions 

Tincture of benzoin.... 1 ounce. 

Extract of rose 1% ounces. 

Jockey club extract 1% ounces. 

Glycerin 24 ounces. 

Distilled water 24 ounces. 

Warm the glycerin and water to- 
gether, and add the other things. 

Hazel Bay Cream 

Quince seed 100 grains. 

Boric acid 1 dram. 

Glycerin 3 ounces. 

Bay rum ounces. 

Tincture of benzoin. .. ,1% drams. 

Glycerite of starch 5 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 

to make 34 ounces. 

Witchhazel Toilet Lotion 

White soap (animal)... 2 ounces. 

Glycerite of borax 2 ounces. 

Rose water 6 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 10 ounces. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Mix the glycerite of borax, the rose 
water and the hamamelis water and 
in this mixture dissolve the soap, 
previously reduced to thin shavings. 
Strain through muslin, add the alcohol 
and set aside, stirring daily for two 
weeks; then bottle. 

Cologne Vinegar 

Oil of Ceylon cinnamon % dram. 

Oil of cloves 80 minims. 

Oil of lavender (old) ... 1 dram. 

Oil of citron 1 dram. 

Acetic acid 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 3 pints. 

Violet Alcohol 

In our drug store days we sold di- 
luted alcohol as bathing alcohol, and 
possibly the addition of violet water 
and color to this will produce the ar- 
ticle called for by this name. 

Magoffin's Cream Balm 

Quince seed, bruised. ... 2 ounces. 

Bay rum 12 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 12 ounces. 

Boric acid 2 drams. 

Boiling water 1 pint. 

Perfume enough. 

Water, to make 5 pints. 

Place the quince seed in the hot 
water, agitate frequently; after twen- 
ty-four hours, strain and add the other 

Eau de Beaute 

Oil of bitter almond 1 mil. 
Oil of raspberries... 60 mils. 

Vanillin 4 grammes. 

Artificial jasmine... 4 mils. 

Glycerin 100 grammes. 

Borax 100 grammes. 

Rose water 1,000 mils. 

Distilled water 1,000 mils. 

Solution of carmine enough. 

Witchhazel Lotion 

Quince seed 45 grains. 

Boric acid 5 grains'. 

Benzoic acid 5 grains- 

Glycerin 2 ounces*, J 

Alcohol 3 ounces. 

Oil of rose geranium.. 1 dram. 

Oil of bitter almond... 30 minims. 

Glycerite of starch 2 ounces. 

Hamamelis water, 

to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the two acids in 8 ounces 
of hamamelis water; macerate the 
quince seed in this solution for three 
hours and strain. Beat up the glyce- 
rite with the glycerin and gradually 
incorporate with constant beating the 
quince seed solution. Finally beat in 
the oils dissolved in the alcohol, add- 
ing the solution slowly, and add 
enough hamamelis water to make the 
required volume. 

Witchhazel Snow 

Stearic acid 60 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate. . . 9 grammes. 

Glycerin 7 grammes. 

Hamamelis water .... 300 grammes. 
Water enough. 

Melt the stearic acid in a tared ves- 
sel of about 2,000 mils' capacity over a 
water-bath, and add the sodium car- 
bonate dissolved in a minimum amount 
of hot water; then add the glycerin. 
Keep the mixture on the water-bath 
for one hour, stirring constantly but 
not vigorously. Add sufficient water 
to bring the preparation up to 300 
grammes and then the hamamelis wa- 
ter. • Return the container to the water- 
bath for a minute or two, stirring the 
mixture until perfectly smooth. Pour 
into a warm mortar and beat to a 
foam. Let it stand twelve hours, stir 
with spatula, and fill into wide- 
mouthed bottles. 


Stearin and Petrolatum Witchhazel 

Stearic acid 100 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate.. 15 grammes. 

Liquid petrolatum.. 15 grammes. 

Hamamelis water... 500 mils. 

Distilled water, 

to make 1000 grammes. 

Perfume as desired. 

Melt the stearic acid with the liquid 
petrolatum at a gentle heat on a water- 
bath, and mix thoroughly. Dissolve 
the sodium carbonate (the mono- 
hydrated sort is best) in 350 mils of dis- 
tilled water; warm the solution and 
add it gradually, with constant stir- 
ring, to the fatty liquid. Warm 50 
mils of distilled water, and beat it into 
the mixture first made; continue the 
I. <ating until effervescence ceases. 
Warm the hamamelis water and incor- 
porate it in the mass with vigorous 
beating. Add the desired perfume — a 
very little is best — after the cream has 
cooled, and distilled water enough to 
make 1000 grammes. 

Milk of Almonds. 

Powdered castile 

soap 3.0 grammes. 

Spermaceti 3.0 grammes. 

White wax 3.0 grammes. 

Almond oil 56.0 grammes. 

Alcohol 100.0 mils. 

Distilled water 100.0 mils. 

Glycerin 100.0 mils. 

Oil of bitter almond 1.2 mils. 

Ammonium fluoride. 1.2 mils. 

Melt together the first four ingredi- 
ents, and into this liquid, while warm, 
pour all at once the mixture of the 
other ingredients. Beat until cool. 

Hand and Toilet Lotion. 

This, says John T. Harbold, is non- 
sticky, non-greasy and non- irritating. 
It is bland and smooth, and of perfect 
consistency, requiring no shaking be- 
fore use, and has antiseptic properties 
as well. 

Tragacanth 2 drams. 

Quince seed 15 drams. 

Borax 6 drams. 

Boric acid 8 drams. 

Glycerin 10 ounces. 

Alcohol 10 ounces. 

Perfume enough. 

Color enough. 

Sodium benzoate 3 drams. 

Boiling water 5 pints. 

Water, to make 8 pints. 

Soften the tragacanth in 2 pints of 
water, stirring until a homogeneous 
mixture is formed. Steep the quince 
seed in the boiling water for four 
hours, stirring frequently; then strain 
carefully. Dissolve the borax, sodium 
benzoate and boric acid in the re- 

mainder of the hot water. Add the 
perfume and glycerin dissolved in the 
alcohol, and finally the tragacanth and 
quince-seed mucilage, which have pre- 
viously been mixed, portion by portion, 
shaking after each addition, in order 
to get a thoroughly homogeneous mix. 
ture. The consistency may be varied 
by changing the proportion of water. 

Rose Water, Glycerin and Tincture of 

We used the following proportions: 

Tincture of benzoin.... % ounce. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Rose water TV 2 ounces. 

Then we, having mixed the glycerin 
and the rose water thoroughly, added 
the tincture a little at a time, invert- 
ing the container gently after each ad- 
dition. Even so, a small amount of a 
curdy precipitate would usually be 
formed, but the lotion was freed from 
this when dispensed. 

At the 1907 meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. F. M. 
Apple described a method of combin- 
ing the three ingredients under con- 
sideration into a smooth, creamy mix- 
ture. His method, which is given in 
the Proceedings of that year, page L32, 
consists essentially in mixing the tinc- 
ture with one-half of the glycerin — the 
proportions are practically the same as 
those given in the above formula — 
diluting this with about half the rose 
water, and adding the mixture of the 
remaining glycerin and rose water. 
The mixture is immediately strained 
through a fine-meshed straining cloth 
three or four times, the curd being 
rubbed through with a glass rod, trans- 
ferred to a suitable container and thor- 
oughly shaken. 

Referring to the foregoing, M. I. Wil- 
bert writes: 

To secure a satisfactory and permanent mix- 
ture of tincture of benzoin with rose water 
and glycerin, it is necessary to have the ben- 
zoin precipitated evenly and in a fine state of 
subdivision. This can readily be accomplished 
by mixing the glycerin and rose water in a 
suitable bottle, then removing approximately 
one-third of it and carefully floating the tinc- 
ture of benzoin on the remaining portion of 
glycerin and rose water in the bottle. Then 
by very carefully turning the bottle on its 
side and slowly, very slowly, rotating the 
bottle so as to bring a fresh portion of the 
tincture of benzoin in contact with the mixed 
glycerin and rose water, the benzoin can be 
precipitated very gradually and in a fine state 
of subdivision. This gradual precipitation of 
the benzoin obviates the lumpy or curdy pre- 
cipitate that ordinarily occurs and produce* ,i 
permanent milky mixture that can subsequent- 
ly be further diluted with either water, glycerin 
or the mixture of water and glycerin referred 
to above. 

With Peroxide. 

From a practical point of view, a much more 
efficient lotion for chapped hands may be 
made by using equal parts of glycerin, rose 


water and solution of hydrogen peroxide, with 
a small amount of tincture of benzoin to give 
a milky appearand or as an additional odor. 
This mixture, while efficient as a lotion, will 
not keep and should be dispensed only in small 
quantities, made extemporaneously. 

Another reader sent the following 
method of mixing these substances, 
the principle of which is about the 
same as that explained by Mr. Wilbert : 

T place the tincture of benzoin in the bottle 
or graduate first, taking care not to let it 
touch the sides any more than possible. I 
then add the rose water and the glycerin ipre- 
\ lously mixed I in a slow, steady stream. Xo 
shaking is required or at the most a slow in- 
verting of the bottle. The amount of tincture 
or benzoin used can be regulated according to 
the degree of color required. Of course, if an 
excess is used some is bound to be thrown out. 
In the snme way the amount of glycerin de- 
pends on how thick you want the m x ur 

Anti-Chap Lotion 

The following formula has proved 
satisfactory in practice: 

Tragacanth 3 to 5 drams. 

Benzoic acid 1 dram. 

Sodium borate 1 dram. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Rosewater 4 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almond. . 5 drops. 

Extract of jasmine. . 4 drams. 

Put the tragacanth (the amount de- 
pends upon the desired consistency of 
the finished product) into a wide- 
mouthed bottle, add the water in 
which the benzoic acid and the sodium 
borate have been dissolved, and set 
aside for several days. Mix the gly- 
cerin and the rosewater, add these to 
the tragacanth mixture, shake fre- 
quently during three or four days and 
squeeze through flannel. Finally incor- 
porate the oil of bitter almond dis- 
solved in the perfume extract. If a 
pearly appearance is desired, add 
about 4 drams of tincture of Siam ben- 
zoin to the finished jelly. 

Pomade for Chaps 

As an application for chapped lips the 
"pommades" of Gallic extraction are 
deservedly popular. These are simply 
perfumed fatty liases of the proper 
consistency, of which the following is 

White wax 100.0 grammes. 

Spermaceti 100.0 grammes. 

Expressed oil of al- 

' mond 150.0 grammes. 

Oil of geranium.... 1.0 gramme. 

Oil of wintergreen 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of bergamot. . 0.5 gramme. 

Heliotropin 0.2 gramme. 

The first three ingredients are melted 
together at a gentle heat; the mixture 
is removed from the heat and stirred 
gently until it begins to congeal at 
the edges; the perfumes are added and 

thoroughly incorporated, and the mass 

is poured into tubular molds. 
Glycerin and Tragacanth Skin Cream 

Powdered tragacanth 28 grammes. 

Glycerin 192 mils. 

Almond oil 48 mils. 

Alcohol i:>u mils. 

Tincture of benzoin 24 mils. 

Oil of neroli i mil. 

Oil of bergamot 1 mil. 

Oil of geranium 2 mils. 

Water 1,152 mils. 

Put the tragacanth in a large mor- 
tar; wet it thoroughly with a portion 
of the alcohol; add all at once 500 mils 
of water, and triturate until a uniform 
mucilage is formed. Incorporate the 
almond oil. the tincture and the essen- 
tial oils; add gradually with constant 
trituration the rest of the water, the 
rest of the alcohol and the glycerin. 

Amandine Lotion 

Amandine 3 our 

Glycerin . . • 4 ounces. 

Tincture of bezoin 4 drams. 

Bitter almond water. . . . 

to make 1 pint. 

Warm the glycerin and add the tinc- 
ture, then stir in the bitter almond 
water previously warmed. Keep this 
mixture at about 100 deg. F. and add it 
in small portions to the amandine, 
beating thoroughly after each addition. 


Almond cream 3 ounci -. 

Mucilage of acacia 4 ounci - 

Syrup 6 ounces. 

Yolks of 5 eggs. 

Expressed oil of almond. 2% pounds. 

Milk of almond 4 ounces.. 

Oil of bitter almond. ... 2 drams. 

Oil of neroli % dram. 

Triturate the almond cream with the 
syrup and the mucilage until the mix- 
ture is perfectly homogeneous. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs and strain through 
a gauze. Add to the mixture and mix 
thoroughly. Transfer the resulting mix- 
ture to a deep wide evaporating dish, 
and add very gradually the expressed 
oil of almonds mixed with the essen- 
tional oils, beating the mass constantly. 
The amandine gets stiffer with the in- 
corporation of the oil, and the incor- 
poration is less easily effected, so that 
considerable exertion and great care 
are necessary to secure a perfect emul- 
sion. If the oil is added faster than 
it is beaten into the mass the aman- 
dine will be spoiled and useless. After 
all the oil has been incorporated, add 
the milk of almond and triturate well. 

This is but one of many formulas for 
amandine, and is given as the one af- 
fording a product best adapted to the 
preparation of a lotion. 


Another Amandine 

Honey 16.0 mils. 

Soft soap 8.0 grammes. 

Balsam of peru 1.0 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 1.5 mils. 

Oil of bitter almond 1.5 mils. 

Oil of cloves 1.0 mils. 

Oil of sweet almond 56.0 mils. 

Chap Cerate 

Salol 1 ounce. 

Peach kernel oil 8 ounces. 

White wax 4 ounces. 

Suet to make 1 pound. 

Solution of heliotropin. . enough. 

Melt the wax and suet in the oil; 
add the salol, and stir gently until 
cool; then add the perfume. 

Rose Benzoin Chap Lotion 

Compound tincture of 

benzoin 10 minims. 

Alcohol 2 drams. 

Rosewater 30 minims. 

Glycerin to make 1 ounce. 

Almond Cream. 

An almond cream that is really 
worthy of the name seems to be a 
problem to the average pharmacist 
who makes his own preparations. The 
writer has tried innumerable suggest- 
ed formulas for an almond cream, but 
none of them gave a permanent fin- 
ished product of the desired appear- 
ance or produced effective results when 
applied to the skin. 

After a great deal of experimenting 
the writer evolved the following for- 

White wax 60.0 grammes. 

Potassium hydrox- 
ide 10.0 grammes. 

Powdered borax... 1.5 grammes. 

Starch 30.0 grammes. 

Glycerin 60.0 mils. 

Alcohol 70.0 mils. 

Oil of bitter 

almonds 4.0 mils. 

Distilled water, 

enough to make 1000.0 mils. 

All of the above must naturally be 
of U. S. P. quality. 

Place the starch, which must be 
finely powdered, in a suitable vessel 
and add 150 mils of boiling water, and 
continue boiling until a jelly is ob- 

Place the potassium hydroxide in a 
porcelain vessel and dissolve in 300 
mils of boiling water. An enamelware 
vessel will answer as well as a porce- 
lain one if the metal is not exposed. 
This latter must be avoided, as it will 
discolor the product. Add the white 
wax. previously grated, or in very small 
pieces, and continue the heat until the 

wax is completely melted and saponi- 
fication has taken place. This can 
readily be determined by the appear- 
ance of the mixture. Then add the 
powdered borax and heat a moment 

Xow beat with an egg beater or sim- 
ilar apparatus until the temperature 
has lowered somewhat and add the 
mixture to the starch jelly, which must 
be as near the same temperature as 
possible, as in the manufacture of cold 
cream, and continue beating, for some 
time until a uniform white mixture re. 
suits. Then strain through a double 
thickness of gauze and add the gly- 
cerin, shaking well until it is thor- 
oughly incorporated. Then add the 
alcohol, to which the oil of bitter al- 
monds has previously been added. 
Lastly, add sufficient distilled water to 
bring the finished product up to 1000 
mils. Shake well and bottle. 

The finished product will be found to 
be a smooth, cooling cream of pleas- 
ing odor and appearance, and one that 
can be rubbed into the skin without 
leaving any feeling of stickiness or 
dryness. Samples of this preparation 
kept two months have not separated. 
The writer fully believes this prepara- 
tion to be the equal of any one on the 
market, the heavily advertised brand 
included, but makes no claim that the 
formula is identical or even similar. 

One other precaution. In bottling 
this preparation it is advisable to 
paraffin the corks used, as ordinary 
corks will in time produce a brown dis- 
coloration. This, while in no way im- 
pairing the value of the cream, ren- 
ders it unsightly.— James A. Arkin. 

Almond Cream. 

Purified lard 1 pound. 

Alcohol % ounce. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide (25%) % pound. 

Oil of bitter almond... 45 minims. 

Melt the lard in a porcelain-lined 
vessel and when heated above the 
melting point, continue the heat and 
add gradually the potash lye, stirring 
thoroughly with a broad wooden pad- 
dle. When saponification is complete 
stir in the alcohol in which 'the essen- 
tial oil has been dissolved. 

This preparation is variously known 
as Naples soap, almond shaving cream, 
creme d'amandes, etc. 

Face Massage Liquid. 

The following formula is said to be 
a favorite application among profes- 
sional German masseurs: 

White potasl? soap, shaved 20 parts. 

Glvcerin 30 parts. 

Water 30 parts. 

Alcohol (909? ^ 10 parts. 



Oleo-balsam mixture (Ph. 

G.) enough. 

Dissolve the soap by heating it with 
the glycerin and water, mixed. Add 
the alcohol, and for every 3 ounces of 
the solution add 5 or 6 drops of the 
mistura oleoso-balsamica of the Ger- 
man Pharmacopoeia, the recipe for 
which can be found in the dispensa- 
tories. Filter while hot. 

Almond Lotion. 

Blanched almonds... 15 grammes. 

White wax 1 gramme. 

Spermaceti 1 gramme. 

Powdered soap 1 gramme. 

Powdered borax 1 gramme. 

Alcohol 15 mils. 

Bitter almond water 

to make 60 mils. 

Rub the almonds to a smooth paste 
with 20 mils of bitter almond water. 
Melt the wax and spermaceti and mix 
with the soap and borax in a warm 
mortar and gradually stir in 20 mils of 
warm bitter almond water. Mix the 
two liquids and finally add the alcohol 
and enough bitter almond water to 
bring the finished product up to 60 

The following formula was contrib- 
uted to The Druggists Circular by Paul 

White wax 8 ounces. 

Spermaceti 8 ounces. 

Expressed oil of almond 8 ounces. 

Borax 2 ounces. 

Soap 16 ounces. 

Flake tragacanth 2 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almond. ... 6 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Water, to make 2 gallons. 

Melt the wax and spermaceti and add 
the expressed oil of almond. Dissolve 
the borax in 4 pints of water and after 
warming to the same temperature as 
the melted wax and spermaceti, mix 
the two fluids, stirring just enough to 
insure thorough admixture, and no 
more. Dissolve the soap in 1 gallon of 
water, made hot, and add to the mix- 
ture, being careful not to stir enough 
to make an undesirable foam. The 
tragacanth and 4 pints of water must 
previously have been made into a 
smooth mucilage. Add this, brought to 
the same temperature as the saponified 
mixture, to that mixture, stirring 
briskly. Finally add the aromatic oils, 
and strain. 

Expressed oil of almond 4 drams. 

Alcohol 4 drams. 

Tincture of benzoin. .. . 2 drams. 

Oil of rose 5 minims. 

Oil of rose geranium.. 5 minims. 

Glycerin 2% ounces. 

Rose water, to make.. 20 ounces. 

Melt the spermaceti and oil together, 
add the curd soap, and continue the 
heat until a uniform mixture results. 
Then transfer to a warm mortar and 
add gradually about an ounce of rose 
water, which has been brought to the 
boiling point. Beat up the almonds well 
'in another mortar and add the sper- 
maceti mixture to this paste. Mix thor- 
oughly and stir in the remainder of the 
hot rose water to form an emulsion. 
To this add the oils dissolved in the 
alcohol, the tincture, and the glycerin, 
then strain through fine calico, and 
make up to 20 ounces with rose water 
passed through the strainer. An alter- 
native process is to pound the soap 
and almonds in a warm mortar, add 
the spermaceti and almond oil heated 
together, rub thoroughly, emulsify with 
the hot rose water and finish as above. 


Curd soap % ounce. 

Cold cream 1 ounce. 

Distilled water 

Oil of rose y 2 dram. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Shave the soap into shreds and dis- 
solve in 2 ounces of the water by the 
heat of a water-bath. Incorporate it 
with the cold cream in a warm mortar, 
and gradually add the rest of the water, 
which has been heated until tepid, to 
form an emulsion. Transfer to a bot- 
tle and add the oil of rose dissolved in 
the alcohol. Shake well. Benzoic acid 
dissolved in the spirit improves the 

Milk of Roses. 


Blanched almonds 2 drams. 

Curd soap 4 drams. 

Spermaceti 2 drams. 

Honey and Almond Lotion. 

Ointment of rose 

water (U. S. P. 1900) 25 grammes. 

Glycerin 25 mils. 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 25 mils. 

Solution of sodium 

hydroxide (U. S. P.) 60 mils. 
Mucilage of quince 

seed (1 to 64) 125 mils. 

Oil of bitter almonds, 
essential, and oil of 
rose, enough to. . . . perfume. 

Water, to make 1000 mils. 

Triturate in a cold mortar the oint- 
ment of rose water, the expressed oil of 
almonds and the solution of sodium 
hydroxide until a smooth emulsion is 
obtained. Add the mucilage in divided 
portions, with constant trituration: 
likewise add the glycerin, and, contin- 
uing the trituration, 500 mils of water. 
Transfer the mixture to a bottle, add 
the perfume and enough water to 



make 1000 mils, and shake thoroughly. 

In order to make the preparation 
true to label, honey may be used in 
place of some of or all the glycerin. 

Perhaps by replacing a small part of 
the almond oil with castor oil a some- 
what pearly appearance may be ob- 

Cucumber Toilet Preparations 

Cucumber Essence. 


Press the juice from cucumbers, mix 
with an equal volume of alcohol and 
distill. If the distillate is not suffi- 
ciently perfumed, more juice may be 
added and the mixture distilled. It is 
said that the essence thus prepared 
will not spoil, even when mixed with 
fats in the preparation of cosmetics. 
Peel the cucumbers before expressing 
their juice; take as much alcohol as 
there is cucumber juice, add half of it 
to the juice and in the other half 
macerate the peelings for three days. 
Mix the two liquids and filter. 
Cucumber Cream. 
"White wax, 3 ounces; spermaceti, 3 
ounces; benzoinated lard, 8 ounces; cu- 
cumbers, 3 ounces. Melt together the 
wax, spermaceti and lard, and infuse 
in the liquid the cucumbers previ- 
ously grated. Allow the mixture to 
cool, stirring well; let it stand a day, 
remelt, strain and again stir the 
"cream" until cold. Whether the ben- 
zoin will prevent the cucumber juice 
from spoiling or not we are unable 
to say. Perhaps the substitution of 
the "essence" would be advisable. 
Some prefer the addition of about 150 
grains of borax. 

Small cucumbers, 2 only; olive oil, 
4 ounces; hydrous wool-fat, 2 ounces; 
white wax, 1 dram; spermaceti, 1 
dram. Slice the entire cucumbers and 
steel them in the oil, which should 
first be boiled. Set the mixture aside 
for twenty- four hours, and then strain 
it. Incorporate the wool-fat and wax 
by the aid of heat, and beat the whole 
into a light cream. 
Cucumber juice, 10 ounces; white 
wax, 9 ounces; liquid petrolatum 
(white), 24 ounces; benzoic acid, 15 
grains; distilled water, 8 ounces; 
borax, 90 grains; oil of rose, 15 drops. 
Grate fresh cucumbers and express 
from them 10 ounces of juice. Allow 
this to stand for a while and then 
strain it through fine muslin. Add 
the water and borax. Dissolve the wax 
in the oil by the aid of heat and add 
the benzoic acid. When partially cool, 
.I'M the warmed juice solution and the 
oil of rose, and pour into jars. 


Expressed oil of almond, 4 drams; 
powdered acacia, 100 grains; water, 4 
drams; rose water, S ounces; cologne 
water. 1 dram; spirit of camphor, 1 
dram; cucumber juice. 4 drams; tinc- 
ture of benzoin, 30 drops. Emulsify 
the oil with the water and acacia, and 
add the other ingredients. 

Milk of Cucumbers. 

This formula is said to have been 
used by the late A. E. Ebert: Cucum- 
ber juice, 8 ounces; expressed oil of 
almond, 2 ounces; spirit of soap (N. 
F.), 2 ounces; tincture of benzoin. 1 
dram; oil of bitter almond, 1 drop; oil 
of lavender 15 drops; oil of bergamot, 
10 drops. To make the cucumber juice 
pour boiling water over sliced, but not 
peeled, green cucumbers. When the 
slices have become soft and pulpy, re- 
move them from the water and extract 
the juice by squeezing them in a mus- 
lin bag. To each 7 ounces of juice add 
1 ounce of alcohol. 

Sweet almonds. 80 parts; fresh cu- 
cumber juice, previously boiled, 200 
parts; castile soap, 5 parts; cucumber 
essence, 60 parts; tincture of benzoin, 
1 part. 

Lait Virginal 

Rose water 900 mils. 

Tincture of myrrh 10 mils. 

Essence of opoponax.. 10 mils. 
Tincture of benzoin.... 10 mils. 
Tincture of quillaja. . . .to emulsify. 

Lait d'lris 

Spermaceti 3.0 grammes. 

White wax 3.0 grammes. 

Marseilles soap 3.0 grammes. 

Sweet almonds 40.0 grammes. 

Distilled water 100.0 mils. 

Alcohol (90 P. C.).. 50.0 mils. 

Salicylic, acid 0.1 gramme. 

Oil of vervaine 0.5 gramme. 

Rose water 100.0 mils. 

Glycerin of Cucumbers. 

Yolk of 1 egg; glycerin, 2 ounces; 
tincture of quillaja, 2 drams; ex- 
pressed oil of almond, 1 ounce: essence 
of cucumber, 1 ounce; rose water, 
enough to make eight ounces. Mix the 
yolk of the egg with the glycerin, and 
add the tincture of quillaja. Gradually 
beat in the essence of cucumber di- 
luted with 2 ounces of the rose water. 
When all has been added make up the 
volume to 8 ounces with rose water. 
Cucumber Toilet Vinegar. 

Cucumbers 45 grammes. 

Strong wine 
vinegar 1 000 grammes. 

Slice the cucumbers and macerate in 



the vinegar for three weeks; then 

Cucumber Lotion. 

Greases are contraindicated in the 
treatment of certain summer com- 
plexion ailments, which call for a cool- 
ing lotion. In such cases a lotion 
made according to the following for- 
mula may be found just the thing: 

Cucumber juice, fresh . . 1 pint. 

Benzoic acid (from 

benzoin) 30 grains. 

Boric acid 60 grains. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Perfume enough. 

Mix the acids and triturate them 
with the glycerin; finally stir in the 
juice. The lotion is better without any 
added perfume. 

Toilet Lanolin 

Castile soap 100 grammes. 

1 Rose water 800 mils. 

Hydrous wool-fat. . . .800 grammes. 

Glycerin 800 grammes. 

Oil of neroli enough. 

Solution of helio. 

tropin (10 c ,) enough. 

Oil of lavender enough. 

Shred the soap and dissolve it in 
the rose water. Triturate this solu- 
tion with the lanolin in a warmed 
mortar; beat in the glycerin and per- 
fume as desired. A mixture of 1 part 
of oil of lavender. 5 parts of oil of 
neroli, and 15 parts of solution of 
heljotropin gives a good scent; it may 
be added in any proportion desired. 

Petroleum Oil Creams 
Liquid petrolatum. 

white 1 gallon. 

Soft petrolatum 7 ounces. 

Hard paraffin 7 ounces. 

White wax 2 pounds. 

Borax 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Water 5 pints. 

Perfume enough. 


White wax 1 pound. 

Water 2 pints. 

Liquid petrolatum, 

white 5 pints. 

Borax 240 grains. 

Oil of rose 30 drops. 


Spermaceti 1 pound. 

White wax 3 pounds. 

Liquid petrolatum. 

white 2 gallons. 

Borax 4 ounces. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Perfume enough. 


White soft paraffin ... 26 grammes. 

Paraffin ointment 14 grammes. 

Hydrous wool -fat 10 grammes. 

Distilled water 20 mils. 

Glycerin 30 grammes. 

Oil of geranium 2 drops. 

Mix the first three ingredients, 
gradually incorporate the water, and 
finally add the glycerin and perfume. 

The paraffin ointment consists of 1 
part of hard paraffin. Instead of the 
geranium oil, a mixture of 8 drops 
each of the oils of neroli and berga- 
mot, and 4 drops of oil of lemon may 
be used, or any of the popular syn- 
thetic floral odors. 

White petrolatum . . 500.0 grammes. 

White wax 500.0 grammes. 

Spermaceti 50.0 grammes. 

Borax 7.5 grammes. 

Water 150.0 mils. 

Oil of bergamot. . . . 10.0 mils. 
Oil of orris 1.0 mil. 

Liquid Petrolatum Toilet Cream 

Paraffin 1 ounce. 

White wax 1 ounce. 

Liquid petrolatum 4 ounces. 

Borax 20 grains. 

Distilled water, warm.. 13 drams. 

Oil of rose enough. 

Melt the paraffin and the wax at a 
low temperature and add the liquid 
petrolatum. Dissolve the borax in the 
warm distilled water and add it to the 
oils in a continuous stream with con- 
stant stirring. Beat with an egg 
beater until the product congeals, add- 
ing the oil of rose in the meantime. 

Cream of Camphor 


Castile soap 120 grains. 

Ammonium carbonate 

in clear pieces 120 grains. 

Powdered camphor 120 grains. 

Oil of thyme 1 fl. dr. 

Oil of turpentine 2 fl. ozs. 

Water, to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the soap and the ammo- 
nium carbonate in 10 fluid ounces of 
water, and introduce the solution into 
a pint bottle. Dissolve the camphor 
in the mixed oil, and add to the soap 
solution, shaking the bottle vigorously 
until an emulsion is formed. Finally 
add enough water to make 1 pint and 
mix well by shaking. 

Curd soap 1 ^ ounces. 

Camphor 6 drams. 

Ammonium chloride. . . .1% ounces. 

Ammonia water 1% ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 6 drams. 

Water 12 ounces. 

Dissolve the soap in half the water 
mixed with the ammonia water, and 
dissolve the ammonium chloride in the 
other half. Mix the two fluids, all the 



camphor dissolved in the oil of tur- 
pentine, and emulsify by shaking. 

The curd soap mentioned in the rec- 
ipe is official in the Rritish Pharma- 
copoeia. It is made by the action of 
sodium hydroxide on purified animal 
fat and contains 30 per cent, of water. 

Soft soap 75 grammes. 

Camphor 50 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine.... 650 mils. 

Distilled water, 

to make 1000 mils. 

Triturate the soap with 100 m41s of 
the water until the mixture is homo- 
geneous; add gradually with constant 
trituration the camphor dissolved in 
the oil. When the mixture becomes 
creamy triturate in enough distilled 
water to make the required volume. 
This is the British Pharmaceutical Co- 
dex formula for liniment of turpentine. 


White wax 2% ounces. 

Spermaceti 2% ounces. 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 2 pounds. 

Camphor ■i 1 / 2 ounces. 

Oil of rosemary 90 minims. 

Oil of peppermint 45 minims. 

JRosewater 2 pints. 

Melt the waxes in the oil of almonds 
on a water-bath; remove from the 
heat; add the camphor, previously 
broken up, and stir until it is dis- 
solved; add the rosewater all at once, 
and beat the cream with an egg- 
beater while it cools. Add the aro- 
matic oils a little while before the 
cream has cooled. 

Oil of geranium 2.4 grammes. 

Tincture of musk. .. . 0.6 gramme. 
The quantities given are sufficient 
for 1 kilogramme of powder. 

Rice Toilet Powder 

The basis of the finer grades of 
poudre de riz is a mixture of rice flour, 
2 parts; potato starch, 2 parts; mag- 
nesium carbonate, 1 part. Each of 
these ingredients must of course be in 
the finest possible state of division. 

The perfume to be added to the base 
is a matter of individual taste. The 
powder known as poudre de riz fleur 
des Indes is perfumed with frangipanni 
fortified with musk. This is typical of 
the so-called Oriental odors. 

Dunvelle in Noveau Guide du Parfu- 
meur gives the following formulas 
for suitable odors: 


Oil of rose 0.8 gramme. 

Oil of rose geranium 0.8 gramme. 

Oil of clove 0.4 gramme. 

Oil of sandalwood... 0.4 gramme. 

Oil of cedrat 0.6 gramme. 

Oil of thyme (white) 0.6 gramme. 

Oil of hergamot 0.6 gramme. 

< >il of clove 0.6 gramme. 

Oil of petit-grain 0.4 gramme. 

Invisible Face Powder 

The so-called invisible powders do- 
not seem to differ materially from those 
which are not so designated, that is, if 
we are to judge by the published in- 
formation on the subject. Here are two. 
formulas for "invisible" powders: 

Zinc oxide 2 ounces. 

Precipitated chalk 9 ounces. 

Talc 2 ounces. 

Starch 3 ounces. 

Extract of white rose.. 1 dram. 

Extract of jasmine.... 1 dram. 

Extract of orange blos- 
soms 1 dram 

Extract of cassie 1 dram. 

Essence of musk *£ dram. 


Magnesium carbonate. . 4 ounces. 

Talc 8 ounces. 

Oil of rose 4 drops. 

Oil of neroli 10 drops. 

Extract of jasmine.... 2 drams. 

Extract of musk 5 drops. 

Lotion for Laborers' Hands 

Glycerin 20 grammes. 

Ammonia water 5 grammes. 

Bay rum 20 grammes. 

Rosewater 55 grammes. 

This is to be applied to the hands 
after washing and dried by friction. 

Witchhazel Toilet Salve 

White petrolatum... 100 grammes. 

White wax 15 grammes. 

Spermaceti 15 grammes, 

Hamamelis water. . . 30 mils. 

Perfume enough. 

Green color enough. 

Melt the first three ingredients to- 
gether over a gentle heat; before the 
mixture cools stir in the other three. 

Coloring for Toilet Lotion 

Make two solutions: (1) 10 grains of 
methylene blue in 1 ounce of water; (2) 
10 grains of ruby S anilin color in 1 
ounce of water (this is the grade that 
may be used in soda water and foods; 
alkalies destroy the color). For use a 
few drops of each solution are added to 
the liquid to be colored in the propor- 
tions that will produce the desired 
shade. These may be determined by 


adding the coloring solutions to water. 

Methylene blue and a yellow dye will 
produce beautiful shades of green. 

In using anilin colors it must be 
borne in mind that their solutions are 
as a rule permanent dyes for fabrics. 

Face Bleach for Colored People 

We understand that in most sections 
where there is a demand for a face 
bleach for colored people a 1% per cent, 
solution of hydrogen dioxide is dis- 

All-the-Year Face Powder 

Saalfield gives the following formula 
for a simple white cosmetic powder, 
and this will give equal satisfaction in 
winter and summer: 

Zinc oxide 215 parts. 

Finest talc 345 parts. 

Heavy magnesium car- 
bonate 35 parts. 

Zinc stearate, or oleo-stearate, is said 
to be superior to zinc oxide as a derma- 
tological application. Many dermatol- 
ogists advise against the use of the 
zinc salts. In the foregoing formula 
the zinc oxide may well be replaced 
with a high grade of white kaolin. 

Liquid Face Powder 

Cosmetic "whitewashes" are. gener- 
ally speaking of two kinds: (1) Pois- 
onous; and (2) mechanically injurious. 
The former contain metallic salts which 
through absorption give rise to sys- 
temic poisoning. The second class, if 
applied for any length of time, clog the 
pores and cause comedones and other 
dermal blemishes. 

For occasional application as a pro- 
tection against meteorologic conditions 
or to conceal an anomaly of pigmenta- 
tion or other blemish the following may 
be found useful: 


Zinc oxide 100 grammes. 

Venetian talc 20 grammes. 

Eau de cologne 150 mils. 

Rose water 150 mils. 


Zinc carbonate 100 grammes. 

Glycerin 100 mils. 

Rosewater 50 mils. 

Orangeflower water. 50 mils. 

Venetian talc 90 grammes. 

Zinc oxide 10 grammes. 

Spermaceti 100 grammes. 

Expressed oil of 

almond 200 grammes. 

If a "flat" white for brunettes is de- 
sired a little finely powdered indigo 
may be added; a "cream" white for 

blondes is produced by the addition of 
a little carmine. 


Zinc oxide • 1 ounce. 

Rose water 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 dram. 

Perfume enough. 


Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Glycerin • 1 ounce. 

Water • . . 4 ounces. 

Carmine % grain. 

Oil of bergamot...- 2 drops. 

Oil of lemon 2 drops. 

A New Mobile Powder 

Pinkus and Unna say (Monat. fur 
Prak. Dermat.) that the mobile prop- 
erties of lycopodium may be imitated 
to some extent by adding to potato 
starch 1 to 1% per cent, of magne- 
sium carbonate. The particles of the 
carbonate, becoming attached to the 
starch granules, isolate them and pre- 
vent agglutination. Such a powder 
furnishes a uniform and firmly adher- 
ing coa'ting to the skin, and is said to 
be less noticeable than ordinary cos- 
metic powders. 

The authors give the following for- 
mula for a powder for beautifying the 
skin and concealing defects: — 
Cosmetic Powder. 

Red bole 5 parts. 

White bole 25 parts. 

Magnesium carbonate.... 40 parts. 
, Zinc oxide 50 parts. 

Rice starch 80 parts. 

Mix thoroughly. 

Invisible Powders 

The following formulas are for a 
so-called "invisible" face powder: 

Zinc oxide 2 ounces. 

Precipitated chalk 9 ounces. 

Talc 2 ounces. 

Starch 3 ounces. 

Extract of white rose.. 1 dram. 

Extract of jasmine 1 dram. 

Extract of orange 

blossoms 1 dram. 

Extract of cassie 1 dram. 

Essence of musk % dram. 


Magnesium carbonate.. 4 ounces. 

Talc 8 ounces. 

Oil of rose 4 drops. 

Oil of neroli 10 drops. 

Extract of jasmine 2 drams. 

Extract of musk 5 drops. 

Grecian Princess Face Powder 

English precipitated 

chalk 6 pounds. 

Powdered talcum 3 pounds. 

Extract of cassie 1 ounce. 

Extract of rose 1 ounce. 

Extract of musk \i ounce. 



Toilet Powders 
Violet Powders: Non-Clinging Types, 
—(a) Starch powder, 890; orris root 
powder, 100; oil or neroli, 5; oil of ber- 
oamot 3; otto of rose, 2. (b) Starch 
powder, 500; kaolin, 480; synthetic 
musk, 5; oil of bergamot, 12; oil of 
clove, 3. This is a cheaper form. 

Clinging Types.— (a) Kaolin, talc, 
zinc oxide, wheat starch, of each, 
equal parts. (b) Prepared white 
diatomite, 50; zinc oxide. 25; talc, 25. 
(3) Talc, 2; 'kaolin, 1; bismuth oxy- 
chloride. 1. (d) Zinc oxide, magnesium 
carbonate (light), kaolin, wheat starch, 
of each, equal parts, (e) Bismuth oxy- 
chloride, 1; zinc oxide, 6; prepared 
white diatomite, 5; talc, 8; (f) Zinc 
stearate, prepared white diatomite, bis- 
muth exy chloride, talc, of each 5. (g) 
Soft white paraffin, 1; elutriated diato- 
mite, 10; talc, 9. Dissolve the paraffin 
in a little hot chloroform or petroleum 
ether, and spray it upon the mixed 
powders stirring rapidly meanwhile. 
When the whole of the paraffin has 
been added, spread the powder in a 
thin layer for the solvent to evaporate. 
Some recommend lanolin in place of 
the paraffin, but the odor is unpleas- 
ant and is quite difficult to cover. 

Prepared White Diatomite. — For this 
good white kieselguhr or diatomite is 
dried, thoroughly ground, and sifted 
through bolting cloth. If the material 
is ground in a disintegrator, the 
lighter particles that collect in the 
"balloon" make an excellent basis. 

Colors for Face Powder. — These 
must be added in the wet state. When 
carmine is used it must be of the best 
quality, and it should be ground in 
with a little dilute ammonia solution. 
It any case sufficient water must be 
used to make the mixture quite wet. 
For flesh tints plenty of yellow must 
be used. Some makers use cadmium 
sulphide, but it is rather too bright, 
and yellow ochre is generally prefer- 
able. For flesh tint — (a) Yellow 
ochre, 90; bole. 6; carmine, 4. (b) Yel- 
low ocher, 90; bole, 3; hydrated ferric 
oxide, 2; carmine, 5. For pink tint — 
Yellow ochre, 75; carmine, 25. For 
cream or rachel — -Yellow ochre, 94; 
bole. 4; burnt sienna. 2. Of the fore- 
going concentrated tinting powders 
from 60 to 120 grains are required for 
each pound of white face powder. 

Perfuming the Powder. — If the con- 
centrated iloral extracts are employed, 
from 10 to 15 drops per pound are 
sufficient. The perfume must be well 
stirred in, and the powder kept for a 
little time to allow it to become thor- 
oughly permeated. Should it not be 
desirable to employ floral perfumes, the 
following volatile oils may be blended, 
■ are being taken that none pre- 
dominates: otto of rose, bergamot, ger- 
anium, ylang ylang, neroli, patchouly 
(the merest trace). Of these not more 
than 12 drops in all per pound will 

be required. Synthetic perfumes are 
sometimes used where cost is an im- 
portant consideration; for example, 
artificial musk or musk ambrette. 
ionone, vanillin, coumarin, aubepine, 
heliotropin, etc. These are very per- 
manent, and only a grain or two of 
each per pound of basis will be re- 

Cake Powders. — These consist of 
toilet powders made damp with 
tragacanth mucilage 2 per cent, and 
afterwards pressed into molds. The 
cakes must be allowed to dry very 
gradually. Some makers add a trace 
of plaster of paris, about 2 per cent., 
before moistening. This makes a 
firmer cake, but is riot so pleasant to 

Nursery Powders. — The best types 
contain boric acid, zinc oxide and 
starch. The ideal nursery powder 
should not contain any natural earthy 
matter as fuller's earth, talc or kaolin, 
unless previously sterilized. A te- 
tanizing bacillus is frequently present 
in the soil, and not a few cases of 
tetanus have been traced to the use of 
unpurified fuller's earth on excoriated 
surfaces. If talc, kaolin and fuller's 
earth are vised, the powders should be 
boiled for 20 minutes with water, 
allowed to deposit, the deposit collected 
and dried. No admixture of germicides 
that could be borne on the skin has 
the slightest effect on bacilli or their 
spores contained in natural earths. 

In the following formulas each 
article must be in very fine powder 
and quite dry, and the finished mix- 
ture sifted by shaking through bolting 
cloth: (a) Zinc oxide, boric acid, 
starch, of each, equal parts, (b) Boric 
acid, 1; zinc oxide, 1; sterilized talc. 
2. (c) Pure carbolic acid, 5; soft 
white paraffin, 50; boric acid, 290; zinc 
oxide, 200; starch. 455. Dissolve the 
carbolic acid and paraffin in a little 
hot petroleum ether and distribute it 
on the starch. Mix in the other pow- 
ders, and expose to the air for the 
solvent to evaporate. Perfuming 
nursery powders should be carried out 
with discretion. The odor produced 
should be faint and delicate. One or 
two drops of rose oil or of concen- 
trated floral extract per pound is quite 

Antiseptic Foot Powder. — Boric acid, 
75; zinc oxide, 5; sterilized talc, 20. 
Oil of eucalyptus or thyme oil may be 
added as perfumes. 

Great caution should be observed in 
heating the petroleum ether; of course, 
it should not be brought near fire. — 
Adapted from a paper by E. W. Lucas 
in the Perfumery and Essential Oil 

Face Powder in Cake Form. 

French chalk 6 ounces. 

Prepared chalk 4 ounces. 


• :. 

Essence of lily of the 

valley 3 drams. 

Starch mucilage enough. 

Make into a stiff paste, mold into 
tablets and dry carefully. 

Any face powder may be made into 
cakes or blocks by adding to the pow- 
der from 6 to 8 per cent, of acacia, 
triturating the whole thoroughly and 
making it into a stiff doughy mass by 
incorporating water in small portions. 
This mass is cut or molded into the de- 
sired form and dried at ordinary tem- 

Coloring for Face Powders. 

Brunette or Rachel shade is obtained 
by the use of burnt umber, burnt 
sienna, bole, or carmine and yellow 
ocher. Experiments with one or more 
of these pigments should result in giv. 
ing you the tint you desire for your 

The cream shade can be obtained by 
using a trace of the pigments sug- 
gested above. 

Carmine is used to produce the pink 
or flesh tint. 

Baby Powders. 

On account of the use to which baby 
powders are put, being often applied 
to abraded surfaces, they should con- 
tain nothing that might cause injury 
through being absorbed. As high-grade 
materials are usually high-priced, it 
obviously becomes necessary to pro- 
portion the size and style of the pack- 
age to the retail price, and to educate 
one's customers to the vast difference 
between a low-priced preparation and 
a safe, efficacious one — less expensive 
in the end. 

A sine qua non in the making of a 
high-grade powder or a high-grade 
anything else, is the use of high-grade 

Sweet-Scented Face Powder. 

Precipitate chalk 9 ounces. 

Talc 2 ounces. 

Starch 3 ounces. 

Extract of white rose... 1 dram. 

Extract of jasmine 1 dram. 

Extract of orange blos- 
soms 1 dram. 

Extract of cassie 1 dram. 

Essence of musk % dram. 

Talcum Powder. 
Below are given a few formulas for 
talcum powders found in The Drug- 
gists Circular: 

Magoffin's Violet Talcum. 

Powdered talc 5 pounds. 

Corn starch 5 pounds. 

Boric acid 10 ounces. 

Powdered orris root.... 8 ounces. 
Mix. and pass the mixture through a 
number 60 sieve at least five times. 

Those who do not wish to mix their 
boric acid and "violet" powders may 
find the next two formulas preferable 
to the one above: 

Borated Talcum. 

Powdered talc 2 pounds. 

Magnesium carbonate.. 4 ounc 

Boric acid 1 ^ ounces. 

Violet Talcum. 

Powdered talc 14 oum 

Powdered orris root. . . 2 ounces. 

Extract of cassie y 2 ounce. 

Extract of jasmine *4 ounce. 

Tea Rose Talcum. 

Powdered talc 5 pounds. 

Oil of rose 50 drops. 

Oil of wintergreen 4 drops. 

Extract of jasmine.... 2 ounces. 

Purified talc, in a very fine state of 
division, and delicately perfumed, is 
preferred by many to the mixtures. . 
Antiseptic Talcum. 

Powdered talc 1 pound. 

Boric acid 2 ounces 

Salicylic acid 2% drams. 

Oil of eucalyptus y> dram. 

Oil of thyme (white;... 20 drops. 


Boric acid 10 grammes. 

Talc 20 grammes. 

Rice starch 70 grammes. 

All the ingredients should be reduced 
to the finest powder separately and 
mixed on a paper with a spatula. 

Salicylic acid 1 gramme. 

Orris root, in finest 

powder 5 grammes. 

Zinc oxide 10 grammes. 

Wheat starch 14 grammes. 

Talc 20 grammes. 

Orange- Flower Talcum. 

Powdered talc 1 pound. 

Powdered china clay.. . 3 pounds. 
Powdered boric acid ... 4 ounces. 
Oil of orange flower... 45 minims. 

Oil of sandalwood 20 minims. 

Oil of geranium 30 minims. 

Oil of clove 15 minims. 

British Borated Talc. 

Boric acid 100 grammes. 

Starch 100 grammes. 

Powdered talc 800 grammes. 

Oil of geranium 2 mils. 

Phenolated Talcum. 

Boric acid 2 oun< 

Phenol crystals 1 dram. 

Powdered talc 14 ounces. 

Perfume for Talc Powder. 

Oil of neroli 2 mils. 

Oil of cloves 1 mil. 

Oil of bergamot - mils. 

Oil of sandalwood 1 mil. 

Oil of rose geranium 2 mils. 

Oil of lavender (old) 1 mil. 




Red Color for Cosmetics 

Carmine, carthamin or carthamic 
acid, alkanet and rhatany are recom- 
mended as red coloring agents for use 
in cosmetics. 

Carmine is especially recommended, 
but its cost prohibits its use in some 
instances. Carthamin or carthamic 
acid is obtained from safflower (cartha- 
mus tinctorius), and is especially use- 
ful for coloring rouges. The red col- 
ori'ng matter found in alkanet root is 
soluble in fats and oils and is em- 
ployed largely in coloring pomades, 
hair oils, cold creams, emulsions, etc., 
as it stains them readily and is per- 
manent and inexpensive. 

Rhatany root furnishes a reddish- 
brown coloring matter which is soluble 
in alcohol and is used extensively in 
the manufacture of tooth washes. Red 
santal wood and Pernambuco wood 
also supply red coloring matter which 
may be found useful. 

Rouge in Cake Form 

One of our readers, A. Alexander, 
chemist, of this city, has kindly volun- 
teered the following information rela- 
tive to the manufacture of this prod- 
uct: — 

In practice * * * the rouge is col- 
ored with lake colors and bound to- 
gether with an aqueous solution, of 
gum arabic or tragacanth. The powder 
must be" made up of talcum, chalk, 
kaolin, oxide of zinc, or stearate of 
zinc in combinations to suit the trade 
catered to. Some combinations will 
contain only talcum and chalk, while 
the finer qualities may contain some 
other combination or all of them, with 
the addition of magnesium carbonate. 

The method of procedure is to mix 
the powders and color together, sift 
through fine bolting cloth, and then 
mix with the binder (gum solution), 
and mold into forms. Machine-made 
rouge is made slightly different. Small 
machines for making this cost from 
$75 to $125, and are suitable for co 
mercial production. The tablets, 1% 
inch in diameter, cost about 65 cents 
per gross to produce that way. 

Solid Rouges 

Carmine 1 ounce. 

Talc 21 ounces. 

Acacia l% ounces. 

The ingredients, in the finest pow- 
der, are triturated thoroughly, then 
water is incorporated in small portions 
to form a doughy mass. This is filled 
into suitable containers or molded into 
cakes and dried. 

If tragacanth is used, the mass 
should be made with diluted alcohol. 

A somewhat more complicated proc- 
ess for making rouge follows: 


Corn starch 4 drams. 

Powdered white talc 6.drams. 


Carminolin 10 grains. 

Base (above) 6 drams. 

Water 4 drams. 

Dissolve the carminolin in the water, 
mix with the base, and dry. 

Geranium red 10 grains. 

Base (above) 6 drams. 

Water 4 drams. . 

Mix as above, and dry. 

No. 18 Rouge de Theatre 

Carminolir) rouge (above). 1 ounce. 

Geranium rouge (above) . . 3 ounces. 

Water enough. 

Mix in a mortar to a paste, and mold 
or stamp out. Set aside to dry. 

Carminolin is known also in the trade 
as phloxin. 

Other coloring materials which might 
be used — especially in combination 
with carmine — are fuchsin and tincture 
of cudbear. The exact proportions 
which will prove most satisfactory in 
any given case may best be determined 
by experiments conducted by the man 
who has before him the ingredients he 
is to use and knows what he wants to 

Liquid Rouges 

Ammonia water 2 ounces. 

Carmine 1 V± ounces. 

Triple essence of rose. .2^2 ounces. 

Rose water 4 pints. 

"No. 4'0" carmine is the kind to use. 
This is to be powdered and added to 
the ammonia water in a large bottle 
and left for several days, when the 
other ingredients are to be added. 
This mixture is to be kept for a week, 
with oft-repeated agitation. Then the 
bottle is left undisturbed until the 
liquid becomes quite clear, when the 
latter is to be decanted and put into 
small bottles. 


Carmine y 2 ounce. 

Solution of patassium 
hydroxide 6 drams. 

Essence of white rose... 3 ounces. 

Water, to make 20 ounces. 

Mix in the order named, set. aside for 
a few days, agitate occasionally, and 


Eosin 16 grains. 

Water 1 % drams. 

Glycerin % dram. 



Alcohol 3 ounces. 

Cologne water 2 % ounces. 

Mix and dissolve. 

Eosin is deceptive in that in solu- 
tion it appears to be less pink than it 
will turn out to be when applied to the 
skin. The manufacturer should test 
each lot of this liquid, and use judg- 
ment in adjusting the amount of color- 
ing matter employed. 


Carmine 3 grammes. 

Ammonia water 3 mils. 

Alcohol 50 mils. 

Oil of geranium 1 mil. 

Rose water 300 mils. 

Triturate the carmine with the am- 
monia water; add the rose water and 
then the oil dissolved in the alcohol. 

Saturated aqueous so- 
lution of eosin 3 mils. 

Acacia, powdered 3 grammes. 

Rose water 50 mils. 

Orange flower water. . 50 mils. 

Glycerin 100 mils. 

Eye- Brow Pencils 

A good basis for eye -brow pencils, as 
well as for stick cosmetics, may be 
made according to the following for- 

White wax 12 parts. 

Ceresin 3 parts. 

Petrolatum 4 parts. 

Wool-fat 4 parts. 

Olive oil 6 parts. 

Pigment enough. 

Talc enough. 

Melt the white wax and ceresin to- 
gether, add the petrolatum and wool- 
fat and when all are melted, incorpor- 
ate the oil. The coloring substance 
should be triturated uniformly to the 
desired color with powdered talc, after 
which it is to be incorporated with the 
fatty mixture. The whole should then 
be cast into suitable molds. 

The pigment to be used depends on 
the color desired. Zinc oxide, sienna, 
umber, carmine, animal charcoal, lamp- 
black and many of the anilins, as eosin, 
rhodamin, etc., are employed for color- 
ing this class of preparations — that is, 
if the blacks may be spoken of as 

Theatrical Face Paints 

Grease paints have as their base, 
mutton tallow, or a moderately soft 
paraffin, which should be properly 
scented. The coloring material is tri- 
turated with zinc oxide and precipi- 
tated chalk, in the proportion of 2 parts 
of color to 1 part of each of the other 
two. If a paler tint is required, more 
of the mixture of equal parts of zinc 

oxide and chalk may be added. Fur 
yellows, ocher may be used; for 
browns, burnt umber; for blues, ultra- 
marine. Reds and pinks are made with 
carmine and eosin, and as these pig- 
ments are very "strong" they should 
be treated somewhat differently. Two 
formulas for reds follow: 

Bright Reds. 

Zinc oxide 4 ounces. 

Bismuth subnitrate 4 ounces. 

Aluminum oxychloride. . 4 ounces. 

Eosin 7 grains. 

Oil of peppermint 36 minims. 

Camphor 36 grains. 

Extract of rose 3 drams. 

Almond oil enough. 

Rub the first three ingredients to- 
gether. Dissolve the eosin in the ex- 
tract of rose (or any suitable extract). 
Make a paste of the whole, using 
enough almond oil to serve for that 

Deep Red. 

Zinc oxide 4 ounces. 

Bismuth subnitrate 4 ounces. 

Aluminum hydroxide.... 4 ounces. 

Carmine 1 dram. 

Ammonia water 3 drams. 

Camphor 24 grains. 

Oil of peppermint 20 minims. 

Extract of rose 3 drams. 

Almond oil. . . enough. 

Make into a paste, first dissolving 
the carmine in the ammonia water, 
only the white salts. Black may be 
made by employing lampblack and 
omitting the white materials. Differ- 
ent shades of the various colors, and 
new tints as a result of blending, will 
suggest themselves to opei-ators. 

Perfuming Starch 

Although the same perfumes will an- 
swer, the form of the starch, whether 
in lumps or powder, makes different 
methods of applying the odorous sub- 
stance necessary. Any handkerchief 
extract may be used to scent either 
form of starch. It is best applied by 
spraying with an atomizer. The powder 
should be spread out on a flat surface 
and stirred with a large spatula or 
paddle as the perfume is sprayed over 
it. For large quantities, some sort of 
a mechanical agitator is desirable. To 
perfume lump starch, simply spread 
out a single layer of the lumps and 
spray the perfume over them. 

Better results will follow the use of 
a concentrated perfume, which may be 
any desired essential oil or combina- 
tion of several oils, or some blend of 
the following sort: 

Wood Violet. 

Solution of ionone (1 in 

30, in 60% alcohol) ... 2 ounces. 



Solution of concrete oil 
of orris (1 in 60, in 
60% alcohol) 2 ounces. 

Solution of artificial 
musk (1%, in 60% alco- 
hol) 1 dram. 

Oil of bergamot 5 minims. 


Oil of rose % dram. 

Oil of neroli % dram. 

Oil of clove 2 drops. 

Essence of cassie 4 ounces. 

Tincture of vanillin 2 ounces. 


Oil of jasmine (synthetic) 1 dram. 

Oil of ylang-ylang (syn- 
thetic) 3 drams. 

Solution of heliotropin 

(1%) in 60% alcohol).. Bounces. 

Solution of terpineol (1%, 

in 60% alcohol) 20 ounces. 


Tincture of vanilla 5 ounces. 

Extract of rose 5 ounces. 

Essential oil of almond. . 5 minims. 
Modern Bouquet. 

Liquid aubepine 4 ounces. 

Concrete oil of orris 1 ounce. 

Bouvardia, 10% 1 dram. 

Oil of rose geranium. ... 4 drams. 

Benzyl acetate 1 ounce. 

Perspiration Powders and Pastes 

Generally speaking, preparations for 
preventing the disagreeable odor of 
perspiration act by doing one of three 
things, or a combination of two or 
more of them — they (1) clog the pores 
of the skin., and so retard the flow or 
perspiration, or (2) act as an antiseptic 
and so prevent the souring of the per- 
spiration, or (3) saponify the grease of 
the perspiration — the souring of which 
causes the bad odor. To the first class 
belong many of the greases and salves; 
to the second, boric acid; and to the 
third, sodium bicarbonate. Of course, 
it injures one to stop one's perspiration 
and so salves and pastes for this pur- 
pose should be used sparingly if at all. 

A formula for a preparation which, 
while a grease, also acts as an anti- 
septic, is here given: 

Thymol 2 grammes. 

Zinc oleate 200 grammes. 

Boric acid 150 grammes. 

('•■trolatum cold 
cream 650 grammes. 

A few recipes for antiseptic per- 
spiration powders follow: 

Dried alum 12 parts. 

Salicylic acid 3 parts. 

Starch 18 parts. 

Violet talcum powder. .120 parts. 

I lismuth subnitrate 1 ounce. 


permanganate 1 % ounces. 

Rice flour 2 ounces. 


Zinc perborate 20 parts. 

Talc powder 80 parts. 

A perspiration paste may be made 
according to the next formula: 

Boric acid 1 ounce. 

Salicylic acid 20 grains. 

Powdered soap % ounce. 

Elderflower water 1 ounce. 

Powdered arrowroot.... 1 ounce. 
Glycerin, to make a soft paste. 

Beat the soap into a paste with the 
elderflower water; add the powders, 
previously mixed, and incorporate 
enough glycerin to give the proper 

It is said that one of the popular 
perspiration pastes is quite similar in 
composition to the ointment of zinc 
stearate of the Pharmacopoeia; maybe 
an ointment of zinc oleo-stearate. per- 

Here is another suggestion: 

Powdered starch 1 pound. 

Salicylic acid 150 grains. 

Mucilage of 

tragacanth enough. 

This, of course, will harden on ex- 
posure to the air, and for that reason 
it should be dispensed in a tightly 
stopped container; or a little glycerin 
might be added to it. 

Foregger suggests the use of a de- 
odorizing salve consisting of zinc 
peroxide and petrolatum. We under- 
stand, however, that the firm having 
patent rights on zinc peroxide also 
controls the right to prepare toilet 
preparations made from it. 

Preventing Perspiration 

While there are a number of drugs 
which when taken internally have a 
tendency to diminish perspiration, we 
think it best for pharmacists to leave 
the prescribing of them to physicians. 
Local applications of tanning sub- 
stances, as tannic acid, formaldehyde, 
etc., also retard perspiration, but we 
feel that when it comes to a matter 
of interrupting a natural function of a 
human organ, those who are not 
familiar with the importance of that 
function and the seriousness of the 
consequences of its partial cessation, 
should keep hands off. 

It may be considered within the 
provinces of a pharmacist to supply 
something to overcome the disagree- 
able odor of perspiration, and for this 
purpose he may sell a powder consist- 
ing principally of sodium bicarbonate, 
with a little starch or talc, boric acid 
and perfume added. 



Liquid Perspiration Deodorants 


Boric acid 4 drams. 

Salicylic acid 1 dram. 

Glycerin 2 drams. 

Rose water 3 ounces. 

-Cologne water 8 ounces. 


Burnt alum 1 part. 

Boracic acid 1 part. 

Elderflower water 30 parts. 

For Malodorous Perspiration 

Bismuth subnitrate 1 ounce. 

P o t a s sium permanga- 
nate iy 2 ounces. 

Rice flour 2 ounces. 


Zinc oleate 4 drams. 

Boracic acid 3 drams. 

Keep the surface constantly covered 
with the powder. 

For Excessive Perspiration 


Zinc oleate % ounce. 

Powdered starch 1 ounce. 

Salicylic acid 20 grains. 

Hydrastine hydrochloride. 5 grains. 

Cologne water 4 ounces. 

Apply frequently to the surface. 

Deodorant Powder for Warm 


Starch 2 ounces. 

Talc 1 ounce. 

Burnt alum 1 dram. 

Oil of lemon 20 drops. 

Phenol 10 drops. 

Salicylic acid 10 grains. 


Alum 10 grammes. 

Boric acid 20 grammes. 

Talc 40 grammes. 

Starch 60 grammes. 

Oil of eucalyptus 6 drops. 

Oil of wintergreen.. . . 3 drops. 

Suggestion for a Stearate Paste Per- 
spiration Deodorant. 

Stearic acid 2 ounces. 

Dried sodium carbo- 
nate 6 drams. 

Sodium borate 60 grains. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Oil of cassia 30 drops. 

Thymol 60 grains. 

Alcohol enough. 

Dissolve the sodium salts in the wa- 
ter, add the glycerin; place the mix- 
ture in a water-bath and add the 

stearic acid, heating with constanl 
stirring until effervescence ceases. Re- 
move from the heat and beat vigor- 
ously until cold. Dissolve the thy- 
mol in a mixture of the oil of cassin. 
and sufficient alcohol and incorporate 
the solution in the cold paste. 

Magoffin's Perspirine. 

Powdered talc 5 pounds. 

Corn starch 5 pounds. 

Boric acid 10 ounces. 

Oil of rose 1 dram. 

Mix the first three ingredients. Tri- 
turate the oil with 2 ounces of the 
mixture and then mix all together. 
Run through a No. 60 sieve at least 
five times. 

French Anti-Perspiration Prescription 

For the excessive perspiration of the 
feet and axillae, the Journal de Sante 
recommends a mixture of: — 

Thymol 0.20 gramme. 

Tannin 3.00 grammes. 

Talc 50.00 grammes. 

Starch 50.00 grammes. 


"We reprint below information con- 
cerning depilatories that was furnished 
us by a dermatologist: 

There has been so much inquiry 
about good depilatories that I hope a 
word from me will not be without 
fruit. The druggist would fare much 
better were he to leave the removal of 
hair to a physician who fully under- 
stands that practice. All depilatory 
pastes and powders depend for their ac- 
tion on either barium or calcium sul- 
phide; both are caustic in action on the 
skin, and the persistent use of them, 
which is essential to good results, will. 
in most cases, produce a severe der- 
matitis that is difficult to get rid of. 

In my fourteen years of practice, in 
which I have had my share of derma- 
tology, I have yet to find a reliable way 
of hair removing. Electricity, while 
fairly successful, is so painful and re- 
moves so few hairs at a sitting, that 
patients submit but few times to it. 

Could I but cite the many cases of 
ruined skins with scar and eczematous 
tissue due to the indiscriminate use of 
the "patent" depilatories with which 
the market is flooded, there would be 
less of these used. 

We cannot blame the women for 
wishing to appear beautiful, and no one 
is more desirous of helping them than I 
am. Depilatory pastes, when used dis- 
creetly and not too often do little harm. 
but they never should be put into the 
hands of women for use every time one 
sees a darkening of the shadows. 

Preparations made according to this 



formula, used as directed, act nicely. 
The sulphides directed must be made 
fresh for each application. The good 
results last as long as six or even more 
weeks. ' 


Barium sulphide 20 parts. 

Powdered soap 5 parts. 

Powdered talc . 32 parts. 

Wheat flour 32 parts. 

Benzaldehyde enough. 

To apply take about a teaspoonful 
of this powder and three teaspoonfuls 
of water, make a smooth paste, and 
apply evenly with a spatula or brush 
for five minutes; then apply a little 
more water over the paste for five 
more minutes; moisten thoroughly 
with a sponge, gently rub off, and ap- 
ply some cold cream. These directions 
should be followed in cases of a fairly 
heavy growth, but should be moder- 
ated in cases of lanugo growths. 


Barium sulphide 1 part. 

Flour or starch 1 part. 

Apply this as the other. 

The first is my favorite and is very 
efficient if freshly made. 

"Jerseyite" sends the following for- 
mula for a depilatory which he says 
he has found very successful: 

Barium sulphide 17 parts. 

Zinc oxide 45 parts. 

Starch 27 parts. 

Talc 10 parts. 

Oil of eucalyptus 1 part. 

In a mixture made according to this 
formula, the barium salt is the active 
ingredient, the others being merely 
fillers and diluents, the oil, of course, 
being added as a perfume. Similar 
formulas have appeared from time to 
time in The Druggists Circular, and 
reports of dissatisfaction arising from 
their use are not lacking. 

Liquid Depilatory. 
Our Jersey friend wants to know if 
we can supply a formula for a good 
liquid depilatory. We fear we must 
disappoint him. Sulphides do not keep 
well in solution. A solution of sodium 
sulphide crystals in lime water. 300 
grains to the ounce, has been suggested 
as a depilatory, but this has to be of 
recent make to be of service. It is 
said to keep better in amber-colored 

A German formula for a liquid depil- 
atory is: 

Tincture of iodine.. 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of turpentine... 1.0 gramme. 

Castor oil 1.5 grammes. 

Alcohol 10.0 grammes. 

Collodion 40.0 grammes. 

It was stated in the German journal 
from which this formula was taken, 
that two applications of the prepara- 

tion would bring away the hair as it 
peeled off. Oil of turpentine and iodine 
when mixed may cause trouble by the 
violence of the reaction; they may even 
cause an explosion. 

The use of any kind of depilatory is 
attended by such dangers that it should 
be carried on only under the advice 
and direction of a physician. 

Thallium Acetate as a Depilatory. 

Sabourand (Trib. med.) says that 
thallium acetate, administered intern- 
ally, causes the hair to fall out, and, 
applied locally, acts as a depilatory 
and is useful in removing superfluous 
hair from any part of the body. The 
hair grows again, of course, but is said 
to remain short and colorless. The 
author recommends a depilating paste 
containing thallium acetate, 3 
grammes; zinc oxide, 25 grammes; pe- 
trolatum, 200 grammes; hydrated wool- 
fat, 50 grammes, and rose water, 50 

The action of the preparation is not, 
strictly speaking, a depilating action, 
but is similar to that of solution of 
hydrogen dioxide when used for the 
same purpose — that is, through con- 
tinued application the heavy, colored 
hair is gradually changed into the 
relatively colorless lanugo variety. The 
correct manner of using the thallium 
acetate creams is to rub a small quan- 
tity upon the offending hirsute growth 
each evening until the desired result 
is obtained. 

Thallium acetate is not an innocuous 
substance, and its application is best 
left to the physician. Not more than 
a few grains of the cream should be 
applied to the body at one time. Large 
patches of superfluous hair should be 
treated in sections on alternate days, 
and not more than one patch should be 
treated at a time. 

Liquid Nail Enamel. 


Oil of mastic 15.0 grammes. 

Sea salt 2.0 grammes. 

Rosin 1.5 grammes. 

Alum 1.5 grammes. 

Yellow wax 1.5 grammes. 


Stannic acid 20.0 grammes. 

Sandarac resin 1.0 gramme. 

Kaolin 4.0 grammes. 

Carmine 0.2 gramme. 

Extract of violet.... 5 drops. 
Extract of ylang- 

ylang 10 drops. 


White wax 1 ounce. 

Cottonseed oil 2 ounces. 

Carmine 5 grains. 

Oil of rose 5 drops. 

Melt the wax, add the oil, triturate 
the carmine to fine powder, mix inti- 



mately with the melted fats and then 
incorporate the oil of rose. 


Eosin 10 grains. 

White wax % dram. 

Spermaceti % dram. 

Soft paraffin 1 oum.-. 

Alcohol enough. 

Dissolve the eosin in as little alcohol 
a* will suffice, melt the other ingredi- 
ents together, add the solution and stir 
until cool. 

Nail-Polishing Stick. 

Putty powder 4 ounces. 

Carmine 10 grains. 

Ptrfume to suit. 

Mucilage of tragacanth. enough. 

The powders and perfume are well 
mixed, then massed with the mucilage 
and rolled into sticks. 

Ointments for Treating Brittle Nails. 

Extract of nux vomica.. 8 grains. 

Pilocarpine nitrate 2 grains. 

Calcium glycerophos- 
phate 15 grains. 

Tincture of cochineal.... sufficient. 

Hydrous wool fat % ounce. 


Powdered mastic 240 grains. 

Bay salt 30 grains. 

Resin 30 grains. 

Alum 30 grains. 

White wax 30 grains. 

One of these ointments is spread 
over the nails at bed-time. 

Nail-Polishing Paste. 

Tin oxide 500 grammes. 

Powdered tragacanth 2 grammes. 

Glycerin 0.5 gramme. 

Rose water 200 grammes. 

Alcohol enough. 

Place the powdered tragacanth in a 
mortar or other suitable mixing appa- 
ratus, moisten with alcohol, then add 
the rose water and glycerin and tritur- 
ate until the jelly is formed. Then add 
the tin oxide and work it in thoroughly. 
If the paste is too stiff for satisfactory 
mixing, a little water may be added 
and the amount of glycerin increased. 

Nail Varnish. 


Chloroform 150 grammes. 

Paraffin 15 grammes. 

Dissolve the paraffin in the chloro- 
form. The solution may be perfumed 
with oil of rose or oil of rose geranium. 


Paraffin 2 grammes. 

Amyl acetate 2 mils. 

Chloroform 30 mils. 

Nail-Polishing Powder. 

Precipitated silica 1 ounce. 

Heavy magnesia % ounce. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 1 drop. 

Tint with carmine solution. 

Precipitated silica 1 ounce. 

Prepared chalk % ounce. 

Putty powder % ounce. 

Oil of rose 1 drop. 

Tint with carmine solution. 

Finger Nail Bleach and Polish. 

For bleaching and polishing the 
nails, solution of hydrogen dioxide with 
fine powdered pumice stone is said to 
be used by professional manicurists. 
Diluted lactic, acetic, citric, tartaric or 
phosphoric acid, together with talcum, 
calcium phosphate or even cuttlefish 
bone are also used. 

As we have pointed out a number of 
times, the continual use of such prep- 
arations as these will injure the nails, 
and druggists offering them to the pub- 
lis should affix a label bearing a warn- 
ing to that effect. 

Here is a formula from across the 
water for a bleach: 

Diluted sulphuric acid.... 2 drams. 

Tincture of myrrh 1 dram. 

Rosewater, to make 4 ounces. 

Dip the nails in this solution, wipe 
and polish with chamois skin. 

A second formula is as follows: 

Tartaric acid 1 dram. 

Tincture of myrrh 1 dram. 

Cologne water 2 drams. 

Water 3 ounces. 

Dissolve the acid in the water; mix 
the tincture of myrrh and cologne and 
add the mixture to the acid solution. 

For Moisture of the Hands. 

Zinc oleate 1 dram. 

Bismuth subnitrate 2 drams. 

Betanaphthol 10 grains. 

Dust frequently over the surface. 

Cuticle Ice 

Menthol is the cooling constituent 

of the preparations of this class. The 

appended formulas represent typical 

although quite different preparations: 


Menthol 3 parts. 

Paraffin 40 parts. 

White petrolatum 57 parts. 

Melt the paraffin with the petrola- 
tum at a gentle heat; add the menthol 
previously powdered and stir until it 
is dissolved. 


Irish moss 1 ounce. 

Menthol 1 dram. 



Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Hot water enough. 

Place the moss in 2 pints of hot 
water and heat on a water-bath for 
twenty minutes; add 2 more pints of 
hot water and squeeze the mucilage 
through muslin. Dilute this with 4 
pints of boiling water; filter through 
felt, and evaporate the filtrate to 2 
pints. Dissolve the menthol in the 
alcohol, add the glycerin and then the 
mucilage in divided portions with con- 
stant trituration. 

Almond Meal 

Bitter almond meal 270 grammes. 
Powdered orris root 180 grammes. 

Rice flour 180 grammes. 

Powdered castile 

soap (dry) 45 grammes. 

Powdered borax.... 45 grammes. 
Oil of bergamot. . . . 12 mils. 
Extract of musk. ... 6 mils. 
Oil of bitter almonds 1 mil. 
Run through a sieve several times, 
and keep in well closed containers. 


Almond meal 1,000 grammes. 

Oatmeal 300 grammes. 

Powdered castile 

soap 100 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot.... 7 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 1 gramme. 

Oil of cedar 

(perfumer's) .... 2 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 2 grammes. 

Toilet Hand Oatmeal 

Oatmeal 6 ounces. 

Orris root, powdered ... 4 drams. 

Ionone 5 minims. 

The oatmeal should be of medium 
fineness and free from adhering flour. 
The orris and perfume should be 
rubbed together thoroughly for several 
minutes before all are mixed together. 

Almond Paste for the Hands 

Bitter almond meal. .125 grammes. 
Sweet almond meal. .125 grammes. 

Lemon juice 60 grammes. 

Milk 30 grammes. 

Expressed almond oil . 90 grammes. 
Alcohol (20%) 180 grammes. 

The Treatment of Warts 

A wart, Ave find described in Web- 
ster's dictionary, as "a small, usually 
hard, tumor of the skin, formed by en- 
largement of its vascular papillae, 
and thickening of the epidermis that 
covers them." Much has been written 
concerning warts, and a great many 
remedies for them have been recom- 

mended by physicians and others. An 
interesting item concerning warts and 
their treatment appeared in a recent 
issue of the Journal of the American 
Medical Association, as follows: 

Warts need little description. For 
the most part they are simple affairs, ! 
occurring most frequently on the 
hands. Although they may develop in 
certain diseased conditions and at 
times seem to develop in conjunction 
with disturbances of the internal se- 
cretions, it is coming to be believed 
that they are caused by micro-organ- 
isms and are probably auto-inoculable. 
A crop of warts may seem to resist 
every treatment, and suddenly without 
any known causative influence entirely 
disappear within a few days. For this 
reason, all sorts of absurd treatments 
have been suggested, and some of them 
have numerous adherents among the 
laity. At the same time numerous 
treatments have been described in 
medical literature, and many of these 
have achieved a following. Lately the 
long administration of lime in some 
form to increase the lime content of 
the blood and tissues is being revived 
as a method of treatment. 

Local treatments directed to the 
warts are usually successful in re- 
moving these unsightly protuberances. 
Among the escharotics that have been 
suggested are. painting with glacial 
acetic acid. Stronger caustics, such as 
nitric acid, potash, formaldehyde solu- 
tions of the strength of the official 
preparation, etc., should be used with 
great caution. The surrounding skin 
should always be protected. 

A time-worn prescription is salicylic 
acid in collodion: 

Salicylic acid 2 grammes. 

Collodion 30 grammes. 

The wart should be touched with 
this solution two or three times a day, 
each time the film of collodion being 

A more sedative and as efficient a 
preparation is: 

Chloral hydrate 10 grammes. 

Salicylic acid 2 grammes. 

Collodion 30 grammes. 

A more active solution is: 

Chrysarobin 2 grammes. 

Collodion 30 grammes. 

Sweating Feet 

Brocq gives a number of methods 
for the treatment of excessive per- 
spiration of the feet, which follow: 

Boot socks may be used, made of fil- 
ter paper, linen or cork soaked in one 
of the following liquids and then dried: 

A mixture of potassium perman- 
ganate, 15 grains; thymol, 8 grains, and 
water, 3% ounces. 

A lotion of naphthol, 5 parts; glycer- 
in, 10 parts; alcohol, 100 parts. This 



to be followed with a powder of naph- 
thol, 1 part; starch, 9 parts. 

Iron perchloride (.solution), 30 parts; 
glycerin, 10 parts. 

A lotion of quinine sulphate, 5 parts; 
tannic acid, 2 parts; alcohol, 100 parts, 
and water 250 parts. This to be fol- 
lowed with a powder of salicylic acid, 
3 parts; alum. 45 parts; starch, 10 
parts; talc, 87 parts. 

Tincture of belladonna, 25 parts; eau 
de cologne. 120 parts. 

The socks may be powdered with a 
mixture of talc. 40 parts; bismuth sub- 
nitrate, 45 parts; potassium perman- 
granate, 3 parts; sodium salicylate, 2 
parts; rice flour, 60 parts. 

Foot Powder 

The ordinary old-time foot powder is 
composed principally of some such 
base as talc and starch, together with 
a little boric or salicylic acid. A modi- 
fication of this old formula is as fol- 
lows : — 

Salicylic acid 6 drams. 

Boric acid 3 ounces. 

Powdered elm bark 1 ounce. 

Powdered orris 1 ounce. 

Talc 36 ounces. 

Oxygen-liberating liquids and pow- 
ders seem to be in favor for cleansing 
wounds and feet. A typical formula 
for such a powder is: — 

Sodium perborate 3 ounces. 

Zinc peroxide 2 ounces. 

Talc . . • 15 ounces. 

Foot Cream 

The following formula has proved 
satisfactory for a stiff tragacanth jelly: 

Tragacanth 5 drams. 

Benzoic acid 1 dram. 

Sodium borate 1 dram. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Rose water 4 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almond 5 drops. 

Extract of jasmine 4 drams. 

Put the tragacanth into a wide- 
mouthed bottle, add the water in 
which the benzoic acid and the so- 
dium borate have been dissolved; and 
set aside for several days. Mix the 
glycerin and the rose water, add these 
to the tragacanth mixture, shake fre- 
quently during two or three dars, and 
squeeze through flannel. Fina^v in- 
corporate the oil of bitter almonW dis- 
solved in the perfume extract. If a 
pearly appearance is desired, add 
about 4 drams of tincture of Siam 
benzoin to the finished jelly. 

Tannin 15 grammes. 

Powdered talc 430 grammes. 


Potassium perman- 
ganate 13 grammes. 

Alum 1 gramme. 

Talc 50 grammes. 

Zinc oxide 18 grammes. 

Calcium hydrate is grammes. 


Salicylic acid 2 parts. 

Zinc stearate 1 part. 

Talc 40 parts. 

Examination of samples of foot 
powder on the market showed that 
they were made up, respectively, as 
indicated below: — 

Talc, 75 per cent.; boric acid. 25 per 
. Talc, 12.5 per cent.; starch. 50 per 
cent.; borax, 37.5 per cent. 

Talc, 25 per cent.; boric acid, 75 
per cent. 

Talc, 65 per cent.; alum, 20 per 
cent.; magnesia, 15 per cent. 

Talc, 90 per cent.; borax, 10 per 

Talc, 95 per cent.; alum. 4 per cent.; 
boric acid, 1 per cent. 

Starch, 65 per cent.; zinc oxide, 35 
per cent. 

Talc, GO per cent.; boric acid, 40 per 

Talc, 75 per cent.; starch, 15 per 
cent.; salicylic acid, 7.5 per cent.; 
alum. 2.5 per cent. 

Zinc oxide, 25 per cent.; borax, 75 
per cent. 

Starch. 75 per cent.; salicylic acid, 
25 per cent. 

All the most prominent brands 
showed talc in the proportion of 75 
to 90 per cent. The starch was most- 
ly in the form of corn, wheat or po- 
tato starch. Only one sample con- 
tained orris root. Salicylic acid was 
used in the proportion of 3 to 7.5 per 
cent., as a rule, and boric acid varied 
fpom 1 to 75 per cent. 

Another authority directs: — (1) Zinc 
perborate, 20; with talcum, 80. (2) 
Sodium perborate. 20; with talcum, 
80. (3) Both together and singly, 
with zinc peroxide and talcum. Feet 
and stockings were dusted several 
times a day. 

Coumarin, tincture of orris and 
compound tincture of vanilla are rec- 
ommended as perfumes for foot pow- 

Application for Perspiring Feet 


Dried alum 50 grammes. 

Salicylic acid 5 grammes. 

Glycerin as a Foot Application 

Dr. Benians has recently recom- 
mended (Lancet* glycerin in cases of 
perspiring feet (bromidrosis). He 
points out that the substances which 
give rise to the clinical symptoms of 
bromidrosis, such as indol and. per- 
haps, skatol. are the products of 
bacterial action, as also is ammonia, 



which, on account o£ its solvent ac- 
tion on keratin, is possibly the most 
harmful body. The addition of gly- 
cerin to the medium in which the in- 
dol -producing bacteria are growing 
prevents the formation of this sub- 
stance and in place of an alkaline 
medium, the fermentation of the gly- 
cerin leads to the production of a 
marked acidity, and so substitutes an 
acid for an alkaline medium in con- 
tact with the skin of the foot. Dr. 
Be.nians cites two severe cases which 
were completely cured in three days 
by the application of glycerin well 
spread over the soles and toes before 
the socks were put on, this being re- 
peated each morning as long as nec- 
essary. He suggests that the use of 
glycerin, by preventing the formation 
of noxious products, and thus keep- 
ing the skin of the feet in a healthy 
condition, would be of considerable 
value to an army on long marches. 

Any pharmacist ought to be able to 
make up a glycerine preparation suit- 
able for a foot cream; to label it at- 
tractively, and to push it successfully. 
Astringent and Antiseptic Foot 

Alum, powdered 60 grammes. 

Tannic acid 5 grammes. 

Salicylic acid 2 grammes. 

Orris root, powdered. 33 grammes. 

Mix them and divide into packages 
of about 2 grammes each; or make 
into suitable-sized tablets. 

Ammonia Chloride Corn Salve 

Salicylic acid 2 ounces. 

Ammonium chloride 2 ounces. 

Acetic acid 4 drams. 

Wool-fat 2 ounces. 

White wax 2 ounces. 

Lard 8 ounces. 

What Corns Are and How to Treat 

Corns form a never-ending subject 
for discussion and probably will so 
long as people insist upon wearing 
tight shoes. Cures and near-cures — 
mostly the latter — have been offered in 
great number and for a long time, but 
the annual crop of corns seems not to 

Writing to Clinical Medicine, on this 
subject. Dr. John C. Warbrick says: — 

Corns are an abnormal localized thickening 
of the epidermis, occurring more often on the 
feet; but they may also be found on the 
hands, especially of individuals who do con- 
siderable manual labor implying much-re- 
peated pressure. These corns on the feet are 
produced by anything causing continual pres- 
sure or friction, as tight or ill-fitting shoes. 
A predisposing cause is softness and tender- 
ness of the skin, due to lack of exercise and 
circulation of the blood, so that the toes are 
easily compressed. 

Two varieties of corns (clavus) are recog- 
nized:— (1) Hard corns, which occur on the 

exposed surfaces, particularly the upper parts 
of the toes or on the inner and outer sides 
of them; (2) soft corns, which occur between 
the toes. 

Hard corns are more or less conical in 
shape, and it is the pressure of the apex of 
this cone upon the papillary layer of the 
corium that causes the pain, which so often 
is intense. They may be quite small, or they 
may broaden out considerably, and - then may 
occur singly or in groups. When neglected 
suppuration may occur, and the pus be pre- 
vented from escaping by the hardened cuticle, 
this often causing a good deal of pain and 
inflammation of the skin and tissues around, 
which may lead to ulceration. 

In order to prevent corns from forming, 
tight shoes must be shunned. The feet should 
be bathed in cold water now and again and 
rubbed well with a dry bath towel. Walking 
should be freely practiced. Some of the sub- 
stances employed for destroying corns are 
glacial acetic acid, monochloracetic acid, tri- 
chloracetic acid, salicylic acid, sodium hydrate 
and sodium ethylate. 

In my opinoin, however, there is nothing bet- 
ter for removing warts or corns than salicylic 
acid and collodion; for salicylic acid has the 
property of attacking abnormal or diseased 
tissue while leaving all healthy tissue un- 
touched. Hence its value in removing corns, 
warts and the like, and painlessly at that. 
The other substances mentioned above may be 
of some use, but none of them are half so 
good as salicylic acid. To remove a corn (or 
a wart) with glacial acetic acid requires pa- 
tience and time. Following are two approved 
formulas for salicylated collodion: — 

Salicylic acid 15 grains. 

Extract of cannabis indica.. 8 grains 

Alcohol 15 minims. 

Ether 40 minims. 

Flexible collodion 75 minims. 

Paint on three times a day for a week, then 
soak the foot in hot water and pick the corn 
off with the finger nail. 

Salicylic acid 1 dram. 

Extract of cannabis indica 10 grains. 

Ether - dram-. 

Flexible collodion 6 drams. 

Over the corn apply a plaster with a hole 
in the center to relieve pressure. 

Rohe, in his "Diseases of the Skin," 
says that "a corn is a circumscribed 
hyperplasia of epithelial tissue, which 
projects downward, by a conical pro- 
longation, into the deeper epidermal 
layers of the skin," which will no 
doubt be a relief to many people who 
have always thought that a corn was 
just a corn, and a rather commonplace 
attachment at that. 

According to the Medical World, 
corns and warts may be removed by 
the daily application of Fowler's solu- 
tion. If the growth is very hard, it 
may be first softened by the applica- 
tion of liquor potassa before using the 
arsenical solution. We wish to add 
that much "corn comfort" may easily 
be obtained (in case of hard corns 
and callosites) by rubbing with sand- 
paper (not too fine) every few days, 
or sufficiently often to keep them 
down. The sand-paper works better 
when the part is perfectly dry and 
hard. This is simple, but many can 
thereby get much foot comfort who 
suffer needlessly. 

A collection of formulas for corn 
remedies from other sources follow: — 


Salicylic acid 2 ounces. 

Ammonium chloride 2 ounces. 

Acetic acid 4 drams. 

Wool-fat 2 ounces. 

"White wax 2 ounces. 

Lard 8 ounces. 


Salicylic acid 10 grammes. 

Lactic acid 10 grammes. 

Chloral hydrate 10 grammes. 

Castor oil 1 gramme. 

Venice turpentine 1 gramme. 

Extract of cannabis 

indica 2 grammes. 

Collodion 100 grammes. 


Salicylic acid 1 ' j ounces. 

Pyroxylin 1 ounce. 

Amyl acetate 5 ounces. 

Acetone 15 ounces. 

Balsam of fir 2 drams. 

Castor oil 2 drams. 

Oil of cloves 15 minims. 

Make a solution. 

This should not be made or used 
near an open flame. 

Salicylic acid 2 drams. 

Extract of belladonna... 1 dram. 

Powdered French rosin. .y 2 dram. 

Castor oil 1 dram. 

Flexible collodion, to 

make 2 ounces. 


Iodine 3 grammes. 

Salicylic acid 12 grammes. 

Pyroxylin 3 grammes. 

Acetone, to make. . .100 mils. 

In a stoppered bottle dissolve in the 
acetone first the iodine, then the acid, 
and finally the pyroxylin. 


Resorcinol 1 gramme. 

Salicylic acid 1 gramme. 

Lactic acid 1 gramme. 

Flexible collodion 10 mils. 

Apply every day, putting one layer 
on another for five or six days, then 
bathe the feet in hot water and the 
corn may be removed. 

For soft corns: — 

Salicylic acid 1 dram. 

Menthol 1 dram. 

Cacao butter 4 ounces. 


Salicylic acid 12 grammes. 

Extract of Indian 

hemp 2 grammes. 

Acetone 30 grammes. 

Collodion, to make. .. .100 grammes. 

Dissolve the acid and the extracts 
in the liquids by agitation. 

Wart and Corn Removers 


Resorcin 1 gramme. 

Salicylic acid 1 gramme. 

"Wool fat 20 grammes. 


Glacial acetic acid. . .10 grammes. 
Precipitated sulphur. .20 gramme. 
Glycerin 32 grammes. 


Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Salicylic acid to saturate. 

Castor oil 50 drops. 

Apply by dampening (warts or 
corns) twice a day. 

Wart Remover 


Salicylic acid 2 grammes. 

Chrysarobin 4 grammes. 

Ichthyol 4 grammes. 

Wool-fat 35 grammes. 

Petrolatum 55 grammes. 


Phenol 1 gramme. 

Glacial acetic acid .... .3 grammes. 


Chloral 90 grains. 

Acetic acid 90 grains. 

Salicylic acid 60 grains. 

Ether 60 grains. 

Collodion 225 grains. 

Violet Ammonia. 

The following formula is contributed 
by a pharmacist who says the product 
is sold extensively: 

Ammonia water 12 pints. 

Distilled water 28 pints. 

Perfume (see below)... 1 ounce. 

Color enough. 

Perfume for the Foregoing. 

Anisic aldehyde V 2 dram. 

Benzyl acetate % dram. 

Ionone 1 dram. 

Coumarin 1 grain. 

Oil of bergamot 15 minims. 

Oil of neroli 10 minims. 

Ticture of musk 4 ounces. 

Other formulas follow: — 


Ammonia water 8 ounc s. 

Rose water 8 ounces. 

Powdered orris 1 ounce. 

Color enough. 

Macerate the orris in a mixture of 
the two waters for a week and then 
so filter the solution as to prevent 
evaporation of the ammonia. Finally 
add the color. 


Ammonia water S oun< 

Green soap 4 ounces. 

Oleic acid 3 drams. 

Oil of bay 15 minims. 

Oil of rosemary 15 minims. 

Oil of verbena 15 minims. 

Water, to make 2 pints. 

Dissolve the soap in 1 pint of water 
by the aid of heat. When the- solu- 
tion has cooled add the other things, 



the oleic acid next to last, the balance 
of the water heing last, of course. 


Stronger ammonia water 6 pints. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

Oil of orris (soapmaker's) 2 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Color enough. 

Distilled water, to make. 5 gallons. 

Mix the ammonia water with an 
equal amount of the water; dissolve 
the oils in the alcohol; mix the two so- 
lutions and add the required amount of 


Violet water 2 ounces. 

Stronger ammonia wa- 
ter 5 pints. 

Lavender water 4 drams. 

Violet toilet water 4 ounces. 

Distilled water, to make. 4 gallons. 

Heat 2 pints of the water and in it 
dissolve the soap; add the ammonia 
and the perfume, and make up to the 
desired quantity with water. 

Coloring Material. 

Violet ammonia may be colored a 
light purple by digesting in it for sev- 
eral days a small quantity of litmus. 
"Water-soluble chlorophyl paste may 
be used to impart a green tint. Both 
these colors will fade on exposure to 
light, and the coloring material will 
separate in time. A stable green color, 
which, however, should be used with 
caution, if at all. because of its poi- 
sonous character, may be made of — 

Copper sulphate 1 ounce. 

Potassium dichromate. .. 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 8 ounces. 

Water 16 ounces. 

Dissolve the salts separately in por- 
tions of the water; mix. and add the 

Cloudy Toilet Ammonia. 

Ammonia water 6 ounces. 

Yellow soap 10 grains. 

Borax 60 grains. 

Lavender water 20 minims. 

Water, to make 20 ounces. 

Dissolve the soap and borax in 5 
ounces of boiling water; when cold, 
add the lavender water, the ammonia 
water and the rest of the water. 

The following formula for a cloudy 
ammonia water suitable for bath or 
shampoo was contributed to the 
Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal by 
Henry Watters: — 

Powdered borax 2 drams. 

Water 6 ounces. 

Ammonia water < 30' , > . . .5 ounces. 

Oleic acid •> drams. 

< 'ologne water 4 drams. 

Dissolve the borax in the water; 
add the ammonia water, and then the 

'oleic acid previously mixed with the 
cologne water. 

Instead of the oleic acid. 4 drams of 
soft soap may be used. 

The cologne water used by Mr. 
Watters has the following formula: — 
Cologne Water. 

Oil of bergamot 10 mils. 

Oil of orange, sweet.... 10 mils. 

Oil of neroli 2 mils. 

Oil of lemon 2 mils. 

Cologne spirit 1000 mils. 

Stronger orange flower 

water enough. 

The oils are dissolved in the spirit 
and enough orange flower water is 
added to cause a slight opalescence. 
The liquid is allowed to age as much 
as possible before filtration. 

Sea Salt de Luxe. 

Luxury-loving people may prefer 
their sea salt perfumed. Druggists 
may profit by encouraging this kind 
of taste. Coumarin, many of the es- 
sential oils and other perfumers* ma- 
terials may be used to convert ordi- 
nary sea salt into the de luxe variety. 
They are best applied by dissolving 
first in a minimum of alcohol. One 
way of preparing artificial sea salt is 
by combining 1 pound of sodium 
chloride. 4 ounces of magnesium 
chloride and 1 ounce each of potas- 
sium chloride and calcium sulphate. 

Borated Ammonia, Clear 

Stronger ammonia 
water 4 ounces. 

Borax 1 ounce. 

Lavender water 1 dram. 

Distilled water, to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the borax in the water 
with the aid of heat. When the solu- 
tion has cooled, mix with the am- 
monia water and add the perfume. 

Borated Ammonia, Cloudy 

Stronger ammonia 

water 4 ounces. 

White animal-oil soap. 10 grains. 

Borax 320 grains 

Lavender water 1 dram. 

Distilled water, to 

make 1 pint. 

Mix as directed in the foregoing. 

To adapt these formulas to general 
household use, increase the propor- 
tion of the ammonia, use plain water 
and omit the perfume. 

Liquid Ammonia for the Bath and 


Oleic acid 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 7 ounces. 

Water, to make 1 pint. 



Soap (in shavings) 2 ounces. 

Potash lye 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 2 pints. 

A little alcohol is sometimes added 
to make the mixture clear. 


Sodium carbonate 20 ounces. 

Ammonia water 4S ounces. 

Water 32 ounces. 


Yellow soap 10 grains. 

Borax 1 dram. 

Stronger ammonia water 6 ounces. 
Water, to make 20 ounces. 


Soft soap 2 ounces. 

Borax 4 drams. 

Stronger ammonia water 7 ounces. 
Water, to make 24 ounces. 

Bath Powder 


Borax 4 ounces. 

Potassium carbonate 2 ounces. 

Almond meal 8 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 4 drams. 

Oil of cinnamon 1 dram. 

Oil of eucalyptus 1 dram. 


Boric acid 16 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 4 ounces. 

Oil of pinus pumilio... enough. 

Powdered castile 

soap (dry) 200.0 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate 

(dry) 16.0 grammes. 

Powdered orris root 65.0 grammes. 

Almond meal 100.0 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot. ... 1.5 mils. 

Oil of lemon 0.5 mil. 

Oil of cloves 0.2 mil. 

Violet Witch-hazel 

Oil of orris (liquid) 1 dram. 

Essence of jasmine 4 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 4 pints. 

Mix and filter through talcum until 

The preparation may be colored 
green with tincture of chlorophyl. 

Effervescent Bath Powder 

Tartaric acid 10 ounces. 

Sodium bicarbonate 9 ounces. 

Rice flour 6 ounces. 

Effervescing Bath Tablets 

Sodium bicarbonate... 3 ounces. 

Tartaric acid 2 x i ounces. 

Starch 4 ounces. 

Oil of lemon % dram. 

Oil of orris 5 minims. 

Oil of ylang-ylang. . . . 5 minims. 
Tincture of benzoin... enough. 

Mix the oils with the starch, add the 
other ingredients and enough of the 
tinctures to make a mass. Divide 
into pastilles or compress. 

Aromatic Solution of Ammonia 

Ammonium carbonate 4 ounces. 

Stronger solution of am- 
monia 8 fl. ozs. 

Terpeneless oil of 

lemon 13 minims. 

Terpeneless oil of 

nutmeg 54 minims. 

Alcohol (90'"r) 6 fl. ozs. 

Distilled water 149 fl. ozs. 

The oils to be dissolved in the spirit 
before adding. 

Verbena Water 

Oil of lemon grass 4 drams. 

Oil of bergamot V 2 dram. 

Oil of orange Y> dram. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Alcohol to make 2 pints. 

Mix the oils in the alcohol, add water 
gradually, agitate and filter with talc 
after permitting the mixture to stand 
for several days. 


Oil of lemon (best) ^ ounce. 

Oil of rose 5 drops. 

Oil of lavender 10 drops. 

Tincture of musk 1 dram. 

"Water. 1 pint. 

Spirits of cologne 3 pints. 

Mix oils and aqueous ingredients with 
aid of precipitated calcium phosphate, 
age and filter. 

Florida Water 


Oil of bergamot 2 ounces. 

Oil of lavender 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves Vi ounce. 

Extract of civet 1 ounce. 

Oil of pimento Vi ounce. 

Alcohol 2 gallons. 

Water 4 pints. 


Oil of bergamot 3 ounces. 

Oil of lavender 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 1 ' , drams. 

Oil of cinnamon 2% drams. 

Oil of neroli Vz dram. 

Oil of lemon 1 ounce. 

Extract of jasmine. ... 6 ounces. 

Extract of musk 2 ounces. 

Rose water 1 pint. 

Deodorized alcohol .... 8 pints. 
Mix and. if cloudy, filter through 
magnesium carbonate. 



Toilet Ammonia 

Stronger ammonia water 6 ounces. 

Lavender water 1 dram. 

Powd. castile soap V2 dram. 

Distilled water to make 16 ounces. 

Pine Woods Bath Powder 

The refreshing odor of pine oil may 
be imparted to a bath powder by 
spraying crystals of sodium carbonate, 
in two pound lots, with the following 

Pine oil 2 drams. 

Terebene 10 minims. 

Metanil 5 minims. 

Lavender water 1 ounce. 

Perfumed Water Softener 

The following preparation may be 
found useful for softening the water: 

Soduim borate 1 ounce. 

Sodium bicarbonate.... % ounce. 

Oil of lavender 1 ounce. 

Oil of bergamot 1 ounce. 

Oil of lemon 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Oil of cinnamon 1 dram. 

Alcohol 2 quarts. 

Water to make 6 quarts. 

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and 
the salts in the water, and mix the 
two solutions. Let stand 24 hours and 

Lavender Water 

Lavender flowers, fresh 10 pounds. 

Alcohol 1 gallon. 

"Water % gallon. 

Digest a week, throw it into a clean 
still, add IVi pounds of common salt, 
dissolved in % gallon of water, and, 
after stirring the whole together, draw 
over, rapidly, 1 gallon, by the heat of 
steam or of a salt water bath. To the 
distillate add oil of bergamot, 5 drams; 
essence of ambergris, 2 drams, and 
mix well. 

Aromatic English Vinegar 

Oil of cinnamon 15 drops. 

Oil of cloves 40 drops. 

Oil of lavender 30 drops. 

Oil of lemon 30 drops. 

Acetic acid, glacial 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 34 drops. 

Add a tablespoonful of this vinegar 
to a bowl of w r ater and rinse the face 
with it. 

Acid Bath Salt 

Tartaric acid 1 ounce. 

Potassium bitartrate. . . 2 ounces. 

Potassium bicarbonate. 1 ounce. 

Sodium chloride 12 ounces. 

Have all the salts in a coarse, gran- 
ular condition and mix. 

Alkaline Bath Salt 

Sodium bicarbonate 6 ounces. 

Sodium sulphate 2 ounces. 

Sodium chloride S ounces. 

Have all the salts in a coarse, gran- 
ular condition and mix. 

Sea Bath Salt 

Potassium iodide 10 grains. 

Potassium bromide 20 grains. 

Magnesium sulphate. . . 2 ounces. 

Sodium bicarbonate.... 1 ounce. 
Sodium chloride to 

make 16 ounces. 

Have all the salts in a coarse, gran- 
ular condition and mix. 

Bath Tablet 

Sodium carbonate 4 ounces. 

Tartaric acid 1% ounces. 

Orris root % ounce. 

Oil of lemon % dram. 

Oil of orris 5 minims. 

Oil of ylang ylang 5 minims. 

Mix the oils with the orris root, add 
the other ingredients, and make into a 
stiff paste with alcohol. Divide into 
tablets and dry. 



Tooth powders and pastes — Liquid dentifrices — Mouth washes- 
Breath tablets — Toothache remedies — Dental cement, etc. 

Always consult the index when using this hoofy. 

Peroxide Tooth Powder. 

The right to the use of calcium per- 
oxide and the perborates and percar- 
bonates of all the alkaline earth metals 
in the manufacture of tooth powders is 
claimed by one manufacturer, under a 
patent issued by the United States gov- 


An oxygen-yielding tooth powder 
which does not contain calcium perox- 
ide or any perborate or percarbonate 
may be made of: 

Magnesium peroxide.... 1 dram. 

Precipitated chalk 6 drams. 

Powdered soap 20 grains. 

Oil of wintergreen 12 minims. 

Other formulas for this class of prep- 
arations are appended: 


Precipitated chalk 6 drams. 

Sodium perborate 1 dram. 

Powdered soap 20 grains. 

Oil of wintergreen 15 minims. 


Magnesium peroxide 60 parts. 

Sodium perborate 30 parts. 

Powdered soap 10 parts. 

Flavoring enough. 

This dentifrice, says the United States 
Naval Medical Bulletin, theoretically 
contains enough free oxygen to make 
in an acid mouth 120 to 130 minims of 
fresh hydrogen peroxide, and while this 
amount of antiseptic may not be de- 
veloped, there is certainly enough pro- 
duced to give excellent results. 

The word "peroxide" as here used is 
said :o have been trade-marked. 

French Tooth Powder 

Ground boric acid 10 grammes. 

Potassium chlorate.... 5 grammes. 

Powdered guaiac 5 grammes. 

Precipitated chalk 20 grammes. 

Masnesium carbonate. 20 grammes. 
Essence of mint to flavor. 

An Alkaline Peroxide Powder and 


A subscriber asks for a recipe for a 

soluble powder from which can be made 

an aqueous solution of alkaline reac- 

tion containing sodium perborate and 
flavoring antiseptics like menthol and 
thymol. Preliminary experiments show 
the feasibility of a powder something 
like this: 

Alkaline Antiseptic Powder. 

Sodium perborate 20 grammes. 

Sodium benzoate 32 grammes. 

Thymol 0.1 gramme. 

Oil of peppermint 0.1 mil. 

Oil of gaultheria 0.2 mil. 

Triturate the powdered thymol with 
the benzoate, then add the oils, and 
after further trituration mix gently 
with the perborate. This amount of 
powder is to be dissolved in a liter of 
water for use. 

This is but a suggestion requiring 
further experimentation to insure suc- 
cess. The product thus made gives a 
turbid solution in water, of pleasant 
taste suitable for a mouth wash. The 
possibility that the perborate will re- 
act with the aromatics (thus preventing 
formation of hydrogen dioxide, when 
dissolved in water), is not remote. 

If the mixture is not sufficiently al- 
kaline, 20 grammes of potassium bicar- 
bonate might be added to the quantity 
made according to the recipe given 


Old-Fashioned Tooth Powder. 

Precipitated chalk 8 

Powdered orris root 4 

Carmine No. 40 2 

Oil of red cedar wood. . . 1 

Oil of peppermint 30 minims. 

Oil of spearmint 15 minims. 

Oil of cloves 5 minims. 

Rub the carmine with a small portion 
of the chalk, then gradually add the 
balance of the chalk, the orris root and 

To make an old-style tooth powder, 
experiments might be made by using 
the following formula as a basis: 

Precipitated chalk 1 ounce. 

Powdered soap 1 dram. 

Thymol 5 grains. 

Oil of gaultheria 2 drops. 




In the course of the experimentation 
a little orris, starch or other basic in- 
gredient, or oil of peppermint, cinna- 
mon, or other flavoring material, 
might be introduced. 

CarbolaterJ Tooth Powder. 


Precipitated chalk 1 pound. 

Castile soap 1 ounce. 

Orris 2 ounces. 

Sugar 1 ounce. 

(Or, saccharin 2 grains). 

Phenol 1 dram. 

Phenol has a tendency to darken, and 
this probably is not arrested by com- 
bining it with the chalk and such 
things. It is said that this coloration 
may be prevented by the addition of 
% of 1 per cent, of sulphurous anhy- 
dride, but this process does not seem to 
be practicable in the manufacture of a 
tooth powder on a small scale. It does 
not seem to us that phenol is especially 
desirable as a therapeutic ingredient of 
tooth powder, and since it proves phys- 
ically objectionable, why not omit it? 


A formula which calls for no chalk 
to be converted into a phenol salt fol- 

Terra alba 8 ounces. 

Orris 1 % ounces. 

Castile soap % ounce. 

Phenol (crystals) 30 grains. 

Camphor 30 grains. 

Oil of rose 10 minims^ 

Triturate the phenol with the cam- 
phor until liquefaction is complete, and 
gradually add, with thorough tritura- 
tion. 2 ounces of the terra alba. Tritu- 
rate the oil of rose with the rest of the 
terra alba and mix all the powder 
well and pass through a bolting cloth. 
Color with carmine, if desired. 

Typical Formula for Tooth Powder, 
Paste and Perfume 

Calcium carbonate 5 ounces. 

Magnesium carbonate... 1 ounce. 

Orris root flour l ounce. 

Powdered soap l ounce. 

Milk sugar % ounce. 

A pleasing flavor is produced by the 
following mixture: 

Oil of peppermint 2 drams. 

Oil of spearmint 20 minims. 

Oil of wintergreen 30 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon 40 minims. 

The foregoing formula for a powder 
may be used for a paste, first dissolv- 
ing the powdered soap in a minimum 
of hot water, adding to this a few 
drops of ammonia water and mixing 
the w/hole thoroughly with the pow- 
ders; then incorporating slowly and at 
a constant gentle heat enough of the 

following excipient to make a moder- 
ately stiff mass: 

Gelatin 10 parts. 

Glycerin 150 parts. 

Water 100 parts. 

Let this mass stand for a few days 
in a warm place, kneading it occa- 
sionally. Cool for an hour and soften 
to the proper consistence with a mix- 
ture of equal parts of glycerin and 
water. The sugar of milk may be 
omitted in making a paste. 

Foam for Tooth Powder 

Powdered soap in tooth powder will 
cause it to foam, and has the advan- 
tage over soap bark of being non- 
poisonous. Animal-oil soaps are more 
frothy than vegetable-oil soaps, and if 
made a little alkaline they foam still 
more. One might make a soap from 
lard, to be sure of getting a pure and 
unscented one for powder. 

Alkaline Tooth Powder 

Lithium carbonate... 20 grammes. 
Calcium carbonate. . .200 grammes. 
Magnesium carbonate. 200 grammes. 
Oil of wintergreen enough. 

Potassium Chlorate Tooth Paste 

Magnesium carbonate. 100 grammes. 

Calcium carbonate. . .100 grammes. 

Potassium chlorate. . .500 grammes. 

Sugar 45 grammes. 

Water 155 grammes. 

Glycerin 65 grammes. 

Powdered soap 18 grammes. 

Flavor 17 grammes. 

The flavor spoken of consists of 
thymol, vanillin and oil of peppermint, 
in alcohol. 


Precipitated chalk... 350 grammes. 

Powdered orris 100 grammes. 

Potassium chlorate. .250 grammes. 

Mucilage of acacia (1 

to 2) 150 grammes. 

Glycerin 150 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint. ... 10 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 1 gramme. 

Oil of sandalwood .... 1 gramme. 

Oil of wintergreen ... 1 gramme. 

Oil of geranium 1 gramme. 

Unna's Potassium Chlorate Tooth 

Potassium chlorate. . . 5 grammes. 

Calcium carbonate. ... 25 grammes. 

Orris root 25 grammes. 

Medicinal soap 25 grammes. 

Glycerin 25 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint 20 drops. 

This formula has the advantage of 
being an officially recognized formula 
by a pharmaceutical association < the 
Luxemburg Apotheker Verein). 


The medicinal soap of the German 
Pharmacopoeia is made as follows: 
:. by means of a steam bath. 

Of soda 120 

Add gradually a previously melted 
mixture of 

Lard 50 


Olive oil 50 

Stir and heat the mixture for half 
an hour; then add 

Alcohol 12 

and as soon as the mass has assumed a 
uniform consistence, add gradually 

Water 200 

Then continue the heat, adding, if 
necessary, small portions of solution of 
soda, until a transparent, viscid soap 
is formed, which dissolves in hot water 
without ithe separation of oil. 
Finally add a filtered solution of 

Sodium chloride 25 

Crude sodium carbonate :j 

Water 80 

and continue the heat, stirring con- 
stantly, until the soap has wholly sep- 
arated from the liquid. 

.After some time separate the soap 
from the mother- lye, wash it several 
times with a little water; then express 
it in a cloth slowly, but forcibly, and 
having cut it into cakes, dry them in a 
warm place. 

German Pharmacopoeia is the most sat- 
isfactory for use in dentifrices; and 
also that cuttlefish bone is too gritty 

lor use on the t< 

Cherry Tooth Paste 

Precipitated chalk 13 ounces. 

Powdered orris 4 ounces. 

Powdered tragacanth. . . .30 grains. 

Oil of clove 2 drams. 

Cherry juice 5 ounces. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Glucose 1 ounce. 

Solution of cochineal 1 ounce. 

Mix the first three ingredients inti- 
mately and incorporate the oil of clove. 
Mix the other ingredients and use this 
second mixture as an excipient to make 
a pasty mass. 


The following formula is given in 
Pharmazeutische Praxis for katapyrine. 
a dentifrice: 

Sodium bicarbonate. .11.0 grammes. 

Borax „ 4.0 grammes. 

Powdered soap 14.0 grammes. 

Precipitated chalk... 4.0 grammes. 

Magnesium carbonate. 10.0 grammes. 

Powdered cuttlefish 

bone 10.0 grammes. 

Glycerin 50.0 grammes. 

Menthol 0.4 gramme. 

Oil of anise 2.0 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint.... 3.0 grammes. 

Oil of cinnamon 2.0 grammes. 

Carmine 0.4 gramme. 

In this connection, it might be men- 
tioned that some practical experiment- 
ers say that the medicinal soap 6f the 

Dr. N. S. Jenkins, of Paris, gives the 
following formula for his dental cream 
which he calls kolynos: 

Soap 33.00 

Precipitated chalk 25.00 

Absolute alcohol 20.00 

Glycerin 1 5 

Benzoic acid 3.00 

Oil of eucalyptus 2.00 

Oil of peppermint. 2.00 

Saccharin 0.50 


The name, kolynos. is a Greek word 
meaning disease preventer. 

Peroxide Tooth Paste. 

Just to what extent and how long 
solution of hydrogen dioxide will re- 
main active when combined with other 
ingredients necessary to form a tooth 
paste, w-e are unable to say, but here- 
with is a formula for a dental cream 
which calls for that rather unstable 

Precipitated chalk 5 parts. 

Powdered castile soap...l part. 

Solution of hydrogen diox- 
ide enough. 

Glycerin enough. 

Form a paste and flavor to suit. 

Non-Hardening Tooth Paste.. 

Perhaps one of the greatest faults of 
tooth pastes made by inexperienced 
manufacturers is their proneness to 
become too hard in the tubes. To 
overcome this, the mass should be 
made very soft at first — semifluid in 
fact — because it will stiffen on stand- 
ing. This is a matter for experiment 
in all cases, for the proportion of soap 
and the bulkiness of the chalk used 
will make a difference, and one never 
knows what proportions are best until 
the paste has stood three months or 
so. The use of solution of sodium 
hydroxide, about 1 ounce to each 8 or 
10 ounces of other materials, will ma- 
terially retard the hardening of soap- 
and-chalk tooth pastes. A formula in 
which this ingredient is specified fol- 

Precipitated chalk 14 *£ ounces. 

Powdered soap 2 y 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 18 drams. 

"Water 20 drams. 

Powdered sugar 4 drams. 

Solution of sodium hy- 
droxide 3 drams. 

Saccharin 3 grains. 

Thymol 7 grains. 

Oil of peppermint 15 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon 15 minims. 



Referring to the foregoing formula, 
a druggist wrote. 

If the ordinary precipitated chalk and pow- 
dered soap are used the amounts of glycerin 
and water may be all right, but if the very 
light and fluffy precipitated English chalk and 
best grade of powdered castile soap are used 
the amount is wholly inadequate. Instead of 
taking only 18 drams of glycerin and 20 drams 
of water the writer uses !• ounces of glycerin 
and 10 ounces of water. Even then after the 
paste is forced into the tubes through our 
machine it is regarded as too stiff by our 
customers. We have our own tube filling and 
closing machines and we believe the formula 
with the above changes is the best ever. 

W. C. Kirchgessner gives his formu- 
las for tooth preparations for tubes, as 

Mass Solution. 

Gelatin, in small 

pieces 30 grammes. 

Castile soap (moist) 60 grammes. 

Saccharin 8 grammes. 

Menthol 8 grammes. 

Oil of eucalyptus.... 8 mils. 

Oil of wintergreen.. 22 mils. 

Glycerin 1,000 mils. 

Water 500 mils. 

Hot water 500 mils. 

Soak the gelatin in the water over 
night; dissolve the soap and saccharin 
in the hot water; mix the menthol, 
oils and glycerin. Pour all together in 
the order named, and let the mixture 
stand a day or two before using. 

Tooth Paste for Tubes. 

Mass solution 200 mils. 

Precipitated chalk. . . .500 grammes. 

Mix, and put into collapsible tubes 
at once. 

The tubes should stand a day or two 
before use. 

Mr. Kirchgessner says: 

This is very soft and will come off the 
spatula very easily. Take a little at a time 
and give the tube a jar on the counter, which 
forces it to the other end. It is not necessary 
to have a machine to fill tubes with, although 
a machine will do it quicker. After filling the 
tube, pinch the end tightly, overlapping at 
least twice. Let stand in tube a few days 
before selling so as to give the gelatin and 
chalk time to harden, a change that takes 
place between the two and makes a nice paste. 
The cost will not be more than 5 cents. 

Tooth Paste, for Boxes. 

Mass solution 360 mils. 

Precipitated chalk. 500 mils. 

Tooth Powder. 

Precipitated chalk . . 500.0 grammes. 

Powdered castile soap 4.0 grammes. 

Saccharin 1.0 gramme. 

Menthol 0.5 gramme. 

Oil of wintergreen.. 4.0 mils. 

Oil of eucalyptus. .. . 0.5 mil. 

Mix the oils and menthol before add- 
ing the other ingredients. 

If a pink color is desired, mix 2 
grammes of carmine with the chalk. 

Put up in ordinary tooth-powder 
bottles, this costs from 5 to 10 cents a 

Tooth Lotion. 

Menthol 0.5 gramme. 

Borax S.O grammes. 

Oil of eucalyptus... 0.5 mil. 

Oil of wintergreen.. 1.0 mil. 

Saccharin 1.0 mil. 

Solution of potassa.. 16.0 mils. 

Alcohol 120.0 mils. 

Water, enough to 

make ...» 500.0 mils. 

Dissolve the menthol and oils in the 
alcohol and the borax in the water, 
adding the solution of potassa and sac- 
charin. Mix; color with compound 
tincture of cudbear, if desirable, and 

An ordinary 25-cent size bottle of 
this costs about 5 cents. 

In each formula where oil of winter- 
green is directed, oil of cassia *s men- 
tioned as an alternate. 

A Real Tooth Paste and Some 
Dental Hints. 

In an article under this heading, con- 
tributed to The Druggists Circular 
(September, 1913, issue, page 506), 
Floyd M. Stage says: 

The tooth pastes of today, in most cases, 
are calcium carbonate, alkaline in reaction, 
but the tooth paste of the future, when the 
people become more educated and take better 
care of their teeth, will undoubtedly be acid 
in reaction, and so will require the use of an 
alkaline mouth wash to neutralize the acidity 
immediately after the application of the paste. 
This tooth paste will necessarily be made with 
some base which is not affected by the addi- 
tion of a small quantity of some such acid as 
acetic, tartaric or citric. It will more easily 
remove the tartar and it will keep the teeth 

A tooth paste made according to the formula 
I herewith give is not only theoretically cor- 
rect, but practically also, the quantities being 
those absolutely required in actual manufac- 
ture. This tooth paste will postively please 
the customer, who therefore will return for 
further purchases. 

A Real Tooth Paste. 

Precipitated chalk 7 pour. Is. 

Myrrh 3% ounces. 

Cuttlefish bone 3^ ounces. 

Soap 14 ounces. 

Saccharin 105 grain-. 

Sodium bicarbonate 70 grains. 

Carmine 11 gr a 

Ammonia water enough. 

Tragacanth 1 ounc-. 

Glycerin 40 ounces. 

Boiling water 72 ounc-s. 

Water enough. 

Benzoic acid 140 grains. 

Alcohol 1 ounc 

Oil of wintergreen 560 minims. 

Oil of sassafras 490 minims. 

Oil of orange 490 minims. 

Oil of anise 140 minims. 

Oil of peppermint 90 minims. 

Menthol 210 grains. 

First mix the chalk, myrrh, cuttlefish bone 
and soap, all of which should be in fine pow- 
der; the cuttlefish bone, especially, should be 
bolted. [Many authorities condemn its use at 
all. — Editor.] Then mix the saccharin and so- 
dium bicarbonate and combine the two mix- 
tures. Use just enough ammonia water on 
the carmine to bring out its color, and then 
add it to the mixture. Wash the tragacanth 
briskly in cold water to clean it, then pour 
the boiling water over it and allow it to 
stand twenty-four hours, occasionally stirring 



it weil to secure a uniform paste, and add the 
glycerin. Transfer both the paste and the 
mass previously made to a mixer, and thor- 
oughly grind them together, adding the boric 
acid previously dissolved in the alcohol, and 
finally, just before the mixing is complete, the 
oils and menthol, previously mixed. 

As soon as the mass is ready it should be 
put into tubes or boxes, as by standing it loses 
its volatile oil and hardens. 

After the druggist has made and sold this 
preparation to his customer, he should impress 
upon him the necessity of using an alkaline 
mouth wash several times during the day. Such 
a wash is a modern necessity, the greatest pre- 
venter of disease, the best life insurance. 
Herewith is given the formula for a very sat- 
isfactory alkaline mouth wash which should be 
in use in every household of this broad land: 

Alkaline Mouth Wash. 

Sodium bicarbonate 360 grains. 

Sodium borate 360 grains. 

Sodium benzoate 15 grains. 

Sodium salicylate 15 grains. 

Eucalyptol 7% grains. 

Thymol T ! 2 grains. 

Menthol 4 grains. 

Oil of gaultheria 4 minims. 

Phenol (95% solution) 320 minims. 

Alcohol 24 ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

"Water 96 ounces. 

Mix. allow to stand for at least a week, and 

The two great reasons that mouth washes 
i ; more universally used are (1) the cost 

and (2) lack of education as^ to their necessity. 
If customers cannot afford to use ready-made 
mouth washes and pay the fancy prices, al- 
kaline and antiseptic tablets should be sold 
to them at a low price. Twelve of these 
dissolved in a pint of water to which 40 drops 
of solution of phenol has been added is a sim- 
ple and inexpensive enough preparation, but of 
marvelous efficiency. Druggists should offer 
such a preparation not for the monetary con- 
sideration, but for the sake of humanity I" 
brings the use of mouth washes within the 
reach of all. the cost .of a pint being less than 
5 cents. 

Flavor for a Tooth Paste 

It is rather a difficult problem to se- 
lect a "good perfume" for a tooth paste 
— for somebody else. A little oil of 
wintergreen, or peppermint, or spear- 
mint, or rose, or a combination of any 
two or more of these, with perhaps a 
little powdered orris in the paste, ought 
to please almost any taste; but tastes 
differ. We have known considerable 
popularity to be attained by a tooth 
powder flavored with a mixture of 2 
parts of oil of wintergreen and 1 part 
of oil of peppermint. The same flavor 
will answer for a paste. 

For variety's sake here are a half- 
dozen others to select from: 


Oil of spearmint 50 grammes. 

Oil of star anise 30 grammes. 

Oil of Ceylon cinnamon 2 grammes. 

Oil of clove 5 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 2 grammes. 


Oil of clove 55 grammes. 

Oil of star anise 47 grammes. 

Oil of spearmint 40 grammes. 

Oil of citronella 8 grammes. 


Oil of spearmint 4 grammes. 

Oil of clove l gramme. 

Oil of Russian anise. . . 1 gramme. 

Oil of Ceylon cinnamon 1 gramme. 

Oil of rose 20 grammes. 

Oil of orange 2 grammes. 


Oil of rose 1 gramme. 

Oil of angelica 1 gramme. 

Oil of orris 3 grammes. 

Tincture of vanilla. . . .10 grammes. 


Oil of rose 6 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 4 grammes. 

Oil of citron 2 grammes. 

Oil of cinnamon 2 grammes. 

Oil of clove 2 grammes. 

Oil of lavender 1 gramme. 

Oil of pimento 1 gramme. 


Oil of rose 1 gramme. 

Oil of cinnamon 2 grammes. 

Oil of clove 9 grammes. 

Oil of lemon 8 grammes. 

Tincture of vanilla 24 grammes. 

Antiseptic Mouth Washes. 

Notwithstanding the fact that some 
observers have deprecated the general 
and indiscriminate use of antiseptic 
mouth washes on the ground that they 
destroy the benign and malign bacteria 
alike such preparations are still called 


Benzoic acid 5 grains. 

Thymol 1 grain. 

Oil of peppermint 5 minims. 

Tincture of eucalyptus. . .1 dram. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

A teaspoonful to a tumbler of warm 


Benzoic acid 45 grains. 

Thymol 3 grains. 

Tincture of eucalyptus.. 4 drams. 

Oil of wintergreen 25 minims. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 


Thymol 1 part. 

Benzoic acid 12 parts. 

Tincture of eucalyptus 

(French Codex) 48 parts. 

Water 3,200 parts. 


Salicylic acid 10 grains. 

Oil of peppermint 5 minims. 

Compound tincture of 

lavender 20 minims. 

Alcohol 4 drams. 

Water, to make 1 ounce. 

A teaspoonful to a tumbler of warm 


Salicylic acid 30 grains. 

Saccharin 15 grains. 



Sodium bicarbonate.... 15 grains. 

Alcohol 3 Ms ounces. 

A few drops in a glass of water, to 
be used as a gargle for the relief of a 
fetid mouth. 


Powdered white castile 

soap 1 dram. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.)... 6 ounces. 

Water 6 ounces. | 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Oil of wintergreen < nat- 
ural) 30 minims. 

Oil of cloves 10 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon 20 minims. 

Oil of peppermina 20 minims. 

Tincture of vanilla % ounce. 

Carmine (No. 40) enough. 

Dissolve the soap in the water by 
the aid of heat (if necessary), add the 
glycerin and tincture of vanilla; dis- 
solve the oils in the alcohol and add 
this solution to the one first formed, 
color with the carmine and filter. 

Dentifrices for Pyorrhea. 

We suggest to the druggist the blend- 
ing of fluidextract of ipecac with the 
tooth paste or mouth wash that he 
prepares already. He should bear in 
mind, however, that alkaloids are pre- 
cipitated by alkalies, and that the 
paste or wash should therefore be 
either neutral or faintly acid. 

Mild Acid Mouth Wash. 

Thymol 2 grains. 

Menthol 2 grains. 

Solution of formaldehyde 8 minims. 

Glycerite of borogylcerin 1 ounce. 

Oil of pinus sylvestris. .15 minims. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Purified talc enough. 

Distilled water, to make S ounces. 

Use one part to three or four parts of 
water. (This formula is by a dentist, 
but we do not approve of the use of 
formaldehyde in tooth preparations, 
even in small proportions; it seems that 
it might be omitted from the above 
without detriment.) 

Alkaline Mouth Wash. 

Sodium boro-benzoate 

(N. F.) 12 drams. 

Resorcinol 80 grains. 

Glycerin 4 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 2 minims. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Oil of cinnamon S minims. 

Eucalyptol $ minims 

Purified talc enough. 

Distilled water, to make 1 pint. 
Use one part to three or lour parts 
Of water. 

Eau de Botot. 
French Formula. 

Anise 10 ounces. 

Cochineal % ounce. 

Mace 150 grains. 

Cloves 150 grains. 

Cinnamon 2 % ounces. 

Alcohol 6 pints. 

Oil of peppermint % ounce. 

English Formula. 
Tincture of red cedar 

wood 8 pints. 

Tincture of myrrh 2 pints. 

Tincture of rhatany.... 2 pints. 

Oil of lavender % ounce. 

Oil of peppermint 1 ounce. 

Oil of rose 150 grains. 

Astringent Mouth Wash. 

Tincture of myrrh 5 ounces. 

Compound tincture of 

cardamom 2 ounces. 

Compound tincture of 

cinchona 5 ounces. 

Spirit of cloves 1 ounce. 

Cologne water 1 ounce. 

One teaspoonful is mixed with a 
tumbler of water and the mixture used 
as a mouth wash. 

Astringent Alkaline Mouth Wash. 

Sodium borate 2 drams. 

Sodium salicylate....... 1 dram. 

Glycerin 3 drams. 

Fluidextract of eucalyp- 
tus rostrata. 3 drams. 

Solution of formaldehyde 6 minims. 

Oil of sassafras 1 minim. 

Oil of wintergreen 12 minims. 

Purified talc enough. 

Distilled water, to make 4 ounces. 

Use one part to three or four parts 
of water. (See note appended to the 
formula for Mild Acid Mouth Wash in 
adjoining column.) 

Phenol Mouth Wash. 

Phenol 3.125 grammes. 

Sodium hydroxide. 0.340 gramme. 

Triple orange flow- 
er water 25.000 grammes. 

Triple rose water. 12.500 grammes. 

Solution of cudbear 12.500 grammes. 

Water, to make. . .100.000 grammes. 

This solution is used as an antiseptic 
mouth wash after tooth extraction, and 
in dental caries, a teaspoonful being 
added to a wineglass full of water for 
that purpose. 


Talbot (Journ. Am. Med. Asso.) rec- 
ommends iodine as the best oral anti- 
septic. To overcome the objection to 
the tincture, due to the fact that in 
frequent applications it injures the mu- 
cous membrane of the mouth, he sug- 



gests the use of a mixture which has 
the following formula: 

Water 2 parts. 

Zinc iodide 3 parts. 

Iodine (crystals) 5 parts. 

Glycerin 10 parts. 

Eau Dentifrice 


Star anise 7.5 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint.. 1.0 mil. 

Anethol 1.0 mil. 

Red saunders 1.0 gramme. 

Alcohol 100.0 mils. 

Macerate for two weeks, then filter 
and add enough alcohol to make 100 

For use as a mouth wash, take 
about 10 drops to a tumbler of water. 
Oil of spearmint. 10.0 grammes. 

Oil of anise 2.0 grammes. 

Oil of star anise... 2.0 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 2.0 grammes. 

Oil of cinnamon.. 1.0 gramme. 

Oil of rose 0.1 gramme. 

Tincture of ben- 
zoin 10.0 grammes. 

Tincture of cochi- 
neal 8.0 grammes. 

Alcohol (90%), to 

make 1,000.0 mils. 

Green Soap Tooth Wash 

Green soap 50 grammes. 

Glycerin 100 mils. 

Alcohol 500 mils. 

Distilled water, to 

make 1.000 mils. 

Flour enough. 

Solution of car- 
mine to color. 

Caldwell's Tooth Wash 

Tincture of green soap. 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Water 6 ounces. 

Alcohol 6 ounces. 

Oil of peppermint 15 minims. 

Oil of wintergreen 

(synthetic) 15 minims. 

Oil of cloves 3 minims. 

Oil of cassia 3 minims. 

Compound tincture of 

cochineal to color. 

Mix the alcohol and the water; add 
the glycrin and the tincture of green 
soap; then add the oils, previously 
mixed: and lastly color with the com- 
pound tincture of cochineal. Let the 
mixture stand twenty -four hours, and 
then filter. 

Caldwell emphasizes two points CI) 

that the green soap used must be soft. 

almost neutral, made from cottonseed 

oil. and entirely free from odor, such 

- ip being on the market; and (2) 

that the compound tincture of cochi- 
neal must be made according to the 
following formula, and added last: — 

Compound Tincture of Cochineal. 

Cochineal, bruised. . .125 grammes. 
Potassium carbonate. 20 grammes. 
Diluted alcohol, to 

make 500 mils. 

Macerate until exhausted, and filter. 

Liquid Dentifrice Containing Salol 

Salol % ounce. 

Alcohol 28 oun< 

Oil of peppermint 1% drams. 

Oil of wintergreen.... 10 minims. , 

Oil of cloves 20 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon 25 minims. 

Saccharin < soluble > ... . V6 dram. 

Distilled water 12 ounces. 

A salol preparation needs careful 
adjustment. The proportion of sac- 
charin is a delicate item; this denti- 
frice should not suffer from over- 
sweetness. A sweet dentifrice is 
sickly: 15 grammes to the pint of 60 
per cent, spirit makes a preparation 
sweet enough for the general taste. 
It should be colored with magenta so- g, 

Hydrogen Dioxide Mouth Wash 

Solution of hydrogen dioxide is so 
unstable a preparation that we doubt 
the feasibility — or the advisability, a: 
any rate — of combining it with the 
organic materials usually found in 
tooth washes, for bottling as a stock 
preparation. Liberation of gas would 
eventually be apt to end in an explo- 
sion. Two formulas for such prepar- 
ations follow: — 


Alcohol 75 mils. 

Menthol 1 gramme. 

Thymol 1 gramme. 

Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide 180 mils. 

Tincture of krameria. 5 mils. 


Prinz (Interstate Med. Journ.) says 
that it is impossible completely to 
sterilize the buccal cavity, and also in. 
advisable. To produce a mild anti- 
septic effect safely and pleasantly he 
suggests the use of the following: — 

Resorcinol 1 dram. 

Zinc chloride 10 grains. 

Menthol 20 grains. 

Thymol 15 grains. 

Oil of wintergreen 15 minims. 

Alcohol 2 ounci - 

Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide 3 ounces. 

"Water, to make 8 ounces. 

One teaspoonful of this liquid is di- 
luted with half a tumblerful of water 
and used in the customary manner. 



Eucalymol Mouth Wash 

Thymol 1 gramme. 

Benzoic acid 12 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint... 2 mils. 

Oil of gaultheria 1 mil. 

Tincture of eucalyp- 
tus 60 mils. 

Alcohol 400 mils. 

Distilled water, to 

make 500 mils. 


An appeal for information concern- 
ing the above named dental prepara- 
tion brought a response from Harry 
B. Palmer, of New* York, who states 
that he furnishes the dentists of his 
neighborhood with the preparation 
made by the following recipe: — 

Beechwood creosote. ... % oun*e. 

Solution of formaldehyde % ounce. 

Alcohol enough. 

Mix the creosote and solution of for- 
maldehyde, shake and add just enough 
alcohol — one drop at a time until a 
clear solution results. Usually five 
drops are sufficient. 

B. D. Cooley gives us the following 
information on the subject: 

You ask for help on oxpara. The 
following is supposed to be a prepara- 
tion of similar character: 

Oxpara Powder 

Tannic acid 5 grains. 

Thymol 3 grains. 

Alum 5 grains. 

Zinc oxide 2 drams. 

Mix well by trituration. 

Oxpara Liquid 


Formaldehyde solution (40 per cent.) 
of each, equal parts. 

Mix and add five drops of glycerin to 
the ounce. 

Various Mouth Washes 
Linckersdorff gives in the Pharma- 
ceutische Zeitung a number of for- 
mulas for mouth washes which he has 
found in various publications, among 
them being the following. 

According to the Parfumeur this 
well-known Swedish mouth wash con- 
sists of: 

Boric acid 50 parts. 

Tincture of cloves 25 parts. 

Borax 5 parts. 

Water 4,000 part*. 

Quinosol Mouth Wash. 

Quinosol ;?(1 parts. 

Glycerin 100 parts. 

Rose water 900 parts. 

Carmine enough. 

Thymol Mouth Wash. 

Thymol 0.3 gramnv:-. 

Alcohol 160.0 grammes. 

Rose geranium oil.. 15 drops. 

Calamus oil 10 drops. 

Glycerin 120.0 grammes. 

Venetian soap 16.0 grammes. 

Sassafras oil 15 drops. 

Eucalyptus oil 6 drops. 

Pine needle oil 40 drops. 

Distilled water 700 grammes. 

Pleasantly Flavored Mouth Wash. 
Powdered angelica root. 25 parts. 
Powdered anise seed. ... 30 parts. 

Powdered cinnamon 6 parts. 

Powdered nutmeg 3 parts. 

Powdered cloves 10 parts. 

Alcohol (90 Vc) 1,000 parts. 

Vanillin 1 part. 

Peppermint oil 8 parts. 

Tincture of cochineal. . . enough. 
Salol Mouth Wash. 

Salol 4 to 10 parts. 

Spearmint oil 2 parts. 

Oil of cloves 1 part. 

Oil of cinnamon lpart. 

Oil of star anise lpart. 

Alcohol, to make 400 parts. 

Lactic Acid Mouth Wash. 

Lactic acid 40 parts. 

Cochineal 1 part. 

Oil of peppermint 30 parts. 

Oil of cloves 3 parts. 

Oil of cinnamon 6 parts. 

Distilled water 400 parts. 

Alcohol 1,600 parts. 

Peroxide Mouth Wash. 
Solution of hydrogen 

dioxide 2.50 grammes. 

Peppermint oil 1 drop. 

Ponceau R. R 0.01 gramme. 


In the supplement to the Dutch 
Pharmacopoeia the following is given as 
the formula of an ecpuivalent of odol: 

Salol 5,000 grammes. 

Oil of peppermint. 1.000 gramm?. 

Oil of clove 0.040 gramme. 

Oil of fennel 0.040 gramme. 

Saccharin 0.004 gramme. 

Alcohol 190.000 grammes. 

It is said that odol contains no salol 
introduced as such, but that the aro- 
matic constituents are partly in the 
form of salicylic esters. A little ex-. 
perimentation with salicylates of the 
aromatic hydrocarbons might well re- 
pay any prospective manufacturer of 
a dentifrice who could appreciate the 
value of an individualized preparation. 

Zinc Chloride Mouth Washes 
We do not know the composition of 
vernas lotion. We are informed, how- 
ever, by a pharmacist who is also a 
dentist that it contains 1 per cent, of 



zinc chloride and 10 per cent, of al- 
cohol. He adds that lavoris is a mouth 
wash each liter of which contains ap- 
proximately — 

Zinc chloride 2.08 grammes. 

Resorcinol 1.04 grammes. 

Menthol 0.80 gramme. 

Saccharin 0.40 gramme. 

Solution of formalde- 
hyde 0.40 gramme. 

Oil of cinnamon (Cey- 
lon) 1.60 grammes. 

Oil of cloves .' . 0.40 gramme. 

For our own part we seriously ob- 
ject to the formaldehyde item, and 
should omit it if we were making this 

Our pharmaceutico-dental friend fur- 
ther states that if he were going to use 
zinc chloride as a mouth wash he 
would prescribe some such mixture as 
the following: 

Zinc chloride 1.000 gramme. 

Alcohol 10.000 grammes. 

Eucalyptol 1.125 gramme. 

Oil of cinnamon.. 0.120 gramme. 

Oil of peppermint. 0.150 gramme. 

Distilled water, to 

make 100.000 grammes. 

One part to be used with three or 
four parts of water. 

Mint-Leaf Mouth Wash 

Fresh spearmint 

twigs 20 grammes. 

Fresh vervain leaves 25 grammes. 
Linden flowering 

twigs 20 grammes. 

Star anise 15 grammes. 

Glycyrrhizin 10 grammes. 

Soluble saccharin... 1 gramme. 

Glycerin 20 grammes. 

Citric acid 3 grammes. 

Distilled spearmint 

water, to make. .. .1000 mils. 
Water-soluble chlo- 

rophyl enough. 

Mix all the ingredients but the color- 
ing in a suitable covered vessel; heat 
gently and slowly bring to a boil; con- 
tinue the boiling for half an hour; cool; 
filter; and add the coloring. 

Peppermint Mouth Wash 

Thymol 0.5 gramme. 

Phenol 2.0 grammes. 

Sodium borate 5.0 grammes. 

Spirit of peppermint 15.0 mils. 

Rose water 200.0 mils. 

Distilled water 300.0 mils. 

Rubifoam Type of Dentrifrice 

Castile soap 270 grains. 

Glycerin 4V2 drams. 

Simple syrup 2 ounces. 

Water 14 ounces. 

Alcohol 13 ounces. 

Tincture of cardamom.. 2 drams. 

Tincture of Canada 

snake root (1 in 16).. 2 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 25 minims. 

Oil of wintergreen 25 minims. 

Oil of cloves 6 drop-. 

Oil of cassia 6 drops. 

Solution of carmine. . . to color. 

Mix the soap, glycerin, syrup and 
water, stir well, add the alcohol, then 
the remainder of the ingredients, let 
the mixture stand a few days, and filter 
at a low temperature uo avoid a sub- 
sequent separation of the soap). 

Myrrh Mouth Washes 

Mouth washes containing myrrh are 
very popular in England. 

Those that contain enough myrrh to 
be effective precipitate when mixed 
with water. Some suggestive formulas 
are given : 


Sodium bicarbonate 1% drams- 

Ammonium carbonate.. 6 grains- 
Tincture of myrrh 1 dram, 

Cologne Avater 3 drams. 

Lavender water 1 dram. 

Distilled water, to make 6 ounces. 
We doubt whether the food and drug 
officials would permit such a prepara- 
tion to be labeled "myrrh" mouth wash. 


A contributor who has had experi- 
ence in English pharmacies in Paris, 
Rome and Cairo, furnishes the follow- 
ing recipe as the most satisfactory that 
he has tried: 

Powdered myrrh 6 ounces. 

Borax 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 120 ounces. 

Syrup 24 ounces. 

Rose water 24 ounces. 

Tincture of krameria... 4 drams. 

Macerate for 10 days and filter. Then 
add to the filtrate 

Oil of neroli 30 minims. 

Oil of lemon 30 minims. 

Oil of rosemary 30 minims. 

Sozodont Type of Tooth Wash 


White castile soap \4 ounce. 

Oil of peppermint 5 drops. 

Oil of wintergreen 12 drops. 

Glycerin % ounce. 

Water 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Cochineal color N. F . . . to color. 


Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Soap 2 drams. 

Oil of wintergreen 2 minims. 

Red saunders. to color. 

Water, to make 3 ounces. 




White soap 5 drams. 

Glycerin 5 drams. 

Water 2% ounces. 

Oil of peppermint 12 minims. 

Oil of cinnamon 5 minims. 

Oil of cloves 5 minims. 

Oil of anise 10 minims. 

Alcohol 5 ounces. 

For Inflammation of the Gums 

Boric acid 8 grammes. 

Glycerin 10 mils. 

Tincture of krameria. 15 mils. 
Peppermint water.... 60 mils. 

Distilled water 200 mils. 

Use as a mouth wash three or four 
times a day. 

Dental Soap 

Mix 500 grammes of glycerin, and 
500 grammes of neutral olive-oil soap; 
beat in 10 mils of oil of spearmint, 2 
mils of oil of star anise, 8 mils of 
methyl salicylate, and enough solution 
of carmine to produce a desirable tint. 

Cochin cocoanut oil 1.000 parts. 

Soda lye, 28 B 500 parts. 

Calcium carbonate 1,000 parts. 

Light red, soluble 3 parts. 

Peppermint oil 35 parts. 

Anisol 3 parts. 

Clove oil 4 parts. 

Bergamot oil 5 parts. 

Tincture of myrrh 15 parts. 

Mix and make a soap. 

Precipitated chalk... .160 grammes. 

Carmine (dissolved in 

ammonia water).... 4 grammes. 

Powdered soap 100 grammes. 

Peppermint oil 10 grammes. 

Syrup enough. 

Glycerin enough. 

Alcohol enough. 

It is said that a soap made of oil of 
theobroma (100 parts and 50 per cent, 
solution of sodium hydroxide, 40 parts) 
has a bland taste and lathers profusely. 

Proper Proportion of Soap in a 
Tooth Wash 

Relative to the cause and prevention 
of precipitation in saponaceous tooth 
washes Paul Caldwell, writing in The 
Druggists Circular, said: 

Personal experience has taught me 
that by placing the saponaceous tooth 
wash on ice and afterward filtering. 
any excess of soap is removed and no 
further precipitate occurs. It might be 
well to add that the formula upon 
which this statement is based directs 
65 per cent, of alcohol, and in a 48- 

gallon lot it was found that 4 pounds 
of soap was all that was retained in 

The solubility of soap in diluted al- 
cohol is diminished by the presence of 
an animal fat, pure olive oil soap being 
much more soluble than the so-called 
"white" soaps. 

Breath Cachous. 

Powdered sugar 1 ounce. 

Powdered vanilla choco- 
late 1 ounce. 

Powdered willow char- 
coal 2 drams. 

Tincture of cinnamon . . 24 minims. 

Mucilage of acacia enough. 


Oil of peppermint 4 drams. 

Oil of cloves 75 minims. 

Mastic 6 drams. 

Cascarilla 6 drams. 

Orris root 6 drams. 

Acacia 1 % ounces. 

Catechu 2% ounces. 

Extract of licorice 20 ounces. 

Water enough. 

Boil the solid drugs, which should be 
in powdered form, with the water, un- 
til a pasty mass is obtained, then add 
the liquids, and, when cooled to a 
proper consistency, cut or roll into the 
desired size or shape. 

Licorice extract 3 ounces. 

Catechu 1 ounce. 

Sugar 1 ounce. 

Tragacanth .••••% ounce. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Oil of cassia 30 minims. 

Oil of nutmeg 10 drops. 

Water enough. 

Sen-Sen Flavor. 


Calamus 2 or 3 ounces. 

Saigon cinnamon.. 2 ounces. 

Cardamom % or % ounce. 

Cloves % ounce. 

Extract of licorice. 2 ounces. 

Tincture of musk.. 15 minims. 

Sugar 2 ounces. 


Extract of licorice 2 ounces. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Oil of cinnamon 10 drops. 

Odontalgic Balsams. 

These preparations are generally 
concentrated alcoholic or ethereal so- 
lutions of one or more resins. The 
following are typical formulas: 

Sandarac 12 parts. 

Mastic 5 parts. 

Amber 1 part. 

Ether 15 parts. 



Mastic 23 parts. 

Absolute alcohol 33 parts. 

Tolu balsam 9 parts. 

Dissolve the mastic in the alcohol: 
add the tolu and promote solution with 
the aid of a gentle heat, shaking occa- 

Triturate the phenol with the cam- 
phor; add the chloroform, and then the 
oil of cajeput. 

For Breath Fetor. 
Potassium perman- 
ganate 1.5 grammes. 

Distilled water 250.0 mils. 

To be used as a rinse for the mouth 
two or three times a day. 

Potassium chlorate.. 2 grammes. 

Sodium borate 1 gramme. 

Glycerin 8 mils. 

Bitter almond water. 25 mils. 
Wintergreen water, to 

make 100 mils. 

Use as directed above. 

Wadsworth's Oral Antiseptic. 

Sodium chloride.... 2.0 grammes. 

Sodium bicarbonate 0.5 gramme. 

Glycerin 15 mils. 

Oil of gaultheria. . . 0.1 mil. 

Alcohol 100.0 mils. 

Distilled water, to 

make 200.0 mils. 

For use. dilute with an equal part of 
warm water. 

Toothache Drops and Anti-Pain 


Spirit of camphor 4 drams. 

Spirit of ammonia 2 drams. 

Oil of sassafras 2 drams. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Chloroform 2 drams. 

Oil of turpentine 2 drams. 

Alcohol, to make 2% ounces. 

This may be applied either in the 
hollow of the tooth or. if the tooth has 
no hollow, then on the gums. Indeed, 
it is a good all-round liniment and 
counter-irritant and may be rubbed on 
the outside of the jaw with good effect. 

Neverfail Toothache Oil. 

Creosote 5 drams. 

Chloroform 5 drams. 

Oil of cloves 5 drams. 

Oil of peppermint 5 drams. 

Oil of camphor 6 drams. 

Phenol 6 drams. 


Phenol 4 drams. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Chloroform 2 ounces. 

Oil of cajeput, to make. . 4 ounces. 

Camphor and Phenol Toothache 

Camphor 8 grammes. 

Chloroform 15 mils. 

Oil of cloves 15 mils. 

Liquefied phenol 4 mils. 

Compound tincture of 

benzoin 30 mils. 

Toothache Gum 

.Menthol 2 grammes. 

Pyrethrum root, in fi- 
nest powder 2 grammes. 

Guaiac 2 grammes. 

Yellow wax (melted).. 4 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 10 drops. 

Oil of cajeput 10 drops. 

Mix into pellets and dust with pow- 
dered clo\ , 


Hard paraffin i dram. 

Burgundy pitch l dram. 

Oil of cloves 20 minims. 

Creosote 20 minims. 

Melt the first two ingredients to- 
gether, and when they are nearlv cold 
add the other two. 


Phenol 4 ounces. 

Menthol 30 grains. 

Thymol 30 grains. 

Collodion enough. 

Use a 1-dram vial; fill it about half 
full with the phenol, in which the men- 
thol and the thymol have be^n dis- 
solved; then add about % dram of col- 
lodion and shake. A nice jelly is the 

Directions: Put a small quantity of 
the jelly in the cavity of the tooth and 
cover it with cotton; repeat in five 
minutes if not relieved. Be careful not 
to get it on the lips. 

Toothache Wax 


Wax 200.0 grammes. 

Venice turpentine... 85.0 grammes. 
Powdered mastic... 32.5 grammes. 
Powdered opium. ... 1.2 grammes. 
Hydrated chloral.... 1.0 gramme. 

Melt the three together, then add the 
other ingredients and stir frequently 
while cooling. 


Oil of clove 2 drams. 

Phenol 6 ounces. 

Wax 1 ounce. 

Mix and liquefy by the aid of g< 
heat and then introduce thin layers ol 3 



absorbent cotton. When sufficiently 
cool roll the cotton into the shape of 
rods and cut into appropriate sizes for 
introduction into the hollow of an ach- 
ing- tooth. 

British Toothache Essence 

Oil of cloves 2 drams. 

Chloroform 3 drams. 

Camphor 4 drams. 

Phenol 4 drams. 

Oil of turpentine 8 drams. 

Alcohol 8 drams. 

London Toothache Drops 

Oil of cloves % ounce. 

Phenol 3 ounces. 

Cochineal color % ounce. 

Glycerin G ounces. 

Toothache Tincture 

Phenol 1 Vz drams. 

Capsicum 2 drams. 

Pulverized opium 2 drams. 

Oil of cloves 4 drams. 

Choloroform 5 ounces. 

Tooth Application 

A remedy which it was said would 
"relieve any toothache which will suc- 
cumb to medicines," given by a county 
physician is composed of: Creosote, 
chloroform, oil of cloves of each 10 
parts; camphor, 7 parts; phenol, 3 

Chloroform Toothache Drops 

Chloroform 3 ounces. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 3 drams. 

Tincture of myrrh 4 drams. 

Three Ols Toothache Drops 

Phenol 2 grammes. 

Menthol 2 grammes. 

Eugenol 1 mil. 

Three C's Toothache Drops 

Chloral hydrate 5 grammes. 

Camphor 5 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 10 mils. 

Toothache Paste 

Mix phenol and sodium bicarbonate 
in the proper proportion to make a 
paste of the desired consistency. 

Dental Mummifying Paste 


Zinc oxide 140 grains. 

Thymol 30 grains. 

Alum io grains. 

Mix thoroughly. 


Formadlehyde equal parts. 

Mix thoroughly. 

For use make a paste by kneading 
together the required amount of the 
two mixtures. 

H. H. Brinkman says that he has 
used this paste and knows it to be 
good; that only the best materials 
should be employed in making it, and 
that some skill is required to place the 
paste properly in the root canals. Pre- 
sumably by "formaldehyde" he means 
the official solution. 

Dental Enamel 

Zinc oxide, 120 grains; nitric acid 
enough. Moisten the oxide with the 
acid; evaporate to dryness; calcine 
cool and powder. When required for 
use make into a stiff paste with phos- 
phoric acid. 

A transparent tooth-filling which has 
been patented in Germany is made as 
follows: An aluminum silicate having 
the composition AkOaSiO* is prepared 
by adding a solution of water-glass and 
sodium hydroxide to a solution of an 
aluminum salt. On drying over sul- 
phuric acid or on gently igniting the 
silicate is obtained nearly free from 
water. Mix 4 to 6 parts of the alum- 
inum silicate thus obtained with 8 
parts of a melted mixture of calcium 
oxide, 1: silica (SiO:;), 2; aluminum 
oxide, 1. When required for use the 
product is mixed with phosphoric acid 
(sp. gr. 1.50), containing about 150 
Krammes of aluminum oxide to the 



Hair Tonics — Pomades — Brilliantines — Shampoos — Dyes. 
Always consult the index n>hen using this book. 

As to Baldness and Concerning Hair 


Those who have made a scientific 
study of the hair are very backward 
about recommending "tonics" or "in- 
vigorators" for the same, although 
fakers and quacks will guarantee their 
hair nostrums to work almost any 
wonder short of making a porcelain 
doorknob resemble the head of the Cir- 
cassian beauty in the side show. 

Lassar's Method. 
Lassar. who is one of the men who 
had studied the subject of falling hair. 
has recommended a treatment for the 
scalp which is described in The Drug- 
gists Circular as follows: 

Treatment and Prevention of Baldness. 

At first the scalp is shampooed once daily: 
later, as the falling of the hair decreases, 
less frequently with soap and hot water, 
then irrigated with tepid and finally with cold 
water. Any good aoap may be employed, but 
the author has found tar soap and liquid tar 
soap particularly serviceable. For blond 
women's hair he uses the following: 

Potassium carbonate 15 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate 15 grammes. 

Powdered soap 70 grammes. 

Rose water 100 grammes. 

After drying the part with warm cloths or 
by fanning or electrical means, the roots of 
the hair are moistened with a 3 to 5 in 3.000 
solution of corrosive sublimate colored red 
with cosin. The corrosive sublimate tablets 
on the market are convenient for preparing 
this solution, and a little glycerin and rose 
water may be added. To relieve any itching 
present, the addition of 0.2 per cent, of 
phenol is recommended. After the sublimate 
solution has evaporated, the hair is rubbed 
until again dry with the following: 

Thymol 0.5 gramme. 

Alcohol 200.0 grammes. 


Beta-naphthol 0.5 gramme. 

Absolute alcohol 200.0 grammes. 

Finally, the hair is slightly annointed with 
the following: 

Salicylic acid 1 gramme. 

Tincture of benzoin 2 grammes. 

Olive oil (or petrolatum) .. .50 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 15 drops. 

In obstinate cases tar liniment may be ap- 
plied with benefit as the first step of the pro- 
cedure, and removed in ten minutes by the 
shampoo with soap. For the treatment of 
alopecia areata this is even recommended. 

Finally, inunction at bedtime with a 10 per 
cent, ointment of turpentine oil in wool fat 
(having regard for any possible irritation of 
the scalp) or with a phenol and sulphur oint- 
ment of the following composition is al?o rec- 
ommended. " 

Phenol 1 gramme. 

Sublimed sulphur 10 grammes. 

Balsam of Peru 2 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 15 drops. 

Wool fat, to make 50 grammes. 

In some cases there may be efficacy 
in this mode of procedure. As one of 
the fakers said to us some time ago 
when in conversation with him we ex- 
pressed an opinion of the hair nos- 
trums: "Well, anyhow, probably the 
rubbing and the cleaning and the gen- 
eral attention given to the hair, made 
necessary by the following of direc- 
tions on the 'restorer' bottle, does 

In a little book on the care of the 
skin and hair by Dr. Pusey, recently 
published, we read: 

Of course, the hairs are as much a part of 
the skin as the nails or the horny layer it- 
self. In their arrangement in the skin and in 
their form there is a resemblance to plants 
growing out of the ground, but the resem- 
blance goes «no further. The hairs are not 
independent living structures growing out of 
the skin like grass or wheat stalks out of the 
ground. They are rather like the leaves of a 
tree — a part of its structure, with no inde- 
pendent existence and dependent upon the 
trunk for sustenance. As a matter of fact. 
hairs are hardly living structures at all; above 
the papilla for a very short distance up the 
hair follicle the hair is a succulent, living 
structure — like the deeper layer of the surface 
epidermis — but for the rest of its length It Is 
a dense bristle of insensitive horn. For all of 
ita length above the surface of the skin and 
for seven-eighths of it in the follicle the hair 
is without life. There is no circulation of 
vital fluid through it, like sap in a plant; it 
does not "breathe" like a plant. It is, in 
short, a finished structure made by th» un- 
derlying tissues for a mechanical purpose and 
not further participating in vital activity. 
This would seem to be self-evident upon a 
moment's consideration, and yet most of the 
popular conception of the hair and all of the 
nostrum vendor's hair remedies are based 
upon the theory that the hairs are living 
structures growing out of the scalp like plants 
out of a bed, to be sprinkled and fertilized and 
fed like plants. The hairs are not nourished 
that way. They get their sustenance, like 
every structure of the body, from the blood. 
They are very sensitive to alterations in this 
supply, so that we see the condition of the 
hair influenced by many disorders of the gen- 
eral health. Of course the hair Is also in- 
fluenced greatly by local disorders, just as the 
skin in general is. * * • 

Shampooing often enough to keep the scalp 
clean is the best measure the individual him- 
self can carry out to prevent or overcome 
dandruff. If there is a tendency to dandruff, 
shampooing once a week, or even at shorter 
intervals, is not too often, provided care is 
taken to dry the hair thoroughly. This sham- 
poo is best taken with tar or sulphur soap. 




Corrosive sublimate swap is also useful in 
these cases, and it is not dangerous to use on 
the unbroken scalp. As a further measure of 
cleanliness and as an antiseptic, the frequent 
application of alcohol to the scalp isi very use- 
ful in combating dandruff. It dissolves some 
of the oil from the hair and scalp, and if it 
causes the hair to become too dry, this can 
be overcome by adding from one to five or 
six teaspoonfuls of castor oil, according to the 
indications of the case, to each pint of alcohol. 
For men, simply wetting the scalp with al- 
cohol is sufficient; in the case of the long 
hair of women, it is better applied by parting 
the hair in various places and rubbing on the 
alhocol with a small sponge. Another useful 
application is sixty grains of sulphur to an 
ounce of petrolatum, to be rubbed into the 
scalp at intervals of a few days; 

Aside from avoiding sources of infection, 
these are the most efficient measures that 
the individual can use for himself. For aid 
beyond such measures as these, the attention 
of a physician is needed, for the cases require 
individual attention, and even with this the 
successful treatment is difficult. * * * 

Mistreatment of the hair is also an impor- 
tant factor in the production of baldness. 
Daily wetting of the hair, especially if no 
attention is given to drying it, keeping it 
poor in oil by excessive use of soap and 
water without supplying any fat in place of 
that removed, failure to keep it clean, ex- 
cessive exposure to sunlight, the indiscrimi- 
nate use of drugs, particularly "hair tonics," 
and overzealous treatment by barbers and 
hair dressers — all of these causes are influen- 
tial in the production of baldness and are to 
be guarded against, particularly in the care 
of the hair of those who have already a pre- 
disposition to the condition. . . . 

The promiscous application of "hair tonics" 
and other nostrums is regarded by some 
authorities as an important cause of bald- 
ness. In my experience I have not been par- 
ticularly impressed by that fact, although I 
believe "that these haphazard applications, with- 
out any regard to the indications of the indi- 
vidual case, are at least valueless. The same 
is true of the numerous activities of the 
barbers and hairdressers, when their efforts 
go beyond the use of measures directed merely 
to cleansing the hair and scalp. Their singeing 
the hairs, their various methods of massage, 
"hair tonics" and "hair restorers" and "scalp 
treatments" applied indiscriminately without 
intelligent appreciation of the indications to 
be met, may be harmful; they are at best 
useless forms of diversion. There is no ob- 
jection, however, to a good shampoo by a 
careful and clean barber or hairdresser. Hav- 
ing it done for one is a form of luxury. 

Treatment of Baldness 

Dr. Leon-James, Methven, New Zea- 
land, after trying almost every remedy 
for baldness in print, says the Lancet- 
Clinic, was successful in three cases by 
using an ointment rubbed well into the 
patches night and morning. The oint- 
ment had the formula which follows: 

Chrysarobin 1 part. 

Hazeline cream 4 parts. 

Mix and heat to 300 degrees until dis- 
solved, and stir until cold. 

Weaker ointments were not success- 

Hazeline cream is a rather indefinite 
name. We imagine any suitable oint- 
ment base would be equally efficacious 
in this connection. 

It is suggested in the New York Med- 
ical Journal that crayons of chrysa- 
robin may be applied advantageously 
in pencil form. The directions are to 

rub the bald spots with pencils made 
of — 

Chrysarobin 16 parts. 

Rosin 3 parts. 

Beeswax 16 parts. 

Olive oil 16 parts. 

Lactic Acid for Baldness. 

Lactic acid is said by the Prescriber 
to have a specific action in alopecia 
areata. The following mixture has been 
used, according to the authority cited, 
in a number of cases with complete 

Lactic acid 2 drams. 

Castor oil 2 drams. 

Alcohol, to make 4 ounces. 

To be painted on the patches night 
and morning.' 

Value of a Hair Tonic 

The only satisfactory way to ascer- 
tain the efficacy of any therapeutic 
agent is by repeated experiments. 
These are usually conducted first on 
the lower animals and then on man. 
In the case of a "hair tonic" we think 
experiments on the lower animals 
would be of little use. Sometimes, 
when the effects of the several ingre- 
dients of a preparation for the hair are 
known, the results of the application 
of the preparation as a whole may be 
deduced. Maybe the writer is preju- 
diced against hair tonics. He has an 
idea that most of them are fakes, 
which pharmacists would do well to 
leave to street venders and barbers. 
Those which may seem to be the most 
efficacious at first may in the long run 
prove to be worse than useless, for 
there is always danger that over-stim- 
ulation of the hair follicles may result 
in the ultimate defeat of the very pur- 
pose for which the stimulating treat- 
ment was instituted. 

We have a rather well defined idea 
that the most powerful ingredient in 
all so-called hair growers is printers' 
ink publicity. Our reason for so think- 
ing is the fact that when this ingre- 
dient is withdrawn, the sales fall off at 
once and in time cease altogether, 
whereas, if the preparations actually 
did what is claimed for them, they 
would sell on the recommendations of 
those who use them if never advertised 
at all. Think it over. 

Crude Oil Hair Tonic 

Crude oil is generally applied as a 
hair tonic in its natural form, al- 
though the characteristic odor of the 
oil is sometimes more or less effectual- 
ly masked with aromatics. A bonafide 
crude oil hair "tonic'' would be a 
"shake" mixture and a far from "ele- 
gant" one. To offset the untoward 
psychological effect of the appearance 
of the mixture it should be marketed 



in opal-glass containers or in bottles 
completely covered with a paper wrap- 
per. A working formula follows: 

Crude petroleum 150 mils. 

Alcohol 450 mils. 

Oil of bay leaves 5 mils. 

Oil of pimento 5 mils. 

Oil of lavender 5 mils. 

Oil of cloves 2 mils. 

Water, to make 1,000 mils. 

Shake the crude oil with the aro- 
matic oils and 300 mils of alcohol. 
Add the rest of the alcohol mixed with 
300 mils of water; shake well for ten 
minutes and add enough water to 
make 1,000 mils. 

For making hair oils, crude oil from 
the Texas fields is preferable because 
of its greater sulphur content. 

Quinine Hair Tonics 


Quinine hydrochloride 1 dram. 

Tannic acid 2 Mi drams,. 

Tincture of cantharides.l Ms ounces. 

Glycerin 1 % ounces. 

Eau de cologne 10 drams. 

Vanillin 1% grains. 

Ground red saunders. ..7 Ms grains. 
Alcohol, to make 2 pints. 

Mix the several ingredients, and fil- 
ter after they have stood for five days. 
Quinine hydro- 
chloride 0.100 gramme. 

Diluted sul- 
phuric acid.... 0.625 mil. 

Chloroform 0.500 mil. 

Alcohol 20.000 mils. 

Glycerin 1.500 mils. 

Cologne water.... 1.500 mils. 
Spirit of pi- 

menta 25.000 mils. 

Tincture of 

cudbear 3-.000 mils. 

Rose water. to 

make 100.000 mils. 

Dissolve the alkaloidal salt in 40 mils 
of rose water; add the acid and then 
the other ingredients. 

Quinine 40 grains. 

Diluted hydrochloric 

acid 40 drops. 

Antiseptic solution 2 ounces. 

Water, to make 3 ounces. 

The term "hair tonic" is viewed with 
suspicion by those in charge of en- 
forcement of the food and drug laws. 
It will be much better to label the so- 
called tonics as "hair dressings." 

Quinine sulphate 2 parts. 

Tincture of krameria . . . . 4 parts. 
Tincture of cantharides . . 2 parts. 

Spirit of lavender 10 parts. 

Glycerin 15 parts. 

Alcohol 100 parts. 

Sulphur and Sage Hair Wash 
Both sulphur and sage enjoy a wide 
popularity as hair tonics; just to what 
extent this popularity is due to actual 
achievement is problematical. Sulphur 
is not applied directly to the hair— ex- 
cept in some cases in the shape of a 
pomade — but is shaken up with water 
and allowed to stand and settle, when 
the water is used as a hair wash. 
Sage is applied in the form of a hydro - 
alcoholic tincture. There seems to be 
no reason why the two remedies should 
not be combined into one. Possiblv 
they tend to keep the hair dark when 
it is dark, or to restore its natural 
color when it has turned white, hut we 
have doubts as to this. 

Sage Hair Tonic 
Fluidextract of sage... 8 ounces. 
Tincture of green soap. 7 ounces. 
Tincture of cantha- 
rides 1 Ms ounces. 

Glycerin 4 ounces. 

Menthol 2 ounces. 

Bay rum 16 ounces. 

Oil of bergamot 4 drams. 

Oil of sweet orange .... 4 drams. 

Alcohol 2 pints. 

Water, to make 1 gallon. 

Hair Dressing, Herpicide Style 

Boric acid 4 ounce*. 

Resorcinol 320 grains. 

Salicylic acid 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 fl. ozs. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Tincture of saffron 

(20 per cent.) 192 minims. 

Oil of bergamot 192 minims. 

Oil of lemon 4 drams. 

Water, to make 1 gallon. 

Hair Restorer 

It is claimed that a preparation 
made according to the formula below 
will "do the work": 
Purified beef mar- 
row 44.00 grammes. 

Expressed oil of * 

almonds 12.00 grammes. 

Expressed oil of 

nutmegs 5.00 grammes. 

Extract of can- 
tharides 0.25 gramme. 

Powdered c a m - 

phor 0.1 5 gramme. 

Balsam of tolu 0.30 gramme. 

Balsam of peru .... 12.00 grammes. 
Oil of rosemary.... 0.30 gramme 

Oil of cloves 0.15 gramme. 

Alcohol 2.00 grammes. 

Melt together on a water-bath the 
first three ingredients and strain the 
mixture into a mortar; triturate con- 
stantly, adding the extract of canthar- 
ides, the camphor and the balsam of 



tolu all previously mixed with the al- 
cohol; add then the balsam of peru 
and the volatile oils, and mix tho- 
roughly by trituration. 

Foaming Hair Tonic 

It is easy to make the foam; the 
hard part is to find the hair tonic. We 
do not know of one which we can con- 
fident ly and conscientiously recom- 
mend as harmless and effective, al- 
though water which has stood in con- 
tact with washed sulphur, we believe 
to be the former, and we have heard 
on what we regard as credible author- 
ity, that it is the latter — at least in 
some cases. "Whether such a water 
would be rendered less effective by the 
addition of some saponaceous material 
to make a foam we are unable to say. 

Tincture of green soap, diluted with 
(say an equal volume of) water makes 
a good foaming hair wash, and the 
same may be said of some of many 

A Low-Priced Hair Tonic 

Raby (Barb. Sup. Trade Journ.) says 
that by the following formula a cleans- 
ing, stimulating, germicidal, prepara- 
tion at a moderate cost may be made: 

Salicylic acid 2 ounces. 

Tincture of cantharides. . 2 ounces. 

Potassium carbonate 4 ounces. 

Boric acid 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Perfume enough. 

Water, to make 1 gallon. 

Dissolve the salicylic acid in the al- 
cohol; add the perfume and the tinc- 
ture. Dissolve the boric acid and the 
carbonate in 2 pints of water; add the 
glycerin; mix with the alcoholic liquid; 
and add enough water to make the 
specified quantity. The preparation 
may be colored if desired. 

Resorcinol and Chloral in a Hair 

A druggist has a customer whose 
white hair became streaked with yel- 
low after using the following mixture 
prescribed as a hair tonic: 

Corrosive mercuric 
chloride 3 grains. 

Resorcinol 4 drams. 

Quinine sulphate 15 grains. 

Chloral 2 drams. 

Tincture of capsicum... 2 drams. 

Tincture of cantharides. 4 drams. 

Alcohol, to make 8 ounces. 

"We take it that the trouble is caused 
by the resorcinol. This substance is 
prone to oxidation with the formation 
of phenolic compounds having tinc- 
torial properties; in fact, resorcinol Is 
sometimes used as a hair dye We 
\v*rc once told by the user of a quite 

similar preparation that when any 
other than a particular recrystallized 
resorcinol of the highest purity was 
used in compounding the "tonic" the 
hair and scalp of the user were stained 
a red-brown color by its application. 

Coloring of Resorcinol Hair 

A subscriber, having read in The 
Druggists Circular that another drug- 
gist wanted to know how to color a 
certain preparation containing resor- 
cinol which he makes up and offers as 
a hair tonic, is kind enough to write: 

I think that if he makes his hair 
tonic after formula given and does not 
add coloring matter, that, after stand- 
ing a short time, it will turn to a dark- 
amber color on account of the resor- 
cinol. We have noticed the above 
change and the color may be satisfac- 

Resorcinol Scalp Lotion Problem 

A reader submits to us the following 
prescription for a hair dressing: 

Resorcinol l % drams. 

Salicylic acid 2 drams. 

Alcohol (60%), to make 6 ounces. 

He states that when the product 
made by the recipe is rubbed into the 
scalp, it leaves the hair stiff and 
"singy," and wishes to know how this 
undesirable effect can be avoided. 

We know of several dermatologists 
who in writing similar prescriptions 
direct the use of 95 per cent, alcohol as 
the solvent and then order the addition 
of a small amount of castor oil, say 
from 2 drams to % ounce in a pint of 
finished preparation. 

Bear Grease Pomade. 

If the bear fat has been carefully 
rendered and is entirely free from ex- 
traneous animal matter, the making it 
into a pomade becomes a mere matter 
of so perfuming it as to mask the nat- 
ural odor of the grease, and adding 
some substance to preserve it. The se- 
lection, of a suitable perfume depends 
greatly upon the tastes of the future 
purchasers of the pomade. The oils of 
bergamot and lavender, which are very 
extensively used in perfuming hair oils 
and pomades, are good masks for the 
bear odor. Coumarin is another effi- 
cient contra -odorizer. as is also musk, 
which is quite popular with a certain 
class of pomade users. Here is a for- 

Bear's fat 1 pound. 

Benzoic acid 20 grains. 

Tincture of benzoin 2 ounces. 

Oil of bergamot enough. 

Oil of rosemary enough. 

Dissolve the acid in the tincture and 
incorporate the solution and the per- 



fumes with the fat by trituration. 

A more delicate perfume might be 
imparted to the pomade by the use of 
a mixture of handkerchief extracts and 
50 per cent, more benzoic acid. The 
following will give an odor resembling 
that of the pomade a graisse d'ours 
of the Paris shops: 

Extract of jasmine V 2 ounce. 

Extract of rose Y 2 ounce. 

Extract of tuberose % ounce. 

Oil of orange flowers". . . .15 minims. 

Oil of cassia 15 minims. 

Oil of bergamot 60 minims. 

Oil of nutmeg 15 minims. 

Oil of cloves 30 minims. 

Mix keep for ten days at a tempera- 
ture of about 32 deg. F. and Alter while 
still Aery cool. 

Resorcinol Hair Dressings 

In "How to Care for the Hair at All 
Times," the author, Juliet M. Lee. gives 
the following formula as one that "may 
be safely used by persons having light 
or dark hair, any condition of scalp," 
and "may be freely used without in- 
jurious effect": 

Resorcinol 1 dram. 

Chlorate hydrate 3 drams. 

Chloroform 6 drams. 

Eau de cologne 6 ounces. 

Rectified spirit 5 ounces. 

The following, which has appeared 
frequently in a number of medical 
journals, is credited to a "prominent 
dermatologist" of this city: 

Resorcinol 4 grammes. 

Betanaphthol 2 grammes. 

Chloral 8 grammes. 

Tincture of can- 

tharides 6 mils. 

Tincture of capsicum 4 mils. 

Castor oil 2 to 8 mils. 

Cologne water 120 mils. 

Bay rum, to make. . .500 mils. 

Coloring Hair Oil Red 

Alkannin, the coloring matter of al- 
kanet root, is soluble in oils, and it is 
customary in preparing a red tinted 
hair oil to macerate in the perfumed oil, 
enough of the ground root to give the 
tint desired — say about 1 ounce to the 
gallon. The root may also be made 
into an alcoholic tincture and then 

Some manufacturers qualify the red 
of the alkanet with a small amount of 
yellow, adding either tincture of cur- 
cuma or a trace of the certified color 
"85 orange I." 

Oil of bitter almond. 1.5 mils. 

Oil of clove 3.0 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 6.0 mils. 


Olive oil 100.0 mils. 

Spermaceti 30.0 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 2.5 mils. 

Oil of cloves 3.0 mil?. 

Oil of rose geranium 1.0 mil. 


Castor oil, best 1000 grammes. 

Alcohol 1000 mils. 

Oil of ylang-ylang.. . 5 grammes. 

Linalol 10 grammes. 

Terpineol 5 grammes. 

Tincture of benzoin.. 35 grammes. 

Castor oil 20 grammes. 

Medicinal soap 2 grammes. 

Sumatra benzoin 10 grammes. 

Alcohol 180 grammes. 

Oil of rose 1 drop. 

Oil of bergamot 5 drops. 

Mix, let stand and filter. 

Perfumed Hair Oil 

Castor oil 12 ounces. 

Alcohol 52 ounces. 

Oil of lemon % ounce. 

Oil of lavender 1 dram. 

Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Oil of cinnamon 10 drops. 

Oil of cloves 10 drops. 

Oil of citronella 10 drops. 

Tincture of turmeric... 1 dram. 



Suet 100.0 grammes. 

Spermaceti 50.0 grammes. 

Castor oil 50.0 mils. 


The following formula is said to rep- 
resent the mustache fixative used by 
one of the most famous Parisian hair 

Extract of malt 25 grammes. 

Alcohol 45 mils. 

Rose water 400 mils. 

Crystal Brilliantine 

Palmitin 500 grammes. 

Russian paraffin oil.. 3000 grammes. 
Saturated alcoholic 

solution of sodium 

hydroxide enough. 

Vanillin 7 grammes. 

Coumarin 7 grammes. 

Artificial musk 3 grammes. 

Oil of sweet orange. 25 mils. 

Oil of neroli 1 mil. 

Benzyl acetate 3 mils. 

Benzylic alcohol 3 mils. 

Fat-soluble chloro- 

phyl enough. 

Dissolve 400 grammes of the pal- 
mitin in 1,000 grammes of the oil with 
the aid of heat; saponify with the so- 
lution of sodium hydroxide until the 
batch is alkaline to phenolphthalein. 
Dissolve this soap in a solution of the 

11 (J 


rest of the palmitin in the remaining 
2,000 grammes of oil, using a tempera- 
ture of 110 deg. C. As the mass begins 
to cool stir in the color and the per- 
fumes previously mixed, and pour into 
suitable containers. 

Ordinary Pomade 

Castor oil 16 ounces. 

Petrolatum 4 ounces. 

Yellow wax 4 ounces. 

Rosin 1 ounce. 

Benzoic acid 20 grains. 

Oil of lemon 2 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Melt the rosin and yellow wax, add 
the petrolatum and strain into a vessel 
containing the castor oil, benzoic acid 
and perfume. Stir until it is cold. 

Anti-Kink Hair Pomade 

Castor oil 16 ounces. 

Petrolatum 4 ounces. 

Yellow wax 4 ounces. 

Rosin 1 ounce. 

Benzoic acid 20 grains. 

Oil of lemon 2 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Melt the rosin and yellow wax to- 
gether, add the petrolatum and strain 
into a vessel containing the castor oil, 
benzoic acid and perfume. Stir until 
it is cold. 

We offer this formula for what it is 
worth without any endorsement of it. 
We believe that before the mislabeling 
law went into effect such preparations 
as this were called some kind of fancy 
ox marrow. 

In the issue of The Druggists' Circu- 
lar succeeding the one in which the 
foregoing note was given, appears the 
following letter from a reader: 

It took me back to the days of my child- 
hood, when ox marrow hair dressing was 
dutifully applied every Saturday, and I 
imagine even now I scent the lingering 
"stink" of bergamot. I can't bear bergamot. 
I ran over to mother and asked her how it 
was made, and here you are: 

Take any quantity of marrow (fresh) and 
wash it thoroughly in cold water. Then place 
it in clean water and boil, thus rendering the 
marrow. Then let it stand to cool, and when 
cool, skim off the supernatant marrow and 
mix it with an equal quantity of pure, fresh 
iard. Scent to suit. 

•Thusi you see "ox marrow hair dressing" 
would not be a misnomer, even under our 
pure food and drugs law, or mislabeling 

Pomades for Stiffening Hair. 

White wax 1 y 2 ounces. 

Beef tallow 3 ounces. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Oil of cassia 10 minims. 

Oil of thyme 5 minims. 

Powdered tragacanth.. 1 ounce. 
Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Oil of neroli 10 minims. 

Oil of rose 10 minims. 

Warm water 24 ounces. 

Put the tragacanth into a bottle of 
suitable size and mix with the alcohol 
in which the oils have been dissolved. 
Then add the warm water and agitate 
until a homogeneous mucilage is 


Lard 1.000 parts. 

White wax 500 parts. 

Oil of bergamot 65 parts. 

Oil of cassia 3 parts. 


Castor oil 15 ounces. 

Spermaceti 5 ounces. 

Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Oil of palmarosa 1 dram. 

Oil of rose geranium... % dram. 

Powdered acacia.... 250 grammes. 

White beeswax 250 grammes. 

Yellow beeswax 250 grammes. 

White castile soap.. 250 grammes. 

Glycerin 125 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 50 mils. 

Oil of lavender 10 mils. 

Oil of rose geranium 20 mils. 

Water 1000 mils. 

Petrolatum Pomade. 

Petrolatum 700 grammes. 

Paraffin 300 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 6 grammes. 

Oil of linaloe 1 gramme. 

Oil of neroli 4 grammes. 

Transparent Shampoo Jelly. 

To produce a transparent soft soap 
that will be suitable for use as a 
shampoo is more a matter of experi- 
ment and experience than one of for- 
mula. The best basis is a mixture of 
lard, mutton tallow, and cocoanut oil; 
potassium hydroxide is the proper 
saponifying agent. The fats may be 
mixed in almost any proportion, or 
any one or two of them may be used. 
Perhaps the most satisfactory results 
will follow the use of a mixture of 
lard, 3 parts; cocoanut oil, 3 parts; and 
tallow, 1 part. The proportion of po- 
tassium hydroxide necessary to sapon- 
ify this mixture will vary with differ- 
ent lots of fats because of variations 
in the acidity of the latter. The 
amount of potassium hydroxide will, 
therefore, have to be determined ex- 
perimentally for each batch of soap. 
It will average about 260 grammes of 
85 per cent. KOH for 1,000 grammes of 
the mixed fats. 

Here is a basal formula: 

Lard 1500 grammes. 

Cocoanut oil 1500 grammes. 

Mutton tallow 500 grammes. 



Potassium hydroxide, 

85 per cent 900 grammes. 

Alcohol 300 mils. 

Oil of lavender 30 mils. 

Oil of clove 20 mils. 

Oil of orris (soap 

makers') 5 mils. 

Water enough. 

Melt the fats in a suitable vessel on 
a sand-bath, or in a steam-jacketed 
kettle. Dissolve the hydroxide in 
5,000 mils of water, and pour the solu- 
tion into the melted fats. Let the mix- 
ture boil gently, scraping down the 
sides of the vessel occasionally, until 
it begins to "splutter"; keeping the 
vessel warm, stir the mixture with a 
paddle for fifteen minutes. Then stir 
in about 1,500 mils of water and let 
the mixture boil as before, scraping 
down the sides of the vessel and stir- 
ring the mixture occasionally. When 
it has again reached the "splutter- 
ing" point, stir it for about ten min- 
utes. Drop a small piece of the mass 
in warm water. If it dissolves clear, 
saponification is complete; if not, test 
the mass with phenolphthalein, and 
continue the cooking, adding more 
water and alkali if necessary. Re- 
move the vessel from the Are, or cut 
off the steam if a jacketed vessel is 
used; add the alcohol, in which the 
perfuming oils had been dissolved, and 
stir rapidly until a homogeneous mix- 
ture is secured. 

Shampoo Jelly. 

Soft soap 1 pound. 

Potassium carbonate. ... % pound. 

Glycerin % pound. 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the soap in a minimal quan- 
tity of water with the aid of a gentle 
heat. Add the potassium carbonate, 
and, when the mass is almost cold, in- 
corporate the glycerin and such per- 
fume as may be desired. More water 
may be added if the jelly is too stiff. 

Shampoo Powder. 

Salt of tartar 1 ounce. 

Powdered borax 1 ounce. 

Powdered castile soap. . . % ounce. 

Oil of rose geranium. ... 10 drops. 

Put up in wide -mouth bottle, cap. 
and label with directions: Dissolve the 
contents of the bottle in 1 quart of soft 
water, and use as a shampoo. 

Tar Shampoo 

An efficient liquid tar shampoo may 
be made by dissolving a desired pro- 
portion of tar in tincture of green soap. 

Two somewhat more complicated 
formulas follow: 


Tar 4 grammes. 

Linseed oil 40 grammes. 

Potassium hydroxide. 10 grammes. 

Alcohol 5 grammes. 

Oil of rosemary 2 grammes. 

Water enough. 

Mix the tar with the linseed oil, and 
heat on a water bath to 140 degrees F. 
Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in 
the alcohol and 45 grammes of water; 
add the solution to the heated oil with 
constant stirring. Continue the heat 
until saponification is complete, and 
make up to 128 grammes with water. 
Stir gently until cool and add the oil 
of rosemary. 


Cocoanut oil 20 grammes. 

Tar 3 grammes. 

Potash lye (40 deg. B.) 25 grammes. 

Melt together the oil and the tar 
and saponify at a gentle heat with the 
potash lye. 

Egg Shampoos 

The egg in so-called egg shampoos 
is usually present in the name only, 
although there are formulas for sham- 
poos in which the use of real eggs is 
directed. Two follow; 

Ammonia water 4 drams. 

Cologne water 5 drams. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Whites of 2 eggs. 

Beat the egg whites well and add 
them to the water and ammonia water 
previously mixed; then add the other 


Egg yolk 2 ounces. 

Strong infusion of quillaja 1 ounce. 

Salicylic acid 5 grains. 

Camphor 10 grains. 

Borax 30 grains. 

Cologne water 3 ounces. 

Water, to make 20 ounces. 

Make a smooth mixture of the egg 
yolk and 2 ounces of chloroform water; 
add the infusion of quillija and then 
the cologne water in which the salicylic 
acid and the camphor have been dis- 
solved. Add the borax and the re- 
quired amount of water; mix well; and 
strain through muslin. 

Dry Shampoos 

As there are different types of so- 
called dry shampoos, we give below 
several formulas for shampoos which 
may be spoken of as "dry: 


Orris root 6 ounces. 

Fuller's earth 7 ounces. 

Arrowroot starch Ms ounce. 

Oil of lavender 1 dram. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 



Reduce the solids to a fine powder; 
mix this well and spread It out to a 
thickness of about two inches. On 
this, spray the oil dissolved in the al- 
cohol, and, after several hours, pass 
the powder through a moderately fine 


Mix equal parts of ammonium car- 
bonate, borax, and soap, in fine dry 
powder, and perfume with oil of orris. 

One pound each of borax and pow- 
dered soap with about 4 ounces of so- 
dium carbonate, perfumed with a mix- 
ture of 2 parts of coumarin and 1 part 
of heliotropin, makes a dry shampoo 
which is highly recommended. 

Eau de cologne S00 mils. 

Spirit of soap 2,500 mils. 

Acetic ether 25 mils. 

Terpineol 5 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 10 mils. 

Glycerin 500 mns. 

Ammonia water 10 mils. 

Alcohol 1,000 mils. 

Distilled water, to make 10 liters. 

Borax 20 grammes. 

Potassium car- 
bonate 10 grammes. 

Ammonia water 10 mils. 

Water 500 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 2 mils. 

Oil of geranium .... 1 mil. 

Alcohol, to make. . .1,000 mils. 

Oil of bay 5 minima. 

Alcohol, to make 1 pint. 

Elsewhere in this book are several 
formulas for liquid soaps, which may 
be used as liquid shampoos. 

Liquid Shampoos. 

Ammonium sul- 

phoricinate 200.0 grammes. 

Oil of orange, ter- 

peneless 0.5 gramme. 

Orange flower 
water, to make. .1000.0 mils. 

Cottonseed oil 1000 mils. 

Sodium hydroxide. . . 80 grammes. 
Potassium hy- 
droxide 80 grammes. 

Alcohol 500 mils. 

Potass ium car- 
bonate 30 grammes. 

Terpineol 20 mils. 

Water 2500 mils. 

Dissolve the hydroxides in a mixture 
of the alcohol and 500 mils of water. 
Add the cottonseed oil little by little 
with vigorous shaking, and set the 
mixture aside until saponification is 
complete. Add the rest of the water 
containing the carbonate, and finally 
the terpineol. 


Powdered castile soap.. 1 ounce. 

i 'otassium carbonate % ounce. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Perfume for a Dry Shampoo. 

One can best judge of a suitable per- 
fume for a dry shampoo by observing 
the tastes of his customers as indi- 
cated in their selection of handkerchief 
extracts, soaps, talcum powders, etc. 
Similarly he may arrive at the degree 
of odorousness that will appeal to 
prospective purchasers. 

Despite the influx of the thousand 
and one "bouquets" and "blends," rose 
and violet continue as favorites among 
the scents, and their use for perfum- 
ing any toilet preparation is never ill- 
advised. For a rose odor, the oil alone 
is necessary. Some prefer the odor of 
a blend of oil of rose 25 parts and oil 
of wintergreen 1 part. 

A pleasing violet may be made as 

Extract of cassie 1 ounce. 

Extract of jasmine % ounce. 

Solution of ionone (10 
per cent.) % ounce. 

Oil of orris 1 dram. 

Among a certain portion of the hu- 
man family a perfume something like 
the following will find favor: 

Oil of lavender (aged)... 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 6 drams. 

Tincture of musk..: 2 drams. 

Lotion Vegetale au Seringa. 

Tincture of vanilla.. 200 grammes. 
Tincture of eantha- 

rides 20 grammes. 

Terpineol 10 grammes. 

Oil of rose geranium. 1 gramme. 

Oil of ylang-ylang.. . 1 gramme. 

Heliotropin 2 grammes. 

Alcohol 2000 mils. 

Water SO mils. 

Bay Rum. 

Here is my formula for bay rum. It 
is particularly refreshing and ap- 
proaches nearer to the imported va- 
rieties than do most of the domestic 

Oil of bay 10.0 mils. 

Oil of cloves 2.0 mils. 

Oil of lemon 1.0 mil. 

Menthol 1.5 grammes. 

Tincture of capsi- 
cum 8.0 mils. 

Acetic acid 20.0 mils. 

Alcohol 800.0 mils. 

Water 1200.0 mils. 

Purified talc 50.0 grammes. 

Tincture of cur- 
cuma enough. 

Caramel color enough. 



Dissolve the oils and menthol in the 
alcohol, add the tincture of capsicum 
and acetic acid and incorporate the 
purified talc; then add the water in 
five or six portions, shaking after each 
addition. Filter. Add enough tinc- 
ture of curcuma to make the filtrate a 
pale yellow, and then add a few drops 
of caramel color to give a brownish- 
yellow.— F. W. Scott, Jr. 

Coloring Bay Rum. 

In The Druggists Circular, F. O. Col- 
lins said that filtering bay rum through 
magnesium carbonate gave it a satis- 
factory color. In a later issues, John J. 
Davies took issue with Mr. Collins, 
averring that bay rum so filtered would 
throw down a flocculent precipitate. 
and if again filtered would repeat this 
behavior, and so on ad infinitum. Said 
he: "Of all things, magnesium carbon- 
ate is the least desirable for this pur- 
pose. I find talcum the most satisfac- 
tory filtering medium there is." 

Next came George S. R. Wright who 
added this note to the discussion: 

If Mr. John J. Davies will add powdered 
magnesium carbonate to his bay rum in the 
proportion of 1 ounce to 1 gallon, and allow it 
to stand ten days or two weeks before filter- 
ing, he will obtain a beautiful clear and 
slightly green bay rum, which will never need 
refilter^ng. I have made it so for over thirty 
years, and write, therefore, from ample experi- 

And in his final reply Mr. Collins 

I have much pleasure in sending you a sam- 
ple of bay rum which has been once filtered 
through magnesium carbonate and has stood 
some weeks. You will thus see that I have not 
experienced the inconveniences referred to by 
Mr. John J. Davies, as connected with the use 
of that salt as a filtering medium. 

The sample sent by Mr. Collins was 
as pretty and clear a specimen of bay 
rum as anyone would wish to see. 

Lathering Bay Rum 

Myrcia acris oil, 16; lemcn oil, con- 
crete oil of nutmeg; clove oil, sweet 
orange oil, of each, 1 ; essence of rum, 
75; alcohol, 90 per cent., 2,650. Dis- 
solve. Meanwhile, dissolve ammonium 
carbonate, 45 or 90, in cold water, 
4,500. Mix the solutions, set aside for 
a week, then filter through asbestos. 

Perfume for a Hair Dressing 

Oil of bergamot 4 mils. 

Oil of lemon 3 mils. 

Oil of cedrat 7 drops. 

Oil of clove 2 drops. 

Oil of lavender 1 mil. 

Oil of petit grain 2 drops. 

Oil of rosemary 1 mil. 

Oil of red thyme 1 mil. 

Saturated solution of 

artificial musk 5mils. 

Saturated solution of 

rhodinol 10 drops. 

Cologne spirit 400 mils. 

Orange flower water. ... 30 mils. 

Rose water 120 mils. 

Distilled water, to make. .1000 mils. 

Hair-Curling Cream 

White castile soap... 70 grammes. 

Acacia 70 grammes. 

Japan wax 50 grammes. 

Glycerin 30 grammes. 

Tallow 150 grammes. 

Oil of geranium 5 grammes. 

Oil of bitter orange.. 7 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 1 gramme. 

Distilled water 300 grammes. 

Heat one-half the water and in it 
dissolve the soap; dissolve the gum in 
the other half of the water; mix the 
two solutions, and place on a water- 
bath. Add the fats and the glycerin. 
When the fats have melted, remove 
the mixture from the heat and beat it 
until it acquires a homogeneous, 
creamy consistency. Then beat in the 
oils, and add a little salicylic acid if a 
preservative is desired. 

One-Solution Black Hair Dye 

Iron sulphate 2 drams. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Cologne water 1 ounce. 

Rose water 14 ounces. 

A solution composed of these ingre- 
dients, will, according to the Standard 
Formulary, if applied to the hair twice 
daily, gradually darken it. 

Dangerous Hair Dyes 

There are formulas for hair dyes 
containing synthetic colors, including 
paraphenylenediamine: any of them 
may prove injurious to the scalp; the 
dye named is notably dangerous as it 
frequently produces serious eruption. 

Silver Nitrate Hair Dye 

Most recipes for silver nitrate hair 
dyes call for the admixture with the 
silver salts of some alkali, usually am- 
monia water alone or in combination 
with sodium hydroxide. The same may 
be said of many of the formulas for 
indelible ink. As has often been point- 
ed out in The Druggists Circular, such 
mixture sometimes forms the highly- 
explosive silver nitride, with results 
which have been disastrous. 

After all, the silver nitrate solution 
is the thing that dyes the hair, and 
this may be made by dissolving the 
salt in distilled water in the proportion 
of 1 dram to the ounce. The hair, of 
course, should be washed free of grease 
before the application of the dye. 



Walnut Hair Dye 

For a real hair dye, one containing 
neither lead nor silver salts, here is a 

Walnut hulls 8 parts. 

Alum 1 part. 

Olive oil 40 parts. 

Digest these in a water-bath until 
all moisture has been expelled, then 
express and perfume. 

Walnut Hair Dyes 
Hair dyes which are said to be harm- 
less may be prepared from walnut 
hulls, and the following processes de- 
scribed by Askinson in Perfumes and 
Cosmetics should furnish you with a 
means of extracting and using the dye. 

Walnut Hair Dye 
One of the oldest forms of hair dye 
or stain is the juice of green walnut 
shells, which, as everyone knows who 
has gathered walnuts, produces a rich 
dark -brown stain upon the skin. This 
stain is very difficult to remove from 
the skin, but is not so easily applied 
to the hair, as it is necessary to re- 
move the oil from the hair by sham- 
pooing, and also to use alum or some 
similar ingredient with the walnut 
juice in order to fix the color. When 
these precautions are observed the 
stain is said to produce very satisfac- 
tory results. 

Hair Dye from Walnut Shells 

Green walnut shells. .450 grammes. 

Powdered alum 30 grammes. 

Rose water 120 grammes. 

The ingredients are triturated to- 
gether in a mortar, pressed, and 

treated with 90 per cent, alcohol in the 
proportion of 30 parts of alcohol to 
100 of liquid. The mixture is then left 
for four days in a close vessel and 
finally filtered, and the liquid perfumed 
to suit. 

Walnut Extract 
If it is desired to make an extract 
from walnut shells for subsequent use. 
they are pounded with a pestle and 
then covered with water containing 1 
per cent, of salt. After three days the 
whole is poured into a large pan, on 
which a mark is then made to show 
the height of the liquid, it being neces- 
sary to replace the water lost by 
evaporation. Heat to near boiling- 
point for four to six hours, allow 
it to cool, and press out the 
liquid. In the absence of a press this 
may be done with aid of a linen cloth. 
or preferably a sack of canvas, about 
40 inches long and 20 inches wide, 
which is half filled with the mass from 
the pan held over an open vessel, tied 
up at the mouth, and twisted by means 
of a couple of sticks, two persons be- 
ing required for the operation. The 
liquid thus obtained is returned to the 
pan, and is concentrated to one-fourth 
its initial volume, which is measured 
for that purpose, the best plan being 
to place a quantity of water equal to 
one-quarter of the liquid in the pan, 
marking the level, pouring out the 
water again, and then allowing the nut 
liquor to evaporate until the level of 
the mark is reached. The finished ex- 
tract then receives an addition of 16 
per cent, of 95 per cent, alcohol, and is 
either stored in tightly closed vessels 
for stock, or finished off. ready for use, 
by the addition of perfume as desired. 



Perfumes — Handkerchief Extracts — Fixatives — Cologne — Cologne 
Water — Florida Water — Sachets — Smelling Salts 

Always Consult the Index When Using This Book 

The Manufacture of Perfumery 

Much more than a mere formula 
should be in the possession of one who 
essays to work at the manufacture of 
perfumery. A man who undertakes to 
go into the business of putting a line 
of perfumes on the market should 
study well one of the many books on 
the subject, preferably under an expe- 
rienced teacher actually engaged in 
the work. 


An anonymous article under the 
above heading in the Chemist and 
Druggist was reprinted in The Drug- 
gists Circular. The principal parts of 
it follow: 

The sine qua non in manufacturing 
perfumes is to use a good spirit (U. S. 
P. alcohol). It should be borne in mind 
that the British pint is 20 British fluid 
ounces and that the British fluid ounce 
is about 96 per cent, of the American. 
To hasten the maturing of perfumes 
add 5 minims of solution of ammonia 
to 2 pints. The extracts required in 
the formulas are as follows: 

Musk. — Pour on 2 drams of grain 
musk 18 drams of boiling water, and 
when cold add 34 ounces of spirit. 

Civet. — Civet 1 dram, orris-root 1 
dram and spirit 20 ounces. 

Orris. — One dram of root to 1 ounce 
of spirit. 

Storax. — Strained storax 9 drams 
spirit 20 ounces. 

Tonquin. — Crushed tonquin beans 4 
ounces, hot water 5 ounces; when cold 
add spirit 10 ounces. 

Patchouli. — Oil of patchouli 1 dram, 
spirit 5 ounces. 

Rose (Triple). — Otto of rose 3 drams, 
spirit 20 ounces. 

Benzoin. — Powdered benzoin 1 ounce, 
spirit 10 ounces. 

Vanilla. — Vanilla (cut small) 2 
ounces, spirit 2 pints. 

The following are my formulas for 
Compounded perfumes: 

Violette de Parme. 

Essence of cassie 15 ounces. 

Essence of rose 10 ounces. 

Essence of tuberose 10 ounces. 

Essence of violet 19 ounces. 

Tincture of orris 10 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almonds.... 3 minims. 
Wood Violet. 

Oil of almonds 20 minims. 

Oil of English lavender. . 1 dram. 

Oil of verbena 30 minims. 

Oil of coriander 40 minims. 

Oil of bergamot 3 drams. 

Essence of musk 4 ounces. 

Essence of jasmine 4 ounces. 

Tincture of orange 20 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 2 drams. 

Spirit, to make 4 pints. 


Essence of rose 10 ounces. 

Essense of orange-flower 5 ounces. 

Essence of cassie 5 ounces. 

Essence of vanilla 5 ounces. 

Oil of cloves 10 minims. 

Jockey Club Bouquet. 

Essence of jasmine 2% ounces. 

Essence of musk 4 ounces. 

Otto of rose 20 minims. 

Oil of sandalwood 1 dram. 

Essence of bergamot. . . % ounce. 

Oil of neroli 20 minims. 

Benzoic acid 1 dram. 

Tincture of orris 10 ounces. 

Spirit, to make 2 pints. 

White Rose. 

Essence of tuberose 2 ounces. 

Oil of orange Vz dram. 

Essence of jasmine 1 ounce. 

Otto of rose 1 dram. 

Oil of patchouli 3 minims. 

Tincture of orris 2 ounces. 

Benzoic acid % dram. 

Rectified spirit, to make. 2 pints. 
White Heliotrope. 

Essence of vanilla 5 ounces. 

Essence of rose 5 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almonds 5 minims. 


Oil of orange 1 dram. 

Oil of neroli Vz dram. 

Essence of tonquin bean. 3 ounces. 

Tincture of orris 8 ounces. 

Essence of musk 2 ounces. 

Essence of tuberose 2 ounces. 

Essence of cassie 2 ounces. 

Spirit, to make 2 pints. 




White Lilac. 

Essence of tuberose 11 ounces. 

Essence of orange-flower 6 ounces. 

Essence of civet 4 drams. 

Oil of bitter almonds.... 3 minims. 

Essence Bouquet. 

Otto of rose 1 dram. 

Oil of neroli % dram. 

Oil of pimento 20 minims. 

Oil of red cedar wood. .30 minims. 

Oil of lavender 1 dram. 

Oil of patchouli 5 minims. 

Oil of bergamot % ounce. 

Essence of musk .». . 4 ounces. 

Spirit, to make 4 pints. 

In the above formulas the essence 
of cassie, jasmine, violet, etc., means 
those obtained from pomades. 

The next set of formulas provides for 
artificial and synthetic substances, and 
are not of so permanent a character as 
those just given, but they come at pop- 
ular prices. Where better prices can 
be obtained I would recommend blend- 
ing those made from floral bases with 
those from synthetic sources. I have 
thus made some delightful perfumes, 
and I consider the addition of natural 
scent essential. 

A useful base for synthetic perfumes 
is the first. 

Perfume Base. 

Spirit 20 ounces. 

Rose water 5 ounces. 

Solution of ammonia 

(0.880) 5 minims. 

Simple tincture of ben- 
zoin 4 drams. 

Tincture of orris (1 in 1) 2 ounces. 

Synthetic lilac 5 drams. 

Base 22 ounces. 

Essence of civet 4 drams. 

Essence of vanilla % dram. 

Oil of bitter almonds... 2 minims. 

Tint of pale mauve. 


Synthetic dianthin 1 dram. 

Base 30 ounces. 

Tint pale pink. 


Synthetic syringa 4 drams. 

Base 25 ounces. 


Synthetic jasmine 1 dram. 

Base 30 ounces. 

Tint pale green. 


Heliotropin 1 ounce. 

Base 30 ounces. 

Essence of vanilla 2 drams. 

Oil of bitter almonds... 8 minims. 

Essence of musk 1 dram. 

Tint a pale mauve. 

White Rose. 
For a cheaper perfume than that al- 
ready given use equal parts of this and 

Violet de Parme. 


Violetton 1 dram. 

Synthetic jasmine 20 minims. 

Coumarin % dram. 

Base 1 pint. 

Ylang-ylang (as above) 5 ounces. 
Color pale green. 


Violetton 2 drams. 

Oil of .neroli 10 minims. 

Oil of bitter almonds ... 10 minims. 

Synthetic jasmine 20 minims. 

Base ?■ 1 pint. 


Violetton 3 drams. 

Essence of musk 2 drams. 

Rose triple 3 drams. 

Base 30 ounces. 

Handkerchief Extracts from Various 
Synthetic Oils. 
Wood Violert. 
Solution of ionone (1 in 

30, in 60% alcohol) 2 pints. 

Solution of oil of orris 
(concrete) (1 in 60, in 

60% alcohol) 2 pints. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Solution of artificial musk 

(1%, in 60% alcohol).. 2 ounces. 

Lily of the Valley. 

Oil of linaloe (syn- 
thetic) 6 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 2 grammes. 

Oil of jasmine (syn- 
thetic) 1 gramme. 

Amyl butyrate 20 drops. 

Tincture of musk.... 30 drops. 

Alcohol (90%), to make 1 liter. 

Oil of jasmine 80 mils. 

Oil of linaloe 150 mils. 

Oil of orris 10 mils. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 15 mils. 

Extract of cassie 500 mils. 

Extract of violet 700 mils. 

Extract of rose 3,600 mils. 

Alcohol, to make 10 liters. 


Oil of ylang-ylang. . . 20 drops. 

Geraniol 10 drops. 

Benzaldehyde 2 drops. 

Heliotropin 2.30 grammes. 

Vanillin 0.40 gramme. 

Coumarin 0.25 gramme. 

Tincture of musk. . .2.50 grammes. 

Alcohol (90%), to 

make 1 liter. 


Geraniol 10 drops. 

Oil of palma-rosa.. 10 drops. 

Oil of bergamot.... 20 drops. 

Oil of jasmine (syn- 
thetic) 20 drops. 

Terpineol 25.70 grammes. 

Vanillin 0.75 gramme. 

Alcohol (90%), to make 1 liter. 




Geraniol 2 grammes. 

Oil of neroli 2 grammes. 

Oil of jasmine (syn- 
thetic) 2 grammes. 

Balsam of tolu 2 grammes. 

Oil of bitter orange. . .15 drops. 

Alcohol (90c; ■). to make 1 liter. 

Oil of jasmine (synthetic) 1 dram. 

Oil of ylang-ylang (.syn- 
thetic) 3 drams. 

Solution of heliotropin 

(1% in 60% alcohol).. 8 ounces. 

Solution of terpineol (.1% 

in 60% alcohol) ..20 ounces. 


Oil of ylang-ylang.. 10 grammes. 

Oil of rose 2 drops. 

Oil of neroli 8 drops. 

Triple extract of jas- 
mine 600 grammes. 

Tincture of tolu 150 grammes. 

Tticture of musk... 30 grammes. 

Alcohol (90%) 350 grammes. 

Eastern Bouquet. 

Oil of cedar-wood 1 dram. 

Oil of patchouli 1 dram. 

Oil of sandalwood 1 dram. 

Oil of verbena V6 dram. 

Oil of vetivert .' 1 dram. 

Oil of rose % dram. 

Musk % dram. 

Civet y 2 dram. 

Alcohol (60^ r ) 3 pints. 


Oil of rose 6 mils. 

Vanillin 12 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 24 mils. 

Oil of lavender 24 mils. 

Oil of cinnamon 4 mils. 

Eugenol 4 mils. 

Solution of artificial 

musk (5%) 6.000 mils. 

Alcohol, to make 12, 000 mils. 

Oil of rose geranium.. 8 minims. 

Oil of linaloe 8 minims. 

Oil of ylang-ylang.... 8 minims. 

Oil" of cloves 8 minims. 

Oil of bitter almond... 8 minims. 

Oil of neroli 8 minims. 

Coumarin 8 grains. 

Tincture of musk 10 drams. 

Tincture of orris 10 drams. 

Jasmine extract 5% ounces. 

Tuberose extract 4 ounces. 

Tincture of vanilla. .. .1% ounces. 
Alcohol (80%). to make 2 pints. 

Cologne Water. 

Linalol 60 grammes. 

Phenylacetic aldehyde 6 grammes. 
Xonylic aldehyde... 3 grammes. 

Tndol 1 gramme. 

Phenylethyl alcohol 20 grammes. 

Methylionone 10 grammes. 

Alcohol 3.000 grammes. 

Trefle Incarnat. 
Oil of bergamot.. 200.0 mils. 
Oil of rose. Turk- 
ish 25,0 mils. 

Oil of hyacinth... 10.0 mils. 

Oil of neroli 2.5 mils. 

Oil of ylang-ylang. . 5.0 mils. 

Oil of white thyme. 2.5 mils. 

Oil of vetivert.... 5.0 mils. 

Amyl salicylate... SO. mils. 

Artificial musk... 40.0 grammes. 

Vanillin 30.0 grammes. 

Tincture of civet. 500.0 mils. 

Rose water 2,000.0 mils. 

Alcohol 17.0 liters. 

New Mown Hay. 

Coumarin 3.0 grammes. 

Vanillin 2.0 grammes. 

Heliotropin 1.0 gramme. 

Solution of ionone 1.0 mil. 

Oil of rose 0.5 mil. 

Oil of neroli 0.5 mil. 

Oil of patchouli... 0.1 mil. 

Terpineol 0.5 mil. 

Tincture of ben- 
zoin 24.0 mils. 

Essence of tube- 
rose 96.0 mils. 

Essence of jas- 
mine 200.0 mils. 

Alcohol (80%). to 

make .1.000.0 mils. 


Oil of neroli 20 mils. 

Oil of lemongrass 120 mils. 

Oil of citron 150 mils. 

Oil of rose 20 mils. 

Oil of geranium 40 mils. 

Alcohol, to make 6,500 mils. 


Extract of tuberose 400.0 mils. 

Extract of jonquil 60.0 mils. 

Extract of orange flowers 50.0 mils. 

Oil of rose (synthetic) ... 1.0 mil. 

Oil of neroli (synthetic) . 0.5 mil. 

Oil of jasmine (synthetic) 0.5 mil. 

Methyl anthranilate 0.2 mil. 


Oil of rose (synthetic) . . 30 mils. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 45 mils. 

Oil of patchouli 5 mils. 

Tincture of benzoin 75 mils. 

Gerfaniol 5 mils. 

Oil of muguet (synthetic) 5 mils. 

Cinnamic alcohol 5 mils. 

Extract of jasmine 1,000 mils. 

Alcohol 4,000 mils. 

Sweet Hawthorn. 

Anisic aldehyde 1 dram. 

Oil of linaloe (synthetic) 3 drams. 
Oil of jasmine (synthe- 
tic) 1 dram. 

Oil of neroli 1 dram. 

Solution of artificial 
musk (1 per cent. In 60 

per cent, alcohol) 20 ounces. 

Alcohol (60 per cent.). 

to make 160 ounces. 

Of course, the ingredients and quan- 
tities named are only suggestions, and 
as for the diluent, greater or less quan- 
tities may be used, according as a 
strong and expensive or weak and low- 
priced article is wanted. Then, too, the 
ingredients themselves may vary In 



quality when bought at different times 
or from different dealers. The operator 
is supposed to have some experience 
with and judgment concerning such 
matters, and not to depend entirely 
upon the recipe. 

Some Synthetic Scents 

The appended formulas are taken 
from "La Parfumerie Moderene." The 
odorous compounds are adapted to the 
perfuming of soaps or creams, or by 
dilution with cologne spirit or benzyl 
benzoate may be used as handkerchief 
extracts or toilet waters: — 

Oil of orange flowers. 6.00 grammes.' 

Synthetic jasmine. . . .1.25 grammes. 

Muguet 2.50 grammes. 


Vanillin 3.75 grammes. 

Terpeneless oil of ber- 

gamot 1.00 gramme. 

Oil of bitter almond. .0.10 gramme. 

Rhodinol 0.15 gramme. 


Tolu-ethyl acetate. . . .3.0 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 1.0 gramme. 

Synthetic ylang-ylang.0.2 gramme. 

Artificial musk 0.2 gramme. 


Artificial violet 3.75 grammes. 

Synthetic aujpepine. .1.00 gramme. 

Rhodinol 0.25 gramme. 


Linalol 60.0 grammes. 

Benzyl acetate 10.0 grammes. 

Phenyl-ethylic alco- 
hol 20.0 grammes. 

Duodecylic alcohol... 0.5 gramme. 

Artificial tuberose... 1.0 gramme. 

Artificial cassie 8.0 grammes. 

Natural jasmine 0.5 gramme. 

Tolu-ethyl alcohol. . .65.0 grammes. 

Lily of the Valley Perfume 
Extract of jasmine. ... 7 ounces. 

Extract of neroli 7 ounces. 

Extract of cassie 14 ounces. 

Extract of tuberose.... 28 ounces. 

Alcohol 28 ounces. 

Oil of bitter almond. . .150 minims. 

Trailing Arbutus Perfume 

In its origin the extract of trailing 
arbutus is French, its long-existing 
Gallic name being fleurs de Mai. 

Also of French origin is the follow- 
ing formula for it: 

Extract of rose 1 ounce. 

Extract of jasmine 1 ounce. 

Extract of cassie 1 ounce. 

Extract of orffhge flower 1 ounce. 

Tincture of vanilla 2 ounces. 

Spirit of almond, 1 per 

cent 2 drams. 


Christiani some thirty -five or forty 
years ago gave the following formula: 

Extract of cassie 1 pint. 

Extract of rose 2 ounces. 

Extract of jasmine 8 ounces. 

Extract of orange flower 8 ounces. 

Tincture of vanilla 4 ounces. 

Tincture of ambrette.... 4 ounces. 

Oil of geranium 2 drams. 

Oil of neroli 1 dram. 

Oil of bitter almond % dram. 

Stronger rose water 8 ounces. 


Of recent formulas, not strictly of 
the synthetic variety, the following 
from the Standard Formulary is typ- 

Extract of tuberose. ...2% ounces. 

Extract of orange 

flower 2V 2 ounces. 

Extract of cassie 1% ounces. 

Extract of rose 2 ounces. 

Extract of ylang-ylang 1 ounce. 

Spirit of almond 1% drams. 

Tincture of vanilla. .. .2% ounces. 

Tincture of musk 4 drams. 

Tincture of benzoin.... 2 drams. 

Solution of ionone, 10 

per cent 30 minims. 

Heliotropin 10 grains. 

Vanillin 6 grains. 

Alcohol 3 ounces. 

The nearest approach to the odor of 
arbutus that is possible with a '"mix- 
ture of vegetable oils" is a blend of the 
oils of clove, lavender, rose, bitter 
almond and neroli. This is improved 
by the addition of a little heliotropin. 
The proper proportions are best ar- 
rived at by experimentation. 

Sweet Pea Perfume 

Extract of tuberose 1 pint. 

Extract of orange flower 1 pint. 

Rose spirit 1 pint. 

Tincture of civet 6 pints. 

Tincture of musk 8 ounces. 

Tincture of vanilla 2 ounces. 

Oil of orange flower.... 80 minims. 

Jockey Club Perfume 

Rose spirit 3 pints. 

Extract of orange flower 2 pints. 

Extract of jasmine 1 pint. 

Tincture of musk 2 ounces. 

Tincture of vanilla 2 ounce-. 

Oil of clove 30 minims. 

Rose Spirit 

The rose spirit called for in some 
of these formulas is a solution of 80 
minims each of oil of rose and oil of 
rose geranium in 1 pint of alcohol. 

New Mown Hay Perfume 

Coumarin 3.0 grammes. 

Vanillin 2.0 grammes. 



Heliotropin 1.0 gramme. 

Solution of ionone. 1.0 mil. 

Oil of rose 0.5 mil. 

Oil of neroli 0.5 mil. 

Oil of patchouli. ... 0.1 mil. 

3*erpineol 0.5 mil. 

Tincture of benzoin 24.0 mils. 
Essence of tuberose 96.0 mils. 
Essence of jasmine 200.0 mils. 
Alcohol, SO p. ct., 

to make 1,000.0 mils. 

Acqui di Lubin 

Alcohol (90 p. ct.).. 2,000 

Tincture of orange 

peel 350 

Tincture of abel- 

moschus 300 

Tincture of tonka 

bean 100 

Tincture of tuberose 50 

Tincture of styrax. . 50 

Tincture of benzoin. 50 

Tincture of vanilla.. 30 

Oil of lemon 40 

Oil of bergamot 4 

Oil of neroli 1 

Tincture of musk... 4 

Tincture of civet. ... 3 

Orange flower water. 250 















Wood Violet Perfume 
Oil of bitter almonds. . .20 minims. 

Oil of lavender (old) 1 dram. 

Oil of verbena % dram. 

Oil of coriander 40 minims. 

Oil of bergamot 3 drams. 

Tincture of musk 4 ounces. 

Extract of jasmine 4 ounces. 

Spirit of orange 20 ounces. 

Benzoic acid 2 drams. 

Alcohol, to make 5 pints. 

Sandalwood Extract. 

Oil of santal 90 minims. 

Oil of rose 10 minims. 

Cologne spirit 4 ounces. 

"Frozen Perfumes" 
Melt paraffin over a gentle heat: and 
just before it solidifies again, stir into 
it any suitable strong perfume, in the 
proportion of about 1 part of the per- 
fume to 9 parts of the paraffin. Color 
to suit, with anilin dye. Preparations 
so made are sometimes spoken of as 
"frozen perfumes." 

Irish Flowers 

Extract of white rose 10 parts. 

Tincture of vanilla 1 part. 

Lilac Perfume and Toilet Water 

Terpineol, C. P 10 parts. 

Jacinth (phenyl-acetic- 

aldehyde) 5 parts. 

Oil of bitter almond, true % part. 

CEillet flroessence T parts. 

Jasmine floressence 75 parts. 

Tincture of civet (1:40).. 125 parts. 

Oil of bergamot 3 parts. 

Tincture of musk, Ton- 

quin (1:32) 10 parts. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 15 parts. 

Rose floressence 25 parts. 

Tuberose floressence 25 parts. 

Artificial musk (crystals) 10 parts. 

Cassie floressence 3 parts. 

Lily of the valley, De- 

Laire 15 parts. 

Oil of orris, liquid (ten- 
fold) 2 parts. 

Phixia 20 parts. 

Heliotropin 2 parts. 

Oil of rose. 15 parts. 

Coumarin % part. 

Vanillin % part. 

Mix in the order stated, and then use 
about 4 ounces of the mixture to each 
gallon of alcohol. In making a toilet 
water reduce with alcohol. It should 
be remembered that the addition of a 
little water aids the sweetening and 
blending process. 

Dr. Abraham Alexander states that 
this recipe yields a thoroughly prac- 
tical high-grade commercial product 
and that the synthetic perfumes enum- 
erated may be purchased from Xew 
York jobbers. 

Bouquet Extract and Toilet Water 

Oil of rose 75 parts. 

Oil of patchouli 30 parts. 

Oil of rose geranium. .. .150 parts. 

Oil of sandalwood. B. I. . 40 parts. 

Oil of lavender 30 parts. 

Oil of cloves 30 parts. 

Oil of neroli 100 parts. 

Oil of bergamot.. 150 parts. 

Vanillin 50 parts. 

Coumarin 100 parts. 

Musk ambrette crystals. 3 parts. 

Mix by dissolving the solids in the 
oils. For use as a handkerchief ex- 
tract use 4 ounces of the mixture to 
1 gallon of alcohol. In making a toilet 
water use 2 ounces to 7% pints of alco- 
hol and then add V 2 pint of warm dis- 
tilled water. Let the mixture stand 
until it has aged, and then filter. 

Fixatives in Perfumes 
Fixatives are added to perfumes for 
the purpose of making the odor less 
volatile. In plants, the perfume is 
being continuously produced and the 
odor is given off into the surrounding 
atmosphere as long as the flower 
exists, but when we isolate the odor- 
ous principles of these plants and ex- 
pose them to the air they evaporate 
quicklv and leave no trace behind 
them. This evaporation frequently 
takes place so rapidly that the odor is 
objectionable, and in order to over- 



come this it has been found advisable 
to mix with the product some sub- 
stance that will prevent rapid vola- 
tilization. The odor is delicate and 
"flowery" only so long as it is present 
in the air in minute proportions, and 
the effort to duplicate the conditions 
existing in the plant has resulted in 
the utilization of a number of so- 
called fixatives. 

Formerly, ambergris, musk and va- 
rious resins were used exclusively for 
this purpose, but because of the cost, 
the powerful odor, the color or the 
sticky qualities of these materials, 
they could not be used in large enough 
proportions to be entirely satisfactory, 
and so other substances have largely 
replaced them. Organic chemistry 
has produced a number of chemicals 
which, possessing almost no odor 
themselves, serve as fixative and tend 
to impart added sweetness to the per- 
fume with which they are mixed. 
Among these materials the ones most 
used are methyl anisate, benzyl ben- 
zoate, benzyl cinnamate and benzyl- 
iso-eugenol. Synthetic ambergris and 
civet have also been produced, cost 
little, and are used as fixatives. 

Oil of Cologne 

Oil of bergamot 15 mils. 

Oil of lemon 8 mils. 

Oil of rosemary 7 mils. 

Oil of lavender 4 mils. 

Oil of orange flower 4 mils. 

Acetic ether 2 mils. 

Absolute alcohol 60 mils. 

German Cologne 


Oil of patchouli 1 dram. 

Oil of neroli 1 dram. 

Oil of rose geranium.... 2 drams. 

Oil of lavender 4 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 1 ounce. 

Tincture of orris 8 ounces. 

Tincture of musk 2 ounces. 

Tincture of civet 4 ounces. 

Tincture of tonka 1 pint. 

Alcohol S pints. 

Oil of Canada snakeroot. 9 parts. 

Oil of rose geranium 3 parts. 

Oil of lavender 3 parts. 

Oil of sandal 2 parts. 

Oil of patchouly 2 parts. 

Oil of neroli l part. 

Extract of tuberose 20 parts 

Tincture of musk 40 parts. 

"Water 120 parts. 

Alcohol 900 parts. 

Mix according to art. 

Tincture of benzoin 25 mils. 

Tincture of musk 5 mils. 

Oil of sweet orange 5 mils. 

Oil of lavender 10 mils. 

Oil of rosemary 5 mils. 

Oil of citron 25 mils-. 

Oil of petit-grain 10 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 25 mils. 

Alcohol 3500 mils. 

Distilled water 500 mils. 

Mix the oils and the tinctures with 
the alcohol and add the water gradu- 

Floral Cologne 

Extract of mignonette.. 40 mils. 

Extract of jasmine 40 mils. 

Oil of orange flower.... 20 drops. 

Oil of rosemary 20 drops 

Oil of rose 10 drops. 

Acetic ether 3 mils. 

Alcohol, to make '.1000 mils. 

Headache Cologne 

We believe this is only a good 
cologne water in which a little men- 
thol has been dissolved. A formula 

Menthol 1 ounce. 

Oil of bergamot 10 drops. 

Oil of lavender 20 drops. 

Oil of lemon 8 drops. 

Oil of cassia 2 drops. 

Spirit of camphor, to 

make 4 ounces. 

Cologne Water. 

The perfumer's art has undergone as 
many changes in the past decade or 
two, perhaps, as that of any other class 
of artists or artisans, maybe more. An 
old-time perfumer, grown pessimistic, 
might easily believe that synthetic 
chemistry has rendered the growing of 
flowers and the refining of essential 
oils for perfumers' use almost a for- 
gotten industry, but he would be wrong, 
as there are still noses which revolt at 
laboratory "smells." whose owners re- 
fuse to be appeased by anything short 
of a bottle in which the concentrated 
odors of the flower garden or citrus 
groves have been imprisoned. 

An "up-to-date" formula for a 
cologne water calls for various syn- 
thetics, but we believe better results — 
at least if they are to be judged by 
customers who prefer delicacy to 
"strength" — are obtained when one of 
the old-time formulas is used. As a 
type of these the following may serve: 

Oil of orange flower 6 drams. 

Oil of rosemary 3 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 3 drams. 

Oil of citron 7 drams. 

Oil of orange peel 7 drams. 

Alcohol, to make 1 gallon. 

Mix and allow the mixture to stand 
at least a week before offering any por- 
tion of it for sale. 

A somewhat cheaper mixture con- 
tains — 

Oil of lavender 4 drams. 

Oil of rosemary 4 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 1 ounce. 



Oil of lemon 2 ounces. 

Oil of clove % dram. 

Alcohol, to make 1 gallon. 

By the use of only the highest grade 
of materials a superfine perfume re- 
sults from a mixture of the following: 

Oil of neroli 6 drams. 

Oil of rosemary 3 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 3 drams. 

Oil of cedrat 7 drams. 

Oil of orange peel 7 drams. 

Cologne spirit, to make.. 1 gallon. 
Mix and allow to stand for a week. 

A Special Eau de Cologne. 

Oil of lemon 54 ounces. 

Oil of bergamot 27 ounces. 

Oil of lavender flowers.. 14 ounces. 
Oil of cinnamon (true)..l% ounces. 

Oil of cloves 2 ounces. 

Oil of neroli 5 ounces. 

Tincture of vanilla 36 ounces. 

Vanillin 2 ounces. 

Deodorized alcohol 30 gallons. 

Distilled water 7 gallons. 


Verbena Water. 

Oil of lemon grass 6 drams. 

Oil of bergamot V 2 dram. 

Oil of orange % dram. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Deodorized alcohol, to 

make 1 quart. 

Florida Water. 

Oil of cassia 0.50 mil. 

Oil of bergamot.. 2.50 mils. 
Oil of lavender. . . 2.50 mils. 

Oil of lemon 2.00 mils. 

Menthol 1.25 grammes. 

Talc enough. 

Alcohol 550.00 mils. 

Water, to make. .1000.00 mils. 

Dissolve the oils and menthol in the 
alcohol; add the water in several por- 
tions, stirring well after each addition. 
Stir in a small quantity of talc, and 
filter. The water improves with age, 
and the best results follow the use of 
an oil of lavender that is at least a 
year old. 


Oil of lavender 2 drams. 

Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Oil of lemon 2 drams. 

Tincture of curcuma.... 1 dram. 

Oil of neroli 1 dram. 

Oil of melissa 30 drops. 

Oil of rose 10 drops. 

Deodorized alcohol 2 pints. 

Some Toilet Water Odors.. 

As a basis for floral-odor toilet water 
(X. Erf. und Erf.), the following is 

Oil of bergamot.. 30.0 grammes. 

Oil of lemon 75.0 grammes. 

Oil of rosemary.. 5.0 gramn 

Oil of lavender... 12.5 grammes. 

Alcohol 5.000.0 grammes. 

Water 1 0.000.0 grammes, 

Kaolin ". . . . enough . 

Mix the liquids, lei 1 1 1 * ■ mixture stand 
for eight days, then add the kaolin, 
shake well, and filter. 

To make a floral-odor water one of 
the following mixtures is added to the 
base in the proportions given: 

Terpineol 125 grammes. 

Jasmine (artificial). 40 grammes. 

Base 5.000 grammes. 

Lily of the Valley. 

Oil of linaloe 20 grammes. 

Jasmine (artificial). 8 grammes. 

Oil of ylang-ylang. . 1 gramme. 

Base 1.000 grammes. 


Oil of reseda 4 grammes. 

Base 1,000 grammes. 

Oriental Toilet Water. 

Spirit of pimento 36 mils. 

Tincture of benzoin 36 mils. 

Tincture of tolu 36 mils. 

Tincture of ambrette 54 mils. 

Tincture of orris 48 mils. 

Tincture of tonka 16 mils. 

Oil of cloves 2 mils. 

Oil of geranium 2 mils. 

Lavender water 200 mils. 

Cologne water 200 mils. 

Acetic ether 15 mils. 

Rose water 25 mils. 

Alcohol 300 mils. 

Violet Water. 


Alcohol 000.0 mils. 

Violet extract 200.0 mils. 

Cassie extract 350.0 mils. 

Jasmine extract 200.0 mils. 

Tincture of benzoin 

1 1 part of selected 

white benzoin in 7 

parts of alcohol. 

aged for several 

months) 100.0 mils. 

Tincture of orris 

(chopped orris 3 

parts, alcohol 4 

parts. macerated 

for 3 months) 700.0 mils. 

Oil of rose 0.3 gramme. 

Oil of rose geranium 1.1 grammes. 

Oil of bergamot 2.8 grammes. 

Oil of orris 0.6 gramme. 

Oil of vervain 0.1 gramme. 

Extract of musk 2.8 grammes. 

Rose water enough. 

The extracts used in this water 
should be of the first quality prepared 
from pomades. Enough rose water 
should be added to reduce the alcoholic 
strength of the water to 80 per cent, 
(specific gi-avity about 0.850). A violet 



color can be produced with a small 
quantity of a spirit-soluble anilin violet. 


Violet extract .-.250 mils. 

Jasmine extract 75 mils. 

Cassie extract 75 mils. 

Tincture of orris 100 mils. 

Extract of musk 3 grammes. 

Ionone 2 grammes. 

Alcohol 300 mils. 

Rose water 200 mils. 


Powdered orris 1 y 2 ounces. 

Extract of violet 3 ounces. 

Tincture of benzoin.... y 2 ounce. 

Orange flower water... 4 ounces. 

Rose geranium leaves. . 2 ounces. 

Cologne spirit, to make. 4 pints. 

Mix, macerate for several weeks in a 
warm place and filter. This is a green- 
colored preparation; to produce a vio- 
let-colored one the geranium leaves 
should be replaced with a suitable ani- 
lin color. 

Lavender Water. 

Oil of lavender 1 ounce. 

Oil of bergamot 1 dram. 

Essence of ambergris. .. .12 drops. 

Camphor 1 grain. 

Musk 1 grain. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

Bouquet Toilet Water 

Oil of bergamot 7 grammes. 

Oil of citron peel 4 grammes. 

Oil of sweet orange.. 3 grammes. 
Oil of lavender flowers 5 grammes. 
Oil of saigon flowers. 15 drops. 

Oil of neroli 15 drops. 

Alcohol (90%) 900 grammes. 

Distilled water 225 grammes. 

Lilac Water 


Oil of bitter almond 15 minims. 

Extract of orange flower 4 pints- 
Extract of tuberose 6 pints. 

Tincture of civet 3 ounces. 


Terpineol 10 mils. 

Extract of white rose 25 mils. 

Extract of orange flowers. 15 mils-. 

Water 100 mils. 

Cologne spirit 500 mils. 

Lilac color enough. 

Sachet Powders 
Carnation Sachet Powder 

Oil of clove 2 tt. drs. 

Granulated orris root.... 1 lb. a v. 

Oil of sandalwood 10 minims. 

Solution of carmine, or 

tincture of cudbear. . . . enough. 

Alcohol • y 2 fl. oz. 

Put half the orris root in a mortar 
and pour on enough of the solution of 
carmine or tincture of cudbear to give 

a dark-pink or light-red color, then 
mix the remaining orris root with it. 
Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and 
add to the colored orris root, a little 
at a time, mixing well after each ad- 
dition. Set aside in well-stoppered bot- 
tles for two or three days. Then spread 
out on glass to dry spontaneously. 
Heliotrope Sachet Powder. 

Granulated orris root. ... 1 lb. av. 

Coumarin 1 dram. 

Oil of sandalwood 15 minims. 

Solution of carmine, or 

tincture of cudbear. . . . enough. 

Solution of anilin blue. . . enough. 

Alcohol y 2 fl. oz- 

Color half the orris root a light-pink 
with the solution of carmine or tinc- 
ture of cudbear. Color the other half 
a light-blue. Scent with the coumarin 
and oil of sandalwood dissolved in the 
alcohol, and finish ag directed above. 

Other formulas will suggest them- 
selves to those who study these. For 
instance, to make a violet powder color 
one-half the orris root dark-red and 
the other half dark -blue and use a good 
violet odor; to make a rose powder 
color as for heliotrope and add ohe- 
third to one-half of carnation. 

Orris root 250 grammes. 

Powdered rose leaves.. 250 grammes. 

Powdered East Indian 

sandalwood 30 grammes 

Powdered orange peel. 470 grammes. 

Heliotropin 50 grammes. 

Spicy Sachet Powders. 

If a spicy powder is wanted, it would 
be an easy matter to add a few spicy 
ingredients to powders made accord- 
ing to these formulas; perhaps a lit- 
tle crushed star anise, grains of para- 
dise, cinnamon, olibanum, melilotis, or 
other such aromatics would have the 
desired effect. 

Sachet for Linen Chests. 

Orris root 750 grammes. 

Rosewood KiO grammes. 

Calamus 250 grammes. 

Sandalwood 160 grammes. 

Benzoin 125 grammes. 

Tolu 4 grammes. 

Cloves 15 grammes. 

Ceylon cinnamon 50 grammes. 

Use ingredients ground to the desired 
fineness and mix them intimately. 

Rose Sachet Tablets 

Starch 5 ounces. 

Magnesium carbonate. .'2% ounces. 
Powdered orris root. ... % ounce. 

Dextrin % ounce. 

Artificial oil of rose.... 15 drops. 

Oil of rosewood 20 drops. 

Oil of rose geranium... 1 dram. 
Tincture of ' artificial 

musk 40 minims. 

Tincture of benzoin.... 14 ounce. 
Boric acid 15 grains. 



Water enough. 

Syrup enough. 

Rose color enough. 

Mix all well together, using enough 
water and syrup to form a mass, and 
cut with a lozenge cutter. 

pearls are then to be wrapped in parch- 
ment paper and gilt foil. 



Rose leaves 16 ounces. 

Lavender flowers 16 ounces. 

Orris root (in coarse pow- 
der) 8 ounces. 

Cloves (in coarse powder) 2 ounces. 

Cinnamon (in coarse pow- 
der) 2 ounces. 

Allspice (in coarse pow- 
der) 2 ounces. 

Table salt 16 ounces. 

Mix thoroughly. 

The salt not only increases the bulk, 
but serves to keep the powder moist. 

Sandal wood 16 ounces. 

Gum benzoin 2 ounces. 

Orris root 12 ounces. 

Cloves 2 ounces. 

Mace 1 ounce. 

Tonka beans 2 grains. 

Musk 40 grains. 

Oil of rose 40 drops. 

Oil of lavender 1 dram. 

Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Oil of lemon 2 drams. 


Powdered cloves 2 ounces. 

Powdered pimento 2 ounces. 

Powdered benzoin 2 ounces. 

Essence of musk 1 ounce. 

Essence of bergamot. . . 4 drams. 

Oil of lavender 4 drams. 

Oil of cloves 2 % drams. 

Oil of cassia 2y 2 drams. 

Oil of rose 80 drops. 

Rose leaves 4 ounces. 

Powdered Jamaica pep- 
per, to make 48 ounces. 

Aromatic Perles 

These pearls or pastilles are to be 
used in linen closets, chiffoniers, etc., 
in lieu of sachet powders. 

Amber 2 grammes. 

Benzoin 10 grammes. 

Orris 6 grammes. 

Vanilla 1 gramme. 

Cloves 1 gramme. 

Cinnamon 1 gramme. 

Oil of neroli 6 grammes. 

Oil of citron 1 gramme. 

Oil of rose 1 gramme. 

Mucilage of tragacanth enough. 

Glycerin enough. 

The solids are to be reduced to a 
moderately fine powder, mixed inti- 
mately, and made into boluses with the 
mucilage and a little glycerin. The 

Smelling Salts 

Some salt of ammonia being the base 
of most smelling salts the perfumes for 
such preparations should be such as 
harmonize with the ammoniacal odor; 
these, according to Askinson, are oils 
of the rose, nutmeg or cinnamon class. 
The formula here given is an adapta- 
tion of one by that authority: 

Ammonium carbonate... -pounds. 

Strong ammonia water. . 1 pound. 

Oil of bergamot 15 grains. 

Oil of lavender 15 grains. 

Oil of nutmeg 8 grains. 

Oil of clove S grains. 

Oil of rose 8 grains. 

Oil of cinnamon 75 grains. 

In a large porcelain jar mix the two 
ammonia derivatives: cover, and set 
aside. After some days the mixture 
will have changed into a firm mass of 
ammonium monocarbonate, which 
should be reduced to a coarse powder; 
after which the oils, mixed, are to be 
rubbed in a mortar with about a tenth 
of the salt. The perfumed portion is 
then triturated with the other nine- 
tenths until the odor is equally distrib- 

Colors for Smelling Salts 

Red — Solution of carmine. 

Yellow — Solution of methyl-orange. 

Green — 

Copper sulphate 1 dram. 

Potassium dichromate. . . 1 dram. 

Water 2 ounces. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Dissolve the salts separately, each in 
1 ounce of water, mix the solutions, 
and add the ammonia water. 

Red. yellow and green anilin dy< s 
that are "fast" to alkalies can be ob- 
tained from the regular dealers in such 

Preston Salt 

Mix finely powdered ammonium 
chloride witli freshly slaked lime 
perfume as desired. The mixture con- 
tinually develops small amounts of am- 
monia for a period extending over s< - 
era! years. 

Snivelv. in his -'Manufacture of Per- 
fumes," gives the following recipe: 

Ammonium chloride.. .3% troyozs. 

Potassium carbonate . .4 % troyozs. 

Oil of lavender Vz n. <>■/.. 

Oil of lemon 3 fl. drams. 

Oil of bergamot Id- dram. 

Oil of clove 15 minims. 

Ammonia water enough. 

Triturate the salts together, add 
oils, and moisten slightly with am- 
monia water. 



Soap Making — Varieties of Toilet Soaps — Soft and Liquid Soaps — 
Castile Soap — Shaving Soaps — Technical Soaps— Household and 
Laundry Soaps — Laundry Requisites. 

Always consult the index rehen using this book. 

Making Soap. 

Soap-making is theoretically quite a 
simple affair, but in endeavoring to 
carry out the theory difficulties are 
likely to be met which can be only 
overcome by one experienced in the 
art. These difficulties consist largely 
of producing a fine quality and econo- 
mizing in cost; for soap being so staple 
an article, competition in its sale is 
Aery strong. 

When potash is used as the saponi- 
fication agent, the soap will be soft; 
soaps made with soda are harder. 

A simple lye process is as follows: 
Dissolve soda in water in the propor- 
tion of about 2 pounds to the gallon. 
Any convenient quantity of the grease 
is incited at a low heat and about one- 
fourth its weight of lye added in small 
portions with constant stirring. When 
incorporation has been thoroughly ef- 
fected a similar portion of lye is added 
in the same way. and the process is 
continued until the saponifying process 
appears to be complete. By the addi- 
tion of still more lye, alter the fat has 
all been taken up, the soap is sep- 
arated, the latter being insoluble in a 
strong alkaline solution. 

If the soap is made too alkaline from 
admixture of lye in the process of 
making it may be improved by melt- 
ing with water and separating by a 
strong solution of common salt. The 
soap is finally re-melted in a water- 
bath, kept heated until as much water 
is expelled as possible, and then poured 
into molds to set. 

Amateurs should not expect to take 
a formula from a book or paper and 
turn out a high-grade soap. 

We suggest that druggists who de- 
sire to market their own make of 
soaps consult an experienced and well- 
equipped manufacturer, who not only 
can turn out a better appearing soap 
than it is possible for an amateur to 
make, but can do it at a saving of 

Varieties of Toilet Soaps. 
Circular of the Bureau of Standards 
No. 62, Specifications for the Methods 


of Testing Soaps, contains the follow- 
ing paragraphs relating to varieties of 
toilet soaps: 

Toilet soaps should be entirely neutral, since 
excess alkali is injurious to the skin. Fillers 
such as sodium carbonate and sodium silicate. 
having a similar effect, should also be absent. 
Free lathering soap is generally desirable; and 
since a tallow soap lathers slowly and cocoa- 
nut-oil soap lathers very freely, some cocoanut 
oil is frequently added. This oil has a tendency 
to injure the skin, and its odor is also objec- 
tionable; hence it is not generally used in 
large amounts. Some potash is frequently us.-.l 
in toilet soaps to produce freer lathering. 

(a) Milled toilet soaps are prepared by grind- 
ing any good soap and compressing into cakes. 
More delicate perfumes can be used with this 
class of soaps, since the perfume is mixed in 
the process of milling, than with ordinary 
soaps, in which the perfume is added before 
the soap is dried. 

(b) Floating soaps contain entangled air in 
very fine bubbles, incorporated while the soap 
is still hot. These air bubbles are so small as 
to be almost invisible, and so numerous that 
they not only make the soap lighter than 
water, but also largely increase the surface of 
the soap exposed to water when used, and 
therefore render it more quickly soluble than 
the same soap would be without the bubbles. 

(c) Castile soap, otherwise known as Mar- 
seilles or Venetian soap, rs prepared from low- 
grade olive oils. 

(of) Transparent soaps were originally made by 
dissolving soap in alcohol, filtering and evapo- 
rating the alcohol. The transparency formerly 
was considered an indication of freedom from 
impurities, but the same effect can be pro- 
duced in other ways, and the transparency is 
actually no indication whatever of purity or 

(e) Liquid soaps are water solutions generally 
of a neutral cocoanut-oil potash soap, con- 
taining glycerol, sugar, or alcohol added t i 
prevent cloudiness and foaming in the con- 
tainer. The glycerole is probably an unobjec- 
tionable addition, since it has emollient prop- 
erties, but sugar can have no beneficial action 
on the soap itself and may be objected to on 
account of its tendency to leave the hands 
sticky. Alcohol is seldom used. 

(f) Shaving soaps must possess not only the 
properties of first-class toilet snaps, but must 
furnish a very rich lather, which will remain 
on the face for some time without drying. 
This lather should soften the beard without in- 
juring the skin. These snaps should have no 
unpleasant odor and little or no perfume. The 
fat used in shaving soaps generally contains 
some cocoanut oil, and the alkali is generally 
a mixture of soda and potash. Glycerol is sElso 
generally present. 

Soft Soap 

Beringer has proposed the following 

Binseed oil 40 grammes. 

Malaga olive oil 40 grammes. 



Potassium hydroxide. .19 grammes. 

Alcohol 10 mils. 

Water .60 mils. 

"Warm the mixed oils on a water - 
bath to 70 deg. C, dissolve the potas- 
sium hydroxide in the water and bring 
this to the same temperature, then add 
to the oilg and stir thoroughly. Add 
th£ alcohol, with stirring but as soon 
as it is thoroughly incorporated cease 
the stirring. Continue the heat at the 
same degree for a short time until 
saponification is complete, . which is 
evidenced by the mass becoming clear 
and a portion dissolving in boiling 
water or alcohol without the separation 
of oil globules. 

Beringer says that the finished mass 
will weigh about 140 grammes, and 
that the soap is an almost transparent, 
smooth, greenish-yellow mass. If stir- 
ring is continued too long after the ad- 
dition of the alcohol, the soap will be 
opaque on account of included air. 

The German Pharmacapoeia formula 
is as follows: 

Sapo Kaiinus- 

Linseed oil 20 grammes, 

Solution of potassium 

' hydroxide (15%) ... .27 grammes. 

Alcohol 2 grammes. 

Place the oil in a suitable vessel upon 
a water bath, and when it is warm stir 
in the potassium hydroxide solution 
and alcohol, previously mixed. 

Pharmaceutical Formulas gives the 
following as: 

Lothian's Process. 

Olive oil 100 parts. 

Potassium hydroxide 21 parts. 

Water 100 parts. 

Alcohol (90%) 20 parts. 

Heat on a steam bath until the oil is 
saponified, adding a little more alcohol, 
if necessary, to assist in the saponifi- 

Neutral Soft Soap 

As the saponification value of olive 
oil varies in different samples it is im- 
possible to fix definitely the propor- 
tions of the oil and potassium hydrox- 
ide that will form a neutral soap. The 
simplest practicable working formula 
for a neutral soap is as follows: 

Potassium hydroxide.. 21 grammes. 

Olive oil 100 grammes. 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the hydroxide in 100 mils of 
water; mix with the oil. and heat to- 
gether moderately without stirring for 
several hours or until no alkalinity is 
detectable, replacing from time to time 
the water lost through evaporation. 
Add 300 mils of water and continue the 
heating until the soap is dissolved. Re- 
move the oily layer and drive off the 
water by evaporation. 

A more scientific method would be to 
determine the saponification value of 

the particular sample of oil according 
to test in the appendix of the Phar- 
macopoeia; multiply the saponification 
number so obtained by the percentage 
of absolute KOH in the potassium hy- 
droxide to be used. The quotient rep- 
resents the number of grammes of the 
hydroxide required to saponify 1000 
grammes .of the oil. 

Soft Soap for Toilet Uses 

In a paper read before the Alabama 
Pharmaceutical Association, C. Whar- 
ton- offered the following formula for 
a soft soap that could be used as a 
basis for liquid toilet soap or shampoo: 

Coconut oil 100 grammes. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide (15%) . . 40 grammes. 

Glycerin 30 grammes. 

Mix the hydroxide solution with the 
oil and allow the mixture to stand for 
forty-eight hours with frequent stir- 
ring. Incorporate the glycerin and heat 
the mixture carefully on a water-bath 
until a homogeneous mass is obtained. 

He also offered the following for- 
mula for a liquid soap: 

Coconut oil soap 22.5 grammes. 

Alcohol 9.5 mils. 

Water, to make 64.0 mils. 

Perfume and color as desired. 

Tincture of cudbear and tincture of 
chlorophyl were suggested as colors. 
The author favored synthetic perfum- 
ing materials. 

White Soft Soap 

Coconut oil 43 grammes. 

Potassium hydroxide.. 7 grammes. 

Alcohol 100 mils. 

Distilled water 50 mils. 

Dissolve the hydroxide in the alcohol. 
Add the oil. little by little, with con- 
stant stirring. Recover the alcohol by 
distillation at a minimum temperature. 
Add the water to the residue. 

Liquid Soap 
By John K. Thum 

It is rather curious that neither the 
Pharmacopoeial Revision Committee 
nor the National Formulary Revision 
Committee permitted a formula to be 
inserted in either of these two noted 
books for the manufacture of this pop- 
ular preparation. The use of liquid 
soaps is very near universal, both 
among the laity and hospitals and 
other institutions. And the technic for 
making them is so simple that the 
veriest tyro should experience no 
trouble in their preparation. 

While it is perfectly feasible to make 
a liquid soap solely with the aid of 



sodium hydroxide, yet considerable al- 
cohol is required to keep the soap in 
solution; and as this solvent has al- 
ways been an exceedingly expensive 
one on account of the high tax on it, 
its indiscriminate use has always been 
a mighty factor in adding to cost of 
production. At the present time when 
the taxation is double, its use is almost 
prohibitive. It was discovered, how- 
ever, that if the amount of sodium hy- 
droxide was cut in half and the same 
amount of potassium was used in its 
place, a rather better liquid was the 
result and the quantity of alcohol 
could be reduced to as low as six per 
cent. As it requires at least twenty - 
five per cent, of alcohol in the prepara- 
tion of liquid soap made solely with 
sodium hydroxide, one can readily 
realize the great economy of using 
both hydroxides. 

For many years we were in the habit 
of using equal parts of each of the 
hydroxides, but since the beginning of 
the war the cost of potassium has ad- 
vanced so much that we began to ex- 
periment with lesser quantities. We 
have now got to that point where we 
can safely say that an elegant soap is 
possible by using only two parts of the 
potassium hydroxide and seven parts 
of the sodium. 

It is of the utmost importance that 
the hydroxides used in making liquid 
soap be free from chlorides, the merest 
traces of these being sufficient to 
throw the soap out of solution. It will 
be remembered that the manufacturers 
of solid soaps all use sodium chloride 
to precipitate the soap after the fats 
and alkalies have been sufficiently 
boiled for saponification to have taken 
place. Now the Pharmacopoeia fails 
to mention anything about the pres- 
ence of chlorides in these two hydrox- 
ides, and when a chemical manufac- 
turer sells these with the statement 
on the label that they answer all the 
pharmaeopoeial requirements, he is 
stating the truth, and yet they cannot 
truthfully be called pure. Let us hope 
that the next revision will take cog- 
nizance of this matter and demand 
freedom from chlorides. 

It has been our experience that a 
very good liquid soap can be made in 
a very short time, without the use of 
artificial heat, by utilizing the heat 
generated by dissolving the hydroxides 
in a minimum amount of distilled 
water. It should be here emphasized 
that the use of distilled water is abso- 
lutely necessary to make liquid soap, 
the very slight traces of chlorides in 
tap water easily rendering it cloudy, 
which is due to precipitated soap. 

The following formula is suggested. 
It has served every use to which such 
a preparation could be put. Last year 
we manufactured over 6,000 gallons 
of it: 

Potassium hydroxid.... 200 grams. 

Sodium hydroxid 700 grams. 

Cottonseed oil S,000 grams. 

Alcohol 3,000 mitf*. 

Distilled water, to 

make 50.000 mils. 

Dissolve the hydroxide in 1,200 mils 
of distilled water, add all of the oil 
and 2,000 mils of alcohol; stir con- 
stantly until saponification has taken 
place, then add the remainder of the 
alcohol and sufficient of distilled 
water to make up to the required 

The crucial point in this manipula- 
tion is to add the oil and part of the 
alcohol immediately after the hydrox- 
ids have gone into solution, for it is 
at this point that the heat generated 
is at its greatest intensity. It is sim- 
ply a question of conservation of 
energy. Having safely passed this 
stage, the remainder of the procedure 
is very easy indeed. As a matter of 
fact, the whole operation presents no 
difficulties whatever. The operator has 
merely to be watchful and conduct 
things so as to utilize every bit of 
heat evolved. 

Liquid Toilet Soap. 

Official liniment of soft soap (the old 
tincture of green soap) is a good toilet 
preparation. Of course, it may be per- 
fumed to suit the fancy of the maker 
or of his trade. 

Koller gives a number of formulas 
for liquid soaps, one of which is quoted 

White castile soap 20 parts. 

Alcohol (80%) 100 parts. 

Potassium carbonate, 

1 to 2 parts. 

Color enough. 

Perfume enough. 

The soap is cut into small strips and 
placed in a suitable vessel on a water- 
bath; the potassium carbonate and al- 
cohol are then added, and the water- 
bath is slowly heated, the soap being 
stirred to facilitate solution. When 
this is accomplished — forty to sixty 
minutes being required — the vessel is 
removed from the water-bath, the 
scent and coloring matter — saffron or 
rosanilin — are added, and the soap is 
left for some hours to clarify, after 
which it is poured off, or, better, fil- 

In consequence of its large alcohol 
content, the product remains liquid at 
the ordinary temperature, and suffers 
little alteration, even by cold. The 
scent may be of different kinds: orange 
oil, lemon oil or compound scents, like 
(a) oil of bitter almond, 8, and oil of 
bergamot, 2; or (b) oil of bitter almond, 
5, and oil of cinnamon, 1. 



Liquid Soap with Cottonseed Oil Base. 

The following note from Clinical 
Medicine gives information that may 
be valuable: 

Many surgeons prefer "antiseptic" soap to 
the ordinary toilet variety, though it must be 
said that the antiseptic virtues reside wholly 
within the degree of assiduity in the use of 
brush, hot water and any kind of soap rather 
than "antiseptics" in the saponic mixture. 

Potassium hydroxide 40 grammes. 

Sodium hydroxide 40 grammes. 

Cflttonseed oil 500 mils. 

Alconol 250 mils. 

Distilled water, to make... 2,500 mils. 

Dissolve the alkalies in 250 mils of water, 
add the alcohol, then the oil in three or four 
portions, shaking vigorously after each addi- 
tion. Shake occasionally until saponified, then 
add the remaining portion of water. 

Phenol may be added, if desired, dissolved 
in the water, or thymol, if preferred, dissolved 
in the alcohol. Perfume may be put in for the 

Official Liquid Antiseptic Soap. 

In the National Formulary we find 
directions for making compound solu- 
tion of cresol, which is really a liquid 
antiseptic soap. Saponated tincture of 
cresol, N. F., also comes under this 
head. Here is a formula for a — 
Cresol Soap Solution. 

Cresol 50.00 grammes. 

Linseed oil 18.00 grammes. 

Potassium hydrox- 
ide 4.25 grammes. 

Alcohol 2.00 grammes. 

Glycerin 6.00 grammes. 

Distilled water, to 

make 100.00 grammes. 

Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in 
20 grammes of distilled water, and 
raise the temperature of the solution 
to 70 degrees C. Bring the tempera- 
ture of the oil to the same degree, 
over a water-bath, and add to it the 
solution, stirring vigorously. Take 
care that the temperature does not 
rise above 70 degrees C, and thor- 
oughly incorporate the alcohol with 
the previously made mixture. Remove 
the stirrer and continue the gentle ap- 
plication of heat until the oil is com- 
pletely saponified. This may be deter- 
mined by dropping portions of the mix- 
ture into water by means of a glass 
rod, when the absence of oil globules 
on the water will indicate complete sa- 
ponification. Stir in the glycerin, add 
the cresol, and warm gently until all 
the soap is dissolved. Bring the weight 
of the product to 100 grammes by 
either the addition or expulsion of 

Other Liquid Antiseptic Soaps. 
Castile soap 

shavings 10.0 grammes. 

Alcohol 12.5 grammes. 

Ether 30.0 grammes. 

"Water 47.5 grammes. 

Dissolve the soap in the water by the 
aid ot a gentle heat. Cool, and add the 

alcohol. After twenty-four hours filter 
and add the ether. 


Cottonseed oil 300 grammes. 

Alcohol 300 mils. 

Water 325 mils. 

Sodium hydroxide.... 45 grammes. 
Potassium carbonate. 10 grammes. 

Liquefied phenol 25 mils. 

Ether 15 mils. 

^\Iix as directed in Utech's formula 
given below. 


White soap 1,000 parts. 

Soft soap 1,000 parts. 

Poppyseed oil 500 parts. 

Glycerin 50 parts. 

Betanaphthol 50 parts. 

Alcohol 500 parts. 

Oil of lemon 50 parts. 

"Water, to make 15,000 parts. 

The two soaps and the poppy seed 
oil are mixed with 3.000 parts of water 
and gently heated until of a pasty con- 
sistency, when the other ingredients 
are added. 

Richaud, in Repertoire de Pharmacie. 
says that this soap is very frothy and 

Surgeon's Liquid Soap 

"White soap 20 

Alcohol 20 

Glycerin 20 

Solution of sodium car- 
bonate (2%) 50 

Mikulicz's Formula 

Olive oil 6 

Solution of potassium hy- 
droxide 7 

Alcohol 10 

Water 17 

Demlin's Formula 

White soap 38 

Glycerin 50 

Water 500 





Liquid Aromatic Shampoo Soap 

Utech's modification of Wilbert's 
formula is: 

Sodium hydroxide.. 80 grammes. 

Potassium hydroxide 80 grammes. 

Cottonseed oil 1,000 mils. 

Alcohol 500 mils. 

Water, to make 2,500 mils. 

Dissolve the hydroxides in 500 miis 
of water. After solution has been ef- 
fected, add the alcohol, and, finally, the 
cottonseed oil, in several portions, and 
shake thoroughly. Allow to stand for 
several hours, shaking the mixture oc- 
casionally, until thoroughly saponified. 
Finally add water to make 2,500 mils. 

To the soap liquid thus prepared 

Potassium carbonate. 30 grammes. 

Terpineol 12 mils. 



Liquid Antiseptic Soap 

A new and very extensive field for the 
use of liquid soaps in germicidal combina- 
tion has been developed recently, and no 
doubt your attention has already been called 
to their use in some of our larger public 
institutions, such as hospitals, hotels, etc. 
This idea was inspired, as you well know, by 
the widespread interest people have taken in 
matters of public hygiene and sanitation of 
late years. Soaps for such purposes could 
be easily made from the formula herewith, 
simply by incorporating a small quantity of 
phenol, mercury bichloride, formaldehyde, or 
any of the other ordinary germicides. 

Artificial oil of jasmine. 0.5 mil. 
Oil of rose geranium. . .0.5 mil. 

Oil of clove 0.5 mil. 

Terpineol 7.5 mils. 

Artificial musk 0.5 gramme. 

Alcohol, to make 20 mils. 

Liquid Glycerin Soap 

White animal oil soap... 2 pounds. 

Glycerin 1 pound. 

Cocoanut oil 8 ounces. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide 8 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Distilled water S pints. 

Dissolve the soap in the alcohol, 
warming gently. Melt the oil on a 
water- hath, and stir in the solution of 
potash and the glycerin. When the 
reaction ceases remove from the heat 
and mix with the soap solution pre- 
viously diluted with the water. 

Liquid Soap 
At the 1913 meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association E. E. 
Jones presented a paper on liquid soap 
which had the novelty of suggesting 
varying proportions of ingredients to 
suit different types of water. The 
recipes are given below: 

Home-Made Castile Soap. 

Charles H. Bowersox read a paper 
at a meeting of the National Associa- 
tion of Pharmacologists in whi^h he 
said that in making soap liniment the 
castile soap of the market (except in 
certain instances) did not give good 
results, so he made his own castile 
soap. His formula follows: 

Sodium hydroxide 75 gramrr.--. 

Olive oil 425 grammes. 

Sodium chloride 125 grammes. 

Distilled water 2500 gramrr - - 

Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in 400 
grammes of distilled water (using a vessel of 
silver, iron or hard glass) and set the solution 
aside until it has become perfectly cold. Now 
introduce the oil into a cylindrical vessel made 
of hard glass (a candy jar will do) and pour 
the solution of sodium hydroxide gradually 
into it, and at the same time stir gently with 
an iron or glass rod. Continue stirring slowly 
and without intermission until the lye and oil 
are thoroughly combined, which will require 
about ten minutes; then construct a cover of 
several thicknesses of paper and fasten it se- 
curely over the top of the jar to prevent at- 
mospheric action, and to hasten the reaction 
between the alkali and the oil. Set the jar 
and its contents aside in a warm place until 
saponification is complete (which will require 
about eighty hours). Now transfer the con- 
tents to a silver or bright iron kettle of the 
capacity of about 3800 mils and add 1000 
grammes of distilled water. Heat until the 
magma is dissolved or becomes transparent 

Liquid Soaps and Shampoos. 
For For 

soft water. ordinary water. 

Coconut oil 100 grammes. 200 grammes. 

Cottonseed oil 400 grammes. 300 grammes. 

Stearic acid 100 grammes. 100 grammes. 

Potassium hydroxide .. .120 grammes. 126 grammes. 

Sodium hydroxide 12 grammes. 12 grammes. 

Alcohol 125 mils. 125 mils. 

Potassium carbonate 20 grammes. 30 grammes. 

TaJc 15 grammes. 15 grammes. 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make 2,500 mils. 
Melt the acid with the oils at a gentle 
heat; dissolve the hydroxides in 1,000 
mils, of water; add to the fatty mix- 
ture. Boil the mixture, adding water 
as may be necessary until no alkalin- 
ity is appreciable to the taste. Dissolve 
the potassium carbonate in 250 mils of 
water; add to the saponified mixture, 
and boil the whole for two hours. Al- 
low the mixture to cool: add the alco- 
hol; perfume as desired, and add 
enough water to make 2,500 mils. Add 
the talc; set aside; filter. 

Perfume for Liquid Soap. 
As a perfume. Mr. Jones suggested 
any desired aromatic oil, or the follow- 
ing mixture (the quantity is sufficient 
for 2,500 mils). 

Syringeol 5.0 mils. 

Artificial oil of rose. . . .0.5 mil. 


hard water. 
300 grammes. 
200 grammes 
100 grammes. 
132 grammes. 

12 grammes 
125 mils. 

40 grammes. 

15 grammes. 

and rather tenacious, then remove from the 
fire. Next introduce 500 grammes of distilled 
water into a suitable vessel and place ^ver 
fire; quickly raise the temperature, and at the 
moment of ebullition, remove from the fire. 
Dissolve the sodium chloride in the hot water 
at once, and immediately incorporate the hot 
saline solution with the hot soap solution, stir- 
ring until the glycerin is liberated and the ex- 
cess of water has separated from the curd, 
which would require but a few seconds. If 
soap formation is not manifest almost imme- 
diately after the solution of sodium chloride 
has been added (which may be known by the 
milk-like appearance of the mixture), place 
the vessel over a fire and heat moderately until 
the formation does begin to take place, then 
set it aside for about twenty hours to permit 
all the soap to rise to the surface and form a 
solid mass. 

The soap having formed, make a small in- 
cision through it near the edge and drain off 
the liquid in the bottom of the vessel. The- 
solid can then easily be removed by gently 
tapping on the side and bottom of container. 
Cut the soap (which now contains from 33 per 



■ i 70 per cent, of water, depending upon 
the shape and size of the vessel in which it 
was made) into desired size, wash off with 
clear water and allow it to dry spontaneously 
until it has lost all but a trace of water. 

The author, in some notes on his 
soap, went on to say: 

Only the best quality of materials should be 
used and the directions carefully followed. 
The sodium chloride should be pure and per- 
iry, and the water should be either re- 
cently distilled, or rain water recently collected 
and free from foreign matter. 

It is highly important that the lye should be 
allowed to become perfectly cold before pro- 
ceeding further, and it should be poured into 
the oil and not the oil into the lye. In con- 
sequence of the chemical action of sodium 
::de on "soft" glass, earthen or porce- 
lain ware, utensils of such composition should 
be avoided in soap making. 

All vessels, measures, stirring rods, etc., 
should be clean and free from oxidation. 

If permitted to dry in the open air at ordi- 
nary temperature, the soap will be found to 
contain about 20 per cent, of water after 
thirty days, and at the expiration of three 
months it ceases to lose weight perceptibly 
and retains only sufficient moisture to hold it 
in form. 

The soap is white in appearance, and pos- 
sesses a faint peculiar fat-like odor, free from 
rancidity; it has a disagreeable, slightly alka- 
line taste, is mildly alkaline in reaction, and 
exhibits no saline efflorescence. It is very 
hard and brittle and it may readily be re- 
duced to powder, in which form it is so solu- 
ble that the use of "boiling water" and the 
"water-bath" directed in the Pharmacopoeia 
will be found unnecessary. It may be used 
for making liniment while still containing a 
considerable amount of moisture, providing al- 
lowance be made for the moisture present, 
which can readily be calculated. 

The formula here presented produces a soap 
that not only is all that could be desired for 
the manufacture of soap liniment, but it fur- 
nishes an excellent article for all other phar- 
maceutical purposes where castile soap is in- 

By abbreviating the formula and observing 

only :hat portion preceding "now transfer to 

a silver or bright iron kettle," etc.. a soap 

containing a large proportion of mui.siurt- and 

-uited for cleaning purposes will be the 


Tincture of White Soap 

A physician's formula for a cheap 
substitute for liniment of soft soap for 
hospital and general use- 

White castile soap. .1.200 grammes. 

Stronger ammonia 

water 100 mils. 

ohol 1.400 mils. 

Distilled water . 1,300 mils. 

The liquids are mixed in a jar of 
suitable size; the soap, cut into shreds, 
added, and the mixture set aside for 
twelve hours. The ,mixture is stirred 
several times during the next few hours 
and then allowed to stand for twelve 
hours, after which time the clear solu- 
tion is drawn off. 

Some Precautions To Be Observed in 
Making Shaving Creams 
As raw materials in the production 
of this class of toilet articles are used 
lard, olive or sesame oil, and Cochin 
cocoanut oil. Before proceeding with 
the manufacture one must be sure that 

the fats and oils are perfectly fresh 
and clean. If this is not the case they 
must undergo a process of refining. 
This consists in carefully boiling the 
substance in clean kettles, together 
with water, to which some cooking salt 
has been added. The fats thus purified 
are strained and are ready for imme- 
diate use. A good formula is as fol- 

Stir together at a temperature of 35 
degrees C. (.95 degrees F.), 20 parts of 
lard, 16 parts of olive (.or sesame) oil, 
and 14 parts of Cochin cocoanut oil. 
Add, in a thin stream, 25 parts or" 
caustic potash lye of 40 degrees B. and 
3 parts of a potash solution of 150 de- 
grees B., with constant stirring. Main- 
tain the agitation until the mixture 
saponifies and becomes thick and 

Lanolinated Shaving Cream 

Lanolin % ounce. 

Almond cream 10 ounces. 

Rose water 4 ounces. 

Coumarin 2 grains. 

Oil of ylang-ylang 10 minims. 

Put the lanolin in a warm mortar 
and mix the almond cream with it. oc- 
casionally adding some rose water. 
When thoroughly mixed, add the per- 
fumes, and triturate off and on for 
several hours, so as to get a nice ap- 

By almond cream is meant a prepa- 
ration to be found on the market, 
sometimes spoken of as Naples soap. 

Stearin Shaving Cream 

Stearin 30 grammes. 

Ammonia water (sp. 

sr. 0.96 i 15 grammes. 

( Mycerin 20 grammes. 

Oil of geranium 5 mils. 

Oil of bergamot 3 mils. 

Water 235 mils. 

A Collection of Shaving Soap Recipes 

Curd soap 5 ounces. 

Expressed oil of almond. 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Spermaceti 1 2 ounce. 

Potassium carbonate % ounce. 

Water 1 pint. 

Cut the soap into shreds, and dis- 
solve it by the aid of a water-bath in 14 
ounces of water. Dissolve the sperma- 
ceti in the almond oil. and while warm 
mix it with the glycerin, potassium 
carbonate, and r< mainder of the water. 
Transfer to a warm mortar, gradually 
incorporate the warm soap solution, 
and continue the stirring until a 
smooth paste is obtained. With this 
incorporate any suitable perfume. 

Lard 14 ounces. 

Potassium hydroxide 2 ounces. 



Water 6 ounces. 

Perfume to suit. 

Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel 
over a salt-water-bath; dissolve the 
potassium hydroxide in the water, and 
run the lye, thus formed, very slowly 
into the melted grease, stirring thor- 
oughly all the time until saponification 
is complete. 

A pearly appearance can be given to 
the "cream," which is simply a soft 
soap, by long trituration in a mortar 
with a little alcohol, say 2 drams to 
each pound of the soap. 

Bitter almond oil may be used as a 
perfume for the "cream." Only a very 
minute proportion is required. A few 
drops dissolved in the alcohol used as 
above will suffice. 


Castile soap 1 ounce. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Oil of almonds Vz ounce. 

Cacao butter % ounce. 

Tincture of benzoin 1 dram. 

Oil of bitter almond 5 drops. 

Oil of rose geranium... 5 drops. 

Glycerin, to form a paste. 

Digest the soap and water in a 
water-bath, add to them the oil of 
almonds and the cacao butter, pre- 
viously melted, and while the mixture 
is still warm, incorporate with it the 
other ingredients. 

Shaving Stick 

Mutton suet 10 av. ozs. 

Cocoanut oil 5 av. ozs. 

Sodium hydroxide 2 av. ozs. 

Potassium hydroxide. . . .170 grains. 

Water 7 % fl. ozs. 

Oil of caraway 25 drops. 

Oil of bergamot 30 drops. 

Oil of lavender 20 drops. 

Oil of thyme (white)... 12 drops. 

Oil of mirbane 1 drop. 

Melt together the tallow and cocoanut 
oil; allow the mixture to cool at 50 de- 
grees C then add the two caustics dis- 
solved in the water, and warm the 
whole gently for about a half hour, 
stirring occasionally until a uniform 
soapy mass is produced. Finally add 
the volatile oils. 

Sodium hydroxide is the lye used for 
making hard soap, while potassium 
hydroxide is used in making soft soap. 
The proportion of the two present in 
a mixed lye determines the consistency 
of the finished article. 

It is not to be expected that an ama- 
teur will get as good results in making 
soap as one who has had long training 
in the art. 

Shaving Cream Recipes 

Our own experience in compounding 
preparations of this character for com- 
mercial purposes is that each person 

has a different idea as to the exact 
character of the article he wishes to 
market, and the "personal element" is 
introduced into the commodity by 
starting with a typical recipe and ex- 
perimenting with it, making slight 
modifications until it is what one de- 

Some suggestive formulas are here- 
with given. 

Lathering Shaving Creams. 

Purified lard 10 ounces. 

Coconut oil 1 ounce. 

Potassium hydroxide... 13 drams. 

Water 4^ ounces. 

Alcohol 4 drams. 

Hydrous wool-fat 1 ounce. 

Oil of petit grain 10 minims. 

Oil of bitter almond. ... 10 minims. 

Melt the lard with the coconut oil; 
dissolve the caustic potash in the 
water and add to the fats. Heat to a 
temperature of not more than 95 deg. 
C. for half an hour, then raise the tem- 
perature to 110 deg. C. and continue 
until saponification is complete. Let 
the soap cool, and then incorporate the 
oils dissolved in the alcohol, and the 


Lard 2 pounds. 

Coconut oil 4 ounces. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide (sp. gr. 1.33). 18 ounces. 

Oil of peppermint 10 minims. 

Oil of bergamot 40 minims. 

Oil of lavender 15 minims. 

Oil of neroli 5 minims. 

Heat the fats with the lye for sev- 
eral hours at 100 deg. C. Beat the mix- 
ture as it cools, adding the oils before 
it sets. 

Non-Lathering Shaving Creams. 

Almond oil V 2 ounce. 

Cacao butter % ounce. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Primrose soap V£ ounce. 

Otto of rose 4 minims. 

Oil of neroli 4 minims. 

Oil of bitter almonds. ... 5 minims. 

Water enough. 

Melt the cacao butter and almond oil 
and pour into a warm mortar contain- 
ing the soap previously rubbed down 
with 3 ounces of boiling water; stir 
briskly to make ' a uniform cream, 
slowly adding 4 ouncesi of warm water 
previously mixed with the glycerin; 
finally add the perfumes. 

With 4 ounces of rose-water and no 
glycerin this gjves a cream suitable 
for potting. 


Powdered tragacanth.. . . % ounce. 

Naples soap 1 ounce. 

Oil of almond 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 5 ounces. 

Water 4 5 ounces. 

Oil of rose geranium. ... 1 dram. 



Oil of bergamot 2 drams. 

Oil of neroli ^2 dram. 

Oil of citronella 20 minims. 

Alcohol 5 ounces. 

Put the tragacanth and 4 ounces of 
alcohol in a dry half -gallon bottle and 
shake thoroughly. Add the soap, the 
almond oil, the glycerin and the water 
in the order named. When the mix- 
ture is homogeneous add the essential 
oils dissolved in 1 ounce of alcohol. 

Perfume for Shaving Soap 

As a perfume use for every 25 kilo- 
grams of fats the following: 

Lavender oil 100 grammes. 

Lemon oil 50 grammes. 

Spike oil 50 grammes. 

Thyme oil o0 grammes. 

These oils are stirred in at the last. 
For containers use little porcelain jars. 
Keep the preparation in a cool place. 

Shaving Soap Powder 

Powdered soap 600.0 grammes. 

Oil of lavender 6.4 grammes. 

Oil of caraway 3.2 grammes. 

Oil of thyme 1.0 gramme. 

Oil of mandarin 

orange 0.8 gramme. 

Oil of bergamot 0.8 gramme. 

The pharmacist who desires to put 
up a soap powder will fare better if he 
purchases the basal powdered soap 
from a soapmaker. He might, of 
course, purchase the soap in bars and 
powder it himself, but this cannot be 
done satisfactorily without proper me- 
chanical equipment. It is well to tell 
the soapmaker that soap suitable for 
shaving is wanted. 

Technical Soap Recipes. 

While soap-making has passed be- 
yond the activities of the average 
druggist, the following recipes trans- 
lated by the Oil and Color Trade Jour- 
nal from a German source are inter- 
esting, if for no other reason than the 
fact they show what a variety of fats 
and perfumes are used by the modern 
soap manufacturer. 

The quantities are all parts by 
weight, and the abbreviation "°" 
means, of course, that the alkali solu- 
tion is to have the specific gravity in 
"degrees Baume"; that is, its strength 
is to be tested with a hydrometer grad- 
uated according to the Baume scale. 
Poley oil means European oil of penny- 

American floating soap. — Lard 90; 
tallow 90; Ceylon cocoanut oil 60; caus- 
tic soda lye (38°) 123; water 200; brine 
(16°) 15. The fats and lye are boiled 
to a clear paste, water and brine being 
added and the whole beaten up to a 

Scents for floating soap. — (1) Thy- 
mene 1.2 parts; citronella oil 1.25; light 

camphor oil 2; poley oil 0.5; coumarin 
0.05. (2) Carvene 1; citronella oil 2; 
thymene 1; fennel oil 0.45; poley oil 0.5; 
coumarin tincture (1:9) 0.06; (3) Japan 
peppermint oil 1; citronella oil 2; light 
camphor oil 1; thymene 1. (4) Thymene 
1.1; citronella oil 2.2; light camphor oil 
0.2; nerolin 0.1; poley oil 0.6. (5) Thy- 
mene 2; citronella oil 1; light camphor 
oil 2. (6) Poley oil 1 part; citronella 
oil 2; light camphor oil 1; thymene 1 

Viennese floating soap. — Ceylon co- 
coanut oil 1,900; castor oil 200; glycerin 
300; caustic soda lye (38°) 1,000; brine 
(17°) 1,500; water 1.000; citronella oil 
12; poley oil 5 parts. The soap is pre- 
pared by the warm process, the warm 
clear paste being beaten to froth, 
framed in that condition, and beaten 
up for a short time after framing. 

Economical curd soap. — Ceylon co- 
coanut oil 290; rosin 5; crude palm oil 
2.5; caustic soda (35°) 185; filling so- 
lution (see below) 150; safrol 1. 

Venus soap. — (1) Palm kernel oil 300; 
caustic soda lye (35°) 185; filling solu- 
tion 155; citronella oil 1. (2) Palm 
kernel oil 300; caustic soda lye (35°) 
190; talc 50; filling solution 200; safrol 

Filling solution for above soaps. — 
Sugar 34; potassa 32; salt 30; water 
225 parts. 

Cream soap for lace curtains, etc. — 
Ceylon cocoanut oil 3.600; caustic soda 
lye (34°) 2,300; oil of white thyme 7; 
lavender oil 13; crystalized chrysoi- 
din 12. 

Palm soap. — Ceylon cocoanut oil 620; 
caustic soda lye (39°) 325; potassa 90; 
soda crystals 90; salt 125; water 1,250; 
mirbane oil 1. 

Borax soap. — Cochin cocoanut oil 750; 
caustic soda lye (39°) 375; powdered 
borax 45; water 45; lavender oil 1; 
spike oil 1. 

Floating Household Soap. 

Unless one has the necessary me- 
chanical equipment, the manufacture 
of a floating soap had best be left to 
the soapmakers. The floating proper- 
ties of a soap depend upon the forma- 
tion of minute empty spaces through- 
out the mass, which reduce its specific 
gravity. This is accomplished by the 
addition of an alkaline carbonate to the 
batch of materials just before pouring 
out, carbon dioxide being set free and 
permeating the mass; or by rapid agi- 
tation of the mass with paddles of a 
suitable sort. 

We append a formula for a white 
floating soap made by the stirring 
process, as with the other process free 
alkali may be present in the finished 

Cocoanut oil 440 pounds. 

Soda lye, 38° B 231 pounds. 

Potash lye, 25° B 11 pounds. 



Solution of calcium 

chloride. 20° B 110 pounds. 

Hot water 440 pounds. 

Perfume enough. 

The cocoanut oil and the lyes are 
mixed and saponification completed in 
the usual manner. Then the batch Is 
stirred until it has the appearance of 
tine wooly grains. The solution of cal- 
cium chloride is warmed, and together 
with the hot water is added gradually 
with constant stirring. 

The batch is then allowed to cool to 
77 degrees F. and transferred to a stir- 
ring kettle, where it is beaten vigor- 
ously until it becomes a stiff foam. It 
is then placed in the drying frames and 
dried slowly in a light, airy place. 

The color of this soap depends upon 
the quality of the materials used. 

Surgeons' Grit Soap. 

For use by surgeons in washing their 
hands preparatory to sterilizing them 
for an operation, J. K. Thum (Am. 
Jour. Pharm.) recommends a soap 
made according to the formula below. 
He says it is free of that excess of 
alkali which renders the commercial 
grit soap unstiitable for the purpose: 

Cottonseed oil 500 mils. 

Stearic acid 500 grammes. 

Sodium hydroxide. ... 150 grammes. 

Alcohol 150 mils. 

Aqueous solution of 
sodium chloride 

(20%) enough. 

Distilled water enough- 
Powdered pumice 300 grammes. 

Heat together the cottonseed oil and 
stearic acid until the latter is com- 
pletely dissolved. Then add the so- 
dium hydroxide, dissolved in a liter 
of distilled water, and heat for fifteen 
minutes with constant stirring. Next 
add the alcohol and stir until saponi- 
fication is effected. This is shown by 
the mixture becoming homogeneous in 
a few minutes. Then add one liter of 
a 20 per cent, aqueous solution of sodi- 
um chloride, and stir vigorously. Al- 
low this to stand until the soap is 
hardened. The alkaline liquid, which 
remains at the bottom of the container 
is then drained out through a hole 
punched in the soap mass on one side. 
The mass is then washed two or three 
times with distilled water, melted, and 
while still on the fire the powdered 
pumice is thoroughly incorporated. 
While still hot it is poured into suit- 
able molds. In twenty-four hours the 
soap is hard enough for use. 

Mechanics' Hand Soap 

Hand-cleaning pastes should contain 
an excess ol alkali. The abrasives gen- 
erally used are powdered pumice and 
fine sand. For seme purposes a mod- 

erately hard soap containing about 2 
per cent, of incorporated kerosene in 
addition to the abrasive is particularly 
well adapted. Aside from its expen- 
siveness, the soft soap of the Pharma- 
copoeia is an excellent base for the 
popular hand-cleaning abrasive pastes. 
Linseed oil soap is somewhat more de- 
tergent than the products of other 
vegetable oils, but linseed oil is far 
from cheap. A mixture of 10 parts of 
cottonseed oil and 2 parts of lard, 
saponified with a sufficient quantity of 
a mixture of equal parts of sodium 
hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, 
makes a soap having good cleansing 
and lathering properties. 

A collection of working formulas is 


Powdered castile soap... 7 ounces- 
Borax 2 ounces. 

Pumice, in very fine 

powder 1 ounce. 

China clay, light 10 ounces. 

Instead of the borax, about 5 ounces 
of sodium perborate may be used. 

Another formula, very highly recom- 
mended, calls for 2 ounces of a solu- 
tion of sodium silicate instead of the 


Soft soap 1 pound. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Pumice stone, levigated. 6 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine, to make a paste. 

W. R. "White's formula: 

Powdered pumice stone. 4% pounds. 

Green soap 1 x i pounds. 

Potassium carbonate . . 280 grains. 

Glycerin 2 fluid ozs. 

Water 26 fluid ozs. 

Dissolve the soap and potassium car- 
bonate in the water by the aid of heat: 
add the glycerin, and rub this solution 
up well in a mortar with the pumice 
stone until it is of a paste-like con- 


F. A. Bengartz's formula: 

Make a soap with oleic acid and 
alkali, with a good addition of coarse 


Otto Raubenheimer says: "Make a 
mixture of ordinary soap. sand, coarse- 
ly powdered ptimice stone and solution 
of sodium silicate." 

Soft soap SO gramme.-. 

Water of ammonia 5 grammes- 
Oil of turpentine enough. 

Finely levigated pumice 

stone 30 grammes. 

This may be made by first mixing 
the soap and water of ammonia, in- 
corporating the solvent, and then add- 
ing the pumice stone. 

Such a soap would <lo for putting up 
in collaosible tubes. 




Curd soap 1 ounce. 

Hot water 1 dram. 

Borax 30 grains. 

Anhydrous wool-fat .... - drams. 

Powdered camphor 30 grains. 

Oil of rose geranium 4 minims. 

Alcohol 30 minims. 

The water is to soften the soap; af- 
ter that is done, add the other ingred- 
ients and mold into cakes. 

White soap 2 % pounds. 

Fine sand 1 pound. 

Water S 1 ^ pints. 

This makes a paste which is firm, 
yet easily applied. 

If an extra detergent quality is de- 
sired. 4 ounces of sodium carbonate 
may be added, and the quantity of soap 
may be reduced to 2 pounds. Paste 
containing this addition will attack 
grease, etc.. more readily, but it is 
harder on the skin. 

Fluidextract of quillaja. 2 ounces. 

Borax 1 ounce. 

Fuller's earth 1 ounce. 

Soft soap 12 ounces. 

Water enough. 

Rub the borax with the fluidextract 
and add the fuller's earth. When these 
have been thoroughly mixed, incor- 
porate with the soft soap, adding a 
little water, if necessary, and perfume, 
if desired. 

Laundry Blue 

Liquid Bluing. 

The "soluble blue" of commerce is 
much used for laundry work. This 
blue, when properly made, dissolves 
freely in water, and solutions so made 
are put up as liquid laundry blue. The 
water employed in making the solution 
should be free from mineral substances, 
especially lime. If rain water or dis- 
tilled water and a good article of blue 
be used, a stable preparation ought to 
result. As it is essential that the solu- 
tion be a perfect one, it is best to filter 
it through several thicknesses of fine 
cotton cloth before bottling; or if made 
in large quantities this method may be 
modified by allowing it to stand some 
days to settle, when the top portion 
may be siphoned off for use, the bot- 
tom only requiring filtration. 

The soluble blue is said to be potas- 
sium ferri-ferrocyanide. If the phar- 
macist wishes to prepare it himself, in- 
stead of buying it ready made, he may 
do so by gradually adding to a boiling 
solution of potassium ferricyanide 
<"red prussiate of potash") an equiva- 
lent quantity of hot solution of ferrous 
sulphate, boiling for two hours and 
washing the precipitate on a filter un- 
til the washings assume a dark-blue 

color; the moist precipitate can then at 
once be dissolved by the further addi- 
tion of a sutheient quantity of water. 
Aboul 6 ; parts of the iron" salt to 100 
parts of the potassium salt is the prop- 
er proportion. 

Anilin blues are also used in laundry 
work. We suggest experimentation 
with a water-soluble anilin blue (say 
6B). These blues are usually marketed 
in the form of 1 to l 1 ^ per cent, solu- 
tions. Doubtless some dealer in anilin 
dyes would be willing to supply a little 
valuable information on the side. 
Solid Bluing 

Ultramarine 30 parts. 

Sodium bicarbonate 20 parts. 

Glucose 6 parts. 

Mix the color and the sodium salt, 
and knead in the glucose. 

This mass is to be pressed into balls 
and tied up in small squares of linen. 
Bag Blue 
The following notes from the Lon- 
don Laundry Record were reprinted in 
The Druggist Circular: 

Ultramarine is now very generally 
used as a laundry blue where the in- 
soluble or "bag blue" is desired. It is 
mixed with glucose and dextrin, and 
pressed into balls or cakes. When glu- 
cose alone is used the product may be- 
come soft. Bicarbonate of sodium is 
added as a "filler." 

The coal-tar or anilin blues are not 
offered to the general public as laundry 
blues, but laundry proprietors have 
them frequently brought under their 
notice, chiefly in the form of solutions, 
usually 1 to 1% per cent, strong. These 
dyes are strong bluing materials, and 
being in the form of solution, are not 
liable to speck the clothes. Some are 
- fast to acids and alkalies, others are 
fast to one but not to another: some 
will not stand ironing, while others 
again are not affected by the opera- 
tion; generally they are not fast to 
light, but this is only of minor im- 
portance. The soluble, or cotton, blues 
are the ones most favored. Blackley 
blue is very largely used for this pur- 
pose. It may be mentioned that a 1 
per cent, solution of this dye is usually 
strong enough. L'nless care is taken in 
dissolving these dyes they are apt to 
produce specks. 

Powdered Bluing 
Soluble blue, non-soluble prussian 
blue, synthetic indigo, or ultramarine 
blue may be bought in the market and 
put up in packages to suit, either plain 
or diluted with some such substance as 
starch, sodium bicarbonate or talc. 
Laundry Blue Paper 
We believe this article is prepared by 
saturating porous paper with a concen- 
trated aqueous solution of water-sol- 
uble anilin blue. Perhaps a moiet 
sum arabic may !)•• dissolved 



solution. Some of the wholesale dye 
houses or importers may help with in- 
formation as to the best dye to use. 
Bubbling Blue 

Chinese blue 50 grammes. 

Sodium bicarbonate... 105 grammes. 

Tartaric acid 30 grammes. 

Powdered talc 15 grammes. 

Stearin 1 gramme. 

Alcohol 80 mils. 

Reduce all the solids to a fine state 
of division; triturate them together 
and work in the spirit. Pass the mass 
through a granulating sieve; spray the 
granules with a thin liquid petrolatum 
and let them dry. 

Paraffin Washing Compound 

Several years ago a firm in this city 
put on the market a washing compound 
composed of paraffin, colored blue by 
the addition of ultramarine blue, and 
cut into one-inch blocks, which sold for 
ten cents. — W. F. Kaemmerer. 

A pink color may be imparted to the 
paraffin by the use of alkanet. 

Washing Fluid 


Shredded yellow soap.. 1 pound. 

Oil of turpentine 1 pint. 

Stronger ammonia 

water 2 % pints 

Water 2 gallons. 

Dissolve the soap in 1 gallon of 
water with the aid of heat. Make an 
emulsion of 2 pints of this solution 
and the oil of turpentine. Add the 
rest of the soap solution, with thor- 
ough shaking, and then the ammonia 
water and water. 


If desired, the oil of turpentine of the 
foregoing may be omitted, and its place 
filled by a strong aqueous solution of 


Potassium carbonate .... 1 dram. 

Soft soap 2 drams. 

Stronger ammonia water 5 ounces. 

Distilled water 15 ounces. 


Caustic soda or potash . 8 grammes. 

Alcohol 20 grammes. 

Olein 24 grammes. 

Glycerin 2 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine 4 grammes. 

Ultramarine blue 2 grammes. 

This is for 100 liters of water. 

Ammonia solution 64 grammes. 

Olein or glycerin 5 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine 25 grammes. 

For years there has been sold in this 
community a combination consisting 
of 1 ounce of ammonium chloride, 1 
ounce of potassium carbonate, and 1 
can of lye. This is dissolved by the 

housewife in 2 gallons of water, and 
1 or 2 cupfuls is used in each boiler of 
water. — Louis A. Ribar. 

The following combination we have 
put up for years: 

Ammonium carbonate.... 2 ounces. 

Potassium carbonate 2 ounces. 

Sodium borate 2 ounces. 

This combination is xnown as 
"washing compound." 

Another combination which we sell 
quite a lot of is composed of the fol- 
lowing ingredients: 

Ammonia water 2 ounces. 

Ether 1 ounce. 

Sodium borate 2 ounces. 

Mix with 1 gallon of water. — George 
D. Campbell. 

Lastly, we might add that a paste 
made by mixing melted paraffin with a 
hot thick "solution" of common laun- 
dry soap enjoys great vogue in cer- 
tain sections of this country. 

Washing Powders 

We have no knowledge of the com- 
position of the various washing pow- 
ders sold under fancy names, but are 
under the impression that they consist 
largely of powdered soap fortified l>y 
strong alkalies. A few recipes are 
here given: 

Borax Soap Powder 

Soap 5 pounds. 

Sodium hydroxide 3 pounds. 

Sodium silicate 2 pounds. 

Sodium borate 1 pound. 

London Soap Powder 

Soap C pounds. 

Sodium hydroxide 2 pounds. 

Pearlash 1 pound. 

Sodium sulphate 1 pound. 

Chemical Soap Powder 
Equal parts of soap, sodium hydrox- 
ide and sodium borate, perfumed with 
oil of eucalyptus. 

Dry Soap Powder 

Dessicated hard soap 28 parts. 

Sodium carbonate (crys- 
tals) 68 parts. 

Anhydrous boric acid.... 1 part. 

Boron nitride 1 part. 

Ammonium chloride 1 part. 

Perfumed Washing Powder 
Mix equal parts of soap, sodium hy- 
droxide and sodium borate, and per- 
fume, if desired, with oil of eucalyptus. 

Cheap Soap Powder 

Hard soap 5 parts. 

Soda ash 3 parts. 

Sodium silicate 2 parts. 

Borax 1 part. 

Gold Dust Type 

Water 8 parts. 

Anhydrous sodium carbon- 
ate 50 parts. 

Soap 42 parts. 



Removing Grease Spots from Clothing and Other Fabrics — Other 
Stains — Carpet Cleaner — Ink Removers — Renovating Straw 
Hats— Various Cleansing and Renovating Agents. 

Always consult the index rvhen using this hook- 


Benzin is useful as a cleaner and an 
insecticide, but it is very dangerous on 
account not only of its inflammability 
but of the explosiveness of its fumes 
when they are mixed with air. 

In compounding any benzin mixture 
the operator should be sure that no fire 
of any kind is in the room. When the 
directions call for heat, the heat should 
be supplied by coils of pipe containing 
steam or hot water. 

What is said of benzin applies with 
equal force to preparations of which it 
forms a part, for these are generally 
for use in the household by inexperi- 
enced people, which fact, of course, in- 
creases their danger. Such prepara- 
tions should bear distinct and emphatic 
warning as to the probable results 
should they be used near fire. 

This caution applies also to naphtha, 
gasoline, ether, carbon disulphide and 
some other liquids. 

Wood Alcohol a Dangerous Fluid. 

Many cases of blindness have been 
caused by the fumes of wood alcohol, 
so that this fluid is dangerous even 
when used in the arts. It should never 
enter into medicine, not even into lini- 
ments and other applications for ex- 
ternal use only. 

Removing Grease Spots from Clothing. 

The advise of the pharmacist is fre- 
quently sought by persons in search of 
some means of removing grease spots 
from clothing, and the following para- 
graphs quoted from Farmers' Bulletin 
S61, issued by the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, contains some 
worth while suggestions. 

Fresh grease spots may consist of 
the pure fat or oil. Old grease spots or 
siains from automobile wheels, or ma- 
chine greases, etc.. usually contain 
more or less dust, dirt, or fine particles 
of metal. Sometimes it is possible to 
s< rape or wipe much of the adhering 
grease from a stained material. After 
this has been done there is a choice 
of three general methods of treating 

the stain itself: First, wash ii with 
soap and warm water, which removes 
the grease, it is thought, by emulsify- 
ing it; second, absorb the grease by 
means of dry substances; and, third, 
dissolve the grease in an organic 

Use one of the following agents in 
removing grease spots: 

1. Warm water and soap. — As in or- 
dinary laundering. Grease spots usually 
can be removed from washable ma- 
terials in this way. provided care is 
taken to rub the particular spot thor- 

2. Absorbent substances. — Blotting 
paper, fuller's earth, brown paper, 
French chalk, powdered magnesia, or 
white talcum powder, for fine ma- 
terials; corn meal or salt, for carpets, 
rugs, and other coarse materials. The 
use of absorbents generally is effective 
only on spots of grease or oil unmixed 
with particles of dirt or metal. The 
advantages of using them are that the 
fabric is not wet and there is no dan- 
ger of leaving a ring, as in the case of 
grease solvents. In using an absorb- 
ent, such as a. clean blotter or a piece 
of unglazed brown paper, lay it on each 
side of the stain and apply a warm 
iron. The grease is melted and is ab- 
sorbed by the paper. To use the ab- 
sorbent powders, lay the stained fabric 
upon a flat surface and spread a layer 
of the absorbent over the stain and 
work it around gently so as not to pull 
the fibers. As soon as it becomes 
gummy, shake or brush it off and re- 
peat the process until the bulk of the 
stain is removed. Then apply another 
layer of the absorbent and allow it to 
remain overnight, or longer if neces- 
sary- This removes all traces of the 
stain, and in the case of slight stains 
the preliminary treatment is unneces- 
sary. Then dust or brush off the ab- 
sorbent thoroughly. If it is not con- 
venient to let the stain stand over- 
night, place a layer of cloth or brown 
paper over the absorbent and apply a 
warm (not hot) iron for several min- 
utes. In the case of stains made by 
solid fats, which must be melted be- 
fore they can be absorbed, the use of 
the warm iron is necessary. 




3. Organic solvents. — Chloroform, 
carbon tetrachloride, ether, gasoline, or 
naphtha, and benzol. The first two are 
the safest to use, since they are not in- 
flammable. * * * Take the greatest 
care in using inflammable solvents. It 
is best to use them in a shady place out 
of doors, and if in the house, by an 
open window and away from all flames. 

Place a pad of clean cloth or a 
white blotter beneath the stain and 
change it as soon as it becomes soiled. 
Sponge the stain with a clean cloth, 
preferably a piece like the stained 
material, moistened with the solvent. 
To prevent the spreading of the 
grease and solvent it is best to use 
small amounts of the solvent at a 
time and to work from the outside of 
the spot toward the center. It is well 
also to surround the stain with a ring 
of French chalk or any of the absorb- 
ents mentioned in No. 2, above, and 
to rub the stain with a clean cloth 
until it is thoroughly dry. 

In removing grease spots which 
contain dirt or fine particles of metal, 
more rubbing and a freer use of the 
solvent are necessary. It is best to 
apply the solvent from the wrong side 
of the material, so that the particles 
will be washed mechanically from the 
fibers onto the pad of cloth placed un- 
derneath. If the spot does not yield 
to this treatment immerse it in a 
small bowl of the solvent and brush it 
gently with a small, soft brush. The 
brushing serves to loosen the insolu- 
ble particles, which then fall to the 
bottom of the bowl. 

In general, where the stained place 
must be dipped in the solvent it is 
more satisfactory to immerse the 
whole article finally in clean solvent, 
which prevents the formation of rings. 
If sufficient solvent is not at hand for 
this, the ring usually can be removed 
by . careful and patient sponging with 
small quantities of fresh solvent, tak- 
ing clean cloths, pads, or blotters, as 
suggested above, and working from 
thf wrong side of the material. 

4. An absorbent — (see Xo. 2, above) 
mixed with a solvent (see Xo. 3, 
above) in the form of a thick paste. 
The white absorbents (French chalk 
or magnesia) are most satisfactory. 
Spread the paste over the spot, leave 
it until thoroughly dry, and brush it 
off. Repeat this treatment if neces- 
sary. The spreading of the solvent 

inl the formation of a ring will be 
avoided to a considerable extent in 

his way. The method is especially 
useful for cleaning light -colored un- 
washable materials, laces, etc. 

The Removal of Stains From Gar- 

This article, with as many errors 
corrected as we were able to correct 

and several others left in because we 
did not care to venture a guess as to 
what was intended, was reprinted in 
The Druggists Circular from Dye, 
and Cleaning: — 

Before a garment or other textile fabric can 
be cleaned or dyed it is desirable, in fact, nec- 
essary, to examine it for and remove any stains 
which may be present. 

Very often the nature of the stains is quite 
obvious, and then their removal may be pro- 
ceeded with and is readily effected, sometimes 
completely, but occasionally it may happen 
that they cannot be completely removed. The 
following hints will be found of service by 
garment dyers and cleaners: — 

Stains of Unknown Origin. 

White Goods and Colored Cotton Goods. — A 
small quantity of soap is dissolved in luke- 
warm water, and to each pint there is added 
a teaspoonful of ammonia water. The stain 
is wiped with a sponge steeped in this fluid. 
and the material is finally washed out in 

Colored Woolen Stuffs. — Dissolve % ounce of 
gall, 1% ounces of borax, 18 ounces of alcohol, 
t) ounces of ammonia water, 1 ounce of glyc- 
erin, and 'the yellow of two eggs. The stuff 
is washed in this solution at the boil. It is 
subsequently rinsed in clean water and dried 
in the air but not in the sun. 

Silk, Satin and Similar Materials. — Dissolve 
1% ounces of borax and Vz ounce of soap in ! _ 
pint of spirit and % pint of water, adding \- 2 
ounce of magnesium carbonate and the yellow 
of two eggs. This mixture is applied to the 
stain and the stuff is washed in lukewarm 
water, rinsed in cold water and dried at a 
moderate warmth, being subsequently ironed 
with a moderately hot iron. 

Dust Stains. 

White Goods and Colored Cotton Goods.— To 
be beaten and well brushed. 

Colored Wool, Silk, Satin and Similar Mate- 
rials.— For old stains which have become more 
or less dried in, it is best to apply some spirit 
mixed with the yolk of an egg. Let this dry, 
and then scrape it away. The "remains of the 
egg yolk is wiped out by means of a linen rag 
dipped in warm water. 

Wine, Beer, Rum, Spirit and Similar 

Wash out with soap and clean warm water. 

Perspiration Stains. 

White Goods. — The stain is thoroughly re- 
moved by a solution of sodium hyposulphit , 
followed by washing with water. 

Colored Cotton and Woolen Materials.— Wash 
thoroughly in a solution of sodium hyposulphite 
and then wash with clean water. 

Silk, Satin and Similar Materials. — Wash in 
a much diluted solution of sodium hyposulphite 
followed with clean water. 

Milk, Soup and Similar Grease Stains. 

White Goods. — Wash thoroughly in soap or 
in water containing a little soda. 

Colored Cotton and Woolen Materials.— The 
stain is thoroughly removed with soap or in 
water containing a little soda. 

Colored Cotton and Woolen Materials— The 
stain is wiped with a sponge dipped in pure 
oil of turpentine or benzin. The excess is re- 
moved with blotting paper, and the stuff is 
washed out in warm soap and water, 

Silk, Satin and Similar Materials.— As above, 
with ether or the purest benzin. 

Stearin or Wax Stains. 
Remove as much as possible carefully with 
a knife. Place a piece of wet linen under the 
material, cover the stain with several lay.-^j 
of blotting paper and pass a hot iron over it. 
If this does not reach the stain the same is 
undertaken with a piece of heated metal, for 
instance, a knife. If a small grease Spot still 
remains it can be removed in the same way 

as butter. 



Butter, Lard, Oil, Oil Colors and Var- 
nish Stains. 

White Goods, Colored Cotton and Woolen 

a Is. —The cloth is wetted and a sponge 
in oil of turpentine or benzin passed 

times over the stain; a piece of blotting 

is then placed over the stain and a not 

is passed over the stained place. The 

material is then washed out in warm 

.:nd water. 

Satin and Similar Materials.— A thin 
.s formed of magnesium carbonate and 
which is spread over the stain. When 
.er has been volatilized the magnesium 
is brushed away or removed with a 
of soft bread. Old stains of the nature 
ed above are first dampened with chloro- 
: rm, and then the processes as above de- 
1 are carried out. In any case, to en- 
remove the stain will necessitate Several 
lions of the process. 

Urine Stains. 
Wash out in alcohol or in a very dilute solu- 
tion of citric acid. 

Rosin Tar, Carriage Grease, Etc., 

White Goods. — The goods are made damp and 
the stain is wiped with a sponge dipped in oil 
of turpentine, and is covered with blotting 
paper, a hot smoothing iron being passed sev- 
eral times over it. Finally the whole material 
is washed out in warm soap water. 

"ed Cotton and Woolen Materials. — The 
is dampened, and a little olive oil applied 
to the stain on which soap is afterwards well 
The soap is allowed to act for a few 
minutes and is washed out alternately with oil 
: turpentine and hot water. If this has not 
j eeded, the yellow of egg mixed with some 
" turpentine is applied, and when this has 
it is scraped away and a thorough wash- 
ut in hot water ensu-=. The last opera- 
• ion is the washing of the stuff in water mixed 
with a little hydrochloric acid and thorough 
rinsing out in pure water. 
Silk, Satin and Similar Materials. — The stuff 
ted. and a sponge dipped in a mixture 
of ether and chloroform is rubbed over the 
If the stain is no longer noticeable, 
white clay is strewn over it, over which filter- 
ing paper is placed and the stain is extracted 
by passing a hot smoothing iron over the place. 
It this process has not been successful the 
of egg mixed with chloroform is used in 
the same manner. 

Lime, Lye, Alkali and Similar Stains. 

White Goods. — Wash out in clean water. 

otton and Woolen Stuffs, Silk, 
and Similar Materials— The stuff is 
i and a diluted solution of citric acid 
-ad drop by drop over the stain. After 
-•.tin has disappeared a thorough wash- 
ing in water follows. 

Vinegar. Acid Wine. Acid Fruit and 
Similar Stains. 

White Goods. — Wash out in clean water, to 
ammonia water has been added. 
red Cotton and Woolen Materials. Silk, 
and Similar Materials. — Diluted ammo- 
nia water is spread over the stain, and when 
- disappeared a thorough washing in 
water ensues. 

Acid Stains. 

Fresh acid stains can be easily neutralized 
with ammonia water; old acid stains cannot 
be removed. 

Plant, Fruit, Dyestuff, Red Wine, 

Cherry. Strawberry and Similar 


White Goods. — The stain is removed either 

rinsing in dilute water [sic] or being held 

-r burning sulphur. When it has finalh 

disappeared the stuff must be thoroughly 

-d out in water. 

Grease Eradicators 


Tincture of soap bark. . . 3 ounces. 

Benzin, to make l pint. 

Mix and shake vigorously. 


The following is said to be the com- 
position of a preparation that will 
solidify benzin: 

Coconut oil soap 2 ounces. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide 1% ounces. 

Ammonia water 3 ounces. 

Water to make 12 ounces. 

Dissolve the soap in about 4 ounces 
of hot water; add the alkalies and the 
remainder of the water. 

If the benzin be added in small por- 
tions with thorough agitation, i' 1 -. 
ounces of this mixture will solidify 32 
ounces of benzin. 


Here is a formula for a mixture that 
does not contain benzin: 

Castile soap 4 pounds. 

Potassium carbonate.... 1 pound. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water l ounce. 

Hot water enough. 

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in 
about 1 pint of hot water, add the soap, 
previously reduced to thin shavings; 
keep warm over a water-bath, stirring 
occasionally until dissolved, adding 
more water if necessary, and finally, 
when of a consistency to become semi- 
solid on cooling, remove from the fire 
and, when nearly ready to set, stir in 
the camphor, previously dissolved in 
the alcohol, and the ammonia. 

If a paste is desired, a potash soap 
should be used instead of the castile in 
the foregoing formula, and a portion of 
or all the water be omitted. Soaps 
made from potash remain soft, while 
soda soaps harden on the evaporation 
of the water which they contain when 
first made. 


Oxgall is highly reputed as a non- 
inflammable solvent of all fatty stains, 
and does not injure colors or fabrics if 
properly purified. It should be as fresh 
as possible when used. Diffused in 
water it is quite efficacious, or it may 
be used in combination with a weak 
alkali or the yolks of eggs. Numbers 
VI and VII are two typical formulas: 

Powdered borax 15 gramme's. 

Extract of soap bark. 15 grammes. 

Oxgall (fresh) 60 grammes. 

Castile soap 225 grammes. 

First make the extract of soap bark 
1 \ boiling about 80 grammes of the 



crushed bark in water until it has as- 
sumed a dark color; then strain the 
liquid into an evaporating dish and by 
the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid 
extract; then powder and mix it with 
the borax and the oxgall. Melt the cas- 
tile soap by adding a small quantity of 
water and warming, then add the other 
ingredients and mix well. 


Fuller's earth Vz pound. 

Sodium hydroxide % pound. 

Common soap % pound. 

Yolks of 8 eggs. 

Purified oxgall Vfe pound. 

Triturate the soap with the sodium 
hydroxide until a smooth paste is ob- 
tained; stir in gradually the yolks of 
the eggs and the oxgall, previously 
beaten together; slowly incorporate the 
fuller's earth; shape the mass into balls 
or cakes and set aside to dry. 

For use, a little of the compound is 
scraped off, made into a paste with 
water and rubbed on the stain. 

A soft oxgall soap may be prepared 
as follows: 

Oxgall (fresh) 10 grammes. 

Alcohol 100 grammes. 

Hard soap 10 grammes. 

Soft soap 10 grammes. 

Boil the oxgall in the alcohol and 
strain the mixture. Dissolve the soaps 
in this spirit and evaporate to the 
proper consistency on a water bath. 

A grease eradicator which we have 
found to be good is made of: 

Castile soap 4 drams. 

Chloroform 4 drams. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 4 drams. 

Water, to make 8 ounces. 

This mixture blows the stopper out 
of the bottle. 

The value of carbon tetrachloride as 
a grease eradicator should not be over- 
looked. It is said to be equal to ben- 
zin for this purpose and is non-in- 
flammable. Perhaps it could be made 
into a "jelly" as easily as benzin, but 
we have not experimented along this 
line. Its vapors, which are heavier than 
air, act as an anaesthetic, however, and, 
consequently, it must be handled with 

Removing Paint from Silk 

To remove paint from any kind of 
fabric, oil of turpentine is about as 
good as anything. Here are two proc- 
esses, from different sources, for re- 
moving paints, grease, etc., from silk: 

Rub the stain with a white cloth 
moistened with a mixture of equal 

parts of oil of turpentine and ether un- 
til no impure matter adheres to it. 
Cover the stain about the thickness of 
a knife blade with pulverized white 
bole, upon which place a blotting paper 
and press a hot iron. Repeat until the 
stain has disappeared. 

Make a thin dough with talc and 
the following solution: 

Spirit of ammonia 6 drams. 

Ether 14 drams. 

Benzin 5 drams. 

Oil of lavender 1 dram. 

Tincture of quillaja 7 ounces. 

Alcohol 15 ounces. 

Spread this paste over the spot. 
When it has thoroughly dried, brush off 
and wipe with dry bread crumbs. If 
the spots are old, first moisten them 
with chloroform, and then proceed as 
above directed. 

We suggest that in experimenting 
either a scrap of the silk be taken or, 
if that is not to be obtained, then that 
a portion of the garment that does not 
show be used. Silk is very easily 
spoiled, especially when dyed with 
more or less fugitive colors, so the 
safer way is to ascertain in advance 
what will remove the stain and not 
damage the goods. 

Carbon Tetrachloride Soap for Clean- 
ing Clothes 

Rosin soap 1 pound. 

Common white soap 1 pound 

Potassium hydroxide 3 ounces. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Carbon tetrachloride 5 pints. 

Water enough. 

Melt the soaps together on a water - 
bath, adding to them a little water from 
time to time, as required. Dissolve the 
potassium hydroxide in the alcohol ; 
add to this solution l 1 /? pints of car- 
bon tetrachloride and incorporate the 
liquid in the soap mass, beating the 
whole with an egg beater. Transfer the 
pasty mass to a suitable bottle, add the 
rest of the carbon tetrachloride and 
mix the whole by agitation. The com- 
pound should at once be transferred to 
wide-mouthed bottles of the size de- 
sired for the market, and these imme- 
diately corked tightly. 

Sometimes a portion of the cai'bon 
tetrachloride separates from the 
"cream" on standing, but it can be 
incorporated quite easily by shaking 
before using. 

Removing Stains from Silk 

Castile soap 4 drams. 

Chloroform 4 drams. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 4 drams. 

Water, to make 3 ounces. 



Spot Eradicator 

Alcohol 50 parts. 

Ammonia water 15 parts. 

Benzin 5 parts. 

Glycerin \ 5 parts. 

Ether 3 parts. 

Spirit of lavender 1 part. 

This mixture should be kept in a 
Lightly closed glass container and a lit- 
tle water may be added. It is applied to 
the spots with a small sponge. It will 
not remove alkali spots, and should be 
used with great caution in cleaning col- 
ored goods, since it may dissolve or 
decompose their dyes. 

Methylene Blue Stain on Fabric 
Alcohol is efficient as a methylene 
blue destainer, but may have a strong 
affinity for the dye of the fabric, if 
colored. One might try it first on an 
inside seam margin. Solution of hydro- 
gen dioxide is also a fairly good re- 
mover of methylene blue stain, but 
perhaps not so good as solution of 
chlorinated soda. 

Dry Cleaning Soap 

Stronger ammonia water. 21 parts. 

Alcohol 9 parts. 

Water 23 parts. 

Oleic acid 47 parts. 

Mix the alcohol and the acid, add the 
water, and finally add the ammonia 
water, with constant agitation. 

Clothes Cleaner's Soap 

For renovating clothes, removing 
grease spots, etc., where ordinary- 
washing is not permissible, use a soap 
made of— 

Castile soap, shredded. ... 64 parts. 

Potassium carbonate 8 parts. 

Water 20 parta. 

( Alcohol 1 part. 

Camphor 1 part. 

Ammonia 1 part. 

Bone black 1 part. 

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in 
the water and in the lye so made dis- 
solve the soap. Heat. Dissolve the 
camphor in the alcohol, add the am- 
monia and make into a paste with the 
bone black. Work altogether into a 
mass and press into molds. 

Ammonia Water for Cleaning 
We have been told by the manu- 
facturers of ammonia that a solution 
containing about 16 to 18 per cent, of 
NH3 is most satisfactory for cleaning 

To Remove Paint and Grease From 

An interesting story is told in The 
Druggists Circular for October, 1910, by 

Billie Barrie or how he made, put up, 

advertised and sold barrels of a grease 
and paint remover, the formula for 
which is: — 

a. Green soap 1 pound. 

Alcohol i, pint. 

Water I pint. 

b. Carbon tetrachloride. 

Equal parts of a and I) are put into 
a 4 -ounce bottle and sold for 25 cents. 

Paste for Removing Grease Spots 

Alkaline soap 12 parts. 

Boiling water 20 parts. 

Stronger ammonia water 3 parts. 

Benzin, to make 100 parts. 

Oil of wintergreen to. . .perfume. 

Dissolve the soap in the water, and 
when it has cooled somewhat add the 
stronger ammonia water. Then add. 
with constant stirring, enough benzin 
(preferably deodorized) to make 100 
parts. A little oil of wintergreen, or 
sassafras, or bergamot, or mirbane is 
a suitable perfume for this paste. 

Benzin Cream Clothes Cleaner 

Cocoanut oil soap 2 drams 

Potassium hydroxide. . . 1 \' 2 drams. 

Ammonia water 3 drams. 

Water i ounce. 

Benzin l pint. 

Dissolve the soap in a portion of the 
water by the aid of a gentle heat, 
then add the balance of the water 
and alkalies. To this add the benzin 
and agitate until the liquid solidities 
Electric Benzin 

White castile soap 1 dram. 

Alcohol % fl. oz. 

Glycerin 1 fl. oz. 

Ammonia water 1 fl. oz. 

Ether 1 fl. oz. 

Water, to make 16 fl. ozs. 

Benzin enough 

Dissolve the soap in the water, then 
add the remaining ingredients, except 
the benzin. Into a 4-ounce wide- 
^nouthed bottle put 3 drams of the so- 
lution, and then add benzin, little by 
little, shaking well alter each addition, 
until the bottle is full. 

Cleansing and Polishing Soap 

We doubt the possibility of making 
a soap that will be "a polish for every 
kind of metal and remove all stains 
from all articles." However, here is a 
formula that on the face of it appears 
to promise a soap having polishing 
and cleaning properties. 

Tallow 4 pounds. . 

Coconut oil G pounds. 

Soda lye (38° B.) 5 pounds. 

Infusorial earth, finely 

powdered 4 pounds. 

Oil of turpentine 5 ounces. 



Benzin Jelly 

A reader heard that a mixture of 
the substances named below, if added 
to benzin or gasoline in the proportion 
of 12 drams to the quart, would pro- 
duce a jelly about the consistency of 
butter or petrolatum. The formula, 
however, did not "work" in his hands 
and he has asked for assistance. 

Glycerin 2 % ounces. 

Acacia, granular 3 drams. 

Ammonia water 1 V 2 ounces. 

Ether 2 ounces. 

Castile soap 2 % ounces. 

Distilled water 16 ounces. 

Mix the first 4 ingredients and add 
the mixture to the water in which the 
soap has been dissolved. 

Our success with the "jellifier" has 
not been marked. By leaving out the 
glycerin and the acacia we got an 
emulsifier that formed a thick cream 
with benzin in the proportion given, 
but not a jelly. 

A gelatinous mass results from the 
admixture of 1 part of a soap made 
by neutralizing oleic acid with potas- 
sium hydroxide; 2 parts of stronger 
ammonia water; and 8 parts of ben- 

It is said that by shaking together 
for half an hour, 1 part of tincture of 
quillaja with 4 parts of benzin and 
setting the mixture aside over night, 
the benzin will be gelatinized. 

Various methods are extant for in- 
corporating benzin in a soap. Here 
are a few of them: — 

To make a soft benzin soap or 
"cream" take — 

Liniment of soft soap. .. .2 drams. 

Stronger ammonia water. 2 drams. 

Benzin 1 ounce. 

Shake all together vigorously until 
the mixture gelatinizes. 

To make a hard benzin soap take — 

Laundry soap 265 parts. 

Ammonia water 45 parts. 

Benzin 200 parts. 

Water enough. 

Cut the soap into shreds and melt 
it with a minimum amount of water 
with the aid of a gentle heat. Re- 
move the source of heat — and from 
the building if possible — and beat in 
the ammonia water and then the ben- 
zin in divided portions. The heavier 
the benzin, the better. 

Removing Blood Stains from Cloth:ng 

The color of blood stains is due to 
the hemoglobin, a red coloring matter 
of a protein nature which contains 
iron, and since a*l proteids are coag- 
ulated by heat it is obvious that hot 
water should not be employed in re- 
moving blood stains until all the 
proteid has been removed. Farmers 
Bulletin 861. issued by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, sug- 
gests the use of the following agents: 

1. Cold or lukewarm water. Either 
soak the blood stains or rub them in 
the water until they turn light brown 
in color; that is, until most of the 
coloring matter is dissolved. Then 
wash the material in hot water, as in 
the ordinary process of laundering. 
For stains on silk or wool, sponge in 
cold or lukewarm water. 

2. Soap (for washable materials). 
Rub the stained portions with soap 
and place in cold water, either allow- 
ing them to stand in it until the stains 
are loosened or bringing the water 
very slowly to the boiling point. 

3. Ammonia (for washable mate- 
rials). Use about 1 ounce (2 table- 
spoonfuls) of household ammonia to 
1 gallon of water. Soak the stains in 
this until they are loosened and then 
wash in the usual manner. For old 
stains ammonia is somewhat more 
satisfactory than soap. 

4. Hydrogen dioxide. Sponging with 
a little hydrogen dioxide often will re- 
move the last traces of blood stains 
after the main part has been removed, 
as described in No. 1 above. This 
agent can be used on wool and silk, 
provided it does not injure the color 
of the material. 

5. Javelle water. Use this only as a 
last resort. 

6*. Raw starch mixed with cold water 
to a paste is efficient for stains on 
thick materials, such as flannel and 
blankets, which can not conveniently 
be soaked in water. Apply the paste 
thickly to the stain and brush it away 
when it becomes dry. Repeat the ap- 
plication until the stain is removed. 

Palami Jelly 

A correspondent says that this ar- 
ticle, used for removing grease spots. 
consists of a white jelly made from 
borax chips, olive chips and water, 
and is perfumed with oil of citronella. 
We presume he means borax soap 
chips and olive oil soap chips. 

Removing Mildew Spots 

Mildew spots on white goods may in 
most cases be removed by a bleaching 
process, the method depending, to some 
extent, upon the nature and texture of 
the fabric. The latter should be thor- 
oughly washed, and, while still damp, 
may be immersed, or touched over, 
with dilute Javelle water or solution 
of chlorinated soda or with hydrogen 
peroxide solution. Dilute bromine 
water may also be used. Sometimes a 
treatment similar to that used for re- 
moving ink stains is successful, treat- 
ing the stains with a very concentrated 
solution of oxalic or citric acids, or 
both. In most cases it is of advantage 



to expose the fabric, in a damp state, 
to the rays of the sun. 

Perspiration Stain Remover 

Ammonium oleate 2 ounces. 

Ammonia water 2 ounces. 

Ether 1 ounce. 

Benzin 5 ounces. 

Chloroform 1 ounce. 

Mix the first two ingredients and 
shake them well together. Add the 
benzin. with more shaking, and then 
the chloroform, continuing the agita- 
tion. Let the mixture stand for a 
while and then shake it at intervals 
until a smooth, creamy liquid results. 

Cheap Cleansing Powder 

A reader sends a sample of cleansing 
powder which is on the market in the 
West at from 2 to 3 cents a pound, ac- 
cording to quantity taken. It is said 
to contain no grease, lime or caustic. 

This powder is a sodium sesquicar- 
bonate, known also as "snow flake 
crystals." It may be regarded as a mix- 
ture of sodium carbonate and sodium 
bicarbonate and has the composition 
Na:COsHCOs-l-2H20. It contains 41.95 
per cent, of actual alkali (calculated as 
Na^O), whereas sal soda contains 21.68 
per cent, and sodium bicarbonate 36.90 
per cent, of actual alkali. The sesqui- 
carbonate is, therefore, an economical 
form of non-caustic alkali, 1 pound 
dissolved in 2 gallons of water giving 
a solution of about the same cleansing 
power as 1 pound of sal soda dissolved 
in 1 gallon of water. It is worth, there- 
fore, about twice as much as sal soda 
for cleansing purposes. 

Bijou Cleaning Fluid 

Ether 1 dram. 

Chloroform 1 dram. 

Alcohol 2 drams. 

Oil of wintergreen 1 dram. 

Benzin 2 pints. 

To Remove Spots from White Goods 

Carbon tetrachloride is a good clothes 
cleaner, possessing the advantage over 
benzin of being non-inflammable. 

Javelle water is a popular bleaching 

Here is a formula which some have 
found useful: 

Borax 1 ounce. 

Castile soap 1 ounce. 

Sodium carbonate 3 drams. 

Ammonia water 5 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Acetone 4 ounces. 

Rose water 2 ounces. 

Hot water to make 4 pints. 

Dissolve the borax, sodium carbon- 
ate and soap in hot water, mix the al- 
cohol and acetone, unite the two 

liquids and add the ammonia water 
and rose water. 

Alcoholic tincture of soap bark is a 
well-known cleaner for delicate fabrics. 

Household Ammonia. 

This preparation was formerly made 
under a patent which has since ex- 
pired. The patent was on a solution 
of ammonium oleate in ammonia wa- 
ter, made by adding oleic acid to am- 
monia water in a quantity not exceed- 
ing 6 per cent. Here is a formula for 
a similar preparation: 

Oleic acid i ounce. 

Alcohol i ounce. 

Ammonia water 7 ounces. 

"Water to make 1 pint. 

Instead of oleic acid, soft soap (in 
a proportion to be determined by ex- 
periment) is sometimes used to pro- 
duce the cloudy effect in ammonia 

To this we might add that some 
cheap types of household ammonia 
consist of a solution of washing soda 
containing more or less ammonia 

Glove Cleaner 

Five grammes of stearic acid are dis- 
solved in 75 mils of carbon tetra- 
chloride and the solution, after being 
made slightly alkaline with spirit of 
ammonia, is diluted with alcohol to 100 
mils. This product is a milky liquid 
which possesses the cleansing proper- 
ties of carbon tetrachloride, but does 
not extract the fat from the leather 
as plain cleansers do. 

Shredded curd soap 1 ounce 

Water 4 ounces. 

Oil of lemon % dram. 

Saponin 1 dram. 

Talc enough. 

Dissolve the shredded soap in the 
water, add the saponin and perfume, 
and then enough talc to make a stiff 
paste. Powdered orris is a useful ad- 

The directions for use are: Put the 
glove upon the hand, and apply the 
paste with a piece of flannel, rubbing 
the kid from the wrist to the tips of the 

Carpet Cleaner 

Solution of soap.. 120 mils. 
Ammonia water 

i In', i 60 mils. 

Gasoline 120 mils. 

Chloroform 20 mils. 

Potassium nitrate. 10 grammes. 

Oil of wintergreen. 10 mils. 

Soft, distilled or • 

rain water to.... 1000 mils. 



Dissolve the potassium salt in the 
water, add the ammonia to the soap 
solution, then the chloroform, oil, and 
gasoline; shake well and add the 

This makes a white, milky compound, 
which separates slightly on standing 
but readily unites on shaking. The 
oil of wintergreen is added only for its 
odor. The fumes arising from the 
gasoline are very inflammable, so that 
the cleaner should not be used in a 
room with fire. 

The solution of soap is made up as 
follows: — 

Olive oil 60 mils. 

Caustic potash .... 12 grammes. 

Alcohol 500 mils. 

Water to make.... 1000 mils. 

Place the oil in a suitable dish, add 
30 mils of alcohol, mix well, then add 
the potash dissolved in 30 mils of wa- 
ter. Apply heat by means of a water- 
bath until the oil is completely saponi- 
fied, which is shown by a portion be- 
ing removed and dropped into boiling 
water, when it should dissolve com- 
pletely without the separation of oily 
drops. Allow it to cool, add 500 mils 
of alcohol,- and water enough to make 
1000 mils. Filter the solution through 

Removing Indelible and Other Ink 
Spots from Clothing. 

Farmers' Bulletin 861, issued by the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, entitled "Removal of Stains from 
Clothing and Other Textiles," contains 
a great mass of information and should 
be in the hands of every pharmacist. 
It is distributed free of charge by the 
Division of Publications of the Agricul- 
tural Department at Washington, D. C. 

Indelible (Copying) Pencil Marks. 

These marks contain graphite, as do ordi- 
nary pencil marks and an organic dye which 
usually is not apparent until the marks are 
moistened. The dye and the reagents used 
to remove such stains may vary with different 
makes of pencils, but for those used in these 
experiments the following reagents are satis- 
factory. — 

1 Alcohol.— Soak the stains for a few min- 
utes or until they are dissolved. The graphite 
marks then remain, but can be removed by 
washing with soap and water. The alcohol is 
effective also after these stains have been 
washed and ironed. 

2. Javelle Water.— This destroys the dye. 
Remove the graphite either before or after ap- 
; lying this agent by washing with soap and 

3. Potassium Permanganate.— Remove the 
graphite as in No. 2, above. 

Ink (India). 
This is an ink in which finely divided carbon 
is held In suspension in water, probably by 
means ot gum. The treatment for removing it 
from textiles is the same as for "Ink (print- 
ing)' - (see below). 

Ink (Marking). 

S"-called "Indelible" or "marking" inks are 

of two common types, namely, that containing 

silver nitrate or other silver compound and 
that with an organic dye, usually "anilin 
black," as its basis. 

Silver nitrate inks. Ink of this type may be 
known generally from the directions for its 
use, which state that articles marked with 
it must be laid in the sun or pressed with a 
warm iron before they are washed. This is 
to bring about the precipitation of metallic 
silver, which gives the black or brown color 
to the marks. 

Use one of the following agents in removing 
stains from silver nitrate inks: — 

1. Sodium Thiosulphate ("hyposulphite of 
soda" or "hypo".). — Several crystals, dissolved 
in one-half cup of water. Soak the stains for 
several days if necessary. 

2. Javelle Water. — Apply this repeatedly 
until the color of the spot disappears. Then 
soak the stained place in ammonia to remove 
the silver chloride formed. 

Anilin black ink. Ink of this type may be 
known also from the directions for its use, 
which generally state that the articles marked 
with it must not be ironed until after they 
have beer, washed. Anilin black inks are 
remarkably fast, and it is practically impos- 
sible to remove them after they have once 
become dry. 

None of the methods given above for the re- 
moval of silver nitrate ink stains is effective 
in removing anilin black ink stains; neither 
are satisfactory results obtained by trying 
most of the methods used printing-ink stains:— 

Ink, Black (Printing). 

The coloring matter of black printing ink 
consists of finely divided carbon, usually in 
the form of lampblack. This is suspended in 
linseed oil with resin, turpentine, etc. Stains 
from ink of this type are very similar to paint 

Use one of the following agents for removing 
printing-ink stains: — 

1. Soap and Water (ordinary laundering). — 
Remove fresh stains by applying an abun- 
dance oz soap and rubbing thoroughly. 

2. Lard. — Followed by soap and water, as in 
No. 1. above. Rub the stained place with lard 
ami work it well into the fibers to loosen the 

Ink (Writing). 

The coloring matters commonly used in writ- 
ing inks include the following: Combinations 
of logwood or nutgalls with ferrous or ferric 
salts or with salts of other metals, such as 
chromium and aluminum; anilin dyes, which 
are used either alone or with coloring matters 
of the type mentioned above; finely divided 
carbon in the form of lampblack. Colored inks 
usually consist of an anilin dye. Gums, sugar 
or glycerin often are added to thicken an ink 
and hold the coloring matter in suspension, and 
phenol often is added to keep it from mold- 

Owing to the differences in the composition of 
writing inks it is impossible to find agents 
which are equally effective in removing all ink 
spots. Each of the agents mentioned below is 
satisfactory with some type or types of ink. 
For an ink spot of unknown composition it is 
necessary to try various agents, beginning al- 
ways with the simplest and that least likely 
to injure the fabric. Use one of the following 
agents: — 

1. Absorbents. — Corn meal. salt, French 
chalk, fuller's earth, magnesia, talcum powder, 
etc. The application of such substances serves 
to remove any ink not absorbed by the fibers 
and keeps the ink from spreading. For a large 
ink spot, apply one of these substances before 
trying other agents. Work the absorbent 
around with some blunt instrument and renew 
it when it becomes soiled. When dry absor- 
bent fails to take up more ink, make it into a 
paste with water and continue the application. 

2. Soap and Water as in Ordinary Launder- 
ing.— This is satisfactory for some types of 
school inks, which can be washed from fabrics: 
for carbon inks, which are unaffected by chem- 
icals and can be removed only mechanically; 
and sometimes for the fresh stains of other 



3. Milk. — Soak the stains for a day or two. 
if necessary, in milk, changing the milk as 
often as it becomes discolored. This is effec- 
tive for some stains. 

The foregoing methods may be used safely on 
all washable fabrics. If they fail to remove 
the spot, apply one of the chemicals mentioned 
below: — 

4. Oxalic Acid, Saturated Solution.— Soak the 
stain for a few seconds, then rinse in clear 
water, and finally in water to which a few 
drops of ammonia have been added. 

5. Potassium Acid Oxalate ("'salts of lemon" 
or "salts of sorrel").— Soak the stains in a 
solution of 2vi teaspoonfuls dissolved in '-fa. pint 
of water for several hours, if necessary. 

6. Potassium Permanganate. — This is satis- 
factory for stains upon many delicate fabrics 
as well as on ordinary materials. 

7. Javelle water. 

S. Commercial Ink Removers. — Generally are 
satisfactory if the directions furnished with 
them are followed and the excess of the sub- 
stance is removed by thorough rinsing in clean 

9. Hydrogen Dioxide. — This occasionally is 

10. Acids — Citric or Tartaric, Lemon Juice 
and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid. — These occa- 
sionally are of some assistance. Apply the 
first two as in No. 4 above. In the case of 
lemon juice, keep the stain moistened and ex- 
posed to the sun. In the case of hydrochloric 
acid moisten the stain with it and then rinse 

11. Titanium Trichloride. — About 10 drops of 
the 15 per cent, solution of titanium trichloride 
and L'O drops of strong hydrochloric acid in 
U cup of ^ater. Boil the stain in this solu- 
tion for three or four minutes. This is effec- 
tive in removing stains of some red inks. 

12. Sodium Perborate. — Use cold in saturated 
solution. Soak the stain in it for one or two 
days, ;f necessary. This is effective in re- 
moving seme red ink stains. 

Ink on carpets. First apply absorbents, as 
in No. 1, above; follow by repeated applica- 
tions of oxalic acid, as in No. 2, above, or 
potassium permanganate, as in Xo. 6, above, 
or by rubbing with the cut surface of a lemon, 
squeezing on the juice and rinsing between 
applications with a clean, wet cloth until no 
more ink can be removed. Rub the spot then 
with a clean dry cloth. After the carpet is 
dry brush up the nap with a stiff brush or a 
• cloth. 

Removing Ink Stains 

In preparing to eradicate ink marks 
it is necessary that the eradicator be 
adapted to the particular ink with 
which one has to deal, and also that 
the nature of the marked object be 
taken into consideration. What is a 
satisfactory solvent for an anilin ink 
may have no effect upon an iron tan- 
nate ink; the best eradicator for stains 
on textile fabrics may be useless to re- 
move ink marks from paper; and the 
satisfactory eraser of marks on % hite 
paper or fabric may be entirely contra- 
indicated if the marking be on tinted 

Solution of chlorinated lime or chlor- 
ine fumes will eradicate most coal-tar- 
color ink stains. / 

A 20 per cent, solution of tin chloride 
is effective with regard to most ink 
stains, but it is injurious to textiles and 
their color. 

Sodium pyrophosphate in solution has 
a vog'ie in France. 

Solution of hydrogen dioxide made 
alkaline with ammonia water is recom- 

mended. It will, nowever, cause the 
stains of some anilin dves to turn 

Oxalic acid in solution is an excellent 
bleach for iron-salt inks. 

Equal parts of cream of tartar and 
oxalic acid mixed and powdered and 
rubbed on the spot which has been 
moistened with warm water will some- 
times remove the stains of an iron -salt 

The stains of most red aniline inks 
on fabrics or paper succumb to treat- 
ment with alcohol acidulated with 
nitric acid. 

An excellent formula, and one that 
few inks can resist, is as follows: — a. 
Mix in equal parts, potassium chloride, 
pottassium hypochlorite and oil of pep- 
permint, b. Sodium chloride, hydro- 
chloric acid and water in equal parts. 
To use: — Wet the spot with a, let it 
dry, then pencil it over lightly with b, 
and rinse in clear water. 

A good single mixture, which will an- 
swer for most inks, is made by mixing 
citric acid and alum in equal parts. (If 
desired in liquid form add an equal 
quantity of water.) In use the powder 
is spread well over the spot and (if on 
cloth or woven fabrics) well rubbed in. 
A few drops of water are then added, 
and also rubbed in. A final rinsing in 
water completes the process 

In the usual two -solution eraser for 
ink marks on paper the first solution 
contains: — 

Saturated aqueous solu- 
tion of borax 4 ounces. 

Citric acid 2 ounces. 

Water 1 pint. 

While the second solution is com- 
posed of: — 

Chlorinated lime 6 ounces. 

Water 1 pint. 

Saturated aqueous solu- 
tion of borax 4 ounces. 

The lime is mixed with the water, 
placed in a well-stoppered bottle, and 
the be ttle shaken thoroughly and set 
aside for a week. At the end of that 
time the clear solution is decanted and 
mixed with the solution of borax. 
Printer's Ink. 

Stains made by printer's ink should 
be so.iKed in benzin, washed with hard 
soap before dry and treated with one 
of the foregoing eradicators if the color 
persists after the body of the ink has 
been removed. 

Softening with oil of turpentine and 
washing in weak lye will remove slight 
stains of printer's ink. 

Koontz's Ink Eradicator. 

I was called upon to remove from 
a counterpane a black ink spot about 
12 inches in diameter that had been in 
the cloth for two daj s. 

I first tried a mixture consisting of 
y 2 ounce of acetic acid and 6 ounces of 



alcohol. After immersing and rinsing 
in this mixture I tried to bleach with 
solution of chlorinated soda. This 
turned the spot a dull brown. So I de- 
cided to do some experimenting. I 
made a mixture of: — 

Chlorinated lime iy 2 ounces. 

Water 8 ounces. 

By immersion I saturated the cloth 
in this solution. In the meantime I pre- 
pared a solution consisting of— 

Citric acid 1 ounce. 

Water 8 ounces. 

and changed the cloth from the first 
solution to the second. The spot dis- 
appeared instantly and the cloth 
changed to a beautiful white. I then 
rinsed it in clear cold water to prevent 
the acid or the lime from injuring the 
fabric. — John P. Koontz. 

Removing Marking Ink Stains 

In ordinary cases, that is where the 
composition of the ink is unknown, the 
following steps should be taken, in or- 
der: — (1) First soak in a solution of 
common salt, and then wash with am- 
monia. (2) Treat with a solution of 
potassium cyanide, 10 grains; iodine, 
5 grains; in water, 1 fluid ounce. (3) 
Moisten with a solution of iodine in 
potassium iodide, and then wash it with 
water. (4) Treat with strong solution 
of zinc sulphate, and then touch with a 
piece of metallic zinc, or sprinkle with 
powdered zinc, afterwards washing. 
(5) Treat with solution of chlorinated 
lime, freshly prepared and then with a 
solution of acetic or citric acid in wa- 
ter. (6) If the stain should happen to 
be one made by alizarin ink, it may be 
removed by treating with a solution 
of tartaric acid; the older the stain 
the more concentrated should be the 

Generally the stain is made by silver 
nitrate. Theoretically this may be re- 
moved by the application first above 

Or, the stain may be treated with a 
solution of iodine and then washed in 
a solution of potassium iodide. 

Or, it may be treated with a strong 
solution of potassium cyanide, which, 
of course, is very poisonous. 

Or, with a solution of iodine and 
afterward with sodium thiosulphate. 

Or, with a solution of corrosive mer- 
curic chloride and afterward with am- 
monium chloride. 

We doubt very much whether any 
of these methods of treatment will re- 
sult in removing the indelible ink from 
old paper without destroying the paper. 

Removing Acidproof Ink from Paper 

If the acidproof ink is of the ferric 
ferrocyanide type, the job of remov- 
ing the spot will be a difficult one, 
since that chemical is chosen because 

of the scarcity of agents which will 
destroy it without destroying the fab- 
ric. We suggest a trial of bleaching 
agents, either of the oxidizing type, 
like chlorine water, or Labarraque's 
solution, or hydrogen dioxide, or of re- 
ducing character, such as sulphurous 
acid; although, in truth, we doubt 
whether these will do the work, for 
reasons mentioned above. 

Renovating Straw Hats 

Of many notes on this subject which 
have appeared in The Druggists Cir- 
cular a summary is here presented: — 
Straw Hat Bleaches. 
Straw hats that are not very yellow may be 
cleaned by rubbing with flowers of sulphur or. 
a cloth moistened with diluted alcohol. This 
is allowed to dry, and the hat is then brushed. 
A coating of gum water may be applied if 

Very yellow hats are first washed with a 
lather of castile soap and then treated as 

Wash the hat with a weak solution of caustic 
soda, then suspend it in the fumes of burning 


The official solution of hydrogen dioxide 
makes an excellent straw hat bleach. The hat 
is sponged with the solution, dried and pressed. 

- Sodium dioxide is partially decomposed by 
warm water, yielding oxygen and sodium hy- 
droxide. On adding an acid, such as oxalic 
acid, it is entirely decomposed, yielding hydro- 
gen dioxide and an oxalate of sodium. Hydro- 
gen dioxide is very unstable in the presence of 
alkalies, but is fairly stable in the presence of 
acids. Therefore, in bleaching with sodium 
dioxide, if the bleaching agent first be treated 
with warm water, the dioxide is partially de- 
composed, and we have both the cleansing ac- 
tion of the alkali and the bleaching action of 
the oxygen. If now a little acid (oxalic prefer- 
ably, for straw hats) be added, the alkali will 
be neutralized, more dioxide will be decom- 
posed, and both alkali and hydrogen dioxide 
will be liberated. The alkali will decompose 
the hydrogen dioxide, liberating more oxygen. 
and a further cleansing and bleaching action 
is obtained. Hence, for bleaching hats the best 
method will be to treat the hat first with a 
solution of sodium dioxide in warm water, 
then to add a very little oxalic acid, again to 
apply to the straw, and continue until finally 
a decidedly acid solution is obtained. The 
alkali of the first solutions will turn the straw 
yellow, but a final washing in oxalic acid wilt 
remove this color. Lastly, a thorough rinsing 
is of course necessary. 


Sodium bisulphite 10 parts. 

Tartaric acid 2 parts. 

Sodium borate 1 part. 

The ingredients are reduced to a state of fine 
division and mixed. For use. as a bleach, the 
powder is mixed with water and applied to the 

Many of the cheap hat cleaners on the mar- 
ket are nothing but oxalic acid or its potassium 
compound, "salt of sorrel." 

Straw Hat Paint and Varnish. 

For dark varnishes prepare a basis consisting 
of orange shellac, 900 parts; sandrac, 225 
parts; Manila copal, 225 parts: castor oil, 55 
parts, and alcohol, 9,000 parts. To color, add 
alcohol soluble coal-tar dyes as follows:— Black, 
55 parts of soluble ivory-black (modified by 
blue or green). Olive-brown. 15 parts of bril- 
liant green, 55 parts of Bismarck brown R, 8 



raits of spirit blue. Olive-green, 2S parts of 
brilliant green, 28 parts of Bismarck brown R. 
Walnut, 55 parts of Bismarck brown R. 15 
parts of nigrosin. Mahogany, 28 parts of Bis- 
marck brown R, which may be deepened by a 
little nigrosin. 

For light colors prepare a varnish as fol- 
lows: — Sandrac. 1,350 parts; elemi, 450 parts; 
rosin. 4.50 parts; castor oil, 110 parts; alcohol, 
9,000 parts. For this varnish use dyes as 
follows:— Gold, 55 parts of chrysoldin, 55 parts 
■ if anilin yellow. Light green, 55 parts of 
hr'lliant green, 7 parts of anilin yellow. 
Blue, 55 parts of spirit blue. Deep blue, 55 
parts of spirit blue. 55 parts of indulin. Violet, 
2S parts of methyl violet 3B. Crimson, 55 
parts of safranin. Chestnut, 55 parts of saf- 
ranin, 15 parts of indulin. 

A British formula is — 

Shellac 4 ounces. 

Sandrac 1 ounce. 

Gum thus 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

In this dissolve spirit soluble anilin dyes of 
the requisite color, and apply. For white 
straw, white shellac must be used. 

Another straw hat varnish is made of — 

White shellac 11.00 grammes. 

Sodium borate 6.00 grammes. 

Glycerin 5.00 grammes. 

Coumarin 0.05 gramme. 

Water 80. 00 grammes. 

Dissolve the sodium borate in the water; add 
the shellac in small pieces; heat to about 75 
degrees C, and stir until dissolved. Then add 
the other ingredients. 

Her- is a varnish that is said not to have 
the tell-tale gloss: — 

Sandrac 1 ounce. 

Mastic 100 grains. 

Ether 10 ounces. 

Benzole 4 to 6 ounces. 

Dissolve the resins in the ether and add the 
benzole, little by little, until the varnish dries 
with the desired matt finish. 

Cleaning Panama Hats. 
To clean a Fanama hat, scrub with castile 
soap and water, a nail brush being used as an 
aid to get the dirt away. The hat is then 
placed in the hot sun to dry and in the course 
of two or three hours it is ready to use. It 
will not only be as clean as when new, but it 
will retain its shape admirably. The cleaned 
hat will be a trifle stiff at first, but will soon 
grow supple under wear. A little glycerin 
added to the rinsing water entirely prevents 
the stiffness and brittleness acquired by some 
hats in drying, while a little ammonia in the 
washing water materially assists in the scrub- 
bing process 

Bleaching Ostrich Featneio 

Soak the feathers from three to four 
hours in a tepid dilute .solution of po- 
tassium dichromate to which a small 
quantity of nitric acid has been added. 
(Use caution in mixing to avoid possi- 
ble damage from a violent reaction). 

The feathers removed from the solu- 
tion will have a greenish tint, but when 
they are placed in a dilute solution of 
sulphuric acid in water (use care in 
mixing), and then washed, the feathers 
will be bleached. 

We advise experimentation with 
some feather fragments before trying 
the process on a feather of commercial 

The use of a solution of aluminum 
hypochlorite made by macerating 
bleaching powder (chlorinated lime) in 
water and treating the clear fluid ob- 
tained by filtration with a saturated 

solution of alum until no more precipi- 
tation occurs, is also recommended. 

Cleaner Cloth on Billiard Tables 

The cloth should be brushed thor- 
oughly to remove all particles of dust, 
after which grease and other spots 
may be removed in the following man- 

Beat well together in a mortar equal 
parts of soft soap and fuller's earth; 
form the mass in handy cakes and dry. 

To use on the cloth, first moisten the 
spot with water, rub with the cake, 
then go over it and rub well with a 
sponge saturated with warm water, 
then rinse the spot with clear luke- 
warm water, using a soft sponge. 

Cleaner for Window Shades 

Slice 1 pound of good brown soap 
and put in hot but not bailing, water, 
along with 1 ounce of pulverized borax. 
Put on a water-bath in a tin or agate- 
ware kettle, and let it simmer, with 
frequent stirring, until the mixture has 
formed a uniform fluid. 

In using, apply the solution with a 
piece of soft flannel, but do not rub 
hard, nor let it remain on the shade 
long, but rinse as soon as clean with 
clear water, using a large sponge. 

Turpentine Stains on Ground Glass 

Much of the difficulty of removing oil 
of turpentine from a rough glass sur- 
face depends upon the length of time 
the oil and the glass have been in con- 
tact. If the stain is a fresh one it will 
succumb quite readily to an applica- 
tion of a creamy mixture of precipi- 
tated chalk and ammonia water, or 
even of hot water and soap. If, how- 
ever, the oil has become oxidized, 
forming a resinous film upon the glass. 
it is necessary to use a thin paste made 
of kaolin and a strong solution of caus- 
tic soda. This is to be smeared ov.-r 
the spot and allowed to remain for 
some time, whereupon the film can lie 
loosened and peeled off. The glass 
should then be washed with hot water 
and soap. If the film has been ex- 
posed to the action of the atmosphere 
for some time, it may be necessary to 
soften it first with oil of spike lavender 
or a mixture of oil of turpentine and 
ammonia water. 

Cleaning and Polishing Marble 
Marble that has become dirty by or- 
dinary use, or exposure, max 
cleaned by a simple bath of soap and 

If this does not remove the stains 
which may have been made, a weak 
solution of oxalic acid should next be 
applied with a sponge or rag, and the 



marble washed quickly and thoroughly 
with water to minimize injury to the 

Rubbing well after this with chalk 
moistened with water will in a meas- 
ure restore the luster. Another method 
of finishing is to apply a solution of 
white wax in oil of turpentine (about 
1 to 10), rubbing thoroughly with a 
piece of flannel or soft leather. 

If the marble has been more than 
commonly exposed, so that its luster 
has been seriously impaired, it may be 
necessary to re-polish it in a more 
thorough manner. This may be accom- 
plished by rubbing it first with sand, 
beginning with a moderately coarse- 
grained article and changing this 
twice for finer kinds, after which tri- 
poli or pumice is used. The final polish 
is given by the so-called putty powder. 
A plate of iron is generally used in ap- 
plying the coarse sand; with the fine 
sand a leaden plate is taken; and the 
pumice is employed in the form of a 
smooth -surfaced piece of convenient 
size. For the final polishing, coarse 
linen or bagging is used, wedged 
tightly into an iron planing tool. Dur- 
ing all these applications, water is al- 
lowed to trickle over the face of the 

The putty powder referred to is bin- 
oxide of tin, obtained by treating me- 
tallic tin with nitric acid, when the 
metal is converted into hydrated me- 
tastannic acid, which when it is heated 
becomes anhydrous. It is in this condi- 
tion that it is known as putty 
powder. In practice putty powder 
is mixed with alum, sulphur and 
other substances, the mixture used 
being dependent upon the nature of 
the stone to be polished. 

Another authority writing on this 
subject says: — 

To polish marble one needs some powdered 
pumice, some fine emery flour, some precipi- 
tated chalk, some water, a few hardwood 
blocks, and abundant patience. First the sur- 
face to be polished is rubbed with the pumice 
and plenty of water, using one of the hard- 
wood blocks as the rubber; then it is rubbed 
some more, the pumice being replaced with 
the emery flour. The next rubbing is done with 
the precipitated chalk, first with water and 
then dry, another block being used— the first 
one will probably be worn out by this time 
anyway. Then all traces of the polishing pow- 
der are rubbed away with a soft woolen cloth, 
and the surface of the marble is rubbed dry 
with a fresh block of wood until the desired 
polish is secured or one's stock of patience is 

Acid Spots on Marble. 
The white spots on colored marble 
resulting from the contact of "acid 
phosphate" are not stains. They are 
changes in the nature of the stone due 
to the action of the acid upon the cal- 
cium carbonate — the marble. These 
marks cannot be eradicated. A person 
skilled in the work can stain the spot 
to match the original color, but the 
best that can be done ordinarily is to 

polish the phosphated place. This will 
i t least do away with the break in the 
reflecting surface. 

A few formulas for marble cleaning 
follow: — 


Cream of tartar 10 grammes. 

Oxalic acid 10 grammes. 

Kieselguhr 20 grammes. 

Water to make a paste. 

Smear over the stain, and after a 
few hours wash off with warm water. 

As olive oil is recommended by some 
writers, and ammonia by others, modi- 
fied ammonia liniment might do the 
work. Colored marbles, however, 
should not be treated with alkalies. 

Ox gall 1 part. 

Saturated solution of sodium 
carbonate 4 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 1 part. 

If desired, this can be made into a 
paste by the addition of pipe clay. 

A solution of white wax. 1 part, in 
oil of turpentine, 10 parts. 

Whiting 4 ounces. 

Powdered soap 4 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine enough. 

Mix the whiting and the soap and 
make into a paste with oil of turpen- 
tine gradually added. 

Soft soap 4 ounces. 

Whiting 4 ounces. 

Sodium carbonate 1 ounce. 

Water enough. 

Make a thin paste, apply it on the 
soiled surface, and wash it off after 
twenty-four hours. 


White wax 10 parts. 

Japan gold size 2 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 88 parts. 

Apply with a piece of flannel. 

To Bleach, Clean and Repolish Ivory. 

Wash the ivory well with ammonia 
water, then with water, and Anally ap- 
ply solution of hydrogen dioxide. 

Expose the ivory for three or four 
days to the action of sunlight, in a 
bath of turpentine oil. 

Treat the ivory alternately with a 
solution of potassium permanganate 
(1 in 250) and oxalic acid (1 in 100) let- 
ting the ivory remain in each solution 
for a half hour; then rinse well with 


water, and repeat the process a num- 
ber of times. 

To Repolish Bleached Ivory. 
Tt seems not unlikely that the ivory 
after treatment by any bleaching process 
will require repolishing. If so, and it is 
not deeply scratched, rub with a woolen 
cloth charged with a paste made from 
armenian bole and oleic acid. Wash 
with castile soap, and, after drying, 
rub with chamois. A few wipes "with 
an old silk handkerchief completes the 
gloss. If scratched, but not very deep- 
ly, smooth with rouge cloth and pro- 
ceed as above. If very deeply scratched, 
it will be necessary to scrape with a 
very fine steel scraper (a sharp knife 
blade will answer, or broken glass), 
rub with rouge cloth until all scraper 
marks vanish, and finish as above di- 
rected. Curved or molded parts should 
be first scrubbed with an old stiff tooth 
brush charged with the paste above 
mentioned, then with a soft brush 
charged with whiting and a little am- 
monia, and finally scrubbed with soap 
and water, and finished with chamois. 

Renovating Paper Charts and the Like. 

Paper that has become yellow 
through age may be bleached with 
javelle water without injury if, after 
being bleached, it is washed in a weak 
solution of sodium thiosulphate. The 
following formula for javelle water is 

Sodium bicarbonate .... 4 pounds. 

Chlorinated lime 1 pound. 

Boiling water 1 gallon. 

Boil the bicarbonate in the water for 
ten or fifteen minutes; stir in the lime, 
avoiding lumps; when solution is com- 
plete let the liquid cool. 

Engravings, prints and the like, 
w r hich have been stained with w r ater, 
may be renovated by immersing the 
sheet in clean water, allowing it to be- 
come thoroughly saturated, and pin- 
ning to a flat surface to dry. 

Stains that are due to mold may be 
removed by applying a 25 per cent, 
alcoholic solution of salicylic acid with 
a soft sponge or pledget of cotton. 

Age stains, smudges, soot and smoke 
stains, if not of too long standing, may 
be removed by rubbing the soiled 
places with the inside or crumb of stale 
bread, preferably rye bread. 

Grease spots or oil stains may be re- 
moved by spreading over the soiled 
surface magnesium carbonate, chalk, 
kaolin or talc made into a thin paste 
with water. The powder is gently 
brushed off after the paste has dried. 

Before experimenting on a valuable 
picture or document, we suggest that 
the proposed processes be tried on 
some worthless paper as nearly simi- 
larly affected as possible. 

To Clean Wall Paper 
For cleaning wall paper the follow- 
ing methods have been proposed: — 
To clean wall paper, the dust should 
first be removed by lightly brushing, 
preferably with a feather duster, and 
the surface then gently rubbed with 
sliced of moderately stale bread, the 
discolored surface of the bread being 
removed from time to time so as to 
expose a fresh portion for use. Care 
should, of course, be taken to avoid 
scratching the paper with the crust of 
the bread, and the rubbing should be 
in one direction, the surface being sys- 
tematically gone over as in painting, 
to avoid the production of streaks. 
Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice 
with 1 quart of flour, and with the aid 
of water make a stiff dough. Form 
the dough into rolls 2 inches in diam- 
eter and 6 inches long, sew each roll 
separately into a cotton cloth, then 
boil for forty or fifty minutes, so as 
to render the mass firm. Allow to 
stand for several hours, remove the 
crust, and they are ready for use. 
Mix together 1 pound each of rye 
flour and wheat flour and make into 
a dough. This is partly baked and the 
crust removed. To this add by knead- 
ing 1 ounce of common salt and J 2 
ounce of powdered naphthalin and then 
1 ounce of corn meal and 1 dram of 
finest burnt umber. This composition 
is formed into a mass of proper size 
to be held in the hand, and in use 
should always be drawn only in one 
direction over the paper to be cleaned. 
A simpler method is to tie up 2 
quarts of wheat bran in a coarse flan- 
nel cloth or a bag made of flannel, 
and rub it over the paper briskly, all 
in one direction, taking care to miss 
none of the space. Before rubbing, 
however, the walls or ceiling must be 
carefully dusted. 

Take a shallow 2-quart vessel, put 
in 1 pint of water with % ounce of 
powdered borax. Bring the two to 
boiling very quickly, so that as little 
of the water shall evaporate as pos- 
sible; then, while boiling, pour into the 
vessel 1 pound of best flour and stir all 
the while, keeping the vessel on the 
stove. Keep stirring until the flour 
and water are thoroughly mixed, then 
dump the mass onto a clean board and 
knead it for several minutes the same 
as a baker kneads dough when making 
bread, when it is ready for use. In 
cleaning walls or ceilings take a piece 
about the size of your two fists and 
rub on the surface with sufficient pres- 
sure to make the cleaner crumble off 



slightly. Try it in some out of the 
way corner first; if it crumbles too 
much there is too much borax in it, or 
you did not get enough water in it. 
If it is sticky you have too much 
water or not enough flour. There is 
quite a difference in flour; with the 
kind employed by the writer the above 
proportions used exactly as given do 
the best work. "When in use, work the 
cleaner in your hands the same as you 
would putty, so as to keep a fresh sur- 
face to clean with all the time, and 
with practice you will succeed. 

Removal of Picric Acid Stains 

A correspondent of the Medical 
World says that picric acid stains on 
the hands may be removed by wash- 
ing with fresh milk or with warm 
water sweetened with sugar. 

Removing Pyrogallol Stains 

The Photographic News gives the 
following formula for a preparation to 
remove stains of pyrogallol from nega- 
tives or from fingers: 

Alum 1 ounce. 

Ferrous sulphate 3 ounces. 

Citrid acid 1 ounce. 

Water 20 ounces. 

To Remove Silver Nitrate Stains 

According to the Medical Times the 
following mixture will immediataely 
remove the stains of silver nitrate 
from the skin: 

Corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride 1 ounce. 

Ammonium chloride 1 ounce. 

Potassium bromide 4 drams. 

The mixed salts are to be rubbed on 
the stain. 

On account of the poisonousness of 
the mercury salt, this mixture should 
be employed with great caution, and 
not used at all on broken skin. 

Another authority omits the potas- 
sium salt. 

Removing Methylene Blue Stains from 
the Hands 

Although the powder is more soluble 
in water than in alcohol, in practice 
alcohol has been found to remove its 
stains from the hands more readily 
than water. Indeed, so far as we 
know, the effect on the skin being con- 
sidered, alcohol is the best agent for 
cleaning hands that have been stained 
with the blue. 

To prevent the hands from becom- 
ing stained, grease them slightly with 
petrolatum before handling the blue. 

To Remove Photographic Stains from 
the Hands 

First wash the hands in a solution 
of potassium permanganate, then rinse 
in a solution of oxalic acid, and lastly 
wash with a solution of hydrogen di- 
oxide. The first two solutions should 
not be too strong: they are poisonous. 
— George F. Greeley. 

To Remove Gold Print from Leather 

To take gold print from leather, as 
the gilding is put on by means of a 
size containing rosin, application of al- 
cohol or oil of turpentine may do the 
work, although the impervious charac- 
ter of the gilding layer makes the suc- 
cess of even this expedient somewhat 



Methods of Destroying Flies, Roaches, Moth?, Ants, Mice and Rats. 

Sprays for Fruit and Other Trees. 

Alwavs consult the index when using this boofy. 

A Study of the Fly Problem room will kill or stupefy all the flies in 

According to a Government bulletin. *• wh , en the >' ma y be swept up and 

L. O. Howard made a somewhat ex- burned. The objection to this appli- 

haustive study of the fly problem. A cation is its dustiness, 

portion of The Druggists Circular ab- Sticky Fly Paper. 

stract of Mr. Howard's findings is here As already noted, one of the most 

given: effective means of destroying flies is 

He says that the house fly cannot bite, but by mea ns of sticky paper. This means 

that :he stable flv (stomoxvs calcitrans), which u«„ +u «^» + „~~ „* *„,.,.,a * „_ 

losely resembles the other breed, and is has th e advantage of freedom from 

s second to it in abundance, does bite. "muss" — provided the paper is kept out 

Then there are other kinds and varieties of of the reach of cats, dogs, children and 

£2" T S h«^? B i «. c ~ s ' e t« m ?£ «™?w t0 «n TC if n P n,i ?S otner careless and over-inquisitive ver- 

sort there is sure to be another on hand to , . _,, , . J 

plague him. Some of these are quite small. tebrates. Those who prefer to prepare 

which has given rise to the erroneous idea this paper for themselves mav find the 

that they are the young of the larger flies. appended suggestions of value. Of 

One breeds in the dust under carpets and is „ ., OD ,..,, «_ _. ._ 

known as the window flv. Another is found course, there are little refinements in 

on over-ripe fruit; and there are various and the manufacture of this article, as in 

sun iry others. other fields of endeavor, which come 

Prom the time that the egg of a fly is laid f rnrn p Y npripnrP TTnr instanpp thp na - 
until the adult flv flies forth readv for busi- nom experience, t or instance, tne pa- 
nes?, some ten days or two weeks (according per should be of a convenient size and 
to season, climate, etc.). generally elapse. The of appropriate thickness, and should be 
female fly lays about 120 eggs, which hatch sized— that is, rendered non-absorbent. 
in right hours. The larva period lasts five 

days and the pupa stage five days. This fills I. 

the ten-day period mentioned. A single stable Rnilprl lirwpprl nil 6 ounces 

in which a horse is kept will supply an ex- soiled linseed Oil bounces. 

tended neighborhood with flies. Olibanum 1 Ounce. 

Remedies and Preventives Castor oil 2 ounces. 

. - . Mix with the aid of heat and spread 

as '.:. - ination for us- against flies. on paper. 

Experiments at treating the breeding p - _ T 

* ime and with kerosene were not very •"■• 

eni. uraging, but keeping these breeding places Rosin 6 ounces. 

about shut off from the flies was found to Lard oil ..2 ounces. 

have the desired effect. The sweepings from i'A ' i r>nn<-.o 

the stable each morning were placed in a Balsam Ot nr i ounce. 

closet and sprinkled with "chloride of jjj 

time when breeding stopped and the occu- , ■? nnnnrls 

pants of near-by offices noticed the diminution InUS . «> puuuu. . 

Mr. Howard recommends that boards Amber resin o pounas. 

of health in cities require this kind of disposi- Castor Oil 2% pounds. 

tion of the sweepings from horse stables. Viscum i pounds. 

„ . ~ ,-,, ,-, ,, Melt together, and apply hot to 

Druggists and the My rroblem parchment paper. 

Druggists may render a service to Poisonous Fly Papers, 

their neighborhoods and to humanity are prepare d by saturating ab- 

— and incidentally make a little profit bent paper with poisonous solutions, 

for themselves — by educating their cus- * 

tomers on the flv subject and supply- *■ _ 

insr :hem with the wherewithal to com- Quassia chips o ounces. 

bat the common enemy. A few sug- Cobalt chloride 2^ drams. 

gestions for means to be employed in Tartar emetic... 2 ara . 

waging warfare upon our old acquaint- Tincture of capsicum. ..2% ounces.. 

ance follow: Water, to make 1 pint. 

Insect Powder "■ 

A nure fresh, high-grade insect pow- A. E. Magoffin contributed the tot- 

der (ground pvrethrum flowers) plen- mula which follows, at the same time 

tifully blown about in a close, warm writing that the preparation had been 




on the market since 1868, and had 
never failed. 

Arsenic, powdered 4 ounces. 

Potassium bicarbonate. . .4 ounces. 

Molasses 8 ounces. 

Water, to make 2 gallons. 

Boil the first two ingredients with 1 
gallon of water until they are dis- 
solved, remove from the fire and add 
the molasses and enough water to 
make 2 gallons. 

"This." he said, "will soak about 500 
sheets of rag paper, 9 by 12 inches." 
He directed each sheet to be soaked 
two hours, and, after draining, to be 
hung on a line until dry. 

With the directions to go with 
papers of this class should be a warn- 
ing as to their poisonous nature, and 
suggestions for emergency treatment 
of any one who might be so unfortu- 
nate as to ingest any of the poison. 
It would be a good idea to have the 
word "poison" printed on each sheet 
of the paper in large letters. 

Non-Poisonous Preparations. 

Quassia 100 parts. 

Molasses 15 parts. 

Alcohol 5 parts. 

Water 575 parts. 

Macerate the quassia in three-fourths 
of the water for one day, boil for half 
an hour and set aside for a day, then 
press out the liquid. Mix this with the 
molasses and evaporate to 20 parts, 
adding the alcohol and the remainder 
of the water. 


Quassia 40 parts. 

Rosin 5 parts. 

Pepper 8 parts. 

Syrup 10 parts. 

Water, to make 120 parts. 

Mix these and boil, adding water as 
may be necessary. Saturate soft paper 
with the liquid and dry rapidly. 

Mix powdered black pepper and sim- 
ple syrup to form a thick paste. Spread 
this upon blotting paper and allow to 
dry. For use moisten with water. 

Black pepper 1 ounce. 

Brown sugar 2 ounces. 

Cream 4 ounces. 

It is saiil that growing mignonette 
plants in a room will keep flies out. 

ounces of water. Add a little sugar 
to the solution and place it about the 
house in shallow dishes. Of course, 
such solutions should be kept out of 
reach of the children. 

To Kill Flies 

In the Monthly Bulletin of the De- 
partment of Health of the City of 
New York the following directions for 
killing flies appear: Dissolve potas- 
sium dichromate in water in the pro- 
portion of 1 dram of the salt to 2 

Injun Jo's Fly Dope 

An application that will protect man 
from the attacks of sand flies, midges 
and black flies: 

Oil of sassafras 4 drams. 

Oil of tar 1 ounce. 

Castor oil 1 J 2 ounces. 

Blue Color Avoided by Flies 

Marre and Fe observed that stables 
the walls of which were painted blue 
were evidently avoided by the common 
housefly. They, therefore, recommend 
that, to keep flies away from the 
stables, the walls be painted once or 
twice yearly with a mixture of chlori- 
nated lime, 10 pounds; water, 25 gal- 
lons, and enough ultramarine blue to 

Getting Rid of Flies 

The following notes are taken from 
an article in the World's Work, reprint- 
ed in The Druggists Circular: 
Kerosene Fly Trap. 

A form of fly trap that is especially effec- 
ive in stores and restaurant kitchens con- 
sists of a trough of tin three-quarters " an 
inch wide and of the same depth, and as 
long as the width of the window. If this is 
placed close against the window on the 
inside and kept half filled with kerosene 
every fly approaching the window will fall 
into it, for the fumes of the kerosene have 
an overpowering effect on the insect. 
To Keep Flies From Screens. 

Screen doors are a favorite gathering place 
for flies, which hang about them waiting for 
someone to let them in. Mix a teaspoonful 
of phenol with a quart of kerosene and rub 
the solution on the screen 'loor. It will at 
once cease to attract the flies. 

Fly Traps in Garbage Cans. 

The same carbolic acid and kerosene solu- 
tion may be used in an ordinary plant 
sprayer to spray the garbage can. which is 
the principal attraction for flies indoors. A 
better plan, however, is to keep the garbage 
can outdoors and put a fly trap in the 
cover of it. Any local tinsmith can attach 
a trap to the cover readily and at a very 
small expense. Fly traps can also easily be 
attached to the window screens so that flies 
which do get in will be caught as they are 
going out. 

When Flies Breed. 

There would be no flies to kill if there 
were no filth for them to breed in. Ninety 
per cent, of all flies are bred in horse 
manure, so keep the stable tightly screened, 
with fly traps sot in the window screens. 
Sprny the floors around the horse stalls 
with pyroligneous acid. K( rosene is good but 
increases the fire risk. Keep the stable 
refuse in a bin tightly covered with a wire- 
netting cover. 

Clean up every place where decaying ani- 
mal or vegetable refuse accumulates . Spray 
every receptacle for refuse with one of the 
kerosene or pyroligneous acid preparations 



or wiili good commercial disinfectant. Re- 
member all the time that flies and filth be- 
gin with the same letter and mean the 
same thing. 

Don't let waste paper or old rags accu- 
mulate where they can decay. Flies will 
breed in them If exposed to moisture. 

After,, the refuse pile has been removed 
sprinkle the ground thoroughly, as the fly 
maggots crawl down into the earth to de- 

If the house drains empty on the surface 
of the ground, pour kerosene into them. If 
your sewerage system leaks, pour kerosene 
into it. 

If possible, burn all garbage. There are 
garbage incinerators that may be attached 
to the stove pipe that reduce the garbage 
to a combustible mass without odor. 

If you cannot trace the flies about your 
premises to any other source, look in the 

Diseases Carried by Flies 

It has been said that a single fly can 
carry enough disease germs to kill an 
army. According to the Dietetic and 
Hygienic Gazette, some of the diseases 
carried by flies are: — 

Anthrax, from cattle to man and man to 
cattle: cholera, from animal to man, man to 
animal or man to man; consumption, from 
man to man, animal to man, or man to ani- 
mal; filariasis, from man to man, animal to 
man or man to animal; gastrointestinal dis- 
eases of various kinds, from man to man; 
eye affections of many kinds, from man to 
man; plague, from man to man, animal to 
man and man to animal; typhoid fever, 
from man to man and from decayed matter 
(animal or vegetable) to man; wound in- 
fection, such as suppuration to be followed 
by gangrene, and probably tetanus, or lock- 
jaw; yellow fever, from man to man, to- 
gether with various other serious com- 
plaints; skin diseases of various kinds, with 
possibly smallpox, gonorrhoea and syphilis. 

Circumventing Bed Bugs 

In a circular (No. 47) issued by the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, C. L. Marlott of the Bureau of 
Entomology discusses the history, life, 
habits and means of circumventing the 
bed bug. From an abstract of this pa- 
per, published in the Druggists Circu- 
lar, some quotations are given be- 
low : — 

The bed bug, on account of its habits of 
concealment, is usually beyond the reach of 
powders, and the ordinary insect powders, 
such as pryethrum, are of practically no 
avail against it. If iron or brass bedsteads 
are used, the eradication of the insect is 
comparatively easy. With large wooden bed- 
steads, furnishing many cracks and crevices 
into which the bugs can force their flat, 
thin bodies, extermination becomes a matter 
of considerable difficulty. The most prac- 
ticable way to effect this end is by very 
liberal applications of benzin or kerosene or 
any other of the petroleum oils. These must 
be introduced into all crevices with small 
brushes or feathers or by injecting with 
small syringes. Oil of turpentine may be 
used in the same way. The liberal use of 
hot water, wherever it may be employed 
without danger to furniture, etc., is also an 
effectual method of destroying both eggs 
and active bugs. Various bed bug rem- 
edies and mixtures are for sale, most of 
them containing one or another of the in- 
gredients mentioned, and these are fre- 
quently of value. The great desideratum. 
however, in a case of this kind is a daily 

inspection of beds and bedding and of all 
crevices and locations about the premises 
where these vermin may have gone for con- 
cealment. A vigorous campaign should, in 
the course of a week or so at the outside, 
result in the extermination of this very ob- 
noxious and embarrassing pest. 

In the case of rooms containing books or 
where liquid applications are inadvisable, a 
thorough fumigation with brimstone is, on 
the authority of the late Dr. J. A. Lintner, 
then New York State entomologist, an effei 
ive means of destruction. He says: — ■ 

"Place in the center of the room a dish 
containing about four ounces of brimston. . 
within a larger vessel, so that the possible 
overflowing of the burning mass may not 
injure the carpet or set fire to the floor. 
After removing from the room all such me- 
tallic surfaces as might be affected by the 
fumes, close every aperture, even, the key- 
holes, and set fire to the brimstone. When 
four or five hours have elapsed the room 
may be entered and the windows opened 
for a thorough airing." 

The sulphur or brimstone remedy has been 
used very successfully by Dr. C. W. Stiles 
of the Bureau of Public Health and Marine 
Hospital Service, for the disinfection of 
frame cottages such as at seaside resorts, 
where, from neglect, infestation with bed 
bugs often occurs. The treatment is inexpen- 
sive compared with use of hydrocyanic acid 
gas and offers much less risk of danger to 
human beings. Two pounds of sulphur are 
recommended for each thousand cubic feet of 
space, and the building should be closed for 
treatment at least twenty-four hours. Sulphur 
candles may be used where available. The 
precautions indicated in the quotation from 
Dr. Lintner should be observed. 

The fact that the bed-bug had a very ac- 
tive enemy in the common house cockroach 
has already been alluded to, and the proof 
seems to be fairly conclusive. Another com- 
mon insect visitor in houses, and a very an- 
noying one also to the careful housekeeper — 
the little red ant (monomorium pharaonis) — is 
also known to be a very active and effective 
enemy of the bed-bug. 

Some Bed-Bug Killers 

It is said that liquid bed-bug killers 
act by dissolving the grease on the bug 
and then reaching the pores of the 
skin, through which he breathes, and 
smothering him. Any good liquid 
grease solvent applied to bed-bugs will 
kill them. Benzin, being cheap, is 
much used, but it is so dangerous, on 
account of its great inflammability and 
the explosiveness of its vapor, that its 
use should be discouraged. Alcohol, 
ammonia water, oil of turpentine, 
strong soapy solutions and other such 
solvents may be used. Kerosene is less 
dangerous than benzin, but is objec- 
tionable on account of its odor. Car- 
bon tetrachloride is better than either, 
but is rather expensive in comparison, 
and its fumes have an anesthetic effect 
similar to those of chloroform but more 
powerful; as these fumes are heavier 
than air and so fall to the floor of a 
room in which they are free, they have 
not proved especially objectionable in 
cases in which the operator under- 
stood their nature and was careful to 
secure good ventilation. 

Solutions of corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride, which have often been used to 
kill bed-bugs, are believed to be no 



more efficacious than the solvent would 
be without the mercuric salt, and the 
latter, left on the bed to be dusted 
about, is decidedly dangerous to 
human beings. 

A good grade of insect powder is 
said to be an efficient bug killer. The 
trouble with the powder lies in the dif- 
ficulty with which the bugs may be 
reached with it. 

It is, of course, highly desirable that 
in endeavoring to kill insects one 
should avoid danger of injuring human 
beings. Many preparations which have 
been and are used as insecticides carry 
risks in this direction. A non-poison- 
ous, non-inflammable preparation, pro- 
posed as a bed-bug killer, is made of — 

Soft soap 100 parts. 

Caustic soda 15 parts. 

Waiter 1,400 parts. 

The soap solution is intended to re- 
move the waxy coating of the bug, and 
by penetrating the body, poison or suf- 
focate, and so destroy the insect. 

If one is successful in exterminating 
the insects by any procedure, he has 
still trouble to expect from their eggs. 
These may remain unaffected by the 
agent which proves fatal to the bug; 
they probably usually do. 

To meet this difficulty, it has been 
suggested to use — 

Soft soap 100 parts. 

Gum turpentine 50 parts. 

Hot water 650 parts. 

The turpentine being deposited on 
the eggs on evaporation of the solu- 
tion forms a coating which is supposed 
to prevent them from hatching. 

There is no better bed-bug extermi- 
nator than kerosene. For general sale, 
it may be made safer, as far as in- 
flammability is concerned, by addition 
of carbon tetrachloride. It may be 
colored with alkanet and distinctively 
perfumed. Such essential oils as sas- 
safras, eucalyptus, cedar and savine 
may be used, or blends of such as suit 
the manipulator. Striking the proper 
blend, the druggist will have a product 
which is not an imitation and which, 
in turn, cannot be easily imitated. 

Some of the bed-bug killing prepara- 
tions on the market, that are sold as 
non-explosive and non-staining, are 
solutions of cresol in water. These 
contain usually 5 per cent, of cresol. 
In some there is a little soft soap. The 
liquid may be perfumed with any es- 
sential oil. 

This is as efficient an antiseptic as 
one need look for in a preparation of 
this kind, and also has a pleasant 
odor. The oils, being less volatile than 
the benzin, will linger after the latter 
has disappeared. 

Combined Bed-Bug Killer and Deodo- 

Oil of thyme 30 minims. 

Oil of lavender 30 minims. 

Oil of eucalyptus 1 dram. 

Oil of rosemary 1 dram. 

Benzin 2 pints. 

Destruction of Mosquito Larva; 

On the Isthmus of Panama the breed- 
ing of mosquitoes is combatted by 
flowing over the water in which it is 
suspected that larva exist, a solution 
made as follows: 

One hundred and fifty gallons of 
crude carbolic acid, of a specific grav- 
ity not greater than 0.96 and contain- 
ing no less than 15 per cent, of phe- 
nols and cresols, is heated to 100 c C, 
when 200 pounds of rosin are added 
and the mixture constantly stirred un- 
til the rosin is dissolved. Then 30 
pounds of caustic soda are added. The 
mixture is kept at 100° and stirred un- 
til solution is effected and tests of 
a small portion in a test-tube are made 
with water until perfect emulsification 
is attained. 

Protection from Mosquito Bites 

L. O. Howard, Entomologist and 
Chief, Bureau of Entomology of the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, in Farmers' Bulletin No. 444, 
Remedies and Preventives Against 
Mosquitos, suggests the following pro- 
tective liquids against the bites of 
these troublesome insects: 

Spirit of camphor rubbed upon the 
face and hands or a few drops on the 
pillow at night will keep mosquitoes 
away for a time, and this is also a well- 
known property of pennyroyal. Neither 
of these substances is durable; that is 
to say, a single application will not last 
through the night. Oil of peppermint, 
lemon juice, and vinegar have all been 
recommended, while oil of tar has been 
used in regions where mosquitoes are 
especially abundant. Oil of citronella 
is one of the best substances to be 
used in this way. The odor is ob- 
jectionable to some people, but not to 
many, and it is efficient in keeping 
away mosquitoes for several hours. 
The best mixture tried by the writer 
was sent to him by Mr. C. A. Nash, of 
New York, and is as follows: 

Oil of citronella 1 ounce. 

Spirit of camphor 1 ounce. 

Oil of cedar % ounce. 

Ordinarily, a few 'drops on a bath 
towel hung over the head of the bed 
will keep the common house mosquitoes 
away. Where they are very abundant 
and persistent a few drops rubbed on 
the face and hands will suffice. Even 
this mixture, however, loses its efficacy 
toward the close of a long night. It 
is the habit of the yellow-fever mos- 
quito to begin to bite at daylight. By 



that time the average person is sleep- 
ing very soundly, and the effects of 
the mixture will usually have passed 
largely away. It follows that in the 
Southern States, where this mosquito 
occurs, these protective mixtures are 
not supposed to be as effective as they 
are in the North. As a matter of fact, 
however, this last mixture, could it be 
Applied shortly before dawn, would be 
as effective as under other circum- 

A mixture recommended by Mr. E. 
H. Gane, of New York, is as follows: 

Castor oil 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Oil of lavender 1 ounce. 

This mixture was prepared for the 
purpose of avoiding the odor of the 
oil of citronella. 

Oscar Samostz, of Austin, Tex., rec- 
ommends the following formula: 

Oil of citronella 1 ounce. 

Liquid petrolatum 4 ounces. 

This mixture greatly rectards the 
evaporation of the oil of citronella. 

Mr. B. A. Reynolds has used suc- 
cessfully in New Orleans 20 minims of 
oil of citronella to the ounce of petrola- 
tum or lanolin. 

A 5 per cent, solution of sulphate of 
potassium has been recommended, as 
also the oil of cassia. Pure kerosene 
has also been used extensively in the 

Mosquito Chaser 

As a lotion, perhaps oil of citronella 
diluted with its own bulk of alcohol 
is as good as any, or maybe some 
would prefer one of the following: 


Oil of eucalyptus . 2 drams. 

Oil of sassafras 6 drams. 

• Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Equal parts of oil of pennyroyal, oil 
of camphor, ox gall, extract of quassia 
and alcohol. 

Either might lie put up in two-ounce 
perfumery bottles with a neat label 
bearing directions that the liquid be 
sprinkled on the face, hands and an- 
kles, and sprayed about the room. 

A Mosquito Pastille. 

Powdered charcoal 16 ounces. 

Powdered saltpeter 2 ounces. 

Insect powder 8 ounces. 

Phenol 1 Ms ounces. 

Water enough. 

Mucilage of acacia or 

tragacanth enough. 

Mix the powders well. Dissolve the 
saltpeter in a small quantity of water, 
mix with the phenol, and sprinkle the 
whole evenly over the mixed powders, 
then form the whole into a smooth 
paste by means of the mucilage. Form 

this into small cones, each weighing 
about a dram, and dry thoroughly. 

When used, they are to be placed on 
a dish and the apex of the cone lig 
with a match. They burn slowly, and 
give off a dense pungent smoke ti; 
sure death, not only to mosquitoes, but 
all other insects. The room should be 
tightly closed while the cone is burn- 
ing, and afterward should be well 

Lotions for Mosquito Bites 

Mosquito lotions are of two kinds. 
repellant and ante- sting, and relieving 
or anti- sting, or they serve the dual- 
purpose of chaser and anodyne. Aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia is said to act 
well in both capacities. The addition 
of enough eucalpytol to give the spirit 
the characteristic eucalyptus odor en- 
hances its repellant effieency. 

Oils that contian a large proportion 
of a phenol (oil of cloves and oil of 
bay) and those containing cineol (oil 
of eucalyptus and oil of cajuput) when 
applied undiluted or mixed with an 
equal quantity of alcohol or acetone 
will afford relief in many instances. 

Tincture of pyrethrum, perfumed if 
desired, is reputed to be an efficacious 
anodyne for painful stings. 

Solutions of the caustic alkalies in 
alcohol or acetone — admixed sometimes 
with dimethylbenzol — containing a lit- 
tle Canada turpentine are recom- 

Several working formulas follow: 


Menthol 1 gramme. 

Naphthalene 1 gramme. 

Alcohol 5 mils. 

Castor oil 5 mils. 

Collodion -50 mils. 


Camphor 16 grammes. 

Menthol 16 grammes. 

Oil of citronella 65 mils. 

Strong ammonia water 90 mils. 

Water 65 mils. 

Alcohol, to make... 1,000 mils. 

.Mix. and apply after the mosquito 
bites; or apply before he does, and 
maybe he will not. 

For Insect Bites 

In France the following is used ;is an 
application for bites of fleas and bed- 
buss, as well as mosquitos: 

Menthol 1" drams. 

Ether 100 mils. 

Mosquito Powder 

Oil of eucalyptus 30 parts. 

Talc 6() pa its - 

Starch 420 Parts. 



Apply to hands, face and other ex- 
posed portions of the body with a 
powder puff. 

Iodine Application for Mosquito 

Gallois prescribes (Bull, gen. de. 
therap.) 40 per cent, solution of iodine 
in acetone to abort boils and to relieve 
the irritation following bites of insects, 
especially mosquitoes. Generally one 
application is sufficient, but if re- 
quired it may be repeated at the end 
of five or six hours. The discoloration 
lasts about twenty- four hours, and is 
easily removed with soap and water. 

Mosquito Talcum 

A powder made after the following 
formula is said to ease the bites of 
mosquitoes and keep away the biters: 

Oil of vetivert 40 minims. 

Eucalyptol 140 minims. 

Powdered china clay... 1 pound. 

Powdered talc 5 pounds. 

Circumventing the Festive Mosquito 

Oil of eucalyptus 1% ounces. 

Aeei ic ether ..." 6 drams. 

Cologne water 6 ounces. 

Tincture of insect 

powder (1 in 5) . . . .7% ounces. 

Dilute with from three to six times 
its volume of water and use as a bath 
for the hands and face and for spray- 
ing the room. 


Menthol 30 grains. 

Eucalyptol 1 dram. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 


A powder made of equal parts of 
sabadilla, coculus indicus, parsley 
seed, anise seed and tobacco snuff. 

Phenol 6 drams. 

Potassium nitrate 1 % ounces. 

Insect powder 5 ounces. 

Charcoal 10 ounces. 

Mucilage of tragacanth enough. 

Make into a paste from which pas- 
tilles for burning are to be moulded. 

Benzoin 2 drams. 

Balsam of tolu 2 drams. 

Charcoal 10 drams. 

Insect powder 3 drams. 

Potassium nitrate 1 dram. 

Mucilage of tragacanth enough. 

To be used as the foregoing. 

Camphor evaporated in a tin vessel 
over a flame will fill the room with an 
odor which is objectionable to mos- 

quitoes. A sponge dipped in spirit of 
camphor will have a similar effect. 
The odor of oil of sassafras, penny- 
royal, and citronella seems to be quite 
distasteful to most insects as well as 
many people. 


A solution of quinine sulphate in 
glycerin has been recommended 
abroad as the best preventive of in- 
sect bites. It has not been established 
whether this action is due to the bit- 
ter taste of the quinine or its toxic 
action on the insects. 

Oil of citronella 1 dram. 

Alcohol 1 dram. 

Apply freely to face, neck, hands 
and ankles to prevent mosquitoes 
from biting. 

For Bites and Stings of Insects 

For the sting of wasp, hornet, bee, 
or for the bite of ant, spider or other 
insect, says the Medical World, the 
local application of ammonia is the 
best treatment. Soap or other alka- 
line substance will also give relief. 


Menthol 1 gramme. 

Alcohol 50 mils. 

Stronger ammonia 

water 20 mils. 

Place a drop on the irritated spot 

According to Royet (Lyon Medical) 
a 1 per cent, solution of calcium hy- 
pochlorite is an excellent topical ap- 
plication for the bites of mosquitoes 
and other insects. 

To Keep Off Gnats and Other Insects 

The following is said to be an effi- 
cient repellant for gnats, midges. 
mosquitoes and the like: — 

Oil of cajuput 2 mils. 

Tincture of pyrethrum. . . . 4 mils. 
Ammoniac mixture, to 

make 40 mils. 

To be applied to the exposed parts 
of the body. 

Anti-Midge Pastilles 

Benzoin 125.0 grammes. 

Cascarilla 125.0 grammes. 

Myrrh 41.5 grammes. 

Charcoal 750.0 grammes. 

Oil of nutmeg 25.0 grammes. 

Oil of clove 25.0 grammes. 

Potassium nitrate.. 66.5 grammes. 
Mucilage of traga- 
canth enough. 

The first four ingredients, in mod- 
erately line powder, are carefully 



mixed wiili the potassium nitrate; the 
oils are then added, and enough muci- 
of tragacantn gradually incor- 
porated to form a plastic mass. This 
is rolled into the desired shape, di- 
vided and dried. 

Lotions for Pediculus Capitis 

Desmons (Jour. med.. Paris), points 
out that the external shell of the ova 
of the pediculus capitis, because of its 
chitinous nature, is resistant to liquid 
applications unless they contain acetic 
acid. For the destruction of the in- 
sects and their ova he suggests that 
the infested parts be carefully wetted 
with the following: — 

Tincture of benzoin. 5 mils. 

Corrosive mercuric 

chloride 1 gramme. 

Glacial acetic acid... 12 mils. 

Cologne water, to 

make .' 1000 mils. 

Make a solution. 

Because of the desquamative effect 
of too frequent applications of solu- 
tions of acetic acid to the skin, lotions 
containing it should not be dispensed 
except for use under the direction of 
a physician; and the well-known dan- 
ger of using solutions of corrosive 
mercuric chloride should prevent 
druggists from indiscriminatingly put- 
ting this nit killer into the hands of 
the laity. 

To Destroy Head Lice 

In the Lancet Dr. Arthur "White- 
head gives the following rapid method 
of freeing girls' heads from lice and 

The patient is laid on her back on the bed 
with the head over the edge, and beneath the 
head is placed a basin on a chair so that 
the hair lies in the basin. A solution of 1 
in 40 carbolic acid is then poured over the 
hair into the basin anil sluiced backward and 
forward until the whole of the hair is thor- 
oughly soaked with it. It is especially neces- 
sary that care should be taken to secure thor- 
ough saturation of the hair over the ears and 
at the nape of the neck, since these parts are 
not only the sites of predilection of the para- 
sites, but they are apt to escape the solution. 
The rule I give is that this sluicing shall be 
carried out for ten minute^ by the clock. 
Lister showed that if the hair is soaked with 
carbolic acid solution for an appreciable time 
it takes up the phenol and the solution 1 • 
progressively weaker. At the end of the ten 
minutes the hair is lifted from the basin and 
allowed to drain, but is not dried or even very 
thoroughly wrung out. The whole head is then 
swathed with a thick towel, or better, a large 
piece of common house flannel, which is fast- 
ened up to form a sort of turban, and the 
head is allowed to remain like this for an 
hour. It can then be either washed or simply 
allowed to dry, as the carbolic, being volatile, 
quickly disperses. At the end of this period 
every pediculus and, what is more important, 
every ovum is dead, and although the ova are 
left on the hair they will not hatch, and no 
relapse will take place unless exposure to fresh 
contagion occurs. Incidentally, any impetigin- 
ous scabs are softened so that they come away 
easily and allow any ointment which is used 
for th> cure of this complication to be ap- 

plied easily. In cases where then 
petigo no further treatment is nec< 

The next two formulas an 
from a British source, tin 
and Drugg.'st: 

Non-Poisonous Nit-Lotion 

Contused quillaja 240 - 

Quassia chips 180 grains. 

' 'hi rata 1L*I) grains. 

Salicylic acid 120 gr: 

Compound tincture of lavender.. HO minims. 

Boiling water 2 pil 

[nfuse the crude drugs for one hour in the 
water, then strain and add the acid and the 

Directions. — Afici combing the hair thorough- 
ly, a.PPly the lotion to the ro.its with a - 
sprinkle some upon the hnir brush, and well 
brush the hair in ordi bu 1'tion 


Quillaja is poisonous, and so a lotion con- 
taining it is dangerous, especially in ca 
which there are abraded places on the scalp, 
as there are apt to be after much sera 
Of course, almost any dru.K that WOU d kill 
lice is apt to be poisonous if applied to broken 
places in the skin, or if absorbed through the 
skin, and preparations of such drugs ii 
for general use should be s 
warning labeled to this effect. Possib 
quassia directed in the foregoing formula is 
sufficiently insecticidal without the ; 
the quillaja. and as it is ;,.-ss harmfui to hu- 
mans, perhaps the place of the quillaja 
with advantage (so far as safety is cone 
at least), be taken by a lathery soap. 

Here is a third formula from Lon- 

Nit- Destroying Lotion 

Sta vesacre seed 2 

Acetic acid 9 drams. 

Alcohol - in: 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

i iii of geranium - minims. 

£ lavender - mil 

Oil of lemon 4 mil 

Water, to make 19 ou 

''rush the stavesacre seed and boil i T with 
the acetic acid and 1"< ounces of water f >r ten 
minutes in a covered vessel, set aside until 
cooi and add the oils dissolved in the alcohol. 
Kilter and add enough water to 

Fish Oil Soap to Free Animals of 

A formula for a fish-oil soap for use 
in freeing animals of lice is: — Six 
pounds of caustic soda are dissolved 
in l ] 2 gallons of water, and 22 pounds 
of the oil gradually added, with con- 
stant stirring. 

Compound Tincture of Larkspur 

Larkspur is a popular poison for 
pediculi, and a number of formulas for 
compound tinctures of this drug have 
appeared in The Druggists Circular 
during the pasl few years. Some of 
these follow: 


Larkspur set d, ground.. 

Gn en soap - oui 

Potassium carbonate 1 ounce. 

Oil of lavender flowers.. 1 dram. 

Alcohol 24oun< 

Water 8 ounci 



Macerate for ten days with occa- 
sional agitation and filter, adding 
enough of a mixture of alcohol 3 parts 
and water 1 part, to make 32 fluid 
ounces; or the tincture may be pre- 
pared by percolation, after maceration 
for a few days. 


The following formula is for a prepa- 
ration which is said to give better re- 
sults, to be cheaper, and to be more 
easily made than the ordinary tincture: 

Larkspur seed 100 grammes. 

Potassium carbonate 10 grammes. 

Alcohol 500 mils. 

Water to make 1.000 mils. 

Mix the seed and the carbonate with 
500 mils of water; boil the mixture for 
five minutes; when it has become cold, 
add the alcohol; strain, and add 
enough water to make the finished 
product measure 1,000 mils. Filter, if 
not clear. 


A tincture which seems to give satis- 
faction to the trade in a town which 
is the seat of one of our largest uni- 
versities, is as follows: 

Larkspur seed 4 ounces. 

Boiling water 6 ounces. 

Alcohol 10 ounces. 

Diluted alcohol, to make 1 pint. 

Crush the seed in an iron mortar, 
transfer them to a suitable vessel, pour 
the boiling water upon them, cover the 
vessel and let the whole stand until 
cool; add the alcohol, stir well, and 
after twenty-four hours, filter through 

This class of preparations is poison- 
ous, and may even exen their toxic 
effect through abrasions in the skin. 

Sabadilla for Body Lice 

Sabadilla or cevadilia or, as the Ger- 
mans write it. lituseki'.rner. is used in 
the shape of powder, ointment or de- 
coction to destroy vermin. The United 
States Dispensary refers to a pulvis 
capucinorum, of which sabadilla is the 
principal ingredient, in use in Europe 
for the destruction of lice in the hair. 
It is composed of equal parts of saba- 
dilla seed, stavesaere seed, parsley seed 
and tobacco, in powder form. 

Sabadilla is very poisonous and is 
said to have caused death when ap- 
plied on a scalp that was ulcerated. It 
may be absorbed in toxic quantities 
through the lacerations of the skin 
caused by scratching. 





Writing on the subject of a little 
insect i>est which never fails to receive 
notice wherever he goes, L. O. Howard, 
chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 

United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, in one of those official circulars 
(No. 108 1 ) which we frequently recom- 
mend that druggists procure and read, 
says: — 

To sum up: — Every house where a pet dog or 
cat is kept may become seriously infested with 
fleas if the proper conditions of moisture and 
freedom from disturbance exist. Infestation, 
however, is not likely to occur if the ■ 
floors ca - < *ie frequently and thoroughly swept. 
When an >utbreak of fleas comes, however, 
the easies' .emedy to apply is a free spr.r.k- 
ling oS pyrethrum powder in the infested 
rooms. This failing, benzin may be tri • 
thorough spraying of carpets and floors being 
undertaken, with the exercise of due pi 
tion in seeing that no lights or fires are in 
the house at the time of the application, or 
for some hours afterwards. Finally, if the 
plague is not thus abated, all floor co\ 
must be removed and the floors washed with 
hot soap-suds. This is a useful precaution in 
any house which it is proposed to close for 
the summer, since even a thorough sv, 
may leave behind some few flea eggs from 
which an all-pervading swarm may > 
before the house is reopened. 

Ridding a House of Fleas 

A correspondent says in regard to 

"The only satisfactory exterminator 
was found to be a quart of kerosen •-. 
in which were dissolved several ounces 
of moth balls and four ounces of oil 
of cedar. With this inflammable liquid 
we painted the floor of each room with 
particular reference to crevices and 
door sills, keeping the room closed for 
twenty-four hours, and only after air- 
ing for twenty-four hours was it 
deemed safe for use. Thus we pro- 
ceeded from room to room, avoiding 
danger of fire by tightly shutting the., 
room so treated, not using it until 
after it had been aired. In a week the 
house was once more habitable." 

"Flea Driver" 

The following formula is said to pro- 
duce a preparation which is effective 
in driving fleas and mosquitoes away 
from the person, beds, rooms, etc.: 

Oil of lavender 2 drams. 

Oil of pennyroyal 1 dram. 

Oil of cajuput 1 dram. 

Oil of cassia 1 dram. 

Oil of sassafras 1 dram. 

Alcohol 16 ounces. 

Water 16 ounces.' 

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol; add 
the water and filter through talcum 

Application for Chigger Bites 

It is said that a saturated solution 
of sodium hyposulphite applied to a 
chigger bite will instantly relieve the 
itching. Put up in 6-dram vials and 
sold for 10 or 15 cents a vial, there is 
good money in this solution. 



Exterminating Roaches or Water Bugs 

The United States Department of 
Agriculture, in a bulletin issued sev- 
eral years ago. stated that, "A thor- 
oughly effective and simple means of 
ridding one's premises of roaches 
is in fumigating with hydro- 
cyanic-acid gas. The experience of the 
past few years has demonstrated thai 
this gas ... is particularly applic- 
able and satisfactory against all species 
of house roaches. The gas is extremely 
poisonous to human beings, but, with 
the proper precautions, may be em- 
ployed with complete safety." Know- 
ing the deadly character of this gas, 
we would urge that its use be not 
recommended to the laity, but, with 
the proper precautions, it might be 
feasible for a pharmacist to use it in 
his own premises. The Department of 
Agriculture has issued a special bul- 
letin on the use of this gas. 

Carbon bisulphide has also been 
used successfully as a fumigant, but, 
is hardly applicable for general use, 
as the odor is so objectionable. 

Many formulas have been suggested 
for the destruction of the pests and no 
single substance has been more widely 
advertised than sodium borate. En- 
thusiasts claim that roaches immedi- 
ately leave any premises which have 
been thoroughly sprinkled with it. 


A mixture of plaster of paris and 
flour, placed near a bowl of water, is 
said to be effective. Arsenic mixed 
with flour may be used where there is 
no danger of children getting hold of it. 


Chamomile 2 ounces. 

Sodium borate 12 ounces. 

Pyrethrum powder 2 ounces. 

Plaster of paris 1 ounce. 

Sulphur 3 ounces. 

Powdered arsenic 2 drams. 

Dealing With the Roach Problem 

If age is entitled to respect, we 
should take off our hats to the cock- 
roach; if industry and pertinacity are 
commendable, the croton bug sets an 
example for us to follow. There are 
perhaps more than 5,000 species of the 
beetle in the world today. 

It is said by those who have studied 
the cockroach — notably C. L. Marlott, 
whose report on the subject has been 
published as a circular by the United 
States Department of Agriculture — 
that this pest has two redeeming 
qualities, one that he is a scavenger, 
and the other that he eats bed-bugs 
and worms. Some other points taken 
from Mr. Marlott's paper are given be- 

It has been said that if tree frogs are en- 
closed in a roach- infested room overnight they 
will clean it of the pest. 

Houses may b,> freed of roaches by fumigal 
ing with hydrocyanic vapor, but so poisonm.- 
is hydrocyanic acid that even in the h 
of those who understand its danger - 
results have followed its use as a verim. 
[There is a Government bulletin on the sub- 

Pastes of various kinds, containing- ar 
were used by the Department of Agriculture 
to poison the croton bugs which were eating 
the department's books, but the bugs were t" 
wary to partake. 

Good, fresh insect powder, liberally applied, 
paralyzes roaches, when they may be swept 
up and destroyed, but leaves a "muss." The 
powder may be burned in a closed room, when 
its vapor will have a similar effect upon the 
roaches. The room should be kept closed from 
six to twelve hours after the fumigation. 

Flowers of sulphur dusted about where 
roaches abound has proved a very effective re- 
pellant in Washington, but proprietary "foods 
have been found of little value. An exception 
to this rule is a phosphorus preparation, con- 
sisting of sweetened flour paste containing 
1 or 2 per cent, of the poison. Spread on 
paper and left in the runways of the bugs 
this paste not only proved a repellant but an 
actual poison to them. 

Carbon disulphide, left in open vessels in a 
tightly closed room in the proportion of about 
1 pound to each 1,000 cubic feet of space, will 
destroy roaches and other vermin. Like hydro- 
cyanic acid, this substance, as well as its 
vapor, is poisonous to man. The liquid is 
dangerously inflammable, and its vapor is ex- 
plosive when brought into contact with fire. 
It should not be used by any except experts, 
and even then it is doubtful whether the end 
justifies the risk necessarily incurred. 

A mixture of 1 part of plaster of paris with 
3 or 4 parts of flour may be placed in a saucer 
and left in a room infested by roaches. Near 
it may be placed a plate containing water, 
with bridges joining them, as well as small 
bits of wood on the surface of the water. 
Roaches eating of the flour mixture and then 
drinking of the water will be killed by the 
hardening of the plaster. 

Sodium Fluoride as a Roach Poison 
Surgeon Means, of the United States 
Navy, in an article in the Naval Medi- 
cal Bulletin states that at one time the 
store rooms and pantries of the ship 
on which he was stationed became in- 
fested with roaches, and the ordinary 
insect powders seemed to have no 
effect on them. Sodium fluoride was 
then used with marked results. Not 
only were the roaches killed, but also 
ordinary black beetles. 

Roach Food 

Borax 77 parts. 

Flour 33 parts. 

Cucumber as a Roach Poison 
It is said that slices of ripe cucum- 
ber spread about the places frequented 
by roaches will- have a good effect. 

Emmett Powers says that he has 
found that a mixture of equal parts 
of insect powder and borax will de- 
stroy more roaches than any powder 
in the market and will do its work 
in less time than the others take. 

Another contributor said that he ha'd 
found the following combination the 



Borax 10 parts. 

Insect powder 1 part. 

Starch 1 part. 

The starch, he said, made the powder 
stick to the body of the insect; the in- 
sect powder was the active ingredient; 
and the borax was a diluent. Other 
authorities state, however, that borax 
alone has been known to be effective 
in ridding a room of roaches. 

A different kind of formula in which 
a fluorine salt is exhibited follows: 

Silex 22 parts. 

Sodium fluoride 40 parts. 

Sodium chloride 10 parts. 

Sodium carbonate, dried .... 5 parts. 

Sodium sulphate 10 parts. 

Hooper's and Peterman's Foods 

As a result of analyses of Hooper's 
and Peterman's roach foods made by 
him and published in The Druggists 
Circular, Dr. R. G. Eccles stated that a 
typical formula for this class of prepar- 
ation was: 

Borax 37 parts. 

Starch 9 parts. 

Cocoa 4 parts. 

In Bulletin No. 68 of the United 
States Bureau of Chemistry, dated 
1902, the composition of Peterman's 
roach food is stated to be 20.6 per cent, 
of borax with potato or pea meal and 
a little red coloring matter; Hooper's 
fatal food is said to contain 92.44 per 
cent, of borax with corn meal and red 
coloring matter. 

Swat the Cockroach, Too 

A writer in the British Medical Jour- 
nal notes that the number of cock- 
roaches is increasing as well as the 
extent of the territory which they in- 
fest, and says that unless preventive 
measures are adopted the insect is 
likely, in the course of time, to become 
very troublesome and possible very 

It eats not only the common food of 
man, but also sputum, pus and decay- 
ing refuse. It has been shown that 
contamination with its feces will bring 
about the souring of milk, and the in- 
sect is in all probability an active agent 
in the souring of milk kept in kitchens 
and larders; and, in addition, is un- 
doubtedly a very important factor in 
the distribution of molds to food and 
numerous other articles, especially 
when they are kept in dark cupboards 
and cellars where cockroaches abound. 
The cockroach may also play a small 
part in the dissemination of tubercu- 
losis and in the transmission of pyo- 
genic organisms. 

Combatting Clothes Moths 

Method more than deterrent sub- 
stances is needed to exterminate moths 

in houses or to exclude them from* 
houses. Among other anti-moths men- 
•tioned from time to time in The Drug- 
gists Circular are camphor, naphthalin, 
red pepper, oil of cedar, tobacco dust, 
oil of turpentine, and powdered insect 
flowers. Most of it, if not all these — 
the liquids are probably exceptions — act 
only to exclude the moths and are use- 
less if these or the larvae be present in 
the fabric when it is put away. 

The Government entomologists have 
given much study to the moth ques- 
tion, and have prepared a pamphlet 
entitled "The True Clothes Moths. ' is- 
sued as circular No. 36, second series, 
revised, of the Bureau of Entomology, 
United States Department of Agricul- 

Moth Powder 

Camphor is one of the best -known 
moth repellants, and but for its high 
price would doubtless be the most 
popular one as well. Xaphthalin is 
much cheaper, and so, notwithstand- 
ing its disagreeable odor and the fact 
that scientific men have said that its 
"presence does not prevent the breed- 
ing of moths or the ravages of their 
larva?, is largely used by the public to 
keep moths away, and seemingly with 
results that take it out of the class of 
hoodoo remedies. Frequently camphor 
and naphthalin are mixed, and volatile 
oils with strong and pleasant odors, or 
cedar wood chips, added, to make a 
moth powder. Tobacco dust is used 
for the same purpose, either alone or 
in connection with some of the other 
things mentioned. 

A few formulas from The Druggists 
Circular follow: 


Lupulin 1 ounce. 

Powdered camphor 8 ounces. 

Powdered black pepper... 8 ounces. 

Tobacco dust (snuff) .... 1 pound. 

Cedar-wood sawdust.... 2 pounds. 

Powdered capsicum 4 ounces. 

Powdered naphthalin.... 1 pound. 

Insect powder 1 pound. 


Powdered camphor 5 ounces. 

Powdered naphthalin.... 1 pound. 

Coumarin 5 grains. 

Oil of neroli 16 drops. 

Oil of mirbane 16 drops. 

The surest protection against moths 
is to pack the articles that may suffer 
from them in bags and so securely 
close them that the insect can find 
no entrance. Paper answers well as 
a packing material, but all joints 
should be pasted. Of course, the pack- 
ing should be done before the moth 
has had a chance to lay its eggs in 
the material. 


1 15 

Tenacious Insecticide Sprays 

When destroying insects it is of im- 
portance to insure a close adherence 
of the toxic wash or sprayed liquor. 
The addition of a small quantity of an 
alkaline soap has been suggested to 
facilitate this, but it is now shown 
that the saponins are still more ef- 
fective, are more widely applicable, 
and have no action on the vegetation. 
The fruit of sapindus utilis. a tree 
which has been cultivated for a consid- 
erable time in Algeria, is very rich in 
saponin, and Gastine (Compt. rend.) 
reports that two grammes of the pow- 
dered sapindus fruit in 10 liters of 
water will produce a very fine emulsion 
with 700 grammes of tar oil. Prefer - 
ably a heavy tar oil (specific gravity 
1.045) and a lighter oil (specific gravity 
0.950) are mixed in such proportions 
that the density of the mixture is 
about that of water. The surface ten- 
sion of the saponin solution is low- 
ered by the addition of the mixture of 
oils and the final mixture has a marked 
wetting power. Copper salts may lie 
added without increasing the surface 
tension. A veiw efficient mixture is 
water, 10 liters, sapindus powder 20 
grammes, normal copper acetate 100 
grammes, mixture of oils (specific 
gravity 1) 200 mils. 

Water 12 gallons. 

Alcohol 1 gal Ion. 

Boil the tobacco with the water. 
strain, and add the other ingredients. 

The liquid is diluted with an equal 
quantity of water when required for 
use; the solution being applied to the 
plants in the form of a spray. 

Destruction of Insects on Plants 

For the extermination of scale in- 
sects, resinous preparations are em- 
plo> ed, which kill by covering with an 
imi "rvious coating. Such a wash may 
be made as follows: 

Rosin 3 % pounds. 

Caustic soda 1 pound. 

Fish oil 8 ounces. 

Water 20 gallons. 

Boil the rosin, soda and oil with a 
small portion of the water, adding the 
remainder as solution is effected. 

For the San Jose scale a stronger 
preparation is required, the proportion 
of water being decreased by half, but 
such a solution is applied only when 
the tree is dormant. 

For use on house plants one of the 
following might be tried: 

Soft soap 4 drams. 

Quassia 72 grains. 

Salicylic acid 30 grains. 

Alcohol 5 ounces. 

Water, to make 24 ounces. 

Mix the first four ingredients and 
macerate several days, then filter and 
add the water. Apply with a brush or 
plant sprinkler, the latter being so 
shaped as to throw the spray on the 
under side of the leaf. 

Tobacco waste 1 pound. 

Soft soap 1 pound. 

Ants on Plants 

Both the ant and the plant must 1>>- 
taken into consideration in determin- 
ing upon an insecticide that will ex- 
terminate the former with no injury to 
the latter. Of plants there are many: 
of ants there are likewise quite a good 
number of species varying in habit and 
habitat, size and tenacity of life. Per- 
haps there are ants that might survive 
the application of many bug destroyers 
that would work havoc with some deli- 
cate plant. 

Dalmation insect powder and white 
hellebore have been used with success 
in exterminating ants on rose bushes 
and the like. The insect powder is 
mixed with an equal quantity of wheat 
flour and blown over the plants in the 
evening. It is sometimes used in the 
form of a spray, 1 ounce to 2 gallons 
of water. This should be mixed at 
least 24 hours before it is to be ap- 
plied. The hellebore is used in the 
same manner, but diluted with from 5 
to 10 parts of flour and applied in the 
morning before the dew has evapor- 

A decoction of quassia, 1 to 50, has 
been recommended as an efficient spray 
against ants. 

Here is a powder that has given sat- 
isfaction when poured in small heaps 
at the roots of ant-infested plants: 

Antimony and potassium 

tartrate 1 ounce. 

Sugar 4 ounces. 

Borax 4 ounces. 

Mix intimately and place where de- 
sired in the early morning. 

Carbon disulphide has come into 
prominence as a destroyer of ants and 
other plant-infested insects. Its use 
is not unattended with danger, how- 
ever, owing to its extreme inflamma- 
bility, and should not be attempted by 
inexperienced persons. From Bulletin 
No. 127 of the Department of Agricul- 
ture we quote the following methods of 
using this substance: 

The treatment as successfully practiced by 
Professors Garman and Smith consists in cov- 
ering the young vines with small tight boxes 
of either wood or paper, r.nd introducing under 
each box a saucer containing one or two tea- 
spoonfuls of the very volatile liquld-bisul- 
phide of carbon. The vines of older plant* 
may be wrapped about the hill and gathered 
in "under the larger boxes or tubs, and a 
greater, but proportional, amount of bisul- 
phide used. The covering should be left over 
the plants for three-quarters of an hour to 
an hour. 



For ants' nests an ounce of the substance is 
poured into each of several holes made in the 
space occupied by the ants, the openings being 
then closed; or the action is made more rapid 
by covering with a wet blanket for ten min- 
utes and then exploding the vapor at the 
mouth of the holes with a torch the explosion 
driving the fumes more thoroughly through 
the soil. 

Below is presented a further collec- 
tion from various sources of notes on 
this subject: 

To kill these industrious heterogynous hy- 
menopterous insects by wholesale, drop some 
quick-lime on the mouth of their nests and 
wash it in with boiling water; or pour into 
their retreats water in which camphor or to- 
bacco has been steeped. 

Grease a plate with lard and set it where the 
ants can readily get at it. They will gather 
by the plateful. The plate may be held over 
an open Are, when lard and ants will quickly 
disappear not to return again. But more ants 
will come, and these may be treated in the 
same way. 

Saturate a piece of cotton with chloroform 
and stuff into the entrance of their burrows 
and seal entrance so as to keep the fumes in- 

Saturate a sponge with sweetened water and 
when the ants have gathered in it, plunge the 
sponge into boiling water. 

A spray of benzin from an atomizer is sud- 
den death to most insects. Benzin is so dan- 
gerous, on account of fire, that its use is not 
recommended except in the hands of careful 
and experienced people. 

Here is a way that has been suggested: 
Take 2 parts of sulphur and 1 part of potash; 
put them in an earthen vessel and keep over 
a Are until they have united to form a mass. 
Reduce this mass to powder, infuse a little 
of it in water, and sprinkle in places infested 
by the ants. 

Boil aloes in water, add camphor, and sprin- 
kle around the place frequented by the ants. 
Chalk on the shelves along which ants travel 
to and fro about the house will cause them to 
seek new routes. Chalk marked around a pail 
or barrel will keep ants out of it. 

Cracked walnuts or hickory nuts will attract 
ants, and fire may be made to do the rest. 

Bread crumbs soaked in tincture of quassia 
will poison such ants as eat it. 

Smear a "dead-line" about the places ants 
frequent with carbolated petroleum. 

Sprinkle the haunts of the insects with a 
mixture of 1 pint of camphor and 20 parts of 

Squirt oil of turpentine into the cracks and 
holes in which the pests hide, by means of an 
ordinary sewing machine oil can. 

To poison ants, feed them on borax and 
sugar, or yeast cake and sugar. 

To drive ants out of a room and keep them 
out use good insect powder, ground mustard, 
sulphur, camphor, tobacco, cloves, oil of cedar, 
kerosene, persistence. 

Peru balsam, smeared on table legs or the 
feet of a cupbard keeps ants off such furni- 
ture. If 1 ounce of the balsam be boiled in 1 
gallon of water the liquid used as a wash has 
a similar effect. 

If at all possible of application the best rem- 
edy is boiling water, which should be poured 
into the nest. Sodium cyanide is also an 
effectual remedy. The various preparations of 
which naphthalene is the basis will simply 
drive the ants from one part of the house to 
another. A solution of phenol containing 1.25 
per cent, is often used, and if it does not re- 
sult in the death of the insects it certainly re- 
pels them. One of the most crude and dan- 
gerous remedies is a proprietary ant destroyer 
composed of arsenic and honey. Such an ant 
destroyer could be made as follows: 
Arsenical Ant Destroyer (Liquid) 

Arsenious oxide 5 

Sugar 40 

Liquid glucose 20 

Water enough to make. .100 

Mix the arsenious oxide in very fine powder 
with the other ingredients. 

If the nests cannot be located, one of the 
two following pastes could be employed. They 
should be smeared on sticks and placed about. 

Nicotine Ant Destroyer (Paste) 

Nicotine 10 

Suet 5 

Lard 85 

To these add a trace of oil of anise and 
color with chlorophyl. 

Arsenical Ant Destroyer (Paste) 

Arsenious oxide 5 

Sugar 25 

Liquid glucose 20 

Flour enough to form a paste. 

Flavor with a little oil of anise and color 
with paris green. This should not remain in 
contact with air or moisture, otherwise it be- 
comes uncomfortably sticky. The merest trace 
of oil of anise must be used. A little 
appears to attract the insects, but more than 
a trace repels them. If for any reason the 
use of liquid or paste be impossible the follow- 
ing powder is very destructive, and is much 
more effective than ready-made naphthalene 
powders without lime: 

Ant Powder 

Camphor li> 

Naphthalene 40 

Lime 50 

This may be sprinkled about the haunts of 

the insects or, better still, be introduced into 

the nests. 
The sale of arsenical preparations should be 

attended with the greatest caution. 

Destruction of House and Lawn Ants 

Farmers' Bulletin 740, published by 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, describes the origin of house 
ants; the kinds of ants found in North 
America; something of their life his- 
tory and habits; and certain means of 
controlling the house and lawn varie- 

One method of destroying the pests 
is described in which sponges are 
soaked in sweetened water and placed 
where they can be reached by the ants. 
These sponges are collected several 
times a day, and the ants swarming 
in them are destroyed by immersing 
them in hot water. This method is 
not satisfactory except where the ant 
colonies are small, and the placing of 
the bait frequently tends to increase 
the number of ants in the locality, in- 
stead of decreasing it. A more ef- 
fective method is described as follows: 

A more efficient remedy, where it can 
be safely used, is a syrup poisoned 
with arsenate of soda, the idea being 
that the ants will collect this poison 
syrup and convey it to their nests, so- 
that not only the ants which collect the 
syrup are ultimately killed, but the in- 
mates of nests feeding on it also suc- 
cumb. The formula for the prepara- 
tion of this syrup is as follows: One 
pound of sugar dissolved in a quart of 
water, in which should he added 125 
grains of arsenate of soda. The mix- 
ture should be boiled and strained, 
and on cooling used with sponges, as 
alreadv described. The addition of a 



small amount of honey is said to add 
to the attractiveness to ants of this 
mixture. Naturally, the greatest pre- 
caution should be taken in preparing 
this syrup and in safeguarding it after- 
wards to prevent its being the cause 
of poisoning to human beings or do- 
mestic animals. This method of con- 
trol has been tested for three years by 
an expert of the Bureau of Entomology 
of this department, and has given very 
satisfactory results. Similar success 
with it has been reported by others, 
including persons engaged profession- 
ally in insect extermination. A related 
formula experimentally worked out for 
the Argentine ant is given in a special 
bulletin on this insect. This formula 
is as follows: 

Granulated sugar 15 pounds. 

Water 7 % pints. 

Tartaric acid (crystal- 
lized) % ounce. 

Boil these ingredients together slow- 
ly for 30 minutes and allow them to 
cool. Then slowly dissolve three- 
fourths ounce sodium arsenite (Na- 
AsOi) in one-half pint of hot water. 
Allow this to cool, then add it to the 
syrup, stirring thoroughly. Add 1*£ 
pounds of pure honey to the syrup and 
the mixture is ready for use. 

cloth, to better retain the fumes of the 
chemical. The disulphide should be 
kept away from the fire, as its fumes 
are inflammable and may explode if 
ignited, much like gasoline vapor. 

Destruction of Lawn Ants 

In the case of lawn ants where only 
a small area with few nests are con- 
cerned, drenching the nests with boil- 
ing water or injecting a small quantity 
of kerosene or coal oil will be effective, 
and similar treatment will apply to 
nests between or beneath paving 

An effective control method for larger 
ant colonies is to inject into the nest a 
quantity of disulphide of carbon. This 
substance can be placed in the nest, 
with an oil can or small syringe, the 
quantity varying from half an ounce 
for a very tiny nest to 2 or 3 ounces 
or more, depending on the size of the 
nest. An oil can or syringe with a 
long spout is convenient for this pur- 
pose, as this can be inserted into nests 
and the liquid injected without its be- 
ing too near the operator's nose. To 
facilitate entrance of the chemical, the 
ant hole can be enlarged with a sharp 
stick or iron rod. The depth of the in- 
jections will depend on the size of the 
nest, from an inch or two to greater 
depths. After injection of the carbon 
disulphide the entrance opening should 
be closed by pressure of the foot to 
retain the disulphide. which will then 
penetrate slowly throughout the under- 
ground channels of the nest and kill 
the inmates. The efficiency of this 
remedy is increased by covering the 
nest immediately after the injection 
with a wet blanket or other heavy 

Poisons for Rats and Mice 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 896, issued by 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, states that the common rat is 
the worst animal pest in the world: 
that it carries bubonic plague and 
many other diseases fatal to man. and 
has been responsible for more untimely 
deaths among human beings than all 
the wars in history. It is estimated 
that the damage done by rats and mice 
amounts to more than $200,000,000 per 
year in the United States alone. 

After describing the various methods 
for constructing ratproof buildings and 
guarding against the inroads of the 
rodent the several methods of trapping 
are mentioned, and the usual poisons 
employed are treated of as follows: 

While the use of poison is the best 
and quickest way to get rid of rats and 
mice the odor from the dead animals 
makes the method impractical in occu- 
pied houses. Poisons may be effectively 
used in barns, stables, sheds, cribs and 
other outbuildings. 


In the United States there are few 
laws which prohibit the "laying of 
poisons on lands owned or controlled 
by the poisoner. Hence it is all the 
more necessary to exercise extreme 
caution to prevent accidents. In sev- 
eral States notice of intention to lay 
poison must be given to persons living 
in the neighborhood. Poison for rats 
should never be placed in open or un- 
sheltered places. This applies particu- 
larly to strychnine or arsenic on meat. 
Packages containing poisons should al- 
ways bear a warning label and should 
not be kept where children might reach 

Among the principal poisons that 
have been recommended for killing rats 
and mice are barium carbonate, strych- 
nine, arsenic, phosphorus and squills. 
Barium Carbonate. 

One of the cheapest and most effec- 
tive poisons for rats and mice is barium 
carbonate. This mineral has the ad- 
vantage of being without taste or smell. 
It has a corrosive action on the mucous 
lining of the stomach and is dangerous 
to larger animals if taken in sufficient 
quantity. In the small doses fed to 
rats and mice it would be harmless to 
domestic animals. Its action upon rats 
is slov. and if exit is possible the ani- 
mals usually leave the premises in 
search of water. For this reason the 
poison may frequently, though not al- 
ways, be used in houses without dis- 
agreeable consequences. 



Barium carbonate may be fed in the 
form of. dough composed of four parts 
of meal or flour and one part of the 
mineral. A more convenient bait is or- 
dinary oatmeal with about one -eighth 
of its bulk of the mineral, mixed with 
water into a stiff dough. A third plan 
is to spread the barium carbonate upon 
fish, toasted bread (moistened) or or- 
dinary bread and butter. The prepared 
bait should be placed in rat runs, about 
a teaspoonful at a place. If a* single 
application of the poison fails to kill or 
drive away all rats from the premises 
it should be repeated with a change of 


Strychnine is too rapid in action to 
make its use for rats des'rable in 
houses, but elsewhere it may be em- 
ployed effectively. Strychnine sulphate 
is the best form to use. The dry crys- 
tals may be inserted in small pieces of 
raw meat, Vienna sausage or toasted 
cheese, a*nd these placed in rat runs or 
burrows; or oatmeal may be moistened 
with a strychnine syrup and small 
quantities laid in the same way. 

Strychnine syrup is prepared as fol- 
lows - . Dissolve a half ounce of strych- 
nine sulphate in a pint of boiling 
watev, add a pint of thick sugar syrup 
and stir thoroughly. A smaller quan- 
tity may be prepared with a propor- 
tional quantity of water and syrup. In 
preparing the bait it is necessary to 
moisten all the oatmeal with the syrup. 
AVheat and corn are excellent alter- 
native baits. The grain should be 
soaked overnight in the strychnine 


Arsenic is probably the most popular 
of the rat poisons owing to its cheap- 
ness, yet our experiments prove that, 
measured by the results obtained, ar- 
senic Is dearer than strychnine. Be- 
sides arsenic is extremely variable in 
its effect upon rats, and if the animals 
survive a first dose it is very difficult 
to induce them to take another. 

Powdered white arsenic (arsenious 
acid) may be fed to rats in almost any 
of the baits mentioned under barium 
carbonate and strychnine. It has been 
used successfully when rubbed into 
fresh fish or spread on buttered toast. 
Another method is to mix twelve parts 
by weight of corn meal and one part of 
arsenic with whites of eggs into a stiff 

An old formula for poisoning rats 
and mice with arsenic is the follow- 
ing, adapted from an English source: 

Take a pound of oatmeal, a pound of 
coarse brown sugar and a spoonful of 
arsenic. Mix well together and put the 
composition into an earthen jar. Put 
a tablespoonful at a place in runs fre- 
quented by rats. 


For poisoning rats and mice phos- 
phorus is used almost as commonly as 
arsenic, and undoubtedly it is effective 
when given in an attractive bait. The 
phosphorus paste of the drug stores is 
usually dissolved yellow phosphorus, 
mixed with glucose or other substances. 
The proportion of phosphorus varies 
from one-fourth of 1 per cent, to 4 per 
cent. The first amount is too small to 
be always effective and the Tast is dan- 
gerously inflammable. When home 
made preparations of phosphorus are 
used there is much danger of burning 
the person or of setting fire to crops or 
buildings. In the Western States many 
fires have resulted from putting out 
home made phosphorus poisons for 
ground squirrels, and entire fields of" 
ripe grain have been destroyed in this 
way. Even with commercial pastes the 
action of sun and rain . . . leaches 
out the glucose until a highly inflam- 
mable residue is left. 

It is often claimed that phosphorus 
eaten by rats or mice dries up or mum- 
mifies the body so that no odor results. 
The statement has no foundation in 
fact. No known poison will prevent 
decomposition of the body of an animal 
that dies from its effects. Equally mis- 
leading is the statement that rats pois- 
oned with phosphorus do not die on the 
premises. Owing to its slower opera- 
tion no doubt a larger portion escape 
into the open before dying than whin 
strychnine is used. 

The Biological Survey does not rec- 
ommend the use of phosphorus as a 
poison for rodents. 


The squill, or sea leek, is a favorite 
rat poison in many parts of Europe and 
is well worthy of trial in America. It 
is rapid and very deadly in its action, 
and lats seem to eat it readily. The 
poison is used in several ways. Two 
ounces of dry squills, powdered, may 
be thoroughly mixed with eight ounces 
of toasted cheese or of butter and meal 
and put out in runs' of rats or mice. 
Another formula recommends two 
parts cf squills to three parts of finely 
chopped bacon mixed with meal enough 
to make it cohere. This is baked in 
small cakes. 

Poison in Poultry Houses. 

For poisoning rats in buildings and 
yards occupied by poultry the follow- 
ing method is recommended: Two 
wooden boxes should be used, one con- 
siderably larger than the other, and 
each having one or more holes in the 
sides large enough to admit rats. The 
poisoned bait should be placed on the 
bottom and near the middle of the 
smaller box, and the larger box should 
then be inverted over it. Rats thus 
have free access to the bait, but fowls 
are excluded. 



Getting Rid of Rats 
Using Broken Glass. 

A. E. Magoffin, harking back to 1872, 
gives an account of a trick he per- 
petrated on the rodents that was as 
effectual as it was ingenious. When 
the foundation of a new house was be- 
ing laid, he scattered four or five bar- 
relsful of broken glass all around the 
wall to the depth of about four inches, 
and covered this over with dirt. The 
result was that no rat was ever able to 

Molasses and Lye Rat Poison. 

A farmer says he rid his premises of 
rats as follows: "On a very large num- 
ber of old shingles I put about a tea- 
spoonful of molasses, and on that, with 
my pocketknife, scraped a small amount 
of concentrated lye, then placed the 
shingles around under the doors and 
under the cribs. The next morning I 
found forty dead rats and the rest 
vamoosed. Have cleared my farm of 
the pests in the same way, and have 
never known it to fail." 

Rhodium Rat Bait. 

Another one of the good old "stand- 
bys" in this line is the following for- 
mula for rat bait: 

Oil of rhodium 20 drops. 

Oil of caraway 60 drops. 

Oil of lavender 5 drops. 

Oil of anise 5 drops. 

Tincture of musk 5 drops. 

A Bas the Cat. 

And then there is probably a lot of 
good common sense in the advice given 
by the Idaho Board of Health that in 
a food-products store almost any other 
form of rat exterminator is to be pre- 
ferred to letting a cat run around pro- 

Starving the Rats. 

Those about to erect a new brick 
building or repair an old one, whether 
of frame, brick or other construction, 
mav learn from a recent bulletin issued 
by the United States Public Health 
Service what sanitary and economic 
benefits are to be derived from perma- 
nent rat-proofing. The rat is far too 
prolific to be exterminated by such 
agencies as traps, poisons, gases and 
the like; these may reduce the num- 
bers of th<- rodents, but if there is 
food within reach, the surviving rats 
will have more to eat proportionally, 
and procreation will be stimulated the 
more. Rat extermination can be ef- 
fective only by cutting off the rats' 
food supply. The bulletin contains all 
necessary information to this end, so 
far as relates to buildings. Those al- 
ready erected may be rat -proofed by 
the closure of all natural or accidental 
openings; but being remodeled with 
material impervious to rats; by the re- 
moval of structures which will give 

lefuge to rats,' and by the protection 
or removal of foods which rats will 

Phosphorus Rat Pastes 

Not only is phosphorus a danger- 
ous drug to handle, but pastes made 
from it are extremely poisonous and 
should not be left where children or 
pets may reach them. Working with 
phosphorus is dangerous to the health, 
producing, among other things, decay 
of the bones. On the whole, we should 
not advise those who are not prepared 
to handle this drug more carefully than 
it would probably be handled in the 
average drug store, to try to make a 
phosphorus paste. Some formulas fol- 
low : 


Phosphorus 1 dram. 

Beef dripping 5 ounces. 

Wheat flour 2 ounces. 

Sugar 1 ounce. 

Powdered biscuit 1 ounce. 

Water enough. 

Melt the dripping and put it into a 
wide -mouthed bottle placed in a pan 
of hot water. Drop in the phosphorus 
(cut small), cork, and shake the bottle 
until the phosphorus is dissolved (dip- 
ping into the hot water occasionally). 
Place the powders in a warm mortar 
and pour the phosphorized dripping 
upon them, mix. and add warm water 
to make a soft paste. 

Take of wheat flour, 16 troy ounces; 
beat to a smooth paste with 3 pints of 
water; put on the fire and add 2 ounces 
of stick phosphorus, 3 ounces of gly- 
cerin, 2 ounces of salt, and 2 drams 
of pulverized corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride. Stir with a wooden paddle con- 
stantly during the breaking of the 
starch cells and thickening of the 
paste. When the paste is sufficiently 
solid, color with a small quantity of 
Venetian red, and, when cold, bottle. 

Phosphorus 1 dram. 

Pure carbon bisulphide % ounce. 

Beef dripping 5 ounces. 

Biscuit powder 3 ounces. 

Compound tragacanth 

powder Vi ouncp. 

Oil of anise 10 drops. 

Oil of peppermint 5 drops. 

Boiling water 3 ounces. 

Heat the dripping until it is quite 
clear, and transfer to a hot mortar; 
pour into this the carbon bisulphide in 
which the phosphorus has been dis- 
solved; stir, then add the two powders 
and the oils, and finally the boiling 
water all at once, kneading the mass 
thoroughly until a perfect mixture is 

The carbon bisulphide must be the 
redistilled or odorless variety. Most of 



the bisulphide is dissipated by the hot 
water, and, as the solvent evaporates, 
access of air, therefore exidation of 
phosphorus, is prevented. 

Melt 1 pound of lard in a wide- 
mouthed bottle in a water-bath; intro- 
duce J /2 ounce of phosphorus; then add 
1 pint of proof spirit ; cork the bottle 
firmly, keeping the contents heated to 
150 degrees F., and agitate smartly 
until the phosphorus becomes uniform- 
ly diffused, forming a silky-looking 
liquid. This liquid on cooling affords 
a white compound of phosphorus and 
lard, from which the spirit spon- 
taneously separates, and may be poured 
off to be used again, as it only serves 
to diffuse the phosphorus in very fine 
particles through the lard. This phos- 
phorized lard, on being warmed very 
gently, may be poured into a mixture 
of its own weight of barley or wheaten 
meal and sugar incorporated therewith, 
and after flavoring with oil of rhodium. 
etc., the dough may be made into pel- 
lets. Or, mix the lard with powdered 
cheese (3 to 1), to be spread on bread. 

The following formula is given in the 
Pharmaceutisk Revy for making phos- 
phorus paste: Boil 100 grammes of rye 
flour with 400 grammes of water until 
400 grammes of paste are obtained and 
add 75 grammes of olive oil or other 
vegetable fixed oil. To this mixture 
add an emulsion consisting of 15 
grammes of mucilage of acacia, 5 
grammes of water, 5 grammes of ane- 
thol and 10 to 15 grammes of phos- 
phorus. The emulsion should not be 
too fine in order to prevent too quick 
an oxidation of the phosphorus. 

An Attractive Rat Poison 

First on the rodent delicatessen list 
is cheese, then comes animal fat — 
preferably dripping — fish oil and sweet-* 
ened meal or crumbs. The choice of 
poisons may be made from red phos- 
phorus, arsenic trioxide, tartar emetic, 
barium carbonate, sodium fluoride and 
powdered squill. Here is a suggestion 
to a prepared "food": 

Sodium carbonate... 10.0 grammes. 

Sodium benzonate. . . 0.5 gramme. 

Grated American 
cheese 10.0 grammes. 

Wheaten meal 30.0 grammes. 

Fatty drippings, to 

make a paste. 

Mummifying Rat Killer 

It is stated that the only rat poisons 
that inhibit the putrefaction of the car- 
cass i this decomposition cannot be en- 
tirely prevented) are tartar emetic and 
barium carbonate. The latter is the 

more efficacious, and at the same time \ 
is less toxic to human beings or do- 
mestic animals. Barium carbonate ex- 
erts a corrosive action upon the in- 
testinal membrane and excites an in- 
tense thirst, which induces the rodent j 
• to search for water. If no water is 
available in the infested buildings, the 
rats which have eaten the poison will 
make their exit before their demise oc- 
curs. If the animal gets no water be- 
fore death ensues, the carcass dries 
up, and decomposition progresses very 
slowly, with little, if any, emanation 
of odor. 

In Farmer's Bulletin 369 of the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, entitled, "How to Destroy Rats," 
the following directions for using bari- 
um carbonate are given: 

Barium carbonate may he fed in the form of 
dough composed of four parts of meal or flour 
and one part of the mineral. A more con- 
venient bait is ordinary oatmeal with about 
one-eighth of its bulk of the mineral, mixed 
with water into a stiff dough. A third plan is 
to spread the barium carbonate upon fish, 
toasted bread (moistened) or ordinary bread 
and butter. The prepared bait should be 
placed in rat runs, about a teaspoonful at a 
place. If a single application of the poison 
fails to kill or driye away all rats from the 
premises, it should be repeated with a change 
of bait. 

Poison for Moles 

Lard 1 pound. 

Salicylic acid 1 dram. 

Squill 1 bulb. 

Beef suet 4 ounces. 

Barium carbonate 1 pound. 

Verdigris to color. 

Cut up the squill and fry in the lard 
and suet; add the other ingredients. 

Bordeaux Mixture 

Copper sulphate 5 pounds. 

Quicklime 5 pounds. 

Water 50 gallons. 

• Dissolve the copper sulphate in 10 
gallons of water: slake the lime in half 
a barrel of water. Dilute the copper 
solution to 20 gallons, strain in the 
lime mixture, and dilute to 50 gallons. 

Woburn Bordeaux Mixture 

Copper sulphate \\i pounds. 

Lime water 17 gallons. 

Water, to make 100 gallons. 

Self-Boiled Lime and Sulphur Spray- 
Quicklime 10 pounds. 

Sulphur 10 pounds. 

Water 50 gallons. 

Put the lime with 1 gallon of water 
in a barrel; add the sulphur; stir, and 
add enough water to make a thin 
paste. Stir vigorously until the ebul- 
lition subsides to slight proportions 
and dilute to 50 gallons. 



Lime Arsenite Spray 

a. Arsenic trioxide 1 pound. 

Sodium carbonate 4 pounds. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Boil together for twenty minutes, re- 
placing the water evaporated. Stock 

b. Quicklime 24 pounds. 

Water 4 gallons. 

To be freshly prepared. 

For use, the lime mixture (b) is 
mixed with water in a proportion of 1 
in 40; and to each 40 gallons of this 
dilution 1 pint of stock solution (a) is 

Red Oil Emulsion 

Red oil ■. . . 2 gallons, 

Hard laundry soap lpound. 

Sodium carbonate 1 ounce. 

Water, to make 30 gallons. 

Boil the soap and the sal soda in 1 
gallon of water until dissolved ; remove 
from the lire ; add the oil ; re-apply 
heat until boiling ensues, agitate until 
emulsified. For use, dilute to 30 gal- 

Lead Arsenate Spray 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 127 of the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture states that the lead arsenate spray 
may be used at any strength from 3 
to 15 pounds of the chemical to 100 gal- 
lons of water without injury to the 
foliage. A recipe for making lead ar- 
senate is given in the bulletin, which 
should be procured by any one inter- 
ested in insecticides. 

Rosin Wash 

Rosin 4 pounds. 

Soda lye (78%) 4 pounds. 

Fish oil 8 ounces. 

Water, to make 20 gallons. 

Boil the rosin with the lye, the oil 
and a couple of quarts of water until 
a dark coffee -colored liquid is obtained. 
Dilute to 5 gallons with hot water to 
make the stock solution, which is di- 
luted 1 to 3 for use. 

Quassia Plant Spray 

A French horticulturist recommends 
the following spray for killing para- 
sites on vegetables and ornamental 

Extract of quassia 30 parts. 

Camphorated oil [French 

Codex] (10%) 20 parts. 

Soft soap 100 parts. 

Alcohol • 50 parts. 

Water, to make 1000 parts. 

To Protect Trees from Climbing 

Any combination of cheap greases 
with tar. pitch, resin or ozoki rit< 
which will remain sticky when cold 
and not melt too easily, may lie 
smeared around the trunks of 
to prevent insects from crawling up 

The following combinations are sug- 
gestive, and may be modified to suit. 
-Any combination which is soft or 
sticky when cold and will not run at 
summer heat may be used: 

1. Pitch, 12; rosin, 10; rosin oil. 2. 

2. Tallow. 7; palm oil, 5. 

3. Ozokerite, 15; petroleum. 3 to 6. 

4. Rosin, 4; linseed oil, 1; molasses 1 
Boil together. 

5. Rosin, 12; rosin oil.. 12; soda lye, 1. 
Boil together. 

6. Tar, 10; rosin. 5; palm oil, 8. 

7. Thus, 20; rosin, 100; turpentine, 
14; liquid tar, 8; lard, 50; rape seed oil, 
24; tallow, 20. 

8. Rosin, 5; lard, 4; stearin oil. 4, 

9. Rosin. 3; rape seed oil, 4; lard, 2; 
soft soap, 1; wood tar, 10. 

These mixtures may also be applied 
by means of In-own or waterproof 

Nikoteen Aphis Punk 
This seems to be porous paper 
soaked in a fluid extract of tobacco and 
potassium nitrate, and dried. 

Fumigant for Greenhouse or Con- 

Empyreumatic oil of 

tobacco 300 grammes. 

Camphor 50 grammes. 

Safrol 250 grammes. 

Oil of citronella 200 grammes. 

Alcohol 150 grammes. 

An ounce of this liquid suffices for 
2,000 cubic feet of space. It is used by 
evaporation over a flame. The fumes 
are harmful to man and animals, anil 
the fumigated enclosure should no1 be 
entered for several hours after the 
fumigant is evaporated. 

A variant of the above is — 

Nicotine, crude 30 grammes. 

Camphor 5 grammes. 

Naphthaline 5 grammes. 

Oil of camphor (or 

safrol) 25 grammes. 

Oil of citronella 25 grammes. 

Alcohol 1 00 grammes. 

Compound Plant Insect Powders 

Powdered pyrethrum. . . .14 ounces. 

Powdered quassia 6 ounces. 

Powdered white hellebore 2 ounces. 




Powdered pyrethrum .... 8 ounces. 

Powdered colocynth 4 ounces. 

Powdered white hellebore. 16 ounces. 
These powders are of especial value 
in combatting plant lice. 

Lawn Sand for Bugs and Slugs 

Powdered quassia, 9; powdered coc- 
culus indicus, 1.75; powdered green vit- 
riol, 1.75; powdered sodium sulphate, 
6.25; green peat moss, 25; soil, enough 
to make 100. The mixture is used by 
sprinkling thinly on the lawn and 
watering freely by means of a fine 

To Kill Weeds 

Ferrous sulphate, 75; ammonium sul- 
phate, 15; fine sand, 10. The ingredi- 
ents should be finely powdered to- 
gether, and then carefully sifted. The 
mixture should be kept in a cool, dry 
place, and if it should become hard 
must be finely powdered before use. 
In dry weather, 3 or 4 ounces may be 
sprinkled over each square yard of 
lawn. In wet weather the quantity 
may be increased to double this 
amount. A little should be placed on 
the crowns of decapitated dandelions 
and plaintains. Other formulas fol- 


Potassium dichromate. . . 5 pounds. 

"Water 15 gallons. 


Sodium chloride 3 pounds. 

Chrome alum 2 pounds. 

Water 15 gallons. 


Ferrous sulphate 5 pounds. 

Water 15 gallons. 

Destroying Weeds in Sidewalks 

It is said that weeds ordinarily grow- 
ing in sidewalks may be destroyed by 
the application of common salt. To 
apply it, proceed thus: Boil the salt 
in water, 1 pound to 1 gallon, and ap- 
ply the mixture boiling hot with a 
watering pot that has a spreading 
rose. It is claimed that this will keep 

weeds ami worms away for two or 
three years. Put 1 pound to the square 
yard the first year; afterward a 
weaker solution may be applied when 
required. Refuse fish salt or brine 
will, of course, answer. 

Here is another way: The plants 
should be cut off close to the ground 
and a few drops of kerosene poured 
on the crowns. They immediately com- 
mence to decay and are entirely de- 
stroyed. Troublesome weeds on the 
lawn can thus be speedily disposed of. 
but others will likely take their places. 

Fertilizer for Flowers and Herbs 

Ammonium nitrate.... 20 pounds. 

Ammonium chloride. . . 2% pounds. 

Ammonium phosphate. 10 pounds. 

Potassium nitrate 12^2 pounds. 

Calcium sulphate 3 pounds. 

Iron sulphate 2 pounds. 

This mixture is employed by dissolv- 
ing a teaspoonful in a gallon of water, 
and sprinkling the latter on the plants. 

For Potted Plants. 

A mixture of potassium nitrate 30, 
potassium phosphate 25. ammonium 
sulphate 10, and ammonium nitrate 35 
quickens the growth of the whole 
plant. If the formation of the blos- 
soms is to be hastened, the ammonium 
nitrate should be omitted. 

Ammonium sulphate 100, sodium 
chloride 10, sodium nitrate 5. mag- 
nesium sulphate 5 and sodium phos- 
phate 2 may be used. Dissolve 1 tea- 
spoonful of this mixture in one liter 
of water and sprinkle the plants every 
other day. 
For Vegetable Gardens or Orchards 

Ammonium phosphate 30. potassium 
nitrate 25, sodium nitrate 25 and am- 
monium sulphate 20. This mixture 
contains in 100 parts 13 parts of phos- 
phoric acid, 13 parts of nitrogen and 
11 parts of potash. An aqueous solu- 
tion of 1 to 1000 should be used every 
third, fourth or fifth day. The sprin- 
kling should be omitted from October to 
April. This mixture may also be used 
for house plants, but in this ease suf- 
ficient access of light, air and heat 
should be available. 



Flavoring Extracts in Liquid, Paste and Powder Forms — Baking 
Powder, Relishes, Spices and Sauces — Manufacture of \Teast, 
Table Mustard, Curry Powder, Etc. 

Always consult the index when using this hook- 
size is sawed out of the top, through 
which the beans are to be introduced. 
The hole is then to be stopped by means 
of the square of wood that was removed 
with the saw. The sawing should be 
done at an angle, so that the outer part 
of the sawed-out part shall be larger 
than the inner, and its edges she- 
covered with a thin sheet of rubber. 
Care should be taken to make it as 
large as the diameter of the barrel will 

Thus prepared, the barrel should be 
put into a warm place (so that the 
effect of digestion or gentle heat may 
be added to that of maceration;, the 
menstruum poured in and the beans, 
reduced to powder, suspended in it near 
the surface in a cheese cloth bag. When 
the maceration is completed, the bag 
containing the beans is to be removed, 
drained well, and the beans transferred 
to a percolator; this, when weak alco- 
hol is used, should not be plugged with 
cotton but with either coarse sponge, 
or well-washed excelsior. The I 
being placed, the liquid in which they 
have macerated is slowly p 
through, and then enough fresh men- 
struum is passed to make the total 
volume measure the desired quantity. 
It is then a good point to pass through 
an amount of fresh menstruum equal 
to the quantity necessary for the next 
maceration, and employ it as the 
of the next lot. 

Xow a word as to the menstruum to 
be employed. A mixture of one part of 
alcohol and two of water, both by 
volume, will exhaust vanilla very well; 
of course, it leaves behind the resin and 
oil previously mentioned, but that is a 
small matter compared with the fact 
that it also dissolves the mucilaginous 
matters present, and renders the extract 
cloudy and almost non-filterable. If a 
mixture of two volumes of alcohol to 
one of water be used, this mucilage 
will be loft behind: the extract will be 
clear so as to require no altering if 
all has been carefully done. This 
greatly increases the cost, but if the 
long maceration, the careful and slow 
percolation, and the final washing of 
the marc with the menstrum to be 

Making and Selling Flavoring Extracts 

Herewith are the formulas and a few 
words of explanation taken from a 
series of articles contributed by H. C. 
Bradford to The Druggists Circular 
and published in the early months of 

Notwithstanding the druggists' repu- 
tation for handling a superior line of 
goods, the grocer has taken from him 
the larger part of his business in fla- 
voring extracts. The reason is that 
the grocer makes it more convenient 
for the housewife to order goods of 
him. The druggist might offest this by 
making a list of all his household goods, 
with prices, and sending his errand 
boy out daily to solicit orders. The 
druggist himself might call on hotel 
men. bakers, and others who use large 
quantities of flavors, spices, baking 
powders, etc. 

Extract of Vanilla. 

The general public does not want a 
pure vanilla extract, preferring one 
fortified with tonka beans, vanillin or 
cHimarin. Especially is this true when 
the flavoring is used in cooked articles. 

In the making of a vanilla extract 
there are two main points to be borne 
in mind: first, that it is very difficult 
: i i xhaust the beans, and second, that 
the product requires to be aged. This 
ageing may very properly be made a 
part of the time expended in the mace- 
ration. It is difficult to say what is 
the best method of procedure, and one 
will likely modify any process to suit 
his own demands, but the time required 
for ageing and extraction at once point 
to the advantage of operating on quan- 
tities'as large as convenient. A year's 
supply would seem to be small enough, 
and while the first year's product is 
being sold another should be in process 
of preparation. The other point is, that 
by the use of wooden vessels in making: 
the extract a finer and better product 
can be obtained than if those of glass 
or other material are employed. An 
empty cask or barrel that has contained 
either whisky or alcohol is ideal for the 
purpose. A square hole of convenient 



used for macerating- the next lot, all 
be carefully done, it will be quite pos- 
sible to dilute the resulting extract with 
water. To make the matter plainer, a 
formula covering these points is here 
given : 

Strong Vanilla Extracts to Be Diluted. 

Vanilla beans 8 pounds. 

Alcohol 32 pints. 

Water 10 pints. 

Extract in the manner already de- 
scribed. If this is carefully done, the 
sponge or excelsior will not be re- 
quired, but a piece of cotton will serve, 
and will be clear and bright. Then 
add to it 5 gallons of water and mix 
well. If glycerin or syrup is used in 
making the extract they should be 
mixed with the water before it is 

Of course, the same plan may be 
followed with any formula, the point 
being to use only a portion of the 
water in the maceration and extrac- 
tion, half that of the alcohol being the 
usual quantity, and add the remainder 
after the extraction is complete. 

Vanilla Extract With Added Syn- 
Best Bourbon vanilla 

beans 4 pounds. 

Alcohol 16 pints. 

Water 5 pints. 

Mix the alcohol and water, and 
place in a keg of 5 gallons capacity, 
prepared in the manner already indi- 
cated. Grind the beans fine in a meat 
chopper (this instrument is the best 
possible for this purpose, and is val- 
uable for many other purposes as 
well), running them through twice 
if necessary; then tie in a cheese cloth 
bag and macerate in the manner 
described. When the maceration is 
complete remove to a percolator, pass 
the liquid slowly through, and then 
enough more of a mixture of alcohol 16 
parts, and water 5 parts, both by vol- 
ume, to obtain 3 gallons of extract. 
Now take 6 pounds of cut loaf sugar, 
add enough warm water to make tin- 
whole measure 2 gallons, stir until 
completely dissolved, ami add slowly to 
the extract; mix well. This gives 5 
gallons of the pure bean extract, to 
which is to be added the following: 

VaniJhn 10 drams. 

Coumarin 5 drams. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Syrup 2 pints. 

Water to make 20 pints. 

This makes 1 x h gallons of extract 
ready for use. The extract will be fur- 
ther improved if placed in the keg or 
barrel in which it was made and al- 
lowed to age; the longer the better. 
The above synthetic mixture should be 
prepared at the same time the beans 
are* placed to macerate, so they will age 
together, and when mixed, the result- 

ing product will be ready for use at 

This extract has a much stronger 
and fuller odor and aroma than that 
from the bean, as might be expected. 
It is light in color, and caramel may 
be added if a darker color is wanted. 
If the addition is made, to comply with 
the federal food and drug law, the fact 
must be stated on the label. 
"White" Vanilla. 

Under this name a solution of vanil- 
lin and coumarin is sold. It may be 
made by the last portion of the for- 
mula above. 

It will be noted that in that formula 
the proportion of coumarin is large, 
being one-half that of the vanillin. In 
the opinion of the writer this is ex- 
cessive; a trained sense of smell easily 
catches an odor of bitter almonds from 
this compound; however, if it pleases 
the public, as it seems to do, there 
is no more to be said. Still, if the cou- 
marin were reduced one-third to one- 
half the product would be better. 
Prune Juice. 

Latterly, it has been the custom to 
add some prune juice to all dark van- 
illa extracts, say, one to two pints to 
the gallon, and there is little doubt- but 
that it sweetens, smoothes and im- 
proves the blend. It would seem that 
it might be possible to prepare this 
juice direct from prunes and thus re- 
duce the cost. 

The National Formulary Extract. 

Prof. W. L. Scoville is authority for 
the statement that the compound tinc- 
ture of vanillin of the National For- 
mulary approaches very closely in all 
its sensible properties a first class ex- 
tract made from beans. If used in an 
uncooked product the bean extract 
would be superior, but if in a product 
which undergoes heat it is likely that 
the synthetic extract would prove bet- 

Compound Tincture of Vanilla. 

Vanillin 6.5 grammes. 

Coumarin 0.4 gramme. 

Alcohol -.. 200.00 mils. 

Glycerin 125.00 mils. 

Compound tinc- 
ture of cudbear. 16.00 mils. 

Water, to make.. .1.000.00 mils. 

Mix, dissolve and filter. 

Artificial Vanilla Extracts. 
The base of all artificial vanilla ex- 
tracts, when these were in use, was 
usually benzoic acid and peru balsam, 
with various other ingredients to mod- 
ify the flavor. Formulas for such ex- 
tracts are rather scarce, but one is 
given here which is probably as good as 
any. It is only offered as a curiosity of 
a past age, and is not recommended 
for use except possibly as an experi- 



Tonka beans 2 ounces. 

Prunes 16 ounces. 

Raisins 4 ounces. 

Currants 3 ounces. 

Peru balsam 3 ounces. 

Powdered orris root.... 4 ounces. 

Molasses 2 pints. 

Diluted alcohol 18 pints. 

Water 4 pints. 

The prunes, raisins and- currants are 
to be boiled with the water until all 
the soluble matter is extracted. The 
orris, tonka and balsam are extracted 
with the alcohol, the fruit solution 
added and finally the molasses. 

This could be made stronger by re- 
ducing the amount of solvents; also, 
about 20 grains of coumarin could be 
used instead of the tonka. 

Extract of Lemon. 
Extract of lemon comes next to that 
of vanilla in popularity. Much less la- 
bor and trouble are required to make a 
lemon extract than one of vanilla. 
Lemon extract should be freshly made. 
Oil of lemon is the base of this extract, 
but the use of fresh lemon peel notably 
adds to its quality. This peel may be 
had at practically no cost. It is only 
necessary to collect it and carefully 
pare or grate the outer yellow portion 
into a bottle of alcohol. This yellow, 
oil-bearing portion is the only valuable 
part. About an ounce of the peel in a 
pint of spirit is correct for the extract, 
and the amount of oil may be varied to 

Oil of lemon is prone to oxidize, and 
when once it has acquired the odor of 
oil of turpentine it is worthless as a 
flavoring. When the supply is received, 
it should at once be mixed with an 
equal bulk of alcohol and stored away 
in amber bottles, well corked and in a 
cool, dark place. Handled in this man- 
ner, it will keep indefinitely. 
Citral is distilled from oil of lemon 
grass, and practically represents the 
oil of lemon. It is very much more 
concentrated, an ounce being fully 
equal in strength to a pound of good 
oil, but it is less delicate. For a 
strong extract, where the delicacy and 
fine aroma are not likely to be missed, 
it is invaluable, and its use will re- 
sult in a considerable saving. For 
best results it should always be used 
in combination with the oil, and by 
varying the proportions, an extract of 
almost any desired strength and cost 
may be made. It is also more soluble 
than the oil, and results in a saving 
of alcohol. 

Terpeneless Oil. 
By fractional distillation the better 
grades are also freed from the sesqui- 
terpenes, being thus rendered much 
stronger and more soluble. They pos- 
sess all the flavor and delicacy also 
of the natural oil, so that quality is 

not lost in attaining concentration. 
They are costly, but when the saving 
of alcohol and the greater permanence 
of the product are taken into consid- 
eration, they are really cheaper: that 
is, 2 ounces of the terpeneless oil 
fully equal in strength, flavor, aroma 
and all other qualities to 3 pounds of 
the best natural oil. This terpeneless 
oil is soluble in dilute alcohol, while 
the natural product will dissolve per- 
manently in the necessary quantity in 
nothing less than the 95 per cent. 

The first formula will be the one 
employed by the writer for severa 
years with perfect satisfaction in every 
respect except cost. 

Extract of Lemon, No. 1. 

Oil of lemon, best 12 ounces. 

Alcohol, to make 1 gallon. 

Extract of Lemon, No. 2. 

Citral 4 drams. 

Oil of lemon 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Distilled water, to make 1 gallon. 
Dissolve the citral and the oil in the 
alcohol; add the water, which should be 
warmed, slowly, in small portions, with 
constant stirring. It is possible, espe- 
cially when the temperature is low. 
that this may not make a clear solu- 
tion; generally, a very gentle warming 
will suffice to clear up any cloudiness, 
but if not, the alcohol may be slightly 
increased and the water correspond- 
ingly decreased. Extreme cold throws 
some of the oil out of solution, which 
is brought back by warming. The 
practice often recommended of filtering 
such extracts through magnesium car- 
bonate, purified talc, etc., is a bad one. 
Such filtration renders the product 
bright and clear, but at the expense of 
the oil which remains behind. Very 
much better is it to rely on a proper 
temperature, or the addition of a little 
more alcohol. It is also well to have a 
small slip label printed explaining this. 
This extract is slightly less delicate 
than No. 1, but it would require an 
expert to detect any real difference. 
Extract of Lemon, No. 3. 
Terpeneless oil of lemon. . 4 drams. 

Alcohol 4 pints. 

Water 4 pints. 

Dissolve the oil in the alcohol, and 
add the water slowly with frequent 

It will probably be found more gener- 
ally satisfactory than No. 2 by reason 
of its greater delicacy of flavor and the 
fineness of its aroma. 

Of course, a proportion of citral could 
be added to this, or to any other, and 
mixtures of all kinds may be made, 
but it is only desired here to gi\ 
basic rules and principles governing 
the process. 

Soluble Lemon Extracts. 
It is possible that the formulas 
above, just as they stand, will not give 



"soluble extracts," the preparations 
made by them being very concentrated, 
but the soluble extract may easily be 
prepared from these. If either of the 
extracts Xos. 2 or 3 be diluted with 2 
pints of a mixture of alcohol 1 part and 
water 3 parts, and then filtered clear 
through a little magnesium carbonate, 
it will mix clear and bright with all 
aqueous liquids, syrups, etc. Or, per- 
haps, a better method would be to re- 
duce the proportion of flavoring ma- 
terials one-fourth to one-third, and 
use alcohol, 3 parts, water, 5 parts, for 
a menstruum, filtering through mag- 
nesium carbonate as before. In doing 
this, take just as little of the carbonate 
(in impalpable powder) as will serve, 
probably a half ounce to the gallon; 
shake it repeatedly and thoroughly 
with the extract, during five or six 
hours, then filter, returning the first 
portions until it comes through bright 
and clear. 

When experimenting with such a 
solution it is best to expose it for a 
time to a temperature as low as that 
which it will be likely to encounter 
under any ordinary condition of stor- 
age. It is does not then remain per- 
fectly clear, more alcohol should be 
used. A little care in this matter at 
the outset is well worth the time and 
labor required. 

Peel and Color. 

In these formulas nothing has been 
said of the matter of the lemon peel 
or of color. These are the same in 
either case, hence what is now said 
will apply to all. The peel will give 
the necessary color, and will also add 
to the fullness and delicacy of the 
flavor, hence its use in all cases is rec- 
ommended. It should be macerated 
with the alcohol for two or three days 
before the other ingredients are added, 
and then strained or filtered out. Four 
to six ounces to the gallon will give 
the beautiful golden color so much ad- 
mired, and which is so hard to dupli- 
cate with any other agent. The weigh- 
ing should not be overlooked, since it 
will render the product uniform in 

If the peel is not employed, the next 
best coloring agent is turmeric, about 
2 drams to each gallon. Owing tp the 
great variation in the quality of this 
drug, a good fluidextract would be more 
uniform, and would save filtration. 
This latter should be avoided whenever 
possible, since under best conditions it 
is expensive and wasteful, and the 
product exposed to the air. 

When completed the extracts should 
be stored in a cool dark place, either 
in amber glass or in jugs, kegs or bar- 
rels, and when bottled into retail pack- 
ages, these should also be kept in the 
cool and dark. 

Extract of Orange 

The oil of orange is a counterpart of 
that of lemon, except that it has no 
principle corresponding to citral: but 
there is a terpeneless oil of orange 
which is more expensive and much 
stronger than that of lemon. While 
the latter is as 1 to 24, the orange oil 
is as 1 to 36. While only one-half 
stronger, it is more than twice as 
costly; hence, orange extracts cost more 
than those of lemon. One ounce of 
terpeneless orange oil costs $4.25 per 
ounce, and that ounce may be consid- 
ered as equal to 2^4 pounds of the 
natural oil, and the latter costs $2.85 
per pound, or $6.40 for as much as will 
equal 1 ounce of the terpeneless oil. 

Orange extract may be made by for- 
mulas similar to those used for the 
extracts of lemon, including the use of 
the peel. 

There is now to be had an artificial 
terpeneless oil which is said to replace 
the natural to great advantage. It is 
as soluble as the natural, and the cost 
is less than half. The writer has no 
experience with this product, but judg- 
ing from like products, it is highly 
probable that its use in any extract to 
replace one-fourth to one -half the prod- 
uct of nature would give practically 
identical results as to quality. This 
synthetic oil seems well worth looking 
into. To determine the best combina- 
tions will require careful experimenta- 
tion on the part of the maker, but 
this need be neither costly nor trouble- 
some. With a small pipette, combina- 
tions of various strengths and kinds 
may be made, the total product not 
measuring more than 1 or 2 drams; 
these tested carefully by the dilution 
method will soon give results that are 
sufficiently practical for our purpose; 
once this is done, the experimental 
lots may be mixed cautiously with the 
commercial quantities, so that no loss 
whatever is sustained, and the quality 
is not altered sufficiently to be discern- 
ible. It is not pretended that this 
method of examination and standard- 
ization can be accurate in the usual 
sense of the term, but it will serve our 
purpose here very well indeed, since 
it is the only one employed commer- 
cially, and that, too, very often, by 
those unskilled and untrained in the 

Extract of Spicy Condiments. 

It has long been the idea of the writer 
that spices could be almost if not en- 
tirely replaced with an extract made 
from the corresponding oil. He once 
had a very fair business in nutmeg ex- 
tract, and no doubt the others could 
very largely replace the spices them- 
selves with the greatest satisfaction 
and profit, both to maker and user. 
The great variety and fluctuations in 
quality of the latter are both practi- 
callv eliminated by the use of an ex- 



tract made from the oil, since the oil 
is both much more uniform and of good 
quality. This idea, properly elaborated 
and placed before the consumer in the 
proper light, should prove to be very 

In marketing these or other flavor- 
ings, the Federal and State laws re- 
garding permissibility of sale or re- 
quirements of labeling must always be 
looked into. 

Nutmeg Extracts. 

Oil of nutmeg 1% ounces. 

Alcohol, to make.... 1 pint. 

Any other strength could be em- 
ployed, and that of an ounce to the 
pint is a very common one. 

Wintergreen Extract. 

Methyl salicylate 2 ounces. 

Alcohol is ounces. 

Water, to make 2 pints. 

Dissolve the salicylate in the alcohol, 
and add the water. 

Almond Extract. 

Benzaldehyde % ounce. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

Water 1 pint. 

Dissolve the benzaldehyde in the al- 
cohol and add the water. It may be 
necessary to filter this product to ren- 
der it perfectly clear; if so, the precipi- 
tated calcium phosphate is the clarify- 
ing agent to use. 

Cinnamon Extract. 

There are three oils from which this 
product may be made; the oil of Ceylon 
cinnamon, the artificial substitute for 
it. and the oil of cassia. The first is 
much the best so long as it is not sub- 
jected to heat, which spoils it. The 
synthetic oil seems to be thin and lacks 
fullness and body, and is far from satis- 
factory, though it is quite possible, and 
even probable, that in line with other 
products of that class, a reasonable pro- 
portion added to the natural oil would 
make a product superior to either when 
used alone. With our present state 
of knowledge, it seems that the cassia 
will be the most satisfactory from all 
points of view. It may be made by the 
formula following: 

Oil of cassia 12 ounces. 

Alcohol, to make 1 gallon. 

Rose Extract. 

So far as the writer's personal knowl- 
edge goes, this has always been made 
from the natural oil; but the economy 
of the artificial oil is a strong argu- 
ment in its favor. The color is usual- 
ly imparted by red rose petals, and they 
are much the best agent to use if they 
can be had reasonably fresh and of 
good quality. It may even be advis- 
able to collect and dry them for this 
purpose. Such a leaf not only imparts 
its own delicate color, but also adds 
appreciably to the odor and flavor of 
the product. 

Oil of rose l dram. 

Oil of clove 6 minims. 

Rose petals 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 24ounces. 

Water, to make 2 pints. 

Mix. macerate two or three days to 
extract the color from the petals, and 
then filter. 

The clove is added to bring out the 
rose effect. It also imparts to the ex- 
tract a slight spiciness or piquancv 
which is agreeable to many. It will 
scarcely be required, however, if any- 
thing less than the best quality of oil 
of rose be employed, since the lower 
grades contain quite a sufficiency of 
geranium to do all that the trace of 
clove is capable of performing, and 
even more. 

Onion Extract 

Courage fails me when I undertake 
to describe the compounds sailing un- 
der this name. From a cursory exam- 
ination of them it is quite certain that 
asafetida is the odorous agent, with 
never a trace of onion or allied prod- 
uct. Oil of onion is usually to be ob- 
tained in the primary markets, and if 
not. then oil of garlic is an acceptable 
substitute. This latter agent is both 
strong and costly, but is required in 
very small proportion. A working 
formula is not within the reach of the 
writer, but it is highly probable that 
a solution in alcohol of one-fourth to 
one-half of one per cent, would an- 
swer all purposes. 

Pistachio Extracts. 

The name "pistachio" has been given 
to widely varying compounds. Formu- 
las are here offered for mixtures which 
I include under that heading. 

Vanillin 2 drams. 

Oil of pimento Va ounce. 

Benzaldehyde 1 ounce. 

Oil of cassia 1 ounce. 

Oil of lemon 1 y» oun< 

Oil of raspberry, arti- 
ficial yz ounce. 

Alcohol, to make 4 pints. 

This compound, while apparently in- 
congruous and revolutionary, is in real- 
ity a most excellent article, and the 
combination of flavors is usually very 
attractive and pleasing. The raspberry 
oil is the usual compound of ethers, 
esters, etc., sold under that name. 

Of quitp a different nature and flavor, 
hut still pleasing, are the following 
compounds. These combinations have 
been used with success. It should be 
possible to build up a very nice busi- 
ness on one or more of these by ex- 
ploiting' them under a coined or local 


Oil of lemon 1 > 2 dram- 

Oil of cassia 1 dram. 

Benzaldehyde 1 dram. 



Oil of nutmeg y 2 dram. 

Alcohol, to make 8 ounces. 


The next formula originated in Eng- 
land. The product is most delightful 
to the great majority of persons, im- 
parting a nutty, fragant tang to food. 
Such a product is eminently adapted to 
introduction by sample, as nothing but 
a personal trial can convey any ade- 
quate idea of the flavor, and it is these 
compounds or mixtures, sold under 
coined or local names, that are most 
profitable, since the product is not like- 
ly to be successfully imitated. 

Oil of rose 10 drops. 

Coumarin 5 ounces. 

Alcohol 60 ounces. 

Syrup, to make 360 ounces. 

This may be colored with caramel. 
Artificial Maple Extract. 

We next come to consider a product 
for which numerous very crude, unsat- 
isfactory and even worthless formulas 
have been published. Corn cobs, hick- 
ory bark, green maple wood, and vari- 
ous other things have been recom- 
mended as materials to be used in imi- 
tating maple flavor, and, with all these 
things against it, it is strange that 
the product has retained its place in 
the markets. Competent authorities 
state that by far the largest portion of 
both maple syrup and maple sugar that 
enter the markets of the country is 
fictitious, and many of these fictitious 
articles must -be made from some of the 
crude materials mentioned above, if 
quality be any indication. The formula 
which I here offer is a good one, and 
while of course the product can not 
be sold as genuine, there is no need 
for it to be, for a syrup prepared from 
this extract is not only delicious in 
flavor but there is every possibility that 
it is far more cleanly and wholesome 
than even the average genuine product. 

Vanillin 20 grains. 

Coumarin 10 grains. 

Oil of rose 2 drops. 

Oil of anise 1 drop. 

Oil of celery 10 drops. 

Tincture of fenugreek... % ounce. 

Fluidextract of coffee... 1 dram. 

Maple sugar, pure 1 ounce. 

New Orleans molasses.. 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 3 ounces. 

Water, to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the first five items in the 
alcohol: dissolve the molasses, sugar 
and glycerin in the water: mix the two 
solutions, add the other materials, mix 
well, and then keep for at least a month 
in a warm place. Keep protected from 

Artificial Maple Syrup. 

Dark brown sugar. . . 6 pounds. 

Water 4 pints. 

Maple extract, as 
above 1 to 2 ounces. 

Heat the water to boiling, add the 
sugar, stir till dissolved, and continue 
the heat for about five minutes, mean- 
time carefully skimming off any im- 
purities that may rise from the brown 
sugar. When cool add the extract, 1 to 
2 ounces being the correct proportions. 
The first quantity gives a rather mild 
flavored syrup, which is liked by many, 
while the second quantity gives a very 
strong flavor, and, of course, there are 
all the gradations between these two. 
Artificial Peach Extracts. 

Methyl salicylate 1 ounce. 

Amyl butyrate Bounces. 

Butyric ether 5 ounces. 

Acetic ether 5 ounces. 

Peach juice 30 ounces. 

Alcohol . . 150 ounces. 

Mix, adding the juice last. It may be 
colored, of course, as may all the others 
if desired. 

Dilute with alcohol as required. 

Glycerin 1 part. 

Amyl alcohol 2 parts. 

Aldehyde 2 parts. 

Benzaldehyde 5 parts. 

Valerianic ether 5 parts. 

Butyric ether 5 parts. 

Formic ether 5 parts. 

Acetic ether 5 parts. 

Peach juice 20 parts. 

Alcohol 250 .parts. 

Mix, adding the juice last. 

Dilute with alcohol as required. 
Artificial Tomato Extract. 

Glycerin 1 ounce. 

Valerianic ether 5 ounces. 

Aldehyde 5 ounces. 

Alcohol 100 ounces. 

Dilute with alcohol as required. 
Artificial Banana Extract. 

This is probably the most used ex- 
tract of this class, unless it be straw- 
berry. It is more than probable the 
sales of these two will more than equal 
all the others of the list combined. 
Artificial Banana Oil. 

Amyl acetate 15 ounces. 

Butyric ether SO ounces. 


For ordinary use the above com- 
pound should be diluted with — 

Glycerin 50 ounces. 

Alcohol 650 ounces. 

This formula, which is of English or- 
igin, illustrates sharply the almost uni- 
versal tendency, to employ too much 
alcohol: at least half the above can he 
replaced with water, and the greater 
portion', if not all, the glycerin with a 
syrup made of glucose. This will in no 
degree reduce the quality or appearance 
of the product, and will materially cut 
down tlie cost. 



Strawberry Oil. 

Nitrous ether 1 part. 

Acetic ether 5 parts. 

Formic ether 1 part. 

Butyric ether 5 parts. 

Methyl salicylate 1 part. 

Amy] acetate 3 parts. 

Amyl butyrate ." 2 parts. 

Glycerin 2 parts. 

For making extract, use 1 part of oil 
to 30 of alcohol. 

Pineapple Oil. 

Amyl acetate 1 part. 

Ethyl butyrate 5 parts. 

Amyl butyrate 10 parts. 

Glycerin 3 parts. 

For making the extract, use 1 part of 
oil to 30 of alcohol. 

This is sufficient of these artificial 
extracts. They are the poorest and 
most unsatisfactory portion of the en- 
tire line, large as it is. 

Extracts in Powder Form. 

These have long been known. Their 
keeping qualities are very poor, and 
they have never gained much popu- 
larity. Artificial vanilla made of vanil- 
lin and coumarin is an exception; it 
keeps perfectly, and is in quite exten- 
sive use. It is largely sold under the 
name of vanilla sugar. 

When essential oils, such as those 
of lemon or orange, are mixed with 
sugar, and the whole rubbed down to 
powder, there is offered the best pos- 
sible condition for the oxidation of the 
terpenes of which these oils are so 
largely composed. If the terpeneless 
oils or citral, or a mixture of the two 
be employed, and the product thus made 
be preserved in a package nearly air- 
tight, these products should prove rea- 
sonably permanent and satisfactory- 
Extracts in Paste Form. 

Flavoring may also be prepared in 
the form of paste put up in collapsible 
tubes. This form offers many advan- 
tages over both liquid and powder, to 
both the manufacturer and user. In 
this form, alcohol is practically dis- 
pensed with, while the form of package 
is not only a preservative against the 
action of the atmosphere but also 
against any contamination. 

In this line the flavoring ingredients 
are not different from those usually 
employed; the difference is in the base 
or vehicle, and there are a number of 
these from which to choose, all con- 
taining more or less glycerin. One of 
the best is the heavy-bodied glucose. 
This is usually too stiff to run out of a 
bottle or jar, so should be mixed with 
some glycerin. It is best to have the 
glucose as heavy as can be handled 
conveniently through the tubes, since 
the finished product is not a solution. 
but a mixture, and this density is nec- 
essary to hold the mixture together and 
prevent its separating. The oils or 

other flavoring material should first 
be mixed with the glycerin, and this 
then added to the glucose. The heat 
of a water- bath will materially a 
the blending Sometimes glycerin alone 
is used, but it is rather too light to 
give best satisfaction. Again, traga- 
canth is sometimes used, and this also 
forms a good basis. A half pound of 
good, clean gum, though it need not 
be of the highest grade, especially as 
regards color, is soaked in a gallon of 
water for three or four days or until 
it becomes perfectly soft and lias ab- 
sorbed its maximum content of the 
liquid; the mass is now stirred and 
strained through a piece of gauze or 
cheese cloth. Four ounces of this soft- 
ened gum, 12 ounces of glycerin, and 
the desired flavoring material are now 
to be thoroughly mixed, the oil to bs 
added slowly, and triturated thoroughly 
in a mortar. 

As these pastes sell for less cost 
than the liquid extracts, it is usual to 
make thsm strong. To the quantity of 
softened gum and glycerin just stated 
add 2 ounces of the oil of lemon, orange, 
cinnamon, clove, peppermint, winter- 
green, or allspice. For nutmeg, 1 ounce, 
and for almond, % ounce of benzalde- 
hyde free from both prussic acid and 
chlorine, will suffice, and the same is 
true of celery. For vanilla, the usual 
plan is to employ vanillin and cou- 
marin. in the proportions usually em- 
ployed for any other extract, say 60 
grains of the first and 20 of the second, 
and it will be found an excellent plan 
to dissolve these in just sufficient warm 
alcohol, and then mix the solution with 
the glycerin. This will insure the 
smoothness of the product. * 

Flavoring Extracts in Powder Form 

Vanilla Flavor. 

Vanillin 60 grains. 

Cumarin 8 grains. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 

Lemon Flavor. 
Soluble oil of lemon. . . . 30 minims. 

Citric acid 1 ounce. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 

Tincture of turmeric'. ... to color. 

Orange Flavor. 
Soluble oil of orange. . . 30 minimis. 
Oil of mandarin orange. 3 minims. 

Citric acid 4 drams. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 

Orange color enough. 

Almond Flavor. 

Benzaldehyde 2 drams. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 

Ginger Flavor. 

Oleoresin of ginger 2 drams. 

Caramel 15 minims. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 

Cinnamon Flavor. 
Oil of Ceylon cinnamon. 3 drams. 

Caramel 5 minims. 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. 


Clove Flavor. daily shaking from four to eight weeks 

Oil of clove buds 3 drams. —the longer the better. Transfer 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. quickly to a glass percolator, the neck 

Nutmeg Flavor. of which has been previously well 

Oil of nutmeg ' 3 drams. fitted (not tight) with a pellet of 

Powdered sugar 1 pound. mixed tasteless whitewood shavings 

. ., „. '""' ' -,, . . and absorbent cotton, well moistened. 

A contribution from the Chemist Return the first portion of the perco- 

and Druggist in which the use of tar- late and late percolation to suit, 

taric acid is directed is appended, a - WheR n the u - d hag disappeared 

though we think citric acid preferable add en h of a mixtU re of alcohol, 65 

from both gustatory and hygienic mi] and wat 35 mU tQ obtain the 

standpoints: desired quantity. 

There is a steady and growing demand for 
fruit-crystals during hot weather, and I have 

found the following formulae "go" very well. _. . . . ... „. T , Y/ i_ 

Tartaric acid in small crystals is used. The 1 incture OI Vanilla 1 hat Is Worth 

flavoring and coloring are mixed with the \Y/U'l 

granulated sugar, the acid then added and the W tllle 

mixture dried: _ . „.. ., 

Lemon. Louis A. Ribar writes: 

Tartaric acid 3 pounds. Tincture of vanilla made according to the 

Granulated sugar 6 pounds. U. S. P. process is tincture of vanilla. Tb^ose 

Oil of lemon 2 ounces. who make it by this process will wonder 

Rectified spirit 2 ounces. why they don't sell more of it. They have 

Quinoiine yellow to color. tincture of vanilla U. S. P. all right, but 

q they have not enough tincture of vanilla with 

_ . ., = . , the flavor that age gives it. 

Tartaric acid 1 pound. Take vour vanilla Dea ns (choice Mexican 

Granulated sugar 3 pounds. g . or 10 . inchi not sma ller), cut up into small 

Oil of bitter orange i 2 ounce. bits beat int0 sm ithereens with the sugar. 

Rectified spirit 1 ounce. put int0 a swee t, clean jug or keg. pour on 

Croceme orange to color. your menstruumj ]et 'em soak (allow to 

Raspberry. macerate, as we degree men should say). 

Tartaric acid 1 pound. shake 'em up good every once in a while 

Granulated sugar 3 pounds. < or agitate thoroughly at frequent intervals). 

Cone, essence of raspberry 2 ounces. don't attempt to filter for six months at least 

Raspberry coloring enough. —and you will get tincture of vanilla that is. 

If vou will let it stand one or two years before 

Strawberry. using you will have tincture of vanilla that will 

Same as raspberry, but with 2 ounces of make 'em come to you. Under no rircumstances 

concentrated essence of strawberry in place of allow yourself to be deluded into the belief 

raspberry essence. that tonka beans in any proportion improve 

Cherrv tne favor of vanilla. "It ain't so!" Each 

Same as raspberry, but with 2 ounces of liule bean has a flavor of its own ' 

concentrated essence of cherry in place of 

raspberry essence. 

Making Extracts of Vanilla 

Malcino- a Clear Vanilla Fxtrart Macle according to official directions. 
Maying a L.lear vanilla extract tincture of vanilla should be clear 
Cut the vanilla beans into small enough without filtering. Paul Cald- 
pieces, about one-fourth inch long with well advises cutting the beans in a 
a bright cutter; place the cut beans "galvanized" meat cutter. He says 
in a glass bottle or jar. and cover them that contact with iron injures the bean 
with deodorized alcohol to about two or the tincture. He adds that the 
inches above the beans. Allow this longer the beans are macerated the 
to macerate with frequent shaking better, advising six weeks as a mini- 
from forty -eight to seventy-two hours mum length of time for continuing 
at a temperature of about 80 deg. F. the maceration. He says that the tine- 
Drain or pour off the alcoholic liquid ture can be made to pass through or- 
and reserve it. Repeat the maceration dinary filtering mediums by using 1 
two more times in exactly the same dram of potassium carbonate for every 
manner, reserving the several alcoholic 8 ounces of crushed bean employed and 
liquids, and mix all three portions for macerating them in enough water to 
further use. Transfer the cut beans to cover the mixture. According to his 
a convenient porcelain vessel and al- statement this amount of the alkali 
low them to dry in a warm current of has no appreciable effect upon the taste 
air or overnight. Reduce the beans of the tincture, but this is a point 
with the sugar in a brass mortar or a which each manufacturer must decide 
tinned meat cutter to a uniform 20 to for himself. 

30 powder. Transfer the powdered Commenting on the trouble experi- 

beans to a glass container of the neces- enced in filtering tincture of vanilla. 

sary size; then add the reserved liquid C. B. Braden writes: "Put a small 

with enough alcohol to make 50 mils piece of sponge in a funnel, push in 

for every 100 grammes of vanilla used. tight, and then add about 4 ounces of 

Allow this to macerate for twenty-four bird gravel. Filter the tincture 

hours with occasional shaking, then through this." 

add 200 mils of distilled water, shake A formula in which the potassium 

thoroughly, and allow to macerate with carbonate is embodied follows: 



Vanilla beans, chopped 

fine 30 parts. 

Potassium carbonate. ... 1 part. 

Boiling water 1,450 parts. 

Alcohol 450 parts. 

Essence of musk 1 part. 

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in 
the boiling water, add the vanilla, 
cover the vessel, and let it stand in 
a moderately warm place until its 
contents are of the room temperature. 
Transfer the contents to a wide- 
mouthed jar, add the alcohol, cork and 
let them stand for 15 days. Then 
decant the clear extract, and filter 
the remainder. Mix the two liquids 
and add the essence of musk. 

Another formula contributed to The 
Druggists Circular some years ago as 
being the best the contributor had ever 
used, follows: 

Mexican vanilla beans 3% pounds. 

Granulated sugar 7 pounds. 

Deodorized alcohol 4 gallons. 

"Water 3 gallons. 

After having carefully selected a lot of prime 
vanilla beans the first step is to divide them 
into small pieces from % to 1 inch long by 
means of a herb-cutter. The bean should not 
be allowed to come into contact with iron, as 
such contact destroys the flavor very quickly, 
and may be the cause of a poor tincture. Place 
the cut beans in a porcelain jar and pour upon 
them 7 pints of boiling water. Cover the jar 
and let it stand for twenty-four hours. The 
object of this maceration or infusion is to bring 
the beans as nearly as possible to their natural 
green state. The beans as found in the mar- 
ket are much wrinkled. The maceration swells 
the fiber and brings that portion of the surface 
which was formerly hidden where it is exposed 
to the action of the menstruum, which later 
is poured upon it. This maceration also pre- 
pares the vanilla for the next step, facilitating 
its passage through the chopper, and causes it 
to go through without becoming heated and 
without sticking to the blades of the machine 
as it would if not previously treated as stated. 
iMter maceration tor twenty-four hours, pour 
off the supernatant liquid and transfer the 
beans to a machine, which will cut or grind 
them up as fine as possible, the finer the bet- 
ter. Place the now finely ground vanilla in a 
porcelain jar, add to it 7 pounds of granu- 
lated sugar, then the liquid with which it had 
previously been macerating and 8 pints addi- 
tional of water. Stir frequently during twenty- 
four hours, and then add 1 gallon of deodorized 
alcohol. No longer than twenty-four hours 
should elapse before the addition of alcohol is 
made, otherwise there will be danger of fer- 
mentation taking place. Macerate for seven 
days and add another gallon of alcohol, mace- 
rate another week, and add 4 pints of alcohol. 
It is this last portion of alcohol which con- 
tributes to the appearance of the finished 
product. Up to this time the liquid has a 
turbid appearance, but upon the addition of 
these last four pints it becomes clear, the 
albumin present is coagulated, and the fin- 
ished product requires no filtration. If a 
menstruum less alcoholic is used, the tincture 
of vanilla will not have this bright appear- 
ance, and will require filtration, which is 
not to be advised in the making of vanilla 
extract. Allow the mixture to macerate thirty 
days more and at the expiration of that time 
transfer the whole to a percolator and cover 
with a muslin diaphragm. After the liquid 
with which it has been standing has run 
through, add a menstruum made of 9 pints of 
water and 12 pints of alcohol. Th 
Will yield an excellent tincture or extract of 
vanilla, perfectly bright and clear and ready 
for use. It is advisable to keep this in wood 
for six months, but of course it may be used 
at any time. There is no method to be fol- 

lowed which will yield a satisfactorv product 
in a few days. 

Another operator quoted in The 
Druggists Circular, adds alcohol first 
in the proportion of two-thirds of the 
intended quantity of menstruum, fol- 
lowing immediately with boiling 
water. He shakes the container many 

times a clay for lour weeks, then 
drains off and passes through a coarse 
strainer into a stock keg. in which is 
a faucet. To the dregs in the macer- 
ating keg is added about one-third of 
the quantity of fresh menstruum in 
the same proportions of water and al- 
cohol. Maceration is continued for 
four weeks more with agitation, and 
the liquid expressed without much 
pressure, and strained (not filtered) as 
before. This is reserved to be used 
as one-third of the next menstruum, 
and so on in all future manufactures. 
This operator found that too long- 
continued maceration imparts a woody 
flavor to the product. He lays much 
stress on the matter of keeping the 
extract at least one year before offer- 
ing it for sale, and says it is better 
if kept from two to five years, espe- 
cially if kept in wood. He finds that 
in making in 7 Y 2 -gallon lots there is 
a loss by maceration and by evapora- 
tion in a year's keeping of at least a 
gallon. He uses not less than 1% 
ounces of good bean to the pint, and 
recommends French cologne spirit of 
the best quality as the alcoholic part 
of the menstruum. 

The Federal requirements for vari- 
ous flavoring extracts say that extract 
of vanilla must be a 10 per cent, ex- 
tract of vanilla bean in alcohol of 
proper strength. It may contain su- 
gar and glycerin, but* nothing is said 
about musk or potassium carbonate. 
Possibly the addition of the latter 
would make the "extract'' a "com- 
pound extract." 

W. G. Xapp. appreciating the diffi- 
culties that confront the maker of 
extract of vanilla, offers as a supple- 
ment to the foregoing suggestions a 
description of a process which he has 
used with entire satisfaction for ;i 
number of years. He wi 

The process or manipulation which I ••ffer is 
one I have not yet seen suggested. I have 
used it in the years past, producing an extract 
rich in aroma," perfectly bright and clear and 
of a rich dark color. In this process the object 
is to abstract first all of the oil and moisture 
from the beans, which is very readily done by 
the deodorized alcohol. Then by drying by 
exposure the beans may be quickly reduced to 
a powder of any desired fineness, either in a 
mortar or a meat cutter. This powdering is 
• Bsential so as to extract all flavor. I 
have completely exhausted the bean (2 ounces 
in a pint; of all its flavor with a menstruum 
of U. S. P. alcoholic strength as an experi- 
ment. At first glance it may seem that the 
powdering would be difficult, but the treat- 
ment with alcohol brings the beans Into a con- 
dition which permits their being powdered 
without much labor. Another feature:— There 
is no clogging or gumming of th-r marc in 
percolating. If transferred ifter :gorous 

shake into the percolator, packing takes place 



of itself, and after the first single portion the 
percolate comes through with steady dropping, 
bright and clear. 

This is the process:— Cut the vanilla beans 
into' small pieces, about one-fourth inch long 
with a bright cutter; place the cut beans in a 
glass bottle or jar, and cover them with de- 
odorized alcohol to about two inches above the 
beans. Allow this to macerate with frequent 
shaking from forty-eight to seventy-two hours 
at a temperature of about 80 deg. F. Drain 
or pour off the alcoholic liquid and reserve it. 
Repeat the maceration two more times in ex- 
actly the same manner, reserving the several 
alcoholic liquids, and mix all three portions for 
further use. Transfer the cut beans to a con- 
venient porcelain vessel and allow them to 
drv in a warm current of air or overnight. 
Reduce the beans with the sugar in a brass 
mortar or a tinned meat cutter to a uniform 
20 or 30 powder. Transfer the powdered beans 
to a glass container of the necessary size, then 
add the reserved liquid with enough alcohol 
to make 500 mils for every 100 grammes of 
vanilla used. Allow this to macerate for 
twenty-four hours with occasional shaking, 
then add 200 mils of distilled water; shake 
thoroughly and allow to macerate with daily 
shaking from four to eight weeks— the longer 
the better. Transfer quickly to a glass per- 
colator, the neck of which has been previ- 
ously well fitted (not tight) with a pellet of 
mixed tasteless whitewood shavings and ab- 
sorbent cotton, well moistened. Return the 
first portion of the percolate and regulate per- 
colation to suit. When all the liquid has dis- 
appeared add enough of a mixture of alcohol, 
65 mils and water 35 mils to obtain the de- 
sired quantity. 

It will be noticed that in this process nearly 
three-fourths of the menstruum is used to ex- 
tract the beans and the other one-fourth to 
exhaust the marc. Glass percolators must be 
used for small or large batches; this is essen- 
tial to the preservation of tl^fi aroma. 

Imitation Vanilla Extract 

Vanillin 1 Y2 ounces. 

Cumarin 1 ounce. 

Benzoic acid 3 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 gallon. 

Glycerin * 4 pints. 

Sugar 4 pounds. 

Caramel enough. 

Water, to make 6 gallons. 

For cold processes this product is 
said to be a good one; for cooking, the 
figures for vanillin and cumarin should 
be interchanged. 


Vanillin 1 ounce. 

Sugar 1 pound. 

Powdered tonka 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 24 ounces. 

Glycerin 1 pint. 

Water, to make 1 gallon. 

Coloring, as desired. 

Macerate the tonka in a mixture of 
alcohol and an equal quantity of water 
for a week, agitating daily. Add the 
vanillin dissolved in the glycerin, and 
the sugar dissolved in a pint of water. 
Let this mixture stand for a week; add 
enough water to make 1 gallon of 
product and filter after two days. 

Here is a formula that produces an 
extract said to have been sold to the 
extent of 100 gallons a week; it cer- 
tainly is cheap: 


Cumarin . 2 ounces. 

Sugar 10 pounds. 

Alcohol 10 pints. 

Liquid caramel 2 pints. 

Water, to make 10 gallons. 

Of course, none of these products 
should be sold as extract of vanilla or 
labeled so as to lead the purchaser to 
believe that a vanilla flavor is being 

Essence of Tonka 

A so-called artificial essence of va- 
nilla containing no vanilla has been 
made as follows: 

Tonka beans 2Y 2 ounces. 

Prunes, bruised 4 ounces. 

Raisins, bruised 2 ounces. 

Black currants 1 ounce. 

Orris root 1 ounce. 

Peru balsam 6 drams. 

Treacle, dark ». . 10 ounces. 

Bruise the tonka beans and infuse for 
three hours in 10 ounces of hot water. 
Separately macerate the prunes, rais- 
ins, black currants and orris root (in 
powder) in a mixture of spirit, 25 
ounces, water, 40 ounces; add to this 
the infusion of tonka, macerate four- 
teen days, and add the other ingredi- 
ents and filter. 

Cheap Lemon Extract (Soluble) 

Oil of lemon. 5 ounces. 

Alcohol 2 pints. 

Water 6 pints. 

Magnesium carbonate... 2 ounces. 

Tincture of turmeric to color. 

Rub the oil and the carbonate in a 
mortar, slowly adding the alcohol. Set 
aside for two days, then add the water, 
a little at a time, and shake well. Af- 
ter a week or ten days filter and add 
the coloring matter. 

Root Beer Extract (from Oils) 

Oil of lemon 2 drams. 

Oil of sassafras 2 drams. 

Oil of spruce 2 drams. 

Oil of wintergreen 1 dram. 

Oil of nutmeg, essential 1 dram. 
Alcohol, deodorized. . . .12 fl. ounces. 

Water 4 fl. ounces. 

Talcum, purified 2 ounces. 

Dissolve the oils in about 2 fluid 
ounces of alcohol, triturate the solution 
with the talcum, add the remainder of 
the alcohol mixed with the water and 
filter. Add through the filter enough 
of a mixture of 3 parts of alcohol to 
1 of water to make 16 fluidounces. 

Root Beer Extract 

Yellow dock, 
Wintergreen, of each 1 ounce. 



Wild cherry bark, 

Hops, of each % ounce. 

Proof spirit 6 ounces. 

Bruise the drug plants and macerate 
for six hours in the proof spirit. Then 
pack in a percolator and add another 
2 ounces of the menstruum. When 
dropping ceases, pour on a few ounces 
of water. Collect the first 6 ounces of 
percolate and reserve; continue perco- 
lation with a pint of water, evaporate 
the percolate to 4 ounces and add to 
the tirst 6 ounces. 

The term "root beer" is rather elas- 
tic; we are inclined to believe, in the 
first place, that the "extract" com- 
monly represents barks, seeds, etc., to 
the exclusion of roots, and then the 
combination of ingredients varies con- 
siderably. One of the appended formu- 
las may be found satisfactory: 

Pimento 1 ounce. 

Sassafras bark 1 ounce. 

Wintergreen 1 ounce. 

Hops % ounce. 

Coriander seed % ounce. 

Diluted alcohol enough. 

Percolate until 10 ounces of tincture 
are obtained. This tincture is used 
to flavor syrup according to taste, 
which syrup is then mixed with car- 
bonated water in the customary soda 
fountain way. 


Methyl salicylate 12 drams. 

Oil of sassafras, true.... 9 drams. 

Oil of cloves 3 drams. 

Tincture of ginger, U.S. P. 12 drams. 

Alcohol, enough to make.. 1 pint. 

In making a syrup from this, citric 
acid is added, about twice as much of, 
say, a 30 per cent, solution, as of the 

Flavor for Gallic Sausage 

Black pepper 1 pound. 

Clove 5 ounces. 

Nutmeg 4% ounces. 

Ginger 9 ounces. 

Anise 2 ^ ounces. 

Coriander 2 % ounces. 

Grind all together. 

Another Sausage Flavor 

It will be noticed that this formula, 
from a British source, omits that old 
American stand-by, sage: 

Capsicum 1 part. 

Cumin 1 part. 

Cassia 1 part. 

Nutmeg 2 parts. 

Pimento 6 parts. 

Black pepper 8 parts. 

Salt 8 parts. 

Celery Salt 

Sodium chloride 1 pound. 

Celery seed, bruised 2 drains. 

Alcohol, 6 drams. 

Macerate the seed in the spirit for a 
week, then filter and thoroughly u 
porate the filtrate with the salt. 

Pickling Vinegar 

For each gallon of vinegar, take 1 
ounce each of capsicum, ginger and 
pimento. 3 ounces each of black, white 
and long pepper, and S ounces of mua- 
tard seed. Bruise the spices, boil with 
part of the vinegar, then add the re- 
mainder of the vinegar, and strain, 
after allowing the liquid to stand for 
a week or more. 


Ginger J 2 oun 

Allspice % ounci 

Curry powder 1 ounce. 

Black pepper 2 ounces. 

Capsicum % ounce. 

Mustard seed 4 ounci 

Vinegar 4% pints. 

Bruise the spice and macerate for 
two days in a warm place with the 
vinegar previously heated to boiling. 

Pasteurization of Milk 
A United States Government bulletin 
on this subject says: 

Milk is conveniently pasteurized in the bot- 
tles in which it is delivered. To do this use 
a small pail with a perforated false bottom. 
An inverted pie tin with a few holes punched 
in it will answer this purpose. This will raise 
the bottles fmrn the bottom of the pail, thus 
allowing a free circulation of water and pre- 
venting bumping of the bottles. Punch a hole 
through the cap of one of the bottles and in- 
sert a thermometer. The ordinary floating type 
of thermometer is likely to be inaccurate, and 
if poss thermometer with th< 

etched on the glass should be used. Set the 
bottles of milk in the pail and fill the pail 
with water nearly to the level of the milk. 
Put the pail on the stove or over a gas flame 
and heat it until the thermometer in the milk 
shows not less than 150 degrees nor more than 
155 degrees F. The bottles should then be re- 
moved from the water and allowed to stand 
from twenty to thirty minutes. The tempera- 
ture will fall slowly, but may be held more 
uniformly by covering the bottles with a towel. 
The punctured cap should be replaced with a 
new one, or the bottle should be covered with 
an inverted cup. 

After the milk has been held as directed It 
should be cooled as quickly and as much as 
possible by setting in water. To avoid danger 
of breaking the bottle by too sudden change 
of temperature, this water should be warm at 
first. Replace the warm water slowly with 
cold water. After cooling, milk should in all 
cases be held at the lowest available t- 

This method may be employed to retard the 
souring of milk or cream for ordinary 
It should be remembered, however, that pas- 
teurization does not destroy all bacteria in 
milk, and after pasteurization it should be 
kept cold and used as soon as possible. Cream 
does not rise as rapidly or separate as com- 
pletely in pasteurized milk as in raw milk. 



Curry Powder 


Coriander 5 pounds. 

Turmeric 1 y 2 pounds. 

Fenugreek 12 ounces. 

Black pepper 8 ounces. 

Cumin A 8 ounces. 

Mustard 8 ounces. 

Dill 4 ounces. 

Pimento 4 ounces. 

African ginger 4 ounces. 

Table salt 1 y 2 ounces. 

Capsicum 1% ounces. 

Grind the ingredients together to a 
fine" powder. 


Turmeric 2 ounces. 

Coriander 1 ounce. 

Ginger 2 ounces. 

Cardamom y 2 ounce. 

Capsicum % ounce. 

Cumin % ounce. 

White pepper 1 ounce. 

Lemon peel 1 ounce. 


Coriander 13 ounces. 

Black pepper 5 ounces. 

Capsicum 1 ounce. 

Cumin 6 ounces. 

Fenugreek 6 ounces. 

Turmeric 6 ounces. 

Grind all together and sift. 

It is said that a better flavor is ob- 
tained by using whole, fresh ingredi- 
ents and grinding them all together at 

Kitchen Spice 

Ginger 1 pound. 

Cinnamon 8 ounces. 

Black pepper 8 ounces. 

Nutmeg 8 ounces. 

Allspice 8 ounces. 

Clove 2 drams. 

Sodium chloride 6 pounds. 

Reduce all the spices to about a No. 
30 powder and mix thoroughlv. 

Preparing Table Mustard 

There are dozens of methods of pre- 
paring mustard for table use, ranging 
all the way from making a paste of 
ground mustard with vinegar to con- 
cocting a condimental olla podrida out 
of a dozen or more seeds, barks, roots, 
leaves and fruits, with saline, acetic, 
and saccharine additions. We give a 
few of them below: 

Plain Table Mustard. 
Mix 8 pounds of ground mustard seed 
with 1% pints of good vinegar; heat 
the mixture over a moderate fire for 
one hour, and add 1 dram of ground 
Jamaica pepper. When cold transfer 

to jars, which should be kept w'ell 

Very Fine Table Mustard. 
Digest over a water bath 1% ounces 
of fresh tarragon leaves, 2 bay leaves, 
1 lemon (juice and rind), % dram each 
of cloves and cinnamon, % dram of 
black pepper, % ounce of dill and 1 
onion in % gallon of good vinegar. 
Then strain the fluid into a porcelain 
vessel, and while it is yet warm mix 
with it 1 pound of ground black mus- 
tard, 1 pound of ground white mustard. 
1 pound of sugar and 3% ounces of 
common salt. Let the whole digest. 
.stirring frequently, until the mustard 
has lost some of its sharpness by the 
evaporation of the ethereal oil, and 
then dilute, according to taste, with 
more or less vinegar. 

French Mustard. 
Mix with good wine vinegar (or, bet- 
ter yet, a vinegar in which- has been 
macerated some celery root, garlic, 
onion and chives), ground mustard, 900 
parts; sugar, 100 parts; salt. 100 parts; 
pepper, 50 parts; cinnamon, 25 parts; 
cardamom, 10 parts, and ginger, 15 

Savory Essence for Soups 

Black pepper 4 ounces. 

Allspice 2 ounces. 

Nutmeg 1 ounce. 

Clove 2 drams. 

Cinnamon 2 drams. 

Coriander 2 drams. 

Caraway 2 drams. 

Alcohol 2 pints. 

Crush the spices and macerate in the 
alcohol for ten days. Filter. 

Albumin Milk 

Sweet, whole milk 2 pints. 

Essence of pepsin 4 drams. 

Fat-free buttermilk 1 pint. 

Maltose dextrin enough. 

Boiled water enough. 

Bring the milk to a boiling temper- 
ature; cool to 100 deg. F. ; add the es- 
sence of pepsin, and allow to curdle. 
Pour off the whey and drain the curd 
in a muslin bag for two hours. Place 
the bag containing the curd in 8 ounces 
of the water previously cooled. Re- 
move as soon as saturated, letting the 
surplus water drip back into the un- 
absolved portion. Place the curd in a 
sieve; ad-d the buttermilk, and pass 
the curd through the sieve three or 
four times. Wash the adhering curd 
from the bag in the water used pre- 
viously to soak the mass. Pour this 
water into the sieve; add enough 
water to bring the total volume to 2 
pints and add the desired quantity of 
maltose dextrin. 



Easter- Bun Spices 
Three formulas for these spices are 
given in Pharmaceutical Formulas, as 


Nutmeg . . ." 6 ounces. 

Mace 1 ounce. 

Red pepper 2 ounces. 

Cinnamon 4 ounces. 

dinger 8 ounces. 


Mace 2 ounces. 

Ginger 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 6 minims. 


Ginger 5 ounces. 

Coriander 5 ounces. 

Caraway 3 y 2 ounces. 

Cloves 1 ounce. 

Pimento 6 drams. 

Cassia 6 drams. 

Nutmeg 4 drams. 

The spices are to be powdered, mixed 
and sifted, and 1 ounce of the mixture 
is. to be used with 7 pounds of flour in 
making the buns. 

Worcester Sauce 

Garlic 12 ounces. 

Shallots 28 ounces. 

Tamarinds 28 ounces. 

Cloves 4 ounces. 

Capsicum 4 ounces. 

Anchovies 3 pounds. 

Oil of lemon 1 ounce. 

Sugar 4% pounds. 

Soy 7 pounds. 

Vinegar 5 gallons. 

Macerate two months with frequent 
stirrings and then strain. 

Matzoon and Kumyss 

Matzoon is the trade-mark name of* 
a form of fermented milk. A recipe for 
making fermented milk is given in the 
National Formulary. Kumyss is made 
by fermenting milk with a special or- 
ganism known as kefir. 

In a paper read before the Kings 
County Pharmaceutical Society, Thos. 
J. Keenan gave the following working 
directions for making kefir: 

1. Take of kefir fungus 2V 2 drams, soak in a 
mixture of milk and water, equal parts (suf- 
ficient to cover the kefir), for four hours, pour- 
ing off and renewing at intervals of one hour, 
keep the mixture at a temperature of 80 

2. The washed and moist fungus, now In a 
softened condition, is enclosed loosely in a 
piece of sterilized gauze and added to one 
quart of pasteurized milk heated to a tempera- 
ture of from 80 degrees to 85 degrees. The 
milk with the kefir is allowed to stand, the 
same temperature being maintained for from 
twelve to fifteen hours, or until curdled. The 
cream is then removed and the curd separated 
and allowed to drip until fairly dry, when an 
equal weight of sugar of milk is added and 
the whole spread thinly upon gauze or upon 
a fiberless filter paper and allowed to dry in 
a current of warm air at a temperature of not 

over 80 degrees F. The mixed substance is 
then powdered gently and put up in dry, ster- 
ilized 1-ounce wide-mouthed vials, bearing 
some such label as the following: 

Directions for Use 

To 1 quart of milk diluted with ':. pint of 
water add a pinch of salt and a level tea- 
spoonful of the ferment powder. Keep at a 
temperature of 85 degrees P. for twelve to 
fifteen hours, shaking or stirring as often as 
convenient; then bottle and keep on ice. 

Keenan suggests that before bottling 
and sending out the powder the phar- 
macist make a control experiment in 
order to satisfy himself of the activity 
of the product and the quality of the 
milk. This could be done, he said, by 
taking three bottles of milk and put- 
ting into one a pinch of the ferment, 
into another a pinch of sugar, and 
leaving the third bottle without any 
added substance, when, if the powder 
was of the desired activity, the milk 
containing the ferment would be com- 
pletely curdled at the end of twelve or 
fifteen hours. 

I. V. S. Stanislaus read a paper on 
the history, chemistry and manufac- 
ture of kefir at the meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association 
(see the Proceedings for 1907, page 
465), in which he stated that the fol- 
lowing points should be observed in 
the preparation of kefir. 

The milk should be fresh, previously 
skimmed and boiled; the latter condition is 
imperative to prevent butyric fermentation. 
It is also advantageous to sometimes add a 
teaspoonful of lactose to the milk, as in this 
wise more alcohol and COo is formed and the 
albuminous bodies undergo peptonization much 
more readily. Good kefir should be a homo- 
geneous, viscous fluid not readily separating 
into two layers. Ferrated kefir for anemics 
is prepared by adding to each bottle 0.1 
gramme of ferric lactate. Pepsinated kefir 
is made by adding 0.75 gramme of powdered 
pepsin to each bottle. 

Preserving Milk for Analytical Pur- 

For preserving milk for future analy- 
sis Deniges (Rev. de pharm.) recom- 
mends adding to 100 mils of the milk 
L mil of a mixture of 50 grammes of 
phenol and 10 mils of alcohol, heating 
the mixture at 40 degrees C. and allow- 
ing it to cool with constant shaking. 
Such an addition, he says, in no way 
interferes with the estimation of the 
acidity, of the milk sugar with Feh- 
ling's solution, of the butter-fat, or of 
the casein. 

Baking Powder 

Some years ago a United States 
Government expert, after examining 
the baking powders on the market and 
conducting an elaborate series of ex- 
periments of a practical as well as 
of a theoretical nature, published the 
conclusion that a baking powder com- 
posed of potassium bitartrate, 2 
parts, and sodium bicarbonate, 1 part, 
gave the best results chemically, hy- 



gienically and in actual practice. For 
"body" he recommended the use of 
corn starch, 1 part. In making the 
powder each ingredient should be 
dried separately, and the whole should 
then be thoroughly mixed and kept in 
well- closed containers. 

Manufacture of Yeast 

Compressed yeast of the semi-solid 
sort is prepared from beer-yeast, a 
by-product of breweries, and can not 
be manufactured with profit by one 
not having a plentiful supply of the 
raw material. The processes of pre- 
paring it are many, but as they are 
quite similar, the following may an- 

Strain the beer-yeast through a very 
fine filter, then stir it with three times 
its bulk of cold water in a suitable vat 
fitted with a stop-cock. Allow the 
mixture to stand for ten minutes, and 
draw off the supernatant liquid. Re- 
peat the washing twice; to the first 
wash- water add 1% ounces of sodium 
bicarbonate to each 15 gallons of 
yeast; to the second water add % 
ounce of tartaric acid to the same 
quantity of yeast; to the third water 
add 1 ounce of ammonium carbonate. 
After the last water has been drawn 
off the yeast is pressed into cakes. 
Dry Yeast. 

Hops 3% ounces. 

Rye flour 3 % pounds. 

Corn meal 7% pounds. 

Beer-yeast V 2 pint. 

Hot water 30 pints. 

Mix the hops and the rye flour with 
the hot water; when the mixture has 
cooled to lukewarmness, add the beer- 
yeast and allow to ferment. The fol- 
lowing day, add the corn meal, knead 
the mass into a stiff dough,, roll into 
a cake and divide with a glass knife. 
Dry in a warm room. 

If further details concerning the 
manufacture of brewers' yeast is de- 
sired, four pages devoted to the sub- 
ject in Sadtler's Industrial Organic 
Chemistry may be studied. 

Preserving Eggs in Water Glass 

According to official experiments 
made in North Dakota the preserva- 
tion of eggs by covering them with 
water-glass ("solution of sodium sili- 
cate) gives fairly satisfactory results. 
The eggs should be packed in kegs, 
which should be clean and well 
scalded before use. Then a solution 
consisting of 1 volume of the com- 
mercial syrup- thick water-glass and 
10 volumes of pure water should be 
poured over them until they are cov- 
ered. It is better to boil the water 
and allow it to cool before use. The 
keg of eggs should be kept in a cool 
place. It is stated that 1 gallon of 

the solution is sufficient for fifty dozen 
eggs if they are properly packed. 

To prevent eggs so preserved from 
cracking when boiled, a pin prick 
should be made in the blunt end of 
each egg before it is put into the 
water for boiling. 

A Connecticut reader, seeing the 
above note, wrote: 

A sterile (infertile) egg will keep 
much longer than a fertile egg. Eggs 
placed in water-glass in May or June 
and kept in a cool place will be found 
in good condition the following Decem- 
ber. I think earthen crocks are much 
better for packing the eggs than kegs. 
It is advisable to look occasionally at 
the container to see if the solution has 
evaporated enough to leave any of the 
eggs uncovered. In case it has, more 
should be added. 

Commissioner James W. Helm of the 
dairy and food department of Michi- 
gan advises egg raisers to kill the old 
roosters at the close of the breeding 
season and so raise only infertile eggs 
for a period. 

Raspberry Vinegar 

Fresh raspberries.. .1.500 grammes. 

Strongest wine vine- 
gar 1,000 grammes. 

Wash the berries, let them drain, 
macerate with the vinegar for fifteen 
days and strain. 

Food Preserving Powder 

A "canning compound" on the mar- 
ket is said to consist of about 95 parts 
of boric acid and enough common salt 
and benzoic acid to make 100 parts. 
In the Yearbook of the Department of 
Agriculture for 1900 is the report of 
analyses of a hundred or so food pre- 
servatives. These were found to con- 
lain borax, salt, saltpeter, boric acid, 
ammonium fluoride, salicylic acid, so- 
dium benzoate, formaldehyde, sodium 
sulphate and sodium benzoate. 

Just which of these preservatives 
may be used without danger to the 
consumer is largely a matter of opin- 
ion, except that it is generally agreed 
that formaldehyde should not be em- 
ployed. Which may be used, and to 
what extent, without danger of pun- 
ishment under the various food and 
drugs acts depends upon the particu- 
lar law applicable to the case. As a 
rule, the use of chemical preservatives 
in foods does not receive the sanction 
of the law, this rule, of course, not ap- 
plying to sugar, salt, vinegar and cer- 
tain other universally employed and 
innocent preservatives. 

Liquid Butter Color 

Griffith has collected and published 
in his Non-Secret Formulas three 



recipes for butter coloring, these being 
herewith gi 


Sodium carbonate 2 pounds. 

Potassium carbonate.... 2 pounds. 

Cold water 5 gallons. 

Dissolve the sodium and potassium 
carbonates in the water and set aside. 

Annatto 2 pounds. 

Cold water 4 gallons. 

Let stand one day. stirring occasion- 
ally. Use clear water and stone crocks 
for mixing purposes. 

Directions: Use one teaspoonful of 
the coloring in 5 quarts of cream; add 
just before churning. 

Orange anilin (-soluble in 

oil ) 1 dram. 

Olive oil. sweet oil or 

cottonseed oil 20 ounces. 

Dissolve the orange anilin in the oil 
by the aid of gentle heat from a water- 

One teaspoonful will be sufficient for 
about 10 gallons of cream. 

This will no: color the buttermilk. 

Annatto 10 ounces. 

Caustic potash 1% ounces. 

Borax 1 ounce. . 

Water 100 ounces. 

Tincture of turmeric... 20 ounces. 

Mix. let stand forty-eight hours and 

The orange anilin color whose use in 
food products is permitted under Food 
Inspection decision 76, is "85. orange 
I": the yellow is "4. naphthol yel- 
low S." 

the brown sugar, and a few onions from 
the garden in place of the garlic. 

Chop Relish 

Black pepper 1 ounce. 

Allspice 4 drams. 

Salt 1 ounce. 

Horseradish 4 drams. 

Shallots 4 drams. 

Walnut ketchup 20 ounces. 

Steep for fourteen days, strain and 
put into small bottles. 

Chutney Sauce 

Seeded raisins 4 ounces. 

Crab apples 8 ounces. 

Brown sugar 4 ounces. 

Powdered ginger 2 ounces. 

Salt 2 ounces. 

Capsicum 2 ounces. 

Garlic 1 ounce. 

Vinegar enough. 

Pound the solid ingredients together 
in a mortar until reduced to a pulpy 
mass, add enough vinegar to bring the 
whole to the consistence of cream, and 
bottle for use. 

Possibly a somewhat larger quantity 
of molasses might be used in place of 

Cucumber Sauce 

Peel and slice 3 large cucumbers and 
1 onion, put them into a basin and 
sprinkle a handful of salt over them. 
After they have stood all night, bring 
the liquid to the boiling point and then 
allow it to simmer for half an hour, 
and strain. Then add — 

Bruised mace % dram. 

Bruised nutmeg 1 dram. 

Bruised black pepper. . . 4 drams. 

White wine 10 ounces. 

Vinegar 1 pint. 

Bring to the boiling point and strain. 

Walnut Ketchup 

Crush 10 dozen green walnuts, and 
to the mass add ground black pepper, 
1% ounces; ground nutmeg. iy 2 ounces; 
ground cloves, % ounce; ground gin- 
ger, % ounce; ground mace. *4 ounce. 
Boil the whole in % gallon of vinegar 
for half an hour, then set aside for a 
week, and strain. 


The following information appears 
in Cyclopedia of Formulas: Dissolve 
7 pounds of crushed sugar in 1 pint 
of water; boil it in a 5 -gallon copper 
kettle, stirring it occasionally until it 
gets brown; then reduce the fire and 
let the sugar burn "until the smoke 
makes the eyes water." When a few 
drops, let fall into a tumbler of cold 
water, sink to the bottom and harden 
sufficiently to crack, it is done. Then 
pour on it, by degrees, about 2 quarts 
of wann water, stirring all the time. 
When well mixed, filter it, hot, through 
a coarse flannel filter. Some use lime 
water to dissolve the burnt sugar. 
Care must be taken not to over-burn 
it. as a great quantity is thereby 
rendered insoluble. The heat should 
not exceed 221 degrees C. nor be under 
204 degrees C. 

Preserving Eggs. 

According to official experiments 
made in North Dakota the preserva- 
tion of eggs by covering them with 
water-glass (solution of sodium sili- 
cate) gives satisfactory results. The 
eggs should be packed in kegs, which 
should be clean and well scalded before 
use. Then a solution consisting of 1 
volume of the commercial syrup-thiclc 
water-glass and 10 volumes of pure 
water should be poured over them 
until they are covered. It is better to 
boil the water and allow it to cool 



before use. The keg of eggs should be 
kept in a cool place. It is stated that 
1 gallon of the solution is sufficient 
for fifty dozen eggs if they are proper- 
ly packed. 

To prevent eggs so preserved from 
cracking when boiled, a pin prick 
should be made in the blunt end of 
each egg before it is put into the 
water for boiling. 

A Connecticut reader, seeing the 
above note, wrote: 

"A sterile (infertile) egg will keep 
much longer than a fertile egg. Eggs 
placed in water-glass in May or June 
and kept in a cool place will be found 
in good condition the following Decem- 
ber. I think earthern crocks are much 
better for packing the eggs than kegs. 
It is advisable to look occasionally at 
the container to see if the solution has 
evaporated enough to leave any of the 
eggs uncovered. In case it has, more 
should be added." 

Commissioner James W. Helm, of 
the dairy and food department of 
Michigan, advises egg raisers to kill 
the old roosters at the close of the 
breeding season and so raise only in- 
fertile eggs for a period. 

The note concerning fertile and in- 

fertile eggs is of particular impor- 
tance, it having been proven that only 
infertile eggs should be used if best 
results are to be hoped for. 

Mixed Spices. 


Powdered allspice y^ ounce. 

Powdered nutmeg 1 ounce. 

Powdered clove 1 ounce. 

Powdered cinnamon 1 ounce. 


Allspice 140 parts. 

Clove 140 parts. 

Ginger 115 parts. 

Long pepper 100 parts. 

Black pepper 75 parts. 

Coriander seed 75 parts. 

White pepper 60 parts. 

Cassia bark 55 parts. 

Nutmeg 55 parts. 

Capsicum 45 parts. 

White mustard seed .... 45 parts. 

Cassia buds 35 parts. 

Mace 25 parts. 

Caraway seed 10 parts. 

Anise seed 3 parts. 

Cardamom seed 3 parts. 



Automobile and piano polish — Violin varnish — Wood stains — Floor 
paint — Furniture cleaners and polishes — Desk stains — Metal 
polishes — Rust removers — Metal cleaners — Plating mixtures 

Always consult the index when using this book 


ue an 

d P 



Perhaps the best method for polish- 
ing pianos, carriage or automobile 
bodies, and other high-class varnished 
surfaces is to go over the varnish first 
with a pledget of absorbent cotton sat- 
urated with kerosene. Then go over it 
with a piece of chamois leather dipped 
first in olive oil and then in finely pow- 
dered and bolted rotten stone, using 
a circular movement. Wipe off the rot- 
ten stone with the palm of the hand, 
moving in a rotary direction and wip- 
ing off the hand after each rotation; 
and then go over the surface with a 
piece of chamois saturated with olive 
oil. Finally wipe dry with a piece of 
soft silk. 

A Good Varnish 

Alcohol 75 parts. 

White shellac 15 parts. 

Venice turpentine 2 parts. 

Sandarac 8 parts. 

Dissolve the shellac and sandarac in 
the alcohol and then add the Venice 
turpentine. — R. D. Brown. 

Violin Varnish 

Sandarac 160 parts. 

Mastic 80 parts. 

Alcohol 21 parts. 

Turpentine varnish 750 parts. 

Mix and set aside in a warm place, 
agitating occasionally until solution is 
complete; then strain. 

Another note on the subject, from 
One Thousand More Paint Questions 
Answered ia herewith reproduced: 
Staining and Finishing a Violin 

The true Cremona varnish is of unknown for- 
mula, and its preparation one of the lost arts 
To stain, varnish and polish a violin is a 
special art anil requires expert knowledge, but 
we will give you an idea of how the work is 

The German violin makers stain the violins 
with a mixture of campeachy wood, 3 parts by 
weight, and yellow dyewood 1 part, boiled for 
two hours in five times its weight of water in 
an earthenware vessel, as iron would make th*- 
stain black. *tiis is strained, after cooling. 

through a fine cloth and a little alcohol is 
added to it. It is applied to the violin with 
a cloth and 'wiped out. If not the right ef- 
fect, apply the stain as often as required to 
give the proper tone. The varnish is made by 
dissolving in 32 ounces of 95 per cent, rectified 
alcohol, 6 ounces gum sandarac. 2 ounces gum 
shellac, 1 ounce mastic, 2 ounces gum benzoin, 
2 ounces Venice turpentine. The last named 
ingredient is added, when all the gums are 
dissolved and all is strained through the fine 
muslin. Apply with a clean varnish brush and 
polish with sweet oil and rotten stone. 

Waterproof Varnish 

An old English patent was issued for 
a varnish made of aluminum palmitate 
or aluminum oleate dissolved in ether, 
benzole or benzin. It was claimed for 
such a varnish that after the solvent 
evaporated an impermeable varnish 
was left. The danger from fire at- 
tending the use of such varnish should 
be borne in mind. 

Reviver for a Varnished Surface 

Hydrochloric acid 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 3 ounces. 

Linseed oil 1 pint. 

Butter of antimony 3 ounces. 

Acetic acid 6 ounces. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Mix the acetic acid with 6 ounces of 
water and add the linseed oil; shake 
vigorously. Mix the butter of anti- 
mony with the alcohol and add the oily 
mixture and shake again. Add finally 
the hydrochloric acid diluted with 4 
ounces of water. 

This polish must be well shaken be- 
fore use, and applied with a soft cloth. 
The surface is to be rubbed dry with 
a piece of silk. 

Colored Floor Paint, Lac Type 


Rosin 3 pounds. 

Venice turpentine 2 pounds. 

Pale drying oil 1 gallon. 

Oil of turpentine 2 pints. 

Melt the rosin, add the Venice tur- 
pentine and the oil, cool a little and 
add the oil of turpentine. 





Canada balsam 20 ounces. 

Pale rosin 3 V 2 pounds. 

Oil of turpentine 1 gallon. 


Gum copal 30 parts. 

Camphor 2 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 150 parts. 

Gum anime 8 pounds. 

Clarified linseed oil.... 3 gallons. 

Litharge % pound. 

Lead acetate % pound. 

Iron sulphate % pound. 

Oil of turpentine 5V6 gallons. 

Boil all together until it strings, then 
mix well and strain. 

The anilin colors used to give these 
varnishes the desired shades are those 
known as "fat colors" or "Soudan 
dyes." The proportions and blending 
would have to be learned from prac- 

Oak Stain for Wood 

First apply to the wood as a mordant, 
a 15 per cent, solution of soda. Then 
apply a catechu solution, preferably 
hot, made by boiling 300 grammes of 
catechu in 900 grammes of water for 
about an hour, straining, adding 35 
grammes of iron-free alum, and once 
more raising to the boiling point. 
Finally, when dry, apply to the mor- 
danted wood a 5 per cent, solution of 
potassium dichromate. 

Floor Wax 


Yellow wax 25 parts. 

Yellow laundry soap.... 25 parts. 

Glue 12 parts. 

Sodium hydroxide 25 parts. 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in 400 
parts of water, add the wax, and boil 
down to 250 parts; then add the soap. 
Dissolve the glue in 100 parts of hot 
water. Mix the two solutions. 


Yellow wax 25 parts. 

Potassium carbonate 3 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 3 parts. 

Water 100 parts. 

Heat the wax and water together to 
the boiling point; add the potassium 
salt; boil another minute, remove the 
vessel from the Are; add the oil; and 
stir until cold. 

Much depends upon the skill of the 
operator who applies the wax to the 

To Preserve and Polish Wood 

Five parts of beeswax and one of 
potash are boiled in sufficient water 
to thoroughly dissolve the potash. The 

mixture should be boiled until the 
water combines completely with the 
wax. The mixture is then taken from 
the fire,, and a quantity of boiling 
water is added, with constant stirring. 
It will be found, if the process has 
been conducted properly, that 225 
parts of water can be added to the 
original quantity, and the substance 
will still retain its homogenous char- 
acter, no clear water appearing. The 
mixture is then heated for five or six 
minutes, but is not allowed to boil. 
It is then taken from the fire and 
stirred vigorously until cool. This 
forms a sort of cream, which gives a 
brilliant polish to wood in a very lit- 
tle time. It should be applied with a 
piece of linen, and the wood then 
rubbed with another piece of the same 

Wax for Dark-Colored Woods 

Stearin 100 parts. 

Yellow wax 25 parts. 

Potassium hydroxide.... 60 parts. 

Yellow soap 10 parts. 

Water 60 parts. 

Dissolve the potassium in one-half 
the water; heat the stearin with this 
lye until saponification is complete 
and add the wax. Dissolve the soap 
in the rest of the water; mix the two 

Wax for Light-Colored Woods 

White wax 75 parts. 

Bleached shellac 75 parts. 

Pale rosin 6 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 100 parts. 

Alcohol 400 parts. 

Melt the wax, shellac and rosin 
together; remove from the source of 
heat and add the oil and the spirit 
previously warmed. 

Great care should be taken in warm- 
ing these fluids, as they are quite in- 

Boat Varnish 

A good copal varnish is the best to 
use for boats, says the Chemist and 
Druggist, which adds that a suitable 
formula is as follows: 

Oil of turpentine 1 to 2 parts. 

Zanzibar copal 1 part. 

Linseed oil 3 parts. 

The varnish, comments the British 
journal, can not be made economically 
on a small scale. 

Furniture Cleaner and Polisher 

Probably one of the following for- 
mulas, or a modification of it, may be 
found serviceable: 



Mahogany Polish. 

Hydrochloric acid 2 drams. 

Putter of antimony 12 drams. 

Alcohol 12 drams. 

Linseed oil 4 ounces. 

White wine vinegar. ... 8 ounces. 
.Mixed in order given. 


Raw linseed oil 4 pints. 

Butter of antimony 4 ounces. 

Shellac varnish 1 pint. 

Oil of turpentine, enough 

to make 1 gallon. 

Cleanser for Natural or Stained Wood- 

If the woodwork of the store is of 
natural or stained finish it may he 
kept clean with the following: 

Chloroform 4 drams. 

Ether 4 drams. 

Benzin 6 ounces. 

Linseed oil, to make.... 1 pint. 

Apply and rub dry with a soft cloth, 
bearing in mind the highly inflam- 
mable nature of certain of the in- 
gredients, and that electric sparks 
are often generated by rubbing and 
may inflame inflammable material. 

Cleaning Painted Woodwork. 

For painted woodwork an oil polish 
is unsatisfactory and the continued 
use of soap and water is not bene- 
ficial to the paint. Such surfaces may 
be cleaned without harm with a soft 
flannel cloth dipped in warm water, 
wrung almost dry and dipped in pow- 
dered French chalk. The surface so 
cleaned should be polished with a dry- 

Polish for Oak Furniture. 

Linseed oil 40 ounces. 

Vinegar 6 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 3 ounces. 

Hydrochloric acid 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 

Mix in the order named. 

Creamy Furniture Polish. 

Animal oil soap 1 ounce. 

Solution of potassium 

hydroxide 5 ounces. 

Beeswax 1 pound. 

Oil of turpentine 3 pints. 

Water, to make 5 pints. 

Dissolve the soap in the lye with 
the aid of heat; add this solution all 
at once to the warm solution of the 
wax in the oil. Beat the mixture until 
a smooth cream is formed, and grad- 
ually beat in water until the whole is 
completely emulsified. 

Cleaner- Polish for Furniture. 

Quillaja 2 ounces. 

Linseed oil 2 pints. 

Oil of turpentine 4 ounces. 

Butter of antimony 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Hot water S ounces. 

Diluted acetic acid 8 ounces. 

Digest the quillaja with the hot 
water; when cool, add the alcohol and 
.squeeze through a straining cloth. Mix 
the liquid with the diluted acetic acid; 
add the linseed oil previously mixed 
with the oil of turpentine, and shake 
thoroughly. Finally add the butter of 
antimony slowly with thorough agita- 

White Polish for Wood 

Crushed white lac iy 2 pounds. 

Powdered borax 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 3 pints. 

The lac should be thoroughly dried, 
especially if it has been kept under 
water, and, in any case, after being 
crushed, it should be left in a warm 
place for a few hours, in order that all 
the moisture may escape. The crushed 
lac and borax are then added to the 
spirit, and the mixture is stirred fre- 
quently until solution is effected, after 
which the polish should be strained 
through muslin. 

Miscellaneous Furniture Polishes 

Alcohol S ounces. 

Shellac 2 drams. 

Benzoin 2 drams. 

Poppy oil 2 drams. 

Dissolve the gums in the alcohol in 
a warm place, with frequent agitation, 
and, when cold, add the poppy oil. 

This may be applied on the end of a 
cylindrical rubber made by tightly roll- 
ing a piece of flannel which has been 
torn, not cut, into strips 4 to 6 inches 


Beeswax 125 parts. 

Hard soap 30 parts. 

Glue 60 parts. 

Soda ash 125 parts. 

Water . . . enough. 

Ochre enough. 

Dissolve the soda in 2,000 parts of 
water, add the wax, boil down to 1,250 
parts, and add the soap. Dissolve the 
glue in 500 parts of water by the aid 
of heat, stir in the ocher, add the mass 
to the soap and wax mixture. 

Applv hot. . 


Shellac 180 parts. 

Sandarac 15 parts. 

Mastic 16 parts. 

Copal 16 parts. 

Rosin 15 parts. 

Alcohol 1,300 parts. 

Mix, set aside in a warm place, shak- 
ing occasionally until dissolved, and 

Many of the anilin dyes are readily 
soluble in the liquid, and may be add- 
ed thereto when it is desirable. 

The woodwork is first carefully 
cleaned, and the polish is, after dilu- 
tion with acetone, applied with a soft 




Beeswax 1 pound. 

Linseed oil 1 pint. 

Oil of turpentine 1 pint. 

Melt the wax; -mix with the oils; stir 
while cooling. 

Linseed oil is likely to darken the 
color of wood. 


Peaiiash 12 ounces. 

White wax S ounces. 

Hot water enough. 

Dissolve the peaiiash in 4 parts of 
hot water; add the wax; boil gently 
for half an hour and allow to cool. Re- 
move the mass and work into it enough 
hot water to soften it. 

Oil of turpentine 1 pint. 

Linseed oil 2 pints. 

Carnauba wax 1 pound. 

Add the mixed oils to the melted wax 
and stir until cold. 


White wax 12 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 20 ounces. 


Sandarac 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 10 ounces. 

Beeswax * 1 ounce. 

Oil of turpentine 5 ounces. 

Dissolve the sandarac in the alcohol 
and the wax in the oil. Add the alco- 
holic liquid to the other, in divided 
portions, shaking after each addition. 


Raw linseed oil. 

Directions: Apply in order given, 24 
hours apart. 

Hard Finish for a Counter Top 

One may put a nice finish on a com- 
mon board counter or table in the fol- 
lowing manner, giving it the appear- 
ance of veneer: Smooth off the top, 
after having filled all cracks and crev- 
ices with putty or wood filler. Take a 
piece of heavy wrapping paper of 
proper size, wet one side of it with 
water, and then apply a coat of liquid 
glue, making sure that every spot is 
covered; put this on the counter and 
rub until every part adheres and there 
are no air bubbles. Allow thirty-six 
to forty -eight hours for diwing, and 
then apply one or two coats of var- 
nish. If the work is carefully done the 
result will be a happy surprise. — F. W. 
Scott, Jr. 

Laboratory Desk Stain 

The following formula has been pro- 
posed for the A. Ph. A Formula Book: 
Copper sulphate .... 125 grammes. 
Potassium chlorate.. 125 grammes. 

Hot water 1000 mils. 


Anilin oil 120 grammes. 

Hydrochloric acid .. 1 80 grammes. 
Water looo mils. 

Cheap Stains for Wood Fixtures 


Potassium permanganate 1 ounce. 

Water 40 ounces. 


Potassium dichromate. . 40 grains. 

Vandyke brown 1 ounce. 

Sodium carbonate 200 grains. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Boil together and apply hot. 

Ferrous sulphate 3 ounces. 

Water 40 ounces. 


Crushed nutgalls 6 ounces. 

Water 40 ounces. 

Boil the galls in the water for half 
an hour, and when cold strain the 
liquid into a bottle. Apply I and II 
alternately to the wood, giving it sev- 
eral coats of each. 


Brazil wood chips 4 ounces. 

Glacial acetic acid 2 ounces. 

Alum Y 2 ounce. 

Water \ . 20 ounces. 

Boil the chips and the alum in the 
water for half an hour, add the acid, 
and when cold strain. 

Copper acetate 2 ounces. 

Potassium bitartrate... . % ounce. 

Glacial acetic acid ^ ounce. 

Water 20 ounces. 

Shake together in a bottle until solu- 
tion is almost complete, and add 

Indigo 30 grains. 

Glacial acetic acid 1 dram. 

Boiling water 5 ounces. 




For ordinary opaque paint for sign 
work or house numbers, etc., the fol- 
lowing formulas are said to produce 
good results: 


Mix 20 pounds of pure white lead in 
oil, 1 quart of pale rubbing varnish. 1 
pint of pale gold size japan to a 
creamy consistency, than add 1 pound 
of freshly calcined calcium sulphide to 
the mixture and enough spirit of tur- 
pentine to make 1 gallon. 

Mix 12 pounds of pure white lead 
in oil. 4 pounds of pure French zinc- 
white in oil, 1 pint of bleached linseed 



oil. 1 pint of pale gold size. 1 pint of 
white japan and 1 pint of spirit of 
turpentine to a creamy consistency, 
and then add 1 pound of freshly cal- 
cined calcium sulphide, which will 
make 1 gallon of luminous paint. 

Luminous or phosphorescent paint 
for clock dials, etc., may be made by 
heating strontium thiosulphate for fif- 
teen minutes over a bunsen burner or 
■ gas lamp, and then for five minutes 
over a gas blast. When cooled mix 
the powder with melted paraffin for 
application with a brush and expose 
the painted surface to sunlight for a 
time, when it will give a green phos- 
phorescent light in the dark. 

All luminous paints require exposure 
to strong sunlight for a time to be- 
come active in the dark. 

Luminous Mixtures 

Potassium dichromate 4 grammes. 

Gelatin 4 grammes. 

Calcium sulphide 50 grammes. 

Boiling water enough. 

The solid ingredients are thoroughly 
dried and ground together in a suit- 
able mill. For use a portion of the 
dry mixture is mixed with twice its 
weight of boiling water, and applied 
with a brush. 


Strontium carbonate. 100.0 grammes. 

Sulphur 30.0 grammes. 

Sodium carbonate... 2.0 grammes. 

Sodium chloride. . .-. 0.5 gramme. 

Manganese sulphate. 0.2 gramme. 

Heat these together at 1300 deg. C. 
for an hour. For use the resulting 
mass is powdered and ground with a 
good dammar varnish, or better with a 
vehicle made as follows: 

Zanzibar copal 15 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine 60 grammes. 

Linseed oil 25 grammes. 

Melt the gum on a sand bath, dis- 
solve in the oil of turpentine, and filter. 
Heat the linseed oil and allow it to 
cool: then mix it with the turpentine 
and the gum. 

In grinding luminous paints iron 
rolls should be avoided, as their use 
injures the luminous properties of the 
finished product. 

Liquid Paint Remover 
The man desiring to go into the man- 
ufacture of paint remover at the out- 
set meets the obstacle that the use of 
practically all the efficient paint re- 
moving fluids, such as alcohol, benzol 
and acetone, are covered by basic pat- 
ents. This leaves (unless the investi- 
gator hits an unprotected solvent 

among organic liquids which are con- 
stantly entering the market) only alka- 
line fluids, as. for example: 

Sodium hydroxide 3 pounds. 

Whiting 4 pounds. 

Flour 1 pound. 

■ Water % gallon. 

Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in 
part of the water and mix the whiting 
with more water to form a cream. Add 
the sodium hydroxide solution to the 
whiting cream, then mix in the flour 
made into a paste with the rest of the 

For use 1 pint of this solution is 
mixed with about 2 gallons of water. 

After such an alkaline remover is 
applied the bared surface should be 
washed with acidulated water, and 
even then the results are far from sat- 
isfactory, since the alkali raises the 
grain of the wood -{requiring laborious 
sandpapering to get it smooth again), 
and usually staining the wood, requir- 
ing bleaching with oxalic acid before 

While carbon disulphide and crude 
carbolic acid have been used as var- 
nish removers, these are so danger- 
ously poisonous (and the first so highly 
inflammable, also) that their employ- 
ment is not to be advised. 

A few other formulas follow: 

Flour (or wood pulp) ... .385 parts. 

Hydrochloric acid 450 parts. 

Chlorinated lime 160 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 5 parts. 

This mixture is applied to the sur- 
face and left for some time. It is then 
brushed off and brings the paint away 
with it. It keeps moist quite long 
enough to be easily removed after it 
has acted. 


Sodium hydroxide 5 parts. 

Solution of sodium silicate 3 parts. 

Flour paste 6 parts. 

Water 4 parts. 


Soap 10 parts. 

Potassium hydroxide 7 parts. 

Potassium silicate 2 parts. 

Blackboard Paint 

Lampblack 30 grammes. 

Pumice, in very fine 

powder 125 grammes. ,03 

Boiled linseed oil... 250 mils. Ay 

Oil of turpentine. I' 

to make 1.000 mils. 


Shellac 4 ounces. 

Lampblack 2 ounces. 

Emery powder 1 ounce. 

Ultramarine 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 2V 2 pints. 



Dissolve the shellac in the spirit; 
place the lampblack, emery and ultra- 
marine on a cheesecloth strainer, pour 
on part of the shellac solution, stir- 
ring constantly and gradually adding 
the rest of the solution until all the 
powders have passed through the 

Metal Polishes 



Levigated silex 10 pounds. 

Kerosene 5 gallons. 

Oleic acid 2 gallons. 

Stearic acid 2 pounds. 


Kieselguhr 56 pounds. 

Kerosene 30 pounds. 

Alcohol 20 pounds. 

Oil of turpentine 5 pounds. 

Ammonia water (sp. gr. 

0.910) 3% pounds. 


Putty-powder 6 ounces. 

Kieselguhr 10 ounces. 

Powdered pumice 2 ounces. 

Indian red 10 ounces. 

Emery flour 1 ounce. 

Rottenstone 1% ounces. 

Alcohol 30 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 20 ounces. 

Kerosene 100 ounces. 

Ammonia water 20 ounces. 

Oil of citronella % ounce. 

Mix the powders thoroughly and add 
gradually the liquids in the order 


Kerosene 5 pints. 

Oleic acid 2 pints. 

Stearic acid 4 ounces. 

Levigated kieselguhr. . . 20 ounces. 

Kieselguhr 4 ounces. 

Precipitated chalk 3 ounces. 

Talc 2 ounces. 

Magnesium carbonate.. 2 ounces. 

Powdered soap 2 ounces. 

Potassium carbonate. . .1% ounces. 

Oleic acid % ounce. 


Prepared chalk 2 ounces. 

Ammonia water 2 ounces. 

Water, to make 8 ounces. 


Kieselguhr 8 parts. 

Tin oxide 30 parts. 

Pipeclay 30 parts. 

Tartaric acid 3 parts. 


Kieselguhr 28 parts. 

Pipeclay 10 parts. 

Sodium hyposulphite 3 parts. 

Ferric oxide 2 parts. 

Creams or Pomades. 

Solution of sodium 

silicate 5 pounds 

Oleic acid 5% pounds. 

Kerosene enough. 

Kieselguhr enough. 

Oil of citronella enough. 

Methyl salicylate enough. 

Heat the oleic acid almost to boil- 
ing; heat separately the solution of 
sodium silicate; pour the latter grad- 
ually into the former with constant 
stirring. Remove to a place remote 
from the open flame., preferably out of 
doors, and when cooled to below 100 
degrees F. stir in sufficient kieselguhr 
previously made into thin cream with 
kerosene. Finally add the odorous sub- 
stances and mix well. 

Prepared chalk 8 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 2 drams. 


Petrolatum 3 ounces. 

Refined paraffin 1 bunce. 

Prepared chalk 1 ounce. 

Oleic acid % dram. 


It is said that putz pomade ("putz" 
in German meaning "polishing") may 
be made by making a paste of Ar- 
menian bole and oleic acid, and scent- 
ing with oil of bitter almonds. 

Rotten stone 1 part. 

Iron subcarbonate 3 parts. 

Lard oil enough. 


Iron oxide 10 parts. 

Pumice stone..., 32 parts. 

Oleic acid enough. 

Lacquer for Brass 

Celluloid varnish, made by dissolving 
yellow or colorless celluloid in acetone 
or a mixture of acetone and amyl ace- 
tate is widely used as a protective 
coating to retard the tarnishing of 
metals. Acetone collodion is similarly 
employed. Lacquers of earlier origin 
generally have a composition some- 
what as follows: 

Pale orange shellac 1 ounce. 

Gamboge 1 dram. 

Cape aloes 3 drams. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol 
and add the other ingredients. 

Removing Rust from Steel Instruments 

Various authors recommend immers- 
ing- the rusty instruments in a satura- 
ted solution of tin chloride as a means 



of removing rust spots — by reduction. 
Place the instruments in a saturated 
solution of tin chloride and allow them 
to remain there over night. The fol- 
lowing morning rinse them in running 
water and polish with dry chamois. 




Rust Remover 

A fine preparation for removing rust 
can be made by the following formula: 

Amyl acetate . . . .• 1 ounce. 

Acetone Y2 ounce. 

Cylinder oil % ounce. 

Removal of Rust from Metals 

The following information is pub- 
lished in Hopkins' Cyclopedia of For- 

A simple and effective way of clean- 
ing rusted iron articles, no matter how 
badly they are rusted, consists in at- 
taching a piece of ordinary zinc to the 
articles, and letting them lie in water 
to which a little sulphuric acid has 
been added. They should be left im- 
mersed for several days, or until the 
rust has entirely disappeared, the time 
rusted. If there is much rust, a little 
sulphuric acid should be added occa- 
sionally. The essential part of the 
process is that the zinc must be in 
good electrical contact with the iron, 
depending on how deeply they are 
A good way is to twist an iron wire 
tightly around the object, and connect 
this with the zinc. Besides the sim- 
plicity of this process, it has the great 
advantage that the iron itself is not 
attacked in the least so long as the 
zinc is in good electrical contact with 
it. Domestic Engineering says that 
when there is only a little rust, a gal- 
vanized-iron wire wrapped around the 
object will take the place of the zinc, 
provided the acid is not too strong. 
The articles will come out a dark gray 
or black color, and should then be 
washed thoroughly and oiled. The 
method is specially applicable to ob- 
jects with sharp corners or edges, or 
to* files and other articles on which 
buffing wheels ought not to be used. 
The rusted iron and the zinc make a 
short-circuited battery, the action of 
which reduces the rust back to iron, 
this action continuing so long as any 
rust is left. 

Iron articles thickly coated with rust 
may be cleaned by allowing them to 
remain in a nearly saturated solution 
of chloride of tin from 12 to 14 hours. 

Rust Remover: Ground pumice, 30 
grammes; oleic acid, 20 grammes; tal- 
low. 2 grammes; paraffin, 4 grammes. 
The last three ingredients are melted 
together and the powdered pumice is 
slowly stirred in. 

To remove rust from iron or steel, 
plunge the rusty article into a vessel 
of boiling water; this will loosen the 
rust, which may then be brushed off 
easily. Then dry the article before a 
fire if necessary, when the rust, which 
has not dropped off may be removed. 
A good body of boiling water should 
be used, and the longer the boiling the 
better. All oil and dirt goes with the 

Metal Cleaning Paste for Collapsible 


A paste for cleaning dental instru- 
ments, that may be put up in collapsi- 
ble tubes: 

Jewelers' rouge 1 ounce. 

Rotten stone 16 ounces. 

Powdered quartz 2 ounces. 

Green soap 4 ounces. 

Stronger ammonia water 9 drams. 

Hot water enough. 

If the ammonia water attacks the 
metal of the tube, possibly the fol- 
lowing recipe would yield a more sat- 
isfactory product : 

Oil of turpentine 5 parts. 

Paraffin 25 parts. 

Emery Cfinely powdered) 25 parts. 
Animal charcoal < finely 

powdered) 45 parts. 

Thin with alcohol or oil of turpen- 
tine if necessarv. 

Polishes for German Silver, Brass and 



Sodium chloride 2 parts. 

Oxalic acid 3 parts. 

Water 40 parts. 

Bolted pumice 100 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 2 parts. 

Soft soap 12 parts. 

Lard oil 12 parts. 

Dissolve the salt in the water and 
the acid in this solution. Mix the solu- 
tion with the powdered pumice; incor- 
porate the soap; then beat in the oils. 

Liquid petrolatum 8 ounces. 

Butter of antimony hi ounce. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Diluted acetic acid 8 ounces. 

Jewelers' rouge Vz ounce. 

Mix the butter of antimony with the 
oil and shake well for several minutes; 
let stand for several hours, and add the 
alcohol, shaking thoroughly. Shake the 
rouge # with the acid, and mix the two 


Mix 4 parts of charcoal. 2 parts of oil 
of turpentine, and 3 parts of alcohol 



with enough solution of oxalic acid (1 
in 3) to make a semi- liquid mixture. 
This is poisonous. 

Creamy Gasoline Metal Polish 

Whiting, to be suspended in the 
lighter hydrocarbon oils, must be in a 
very fine state of division; or a mix- 
ture of very fine whiting, levigated si- 
lex, and white kieselguhr may be used. 
One of the most satisfactory suspen- 
sion agents is a soft soap made by 
saponifying a mixture of 3 parts of 
oleic acid and 1 part of castor oil with 
a strong potash lye. Some of this soap, 
which should be slightly alkaline, is 
dissolved in the benzin or gasoline, and 
the abrasive is gradually added by 
sifting on the surface of the liquid. 

Nothing but practice will enable the 
operator to produce a satisfactory mix- 
ture. It is not possible to state the 
proper proportions of oil. soap, and 
powder, as many an experimenter will 
fail with the combination that is sat- 
isfactory in the hands of a dozen oth- 
ers. Too much saop will give a sticky 
mixture. If the amount of abrasive be 
too large, the greater part will settle. 

Silver Polishes and Creams 

White kaolin 4 pounds. 

Prepared chalk 8 pounds. 

Infusorial earth S pounds. 

Carbon tetrachloride. . . 6*<2 pounds. 

Ammonia water 3 pounds. 

Alcohol 4 gallons. 

Water 5 % gallons. 


Cream of tartar 2 ounces. 

Prepared chalk 2 ounces. 

Alum 1 ounce. 

Water to form a paste. 


Soap in thin shavings. .. .80 parts. 

Tartaric acid 4 parts. 

Tripoli 4 parts. 

Alum (ammonia) 4 parts. 

Lead carbonate 4 parts. 

AVater to form a paste. 


To a saturated solution of sodium 
hyphosulphite add a little fine whiting. 
Apply with a brush or sponge and rub 
well. Rinse in hot water and rub dry 
with a polishing cloth or chamois. 

As a simple, harmless, inexpensive 
and efficacious silver cleaner the ordi- 
nary whiting, ammonia wate^ and 
water mixture is not likely to be dis- 
placed by any of the fancy combina- 
tions. For very fine work jeweler's 
rouge is preferable. 

Gold-Plating Mixture 


Gold chloride 20 parts. 

Potassium cyanide 60 parts. 

Potassium bitartrate 5 parts. 

Prepared chalk 100 parts. 

Distilled water 100 parts. 

Dissolve the gold chloride in a por- 
tion of the water and the potassium 
salts in the remainder. Mix the solu-, 
tions and then add the prepared chalk. 

Too mflch emphasis can not be laid 
upon the poisonous character of this 
and most plating solutions. 

Metallic articles may be gilded by 
supporting them upon a clean piece of 
zinc immersed in a solution made of — 

Fine gold 6 grains. 

Xitro-hydrochloric acid.. enough. 

Potassium cyanide 36 grains. 

Hot water 1 pint. 

Heat the gold on a sand-bath with 
sufficient acid to dissolve it, and when 
it is dissolved, add the solution to the 
water in which the cyanide has been 
dissolved. Stir with a glass rod; filter 
through paper if necessary. 

Before it is applied, this gilding solu. 
tion should be heated to about 180 de- 
grees F. 

Nickel Plating Fluid 

Nickel and ammonium 

sulphate 10 parts. 

Boric acid 5 parts. 

Water 200 parts. 

Dissolve each of the two solids in 
100 parts of hot water and then mix 
the two solutions. 

It is hardly necessary to say that 
such a fluid does not give a permanent 
coating and that electroplating is the 
only truly satisfactory way of getting 
a nickelized surface. 

Nickel-Plating Powder 

This is a patented article and is 
stated to be composed of nickel-am- 
monium sulphate (NiSO < [NH»]) 2 S0 4 + 
6H 2 0, 60 parts; magnesium (pow- 
dered), 3 parts; precipitated chalk. 30 
parts; and talc, 7 parts. When this is 
moistened an electrical action is start- 
ed and the nickel is deposited as in 
electroplating. The powder is applied 
by rubbing with a wet cloth. Of 
course, the brass or copper should be 
clean, or the nickel will not stick. 

Magoffin's Silver Polish 

Dissolve a teaspoonful of table salt 
in 4 ounces of boiling water, then add 
whiting to make the whole of a 
creamy consistence. Apply with a 
flannel cloth, then wash the silver in 
hot soft (rain) water, dry with a soft 
towel and polish with chamois. 



Inks. Black and Colored, Drawing, Stencil, Mimeograph, Sympa- 
thetic, Etc, — Glues, Lutes, Pastes and Cements. 

Always consult the Index when using this boofy 

Making Black Ink 

In an exceptionally interesting paper 
on the making of black ink, appearing 
in The Druggists Circular for January, 
1909. page 13, Prof. W. L. Scoville gives 
the following formula: 

Scoville's Formula 

Tannic acid 3 ozs. av. 

Gallic acid 1 oz. av. 

Ferrous sulphate 2 ozs. av. 

Solution of ferric chlo- 
ride, U. S. P 11 fl. ozs. 

Indigotin 1 % ozs. av. 

Acacia 60 grains. 

Phenol 60 grains. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Dissolve the tannic and gallic acids 
and indigotin in 6 pints of warm water. 
Dissolve the iron salts, acacia and 
phenol in the remaining 2 pints of 
water, and mix with the first solution. 
Shake frequently during several days. 
Allow the ink to stand at least two 
weeks, and then filter. 

Prof. Scoville says that he has made 
ink according to this formula; that it 
was a good article; that he had made 
tests by exposing writing done with 
this ink to sun and water, and that the 
ink stood them well. As to the solubil- 
ity of indigotin, Prof. Scoville says that 
he round a soluble kind on the market. 

Magoffin's Formula 

Extract of logwood .... 8 ounces. 

Potassium dichromate.. y 2 ounce. 

Potassium ferrocyanide.. M ounce. 

A! ohol 8 ounces. 

Oil of cloves 1 ounce. 

Bailing rain water .... 5 gallons. 

Cold rain water 1 gallon. 

Dissolve the extract of logwood in 
the boiling water, and add the two 
potassium salts. Then add the cold 
rain water, and the alcohol in which 
the oil has been dissolved. When cold, 
strain through flannel and keep in 
tightly corked bottles. 

Mr. Magoffin explains that the old- 
time black sticky extract that used to 
come in 12% and 25-pound boxes is the 
kind to use. 

Fountain Pen Ink 

Gallic acid 80 grains. 

Ferrous sulphate 120 grains. 

Diluted sulphuric acid.. 4 drams. 

Gum arabic 160 grains. 

Liquefied phenol 30 minims. 

Glycerin 140 minims. 

Phenol blue 20 grains. 

Distilled water to make 20 ounces. 

Dissolve the ferrous sulphate, gum 
arabic, liquefied phenol, glycerin, and 
diluted sulphuric acid in 8 ounces of 
the distilled water, without heat. Then 
dissolve the gallic acid in 5 ounces of 
the distilled water, with the aid of a 
gentle heat; continue the heating until 
the liquid just begins to boil, and add 
to it gradually the solution containing 
the ferrous sulphate, etc., shaking after 
each addition. Make up to the required 
volume (20 fluid ounces) with distilled 
water, filter, and add the phenol blue, 
shaking until it is dissolved. 

Writing Fluid 

We have seen it stated that a non- 
corrosive and permanent writing fluid 
may be made by neutralizing a solu- 
tion of indigo sulphate with diluted 
ammonia water (or with diluted solu- 
tion of potassium hydroxide), allowing 
the precipitate to settle, and decanting 
the clear liquid. 

A few other formulas are appended: 


Finely powdered 

indigo 5.0 grammes. 

Sulphuric acid . . . 30.0 grammes. 

Iron wire 15.0 grammes. 

Powdered Turkish 

nut galls 60.0 grammes. 

Acacia 15.0 grammes. 

Sugar 8.0 grammes. 

Oil of cloves 0.1 gramme. 

Water 1,050.0 grammes. 

Into a suitable vessel containing 50 
grammes of water, put the indigo and 
the sulphuric acid. When the solution 
has cooled, add the iron wire, which 
should be in the finest possible state of 
subdivision. Let the interaction cease. 
Make an infusion of the nut galls in 
the balance of the water. Strain this, 
and. when cool, mix it with the iron 
solution. Lastly add the gum, the 
sugar and the oil. 


Powdered nut galls 120.0 grammes. 

Oxalic acid 2.0 grammes. 




Indigo carmine, 

about 2.5 grammes. 

Iron sulphate 50.0 grammes. 

Acacia 15.0 grammes. 

Water 1.000.0 grammes. 

Digest the powdered nut galls with 
the greater part of the water for two 
days; strain the liquid and mix with it 
the iron sulphate previously dissolved 
in a little water. Add the oxalic acid 
and shake until dissolved, then add the 
indigo carmine (as much as is neces- 
sary to give the liquid a nice green 
color) and finally add the acacia. 

Powdered nut galls. .100 grammes. 

Acacia 40 grammes. 

Iron sulphate 43 grammes. 

Alcohol (90 c/ f ) 25 grammes. 

Ammonia water 5 grammes. 

Phenol 2 grammes. 

Water S00 grammes. 

Macerate for eight days and strain 
or filter. 

Mimeograph Ink 

Balsam copaiba 9 ounces. 

Lampblack 3 ounces. 

Indigo * 5 drams. 

Prussian blue 5 drams. 

Indian red 6 drams. 

Yellow soap, dried and 

powdered 2 to 3 ounces. 

Rub well together until a smooth, 
creamy paste results. 

Fast Green Ink 

Crystallized copper 
acetate 4 parts. 

Potassium bitartrate 2 parts. 

Water 16 parts. 

Mucilage of acacia 1 part. 

Boil the chemicals with the water in 
a porcelain (or clean copper) vessel 
until the liquid acquires an intensely 
green color. Then filter and add the 

Anilin Green Ink 

The following formula is for a typi- 
cal anilin ink, but it may be said in 
passing that writing done with anilin 
inks usually fades upon exposure: 

Soluble anilin green 2 parts. 

Glycerin 16 parts. 

Alcohol 112 parts. 

Mucilage of acacia 4 parts. 

Dissolve the anilin green in the alco- 
hol and then add the other ingredients. 
Filter, after standing. 

While most of the acacia will pre- 
cipitate from the ink, enough will re- 
main to make it sufficiently slow- 

Red Ink 
Eosin (or some other wa- 
ter-soluble anilin red) . . 1 part. 

Acacia 2 parts. 

Water 97 parts. 

Dissolve the dye in the water and in 
this solution dissolve the acacia. 

Brazil wood 1 ounce. 

Tin chloride 15 grains. 

Dextrin 30 grains. 

Boiling distilled water.. 1 pint. 

Cochineal 1 ounce. 

Acacia 1 ounce. 

Cream of tartar 2 ounces. 

Alum % ounce. 

Distilled water 1 pint. 

Boil the first three ingredients in the 
water for several minutes; filter, and 
dissolve the alum in the filtrate. 

Carmine 2 drams. 

Caustic soda 4 drams. 

Mucilage of acacia 1 ounce. 

Water to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the caustic soda in a couple 
of ounces of water; in this dissolve 
the carmine; add the rest of the water 
and then the mucilage. 

Red Drawing Ink 

Formerly red inks were made of car- 
mine or vegetable colors, but in this 
day of synthetics they are more fre- 
quently solutions of anilin dyes. Dye 
dealers will give information as to the 
best brands to use for any given pur- 
pose; or experiments may be made 
with package or other dyes. Fuchsin 
dissolved in a solution of white shellac 
in borax water makes a good drawing 
ink. A heavy-bodied drawing ink may 
be made by suspending very fine ver- 
milion in a solution of acacia. The 
following formulas for red draughting 
inks yield preparations which are said 
to be permanent in color: 

Carmine 1 gramme. 

Solution of ammonium 
acetate 15 grammes. 

Distilled water 15 grammes. 

Mix the water and the solution, and 
triturate the carmine with this liquid. 
Set aside for twelve hours. Filter the 
solution and thicken it with pure sugar 


Carmine, finely powdered 6 parts. 

Solution of sodium silicate 75 parts. 

Distilled water 675 parts. 

Triturate the pigment with the 
water-glass; gradually add the water; 
set aside for several days, and decant 
the fluid ink. 




Carmine 5 parts. 

Sodium silicate 5 parts. 

Solution of sodium silicate enough. 

Ink Powders or Tablets 


I. • 

Methyl violet 16 grains. 

Bengal green 20 grains. 

Bismarck brown 12 grains. 

Acacia 80 grains. 

The quantities here given will make 
with a pint of water a very good copy- 
ing ink, which is not sufficiently lasting 
to do for keeping records. 

Galls 84 parts. 

Madder 6 parts. 

Ferrous sulphate 11 parts. 

Ferrous acetate 4 parts. 

Indigo carmine 1 part. 

Exhaust the galls and the madder 
by percolation with hot water. In the 
percolate dissolve the iron salts and 
indigo carmine; and then evaporate to 

The addition of a small amount of 
acacia makes the ink flow more 


For a blue ink powder we assume 
that what is known in the trade as 
soluble blue (an iron salt) would serve 
the purpose, since it is stated that this 
chemical dissolved in water gives the 
most permanent blue ink known. 

Likewise, a water-soluble red anilin 
dye of the right hue should answer 
for making red ink. 

Ink for Writing on Celluloid 

Tannic acid 10 parts. 

Ferric chloride, dry 10 parts. 

Acetone 100 parts. 

Dissolve the tannic acid and the fer- 
ric salt separately, each in 50 parts of 
acetone, and mix the solutions. 

Fluoride Ink 

Ammonium fluoride, barium sulphate 
and an acid are the usual components 
of these liquids or semi-liquids. Speci- 
men formulas follow: 

Barium sulphate 3 parts. 

Ammonium fluoride 1 part. 

Sulphuric acid enough. 

The salts are mixed with enough acid 
to bring the mixture to the consistency 
of rich milk. 

The mixture should be made in a 
lead receptacle and kept in guttapercha 


Ammonium fluoride 1 part. 

Barium sulphate 1 part. 

Calcium fluoride 1 part. 

Hydrofluoric acid, fuming, enough. 

The first three ingredients are inti- 
mately mixed in a porcelain mortar, 
the mixture transferred to a lead dish 
and enough fuming hydrofluoric acid 
stirred into it to give the desired con- 
sistency. This 'ink" may be used with 
a steel pen. 

In experimenting with fluorine com- 
pounds their effect upon the skin and 
mucous membrane should be taken 
into consideration; hydrofluoric acid 
produces severe burns, which are diffi- 
cult to heal. 

Record Inks. 

Any finely divided, non-fading color 
may be used as the pigment; petro- 
latum is the best vehicle, and wax the 
best corrigent. In order to make the 
ribbon last a long time with one inking 
as much pigment as feasible should be 
used. To make black record ink: Take 
some petrolatum, melt it on a slow fire 
or water bath and incorporate by con- 
stant stirring as much lampblack as 
it will take up without becoming gran- 
ular. Take it from the fire and allow 
it to cool. The ink is now practically 
finished, except if not entirely suitable 
on trial it may be improved by adding 
the corrigent wax in small quantity. 
The ribbon should oe charged with a 
very thin, evenly divided amount of 
ink. Hence the necessity of a diluent 
— -in this instance a mixture of equal 
parts of benzin and oil of turpentine. 
In this mixture incorporate a sufficient 
amount of the solid ink by vigorous 
agitation to make a thin paint. Try 
the ink on the extremity of the ribbon: 
if too soft add a little wax to make 
it harder: if too pale add more color- 
ing matter; if too hard add more petro- 
latum. If carefully applied to the rib- 
bon and the excess brushed off the 
result will be satisfactory. 

On the same principle other colors 
may be made into ink; but for delicate 
colors white petrolatum and bleached 
wax should be the vehicle and corri- 
gent respectively. 

The various printing inks may be 
used if properly corrected. They re- 
quire the addition of petrolatum to 
make them non-drying on the ribbon, 
and of some wax if they are found to 
be too soft. Where printing inks are 
available they will be found to give 
excellent results if thus modified, as 
the pigment is well milled and finely 
divided. Even black cosmetic may be 
made to answer by the addition of 
some lampblack to the solution in the 
mixture of benin and oil of turpentine. 
Copying Inks. 

For copying inks anilin colors form 
the pigment; a mixture of about 3 



parts of water and 1 part of glycerin, 
the vehicle; transparent soap (about ^4 
part), the corrigent; stronger alcohol 
(about 6 parts), the solvent. The de- 
sired anilin color will easily dissolve in 
the hot vehicle, soap will give the ink 
the necessary body and counteract the 
hygroscopic tendency of the glycerin, 
and in the stronger alcohol the ink will 
readily dissolve, so that it can be ap- 
plied in a finely divided state to the 
ribbon, where the evaporation of the 
alcohol will leave it in a thin film. 

After the ink is made and tried, if 
too soft, add a little more soap; if too 
hard, a little more glycerin; if too 
pale, a little more pigment. Printers' 
copying ink can be utilized here like- 

Blue Stencil Ink 

Shellac 2 ounces. 

Borax 1% ounces. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Prussian blue 1 ounce. 

China clay % ounce. 

Powdered acacia % ounce. 

Boil together the shellac, borax and 
water until the volume of the solution 
is reduced to 10 ounces. Rub the 
other three ingredients together, and 
add the liquid. At first the liquid 
should be added in small portions at a 

The resultant ink may be preserved 
by the addition of a little salicylic acid 
or by rubbing with the three latter in- 
gredients a small portion of methyl 
salicylate or other suitable preserva- 

vent. The elements will differ with 
the kind of ink desired, whether per- 
manent or copying. 

Liquid India Ink 

India ink consists of a special kind 
of lampblack beaten into solid form 
with a weak solution of fine white glue 
or gelatin. Sometimes a little perfume 
or preservative is added. It is said that 
the Chinese, to obtain their lampblack 
for this purpose, incompletely burn a 
mixture of colza, sesame or other fixed 
oil, with varnish and lard. The history 
and technic of the process is rather 
fully described in an interesting little 
volume entitled, "Inks. Their Composi- 
tion and Manufacture." published by 
Charles Griffith & Co., Exeter street, 
Strand. London. Ordinary lampblack 
may be purified for use in making india 
ink by washing with caustic soda. 

To liquefy india ink, it should be well 
rubbed wth water. Perhaps the addi- 
tion of a small proportion of gum arabic 
would make the ink flow from the pen 
more evenly. 

Inking Typewriter Ribbons 

The constituents of an ink for type- 
writer ribbons may be broadly divided 
into four elements: 1, the pigment; 2, 
the vehicle; 3, the corrigent; 4. the sol- 

Quick-Drying Printing Inks 

For use on roll paper printing ma»- 
chines, inks made according to the ap- 
pended formulas might serve: 

Ultramarine 1 ounce. 

Linseed oil 1 ounce. 

Olive oil enough. 

Reduce the ultramarine to an im- 
palpable powder; triturate with the 
linseed oil and about 2 ounces of olive 
oil, and add enough olive oil to pro- 
duce the proper consistency. 

Oil-soluble anilin blue.. 1 ounce. 

Crude oleic acid 1 ounce. 

Castor oil 8 to 10 ounces. 

Make a solution. , 


Paris blue 10 parts. 

Ultramarine 20 parts. 

Borax 5 parts. 

Shellac 5 parts. 

Alcohol 30 parts. 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol 
and the borax in 40 parts of water; 
mix the two solutions. Mix the pig- 
ments intimately, reducing them to the 
finest state of division; triturate or 
levigate the mixed pigments with the 
borax-shellac liquid, adding more 
water if necessary. The addition of a 
little glycerin may be necessary in a 
dry climate. 

Ink for Writing on Metal 

Shellac (or rosin) 20 parts. 

Alcohol 150 parts. 

Borax 35 parts. 

Water 250 parts. 

Water-soluble dye to color. 

Dissolve the shellac (or rosin) in the 
alcohol, the borax in the water and 
pour the shellac solution slowly into 
that of the borax. Then add the dye, 
previously dissolved in a little water. 

Bleached shellac 2 parts. 

Venice turpentine 1 part. 

Oil of turpentine 3 parts. 

Lampblack 1 part. 

Melt the first three ingredients to- 
gether over a water-bath, and then 
stir in the lampblack, incorporruinq 

A subscriber writes: 

The simplest anri best ink to use is a solu- 
tion of purple anilin in tincture of benzoin. 
It does not corrode the metal, nor does it 
affect the polish. 

I have used it for years in marking cutlery. 
After a sale is made a drop of alcohol on a 
rag will wipe off the mark. Purple makes 



the best color, as it is easily read. Another 
little tip as to marking cutlery— I always mark 
the stock number on the article, as cutlery 
is usually sold from display boards; this makes 
it easy to replace an article sold without root- 
ing' through a lot of boxes to find number 

Use a fine pen. A good point about the ink 
is, it dries quickly. 

As a pigment, zinc oxide will do for 
white; chrome yellow for yellow; Vene- 
tian red or vermilion for red; prussian 
blue for blue; ultramarine and chrome 
yellow for green, etc. 

Stamping Ink 

One should be able to make a satis- 
factory ink for use with steel dies by 
experimenting with some of the fol- 
lowing formulas: 


Oleic acid, purified 5 parts. 

Castor oil 55 parts. 

Oil-soluble anilin black.. 3 parts. 

By using other anilins. red, blue, vio- 
let, etc., inks may be produced, al- 
though as the tinctorial power of some 
of these colors is greater than that of 
the* black dye, suitable allowance must 
be made in deciding upon the propor- 


Dissolve 1 part of asphalt in 4 parts 
of oil of turpentine and add enough 
lampblack to bring the solution to the 
proper consistency. 


Copaiba 9 ounces. 

Lampblack 3 ounces. 

Indigo 3 drams. 

Prussian blue 5 drams. 

Indian red % ounce. 

Dried yellow soap 3 ounces. 


Heat 100 parts of olein to 80 degrees 
C. and dissolve in it 1 part of oil-solu- 
ble anilin black. 

Upon seeing the foregoing note, G. F. 
Dunbar wrote: 

A very satisfactory stamping ink may be 
made by grinding anilin colors with very thin 
colorless varnish, and reducing with oil of 
turpentine if necessary. I believe there is a 
concern in Philadelphia which makes a var- 
nish expressly for this purpose. 

Light Colored Inks for Stamping on 
Oil - soluble anilin 

color 90 grains. 

Zinc oxide 1 to 3 ounces. 

Crude oleic acid.... 5 drams. 

Boiled linseed oil... 1 pint. 


Shellac 2 ounces. 

Borax 2 ounces. 

Water 24 ounces. 

Acacia 2 ounces. 

Pigment enough. 

Mix the first three and boil until so- 
lution is effected; add the acacia and 
enough pigment to bring to the proper 

Show Card Ink 



Brown shellac 4 drams. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Borax 7 drams. 

Distilled water 6 ounces. 

"Water-soluble nigrosin . . 12 grains. 

Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol, 
and the borax in the water with the 
aid of heat. Pour the alcoholic solu- 
tion slowly into the aqueous solution, 
stirring constantly. When cool dis- 
solve in the liquid the nigrosin. 

A more intensely-black ink might 
result from the addition of a little 
lampblack or india ink in the fore- 


Ferric chloride 10 parts. 

Tannin 15 parts. 

Acetone 100 parts. 

Dissolve each of the solids in a por- 
tion of the fluid and mix the two 


Nigrosin 1 part. 

Water 14 parts. 

Glycerin 4 parts. 


Asphaltum 3 ounces. 

Venice turpentine 1 ounce. 

Lamp black Vz ounce. 

Oil of turpentine 8 ounces. 


Rosanlin acetate 2 parts. 

Alcohol 1 part. 

Water 10 parts. 


Bordeaux red 3 parts. 

Alcohol 2 parts. 

Water 20 parts. 

Glycerin 1 part. 

Violet and Blue. 
Anilin violet or blue 

( 1 RB) 1 ounce. 

Hot water 7 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 drams. 

Ether 5 drops. 

Phenol 1 drop. 

Dissolve the anilin in the hot water, 
allow this to cool, then add the other 

Other Colors. 
Shellac, borax, gum arabic, of each 
equal parts; pigment, water, of each, 
a sufficient quantity. Boil the shellac 
and borax together with sufficient 
water to effect solution; then add the 



acacia and sufficient pigment to give 
the desired color. 

The thickness of the ink is regu- 
lated b5 7 the amount of water used. 

The regular water- colors in tubes 
will probably be the best pigments. 
It might be worth while to experiment 
with water-soluble anilin colors of the 
desired shade. 

Black Indelible Ink 

To undertake the making of indelible 
ink by most of the formulas published 
is extremely dangerous. The formulas 
referred to direct silver nitrate and am- 
monia water, with or without caustic 
soda, or sodium carbonate. In the use 
of one such formula frequent explo- 
sions have occurred, the accident being 
due to the formation of silver nitride. 
This compound may be produced by 
ammonia alone: perhaps by other al- 
kalies alone. All such formulas are 
dangerous; none should be used. The 
following are not open to this objec- 


Grind 1.75 grammes of anilin black 
well with 60 drops of strong hydro- 
chloric acid and 42 grammes of alcohol. 
Dilute the liquid thus obtained with a 
hot solution of 2.5 grammes of gum 
arabic in 170 grammes of water. 

Extract of logwood 1 ounce. 

Potassium dichromate... 85 grains. 

Hydrochloric acid 190 minims. 

Oil of mirbane to perfume. 

Boiling water 16 ounces. 

Dissolve the extract of logwood in 
15 ounces of water, dissolve the potas- 
sium salt in the remainder, to which 
the acid has been a:lded; mix the two 


This formula is for an ink to be used 
in marking linens which are to be 
bleached with chlorine: 

Coal tar 20 ounces. 

Benzol 25 ounces. 

Lampblack 3 ounces. 

Mix well. The liquid is very inflam- 


Powdered sugar 40 grammes. 

Lamp black 10 grammes. 

Manganese sulphate.. 20 grammes. 

Water 10 grammes. 

The mixture is imprinted upon the 
cloth with a rubber stamp and the 
marked fabric is dipped into diluted 
alkali and then washed with consider- 
able water. 


Japan black. M. B. G.. 25: malachite 
green. 2; anilin, 73. Dissolve with aid 
of warmth. 

■This ink writes well, becomes fixed 
in the fabric in a few hours without 
heating, so that it resists washing. It 

does not burn holes in the linen, and 
does not become thick. 

An Acid-Resisting Ink 

Experiments might be made with 
liquid india ink, which may be made 
by dissolving shellac in a hot. aqueous 
solution of borax, and grinding the 
india ink in this. Ordinary lampblack 
may be used instead of india ink, but, 
of course, is not so good. 

Red Indelible Ink 

Dilute fresh egg albumin with an 
equal weight of water; stir with a 
glass rod until the mixture foams, and 
filter it through linen. Stir the filtrate 
well. Add levigated vermilion in small 
portions to the filtrate with constant 
trituration until a thick liquid^ is 

The desired marking is done with a 
clean gold or quill pen and the reverse 
side of the fabric is then touched with 
a hot iron, which coagulates the albu- 
min, fixing the pigment. 


It is said that by proceeding accord- 
ing to the following formula an in- 
tense purple-red color may be pro- 
duced on fabrics, which is indelible in 
the customary sense of the word: 

a. Sodium carbonate 3 drams. 

Gum arabic '. 3 drams. 

Water 12 drams. 

b. Platinic chloride 1 dram. 

Distilled water 2 ounces. 

c. Stannous chloride 1 dram. 

Distilled water 4 drams. 

Moisten the fabric to be written upon 
with a and rub a warm iron over it un- 
til dry; then write with b, and, when 
dry, moisten with c. 

A very rich purple color — the purple 
of Cassius — may be produced by sub- 
stituting a solution of gold chloride for 
the platinic chloride in the above for- 

After it has been marked with in- 
delible ink the fabric may be held in 
the jet of steam issuing from a kettle 
of boiling water, instead of being sub- 
jected to the heat of a hot iron, which 
may scorch it. 

Ink for Writing on Photographs 

Iodine 1 gramme. 

Potassium iodide 10 grammes. 

Mucilage of acacia. ... 2 grammes. 
Water 35 mils. 

Ink for Writing on Glass 

Powdered india ink 1 part. 

Solution of sodium silicate 2 parts. 



Invisible and Sympathetic Inks 

A solution of mereurous nitrate used 
with a quill, on ordinary white paper, 
when dry, produces marks which are 
invisible. A small quantity of strong 
solution of ammonia is placed in the 
bottom of a large cylindrical glass 
jar, which thus becomes filled with 
ammonia gas in a suitably moist con- 
dition. On placing the paper with the 
invisible marks inside the jar a few 
seconds and then withdrawing it, it 
will be found that the marks come out 
in distinct and permanent black. 

A sympathetic ink is one that be- 
comes visible and then vanishes again 
as required. To meet this require- 
ment, use a fairly strong solution of 
phenolphthalein. Writing with such 
a solution on ordinary white paper is 
quite invisible when dry, but when 
placed for a few seconds in the jar 
above mentioned the writing becomes 
a beautiful pink color, which fades 
as the ammonia evaporates. By 
breathing upon the paper the color 
disappears almost immediately. 

There are many sympathetic inks 
which become visible on being 
warmed, and among these none is 
more satisfactory than lemon juice 
fortified by the addition of an extra 
amount of citric acid. 

Ink Invisible When First Used 

An inquirer wants a formula for an 
ink that is invisible wdien first used, 
but which will become visible a few 
minutes later. A solution of silver ni- 
trate possesses the desired property. 
We suggest the following formula: . 

Silver nitrate 5 grains. 

Powdered acacia 10 grains. 

Distilled water, to make. 1 ounce. 

The "ink"' should be kept in a dark 
bottle and used with a glass or quill 

From a little monograph on inks, by 
W. W. Smith, the following informa- 
tion is given. The language is not al- 
together pharmaceutical. or even 
grammatical, but the facts, and not 
the medium through which they are 
conveyed, are the important thing, 
and these are given as found: 

1. Sulphate of copper and sal-am- 
moniac, equal parts, dissolved in wa- 
ter, writes colorless, but turns yellow 
when heated. 

2. Onion juice like the last. 

3. A weak infusion of galls turns 
black when moistened with weak cop- 
eras water. 

4. A weak solution of sulphate of 
iron turns blue when moistened with 
a weak solution of prus-^iate of pot- 
ash, or black with infusion of galls. 

5. Solution of acetate of cobalt, to 
which a little nitrate has been added, 
becomes rose color when heated, and 
disappears on coolins. 

6. New milk. written on white 
paper, is made legible by sprinkling 
with coal dust or soot. 

7. Sulphuric acid, 1 part; water. 20 
parts; mix together; write with a quill 
pen, which writing can be read only 
after heating it. 

8. Dissolve nitrate of bismuth in 
water: write with the solution, which 
will be invisible when dry, and visible 
again when immersed in water. 

9. Write with a solution of ferrocya- 
nide of potassium; develop by pressing 
over the dry invisible characters a 
piece of blotting paper moistened with 
a solution of iron sulphate. 

10. Write with pure dilute tincture of 
iron; develop with a blotter moistened 
with strong tea. 

11. A weak infusion of galls is turned 
black by sulphate of iron (copperas). 

12. Reversing the above, writing with 
copperas turns black by moistening 
with infusion of galls. 

Blue Sympathetic Inks, 
Writing with copperas turns blue it" 

wetted with a solution of prussiate of 


Xitrate of cobalt turns blue on being 

wetted with a weak solution of oxalic 


Rice water or a solution of boiled 

starch turns blue in a solution of iodine 

in weak spirit. 

Sympathetic Inks Developed by Heat 

There are a number of colorless sub- 
stances that may be used as inks 
which are developed by the application 
of heat only. 

Lemon juice, a very weak solution of 
either aqua fortis, oil of vitriol, com- 
mon salt or saltpeter, will turn yellow 
or brown on exposure to the fire. . 

A weak solution of chloride of cobalt 
and chloride of nickel is turned a beau- 
tiful green by heat. 

A solution of chloride, or nitro-muri- 
ate of cobalt turns green when heated, 
and disappears on cooling. 

A dilute solution of chloride of cop- 
per becomes a fine yellow at moderate 
heat, and disappears on cooling. 

A solution of acetate of cobalt, with 
a little nitrate added to it. turns rose- 
colored by heat, and disappears again 
when cold. 

These last, which disappear again on 
cooling, are the best sympathetic inks 
for purposes of correspondence, as the 
others are more or less indelible when 
once developed. 

To Make a Hectograph 

Hectograph pads may be made by 
melting together 1 part of good clean 
glue, 2 parts of water and 4 parts of 
glycerin (all by weight), evaporating 
some of the water, and adding more 
glue or glycerin if the season or the 
climate requires a modification of the 



original formula. The mass, when of 
proper consistency, which may be as- 
certained by cooling a small portion, 
should be poured into a shallow pan 
and allowed to set. If the mixture is 
not clear it should be strained; and air 
bubbles should be removed by skim- 
ming the surface with a piece of card- 

Other formulas for making this sim- 
ple and useful manifolder are: 


Gelatin 100 parts. 

Water 375 parts. 

Glycerin 375 parts. 

Kaolin (in fine powder) 50 parts. 

Soak the gelatin over night in the 
water, and the next day, after pouring 
off any water remaining unabsorbed by 
the gelatin, add the jelly to the glyc- 
erin previously heated to about 200 de- 
grees F. on a salt water bath. When 
the gelatin has dissolved in the glyc- 
erin add the kaolin, heating on a salt 
water bath until a sample taken from 
the mass and cooled has the proper 


Glycerin 12 ounces. 

Gelatin 2 ounces. 

Water 7% ounces. 

Sugar 2 ounces. 


Gelatin 15 ounces. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Dextrin 1% ounces. 

Sugar 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 15 ounces. 

Zinc oxide 1% ounces. 

The writing to be copied by means of 
the hectograph is done on good paper 
with an anilin ink. Formulas for suit- 
able ones are appended. The purple 
ink is most frequently used, we think; 
it is said that more copies may be ob- 
tained from writing done with it than 
with other kinds. 

Hectograph Inks. 

Appended are some recipes for hec- 
tograph inks: 


Methyl voilet 10 parts. 

Xigrosin 20 parts. 

Glycerin 30 parts. 

Gum arabic 5 parts. 

Alcohol 60 parts. 


Methyl violet 2 parts. 

Alcohol 2 parts. 

Sugar 1 part. 

Glycerin 4 parts. 

Water 24 parts. 

Dissolve the violet in the alcohol 
mixed with the glycerin; dissolve the 
sugar in the water; mix the two solu- 


Resorcin blue M 10 parts. 

Dilute acetic acid 1 part. 

Water S5 parts. 

Glycerin 4 parts. 

Alcohol 10 parts. 

Dissolve by aid of heat. 

Fuchsin 10 parts. 

Alcohol 10 parts. 

Glycerin 10 parts. 

Water 50 parts. 


Anilin green, water soluble. 15 parts. 

Glycerin 10 parts. 

Water . '. 50 parts. 

Alcohol 10 parts. 

The writing is allowed to dry with- 
out blotting. The pad having been 
moistened with clean water the paper 
is placed on it, face inward, of course, 
and rubbed gently but firmly over 
every portion, care being taken to pre- 
vent it from changing position. A 
roller is useful here. The paper is al- 
lowed to remain on the pad for from 
two to five minutes, and is then care- 
fully removed. Copies are now taken 
by pressing dry paper on this surface 
and removing immediately. The oper- 
ation should be carried out with as lit- 
tle interruption as possible. It is said 
that the distinctness and sharpness of 
hectograph prints may be materially 
heightened by wetting the paper upon 
which the prints are to be made with 
alcohol and removing the excess by 
blotting paper. 

After using the pad the ink should 
be removed from the surface imme- 
diately with a soft sponge and warm 
water. The pad should then be well 
dried, when it will be ready for another 
operation. It may be used a great 
many times if properly manipulated. 

Ink Erasers 


Citric acid , 2 ounces. 

Water 1 pint. 

Saturated aqueous so- 
lution of borax 3 or 4 ounces. 

Dissolve the acid in the water and 
add the borax solution. 

Chlorinated lime G ounces. 

Water 1 pint. 

Saturated solution of 

borax 3 or 4 ounces. 

Mix the lime and water, shake well. 
set aside for a week in a well-stoppered 
bottle, decant the clear liquid, and add 
the .borax solution. 

This eraser is used by saturating the 
spot with A, removing the excess of 
the liquid with a blotter, and then ap- 
plying B. When the spot has disap- 
peared, apply the blotter and wash the 
spot by the alternate use of clear water 
and blotting paper. 

A single solution eraser may be made 



Take 01" chlorinated lime 4 ounces, 
thoroughly pulverized, and 2 pints of 
distilled water. {Shake well and set the 
mixture aside for 24 hours; then strain 
through cotton cloth, after which add 
- ounces of acetic acid to each pint of 
the strained water. 

that a high-grade dextrin does not give 
:•- good result's as one that contains 
some unchanged starch. 

Ink for Rubber Stamp Pad 

Anilin violet 1 part. 

Glycerin 3 parts. 

Alcohol 4 parts. 

Gum arabic 3 parts. 

Water 16 parts. 

Marking Paste for Laundry Use 

Copper sulphate 2 parts. 

Anilin hydrochloride 3 parts. 

Dextrin 1 part. 

Glycerin to make apaste. 

Mix well and put up in - tin boxes. 

Office Adhesive 

Russian glue 10 pounds. 

Brazilian isinglass 10 ounces. 

Liquid glucose % gallon. 

Acetic acid 18 pounds. 

Distilled water 1% gallons. 

Soften the glue and isinglass in the 
water overnight, then heat on a water 
bath with the acetic acid and glucose 
until it is homogeneous. 

Less- water may be used if desired. 


Sugar 6 ounces. 

Water 18 ounces. 

Dissolve by boiling and add, with 
constant stirring, to the hot solution 

Sifted slaked lime 1% ounces. 

Set aside for a few days to settle and 
decant the clear solution. In it soak 

Gelatin 6 ounces. 

for twenty-four hours, then heat on a 
water bath until dissolved. 

Dextrin Paste. 

A strong aqueous solution of reason- 
ably pure dextrin forms a cheap muci- 
lage. Alcohol is usually added when 
the mucilage is to be used for gumming 
envelopes or postage stamps, in order 
to facilitate the drying, and acetic acid 
is employed to increase the mobility of 
the fluid. A working formula follows: 

Brown dextrin 1 pound. 

Acetic acid 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 4 ounces. 

Water, to make 2 pints. 

Dissolve the dextrin in 1 pint of boil- 
ing water, strain through Canton flan- 
nel, add the acetic acid and when near- 
ly cold add the alcohol and the r< 
the water, stirrine: thoroughly. 

In our experience, we have found 

Library Paste. 

Tragacanth in powder... 20 parts. 

"White dextrin 10 parts. 

Wheat flour 60 parts. 

Glycerin 10 parts. 

Cold water 40 parts. 

Salicylic acid 3 parts. 

Boiling water 400 parts. 

Over the tragacanth pour 160 parts 
of boiling water, stir well and set aside. 
Mix the wheat flour and the dextrin 
with the cold water, stir in well and 
then add the mixture to the tragacanth. 
Pour into the batter thus formed the 
rest of the boiling water, stirring con- 
stantly while doing so. Rub up the 
acid with the glycerin and add to the 
batter; put the mixture on the fire, 
bring to a boil under constant stirring, 
and let cook for five or six minutes. 
Let cool and the paste is ready. 

Gelatin 50 grains. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 1 dram. 

Wheat starch enough. 

Rice starch enough. 

Swell the gelatin in the water for a 
day, and heat gradually until solution 
is effected. Allow the solution to cool 
to a little below 70 degrees F., and stir 
in enough of the starches, mixed in 
the proportion of 2 parts of wheat 
starch to 1 part of rice starch to pro- 
duce a thin batter. Heat slowly in a 
double boiler until the mass thickens 
and continue the heating until the bulk 
is reduced about one-sixth, stirring 
constantly. Remove from the heat and 
stir in slowly the oil dissolved in the 


Gelatin 4 ounces. 

Water 2 pints. 

Flour paste 2 pounds. 

Solution of sodium sili- 
cate 1 ounce. 

Oil of cloves 2 drams. 

Soak the gelatin in 1 pint of water 
until softened, then dissolve with the 
aid of a gentle heat. While hot pour 
in the paste with the mixed silicate 
and stir, while the mixture cools, using 
a wooden paddle. When cold beat in 
the oil. 

Solid Mucilage. 

Gelatin 40 grammes. 

Acacia 60 grammes. 

Tragacanth 10 grammes. 

Glycerin 20 grammes. 

Oil of wintergreen 3 drops. 

Water 2<»0 mils. 



Soften the gelatin in 80 mils of the 
water, then add the gums, glycerin and 
the remainder of the water, and heat 
on a water-bath until a homogeneous 
creamy mass is formed, a drop of 
which becomes firm on cooling. Re- 
move from the heat, add the oil, and 
when the mass is cool cut it into cakes 
pf convenient size and shape. 

A Paste That Will Keep. 

Alum 1 dram. 

Water 2 pints. 

Powdered rosin 30 grains. 

Spirit of cloves 30 minims. 

Flour enough. 

Dissolve the alum in the water and 
bring to a boil. Stir in enough flour, 
with which the rosin previously has 
been well mixed, to make a creamy 
paste, and to this add the antiseptic. 
Pour the paste into a crock and keep 
in a cool place. To use, dissolve a 
chunk in enough hot water to make a 
paste of the proper consistence. 

Marine Glue. 

Cabinet makers' glue 17 parts. 

Water 23 parts. 

Litharge 2 parts. 

Acetic acid 6 parts. 

Raw linseed oil 8 parts. 

Lead sulphate 6 parts. 

Soak the glue in the water until it is 
soft, then melt it by the aid of heat, 
stirring in the acid. In another vessel 
heat the oil and litharge together for 
10 or 15 minutes, then mix the two hot 
liquids and stir in the pigment. 

Liquid Cement 

Gelatin 100 parts. 

"Water 100 parts. 

Zinc chloride 1 part. 

Hydrochloride acid enough. 

Heat the gelatin with the water on 
a water-bath until the mixture be- 
comes homogeneous. Add the zinc 
chloride and continue the heat until 
a portion of the mixture does not set' 
solid when allowed to cool. Some- 
times a little more zinc chloride is re- 
quired. If the liquid is alkaline it 
must be neutralized with hydrochloric 

Liquid Glue 

Slaked lime 5 grammes. 

Sugar 200 grammes. 

Glue enough. 

Water enough., 

Mix the lime intimately with the 
sugar and add enough water to make 
GOO mils. Heat the mixture to about 
65° C. and maintain this temperature 
for about three hours, stirring the 

mixture occasionally. Allow the mix- 
ture to cool and settle; decant as 
much liquid as possible, and in this 
liquid dissolve glue in the proportion 
of 1 to 5. 


Dissolve 1 ounce of good glue (or 
gelatin) in 3 ounces of hot water and 
V 2 ounce of glycerin; add 1 ounce 
each of acetic acid and alcohol. This 
makes a smooth adhesive, the use of 
which is not likely to make paper 


Glue 200 parts. 

Diluted acetic acid 400 parts. 

Alcohol 25 parts. 

Alum 5 parts. 

Dissolve the glue in the acid by the 
aid of heat, and to the solution add 
the alum and alcohol. 

Waterproof Glue 

A solution of 20 grammes of san- 
darac, 20 grammes of turpentine and 
20 grammes of mastic in 250 mils, of 
alcohol is poured into an equal vol- 
ume of a strong hot solution of glue 
and isinglass. 


A waterproof glue which is not mis- 
cible with water is obtained by heat- 
ing on a water-bath 100 parts of gela- 
tin, 10 parts of glue, 25 parts of al- 
cohol, 2 parts of alum and an excess 
of acetic acid for 6 hours, replacing 
from time to time the acetic acid lost 
by evaporation. The resulting mass 
is then rubbed with acetic acid into 
a thin syrup. 


Macerate 1 to 2 ounces of caout- 
chouc, cut into small pieces, in 16 fluid 
ounces of benzol (not benzin), pro- 
moting solution by the application of 
heat and by agitation. The heat 
should not be applied by means of an 
open flame, on account of the danger 
of taking fire, but by a hot-water coil. 
To the solution when formed, which 
should have the consistence of thick 
cream, add 30 ounces of powdered 
shellac, and heat the mixture with 
constant stirring until complete fu- 
sion and combination have been ef- 
fected. Pour this mixture while hot 
on plates of metal, so that it may 
cool in sheets like leather. In using 
this cement, put some of it into an 
iron vessel, heat to 120° C, and apply 
with a brush to the surface to be 


Glue 5 av. ounces. 

Water 4% fluid ounces. 

Acetic acid 1 fluid ounce. 

Ammonium dichro- 

mate iy 2 drams. 



Soak the glue in 4 fluid ounces of 
water until soft, then heat on a wa- 
terbath until dissolved; incorporate 
the acetic acid, transfer the solution 
to a dark-amber-colored bottle, and 
then add the dichromate dissolved in 
the remainder of the water. 

If an amber bottle is not at hand, 
the mixture may be kept in an ordi- 
nary bottle in a dark place. In using, 
expose to a strong light, which makes 
the glue insoluble. 

It is said that liquid glue made by 
dissolving common white glue in 
skim -milk is waterproof. 

If the layer of glue can be exposed 
to the action of light while setting, 
any ordinary liquid glue may be made 
waterproof by dissolving in it 1 or 2 
per cent, of potassium dichromate. 

Guttapercha 1 part. 

Benzin enough. 

Shellac 2 parts. 


Softened glue 6 parts. 

Isinglass 1 part. 

Diluted alcohol enough. 

Oil varnish a few drops. 

Mix the glue which has been soft- 
ened in water, with the isinglass, and 
dissolve in the diluted alcohol with 
the aid of a gentle heat. When cool 
add the varnish, and strain. 

Belt Glue 

Soak 50 parts of gelatin in water, 
pour off the excess of water, and heat 
on a water-bath. With good stirring 
add 5 parts of glycerin, 10 parts of oil 
of turpentine, and 5 parts of linseed 
oil varnish. The ingredients are to 
be added in the order named, and the 
parts should be weighed rather than 

This glue is to be thinned with wa- 
ter as necessary, and applied to the 
two ends of the belt to be united. 
Pressure is then applied for 24 hours; 
when the cement is dry and the belt 
ivadv for use. 

Glue to Form Paper Pads 

For glue to bind the edges of paper 
so as to form pads the following for- 
mulas have been published: 

Glue 3y 2 ounces. 

Glycerin 8 ounces. 

Water enough. 

Pour upon the glue more than enough 
water to cover it and let it stand for 
several hours, then decant the greater 
portion of the water; apply heat until 
the glue is dissolved and add the 

glycerin. If the mixture is too thick, 
add more water. 


Glue 6 ounces. 

Alum 30 grains. 

Acetic acid % ounce. 

Alcohol 1% ounces. 

Water 6 y 2 ounces. 

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a 
water bath until the glue is dissolved, 
allow to cool and add the alcohol. 

Leather Cement 

Gutta percha raspings. ... 1 ounce. 

Carbon disulphide 5 ounces. 

Dissolve and spread a portion of the 
solution on each of the two pieces of 
leather to be united. After a few min- 
utes, when the disulphide has evapo- 
rated, the leather is to be heated over 
a gas flame and the parts are to be 
stuck together and pressed with a 
warm iron. 

It should be remembered that carbon 
disulphide is dangerously inflammable. 

Gutta-percha shreds 20 parts. 

Asphalt 20 parts. 

Carbon disulphide 50 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 10 parts. 

Dissolve the shreds of gutta percha in 
the carbon disulphide and oil of tur- 
pentine. To this solution add the as- 
phalt in powder and set the whole 
away for several days until the asphalt 
is dissolved. 

The cement should be of about the 
consistency of honey, and if thinner 
than this should be left in an open ves- 
sel until evaporation has made it of 
the proper consistency. Articles to be 
patched with this cement should first 
be washed with benzin. 

Both the carbon disulphide and the 
benzin should be kept away from fire. 

Soak for one day 1 pound of com- 
mon «glue in enough water to cover it. 
At the same time soak 1 pound of 
isinglass in stale ale. Then mix the 
two and heat gradually until the boil- 
ing point is reached. At this point add 
a little tannin and continue the boiling 
for an hour. Water may be added if 
the mixture is too thick at any time 
during the making. 

When this cement is applied the 
leather joined should be kept under 
pressure for not less than twelve hours. 

Steam-Proof Mucilage for Envelopes 

A paste which is said to be proof 
against the softening powers of hot 
water or steam may be made by soften- 
ing a good quality of glue in sufficient 
water to cover it; then straining off 
the water and melting the glue at a 
moderate heat in sufficient linseed oil to 



make the mixture of the proper con- 

Cement for Celluloid Motion Picture 



Shellac 1 part. 

Camphor 1 part. 

Alcohol 4 parts. 

Dissolve the camphor in the alcohol 
and in this solution dissolve the 


Celluloid scraps 5 parts. 

Ether 3 parts. 

Amyl acetate 3 parts. 

Acetone 6 parts. 

See caution below as to inflammabil- 


Proxylin 5 parts. 

Oil of cloves 2 parts. 

Amyl acetate -'5 parts. 

Benzol 20 parts. 

Acetone, to make 100 parts. 

Dissolve the pryoxylin in 50 parts of 
the acetone; add the oil of cloves, 
the amyl acetate and the benzol, and 
make up to the required volume with 

The last two products are very in- 
flammable and should be kept remote 
from a flame; the same precaution is 
necessary as to their ingredients. 

To obtain satisfactory results the 
"glued" portions of the film should be 
kept under pressure from the moment 
of attachment until thoroughly dry. 
For this purpose an ordinary letter 
press might be utilized. 

Glue for Celluloid 
To mend broken celluloid articles, 
mix 3 parts of alcohol and 4 parts of 
ether, and apply to the broken edges 
of the article. Press the two parts to- 
gether and leave them for twenty-four 

To Affix Paper to Glass 

Gelatin 63 ounces. 

Acetic acid 4 ounces. 

Alum 30 grains. 

Water 2 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Heat all together, except the alcohol, 
for half a day, strain and add the 

Russian isinglass, in 

shreds 1 ounce. 

Water 2 ounces. 

Salicylic acid 10 grains. 

Acetic acid 1 ounce. 

Place the isinglass and water in a 
double boiler and gradually heat until 

the water in the boiler boils, stirring 
the mass until the .solution is effected. 
Then add the acids. 

Dextrin 4 ounces. 

Acetic acid 1 ounce. 

Water 5 ounces. 

Alcohol 1 ounce. 

Rub the first three ingredients to- 
gether until a smooth paste is obtained, 
and then add the spirit. 

Dextrin 4 ounces. 

Borax V 2 ounce. 

Glucose % ounce. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Dissolve the borax in the water by 
the aid of a gentle heat, then add the 
dextrin and glucose, continuing the 
heat until solution is effected. 

Acacia 120 grammes. 

Tragacanth 30 grammes. 

Water 500 mils. 

Glycerin 150 grammes. 

Oil of thyme 2 mils. 

Dissolve the acacia in 250 mils of 
water. Mix the tragacanth with the 
rest of the water, and, after it has 
stood for several hours, shake the 
tragacanth mixture until it froths; mix 
it with the acacia solution. Strain 
through linen, and add the glycerin 
previously mixed with the oil. 

Waterproof Cement 

Coal tar 12 parts. 

India rubber 1 part. 

Powdered shellac 20 parts. 

Heat the tar and the rubber gently 
together; when homogeneous, incorpo- 
rate the shellac. Pour the mass on a 
flat surface to cool. For use the cement 
is heated to about 250 degrees F. 

To Fasten Pestle Handles 

A satisfactory cement for fastening 
wooden handles in wedgwood pestles is 
made by adding to glycerin enough 
finely powdered and sifted litharge to 
make a soft paste. Clean the cavity in 
the pestle, partly fill it with the cement 
and force in the handle. 

Other cements for this purpose con- 
sist of plaster of paris made into a 
thin paste with water; equal parts of 
plaster of paris and rosin, mixed by the 
aid of heat; plaster of paris, sand and 
water: melted sealing wax; melted 
shellac; shellac and gutta percha. 
melted together; gutta percha, shellac 
and rosin, melted together. 

If the wooden handle does not fit 
tightly into the head, a bit of twine or 
rubber adhesive plaster might be 
wrapped around it. 

In using any of the cements which 
need heat for their application, the 



head of the pestle should be warmed 
before pouring the cement into it. 

After the cement has been applied, 
the pestle should be laid aside in a 
warm place, under pressure, for a week 
or two. 

Metal Cement 

Casein 4 parts. 

Slaked lime 5 parts. 

Sand 20 parts. 

Water enough. 

Cement for Broken Glass or Porcelain 


Sandarac 30 grammes. 

Mastic 30 grammes. 

Oil of turpentine 30 mils. 

Isinglass enough. 

Glue enough. 

Water enough. 

Alcohol (90 per cent.). 500 mils. 

Dissolve the resins in the alcohol and 
add the oil of turpentine. Make about 
500 mils of a rather strong solution of 
glue in hot water and add to it a quan- 
tity of isinglass equivalent to the 
amount of glue used. Heat this mix- 
ture slowly until it begins to boil. Pour 
the hot liquid slowly into the alcoholic 
mixture, stirring constantly, until a 
paste, thin enough to strain through 
muslin, is formed. 


A waterproof glue can be made by 
mixing with common glue 1 part of 
acid calcium chromate in solution, to 5 
parts of the glue. An adhesive made in 
this manner is insoluble in water after 
exposure to light, and can be used for 
mending glass objects likely to be ex- 
posed in hot water. It is necessary, to 
effect this end, that the fractured ob- 
jects be exposed to strong light for 
some time. 

It is said that the acid calcium chro- 
mate is much better than the more gen- 
erally used potassium dichromate. The 
glue, when mixed, must lie kept in the 


Isinglass 25 parts. 

Ammoniac 2 parts. 

Mastic 1 part. 

Alcohol 5 parts. 

Water enough. 

Soak the isinglass in water all night 
and then suspend it in a cloth until all 
superfluous water has drained off. 
Then put it into a suitable flask and 
heat on a water bath until it becomes 
fluid. Dissolve the gums in the alcohol 
and add this solution to the soft isin- 
glass, which has been removed from 
the water bath and allowed to cool to 
about 160 degrees F., and mix all thor- 
oughly together. 

Cement for Iron 


Probably stove putty composed of 

equal parts of iron filings, wood ashes 

and salt and made into a paste with 

water might answer. 


Powdered iron 17 ounces. 

Sublimed sulphur 2 ounces. 

Ammonium chloride 1 ounce. 

The ingredients are rubbed with suf- 
ficient water to form a thick mass, and 
applied to the parts, previously well 
cleansed. After eight days the luting 
becomes as hard as iron. 
• III. 

Manganese dioxide 1 ounce. 

Clay, dry 4 ounces. 

Borax, powdered 5 ounces. 

Mix well. In using mix enough water 
to form a paste and press in cracks. 
Useful for mending cracks in stoves. 

Magnesium Cement 

A magnesium cement for mending 
meerschaum is made by dissolving 1 
part of casein in 6 parts of solution of 
sodium silicate and stirring in suffi- 
cient magnesium oxide to produce a 
soft, pasty mass. This cement must be 
freshly prepared. 

A somewhat different preparation has 
the following formula: 

Magnesium oxide 2parts. 

Magnesium chloride 1 part. 

Water to make a soft paste. 

Acid-Resisting Cement 

Solution of sodium silicate 12 parts. 

Glycerin 2 parts. 

Red lead 7 parts. 

Sifted cinders 20 parts. 

Mix the solution of sodium silicate 
with the glycerin and incorporate the 
other ingredients. 

The cement soon hardens and, when 
heated to 212 degrees F.. unites with 
brick or concrete to form a strong, 
acid-proof joint. 

Knife Handle Cement 

Rosin 4 parts. 

Beeswax 1 part. 

Plaster of paris 1 part. 

Melt together and fix the handles 
while warm. 

Cement, Brass to Glass 

Knead resin soap with one-half its 
weight of plaster of paris. 

Cement, Copper to Sandstone 

Take 7 parts of white lead, 6 parts of 
litharge, 6 parts of bole and 4 parts of 
broken j/lass, and rub up with 4 parts 
of linseed oil varnish. 



General Adhesive 

Below is a formula for an adhesive 
for wood, glass, cardboard and all ar- 
ticles of a metallic or mineral char- 

Boiled linseed oil 20 parts. 

Glue 20 parts. 

Slaked lime 15 parts. 

Powdered rosin 5 parts. 

Alum 5 parts. 

Acetic acid 5 parts. 

Melt the glue with the acetic acid, 
add the alum, lime, rosin and oil in 
the order named. Stir all together and 
use like any other glue. 

Spirit Gum 

This adjunct of the buskin and wig 
is as variously constituted as is the 
cream used in removing it from the 
face. In its simpler forms spirit gum 
is a (1) solution of mastic in ether, (2) 
a solution of mastic in alcohol, (3) a 
solution of sandarac in ether, (4) a so- 
lution of shellac in alcohol, (5) any one 
of these "gums" in any one of the 

Waterproofing Portland Cement. 

We believe that mixtures of calcium 
sulphate and a soluble sulphate or 
soluble silicate are used for this pur- 
pose. A similar process which we have 
seen described consists in adding 1 
per cent, of powdered alum to the 
mixed cement and sand, and using 1 
per cent, of common yellow soap in 
the mixing water. Some processes for 
waterproofing Portland cement are 

Practical men say that brushing 
over the surface several times with a 
saturated solution of zinc sulphate 
and painting over all with a good 
heavy paint is better than waterproof- 
ing the cement before use. 

A coating for cement work is made 

Quicklime 1 bushel. 

Sodium chloride 8 pounds. 

Rice flour S pounds. 

Whiting 2 pounds. 

White glue 2 pounds. 

Hot water enough. 

Slake the lime with enough hot water 
to make a thin paste; add the salt dis- 
solved in a minimum of hot water and 
the flour made into a thin paste with 
more hot water; and then add the 
glue. .Mix the whiting with 10 gallons 
of hot water; stir into the other solu- 
tion; and set aside for a week. 

This mixture is to be heated to boil- 
ing when it is to be applied. 

Cement for Wooden Vessels 
Cracks in barrels, tubs, tanks, or 
other wooden vessels may be filled with 
a preparation made as follows: 

Lard 6 pounds. 

Common salt 4 pounds. 

Beeswax 3% pounds. 

Sifted wood ashes 4 pounds. 

Melt the wax with the lard over a 
gentle heat;' add the salt and mix thor- 
oughly, then stir in the ashes. Apply 

Pasting Labels on Tin 

Powdered starch, best. .iy 2 ounces. 

Powdered acacia." 2 ounces. 

Granulated sugar % ounce. 

Alum 40 grains. 

Water y 2 pint. 

Dissolve the alum and the acacia in 
the water, add the sugar and starch 
and heat in a water-bath until quite 
clear. To prevent souring add a small 
quantity of some antiseptic. 

Charles T. Heseltine uses an ordi- 
nary dextrin paste and puts a coat of 
shellac on the tin before applying the 
pasted label. We can vouch for the 
efficacy of this method, having used 
it many years ago. 

Another druggist writes that he 
adds a little tartaric acid to the paste 
just before using. 

Still another sandpapers the surface 
of the tin before pasting on the label. 

Charles T. Kutteroff uses solution of 
sodium silicate as the adhesive, 
which he finds as effective on iron and 
wood as on tin. 


Rye (or wheat) flour.... 8 ounces. 

Powdered acacia 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Oil of cloves 40 drops. 

Water 1 y 2 pints. 

Rub the flour and acacia with 8 
ounces of water to a smooth paste; 
strain through cheese cloth; heat the 
remainder of the water to boiling, mix 
and continue to heat until as thick as 
desired; when nearly cold add the re- 
maining ingredients. 

Moisten the back of the label with 
some glycerin on the tip of a finger 
and then immediately apply the paste 
in the usual manner. 

For Lacquered Tin 

Wheat flour 2 to 4 ounces. 

Corn starch 2 drams. 

Powdered alum 2 drams. 

Phenol (86.4%) 1 dram. 

Clarified honey 1 to 2 ounces. 

Balsam of fir 1 ounce. 

Water S ounces. 

Mix the solids with the water and 
heat the mixture on a water-bath until 
a stiff paste results. Then add the 
phenol, and the honey, and after mix- 
ing well, slowly pour in the balsam of 
fir and stir until it is thoroughly dis- 
tributed. In place of balsam of fir. 2 



ounces of imitation Venice turpentine 
can be used. 

For Unlacquered Tin. 
The following method has been rec- 
ommended for unlacquered ware: Wipe 
off as much of the grease from the can 
as possible; then apply to label a paste 
made as follows: Get 8 ounces of solu- 
tion of sodium silicate, the heavy, 
thick and cloudy kind (the clear trans- 
parent sort is no good), and add 1-3 
ounce of solution of potassa (1 in 10) 
and 1 ounce of glycerin. Mix these 
well together. The silicate may thicken 
when the glycerin is added, but with 
constant stirring it will thin out; then 
if too thick, add enough boiling water 
to thin. One-half to one ounce is 
usually enough. 

To Paste Labels on Wood 

An old household recipe is as fol- 

To 1 pint of best wheaten flour add 
rosin, very finely powdered, about 2 
large spoonfuls; of alum, 1 spoonful in 
powder; mix them all well together, put 
them into a pan and add by degrees 
soft or rain water, carefully stirring it 
until it is of the consistence of the 
thinnest cream; put it into a sauce pan 
over a clear fire, keeping it constantly 
stirred that it may not get lumpy. 
When it is of stiff consistence, so that 
the spoon will stand upright in it, it is 
done enough. Be careful to stir it well 
from the bottom, for it will burn if not 
well attended to. 

Rubber Tire Cement 

Cements for thin rubber fabric, such 
as the inner tubes of vehicle tires, are 
usually simple solutions of gutta- 
percha or scrap unvulcanized rubber in 
carbon disulphide or benzol; sometimes 
a little rosin or shellac is added. The 
following formulas are typical: 

Gutta-percha % av. oz. 

Rosin 40 grains. 

Carbon disulphide 8 ounces. 


Scrap rubber % ounce. 

Rosin Vs ounce. 

Beeswax % ounce. 

Carbon disulphide 8 ounces. 

Digest the rubber in 4 ounces of the 
carbon disulphide for twenty-four 
hours; add the rosin, finely powdered, 
and lastly the beeswax mixed with the 
rest of the solvent. 

For cuts or rips in outer tires, a 
heavier cement is necessary, the fol- 
lowing being a typical formula: 

Gutta-percha 2 ounces. 

Caoutchouc 4 ounces. 

Isinglass 1 ounce. 

Carbon disulphide 1 pint. 

In handling carbon disulphide, ben- 
zol or benzin, or preparations contain- 
ing any of them, the fact that they are 
extremely inflammable should be borne 
in mind. 

A solution of gutta percha was rec- 
ognized in the 1880 Pharmacopoeia; 
the formula may be found in the ap- 
pendix to the National Formulary. 

Rubber Cement 

Pieces of rubber may be united by 
means of the pasty mass obtained by 
dissolving pure rubber in ether, ben- 
zin, carbon disulphide, or oil of tur- 
pentine. However, it is difficult to dis- 
solve rubber satisfactorily on a small 
scale, and dangerous to handle most of 
its solvents, and as the cement may be 
bought ready made at a low price, we 
do not advise promiscuous experiments 
in making it. Those who wish to try 
it will probably succeed best by cut- 
ting pure, unvulcanized rubber into 
very thin slices, boiling it in water so 
as to soften and expand it, and then 
digesting it in benzin or hot oil of tur- 
pentine. Several days are required to 
effect the solution. When this cement 
is , used for uniting pieces of rubber, 
the surfaces which are to be joined 
must be fresh; they should, therefore, 
either be pared with a knife or rasped 
with a file. They may then be coated 
with the cement, pressed firmly to- 
gether, and exposed to a gentle heat 
for a few days. 

Here is another formula, or a modi- 
fication of the first one: Virgin rubber 
is cut with a wet knife into the thin- 
nest possible slices, which are then 
divided by shears into threads as fine 
as small twine. A small quantity of 
the shreds (say 1/10 of the capacity of 
the bottle) is then put into a wide- 
mouthed bottle .and the latter is three- 
fourths filled with benzin of good qual- 
ity, free from kerosene. The rubber al- 
most immediately commences to swell, 
and, in a few days, if often shaken, 
it will assume the consistency of 
honey. Should it be inclined to remain 
in undissolved lumps, more benzin 
must be added. Thinness may be cor- 
rected by adding more rubber. A piece 
of solid rubber no larger than a wal- 
nut will make a pint of the cement. 
It dries in a few minutes, and, by using 
three coats in the usual manner, 
leather straps, patches, rubber soles, 
backs of books, etc., may be joined 
with great firmness. 

Two more formulas are appended: 

Gutta-percha 20 grammes. 

Caoutchouc 40 grammes. 

Isinglass 10 grammes. 

Carbon disulphide... .160 grammes. 

Caoutchouc 4 grammes. 

Rosin 8 grammes. 



Japan wax 6 grammes. 

Benzin 16 grammes. 

Filler for Pneumatic Tires 

Sheet glue 1 pound 

Molasses 3 pints. 

Hot water enough. 

Soften the glue in hot water in the 
usual manner, using enough water to 
produce a rather thick fluid. While the 
mixture is warm, add the molasses and 
mix thoroughly. 

This mixture is injected into the tire 
through the valve stem and forms a 
jelly-like cushion. 

Another preparation used in the 
same manner and for the same pur- 
pose is a mixture of glycerin and gela- 
tinous silica. The manufacture of this 
preparation is protected by letters 

hours and renders the joints of wooden 
cisterns and casks air- and water- 

Moisture-Resisting Cement 

Thoroughly mix 8 parts of melted 
glue, of the consistence used by car- 
penters, with 4 parts of linseed oil 
boiled into varnish with litharge. This 
cement hardens in about forty-eight 

Slide Paste for Moving Picture Show 

Powdered acacia y 2 dram. 

Prepared chalk 1 ounce. 

Water 4 drams. 

Triturate the acacia with the water 
until it is entirely dissolved, then add 
the prepared chalk and reduce the 
mixture to a uniform paste. 

W. C. Lane, author of this recipe, 

This paste when applied to a plain glass 
slide with a camel's hair brush and allowed 
to dry makes a perfectly opaque background, 
and any writing that is desired may be cut 
in with a sharp-pointed instrument, as a 
slate pencil. When projected on the screen 
the letters appear white against a black field. 
The moving picture people usually use for 
this purpose undeveloped photographic plates. 
These can be used only once and are costly. 
By using this paste the same glass can be 
re-lettered over and over again at a trifling 
cost, as the above amount of paste will cover 
a great surface. The above formula was 
worked out in response to many calls for 
such a preparation. We charge 25 cents for 
the quantity specified in the formula. 



Horse, Cattle, Dog, Sheep and Hog Remedie 

Chickens and Birds. 

{'reparations for 
Always, consult the Index tvhen using this book- 

Some Diseases of Horses. 

There are many books and pamphlets 
on veterinary subjects issued by the 
United States Government, some of 
which are sent free for the asking and 
others of which are sold for a nominal 
price. One such book is called "Dis- 
eases of the Horse." 


Speaking of heaves, this book 
says: "When the disease is established 
there is no cure for it." It goes on to 
tell what should be done in the way of 
feeding and other attention for horses 
suffering from this trouble, and also ex- 
poses some of the tricks of horsemen 
who try to conceal the disease when it 
is present in any of their animals. We 
quote a few passages: 

Proper attention paid to the diet will relieve 
the distressing: symptoms to a certain extent, 
but they will undoubtedly reappear in their in- 
tensity the first time the animal overloads the 
stomach or is allowed food of bad quality. 
Clover hay or bulky food which contains but 
little nutriment have much to do with the 
cause of the disease, and therefore should be 
entirely omitted when the animal is affected, 
hs well as before. It has been asserted that 
the disease is unknown where- clover hay is 
never used. The diet should be confined to 
food of the best quality and in the smallest 
quantity. The bad effect of moldy or dusty 
hay, fodder, or food of any kind can not be 
over-estimated. A small quantity of the best 
hay once a day is sufficient. This should be 
cut and dampened. The animal should in- 
variably be watered before feeding; never 
directly after a meal. The animal should not 
be worked immediately after a meal. Bxer- 
tion, when the stomach is full, invariably 
aggravates the symptoms. Turning on pas- 
ture gives relief. Carrots, potatoes or tur- 
nips chopped and mixed with oats or corn 
are a good diet. Half a pint to a pint of 
thick, dark molasses with each feed is useful. 

Arsenic is efficacious in palliating the symp- 
toms. It is best administered in the form of 
the solution of arsenic, as Fowler's solution or 
as the white powdered arsenious acid. Of the 
former the dose is 1 ounce to the drinking 
water three times daily. Of the latter one 
may give 3 grains in each feed. These quan- 
tities may be cautiously increased as the ani- 
mal becomes accustomed to the drug. If the 
bowels do not act regularly, a pint of raw lin- 
seed oil may be given once or twice a month, 
or a handful of Glauber's salt may be given 
in the feed twice daily, so long as necessary. 
It must, however, be borne in mind that all 
medical treatment is of secondary considera- 
tion: careful attention paid to the diet is of 
greatest importarce. Broken-winded animals 

should not be used for breeding purposes. A 
predisposition to the disease may be inl. 


The same book, under the head of 
"Spavin," says: "Serious in its incep- 
tion, serious in its progress, it is an ail- 
ment which, when once established, be- 
comes a fixed condition which there is 
no known means of dislodging." The 
writer goes on to describe rather fully, 
yet plainly and succinctly, the cause, 
symptoms, prognosis and treatment of 
the trouble. Under the latter lead he 
puts rest first and foremost, stating 
most emphatically that it is essential: 
"less than a month's quiet ought not to 
be thought of — the longer the bettor.' 
Continuing, he says : 

Good results may also be expected from 
applications. The various lotions which cool 
the parts, the astringents which lower the 
tension of the blood vessels, the tepid fomen- 
tations which accelerate the circulation in the 
engorged capillaries, the liniments of various 
compositions, the stimulants, the opiate ano- 
dynes, the sedative preparations of aconite, 
the alternative frictions of iodine — all these are 
recommended and prescribed by one or another. 
We prefer counter-irritants, for the simple 
reason, among many others, that they tend by 
the promptness of their action to prevent the 
formation of the bony deposits. The lameness 
will often yield to the blistering action of can- 
tharides, in the form of ointment or liniment, 
and to the alterative preparations of iodine or 
mercury. And if the owner of a "spavined'' 
horse really succeeds in removing the lame- 
ness, he has accomplished all that he is justi- 
fied in hoping for; beyond this let him be well 
persuaded that a "cure" is impossible. 

For this reason, moreover, he will do well 
to be on his guard against the patented 
"cures" which the traveling horse doctor may 
urge upon him, and withhold his faith from 
the circular of the agent who will deluge him 
with references and certificates. It is 
sible that nostrums may in some exceptional 
Instances prove serviceable, but the greater 
number of them are capable of producing only 
injurious effects. The removal of the bony 
tumor can not be accomplished by any such 
means, and if a trial of these unknown com- 
pounds should be followed by complications 
no worse than the establishment of one or 
more ugly, hairless cicatrices, it will be well 
for both the horse and his owner. 

In conclusion the writer gives some 
points on the use of the cautery for the 
relief of the trouble under discussion, 
and adds some suggestions concerning 
other surgical operations, but says that 
these belong to the peculiar domain of 
the veterinary practioner. 




Heaves in Horses. 

The following remedy is reported to 
have been used with success in a num- 
ber of chronic cases: 

Lobelia leaf 2 ounces. 

Skunk cabbage 1 ounce. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Elecampane 4 ounces. 

Mix and divide into 2-dram powders, 
one to be given night and morning, 
mixed with the food. 

Long-continued treatment and good 
care are essential. As in the case of 
asthma, it is difficult to effect more 
than a temporary relief in chronic 

As a remedy for heaves "Veterinary 
Counter Practice" gives the following 
formula : 

Canada balsam 4 ounces. 

Copaiba 4 ounces. 

Calcined magnesia enough. 

Make into y 2 -ounce balls and give 
one night and morning for eight days. 

Absorbent Liniment for Horses. 

Spirit of camphor 1 pint. 

Tincture of capsicum 

and myrrh 12 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 12 ounces. 

Linseed oil 4 ounces. 

Crude petroleum 24 ounces. 

Oil of amber 2 ounces. 

Oil of origanum 3 ounces. 

Barbadoes tar iy 2 ounces. 

Resorption Liniment for Horses 

Crystal of iodine, 1 dram; as much 
ether as is necessary to dissolve. This 
solution added to an equal quantity of 
flexible collodion makes an irritant 
that will often induce the resorption 
of carneous or osseous enlargements 
when all other means have failed, says 
the Missouri Valley Veterinary Bul- 
letin. Shave off the hair and apply 
with a small brush, allowing to dry 
as applied; nothing else equal to it for 
sealing up an open but non- or only 
slightly-infected joint. It stops the 
flow of synovia and is a counter 

Applications for Spavin 


Camphor 4 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 6 ounces. 

Oil of wormwood 2 ounces. 

Tincture of iodine 4 ounces. 

Corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride 30 grains. 


Corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride 10 grains. 

Tincture of arnica 2 ounces. 

Oil of peppermint 2 ounces. 

Tincture of iodine 1 pint. 


Tincture of iodine 4 parts. 

Tincture of myrrh 4 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 6 parts. 

Tincture of cantharides... 2 parts. 
Alcohol 4 parts. 

Caustic Balsam 

Sulphuric acid , . . 1 oz. av. 

Croton oil 1 fl. oz. 

Corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride 60 grains. 

Oil of turpentine 6 fl. ozs. 

Camphor Y 2 oz. av. 

Cottonseed oil 8 fl. ozs. 

Mix the oils of turpentine and cro- 
ton, add the corrosive sublimate in fine 
powder and the camphor, and dis- 
solve; then add, a little at a time, the 
sulphuric acid, taking care that the 
mixture does not become too hot and, 
when all has been added and the mix- 
ture has become cool, add the cotton- 
seed oil, and mix them thoroughly. 

This is used for sprains, ringbones, 
strains, swellings, puffs, etc. 

Veterinary Caustic Balsam and 

Linseed oil 5 gallons. 

. Oil of turpentine 30 ounces. 

Commercial sulphuric 
acid 1 V2 ounces; 

Oil of tar GY 2 ounces. 

Cantharides oil (see be- 
low) 27 ounces. 

Oil of origanum 1 ounce. 

Croton oil 10 ounces. 

Mix the linseed oil with 20 ounces 
of oil of turpentine in a stoneware or 
enameled iron dish: add the acid 
slowly and cautiously and allow the 
mixture to clear. Then add the re- 
mainder of the oil of turpentine and 
the other ingredients in the order 
given. Cover the vessel with a sheet 
of glass and set it in the sunlight for 
about three days; stir occasionally. 
Finally decant the clear solution and 
bottle it. 

If desired, the preparation may be 
colored with an oil-soluble acid-proof 

Cantharides Oil. 

This ingredient of the caustic bal- 
sam is made by digesting cantharides 
in oil of turpentine in the proportion 
of 1 to 16. 

Smith's Wonder Worker 

T. S. Newby says that this is a lini- 
ment, very popular with drivers and 
trainers for the turf, for which he of- 
fers the following formula: 

Compound tincture of 
iodine 2 ounces. . 

Tincture of arnica 2 ounces. 



Camphor 2 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 2 ounces. 

Hamamelis water 3 ounces. 

Alcohol 7 ounces. 

Veterinary Blistering Agents 

A blistering agent much esteemed 
by veterinary surgeons is red mercuric 
iodide, which may be applied mixed 
with seven times its weight of lard. 
For a liquid Mister try — 

Powdered cantharides. . . 1 ounce. 

Ether 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 8 ounces. 

Oil of origanum % ounce. 

Pour the ether over the cantharides 
and let them stand for a day in a 
closed vessel. Then add the other in- 
gredients, macerate for eight days, 
and filter. 

A third recipe is for a blister in 
paste form, so — 

Mercury % ounce. 

Iodine % ounce. 

Corrosive mercuric 

chloride \i ounce. 

Lard enough. 

Make a paste. 

This prescription is not quite as 
weird as it appears at first. In fact, 
except that the amount of iodine is 
smaller than it might be, there is 
little to criticise from the pharmaceuti- 
cal standpoint. When mercury and 
iodine are triturated along with a 
small amount of alcohol, a mixture of 
the iodides of mercury is produced. In 
the proportion of the two elements in 
200 parts of mercury to 254 parts of 
iodine, red mercuric iodide will be the 
product, and this chemical rubbed up 
with lard, either with or without cor- 
rosive sublimate, makes a blistering 
salve used rather largely in veteri- 
nary practice. In the proportions di- 
rected in the prescription a green or 
yellow ( mercurous) iodide will be pro- 
duced, but when this is rubbed with 
the corrosive sublimate a change in 
color to red will indicate the formation 
of mercuric iodide. 

In short, the finished prescription is 
apt to contain a mixture of mercurous 
and mercuric iodides. 

Sweating Liniment. 

Sweating liniments are mixtures ex- 
ploited for the reduction of splints, 
ringbones and similar enlargements on 
horses. They are directed to be ap- 
plied with friction until moisture ex- 
udes; discontinued for several days and 
again applied. 

Here are a few typical formulas: 

Oil of turpentine 36 ounces. 

Camphor 5 ounces. 

Acetic acid 7% ounces. 

Yolk of 9 eggs. 

Rapeseed oil 20 ouncest 

Water 24 ounces. 


Mercury bichloride 1 dram. 

Alcohol 2 ounces. 


Camphor iy 2 ounces. 

Soft soap 5 ounces. 

Oil of rosemary 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 3 ounces. 

Alcohol 20 ounces. 

Water 7 ounces. 

Veterinary Embrocation. 

Oil of origanum 1 ounce. 

Liniment of soft soap.. 3 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 4 ounces. 

Ammonia water 4 ounces. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Camphor tincture of 

benzoin 1 ounce. 


Soap liniment 4 ounces. 

Oil of origanum 4 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 4 ounces. 

Linseed oil 4 ounces. 

Farmers' Stock Liniment. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Phenol 1 ounce. 

Oil of origanum 2 ounces. 

Pine tar 2 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 10 ounces. 

Kerosene 2 ounces. 

Fish oil 16 ounces. 

This is a good all-around stock lini- 

Gall Cure. 

In the treatment of the equine abra- 
sions popularly known as galls the 
most essential thing is to remove the 
cause, usually ill-fitting harness, and to 
permit the animal to rest a few days 
until the healing is progressing well. 
To hasten the healing, resort is usually 
had to an ointment, a wash, or a pow- 
der, the adaptability of each sort be- 
ing considered. A successful veterin- 
arian of our acquaintance tabooed all 
ointments in the treatment of galls of 
any nature. His prescription was a 
mixture of alcohol, zinc sulphate and 
lead acetate, the composition varying 
with the nature of the gall. The fol- 
lowing preparation is typical: 

Zinc sulphate V 2 ounce. 

Lead acetate % ounce. 

Alcohol 1 pint. 

In "Diseases of the Horse," published 
by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, are mentioned as remedies 
for simple galls (1) alcohol, 1 pint, 
shaken with the whites of 2 eggs: (2) 
a solution of silver nitrate, 10 grains to 



the ounce of water; (3.) lead acetate or 
zinc sulphate, 20 grains to the ounce of 
water; and (4) phenol, 1 part, glycerin, 
15 parts. 

A correspondent offered some four 
years ago the following as a first-class 
gall cure of the polymerous ointment 

Zinz oxide 1 ounce. 

Dried alum 1 ounce. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Phenol Ms ounce. 

Calomel % ounce. 

Bismuth subgallaie .... % ounce. 

Benzoinated lard 4 ounces. 

Petrolatum 12 ounces. 

Mix the powders well together and 
reduce them to a smooth paste with 
the camphor, previously dissolved in 
the phenol. If desirable to make the 
paste perfectly smooth, a little castor 
oil may be used. Now add the lard 
and petrolatum, and mix well. In warm 
weather 2 ounces of the petrolatum 
should be replaced by wax. 

A simpler ointment eonsis.ts of — 

Lead acetate 1 ounce. 

Boric acid 1 ounce. 

Ointment of zinc oxide. . 4 ounces. 

Lard 12 ounces. 

Some galls, particularly those cov- 
ering a large area, but not extending 
very deep into the tissues, respond less 
rapidly to treatment with a fatty med- 
icament than to the application of an 
astringent powder. The following for- 
mula is for such a powder. 

Powdered quicklime 1 part. 

Powdered charcoal 1 part. 

Powdered naphthalene 1 part. 

Huflederkitt (Hoof Putty). 


Guttapercha 2 parts. 

Ammonaic 1 part. 

Soot enough. 

Melt the first two ingredients to- 
gether; stir in enough soot to color, 
and pour while warm into the cracks, 
which should have been well cleaned. 

Turpentine 3 parts. 

Ammoniac 4 parts. 

Guttapercha 4 parts. 

Melt together at a gentle heat and 
apply as directed under the first for- 

Veterinary Worm Powder 


Santonica 1 ounce. 

Iron sulphate, dried V 2 dram. 

Powdered licorice 4 drams. 

Powdered ginger 2 drams. 

One such powder is to be given to a 

horse or cow, and followed next day 
with a full dose of sodium sulphate, say 
% pound. The dose is to be repeated 
once after three days. 


L. H. Howard contributes the fol- 
lowing formula for a remedy which 
he says has been successfully used for 
worms in horses: 

Powdered rosin 1 part. 

Powdered bloodroot 1 part. 

Powdered saltpeter 1 part. 

The ingredients are to be intimately 
mixed; and a tablespoonful is given to 
the animal every other day, mixed with 
chopped food. 

A Veterinary Lice Powder 

Tobacco stems 2 pounds. 

Crude carbolic acid 1 pint. 

Neatsfoot oil 4 pints). 

Crude petroleum, to 
make 1 gallon 

Digest the tobacco stems in a mix- 
ture of the oils for ten days; strain and 
mix with the carbolic acid (so-called). 

When applying this preparation take 
the animal out of the stable and begin 
the application at the ears, and finish 
at the feet. 

A Veterinary Vermifuge 

Areca nut should be kept whole, 
powdered as needed and given with a 
dose of flaxseed meal in doses of 1 
ounce, for a horse. For dogs give 1 to 
2 drams moistened with a little oil of 
turpentine, and next day give a dose of 
castor oil. 

Scotch Horse Powder 

Peruvian bark 2 ounces. 

Hydrastis 2 ounces. 

Sassafras 2 ounces. 

Fenugreek 2 ounces. 

Capsicum 2 ounces. 

Black antimony 2 ounces. 

Lobelia seed % ounce. 

Ginger 8 ounces. 

Oil of amber 1 ounce. 

Oil of juniper 2 ounces. 

Spirit of nitrous ether. . 2 ounces. 

Haarlem oil 2 vials. 

Mix the powders thoroughly and pass 
them through a sieve. Mix the liquids 
and gradually incorporate them with 
the powder. 

Keep the product in a glass con- 
tainer, and transfer portions of it to 
tin boxes, for retail. 

The directions should read somewhat 
like this: The usual dose is one table - 
spoonful. This should be wrapped in 
tissue paper and placed far back on the 
horse's tongue, and washed down with 
a little water. It has a powerful di- 
metic and anti-spasmodic action, and 
usually proves efficacious when given 
to a horse taken suddenly or violently 
ill. — Mary E. Doyle. 

In place of the spirit of nitrous ether, 
it seems that the same quantity of 



potassium nitrate would be preferable 
from the standpoint of permanence. 

Tonic Cattle Spice 

Seed cake 12 pounds. 

Salt 24 ounces. 

Powdered gentian 8 ounces. 

Powdered licorice 8 ounces. 

Powdered ginger 4 ounces. 

Powdered black pepper. 1 ounce. 

Powdered fenugreek ... 3 ounces. 

The seed cake is a mixture of cot- 
tonseed cake and linseed cake con- 
taining from 8 to 10 per cent, of oil. 

Magoffin's Horse and Cattle Powder 

Here is a formula for a horse pow- 
der which came into my possession 
March 4, 1856. along with other assets 
of a drug business. In 1871, when the 
epizootic was so bad among the horses 
in Southern Ohio, I changed and ma- 
terially improved the formula by the 
addition of asafetida. I have had a 
grand retail trade for it. 

Powdered copperas 5 pounds. 

Powdered rosin 5 pounds. 

Powdered sulphur 5 pounds. 

Powdered saltpeter S pounds. 

Ground oil cake 10 pounds. 

Powdered asafetida 3 pounds. 

Powdered alum 3 pounds. 

Mix carefully by means of seive. 

Directions: — Give a horse a heaping 
spoonful every morning in wet oats, or 
provender, for six or eight mornings; 
afterward; the same every other day 
for a few days. The same dose for a 
hog or cow, and double the quantity for 
an ox. 

There is no disease among horses 
and cattle in which this valuable pow- 
der may not be used with profit. — A. E. 

Spring Tonics for Live Stock 

In Farmer's Bulletin 430 of the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, the following formula is given 
for a condimental stock food, with the 
statement that it has the recommenda- 
tion of the Vermont and Maine experi- 
ment stations: 

Ground gentian 1 pound. 

Ground ginger % pound. 

Powdered saltpeter ^4 pound. 

Powdered iron sulphate. % pound. 

One tablespoonful to be given in the 
feed once daily for ten days and for 
ten more days after an interval of 
three days. 

The Iowa station suggests the fol- 
lowing formula for a cattle condiment, 
which, the director naively remarks, 
will not take the place of common 
sense and intelligence in the feeding 
of domestic animals: 

Fenugreek S pounds. 

Ginger 8 pounds. 

Gentian 8 pounds. 

Sulphur 8 pounds. 

Saltpeter 8 pounds. 

Rosin 8 pounds. 

Cayenne pepper 4 pounds. 

Flaxseed meal 44 pounds. 

Wood charcoal 20 pounds. 

Common salt 20 pounds. 

Wheat bran 100 pounds. 

Stock Powders 

Why a horse or a cow should need 
fenugreek and "black antimony" rather 
than green grass and plenty of ambling 
space does not seem quite clear. No 
more apparent is the superiority of 
sulphur and saltpeter over hygienic 
stabling as a prophylactic. However, 
the horse owner who sticks to the faith 
of his forbears in matters of veter- 
inary medicine may be satisfactorily 
served with a powder made in accord- 
ance with the formula below: 

Sassafras y 2 pound. 

Ginger 1 pound. 

Fenugreek l pound. 

Gentian 1 pound. 

Copperas Vz pound. 

Saltpeter Y 2 pound. 

Aloes % pound. 

Cascara : % pouni. 

Veterinary White Liniment 

White castile soap.... 6 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Water 7 gallons. 

Stronger ammonia 

water 6 pints. 

Camphor 3 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Ammonium carbonate 3 lbs. 4 ozs. 

Oil of turpentine 2 gallons. 

Oil of origanum 12 ounces. 

Dissolve the camphor in the oil of 
turpentine and add the oil of origa- 
num. Dissolve the soap and then the 
ammonium carbonate in the water, 
which has been warmed; add the am- 
monia water. Pour the aqueous solu- 
tion into the oily one little by little, 
with thorough agitation. 

All-Round Veterinary Liniment 

Iodine .* 3 ounces. 

Camphor 8 ounces. 

Oil of origanum 2 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine...... 4 ounces. 

Alcohol 5 gallons. 

Veterinary White Oil 

Olive oil 8 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 2 ounces. 

For Galls on Horses 

A successful veterinarian of our ac- 
quaintance tabooed all polymerous gall 
ointments; in fact, would never U36 



any oily or. greasy application upon 
the various equine abrasions popularly 
classified as galls. His prescription 
was an alcoholic solution of equal 
parts of zinc sulphate and lead ace- 
tate, the concentration varying with 
the nature of the gall. 

There are, however, in wide use gall 
ointments, a typical formula being: 

Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Lead acetate 1 % ounces. 

Gallic acid *4 ounce. 

Boric acid 1 ounce. 

Phenol % ounce. 

Yellow wax 4 ounces. 

Petrolatum 12 ounces. 

Melt the wax and incorporate it with 
the petrolatum; melt the phenol and 
add it to the base; and incorporate 
the other solids, previously reduced to 
a fine powder and mixed. Should a 
green ointment be desirable, % ounce 
of verdigris may be added. 

Gall Powder. 

Powdered camphor 1 ounce. 

Prepared chalk 6 ounces. 

Burnt alum 4 ounces. 

Put up in \i -pound round paper 
boxes- with sprinkler top. 

Dried alum 3 ounces. 

Phenol % ounce. 

Powdered camphor 1% ounces. 

Boric acid 11 ounces. 

Triturate the phenol with a portion 
of the boric acid; triturate the cam- 
phor with the alum and the rest of the 
boric acid. Mix the two powders in- 

A cheaper powder may be prepared 
by diluting this mixture with a suffi- 
cient quantity of precipitated chalk. 

"Cure" for Colic in Horses 

Permit us first to quote from "Dis- 
eases of the Horse," a publication of 
the L'nited States Department of Ag- 
riculture, which may be obtained in 
cloth binding for 60 cents. Referring 
to colic, the authors of the chapter on 
diseases of the digestive organs say: 
The disease of the horse that is most fre- 
quently met with is what .is termed "colic," 
and many are the remedies that are reported 
to he "sure cures" fon the disease. Let us 
discover, then, what the word "colic" means. 
This term is applied loosely to almost all dis- 
eases of the organs of the abdomen that are 
accompanied by pain. If the horse evinces 
abdominal pain, he is likely to be put down 
as suffering from colic, no matter whether the 
difficulty be a cramp of the bowel, an internal 
hernia, overloading of the stomach, or a pain- 
ful disease of the bladder or liver. Since 
these conditions differ so much in their causa- 
tion and their nature, it is manifestly absurd 
to treat them all alike and to expect the 
same drugs or procedures to relieve them all. 
Therefore it is important that the various dis- 
eased states that are so roughly classed to- 
gether as colic shall so far as possible be 
separated and individualized in order that ap- 
propriate treatments may be prescribed. 

The subject is continued with a de- 
scription of engorgement, obstructive, 
tympanitic, spasmodic, and worm col- 
ics, their symptoms and treatment. 
Engorgement colic is usually fatal. In 
the other forms the indicated remedies 
are such as will overcome the flatu- 
lence, ease the pain, and excite excre- 
tory movements. A combination of 
carminatives and anodynes is gener- 
ally the first-aid medicament, to be 
followed with an aloes ball, a saline 
draught, or an enema. Typical for- 
mulas for the emergency remedies are 
as follows: 


Compound spirit of ether V 2 ounce. 

Tincture of opium % ounce. 

Infusion of anthemis... 1 quart. 

Tincture of opium 1 ounce. 

Tincture of ginger 1 ounce. 

Spirit of nitrous ether.... 1 ounce. 

Chloroform 1 ounce. 


Ether 1% ounces. 

Tincture of opium iy 2 ounces. 

Linseed oil S ounces. 

Sheep Dip Recipes 

Arsenic trioxide S pounds. 

Sodium hydroxide 4% pounds. 

Stockholm tar 2% gallons. 

Tallow 8 pounds. 

Water 400 gallons. 

Two pounds of the caustic soda are 
dissolved in 2% gallons of water in a 
5-gallon vessel; the solution is heated 
to boiling and the arsenic added grad- 
ually. The heat being continued, cold 
water is added in small quantities 
until the vessel is full, whereupon the 
heating is stopped. In a tank capable 
of containing the finished product. 100 
gallons of water are heated to boiling, 
the remainder of the caustic soda is 
dissolved in this; the tallow is added, 
and while the solution boils briskly 
the tar is introduced in a thin stream 
with constant stirring. When the 
boiling has continued for thirty -or 
forty minutes the arsenic solution is 
added, and. without removing the 
heat, enough water is run in to pro- 
duce the required volume. 


In "Veterinary Counter Practice" it 
is stated that the so-called "non- 
poisonous" dips are effectively repre- 
sented by any of the "soluble cresols," 
1 gallon to 50 gallons of water. The 
"soluble cresol" of the French Codex 
is a mixture of equal parts of cresol 
and solution of caustic soda (specific 
gravity 1.332 at 15 degrees C). 

Apparently the compound solution 
of cresol of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia might well be studied in 



this connection, but such preparations 
are nut non-poisonous. 


Liquefied phenol (97%). 60 ounces. 

Good soft soap 5 pounds. 

Water to make 100 gallons. 

Dissolve the soap in the phenol with 
the aid of a gentle heat, and mix with 
enough water to make 100 imperial 


Crude carbolic acid 3 pounds. 

Caustic lime 2 pounds. 

Caustic potash 2 pounds. 

Soft soap 6 pounds. 

Water TO gallons. 


Soap 1 pound. 

Crude qarbolic acid 1 pint. 

Water 50 gallons. 

Dissolve the soap in a gallon or more 
of boiling water, add the acid, and stir 
thoroughly. Finally add the remainder 
of the water. 

Zundel's Carbolic Dip 

Crude carbolic acid 2 pounds. 

Caustic lime 2 pounds. 

Caustic potash 2 pounds. 

Soft soap 6 pounds. 

Water 70 gallons. 

The arsenical type, because of its 
markedly poisonous character. is 
scarcely fit for general sale, and in 
this country, those of the cresol type 
are the ones generally used. 

The United States Department of 
Agriculture has issued a booklet on 
the "Animal Parasites of Sheep,'' in 
which formulas for various dips — a 
coal-tar dip included — are given. 
Doubtless a copy of this booklet may 
be obtained from the Secretary of 

To Keep Flies from Stock 

Cover a few walnut leaves with 
water and allow them to stand over 
night, then boil for fifteen minutes. 
When the decoction is cold, sponge the 
animal with it. 

Smartweed may be used in the same 
way, or it may be rubbed on the ani- 
mal while green. 

A mixture of camphor, oil of turpen- 
tine and asafetida is said to keep flies 
away from the head of sheep. 

A few formulas follow: 


Rancid lard 1 pound. 

Kerosene 8 ounces. 


Fish oil 3 parts. 

Kerosene 1 part. 


Crude cottonseed oil 2 parts. 

Pine tar 1 part. 


. Fish oil 10 parts. 

Crude carbolic acid 1 part. 

An oil for spraying on cattle and 
horses to drive flies away from them, 
which may be sold for $1 a gallon, is 
made by mixing — 

Synthetic oil of sassafras 4 ounces. 
Crude castor (or lard, or 

neatsfoot) oil 2 pints. 

Crude petroleum to make 1 gallon. 

Phenol l dram. 

Oil of pennyroyal 2 drams. 

Spirit of camphor 2 ounces. 

Oil of tar 4 ounces. 

Glycerin 2 ounces. 

Lard oil 4 ounces. 


Compound solution of 

cresol 1 dram. 

Olive oil (or other suit- 
able vehicle) 1 Quart. 

Rub on the animal with a cloth. 

Oil of cloves 3 parts. 

Oil of bay 5 parts. 

Tincture of eucalyptus. ... 5 parts. 

Alcohol 150 parts. 

Water 200 parts. 

Use as a spray. (Rather too expen- 
sive for general use.) 

The United States Department of 
Agriculture publishes five formulas for 
sprays to protect cattle from flies, and 
the South Dakota experiment station 
reports the following to be the best of 

Fish oil 100 parts. 

Oil of tar 50 parts. 

Crude carbolic acid 1 part. 

Mange in Animals 

The disease of animals known as 
mange is produced by the attacks of 
minute insects which cause itching, ac- 
companied by scurfiness of the skin 
and baldness. There are at least two 
species of these insects, one producing, 
in the case of dogs, a generally spread 
mange, and the other a localized one 
affecting the back. 

The first may be killed by an appli- 
cation of sulphur ointment. A lotion 
of equal parts of oil of tar, oil of tur- 
pentine and olive oil is also recom- 
mended, but must be used with cau- 
tion on account of its irritating prop- 
erties; only a small portion of the 
surface should lie treated at a time 
and the application should not be re- 
peated oftener than once in two days. 

The second parasite may be de- 
stroyed by the lotion mentioned, it is 
said; probably the sulphur ointment 



would also answer. Eggs of the para- 
site remain unaffected by the treat- 
ment, and eventual hatching brings 
about a recurrence of the trouble, 
which, of course, should be watched 
for. Some formulas follow: 

Mange Ointment. 
Yellow mercurous iodide 10 grains. 

Salicylic acid % ounce. 

Sublimed sulphur 3 ounces. 

Pine tar 3 ounces. 

Coal tar, washed % ounce. 

Sturgeon oil.... to make 2 pints. 
Shake well and apply at night; wash 
off in the morning. 


Liquid storax 5 mils. 

Tincture of green soap... 15 mils. 

Oil of birch tar 1 mil. 

Solution of potassium hy- 
droxide 5 mils. 

Alcohol to make 100 mils. 

Mix and after two days filter. 
This is to be applied twice a week 
after washing. 


Sublimed sulphur 2 ounces. 

Solution of coal tar (B.P.) 4 ounces. 

Water to make 8 ounces. 

With these tar and sulphur com- 
pounds, says the Chemist and Drug- 
gist, it is usual to dress only about 
one-third of the body each day, and 
the application should not be repeated 
until a week has elapsed. The addi- 
tion of powdered hellebore, which is 
occasionally found, is not to be recom- 
mended, as the animal is apt to ab- 
sorb the poison through the skin, 
which is usually broken on account of 
the irritation of disease causes. 

Filler for Poultry and Stock Powders 
Ship-stuff, bran, linseed meal and 
cotton -seed meal are among the fillers 
used, singly or in combination, by 
makers of poultry and stock powders. 

Veterinary Medicaments 

Wherever man is, there will be 
found some of his animal friends, and 
wherever the latter are. there will 
remedies be in demand at some time 
or other, or all the time. 

The recipes which follow are pre- 
scriptions of veterinary surgeons, and. 
so far as we know, were first published 
in The Druggists Circular, although 
the remedies had long been used quite 

Veterinary Embrocations. 

White of 3 eggs. 

Pyroligneous acid 5 ounces. 

Water 5 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine % ounce. 

Alcohol 6 ounces, 


Spirit of camphor 1 pint. 

Tincture of capsicum 

and myrrh 12 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 12 ounces. 

Linseed oil 4 ounces. 

Oil of stone (crude 

petroleum) 1% pints. 

Oil of amber 2 ounces. 

Oil of origanum 3 ounces. 

Barbadoes tar 1% ounces. 

" Spavin and Ring Bone Liniment. 

Corrosive mercuric chlo- 
ride 10 grains. 

Tincture of arnica 2 ounces. 

Oil of peppermint 2 ounces. 

Tincture of iodine 1 pint. 

Canine Distemper Cure 

Fluidextract of buck- 
thorn 1 ounce. 

Tincture of ginger % ounce. 

Syrup of poppies. 2 ounces. 

Syrup 1 ounce. 

Cod liver oil. make Bounces. 

Give a dessertspoonful three times 
a day. 

The Druggists Circular has more 
than intimated on several occasions 
that it had little confidence in the 
ability of a "condition powder" to 
make a sick horse well or of an "egg- 
producing" food to make hens lay. 
Still, there is a demand for these 
things, and H. C. Bradford, in Merck's 
Report, says: "I do not believe a bet- 
ter condition powder can be gotten up 
than the one I give here. It certainly 
satisfied my customers, and I had 
many who used many other brands, 
and were thus competent to determine 
their respective value." His formula 

Condition Powder 

Fenugreek 5 parts. 

Sulphur 5 parts. 

Resin 5 parts. 

Flaxseed meal 5 parts. 

Epsom salt 5 parts. 

Ginger 4 parts. 

Gentian 4 parts. 

Copperas 4 parts. 

Sodium bicarbonate 4 parts. 

Black antimony 2 parts. 

Sodium chloride 2 parts. 

Potassium nitrate 1 part. 

All are to be in fine powder, and well 
mixed. Mr. Bradford continues: 

"This will cost about 6 cents per 
pound to manufacture. Commercial 
grades only need to be used. It is 
equally effective for horses, cattle. 
sheep and swine. It can be used for 
poultry also, but for this purpose it is 
much improved by the addition of 1 
ounce of powdered capsicum to each 
pound of powder. Tims fortified, it is 
a first-class 'egg-making' food, and 



may be sold as such with perfect sat- 
isfaction. The ordinary dose is a 
tablespoonful once or twice daily, and 
this quantity is about right for a 
dozen hens." 

In the same article are other 'formu- 
las for veterinary preparations, some 
of which are given below, the direc- 
tions and comments, as well as the 
formulas themselves being by Mr. 


Camphor y 2 ounce. 

Tincture of iodine jounce. «* 

Tincture of capsicum... 1 ounce. 

Aromatic spirit of am- 
monia 1 ounce. 

Tincture of opium 1 ounce. 

Oil of turpentine 4 ounces. 

Alcohol to make 2 pints. 

Mix, putting in the oil of turpentine 
last of all. 

Direct it to be rubbed well into the 
affected parts, once or twice a day. 
This liniment is excellent for sprains, 
stiffness, sore muscles from hard 
work, and sweeny, big shoulder, fis- 
tula, etc., and, in fact, anywhere that 
a strong, penetrating liniment is use- 
ful. It is not suited for wire cuts and 
other wounds, however. 

Barbed Wire Healing Oil 

Crude carbolic acid 4 ounces. 

Pine tar 4 ounces. 

Oil of spike 4 ounces. 

Cheap lubricating oil, to 

make 4 pints. 

The lubricating oil here mentioned 
may be any that happens to be on 
hand, but the best is the heavy, stiff, 
cheap "black oil," which may be pur- 
chased at about 10 cents a gallon. 
This oil is a good healing agent of it- 
self, and is also a good disinfectant 
and insecticide. It is largely used for 
this latter purpose, and with very 
satisfactory results. 

Colic Cure 

Colic primarily comes from indiges- 
tion or constipation, or both. The first 
thing to do is to relieve the pain, the 
next to cause an evacuation of the 
bowels. For the pain, give the fol- 
lowing as a drink in a quart of hot 

Tincture of opium 1 ounce. 

Tincture of ginger 1 ounce. 

Sweet spirit of niter 1 ounce. 

Chloroform 1 ounce. 

This is a full dose for a large horse. 
For a small horse or a slight attack 
less may be given. 

The best purgative to use in colic is 
a pint of castor oil or a quart of lin- 
seed oil. A dram of oil of turpentine 
should be given also. 

Gall Ointment. 

Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Burnt alum 1 ounce. 

Camphor 1 ounce. 

Phenol y 2 ounce. 

Calomel % ounce. 

Bismuth subgallate % ounce. 

1 Benzoinated lard 4 ounces. 

Petrolatum 12 ounces. 

Mix the powders well together and 
reduce them to a smooth paste with 
the camphor, previously dissolved in 
the phenol. If desirable to make the 
paste perfectly smooth, a little castor 
oil may be used. Now add the lard and 
petrolatum and mix well. In warm 
weather 2 ounces of the petrolatum 
should be replaced by wax. 

This is said to be not only a first- 
class gall cure, but a most excellent 
healing ointment. Galls, so called, that 
is, where a large area of skin is rubbed 
off, but with little damage to the lower 
tissue, leaving a raw surface covered 
with bloody serum, are not treated in 
the best manner with an ointment. 
Those cases need a powder, and it is 
astonishing how quickly they will heal 
if the proper powder is applied. The 
following one will give results which 
will easily justify its being called the 
proper one: 

Healing Powder. 

Zinc oxide 1 ounce. 

Calomel 1 ounce. 

Bismuth subgallate 1 ounce. 

Burnt alum 4 ounces. 

Boric acid 16 ounces. 

Acetanilide 1 ounce. 

All in very fine powder. Mix well 
and sift. 

This powder is excellent for galls as 
mentioned above, and is also a most 
excellent dry dressing for surface 
wounds. Especially deep or punc- 
tured ones, require very careful cleans- 
ing with bichloride or other anti- 
septic solution before it is applied. 
Were this not done, the powder would 
heal the surface and leave the bottom 
contaminated and unhealed, with the 
probable result later of a very deep, 
dangerous, sloughing putrid ulcer, or 
even worse. On the other hand, the 
"barb-wire healing oil" will at once 
penetrate to the bottom of the wound 
and render it aseptic throughout. Use 
of the "healing powder" should be con- 
fined to skin abrasions and shallow or 
gaping wounds. In these it has no su- 
perior and will heal them quicker than 
anything known. 

Here follows a formula contributed 
to the Bulletin of Pharmacy by Frank 
Farrington. who is unstinting in his 
praise of its efficacy: 

For Thoroughpin or Bog Spavin. 

Tincture of iodine 2 ounces. 

Spirit of camphor 1 ounce. 

Ammonia water 1 ounce. 

Oil of turpentine 1 ounce. 

Tincture of arnica 2 ounces. 

Olive oil 1 ounce. 


To be rubbed on the affected part 
twice a day. 

The Chemist and Druggist vouches 
for the following: 

Alterative Powder for Cattle. 

Potassium nitrate 1 ounce. 

Black antimony sulphide.. 1 ounce. 

Resin 1 ounce. 

Sulphur 2 ounces. 

Mix and divide into eight powders. 
Calf Meal, or Milk Substitute. 

Freshly ground flaxseed. . . 1 part. 

Barley meal 2 parts. 

Wheat meal 2 parts. 

A small quantity is to be made into 
a thin paste with cold water, then boil- 
ing water is to be poured upon it. 
Cracked Heels Ointment. 

Zinc oxide 1 dram. 

Phenol 10 grains. 

Lard 1 ounce. 

Mange Smear. 

Black sulphur 2 drams. 

Oil of cade 2 drams. 

Spirit of tar 1 ounce. 

Dog Medicines. 

The Chemist and Druggist gives the 
following formulas for dog medicine: 
For Worms. 

Thymol 2 grains. 

Castile soap to make a pill. 

This pill is for a small dog. One such 
is to be given daily for two or there 
days, followed by a mild purgative. For 
a larger dog the dose should be 

As a good anthelmintic for all kinds 
of worms in dogs there is nothing to 
equal areca nuts and santonin, with or 
without male fern, as in the following 
pill for a small or lap dog: 

Freshly powdered areca 

nuts 5 grains. 

Powdered jalap 2 grains. 

Santonin 1 grain. 

Extract of male fern, to make a pill. 

This is to be given when the dog is 

For a larger dog the dose should be 

Condition Pills. 

Reduced iron 6 grains. 

Quinine sulphate 6 grains. 

Strychnine sulphate.. . .1/10 grain. 

Extract of gentian enough. 

Make twelve pills. 

Dose: One to three pills three times a 

Mange Lotion. 

Black sulphur 1 pound. 

Stockholm tar 2 ounces. 

Heavy petroleum enough. 

Mix the tar with the sulphur, and 
add heavy petroleum to make the lotion 
of the consistence of cream. 

Hog Cholera 

This, like a great many other dis- 
eases, of which smallpox is the best- 
known type and to which typhoid fever 
is a comparatively recent addition, is 
more easily prevented by immunization 
than cured by drugs. The United States 
Department of Agriculture issues in- 
formation on the subject which all 
druggists should have. One of its for- 
mulas: — 

Wood charcoal 4 ounces. 

Sulphur 4 ounces. 

Sodium sulphate 4 ounces. 

Black antimony 4 ounces. 

Sodium chloride 8 ounces. 

Sodium bicarbonate 8 ounces. 

Sodium hyposulphite. ... 8 ounces. 

Reduce to a powder and mix well. 

A large tablespoonful for each 2U0 
pounds of animal should be given once 
daily with food. 

This is recommended by the United 
States Department of Agriculture. It is 
said even to be a preventive of hog 

For Hog and Chicken Cholera. 

The following are the United States 
patent office specifications for a medi- 
cine for the cure of hog and chicken 
cholera, the patent being granted in 
1871: — 

To 5 gallons of water add 5 pounds 
of blackberry root. Let this boil thor- 
oughly for one hour, after which take 
out the roots, and while the water is 
boiling add one half pound of bruised 
allspice. 1 ounce of tincture of iron. 1 
ounce of asafetida and one -half ounce 
of camphor. Let it continue to boil 
about twenty minutes, then strain 
through a fine sieve and then reduce 
the liquid by boiling to 1 gallon, which, 
when cooled, may be bottled for use. 

In administering to hogs, for every 
dozen hogs take 5 gallons of scalded 
bran slop and add 4 ounces of the medi- 
cine. This should be given every morn- 
ing while threatened with the disease 
or while actually sick. 

In administering to chickens or other 
fowl, for every dozen take 2 quarts of 
cornmeal, one-half pint of lard and 3 
tablespoonfuls of medicine. 


rms in 


On this subject "Veterinary Counter 
Practice" says: — 

It docs not always pay to keep pigs, and 
never does to keep worms. If any are no- 
ticed, measures should be taken at once to 
get rid of them, as they multiply with 
astounding rapidity. If a pig does not re- 
spond to the rat. on he is receiving, and 
shows no sign of illness, he may justly be 
suspected of worms, and suitable remedies 
prescribed. These are santonin, powdered 
glass, dolichos (cowage), buchu, salt, tur- 
pentine, areca nut and ol. rilici maris. It is 
most difficult to lay down the dose for ani- 
mals varying from two pounds to two hun- 
dredweight, but we have found a fairly 


practical working scale by estimating the 
pig s weight to that of the human child or 
adult, and giving proportional d 

For Mange on Swine 

Sulphur 4 ounces. 

Linseed oil 1 pint. 

Camphor % ounce. 


ice on 


Nathan Banks, of the Bureau of 
Entomology of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, has prepared 
a bulletin on this subject from which 
liberal quotations are made. Refer- 
ring to mites. Mr. Banks says: — 

Cleanliness and sunlight are the best means 
of preventing an abundance of mites. A 
chicken house cannot be kept too clean. It 
should be cleaned out every few weeks at least, 
and It is a great advantage to have the nests 
and roosts so built that they can be removed 
and washed in some cleansing liquid. 

A treatment much in favor is that of white- 
washing the inside of the house. If this is 
done, about 4 ounces of crude carbolic acid 
should be added to each gallon of whitewash. 
Like all other treatments, this should be re- 
peated in three or four days, to destroy the 
young which have hatched since the first ap- 

In cleaning the henhouse it is useful also to 
scatter a mixture of 3 parts of dry air-slaked 
lime and 1 part of sulphur. The doors and 
windows should be closed and the mixture 
thrown up to the roof till the air is filled with 
it. It will then settle upon everything, the sul- 
phur killing many mites and the lime aiding 
in drying the droppings. Setting hens need not 
be disturbed. 

But the best remedy against the "chicken 
mite" is to spray with kerosene emulsion. To 
make this, shave one-half pound of hard soap 
into 1 gallon of soft water and boil the mix- 
ture until the soap is dissolved. Then remove 
it to a safe distance from the fire and stir into 
it at once, while still hot, 2 gallons of kerosene 
or coal oil. The result is a thick, creamy 
emulsion. Dilute this stock mixture with 10 
parts of soft water, and apply as a spray or 
with a brush, being careful to work it into all 
cracks, crevices and joints of the building. 
Two or three applications on the same day are 
necessary to obtain the best results, and this 
treatment should be repeated in three or four 
days to kill the young mites which will have 
hatched since the first application. 

Lice are said to be more numerous 
than mites, but. as they do not suck 
blood, less injurious. "Dampness, 
filth, and warm weather favor the in- 
crease of the lice, and a setting hen 
in a foul nest is their paradise," writes 
the author of the pamphlet. Contin- 
uing, he says: — 

Many people who keep a few hens consider 
the infestation by lice a natural state of affairs, 
and so long as the lice are not so excessively 
numerous as to interfere seriously in egg pro- 
duction no attempts are made to exterminate 
them. Lice, however, are readily killed by a 
number of substances, although there is more 
or less difficulty in getting at them. Hidden 
among the feathers or close against the body 
the parasites are secure against any remedy 
unless it be applied very thoroughly. Moreover, 
one application is not enough. AVhat will kill 
the lice may not affect the eggs or "nits," so 
it is necessary to repeat within a few days any 
method of treatment that may be used. 

Carbolic acid, tobacco, sulphur, naphthaline, 
or any oily substance will kill the lice if it 
touches them. 

Carbolic acid must be used with great care, 
for it is a burning poison. It is usea mixed 
with lime or kerosene. To make the lime mix- 
ture, stir 2 ounces of 90 per cent, carbolic acid 
in 1 pint of cold water, sprinkle* it in a half 
bushel of lime, and leave the lime to air slake. 
This can be sprinkled anywhere about the hen- 
house, but is most effective if put in the nests 
and mixed with the dust in the "wallow." If 
kerosene is used, take 2 ounces of carbolic acid 
to 1 gallon of kerosene, stir it thoroughly, and 
paint the mixture upon the roosts and nests, 
keeping the poultry out of the house till the 
mixture is dry. 

Tobacco is used as an infusion, made by 
pouring hot water on tobacco stems. The hens 
are dipped into the liquid thus made. This is 
not a pleasant method to practice, and care 
should be taken to prevent the fowls from 
taking cold. Tobacco dust is the basis of 
various powders which are advertised to be 
used against lice. Their value depends largely 
upon the strength and freshness of the com- 
ponents. They are often used successfully, 
although frequently they are expensive. 

Sulphur mixed with air-slaked lime, 10 pounds 
of sulphur to a half bushel of lime, is often 
used against lice. This may be scattered every- 
where in the house, or mixed in the dust 
wallow. Sulphur can also be used in fumiga- 
tion. To avoid danger from fire, the sulphur or 
sulphur candle should be put on an old tin can 
or something similar, and this placed in the 
middle of a pan of wet ashes or earth. Light 
the candle and shut the house tightly for sev- 
eral hours; then air it well before allowing the 
hens to enter. 

Kerosene may be used in conjunction with 
naphthaline. Dissolve in kerosene all the flake 
naphthaline it will take, and paint the roosts 
and nests with this saturated solution every 
week or so for a few months. Sawdust wet 
with this liquid may be placed in the nest, but 
should be put beneath the straw, so that the 
eggs will not rest upon it. Naphthaline is not 
poisonous, however, and may be handled with- 
out danger. 

Chicken Lice Powder 

Powders, as we understand the mat- 
ter, do not kill lice; but simply make 
them vacate the places to which the 
application is made. For this purpose 
many powders are serviceable, includ- 
ing the well-known pyrethrum, sul- 
phur, tobacco, wood-ashes, and naph- 
thalene. The addition of some pun- 
gently aromatic oil, as sassafras, may 
add to the powders' efficacy. 

Any of these powders to be of most 
service, should be used abundantly 
and frequently, not only on the fowls 
themselves, but in their nests and the 
places in which they wallow, on their 
roosts, and all about their houses. Of 
course, cleanliness is a great aid to 
the protection of fowls from lice. 

A powder made according to the 
following formula, freely strewn 
about the nests, will rid them of ob- 
jectionable insects: — 

Crude carbolic acid 1 pint. 

Carbon disulphide 1 ounce. 

Oil of tar 1 ounce. 

Coal oil 4 ounces. 

Sawdust enough. 

Mix the liquids and add as much 
sawdust as the mixture will saturate. 



Roup Pills for Poultry 

Calomel 1 dram. 

Antimonial powder 1 dram. 

Powdered licorice 1 dram. 

Copaiba enough. 

Make 6*) pills, and give one night 
and morning. 

Gape Remedy 

Take a wooden box, a little big- 
ger than a biscuit-tin, and divide it in 
two by means of a piece of wire net- 
ting. " Now. place half an ordinary 
brick, made very hot, on one side of 
wire netting and the chicks on the 
other. Cover the whole box with a 
cloth, and then insert under the cloth 
a tablespoon with a teaspoonful of 
phenol in it. Now. pour the liquid on the 
hot brick and withdraw the spoon. 
The fumes will cure the chicks in two 
minutes. Take out the chicks just be- 
fore they are apparently suffocated. 
If the chicks are not cured, keep them 
in the fumes longer. 

Be careful to keep the hands and 
face away from the liquid when it is 
poured on to the brick, as it will blis- 
ter the skin. 

Douglass' Mixture 

This preparation which has long en- 
joyed popularity as a tonic for birds, 
particularly during the moulting pe- 
riod, is made as follows: 

Iron sulphate 120 grains. 

Diluted sulphuric acid. 15 drops. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Dissolve the sulphate in the water, 
and add the acid. 

A teaspoonful of this mixture is to 
be added to each quart of the drink- 
ing water of the birds. 

Chicken Pills 

Fierrous sulphate 1 grain. 

Calcium sulphate 5 grains. 

Quinine sulphate 1 grain. 

Make 1 pill. 

Three such pills are given each day. 

Chicken Tonic 

In Britain the agricultural officials 
and experts are testing their theory 
that the addition of mineral salts to 
the food of chicks lessens the mor- 
tality and increases their development. 
According to the Journal of the board 
of agriculture this is the best mix- 

Sodium chloride 30 parts. 

Sodium phosphate 9 parts. 

Calcium fluoride 1 part. 

Ferrous sulphate 1 part. 

Bone-ash 30 parts. 

Chalk 14 parts. 

Magnesium sulphate 10 parts. 

Charcoal 2 parts. 

Sublimed sulphur 3 parts. 

Poultry Spice 

Powdered capsicum 2 ounces. 

Powdered fenugreek 4 ounces. 

Powdered gentian 4 ounces. 

Powdered licorice 4 ounces. 

Powdered chalk 4 ounces. 

Hirtz's Inhalation 

Beechwood creosote.. 25 grammes. 

Tincture of benzoin. 20 grammes. 

Eucalyptol 10 grammes. 

Thymol 20 grammes. 

Gomenol 20 grammes. 

Alcohol . . .-> 200 grammes, 

Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture 
are used with a quart of boiling 

"Red Albumin" for Hens 

This is said to consist of ground 
oyster shells, red oxide of iron, and a 
small quantity of red pepper. 

Limbemeck in Fowls 

A reader says that limberneck is 
caused by fowls eating putrid meat, 
which paralyzes the muscles of the 
neck. His remedy is: 

Fill the crop with warm wafer by 
pouring down the mouth of the fowl, 
hold the fowl by legs, and gently with 
the hand force out the contents of 
crop through the mouth, or else give 
5 grains of calomel or a tablespoonful 
of saturated solution of epsom salt. 
Take your choice of cures, as any one 
of them will do the work. 

W. R. White says that kerosene en- 
joys some reputation as a remedy for 
limberneck in fowls. 

Chicken Lice Killer 

Gas tar 12 ounces. 

Sodium hydroxide 2 ounces. 

Sulphur 4 ounces. 

Rosin 2 ounces. 

Water 1 gallon. 

Boil the tar with the soda and some 
of the water; add the rosin; after dis- 
solving, add the sulphur and the bal- 
ance of the water. 

Poultry Powder 

An owner, whose chickens are per- 
haps too fat, or, maybe, not fat 
enough, to lay the desired number of 
eggs, may be pleased with the fol- 
lowing "egg-producer"; while it may 
not appeal half so much to the chick- 
ens as would a run among the neigh- 
bors' garden truck, it is less danger- 



Charcoal 1 pound. 

Capsicum 1 pound. 

Ginger 1 pound. 

Sodium sulphate 1 pound. 

Sodium phosphate % pound. 

Spanish brown % pound. 

Bone meal 10 pounds. 

Middlings 10 pounds. 

Any stock or poultry powder may be 
"filled" with middlings, ground oil 
cake, corn meal or cracked oats to the 
desired cost; but a "strong" powder 
with a small dose will appeal more 
strongly to the user when he has been 
told that he can "fill" it himself at a 
large saving. 

Poultry Insect Powder 

Naphthalene 32 ounces. 

Snuff 8 ounces. 

Sulphur 8 ounces. 

Insect powder 6 ounces. 

Borax . . .' 4 ounces. 

Oil of cedar 2 ounces. 

Sifted bran 2 pounds. 

Mix the oil with the bran, add the 
other ingredients, and finally sift. 

The bran, says Pharmaceutical 
Notes, from which the foregoing is 
taken, is used as a filler and may be 
replaced by other substances. The 
powder is put up in tins with sprink- 
ler tops. 

Poultry Food 

In such preparations the idea is to 
supply lime and a tonic appetizer. 
Ground bone or oyster or egg shells 
furnish the former, and for the latter 
black or red pepper, ginger or mus- 
tard are used, with or without iron 

A few formulas for such tonic foods 
— which we offer for what they are 
worth, as we believe that hens, like 
people, need something more than 
food and medicine when they lan- 
guish — are given below: 

Black pepper 1 part. 

Fenugreek 2 parts. 

Silver sand 2 parts. 

Calcium phosphate 4 parts. 

Iron sulphate 4 parts. 

Capsicum 4 parts. 

Dog biscuits or lentils 6 parts. 


Oyster shells, in coarse 

powder 56 parts. 

Calcium phosphate 8 parts. 

Black pepper 8 parts. 

•Capsicum 1 part. 

Venetian red 1 part. 

A teaspoonful or more should be 
mixed with a quart of the regular 


Ground oyster shells. .. .8 pounds. 

Dried sodium sulphate. .4 pounds. 

Dried iron sulphate 4 pounds. 

Ground gentian 4 pounds. 

Ground cumin 4 pounds. 

Ground capsicum 1 pounds. 

This recipe is a typical one, recom- 
mended by poultrymen for increasing 
the egg-laying power of hens. It is 
given by mixing about a tablespoonful 
of it with sufficient food for twenty 


Iron sulphate 1 pound. 

Bone meal 10 pounds. 

Oat meal 20 pounds. 

Ground shell 20 pounds. 

Glauber salt 2 pounds. 

A teaspoonful is enough for eight 
hens. It should be used thrice a week. 

Gentian 1 dram. 

Capsicum 1 dram. 

Fenugreek 1 dram. 

Black antimony 2 drams. 

Licorice 6 ounces. 

Reduce all the ingredients to powder 
and mix thoroughly. 

Put a tablespoonful in the food for 
two or three dozen times, every day 
or two. 

Bird Preparations 



Terebene 1 dram. 

Brandy 1 ounce. 

Syrup of wild cherry- ... 1 ounce. 
Syrup of the phosphates 
of iron, quinine and 

strychnine 1 ounce. 

Simple syrup, to make.. 8 ounces. 

This syrup may be colored with 
cochineal, and should bear a shake 
label. It is recommended as a tonic 
for canaries suffering with pulmonary 
diseases. It is administered by putting 
10 or 12 drops in the bird's cup of 
water. However, the bird should not 
be entirely deprived of pure drinking 


Powdered capsicum. .0.25 gramme. 

Powdered gentian. . .0.75 gramme. 

Ferric hydroxide. . . .3.00 grammes. 

Powdered sugar 3.00 grammes. 

Honey, to make a mass. 

Make 24 pills, and leave one in the 
cage daily. 


Iron sulphate % ounce. 

Diluted sulphuric acid. . . % dram. 

"Water, to make 20 ounces. 

A tablespoonful of this mixture is to 
be added to each quart of the drinking 

Bird Manna 

Sweet almonds 8 ounces. 

Vheat flour 16 ounces. 



Capsicum % ounce. 

Yolk of eggs enough. 

Honey enough. 

Blanch the almonds, reduce them to 
a smooth paste and add the flour, cap- 
sicum and enough yolk of eggs and 
honey to form a mass which may be 
worked into small cakes. 


Sweet almonds, 

blanched S ounces. 

Pea meal 16 ounces. 

Butter (unsalted) lYs ounces. 

Honey enough. 

Work into a stiff paste and force 
through a sieve or colander to form 
into granules. Egg yolks may be 
added if desired. 

Asthma Remedy for Canary Birds 
Tincture of capsicum.. 5 drams. 
Spirit of chloroform... 90 minims. 

Iron citrate 45 grains. 

Fennel water 3 Ms ounces. 

Mix and dissolve. 

Give a few drops on a lump of sugar 
once daily. 

Canary Bird Food 

Yolk of egg, dried 2 parts. 

Poppy heads, in coarse 

powder 1 part. 

Cuttlefish bone, in coarse 

powder 1 part. 

Granulated sugar 2 parts. 

Soda crackers, powdered.. 8 parts. 

For Constipation of Birds 

Fluidextract of senna. ... 2 drams. 

Syrup of manna 1 ounce. 

Fennel water, to make.. 4 ounces. 
Give a few drops of the liquid on a 
lump of sugar once daily. 

Tonic Pills for Pigeons and Poultry 

Red cinchona bark 1 grain. 

Extract of calumba 60 grains. 

Extract of chamomile. . . 60 grains. 

Extract of gentian 60 grains. 

Mix. Dose 4 to 12 grains. 


Ferrous sulphate 60 grains. 

Extract of jaborandi. ... 1 grain. 
Mix. Dose 2 to 6 grains. 

Mixed Bird Seed 

Mustard and maw seed, 

of each 1 part. 

Hemp and rape seed, of 

each 4 parts. 

Canary seed -. . . 32 parts. 

Mocking Bird Food 
Three Meals 

Corn meal , . 2 parts. 

Poppy seed meal 1 part. 

Pea meal 2 parts. 

Fry in a little lard, guarding against 

Hemp Seed Food. 

Hemp Seed 16 ounces. 

Rape seed S ounces. 

Crackers S ounces. 

Rice 2 ounces. 

Corn meal 2 ounces. 

Lard oil 2 ounces. 

Reduce the solids to a coarse powder, 
mix well and work in the oil. 

A little capsicum may be incorpo- 
rated in this. 

Heart and Eggs 

Ox heart, dried 2 ounces. 

Poppy seed meal 2 ounces. 

Crackers 2 ounces. 

Ants' eggs, dried 2 ounces. 

Hemp seed 1 ounce. 

Corn meal 1 ounce. 

Lard 1 ounce. 

Proceed as in the foregoing. 

The ox heart is prepared by boiling 
it well in water, chopping fine and 
drying in an oven until crisp. This 
food, when given to the birds, should 
be mixed with an equal quantity of 
grated carrots. 



How to Figure Profit— Cost Marks — Trade-Marks and Copyrights — 
Shoe Dressings — Sweeping Powders — Polishing Cloths — Window 
Cleaners — Anti-Freeze Mixtures — Disinfectants — Cough Candy — 
Water-and Fireproofing of Materials, etc., etc. 

Always Consult the Index When Using This Book 

An Improved System for Marking 

By this system the source of the 
supply and the date of purchase are 
shown at a glance, no complicated 
system of books or cards being needed 
at all. It was described in The Drug- 
gists Circular by Dr. Byron E. Daw- 
son, who said, in part : 

It is regrettable that some mer- 
chants think such marking is burden- 
some, as others do that it is necessary 
to mark goods at all. To such this 
system will not appeal; but to the 
careful, systematic, particular individ- 
ual its simplicity and great value be- 
come quickly apparent, and upon trial 
its continued use is assured. 
Dating Goods 

The system consists in placing upon 
each article or package or container 
a number suggestive of the date of 
the invoice in which it was billed. For 
instance, the date December 25, 1913, 
will by many be written 12-25-13, and 
February 22, 1914, will likewise be 
written 2-22-14. Now, if the hyphens 
be eliminated we have 122513 and 
22214. respectively, which numbers, as 
dates, are as intelligible to those who 
have been let into the secret as if 
hyphenated. "When the date is earlier 
than the tenth of the month a cipher 
must be written at the left of the day 
of the month, thus. 110113 for Novem- 
ber 1, 1913, to distinguish it from 
11113 for January 11, 1913. A simple 
rule: two figures for the year and two 
figures for the day of the month. 

Marking as to Source 
Now let this number be preceded by 
the initials of the firm billing the ar- 
ticle, and the system is complete. 
Thus. McKR30213 instantly informs 
the dealer that the article on which it 
is placed was billed by McKesson & 
Robbins, March 2, 1913: MC12009, 
billed by Merck & Co., January 20, 
1909; SC12111. bv Schieffelin & Co., 
Januarv 21. 1911; Dirl02110. billed di- 

rect by the manufacturer (name on 
the label). October 21. 1910. 

Mfg50113 indicates that the article 
was manufactured or finished May 1, 
1913. The date when a prescription 
was filled, or when a copy is given. 
may be thus noted on the margin, and 
a history of every prescription thus 
be preserved. A notation of the 
weight of an article on different dates, 
to record loss of substance, as of cam- 
phor, may be made by the use of this 
system, or a note on the physical con- 
dition of any galenical product at any 
time. By writing the purchase or 
manufacturing dates on the back label 
on a shelf bottle, together with the 
cost, each time the bottle is refilled, 
one may have a perfect record of the 
advances and declines in the price of 
the article. The date of the receipt of 
a catalogue may be noted by writing 
this date number on the front cover 
page. These suggestions may give rise 
to other possibilities of such a mark- 
ing system, the use of which may be 
still further elaborated by each man 
using it. 

A Baffling Costmark. 

The compound word "iron-sulphate" 
admirably lends itself for use as a 
model costmark, thus: 

iron sulphate 
1234 567890br 

It is a word not generally used by the 
laity. Besides ten letters necessary to 
represent the ten digits, it contains one 
— t — for use as a "blind." and one — e — 
for use as a "repeater." The "blind" 
may be used or not. at the merchant's 
option. It is to be placed at the left of 
the costmark proper and made part of 
it. Like a cipher similarly placed in a 
number, it has no value. The "re- 
peater" has a changing value. It is al- 
ways to be used in the place of, and 
instead of. the second letter when any 
letter is to be used twice, as. tsa for 
550, toeo for 333, tre for 22. The letter 
e as a "repeater" is a particularly for- 
tunate choice, for the reason that it is 
used oftener than any other letter in 




the English alphabet. It is better to 
use some other letters ,than r for "re- 
peat" or 6 for "blind." as is usually 

In marking articles bought or sold 
by the pound, dealers usually add the 
.abbreviation 7b. or a double cross after 
the costmark. Now, instead, let the 
double cross be reduced to a single 
cross, which at once becomes the plain 
letter x. Let x be used exclusively as 
the pound sign. Let it be joined to 
the costmark on the right and be made 
part of it. An article which costs 21 
cents per pound will be marked trix. 
Let x also stand for pint, and let it be 
used interchangeably by druggists. 

It has been my custom also to use 
the letter x arbitrarily for each, instead 
of the word each, when pricing writing 
tablets, papeterie, fountain pens, tooth 
brushes, and all articles bought or sold 
singly. This saves the multiplication 
of characters. In this way thisx means 
$1.65 per pound, per pint, or each, de- 
pending upon the article on which it 
is found. 

The sign of the apothecaries' ounce 
is often called z. Let z stand instead 
for avoirdupois ounce since all com- 
mercial transactions are conducted on 
the avoirdupois scale, and d for either 
dram or Vs ounce. We then have tlsz, 
meaning 75 cents an ounce, and tued, 
66 cents an % ounce. Arbitrarily, z 
(part of dozen) may also be used as 
the abbreviation for dozen, as tirsz, 
$1.25 per doz. Likewise, z may be used 
for fluid ounce. 

Similarly, g becomes the abbrevia- 
tion for gallon, or gross, or grain; y 
for yard, and / for foot. We may bor- 
row from the Roman notation m for 
1,000, and c for 100. There is no need 
for other letters denoting numerical 
count as all other quantities should 
be calculated to the basis of the 100 or 
1,000 cost, although d may be used for 
500 if desired. Pills and tablets should 
be marked as costing so much a hun- 
dred or a thousand. Similarly, also, 
should fractions of a pound or pint be 
calculated to the cost basis of pound 
or pint, or ounce, or both, for conveni- 
ence. Thus, a fluidextract which cost 
35 cents a \i pound should be marked 
tinax, $1.40 a pound, or thz, 9 cents an 
ounce, or both. In case of heavy chem- 
icals in and c may be used to denote 
1 000 or 100 pounds, or ounces, where 
a fraction of a cent is involved, as, 
tnrsc or tnrscx, $4.25 per 100 pounds; 
or tolsamz, $39.50. per 1,000 ounces. 

Let one of these letters, as the occa- 
sion may require, always be joined to 
the costmark on the right, to indicate 
the unit. This does away with the spe- 
cial mark for quantity everywhere. 

Just a Bookkeeper's Check. 
For price marking proprietaries 
bought on the two-four-and-eight basis. 
I adopted a bookkeeper's check, repre- 
sented in this text by the letter v — 

placing the retail price below it. This 
mark is placed on every article sold at 
50 per cent, above the cost, regardless 
of the price. It is merely a mark of 
certification, indicating that the retail 
mark is correct, and the cost is right. 
It places all right-priced goods in the 
same class. Without acquainting clerks 
with the costmark they may be advised 
to give preference to the sale of articles 
bearing this mark. The following ex- 
amples explain its use: 

v v v v v v 
Retail price. 10 15 25 35 50 1.75 
Jobbing price 80 1.20 2.00 2.80 4.00 14.00 

Thus it may be seen that whatever 
word is chosen for a costmark it should 
not contain the letters x, z, g, y, f, m, 
c, (I, or v, as the model costmark does 
not. But, as a matter of fact, any letter 
not in the model costmark may be used 
occasionally as a "blind," or even as a 
"repeater." However, the compound 
word "iron-sulphate" is good selection 
and its use is recommended. 

Comment from Outside. 

Upon reading Dr. Dawson's article, 
M. J. Fadgen wrote: 

Dr. Dawson's system is an ideal one 
f"r the druggist opening a new store. 
I take my hat off to the Doctor. 

Unfortunately, however, it is ex- 
tremely inconvenient, if not impossible, 
for many of us to change our costmarks 
under certain conditions. Such was the 
case with me, and, necessity being the 
mother of invention, I have evolved a 
system which would be extremely diffi- 
culfc for the uninitiated to solve and at 
the same time one which is easily mas- 
tered by the user. Its only point of 
advantage over Dr. Dawson's is that it 
permits the retention of the existing 

The store I purchased some years 
ag<-> was an old-established one in which 
some tens of thousands of prescriptions 
were on file. My predecessor had 
marked the price of all prescriptions 
with his costmark. It would be folly 
to attempt to remark such a collection, 
and still it was necessary to decipher 
the price of any renewal. I found the 
price mark was the common property 
of the neighborhood. When I put in 
a line of new goods I found some 
secrecy was imperative. This is my 
system- I used two costmarks. The 
old one was: 

12 34567890 

I adopted another — 

cheap d r u g s 
12345 67S90 

Whenever the new costmark was 
used it was prefixed by the letter n; 
if I used the old, I either prefixed the 
letter o or left it without a key letter. 
This proved a most effective damper on 
the former wiseacres. The same article 
could be marked in a variety of 
manners, proving most puzzling to the 



uninitiated. but readily deciphered if 
the key was but known. 

I also use the letters aSj y, z, which 
serve a similar purpose to the three 
letters used by Doctor Dawson. The x 
stands for one pint, or one dozen. As 
a pound and a pint are more than an 
ounce. I believe it is more consistent 
to use x for the dozen mark than z, 
which the Doctor uses. The y is the 
repeater, and z stands for ounce or 

To give an example: In using my 
system an article costing 17 cents could 
be marked s 1, osl, or n c r, or with 
all three marks; an article costing 11 
cents could be marked s y, osy, or 
n c y, or with all three. 

It is not difficult to remember two 
costmarks, especially when a key letter 
is used, showing the system. 

Comment from Inside. 

[It seems to us that if both the old 
and the new costmark were used on 
the same packages, the "wiseacres" 
would not only learn the cost of the 
goods through the old mark, but would 
use the old mark as a key to the new, 
and so soon know the new also.] 

Trade- Marks and Copyrights. 
A bulletin. United States Statutes 
Concerning the Registration of Trade- 
Marks, With the Rules of the Patent 
Office Relating Thereto, issued by the 
government, states that "An applica- 
tion for the registration of a trade- 
mark must be made to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents and must be signed 
by the applicant." 

A complete application comprises a 
petition, requesting registration; a 
statement specifying the name, domi- 
cile, location and citizenship of the 
party applying; the class of merchan- 
dise, a description of the goods, etc., 
etc.; a declaration; a drawing of the 
trade-mark; five specimens of the 
trade-mark; and a fee of $10. 

The bulletin referred to above tells 
how these various forms should be made 
out and gives other information that 
should be in the hands of anyone in- 
tending to apply for the registration of 
a trade-mark. The bulletin can, no 
doubt, be secured through the Superin- 
tendent of Documents at Washington. 
D. C, or through the Commissioner of 
Patents himself. 

A certificate of registration remains 
in force for twenty years, unless it has 
been previously registered in a foreign 
country, in which case it ceases to be 
in force on the day on which the trade- 
mark ceases to be protected in the 
foreign country. A certificate of regis- 
tration may be renewed for twenty- 
year periods. 

Trade-marks are not subject to 
copyright registration under the copy- 
right law and decisions of the courts. 

It is advisable to secure trade-mark 
rather than copyright protection of la- 

bels, because the former gives better 
protection in foreign countries. 

How to Figure Profits 

There has been much discussion as 
to the proper method of figuring 
profits, some maintaining that the 
cost of the merchandise should be 
used as the base for all calculations, 
while others insist that profits should 
be figured from the selling price or 
sales cost. Such institutions as the 
National Association of Credit Men, 
Burroughs Adding Machine Co., the 
National Implement and Vehicle As- 
sociations, and the Harvard System 
of Accounts have announced them- 
selves in favor of the latter method. 
Under the chapter heading, "Figure 
Percentages from Selling Price," D. 
Charles O'Connor, in his Treatise on 
Commercial Pharmacy, cites the fol- 
lowing concrete instance as showing 
the advantage of figuring profits from 
the selling price: 

Both percentages should be figured 
from the same base, the selling price. 
Take this case, for instance. You get 
an "inside deal" on a lot of sponges 
that cost you 60 cents each, retailing 
regularly at $1.25. You say, "I will 
have a sale on these, put them in the 
Avindow and run them off in a few 
days and make 25 per cent, on them." 
So you mark them at 25 per cent, 
above cost or 75 cents each. Noav 
let us see if you made 25 per cent, on 
them. Your percentage expense is 25 
per cent., so 25 per cent, of 75 cents 
is 18% cents, which added to the cost, 
60 cents, amounts to 78% cents. As 
the sponge sold for 75 cents you actu- 
ally lost 3% cents on each sponge sold. 
The difference between the cost, 60 
cents, and the selling price. 75 cents, 
is 15 cents, the gross profit, and this 
figure is 20 per cent, of the selling 
price, 75 cents. If you had eA'en said: 
"I don't care to make any money on 
this deal, all I want to do is to break 
even," but you don't do even that, as 
the gross profit is 20 per cent, and 
your percentage expense is 25 per 
cent., so you actually lose 5 per cent., 
as 3% cents, the money loss, is 5 per 
cent, of 75 cents, the selling price. 

Dressings for Black Shoes 



Soap 12 parts. 

Potassium carbonate.... 6 parts. 

Beeswax 50 parts. 

Water 200 parts. 

Bone-black . 100 parts. 

Powdered sugar 15 parts. 

Powdered acacia 6 parts. 

Mix the soap, potassium carbonate, 
Avax and water and boil together until 
a smooth paste is obtained; then add 



the other ingredients, mix thoroughly, 
remove from the source of heat, and 
while hot pour into boxes. 


Tragacanth 1 ounce. 

Neatsf oot oil 2 ounces. 

Bone-black 4 ounces. 

Prussian blue 1 ounce. 

Sugar 4 ounces. 

Water 4 ounces. 

Allow the tragacanth to soften in the 
water and add the other ingredients. 


Acacia 2 ounces. 

Sugar 1 ounce. 

Bone-black 1 ounce. 

Water enough. 

Saponaceous Polishing Paste. 

Soap 20 parts. 

Starch 10 parts. 

Galls 10 parts. 

Iron sulphate 10 parts. 

Syrup 60 parts. 

Bone-black 30 parts. 

The first four ingredients are to be 
boiled together for an hour and the 
liquid then strained. While the solu- 
tion is still warm, the other two are 
to be stirred in. 

Casein Paste. 

Shoe polish may be made to give a 
greatly improved gloss by the addi- 
tion of a solution of casein, prepared by 
boiling that article in water with borax 
or soda. At the same time the addition 
of iron resinate imparts the property 
of staining the leather a deep black, 
instead of merely forming a black 

The iron resinate is prepared by add- 
ing an aqueous solution of green vitriol 
(ferrous sulphate) to a resin soap ob- 
tained by boiling resin with soda. The 
other ingredients of the polish are as 
usual: Ivory black, syrup or dextrose, 
fat or oil. • A blue-black sheen may be 
imparted to fine polish by addition of a 
little Paris blue dissolved in water. 

The following is a typical recipe for 
these polishes: 

Casein 32 parts. 

Soda crystals 12 parts. 

Water 96 parts. 

By weight, dissolved and mixed with — 

Ivory black 290 parts. 

Dextrose 150 parts. 

Olive oil 25 parts. 

Iron resinate 10 parts. 

This should be further mixed with 
10 parts of "soluble blue" dissolved in 
10 parts of water, the whole being well 

In Collapsible Tubes. 

Ozokerite 5% ounces. 

Ceresin 2 pounds. 

Carnauba wax 5% ounces. 

Beeswax 1% ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 4 pints. 

Lamp black 2 pounds. 

Black anilin dye 30 grains. 

Perfume enough. 


Indigo 2 drams. 

Tragacanth 2 drams. 

Glue 4 ounces. 

Logwood 8 ounces. 

Glycerin 3 ounces. 

Water 1 pint. 

Diluted acetic acid 2 pints. 

Boil all together and strain. 

Shellac 2 ounces. 

Nigrosin (spirit-soluble) . . 1 dram. 

Lampblack 2 ounces. 

Castor oil 2 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine 1 ounce. 

Alcohol, to make 1 pint. 

Dissolve the resin and the dye in 8 
ounces of alcohol. Mix the oils and 
the lampblack thoroughly. Mix the two 
liquids and add enough alcohol to make 
one pint. 


Extract of logwood 1 part. 

Nutgalls 30 parts. 

Ferrous sulphate 8 parts. 

Acacia 8 parts. 

Sugar 100 parts. 

Molasses 80 parts. 

Alcohol 50 parts. 

Shellac 2 to 4 parts. 

Soluble indigo 2 parts. 

Water 500 parts. 

Boil the extract of logwood and the 
nutgalls in the water for fifteen min- 
utes, express the liquid and dissolve in 
it the ferrous sulphate. Let this stand 
for twenty-four hours, decant the su- 
pernatant liquid, and in it dissolve the 
sugar and the acacia with the aid of a 
gentle heat. When cool, dissolve the 
indigo in the liquid and strain, and 
add the molasses. Dissolve the shellac 
in the alcohol and add the solution j 
thus formed to the aqueous fluid. 

Turpentine Shoe Polishes. 

Oil of turpentine 66 parts. 

Yellow wax m . . . 18 parts. 

Spermaceti 6 parts. 

Asphaltum varnish 5 parts. 

Borax 1 part. 

Lampblack 5 parts. 

Prussian blue 2 parts. 

Nigrosin 1 in 80. 

Melt the wax and stir in the borax. 
In another vessel melt the spermaceti, 
and while it is warm stir in the 
asphaltum varnish, previously mixed 
with the oil of turpentine. To this 
add a portion of the wax and borax 
mixture, with a vigorous stirring, re- 
serving a portion to be rubbed with 
the pigments, which then is to be 



Self-Shining Dressing for Women's 

Sandarac - drams. 

Gum thus 4 drams. 

Shellac 12 drams. 

Oil of turpentine 4 drams. 

Lamp black 1 ounce. 

Alcohol 6 ounces. 

Dissolve the resins in the alcohol and 
add the oil and pigment. The blackness 
of the dressing may be intensified by 
the addition of a small quantity of 
nigrosin, or 1 dram of the anilin dye 
may be made to take the place of the 
lamp black entirely. 

Patent Leather Polish 

Shellac 4 ounces. 

Sandarac 1 ounce. 

Glycerin 6 drams. 

Castor oil 1 ounce. 

Nigrosin (.spirit-soluble) 4 drams. 

Methyl blue 40 grains. 

Alcohol to make 2 pints. 

Shoe Cream, Any Color . 


Beeswax 10 parts. 

( >zokerite 10 parts. 

Carnauba wax 5 parts. 

Melt and mix with — 

Castor oil 5 parts. 

Oil of turpentine 100 parts. 

Color with a fat-soluble anilin dye. 

The castor oil may be replaced by 10 
parts of glycerin. 


To produce a cheap cream dissolve 
3,000 grammes of crystallized sodium 
cai bonate in 30 liters of water; add 
300 grammes of Marseilles soap; heat 
the mass to boiling. When solution has 
taken place add rosin 400 grammes, 
yellow wax 2,500 grammes and car- 
nauba wax 1,500 grammes and heat the 
mixture until uniform. Then add 500 
grammes of potassium bitartrate in 
small portions, remove the mixture 
from the bath, add 2,500 grammes of 
oil of turpentine and stir until a viscid 
liquid is obtained. For coloring yellow, 
oil-soluble chrysanilin is used; oil-sol- 
uble Bismarck brown is employed for 
brown coloring, and nigrosin to pro- 
duce a black color. 

Casein Shoe Cream 

Casein possesses the property of fur- 
nishing with thick turpentine a shining 
compound suitable for various pur- 
poses, especially polishing. To make a 
shoe polish, 4 parts of galipot (crude 
Burgundy pitch) are melted, strained 
through a sieve and boiled with 3 
parts of water and 2 of caustic soda 
lye (density 37 deg. B.) until a film 
has formed on the. surface, whereupon 
another 1 part of the soda lye and 50 
to 60 parts of warm water are added; 

1 5 parts of soda crystals are dissolved 
in the liquid and 10 parts of powdered 
casein are stirred in until dissolved. 
This is followed by 10 parts of gray 
carnauba wax, and the whole is boiled 
until homogeneous. If a cooled sam- 
ple be found too stiff, a little water is 
added. An anilin dye that is fast to 
alkali may be used for coloring. 

Modern Shoe Dressing 

In the Journal of the Society of 
Chemical Industry has appeared a com- 
prehensive treatise on the manufacture 
of shoe dressings and polishes, by J. T. 
Donald. Some of the descriptions of 
typical dressings are appended: — 

Liquid, French, or Ladies' Shoe Dressing 

This is essentially a colored solution of 
shellac in water, dissolved with the aid of 
borax or an alkali. Nigros n is the usual 
color in black dressing. A little glycerin is 
generally added to prevent hardening and 
cracking of the leather. 

Gun-Metal Dressing 

This is prepared by adding a solution of 
soap to the liquid dressing described above. 

Patent Leather Dressing 

The liquid enamel or paint first applied is 
a solution of gun-cotton in amyl acetate, 
colored with a spirit-soluble black dye. The 
finishing polish is olive oil. cottonseed oil, 
petrolatum, or a mixture of beeswax an