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"We wonted to conjure with Block Life to recreote It for ourselves. So that 
the connection with you would be o bigger self." 

Amirl Boroko, In Our Terribleness 

The drumbeats ore many 

From Southern Africa to the 

Northeastern United States. 

From the writers, the painters 

and the educators to 

the children themselves, 

the recreating vessels of culture 

and life. 

Together they ore combined here 

In a collage of Images, 

representatives of the vorlousness 

of a people. 

Of all people. Within these pages you will find 

the keynotes to a rhythm, 

the subtle inflexions of Image and sound; 

the songs we sing, the stories we tell, 

the masks we wear, the memories we share 

and above all, the stepping stones 

to the future. 

Hopefully somewhere along the way 

we hove touched you, 

that somewhere In the resplendent images 

that grace these pages 

you hove recognized yourself, 

those that you love, and the 

possibilities available to us all 

OS we combine forces to moke the best 

The Drum of the hlstory to come. 

Volumes 16 & 17, Number I & II, May 1987 

University of Massachusetts 
New Africa House 1 1 5 
Amherst, MA 01003 

FRONT COVER: Robin Chandler 
BACK COVER: Den Jones 

Come along, then, and join us 
on this broad and beautiful journey 
through these pictures of ourselves. 

EDITORIAL STAFF: Martha Grier-Deen, Ethan T. Morlott, 

James Martin, Rudolph Miller Printed by Excelsior Printing Compony 


Drum magazine has been, and remains, a cultural imperative. It is part of an ongoing univer- 
sal struggle to promote, protect, and preserve the artistic and literary treasures of the African- 
American and Third World communities. Symbolically, Drum is vibrant and pov/erful testimony to 
the survival of one of our most vitoi and powerful institutions, the Block publication. Drum has done 
more than just endured. It has matured to become one of the top collegiate magazines of art 
and literature in the country. Drum has won Columbia University's Scholastic Press Association award 
each time it has entered the competition. 

Founded in 1969 by student Robin Chandler, the magazine has always managed to attract 
the best and brightest students in the Five-College community. Also in that year, o group of African- 
American students empowered themselves and took over New Africa House, formerly called Mills 
House, a UMass dormitory. The students presented the administration with a list of grievances and 
demanded that their protest be acknowledged by the university. They believed, and justifiably 
so, that their cultural needs had been too long ignored on the UMqss campus. 

The magazine's 1 7-year history, its vitality and quality ore what make it more relevant today 
than ever. Unfortunately, the biggest problem facing the production of Drum is funding. This issue 
of Drum was financed by Choncellor Duffey. Until two years ago, the magazine was funded by 
the Registered Student Organization (RSO) groups, but they challenged the ideological base of 
Drum every year and finally, this yeor, cut the magazine's budget. 

The parallel between the conservatism on campus and the conservatism of the Reagan ad- 
ministration is no coincidence. The struggle for representation by people of color is occurring on 
oil levels: cultural, political, and social. This is evidenced by the recent racially-motivated incident 
on the UMoss campus, and the nationwide incidents of racial unrest in Howard Beach, N.Y., For- 
sythe County, GA. and Philadelphia, PA. It is well known that Ronald Reagan's economic, military, 
foreign, and domestic policies ore less than egalitarian. A comparison of racially motivated events 
reported in 1980, when Reagan first took office, to those reported in 1986 shows on increase 
from 99 such incidences to 276. Is it any wonder that there is a resurgence of racism and discrimina- 
tion when given such an atmosphere in which to foster and grow? 

Presently these events are coming to the forefront of media attention. However, as anyone 
in the "minority" community con tell you, this is not a sudden phenomenon. The struggles against 
oppression and discrimination by people of color has been occurring for centuries. Whether or not 
this fact is made known to the general public is of no consequence to its validity. The problems 
of discrimination and violence against "minorities" are age-old and will not go away just because 
they ore conveniently removed from public attention. We will continue to struggle even harder 
because it is something we must do. 

One of the art forms they took from us when we came to this strange land was the drum. 
Here in Amherst we got our Drum back after great struggle 17 years ago. We are learning how 
to remember the correct rhythms and we've got it right now. We wont people to check us out 
and let us know if they hear us, for we ore constantly in danger of losing our drum again. 



■ drum 

jA 1 Editorial w 

^^Li 4 The Youngest Animal J^ 

^1^ translated by Loduvina Barros T?^ 

^1 8 Why Does the Tortoise Have A Short Nose? , )fr 

translated by Loduvina Barros 
11 Girl 

by Jamaica Kincaid 
13 The Rise and Fall of Black Political Culture 

by William Strickland 
17 Jammin' with the Grammy 

by Mark D. Graham 
21 Arthur Jackson Interview 

by Sandra Walters 
26 Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) 
by Ethan T. Marlatt 

39 Malcolm- Jamal Warner 
by Brauna Baum 

40 Palmer Hayden 
by Martha Grier-Deen 

SI Jeffrey Banks 

by Carlton Spence 

60 U.S. Foreign Policy and South Africa 
by Sharon Jackson 

62 Lessons of Zimbabwe 
by Arthur Serota 
I 64 The Essence of Success 

S. by Cathy Mahoney 

I 71 Corkey Ford 

I by Brauna Baum 

"^ 74 Sly and Robbie: De Riddim Twins 

3- by Brad Kaplan 

I 77 In Memory of A Perfect Angel 

« by Rudolph Miller 

I 78 Rudy Jones Interview 

y by Pancho Morris 

1 82 Catholic Bishops' Report 
a by James Martin 
w 88 Robert Mugabe Speech 

2 transcribed by Debra Mitchell 
^ 90 A People United Can Never Be Defeated 
^ by David Mahmoud 

3 92 Frederick Hurst Interview 

by Pancho Morris and Rudolf Miller 







































■4— » 



-4— ( 



























































































E bem possivel que voces noo saibom que e 
xistem poises chomodos Alto-Volto, Nepol, Tuni- 
sio ou Republico Populor do Benin. 

Mos noo fiquem tristes com isso: tern mui- 
to gente gronde que tombem noo sobe. 

O que e importonte e que voces fiquem so- 
bendo que noqueies poises existem crion^os iguoi 
zinhos o voces e que tombem gostom muito de ou- 
vir estorios. E, se prestorem otengoo, voo ver 
que OS estorios noo soo muito diferentes doque- 
los que voces conhecem. 

Tombem tem mococos sobidos, feros molvo- 
dos, heroicos cogodores que cosom com iindos prin 

As crion^Qs, de olhos redondos ou puxodi- 
nhos, de cobelos louros ou pretos, mois escuros 
ou mois cloros . . . soo os mesmos, em todos os 
poises do mundo. 

Voces noo ochom? 






\ ^- 












Isto Qconteceu no tempo em que os Qnimols 
gostovom de se reunir, poro conversor e discutir 
seus probiemos. 

Certo die eles se reunirom, poro designor 
o Qnimoi mois jovem. O tio Gainde — o leoo, pre- 
sidio Q sessQO. 

Jo se sobio quol era o mois forte de to- 
dos OS Qnimois: Gainde — o leoo, o rei do flores 
to. Sobio-se quem era o mois velho: Mome Gneye 
o elefonte. O mois desonesto e o menos inteligen 
te: era Doukl, o hieno. 


It is possible that you don't know that countries 
colled Upper-Volto, Nepal, Tunisia or Popular Republic 
of Benin exist. 

But don't be sod about this: There ore many adults 
who also don't know. What is important is that you 
know that children like you exist in those countries, 
and that they like to hear stories. And if you pay 
attention, you will see that the stories are not too 
different from the ones you know. There ore wise 
monkeys, evil wild animals, heroic hunters that hunt 
with beautiful princesses, just like in your stories. 

Children with neat or round eyes, with blond or 
block hair, dork skinned or lighter . . . they ore all the 
some in all the countries of the world. 

Don't you think so? 

Translated from Portuguese by 
Loduvina Borros 




This story happened during the time when Qnimais 
liked to meet and talk and argue about their 

One certain day they met to designate the 
youngest animal. Uncle Gainde, the lion, defended 
the session. He hod known which was the strongest of 
all the animals: Gainde — the lion, the King of the 
forest. He knew who was the oldest: Mome Gneye — 
the elephant. And he knew who was the most 
dishonest and least intelligent: Bouki — the hyena. 

However, nobody knew who was the most 
intelligent of all the animals. 

Mas ninguem sobio quern era o mois inteli- 
gente de todos os animois. 
Todo mundo queria ser o mois inteligente. 
Tio Goinde — o leoo disse: 

— Se nos soubermos quern e o mois jovem en 

tre nos, nos soberemos, oo mesmo tempo, quern e o 
mois inteligente. 

Entoo, OS que se considerovom os mois jo- 
vens, levontorom o moo: 

— Eu noscl no ono do gronde seco, disse q 
corgo. Isto quer dizer que tenho tres onos. 

— Eu teniio tres luos de noscido, ofirmou 
o chocoi, Qjeitondo suos orelhos pontudos. 

— E eu, disse o mococo, se co^ondo todo, 
vejom so! Eu ocobei de noscer ogorinho mesmo. 

Todos Qpioudirom, e o macaco jo estovo se 
Qchondo o vencedor, quondo umo voz gritou do oito 
de umo orvore: 

— Atengoo! oten^oo que eu vou noscer. Abrom 
QJQS poro me receber. 

E Leuk, o coeiho, deixondo o golho do ors^o 
re onde estovo ogorrodo, coiu no meio dos onimois 

Todo mundo reconiieceu que Leuk, o coelho, 
era de foto o mois jovem, umo vez que ele ocaboro 
de noscer, em plena discussao. 

Assim ele foi reconhecido, oo mesmo tempo, 
como o mois inteligente. 

Tio Goinde, o leoo, se levontou e se opro- 
ximou de Leuk, o coelho. 

— Eu te proclomo o mois inteligente entre 
todos OS onimois, disse ele. Voce conseguiu nos^ 
provor que era o mois jovem. Pode ser que voce 
noo sejQ verdodeiromente o mois jovem, mos o sua 
inteligencio e superior o de todos os outros. 

' ".■■ ■'i"VVv.'' " .•.;-.-..«v.'vi....," . • ;.-:v 




Trodu^QO de ledo M. R. Santos. 



The whole world wanted to be the most intelligent. 
Uncle Goinde — the lion: "If we know who is the 
youngest between us, we will also know who is the 
most intelligent." 

Then, the ones considered to be the youngest, 
raised their hands: 

"I was born in the year of the great drought," said 
the Doe, "this means I am three years old." 

"I have three moons to be born on," the Jackal 
affirmed, arranging her sharp ears. 

"And I," said the Monkey, scratching all over, "check 
this out! I was just born." 

All applauded, and the Monkey was found to be 
the winner, when a voice shouted from the top of the 

"Attention! Attention! I am going to be born. 
Open file to receive me." 

And Leuk the Rabbit, leaving the branch of the tree 
where he was, fell in between the amazed animals. 

The whole world recognized that Leuk, the rabbit, 
was In fact the youngest, because he hod just been 
born during the discussion. 

Consequently he was recognized as the most 

Uncle Goinde — the Lion, stood up and approached 
Leuk, the rabbit. 

"I proclaim you to be most intelligent among the 
animals," he said. "You obtained the proof that you 
ore not only the youngest, but your intelligence is 
superior to all the others." 

Translated from Portuguese 
by Loduvina Barros 



Antigomente, o cogodo e o esquilo (Okere) 
eram amigos e se visitovom sempre. 

Urn belo dia, o cogodo levou seus protos de 
borro poro vender no feiro e, enquonto estovo en- 
tretido vendendo, ouviu gritos de brigo e viu que 
se trotovo do seu omigo esquilo, lutondo contro 
Asin (onimol porecido com o roto). 

O cogodo, em vez de procuror sober direiti 
nho do que se trotovo e procuror resolver o ques- 
too, mol chegou 16 foi logo pegondo um pedo^o de 
pou e come^ondo o boter em Asin, fozendo de conto 
que estovo desoportondo o brigo. 

Poro quern estovo oihondo, porecio que o c6 
godo estovo tentondo seporor os dois brigoes mos, 
no verdode, ele estovo botendo demois em Asin. 

Por isso, Asin ficou muito zongodo e, dei- 
xou o esquilo de lodo poro pegor o cogodo pelo no 
riz, com os seus dentes ofiodos. 

O cogodo gritovo e pedio socorro o todo o 
mundo mos Asin noo o lorgovo. Penolizodos, os cu- 
riosos que estovom 16, ossistindo obrigo, comego 
rom Q pedir o Asin que tivesse piedode e lorgosse 
o c6godo mos Asin noo querio sober de converso. Re 
cusou-se, ote o fim, o lorgor o noriz do c6godo. 

Desesperodo, o c6godo comegou o contor po- 
ro todo o boirro: 

Sao Asin e Oi^ere que estoo brigondo 

Eu vim poro separo-los 

Asin mordeu meu noriz 

Me salve m das moos dele 

Meus protos estoo no feiro 

E eu preciso vende-los. 

O c6godo ficou contondo por muito tempo. O 
pessool do feiro io chegondo e pedindo o Asin que 
perdoosse o c6godo e soltosse o noriz dele mos 
Asin se recusou ote que o noriz do cdgodo portiu 
em suo boco. Desde oquele dio, o noriz do cogodo 
ficou curto, como ele esto ote hoje. 

Esto estdrio nos ensinomos. Quondo virem 
duos pessoos brigondo, noo seporem elos doquele 
jeito. A pessoo que seporo pode se tornor o proxi 
mo vitimo e levor muito poncodo. 

Troduzido do iorubo por Luiz Sergio Dorboso. 



Once upon o time. Tortoise end Squirrel were 
friends and they visited each other constantly. 

On Q beautiful day, a Tortoise brought his cloy 
plates to sell at the fair. While he was busy selling he 
heard a shout of fighting and he sow that his friend 
Squirrel was involved in it, fighting against Asin (on 
animal that looks like a rot). 

The Tortoise, instead of tr/ing to find out exactly 
what was going on and resolve the matter, went 
there with a piece of stick and started beating on Asin 
pretending that he was separating the fight. 

To the ones that were looking, it seemed like the 
Tortoise was trying to separate the two fighters but, in 
reality, he was beating on Asin too much. 

So, Asin was very mad, and, he left the Squirrel 
aside to go grab the Tortoise's nose with his sharp 
teeth. The Tortoise yelled to everyone and asked for 
help but the curious people there, assisting the fight 
which started, asked Asin to hove mercy and leave 
the Tortoise alone. But Asin did not core about what 
they were saying. He refused to let go of the Tor- 
toise's nose, until the end. 

Desperately, the Tortoise started singing to the 
whole district: 

It's Asin and Squirrel that are fighting 

I came to separate them 

Asin bit my nose 

Please save me from his hand 

My plates are at the fair 

and I need to sell them. 

The Tortoise kept singing for a long time. The peo- 
ple at the fair went to ask Asin to forgive the Tortoise 
and to release his nose, but Asin refused until the Tor- 
toise's nose broke in his mouth. Since that day, the 
Tortoise's nose has remained short. 

We teach this story when two people ore fighting, 
so that they ore not separated that way. The person 
who separates them con become the next victim and 
get beaten. 

Translated from Portuguese 
by Loduvino Borros 

Max Roache and James Baldwin, Ministers of Culture 

James Baldwin 

Thank you for marking the turbulence, 
the good fury in the heart of the mountain 
that constantly step-shadows weakness 
and spikes the spirit to believe 
there's a just tomorrow to rely on. 

Thank you for narrating the rage 

of the people in the ravine 

who were pushed down the grieving slide 

and whose only continuing loss 

is their long credit of patience. And thank you for signalling the fire 

you foresaw when the word 
and the iron it designed so quickly 
became skills of furnace response 
when the heart of the mountoin burst 


and the molten truth sloshed across America, 
as the atavistic cancer burned itself out, 
while the new decision sprang loose, 
with all the will and courage of Cudjoe 
and with all the sparkling resolve of revolt. 

— by Andrew Salkey 


by JomaicQ Kincoid 

Wash the white clothes on Monday 
and put them on the stone heop; 
wash the color clothes on Tuesday and 
put them on the clothesline to dry; 
don't wolk bareheaded in the hot sun; 
cook pumpkin fritters in very hot sweet 
oil; soak your little cloths right after you 
toke them off; when buying cotton to 
moke yourself a nice blouse, be sure 
that it doesn't have gum on it, 
because that way it won't hold up 
well after a wash; soak salt fish over- 
night before you cook it; is it true that 
you sing benno in Sunday school?; 
always eat your food in such a way 
that it won't turn someone else's 
stomach; on Sundoys try to walk like 
a lody ond not like the slut you ore so 
bent on becoming; don't sing benno 
in Sunday school; you mustn't speak to 
whorf-rot boys, not even to give direc- 
tions; don't eat fruits on the street — 
flies will follow you; but I don't sing 
benno on Sundays at oil ond never in 
Sundoy school; this is how to sew on 
a button; this is how to moke o 
button-hole for the button you hove 
just sewed on; this is how to hem a 
dress when you see the hem coming 
down and so to prevent yourself from 
looking like the slut I know you ore so 
bent on becoming; this is how you iron 

your father's khoki shirt so that it 
doesn't hove a crease; this is how you 
iron your father's khaki pants so that 
they don't hove a creose; this is how 
you grow okra — far from the house, 
becouse okro tree harbors red onts; 
when you are growing dasheen, 
moke sure it gets plenty of water or 
else it mokes your throat itch when 
you ore eating it; this is how you 
sweep Q corner; this is how you sweep 
a whole house; this is how you sweep 
a yard; this is how you smile to some- 
one you don't like too much; this is 
how you smile to someone you don't 
like at all; this is how you smile to 
someone you like completely; this is 
how you set a table for tea; this is how 
you set a table for dinner; this is how 
you set o table for dinner with an 
important guest; this is how you set a 
table for lunch; this is how you set a 
table for breakfast; this is how to 
behave in the presence of men who 
don't know you very well, and this 
way they won't recognize immediate- 
ly the slut I hove worned you against 
becoming; be sure to wash ever/ day, 
even if it is with your own spit; don't 
squat down to play marbles — you 
ore not o boy, you know; don't pick 
people's flowers — you might cotch 
something; don't throw stones ot 
blackbirds, because it might not be a 
blackbird at oil; this is how to moke a 
bread pudding; this is how to moke 
doukono; this is how to moke pepper 
pot; this is how to moke a good 

medicine for a cold; this is how to 
moke a good medicine to throw 
away a child before it even becomes 
a child; this is how to catch a fish; this 
is how to throw bock o fish you don't 
like, and thot way something bod 
won't foil on you; this is how to bully 
a man; this is how o mar> bullies you; 
this is how to love o mon, and if this 
doesn't work there ore other ways, 
and if they don't work don't feel too 
bod about giving up; this is how to spit 
up in the air if you feel like it, and this 
is how to move quick so that it doesn't 
fall on you; this is how to moke ends 
meet; always squeeze bread to make 
sure it's fresh; but what if the boker 
won't let me feel the bread?-, you 
mean to soy that after oil you ore real- 
ly going to be the kind of woman who 
the baker won't let near the bread? 

About the Author 

Jamaica Kincoid was born in St. John's, Antigua, in the West Indies. She 
is a stoff writer for The New Yorl'ier. ond her stories hove also appeared 
in Rolling Stone and The Paris Review. In addition to At the Bottom of 
the River (Vintage, 1 935) from which this story has been excerpted, she 
hos written Annie John, a novel. Jamaica Kincoid lives in New York with 
her husband. 

This story was chosen in dedication to women of color all over the world. 



Although written several years ago, the issues raised in this article by Dill Strickland ore still with us. That is why Drum 
is reprinting it as a contribution to the ongoing debate on the meaning of DIacli Identity In America. 



By V/iiiiam Strickland 


"One of the simplest ways to lose freedom is to stop fighting for It and stop respecting It. And 
when it goes that way, something much worse happens, I think: when freedom goes that way 
it completely vanishes and nobody cares. Chaos takes its place ..." (1) 

At Q meeting some years ago, I was struck by the fact 
that all of the participants who had, in one way or on- 
other, been involved in the movement, tend to talk 
OS though it — or some derivative — still existed. It was as if 
we were prisoners of yesterdoy's history: captives of a post we 
could not — or would not — relinquish. Apparently it was dif- 
ficult to foce the fact that the movement which had meant so 
much to us (ond others) hod, some ten years before, fluttered 
to eorth like a bird pierced on the wing: shot down by the hostili- 
ty of the nation, the opposition of the state, the ossossination 
of its leaders and by its own failure to determine what "freedom" 
would truly mean in our ambiguously hostile native lond. 

If some of us clung so tenaciously to the past, it wos probobly 
because the present is so much less our own, is so much more 
a time of owkword unclority ond dim foreboding — o time of 
monifest and ubiquitous crisis. 

Yet the threat of sociol dissolution — as tangible as it is — 
is still not the critical problem. The unease one feels is due as 
much, I believe, to the feeling of not being in control of things 
OS to the feeling that things ore out of control. That is the great 
difference between the movement days and now. In the six- 
ties. Block people were a people of vision and purpose: a peo- 
ple on the move, firm in the conviction that we were o port 
of history which we could moke if only we acted upon our own 
best beliefs. 

Now that is oil changed. Now my generation seems to look 
to the past for the meaning and sustenance so locking in the 
present — and the younger generation seems to look to not 
very much ot oil. Somehow the link between what we were 
ond what we hove become hos been broken; leaving us 
strangers to ourselves and our histor/. Thus it was in reaction 
to o suffocating climote of racial ond political amnesia, that 
some of us sought to retain our sensibilities by keeping olive 
the flames of on older movement — time when we were more 
certain of our country, our struggle and ourselves. 

Another such movement-seeker after on earlier, more certain, 
self is Jean Wheeler Smith. In o recent mogazine article entitled, 
"Mississippi Remembered," Jean Smith took her reoders bock 
with her to McComb, Mississippi to seek the answers to some 
personal-political questions she had posed to herself. 

'Why did we succeed? How did a core of workers, never 

more than a thousand, manage to stop the whole coun- 
try and make it listen to the demand for equal rights?" '^^ 

Perhops unwittingly, Jean Smith answered her own questions 
when she described her movement years os having been 
"wonderfully full of love and truth and a dazzling correctness 

of action." Reflecting on the present, however, she acknowl- 
edged o feeling of discontinuity with the post. 

"But over the years since I left the South I had lost my 
sense of those times. " ^^' 

In one sense Jean Smith's personal 'lostness' mirrors the con- 
dition of the race itself which has also lost its sense of what it 
once hod been. 

How did this identity-erosion occur? How did we go from o 
time when people unashamedly characterized the Block strug- 
gle OS one of "love" ond "truth" and o "dazzling correctness of 
action" to the contemporary rejection of both love and truth 
and struggle? 

Perhaps the best place to begin such an enquiry is at the 
beginning, and the beginning for the movement was some two 
decodes ago when Mrs. Rosa Porks '"' sat down in the white 
section of o Montgomery bus and sparked o movement which 
inspired Block people throughout the nation and fired the im- 
agination of the world. Out of Montgomery come the sit-ins and 
the freedom rides and the student demonstrations and the 
gratuitous Klon and police-killings; all signs that a movement 
of unimogined force and power was coursing through the land. 
Even White southern presidents like Lyndon Johnson spoke of 
"the Block revolution""' and no one questioned that descrip- 


tion — OS they might todoy. 

What the president meant by "the Black revolution" was that 
the clash between Blocks ond Whites in the South hod convulsed 
the entire region and spilled over into the country at large. 

The southern confrontation was formidable — and violent; 
ond what Blocks used to oppose the night-riders and the hostile 
courts ond the ombivolent government was, at bottom, only 
the power of people. Hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands 
of people from oil walks of life, from all ports of the country, 
and from oil points on the politico! compass responded to the 
movement's coll and put their bodies on the line to try and 
realize the dream of freedom. 

The Fragmentation of the Race 

Then Q most curious thing happened. The movement's force 
provoked o response thot was at once both unexpected 
and undermining. Suddenly colleges and corporations be- 
gan to scour the land for Blocks to whom they might give jobs 
and scholarships. Hollywood discovered Block actors and Block 
movies — ond Block dollors at the box office. The Greot White 
Woy become Bubbling Brown Sugar and Block writing began 
to sell like Aunt Jemima's poncokes. Blacks were in. 

As o result, a movement whose strength hod been its non- 
moteriolism, o movement fueled by the Block church and rooted 
in southern folkways ond notional Black culture, was turned in- 
to its opposite by America's concessions. It became, for some, 
a vehicle for their own personal gain. Almost overnight there 
were community health programs and Block studies programs 
and church ogoinst injustice programs. And suddenly too, or so 
it was projected by the medio, there were one, two, three 
million new Block voters in the South, now duly registered (at 
o smoll blood price) with no one to represent them. (6) In 1 966 
there were less thon a hundred Block elected officiols in the 
South, in 1975 there were a thousand. 

So the movement wrung its mercenory tribute from White 
America and moved in quickly to pick up on the loot. In the 
scromble, the dream about freedom got trompled. Neorly 
everyone wos dancing to the Isley Brothers' tune: "Do your thing, 
do what you wont to do . . ."; pursuing his or her own individual 
interest to the exclusion of all else. A centrifugal force was 
created that tore asunder the movement's unity. The middle 
class of the NAACP, the rural church of the SCLC, the urban Black 
militonts of COP,E, the northern and southern radicals in SNCC 
all of whom hod previously been in on uneasy but nevertheless 
significant all-class ollionce, now set out on their own individual 

We were a people no longer. We hod fragmented into o 
strange new entity colled the Self. This meant, according to the 
'hip' that it wos time to forget "the Block thing" ond "go for self." 
Only Q few noticed that in the process we hod abdicated our 
historic role, that we who hod been redefining Americo now 
began to pursue it ond on its own terms. We even stopped talk- 
ing obout freedom. Instead we put oil our energies into "get- 
ting over." And we did. Didn't we? (In the meantime while the 
movement was succumbing to these internol contradictions, it 
was olso being subjected to increosing external pressures from 
White America.) 

Much of the White reoction come in response to a new critical 
consciousness which emerged among some movement peo- 
ple who hod been bottling long ond stubbornly ogoinst the 
hydra-headed nature of American racism. SNCC poet. Worth 
Long, articulated the feelings of this element when he wrote: 
"Folse-foced America, we hove found you out." (7) 

What he meant, of course, was that the mainly police- 
provoked urban rebellions, the countless unavenged murders 
of southern Blacks, the repudiotion of the Mississippi Freedom 
Democrotic Party by the Democratic Porty in Atlantic City, the 

murder of Malcolm X, the holf-heorted support of the Justice 
Department, ond the countless other contradictions which the 
struggle exposed, prompted many freedom-fighters to conclude 
that the only thing thot could turn America around wos not 
morality but power. Hence the coll for Block power. 

But Block power was not whot White America viewed as the 
proper gool of "the civil rights movement." Increasingly White 
America become tired of Block people and Block demands; tired 
of pretending that it was truly interested in "freedom, justice 
and equolity"; tired of pretending thot it really cored about its 
Block citizen-brothers and sisters. And, hoving gotten tired of 
us, it wished most heortily that we would go away — or ot leost 
get back in our place. The rise of George Wolloce ond the even- 
tual triumph of Richard Nixon were the political expressions of 
that sentiment. Both rose to power on the promise thot they 
would moke the White wish come true and restore Block peo- 
ple to their proper ploce. In Nixon ond Wallace, White reaction 
found its legitimizing champions who competed with one 
another for the presidency of the United States. 

Thus the movement collopsed under the combined weight 
of Block desertions from within ond odministrotion-endorsed 
assaults from without. And what emerged from the rubble which 
hod once been o proud and confident and assertive and self- 
determining people, was something strange ond new and in- 
outhentic called "o minority." 


The Devolution from "People" to "Minority" 

It is interesting to note that even as the Black movement 
wos in its death throes, it gove birth to two stronge progeny. 
One wos the White backlash mentioned in port one. The 
other was o proliferation of groups remarkably imitative of the 
Block protest style but reluctont to odmit their debt to its leader- 
ship model. 

A wild orroy of special interest groups sprang up. On the one 
side were those groups like the women ond goys who attempt- 
ed to gain recognition and reword by using Block tactics. On 
the other were White reactionary groups like SPONGE in New 
York (The Society to Prevent Negroes from Getting Everything) 
whose purpose wos not to get anything specificolly for 
themselves but to prevent Blocks from getting ony more. 
Regardless then, whether the groups were imitoting or pro- 
testing ogoinst Blocks, they owed their existence (ond most of 
their strategy ond style) to the Block movement itself. 

Then o most bizarre development occurred. The Block move- 
ment which fathered these post- 1968 social formotions 
somehow got equated with them. Blocks were lumped 
together not only with non-White groups like Asion-Americons, 
Puerto Ricons, Native Americons ond Chiconos, but also, throug'h 
some marvelous sleight of hand, with women os well, '^omen 
who make up a majority of the population suddenly become 
"a disadvantaged minority" whose demands were Juxtaposed 
against Black claims as equals. It wos what Molcolm used to 
coll vintage "tricknology." 

By such meons the country come to enjoy a most mon/elous 
reprieve. It submerged the troublesome questions of rocism, 
revolution, sociol chonge. Block power ond the like and moved 
the question bock to the less troublesome ground of civil rights. 
People were no longer fighting to change America but to por- 
ticipote in it, to get their shore of the bounty. The system could 
handle that with o great deal more opiomb. 

Accordingly, the Block problem was reduced to scole. 
Freedom was redefined as largesse ond, in the twinkling of on 
eye. Blacks went from being the premier chollengers of the 
society to its most abject also-rans. Initiotive passed entirely from 
our hands. That is why affirmative oction is the upper boundory 


of our current politics. We propose and the system disposes. We 
have been reduced to o petitioner's and supplicant's politics 
which is as different from old movement politics as is the night 
from day. Whot I am suggesting is thot not only hove we per- 
mitted the movement to waste away but we hove done 
something for worse. We have lost hegemony over the inter- 
pretation of our condition and America's. The minority question 
is simply one exomple of the way we have foresworn our right 
to define ourselves ond the nation. 

The Rise of Ethnicity/The Decline of Blackness 

\\ /hen White Americons grew weary of what was called, 
\\ / more frankly, in the 19th centuiy "the infernol nigger 
W question" (6) they demanded that attention be given 
to those Americans who had been forgotten in the intemperate 
preoccupation of government and press and foundations with 
Black problems. This demand provided the justificotion for the 
rise of the ethnic movement, the elevation of the hyphenated 
White Americans to their "rightful place" in the sun. In oil this 
rainbow of ethnicity, race as the basis of identity ond privilege 
in America wos downplayed. The Block-White question which 
had convulsed the country for two decades seemed to melt 
owoy. Everybody now was the some. We were oil ethnics and 
minorities together. Whites were no longer the adverser/ and 
race was no longer the issue. Whites were now ethnics. It wos 
o stupendous achievement, o triumph of illusionol politics. 
Redefine the problem and presto it disappears. 

But the Block movement and the minority and ethnic 
movements ore not the some. For these White equality-seeking 
movements pose no threat to White America while the Block 
struggle — whether conscious of it or not — olwoys has. If, for 
example, we ask ourselves what threot the women's, gay or 
ethnic movements pose to the country, what answers they pro- 
pose to the current American crises, whot vision of social chonge 
they embody, or what solutions they stand for, it should be ob- 
vious that their relation to the set of contradictions which 
chorocterize contemporary American life is ephemerol ot best. 
Theirs is the politics of improved participation in the system — 
regardless of its contradictions. A politics supportive of the status 
quo. One further example of the contradictions of the minority 

In undergroduate school we studied a sociology text called 
Racial and Cultural Minorities by Simpson and Yinger. (9) Thot 
book, published in 1958, dealt with Blacks and Jews and 
Itolions. (At that time we were oil minorities together.) Yet to- 
day when one speaks of minorities one invariably means non- 
Whites. That is the implicit cultural usage. White people as we 
hove noted, are called ethnics. So even though Blacks ore the 
largest nationality or racial group in the country, probably 
numbering more than thirty million — given the two admitted 
census undercounts of 1 960 and 1 970, yet we ore the minori- 
ty! By contrast there ore only 7 million Jews in America ond about 
1 4 million in the world. There ore more Black people thon Polish- 
Americans or Italian- Americans or what hove you, more Block 
people than the entire organized labor movement. Yet we are 
the minority! Clearly then the term "minority" is not a neutral 
designation. It is in fact a political and not o sociological con- 
cept. It means that the most important thing about Block peo- 
ple thot we — and Whites — should always keep before us is 
that we ore outnumbered. The message then is clear: better 
stoy in your place. 

Now what oil this means is that though we may have stopped 
fighting the system, it has not stopped fighting us. The struggle 
goes on in a myriad ways ond, as I hope this discussion hos 
shown, most especially at the level of political culture. 

And this in a way brings us bock to Jean Smith. For it is ob- 
vious thot no Black person in McComb, Mississippi or anywhere 

else ever conceived of him/herself as a minority when he/she 
determined to fight against oppression. The question wos irrelo- 
vont. Indeed if you think about it, no Block people ond certain- 
ly no Block masses anywhere refer to themselves as a minority. 
It is a class term. The only Blacks who use the term ore Blocks 
conversing with Whites who hove fallen into the habit of utiliz- 
ing concepts which ore consonant with White perspectives. What 
I am suggesting, therefore, is thot the conception of Blacks as 
a "minority" whether it appears in social life as the notion of 
racial minority or in politicol life os national minority, is on 
historical and badly flawed analytical tool. For the conception 
of majority-minority never stopped any serious people from 
resisting oppression in Harlem or Hottiesburg, New Orleans or 
Nyock, (10) We need to remember that while the movement 
was 'moving' it forced the society to stop calling us "Negroes" 
and coll us whot we began to coll ourselves: Block. Then ond 
now semantics ond sociology reflected political reality, the reality 
of altered social relations between Blocks and Whites. Minority 
is o post-movement designation, a reflection of the inseparable 
relationship between identity and struggle. 

We might olso recoil that the Block so-called minority 
stimuloted all the post-1 968 social movements currently on the 
scene as well as the obdurate opposition of the state which, 
through its COINTELPRO and Operotion Chaos programs, took 
the movement quite seriously indeed. (11) 

If we ore ever, therefore, to regain that atmosphere of "love" 
and "truth" and "dozzling correctness of action" that Jean Smith 
described, then we must analyze anew and struggle to onolyze 
for ourselves. For we shall never be able to chonge America 
by being like it — especiolly by default. Consequently the great 
danger of the moment, I would argue, is the Americonizotion 
of the race. To ovoid that pitfall we need, among other things, 
to re-connect with the truth of our post. We need once ogoin 
to hear Sister Margaret Walker reminding us about us in a poem 
colled "We Hove Been Believers": 

We have been believers, yielding for the world. 

With our hands have we fed a people and out of 

our strength have they wrung the necessities of 

a nation. 

Our song has filled the twilight and our hope 

has heralded the dawn. 

Now we stand ready for the touch of one fiery 
iron, for the cleansing breath of many molten 
truths, that the eyes of the blind may see and 
the ears of the deaf may hear and the tongues 
of the people be filled with living fire." (12) 


1 . James Baldwin, "Whot Price Freedom?" Freedomwoys, Vol. 4. No. 
2, Spring, 1964. 

2. Jeon Wheeler Smith, "Mississippi l^emembered," Essence, Vol. 8, 
No. 6, Oct. 1977, pg. 82. 

3. IBID, 

4. Martin Luther King, Jr., Jfride Toward Freedom. Bollontine, N.Y., 
1960, pg. 04, 

5. President Johnson's Commencement Address, Howord University, 
Woshington, D.C., June 4, 1965, quoted in Civil Rights and the 
American Negro, Bloustein and Zongrondo, eds., Washington 
Square, New York 1966, pg. 159. 

6. Howard Zinn, 5NCC The New Abolitionists, Beacon, Boston, 1964, 
pgs. 190-215. 

7. Julius Lester, Looi-t Out Whitey, DIad': Power's Gonna Get Your Mama, 
Dial, N.Y. 1968, pg. 137. 

8. Forrest G. Wood, Diodi Score. Berkeley, 1968, pgs. 103-156. 

9. Simpson and Yinger, Racial ond Cultural Minorities, Horper, N.Y., 

10. Nyock is o smoll upstate New York town which, despite its miniscule 
Block population, had its own mini-urban rebellion in the sixties. 

1 1 . Morton Holperin, et ol. The Lawless State: The Crime of the U.S. in- 
telligence Agencies, Penguin, London, 1976. 

12. Margaret Walker, For My People, New Haven, 1942, pg. 16. 

Copyright, institute of the C/oc/< World, Atlanta, GA 


Sky Where There's Power to Kill 

Heilicopters fly common in our sky 
over debates the news mokes about the dead. 
Who to remember Nazis or Jews? 

The descendants of the Mayo or the salaried C.I.A.-Misquito? 
The paid-in-death Mokoh, Nooksok, Hoh, Skagit, Quinoult, 
Chinook, Clatskonine, Tilomook, Siletz and Clatsop. 
Slaves. The history of that and how it continues. 
What about the firebombing of Tokyo, Big Boy and Little Boy 
over Hiroshima and Nagasaki? 
There ore too many dead to pick up. 
There ore too many dead to remember. 

T.V, soys the planet is too small nothing of who chooses the dead. 
Does gender enter in to be killer or killed? 
A city or the countryside or everything at once? 
There ore all kinds of helicopters and many mokes of bombs. 
The pilots practice in Philadelphia sometimes 
but usually where terrorists hide not in ovens. 
And good money is to be hod except they don't count the dead 
by body count but by zones pacified. 
Airplanes ore important flying over fallow ground 
bringing in bounty from the invisible dead. 
From the world's deepest mine in South Africa 
where cold air is piped in so someone con wear diamonds 
or the gold next door to where wise fishermen fish. 
Xelo wonts us to know for them old age is a luxury or a miracle. 

Zoe Anglesey 

'-.t^c "'l-.-V'(,'V 


Jommin' with the Grammy 

on interview with Jimmy Jam 
of Qword-winning Flyte Tyme 

by Mark D. Graham 

Out of Minnesota, with Morris Day singing lead, Jesse Johnson on guitar, Monte Moir on l-^eyboards. Jellybean Johnson on drums, 
Terry Lewis on bass and Jimmy Jam on keyboards — The Tyme exploded with a Minneapolis-style funk that would revolutionize 
the music industry today. Touring with Prince, The Tyme gave to Black music whot Bruce Springsteen gave to Rock-n-P,oll. With such 
strong tolent the group's individual struggle for diversity would lead to The Tyme's demise. 

Independently, each member has continuolly maintained o strong hold of the music wove: Morris Day — "The Oak Tree" (kicking 
off his world tour from UAAAS5 eorly spring '85); Jesse Johnson collaborating with Sly Stone on "Crazoy"; Monte Moir writing songs 
for such artists as Janet Jackson ("Pleosure Principle" — Control LP), and his own production company,- and Jimmy Jom and Terry 
Lewis — producing various artists, from Pop artist Janet Jackson to Latin Brass Jazz artist Herb Alpert. 

Jimmy Jam (James Horris III) and Terry Lewis storted FLYTE TYME, in early '83, and since have gone to the top, as producers of the yeor. 

two things we could do, either produce or go start 
another bond — which we didn't wont to do. At that 
point, about May '80, we became serious. From that 
point on we were full-time producers. 

Drum; After producing artists such as Alexander O'Neal, Cher- 
relle. Force M.D.'s, Humon League, Janet Jackson ond 
S.O.S. Bond; who else would you like to produce? 

Jom: Who we'd like to produce ore the people who we're 
working with now — Alexander ond Cherrelle. It's been 
two years since Alexander did his album, portly becouse 
his album was successful for such o long period of time, 
but also because we'd gotten so swamped with other 
projects. He could hove elected to go with some other 
producers, ond it soys a lot to us thot he and Cherrelle 
decided to bosicolly put their careers on hold until such 
a time as we were reody to work out another album for 
them. Alexander's album is about two weeks from be- 
ing completed and we've gotten o stort on Cherrelle's 
record. There oren't too many artists who we look at that 
we really want to produce. We like to produce people 
who hove a need to work with us. 
When do you decide to produce o porticulor artist? 
I guess it's just occording to how we feel at the time. 
We're trying to stay creatively fresh. Producing Alex(ander) 
and Cherrelle is kind of like being at home. After leoving 
home we go out ond we do things like Janet's (Jackson) 
album which was somewhat of a departure for us and 
the Human Leogue was o big departure. We went from 
the Human League to Herb Albert, ond then we come 
home. After we do Alex(ander's) and Cherrelle's albums, 
we'll be working on o sound trock mix, and we'll hove 
a chance to work with a lot of different artists on that, 
Robert Palmer, Michael McDonald, New Edition, Potty 
Lobelle. That's o lot of fun and, once again, it's something 
different. We may decide to work with a new group of 
some kind, in fact, we just signed o new group from out 
of Minneapolis that probably won't hove o product 
(record) out until next year sometime, becouse they're 
going through a grooming process right now. We just take 
things OS they come and try to stay fresh creatively and 
take o different opprooch with each artist, and hove o 
lot of fun. We enjoy what we do. 

Drum: Will the Tyme ever get bock together? 

Jam; Right now, it looks like it will happen . . . everybody has 
basically agreed in the group that they'd like to do it, 
but we're dealing with different labels and different 
managers ... so it just takes o little time to sort through 
the mud. 

Drum; Is this just a one album deal or ore there future collabora- 
tions in the planning? 



Drum: Who is Flyte Tyme? 

Jam: Me and Terry (Lewis) and Jellybean Johnson, he's one of 
our staff producers/writers; o gentleman named Spencer 
Bernard, who's also a producer/ writer, and o gentleman 
named Randy Jenkins, who just signed on. 
Is Monte Moir on active member of Flyte Tyme? 
No, in fact Monte is storting his own production company. 
He left us about a year and o half ago, right after he did 
the song for Janet Jackson (the "Control" LP) "The Pleosure 
Principle"; that was his lost project for us. 

Drum: Whot prompted the development of Flyte Tyme Produc- 
tions, OS on independent production company? 
Initiolly, we started out just doing it for the fun of it. We 
were ploying with The Time ... it was just something 
extro to do. Not for the money, but for creotivity. Ob- 
viously, if you're a writer, you're gonno write more songs 
than o band's gonno need ... so we decided to ploy 
some songs on other artists. Then after the second Time 
tour, we got kicked-out of the group. So basically pro- 
ducing was the natural thing to do. Actually, there were 



Jam; Initially, it's o one album deal. We just wont to see what's 
gonna happen. First of qII, we know we're gonno work 
well together, but it's dependent on the public's reac- 
tion to it. I'm very optimistic about it, and we've heord 
nothing but positive things from people who've talked 
about it happening. We'll get together for the one thing 
and hopefully it will lead to more things. Everybody hos 
pretty much established a successful coreer on their own, 
outside of the group. I think it would be great especiolly 
for a Block group, to be successful as a group, but then 
also be successful as individuals ... it hasn't been done. 
A Block group has never done it. There ore groups, ob- 
viously, like Genesis that get back together and do their 
album, then Phil Collins goes his way, and Mike Ruther- 
ford goes his way . . . and they get back together and 
do albums. I see no reason for a Block group not to do 
that also, and I think we just happen to be in a position 
to be the ones to do it. So, we'd really like to pull it off 
and moke it look good. I'd like to see it become a very 
positive role model for other Block groups. 

Drum: What is "Secret"? 

Jam: Well, basically it is o project. It's not really o bond, just 
Q project we're working on. It became the "Secret" when 
o bunch of labels started bidding on it and didn't know 
what it was. It got to be a big joke, so we just called 
it the "Secret," 'cause I think we're one of the few bonds 
to be signed with no (demo) topes or . . . anything, not 
even a name. It's a project and, even ot this point, we 
have about seven tunes done. When the album comes 
out we don't know who's gonno be on the cover, or 
who's gonno be in it if we tour, we're keeping it very flex- 
ible ... it will definitely be on all-star undertaking, so 
to speak. We're gonna have a lot of fun with it. 

Drum: Do you foresee any colloborations with Prince? 

Jam: I don't know, stranger things have happened . . . but 
we keep on open mind. 

Drum: Are you interested in doing any jazz collaborations with 
some contemporary greats, like Miles Davis? 

Jam: Miles is somebody who is actually on the list, down the 
line, to work with. He's indicated on interest in doing 
something. It's something we're open to and we'll see 
where we con work something out. 

Drum: How did you feel about winning the Grammy for Pro- 
ducers of the Year? Did you expect it at all? 

Jam: I felt like justice hod been done. I felt we deserved to 
win it ... So when we won it, we felt that justice hod 
been done . . . that was our reaction, it wasn't really sur- 
prise or any thing like that. In fact that was the comment 
Terry mode as we were going on the stage and I said 
That's right.' We hod a couple of things against us, one, 
we're Block, two, we're not port of the "L.A. click" com- 
munity of Grommy voters . . . there were a lot of ways 
we could hove lost. What I'd like to know, is how much 
we won by, wos it on overwhelming vote or did we just 
barely squeak through. I guess we'll never know that. 

Drum: How do you feel personally? 

Jam: I think they gave it to us because we deserved it. I think 
we did everything that a producer is supposed to do. I 
mean, I think we fit all the requirements; in the amount 
of product thot we did, the quality of the product, the 
diversity of the product, the fact that it all did commer- 
cially very well across a wide scope — pop. Block, dance. 
The fact that our sound is probably the most imitated 
sound out there — there are even records that we 
haven't produced that sound like us anyway. So if that's 
not the criteria for Producer of the Year ... I don't know 
what is. 

Drum: Out of the artists whom you hove produced, who was 
the best to work with? 

Jam: Everybody, for different reasons; technicolly. Potty Austin 
wos the best. Patty Austin is on absolute professional 
. . . she not only sings very fost, but she sings with a lot 








of expression. She's absolutely the best. As for os having 
energy and vitality, it would hove to be Janet . . 
definitely. Fun to work with ... I would say Cherrelle, 
probably. And osfor os a pure, row voice that just mokes 
us look real good, it would hove to be Alexander O'Neal. 
He makes us look good. He'll sing some stuff and I'll say, 
"Yeah, that's fine," ond he'll just be great. So ... a lot 
of people for different reasons, that's what mokes it so 
fun. Each artist brings their own individual aura about 
them into the studio and then that brings out o different 
side of our creativity. 

Where do you do most of your recording? 
Minneapolis. We hove our own facility and we do all of 
it here — everything since 'Saturday Love' which was the 
first song ever recorded in our new facility. Everything 
since then has been recorded up here; recorded and 

Who in the music business do you admire? 
Ah . . . here we go ... a lot of people, number one, 
Clerence Avon, who is our mentor, advisor. Godfather 
. . . whatever . . . best friend. I admire him for sticking 
through the music business. When we first met Clarence, 
he wos about to get out of the music business. We kind- 
of talked him into getting bock into it . . . we told him 
we were going to moke the music business fun for him. 
And we've done that for him, I believe. He's fantastic. 
As on artist Prince is by for the greatest . . . well I can't 
soy greatest of all tipne, somebody told me I can't soy 
that 'cause greotness is measured, I guess, after you've 
been dead for twenty years ... so I can't soy thot, but 
Prince is by for, the top of his field. No doubt about it, 
he's on parallel with no-one. I admire him. I also admire 
people like Larry Blockmon in Comeo, for moking it . . . 
I mean they've been together for what? 1 or 1 1 years? 
and they've just now mode it big on the pop chorts, but 
they haven't changed their sound, they're still doing the 
some thing. I love that, I think that's credibility. There's 

lot of people but those three names come to mind. 
What is the ratio of collaboration between the members 
of Flyte Tyme Production? 

There's really no set pattern, but normally I end up writing 
more music and Terry ends up writing more lyrics. I con 
come up with good concepts, but it's hard for me to put 
them into words. I con explain a concept to Terry and 
he con hove it down in ten minutes. He's fontostic at that. 
It doesn't olwoys work like that but generally, maybe 
60% of the time, it is that way. 
Do you hove ony political views that you plan to express 
through your music, through artists you'll produce or 
through this Tyme colloborotion? 
Well, one of the things that hoppens as a producer and 
as a writer, is that you're writing things and other peo- 
ple ore saying them for you. A lot of people hove dif- 
ferent views on politics, it's hard for me or Terry to write 
a song and give it to an artist to sing if he or she doesn't 
believe o hundred percent in whot you're saying in the 
song. They're not going to perform it right and you feel 
bod because you don't want to force anything down 
anybody's throat. I think there ore a lot of people out 
there who con express that o lot better than either of 
us could soy it. I think Prince's song, 'Sign of the Times,' 
is o fantastic stotement. He does it o lot better than I 
could do it. So I would prefer to leave that up to him. 
Would you like to odd anything else to this interview? 

1 olwoys like to soy thanks to the readers and the peo- 
ple who support us, because without them, obviously we 
wouldn't be in business. I'm glad that people care and 
I hope that not only do people listen to our music and 
enjoy us, but that we ore positive Block role models for 
people out there. 

Well, thank you for your time and we'll be listening to you. 










by Sandra Walters 

Mr. Arthur Jackson was born in Burlington, New Jersey. He is married witl^ two children ond resides in Springfield, Massachusetts. 
He graduated fronn the State University of New York at Fredonio in 1971 with a B.A. in Political Science, in 1975 from the State 
University of New York at Binghomton with on M.A. in Sociology. He is currently a Doctoral Candidate in Educational Administration 
at UMoss, Amherst. He holds various important positions such as, the Director of Financial Aid Services at UMoss, Amherst, Vice Presi- 
dent of Eastern Association of Student Financial Administrators (EASFAA), and President of the Hartford Alumni Chapter of Kappa 
Alpha Psi Fraternity; and is o versatile and positive individuol in our community. 

Drum: What was it like growing up in the 50's and 60's in New 

Jackson: Well, I think it was o different time. Civil Rights hod just 

become an issue and I remember going down South 

to Houston, where it was my first time in o segregated 

facility and I wasn't allowed to eat upstairs in 

Woolworth's. That was interesting because I went to 

on integrated high school, lived in o neighborhood 

where there were Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics, so I 

took it for granted that the rest of the world was like 

that. I was able to learn to understond my identity as 

a Block person and what the needs of the Black race 

Drum: How did you feel about the segregation down south 

and what wos its effect on you? 
Jockson: It was a shock and a new experience hearing people 

being called vulgar names and other innuendos. The 

covert racism is more difficult because if someone calls 

you a name, you con deal with that, but being always 

put in the bock of the line or olwoys looked upon as 

second priority is something else. To me the strength 

of being Black comes from within, not really what peo- 
ple tell you. What you hove to know, however, is what 

you are and what the heritage of your people are. 
Drum: What forces and /or people motivated you to continue 

on to higher education ofter high school? 
Jackson: My fifth grade teacher, Mrs. Bisrupt. She was the first 

Block teacher I ever hod, and she told me that she 

thought I wasn't studying hard enough and that I hod 

o purpose for beyond myself to achieve. She sold, 

". . . not only ore you being judged on your own 

endeavors, but you're race will be judged on how you 

achieve. So if you do poorly, people will look ot you 

and soy, 'Well, oil Block people will do poorly.' " So 

she was kind of very tough on me, and now I under- 
stond why she was tougher on the Block students than 

she was on the White students. However, one day she 

took us after doss and she said, "Never ossume being 

Block means you hove to be the same. If you're go- 
ing to be the same, you're going to be a lesser per- 
son because you always hove to achieve more to be 

the some, just because you're Black." I think as my first 

mentor, she probably taught me more in the fifth 

grade than many other people hove just by letting me 

know that things weren't always going to be fair and 

equal, but if you're a strong enough person and you 

work hord enough you'll be able to succeed in what 

you do. You hove to hove the perseverance to over- 
come your hurdles etc. . . . 
Drum: Do you think her talking to you pushed you into higher 

education or wos it something you thought you olwoys 

Jackson: I think she pushed me. I went through moods and 

trends as everybody else did. I could hove gone one 

Photo by Drouno Daum 

way or another. Half of my neighborhood friends ore 
lowyers, doctors, and university professors, and the 
other half ore drug addicts, and in prison. I grew up 
in o neighborhood where you could hove gone either 
way. It was really your family and teachers who took 
on interest in you, that reolly helped to decide whot 
you were going to do. 

Drum: Was the transition from high school to college hard and 
did you think you were odequotely prepored? 

Jackson: No, probably not. I think very few Black students ore 
when they go into predominately White institutions. 
I went to the State University of New York at Fredonio, 
ond out of 4,000 students, there were only 25 Blacks 
ond 2 hisponics. So we were very much o minority. 
Because of that, one thing wos olwoys cost in your 
mind — Self Doubt. It took me two years to get up 
to the level where I felt competent about my writing, 
communication, and moth skills. But what I hod to do 
was some trial ond error, and work a little harder on 
things I wasn't competent in. It took me o year to 
understand my study skills as a science. There ore cer- 
tain skills that you need to master as o science. Some 
students know that because they've gotten that from 
high school, on older brother and sister, whereby, a 
large number of Block students ore first generation col- 
lege students. In my instance, I was the first person 
to go to college in my family. 











There must hove been o lot of pressure on you becouse 

everyone was looking for you to succeed. 

Exactly. But that was also what kept me going when 

situations got tough. I remember being in some hostile 

situations at school and the easy way out would hove 

been to quit. But I didn't. 

What was your collegiate experience like? 

Well, I would probably say the social environment was 

both hostile and friendly at the same time. Most of the 

students I interacted with were White. There were two 

different groups: some who wanted to moke sure you 

succeeded because they felt that this was one of the 

purposes of the civil rights movement, and some who 

wonted us to leave the university. 

However, we were o very resilient people. I was 
placed on social probation my freshman year after my 
third day at the school because one of the resident 
assistants felt I should hove hod my freshman beanie 
on at 1 :30 a.m. After he proceeded to put his honds 
on me, I indicated to him that placing his hands on 
me was not in his best interest. So after we hod this 
discussion, two things happened: I was put on social 
probation, and, he knew not to put his hands on me. 
After getting your B.A., did you go straight to graduate 
school or did you first enter the working forces of 

I hove always worked and gone to school at the some 
time. I did my masters work at the Stote University of 
New York at Binghomton and I also worked there as 
the Assistant Director of Financial Aid at the some time. 
It's token me o little longer though, but sometimes 
that's the way you have to do it, because sometimes 
you have to provide for your economic needs as well 
OS your educational needs. 
What motivated you to go to graduate school? 
Well, I think there were two things: I felt I wasn't com- 
plete in my educational process, and I felt there were 
a lot of things I didn't know. Also, I think education 
is a lifelong experience, and I need that long-term 

I also knew that if I wanted to succeed and go to 
another level of job responsibilities, I would need 
another degree. Bock in the 50's and 60's. o high 
school degree would be called the level of competen- 
cy, right now a college degree is. You con't get o pro- 
fessional job without a bachelor's degree. 
A lot of the Block students blame not getting enough 
financial old or not having enough money, for them 
not being in college. What do you think about that? 
That is one of the reasons, but I think the most impor- 
tant reason that kids ore not going to college is the 
level of their academic skills, mainly moth, computer 
skills, English, and their study hobits. 1 think o lot of 
students don't moke it in college because of their lock 
of discipline in their study habits as well as the lock of 
financial old. 

As a child growing up, what were your dreams and 
: Well, I think my dreams and aspirations were always 
to be a lawyer. When I went to undergraduate school, 
I majored in Pre-Low/Politicol Science to get to that 
porticulor point. When I got out of undergraduate 
school, I realized 1 didn't hove the finances. I was 
already supporting a family so I hod to work and go 
to school. Unfortunately, I didn't work at a place where 
there was o law school. 1 may eventually get my low 
degree. 1 think thot was o goal because there is such 
a need for Black professionols. 

You're the President of the Hartford Alumni Chopter of 
Kappa Alpha Psi. In what aspects do you think frater- 

nities of todoy differ from the day when you were a 
young fraternity brother? 
Jackson: Fraternities of today differ in that there ore probably 
lesser numbers going into fraternities. Fraternities to- 
day need to become more adoptive to the outside 
communities, working with more programs in the out- 
side communities e.g. A. B.C. House etc. My philosophy 
in being a Kappa is that I'm no better or worse than 
any other Block person, whether they ore Greek or non- 
Greek. Fraternities are o bond of brotherhood with 
other fraternities and sororities everywhere. It helps to 
keep people sane, give them o sense of pride, o sense 
of discipline, o sense of achievement, and a sense of 
community. Fraternities and sororities should be in- 
clusive not exclusive. One thing I am concerned about 
is the amount of hazing going on in both Block and 
White fraternities and the conflicts and confrontations 
I see. I remember when I started in a fraternity, there 
was o high level of competition. Now the competition 
has turned into confrontation, and that's not the way 
it should be. When I went over, the strongest bond 
we hod was with other Greeks, simply becouse we 
all went through similar experiences. 

Drum: Following your career, 1 see that you were Assistant 
Director of Financial Aid in New York and Associate 
Director of Finondol Aid at UMoss. How would you com- 
pote both jobs to your present position as Director of 
Financial Aid at UMoss, Amherst? 

Jackson: The major difference is now I'm responsible for the 
Fiscal Administration of Finonciol Aid Programs for the 
whole campus which is about 48 million dollars. Thot 
meons 1 have to spend more time on Fiscal Administra- 
tion, on how to motivate staff, and delegation of 
responsibilities for staff on other items. I hove to make 
sure the finonciol accounts and other services for the 
department run well. The unfortunate thing about this 
is thot I have lost some of my student contact. I am 
not able to go over to o student meeting at 7:00 or 
8:00 at night because sometimes I'm still here work- 
ing. Now I deal for more extensively with lobbying for 
funds and developing scholarships. We developed o 
scholarship last year, "The Talented Minority Scholar- 
ship." This went to ten minority freshman students lost 
year with o high school G.P.A. of 3.7 or higher. In sum- 
mary, I'm responsible for personnel, financial oid funds, 
and the economic welfare of the whole institution. 

Drum: What ore your strengths and weaknesses os Director 
of Finonciol Aid Services? 

Jackson: That's usuolly the question I ask during interviews. But 
my strengths ore my personnel administration, fiscal 
management, and counselling. I hove tried to develop 
good counselling skills to deal both with my staff and 
students. My overall strength is my strong desire to suc- 
ceed. 1 don't accept failure or mediocrity. I set ver/ high 
expectotions for myself, and my staff. My weaknesses 
ore that I'm a workaholic and I am task oriented. When 
I take on a project, I don't stop until it's done. 
Sometimes I work with tunnel vision. But, sometimes 
this could be bod, because I tend to neglect other 
things. My other weakness, which I'm starting to work 
on, is becoming o better listener, ond less of o talker. 

Drum: How did you feel obout the incident of October '86 
— "The Southwest Race Riot," and do you think 
enough is being done to ensure thot this doesn't oc- 
cur again? 

Jackson: Well, when the Southwest Incident occurred, I wasn't 
surprised, especially because I could see it happen- 
ing for a couple of years. I think we're almost bock to 
a 1 964 concept right now, certain things we've token 

Continued on page 84 


t'*;'/'i:,?U".^' • 

Profilin, q Rap/Poem 

People be profilin. 

Quincy Troupe 

For Leon Domos 

People be profilin like 

stink on shit, 

like come/sweot for money, 

like toe-jom doodoo smell ; 

borbecue-wine stains ' 

on picnics in July, 

people be profilin everyday 

of their lives 

dark, conservative suits, 

their brains v/ropped in green mothballs, 

like bigtime "Medio" intellectuals 

styled off 

behind their gold wire rimmed 

expensive clear lens-shodes 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin everyday 

of their lives 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin like 

slick stylin pimps leonin bent 

at forty-five degree angles 

behind mink covered steerin wheels 

of cold-gold lamed el dorados 

with golden brown velvet roofs for tops 

wide brimmed apple hots 

pulled rokishly down 

slashes their scowling mugs 

(& the sun dont melt 

the "ice" these frozen niggo 

mockmen wear 

on their manicured fingers!) 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin everyday 

of their lives 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin like 

whores on midtown Monhatten streets corners, 

like Wall Street executives in their sterile 


People be profilin. 

People be profilin like 

sad medio stars who say; 

"Oh no dear! dont take that 

side of my face, 

its bad for my public image!" 

(& con you dig where that 
whole thing is coming from?!) 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin like 

when you stick a camera 

into someone's face, 

be they Kings, or Queens, 

or the President of these United Snakes, 

watch how they react to the camera! 

(unless they be too old, or too tired, 
or too dead for this daily crazy shit) 

People be profilin. 

People be profilin everyday 

of their lives 

People be profilin. 

Quincy Troupe 

Quincy Troupe is Professor of American end Third World Literature at the College of Stoten Island (CUNY) and also teaches 
in Columbia University's Graduate Writing Program. He has previously taught at UCLA, U5C, Ohio University, The Univer- 
sity of Ghana, at Legon, Logos University, in Legos, Nigeria and California State College at Sacramento. He has pub- 
lished 3 volumes of poetry. Embryo, 1972, Snake-Back Solos, 1979, (winner of the 1980 American Book Award for 
Poetry) and Skulls Along the River, 1 984. He has edited 2 anthologies, Watrs Poets And Writers, 1 968 and Giant Talk: 
An Anthology of Third World Writing. 1 975. He also co-outhored The Inside Story of TV's Roots, with David L. Wolper, 
the Producer of that award winning, historic, television program. Presently, he is writing the definitive life story of legen- 
dary music great. Miles Davis (with the full cooperation of Mr. Davis), scheduled for publication by Simon and Schuster 
in 1 988. He is also completing a novel. The Footmans and has published essays, articles and feature writing in Essence, 
The Village Voice, Musician, Encore, Newsday, The Soho News, The Amsterdam News, The Los Angeles Sentinel, The 
Los Angeles Times, The Los Angeles Free Press and Spin mogozine. His poetry end fiction hove been published in over 
100 magazines and literary journals, and his poetry has been transloted into several other languages. He lives with 
his family in New York City. 

Drum is honored to present selections of Mr. Troupe's poetry. 




;■■•';. ,,:^;i •■'.■•^ .;■ ■■.;.';c„ ,■ 



;.V - -■c.::^'i-/>.:^ 

■ ■ 

Ku Klux 

They took me out 
To some lonesome place. 
They sold, "Do you believe 
In the great white race?" 

I said, "Mister, 

To tell you the truth, 

I'd believe in anything 

If you'd just turn me loose.' 

The v/hite man said, "Boy, 
Can it be 

You're o-stondin' there 
A-sossin' me?" 

They hit me in the head 
And knocked me dov/n. 
And then they kicked me 
On the ground. ^^^ 

A klonsmon said, "Nigger, 
Look me in the face — 
And tell me you believe in 
The great white race." 











One thing con be said of Imomu Amiri Daroka: he is never boring. Whether one agrees or disagrees with his views and methods, 
none can deny his impact as o cultural, literory and political figure. Like a glistening reflection in a violent rushing streom, he is 
ever-changing, ever-flowing and always there to mirror the world bock upon itself. 

One feels immediately, in the rhythm of the name, the works, or the actual physical presence on energy unlike the ordinary. 
A power, if you will, derived from the resplendent images of a culture and o man struggling to confirm an identity in the face of 
on ever threatening, hostile world. 

The list of works that attempt to channel the expression of that energy is impressive, to soy the least; Preface to a Twenty Volume 
Suicide Note, o collection of early poems, plays such as The Baptism and The Toilet, The Slave and The Dutchman (awarded the 
Obie Award for best American play of 1 963-64), and o ritual drama The Slave Ship, among others. In addition, Boroko has published 
on edition of poems. The Dead Lecturer, and The System of Dante's Hell, o collection of semi-outobiographicol drama, poetry and 
fiction. His books include Blues People, an exposition of Afro-Americon culture and its music and In Our Terriblenes, a poetic- 
photographic work on Afro-American image making. He has also collaboroted on a collection of Afro-American poetry. Black Fire, 


Photo By Robert Sengstocke 

with Larry Neal, and Confirmations, o collection of Afro-American women's poetry with his wife Amino. I^ecently he has finished 
work on The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones/ Amiri Doral^a. 

Born Leroy Jones in 1904 in Newarls, N.J., where he still lives, Doroko has continued to reflect the political restlessness of a nation 
increasingly disillusioned with the inherent inhumanity of copitolism. From Greenwich Village bohemionism in the late 50's and early 
60's to Black Notionalism, Cultural Nationalism and Morxist-Leninist-Moo Tse Tung thought in the 70's end 60's, he hos been a con- 
stant leader in the Afro-Americon communities' struggle for recognition and liberation. 

With this in mind, DRUM Magazine travelled to Long Island and the State University of New York, at Stony Brook where he is 
head of the department of Africono Studies. Although Mr. Boroko was late arriving ot the interview, after leading a rally of support 
for Professor Earnest Dube who had recently been denied tenure for the upcoming academic year, he managed to use on hour 
and Q half of his time to shore his views on politics, literature, and culture. For all of this, we sincerely thank him. 

One lost thing. If you're familiar with the works and thoughts of this seminal thinker, writer, activist, then read on and enjoy. 
If not, then settle bock and check him out. You owe it to us oil. 

continued poge 33 







Drum: It sounds like things ore getting pretty heavy around 

Doroko: It's the most bizarre piece of gorboge you ever heard. 
Four different university committees voted the guy 
tenure (Dube), It was overruled by the president of the 
university and then the choncellor said he can have 
tenure anywhere but Stony Brook, any one in the state 

Drum: What would that accomplish? 

DorakQ: It wouldn't accomplish anything except they wont him 
out of here because there's a lot of, I guess, supporters 
of Israel, and why they dinged him in the first place is 
that on one of his study questions he put that Zionism 
is racism. So then o guy who is a visiting professor from 
Israel sent letters to all Jewish professors raising the 
more reactionary ones, saying the guy wos an anti- 
Semite. So you know, typical bullshit. Setting you up 
to use up your time, you know you have to use up your 
time to fight it. This is the third year we've been in this 

Drum; And he's been denied tenure for next year? 

Dorako: Yeo. The decision come out about two weeks ago. This 
thing's been going on for three years. So you know, 
another senior class groduotes. There ore very few peo- 
ple here who were here when it begon now. That's 
the way they ploy that gome. Figure eventually that 
attrition will get rid of you. 

Drum: Specking of which, we've just finished Black History 
Month, the shortest month of the year. I'm here to in- 
terview you for a Black literary magazine that hos just 
hod its funding cut by a predominantly White universi- 
ty administration. Any thoughts on these relationships? 

Boroko: Well, I think the cut of the literary magazine is related 
to the generol attack on the people, specifically Black 
people. I mean Reogon runs around saying "no 
domestic spending," he wonts to spend oil our tax 
money invading Grenada, threatening Nicorogua, in- 
teivening in El Salvador, bombing Libya. He wonts to 
spend our tax money horrossing the Third World. And 
by doing that he's horrossing the Third World in the 
United States because he uses up money we could be 
using for productive kinds of purposes, for destructive 
kinds of vendettas against humanity, you know, col- 
ored humanity. Because in each case oil those people 
are colored, they all ore Third World people. I mean 
they sided with the fascists in Lebanon, they bombed 
Libyo, all these ore Third World countries, you see. 

So to me it's port of the fabric of that kind of assault 
thot they attack the magazine. For instance, when he 
just cut that aid to scholarships mainly for working class 
youth, he sloshed that down to nothing, it's the some 
kind of thing. It's an attack on, in this cose, African- 
Americans, in the broader sense it's on attack on the 
Third World because imperialism historically has 
developed out of sucking the Third World, eating the 
Third World. Using it as a source for row materials, as 
its client stotes, os its place to build political hegemony, 
economic dominance. That's what imperialism does. 
It divides the world into o group of small, so-colled 
civilized states, and the rest of the world becomes the 
feeding trough. So ot Amherst what they do is they cut 
the magazine. Why do Block students need o literary 
magazine? You know, "we ain't literary." So that's how 
it goes around and around in circles. 

Drum: How long hove you been at S.U.N.Y. Stony Brook? 

Dorako: I've been here seven yeors. It will be eight in the foil. 

Drum: Do you feel particularly drown to the compuses? 

Boroko: Well, octuolly I like Stony Brook becouse of the students. 
There ore a lot of inner city students here, Block, Puer- 

to Ricon. There ore a lot of West Indion students, o lot 
of Jomoicons, Haitians, a lot of TrinidadionS', so that's 
good. What's difficult for me of course is that 1 live 75 
miles away. I live in Newark, N.J. so it tokes me two 
hours to get here, and they won't give me a job in 
Nework. There's all kinds of colleges in New Jersey, but 
the powers that be figure that I should hove to drive 
1 50 miles a day to go to work. It keeps me from mak- 
ing o lot of trouble bock in Nework. 

Drum: What do you see as the most effective medium of com- 
munication for Block people in this country? 

Boroko: Well, unfortunately, the grapevine is the most signifi- 
cant becouse we don't have any under our control, 
that's the problem. If I wanted to communicate with 
Block people in large numbers I would use t.v. ond 
music. Because at this point our problem is thot we 
don't hove any institutions except the church. The in- 
stitutions that we should hove access to because of our, 
quote, "status as citizens," unquote, ot least when it 
comes time to paying taxes and going to wor. Since 
we don't hove ony access to the main streom institu- 
tions and we don't hove ony that we control that leoves 
us next to zero in terms of being oble to forward our 
own couse, so to speak. 

Drum: The accessibility factor? 

Boroko: Yeo, because we hove to fight about accessibility to 
the institutions. At the some time we hove to begin 
to set in motion some olternotive ones. We can't just 
wait for the walls of Jericho to come down. 

Drum: It's the some thing as waiting three yeors on on issue 
like this . . . 

Boroko: Yea, I meon it's been going on ond on. Every year it 
comes up again. What's interesting about this time 
though is thot the chancellor of the whole SUNY system 
was Block, Wharton, and he's the one who ruled 
ogoinst him. 

Drum: And I heard he then resigned? 

Boroko: Yeo. He ruled against him on the 30th, he resigned on 
the 31 St (Jon.) and then he got o job with the T.I. A. A. 
(Teacher's Insurance ond Annuity Assoc.) He went from 
on $89,500 o year job as chancellor, now he mokes 
$500,000 o year as the heod of T,I.A.A. So you soy, 
"wait a minute, I'd like to get a little roise like that." 
So then you wont to know, "well, how'd you get thot 
raise?" That would be the next question. That's o ques- 
tion that we intend to osk because we're osking the 
Block Congressional Coucus, os well as the Block and 
Puerto Wcon state legislotive caucuses to come in and 
hove hearings, and we wont them today. We wont 
Morberger, we wont all those people to testify because 
we wont to know what the hell's going on, because 
they're hiding by saying Dube hosn't published enough. 
See, there ore three criterio for tenure. One, is 
teaching, obviously, which should be principle, we don't 
think it is. But the principal criterio is teaching. Second- 
ly, is service. Service to the university, sen/ice to the 
students, service to the community. And third is 
publishing . Now, despite the foct that indeed Dube hos 
not published o book, four university committees found 
him eligible for tenure. Because he is acknowledged, 
even by Morberger, as a sensational teacher. The man 
spent seven yeors in Robben Island Prison in South 
Africa. His family helped found the Africon Nationol Con- 
gress. He's one of the officers of leadership of the 
A.N.C., see whot I'm saying? So in terms of scholorship, 
to us he is repository of greot scholarship, whether 
he publishes o book in America or South Africa. And first 
of oil one should understand thot he's in exile, he's not 
at home. I'm the choirmon of this deportment ond os 


for as rm concerned he's o scholar. 

Drum: Quite an asset . . . 

Baroko: Absolutely, he's on asset, that's the point. They have 
Joke Javits over there not becouse of his writing but 
because he's a professional politician. But with Black 
people, and porticulorly because the supporters of Israel 
ore opposed to it; I say supporters of Israel because 
there ore a lot of Jews, students, staff and teachers who 
support Earnest Dube and who know that that whole 
anti-Semite thing is really ... a stinking smokescreen. 
So that's where we're at. 

'There's one democratic 
struggle and the sharpest is 
always the Afro-American 
struggle because the Blades 
are on the bottom. " 

Drum: What's the relationship between the Block writer and 
the publishing industr/ in this countr/? 

Boroko: Well, we hove only marginal access to publishing. I'm 
not talking about some Blacks for whom it con be said, 
OS when I started writing, "you know, I couldn't even 
tell that you were Block." Which I didn't take os a com- 
pliment at the time. Except for those few who ore really 
absorbed in moinstream literary Americon efforts, most 
Blocks ore never published except for in times of social 
upsurge, sociol upheaval, and at that time there is more 
demand for that writing by ever/body. What they do 
is they get into profit taking so they will publish it then 
just to take some profit. But when there is on economic 
downturn, it's the same with the rest of society . . . and 
with Block people particularly this is o boom-bust socie- 
ty. When there's a war going on, or about to go on 
and there's prosperity everybody works so we con get 
o job. But, conversely, when there's peace ond the 
whole economy shrinks, because it's a war based 
economy, it shrinks creating an economic downturn and 
recession. Blacks are first out on the street. Also, by the 
way, racism intensifies in periods of economic downturn 
when there's fewer jobs. Then they bring the sheets out 
of the closet. They begin to get Blacks and Whites to 
fight becouse it's easier for them to maintain their con- 
trol, you see? 

Drum: And it's easier to create on atmosphere of war . . . 

Boroko: Oh yea, again. Whot they're doing right now is creating 
on atmosphere of war. 

Drum: How do you exploin the popularity of Black women 
writers, porticulorly poets, in the post decade? 

Doroka: Well I think, again, it's port of the whole struggle against 
women's oppression. And I think it was bound to come 
out because you'll find that historically each time there's 
a democratic revolutionor/ upsurge, and that's essen- 
tially what the Block Movement is, it's democrotic and 
it's revolutionory. It's revolutionory because White 
supremacy has olwoys been the social bosis of Americo. 
There's one democratic struggle and the sharpest is 
always the Afro-American struggle because the Blacks 
ore on the bottom. This society is based on slavery and 
the Blacks are on the bottm so that every time they 
try to raise up, everything else in the society is shak- 
ing. It's like if we were all standing on somebody's bock 

and thot person tried to straighten their bock everything 
else wobbles oround. 

So the struggle against women's oppression is 
another democratic struggle. In the Civil War for in- 
stonce, let's soy the period just before the Civil War. 
The whole abolitionist movement. Block and White, 
thot movement gave rise and sharpened the whole 
movement for women's rights. Because that's when the 
first shorp shot for women's rights occurred. If you read 
the slavery speeches you'll see thot that was olwoys 
Frederick Douglass' position, trying to link those two 
struggles, and where they were linked before the civil 
war, after they got split because then Block men hod 
the right to vote and White women didn't. So that 
became weird and they said, "well look White people 
should hove the right to vote before Blacks" and that 
octuolly split the solidarity. But that always comes up 
at any period of sharp democratic struggle. Whatever 
aspect of that struggle takes the lead at any given time 
it will always add fuel to the others. 

Drum: What is to be "the next wave of Afro-American 
literature, a genuine people's literature"? 

Dorako: Well, I think that's happening right now. I mean I think 
that we're in o period of tronsition. We were in kind 
of o bockword period after the murders of the organiza- 
tion leaders, murders like those of Malcolm X and Mar- 
tin Luther King. The movement itself is generally kind 
of splintered, and also there was an excessive amount 
of polemicizing going on between o lot of the people 
who hod moved to the left ond then began to get in- 
to this kind of excessive polemicol relationship with each 
other, like the newly converted or more correct. So 
those things hod a real sharp effect and the arts 
themselves take their impetus from the social struggle. 
You'll find that when there is sociol struggle that the 
arts themselves sharpen, there's on upsurge in the arts. 
Pre-Civil War, the antislovery movement, the Horlem 
Pvenoissonce and Gorvey and Du Dois and then 
Longston Hughes, In the 60's with Malcolm and Mar- 
tin, you have oil kinds of magazines. 

Drum: Who ore some of the writers of today you feel deserve 
more attention? 

Boroko: There's o lot of young writers out there now. I publish 
a magazine called "Block Nation" and we publish a lot 
of young people who I think ore deserving of greater 
recognition. Sterling Plump is a guy. He's been published 
around but now he's coming into his own. Very young 
poets like Nio Domoli, Charlie Braxton o couple of peo- 
ple I think are very good, Gregory Powell is another 
young poet. 

The book thot my wife and I published called Confir- 
motions, I think is o good cross section of young women 
poets. People like lone Cortez Brendo Bey, my wife 
Amino Boroko. These ore o lot of younger writers. And 
then there ore younger men writers Louis Rivera is 
good, Zizne Ngofuo is another writer, Sekou Sundioto 
Tom Michelson. I'm just dropping names but these ore 
young writers who ore out there that I know of that ore 
doing very good work, who need to be looked ot. Then 
there's older writers, people who hove been around 
for awhile who desen/e more recognition ond deserve 
to get published like Askia Tour^ down in Atlan- 
ta is a very fine writer. 

Drum: Do you see the dub poetry of the West Indies as being 
a significant trend in the synthesis of music and voice, 
OS well OS the growing communication among writers 

Boroko: Oh absolutely, I mean Linton Johnson is o very close 
friend of mine and I went over to London about 3 or 


4 yeors ago when Mike Smith was murdered and spol<e 

Qt Q memorioi there for him. OI-ju Anuro is another poet Drum: 

I thinl<; from Trinidad, dub poet Mutoboruka from 

Jamaica, they're good and Louise Dennett who's been Doroko 

Ground for a long time. Edword Brothwoite from 

Jamaica, these ore very, very strong writers. 

There's been a growing kind of international solidorir/ 
you know; in London the book fair they hove there 
every year drows a lot of writers and these international 
venues like "One World Poetry" in Boulder, (Colo.) and 
Amsterdam, a lot of them hove reod there. In Italy 
when the communist party was in more control we 
used to go over there every year. Christian democrats 
apparently don't like Third World people. We haven't 
been bock since they got bock in power. 

Drum: Whot are some of the restraints on a writer in o Third 
World country that a writer in America might not face? 

Doraka: I'd say this, that in the Third World you're talking prob- 
lem because most of the Third World is under neo- 
colonial dictate and so they serve the metropol. They 
serve the U.S.A., other imperialists, whoever it is. In the 
cose of Mikey Smith he made criticisms of education one 
night, the next night he is stoned to death. Literally five 
guys got rocks and beat him to death in Jamaica, in 
Kingston. Walter Rodney, onother leading Afro- 
Caribbean scholar, was criticizing Durnham in Guyana, Drum: 
they blew up his car. So you hove to remember on one 
hand the United States is the largest of oil imperiolisms, Boroko: 
the richest of oil imperialisms, so it con afford more 
pretense at democracy. In their little surrogate neo- 
colonies they don't allow that. You open your mouth 
like you're going to soy something about democrocy, 
they'll noil it shut. So it's very problemotic, it's a very 
dangerous situation. Like in Kenyo for instance they 
locked Ngugi Wo Thiong'o, one of the leading African 
writers, up for two years, never charged with anything. 
They locked up his library, his library is still locked up. 
What's this brother's name, Nuruddin Foroh who is Drum: 
Somalia's great writer, he criticized the government and 
he's in exile. These neo-coloniol states they don't allow Dorako: 
any democratic dissent. 

Drum: What about the closer connection between artist ond 
community in those countries? 

Boroko : Thot's true, you're also under this intense kind of repres- 
sion because of that. 

Drum: Because of the threat of thot connection? 

Boroko: Exactly. The United States, they hove so much money, 
so much wealth that they con ploy that off. 

Drum: In order to divert attention? 

Boroko: Right, like I teach woy out here 75 miles away from 
my home. Why? Because they don't wont me orgoniz- 
ing where I live. But it's slick, they can do that. They 
hove the money to do that. They don't hove that 
money down there, they'd rother just kill you. Save 
money, get the problem out of the woy. Drum: 

Drum: Have you hod any desire to live obrood? Boroko: 

Boroko: That's not my generation. No, I mean this is my home, 
I don't see any reoson to go onywhere, except to 
travel. When they start to try to make it fascist, which 
they obviously are trying to do now, I think we gotta 
be here to fight it. We've got o responsibility to be here. 
It ain't like, "they're gonno moke the United States 
fascist so let's split," no that ain't my view of it. My view 
of it is that they ain't gonno do it, we ain't gonna let 
them. . , . Nobody's going nowhere, they're going to Drum: 

hove to fight for this just like they tried to drive Poul Boroko: 

Robeson owoy that time and he said "hey, my peo- 
ple hove built this country ond no fascist minded peo- 
ple like you ore going to run me out of here." That's 

pretty much my view. 

How does the relationship between the blues and 
literature differ from that of jazz? 
: When you're talking about blues you're talking about 
the kind of deep emotional understanding of the culture 
itself. I mean people moke a mistake, for instance guys 
like Martin Williams, Leonord Feather, guys I know, who 
soy that Billie Holiday wasn't o blues singer because 
she didn't sing 1 2-bor formal blues. The blues ore not 
just a form. It's o particular consciousness, o particular 

Jazz is on elaboration of that primal, or principal, form 
or feeling let's say. That principal emotional, cultural 
matrix if you will. Blues is the kind of nucleus of that in 
its, soy, secular form as it comes out of spirituals ond 
work songs, things like thot. Blues is the sort of kernel 
of that cultural social matrix. Like Longston Hughes said, 
hey "jozz is blues, child." It's really clear. The blues is 
the feeling itself, so even though, for instance, 1 write 
whot people coll "jozz poetry," it's jazz in terms of its 
articulation and elaboration. It's kind of oformol innova- 
tion but the feeling that always goes bock to for it to 
be moving has to relote to blues, becouse if you forget 
obout the blues then you're actually dismissing the 
emotional core of the concerns. 
Could you sort of see jazz as being o structurol form to 
allow for the manifestation of that feeling? 
Oh yes, sure, becouse jozz deals with the evolution of 
the society. Jozz sets itself up as an internotionol ex- 
pression from the gitry-up. Jozz is very ambitious in that 
sense. That it knows that it must hove the blues. Like 
they soy, "it don't mean o thing if it don't hove that 
swing." The jazz player knows that. When you listen 
to a Coltrone or o Miles Davis the blues is all in there. 
Whereas jozz is, soy, a more advanced music because 
it deals with questions thot blues don't deal with. But 
the blues feeling is mointoined. 

Speaking of form, in your own work what is your favorite 
literary form to work in? 

Poetry because it's the most immediate, the most 
direct; drama because it's the most ambitious in terms 
of putting people on the stoge and saying, "hey, you're 
olive, this is reol life," Those ore why those forms ap- 
peal to me. I reod a guy named George Thompson, 
on English Marxist, he's got a beautiful book called 
Poetry of Marxism. What he raises is that drama is the 
principal form in times of social transformation. He uses 
Shakespeare as o cose in point, soys you know Shake- 
speare is the poet of the demise of feudalism and the 
rise of capitalism, which he is, and the drama is rising 
in those periods because it is the most ombitious. It reol- 
ly wants to put new people ... it wonts a new ethic, 
it wonts a new life in real life. It's not talking about it, 
it presumes to be it. 
It's expressing it in real terms . . .? 
Exactly. So that's why in the 60's drama come natural- 
ly to me OS on ottempt to express the real changes that 
were going on in society. It's interesting because I didn't 
set out to soy "1 am going to write ploys." My poetry 
became more dramatic, 1 began to have characters in 
the poems. It's not anything like I'm soying I'm going 
to do this OS dialogue. All of o sudden there ore peo- 
ple tolking in the poem, you soy "who the hell is this, 
how'd you get in there?" 
Whot was your fovorite work to write? 
I don't know, writers olwoys soy the most recent one. 
The most recent one I'm writing is something called 
"Dumpy: A Bopero." I soid "bopero" because Anthony 
Davis told me, in print, (I wrote o jozz opero o few years 


ago colled "Money: A Jozz Opera"), that there's no such 
thing OS o jazz opera, only opera. I didn't wont to of- 
fend Anthony Davis, so the next thing I wrote I colled 
a "bopero" so there couldn't be much disputing what 
my intentions were. The most recent one was one of 
my favorites because I wrote it with Max Roach. It's go- 
ing to be done in September ot N.Y.U. I know I had 
Q good time writing it. It's about Bumpy Johnson who 
was the best linown of oil DIocK underground figures 
in the twenties and thirties. He's the one who, after the 
mafia hod Dutch Schultz killed — Dutch Schultz tried to 
take over the Block numbers racket — comes to the 
fore and organizes the Blacks to resist and take the ring 
over. So it mokes a great musical because it goes 
through the twenties, you've got Longston Hughes ond 
Gaivey ond these great parties thot A'Leila Walker used 
to give. I have a duet between Bessie Smith and 
Caruso. They were both ot the parties so I just added 
something. It mokes a great kind of chronicle. That right 
now, is what I would hove to say is my favorite. Of all 
the works I've written I'd soy that Blues People and The 
Dutchman are the two that people keep talking obout, 
ond maybe Slave Ship. So I guess the ones that ore the 
favorites of people ore the favorites of mine. 

Drum: "^os Slave Ship a deporture from some earlier dramatic 

Boroko: Yea, I depended more on improvisation. And the 
rhetoric, or speeches, were kept to a bare minimum. 
The whole action was supposed to come out of the con- 
text we created. It was an attempt to get down to 
what I was coming to view as real. I begon to see real 
theater os deeper than I'd been going. It hos to do with 
releasing forces which you're not even sure whot the 
noture of them is. In order to get down to the reel 
drama you hove to get down to that. 
A form of exorcism almost . . . 
Yea, it really is, because to me theater is a very deep 
thing man. I think it's the oldest . . . well song is prob- 
ably older, poetry is older then song . . . 
But they all blend together bock that far . . . 
Absolutely. And it begins to deal with stuff that you can't 
always predict. A lot of other kinds of weird stuff will 
come out which is the only reason I think it's been 
preserved all these years. They've gotten away from 
theoter in the mainstream society. 
Do you see it making o comeback? 
Oh yeah. Real theater, reel drama yeoh, real art, revo- 
lutionary ort, yeoh. I think it's at the point right now that 
we're in transition becouse people can't live without 
ort. No matter what these fools try to do to it, make 
poetry dull, moke dancing about onti-movement, music 
about silence, it won't work. People get bored, they 
moke up their own stuff. You stop this form, you stop 
poetry and jazz and then rap comes up. Same thing 
only Q more popular form than the form of the sixties 
even though the sixties poetry, the jozz poetry, was 
very, very widely disseminated. But the rap is even 
more broadly disseminated even though you socrifice 
the political penetration. But whot that is doing is set- 
ting the stage for other things to happen. 1 did o poem 
with Q rap group, high school boys, and it was great, 
I mean the feeling. It was done before a whole lot of 
students and they liked it, they really thought it was 
onother kind of experience. That is to hove a poet, they 
could soy "well this guy's o poet," and thot rap group, 
the combination of it was really kind of on interesting 

Drum: You've done some editorial collaboration, O/ocZ-f Fire 
with Lony Neal and Confirmations with your wife Amjno, 




what about the collaborative process in writing? You 
mentioned the thing with Mox Roach . . . 

Boroko: I like that, I like that a great deal, particularly with that 
kind of combination. Mox obviously is a master. Music 
expands, extends the words, see, it gives the words 
another kind of impoct, onother kind of penetration. 
That's why I like those kinds of collaborations. Now I'm 
writing mostly ploys with music. I don't think I'll write 
the other anymore becouse I think ploys ore supposed 
to hove music. 

Drum: Any way to get deeper connection and reach a broader 
base . . . 

Boroko : Absolutely, I think you're supposed to hove all of them 
together. You're supposed to hove dance, poetry, you 

' '/A fro -A m ericon ort has 
olwoys tried to find o linl^ 
between soy yin ond yong, 
in o sense between conn- 
position ond improvisotion" 

know, oil together. That's right, thot's the woy it's sup- 
posed to be. That's originally what theater was, you 
combined all the arts and that's why it was grond, 
because you put oil the arts in o working context. 

Drum: One encounters in the writings of people involved in 
struggle on unusual clarity in trying to convey ideas to 
the masses . . . 

Baroko: Absolutely, that's what it is. "Whot the hell's going on?" 
That's very true. You wont to find out what's going on, 
what ore you saying, what ore we going to do? We're 
in the need for hard focts. Material clarity. I think dur- 
ing the sixties we come to thot feeling that we wanted 
the ort to be identifiobly Afro-Americon. We didn't wont 
to hove to footnote "this artist is Afro-American," we 
wonted the work itself, just os much as soy Bessie Smith 
or Sarah Voughon or Duke Ellington is on Afro-American 
expression, not in terms of exclusivity but in the sense 
of being ourselves in on identifioble woy. 

Drum: Over the course of your coreer you've succeeded in 
olienoting o foirly diverse group of people. Black, White, 
writers ond critics and the like. Who do you turn to for 
inspirotion and support? 

Boroko: Well, the people. And I don't meon that in a clichS' 
sense, but everywhere I go throughout the world it sur- 
prises me, my wife is always telling me "you really don't 
understand how many people you've reached." Every- 
where I go people ore olwoys coming up to me, "yeo 
brother Boroko I reod you when I was six, I read you 
when I was ten." Despite the fact of my having a 
tendency to pop off at people in times of stress, or 
tending to enlarge the area of ottock, sometimes 
needlessly, attacking people who could be allies, what 
I remain impressed and humbled by octuolly is how 
mony people who do support the kind of general lines 
that I've token in my poems. It's been very humbling 
because you think well, Jesus Christ, I don't know if I 
deserve oil thot, all these people in oil those countries 
saying they support you, they think what you're doing 
is correct. What that does to you is give you kind of o 
heavy burden of responsibility. You begin to feel, Jesus 
Christ, it's not just my sorry ass I'm corrying oround. 


there's a lot of responsibility in this. On the one hand 
that mokes you stronger because you know that peo- 
ple do trust you, ond they do say, "yes he con speak 
for me, even though I've never met him, never been 
closer than 3000 miles to him, he con speak for me." 
It mokes you stronger because you knov/ when you soy 
something thot you know somebody you're facing 
won't like oil you hove to think is "hey, I know a lot 
of people who support this position." When I talk bad 
about Reagan I tell people "look, I come from o com- 
munity where 96% of them voted against Reagon." 
Block people voted 96% ogoinst Reogon the lost elec- 
tion, I'm speaking for them. I know who I'm speaking 
for, the Afro-American people soy "I reject Reagan," 
I reject him in their name. It's that that odds strength 
and I draw my own strength from that. My family, my 
kids and everything. I hove that feeling of support and 
I try to justif/ it. We hod o great rally out there, about 
300 kids, faculty, staff; Block and White and Asian. 
Three or four hours of constant ottock on the administra- 
tion, you see now thot's a school for those kids. If I hove 
to argue that in a faculty meeting, which I hove to 
tomorrow, I would argue that that's o school, that's part 
of the education process. They're leorning things they 
couldn't possibly learn in the classroom. And whether 
we succeed or not we know we're correct ond what 
we're doing is correct. 

Drum: Going bock to Slave Ship ond the notion of unleashing 
things we may not understand, one finds a lot of 
fascination with symbols of flying in the ort of oppressed 

Boroko: It's the some thing with freedom. Block people hove 
always been fascinated with flying as a very specific 
symbol antithetical to slavery. Whether they're talking 
about "Swing Low Sweet Chariot," tolking about 
chariots flying through the oir coming across the Jordan, 
obviously the Atlantic Ocean. A lot of reference to fly- 
ing even in, soy, Toni Morisson's Song of Solomon, we 
see the whole symbolic language there is oround the 
concept of flying. I think in Sula there is some kind of 
reference there, one of the mythological characters 
there was in fact someone who could fly. I think that's 
obvious why they would wont to fly. 

Drum: How does thot differ from western mythology, soy the 
Greeks' Icarus for instance . . . 

Boroko: I gave o talk lost night on thot in the English deport- 
ment. That's one of the kind of culturally contrasting 
symbolisms. You'll find that the contrast between soy, 
the dionysion mode which is African, o complete emo- 
tional outlet, whether it's Block church or Block art, it's 
about that. As opposed to the opollonian kind of post- 
Greek, European approach where it's restraint. Nietz- 
sche goes so for os to soy life has to be kept separate 
from art because you might get too excited, it might 
stop you from being able to think. We look at them 
OS two extremes, in that sense. I think that what the 
African-American has olwoys been trying to evolve is 
on art that comes out of the bosicolly dionysion, basic 
African spirit possession, because the Block church has 
always been about spirit possession. You know they 
soy the spirit will not descend without song. So you got- 
ta hove music to moke the spirit come down, and you 
gotto get the spirit, you gotta actually get the frenzy, 
you gotta get happy like they say, to actually hove par- 
ticipated in that religious experience. I think America 
has tended to give thot more of o rapprochement with 
formalism in o way too. Well, for instance here they've 
found that making the controst between soy composi- 
tion and improvisation as two twains that will never 

meet when in fact that's not true. All major jazz com- 
positions, if they ore compositions, begin as composi- 
tion but there's always space for improv. 

Drum: And a lot of compositions ore actually the product of 
improvisotion . . . 

Boroko: Absolutely. The great improvisors were octuolly com- 
posing OS they went, I meon they were composing on 
their feet. But that whole complete alienation between 
form and content is bizarre. You can't have that to have 
serious expression. A lot of Afro-Americon art has always 
tried to find a link between sayyin and yang, in a sense 
between composition and improvisation. They've tried 
to put both together because finally, face it, jozz is a 
western product. When these people run around tolk- 
ing about the culture of the west, tell them moke sure 
you do it oil. Most of us Afro-Americons hove never been 
anywhere but the west. When you talk about Duke and 
people like that you tolk about western music but it 
obviously is the product of a particular history and 
heritoge going bock to Africo, but ot the some time 
it is created by western people who live in the United 
States of America. 

Drum: One lost thing, and it has to do with the notion of 
heroes. I noticed that Roy Dondridge, a third bosemon 
in the Negro Leagues was recently inducted into the 
Baseball Hall of Fame. Wos the existence of thot league 
important to you? 

Barako; My fother wos o great sports fan, he took me to see 
the Nework Eagles, they were our team. World Cham- 
pions the lost year of the Negro Leagues. That was 
priceless, I'mjust sorry that none of that was recorded. 
I sow all those people ploy. Jackie Robinson wasn't that 
exceptional a ballplayer, he wos just o guy who had 
gone to college ond so he could handle the kind of 
quietest position they wanted. A guy like Larry Doby 
couldn't have been the first becouse he hod a terrible 
temper. I think sports is one way people use to get in 
the world. Who ore the heroes? I don't know, with the 
kids usually they're either musicians or athletes, but they 
ore cultural figures. It's interesting thot when you think 
obout it most kids' heroes ore culturol figures, cultural 
workers. Some people, certoinly a small minority, must 
have politicions. 

Drum: When does the teacher or the bus driver become the 

Boroko: I think that when people can perceive them as being 
something heroic. I think in the sixties there was more 
of that simply becouse of the whole social upsurge. 
Then you sow the bus drivers ond so forth as port of 
the struggle ond often in o spontaneous kind of way. 
I think when we begin to take leading roles, roles that 
we know that we should toke in the affairs of the worid 
then we will become our own selves heroes. Right now 
we're trying to get people from dismissing themselves 
OS unimportant as the state has told them for so many 
years, "you don't mean anything, you're nothing, in foct 
you mean so little we could kill you and nobody will 
even question it." 
















by Drauno Boum 

Molcolm-JamQl Warner sits in his dress- 
ing room Qt NBC studios in Broolslyn. On the 
shelf behind him his "portable" radio is soft- 
ly playing Janet Jackson. Like most 
16-year-olds Malcolm listens to music 
whenever he has on opportunity. In all 
respects, Malcolm is a normal teenoger ex- 
cept for the fact that on Thursday nights he 
is watched by millions of people, as Theo 
Huxtable, on the countr/'s most watched 
television progrom, "THE COSBY SHOW." It 
is his natural simplicity that mokes his 
chorocter so realistic as Bill Cosby's only son. 

But Malcolm can't be just a normoi kid. 
Because of his public oppeoronce he is also 
o role model for the millions of kids who 
watch the show each week. "I auto- 
matically hove a job as a role model. I 
don't drink, or do drugs. I'm basically just 
a clean-cut kid, but it gives me o good 
feeling to hove the younger generation 
look up to me." 

In addition to being a role model 
through the television show, Malcolm is 
olso National Youth Chairman for the 
Children's Miracle Network Telethon run by 
the Osmond Foundation. This foundotion 

sends Malcolm to children's hospitals 
around the countr/. He is olso Youth Choir- 
man for the Smoke-Free Generotion, which 
is fairly new organization based in Min- 
neapolis geared towards youth. 

Born in Jersey City, NJ, Malcolm moved 
with his mother to Colifornio in 1 975 where 
she put him into on after-school theotre 
workshop in Inglewood. An agent in at- 
tendance admired his work and from there 
his career snowballed. After a few years 
on the Hollywood circuit, Malcolm tried out 
for a role on "THE COSBY SHOW." "My 
ogent and acting cooch colled me and left 
numerous messages. Finally, I colled and 
found out I hod an interview for "THE 
COSBY SHOW." The casting directors stayed 
1 72 hours post the regular audition time to 
see me. I thought it was so cool of them." 
Molcolm was called bock to meet with Mr. 
Cosby and the producers. "When I went in- 
to read, I read it very smort-oleclT/, and Mr. 
Cosby osked me if I would really speak to 
my father like that. I sold no." Luckily, 
Malcolm received another chance to read 
for Cosby. "I worked very hard with my act- 
ing coach and read it in onother way when 

I went bock in. Mr. Cosby osked if I hod 
worked on it and when I told him yes, he 
said 'I could tell, it was excellent.' " 

Malcolm admires Cosby and his work. 
"He has been around and successful for so 
long." He also sighted Sidney Poitier ond 
Louis Gosset, Jr. as influences. 

While sitting ond talking to Molcolm in 
his dressing room it is obvious to see a lot 
of Theo in Malcolm and o lot of Malcolm 
in Theo. "However, the world of television 
isn't OS complicated as real life." Malcolm 
scoffs at the criticism that his television life 
is on unrealistic view of o Black family in 
America. "I think that our story lines ore 
good. We ore talking about o family. I 
don't see o big difference between THE 
Malcolm pointed to a difference of opinion 
Cosby hod with NBC about the "ABOLISH 
APAPvTHEID" sign thot hongs in Theo's 
bedroom. NBC told Cosby that if this sign 
was to hong, there would hove to be 
another point of view. "But with a Black 
family, what other view of Aportheid con 
you show?" 

In between seasons Malcolm uses the 
time-off to challenge himself with new and 
different roles. The year of 1 986 featured 
Malcolm in on ABC After-school Special, "A 
Desperate Exit." "It was one of the hardest 
roles of my coreer so far," soys Molcolm. 
"I hod to ploy a troubled kid and do it subt- 
ly so my friends wouldn't think that some- 
thing was wrong or that I was suicidal; 
which I was." 

During his long day of rehearsing, 
Malcolm is also tutored for at least three 
hours while the show is being filmed. On 
the off-weeks, he attends o private school 
in Manhattan. Malcolm has olso started to 
take on interest in the production and 
direction aspects of the show. "In the 
future, I hope to be o director during one 
of the episodes. Every chance I get, I toke 
advantage of the first-hand experience of 
being oble to observe the work that goes 
on behind the scenes in the control room. 

"Right now acting is my main priority, but 
I would like to branch out into the field of 
directing or do something geared towards 
the music industry." 

When Malcolm moves on from "THE COS- 
BY SHOW" he intends to continue acting 
OS well OS attend o university part-time. 
"The colleges I hove been thinking about 
ore Moorehouse, Duke, and Howard. 
However, I think the University of Southern 
California will be my first choice since it is 
where the work is." 


?a\rt^®' V\oV<i®^ 

by Martha Grier-Deen 

Peyton Cole Hedgemon' (Palmer 
Hoyden) was born on January 15,1 890 in 
Widewoter, Virginia. Although detailed in- 
formotion regarding his early years in 
Virginia is unovoiloble, one need only to 
reflect upon the historical circumstances of 
the South at the time (less than 30 years 
after the Civil War), and look at the body 
of Hoyden's work which reflects the richness 
of Black Americon folk culture, in order to 
get Q sense of whot his life os o young man 
was like. 

Hoyden's formol education began in the 
public school system of Virginia and con- 
tinued in both the United States and France 
through the early 1 930's. While serving in 
the United States Army he took a cor- 
respondence course for drowing. After his 
service in the army (1 91 9) he went to New 
York City to study at the Cooper Union for 
the Advancement of Science and Art under 
Victor Perord. In 1925 he studied at the 
Boothboy Art Colony in Moine under Aso 
Randall; and in 1927 he went to France 
and took private instruction under M. 
Clivette Lefevre, who was on instructor at 
L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. This trip was 
sponsored by o wealthy white patron who 
had given Hoyden $3,000 ofter Palmer 
won the Harmon Foundation gold-medal 
for a painting of the Portland waterfront. 

His work was shown in various exhibi- 
tions including o one-man show at the 
Gallerie Bernheim Jeune (Paris, 1928, 
1937) — o prestigious gallery of modern 
art: group shows ot the Solon des Tuilleries 
(Paris, 1930): the American Legion Exhibi- 
tion (Poris, 1 931 ): the Hormon Foundation 
(U.S., 1928-33); the Smithsonian Institute's 
Notional Gallery of Art (1929); the 
American Negro Exposition (1940); Atlan- 
ta University (1946), and the Studio 
Museum of Horlem (1968).^ 

Hoyden also porticipoted in the Work 
Projects Administration Federal Arts Project 
from 1934-40. (The WPA was o relief 
organizotion created in order to increase 
the purchasing power of unemployed peo- 
ple by giving them jobs on a variety of 
useful projects. In addition to the Federal 
Arts Project there were also projects which 
aided in the construction of buildings, 
roods, bridges, etc.) Hoyden was just one 
of the few Block artists who were port of 
the WPA during its existence. Also includ- 
ed were: Augusta Sovoge, William H. 
Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Eldzier Coctor 


and Norman Lewis, to name a few. 

Like many Block artists of the Harlem 
Renoissonce Hoyden worked under the 
ouspices of the Harmon Foundation. The 
Foundation was created by White real- 
estate mogul Williom Harmon so thot 
Blacks could be assisted in their achieve- 
ment of economic stability, particularly 
through culturol methods (e.g. visual orts, 
literature, etc.). Although it did succeed in 
acting os a vehicle for o great number of 
artists, it was also a source of much 
criticism, both of the Foundation and the 
artists producing work under it. Much of the 
criticism was derived from the restroints 
placed on artists in terms of the type of 
work they created, the perpetuation of the 
stereotypicol images of Blocks which were 
quite popular among White society, and 
the segregated exhibitions in which the 
work of Block artists was shown. Palmer 
was not immune from this criticism and, os 
did other artists, eventually left the Foun- 
dation. It is interesting to note thot he then 
succeeded to produce his most critically ac- 
claimed work, the John Henry series. 

Although Polmer also did landscope 
painting, much of his populor work is 
characterized by distinct Afro-American 
subject matter. His John Henry series, for 
instance, is a set of twelve pointings de- 
picting the life ond death of the populor 
Block American folk hero. 

The legend of John Henry is symbolic of 
the movement of Blocks from manual (ag- 
ricultural) to industrial labor and their com- 
mitment to economic survival under these 
changing conditions. John Henry, o steel- 
driver, asks his boss to give him a nine- 
pound hommer so that he may show thot 
he con beat the newly acquired steam drill 
in a driving contest. After on hour or so of 
competition John Henry dies from sheer ex- 
haustion "with a hammer in his hand," but 
he died o strong man willing to use his 
strength for work. 

Other paintings depict the lives ond sur- 
roundings of urban Blacks, and actually act 
OS a chronicle of their doily existence. Paint- 
ings such as Christmas (1 939-40) and 5u5- 
way (1930) give us a glimpse of urbon life 
at the time and it is clear that Hoyden got 
much of his inspiration for these urban 
scenes from Harlem. 

In Christmas, a fother is shown dressed 
in his work overalls, looking at his child in 
his lop. He is obviously in quite humble sur- 

roundings, with a clothes line hung with the 
wash stretching from one wall in the apart- 
ment to onother. One really gets a sense 
of warmth from the piece, however, as 
one looks at the Christmas tree with the 
few presents under it. Humble surroundings 
or not, the fother is loving ond enjoying his 
son at this time when the birth of another 
son is so widely celebrated. 

Subway is a depiction of a typical ride 
on a city underground. The central figure 
is o young Block man who is surrounded 
by other riders, Block and White, some 
reading and some just looking into spoce 
— OS one tends to do on o subwoy. 
Hoyden's knock for copturing the moment 
is so aptly executed in this painting that 
one does get o sense of this moment 
frozen in time. 

Unfortunately, much of the criticism suf- 
fusing Hoyden's ortistic career concerned 
his use of the 'common' and stereotypical 
image of Blocks. People objected to his use 
of exoggeroted facial features (large lips, 
brood nose, etc.), as well as the subject 
matter portroyed. Mony thought that he 
was 'poking fun' at the people he was 

In order to understand ond oppreciote 
Hoyden's use of these images and the con- 
troversy surrounding his style and content, 
it is necessary to examine two things. The 
first being the time in which much of the 
criticized work was creoted, and the sec- 
ond being Polmer's commitment to, and 
love for, the people and places to which 
he belonged, and from which his work 
grew out of. 

During the Harlem Renaissance there 
were certain foctions of the Block artistic 
and 'intellectual' community which did not 
odvocote the portroyol of the common 
folk. They did not think that these por- 
trayals were complimentary to the imoge 
of the 'Negro, ' and that they perpetuated 
the image that so many were trying to 
break away from. The Harlem Renaissance 
was o time when the culture of Block 
Americans was being exposed and ex- 
plored. It was o time for Blacks to show 
themselves rother than for others to show 
them. Many different ideologies were be- 
ing developed. It was inevitable that o 
clash of philosophies developed within the 
Block community as to the monner in which 
the artist, writer, politician, etc., should 
'represent the roce.' It is a controversy that 
continues to this doy. 

It was also around this time that many 
artists, both Black and White, were being 
influenced by on ortistic movement called 
the Ash Con School. The Ash Can School 
flourished just before World War I. It wos 
mode up of a group of artists, including 
Thomas Hort Benton and Edward Hopper, 
who were concerned with the depiction of 
the everydoy urban (Americon) scene. 

It seems rother obvious that on artist 
(especially one that hod studied abroad) 
creating during or after this popular ortistic 

continued on page 47 












HAYDEN cont'd 

movement of common folk depiction, 
might produce worl-; reflecting this theme. 
It seems equally as obvious that the ortist 
would bring a unique enhancement to 
his/her work os o reflection of his/her rich 
and voried cultural heritage. 

Hoyden wos of course affected by this 
criticism, albeit as politicol as it was artistic. 
One can see, for example, his gradual 
moving owoy from the use of exaggerated 
physical features as his work develops. He 
even went so for as to chonge one piece. 
The piece is The Janitor Who Paints and it 
originally portrayed figures which were 
minstrel-like in appearance, including a 
mommy with a child on her knee. He 
changed the piece to show a mother and 
child (with normal fociol features) sitting for 
the janitor/artist in a very serene and 
domestic atmosphere.^ 

Regardless of the debate over whether 
or not Hoyden should hove portrayed 
Blocks OS he did, one issue con not be 
disputed. That issue being his love of life 
— his love of Black life and Block people, 
his love of nature, ond his sincere commit- 
ment to their portroyol as seen through the 
eyes of this one Block man from 
Widewater, Virginia. 

'Peyton Cole Hedgemon is Palmer Hoyden's 
originol name. As is recounted in Harlem 
Renaissance An of Dlacli America ikbmms. Inc., 
New York), Polmer Hoyden wos the nome given 
him by o commanding sergeant (WWI) who 
could not pronounce his reol name. 
Tor a full list of Hoyden exhibitions, see l-iariem 
Renaissance Art of Blocl^ America. 
'See same obove. 


Unleashing the shackles 

of time, bound 

in spirit or mind. 

Remember this: 

there is no one 

to forgive but ourselves 

and no way to forget. 

Soweto Soweto Soweto 

so we too 

perpetuate the past 

moving swiftly from the 

subtle to the specific attack; 

Cummins, Go. 

Howard Beach 

Amherst, Mass. 

a chronicle of suicide 

being writ in 

our own blood 

like on unnecessary obituary 

or tragic epitaph. 

I Implore us to die 

if we will not 

help stop 

the murder of millions. 

It will not help 

to smother the future 

with unreal ideals, 

with blankets of secrecy 

or sheets of ignorance 

cloaked in deceit. 

This is Q coll 

to arms, a coll 

to our elder selves 

for a reconciliation 

of the spirit 

exorcised from the flesh 

left bleeding 

without blessing 

in our dreams, 

our nightmares. 

our restless sleep 
clouded with doubt. 
In power, through 
power, with 
and take it upon 
ourselves to realize 
the full potential 
of our death. 

Ethan T, Morlott 

















Ui L J?Xo 

IP^ ^ 

v>&^^ ^ 







--<*(• I 




t^^ 7^ 






By Carlton Spence 

Jeffrey (Laurence) Banks was born on November 3, 1 953 in Washington, D.C. Growing up in a middle class household, his mother 
was an equal opportunity employment officer for the General Services Administration and his father was a cartographer for the 
United States Navy Oceanographic Division. Following high school, Jeffrey enrolled in Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. Conse- 
quently, he was a design assistant with Ralph Lauren/Polo, the most prestigious American mensweor designer, from 1971-73. 
After two years, he transferred to Parson's School of Design in New York where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. 
While attending Parsons, Jeffrey was a design assistant with Colvin Klein Ltd. He remained with Klein until eorly 1976. Later that 
year, he was a designer for a new clothing firm named Nik-Nik Clothing ond Sportswear until 1978. Soon after, Jeffrey added to 
his accomplishments a collection of men's clothing under his own label Jeffrey Banks for Glanzrock. 

Bonks holds numerous foshion awards including a Coty Award, sometimes colled the Oscar of the fashion industry, for men's fur 
design; and a Coty nomination for mensweor, top prizes in the Sago Mink Competition. Also, in the Harvey's Bristol Cream Tribute 
to Block Designers, Banks wos honored for Excellence in Mensweor Design in 1978-'79-'80. 

Drum: At what point in your life did you realize that you wanted 
to become o designer? 

Banks: Really very early on, I mean when I wos about ten or 
eleven I knew that I wanted to be a clothing designer. 
I originally thought that I was going to do women's or 
Qt least I thought that's what I would like the best. But 
OS I grew older, I seemed to focus more on mensweor. 
I thought that you could moke more of a statement in 
mensweor than womensweor. It seemed like there were 
lots of womensweor designers. I still love womensweor 
and we do womensweor in Japan. But I thought thot 
more of a statement could be mode in mensweor. 

Drum; Why did you choose to design mensweor, and did 
anyone influence thot decision? 

Banks: 1 think it's basically just because I weor men's clothing. 
I was always interested in designing the kind of clothes 
that I couldn't find, that I never could find. The things thot 
I wanted to weor that no one seemed to hove. I mean, 
I don't think it stands to reason necessarily that men can't 
design for women, because I think that there's also 
something greot in thot too. In that, they tend to see 
women in a different light thon women see themselves. 
But some of the greatest designers for women ore 
women, and some of the greotest designers for women 
are men. So you know there is no hondfost rule. But it 
just seemed that men's was much more restrictive in 
terms of the types of things that men wear. And 
therefore it wos more exciting to try to create a nitch for 
oneself in mensweor. 

Drum; Whot advice would you give to a young Block designer 
on getting his/her career storted. 

Banks; Well, the first thing is that I don't moke a distinction. I 
never like to moke that distinction between a Block 
designer or a White designer, because good design is 
good design. In fact I reolly hate those kinds of distinc- 
tions made. I mean, something that is beautiful is 
beoutiful to everyone. If it's o beoutiful piece of sculpture, 
it's beoutiful in India, it's beautiful in Greece, it's beautiful 
in America. Good design is good design. Things that we 
love, everyone loves around the world. If it's the shape 
of Q peorl or the Mono Lisa, it's something that con be 
appreciated by everyone. As a young designer, I think 
the most important thing is to really learn os much as 
you con about the business. Not just the design part. 
Don't just be wrapped up in design. Today, foshion is 
o business more than anything else. Young people love 
to think of it OS on ort, as o high art, and sometimes it 
approaches art. But basically it's a very commercial ven- 
ture. It's the idea of moking something that people don't 
need, and trying to get people to decide that they wont 
to hove something new. Most people hove o coot 

to keep them warm ond something to keep them cool. 
But you wont to try to entice them into buying something 
else. And it has got to be original, and inventive, and 
different, and unique enough to make them wont to buy 
something they don't already hove. But the more you 
know about business, the business aspect of fashion: sell- 
ing, buying, how much to own, how much not to own, 
what colors sell, what colors do well, where you fit in 
terms of the marketplace, the better designer I think you 

Drum: After graduating from college, what other experience 
helped you become a designer? 

Bonks: Well, I worked in a clothing store in Washington, D.C. 
called Britches of Georgetown, and that wos o big help 
becouse you got thot interaction with the customer, you 
got to see what people were looking for — what they'd 
like to hove. As I sold before, leorning the different 
ospects of the business. Once I got out of school and 
I started working for designers, I got to learn about public 
relations, working with mogozines, working with stores, 
working with piece goods, people, and merchandisers. 
The more you learn obout different ports of the business, 
putting together o fashion show, putting together o press 
kit, the more it influences what you do as a designer, 
because you know more about it. 

Drum; Why do you design updoted troditionol clothing, os op- 
posed to trendy clothing? 

Banks: Well, it's something thot I relate to. Every designer is dif- 
ferent, and I just relate to clothes that last. I think clothes 
ore expensive todoy, by the nature of nice piece goods 
and quality workmonship. And classic clothes to me, are 
something that I always loved. And even when I was 
younger, I still hove clothes that I wore when I was in 
high school, because I like the ideo of clothes that lost. 
If you use beoutiful fabrics, ond you moke clothes in o 
really good way, they should lost a lifetime, and they 
shouldn't go out of fashion. Foshion is on of the moment 
thing, style is a lasting thing, and that's what I'd like to 
think of my clothes, o certain style. Nothing pleases me 
more than to hear from someone whose wearing some- 
thing I did four or five years ago and putting it together 
with something new that they own. That's much more 
exciting to me than someone going out and buying a 
brand new whole outfit from head to toe. 

Drum: Whot is the importonce of "name" designers on the 
American mensweor scene? 

Banks: I think it's important, only in thot, the designer is reolly 
making a contribution, if the designer is actually design- 
ing. Today, we're in on era where o lot of designers with 
designer names ore not necessarily designers. They ore 
just names thot hove been created with publicity ond 


hype, but they are not people with o design back- 
ground. These ore the people who ore popular right 
now, but a year from now you may never hear of them 
again. Real designers ore people going to worl^ every- 
day and really designing, who are actually putting 
together colors and shape and form, putting together 
ideas, standing for something, having a certain integri- 
ty about their product. And someone who you'll be able 
to look back on a few years from now and soy, "Gee, 
they created that or, they were known for that, or this 
is what they do well." That goes for any kind of design. Drum: 

Those are the kinds of people that one admired, the 
ones who stick to their guns, and hove a certain look. Banks 

Drum: Is there any designer who you admire and why? 

Banks: Oh, there ore lots of designers that I admire. I mean 
there ore lots of people who are great. I think Chanel 
was terrific in the fact that she had a sense of sr/le that's 
still very, very strong, and probably more populor today 
than ever before and yet she's been dead fifteen years. 
She has a lasting way about her. In Paris, there are peo- 
ple like Un Shiroushi who has a great style, and who has 
always nurtured a certain sophisticated look. They're lots 
of people and they oil hove their particular point of view, 
which I think is great. It's not necessarily my point of view, 
but they're good at what they do. 

Drum: What ore the problems unique to the mensweor field 
that you must cope with? 

Banks: Well, competition, the fact that there ore lots of different 
kinds of clothing out there. So you have to try to moke 
your clothes unique, so that the consumer wants to buy 
them, OS opposed to other kinds of clothes. Pricing is very 
important today. I think the consumer is ver/ wise to price Drum: 

increasing and they're very skeptical of buying expen- 
sive merchandise. They are quality conscious. So that's Banks: 
something that we have to do from our end. There ore 
lots of problems. The problem of cheaper goods, and 
trying to compete with fabrications and qualities that are 
less expensive. And having customers say, "Well why 
should I buy your corduroy pants, instead of Lee jeons 
corduroy pants." So you have to have an answer to that. 
The corduroy has to be better, the manufacturing has 
to be better, the design has to be better, the color has 
to be better, the fit has to be better. Those are all 
problems. Also, shipping, getting merchandise to stores 
on time is important when you're selling. There ore lots 
of things. 

Drum: What ore some of the personal characteristics that one Drum: 

must have to be a successful designer? 

Banks: Perseveronce, I think is probably number one. The fact 

that you wont it and that you're willing to give up lots Banks: 

of different things. Whether it being in your personal or 
social life. You hove to work hard. It's not something that 
comes easily. And once you attain a certain amount of 
success, you have to work even harder to maintain that 
success. It's not something that you can just sort of soy, 
"O.K. I've arrived," and sit bock and stop working. 

Drum: After completing your foil line of clothing for example, 
what is the process of getting it to the marketplace? 

Banks: Well, after we've finished designing it, then we begin 

to merchandise it. And in merchandising we really decide Drum: 

how many I may design. For example, six different 

colors of one shirt. But we may be only able to afford 

to sell three colors. We may be only able to afford to Banks: 

buy enough fabric for three colors. Or we may decide 

that even though I did six colors, that the shirt was reol- 

ly great, and we wont to do it in ten colors. Because 

we have the ability to sell that particular item. So the 

next step is the merchandising, and the merchandising 

doesn't happen totally at the end of the design process. 

but usually hand in hand along with the design process. 
After that, it's securing the manufacturing. Making sure 
that we have the fobrics, and the buttons, and the trim, 
and the patterns, that the fit is correct. Then, it's selling 
it to the stores, and getting it to the stores on time so 
that they're able to sell it. Then it's collecting the money 
from the stores. And then it's planning at the some time 
that you're selling and producing one collection, plann- 
ing the next season's collection. So you're generolly work- 
ing on two or three seasons at one time. 
Do you consider the fashion show a key marketing device 
for a designer? 

I think it's o great marketing tool. I think with every com- 
pany it's different. I think mensweor tends to be more 
difficult, in terms of fashion show, because in fashion 
shows, people tend to go to wont to be entertained. 
Not necessarily to see what's new, or to really under- 
stand the nuonces and subtleties of what you're doing 
for a particular seoson. It's ver/ hard in mensweor after 
the tenth or eleventh suit on o runway, they all start to 
look alike. If the pattern or the fabric hos fourteen col- 
ors in it, you can't tell that from o runway, you con only 
tell that close up. Coupled with the fact that men tend 
to be awkward. Even good professional models tend 
to be awkward on runways. So it's very hard to have a 
mensweor show really come off well. Women ore much 
more flamboyant and it's much easier to do a women's 
show. I like shows and I think shows ore great if they're 
well done. But you have to have a lot to soy. Sometimes 
it's best not to have a show unless you ore really show- 
ing something new and innovative and different. 
Some designers ore always wining and dining buyers. 
Do you consider this kind of politicking profitable? 
For some people it is, for certain kinds of clothes that they 
design, like o Bill Bloss. It's very important that he 
socialize with the kind of women that weor his clothes. 
In my cose, I don't do a lot of it, and on Bill Bloss' level, 
he does more of it with the octuol women who wear 
his clothes. As apposed to the stares who buy the 
clothes. I olwoys feel if the line is going well, it merits 
being bought. And no amount of my taking out o buyer 
is going to really affect how much they buy. I mean if 
they like clothes, and the clothes are going to do well 
for them, they'll buy the clothes. Whether I take them 
to lunch or dinner or not. I don't do a particular amount 
of entertaining. I just don't believe in it for my personolity. 
Some of the big designers todoy hove nothing to do with 
some of the products that bear their name, is this true 
for you also? 

No, I hove a real hands on experience working with the 
things that beor my label. What I like to do best is design. 
It would be very difficult for me to hove products come 
out that I hod nothing to contribute to. I oversee 
everything. I make everyone crazy, because I am so nit- 
picl-ry in terms of buttons, and trim, and details, and how 
things ore packed and shipped, and sent to the stores. 
But that's very important to me, I enjoy doing it. Other 
designers really don't. They ore willing to hove someone 
else do it and produce it. 

The Coty Award is sometimes called the Oscar of the 
fashion industry. How did it feel to be awarded this 
prestigious honor? 

Oh, it was teriffic. I mean it was probobly one of the most 
exciting, well definitely one of the most exciting, events 
of my life. And to hove won it twice. The first time was 
my first year in business for fur design. I was also 
nominated for the mensweor oword that year which I 
did not think that I would win, and I didn't. The second 
time I won it, which was several years later, and even 


more rewording. It wos ver/ exciting. And it is or at least 
wos in terms of the foshion industry, like receiving on 
Oscar. So it was o very exciting event for me. 

Drum: Lostly, is there ony question that was not addressed in 
the interview, or is there anything that you would like 
to add, which you think is important? 

Banks: I'd just like to stress, again, since this is going to be in 
o college mogozine, that I think it's reolly important for 
young people interested in design to learn as much as 
they con. To go to school and to go to college. If you're 
talented, no one is going to take that talent owoy from 
you. So many kids think, well I don't need school, I'm 
just going to go out and take five thousand dollars ond 
invest it and open a compony. But those ore the peo- 
ple who generally tend to foil after o while, even if they 

hove greot ideas. Because they don't know enough 
obout how to capitalize o company or how to keep a 
company running. The more you con leorn about the 
business aspect of it, whether you even have to go bock 
to school and study business administration or study 
management, the better designer you will be. It will 
make you a better designer. And so many kids ore in 

hurry todoy, to wont to be this instant, overnight suc- 
cess. Well no one really is an instant overnight success. 

1 mean it's usually years, and years, and years of hard 
work. And you hove to be prepared to do that, ond 
wont to do that. If you ore not willing to give your all, 
moybe you would think about another field, moybe 
fashion is the wrong field. 

No matter how long the night, the day is sure to come. (Zaire) 

The Legacy of Color! 

Beyond the orgins of spacetime 

The Great Father molded me from his essence, 

and granted me a part of his soul. 

I was sculptured from the colors of the rainbow, 

and shone in radiance above all his other children. 

The Great Father named me Color. 

My children flourished in the Indus and Euphrates, 

also along the Great River Nile. 

I was loved and cherished by all of the Great Father's offsprings. 

All except one: Pole. 

He envied me and attempted to destroy me. 

He persecuted my children along the Nile and the Indus Rivers. 

Ultimately, behind the eye of the Great Father, He roped me. 

He sowed my seed in foreign lands. 

I now cry and lament to the Great Father to relieve the agony 

of me and my children. 

But The Great Father does not hearken, because he too is under 

the spell of the opaque monster. 

Victor S. Alexander 

U.S. Foreign Policy and South Africa 


South Africon politics hove been 
dominated by the Afrii-ioaner Notionalist 
Party since 1 948. The party has sharpened 
the rociol ond political divisions of oport- 
heid that divide the notions four million 
Vi/hites ond twenty-two million Blocks, Col- 
oreds, and Asians. The government hos in- 
stitutionalized and constitutionally sanc- 
tioned racial discrimination ond has 
systematically denied South Africo's over- 
whelming block mojority their fundomen- 
tol rights. Non-v^hites are denied the right 
to vote; to sit in Porlioment; to live where 
they choose; to work where they wont to; 
to marry whoever they wont tO; to attend 
multi-rociol schools; and to purchose land 
ond property. The government of South 
Africa hos continually enforced apartheid 

By Sharon Jackson 

with only token measures of reform. World 
pressure has hod almost no effect on South 
Africo mostly because the United States 
ond western Europe hove continued to 
loon money; trade with; and keep their 
companies in South Africa. Equality will not 
be achieved unless the U.S. and western 
Europe translate their rhetoric of equolity 
into action that will moke equality o reali- 
ty in South Africa. 

The Reagon odministrotion is toking a 
much more passive stance toword South 
Africo thon did the Corter odministrotion. 
The policy of the Reagon administration is 
to stress "constructive engogement."' The 
Pveogon odministrotion believes thot the 
U.S. con best encouroge change through 
quiet diplomocy, as opposed to direct in- 

tervention through economic sanctions. 
However, quiet diplomocy has also in- 
creosed economic linkages and govern- 
ment contocts between the U.S. and South 

Economic linkoges (trode, business, etc.) 
reached o peak of $2.3 billion in 1976, sur- 
passing those linkages to South Africa by 
the United Kingdom, Fronce, West Ger- 
mony, or Conodo.^ In 1976 South Africa's 
overseas bonk debt equoled $7.6 billion, 
of which $2.2 billion^ were owed to U.S. 
bonks or their foreign branches. The cost 
of oil ond defense in South Africa quintu- 
pled between 1973 ond 1976 to $2 bil- 
lion." The U.S. credit directly supported the 
South African Government in its attempt to 
gain economic self-sufficiency and to for- 


tify its security and defense related proj- 
ects. United States bonks looned South 
Africa $2.2 billion in 1976. South Africa's 
oil ond defense costs alone totaled $2 
billion in 1976. U.S. bonks loaned South 
Africo enough money to give the U.S. at 
least the potential for o significant amount 
of leverage in determining the South 
African governments humon rights policies. 

United States companies in South Africa 
ore in direct conflict with the purported pur- 
pose of American foreign policy toward 
South Africa. U.S. companies, openly sup- 
port the status quo while ot the some time 
the U.S. government works to bring obout 
significant changes. Bonks ore not the on- 
ly U.S. companies doing business with 
South Africa. The Notional Council of 
Churches^ estimated the thirteen lorgest 
U.S. firms in South Africa, in order by the size 
of their ossets, ore General Motors, Mobil 
Oil, Exxon, Standard Oil of California, Ford 
Motor Company, ITT, General Electric, 
Chrysler, Firestone, Goodyear, 3-M (Min- 
nesota Mining and Manufacturing), IBM 
and Coterpillor. In addition to these thir- 
teen companies there ore 243 other U.S. 
companies doing some type of business 
with South Africa. By low, these U.S. com- 
panies are prevented from discriminating 
in hiring and wage proctices on the basis 
of race within the U.S.; however, in South 
Africo they openly enforce oportheid. A 
questionnaire to U.S. companies with 
employees in South Africa by the subcom- 
mittee of African Affairs of the Committee 
on Foreign Relations of the U.S. Senate 
demonstrated the existence of unequal 
poy; woge levels; Block promotion; train- 
ing; ond unions. 

These U.S. companies admitted not 
practicing o policy of equal pay for equol 
work citing the inexperience of Block 
workers ond the resistonce from White 
unions OS mojor reosons. The major 
obstacle with Black promotion is South 
African low ond resistonce from White 
workers ond customers. Only one-third of 
the respondents hod training programs, 
even though the South African government 
gives tax incentives for training Blacks. 
Block unions ore not illegal but they ore not 
recognized or negotiated as Block unions. 
These negotiations come only after 
numerous strikes and threots which result- 
ed only in token improvements. 

U.S. economic interests in South Africa 
may not be decisive in boiling South Africo 
out of its economic woes, but there is no 
question thot they hove been pivotol in 
directly ossisting the South African govern- 
ment during its economic difficulties. Col- 
lectively though, U.S. corporotions 
operating in South Africa hove mode no 
significant impoct on either relaxing apart- 
heid or on establishing company policies 
which would offer o limited number of 
labor rights. Rather, the effect of American 
investment hos been to strengthen the 

economic and militor/ self-sufficiency of 
South Africa's oportheid regime, undermin- 
ing the fundamental goals and objectives 
of U.S. foreign policy. 

The goals of the U.S. administration, 
though, are not as clear as the problems 
of the Blocks. The administration's policy of 
"constructive engagement" wos probobly 
adopted because of South Africo's strategic 
significance. An administration spokesper- 
son ond supporters hove cited three fac- 
tors of South Africa's strategic importance: 
The shipping lanes around Cope Horn; its 
critical minerals needed in the west for 
militor/ and industrial purposes, ond its 
anti-communist ond "democratic" institu- 
tions which make it a sofeguord ogoinst 
communist expansion in the region. 
Another reason for "constructive engage- 
ment" by the administration is that by im- 
proving our economic and politicol relo- 
tions with South Africa, the U.S. will 
enhance its influence to convince South 
Africa to agree to on acceptable formula 
for Nomibia's independence. 

Unfortunately the administration, when 
talking obout South Africa's strategic impor- 
tance, seems to leave out the South 
African government's disregard for protect- 
ing human rights. Fortune by the govern- 
ment has been documented in the coses 
of Steve Biko and Neil Aggett. Violence 
against Block strikers is o commonly used 
toctic by the government to bring bock the 
status quo. A group called the Detoinees 
Parents Support Committee (DPSC) has 
found thot Q voriety of forms of torture and 
assault, both mental and physical, hove 
been used by many members of the Se- 
curity Police throughout the country. Cer- 
tain practices by the police cannot be con- 
sidered isolated incidents, but ore un- 
doubtedly standard procedure sanctioned 
by the police hierarchy. Exomples of tor- 
ture include continuous interrogation; 
forced standing; humiliation and intimida- 
tion; physical assault; psychological assault; 
electric shock; hooding; hanging by the 
arms or legs for long periods; olternote im- 
mersion of feet in hot and cold water; and 
subjection to extreme levels of noise. 

Detention without trial is not only legol 
in South Africa but common. Banning is o 
favorite form of punishment by the govern- 
ment. Banning is a sentence which 
prevents the person from meeting with 
more than one person at a time; obtain- 
ing ajob without a permit from the police; 
attending educotionol institutions; enter- 
ing factories; participting in trade union ac- 
tivities; and entering any non-white oreos 
or entering any building with a printing 
press or any other reproduction facilities. 

The Reogon administration is socrificing 
the struggle for humon rights for economic 
and military gains. More emphasis is need- 
ed on preventing human rights violation in 
South Africa. In 1975, the South African 
government storted establishing so-called 

independent homelands. The homelands 
or Bontustans ore port of on effort to per- 
manently disenfranchise Blacks and frog- 
ment South Africa along racial lines. The 
government hopes to moke South Africa 
into a nearly all White state surrounded by 
ten economically and politically depend- 
ent Block states. The homelonds ore 
another part of the government's continua- 
tion of oportheid. The government con- 
tinues to strengthen oportheid, with 
violence towards striking workers, constitu- 
tionally discriminating lows ond the 

Constant pressure from the entire world 
to end the White regime has not worked 
because only military sanctions and not 
economic sanctions hove been instituted 
worldwide. Pressure olso comes on South 
Africa's border with Zimbabwe, Mozam- 
bique, and Angola. These three countries 
hove communist oriented regimes in 
power. This has led the Reogon ad- 
ministration to believe that it is better to 
hove the status quo government than o 
Block communist government. Fears of 
South Africa becoming communist ore un- 
founded. The guerrilla armies which over- 
threw White Rhodesia were thought to be 
communist but were reolly democrotic 
socialists. The U.S. should look to the long 
term reality, ond that is thot a Block 
tokeover is inevitable. The U.S. should 
resume its previous policy of speaking out 
publicly against serious human rights 
obuses condoned by the government and 
should condemn acts of South African cross- 
border aggression. Since the current od- 
ministrotion hos been in office, it has ex- 
hibited only passive interest in human rights 
violations in South Africa. This possiveness 
colled "quiet diplomocy" is interpreted by 
Block leoders as support for the White 
regime. The U.S. has been attempting to 
get South Africa to withdraw from Nomibio. 
In its attempt to get South Africa to agree 
to a Nomibion settlement the U.S. should 
not abandon its effort to get the South 
African government to change its apart- 
heid policies. The U.S. administration hos 
said that it has no leveroge to moke South 
Africo change its racial policy. 

However, the U.S. is South Africo's lorgest 
lender through private bonks and its largest 
trader. Strong pressure not only would 
change South Africa's rodol policy but could 
possibly topple the White regime. The U.S. 
could exert some meaningful pressure on 
South Africa by barring the export of goods, 
services, and technology, and barring 
American bonks from loaning money to 
the government. These economic sanc- 
tions will hove the most effect on chang- 
ing human rights in South Africo and humon 
rights, not U.S. corporations or U.S. strategic 
positioning, should be the U.S. govern- 
ment's moin concern. 



by Arthur Seroto 

[Ed. note — Because of the length of this 
article, DRUM has reproduced 
the first section only.] 

This article, written for the Symposium on 
Post-Apartheid South Africa, to be held at 
the University of Pittsburgh on November 
1 4 & 1 5, 1 986, is borne from experiences 
living in Zimbabwe for three of the six post- 
Independent years, starting in 1980, 
through mid 1 986. Most of my work there 
has focused on rural development in two 
regions: the Tangwena region in the 
Eastern Highlands, Manicalond Province, 
on the Mozambique border, and Chiru- 
monzu Communal Areas, in the drought- 
stricken Midlands Province. In the 
Tangwena region, I lived and worked at 
Nyaforu Cooperative, on agricultural co-op 
and school where, in the early eighties, I 
fund-raised and administered reconstruc- 
tion projects for the cooperative, for the 
building of the secondary school, and 
development of the region; later on, I 
taught English and literature at Nyaforu 
Secondary School, ond developed, fund- 
ed and administered development proj- 
ects in the region for area village families. 
At Chirumonzu, I developed ond funded 
local agricultural projects, and a massive 
reforestation and water development proj- 
ect at secondary schools, o primary school 
and village krool which brought water, 
reforestation, irrigation, gordens, crops and 
orchards to thousands of people in a 
drought-stricken region; in Bulowoyo, I 
served the Youth Contact Centre, on alter- 
native secondary school affiliated with the 
Ministry of Education as a fund-raiser, 
teacher and Management Board member 
and in Harare, developed small projects for 
urban dwellers in the townships. Most of 
the time, I lived in villages in the rural areas 
with friends ond fomilies I hove known 
since 1980 and so, Zimbabwe has 
become home to me with family ties as 
strong as those in my native Brooklyn. 

This article represents the ideas, percep- 
tions and late-night fire-side kitchen tolk of 
Zimbabwe's people as well as the discus- 
sions and debates which take ploce at the 
schoolhouse, inside the Parliament, within 
the Ministries, ot the University and in the 
many writings, studies, reports and articles 
which appear doily in Zimbabwe's press 
and journals. As Independence led to the 
settling in of a new nation, as the heavy 
rains which ushered in the new flog led to 
drought, as reconciliation led to a multi- 

racial society, OS educational opportunities 
and social services were opened up to the 
greater society, as internal security and ex- 
ternal threats intensified, and os political 
ideologies solidified, lessons hove 
emerged and continue to develop, lessons 
which moy aptly be instructive to post- 
apartheid South Africa. 
I After Robert Mugabe's londslide elec- 
toral victory in February, 1980, Zim- 
babwe's first Prime Minister appeared on 
notional television, an electronic media 
device which until Independence was 
almost on exclusive medium for White 
Rhodesion society. For ninety years, 
Rhodesion culture was premised upon 
White racial supremacy. As in South Africa, 
the oll-White Rhodesion parliaments 
enacted every low with racial supremacy 
in mind: the land tenure acts, for instance, 
relegated Blacks to living in "African" areas 
only, or "reserves," suspiciously similar to 
South Africa's bontustons; indeed. Blacks 
existed only to serve the pleasure of 
Whites, to serve as cheap labor on com- 
mercial farms and in the mines, as servants 
in the home and garden and as surplus 
labor in the growing industrial sectors of 
Horore and Bulowoyo. Otherwise, Blacks 
were to stay out of sight on the reserves, 
the Tribal Trust Lands, unseen and 

For two decodes of notionalist move- 
ment leoding to liberation. Whites were 
fed heavy diets of onti-notionolist prop- 
aganda and the Ian Smith and Bishop 

'In the June, 1985 election, Zimbabwe's second 
since Independence, the White voting roll 
elected 1 5 of its 20 parliamentary sects for the 
Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe, Ian Smith's 
party, including Smith himself (Under the Lon- 
coster House agreement, 20 of Parliament's 1 00 
seats would be reserved for whites until 1 987, 
resulting in two voting rolls). However, fewer 
than 1 % of whites eligible to vote nationwide 
exercised the fronchise, turned off by a white 
voting roll. A post-election survey revealed that 
a majority of whites qualified to vote, i.e. be- 
ing over the age of majorir/, opposed Smith and 
the CAZ and would hove voted for the Inde- 
pendent Zimbobwe Group (IZG) candidate. 
Voter apothy and on aversion to o racial voting 
roll led to o distorted election result among 
whites, which roll also includes Asians and 

Muzorewo regimes saved their most 
vitriolic attacks for Mugabe, labelling him 
"bloodthirsty," o "rabid Marxist" and "a 
communist," suggesting constantly that the 
nationalist movement itself was a com- 
munist conspiracy orchestrated from the 
outside by the Soviet Union ond "Red 

Accordingly, many Whites pledged that 
if the Mugabe-led "terrorists" ever came to 
power, they would head "down South" to 


moke Q new life, to escape the bloodbath 
against Whites which would surely follow 
and to avoid living under the tyranny of 
Marxist rule. And surely they could under- 
stand his anger once he come to power; 
Mugabe hod languished for eleven years 
in Smith's prisons; when his only child died 
while he was in prison, Smith denied his 
plea to attend the funeral; Mugabe hod 
watched scores of his comrades go to the 
gallows for their role as nationalists in the 
struggle for freedom and tens of thousands 
of comrades hod met brutal deoths ot the 
hands of the Rhodesian security forces. 
Surely, reprisals were at hand. 

But when the Prime Minister-elect ad- 
dressed his substantially White TV audience 
in 1980, he spoke, not af Black power but 
of reconciliation and "love between the 
races" which had been so sorely missing 
in Zimbabwe's national character. Mugabe 
emphasized that racial supremacy was the 
enemy of the people, not Whites or Blocks, 
end that his government was coming to 
power with the mandate of eliminating 


s 7 

racialism — and to build a multi-racial 
society, based on mutual respect and 
toleration for the variety of cultures which 
existed in Zimbabwe. Above all, he 
ossured his audience, the new govern- 
ment would be committed both to pro- 
tecting the rights of minorities (Whites) and 
instilling new values through educotion 
and activities so that White and Block 
children could, once and for oil, throw off 
the lies of supremacy ond live together in 
hormony as fellow human beings in o 
color-blind society. 

The Mugabe government has held up to 
its pledge faithfully and meticulously. In- 
heriting on infra-structure where almost the 
entire cadre of civil servants were White; 
where ownership and management posi- 
tions in banking, financing, business and in- 
dustry was White-held; where education 
for the notion's scientists, engineers, 
agriculturalists, technicians, artisans and 
educotors hod been reserved for Whites, 
the new government faced the potential 
for sobotoge and hostility (both of which 
did exist, of course) in proportions which 
could hove crippled the growth of o new 
nation. Instead, the policy of reconciliation, 
motivated from the heart, nevertheless 
also had the effect of allowing Whites to 
realize that the ills of their abuse were not 
necessarily related to power itself, but thot 
racialism was a disease that need not be 
repeated. As the initial exodus of Whites 
narrowed to o trickle, as segregated 
schools became integrated, as many all- 
White institutions became more multi-rodol 
and OS Whites began to toke o good, hard 
look at themselves and their culture, much 
of the racialism of White culture which 
poured over from colonialism into the first 
years of Independence began to dissipate 
markedly. Today, six years after In- 
dependence, the majority of White citizens 
support Mugabe' in ways which hove 
meaning: commercial farmers who remain 
on important component of the economy 
hove, through their Commercial Farmers 
Union, provided measurably important 
resources and training to subsistence 
farmer organizations, and work closely 
with the Ministry of Agriculture for the na- 
tional purpose; White-owned business and 
industry continue to make noticeable 
strides in promoting larger numbers of 
Blacks into decision making positions in 
monogement and supervision; increasing 
numbers of Whites openly defect from the 
ranks of the Smith forces and align 
themselves with groups and activities 
which ore more identifiobly associated 
with building on egalitarian society. 

Thus, the notional policy of reconciliation 
of the Mugobe government has forged a 
new society without regard to race ond 
has lent proof to Zimbabweans that 
racialism is not a by-product of Shono and 
Ndebele culture but a symptom of the 
hideous disease of supremocy which was 
the framework of "European" Rhodesian 
culture. This process of building a multi- 
rocial society, with its dramatic short-term 
success ond o projected long-term poten- 
tiol for even greoter blessings is o living 
demonstrotion to the world that when on 
oppressed people assumes the reins of 
power, it con prove unilaterally that 
supremacy is o cultural disease which can 
be vanquished by extending the hand of 
forgiveness and instituting structural 
changes in education and other forums to 
integrote people from different back- 
grounds, races and cultures into the no- 
tional mainstream. 

The doctrine of racial supremacy was at 
the heart of Rhodesia's ills and it was critical 
for the new Zimbabwe to deal decisively 
with racial supremacy — by forging a multi- 
rociol society and breaking the cycle of 
racialism through education, anti-dis- 
crimination lows and other forums. Post- 
oportheid South Africa will inherit a diverse 
society. White ond Block, which hos been 
injured by racial supremocy and con 
benefit immensely from the lessons of Zim- 
bobwe's notional policies of reconciliation 
and its success in building o multi-racial 
society. Both South Africans, and the rest 
of the world — which will be watching 
closely — con benefit from Zimbobwe's 
outstanding example. The need to heal 
wounds will be great, ond the Zimbabwe 
lesson reassuring. 


The Essence of Success 

By Cathy Mohoney 

"Always do more than is expected of 
you and you will be o success." 

This motto appears on Terrie Willianns' 
desk in her Times Square office ot Essence 
Communications. She could eosily hove 
penned that verse herself, since she hos 
more than proven it true time ond time 

Her recent promotion to Vice President 
and Director of Corporate Communications 

for Essence mokes Terrie the youngest vice 
president ever appointed for the compony, 
(she's o mere 32) and only the second 
woman to be promoted to the executive 
level. Terrie is on exercise in pride ond 
perseverance, and her whirlwind ascent up 
the ladder of success is a reflection of her 
determination to be the best. 

Walking into her office, which affords a 
dynamic view of Manhattan, there seems 

o sense of urgency, a get-it-done-yes- 
terdoy sort of atmosphere. It is here that 
Terrie oversees all public relations activity 
of the company's four divisions; Essence 
Magazine, Essence Television Productions, 
Essence Direct Moil Marketing, and Essence 
Intimate Apparel. Terrie sits behind a 
crowded desk os she finishes up a phone 
conversotion while handing memos to 
assistants scurr/ing in and out of the room. 
continued on page 66 







She is wearing on oversized blQci-; shirt and 
pants set which is complimented by long 
silver and onyx earrings. She has a worm, 
welcoming smile that denotes a surprising- 
ly down-to-earth person. 

A routine day for Terrie at Essence could 
mean just about anything. In the ever- 
unpredictable field of moss communica- 
tion, she knows she must be constantly 
prepared to meet the challenge that may 
spring up while she's not looking. By skim- 
ming through six newspapers every morn- 
ing, Terrie grabs hold of what's happening 
around her and incorporates these ideas 
into her daily thinking. 

"If you're good at what you do, you stay 
on top of trends and new developments 
in your field," she soys as she looks for 
things "of a timely nature, that pertain to 
the company." This could mean anything 
from Q breaking story to something in the 
ad column of the New York Times that she 
thinks Essence should be aware of. 

If she's not tracking trends then she is at- 
tending Q luncheon or o reception around 
town, always making sure that Essence 
maintains o strong presence in the com- 
munity. Recently, Newsweek did a feature 
on women's magazines, but failed to 
mention Essence. 

"We have a guaranteed circulation of 
800,000 which represents a monthly 
readership of over 3 million. So, a letter 
had to go out to Newsweek, something 
hod to be done. We can't allow ignorance 
to slip by us, we must show the importance 
of our market." 

Terrie is also the person who is foced 
with speaking for Essence when trouble 
hits. The Vanessa Williams controversy, for 
example, come to o head just as the 
magazine was ready to release a feature, 
cover story on the former Miss America. "I 
had to position a response to this situation, 
an official policy hod to be drown." 

But Terrie thrives on such challenges. She 
enjoys devising inventive ways of pro- 
moting Essence. Recently, she spearheod- 
ed a fundraiser for the New York Urban 
League in which she raised over $25,000 
for the organization. The theme was "Mor- 
di Gros night in New York." 

"I just hod feeling it would be really 
hot," she soys, excitedly. "We flew in a 
bond from New Orleans for the occasion. 
It really worked, we got people who never 
worked together before, and things real- 
ly clicked." 

Her position allows her visibility and the 
chance to meet and speak with on in- 
definite amount of people. She views each 
day OS a new opportunity to mingle with 
her community. 

All of this comes on the upswing of on 
important career decision that Terrie forced 
herself to realize. After receiving her D.A. 
from Brondeis and a Master of Science from 
Columbia, Terrie entered the field of social 
work. She counseled terminally ill patients 
at the New York University Medical Center 
for three years before she decided it was 
time to get out. 

"It was depressing, and very draining. 
The other reality was that there is not a lot 
of money to be mode in social work, and 
I wont to moke as much money, legally, 
in my life time as possible." She then pulled 
up her roots and entered the communica- 
tions field OS a Program Administrator for 
the Block Filmmaker Foundation. 

This time of odjustment was probably 
the most difficult in her career, as she found 
she hod to prove herself as a public rela- 
tions practitioner. 

"I didn't hove the benefit of a journalism 
or communications degree, and there 
were people who questioned my abilities. 
Public Relations wasn't a specific concen- 
tration at the time, but I knew that was 
what I wonted." 

She redoubled her efforts and pushed 
forward. She joined Essence in 1982 as 
Director of Public Relations. 

Terrie attributes most of her success to, 
"just doing what you say you're going to 
do; following up. Almost every week 
someone thonks me for returning a phone 
coll, or getting something out to them, 
they soy, 'thanks for doing what you said 
you would.' I guess there ore a lot of peo- 
ple out there who don't take the time." 

Although she may hove given up social 
work, she is still involved with career 
counseling. She specifically meets with 
young people who may hove on interest 
in the fiel<j, ond assists them in getting 
started. Though her time is very limited, 
she finds room to help. 

"What I want to do is help people. Lots 
of people took the time to help me when 
I started out, so I repay that by taking time 
out of my life to similarly help others." 

Terrie knows how hard it con be just to 
get Q foot in the door in the communica- 
tions field, but she is also aware of the dif- 
ficulties that minorities — namely Blacks 
and women — con be faced with. 

"Race is o very real issue in this line of 
work, and there are other obstacles as 

Terrie has published a paper on exactly 
how minorities con deal with this problem, 
entitled, "How Women (ond other 
minorities) Con Break into PR." 

Here, she soys, "The proverbial brass ring 
seems to be greased, and the doors to op- 
portunity could use some." She recognizes 
the fact that "sheer numbers (5% 
minorities employed as professionals) in- 
dicate quite large hurdle to be cleared 
for minorities." 

Nevertheless, Terrie is optimistic. "What- 
ever it is that you want to do, you con find 
way to do it — you hove to hove tunnel 
vision — you hove to be cleor about the 
things you wont to achieve. It takes 
dogged determination to go after whot- 
ever it is you want, and you con get it. 

"Prepare yourself — set the stage for 
people getting to know who you ore and 
what you ore obout." 

She cites examples that she draws in- 
spiration from, Joon Rivers, for example. 
Rivers auditioned six times before getting 

spot on the Tonight Show. Her "Lote 
Show" program now competes for the Car- 
son audience. She also mentions David 
Lettermon, who is "the hottest thing since 
pockets," but hod been unsuccessful many 
times before. 

Hard though it may seem to believe, 
Terrie does get some time to herself, dur- 
ing which she lends her name to various 
organizations and institutions, such as the 
NOW Legal Defense & Education Fund, 
and Women in Communications, Inc. Aside 
from the PR business, she loves basketball, 
hardly ever misses a Knicks home gome. 
Occasionally, she'll fly to see some friends 
in the NBA ploy around the country. 

But did she have to sacrifice port of 
herself for success? 

"Oh, yes. My personal challenge right 
now is to find a way to strike o bolance 
— you've got to hove bolonce in your life. 

1 was determined to be the best I could, 
so I guess I spent on inordinate amount of 
time on advancing my career." 

Now she thinks she's ready to put a lit- 
tle more time than she could hove before 
into relationship (marriage is not in the 
picture yet!) and she's wondering if she will 
be able to manage both at once. 

"I wont to be the first Block to run a ma- 
jor public relations firm. It's always been in 
my blood — that's what I'm destined to 
do. I'm planting the seeds for a future." 














I si--"' 



y U 

' ' ^^^H 





In 1978, fresh out of Nebraska, he was 
directed to a prominent theatrical 
manager's office in Hollywood, California. 

"She threw me out of the office, literal- 
ly. Told me to get out, that this is ridiculous, 
and I had a lot of guts coming in here, and 
so forth." Nine years later, Corkey Ford, o 
determined young actor is featured in the 
Oscar-nominated movie, "PLATOON," has 
worked with Danny Koye in the television 
show, "THE TWILIGHT ZONE" and with Burt 
Lancaster in the Disney movie, "TOUGH 

Although he landed a leading role in a 
television movie within his first two weeks 
in Hollywood, he soon found that being a 
young, inexperienced, black actor wasn't 
easy in "Tinseltown." 

"I think there is a lot of racism in 
Hollywood, on both sides, block as well as 
white. We have to start working together 
to moke good quality family films, with 
both roces bringing out the emotional sides 
in black characters without getting too 
depressing or too ghetto. Hollywood has 
to realize that there are blacks in upper 
management positions, who hove fami- 
lies, who have children, who love, and 
who lose. I think in this respect Hollywood 
isn't giving us another Sidney Poitier, and 
I hop'e to take a personal challenge in 
making [someone like him] happen 

Corkey pointed to his recent role in "PLA- 
TOON" in which he played Manny 
Washington, one of Charlie Sheen's (his 
character) dope-smoking buddies who 
gets killed in one of the first battles. "Per- 
sonally, I feel there were not enough 
blacks portrayed in 'PLATOON,' only 
because there was a higher ratio of blacks 
in Vietnam. I think the black characters 
were a little broader than they should have 

"Manny Washington should have been 
given more time. There was o personal 
side to him that we filmed that no one 
sow. He was everyone's friend. That's why 
ever/one flipped out when he died. In that 
respect I think the audience was denied 
the chance to see a sensitive block man, 
which is basically the problem with 
Hollywood in a lot of ways. You never get 
a chance to get to know the block 

Corkey said he really enjoyed working 
with the cost of "PLATOON" and spoke of 
other actors he also found pleasant to work 
with. "Danny Koye wos one of my favorite 
people to work with. His experience, his 
thirst for perfection in his craft and his will- 
ingness to spend the time to moke it 
perfect. If o scene didn't feel right he'd let 
you know. Even if it took thirty times. That 
30th time was always better than the 
other times. I always loved Danny Koye 
growing up. I got to know him personally 
and he gave me some pointers obout my 
acting and my career which helped in a lot 


by Brauno Doum 

of ways. He treated me like a grandson 
on the set." 

Sidney Poitier is another figure very much 
admired by Corkey. "The night I saw 'LILIES 
Sidney Poitier film festival, I knew that act- 
ing was what I wanted to do. Those ore 
the type of emotions 1 want to bring out 
in people." 

Although Corkey keeps a busy schedule 
working and studying his craft, he still finds 
time in between jobs to work with an 
organization dealing with teen-agers in 
drug and alcohol abuse and teen suicide. 
"It is so important to let these kids know 
that somebody out there cores. I have 
travelled throughout the country to speak 
at high schools on behalf of the organiza- 
tion. It is such a rewarding feeling to get 
letters back from these kids thanking me 
for talking to them on their level." 

Corkey has o strong desire to help young 
people and said thot when he was grow- 
ing up he wanted to be a pediatrician. 
Although he eventually opted for acting, 
his family is still very supportive of him. In 
fact, his mother just toured with him dur- 
ing Q publicity campaign for "PLATOON." 
Corkey feels that as long as you con keep 
a job on the side, just to pay the bills, you 
con be an actor. 

"I hope people view my work os 
something meaningful because each role 
that I've done I've been pleased with. 
Look at me as someone who is tr/ing to 
make a statement as on actor, neither 
black, nor white, but as an actor. View the 
film "PLATOON" as a healing aspect, 
especially for the block Vietnam veteran. 
Hopefully somedoy, we'll come out with 
a block version of "PLATOON" where we 
will get a chance to see the humanistic side 
of the block soldiers in Vietnam." 























■" .""-ft 

































FOR . . . i 


Ploying Wagner 

my neighbor is ploying Wogner 
loud enough to woke the deod 

ond He hos decided 

thot my left breost contains 

the secret of the universe 

i con't decide 

whether the ride 

of the volkyries 

is distrocting me 

from his tongue on my nipple 

or if the insistence 

of his nibbling 

is distrocting me 

from the volkyries 

ultimately of course 
it doesn't matter 
but there it is 
just the some 

what the fuck 

kindo music is thot 

he soys suddenly 

sitting up from where he has 

been burrowing around 
trying to get closer 
to the center of the eorth 

loud OSS shit 

volkyries i soy 

you know those huge women 

with the spears 

and the brass bras 

brass, bras. 

all motion ceases 

the very thought 

is more than he con bear 

he squeezes his hands 

around my waist 

and burrows down ogoin 

fuck it then he soys 
white folks ore crozier 
than i thought 

— by Pearl Cleoge 

In Jamaica reggae music is synonymous 
with worm breezes and the rhythmic pull 
of the ocean. It is a music thot has so influ- 
enced its motherland that reggae festivals 
are not only the largest gatherings of the 
nation's people but also that countr/'s big- 
gest tourist attraction. It is said that over 
half of Jamaica's tourist influx in the past 
six years con be directly, or indirectly, 
credited to reggae music and its universal 
draw. Reggae is not merely music but o 
musical expression of Caribbean life. 

It is a music geared to the human pulse. 
Powered by a "one-drop" drum style and 
pulsating effervescent boss patterns, it is 
bottom heavy music. Lilting and beoutiful 
at times, it can be dense and jarring at 
others. At the core of reggae are the "Wd- 
dim Twins," drummer Sly Dunbar and 
bassist Robbie Shokespeare. 

"In Jamaica they call it Heart Deot music 
because the boss and drum is really the 
foundation of reggae. The rest of the 'tings 
is like . . . just to make it sound so much 
more beautiful," says the soft spoken 

Leod guitarists and singers are most 
often the stars in popular music. Customari- 
ly, rhythm sections ore anonymous. Sly 
Dunbar and Robbie Shakespeare are 
anything but anonymous. They are 
arguably the busiest, most flexible, and 
most acclaimed rhythm section in both rock 
ond reggae. 

Their work hos molded the shape of reg- 
gae over the past decade, both in the 
studio and in live performances. Their live 
collaborations have been infrequent yet 
stellar. They were the driving force behind 
Peter Tosh's Word, Sound and Power band 
of the late seventies. In the eighties they 
fueled the searing live performances 
around the globe of Black Uhuru. Their 
work with Block Uhuru earned them a 
Grammy award in 1984 for the album 

It is their studio work that has earned 
them the most recognition. Both Dunbar 
and Shakespeare ore extremely modest 
men. When asked how many albums they 
hove worked on Dunbar closes his eyes in 
deep thought and then seems to give up, 
"Well over 500. So many I can't count. I 
know I must have it listed somewhere. I 
mean mon, when we go into the studio 
in Jamaica sometimes we lay, like . . . ten 
tracks in three hours. Yeah, we lay tracks 
so fost you wouldn't believe it. Some days 
we lay, like, (rubbing chin) . . . twenty five 
. . . thirty . . ." 

They have their own production com- 
pany on the island called Toxi Productions 
and have worked with nearly every reg- 
gae artist in Jamaica save for Bob Morley 
who hod his own full time band, the 
Wallers. Gregory Isaacs, Jimmy Cliff, 
Mutoboruka, Ziggy Morley, The Mighty 
Diamonds, Yellowman, Culture, the list 
goes on and on. These artists often write 

Sly and Robbie: De Rid 

by Brad Kaplan | 

the lyrics and hove a general ideo of the 
song's structure but it is left to the Riddim 
Twins to mold the music into something 

Their role is that of innovators. They hove 
chonged the sound of the music so 
dramatically over the years it is said that 
whot Sly and Robbie ore playing today, 
the rest of Jamaica will be ploying tomor- 
row. One of reggoe's most demanded 

musicians is guitarist Eorl "Chinno" Smith 
whose collaborations over the years with 
Sly and Robbie, omong countless others, 
are well documented. Recently in the U.S. 
on tour with the young and very talented 
noturol heir to Bob Motley's crown, Ziggy 
Morley, Chinno stated the significance of 
Sly and Robbie simply, "They work a lot 
and listen hord to mony, mony kinds of 
music, new and old. They mon not afraid 


iim Twins 

to present themselves openly to new 
sounds and moke use of them. They should 
be commended and given praises for this, 
for it is fresh and bountiful." 

Yet, their influence has not been con- 
fined strictly to the Jamaican music scene. 
It was inevitable that the rest of the music 
world would catch on to this phenomenon. 
"Our first project outside of reggae was for 
a French singer named Serge Ginsberg. Ah, 

we produced that in Jomoica and it went 
double plotinum in Paris. Then we worked 
with Grace Jones. Then Joe Cocker 'Shef- 
field Steele,' then Gwen Guthrie," recalls 

For Grace Jones' "Warm Letherette," 
"Nightclubbing," and "Island Life" albums 
they assembled on oll-stor team of island 
musicians at Compass Point Studio in 
Nassau that created the dance music of 
the future. It was the first fusion of the 
mainstream of mainland and island music. 
They introduced heavy bass and lead 
drums to new wave donee music, creating 
dance grooves for the future. The single 
"Pull Up To The Dumper" established Grace 
Jones OS on international star and further 
boosted the growing reputation of the Rid- 
dim Twins. 

After this the response wos incredible. 
Bob Dylan assembled a band comprised 
of Sly and Robbie, Mark Knopfler (Dire 
Straits), Mick Taylor (ex-Rolling Stone) and 
others, to do his londmark "Infidels" album. 
Sly and Robbie churned out the rhythm on 
Dylans' subsequent "Empire Burlesque." 
The Rolling Stones used their talents on 
"Totoo You," and they provided the 
groove on Mick Jogger's solo album. Sly 
was called on to ploy drums on Herbie 
Hancock's "Future Shock," as well os on 
albums with Corly Simon and Joan 

"All of them stand out for me," soys Rob- 
bie, sincerely. "They didn't have to ask us, 
but they did." 

They create their own brand of music, 
one unquestionably still rooted in reggae, 
but with an international flovor thot is full 
of bite and soul. Their album "Language 
Barrier" is state of the ort international funk. 
This is the logical result of the music they 
helped create with Grace Jones and Her- 
bie Hancock. Suffering discofunk grooves 
with an internotionol bond of musicians in- 
cluding Herbie Hancock, Bob Dylan, ex-Por- 
lioment/Tolking Head Bernie Worrell, 
Cuban percussionist Daniel Ponce, Wolly 
Bodorou, and African sax powerhouse 
Manu Dibongo, they ore once again 
creoting the dance music of the future. The 
song, "Boss and Trouble" earned them o 
Grommy nomination for Best Single. 

I asked Sly recently if he thought that, 
despite the fact that their work outside of 
Jomoica hos opened up some ears to the 
diversity of reggae and its musicians, if this 
work was originolly, and possibly continual- 
ly, resented by some of his fellow musi- 
cians. "No. They like that because it's good 
for the music," he soys with a wink and o 
smile. "I mean when we work with some- 
one like Dob Dylan ... all it is is onother 
step for reggoe. Because people are bub- 
blin' finally. Someone might soy, 'Sly and 
Robbie, oh . . . they're from Jamaica. Reg- 
gae . . . hmm?' 

Whenever they trovel they bring reggae 
music to that port of the world and when 

they return to Jomoica they hove 
something new to bring to the music. 
"Some tink it a bit odd but I don' listen 
to reggae on my own too much. Becouse 
I ploy reggae, that to me is enough. I listen 
to a lot of . . . hmm, at this time Top 40 
records like Genesis and Janet Jockson . See 
what they're puttin' down. 

"We're not quite through with the ideos 
tried on Longuoge Barrier! We just did a 
session with many of the some musicions 
and mon, did we hit o groove!" he soys 
with obvious delight. "Yeoh mon, we do 
cover of the Ohio Ployers 'Fire.' It's bod 
mon. You better believe it." 

Currently the Riddim Twins ore spreoding 
the reggae sounds across Europe with a 
crock group of Jamaican musicians under 
the nome "The Taxi Gong." With them ore 
the oce horn section Ros Brass, and top 
toast-master Yellowmon, roots singer Ini 
Komoze, and new sensation Holfpint. They 
will follow with o tour of the U.S. ond then 
on to India, Africa, and Egypt. 

"Whot we're trying to do is bring the 
music to the world's people. People who 
wouldn't get a chance to hear this type of 
music. It's like o Motown Review with the 
music supplied by Sly and Robbie. It's non- 
stop music like a festivol. What we wont 
to show is the diversity of reggae. So we 
present four different styles of reggoe. Like 
on this tour we use some singers from 
Jomoico that not many know about ond 
try to get them more out front, and let 
people stop thinking only of Bob Marley 
and Peter Tosh, ond Block Uhuru and Jim- 
my Cliff. They ore not the only ones in 
Jamaica that ore good ot reggae music," 
soys Dunbor quietly. "Ini Komoze is one of 
the best songwriters in Jamaica today. I 
meon he doesn't flood the market with o 
lot of music but he does like eight songs 
every year and we put his album out. I 
think he's gonno be ver/ big." 

To see the duo live is o treat. Dunbar 
hunched over his drums, cop pulled low on 
his head, creating dense polyrhythms . . . 
leoding the music forward, chomping more 
mileage out of a piece of gum than one 
would think humonly possible. Shake- 
speare prowling the stage, dreodlocks 
flowing for down his bock, his bubbling 
boss interlocking with Dunbar's relentless 
rhythm to create the groove ond drive it 
to its logical conclusion. 

Asked OS to whot he credits the special 
musical chemistry between he and Sly, 
Robbie replies simply, "We respect each 
other and love eoch other ond I give him 
support when he needs it and he gives me 
support when I need it. Mon, we don' hove 
to worry about nothing." 




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i^'?F A 





In Memory Of A 
Perfect Angel 

by Rudolph Miller 

Minnie Wperton was once proclaimed to 
be "the perfect angel" by Stevie Wonder, 
after fiis being so impressed by her 
"melodious" five-octave voice. She was o 
versatile entertainer who could sing opera 
OS well OS jazz and pop, ond who often 
wrote her own lyrics. She will olwoys be 
remembered os a beautiful woman with 
a very friendly and charming personality. 

Minnie was the youngest of eight chil- 
dren born to retired Chicago pullmon 
porter Daniel Riperton ond wife Thelmo. 
She has been described in childhood as be- 
ing o "creative and ambitious youngster." 
She was o student of modern donee at 
oge three, and by the time she was five 
was involved in ballet. When she was 
eleven she hod already completed voice 
and opera lessons. 

Some of her childhood friends say that 
she was destined to become a singer and 
by the time she was o teenager she was, 
without a doubt, pursuing that goal. Min- 
nie often sang back-up at local recording 
studios, OS well os at her high school and 
in the choir at the Sixth Presbyterian Church. 

It was at Hyde Pork High School that Min- 
nie Riperton was "discovered" and signed 
to a recording contract with the Jems. She 
did a number of stints with various per- 

formers during the late sixties. Shortly 
thereof ter she recorded her first solo olbum 
entitled "Come to My Garden." 

For the next few yeors Minnie song 
jingles for commercials and was back-up 
vocalist to such stars os Roberto Flock, 
Quincy Jones, and Freddie Hubbard. She 
was described by Hubbard as being 
"unique"; her voice hod o range that 
nobody else seemed to find. 

Minnie Riperton's career really took off 
when she met Stevie Wonder. He was so 
impressed by Minnie that he co-produced 
her gold album "Perfect Angel" in 1974. 
It was ofter the release of her third olbum 
"Adventures in Paradise" that Minnie 
discovered that she had breast cancer. 

Minnie underwent o mastectomy and, 
shortly after, unexpectedly announced on 
the Johnny Carson Show that she hod 
undergone breast surgery. She spoke ot 
fund raisers ond to women's groups and 
she olso mode television announcements. 
In 1 977 she was presented the American 
Concer Society's Courage Award by Presi- 
dent Jimmy Carter and, in 1 978, she was 
appointed to the post of Education Chair- 
woman for the American Cancer Society, 
the youngest woman and only Afro-Ameri- 
can to assume that position. 

By the summer of 1 978 Minnie Riperton 
was recording what was to be her lost 
olbum. Tests disclosed o tumor in her right 
arm after she became ill in October. The 
album was still incomplete when Minnie 
was temporarily hospitalized, but she con- 
tinued working on it until it was completed 
in February. During June, Minnie was in con- 
stant pain and confined to bed, yet she 
continued to do interviews by phone. She 
was told that she probably would not live 
to celebrate her daughter's seventh birth- 
day on July 27. She was token to Cedars 
Sinoi Medical Center in Los Angeles on Ju- 
ly 10. 

The next evening Minnie was visited by 
Stevie Wonder, who gave her o recording 
of o song he hod written for her. The next 
morning Coretto Scott King as well as Jose 
Feliciono and Stevie Wonder stopped by 
Minnie's room. A short time loter, at 
10 a.m. Minnie Riperton died. 

Although her life wos short, Minnie Riper- 
ton left behind o great legacy of love that 
will not be forgotten. When specking 
about her career, as well as her goals and 
aspirations in life Minnie often said; "Let it 
be said that Minnie Riperton's glass was 
always half full, never half empty." 


Photo by Drouno Doum 

An Interview with Rudy Jones 

by Poncho Morris 

Rudy Jones is the Asst. Undergraduate Director at the University of Massachusetts Admissions office. He was born in Jomoica and 
graduated from St. Jago High School in Spanish Town, Jamaica in 1 969. Later that year, he come to the United States. After spend- 
ing one semester ot Hunter College in New York City, he transferred to the Univ. of Moss, from where he graduated in 1974. He 
studied Public Administration from Suffolk University. In 1 982, Mr. Jones returned to U Mass. to get his Master's degree in educotion. 
He is currently in the process of writing o thesis for a doctoral degree in educotion. 

Drum: You were once on undergraduate here at U. Moss. Do 
you find thot a lot has changed in the environment 
towards minorities since you were a student? 

Jones: No, not much has changed. The times for minority 
students hove changed, though. When I was here, there 
was o lot more of o community feeling among the 
students. Now there seems to be o great deal of divi- 
sion. When I was a student, there were no Block frater- 
nities on this campus. We were considered oil Block. Now, 
what I notice occurring is the spreading of Black frater- 
nities. As o result, o lot of students ore now Greek first 
and then Black. This is a factor contributing to the divi- 
sion on this compus. Of course, nationally, the Greeks 
(fraternities) play a positive role. Many of them hove 
been helping out with teenage pregnancies, for exam- 
ple. What I see occurring in my opinion, on this campus 

needs to be more positive. 

The attitudes of administrators and faculty have not 
chonged. If it has changed, it has changed for the worse. 

Drum: Has Block enrollment decreased or increased since you 
have been here? 

Jones: When I first come to the University in 1982, as admis- 
sions advisor, there were about 79 more block students 
enrolled than in the previous year. Since '82, approx- 
imately 3.5% of students entering doss are Block 
students [Collegiate Education of Block and Minority]. 
Now the enrollment for the post couple of years exceeds 
that amount by 200. Prior to '82, it seems as if no one 
cored about Block student enrollment here. Since I hove 
been here, it hos remained steady over the years. But, 
given oil the negative publicity, I don't know what to 
expect for '87. 


Drum: Is the increase in Block enrollment due to o much stronger 
ideology thot education is one of the most effective ways 
to move up in society? 

Jones: I wish this was the cose, but Black student enrollment 
in universities throughout the notion is declining. There 
ore many reasons for this ond one of them is thot many 
Black youths ore opting to join the armed services. Many 
people tend to view this as being negative, but I don't 
see this as such. It's better to hove more Black students 
joining the mllitory Instead of dropping out of school or 
taking mediocre Jobs or spending years at a community 
college without progressing, academically. I think the 
military is a good idea. If one is in the military, one is 
opt to learn a marketable skill, plus hove the opportuni- 
ty of knowing the world. Then again, there ore many 
other post-educational institutions, such os ITT. that Block 
students are opting for insteod of four-year universities. 
These technical institutions will give to them the skills thot 
are very marketable and thus put them into an arena 
in which they con survive and make good money. The 
other circumstance affecting Block student enrollment is 
the decreose in financial aid. 

Many individuals give all sorts of weird reasons why 
it has decreased. One such example is the notion that 
Black students are dropping out at an alarming rote. I 
think that's begging the question. It's really because they 
don't wont to put the time, effort, energy and resources 
that it would require to keep Black students in school. 
The amount of minority students in high schools is actually 
increasing. If colleges and universities are honest obout 
this, these students could fill the gaps in the decreasing 
minority enrollments. 

Drum: You're working for the Challenge program . . . 

Jones: Yes, Chollenge is a port of our overall enrollment pro- 
grom. It's the kind of activity that you hove to do if you're 
interested in increasing the enrollment of minorities. Many 
students are not getting the oppropriote advice ond 
counsel in high schools. Mony students ore not getting 
the oppropriote advice and counsel in junior high schools. 
If you ore interested in arresting the problem of advis- 
ing, you hove to start in junior high. The Challenge pro- 
gram addresses this problem oVid tries to motivate 
students at this level and guarantees them entrance in- 
to the University and scholarships. It is part of the overall 
marketing enrollment plan of minority students. 

Drum: Does Challenge only recruit students from urban schools? 

Jones: Yes, now only for the urban schools. However, if we get 
enough resources, we will expand into the suburbs. We 
have visions of making it a state-wide program. Not on- 
ly will it help to prepare students, but it will Increase the 
visibility of the University and moke people more con- 
vinced of the commitment that the University has, relotive 
to recruiting minorities. 

Drum: Is the Chollenge program related only to the Univ. of 

Jones: Only, in terms of guaranteeing student admissions. Mony 
of the students opt for other universities once they 
graduate because many other institutions award more 
lucrative scholarships. That's the key. 

Drum: Could you please comment on the Hurst Report, regard- 
ing the recent racial incident at U. Mass.? 

Jones: The Hurst Report mentions some serious problems which 
are not new. There ore many studies prior to the Hurst 
Report which hove looked ot some of the problems 
which predominantly White institutions foce, for exam- 
ple, hiring Block faculty, promoting Block faculty and stoff, 
and problems of insensitivity as It relates to minority in- 
dividuals. I don't think U. Mass. is less sofe than any other 
predominantly White institution. The problems need to 

be resolved. The problems need to be discussed ond 
should not be shoved under the table and that is what 
has been happening. So with the Hurst Report, hopeful- 
ly, the administration will move to address them. Let me 
odd one thing. The Hurst Report looked at the White in- 
stitution OS it relates to Blacks. One of the problems of 
retention, as It relates to Black students, is the lack of 
involvement on the part of Black faculty to mentor Black 
students. I think if Black faculty got more involved In the 
mentoring process, the retention rate of Black students 
would increase and the "less safe" environment would 
be remediated. The problem lies in how the University 
relates to Black students. Many individuals, because of 
their racism, do not know how to deal with Block folks. 
Theyjust think that Black students don't belong here; and 
that this is South Africo and this is a White community and 
Block students should move to the Bontustans. Amherst 
becomes on alien environment. 

Drum: Commissioner Hurst discussed the relotionship between 
counselors and students at CCEBMS as being too high. 
What is your thought on this? 

Jones: Well, that might be the case. A cose con certoinly be 
mode thot CCEBMS is not the primary organ for retaining 
Block students. CCEBMS does not teoch courses. The seg- 
ment of the University that teaches courses is the seg- 
ment that is responsible for retaining Block students. 
CCEBMS has o role to ploy but the weight of retaining 
Block students should not be put on CCEBMS' shoulders. 
CCEBMS is here to provide ocodemic odvice, counseling, 
tutoring, etc., but not teaching. If one does not teach 
courses, one's ability to retoin is diminished. If CCEBMS 
hod offered courses they would hove more of on impact 
in motivoting students. For example, if you ore in o 
chemistry classroom and someone is looking at you as 
if you don't belong, this may destroy your motivotion. 
Prior to 1970, most Black students graduoted from 
predominontly Black schools. Since 1970, this has re- 
versed, with most Blacks groduoting from predominant- 
ly White institutions. One important fact worth noting is 
thot most Block scientists ond technicians graduate from 
predominantly Block institutions. This tells one o lot about 
Black students on predominantly White campuses. 

Drum: Several students on campus, both Black and White, cloim 
the Hurst Report was blown out of proportion and further- 
more, it will discourage other minority students from op- 
plying. Could you please comment on this? 

Jones: 77ie Hurst Report will not damage the University. The 
University damages itself. Hurst has nothing to do with 
racism at U. Moss. All Hurst did was document the racism. 
Why would this hurt the University? It's not the Hurst 
Report. It's the University's action that may cause 

Drum: Do you believe the cuts mode by the Reogon odministro- 
tion in financial aid will result in still fewer Blacks apply- 
ing to post-high school institutions? 

Jones: The formula for allocoting finonciol aid has to .change. 
This increased debt for minority students is ridiculous. A 
minority student from a poor family, becouse of Reagan's 
cuts, will groduote with over $8,000 in debts. The en- 
tire loan burden caused by the cuts hos to be eliminated. 
A countr/ thot spends billions on a York Tank that doesn't 
even work ought to provide free financial old to the in- 
digent population. 

Drum: Thank you, Mr. Jones for your time and expertise. 


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"The problem of the twentieth cen 
tury is the problem of the color-line, 
— the relation of the darker to the 
lighter races of men in Asia and 
Africa, in America and the islands of 
the sea." 

W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk 

Let him speak who has seen with his eyes. (Zaire) 

I do not for a moment doubt that my Negro descent 
and narrow group culture hove in many coses predisposed 
me to interpret my facts too favorably for my race; but 
there is little danger of long misleading here, for the 
champions of white folk ore legion. The Negro has long 
been the clown of history; the football of anthropology; 
and the slave of industry. I am trying to show here why 
these attitudes con no longer be maintained. I realize 
that the truth of history lies not in the mouth of partisans 
but rather in the calm Science that sits between. Her cause 
I seek to serve, and wherever I foil, I am at least paying 
Truth the respect of earnest effort. ^ 

Atlanta University, May, 1939 

Block Folk Then ond Now, 1939 p. ix 

Catholic Bishops' Report and Poverty 

by James Martin 

"Poverty is not on isoloted problem ex- 
isting solely among o small number of 
anonymous people" — Catholic Bishops' 
report — Economic Justice for All, 1986. 

Certainly not. And I don't wont to blonne 
the media but there is o general attitude 
that they hove fallen prey to. Television 
focuses on the rich; Dynasty, Dallas, The 
Colby's, Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, 
even The Cosby Show. Escapist entertain- 
ment. That's all fine and good, but . . . they 
point a picture. A Norman Rockwell vision 
of Americo — kids playing baseball and 
elderly couples at the pork enjoying a free 
concert in their lawn choirs. "Anyone con 
be president," they soy. "Why, look at me. 
Wosn't o nobody, but I worked hard oil my 
life to get where I om ond I con honestly 
soy that I'm pretty comfortable. 

"Yes, it's a wonderful world when 
anybody con pull themselves up by their 
bootstraps and become a success. I surely 
do believe in the Americon Dream." But 
it's not thot easy. There ore 33 million peo- 
ple in America living below the poverty 
level and hundreds of millions more 

And this whole business about success 
is just port of the fallacy that is called the 
American Dreom. If you don't succeed then 
you ore on outcast. "Didn't moke nothing 
of himself 'cause he didn't work hard 
enough," they'll soy. And after that . . . 
they don't exist. 

It would be easy for me to sit here, suck 
on imported beer, and just turn my head 
and complain about those 'weasels' tak- 
ing my money so they can live on welfare 
indefinitely. But I can't turn my head. Star- 
vation. Poverty. An ugly aberration of the 
dream. And others are forced to gaze on 
the sight. And they ore repulsed, including 
the leaders of the Cotholic church. 

"As pastors we hove seen first-hand the 
faces of poverty in our midst. Homeless 
people room city streets in tattered 
clothing and sleep in doorways or on sub- 
way grates at night . . . Thousands stand 
in line at soup kitchens because they hove 
no other way of feeding themselves. 
Millions of children ore so poorly nourished 
that their physicol and mentol develop- 
ment ore seriously harmed." 

That is why they released a report; 
Economic Justice for All . Millions of people 
worldwide follow the teachings of the 
Catholic church. This is o chonce to force 
their eyes on the ugly spectacle of pover- 
ty. And, while it is a religious report rooted 
in Catholic doctrine, it treats the subject of 
poverty worldwide with on equal amount 
of modern, secular wisdom. A report writ- 
ten in the U.S. for Americans, it also focuses 
on the horrid suffering worldwide. 

"Unless conscious steps ore token toward 
protecting human dignity ond fostering 

humon solidoriry in (Third World) relation- 
ships, we can look forward to increased 
conflict and inequity, threatening the 
fragile economies of these relatively poor 
nations for more than our own relatively 
strong one." 

Yes. The world is in a shambles when 
people can't even eat ond, occording to 
the bishops, the problem is this: bosic 

"Basic justice demands the establish- 
ment of minimum levels of participation on 
the life of the human community for all per- 
sons. The ultimate injustice is for a person 
or group to be octively treated or passive- 
ly abandoned os if they were non- 
members of the human race. To treat peo- 
ple this way is effectively to soy that they 
simply do not count as human beings. 

"Basic justice also demonds that people 
be assured o minimum level of participa- 
tion in the economy. It is wrong for o per- 
son or group to be unfairly excluded or 
unable to participate or not contribute to 
the economy. For example, people who 
ore both able and willing to work, but can- 
not get Q job, are deprived of the par- 
ticipation that is so vital to human develop- 
ment. For it is through employment that 
most individuals and families meet their 
material needs, exercise their talents and 
hove on opportunity to contribute to the 
larger community." 

A popular notion in America is that the 
welfare rolls ore loaded with "money- 
grubbing" schemers out to slime a few 
more dollars out of the "hard-working 
American's" pocket. This is just o mass 
defense mechanism against the guilt 
created by the knowledge that many 
Americans hove too much money ond 
many hove much too little. 

"The great wealth of the United States 
con eosily blind us to the poverty that ex- 
ists in this nation and the destitution of hun- 
dreds of millions of people in other ports 
of the world." 

These ore sobering words for the 
overage Joe sitting in front of the tube curs- 
ing the ods for organizations designed to 
help the poor and starving people in the 
world. He thinks they ore on isolated lot 
that need about as much help as any other 
offlicted group. Little does he know that 
poverty surrounds him on oil fronts, 
America, Europe and the Third World. 

"About one in ever/ seven people in our 
nation ore poor by the government's of- 
ficial definition. Of particular concern is the 
fact that poverty hos increased dromoticol- 
ly during the lost decode. Since 1973 the 
poverty rote has increased by nearly a 
third. One in every four American children 
under the age of 6, ond one in every two 
Block children under 6, ore poor. 

"There are now more poor children in the 

United States than at ony time since 1 965. 
The problem is particularly severe among 
female-headed families, where more than 
half of oil children are poor. Two-thirds of 
Black children and nearly three-quarters of 
Hispanic children in such families ore poor. 
Among minority families headed by 
women the poverty rote is over 50 

"The rotes of poverty in our notion ore 
highest omong those who hove borne the 
brunt of racial prejudice and discrimination. 
Blocks ore about three times more likely 
to be poor than Whites . . . one of every 
three Blocks ond Native Americans and 
more than one of every four Hisponics ore 

I think we get the idea. Everything is not 
rosy in America ... or the world. These ore 
the poor. People living off trash, handouts 
ond whatever else they con get their 
hands on. A struggle next door and thou- 
sands of miles away. But we ore oil 
humons. Humons, And it doesn't matter 
how for away one may be. Humanity is 
one breed. We must look after each other. 
The bishops soy thot it is not enough for the 
poor people to be given on opportunity 
to achieve the minimum level of human 
existonce. It is the duty of onyone that con 
help to do so, especially America. 

"This is a duty of the whole of society and 
it creates porticulor obligations for those 
with greater resources. This duty colls into 
question extreme inequalities of income 
and consumption when so many lock basic 

Including certain rights. "First among 
these ore the rights to life, food, clothing, 
shelter, rest, medicol core and education. 
These ore indispensable to the protection 
of human dignity." 

Great. And who wouldn't agree with 
that? It's o simple stotement. However 
often the simple things in life get over- 
looked. But the basics need to be stressed. 
Like ony sports team practicing. The first 
twenty minutes will invariably be devoted 
to the fundamentals, the basic ospects of 
the gome that must continuolly be stressed 
in order to maintain that sharpness that 
allows advancement. 

And how do we fulfill our duty? The 
bishops soy that we could start by spend- 
ing o lot less money on o defense budget 
designing things to erase the species, and 
use that money to help preserve the 
species insteod. Schools need to be re- 
structured. "They often serve the privileged 
exceedingly well, while the children of the 
poor ore effectively abandoned as second- 
class citizens." And employment must be 

"All work has o three-fold moral 
significonce. First, it is a principol way that 
people exercise the distinctive humon 


capacity for self-expression and self- 
realization. Second, it is the ordinary way 
for human beings to fulfill their moteriol 
needs. Finally, work enables people to 
contribute to the well-being of the larger 
connmunity. The acceptance of present 
unemployment rotes would hove been un- 
thinkable twenty years ago. It should be 
regorded as intolerable today." 

American solutions for Americon prob- 
lems. But the problem is global: "We ore 
dismayed that the United States, once the 
pioneer in foreign aid, is olmost lost among 
the seventeen industrialized notions in the 
Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development (OCED) in percentage 
of the Gross Notional devoted to old." 

Indeed. What else can the U.S. do? "A 
world with nearly half a billion (reod; 500 
million) hungry people is not one in which 
food security has been achieved. The 
development of U.S. agriculture has 
moved the United States into a dominont 
position in the international food system. 
The best way to meet the responsibilities 
this dominance entails is to design and im- 
plement U.S. food and agriculture policy 
that contributes to increased food securi- 
ty, that is, access by everyone to an ade- 
quate diet . , . The chronic hunger of those 
who live literally from day to day is one 
symptom of the underlying problem of 
poverty, relieving and preventing hunger 
is port of a lorger coordinated strategy to 
attack poverty itself. People must be 
enabled either to grow or to buy the food 
they need without depending on an in- 
definite dole; there is no substitute for long- 
term agricultural and food system develop- 
ment in the nations now caught in the grip 
of hunger and stopyotion." 

But, "the United States cannot be the 
sole saviour of the developing world, nor 
ore Third World countries entirely innocent 
with respect to their own failure or totally 
helpless to achieve their own destinies . . . 
Progress toward development will surely 
require them to take some tough remedial 
measures os well . . . The peivosive U.S. 
presence in many ports of our inter-de- 
pendent world, however, also creates a 
responsibility for us to increase the use of 
U.S. economic power — not just aid — in 
the service of human dignity and human 
rights, both political and economic." 

Something which becomes increasingly 
obvious in the report is that we ore o na- 
tion of apathetic, spoiled humans con- 
stontly striving for more. The focus of atten- 
tion is so narrow that we cannot see the 
suffering. We ore on a path to what Pope 
Paul VI called "the most evident form of 
morol underdevelopment," — namely 

"For over 200 years the United States has 
been engaged in o bold experiment in 

democracy. Those who live in this land to- 
day ore the beneficiaries of this great ven- 
ture. Justice for oil remains on aspiration; 
o fair shore in the general welfare is denied 
to many. 

"If our country is to guide its international 
economic relationships by policies that 
serve human dignity and justice, we must 
expend our understanding of the moral 
responsibility of citizens to serve the com- 
mon good of the entire planet. Coopera- 
tion is not limited to the local, regional or 
notional level. The cause of democracy is 
closely tied to the cause of economic 

Well said. I hope the followers of the 
Catholic faith will begin to live up to this 
challenge. The challenge to realize that 
poverty is nothing to be ashamed of and 
that it's our responsibility to help, and that 

the fontosy-lond of television is exactly that 
— a fontasy-lond. But because of the 
secular reasoning in the report I also hope 
that people not of the Catholic faith begin 
to live up to the challenge. 

"We call for a new national commitment 
to full employment. We soy it is a social 
and morol scandal that one of every seven 
Americans is poor, and v/e call far con- 
certed efforts to eradicate poverty. Thie 
fulfillment of the basic needs of the poor 
is of the highest priority. We urge that all 
economic policies be evaluated in light of 
their impact on the life stability of the fami- 
ly. We support measures to halt the loss of 
family farms and to resist the growing con- 
centration in the ownership of agricultural 
resources . . . the U.S. con do far more to 
relieve the plight of poor nations and assist 
in their development. " 

Rain through Sunlight 




Roque Dolton 


Malcolm X 

Drutolizing profit, cindery as burnt cane: 
the look of the bitter, brittle end of empire, 
gosping for lost breath, gasping failure. 

Grasp the necks of their island-mainland homes, 
send in the killer marines and their machines: 
brute profit shunts the bulk of its panic that way. 

Technical hearts and tightly-wired lives: 
all that empire leaves of itself behind, 
after the long, slow, spiky run on our spines. 

But we hove pulled the alien stitching loose. 
We stand and stretch up to our dreams. 
We wish for rain and it pours through sunlight. 

— by Andrew Solky 


JACKSON cont'd from page 22 

for granted in civil rights ore storting to regress. Sonne 
of tine things that hoppened in the 1 960's we will see 
In the 1 980's. Some hove said "Ever/thing thot occurs, 
will occur again in twenty years" and I think that's true. 
Given the World Series and all the enthusiasm that 
comes with it was occeptoble, but the most unfor- 
tunate thing about that was it became a Blodi/White 
issue, and the amount of animosity and hostility that 
went into that. I think people should hove a right to 
present opposing viewpoints on issues as long as it 
doesn't impinge on the civil liberties of another per- 
son. I think there needs to be more education done 
on racial Issues. This con be done in terms of new stu- 

dent orientation, and letting students know that 
physical, emotional, or other types of horrassment, 
whether they be racial, sexual, or cultural, will not be 
tolerated on this campus. Anyone who seeks to in- 
fringe on the dvil rights of another human being should 
not be continued as o member of this university. This 
needs to be said loud and clear. Educators soy the 
university is a mirror of the outside society. I take that 
one step further. I think the university has to be better 
than the outside society, because the progress that is 
being mode on campuses will be duplicated in the out- 
side society. 


One camel does not moke fun of the other corners hump. (Guinea) 





Mutual affection gives each his shore. (Ivory Coast) 

Talking with one another is loving one another. (Kenya) 

It is only the vy^oter that is split; the calabash is not 
broken. (Mauritania) 

When a woman is hungry, she soys, "Roost something for the 
children that they may eat." (Ashonti) 

Children ore the reward of life. (Zaire) 


If you con walk, you con dance. If you con talk, you can 
sing. (Zimbabwe) 



■V'.; r-'-.^- '■.'-■-, ■.'., ■■ 

Boomerang; A Blatantly Political Poem 

eye use to write poems about burning 

down tine motinerfucking country for crazy 

horse, geronimo & molcoim 

X use too write about stabbing white folks 

in their air conditioned eyeballs 

with ice picks, cracking their balls 

with sledgehammer blows 

now poems leap from the snake tip of my tongue 

bluesing language twisted tighter than braided hope 

hanging like a limp, noosed rope down the bock 

of some coal miner's squaw 

her polluted brown cotfish river eyes 

swollen shut with taboos, she thought she heard 

the sun in o voice that looked like bessie smith's 

severed arm on that mississippi bock 

rood, screaming like o dead man's son 

forced too wotch his old man eat his own pleading 

heart, thumping for his lost supper & sometimes 

& wonder if it's worth the bother 

of it all, these poems holding 

language percolating with rage underneath 

a gentle metaphor of a spring day 

on the verge of tornado 

soft OS balm before the tearing 

storm hits quicker than the flick 

of a bot's wing nicking the eye 

eye use to write poems about killing 

fools like ronold reagon, who grins off 

30 million dollars sucked down the block hole 

of cio's space, while cosey tokes a lobotomy slosh 

for "the gipper," dumb motherfuckers 

everywhere tying bombs to their tongues 

lighting fuses of staged events that try to lie 

of peace, the presidential "gipper," a metaphor 

of all thot's wrong with the brouhaha 

mouthpieces in omerica now 

on wall street, in frying speeches 

cannibalizing the airwaves from slimy churches 

building up their bonk accounts on bones ^^ 

of jesus Christ & it is a metaphor boomeronging 

arching, curving bock with medusa meese 

heads nicked off & bleeding 

shit of cowboys sluicing through space 

6- silence is the word that leads bock ^^ 

too gore & vampire "freedom fighters" ^^ 

childrens arms dangling from their mouths .. 

wearing tiny skulls for eyes 

eye use to write poems about burning 

down the motherfucking country for crazy horse 

geronimo & molcoim king 

X marks the spot where we signed fil^BHI 

away our lives for a sock of cotton full of woe 

or a record book contract on somebody dead 

now eye sit here writing poems about the calm 

soft beauty welling in my son's holy innocence 

thinking of the time when this rage will strike him 

knowing all the while it will come much to soon 

& nothing, nothing, will hove been undone ^^— -_ 

Quincy Troupe 


Poem For My Father; 
for Quincy Troupe Sr. 

father, it was on honor to be there, in the dugout 

with you, the glory of great black men swinging their lives 

05 bats at tiny white rocketing bolls 

burning in at unbelievable speeds, riding up & in & out 

o curve falling off the table, moving owoy screwing its stitched 

magic into chittlin circuit oir, its comma seams spinning 

towards breok down, dipping, like o hipster 

bebopping a knee-dip stride in the charlie porker forties 

wrist curling behind a "slick" block back 

like a swans neck, cupping 

an invisible boll of dreams — 

father, & you there like an ofricon obeoh man sculpted 

out of wood, from o tree of no name no place origin 

thick roots branching down into cherokee & someplace else lost 

way bock in ofrico, the sop running dry 

crossing from north Carolina into georgio in grandmother mory's womb 

your mother in the violence of that red soil, ink blotter 

gone now into the blood grove of omericon blues sponging 

rococo truth dead & long gone as dinosaurs 

the ogent-oronged landscape of former names 

absent of polysyllables, dry husk consononts there 

now, in their place, flat as polluted rivers 

6 that guitar string smile snaking across some virulent 
omericon red neck's face, scorching, like atomic 
heat mushrooming over nogosoki & hiroshimo 
those fever blistered shadows of it all 

inked into sizzling concrete 

but you there father, a yordbird solo riffin on 
bat & boll glory, breaking down the fabricated myths 
of white major league legends, of who was better 
than who, beating them in their own crop 

gome, with killer bats as bud powell swung his silence into beauty 
of Q josh gibson home run skittering across the piano keys 
of the bleachers, shattering oil legends up in the lights 
stereo-types running the risky edge of amazement 
awe, the miraculous truth sluicing through 
steeped in the blues, confluencing, like the point 
at the cross between o fastball disguised as o curve 
sliding owoy in o wicked sly grin posed as on oss scratching 
uncle torn, like satchel poige delivering his hesitation 
pitch, then coming back with a hard high fast one 
seen as on aspirin & quicker than o professional hit- 
man, the deodliness of it oil, the strike 
like that of the brown bomber's, or sugar 
ray robinson's lightning, cobra strike 

& you there father, catching rhythms of chono pozo 
bolls, drumming into your catcher's mitt 
fast OS "cool papa ' bell jumping into bed 
before the lights went out 

of the old negro baseball league, o promise 
Q harbinger of shock waves, soon to come 

Quincy Troupe 

Kill Ull iZt^^^C^^£^y^K<^ mm III! 



2 3 

o C 

•=.' D 


O C ii 



If you ore building a house and o noil breaks, do you stop 
building, or do you change the noil? (Kwdnda Burundi) 

. •<. i f 

,^ )'~. 


"The white race is the cancer of human history; it is the white 
race and it alone — its ideologies and inventions — which 
eradicates autonomous civilizations wherever it spreads,, 
which has upset the ecologlcol balance of the planet, which 
now threatens the very existence of life itself." 

Susan Sontog in N.Y. Times Book Review 

August 27, 1967 

Robert Mugabe: 
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe 

transcribed by Debro Mitchell 

The following piece is a transcript of o speech given by Prime Minister Robert Mugabe at the University of Massochusetts/Amherst 
on October 1 , 1986. Mugabe is the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia, and was awarded on honorary Doctor 
of Lows degree by the University. The speech is from that occasion. 

Mr. Chancellor Joseph Duffey, the president of the university; 
distinguished regents and members of the board of trustees; 
members of the faculty and staff; distinguished guests; students; 
ladies and gentlemen. I feel overwhelmed, exceedingly over- 
whelmed by this great gesture, the honor you hove conferred 
on me todoy. 

Honors are of various kinds and they may hove various ef- 
fects on their recipients. This porticulor one has gone not only 
to my head, but more than that, to the deepest chambers of 
my heart. May I take this opportunity, before I go into the little 
ideas I wont to put across, to express to you the profundity of 
my gratitude and the graditude of the people of Zimbabwe 
for this great honor you hove done them through me. I assure 
you that the gesture has marked on my heart on indelible mark 
of friendship and solidarity with the University of Massachusetts. 
That friendship will lost forever. Thank you. 

Mr. Chancellor; lodies and gentlemen, your invitation to me 
to join you on this great day, and your decision to confer upon 
me an honorar/ doctor of lows, constitute on eloquent testimony 
of the desire of both this great University and this famed 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts to extend o worm hand of 
friendship ocross the seas to the people of Zimbabwe and in- 
deed of Southern Africo as a whole. Today you're not only honor- 
ing Robert Mugabe, on honor I accept with deep humility, you're 
also, if I may be permitted to hove recourse to your expressive 
vernacular, sending a powerful signal to all ports of the world. 
Sending o powerful signal to our port of the world and its various 
peoples thot you associote yourselves with, those of us who've 
troubled to create a better life for all those whom a cruel history 
had relegated to inferior positions and circumstances in society. 

I must tell you at the outset how proud I am to be associated 
in this rather more than symbolic manner with your great Univer- 
sity. This is indeed a unique institution of higher leorning even 
in this vast continental republic and its many colleges and univer- 
sities. Not only does this University, as I have learned, cater to 
the needs for the students drown statewide, nationally and 
world wide in o multiplicity of vital disciplines, it has also pro- 
vided a forum for the articulation and exploration of progressive 
currents of thought directed to the improvement of the lot of 
the oppressed, the downtrodden and the socially marginalized. 
It is thus not surprising that the library of the University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst was found to be a most fitting 
repository for the collected papers of the late progressive and 
world famous Afro-American scholar Dr. Du Bois. It is also very 
fitting that you hove here a thriving department of Afro- 
American studies whose multi-disciplinor/ investigation and ex- 
position of the African and Afro-American experience constitute 
vital aspects of the University's mission and ochievements. Dr. 
Du Bois was both a scholar ond a fighter for justice. He taught 
that the essence of all phenomena, including social problems, 
could only be discovered through research and things token in 
study. Through numerous such studies and publicotions he ex- 
posed the nature and roots of slavery, colonialism ond rocism 
among other historical ond sociological phenomeno. But he was 

not content to do this. He also felt compelled to organize, od- 
vocote and ogitote and yes, fight and fight tirelessly together 
with, and even because of, the oppressed. In him, theory and 
practice, scholarship and social activism, sociological analysis, 
and political struggle ore reodily combined. 

Mr. Chancellor, and distinguished members of the Amherst 
academic community, we live in on era of vast problems — 
which coll, not only for responsible and sustained scholorship 
but olso, for the kind of principled political activism that should 
yield relevant solutions to such problems. 

Today we in Southern Africa, and I dare soy all of us who value 
the freedom ond dignity of man, face o major task: namely that 
of ossisting to dislodge the hoteful system of opartheld. The 


system of apartheid now practiced with such vicious cruelty by 
the White minority regime in South Africo. Apartheid whose hor- 
rors and crimes I'm sure you're all very familiar with, seeks to 
preserve an edifice of minority rule and minority privileges 
through the exploitation end barbaric subjugation of the vast 
masses of the people of South Africa. To preserve its hated rule 
and to sustain the minorities privileged status and lopsided en- 
joyment of the wealth of the countr/, the apartheid regime has 
not hesitated to kill hundreds of Black South Africans in cold 
blood. To retain its illegal colonial grip over Namibia and to in- 
vade oil its neighbors either directly or through proxies or both. 
This is a regime which should not be treated as a normal 
member of the international community. This is a regime, which 
precisely because it flouts all norms of decency ond civilized 
conduct in its treatment of population it misgoverns and in its 
relotions with its neighbors, should long ago hove attracted both 
the opproprium and active opposition of oil mankind, you can- 
not engage constructively in it with it at oil. And of course, if 
constructive engagement is to yield any result, then it must set 
out to destroy that which is inhuman. When the students of this 
University saw that their library was invaded by on enemy of 
humanity — filth and dirt, yes, collectively they decided to under- 
take constructive engagement. Constructive engagement 
transformed the appearance, the environment of the library and 
it meant scrubbing and removing dirt. So let constructive 
engagement do a scrubbing process as well. There ore those 
who believe apparently that apartheid con be killed by friend- 
ly persuasion and gentle kindliness. We do not agree in Southern 
Africa, and in a progressive world. We do not agree for the sim- 
ple reason that persuasion and kindness, whether on the port 
of outsiders or on the part of the African majority, have after 
many decades failed to achieve the desired results in South 
Africa. The lesson that on oppressive and estranged leader does 
not succumb to mere pleas ond entreaties is not o twentieth 
century discovery. Just over 200 years ago Crispus Attucks, the 
escaped former slave, and Black and White revolutionor/ com- 
rades who were caught up in the historic Boston Mossocre in 
1 770, set an early example by directly confronting British power 
and authority rather than begging for the mere improvement 
of conditions. And the stop/ was the some with those other brave 
sons and daughters of Massachusetts, this is the historic cradle 
of American independence, from the Boston Tea Party until your 
peoples' final victory at Yorktown in 178'!. These men and 
women like many, many others, before and since, shared the 
view expressed so eloquently by Frederick Douglass, that great 
nineteenth-century Afro-American abolitionist when he sold, and 
here I quote from Lerone Bennett Jr's Before The Mayflower: A 
History Of DIack America, "If there is no struggle, there is no pro- 
gress. Those who profess to favor freedom and yet depricate 
agitation, ore men who wont crops without plowing out the 
grout. They wont roin without thunder and lightning. They want 
the ocean without the ov^ul roar of its many waters. This strug- 
gle may be a morol one or o physical one and it may be both 
moral and physical but it must be o struggle. Power concedes 
nothing without o demand, it never did and it never will. Men 
may not get all they pay for in this world, but they must cer- 
tainly pay for oil they get." 

In respect of South Africa we ore not calling for foreign armies 
of invasion. We hove only called for the imposition of economic 
and other sanctions, so that democracy is achieved in that 
unhappy land. We believe all mankind has a duty and on in- 
terest in such a democratic evolution in both South Africa and 
Namibia. As Dr. Du Bois put in his book Thie World and Africa, 
and here I quote again: "Democracy is not o privilege, it is op- 
portunity just OS for OS any port of o notion or of the world is 
excluded from a shore in democratic power and self expres- 
sion, just so for as the world will always be in danger of war 
and collapse. If this nation, the United States nation that is, could 
not exist half-slaved and half-free then the world in which this 
nation ploys o larger and larger port also cannot be half-slaved 
and half-free, but must recognize world democracy." 

It is gratifying that this university alongside other similar in- 
stitutions and certain State governments in this country has token 
steps to dis-invest in South Africa. This gesture of friendship and 
solidarity is highly appreciated by the people of Southern Africa. 
I believe that your laudable initiative should be strengthened 
and followed up with further support for the people of South 
Africa in all forms. Moral, material, financial, and political, so 
that they may know that they are not alone in the fight against 
apartheid. In doing so you should be war/ of the incidious pro- 
paganda from Pretoria aimed at creating the illusion that mean- 
ingful change is taking place when this is not the case. The only 
genuine agents are the oppressed masses under the leader- 
ship of their liberation movements. Pretoria's propaganda must 
not distract you from supporting the struggle against apartheid 
until the masses in that country are free to participate fully in 
determining their own future in a free democratic, united and 
non-rociol society. May I take this opportunity to assure our good 
friend Ms. Mandela thot Zimbabwe will never, never, never give 

The struggle against apartheid, it is our struggle. The strug- 
gle of Africa, and we being a neighboring territory to South 
Africa, must ensure thot the environment in which we live is con- 
ducive to Q smooth sleep. We don't hove that peaceful sleep 
because apartheid is in the hobit of crushing the border, invading 
us and destroying our instollotions in the country, but more than 
that it's on African struggle, still more it's o struggle for humani- 
ty as any struggle for human rights. Because it's a universal strug- 
gle, and enjoins all progressive communities in the international 
order. To join forces with the people of South Africa in fighting 
the evil system until that evil system is overthrown. 

I thank you Mr. Chancellor ond others who also spoke, poy- 
ing tribute to me in person and to the people of Zimbabwe 
in general. When we fought our struggle, yes we used violent 
means because the enemy was using violent means. There was 
no other way whereby we could overthrow the enemy, but as 
we said during the war we were using the gun in order to create 
peace and once the objective of peace hod been created, hod 
been attained, then we appealed, to our people to turn their 
swords into plowshares. 

And so we hove sold to all our esquired enemies including 
Ion Smith, you're free to live in the country provided you 
recognize the tenets of the new political order. Let us be one. 
What were our differences yesterday hove now been settled 
by the fact, by the reality, of independence. That reality has 
turned those who were enemies and those who were ollies in- 
to a notion. We could not ovoid each other anymore. I say it 
in March 1980, and because we could not avoid each other 
we hod to work together, and in order to work together we 
hod to be reconciled to each other. And so that is the policy 
we hove tried to pursue but, obviously, we hove hod our own 
set of problems, our own shore of difficulties. The persuasion 
and the course of action has always been to create o society 
in which all, whatever the color of their skin, whatever their 
religion, whatever their ethnic offinioties and whatever their 
political affiliations, con soy Zimbabwe is my home, your home 
and the home of all of us. That is the togetherness we ore work- 
ing for and that is the togetherness we will wont to see the peo- 
ple of South Africa create. But before that is ochieved we hove 
to help those who ore struggling against the force of apartheid 
to win the struggle, and once again I applaud you for what you 
ore doing in your own small way as Massachusetts' commitment 
to assist the people of South Africa. 

Let me end, Mr. Chancellor, by saying once again thanks to 
you, thanks to the regents, to the trustees, faculty, students, 
the State of Massachusetts for this great honor which you hove 
bestowed on me and my country. I bring you the fervent 
greetings of the Zimbabwion people upon whom as I said 
earlier, through me you have decided to confer this great honor 
today. I shall cherish it for oil time and the people of Zimbabwe 
shall always cherish it as a bond of friendship and solidarity be- 
tween you and them. Thank You. Totenda Si abolo. 





Written 6 Photographed 
By Dovid Mohmoud 

When spider webs unite they con tie up q lion. (Ethiopia) 


On October 27, 1986 o tragic event 
shook the entire campus of the University 
of Massachusetts at Amherst. Yancey 
Robinson (pictured below) v^/as involved in 
a brutal beating, during v^hich he received 
Q substantial omount of damage to his 
neck, ribs, and knee. 

The incident occurred minutes after the 
final gome of the Boston Red Sox-New 
York Mets World Series. Through eyewitness 
occounts, this misfortunote incident oc- 
curred as follows: 

It was in the Southwest Residential Area 
where hundreds of people gathered at a 
well-known hangout called the "pyra- 
mids." One could sense the animosity 
beginning to rise between the two groups; 
Mets fans cheering in delight of their vic- 
tory and Red Sox fons showing their 
displeasure by destroying property and 
causing on uproar. A fight broke out 
between o group of Red Sox fans and a 

minority group, (consisting of Mets fans). It 
was said by on eyewitness that o Red Sox 
fan went up to one of the minorities and 
osked him, "Are you a Mets fan or a Red 
Sox fan?" The reply was "Mets." That mo- 
ment the Block man was struck in the face 
and the fighting began; Whites against 
Blacks. It was said, soon there were too 
many Whites, and the minority group fled. 
Sometime later (10-15 minutes) Yancey 
Robinson, was coming bock from his study 
session, and hod seen a smashed window 
at Crompton (on all women's dorm in the 
Southwest area). Inquisitive os to whot 
was going on, Yancey proceeded toward 
the crowd to investigate. Upon reaching 
the crowd he picked up o golf club that 
hod been apparently disgorded by some- 
one. While looking at the smashed win- 
dow he was approached by a police of- 
ficer. Obviously it looked as though he hod 
done the damage. Yancey's first instinct, 
when the police officer grabbed him was 
to run, it was then when he was spotted 
and mistakenly identified as one of the 
members of the minority group. Yancey 
got about 50 yards before he had fallen 
and was overwhelmed by o large White 
group, which proceeded to beat him 
unmercifully. This was being observed by 
police for nearly a minute before action 

was token to save his life. 

A large protest followed uniting Third 
World people as well as Whites. The pic- 
tures attest to the size of the march. This 
morch was very productive in that 
Chancellor Joseph Duffey finally came out 
at the end of the march to talk to the peo- 
ple at the New Africa House (a building 
which houses Third World organizations as 
well OS the Afro-Am. Studies Dept.). Ques- 
tions were asked, but not answered to the 
satisfaction of the people. Duffey soon left, 
leaving many questions unanswered. 
Needless to soy, this wos not oppreciated 
by the people of the Third World communi- 
ty. The message did get across though. For 
the weekend of Holloween there wos not 
one incident in Southwest (to our 
knowledge). This was very surprising, for 
history has shown that Halloween's landing 
on a weekend proves to be one of the 
worst weekends at the University of Massa- 
chusetts, in regards to security matters. 

This was o very unfortunate incident, one 
which hopefully will not occur again. I hope 
that through this article there will be o 
message sent to ever/one, showing that 
times hove not changed. Minorities hove 
to get together and stay together to show 
their strength. Let's end racism and live in 


Profile on Commissioner 
Frederick Hurst. 

Poncho Morris ond Rudoph Miller 

Dr. Frederick Hurst attended undergraduate school at Howard University in Washington D.C., and graduated in 1968, the year 
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. After graduation, he had an offer to wori-i in the trust department of Bridge National 
boni^ in Washington D.C., where he would be able to ottend low school through o program they offered. Instead, he came to 
Springfield, Massachusetts where he worked in a government poverty program and taught for a couple of years. In between his 
busy schedule he was also able to leod o few successful civil rights marches. After attending graduate school at the University of 
Mossachusetts for a few semesters in pursuit of a doctorate in education. Hurst left for Chicago where he worked as on admissions 
director for a small college. After the college folded, due to bankruptcy, he decided to pursue his idea of attending low school. 

Dr. Hurst attended DePouw University Low School and, after he graduated, come bock to Massachusetts and worked as a public 
defender for two years. He was appointed, one year later, to the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination as Commis- 
sioner, by Governor Michael Dukakis. As Commissioner, he is responsible for running the office, as well as carrying out investigations 
into coses involving discrimination charges. Commissioner Hurst was recently reappointed to a second term. 

On October 27, 1 986, after the final gome of the World Series between the Boston Red Sox and the New York Mets, on incident 
involving Block students and White students occurred in the Southwest Residential Area on the University of Massachusetts campus. 
This incident was characterized by some students as o brawl and by others as a racial incident. Several doys after the incident. 
Commissioner Hurst was called in to investigote what occurred on that cold October night. 

Drum: Do you find that most of the coses you handle occcur due 
to racism? 

Hurst: A good number of the coses we handle don't deal with 
racism. Most of the coses we deal with occur due to sex- 
ism, ethnocentrism, hondicoppism and ageism. When 
you said racism, I realized thot I hove to be very careful. 
As I hove said, the cases we deal with involve discrimina- 
tion, which sometimes is a manifestation of rocism, either 
direct or indirect. Indirect racism is usually due to o per- 
son's desire to moke money. For instance, o reoltor will 
not sell Q house to o Block person because the person 
who listed with him/her wonts to sell it to a White per- 
son. The realtor is motivated by money, while the other 
person is motivated by racism. In either cose, it is 

Drum: Do you know the process by which you were chosen to 
become the independent investigator? 

Hurst: I don't know the process by which they selected me. I 
received a call from Chancellor Duffey, with whom I hove 
hod minimal exposure to in the post. He asked me if I 
wos interested and first suggested the possibility of a 
three person panel, and said he would get bock to me. 
He got bock to me ond told me he hod decided to only 
go with me. I told him that I would do it. I don't know 
whot motivated him to coll me, except for the fact that 
he knew I am the Commissioner for the Massachusetts 
Commission Against Discrimination. Therefore, I hove on 
investigative background in the oreo. 

Drum: After you were contacted to become the independent 
investigator, several faculty members voiced their con- 
cern as to whether you would be copoble of being un- 
biased and impartiol in carrying out the investigation. Did 
you hove any knowledge of this? If so, did this affect you 
in ony woy? 

Hurst: No, but I am sensitive enough to know that some peo- 
ple might feel that way. As a Block person, I hove enough 
sense to realize that some White people would feel that 
I would be biased. If I was White, some Block people 
would feel that I would be biased. Therefore, the only 
thing I could rely on was my professionol experience of 
being objective, and so I was not worried about those 

concerns. I wos convinced in the beginning that in the 
final onalysis, what fell out would be so clearly objective 
that any doubts would be dispelled. This is essentiolly 
what happened. I am certain that there are still noy- 
soyers ond doubters, but there will always be. The point 
of the investigation was to come up with on objective 
investigation that's corroborated by facts. Generally, my 
experience has been thot when you tell it like you see 
it, if there's a doubt or two, in general, the reception of 
the end product will be good. 

Drum: You stated in your report that you "were not mode to 
feel like o man on on important mission during the first 
port of your investigation." Could you please elaborate 
on what you meant by that statement? 

Hurst: It's not really fair for you to ask me what I meont by that 
statement. I hove refused to elaborate on this for other 
people who asked me to because I felt it's so important 
that the report speaks for itself. I am going to moke one 
exception and try to give you a sense of whot I meant 
without going into o lot of detail. 

When you walk into an office you know how you are 
being received. You form a gut, spontaneous impression 
on your reception. This is what onybody does. We oil form 
first impressions. You con ask your psychology professors 
this. They will confirm it. It's a gut, spontaneous reaction, 
and then you look for o basis for determining if it's a valid 
reaction or not. My first reaction when I approached the 
office was that there was not a real sense of urgency 
about the incident. I then tested this against what hap- 
pened later — missed and concelled meetings; along 
with periods of time when meetings were not scheduled; 
ond when I hod people who I should hove met with not 
being contacted — I got a generol sense that folks did 
not see my mission as on important one. I did not get 
the feeling that people were deliberately running blocks 
on me becouse I kept my ears open for thot possibility. 
I did not get the feeling that there was a deliberate ef- 
fort to derail the investigation in progress. Not being able 
to draw these conclusions, I simply come to the conclu- 
sion thot folks must not hove seen the investigation as 
on important one. The fact that I did not hove that much 



exposure to the Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs or his 
staff, outside of the one Block assistant, gave me a sense 
thot maybe they didn't feel it was important. The fact 
that the secretaries weren't that responsive whenever I 
walked into the room gave me the feeling that they 
didn't seem to core whether I met my objective or not. 
All this combined for me to draw the simple conclu- 
sion that the folks didn't receive me os o man on on im- 
portant mission. It seems like o simple statement but it 
was due to a number of inputs that I received when I 
was there. I don't know if it's a fair statement, but it's 
the impression I picked up. I could hove soid it in o more 
negotive way, and this is particularly why I hesitated to 
comment on it. I don't want to blame any one person. 

Maybe the secretaries weren't given o sense of the im- 
portance of the mission and maybe the special assistant 
to the Vice Chancellor didn't hove the power to get me 
through to the people that I hod to get through to. I don't 
know. I don't wont to drow improper conclusions or point 
improper fingers, but the sum total of these things let me 
draw the conclusion that I did. From what I could gather, 
they seemed to oil be well meaning people. 

Drum: The Director of Public Safety in the Februory 18 issue of 
the Collegian stated that his "deportment might have 
handled the Southwest Areo brawl better only if there 
hod been o crystal boll to worn the incident was going 
to become violent." Could you please respond to this 

Hurst: He is crazy. It was obsolutely predictable. That is the most 
inexcusable port of the whole incident. It wos absolute- 
ly predictoble ond most probobly preventoble because 
of the incidents thot hod occurred ofter the other gomes, 
and because of the foct that even his own people re- 
quested manpower, which he denied. 

In fact, even if the prior six gomes hod not occurred 
and the extra monpower hod not been requested, 
whenever you get a mixture of people as in the South- 
west Residential Area, and you know that a large, emo- 
tional offoir is going to take ploce, then you know that 
there's a possibility of violence. You hove to increase your 
security if you know that you hove o mixture of Blacks 
and Whites. Where the Blacks were as outnumbered, os 
was the cose, then it's predictable that the violence might 
become racial. This means that not only do you need 
protection in generol, but that you hove to especially 
focus on the protection of the minorities. If he thinks that 
he needed o crystol boll to predict this then maybe you 
need o new director. 

Drum: [Former] Director Gerold O'Neil also stated thot he would 
have been criticized if he hod ordered o massive police 
presence in the oreo. Therefore, he would hove been 
damned if he hod ordered on enormous police presence, 
ond now he is domned because he didn't. What is your 
opinion on this statement? 

Hurst: If one isolates the problem to on issue of more or less 
cops, then one con draw simple conclusions. The issue 
is not one of more or less cops. If the situation hod been 
predicted earlier, then the crowd would hove been 
prevented from rising to the number it rose to, and the 
incident would hove been eclipsed before it happened. 
This process could have been deolt with through the proc- 
ess of both police and civilian authorities, hod they hod 
o gome plan in place. I don't mean o gome plon that 
simply soys increase the police force. There ore many 
other Qpprooches to the motter that could hove been 

For instance, (thot night) there could hove been o 
group of resident directors out in force, identif/ing peo- 
ple they were responsible for, ond making certain thot 
those people know they ore present to identify and 
punish anyone who does foolish things. There could have 
been some very highly ploced people in the odministro- 
tion on campus, odvocoting that rule breakers will be 
swiftly punished. I can't imogine why they weren't on 

Drum: Do you see the incident ot the University of Mossochusetts 
OS on isolated incident or os port of recent, notionwide 
attacks against Blocks. 

Hurst: I see this os one in o string of racial incidents that hove 

been occurring across the country. I do see those incidents 

OS port of Q notional pattern that has resulted from on 

increase of rociol intoleronce. 

I believe this rociol intolerance emanated from the top. 


The top being Ronald Rieogon's policies as they ore be- 
ing interpreted by the people below him. The lower you 
get on the totem pole, the more primitive the interpreta- 
tion becomes. For example, where you have President 
Reogon saying everybody must hove on equal chance 
at jobs and Ed Meese interpreting this to mean Affirmative 
Action is illegal: then you find the guy ot the bottom of 
the pole saying he is unemployed because of "niggers" 
who ore getting on unfair opportunity. This interpretation 
then interprets itself further into a White robe and on at- 
tock. It could also interpret itself as o spontaneous ex- 
pression of racial intolerance like that which occurred at 
the U. Moss, campus, whereby emotions over a gome 
ore real high and therefore having no outlet it suddenly 
interprets itself as racial animosity. 

I do think it's port of o national pattern. I do think we 

also have to be very, very coreful not to let it go unspoken 

about. We must speak out. 
Drum; Is the Southwest racial incident report the most difficult 

report you hove ever written? 
Hurst: I agonized over this report like I have ogonized over none 

before. It's truly the hardest report I hove ever written, 

and I write decisions all the time. 
Drum: We would like to thank you for taking time out from your 

busy schedule to answer our questions. It was truly an 

inspiration to talk with you. 
Hurst: Thank you. I enjoyed tolking with you both. 

Special thanks to Rick Townes. 

On April 2nd, five months after the rocial incident at the University of Massachusetts, Chancellor Joseph Duffy issued a memoran- 
dum outlining 16 steps the University is preporing to implement in response to the incident. Whot follows is o verbatim transcript 
of that assessment as shown to the members of the Faculty Senate. 

1. Criminal Prosecution: Immediatelyafterreceipt of the Hurst 
Report, I asked District Attorney Ryan to conduct a criminal in- 
vestigation of the October 27 incident in the hope that those 
responsible for the violation of others' rights could be brought 
to justice. Through the intensive efforts of the DA's investigotors 
ond our repeoted urging of witnesses to come forward, enough 
evidence was gathered to allow the District Attorney to seek 
criminal complaints against six individuols. When the District At- 
torney's office mokes that evidence available to us, those in- 
dividuols will be subject to the University's disciplinary process. 

2. Security: In keeping with my commitment to take a hard 
and objective look at our possible shortcomings and flaws, we 
retained the services of Saul Chafin, former director of our Public 
Safety division, to conduct o detailed review of our Public Safe- 
ty office. Consistent with that review, significant changes ore 
being mode. The current director has requested and been 
gronted an administrative reassignment to serve as Director of 
Security Planning in the Office of Space Management. Can- 
didates for the vQcont Director of Public Safety position have 
been identified and a search committee will be formed as soon 
OS possible. A new reporting and communication plan that en- 
compasses all relevant areas on campus including Public Safe- 
ty, Health Services and Housing Services, has been developed 
and is now being implemented. 

3. Public Relations: The Office of Public Information has 
developed and implemented a policy for communicating racial 
incidents which is consistent with the recommendations mode 
by Commissioner Hurst. The policy specifies who should speak 
for the press and how racial incidents should be communicated. 

4. Education Programs: Many of our efforts to dote have fo- 
cused on the design and development of programs that will 
heighten the campus community's awareness of racial issues and 
concerns. Within the Student Affoirs division, the Vice Chancellor 
and the Executive Director of Housing ore working to expand 
the already extensive programming in the Residence Halls. In 
Academic Affairs, the Executive Vice Chancellor and the 
Associate Provost have been working closely with the General 
Education Council to find ways of heightening awareness 
through curriculor change. Proposals will be forthcoming for con- 
sideration by the Faculty Senate. The General Education Coun- 
cil of the Faculty Senate is developing a proposol to require every 
freshman to take o course on cultural diversity, and to create 
new courses that are directly relevant to racism in this country. 

On Tuesday, April 21 , we will observe a day of speciol con- 
cern for issues of racial awareness and community. On the after- 
noon of that day, we ore planning o workshop for senior od- 

ministrators which will address the question of institutional 
responsibilities for racial and cultural sensitivity. On the evening 
of that some day (April 21 ) student meetings and discussions 
will be called on each floor of every residence hall to discuss 
these questions. I am pleased to announce, as well, that the 
Reverend Jesse Jackson hos occepted my invitation to speak 
on compus at noon on that day (April 21). Reverend Jackson 
will be the highlight of a day devoted to the exominotion of 
our obligations as o pluralistic community. 

On their own initiative a number of students and student 
organizations hove responded with plans and programs to im- 
prove the campus climate. Through the combined efforts of 
many segments of the campus community, we expect the cur- 
rent level of activity to continue through this semester and 
throughout the next academic year. Our commitment to this 
task is illustrated by our special request to the Legislature for 
S600,000. If this money is allocated it will be used to recruit 
more minority students and to fund new courses on community 
and racial issues. For faculty members who wont to change their 
courses to call greater attention to rociol concerns, the Provost 
has promised release time, technical assistance, resource 
materials and other means of support. 

5. Minority Support Programs: The special request for 
$600,000 olso includes proposals to bolster programs such as 
those offered by the Committee for the Collegiate Education 
of Block and Other Minority Students (CCEDMS) and the Bilingual 
Collegiate Program (BCP). I have met with the Board of Direc- 
tors of CCEBMS and many other groups to discuss woys in which 
our progroms and services con be improved. Former Chancellor 
Bromery is coordinating a review of the administrative and finan- 
cial support for these important progroms. 

6. Student Concerns: The issues raised by Concerned Members 
of the Block/Minority Community and the Third World Caucus 
have been addressed in the lost few months. 

• The criminal investigation has been conducted and the 
results hove been mode public. 

• The Department of Public Safety has received training in 
crowd control and minimum force techniques. 

• The feasibility ond effectiveness of foot patrols and increased 
lighting is under study by our consultant Soul Chafin. In the 
meantime we will experiment with the use of foot patrols 
in the Southwest area over the weekends. 

• Our commitment to increase minority representation at 
every level and to involve minorities in the search and selec- 
tion process is o strong one. We will offer ten more minori- 
ty graduate fellowships and increase the size of the Special 


opportunity Fund to allow for the recruitment of additional 
black faculty. Black faculty members now represent 3% of 
the totol. Our goal is to hove the highest proportion of block 
faculty of all mojor universities in the Northeast. That goal 
con be reached through the addition of about 15 black 
faculty members. Efforts to recruit minority students hove 
been intensified through additional scholarships, 
phonothons, direct mail, special campus visits, the exten- 
sion of application and financial aid deadlines and many 
other efforts. Our number of block undergraduate oppliconts 
has declined in the lost several years while the nationol 
decline has been precipitous. Block graduate students hove 
increased by 17% over the lost five yeors despite a national 
decline of about 36 percent. To continue that growth we 
will establish o $60,000 fund for minority graduate 
fellowships. We have been selected by the National Science 
Foundation to receive an Incentives for Excellence Scholar- 
ship Prize. This prize, according to the N.S.F., "recognizes 
the efforts of your faculty to identify outstanding minority 
students in science, engineering or mathematics." These ef- 
forts will be greatly enhanced through the addition of Zoido 
Geraldo, the new head of Affirmative Action. Associate Vice 
Chancellor Geraldo, who assumed her new duties yester- 
day, has been empowered by this administration and the 
Board of Trustees to moke sweeping changes in our affirm- 
ative action policies. 

• Review of the General Education program was mentioned 

• Chancellor Jenifer and the Board of Regents have pledged 
to oddress minority concerns at the state level and to work 
with other public universities ond colleges to find creative 
solutions to these long-standing problems. In addition, we 
have scheduled meetings with our district legislators to keep 
them informed. 

• I have expressed on numerous occosions my commitment 
to racial concerns and my determination to bring about 
positive change. I will continue to do so at every oppor- 
tunity. In addition, I pledge the administration to not just 
one campus-wide forum, such as the one planned for April 
21, but to several forums in the year ahead so that the 
critical issues before us con receive the attention they 

7. Alcohol Policy; A new alcohol policy which places further 
restrictions on those who serve and dispense alcohol, was im- 
plemented this year. In addition, the Residence Halls have 
mode educational programs mandatory for all students who 
hove been found to hove misused or abused alcohol. Repeat 
offenders will be expelled from the Residence Halls. The Univer- 
sity's Health Center has developed some creative approaches 
to the problem, including training for local bartenders and pro- 
grams for package stores. Much more, however, must be done. 
To the fullest possible and practical extent, this campus will en- 
force state lows regarding the legol drinking age, making 
greater use of University discipline as well as the legal system. 
Students seeking campus housing next year and their parents 
will be advised of campus regulations concerning the use of 
alcohol and of our plans to enforce these regulations. We need 
the active support of the student body, especially Student 
Government; the assistance of package stores and other ven- 
dors of alcohol; and the cooperation of the courts if we hope 
to moke real progress in this area. 

8. Disciplinar/ Procedures; Lost foil, a code of conduct which 
defines horassment and states clearly the punishments for that 
behavior was incorporated into the policies that comprise 
Undergraduate Rights and Responsibilities. Along with these 
changes, the first major revisions in more than 20 years, we hove 
reaffirmed a vigorous enforcement policy. In addition, all cases 
of discrimination will continue to be reported to the affirmative 
action office for further action when necessary. We will reprint 

the brochure "Against Rociol Harassment," which defines racial 
harassment and the attendant penalties, and redistribute it 
throughout the campus within the next month. 

9. Residence Directors; Twenty percent of our Residence Direc- 
tors, 10 percent of our Residence Assistonts staff and 28 per- 
cent of our Assistant Residence Directors ore block. We are com- 
mitted to increasing those numbers and making sure that 
minorities stoff members ore present throughout the residence 

1 0. Freshmen; At the beginning of this ocademic year, 49 per- 
cent of our freshmen were living on the east side of campus 
while 51 percent were living in Southwest. Obviously, no 
redistribution is necessary but we will continue to explore the 
dynamics of life within the Residence Halls in the hope of im- 
proving the quality of life. Included in our plans are greater em- 
phasis on faculty involvement in residential life through residen- 
tial college courses, symposia, seminars, and workshops. 

1 1 . Football Players; District Attorney Ryan has mode it clear 
that those football players who were present ot the brawl were 
acting as individuals, not as cohorts or members of the team. 
Complaints are being sought against only two. If the court or 
our disciplinory procedures finds on individual guilty of criminal 
behavior, that individual should be held responsible not the foot- 
boll teom. If we assume insensitivity resides only within certain 
organizations or aspects of the campus, our solutions will prove 
to be short-lived and ineffective. Our athletic department should 
continue to moke sure every student athlete understands the 
special responsibilities of being a role model and, therefore, why 
they should aspire to the highest ethical conduct. Neither I nor 
the commission favor the funding of the Civility Commission with 
the proceeds from athletic events because we feel such a system 
implies that athletics should bear a disproportionate burden for 
the maintenance of civility on campus. 

12. Civility Commission; I agree with Commissioner Hurst's 
assessment thot the suggestions of the Civility Commission 
should receive a thorough and timely response from the ap- 
propriate administrative units. Within the month, the Commis- 
sion will begin holding weekly public meetings to solicit specific 
proposals for putting the university's ideols into practice. I urge 
oil interested persons or groups to develop proposals for these 

13. Minority Issues; I hove received a letter from concerned 
representatives of the Hispanic community expressing support 
for the Hurst Report and asking for an equal commitment to all 
aspects of the minority population. Wherever and whenever 
possible and oppropriote, the aforementioned actions will be 
extended to encompass and accommodate the entire minori- 
ty population. Our special request for $600,000, for instance, 
includes proposals to improve the quality of life for all minorities 
on campus. 

1 4. Authority; Former Chancellor Bromery hos been appointed 
OS o special counsel to assist me. Executive Vice Chancellor 
O'Brien and Vice Chancellor Modson. His appointment has hod 
on imrhediote and beneficial effect as witnessed by the signifi- 
cant progress that has been mode in the lost few months. He 
has offered to continue in his current capacity to moke recom- 
mendations to ensure the permanence of the actions that we 
have token. The Vice Chancellorfor Student Affairs is in the proc- 
ess of restructuring the office of the Dean of Students to improve 
communicotion and clorif/ lines of responsibility. 

15. Other Recommendations; Our response over the lost 
several months shows that meritorious ideas and plans hove 
been and will continue to be translated into action. 

1 6. Periodic Review: In addition to the reviews conducted at 
the departmental level, I recommend that we establish October 
27 OS the date for on annual, university-wide review. A specific 
proposal for how that review should be conducted is being 



by Poncho Morris 

Within our pluralistic society many people of different ethnic and cultural bocligrounds ore often in contoct with each other. Accord- 
ing to Irving Lewis Allen, outhor of The Language of Ethnic Conflict, for the ethnic majority, name-colling justifies inequolity and 
discriminotion. Thot is, ethnic slurs "ore o device that help produce and maintain social class and privilege."' But what about minorities 
using racial slurs against each other? 

It is always saddening to hear o block person calling onother block person o "nigger." I was recently speaking with a fellow 
block student who whispered to me that another block student was a "fake nigger." I questioned this woman as to what "fake 
nigger" was and she replied thot o "fake nigger" is o block person who acts white. 

Hove blacks internalized oppression? How con we as blacks struggling ogoinst oppression, be token seriously when we decry 
the use of raciol slurs against us, but at the some time use them against ourselves? 

I decided to research the origins of the word "nigger," along with other racial slurs. My findings were astonishing. I would like 
to shore some of my findings with the following Racist Longuoge Awareness Quiz. 

'Allen, Irvin Lewis, The Language of Ethnic Conflict. New York: Colum- 
bia University Press, 1980 p. 15 

1 . Aye-rob is a deliberate mispronunciation of Arab 
ond it is offensive. 

2. A cosual "cotton pickin' 

in one s conver- 

sation is offensive to blacks. 

3. The 'white' in white trash mokes o cleor dis- 
tinction between types of poor people and has 
o connection with the saying, "I'm poor, but at 
least I'm not block." 

4. Language is a deliberate form of the 'divide and 
conquer' tactic used by the oppressors of o society. 

5. Terms such as blacksheep, blockmorket, black- 
list, blue collar, white lie, white magic, white 
collor, etc. ore not racist terms. 

6. Terms such as blackmail ond block comedy oil 
hove synonyms which one could use instead of 
the color terms. 

7. Since mulatto hos gained acceptability in the 
medio, it is not racist. 

8. The phrase "Chinese fire drill" is commonly used 
to describe an actual Chinese fire drill, 

9. The term 'squaw' for Eskimo women is not op- 
propriote; the favored term is 'Esquaw.' 

10. An N.F.L. team uses a rocist term for the title of 
their team. 

1 1 . To coll Q black student, "boy" is no longer 

12. The number of racist terms directed at blacks 
greatly exceeds that of any other minority group. 

13. The word "nigger" used to be banned from use 
on television and in the movies, but o few years 
ogo the ban was lifted. 

1 4. It has been argued that the wide-spreod increase 
in the use of the word "nigger" by the media is 
part of a much lorger scheme designed to denig- 
rate Afro-Americons and keep them the focus of 
negative attention. 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 

15. Historical documentation shows that it was the T F 
word "nigger" that was used by Klansmen to 
sound the charge to slaughter newly freed Block 

16. Members of the younger block generation have T F 
occepted the term "nigger" as a natural port of 

the American scene that "we must live with." 
Still worse, others hove come to accept the epi- 
thet and oil of its degrading meonings as repre- 
sentotive of themselves and other blacks. 

Information for these questions was token from: 

Allen, Irving Lewis, The Language of Ethnic Conflict, New York: Co- 

lumbio University Press. 1983 
Allen, 5. "Racial Slurs," Crisis. May 1985 Vol. 92, p. 37-41 


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