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Full text of "Drum"

U^9i- 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/drum32univ 



STAFF 



Roy I. Jones, Herman L. Davenport 

Mildred N. Davenport 

Imogene Lewis 

Ernestine Jewell, Kenneth Wright, Doris Williams 

Debbe Holford ( Kysha ) 

Carol Fraser, Alrundus Hart 

Robert Padgett 

Paul Barrows 



Co-Editors 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

Office Staff 

Art 

Photography 

Literary 

Layout 



Editor's Note: We are at this time extendir\g an invitation to all students to participate in the publication of the 

DRUM, especially in the area of prose. 



THE DRUM, Winter, 1972 
Vol. 3, No. 2 

Editorial, Circulation and Ad- 
vertising Offices located at 111 
Mills House, University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, Mass. 01002. 

Printing: Gazette Printing Co., Inc. Northampton, 
Mass. 



i 
I 



4 
5 
6 
10 
11 
14 
15 
17 
20 
22 
25 
27 

28 
29 
35 
40 



CONTENTS 

Editorial 

"Guns" 

Feature 

"White Man" A. 

Noted Black Women 

Great Black Music 

Sports 

A Spinster's Frustration 

Ray Miles on Art 

"Attica: While the Blood Is Running" 

Cultural Response to Education 

The Potential of Mass 

Communication for Blacks 
The Worth of Black Studies 
Mike Thelwell on Black Studies 
Blueprint for Change 
Acknowledgements 



Roy Jones 

Joseph Boy kin 

Chet Davis 

Jackson Line bar ger 

Lillian Anthony 

Bill Hasson 

A I Key 

Emmanuel Asibong 

Debbe Holford 

Luisin M. Medina 

Earl Strickland 

Burvell C. Williams 

Herman Davenport 

Bob Padgett 

Acklyn Lynch 




>i^^ 



Editorial 



Many Black students now leaving their homes for colleges and universities 
seem to share the common goal of going back to their respective communities upon 
graduation. The desire of the "now" Black student is to acquire the necessary 
educational tools to build businesses in their communities, to provide community 
services, independent schools, political leaders, in essence to develop oppor- 
tunities for what Malcolm called "self help". 

Black students soon find that four years becomes a very long time, sometimes 
too long to wait in order to fulfill the desired goals. This is not to say that inten- 
tions were not sincere, but rather the way in which Black minds are shaped during 
the course of four years. To be more explicit, there are at least two factors that aid 
in the change of attitude or direction. The first as observed on this campus has to 
do with Black student's need for immediate gratification. For example, the maj- 
ority of Black students are members of the CCEBS program, which in itself seems 
to be a detriment to students' thinking. Programs such as CCEBS have historically 
been based on negative foundations. Many people believe that if it were not for 
CCEBS there would not be any "niggers" on campus. Chances are they are prob- 
ably right, but for the wrong reasons. It is true the majority of the brothers and 
sisters cannot afford financially to attend, however, if you believe niggers have 
been too deprived, unable to read, write or understand enough to get through the 
university, that is something left for you to deal with. The sad part of this nega- 
tive conception is that Black students begin believing these same psychological 
blocks. The consequences of such a self image has disastrous results; it destroys 
confidence, values, self worth and will lead the individual to failure upon failure 
upon failure. Therefore, a Black student's desire for constant gratification is highly 
important to understand if he is expected to keep on pushing. If absent, he loses 
interest, loses sense of purpose or goal. Students begin thinking in terms of me 
rather than we, thus we need to realize that me and we share the same problem. I 
am not concluding that this need has to be a continuing reality for the student, 
whether or not it is depends on the strength a student is able to gain through self 
determination. 

The second factor has to do with what I will term a "trance of luxury". The 
total UMass-Amherst environment reinforces a luxury Black folks really cannot 
afford. The hang - loose "do your own thing" atmosphere is not conducive for the 
serious thinking we need to do as a cooperating body of students. In brief the point 
that has to be made is that the true value of our education should only be to give 
our larger communities of Black people understanding, definition and direction. If 
we are to realize that our station should be that of service to other people, then it is 
not hard to realize why we are here and proceed with steadfast discipline and 
determination. UMass should only be a proving ground for ourselves so that we 
can obtain the desired goal of instilling pride, dignity and nobility in our 
communities. Of course, no one can dictate what an individual's actions should be, 
however, it is imperative that we realize the spiritual motivating force lies in the 
hearts of the millions of Black people that will never see UMass. One wonders if 
"Kool and the Gang" understood the magnitude of the question, "Who's goin' to 
take the weight"? We have been chosen as servants for our people! Will we choose 
a most glorious future or suffer a most dismal failure? The time is most desperate, 
each minute we waste on idle thoughts and vain imaginings will cost us a huge 
sum. It can be said that any Black student allowing boredom or apathy to seep into 
their lives "ain't takin' care of business." 




Man made guns to protect their belongings not 

themseives. ^ 

Man made gumt^W ail living things that , 

got in his vi^jHPP^ 

Man made lUlsto put people In, so they 

wouldn't take what belongs to them. 

Man also told a lot of lies to win other men 

to his side, but man also made a big mistake 

he said, you must go to school. 



Some Random Thoughts on Black Education 
AND THE Necessity for Community Control 



In all of the motion that we currently observe in 
educational '■innovation" as promoted by the 
presently fashionable theorists (Charles Silberman, 
James Coleman, Herbert Kohl, Christopher Jencks, 
etc.) and schools of education across the country, 
there is a curious omission when consideration is 
given to the education of Black children. None of 
these educationists take seriously the idea of 
independent Black schools under all - Black control. 
Apparently they have been convinced that Black 
children can learn effectively only in integrated 
schools, therefore, any serious consideration of all - 
Black educational settings would be foolishness and 
a waste of time. Also, it is probable that they feel that 
to question or go against the liberal integrationist 
doctrines current in the educational world is to fly in 
the face of incontrovertible scientific evidence (the 
Coleman Report, Racial Isolation in the Public 
Schools, etc.) which tell them that not only must 
Black children be in a school with white children, but 
must be there in a certain numerical proportion and 
the white children must be of a certain social and 
economic class. 

There is also the question of who is to control the 
educational process. Community people are 
commonly thought to lack the "expertise" necessary 
for running a school, or even being a significant 
partner with professional teachers and 
administrators. (Note the concept of the "para - 
professional.") Interestingly enough, in the minds of 
the educationists this view seems to apply only to the 
Black and the poor. Rarely do they question the 
intelligence or competence of residents of middle - 
class white communities where the education of their 
children is concerned. Of course, many of these 
people possess the same "credentials" the educa- 
tionists have, so it is automatically concluded that 
they are capable of serious thought and action in the 
field of education. Unfortunately, schools of 
education, which should be engaged in more critical 
analysis and evaluation of educational philosophies, 
theories, and practices are among the chief promoters 
of these attitudes. 

When stripped of its jargon, the message of the 
educational establishment to Black communities is 
that they are not competent to organize and run 
schools, and even if they were it would be futile to 
run all Black schools because "scientific" research 
has shown that Black children cannot learn in such a 
setting anyway. And all of this is typically couched in 



expressed concern about the counterproductivity of 
"separatism" in a multi-racial society, "reverse ra- 
cism", and the commitment of the country to equal 
opportunity and massive integration. Again, when we 
cut through the rhetoric of educationists and edu- 
cational innovators and examine closely the assump- 
tive underpinnings of their schemes and programs 
certain things begin to become clearer. Perhaps the 
major problem with these schemes and programs of 
the educational establishment in regard to Black 
children is that they all proceed from assumptions of 
almost total pathology in Black communities. They 
assume that there is nothing educationally viable in 
these communities and therefore Black children must 
be educated away from their backgrounds of 
"cultural deprivation" and "educational 
disadvantage". Thus, there is a proliferation of 
"intervention" programs like Head Start, Upward 
Bound, compensatory education, "enrichment", and 
other schemes theoretically designed to bring Black 
children "up" to a decided upon level of academic 
competence which is to be measured by tests designed 
by these same people and which have little or no 
relation to the lived experiences of the children 
themselves. Such an approach displays, on the one 
hand, an arrogant racism, and on the other a severely 
limited understanding of the nature of the learning 
process. Within their frame of reference it could not 
occur to these "experts" that the motivation in Black 
children for learning could come from their own 
communities and need not be externally provided. 

The historical evidence of the mis-education and 
non-education of Black children as reflected in the 
present condition of the schools suggests that those in 
control of the educational apparatus are incompetent 
to deal with the education of Black children. In place 
of these tarnished "experts" support should be 
generated for educational experiments and programs 
developed by Black educators and community people 
on the local level. The argument that community 
people (non - professionals) do not have the training 
or professional expertise to develop educational 
programs tor their children is no longer valid, if 
indeed, it ever was. The fact is that literally thousands 
of Black educators, students, and parents are now 
engaged in creating educational programs by setting 
up independent schools in their communities. A few 
such schools are The Chad School in Newark, N.J.; 
The Learning House and the M. L. King School in 
Atlanta, Ga.; Uhuru Sasa School in New York City; 




The Black Communiversity in Chicago; the 
Federation of Community Schools in Milwaukee, 
Wis.; the Mississippi Institute for Early Childhood 
Education in Jackson, Miss.; and, the Freedom 
Library Day School in Philadelphia, Penn. In 
addition, within the past three years there have been 
no less than ten national meetings convened by 
various Black organizations to discuss and plan for 
independent community schools as well as numerous 
regional and local meetings for the same purpose. It is 
evident that there is no shortage of Black people who 
can do this. These people are serious and are 
determined to take the control of the education of 
their children out of the hands of incompetent, 
ambitious, and even "well-meaning" white "experts" 
who can provide no meaningful education for Black 
children. 

But Black people must also move for control of the 
public schools in their communities. We must 
understand that the schools in our communities 
belong to us. They do not belong to the city or the 
school board or even the administrators and teachers 
who staff them, but to the people whose children are 
the reason for the existence of the school and who pay 
the taxes to support their education. The people of the 
community should determine the educational 



philosophy under which their children are to be 
taught and have ultimate control over the process, i.e.; 
decision making in regard to finances, curriculurri, 
and personnel. That is the only way in which there 
can be any real accountability. Obviously this concept 
frightens many people, including the educational 
bureaucracies, the teacher's associations, the schools 
of education, and unfortunately some Black people 
who have developed the mentality of a "ward" of the 
educational missionaries. Interestingly enough, these 
same people who do not want Black people to have a 
significant voice in the education of their children 
see nothing wrong in the practice of "performance 
contracting", which brings private agencies into the 
schools in Black communities and, in effect, 
transforms education into a competitive business 
venture. These agencies are, of course, run by white 
educationists and educational hardware technicians 
who can do little more than create more gimmicks 
which might have a short term "novelty" effect. 

It is important for us that the education of Black 
children be fashioned by people who know the 
children and the community, because, as mentioned 
before, outsiders tend to see only the so-called path- 
ology of Black communities and have found no 
strengths upon which learning can be based. Black 



people know the strengths of their community life 
and institutions because they are the products of 
them. They know what can motivate their children 
and they can shape this knowledge into instruc- 
tional forms. This knowledge can, in fact, create 
the basis for a turning inward of the whole approach 
to education and using the Black community as the 
"core" of the educational process. Education 
should do at least three basic things: i) transmit 
knowledge, 2) Inculcate values and identity, and 
3) help prepare its recipients for the tasks they have 
to face, both present and future. For Black children 
this should be contained in a philosophy of educa- 
tion which would, as the historian Lerone Bennett, 
Jr. has said, ". . . conceive of Black schools as cen- 
ters of applied knowledge and guides to action, 
would relate learning to Black culture and the Black 
community, and would develop the capacities tor 
growth in the live problems of the day." 1 

This "core" approach that I have suggested could 
be used in the teaching of history to Black children. 
Typically, the "new" approach to the history of Black 
people in the United States is a supplementary his- 
tory of "the Negro in." That is, special supplements 
are prepared to go along with the regular textbook 
with such titles as "The Negro (or Black man) in the 
American Revolution", "The Negro in the West- 
ward Movement", "The Negro During Reconstruc- 
tion", and so on. Along with this there is usually a 
listing of prominent Black people such as Crispus 
Attucks, Benjamin Banneker, Booker T. Washing- 
ton, etc. It is claimed that this material will create in 
Black children a sense of pride and improve their self- 
image by revealing to them that Black people 
participated in the development of this country. But 
to insist that this is Black history or that it has this 
positive effect on Black children is to engage in de- 
ception. While that approach does fill in a few ob- 
vious and blatant historical gaps, it falls far short of 
creating a sense of the flow and dynamics of the 
history of the Black experience itself. It does not 
develop any sense of the integrity of Black history as 
the movement of a group of people, with its particu- 
lar relationship to the rest of the society and' its own 
inner motive forces. It does not touch the historic 
heroism of common Black folk, or the richness of 
Black social and cultural experiences, or religion and 
mythology. These are the aspects of history which can 
touch and engross the Black child and Black people 
can find them in their own communities to transmit 
to their children. This is the relevant transmission of 
the "cultural heritage" that the schools of education 
are so fond of promoting as one of the primary aims 
of education. 

1 The Challenge of Blackness, Atlanta, Ga., 
1970, BW 



The task, then, is to direct Black children to those 
people and places in their communities where this 
information can be discovered and build a pedagogy 
around their discoveries. In terms of process, such a 
program is self-generating. As more and more dis- 
coveries are made, more interest and motivation is 
created and more investigative and communications 
skills are developed. In other words, children will 
want to read, write, listen, and record because they 
will have a compelling reason to do so. 

Where can the materials of history be found in our 
Black communities.'' First, our communities are rich 
in oral tradition. Thus, students can discover much 
about the history of their community and of Black 
people in general simply by talking with or 
interviewing some of its elder citizens. Through such 
interviews much can be learned about family life, 
migration patterns, occupations, religious life, 
folklore, organizations, dealing with racism and 
oppression, etc. Many senior Black people have 
historical artifacts such as, scrapbooks, letters, 
photographs, lockets, items of clothing, etc. Southern 
communities are particularly rich in this tradition. 
Black students could also investigate the histories of 
the institutions, formal groups, and societies in their 
communities. The churches, clubs, fraternal 
organizations, self-help societies, newspapers and 
other publications, community centers, and vital 
parts of the community offer the kind of relevant 
Black history that should be taught. 

Just these few suggestions clearly indicate the 
possibilities of community based study of history for 
Black children. This history does not concentrate on 
"prominent persons" and "problems". It does not 
assume that the Black experience is fundamentally 
pathological. It does not tell Black children that their 
salvation lies in rejecting their backgrounds and 
trying to "integrate" into an alien historical 
experience. Rather, it immerses them in the 
continuity and vitality of their own past, which taken 
as a whole places them firmly in a dynamic and 
ongoing historical stream and gives them the identity 
and knowledge which are necessary for the struggles 
that lie ahead for Black people. 

On the question of skills development, this kind of 
curriculum will involve the students (and possibly 
some of the parents, as was the case in a school in 
Cleveland) in reading, writing, listening, reporting, 
interviewing, map and chartmaking, and a host of 
other communication and research skills. In effect, it 
will acquaint the students with the tools and 
techniques of the historian, to do with what they will 
in any later academic endeavors. The skilled and 
creative teacher will find limitless possibilities in this 
approach to the teaching of history. 



I have only mentioned history, but the same 
community-core approach can obviously be applied 
to other subject areas of the elementary and secondary 
schools. It is also clear that this emphasis provides the 
framework for a meaningful and consistent 
interdisciplinary curriculum which relates the 
different areas to one another organically (rather 
than merely structurally) since all have their base in 
thematic community study. 

But beyond limited considerations of curriculum, 
models must be devised which will involve the entire 
community in the educational process. The school 
must become a focal point of the ongoing life of the 
community. Charles V. Hamilton makes the 
following observations on that point;" 

"The educational system should be concerned with 
the entire family, not simply with the children. We 
should think in terms of a Comprehensive Family - 
Community-School Plan with Black parents attend- 
ing classes, taking an active day-to-day part in the 
operation of the school. Parents could he students, 
teachers, and legitimate members of the local school 

governing board Many of these parents could 

serve as teachers along with the professional staff. 
They could teach courses in a number of areas {child 
care, auto mechanics, art, music, home economics, 
sewing, etc.) for which they are now obviously train- 
ed. The Comprehensive Plan would extend the school 
program to grades through high school — for adults 
and children — and it would eliminate the traditional 
calendar year of September to June. {There is no 
reason why the educational system could not be re- 
vised to take vacations for one month, say in Dec- 
ember of post-Christmas, and another month in Aug- 
ust. The community educational program would be a 
year-round function, day and evening.) 

The school would belong to the community. It would 
be a union of children, parents, teachers, . . . social 
workers, psychologists, doctors, lawyers, and 
community planners. Parent and community 
participation and control would be crucial in the 
hiring, and firing of personnel, the selection of 
instructional materials, and the determination of 
curriculum content. Absolutely everything must be 
done to make the system a functioning, relevant part 
of the lives of the local people. 

If it can be demonstrated that such a comprehensive 
educational institution can gain the basic trust and 
participation of the Black community, it should 
become the center of additional vital community 
functions. Welfare, credit unions, health services, law 
enforcement, and recreational programs — all work- 
ing under the control of the community could be built 
around it. Enlightened private industry would find it 



a place from which to recruit trained, qualified 
people and could donate equipment and technical 
assistance. The several advantages of such a plan are 
obvious. It deals with the important agencies which 
are in daily, intimate contact with Black community 
from many different directions, with cumbersome 
rules and regulations, uncontrolled by and 
unaccountable to the community. It provides the 
Black people with a meaningful chance for partici- 
pation in the very important day-to-day processes 
affecting their lives; it gives them educational and 
vocational tools for the future. All these things re- 
flect the yearnings and aspirations of masses of Black 
people today. ' ' ^ 

Models such as this one suggested by Brother 
Hamilton are what concerned Black people should 
be thinking about and refining for implementation 
in specific communities. And Black students in 
schools of education would seem to have a special 
obligation and responsibility to explore this kind of 
alternative to the education presently offered in Black 
communities. It should be abundantly clear to us by 
now that for Black people, the question is not one of 
"integration" versus "segregation", but it is of 
control. An all-Black educational setting is not "in- 
herently inferior" as was proclaimed in the 1954 
Brown decision. The quality of the education which 
goes on in such schools will be determined by the 
people who run them and working from such 
premises and models as have been discussed in this 
article, it is clearly possible to create viable and 
comprehensive educational programs for Black 
people. 

In summary, the professional educationists have 
defaulted, by reason of racism and incompetence, so 
Black people can put no faith in them for the future 
of our children and communities. History and the 
present realities of our condition in this land demand 
that we assume control over the instruction of our 
children and ourselves. In order to do this we must 
break free of the "native" and "minority" mentalities 
which have kept us on educational plantations and 
begin to move forward into our rightful future. Black 
students have a special responsibility to the Black 
community to play their part in this historic 
movement. 

2 "Race and Education: A Search for Legiti- 
macy," Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 38 No. 
4 Fall 1968. 



Chester Davis 

Assistant Professor 

W. E. B. DuBois Department of Afro American 

Studies 




white man! 



deal with this, 



FREDERICK DOUGLASS 
FRANTZ FANON 
MALCOLM X 
RAP BROWN 
STOKELYCARMICHAEL 
HARRIET TUBMAN 
ROSA PARKS 
ANGELA DAVIS 
HUEY NEWTON 
ELDRIDGE CLEAVER 
KATHLEEN CLEAVER 
JONATHAN JACKSON 
GEORGE JACKSON 

and 20 million more, 
before you pay homage 
to 1492 and the fools 
who discovered a land 
where for decades 



brown men lay 



their heads. 



A. JACKSON LINEBARGER 



10 



Noted Black Women: 
Lillian Anthony 




f I '? f ^1 V 1 -1. Wv ^ 

\1 









11 



The unfortunate aspect of having to interview a "dynamic" personality such as a Lillian Anthony has to 
be transferring the "information" to paper. There is no way the interviewer(s) in this case can express what 
really came out of the interview. Lillian Anthony has managed to master that undefined art of blending the 
essence of "down-home soul" with intellectuality and making it functional. With this message I am en- 
couraging Brothers and Sisters not to by-pass the opportunity to sit down and talk with Sister Lillian An- 
thony. 



As sister Lillian put it, her involvement in the 
educational system "all blends together", evolving 
from teaching three years of elementary and 
secondary school in Egypt (1956-1959). She worked 
with retarded and emotionally disturbed children in 
Indiana (1959-1960) and helped set up the Black 
studies dept. at the University of Minnesota, along 
with teaching four courses (1969-1971). What is the 
significance of pointing out Miss Anthony's 
background? Sister Lillian does not think education 
should be confined to the classroom, thus it is 
important to know what she did between her years of 
teaching. She taught in the Presbyterian church 
between 1960-1965. She worked in the dept. of labor 
for two and one-half years and set up poverty 
programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin. She has been 
actively involved with school systems in terms of 
racism, particularly dealing in the areas of civil rights 
and human rights. Out of this experience she became 
director of the civil rights dept., city of Minneapolis. 
The dept. got many complaints about the hiring 
practices of the U of Minn., police brutality, student 
riots, etc. The experience brought her in active con- 
tact with Black parents and students alike, in and 
out of courts. At this point in her life she began get- 
ting a "whole new perspective of what was going on 
in educational institutions other than, reading, 
riting, rithmetic and it became a political growing 
up process ' '. 

One of the major goals in settting up the Afro- 
American Studies Dept. was to be a part of the lo- 
cal community in the twin cities and throughout 
the state of Minnesota. (Example: The Dept. worked 
with prisoners in Stillwater Prison, Stillwater, Minn, 
and in Federal Prison in Sandstone, Minn.) "/ 
knew if we were going to survive that our courses, 
our self-awareness, our own Black consciousness, 
the way that we used ourselves would effect Black 
peoplehood, not just the students in the classroom". 
She began to realize that "the very people, who are 
in control and power of major educational institu- 
tions today came from the same process and they 
are dehumanizers" . Thus, in her classrooms she 
was faced with a generation of students with the 
same kind of educational foundation. In describing 
one of her courses, "Personality of Black people", 
she explained that her main source, outside of her 
own experiences was W. E. B. Dubois. "Because he 
was the only one over a long span of time that al- 
ways dealt with the personality of Black people. 
"Bad!" "He's too much!" "He really is!" In 
dealing with the white personality again, "Dubois 
was one of the few people that consistently analyzed 
the white mentality. What kind of personality 
12 would design a curriculum with the intent to des- 



troy human life? What kind of mentality can sys- 
tematically plan for human life not to grow, e. g., 
Jackson State, Kent State? All kinds of madness, 
this madness in now turning in on its own, if this 
madness is turning in on its own, how much more 
is going to turn in on us?" Lillian went on to say 
that this madness "did not dehumanize Black people, 
but enhanced his humanity, because we were not in 
control or planning genocide. " 

The conversation really began to evolve into what I 
will call the essence or pivot point of what Lillian had 
to say. Through her own observation Lillian states 
that, "we don't know enough of our African history 
not only for the sake of peoplehood, but for the sake 
of education". When talking about the "mother 
country" her whole being lit up with an enthusiasm 
that seemingly could move mountains. In drawing a 
relationship between land and Africans, Lillian made 
reference to South Africa having by some "fluke of 
nature", the greatest abundance of wealth. "What 
did land mean to the Zulus'? What does land mean to 
Africans? How can you own land? Therefore, how 
can you sell it? To Africans it's there for use to build 
houses and raise families." Therefore, when 
"negotiators" came in to buy land, "it was not that 
the Africans were stupid, their whole 
conceptualization of land is different. We need to do 
some cultural translations of what that means. " She 
emphasizes the importance of the whole study of 
geography. "We don't have the same attachment to 
land as the majority of the people do in this country. " 

When asked how her teaching was different than 
the traditional way of teaching she had this to say: 
"I'm not interested in students soaking up 
information and squeezing it out again in little 
dribbles. I want to let their minds expand and grow, 
so my classes were always noisy, because people were 
thinking. When brothers and sisters would jump up 
and say, 'you don't know what your talking about', 
then we would use the references. The references 
could be experiences, something mama said, 
something uncle Joe said, bring uncle Joe! Bring him 
on in here! Let's hear what he has to say! We had 
uncle Joes', grandmas', all kinds of people in the 
classroom. People were sittin ' on the floor. People 
sittin' on top of one another. " Lillian stated students 
were made to break down loose terms such as "the 
system" and gave it meaning and form, thereby 
causing students to think. "All of a sudden you don't 
have that business about who's an A student, a B 
student or a failing student, but rather who's a 
learning student, who's a thinking student, who's a 
dealing student. " Lillian feels her contribution has 
been "to begin to let students know that they can take 
that information and turn it into knowledge for truth. 



The interview then shifted into a specific discussion 
of Black women: Where do you feel Black women fit 
into educational systems? "To the question of Black 
women, I have a deep, deep religious and philo- 
sophical statement to make about that. My religious 
conviction is, that, we were all born to live out our 
lives having every opportunity, with all the creative 
forces here and all of the creative forces that have 
gone before us. I don 't think any person has the right 
to destroy or stop that creativity. This also ties in with 
my philosophical one: If we are about peoplehood 
than we must be about letting all persons be involved 
in that process of developing peoplehood, at every 
level, whether its male, female, child or adult. On 
every level. The Anglo-Saxon division of male and 
female is one of the most dehumanizing things we 
have picked up. " At this point sister Anthony referred 
to African woman as having '"distinct roles of the 
teacher" in the "formative years" (12 yrs.) in every 
major culture. By the time the father and elders took 
over and taught skills, "the greatest education already 
happen". She then emphasized the importance of 
referring back to Africa for our own values stating: 
"The values here, we cannot use to continue to be a 
human being. " This statement brought us to the topic 
of her dissertation: Black Values. Sister Lillian's 
thesis is that "the Black woman has been the one, 
who has been the transmitter of Black values. " Here 
is where the conversation was said to have gotten 
"really deep" because this is an area not quite 
thoroughly thought out by Lillian. She credited a 
book by Inez Smith Reid entitled, "Together Black 
Woman", as having significant impact on her own 
thinking. Research in the book has discredited the 
thesis of Black matriarchy, Black male emasculation 
by Black women and the stereotype of the militant 
Black woman. "Not militancy but togetherness. " 
Sister Lillians comment was, "that we just been taken 
care of business cause we had our stuff together". 
Again, referring to Africa "So% of the wealth in 
Ghana is in the hands of women. The men ain't 
talking about they emasculated, castrated or nothin ' 
else! It's just a natural thing! The women control the 
markets. The men were the warriors and 
philosophers." The session immediately shifted back 
to the relationship between Black men and Black 
women in this country. "As sisters and brothers began 
to gain political consciousness from, 'oh Lord, thank 
you Jesus', we don't say, 'I'm not going to take a job 
if the man 's not going to take a job, what you trying 
to do? One of the reasons I want him to have a job is 
because I want to relate to my sex appropriate and 
you ain't my sex appropriate. In other words you 
would like to continue to grow with Black 
conciousness and you cannot continue to grow alone 
as a woman in system, say, with all women, so you 
want Black men also there. You also have a situation, 
where you have our Black children seeing, 
(particularly Black male children), the Black male 
with the Black woman in another situation other than 
the home, so that his mind is not always directed 
toward the white woman once he gets out of there. 
The struggle must be for both of us to be there and 
the struggle can no longer be for her fighting for him 



to get there, the fight has to be his fight to get there, 
also, also! ! Because that's his ability to test out what 
he can do in dealing with the white man! If we 
continue to do it, we are the ones who . ... we can 
open his head wide open, we know that and it ain't 
through our behind either. That's another fallacy, we 
got to deal with, that whole fallacy, they ain 't but two 
people free; the white man and the Black woman. 
We ain 't never been free. " 

When asked about alternative schools in terms of 
Black men and women: "/ think that Black women 
and Black men need to begin by sitting down to design 
a school that will meet the needs of our people. I am 
no longer saying for our children, because I think we 
need to have all of our people in school. I would like 
to begin to change the terms of student-teacher back 
to old terms of elders people of wisdom. It's all there 
with grandmothers and people who lived in our 
communities, who loved us, who 'd never been to school 
a day, but you could sit and start talking to them and 
get a beatin ' when you got home for staying away too 
long. " What then, should we do when we sit down.'' 
Where do we start? "I thought about our home as 
being a beautiful experience for learning for us. I 
think we have to start where we are. Parties for 
instance, the whole concept of schools without walls 
is what it would be. We would begin tq^ talk not rap, 
but think out loud and plan out loud and dream out 
loud. Then somebody would say hold it, we been 
doing this for centuries, we're not going to do it 
anymore. Who is going to move on some of this 
tomorrow? I think the deterioration of the churches 
could be revitalized. We could begin to say a church 
service could become school. There wouldn 't always 
be the minister up there, but the elders, the children. 
We need to go on and do that. I don 't have a plan for 
an alternative school. I don't think anybody does. I 
think there are attempts being made. I don't think 
enough Black people have come together, to sit and 
dream about it yet. It's still in the walls of academia, 
except for Howard Fuller." She goes on to explain 
that it has to be something we just "let happen, that 
way it's so pure, real and beautiful". However, there 
are some realities. "The reality is that we are out here 
now trying to just live and to keep this man from 
shootin ' us and killin ' us, that kind of happening in 
terms of dreaming about some school, man, is like 
insane!!" One particular reality which came out of 
her own experience had to do with Black cab drivers 
(Brothers) in Chicago. She experienced their refusal 
to pick her up, based on an assumption that she was 
going into the "Black Belt" due to her own apparent 
color. In tears, because of humiliation and utter 
frustration she asked a door man (a brother), outside 
of O'Hara airport; "Why is this happening to 
brothers and sisters? How can they make assumptions 
about me?" When he replied, the dope, the mugging 
and the people being robbed, sister Lillian's most 
significant rebuttal was; "but brother we took all of 
the robbin', lynchin' and murders from white folks 
for four centuries, it seems to me like them brothers 
ought to be able to take a little bit of that in the in- 
house family for a little bit until we completely get 
ourselves together. I will not buy that. " 13 



GREAT BLACK MUSIC 



14 



Just recenf/y / changed the name of my jazz show to "Jazz and Politics". I use the word jazz to mean the great 
music of black people and its political nature. The nature that it possesses and its implication for our freedom 
from oppression. My reasons were two fold. While on the air you get calls from all sorts of people who tell you 
how hip Miles is and how they dug that Coltrane you just played. After talking with the person for a while you 
find that his participation in the struggle, on any level, is nil and that he prefers to see the music separate from 
the struggle. I have to tell them I am not just simply playing records, but, instead, I am making political state- 
ments using the music of the black artists. Secondly, a large portion of our music is constantly being ripped off by 
young white faggot DJs who probably had a black roommate in college who turned them on to the music, and 
all the latest hip black phrases (like dig it). And they think their accessibility to the air waves gives them a 
license to host a jazz program and make statements about black people and their music. I say no good. What the 
black listener ends up with is a watered down version of their own music because the host of the show will not 
and cannot be consistent over a long period of time. And what can you do about it unless you have your own 
radio station. If you listen to their programs long enough you will get what I call the three for one. The program 
will open with a heavy tune by a blood and the next three tunes will be by grey groups they are trying to push. 
Or you will hear a tune that sounds black and you will say ooooweeee that show is bad until you find out the 
leader ain't black. A lot of record companies will only allow black artists to record as side men or back up some 
half rate white musician in his rise to the top. The best thing Cannonball Adderley did was get rid of Joe 
Zawinul, and the best thing Wayne Shorter can do is to get out of the new Joe Zawinul group called of all things 
"Weather Report" and start his own group. We have to stop carrying these chumps along. 

So, I decided to change the name of my program to make a definite distinction with other shows even though it 
was different from the get. But for the importance of my listeners and those persons who are interested in, and 
are serious about the great black music of people, the change was necessary. 

As I look at the black music scene this is what I see happening. I fear that we have heard the best of Roberta 
Flack and maybe it's just as well, unless she makes some drastic changes in her selection of tunes, if she has the 
power to make those selections. Now most people will be very upset by this position but at this time I feel it is 
very important for us to make an analysis of what has happened to the music of Roberta. On her first album she 
cried and I liked it, on her second album she cried and I became suspicious, on her third album she cried and I 
knew something conspiratorial was going on, and they had the nerve to call the album "Quiet Fire". Black 
Women, if you will permit me as a black man to say, are not talking about crying anymore. I say to the record 
companies we do not want any more songs that tell us how we have been kicked in our asses for four hundred 
years, and all we can do is cry, love it, and buy all the LPs that signify this plight. I feel there is an attempt to 
suppress the spirit of black people by suppressing the music of the black artist. The correlation I am drawing is 
that of the popularity of Sister Flack, the rise in the support of black women for their men and the almost over- 
whelming enjoyment of Sister Roberta Flack's music by black women. One can imagine what would happen to 
the relationship of black men to their women if Sister Flack would be telling the sisters some other kinds of things 
except crying. It is no coincidence why we haven't gotten any more records from Sister Elaine Brown, who is a 
member of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. Simple. She was talking about liberation and not crying 
time. And you probably won't get anymore until you begin to support the artist that is moving in this direction 
instead of buying that other garbage that sounds black but is not black in its essence. 

We also have to be careful of what we call revolutionary music. Freddie Hubbard has a record out called "Sing a 
song of Song My" where he employs a machine called the synthesizer, all sorts of choral voices and some mono- 
logue. On the surface the record's intentions in condemning the atrocities of the Vietnam war are probably 
good, but by the end of the record much has been lost by the employment of this kind of personnel. In another 
case there is another record out called "The Black Messiah" which happens to be super mean. It was recorded 
live at the Troubadour in Son Francisco, California by Cannonball Adderley, who I think redeems himself on this 
jam. I have been very disappointed in the latest Cannonball sides. However, in this particular two record album, 
which employs some heavy percussive work and some excellent electric piano playing by Brother George Dukes, 
we find a record I would highly recommend. 

In closing I would like to say that there is a need for great black music discussion groups that operate just like 
study groups where you have four or five brothers and sisters meeting as often as possible to discuss a particular 
black artist or individual 'o whom you are willing to make a commitment. In this way the responsibility for 
education is placed on you. And you have only yourself to blame if you are not informed. So as a start I would 
say for you to go out and buy a record by a great black music artist today! 

Bill Hasson 
12'71 




INTEGRATION AND THE BLACK ATHLETE 



With the beginning of the 60's a new and profoundly "progressive" era for the Black aca- 
demic population was ushered into existence. 

Dr. Martin Luther King's nonviolent and compromising tactics led to major state and nation- 
al judicial reversals and amendments on the questions of segregation of public places, and in- 
stitutions supported, not only by public funds, but the sacred ideals of American democracy and 
free enterprise. Dr. King with the aid and blessings of his God and followers and the "Supreme 
Court," revived the 1954 decision to integrate the nation's public institutions of "learning." 

After the smoke had cleared away from those countless cross burnings and church burnings, 
the true nature of the problem of contemporary America was revealed. 

The national conscience is depicted as being based on racial hatred and degradation that has 
run rampant since the first "heathen" from the bowels of English society decided on emanci- 
pation from the mother country. 

Thus we have a phenomenon that is somewhat new and difficult to grasp and analyze. Recent 
mass integrationist programs and proposals have resulted in the destruction of many young un- 
prepared Black children, men, and women. This may be taken by some to be an unfounded 
statement but any fool able to read can check statistics on the amount of high school graduates 
of colour now able to attend higher educational institutions on ordinary student merits since the 
advent of the integration push. 

I am quite certain that there are those of you who are still anticipating my dealing with the 
"plight" of the Black Athlete since the intervention of the fund saving integrationists. The pur- 
pose for my structuring this "what ever it is" in this manner is to lead up to the extinction of 
any traces of manhood the Black athlete had acquired through associations with coaches and 
administrators of colour and the revitalization of "Sambo." 

Realizing the attitudes of white people concerning the character — past and present — of peo- 
ple of African ancestry in this nation, one should ask the question, why wasn't there an orienta- 
tion period for white people destined to be exposed to these oversexed, demoralized darkies. If 
integration, or should I say limited assimilation, was to be successful, I think its failure or suc- 
cess depended on the "re-education" and "humanization" of its founders. No such steps to edu- 
cate the morally deprived white masses of the humanity of the Black race was attempted or 
even envisioned. Young Black students were pushed into the venomous pits of white institution- 



15 



alized racism at its best. Segregated schools all 
over the nation were (are) closed and the prac- 
tice of castration rides (busing) became the 
mode of the day. 

It is strange that although school governing 
bodies in this great land of ours negated the in- 
sinuation made by various government agencies 
as to their unfair practices in the field of educa- 
tion, bussed the Black kids from their neighbor- 
hood schools to those in white areas. If the argu- 
ments of equality by those in charge of the 
schools were valid one asks, "why were over 
ninety-percent of the Black institutions closed?" 

The preceding statements have all been sup- 
portive of the notions of the needs to educate 
and somehow transform the white citizens of 
this nation into some semblance of humanity. 
My finale will only attest to those notions. 

The treatment of the Black male as a "stud," 
an almost super human, and a being of a happy- 
go-lucky do nothing nature is exemplified in any 
manner or field of endeavor with no more clarity 
than on athletic fields. The sad thing about this 
is that most athletes of colour do not recognize 
this phenomenon themselves. Only through the 
outspokenness of such athletic stars as Tommie 
Smith, Harry Edwards, John Carlos, Al Newton 
and the Syracuse brothers, including Jimmy 
Brown and numerous others have Black athletes 
begun to question the Athletic Institution. 

Recruited and enrolling in pseudo integrated 
institutions, the Black athlete — decreased in 
ranks by the integration of high schools; larger 
quantities of brothers now drop out of the high 
school scene, fewer make all-star teams be- 
cause of the dominance of white players and 
choosing coaches — finds himself in the same 
situations that were probably occupied by his 
forefathers shackled to the plantation by chains 
and threats of death. The contemporary 
"slave" finds himself shackled to the various 
university and college campuses with the threats 
of losing his athletic scholarship and economic 
and social (among his peers) death if he doesn't 
succeed. 

Brothers encounter strange things during the 
duration of their involvement with athletics on 
the intercollegiate level. Brothers Smith, New- 
ton, Carlos, and others were exposing some very 
important and profound attitudes that exist in 
the deranged minds of today's American citi- 
zens. 

The idea of a white chick just seen talking to 
a Brother, not deserving respect from her con- 
stituents, for what they perceive is happening 
is appalling. Junior Coffey ex-University of 
Washington fullback is one individual whose 



pro-career was possibly affected by this white- 
woman-and-Black-man-equals-no-respect syn- 
drome. Coffey dated a white girl in 1964 and 
never started another game for the Huskies — 
this was his all important senior year. Although 
Coffey was eventually able to go on to pro ball 
one should consider the countless brothers whose 
careers were ended because of such goings-on. 

The sexual question has even been exemplified 
since I've been enrolled here at the University 
of Massachusetts. One afternoon while eating 
dinner on an away trip, the white "boys" were 
riding one of the Brothers about how much food 
he consumed, somehow the topic shifted to the 
size of the Brother's penis. Can you imagine 
eating dinner and a cat begins to discuss the 
specifics of another man's genitals? 

Later on that night the Brother and I began 
earnestly to analyze the situation as it existed 
on the team regarding us as Black men. We re- 
called remarks made by coaches as to possibili- 
ties of certain white members of the team be- 
coming professional athletes, with no such con- 
notation ever being made to the Brothers that 
were on the team. We recalled how practice ses- 
sions to us were more crucial than any game 
that either of us ever participated in, because 
any sloppiness on our part in practice resulted 
in long afternoons at game time. The white cats 
on the team were allowed to miss an occasional 
pass, punt or block here or there without too 
much being made of it. However, such an action 
by a Brother usually led to a more severe tongue 
lashing. 

One day after I had severely dislocated my 
thumb, I was having a change of dressing by 
one of the team physicians. After the idiot put 
another splint on my thumb he remarked that I 
would now be able to go out and spear some 
watermelons. What a stupid motherfucker, 
where the hell could you find watermelons small 
enough to spear with a two inch thumb. 

Quite seriously, I am tired of writing about 
these God fearing, apple pie eating patriots, 
who according to them don't need the re-educa- 
tion, that is an absolute necessity for them to 
continue to exist on this earth. 

It is my belief that the question of Black edu- 
cation can be dealt with effectively if there were 
more humanistic, morally oriented educational 
institutions. And not these concentration camps 
concentrating on the supremacy of the white 
race and decadence and destruction of non- 
white people. 

Amicus Humani Generis 
AlKey 



16 



The Cockroach On A Bike 



Part II of a three part epic poem 

by Emmanuel Asibong, 

English Dept. 



A Spinster's Frustration 

Andy is in the kitchen 
Mimi is in the garden 
Mimi come and meet Jill. 

How do you do? 
How do you do? 

I lay on the sofa 

condemned by my own morality . . . 

Samaru, Samaru 

I want to go to bed with you 

I want to go to bed with you 

You piece of masculine juicy stuff, 
I want to go to bed with you, 
squeeze some life out of you 
when you castle out of check. 

White queen takes black knight 
black and white 
it must be right 
it's all the rave. 

Goodnight. 



White Skin, Black Masks 
I 
I AM TOTALLY OPPOSED TO THE SALE OF 
ARMS TO APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA. 

From this small 
meagre circle 
of white spotless hands 
with spluttering pens . . . 

pinned to doors 
hung up in offices 
pasted on vans 
cars and walls 
SO WHAT? 

Jesus of Nazareth 

recrucified 
I shall never be 

satisfied. 

II 

Instead this . . . 

"Did you meet a robber on your journey?" 

"No . . . only a poet." 

A brief interval to eat some maize . . . and 



two days have passed. "We must hit the 
road tomorrow, Pete," I said. 
"I know when my black lover sees me 
he'll be surprised." 

Back in London . . . 

my coloured lover lies on my bed 

eyeing me like a new television. 

How can one have skin that changes colour? 

Does it hurt to go brown? Will you ever 

be white again? 



Ill 

Freak. 

I see no vultures 

I see no carrion . . . 

Walking under the stars 

talking with a Nigerian 

who arrived only an hour ago, 

courting seduction 

avoiding seduction 

drinking wine 

eating nuts 

talking of sickle cell disease 

like we did in Zaria . . . 

Could you ever marry a Nigerian? How many 

children would you want? 

FREAK. 



At the Pool 
Here are mature ducks 
and their little ones 
floating on the cool 
surface of a pool 
like sour indigestion spots. 

Besides their sounds 

of animal laughter 

amidst ripples of dirty water 

I can see my own 

thoughts' reflection 

like distant sea-weeds. 

They come moonlight swimming 
after a bottle of star, 
bathing time 
mating time 



17 



18 



they come moonlight swimming 
after a bottle of stout. 

Aged ducks 

in tattered trunks 

with murky holes in them . . . 

white skin evident everywhere 

Ruth's rude rump. 

Ducks in their teens 
wearing faded blue bikinis 
flaunting balloon-like breasts . . 

Take my towel. 

Gathering up bile 

from their slim little throats 

they shot it into the pool. 

Thank you. 

Despite your behaviour 

the pool still stands, 

the pool my catering mother 

built with her hands. 

Won't I stand too? 

Even a helpless moth 
in its deaththroes 
will still hover about 
a flickering white candle. 



Assistant Lecturer in the Rain 
Staff catering flats stood 
like concentration camps; 
behind them, at a distance 
were single stables 
which reminded him 
of Eichmann's gas chambers. 

With his hair wet, 

his eyes sodden with tears 

he crawled on all fours 

dragging a blue plastic bucket 

down a well-known campus street. 

But only yesterday 

the rain's dismal descent 

had left him arrogant; 

arrogant as the phagocytically 

turgid phallus, 

sometimes unintentionally 

callous. 



Are These Ideas Right or Wrong 

Spiders, antagonistic and invisible 
quietly weaving cobwebs 
in staff catering offices 
imagining themselves and wives 
absolutely invincible. 

The roaches at noon 
making for the moon 
on a ladder of ice 
darting like sodium 



We abuse 

you (plural) abuse. 



on motorbikes 

in city-streets, 

walking and hunting in the sun 

claiming they are sole 

children of the light. 

The vultures in yachts 
yachting in salt water, 
demanding their natural rights 
though bowing several times 
like ugly obsequious lizards. 

The roaches in parliament 
casting night over day, 
inventing permanent eclipses 
calling every disillusionment 
a strictly English blessing. 

The House Is Building 

This building was the gift of the British 

People to this University 

abu . . . se (itself) 
abused (itself) 

I abuse 
you abuse 

Non sequitur .... 
how daft you are! 

The roaches in concert 
older superior roaches, 
wearing Khaki clothes, 
riding in funeral limousiness 
trafficking in funereal limousiness. 

SALE! SALE! SALE! SALE! 

Mercedes Benz, 220 
in perfect condition 
home delivery, 
body as new 
colour: light black 
body and white top 
plus many extras 
including metal 
registration numbers 
leather seat covers 
new tyres, SPARE tyres 
owner DRIVEN! 

At a give away price of £ 2,800. Please contact 
the Secretary: HUMAN RELATIONS, DEPART- 
MENT, Main Campus. 

The vultures in suspense 

as poor as churchmice 

in a graveyard where 

nothing stirs but a roach, 

superior vultures nail their coffins 

happily admiring funeral limousiness. 

The vultures at cocktails 
chatting with promiscuous ducks; 
the vultures after a carrion feed 
strutting to the pool 
like Irish peacocks. 

Are these ideas indeed right or wrong? 



Ray Miles on Art 



Ray Miles is currently teaching a course in the techniques of welding as art 
at the Black Cultural Center in the ff.E.B. DuBois Department of Afro-Ameri- 
can Studies at the L'niversity of Massachusetts. 

The following is an excerpt of an interview with Brother Mites taken by 
Sister Debbe Holford. 




On African A rt and so-called Experts on African A rt: 

Africa for years was called the Dark Continent 
because of the many things above w/iifey's head, ''''what 
he doesnH understand he calls primitive." This in- 
cludes many anthropologists both white and black, 
because the blacks are taught in a ivhite manner. But 
even now the racists are beginning to ^''admit if's not 
so damn dark after all." They're beginning to see 
classical work from the so-called primitive age. 




On teaching art: 

Brother Miles stated that art as a technique may 
be taught, but not art, it must be free flowing. Art is 
looking for truth, whether it be realism, abstract or 
whatever school one may come from. If an artist is 
moved by his ivork then he can shoiv it and let the 
world judge. Teaching art is just a form of teaching 
technique. If a student feels he understands the tech- 
nique then he can let it fall any way he feels. W hatever 
he comes up with is his. 




Most people go to Africa, they see a few things, 
a few tribal dances and they come back experts. Femi 
Richards is now writing a book on African art. This 
will be the truth. So far everything else that everyone 
else has written has been totally subjective and wrong. 
"Until I get to Africa myself, maybe then I might be 
able to say, now I know." 



20 



African Art has been the forerunner of all art. Picasso 
uses African art, yet he is not called primitive. 



".Wos/ Black artists are taught by trends and 
follow like trends. Nothing that ivhitey does relates 
to black but everything that blacks do relate to ivhitey 
because everything we've got they want to steal. " 




On teaching his course. ". . . show them how to 
operate a torch, safety factors, how to keep from burn- 
ing themselves up and how to weld. Then they're on 
their own." Brother Miles never comments on his 
students' work, he feels he has not the right. 



When asked to describe his style: 

"/ can '(, / have to leave that to some white critic. 




Black artists not finding themselves in a white 
bag get nowhere until they go to the galleries and to 
those who own them, and are told who to go to bed 
with, what parties to go to; and that's worse than hold- 
ing a job. 



"/ stay away from that. I'd rather be poor all my 
life as long as I can show my technique and let the 
young improve on it. " 




21 



ATTICA: 

MIENTRAS LA SANGRE CORRE 



ATTICA: 

WHILE THE BLOOD IS RUNNING 



Hoy vi los bosques ensangrentados 
azotados por todos los tiempos, 
por jirones de nubes prostitutas. 

Neron, 
todos los tiempos armagos 
destilando sus gritos 
sobre la cara de un Cielo Blanco. 

Sobre una rama, quizas 

una chispa de luz 

encendio las protestas 

del ghetto agonizante-devorando la pobreza 

con sus manos tremulas. 
Los campos labrados destilan hombres explotados 
explotados en el amor libre 
de su sudor trigueno 
prenando la tierra 
Y la sangre de Attica, 
ofreciendo el drama 
"La Masacre de Viet Nam en casa' 
salpicando las calles 
para remendar 
las grietas del Cielo Blanco. 
Esta Tierra Negra 

no quiere cubrir su dolor con manto bianco, 
hasta que el Silencio 
la ensordezca de gritos. 

Mas, para amplificar los sepulcros amerikkkanos, 
han narcotizado los ojos del pueblo 
con napalm 
y carcel. 
Y cosechan en los altares de las iglesias-un Dios 

racista 

asesino. 
Feretros vivientes 
de Nixon 
y Rockefeller, 



Today, I saw the bloody woods 

beaten for all time 

by patches of prostitute clouds 

Nero, 
all the bitter times, 
distilling cries 
over the face of a white sky. 
A light spark over a branch, maybe, 
starts the protest 
of the dying ghetto— with trembling hands 

eating poverty. 
The working fields are distilling exploited men 
exploited by free love 

of swarthy perspiration 

that impregnates the land. 
And the blood of Attica 
Showing the play 
"Viet Nam's Massacre at home" 
spraying the streets 
to mend 
the White sky's fissures. 
This Black Earth 

"don't" want white cover, it hurts; 
until the Silence 
deafens their cries. 

But to amplify the Amerikkkan's sepulchers 
they drug the People's eyes 
with napalm 

And jail 
And they reap 



in the churches' altars 



a God 
Racist 

and murderous; 
Nixon's 
and Rockefeller's 
living coffins. 



22 



comtaminando al mundo 
con su peste de muerte, 

con ardores de muerte 
en la sonrisa, 

y las rodillas hinchadas 
de aviones supersonicos. 

Y otra vez-El Absurdo vence la Justicia- 

La sangre de Attica, 

senalando el Via Crucis 

del Cristo crucificado, millones de veces 

por las computadoras electronicas. 

Pobre Estatua de la Libertad 

encadenada a la cola 

de un perro de callejuelas sucias. 

Y el Poder Blanco 

lava las lagrimas del Cristo 

con gas lacrimogeno 
crucificandolo 
con ametralladoras 

a la Cruz de Attica, 
mientras 
la sangre 
que 
corre, 
libra 
ensu 
obscuridad, 
va gritando, 
! Rockefeller 
Hijo 
deputa! 



polluting the world 

with their Death foul odors. 

In their smile 
they carry 

ardent Death 
and supersonic planes 
in their swollen knees. 

In another time-the Absurdity will win the Justice- 
Attica's blood 
showing the"Via Crucis"; 
Jesucristo crucified, millions of times 
by the electronic computers 

Poor Statue of Liberty 
was chained 

to the tail of a dirty street dog 
And the White Power 
washes the Jesucristo tears, again 
with the tear gas. 

And the machine guns 
crucify him 

to the Attica Cross ; 
while 
the 
running 
blood, 
freedom 
in 
the 
darkness 
cries 
Rockefeller 
Mother 
Fucker! 



Luisin M. Medina 

CCEBS- 

El autor escribe en espanol. 

Luego traduce al ingles. 



Luisin M. Medina 

CCEBS student 

The author writes in Spanish, 

and then he translates to English. 



23 




24 



Cultural Response to Education 



If a "minority" culture does not adapt to its new and ever- 
changing environment, for all practical purposes, it will cease to 
exist. Undeniably, there are many ethnic cultures in America. Many 
of these, such as the Irish, the German, or the Italian, have become 
attuned to the demands of industrial society and are keeping pace 
with the changing times. On the other hand, there are a few cultures, 
such as the Puerto Rican, the Black, the Chicano, or the American 
Indian, that find attunement more difficult for a myriad of reasons, 
among them are: geographical isolation, discrimination, unique 
idiosyncracies in the beliefs and customs of the culture, and a failure 
to benefit from the general economic growth of the nation. The major 
obstacle to cultural assimilation common to the "third-world" 
cultures is the maladjustment of their institutions. Their institutions 
are attuned to an agrahan traditional society of yesterday, diametrical 
to the prevalent industrial society of today. 

If relevance is to be attained, if productivity and efficiency are to be 
consummated, a culture must respond to societal demands of 
growth and awareness. Within any culture, the institution of 
education must be in the avant-garde, striking some balance 
between the culture and the greater society, acting as a buffer 
between the traditions of history and the exploration of science, in 
order to insure the preservation and continuance of civilization. The 
cultural response to education could very well be cultural disavowal 
or cultural genocide. However, this need not be so. The sociological 
study of cultures and the relationships between cultures seems to 
proport interaction on a universal level. Too much is at stake for 
national and regional prejudices to hinder interaction of world 
citizens. Our day is characterized by international travel and 
communication. It is little wonder that the peoples of the world must 
learn to peacefully co-exist, to live and learn, to share a world with 
the potential beauty of a universal culture. It is intriguing to think 
about the possibilities. 

Acknowledging the existence of sub-cultures, a universal culture 
seeks a common ground, presenting a conglomeration of ideas and 
energies. Education, as a universal cultural response, advocating 
cultural appreciation, offers an unfathomable reservoir of knowledge 
and potential. 

Earl Strickland 



25 



Gateways To. . . 




Our Black Kings & Queens 
lay helpless, as pawns 
at the fingertips of Master-Fate. 

like spiral junkies laying twisted in the stairwell, 
on (who's gonna take the weight) 

on black & white checkerboards, 

or Squares, sitting ducks 
LAME; and hurtin more & more all the time. 

all the time. . . & another unwanted 
mother miscarriages on the back porch trying 
to find her legitimacy. 

-"Your Move, King" Brother, blackman-(god) 

while the man is dropping tears on us, 
(yeah, it's a GAS, ain't it?) - pick them up 
and cry niggerboy; cuz you sure 
A-L-L the time. 

and our Black Kings continue 
(retreat) one-space-at-a-time. wishing 
they could become 
Knights in Shining armour. 

-"Hey Man, It's Your Move" Blood, warrior-(god) 

& Black Queens profile, looking fine, 

showing their behinds 
not realizing the Time, -or that- 
it is just a matter of time 

-but it dont matter- 

cuz we go on being took, taken, had and mislead, 
til suddenly you're Dead. . . 




look stupid smiling, 
to move backwards 



Checkmate (nigger). 



John E. Davis '71 



26 



THE POTENTIAL OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS 

FOR BLACKS 

The field of Mass Communications offers significant guide- 
lines necessary to understand messages in relation to a large 
mass of people. This pertains to the theories of message process 
and message acceptancy of the mass. An insight to character- 
istic and attitudinal behavioral patterns of the mass is available 
so that one may realize the basic obstacles involved in message 
formulation, transmission, and finally reception. It is important 
to grasp the theories of mass communications because their 
role in society is much too formidable to be overlooked. These 
theories have bearings on all phases of life, and our attention 
and energy must be directed towards this field in order to de- 
fine, establish, and assert our black culture. 

We depend upon messages in our daily routine-messages 
of entertainment, direction, and most important, information — 
a vital tool for black unity. Information concerning what course 
of action blacks may take and also how and when to act must be 
available in order to motivate and solidify black united aggres- 
sion. These theories of messages are too fundamental to be with- 
out. 

Unfortunately, the opportunity to grasp the theories is 
greater than the opportunity to apply them to the black situa- 
tion. This is especially true in commercial television, entertain- 
ment radio, and countless print materials, all of which are sup- 
posedly designed to satisfy the total black audience. Whites at- 
tempt to reach the black audience but the cultural and beha- 
vioral differences that exist between whites and blacks verifies 
the need for blacks to project their own messages and images. 
As a result, our needs will be more adequately fulfilled because 
the messages will originate from blacks who know the relevant 
needs of blacks from media. Yet the facilities that would allow us 
to become involved more actively is highly regulated by gov- 
ernmental agencies and therefore accessibility is lessened. 

At the start, the industry was inexcusably inadvertent 
towards blacks because of our low consumer potential, mar- 
ginal power structure, and mostly our low market value in pre- 
dominantly white areas. Now after twenty years, the system re- 
tains its attitudes for the black mass regardless of the progres- 
siveness of black potential, ability, and socio-political value. 
Proportionally our needs from media increase, thus establishing 
basic criteria for justifying the application of mass communica- 
tion theories to the total black experience. But mass media real- 
ly hasn't attempted to offer relevancy for blacks except in mar- 
ginal aspects. It is at this point that we must take the necessary 
steps to achieve a greater awareness in the fundamental theo- 
ries and processes of mass communications in order to get the 
real message to the people. I feel that becoming more know- 
ledgeable of communications can possibly lead to a basic nec- 
essity for black unity: 

a black universal language and message. 

Burvell L. Williams 



27 



The Worth ofAfro-Amer/can Studies 



The normal process for education in this country always leads, or at 
least is supposed to lead, to the realization of the Great Amencan Dream. 
Anyone, from any walk of life can pull himself up by his boot straps and 
become a millionaire; anyone within the system. This excludes Blacks, 
Chicanes, Puerto Ricans, and Indians. 

In order for these groups to gain any type of pride and power without 
the system (from within they lose identity) they must have some type of 
education that destroys the myths promoted by the system and that builds a 
system related to the needs of these groups. 

This is how I view the Black Studies Department on this campus, but 
not without observing the many problems that it faces as it builds a 
foundation in this new and controversial area. I view the department not 
with praise and not with condemnation. I am in Black Studies for what it 
can give me and not to talk about who's dynamite and who's not. Black 
Studies is not (and should not be) a vehicle to give you political or social 
direction (the propaganda of the existent education system), but rather a 
vehicle to help one establish his program so that he might take what he has 
learned back to the "streets" and be able to help without losing identity 
with his people. 

However, Black Studies is influenced by the people, but if we don't 
support and build it up we will lose a vehicle which, I feel, will aid us in our 
continuous struggle. Students seem, to me, to fall into the habit of 
condemning folks within the Department, but refuse to do anything to right 
the wrongs or to help make this experience work. 

You see, too long have we been hidden away in our ghettoes waiting 
for some representative of the Great White Father to come and tell us a 
bunch of lies about programs that are set up not to help us because they 
don't understand us. Too long have we told these representatives to tell it to 
their mothers and too long have we been without the help of our brothers 
and sisters who were lucky enough to get out. Now we have the chance to 
escape from the physical realities, but we have learned that mentally there 
is not escape unless we help raise the situation of all our people. To do this 
we must go "back home" and we must have some vehicle to aid our people 
without bullshitting them. I feel that Black Studies is one way of aiding us in 
this undertaking. 

Herman L. Davenport, Jr. 



28 



Education 



INTERVIEW WITH MICHAEL THELWELL: CHAIRMAN, AFRO- 
AMERICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Our chairman of the Black Studies Department, Michael Thelwell, has 
got to be one of the busiest persons around. I say this because it was very dif- 
ficult to, get an interview with him, but when he was finally able to avail him- 
self, I realized that my wait was not in vain. 

Mike is a well read, well versed, articulate person, who seems to be so 
bogged down with his busy schedule as to be impersonal. This is not really 
the case, for indeed if you have been around Mike long enough you would 
know that he does project an air of seriousness and responsibility as well as 
a friendly attitude. If you haven V seen him when he was lecturing and/ or 
listening to a speaker, you have indeed missed a treat, for it seems that he is 
engrossed in another world by the way he closes his eyes and places his hands 
on the sides of his head. 

Following, are a number of responses to a question that I asked. At the 
end of the interview I felt that there were some points that he clarified quite 
well and others that he left open for conjecture. 



Q. Since this issue of the Drum deals with education, can you 
give us your ideas concerning the educational system here and 
the experiences that you have had elsewhere? 

A. The educational system here isn't something that we can 
talk about particularly because it's really not different from 
any other place I've been to except qualitatively. The system 
here, as close as I can tell, is very similar to the system at Howard; 
it's very similar to the system at Cornell University. It's very 
similar to the system of any number of universities we have 
been to and spent differing lengths of time talking with the 
students and lecturing and that kind of stuff. So that finally 
what can be said about the system here is that it is a tradi- 
tional American system, which is the same as a traditional 
white system. 

An educational system which is a product of Western cul- 
ture in a certain sense as that is reflected in American society, 
no different. The only difference that one can talk about isn't 
a systematic difference, it is a qualitative one. That is to say 
that the reputation or the quality of teaching at this univer- 
sity is demonstratively better than at most state universities. 
That the level of professional competence and reputation of at 
least a great number of the faculty here is qualitatively higher 
than at most state universities. That the imagination and am- 
bition of the administration at this school is qualitatively higher 
than at state universities, but one can't really get into a dis- 
cussion of what the educational system is like here because we 
are not really that different. 

After we have said all of that we are still talking about white 
systems. This is even true about Howard University. Howard 
University is an American university not a Black university, 
not even a university of colored people, it's a white university. 



It's curriculum will show that, with one or two concessions, 
which brings us into the question of black studies and the real 
question is: "Is there a different educational need for black 
people than for white people; and the answer to that is yes and 
no. 

On one level, anybody who lives in the twentieth century, 
and the seventies particularly, is going to have to cope with, es- 
pecially living in this country, an increasingly industrial, in- 
creasingly complex and increasingly technological society, and 
what you learn in universities. It's interesting that people are 
spending more and more time learning the general facts of so- 
cial life. Americans are spending more and more time in uni- 
versities or institutions of higher learning simply because one 
needs more training to adjust to the technically oriented so- 
ciety, and to that extent, among black people and white people 
living in this country, their educational needs are the same. Now, 
in a very important respect, their needs are not the same, their 
needs are not at all compatible. That is to say, in the realm of 
politics and in the realm of those disciplines which define how 
people are to perceive the world, perceive the political realities 
of the world, perceive their own relationship to it. In the realm 
of values, it seems very clear that if the black community is to 
progress, is to liberate itself, is to get out from under the bur- 
den of oppression which historically has been perceived, black 
people can't be educated into a value system which is the same 
as white society, which is the same as capitalist individualism, 
a whole host of attitudes which have to do with the way one 
identifies oneself. 

If one identifies oneself as an American, it means you iden- 
tify yourself with the dominant culture, you identify yourself 
with the Western culture, you identify yourself with the "civil- 
ization" that destroyed the Indian, took over the country and 



29 




30 



enslaved Black people, which is a very hard kind of identifi- 
cation for black people* to make, but it is what American edu- 
cation is really getting at. On the other hand, if you identify 
yourself not with the dominant culture and the dominant tech- 
nological force which has conquered and shaped this country, 
but as a victim of it and in a certain realistic political way as 
an enemy of that system, that force and that movement, then 
your educational system has to reflect and has to be very dif- 
ferent. Then the question of identification becomes very im- 
portant. 

How does one, for example, identify with the struggle in 
South Africa.'' If you identify with the Boers, the Africans, the 
people who have perpetuated apartheid and a form of slavery 
on the native Black populations, then you identify with Amer- 
ican Big business interest. You identify with having the dia- 
monds available for industrial purposes and for purposes of 
jewelry. You identify with having the incredible mineral wealth 
of South Africa, the gold, for example, exploited in the interest 
of Western society. That's what it means to be an American. 

So it becomes very difficult when one is black; to know what 
is going to happen when liberation in that country intensifies 
as it is almost bound to intensify and the vast majority of black 
people, who are presently being oppressed under that system, de- 
cide to move against it. That is gomg to involve the interests of 
the American Corporations in a very real way and it seems to me 
that black people in this country are going to have to identify 
with one side or another of that conflict. Black people in this 
country are going to have to identify their own situation as a 
colonial one, and the struggles of other non-white people in the 
third world against western capitalism and against western in- 
dustrialists. Black people are going to have identify with that 
or identify with the system. That's the crucial area where the 
question of education becomes important. The question of what 
are people educated for, is not a question that black people 
should not produce engineers, should not produce doctors, 
should not produce professional people whose training is in the 
natural sciences and in technology. The question is how do they 
understand that rule once they receive their training in techno- 
logy? How do they understand their commitments, how do they 
understand their necessities.'' 'What kinds of liability do they see 
themselves having, what kinds of responsibility do they see 
themselves having to the masses of black people who are not 
educated and are becoming obsolete in this country.-' By which 
I mean, they can't get jobs, there is nothing for them that they 
are trained to do. I mean, what relationship do they have with 
those people.'' What relationship do they have with the masses 
of Black people in the Carribean and in the Third World, the 
resources of whose countries are not available to them, whose 
country is being developed in such a way that they are being 
excluded from any part of that development. 



The Black minority in this country has a very important 
question to decide for itself; one which I'm afraid it hasn't yet 
decided, and one which, I think, is the job of Black Studies 
to help them decide. That is, how they are going to identify 
in this polarization that has taken place. Which side are they 
finally going to come down on.^ Are they going to end up work- 
ing for General Motors, working for the large American corp- 
orations, which will reward you materially, with a good life, 
or are you going to be dedicating your life to a vision of the 
historical struggle of Black people to liberate themselves from 
this system, to liberate the continent of Africa from this system: 
a struggle of Black people to take their place in the world as i 
group of nations, of black nations among other nations. And 
this would include the Black people of this country. 

Those are very important kinds of considerations which, in 
the absence of anyone else doing it, becomes the responsibility 
of the educational institutions. The whole impetus of the society, 
the T. V. (which is white controlled), the whole media of com- 
munications, and most of the publishing industry meditates 
towards pushing Black people into support and identification 
with the system. The only thing that makes this very difficult 
is the real political and economic situations of the masses of 
the Black community. It is madness now to go into most Black 
communities and talk about let us separate, since they haven't 
got an industrial base, they haven't got an economic base and 
they're totally dependent on the man. In many communities a 
lot of the people are dependent on welfare, which is very sin- 
ister because that means that they have no economic role to 
play in the society anymore and they are just being tolerated 
and kept alive by the society. This is a very dangerous position 
for Black people to be in. So when you talk to them with a vul- 
gar type of nationalism, they may listen, they may say right on, 
but they know that they don't have the resources to do that. 

It seems to me that we have to control the institutions that 
educate young Black children and educate them realistically 
to the conditions of Black people not only in this country but 
in the world, then try to build in them the conscienceness of 
the need for Black people to struggle, and to struggle in cer- 
tain ways to understand what we are struggling for; to under- 
stand that it is going to be a very long struggle, to understand 
that the result is not a foregone conclusion; it can go any number 
of ways because it is full of surprises, but can begin the pro- 
cess of preparing Black people to understand in a more realis- 
tic way than the educational system has allowed before. 



ROBERT J. PADGETT 



31 



TRUE GRIT OF IT ALL 



Nothing but pure Soft poly unsaturated 

Hitting hard and heavy from the 

Insides 

Tangibles of smelly rotten- 
Waste products of time that once was good. 



Jeanais Brodie 
71. 



Words came out to play 

Stumbled over wounds 

And then some smartass brought along 

his pal called pain, 
Who ached the whole situation with his 

laughter . . . 

Jeanais Brodie 
71. 



32 





lfrry\ 





Have I ever taken the time to really say HELLO? 
I've walked past you a million times or more, 
I may have nodded my head, smiled, or raised a brovt^ 

But have I ever taken the time to really say HELLO? 
I mean like we may have exchanged a few words; 
You know like. Hey, what's happenin', or shit it's cold, 
or do you know where so & so is 

It's funny, but you may be ail the people I've ever met 
And I've walked past you a million times or more 
I may have nodded my head, smiled, or raised a brow 

BUT have I ever taken the time to really say H E L L ? 



Jeanais Brodie 
71 




33 



Swing lo' Sweet Chariot. . . 

madness; utter & complete 

driven by an insane headless horseman. 

Rain. 

it's raining. . . , Storm 

Drive on your path of vengence; bloody/blackness 

in the storm of Shango. 

Raining black thunder clouds, 

on the unsuspecting. . . 

It's raining Black man, raining. 

Down Rain. 

can you take the reins 

from this half /sick madman 

and lead us out of ruin ? (utter & complete) 

John E. Davis '71 



DRUMS 

D rums of Black impressions 

R hythm for Black spirits 

U nderstanding one's Black self 

M usic of Black people 

S ounds of Black vibrations 

D 
R 
U 
M 
S 

raqim el-shabazz 



34 



BLUEPRINT FOR CHANGE 



The decade of the seventies demands that Black 
educators begin to exan^ine seriously the future of 
Higher Education for Black people, especially in in- 
stitutions like Howard University, Fisk University, 
Atlanta University, Southern University, Morgan 
State College, Hampton Institute, North Carolina A & 
T etc. which must serve the interest of our commu- 
nity. In the sixties, critical questions were raised about 
the organization, form and content of Black educa- 
tion as students, faculty and administrators embarked 
on a search for relevancy. Earlier in the decade. Black 
students became engaged in a serious political strug- 
gle of dramatizing the social inconsistencies of the 
American nation state and of attempting to raise the 
level of consciousness among Black people in the 
rural south and the urban north and west. In every 
instance. Black students were in the vanguard of the 
struggle and many endured the pain and anxiety of 
this liberating experience. At every level of confron- 
tation the involved students were criticized severely, 
but today we have dramatic changes in the American 
social order, which resulted from the courage and in- 
domitable will of these Black warriors who held their 
ground and boldly heralded a new day dawning. 

Black Colleges and Universities must now come to 
grips with the serious questions posed in the last de- 
cade. They must begin to provide the leadership in 
Black education that their students have demanded 
and it is in this vein that I am suggesting a total re- 
organization of the academic life, so that they might 
be structured to face the challenge of the future. We, 
Black educators must be bold and daring in recom- 
mending and effecting change. This change should 
provide us with a philosophical direction which moves 
us to redirect our creative energies in the building of 
our communities, people, and our nation. 

My principal recommendation will be the elimina- 
tion of the College of Liberal Arts which is now a mori- 
bund institution and an environment which encour- 
ages frustration and disillusionment. Liberal Arts Col-Sl^^j^ 
lege might have been valid up through the decade of 








\f0 



HI 



35 



the fifties, but the imperatives of contemporary tech- 
nology compel us to question its usefulness and the 
viability of its educational potential. Liberal Arts grad- 
uates are lost in a sea of uncertainty, for they are not 
equipped with specific skills that are useful to con- 
temporary society. They know too little about any- 
thing to be functional or productive, and very often 
the graduates of our Liberal Arts Colleges feel estran- 
ged from the Black communities which they should 
serve. They are then compelled either to go on to pro- 
fessional (or graduate) school or endure a life of con- 
tinued mediocrity. In fact, they are nothing but func- 
tional illiterates, stripped of any ideological direction 
or positive commitment and constrained by their lack 
of deeper understanding of the essence of Black cul- 
ture. 

It is already evident that we are facing major changes 
in the world's economy. The graduates of Black Col- 
leges and Universities have a mandate to shape the new 
economies of the Black poor in America and in the 
Third World, where the majority of their foreign stu- 
dents come from. The political matrix of social and 
economic life is changing fast in a global context, and 
knowledge has become the central capital, the cost 
center and the crucial resource of existing economies. 
At Black Colleges and Universities, we are still training 
Black students for old technologies shaped by out- 
dated assumptions of liberal arts education. Our stu- 
dents are not prepared to be hooked into the lead sec- 
tors and productive processes of the national and glo- 
bal economy. Therefore, it is urgent that we re-examine 
our educational resources and our educational direc- 
tion, for our failure to produce the new Black men of 
power, the men of knowledge, will add further to the 
effective domination of the Black World. We cannot 
bequeath this legacy to the future, especially since 
the forecast of confrontation remains a reality of the 
struggle for independence. 

All educational practice implies a theoretical stance 
on the part of the educator. This stance in turn im- 
plies an interpretation of man and the world. The as- 
sumptions of our Liberal Arts College are primarily 
European (Greek philosophical principles conjoined 
with Judeo-Christian social ethic) and the shaping of 
this cultural imperative to the American socius. 
Through this educational experience, we have been 



locked into a dehumanizing structure which shapes 
our dependency and alienates us from our true nature. 
Therefore, as we confront reality in our search for 
freedom and independence, we must recognize that 
there is no other road to our humanization but an auth- 
entic transformation of the existing dehumanizing 
structure. In order for us to move out of this level of 
intransitive consciousness (dehumanization) to the 
level of critical consciousness (humanization), we will 
have to inform our analysis with a careful examina- 
tion of our historical condition, taking advantage of 
the real and unique possibilities which exist in our cul- 
tural experience useful to the transformation of social 
reality. 

We shall deal with the transformation process by 
attempting to take the best of our African heritage in 
terms of the essence of life. But this will be basic to the 
ethos of Black people in America. The retention of 
Africanisms will be understood as it undergirds our 
peculiar collective ethos and provides us with histor- 
ical continuity. However, we will not become rooted in 
the past, for our pressing concern is the ordering of 
the present and the shaping of the future. The past 
will inform us historically of our spiritual experience 
in the struggle for freedom in the face of unparalleled 
adversity. We will capture the strength of that exper- 
ience and walk boldly on the stage of history as de- 
fiant black creators. We cannot take lightly the legacy 
that has been handed down to us or the untold suf- 
fering of our foreparents who were ripped off from 
Africa, who suffered the horrors of the Middle Passage, 
who endured the bestiality of slavery, and who have 
continuously fought valiantly for freedom and inde- 
pendence. This is a rich legacy of pain and triumph, 
and it urges the present to carry the banner forward 
to a resolution of problems posed as a result of this 
Black experience. We, Black educators, have a respon- 
sibility to unfold this legacy in the tradition of W.E.B. 
DuBois, Carter Woodson, E. Franklin Frazier, Ravford 
Logan, Richard Wright, Sterling Brown, Martin Luther 
King, Malcolm X, George Padmore, C.L.R. James, Aime 
Cesaire, Frantz Fanon, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius 
Nyerere and Sekou Toure. But we also have the deep- 
er responsibility to provide answers for our people to 
the perplexing problems which these men have en- 
countered in their struggle for freedom and indepen- 
dence. 



36 



My determination, therefore, is that we reorganize 
the educational structure of Black Colleges and Uni- 
versities into arenas of study that will be useful to 
nation-building. I am proposing a six year educational 
program with a terminal degree— M.N. B.— Master Na- 
tion Builder instead of Master of Arts or Bachelor of 
Arts. The first two years will be spent in a School for 
Black Culture, and the next four years will be spent in 
a Technical Institute. 

The School of Black Culture will be involved in shap- 
ing the attitude, involvement, discipline, commitment 
and perspective of the student with a consistent ideo- 
logical direction. Students will participate in learning 
centers engaged in the study of art, architecture, edu- 
cation, religion, history, science, mathematics and 
Black family life, while appreciating the multi-faceted 
aspects of each problem in our historical evolution 
and the many ways that our people have attempted to 
resolve these problems. In addition, the students will 
develop concrete skills in mathematics, science, ver- 
bal and non-verbal communication, symbolic logic 
and analysis. There will be established an effective dia- 
logue between students and faculty in the galaxy (sat- 
ellite) learning centers, as emphasis will be on ideolo- 
gical commitment, discovery and creativity. The stu- 
dent will be involved in discovering that which he al- 
ready knows, ordering, storing and synthesizing this 
knowledge with new knowledge in an integrative pro- 
cess, and then using it creatively for understanding and 
shaping reality. In the galaxies (satellite learning cen- 
ters) the faculty members (or faculty liberators as they 
should be correctly called) will have various disciplines, 
thereby allowing for a free interchange and flow of 
creative thought in the work and in the cognitive di- 
mensions of the learning process. 

At the end of two years, a review board will examine 
the student's projected area of technical concentration. 
There should be a matching up of the student's choice 
of study with his demonstrated potential and with a 
curriculum design that would provide him with the 
necessary expertise. The decision making process of 
the Review Board and the planning of the student's 
career should be carefully organized with the final de- 
termination of technical concentration made within 
three months of the student's appearance before the 
Board. At the end of this three month period, the 



student will join an Institute, where he will parti- 
cipate in a four year program designed to prepare 
and sharpen his technical proficiency. 

The following Institutes will represent our advanced 
level learning centers. 

1. Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences 

2. Institute of Creative Expression-Black Art 

3. Institute of Communications and Information 
Systems 

4. Institute of Education 

5. Institute of Social Engineering and Systems 
Managers 

6. Institute of Global (Multi-national) Studies 
and Revolutionary Processes 

7. Institute of Geopolitics, Military Science and 
Armaments Technology 

8. Institute of Engineering and Computer Tech- 
nology 

9. Institute of Oceanography and Marine Science 

10. Institute of Transportation and Delivery Sys- 
tems 

11. Institute of Materials Technology 

12. Institute of Agronomy, Agricultural Science 
and Technology 

13. Institute of Urban Planning and Environmen- 
tal Systems 

14. Institute of Health Sciences 

15. Institute of Business and Economics 

16. Institute of Law, Public Administration, and 
Policy Planning 

These Institutes will be designed in concentric cir- 
cles which will overlap and provide for a free flow of 
knowledge through the cross-fertilization of ideas, 
interdisciplinary research, and joint project and pro- 
gram planning. The Institutes will not function as 
isolated, compartmentalized units of knowledge, work 
and instruction, even though they will be administered 
separately by their respective governing boards. 

In addition to the above institutes, there should be 
a Center for Black Thought and Creative Expression, 
and a Center for Research in applied Science and Tech- 
nology, as well as a Center for Social and Economic 
Research. The work of these Research Centers will 
undergird and often sharpen the intellectual life of 
the Institutes. The research centers will attempt to 
deal with concrete problems confronting contempor- 



37 



ary Black society, performing three distinct but in- 
terrelated functions. The work will be a) diagnostic, 
b) evaluative, c) explanatory. The centers should be 
engaged in short term research projects which will be 
service oriented: in long term research which will at- 
tempt to tackle substantive issues relating to Black 
life and problems in Black intellectual thought; and 
in original research in science and technology which 
will be useful to the Black world. Black people must 
invent and build new gadgets and techniques as the 
innovators of tomorrow. 

The technological input of the last century coupled 
with the need of Black people for rapid industrializa- 
tion for increased productivity and improved living 
conditions demands that our educational planning 
focus on technological institutes. Technology brings 
about a systematically applied approach to how we 
organize knowledge about physical relationships for 
useful purposes. There can be no economic growth in 
Black communities and nations without the applica- 
tion of technology to land, labor, capital and educa- 
tion, now or in the future. ("Images of the 21st Cen- 
tury . . . Blackness.") It is necessary, therefore, for us 
to train people as quickly as possible to reproduce 
systematically, through established and creative log- 
ical processes, man-made hardware useful to the im- 
provement of the quality of life in Black communities. 

At all levels of work in the Institutes, students will 
be aware that every measure of education and science 
will relate to public service values and therefore will 
move away from productivity for profit and indivi- 
dual gain to productivity for the enrichment of the flow 
of life for Black people. The student will also under- 
stand the direct relationship between theory and prac- 
tice, that is work and study will be merged. Emphasis 
will be on extending the humanistic values developed, 
examined and reexamined in the School of Black Cul- 
ture. Members of the Institutes will be engaged ac- 
tively in the liberating processes as they represent the 
catalyzing agents of social change. 

In the Institutes, we will be concerned not only with 
the technological expertise acquired, but the develop- 
ment of the whole man consciously participating in 
the collective life of his community as this reflects 
his social function. In this educational experience, 
the chains of oppression and alienation will be broken. 



as the student regains his true nature and manhood 
through liberated work and study, and the expression 
of his proper human condition through Black culture 
and art. 

Students will engage in a four year study program 
in the respective Institutes. On successful comple- 
tion of the program, the student will be awarded a 
Master Nation Builder (MNB) Certificate. Third year 
students from various Institutes will be organized in 
specific project teams to design, build and adminis- 
ter a concrete and identifiable service to the need of a 
Black community whether it is in Mississippi, Newark, 
Guyana or Nigeria. For example, the students will work 
on the construction of an irrigation system, health sys- 
tem or communication system as a specific community 
might request resulting from discussions between the 
community and the University officials. This speci- 
fic aspect of the student's training will be narrowly 
focused and professionally designed so that the stu- 
dents could come to grips with team work and the ex- 
ecution of a project design outside of the university 
community, but integrated with his theoretical train- 
ing. This third year program will extend from six 
months to one year. On the student's return to the 
university, the team will be responsible for providing 
a documented report of its work and its progress. This 
report will be discussed, analyzed and concretized for 
its theoretical and practical implications. It can become 
the basis for a thesis paper presented to a governing 
board of the Institute as one of the requirements for 
graduation. This will necessitate that each member of 
the team reporting to respective Institute will use some 
aspect of the project design for his thesis work. 

The educational experience that I am recommending 
will be concerned with developing leaders, innovators, 
discoverers, creators and liberators. Our students will 
become the architects of change and the engineers of 
growth and development. I firmly believe that educa- 
tion involves discovery and creativity. The Black stu- 
dent must discover: 

1. himself and those societal factors which influ- 

behavior, 

2. his creative potential and the cognitive processes 
which influence his intellectual development, and 

3. his cultural autonomy and the correct response 

to its constituent demands. 



38 



This discovery on the part of the Black student will 
then lead him to the maximum use of his creative ener- 
gies in the service of his people. It should also allow 
him to explode his creative potential and explore new 
arenas of thought and analysis in order that he will 
be better prepared to meet his future responsibilities. 
Finally, in our immediate educational experience, the 
Black student in the learning centers and Institutes 
will be prepared to serve our communities not in a 
sentimental petit-bourgeois fashion, but rather as a 
scientist, technician or administrator, whose political 
commitment, and positive attitude will focus on the 
determination to eliminate the critical problems of 
hunger, disease, poverty, illiteracy, drug addiction and 
political powerlessness, which affect Black people. 

This reorganization of Black Colleges and Univer- 
sities represents a program of action. We must liberate 
ourselves from the stultifying aspects of liberal arts 
education. Even when we try to impose a sugar-coating 
of blackness on white education we are still trapped in 
the cobwebs of the assumptions on which American 
education have been built, and which the cultural 
apparatus manipulates to colonize and mystify our 
minds. In the liberal arts college our students simply 
glide into classrooms of despair and walk on the en- 
chanted quagmires (quicksands) of frustration and 
irrelevancy. The constructs of thought and the mes- 
sages of the classroom are essentially informed by Eu- 
ropean intellection and historiography. We must lib- 
erate ourselves from the corruptive chains of Western 
Imperialistic society which infuse our present educa- 
tional experience. We must cut the umbilical cord 
which ties us subjugatingly to White European, Judeo- 
Christian society and its philosophical and cultural 
imperatives. 

Finally, we must liberate ourselves from the sorcery 
(magic) and phantoms (ghosts) of underdevelopment 
which is the immediate expression of neo-colonialism. 

Black Colleges and Universities are not organized 
for or around work. They are organized around play 
and the broadening of the cultural orientation and 
social exposure of the individual student. This is the 
reason for party life, Greek fraternities and sororities 
and narcotics addiction in an education process crust- 
ed over with a smattering of knowledge in the liberal 



democratic tradition with emphasis on social sciences, 
humanities and fine arts. Furthermore, there is a spill 
over from undergraduate life and the morass of its 
make-believe superficial world to our professional 
schools where students engage in the same functions 
and life styles. 

This reorganization structure will compel us to 
look closely at inept administrators, non-progressive 
faculty and trifling students. If there is a thorough 
shake-up in our university and college communities, 
a serious ideological perspective and commitment de- 
monstrated, and a marked increase in the level of pro- 
ductivity, serious Black faculty, administrators and 
students will come to Black Universities and Colleges, 
for they would quickly recognize Black education on 
the march. We must seize the time and realize that 
many potential nation-builders are frustrated in white 
institutions and they will come to black institutions if 
there is a modicum of seriousness projected. Unfor- 
tunately, today, we in Black Colleges and Universities 
are our worst public relations people for one can of- 
ten hear frustrations expressed by different segments 
of our university communities. The Towards a Black 
University Conference which was held at Howard 
University in the Fall of 1968 graphically taught me 
this sad lesson. Black people came to Howard Uni- 
versity with hope and left in despair. Black educa- 
tors wake up— a new day is dawning. 

We must begin to develop a new frame of refer- 
ence which projects our Africanity (Blackness) shaped 
by new guidelines, new values, new goals, new struc- 
tures, new thoughts, new forms and new images. We 
must turn over a new leaf; we must work out new con- 
cepts; we must try to set afoot a new man. There must 
be an ingression of the future into the present. The 
present is a time for struggle. The future is ours. A 
liberated people, a liberated man, a liberated mind re- 
main in our educational experience a fundamental 
necessity. 



Acklyn R. Lynch 

March 4, 1971 

3900 -16th St., No. 304 

Northwest 

Washington, D. C. 20011 



39 



A CKNO WLEDGEMENTS 



We would like to thank 

Professors Chester Davis and 

Acklyn Lynch of the Afro-American Studies Depart- 
ment for their contributions to this issue of the DRUM. 

Also we would like to thank for their articles 

A I Keys, 

Bill Hasson, 

Earl Strickland and, 

Burvell Williams. 

For poetry: 

Joseph Boykins 

A. Jackson Linebarger 

Emmanuel Asibong 

Luisin M. Medina 

Raqim el-Shabazz 

John E. Davis and 

Jeanais Brodie, a student at Hampshire College. 

We would like to offer special thanks to: Bette Ames 
for Interviewing Lillian Anthony of the Center for 
leadership and administration in the School of Edu- 
cation. Also, Lillian Anthony, Mike Thelwell, Chair- 
man of the Department of Afro-American Studies 
and Ray Miles of Afro-Am, for the use of their inter- 
views, and Nat Rutstein of the School of Education 
for his confidence and academic support. 



40 



^^/oo//C77 



71=155,