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iy I. Jones, Herman L. Davenport 
Mildred N. Davenport 
Imogene Lewis 
stine Jewell, Kenneth Wright, Doris Willjli 
Debbe Holford 

Carol Fraser 

Robert Padgett 

Al Hart, Paul Barrows 



I reasurer 

ffice Staff 

Editor s Note: We are at this time extendin 


te in the publication of the 

THE DRUM, Fall, 1971 
Vol. 3, No. 1 

Editorial, Circulation and Ad- 
vertising Offices located at 111 
Mills House, University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, Mass. 01002. 

Printing: Gazette Printing Co., Inc. Northampton, 







Dedication to 
Black Prisoners 
News Features 



Noted Black Women 

Great Black Music 

Film Review 

The Cockroach on a Bike 



To be continued 

Herman Davenport 

Lynette Williams 

Acklyn Lynch 

Ken Wright 

Bob Padgett 

Denise Williams 

A I Key 

Sonia Sanchez 

Bill Hasson 

Jacquie Jones 

Emmanuel Asibong 

Bob Padgett 

Roy Jones 




Due to the recent events taking place in the 
country's houses of correction, reformatories 
and prisons, the DRUM is paying a special 
tribute to those Brothers and Sisters (many of 
whom are facing death row) concerned with 
the uplift of Black and all third world peoples. 
Although the overt reality of prisons has 
drawn our attention to the unjustness of the 
penal system, more importantly, it is the em- 
phasis of the DRUM to draw attention to the 
prison(s) surrounding each and every one of 
us. Consciously or unconsciously, we are all 
caught in a web of terror, with one sincere 
hope of uniting before it is too late. 




In recent years many people in this country have 
begun to realize and admit certain truths to them- 
selves. This realization and admittance has not ne- 
cessarily brought about changes that make growth 
possible, but they have brought about changes in the 
tactics of the various "interest groups" in this coun- 
try. They have changed the politics of those within 
the arena and have given new names to the "lions that 
devour christians in the coliseum." 

What are these truths and who is meditating on 
them? These truths are life and we are those meditat- 

The bigots are realizing that there is not only a 
cultural-racial prejudice, but also a politico-economic 
one. The liberal is realizing that he cannot stand back 
and say "we love everybody," send his money to his 
favorite minority charity or watch his bigot brother 
continue his oppression of powerless people without 
feeling the same pain that is administered by the op- 
pressed as they desperately lash back at the system 
seeking any means of survival. The oppressed are 
realizing that "minority" no longer steadfastly means 
being few in number; instead it means being power- 
less; no economic power and no political power. 

But these issues are by no means new. What is 
happening now has happened throughout history. 
Pharaoh had his Israelites. Rome had its Carthage. 
England had its India and America .... 

Has our Moses come and gone; have we missed our 
Hannibal; did we let our Ghandi die; are we six mil- 
lion Jews in Nazi Germany saying that they don't 
kill good Germans? 

Editor's Note: During the past few months the 
Emergency Defense Committee for Sister Angela 
Davis and other Brothers and Sisters in California 
prisons, has been raising funds for their defense. We 
strongly urge your support! 

Emergency Defense Committee 
310 Mills House 
University of Massachusetts 


Protesting yet we discriminate 

Persistence, they retaliate 



The suppressed. 

Why depressed 


Yet superiority 


Perfect resistance 

Condemned in infancy 

Existing in fantasy. 

Premeditate then persecute: 





Resolve you hypocrite. 

Lynnette Williams 
(Roxbury, Mass.) 







s -. 


"~ "^ ■ 

^' J 

■ _ 







The dramatic events at Attica have compelled us to 
examine fundamental aspects of social justice in the 
political matrix of this society. People around the 
world have expressed alarm at democracy's response 
to a confrontation, which challenged and perhaps 
undermined its tenets of justice and equality. There 
was no resiliency in the decision-making process to 
encourage a continuation of the dialogue or to pre- 
vent a polarization of forces. This allowed reaction to 
set in and madness to prevail. The anguished cries of 
those who were murdered, maimed or brutalized have 
been heard throughout the world. Their voices echo 
the context of exploitation that thousands (or even 
millions) of ordinary people, conscious of their op- 
pression, have brought before the bar of humanity. 

During the weeks following the massacre at Attica, 
people have written extensively on the collapse of the 
state and federal apparatus in the decision-making 
process. Even the appointment of investigating bod- 
ies, which will attempt to legitimize and justify the 
actions of the political leadership, will be compelled to 
highlight some inconsistencies in the final solution 
executed by the state. Speeches have been made about 
the dehumanizing aspects of prison life, the indisput- 
able clarity of the inmates in their expressions of 
unity and collective struggle, and the history of be- 
trayal which prisoners have experienced from offi- 
cials in the legal and penal institutions, thereby com- 
pelling prisoners to question the integrity of nego- 
tiators and administrators. These issues have been 
debated hard and long, but in the rhetorical frenzy, we 
have forgotten to go back precisely to the character 
of the demands made by the prisoners at Attica. 

This essay will deal explicitly with those demands, 
for it is in their very essence, their very nature, that 
the challenge to fundamental aspects of our "so- 
called" democratic tradition projected an incompatible 
situation. The men at Attica genuinely believed that 
the society and perhaps Commissioner Russel Oswald 
were serious about the question of penal reform, even 
though they might have been aggrieved at the murder 
of George Jackson at San Quentin. Their Manifesto 
of Demands tore at the very fabric of the social struc- 
ture and demanded that democratic rights become a 
vibrant and living part of the institutional structure 
so that there could be a radical transformation of 
their dehumanized reality. 

In the preamble to the Manifesto the inmates 
heightened the facade of the rehabilitative process to 
which they have been submitted, by comparing it with 
"the ancient stupidity of pouring water on a drown- 
ing man in as much as they are treated for their hos- 
tilities by their program administrators with the lat- 
ter's hostility as medication." The ineffectiveness of 
this rehabilitative process is not only dramatized by 
the high percentage of recidivism, but by the compel- 
ling story of Haywood Patterson in Scottsboro Boys 
Trial as he emphasizes the neuroses and demoniac 
tendencies of prison authorities, who have become 
victims of it in precisely the same sense as the prison- 

In the preamble, the men at Attica emphasized that 
they have been denied not only due process of the 
law and other Constitutional Rights, but more im- 
portantly, as they seek to expand intellectually so 
that they might be in touch with social movements 

and world trends, they are systematically cut off from 
the pursuit of knowledge and "remanded to isola- 
tion status whenever they insist on their human rights 
to the wisdom of awareness." It is at this level that 
prison authorities are terrified by the growing politi- 
cal consciousness, sensitivity and keen perceptions of 
today's Black prisoners, who have come to under- 
stand that they are the most abused victims of an un- 
righteous social order. The Elliot Barclays, the Herbert 
X. Blydens, the Richard Clarkes etc, have become the 
architects, builders and broadcasters of a social ethic 
that has moved beyond the traditional liberal posture 
of penal reformist. 

The demands were updated expressions of the ar- 
guments presented by Black prisoners in the decade 
of the sixties from Malcolm X to George Jackson. The 
demands were Constitutional, political, economic, 
social and cultural. They indicate a thorough grasp 
not only of the context of exploitation, but the ef- 
fective conditions for substantive reform in the re- 
habilitative process. 

The Manifesto emphasized the rights of legal re- 
presentation at parole board hearings and the at- 
tendant procedural safeguards at parole revocation 
hearings. It called for improved and adequate medi- 
cal attention and public health practices at a time 
when the society itself is attempting to come to grips 
with a national health crisis and inadequate facilities. 
It demanded that economic exploitation be stopped, 
but at the same time it recommended that opportuni- 
ties for rehabilitation through preparation for entry 
into the productive processes of the industrial sector 
should be programmatically designed "by allowing 

those industries outside who desire to enter for the 
purpose of employment placement." They have rec- 
ognized that working conditions in prisons did not 
develop working incentives parallel to the many jobs in 
the outside society, and "a paroled prisoner therefore 
faced many contradictions of the job that added to his 
difficulty of adjusting." This is a progressive reformist 
position, which the penal system should consider seri- 
ously, for it will inject a new dymanic in the rehabilita- 
tive process. It is certainly interesting that men, whom 
the reactionary elements consider to be revolutionary 
activists, provide a reformist alternative that will en- 
hance social progress. 

The Manifesto demanded the Constitutional right 
to peaceful dissent, and "an end to political persecu- 
tion, racial persecution, and the denial of prisoners' 
rights to subscribe to political papers, books or any 
other educational and current media chronicles that 
are forwarded through the U.S. Mail." These are 
fundamental rights, which if abridged will only serve 
to undermine the rehabilitative process, for it is only 
with the free exchange of ideas in the market-place 
that men can grow with maturity to understand the 
precepts of social intercourse, and thereby validate 
democratic definitions. 

The Manifesto expressed a high level of social 
awareness as it demanded an end to the unhealthy 
conditions of surroundings "reinforced by the esca- 
lating practice of physical brutality perpetrated on 
inmates." It called for "one set of rules governing all 
prisoners in the state of New York" rather than the 
totalitarian system which empowered each warden 
with ultimate authority for running the institution 
"as he sees fit." 

The Manifesto expressed the architect's determina- 
tion to challenge the present system of dehumaniza- 
tion, brutality and injustice. The men at Attica were 
prepared to die for the democratic principles not only 
enunciated in their Manifesto, but experienced in 
their revolt as they raised their level of consciousness 
and dignity to a spiritual plateau where individualism, 
fear and cowardice did not prevail, but rather the con- 
tours of collective integrity, effective unity of pur- 
pose and action, and a clear understanding that death 
is a reflection of a noble life. This was buttressed by 
their convictions that the human spirit will not yield 

to corrosive and destructive forces, but it will en- 
scribe the truth of their struggle on the pages of his- 
tory with blood, sweat and tears. Elliot Barclay, L.D., 
one of the brothers who was murdered at Attica re- 
minded the negotiators that we should take seriously 
what has happened at Attica for the inmates' lives 
have been the fullest expression of the vital sinews of 
a revolutionary tradition. 

Acklyn R. Lynch 

W.E.B. Department of Afro-American 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 
October 24, 1971 

"WhatPrison Are You In?" 


Springfield is a community not too distant from 
Amherst but yet we seldom if ever connect ourselves 
with the happenings that transpire there. Only now 
have we just begun to involve ourselves with our 

One case in point is the recent racial disturbances 
in the Springfield High Schools. This seems to have 
been precipitated by white outsiders bent on harras- 
sing the Black students. This situation is similar to 
that of two years ago when a number of schools were 
closed because of agitation from without and within 
the school system. 

Following the initial disturbance there was a com- 
munity meeting held at the now defunct Buckingham 
Junior High School which is now- used for adult ed- 
ucational classes. At this session were students from 
the various high schools, parents, community or- 
ganizers, the mayor, the superintendent of schools 
and other concerned citizens. There was a debate that 
was centered around concern of student welfare. At 
times the tone became quite volatile, almost to the 
point of physical violence. 

When it became apparent that in answering the 
questions Mayor Friedman was playing a political 
game (the elections were coming up soon), students 
left the meeting en masse. Later, a mass student dem- 
onstration was held for the purpose of showing unity 
but because of a fracas involving injury to a white 
boy, more cops and social workers appeared on the 
scene to quell the students. In the following weeks, 
conditions improved but there are still some basic 

We can keep our eyes on this community situa- 
tion for the problem was not solved but the people 
were temporarily assuaged. 

For those of us who are from Springfield, we 
should become more involved in our community and 
to all Brothers and Sisters, for although we may be 
in our academic towers, reality is in the communities 
from whence we came. 

Robert J. Padgett 


On the afternoon of September 18, 1971, Sisters 
Brenda Hall and Diane Mitchell, upon leaving Mars 
Department Store were stopped, accused and arrested 
for alleged shoplifting. During the course of the ar- 
rest Miss Hall's blouse and jacket were torn off. She 
managed temporarily to escape more brutality, but 
was soon picked up in a nearby service station and 
taken to the police station. 

Upon their release a group of concerned friends 
and relatives met with them on Green Street to find 
out what had happened and what could possibly be 
done about it. There also were a few representatives 
of the "Pyramid" a black non-violent community or- 
ganization present. Before the sister could finish ex- 
plaining what had happened, three or four police cars 
arrived on the scene. These enforcers of law and order 
immediately began to herd the people into a nearby 
apartment house as if they were cattle. 

One member of the Pyramid, recognizing the offi- 
cer in charge, approached him and told him that if he 
could get his men out of the area he would control 
the situation and see to it that the blacks left the 
streets peacefully. As soon as he had done this, he 
prepared to leave the area but noticed that the "pigs" 
had by now set up roadblocks allowing no one to 
enter or leave. He returned to the area where the peo- 
ple had been and began talking to a friend when the 
"pigs" returned beating every black in sight. They 
were, as some black witnesses report, "so carried 
away with their administration of 'justice' that they 
had beaten and arrested everyone but themselves." 

It was told that these merciless beatings and accu- 
sations did not stop in the streets but were continued 
at the police station. The blacks say that there were 
reporters from a Worcester newspaper photograph- 
ing the beatings but nothing mentioned by the (white) 

To Blacks in Fitchburg, this was another demon- 
stration of police brutality, this was another demon- 
stration of the powerlessness of an oppressed people, 
and this was another demonstration of how mass 
media can be used to suppress the truth. 

Police reports in Fitchburg probably read that a 
"number of blacks were arrested for throwing rocks 
and bottles at whites."??? 

Kenneth E. Wright 


There is no time for bargaining now, 

!\o time to sit in idle memories. 

Hollow negatives frame each thought out — 

Lining the faith and understanding. 

Compromising circumstances of trust 

Has locked out many would-be-invaders. 

Enchanted by the emptiness-endless boundaries 

(Cause clusvness in freedom 

Dreams intertwining with happy 

Moments — tears have autographed 


Warmth has conquered the silent stillness 

Embalmed to persevere any sorroic. 

And erected with pride to just have been 

Part of it 



Dedicated to LMAC 
Everlastingly in Peace 

Den Williams 


Damn, why doesn't the University include more Blacks in its athletic pro- 
grams? This question arises more and more daily, as various teams take to the 
courts and fields that distinguish their individuality. 

Upon asking such a "loaded" question one should take into account that 
only a few years ago the question of extended education of the Black populace 
arose. Not out of genuine concern for the Black populace of the state, but more 
out of fear and compromise. Determining that there was a serious deficiency in 
the area of Black higher education, the initiative was taken to institute various 
programs for admitting and supporting the "deprived" ones. 

Now that we are all up to date on the influx of more Blacks onto and into 
this environment, I want to examine just one of the institutions within the insti- 
tution that has not changed with the "times." It is necessary to emphasize at 
this point— the enormous athletic abihty possessed by Black people. 

It was my sincere hope on first entering this particular institution to parti- 
cipate in intercollegiate athletics. I was told upon applying for admission to the 
football team that I first had to pass certain tests instituted by the fathers of the 
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The first was to qualify for 
participation by predicting a 1.6 grade point average for my first semester. I was 
already defined as inferior by the mere fact of my acceptance through the side 
door. My board scores were low, my class rank was even lowe;; the athletic 
director at the school I attended was indifferent toward Blacks and the coach 
was an Irishman from South Boston (can you dig!). I was being told that before 
I could be able to participate in athletics of any type, I would have to meet all the 
requirements that were based on the very things denied me during my high 
school career. 

Maybe some cannot see the significance of such an autobiographical sketch 
of a Black male entering a white institution. To Black students expecting to en- 
joy some of the privileges enjoyed by his white counterparts it isn't an autobio- 
graphy but a biography. The experience of exclusion by frustration can be ap- 
plied to many of those Brothers on this campus and others like it throughout 
the country who have aspired to reach some level of athletic involvement. 

If one is familiar with the taxation practices of this institution, you can see 
the same taxation without representation perpetuated by the administrators of 
the university. Each Brother and Sister pays, whether outright or through schol- 
arship, their share of athletic fees, but are grossly misrepresented on the athletic 

In closing, I hope this article will provide a base for future reviews on the 
Black athlete. 

Noted Black Women 

Sonia Sanchez 



r \ 

V t ■\ 'i 

We have heard different people speak on issues concerning 
Black people but each one has his own ideas. Sonia Sanchez is not 
an exception. Here is what went down when we interviewed her at 
American International College. 

Sonia Sanchez's style is unlike that of another well known 
Black poetess, Gwendolyn Brooks, but both deal with Black peo- 
ple's life styles. 

One of the main issues she discussed was the "importance of 
learning." This learning is that type of learning with which we gain 
more knowledge of self so that we, as a people, can be more effect- 
ive in dealing with life and its many problems. Too often we are 
not prepared to adequately deal with life and its many pitfalls. We 
are often miseducated in the oppressive school system that seldom 
if ever realizes our needs. 

Sister Sonia then discusses how this "miseducation" can be 
seen by how the Black student projects his image. "We see those 
students who rap "right on," "the revolution is now" and one of 
the more favorite sayings "thats hip." Instead of the rhetoric being 
so strong we should be about action, said Sonia. In spite of all the 
talk that is done sometimes by these so-called authorities of Black- 
ness, we see that very little if anything is accomplished. On the 
other hand when we have students who are workers, one can see 
"fruits of their labor." This is one of the strong points that Sonia 
advocated, for she feels that "rhetoric without action is like a doc- 
tor in an emergency incident without his medical bag. If some of 
our brothers and sisters who use various slogans to subvert the 
main issues would just think before they get carried away with their 
rap, we could become a more action oriented people. But unfortu- 
nately we continue to hear those same old phrases over and over 
and sometimes we wonder: does that sister or brother really mean 
what he is saying or is this just a way of trying to be popular with 
the group?" 

If we look at history and the present day situations, we are re- 
minded of those rhetoreticians who with cataclysmic slogans 
aroused a number of people to action. These leaders blended slo- 
gans with action. Then, too, it is important for us to know that 
learning takes place not only within our cloistered academic castles 
that sometimes make us become completely oblivious to the out- 
side world but also in the real world, a world that causes us to act- 
ion. Textbooks cannot help us solve some of these problems but 
yet we hear this and that type of theory trying to solve the prob- 
lem of the community. There are times when those outside of an 
academic community can teach us more than any textbook ever 

What we should do is as Sonia said "oil your bodies with 
learning and knowledge." This is one way in which we can defin- 
itely build a stronger Black nation. 



In case you don't know anything about the recording industry let me lay something on you. There is a 
certain sound that the recording industries want to parcel out to the public. This sound is usually intertwined 
with the racism, exploitation, lying, stealing, and cheating that goes along with the white supremist domina- 
tion over powerless people. And let me say at this point if you think that music has nothing to do with how 
people live then I suggest that you check out your history. Music can change your way of life, heighten your 
level of consciousness, and allow you to see what the problems are and sometimes offers alternatives to those 
problems. The recording industry knows this and is wiUing to allow only those artists to record that they give 
the stamp of approval to. Sure, we buy records and some are very good but have you stopped to consider that 
there are sounds you haven't heard and why? All of the aforementioned brings me to the point of the record- 
ings I wish to review. 

It is difficult to say all that you want if you are a black person here in America and even more difficult if 
you are a Black artist. It is necessary that the message that the black artist has gets to the people. But if you 
don't control the means to get the message to the people then you have to go somewhere else. Many Black mu- 
sicians have done this, and Europe is the place they usually end up. It appears that the Europeans in general 
are more appreciative of the sounds that black musicians have to offer and the recording company's attitude is 
quite different. That is not to say that the black people in this country do not appreciate their black artists. 
Black people at this time do not control the means to sustain their artist, so the artist is forced to flee to Europe. 

Also the night club and concert mystique is different in Europe. Musicians say that they are treated more 
humanely and no one comes to the sets to study the expressions on the faces of the musicians or what kind of 
drugs they think the artist is on because his playing is so bad. People simply come because they want to hear 
good music and the artist plays so well because a lot of the negative tensions do not exist. Some of the best re- 


cordings to come out of Europe in the past year have been on the Actuel label. There are over forty records in 
the collection. I think that some of the meanest ones are those by the Art Ensemble of Chicago, Archie Shepp, 
and Grachan Moncur III. There is also a record called "Les Stances a Sophie," by the Art Ensemble of Chicago 
featuring Fontella Bass on vocals put out on the Nessa label. Then there is Archie Shepp and Chicago Beau- 
champ on the Fantasy label. This particular jam is called "Black Gypsy." Archie plays and Chicago Beau 
screams. (You think they want that in America?) Delmark and ESP Disk used to be two of the labels that gave 
creative black musicians a chance to display their talents but very seldom will you see the popular Ameri- 
can recording companies doing this. I strongly recommend you check out these new sounds on the Actuel 
label. What black musicians are ultimately striving for is complete control over their music all the way down to 
the distribution rights which is most important. You can record ever so much but if your music isn't getting 
into the hands and minds of the people, all the recording in the world ain't going to help you. We haven't 
really supported our Black artist as much as we should have, especially those brothers and sisters playing so- 
called jazz, I prefer to call it Great Black Music. 

One reason is that it was not played on the radio as frequently as the popular music, and many thought 
that you had to be way out in order to understand it. Well, I would say that we are going to have to pull some 
sounds out of the universe that have never been heard before, yet can only be understood by those seeking 
liberation and we all are going to have to be prepared to receive these new sounds. We have to demand that 
Great Black Music be played on the radio stations, we have to support our Black artist by buying their records, 
going to their performances, talking to them, contributing to their organizations, and most important we have 
to free our minds from being dependent upon American recording companies from dictating the sound that 
we should hear. 

Bill Hasson 10/71 




/^^) . 






"The treatment of the Negro by the movies is inaccurate and unfair. Directly and indirectly it estab- 
lishes associations and drives deeper into the public mind the stereotype conception of the Negro. 
. . . This great agency for the communication of ideas and information therefore functions as a pow- 
erful instrument for maintaining the racial subordination of the Negro people." (Dr. Lawrence Reddick 
in "The Journal of Negro Education, 1944.) 

The treatment of the Black man in Hollywood films, can be paralleled with his treatment in American life, 
both have long treated him unfairly. Films tend to interpret the Black man, his mind, his outlook, his way of 
life, in a way which is calculated to justify the stereotypes that the American society has created. When slavery 
was abolished and after the Black man began to vote, to go to school, and to work, the 'myth' of Black inferior- 
ity and later, of his innate brutality was created, because white America feared him; to an extent they still do. 
The bulk of Hollywood's earlier films, have tried to reveal those racial characteristics which supposedly indi- 
cate Negro inferiority. From "The Birth of a Nation" to "Gone With The Wind," it has been the same sorry 
repetition of discrimination. 

Cinema audiences regarded the Black man as a clown, an idiot, and a superstitious fool; and their feel- 
ings of hate for him were a result of the manner in which he was portrayed on the screen (on stage and radio). 

The screen is an extremely powerful means for molding opinions and continually it has used its power to 
nurture cuch hate. 

Black actors and actresses were depicted as ignorant servants, lazy janitors, stupid maids, shoe-shine 
boys, and faithful retainers. The producers were merely carrying out a policy which seemed to them to be a 
natural one— the debasement of the Negro in the public mind. None of these film characters were allowed to 
show any intelligence. 

"The Birth of a Nation," devoted much of its content to Negro villainy. The director, D. W. Griffith, was 
a southerner, born in an atmosphere of racial intolerance, and brought up with the usual Southern attitude 
toward Negroes. Basing his epic on Thomas Dixon's strongly partisan novel. The Clansman, he created a 
production that was technically and artistically far ahead of its time. Griffith was a cinematic genius, the in- 
ventor and perfecter of a number of vital film making techniques which are in use in studios today. Neverthe- 
less, no matter how great a picture it was, it was a misrepresentation of the Negro race. 

After the first showing of this film, "all hell broke loose." Such a storm rose that it continued through 
WWI on into the 1920's. It has been said that later Griffith relented somewhat concerning the cruelty of his 
portrayal of the Negro and in 1918, in his "Greatest Thing in Life," he inserted a scene where a dying Negro 
soldier cried for his mother and a white comrade kissed him as he died. (Thank you Mr. Griffith.) 

"Hallelujah," directed by King Vidor, was to be the "ace of the all-Negro talking picture." It was hoped 
that a director like Vidor and Black actors like Daniel Haynes and Nina Mae McKinney would make "Halle- 
lujah" a really good film. It is a story of a country boy who temporarily falls to the wiles of a bad woman. Dan 
Haynes as the boy gave a moving performance, one that was simple yet sincere. But the movie was swamped 
by the many scenes of folk songs, spirituals, work songs and blues. Thus furthering another stereotype that 
all black people do is sing, dance and eat watermelon. In spite of MGM's promise of a memorable all Negro- 
Epic, "Hallelujah" made only a minor contribution to the Black struggle. 

Opinions of the film were divided among Blacks. W.E.B. Dubois, a severe critic, felt that it was "beautifully 
staged and possessed common-sense." Other Black critics felt that it 'insulted niggerisms.' The white press 
seemed to have found the characterizations very amusing. When it was shown here on campus the white col- 
lege audience found it so funny, that I walked out of the auditorium. 

Since 1940, Hollywood has been forced by liberal and social protest groups to promote the cause of racial 
and cultural understanding. So after mishandling the racial theme for many years Hollywood has tried to undo 
her wrongs. Between 1940 and 1950 a number of films dealt wholly or in part with Blacks. "Home of the 
Brave," one of the better movies of that time, dealt with the Black soldier; "Lost Boundaries" dealt with pass- 
ing; mob psychology and violence were the theme for "Intruder in the Dust." All of these films and some 
others began the new seriousness and dignity in Black characterizations. At least we knew that Hollywood 
would not be able to give us another film like "Birth of a Nation" or "Gone with the Wind." 

Boy meets girl is a familiar theme in Hollywood films. But in 1968, Stanley Kramer's film "Guess Who's 
Coming to Dinner," pulled a switch, and had the boy Black and the girl white. 

John Prentice (Sidney Poitier) a brilliant young physician meets Joey Drayton (Katharine Houghton), a 
rich white woman. Within ten days they fall deeply in love and decide to marry. Because Joey's parents are 
liberals, she feels that they wouldn't possibly object. 

So Joey brings her young man home. Both sets of parents are shocked. Spencer Tracy, in his last per- 
formance, plays the part of her liberal father, who finds out that he is only liberal to a point. Katharine Hep- 
burn is the highly cultured mother who accepts the situation a little easier than her husband. Even John's 
parents disapprove of the marriage. This disproved the stereotype idea that Blacks favor interracial marriages. 

Some people asked Stanley Kramer why didn't he make the film more real by making Poitier a postman; 
Kramer said, "But never in a million years would this girl marry a postman, black or white. She had to marry 
a remarkable fellow." And that she did. Poitier was handsome, charming, intelligent with a carload of degrees. 
No, he wasn't an ordinary Black man. 

The movie was sugary, it avoided real issues. There were no integrated love scenes, no real hassles. When 
Prentice's parents do come to dinner they all talk each other into a happy ending. After all they are so much 
in love. 

With this movie began the phase of the 'Super Negro.' A 'Super Negro' is a doctor, lawyer, great detective, 
psychiatrist. He is far removed from common, ordinary Black folks. It is only the 'Super Negro' who is allowed 
to be friends with white people. He is the only Black person who is acceptable. Sidney Poitier was the 'Super 
Negro' in a number of films; "In the Heat of the Night," he played a Philadelphia detective; in "To Sir with 
Love" he played a teacher; and in "The Slender Thread" he was a psychiatrist. Black people denounced these 
roles, because they were unreal. They felt Hollywood was trying to make Blacks fit into white society. They 
fought the super image. And again sent the film makers back to the drawing boards. 

But since then we have had a new wave of Black movies. No, "To Sir with Love," where Sidney Poitier 
with all his liberal virtues succeeds in turning a hostile class into a group of lovable students. Such things 
were the outgrowth of the delusions of white people. They had this cute picture where Blacks and whites help 
each other in the Black struggle. These latest movies acknowledge the true facts that Blacks do not want whites 
helping them to do anything. 

Last summer United Artists brought us movies such as "The Landlord," a story of a young white owner 
of a Black apartment house and his bungling involvement in their lives; "Cotton Comes to Harlem," a comedy 
of two Black cops in Harlem trying to get back money that was swindled from the people in a back to Africa 
hoax; "Watermelon Man," the story of a bigoted white insurance salesman suddenly turned Black. 

This summer we saw Van Pebbles' "Sweet Sweetbacks' Badassss Song and "Shaft" filmed by Gordon 

The best thing that has happened is that Blacks are now producing top rate films about themselves. 
Hollywood has never known how to present the Black man. But now in the 1970's, we don't need Hollywood, 
Van Pebbles didn't go there to film Sweet Bacs— he didn't want white help to do his thing either. 

The Cockroach On A Bike 

Part I of a three-part epic poem 

by Emmanuel Asibong, 

English Dept. 

Straight from the grave 

they arise, 

with a tremendous roar 

of false triumph . . . 

they arise, 

puffing smokes of steel 

from that other hell 

that never needs a waking bell. 

I have seen them 
on grey motorbikes, 
rounded and obtuse 
these superior species 
of lavatory roaches. 

Frm Kano's walled city 
to Zaria's ancient town, 
amongst market women 
and notorious beggarmen, 

they dart 

spreading darkness, causing blindness. 

Here in this lower world 
they feel without feelers 
the dark inner heat 
that scorches their skin 
and settles gritty dust 
on their nasal bones. 

Observe Mike on his bike 
pleriplaneta extraordinary 
mustachioed and 
in white shorts 
nervously fingering the knot 
of his Harvard tie, 


it would rain. 

Here let us stand, 
here let us prepare 
our own initiation rites; 
for every solitary 
Lazarus it seems 
surges from a common grave 
overgrown with nettles 
and wet mosses. 

I can see tham all, 

I can see each as such 

bound from behind 

bound from within . . . 

on the back of Ruth's bike 

is nothing 

save air, heat and sweat 

further testimony 

of the devil's own horse. 

But every morning, 
with arms akimbo 
grinning or half-smiling 
she acknowledges, 
pretends to acknowledge 
the greetings 
and feelings 
of a blind youth 
who standing 
by the level crossing 
profers his leprous hands 
for a long forgotten coin. 


The Vultures 

The sun is at its zenith 
the vulture's throat is dry. 
On the way to Samaru 
about a hundred vultures 
gawk from the roof tops 
silent, keen, but watchful. 

Americana pleriplaneta 
looking behind the darkness 
in his heart, 
knew he had made 
a false start. 

But what would the 
vulture with the roach? 
What, the rooster 
with the worm? 

The vultures are thinking 

the vultures are grinning 

their featherless necks quivering, 

each beak twisted 

like a gigantic crooked nail. 

Remembering . . . 

The vultures are 


a simple song 

for those who feel the heat 

those who can't chew meat. 

the vultures are 
remembering and dancing 
without remembering 
the rhythmic pattern 
of the drum's beat. 

Drums and skin with 
curvature of the spine, 
spectacles and sunglasses 
the vultures 
beckon with their beaks. 

Watch, Listen, think: 
sticks and stones 
won't break their bones 
this, these animals reckon 
is a Kenny Lynch 

See, the roach on the bike 
is dancing 

the animals on the housetops 
are leaving 

the vultures have flown 
their aged wings 
in the direction of the treetops. 

Pursue them, pursue them, 
they have flown, flown 

to the market square. 

Here resides the skinny woman, 
our flying queen of the north 
who at twenty-one 
has flown from her distant coast 
to purchase a vulture thigh. 

Memory drains in the sun 
when the harmattan descends 
leaving the remnants 
of last night's heat. 

The queen and her subjects 
still bake in filth and foam 
opening the market bin 
to find only a banana skin. 

You don't like them? 

sorry . . .? 

I said, you don't like vultures . . . 

Why, I do. 

You don't! 

I think, I do. 

I have never liked 

the vultures 

back at home, though . . . 

I do find 

your local vultures 

very inspiring and kind. 

and here you are 
with our vultures 
bargaining for a vulture limb. 

stale breath 
wide mouth 
lozenges coated teeth. 

the psychiatric disorder 
amongst the Irish 
can only be explained 
by the sexual aberration 
in the criminal 
Hausa male. 


This, for experience's old sake: 

queen of the north 

slim as a snake 
the morning mist falls down, awake 

Ruth, Ruth 

thin as a rake 
press your dingy ragged jeans 

Ruth, Ruth 
jump on your bike. 

The Curse 

On to work, 

strapped to her back 
on to work, 
on to work 
like an African infant 
tied to his mother's back . . . 

on to work, 

always at the bewitching hour of eight. 

How long? how long 

shall we all 

be driving abreast 

each wearing a dismal grin 

like the roadside mule 

reflecting on his mother's sin? 

The lecturer, 
the librarian, 
the house officer, 

the technician, 
and the rest 
that are blessed 

keep asking: 
when are 

the expatriate professors 


are these nutty, senile 
professors going to die? 

english professors 

long past 

the age of 

retirement . . . 

who dare not 
look their country 
in the face: 
wearing monocles 
and baking 
in the young 
innocent sun 
of Africa, 
like overfed cobras. 

who're always 
exposing unsightly 
professorial kneecaps 
at the pool . . . 
Professors on the run, 
twice divorced 

turned pederasts . . . 

homosexually orientated 


that can never be 


in merry old England 

but have chosen 

this dark part 

of this dark continent 

as the breeding ground 

for many more senile 

retired professors . . . 

piss, shit 
test-tube full 





Professors who have 
changed their names 
can't remember 
their names . . . 


fucking pro 

; S 



Professors, no longer 

but simply wondering. 
Professors who are 
dead because they 
are scared of dying, 
wicked, lustful, eyeless 
helpless professors 
with tummies 

with maternity . . . 
barren, bald-headed 
worse than useless 
with hairy 
female breasts. 



Interview: Bill Wilkinson, Chairn^an of the Black Studies Program at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 

One does not get to visit other schools outside of his area 
during the weekdays because of the lack of emphasis placed 
on community projects of this nature and the unfortunate 
need of attending some of the seemingly irrelevant courses 
that Universities always seem to require, of course there are 
times when we escape the daily rigmarole to seek new experi- 
ences. Here is an example of one of the alternatives to 
education which shall be labeled social awareness outside of 
the classroom. 

Many Black Studies Programs have sprung up across the 
country and, as a result, there is a number of programs that 
are supposingly meeting the needs of Black Students. 

One of our brothers. Bill Wilkinson, who was at the 
University of Mass. last year, is now chairman of the Black 
Studies Dept. at Dartmouth College. We were granted an 
interview with him recently and he gave us an idea, not only 
of the hopes and desires of a man who is working for Black 
people in a predominantly white Ivy-League school, but also 
a look at the problems Black students at Dartmouth must 
overcome. We were also given comparative data on Black 
Studies at the two schools. 

Question: How does your Black Studies Program differ 
from the one at the University of Mass.? 
Answer: First of all our program at Dartmouth is called the 
Black Studies Program as opposed to the University of Mass. 
Black Studies Department. Our program is primarily for off 
campus research and action. Students who are in the 
program work one term in Boston, Mass. with the Black 
Urban Studies Center as well as making contact with Black 
people in the community. There is also a program which 
comes under our research work that requires the student's 
involvement at the Institute of the Black World in Atlanta, 
Georgia. During the summer, students are sent to West 
Africa, namely, Sierre Leone to study at the universities 

We are primarily concerned with research and in- 
dependent study in urban and rural schools. 

Question: Was there any type of Black Studies Department 
at Dartmouth prior to your coming here? 

Answer: Yes, this the third year that a Black Studies 
Program has been in existence. In the past the program has 
been run by Blacks. The Black Studies Program was made 
up of all Blacks. 

Question: How many Black professors do you have at 
Dartmouth? This is to include those professors who are 
outside of the Black Studies Program. 

Answer: There are three Black professors in the Black 
Studies Program, one in Psychology, one in Education, an 
assistant dean of students, a Drama Department head, a 
Music Department head, three Black academic and otherwise 
counselors, an Indian who works in the Dean's office, and 
one Indian counselor. This is out of a number of two 
hundred seventy faculty members. 

Question: How autonomous are you as chairman? 
Answer: Not very. Since the program is not a department, 
the college has not made any real commitment to Black 
Studies. Because of the fact that this is a program there is a 
continual flux. This year saw a turnover of staff due to 
pressure, thereby causing a number of people to leave before 
they were told to do so. Of course we have to deal with white 
racism, the small number of Black students here (there are 

sixty-nine freshmen in a special structured program). They 
take special courses as opposed to special sections of regular 
courses, subsequently, they cannot complete their freshman 
year until their sophomore year. The sophomores cannot 
finish their requirements until their junior year, but as a 
result, in order to finish Dartmouth on time, students cannot 
major in certain key courses, ie., pre-medicine, science, pre- 
law or anything that is designed to give pre-professional or 
professional skills. There are no special trained Black 
instructors to teach these courses. A White man with no 
tutorial experience has been hired to head the only skills 
program at the school. The white dean who readily admits he 
knows nothing of this program was appointed chairman of 
the freshman structured year. His appointment was 
unknown to the Black faculty and the Black Studies Depart- 
ment, Black students and the Black counselors staff until the 
last weeks of the last Academic year. Up to that time they had 
been asked by the college to find a Black Director with 
experience to head up this program. This kind of bad faith is 
typical of the way in which Dartmouth College and most 
New England institutions deal with their Black staff and 
faculty who supposingly are in a position to do something. 
As a result of this we have to find out: 

1. Where Black students are. 

2. Their major field of study. 

3. How many are passing and failing. 

4. How many are taking Black Study courses. 

5. Who could be relating to Black Studies profes- 
sors while taking other courses where Black 

methodology is relevant. 
Question: What is your task this year? 

Answer: Our task this year is to give some strong clarity and 
stability to what the program could really be. Is there any 
place for Black Studies at Dartmouth to be useful in Black 
education on this campus and on other campuses similar to 
this one? 

I feel that Darmouth should concentrate on a strong core 
program; to continue the research and action program but to 
add other off campus programs, to make it so that Black 
students can study at Black schools, and to develop models of 
what Black people can meaningfully do off campus and 
develop models of how they can relate to Black campuses and 
indeed Black communities. 

Question: How have you been received by the ad- 
ministration and Black students here in regards to how you 
see Black Studies should be about? 

Answer: Many different groups of students matriculate 
here and there is no problem relating to the interest of these 
students but the problem is that there is so few staff here that 
the staff members have to be many things to many people. 
The students are quite serious and would like to see more 
programs but when they get to Dartmouth we try to re- 
educate and remove their mis-education while at the same 
time the college is mis-educating and this is why it is so 
important to have programs off campus not only in the Black 
community but also at Black institutions that are committed 
to the education of Black people both in and outside of Black 
Studies Programs. 

A Black Studies Program at a white school, whether it be 
at University of Massachusetts or Dartmouth has to be 
what Chicago poet Amus Moor calls "a Black laboratory for 
self definition, self development, and self determination. 



it was december 
and for christmas we 
brought some blues for 

mister charlie, 

and we laughed 
as nixon, agnew, 

and the pentagon staff 

tried to split the country 
with forged passports 
swearing on the republic 
that they were puerto rican. 
truth was on its way 

and Nikki Giovanni 

sat on the right hand of God, 
who by then had altered both 

color and name, 

Washington was renamed Douglass 
and the white house was leveled 

with nixon 

giving the virgin mary 

lessons in Black history. 

And in the beginning we all knew 

what it mean't to be 

Young, GIFTED, and BLACK; 

and so did spiro .... and so did spiro. 



SMACK SMACK amion the righttrack? 


Head floating 

King of kings. 
SMACKSMACK amIon therighttrack? j^g^'- 





Nodding for days and days! 

O Black Jesus 


dry heaves 

Vomit from the very core of my Black soul 

Black being 

O Black Jesus 
I think I done fell off! 

Stole my mothers color T. V. and sold my stereo for a dime bag 

of scag 

smacksmackamlon therighttrack? 

O Black Jesus 
A bullet in my back! 

Tried to rip-off the Super's pad 



I fell off a long time ago 

When I fell out of my mothers womb 

never had a chance 








from the caverns of a ghetto wind, 
this nigger came to be, 
taught to worship white jesus 

in a blacli church 

and how to turn the other cheek ^ 
when violence from the white fists ^ 

came to pass 

i could eat with class, pray with grace 

and grin like a jackal when encountering 


white faces of power and "infinite goodness" .... 

and i hated myself, 

my broad nose, 

"bad" hair (cut close to hide my father's shame 

and the niggers who laughed at my ugliness/ 

and now i find i am beautiful 

and that this white jesus 

was definitely blA:k 

and attacked when he was provoked 
i who had nothing, have everything 

and cartfejoicei 
that in my searching i've found myself again. 



Love's Short Journey 

Great lengths to each life of 
Dreams and little legends. 
Paths straight and curved quicken 
The pace to which we are destined. 
Minds on thoughts and thoughts on 
Tomorrow's yesterdays. 
Courtship is drawing to a bridgeless 
River and it is our time to become 


Den Williams 


Two lovers after dark: 





And a quick, "I LOVE YOU, BABY" . . . 
But the cock crows and the wind blows and in time 
they'll find that 

RIJ '71 



I Gazed at their faces 

as they passed by; 
I Called to them but they 

could not hear because 

of the tears; 
I Tried to touch them 

but they could not feel 

because of the grief; 

When the cover hid my 
lifeless body I knew I 
was lost to them forever; 

I Tried desperately to touch 

their innermost Reality, but it 
was blinded by the tears ; 

For They could not see 

that I was at Last Free. 

RIJ '71 


Most of us do not know what it's like to experience the physical reality of a 
prison. But in fact all Black people do experience the reality of prison. From the 
time of birth, Black people are born into a world which can be described and de- 
fined as prisons. Characteristic of the devil, the prisons confining Black folks 
come in many shapes and forms. Whether it be the home, the school, the job or 
whatever, the scene is the same. You may not see iron bars, but the basic policy 
of exploitation, victimization and containment is present. Each and every one of 
us needs to do a little soul searching in answering for ourselves whether or not 
we are engaged in a revolution and commit ourselves to bringing about the nec- 
essary changes. 

We are, indeed, in the midst of the greatest revolution this civilization has 
ever witnessed. Never has there been such chaos in the social, political, eco- 
nomic or racial structures of society. White folks have created a "Franken- 
stein's Monster" for the "soul" purpose of colonizing, controlling, and exploit- 
ing all people. People have failed to see that this monster has succeeded in con- 
trolling not only the colonized, but has also made a puppet out of the colonizers. 
It has control over his mind, his heart and his soul. America is the most spirit- 
ually decadent society in the world. The state of America is unnatural, inhuman 
and will inevitably be destroyed. Everytime I listen to the national anthem, it 
turns my stomach: 

"home of the brave 
Land of the free" 

How can anyone with any human decency, stand up with their head held high 
and deliberately lie with the blood of Attica still dripping down the flagpole. 
That's sick! That's cowardly! No one with any insight can deny that the forces 
behind this chaos will reach a revolutionary turning point before the end of the 
century. No one can deny the need for a New World Order . . . 

"How long will humanity persist in its waywardness? How long will in- 
justice continue? How long is chaos and confusion to reign amongst men? 
How long will discord agitate the face of society? The winds of despair are, 
alas, blowing from every direction, and the strife that divides and afflicts 
the human race is daily increasing. The signs of impending convulsions 
and chaos can now be discerned, inasmuch as the prevailing order appears 
to be lamentably defective. " 

What then can we use as a guideline for a New World Order? It would be far too 
presumptuous for me to outline and imply understanding to such a World 
Order, however, I will dwell on the central theme in which a New World Order 
must entail. The concept of the Oneness of Mankind is a pivot point by which 
all else encircles, i.e., political, economic and social Justice. Malcolm X was not 
only a Black Nationalist, but a spiritual giant. In his search for truth he has 
stated the following: 

"I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the 
Oneness of God, then perhaps too, they could accept in reality the One- 
ness of Man — and cease to measure, and hinder, and harm others in 
terms of their 'differences' in color. 

"Each hour here in the Holy Land enables me to have greater spiritual in- 
sights into what is happening in America between black and white. The 
American Negro never can be blamed for his racial animosities — he is only 
reacting to four hundred years of the conscious racism of the American 
whites. But as racism leads America up the suicide path, I do believe, from 
the experiences that I have had with them, that the whites of the younger 
generation, in the colleges and universities, will see the handwriting on the 
wall and many of them will turn to the spiritual path of truth — the only 
way left to America to ward off the disaster that racism inevitably must 
lead to." 

Malcolm X is only one of the many black spiritual leaders our race has produced. 
For that reason we can be proud. But if one should look closely, the solution 
to the ongoing ills of Mankind has been dwelling in the air for over a century. 

Such a fundamental revolution requiring vast changes in our structure seems 
highly unlikely to be solved through mere diplomacy or education. We need only 
to look at our history in which nothing short of mental agony along with phy- 
sical bloodshed has marked the great changes in human civilization. 

I have entitled this article, "To be continued" for reasons I hope have begun 
to materialize. We are living in a nation, a society, a world in which no one can 
escape. There is no refuge or haven to hide from the even greater calamities. Eld- 
ridge Cleaver has put it this way: "if you're not a part of the solution, you must 
be a part of the problem." Both problem and solution is an ever-continuing 
process! The purpose of man is to contribute to "an ever-advancing civilization" 
in an effort to survive. We should realize that colonization, genocide, oppres- 
sion or racism does not end with incidents such as Attica, Springfield or Cairo, 
not with people such as Angela Davis, Bobby Seale, Rap Brown or George Jack- 
son. Evolution along with the revolution 


continued . . . 

Hack FAHlhtr Rvrtv 



if**^./L.^^ .' 


--..t * 




w .i^- 


We would like to thank 

Professor Acklyn Lynch of the Afro-American Studies 
Department for his contribution to this issue of the 
DRUM, and to congratulate him and his wife on the birth 
of their son, Jair. 

Also we would like to thank for their articles, 

Jacquie Jones, 

A I Key and 

Bill Hasson 

For Poetry: 

Denise Williams and her sister Lynette, a Boston 

high school student, 

Emajeana S. Cambra, 

A. Jackson Linebarger and 

Emmanuel Asibong 

For Art: 
Jose Tolson 

We would like to offer special thanks to: 
Sonia Sanchez and 

Bill Wilkinson for the use of their interviews, to Chet 
Davis, Asst. Chairman of Dept. of Afro-American Stud- 
ies, for his aid and advice in this issue, and Nat Rut- 
stein of the School of Education for his confidence and 
academic support. 

And last but not least, special gratitude to Eugene Niles 
and Sherwood Thompson for their help in the Photog- 
raphy Dept.