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THE DRUM rejoices with Dr. Norma Jean 
Anderson and family at the event of her recent 
appointment to an assistant Deanship at the 
U-IVJass. School of Education. 

THE DRUM again thanks Sister Peggy Janey and 
her artistic contributions in the Winter Issue (1970) 

Many thanks to Rich Andre for his most inspiring 

Appreciation and love to the black faculty of 
U-Mass., Amherst for their active concern, and 
spiritual and technical advice. 

Manuscripts, art work, poetry, and photography 
should be mailed directly to 11 1 Mills House 
@ U-Mass.; clo ROBIN M. CHANDLER 

Opinions expressed by contributors do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the Editors 












". . . The universe Is pregnant with. . . manifoid bounties, 
awaiting the hour when the effects of its unseen gifts will 
be made manifest in this world, when. . . the erring wan- 
derer. . . will enter the tabernacle of life, and attain reunion 
with his heart's desire. 

In the soil of whose heart will these holy seeds germinate? 
From the garden of whose soul will the blossoms of the 
invisible realities spring forth?. . . 

Brother! kindle with the oil of wisdom the lamp of 
the spirit within the innermost chamber of the heart, and 
guard it with the globe of understanding, that the breath of 
the infidel may extinguish not its flame nor dim its bright- 

Thus have we illuminated the heavens of utterance with 
the splendors of the Sun of divine wisdom and under- 
standing that thy heart may find peace, that thou mayest 
be of those who, on the wings of certitude, have soared 
unto the heaven of the love of their Lord. ... " 

The Kitab-l-lqan 

(The Book of Certitude) 

by Baha'U'llah 

Creating is a need of man. 

It is the point in a man's life at which he recognizes 
historical knowledge as insufficient and begins the journey 
through the valley of search for new revelation — new in- 
sight. It is also the point at which a man says to himself, 
'There is no worse prison than the prison of self. I will take 
creation and eternity in hand and discover new life-styles, 
not re-invent old news.' 

Black people and mankind in general are just now begin- 
ning to struggle with their cosmic reality, their connected- 
ness with other folks and the universe. Although the forces 
of oppression and racism are global, certain cosmic frontiers 
are planting the seeds of justice, and if you do not see this 
and feel this it is because your own hatred will not allow 
love to burst forth from that prison of self. More to the 
point. . . you are afraid, whether white or black, and you 
must deal with this or die with it. Indeed, (and this is 
directed to the oppressed at this college, this town, and the 
world) we are enmeshed in a web of self-destruction; a 
situation not exactly enhanced by a freakish need to play 
political paraphernalia games with one another. 

We have forgotten how to reach out. . . 

What is so distracting to positive growth is the startling 
numbers of people universally who are dying and being 
humiliated behind jive and short-range orientations. It 
seems as though there is no permanent pathway which is 
liveable and loveable. I mean, is there one among us who is 
not transported within a precious bubble clouded with race 
hatred and bigotry? Is there one among us, then, who 
would assume the responsibility of honestly dealing with 
personal hang-ups? This should be a freeing experience but 
it is not because we are, each of us, very alone. 

Owing that the oppressed have evolved slowly on the 
educational ring in the past 60 or 70 years in America, it is 
disheartening to find that we are at a deadlock in the sphere 
of human relations. This is obviously perpetuated by the 
universal oppressor and allowed by the oppressed. And you 
will find people today recreating instead of creating, op- 
pressing instead of releasing the human potential. 

A friend once likened black people to the pupil of the 
eye out of which the spirit of unity, justice, and love would 
flow. Well, my brothers and my sisters it must begin to flow 
mightily very soon because the earth is changing magnan- 
imously every micro-second. We must learn to open up, to 
love, and to learn, to accept change with grace and vision. 

We must make way for new light because this is the 
story of life. 

Peace be upon you. . . 
and mankind 

Robin Chandler 
Editor, The Drum 


Roland Wiggins 

Three reactions occurred to me in response to tine Drum 
concerning information about computer aided approaches 
to Music Curriculum Changes and Innovations for urban 
students: (1) I must offer ^i somewhat technical historical 
background as related to previous research at the Franklin 
Institute Laboratories in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (2) 
Though the Institute of Black American Music is still tech- 
nically in its legal formation stages in the State of Illinois, 
some of its thrust should be publicized. (3) Some hint at 
the present growth rate of the project in the five college 
area should be given. At the time of this writing financial 
negotiations are in progress but should not be announced 
until they have reached an appropriate conclusion. (A 
thank you list would require several more than the allotted 
number of pages.) 

Historically then, during several years of teaching, cer- 
tain observations were made concerning various problems 
of urban music teachers. Some of these problems and a 
view toward their solution for future music curricula are 

A. Classroom Motivations 

It was found that average urban students exhibited low 
aspiration levels (no future conductors, composers, critics, 
etc., in typical classes). The student felt that his musical 
preferences were inferior to "classical" styles, and he could 
not afford lessons or concerts. He did not understand fun- 
damental terms of music symbols; he had a small linguistic 
vocabulary and a low reading achievement. The urban child 
had been exposed to a small variety of musical experiences, 
but with a large quantity of experiences within that small 
variety. Because of the quantity of students, many children 
had to wait for others before their individual needs were 
fulfilled. Despite all of this, a number in each class were 
talented children (as evidenced by tonal memory, rhythm 
pattern invention, etc.) and often desired musical training. 

Several areas that need improvement were observed: 

1. There is a need to create and maintain a high per- 
centage of successful musical experiences for a mini- 
mum of the child's creative effort. 

2. There is a need to develop a language for understand- 
ing, identifying, and communicating musical concepts 
that maximize geometric and alpha-numeric symbols 
and that minimize verbiage. 

3. There is a need to help the child understand and 
appreciate his own environmental musical experiences 
in terms of universal musical principles, and thus to 
provide a broadening link between his preferred (gen- 
erally familiar) musical experiences and the music of 
other countries, eras, and styles. 

4. There is a need to divide class projects into small 
sections of students for maximum involvement. 

5. There is a need to prepare materials on each child's 
level in both audio and visual form, so that the child 
may proceed at his own pace in projects of his choos- 

B. Manual Attempts to Solve Problems 

The children responded well to lessons in which they 
actively were involved as writers and improvisers when their 
efforts were rewarded in a visual score, an audible sound or 
through the discovery that they were using proper academic 
rules intuitively. Fullest acceptance came when their crea- 
tive efforts were shown to be existing in culturally familiar 
music. For example, the children were allowed to write 
simple melodic or rhythmic compositions and have them 
literally performed, or arranged and harmonized on the 
piano. If needed, his notation was corrected on his paper or 
the blackboard. A graphic analysis and display of his con- 
figurational relations of melody (sequences, imbroglio) and 
syntactic rhythmic relations were shown. Traditional alpha- 
numeric values {A, third space, seventh degree of the scale) 
were assigned to his music symbols. Any academic melodic 
or rhythmic rules used by the student were verbally intro- 

The melodic and rhythmic lines composed or improvised 
by the children were saved and later compared to written 
out familiar music. This music was usually religious, rock 
and roll, jazz, or television commercials and background. 
The interest generated by this approach allowed an easier 
transfer of the knowledge gained to classical, folk, compara- 
tive and symphonic styles. 

C. Problems of Manual Methods 

The above approach provided the students with tasl<s in 
which they were constantly successful and in which they 
obtained individual recognition. The result was that pre- 
viously shy children began to participate, but the teachers' 
work load became significantly greater. Many charts and 
tables had to be prepared for use in class and at home. 
Uniform progress sheets in melodic resolution and modula- 
tion were needed. Also needed was a wide variety of nearly 
complete materials, such as unembellished melodies. The 
verbal explanations of academic rules became weighty in 
quantity and multi-syllabled terms too difficult for the stu- 
dent to remember. A greater number of papers required 
correction and analysis before their return to the student. 
Most gratifying but problematical was the desire of each 
student to hear his own work played by instruments other 
than the piano. 

D. Solutions to Manual Method Procedures 

1. The Computer 

Music theory, symbols, and sounds were finally viewed 
as special cases of data that now needed quick, accurate 
processing for use by both teacher and student in the music 
classroom. The computer was an obvious possible solution. 

2. The Sound-to-Score Translator 

The manual conversion of music theory into alpha- 
numeric language was simply a matter of assigning those 
symbols to the written score. In the case of several children 
or professional guests playing and improvising, an auto- 
matic connecting device was needed to convert the improvi- 
sation into usable computer language. Also desired was an 
immediate display of performances in musical symbols. 

3. Score-to-lnstrumental-Sound Translator 

The problem of having as many children as possible hear 
their music performed by a variety of Western and 
comparative instrumental combinations could be solved by 
the reverse of the sound-to-score method, i.e., a device that 
translates the written score into audio signals. 

4. The Teaching Machine 

The combination of the resources of these three facilities 
undoubtedly represents a very powerful audio-visual aid 
and research tool for the improvement of modern music 

The Institute of Black American Music was formed in 
Chicago at the 1970 Black Exposition with a "Who's Who" 
in Black Music: Quincy Jones, Cannonball Adderley, 
Donald Byrd, Isaac Hayes, Roberta Flack, Bill Cosby, 
Roland Kirk, Billy Taylor, and many others. Black Colleges 
sent representatives to music clinics (I taught a quick 
"course" in harmony and scoring with Quincy Jones, David 
Baker brought his new improvisation studies, and Lena 
McLin worked with Music Educators, for example). Hosting 
the Institute was Rev. Jesse Jackson of Operation Bread- 
basket, Chicago. Entertainers who appeared at Black Expo' 
among others were Nina Simone, Stevie Wonder, Flip 
Wilson. The purposes of the Institute are defining, preserv- 
ing, and performing the music of Black Americans. 

To prepare music for the 360 IBM Computer presently 
requires manual encoding. (An analyzing music scores and 
penciling symbols on mark sense optical scan sheets.) An 
example of cooperation has been the offering of three 
hundred hours of encoding time by the Afro-American 
Organizations of Smith and Mt. Holyoke Colleges. (Quincy 
Jones thanked Smith volunteers by telephone from Los 
Angeles.) Both Amherst and Hampshire have granted 
discussion-time to the author for the Project. Thad Jones 
and Billy Taylor have sent music scores — Quincy Jones 
recently sent his scores for "In the Heat of the Night" 
(Sidney Poitier). 



of a 


He is an educator 

He is a biac/i man 

He is still struggling 

The scars are many 

The name is Rhody McCoy . 

By Robin M. Chandler 

(Interview: Riiody IVlcCoy, Director 
of COP (Career Opportunities Pro- 
gram), School of Education, Univer- 
sity of Massachusetts-Amherst) 

This past September the School of 
Education at the University of Massa- 
chusetts at Amherst attracted a black 
man of incredibly high perception and 
talent. And exactly what, you ask, is 
this man doing with his talents? 

His energies have been channeled 
into Worcester-COP (Career Opport. 
Program) as its director. The initial aim 
of COP is to develop teams of black and 
white people who can penetrate the 
inner-city system as "educational tech- 
nicians," thus creating a basis for change 
and reform. According to McCoy these 
"technicians" will necessarily be aware 
of the political and economic ramifica- 
tions which education produces today. 

In view of these expectations "COP 
has probably taken on a greater respon- 
sibility than it realizes," said McCoy, 
and "education is such a mystical thing 
that it is years before you see the bene- 

Reflecting back on his New York 
experience in Oceanhill-Brownsville and 
his reasons for leaving the project, he 
stated that what was needed was a cir- 
cum-view and analysis of the situation 
in order to check sustained gains. The 
experience as a black man of 'goin' to 
meet the Man' every day was evidently 
meaningful for him. "We have not even 
yet benefited from the 1954 Civil 
Rights Decision and what is more alarm- 
ing is that there is no vehicle that we 
might utilize to recognize the dimen- 
sions of what is a societal problem." 

"The chants and cries of community 
control in its overt manifestations, — 
what can these effect?", he said. "We 
have some amorphous and ambiguous 
conception of what occurs in black 
communities. We need to have people 
face reality; face these different seg- 
ments of society together (racism, dis- 
crimination, etc.)." 

Obviously concerned with the future 
input of black students at the U-Mass 
campus into other areas, McCoy re- 
marked that "the almost pathetic per- 
ceptions of graduate students and blacks 
in particular as to what education is 
really about are incredible." The 
rhetorical concerns about how to 

change it are not supplemented by prac- 
ticality and precision, added McCoy. 
"We believe we can learn some skills and 
administrative techniques, then channel 
them into the community and achieve 
success. - It's a dream! People are chan- 
neling energies into areas that bring no 
results. Why?" 


When asked about the activities of 
nationwide agencies and community 
organizations which are attempting to 
create black impetus in leadership slots, 
McCoy gave a nodded gesture — a sort 
of non-verbal signal of empathy and ex- 
plained that this was simply "another 
dimension of the hope factor. It keeps 
people's minds occupied (good mental 
health), it creates the illusion of parti- 
cipation, it perpetuates economic slav- 
ery, and eventually creates an economic 
bind." McCoy pointed out that the Civil 
Rights Decision of 1954 only high- 
lighted the interrelation of agencies in a 
political and economic arena." If this is 
so, then exactly where are we headed 
— forward or backward? 

Moreover McCoy believes that grad- 
uate students can form new coalitions, 

and that an awareness of the figures of 
Dwight Allen and Neil Sullivan, two 
outstanding educators in Massachusetts, 
is demanded right now. He feels that 
these two men need the added dimen- 
sion of a "McCoy" experience. "I am 
here," said McCoy,- "to touch on these 
black students before they get putre- 



McCoy's call seemed directed 
towards the overwhelming power of stu- 
dents as a segment of society holding 
loaded potential. The deficiencies of 
education and government, however, 
make the process of 'makin' it' an eter- 
nal struggle. He noted that the pitiful 
position of a black cat demands that he 
beg(!) for social change, and yet he 
hasn't the wherewithal. 

"And we know," said McCoy, "what 
white America does to any black cat 
who shows extraordinary talent and 
ability." They start talking salary to him 
and he is evaporated, it seems, into the 
fabricated world of the "black cadillac 
and the white woman." 

But is all this any wonder for McCoy 
asks "where is the reward for outstand- 
ing black students! There is none! They 
are forced into "mediocrity" and we of 
'the blood' understand this as co-opting. 


As the interview crossed towards a 
different vein, McCoy coiled in his chair 
and winced — the infinitely character- 
istic mark of "an old and scarred war- 
rior", as he termed it. 

"People are sustaining inconsequen- 
tial values," the very cozy life of con- 
ceptual democracy which is, of course, 
as hollow as it sounds, McCoy said. 
McCoy feels that education is a tool and 
a skill, but until now has produced 
nothing but "well-rounded individuals 
who stand on welfare lines every day." 

"At some point," McCoy noted, 
"They are going to have to legitimize 
black, Puerto Rican, and Mexican- 
American students." New means of 
recruitment and new admissions proce- 
dures will necessarily be followed by 
stable programs. The high-risk student 
(the student who, according to white 
admissions criteria, might not make it) 
must soon become a priority and 
bridges must be built between strengths 
and deficits. "We must demonstrate that 
these people are vital resources to the 
community, thus creating a totally new 
kind of success image for the residual 

"Is it any wonder that we don't have 
any black corporate lawyers?" 

"Why can't we say to a young black 
child — 'this is what you can be' and 
then present him with the necessary 
skills. Prepare that cat for law at 6 or 7 
years of age so that at the high school 
level he is already trained and ready to 
serve the needs of the community be- 
fore he leaves it." 

The conversation moved to yet 
another realm, again — student political 
power. "I have heard no major emphasis 
on the 18 yr. old vote. I've got to ask 
myself 'what is this thing called educa- 
tion all about?' Whites and blacks have 
gotten together on Vietnam in college 
protests .... These students present a 
potentially viable force, but because of 
carefully defined limitations their power 

is checked. Student government is like 
community control and do you know 
where there's a real community?" 

McCoy cited an example; that of a 
Washington DC black politician who ran 
for a senate seat recently and "got his 
brains kicked out" because of lack of 
support. "The black political science 
majors at Howard University could have 
taken a tremendously active role. 
Though Howard gets its funds from the 
federal government it is unlikely that 
they would've closed Howard down for 
such a move," he directed. 

So where were black students?. . . 
This all is reminiscent of a line from 
Shakespear's Caesar: 'The fault, dear 
Brutus, is not in the stars but in our- 
selves that we are underlings.' Trans- 
lated into the language of 'bloods': 
'seize the time, brother, or it'll seize 

These are the conditions and hope- 
fully these "old and scarred warriors" 
can provide a cushion for black students 
to explore the universe of possibilities 
available which Rhody McCoy has im- 
plied herein. 

When we begin to feel and hear the 
fading heartbeat of a greater oppressed 
humanity, then maybe we will begin to 
comprehend the true meaning of educa- 
tion, and abandon our outrageous pat- 
tern of "the powerless eating the 
powerless alive." 

[Rhody McCoy has been a veteran of 
education for 20 yrs. He received his 
undergraduate degree from Howard 
University and his Master's from New 
York University. He was formerly direc- 
tor of the Oceanhill- Brownsville experi- 
mental school redistricting project in 
New York.j 


actual facts 






and then 




MOSTPRE£miI^ i.^^^ \ 

(something^ he knew he could never 



I /////m 

(not reall 

wasted man hours 

we get high 
and listen 
m^ get higher 
(find listen 
1^ get still 

and\£t in touch 


OLA Shair 
(Stokes Hall) 

] ^imie COSMOS 
\ \^;we\get even higher 

'! fl\llmr^ planes 
' beyona 

^ the redims of 

yet knC\wn dimensions 
we get high and then 
nod out . . . 


OLA Shair 
(Stokes Hall) 


*772e 'friends Ship 

By Ernie West, Williams College 

this ship's on fire!" screamed a brother with hot 

hominey grits melting the sfiin on the left side of his 


necti and 


That fucking bitch, just like my goddamned mother" 

five rat-faced men scurried to the edge of the ship as 

a black goddess sent brown octupus tentacles after them 

catching the middle finger of them and throwing him 

60 feet into the air 

(king kong thought it was another biplane, and In 

panicky possessiveness for faye wray, crushed the rat-faced 

man and discarded his corpse into the cool green sea 

brown, yellow, black, red, white and blue babies 

squealed with amused glee as a bearded giant was consumed 




The fire breathing lion paused from his inflammatory 

monologue long enough to pick two 

smiling scorpions from his nuts 

Like I was Saying" burned the lion, singeing the hair on 

the bodies of two lesbians who had wanted to be librarians 

but had found books 



There's nothing wrong with a little steaming vodka" 

belched the lion 

As long as you control it" 

the ring of goddesses who danced around him 

(but at a safe distance 

were getting tired; a sympathetic brunette 

wanted to 



the blood that the scorpions ' stings had left, 

but the lion 

ever modest 

pushed her away roughly, 

gently whispering in her ear 



She screamed with pleasure as the torch-like flames 

left her 


and three rabbits who had been patiently cooking an ex 

Indian chief each time the lion spoke 

wondered how could such a mature bitch fall apart at the 

slightest provocation. A thin good-looking brother with 

glasses sarcastically replied 

"this is not my idea of a black community, but could not 

get further into the conversation as he became engrossed 

in extinguishing the fire on his right pant leg which the 

lion 's caustic laughter had caused 

(the laughter had also blackened the lenses of his spectacles 

causing the intellectual brother to get 


real cool. 

one black nigger in the used green sea covered with 

floating, bloated dead memories, 

swam (with a good pace 

as a large killer shark shouted obscenities right behind him, 

momentarily forgetting that sharks were not supposed to talk. 

The swimming black nigger, outraged at the idea that the 

shark had forgotten his place, 

paused to tell him that 

"If I had my shark knife and one sixth of a notion, I'd 

spread shark shit all over this ocean. 

The black nigger then continued to swim to New York City 

where he had an afternoon appointment with mayor lindsay 

who was to later explain to the black nigger why darkies 

acted up so fucking much. 

The shark, noticing a red faced astronaut jumping over the 

side of the ship with purple flames licking at his heels 

greadily raced to the spot where the red faced man had gone 


thinking "I'm gonna eat me some ass that's been walking on 

the moon. 



The lion had by this time decided that he wanted to play 
some whist and one of the rabbits came to the table with 
a plate full of almost cooked Indian chief meat 

"I hope this loud mouthed motherfucker bids a four no so 
this meat can get cooked right. 

Their opponents were two jokers: one with an ear to ear smile 
that had been delicately cut into his face shortly after 
child birth (he had consequently made his living over the 
centuries by posing for political campaign posters and 
national dental association advertisements; he was most 
madly in love with the sister with the eight long arms, but 
not having enough nerve to approach her, the joker would 
think about having her twelve foot arms around him, and mas- 
turbate early in the morning 

the other joker had a set of male genitals growing out of his 
forehead: whenever he thought, it would give him an erection; 
whenever he copped a good idea it would ejaculate 
(after a couple of hands the disgusted rabbit left the half- 
burned table asking himself 

"where in the hell is that dick faced motherfucker from? I 
hate to talk about his mother, but that ugly bastard ruined 
my breakfast. 

The other two rabbits were cordially trying to engage the lion's 
wife in a friendly conversation so that they could get the 
rest of their meat cooked 


a seedy old jew rowed his canoe past the ship, fishing float- 
ing memories out of the water which he would later sell to 
his brother in law for 1 2^: a pound. Smelling the burned and 
burning flesh, the junkman jew, trying to muster up a look 
of concern shouted to the ship 
"oy, you want I should bring help " 
mind your business you jew motherfucker" roared the 

and leave all that dead shit alone, none of it s yours. " 
"watch your mouth you hairy headed chump " shouted one of the 
rabbits over the screaming moans of death and dying as he jumped 
out of the way of the lion's flame. 
You nearly burned my tail. 

Much deeper beneath the sea 

(so much deeper that there wasn't even any water) 

a white man was directing a 7 foot rattlesnake into the 

womb of a yellowskinned sister who was pretty pissed off, and 

bored, wondering 

"when is this maniac going to be satisfied? I'm going to have 

to finish dinner before John gets home or he'll be furious. 

in the background on top of a mountain watching the scene below 
some serious junkies played music which asked questions of them 
while they made castles from piles of Ajax, 
ages away they could barely hear the laughing shrieks from the 
burning ship as it floated past on its regular route. 

"when will those lames ever learn" wondered a happy dope fiend 

as he sucked on a cocaine lolly pop. 

"I'm tired of that same old bullshit. Dig it 




On Orchard Hill at the University of Massachusetts, 
there vibrates a microcosm of the campus blacl< commu- 
nity, which is in reality just a dichotomy of the at large 
campus community. The original recorders of the Black 
Corridor Concept realized the reality of and the extensive 
reality that we are attending a white state institution in a 
white state. However it seems that most of the black 
community refuses to accept it. . . yet only on a mental 
plane, because their every word and every movement dem- 
onstrate to me and others that they are thinking as I am. 
The black community dares to believe that the brothers 
who participate in the Black Corridor Concept are super 
niggers and thusly don't react to the pressures, influences, 
and change that it does. It then begins to question the 
SOCIAL UTILITY of the brothers and in turn becomes 
another one of the changes the brothers have to contend 
with. On this white campus (U-Mass) the black community 
is rendered almost immobile with the exceptions of dealing 
on intellectual or entertainment levels. How can one expect 
things of another (s) when one can't expect the same things 
of oneself. It's a real trip. Black people are so damn mas- 

We, who live on the Black Corridor have learned how to 
deal with the reactions of the all familiar white paranoia 
that results from "so many black folks gettin together". 
White fear manifested itself through heinous rumors like 
'the campus' two biggest pushers live on the Black Corridor' 
and that it would be busted before the semester is over. A 
similar kind of rumor was that the Black Corridor will not 
be vibrating in September. I don't have to elaborate on the 
staggering effect these repercussions had on the attitudes of 
those of us who participate in the Black Corridor Concept. 
Even with the lethal white and black vibrations being 
only fragments of the main problems our community has to 
deal with, the Black Corridor has reached such a high level 
of organization that we as a unit can do battle with any 
alien outside force and emerge on top, but most impor- 
tantly emerge unified. 

The Black Corridor has twenty five of the craziest 
niggers on this campus. We have gained a community con- 
sciousness of who we are and where we live. We are the 
closest group of black people on this white campus; this 
closeness wasn't spontaneous but grew with time, we can 
now start paying back some of that time. The Black Cor- 
ridor can now act as a catalyst for change, how much 
change is left to be seen. Hopefully though, we will be able 
to work along with the number of other power bases of the 
black community in heightening all of our levels of con- 



Some Important 
Differences Between 
the Today's Black 
Collegiate and 
Their Predecessors 

Dr. Gloria Joseph 

Although only six or seven years separate the new breed 
of Blacks from the Black students enrolled in pre- 
dominately white colleges and universities prior to 1963, 
the difference between the groups takes on the dimension 
of a generation gap as far as attjtudes and postures are 
concerned. Todays Black students represent a new breed of 
Black collegiates that are markedly different from their 

Prior to 1963, the few Black students on predominantly 
white campuses fell into three major categories: the isola- 
tionist, the assimilator, and the extremist. The isolationist 
was the type of student who retreated from the white com- 
munity in an effort to escape the hurts, rejection and slurs 
that were a real and unimagined part of his daily life. The 
assimilator represented the Negro student who, on an Ivy 
League campus, would epitomize "Mr. Ivy League," but in 
black skin. This type lived white, thought white, associated 
with whites, excluded Blacks from his or her very glances, 
but suffered pure Black anxieties. The last classification 
harbored the student who was very determined in his calcu- 
alted, concentrated attempt to be different. He would 
assume a variety of postures throughout a semester, ranging 
from Garvyite to mystic. All these guises were the Black 
student's attempt to cope with an alien atmosphere for 
which he had virtually no protection or preparation. 

The pre-'63 Black students were still very much under 
the influence of parent and adult community leaders who 
espoused the philosophy of, "Do well in school; get your 
education, and no doors will be closed to you. Don't be like 
those no-count niggers in the slums who will never get 

The pre-'63 students did not have sufficient external 
support in the form of established, respected. Black organi- 
zations of leaders or professors who could offer them guide- 
lines and support in their struggle of racial equality. Nor did 
they have sufficient internal strength, based on self- 
acceptance and self-respect, which would enable them to 
wage the battle for a significant and relevant education and 
campus life. 


An additional hardship was the small number of Blacks 
on campus. Prior to '62 there were very few Black students 
on Ivy League campuses, the "Big Ten," and most other 
major academic institutions. Several campuses had an out- 
standing athlete or two, plus a few Black students who were 
"bright for being a Negro". The Black students did not seek 
out one another and did not desire to be recognized as a 
Black community or to form Black organizations. As far as 
social life was concerned, the "in thing" was to try to get 
into fraternities and sororities, and to be a part of an exist- 
ing campus student group or organization. 

Thus, after four years of token existence, these pre-'63 
Black students graduated and most thought they had made 
it. In actuality, what they had made was going thru years at 
a white academic institution that did little more than hand 
them a degree and send them, with their messed up minds, 
back to the outside world in which they would continue 
their schizoid existence of believing they were making it in 
a near lily-white community. But, even with their degrees, 
deep inside they were aware of the American attitude that 
"A Black with a Ph.D. is still a nigger!" These graduates left 
behind a white, paternalistic community and entered the 
American society which was beginning to vibrate from 
racial rumblings of discontent, generated from numerous 
Black campuses as an expression of long-festering dis- 

During the late 50's and very early 60's Malcolm X was 
far from being a popular figure among college Blacks. The 
few Blacks enrolled in white institutions were from upper 
and upper-middle class homes. They were in the main, the 
traditional, token Negroes, certainly not radical or militant. 
In 1962, to the vast majority of them, Malcolm X's rhetoric 
represented a threat to their false security on the white 
campus. The Black mentality towards Malcolm can be illus- 
trated by the following incident which occurred when Mal- 
colm was invited, by a white group, to speak on campus. 

In the audience of 400 who attended the lecture, there 
were approximately six or seven Blacks. This number 
wasn't as small as it might appear, because the undergrad- 


uate Black population boasted a total of less than ten, out 
of an enrollment of 10,000. During Malcolm's speech state- 
ments were made that praised the Black man and pointed 
out a basic truth about the racist qualities that exist in 
America. With the exception of three Black graduate stu- 
dents and a very few white radicals, who cheered and 
clapped in response to his words, Malcolm comments fell 
on deaf ears. At some of Malcolm's witty and humorous 
jibes at White America, the laughter had both a giddy and 
embarrassed quality. But it was during the question and 
answer period that the Black student showed his true color. 
The following anecdote exemplifies the attitudes expressed 
by the students. An attractive. Black coed stood up and 
posed this question, with her voice gaining more strength as 
her white cohorts murmured agreement and encouragement 
in their support of her comments. 

"You are advocating that the so-called Negro should go 
back to his homeland, to Africa. Now, why should I go 
back there? I've been in America all my life. I go to school 
here! I have white friends right here! I'm used to the Ameri- 
can culture. And, furthermore, why should I call myself an 
African? My maternal grandmother was part Cheroke Indian; 
my grandfather was Irish and English; my father is part 
French, and his father is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. How 
could I return to my homeland or develop my culture? . . . 
my culture is American!" 

Malcolm's response was given in that cool, devastating 
manner that was peculiar to Malcolm. Pointing that finger, 
he said, "See what they've done to you. You don't even 
know who you are, and you're bragging about your grand- 
father who was a rapist! No, you're not ready to be a part 
of us. The white man has already done too good a job on 

To most Black students at that time, Malcolm was a 
threat. But times have changed! The post-'63 Black col- 
legiate entered the college scene invigorated by a fresh set 
of Black happenings. 

Between 1957 and 1965, the Civil Rights Movement had 
been born and had reached its zenith. 

In 1954, Rosa Parks, wearily but defiantly, refused to 

move to the back of the bus. The following year, Martin 
Luther King led the first bus boycott in Selma, Alabama. In 
the late '50's, the Freedom Marches began. During this 
period the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee 
(SNCC) emerged. This organization represented at that time 
the most radical wing of the Civil Rights Movement, and 
one of its leaders popularized a new approach to equality, 
the approach symbolized by the words "Black Power." 

In 1962, James Baldwin began to emerge as one of the 
most popular and sought-after writers of the times. His 
angry bitterness left his readers and audiences astounded, 
some in silent glee, and others in noisy objection; but all 
were left with something real to think about. 

The summer of '64 saw the beginning of police inspired 
"riots", which consisted largely of looting sprees, burning 
of buildings, and necessary retaliation against the police 
force. These disruptions, which broke out in large and small 
cities alike, were mislabeled "race riots." The so-called 
"riots" and SNCC represented a new militancy, which was 
acceptable to large groups of Black youth. 

These national events had a significant influence upon 
the Black youth's attitudes and responses to race relations 
in America and on the college campus. 

Meanwhile, academia could not let the attention being 
paid to the thrust for equality go unnoticed. America had 
to try to keep up the surface appearance of being con- 
cerned about Blacks and equality and democracy. The 
prestigious northern and midwestern universities became in- 
creasingly uncomfortable at the visible lack of Black faces 
within their walls. It was time for them too to get on the 
Civil Rights band wagon and at the same time get some of 
those government grants! (Lots of bread goes to a univer- 
sity if they have ethnic projects.) The racial make-up of 
their student bodies could easily be compared with those 
institutions in the deep South, undergoing forced desegrega- 
tion. Administrators of these white American educational 
institutions began to do their bit to uphold American equal- 
ity in education. (Keep things looking good on the surface.) 
College admission officers were sent into ghetto high 

schools in the North and segregated high schools in the 
South to seek out "academically qualified" Black students. 
Handsome scholarships plus living allowances were offered 
as enticements to attend prestigious universities. These 
institutions began competing for the topnotch Black stu- 
dent in graduating classes of high schools in Mississippi, 
Arkansas, Harlem, Detroit, and Watts. 

These high school graduates were quite different from 
the typical Black student who previously gained admission 
to white universities on the basis of the used criteria and 
the quota system. The quota system was an unquestioned 
policy of many university administrations in their admis- 
sion practices of various ethnic groups. 

The demands for more Black students on white cam- 
puses led to the development of special programs. So called 
"Disadvantaged Student" programs were hatching up on 
numerous campuses. Feeder organizations began providing 
universities with prospective applicants. 

What most administrators were not aware of was the 
attitude that many of these so-called "disadvantaged stu- 
dents" held toward the racial scene in America. For those 
were the youth who had been made acutely aware of the 
Black man's plight in America. They had seen, heard, and 
participated in or knew peers who had taken part in — free- 
dom marches, demonstrations and protests. 

Their attitude toward the university was also an unex- 
pected one. The idea that they should be grateful for the 
opportunity to attend top-notch colleges was passe ... A 
comment about the increase of Black students on the white 
campuses from a sophomore from Chicago exemplifies the 
new assessment. 

"The admission of more Black Students to predomi- 
nately white universities and expecting us to be pla- 
cated simply because we are receiving scholarships — 
reparation for damages — is an insult to Black integ- 
rity and intellect. Very few whites have seen that this 
is simply not enough. Black students are no longer 
functioning within somebody else's framework. We 
are laboring diligently to fashion our own future de- 
sires. It is a mistake to think that they can bring us 



here and that we will assimilate their culture and inte- 
grate into their racist, decadent society." 
This student had obviously been exposed to the writings 
and philosophies of some of the more philosophic Black 
leaders of today and also of the past [e.g., W.E.B. DuBois 
and Carter G. Woodson]. This attitude indicates a major 
difference between the post '63 Black student and the 
earlier group. The current students have Black leaders with 
whom they can identify. If one figure had to be singled out 
as having the most influence on the intelligent, militant 
look among college students, that person would be Malcolm 
X. His articulate and intelligent, but brutally honest, anal- 
ysis of the Black man's oppression in America, coupled 
with his ethnocentric ideology, has stimulated the Black 
youth as no other man has done during his time. Today, 
Malcolm is regarded with reverence by practically all Black 
students in white institutions. 

The increasing number of Blacks on predominately 
white campuses should give rise to new strengths. No longer 
should they enter the universities with a naive concept of 
the purpose of their being on campus. Most of the Black 
students are psychologically prone to the concept of 
nationalism as a means of survival. There are Black Studies 
Departments and Afro-Am Organizations to offer students 
support, direction, and to help them develop a political 
perspective. The Black student today on the predominately 
white campus must develop so serious and earnest an atti- 
tude towards Black survival, that there should be very little 
room left for fear of consequences! 

[Dr. Gloria Joseph is presently a professor of Education at 
the University of Massachusetts School of Education. She 
received her Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from Cornell 
University where she held the positions of Assistant Dean 
of Students and Director of Committee on Special Educa- 
tional Projects Counseling Services, (Cornell). I 


In speaking with Dr. Bromery con- 
cerning his position as Vice Chancellor 
of Student Affairs, he attests that this 
institution (UMass) is under the whim 
of the State Legislature, and he sees 
himself as working within the system. 
He added, "Black people have to begin 
to deal in the political arena with 

"Any administrator is also partly 
politician — black men and women get- 
ting to a certain point in life, are 
probably more politically aware than 
their white counterparts, at that same 
point, on that same level. One thing that 
you find is that white students are more 
politically inclined than their white 

Dr. Bromery sees a "political sense" 
as an advantage over whites, but also 
feels that it is offset somewhat by the 
system itself. 

"The system either overcompensates 
or undercompensates for you, so you 
don't really know whether what you did 
was because of your administrative 
expertise, your political sense or 
whether the institution withdrew and 
let you do it." 

Bromery then commented on one of 
the disadvantages of the overcompensa- 
tion aspect. 

"If one's not careful you'll end 
up with a 'black' degree or a 
'black' position which is really a 
position they can put you in and 
nullify you. — You're sittin' up 
front and looking good, but you 
don't have any power, you don't 
do anything." 
He went on to explain the reason for this: 
"Our present reward system has a 
tendency to buy people, if a black 
person in my position wanted to play 




By John E. Davis 


the game; I could go out there and get 
on the market and escalate my salary 
almost double. But I find the higher the 
salary the more I have to give up, the 
more I have to compromise." 

When Bromery was asked about the 
closing of Mills House (3/2/71) he 
responded, "First black people have to 
get along. Even if we have disagree- 
ments, we need to shut doors some- 
where and air-out our own dirty linen. 
My concern, the moment you go 
through this (closing Mills 
House) — part of it has to be propa- 
ganda, and I'm not sure that all the 
spin-offs are positive for the Black 
Community. What effect will the shut- 
down have on us even if we win? We 
have to balance out the pluses and 
minuses. It becomes like a labor negotia- 
tions, that if you go out on a strike after 
it reaches a certain point, even if you 
went back to work, you're never going 
to catch up to what you've lost." 

Dr. Bromery also discussed the 
pivotal nature of the relationships be- 
tween the black faculty and black stu- 
dents in relation to what happened at 
Mills House. 

"The students have to understand 
the concern, the frustration and the 
responsibilities of the black faculty. 
Each one of us have two 'inter-faces'. 
The interfacing that the black faculty 
and black staff have to do is with the 
white institution. That is a difficult 

interface to meet, in addition to the 
interfaces with their white counter- 
parts and the black students. Some- 
times they're so busy dealing with 
that interface with the institution 
that they forget the interface with 
the black students. 

Black students have to recognize 
that the black faculty has to have 
these two faces; one in front to deal 
with the white institution and the 
other one in the back to deal with 
the black students, which ever way 
you want to turn them. If they turn 
their back around and face the stu- 
dents, and try to be responsive to 
their needs, then sometimes the 
institution creeps up behind them. 

Yet I understand black students 

have this same interfacing with the 

white students on campus, and have 

all kinds of frustrations of their own 

to deal with; it all may well be a 

communication problem." 

"We have to define what are the 

common things we are trying to do. 

There are approaches, or vehicles that 

the black faculty can use that the black 

students cannot. Maybe one day we'll 

sit down to define where do we want to 

go, and does everybody want to go 


"Generally, the whites of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts would 
dearly love to see us break-up in an 
explosion among the black components 

on this campus. I'd do anything to keep 
from delivering that. Even if I have to 
compromise a little bit." 

Dr. Bromery also assessed some of 
the successes and failures of the CCEBS 
program. He informed me that a Board 
of Directors for the program was ini- 
tially in the by-laws of CCEBS, but 
never was formally accosted. 

"I see the need for a formalized 
Board of Directors to focus on program 
operations: planning for recruiting new 
classes, overview the structure of 
CCEBS to determine whether it is stay- 
ing within our philosophical lines and 
whether it is being responsive to the 

As president of CCEBS, Dr. Bromery 
said he devoted most of his energies 
toward finding a fixed funding base for 
the program. 

"CCEBS originally wanted not only 
to provide access for black students to 
UMass but create an academic support 
system, so that students could go 
through the University and not have to 
change themselves. We have to change 
the University - so, CCEBS got in- 
volved in getting more black faculty, 
more black grad students in each depart- 
ment, and more non-professional black 
people working in the various colleges." 

Bromery sees the changing of the 
UMass environment as essential to the 
survival of black students on this cam- 


"I don't know whether the grade- 
point-averages at the end of the first 
semester is an indicator of success or 
failure. With the impairments that a lot 
of black students have coming here, it 
may take three or four semesters before 
they start catching up. The fault may be 
that there are loop holes in the program 
itself. There is a tendency in any pro- 
gram of this type to not individualize 
the services that are offered. A lot of 
students come through high school 
without any academic motivation. One 
thing CCEBS may have not done well in 
terms of helping students in assisting 
them in establishing priorities. 

"I would like to see the CCEBS 
program dealing on what are the posi- 
tive things that a black student has 
when he comes here. One positive thing 
is that a black student, in an urban 
environment, has learned how to 
negotiate the system, or else he would 
not have survived to finish high school. 
Let's use that positive attribute that the 
black students have and focus it on 
trying to deal with this academic sys- 
Dr. Bromery — On Drugs 

"Students themselves are saying 
they want to get the hard-drug sellers 
out of here. Drugs are the one luxury 
we cannot afford as black people. 
There are so few black students on 
the UMass campus, there is no need 
to sacrifice some of the prime black 
men and women that we need. The 


thing that distresses me is when one 
black cat is able to profit off another 
black guy in this way. I become 
emotionally involved when I have to 
go bail someone out of jail at two 
o'clock in the morning on a drug 
charge . . . Black people have an 
obligation to their brothers and sis- 
ters, and if the seller himself isn't 
going to get out of there, then I 
think somebody needs to tell him 
that he needs to go somewhere else. I 
don't think anybody knows whether 
15% -2% or 80% of the black stu- 
dents are 'strung-out' on drugs, be- 
cause the drug-culture is a closed 
one. But I don't feel we can afford to 
take the vigilante approach and 
abridge somebody's civil liberties, be- 
cause our civil liberties have been 
abridged too many times. If a person 
is a seller, he still has certain rights, 
and it may be that our best approach 
toward that individual is from an 
educational point of view; by simply 
appealing to that individual. 
When I asked Dr. Bromery about the 
rejection of Herbert Aptheker's profes- 
sorship in the Black Studies Depart- 
ment, he gave the following account of 
what happened (or what does happen). 
Bromery acknowledged Aptheker's 
expertise in the field of American his- 
tory for the slavery era, and he strongly 
disagreed with Aptheker not being able 
to come here. He contended that negoti- 
ations took place between the Afro- 
American Studies Department, Herbert 
Aptheker, and the Provost. Bromery 

also pointed out that the negotiations 
for Aptheker's appointment, and the 
question of the W.E.B. DuBois Papers 
(which Aptheker has in his trusteeship) 
were two separate negotiations. 

"Because Aptheker did not get the 
appointment in the department does 
not preclude our getting the DuBois 
papers. All the faculty, deans, depart- 
mental chairmen, etc., only recommend 
appointments to the Board of Trustees, 
while the Board of Trustees are sitting 
out there in a different political climate 
than the Chancellor, the Dean, or the 
Chairman of the Department. Once the 
decision gets beyond Black Studies, by 
the time it gets up the administrative 
ladder, we find their overview is differ- 
ent. They have to consider 'what effect 
is this going to have on the institution'. 
And finally when it gets to the Board of 
Trustees (in their judgement) if they 
feel that the appointment of this 
individual could create a backlash from 
the State Legislature (which in effect 
controls how much we get in our 
budget), and they feel the disadvantages 
outweigh the advantages, then they'll 
say no." 

However, Bromery confirmed that he 
didn't know where the actual decision 
was made, and added, "It's too bad we 
are in a situation where you can't hire 
someone for his scholarly ability, it's a 
form that shows that the system does 
discriminate. It discriminates anybody 
that they feel constitutes a threat to 

In closing Bromery said he would 

like to see the CCEBS program grow, by 
increased advertising on the junior high 
levels. And would like to see a lock in 
with SASSI (Street Academy Systems 
of Springfield Incorporated). "Anyone 
who comes through SASSI Prep, that 
they recommend would also be able to 
come through the CCEBS program. If 
we can get CCEBS to work here I'd like 
to see it exported to state colleges, 
UMass-Boston and other publicly sup- 
ported institutions." Dr. Bromery envi- 
sions that it is just a matter of time 
before the private institutions will be- 
come dependent on the state, due to the 
existing financial situation. 

"I recognize that we are probably 
going into an era of tight money, so it's 
not going to be easy. I think there are 
going to be times that are quite dismal 
and quite disappointing, but I think 
that's the time we have to stick in there 
and hustle." 

... & the beat goes on. 

[Interview: Dr. Randolph Bromery, a 
graduate of Howard University, holds an 
M.S. degree from American University 
and a Ph. D. from Johns Hopl^ins Univer- 
sity. Bromery came to UMass in 1967 as 
an associate professor of geology. He 
was named head of that department in 
1969. Dr. Bromery also helped found, 
and is president of CCEBS. On March 
16, 1970, Dr. Oswald Tippo appointed 
him to Special Assistant to the Chancel- 
lor. Presently, Dr. Bromery serves as the 
Vice Chancellor on Student Affairs.] 


i'y. JK -^^r-i 







up till now; & then some 

political prisoners are as 
that of entertainers — they *pop* up &, 

are discovered; 

— niggers laugh & *pop* their fingers — 

They Disappear/they act/THEY DISAPPEAR/they . 

. . . Bobby Seale played 'court jester'; 
while Cleaver entertained William Buckley 

(They act). 

— niggers laugh again . . . 

& Angela Davis the black/american — 
(what kind of 
shit/is that?) 

THEY DISAPPEAR/they jest/They disappear/ they 

As CBS televised Carmichael dancing 
a political soft-shoe-shuffle with 
David Frost, 

& we watched Malcolm, "Meet the Press" 

They act. They entertain, they 


they die??? 

and only those cry, who 

didn't get to see the 

whole performance/in 


John E. Davis 


** Don't Double Fist Against Biacic Faculty" 

Dr. Larry Johnson 
(An Interview by Cal. B. Whitworth) 

Dr. Johnson is the assistant dean of the School of 
Business Administration, and as Dr. Johnson explains it he 
"designs and runs a program for black students in the 
School of Business at the graduate level, and is in the 
process of developing a program at the undergraduate 
level." At present the School of Business is comprised of 
ten percent black and Spanish speaking students. 

Recently Dr. Johnson has been in the process of 
expanding program "ABEL" a summer program which 
covers four academic areas: math, economics, accounting, 
in addition to reading comprehension. This program, 
however, is open only to graduate students who after 
receiving their degrees go out and work in their respective 
communities. The program has been extended to Syracuse 
University and Boston University. UMass. being the central 

Dr. Johnson finds that most of the black students in the 
School of Business Administration are not really academi- 
cally qualified to fulfill the required courses. This he said is 
due to the lack of the proper foundation courses in the high 
schools. Dr. Johnson was appalled by the caliber of 
education in the Boston and Springfield school systems. 
Next semester he will be teaching a course in Black Studies 
entitled "The History of the Economic Development of 
Black People in the United States." Dr. Johnson sees Black 
Studies as a necessary part of the campus educational 
atmosphere. He strongly recommends that "black people 
should learn as much about their history as they possibly 
can, in order to be aware of their strengths and weak- 

Dr. Johnson expresses mixed emotions about CCEBS. 

He sees it as absolutely essential on every campus in the 
U.S. "Black Students get robbed in this structure." This he 
says "goes back all the way to prebirth. Because of 
nutritional deficiencies at home and a lack of motivation in 
pre-school children to develop reading and writing skills, 
the syndrome is begun. So that when he reaches the 
kindergarten level hs is already behind white children. 
According to the Coleman studies a white child with a high 
school diploma is three-and-a-half years ahead of a black 
child with a high school diploma." "The black faculty 
because of lack of communication between themselves and 
students, has not been as active as they should." It is his 
feeling, however, that the black faculty will be totally 
involved in the future. He emphasised the fact that "a lot of 
students don't understand what the black faculty members 
are attempting to do or have done, consequently they 
remain uptight." Dr. Johnson said "Black Students have to 
stop doubling up their fist and wanting to fight the black 
faculty. The black faculty will help to develop the intellect 
of the black community." 

Dr. Johnson concluded by saying he would "really want 
to see the black faculty serve as a model as to what a 
university should be like, where there is total involvement 
of black faculty in the affairs of black students." 

[Dr. Larry Johnson was born in Boston and received his 
secondary school education at Boston English High School. 
He attended Boston University and received both his 
bachelor's and master's degrees there. He received his 
doctorate at Stanford University.] 


The Sixth Generation Child 

I am of the 4th Dimension 

— where questions answer themselves 
& problems are the solution — 

A 6th generation child — knowledgable. 
where rivers flow uphill like 
the nile: 

past. bygone slavery & 
white beastiality 

I am the six Wonders of the World 
my son the 7th & last . . . 


beware this 6th generation child, 
my prophetic progeny 
shall be the Master of Fate. 
The firegodcreator of an 

end to beginning again. 

I am Appalachian High & Sahara dry. 
a universal child of an unseen era; 
an unforetold future 
of a misplaced & forgotten Age. 

John E. Davis 


V %- 


Bloodheat is a special attraction, a unique chemical 
attraction between a black man and a black wornan. It is a 
bond that has been sealed with metaphysical glue and 
midtivarious intrinsic qualities found only in the heart, 
psyche, and soul quotient of the black man and the black 

Bloodheat is a feeling, an emotion that cannot exist 
between a black man and a white woman or a white man and 
a black woman. It is an exclusive. It is the cidmination of a 
timeless contract written millenia ago and sealed in the 
blood, rust, and dust of the original man and the original 



black man 

black man, oh my black man 
confined in a turbulent world 


Vietnam . . . etc. 
where does it all end? 
is it rapacity that contrives such hatred? 
black man, oh my black man 


fight for what? 
slavery-mentally chained! 
"Last call for Flight 147 to Fort Dix". 



Come away, my love 

Come away, my love, from streets 
where unkind eyes divide. 
And shop windows reflect our difference 
In shelter of my faithful room, rest 

There safe from opinion, being behind 
Myself, I see only you; 
And in your dark eyes your blues 
Will dissolve 

The candlelight throws 
Two dark shadows on the wall 
Which merge into one as I close beside you 

When at last the lights are out, 
And I feel your hand in mine 
Two human breaths join in one 
And the drum weaves 
Its unchallenged beat 




A poem of the people 

-the tragedy- 
A ghost wind from hell 

couldn't blow as cold as 
The streets of the ghetto in 
the winter. 

Last night a dealer got 
stabbed and ripped off 
in front of the poolroom. 
A weeping mother has just 
heard, her youngest son 
was found frozen to death 
in an alley this morning, 
needle marks in his arm. 

Lurks in the streets 
of the black world, 
A whole world imprisoned 
by invisible wire, barbed 
with misery. And the 
clever might deny 
it, but it's living, 
breathing, growing — 
growing strong, crushing 
the tender struggling 
flowers of our future. 
It is the tragedy of 
Black Misery. 



^1 -s,