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C^ UiUtniDc ]Btu>, CamWtisr. 









A J 

EntofBd, according to Act of CongrtM, In the yw 1870, hj 


in Ibc Clerk'* Offic« of the IHitrict Court for the Sonlhsrn Diitrict ot Now Tork. 

^d by Google 


L A. T^T Ba^r Henbt Alpord, D. p., Dean of Canterl^iT. 

L R B«T. Henrt Bailet, B. D.,' Warded of St. Augiutine'a CoU^e, Cta- 

tetbirj ; late Fellow of 8t:*Jbliii'8 College, Cambrid^. 
3. B. Ber. Horatids Bokar,.!). D./Eelio, f- ]!•} Author of "The Land 

"XS^'SE-W^'f ■''°" "~; °~~ •"" "•* 

A. B. Rer. ALflfeb VH^oS^'it. Tf'i Pttm^ of Chelteoiuun Colli^ ; late 

Fellov of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
W. I. B. BeT. WiUJAX Lathah Bkvam, M. A^ Vicar of Bty, Brecknock- 

2- W. B. Ber. JoBKra Wuxiahs Blakksi-ky, B. B., Gbdoii of Canterbniy ; late 
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

T. E. B. Bav. Tsoiua Edward Bbovm, H. A., Tice-Principal of King WU- 
Uam't College, Iile of Han ; late Fellow of Oriel Collide, Oxford. 

E. W. B. Tm. Robert WIlluu Browxb, U. A., Archdeacon of Bath, and 

E. H. B. Right ReT. Edwakd Haboi.d Browitb, D. D., Lord Bishop of Elj. 
W. T. B. BeT. WnxtAM TsoHAe Bdixock, H. A., Aanatant Secretary of the 

Society for the IVopagation of the Gocpel in Foreign Farta. 
8. C Rer. Samdki, Clabk, iS. A., Ticar of Bredwardine with Brobury, 


F. C. C Rer. Fbrdkrio Charlbs Cook, M. A., Chaplain in OrdiDaiy to the 

G. £. L. C. Bight Rev. Gsoror Edward Lynch Cotton, D. D., late Lord Biihop 

of Calcutta and Metropditan of India. 
J. U. D. Rer. Jobn I^kwrlth Datirb, M. A., Rector of Cbrut Chnrok, 

Harylebone ; late Fellow of Trioi^ College, Cambridge. 
G. E. D. Prof Georob Edward Day, D. D., Tale College, New Haven, Conn. 

E. D. EnAinjBL Devtsch, M. R. A. S., Britiih Mnienm. 

W. I>. Rer. WiLUAH Drake, M. A., Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen. 

K. F. E. Bev. Edward pAROueiBN Eddbuf, M. A., FriDci{>al of the Tbeola(- 

tcal CoU^^ Salisbury. 
C J. E. ^ht Rev. Cha^lkb Johh Eluoott, D. D., Lord Bidiop of Gloocea- 

ter and Bristt^ 

F. W. F. Rev. Fredrbick Wiluam Farrar, M. A., AMistant Vaster of Har- 

row School ; late Fellow of Trinitj CoU^ Cambridge. 
J. F. James Ferodbsom, F. R. S., F. B. A. S., Fellow of the Royal Inntt- 

tnte of British Architects. 
K S. Ff Edward Salifsbvet Ffovi-kes, H. A., late Fellow of Jeaoa CoUeg*, 

W. F. Kght Rev. WnxiAM Fitzoerald, D. D., Lord Biihop of Killaloe 



F. 6. Ker. Framcu Gabdsm, U. A^ Sabdean of Her iiajtBtft Chapek 


F. W. G- Re*. F. Wiluah Gotch, I.L. D., Praident of the Bsptitt CoU«f^ 

Bristol; late Hebrew Examioer in the University of London. 

G. Georos Gbovb, CrTttal Falsc«, Sj^enbvn. « 

H. B. H. Frof. Horatio Bxix^u Hackett, D. D., LL. D., Iliedegicsl Inttitw- 
tioD, Newton, Maw. 

E. H— s. Rev. Ernest Hawrixb, B, D., SecreUiy of the Society for the Ftapw- 

gatioo of the Gotpel Id Foragn Parts. 
H. H. Rer. Hekrt Hath ak, B. D., Head Master of the Grammar School, 

Cheltenham ; late Fellow of St John's College, Oxford. 
A. C. H. Yen. Ijord Arthur Charles Hertet, M- A., Archdeacon of Sml- 

buiy, and Rector of Ickworlh. 
J. A. H. ReT. Jambs Adsustus Ubbset, D. C. L., Head Maater of Herchaot 

Taylore" School. 
J. D. U. Joseph Daltoh Hooker, M. D., F. R. S., Royal Botanic Garden, 

J. J. H. Rev. James John Hornby, M. A., Fellow of Brtuenose College, Ox- 
ford ; Principal of Bishop Casin's Hall. 
Vr. H. Rev. William Hodsrton, M. A., F. L. S., Rector of Preston on tha 

Weakl Mdois, Salop. 
J. S. H. Rev. JoHif Saul Howsox, D. D., Principal of the Collegiate Inatita- 

tion, Idverpool. 
K. H. Rev. EttOAR Huxtable, M. A., Subd^n of Wells. 

W. B. J. Rev. William Basil Jokrs, M. A., Prebendary of York and of St. 

Dnvid's ; late Fellow and Tutor of Univereity College, Oxford. 

A. H. L. Austen Henry Layard, D. C. L., M. P. 

S. L. Rev. Stanley Leather, U. A., M. R. S. L., Hebrew Lecturer ia 

King'B Coll^, London. 
1. B. L. Rev. Joseph Barber Liohtfoot, D. D., Hulsean Professor of Divinity, 

and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

D. W. M, Rev. D. W. Marks, Professor of Hebrew in Univeraty College, London. 

F. M. Rev. Frederick Metrick, M. A., late Fellow and Tutor of Trinity 

Collie, Oxford. 
Oppert. Prof. Jules Oppekt, of Paris. 

E. R. O. Rer. Edward Redman Okoer, M. A., Fellow and Tutor of St. 

Angnstine's College, Canterbjry. 
T. J. O, Ten. Thomas Johnson Ormerod. M. A., Archdeacon of Suffolk ; 

late Fello'v of Braienose College, Oxford. 
J. J. S. P Rev. John James Stewart Pesownb, B. D., Vicc-Rrfncipal of St 

David's College, Lampeter. 
T. T. P. Rev. Thomas Thomaso:* Perowke,.B. D., FeUow and Tutor t^ 

Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge. 
H. W. P. Rev. Henry Wbiqht Phillott, M. A., Rector of Stannton-on-Wy«, 

Herefordshire ; late Student of Chrin Chtirch, Oxford. 

B. H. P. Rev. Edward Hates PLUMrrRE, M. A,, Professor of Mvinity in 

King's College, London. 
E. S. P. Edward Stanley Poole, H. R. A. S., South Kensington Museum. 
B. 8. P. Bboinald Stuart Poole, British Museum. 
I, L. P. R*v, J. Leslie Porter, M. A., ProfesKir of Sacred Literature, Assero- 


Uj'i Ccdlege, Belfiwt ; Author of " Handbook of Syria and Palertine,' 
&nd " Five Yean in Damucoa.' 
C F. B«v. Cbaklbs pRircHARD, it. A., F. S. S., Hon. SeenUrj of tba 

Royal AstroDomical Societj ; laU Fellow of SL Jolin'i College, Caoi' 

G. B. Bev. Georgk Rawuksok, M. A., Camden Proftaaor of Ancieot Uia- 

tarj, Oxford. 
Q. J. B. Ber. Hej«bt John Rosb, B. D., Bural Dean, and Bector of Houghton 

Conquest, Bedfordibiro. 
W. S. BeT. W1U.IAH Srlwtk, D. D., Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen 

Lady Margaret's Proftsaor of Divinity, Cambridge ; Canon of Ely. 

A. P. S. Re*. Aethur Pesrbtn Stanley, D. D., Begius Proftasor of Eccleaiaa- 

tical Hatary, and Canon of Chiiat Church, Oxford ; Chaplmn to Hii 

Boyal HighneB the Prince of Walw. 
C E. S. Prof. Calvix Bujs ^towb, D. D., Hart&rd, Conn. 
J. P. T. Bev. Joseph Faxrisr TnoHPeoM, D. D., New York. 
W. T. Mott Bev. William TnOHSO^f, D. D., Lord Archbiahop of York. 

& P. T. Sahuel PitiDEAUx Trrgklleh, LL. D., Aathorof " An IntrodoctioD 

to the Textual Criticism of the New Teetament," &c. 
H. B. T. Bev. Uknry Bakeb Tristram, M. A., F. L. S., Muter of Gr«athain 

J, F. T. Bev. Joseph FBANfiis Tbrupp, M. A., Vicar of Barrington ; late Fd- 

low of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
E. T. Hon. Edward T. B. Twislbto.v, M. A., late Fellow of Balliol CoU^e, 

E. T. Bev. Edmund Venables, M. A., Bonchurch, Iile of Wight 

B. F. W. Bev. Brooke Fobs Westcott, M. A., Awatant Marier of Harrow 

School ; late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

C. W. Bev. CBRtSTorBER Wordsworth, D. D., Canon of Weatminner, 

W. A. W William Aldis Wbioht, M. A., Librarian of Trinity College, Cai» 


A. Ezra Abbot, LL. D., Aaaiitant Librarian of Harvard College, 

Cambridge, MaiWi 

B. C. B. FMf- Samubl Colcord Babtlett, D. D., Tfaed. Sem., Chicago, Dl. 
T. J- C Bev. Thomas Jefterbon Conant, D. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G. E. D. Prof. Gkorge Edward Day, D. D., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. 
G. P. F. Prof. Georoe Park Fibbkr, D. D., Y^e College, New Haven, Conn. 

F. G. Prof Frederic Garddike, 1>. D., Middletown, Conn. 

D. B. G. Bev. Dakiel Baynbs Goodwin, D. D., Proroat of the UiuTernty of 

Pennaylvania, Philadelphia. 
B. Prof Horatio Balcb Hackbtt, D. D., LL. D., Theolo^oal Ii»tit» 

tion, Newtmi, MaM. 
/. B. Prof. James Hadley, LL. D., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. 

F. W. H. Rev. Frederick Whitmork Holland, F, R. G. S., London. 
A. H. Prof- Alvau Hovky, D. D., Theological InBtitution, Newton, Miia. 


A. C. E. PivC Aaahkl Clark Kkhdbick, D. D^ tJnirenitr of Bochwter, N. T. 

C. U. M. Fro£ Charles Marsh Mead, }%. D^ Thet^ Sem^ Andover, Uaas. 

E. A. P. Pnd. Edwards Amasa Pare, D. D^ Tbeot. Semiuij, Andovw, Uam. 

W. E. P. Rev. WtLUAH Edwards Park, Lawrence, Mass. 

A. P. P. ProC Andrew Preston Pbarodt, D. B^ LL. D^ Huwd CoUegw 
CBffibridge, Ham. 

G. E. P. Rev. Gbobqb E. Post, U. D, Tripoli, Syri*. 

R. D. C. S. Pn/. Sekssklaer Datid Chakcktobd Bobbims, IDddlebmy Col- 
lege, Vt. 

P. 8. Bev. Philip ScaArr, D. D^ New York. 

H. B. S. Prof. Henry Botnton Smith, D. D., LL. D^ Unioii Thedo^oal 
SenuRHj, New Yort. 

C. E. S. Ber. Caltin Ellis Stowe, D. D^ H&rtfbrd, Conn. 

D. 8. T. Prof. Dakiel Smith Talcott, D. D., TheoL Seminary, Bangor, Me. 
J. H. T. Prof. JosEPB Hekrt Thayer, U. A., TheoL Seminary, Andorer, MaM. 
J. P. T. B«v. Joseph Farbish Tbompbon, J). D., New Toik. 

C. V. A. V. ReT. CoRNELirs T. A. Tam Dyce, D. D, Bdrflt, Syria. 

W. H. W. Ber. WiLLLAM Hates Ward, M A., New York. 

W. F. W. Prof. WuuLUH Fairfield Warben, D. D^ Boston Theological Sem- 
inary, Boaton, Mau. 

S. W. BeT. Samuel Wolcott, D. D., Cleveland, Ohio. 

T. D. W. President Theodore Dwioht Woolsey, D. D^ LL. D., Yale CoUege, 
New HttTeo, Conn. 

*B* The new portions in the present edition are indicated by a tiar {■), the edi- 
torial additions being distinguisbed by the initials H. and A. Whatever is encloMd 
in firocteU is also, with nnimportant exceptions, editorial. This remark, however, 
doM not apply to the erott-re/ertnea in brackets, moat of which belong to the origi- 
ul woik, tbwigh a large nuii^r have been added to this edition. 


Aid. The Aldine edition erf" the Septoa^nt, ISie. 

Alex. The Codex AlesandriDns (Stb cent), edited by Baber, 18t$-tt. 

A. V. The authorized (common) English version of the Bible. 

Cooip. 11ieSeptnagintupiinl«dintlieCoiDpluteiieian Polyglott,lD14-ir, pnbllslieil 

FA. The Codex Friderico-Augustanus (4th cent), published by I^hendorf ' 

Rom. The Boman edition of the Septnagint, 1587. The readings of the Septuagini 

for which no anthority is specified are also from this sDnrce. 
Bin. The Codex Sinuticus (4th cent), published by Hscbendorf in 18S3. Thil 

and FA. ate parts of the aame manuscript 
Vat The Codex Taticaniu 1109 (4th cent), according to Mai's edition, published 

by Vercellone in 1807. " Vat U." denotes readings of the MS. (differing 

from Mai), given in Holmes and Panons'i edition of the Septuagint, ITBS- 

1837. " Vat' " distinguishes the primary reading of the MS. from "Tat*' 

or " 8. nt," the alteration of a later reviser. 




UB-aBH-HBXBca (?l]?9 PS:! [/rW-rf 
^ lk» ti<tg\: 'Afi0c<r<V * fiMAtiiX Alex. Af 
Utnrtf • B.' tlogommtUi*). TI 
^hwrBW aod Rcgm-meleeh occur ii 
Jtam^ of ZHhviih (vli. 2). 'rbtj 
Wiltf of MND* of Ihs CipUvitj to dmIu ini|Dlr1i!* 
U tiM Tsmpk coRtcminft (utlng. In Iba A. V. 
tba raljaet of U» nne tffenn tu b« tin csfitln 
Jam fn Bdjjton, u>d Betitd, or « tb« Ihhwb of 
Ood," li ngudcd u Uie ■ceooUn ■fto' tfaa nrb 
if moUn. Tba IJCX. Uka "Iba klnR" u tba 
DDDiliBtiTe to tin Tcri> "•enL" conildirlDg tbn 
M put of tho nim« RdRnn-meiMli u 

va tke perwn *ha aait to (be bonaa of God. 
TW PahJIo-SjriHi lu* a eurloiu TavloD of tha 
pamga: " And ha mM to Dctbd, to Sbmar ud 
Babmigi ud tha Hog aant ud hit man to pim^ 
bT huB bdbta tha Lad:" Shmnr and EUmim 
Wng Moeiatad Id Jr. mU. 3, la. On rri^ 
ring to Zaoh. tU. B, tbe eipn^on "the paopla of 
tha kod " Mama to Indioita tbut Iboaa vbo aant 
to tba Itenpla wara not tbe aiptira Jem in Babj- 
Ido, bnl thsaa wbo had ntunied to tfaelr own 
aoDiiItT; and IbU brfng tba eaaa <t ii probable 
that In TW. • « Bathal " la to ba lakan u tha inb. 
jeet, "add Bethel, i. a. Uw tybabltwila of Betbd, 

Tim HanpUr-Sjriao, felbwing the FVahlto, baa 
"Babmait." \Vhat reading tba iJCX. had beftm 
Ih^ It li difficalt to ooitfeelore. From Ita oin- 
naatLia Bltb Sbinnr, tba nama Ragam-melech 
(It. -Ung-i IHetid," cxmp. 1 Chr. xiiil. U), wm 
pmbabl; an Aajrlan title of office. W. A. W. 

flxatpn)- TUi tenn had perfaapa origlDaflj ■ 
Mora pneiBB aad Indtpendtnt meaaing than It ap- 
paan to a nada of tfaa Autfaocind Tarioo to 

iDthaOUTart-itiidiidbrth* LXX. aa 
Iha aqolTalent of tha rinjiuhr Uebcaw md kao- 
deoar 07?>7, Dtarallr "the nund"), a word 
Oa topiKnphlal appllntion oT which la not dear, 
hot iriiieh Kama in 111 nriitc o c im n m na to da- 
ggta tba cu-da or oaila of oiltlntlan In which 
Miwd Sadan and OomorTab and tba rert of tha 
•a* "aWaa af Oa Oeenr-' (Oen. lUL 10, II, 19, 

di. IT, 3h, 28, SB; DraU inlT. Sk ElaaMaM 
It haa a wMer moulng, tbongh aliQ atucbad to 
tba Jordan (3 San. iriil. 13: 1 K. ni. 46: a Chr. 
>T. IT: Nth. lit. n, ill. 96). It la in tbl> leM 
reatrlctod aenaa that ira^IyHpsi occun In the New 
I'lal. In HkL lil. b aiid Ijike ill. 3 It denotaa 
tba populoin and flouriibbig reKion which con- 
laincd the towns of Jmcbo and its depeiidencica, 
in tha JoHan Vallej, Inclosed in the amphlthtMia 
of the hlUi of Qunr'^MnK, (lae lisp, \o\. IL p. 
BS4), a dtnaciir populated region, and important 
to be leclioned •* s diatinet aactloo of fat 
estine — "Jttuaalem, Judn, sud all Iha o r i'— ■ 
•^Lvmnifsof Jordan" (Mitt. iii. 0, also I.olu fJL 
IT). [JuOAA, Wii.i>i:RNEBa or. Anier. ad.] H 
is alao applied to the dlitrlet of Genneaaict, a ra- 
Rlon whidi praaenta certain tlmiUrities to that of 
Jericho, being Inclosed In the ainphkhealK of tba 
hllli of Hsttln and bouiiclad In ftont b; the water 
of the lake, as the other was b; Ihs Jenlui, and 
■1*0 rta tni Mlng it in bring terj thichlj populatad 
(Matt. ilT. 8S; Uarii rl. M; Luke tL IT, vH. ITK 

REHABI'AH (^;3n'! !■ 1 Cbf n^; 
rP^Ujn [mhorn Jdmrak ttihrgml: 

U.) Akt. PooAui, In 1 Chr. uiiLt 

Tha onij son of EUser, tbe ion of Mow. and 

the ftther of iNbisb, or Jesbslsh (1 Ciir. uUL 

, iiIt. St, uii. Sfi). Hli doccndauU wer* 

BB'BOB CyVT) [and nhn, ^al. nartt^ 
/*!«]: Tadifl, ["Vt^S'] ift^ui).' 1. The &thtr 
dT Hsdadeaer kins of /.ol^, whom David smola 
tha Cupbralee (3 Sam. rlil. 3, 13). Josepboa 
(Ami Til. S, f 1) calli him 'ApJoi, and the Old 
Latin Version Arncliat, and lllayiiaj [on Zecb. ii. 
1) Ihlnka this was hla thI ninie, and that be via 
called Rdiob, or "ohirioteer," IniRi the nuni1<er of 
eharfoli in hia poaanaion. The name appears to 
be peculiarij Sjrisn. ibr we And a dUtriet uT Sjite 

~ ' Rdnb or Beth-Rebob (3 Sam. i. 8, 8>. 

, Cookie 

9- rPi>^0.) A Lctilc, or bmil J of LniUi, who 
Mtled tlw coveout with Nclwoib^ (Neb. x. 11) 
W. A. W 
KSmOB (^T? [u BbOTe]). llie nUD> 

L ([Kom. To^fl; V>t.] Pnofl ; Alei, p»fl; 
RulnA.)'' The nortbtrn Droit of the exphnnUoii 
of the apin (Xum. lill. 21). It b ipeciflMl u 
being "u nioi come unio H«u>tb," or, wi the 
iihntee it elirwhen rendered, " it tbe entntDM al 

lorj of l!iU name, bj which in the miij booki of 
tbe Bible the great nlle; of LebwiOD, tbe Biin'ali 
of the J'rtipheti. iind tbe Btin'a at the modti 
Anb*. Meini to be roughlj deugnmled. Tbii, in 
Ibe congidention of the iniprobubilUj that tt 
e|riii Kent ftrther than the upper eiid of the Joi 
4ui VaUej (Mob. BiU. Hrt. Hi. 3T1), aeemi lo d 
Ibe poailion gf Kchob at not fur Ctom TtU ri-Kady. 
■nd B-ni'M. Thit ig ccnBrnied b; the gtMemgut 
Id Jndg. iviii. SS, Ibal I^ugh or Dm ( TtU ,l-Kailf) 
WM "in the mllej that i< I7 Btlh-rtbob.'' Kg 

>r Betb-rt 

n VaUijt. 

bten nrK with In thia 

|iTopoa« to idenlifj it with lliirin, 

fortim in the niaunlaini M. W. of I 

HuWi. Ibe upper (tiitrict of the Jo 

But lhl>. Iliou|^ plauaible, bu no eeruun Dent. 

To tfaiiae who are anxiotu to eitend the bound- 
eriea of the llolj Land on the Dortb and eatl It 
me; lie Mti«bclor]r to know that a place calltd 
Suhaibrh eiiiU In Ibe plain of Jmtd, abont 2S 
nllea N. K. of lluiiaw^ui, and 13 N. of the norlh- 
gmsKxii o! tbe three Lkee (gee the M"pi of Van 
da Teide and Porter). 

Iliere I* no reaaon to donht that tblg Rebob or 

poaltion nth one In tbe lerriliij a! Aiber li ri> 
riooal}' baccurmle. G. 

HRHOBO'AM (D^^rn, tnlargn- <■/ da 

pFi^e — are Ei. iuIt, 30, aiiJ compare tbe nam* 

EApuSn/Mi ! "PafiiiJ^: Arjiuon), eon of Solomon, 

b; the Ammonite princeaa Naaniah (1 K. ilr. SI. 

31), and hh tnoceaaor (1 K. il. «3). yrom tbi 

twlicit period rf Jewiefa higtorj we peredve ajmp. 

' nil that tbe eonltderatinn of the tribea waa but 

iperfccUy cemented. The powerful Epbraim eould 

f brook a poslUon of iniMoritj. TbrDUgbout 

e Book of Jmlgeg (riii. 1, lii. I) tbe Epbralmlte* 

ow a ipirit of reaenUul Jealoui; when ao; «t<r- 

priae !g nndertaken without tbeir coucurretm ind 

''re participHtion. From them bad gpning 

lua, and alterwardi (bj big place of birth) 

uel might beconiidend thein,and thongb tbe 

tribe of B«t]aDiin gare to Inel ita Hnt king, jet 

it tn» allied b; hereditAr; tiea to tbe bouH of 

Joeeph, and bj geogrAphlcai poeition to the lerrt- 

lorj of Kphmim, go that up to Ditid'i ecceeaion 

the ietdcnhip wag practicallj in the bard* of the 

latter tribe. But Judab alvaja threatened to be a 

fi^rmidable rlral. l>Dring the earlier higtorj, peirtlj 

tbe pbjnieal atntctun and litiiation of III 

tenilorr (Slanfej. 8. ^ P. p. ISS), which aeeluded 

It from Palcatine JDat aa Paleallne hj Ita geogiapb- 

ic*] character wu aednded from the world, it bad 

stood verr mach aloof from tbe oation [Judar], 

id ercn alter Saul'g death, appennllf witboot 

liling to consult their brelhren, "tbe men of 

idah came and ancnnted Dariri king orcr tbe hoDi* 

Judab " (S Sam. il. *), while the other Iribee 

adhered to Saul's bmilj, Iberebj anticipating the 

igrnption which wai sllerwarda to rend tbe 

permanenllj into two kingdoma. But aJter 

imea in B 8am. 


a. (Tidfl! Alei. Po»j9! «■*«*), one of \ai 
tAwn* allotted lo Agher (.logh. ili. 38), and which 
from [he lilt appran lo have been in cloee proi- 
Imltj lo 7idon. It ii named between Kbron, or 
Abdoii, Rnd Kanimon. The towna of Ather b]' 
hi a region which ban been but Imperfectlj emm- 
Ined, and no one hai jet toeeeeded fai dlicoi'eriiig 
tbe poiitioii of either of theee three. 

3. (-Poav, ['Pais. 'Eprd, TxiOO >)«. 
^viR<\ll',hA,ibviih.-\ Agher contained another 
Hcbob (.logh. lix. 30); but the 

of Ihete 

Htb ■ 


ig difficult to'aaj which, wna alktted 
•nile l^in (.loab. ul. 3Ii 1 Chr. 
" e InbaHljmta, re- 
- .entiefi of 

led ixnMMion (Jnde. i. 81), The menl 
hlk In thit b^er ^eage roe; implAUi 
10b refined to waa that of Joab. xli. 801 

Enaehlug and .leroma ( OnotnnWinm, "Rcxih")oon- 
ruae with the Kebob of tbe apiel, and pfaice four 
Roman mileg ihim Scithopolig. Tie place tbaj 
l*r to atin nirrlm aa ArAiA, 3) mllo S, of 
Sfjenti, bat their IdentllkMlon of a town bi that 

n jea 


edged ■ 

David *aa acknowl- 
of Iirael, and eoon after, hj Aiing 
malem and bringing tbe Tabernacle 
there, be tnnghrred from flphraiin the gmlntaa 
wbleh bad atlaefaed to Sheehem ag the andent 
capital, and to Shibb as tbe Hit of tbe. national 
worship. In apile of thia he aeema to hart eitfoyed 
great pergonal popularity among the Ephniimitet, 
bai-e treated manj of Iheni with apeclal 
hior (1 Chr, ill. 30, nvil. 10. 141, yet thia rouged 
Ibejealouiyof Judab. and probably led to Ute remit 
of Ahmtom. (AnBAU>».] Eren ifter that peri)- 
out criilg WM past, the old riinlry broke out aAtab, 
and almoet led to another iniurjeclion (9 Sam. n. 
ipare Pa. luviii, 00. 67, Ac In lllog- 
tiatlon of Iheae remarks. Solomon't nign, frnm 
other oppressiom, aggnvatad 
bllerly, from Ita imtighna 
cbaraeter, alienated tbe prophele and provoked tha 
dlspleaaiire of Uod. When Sulonion'a glrong hand 
was withdrawn tbe eriaig came. IMiohaain •C' 
kcled Shedieni ag [he phice of his coronation, 
prob^ly ag an act of conceaaion to tbe Rphmimitf*, 
ind perhapi In deference to the auggaUoni of Iboaa , 
lid and wiae counecllgn gf big father, wboee adtha 
he afterwiHi nnhappily rejected. From the prcaent 

of 1 K. ili. the enct delub of Dm 

at Sbechem are Involved in a Utlla 
uncertidnty. The geneni beta Indeed an claar 
Tlie peofjs doiianded , - ■ • - • •'- — — 

D mn iini*er In tfarte (!■]'•• 

SolomOD'g Utcr jt^ 

w gtw^J dnrina SolomOQ^B 
ttr oT Uw Jewiib eoort hut <i 
tb« ulTioa of Uu elitn to 
be bcgiDDinK oT bii rdgn, 

nplj, in tin) Irna ii^int o( »a eutcrn dnpot, the 
ftutM bnndo of hit eontempaniiin: " Mj little 
liQcr ihall ba Uilcket Uuu bit C>Ui(t'> loini- - ' 
. . . I wUl uld to jonr joks; mj bUur h*tb 
tfaillii il }t« with wfaln bat I will ohHtlH j<m 
•1th Hot^rieni" (i. >. Konrgc* Kmiabed wltfa 
ibKp print!*). llMreDpDn inae llis fbnnidablc 
«•&; of InnrTMtlon, beud ona beton when tb« 
Mt«i qnunbd iRir DaTld'i ntoni frDm tbe mr 

U» birth of hii chik 
Ablj^h. Jenbown rcDiwad bii ivqmAt, vhicb wh 
tlMn gnnted. It !■ pTubable Unt liming Ibia mr 
the diKontmt of tbe !4. tribei m mulilnit IlKlf 
more und more miuillbit, uul tfait tfai* led U> Rtba- 
boum'i viilt Uld Inlcndtd huuij^nitlon. 

On RfbobMm'i Rtorn to JeninUera be Mian- 
bled ui vmj of 180,000 men horn tbe two hithlW 
Eriba of Jodih uid Berijiinlii (the hlter tnuie- 
fenni froin Um ilde of Joeeph to thu of Judih <n 
ooniequaic* of the podtlon of Dind'i capital 
within lt« burden), In the hope of reconquering 
linel. The eipedltlon, bowercr, wu forbidden hj 
tbe prophet SheniaUh, irho iBiired them thU tbe 
^punllon or the klngiloD 

Bd»bown Kat Adonm o 
been ebM receiver of the trlbote daring the r 
•f fab biha Uld bia gnuidbther (1 K. it. 
Sub- IX. U), to nduca the nbeh to reawin 
be WH ftoned to dstb b; tben; wbercupor 
ting ud fab attniduiti Sed In hot bute to Je 
km. So br iQ il phln, but then b ■ doubt 
the put wblcfa Jtn^oun tocdi In 
Aeeordtng to I K. lii. 3 be wu mnmunal bT the 
^■hralniitet from Egjpt (to which eountrj he hid 
■ad ftom the anger of Sobmon) to be their ipokee- 
■■Q It Bejwliooin'ii ocrouition, wid nctuallj mule 
the ipeeeb Id which ■ remluion of burdent wu 
retuMed. Bu^ In ippuent contnkdictJon to thb, 
■e teed in rer. 30 of the Hine chiplfr that (Iter 
tbt RMCcei of the iniuTTectioD ud Reboboun^i 
figbt, "wboi in Ismel hiirr^l that Jerobown wu 
NOH eitun, tboj eent and called him unto the con- 
pffalloo and made him kln)^." But then ii rea- 
loa to think that rer. 3 hu been Interpolated. It 
^ not fcimd fai the I.XX., which makei no mention 
If Jeraboui In thb chapter till Ter. 30, inbati- 
HUng in ter. 3 for " Jetobuwii and all the omgre- 
H«tien of brad came and ipi^e unto Reboboam '' 
' the worde, ml AiAqi-tF i \iiii rpii rlr BaaiKia 
TnflnAi So too Jeroboam'i nvne l« omitted bj 
the IXX. in nr. 13. Moreoro' we Ond in the 
L2CX. a long aupplement to thia 13th chapter, eri- 

teining ftaUer detaila of Jemboam'a biograpbj' than 
the IMnw. [Jk&oboah.] In thb we read that 
•Iter Scilomon'a death he retunMl to hti native 
phie, Sarira In Kphraim, which he IbrtiAed, and 
Hrf I- - •■' 

d then qoidj, watching the turn of f 


( (doubtloi tfatoiii;h hb o 


Mfplenanlu? nanalira of tbe LXX. it muld 

:ing tried to prerent 


lo lib native connli7. Tlib lh( 

givtpg him hia : 


II (1 K. I 



peaceful relationt beti 
were never reetored (3 Chr. ill. IB; I K, 
Reboboam now occupifd hiniielf In «(«r 
the terrilcriii which nmiained to him, bj 
a number of AirtreaBe* of whiob the n 
given in 3 Chr. li. ft-lO, fanning a 


eitin " 
ship of God w 

d ■lentKilem, Hie pare wi 

I llM 

Lerilea and nianj ploiu lirartitn trotm the North, 
vexed at the ealf.idolatrj Introduced bj Jeroboaia 
at Dan and Bethel, In Imitation of the Egyptian 
worahip of Mnevig, came and Kttled in the •outtien 
kiiigilom and added to it* power. But Kehobnas 
did not check the introduction of tasuhen abouin*- 
Uona Into hb capital: tbe laiclviou) wonhip of 
AafaloRth waa allowed to eiiat by the lide of Um 
true nligion (an iiiheritanoe of evil doublleu Idt 
bj Solomon), "imager" (of Ikal and hii bUow 
divinltici) wan «t up, and the wont lmniorallUii_ 
were tolerated (1 K. ilv. S2-31|. Theae evHIt mn 
punished and put down b> the leTrilile calaniitr of 
an EfQiilian Invulon. ShortI]' before tlib time a 
change in the rutin; houae had occurred in F«jpt. 
The XXlit dynutj, of TuiilM. whose but king, 
naham or Piuaentm, had been a cloea alljr of Soli>. 
mon (1 R. III. 1, vil. 8. U. 11, i. 38, 30), wu nM- 
ceeded bf the XXIId, of Rubaatitei, wbnee Dnt aoT- 
cnign, Shiibak (Shsbonk, 3*to<ichia. loKrairffi} 
connecUd himwif, lU we have eeen, with Jeroboaia ^ 
That he waa hicited b; bim to attack jadab b 
verj probable; at all erenle in the Sth jear of 
Kehohoam't relicn the eounlrj w» Invaded bj a 
boat of K^yptian) and other African iialiona, nun*. 
bering 1,^3 chariota. 60,000 cavalry, and a vwR 
miicelbneoui mnlliluile of infantry. The tine of 
fottreaMa vhicb protected .<i . .- . 

■ foroRl, Jeruaalen: 

ilaelf * 

Kebabown had to p 
by delivering up all tbe treuum with which Solo- 
mon bad adorned the temple and pilacB, including 
hla KOlden ihtelda. 200 of the brger. uid ^100 of tbe 
■mailer aUe [1 K, i. irl, IT), whieh wera carried 
l-flare him when he viiiied tbe Temple in Mats. 
We are told that after lite ICgyptlani had retimi, 

mbitiUitlng ihleM* of braaa, w 
tiome befon bfm in pnKer 
aa if nothing had been c 
tima (F.wiU, Uaehicliie 
Sh»bak-a auHXH ia 
diaeovered by Chani[ 

imfbrted h 



le hit blbor'* 

ii, 3M, *U). 

t outaide of tba 
gnat Temple at Karnak, when aonng a tang M 
of captured town* and provineea ooewi the nam* 
ilMii JuMi Quartern of Jodafa). Il b •bM 




wrong intorpretiitlMi el 

n oT tb« taptiTv Id Umm inilpti 
■R oniBiHiuisbl} JfwMi (RiwUnwn, Bti-abim, 
fi. 370, uid Bamptan Ltcbrra, p. IK: Budmii, 
^■SX^ iil' ^3). Aritr Uiii gist huciiliitini the 
m^ ooDdiUon of Judafa ncmi to kira improTcd 
(9 Chr. lii. IS), and Ux nM of RefaabouDB life to 
hmn bwD DDinarkfd bf Kij ertait ed imporiwic*. 
He died b, c. SM. ■fter ■ i«gn of IT jeitm, hiving 
HOndtd the throne B. c. JTI> U the mge of 4 ~ 
(1 K. iIt. at j 9 Uir. lii. 13). In the edditiun i 
(be LXX. alRHij meDtioned (tnaarted elleT 1 I 
liL 34) we rkI thit be wu 18 jemn otd lU h 
it prohaH; foimdfd oo 
it S Chr. liU. T, wbeie be 

J wort, iiwayie- 
ritnrtd) aod " tmd«T-h««1*d " (SJTT?' """'■ 
iig In rr(ofulim nnii t^'iif). He had 18 wirea. 
•0 coneiilHiieh 38 •ont, and 60 diughten. The 
■IkM thing Roorded of him In Scripture Ii (bat 
ha nftiMrl to *Ml< awaf hia eotit' energiea in tbe 
wratcbtd tiigtcnce of an Kuleni muia, la which 
m nu)' iDftr, tnim hi) bel()lt*UMU si the ag< of 
41, that he hid binueir been educated, but dli- 
penrd ibeni in cammand of the dcw l«tn*Mt 
which he had hailt about the eonntrj. Of bit 
virea, Mahaliitb, Ablhall, and Haacbnb we 
of tbe royal hoiiK of Jeaee: Huchab ha loied beat 
lit all, and to her ion Abljah ha bequeathed 1 
Unedom, The text of the LXX. falloirad in tl 
article It Tln^htndorTa edition of (he Valiru H 
(not of the Vat. MS., but nprinl of the Rom 
iditioo of 15«T), Ldptlc, ISU. G. E. L. a 
BEHO'BOTH (n'^Ohn [iiTMM, B 
■duct]; Samar. niSTn : «(pvx>i>(a: Venelo- 
Ok. n lUartTai : InUlvdo). The third of the eeriei 
afwe1bduRbj>lMac<Gen.xxirl.83). Hecelebiata 
hit iTiuoipfa and bctlowt itt nune on tbe well In a 
(lignHnt of poetrj of th« tamt nature a< thota in 
' » gire nanwa lo hit aucceaaive 
" ' ' « of It Keboboth 

iHUe had left the rallej of Oenr and ita tnrbufeiit 
inhabitant! before he dog tbe well which he tbua 
wninttmorated (ra. 33). i'Tmii it he, In time. 
"•Rnt up" (o &eer-«btba (nr. 33], an eipnaalon 
vfaieti If ■Iwaj't oaed of motion lowardt tbe Land 
•f pramisa. llie poaltlon of Uerar hu not been 
deSnitaljr aacataiiKid, but It innia to hate lain a 
iFw niilea to tl>e 3. of Gau and tituty due K. of 
IkerHheha. In thia direction, thercTore, if any- 
where, the welk SItnah, Eh^ and Kihoboth, 
■iHiuld be leanhed IbT. A W»>ly Jivlinibtli, am. 
lainin^ the mini of a town of the Rame name, 
with a large welL' It croaanl bj the road from 
A'/ifn n-NlMI to Hebron, bj which P>l«tint !• 
entered on the »utb. II lis about 3U niiln S. W. 
of AV f-Sibn, and inoiB than that dialance S, 
•f the moat probable rituation of Gerar. It Ibera- 
^tn MODI unaift, without further proof, lo idcDtifj' 
* with Kdwbotb, at Kowlandt (in WilUami- //o^ 
Ctj. I. 48M, Stewart (TaaJ and Khan, p. SOS), aod 

tmt Ifnialaitr tnlit, IS *M lo etrennite 
Pit " eenplntlr SUad np," Hi. Mowlaodt ilii 
H aa "an aODtaat will of llTlaf and (ood ■ 
no iiball dicMi « twOunBj ■> ewlovlj < 

Tan da 7M»* {Mtmoir, p. 348) bat* dan. A 
lb* tame time, u ii ndmilted by Ur. RoUdmo, 
tbe eaiilcnce of K> large a place hoe, without u} 

apparent mention, ia mjatwioua. AU that can b( 
uid in bTor id' the identilj of lUiniUk with llebo> 
holh it (aid hj Dr. Bonai (Z>ceerl of SiMoi, p. il6), 
and not without mKi^erahle force. 

The ancient Jcwiib tradition conltDed tbe emla 
of Ibia part of Ibhc'b Uh to a much luunnref 
circle, 'fbe wella of the patriarch* were ihowD 
natr AibkeJon In tbe time of Origtn, Anloninui 
Martyr, and Eutebiui (Reland, PuJl p. US); the 
Saoiiritan Vertion idenlifia Gem with Aahkelooi 
Joaepbui(.dii(.'1. 12,i 1} calli it ■•Gerwet PnJei- 
fifW," t. e. of Pkilutia. G. 

i. e. ReeboMth 'Ir [Urtrf n/ fAe atg]; 8*BV. 

Alex. touSut: pl^lra nribrlu). One of lb« four 
citiea built bj AHbur, or bj Nimrod In A ' 

Tbe linir were Nlnerah; Keboboth-Ir; Cakht 
and Re«n, between Ninocfa and Calah (Gen. i. 
11). Kolhing certain i> known of Ita poaitioD. 
The name of Rahabih \t itUI altached lo two 
plute In the region of the ancient Miaopalaula. 
Ilie; lie, the one on the wealem, and the ether on tbe 
caitem bank of the Euphralas,afe«milnMow tba 
conSnenre of the Kh-bir. Both are Mid lo coo- 
tiln eiieniive ai.drnt nmuni. That on tbe out- 
em bank bean the aSi of •m'Uk or roja), and tbla 
BvnHn {Biitbetrk) and KaltMli (6'iiwiu, p. ast) 
propoii aa tbe repfeeentatire of Rehobotb. Ita 
diitance from Ki'Ii-h-Sherjhnl and Mnrdd (ntuij 
SUO mllei) !i perhapa an obetacle lo thli ldenliGc»- 
lion. Sir H. KiwUnBon (Alhmama, April IS, 
IBH} lugEcets Sritmiyih In the Immediate nelgb- 
iwrhood of Kakh. " where there are itill dteniira 
ulna of the Aeayriaii period," but no mbaequeat 
liacarerite appor to hate confirmed thb auggea- 
loii. The Samaritan Voaion (tea abore) roda 
tulain for Kehobolh; and It li nrnarkabla that 
he name Sutean ihould he limnd In ooiinection 
with Cahdi In an Inacription on the breaat of a 
god Meho which Sir H. Hawlin«n 
didntemd at Nimi-id (Jlbrtntum, at abore). 
"be Salcnn of the Samaritan Vemon It (oat> 
lonlj tnppoeed to denote the Sitlacsi* of th* 
Greek geoKraphen (Winer, Jieiilic6. - Uecbobotb 
tr "). But Sittacvne waa a liiiUicl, and not a 
eilj aa Keholioth-lr nemaartly wu. and, (brtlMr, 
being In aontbem Aaiyria, aouM aeeln lo be ton 
distant Ihrni the other citln of Nimiod. 

St, Jerome. Iioth In tlx Vulgate tnd lo hk 
Qmalimiti mi Untri!m (probabi; from Jewiih 
■ontceil, coniiiien Rehoboth-lr ai relcning W 
Nineveh, and an memning tbe "itrteU of the 
eitj." Tbe reading of the Tirguma of Jonathan, 
and KaUilJoarph.on Gen. and I Chron., 
Pinli'h, PlnliUhn, are probablj onljr Iran- 
tcriptlont of the Greek word rAsriZai, which, H 
- d in the well-known ancient lAlj l>kt«*, l« 
exact equlralent of Reboboth. Kaplan, lb* 
Jewiah geographer {Errlt Ktifanim), idmUBii 

tat* ODi ef laaael willa, at Bii luk, aboM 
B. W. of »li Jitria {8fr. a^l IV. U. 1*9). 

s Ibi Utbnw tail, baling ilnUtaa al-Jli 


gtiaiA-m/JH with RihaboUi-br-UiB-rlw, In 
■bull lie n poiaibl}' Domet, bat ecmidgtl It M 
btinct from Ueboboth-lr, wbieli be bdletM to 
knc diBpfwed. G. 



: ■p«B«-in Cbr. T-Wrf-i rofk 
~ Sri b wch : A >iidi> 

Tba elt; of k orUin Suil or Shuil, 
•u of tha arij Ungi of tba Edumito tUcn. 
iml. ST; 1 Cbr. L 18). The tffii "Ibe 
riiv," lici tbt ntuUiDQ of Kebabulb u on tfae 
Bipbnta, KDpbMiBiU]' "<IU rirtr" totbc inhibi- 
taHa of Wabn Aw. [RrvEa] IV udm 
MU TCOuini >ttuliHl t9 twD tpoU on Un Euphrm- 
ta; tba (HH nmplj Ha/iabth. oo Oae right buk, 
■Igk mib below tba juKlion of the Kkabir, 

EiiphT^ L Il>, U. 610, ukI niip if.), tbe other 
iMT or file Biilei [iirtber iam on the left tekok. 
Tba lutler u md to ba called AiAoAei-wlLt, i. o. 
"TO)*] " (Kaliteh, Kiplwi),* and ia on Ihii ^und 

UaaitUM b; tha Janria.' 

air of Suli but vbe 

•f NimnKl, u Dot jet 
Edom era eiUnded ti 

b Keboboth-Ir, Ibe cit; 

e u tbi 

poK that tbe liaila or 
Kophntaa, and thtr»- 
nuia in the liiti Ol 
kkigl of Edom vould teaa b 
n Ahjiud uKUDion of tbe un 
•f CbailoiliDiBar and Amnphel. 

a RB'Hn, 1 CbRn. L SS (A. T. ed. 1611). 

KBTBVTA (Cnm [eonynn'owUel : Vttt,i: 
[Tnt OBlta;] AIr- li^air*: RthuK). L One 
•f tha xehildfai of the provliiea" wbo went up 
ksai Babjloii witb Zanbbabd (f!cr. iL 3). In 
Reb. *li. T ha la called Hehum, and In 1 E«1t. t. 

a. ([Vat PaairX, P»if>0 Anm.) "Rahnn 
Iba cbaDoeOor," with SUmabai the acribe, and 
Mhan, wnta to Artaiema to pmil upon him 
Id Mop Ik nbalUki! of tba wall* and temple 
tf JsiMlam (Ear. h. S.S. 17. «). He mui pa- 
ba|ia a klod of iiratenant-gartniar of lbs provinea 
BBder tba king of Fernia, bolduig appuHillj the 
aana oSea ae Tttaii, aho ii deacribad in Vb. t. 
t m takinii |Wt in a umilar limn eart ki. aud 
b Ibon called »tba goremor on tlili lide tbe 
riaar." TliaCbaldeatitlt.CJp-bjJ.ife^m, 
HI. •' ktd 4tf decM," la left iintnuiibtad bi tha 
LZX. BArdM, and Iba Vulgate BttlUtm and 
.. ... .. ,. .,._.. ._ ii^ A.V. 

"k Tkr takBD b; tba author of 1 Eadr. u. S5, « 
yf^mr tk wfarwiwrtrr^ aiid bj jDaepfaua(^Hj. 
cL a, f I), 1 wirra rk wpmTtiiur<i ypif^r- Tha 
«nwT «f tbcae •mna to be a gioaa, (h the (3uldee 

a- (TmntiH [Vat. Bn»><«; I'A. 


*■ CPfa^; [VaL Atei. FA. ()oliied wilb 
part of tha next word) Poaiqi.]) One of tht 
chief of tbe people, iiho iignad tba eorenaot irilk 
Nabamiab (Hah. i. S&). 

6. (Um. in ViL US.i [alas on. by Bom. Akx. 
FA.>j VA..* Piovfi-] AAeim.) A prieallj bmil; 
or tba bead of a prieatl} hoaae, wbo went up wilb 
Ztmbbabd (Nth. lU. 3). W. A. W. 

BB'I 0?^ [/'■«»«%, tadaly. [Rom. •fyirU 
VaL Alei.] Pqffei:' All). A peraoQ mentioned 
(in 1 K-. i, S onlr ) aa baring. In eonpan]' witb 
Zadok, Btnaiafa, KaLhan, Sfalmel, and Iba men of 
Daiid'a guard, reniaitied firm to Uavid'i cauat 
when Adonyab nlielled. He ia not mentioned 
again, nor da we obtain anj clew (o hi) identity. 
Varioiia oorijecturea bare been made. Jerome 
{Qmttl. 0c»r. Bdloc)ila(alhat ba ii tha Bma 
with " Uirun tba Zwrlta," i. e. Ira the Jairite, a 
FTirat or prinee about tlia penon of David. Ewald 
(d'ucA, lii. aM wfc), dwelling on tha occurrenea 
iniei in the aane lilt with Itei, tug^eile that 
wo are David'a onlj lurriviiig brulhera, Rei 

original eilnnvl; diaiimilar. Kd containing tbe 
' in, a iMa which i> rareljeicliaiiKed tor aii; other, 
it apparenU; never lor Daltlh (Ueain. Tia. pp. 
S, 677), a. 

REINS, t. e. iidntyt, froa tba Latin reiwa. 

Ilia word ia uaed to (ranelala the Hebrew 

nV'j?, except in Ibe Pentateuch and in la. luir. 

1, wbcR "kidneri" ia emplnjed. In tba ancient 

ijalam of phjrainloKr the kidneja were belieied to 

<br tbeir often being eou pled with tbe heart (Pa. 
nL B, tni. 2; Ja. li. £0, irii. 10, etc.). 

9. Tt ia oocfl uaed ([a. li. E) aa tha equlnleut of 
D^^bn, tiaawbcre Iranalatad "biina." O. 

BB'KEU (CfTH [variegnudgnrdai]:taiat 
[Vat. Psaa^], -poS^.l Alei. Paao/>; lUerm). 
L One of tbe fin kinga or ctaieftalna of Uidiaa 
alain bj tbe [araetilea (Num. iiu. 8; Joab. liU. 
an ai the time that Balaam A4 

S. {•PtKiiAi Alei. Po«^.) One of the four 
aona of Hebnm, and fiitber of Shammal (1 Ufar. U. 
*i.U). In tba laat mae tbe IJCX. hare •' Jar- 
koani " Ibr " Rekem." In thie geneiJoKy it i* ei- 
(remd; difflcull to aeparala the namea of penona 
from thoee of placei — Ziph, Hareabah, 1'appuAh, 
llehon, are all namea of place, aa well ae Maon 
and Beth-zur. In .loih. iviii. 27 Rekem appean 
aa a town of Renjamin, and perhapa tijla genealojfj 
aaj be intended In indicate that it waa founded bj 
a aikaj from Hebron. 

BB'KEH ;3iT^ [aa abon) : perfaapa Ka^ 
«lNaciv;Alei.Pfa(/.:Aircen). One of tha lowna 
of U» allotment of Benjamin (Joab. iriii. IT). II 
oteuiT between Mokaei {ham- Matia) and Ibpibi. 
No one, not enu Sehwati, baa attempted lo Um- 




4fy a wHh vj uiMJng liU. But dmj tlun Dot 
bt a Inu* oT Ih< luua in Ma Xaiiai, (ba ■■!!- 
bum (priiiK iit%l oT J<ruul«Di ? U ia wilhin ■ 
Mt7 ihon (liatuict of llaUali, proiided KuioHith 
ha MoUah, M tlio wiit^ hw mlrcAdy (uggoiUd. 
BEHALI'AH (VT^^pT [Mom Jeko*,li 
ajbrm. G«i.] "Po^iAfat In Kingi Mid Inikb, 
TofitXfa in Cbr.; (Vtt VoiuXia (eai.) in b. 
Tii. 1 1] RonuHa). 11w btber of Ptiiata, c^jtiiu 
of Pekihiih kivf of IvmI, wtw alev fai* mu- 
(a uid luurpcd bia IbroDc (3 K. it. ^-^, ni. 
LBj 3Cbr.u>ili,fli U. ™. l-B, vUl.B). 

RB-HBTH (n^^ [ArJjfAir]: Ttwiit; Akx. 
Po^ifioS: AiflulA). One of the lowni of luifhir 
(Joab. ox. 21), oocnniiig Id tbi liiL next \j> En- 
(tonim, tfaa inodcni Jtnin. It ii protnbly (tbough 
not certunl]') ■ dutiact pbux from tha Kamoth 
of 1 Chr. tL T3. L j)lice bauing tha nuuc of 
Riimtk u found on the went of tha tnck from 
Somarb V> Jenbt, ihout 6 inilea N. of th* fanner 
•DdS S. W.ofUw latter (Porter, /fand^. p. S4B<i; 
Vmi da Veida, Mop). lU liUution, on mn iiolit«il 
■ookj Itii in the niiddlo of « grten pbld buried in 
(be bill*, ia quite in iccordonca aitb i(a mime, 
vbieb id probablj ■ mere vwuiimi oT Kamah, 
» hriicbt.'' But it epptan to be too tar aouUi to 
be within Ibe Itnitory of liaechar, which, u fkr la 
Iba ieantf indicationi of the lenird an be made 
out, OMi haidlv hate eilended behnr the iDuUieni 
border of Ibe pkuii of llailraekm. 

For Schwarc'a (»i(jectura that RnmA ia Ra- 
iiM, an that artkk <ili. 36T3). 

BBHIMON {VWij L o. Rimmoa [pomr- 
fromate]: 'Eftpinit:' Aid. VtiifutB-- Rtamon). 
A town in tb« aUotmoit of SioMon,aDS of agfoup 
if lour (Joab. »\x. 7). It ia tha tune place whiob 
ii ebeabera accuralel]' given in the A. V. aa Kiii- 
iiu:< i the uiaccurac; both in thli ciaa and that of 
RKHumj'HBTiiUAR baring no doubt arisan from 

REM'MON-METH'OAR (Tjh^in •{Vti'}, 
La. Rlnimoa ham-iueUiuar [pomeip-nnnu]; "Pt/F 
/UHttd MaSaptioid i Alei. prMiMfOfL finBaptfi : 
Stmmon, Amiharj. A place which formed one of 
Ibe Undmnrka of the eealem bODndarjr of tha ler- 
dlurj of Zabulun (Jiah. lii. 13 only). It occura 
batween Ktb-KaUin and Naib. MMboar doea not 
rallT form apait of Ibe Dame; but ia the Pan/ ot 
^Hn, to alretch, and ibould be (nuubled accord- 
inglj (la in the margin of Ibe A- V.) — •■ K. which 
rtachei to Neab." Tfaia ia Iba judgment of Uca- 
tniuB, Tba. p. 1X9! n, Ri-dign, •&- 1*91 n : Flint, 
Handab. !i. BIS ", and Bunaen, aa weU ai of the 
ancient Jewiah eommentabir Hashi, who quotea aa 
-lia Hulborit)' the 'rargum of Jonalhan. tbe l«t of 
thich baa howsrer ben ■ubeaqiwiiUj' altered, tince 

A. V. baa ben Airtbcr enootouil]! foUowad tl 


Vulgate In giring Iba fint part of tha u 
RemmoD iuatiad of RimnioD. 

Tbia KinuDOn dace not appear ti 
known to Euaebiui and .leronte, but it 
b; the earljr traveller I'arcbi, who e>) 
called Runianeh, and lUnda an hour aoulb of Sep- 
phori. (Zuuii Btnfwua, ii. *3a). If br amU 
we read north, tbia u m ekwe agreement with Uw 
atatemciiUof Dr. Robinaou {SUU. Bu. iii. IID), and 
Mr. Van de VeMe (Miiji; Hcmai,', p. 341), who 
pUa RamnOiuh on tha S. border <^ tbe Plain ot 
Bullaa/, a milaa M. N. F, of S.fu,-itk. It ii 
difficult, however, to aee how tbia can biia kw on 
Ibe eailetn bouudary of Zebuluu. 

Rimmon ia not improbably idcolkal ^th Ibt 
Levitical city, which in Joab. ui. 3o appeati in Om 
form of Dimnah, and again, iu tbe puallel UaU of 
C'hronicto (1 Ciir. li. 77) aa Riuintono (A. V. 

{)V^ : Tai-pir, 'PofvUi, Cow/rf. Am. v. £6) have 
fcmi auppoaad lo be naoiea of an idol woraiiippad 
by the laraeliUa in Iha wildemeia. but aeem to ba 
tha namei of two idola. I'he aeoond occun id 
Auca, UI tha Hab, ; the $nt, in a quotation of that 
piiHage in St Slepben'a addreaa, in the Acta: the 
IJOC. of Ansa baa, however, Ibe aame name at In 
tha Acla, though not wriUen in euctlj tbe nm« 
DunurT. Uuch difficulty hat been occaaioned b; 
tbia xureaponding o 
wlioUy diOnnt in • 
Dpioion K«med to be that Chiiu waa a Hebrew or 
5eniitic name, and Keniphan ui Kgyptian aqnii- 
alent (ubalitutod by the lAX. The former, rcD- 
dered Saturn iu the Syr., waa compared tritti Iba 

Arab, and Pan. i'. '^^ " Iba pjanet SalURi," 
and, according to Kirchei, the laUer *■* (uind lo 
CopUa with the HUoe aiicnificalion ; but perhapa ha 
bad no authority fur tbia eieeptinj; the tuppoaed 
Dieaning of tba Hebrew Cbiun. Kgyplology baa, 
boweier, aliown that tbia ia not the U-ue eiplana- 
tJQu. Among tha foreign divinitiea worabipped in 
I^Tpt, two, tba god RlvNPU. perbapa imnounced 
RKMPU, and tba gaddeu KtlN, occur WgetbK. 
Before endearoriog to explain the paaaagta in whieb 
Cbiun uid UemptiaD are mentioned, it wiU b« 
desirable to apeak, on tbe evidence of tbe monu- 
nwnla, of Ibe ibr^gn goda worabipped ia t^^pt 
particukrly RF.NPU and KEN, and of Ibe idobUj 
of the limelilea while in ttai conulry. 

Beaide* Ihoae divinitiea repreaenled on die DKin- 
umenta of l*^ypt which have h^^yptian forma of 

or botb. Of Ibe bitter, lome appear to have bein 
inlnduecd at a very remote age. lliit ii eortainly 
tbe caae with tbe principid diviuity of Ueiiiphit, 
Ptah, tbe l':g.vptiaa llephutua. 'I'he Dama Ptab 
b fhum a Semitic root, for it aigulAea **0peD,^' and 
In Heb. we find Ibe root HH^, and ila cognalea, 
"he or it opened," wbereaa Ibere ii no word teltUd 
to it in Coptic. Tbe t^re of thii divinity ia that 
of a ddbroied pigmy, or perbupe unborn ohild, and 
ia unlike tbe utual reprseutalioot of ditiulliet on 


am tbtra oa be n 
iatbt Out ths mtrodiutian Uok jituie at mn ei 
k^Klir Mrij ibta, u Um duh of Pull occiin i 
my oid taniba in tlie nacropolu of Ucmphii, ui 
m IouhI tlKnugbaut liie nluiioua neordi. It i 
»b> to be noticed Uut tfaii rwiue i* not tncMlJe 
la Um mjtbolo^ of iifif^blioring njUiong, luiIca 
iaJd it coiTspondi lo thu al Ux nirium o 
norainJ, vbw iruu^, luaurJinit tu UcrDtkiuii 
■en U« BKure-hndi of PlHiiiiciiu (hipi (tii. UTj 
Th* IbnigD diruiitiM tlwt leeni h> )■« of liter iti 
trudiietkia *ie not fouNd tlitouKhout tbe idigiout 
neofib. bat onlj in tiuyile tal.J(ti, ur m otliavite 
*v; nidj mentioned, uid tiro out of Ibtir lour 
laiiMi Bru irmw*.!! >f*lj lecogiii^ U> ba oon Li^yp^ 
tiu. IIhtiub UKXHlI,ukItbe4[udiSaMa Kl'IM, 
AMTA, ud AS4TAKTA. 'ilie Snl ind wttind 
ff Uhm baic fonign farnit; the tbird uid (iiurtb 
hue Egyptian roraic then ■tould tberefore 
Id t* an eepMuUj' Ibrt^D cfaincler mlnu 


EKNHU, pmwinotd REMPC(?)," Ii i . 
iBl«l u u AuUic, iritb tbe tiiU Ixwd tad ip- 
fmntlf tbe geoenl type of Cue Kivan oii the laoD- 
•menu to ant neliom ait of Egypt, ud to tba 
BE8U or Ubpuu. 'Ihii type ia erideutlj ibit 
^ tbe Sbefuite*. Hit luir ii bound with u OH, 
iu ftout itith llie bead of an 

K.ES U a^nKBltd perftcU) naked, koldlnf in 
both bawti com, and itiiudjag upon a lion- In the 
h*t ptUcbUt the li)(ure of ■ goddea it Maltii*i]'- 
j«h iu AMjrit nwT Ic cuopand (I jjard, Xiiuvri, 
tL iltj. t'nie tliiit occumnix of a ainiilir repn- 
ioitttiaa, bwn ber being aaiiRl ind carrying oorfi, 
and from ber being wor^poed with KUI'IM, we 
BBjeoppiae that KbX corrMpuudsd to the Sjrian 
fjd^. It leaat wbeii the Utur liad tlie chtneler 
or Veuoa. She ia alio caUed KETKSH. -iiich u 
tba BMBS in hlnglfphia of the great Uittite lawi 
•D the Onolet. 'Ilui in the {meut eaaa it prob- 
ably > Itlfe, HDlp: it can learcdj be the ni 
«( a ton when the wa« wortbipped, applied lo 
at pnonifying it. 

ANATA appeati to be Analtii, and bar fonigji 

I tlmoat oertarn ftnm 

r bda 

On a taUet in the BriUib Uiceum the principal 
ntjeet li a group rvpreaentijiic KKN» having 
KHKM oa n» dda and UKS'HU on Cba otiier: 
hcoeaih it an aitorMion of ANATA. On the half 
W aiHrtber tablet KKN and KIIKM occur, and a 
dedieatiou tn KENfU and KKTI'ISK, 

We bare no elew to the met lime of the intro- 
dnetian eCtlme divjnitia Into K^ft. nor except 
«B> eaae. la an; particuliir placa uT tbeir wonhi 
TLiiz r imea ooeor aa earij u the period of I 
XTIi.'lh and XlXth dyuitlM, and il ii Uienlure 
aM inipnibalile that tbey were inlruiluced bj the 
Sbepbenlt. ASTAHTA ii mentioiied io a " 
et Anienaph II., oppufila Meniptiii, wbieli lei 
Um coujeeture that abe mu the foreiicn Venua 
BUihi|i(ad, hi th* quaiur of the Phimiciai 


Tjre, accordinit to Hnwiolui (ii. 119). It to nh' 
•ervuble UuU die Shepherdi vnrahipped SUTEER, 
eoireipaDdiog to SIC I'll, and alio called IIAR, that 
It, Baal, and that, under king APEPEt; be w^ 
the lole god of the foniitnen. 6UTEK.H waa 
pmbabij a foreign god, and wu c«r(iuid}- Identified 
with Baal. 'I'be Ida thtt tbe Sbepberdi intiti 
duccd llie fbreiifn gule i> tliereTore partly amfirmed 
,\jttoKENPljMd KESwe can only oSer i oop- 
jecLtire. Ttiey occur together, and KEN ii i form 
of tbe Syrian goddesa, and alao bean aoinfl relation 
to the Egyptian god of product! veneii, KUhU. 
Their ^mdarily to Baal and Aibtoreth teenu 
•troug, and perbtpt it b not unreiaoniUe to aup- 
pOM that thtj were the divinitiea of aome Irib* 
from tbe etat, not of I'hieniciaat or Cuaanitia, 
tetiled in EKipt during the Siicphenl- period. The 
nakta goddeu K.EN would ■u^^'eat auch worahip al 
that of tbe Bubrknian Milltta. but the thoroughly 
Shemile appearance of KENPU il rather in bvor 
of an Arab louree. Althouzb ne baie not dii- 
covered a Semitic origin of eitiier nanie, tbeabeene* 
of tbe nvuea in the tnjtboloziet of Cuiaiiii and the 
neighboring couniriee, u fir la Ihey an Iuidwd to 
ut, iiifUneg ua lo louk to Arabia, of whioh the early 
mytboiokfy it eitreuiely olitcurer 

The limelitei in Egypt, atler -lo^h'! nile, aik 
pear Iu hare lidleo Into a general, hut doubtleai not 
univena), pnctice of idohriiy. Thii it only tiriea 
dlitiiictJy atJttal and once lOluded to (Jtoh. ulr. 
14; &c. XI. T, 8, ixiit 3), but the indieitiooa are 
perfectly clear. The mention of CHIU.V or REM- 
PHAN u wonhipped in the deaert ahowa that thto 
idolatry waa, in |nrt at leant, that of Ibreigneiv, and 
110 daul>t of those aettled in l/>wer Egypt. The 
golden calf, at firit al^iit. would appear to be an 
loiigi' of Apia of Menipiiii, ur Mneiii of Heliopolii, 
or aonie other tiered bull of Egypt; but it muit M 
ramembered that we read in the Apocrypha of " the 
heirer Baal" (Tab. 1. SI, to tliat it wu powibly a 
Pbcaoieian or (jmianitc idol. The beat parallel to 
tbii idolatrj ii that of the Phsnician coloniei kj 
Europe, aa leea in the iduia diacovered in tomta at 
Camimi in Rhods by M. Silzininn, and thoia 
liiuad in tomlii in tbe iilaud of banltiiia (of both gf 
wlueh tboe ve ipeclnieiu iu tl» Urillih Uuieiuo). 
ind thoee lepreiealed an tite colna of MeUla and 
the iiland of Kbuiui. 

We can dow endeavor la ei|JAia tbe patugei Id 
which (Jhiun and Iteiiiplian occur. The lUaioretJe 
t«t of Amoa r. Hi readi tliua; " Hut ye hire the 
tent lot ' tabernacle '] of your kin|[ and Chtun yont 
iiutgea, the siv of your ijadi [or 'your god'], 
which ye miide for yonravlven." In tbe LXX. we 
Gild nniirkalJediOerencei: it reiula: Kol in\i- 
SfTf TJ)r <rjcn>i)F Toil MoAJx> ■oi '^ itrptr ni 
tnu tfiir 'fiufJlr, Ttii riiti/t aurdr d&t irmif- 
rart •■uroTi. I'be Vuiic. atireei with tbe Muoretic 
lie order of the eliusea. though omitting 

" Vea, ye loo 

up the 




gud \i, 


... f-gnre. 









- patjtuu, poiiiu, 

8. ptMIP, "a ;tu;" » UKNNUFa, MHrUi, 

jieiiSe, Jtiejuiqi, aiH. itxvSa, 
juenqi, s ueju[(i3, jiutfie, ut^ 

>.i, and Dil-Sliril, O^^. 

..,.., Ct)i)^Ic 


nnfr))v rav Uoftixi '"^ ''^ irrpor toE tn 

nwiTr ovTsit)* A iliulil chanzi) In tli« Heuce 
■RHild mmLke in to md Molooh (Uikuii or Milcom) 
liHtml of "j-our kiug." Beyi 
Inmelj difBciilt U npUn Uw diAhnnes. Thi 
*abMltution of Reniphui firr Cblun oiniHit be k 
taanUd for h; vubd criticiun. llu Hdim d« 
not Mcm M diiUnct in maniog «■ th* LXX., mi 
IT wo may coiijectnnllj Mncnd it from the htUr, 
tin lut clauit would be, ■' joui im«gt« wliic 
nude for jDunelvca; " uid if oa [urtbcr tnni 
China to the plHt of " four |;od Rempbu, 
tb« LXX., C^ba ni3S rWl wouU comapoDd 

Ip 1T3 DS'-nVw 3^13 rW, bat ho- 

■ODoiuil for tuch a Inn^KidUou m would I 
nippcKd. which, be it nran»l<«mi, ii leu likd; in 
tbe Helirew than in a Imiiatation dI a diffleult pai 
Mge? 1( m compare Uw Matoretic text aud U 
■Uf^iaed original, w* percdTa that in tha fbnui 
DS^aVs p"*? eorrtipoiMU in poaltku to 2313 
B3^n^, and it doe* not •nm ao unwuraiitahk 
nqjgetnra tbal 1^3 fakTlng bttn bj miitaka «iil- 
IcD in th* fket of 3313 b^ khm copjiat, 
C3^07!r wal llao iRUUpMad. It appMj 
mora naaonable to nad " iniagea which j» 
than "godi wbkb jt ouidc," aa tbs form 
oKon. tiuppaaiiig tbne emendaliout to be prob- 
able, we DU;' DOW eiamiue tbe maning of ' 

Tbe lent or Icbermuk of Molocb ia auppoaad bj 
Geaeniut to have bteo ta actual lent, and he can> 
pana ttie ^mgr)) I'tpJ of the Cutbaginiuu (Diod. 
8)o. It. «9i La. t. T. n-lip). But Ihera i) 
•onie diificuhy In the idea that the lan^tta car- 
ried about » laige an object for the pnipoae of 
idobitrj, ami it Keiio mora likfly that It waa ■ 
■mall model of a hr^cr t«nt or (brine. Hie nud- 
bg Mokch appean prefemhle to '•jour hiiig; " 
bat tbe mention of the idol of tbe Aninioaitea ni 
wonhipped in the deiert itandi quite akiw. It ia 
ptrlmpa wortbj of note that then i* reaaon for 
aoppoeibff tint hloloch waa a name of tbe planet 
Sktum, and that Ihia planet wu eridentlj aup- 
poecd by the annait tnnslilon to be Intended by 
Cblun Htd Hemphan. 'lliecEn-mpandeneeof Rem- 
phan or Kaiphan to Cblun is eitnjtncly reuiukable. 
Ud cnn, we think, onlf be nacounled far bj tbe 
■Ippoutioii that the I J[X. tnnalalor or tranalatort 
of tbe prophet had K^-ptiaii 

K«. . ■ 


It JOll 

fonoer. n Ihej may li> 
Ok nime of a forvici 
pfaan, if Indnd the j 

if Itemphan 

I be eipeciiilly appm- 
ihnetary god; but the 
(Tidence fur thb. »|iei]iiilly as partly founded npoD 
■o Anb, or Pen. word Nke t^tiiun, ii not uiffi- 
lienlly Itrong to eniible u> to lay any ilren upon 
tbe agreeoient. In hieroKlyphIa tlie van for a 
(tar ia one of the two conipodng the word SEB, 
■•ta adore," and i* undoubtedly there ued In a 
eyiaMical ai well as n phouetia laiae, indioating 
•hit tha andmt l^yptlwi religion waa partly da- 
thri fram •lyileni of alar-ironhip; and there are 
NfNMaUUoni on the DMuaqenti of mythiol 


ereatura or am adoring rtan (Aitcitt Kg^bam 
pi. SU A.). W* hare, however, no poritlte Indies 
tion of any flgnn of a ilar licing ued aa B> 
IdolatKiiB oltjcet of vonhlp. From tha manna 
In wbleh it b mentioned we may Boqjectun that 
the ttar of Hemphan wat al the laBii- rhnrirUr 
ae th* tAhtniacla of Mekieh, an o);](et eonneetcd 
with lalte worehlp rather than an image of a fabe 
god. Acoordiiig to the LXX. reading; of tbe laM 
dauae It ulgbl be thought that tbeae obJecU mre 
actually Imagca of Moloch and Kemphan: bat it 

image to have bad tbe form of a tent, and that th* 
Tcnlan of the pueage in tbe Acta, aa wdl aa the 
Maioretie text, if in tbe latter cate we may ehang* 
the Dtdcr of tbe irorri*. give a clear aonae. Aa to 
tbe nicanhig of the last <Jan*e, It need only be 
remarked that it doca not oblige ui to hifor that 
tbe kraelilee made the Image* of the Uw god*, 
Ihnugb they may ban done ao, aa in the case of tha 
golden ealT: it may mean no man than that thay 
adopted theae goda. 

It 1* to be obeerved that the wbide paaaage doe* 
not indicate that diatinot Egyptian hlolatry waa 
practiced by the lirarlitta. It la very nmarhat>le 
that the only folae gods mentioned aa wonbipped 
by them in the desert should be probably Moloch, 
and Chino, and Kemphan, of which tbe laUn two 
wen ibreign divinitiea worshipped In ^ypt. From 
this we may reaaouably infer, that while the larael- 
llca Bojoanied In Egypt there wai alao a gnat 
ilnniter-popuktion iu tbe Lower Country, and 
thenfore that It )• probable that Ibeu the ifat^ 
herds atill occupied tbe hnd. R 8. P. 

• JabkHulii (AoKirm jEgyptiorma. Proli^ 
mena, L. J niakca Kemphah the equlralnit of I'r jFim 
CaS. that la J.inii, wboae mrabip waa mnintaiiiad 
in Egypt at an early day- Ills attempt, however, 
to prore that thta waa an F^ptian divinity, in hi* 
kanied treatlae Acn^nknjt ithiMnMu, b not bom 
oat by the eridence of the monumente, tbe Aaiatle 
tyja of aHintenanoe beiug atroiigly marked in tha 
dellneationi of this god. He ia rtpTeaeolcd brand- 
ialiinji a club. A good specimen ia to be aecD Id 
the MuMnim of the Louvn at Paris (Salle dea 

ineots Retigleoi, Anuoin K), where i* col- 
lected in one view a complete t^xvptinn Pantbeon. 

vera {Die Btlii/iun dtr Pl.i>nkirt) Ends no 
tmce of Rempban among th* gnli of Pbcenlda. 
He makia MiiLOCii the tire god of tbe Ammoailea, 

' wotahip waa extended through Assyria and 
ChHldsa — the prrsonificatian of fin aa the holy 
and purifying dement. 

Count lioug^ conoidcn Atksii or Kituh and 
NTA or Akata to lie ditfrrenl funu* or char. 
:ten of the same divinity, an Antlic Veiioa. hr 
though she wean the same head-dreas and dindeo 
tbe Egvptian cwidcBi HaHKib. the Kgyptiana 
er represented their own goddeaaia by an en- 
tirely nude Hgure. Uotb forma of ihia divinity 
mny be seen in the l.oum, aa aboie. Aa Akta 

baule-axe. and hoh^ing a 

thickl an 


e. S,^ 

waa also the character of AnaItb 



deu of the PersU... and 

oU Asa™ 


ng to Movera, Astaktk 

was a div 

nity of a dnt 

velUl ob»«ter, wboae 


andtr varkiw 

namta, was world-wide. 


P. T. 


. aracteriitic of all auperatitlona demlxia ll 
rtjaat eadlaBlj CMtMn wjiiti, aifenajli tin- ta»sm 

rfOcdartiei ii.nlied,a ptKti«e iridph oar Lord 
<« ngw « w «■ tarraf^yU u>d n\uAfy(a, tad 
WfB*l]r eondnni (HMt. vi. T). 

Wbai tba pciou of Bu. bomigbt their God 
fet Are to kiadk theii McriGce. the7 aitd iii«a- 
MBlljr for MTtnl bsun, in Bidlm npnitioii, 
Boat ktar u, (J Aio/ ktar ui, BitiJ htar w. 
«B. (t K. iviiL aS). Wheii tlw lifihaiui mob 

dna, for tiro boon uid own tfacj did Dotfainx imt 
•awh oltfa alnaat taniioa of voles, tirtnf lit 
Onaa of Itt t:pliaitiu. (lre«l the Ui\n,t of Uit 
i^ttwrtiw, O'rtiil lk% Diaiut nf lit Kpiuiaiu, 
tie-, wUk Ibe mait mdirm KpeUtion (Act* ill. S8, 
tt). Id tba Mma w*j, in tlia denitioai of Pigiui 
Roae, th* fOflit woold etj oal mora tfaan Bra 
hondnd llawi vithOBl MuiaSi Audi, Cetmr, 
iladi, Gmr, ^vfi, Qnir, tu. ADMng (be 
Hbdooi the matd ijlhUi Om, Oih, Om, )• re- 
fotad ■■ > (mj*^ tfaciuHHla uT tliu* DninUrrupt- 
•dlf. 3a tbo Kooiui CiOliolici rFpnt their Pn'ir 
jVMtin ud their An il-i.vit. Thne tingle 
■ordi, iritta Dotbing tbe, tn pronannad onr *ud 
•var ud onr ^gua; and ttar olject of the raurj 
k to keep CDUDt of the nnoilieT at npnitionji. 
Foe «wli utlmoea * bead i« dropped, uid wbm 
■a tlw bade an eihuMod. tboa bit* bea eo 

Tloi ii the pnetica whieb our Saviour eoO' 
demoi. Be condmoi al] nt«Uea wonU, wbetber 
npetitwn* or »ot II !• follf to eioploj a nu- 
ennoo of tfiwojiMNn ttnni, iddbig (a tbe lengtb 
irf a prsjc 'ilboot iDoreaelng ita lemir. Snob a 
(tjb •( [HajW lalhw eboin a mat of fcrwri it 
b «Aaa Um nanlt of tboogbtlMi arieotatioD, aoaw- 
tiaiM •( downriRbt hjimeritj. 

Befctition vhicb nallj ariie from earnfitneH 
■nd agODj of ipirit are bj no niaaiu rorblddm. 
We taa<re danpln of uicb kind of rcpetitkxi in 
•■r Saviour'* dnolioni In Gcthnmane, and In the 
■oodMtl prajer of Danid (eh. ii., (tpeedallj ler. 
l»^ (J. E. S. 

BBPH'ABt. (^1 [w*om C«l htaU\: 
tm^^: a^fll). Sofi of Sbemiiab, Ibe flrX- 
boru of Olia^edom, and one sf lbs gato-heepen 
if tbe Tabenude, "able men br Ureiistb bt the 
Hnka" (lOir. uvL T). 

BBTHAH (np'? [riQl«i]i •pof)): Ai/»la). 
A eon of Ephraiin. and ancertor of Jeahoa the eoo 
of Kan <1 Clir. tii. U|. 

EBPHAXAH [8 lyt.] (nj^n [««W 0/ 
Jdmy*]; 'ra^iw Alei. pa^oia: ft^nlo). ' 
no •»* of Rephajah ippear among tbe deec 
■Die of Zenbbaliel in 1 Cbr. ill. 31. In 
Feebito-SjiJu be la rnide tbe aon of Jeulah. 

>■ CPo^a.) OiwoftheobieFUiniorthelrlba 

•f Sineon In the trian of Kezfkiab, who _. 

tb« eipedilion of live huiidnd nten a^lntt the 
Aoaleklla of Uouiit Seir, and dioie them oat (1 
Ov. it. 43). 

»■ [Vat. Po^ofKi.] One of tbe enne of ToU 
i* nn of iKufair, "haedeoflbdrfatb^'i boms' 
1 Or. tli. 3). 




4, [Sui. Pabular.] Son of Binn, and d* 
loendant of Saul and Jonathan (I Cbr. ti. 43). 
la 1 Cbr. tUL 8T be ia ailed Rapha. 

0. Tbe UD of Hur, and ruler of a portion <t 
Jeruealeai (Neb. 111. 9}. He ae^led !a rebuildli^ 
tbe citj wall UDder Mebemiah. 

BEPH'AJH. [GiAKTS, toL IL p. 01!.] 

DT^^I : 1^ nAit tS» TiTdror [Vat. Ttr], and 
[1 Cbr.J ™» r.Td«-M; «. Ta^aJ* |T«- -'^ 
Alei, -ttr] 1 bi Iniah V>iaayt vrisid), 9 Sam. T. 
IS, ei, uiU. 13; I Cbr. il. 15. liv. 9; l>. xvil.ft. 
Alio in Joeb. it. S, and irlii. Ifl. wbcte It it tnn» 
biled In the A. V. " the tallej of the glante " M 
To^tv and 'E^l* To^fv [Tat.-«ii>, Ala.-Kjuf 

"^leh tne tbe er^oe of eome of David 

rkBhle adventuree. He ttioo encoun- 
toed the Pbilietince tbrra, and InBictal a de>tn»- 

! tbe plan a new name, and ItDprcaaed iteelf on 
popular mind of Itrad with lucb diatinctUMi 
that (he Prophet luiah could einploj It, eetituriM 
ai a ijmboloratremendoui InipendinKJudg. 
(rfGnl — nMhiiig lett Uian tbe diaolatjon and 
deilniedoii of the whole earth [It. utUI. 31, 33). 

, tabably during the former of thne two 
eonteeU iliat Ibe Incident of (be water of Betb- 
(3 Sam. uiti. 13, ic.) oecurrtd. Tbe 
"o (ver. 14) Id which David fbond himteU; 
((hough It i* nut clear) (o have been the 
eateof AdulUm, tbe tsene of (he oommennnient 
of bit freebooting life; but, wherew ntuauil, we 
' not doubt that It waa the tame helDCaa la 
mentioned In 9 Sam, v. IT, tiace. Id botb 
eaio, the tame word (H^^l^n, with tbe d(£ 
aittele), and that not a uiuid 'one, li trn^jtA. 
The ilorj ehowi verj cloarij- tbe predalM7 natun 
of tbeee Incureiont of tbe I^iHitlm*, It wai Id 
birttet time" (ver. 13). The; had come to 
e«ir7 oir tin rip* crop*, for irtilch tbe tallejr wii 
pniRrbhl (It. ivii. B), juet at at Paa-damiubii 
(1 Chr. il. 13) we And them in the parcel rf 
ground lull of barley, et Uhi in (be field of len- 
tilet (3 Sam. ulil. Ill, or at Keilab in (be Ibnab- 
big-Soon (1 Sani. uiil. 1). Their nninwli' wen 
teattered among (be ripe com receiving (heir load 
of plunder, liie ■^garrison," or the officer'^ in 
charge of the eipedition, wu on tbe watch in tba 
village of Bethlehem. 

Tbii nanatlte eeemt (o impi)' that tbe nlle; of 
Repbaim waa near Itethlehen: hut unfiirtunatdj 
neither (hla nor the notice in Joah. iv. 8 and iviU. 
13, In cODneetioii with tbe boundarj line between . 
Judab aod Boijamlii, gi>«« anj clew to ita litua- 
(ion, rtlU leea does \l» oonnecLion with the grove* 
of mulherrj (ree* or Uaca (3 Sam. t. 33), itatV 
unknown. Jowphua {Anl. til. 13, { 4) mentJaai 
It *e " tbe valtay which eilendi (from Jeruealem) 
to tbe city of Bethlehem." 

gbia the latter part of the 16th cent.'' (be 
name baa been attached to the upland plain whieb 
(tRtchca touth of Jeruanlem, and it craned hj the 

Hid It bata b?, " 

d T\*r\ (S B* 


md to BctbMiem — the el-Btk'ah of Uh modan 
AntM (Totltr, Jnwbni, etc, U, 401). But thh, 
Ibwigh appTDpriiiU enough u ngtnli ite proi- 

knltj to BHhlchrm, doM not tumr at *II to the 
BHaning uf the Hebrew word imrl, wbicb >(q)eui 
almji to dniicnito mo ineloeed lillej, nwfr u 
u Uut In quHtioD," iIh Imel 

el which i> u liigh, oi 
Mount Zlon il«ir. [Val 

high, A 
:r.] Eu«biu. 


in the Qoctb of JeniMlem, 
of Beq^uiin. 

A pMitioii N. W. of the oltj U »dt 
FDnt (//ifk/wfr. 1). 383 At, sppunitlr 
gnHind of the terma of Joah. ii. S and inii, IS, 
which cdtaJnlj do loire it douhlhit whether thi 
nib? li on the north of the boundarr 
boniidu7 on the nonh or the nBej; and Tobler, 
In hia bat iiiTntlf>aIiDni [3Ue Wnainiaig, p. S03] 
eonclualvel; adopt* the Waily lUr JnHa (W 
MnUirioT. m V«i de Velde'a map), one of the aid. 
nDeja of the tcreit Wmtg BtU Hnniw, aa the 
nlley of Rephairn. Thli position ia opeu to the 
obrloua oljection or too gretX diitmice ftum both 
Bethlshem sod the cave of AduUam (leeording to 
an; poaition aielgnable to the latter) to meet the 
nquiremenU of S Sam, uiii. la* 

He nWnj appean to deiira ita name fiom the 
ancient nation of the Rephalm. It ma; be a tnce 
of au carljr aetllemcnt irf theln. poetihl; alter thej 
were ilrlten fron) their orfa^inal eeat* eut of the 
Jordan by Chedorlaonifr (Gen. xlv. C), and before 
Itxijt attain mi$nt«d northwanl to llie more aecure 

Uln w 

in of the countrj ai 

t tribe* 

of the parti 

(Joah. ivii. iDi A. V. "(-lania ■). in tnia caae it 
h a parallel to the " nnunt of the Amalekltea " in 
the eentn of Paleitlne. and to the toa-na liearins 
the name of the Zeman^m, the AHrn, the Ophnilei. 
•to., which oocur ao frequentlj la Be<Oaniiii [toI. i. 
p. in, note b). a. 

EBPHIDIM (Cno-! : Ta«iB.(> = [ftv^- 
U'm]). Ei.itU. 1,8: lira. The name moan* 

d( the Ian 

n of Sin' 

n V^jpt tt 


dx. 1, S, Kcma preel*^ aa regard* the pjiot IkM 
the Journej from Rephidim to Sffi't' wat ■ df» 
tinct atage. The time favm the wildemoaa of Sin, 
reached on the llfteeulh daj of the aeeond nnaitt 
I Eiodui (Ki. Id. 1), to the wildemM tt 
Sinai, reached on the Ant dt.; of the third month 
1). 1) from fooTleen to tiitem daji. Thi*, 
(oUow Nnm. inlil. 19-lft, haa l» be die- 
Hi betwem the fmir manh-statlona Sli, 
Dophliah, Ahiah, and Rephldlm, and their oone- 
(ponding itacet of Jonmej. whkh wodd alknr two 
' jt' npoee to ercrj diy'a march, aa there are bat 
■rchea, *nd4x9 + 4 = 19, Ifaiing two daja 
D tnm the fourtm. The Brat grand ohjeet 
ing the arrival at ^nal, the interroiing diatanev 
maj probablj han been deapatched with all pnaaJ 
ble apeed, conddering Ihe weakneai of the boat bj 
I of women, etc lie name Horeh la hj 
eon taken to mean an extended range or 
, aome put of whkb waa n«r to Repbidlm, 
he placa at Wadf ai-Skead,,!' ninnlnc 
from N, E. to S. W., on the W. aide of CeM 
n, oppoaite the northern face of the modem 
Hont. [IjiNAi.] It >iltia the Wadf /'ctnM. 
lact apot of Roblnaon'a Rephldlm 1* a defile 
tt^.SlleiU, lUtfd and deaeribod b; Bvrek- 
hardt {Syia, etc., p. 468) aa at about Sva honn' 
dIatMice from where It iaaun from the pUin &■■ 
A, narrowing between ahrapt ditli of bhek- 
gnmlte Co about 40 ftet in width. Hare ia 
abo the traditional " Seat of Uoeei " (RoblDeoo, 
131). The oidBloD of Sunlej [S. f P.pp.iO- 
I), on the contrary, with KJtter (xir. 740, T41), 
placea Rephidlm In ll'ii'^ A'ci'rvm, when the tneea 
of bnilding and enllintion atill alleat the lmpor> 
tance of thli Tallej to all occmpula of the daeot. 
It narrow! in one a|»t to 100 yania, ahowiag high 
moantidna and thiek wooda. with gardena and dM»- 
grorea. Here alood a ChrittUn church, city and 
epiKO|wl reddence, under the name of Paran, ba- 
fbre Uie roundation of the conrent of Hohnt St. 
Catherine by Juitinlan It i> the BneaC raUe; In 
the whole penlntuU (Rarckhardl, Arab, p, SOS; 
see abo Robinaon, i. 117, 118). lU fertility and 
richncm account, aa Stwiley tfalnka, for the Amal 
eliilc*' itrutt^ to Rtain jioeHeaion againat tl 

[lophkah a 

I Aluih 

i. 13, 1 

ned a> occurring 
e people'* eiit from that wildemeaa and 
their entry into the latter londity. There li noth- 
ing known of three two pUca which Kill enable ua 
toBi the alle of Rephidlm. [Alush; Dofhkah,] 
Leptlui' view ia that Mount SrriSI ii the tme 
Honb. and that Rephidlm la Wt^y Fthm. the 
well known valley, richer In WHler and regelalloii 
rfian any other in the peniniula ((.eptiua' Timr 
from ThAa lo Sifl'ri, IBIS. pp. 81, 97). Thia 
■)r the eipeclation of Bnding water 


iJled. In Ei. itiI. S. "the rock in Horeh 
aim*" a* Jte eimrce of Iht iiiia miraculouily inp- 
piled Ol 'in other hand, the language uavD Ex. 

ahsnld be tb* nn 

eallJT of Labanso, which dlOan from It aa wtdeJj a 

wean dUfcr tkon Iba alfnlHsttoii of Smik. TiMn 1 

n tbcy ri 


leet the largeit 

k aita of Shiai, Lepidua, loo [Ka 
abote) dwellt on the fact that It waa of no uee for 
Moeea lo occupy any other part of the wildenieaa, 
if he could not deprive the Amalekitea of the onlj 
which waa inhabited. Stuley (41) 
94 dcacribing the gronnd, rendered 
f.x. ivil. e, 10, and aaid adequatriy 
lit on which the ehureh of Pann 
alood. afbnli an argmnent in bn^ of the Ftiiia 
entity. H- H. 

> Upon the other hand, howerar, it ma]; be 
■ged with much force, that ainee Wndf Ftiram 
fuD twelve houn' maieh tTom Jttil Mtw, Rephi- 
dlm could not have been In that valley If the Moi- 
tlty of Sinai with Ibb mountain b maintainadi 

tiava eortalnly reoogulcBd 
dim (i. •. ai irarf» F*™ 
Wadii Frvan ■ ■ ■ 

K poeltloD of BapU- 


ID wn difUnt from Siiui bat ona 
*«iih (Fiiii. 3j Num. miil. IS), ud tb 
lunbam Wadg Famn tt> JdotMva coul 
tan bBBn >cctiiupliabHl bj «> gmt ■ multitude on 
bt, in ■ udgle minh. Monorer, the mot of i 
ifukn <^ in Ex. nii. 1, 3, iMtiu to prrctudt 
Wadg /"ctmB M the loe»tion of Btphidiin;forl]ie 
Widj hu in ilmoit peiwmiiJ lupplj of \ 
wtuna Lh« deficjencj irffmd to in tlw nu- 
■ iiil to hin been Dstanl to the ■(«ilr and rockj 
ngioa into which Lh<? people liad now come, and it 
«u TiiCEiiarj lo lupplj them from t, luperaatunl 

Tbe localioo of Repbldtm muft be drtennlned 
tj Uttt of AJun; uid Uw utbor of llw ibov* vtlck, 
Id hit utide m Simai, eeniit to ufwa hit own 
irgnment* &>r placing Rephidim in the ITik/jt 
Ftinm with AfrMJ ai tbe Sinai, and Ui accept 
tn the main Dr. Robinaxi'i IdentiOeation of Sinai 
■Dd Hnrii, wbieb nqairea that Rtpbldim be ( 
fand lo WaJg etSktyld,. Tba wogbt of topo- 
craphical vridanoa and of kaned authoritj nr 
bnn thi* Tiew. J. P. T. 

• RBPROBATE C^MP^ : iaiiaiui),im>apa. 
tU of ttubirng trial, or nAea Irtlii, food m- 
■ortljr («ith ipedal tderenoe, piimariljr, (a iba 
HMLj of metak, Me Jcr. *L 30), hence, in gei 
•nn^ imrMW 

Tbe mrd la emiiloTed bf SL Paul, appanntlj 
Ibr tbe eaka at tb* aatithetle puvUcUtoi, 3 Cor. 
liiL d, T, in tbe moel)' negitiiF aenaa of " nn- 
pnmd," " unatt(«t*d." with reference to himjelf 
■i beang let, snppoaatil^, without that proor of bio 
^natleabip which might be fumiibedlijdiiciplinar; 

fhaiTS r*", inflicted upon oOrndon through hi> 

taitranntahtj. The matt won], which it ordi- 
mil; in tb* A. V. InDaUtcd " repmbate," ia ren- 
dmd 1 Cor li. 37, " a eatfauay," and Ueb. n. S, 
"r^teud." D. S. r. 

RB'HEB 05;i: Aatri: [Aba.] Aw./i: «c- 
•n) ia mentioned onlj la titn. i. 13, where it ia 
Mid to bare been one of tbe eiliea buUl by Anhur, 
■Bm be wmt out of tbe land of Shinar, uid to 
bare lain "btlvUH Nineieb and Cakh." Many 
Wrllen bare been Inclined to identifj It with the 
!»■—;■■« or Rbama of the Bjsuitine anthors 
(Amm. Hani, iiiii. 5; Proeop. BtlL Ptr: ii. 19; 
Stcpb. Bji. tut iwe 'Viam), and of Ptolemjr 
{Gtogrnpk. y. 18}. whieb oa* near tbe tme •auroe 
el tbe woteni Kbabour, and which ii moat prob- 
*blr tbe modern Rn^^l^nn. (See Winer'! Real- 
letrltrtmck, mb voce " Reaen.") There ate no 
|>roand«, bowerer, for thii identiflcBtion, eieept the 
■mifaritj of name (which umilarit/ ia pcrbapi fal- 
biba*, tdsot tba LXX. ei^dentlj read IDl fer 
)Cn). lAlla it iaabtal oljectlon to the tbeor; 
that tbmaa. or Boina wm not In Anfria at all, 
kit lo Wcatera llMopalamU, 300 mib* (o tb* west 
ll both lb* dtia betwevi which it ia aaid lo have 
Uo. A br Dion Fnbable o«|)ectnr* waa that of 
PodMit (Otograph. Sncr. ir. 33), who found 
BiMii Id tba L^rian of ZenaphDu (Anai. iil. 4. 
IT), which la moat cataiul; tfaa modern Jfimnid, 
Beam, or Daaen — wbiebenr maj be tb* tni* 
Iwm of Ibe w«d — mmt umiedlr hav* been in 
<bb nrighborbood. Aa, haw*«er, tb* ffittnid 
(■Ibb Mem real] J to ryea ew t Cai^h , while tboM 
ipfodte HmuI an tbe remalDa ol i^lnenh, w* 
«^betl« RMalDtlietnetl]te(b*twwotbeM 



two lilia. AHjrian remain* of )ome emridnaUi 
eitent an found in tbi* aituation, near the modcfB 
Tillage of Stlnrniiftli, and it ■• perhnpa tbe mot* 
ptobahle ooiuacture that Ibew rrpreamt the Rean 
of Geonia No doubt It tnaf be Mid that a " great 
dty," luch a* Keam ia declared to bate been IGen. 
1. 12), could aearcely bav* Inlcntncd belseen two 
other large citieg which tn not twentj milei apart; 
and the niii<a at Silamiyh, it muet be adniittcd, 
are not very eiteniive. But perbapa we ought to 
undentand the phraae *' a great citj " relalivetj 
— ». c ptat, aa ciUea went in earlj tiniea, or great, 
coniidering It* pniimitj' to two otfas' larger towna. 

[f tbi) eiplanation Mem unBtUbctor^, we might 
perhapa CDiyecture that originallj Aaehur (ATtki- 
Sher^hal) wu e^td CaUb, and Nmrvd Reaen ; 
but that, wbtn the aeat of empire wu remoisd 
northward* froui tbe (nrmer place to the Utter, tbe 
name Calah waa tranilerTed lo the new apilal. In 
itancca ol aneb tmufcr* of name are not unft*- 

Tbe later Jewa appear to baTs identifled Ream 
with the KiUh-Sherghat rulni. At leut the Tar- 
gomi of Jonathan and of Jrruaalem explala Rteai 
bj Tel-Aaaar ("obn or ~Ut^n), ■• tba motud 
of AMbur." G. B. 

■ RBSH, wbieb mean* "head," ii tbe nam* 
of ona of Ibe Hebrew letlen (~l). It dealgnalci a 
diiiilon of Pi. ciii. and oonmrncM each lerae of 
(hat dlfiaion. It occui* in aome of the other al- 
pbabetle compo^tloni. [POKTBT, Bebhew | 
Wsinna.] H. 

RB^HBPHCI^: lapd^i Alei. ?aat^: 
RtHpk). AaonoTEphnlmand brotberofB^hah 
(1 Chr. ril. 36). 

* REBXJBBBCnOIf. Tbe Seriptore doe- 
trinee of the reaurrection and of the ttttur* lifS a» 
chiad J connected ; or, rather, a* we (ball aea In Ibe 
•equri, are praeticallj identleaL 

It will be pniper, tfanefbi*, (o begin with tb* 
notice* and IntiniatioMof both, which ar 
in the Old T^tament. 

[. EiaURRECTio:* i: 

E Old TEBTANsm. 

1. The paoage which preienla Itaelf flrat for cOD- 
aidenlion i> Ei. tii. 0, the addnat of Ged lo Mo- 
■ea at the burning buah. aajing. " I am the tied M 
thj htber, [he God of Abraham, the God of Iiaas, 
and the God of Jacob." Thli lait lake* pree* 
dence of all othen, inaimuch at it i> eipreaal; ap- 
peded to by our I.Anl (Matt. xili. 31, 32: Hari 
xii. 39; Ijike i>. 37) In praof of a returtMtion, 
and in confutation oT the Saddneee*. wbo denied it. 
Now, our Lord argue* that aince G<A la not a (lad 
of the dead but of the liting, it b implied thai 
Abraham, Iiaac. and Jacob were atill livini. llial 
they wen ■till lii'ing la undoubtedly a truth of liMt, 
and eipT«ne*, therefore, tbe truth of tbe rebtion ol 
the I>iiineeonBcioun)ea(*D to ipeali) to Abraham, 
Ibuc, and Jacob, aa indicated bi thoae word* 
Mortoter, tbi* argument ft«m thoae wordi waa in 
accordance i^'ilb tbe recei^'pd ntodca of Jewish 
tbougbt. It lilenced tba Sadducea, It probiblj 
haa a foundation and a [bree in the ilructun ol 
the Hebnw huijuaE* wblch we cannot eaailj m 
fhlly appredals. To n> It would aeeni Inoontln- 
•in M a pleee of mere reagonlni;, egpeeially whas 
eonaJdcT Ibat thj nrS of eiiMenee ("am "] I* 
; taprtuta in tbr Hebrew. Rut It I* not a |4«i( 


g/ mo* nuontng. Tha raoognitlon in UiB Ditlne 
nind of the tfaon proMsit nlation to Abnbun, 
bue. and Jacob, u liTing, ii dwland on Oirut*. 
■uUiorit]' ; and the eridenoe of it eoDUIrKd In lit 
Hebraw tat wm anfficioil for thg niindi In Hbtil 
IbM rridcDce wu addreaHd. A dnpcr inalght 
Into Ibe moining of thla (sit, and into tb> chmc- 
tcroT JcfaonUi u the oer^Uvlng God and lorlng 
Falbcr, would probablj tnalu ckar to out o*ti 
Biitda more of tbe bbennt forte of thli infBment 
•f our BIcMcd Lord In proof of tbe rcanrrtotioa of 

9. Tbe atOTT of tbe tnuialalion of Enoch. Gen. 
f. S3, S4, masirntlj Implia the recoKnltion of a 
bture, aupraniundane life, t> braUinr to Hoen imd 
the patrjircbi; for, otheriilM, boir tbouU 
ben, aa the Apoitle to the Hebrew* argun, anj 
filuiiraUon of the Kcond gnat uticU of Wth in 
God, nandj, that •' He b a Tcwarder of tliem tbU 
diligently M«k Him " ? 

3. ThenpCun)ofFj;iab,aarelit«lIn3Ki»gili.. 
hnpllea a> ocrtainlj a ncoginition of tbe eame Imtb. 

4. Tlie isUind of the cliiM by FJijah, 1 K. 
ai-21, implin the fact, and the then alitlng br- 
Hsf in tbe fiict, of tbe continued eilitsnc* of tbe 
toul after death, i. t. atter Ite Hpanlion rrom the 
bodj. " O Lord, mj God," nja the prophet, i' I 
praj Tbte. kt Ibig ehUd'a aoul (IT^^, nipAriA) 
eonie Into biro again." 

6. The MOM trulh ii Implied In the Koonnl of 
Ibe laUw of the child bj Eliriu, S K. Ir. 30, 

fl. Alan, Id tbe out of the dead man reauui- 
loUd by the contact of Elidia'a bona, 3 K. liii. 
SI. — And theee three kM are Ultutrstioiu abo of 
lb* Hurmlkin of tbe bodg. 

T. The popnlar belief among tlie Hebrewi in the 
cdaleiice and ai^ritj of tbe eouli or apirita of the 
de|iariad ia manifeat from the atrong tendency 
vbich eiiatod atoong them to reaort to the practice 
of necmmancy. See tbe familinr atorj of the witch 
of Enilor, 1 Sam, iirilL See alas tbe eolemn pro- 
hibition of thii pnctioe, Deut. iriii. 0-11; where 
«e hate eipnaair n'riSn-bfel EJ-lH, dBre.i 
•tAnmni^lAlin, a geeher of a mtnculoua respoiiae 
from 1htdttTd,^% ntcromtlncer. See also Lev. 
lb. 31 and u. fS; when the laratlita are Ibrbid- 
toi to haie reeoune to tbe lil^t*, dMli. "eueh 
M ha^ bmiltar apirita," acconling to tlw received 
IfanilBtlon, but according to Uaeiiiua, "Mioth. 
■■yen wbo eroke the m"<u* of tbe dead, by the 
power of Incantationa and ma^eal aoneBi In onter 
lo gire anewtn aa to ftitnre and doubtful tbinga." 
8ucb WM the wtlehof Endor heneir, 1 Sam, iitiii. 
t. Tbeie nenomanctrt are, under Ibia name, yctj 
frequently rrferred to in the O. T.: aee laa. lii. 3 
lod »ii. 4; Dent, irtil. 111 i K. ii). Si 3 Chr. 
nxlli. 6. Ac. In laa. HiL ID, thla word i* tned in 
a rerj ^nifleant conHcUoD! "And vben they 
ahaS *ty unto yon, Seek unto (Attn Anl inve fa- 
Kii'aar tptn'ti, the H^Sll, and unto wizarda thai 
pe^ and tbM miitUTi afaoidd not a people aeek 
nto tbdr God? /or Ue ffciv (" »•» dad 
(ffj-lffrrbtjl? To the law and to lU t«rt- 

Nov, it ia of no oonaeiiDeoce to our prennt pur- 
feae whether theie nectomaceera really had Inter- 
aaia* with deputed apiiita or not, — whetbtr tbf I 


wlteb of Endor mdlj caDad up the ajlril of Sm 
ltd er nM; tbey may all bare liem men impoaltM 
jugglcn, tnoantebanki: — it ia all the nme to na' 
the practice of coiaulUng tbem and confiding 1> 
them prorea ineontealably tbe popular belief in (hi 
eiiilenceot tbeapiiila tbey wen auppoaed to endu. 
S. The aUDC belief b ehowi) in the nae of tlM 
word AijiAdin (C'l^'}), loinetiinei tranalatAd 
"glanli." and tomeUniea "the dead," bnt more 
properiy nmnlng J/iixi, or, perhapa, " tbe dead 
of king ago:" *ee laa. liT. 9; Ft. Inrnii. 10: 
I'roT. Ii. IB, ii. IS, ui, let and Im. ntl. 11, IS. 
[GlAKTi, Tol. Ii. p. 912,] 

9. Thla heliet la abown alao, and jet mon di»- 
tmttly, in the popnlar conceptiona attached lo SktA, 
(V'MQ^, or VV)^), i, e. Halo, Uw abode of tbe 
departed. Our word pi-nce, uaed in a broad and 
amewbat nietaphiirical aeiiM, aa equlralaiit to tbe 
ibflde of the dtsd in ffmtrnl, mny oflen be a pmpv 
nnalatlon of SitM; but it ia to be canAiUy ob- 
lened that Shtlt ia nerer uaed tut an htdhidunl 
grate or lepulchrej — a particular man'a gnie ia 
cnllcd hia ihiAl. Abraham'a bnrying-pkua 

ed with ShtO. Howerer ShtH may he am- 
F — and that naturally enough — with the 
in which the body Is deposited and decay), 
lelirewi erideiitly regarded it aa a plaee %aBK 

led !ta inhaliilanU aa ihadu ; — itill they b»- 

aouli of the departed still existed there: aee laa. 
' r. 9, 10: •■ Hell {Shf/i!) from benatb is mored 
' thee at Ihj coming; it atirxeth up tbe dead for 
thee, ereii all the cbief onea of tbe evth; it hath 
' up Irom their thrones all tbe kings of tbe 
II, All they apeak and aay onto thee, Art 
ilao become netik u we ? Art Iboo become 
ntouB?" Thia may be aald to be tbe lan- 
of poeUe imif-ery and person Ulca Iron; but 
It nnqueetiontbly erpreasn pre< ailing popular idea*. 

Roea d 

i. as, A Ural 

D Shtdi (0 hit 


•0 in general, Ibe ftmil- 
' pbraae, " being gathered to hii fathen," mesna 
ire than dying as they had died, or being placed 
the family lomh; It means. Joined lo their com* 
pany and society in SlitN: see Job lii. 11-lB, and 
■ U; Pa. ITi. 10,atid illi. 14, IB- - ■ * 

with tl 

jkeiTi. 32, [Hei.l; AnnAHAX's llosOM.] 
10, Tbera ue many indioitiona, in tbe Old Tes- 
ment, of tbe Idea oT ■ rrsurrection proper, of ■ 
union oF aool and body, uid a tnuirilion to a 
gber life than either thai of eiitb or of ShiM. 
"Yht lislon of the lalley of the dry bone* fai 
Rtek, nirii., though it may be intended mere); 
tjnibotire the realoratlon of tha Jewish aUla, 
yet show* that the notion of a rtanmcllon of tb* 
body, eren after iti decay and comptim. had 
distinctly occurred to men'a minds in tbe time tt 
the pivphet, and was regarded nedther aa abanrd, 
DOT aa beyond the limits of Almighty power. It li 
■ployed (br the purpose of iUintratrng an- 
other gr«nd IdOL, another wonderful foet. 

" Iia. xni. IS, the pmpbet aayi: "Tly d«a4 
(H(b. mMiiR) ahall Ura, logctba with v) 

hai Indj abiD tb*; mw. A*>ke and iIbk, yt 
.tat dwell id tb« diut: for (hf dew it m Uw deir 
$1 bate, ud (lu euUi tlull out out Uw d«ad " 
(S^'?). Pi.ivLS-11.' "Mj Ocmb ilio lb*!! 
mt ID bope; for ti»D wilt Dot Ib«« m; loiil 
PI?9a) iO hdl (V-Wlpb); DdtlH wilt thoii 
nflEr'thT Hoi; Ode (o ncofniplion." Pi. iiLL 
IJ; 4.1 tiuu b« uUiCed win I mwilia in ib; 
likaiiH." ri. uiiL i: '• TIhhi)^ I wiilk tbroogh 
tU nikjr of the ibHlciw ot dauh I will few 
ID nil" Pt. luiii. 34-26: -'Tbou Ailt goid* 
ma bj Uij dounwj, lod iftowd Kcdvs mc lo 
glorj. Wbom lura I in be>v«n but tb«? and 
UMTt it DODc DpoQ eutli tfau I doin beiida thn. 
Hj Omb u>d mf heut bibnta, but God ii tb> 
itraagtli ot taj beut, ud mj portioti forrvo'-" 
Job lir. 13-ia: "Oh Uut llxm wmildat bide ma 
IM in the gnie (.SAoU), (bat tbou wouldtit keep 
■■ lacret oulil tbj wnth be pait, tliat tbou would- 
art appoint me a art lime and remember bs! If 
BBuditihaUbelirea^i? All Ibe difi of mj 
appcioUd lime will I wait, till mj efaange coma. 
rto- tknil eiU, ami I idU lauatr ti,tt ; IkiM AaU 
hat a doL-e m He icO'k of (Ay hamUr Job lii. 
ia-3Ti "Ob that mf woidi wn now written! 
Oh tbal tbej wen printed in a book! that titty 
wve graven with an inn pen and lead in Iba roek 
bnm! For I kmaw that mj Bedeemer (V^, 
iSd^ — wha,GeBeniiiiia;i, u here (iod Umielf) 
tireth, and that be ihall itud in tlM Utter day 
■poD the earth; and alW my ikin let Ihen de- 
ttnj tbii bodj, yti in my Seih ihall I eee God." 
It it trae man} attemptt hne been nude, by vaj- 
iag tramlatiom and ipeeial interpretatkmi, to aa- 
dga to thu punge (onie other referenre Ibaii to 
the re>un«ctian of ilie dad. But if Ihli lait ia 
the utnnl itat of the wordt, — and of Ihli every 
eaadid readtr muil Judge lor himiej^ — it It juit 
ia cndible aa any other, for it ia only befg^lnjc the 
qneatioD to allef^ that the idea of a murt«ction 
had not oeeiuied nt that linia. Dan. xli. i, 3: 
•' And manj that ileep in the duit of the outh 
liall awake, tome lo etertaating life, and aome to 
■ham* and etttbuting toiilempt-" Hne U San 
hardlj with any raawn b« doiiGt«d that a pnqier 
muTaetion of tht body it meant. 

11. Thii Idea and hope of a fliltiro retumetioD 
waa yet more diitinctly dereloped during the period 
between the doie of the Canon of the Utd TeUa- 
■ent and (lie Cbriitlan en. See 3 Maeo. riL 
S, U, 36; Wiadom, il. 1. 23, and iii. 1-9. 

12. If we eomptn the dcGnition of felth In the 
rfetentll ebipur of the ICpitUe lo the Hebrewe, and 
Ibt tlalanent of tbe t^pable truth tbal he who 
eooieth to God •' muit bdiere that he it, and that 
he ia 4 rtwnrdtr Iff Aem Ant diiigenllg Metk Ainj,'* 
with tlie illuabatioai giren in the real of the ehap- 
ter, drawn ftom the Old Teatament, we aball aee 
Ibai it matt be ImpliKl in Ute eaag of all of them, 
at weU at of Enoeb. that they looked for a futun 
^ aiii raetioo and ereiiaiting life. See particularly 
n. 10, 13-16, 19, Ifl, K. 

13. bmarkalik kie the prediction) in Ea. iiiir. 
n, M, imii 24, U; Jer. lu. 7; and Uoa. iU. 
Il — where, in oannecllon with a tialoratlon of tlia 
Ivwa, we are told of '-my aerrant Darld who ihall 
ka Ibcir laineei," " Uirid Ibdr kbg, wbom I will 
dn «p," Mc. Alto, (be prediction in HaL it. B; 
• 1 wiQ aeiMi you Fjyah the prophet," ate., with 
^iA oocDpare Luke Ix. T. B, 19. tt hvh thai 



Herod, — with moat other Jewa, piilably, — ea 
peeled thb but pradietioD lo be fiilSUed by a UWk 
naurrection. Ilie queetJon la, iiball we And In , 
■ueh propheeiet a returrection, fnelen^jK^uiii, oi 
meUpbor? PmbaUy the lait; tee Malt s. 14, 
Mu-kviti. 13i Ijikei. IT; John 1.21. Tbue Jobo 
the Baptitt waa Ktiaa, and he wai not Eliaa: that 
>ot Uiai liloilty, but, at tU 

Hllafl ; " and i 

I tpirlt ai 

14. Then are in Uw Clattletl at welt at !m tba 
Hebrew writer*, indieationt of the reeoguilion not 
only of the ooutiiioed eiiiteuoe of the aoult of the 
deputed, but of (be idea of a proper retutreclion ; 
— tbowing that the thought doee not tlrike th* 
untophiilictted human mind aa manilotlj abturd. 
See Horn, fl ui. U, and nlv. 766 {ira.rri 
iremu)- Sea abo JIachylut, wbo uMa the tame 

15. It muit be tdmiUed, howei-er, Ihat with ail 
the ditlinct uidieationt that the wriun and lainla 
of the Uld TeglauwDt looked for a fulune life and 
a final reaurrrction, they very oltra indulge in ei- 
prmioui a! gioomy deipondency. or of doubt and 
uitMrtainty iu regard to it,- ao Uiat it il Itrietly 
(rue, for Jewi at well ai for tieiililee, that bfo and 
immortality ore Aruu^Al Iv Uyltt lAtvagh (Aa Go^itL 
For tome of Uiote gloomy uUenmoei aee Ita. 
luviii. la, 19; Job ii(. tU-I3; iirii. 14-16i x. 
13-22; vii. 6-9; Pi. >u. 9; uiii. 12, U; alia. 
10. 20; luirill. 4-lS; ciL 11, 12, 23-28-, cilL 
IS-IT; civ. 29-31; cilir. 9-6; oxlvi. 4-4; Reclm. 
iii. 18-22; ii. 4-4, la But, on the other hand, 
•ee Ecdea. iii. T, 13, 14; -Then abaU the dut 
return (o (he earth at it waa; and the ipirit ibaB 
return u»(o (iod that gave it." " For God ibal 
brin(( eiery work into judgment, with ei'ery tecnl 
thiiigi wbetber it be good, or whether it be eviL" 
So then the loul, or ipiril, neither periabea with 
the body, nor ia abaorbed Into the I)«ty. It eon- 

editence, a lultject of reward 


1. There are five catet of tbe raiting of dead 
penoni reaorded in the New Tettimeot. 

(a.J The dau;b(er of Jamit, Uka tiU. 49-M; 
(A.) The wIdow'B aon at Naln, Uke vU. II-IS: 
(c) Laiarui of Bethany, John il. 1-44; 
(d.] Dorcaa. or Tabitha, Acta ai. 36-42; 
(e.) Eutychua, AcU u. 9-12. 

2. Semal other leferencei an made, in ■ man 
or leaa general way, (o tbe power and the feet of 
miraculoutly raiting dead pertoiu: Matt- i. S 
(teil dlipuled); ti S: Uke vU. 23; John lil. 
1, 9, IT ; Heb. li. 19, 8S. 

It il (0 be noted that^all (beae caaet reconUd or 

I tbe UU ~ 

, dual 

3. Tbe doetnne of a final gei 
wat (he prvniling doctrine of the Jewi (the Pbar- 
iteet) at tbe time of Chriat and hia Apcatlca. Set 
Matt, nil.; Mark iii.; Luke n. 33-39; John iL 
23 It; Ada iiJii. 6-8; iilv. II. IS, 21; airf 
iitI. 4-S. ii; then, Cbritt and bit Apnllei 
Qlaiidy and aubanulr atiert the tame doeliiue, wi 


•f« not It llbertj to g)^'a Uwir loida ■ dnJDsd or 
■Mfsphoial inlwpreUUoii. We mut m\ipciB 
*bna to DKUi wlttt tbej knew Ihtj noutd be 
Bndtntood to meui. Thii U etpeciiUj clew In 
the ewe of SI. Puil, who hid bluteir btm tdu- 
gated > PbiriM. 

Hie Jewi lerca to hive ilu bellaied iu rdu'*- 
mg^ii-iti: Acb lii. I3-1B; MMt. liT. 86; Uuk 
tL 411 1 Luke uii. 3T-39; but nellker Cbrut nor 
Ui ApoMln team uipiben to hire admiltal or 
nnetioued (bb opinion. 

4. Tbc mumcUon of Cbriat ia the gnnd pivot 
of the Cbrutiui doctrinB of Ibe MunKtion at 
the dead, SpHiil chumct«m of Chtut'i reeumc- 
ttOD ire: (l.| Hie ludj roae, which hid not imd 
•MTTijiliDu. (3.) Ilia bodf row to ioimorliil lif9 — 
"to die no more," Kom. vi. S, 10. (3.) Hie bod; 
nw ■ iptrittial bod} — the lune, Mid jet not the 
nme, which had been Uid in the lomb, John u. 
19, 30; tuka luv. 13-32; Muk iri. IS; 1 Ccr. 
n.; PhU. iiL Sli 1 Pet iU. 31, 23. (i.j It U 
non conionuit with the Scripture atateraent* to 
bold that hia bodj nae n iprihuil bodg, than tliat, 
riling X imtuni], csmiptible, niorlil bod/, It wu 
either j^uallj of lurfdeiilT dmytd before or at 
bia BMtnaion. (G.) He wu the tint tbua nkaed to 
■ apirituil, imnwriii] life in the liody, 1 Cor. it. 
30,39; for it ialo baobMned Uut, while the rocka 
■ere rent and tbua the fsnin were opened ni hit 
CruciJiTiim, j'et the bodies of the aunta which 
llept did not tiriie and come out of their graiei 
until "JltT kit nutrrtaion. Tbej, too, aeem to 
have rieen, not with nature! bodi» Lke Lauma 
and Dtben, hot with apiritutl bodici; for Ihef are 
a^ to have "appeared unto manj," but they do 
not aeem to have lived ^ain a natural liie among 
nen and la have died a lecoiid time. K^ther were 
their " appeaiancea " the appojition* of Tttuiidng 
ipinlll their Mitr roae aiid canie out of titir 
grnvet — sot out of " the graia," out of " Uoda," 
or " Blitdt," but out of " tbeir grant." And, hke 
tfattT riMO l.ard, thty toon diaqipeand ftom the 

A. There are aeieral uac« and applieitiona, in 
the New Teatament, of the worda inbrroirii and 
lypHiS, which Kem to be aubalaotiall/ ajnonj- 
Dous, diflering oolj in the Gguratire form of the 
coinuion thought, and which are aLke tranilaled 
"iHurrection." The aanie ia true of the mba 
tnta which tbaj' are derived: (I.} Tbtj weni (o 
Import inimorlal life, In general, ia a future world, 
Hall. nit. 31, anl the parallel paangea in Uirk 
and Luke; 1 Cor. iv. IS, 19. (9.) Tbej aignify 
diatlnrtl; the nmimclioii of Uie fu/y, John t. SB, 
39; li. S3. U; 1 Cor. >v. 3B-M; and aU the 
■iBH where Chriit'a tounecLiou ia epoken of, aa 
John It. 36-39; tjike uiv. 3-Tj Ktatt. urii. fiS; 
H\iii. 13, Ac., ic.; tlM 1 Cor. iv. 1-33; and lee 
l.uke ivi. 31. (3.) Thej refer to a aiurilual and 
mora) rvaurrecUon, Kpb. i. 30. comp. ii. 6 ; Phil. 
III. It (?|; Col. iii. 1; Rom. vi. 4-14: Ac. 

But here ia to be noted, that, accoidhig to the 
Idcua of the New Teatomeiit, ai will be portico- 
larij aeen lu St. Paul'a argument in 1 Cor. iv,. 
the tecond ilgnificatton ia alvaya implied hi and 
^th the first, aa a condition or a oonaequeniie; and 
JM the third ii merely metaphorical. 

ft. The beatbra or pniioeophic doctrine of Im- 
jwftality ia to be careTullj diitlngulabed from Ibe 
Chmtian doctrine of tha rcaumction. Hie ab- 
■Inet ioiniortolity of the human aoul. Ita immor- 
lajttj iudepmdant of an; reunion with the body. 

wai indeed a bvorite and lolty ipeeulatJoD of Iht 
ancient heathen pbiloaophen. Hut they aoold 
never ddnonatrale ill neccoaiy truth by rcani. 
ing, nor eetabliib ita practical reaUty by pontln 
evidence, it remained, and. for all human philoa. 
ophy could ever do, muat have continued, merely 
a beautiful tiiion, a noble aipiralion, or. at beat, a 
probable preaeutimcnt. 

The popular view of the Gnek mind waa devel- 
oped in the ideaa of Hadea, HHyaium, and Tart*, 
nu; and to thta view may oorreapond alto tl>e pop- 
ular Hebrew conception of SAtdl; from which the 
vrii of diikneB — even for tbe minda of Icapired 
poelt tnd propbela — waa not mlirely removed, 
until the gloilDUt light of the Goipel ahined in 
upon it. The netnit appniiioiation of heathen 
thtoria to the Chriatian doctrine of the renimc 
tion, — akind of Initinctive K^'ping towtrda it, 
— it found In the wide.Bpr«sd phiiowphical and 
popuhi nation of aulHujiiychBtit. The immcr- 
talily which Ibe heathen imagmed and U> which 
they aapircd, even in l^yaium, wai, for tha meat 
part, a dd and aorrj inimoilality, — an immor- 
talitj to which tbej would unhcaitatingly have jtv 
ferred thii pnaent liib In the flub, if it oouM hare 
been made permanent and raited above aceideut 
and pain. But tbeir notiona of metemptyeboali 
could have aSbrded them at thia point but metgr* 
comolation. Inaleod of Faradiae it waa only aa 
indefinite Purgatory. 

But how haa the Goipel brought life and Im- 
mortality to light? By eitabliahiiig aa an indubi- 
table practical fact tbe lauitection of the body. 
Tbua tbe natural repugnance to annihilation, the 
indefiaite longingi and aapintiona of the human 
mind, iti fond ariticipaliona of a Ufe to come, an 
fully confinned and taliifird. Ininiortality it no 
longer a dream or a theory, but a practical, tangi- 
ble fact, a fact both proved and illuttnted, and 
therefore oapabla of being both confidently bdierad 
and dittinctiy realiied. 

In the view of tha New THUmrnt, the immor- 
tality of the eoul and the resunwllon of the body 
alwaya involve or imply each other. If the loul 
it Immortal, the body orlll be nitcd; if the body 
will !« raited, the tout it immortJiL Tbe flrat it 
implied in our Lord'a refutation of the Sadduene; 
the iecond it a matter of ooune. The Chriatian 

vertible ei] thyme nic. 

And It Dot tiiit plain, eommon-teata view of th* 
Sctiptura, after all, nearer llie moil pbilotopUa 
truth, than the counter analytical iliitractiana? 
All we need care about, it ia aometimei thought 
and aald, ia tbe iuimorlality of the toul. Let that 
be eaUbUthed, and we baie before ua all tbe future 
life thai we can detire. Why thould we with for 
the reeurrection of thia maleriil incuuibrance' 
But, Ihoagh it ii aufficiently evident that Iba hu- 
man Boul ia tonwwhat dittincl^lhim the body — an 
imniateriaJ. thinking tubitance; and though wt 
can aatily conenve that it u capable of oontcioui- 
nrea and of internal acUnUea, and of apiritual 
interHwmmunion, in a alata of aepHT ''■- '— "■- 
body; yet, it 
enced, and all w 

sepHration fi 



idily orip 


of coum 

and' of a certainty It R ill have no need of ila bod- 
ily oisaniiatlon, elthet for ila continued aiittaoet 
or even for itt flill action, progieai, and etaJoyniB* 


liab«nniUt«7 How do we know '.bat tha hn- 
■iB mmI la not. In iU nrj uuura, k> oooftituted 
■• to BMd • bodily orguiiiUioii for Uw rompletc 
fitj *ad nerckM at iti powcn in ctat utiga of 
Mi ai«««? do Uut it wosLI, pertupa, 1j< ia- 

■m it in u iiBperface vid maliktsl Male, i 
nan wrack aai n\U of itoelf aad ita nobla fmie- 
dooi. to ill euriiitr? AnJ u Chat, if tta* aoui !• 
to b* oaritlnoad in iiamorUJ lifs, It oertaliilj >• to 
ba ahicaAUij nuiiiud to the bodj? Indotd, it 
woold bfl qaite ai phiiiHaphLca] ' 



t Jl.or, « 

miae ita a 

Both theae loudaaioni an onntndiclad bj tfai 
Soipton docUina at a tauira liCa. Od tba one 
bud, tin aool ia oot anODUaeioaa while aaparatad 
ftam th* bodj, but i* oapalila oT ei^ojini; Iha 
Uarfkl qiiritatl preKnceaadoDmrauaioaDf Cbilit: 
kr to be alwDl frum the body ii to be praaent 
wttfc Ok Lotd, and lo be Una aiiaeiit, and praeot 
witfa Chrfat, b >■ Tar better " than la be hero at 
hoQM in the body; aiid. on the other hiind, that 
tb* Ml (hiitian. the hii;he«t npuiiion, the frnut 
Mtirit;;. a^d tbe complete glarillcaiiaa of (he khiI, 
an Dot lUaJBed untii the rraurrection of the bodj 
B evident rroiu the whole tenur of onngelical and 
apoaditksd iiutnictian. aiid eipeciiKy (roiu tbe bet 
that tbe raaurreetion of the body — tbe rtdemp- 
lioo << the bodj — la ooiiftuiUj aet fortk H the 
UsfaM and ohjinala god of Uhriitian hope. Ai 
Oviiiuiii, tbeRfon. n afaould not pnte the ab- 
itnet Itnnnnalltj of heathen philoaophj, whieh, 
Md and ah«do«7 aa it waa, eould nevir tie proved, 
' n-hniBortaiitj of tbe Ssiplnrea. 
cated to IN on LKviiie aathorit;, and 
7 inoontniwftiHe eridence. Morahoold 
we aeek to complete tJia heathen idea bj en|p«fting 
•pen it what we arbitnni j ebooae of the Seriptore 
doctrine, [f anj portion of Ihia doctdoe ii to be 
raeeircd, the wtiole li lo be nceiied; there ii the 
Mine cndcnoe for the whole that then ii for a 
part; for, if any put ii denied, the anthorilg an 
wbiefa tbe muinder reaU Ii annoUed. At all 

riiat tbe tnie doetiine it, M what the BiUlcal doe- 

In njin^, therefore, that if the body be not 
raind, then ia no Heripture hope of a htora life 
Ihr tbe aoal, ■■ do not eiiUt the Reah abora the 
^lirit, or tbe Riumclloa of tbe body abora the 
hamortality of the aonl. We only dealgnate the 
eoodition on which alone t1>e Seriptnrea aaaare ua 
ef apiritail imiBortelity, tbe ryideinx by wliich 
done H ia prored. "A> in Adam all ^e, enn 
as hi Chriit ahall all be lude alira.'' Cht-iit 
Icoucbt liiB and imiaortallty to light, not by au- 
tfaoitatlnly aaaertins the do((nu of the innartal- 
Ity of the amil, bat »y Am ' ' 

That the namteetloa on whieh St. Paal ao 
•Braady inuta (I Cor. it.) b saeeeired of by 
Ua m innlring the whole qnntlon of a Ihtnn 
U not be erident bejvnd diapuls. See panieu- 
•riy r*. 13-19, 9»-3t. 

a Ilia New Tettammt doctrine of immormlily 
■^ tha, iU doctrine of tbe ' " '■ 

!• A*B hinbH tha bOowiiv ft 

(t| The naomntlon of the body ; 

(i, Tbe murmtion of lAu i^me body; 

<3) The reauireetion hi a diffiroU body; 

W That, a reautrectlon yet future: and 

(B) A reaunKthm of all men at the laat da;. 

(t.) Hw Hew IWament doctrlu of the reaar- 
rewoo ia tbe doctrtoe of the raaumeUon of Ut 6a^ 
That in the fifteenth chapter of hii epiitle to tu 
OiHntfaiani, St PanI teadiet the Chmtian dootdnt 
of immortality, we have ahown aboifi- Hii do^ 
trine ia aiippoaed by aonie to he too r^ned, aa tfaay 
eay. lo be coniialent with a projcr reauireetion of 
the body; and ao tbey would cautradiatlnguuh St 
Paul't liew tttun other and gruuer rie*^ wbetha 
la the New Teataoient or (Iwwlien. Uut on tfaa 
other band tbe truth aeemi to be that 81. Paul 
iloea not gire ui any ipecial or peeuliu'lj' i'uiliDa 
view of the Chriitiaa doctrine of the rtgurreetkNi, 
but auly a RiUcr eipwtinii and del^ae of it thau 
the New Tnbunent elMwhere oouUina. Tba 
Pauline doctrine we accept aa the Chiiitian doe- 



only inipliea the immortality oF the aout, but it, 
or neceanrily and primarily implies, a reeunectioii 
of lut iod), ia ahunduiUy evident. That tba 
reauTTection of Chriit, on which bit whole atgu- 
ownt ia baaed, waa a Rturreetion of the body, 
would aeem bejtnid diipute. iXbcrwlae, if Chritt't 
returreetion It ia tignifj only the imniortalit; 
of hit toul. what meani hit riling en the fArd 
dnyt Did hit toul bcmme immonal on the 
third day? Wh hu loul thut up in JoK{rii'i 
aepitlehie tiiat it ihould come forth thence? Did 
bit aoul hare the print of the naila in ita banda 
and feet? IHd hu aoul have lleih and bonca, aa 
he waa leen to kive? Baidn, if (hera ii lo ha 
any proper aente in the term r 
which baa Mien muil be that w 
The itaurtecUon, iberefore, mmt In 
of tbe body. " He ahall chani-e our vile body that 
it may he fuhioned like unto hii glorioui body, 
aecording to tbe working whertby he ia able even 
to tnbdue ali thioga unto hinieelf." Tbe doo- 
trina of the reaurTeetion, aa taiii(bl by St. Past, 
eipoaed him to the mockery of the Epicureaoa 
and Stoia; it niutt tberelbn have lieen t resuiree- 
tioo of the bndg, fnr the InmaorUlity oC the tool 
would have been iio thenie of mack/rf U> any 
eebool of Greek philotophert. The Immortality of 
the toul, thougb, Ibr want of lufficient evidenea, it 
night not be believrd. waa never tweeted aa io- 
ci-et/tUe ; but St. Paul'i appeal it, " why ihoald 
it aeem a Ibini; Incredible with you thit God 
ahouUniae tbe dead?" 

(i.) Moreover it it tlie rtiurroctioa of tbie tden- 
iKol body, of Mhieh the apoitle ipeaki. Tbe ret- 
imection of Chriit, which ii the type and flrM 
Iruita of ouri, waa manileatly the reaurrtftiun of 
hit own body, of that lery body which had been 
placed in Joieph't tepulahre. Otherwiae, if it 
were merely the aeanmption of n body, of ami 
body aa a III covering and organ of tbe aoul, why 
ia H e^d of hii body that it Baw no comiptlon? 
And what lii^lAea bb eihibitinz to Tbomta hfa 
handi and hit tide at meant of hit ideiitifteatioa ? 
When hb diicipla went lo the aepulchre they 
bund not the iodt/ at the I'lrd Jeaut. What bad 
beeomr of it? That waa the quMlJon. They lab 
that queatioD properly and lufilcienlly anawmd 
when toaj (bund that he had riaen IVom the dad. 

" It ia town In oorruption," layi tbe Apoalbi 
" it la rtiaail In ineortU(4ioa." What ia ralHl 



If it be not aW ii wvoV uid wbiit I* town It II 
tonot (be bod;? "Tbb corrDpabki," tba ApM- 

tb plainly uldi, "(Aii eunigMMi mul pot on 
hwoTTuptHMi, ud ^A« niotW mutt put on im- 
■noHalitf." So Ihw, it i« not tta« inoomiptible 
nnl tbit ihill put on in incomtptiLils liodj, nor 
Ills ImiuocU] Miul U»t •lull put OD ko Imaioria] 
bodj; but it it thi> oomipULla tad morUl bod^ 
whicb it lo put on — i. i., (o utume. wbtt It bw 
not )ft and in ilt own nature, an inoomiptiblt 
ud ioioKHtil eonatitution and organiutioii, and 
to be reunited to tlw biconuptible aud immortal 

It ma iuei:etled by Uwke, and it often i«peated 
by otbert, Ibat "the retunwtion of Ibe boily," 
tbougb conrnsed iu the creed, it nowhere tpoken 
Bf in Ihe Scriplurei. but only " llie muinction 
ef Ihedead"; — a ilaUnieiit which fumiibeiB re- 
markable iUuatntioD of the fact that a propotilion 
maj' be Terbaily true aud jet pncticallj' Ute. 
And, indeed, it can hardlj be aaid t« be even tn-- 
bnlig Irae; for, betidee Uie teenireclion of our 
Sariour't body, we reed in the Scripturea that 
" many toi/iri of Kinta wbkb alept aroae and cam* 
Ml of their jpavet after bit letuirectiDii " { and, In 
goieral, tbot " our vile ba/y aliall be changed aud 
bahioned like to hit glorkiut body," 

If the ntuneotion imporlt merdy (he atiunip- 
tlon of n body, of tone body, and not uf Uit body. 
of thii identical body, then why are (he dead rep- 
r«teTi(ed at coming ibrth, oomiiup fiirth fhun their 
gravel, coming foitb from Ibe body town aa the 
plant growt up out of the cuth from (be 
baa I 

la been depoaited ii 

' Mith tfaeb- 

in nrliich hi 

h tbe n 

n Ibeeaitb? I'he 
toult 111 Ihe raitbful deported are now with Cbriat; 
aod to what end ibould they be made to cw»e 
forth again from Oieir gravea el their nturreetlon 
upon bii final appexriiig, — if they are then merely 
to ataume n body, to"ie body, which thall have 
nolhing to do with tbe body which wat laid in 
tbe tnmb? " We ahiU all l>e changed,'' taya the 
Aponle. He certainly doet not mean that we diaU 
be cliimgtUtigt, He does not isy that our bodin 
thali be eichaiwad for othen, but " va ifaall be 
ebaneed." >. r., our bodies aball undei^ ■ cbau)^, 
a (raDifonni(ion whereby from natural they aliall 
become apiritual bodiat. to that tbii very comipt- 
ibte itadt shall put on incomipti >n. 

Thua, though it it tliit very mortal body, thii 
identical body, that tball be raited from Uie dead, 
it yet remaina tnte that " Beah aiul l.knd." aa tuch 

(iod, neither doth « 


a natural body, It it raited a 

hringi ui to tbe thiid pidnl, 
ction of thit tame body It at 
uuoe a retiirTEctiun in a diff'nent body. 

Hut tome wiU my, vhat tort of body it a 
iplritual body? It not the eipreHion a contra- 
diction in (ermi? I'he aniwer it, that a tpirit- 
oal body it a body fitled by ita oouititution lo 

(■I tpirit. Ifoa a body must be contUtuted In 
eidir to bf BUed for luoh a purpose, we do no( 
hcov end oannot tell. But that for anything we 
io know or on unn to (he oonttary. then iw^ be 
•aeh B body — proper mabsriil body — without 
tiij contndietion or alxnnlity. St. Paul labon to 
• by a muUilude of Uluttratioiu ilunr- 


ing the rait direidty that eiUa aaoi^ Ibt 
bodiet with whloh we are actually acquaintad 
(1 Cor. IV. 39-14). Among all thii variety of 
Uidiea, therefore, which Almighty power la able ta 
conttitul«, there certainly may be, and the Apoatla 
aatarta that there certainly it, a tpiritual body. 

.Some, auppoilug that the term ajNrilual wai In- 
lendiid lo deacribe (he inianil or etaenllal oontli- 
tution. rather (ijao (o indicate the uie and purpoae 

would coniiat of tome moat rtfiiwd and ^liritualind 
kind of matter: and have tu)U[tii(ed that it might 
be uf an aerinl, ethereal, or gaaeoua nature. But all 
nich ipeculitioni tianacend the boundt of onr . 
knowledge, and of our neeeauty; aod are apt to 
end in tometbiug groai and grovelling, or mhli- 
mated and nieaniiigleaa. The tom i^'htfiial, m 
already aaid, a hare uied by the Apoatle to indi- 
cate, not tiiK the TeautTeetlon body ia oonititaled, 
but (bat it it ID conatitulcd at to be a fit abode &r 
tbe tpirit in an glenul and iplritual world. 

In the contraited eipreawon " natunl body," Uw 
terra >i<i(ui-nf (^nij(iicis) meaui, in (lie otiglD^ ■»- 
inial or anima(ed, paychlcal, miniitd, — if tbowonl 
may be allowsdi which aurely doei not imply that 
thii body li competed of loul or of aoul-lika nb- 
' ' fitted to be the abode and or- 
gan of (he animal or animating part of raati, of the 

And tl 

wrUrnJ it diieetly derived bom (hat tiantbittd 

le plain and ohvlouaj ai if the Apoalle had laid, 

ben it a toul-body, and there it a epirit-body; 
■o it ii wrillen, I'he linl man Adam wm m^ 

ring HnJ, the hat Adam waa made a quiskeuing 


or it la to beobaerred (hat tbe Scripturat often 
make a diatinction between mul and tpirit, at veil 
>l and body. Man, aecordlng tothie 
Scripture pbiloaophy, it viewed, not aa bipartite 

HI tripartite, not at eonuiting of aoul and body, 

of body, ■ ■ • ■ ■ ■ 



bcai-enly part It ia tma 
tiow, for (be n>oat part, accutlomed to u* 
lyiionymout with f^riL, — and to tbe Seri^ 
tore frequently do, but (bey recojrniu alio 
tiiietioii jutt poiiiled out In Scriptun 
the ijiirit b the bigbert part of man, the 
orcan of tbe Divinity within him, that part which 
iloiie ipprehende divine tblngi and Li luioeptibW 
if divine influence*. Hence the ApotUe layi, "The 
latiiral man nceiveth not (he thinei of tbe Spirit 
if Uod. for they are Iboliihnen unto lilm, nel-Jier 
XII he know them liectuie (bay are ipiritually di>- 
xmed " — where the term nnhimi it. in the orig- 
inal, again ^uyivifi, /xy^'ic, i. e. animal, pertaining 

,t ii traiiilatcd MiuunJ: Jams iii. IG. " earthly 
lE'niun/, deviliih " ; and Jude 19, ^ inuwai, bavinc 
lot the Spirit." Tbui, therefore, aa tbe Datoial, 
IT lemual, or animal, or paychioal bod}, « tU 


it B badj, Mt aonWitutod of MNiLaib- 
t fitMd Sx tlu UM ud hktHUtioD ot 
Ite witim Mml; n n nneluik tbil Uw i^t- 
od bodj i* 4 bodj, not cooMiHitad or ooupotM ' 
^oitn*! aihtUoc* — whisli maU be I --'— ■ 
tign, — bat ■ traa uid pnifier bodj, 

bodj. GUdl i« Uh lUB Bud s' 

the uDDHrtel iiurit. 



to do iritli Uiem. But it aiuK be remembered 
lint Chnetiuitj doei not Much lu to deepiie, to 
tlmt, v to hela the bodj, vile ud earniiiiibk M 
it la. Thai ii a Uanicbean ind beatbea no- 
tiao. It ia true, our pnamt bod; maj lie liewed 
hotfa aa an oigan and ai all incambiiuica ot tbe 
anL So br aa It ii ao organ It ii lo be re- 
Mend ; ao te ai it it au i 
dacged- Tbii moUl ii lo put oi 
Tliat vhioli ia aown in comiptloa ii 
iDOOfniptioD. Cbriat at bii aiqieajinf; aball " change 
ov rile bodf, tJut it may be bahioned Ulie unto 
ha glorioia bodj." 'llwl tbe ipiritual bodj it to 
be a uodilicatiaa al the oitutal bodj, being a*- 
anmad or ekitbed upon it aa a uew and gkirioua 
isrm ; (hat tbe oiie it to liais a real, proper, aiid 
ritb tlie other, growing out of 
it each penun will bafi:, at the 
T oit appnpnate bodj, but hit 
«wii bodj, laemi lulticienttj evidEot froiu the Apot- 
Ue'a irt»le arguoieiit (1 Cor. tr.|, and particultrlj 
ftou hia illuatnlioii of the varioiu plaiila which 
prm up Horn the Med eaat into the ground. Kach 
flaot haa an organic eonnection with ita and, and 
Uod ginth " (o enty teed bii own bodj." It it 
the teed itadf which ii Iiaodarmed into tbe plaut 
which riaa btta it. 

(4.) The rHurrection of lit body, of (Ah •nine 
fcia^ of tfait aanie bodj tnnafiimied iulo a oew and 
minimal badg. ia an erent jttfaUa-e. 

- Aa in Adam all die, evea ao in Chriit iJiaii all 
be (nada alive. But," addi the Apoatle, "emj 
^ui hi hia own on^: Chritt tbe finl Iruita, afler- 
varda the/ thai are Cbriat^i ai hU comjn^." Uaiij 

ioidi, jet none had beea niied drom tbe dead tti 
immoctal life before Him ; He ia the fint fruitt. the 
kit-boni, tbe Gnt-btgotten tj-ooi the dead. Nor 
h H mid that anj ihall be raited after Him until 
hMeomiog. ThaithelattUuiupeCihaUtouiid.and 
iha dnd thall l>e raited incorruptible, and we who 
aia aitte and Temain shall be changed. If the Cbrit- 
Ika doctrine of the murrecLioii were onlj thia, that 
tt tbe monianl of death each loul reoivei x ipiritut] 
tadj fitteil lo iti eternal itale, whj wat not Cbiitt 
tatad till the Ihiiddaj? And whj doet the ApotUe 
maatiiil tbe reaunection of which he treat* at 
boilh fiilun and HmulUoeaua for '■ them that an 
Chriat'l nl kit toaias" f Nor can we tuppoie the 
ArsMla ha« to teach a raerelj tpiritua) ceeunw- 
tka, a ittturrectioD from aln to boliacat ; for if to, 
lAj (bM he laj tfaat it iball lake placa at lb* 
■mad of the lait tnimpV And what nuld beoome 
ettha diatinelion made between lbs dsid who are 
ti> be laiaad, and tbe Uring who are to be changed ? 

(».) llUa futun raarreetian of tbe oodj ii to 
bt a ronmetian cf a« neii at the bit daj. 

Thit haa putlj appeared alieadj onder the pre- 
mb^ btadi. We hate tem that tlua u true of 
aldol m OtriiCi; but whitlier, la 1 Cor. 

tbe Apottla leaebca tbe final raaurreetloa vt ■■ 
nuukiiid maj be a quwioii. He doei indeed nj, 
•• hi Chritt all ibiU be made alive," but whethac 
thia atom abaoluldj all, or oiilj all who are In 
Chrlat, maj birlj be doubted. Perhapa tbe Apot- 
Ue'e meaning here might bt tfaut panpbnaadi 
" For aa, by virtue of thai eonuection with Adam, 
who, hj tin, hKuned the tentance of death, all men 
who are in him hj nature, being ainueri and actU' 
aUj linning, die: even ao, bj virtue of their con- 
nection with Chrtit, who, bj hia righleoumeas, ia 
the reatorer of life, thall all nwu who an vitallj 
united to Him bj faith, be made alive, being raiead 
from tbe dead ia hia gloriont image." But what- 
ever maj be tbe meaning of thote pnrticular wocdt, 
it it, DO doubt, the doctrine of Scnpture that all, 
aheolutelj all the dead will be raiaad. St Paul 
himaelf elsewhere unequivocallj declarea bit beliaf 
— and declarea it, too. aa the coEnmon belief ih4 
onlj of the 

tion ot Uie c 
<uv. 15). 

.liitiaiu, but of the Jevn (tbe Phari- 

d, both of tbajuit and ui\juiil" (Ada 

inBtna Mlowt that idl will rin ia 
the tame glorioui Uxtiet, or be admitted l4> the 
lame immortal bleaiedneia. On the contrarj, ii 
was eipreiilj predicted of old tbat '*iome thaO 
awake to everbistiiig IKb, and tome lo ihame and 
Fverlutiiig contempt;" — not to aiaiiiililiin aiao 
everlatting death oppoted to the ererlutuig life, 

implj continued coiitcioua eiistenre. Aiid our 
[iCffd Himself, having made the declAntion: ^^tbt 
hour Is coming, and now ia. when the dead thai 
hear tbe voice of the Son of God. and thej Ibat 
beu- shall live : " — which nwj refer, and probablj 
doee chieflj refer, lo a moral and spiritual reaurreo- 
tlon: — eifcetti J and solemnl J adds : "Mar\elnot 
' " hour it oomitii " 
i|, in the which all tl 
hit voice, and thtU como forth : tbej that 
good, unui the resurrection of lifk; and 
thej that bai-a done evil, unto tbe returrectjoa of 
damnation " (.lohn i. io. iS. 3.41. 

i'lie future bodia of ibe wiclied wig. /or aughl 
lae kima, be at ignomiiiiout, hideout, and loatb- 
tonie, It perfectlj titled lo be inslmiuenU and m- 
leta of unending and looit eiqultile pain and tor-, 
meut, aa the bodiea of tbe saints thall be Rlorioua 
and happj. The Scripture dootjine conlains notln 
uig positive on thii point. SL Paul having hrieAj 
staled that "in Cbnsl all shall be made alire."e*eD 

further account of their returrection ; but goei or 
imniediatdy to apeak of those who are Christ's at 
hit emiiiui: and Ibeneeforth oonHnet hit tltenlion 
raeluaivelj to them. 'Fhlt wat nilural for the Apoa 
Ue, who netvtheleBs cerUinlj bHiei'ed in a cesurno- 
odhaunJuslaaweUasof the just; ai " 

r Christ 

e the lauie. The if 

of the I 

of hope and Joj 1 but at such it li a doctrine In 
which tkosa who ue not Chriil't — who ban not 
the Spirit of Chritt, — hare no ihare. 

This reaurrection it to be one general retiUTM- 

That such was the rec«ved doctrine in tbe tin* 
our Lord ii evident from John ii.VI,H: "J*. 
sua nith unto bar, Ihj brDtha- ihall rise again. 
Martha tuth unto him, 1 know that he shall ilaa 
agaio in the returrection at the laat daj." Our 
Lonl himteU Kama to reoogiuie tb« doetria* !■ 


bk Avqnnit UM or Um phnue, " I irill niH him 
■t tlie iMt A»y," John ti. 39, 40, 44. 51. Tlia 
mOB doctrine ia dlitinetlj Uugbt bj SU Puil (I 
TbcH. It. 14-lS). Ai ta Uw dM« dT Ok conung 
of Uw Lnd, of vfaich he ipnlu, uid Uut il will 
bant a refennce to tfai wicked u well m In ths 
Hut, K« the flnt ten tenet of tbe osit cbiipter. 
Sh >1h the Mcond epiitJe; partlcuUrl; 3 Tfaeu. 
I. T-IO. AihI for till d.te, we igiln S Tbtn. U. 
1-6. It il wident that the dsj rf the comini; of 
the Lord ■ " - 


It 01 

</, inmi 
i. ThBt 

If Aaiuf, 1 Th«i. 
ba did not preaumo that ba himnlf ihould be idira 
■od nmain ualo tbt coming of Iha I^rd, ia pUio 
(Miu hii iolemn proCatstion (1 Ojr. iv. 31) oT hii 
•Uoding ia aueh hourly joopudT that ba lired In 
tbe imiuedialc pnwpecl of doslh aver; d%y; while, 
tu the very nme connecHon and chapter (I Cor. 
I*. b3) be aiKciBla himaelf with thote who ihaU 
be tlive at tha Bounding of the hat Ininip, aa ha 
bad alao dona at 1 Thaai. iv. I5-1T. Hut it ii not 
to ba forgotten thai ebewhen ha aiproaly aaaocl- 
>!«■ biraaelf with tboae who will hira deputed b»- 
iiiR tbe coining of tha Ixml: — B Cor. iv. 14: 
' Knowing that He which niaed up the Ijird Jeaui 
ibiU niiia up ui alu hj Jeaua, and iJinll prttaU ui 
tatkyou;" note alao tbe whole eonteit in thli 
and Id tbe fallowing chapter. Now thii aecond 
qditle to tha Corbitblana waa written almoat 
bninediatelj after the flret. Nor doei be afler- 
warda betray the ilighteit ijnipUim of diiappoint- 
■nent in the pnepect uf hii ApproacUini; tnnrtyr- 
dom (3 Tim. iv. S-S). If the ApoaUa had felt 
that he had bean uronly deluded and deceived in 
fagatd to "that day," and "hii appearing," and 
been left, '■ by the word of the lard," to lead othen 
Into tha lanw deluiion and error, wouM he have 
ntaimd this Irtumphttnt confldence at Ute laat,and 
■xpreoed it without one word of eipluiation or 
retiactatioo of hit (aUeged) former deluiive hopea? 
There ia one paiaage In tbe Apocaljpae which 
aeemi Inconsiitent with the doctrine of one general 
■ ■ ■ ■ day (Rev, n.). Here we 

baie a " Bnt re 



or of the niartyn only; and, after 
• general reaurrection and Judgment. How thii 
npreaentalion ii to he interpreted li a luhjeet of 
dnibt and diipute. It may be diflicult to recondle 
It with the oUw itatementa of Scripture on the 
■woe nihjeet Bat, at farthat, it would Kpante 
Into only loo gieat portlaiii or acta, Ibat which b 
ebewbete regarded In ooa [wint of vlaw. 
III. Thb Chrutiah 

Before proceeding to defend thb doctrine agalntt 
oljectioni. it may he proper to itale diitinctly what 

there will ba a general raurreclion at tbe lait day 
of ae bodUt of all mankind, 

<a.) Tliat the body in which ew:h man wiU ha 
niied will be the iitnt a« that In wfaieh ba had 
lived; hut cAnnjw/, tnoafumied at the returree- 
llon, BO Ha, froin a ruilurat body, io become a 

S'riOiat bodf; It will be at once the lant and 

Such ia tha doctrine; but Aou /or and In what 
tHpecti the ipirilual bodie* will be the inme m the 
BBtural bodiea ^ heildn that they wiU hare an 
aganle oonnectlon with them; hme/ar they wld 
h» It* Ubqi In lize, in foR ' ' " - 


Umbi, in fUnetloni; whether, e. $., they wffl !■«■ 
the hair, heard, naUi. etc.; Sua Jar they m«j bi 
luljeet to the pbyilcal lawi of ntaterial thinga with 
which ire are eonrenanti whether thay will ban 
the aarae leniea u the natural bodlea, or more or 
lew; whether they will have flied formt, or the 
power of aMuming nrloui fomu; what will ba 
their eaaential conititution, oi Aow they may eier- 
dae thar function) in lelation aitber to the qnritual 
or the material world — eickpt that they will ba 
ml bodlet ("fleah and bonri"}, though not ov- 
ruptible bodiea ("fleab and blood"); Uie doetrlaa 
neither afflmn nor deiilei. Tbeee are all nialtwa 
of men tpeciilalloQ. To the queetion, " How ■>• 
the dead raited up? and with what bodiea do they 
come? " the Scripture) vouchnfr no hirtber ao- 
•wer than "iplritual bodiea," "like Chriit'i glori- 
oui body." Hii body relAined tha print erf the 
oaili, and the tent In the aide ttla hii Raonen- 
tloD, but it appeared alio In varioui fdnui; he ate 
and drank with hia diiciidea after bii rtaurreetioa, 
hut ao did the angeli eat with Abraham; that 
body at length roee aliove tha clouda, diaappearad 
from tbe gaie of hia diKiplea, and ucended to Uw 
right hand of God; it wai eeeii artrrwsnli by 3L 
Slephea In beai-enly glory, and by St. FmiI In ■ 
nuuiifbatatlonof orerwbelniing iplendor. Butalbr 
all no deciiion ii famlibed in regard to tbon 
ipecuhktive (juatioiig; and tbe poaitlva doctrine «f 
Scripture I) Ht wilblii tlie limit) alnady ilated. 

And now it remdni to ihow (hat then ia noth- 
ing ioipoaalble or incredible involved in tfaia dov- 

(1.) It la oljeeted tl 

natsial organlntioD 

■bould be rsiaed, became that body will han 
g(Hie enUrdy out of eilatenoa, and in order kr a 
leturreclion or a realonllon to lalie pkce, tbe thing 
•0 leatored or raiaed muit neceaaarily be Id m- 

^id accord iDg to 
would make Ibt 
;aniiatioii oT aoy 
body, under any Mrcuniilancea, and on any hy- 
potheaii, a ibcer abauidily: for. In order that a 
body may be re>ti>red. recnnBtructed, teorginiied, 
be aipreaily makei It necesury that it ihould 
itbendy eii)t, actually eoiittnicletl and on;anizad. 
Il thi) telf-evident ? or, perhipa the poaitioii of tha 
objeetor cornea to thii: if a houae, t. </., haa btleo 


t without taking II 
iwever great the changei you na; 
be the lame home. But doea i» 
ilorinK mean merely repsirlngV And do reeoa. 
atrucling and reoricinizlng mean merely ckita^ng 
\t eiieting itmcture and organlHi^on ? If aa^ 

tmmonly und In an ahuiive leme, or rather wMk 
o tenia at aO. 
(3.) BM It k thought that, enn tlioi^ O* 


M^r *li^ t" TMfamd if it wen ataft; rwolrvd I 

hto datl, ;«t, luamnch u It li ranlred ' 


■ Uk« OUR ablch Innlra the cr g wrii 

1^ k quuititj of caIciuoj uid ■ 

uititj gf 

•f K**<* "f f>c HiH kind, w conitnufit nrioiulj' 
>itfa ^Ki of diflinnt kindi, it ii inipiwible Uut 
Ui* HUM portioiu of tbtM giH ibuul 
git«d ud l)niaeht togEthcr ioto tlia 

Thi* win iwiuiM cmAil ean«d«ration. Wa uke 
hr fcnnlol that iIh "dmcntirj priiici|>W" into 
wliiefa tba bodj la Hid (o be ra ' ' 
trytt ftod proper matXrr. Tbii t 
BOlCH Air DbAUpbvncm] AjinTjiu ia proaecnted bfr- 
jgnd all our ehttniat (oti. At ill erniU, tliej 
■» eitlwr mattfl- or not muter. If tbej ue not 
■uttrr, Uhd mmei of oaUa bin) bmi uitii- 
bikud. If tlutjr m tma ud praper nutter, tben, 
Ue alt matter, Ibaj are. or coniiit of, material 
partiflf* And tiie de&iil«, identical, material 
partidea of a cubie Incb of aiygm an no moit 
annihihtrd or abaolutdj loat or corilbunded by 
biing miied witb aootlter cuUe incb, or witb lea 
t h o oia nd catuc feet, of oijgen gaa, than are (be 
dafidiu idenlJcal paiticlea of a cnlue j ' ' ' 
bj being miuii with anj quutit]- of J> 

tiODS. and that oujoipotence 

ia iuutad Ibal tbe tbiiig ini 
and Lberelbni ia not abaolulrlj impoaaible. 'Ilie 
eaae Juat italcd inrotrn fnianAj tba {unchliiK 
point of tlie ot^jeetkn, if it plncba anjobin. For, 
aa lo aajtng tbat one limplc lubatuHa loaea i(a 
UcDtit; bj entsinfi Into eom/KWliua wilfa aiioUier 
aimpta nbatanea, that ia phinJj Uw artn ixi oat- 
tiraj {nndpka. 

If a 

d wiUi tb 

>f gnina 

and thia oijde ofeopiiei In diatolnd ID 
«a abalt ban Lba nitnte of copper, whicb maj 
niat ia a pCTfaetij liquid liinn. But bj decom- 
pdHOg tbia nitnte of oopper Ibe pure oopper rnaj 
be rapvdueed — tb* rcrr aama copper and no otber 
— lb* idaitieal copper with wbich tbe proceaa wai 
b^oo. Now copper I* aa Irulj an "elenieotor; 
p^Kiple" aa oij-gen Raa. 

.... .. 1 - SereoorerodfitHn theii 

Let a qiuuttity i 
ti oijgen and bydngen be combined in due pm- reproduced, c 
portiuo for Ibnainj; water, l^t the water be de- 
aonpoacd bj mouia of a quantity of potaaaium, 
and the btdrogai will t>a liboated, the tb; iwne 
Htdrogen aa at fint; and tbe potaab liejng after- 
ward* deconipueed. tbe orieinal, ideotical oiygen 
TMy alita be ncovBtd. IT. in Ibeae piaeuiaua, auna 
iHnioD of tbe orit^al. umple (ubatuice* iliould 
.^eapr bom ua, it would only ahow tbe impofeo- 
Lj4i of our manipoiatlona, but would not In Iba 
iGgUtot degree aflect th* apjdieability and force of 
A* argumaot Eir tbe prtasit purpoae*. That la a 
nm buaneea «f degrt**. No prinelfU li in- 
nhvd in the igeotrry cf tbe wlMle, wbicb ia not 
irnlnd in the reeoitty of a part. If, than, with 

pniportion of oiyK«i; let tbe time be combined 
with the pboapbone acid,- auij Itt tbi* phoqitial* 
be miiod wilb a aoil [or, certain ingredkut* of a 
aoU) whicb did not befoie conlain ■ particle ol 
calauu or pboaphorua. IM tamt gnmt oT wbeal 
be planted iu tbat aoil ; and, by an analyaia of tbe 
pniduct, we niay obtain, in iU ori^nal aimpte ibrm, 
a portion at leant of tbe Ldentieal catciun> and 
pfaoapborua with which we iiegan, mingled, par^ 
bapa, in tbia ceaer with a unalt proportion of each 
of tbo** lutalonoea derired from tbe *eed. 

One caae more: A takai osrtaio crjatala rf 
anenk, and, baring pulnriied Ibem end combined 
the nietal with tbe proper proportiou uf oijgea, 
Diinghe the poiai-n wilh B'a food, wbo gwallowa it 
and die*. Swiie linie aller, by an Biudyiii of the 

ia iTvovered and recryatatliznl. It either is or ii 

not tbe identical anenio whidi A mre. If h can 
be pfored to (lie Mtiafiictioii of a juij tbat it ia not 
tbe auue, tben the tiidtnce (hat A in enilty of tbe 
alleged act of poisoning B, it net at all iiicrmMd 
kI/- \>j tbe detection of (bit onenie in U'l alomacb, ftir 
uNot identify it i> not Ibe anenic wbich A ia aUeg«l to bai* 
aduiiniatend, but eonie ollwr. 

If it be wiJ that tbe inenlc aa a maas ia indeed 
(he same, but tbat the indiiidual cr3italB are not 
"identical" witb thoaa origiualty pulreriied, the 
aiiiwer i*, tbat tbua tfae'qwrific point now in quee- 
(ioii ia yielded, namely, that (he allegFil impoeal- 
bility of the naumction of tbe " iileiidcat " bod; 
cannot artie in any degree from the hrA (bat tlw 
■iniple elemenla, into whicb it haa been reaotred, 
enter into HUi i:oi'iMi<n(i"<u. The wboia difficult; 
ia curiad back to tbe point to wbich we han 
alrady tefened it, MOiely, the fact that thcei 
ainiple ekmeiit* beoooie mingled with otbet qnaD~ 
titie* of komBgeKruui eternenta. We admit, In 
he caae auppoied, a rery hif^ iff^nt Ot improb>- 
<ili(y (hat the reproduced eryatala of anenic are^ 
Bch of (hem, irleiKicat. u a matter of fact, witb 
ome one of tb* original eryatala. Hut can an; 
n* proie tbat, aa a matter of fact, they certainl; 
n not identical ; »till more, can he prove (hut it 
i abaolutely inipoasible and acircontndictory thai 
(hey thuuld be ? Ai (o (be aupjMaition of urebaD- 
' ' derec(a, (bey could not indeed be re- 
ptaluced by cryilallization i but the identity being 

.tural proceaa, Iji 

■ by 

e pmpoTtion of oiygen, t 

veiy ncariy approiiuiated, by me- 

d (be powva of 

We plant oonelree at one of thoae original 
eryalab. It conaiat* of ccitatn individual and 
identical, though bomogteotoua, particle*, amiiged 
liwE to a cetlwn law in ceriidn dedniie reta- 
•oeitiona. It ia diaaolred; and ita particlee 
linglod with other bomojteneona prtiele*. 
Now the queetieo i*, can it be rationally coocaind 
' tboae original partidn ahould be Hgrenated 
1 their preaent miiture, and reatored, each and 
to tb^ oriicinat ^relative potltinnt, and tha 
1* to iu mginal fonn ' W* fredy admit thU 
I a mull cannot be wcarid by any skill of 
; but w* Aarleaslj assert tbat tbe aeeompUsb- 
mtnt of lucb a result cannot be proved to tno. 
id (be power and wisdom of Almighty Oud, 
I can identify eivry panicle of matter wMcfa h« 
created, and eoctrol ita muvementa frur bagfaf 


U> ad uoordliig to 111* counMli at bii own 

We int only uant thit nieb > mult cui 

mc^Kd to be Kcomplithed b]' Ihe oereiM of 

uoeptioni la die rreBgnatd Uwa of iiitiirr, ox 
perhKpa we ihoulil nttaer vty, bigher Ihwi bsniio- 
niiiiie lioth the rule «i(l tit «iceptlon ; linti which 
imy tmuMeiid the Kope of their loltieit genend- 

ir, liriiillj, it be iniiited that, alter alt, the crji- 
tel ao reproduHd, i. (. with all iu oriKiml puti- 
ebs ill all th«roriE>i»l niatiani, ii not " idmtioil " 
with the oriiciiial crjiUl: Uien the word '•idenli- 
«1 " oiiut he uanl lii a ton of hjper-nielaphyiieal 
Mine in irtiich it ii not applloalile to uiiterial, rii- 
Ible thiiij^ at all. Kor, acurdlng lo >uch a new. 
•upfHuiiii; an iiltiiiiale particle of water (o coiiiltt 
of a prticle of oijeeii united to a [arlicle uf hj- 
drOKen (and tlw coiitrar; caniiot be pKn«1l, It 
would follow that, if thia particle of wairr be 
decompoaed into tlw two kumoui |ArUclM, Ihr re- 
anion of tbeie aanie dumoub particle* would not 
reprodaee tbe ■•identical," oriiriiial particle of 
WBler, liut a different one. And A fortiori it 
would Mu* that an onnce of water being dnoiu- 
poaed and tbe (nme elenienli reunited, or belnf; 
oonverted into iteani, and that alenni condenaed. 
or even beimr poured out ofone 


I (he a; 

York, and New Jeney (as will be fuund upon a 
'gid nintbenijitical computofion, ollowinif tbe prea- 
nre upon each aqoan foot to lie 2,000 Ibi., and 
rbe amnKe weittlil of Ihe bodie* to be T5 Ibi. eicb ), 
Ihas would be necnsarj to Trconitruct all Ibe bod- 
IH of Diankind which ibouhl have eiiiled upon 
lU nith mon than 3,0On,a(XI of jrm fVom thi> 
IhH; "ind that, aui^weiiig tbne geocntkina in 


(S.) It ii objected that the aa 
ha^l ooiutituled a part of leTeral auccean%i 
bodiei at tlie moment of tlieir diiaolutli 
therefore it it imponible tliat each cf Ihe* 
■hould be nind Identical with that whidi 
»lied. Thia bring* the idea of the 
of the Identical body imuw to an apparent cuiUra- 
dUlim than any other form of ohjectim that w» 

There an at leaat two sayi of aniwedni; Ihk 
oljeclion. (<i.) Howm-er likely Ihe alleged bel 
may be, uiiloi ita abaoluU certainty can ha d*- 
monilraled. Iliere is room k(l (or tbe poitibilit; 
of tbe eontnrj. How can re know but that God 
*o walchea uier tbe duit of eterj hnnion body, 
and ao guidca il in all iU Innamigratiuiia Iliat It 
■ball ne\fr be found to conatilule a part of any 
other human body icAcn Ihni badi) tHeil Thua 
(be oltjection it answered by demanding proof of 
(he alleged fact on which it ii bawd. (A.) Ai our 
hodlet are conaUnlly undergoing change while we 
*' itliout heine Uiereby dcatrojed or loting their 

(he '• idcn 

■■ body hi 

change to an tndell- 
nile eilenU It may, tberefure, be inatanlly di- 
t«iled of any portlcle* which may be leqnired br 
Ibe reconatruction of aiiotlicr body; and Ihit last 
being recoiiatrucled, any needed particlet may ha 
traiuferred to a Ibird; and >o on, to any eil«nt> 
We have only to iitppow, llierebre, that the bod- 

which wouM mult and lemain would not be 

» identical '- with Ibe oriEinal w»ter. but somewhat 

•mall. iuRuitely amall if you please, so that then 

dinennt. Hence it would fullow (hat. aa all viti- 

hle Dnterial Ihinea aie in a constant fliii. the idea 

a certain particle eliould have been comawa to 

every one, having pat^ tbn>ugh the whole »iie( 

thing in the phiaical uni.'cr,^. e>cept, perhapa. (o 

in si. or eight thouKuid, or million, of yeart, yet 

it may be caused to circulate through Ihe whole 

Uclea. Kay more, it would fbllow that all such 

in le« than the millionth part of tlie least aaugn- 

and even reniiiiiacenee ilwlf. not lo speali of " re^ 

able instant of tinwi for no liniit can t* Kt to 

orTBrtion." involts a Iw-ical al^unlilyi and BOt 

tbe poasible rapidity of motion. Thus the olfleo- 

It i< baaed. 

which coiirtja any nmuing. tlm prcdteaW u>nst I* 

It luav be aald that tlicH! are violent siippod- 

ooncnieii, In aome mpeet. divene fttsra tbe suh- 

Uona. We may admit it; liul at tbe tame tlow 

jeet. to awri tliat tlie one is " identical with " tbe 

we have four things to say with that admiitioo. 

other in a dowiiriKhl and palpable aclf-conliwliction. 

nlion of mailer from noUiinc. al<«>lutely ineoo- 

«nl of material whcrewilh lo recgnairuct them. 
-t hu been Bravely ajwrted that after a few cen- 

cdvabk to our n>1i«U. (ft.) If the oljection allegid 

cntioni more shall have passed away, there will 

urge such auppotitiont in T«|>ly to it (c1 TboM 

wt lie matter enou^jh in Ihe whole kIoI» of the 

earth to reconstnict all the bodies of tbe dead. 

(alien on ita own principles, and entirely irrctper. 

To this it is suHicient to say that, c-en if luch 

I'm nf mS.K mny bt Iht •••iu-l ilitlrine <</ Sirg>- 

Ian on Ihi. question, (rf.) n«wever violent th« 

eessary — which it ia not — there is mora than 

weisbt ai>d masa enough of n.atler /a tht nlm,« 

their present purpose of refutAtion, and it will b* 

fhtr, which presM> upon (he surface of 0» Brit- 

teen in the aequel (Jiat m mIhiU huei no medtf 

Wi Islaiidi, or of the Elates of New EiisUnd, New 


(B.) The objector hat all along 

d body 

Intolvf*, (1) 

if thia 

raised mutt be Identical with the body aa it eil 
and waa eonstiluled nt tJit fwrnmi iif det'th ; 
(>) that, in order to be thus idenllcal, It mutt i 
litt of (he tery fiTUt pnrliclrt indusiidy and 
clwively, amnged In the ntjr intat ponlimi, « 


We h»a 

to i^tc tlis obJKtior . 
Hlnikiiion of batb Umm wuniptiaiu ; but not we 
IcBj than boUi. And *e UMii Unit in nrricr to 
• ramtriclloii of tht bodj — of thii Uentii*] body, 
in> trac, proper, Kriptunl, ind " hnniia " anut, — 
it i* Dcitbor arct M ^ry\ in tbe ftnt pkce, (bat the 
bodj rueed ihould be identieml with the precitt 
Ml iBkiek txpirtd till teitl brtalk ; nor, in tbs 
■CEod pbce, that it (bould b« idettiaU airh uij 
badj wbateicT, in m strict ■ *aiM u Unl de- 

The Bnt point cu he toltd it onee. H(n U 
t Ban at tha Bd^ of thirtT jean, in perfeiTt healtb 
nlvmndiHwof bodj and mind. Befon be diea, 

band and deaf, or a maniac; he'mnr die in utter 
daoqihudB. Nov, if, at tbe lait day, tba bod; 
giTcn him aboBld be identical irilh hb praenl 
badj hiMMd << btiiift Mantkal with that mulibtcd 
ar decrepit Itame witli wbieb he will bai*« died, 
ree mne tlon of the bodj, iio 
n proper boil; ? Would it be 


and the oppoalte aHumption u om- 
n. And, baidea, a ptindpte ia tbui gained 
mcba mucb further than ii baral; nMC» 
a DienUiow that aaumptioni lor, if a tlighl 
dilfircnce ii contlatent with )uch a pmcticnl and 
iilntantial identity u 1« required liir a proper re»- 
irrction of the bodj, will anj one lell iu pre- 
iadj the limit of thin diflerencei eicept that then 

DmelhiiiiF contiituoualv In common, between tbe 
whifb lited beff*»7 

bcxi; which i> ruled ai 
And 90 mach we ihsil cenaiMy 
I<t HI here amuae ourselyea 
atrurtinK an hjpotheeia. 

IkiB, rf all the homr io oVn aipmaed at tbe 
hnagined reappeaiance of the lame, the Mind, the 
halt, the withered, tbe crippled, the maniac, the 
tKfgr? Vfh; not iutiet alio upon the reeuMitstJon 
■f the fertra and ague flia, the cancan and lepre- 
riea. tbe gouta and rhaDmatlsnia. and all the mortal 
Uttuf and ilk the flnb wia heir to at tbe moment 
of dntfa ? In ihott, wbj not tndnbtin that. If 
Ibtbody ianlaedatBll, 11 mnat be, when railed, m 
tkt rirf ncK^dpMg ngnint for the Internal atatea 
m ai eaaentijd to identitj ai the external featt 

Wa torn now (o the aecond point, namel;. that, 
tn ado- to a ptopar raurrection of the Fwdj, It i 
not neeewnr; U>at Uw bod; niaad ibotiM be Idsi 
tical with anj Fanner body wbaterer, In auch . 
aiDM aa that it moat oanaiM jf predaclj the sune 
dtnMBtarj parllclea, nather more or leaa, airan 
b> pnciaelj the aanie paaltkDI, ootnbinaUon*, 

Now it b a well known Ikct, that not onlj don 
a great ehaotit tiJu phca in oar bodlaa between the 
pniod* of infuiCT and M t^ but, whib wa " - 
■bej are onnalantlj hi a proceaa of d»nf(«, lo 
tba bodj which we hava at one moment !i not 
parfcellj "idantlcal-wlth 
■Dj precednur tnonMnt; and aome phjiiologliti 
tawe eatlmaled that entj (article of our malerial 
AaoM h cbaoged In the eonne of about men jean. 
From tUa bet It Mlowt that no penon erer wakea 
•ith tltat idmtic*! hodj with which ha want 
riaap, Ttt the vaUng man dooi not BUI to red 
ana Uinadf. Bnt accoidinf to thia itrld not 
sf identitj, ai often ai the body ibafi. It ibepa 
Movl tlca|i, and the body with whieh a man wi' 
b ahnya a "new emtion," (or the body whieh 
mka la nenr "Mentlcal" with that whieh wu 
bIM to ■Itunbnl Surely aach ahsurditiea will 
"■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■(.the 


n tbe bod] • 

tody lAleli riet* to dlfler from 

had bafcr* m^ M Ite * 

vUcfa w>kia diflhn tnm tha body irbbiii ttll ai 

bad phyiidoglat, .lohan 

hat ginn a well-known theory of the " vital pthf 
dpia." " life ia a principle," laya he, " or impon- 
derable maiiar, which ii in action, in the aubatanea 
. oftha 

matter of thia germ, and impirta lo organie eom- 
ationa ptoperliea wbkh etaae at death." Mow 
princi]Je ot aniniai life In man ia preiuniod to 
be dlatinct from the Intelligent and Immortal ipirit 
On thoe prpmiiea, let na auppoae that, In tha 
eoonoiny of human natu™ it ii k ordaed that, 
I the ■[ririt team the body, tha rital princij^ 
ithrr loet and annihilated on U» oi« hand, 
m tbe other ablo to keep up the functioni of 
animal ayalatn, but ilei dormant in con- 
. on with BO much of the pi^aent, natunl 
liody aa conititut«d the leminal princigje or ca- 

germ for the future, apiritual body; and thb por- 
tion mny be truly body, malcHal aiibatance, and 
yet elude all ponlMa ebemlcal teaU and aeniitib 
obianatjon, all actuid, pliyaical diMnlulion, and all 
ippropriatlon to any other human body. On tha 
entilon of the apirt at the appointed hour with 
hii dormant riUl principle and it*l>«!Uy gt 

apiritual body In whalever glorioui form ihatl leem 
l^ood to Infinite wisdom. Such a body, lo prodiLoed, 
would involre ■ proper raiirrcction of the prtaeot 
body. Tbe new body would be a eonUnoatlon of 
tbe old, a properdeielnpmentfhom it. 'rhegemd- 
nal eaience ia the tame, tbe lital or anlnial prin- 
eliile l> the lanw, the conidoua apirit la the aama. 
Tha organic conneotion between tbe two b aa real 

that between any uian'a preaent body and tha 
aeniinal princlpb from which it waa Ant developed 
' the womb; aa that between the bhula of wheal 
id (ha ban grain from which it grew. 

We throw out tbe above not u a doarlnt, iwt 

a Meoryof thernurrection, butaaa meneatml 
AjjxMAeau — one among many poiaibb bypotheaat 
Ine pan avigned In it to the " vital principle" 
may be omitted, If any ao prefer. And if tha by- 
polbcab aa a whi^ b found not to ba eonalalent 
with a propel raiumction o/llic body, it li by all 
mnni to be njeeted. 

(T.) It b thought quite Imprababla that tha 
aame bodiea inll hie with all their pnaeut parta, 
mamhen, organa, and appurtenuma, not to Hf tbah 
pecuUar abnormal developmenu and defeeta. 

Wb have already aiid, tha Chrialian dogma of 
the raurrection contiina nothing daflnile on tbaal 
pohita. We have ahowo that auch a resurrection, 
In all Ita detalla, ia not abaolulely Inipoeaihb; but 
«« have ihown that inch a reaonectlon b not 
iiiiiamj to the proper Idea of the rea n rreetlon of 
tbabody. Wa have rboin that tba body laiiad 
wouU b« th* lama •■ tha pnaant body. If H p«» 



■■■d ttw nmenuilltr mdlbrtDutlwpnKntbodj 

piM ol anjiptriod uialtcrr efiu agt. We 

oow idd tli&t tilt mitrrectian of Uie funs tiodji 
■OM not rcquiTG that tlw bodj nu«I uliaiitd biiv« 
■0 tlw malter or tb« pndM form of Uie prosit 
bod; u it actiullj aintnl hers it uj period of life- 
It vould b« ■ i«Hrrct.-tiou of thi body, ind oT Uie 
nFM body, if ill ll» bodia of tlM dnd ibould be 
raited in Ibe vigor and bewity of youth or early 
niuilHKid; tbs Intuit being InitwitAneomly de- 
t-doped to *ueb > KMure, the iged rtilored to it, 
uid all deftmuiliet ud defecU rorthwltli r«i»ved. 
And u to orguia and niunben ; doubtlna wbalcTer 
ebanclrrittira of our pment bodiM vill cootribute 
to thr glory and b«uty and purpoaea of the future 
body of tlw Chiittian will be retained in it; and 
whMcnr chanoleriitica would mar (lial ghiry or 
beauty or fruition, or Interfbte Hilh tlioae purpoaet, 
will be changed. It may be tJlat the pnuta of tbe 
vound* in our Saiiour't bande and liwt, or aome- 
UUng etgnificautly cwreqioiiding to tbein, may »■ 
Dufo torever in hi* gloriAad body, aa viaible ID^ 
Oiantoei of hie dying lore, aa marka of honor aud 
ma to eiclle all the redeemed and Ibe holy to atill 
Elgber atialna of hne and adoration and praiM. 
Slues we an to be comfcrted Ibr our departed 
(Handt by the asaurance that "Uieui Uiat alnp in 
Jeaut God will bring witb Him," it niny well be 
believed Uiat we ahill ncognixe In tlie ftiture life 

It ia not nenaaaiy D 

1 in tbiaj 

J body ibould 
ntun all or any ot uie iineatnenii of the preeent 
body. The beautiful plant that riiee from the 
grain that haa been aown and bae died, diKn 
widely In alt iti ntemal funn and a>pect from the 
•eed, yet by it we can at certainly dietingiiiib ita 
kind aa by the Med itself. And thia ayatem of cor- 
reqnndencc* may laaeh much further than we hare 

Et traced It. Tlie ajdtitual l<ody may Yam an 
teoiity and traniparency of eipreaalon for the 
chancier and indlrldualtty of (be aoul, aucb aa the 
brighteat mortal face we erer beheld, tfae cl 
and moat lOuI-eipceauT* eye of mortal inoulil 
wboae deptfaa we eter gaied, eould not en^ 
lo conceive. Then, there may t« meani nf 
muiikaUng thought and feeling In Ifae 1 
world, a^ far tranaoending all the power c 
moat pcrfKt human ipeecfa aa that tranacend 
Inarticulate language of brutca. Tbua then 
be ^undant meana of recognition independt 
(ny outward identity of Ibrm. 

{B.l Finally, tbe reauirectloi ot Ilia body ia 
thougbt fmproheble, becauae eclence, In her deepcat 
reaevchea. Anda no aymptoma or IntlmaUont of 

It ia alleged t}iat, aa far aa baa been aacert^ned 
by chemical or an j other pbyaical teitt, 
body ia luliject to tbe tame lawt ot developmFnt, 
giowtfa, and decay, while It liitt; and of diwolu- 
tlon, decompoailion, and diapertlon, when it diea, 
aa Uioae to which tbe bodiea of tbe oi and the 
hone are iu>|]ect But what doca thla prove 7 Doea 
It fnm that tfaerefbra God will not nooiiatruct ai 
raanlinala the human body? Ii It therefore lo 
tlwnght a thing Incredible that God ebould rai 
the dead ? We ean tee no tuch force of proot 
.boae fiieti. We are not aware that anybody ha« 
andertaken to bring poeltive evidnce cj a rctnr- 
rtctlon of Ifae body from cbcmiatr; or natural phiU 
oagphy ; and we cannot conceive what diaproof there 
<■ fo Ike abaetiee of proof dolnUe from thcae 


t (It la inaiited) after tin mlnoteat chaniaM 
analyrit, afla the moat palienl and thorough iMt- 
'y all known agenlt and reageola, alter tb 

careful examination, and alter agta of ei- 
petieDcl!, «« have net«r fiiund any mon eigne of a 
■ - ■ wy to a reaurrectfcm hi the body of a dead 

ban in that of a dead dog. Andwhattfam? 
llefefun Ihete ii and can be no leturtcclioo of the 

ti body? Moat bmeand impotent eonelution! 
A< though we already knew everything pertaining 
'- "■- powcn, propertica, and poa^bililita cren of 

ill Ihinga; at though we were not prying 
deeper and dcepa into tbe aecreta of nature every 
day ; aa though then ««i not erideiitly dynamiea 
and lawi at work In the material world which duda 

r chemical t«ta and phytical re-ageatt; and 
ru tJiouyh VK cotJd tte thttmctlii ttntiKi find ttbost 
tht poictr of Altnightf God, which, with ita higher, 
' Enhance fcrevo' inacrutabte lawa, prmdea over 

introla all the lawa and i^inctlona of natuiv. 
All poaitive evidence Ibr a naurrectloi] of tba body 
niuit be tougbl fiir in tbe teaching ot Revelation ; 
and that evidence, be It more cr Im, li not in tlie 
tlighteat degree alRcled by (hit chemioo-phyrieal 
eipiment; It la left Juat aa It waa and who* tt 

IV. UuTDRT or 

It lemaint to gin a brief outline of the blrln7 
f the doctrine ot tbe Ranrreetkn, ai it baa been 
leld in the Chriitian Church. 

The Chiliarehi and GnoatJcs, frnm the Ont, hdi 
xtreme viewt, the fiinver tending lo an unaerlp- 
ural grouneaa of detail, and the laUer to an equally 
iRKTiptural refining away of the eubatantial faet. 
Juitin tlartyr, IrcnEui and Tertnllian, inclining to 
the Chihanfaa, taught a double reaumctlon. T^ese 
md Clemma Romaaua, Athenagoraa 
ind MinuliuB Felii, all believed in a 
rection of the body. Origeu apirltualind it. (See 
er, Fiiltt ihgn, de SrMur. Cartiii, prr i priom 
idn.) Gregory of Nazianaui, Gregory of NjMa, 
Baail the Grnt, adc^Ied In part the viewi ot 
Origen. Jerome want to an eitreme againit them. 
AuguaUne ultimately oppoaed them, but mote mod- 
erately. ChryaoalORi believed In the identity of 
the body railed and the preeent body, but foUonted 
St. Paul'i npoaltlon. Kplphiniui and llicaphilut 
of Alcianilria agreed with Jeronia; hut 'rbeophltoa 
irdalned Syneaiui, who cotild not aaamt to ■■ the 
prevailing notiona." [Showing two thingi: (1) 
that ocrtain viewt, namely, Ihoae of -lerome. wna 
then the prevailing viewe, and (9) that lo accept 
idered (by Thfophilu.) eaaentUl.] 


and John ot Jerutalem diatinguiibed between Jfeai 
and balji, but with neither of them waa Jeniine 
latlafled. Jerome'i became the pren^ling doctrine 
of the Church ot Rome, and baa to eontlniied tub 
itantially to the preaent day. Tbe refbrmeTa go 
erally adopted the aanie doctrine, adhering; bowwar, 
mole decidedly lo the Aagualinbn and PauUtia 

Tbe Socinlane, and, after them, the Unltaiiaiit, 
have been inclined to deny the proper teaurreetion 
of the body. The Swedenborgiana alao do the tanit, 
holding that each aoul, Immedlalety upon death, It 
clothed with ita apiritual body. Many periona ir 
all the Proteitant communlona have. In later yean 
felt compelled by the pmumed pblloaophleal dV 
edtlaa of tba oaae, to give up tiM dooUlDe at 

fltfK iMuiifldion of tba bodj, toi hvia tilhvt 
■MhIhiI nlail, without mj irond or dcflnlli 
MfirfupoD the lutiiect, or ban opmlj nded wltfa 
Ibt Sodnkni or Uw Smdnborgiuu. 

Th* cn*d* UMi tbt tymbok ind uniirrnlnin of 
Ibt Bcdniwd Chuicba, bomnr, hon icmiklacd 
mehaojt*!. See, i. g- Artiela IT. of (be Cboreh 
if EngliDd, ■> On tfaB Rcaumetioa of Cfariat," 
mhieh, apoikinK of Chriit'i uDaukio " viUi floh, 
IraiMi, uid nil tiling) ippcrtainisg to lh« perftetion 
sf nuo't Diture," conn norij tbc vhols gnmnd 
«f Iwut^an ud difBeultT. See >lio tU Uk thtcs 
•ncdi, apccullT ^ Athuiuui. Tlikt of tbe 



D. B. G. 
■ For tba lit<ntar« of Out nljaot, ooa dm 

AlgCT'i Oilieol Uidory of lit Deckvu of a 
Frntrnv Jjft.tlxM. S93S-3133, wd Do tb* Raor- 
iMtiOD of Cliiwt, NoL 8133-algl. A. 

BBTJ 015^ [/.i™/]: ■p«>a5iiiUaLj[Roiii.] 
'ftrvi [but V«. Alot. Frfw] In Chr. : ««, [Ai- 
yoB]). .S(nioft>lf!g.intlieUiieofAbiabun-iuic» 
Un(Gcn.ii.Ig,19,30,31; lUbr.i.2Ii). Hilind 
two hundnd ud tbirtj-iiLis jfart lecoiduiE to tbe 
nooiogj in Gfoau. BniiKn (BibrberHri hti 
Bea b Holia, the Anibis naow for Edcaot, im a*- 
•ertiDn whidi, bonuirtd tntn Knobet, b ultcrlji 
dortitute ot foiuidjitioD, m wIU ba koi at once OD 
acmpuias tba ilabnw and Arabia worda. A 
doaar rtwoibLuiee might he found betwaen Beu 
■Dd Wviga, a larga town of Hedia, eapeciaUf if 
Iha Greek eqninlenla of tbe two Danxa be Ukao. 

• Id 1 Chr. 1. S6 tba A. V. ad. Iflll, IbDow- 
iiif tbo BlehcfM- Bibte and tba Uanenn Tenlan, 
iMde Bkhu, TtpreaeDting the Aia bj H, M In 

BBU'BBN nSW-J [an beb>]; t,^* 
tad "PHMFi^'loeepb. •Vti^Ktf- P««k. 8tt. 
itMt and (0 elaa In Arab. im. of Joabua: Ru- 
ka), Jaoob'a Arrt-bom ehUd (Uen. nb. U), the 
MB «f Lab, appai«Dt)]r not bom llU an Dntuaa] 
bMnl had elapaid aftarthe Dunlii|ca(3l: Jeaapb. 
Am. I 19, { !>' Tiia\t perbapa denoud b; (be 
Da«a llaelf, wbelbar in adopt tbe obrion* rigDlO- 
■atioa <t ill praaeat form — rea toi, 1. a. •< b* 
hold ja,>Kiat"(tiaMn. rA(a.p. lUTi) — or (3) 
tba ct^anatioD giren In tbe laxt, which team to 
Inplj tl^ tha orl^al fann wu 't?V^ ''"^i 
ri* Uam^ "Jaborab hath wen ny n/Kicfini," or 
(S) tbat of Joaephna, who Dnlforml)' prmuta It 
M Boobri, and aipbini it {Aid. 1. 19, j Bl la tbe 
••pit; of God" — Ihfw toCSmv, m IT tnta 
S«^ "^n (FHnrt, mudab. U. J«n).a Tbe no- 
Iko af Iha patrlaivb Reuben In tha book ot Gen- 
i^ and tbe eirlT Jeiriib tradilloial litenCura an 
•namjlj fraqoent, and on the wbobgiia a Itrar- 

able Hew of hii diipoaltlon. To bim, wd Ua 
alone, the piuamation of Joaepb'i lift appaan M 
bare been due. HIa anguiah at tbe diMppHiwie* 
of hie brothn', and tba frutlnUon of hia kindlj 
artiSoe for deUnfring him (Gen. xixvii. 32), hn 
rteolleetion of Uw minute detula of tbe palnfiil 
■cene many jean aflerwarda (ilii. 32], hia oAer to 
take the eoke naponaibltitj of the aafotj of the 
bnitber wbo had aucceeded to Joaeph'a place bi tha 
EuDi]j(xlii. 37), allteatifytoa wannand(foTthoae 
rough tliun) a kindlj: natura. Of the ivpulain 
crime which man hia hiator;, and which tumod 
the blewiug of hit djing tether Into ■ eurae — hia 
adulteroLLa connectioa with Biltiab, — - we kuow ftom 
the Scripbirea oa\} tbe fact |Gca. ux*. 33). In 
tbe pcat^ihllol Indiliona It ia Imtnl dtber aa 
not baring utuall; occuired (aa In tba Targnt 
PteulqjimaJkan), or elae a> tbe mult of a andden 
IfmpUtioD acliug on a hot and tigoniua natvre (aa 
in tba rofrmeata of tkt TVwJce /■•UrianAa) — a 
parallel, In einue of it* circunutaneca, to the in- 
trigue of Darid with Bathaheba. Some trvi\ 
t«mptaliDn there mtut lurdj hare been to Impd 
Reuben to an act ohiefa, rq^ed In ita aoeial ratbcr 
;hin iu iti moral aapeet, wouki be peculiarlj abhor- 
rent, to a patriarchal aoeietj, Mid alihib ia apieiaUj 
and repratedlj reprobated lo tba Law of Hoa«. 
Tbe Rabbinical lenjon of the oecurrenc« (aa glm 
in Targ. Piemkjm.) ka ntj ohaimdaiialle, and 
well Ulititratea tba dlSteanoa between tbe ai^t of 
<ar1j and of lata Jewiab hiitorj. '• Reuben went 
and dlaordered tbe eoneh of Bilbab, bia bther'a 
plaead right ojqmalte tha 

d itin 


e thoaa of an 

And wbsi lanal beard It 
him, and he laid, > La! an unwortbj 
fenua uujj proceed from me, aa lahmael did ftou 
AMbam and Eaau fnnu mj btber.' And the 
Holj Spirit BBiaered bim and aald, ' All are right- 
eoua, and (bare la not one unwortbj among them.' " 
Reuben'i anaiet; to aara Joaeph ia repreaentad aa 
arialng from a deahi to eoneiliate Jacob, and hia 
abaence vhlla Joaeph waa aoU from hia dttliy 
alone on the monntalni In penitent (katlnit. 

Tbeee iralta, alight aa the/ ai 
ardent, Impetuooa, unbalanced, I 
nattirej not enftj and cruel, aa were Simeon and 
Leii, bnt rather, to vae Ike metaphor of the iy\nf, 
patriarch, boiling^ up like a reaad of water orer (be 
rapid wood-fire of the oomad t«nt, and aa quictij 
nibaldlng into apathj when the tbel waa wMi- 

At the tlma of Uw migration into Egypt' R*« 
ben'a aona were bur (Gen. ihL 9; 1 Cbr. t. >). 
From (hem aprang the chief fiuniUea of tba Irlba 
(Nun. uTi. Ml). One of Ibae familiea — tbat 
of Palla — became notorioaa aa ptoduoing EUab, 
wboae aona or duieiidanla, Dalkan and AUram, 
periibed nith their Uaaman On in the diiine re(- 
ribotion for their coni^diacj' agalnat Moaca (Nam. 

W raai* old at the 



nL I, nti. S-II). The reniiu tl Umnt Sinol 
(Nbdi. i. iO, ai, II. IDtbowiUuitkt tfaeEiodui 
Ibe Dumben of ibe (nb< uren 4«,500 m«n 
twenty ytan of igt, »nd fit lor nctlve wirlik 
vice. In point of nuiuerica] itnngtb, Rnibcn w 

liilh or 

I, Gmd, 1 

b iifii 

On ths bonlen of Oinuii, kfter the 
pligiM which punliheil tbg idoUtrjof Biutl-I'cor, the 
Dumbm hud rBllen digbUj, and wire *3J30 : Gad 
WM 40,100 ; Hid Clie poiicion of the two in tli " ' 
!• lovar thu bdun, Kphniim uid 8im«>u beii 
oolj two inuUer Iribei (Num. iivi. 7, Ac.). 

During the Jounw; through tbe wllderiKi 
toltion of RnilieD wu on the HDlh ilds t 
Tibwiiiicle. The " cimp " whkh went under bii 
DmH w« fonunl of hli own tribe, tlwt of Simeon ' 
(Lnh'iMOODd mil, uidGad (aonof ^ilpiJi.Leih' 
■kn). The itiuidiinl of the mnp wu ■ deer 
with Uw in>ctiplion, " Hemr, oh line! ! the Lon 
tliir God i) one t Jird ! " und Its plios in the mud 
wu •nond (Turffvm Pttud-jan. Num. I), ID-lfl). 

The Krubenitee, like their telulxg uid neigh 
bonoo the Journey, the (iadKee, bad miintnlned 
thfough the miirch to Cuwaa the ■netenl ailing 
of th^r forebthen. The pitriirche were " K^lng 
their Soelu " at dheclMm when Joseph wu aold 
Into Kgjpt. It wu u men whOK "tnde had 
been about cattle froui (heir fouth " that thej 
wcnpmentfd to Phanoh (Ueu. iM. 31, 34), and 
In the land of Goahm the} Kttled "with their 
floekaand heidi and all that tbaj had " (ilvi. 3S, 
dtlL 1). llwir cattle Becompanied tbeni in their 
flight tram Y^jfi Itli. lif. M|, not a boof wai 
left behind : and there are ft«!nenl atluakmi to them 
OD the joomej (Ei. uilt. 3; Num. il, 33; Ueut. 
rilL 13, Ac|. But It would appear that the tribn 
who wtre desticed to eettls In the eonfined terrilor; 
between the Mediterranean and the Jordan had, 
during the Joume; through the wildeinew, Ibr- 
tonatel; nlinqulehed (hat tula tar the poaeeeelon 
of cattle which thej eould not hare uiidntalned 
alter tbdr erttlement at a diitance ftvm the wide 
paaturee of the wildemeM. 1'bui the eattle bad 
some Into the hindi of Keuben, Gad, and tbe half 
o( Manaoeh (Nun. mil. I), and It folk>wed nat- 
urallj that when the natton arrind on (he 
downe eaat of the Jordan, the thm tr^bea Juil 
uamad ibould prefcr ■ requeet lo tfatar ieida' lo be 
allowed to remain in a place » pettectl; lUited '- 
their reqniieniente. The part leiected bj Keub 
had at that date the iprcial name of " the Mlihor 
with refrnnce poHlljl/ to lie erennesa (Stanley, 
8. •} P. App. i 9). Under lU modem name of 
the Bilkn It li itlll esteemed bejond all olhen bj 
the Arali iheep-muterB. It it well watered, corend 
with imootb >borI (urf, and loalng itself ittaduallj 
In thaw Illimitable wnites which han always been 
and alwaji will be the fcrarilB resort of puloni 
nomad ttVlm. The connlry eut of Jordan 
not appear to hare been Included In tbe orlKlnid 
land pmnlwd lo Abmhnm. That Khioh the ' 
maiined wu eompriaed, on the east and 


between the "enaat of Jordac" and •'the atk.' 
But fiir Ibe pnaiUaninilty of tbe gnatir nonberof 




been entcRdfMm tbe eooa 


um. »iii 

30). and in 

that cau the eaa 

of Jer 


neter have 

been peopkd bj 


Acoordijigly, when tbe Beubenilea and tbdr M- 

lowi approach Moms with their requett, hia miin 

otijeclion la that by what they propoee they will 

lurege tbe hearte of the chlMran of lirad 

guinit over Jordan Into the land which Jebo- 
Tsfa Lad fpven them INuni. mji. T). It ia only on 

undertaking lo fullUl their part in the conquort 
of tbe weatem country, the land of (Janaan proper, 
and thai ntufying him that their propoaal wu 
jtrounded in no aelish deaira to escape a ftiU ehara 
of the difficulties of the conquest, that Moees will 

Tbe " bleiaini! " of Reuben by the depatting 
Lawgiver [Ueut. iiiiil. S] ia a paaaage which bu 
■ermly eietcised trautlaton and commaitatoea. 
Strictly trwialated u Ihey itand In the rtorirad 
Hebrew teit, tbewordi are u follows; c — 

" IM Renh 


Ai to the SrM line there appeart to be no doabt, 
bat the aeeond line bu been inlerpreled In t«* 
exactly oppaeile ways. 1. By the IXX. : — 
" And let hto Btn '' be many In uDDiber.'' 
Tliis hu the dlsadiantaBethat ~^Dp li nem 
nployad elsewhere for a hrgt number, but alwayt 
•r a small one (e. s- 1 Chr. ivi. IS; Job xvL SB. 
ki. IB; Fx. ui. 16). 
S. That of oar own Auth. Tenioa: — 

lien the negative of the lint line Is presumed to 

convey Ita force to the second, though not then 

eiprened. Tbie ie countenanced by tbe ancient 

Syriac Verdon (reahito) and the Innilatlong of 

' mlui and Tiemdliiu, end SchoU and Wlniv. 

aleo hu the Important lupport of Gtaenlnl 

r/in. p. 968 n, and Priil. f'rm. p. 44). 

3. A third and very ingrnioiH InterpreUtSon Is 

atadoptedbytheVeneto-Greek Version, and abo 

byMicbaelii(fi»t//.lr t/Kjr./.*i(m,Teit), whiek 

in that the rowel-polnla of the word ViHIj), 

men," are altered lo V.'^'S, " hb iead " — 

u It In atloaion to some recent mortality In the 
tril-e, eueh u that in Simeon alter the plague of 

These inlapretationt. unless tbe list shc^ 
prove to be (be original midliiE. originate in the 
(act that the wordi In their naked sente contey ■ 
cune and not a blesalnit, Fortuniitely, thoogh 
dUIMng widely in detail, they egret In gencnl 

rlH. 1 (VdI|.| • 

* It ts Kid tnai uia wu onfintlly 
MtniM ht Keev, l«*t It ibmild ncaU tt 

le Hebrew u It ilandi. Thni the Tnlfate, IntMr 
I Wttt*. and Bunsen. 
if The Alas. LXX. addn the name of auMoo Cand 



■■■l^.- TIm bfoedldlon ol tha gnal iMder 

CHit oiTT tlH tiibt ableh ni iboat lo m 
frisn lb tmUiRU, In k ftmot upintl 
Hi Ml&n tfanngfa ill Iba rida 3t tk>t nmol 
bjine uUBlioa. 

Bolb Id thli ud Um ndtr blwring of Juoby 
Knbco nUiDi hi* pbuc it Uw band of tfa> bmllT, 
•nd it Diut nol be OTBinkcd that tba tribi, lo- 
iMhar with tha two who taioeiaMd then ' 
with it, Ktullj neaind III inheriluwe 
■Umt Jodah or Ephr^m, to wham tba birthright 
which Beobaa hid fcrfeilad wu tmuArrad {1 Chr. 
T. 1). 

Fnm thii tloM it NKiH >■ IT ■ bar, not onlf tha 
■OBtorial on* of diitance, and o( the int(miiin)[ 
rinr and nHMUilaiu-waU, bat ilao of djfinni 
baling >ad hablti, gndoallj gnw up more 
rtantlaD; hetween the eulern and veatBii tribaa. 
n* trtt ul of the fcrmcr afUr tba ooniplf tioi 

r the; had Ukea put in 

aod Germm, aluwi bow wide ■ gap ilreul 
Mad hatwcaa their idaa* and thoae of tha w 

Tba pile of aloMa which tbej cncted oi 
■■til II bwk of the .lordan to nurii Ihcir 
daij — In UUifj to alter age* Uut tbougb aep- 
Matad bj- the ruihing rirer from thdr brethren »r " 
the ODdntlj in which Jriwnh bad Gud the pl*i 
whtn Ha would tie wonbipped. tliej liad lUll 
ri^t to raturn to it for hi* wonhip — wu seeled 
in aeeordanu with Lbe umlttrable hablti of be- 
dnin tribe* liotta belbre and *iiu:e. It wi* a 

d at farting. « 

b li onnitantlji 

g thrtr Donnd habit* aud feelluga for 
tbeaa of more aettleil permanent lji*e, Ihi* act i 
eooipbtdj miiundtntwd, and wu coiiitnied ii 
aa attampt to eat up a rinl alUr lo that of I 
Samd TeoL Tha itioompatibilitj of tfae ids 
UtamindotlbaWatfm lanelila* it iliorni b]' ibt 
bot, Ibat notwitb*Un<liiu{ the diiebiimer of Che 
>1 UUxa, and notwiUm 
iag pored ntiibdor? aren to Phiiieliu, Ihe auth( 

laiiii. r 

i> tha n 

intolict ilie idea of lamJlce — 
■.(.DfatiM^jUcr (leeUeaenim, Tlia. p. V)2) — \a- 
tmi d applying to it the term ^li, at ii don* in tba 
aa*<G«n. ii^U)of the pneiietj aimiiar "hup 
of vitneaL"* Another Reubenite erection, which 
to long kept up the mentary of the pmence of th* 
Iribacn theweet of Jordan, wu tfaeiloneof liobui 
ban-Reuben which formed a iandnurk on the boun> 
dwj batweni Jodah and Beiyaniiii. [Joah. ir. 
C) Tbi* wa* a iinf;la iloiia (£ini), not ■ jule. 
■Bd It appean to bare alood Bomewhen on the road 
km Beihanj to Jtrieho, not br bnm the nioad 
khan an iMI known lo Inttellan. 

So jodge, no pmpbat, do bero of the tribe of 
Baubca la handed down lo lu. In Ihe dii« n- 

IremHr of ttailr brethnn in tha mtt anda 
Dtborab aul Bank, tbej eoatoitad Uwuelna 
with dabating tb* own amaojtrt the atnam*' ol 
tha Ui*hor: tb* dItUnt diitnaa </ hi* brethren 
nrald not nuire Beubeo, h* lingered aowag hia 
■baapfuldi and probrred the (bof^erd'* pipe' and 
tba bkatlng of tha flock*, to the olamor of tht 
bnmpet and the timnoil of battle. Ui* Indlrid 
mUU; bdM more t^>ldlj than Qad'a. Tht dem 
raliint tiaditat who awam Iba Jordan at lu higbaal 
lo join tba aoD of Jean In hIa Irouhla (1 Chr. lU 
S-ISI, BaniUai, EUJah lb* GlkadUa, tb* aiega of 
Ramoth«i)ead with II* ptoturavgn* Inddeot*, all 
fire a nbatontiil raUtj to lb* tribe and ooentr) 
ot Uad. But DO penon, no ineideiit, ii leoorded, 
pttet Keuben before na b aoy diatlneter (ons 
h*n aa a member of the oDmrnanlly (if enot- 
iiunity it can be called] of " tha Reubenite*, Ihe Ga- 
lilee, and th* half-tribe of Manuaefa " (1 Cbr. ilL 
7). 'file T««7 town* of hi* tiihcritance — Heab 
on, Anw, Kiijathalm, Diboo, Haal-moon, Sibmah 
Jater, — are fiimiliar lo n* u Moahilo, and not ■■ 
it* town*. IIm dtr-iife » obaiaoleriiUe of 
UoabiU ciTiliutioa bad do bold on the Rauhanitia. 
Thej are moat in thdr elemenl when engaged hi 
Gontinual brokli with th* children of the dcnatt, 
the Bedouin Iribo of Hagar, Jetur, Nephiah, 
" ' b: drirlug off their myriula of oattl*, aaaea. 

bom ([ Chr. >. 10), gndoaily ipreadin^t am tba 
TBit wilderne** which extendi froin Jordan lo tha 
Euphrale* (ler. 9), aud errrj dij receding hrtlMr 
and further Oom anj commuDilj of laa^ or of 
intereat with 11h wstem tribea. 

IVom the centra] aaal of th* na- 
tional gotemmant and of Ihe national nligion, it 
ii not to be wondrred at Uiat Reuben retinquiabad 
th* faith of Jebonth. "Tiwjr irant a whoring 
alter th* god* of tb* paof^ of the hud wbom UoS 
dutnijed l«fore them," and tba hut biitorical 
notice which we po**e** d them, while It record* 
thta fact, ncord* aka *a it* natunl con*ei)iietiea 
that the Reubeiille* and GadlUs, and tbe balf-trib* 
carried olF by Ihil and Tigiatb- 
l^leaer, and phced in the diitricla on and about 
" rirer Khabir in the upper pnrt lA Mesopo- 

lia— -'in Halah, and Habor, and Han, and 
tbe rirer Goaan " (I Chr. t. W). Q. 

REnrBBNITEa OUVT): eommoni; 
'PovMv, but Joah. ixiL 1, ol uiot 'PeuA^r. Akx 

Peoai).tTa.j 1 Chr. iivi. 31 -peBflnrl [Vat 

ji] : AuAca, Simula), and onoe ling., BBU'- 

BEMITB (1 Chr. li. 43: I.X.\. omit; Vulg. 

Rubtailti). Daweiidaal* of Kkuukm {Num. ml. 

L>eut. ui. 13, la, i>. 43, iiix. 8i Jodh. i. IS. 

L«, li 

; 8K.. I 

I Chr. I. 

i% ilL 37, Hri. 38. « 
REU-EL ('»*0P [/xiad 0/ God] r ■p>B 
yml^K■. Bnhutl, Jtngy^,. Tbe Damn of ■ertnl 

1. On* of tbe loai of Enu, b 

E Tb* wnd Dud h 

he IrrimHoa, [Bmo.] 
rtta* paaaaca rautnad IB lb* 

Milk datar of UtamML Hi* mhu w«n hut — 
HtbUb, Zenfa, SbuDoub, vid Miiati, "duka" 
3C Edom {Gto. uivl. i, 10, 13, IT; 1 Oir. i 35, 

a. Ooa of tbe uma of Mom*' Ubtr-lu-lnH 
(Ex. U. IB)) Ihe unw wblcb, Ihrouffb kdhOEiiM 
Is Uu LXX. lonu, ii giieo Ic uiotlwr puwga of 
tlw A. V. Kagukl. Uumi' fiUbfr-ln-Uv ■« a 
Midiwlla, but tha MUiuiIln nn in « wtUkiiown 
pawgi (Geo. luvii. SSJ (alkd ibo Iibnulila, 
■od if thii uttjp b« Ukni atrioUj, it to not im- 
juaibk Uuit Um nunc uf Henel ro&j b« ■ lokui 
of kii< connectioa wilit Uia liliniulile tribe of that 
■amc. Tbv* ii, bowcvcr, ooUiiiig te ma6na tbit 

3. Fotbcr of EliMiph, tbs Indtr of tlK tribe of 
Owl, M tb« tiiDO of tbe niuua M Siui (Num. ii. 
U). In Um |«nUel pnHiigM U>e n«D« b given 
DsuKi, whicb a raUiiMil in thii iuluiae >l>a b; 
Iha VulgmU {Dutl), 

4. A Uaiijunlta wbo«e name ocoun Id tb« gcoe- 
■logj of m ocrtain tJih, one of tbe uhidi of tbe 
Iriba at tfac iue of tba Mttbment of JenualcDi 
(1 Chr. U. 8). G. 

BEU-MAH (nip*n [minj; %*) : T>.if«: 
Alti. Pti||M: ADmn). 1^ concubiua of Nabor, 
Abnhun't biotbar (Uen. uii. 34). 


Ulii- Tbe Mowing iuit|eGU In eonneotiin witb 
(hia book aesm to bave tbe eblcf diJin lor a pbea 
la thia article: — 
A. Carohical Adtiiuuitv AMD Author- 


B. Time akd Plao 

C. Lamouaoe. 


E. HiaruBT or 
A. Cahomical 


d«alt at E|ihMui. DduUIhi then wtn otta 
Jobui amODg tbe ChrialiiuD at that Udw, but oolj 
MTOganoe or an iDteiiliojj to deceive etuM anoun 
for tbe auuiuptlon of thli uniple elyle bj mj otho 
writer. He ii alto deactibed u {b) a aenant *f 
Cbriat, (c) one aba bad tnnie tatimon)- aa ao 
' en of tbe word of God imd of (be (Ml- 
Chnit — teriui nbich nenturalj deeigned 
to id'eiitir^ biiu witb tin wdter of tbe rtnm John 
III. 3S, 1. 14, aud 1 Jobu i. i. He i* (<f) in 1^0- 
moa for tba word of Uod and tbe t«i>in¥iu/ «f 
Jeaua Cbriat : it ma; be euy to aui^uae tliat otbai 
Chriitiana of tbe aanie naiue were baniihed tfailbar, 
Apoetle ia tbe oul> Jobn wba ia diatinctlj 
named in earif hlatOT)' aa an eiile at Patnm. He 
' ) a MlDw-auBerer «ilb Iboae whon ha 
and (/) tba auUioriied cbaunel of tba 
ct and iniporuiit couiniuiiication tbat 
wai eier made to llie aevrn efaurdiea of Aiia, of 
Apotile waa al tbat tiot 
iha apiritual ({Dcenior and leaclicr. laatJ) (^) tba 
wriler wu a fellowwrnnt of ao(^ and a brothai 
of propbeta — ti\ia wliich aie far more auiiabte to 
one of the flitef A[>aeUeii, nnd far more likelj |o . 
,ve bem aaiiKiieil to iiim tUaii to anj olber man 
kaa diitiiiction. All Uiae mariia are hund 
lilad lonetber in tbe Apuatte Jobn, aud in him 
alone of all hiatorical penom, W'n muat go otrt 
of the r^toD of But into tbe region of miJMlun 
to find aucb anotlier pcnoo. A candid reader of 
the Kevelatioii, if preiioiisli acqiminied witli SL 
Jobn'i otber writini:! and liir, mutt ineritalii; con- 
clude Ibat tbe writer intioded to be ideuti5cd with 
we eo alile a crilie aa 
Liicke {EinUitansi. p. iil4) meetinft thii eoiirluaioo 
with the coiiJKture tlint lome Aiialic di>cl|ile and 
ij ban wriitffli tbe 
miuianur)' Ul-ora or 

>i>cluiion l> tlia oljectioo 

of the ReveUtioi 
autbonhip. Hi 
Ingaodiitlncllr I 
iuqiiiatioa, waa lUtuall]' w- 

e canon ieal authoritj 
tf into ■ queatloii i^ 
?d tbat a Imlc, claim- 
lie aulhorit]' uf divine 
n by St John, then 

will be enlertaii«i< 
place in tbe Canon of Scripture. 

Waa, then, St. .lohn tlie Apoitle and EianKeliet 
■be writer of tlie Keielatioii 7 'llila qunlion ku 
Brit mooted b; Dionfiiui of Aleiuidria (ICuiebiue, 
H A'. Tii. ib). Tbe dnul't which ha niodati; 
BUjcReated hae been eonfldeutlj' procliinieii in nod. 
am linieehj- Ijither ( I'mTf/e ni^/ilK Uf.tAm-Mi'n. 

1B93 a 






'S. P; « 

<{ [ierman; in 

le general belief of Ihe maaa of Cbriatiana 
hi all asei baa bren in favor of St. John'a sulhor- 
ihip. llie evidence adduced in support of tbat 
belirf tonilfti of (1) the oaKitions of the autbor, 
and (8} biitorlcal tradition. 

(t-! Tbe author i deacrigitton of hlmseir in the 
tat and 3Sd chapters ia certainly equivalent to an 
aaaertkm tbat he ia the Apoatle. (a.} He names 
ilnuelr almplf John, witlunt preBi or addition — 

■anw which at that period, and In Aiia. must 
tMV basD taken hj every t Ihristian aa tbe dcugna- 
Sko b the Rut Instance of the vmt Afortla who 

brought by Ewuld. CrHt.ier, and oU«s, lh>iu Um 

hcl tbat a proiMlse of tlic fuinre 1 l.««l..e» of tbe 

Apoalles is imulir.] in ii 

li. aland «i. 14; aa if 

tl.e UiK u.odoty and 

humility of an Apostle lo record-as Kai.ld of 

old did in much |>laii«« 

Umis(llan. lii. U| — a 

liviiie pronilse uf luliiitiu 

. lo bimseir pereonallj. 

Katlier those |>»uivn n..i 

lie taken aa iustanoB «( 

Ibe isTiter quiellj acoiiti 

U as bis Just due aud, 

iius to all tbe ApoeloUi 

compaJij. Unless we are 

preiMired to give up Um 

vwacit)- and diHiie otkii 

of the whole book, and 

to treat the ariiera w*. 

nt of biniirlr aa a man 

fiction of a poet trjiritf to 

cow bi. own insiRuiG- 

uince with an lioiioretl n 

nie, a-e muat acee}il that 

ii-Mient of del. equally 


the fact 

Ucaides this direct aasertion of St. John's aulluir 
ship, there is nbo an ini)ilieat>ou of it runniit 
through the 1k»)i. (leiirrall]'. ilie iiiMuicI of dugla- 
minded, patient, fiilUiful sludenu has led lliem tc 
diaom a csinwction lielween llis KrvFlaUun and 
St Jolin, and lo r«i«ni7i' not merely die sanN 
Spirit aa Ibe toiirce of tliia and otiier looks of Holj 
Scripture, hut stm the seme peculiarly -formed 
bumfui instnmient enipkiied both in |iix(uciBf 
lie fourth (.inspd, bihI in qiealda| 

Ibw book 
tl» elmrw 

words I 

f St. Jobu. lUa art 



b tt fnat laagtfa, Uul wilh miuh 
a, b; J. I'. Lu^ In hii Eiaaj 

bMnen tba Individunlit; of Um 
ApMk Jobu uid tbU of Uw ApoodjpM, 1818 
IVtrmUdU. Scirifltit, U. 173-331). After in- 
mlJaitiiin Uw pKuliv tigtliiR* of Un Apoatlr'i 
fiutneUr Aud poaitun, uid (in nplj to Llioke) ibe 
ftttaivti truU ibown bj the wriLer of tbfl Kevdib' 
tioo, bs conduda Uut tb* hook ii ■ mjitatiou* 
but geniiiiia (OlBioii of propbtcj uadct Lhe New 
TfUiMit, imbued with (h« (pirit of tbe Uoipel, 
Lb« |jcodoct of ft ipiiiltul ipSt to pecuiiar^ ■> gnt 
wd lubk that it cu be leoibed to tbe Apoatle 
Jobn iloDs. Tba Uereiktiou nquim lot ill wntcr 
Sl. John, juM u hii peculiu' g«iuai nquina ibc 
iti uttoiooe > melatieD. 

(3.} To oooac to tba bitiaiinl tatitaonio in 
fctor of St. Jobn'i uilbonhip : Umm uo tiuguluij 

««gb IgvniC than, (n.) Jual 


Jshn, oh of tbe Apiatk« of Chriit, in t reitlUion 
vbicb «M UMftc to him, propheued Uwt the L«- 
Eocn ID our Chriat ihaU lire ■ Iboiuuiil yam in 
JtrmtUta" iTqipk. { 81. p. 179. ed. Um.). [b ) 
Tht Author of the Uumtoruui Kn^^ment, cir. 170 
A. D., ipeeki of St. JoLin u (be wiiler of the 
ApoaJjpiB, ud dncribei hiru u ■ pndtceatoi uf 
Bt- Paul. >. e. M Dndno- uid LikJu randiiU; in- 
terpret it, hit ]sed«caear in the offio* of Apsitle. 
(c) l(elitoDfi)«nla,i:li. 17DA.I>.,WTaleii tnatiae 
CB the Bevduioo of John, tjiiebiui (//. t. i*. 
3bi menlJDni thli usoug the book* of Uelito wblcta 
bed oonie U> hia bnowMge ; end, *• he evefiiUj 
iMorda objectione ifcuut the ApcatJe'a authonhip, 
ti mej be birlj previtoal, noturithatAJidiDe the 
doabta of Klauker ud l.iicke (p. 61*1, Uut Kutt- 
buw famd no doubt >• to Ut. Jobn'i Euithonbip in 
(be booh rf thia uicinit Aiiitio biabop. (d) Tbe- 
•philitt,tH<bap«f Aatioch, cir. 180, in ■cootrDvenj 

lUiOBlif John(eua(i>. //, A' (e.) Irencuif 
cir- 185. apparentij nevar haring heud a auggeetioo 
ef Uf oUhI' luthar than the Apoatle, onan quota 
Ite bidatica aa the wort of John. In ir. *), { 
U, b* deacril« John the niter of tbe UeraUtioii 

■ the * 

jupper. vid aalced Him who ahouid betimj Hini, 
Tbe laatimonj of InoHU aa to tbe >ulhonhip of 

tl loj uther wrilo' : it uoodU up into the [veoed- 

lag genantinn, and ia tirUuliy Uwt d ■ oooIcid- 

ponrj of tba Apoatle. Fw in i. 3U, § 1, when he 

' " ■ the tnie nading {eOB} of the Dumber 

laut, be cita in lupport of it not orU; the 

set oopiei of the biwk, but alio the oral 

ij of the irrj peraoiia who thaiaaek«a had 

1 St. Jobu boe to fooe. It ia obrioui that 

iBua'a rderenoe for irjronaatiDn on auch a puint 

tboae oofiteinpurarjea of St John impii« hia 

liHiied (athan ef Akundria had ael 

•f biatorieal eritiolimi but hia ng^ 
weakaoa tbe fane of tba &et that 
wlU' of AaU, nod it appean ■ Bnage augiteatioa 

4 tba Alaaandriaiia. to wtioni be nfen, kd them 
« eoiiwide wilb Iteiuaua ia hi* riew. (/) Apol- 
«ata (dr. aoO) of l£fitae«M (?l, ia eDi]|?imt«r «itb 

the MoDtauiati of Pbrj^ quoted j-iTtiflift oat of 
the Keitliittou of John, and narrated a Diinca 
ight 1>; Johu al Eptnui (Euaeb. H. £. r. IS). 
Clement of Aleuodria (cii. aOO) quotia the 
book aa the Elevelalion of Jobii IStnmala, t). 13, 
p. 667), »iid u tbe work of an AposUe (Pad. iL 
IJ, p. 30T). (iL) TertuUian (A. D. 30T), in at 
laait one plau, quotei bj unme " the Apoatle John 
is tbe Apocalipae" (Ailt. Jfiuciui. iii. U). (i) 
Hippulj-tua (or. '230) ia aaid, id tbe iiucriptim oa 
his aliUie at liome, to liave compoaed ku apolon 
for the Apocalj'paa and lioapel of St. John St 
Apoall*. Ue quota it aa the work of St. JjhD 
(Ol AMicirulu, J 36, BOL 7&a, ed. Uigue). fj.i 
OrigeD (cit. 333), id hia Conimaotarj on sL John, 
quoted bj Euaebiua (//. £. li. i&), bji of the 
Apoatk, " be wrote alao the Keidatiofi." Tbo lee- 
tinuuiei of kicr wrilen, u> tba Ihini and lourtk 
centuriee, in ftior of St John'a aulhombip of the 
ScTelatioo, are equally diaUnct aitd Tar more uumef- 
ou*. Tbay niB}' be aeea quoted at Length in Lucke, 
pp. a38-U38, or in Ucaa Allurd'a P,vUgu,iMa 
{N. T., vol. IT. pt. ii.}. It maj tutBue hen to sty 
that they iudude the namea nl Vicbiiinua, Meth- 
odiua, Kphmn liynu, Kpiphaniua, Uaail, Hilar;, 
Atbanaliua, Uregory [of Nyiaa], Uidymua, Am- 
bruae, Auguitins, aud Jrroow. 

AU tbe foregoing wriioi, tealUying that tba book 
caiue bum an Apoatle, bdieved Uiat it wa* a part 
at iloly Scripture. But many whoee extant work* 
cuiuot ha quoted for taatimooy to the aullunhip 

tbority. Tbm (a.) Papiia, who ia described by 
Ireucua aa a hearer of St- Johu and IKwid oT i'oty 
carp, ia sited, (ogetbcr with other writen, by Ad- 
dreia of Cappadoeia, in bia Conuueutoiy on tb* 
IteveUtkn, aa a guamitee to later agea of tb* 
divuie iiupintion of the book (South, Rtliq. Sacr. 
i. Ii; Cramer'i CiUtno, Oiford, ISW, p. 176). Tbe 
value of thia teatiinouy hat not been impaired by 
tbe oontioveiay to which it bai giireu rise, In whioh 
.iicke, lUaek, lleugiteDlieig, and Kettig bare tokai 
diHenot pwta. {b.) In the l^iatle from tbe 
ChuRsbu of Ljona and Vienna, A. a. 177, biaerted 
iu Luaebiua, il. f. t, 1-3, levtnl poaaaget {e. y. i 
h, lii. 4, nil. 11] an quoted or rdened to in tbe 
aama way a* paaogea of liooka whoee eaDonieal 
autboritj i> unqueaCioned. (<.) Cyprian Itlpp. lU, 
11, 14, IV, ed. t'tU) repeatedly quotea it aa a put 
of e an ODJeai Scripture. CltT^aoatom make* no dia- 
tinct alluaion to it in any extant writing; but «• 
are iidorraed by Snidaa that ha reoaired it aa oani^ 
loaL Although omitted (perbapa aa not adaptail 
[or pubhc reading m ohurcb) from the liet of 
ouionical booki in the (Jouncil of Laodioea, it wae 
admitted iuto tbe Liat of the 'Third Couiuul U 
Carthage, i. D. 3aT. 

Suoh it the evideooa in faroi of St. Joba'a 
authorabip and of tbe caoouical authority of thii 
book. Tba laUawing faota muit be weighed oo tba 

Mutioa, who reginled all the Apoatlea eiotpt 
St. Paul aa corniplarB of tbe truth, injected tba 
Apooalypee and all other booka of tbe N. T. whieb 

ittan by St Paul. Tba Abgi, a 

in the ebureh, aud reacted the Ketelotioii, aayiag 
it wae the work, nut of Jotao, but uf CcriottaM 
(tpiphaiiiua, .4ifv. Ilm: Ii.). Tbe Roman pnaby- 
ler Uaiua (ciroa 196 A. D.), who abo wrote againM 
Montaiiiam, ia quoted b; Guaabiw (tf. £. Ui. Ip| 


M ucrlbbiK cslila Revelatiooi te CwinUiui. 


id (He KouU 

J. 138) w 

tin Ketdukn ol Si, Jobn ia tha book to which 
Cuui [den. but the (slltuonj which it coiuid- 
cred tba moit ImpoHaiil of «ll In uidtDt tlnia 
■guliiil tin Keitluioii i> ccutjUtud in ■ rngiwjiil 
al UiiMijMUt oC Aluandrbi, circ* iiO A. D., Uie 
moat iiifluvtitMi uid perhapa tha AbLeat biahop Id 
that age. 'Vbt paaaaga, Ulifn from % book On iht 
Ptifuiitti, writuo ill nplj lo Napoa, > leimed 
Juduiiug Cbiliut, ia quoted b; Kuaebitu (//. £. 
rii. £5). Tba principiil point! in it u« theae: 
Dtoiijaiua t«atiRea that auuir writcra beTun him 
■llogdthrr repudiated the Ka\elation aa a forgery 
of Cerinthitai manj bretlireii, however, priaed it 
tuj liiichlj, and Dionjaiua wimld not nntum lo 
i^t it, but nceived it ia faith aa conlnlning 
Ihiogi too d«p and too aubLiuie for hia uadtnluid- 
big. [In hia l^llaIl• to Hefnian.Dioii (liuwb. I/. £• 
Tit 10) h* quota* it w h* would quote Holj Scrip- 
turo] lU accept* at Ime wlikt ia ataUd in lit 
book itaelf, that it waa written bj Johu, but be 
■rgwe that the waj in which that name la nieo- 
tiuiied. aiid tbe geoenl chtrvter of the luguage. 
■n unlike wiiM we thould eipnt from John the 
Enniceiiat aiid Apottte; tliat there were manj 
Johna ill that age- lie would pot aaj that John 
Mark wna the writer, aince it ia not known that he 
waa in Aaia. He auppoaa !t uiuat be the work of 
■onte John who lived in Aaia; and he obaerraa 
then an aiid lo be two tombi in Epbetua, eaeb of 
wbich bean the name of Jobn. He then pniuia 
out at loiiflli the (uperiurit; ot the alyle of the 
Goapel and the tint (fiiatle of John to the atyle 
of Ibe Apocalypae, and aa}i. in concloaion, that, 
whatever he niaj think of the luiguage, he doe* 
Dot denj tbat the writer of the ApocaljpM actually 
aaw what he deacribe*. and hu endowed wllh tbe 
divine gilta of knowledge and propbeej. To thia 
Blenl, and no hrlher, Uionjaiua la a witneaa 
agsinit SU John 'a authorahip. It la obvioua that 
he lelt keenly the difficulty ariilng from tbe uie* 
maile of tbe cuntenta of tiiia book by certain un- 
fouud ChriaUana under hia jurltdiclion; that he 
waa acqu^nted witb tbe doubt a* to ila canonical 
authority wbich aome of hia predeceaaora entertained 
a* an inlerence from the nntiire of Ita oontentai 
that be delibentety njected their doubt and ac- 
cepted the conlenli of tlie Imk aa given by the 
inaplntlon of (iod; that, aliliDugb be did not un- 
dentand bow St. John could write in the ityte in 
which Um Kevelatioa ia writleii, he jet knew of no 
buCbontj for attributinir it, aa he deaired to at- 
triiiute it. tfl aome olber of the nunierou* peniona 
who lioie the name of John. A weightier diffieuitj 
arite* troni the fact that Uie Kevchition te one of 
Ibe book* which are abaetit from the ancient Peabito 
reraion ; and the only truatworthy evidence in &vor 
ot iU reception by the andent Syrian Church i* a 
tiiiKle ijuolation wlrich ia adduced from the Syiiac 
w«ka (li. %t3 c) of Epbnm Syrua. Kuaebiut ia 
rbikukabt; (paring in bia qootatlona tnim Ibe 
' Kerdation of John," and lb* uncertalntj of hia 
opinion about it ia titat abown by kii ttatentent In 
H. £'. Hi. as, that X it it likdy that the HeicUtion 
n* acMi by the aemnil John (tlie Epheeian pret- 
vjlm), if any one ia unwilling lo beiiere lliat it 

VaniimMm, eU. ) that the Greek chunbaa fell, with 

reapeot lo the Berekthm, ■ limilw doobt to IbM 
of the Latina rcapectiog tho Hfiuk lo tbe Hehim 

Kejtber be nor liia equally InBuentiaJ eontenipcnrj 
Auguatine iliared auch doubt*. Cyril of Jcruanlem, 
( hryanatooi, llHUdon of Mopaueitla, and Theodenl 
aUlained from making u>e of the book, aharing, it 
ia poaaible, the doubt* to which Jerooie refen. But 
they have not gone ao br aa to eiprea* a diatinet 
opinion againat It." Tlie alWice of thee* writtn ia 
tlie Ideal evidence of any importance that ha* beau 
adduoed againat tbe oterwhelming welgbt of the 
leatinionj in hin>r of tbe canoDicml aothoritv aud 
authonlilp of thia book. 

R TiuK jtNii Pi.Aca OP WfliTtKa.— Tbe dale 

of tbe Keielation ia ^>w by tbe great ou^jority of 

■■■ I aa A. 1). B6-BT. The weighty teatimony rf 

ut ia alliioat lufflclent to prerenl any other 

itlou. Ele •*}* lA<lv. Ilai: t. 30, { 3|: •' It 

(t. e. the tieieUtiaii) WM teen no very toog time 

), but almott ill our own gensatlon, at tbe doee 

Domitlan'a rei^." luiaebiu* alao recorda aa a 

dition which he doea not queatlou, that in tbe 

peteecutlon under Domitjan, John the Apoatle and 

Kvmgeliat, being yet tint, w*a baniabed to tiw 

ialaiid ?Blmoa for hii leitimony of tbe divine sotil. 

Allutioni in (]eitient of Aktandria and OiigtD 

any writs- of the lint three centuiiea of any 

ulber time or place. F^ljibanlua (li- IS), obi-ioualy 

mittake. nj* that John propbeeted in the ttign 

Clauditti. Two or three oUcun and later an- 

ipported by any hiitorical evidence, aomt 
ititon have put forth tbe eraijecture tlial 
the Kevelition wa* written a* eariy ai the time of 
Nero. Tbia ia tiniply their inference from Ibe alyte 
oontent* of the book- But it li diflScult to aee 
why St. John'a old age rendered it, aa they allege, 
impoaaible for him to write hia iiupired meaaage 
with Curce and vigor, or why bia naideuoe In 
lual hai-e removed tbe Hebnietic peed, 
bia Greek. It i* difficult to aee in the 
T, li. U. iii. B, ri. 12, 1«, li. 1, anything 
Id lad neceasahly to the conduaion. thai 
a proiperout condition, and tl 

I fulfilled 

argument in bior of an early date might bt 
'um a modem interpretation of ivli, 11), if that 
ilerpretation could be ea(*Uiah«<l. Galba i> al- 
^ (0 be tbe aixth king, the one that " ia." In 
Icrf theae interpreten ate tbe beaal that waa 
Qunded (<iii. 3), the Beaat that waa and ia imt, 
the eighth king (ivii. 11). for amne time aAs 
Veni'i death Ibe Roman populace beliotd tliKt be 
Fu not dead, but bid Bed into the Kaat, wbenee 

be 'I'ltitd n 

ilerprelen venti _ 

le ICcvel*tion abated and mfant lo exprnaa (he 

Aurd popular deluiion, Kx-eii the able and learned 

Kfiiaa ( ntoL Vl'i-il. I. 443), by way of aupportjog 

' ia Interpretation, advance* bia untenable claini 

tbe Ant diaoovery of the name of Nern Caaat 

tbe number of the beaa^a«fl. The inoomiileiMn 

thii inteipretation with prophetic analogy, with 

I conMit of Revrialion, and with tbe fact thai 

the hook I* of divine origin, 1* pointfld out bj 

Hengatenhcrg at the end of hi* IJommentuj oa: 

cb- liii-, and by FJliott, Hvra Apws. Iv- 647. 



h hM bcco lattmd Itma L 9, 9. 10, tbat Oic 
SotUUoQ wu writloi In Epfaaua, immedUtflj 
ifter the Aposllc'a roturn from P»lnicn. 13ut Ihe 
toit a Kurdj mfHf lent to support tJiii ooncluaioii, 
Tbe itjle in which tbc lunugn to the Sncn 
Qiunba w dtltwred ntber aui(gestA Uib notion 
that Uh bwk vu written in Pstiuo*. 

C I^KuuAGR. — The doubt fint taggeAei bj 
HarenbtT)!. whctha tbs Rerdition wu written In 
Arunnic, haa met with little vr no naptlon. The 
Mlaiee oT ill indent wrilen •■ bi my Anunaie 
ari^m) B mlone ■ lufflcient uiwer to ttia (Ugftee- 
tion. LUcke (AMnl. 441) has «Im eoUeded in- 
lenia] eridatce to ihow tW ttw original la (be 
Ureek of a Jewiih Chriatiin. 

Lijcke bu >1» (pp. 448-464) cumlned in 
ninule drtail. ttia the pncedin;; Ikhora of Doiiker- 
CurtiDi, VogFl, Winer. Ewild, KolthoB; uid Hit- 
Bg, Uk pecniiultiti of Uitguge which obrioiul; 
dktin^iab the HevdnUon ftoai eretj other book of 
the N'ew Totuoent. And in mbeeqaent •ectloiii 
(pp. 6M-T4T) he ui^n with gfnl force, the difler- 
w> txtmen the HertUlioii on one dde vid the 
tnrtli Goipd isd Hnt l-Ipittle oa iha other, in 
n*peet o( their atjle and ooopaitlon and the 
oMntal ebaneto' and ittunmeiiM of Ih* writer of 
Bell. HengMmbci^, in ■ dlaaertation appended to 
bia Coniniaitarj, miuntaini that tbej an bj one 
writer. That the anomaliei aiid pecnliaritin of 
tbe RsnUtion ban been gmtlj euf^oaled bj 
Kua critia, ii aoffidcntJjr •hown bj Hluig'i 
pbnribk nod ingHikHia, thoDgb nnneMiBAiI, at' 
t^pt to prove the identity of atjla and diiKJon In 
the KerebtiDO UKJ the (io^ of St. Mark. Itms; 
be admitted that Uie Renlilloa haa manj aurpria- 
ing giammatieai pecullaritiea. But much of thia 
ia aeemnlad for by the &ct that it w»a probably 
writtan down, la it wu aeen, "in the Spirit," 
■hibt tbe ideu. in *U their norekj and natncaa, 
ailed th« Apoatle't mind, and nodend him leae 
eapablt of attending to bna of epeech. Hia 
tkfA and Eplitlea, on the othrr band, wen coni- 
poaed equally nader dirine influence, bat an influ- 
enea of a gentler, man ordinary kind, with much 
can, aflo- kmg dellbermtjon, after (lequent reeol- 
laetioo and recitxJ of tba &eta, and deep ponder- 
bw of tbe doctrinal tnitfaa whlcb they Inroln. 

D. CoiTTK^nv. — Tba flrritbiMTMia contain 
tha titl* of tba book, the dtaeriptlon af the writer, 
and the bleaiing pronounced mi tbe naden, wlilch 
poaaihlr, like tbe lart two rertes of tbe fourth 0«- 
pal, may be aii addition by tiie hand of loapred 
■anrinra of tbe writer. Jolin Ixgina (i. i) with a 
■ahitatkn of tha Seren Chnrebea of AaU. Thia, 
eoming befbn the 

■ (LB, 

loaobn tba key-note of the whole tillowintt book, 
Ih* gnat fonditneiital IdoH on which ill our notioni 
of Uie goTanuant of tha wurid and tba Church 
ira bob.; the fawn of Chriil, (ha redemption 
■nsuglht byUim, hii aeeotid coming lo Judge man- 
kind, Iba paluful hoftal diioipliDa of Cbriatlani 
lalliaahiitofthlapRaentwCTldi thoughla which 

■ay adl ba uppoanl tt haTt — - 

tba miiid of tba ptfieeBtai and 
hafcn iba DlTiiia In^ifatian n 

a. Tlw Ont tUuh (L T-iiL 39) ibDwa tha Son 
■f Han wllfa bit Injanstlmi, er EpU^ lo the 
Bares Chunbca. ^Vbile tha Apoalk la peoderlng 
kaa, peat tratha aod tba arttlaal aondUkm of " 

Church which be had left, a IKtiDa Penon rcaem- 
bliiig Ibcee aeen by Eiekid and Daniel, mid idea- 
tified by Danw and by dcacription aa Jeeus, ippeui 
to.lobn, uid with the diacriruinatiug authority of a 
1 jird aiid Jihigfl nriewa Ihe atate of thoae churcbeai 
pTDnonnoH hia deciaion upon their leveral e 


n fiomth 

who may deaerra ainnlar encourage 
ment or abnilar condemnation. Kacb of thCM 
■euIBncta, ipoken by the Sou of Man, Is described 
■a Bid by the Spirit. Hitherto the Apoille hu 
been apaafcing primarily, Ibougb not cicluiiiely, 
to aonie of hia own coulemponriea concerning 
tha preacut erenla and cireumalaiicea. Hei.M- 
forth be.ceaaea to addrtaa Ibeiu particularly. Uia 
worda an for tba ear of the unirersal Church ia 
an i^es,and ahow tha aigniBcance of ibiiiga whiah 
are preaent in hope or fiiir, iu aoircw or in joy, tB 
Chriatiana crerywhank 

and the Uliiue Penon whom he uw are gone. 
Only tbe trumpet roice ii heard ag^n ailing him 
to a change of placs. He ii In the bighcet court 
of beaitn, and leea God sitting on bia tbrona. 
Tbe seren-eeaM book or roQ la [roducsl, and tba 
alun Lamb, the Kedcemcr. rec^vea it amid tha 
Bound of universal adoration. Aa the aeala ata 
opened In order, tha Apoatle aen (1) a eonquenr 
on a whit* hone, (S) a rdd bom Itetokming war, 
{3) tbe bbck horse of famine, (4) the pale bona 
of death, {B) the eager souls of maityn under tha 
altar, (8) an eartbquske with uninrsal comniotioQ 
and terror. After this there is a pause, the coum 
of avenging aBgeb la checked wbile 144,000, tha 
children of lara^ Krviuta of God, are aealed, and 
an innumerable multitude of tba redeemed of all 
nationa are aeen wonhlpplng Uod. Neit (T ) tha 
seveulli sral la opened, and half an bour'a aileoat 

c Then (rilL 3-il. IB] aeren angeb appear wiU 
trumpets, the prsyen of saints are ofltred up, th# 
earth is struck with On bom the altar, and tha 
wveu Irumpeta an sounded. (1) Tbe earth and 
(3) the sea and (3J tbe springs of water and (4) 
the heateoly bodies are sueceailTely smitMn, {S) a 
pisguc of focnat* afflicta Iba men who are not 
sealed (the flnt woa), [8} tha third part of man 
an slain (the anond woe), but tba net an Im- 
penitent. Then then la a pause i a Blighty anga) 
with a book ippean and crlu out, asven (hundm 
sound, but thrir words an not recoided, the f- 
proaetaing complelioa of the mystsiy of God li 
announced, the angel Lids the Apostle (at tha 
book, and measure the Temple with its worsbippan 
and Iha outer court giran up to the UcntUeai th* 
two wiliieues of Ood, Iheir martyrdoiu, rc(ut> 
rerUon. sscenalon, an foretold. The approach of 
the thitd woe It announced and {7} the SRsalt 
trumpet k aounded, the reign of Chriit ia pro- 
claimed, God hu taken hi* great power, the Uma 
has <sma for Judgment and fcr tha dcMruotkin of 
the deslmyen of the aarth. 

Tbe (hne praccding vidona an dlstinst &om od* 
another. Eaob of tha last two, tike the knger 
one which follows, bu tbs appeatanoa of a diatlnat 
[ropbecy, nacblog Ihim the propbat'a time to tha 
end of tha world. He acBOnd half of tbe Reve^ 
tion (di,-iill.) omnpriset a arrlea of rislcin* wbiah 
an oonnectcd by nrioui llnha. It may be d»< 
serlbad generally as a pnphaoy of the auaulta tl 
tha daril and his agoita (=tb< dngon, tha tio- 
bonied baaat. tbe tws-horaed beaat or hba prapbA 




n the Chunji, ud their Bnil 
It ippeiui (o b«gin with ■ rcfcRna 
B) evmw witErkir, not only to (boM oblcb in pre- 
dictrd in the pmeding cbipter, bat tin to Ibe 
lime in •thich it wu wnKen. It aeenii bud lo 
Interpret Uw liirth of the chiM m t indictioii,ind 
not H ■ relroapectii'e alluilon. 

d. A womwi (ili.) clothed with Uie Hin 1i lai 
In hnvtn, ind t icmt red dnfioii mlth Ki-en 
crowned heula aluida nlUng to dei'oiir ber ofT- 
■prlng; her child ii ciuRhl up unto (kid, tud iJie 
nwtiKr Ben into the vildenieu for 1360 daja. 
Ttw peraculkin of the iranmn and her leed on 
mth bjr Uie dri^n, !■ dewribod u tho conw- 
qonKC of I nr in htnTen In whicb the dragon 
VH overcome uid cut out upon Uw («Hb. 

St. itohn (>ii<.) at*nding on tbe an-abore aen a 
beut with Kven bewlt, one wounded, with ten 
vrowiied lioma, rlainj; irom the water, the repro- 
•enutive of the dragon. All the world wonder at 
uid vonhip liim, and he allacb the niiiU and 
preraila. He la followed hj another tico-honied 
bean riaing out of the eertli, who comptia men (o 
■oil' the muk of the beut, wboN nmnber ia 

St. John (dr.) ara the Lamb with 144,000 
funding on Mount Zion learning (he gong of praiie 
of the heavenly boat. Thiee angdi fly Ibrtb ail- 
ing men to wonhtp God, proclninilng the fill of 
Bahjlun, denouncing the wonhippera of the beaut. 
A blesiing ia pronounced on (he hjthfnl dead, and 
the judgment of the world i> described onder the 
imege of a harveat reaped by antreh. 

St. John (IT., xtL) aeei in heiiren tba talnla 
who had overcome the beut, ainging the eong of 
Uoaea and the Ixmb, Then Kven angela come out 
cf the heaiTnly tempte havlni; Kven viali ol wnth 
which they pour out upon the earth, lea, Tl\'en, 
tun, the scat of the beut, Euphratee, and the air, 
ifttf whicb there la a great rarthquahe and a hail- 
One (ivii., irlll.) of the but seven uigeli carrio 
SL John into the wildenieai and abowa bim a har- 
lot, Babylon, dUlng On a scarlet beast with seven 
hesdi and ten horns. She is eiplained to ba that 
gnat dty. illting upon seven mountain!, telgnlng 
over tbe kings of (he earth. Afterwaida St- John 
see* a vision of the 

Afterwards (ill.) the 
benrd cclebnling Babylon's RiU and the 
tag matriage-Mipper of Ibe l.ainb. The Wo»d 
Gud ii seen going forth to war at tlie be»d of tbe 
heavenly armieai the beait and hii Msc prophet 
an l»ken end cast into (he turning lake, and 

An anget (».-»il. B) binds the dragon, L e. the 
devil, for 1000 jenrs, whilst tbe raartjied lalnti 
irba had not worahi^^ed the bea«t reign wilh Cbrlit. 
Thai the devil is unloosed, gathen a h»t agaiiist 
die cHnip of (be rainta, !>ut a overcome bj '~ 
Itvm heaven, and li cut into tbe burning lake 
Ibe liemt and lUit prophet. St. John (hen 
oenea the prooeas of the Biial Judgment, and 
Mid docTllMS the new heaven and the new a 
■nd the new Jemsalem, wi(b 11* people and tbelr 

In the last sliteen vema (iiil. 641) tbe angri 
Klcmnly aueveta(ei the (rnlhhilnat and Impor- 
M>M of the fongolng ujlngi, pnRunuiea "~ 

ing on thoae wba keep tbem exactly, gina «ma 
ing of hia speedy coming (o Judgment, and of (ha 
neiraeai of the time when tboe propbeciee thai 

E. lirrEHPEETATiOH. — A sbott aeeoiint of the 
diferent directloiii in rblcb atteffipla have been 
made (o intirpret the lievphtion. i> all that can be 
given In tbii place. The spedii bhoing promised 
to (he rewler of tbi* hook (i. 3), the astittaoce to 
common Cbrlitlan experience allbrded hy its pre- 
cep(s and by a>me of Its viaima, (he striking im- 
a^y of othei^ the (smpting Srld which it lupplies 
for IntellectDal aiaclie, will always attract sludenla 
to this book and Kcun jbr it tlie labors of attiij 
oommentaton. I':brard irckons that not lest (Iwn 
eighty tyitemalic commentariea an worthy oF not*, 
and atatea tbal tbe lea valuable writSnga on this 
ineihauatible auljicct are uniininbered, if nut iunn- 
mertble. Fanatlciam, theologicai hatred, and vain 
eurioiitj, may have largely influenoej (heir oom- 
poeltioo 1 but any one who will compare the me«t- 
aarily inadequate, and toraetimea ectoneoua, eipoai- 
(ion of early times with a good modem eommen- 
tary will see that tbe pious lngeiitt::y of ao many 
centuries has not been exerted quite in rain. 

Tbe hiterval between the ApostoKe age and thai 
of Conitaiiliue hu been called the ChlliaatJc period 
of Apooilyptic iiilerTireta^n. 1'he vl^na of SL 
John wen chidly raEarded u npreaentatloni of 
general Chriitian truths, Mircely yet embodied In 
actual tacts, for tbe moat purl to be exaniptifted or 
fulfilled in the nign of Antichrist, the onming of 
Cbritt, Ibe millennium, and tbe day of judgment. 
Tbr fnelt hops of (he early t^rirtiana, and tlw 
scitre pertccution they endund, taught (hem to 
lii« In those futun ei-enla with interne aatisliicljoii 
and com Fort. They did not entertain tbe thought 
of building up a deflnite consecutive ehronologiad 
icheme even of tboee symbols which some modenn 
regard u then already l\ilfilled; although ftnm tba 
beginning a connection betweeo Roma and Antl- 
cbriat WB> univetBally allowed, and parts of tba 
Herelation Were rqwded as the Blling-up of (be 
great outUne skeUiied by Daniel and St. l>aul. 

The only ei(aii( eyitemaUo Interpretations in 
this period an the Interpolated t'onimentar; dd 
the ReveUdon by (Iw martyr Vlctorinus, tin. ITO 
A. D. (SMnfAeci Pitrnm Unrinn, lil. 414, and 
Migne'i Pnlnlugta Lnlian, t. S18i (he two edi- 
tions should be compared), and the disputed Tra»- 
tiie on Antichrist liy Hlppolytui (UiRiie's Piitro- 
login (it-ac", i. 720). Itut (be pnvalent viewaof 
that age am to be gathered also from a paaaage In 
.luetin Martyr {T.-g/Jm, BO, SI), rrom Uie later 
books, eapecbilly the (illfa, of Inmcus. and htm 
vsrioua tcatlered paasagea In Tertullian, Origao. 
and Methodius. Tbe general anticipation of (li* 
last days of the worM in Laetantini. (ii. 14-36. 
hu little direct referaice to (he Ueveiation. 

Immcdia(ely after tbe triumph of Constantlne, 

persecution, uid dominant and pnapeious in their 
turn, began (0 lose thdr vivid opntation of out 
t.ord'B speedy Advent, and their spiritual coneep- 
(lon of his kii^dom, and to look upon the (em* 
poni supremacy of ChrisUanlty u a nilBUment of 
the promised reign of CbidM on eaitb. Tbe Ro- 
man empire become Cbrtitfan was regarded k 
longer u tbe ol^ject of prophetio deuunciatiaa, but 
as tbr scene of a millantiiil derekqanent. Tfaiavlew 
however, wu loon met bv the flgwatlve Intarrr* 
HUonof the mtltaDDloiD a* tbe nipi of CbriM ii 



■• tiaBti of aO tnw Mlercn. A 
■d hoctinl innd«n of tha UUng eiDpfra •[>• 
fmni, thtij were ngti^ed bj tin mftriiig C3irt>- 
liMH H riilfllling the ma dauuDnd in Ibe HfM!- 
bfioB- Tbe beginning of a reguhr cbronoloeiciil 
■BlfTirttatian b M«n b Benngwid (uaigiird bj 
Mot erilie* lo tbr Hfa c«nluT7]. itba InnCeil Uie 
Berelation ■• % hutorj of th« Chnnjh from ihe 
bqriDning of th« worid to ite end. And the origi- 
nJ CoaiiDcnts-j of the Abbot Jauhfm ii reniiirk- 
iU«, oat onlj fiv a further derdopmant of that 
nttliDil of inUrpntation, but <br the Kaindr dit- 
gulaed Menliflalion of Babjlan with Papal Korae, 
■id at the teeond Beaat or Antiohriat with lome 
UiiirenO Hontiir. 

The ahief ooniinenlariei belonging (a Ihia period 
v* that which )■ aambed to 'Hehoniiia, dn^ 390 
a, IL, priiiiad in tbe worti of St. AuguMlne; I^- 
TiiaiiHi of AdronKtuiu In Africa, A. D. h&O, In 
UigBe-i PaLvlntui Lalmii, liriD. 1106; AndrfM 
of Cnte, dn. 6(0 A. n., Arethaa ot Cappadocta 
n of Theealy bi the 10th ceiiUirr, 
B piihHahed together in 
I (i'trvi, Oion., 1840; tbe txplTUUi! 
JfOe. In the wcda of Bole, A. D. T3S; the t'xpn- 
■r» of Berengand, prjnttd In the worin of Ain- 
bnae; tha Commentarj of Haymo, A. D. Bi3, first 
pnbSihed at Coloena in 1531; ■ ifaoit 1>«liae on 
tb( Seali bj Anieiin. blihop of HaTlIheig, A. D. 
1145, printtd In D'Aebjrj'i Spidhiiiim, L 161; 
tbe Sxpoa-iy of Abbot .'aachlm of Calabria, A. D. 
taOU, printed at Venice in 1537. 

In the dawn of (he RrlbraiaUoD, tht rlewi to 
arUeh the teputatleo of Abbot Joaeliim gare cnr- 
renej, were takai ap bf tbe harbinger) of the hn- 
pending cbaose, a* bj WieUiSk and othent and 
tbej tiiiMi tbe Ibundation of thai great blitorlal 
Kh«a( ot Intopretatton, wblcfa up (o this time 
mna tha moat pnpolar of afl. It li impiMaible to 
noatraet an exact ehadficaliou of modem inlH^ 
prelen of the Kettiation. Tbe; ate generall; 
plaard in tfane i^raat diTfiisni. 

a. The Hkloriml or Continnoue eipoaiton. In 
wbcM opinion tbe Kerelatlon i> ■ progrtealn bia- 
lorr of the fertnna of the Chunh fmrn the fint 
WBtiaj to the md of time. Tbe ohlef lupporttra 
at tbl* tnoct bitemtlng interpretation are Htde, 
Sa I- Newton, Vitringa, Bengd, WondbouM. Ka- 
aer, E. B. Elliott, Wordiworth, Hei>g)1enbvg, 
EbraH, asd ottien. The neent eomnMntarj 01 
beao Alford bdongi mainlj to thla tchool 

t. Tbe Pneteriit eqiotllara, who are of opinion 
«iat the RardalJon baa been almort, or altotiether, 
■tilllled b the time which hu pasMd lince It wia 
Tittn ; that it refen prinofpaily to the triumph 
■f ChrMJanitj orer Jndaiim and Paganigiii. slg- 
fialiaid in the downCiU of Jemsakr ' ' " 
The inoat eminent eipounden o( 
Akmr, Grotiu), Hammond, Bonuet, Calmel. Wet- 
•triii. I'jehhom, Hug, HrHer, Ewdd, I.iicke, De 
Wette, DtiMerdieck, Stuart, Ue, and Maurice. 
Thia la the brorite Interpretation with tbe crjtjca 
5f (ienmnj. one of whom goea lO hr uvi atale 
that the wiiter of tbe Rerelatlon pramiacd tha 
binUmeiit of hi* rlaioro within th 
three jon and a halt from the time in wbieta be 

!. The FnliTlal eipoeiloli. wlioae ri 

i (o come. Thli view, whidi ii Maartad to 
be metelf a mHiwl of tiM prinjitlve Intenretstloii, 
haa been admeated In recent time* bj Ur. i. H. 
Todd Dr. 8. R. Maithnd, B. Newton, C. MaiUaiid, 
I. Wimant, De Bnrgh, and othen. 

E«b of theae three Kheniea b open to otjeo- 

:Ion. Againit tha Futuriat It ia argued, that it la 

tot eon^tent with (he repented dnliratioii) of a 

ipeedj fulfillment at tbe Ii4;iiititng and end of the 

booh itaeir (aea ch. i. 6, iiii. 6, T, IS, SO). Chria- 

, to whom it waa orlguiollj aiidieaaed, would 

derired no itptclal minfort from It, bad It* 

meiit beoi ^to(^(har deferred Ibr ao maof 

iriea. He rigidlj literal Interpretation of 

BabjIoN, the Jewiib tribet, and olhar •jnibab 

wbloh generallj hrmi a part of Futuriil fcbemea, 

preaenia pecntlar difficultiee, 

Agabiit the Pnetcriit eipoeilon It ii urged, that 
prophecica ftilllUed ou^t to be rendered ao pep- 
dcudu* to the general aense of the Chirreb aa 10 
ipply an aiguoienl agalnut Inildelitj; tbet tbe 
stmction of Jerunlem, baring occurred twcntj- 
n jean previoualj, could nut occupj a larg# 
MCe b a pn^bec; - thxt the auppoaed prediotloni 
of tbe downfall) of Jmulein imd of Nero appeal 
from tbe wnteil to reftr to one event, bot are bj 

order; (hat the meaauting of the tempi* 
le altar, and tbe dentli of the two witneoe* 
(oh. il.), eaonot be etplained eoulMenll; "Itb tte 

Agidnat tba Hlitorieal acheme it I* urged, thai 
I admcatea differ Terj widelj among themaelwe; 
at Ihej aaanme without any authorilj that thi 
1960 daya an ao nianj years; that wteral of lla 
•ppllaitiona — (. g, of ti?eiymbal of the (en-bonted 
beaet to the Popaa, and the aiitb seal to the am- 
renlon of Uonataotine — are booiuistent with tb* 
onteit; that attcnipti b; aonie of tbi) aehool lo 
predict ftitore erenta by tlie help of Ketetalion bat* 
' ' ' -ed failures. 

I, It may be ftated that [wo methodi 
bare been proponed by which tbe atudent of tb* 
Etmlatjon niar eaoape (he incongruitin and falla- 
:ie* of the dil^rent interprrtations, whilst be may 
ierlve edification from whatfveT truth theycontab 
It baa been lu^ested that the book may be n~ 
jarded aa a prophets poem, dealing In genenl and 
i«ct deacrlptlon 

Mek, •urptiiu 

lini acboola. They helleie that tbe whole 
pertupa th* flnt thne diaptMa, 
If unt culmifdj, to areota ~' * 

down aa poetie imagery, mere embelBihinenL BbI 
iiieb a view woaM be difficult to reconcile with th* 
belief that tbe took la an inapired prophecy. A 
belter suggratlon ia made, or lalbCT is rerhed, bj 
Dr. Arnold in bit Sennona On tht I 
of Pnjiht^! tb*t we ihould bear h 
pmliclkina have a lower biitorlcal aenae, •* well n 
a bl)(her epiritual aenae; tliat there nay be On* at 
more than one typical, Imperfect, hlitorieal ftiUU- 
menl of a prophecy, id each of which tb* higbar 
apirituil fulnilmeiit la ihadowed forth more or laat 
diatinctly. Mr. FJIiott, in his lliira Apveabgilitm, 
ir. 623, ar^ea against thia principle; but petbap* 
not succeasfully. The recognition of It woold pan 
the way for the acceptance In ■ modilM lenBe ot 
many of Ibe In1erpreta>th>ns of tbe Hntorieal scbool, 
and would not eaelud* the moat lalnable portioo* 
of the other acbemea. W. T. R 

• UUratan. The ntost ratuahle IntndimiGn 
to the Apooalypae la LUske'a KemicA emer ivUifdia- 
digt» KM. in dU Offi<A. d. Jihannti (IBM), 
Id ed., greatly enluKed, 8 AbtL, Bonn, Itbl 
Bealde* tb* ComBMOIaiia* (a fn> of which wlB ta 

—tflnnnd bdow), ind Uw gemnil Introdootlom to 
(Ik N. T., u Unw of Hng, ScboU, Da Wttto, 
Credner, Uuericks, it«ui (mc iba b<* ut. JoAm. 
J^ok. la Ench and Uniber') Jifyrm. i'lityUip. 
Bccl. [1. Bd. uU. |l843|p.TBff.). B<«kiaH> »■- 
!4dMn, Ui« fbUuning an loiHortiia moie nottca- 
|bli caMjt (HI Un autbontiipi date, ud plan of thi 
book: ADit(!uiirit.milf!i-U!nlaaiC'iaail,<mll>t 
Ratiiliimt uta-iied fu .Sf. Jvlm (bj F. Abwidtl, 
Laid, IT^i tlK>. In ■ diflbvit Mni., In hit MU- 
OfUnnia (l^nd. 1774). 'Ihit WH nnewtd b* 1^ 
Ticdli, In hti Cril. AkawiMfuH o/Ua tnff A'rv 
I'«f. (HkJ I'lrwD ^' (<te A'. T., •'■ G'mjt aw/ 
A'n^lM [Macc'i], Lond. 17SB, Inm. In put by 
Wolf in hia 6^>v y^iM M 6H(. t. 3B7 ff. (Bull. 
Vtil). (G. L Ucdir,} ^rn'a Untnt. ib. dn ingtn. 
Qfcnk Joh; mil Anm. ml Smltr, Halle, 1768. 
Semin-, A'tiic f^sfin. it. <L Apok., Kajla, 17TB. 
^. Q, Hutlllff,) .J/iol. <{. ..1^ mdtr /nfacAn 
TdiM ■. /i^itM £116, 4 Thte., Cbmn. 1T80-83. 
O. C Starr, Nau Apot. d. Q^nt. Ji*., Tub. 1781. 
Donbar^.'uitiua, /*• Apx. at InMt, OocL it 
teribmH Gtntit Jnaamt Apat, KM aUan-ciWt, 
VUnj. neo. DIaek, 5n'nil^ wr ATitf. k. £icik 
tei; d. OffriA. Jok., Id tba TlinL ZrHtc*r, of 
BchUaniiiieh<r, D« WrtW and Ulelm, Htft i (B«ri. 
1830)1 comp. hk Btttrdgt tar Kamgrlioi-Knlik 
(1846), p. 183 (T,, 307 IT, and faia nrtav of LUcka In 
Iba Tkv^ SMid. «, XWt, ISM, Haft i, and 18CS, 
Heft I. KolUMff, Afot, Joamti ApaiL vindicala, 
Hafti. 1834. Uanntmwn, Wtr itl dtr Verfhmn' 
i Cfffmi. jBlianmitr HwiDO*. 1841. HiWg, 
Utbn- JiAnmu4 U.irau ■. mm SeArMm, orfn- 
■>«&««■.;«(»»■» halditGftmb.Ttrfi»1t ZUr. 
1S43. Naaiider, Piinlalg nml Trmtrntg iff tht 
Chriuim Cliwivli, p. IM K, Bobinawi'i bvii., 
V. Y. 186B. IV. F. Klnek, ApuhAypt. For- 
Kkmgtn, Ziir. 1803. E. KoehnKr, IVi/iMp' ». 
^aMwiff*Ri'< iJ: ^(jA. J/xv., Halle, 1666. O. U. 
Nojca, Tht ApucalfgHt annigtrd imd txptiined, 
In tba ChvL tjxvminir for Uaj 1860, ivprintid 
In tbe Jcmnv'l 1/ ^nc. iil. for Oct. 1S6D. Tlit 
Apoenlsptr, In Uw It'tMH. Kit. ht Oct. IMt. 
(S. Dandion,) Tht Apocaljptt i^StJohm, In tbc 
Natiimat Jtn. for April 1864; •aUtantlillj the 
nas aa hb Bit. litnltliuH In tb< 3d ed. of Kilto'i 
CVcip. ^ BM. Lil. U. D. a KobUna, ni 
Aulhar ^ lit Apaoti^te, in On BibL Boern for 
April and Julj, 1864. Alb. R^vllle, La Sl i^oo- 
aljgirigrt eht* tt*jtitft tt Iim diritim. In Ihe Ra, 
itM Dtme Mmdrt for Oct. 1, 1868. B. WriM, 
Apolu'tfptitcht StmlitH, in TIttiA. Slwl a. KriL 
1869, pp. l-«9, a- p, 7A8 S. 

Of tb* iDDltitudiaotu Cammtntarim on thli tor. 
tond book oiilj « fcw of tlw DKirs nonarkiUf can 
U mmtd bar*. The hidorj rf Um InUrprMaUon 
li glrai In detail bj Liicka (p. SAl IT) and afto- 
blm hj Stuart (L 4A0II:1j omnp. Uw outUns In 
Da Watte {Eng. Hnmlb.). Jo*. Medc, Onnt 
dpaaiiyplitn and C'nnn. in .^Ijioc. {I0?7, 16331, In 
hii Woiti, vol. 11. Untlui, Aamil. in !f. T., Par. 
1644, oAm tcpriulad. Boaaucl, L'Apoe. arte m 
ufiJtentim, I'ar. 1690. Vltrin;;!, Armupmn Apnc. 
(ITDC). ad. ale, AdbL 1TI9. 4lo. Uauboi, Pir- 
piluni Cvmm. on He Srv. 1/ 3l. Jofin, Lond. 1T30, 
fol. Sir It. Newtm, Oil. upon »t Pivph. 0/ 
DitiM'iHdHitApne.ifSLj«*n,laod. 1733, Mo. 
Lowmui, Parnfiirite and tfotf on At Am, Land. 
1T3T, 410, oftao rvprintsd. Bmgd, ErtUrtt Of- 

<• Tbf A)n. MB. iiUhlti Itaa Moa fonu at Ihi 

/n4. JoDoniH, StoUg. 1740, !• Ax*. ITlti 
wimp. Ida OniiMit, Herder, MAPAN A«A. Om 
But/t tim d. Zntamfl da Htm, Kgk, ITTS. 
FJchlnm, Qmiil in Apoe., 3 torn. GotL 1T9I 
ip. Chriidan Oitdplt (Boat) for A|irlL 1831 
and CAriaC AaamJiMr, Miy, [830. J. C Wood- 
boots, Tilt Apot. Irantlaird, idA t/oltt, Idod 
ISOft; ako AmeUuiaiu M Ikt Apoc (a aaqotl IC 
Eltlc; atid SUde]. Loud. 1838. UainriEha, Cbmai. 
in Jpac. ipu Uott. 1818-31 (roL i. of tba Ttm. 
Not. £diL Kopp.). Enald. Camm. in Apot. to*. 
gtliaa tt erilint, Gott. 1838; Dit Joliaimetidiai 
Sdii-IJttn iitrt. u. ti-UAH, Bd. IL GiAl. 1881. 
(Iniportut.} ZUllig, IMi qfiiib. Joi. toBlSadia 
trlkyl, B TbIe., Stuttj;. 1834-40. Tliilna, Dm 
Offtnb. Jtk. dmr* Ami.. Urbtn. ■. EiU AUn 
nmdwViQl gnnadit, l.el[s. 1B39. E. B. ElBcitt, 
Hora Apoeaijptica [1843], 8th ad., 1 lott. Land. 
1863. MiMBt Stuart, C-mm. on lit Apusnlgm, % 
ToU. Andonr, 1S4S, alao ttprlDtad In Eoghodl 
' ' moat eUbonte work. Us Watla, JTwi 

HoBUrr, ISGS. Hmgatf iilms, Dit qfftnb. i. ktO. 
'-A.,9IUe. Berl. 1849, itAu^. 1861-43, trua. 
P. Fairbaim, Edln. 18B1. Fbnrd, Dit Offtti. 
j'l*. t'-ktirl, Ki>iilgab. 1813 (Bd. t11. at Olthu. 
acu'a BOL fomit.), Aubfrien, Dtr Prtpli. Dim. 
iti u. dit Offtnt. J<A., Baa. 1884. 1* Aufl. 18»T, 
I'jig. tiani. VAia. tS86. Utlat(rdi«ck. Kril. tmtg. 
Hnwib. ab. d. Of'riA. JiJi.. (jilt. 1858, 3> Aufi. 
186A (Abth. ivl. uf Majer'g Kommaaixr). F. D. 
Maurics, /.rrlurrt on (h* Apoc., Cunbr 1861. 
BlMk. tvi-lrmngrii lUfr iHt Apok., llni 1669. 
Volkmar, Vimm. van Oftni. Joi., /Ur. 1S6S. 
Dnprei, Tht Apoc. /affiU^, new cd., Ijnd. I860. 
We mtf tlao iianM tba editlotia of the Gndc Taat. 
b; Bloamfleld, WtXnter and Wilklnaon, AUbtd,uid 
Wordaworth, who bu alao pabliabed a aepant* as- 
poaitlon of the book. Sea further tha Utcratu* 

CHtiol (ditiona ot tba Gtnk teit, with a imr 
I^nirliih Tetilon and TsHoua readiiiga, hara bcaa 
publlnlwd by l)r. 8. K Tngellet (Ifmd. 1844) 
and ^VllIla[D Kelly [Lond. 1860), followed by hU 
/.trmrri m Iht Apoc. {Ixnid. 18611. Tht Stttnd 
Kpitlk tif Peltr, We tlfitnUt vf Juhn mrd Jwbt, 
-tuiUit Rtttbihoni Irnnt. fiiin Ikt Gittt.tMl 
.ViltM, New York (Anier. Ubir Union), I8B4, 
4b), na prapand by tha late Ker. John UlUa, 
D. D. 

Un tha Atoloyji of tha Apoedypas, out OMj 
eontull tha worka on Biblical TIitol(«y by Lntlw- 
beek, Ketua, MHtner, Leeblar, Sshmld, Baur. ud 
Beyachlaf, refemd Is under JuiiM, Uofpn. ol; 
ml IL p. 1439 n, and tha mint mrk of B. Wdta, 
BOL Tktel. dti N. T., Bcrl. 1868, p. 600 IT. 


KB-ZSPH (1^*! [Drmghold, Flint]: « 
[ft^li, Vat.] Ta#»it, and 'Pa^rti " [CMop. 
■Purif, taadm Sin. In It. Po^ti:] Riitpk^ 
One of tbs placet which .Sennacherib oientlotia. III 
hla taunting meiaace to Hdcklah, ai h>*lng bsM 
deatioyed by hia preiiweMor (3 K. ill. 13; la. 
nxTll. II). He oouplm it with Nana and otlnr 
well-known Mnopotamian apota. Tha nam* li 
•till ■ oomnHin one. Yakilt'i Ifilnm ijnotlng dIm 
tDWna to uoUed. InteipRtam, liowenr, are at ?>• 

tmhasied, BHBatj, Fs4e* la I Klnp, r««e1 ti 


D tlw p 


% marcii wt uf the Eupbntfo, 
dw nwd from Rncai to //iiiu (Gcwuiui, Kell, 
TlMDm*, Midu^ SujiiL); Iha other, ih^b, li 
hU of the li^pbntaa, n«r Bagdad (IliUiK]. The 
fonatr ■ DHitioiiHl bj Ptolem; (o. 15) under Uk 
inme of T^ri^o, Hid uppsir*, in Che pmwal 
porfcct itiitc of our HewpuUiuiui knowlsdgc, 
b« tfac more teuble of the tira. ti 

RE'ZIA (K;?^ [*(.>*(]: ■Po.r.J; [V.t. 
Paa-fia:] Jiai'i). An AihniU, of the mii oT 
OUa H Chr. rii. 39). 

BB'ZIN (VT) [p^' "aife.jS™, or prinw, 
««■]! 'Powir^, -t>MiV, ["Piitffj^ Twylr: Viit. 
ia [a. pa^iv, Paff«*i, Poffrvrl Sin. in II Paar- 
a-vr; AIk. Paacattr, *««■ !•. ™. 8, Paaiir'] 
ttuca). .L A kinc Ot DaniaaciD, contaraporM' 
witfa Pekah in IbbcI, and wilh Jotham uii! Alii 
ia JudB*. Tbc |»Ik} of Kedn Meoia lo have bun 
la aUj iiinxetr doaei} wilti tin kingdom of Imel, 
and, thui ilRngttinwI. to carrj on eonitsnt nr 
^ainit (be kingi of Judafa. Ha attacked Jothani 
during the latter pari of hi) rei^ (3 K. it. 37) i 

•""P^J ' 

1 Pekah. b 

Ahaa had moiinUd tl 
*I1|C nmluDed amij laid ^egs 
Abie •ma, but ■■ could not prenul agninat 
lii. 1; S K III. 61- Rain, howiier, •• recoiered 
Hath to SjTia" (S K. iti. 6): that it, be con- 
qonni and held pDMeewon oT ttw celebnied loim 
<J that uaine at Uw bead of Ibe tiutfof Akabab, 
wliieh oommanded ofw of the moat important linea 
gf mde in the P.aaL Soon after tbia be wu 
attacked bj Ti^Eotb-Pileier [[., kiui; of AiaTriji. to 
whom Aiiu in bia distress bad made Hpplif ^'' 
his armio vat deleateil b; tlie Aas3'nati bos 
citj brsieged aud taken; bii people carried awvj 
captite into Suaiuw (? KiH|; uid be lii " ' 
il K. Iti. 3: compvs 'Hgbtb-Pileeer' 
tcri|itio<ii, vhere U>e defnl of ]<ci1n and the de- 
■truetioii of Uaniaaciu art OisUnetly mentioned). 
Thb treatment au probalit; owing lu his bong re- 
garded aa a rebdi Btijce DaniBsctit lad been taken 
and laid under tribute bj the An^rifinB some 
time pnrioud; (KawUnion'i Utivdotat, I. 467). 
U. R. 

3. iVaait : In Neh., Rran. 'Pwririi*, FA. 
Panrvr.] Une of the EuniliH of the Nethinim ii. Mj Ndi. ril. B0|. It (umlihea another 
tmnide of llie oceumnoe of non-lmdite nania 
wnongat theoi. vhicb is alnwlj noticed undtr Ml- 
HDxiM [ill IR7t, nolsii and Be Sibkha]. In 1 
Eedr. tbe uama appean ai Daiaan, in obieb the 
(faanga from K to 1) mtiu to implj that I Esdraa 
It one tiinc exijud in ttjTiac or aouw other Smittia 
■Bguap. Q. 

BK-ZOH Q'ln [p,;«e]: [Rom. oin.iVat.] 
t^f*^- Atn. Pa(*r: Aum). The son of Hi- 
■M, > SjTian, wbo, -ben EJaTld defsted Hadad- 
•nr kins tt 7flbab, pat hinwelf at tbe head of a 
hand of fhahooUn and M ap a prtt} kingdom it 

oOht of Hadadser, vbo. fiire««ltii( the dntruc 
tka iriikb Daild miuld Inflict, prudaitlj escaped 
vHh aooe Mknm; or wbetber be gathered hit 
baaJ ef tbe nmnaiit of those irtu eurrired the 
ih ntntLT , doci Bot apfiear. lit ktter ti nwia 
jnbiU*. Tbe sMtletBtnt of Usod at Danaaeoe 
MoU IM* ban bead lUI aomt time tfta the dla- 

waa bndirn. for va are told that Daiid at the same 
time defeated tbe armj of Damaaeene Sjilani wbo 
....... - - pf liadadcser, aiid put garriaon* 

banawd the kingdom of Solomon during bii whole 
rngn. With rqcard to the stalemenl of Nicolaoa 
In the4tb book ofhia Ulntory, quoted lij Joerphua 
{Aiit. Tii. e, { 1}, tliere li lesi diiBcultf, aa tbete 
•eeniB to be no reaaon for attributing to it anj 
historical authority. He aaj-a tUt the name of 
the king at Uamaacua, whom Dand dtftnttid, WM 
Hadad, and that his deecendiuiU and >ucc**aora 
took tbe same name for ten generations, if thli 



lit of the I.XX. 

In the VaU 

an Met. c 

tbe LX.Y 

ount of 

Reaon ia In 

■erted in 

doee CD 


with lladad 



to bare 

founded hia 

•torj tbat 

H«i«], on 



t l<Iu 

remit, and tben went to Sjtna, where lie joined 
blnisdf with Keioti, called bj Joacphua Kaaianta, 
who at the head ofa band of robbera wia plunder- 
ing tbe countrj {Am. Tiil. T, { 6). U was lladid 
and not Kaam, according to tbe account in Joae- 
phua, who nIaUiabed hlnnelf kbig of tliai part 
of Syria, tod tnade inroads upon tbe Isnelitaa. 
in 1 K. IT. IS, lleiihadad, kuig of l)iuiia«us in 
the reign of Aaa, ia deacribad as Uia grandson of 
lleilon, Bitd (rum the rt«ein)>binca lietweni Iba 

ebaraeten, it has been suggeiled that (be latter la 
a corrupt reading Ibr the former. Fur tbia auo- 
geition, bowerer, tliere does not ippcEir to be sun. 
' ground, thougb it wat adopted liotb by Sit 
Uanbam (CA™«- Cm. p. 349) and Sir laiM 
Ki (Cht-ami. p. «t|. Uunaen (WbtUctrk, L 
cdiii.) nukas Heiilon contemporary witb Habo- 
oam, and probably • graiHlson of lleion. Tha 
ama U Aramaie, and EwakI oompam It witb 
toiin. \\. A. W. 

RHB'GKTMCmriiw: Me^uw). The men. 

Iba Bruttian coast, Just 
of tba straJU of Meeaiiia 
(Acta uriii. 13) in tb 
Toyaga tnm Syracuse ti 

unt of ; 


ifter tlw ablp- 

of careAil attention. By a curious ooincideiice III* 
gorea on lla colna an tbe very "twbi-lirutbss" 
rhicb gare tba name to St. Paul'a ship. 3«e 
attached to tbe article CMTniN ami I'oi.Lirx) tb* 
ilitieaa rrpment* tb* 

Tt Kulptured on tiie re 

:iiiaUy a (im 


ilsenblj dettroyed by l>iony>ius of Sjra- 
hum Augnatiis it renived advantagei which cDi»> 
Mned with Its geoKrapbical p<jeitioii in making {( 
raportant thn>ugboul (be duration of tha Komas 
fmpire? it was prominently aisociated, in tba 
Middle Ages, with the Taried fortune* of Che Ureefc 
emperon, the Saraaeiis, and the Itomani: and 
•till tha modem Btggio ia a town of 10,000 !■• 
habllanta. Ita distance aenaa tba straits Itatt 
Blaasliu ia only aboot six nsilaa, lud It la wdl mm 


hM th* tckgnpb MiUon alxm tbit KotU 
town." J. s. H. 

BHE'SA CPixrrJ: Baa), aoB of Zorababd 
lk« genialojyr of Chriit (Uke tii. 87). Lord 
Hene; hu ingmtDuelr conjectured ttiit Rhna U 
■» petsHi, buliDere)}rtbe title AcuA.i.t. "Prion, 
orif^nall)' attncbrd to Uie name of Znulibibd, iin 
gndunll; inlroduced u an JiidepBident nime lot 
Un OTtKalOK}'. He thua removn aii important ob- 



EHOTJA (TriST, {ivK^uti]! It&odt), li 

Het, the name of a mnid who uinooaced Peter' 
arrlnl at tbc door of Marjr'g boun alUr hli Dins 
nloiu rdaue (ii>m priaoii (Aet« xiL 13), [Hob 

RHODES (-pMof ['tm}: modtu). Thahia 
lorj of thi> iiland is ao illiutriiiui, that it in inter 
Mtin); to lee il connected, rieii in ■ amall degm* 
witb the life of St. Paul. He touched tlwn on hb 
i«uni-*0]«G* to Syrix from tlie third niiaadonarr 
toDniajr (Acta i>i. I ). It doea not appear tint he 
landed from th* ahip. The daj before he bad bam 
at Co*, an island to the N. W.; nnd from Khoda 
be proceeded eaatwarda to Pataha in Ljda. it 
Bems. IVom aii the circumalanna of the namtin 
that the wind was blowinc IVom the \. W., ai : 
inry olten doea in that pan of the l^eTWit. Rhodi 
k immedialely opposite the hi|(b Cnrian and Lycian 
bsadlanda at the S. W. eitremity of the penir 
of Alia Minor, Ita poaition hu liad much t 
with its hiator;. The outline of that hiatorj 
fcOovTs. lis real eminence began (about 4n0 H 
wltb the founding of that citj at the N. E. eit 
kj of the island, •bich alill continua to be the 
■■pltal. Thoujih lbs iloriui race waa originally 
and firmtjr esUbliahed bera, jtt Khodea 
ttaquenll^ d^MHideiit ou others, between the I'elo- 
pooneaian war and the time of Aleuuidi 
pdgn. Atler Aleiaiider's death it entered on 
^onona period, ita malenil pruaperit; ' 
dsnioped, and ita inatit '' 
big general esteem. A 
tbt HHiaolidation of tlie Komnii power in the l.e- 
nnt, we bsi-e s notice of .lewiah reaideoti In Kbod< 
<1 Mace. IV. 33). llM Komsii), after the defeat of 
AuUochns, assigned, during Kniw time, to Khodea 
■srtalndlBtrictsontbeniaiiilsiid [Cahia; Ltcia]; 
and wlieii tbeaa were witlidrawn, upon mora mstun 
pisTinciiil amngemenls l>eing niade, tlie island still 
ei^yed (from Auguatua to Vespaiian) a consider- 
■lile amount of independence.^ It is in tliis inter- 
Tal that St. Palll was tliere. Its Bjiantbe hiitory 
la apiln emiueDt. Under Coiutantine it waa the 
metropolis of the >' Proiince of the lalandi," It 
was Ibe but pbie* wbers the Chriatlaua of the East 
beU out ■giiut the adnncini; Sancenai and aub- 
nqiMSitlj' It waa onoe nion Gitnaus aa tfa* home and 


• B«irro b li 

to tbn ah of Hand Ihs Gnat eg 


IbrtiTMortiieKnlgbtaorSt. John. TUbi 

of IboH) knli^bta. 11ie beat acconut of Rbodv wOl 
be fcand b B<m, Htitn rm/dtn Gritek. /■sc4^ 
111. TO-113, and JtruMi adcA JTos, BaSkanatnt, 
Janlnt, etc , pp. e3-80. Then b a good Tiew, aa 
■ell as an accurate delineation of the coart, in the 
Eiiifliab Admiralty (Tbsit No. 1639. Pertnpa the 
Ijdt illmtntion we can adduce here is one of tb* 
early coins of Rbodce, with the conrentional nae- 
Sower, which bore the name of the iiland on on* 
side, and the bead of ApoDo, ndlaled like the son, 
00 the other. It was ■ laorirb that the nm shoos 
mry daj In Rbodts. J. S. H. 

f3du m JthtOm. 

RHOD'OOUB (T^Ukoi: moAem). AJow 

who betrayed the plana of bia eoanlTjtneti to Anti- 
oebut F.upator. Ilia tmson was disooverad, aoill 
ba was placed in conAnement (S Mace. lill. It). 
B.F. W. 

RHCKDUB Critcf- Itkodai), 1 Haoo. it. ». 

RIIIAI [3 syl] C^yi {tdtom Jrliimk d*. 
ftiul,] : f,0i [Vat. P,,^] 'in Sam., F.fl,/; Akt 
Pudai [FA. pa^tiw] hi fbr.: RiM). ThaUbsr 
of Ittai the Kciijamite of Uibeah, who was OM irf 
Darid'a mighty men (3 Sam. uiii. 38; 1 Chr. xl. 

• RIBBAND. [Uci.] 

RIB'LAH. 1. (nb^-in, witli Ibe deflnllc 
article [ftrliliig]: ai,\i'' in both M33.: Stbti). 
' " 'mdmsrkson the eastern boundary of 
the land of Urael, as specIlM by Moses (Nam. 
xuIt. II). Its position ia notad in this pssaaga 
with mud) preciaion. It was Immedlatelj between 
Shepham and tlie n of Cbineretb, and on tb* 
- aide of the spring." Unfortunately Shqbm 

baa not yet l>eni hlenliHed, and ■ 
oDntsina of ncribcrn Pslteline is iiitendnl b; 
ipring " la unMriain. It aeema hardly poaslbls, 
irithout entirely diurranging tha apadntkio of 
^e bonndary, that the Klhlah In quesUoB sn b* 
ihe ume with the " KibUh In tbe bnd of Hamath " 
ihlcb Is mentioned at s much later period of tb* 
history. For, accordin|; to this pasnge, ■ gnal 
distance moat necesaarily have inlerreiied betwwn 
RIblab and Hsniith. Thla will be tridsol Inm s 

aiuiDeratlon of the landmarfa. 

The north boundary: Tb* U«dll0nnau, 

publican atrugria, b 

^ from Caaalui, aod ^ra uoarai amos to raanf* i 
111. 111. ii>. U, I S|. B«, alio, attar tba hat 
AetJniD, ha Dial AbsbiIiis and Mcaied hk ftTs 
(iJi* IT. B, f B) 

OilfliiallT tt appHTS la bare ateod Af^tU i ba 
'A^ baa BOW aUMbad Kself ts lb* pnodiBt MM 

b. 11 

Oaa Uila b* tt 

IkMrl Hot, Um ntnoM d Haonth. Zadbd, Zlpk- 

9. The «Ht<ni boanduj ooniiDBiad bora Ha- 

lt praiiinitj 

Is Uw Sn of Gililca. 

The rmitj Jewlili inlcqmttn bate felt Uh tbne 
■f this. ConfiBBd ■■ ia the catalogue of the boun- 
iarjbi tbeTargain PMudojoaathao of Num. uiir., 
it k pUn tlut Uw author of that nnlon «n liden 
••Iba qiriDg" ai the ipring of Jontan at Sintn*. 
aod KlbUb, UxrribR, aa a plan nor It. With 
Ifaii i«na Pirchi, the Jewwh tnveUer In the I3th 
and 14th centorica, who expmatf diKriminatn b«- 

■HiL ii. 418), and in oar own day J. I>. MicfairDi 
[Biitlfir (jHijtUJirliM ! Supjd. ml lAxicn, No. 
t3I3), and BonflwDt, Uie karned editor of Euh- 

No plaoe bouing the name of Rlblah hai been 
jit dievuivud ID the neighboHiood of Banlaa. 

S. Rfbhb in tlM land of Ranath (nV^n, once 
n,nb?-|. L *. RiUalbabt »A(Mi>eS in both 
llS.-4.;'[Boa. in S K. nlli. S3, TajBAo^, UT. 
<, 81. Si. TiaXaMO fttMiUn). A rboa on Ibe 
Ktvt road between PibilJne and Babjlonia, ■! 
vhicb the kiogi of Uabjlonia wm aocDgtomcd to 
main while diirctiriK Lhe operitione of t^ieir ar- 
eaiei in Pakatiw aiid l%<enida. lien Neboeliad- 
henar milad while Uie vtf^ of Jenualeni aiid o1 
tyn were bdni eoiidocted hj bli lieutenanti; 
bitbcr were broniFht to bin Ibe wntcbed kiiii; ol 
Judaa and hia khi*, and alter a tune a Hlec(l<H< 
hoca aQ nnki ukI eonditioni of Uie conquered cilv. 
vbs sen pot to deBtb, donbtleaa \>j tbe horrilje 
Jeath nf inhaling, vbieh the Aee^rians pmeticnl, 
and the lonv tinea of the 

a (Jer. 

I. 6. a, 

Bi. 9, 10. H, ZT; a K m. 6. 

■nanner Phtfwh.Necbo. mtUT bii locee 

over the Bahjlontani at Carehemlih. 

Riblafa and ninin»Ded Jehoahai bum Jerutnlem 

bdbn Um (! K. nilL 33). 

Thia Rlblah haa no doabt been diaoorerad, aUll 
lalainiDK lla aoeienl name, on the right (eeatj 
bank of lb* tl-Aij (Oronteai, npon the great road 

•bieh oooneda B'<albtk an " ' 

K. F. of the tamer and 20 
pleas. The ad>antagta of it* poaition fur the en- 
CBBipnieiit of raat hrata. locb a> thoae of ^jpt and 
BBbfbm. an enanteraled' hj Dr. Kobimon, who lil 
iW U in 1151 (BUL Rfi. iii. Hi]. He detmbei 
It as " Ijhg on the lanka of a mountain atream ii 
Iha n^dit of a tbiI and lertile plain yielding the 
■sM abondant nppUee of hnge. From thit point 
the roads wtn open bf Aleppo and the KuphratH 
to Ninenb. or bj PalmfrB to BahjIon . . . . bj 
Ika end of Utauioa and the coaat to PatesUne and 
Kgrpt, sr tbnragh the BdUi and the Jordan 
TaOa/ to th* eanti* of the Holf Ijutd." - 

I isia. 

Riblab ia pmbabl; m . 

I), though b the preaant Hebnw tot and A. T. 

appeals as DiUah or Diblath. The change frma 

lo D it Id Hebrew a vei7 <aaj one. KIblafc 

lila Iba atnn of the paaaige nry well, while oa 

the other handnblahia not known.' [DiBi^TO.] 


RICHES, Rer. irili. IT, not ploial bat alD- 

■1 "In one hour eo great rieha la come Is 

ht<- (loalBO Wild. T. 8). Tba original ph)- 

na rklitim (Vr. rkhiut), aa in Wlckliab'a 

3n, and waa geoanUf obaolele at the time <t 

taiulation of the A, V. It ttood at firat alas 

In Jer. ilviiL 30, but aa Trench mentiooa [Atilior- 

at, p. SO) waa tadtlj oorrected, bj 

changing ■■ it " to " are." H. 

RIDDLB (n^^n : afnTfu, rpiiKiiiM-- prt- 

Utmn, prtfctitio}. The Hebrew word ia derirel 

tnm an Arabic root meanini; " to band oft," " to 

twiat." and b used for artlflce (Dan. rtii. SX\, a 

promb (ProT. 1. ai, a long [Pa. ilii. 4, lnvliLS), 

an onde (Nnm. ill. S}, a panble (Eir. irii. 9). 

and In gennal anj wiee or intricate eentence (Pa. 

ifIt. 4; Hab. ii. fl, Ac,), aa well aa a Hddle in OUT 

sente of the wold (Judg. il>. 12-10]. In tbeaa 

eeuKB we nu; compue the pbnuca rrps^ ^iymw, 

po^ wiifia$a\Kr (Witd. Till. 3; Kcdui. mil. 

, and wipiwAoic)) K^r Hmt. Plura. 49T; Oe- 

D. 1. r.), and the Latin Kir/mi, which ippeari to 

ve been aimilarlj need (Aol. UeH ffoct. Aa. dL 

Anguatlne dcflnea an enigma lo he snj " ob- 

ira alkgoria" (Oe THh. iv. »), snd points out, 

HD inalance, the puuge about the daugliter i4 

s hotse-lwch in Pror. in. IS, which haa ben 

eUboratelj eiplaijied hj Bellemiann in a n»n(K 

gisph on tbe lulyect (.£aig>ivla Hibraica, &( 

1196). Man; paasages, although not deAulldr 

propoODded as riddlea. maj be refcarded as iDeb, 

(. y. I'tot. utI. 10, a *ene in the rendering of 

whieb erer; veraion dlflin Iknn all othen. The 

riddta which the queen of Obeba esnie to aak ol 

Solomon (1 K. i. 1. },Kt, nipdoo. <x!ni, i, «!- 

ntyiimaii S Chr. ii. 1) were rather "hard qiiea- 

tiotis" refrtrlng to profound inquiries. Sokxnoo 

b vid, howero', to hate been rerj fond of tfaa 

riddle proper, for Joeephua quotes two pro&ne hla- 

tlcale a alory that Solomon propoeed numerooa 
riddlaa lo 1 1 inm, for tba Don-KiIutlDn of which HI- 
rmni mu obliged to paj a hrgs fine, until he innt- 
moDcd to hb aasblance a Tj-rian nanied Ahdennn, 
who not onlj aalted the riddlea, but ](opaundsd 
olhera which Solomon biouelf wai unable lo an- 
swer, and conKquentlj In hia tarn incurred the 
peniltj. The word ^riyiia oocun onlj once In 
the N. T. (1 Cor. ilii. 1% " diriilj." tr aSrljMni. 
comp. Num. lii. S; Wetatdn, y. T. ii. I&8); 
but, In tbe wider meaning of the word, manj bc 
atancea of it occur in our LoH's diacouraea. lliaa 
Fnamna appliea the term lo Matt. lii, 43-45. 
The olject of luch Implicated msaningi b obrt- 
oua, and la wdl eiplained by St. Au);iiitins': 

S K. III. ID, \ifiijM; ^fi\a>B. 
I K. m. 31, ■ptS'^M ; Ai^Aafa. 
Jsr. HI. >. ID, IS, 3T, i,p*Mli. la bota. 
~ ~ ' ailDf noUcea of lUa Blblah, a 


- luiiifaUi [iMrimm, idaeurjt twr e f — r " (Da i 
Urt ChriM. il. 6). I 

Ws know tbiit in UDient nallonj, tnd spcdaD; 
UrlniUk, bava bon fond dT rlddla (RoMnmtllkr, 
UargtnL UL 08). We find tncn of (be ciMlon] 
UDOnK thg AnU (Konui, ht. 36), ud Indnd 
nrcnl Amble booki of riddln «tat~u Xifdi nJ 
ilffilt in 1M9, ud * book of riddlci Hlvrd, allfd 
AM ai litndn. But tbcM m nthti (mbknu ind 
derlm Ihu wbat «< oil riddlo, allbaugb Uwj 
■n nrf ingaiim*. 11m I'tniani call Uitm Algat 
•Dd Unimi-a (U'Herbrk>t, i. >- Algu). Thcj 
mra itao known to tbe uicient Egjplbni (Jiblon- 
iki, Pamt/itim jEg^ 48). Thej wen npfxUU; 
uKd in buiqurts botb b; Ureeki ind Koniing (Miil- 
ler, An-, ii. 393; Athin. l. 457; Tulluii, ri. 107: 
A. {Ml iviii.3; J>i<:L ly^nf. |).33|,iuid thi kind 
or williclinii adopted mijr b« leen in tbe liuiW7 
diiiKn dncriliBl bjr I'liio, Xcnophon. Athenieiu, 
^Lirch, uid JIncRiliiui. Some hire groundlailj 
■nppowd tlwt tbe proierba of Svloniun, Icaiuel, 
iihI Agiir, Hen prDpouiKled il feaiU, like tbe |nr- 
iblea spoken \iy our Lord on uniilu- occuiuui (Luke 
>i«. 7. eU.). 

Kiddlea wen ([aienllr proposed In lerH, like 
tbe celebnled riddle oT San>»n, which, lioiceTer, 
»M properiy {u Voee poiiiU onl, InM. t/yii. it. 
11} no riddle At nil, bectuiH tbe l>hiiiitiiie> did iiot 
poasea Uia only dew on wlilcli the euliiiian anU 
depend. Kar tfalt reuOD Sunion bad arefuiiir coii- 
cnled tiie &et even from hi> pnreiita (.lud);. iIt. 
14, etc). Utber uicieiit rlddln in vene in that 
of (he 9pbiiii. and that which ia anid to bare 
caiuad the dnth of Homer by hla mortiflcation at 
being nnalile bi »lve It (I'lutArcli. 1 'il. H-m. 

Knuio. Juiiiui diitin);uiab<s between tbe f/t 


of tba eommiDUtdra on Rer. ilU. 15-1>. 1li» 
VST^ {ttichitk), "lapent," U nude b; tba J«n 
one or the Damea oT Uw Ueaaiah. Im aimi lit 
namarieal taliu b equiTaknt to rTITDi and Um 
llama Sbuihin and Either an connected logelbar 
bKause the numerical nine of tbe letten eom- 
poiing them IiSSl. Thu the Mueoiiana i^^aided 
imlter 34 u aacred from ila bejng the nun 
tericil nliua in the nimta or two quternioni 

Ibmx^ii 11 in amulet, became ite htten aracunt 

lumrriciilly to Ses. Snch idle hocia an not 

lafrequeut In lonie oF tbe Fathen. We ha*« 

bItohIj mentioned (Me Ciioss) the mjitic eiplaiw- 

bj CIcm. Aleiandriniu of the number 318 Id 

liir. 14, and by Tertullian o! the number 3O0 

(repreeenled by the ktter T or n emu) in Judg. 

fl, and alinibr iiulincei era lapplled ly tha 

timonii of the I'acudo Cj^irian. Hie moat 

ct inikif^ta, boweier, lo tba enlgnui on the 

H of tbe beaat, ire to 1« fiiaad In the ao-eallad 

Sibylline Tcnea. We quota one which a ciietlj 

riniUsr lo it. the iniwer being fonDd in tbe ninw 

)i = S8g, Ihui: l=iI0-f-4 = 8 + r = 900 

= T0 + [, = 4M + i = a00 = S88. It la 

at MIowa, and ii eitreniely curioui: 

anignia, when the iliei{ury or o)<eciir« 

(wi In 1:1. 

nU. a. md in luch poenii u Hit S,r!. 

I mtribuled 

to ITieoerltm)! md the lata- cnign 

» or bwat- 

weyiia, wbiTl the difficulty ii corcenl 

iled il. the 

ipeeuliir u*e of lome one word.' Il m 

ay beuwfu 

io refer to o<ie or two Inttancei of the 

Liter, iince 

they an rery frfquenUy lo be ftound i 

the Uihle, 

a.>d eipecially in tbe l^|Aet». Such il the pUy 

n the word DS?* ("« portion," and 


the town of Ephraim} in Uen. ilrlli. Si 


{mSMr, "■ h«tiAad otty," and Q^^D, UU- 
rtam, E^ypt) in Ulc. ■d\. 13; on T^.^ {SliiUiI, 
'■la alownd-traa "), and Itlt^ (Miiknd, 
kMlen"), tnJw. L 11; on n&l? (MmiA.i 
tag " Kdom" and "tbe land of death"), I 
0I. II: on T^JP^' Slialiach (nitwiing "Baby- 
lon,'' and perhapa " arrogance"), In Jer, 11 

It only nnidni lo notira the linKle Instanee of 
1 riddle occurrinR In the S. T.^ namely, Ihe mmitr 
rflie bttitL Thii hAnxgt U> a clan of riddlea 
•ary eomoion unong Egyptian myitio, the Gnoa- 
tioi, aomc of the Fithen, and the Jewlih Cabbalii 
The htWT eslled It O'ciuUrio (I. e. yfUfUTpla) 
vUeh tnatancei nuj be fonnd In Cirpcor {App. 
CriL p. M3), Beknd {AmL Htbr. I. 35), and 

With euni|ilei like thii hdbn ni, it wnld be 
dnord to doubt that St, John (not grtallg ra> 
ntoved In lin« IWm tbe Cbrlallin Ibrgen of tba 
Sibjiline rtrsca) intended loma nnme aa an anawn 
to Ihe nunilier 660. llie true uiiwer mnat b* 
•cttled by Ihe Apocalyptic comnteiilaton. Hod 
' ' : Fathen nippoaed, even u iiir back ■* [ra- 
the name Mrnrat to he Indicated. A lU 
I otho' very nuineroui eolutloni, propoaed in 
nt BC!«, may l« found in EOiott'i Ikm 
Apacnijiptica, from wbidi we have quoled lerefil 
of IfaCH Initancea (//or. Apoe. ill. 921-334). 

F. W. F. 
HIE Ibr RTE, Ex. !i. 33 and Ji. iniil. 3» 
(mirg. iipcA), hi the oldeit edilioni of Ihe A. T. 
RIHIUON ()'1D1 [TKoie^mwFre]: -pfMutvi 
rnnon). Rimmon, i De>0>»nlla of Betrolfa, WM 
t father of Kechab and Bianah, tba munhnn 
of Iibhoihetb (3 Satn. It. 9, 5, 9). 

RIM-MON ()ia") ti»n«F™«"]i'l'</iM" 
Stmman). A delly, wonhipped by the Sj-rtana 
* " jniacui, where then win a lonple or honaa 
mmon (3 K. *. 18). Tnuea of Ihe name of 
thii god ai^iear alio in tbe proper namea Hadid> 
rimmon and 1'ahrimnwD, but it* tittnlfleation la 
doubtful. Senrioe. quoted by Seklen (Dt dit 
Syrit, ii. 10), reftn It b> the Heb. rntnon, a 
pomegnnate, a ftuit nered lo Tenni, who ii thnt 
the ddty wonhipped under thia Utk (wmpara 
/■ononi.from/wnuin). UnlnDi(.1rior(l>nn AlU 
cap. 33, T) njdaina Klmmon ai the pomegnmaU, 


Im tmiim at Um totilidng prlndpk et Mtan, 
Ibc ptnmilM natwn lufirHiH, t ijnhol at ftc- 
iwnt ueniTTnioe in the olil raHgtoa (llihr, ^nb 
k>U, iL \ii). U tliii lie Uu tnw origin of Um 
UBW, K praonta n villi ■ ivli« oT tti« uicimt 
bee-wonliip of tbe Kut, which m know In bxit 
[nniled in i>itlMti>ie. Uut Sddoi nj«ti Ihii 
dsinUfli, (od fmpoMa tiHtcaii that Kioiniaa ii 
from Uu root CPH, i-an, "(o U hlKh," ud lig- 
■iOa "omM higb;" lika tba Pbonicun A'ttwn, 
wd Hob. ffhV. llMTChiia giw "Po^i, 1 
l^irrM ftJi. Uvicm, Vitrings, RouDmiillcr, 
n Ucaenitu wen oT Ibe eune oplaioD. 

Howo (PtM. {. 1»«, &<.) coEiinli RimDMn at 
file ftbbRTiiUd fonu of Hubtd-Rimnwn (m Poor 
I* Beii-Peor). Hidad being Ihe om-god of the 
Sytiva- Combining thii with tbo poni«f[Tuu£e, 
which HIM hit ijinibol, I lndad-Bimmon would then 
be the lun-i^ </t Ibe hie nniRKT. who ripeni tbe 
p om ogTMnlj and •Kbcr ftnlla, nod, ifter knfiidn); 
Inta Ihto) hi* proilacUra power, due, uh9 ii 
DounKd with the "nMuniinR of HadHliimmoD 
tnthenllerof He;;iddoi>" (Zech. >ii. 11). 

Between tbeee dif&nnt opinion) then it no poa- 
■bilitj of deeidiug. Tbe nune ooean bat once, 
ud there ii no evidence on [be poinL But tbe 
awjtetnre of Sdden, which ii upprai-ed bj Geee- 
■loa, bu tbe grsur (how of pmbibllitj. 

W. A W. 

BIAfMON ( 3San, £. t. BiDQiaia Iponu- 
P««*e]! ^ 'P<w^r: Semmom,). A dlj rf 
Zebuluu belHigin; U the Meruite Lentei (1 Chr. 
n. 77). I'hen ii gnt diierepencj between tbe 
UM in which it occun and the parallel ciUIugue 
of Jub. ui. Tbe fonnv eanbiitu [wo a*i«a \a 
plaia of tba four of the latter, and neitbtr of [hmi 
the ma». Hat it li not impoHible tbu l>iii:t.tii 
(Joih. ui. U) may have beoi orii^inallr Uiiniuon, 
la tlie U and K ia Ifebnw an iioloriouslj eiaj to 
t aiiy 

BIH'HON (I'W'! [pomtgramlt] : 'E^i^uM, 

1 I C 

r. 3-J),alkitt«cl 

•Hlbam portion of Jndah (Joe) 
lo SiatoB (Joih. lii. 7: 1 Chr. Ir. 3t: in tbe 
fcroB' of Lhea two paae^ It ia inaeeuntely |[i>«i 
b tba A. V. aa Kkhmon). In euh of the abom 
liMa the nanie auooeeda Uut of Aiv. alio one of Ibe 
Citieeof JaiUkaod SiuKOU. In the catalogue of 
the iibea* reoaeapied bj tba Jewt ■Ao' Ibe return 
bxn Babjbn <Itah. li. 3» tbe t» ai« joined 
OWl yg: UtX. omiti: et in Rtmmim), aud 
iffar in tbe A. V. a* Ea-Rlmmon. Thn it 
xAlag \o tnppott thli angle dtfutan of the 
Vehtew (at frooi Ua prBctiea la the otber liati 
Mtpt tba bet that the Taticaa l.XX. 'If tbe 
tSUat of Ha) nuf be tnutad) haa Joined the 
MBH b aeb of tba Um* << Jodida. hoia whwL 
I aaj b* biforad that at the time of tbe LXX. i 


{iroent Hebrew HSS. 

No Ince of Rlmmon hai bein jet diaemervd b 
tbe eoiitb of i'akatlne. True, it b mentianed b 
tbe Oitnn"ttUnn of EuMbini and Jerome; but 
they tooite 11 at IS milta ftorlh of Jeruulem, ob- 
viouily confoundini; It with (he Bock Himuion. 
That it waa iu (be eouth would iie plus, e^'en 
tboiLf^h the liata above ci(ed were not eitant, ^m 
Zech, iIt. 10, where it ia a(A(ed to be "louth of 
Jerunlso,'^ and where it and (Jeiia (the nortliem 
frontier of the KHithem kin|;iioai) an named at 
tlie limiU of t)ie clun^ which !* 1o take place is 
tlie upect and fomiatiou of tbe country. In thia 
eaae Jmnio, both in the VulcaU and in hu Com- 
meiilary (in Ztck. lii. 8 ff). Joint the two mmea, 
and uiiflcrMandi them to denote a hill north of 
Jenualem, tppareotly irell known (doublleia tba 
ancieiit UtBKtH), marked by a poniegranite trea 
— "collit Kimnion (boo eniia Gibui toittt, nU 
arbor mabiKraaati ett) ueqne aA auttralem p1a|?u> 
JerutaleDi," O. 

BIH'HON PA'RBZ {^^ lb") {pm*. 
ip-annlt nflhe bitaeh orrmt]: Ttfifukr top/il 

ilw n— - -' ■- -■-"-- '- -- -^" 


I.ibnah. No place now known h*i been idenliSad 
with IL [I. II. 

i^ T^pa ToS 'P(>i^ri Joeapta. w^t^ 'fai: ptlrm 
ci^iu vocnbuiam at Jtemmtm; pttm Rrntnumy 
A cliir (luch leenii rather the farce of the Hebrew 

poainx that Bimmono it not identical irith hininwa 

of ZebuluD (Joab. lii. I3|. in tbe A. V. Kkmmok. 

■nnoAR. Tbe redundant letter wai probably 

•elvet for lour month, unlil nleated bj the act of 

(ra«fm*d, in mpying, ftom the luawding word 

the genrral body of the tribct (Judg. u. U, tT, 

-U «] early date, tince all the HAS. appear to 

iiL 13). 

tibibU it, a* doe* alto tba Targuni of Jo«ph. 

(l>r. Kobinaon inquira* whether thii Kininun 

dwtira) countiT which Uea on the eaat of the 

/Natuetb. See fliW. ««. u. 340(M od.>.-H.] 

coitnl hisUbindi of Benjamin, on which GIbeth 

itutted — betmen tbem and the Jordan Val- 
ley. Mere (he name la itlU fiiund attached to a 
villain perched on the lummit of i conici] chalky 

whole country (Rob. BAi Ra \. 440|. 

The bill ii alecp and naked, tbe while llmealnne 
eTer3 where protrudinK, and tlie bouae* ctineing (o 
lu ildei and Ibnninic at It wen hum ilep^. On 
the louth lide it ritai to a height of kcrhI hun- 
dred feet Fnm tbe great ratine of the IfiWy Mat- 
jFiU ,- while on the weit aide it ia tlinoit equally 
i*atat«l l>y a cnia valley of great depth (Porter. 
II<imlbk. p. SIT; Mr. Finn, In Van de Velde. 
Mtnuiir, p. US). In potltion it it (at the enw 
flical 3 milea eaM of Betbel. and T N. E. of Gibeak 
[,TtiUa tl-F<d). Tbaiben 
chanetv. and ttlnatioo It tt 

■ la two oat of lb 


■Wnta of Uie Koek Rimnion, It wu known in 
lb« dkjn of Eluebitia ud Jcronii, vho nwntkin it 

(Omim"ilietm, " Rennnou ") — Unugli coiirovndlng 
it witli Rlmnioi <□ SidMUi — u IB Romwi Dilkt 
aoftbmiidi from JcruMilam. G. 

BTNG (n;s^: tuT^Awf: mmJu). The 
rinic mu regarded ai hi Iiidispenuble irticle of * 
Rebrew'a attire, inuniucb ■> it conlaliifd hii lig- 
iiet, ud eten owed ill mnie (a thii circumabuiee, 
(be linn InSbaati lidDi{ doived {ram ■ root tig- 
nifj'ing "to impren ■ nU." It VM hmce the 
■Tmbol of fti]th<^tj, and aa eui^h wb« preapnted hj 
I'huuoh t« JoaeiJi (Ga>. ili. 42), by Ahanimu to 
Hamaii (Rath. iii. 10). h; Antiocbua lo Phiiip (1 
Uacc. il. 1&). atid bj the rather to Ibe prodigal 
•HI in the parable (Ijike it. 33). It waa (nuund 
aeeordingly, aiid beanM a pTOTerhial eipnaiinn for 
a moat valuod object (Jer. nil, 34: H^. ii. 33; 
Gccloa. ilix. 1 1). Sn^ riiiM wetv worn not onlj 
bj men, but bj women (la- iii. 31; Hlabu. Shabb. 
p. fl. S 3), and are enuiuerated among the articla 
preeenlfd bj men and wonwn Ibr th« atnice c' 
Tabtntsck (Ei. mi. 23). The littnM-rinf 
won) on the rij^ht hand (Jer. L c). We maj 
dude, from Ei. iiviii, 11. that the rini;s cant 
■ atone enfrmren with a device, or with the oi 
■ " ■ li of h^JJpllan rinin 

bem made of gold, laj 

ling either a acaribaeua or an 

le (WilkinioD, IL 33T). The Dumber 

IB ECTptiana wa» truly remarii- 
rofuaion wqa eiliibited alao by 
lUiB. particularly by men ' "^ 

It appeara alao to hai 
ra of the Apostolic age; 
■ ■ "edaaxiiuirDl 
h a gold rin,. 
n-ringed " (like the 
virix"f- "golden-handed" of Lucian. TVnuin, 
— ' implying equally well the praence of aenral 
iga. For the term gAlil, 
In Lant- r. 14, aee Oh-NAHUNTS. W. L. BT 

• RINGLEADER (AcU mir. b), applied lo 

Taul by TertuUua in bit apwcb before t-'elii, wliere 

it atanda for vptrroardnii. It impliai, of iuclf, 

ling (^ipnibrioui, being properly a military title. 


I bad I 

aa well aa bul 

BHpeciolly fnir 

"|Jai;ue, peat" (A. V. ptMilc 
teailer hi>d a good or neutral i 
b) tbo older Engliab wrilera. 

RIN-NAH (nj-l [a cry <,/ joy, or wott-s): 
'Ai^; Atet. Ponwi': RaamY One of the Bona 
if Shimon in an obaciire and fragmentary geno- 
alugy of the dekicndanta of Judab (I Cbr. it- 30). 
b tba LXX. and Vulgate be ia made "tbe ion of 

r la preftrred by fiochari 


BI-PHATH (n^n [a htaUmg an flam 
fn-or, SAn.y. 'Pifc(«: Alex. Pi^oa In Oa.: M 
pbntk).tiit acoondaonof (iomor, and thabntlMrof 
Aahkenu and Togarmah (Uen. i- S). Tb( H» 
brew tat in I Chr. 1. 6 ginea the Ibrm Diphath,' 
but thii ariw out of a clerical armr limilar to that 
which giTs the btuia Rodanim and Hadad kn 
Uodanim and Hadir (I Chr. L T, SO; Gen. mri. 
39). Tbe name Kiphath occuia only bi the gta- 
ealnsieal table, and benu there ia little lo guide na 
to tbe locality which it indicate. Tba nasi* itaeK 
baa been varioualv identified with that of the Rhk 
piean niauiilaina'(Knobel|, the ri%cr Rhebai in Bi- 
thynia(Bocbart), the Rhihil. a people liring eactward 
of the Caipiao Sea (Schuttheaa), and the Ripheu* 
[Riphathcana ?]. the andent name of the l^iphlago. 
niHia(Jaaeph. Jial.l.B,f D- Tbia laat viewketr- 
tainly rarond by tbe cnnllguily of Aahkenai and 
Togumali. The weight of a(dDloD ia. bowertr, la 
Earor of tba Kbipaeain uountaina, which Knobal 
( yilitrl. p. 44) identiflea etyniologiailly and gm- 
gmphieally witli the Carpathian range in tJw N. E. 
of Dacia. Tie altempt of that writer to idcntiiy 
Kiphath with the Oitt or Uauk, ia eiideoUy baaed 
on the aaaumption that ao important a race ongfal 
lo be nieotioiied in the table, ud that Iboa ii do 
other name lo apply lo them : but we hare no evi- 
dence that the Gaula were for any lengtheued period 
■ettled in thendghborbnodof theCarpalliian rang*, 
llie Rhipcan mount^ni IkemKlrea oitted mora 
in the imagination of the Greekt than in reality, and 
if the recared etymology of that name (from ^i*vf, 

with Hiphatb ia merrij accidenlal, and do oonneB- 
tJoo can be held to eiiat between the nams. The 
Ultr geognphen, Ptolemy (iii. fi, { IS, Ii) and 
othera, |£ced tbe Rbipean range wben do tang* 
really eiiata, ntmel)', iboat the derated gnwDd 
that aeparatea tbe ba^u of the Euxine and BaHia 
aeaa. W. L B. 

BrS-SAH {npT [o r™]: ptom. P,t,rd*i 
Vat. A>v»; Alei.j Ptna; JUua). Tba nama, 
identical with the word which aignlfiea "a woera," 
ia that of a mardi-etallun in the wildenieaa (Num. 
luiii. 31, 93}. It lie*, aa there given, between 
Ubnah and KekelaUiab, ind haa been Don^ered 
(Winer, t. e.) identical with Rua in tba PttUiMg. 
Itmrr., 33 Roninn mila from Allah (Ebih), and 
303 niilo Bouth of Jemalem. diatinel, bowmr, 
from tba -pHeva ot Joaephua {Anl. lir. 15, { 
3). No aile baa b«i identified with Rioah. 

H. a. 

RlTHItfAH (n^qi [Kelielow]:-pi<9vi= 
SrlAma). The name of a marcb-alation in the 
wildenieaa (Num. iiiiii. IB, lU). It alaoda then 
'h], and probably lay 

a N.I 

ectiou froi 

■a been identified witb it 


. prabably coimeclad with C.^'l, Anb. aJEj, 

Id (be n. of AMa Mloot. 

rn Tobata and Che m 


BIVEB. Id tbe mdb b wbioh w( •mpLij tin 
•cnl, unwlj, ftr » pHcnnUitnitmoteoiuidtnbk 
>^ ■ rinr )• ■ miMb nnr object in Um E«C Uub 
in the Wot Tba nu^jurkr of tha iulubituila of 
Hnkiiuie U th* prcMul daj bin probkU; nnir 
•ecu one. With the aeqrtwn of tbc Jordtiu Mid 
tie LU-ntg. tlM Knun of tbe iloljr Land in dlhet 
Euiireljr iMed u{i in Uw luninier niuiitlii, tnd «ii- 
TOtcd iuto but buiea of gluliig itoiK*, or etee n~ 
dnced b> itrj nmU (trFuiilM* (lerplj nuik in ■ 
D M TQW Led, utd ooaotaied frnm dew bj & daue 
gnnrtfa of ibmbL 

Tbe euue of thn k t<mt)M : oo Ibe ooe bud 
tki bUlj iiatuR of (be eouiitij — » mini mue 
•( higbUod danending on each tide u> » kmr 
lent, uid 0-1 tbe other Ibe eitreme bent of U» 
tttiiiate diniR tbe (unimer. llwre i« tittle doabt 
tint >■ enoeot limee tbeoHuitrr nt imn vooded 
Uhb it nmr li. end ttd, in aaiiiH|iHi«, til* m^ 


And tboee which vr not eo abnipt ukl eanfi mi 
in tbeir width, their imgulirit;, tbeir brioni tM 
thai tiie torrent liu auheided, utlerij unll* 
ike." Unfortunate]^ our LuiEUAge doee not 
coutaLn uij ilngie word which bii Wb the meui- 
iagi of the Hebrew natAnI mid iti Aisblo equin- 
lent Moi^, which ewi be ueed it once fbr ■ dr; ni- 
ter ■'kI ^ tx ttreun which oMHiooiU]' Bowi 
through it- Ainiworth. in liie Amftaiitmt (oa 
Num. liil. 13), Hji U»t "Inume" hu both 
UKuiogei but "Ixiume" li now ohaokte in Eng- 
liib, though itill in loa in Scolland, wbere, owiug 
to Uw mountunoiii niture of the counlrj. tbe 
••bunu" pert4iJw of tbe netura of tbe widiei of 
Paketloe la Ibe itntfolArity of tbai Bow. Mr. 
Barlon (Ci'eo^. Jimnt. niv. '019) >dopti tb« Iteliui 
Jiamarii. Utben inn pnpoied ti>e Indiwi tetm 
niiihA. Tbe double ipplicitian of tbe Hebrew 
lUcAnf it evident in 1 K. ivtL a, where EIO>li ii 
cDBimuided to hide hinudf in [not bjj (be madud 
Cberith end the brink of the nacAsJ. 

Far the nrkwi ufHli of the Kreuui of the 
eu mtr f which nich condilioiM iuevitebijr peoduccd. 
Ibe UKient Hetrewt bed nrj euut Inii, whid; 
Ibtj atfkijtd babiluallj with luucb peedeien. 

1. Foe Uw pereiiiiij tint, Ifiliir <r^). I'oe- 
dbljr and of Uia .>onliui in Vt. InL «, luir. IS: 
of lb* KRiU Ucaa|ii.tiiniiiia u>d Egjptiu rinn 
noenUr ia Gm,. il 10. Kj. vii. I»; 3 K. xvii. 8; 
e>. iii. 19, Ac. li«t with tbe defiDile utide, Ino- 
river," it ligniliee itmfcriabljr the 

.. 16, lc,4e.). With, fewei- 
ujiliaDa (Joeh. i. t, uiv. 2, 14, IS; la. iii. lUi Ki. 
mi. li I, ndA^' ia uniformly rendered "rlier" in 
*w tenioii. Hid aecunlel]', aince il ia nercr ipplied 
lo the flr«Jiig fut^itlve lecrenU of Pdealioe. 

•. llw tern lijr Uic*a ia nadtot (bpO), far 
widcb «yr triDalaton luve ueed proraiacuoualy, and 
iiMiliniea almoit attamatd.v, "valle),'' " brooli." 
■nd ■■ rinr." Tfana the " bnok " and tbe » til- 
ler" of Eebea) (Num. ilU H vid iiiti. B); the 
-•aBej," die "brook." and the "rirer'' Zered 
(Num. ni. 13; UeuL ii. 13; Am. vi. U); Uie 
- twwk " and tbe " river " of .labbok (Gen. uill. 
M; U«Lii. 3T),of Anwn(\nni. ui. U; Deal. iL 
Ml. of Kiahea (.ludi. 1*. T; 1 K. uriiLW). Coin- 
iwre aleo Llent iiL ID, it.* 

Xeither of three worda eipmaee Uie thing in- 
Uudcd; but the l«m "brook" ia peculkriy un- 
hkppj, aince the paalnit i<lea which it conieja la 
4 nile at vwianoe with tbs Eenenil character of Ute 
wwUea of Haloline. Many of Une an dwp .itv- 
npt ehaama or renla in the tulid rock of the hiUa, 
and bsT* ■ aatiai^, giooniy upect, lar mnoiwl 
froin that of an Ivigliili bronk Kor emopla. the 

(i* bmilj and Kaao. it cqiudlj ontike the quiet 

I. r**- (T^*:), 1 

1 of Egjptiui orlgiB 

liatributed throu)(baut t^'pt, or t* 


h Uiat cc 

kHj. II 

mplojed for the Xile in Ueneiia and 
fliodua, and la rendetvl lij our bwialatora "lb* 
river,*' eicept In ttie following peaangea, iler. ilri. 
T. S; Am. viii. S, ii. S, when thej lubatilute "a 
Bood " — much to the delrinient of the proiihet'a 
niebqihor. (See NlUc, vol. iiL p. SIU b.\ 

4. I'lUoJ (^2^''), (imi irootalgniiyingtannik 
or fiilLieea, occura only aii timet, in four of which 
it ia rrndcnd "riier," namelj, Jer. xiii. S; Deo. 

m. 3, 3, s. 

B. PfUg (37^)1 froa u laeerlaiB not, pnb- 
aUj conneoM with tbe idea of the dlriatoo of 
the land for irrigtluo, ia trtualalsd '■ rirer " in h. 
1. 3, liT. 9; It. ixi. Sa; Job 11. IT. Elaewhervit 
ia rendered "Uieam'' (1^. ilri. 4), and in Judg. t. 
IS, 10, " diriuoot," where the alluuni ia prolahlr 
to tbe artiflcial alreama with which the jaatonl 
and Bgncuitural countrj of iteulien waa itTi|{*t*d 
(EnU. A'cAter, i. 129;(ieaen. Tka. f. 1103 k). 

«. Aphli (p'>pK). Tbia appeara to be uttd 
without anj clewl; dittiiKtiie meaning. It It 
ptobablj from a root aignifying auvngUi or foroe, 
' itj uij niah or body of water. It il 


13: Ei. vL ), mi. It, lull. «, luiv. 13, un. 
lUfi. 4, e: Jod L 30, iii. IS. In IV euri 
tbe atluaion it lo temporary ilneacna in tbs dry 
giona oflhe "aouth."* G 

1. D'l-l^n-iri:: rtra^, AlyiirTm-./imiy, 
jEfSpti (Geo. tc. IS), '■ Uie river of t«ypl," thai 
b. die Nile, and here — aa the wettem bordir c< 
the Promited Lud, of which tbe aatem border 
wat Euptante* — the Fdutiae or eaateninuit 

e«,Bet. lU. lG,lS,awl nM"aoi4''i 




fitpoyf AryMTSu, Tmofiiii Aiyirreii, firtti- 
■oupa, pL: Imfoil jt'!ft//M, iifut jfii/yfili (Num. 
mW. ti .1«h. n. 4, 47; 1 K. viii. Sfi; S K, uir. 
Ti II iivil. 12, in Uh lut [wtMge tmiil>t«d " Uie 
■treniii of l'«jpl")- It u Ihe coninioa opinion 

tw Iwrdcr of KgypU itill i 
iMty ailed iradi-J-'^Jr 

nllej ii occupied by the bed i 
■ only How - 

is luual in the dti- 
t Tttlleyi. 'Ilie cfTrectneii of Lbi< opinion cin 
onlj be decided hy mi eLHDiination oT the puuuei 
in tiikb Ihe l«rui occun. for Ilii uicient Iruula- 
tiont du not Rid lu. Wh«ti ibef were mule there 
■uut iitiic lieen gnat uncerbiliitj on Uie urtiiect. 
Ib the I.XX. the term i* innilated l>j two lileni 
Dwuiiiiiis or perhape three, but it li doubtful 
vbeUber vH? ciui be rendered " riTer," and U once 
reprcMiited by Rhinocolun (or Khinocorun), the 
name of ■ to«n on the cooit, near the llWi- 
WAitrit, lowhieli the luodem Jil-'AyraJi haa iul-- 

'Jliii ilntun ii lint mentioned at the pointuhere 
tiie xMiihern bolder of liie I'mniiaed l.and toadied 
the Meditoraneaii, which formed ita weitem bor- 
der (Nuni. luiv. 3-0). Keit it la ipoken of ai in 
tbt aanie poailion wilb reference la the |ir»cnbed 
bonlen of the tribe of Judah (Joah. it. 4). and 
a« l>e}ond (laia and ita lerritor}', the iteileniiiioat 
•f U>e IMiiHstiiie citiea (47). lu the later hialorj 

oilerinic in of Hanialh unto tke rri-er of Iilgf pi " 
(1 K. liii. 65). wid I'^jpt limited in the aame man- 
DTT when the luat of the enalem piDrliicea la men- 
tioned; " And the liini; of K^vpi came not af^n 
anj more out irf bit bnd ; for the king of Ualiylon 
bad taken from the liter of Kfijpt unto the rlier 
Knpbmlea all that perlHliied to tlie king of K«)-pt " 
(8 K. iiir. 7). In luiah It aeemi to be apokeii of 
■a Bmniin one boundary of the laraelite temtory, 
Enphnlaa lieiiig the other, "from the channel of 
the nm unto the atream of Htypt " (iivii. IB). 
■ppnrriig to eormpoiid to the liniita pioniwed to 

In cerlaiD parallel punajtea t1>s Nile ii diitindly 
tpteified inatnd of "the Nacbal of Estpt" In 

Ki^'pt/' ia nieiitioiied with Enplintea aa liounding 
the land in wbieh he then s-aa, 

lar of tha name, " Nauhal if t's^," m bM boa 
*eU aufoteated to ui. aliuoat fbrbida oar atppoabi 
an ItiaijrniScazit itrrani lo be Intended, aHhOD^ 
atKb a ttmm might be of impurtjuice Coin jaA 
tlon aa fbnuing the bouiiciarj. 

If we iiifto- that Uie Kachal of Ec}^ ia tha 
Nile, we haie to conaider the geognphieal conae- 
quencea, and lo compare the name with known 
names of the Kile, tlf the branche* of the Nile, 
the eaatemin«(, or Peluiiac, would ntceauril)' be 
tiM one Intended. On looking at the map it aeema 
iaeredlble that the fhilbtjne tcrritor; ahonld rta 
have eitendrd ao fiu; the IPecfi-l-'.4r'c«l ia dia- 
tant from Ga>«, the moat wedem of the Philiatloe 
lowni: but Pehiiinm. *t the moutb and mcateaat' 
em pun of the I^uaiac branch, ia vet7 ntnote. 
■' " ' rtniembered, that the tract 

1 it a drtert that could nerv 



tied pi^nlatiDn. and wat probably only held in tha 
period ti> which we refer by manuding Arab tribea, 
whieh niaj well hare been tfibutHy to the Pfallia- 
linea, for the; mugt liarebeeii tributary to Ifaenxr l« 
the Kgyptiana,Dn aecount of their iaolated poailioii 

ility of tt 

ounliy, t 

ha}f-lndepeiidence.<> All donU oa 
thin point acenu lo be >et at mt by a paaaage, ie 
a hieioglyphk inicriptjon of Setbe* I , head ol the 
XlXlh dyiiMty, n. c. cit. 1340, on the norlli wall 
of the great temple of Kl-Karnak, which roentkiDa 
" the foroigneri ol the SHASU Irom the fort of 
TAKU t» the land of KANAKA" (SHASU 
ANA, Bmincb, Urosr. /KoAr. L p. SSI, No. 
ISflS, pi. ibii.). The identification of "the Ibtt 
of TAHU " with any pbice menlloncd by the 
Ureck and IjiUn e«)i:"<plieii bat not yet been Mt- 
iifactorily Bccnrntlialsed. It appeart. Ihini the hta- 
relief, raprescnting llie retnrn of Sethce I. to F^ypt 
from an eastrni eipcdilion, near the inaciiption 
j«t mentioned, lo bai-e been between a Leootop- 
ohaand aliraiieb of the Nile, «- perhtpt canal, oo 
the west tide of which it «aa ailuale, eomniuidiiig 
abridg«(/Md:N'o.I3nG,|>1.xlviii.). The Leontop- 
olia ia «tliet the cainlal Of tlie Leo'lopolile Nonw. 

e Uelior 

e Non 

Id by 

F (Gen. . 

. 18). 


inililakalily it Sliibor, wliicb it aloajt the 
Nile. tpidieD uf aa a border of the land, in Joshua't 
drwription of llw territory yet to be conquered: 
''llila [ia] the land that yet lemauieth: all Ihi 
ll^ii of Uie Philiitinea, and aU Ueahuri, from 
Um Mhot, wblcli pa] before £«rpl, eren unto the 
bordera erf Kkron northward, [irblcb] ' ' ' 

to the Ctnauiite " [Joah. liii. 3, 3). 

.loaephm (AM. xiii. 3.i U 
the atream would probably be the Taiiitie bruwb, 
or perbapt the I'elualae : in the latter, pcrbapa tha 
Canal of the Ited Sea. We prefer the firat Un- 
lopolia, but no identiBcation it oeceaary lo piorf 
that the SHASU at thit time aitcnded frou. 

•ul.JKl OfOffr. lnKliy. I. pf. 200-280, iii. pp. 80, SI ]. 
Kgypt, therefore, in Ita moat flaurithint; poiod, 
etidenOj ealended no further than the eaat of tb« 
RelU, Ita eaateni boundary beinR probably the 
I'elutiao branch, the territory of the SHASU, as 
Anb nation or tribe, tying between Kgypi and 


I Syrlini ; ft» allboDgb tlia p»i(kH ol 

I tlie Arablao larTltDry fdrtlHi 
iirt«d thr» *!■' >.nn..J (111. 
It ave-tUOV If wi adopt Capt. 

■aalwanl of RhlkcHolaim. ar 


•y-— it wight he npficiKd Uu( *t tUi* tloM 
Ita SUASU hki idmIs na iunnd into l^pl, but 
It mixt be nuHmtcnd that u- the Utler psriod of 
Iht Uosxif JuLih, wkI duriii; tba ckwcal ptriod, 
IVhuimn ni liM ke; of tx}(>' o" l^" >>')'- 1'be 
t-tuliitiim, ill lh« tiine oif Ihdr alwtal power, 
which appeu* lo iiars li«ai ooulniiporv)' with tb« 
psud td tbc Jud^n, maj •tdl li« lupiuKd ta 
bi<* mlimd tlia Arabs of tliU twutnl ienitorj Ui 
lb> CMidition of trikitariH, h doubtlca >u siio 
don* bj the llunubs. 

it mut b* RBKmbeRd that tbi ipedfiatiau of 
• est^n bouridirj docs iwt iierfurilj |Wor« th*t 
lh> Ktoil Uiidi d( ■ lUle tilendcd n Iv; tbe 
limit of IM m; ii foDMioia rMl»er lo i» imdcp- 
■Uod. Sobmou rnkd u tributuk* «ll Ih« kjiig- 
4iiBM betuHD Uw Eapbnta ud Uw lud of tbe 
lUlHtimi Hid th« buriln of Egrpl, when tbe 
Land of PromiM kppf^n lo hvn hem luUj oceu- 
pad (1 K. i>. 91, comp. 31). When, therrfere, 
it ii ^edlM that tbe HliiUiUiie tmiUirj u bi ■■ 
Um NacbU-MimiDi Rnuuiied to be Ukan, it need 
nraelj lie iufenvd that Uw territury to be inhab- 
ited bf the Imelita na to ettftid » br, and tliii 
•^nam'i baiig an KtuaJ Ixnindarj of a tribe moj 
bt explained eo llw nnie prindplei. 

If, with tbe geiierallt; of critlea, we think Hut 
the NacbaJ-Jtiiraiiii ia the WddU-' Anah, wc 
iiiiut BOndude Uut the name Shibor ii alio i^iplied 
lu the Utier. allbouich elicHben deaifnutting ttat 
S'lii,' lor we hai-e leen that Nachal-Mimim and 
Sbilwr are u»d inlercbaiigealilf to dnignate 
Uteuo OS the bonkr of the FnmiiKd l^d. Th 
dL£euUj term te overtbraw the mmmon opinioi 
It mi^ boweia, lie nniemliared Ibat in Joriii 
nil, 3, 31iibor bu tbe article, ai thoiy h •etaallj' 
sr originallj an ippellatiie, tbe Ibnoer 
b« the :-»__- .— . . 

d NacbaJ n 

■ H-l 

tr atnan una ur a nnr; mil ua nun* naonai- 
Ulxnini niay eom* frem a loet diakct, and the 

panlld AnUe word wMce, ^^O^m Ihoi^ ocdt- 

auril; Bud fcr nlleji and Ihelr whiler-totnnla, 
at in the OM of the WidU-'ArfOi iteeV, hu 
Ivm emplojed bj the Arab* In Spdn for true 
I iren, tha Uuadalquiiir, etc. It nwj, bowvrer, be 
loggealid. that In Haehal-Mizrmlm we have tbe 
tndmt Ibnn of the A^eet-.lfiir of 
that NKhal vaa adopted fRxn iti wmilaritj of 
vnnd to tbe onginal of NttXot Tt maj, Indeed, 
im oljeeted that NeLtai It biil to be of Iranian 
otlfin. Ilie umttr to (hit it, thtl we Hud Jann, 
«• «3t not <*; tlM loiiiani. called bj tbe ntj 
Mine, KANKN, nwd in the RoietU S(ai ' 
EAAHNlKOiX ITAHMAIIN}, in the liiit of 


» etrifai tl 

■"'.'• Ah i 

h Egjpt 


Pit^iet to, the Pharaobt, h 
ph UI., B. c. dr. 14< 

Greek cmnectiou w 
tbe time of (he Kioilui, ii 
reated at an impoeubilitj. It li, boveter, r«- 
larkable, that the word NiiAai doet not oocur Id 
die Homeric poemt, at though it wtn not of 
Suukrit origin, but derit-ed Irani Ihe Etop(tan» « 

Bnigtcb compana (he Et;jp(ian MUAW Ett 

& " Water of Ki;n>t,'' nwutionsl in tbe pbraM 

'■ From the walet of l'«nit ai br tt NF.HKKK.EN 

[Meeopotamia] Incliuive," but there it dd iii(amil 

evidence In Auor of hit eoitjectura] idratiGcatioa 

the ttnam at tVAIi-t-' Aretah {Gtog. /nacAr. 

.65, 803). K. S. P. 

Dr. J. U Porter {Ihndboat, and Art. in 

Kitlo'a Cfdop. of BibL lit.) propoeet to inlve the 

difEknltj cn^ed h} the (eniit jVrilfir-Ultniin and 

" Ar'tUimim hy making "the proper dittine- 

between tbecouiitr; given In covenant promltl 

Abraham, and that actuallj allotted to tlM 

ItraeUtea." The Nile ma> bare been in oonteiD- 

In the orlgiiinl prumlae, and the (enn 

Mlinim maj bare liteo " tbe deaignation 

of the Nile in AbnJuuii't time, before the Egjp- 

ian word yUr became kjjown." 

N'lehal U conimoblj lued in the Elebrew ScHjK 


j,ing of 

.il*rmltlent hrook 


. 15, the 

brook that 

driea awaj, la, i.. 

T, and Am 

the brook 

of the deaert, the 

w*lj lji.« 



Uebal-and it i) 

bi«bl, 1 

1 probable 

that IhU 

temi would bate been cboaeii 

lo daignate the vait 


eofUieNile. Kohl 


6*Bij. 0/ tte Hols 



hii matun 

opinion in bvor 

of l\m ret 

ioirent rf 

I'^pt, which of old wai the boundarj belweaa 
I'uleatine and Egjpt. At (be praeut day it It 
called Wal]! tl-'Aihti : and cunm frooi the pMtw 
of Jd>tl U-Tih towanlt Sinai, draining (he grtU 
oentral bugitudinal baain of the deaert. It rauihfli 
the tea without a permanent atnam; and ia atUI 
tbe houndaij between the two countriea. Near iM 
mouth ia a imall village, cf-'/lrM, on the alu of 
the ancient Rttimioiurii, u la ibown b; eolumoi 
and other Kamnn remaina." 

Upon (be whole the probabilitlei are in faror o( 
(hit identification, and the weight of authoritj ii 
npon Ita «de. J. P. T. 


BIZTAH (r^^, : 'PMfJ : [Aloi. Id 1 Sam. 
ni. S, Pt^^;] Joeeph. 'fair^i: Rafia), ooo- 
cublna to king ^ul, and mother of hit two aoM 
Armonl and Me[Ai!iogbeth. Uke inanj othera o( 
the prominent female cbanet«ra of tbe Old I'edk- 
ment — Ruth, Kahab, .Iczebel, etc. - Hlirib wooM 
•eem to han been a breiicriFr, a Hivlle, dncended 
from one of the ancient worthica of (hat nati4k, 
Ajah or Alab.c aon of Zlbeon, wboae name and 

IdulgL Akad, Berlin). 

nnbated by Bunaen (KflTN'l Wbk, 
,i>ru(acta (Orarr. Initio. II. IB, pi, lilL ni 
ttoBCil (Ibm^uy iPAJanii, p. 481- 
I ' The Bjrtas-PetUto ai 



hnw M* pnwrrtd In the IthmMlila ncord of On. 
mvi. It tliH b« the cue, Saul ma eonHDmeinK 
■ praeticc, wlucb Kcn) vritli BuUrqnRit king) to 
bnve ETomi glniont into ■ rule. oT choodng non- 
iKstHu woukii for tlieir inrerior irin*. l^vid'a 
Intriffue with IMhihcbm or U>tli-(hui, tbc wrfr oT 
a Dillitf, uid ponibL; iitneV > Cuiunitfw," ii per- 
haps nob A cut in point; but Solomon, Hehoboiua, 

Alter tbe datb of Siiul and occupation of tlw 
•ounlfj' ««•! of the ,lDrdiu bj tfa« I'hiliitlnn, 
tUipah Mcompanird Ui« othtir inmnln of tbe rojal 
family to Ifarir new rfaidenai at Mahaiiaini ; and It 
li hnc that Iwr name is firit Introduced 

T bj 

lahboaliedi {i Sam. Ui, Tj, a piece of ipils «hich 
led Rnl lo Al'ner'i death thmi)(li Joab'i tnachery. 
and ultimately to the munler of Iiliboehatli hini- 
Mlf. The accuntirai, lehMher true or Um — and 
from Al>iier'» leltem'^iit dajiul we ahuutd naturally 
oon.'lode that it wm false — involied mwe (ban 
BierU the ear of a mndem ami EiiKliih tmder. 
For anioiigat tlie Iimelilea it «u coniidefed " aa a 
alep lo the thrane to liii<« coimecUon wiUi tie 
■idowoT the mittmaoftlie rfeceued king." (Sec 
Hichaelii, Ltui •■/ Hvni, art. b4.) It ttacrdbre 
anoiniled to an in«iiiuilioii tl»t Abtier wm about 

e of lUipah till the tnfpt 
r oiie of the moat Eiunlliar 

We hear nolhiiij; 

ott|ccla (o youiiE and 
wl. 8-11). Kiwy 
•nd cmtunnce with which the moUicr watched orrr 
lbs bodia of ber two son* and her fire rcUtiree, to 
WKn them fh>m au indi^ilty peculiarly pBinTul to 
the whole of the ancient world (ae« Ti. Uiix. Sj 
Horn. IL I. 4, G, Ac., Ac.). But it U qne^tionable 
whether the ordinary conception of tlie acene ■• 
aenirate. The aeieii tictiina wen not, M the A. 
T. Impllea, " Iinni;; " they wers cniciiM. Tba 
«ren cmsa were pUnled In tiie rock on the top 
if (ha •icred hill or<iil«Oij the hill which, though 
not Saul'i native place.' waa through hia long r«i- 
decce there so identified with him aa to retidn bia 
name \a the latest eilalenie of the Jewlab nation 

anncr^ dedicated to Jeborab, poaaibly tha ipot 
1 which Ahlah the pticet bad depoulad the Ait 
hen be took reftige in Gibeah during the I'biUa- 
newar {1 Sam. lir. 18). The rictimt were aMtl- 
^at (he beginning of barlej'lukrvst — theaacrtd 
id fntal lime ot the IhuaoTer — and In the full 
blaie of Ihs aommer aun they bung till the &D of 
periodical rain in October. Ltaring the whole 
hat time Kkipah remained at the bot of the 
Ha on which the bodlea of ber aona were a. 
A: the M'lttr dulurotn. If the iiijiiinalnn may 
be allowed, of the ancient diipcnaaUiMi, She bad 
no lent lo ahdter her (Vom the scorching son whidi 
beata on that open apot all day, or from the dreneh- 
Ing dewB at nii;ht, but iha tpread on tha mahy 
Boor the thick mouniing garment of black nak- 
doth'' wblcb aa a widow ahe wore, and croochlu 
be wildied that ndther nilture nor JaelM 
[uoleat the bodlo. Wa majaurdy bejuati- 
applying (o Kiipab the worda with whteb 
another act of womanly klndneaa waa commanded, 
and may eay, that " wbenaoertr the Kble ahall go, 
there shall alao thia. that Ibta woman bath doD^ b« 
Icid Ibr a memorial of ber." O. 

ROAD. Thia word Dcam bnt ««• in tba 
Anlboriud Tenon of the Ilible, namely, in 1 
Sam. mil 10, wheiv it la uaed In Iba »nm ot 
"raM" or "inroad." the Hsbrtw word (D^^) 
S- ™r. 8, uiU. St, m. :, H. 

IT oTona K 

< n^TTJ, 1 Sam. nd. B. 

* * P^?. O™ jn^, "break:" 

1 Ta?',ftaiiilltr,"waato:"U 
*■ ^^: wp-ft^ij: fml'i "P 

I. Tt^ll, ft*, tam TTf, "rob:' 


A road In the sense irhldi w* now tUMh to 
the term la eipreMcd In the A. T. by " way " and 
-path." [W*r] 0. 

• BOBBBKS. [CHDRcmi, Rosmn* «f; 

of plunder, or the more limited (enac of theft, aye- 
temaljcally organised, robberr haa trar baeo on* of 
the principal emplajDieota of the nomad trtha of 
the beat From the time of lahmael lo the prenait 
day, the Badonhi baa btai a "wild mas," and a 
robber by tnde, and to carry out hla ol^ecta aoe- 

(. D'B^, JobiUH.B; »,#irT«:»i<i>. nips 
wlUi A. v., baa " robbsf, J" bol It Is Bloat eoouMBlj 

*. lTttf:*,,«*:taWift™T3l^,"-i*s.' 

6. n^tT: iKfgS,: darfpfflu: A. T. "aHK*-" 

B. 351 : aWm^r JW- A. T. "thtot" 

1. rt|t : luv-Jf^: di^KTWer. 

i. bVj: 4«..pA.r *Je<«i«r.VW». 

l TIS, "wtqm," "lepaati" hanaa In Fl. SB 
am-pluti; osDallj aOiK, raUanM aaaartlooa (Oaa. t 

*■ V'5B."«°w,""bWs!"™H(*';'i»-(0" 

1. nf^; li*,*^; J li» i fc 

I. 3J^:.u™.,;w».».^..•«.■ 



NMWI;. ■> br tnm hting s'cpniBl diignuefiil, h 
■pnM ■■ bi Ibe hlgbat degns cnditabk ((;ai. 
tiri IS; Bwdihudt, jVuMi « Btd. I. 13T, 1ST). 
A> liuUDce of ID m(crpriM of « (rulj' Bedouin 
Aanctcr, but diatingnUbwI bj the neeptionil 
tifiim bdongiug to iti prijici|Ml actor, ifl Hen iu 
the nigbt-lbraj of Uind (1 Sun. uri. 6-131, with 
•hieh ilao n mv &iHj tompan Horn, /f. K. 
IM, fa. PRdtitt)i7 inroadi on k lui^t khIi art 
n«ii in thg incuniona of the Sahcsni uid Cbiil- 
dnni on tbf pvpntj of Job (Jab 1. IS, 17]; tb« 
j gr t fige anpled vith plunder of Siiueoii uid I^rl 
<Geu. Hut. 3S, Kl); the repriHli of the Uebnwi 
apon the Mjdiuiitea (Num. nil. 3S-el), and Ibe 
ftiquoit aud oAen proli>nged liiTaaioni of "ipc^- 
cn" upon the Indilo, tofiettaer irith tbdr i»- 
pTKb, darii^ the period of Utt Judgea and King! 
(Jadg. ii. U, ri. 3, i; 1 Sam. »., xv.; S Sun. 
to!., i-i 3 K. t. «; 1 Chr. r. 10, 18-2S). IndU 
ridna] inituicea, indicating an nnaettled ilals of 
Ihv DooiitTJ during IIh aame psiod, are asen Id 
the " litn-in-nit " of the men of Sbeebeni (Judg. 
li. 3S\ and the mounUin retreata of [)avid In tin 
can of AdalUni. the hiU of Hacbilah, tad Um 
wildcmei* of Maon, and hia ftbode in Ziklag, In- 
T^«d and (Jundend In like muiner hf tha Amalek- 
Itca (1 Sam. uU. 1, % utii. IB-SS, uri. 1, ilriL 
S-IO, lu. 1). 

Similar dinrdsr In Uw oonntrj, coniplilMd of 
man Uma one* b<i the propbeta (Hot. It. S, r\. >; 
Hk. ii. 8), eonlinueil mora or lea through Mw- 
ckbasB doni to Roman tiniea, faToroI bj the oor- 


a. in I 

I Koniao 

Dwnt, prnduced thoae rurTuiilable buida of robbsa, 
n (Mllj onllectal and wilb ao much ditfieultj lub- 
)lnal, wbo fcand abeltfl- In the cam of PaloUtie 
Mid Sjria, and wbo inkaled the mnntrj even in 
lb* time of our Ijird, alnwat to the rn7 galea of 
Janaklni (Lake i. 3D; Aeli t. 38, 3T, ul. 38l. 
[JuDAB or Ualiler; Caves.] In the Uler bi*- 
Wrj atao of the countr; the roMAen, or ncaril, lo- 
g«UMr witb thdr kwler, John of UbKhala, pUj-ed 
■ ooniipicDmia part (Joaeph. B. ^. It. S, { 1; ^I,i4i 

7, ( a). 

Tbe MoBie b* on the nbisct of tbefl It ooii- 
toinad hi Ki. uiL, and conaWa of tbe foUowiog 

1 alim the 


and kt Ihii pw 

f bii boiua, td 

ituda (10- 

■ennbld, ( n. to the bll u 
me, eren glre all the >ob> 
hua in caae of Wlure be i 
baelli, Uia of ifout. { £84). On tbe nUier 
Me Berthcau on Ptdt. vi.; and Keil, Arch, ftfir 
§ 154. Man.4teallng waa puniahable with death 
<Ei. iii. IS: DeuL iiir. T). Inniion of right 
111 land waa itricllj rorbiddan (Dent. urii. IT; la 
t. S) S). 

The qutiitian of aaorilegs doea nut praperlr coot 
within tbe Kope of the prtwnt article. H. W. P. 

• HOBB. {Uamtll] 

KOB'OAH CPa^^j^: Aotoon), Eodua. ilA 
aj;MaU.i. T. [Rhkoimuii.] 

ROK, ROEBUCK (^3V,ii«Cin.); n,'??, 
liSil]iyHi {I.) : Ioj)«(i, lipntw, lopinltiDr: e/vrt*, 
daniula), "nun ieemi to be little or no doubt 
that (he Hebrew word, whicb oecnn frequent]; hi 
the T,, deiiotea aome ipecie* of antelopa, pnb- 
■blj the GnttUa doreoM, a natin of Egjpt and 
North Afriot, or tbe c;. Ai-nbicn of Sj-rit and 
Anl>ia, which ippean to be a nrietj onlj of the 
ilurcnt. The guelle w*i allowed u Ibod (OeuL 

■ IS, 23. etc. I : it ia mentioned u rerj fleet of 

Hi Su 

i. IB; 1 Chr, i 

14; Ptot.tI. 61; it wm» celebrated for ila 
torelinra (Cant. ii. 9, IT, vlii. II). The pudlt 
i> found in Ricjpt, Barbarj, and Sjrla. Stulej, 
(S. .f P. p. 90T) laja that the aignificaUon of tba 
won! Ajalon. the rallcT "ofttaga," la lUll JuatlSed 
li; "the gazetlea which the peaaania bunt on Iti 
mutlntalu >lnpH" Thomaon { Tlit Land nud A* 
fk-t. p. 1T3I nil that the movntalni of Nepbid 
-' abound in gaxeUn to thii daj." 

1. If thg itokn animal waa & 

3. If a man waa foonl atealtng hi a dvellii^ 
booae at niftht, and wai killed in the act, the boml- 
dd( WM not held gniltj of nimder. 

*. If tbeaetna committed dnrii%dajU|!ht.the 
lUef might not be killed, but wu bound to make 
~ ]r be ajld Into •biw]'. 

sr goodi depoiited in a nian'a borne 
"le thief, when detecind, wu 


: but 

B. If Um thief eoold not be found, the maater of 
M> booae wia V> be examined bdbre the jud|;ea. 

I. If an uiiaMj giten In oharxe to a man to 
'— " — "— ' 1. througb hli aagli- 



HliWI.... . 

tl, k, tkt a thitf detstad In itealing ihonl j re 

The arid gaaeDe (6. JroKn), wUofa, tf oN • 
dllfrrajt apeelu, ia at lent ■ wdl-maiked nriab 
of the dbroii. ii common In 3]Tla, and li hunted 
bj the Araba with a falcon and a greyhound ; the 
repeated atlacki of the )iird upon tbe head of tbe 
animal ao bewilder It that it Adla an eaa; prej to 
the grejihoand, whicb la ttaioed to watch the Sight 
of tha falcon. Hanf of Iheaa antelopai are olao 
taken in pit&llt bito which thcf are dricen bj the 
ahouta of the huntan. Tbe Urge, tUU, aott eig of 
the gnielle tut long been Ihc theme of oriental 
praiaea. W. H. 

BOQ-ELIM (a^^a'"' yiiBa-U plaa. Gee.). 
[Rom. 'PvytAAlfil Vat.'j P«yi^\ii^ and lo Alo., 
Ihongh cnoe PintAiru: Kugttim). Tberaddeaca 
of Banltlai the UileadiU (9 Sam. rrll. IT, ill. H) 
in the higblanda aut of tbe Jordan. It li ■» 


■ioocd OB tbii occMiBn oalf. NotUsg ii mU to 

Gid« 111 to Iti litiuiljon, uul DO nuiie nt tH nmr 
ng it iip|i«u« to b*i« b«n hltbcrto ditconml 

ir intmralcd m Htbm the luiu* ii dcrinbit 
fcom frgil, tbt Toot, uid ligiiifia (lia " fuUen 
•■Haabcn," wlm wen in Uw bUiil (u tbtj •till 
ue ID tb« Eut] of luiiw Ihfir l«(t to tnw' ' 
tlotb ahicb thij in diwuiug But Ibn 1 


wtl B tt wsra, ud ieafi, wUeh at Ui nlMai 
iiU ifcmd and iwnp imj Um angodlj. Sn 
Ll,£.>Xl,>iKii/<nip£tln<,[>.l>eDC(lB6e}. B 
' ROLLER (Win, froa » mb = " « 
a ojisd from ili fcrm m t 

Had ") :a banduF, 
roll, Emk. lu. ai. 

BOB'GAH tnirpn, cemt, rt}rn, Ktri 

Iprntcritt]: "Pttyd; Ait*. Ovpiiaya: AMjn). An 
iriwiils, of tbe •OKI of ShuucT [1 Cfar. tIi. H). 

RO'IMU8( R>tHu«I( 
Tbo HUM i* not Imwlk Id tb* Vulgits. 

BOLL (n^ap: M,it«Xl>)- A book bi metot 
limo conriilcd ot' ■ ungle ionR Mrip of paper or 
(Mtrchnmit, which wm unuU ' —••-' 
Mkli, »i<l wu uoroUal whci 
nr<\ it. Hfiicc Bme the Icrm mtj/illnh, n«n 
jiHn/," ■'toToll," ulridJ/iunwmiig lo th* ijtin 

eipraaloiK, "loipread" uid "nil toi^thi , 
Maul of " to opeo " uid •■ to ihut " > booh. Tin 
full eiprotion fbr ■ book wu "• roll of writing," 
or "« rott of • hook" (J«r. lUfi. 3; I'l. »L T; 
fx. Ii. 9), but amiiaiully •'roll" ituidi b; Itwlf 
(Zrch. T. 1, 9t ¥jt. n. 8). Tlw iri^aAli of "-- 
iS.X. orii^ndiy rrfmtd lo Ihe oniunoiUl h 
(the oriiiil/nM of the Ijilim) »l th» top of IheiUck 
or GjUiidcr round which Ihe roll wm wound. T 
ue of the term mfyiUnh impllte, of cinirK, th* e 
blence of a eoft and pliant nmlerial: what thia ni 
leiial wu In the Old Tntanieiit period, we an n 
Informed; but •• a knife wai required for iti il 
itrucllon {Jer. imi. 23), we infer that it w 
puehnient. The roll mi niniillj written on o 
thle mAj {lilliha. A'rvi. 10, % 3), and hence t 
pirticular notice of one that waa " wrillcn wilh 
and without" (Ki. ii. 10). The writing na i 
nnged in columni, memblinK a door In ehape, 
and hence deririnK their Hehiew name," Jurt ai 
■'(Dlunin," from iu neemhlancc to a robnmn oi 
|.in]ir. It baa Iven aaHTted that the Icrm migillat 
duca not occur liefore Ihe Ith cent. n. c, being 
ftrM uaed bj Jereniiab (HiUig, in Jtr. mti. 8); 
and the coticlBaion baa been drawn (bat the um of 

that period (KmJd, (>VicA. i. Tl, < 


. Thiaii 

lldenlJr, a late data Ibr the 

and 10 Ignore the collateral eiidcDce arising ■ 

theeipreewon "roll logethrr' uied l.j la. 

4, and aJeo out of the probHble reference 

l-enUtcuch in P». il. T, " the roll of the hoc 

toay of which waa dcpoalted bj the aide i 

Ark (Dent. lui. M). We maj hero add that tlte 

t«TOi in la. riii. 1, rendciwi in the A. V. "roll,"' 

oom mrnMl mama InbhI. W. 1. 13. 

• " Fljlng roll ■' (Zeoh. r, 1, 9) nau^a a booii o 
panhment rolled up, reproented In Ihe prophet' 
riaion aa aeen bon\e Ihrough tbe air. It waa ai 
^ptenlTe ajmbol of Jehorah'a JndgnmiU written 

appliance of anrger? couM oiaUe it to wMd aeais 
the aword of Ihe oppreatoc. U. 

ROHAM-TI-EZER ("ITJ? "Pip^'n : 

T-fitrti^fefi: [Vat. Par^ti, Peii«Axem#0 Alex. 

tuia^ftitp in 1 Chr. ur. i, but PufMf-fu'CV 

Id 1 Cbr. ur. 31. amt«iituar). Uue of Uw 

fburteeD eona of Heman, and chief of the Uth 

dItialoD of Ihe tingeri In the reign of Uaeid (1 

XXT.4.81). [HOTKIR, Amer. id.] 

EOTBAK, E(KMANB nm,.^,: Jttmo. 

1 Haoc. nil. 1, 93-89, lii. Ifl, lir- 40, n. Ut 

ue. 'ill. 10, 3S, il. M; John il, 4«; Acta sA 

IT. 38, nU. 86-89, uiii. 87, ur. 16, iirlll. IT. 


ROMAN EMPIRE. TbehUtoryof IhaRo- 

nMi ICiupirc, properij ao called, auoda over a p*- 
iod of nther mere than fire hundred fieii, naoel;, 
rom the liallle c^ Aetiuni, B. C. Jl, when Auguatoi 
became lole ruler of the Koman woiid. to the abd^ 
' Aiigiutulus, A. D. 4T8. 'lite llnipln, bow- 
tbe aenae of the duniinisn of Home oicr ■ 
bvge nnnibcT of eonqneied naUoni, ww Id hB 
(urte and had reached wide limit* »onie time be- 
fijre the monarchf of AnnuMiu waa stabliabed. 
'11m notleei of Uomaii hialorj which occur Is tbe 
Bible arc confined lo the Uat cenlnrj' and ahalfof 
the conimonwealth and tbe flrat c«nturj of the Ini' 

'Hie Giat hialorle mention of Rome In Uw Bibk 
lain lUacc. 1. 10. Iliongh the date ofthe Ibandft- 
lion of Kopie iimicidea nearlj with the bt^nning 
of the reign of Pekah in lanel. It na not tiU th* 
betPBiiiDK of the 8d century B. c. that Ihe Koniana 
had Iciaurc lo inlerfere in tbe afTain of the Kaat. 
When, however, the power of (^arlhaee had been 
eeeetuaUy liroken at Zama. n. C. 90!. Koman bru 
and inlrignea icon made tfaeniaelm felt tbiODgb- 
ool Macedonia, Olvccc, and Aaia Minor. AbODt 
the jar 161 B. c. Juda* MaceabKOa btard of tba 
Kouiana u the conqoerora of Philip, I'eraena, and 
AntMchu [1 Hacc- viii. ^ B)- " It waa told bia 
■1h> bow Ihej dntroyed and broudbl under tbdr 
dominion all other kingdoma ud iilca Iliat at any 
lima revtied Iheni, hnt with their frienda and 
auch aa relied upon them they kept amity" (Hii. 
11, 19). In Older to atimslhen himtelf againit 
Demetrina king of Syria be acnt ambaaaadun to 
Rome (riii. 17), and eondudtd a deftiiaiie aDianoi 
withlheBeniU(Tiii.a3-S9). Thla waa renewed bj 
Jonathan (lU. 1} and by Simon (it. 17 ; Joecph. 
Ant. ill. 10, f e, liil. S, § S: T, ) 3). Notion of 
tbe cmbMty aent by Jv^u, of a tribute paid la 
KooM by the Syrian hinK, and of fnithcr inlet- 
oouri* between Ihe Koman* and tbe Jew*, ocnr 
in 9 Hacc i*. II, rili. 10, 3«, iL 34. In tte 

• bb,. 

* IB ttw IMuaw, tr*^^ (1 K. lU. 14) anH b^J 
4i.a>lT.4|:lDtb«C '■' - 


aa« ft tin tamtlt awDtwo u rt-iAt tt tba 
Rookii anuU (rk dwJuvrV'ir, 1 Mteo. liL 31, 

tf (hi ODUHll Ludui (i CtMVI, 1 MUC IT. IS, 

19K u>d tba Boniwi cDDftiuitica n dooibai Ln ■ 
ILIML I bit dii(art<d forrc ',1 SCks. vui. 1^16). 
T^ bHtoTf of tb< Miieo«bj^ii and [dunnui 
" I livini DO put of oui premil tubJecL 

; Hkho 

.,] H«, 

)f Uie juiimwi ^ Koman tkuniaioD ia JiuIhb will 

In tb* 7«r 61 ■■ c^ wbca Sjrtu wu maita • 
Soma pronoea b; Pompej, Um Jvin sera (till 
fmciiMd bj me of th» Aimoasui priiKta. AriUO' 
biJu* bid klelj drimi hi* bnUur lljrcuiu from 
(be ebitf [riatbood, and mi now In bk turn >t- 
Ueked b; Antai. king of Anbii l^UM, Ifae iH; 
if UTTouia. Pompe;'! IkntciUHit, U. .EniUiui 
Sewinii, inlofiMd Ib Ibe ccMnl B. o. 64, uid Uw 
ant JEW l^xppFj biinwlf ounlied in irmj bito 
JodM iDd look Jfnuilnii (Joh^. AuL iIt. X, 
t, 4; B. J. \. S, T). {''nw thb Um tbe J<wi 
ptn pnetioll; umlar lbs gOKcnuiMnt of Bodia. 
Hjranui reUiDeiJ liw higb-|)ri«4tbood wd > titn- 
kr (OTWagiitjr, ial>juC lo Um wUclirul eanlrol of 

t'iuill;, Aulipntir'i ioii, llnvd 

ide kiag b^ Antony'i intaot, 

lb« kint[duni b; Augiu- 

tfae Ureal, wu 

>. c 40. lod carnniic 

taa, B. (X 30 (Joicph. 

Kant, ind Ibeir prinm in mlitj wr 

n Ko- 

a £natb jjait of Uwir a)ciHcul- 
taral pndiHe b addition to kha titba paid to 
BjnaJKM (.iat. ut. 10, { S). Koipia nidicn 
wm quitared il JtruBlem in Hcrod'i liiDO Ui 
WKffort. bim in bii authoritr {Ant. i>. 3, f 7). 
lYibulA WBi paid la Banw, and an oatb oT ailegiai)« 
lo tlK empHxir ai ivdi u to Hsvd appcan tjj 
ban b«n Iikoi bj Ihc pn-pli! (^nt. iiti. i. J 1). 
Ob tbe baniibmait of AnbeUio. A. D, 6, Judea 

Sjria, and «« Konniad lij a Ronun pcwiiralor. 
rtw reodrd it CHina. UaUet iiid tbe adjoliibiit 
dUuictl wtf* itill left niider Ibe (pnwiinH ' ' 
Mfrod'a BM md oilier petty priiicea, wboi 
Binima and titki wen ebinged train tli 
time bj neitirita etDpermi fc* deUih M( Hkhou. 
Sueb wen Uw rrbtkna of Ui« Jewiih pfopia (o 
Ihe Rotnan gwHiinmt it tbe Uma whwi Iba N. T. 
Ilhlnj be^riL Ala inirenioni illiutiallan of tbii 
Mall of tbin^i hu been drawn from tbe ooudition 
1 Kritiih India. Tlw Goiemor Genenl at Cil- 
mlla, tba (ubordiDala govanion at Hadrai and 
Boabaf, and tba nalin prineei, wboie domltilo 
hare been at oat time enlarged, at autber incor| 
nled with Ihe Briliib prealdotcica, And tbeir i 
qieetlTe coanterputi in tba goRmorof Sjria 
Aotiodi, the procuraton of jDdUM U Cmarea, a 
the mrmbKi uf Ilerod'g fiunllj, wboM domlnio 
aoc ■iUnUfi)' enlarged and auppnand by tbe 
Roman onpRtin (Uonjbeare and llowion. Lift vf 
it.Piml,liJ). TheHuidoibs-ihanutenitiaof 
loman nia goom befon u eonitaclly in tbe N. T. 
Tboa w* bear of < '«*r tba lok liingt (.I<din di. IS) 
-of CTmlDa, "h^vtut of Sjria" (Uka U. S) 
-of PmiliiH Pilalr, PeGi, and Keitni, tba "got- 


wbola warU " (Luka iL 1) — Italiin and A«- 

I oohorti IJUUk T. 1, uvlL 1) — tba ipj^ 

*ar (AMiu>. 11). Tbne of tba Roman <m- 

powi ira manuioed m tlie N, T. — Augiulut 

(Lake ii. II, Tiberiiu (Luka iii. 11, and Claudiuf 

(AcU ti. 38, iriU. 3}. N«o ii alluded to under 

wSoua title*, u AuguMia (Jt0arrit) mi Caiar 

(Aota uir. in, Ii, 31, ib; Phil. Ir. Si), »t i k6- 

M, '<mj lord" (AcU uv. SS], and a^urnitlj 

otfarr pHugm (1 Pet. ii. 17t Itom. liii. 1). 

rnnl Dotice* of tbe peuriDoal admloiitntion of 

a Bomana and tba onditkn of pntlncial citica 

our bi tba namtive of 3L Paul'i Joamaja (AeU 

iL T, iTi. Ii, 3S, 3B, iTiii. 13, xii. 38). 

Id iUuitratlon of tbe Bcred namtit it maj bt 

wall Ui give a general aoconot, (bougb in iiaeiiilj 

■bort and impctlect one, of tbe poiitioti of th« 

iperor, tba eitant of tba empire, ud tba idmln 

raUou of tbe provincea in tha tltna of our I^onl 

and bii Apoitlai. Fuller bifonoatioB will ba ttoai 

Whan Auguetiu became lole rukr of tba B*. 

w«il be ma in tl»0B7 ilmplj tba lint dtiiea 

of tbe rapoblic, eutnutfll witli Icmpocaf; powan 

' eeule tlie diurden of tbe StUa. Tidtiu lajn 

at bawat iwitber king nor dictator, t-ofprinae'' 

'ac .JH4.i.y), a title implying no eirilautboritj, 

It umply Iba poeition of cbirf nieniber i/tbe leii- 

ate (priwpi Hutui). Tba old nKffiitrseiei wm 

retiiiiad, but tba nrimu powan and pnttxctlint 

of eaoli wen ewleiTad upon Anguttui, » tbat wbili 

otbere awmonlj' bon tbe chief official tillei, Au- 

giuto* bad tba lupnina control of everj deputmenl 

' ' I ilala. A^ot* all he wu tbe tniperor (Im- 

pentor]. Thia word, uaed originallj tu deilgiian 

" Heiod, Philip, and LjHulu (Laka 
' "UoK Agrip^" (AaUiTT. 13} — of I 
■ ■ 9UU — oftba 


m arm;, acquirad a 

« in tba dtj and 


paranHiUDt m 
, Auguttm, by ceaunilne it, plaiiJj indi- 
•pile of much artful oanaslniant, tba raJ 
wbicb bii power reated, namal;, tb* aujt 
port of Uw artnj (Merivale, Awuin t'tnpirt, vd. 
In tbe N. T. tba empenr ia commonlj de^ 
igualed by tbe bmiljr name " Cieiar." or tbe di^ 
' InxM iBcnid title " Ausiutui " (Ibr id 
mif. Oiid. Fnli, \. W»). -nbarliu ia 
pliatioD iryt^r bi Luke iii. 1, a tilU 
aisled in the N. T. to Ujiwiiua, Pilate, and 
othen. Motwithitandin;; the dnpotie chindtwof 
tbe gonmnient, tbe Kobiiih «eni to have ibmnk 
frvni apeaking of tb^ nilir under bia mllilarf llOi 
(aee Merivale, Htm. Kfnpirt, iii. 463, md ntej or 
inj other amwedly deipotic appellatkrfi. Tbe uaa 
uf tha word i nipiot, dotxifaa, •• mj lord," In Acta 
nv. 9S, maHu tbe progreei of Kotiian Mrvilitf hn- 
tw<m tba lima of Auguitua and Nero. Auiuata 
and llbFriui refuacd Ihja title. CUitrula Ant bora 
it |H» Alford'a nota in i. c: Orid, fnti. il. 143). 
Tbe term ffairimit, " kin|[," in Jobo ill. IS, I 
Pet ii. IT. cannot be eloMly preued. 

Tba Vmfin wu nomlniUj elactire (Th. Am, 
liU. 4): hut practicallj It pamed br adoption (aaa 
Gilbaa apeeeh in Tie. Hui. I. Itl, and till Nera'i 
time a wxt of bereditary ri|i:bt leeniad to ba reeo^ 
niaed, Tbe dangn Inboeot in a militarr gorerrv 
ment were, on the whole, nmeiifullj aTirled til 
tbe death of Pertinai, A. n 193 (Gibbon, lb. iU 
p. so; bnt sutbraaka of mlUttfj iMenoa ware not 
watitiDK la thIa aaclier period (oomp. Weock'i nata 





■n roniiided of the iiuolaim uid anriH of Ilii 
■nldien in l.uke lii. 14. Ths nigiu of Caliguls, 
Ken>, ud Domiliu thow thit in ciiipiior nighl 

J Domiliu thow thit ii 

liug tht nldter} u 

be nbMiUDed fiom 

II. ExUnt af At KtK^rt. — Cic«n>'a dncription 
oT tba Graak atoUa wtd coloniM u * "rriun on Uw 
•klrta or tsTlwiBii '■ (Cic Zli Kr/i. il 41 Iw bteti 
■rll applied lo tha Bomui doiuiniont befrm Iha 
eoiiqiusti of Pompe; iind Cienr iMcriiile, Rom. 
A'n/HVr, i*. M9). The Romui Empire ou itill 
ODiifliMit lo Ik narrow lUip eiidrcJiiig Uie Mediler- 
nneuiSea. Pompey addtd Aiis Mtnorand Sjrliu 
Ccur added Gaul. Tbr gctienli of Augutua wei- 
tau the S. W. poitioD of Spain and tha coantrj 
brtweeu the Alpa and the Danube. Tbt bounda- 
ria oT tha ein)»ie wen now the Atlantis on the 
W., tbe Eaphratn on the E., the deaerta of AOJn, 
(be oalaraeU of the Nik, and tht Arabian da«rti 
on the S., the Britiah OuuimI, the Rhine, the 
Danube, and the Black S« on Uw N. The only 
anhetquent coiiqueate of Iniportance were thoae 
of Britain bj daudiui, and of Dada by Ti^an. 
The only independent pawera of iuiponaon wen 
Iha I'arthiana on the E. and the (imnana on the N 

The population of the ein[Kre in tlie time of 
AiiKUatua hie bwn calciilatad at Sa.OOD.UOO {i-UA- 
nSt. Rom. fMpirr, iv. 149-iN)). Ulblnii, IfttUag 
of the time of Claudiua, pnta the population at 
I80,<MK»,000 {Dtdmt and Fall, eh. ii.). Count 
Pram de ChHmpa|{njr adopta the aune noniber for 
the niKD of Nero (/.ri Cftnr$. ii. 433). All tbne 
aatimatea an conreaaedlj aoniewhat naoertaln and 

'lliia lai^ population waa controlled In the tinw 
of TiberiUB by an army of ib leftiona, 
tha piKtarian uuarda and other mh 
eapital. The aoldieri alio compoaed the leKioiit 
may be nckoned in round nunibert at ITO.UOO 
■len. If we add to theae an equal number of *u 
UlBria (T«!. Aim. it. 6) we have a total force 
IW.OOO men. The pnetnHnn gnardi niaj be ne 
■wed at 10,000 (Dioii Can. It, Si). Tbi otlier c 
A guTiaon at Rome to 1S,00I> 

ijaiiini waa lueful Ibr nwarding ac tllj, tr n^ 
ploying a buaj ruler, lor gradually aaentonlng 4 
atubboni jjeopla lo the yoke of depcsdeooa. Tbin 
wen dlfliraiM** too in the political eoaditluD of 
within Che piDvincea. Soma wct« ftae dtka, 
■sa goivned by Uieir oim magiatfatea, and 
nemptAl ftom oocupetion by a Romav gaiT^ 
Such ware Tinua. Antlocb iu Syria, Atb- 
, Lpbtaua, Tbeanloniea. See the notkca ol 
the " Polllarcha" and " DtiUM " at I^Meahttica, 
di. t-8, the « town-dvh " and tha «»- 
•emlili at Epfaeana, Acta lii. SA, 39 (C. and B 
Lift .>/ SL Paid I esT, U. 76). OuaaionaUT 
nrdy, Ine citiM were t ' *" 

tion. Other cUIm wi 

r lfl,00 

For the n 

the legkma in the t 
Ann. iv. 6. 

Tlie navy may have o 
(1^1 (Vnri, ii. 489; t 
He legion, aa appan 

iiiber and at 

of Tiberint, camp. Tac 

iitained ahonl S1.000 men 
inp. Merirale, iii. 934). 

e like a brigade than a regi. 
menl," coniiatjng as it diil of more than S.OOO In- 
fantrr with cavab-y attached ((Jonylieare and How- 
■DI1. ti. SaS). For the "Italian and Auguatan 
banda" (Acta i. 1, iivii, 1} aee Arut, tot. L p. 
164 [and Itamah Band, Anter. ed.]. 

III. rAe/Von'ncu. — Theuaualfateofa 
try eoiiquered by Rome waa lo become a >i 
[■Dvince, goveniBd dinctJy from Rome by o 

ave aaot, petty ao 
of a nominal Indi 
in tha natural limlta, of 

igna were 

ntn p 


of Roman oitiieua tnnaplanted, like gaiil 
Ljf the imperial city, into a foreign land. 
Such waa Philip|d (Acta ivl. IS). Sueh, too, 
were Corinlli, Tnaa, the FidiUan Antioeh. Tha 
the moat part Bonuua (Ae(* 
iglitntea d«light«l in tba Bo- 
mMi title of Ptntor (rrpanryJi). and in tha at- 
tendance of licton (iafilovxol). Acta itL 3». (C 
and H. L 316.) 

' iiguitua diTided tba protiaeea Into two cbatm, 
(1) Imperial, (S) Seoatorial; retaining in hia own 
buid). for obviouB reaaona, thoae pntinoa wba« 
the preaenee of a large ndlitary btoe waa neeea 
aary, and commlttisf; tha peaceful and nnanaad 
[Ovvincee to the Senate. Tlie Imperial protinoM 
at £nt wen — Gaul. Luaitania, Syria, Pbooieia, 
Cilicla, Cypnu, and .^ypt- The Sautorial pot* 
' - were Africa, Numldia, Aala. Aebea and 
la. Dalmatian Macedonia, Sicily, Crete and 
Cyrene. Bithynia and Pontua, Sardinia, BMiaa 
(Dion C. liil. 13). Cyprua and Gallia NarboneD- 
: aubaequeitly i^nn up by Auguatna, who 
rMdied Diluiatia from the Senate. Uany 
other chanfcta were made aflerffatdi. The S. T. 
writen iniariably deaignala the govtmon of Sea- 
atorial provlma by tha correel title of iiMn- 
Tsc, proGooaula (AeU liU. 7, iiiil. IS, lii. SI). 
[CtpbUs.] For the gonmor of an Imperial prot- 
Ince, property atyled " Legatua Cnaatia " (ir»i*- 
jSfvrAi). the word iniiiir IGovemoi} b OMd in 
-■^1 N. T. 

'llie pnifincea went hatily Uied for the beiw9t 

of Rome and ber citiaena. " It waa aa If England 

I to deftay tht upenaea of her own adnilnlatn- 

by tbe proceeda of a tai levied on bar tndiaa 

in" (l.idriell. Bill. ofRotnt, i. 44B). In old 

B Bouna: (1.) The domain Ivuja: (3.) A di- 
Ui (trihutum) kvied upon every eiliiMi; (S.) 

n cuttonu, toUa, harlwr dutita, etc. The tgc*- 
law of Juliua Ccaar u aaid 1. ' 


; Dunau de b Mallt 
o paydi 

le (Cic. n< 
i. 430). Rotr 

r Au. u. 

an eitl- 

■ On tbli aublHt em may flnanlt 0. Q. Znmpl'i 
' 4n SMitd rf«T 5n«Umiv ". 'f' Telkifmit/f 
in AUfUnm, M. pp. 1-01 (Berl. 1841). B. 

qneal of Macedonia,' b' c IBT (Cic. >fc Of. Ii. H; 
I'liit. ^mil. PauL 3S), eicepl in citnordiDaty 
tniM^teiicie*. The main [art of the Roman Rvenne 
waa now drawn from the prorinoea by a direct laa 
(nrqwrH, fipat, HaU. nil. 17, l.uke u. 91), 
amounting probably to from fi to T prr cent- on tht 
eatimaled produce of the toil (I>ur«u> de la Halla, 
ii. 418). Tbe indirect tarn too (Waij, rielisatia. 
Matt. irii. S5; Diireau de la Halle, il, 449) appeM 
; lo hate been very heavy [ 433.448). Ab> 
i guatna on coming lo the en^pln found the ngulw 

rt bate bacai terj gnat To ny nc 



il4i «jtf«u cf poblic ({ntolLlfli. 
Btj ci t eanful ndnsUiRi of th> prapcrt; of the 
wbolc cBpin, nrhich (ppMU* to bats bam Dttde 
mm UiMi <H>ee in hii nixn. [CKHaDa.1 K« Uw 
hulsriaJ dilBcukj about (be Uiing ia Luk* 
■H Cthehii.'h. ADi!iutu> appawi to luin i 
both tbe tlireec uid iiidinet tun <Uunau it la 
Mdh, ii. U3, «48V 

The pnviiMHB an nid to ha«e bsed bcUcr gov- 
R»d uiH<sr tbe blmpin than uader (bs ComuKiii- 
■nttb, aod tfaoae of tbe cmpcnr boUir Ihau tfaoai 
dT tba Sotata (Tae. ^aa. i. T6, ir. S; l>kHi, Itii. 
14). Too importaiit tbutget taa introiluood un- 
der tb« Enpin. Tbe tco""'!** nceivtd a fiieil 
ft}, and tbe lenn of their e«uii»iHl ma prub>ii)ted 
(Joiepli. Ha/, inti. a, { fr). But tba a" 

Tb( cnupwiica wbo tirmad tbs taua, 

ftumlly of ku)j{fala, paid a ccrtaiu aui 

Kooiaii tnaaut?. aud proceeded to wriug wbat tbey 

eould bvm tbe prorincia]!, often «itb tbe 

anee and anpptct o( tbe pniiiicial garrront. Tba 

nrk una doiie cbitBj b;r uudotiugi of the ' 

du (purlitona). Tbaaa an llie puUieaiu of tba 

vnsgi of tbe pniriiiMa can ban been malariallj 
alltiiauO under Ibe imperial govemioeaL '' 
not likely that luoh rubn aa Caligula and 
would lie aerupuloua about tbe luoatia ueed (a 
plsikbLii^ tlvLT tnaaury. Tbt ttorici rvUted 
of Ibe rd^i of Auf^uttoi aboT boT alight 
the checka oil tbe tjnnnj of pmindal kovit 
See the ator; of Lictiiiu in (iaul (Did. of Gr. nnd 
Bam. Biy. aub voee), and that of tba Dalmatian 
dikf (Uion. li.). llie tuS;riugi of St. Paol, pts- 
(acted aa be vaa to a certain eitenl lij hia Komau 
(ttiaiulilp, ibuw pkainlji bow liule a praiiiicial 
to hope from thu juatiee of a Kouiu goiemor. 


rh)»e|nad eomptlon wbioh nened to di^ 
an; hunua remedj. It would be «uj lo aoeuis*- 
lale proofi of the moral aiid poliUeal degradatiM 

mwltf , Ibe ai 

tioo lebtiDg to K 

uaao pn 

nkad on John iriii 

31. It Bi 

ar lie aulBcient here 

Jen *«dd lo« tbe 

power of 

life aof deatb when 

e a proviooB, and then Memi 


from tbe Ulera] in- 


cited. Ijee AUord 

ml e. On Um otha tide ace 

BiKoe, On tlit Ai-U, 

llie anditioa of tbe Bonuo Empire at the Uma 
whsi Cbrialiaiiitj appeared baa olten bean dwelt 

upon, aa adbnliiig ohvioua illualratiDua of St. Paul' 
expmkitk Ibat tbe " fUljMH of Ijioe had eort>e ' 
((iaL i*. i\. The utncraJ peace wilbtn tbe limit 
«( tbe Kmpin. thr fonnatjun of miiitai^ niadi, tbe 
Mp|]«eaei"n of piney. Ibe niareb of tbe tegiona, ' ' 
nra^ea of the corn fleeU, the general locieaai 
Baffic, the apnad of (lie [dtin language In the 
Wert aa lltvck had alivadj ipread in tbe Kaal, ' 
Mteml unity of tbe Knipiie, ofeed Cuilitia h 
trie aolciiawn Rir tbe ipnad of a worid-wiite re 
'm. The leuileiiej, too, of a deapntiuD like I 
d tba hoouui Empire to reduce ail ita aubjecb 
I dead tnei. waa a powerful iiutrument bi Ineakiiig 
a»n tbe pride of privilr);ed nam and national 
nfigfimia, aiid FamiTiaruiag men wi'b the trulb that 


if (be earth " (Acta ini. H, Ml, Bui 
n Mriking I ban thia outward prepanliou li 
Woo of tkt (ioapd waa tbe appeuuea of a 

» tbao 

Tuptlon, Uw 

Jie DHHiilraua and u 

period aa reieated Id lta« 

ittktbeii hiatoriani and aaliriaU. " Vlened ai a 

lational or pi^ticil biUvry," uji tbe gnat bia- 

uian of Home, •• tbe biitorj of tlie Hoiiuui Kmpin 

la nd and diacouiaging in the laat de^rea. W* 

■ ■ ■■ _ ■ point at whiob D* 

earthly power could aUbrd any help; we now hM« 

tbe denjopmenl of dead poaen luitead of that el 

tital euecgy" (Niabulir. Ucl. •. I3t). Not 

withitanding tbe outward appeamice of peaaa^ 

,j, and reviving pruaperily, the geneiil oondl- 

of tbe people muit have been one of great 

97. To laf nothing of the fact Hat prabditr 

.half of tlie population euntiited of ibtna, th* 

gre«t inequality of weddth at a time wh&x a wboll 

jrince oou'd be owned liy aii laudownen, the 

Rnoe of any middle cbua, the utter want of anj 

ititutione For alleviatiug distreaa inch aa are found 

all Chriatiau countriea, the inhuman tuna tt 

ling and pnctioe genmdly prei-ailing. forbid m 

think Eavorably of the bappineia of the worll 

the [uuoua Auguttan axe. We muat reOHiiibat 

tt " there were no public hoapitala, no InitUo- 

tiona for the relief <^ tbe infirm aihI poor, us 

etiei for tbe iiiipruveinent of the condilJoj] td 

iliind from motitn of charity. NuUiing <m 

t to promote tbe inilnictioii of Ihe lower liiiw^ 

ling tomilJgHietbeniiarrieaurdonieatlcilaTerj. 

Charity and general philanthropy wen lo little n- 

garded aa dutiva, tbat it reqiiim a \-aj ei(«uif* 

' ' the literature of the UmM to 

them " (Anwid'a L/ittr Ramam 

3U8|. If »• add (u tbla (bd 

probably not a iiiijcle rdiifioii, eieept lb* 

'hich waa lelt by (be mure enUgbtaoad 

put of ita proTeieorB (o be md, we may form nst 

of tbe world which (jhriiliiuiity had to 

reform and purify. tVe venture to quota ao •)«• 

t deacription of lie "iluw. imperceptible, oet^ 

)U) BggreMioa on tbe hcatbeniam of the Bomu 

Uhriitianity wat gruduallj witbdrawing aoow 
of all ordera, even alavet. out of tbe ricea, lb* 
ignoraocB, (ha miaery of that ooiTupted wcial §;•• 
It wu ecer inatilling leeling) of bumaoity, 
yet unknown or ooldiy coiumeuded by an impotanl 

am had been babituated (0 the ibrieki of dying 
gladiaton; it waa giving dignity lo mindi pre*. 
tnted by ycara, aluioat eeuturiei, of dq;tadia| 
deapotiunj It waa nurturing purity and inodWj 
of mannen in au uiupealwlili: itate of dqmTatkai; 
it waa enahriiiing the marriajfe-beil in a aaneUtj 
king almoet entirely loat. and rekindling (o a iteadj 
wanuth tbe domeatic afibclioni ; it wai auliatitutiDg 
a aimple, calm, and rational faith fur tbe wom^oiM 
(upntUtJoni ik heatbeniaRi; gently eitabhihing iu 

on) of m 

I tbe leiu 

I Lnli» Chriiliamilii, 


Mrdiiig lo •ome iolcrpMm On RoouM m 1o- 
tafkid in Dnit. xiviii. ^O-CT. For tti« mjnlinl 
mlicM of Room In (be l{«i'<ktioa eomp. HuMi. 
J.J. H. 

* On the gninsi tubjeet of tbt piwailiiiit artklt, 
•M Merivile'i /JiMvry u/Ui Jimam A'n^'rf, e(p»- 
•mU) idI. •!. H. 

1. 'I'bc dr'tt of tlib rpliita U Bied ■illi more ib- 
iolule ctnainly whI wixliin iiMn)<r(r Umiu. Uiiui 

thkt U( Ml}' Ulbcr irf St. I'ADl't cfriills. Ilic fol- 
knriiig conidtntiiHia dctmiiiiie the time of writing. 
firil. Ccrtiiin nenife in tbe •dutetioiit point U 
Corlntli, e* the pliwe from wbkh Ibe letter wu 

ef Ibc pott towiu of Curintli, ii 

■ (ivL 1, 3). (3.) tiiivi. io wti«e boiu 
n. Piiui wu lod),-«l at llie time (ivi. Si), a prob 
Mj the penon nieiilioiird u on* of the chiel 
BMiiben of the Coriiithiu Church hi 1 Cor. i. 14 
tlwugh the name wunr; common. (;i.| Fjutui 
btn dnicnaleil " the treoeunr of tSir citj " (olm 
MlfMi, iri. 23, K. V. "obiniberlun "1 ia dnwher 
noitioned In eotmeclion with Corinth (3 Tin. n 

eral«mponiieoai epiitle* henaller. At jgwiiit H 

■111 be nSeient to «j that tbej preeent ■ mnvk- 

■bla roMBlknn lo Mich othFT iu •tj'le and niiltM 

much gmlfT rewnibluiee than ran be tne«d 

ij other oC St- I'aul'i rplMlri. Tlirj are at 

the moat intenae and moat varied in fpelini^ 

and eipmalon — if n maj as nj. the moat Pu- 

iine of all St. I'aul'i epiKke. When Baur eicepti 

fata epitUet alone tiva hli nteiplng con- 

ithm of tlie ([cnulneneaa of >11 Ibe Ictlen 

baling St. I'lul'i name {Paviia. dtr Apoiltl) iLta 

icr« ar4cUur« of aobei eiiticlun: but midcT- 

Ijing Ihii HToiieoiu eia(gi:enitlon ii the iKt. that 

' t epiitlfa of thli period -^ Si. I'ltil'a third mla 

inarj }oDn>e j — hafe a eharaclo' an j an inleniil} 

pemliarty their ovn, correapondin^ to tlie cbvum- 

a of the Apsatle'i DDlward and innrd Hfe at 


ivinR tl 

Memilnnl the plaee of writing lo be Corint 
hk«c no hniUtion in filing upon the riiit recoi 
b Aeta la. Z, durinj; the winter and apring 
towiug tlie Apinalle'i lontc teridence at Epbeaui. u 
lb* oeeaaion on which the et^atle WM writf 
For St. I'aul, «ben he wrote the tetter, km on 
print of oirrjliii; the mntribiitaoiia of Mandi 
•Mi AcImU lo JeniaalHn (i*. 39-9T), and a c 

att 4; a Cor. 

1 IT., a 


tbia period 

or hb life. {See 1-aI.j'. 

fl«,« Pon/i 

«, ch. Ii. 

1.) Mortov 

t. In thi. 

•pietle ha d 

■c!>rea hii 

ntentloi. of . 

-iting the 


he haa btc» at Jmualem (,.. SJ- 

»). aiul lh> 

hia d«i™ a 

thi. par- 

Ueufau' Uine 

app«n from a eaanal noti« In Act. 

rim. 91. 

. The»pi.tleth«iw»iwi 


,lh during 

Si. H«il'. U 

rd ndadoi 

%ty jnuniej-, on 


Acts. On thit oceaaion he remuDed llii 
bi Ureece (Acta t<. 3). When he left, the aea 
Ma alrcwlj iAvi|ta1>le, lor be waa on the point of 
^Knx for Jmualem wlwii he waa obliged lo chMifia 
hit plana. On the vthrr hand, it cannot hare ' "~ 
lale in tlx apriiiE, hccauae afler pMiing th] 
.Haeedonia aud tiaitin: Mveral pUws on the 
of Aria Minor, he ttill hoped to rnich Jmiaaletn 
bj Henleeoat (ii. Jfl). It waa therefore in 
irinter or earlj apring of the jear thai the Kpii 
to Ibe Komaiia waa written. According lo 
dmM prubable BTalein of cliionologj, idoptad 
AnjEtr and Wieaeler, Ihia would be the year A. 


% The Kpiatle to Ibe Romana ia thna plaoed 
cbrvrnju^ricr/ amntctiim with the efnallv lo the 
Gabitiana ud Corinthiaiia, wbioh appear lo hare 
been wntUn within the twelve montha preceding. 
n» Kiral KpuOle to the Corintbiaiia waa wrillen 
oefore SL I'aul left Ephenii, the Second from 
Uiccdoiiia wlien he nt on hia •raj' Id Corinth, and 
the Kpiatle to the (jthuiana moat probalilj' dther 
h UacedonU or an<r hia arrival at Corinth, {. (. 
■flir ttw tfrnOe* lo the C'orintbUna. Ihouch the 
JMe of the Ualatian Kfualle ia not abeolutet; cer- 


tan to DOtin Iba relatiODt efiatiog hrtweeu 

mitim which pranpted tbit eplitls, 
and the eirciimil'mrti atlndlng ita writing, were 
M follow*. St. I'anl had ](a<g purpoMd vialtliig 
Rome, and atill ntaiiied Uiia purpow, wiahing abo 
lo eitend hia jonmej to Spnin (i. S~13, ir. 3»-!B); 

rjing ont bit dealjni. at be wit bound Ite- Jem- 
■alem with the alma of the Gentile Chritlfauii, and 
meanwhile he addrtiMd thia Irlter to the Boniuii. 
toiuppljthe lack of bit peraonal leachini;. Flxabe, 
a deMonna of the neichboring church of Cttiehnn, 
waa on the point of ataiting br Borne (tvi. 1, 8), 
and probablj conrejed the letter. Tbt bodj of the 
epiitle waa written at the ApoMk'a dictation bj 
Tertiua (iri. 99); but perhapa we maj- into' frvn 
the abniptneat of the final doiologj, that It waa 
added bj the Apoalle hiniaelf, more eapHtallj aa m 
gather from Mfaer tpiiUea that It waa hb praetlot 
to conclude with a few tlriking worda 'm hb own 
handwriting, lo Touch for the autborahip of tba 
leller, and frequent]; alas taimprtu tome Imporluit 
tmlh more atroiiglj en hia rtadtn. 

i. The orijwt «f <hi Rmvn CAnrrf b Inmlnd 
In obaniritj.. If it had b«n founded bj St. Peter, 
aeeoTdlng to a bter tradition, tlie abtoice of asf 
alluakin to bin botb in thit epiille and Id lb* 
lettfia wrilttti br St. Paul bom Hunw would admit 
of DO eipbnaUon. It u equallj eltar that ua 
other Apoitle wai the (bunder. In Ihb mj eple- 
tie, and in eloae eonnectian with the menlioD of 
hit propoaed ritlt to Rome, the Apoatle declina 
hia rule not to build on another mao'* 
(it. 901, and w« cannot tnppoae that 
he riobted it in thu Inatance. Again, he ipeaka 
of the Komana w eeprcli>llj falling to hb ahan at 
the Apoatle of the Gentiln (i. 13; (ith an evident 
reference to Ibe partition of the i^.A of bbw be- 
tween hlmaeir and »L Peter. me::lioned in Ual. i!. 
1-9. Monoier, when he dechun hia wiah to im- 
part aome ipirilual gift (xifiriit.) to Ihem, " that 
thej might be atibUthcd^ (i. 11', Ihb ImpliM 
Ihtil thej bad not jet been Tialted bj «n Apcatle, 
and that St. Paul nintemphltd auppljjng tbt 
delcol, la wai done b; St. I'elcr and St John in 
the itialoioui cate of the cburcba Ibuuded b; 
Philip Id Stmaria (Acta vili. li-IT). 

The eUtement In the Clemenlinra (f/om. I. { S 
that tbt dnt tidlnga of the Uoapel leached Boma 
during the lifetime of onr Lord, b evldentl; a 
Action far the pnrpoeee of Ibe romanoe. On Iha 
olhtr bud. It b dnr tbU the bundaluo of thii 


■Inirdi iaUa ivj far laok. St P*d1 Id tU« 
ipUJa (ihita (CTUin belkrtn ranitart In Kom* — 
ABdraoieiH ud Juub (« JanUniu?) — adding 
ihtt tiwj nfa diatiDgiiDbcd uooog the ApoMlei, 

mM (ni. TJ, far racfa Menu to be Ibe meuilng of 
Ibt iBaBge, rCDderad KiDiewhit Hablgooot b; tilt 
fodliou of Iht tditiic prooouoi. It mitj' be that 
nowflf tboae Hmtiui, '' both Jem utd proedrtn," 
frant oa tba da; of PentseaM (ai hilit^vrrti 

10). eutied buk the tuliot tiding! of tlw new 
dactrisB, or Uie Goepd niaj hive fint reached the 
impmal eit; through thoM who wen icattend 


hand) the IcUcr would M. The enow 

[■ thor natlooai bopo declined, 
aod bj IIm antom of repairing regabrlj te thaii 
vsvl batiTnk it Jennalem. Agun, Uh Impe- 
rial edict! allenlalel; baaiihlng and recalling the 
Jewi (eompam I. g. in the cue of Chuidiai. 
JoRph. AM. xii. &, f 3, with Suet. CiamL o. Vi) 
mxaH baic kept op a oonitut ebb and flow of 
migratiwi betweru Rome and the Ewt, and the 
ow of Aqo'l' "<^ PriktiUa (AM xiW. 9; aee 
M17. /7«r. Paid, c li. { 9) probablj reprgienti a 
DoioetDiia cIbh throufh whoee meana the opinioni 
and doetrinei [Vomulg^ilal In PilHtine might reach 
tha metcopolii. At fint «• nu; lappoae that the 
Gopel wu pttMbad there in ■ eonluaed iind 
paAet fmn, Karcelj oiore than a pbw of Juda- 
Im, 11 in Uw cue of ApoUoi at Corinth (AeU 
itiiL U), or the iliniplet at F^ifaenH (Acti ni. 
1-4). AJ time adnmeed and better inMiictHl 
Uachen airind, the doudi would gndiullj clear 
iwaj, till at lei^h the pnacoce of the gnat Ap»- 
Ib himeilf at Biime diapened the miita of Jodwm 



CbrlMunitj hid taken np a powtion of direct 
'idai«n in Koote, b»then itai 
tttll peruirAd ill oonlbundrng 
the other. (See Uetivale, H'M. of Ro 

c^aU &imiu Ck^reh, at the lime when St. Paul 
■roU. Did the ApoMla addtni ■ J«iH^ 
G*Dtila anuEUDitT, or, if Ih* two dement) 

T to tba wbola Chorcfa? Eitba 
vCrett* Ina been rignooilj maint^ned, Baor lor 
ioitance laerting that St. Paul wii writli ^ 
Jmiih Chtietiuu, OUhu»en ar^iiu; tlut the Ro- 
nan Cbnrch comiMed almoit lokly of (ientila. 
W* m DiturvUj led to eivk tbe truth in lotna In- 
IccBediate pouticHi. Jowett flnd* a lolutiini of Ibe 
JMwdtJ in Um (npiiaaitian that Uie nwmben of 
ttw Roman (3ianh. though Uenlilea, had paiied 
ttio^ a phiae of Jawhh pcoidTtiHn. Thia will 
KpUn HOM of the pbenornena of the epiitlg. but 
not all It k man probable that St. Paul ad- 
Aeand a mixed church of Jewi and GontUea, the 
latter pertufn buug the mot* numeroua. 

There are eertain pajaagei whioh Implj 
Branca of a huge numb^ of Jewiah conwr 
CkilMkaitT. The uic of the iBcond pemn In a4- 
diwiiiiH the Jewf (ae. IL and ili.) ii deaiij 


It apiMll 

itfd Ibr b}' the Jew 
Gntile beLern (io Jowett, roL U. p. 931, but 
thej uam loo direct and poittiia to ad- 
mit of tbli nplaiiition (ill. 19, ril. 1). In tba 
Tth cbnpter St. Paul ap))Mrt to be iddmaing Jswi, 
himeelf bad once been under the 
dominion of the l^w, but had been deliTcred from 
in Cbriit (aee eipecklly Tcnea i and B). And 

e Gentika," thii tery limiting eipreuioo, "the 
GaitUet," Impliai that the letter wai iddrened to 
few to whom the term wdoV) not »f^]. 
Jim, if we inil}7e the liet of names in Ihe 
tSth cbe^ler, and amune that tbb lut apinmi- 
matelj repreaente the proportion ot Jew and (ien- 
"t in the RoDtan Church (in aaniniplion it least 
t improbable), we urire at the laine rault. It 
true that Mirj, or rather Mariim (iii. 8} Is 
the onlj nrictl; Jewish name. But this hct Is 
not worth the itRis appanntlj bid on It bj Btr. 
Jowett (11. p. 37). For Aquila and PrlKilla (rer. 
t) were Jewi (Acb< iiili. 3, SS), and the chordi 
Khieb met In their bouee wu pnbablj of the 
■ame nation. Audronlciu ind Jnnia (or .lunlae? 
vw. T> arc called St. Piril't kiniinen. The lanw 
term ii applied to Herodion (rer. 11). Thaae p»- 
aoni then mut hare been Jewi, whether •• kins- 
men " ii lakeu in the wider or the more nstricled 
Kiue. The name Apdlet (tei. 101, Uh>u^ ■ 
heathen name aba, wu nioet eomnioiilj boma bj 
.Iswi, a> appeui from Horace, SiL I. t. 100- If 
the AriiiolHilut of ver. lU wue one of the prinees 
of the Heroduin bouie, as ieem> pnbahle, we bin 
also in " the bouaehold of Arietobulua ^^ eervra] 
Jewish oonrerts. Altogether it appeain that 1 ver^ 
large fraction of the Chriitisn believen mentioned 
In these lalulalioni wen .lewi, evMi (Uppoaing thil 
the othen, bearing (Irtek md \at\\> nanie*. of 
whom we know nothing, were bealbene. 

Nor doe* tbe eiiilMieo (rf 1 lirge Jewlih eb- 
men! in tbe Homan Church pment anj difficult/. 
The c^itivei carried lo Home by Ponipelua fbroicd 
the nuclsca of the Jewish population In the metropik 
Ik [Romk]. Since that time thej had bu^^I; to- 
oeiaed. During the let^ oi Augmtut we hear 
of abon 8,000 n^dent Jewe attaching tbeniselni 
to a Jewish embassj which appealed to this emperor 
(Joseph. Alt. ivii. 11, { 1). Tba lanHi emperor 
gare them a qnart^r beyond the Tilvr, and allowed 
them the free eiercisa of their rdiglan (Phih). Les- 
ad Cnaim, p. MS M.). Ahcvt tbe time when St 
Haul wrote. Seiien, ipenklng of tbe inStiente of 
echoes tbe bmoui eipreaiioo of Horaea 

'* (Seneca, In Angutin, Hb 

toribue lei 

CSb. Ort,'»i. 11). 

and indignant complatnia of Tacitoi of tbe spread 

of the infection thimgh Konuui soolet]', are well 

On the otbs hand, dtuited in Ihe mstiopolii of 
tbe great empin of beathetidoni. the Roman Church 
mut aecf*>arU;r ba<ie been In great meisun s lien. 
tils CJbureh; snd the Isngusge of tbe epiiitle bean 
out this supposition. It Is [H^esiedlj ■* Ibe Apoa- 
Us of the Gentila that St Paul writes to the Ko- 
msoa ^ fi). He hopaa Io have soma fruit among 
than, as he bad unong the other (Gentiles (I. 13). 
IjOer on lo tb* efristta ha speaks of the Jeve Id Ibt 

. . . , ....... . ttaM penaa,as if addnadn; OtDtOe*, -I oooU 

ifplM to ■ poftion at l«Mt of tboi Into wboM 1 wtah tbt mjaalT Mta aaennad Ibr V7 bMbCM. 


(li. 3, 4). And ig^, "my b«u('( dciln Mkd 
prajo- Id God for (Arm ii thu (bay might be 
nvcd " (i. 1, the rigbt rwding ii bwip alnir, 
ml iwip TuC 'Iirpa^A u in tba Keceirad Tnt) 
Ucimput alM xi. 23, 35, and nprciiUj li. 90, 
•■ For ■■ )« iu tiniii p«t did not bdicva God, . 
... M did liwae alu (>. fc th« Jem) now not 
bri>«vc,"f(c. In dl tb«e pswgM St. Fuil clculj 
tddroMi fainiKir to Uenlila nadtn. 
Tbae GciiUle connrta, boaarer, wara not for 

the m 

e Roniw 

re ctrtain than that 
ttw Church of Koma iru al tbli linw a Greek and 
iiM II Ijithi Chunh. rt ii claarlj at^liahed that 
llw early Latin lenioti) oT the New 'I'eatanieul were 
made not for (lie uh of Koue. but of Uie proinncca, 
■peciBtly Africa IWotcotC Caiwn, p. 2H9;. All 
tbe lilenlure of the nrlj Komao Church wM 
writtio in the Greek Ioiikih. lite naniea of the 
bbbopa of Itonie during tiw firat (wo oenturlet an 
with bnt few eicefitioiu Greek. (See Milman, 
Latit CkriM. 1. 2T.J And In accordance with 
tbete beU «e And that a very bu^ propoition of 
the nuna in liie aalutationi of thia e[datle are 
Oreek nantea: while of tba exctptiona, Pri»:111a, 
AqaiU, and Junia (or Juniaa). were oertainly Jewi; 
tad the lanie ia (jue of Kufui, if. ai ia not laipTob- 
ahle, he ia the nnie n»ntion«l Mark iv..!l. Julia 
wna probably a dependent of the iniperial houie- 
bold, and dniied her name accordinjily. llii 
Bomaii natna remaining are Ampllai (i. e. A 
atiu} and Urbaiiua, of whom nathinx la kr 
but tbelr naniH are of Ule growth, and certainly 
do not point lo aii old Koman aUKk. It wa> there- 
tea from the Greek populatjon of Rome, pure 
niied, that the Gentile portion of tbe Church w 
■hnoat entirely dn»m. And tbia might lie e 
pectsd, Tbe Gnekt (hmied a very eoniidersi 
fraction of the whole people of Home. 'Iliey we 
tbe nioat buay and adventuroua, and alio tbe mc 
intelllgentortiie middle and loH-er clann of lockty. 
The inHuence which they were tcqubing by their 
nuniben and lenatllity ia a conilant tbenie of ra- 
ptoach In tbe Roman phiktaoplier and aaliriat (Jut. 
Ui. 80-80, vt. 184; Ticde t»m(. 29|. They oom- 
pUiii tbat tbe national character la undermined, 
tint tba whole dty baa become Greek. Spetking 
Iba language of inlematioiud inureouTM. and 
branght by tb^ reatlem habit* into contact with 
(oreign nllEioni, the Greeka had lancer opportuni- 
Ijta (ban ottun of acquainting themeelna with the 
tuthiof the Goapeli while at the lanie time hdd- 
big more boaely to Indltional belied, and with 
minda natiindly tnon inquirinj^, they would tie 
more mady to welcome theae trutha when " 
oame in thdr way. At all evenU, for whi 
RMon, the Gentile eonierU at Rome were G 
not Komani: and II wai an unrortunate EOnJi 
an the part of the (itnacriber of the Sjiiac I'eahito, 
jiat thU letter waa written " in the LUin too 
'n'^KOn). Every line in the epialle bapeaka 
an original. 

When we inquite into the probable rank 
ilatlon of tho Koman believer), an analyala i 
oamea <n the IiM of lalutationa a^ln givea > 
{CDiinute aniwir llieae namei belong (br the 
PHKt part to tbe middle and lowtt grade* of aociety. 
Uany of them m found iii tli* eolumbaria of the 
baadsiCD and darea of the early Koman emp 
llM Jtmrmal tf Clou, and liacr. fhiL It. p. K.) 


[t wotdd be loo mueb to **iume thit (hay w»M 
tbe aame penont, but at all event* the identity <4 
name* point* (o lh» aanieaoclal iwik. Among tha 
leaa wealtby merehint* and trade*men, among tba 
petty olhcer* of the tnny, among the alave* and 
Ireedmen of the impou] palace — wheUier Jew* or 
Gtnka — the (joapel wouki fint find a firm tooting. 
To tbia laat daaa allDalDn ia made In PhIL It. B, 
" they tbat are of Coar'a houaehold." From tbeai 
it would gradually work upwuda and downward*; 
but we may be lun that In reapect of rwik (ba 
Church of Kom* waa no eiceptkni to tbe general 
rule, that " not many wiu, not many mjgbtj, no4 
many noble " were called (1 Cor. i. 36). 

It wem* probalile from what bat beai Kiid Bbon, 
(bat tbe Rchiuui (Church al thb time wu oompoari 
of .lewi and Geotika in nearly equal porttona. 
'lliia &ct linda eipreasion in (he accoun(, whether 
use or Mae, which lepreaenta St. l-eter and Sk 
1^1 at preaiding at the aame time over (be Chnroh 
at Rome <Uiony>. Cor. up. Euaeh. //. A'. U. Uj 
Iren. ill. 3 )■ Poaiibly alao tbe dlacnpandea in tba 
lilt* of (be early biabopa ot Kome may And a eola- 
tion (Pearaou, JUiintr Thtal. Worh, IL Ut; Bon- 
am, Hippol^ttit, I p. 44) in thejdnt F^dtcopala e< 
Linui and CIctua, the one ruling over (be Jewiib, 
the other orer (be Gentile coiigregaUon of the ma- 
(rapolia. If (big conjec(ure be acc^ted, it la an 
Importtint leatiiuony to (he view here nidntalned, 
though we cannot luppoie tbat in St. PBUl'a Uidb 
the two elenienta of ibt Roman Church bad dii- 

e. The bettngetieou* eonipodtlon of thi* cbntefa 
uplaini the generai charncUr "f (Ae t-'piatU la Jie 
Aontnn*. In an ataemblai;e as varioui, we ahonld 
ajirct to Bnd not (be eicluaire pmlominance of a 
■ingkt form of error, hut (be einncidnice of dlt- 
faren( and oppoaiiig forma. The Goapel bad hctv 
lo contend not ipeclally with Judabnii nor ipeclally 
ni(h beaUidiiim, hut with both logetber. It waa 
therefore the buiinen of the Chriatian Teacher ta 
reconcile tbe opponng difficuliie* and to bold out 
a meetinft point in the GoapeL 11ila I* exael^f 
what St. Paul doea in (be t^iade (o (be Raman*, 

weUenahbd to do. 11 

■« addrcediig a krga 

and vwied commuuity w 

ich had not been founded 

by hlmaelf, and with which he had had ihi direct in- 

[ercour«. Again, it doe. 

nnttppev that the letts 

waa tpecially written lo a 

.ewer any doul.U or *.«- 

tie any controvei»e* then 

rife In tbe Ronjim Cburdi. 

TTieie were tbwefo™ no d 

at arlae out of perwnal 

opoaition of the nature 

and workinc of the (!oa- 

be vast importance of Un 

cb could not have han 

nipiied tacber. natimlly 

pointed 1( out to (be Apoede, aa (lie Htleat l«ly tO 
whom lo addrea* meb an eipoiition. Ihua (be 
Epittle to the Koman* it more of ■ (leatiie than (4 
a letter. If we remove tlie i«w>mI athiniDnt bi 
tbe opening venee, and the aalutationa a< lliedoaa, 
It aeema not more particularly addreiaeri to tha 
Church of Rome, than to any olber church of 
CbrlatendoRi. In thii napeet it diflen widely 
from the aplttlea to tbe Corintbiana and Gilatlui*, 
with which a* being written about Ihe anme t!m« 
it may moat l«Tly be oompered, and which an hiD 
of pcnmal and direct alluilDni. Ii^ one inataoat 
akine «* aeem (o trace a apeeii- rererenc* to tha 
tkoA ti tba loetiOFolU. Ilia i^tuootkn M 


jbalnec to tcmponl rnltn (lUL 1) nwU 
Mj be uddnaad lo ■ caiigragUuo braugbt bc« 
\o ba with tha iniperiii ({ucniuiBiC, ud Ih* 
own n, H Home had ronntlr bfm th» bcm of 
frv|ui n( di(turbiUKei,«n tb« part at cLtbir Jan or 
I'hrijtivu, tnuog out of k ferBiuh nod mlleu ui' 
'ieip^ion of UavAh*) amuuff (^iN- Clittd- 2A)^ 
Utbn* ^jpinnt ufcptimi Hdmlt of a diSonat u- 

T. Thu nphntlioa b in bet to b* Mxigbt iu iU 
rtiiltiM la tkt comUmpBriawJut rjiiillti. 11» 
bitcr to tbe Bomua cloaa tba group of cfuUkt 



. 'llu 

DTiUini bfludcSf u jUreadj' nwiitiau«d. 
MUn to the C«iiilfauii« uid Uilitiaiu, nittca 
fttthaitlj within tht ttw hhhiUu [Hvcediug' At 
L'srinth, tbe apital of Aehiiu, ind lbs stronKfaDld 
of bcaUmidoni, the Uiigpd would eucouuter it* k- 
Hot •InigEle aith linitito viua uid png\tdicct. 
Id GmUlJm, wbicb eitbn from timtuni tjmpiliiy 

poaed to Jewi^ iiiaumce tbu iny otber diur 
witbiD St. Piul'i ipben of Uhit, it had ■ ihi 
notot witb Juduim. In tbe epiitlei to Ibi 
tvo cfaarefaa n ■tudj tb* Mtitlkle of tbe tioqjcl 
tovudi tbe Gentile ud J«ffi*h irarki TwpectiTel}. 
These letter* *ra diract uid ijiecisl. Tbej' in 
tnked by pttMOt emergauia, are dirMted agi ' 
■rtual enU, an full of penooal applicaliuiit. 
^iitle to tbe Hootani ia tbe Buoiuiay of irbi 
hitd itritten bribre, tbe nault of bu dndmg 
tbe two anlagoniatle fomu of cTTor, the galbi 
lagctber of t^ (n^mentarj Iracbin); in tbe 
nnthian and GaUuui letter*. What i* then 
■lediale, uregular, and of partial appliotist 

(coenl fonu- lliui on tbe oh 
EKst at tbe Moaaie kw point* to I 
BKOBiitend in dealing witb tbe Galatian {Jburcta, 
■bik on the otber hii eaolioni agaiiut antiaoraian 
fTPTTtft (bom^ Ti. 1&, 4c-)|ajid hi* precept* againit 

KTBDCB oS daj* (Bom. ilr.}, nmlsil la of tbe 

OKB* wbicb be bad to correct In 

jUKit*. (Compue 1 Uor. ri. 13 

liiL 1 S) TboM iiuunelioni then 

bit nght *pedal, appear not to be dlmMd againit 

wttj a^oal knowu Ulinf^ bi tbe Koo 

brt to be euKgasted by tbe poaaibJily 

regubuitie* oecuiring bi Borne wbicb be bad al- 

mdj auonntend elatwher*. 

8. V~iewli4 thi* <pi*tle Uun ntber iu tbe light 
■f a tnatiie than of a letter, we an crabM to 

.eceind teit a doiotogy atanda at tb* ekae of tbe 
•^itle (in- Si-StT)- The prcponderanee of ei 
deoee b bi &Tar at tbi* poaltioD, but there 

place*, while otben omit it entinly. How can wi 
BcaoDDt brtbia? It bat btea tbougbt by tame to 
ducmlit tbe genaintii*** c€ tbe doulDgy ittelf: 
CM then b no •ufficimtgroand fcrtbUiigv, 'fbe 
■rgUDicrl* agalmt it* genuiDmeai on tbe gnwud 
tl *tyle, adianoed by Kdebe, 
by FritiKhe (An. niL L p. 
MiU fnrtbv, and r^eeU tbe tw 


» HSS. * 

^r'-'"'^ by oppoalDg tbat the Mter wa* eiteO' 
Jtad at an earij del* (wbetber doring the Apcelb' 
iUlne or net tt b Uk to iaqnln) in Wo Ikdu 

both with and without the two bat chaptwa. !■ 
tbe ebocttr lana it n* diicated a* lar aa poedblt 
-e|d*(oUiy cbar*eter by abatracting the pw- 
■onal Diatler addioied eqiedallr lo the Kouai^ 
the doiokigy bang retained at tbe cki*e A *till 
[uitbet Btlam|)t to itrip tbi* epUtlc of any *pecii] 
ntenoCM bfbund b MS. U, wbicb omit* in -pd;!! 
(i. T), and Tolf it 'P<j«it (L 16), for it 1* to be 
«b*«r>ed at tbe aanw tiiue tiat tbu MS. omlU the 
dunlogy tutirtlj, and laare* a ipaca after ch. lit. 
'ilui riaw ii KUMwhat owflnued iy the pwaUd 
caxe of tbe opeoing of the E^ibeaian KpiJitle, !■ 
wbicb tha« it Toy high authority lin- oiuitting 
tbe word! tr 'Ef jffy, and wbicb bean atrool 
mark* cf bnii^ beoi iotcHded for a tiraulac 

9. In deeeiitnng the fimrjuH of tbb epalie ■• 
Duy *tart fnm St. Had'* own wordi, which, itaud- 
iug at the bt^ualng of the doctrinal portion, maj 
he taken at giiiug a luminaTj of tlw coi]tent*i 
■> Tha Goapel i* ihe pawar of God luilo aalratioa 
to enry one tliat belieiretb, to tb* Jew flrat and 
*l*a to tbe Greek: <br thtcnn 1* the rigbteouute** 
ut (iod revealed from bicb to hith " (i- 13, IT). 
.\c«irdinglj tbe eputle baa been dcacribed aa com- 
priiing "tin rallgiou* pbiloaophy of tbe woild'e 
hialorj." He wnU in it* reiigiou* aapect b 
divided lulo Jew and Gentib. The ditftrent poei- 
tion of tbe two 1* n$;ardi their patt and prtetnt 
relalioiii to God, and ibeir tutute pmpect*, are ei< 
plained, llie aUmenient of C'briet it tbt centre at 
rell|{iaut hiitoiy. The dootruie of jualiHcatioo bj 
fnitli u the key which unlockt the biddeu myiteiiai 
of the dii-ine diipeoaation. 

Tbe ^i*tle, rrom it* gennal cbaiacter. iaalt 
itteU more readily to an amili/tU than b often tb* 
aiae with St. Pau)'* eptitlM. The body of tbe 
letter conti*!* of four portion*, of whiob tbe 6nt 
sod latt r^le lo penonai matter*, tb* ttcood b 
■rjtumentative and doctrinal, aiwl tbe third praett- 
oU and hortatory. Tbe following i* a table o( ita 

Salulatiou (1. 1-!). The Apoalle at tbe entaet 

•tnke* the keynola of tbe (fiullea iu tha eqwta- 

■looe "coifed a* an apoatla," "eulfcd a* •alula." 

Dlviiia graoc b enrytbing, bnniau meiit DOthing. 

L Penonai eiplanation*. Purpo*ed lieit la 

Borne (1. H5). 
II. Doctrinal (1. 16-xi. K). 
Tbe gmtml /ti^xwIhw. The Gotpel ta tb* 
atlvation of Jew and GenUle alike. Tt^ 
•olratiM oomei by Uth 11. 16, IT). 
Tlie reel of thb leetion b taken up in eetab- 
li*hiog thb tbeeia, and drawing deduettoD* 
from it, or correcting muappreboiiiDna. 
(a.) All alike were under coiulnnaalwn beta* 

Tbe beatben (L tft-SS). 
Tbe Jew [11. l-SB). 
Objection* to tbU itateaMnt aonnred 0ll. 

And the poaitiOD IMelf cataUiabBd ha 
Scriptun (ill. &-ao). 
(A.) A njiAtcotuncit (juetlflcation ) b renaM 
under the goapel, whiob bung of Uth, act 
of bw, ii alio unirerul (iii. 3I-.a6). 
And bouting ii thereby eialuded (iii. ST-SIV 
Of thi* juttilioatian by bith Abimbam b as 

euunple (It. l-SS). 
Tbut tW waareJuitiRed hi Cbibt, InwboM 

■lih.B we gkny (•. l-ll). 
Asd Ibit accepMnca In Clhilit b *• «A 


•■mI h hm Um oondamitioii b Adam 

(«^) Tha moral amtt^unie*! of our dellnr 

llw Law mi ^im to mulUpIr dn (*. SO, 
SI). Wb« m dM to tha U« v« died to 
*In (ti. 1-14). Tba mholiUon of Um Ijiw, 
bowmr. Ii DOt ■ ligiml lor nignl liccim 
(•I. I5-S3). Od Uw amtimiy, « (ha Ijiw 
bai pMMd Knj, n miut lid. lor iln nnd 
tbc Ia« iR ooriiHitlvc; »t Ibe nma time 
thta ia DO diipuKtreincnl of tin Law, but 
nthcr a proof of human vHkneia (vii. 
l-Sfi). So benwforth in C'hriit wa an fne 
ftnu dn, wa hare Iba Spirit aiid k»k Ibr- 

afflictkni [illi. 1-3U). 
(d.) Tha rrjtrtim of (he Jrm ia a niitUr of 
deapaomw (li. 1-fi). 

<!.) That the promlK oai not to tba whola 

paople, but onl; to a KiMt Mad (li. 6-13). 

And tha abaolute purpoae of (jod in h 

Ofduning b not to ba canraiaed by 

man (li. It-IB). 

(LI That the Jawi did not aerie juiUBcatkin 

•itltbt, and M niiwd it. Thii jiutiAca- 

tlan waa proiuiaed bj /"'M, and It 

oftrad U> all nUlit, (b« pKaching to th- 

UaiilllM btiiie Iniplkd thfrdn. Tb 

ahaniclar and rauitt of the (joapd dii 

paiMDtiou ara fbmliadowKl In Scriptui 

(i. I -SI). 

(Ul.) 11ut the njKtion of <h« J<n li m 

dial. TlilarqKlion haabwnthemnui 

of Katlmitiit lii tlia Uantilra, and throuch 

the (leiitiln tbcf theniielvat will ulli- 

niatrly ba hniueht lo Chrirt (li. 1-36J. 

in. Pnctlal sbortatiuna (ili. 1-iv. 13). 

(a.) To liolii<eia of lile and lo cbarit]! in p«i- 

aral, tha itut; of obedience to rulan being 

ioculnted by tha way (lit. 1-iiii. 14]. 

((.) And mora particuLirlj ^(ainit giving 

olftnaa Ut irealifr brethren (xiv- 1-xv. 13). 

IT. Pnonal niatlen. 

(n.) The Apoalle'i ntotlve in writing Ihe 

letter, and hii Intention of rliiting tha 

Komana (iv. 14-33; 

(b.) Uiaetiiiga (id. 1- 

Tha letter end* with a banedietioo and doiolagj 

(rri. 24-27). 
While Ihia apiitle eontiiini (be AilleM and 

ii ch-rnrit 

(amett and aBe 
ry In b.™ 
miglr than 

11ie reader maj be refaml eapaclidij to 
iDtmductiam of Olehauieii, Tholuck, and Jo< 
for lu^iKettiTa remariu nbtine In the KOpa and 
purport of (he Epiitle to the Romane. 

10. Intanal evidence ia ■> ttrongly In fi 
the grmUnttirit of the EpiiUe to the Kunia 
■oujy qua ■ 

did not go beyond 

•oodemrilng the two 

lait e 

i.pten ■■ tpurlmii 

Bat whila the aplille 

i(t>'lf the Mronaat 


Dtbonhip. tha aiUrnil teMi- 


t IncDi 


lla ndmoo to Ko°> U. 

In 3 Pet. til. IS ll 


Md RMra Ibau doubtAil In the I^htlt of h 
wa again [H 14), then It an alludon to ftt- 
uoni of St. Paul', buigiuge and doctrine wblnk 
aevsa] poiuta of aoiitact with tha EfMt ta 
Komau, but tbi. may perhapa ba e>|daiiwd 
tbe oral nthrr than tba written leaching of 
Apoalle, a. (he data aeem to nquin. It la 
not tbe piaetiea of the Apoatolic Uttheia lo cite tha 
U. T. wrilm by nante, but niarliod paaagei ftnin 
the Komani are Ibund Hnbedd«j In the epl.tle. of 
Clement and Puljearp (Kom. I. 9K-3S in Clem. 
t. lur., and Kom. ilv. ID, li. in rolyc 
0, ri,]. It leama alK> to bai-a been dirtcUj 
died hr tbe elder quoted in Itsueu. (Ir. 97, a, 
Ideo I'aulumdiiiua:" ef. Roai. li. SI, IT), and 
. alluded (o by the wriUr of tbe K|Hnle to I>k«- 
Hua (s. ii., ef. Kom. Ui. SI (Ml., r. »), and bj 
uMln Martyr |/Jml e. 83, ef. Kom. W. 10, II, 
lid in other pawKet). The title of Melllo'. Um- 
ae, On tile llvn-i^y of Fnilh, aeemi to be an aUo- 
on lo (III. epialla (aea however <Ja]. lU. S, 3)1 It 
aa a place niononr in the Uunlorlan CaTxm and 
ill tha SjTiac and Old Utin Veniom. Nw have 
we the taatlniony of orthodox writer, akma. llw 
epiitle WM eoninionly quoted u an autbotity bj 
the henttea of tbe .ub-aponotic age, by (be Ophitaa 
(HippoL adv. Ilm: p. flB, cf. Bom. 1. !0-a6X bj 
BMilidet (>A. p. S.'IS. ef. Kddi. vill. IB, », and r. 
13, 14), by Valeiitinua {ib. p. lUA, ef. Rom. riti. 
1 1 ). by (ba YaleiitJulan. Heraeleon aiid Inolemma 
(WeMooU, O* Ihe (.'"Hon, pp. 335, 340), and pv- 
bipa aba by 1'atiaii ( Orul. c ii., rf. Kom. i, M\ 
Iwidaa hnng included In Uardon't Canon, In 
the latter part of the Hcond eeiiturj tbe etideDoe 
in it. bcor i. HJIl fuller. It I. obiioiuly alluded 
to in the letter of Ibe cbuti:bea of Vienna and 
Ly-u. [tuKb. //. A. T. 1, cf. Kom rtii. 18), and 
by Athetiagona (p. 13, ef Kom. lil. 1 ; p. 37, ef. 
Kom. i. S4) and Theophilu. of Antiosh (Ad AiUaL 
p. TB, ef. Kom. li. fl foil j p. 136, ef. Rom, till, 7, 
3); and It quoted ftequently nod by name by 
[r^nami, TertuUian, and Clement of Alexandria (aea 
Kirchholer. t^ffm, p. 198, and aqi. W(tteol^ 
Oa die CVnvm, paMim). 

11, Tbe CvtHflunrnriel on (hit epielle ara rarj 
numerou., a. ml^bt be eipeeted Fhim lu impor- 
lanco. Of the many patristic eipoaitiont only a few 
Bt« now extant. Tbe work of Origen it preierTed 
enllraoiily in a looae latin ttandatlon of KuBnut 
( Oiis- ad. de la Hue, iv. 468), hot ume fragmenu 
of the orngintl an found in tha PMimlia, and 

St. I'aul'. eplnilea printed unong the worii. of St. 
Anibtoea ',ed. Ben li. Appi. p. 21). and bene* 
learing the nante Ambroniaeler, it prolaitily to ba 
iltrilulcd lo ttlbry tha deaoon. Ilaaidea th«a 
ate llw e<p.«i(ion< of St. Panr. epi.Uaa by Chtj- 
•o>Uim (nl. Montr. Ii. p. tib. edited leparatelr by 
FIHdl, by I'elngiu. Ipriiited anioii^E Jtronia'a 
•rorlu, ed. Yallar-i. xl. I't. 3, p. 13I», by Prima- 
.iu. {Mai/n. mU. Vil. Piitr. li Pt. 8, p. 80), and 
by Tbaodoiet (ed. bchulie. iii. p. 1). Auguitin 
eoninwneed a work, but broke olT at L 4: It 

Ram. (ed. Ben. lii. p. HSG). Uter he wnle Ex- 
]<otitio rptrnviul'm Pnipnaiiimam Apidoto nd 
am.. Bin eilw't (cd. Ben. iii. p. 903). To Ibae 
ehould be added the lattr Oifm/t of (EounienliB 
(ID[b cent.) and the notia of Theophybct (lllh 
aent). tbe bmier cuotaining raluable eitnelt 
tna Pbotlut. Portion, of a commenlary at Cjtt 
•f Almndrii nn pobliabed by Mai (JVok Pttr 


OM. uL p. 1). TlM Cama t^Ui bj Cnunv 
llftUlcsniptMM t»« eo''Kti(»aaf Vulonitu luia, 
Ui* me MdCBdiog froa 1, 1 la ii. 1, the oUmt f>am 
fii. T, to tha nd. BoUm f^mgm ftnn nlant 
jamnifntMiM, thcj vailA tmpMtMil aUucU tma 
ApclUnuiDi, Tbiodani* at Hopmntik L*^. FriU 
■ha, 1S41: UipM, PatnL. tir. bvL], Sfmriuiu, 
(;<nDadiui,Plw(IiM,ndatb«. Ilwninakillw 
Umh JiMafi'4, bUM bj HMImI, U bu 1h«< Gnck 
Tort. (Kin ITKj, from llonow US8. Tb« oom- 
Bcnurr t>( EutbTmliH ZipboHM (Tbolock, AM. 
f B| ciiMi In US-, bot lu* iwro beta |irinlal. 

■ tov ef Um bmM iBportant. Tb« dogiUtk tbIbi 
•f thta wWI* satanllj ittrKtod tha Hrlj »■ 
lanB*. MaUnetlun wnta wnnl apoaitiaii of tt 
(Wileh, AM riUoJ: i*. STB). The <.'anim«Ui7 
bT CbMb m Iba Ramaiu b enaaitttwd the nbkit 
put of bit aU* anfc. Anvw Romaa CaUMUe 
writan, the oUct wofti of Eniiia and Cvrn. a 
LapM* dnttra ta ba BtBtdxwd. Of fbraJgn aa- 
iMtaUCT of a man mmt date, btridea Ihe gensal 
eoanwitana of Bln|i<l, OMiaana. Dt Watts, aod 
Ha7<r (3d ad. 18» [4th rd. IS!»] 1, wbleb m btgtal; 
TalHbla atda to tha Kudj of thii rplBlF, n iTraj 
■ngla ant lb* ipnial BorkKj KUefcnt )M ad. 1839), 
EWdM (J834), FritaadM (1830-13), and TboliKk 
(9th ad. ISWb Ab dabonls cocniiwntaf; baa 
ii« bMa pahliabcd lately b; Van Hoigtd. AnwnR 
Kngltih writn. beBlds tha editlona of th« whole 
of the Naw TataDMDt bj AITord (ith ed. IMl) 
and Wmlavcath (new td. 1M1), tha moat Inpor- 
laot aatMtalieoa on Iba Epktk to the Bomaiw tn 
tboaa of Start (Otb ed. IWT), JowM (U (d. 
18M), and Vai«liBn (9d ed. ISSlk Futber b- 
bnoatioa oa tbt inlieEt af tha tttantnn <f tha 
Epittia to tha Romne naj ba (band Id Iba Intnc 
dnetiona of Kawhe and TbBhick. J. B. L. 

■ Sttrm liUntHn. — Ihi tha oompaaiUoa of 
the BnoMB Cbonb nd the aim of tha epiitla 
•BhaUe SMari b>«e baen latel; pohlithvl bj W. 
lUnfiDld, Chr aomwtritf u. dU Anfiutt d. r«n. 
timrimh, Harh. IKS. and W. BerMbh«, £h>( 
fttdiiellUidit PnHtm da fUmarbritft, In the 
TtteL SlwL *. Xril., 1887, pp.«3T~Wa: eotnp. 
, Die Pmim-ltntft a. iAra wwMen 
\gtii, in hii Znlttkr. f. mui. Tkt^. 
, I. WS-4ie. W7--W7. Benui (S-'iM Pirti. 
Paria, ISM. pp. biii-bciT.) xippooe* the Rpbtle 
"' *^ baen a dtvBlar letter, of 

pta with diatiiKit ending 
t Koma, Ephaau, Tbew- 
n etaarebkUM bodj of the 
Tba dNaila of bia 
br it eaoDOt be (p'tn 
11 •» foDr diiaaewJ b^ Prof. Ligbtloot (the 
wtbor of tba pranding arthJe) bi tba Journal of 
PUIuhff, IBM, nri. U. pp. SM-aw. HIa own 
kypotbeda ii, that the efiBlle a* originiUj writloi 
■B* withoot tha bn«dietioa iri. H (oddUed bj 
i.M^n>^ TIaefa., and 'n*8Blla> M muKlB; in the bMt 
V58-)aiidthadoiok^(irL9».ST). "At aome 
htw paiod of bii life .... it oasymd lo 
the ApoMla to girc to Ibla INter a widv ciraila- 




mill I 

otfilaratad all naotha of Roma In the opaninR 
liaaigiapha bj di^l aUemlani [nbatltmbiK it 
ty^n •«•£ fcr Jr Tt^p In I- T.wd oaA-.Oat h 
rApa )• 1. U — fee tha toBMBaflhb fn H38., 
itc,BaaTWi.]i BOi ha art offtba tn ^ ehap. 
■n aontaitihit peraotal matlen, adding at tha 
Hoa tima ■ dmulogr [nl. 3&-4T] at > tennina- 

Uoo lo the b4»Ib.- lUa [t win ba pndnd ll • 

modifieatioa of lbs Ttaw preaanted in f 8 of th« 

Anwog Iba mora raoant OmuiwiUariu, wa maj 
Dotita Umt^t, Dt BrUf r» dit Kilmer, tu^f d. 
Uiiadt da A. T. imtgtirgt, (iotha, ISfiS; EnU, 
Dit Stmlichrtibrti drt Ap. Paiilia Obai, a. er- 
mn, GiJtt 18BT; J(Ad Brawn (" Ifof. of EiqniL 
Tfaoi^ to tba United Hraabjlerian (.'faunb " j, Am^ 
L/licfd tjpaaition of the Kp. to tht Hoautnt, YA\n^ 
alao H. Y., ISATl John Forbn, AifUtL Comm. on 
at^VAt AonviIU. Iradng lit Iram of TkaugU 
bf dt nid of ParalUUtm, Edin. 1868; J. P. Lwirc, 
Dtr Bruf Paidi im die HSmtr, »• Aud. 1868 
(Tbail TL of hi* A&clMrt). (tnatl; ailugod and 
enriobed by Dr. Sehatf add tbe Kn. M. B. Riddla, 
in tha Amer. tniulation, N. Y. 1809 <rol. r. of 
l^oga'i Oimn.); and J, C. K. tod HoAnun, Dtr 
BH^ Piadi lot die Homer, Nurdiii^td, ISOS 
(TbeU ilL of bit Oia Aril Sdirift d. N. T. neam- 
mesliingtud luikrMabl]. Of the aofnoMntariaa 
mendoBed bj Li^itfoot, that of FiitiHba i* par 
ticohilj diatingiuabad liir ita pfalUDgical tbbnxigb- 

Of ADMriata aoaimanlariaB, wa ma; tuitb* 
name tbow of Dr. Cbarlaa Hodga (Old Sebool 
Pnabjtwian), Philad. 1835, new ed., rerinad and 
gnstlj enlarged, IBM; S. H. Turner (Kpieeo- 
palianj, N. Y. ISiS; and tim mora papular Note* 
of Albrrt Barm (Haw School I'reab.), H. J. Kip- 
lej (BaplittI, A. A. Llnrmora (Unilariau). and L 
it. Paiga {Uni«».«li»t). 

On the thfologr of tbia epiillg and the dootrina 
of Paul in gannal, in addition to tha worlu )» 
bmd lo undn- tba art. Paul, ml. iii. p. 3397, ona 
may oonault the recent rolama of Walaa. Lthri. 
d. am. neoL d. N. T., Bnl. 1868, pp. aifMMIT. 
Bom. T. 13-18 la dlacuiaed bj PraT. Tlnwth; Dwiubt 
In the ..Vne Knglandtr for July. ISUS, with putto- 
ular rafffmea to the Commanlarj of 1)t. Hodga. 

For a fuller rlaw *r the lerj eilenairr litantun 
relating lo tba aplatia, aee tha Amerlaui trantlatloa 
of Luigc'a Anuaenlorj u aboie rtlterad to, p. 
48 ff. ; eomp. p. 37 tl., 37, and ft> ipetial mono. 
^ptai, tba bod; of the Commentar]' on the man 
important prriljl Tha older lilanlura ia da- 
tailed In the well-known InbUoKnpbical woha of 
Wakh. Winer, i>Biii, aod DarUng. A. 

RUMB {'H^h, £l*n-uid Ai^.'?aiM£n,'Vu- 
umtit in tha phnae ■y^diifuiTik "Pm/ieiliii, Loka 
iiiii. 38), the broow o^jital of the ancient woHd. 
ia altuatfd on the Hber at a diatanea of about IB 
mileafromltannuth. Tbe-'aFTcn hilla" (Rer. nil. 
9) whicb formed tba nudeua of tha andant cllj 
■taod on the left baoh. On the oppoaHe ride of ttn 
rirer riaa the far higher rid|;e of the Janienlam. 
Hera from my early tirna waa a brtreat with a 
aabnrb beoeath it atmding to the rirer. Modem 
Rome lifa to tba N. of tbe anciaot olty, oorering 
with Ita principal portion tha plain lo tlw N. of the 
aeran hilla, onea linown « Um Campot Marllui, 
and on the oppoaile bank titandloi; over tha low 
KTOond bencBth tbe Vatlean lo tha H. of tha 
anrient Janieuhmi. A fnll aooount of tba hlalorr 
and topi^raphj of the city Ii glno daewbaa 
(DicL If Gr. ind Horn. Qmgr. II. T10). Hna K 
will ba OBtldated only In Ita raktlon tb Kbla hi*, 

BoDN ii not OMnlloDid la tba Kbia aioipt » 
tha bootj ef Uaeoabaea and In tbrei hooka of Ika 
K. T., namelj, tha Acta, the Fflatla to the Bfc 
mana. and tha Sd Eplatla lo Tlnwthj. Far IW 



Uw bodra of IbmlM MB Ro- 

•otkM of ItniD 
HAH ExnitE. 

Til* eonquata of Potnpsr mod to li»« glno 
fi« to Um flnt MtUemnt of Jan it Rom*, lie 
Jswiifa king ArUtobului ami bii Bn fbniKiI put 
tf Pompejr'a niutapb. Mid numj J«wUi cmptl< 
ud einlKnntfl wen bmight to Korae tt tfait tin 
A (pecLd ditlnct wu uaigncd to tbein, not on t 
■ito of tbe modem "Ghetto," betwmn the C«pi(oJ 
utd th« iibnd of tbe Tiber, but aa<m tbe Tlb« 
(Fbllo, Ltg. at Cnwm, U. M8, ed. Uwgej). 
Hujr of Una Jen mcv niide fMedmen (Phllo, 
L c). JuUiu Obbi ihowed tbctn tame kindnen 
(Jonpb. AM. iIt. 10, { Hj Suet. Oimt, 84]. 
Tbej utie liivtmd ml«o bj Anguitni, ukl bj Tibe- 
rin during tbe latto- part of bii rrign {I'bilu, J. 
t.). At in orlitr period ^ipumtJj I>e banished 
a gnat number of tbem to Satdiiihi (Joeepli. Ami. 
XTiii. 3, { Si Soet. Tii. 86]. Cliudini "oon- 
mioiled all Jswi to depart from Rone " (.Acta 
XTill, 3), on accDUDt of tamulti eonneeted, poi- 
■iblj, Kith tbe preaching of ChriaUanitf at Rome 
(SurC Claud. SS, "Jadm Impnlnre ChieMo 
ualHue tiimultuuitM Romt aipnllt " ). Tbi) ban- 
iibment cannot have been of long duntlon, fiir 
we Sod Jen lealdlng at Rome qiptrentl; In oon- 
fidcnbl* numbeti at the time of St I'val-t Tint 
(AeU nrill. IT). [; h ebleflj 
St. Paul'! bitfor; that Bodia aimci befcn ui in 
tbe Bible. 

In lUuitratloa vt (bat bUUxj It ma; b* miAil 

to gin loma aocou ■" 

tbe " Cnaar " to « 
whoae reign be fi 

1. Tbe eitj at that lime mi 
higa and lireguUr maei of bi 
hj an outer nil. It bad long outgrown tbe old 
Seprian wall (IMonja. Hal. AtiL Horn. 1 — 
Uerivale, Ami. BimI. it. UT): but tbe 
the Miburba cannot be eiielly deHned. Neither 
Urn nature of tbe boUdingi nor tb^ can6guratloi 
of tbe ground were lucb « to gli-e a itriking ap- 
peanoce to tbe dtf viewed from without. " An- 
cient Rome had ceithv cupola nor campanile " 
(Conjhaare and Howaon, Lift ofSL Paul, 11. 371 ; 
Merivale, flom. tJmp. Ii. (IS), and the hllU, nerer 
kftrn Impoiing, would pnMiit, wbeo eorend with 
the building! and atfeeta of a huge cllj , a conhued 
appearance like tbe bilk of modem London, to 
wbkh (he; bun aonwUme* been tompand. Tbe 
Tliit of at. Paul Ilea between two Aunoua epocba In 
tbe bbtuTf of the atj, namely, it* mtorallon bj 
Angtutiu and Iti naloiallon by Nero (C. and II. 
L 13) Hie boMt of Augualui ia well known, 
■ (bat be had found the cit; of brick and led it of 
marUe" {Soet. Aug, SSI. For tbe ImpRinmenti 
tflbcted bj him, lee Diet of Gr. nnd Aom. Gtogr, 
i. 740, and Niehnbr". Uiiurts m A™. Hi^ il, 
177. Some put* of (he cKj, apnkllj (be Forum 
and Campna Uaftiua. moat now liaie praented a 
ma([n[flceiit appearance, but man; of the principal 
buildlnga which attract the attenthin of modem 
trkTeUoi In indeM Roma were not jet built. Tbe 
rtneta wkq gawallj narrow and wbidlng, Huiked 
b7 denaalj cnwdnl lodging-bouaa (InaulaA) of oior- 
■Mua bright. Angtutna (bund It neeee aa ij to 
Cmit tbeir bdght to TO Aet (Smb. t. 33B]. St 
hol'a ftnt tW( (o Rome look place helbra tbe 
Havniao conflagntian, but ercn alter the nalora- 
VoB ef 'Jie dtj, irtiich fbUowed upon tbat erenl, 
MDj «f Ihold erili continued [Tao. A/iat ill. 71 ; 

t be Imagined aa : 


Jdt. Sat. Ui. IM, 98S1. Tbt popobtke af Ih 
dt; baa been nriourij cetimated : at half a uO. 
UoD (bj Durean de h Ualle, 1. 408, and Uerifab 
Am. fmpin. It. Ulfi), at two mHUona and op- 
winlt {Hoeck, RSmiidit tJndiidilt, 1. 11. 181; C 
and H.lifi^St. Pnti. 11.876; DieL of Urogr 
ii. 746), even at eight miDioM (UpdiM, Dt Mng- 
mlitdine Rom.^ quoted in Diet, nf fJeogr.). Protk 
ablj Uibbon'a catimate of one million two hundred 
tboiuand ia neareat to tbe (nth (Milman'a note on 
Gibbon, cb. ud. fol. lil. p. liU). One half of 
the pofolatlDD eotniated. In all probaUlitj, of 
tlaiea. The largo- part of the Temainder coneiated 
of pauper citlma aupported b tdkBen by tbe mla- 
erable ajatem of publie gntultica. Tbare ^>p<ai« 
to hare been no middle ela« and do IVve ioduatrW 
popubitlon. Side bf dde with tbe wntebcd elanae 
juat mentioned waa tbe compatatltd; amall bod]' 
' the wealthy nobllitj, of wboee laniry and profli- 
icj we bear eo much In the heatbaa wr4len cf tba 
lie. (See fbr oUeulationB and prooft tbe voHm 

Such wai (h* popnlatlon wbleh St Pant wooU 

d at Rom* at tbe time of bia Tiait We lean 

no the Acta of tbe Apoetlca that be waa detaiml 

Home for ■• two whole fcara," "dwdUng in bia 

Ti hired houae with a aoldler that kept blm " 

(AcU iiTlii. le, 80), to whom apparaaitl;, aecnd- 

ing (0 Roman enatom (Seneo. tf. t, ; Acta lii. 6, 

quoted b; Brotier, ad Toe. .^>M..liL U). he waa 

bound with a cbain (Acta nrlU. SO; Efb. tI. 30 ; 

~ Here be [nubed to all thai eaate to 

forbidding him (ActautUl. 30, 81). 

It la generally believed that on bia "tppad to Cn> 

r " be waa acqulttad, and, after aome time apeal 

IVeedom, waa a aecond time ImiaHaoned at Rum* 

(for prooTa, aee C, and H. L^t of 81. PauL, ch. 

urU., and Allbrd, (Jr. Tat. lU. cb. 7). Five of 

hia eplatln, namelj, tboae to tbe (Moiriaiia, Ephe- 

alana, PhUipplana, that to Pbflemon, and tba Sd 

Epiatlp to Timothy, were, In all pmbabllUy, written 

'om Rome, tbe latter abortty brfm hIa death (i 

1m. Iv. 6), the otbeti during bit flnt ImpriaoD- 

lent It la unlieraally beJIercd tbat be auSred 

lartyrdom at Rome. 

9. The localltiea In and about Roma eapecially 

mnested with the Uh of St Paul are— <1.) The 

ppian Way, by which be apprcacbad Rome (Ada 

tvUI. 15). (See Ami Fobdm, and Diet. o< 

'togr. ••Via Ap[Ha.") (S.) "Tba pakea," w 

C'B*ar'a court " Wi wpwrctfiiw, PhJ. L IS). 

Tliia may mean either the great camp of tbe Pr>- 

(otUn guaida which Tlberiua ealaUiahed oa(*idi 

tba walla on the N, E. of Uwclty (TW. .^ik. iv. S, 

Suet T9>. 37), or, aa teemi more piubabla, a bai^ 

rack attached to tbe Impnial neidenee on tbe Pal- 

le (Wkeeler, u quoted by C. and H., Uft rf 

P-ml, ii. 438). There ia no auffident pnnf 

t, the word " ftmlorinm " waa aver uaed to dea- 

ite the emperor^a palaoe, though It b uaed for 

tbe official realdeoea of a Roman govanor (.lohi 

aS; Acta uill. SB). Hie mauUon of "C»- 

botuebidd" (PbiL iv. gS), souBnu tbe 

I tbat St Paol'a laldeaoe waa in tba Im- 

mediata nelgbbirhood of tbe empenr'e booM 

the Palatine. [JuDomaT-IlAU. ; Pb^bto- 

3. Tba eooDcetloa of otber locaBtlea at Room ' 
with St Paot'i MUB* iwti only on tradithma tf 
or low BobafalUty. We may mcnlioa tap* 
— (I.) llHMamKtliie prlaon or TuUiaiiM 
•rtlBa nwr tbe hruir (Ut. L n 

eiaUy — 

MBflnd bj UJlart (Cat. W). 

aath the cbtirch of B. (Jtiwn, 
Han It it »>d Uut St Peter tod SL Puil mn 
ftUnr-pruDDHi tor niw) nwDtlia. Tbu ii not the 
pfaca to diBuB the quBtioD wlinlier SL Pet«r ni 
tttf M Uome. It aiM} ht nffideDt to atate, that 
Ibso^ then k na cvidmea of lucb > riiit In U» 
K. T^ onlfM Bibjkn in 1 Pet. *. 13 Ii It mjitieiU 
HOH kt Borne, jet hHj Intimoa)' (Dionjtiiu. "p. 
Tfl\' iL Si), and tba uaiTsml bditf of the arlj 
OoRh wru MiffidBit Id sliibluh th* het «( bii 
bsfln^ niAml martjTriom ihera. [FrrEit, roL Hi. 
p. MM.] Tb« Hon-, bomnr, of tba iiDpruoD- 
Hot in tha Ummatine priaon aeemi inconiiilent 
Witli S Tim., fipeeiillT ir. 11. <3.) Tbe chipe) on 
Um Oatiu md which m^rka tbe spot whrra tbe 
tm Aponlea an anid (o bars aepantad on their 
«S7 to martj idom. (3 ) Tba aaiqxiaed amw of 
St. PBul'a martjTdoia, niundj, tbe cbuich of Sl 
Anb lA (n /nrtoH <n tbe Oatiui raid. (See 
lb* Dotin of the Oetiui nmd in Oaina, -r- Eat. H. 
£.iL3S.) TaUnennjbeadded (4.J Tbe nip- 
|M*ed acme of St. Pelfr'a mirtjnlon], uunely, tbe 
ahnrch of St- Pietr^ in Monlvio, oq tba Juiou- 
lam. (S.) Ha cbagiel "Domina quo Vadia," on 
tba AppUd road, tba aoeoa of tbe Inutifui Icgmd 
•f OQT Lonl'a ^ptanmce to 8L Pater a* be waa 
MV^Mig front nurtjnioiB (Ambraae, Ep. 33). (S. ) 
Ibe placsB when the bodlea of tbe two ApoaUea, 
■Av baring ham ijepoaitad lint In tba eatuomb* 
ijmit^Tiifui) (iioa. H. £. IL U), an aappoaed to 
bare been iaiij buned — tbU of St. Paul b; the 
Oitko road; that of St. ?el« beneath tbe dome 
■f tbe fiunooa Baailica which bcara bit name [aee 
(Una, np. Vxu. II. E. IL 35). All th<M and manj 
oUiar tndttkxa will be (band In tba Annali <rf 
BMmiaia, onder the laat year of tfero. " Valoe- 
ha* aa maj b* tba talaUirieal tertimonr of each of 
IbM taditkna abiKlj, jet eolketirdj Ibej an of 
MBB imporlanoa m aipnadng; tbe oonBcMmaneaa 
U tba tbitd and Ibuith centuriaa, tbat- tben bad 
beat an caiij eontot, or at loiat oontraat, ba- 
twoa tba two Apoatlea, whidi in (be end Waa 
•onplctdj neoneiled; ud it ia tbia fealiug 
whiab girca a nal inlseat lo tbe iwtward fcrma 
ha wbkfa it la broQi;ht bafbn na, nnn or iaaa 
hidecd in all tbe anitb of Europe, bnt Mpeoiallj 
b Bome Itatf '■ <atuilej'a jSermMt and t*mft, 


4. Wa ntoM add, aa rilaa tnqaaeUomblj cm- 
nacted wttb tbe Boou ChriiUaiii of the Apoetolio 
^B— (1.) Tba i^Hdaai of Ntra In tbe Titlcan, not 
fcr bWD tba ^nt wbare St. Peter'a now alanda. 
Hob Cbriatiana wrapped in tbe alilna of baaati 
Mfe torn tn pieeea bj doga, or, ebthad in biflaoi- 
wlih robea, nera burnt to aarra aa toichea during 
Um midnight gamea. Otbtra wen emcilied (Tao. 
*am- nr. 44). (1 ) Tlie Cataoombt. Tbeee sub- 
lainuean galioica, eommonlj (ton: S to 1 fM in 
hei(bl, aod frani 4 to 6 in width, aid atendlns 
far mitaa, eapeoiaUj In tba neigbbortnod of tba 



and tbelr poaalUe connection wltb the deep aaad- 
pita and anbtemnean worka at llonw mentioned 
bj eUaalcal wrilen. Sea tlie atorj of tbe murdw 
of Avniua ( CIhciU. 13), and the aceoont 
of tba coneealment oflhtd lo Nero befon hia 
death (Suet. ?f»v, W,. A nion complela ae- 
oou»t of the cataeoniha than anj jat given, niaj 
be expected in (be fortbcsming work of the Car- 
alien G. B. de Roaai. Soma \-a^ inlonlini; ik>- 
ticea of tliia worii, and deacriptiona of the Roman 
eatacomba an given in Burgon't Lrlliri from 
Ibrnt. pp. 120-358. "De Kcaai finda hi> rartieat 
dated inKriptira A. D. 11. Knm that date to a. d. 
300 there an not known to rilit ao nianj u thirtj 
Chriiluui iiiKriptlona bearing dalea. Of oiidatwl 
iDlcriplioiia, howew, about 1,000 an referable to 
tbe period antecedent to tbe superorC^natantina** 
(Burgon, p. Hi). [See De Koaai'a Intci-yMioam 
Ch<K. Urbii Ronut, Vol. I. Rom. 18S1, fol.] 

Nothing ta known of tba fint founder of tba 
Chriatixa Chun^ at Rome. Chriatlsiiitr tnaj, 
perhapB, haw \Mai introduced into tba dlj not 
long after tba oatpourin^ of the Holj Spirit on 
tba daj of Pentecoat, bj the " atrangen of Jfoma,'' 
who wen then at Jenualem (Acta ii. tO). It la 
clear tbat tlien weav luanf Chrlatlana at Koma be- 
fore St Paul Tiilttd :ba eitj (Rom. L 8. 13, 16, 
I*. 90). Tbe nania of t»nit;-four Cfarieliana at 
Roma are giten In tbe aalutationa at tba end of tba 
K|Mle to the Bomaoa. For tbe difficult queatloB 
wtiather tbe Honian Church oonatated nainlj of 
Jewa or tientiln, are C. and U., Hft of SL PmU, 
11. IfiT; Aifoid'i Proltu.; and apaciillj Pnt 
JoweU'a fJ/iulUi «f St. Paid (u lit ifuwiru, On- 
tilinm, cmd Thrunlnunnt, ii. T'26. Tba tlaw 
(ben adopted, tbat thej ware a (ieiilile CHiureb bal 
Jewlah conreru, Menu moat in banaonj with auoh 
paiaigra at ch. I. S, 13, li. 13, and wiib tbe gao- 
of the ei^tle. 

(who ia mentioned, 9 Tim. It. 81), and 
(Phil. ir. 8), an aoppoaad to bare ano> 
ceeded St Peter aa biahopa of Kome. 

Knaa aeema lo be deaolhad under the nanw of 
nab}lon In Rer. ilr. S, irl. IB, irii. B. iriii. % flli 
and again, aa tbe cit j of tba aefen hilia (Rer. irli. 
9, ef. ill. I, ^U. I). See too, for the interptata. 
lion irf tbe mjatioal number 666 In Bar. liii. U 
Alford'a mile, I. o. 

Per • good aoooont of Rome at tba tlma at Sl. 
PanVa ilalt, aee Coujbewe and Howaona Uft ^ 
St. Paul, ch. nlr., of which iVea nae hv baen 
made fbr tba akateh of tba dtj glrau in tt'la n 
tiels. J. J. H. 

ROOF. [Dabuath, Amer. ed.i Htxru.] 

ROOM. TUa word ia emplojed in the A. T. 
of tbe Mew Teelament aa the equlraknt of no Im 
than eigbl dlitlnct Qreek <■ (ermi. Ilie onlj ona 
* ''leae, bowerer, which need be noticed here la 
■aKKiaia [Matt iiiii. 6; Muk lii. 3S; Luke 
Wl, which sianilea, not a '■ room " In 
■ lo It of a chamber. 

Mad aa plaeaa of relbge, of wonblp, and of buiiil 
bj tl» aarlj Cbriatiana. It la fanpoidM ben U 
■aler ntioa tba diSenlt quaaBop of tbelr origin, 

■ L -Arrf (Matt U. 3IK 
~ - w(lIwklL3). 

•((LnkatLT, dr. S; 1 Oar. xlr. U}. 


ifr. T. ( 

bnt tba higheat pLtce on tbe higheal 
the dinner or aupper -table J — tba " uppermost aeat," 
aa It la mon accurately nndend In Luke li. O. 
[HKALa.J TbeWDtd "aeat" la, bowerer, ganeiallj 

S. n^wtmbirCa (Bhiaf, btghaat, npparmgat rana. 

T. ■&><)««• (an upper rooB, Mark xtr.U) Lata 

uU. 13). 
■. n *«fVDr (the DppB nOB, 4e«B L m. 

b; our tniuklon u> aiBitpm, whUk 
I mcu> WDie kind of ottcial duUi. In Loin 
10, tbtj b>*s readered r^rai Uj boUi 

ifabuli but tba anga^llke roota of tUi 

ROSE (n^^^q, cAajnrHubfA; Kpira 
trtojl Aq, jtiAvf : jf™, Siiim) omrn twice — ' 
nimctj, in Cuit. b. 1, " I un tha Ibut of Shi 
ind Ib It. HIT. 1, "Iht Anat thiU Rjolcc ind 
UowoRi H Uw Tr*t," Then \t miKb dlneraice 
of opiiiloD u to wbit pcrtlculu' Rower ia ben 
rlenotod, Tremelliui und [ModUi, wilh amne tt 
the Rabblna, Mien tb« roB ii intended, but tbero 
wmu (0 be no foundation Ibr auch a tnnalition. 
Cdsiui {tlitni. I. 488) baa argued in ramr oF the 
NarclNite {/*o(yTiKAM iwramiil. Tbii Tendering 
b lupparted by the Tsr|{am on CuiL 11. 1 , wbere 
CliabaltlitUlh la eipbiiied bj mrbn 0^p~t3). 
Tbia word, aa^a Rojle (Kitti>'t*C^. art. " C'ba- 
bamlelb "), la ■• the asme u the i'ertiui luirjnu, 
the AnUc y^J^-ji, vbicb throughout the Eaat 
Indicatn f/itrowa TittUn, or the poljaiithiit 
nsrclBUi." Geaoiiu (TlitM. a. r.} baa no doubt 
that tha plant denoted ia Iba >■ autumn oocua " 
lOoldtcMm nsfunmnb). It la well worthy of re- 
mark tfaat the Bjrias tnniktor of U. hit. I 
apblna tfmbalMrUI* bj chamU'djutlio,'' which la 
erldenlly tbe latiie word, m and i lieiiiE Intcr- 
ebanKed. Iliia Sjriaa word, araonllnit to Allehaella 
(Sv/iiil. p. Gfiy), Ueteiiiua, and itoaeniuiilkl (,Bii. 
Bet. p. 143), drnotea the O^hian nulmimnU. 
Tbe Hebrew word pointa etyniologludij to aome 
bnlbout plant; it appnin to ua more probaljle that 

> ia 

former plant beihff lon^ eetebraled for ita fra^nuice, 
while the othfr bii no oduiuu* qualitiis to lecom- 
mend It. Attain, u the dtiJinUUtlrtli ia a»od*t<d 
with Iha lilj in Cant, (, e., it antna probulJe that 
Solomon ia apeakin^ of two planta which i>l4vaomed 
about tha aama time. Tlie nucluna and ihe lily 
{Uiiwn cttmliduiK) would be Iti Llnaaom togetho' 
in tbe euly tprinic, while the Vulchiaim ia an 
■utunm pkuiU Thonton {L-nxt ami Boot, pp. 
119, SIS) tufnMU the poaaiUllty of the Hebrwi 
Mine bring Ideatial with tbe Arable A'jIuUaiiy 

(IjMkl^ er i^jL^). "the maDaw," whhib 

pUnt be aaw growing ebundantly on Sharon; but 
thi* Tiew an hardly be munl^ned : the Hebrew 

term la probably * qoadrililcral 

banb aijiirat* jnflied, and the | 

Implied 111 it ia ttliel. •< a bull;," and baa Iberefora 

Chateaubriand (/(iiiei-niVr, )i. I.10I mentlont the 
urciaaua aa growing In tba plain of Sharon; and 
Strand (Fhr: Pabxtt No. 1T7| namea It at a pknt 
Bf Paleatine, on the authority ot Kauwolf and 
HaaaelqoUt; aee alio Kitlo-a Wje. ffial. '/Pafcai. 
B, aie. Hiller (/Z^T^iijt. ■■ — •■-'-'-- "- -'- 

M ipeciea of aaphodel {,Aifiii 

. l ^ . v^vir ,. 

oTtUi laBM 
the " hmb " n 

i^ed bi tbe or „ 
Though the roae ia apparently not mmtioned b 
the Hebrew Bible, it ia rderred to In Kodua. xxU. 
it i> aaid of Wiadom that tbe la eiallad 
■ plant (At furl ^iiov) in Jericho" 
a ch. I. 8; iiiii. 13; Wi«l. il. 8).* 
greatly priced in the Eaat, more eqi*. 
dally for Uie take or the roee-water, nhicb It in 
much requeat (tee Haaaelquitt, 7V.rr. p. Hi). Dr 
Hooka- obterrad Ihe following wild rote* in Syriit- 
Rom tglanliria (1,\ Jt. umptnirtai (1.), B. 
HeAtUaiin, R. Pkaaida (IMaa), R. aerinwi, R. 
laigutHfiAta, and R. Li&naolifn. Soaie of then 
are doubtful apeoice. R. ctU{fiMa and ifinvtactiia 
are cultirateil everywhere. The to-ealM " Bom 
of Jericho" it no roae at all, but the Aniutntiea 
ffifn/clmnlinn, a cruciferoua plant, not uneoonuMMt 
OQ landy toll in Paketine and Egjpt. W. U. 

ROSH (KibH [Aeorf}: Tdi: &<}. In tba 
genaalogyof Gen. ilvi. 91, Koah ia nekoned Nnoi^ 
tbe aona of HetiJamin, but the name doea not ooesr 
elwwhen, and it ii extremely probable that " EU 
and Roab " it * corruption of » Abtran " (comp. 
Hnm. xiri. 38). See Burrington't Otnenlo^a, I. 
ROSH (IZ^n : 'Pifi, Fl lUTiil. S, 3, xztJc 
r the Vulg. capilu, and by Ihe A. 
If tTNn, '-head"). The wbeb 
aentoiM tbui rendered by the A. V, " Mngog Iha 
chief prtnoe of Mmhech and Tul*l," oucbt to nj» 
Magog the prince of Roab, Ueeecb, and Tubol;" 
le word IrantlaLed "pruice" being tf'Q?^, tb* 
rm uiuajly employed lor tha head of a nomad 
Inbe, aa of Abraham (in Gen. uiii. B), of tla 
Arabiana (Uen. itil. 9U), and of the chieik of tb* 

a (Nun 

genend tented K-i' 

ilTl. 9). 'Hie meaning i 

of the three greet Scythiai 

thut tha flrat. Ueaei 

T, 18), a 
.34; Fa-iii. lU, lit. T, 
that UagoK ia the bead 

intmded the triha 
called ttm tbrir 
alga, and that In 

• and trilie we hai-e tlie BrM trace ot tba 
RuealAM nation. Von Hammer IdaoUBae 

• with A'ltiin Ihe Komn (ut.40i LIS), 
"the peoplfi Aarl, I'hiMnud, and the Aiahablr (or 
Inhaijitanlel of Uast or Hon." He contiden that 

1 bad actually Uie pntaaffe of Eiekiel ia 
that "Aaihabi "' 

Jid Sfix""^ <rf 
J, Telenhurit, 1 

tbe "prince 

LXX. (finr UM o.isin.j 

pp. 94-39). TheHntn 

abuia under tbia name la in a Latin Ulitoiiicke under 

the year a. d. iW, quoted by llaycr ((/rijiiate 

Xtuiuo, CoMmtnl. Aoui Ptti-ifii. 1T36, p. 409). 

From tbe junction of Tirni with Ueabecb and 

Tubal in Gen. i. 9, Von Hemiiter emvecture* tba 

Identity of Tirni and K.^ (p. 96). 

The name probably oeeurt tjprin under tba 
altered farm ot Kaitet, in Judith ii. 9J— thit tune 

rta of Ihe couDtr^ by the iIJi tl pook 

A aoDriahM apFcially al Jerirtia, wba 
IB our km" (.Sat. Mat. ^iWi BMi 


k Ik Boint Utlii, wd pcMriblj (bo Id tb« 
Bjike laidont, la eoanaeUou with Tbiiw cr Tbu*. 
Bat tba T«uug< ii loo oontpt to admit of u; 
isUin deductioD froa it [Kauk*.] 

TUa cwt; BibUi«l doUcs of ■> grait u ewpin 
ii dooblj iolenBting liviii lU biting ■ toliUrj 

DBcBn in the ScHptoni. utd Ui> ablittntion of It 
bj the A. V. it Di:« of the mtnj 

(art of tlw CHd Tnluuint. tor ill hrthrr in- 

HwnnH and B^js. A. P. S. 

BOSIN. Properiir "Duphtlw," u it ii Iwtb 
b the LXX. Knd Vulg. (ri^ linplia,.,}, m nil 
m U» ?cahito-Sjrlu. In Ibe Soni; of thg ThrM 
CUUno (13), Uw KTviiiU ot the ki»K of itabjtso 
KC aid to have " (wurI not lo niika lite ona bot 
•1th mm, pilch, tow, utd ■miU wood." Plin; 
Cn. 101) n«iti(uu naphtba u s pmduct of Babj- 
loBB, pmilar in appaanuicQ lo liquid bitumen, and 
hanqc a remariible affinity U> fin. To thii 
natonl product Ikiiown olio M fmiao i^ipblha, 
pMnlsuiQ, iDck oil, liaugDOu Ur, Bumiar ruph- 



Ibtj bwt in kmpi initMd of oO. Uw Ulm 
-» (f liquid niJpbur. W. A. W. 

• KOWEBa [Smr <6.)] 

■ BOWS, Cant, u 10. {OuiAMiurr>. [■■•■ 
SOHAL, note •.] 

■Im-' KiitH, K vtAirrtAtii: amOi* optti emeU 
■ HuiinH, jimtmn, dt uUimit finUiut, tbor OM- 
tiquu^^t)^ the ioTariablB rendning c^ the abof^ 
uanicd Hebrew wordi. concerning tiie meaning of 
wblcb then ii aiuob ditlb«ne* of opinioa utd fjtak 
inoertaiotj. " The price ot wiadom Ii abdre ;>nt- 
ifn " (Job uriii. 18: we abo i>tii>. lii. 1ft, liiL 
I. iiij. 10). lu Uni. i>. T it ia nid, "the 
Nuwile* wetc ptinr Ihui enow, Ihej ware wbilar 
thao milli, thej wen more niddj ia bod} tfaan 
pmMw." A. itooU {AKiKotl. Sik. n. 3), oo 

in the p 

Ftr a oonKdmblg dlitance fiom Ibem we Ibit tbe 

mne. ainl «e wen sU imiuijilj (truck with ai- 
ooeiitting bead^be*. Tlie ipiiii^ onnaiat of aer- 
oal |Hla or welli, leren or eight feet ii> diauieter, 
and ten or twelre deep. I'be wbole number are 
within tbe cDni[Wi of five hundred jardi. A 
lb[ht of (tepa ha* been cut into fucb pit for the 
porpoae of a|}proHchiri^ the fluid, which ntr% and 
Ealk HVotdinit lo the drjnoi or mnirture of the 
viatbcr. Tbe natit« Ure it oat witb hdla Into 
ba^ made erf iktna, wbieb are carried on the backi 
tt aaaea Is Kiifcook. or lo anjotlMT juart Ibr iti 
■le. .... The Kirkook naphtha ia prin- 
d|iallj OBDaanied bj tbe marketa in the aoiithweat 
if Coordklan, while the pita not br from Kufri 
npplj Basdad and ila ennnuia. The Ha^ad 
oafhtha ia black " ( Tr^n. ii. MOI- It <• ikvrihed 
hj DioKorida (i. 101) m the drq^ of tbe llabr- 

Fbtareh {AUx. p. S5) Alnander flnt bw (I in the 
aitj of F^thatana. where the inhabituU exhibited 
ili mantlaui eflbcta bj atnwing it alDtiii the atnet 
wikich led to bii headquarien and aetting it on 
in. He then tried an eiperlnient on a page who 
atlendcd him. poitinK hint into a both of naphtha 
■ad acitlne hght lo it (Slnbo, xTi). liS), which 
iua\i reauiled in the haj't death. Plutarch tiat~ 
fttu that it waa naphtha io wbioh Medea ileeped 
tiK crown and ni)« which (be gam to the danghUT 
(f Cknn: and Soldaa aji that the tirade eaBtd 
It •• Hdaa'a OO," hot Un Media •■ naphtha." The 
Pnrian nuM Ii hjli (»/t). FOaidook 
Stnin) i^tti that la IWiTloato thtn wen ifcioge 
It black md white naphtha. Tbi former, my 
*>te (ivU. TU), wtrg o( BqaU bItumaD, wbieb 

MAal> t|), d»r, "paAi" 8jO| •'•w™*, " 

n auppoied "eoral" U be intended, Ibr 
. homrer, then appaan to be amtiber llebrrw 
woid. [IJoB.tL.] J. U. Michaelii (Sii/¥^ p. 3013} 
of the Mine opinion, and eamparei tbe Hebie* 

nj?? with the Anb. 1^^^, "a branch." Oeae- 
TAa. a. t.] defendi thi( ancument. Bschait 
iHiirot. lil. SOI) contenda that the l(e1>rew term 
denote* pearli, and eiptaina (he "ruddineit" «1- 
' ^ ' to aboe, bj (uppoaliig that the original word 
pl T i) (igniflee mefely " bright in coktr," or 
••colorofa reddltb tinge." Thia opinion i* (up- 
ported bj KoHnmiiller (ftckal. in ThriH.). and 
otbera, but oppoaeil bj Maurer {CommnU^) and 
Gcaeoiut. Certainlj it would be no complinteot 
lo the great people of (be land to aaj' that thdr 

adopt Maunr'a eiptauatioii, who refen the " nid 
I " lo the blond which flowed in tbdr veioi. 
ie wbole, coiiiidcrinE that the llelirewword 
layi uaeil in the plural, we are inclined to 
adc^ Itochart^i eifJnnAtiun, and underatand pcaHi 

' inIef.dBl.<> [HK.tKU*.] W. H. 

BtJDDEK-BAMDS, AcU uvli. «l 
[Ship (2.)] 

BUB (n^yaivt: nUn) eteart anij to Lake at 

: "Woe unto JOB, PbariiNi! tar }i t'tbe mini 
and m* Bod all manner of berbt." The toi hoa 
apoken of ii doublleaa the oomdm Rail gna^ 
iJeflt, a (hnibby plant about 3 (eet high, of itrong 
medicinal rirtuea. It ia a natin of the Medlter- 
nuiHui couti. and baa been found by Hawlquirt 
on Mount Tabor. IHoacoHriei (lii. U) deHriba 
two kindi ot r/rr^or. namely, w. ifiirir and ir. 
inwturir, which denote tbe Satu numbma ind 
tt, graerBlcni mpectirelj. Rue waa in gml 
nputa amontnt the aiicienta, both aa a oondlmani 

1 a* a medicine (l"llny, .V. //. all, 8i Columefl. 
Rai. ili. T. i i\ Diow»rld«, A c). Tbe Tal 

d enumentn me nmonmt kitchen-berba (Sht- 
bHA. cb. <i. S 1), and recivdi It aa tnt of tithe, 
aa belnc a plant not cultinled In gardena. In om 
Loid'( time, however, me wae doubtleaa a gaRlsn- 
plant, and therefore tllhable, m ii erldent <iom 
our Uvd'a worda, " thtae th1ng( ought ja to have 

the UkI of aUbaalae ealM I 
Tbe LXX. baa ■&»« ; 
Oaaanloa, and Wiser (A'U. Smbt. 1. 71). 



lon>." The nw 1> loo wall kuoini to mad da- 
Min|itioii.< W. H. 

BCTUB CPsf^, Irid, rtddM] : S^flil) it 
mentionad Id Huk iv. 31, afeng oith Alauudo-. 
u k aoii of Slnwa Uie Cjranoui, wbom tba Jcwi 
somptUed lo bwr tha eroa of Jetui on tlm nj !« 
Gotgodia [Liiks uiii. 96). Aa Uw Enogeliit 

•ana, it b evident tfait tba litter vera t«tt«r 
known tban the tkther In tlia circle of Cbrisliuii 
when Uirk lirad. Again, In Rom. irl. IS, tfae 
ApoaUo Pud ailutet i Kufni whom be duignrnta 
■■ "elect En the Lord" Ug\,KThr ir Kvplv), "id 
wboee Udther be gncefuUjr reoofcniua as fanvLng 
earned m motLer'a claim v^oa himielr Uy acta of 
kindneai abowa to him. It ia generally luppoaed 
IbM tbii Rufua waa Meoticil iritb the one to whom 
Uarii reftn; and in that caae, u Mark wrote bli 
goapal Id all probalnUtjr at Rome, It waa natural 
that be (hould doaeriba to bia raadcn the father 
(who, ^nce the nwlber waa at tioins while the 
htber ^ipanntlj waa not there, may hare died, or 
h»« cODH biter to that city) from hia relatloiiabip 
lo two welUknown memboa of the aanie com- 
■noikltj. It k aome proof at leut of the eorlf 
•dilenoe of tbii view that, in the AdU Audita tl 
Pttri, both Kufiu and Aleuu]drr apiior ai com- 
panlona of Peter in Rome. Auumirif;, then, that 
tbe aanie peraon I* meiijt in the two pauagea, we 
bare helbre ua aji intereatlni^ g^^^p of helievere — 
k btbar (for we can hardlj doubt tliitt Simon 
became a Chriatian, if be waa not alreadj auch, at 
Uw tima of the crucifiiion), a mother, and two 
brolben, all ia tbe aame &mll}. Vet wa are to 
bear in mind that Raftia waa npt aD uncommoD 
name (Wetalran, Nov. Tut., vol. I. p. 634); and 
poiaiblj, therefore, Mark and Paul maj haiv had 
In view diSanut IndividuaU. II. B. Q. 

EUHAIIAB (ni5i;n fcommutraUd]-. 
1l\TtliUrii: i>u*rrieonli.aa anuteuta). The mai^ 
gin of our veraioQ Tenden it "baring obtained 
raercj " (Ho., ii. 1). Tbe name, if nanie it be, la 
like Lo-iubaniah, ajmbolieal, and aa that wu gireli 
to tba daui^bterof the prophet Hoara, to denol* 
that lltod'a nierc; waa turned away ttom larael, ao 
the name Rubatnab !■ addreaaed to tba daugbtera 
of the people to denote that the; were itill tbe ob- 
jeeta of bia tore and tender compaaaioo. 

EtJ'MAH [nan [high, aatled]-. -Pw/uj: 
Joiwpb. 'ASoiim- "xn'O)- MenUoned, onoe only 
(3 K. uiiL 36), aa tbe naliie place of a certain 
Pedaiah, tha ftther of Zebudah, a Dtemher of the 
harem of king Joaiab, and mother of Kliakim or 

It baa been ooiyeelured to be tba aama plaoa ai 
Aruniah (-iudg. ia. 41), which wat nppsiently near 
Sheclieii. It la more probable that it i* identical 
witli Uamah, one of the toviu in the momituiia of 
JuJth, near Hebron <Josh. if.52), not fardiitant 
ftouL Hhiiah, tha nativetown of anotherof Joaiah'a 
■ivs. Tbe Hebnw D and R are ao umllar a> 
litem to be confounded logelber, and Duniab mutt 
have at any rate been written Kumab In Iba He- 
brew leit fhiiD which tbe LXX. Iianitat«d, aince 
Ihey ■{ii'e it aa Bainiia and Rounia. 

Joaephna mentioiu a Buniah in Galilee (S. J. 

a. T, i 31). G. 

■ • "We eoUKM," layi Trlitnin, "fbur apKha 


BirSH. [Beed.] 

BUST (apHo-ii, iiit; «^)occnnieUi«lnM 
latloo of two diSerent Greek wonla Id Matt. vL U, 

and in Jam. v. 3. In the fomm ptaaage Iba 

>1 ^pM-ii. whiuhia JolnnI with s^r, "moth,'* 

by aome been midcnlcod to denote the larva of 

te moth ii^urioiuto coni,aa the Tinea prandlm 

t Stabiton, /natcM Biilan. iii. 30). Tba Ua- 

bnw nrf (la. L fi) u iradend 0fiva by AqoUat 

comp. alao tp!iL Jtren. v. 13, Art U>S ■■! ^«h- 

/tdriir, "fromruBtandnwtba"(A.V.Bar.vl.T3). 

Seultetuj (A'mrc. Ev^ing. li. 35, Oat Sac. vi.) 

bdiews that the worda s^t (ol jBfwo'ii ai« an hen- 

diadyi for s^i fipAatmr- " 

it though tl 

Mila, Juit aa 

of the eonoding n 

le alladoa of 
wa ia to the corTodiog nature of Uion dmU 
oultetua eorndly obaervea, '■ ■rugine de- 

e of " ruit " (cMup. Hun- 

MUt. Tl. IB). 
BUTH (m">: •poM:probabljfcr mS"!,* 
I friend," the feminine of Reu). A Hoabttl^ 
iman, the wife, firat, of Mahlon, aeconiUy of Boat, 
and by blm mother of Ubed, tbe anccatma of Da- 
vid and of Cbriat, and one of the four womcai 
(Tbamar, Rabab, ai»l Uriah'a wili being tbe other 
three) who are named by SL Uattbew in the geo- 
ealogj of Chriat. [Kaiiah.] 'Ilie incideula Id 
" beauliftil Ixiokth ■ 

by tbe occupi 
der t«lon (■ 
Elinielech, a 
grate into thi 

nd a 

le liu>d ol 

tl by 

veof Itetlilehem 
id of Muali 
a, Jlaldoti an( 

3wa. A 

jjowible).' induoad 

ife Naami, 

u jeai 

w lell 

L widow and 
■aa plenty again 
Iktblebrm, a«l 


in Judah, resoli-ed to rvtun 

ber daugbttr-iii-l;i<r, liulb, 

" Whither tbou goist, I will so. anil where thoa 

ladi;«t, 1 will lodi:e: thy peofJe aliull if my peopU, 

and thy God my God : where Ibou dint I will die 

and there will 1 he buried ; the Lord do bo to nie, aud 

more alao, If ui^lit but d^tti pnrt tbee and me; '* 

waa tha eiprenion of Ibe unallenlile atlnchont 

of tha youiw MoaUititli >iidg» lu tlie ninther, b> 

tbe land, and to Uw rrliifion of her loat liutband. 

They arrived at Uctbleben 

of barley harveat, and Iti: 

for the lupport of her niotiier-in-iaw anu hm 

chanoed to go uilo the field of Itow, a wealtliy n 

the near kinanian of ber htlier in-lnw Uinieh 

The atory of her liiiuea and ber kindni^M i 

fidelity to ber n>otlier. in-law, and her [irefere 

for tbe land of ber huiband't birth, had gooa bcl 

t Soma thiok It la for n'44^, "1 
c Fatikk anggHla Uia ha\ot Is Ih 
all. Tl. 0,4). 

I tbe Ix^isi. 



J*;*ld iniimll^jJj-p— IrfningThn thniti 
rnh< vooMii wsi, Boh Uflai bar with tfa 
BO* tuDdMn tad ntftd, imd Hi bar I 
kta vitli on wfaiefa the titd ftaiioi. Ka 
■g«d bj tU« iociitnt, Nkhd) luBtractal Rul 
^iB It Um bud of Bom UuU br iboold pa 
Iba pui of b(T bmbud') 

bcr to b* bk K 

Bat tbcnwMk 

far himMif. U«, bowsnr, declined, fcaring to m 


■ulcmnitj, Bou loot itath to be bii wife, muldit 
tbe blr«iB|ii ud ccngntahtiou of tbor un^bcn. 
At ■ ■iajuiu' ounpit of rirtos ttxi pi«tj in ■ mde 
■^ ■ud uHHix >n idolitraai people; ■■ o« of the 
ln»-rhiitBDfthiiG«Dtile bvmt gitbend into tbe 
Srarcb; m tbe bennue of ■ Morj of aiqnidte 
baiatx uxl (implidlj; u Uluatrmting in bet hielor; 
tfca WDTkingi of DiTiiie Piaiidencc, lod tbc tnilb 
iM tbe in jin};, tbat " tbe ejs of tbe Lord mre tjnr 
lb* rif^bteOBi; " end tat tbe muj inLemting mr- 
riitione of UKient domeetie (od local eBtonu 
wfaieh are MBcuted witb ber Morr, Unth bi> al- 
wKjt held ■ fuiRDoet phee lUiKiiig tbe Sciipdire 
etnnetB*. St. Augnetlne hu ■ curioiH ipFcub- 
tiDD OD tbe nhtin btawduea of Uath. Iwke n»r- 
rted, end bj ber leeofld muria^ beeotuing tbe eii- 
ait ™ al Qiriet, and Anna remaining cODttaot In 
ber indmbood (Oe Amd niaiL). Jenme ob- 
Hm tbat we c«) meuun tbe greatixai of Kutb'i 
Tirtue b; the gmetiKS of ber reward — " Kx qn 
■mine Chriatoi oiitiir " (A>£i(. uU. nd Pnalam). 
Al tlH gnat-granil mother of King Daiid, Kutb 
Diut ban flovub«l in tbe lall* part of iOI't 
'udgeahip, (c tbe beginning irf tbat tf Saiuud. But 
tbm Mem to be no partieulu notea ef time in the 
book, bj wbicb herigtcao be looee eiaetij defliwd. 
The ator; waa pot inlo itt preient ihape, arowedlj, 
bng tRat her liletime: aee Kutb L 1, It. T, 17. 
(Bertbeau on Rutb, in tb« Exeg. B-mlb.; Roaen- 
nblL Proan. •- Lib Hulk; FtAtft Da Wette; 
twald, Oaek. L 9Dft, UL 760 ft) A. C. H. 

• KUTH. BOOK OF. Thaptanof the Dio- 
lubirj feqairee that aome acoount ihoold be gircn 
al tbe book of which Rolb ii the boRiiiie. Tbe 
tvp^ wbich eLvm remaf^ ar* — ito place in tbe 
ooon, ite nfie, aulhociblp. object, aoureea of tbe hia- 
loey, ill aicb«t>ki((j and tbe addiliooal lileraturs. 

Tht poeilioo of tbb book in tbe Engliih Bilile 
acentdi witb thM of tbe Septuagint. it being rerj' 
Moperlj inacTted between Judgn and 1 Samuel u 
■aentiailj a anppleuieot to tbe twiner and au in- 
tndnctiao to tbe Utt<r, lbrtbo(i|{h Eli and Samuel 
m Ibe ioioiedute pmi im na of the kin|t* oocupj a 
phce In I Saamel, tb* book (^ Ruth fornia a 
canoccting link between the puiod of the Judgn 
and IbM o( tbe maoarehT. If Obcd the vn of 
Baaa waa tbe latbv of Jwa (ii. 17) tbe eteigti 
which tha book al Ralb nkUea mnit hare lakrii 
piHe in the hat eenlnrj of tbe afta of the Judgta. 
The amngement in oar oidinar; Hebrew Bibin at 
pnaeot pboa thli hialor^, without anj -egard to 
Ike tbnmioffj, among tbe inifiotfrfpka or surad 
■liUngi (PHlnu, Pnnvbi, Job, Sobmon'i Song, 
Roth, t^iBmUticp*. EMOeiiMbia, Eether, Uwiiel. 
^n, NebMDiali, Chnniotoa), )0 oUaiiBed witb 
r^krioea t: 'imr ethical or practical eonlenU. 
iC«MOli.] Tat moam aiitloa maiDlain that the 

RtrTH, BOOK or 2T66 

abd tba otbar k bter tranvoaitioo. (Sfti ^alMt 
tbat Tiap Camt, Dat Swk SiOi, p. 301 1) 

Tba dale of tbe compc^tioa it ii lupOHlble I* 
aacerlalD with mueb pneieJMi. It inutt baie baea 
written after the birth of [>aiid |i(- IT) and prob- 
ablj arter kli reign; for tbe ganealogy at the ckaa 
prmppoaaa that be had aequired at tbe lime a 
hiitorical and theoeratiD importaj^co which belonged 

rioT, king, and prophet. It ii no certain proof of 
a much biler authonbip than Ibia Ibat tbe ciulom 
<4 ■• plucking off tbe ikoe " u ■ leifal fcnu bad ba- 
cotue obaoletB when tbe book wia written (if. T, H}, 
fir maaj' ohangca in tbe lUk of the Hebrm miM 
bne taken pU» npadlj alUr the eaUbliabuieat W 
tbe moDUthj, and in addition to Ihia, if Boai WM 
the imiwdiate aoontor of Obod, and 0(i«d wai tba 
Mberof Jew (Ir. 17) an Interval of three ge»ei» 
tiona al lout laj between Boai and tbe cloae of 

and grammntieal fi>T]uain tbe irook which thejaUegi 
Ut be pruuf uf ■ later coiiipoiilton, and would enn 
bring it down to Ibe Chaklee period of Jewiih hl»- 
torj. Eiuuuptai of Ibia are ''■V'aSn, Ti??"!^ 

[11. 8, ai), yrfs^, (iL 9), ■'iiiipi? ^i^jy; 

tiii. ai, ^P??!? (iii. 4), K^D Initaadof FTT^ 

1. 30), 7ri^ inatead of )D^, and othen, bnl ai 
Ibeae and aome oUur eipreaaioiia, paiilj' peculiar 
ind p!utlj infrequent oaiy, eriher do not occur at 
Jl in the later bwlia, or ocoorat tbe aune time In 
onie of tbe earlier booka, tbij eunly cannot ba 
Jleged with anj nm&leiioe aa m-iriu of ■ Chlllda 
Hyie (aee Keil'i Kiiil. in <lai A. Tat. p. .115 f., and 
Wright'i Bvuk af Jtuli. p. ilj. Ol). Tbe few in- 
eommoo wonta or pbnaca are bund in 6tet in tba 
paaagea of our book where tbe peraona iiilmducad 
appear aa tbe ipcakeia. and not in tlia language of 
tha hialwian, and maj be couaidered aa relici of 
Ibe conienatioisal pbtaieoloi;:! of the age of tba 
judgea, which happau to be not dwwhire pra- 
MTiad. Bleek deoidoa In like manner that the laa- 
guage of the bot^ aeltlfa nothing with regard to 
time whao the bode wai wnlten. The f«illar 
origin of the book of Kutb, aa l>e Wette admiM 
EinL iinlat A. Tat. % 194), ia manifest from Ibe 
itire abaenoe of anj npugnance lo inlcmiarriagi 
Btweeo Iba Hebrewi and fonignerL The eitine- 
on of Kutb la not regwdeil aa oSenBi\e or n<]uir- 
ig ao mnoh aa a aingle word or apoloij. II la 
upo^ble on tbit aocaunt Ihat it ahouU bekmg la 
le time of Eira and Neh«uiah,wii(o ao different 
feeling preniled in regard In inch allianoei (aaa 
ir. ix. and I. and Neb. liii. %l S.). The aa 
tbor ia unknown. One of the Jewiah tndiliooa 
' : hut, aa baa been lug 
grated aireadj, I>aind waa eompai^velj unknown 
till alter the death of Samuel. 

With reganl to tbe KnitoH of tbe IMtnj wt ean 
aJj ear witb Bleek [Kitd. a, d,.t A. Tat. p. 3U; 
inot decide whethn the writer found 
I eitaiit wriUta ducumeot or ntarelj 
le tradition preaervcd in tbe tvnWy of 
Daiid which caiiie to bia knowledge. Sulhing in 
the aigniflcanoe of tb^ peraoual liebiew nanira caate 
ij donht on Ibe irulhfulneu of Ibe narratiTa 
Out of aU Ihe uunea ocouiring there only two, 



lutj ba uoideiiul, m- Uw origiuai iuu»* luj tuna 
been obuigHl ifur tlwir deMb. On thii point Na 
Cbiluih uid Nahiu (Amer. ad.). 

llie Dtyect of Uw l>ook but btcn varkiiulj 
Malnl. llwl Uw BuUHir DHrelj Idtendcd to up- 
bold tba autlwcitr oT thi Ininta k« roqult- 
big a broUwr-iii-law to mtny tbt wido* gf * 
dcceutd Ln>thcr (l>«o. ixiviii. 8; DeuU uv. fi ff.} 
U eolinly iiuprulikUei fbr Uie MOiiuplJou of Uiu 
reU^iuuLip appeiin ben only u u jncidnil uf Uie 
b]«(orj, ujd ill vwiitjr boax vu not Uh brotber 
of Ualiluii, tlic biubiDd of Kuth (iv. 10), but oiilv 
> twuoto kiuiiiiui of tbc tuiuilj, tad fail scliuii 
IB liie cote tnu voluiiUr/ wid uot Kquircd by any 
Uunue itatute. To reganl lito the objtct u 
Biwd)' Uisl of tracing tbo geneulogj of Diivldi 
boiil)' i) cerlaJiil} too bmiled ■ vieir. Wemiut Hiid 
the «i|ibuiiliou of Ibe purpOK in tlie (icU Uieru- 
Mlm wliicb tba bbtvrj njalei, uid tha namtur'a 
moiiiliiit iiileiHt ui pnciaitlf Uiese fucla u ahouii 
In Uw tona iiud eukiriii); wbicb ba bu gii-aii to tbe 
hittory. It ii Uie piuui.gaiiulDdvUieocriitic ipirit 
•ihibit«d b) tha wtun in Uw little book, wliicb con- 
fer) upon it it* bigher ioiportMice aiid ahanoteriitic 
unit;, 'lliit aim ami leiiilency appear moat «»>- 
afHCUuiulj iu iL 1 1, 13. Kuth baa ka bar heaUien 
native Uiidj Uie liod of lier uivtfan-bi-biv ii bar 
Uod (i. Ifl). Sbe bu guua tn an uiiknovii people, 
baa taken refti^ under tba wing* of tba (iod of 
Imel. haa looknl to Ilim (or bclp, and baa found 
more lliiii tbe eould aipcct or concave of in being 
peraiilled to liteuine tbe niotber of tba rujil home 
of l>«idd. (See llnveniiclit AiV. in i/oi A. T.U. 
ii. lia.) Tbe tact Ibat Muttliew (U 3-«), who B<tda 
bosever the rnuuea of lliBiiiar and Kaliab, uiul 
Luka (iU. 31-33) iiiaert Uw gaiieiluft)' of Uavid 
■■ ^iran at Uw end of tbe UmIi ia Uia lablei 
at tbegeiioaloKjrot i;britt,iiot onlj' Jios-a that tbe 
book of Kulb Rniwd a peet^iied part of tbe He- 
brow !jcrj|ilurea, but that («<d'» aimigemeiita iu 
widini; a SavbMir for all the mxa oC mankind 
' 1 fiirtb > almiiticant lijrrtuken of Ihia uni- 
alitj In llw. character of Uie iiaviour'a lioa^ 
•aderltrd frmnCenlileiuieatun aa well aa Jeoiih, 
David* >le*geMt fnjiii KnUi i> kuomii to u* onlj tpom 
Uii* liook. 'Ilie book* of Saiuuel are uleiit ou tliia 

aa one of lib auceatora, aa; nothing of iiutti 
(ICbr. ii. 11, 12|. 

Ills illiutrHUoii* of oriental life (Umiibed by 
modem inteUera im|i*rt lo Ihia book a cbareelor 
af viridnea aiHJ reality wbicb dwema aluniion. 
Naoad Mid Kuth arhied U BeUi-leliam Cruiu 
tba latid of Moab "in tba beginning of buriei 
ban-eat " (i. 221. It waa about tbe (int of April 
■iierefore, for the eereal cropt are genenlly ripe In 
the aoulh of rakatina at that Unw. Uetb-lebeni, 
which ilcniAea « buuie of bread " witb reference to 
111 tertilily, U alitt fuuouH luT ita Belda of grain, 
thieh occur e^iecudl}' on the pbtina raatward a* 
nw (pproacbea IroDi the \tiiey of [he Jordan. 
3o!h fiaUl now, ai waa tnio anoieiitlj, an not en- 
^Med bf walla or hedRea, but ae[aisled iiy aingle 
alaiea let up Kere aiid Usere, or bj a fuutpiib onlj ; 
and hence it la laid that it waa "tbe bap" ot lot 
IF Bull) to light upon the part of tba field which 
tloDged to Bou (ii. 8). Notice UiB local pra- 
tiabHi of (he narrator. To reach Uie (^In-fieldi 
tt tbraahing-floor from her hatue iu lietli leheni 
Both "went down" from tba citj (lii.S, 6){ fur 
mil IiJmiiii la 00 bigbei gfouod Uua tbe adjaoaut 


i«gkai, and eapeoiallj on tba aoutli and aait Mt 
U alUHMt pndpitoudj cut off tcom it* aiiTb<«». 
Tba glaoiilug aflo- the reapera (ii- <*, T, 19) wai 
allowtd lo tba poor aiuoog the Uebren (a right 
guarantaad bj an eipraaa Hoaua aUlulej, and it 
atill praotioed io Uw Kaat. l>r. lliomun briac 
in llw Ticinitj of Betb-lebeni at the Ume oC 
barlay-hamal atatei that he b« women and chil- 
dren gkaiung bTIct erctj company of rtapoa 
(lAimi and ittot,i\. tOB). Tbe "parchtd ooni " 
which lloaa gne her at tlxir ruatic repeat waa not 
auch In our aenae of the eiprcatlun, but oonaiMad 
of roHted beads oTgndn. Tfaa mode of prepur- 
itij; Um food we leani fram Uw mctlwda atill em- 
ployed. Mr. 'Iriatnni deaerihea we of them wbteh 
be Btw In lialiiee ixu Lake Jivirh. " A few 
aheana of wheat were loaied on Uw Sec, and t* 
aoon aa the itnw waa eoniuuied the ehMiad beaib 
were dateramly awept from the enibtn on lo a 
ckuk aprsd ou the ground, llw woomd uf tfaa 
party then beat the ran end loiaed theiu Into tfaa 
air until Ibejr were thoroughly arlunoncd, when tba 
wheat waa eaten without hirtlier pieparation. 
. . . The green rera bad become half chamd by tba 
toaaiing, aiid Uiere waa a pleaaaiit mingling id 
uillkv wheat and a freah emit Uiinir u we cbeaed 
Uw jjarobad ooni ■' U^md of Itr-itl, p. 6B0|. Ao- 
i»nlii>g to anotlier nwlhod lonie of tbe beat can, 
with (he atalka atUcbed, an lied hito aniall par- 

I the chaff ii nioatly b 

i Uiui roaated, they art r 

1 and tbe keriieli eaten (' 

Hebrew lemia for com 

e held 


'br, and «'»: 

1 Sam. idl. 17 

Tbe ehomtlt 

dipped llidr mo 

of the Laat (lee : 

r in 1 

Md f 

iu lienrage among the peiqjk 
I BiU Anl«r«l«ywA\.a). At 
Itiith beat out tbe grain of Uw 
>liiehabefaad~gathend(il.l7|. "Itiaaoom- 
alght now," inyi 'lliomaon, "to aee a pool 

lilt wiUi a itick or glinto Uw cnin-aloclia which 
aigleaiied"(il.»Nd<'iM<^''l'.ii.IiilUI- Aalalo 
■a May 31. not far from <Jan. lajs Kobinaon, "w« 
round Ibe lazy iiibaliltatiU itill engnged in trcmlinc 
jut the l*riey haneil, which Uieir Dtishbora had 
Moiplelod long before. Sei-enJ women were beat- 
ing out with a ilick bindfiilt of llw erain which 
Lbey leemed to have glcjuied " {BiU. R<i. 11. 38a). 
In another ReM the next day he asw "200 raspcn 
ind glaonen at work : a few were taking refreah- 
iiwnU and oflired ui lonw of their parebed 
»ni " (HM H^L iii. 394), Tbe winnowing look 
place by night in iccordanoe wilb the agricultural 
lialHia of tlie UuhI at pment: for the heat li^ii(i 
ipprmiie by day the farnirrt iM>id ila power aa 
much aa poaiilile, and tlie wind al» ia apt to ba 
itronger by ntglit than during Uie day. Tla 
Hebrew term (sum) deacribei tbe tbreahing-lloiv 
■aiiinplyaplot of ground in the open air, amootbed 
oir and beaten hard, inch a* the traveller now aeea 
everywbCK il he pauc* through the country, ia 
niigfat awm ilnuige that a rich proprietor, lika 
Uoai. abould be uid to hare ilipt at night in auch 

Doceaiary by the danger of pillage and ttie uutrua* 
wertblnra of tbt. hired labocera. Babinaon, apeak 
ing ot a night apoit in Uw mountaioa of ildmt 

We n» 

kHi in tbt mtdM of Kcnn pnei*rl]> lika tboi 
bT Ox book or KBth (UL *-U): ohare Uou win- 
ancd bwie; anil laid biiuKlr down at night to 
food tbe btap al eon" IBM. Jiei. a. US). -It 
it DM DDUBul for Ibc bwbud, wife, and all tba 
Etmilj to FDcaoip at tbe inideri or thmhing-ISoari, 
BUU tba baimt la otct" (Tbonwm, ii. Bll). 
TIk "nil" in wbkh Knth arritd bomo the "ui 
me— OK of barieji " gino to brr bj Boaa, wai a 

ban oAm aiien it vttd," Hya Tbomaoo, " tar juil 
aoch •rtkc ai that lo which Kuih applied faen" 
(iL bOU). Bariej ia nrdj med for purpoaal of 
fgod in Sjria euxpt bj tba poort and that Kuth 
and Naomi an npKHnlcd aa glad U> anil Uwm- 
■rina of iodi meant of rab*tit«ic* oonipon* with 
tba condlliao of porertj which the narraliire aa- 
oihaa Id tfacm. [Baklki.] The kow in t' 
mpMn at tlw pit (iT. 1-13) ia tbonughlf orie 
t«L It ia bardlj nenawj to laj that the gale 
aaatvn dtlca ia now and baa beoi from time imn; 
morial the plaA of oo»coana vbere the paopie 
eome togfltber In bear Ibe nem, to diacOM pobUe 
a&in, lo traffic, ditpfOM Jiutke, or do an jthint; 
^n tb«t pinaina to Uw coDuuoa wdbn (lj«u. 
dz. 1, txiiT. aO; Deal. itL ISi iiL I9|. 

Some of the wrilen on ibia iiook are mflntioned 
la the article oo Kuth. The loUawinE nia; be 
^d«l: UmUnl, Uiia- iitit *. Zmck dtt 
Bufdu Rmili. in tba Sliditii «. Krilikei, 
ff. Kb-XS. F. Benarj, Dt Hibi-mnm Ua- 
nita,pp.t-70(183b}. C.L.¥.tMif!ti, Lib. RiUh 
em lltir. ia Lai vrrt. prrpthingn ixlrrpr. illaiir. 
(Tnb. 18M). KtU, BiU CammtiUar, UL 857- 
MS, and IranaL in Llaik'i Farr'si' TlitoL IJbrary, 
ftil pp. 4W-4U. Panlne Canel, D"! £*ek der 
Bietiirr ■. JIMA, In Lange'a BUnlmrk, pp. tgg- 
MS (IBSA). C. H. H. Wright, Book if Rvih m 
(catainini! a cHlicallT ivrbed leit to the Chaldee 
Tai^ni of Katfa ukI raluabb notea, tiptanator; 
andpbiMoKialdBae). ChrialopbM- Woniaworth, 
JoKbu, Judgtt, A>U, ID tak //o^r BibU, leiik 
HIroAictimt (nut Kctn, U. pt L pp. IM-ITO 
(186S>. BiibDp Han, two eetmofw on yiromi nad 
Jbd and Bmw aad Bali, b hit CBalempinliiat, 
bk. xL Stanler'a Zcdvea on lie JtaM Oiardi, 

■ttcr tba marEla nada " ipdt" In Ea. ii. S tl 
jBt baa " ttebci " and Ibe mar^ " He." Then 
•n manj opinloni ■• to Ibe rii^Acation of cu 
mmrii ; rbh utboritia mahilainllig that flichi 
an denoted, otben oat*, and olben tja. Ccbdua 
bw thowa that In all pnbahilltj "ipelt" 
bileDded {Hitnb. IL SSK and Ihia i^nlon li 
anrted bj the LXX. and Ibc Tulg. in Ex. Ii. Sil, 
jnd bj Ibe SrriBe feniona. Rfo ia Ibr tba moat 
fat ■ nortbcn plant, and waa pmbabl; not etilti- 
aled In Egj^tfor Paleatina In earij timae, wbcreai 
fdl bu been kag enltinled In the Eaat, wber- It 


la held In high eatln.atioo. Hetodotai (V. SS) 
•ftjl tba Egjpdana " malw bnad frnn Iprtt (hfh 
iXvpiiw), which aonie call m." gee aiao I'linj 
(//. .V. itIU. Si. and Dnacondea (ii. Ill], who 
apeaki of (wo Linda. Tba euMtineU waa enltf- 
Taled in Egjpt; it waa not iqiured hr the haU- 
itortn of the arTenlh pla^c (Ex. L c.), aa it mtf 
not grown up- Thia eereal wai alaO aown m Pal 
(atio* (Ii. L c.), on the mai^na or » beadbuMii " 
of the field! (Vl^^)j it waa naed for mlitBf 
with wheat, barlej, Mc, for mtklnR bread (tla. 
L c). The Anbic, Cliiruimit, '• rpelt," la regarded 
b; Gcaeoliu aa Identical with the Hebrew wold, 
•I and n being InUrchanged and r inaerted. 
t" (Triliean ip<lta) ia grown inaome parii 
of tha aoulb of (iennan^i it dlSen bat alightlj 
from onrooaiDiDn wheat (T. v^gnrt). Tbera am 
three Undi of ep^ namelr, T. ipdln, T. dicoo. 
(rice wbaat), and T. hmmvocul [Bi% 
, ed.] W. II. 

» lee *• paaaaga >1 

fioM: Doammt Sabnolh]. The name ia fcumt la 
the CnglUh Bible nAj twice (Horn. Ii. !»; JamM 
4). It ia pnihat>l]' more hmlliar thnagh Hi 
animnce in the Sanctua of the Te Deom' — 
Hoir, Hotj, HoIt, Lonl God of Sabaoth." It la 
too often conaldeRil lo be a aynoiijm of, or (o bava 
ne connection with Sabbath, and to cipreaa th* 
s of reat. And tbi* not oulj popuhulj, bnt ia 
Bc of our moet claaiic^ wrilera.' Tbui Speoaer, 
itrf (Jwea, canto riii. 3: — 
" Bat theneetirth all aball iMt etnaallT 
With Uha that li ibaOodoraatesthblgtatt 
O thU cnW Sabaoth Ood, inal ■• UuU labaethk 

And Bacon, AdtaactmaU of LtarTdng, Ii. U: — 
ed and Inaplred Diiinltf, the Sabaotb 
and port of all mcn'a labom and peregrinatJoar " 
And Jobnioa, In tbe let edition of whoae 
nrj (ITSG) SabMitb and SahbaA an treated M tha 
■une word. And Waller Scatt, lfinlv>r, I. eh. 11 
(lited.): — "a week. i]« tha apace between twc 
Saliaotha." Bnl thia connection If quite Oclituma 
The two worda an not only sDtlrelj difltrent, bol 

Saliaoth l> the Gmk ronn of tba Hebrew «on 
(leiddlA, ■•amiiea," and occura In the otl-rept*[M 
formula which la tranahted in tbe Authoriied Tv 
■ion of tbe Old Taat bj "lord of hoita," "\mi 
OoAiAkotU." Weareapllo take"ADMa'(irob 
ahlf bi connecUon with the modern eipreaejon tbi 
"heaveiilj' boat") aa Implvlnfl the angek — bn'. 
thia ia aurelj inaccnimta. TieiUth ia In ooiiatMl' 
uae in (he O. T. for the national annj or force of 
fighting-men,' and there can be no doubi that It 
the month and the mind of an ancient Hebrew, Jt. 
hotnh-lMbAdUt waa the leader and commander ot 
tha armiea of tbe nation, who "went Ibttb dtt 
them" (Pk iHr. B|, and ted them lo certain ne- 
lorr ant the worihippm of Baal, (Jhetooili, Mo 
lad), Aabtanith, and other fabe goda. Id lUtt 
Unxi It Irat tttb pteuUar dgnlllcnnce, and betnina 
bttb If enjthlng more than an alurriatlTe title ki 
God. Tbe oame ia not bund In tbe Pntaleoa^ 

• n'HS^. ■aaiaaD.iU.g.lX.l.lB.MCfW 
rim In Baji&'a Oia t oHmm, p. KM. 




sr tbe bmda of Jvahni, Judge*, or RnOi. It W 
freqDOit In tba hotAt of Simud, wct in Kbigi, 
h found twfee onlf in ths Chrontdn, uid not tt 
■n in Enkid: but in tba FUmi, lu Iklkh, Jm- 
aiih, and tin minor Prupbeti It ii of eonttut oo- 
unmnse, and in iiiet li Died *]niMt to Un eieluaian 
If ernj other title. [T8btaotr, Am. ed.] G. 

SA-BAT (Zofdyt Alet. 3>4«t: [AM. 3>- 
^irO /'An«iAa<l- 1- The toni of Sulxtt ue 
■■Dinaalo) imoDg Ihs tone of Solomon') Mmnta 
who KtnniHl with ZonlMbol (1 E4dr. t. S4V 
Then ii no oonctponding name in the lilt* oT 

3- CSagiT-- Bat«li.) Ilia month Sebat (1 
Ibaii. iri. Ii). 

(la3aTaiiii: Alei. 3a$0<iinuati [Aid. ZoiSar- 
rofuO &iUfffAou). SHABiiniiAl (1 Eadi. 1l 
48; oomp. Nth. nil. TJ. 

SAB'ATUS (aaaatoii [Atd.aJB,rri»:l 2"*- 
«t). Zabad (lEwir.U. 28; oomp. f'kT. i-ltT;. 

SAB'BAIT (Xa^ailvnit: fionni). BiNKCI 1 
(1 E*dr. Tiii. fl3j comp. Eo-. *iil. S3). 

SABBATH (n^^, "■ d>T of nM," frvm 
rQ^," to COM to do/' "to rat"). ThieiBtbe 
■bvknu Mid ondoubtad e^mologj. The retetn- 
blun of the word to VXD, " ktod," mbled Im- 
lutiui (ImL Ui. 14} and othin; but It doc* not 
■Bern more than attidentaL BShr (5ymMit, li. 
H3-31) doe* not i^«t the dcrliation ban nSIET, 
but Inee* that to 31ltf, aomewbat naedlevlj and 
bneifullr, u it ■ppean to lu. Plulareb'i aancla- 
Uon of the word tilth the Bacchanalian crj faffai 
ma; o( oodim be dlimiiaed at ones. We bars alao 
(Ec iri. S3, and Ln. ulil. U) ^irDO:', of mora 
bOMM riKDUkaUon thui rDtt); aln raW 
pn3U7, "• Sabbath of Sabbath*" [Ei. iixl. IS, 
ud ebmrlicn). 1)m Dam* SalialA U Ibui ap- 
pUed to dli-en gnat ftatJTab, bat princlpailj and 
uiiuJIy to the Ki«ntb daj of tb« week, the lUiel 
obiernnce of wbleh !• enforced not merelj in the 
general Moaalc code, but in tbs DecaloKoe iteelf. 

The flnt Scriptural notioe of the weelilr Sab- 
balli, thau|;b it 1> not mentioned bj name, li 
found in (ien. II. S, at the oloae of the record < 

b oaDHnu 



u ooDHiiuenU; of UDtverul conoem and obligitii 
We Dmiiot, however, approuh thli qoMtioo till 
bvn eunincd the account of iu enforeement a[ 
tha luaelitM. It la In Ei. >vl. ViSi that we H 
tbs Brat inoontrorertible inttilutlon of the daj, 
OD* f^ivn to, and lo be kept hy, the ciiUdren of Ii- 
larL Sbortlj anerward* It was rei^naetod in " 
Fourth Cora mfudment, which gave " ' 


Ka original lEwUtntloti eoenp ria ed macldnd al hrgt, 

-- roerelj alamped on tnel a rerf marked ba^ 

nationality, It wlD be well to trace sofoewbat el 

I poeitlon and hlito? among the chosen peopls. 

Hanj o( the Rabhii date its flnt inatltuliou ftnn 

e incident « raeorded in Ei. it. 39 ; and bdier* 

at tba "alatute and ordinance" tbs« inai tinned 

being gim bj God to tba cblldrm of larael waa 

tbat of IIm Sabbatb, toftether with the ooniRwnd- 

ment to bonor StXbtr and mother, tbeir previoBt 

law hairing oonilaled onlj of what an cailed the 

' leren prwepta of N«fa." Tbii, bowevs'. Menu 

want fomndation of anj iortT and the statute and 

mdlnanca In qnartion an, we think, suiHcientlj ei- 

plabied hj- tha words of Tcr. 36, ■' If tbou wilt dili- 

genti; hearken," etc We an not on sure gtfmnd 

till we coma to tba unmlitakable institution lo oh. 

•eii. in oonneotloa with Ih* gsthering of manna. 

11m words In this Utter are not in themsilni 

tnongh to indieata whether luch InstituttMi wm tS- 

logrtber a noveltj', or whether It reftrred lo a d»j 

the lanctltf of which was alreadii known lo thee* 

shorn it was ^Tcn. Than is plausllTllitj o^ 

dj bi tha opinion of GroUua, tUal the daj was 

atieadj known, and in sonia measure obaerred aa 

hol7, but that the rule of abetlnenee from work wa* 

Brtt given then, snd thortiy sAerwards more ei- 

plleiO)' imposed In the Kourth Commsndmect. 

llien tt ia dlslincUj set forth, and eilended to lb* 

dIs of an Isrsfllile's household, his son snd bk 

ightfT, his ilsTes, male snd female, his oa and 

an, and the itninger within hia galaa. It 

would seaD that bj this last ma undetstood tba 

itranger who while ttlU UDclrcamdsad ;et mir- 

ihi[qied the true' God; Ibr the mere be*thea 

■trsnger ws* not considered lo be under the law o( 

Uw Sablwth. In the Kourtb Connnandmeot, too, 

iljtution is grounded on the reseated truth 

of the six daja' creation and the Divine net on 

!TBilh; but in the Tsnlon of it which w* 

n Itouleronomj s further raason is added: 

" And ramembar that tbou wast a itrani^ In (ha 

land of Egfpt, and that the Loid tb; God brought 

thee liirth xitta a mii;htir hand snd bj ■ ttretohad- 

ODt srm; Ihesefore the Lord thj God conimaoded 

thee lo kfep Ihe Sabhalh day " (Dout T. 15). 

Penslties snd provisions in other part* of the 

Lwoonitrued Iba abitiiience l^um Islior preseribod 

the commani^ment. It was forhiddeii lo light ■ 

e, a man was stoned for gslhering sticlu, on tha 

Sabbath. At a Uler period n Hnd the Prepbal 

Isaiah uttering loleitin wamingi against prabijog, 

and promising large blessings on tba due obacsw- 

- of Uie dsj (Is Iviil. 13, U). In Jeremlsb'a 

there seems to ban been an habitoal violation 

Ien I of busine 
t [Jer. . 

in oidinarj law, making it one of the signi 
' I such it remained logethei 
wiuj me raaoTCT, uie two fonning tha most sol' 
Man and dUtindit* haturaa of Hebrew i^gloDi 

rf IheO 

CDODg national sina; the reoawed obaemnoa of 
ni asra to uconipao; DsUooal rrtiraiatlon. 
Bsibi*, than, dealing wllb Uia queatkn whatbar 

unUng 1 

involved the carrying burdens 
21-27). His denunciations of 
. leem Is have Jad the Pharisees In their bond- 
Is tha Islter to condemn the impotent man br 
-jiog his bed on Ibe Sabbath hi obedieuce lo 
Christ who had healed him (John v. 10). Ha 
usl not suppose thai our I^rd prescribed a rest 
ilalion of the Law ; sad It requires little thought 
distinguish betneoi such a nstursl snd almost 
necesaarf set ss that wliich He commanded, and 
the canjlng of burdens in connection wiUi busi- 
nna which is denounced bj Jeiemlah. By Eh^M 
(u. ia-94), a passage to which we most abortl) 
return, tha probnaUon of the Sabbath b made fc*» 
nia*t among tha national sini of tlte Jews. Ftob 
Hdiamlah i. 11, w* k«ni (hat Iba paoph mtmi 


M wmit n mil lliii III niinTnr, 

b which the)' pMgtd Uwiucha nalhar (a huj 
HrwQTieta^calfaaSBbbath. The pnetlee iru 
Ihu not infriqiKBt, mud Mebcmith Mb Ul (liiL 
lB-a9) of tb* inee^rful lUp* which be took for lU 

Hatcdbnitrd tbtre b no eridAH* of Uk Safcbuth 
bvoc Mgbctfd b; tba Jen ncept nieb m [1 
Hkc 1. 11-ia, 3»-») went Into open ipotlMj. 
n> bitfaftal lemfiut wen u •erujnboi eoaconinK 
il, M to forbar llgbU^[ fn wlMtftnK oii IhU dky 
(1 Hmc. U. M), uul it m onlj tbe tsribla eonK- 
qBCDCM that gniwd which M UiltUhln and fab 

oUm bj Mub « b*n tutbaritf to do n. Tb 
thb cbM DWj bdong the limilition of ■ ScbbUb- 
dajr'c jonnwj, ■ liniitition not ■h»1utclj at wi- 
dth the hindmmertBl oinon Uul the Sabbath 
Hade for man, nol man for tha Sabbath, al- 
tbODgb It ma; bate piDCMdfd frara mlitaking a 
t<np(iru7 enactment for a permanait one. Man}, 
howeter, <jf lh«e prohibilioni were (hntattle and 
arbitnrj, in tbe numlrer of those " heavy burdeoa 
and grieTDoi to tie home " wbieh the bltr ei> 
pounrien of tha l^w "hud on men'i ahouiilen," 
We ban aeen that the ioipoleat mui'i cairjdrg hb 
bed wu Min^dertd a rioUtion of tbe Sabbath — a 

the Sabbath (I Hue. li. 41 ). 

When wa comt to the S. T. «« And the rooat 
■arhni at« kid on tha Sabbath. In >rb<il*reT 
J it, be bad al- 
On the eootrary, 

[e of hi* nationality. The jaaBiBea o< 
(. ^Mnt, i. ilD; 
Jnaial, 8aL iIt. S«-10S. which indicate tbia. an 
tea wd known to reqaire citation. Oar I.ard' 
■ode of dteerrlDg the Sabbath wat ene of the main 
tatoici of hb lib, whtcb big Phari^c adTOMrla 
■wet ra^iilj witdied and sitlclaed. Thej had 
bj that tine iDinted manj of tfaoia fantaitte pn- 
UUtiona wberebj tbe btter of tba eommtiidnMnt 
—Bid to be booored at the opeDia of II 
^ihit, dignitj, and rahie ; and oar Lord, 
"11 the Uwln Iti n 

Before pranedlng to U)' oT Otu more ci 
i|iM«lhiiii eonnecled with the Sabbath, nth a 
it ita aUtfnd t^e-Hoeiue origin and obaemu 
wQl be well to convdtr and determine what 
He tna kka and puipoae In that Law of wbieb 
b^md doabt It fanned a leading hature, and 
Bnnf that people far whom. If Ibr none elae, we 
hnnr that It wm dadgnad. And we ihall do thb 

». ^J pt 
lig Om inqolrj In the foDaving order: — 

L Bj coniidering, with a riew to their eilmlio- 
ftn, tba Phatbaie and Rabblnkal prohibition. 
Ibeai we bare the highest anthoritj far T^|cetlng, 
H faHonaiitent with the true scope of the Iaw. 

n. Bj taking a anrirej of the gtoenl Sabbatical 
■arlads of Hebrew tinn Tbe wtekl; Sablsth itond 
bi the rcbtini of kef-notc to a acule of Sabbatical 
ebfr e nce . moanting bi the Sabbatical year and 
Oe Ttar of Jnhilio.* It ie hot reaeonaUe to na- 
jaA that thee* can bi eonie degrse Interpret 


8«riptan rtapeoting the Mrentb day, and tba mode 
hi whieb iueh aheerrince wai melntainad 

• that tba PbariMlc 

tha Sabbath of which wi 

M HDan' nat " (Uatt. nitL 2, 8) had 
■fOM. How a grneia] taw b (o be cartled 
■Miadv riata, mutt ofteo be detcnaliied far 

a nisebtbMftea Ihawhob seapasf tteehapMr 
AM Ms WBRit, ' T> staaU kMp my aaMatte," bi Lsr. 
lKLa,MWa<leaUtbaM. la ths iii ai din tbwat ef 

heaKng of the man in the aynagogae with tba 
' ' red band rHatt. lil. 1-13), were alike n- 
garded ae brcaebee of tie Law. Onr Lord'e nfily 
in the formo' case will eoma befbre ui und«- onr 
third bewli in the btter He appeab to tba peaA- 
tiea of the oljectsn, who would any one of tbem 
iBJse hb own ifaeep ODt of tbe pit Into which tbe 
animal had Mleii on the Sabhath-day. From thb 
appeal, we are breed to tofn that neb pnetie* 
would have beat held bwfol at the lime aiid pbn 
In which He spoke. It b remarkahle, bowers, 
(hat we And it prabibited in oUieT traditions, tba 
kw laid down being, that in thb case a man might 
thnw some needful oonrbhraent to tbe animal, but 
must not pull hint out tID the neit day. (Sea 
Hejlin, HUl rf Snbtalh, I. 8, quoting BnitorC) 
Tbb rule poesibly came Into eibtencs In eonea- 
quence of our Lord's a|^«al, and with a rta<r(a 
warding oif tbe neccseary inference from It. 9tll 
more fantastic probibitioni were Isnied. It WM 
DnUwful to catch a Sea on the Sabbath, aieep* 
the bisect wen aetnslly hurling hb assailant, or la 
mount into a tnc, bat a bnnch or twig ebouU 
be broken In tba process. Ihe Samarilana wm 
e^ieeially rigid In matten Ilka thne; and Dod- 
tbetu, who fiinndnl a sect amongst them, went ao 
[ar at to maintain tbe obligation of a man's tw- 
malnlng throuifbaat the Sabbath In the poslun 
wherein he chanced to be at lit commencement-- 
a nik which moat people would find quite destnie. 
Un of lit chancter aa a day of rest When mindi 
were oeenpled with inch viienh^, as ihit hat bees 
welt cstled, there wo obriouily rn limit to tlM 
number of prohlbltkmi wblcb the]' might darb*, 
confuting, at tbey obrionaly did, abstinence fMM 
action of aTB7 eort with nat ftom butiMV and 

That tbb pemnlon of the Sabbath had become 
icry general in our Saiionr't time b apparent both 
fttm tbe recorded ohjections to acti of hit on that 
day, and from fab marked coiidnet on occa^ni la ' 
which those objection! wen mrr to be ni^. That 
b DO reaeon, bowerer, for thinking tbsl tha Phar 

BTBj sort on the sacred day. Tha duty of hoeji- 
taltty was remembend. It was usual ibr the rich 
to give a iitatt on that day; and our I.ard'i atlend- 
anea at >ncb a Itatt, and making It the oocasion «l 
potting farth his rulea fbr the demeanor of guesta, 
and far tha right exercise of botpitality, show that 
tba gathaing of biendt and social n^yioent wen 

JadgBwat In oun of oefleet ol riotstlon of dis law, 

not deemed iiw«itii(«it willi tbg tnw teopt tai 
tfirii of the Suhbotb. It wu (bDught right tlut 
the nmli, thoufih cold, ■bould ba of the beat end 
cboieal, nor niigbt Uie Sabbath be chooen Ibr t. 

Such an the Infennm to vbieh we are brought 
bj our l.or<J'B iroidi aonsmiini;, and nwka on, the 
Mcrrd dij. We bai-e ahradj protiatid againit 
Uie tiDtion which bu been entertained that thej 
WOT IjTncho of the Sablwth it]tei<ded ai birbln- 
ftn oflla aliolition. Unnting for trgumtiil'mlie 
Uiat lucb HbolilJon wag in pnapcct, itiJI our Lord, 
" made ander the Law," would have viulotgd no 
port or it K> lonfc aa It Kai Law. Nor can anj- 
thlng be inferred on the olha aide fnini the Enn- 

ert't lougiui^ (,Iohn v. IS). The pbnie " He 
brobeii the Sabbath," obtioua]; denote* Dot 
Uia charoetfr ol oui Saviour'a act, bat the Jewlih 
eatimats of It He hod broken tin Pbarinie mica 
:B(iecUiH[tbe Sabbath. Slmllarlj hia okh pi 
"l^ prltata pro&ne the Sabbath and are blame- 
kai," cam ontj be underabwd lo ooaert the la 
■MX of certain acta done for ocruin reaaona oi 
daj, which, taken iu themarivet and without 
reaooru, would be pnfiiiatjoni of it 1'hei 
malna onlj hia apjinJ (o the eating of Iba i 
bead by David and bii conipnnloni, which w 
doubt in ita matter a bnach of the Law 
doea not fallow, bowerer, that the act in juitiR- 
ntion of which it U apfcaled to waa auch a 
bxveh. It ia nlhar, we tliinli. an or^mcitt o 
fortiori, to the eflecl. that if ever a poailjve law 
Blight ([ii* place on occMign, much man, might an 
arbilrar; rulelikelhUortheHabbialn thecaiehi 

Flnallj, the dcdaration that " Ibe Son of Uin 
k Lord alao of the Sabbatb," muit not be viewed 
u though our l.ord held Hlmaelf free ftom the 
Law rtopectlng it It ia to lie tolien w connection 
with Ibe pncedinK worJa. " the Sablath waa made 
li>r man," etc., from which It ii an inference, aa ia 
ahown bj the adverb Uitr^One ; and the Son of 
Utui la plainly apoliiiiK of HimaelF aa the Man, the 
Beprceeiitative and Kieniplar of all mankind, and 
teaching ua that the hunjan race la brd of the 
Sabbath, the day being mode for man, not man for 
■be da;. 

ir, then, our Lord, coming lo AiUm and rlghllj 
Interpret the Laat. did thua pnKat agalnat the 
Phaiiaalcal and Kalriiiuical rule* reapecting the Sab- 
bath, wg are aupplinl bj tlila pruteat with a Urge 
D^atlTe (lew of lint orduiancg. Ilw acta eon- 
demnnl b; the Pbariaeca mn not nolalione of it 
Hoe action, aa auch. waa not a liolation of It, and 
hi leaa ma a work of healing and bendcenca. To 
thla we iball bai-e occaaion bf and bjr to return, 
Heanwbile we raual try lo gain a poaillvt view of 
the Initittition, and proceed in hirtberauce of tbia 

10 out awond head. 

U. The Sabbath, a* we have »id, wma the kaj- 
not* to a ocale of S%l>barinil ohanranoe — cor lilt- 
ing of Itodf, the Kveiith nionth, the aevnith year, 
and the year of Jnlilleg. Aa tmb aevetith day 
traa aaertd, ao waa each aertnth month, and each 
jevenlb year. Of the obaervancee of tb* aergnth 
month, little oeeria he aoid. That month opened 
with Uw feart of Tnimpeu. and contained Ibe Day 
gf Alonament and Keaat of Tabernaclea — tbe lut 
Domed being tbe tuoat Jnjfitl of Hebrew hativala. 

11 la not apparant, nor likely, that the whole d 
lb* OMBtb waa to be ebaraatailaad by eaeeatlnn 
Ini hbot) b«t It eoctainly fata a pkoa la tha 


Sabbalieal acale. Iti gmt oentrv waa Uw VeM* 
o( l^beniaclee or IngUbering, the year and lb* 
yeor'a labor having then done their work nA 
yielded their iuuca. In thit but reelect ila anaL 
«g7 to tbe weekly Sabbath ie obvioua. Only ai 
thii part of the Sabbatical cycle do we find any 
ootie* of humiliation. On the Day of Alommenl 
the people were lo afflict their ainila (L<t. nUL 

Tlig nik* for tbe Salibatlcal year an my pn- 
oiae. Aa Ubor wai prohibtt«l on the arveiitli day, 
ao the land waa to nat ern-y eevrnth year. And 
aa each ibrty-ninth year wound up oevrn of aueta 
waeka of year*, aa il either waa itoelf. or It uabtrad 
in, what wat called " the year of Jubilee." 

In Eiodu* iiiil. 10, II, we find tbe Sabbatio*] 
year pbtced in ekiee connection wilb tbe SobbaUh- 
day, and the words in which Uie furriier la p>«- 
Bcribed are aiialogoua to Iboog of Iba Fourth Coin- 
mandment; "Six }«ni* thou obalt aow Iby land 
and gather in the fruit* tbcrCDf; but the aeienth 
year Ibon ahalt let it reet and lie itiUi that tba 
poor of thy people may eat ; and wlut they leai* 
the bneti of the field ahil! a>t." Thii la imiii» 
diataly followed by a renewed proclamation of tbg 
law of the Sabbath, " Sii daja thou ihalt do thy 
work, and on tlie leienth da; thou iholt rtnt: that 
thine o» and thine aaa may mt, ai]d tlieaonofthy 
handmaid, and the ttranger may be rennbed," II 
ia impoaaible to ai'oid perceivuig tliat in tiicae pa^ 
■gea the two inalituliona aie put on the oania 

Their aim, aa here exhibited, ii rniinently a benefi- 
cent one. To eli« riiilita to cbisiee that woald 
othswisa hai« l«m without auch, to Iba bond- 
man and bondmaid, nay, lo Uie beaat of the eeld, 
ia liewtdhftaaa their main end. " llie atnuigar," 
loo, Il comprehended In the beiielit- Alany, w* 
luapect, while leading tlie Fourth Comniandnient, 
merely regard him aa aui;)ecled, logeiher with Ua 
boet and family, to a pmUibition. llut if wa coo- 
aido' how cotituiually 'hr ttr-nii/ir la referred to 
In the aactniaida <^ tha, and that with > 
view to hii protection, the iiiiUncea being oiia^nd* 
Iwenty In number, we iliall ba led lo regard hfa 
Inclusion in the I'ourth Commandnwiit nUiN aa • 
benefit eooferred than a prohibition Impoeed ooi 

Tba same beneficent aim ia atill man agqaraot 
In tha fuller lti(iahition reapcclinR the SabliatloU 
year which wa find in lev. »iv, 8-7, "When y« 
come Into tbe hind which I give you, tbro riuB 
tbe land keep a anbbatb unto the lard. SU }e*i> 
tbou abalt aow thy field, and aii yean tbov abiK 
pnina thy (inrjard, and gather in tbe fruit tbcraof i 
but Id the aarentb ytn aliall be a nl-lalb of to* 
unto tbe land, a sobl'sUi unto the Lordi tboa 
^alt neitber aow Ihy field nor prune thy vlne}Bnl. 
That which groweth of ibi own accord of thy har- 
veat thou sbait not mp. neither gatlier tlie grapei 
of thy Tloe undnaaed: lur It la a year of mt 
unto Uia land. And the aabliatb of the land shall 
ba irieat Ibr you ; Ibr thee, and Ibr thy slave, an^ 
for thy maid, and for thy hired servant,, and Rk th; 
stranger thait sqfounwtb with thee, and for thy 
eatUe and fbr tbe beaals thai ore in thy land. 
ahaJl ail lb* Ineraue thenoT be meat" One gnat 
aim of boUi Inetitutiona, the Salibalh-day and tba 
Sabbatical year, clorly wa* to deliar the Hebrew 
(kom tha thought of aliaoluta ownership oT ony- 

by aefa aaraBth d^ being th* Sohbatb of (b« imt 

kbOodi M* iud wu not bta mm but Uod* (I 
m. nt, ■■ WH ibowq bf Ow SllitaLb oT i 
■amth jatr, daiing whiiji It vu to lure i 
ud >U indiTidiul right oia it ma to be 
fSHM. It «M >]«> to be tbB jam or rel«K ( 
tktit (l>-ut. IV.). We do not ««ii much of 
mj ID vbichf or tfaa eitoit 1o which, the IJolirewi 
ebMnd tbe Satdiatiad jwr. Tbf idaaux to H 
(3 'Jhr. x»tI. 11) ladi lu lo concludp UiKt it hud 
b«o iDiKb neiflcctnl prerkiui to Ose Cuptivity, lut 
■I ma serUiiilf not Icat licbt of ■ftcrwirdi, tiiice 
AkuudM- Uw Gnat kheolied tbe Jcwi fioni paj- 
tag tribute oa it, their rrii|;ioD debarring tlieai 
biHD Bcquiriiig the lueaiu of doing so. £^ADbAT- 

Til* je>r ot Jabike niDit be mgarded u com- 
fktiiig thk Sabbatical waie, whether we coiulder 
k «• mUj tbe fortj-nintb jou-, the leTentta at a 
wnk of 3«U«ti<sl jnn, or tbe fiftiMb. a quotion 
la rtieb •pinini* are divided. [, Vkak 
or.] Ha di&oltj ID the ray of deciding for 
the latter, that the land could hardly bear enough 
•paalaneoudj to buBhib for two jean, nwae dia- 
fasal oC bj nhmx* to liaiab iiini. 30. Adopt- 
!■«, th wifc c t , (bat opiuioii u tbe imm probable, 
■e mot oDo^der each wei^ of SabbMwal jeen to 
ban eubd iu a dsnble Sabbatical pviod. to which, 

cabaf aiBetuieuli npiMtiDg tbe aecond half lA 
mmb pwiod, tbe ytv al jDlwIee. 

ThsM ctiaetnietite bave been alrtadj eonaidcrad 
(n Ihc article Juit refrrrod to, and throw further light 
ca the bcnefieait characta- of the Sabbatical Law. 

III. We Diiut ooneider tbe actual enactmeuli of 
Beri ptui e R^HCtiog tbe eenntfa daj. Howrrrr 

e weeUy Sabbath ie, m we bate Mid, the 
k «r kcj-oota. It aloDe ii procribed in tbe 
■logne, and it alone baa in any ihapa aurrlved 

ildeneea, in conuection 
na (Ei. ivi. ii). Tbe 
nauna oo tbe Sabbath 
ihe or to antbe on that 
1W Fourth Commandment givea aa but 
Halitj, "all manner of work." and, iceiug 

HooifaitlBMnt ot waking lift, and ouuiot Ihoe- 
faea in itnlf be tstwdert u the later Jewa im- 
•KiDed, b7 the prohibition, we are left to leek 
diewbai far the particnlar af^icalion of tbe 
■piiril priudpte. 'lliat general principle In itatUI 
■owner, otniouily embiucea an abatinence Ittini 
WDridly labn' or oeeupatica, end ftooi the ot- 
hnhg MKb OD MTTUiie cr dcpBidentt, or oo th* 
Mwgtr. By him, ae we have Hid, it moat {uob- 
■Uf meant tbt partial proieJyte, who would not 
Im neaead mnoh conudrntiou ^m tbe Hebrewt 
W tbtj ban Wt to Ibenierlvn. aa we iiiuM bfer 
tai tbe BOmetma kwa enacted ibr bie protection. 
Sid ma bHD Iben tOKarded by him u made for 
tW Utatb, DOi tbe Sabbath Ibr man, that ia, had 
Uw pefaiUtioM of the eommandncnt been riewnl 
•i the foiling on of a yoke, not the eoafafrinti ot a 
■Mhge, oeie of tk dmiliivit race would probaUy 
■Ma Ut na "*—*—— to placing euch a etnnger 

le within It. It p>^ 


right! to tba ilaTe, lo tha denoted itni^ar, mm 

lo tliB Ot and tbe aia. 

This beneliccot cbnncler nf Ihe Fourth Cea- 
mandment is very ippaRiit in the rerwon of II 
which we liiid in Ueulcronomy ; " Keep the Sab- 
bath-day lo lancUfy it, aa tbe Lord thy Cod balb 
coniRUuided thee. Sii ibi}9 thou (halt labor and 
lie lexentli day u the Sab- 

11 thy work, Lilt tl 
of tba Lord thy (J 

thy bondman, nor thy lioiKlwoinan, nor thine 

lor thiua an, nor thy itnnger that la within 

thy galea: that thy bondiiian atid Ihj bond- 

tbe land of I'^ypt, and 
that the Lord thy tiod brought thee out thenea 
thnugh a mighty hand and by a itrel«hed-oat 
■tm: thenlbre the [jvd thy God commanded 
Ihea lo keep the Sabbath-day " (Deut. t. 13-15). 
But altbouf(h tbie be lo. and though it be pUa 
that to cooie within tbe icope of tbe coniniand- 
ment was to poeseeg a fnnchiie, to ihare in a ptifl- 
lege, yet does Ihg ordinal proctaniatioD of it ia 
Ewdui place it on a ground which, doaely con- 
nected no doubt with these otbtre, is yet higher and 
mors compreheniii-e. The diviue method of work- 
ing and reit ii thete propoeed to man at tbe model 
alter which he is lo worii and lo net. Time Ihao 
a a perfect whole, ia then well rounileit aod 
whan it ia ihaped Into a week, modeled on 
. days of cnatton aiid their Ibllowuig S^ 
Six days' work and the ecieiitb day's mt 
s the life of DWi lo the metbod of hla Ci» 
In diatribnlii^ bis life Ihua, man may look 
jod aa hia Archet) pe. We need not sop- 
at the Hebrew, eveu In that eariy atage of 
spiritual education, was limited by so grcai a ooa- 
aa that of Uod working and Iben nating, 
iiedlng lest The idea awakened by the 
record of crealiou aod lu- the Fourth Comniand meat 
ia that >A work that has a coniummalion, petfwt 
itself and coming to a psfeet end; and mai/i 
work ia Id be like Ibis, not alniltaa, IndeAiille, and 

an^ but 

Uln hi 

mng aj 

lade is very good: and nian'i woris are In thdt 
measure and degree very good when a lii. dayt' 
bithful lalior has iU iisue in a annitb of rMl 
paUem. It is niuat important to la- 
kt tbe Fourth Couimandment is not 
limiled lo a moe euicinieiit mpectiiig one day, 
but prcMribea tbe due diittibution 5 a weak, 
and enfonts the sit daya' work as much ai tkr 

Thla higher ground of obsemnce was Ut to 
inveat the Sabbath with a theok>glcal characUr, 
great witneM (or faith in a 
penonal and cnating Uod. Hence its lupieniaor 
over all tbe Law, being aomeiimt* taken aa lb* 
npraeiitative ot It all |Neh. \x. U). Tbe Tal- 
mud sayi that "Ihe Sabbath ia in importauee 
equal to the whole Law ; " that •■ b« who dcaa 
the SabLath openly is like him who tiaoa- 
holeLawi" while Malmonidea winds 

I bis 

■ul^t t 


In aQ thli, howcTB', wt hnte hut an aaswtioa 
of the general principle of retting on the Sabbath, 
toi Bust seek sIsewhoB br inlbmiaUoa w to Ik* 

To make thi* eaHifiuimi vm lbs cirar of the hti 
J««, ind tlirir prohibitigni vould fpi Imr lo niidi 
Iha habbatta iocwnpitlUe Kltb Vkklnit lift. Tbt 
Imu ill Ui« GODnumdnMnl ibow pliunlj cnoogh 
th* (ort of «orli which U con tern jiliird. 'Ilwj in 
tSSn iind ilSSbD, (ha fDniiFr denoting urrilt 
mark, uid (be liKer biuimu (tn tinenlul Mi 
•DC. ; MichKlii, Laai ••/ Mi 
PenUtrueh prcKiili ui with bul Ihrre iippliationa 
<i Ifaa ganenl principle, 'l^a lighling a Hn 
in Ml} houH on ttia S>bh>(h wu auictl}' forbid- 
dco (Li. uit. 3). uid ■ man wu a(oned for galh 
Ming iUcki on thtt day |Nuni. t*. 33-36). 'llu 
icinnar pmhibitiou it Ihoughl hy tha Jawi to b< 
c( parpatiul forca ; hul looia ■! Init of tha Rabbi* 
tiBTe bald thai it applin only to hgbtin 

aolinari DumM*. not to duiiii to In C9.._ 

M, Ihal of 

(fa* iiHUi galbfriug Mi 

iiwoi' ana outinru uian we an apt lo iuiagiua 
Tbc Uiird application of Uia geiienJ priudpli 
whkh wa find In Iba I'eiitaltuch «a* the prohllii. 
UoD 1« go out of the camp, tha coninuiid lo crerj 
OM to abide lit hit placa (I'^i. ivl. 39} on (lie Sab- 
balh^ajr. Iliia i* to obiioual]' connected with tbe 
Kattaering tha 
lo regard it ai 

drenniitaiicei of the people in the wlldamau. it 
WH, boweier. afterwarda coiiaidarad b; 
hrairt a permanent law, and applied, in the ai>- 
Mncc of iha camp, ta the dt; In vbieb - - - 
might naida. lo thii wu appended th 
that a ipaca of two thouauid elU on ntr 
■ dtf bekngad (o It, and to go that 
bajond ilie walk wh permitted as " a Sabbalb- 

that carrying goodi for lale, and buying auch, 
•qiwll; profanations of (be day. 

There li no tcrouiid for luppoalng that ts engage 
(he ananiy on the Sabbath wat cnuldend L ' - 
All befbn (be CapUvKjr. On the contrary, there I* 
mucb loree in tha irKumant of Ulcbulb (/^<w 
JTow), It. laUl to ahow tbat it wia not. 
leaeooe m a* ibllowi: — 

1. TU prohibited 1 .ZV, aertnce.doca aat 
■iggaat the tbooiibt of war. 

8, 'rba Biemlei of the cboaan paopla <*o<ild bHra 
acntinually ulccted (he aabbath aa a day of attack. 

8. We read of long-pn>tncled •!*«, It 
Rabl>ab(3 Sam. il, iii,),and tbil of Jeriual 
Ibe rdgn of /edekiab, wbteb latter liat«d ■ 

tod a half, duTing wbid) the enemy would ear- 
tainly hare taken i^v-antaga of any ntch abatinenc 
bum warfare on tha part of tha cboaen people. 

At a lubaRiaeiit period wa know (1 Maco. I 
34-88) that t)ie acniple eiiitad aiid waa acted 
with moat calaniKoiii aBecta. Thoie aBkcU led 
(1 Uaco. ii. 41 ) to detcnnining that action In «lf- 
ddenae waa UwTuI on Iha Sabbath, iniUatoy at- 
laA not. llie mervaUon waa, il moat be tbooght, 

by I'om. 

pey <.Ioaeph. AnL iIt. *j, ai well at in tha Una) one 
by Titua, tha Uomani look advantage of II, and, 
ing from attack, proaeeolad on tb* Rabbalh, 
: DH>laB(allon from tbe enemj, nidi weak) ai 
enabkd them to renew Ibe atnull witb Ineraeetg 

if alairt or of hind aerranli, i 
aa on tbe part of Diaaten, wai 
tbe Sabbath, and the day wan a eonvnon ngnt lo 
eel and ha rafreehad. poaaeaaed by all cktew in 
be Hebrew community. It waa thni, aa wa ha*e 
irged, a benellceiit inatltution." Aa a sign between 
(iod and hia chceen people, It wat slao a maoitor 
if failb, keeping up a oonatant witoeta, oo tbe 
;roand talieii in <ien, II. 3, and bi the Fourth Con- 

B Id tUa light the )<abl»(h fau ttmnd a tbiaf 
la aae wbo >Dnld not, *■ tuppoaa, hiTt patd It mi 
■«M IB Hi Ibaeloilcal cbaiBtMai «• aaaa no 


Dearly ae gi^ a miaeoncqidon ol Iba h 
a* the oremlad aerupla. (.'artabJj wamr 

nothing to do witb the tertila labor or tha «■ 

boaineaa oontemplated in the Foortb C 

ment, and it, at regarda re 

Itaeir. Yattbeieniple,liliemanyatheTterapke, 
lived a conifliience, and under tbe Koman Fjb 
T the .lewi prucund atemptioo Irnn mibtarj 

wrvice by mtnnt of IL It waa m ' 


i Ood 

itihipped, and tor tbe truth, in op- 
podtion to all Ibe enamogonica of tbe faeatben. thai 
everything vat crated by Him. 

We mutt now quit (be nagatlra (iir the pcdtlie 
tide of (he initltution. 

In tbe But place, wa laain ihim tbe Pantateoeh 
(bat tha montlng and eiening MorlAce were both 
doulikd on the Sabbath-day, and that tbe freeb 
tbew-bnod wat tbm baked, and tubatitutad on tbc 
Table Ibr tbat of the preriout week. And tbh a 
oiwe teadi to tha obearratlon tbat tbe negath* 
ruhe, pnacribing work, lighting of firea, etc., did 
not apply to the rllaa of rdlglon. It became ■ 
d!ic<Hn (hat Mn-e wni m> SnMnM m Ixilji thingt. 
To thia our Sai^our appealawfaen He taye that the 
pritalt In tbe Temple profane tbe Sebbaib ami an 

Neit, It b clear that Individual oflMngt wira 
not breaehn of the Sabbath; and ftum tbit doubt- 
loB came tbe feiuti of the rich on tbat day, artiieh 
vroe aanctioned. ai we have aeea, by our SaYteor'a 
attendance on one tueh. It wat, we may be prMtj 
sure, a fisit on a McriHce, and (hereiore a rejlgiom 
act. All around the glrer, tbe poor as wdl aa 
othera, were admitted to it. Vat further. In " caata 
of illneaa. and In any, even tbe temoteat danger," 
tbe prohibilioni of worii ware not bdd to app^. 
'Hie general prindple wu that •• (be Sabbath it d» 
llvertd into your hand, not you into the band «f 
the Sabbath " loomp. Mark U. 9T. 98). 

We hate no gtoimi for luppcauig tbat anylhbig 
like tbe didaclie inttitutiona of tbe tynggogM 
fbrmad part of the origbial ohaertenee of the 3a>>- 
batb. Such Inatltiitiont dn not eon» into bdnf 
while tbe matter to which (hay rdata li Itaalf onlf 
In proceia of fbrmatlon. EipoondlnK tbe \jm 
preenmea the eomplalad eilttence of tbe Law, eaa 
the remotal oT Iba living tawgltar. Tbe iinttJw 
of tbe Tahnnd that « Hoaai Ofdrine'l to tU iMaal- 

. ptnea Ibaa M. PieodbeB (A !• OUNrai 



«ilMtl«T<h3iilil niidtheUwanth«9*btaUi- 
bjm, ll* (fhU, aDd the nnr inooni," In Itwlf im- 
(foliiiUe, H Bturij iiDnp|iorted b; tba HbiU- 
iMii^ 11m riiB of nieb cdMoid In nftcr (ioMi !• 
of^aiitB tnoa£h. [Stuagooue.] But Iram w) 
■tlj prrici, if Dot, « b moat probihk, from the 
*a7 ImtitaUoo, oscapation iritli bolj thriiH ni 
n^rdcd ■■ an oMnlul pnt oT tba ' 
tba Sabbath. It would iMU to I 

daj, iDoi 

« (S K. It. 33). L'ntain Pnlmi too, (. g. 

impond for tha Sabbath, and 
pulablr OMd in prlnU aa wrU aa Id tl« Taba- 
■■da. At a'klcr ptriod wa ooma upon pnopU 
IM oa tlw Sabbitb the mind shonM h« npUfltd 
toUitb and hoi; tb«n>«* — In Uod, bla dunetfr, 
Ui R*«latiiin of HimwIC hia might; «oi 
SliO tlv thoajchU with which the daj waa 
virivd auu arv thoogfata, not of natrielion, 
«f ftcedom and of joj. Socb indnd would wnn, 
fta Nth. Tiit 9-lS. to hita bean eaaatial to Ib« 
notion of ft liclj da;. Wo ha*a mora than onoa 
poiatorl out thu plsaora, aa aueh, waa naTcr ml- 
ndRol bj tba Jcwa a bnaeh of tb« Sabbath; and 
ttrir practice In tfaia napcct la oAcd uiliiiadTVrtal 
<■ b; the earijr Cbriitian Fithcn, who taont (hem 
with abatalniai; on that da; ntil; from whtt 
nod and naeful, bnt indulging in dandng and 
Miar;' Some of the heathen, indeed, aoch aa 
TMtu. Imagined that the Sabbath waa kept bj 
Ibam aa a faM, a mialalie whicb mli^ht bate itiaen 
trnm tbair abatiiienM from cooker; on that da;, 
and parlup*. aa Heilin CDnJeeiiina, tram thrii 
' ' ' ninla till the nwre aulemn 
I of EeJifrion bad been perfonned- But 
Wwt* sn he no doubt that it waa kept aa a feaat, 
Mid tba phraae /mu SaUntnrna, which we And 
b Sidonim ApoUinaria (). i], and whlcb baa heoi 
Ihoogbt ft prmerbial one, illuatratn tbe mode In 
vbfeta the; a ak hratoJ It in the eari; eentuitaa 
af oar er^ The foUowlnjE la Auj^tine'a deacrip- 
tioa of their ptactice; •' Kss bodiernoa dice Sab- 
hali eat: bone in pnamti tempora olio quodam 
aofponliltr latiKoido tt Ruio et biiuriaM rrlrhmil 
Jedid. Vacant tnltn ad nilgai, rt cum Deu> prs- 
ecfiarit Sabbatum, Uli In Hia que IMd prohltiet 
«w«nt SabUtnm. Vacatio noatia a malia operi. 
bna, taoatio lUonnD a bonla opetilnte cat Meliui 
aM «nim anra qmani ultaK. fill ab opete bom 
vacaat, ab open nngatorio non neant" (Auk. 
ifnorr. Hi PtalmBi, Pa. ici.i an^ too, Aug f>i 
dtam durdk, HI, 1: OuTaoat. //«■>[. I., D, 
l^iadTO ; and other r efe mwea given b; Binghun, 
£kL am. Uh. a. Of. 11.). And If wa take wbal 
•koa )a in tha Law, wa ahaU find nothing 
ooaatid abaolnldj obU^ory but raat, c«i 
ftnifa bibcr. Now, at we him mora tbar 
bad oceadbn to obacTTB, nat. eaaatlon from labor, 

odU betht 
poae of the Sabha(h 
vUsfa would ahnja demand to be derontl; 
ritead and MelHgentl; aniwered — what b tnil; 
nM, what b that etaaatkn from labor «bk:b ia 
Mil; SabhatloU? And it <a plain that, in 
iMaatha and In detaO. the am ' " 
akaal biddbillfl; Tar; whh i 


n ordinance, wba>t; neither atnan't 
propert; conM be conddertd ab»- 
lutel; hia own, the aeventh of tftcb week bein^ 
bol; to God, and doliatad to rot after the patlera 
of God'i reet, and gii-tng equal rlgbta to all. Wt 
' ,Te aleo wen thai Ihia proriuon waa the tonic to 
ehord of SabbaUeal obau i luice, through wblch 
e aame great prindplea of (iod'a ctiim and ao- 
ciet;'t, on mr; man'a tlon and crer; man'a prap- 
(ft;, wen nWndcd and derdoped. Of tbe Sab- 
batical jttr, indeed, and of the ;ear of Juliilaa, 

penlalentlj obten-ed. the oiil; tndlcationa Uiat we 
poaacaa oT HcbKW practke leipccting iheui being 
the nemptton ftvm tribute durins Un IbmHr aA- 
eorded to ttw Jen b; Aierander, to which wa ban 

'read; refenW, and one or two othera, all, how- 

rer, after tbe OpUvltj. [Sab 


But no doubt eilala i 


n thli moat 
a Tarylng cii- 

W< hare hithtito rlewad the Sabbath merelj aa 
Uoaaie cwdinance. It remalni to a*k wbetlMr. 
at, then be IndicatloDa of ita harliig been pra- 
nooal; known and obaerrad : and, aeeondl;, whether 
hare an uidttraal icope and autboiit; oier al 

Tht loTOO' of tbeea quaationa la uanaO; ap- 
oacbed with a ibeling of Ita being amaeotad wttb 
e latter, and perhapa thenfore with a blaa In 
bTor of the ttew whlcb tha queitioner think* will 
anpport hia opinion on the UtUr. It (eema, bow 
that we may dlamlaa any anxiety aa Ut 
we nia; trrlm al concerning it. No 
doubt. If wa te* atrong reaaon lor thinking that tha 
Sabbath had a pm-Moa«o eilalenoe, we aea aOD» 

and ecope. But It might have had aueh withoni 
having aa luiivenaJ autboritj, unltaa we are paa- 
pared to aaeribe that to (he pnhlbiljon of eating 
blood or Ihinga atrangled- And again, it might 
have originated bi the Law of Moaea, and jet 
poaataa an unlietially human acope, ftiid an an- 
tlwrit; over all men and through all tima. Whlcb- 
evTT way, therefore, the eecoml of our quealbna 
la to be determined, we may caally approach tkt 

The Arat and chief aigiintent of Ihoaa who 

maintain that tba Hnlibath waa known beftan 
Moaea, la tbe refrrence to It In On. IL 3, 3. Tbia 
repreeent it aa coenl with man, 


luted a 

IJgbtfoot viewi the nuUter, immediately upon the 
Fall Thla lallar opbilon la ao eiitltd; willwut 
rational gronnd of an; kind that we ma; dianilaa 
it at once. But the whole iTEDmstit ia my pn- 
oirtoua. We hare no materiala for aacertaiijing or 
bleb waa put fiwth Ant, the 
m, or tbe Fourth Comma-id 
RKiiL It the latter, then tha rcAnnce to Ik 
Sabbath hi tbe former 1> abundantly natural. Had, 
Indeed, the Hdinw tongue the variat; of preterit* 
leniea of the Greek, the word* in (jenenia might 
require eanful conaldrratlon In that regard ; but aa 
the oaae la, no light can he had from grammar; 
and on tbe auppo^tioo of tbeaa being written aftar 
tbe Fourth Commandment, their abeenoe. or that 
of an; aqulnleot to them, wonld b« reaQ; nw> 

IV not IndieatioD ot a pn Kovio Sabbatk ha 


keen tbund In Gm. It. 3, when wa md Uiit " h 
pvcen or time it ame to pan Ifaat Cidn broogbt 
jf (bo fhiit of (fa« gramtd ui oBMng unto tha 
[«riJ." The wonJi rendcitd in p-ocm «/■ (in* 
B«n Klentlj " »l the md of daj«," «nd It I* eon- 
Icnded that tbtj df*i^it« a filed period of dayi. 

h, the ■> 

T Sih- 

Mlh-daj. Aiidn, the dlTiaion of 
•eema rtrognlmd Id Jkcob') couH«hlp of Raelie) 
(Gen. nil. 37, !$). Indeed Ihe targe iwogiiition 
of that diTiaion fnm the earlieat tinia ii coniidered 
> pRMf that it moat bare bad an otitfin ahore 
told Independent of local and ardilcnbU clrcum- 
atancta, uid been Impoaed on man at the beginning 
from above. It* arbilrar)' and fictitioui character 
b appealed to In fonher contmiation of thl». The 
Hcminev of the aerenth da^ among the Egj'ptiaiis, 
aa reoorded hj HvtxiotuB, and the wril-lihoirri 
worda of llealod rta|>ecting it, haie long been dted 
Mnong those who adopt tbh Tien, Ihougb nnther 
of Uiem In nalit; giita il the iligbleM mppoit, 
I«llj, the opening of tlie Fourth t'ommandnirnt, 
' -le Sahbath-daj, Ii 

which tc 

T. 8 den. 

t daj- 

a ftied dl 

■r that 

lyaort. Thne inUen. iiii.obTioullfda, 
but cbtt; qi no fDriber tbnii proring that the wcch 
w*i known and recDgi]iud hy .lacob aiid Laban^ 
though It ntiit b« admitted tliat. in the rase of time 
K> divided, nered lita wonld prol«l.lj be celtbniled 
BO a filed and itatcdlj mnirring daj-. The argn- 
nent fh>m the pnralencie of the irtelUf diviumi o! 
dm* would nqoin a greater approach to unirer- 
■alit; In luch praetiee than the htU eihihit, to 
nake It ■ cogent one. That diviaion woa unknoini 
to the aneient (incki and Honana, being adopted 
hj Ihe Utter people IVnm Ihe Egyptiani. ■• ninat 
he inlened fhim the well-hiioirn paaaagt of l>ioii 
Caalu (iiiTii. IB, 101. at a period in hit own 
lime compantirelj rweiit; while of the Rg}ptiina 
tbemaelrea It ii thought iinproliable thai tliejr were 
acquainted with auh diviaiun in earlj lima. The 
vcredrieeeorihc eerenth day mentioned bj Ke^od, 
Ii obrioualj that of Ihe aeienth daj, not of the 
week, hot of the month. And etm after the 
weekl; dlriaion waa etubllabed, no trace can be 
found of anjtblng rewDihllnpt the Hebrew Sab- 

While the Injonetlon In the Fourth rommand- 
nent lo rtmrmirr Ihe Sabbalh-da]' may reftr only 
to ita pnrioni hiitltutlDn In connevlion with Ihe 
gathering of manna, or mav be hnt the natural 
precept to *r(p ia mind the nile aliont to be de- 
,1wred — a phraae natnral and continually recur- 
ring In the intercouiao of life, aa, fin eianiple, he- 
Iween parent and ehild — on the other hand, Ihe 
perpleiitj of Ihe Imelilea mpecling the donbie 
inpply of manna on the aiith day (Ki. iri. 7i] 
lewta na to Infer that Ike Sabbath Ibr which auch 
eitn auppty wai deiigned waa not then known Ic 
them. Horeortr tb« language of Eiehiel (n,; 
aeema to deaignate It aa an ordinance dliilincllTely 
Hebrew and Moa^c 

We mnnot Ifaen, ttoa tbe uncertain notlcea 
■hioh we p«a», Infer mote than Ibat the weekly 
Uriaion rf time waa known to the liraelilea a ' 
NbanbefbntbeLjiworHani. {Wkek.] Th< 
h prohthility, though not more, in the oplnlan 
'hmUm. that tbe aetenlb daj waa deemed awsnJ 


j btit II 

t Iba 

obeernuice of it. the cesealkm fton bbor, wh 
•nperlnduced on it in the wildemeaa. 

■*■ t to come to our eeeond qneallon. It bj n> 
I Ibllawa, that even If tbe Sahhalh wen M 
oldrt than Moeea, ila (Cope and obllgaUon are llm- 
Ked lo Imel, and tbat Itadt belong* only lo Uw 
ibiolele enieimento of the Uritical Law Thai 
kw eont^na two elementa. the code of a particulat 
nation, and oomB^ndnienlB flf human and >inl- 
terol character. For it moil not be Ibrgolica 
tbat tbe Hebrew wu called out from the world, 
it to live on a narrower bnt a hr wider fboting 
lan the chiMren of eartbi that he waa called ffrt 
I he the trtiB man, bearing wilneaa for Ihe deatlnj, 
ihlhltiiig the aapeet, and Raliiiing the hleaaedneajL 
' true manhood. Hence, wa can atwayi aee, « 
e have a mind, the difftrence between auch ftat- 
m of big Law aa ate bvit local ind teniporerj, 
and auch aa are human and unlvenal. To which 
^lasa bckingi the Sabbath, viewed timply in ilaeIC 

)ne which does not appor hard to settle. Hean- 
ihlle, we mntt inqnir* into the cmo aa eihiutcd 
>j Scriptura. 

And hero wo are at once conftnnled with tbt 
act that the command lo keep Ihe Sablath fbiaw 
»rt of the [lecalogoe. And Ibat tbe Decsl^m 
lad a rank and anthorlty shore Ihe other enact- 
menia of the Iji*. i) plain to the n>oat tontrj 
rewlen of Hie Uhl Teataincht, and la indicated 1^ 
being written on the two Tahlea of tbe Cow- 
it. And though even the Decalogue la nfteltd 
by the New TeaUmenl, it la not ao In the way 
peal or obliteration. II 1) niti, Iniw- 
Aguml, gkiriiied then, bnt itself remain* In Us 
ilhority and supreniaey. Kot to refer Just now 
our Saviour-a leaching (Matt, lii. 17-19), of 
which it might be aUeged that it waa delivered 
len, and lo the penona over whom, Ihe OM Law 
la in force — aoch panagn aa Hom. illl. 8, 9, 
d Eph. li. S, 3, eeeni decitive of thli. In tome 
way, tberelbre, Ihe Fourth Conniaiidment hM an 
aulhorilj over, and is to be obeyed by, Christians. 
IhouEh whether in Ihe letter, or In wme large 
apiritual sense and scope, b a question whidi sUQ 

e phenomena respecting the Sabbath pr«- 
I by tbe New Testuueiit are, let, the fKqseol 
nc« to it In the fonr gospels; and Sdly. Ite 
silenr* of the epialira, with the oception sT oo* 
'aee (Cd. li. 16, 17), where lis repeal wonU 
em to ha Uartted, and perhapa one other (Heb. 

1st. The references to it in the four gospels u^ 
needs not be snid, nnnierous enongb, nr ha** 
ahvady seen the high posilion which II look in Ik* 
minda of the Rahbis, and the atmnge code of pr»i 
bibitiona which they pnt (brth in conueelion with 
it. The consequence of this wu, that no part of 
our Saviour'a teaching and practice would aeem !• 
have been so eagerly and narrowly watched as Ihst 
whkh relaird lo Ihe Sabbalh. He seems even tc 
hare directed attention to Ibis, thereby Inliuiating 
Burdy that on the one hand the miispprrhtnrioii. 
and on Ihe other IT ' ...... 

aheady aeen Uie 
boih hla teacbini 

leepett concern. We 

id of prohibitii 

B against which 

f Um eon 

•( gnat, m atuit •oppoH Uut owcnut tn 
itiucd thh sf wmcUiiBg tbit wu nude [(ir 
MmttUnK Ihmt oooduon to bb wcUbeiuK. 
hlUr ■OBiMiiOr oolti Ui< S^buh bj ttfa 
k, ana ■* do tb* neoni or emuloa md the 
t, to G«d M iti aichftypa; 
. n of Ciod doM 
iiKb u God open* hii 
J thjngi Liring vifcb plen- 
■a Uh nu oT tbe S^bith 
I, whiBh miilil be biit 
iiilh, bill inlj thir irrr^ ilijnrti-ii whicb nquim 

pKttvn of bit, wb«, Uwngb li« hu mtad (hini 
*U tha wutfc OM Ua talh pud*, jgt " •ockctfa 

•direct of the SabbaUi. No nk> for iu ot«rT 
MM* are nv s>na bj Um Ap«U«i — iu nobuioi 
ta M>« doMiiBMd bj Ibnn. S*bh*lh-bn>km 
an netr indndcd id U17 Hit of od^uden. C 
H. U, 17, ntn* a hr itiaagK aiKunwiiC for t 
■faolilioa af tla Sabb*Ui iu tbe Chriatuii diipaii 
tfaB Ihaa ii Amiib«4 b; llab. iv. B far Ua 00 
ttasanaa; awl while (Ita Gnl dij of (be wkIi i> 
■an duB anee nAtred to aa ooa of tWigiou 
oillfiad wiUi the SabUUi, 

■or an ur. 
Ik iimur, wbile tbe omiauan of ibe Sabbatb froai 
(be liaC of *■ nmaiaarj tUug) " b> be obacmd i 
tba Goit^ (Aola a. 96) ibon that Utaj n 
Hfpnied bf tba j* ["-''«■ *• Ine froia obligatioii 

Wbeo wa (oni to tha i 
po**N> of the aail} Ctaunb, 
th* ahale earned in Iba - 
wmtb dnj of tbe nek b 

- ■ ■ g lapt « 

of tbe Church, and aa a Eut fna 

br tbat of Ra^e. aad dm or tm 

*f tin W<at; but not aa oUijalor; on Cbi 

ta tba HiB* nr aa on Java. 'Ilia Couiiail < 

Uodim pcphiUIfld all acruple about mrliing i 

K; and tlwn waa ■ tsj Reneral admiiaion amor 

(hi aarij Fatbn that CbrUtiana did nal Saib, 

A«ain, tba obaemiie* of tbe Lord'a Daj aa * 
Sabbatb wraM hwe beni nILnigb impoeubie lo 
(ha n^orttj of Cbriatiana in the Snt age*. Tlie 
Am of Uw bntbao muter, and (be child nt the 
hnatlMn ftiber, eonld ndtbtr of them bar* tbe 
•aotnl of hii own aHwInet in aneh a DUtter; wbile 
lb* Ciirialian in ;cnetal would bar* been at on*e 
batm^ad and ir^ifed into nMioe if ba wu Ibund 
abate- nlnf Aon labor of n; kind, not on tbe 
«nn(h Ut tbe Int da; of th* week. And yH. 
K b ainr that man; mrt enabled witlHut bivue 
• karp tbnr CfariiUwiil; liHig a ttatl ; nor doe* 
Siafa aeeiB la hm been any obligation to diiful]{e 
t, nntil hcntlMD intamx^ion or tbe order (o 
mtntm iwRed it into dayllgbt. 

Wbin Iha miij Fatben ipeak of t^ Lord'a 
I»J, IbB; aornattDiaa, perhajj*, bj eomparing, oon- 
«Ht U with the Sabbatb; but we have M"-er found 
I jmiMP> pnwiona to Iha conreriion n[ JoiiaUn- 
tah WcUbUurj at mj wnfc 


', and anf auob, d 


great tueuure nugatory, for Ilia re 
JDit aUi^. [I jiHii'a Day.] ARa Coa 
Ibingi boeonH djflereiit at oneo. Kia oeleljrBtad 
edict prohibitory of judicial pncatdinga on lb* 
Ijird'i Day wu probably dictAted by a viib to 
give tbe gnat Cbriitian leitiiid u much honor i« 
wu eqinjfd by ttauae cf the heathen, nktber thai 
by any Rfcrence to the Sabbath or the Founb 
(Jommandmant: but it wu follawed by aerenil 
which attended the probiiritJon to many other oe- 
cupatjooi, and to many farm of pleuur* held 
innoflent an ordinary day*. Wbeu thla became th* 
sau, the Cbriitian Church, wfaleh ever betiered the 

, e«dd not bat ltd that (he wu enabled to 
keep the Fourth CamiBandnaal in iti letter u well 
a* It* iplrit: that aba had lot Icat tbe type e*eii 
ia poMceting the antltyp*; (hat the gnat Uw of 
week-day work and aeienthHlBy mat, a law ** 
genenniii and lO ennobling to bumanltj at large, 
wu alUI in openOioa. Trua, the naaie 3*bbatb 
wu alway* u*ed In denote the teventh, u (hat 
of tbe l.ord'i Day to denola tha lint, day of tba 
week, which latter ii nowhere habitually called tb* 
Sabbath, to far u we are awair, except in Scotlutd 
and by the Kiv^liih Puritani. But it wu auHy 
iinpoaibls to atjaFn« both the Ijmj't flay, u wai 
done by CbriatJan* after Conalantine, and to read 
the Fourth Couimandment. witbont eonnectiag tbe 
tan; and, leniiE (hat >ueh wu ta be tbe practio* 
of the denluped Church, we can anderataiid bow 
(he lilenea of tbe N. T. epiiUet, and ei'en tba 
■tronjc wordi of St. Paul (CaS. ii. IS, 171, do not 
impair the bumao and univeraal leupe of tba 
Fourth Coninundment, eabibiled h atroni^y in (ba 
mry na(ure ol the Law, and ui tba teaching r«- 
ipecting it of Him who came not to deatroy th* 
U«, bat to hUn. 

In (he Ea^ indeed, where (be levantb day of 
the wadi wu hmg kept u a fcitinl. that would 
pnaent itaelf to nwn'i mioda u tha S.-d>l>ith, and 
(be fint day of tbe week would appear rather in 
iti diatiiietively Chrittian chaneter, and aa of 
mpsitolieiJ and eocleaiutieal origin, than in eon- 

meniy Chriatian, nanujy, in 
IT Lord'i lying in the lepul 
throuabout that day. It* ohiervance tberefor* 
Id not olncure (Ue aipHt of the l.ord'i Day u 
of hefadonudii rtat and refrtahment, and •■ 
ooniequenlly the prulongation of tba 9*hh4tb in 
''le caientia] character of (bat Inn i^ant ordinance; 
id, with tome variation, tbarefrre. of nrbal (lata 
ent, a conneetion between tbe Fourth Command- 
rot ud the Int day of Uw week (toge(her. ai 
lould be remembered, wi(h the other featlvala- 
tbe (!hurcb1, eame to be imoeired and nro- 

n by. 

I* Kami 

[{({yptjan week tdmnit conteniporaiieouidy with (bi 
'ing of (in Chriatian Church. L>ion C^aiaiiii 
I of that adopUon u recent, and we an 
(herefbre warranted in aoiijecluring tbe time of 
Hadrian u about (hat whenin it nioet bare eatab 
liahed llKlf. Here, then, would aNtn a aignil 
Piwidentlal pttpiustion lor providing tbe peopli 
of Uod mth a literal Sahbatiiniua ; for prolonging 
in (lie ChriilJan kingdom (bat great IniUtathn 

■Uob, wfaathtr or not hiitoriaUj Mac thin the 
tloMlc lAU, b j«t In Iti MUtUl ohunotiT adtpUd 
to *ll ownkind, > wlloaa for ■ penonid Crwlor 
■nd Siutainir of Uh uninne, »nd for hit call to 

ilreulj rebmd to (Elsb. !t. 8-10), wa ihould find 
lA lingularij. iUiiitr&tive of tlio view juAt ftiiggeat«d. 
Tha irguniint of the puaaga il to tfaii eflect, thU 

Bnil not, iniumuch u ths Pnlmlit long iftf 
mrdi ipokka of the oiiUring into Uut mt « iliU 
futurp uid ooatingtnt. In Ttr. 9 we have the 

people of God." Nov It li Importut Uut IhiDUgh- 
out tbe paiaage the iiord iur mt ii narivaurn, 
end Uut lu tbe irardi Juet quoted It ii ebenged 
Into aa$0aTurf^i, wbioh cert^lj meani the 
keeping of net, tbe ul of vbbatizing rather than 
the ot^sctix reit itaeir. It bu acmnlingi)' been 
Ulggeetad Uut thoee woida ue not the author'i 
eoncliuion — wbicb li lo be found In the fbnu of 
thatii In the decbmtion " we which ban beliend 
do eater Into rat" — but a panntheaii to the 
eflect that " to (he people of God," the Chrutiui 
eommonitj, there nmainelli, tttri it U/t, a mb- 
talaSng, the grent ch«of{e that bet pnieed upon 
Umud and tbe mightj elenlion to which thej heie 
been brought m on other nutlera, u at legarda tlie 
net of God revnied lo them, idll * luvijig Hope 
Ibr aiid juetiffinfi the pfactjce,« lliii eipoeition 
ii In kH^ni; with tbe genera] KOpe of tbe Epiille 
lo the Hebnwi; and the pHiage Ihui liewed will 
Mem 1« KKne tnlndt analogoua to liii. 10. It ii 
giien b]i Owen, and It ebbonled wilb gnat In- 
genuity by Dr. Wirdbw in hia Ditaauyiti w lit 
SaUali. It will not be felt htal to it that iDOie 
than 300 ynn ihoiild bxve paiaed befon the 
Church at large wae in a litUHtion to diecover the 
beritaee that bad lieto piwrved to ber, or to 
ti eiiJayment, when we eoniiider bow de- 
in a' 

it needa be the law of any living lx>dj, 
luch more of one which bad to ttjuggle 
a birth with tbe impaling forvea of a hti 

In >i 

!> ChunI 

Ihenfora the mij;ht well have 
•tantine before the could full; open ber tja lo 
tbe bd Uut aabbaUiing wai Mill left to her; 
and her manbeia mii^t well be permitted not to 
an Ihs truth in any eleadj or conaialent way erni 

The otfteotione, bowerer, lo (bi> eipodtlon are 
many and (^eat, one being, that it baa oocurred 

labored on the Epiatie to the Hebrewi. CbtytotUaa 
('<■ iK.) denies that there la any reference to heh- 
loniadal aabbiitiiinfi. Nor have we found any 
[BniTiientaton, beaides the two juat named, who 

dC Khmitl. Dean AUbrd noticea the Interpretation 
Inly to condemn it, while Dr. Henej Rirce another, 
and that the tuoal eiphmation of the rene, luji- 
(otinB ■ ■oSdeot reuon for the ohnnge of w«d 

• <eiirtln» to tbla eipoilttiin the wordi of nr- 
•4, "llr 1M that hatli antned," ats. an nrfimd lo 


Aom itaTttroiKrti lo caBBaririiit. It wowld sal 
ban been right, bowerer, lo hare paaad it ont 

in thii article irltboDt ootiue, aa It relatfw lo • 
paaoge of Sotlplura in wbicb ftablath loJ Sab- 
tatieel ld«a are markedly brought forward- 
It would he going beyond the eeope of thii arti- 
cle to (n« tbe hiitorj of opinion on tbe Sabbath 
in the ChniUan Church. Dr. Haeaey, hi bla Ban^ 
Ion Jjdurri, ha> tketcbed and dbtlnguiabed ency 
rariety of daotriae wbioh bat beeo or etill ie niaia- 
taincd on Uie auhjeet. 

The lentimeuta and pnctice of tbe Jewi aabM- 
qutnt (0 our Sanour't time bare been already n- 
ferred to. A cutiout aooouut — lakea from Boa- 
torf, Dt Si/itag. — of their tupefatitioat, eenipleii 
and profaibitiont, irill be fnnd at the eloee of tba 
fint part (^ Heylin'a lIi$L of l*e SiMnlk. Cil> 
met (art. " SabbaUi "J gina an intaeating fketeh 
of their ftauly practicra at the iieginalng and end 
of tbe day. And tbe catinula of the Babbalh, ito 
utee, and III bkeeiiiga, which l> fbrtnad by tbe mora 
apiritusily minded Jewa of the pneent day may b* 
inferred from aome atriking remaika of Dr. Kaliach 
[Conn, m t'xediu). f. VS, who winda up with 
quoting a beauUfbl paenge ftom the lata iirw. 
4, A Fnc Wonb W Jf 

Finally, H. I^udbon'i atriking pamphlet, /h 
la (XUh^liim du Diinnndu cmMiriE iwu ie( 
rnpparit di f Hfgiint pabligur, dt h Uiirntt, dt» 
rtialioh, dt F'tmilU tl dt Clii, PuU. IBM, may 
be ttudicd with great adTanta^e. Hit remarki 
(p. ST) on Ihe adi-antagea of the preciie propor- 

lee of any oilier that could b* 

The word 5'iUaU t 
»eii in tbe N. T. Hence, by the Hebrew oMga 
of leokoniiig time by cardinal numbera, )r rf fuf 
Tic nSBarir, maana on Iht JirU dng of Ikt 
ittrk. Tbe Rnbbb hare tbe >aMe phraaeology, 
lieeplng, bowerer, tbe word Sithbaak in tba iia- 

On the pbran ef St. Luke, vl. 1. Ir t^ aoBOiir^ 
itvTtptywpArtf, aee Sabbatical Yba" 

Thu aftiele ihouU be read in eon 
that on tbe Lord's Dat. 

tidrrnluia. — CrUia S-Ki-i, on tkod. ; HeyUo'e 
Hitt. of Ikt SnUyiU. ; Selden, l)t Jurt Natar. d 
O'cn', ; Buitorf. De St/iing. i Bamw. hxpm, of 
tht Dreal'gur: Paley, Ua-nl surf J'^^Uiml Fhiiti- 
cpliM, V. 7; Jumm, (M Hit Saemmaili imd S-A- 
i„ll,lV/haiiij-tnimgl,lioal»tS-ibbnil,i Warr). 
law, On Hie SiMalh! Maurice, On Ikt Baibnikt 
Michaelii. /tuh d/ Miari. atta. cicit.-ri., diriil.) 
Oehbr, in Henog'a Afof-AiKyU. "SabbaUi"! 
Winer, RenhaiUrbadi. "Sabbath": Hohr, Syn- 
bolikdtt Mia. CWttol. li. bk.i>. eh. ll,S9i Ka- 
liKb, l/iHiTiail and Crilknl ConuMnUn-ji on 0. 
T., in Kaod. XX. : Proudhon, lit h CiiU«-iitio» 
du DimamJir ; and eipecially Dr. Heuey'i Stm. 
dag! Ikt BamfHon Ledurefw 1860. V. Q. 

» mnoridl SktIcK of the Chritliin Sniialk, 
by Iter. L Colenun, BiU. Sitcm, i. 53e-&5a, and 
Changt of «. &-Mr.l* /.■«» «' ■•-V'-r«A W Ikt 
Firl Day if Ikt WctJt, by .lobii .S. .Sidm^ D. D., 
Thiol KcUclic, i». W2-B70, are iraluabta artklal 
on ibla auhj«et. The Ulerature ia given with great 
ftilbeaa In R. Coi'i lAttraturt i>f lit SoUod 
iatttion, 8 nil., Edinb. ISGIi. H. 



MrwiMi, AetiL t9|. On occubo of m fit 
Ooaal tht anumudnwiit hj osUin of Uu peopk 
■As mat ta bok fer rnuin «i thi HTciith di]', 
Mian «i{airKd atcry oun to " ubida in hi< plxc," 
w>d iarlwle inr man (o "go out of hii pim" co 
tlnl dij (Ei. id. >->). It wcmi natund (c look 
■B tfais B * nwta eii*ctn>eiit/>iv i-n noAl, loJ hiv- 
ing ID btar^n; en uij suEc oT itbin lubaeqiKnt to 
lk« jowney thraoeh Iht wildcn« uid tfaa d*Uj 
gaUmfof of DHDiia. Whctfan- (he nuiitt iStbntn 
<U or <1id not ngmrd it thai. It ii not eaij to u] 
NanrihekK Ibe nMiinl inRfcnee from 3 K. ir. a 
i* i^iut tte iixpinKitiau of cneh ■ problbitun be- 
ing known to th« apuliEiDun, Kluha ilnuit 
^nlj Ihint; — u nuj be ma from Uh wbole 
imtiTe — BDch more Ihan i IMbath-dij't jouriiej 
Ann Sbunam. Heylia iufRi (rum tbe iudduU of 
Dnid'l flifffat from Saul, ud Klijab'i Irolu Jeuliei, 
that ■Mitfao' I'll bound b}iiKh ■ limiuilon. Their 
^tattum, bowem', ban; one of exlroaLtj, cannot 
St mUlj mij^ued (bom. In ultfT timci Itar pncept 
in Ex. ivL iru undonhtfdljr riewed u 
hm. Bit u saiH dqianiui froni a 
ftiBt na lininndalik. it nt tbou^t neemarj to 
detcriHina tbe atlanUe amoaot, vbista ma lud 
■t 9,1)'^ P*fi " about Bi Airkmgi, from tbe nil 

'nongb (tKh u oiBttBeM ma; ban praeMded 
ftoa an enoneoui <ka of Ki. m. 19, it ii bj no 
Bcaaa lo Mpendtiuiu and aiiwortliy on tb« Cue of 
at H afe moat of tbe ICabbinieil rule* and probibi- 
tiou mpeetins the Sabkith-day. In tbe cate of ■ 
ItSDenl law, like tbat of the Sabl.atb. aome author- 
Hj UMt aettk Iba appliiation iu detaib, and lucb 
■B antbaritj " tbo Serihn and I'harueei littinK in 
lloaa' leat " were entitkd to eierrbe. It ia plain 
that liw limiln of tbo SablnJb-day'a joume; laiat 
hare Le«i ■ ^roU check on the prodnstinn of the 
daj !n a eHiiiUy whire buiiiieii wu entirely igri- 
•nkon] or putoral. 

•«« eutilM. 
big the diaciplM Cl 


praj that their Sight fram .le- 
e of jta judgment ihouid not 
(JIatt. iiiT. M). The 

trouiid he procurable, 
kept betwecD tbo Arl 

jounTjing when nacenvj 

The ponnitted diiUi>«e 
fnanded on the ipue to be 
and Ibe people (lodi. til 4) In tiie wo.Kmeaa, wnieb 
(ndition laid wiia that lietwaui tbe Ark and the 
KnU. Ta n!|>alr La tbe Ark l«in^ of coune. ■ 
iutj on toe 5al>Ukth. the wnlkinx to it wu no no- 
tation of tbe day ; and It thiu wu taken aa the meat - 
ne o/ a UwTul Sahbatb^ij-'ijoBniey. We Snd the 
«DM diitanee giren la (be circuiiirerence outaide the 
■ilh oT tlw Levitieil eltiei (o be counted H tbeir 
nbota (Knin, urr. t|. The fernunu a gutnt 

jity where he dwtit, and tbui tbe amount of Uwrul 
Sabhath-<iay'i joumeylnij mTDt tlioefma hare wn- 
liad groUlj: the aaTamenU of a Jew In oneoftba 
WDaU eitin of hi* own land being natHcCed indeed 
Thai comiiared with thoae of* Jew m Aleundria, 
liAloEh, or Rome. 

aa obliged to go brtbei 4iaa a 


abb ground, itWM UcumhenI on him on tli*«*M> 
i_g bafix* to (liraiib taimaeir with food enough fee 

poitiled diatanee, U 

buTf what be hiul leO, and a( 
I God for the appointed bound 
ig be wu at Ubertj' to mil 

uj. Next B 
tbi* point hia I 

The Jewlah Kruple to go nun than 9,000 paoM 
from hit Gjtj on the Sablialb ia referred to bj 
Oiigen, ctpt VX>'i "- ^> ^y Jeioaie,.<>if Mgn- 
full, qucat. lUj an4 by lEcnDtBiiiut — iritli 
aome apparsit diffennee between tbem a* to tb* 
uieuuremenk Jeroioe givea Akiba, Simeon, and 
lUM, u the autboritiei Ibr the lawful diilauos 

F. a. 

r tha Lenta (1 tMi. ii. U; eomf, 

ABBATICAL YBAB- Aa each wrenth 
and eadi aerentli monlh were holji. to WM mek 
Qih year, by the Houie r»de. We flnt en* 
iter tbii law In Ki. iiiii. ID, 11, given bi 
worda ootretpondinif to thuae of the Fourth Cam- 
iL, and IbilowEd {trt. 12) by the nUa- 
foroenieDt of that mniniiuidnieuC. It » impoaaibl* 

Day and tbe Sabbadeal Yw 

The eomaiandment ia. to lo* and reap Ibr all 

An, and (0 let tbe land ceatoii the acveiith, "thil 

e poor of thy people niay e<it: and what tbej 

bue the beuU of the tidil ibnU eut." It ii addol, 

Ike manier «h>lt thou deal with thy vioeyald 

liy oliieyard." ' 

! meet next with tbe eaacdueut in l.eT. nr. 
S-T, and fiaally in [)eut. tt,. in which iut plaM 
!W feature preeeiita itaeif of the lerentb yMT 

Wlien we eo 


bine these ■everal noticea, w 

ajug I 

r Bni6-lhi 

tilla^ n 

iruticeil. Tha 
ipontaoeoua growtli of the aoil waa not to ba 
naped by tbe owner, whoee righta of property 
were in ^leyancs. All wure lo have thdr ahan in 
the gleaaiigi : tbe poor, tbe itnuiger, and evan th« 

off wbei 

<> yw ■ 

tlu owner allowed to reap the i 
III. 9, uiii. 22). Unleu. theniore, ine rTrniinuer 
wu gieaoed very oirefally, there may euiiy hir* 
been enough left to enture lueh apontaneoua dv- 
poait of avd u in (be fertile aoil of Syria woiUd 
produoe aonie amount of crop in the auceeeding 
yai, white tbe vin« and oliv« would uf couria 
yield their fniit of tbemselvee. Sloreorer, It II 

,n prcviuua yean for their own and tlieir ramillfla' 
wMitt. Thli ia the unavoidalile inferHice from 
txv. 30-a. And thoniih tlie rivlit e< 
property wu in abeyance during the Snbliatlcal 
year. It hu been aug^eated that thia only tpptiad 
to tbe fieJda, and not to tbe gardeiia attuched la 

Tbe claiming of debia wu unlawful during thai 

V, u we kvn from Deut it. Tbe eicepliona 

id down are in tbe cue of t liireignar. and tbiU 

of there being no poor in the land Thin Utier, 

er, it ii atiaii{htway aaid, li what will iwMf 


Bu* of Um MTCnUi ytn- wm fiiul or mtttlj tutsd 
tfanuith the ymi. Tbla law vu rtitiullj ibro- 
pud in Ut«r tltuei by tbe weil-knowii pi-aiboi ' uT 
UiB giHU llillel, a perruiMli 


btm eUliK 

qnlnd to do u. The formuU U gitm In tfae 
Mfihni [Sktviilli. 10,4). 

Ttw nl«M of debton daring tha SkbUtlcal 
jtar muM not b« confounded irltb llw releue ol 
^Ta on the MToilb year of tbrir Hrrioo. Tb« 

U ODS find [imo ror at], nhtle tha other rauit 
btra TuiH with nrioiu CuniliM, ind witb nrloiu 

Tbs iplril of tbii hw ia tha »me u tfaat of Ilia 
wacUj Sublirth. Both bira ■ licnalicenl (oidcncy, 
Hmitlmc tbc right* and checking the i 

•rtfi the 01 

M, the 

Jlie bind ihnll "ha^ 
bMh untA the r^ird." •• The knd 1> mine " 

There nu; ilto hnra been, u Kiiliach eonjeo- 
tone, ui rj-e to the benefit which would Kcnie to 
Um knd freni Ijing fidlow etery Wfentfa yea, in a 


•paetaela. In the Ibnalenlngi omlalsBl Ib \jm 

nri., jDdgniente on tlie vlolntlon of the ikhUlM 
jaar ire putleulorir ennleinpiiited (ty. S3, S4;< 
uid thnt It wu i^rntlr fr not quite neglected ap- 
pam tnaa % Chr. inH. UO, 91 : " Thau (bit ee- 
opad from the Kword CAmed ha ftwnj to ti^jlon ; 

the rdgn of the kiiiedom of Penii; to fUlfUl Uia 
word of the LoTd bj the moutb of Jtmnikh, until 
the knd had anjuri^ her Sthhutlu: Ibr u long w 
>ba I17 desolite ihe kept Sabbath, to hlGU thn» 
Hora and tm ycqui." Some of the Jewiih eom- 
mentalon have iiif^nrd Innn Ihii that thett ton- 
btbm had neglected eiactlir Mrantj Sahhatial 
yitn. If nieh neilect wu oonliiiaon, the lut 
■naat bav« been dleobejed thmi|[bont a period lA 
WO yean, ■'. e. tbrotigh nta\y the whole dnntloo 
oT the monurhj; ud aa Mtm la nothinfl In tin 
prevloiu hUtoiy leading to tba infentnoe that the 
paefila were nura Bcnipulooa then, we mnat knh to 
the retum from Captjvitj for IndientloiaDr the Sab- 
batical year bring actually ohitned. Then we know 
the former neglot wu npUc«d bj a punrtilloui at- 
UnUon to the Law; and at ill lading leatare, tha 
Sabboth, be^an to la Knipulouily reverenad, ao 
- [beSab- 

e Sabbatical c 

Tbe Sabbatical year opened ii 
nxwilb. and the whole Law wai I 
Midi ini, during the Feait of Tahemaclea, to tlie 
Miemliled people. It wu thui, like tha wedilj 
Sabbath, no mere negative rat, but wsi to be 
■Mirited br high and holy oocupation, and coo- 
seeled with aacred ndeclion and wntiinent. 

At tbe completion of a wetA of Sahbitlea] jean, 
Uw SabhiUKal Kale rtoivad <la completion in the 
jear of Jubilee. Kor the qneation whether that 
wai identical with the aeranUi Sabbatical year, or 
w*a that which nicceaded it, i. e. whether the ytat 
af Jubilee fell er«y fbrly-ninth or erary fiftieth 
jaar. ne Jvuiler. Yr.w op. 

'Ilie neit quealion that preaents Itwlf regarding 
the Sabbatical year rHatei to tbe time when ita oh- 
aenaiice heennie ohligatorr. It baa been Inrenad I 
ticiB m. a, " When ye 

d (1 Mao 


le knd." 

■a bibul« during it, ainea it 
wai unkwAil lor thcfn to bow aead or reap bamat 
then; ao, 100, did Julius Cieaar (Joaeph. Ajit. lir. 
10, 4 S). Tacitua {HiM. lib. y. 3, S i), hatiliK 
mentioned tha obaernnca of the Sahhuk by Uta 
JawB, addi: " IMii bUndlenti inerUft aeptimun 
qaoqua annum iKnaviie datum." And St. Pad, la 
reproaching the lialattiuii with thai Jaaiah lend- 
enciea, luce tbem with obeerring ytart at — " - - 

a (Ual. i 

h Igi 

telirat y 


Uat It waa to be held b; 
r of their occupation 

eontndktion (i> tbe wordawhkh imnHdiately fbl- 
bw; "Sit yean thou (halt itow thy ItHd, and di 
yean Ihon ihalt prune thy ifaieyBrd. and gather in 
tbe fhiit thereof: but in tha aeventb ynr ibaU be 
a Sabbath of >nt unto the hnd." It k more na- 
KinaMe to inppoee. with the beet Jewkh autlkoritiaa, 
Ibal the kw became obligatory fourteen yeara after 
tbe firat entrance into Ihe Promiaed Ijnd, the con- 
:|uc*t of which took leicn yeara and the diatrlbu- 
Um ae>«n more. 

A further question nriaee. At whalcrw period 
Ih* obedience to this law ought to haie com- 
meneed, waa it in point of hct 'obeyed? Thia la 
an Inquiry which reacbes to more of tbe Mosaic 
alatalea ibui the one now beTon us. It is, wa *p- 
prdwnd. rare to sec the whole of a code in fnt) op- 
■atiod; and the phenomena of Jewlab hialory pn- 
4ooa to the CapUrity pretcnt tu with no anch 

■ S12DIIB - probably i»>^Aif o» ir)nr^4. 
rnlUaaDd other curloni apKulitloni an Dn ety- 
■MW sT tha wonl, tm Buatort, Lrt. Tatm»d. Wm. 

10), from 

ch we must inler mai tna leacnera who ana- 

liCHted to them Ihcae tendencies did more or 

Uie like thainselvea. Another alltiilon in tbe 

T. to tbe Sabbatical yanr la peHiap* to be found 

he phraae, ir taBBiyv StvTtfa*p4rr>f [Lnke 

t). Various eiplanationa haie been giraa tA 

the term, but one of the moat proliabk k that it 

denotes Ihe fint Sabbath of tba Becond year bi tha 

cicle (Wieecler, quoted br Alfotd, toI. 1.). 

F. G. 
SABBBXS ([Tat.] lufiPaia^i (Run. Aid.] 
Alei. anSfioMi: Sumcnt), 1 IMr. 11. 31. [Shb- 

MMAH, U,] 

BABK'ANEl. ISkua; SneaA.] 

SA'BI ([Val, Xii^iii), jt^ned with preceding 
word; not] 3afl.[» [see errata In Mai; Bom. 
Aid.] k\a.1a6iii: SnbaAtn). '■ 'Hie children of 
Pochereth of Zabidm " appear in 1 Eadr. t. M 
aa "the aona of Pbacareth, the aous of 8aU." 

• SA'BIB (3 ayl.), the reading of the A, V 
ed. 1611 and otlier early editlona in 1 F^r. r. U, 
repraaenling the Graek ZaSiii. baa been ImprDperiy 
changed in later editiona to Sabi. A. 

SABTAH (rtjnjD, in 91 MSS. WrOtP. 
Gen. X. T; Hl^??. 1 Chr. i. 9 [aaa hdow], A. V 
8«bta: aaSoBii; [Vat in 1 Chr., 3aftrr«0 
Bnbalka). Tbe third in oTrter of tbe aons of Cnb 
Ib Bccordu x with the identi^coUoui of thr attllt 


MDti gf Iba Cii^llM in tbs utida Akabu tod 
iheiriMn, StLUh *bould be knknl Ibr (long the 
VMlhrrn nut nf Aimbb. The wriMr hu buud 
no tn« in Aiahvriten; hut Uie ttilemfntj of 
llinj (vl. 39. H^ ni' Wl, Ptolemy (ri. T, p. *I1J, 
ud jlmiL fn^ (IT), mpecting Sublntiu, Sit- 
bnU, or SeboUle, meUDpolu of (be AtrvoiUe 
(probalilj tbr Chatniiiwtil*), irFai to paint to t. 
ItKc of the (fibe which daanded (rorn 3il4ih, 
kiwmji nippCKilut thit tbia dtr Sabbslha ni not > 
ncnpUoo or dulectto wation of Sabi, Sela, or 
abdiK. Thu pdnl will baducuno] under aiiEBA. 
It b onlf neeeemy to Rnurii b<n that the indi- 
atioDB iflbfded l>; the (imlt wid Komwi wrtltn 
i( AttUta geofftfb] miuin nrj auttoiu htod- 
Bag. fieemting, m Ibej do, ■ ami of ooolndic- 
tkoi and trnnpannt Invellm' ralca mpBcting 
the BnkDDwn regteu of Anbia the llappj, Arabia 
Tborifcn, etc Ptokmr pliKCi aabbatfaa in TT° 
1m«. IS° IC laL It ni M impottant cit}, con- 
Uning no ha than Dilj trmpk) (llinj, /f. II. 
(L e. "■'■ { 7iy. it wa* ■In liluate In the terrt- 
ta7 of kii^ EliaaRH, or Fleaiui (comp. Atun. 
PtrifL ap. MiiUn, O'nw/. .I/in. pp. 278, 270|, mp- 
poeed bj Kmnd to ba idcntjcal vitb " AacbaHttei," 
or ■• AlaacharuKRin," In Arabic (J'Mrit. AtinL 
KotiT. S^rie, L 191). Winer thinka tbe Identlfi- 
Btian of Salitab with Sabhatha, tie., to be prob- 
Mt; and It ie uceptvl t>j Bnnim [Bibtiatrk, Oen. 
X. and Allni). It ceitainlj oeeapiei a poalUon in 
4Mi we ibould npect to flml traea of Sabtab, 
wbae an tiacs of Cuibila tribea in telj carij 
tiBMB, on their vsj, aa ve hold, Trom [beir earlin 
eoknln in lithkipia to the l^tlph^ate). 

Gtamina, wl» Kct In (?u>b only Ethiopia, " hu 
no doubt that i^htih ibouid be einnpand witb lo- 
fi^, 3a$i. JaBai (•» Strab. iri. p. TTO, Canub : 
Ptol li. 10), on tbe ahore of the Arabian Uulf, 
Anted Jnat where Arkilio ia now, Li tbe neiiib- 
borbood eC which tbe Plofemira hantod eirpbuta. 
AtungM the aodcnt tniulalon, I'tnidojunilhan 
mv mmtt mmaSug, taideriDg It ^KTDS, far 
whicb read 'M'leD, t. «. tbe Scnibiltc, whom 
Stnbo (tc- o'f. p. 7R6j placea In the aama rejion. 
Joetphua (AnI. L «, j 1) underatanda It to br tbe 
Inbabitaod of Aalabon " (UeMiiua, ed. Ti^Us, 
t. r.). Here the ttsmaloKy of Sablah It compaRd 
pbuaiblj with ^mBth; but wbto prafaaUtitj b 
^H>JM* bia being Ibttiid in Ethiopia, etjmolofE^ la 
f>f lanall value, fcpedallj when it la remembered 
that Sabat and lla nriationa (Sabai, SabalJ may 
be idatol to Stbi,, which cerUlnl; waa in Elhi- 
apk. 0& the Kahbinical autboritia which he 
qool'* we place no value. It anij renuini to add 
tiMt Hkhaelii {SnppL p. 1T13) remom Sablah to 
CcntB oppielle tiiknltar, called in Arabic Seblab, 

*^' ■■ (eoDip. Hariald. i- v. ) ; and that Boebatt 
(PMaUt, i. 114, lie, 253 01), while be maillona 
iabtntlia, pnArt to place Sabtab near the waUm 
ebn* of the Penlan GaU; with tbe Saphtha of 
inJany, the name abs of an bland In Ibat gulf. 
E S. P. 
WTKW [lee »bo*e]: 3a3.rful It^thx^' 
(Afri^ ta Gm., itOainta: Vat In I Cbr., Ifge- 
^■;J AoAnbirAo, SnbnlMndia, Gen. i. T. 1 Cbr. 
, B). TU f (Ui in ordv of the Kmt of Cuah, 
•hM* MttameiiU muld pnbablj he neer tb* Per- : 
** Gin wtoa n* tbote of Kwotih. iba out 

8ACKBUT 9rr69 

bdbte him In Um older of the Cndiltea. pUA 
MAH, DboaH, Shkba.] He hat not beeii idealL 
Cad with anj Araiiie pbiee or dittriet, nor wit*. 
&ctorily with anj najiie givefi hj claeaicAl wrilen 
Bwbart (who b bilowHt b) Bunaen. BUitla., Geo 
I. and Alint) wigua lliat be aboulrl be placed b 
Cannasia, on tbe Ptniaii ihoir of the gulf, ooa 
paring Sablechah with the city of Semydace dl 
Steph. Bjz. (Xofutiin) or Sofiiwillil of PloL fl 
8. T). Tlib etjunlaflr apprara to be R17 br- 
fetched. Cieaenlnt merdj aayi that Sabteahah b 
the pR^ier name d a diatriet of Ethiopia, and addi 
the reeling of t^ Targ. Pieudt^nathan OHXIt, 
"mgilani), E. S. P. 

SA'OAB njtp [iwY.maW]: Ax*-! Afcfc 
%itxiip-- Sii^itr]. L A Kanrilf.btbcrd Ahian, 
one of Darid't nighty men (I Vht. u. 8GJ, la 
S Shl oiiL 3t he it called Siiahar, but Eao- 
uioott tegarda Saear ae the correct nadinf;. 

a. (2avJp J [Vat. 3o,xap 1 Ale.. *.X'<V-1) 
The Ibortti too of Obed-edoni (t Cbr. iivi. 4). 

8ACKBUT (HJJp, nan. iii. Si HJ?|p, 
Dan. Hi. T, 10, IG; '^atiBirrii I'mbucn), 'The 
renrierina in the A. V. of the Chatdee fbblci. 
If thia muaical inttrumeiil Ic Ihe tame ne the 
Grei^ aititSlvn and Latin ('W.nnr," the Fjiglbh 
tranalatlon b entirely wrani:- The (.-kclilMit waa B 
wind inatniment! tbe mulmen waa pta)ed ailii 
ttringt. Kir. Cltppell aaya {Pvp ,1/u. 1. aS), 
" The lackbnt wu a beat inniipet with a dide. Uk* 
Ihe modem tromlione." II IijuI a drep nots alb 
cording to Drajtoii {Polyila^n. iv. -Wol; — 

"Tbe hoboy, Httal ilr-p. irfonler, and iba Buta." 
Tlie aTwAacn xraa a triaucular iiittrunient wUk 
bur or more atrluga pbiyed ullli the lingefi. 
Acccnling to Albencui (nr 6-^i|, Maiurlut d». 
■ailied it a* baring a ibrill tonet and Kupliorion, 
III hit looli on the [ithmiaii Giuiico. aaid that U 
waa Deed by tbe Putliiana niiil TroG^odtia, and 
had four ildngi. Ita inrention it attribuled to 
one Sambyi, and to Sil>}lb ila Hral u» (.Uheak 
lir. S37). Juba, in the 4lii iHwk of bia Tl,«-i(rieat 
Hutoi-t/, nyi it wai ditooi-em! in Sjria 
tSei of Cytlcum, in t' " ■ • - 
latigna it to the poet Ih^eut of Kliei: 
ir. T7). Thb latt traitition i* f,>]lowc<l liy Suida^ 
who deacribce the MfiuibuC'' at a kind of triaiigalir 
harp. Tbat it wia a roreii^i ijiitnimeiit b cbv 
from Ihe Malenient of Slnho (i 471), who aayi 
ire name It birbaniut. Iiidore of Seiille [Orig. 
lii. SO) appeart to rrgnrd it aa a Kind iiitCrumeot, 
for be coanecU ll with thr vi.Wwiii. or elder, 1 

The vimtmai waa mrly knuwn at home, far 
Pbutda ISiic*. II. a, ST) nientjoni the women >b* 
played it (loniiicn, or MimiHciviV*, aa they ait 
called in Lity, xiiii. 6). it wu a rai-orite among 
the Greek* (Polyb. r. 37), and tiie Rhudian women 
appear to bare been celeliraled Ibr their 111111 D 
"lb inatniment (Alhen. ir. 1211). 

Here waa an enilne called eaniiHUi ueed ■■ 
tiegt openUiotit, which derived It* nanie fnm the 
nuuca) inatronienL, becauee, rucordiiiK lo Alh» 
new (lir. 634), when rajied it had the brai of 
L ablp and a ladds combined in one. 

k of the //'•» 

SACKCLOTH (pEp: viInmii >ae<mt). A 
■Mm tcxUni of ■ darii coloi', mad* of g«ti' 
Mr (Ii. 1- S: Rtt. li. li), ud ntmbllng tlie 
rUiciuin of tba Komuu. It int uihI (1) (or 
mJiIng uclu, tbc win* word dMeriblni; holb tht 
miWrlid uid tb« uliele (Gen. xlii. SG: 1^. a. 
H: Jodi. ii. 4|! uid (9) for miking Ifae roiieh 
gutnnili uKd bj moomen, which were In ettnmt 
atttt worn udl Iba ikhi (1 K. iii. »; 3 K. vi. 
M; Job iTl. lb: li. iiiU. It), tod th<i etai hj 
fcnuln (Joel i. 8: 9 Hue. Iii. 19), but at od»r 

ui. fl) in Uni of (ha onlcr (tument. The robe 
prafaablj memlled ■ uck in ibape, md fitted cIom 
to the |i«aun, u tt raiy infer tmia (be applieiLion 
al th* lenn okilsnT" to the proeoa of putting it 
on (3 Sm. Iii. 31; ).i. *<i. 18, it.). It wu con- 
Rned by a girdk it Mniilu raileriil ([>. Iii. 94). 
SoniFtima il wai worn Ibrougbout the night (1 K. 
ni. 8T|. W. I. B. 

SACRIFICE. The peculiir leaturea of each 
kind of mciifin an rrfcrnd to under their re- 
•pectir* beidi: the o1>i«t of tfab Rnkh will he: — 

I. To tuuniiie the meaning md deriistion of 
Uw nrioiu word! uaed to denote McrJAoa In Scrip 

li. To eumine tbe hiitorlcal derekipment of 
Morifia III the (IM Teatanwnt. 

III. To (kelch briefly Uie thnrj of ucrifice, 
M It la Kt li>rU> both in tlia OM and New Tett»- 
DNitt, with eipecnl lefereuce to tbe Alonamtnt 
of Chriil. 

I. or all the wordi DHd in rcferenM to ncrifiee, 
the moBt geneia] appear to ba — 

(a.) fTJjlpi nunchni, from the oWlete root 
njlf, »[a give;" ined in Gen. niM. 13, 9D, 91, 
of ■ gill From Jacob to Raaa (IJfX. lApar): in 1 
fiam. riil. 9. S {{/ml. In 1 K. It. 91 {Sipa), in 9 
K. itI), 4 l/iaraA), of a tribute trom a raitial 
Ung; In Gen. It. 3. S. of i tacrillce genenlij 
tlmpar and fuaia, indlRerentlj): and In ii. 
1, 4, e, 6, Joined with (he word birhan, of an 
nnblmdj ncrifice. or " ment-oHning " O^nerelljr 
tvpji' 0(piTfa)- Ita dcHration and usaga point to 
that Idea of ancriHce. which n] ' ' 

•nchariitlc gift to (iod our King. 

(*-l O?"?!? toirfe^Ti, derived from tba root STr"!, 
>to appiwch.'' or (In Hiphil) lo "malie to ap- 
jnach;" uaed with mincl-.b in Ler. ii. ),t,b. e, 
(LXX. Smpor flwrlal, generally rendered Supov 
(ae* Mark tii. II, ntfB''- I '"' )■)«») or w|ia>r- 
fipK, 'llie idea of ■ gift hardlj aaem* inbermt 
m Iba rootj which ntbtr poinia to aaerllier, u a 
■ynbol of communion or covenant between God 
■nd man. 

(f.) {njtl, ttt^ci, derleed from tba root ny*, 
U> ■'■laughter*nlniBlt,"eapedall7to "dajin «cn- 
let," rafen emphaticallj to a tjoodj vsriBce, one 


b wlidi Uia aheddlng of bkwd li tU M«M 
Uta. Thui It ii oppowd to minei^k. In Pa iL I 
{*»»J»F nl wpoo-fwlr), and to rUrti (the whah 
bnitit-otfcring) In Ei. ». 9S, niii. 11, Aa. WHk 
It tba aiplaloT? Idea ol lacriBce ie natunlly ooa- 

Uiatlncl fkom Uieae general tenni, and often 
aiqmded to them, are the wordi denoting tpadd 
kloda of laerifiee ■■ — 

(d.) nbSV, ihk (gatmOj ixonirm^), tlM 
wbola bumt-ollMog." 

('■ ) B^^i aiebm (hvfa v. mpiini), and fr«- 
qucnUy with H:^, and aometliMi atlbd If'N^ 
la "peace- " or ■■ Ibank-ofhrlng." 

{/) rt^r;, dmttHS (gmmSlj we^l l/taf- 
lai), the "dn-offirlng." 

is.) Dtt'tJ «M-3 (geatnUj wAoivxAtl-XO* 


For the euminatlon of tba deHTation and nMD- 
ing of tbaaa, are eaefa under ita own head. 

n. (A.) Obigik op BACMFtCI. 

tn tradng the hiiloi? oF laerlflee, (hun Ita IM 
heginulng to Ita perfect devekipment in the Moaaif 
-'■--'^ Ks are at once niet bj the loag-diapuled 
on, u to the migia o/merijla i whether It 
anae thni a natunil iuilinct of man, aanetkneil 
and guided by God. or whether it wai the nljeit 
' eome diaCJnct pHnienl rerelatlon. 

It b a queiUon, the iniportaoce of wbld. baa 
, olably been eraagrraled. There can he do dinbt 
that tacriflce wu uuictjoned by God't Ua, with ■ 
■pedal tj'pical reference to tbe Atonetnent of Cbriet; 

u tn Fibarl Ortfln of Sninflri), 
1 00 the tnuuiilkin of nr^t^n 

i bj . 

ta oF human 

liti. Whether it 
III command, oe 

'helher it wu Ined on that aenae of aln and k 
ommunion «i(b (iod. wliich i* atimped by hii 
■nd on the henrt oF man — ia a biiljrica] qoaa- 
ion, perhipa iijtoluble, probahlf one which cannot 
e treated at all. eicept in connection with aoDM 
general theory of the method of primeral rerda- 
tion, but certainly one which doei not aflect tba 
Lihority and Uie meaning of (be rite KkIF. 
The gmt difflciilt; in the tlicory which rehci 
to a diitinct coniuiand of God, ia the total rilaooa 
oF Holy Scripture — a alienee the nion remark- 
Lfale, when contraated with the diitinct rrfennea 
nade in Gru. ii. to tbe origin of the Sabbath. 
Sacrifice when fint mentioned, in the cair of Ckin 
and Abel, ia referred to u a thing (if^coarae! It 1* 
to hire been brouglit bj men; then ii no 
bint of any comniiuid gli-en by G«d. Tbli con- 
Bdnatlon, the itrength of which no tngenuHj* 
baa been able to Impair. althoDgii it doei not aeWr- 
illy dlapToxa tbe Ibnnal reteiaUon of aaerlBea. jfl 

Hi* maral Mtnlttoa K K glfM k - 


rt lM*t bAiit am tnatim of It, u rf > podlhc 

Kor ia tin Cut of the rajiterioui and nipcr- 
Htaiml clianeltr of the doctrlni of Alommflit, 
■Ml whkdi th< HarifioM of thi U- T. in eiprmlj 
■onDcctod. an; eotidudTa arfpiFROit on tliii lidt 
3l the qnntion. AH lUuv tbat tbs enchirlntic 
wai dqmsiMrj Idea* oT ■wrifiea an pnfeetlj 
latum] lo nun. The hightf Tinr cif ita apiatorj 
•faancter, dqmdnit, aa it h, enttnlj on <ta tjpici] 
oature, anmn but enduiQj in S<TipIan. It la 
(died wider otbfr idtsa in tb* caae oT lh< palri- 
■ebal aacriAeca. IL ia fint diatinetlj nicnlioned 
to tha Uw (Ler. ivli. ]1, Ac); tiut enn thai Uie 
aeM7 of tbe dn nflblng, and ot the <)aun of 
ama to vliHih it irfrrrvd, ia aHowed to be obacure 
and dilBcutl; It iaonl^ in Uie N. T. (nprciill; in 
llie H^iiatte to the Hebnwi) that i(a natun la 
tkaAj BBlMtd. Haw lilidj that it pkued 
God gndnaBj to attpemld the bighrr idea to an 
iDBtitutun^ doiTed hjr maa fyom tlie lower ideaa 
(whkli mnat enntaaDj find tbrir Jurtiihatioii in 
Ika hi^h*-), u that He oriEinal!; ct>n]Uiand«.< the 
hMltallon wban tbr bnie for the nrElatinn of iti 
taU nmtilng vai tiot jet oome. The rainbow wu 
>Ht ia tnilj the ijiatol of Ood'i new pnniiie io 
Oen. ii. I»-1T, whether it had or bad not eiiatad, 
■a ■ nUunI phenomenon httm the Hood. What 
God aeU hi* inl (0, He niaka a put of b!a r 
(no, wfaaterer Hi origin maj be. It it i 
■Dticad («« Warbnnon'i IHr. Lrg. ii, c. 3) that. 
•oef)* In Gen. it. S. tbe method of patriarchal 
Mb^ ia left free, without aii; dirertion on the 
part of (iod, while in all the tlonic ritual the 
Jmitation and irgnbilion of ncrifiee. aa lo 
pUo, and maltrial, ii a di<«1 prominent fei 



Connrtil which fbOowi In li. ft-lT. Tb* am* 
ratification of a covenant la nen In the burtiV 
ofiteiiij; of Abiabant, eapeciiOj M^nrd iod d*' 
fined bj God In G«i. iv. 9; and u probably to br 
trued in the "building otaltan" hj Abrmbam 
tfieUwlCGen. lii. T, 8)and 
(iftf. IS), lij luae at Beer^heba (iitI. SB), 

ig U|i and amrintlng of the pillar at 
Bethel riivill 18. uir. 14). IIib nerifin (»AnM) 
of .licob at Miipab aha mtrln a oorenant wltb 
[^ban, to which God ii aalled to ba a wilneai 
and a partj. In all Ifaeae, tberefcn, the pram- 

(B-l A*TB-HoeAic History or .SACKinci. 

In Bamfaiing the fariooa aacrifiert, rtcordcd In 
ScHptuR before the ntabliahment of Iba U*. we 
fatd that the word* ^tciitly denoting eipiatory 
»eriGee (rt^Fl and D^) in not applied (o 
them. TUa fact does not at all ihow, (hat the; 
were not actoallj ei^torj, nor even thai tbr 
uflheaa had not tbat idea of expiatirai, which muat 
bare been Tagudj felt in an «erifi««5 but itjuiti 
lea the Inbnnce, that thia <dn wu not then the 
pvminent one bi the dortrina of laerlRqe. 

Tin auriaceof Cain and Abel ia called niiK^nA, 
aWiongfa b tha caaa ot the latter it »u a bloodj 
McrifiM. (So in Heb. xL 4 the word tvai^ ii 
BphiDtd bj the rait Mpeit below.) In the cum 
■r both it wonld appear to bate been Fuehartatic, 
Md Iba diatlnetion betwtai (be oflnvn to have 
latai b tbetr « lailh •■ {Heb. li. 4). ttTietbrr (hat 
hltb of Abd teToTtd to the promb* of the Re- 
InneT, and waa amnaeted with inj Idea of the 
Meal metoing a aacrifice, or whether It ww a 
•npla and hnnble Ibith lo the union I3od, •> the 

Cr and pronJnr of aS fxA, wa an not autnor- 
bf SiTlptDre (0 eaMK. 
na netUee of Noab after tha Flood (G«n. vlH. 
Kill aBed bunit.olRrinE (M'A). Tbl* Mxrinw 
• "Ki^T oonnaeted wllli the intttatloa o( tba 

d bj J 

i. SO), and in 


:, Ibe iKOgnitior 

■* Rjnaailed b; tba victim, 

Tba aMrifto 
br ilarif, at Hi 

before; the voluntarj aomnder of an onlj eon on 
Abrabmna prt. and (he wrlltng dedication of him- 
adf on Itaao't, ara In (be fat^cround : tha nphitoiy 
ids, If reaogiiiiad at all, bddi etrl^nlj a aecond. 
ary pcaitioa. 

In the 1>uml.4HMnti of Job for bli cfalldTan 
(Job I. fi) and fiir hia thiH fHenda <illl. B), M 
for tbe flnt time find the eiprawion of the daaira 
of eipiatioD for tia iiccompanied by irpentinee and 
prajer, and Vrounlit pronilnentl)' fomaid. Tba 
aame i> the out in the word* of Moara to Phnraoh, 
Ha to the necegaitj of jurrifioa in the wildemeia 
(Ki. I. SB I, where mcrilli;* [irb-icfi) ii diatinetiiibed 
from liumt-offeriDg. Hen the main idea li at lewl 
deprecatory; the object is to appease the wrath, 
and avMt the vengeanea of Qod. 
(C.) The Sacbifices op tiie UoaAic Pekioi*. 

These are inauijuraUd bj tbe olftring of Ih^ 
CAsBnTER and tbo tettMM of Ei. iiIt. Tba 
i'aasoTer indeed ii unique in it) chnneter, and 
aeems to embran the peraliarltiei of all tbe varioni 
divlidona of HcdHce aooii (0 he ettal.ll.hed. I(a 

the itn-offirini in the emphatic tueof the blood, 
which (nAtr the first celeliration) wd> poured at 
tha lAtlom of (he alUr (see (.er. iT. T), mid in UM 
rare UIkii that none of the Heah abould reni^ 

mug (i 

1. 85). It 


all (not burnt, or eaten l>j tba priests alone), bi 
token of their eiitrrini Into aoienant with God, 
and eatiii|C "at his table," a* In the <sae of a 
peaecHiflbring. Its peculiar portion as a hiilorical 
nutnarisl, and ita spedal reTerenee to tha mtura, 
naturallj mark it out as incapalile of being referred 
to any fonual clma of aacrificei but It Is clear thai 
the idea of aalratian Innn dcKth by means of sacri- 
fice la brought out in it with a dlstinctneea before 

-H) diitinctly mariis the idea t) 
rifioe waa needed for entering li 
,h tied, the idea of which tha Aa- i 

(R. ) Tilt tm-nlrBfferiBg. StLT- DediOatobt. 

(b.) TAt mtalJfftring (mbhodg) ) EOCHAUS- 

Tit ptiu»<ffmng ipbudy) J Tia 

To tbsM nwj be aAdid, — 

{d.) Tki inettm ntknA iStia «UTiftca in (Iw 
Ral; Plua, lod (on tb« Day of Atoonneatl in the 
Hal; of Uolie*, the i; nbol of Uw tnlcmnion of 
(be pHtM (h ft typa of tba Gmt Hlgli Print), 
tecompanj-liig tnd miUpg efflcMiou Ihi pnyn- 
«f Uw people. 

In tM coiUMntkn of Auni and tri> mmii (T^v. 
ilii.) WF find Umm oSend, in whu beams erer 
(Amnin}! Uw ippolnteJ order : flnt cun* Uie 
•In-uArtnK, tu pnpua neceai to Godj nnt the 
humt-ofliiiiiE, to mirk their drdiatioD to hit 
nrricei inH thirdly Ilia lOMt-ofRring ef thanki- 

iriving. The •• 

n the ■ 

I peacfr-affcring (eaten no 
doubt by atl the peopla), were oHered a weak after 
for all Uw con^ie^Eatlaii. and acerpled rliibty by 
Uw deacat of Are npon the burnt- oflerini;. Kenoe- 
hrtb the ncriAeial iyit«ni una fiied in all lie porta, 
DDlil He ttaoulil come whom it tjplted. 

It !• to be noticed that the [«« of Lnitka* 
lakea the rita at ncriAee for granted (iM Lor. L 2, 
IL 1, Ao., " If t, man bring an oiftrinj[, ye ehall," 
ate), and l« directed chiefly to i-uida and Uniit iU 


1 na card^uUy 

notion (» 

t 10 ae to aioid 

heathen ayMmu, and Hndin;; iti loi^cal 
haman eacrifloe) that the more coellj the offtrinj;, 
lbs more lurely miMl it meet itiib aeoeptanca. 
At Dm anw tinw, probiibly in order to Impreaa 
(hit troth on Ibeb' minda, and al» to ^ard a^nit 
oormption hy heatheniah eeremoniil, and aiifainat 
lh« notion that aacriBot In ilaelf, without ohKll- 
ance, could avail (lea 1 Sam. if. 33, 33), Uie plan 
of oftirinit waa eipready limited. 6nt to the Taber- 
nacle," an«rwardi to the Temple. Thh oMlntnee 
aba neceaiitatcd their pei^odieal jtalherinij at one 
nation before God, and to kept cleariy before llieir 
■lind* thrir relation to Him aa thar national KinR. 
Uath limiMtioni brouffbt oat tlie great truth, that 
Uod Hlmulf proridcd the way by which nun 
afaouU approach Him, and that the method of 
i initiated by lllm, and not by 

In oonaajnenea of the peculiarity of the I^w, it 
hu been a^ued (aa by Oiitram, Warburlon, eto.) 
Uwl Ibe whole lyalem of lacriAce waa only a con- 
Inceodon to th* wMiknega of the people, borrowed, 
mora or Icaa. from the heathen natioiia, apeeially 
tiara Egypt, in order to guard againat worae auper- 
iliUir and poaltire idolatry. The ai^ument la 
mainl' baaed (aee Warb. Div. Ltg. Ir., acct. Ti. 3) 
ttx Ea. n. Se, and umlkr teferencei in the O. and 
H.T.tothanulUlyof»lld»™eei™oniaL Taken 
la aa ai^anatioii ef tba theory of aicrilk*, it li 
mak and luperflnali It labora onder two btal 
diffleultiet, the hUtarloat foet of the prinwnl eiitt- 
not o( nerlOee, and Ui tj-pleal reference to Uw 

• Iwta H aMaaef iBMnfoantofthlinila n 
■aid, aaa Jutf. B. S, tt. 31, HI). 19^ 1 Sud. il.lE. mudi 
n< Billas.Tl.Ui I K. IU.3,>. that et tt 


one Atmemetit of Chriat, which waa i 
from the very beginning, and bad b 
tjpifled, aa, for euniple, in the laeriflce of laaaa. 
But aa giving a reason ibr the minuleneaa and 
elaboration of the Moanlc ceremooial, lo reniark- 
eontnuted with the freedom of patriarchs 
MorUkc, and ai farniihing an eiphnation of oe> 
■pecial ritee, it may proijably have lomfl ralua. 
Htalnlf eonlaina thta Irnth, that the crating 
Tiaibk lohaia of God'i presence, and liable 
rilee of wonbip, from wbieh idolalrj prooeedt, waa 
provided Ibr and tomed into a aafc channd. by lh« 
rhole ritual and typical tjMem, of which aaerifica 
rai the centre. The contact with tlie gigantic 
ayatem of Idolattj, whioh pnrailed In li^pt, and 
wliich had ao deeply tinted the qiirit of the linei- 
ilta, woold doubtless render auch provlaion then 
specially nnxaanry. It waa one part of Uie pro- 
phetic office lo guard againit ita degradation iat^ 
fonualiam, and to bring ant ita apiritnal numlng 
with an ercr-increaalng deanwaa. 
(D.) Post-Mosaic SACitiriCEB. 
It will not 1« i>e««ary lo purue. In detail, tbs 
hiatory of l*oat.Mo*aie Sacrifice, for ita main prio- 

viU. 0.1), by Jeholadi 
(3 Chr. itiii. 18), and by Heiekiafa at hla gtM 
i'atsaver and restontioii of the Temple-worahip 
(3 Chr. UI. 31-31). In each oae, the lavish iM 
time waa chiefly in the peBce.oflMngs, which 
a aacrad national hut lo the people at the 
Table of their Gmt King. 
The reguhr tacriOcet In the Tonpla awle* 


), 10). 

It Uw great fcsUvals 
1. Iiviil. Il-iill- 30). 

) HEAT-OrrKitrNos. 

The daily nxat-offMngt aecorapanying the 
duly bDrntajStriogi (Sour, oil, and viiw) (Ex. 
- ii. M, 41), 
3. 11ie ahew-bread (Iwetve loavea wilh tbaokjo- 
nie). renewed every Sabbath (I.eT. iiiv. 5-9). 
3. TIm apRiml meat-olKvingt at the Sabbnth 
and the great IbiUiab (Num. uvlil., iiii.). 

' The Grst-rruiti at the Pueovcr ILer. dIIL 
10-14),at Penlecoet (i»iil. JT-30), both "wavo- 
oHMngi;" the fint-fruiu of the dough and threab- 
Ing'floor at the hanest-tinw (Num. it. 30, fill 
''^ '- ixH. l-ll), C9ilied '* beave-oflcrlngs." 
) Sis-Okkrhinos. 

Sln-ofiiEring (a Kid) nuh new mooo (Nam. 
i. 16). 

Sin-offtrings at the Pasiover, Penleooat. Fea»( 
of Tmnipeta, and Tal«macl's (Num. uriii. M, 30, 
nil. i, le, IS, 33, 3S, 3S, 31, 34, 38). 

3. The oflering of the two gnala [the goet 

aacriflced and the acape-goat) for the people, and 

of the bultock for the pricat himeelf; on the Great 

[My of Atonement (Ler. iti.). 

(r^.) iNCK.vaE. 

1. The morning and evening Incena* (Ei. m 


Xn. xfi. IS). 

B«dH tbMa poUlg hoUm, tlMra mn ottr- 
k^oT tb« pMpk for UMncln* indloMuallji at 
(btpvifieuion af poum (Ler. ul.l, Uw [gwita- 
Hdo of tiM fc lt - b cni, aud eirsmuciooa of all male 
■bildm, tiw dcuong of Uh leproi; (L*t. ilr.) " 
uj Di^uuaa {Lt. it,), it the fulBUment of 
Kaauitie and otbv towi (Nam. iL 1-SI), on oo- 
Meiim <tf dtanbga and of burial, etc., «ce., badda 
tb* frtqacDt oSniug of piiiMa vo-ofl^ngi. Tbcw 
bbM h>«< kqit np a cocuUnt nocoaioa of laeri- 
ta* CTCij daj; and brought tlw riU home ti 

(III.) In omminiDg thadocttiH « 

. fa Maij Id nmembtf, that, in 11a 

tb* order «f Idea <■ not petmarilj Ibe mutu Ibe 
arder of Uow. Bj lb* ocdo- of Mcriflca In il* pti^ 
M (MB (*i in Lor. vUi.) it i> dnr tbat tba ilii- 
1m moat important place, tba 



of tba "Hbla of tlw godi" (camp. I Cor. i. M 
31), b aqoaUy ocrtiio. Nor ■•* Cha hlgbar ids 
of Mfflfioe, «• a npmBDtatliin of Ihe Klf-devolioB 
of the offenr, bod^ and aoul, to the god, wboilj 
loat, although genenJJ; obecund hj the gro aw T 
and more obrlinl coMepUoiu of tbe Hta. Bnt, 
beiidn all theee, tbrre eeenii alwaja to han beea 
latent the idea of propitiatioti, that it, the belief lo 
a eomrouoion with tba ifoda, natural to ouui, bro)ia> 
off in •oma waj, and bj ncrfSea to ba raitond 
Tba emphalie " ahedding of Iha blood," a* the ea- 

part of Iha laeriAee, whUg Iha fltah wat 
den bj the pritati or the lamfleer, ia nol 

of aay full oiplaoation bj anj of tba ideal 
TtttTed to. WheUw It repnaeiilad tbt 
death of Ihe mcriaor, or {ai la eaaee of natioiili 
, and of time aelr^ 
nMed fur their aounlrjr) an Moning death for hlmj 
•till, in aitbar oa*e it oonlained the idea thai 
without tbedding of bload !• no ramiitioii," and 
1 had a lagut and diatonad gUmpae of the gnat 
cential truth of Itcvelatioa. Such an idea bkj ba 

bera argued) " unnatural," in that it coold 

explained hj natural reaaon; hut it ecr- 
toinlj wai not unnatural, if fraquenef of niatenea. 

It fa ilto obrioua, that Ibow wl 
■nitj of tba O. and N. T., and the t;pSal oalon 
irf Uw Uonie Connaat, moat rlew tha tf pe la 
aamlant rutaaica to tba antitjpa. and ba prejarad 
Iharrfara to Snd in Iba ftimKr ngua and mon- 
iila mwiiinga. wbieb ira Sied and naniftated b; 
Iha htlv. Tha Hcriecaa matt be aooodtred, not 
Btfilj a< the; «and in tha Law, or aivo M tba)' 
■igU bam appeand to a jiont Ivadita; lut as 
tb^ war* illuMnUed bj tha Propbata, and per- 
fectly iDtarpraled bi tha N. T. (a. p, lu the VfiM- 
tk to the Habrawa). It IbUowi trom tbia, that, 
aa belooging lo a tyitam which wat to anbrace all 
■tankind Id ita iuduenee, thej ahould lia alio com- 
f«Rd and oootraited with the ncrifieai and wor- 
ifeip of Ciod in other Ditiooi, and Ihe ideaa which 
ta then wtrs diml; aiid cmfuaBllj eipreaaed. 

It ii nerdW to d«ll en the unimvlitr of 
bwthm ■erificea," and difficult to ruluca to anj 
riagfa tbc«7 the rarioai ideaa iniolved Ihenin. 
U fa dew, that Iha lacrifica vac olttn louked upon 
aa ft gin cr tribute to tba godi: an idea which IGit 
auupfa) run* through all Ijnek lilenture, fnii: 
tha (ini|ile concaptian In H«ncr Ut tbe caiicaturt 
=f AriuophaDCi or Lucian, igainat the per%enia 
sf which fit. I'anl protaalad at Atbeni, when b 
dcelaied that (rod ntrdtd Dothlug at bmouj hand 
(Ada itU. 3i). It fa ako clear that nariBoi 
•cae ttted aa prajtcta, to obuin bniefila,«- to aiett 



■ bj Hebrew propbata. that bj tbtm Iha godi' 
knr Bnid be purebaatd for Iha wicked, cr their 
>nrj" beanrted tTOai tha proaparoua, On tht 
<bcr band, (bat tbc; mre lei^nlad aa Ihack-ofic^ 

■^ aod tba feoMiog on tbeir Scab aa a partalciiig 

and ■ 

e with a 

tural ii 

aUowed to prwlude tli 

Now Iha caacntial diflinuoa batwam tbe« 
athan riewi tt nariflce and Ihe Scriptural doe- 
trine of tba O. T. fa not to be lumid In iti denfal 

Ibr lacriSce (aa li khi abon) involn the eoiwep. 

thanlt'Offtring, a KlT^detntioii, and an atonement 
[n fad, it bring! out, deari; oiid diitiiictl;, Iba 
ideea which in heatbaiiitm wcra uncertain, ngat, 
and perverted. 

Hut tba oenitial pointa of dlatinetion an two. 
Pint, that wkereaa tba barthra conceived of thiiir 
godi aa alienated in JcoloHijor anger, to be aauglil 
' " and to be appeaaed bj the unaided action ot 
Scripluiv repreaenta God hlmtelf ai ajf^ 
proaehlng man, ai pointing oat and laiieliDiiinu 
Uie way \ij which the bnliai covanaol ihouU 
be rcatorad. Tbia waa Imprnead on the linelitaa 
at ererj alcp bj Uw minute directiona of the Iaw, 
time, place, victim, and ceremonial, bf lla 
utlerij diwKiuIananeing the "will, wonhip." which 
heufam found (iiU aaupc, and rioted in tha 
>n of Bxtij or monilroua laerificea. Aud 
ipecialty lo be noted, that thia particularilj 

IT that, wha 


« the patriarchal 

ficar onk, Ihe 
tt Aiirahaoi iu Lha inaucuntlion 
waa preacribed to him, aiid the 
T the Iaw were moet aeciinttelj 
and minulel; determined, (See, Ibr eianiple, tha 
wbi^ caranionial of Lev. ivi.) 11 ia needles 
lo remark, how tbu eaaentbl diffidence purifia 
all the ideaa above ooticad from tba oorruplioni, 
which made them odioua or coiitemptilila, aikd leU 
on ita Inie baua the relation between God ani 

tie leooad mark of diitlnatlon fa doaalj con- 
nrctad witl. thia, i """">'' aa it abnw* aairiifn la 

g«r1««, qooM Id Bolae Hi M, M TbomiOB'a J^ay 

.,..,.,.... ..,CA)t:)*^lc 



ki ft Mbanw pneMdliu; (nun G«d, and, bl Ui 
fcnkiknrledge, MuDcctad irith the ona «utnl bat 
tl lil bunuui hbtorf. It <■ to be found la t^ 
lf]Hcai chuacUr of ill Jiwiih HcriGcta, on wbioh, 
u thi Kpi)U> to tba Hebrew! vguei, ill tbelr 
■fflcu; dspoitlHl. It niiut be Ktnemlwrad that, 
lilie otber ordinuiew at th* Uw, Ihty had » two- 
J61d effect, dflpeitdiDf od the apeciaJ jfOutloD or 

uid on hk geuenl poaidon, u > mao b niatlan 
with God. On the one baud, for eiimple, (be 
■iu-aOtniig wiu an aluMnieiit to the natioDal kw 
fcr moral oAoan of DFgUgaiM, wbicb in " pn- 
■unptoaua," i. t. delibtniM aiid willful crime, i 
i^ectad (lee Mum. it. IJ-ai: and coup. H*b. 
H, 9T). On the otber band it bad, ai the p 
phetio writing ahow ua, a disIineC apiritual aig- 

novTlii^ fwglTOieia, which could bare brionged to 
It onlj' ai a t^pe of the Great AtonemenU " 
bz that tj'ptoal uxaiiing ■■• reoot^iied at i 
■at paiodi and bf diSireiit pcnoii*, it la u 
(0 ipeculatc; but it would be impowible to doubt, 
(ren if we had no totimonj on the aubject, that, 
in tht face of the hi^ i[dritual leachjfig of tbe 
Iaw and Uia Propheta, a ploiu luaelite muat hai« 
Mt the nuQitj of matenal lacrifice in ilaelf, and n 
btliend it to be inilitu; ml; aa an onlli 
oT Uod, ahadoving out •oiaa great ipirltual t 
<ir action of hit. Kor it It unlilulj that, 
own or lea* dittinetnoa, be oonnectAd the etolu- 
tkm of thia, aa of oth^ trutlit, with the cc 
of the promiied Mi iilih But, howerer 
bt. we know that, In God'i purpoae, the whole 
(fiteni waa tn>>cal, that all iti apiritual efficanj 
depended on Ihe tne aacriflca whicb It repnacoted, 
and eould be reeeiied onlj on condition of Faith, 
and that, tbciefoie, 11 paaaed awaj when the Anil- 
ijft waa coma. 

Tbe natui* and meaning of lh» vartoua kiuda 
•f aaorifice la partlj ([alhered bom the fbrm of 
their inititutiun and ccrenMHiia], partJy fVom Ute 
teaching of the Propheta, and partly from the 
N. T., eepeclallT the E|Jatla lo tbe Hebnwa. AU 
bad relation, under diflbient aapacta, to ■ Cortnatit 
betwrai Cjod and nian. 

'llie 6tx-orr«>utrO Tepreaen(«d that CarenHiit 
m broken bj man, and aa knit together agahi, bf 
'Jod'a appointment, Ikrough the "ibedding of 
blood." Ita obaiaoteriiLic cezunonj waa the 
•prinkling of tbe blood before the nil of (be 
Siuictuarf, the putting aonie of it on the home of 
the altar of incenae, and tba pouring gut of all Ute 
reat at the fbot of tba altar of bumt-oflenDg. The 
■«b waa in no eaaa touched bf tbe ofber; dtber 
It waa KHiiumed by Are without tha camp, or it 
«■■ eaien by tbe prieat alone in the boly pbee, 
uid ererjtt.lng that lODched it waa holy (1^7;^).' 
Thb latter point marked tbe diHInctlon from (be 
peace-oSerlng, and ahowed that (he aaeriflcer had 
been rendered unworthy of oommunion with (iod. 
The aheddiiig ot the blood, tlie ■ymbol of life, lig- 
nlllni that the death of tbe offender waa deKrvtd 
fcr un, but (hat the death of tbe vinhm «u ac- 
aepled for hta death by (he ordinance of tiod'a 

r in tb* «w 


amvf. Thia i> aeen nuat olew 
monUI of tbe Daj of Aloiiemeiit 
aaerifioa of tba one goat, the blgh-prieet'a band aai 
laid on tbe bead of tbt fcape-goat ~- wlildi wat 
the other part of the alii oflBring — with fiiiiftaetnii 
o( tha Mui of the people, that it uiigbl vliubly iieai 
tbem away, and to bring out aiplicitly, wliat In 
other ain-oderingi waa but implied. Annrdiiigly 
we &Bd (eee quotation from the Miahoa in Onkr. 
Ik Saer. 1. c. tr., J 10) that, In all caM, it WH 
the cualoni for tbe olhnr to lay hia band oo Iba 
head of tbe (iu-oSering, to coufaM gcueially or 
ipecially hii una, and lo wy, " Let liii ba my a- 
plation," fiejond all doubt, the tin-oOtruig die- 
linctl; wltneaeed, that aln eiiited in man, tha lb* 
"wagaa af that iln waa death," and that Uad had 
proridad ao Atonameat bj the tioarioua auAriif 
of an appcdnled tletim. Tbe tefaiiDee of tb* 
Baptiat to a " Lamb of God wbo taketb away tlM 
alna of tha world," waa one underatood and bailtd 
at once by a " true lamelila." 

Ilia oeiamoiiia] and meaning of tba Bftuer- 
OVFUUHQ were reey diflbml. Tha idea of «■- 
piation aeauH not to bare been abaent fkowi il 
(for the blood waa apiinkled round about the altar 
ot aacriBce};' and, bebn the Leritical ordioanaa 
of tba aln-olKring to pncade It, thii Idea may 
bare been nee ptomlDent. But in tba lyatem irf 
Lcvitieoa it la eridently only aeeondary. Tba 

the laying of tlie band oa 
lu aeaa anowi) tne aerotion of the lacrijoer, body 
and aoul, to Him. Tbe death of tba Tictin wn 
(>o to apeuli) an inddental fcMur*. ti> aignify th* 
oampleteneu ot the devotion; and it ia to ba n*- 

a preiic 

God. The m 

1 Idea ol 

Lin-offering 1 

ya, not Ticairiotta. a 
i> the axbortatloa in 
"to praent our bodita a living aanil 
■eceplabia to God." 

lite UEAT^rruuHOB, (ha peace or thank- 
ing, Oit Ciit-lhil(a, etc., were umply oflbingi 
(a God of bii own beat gifta, ti a ilgn of thankhd 
bomnge, and u a meani of niainlaining hie lerriea 
id bii aervantt- Whether tliey were regular or 
ilunlary, individual or nallonal. indepeudmt ot 
ihaidiary to other offeringa, thia wai ititl the lead- 
g idea. 'I1ie meat- ottering, of floor, oil, and 
in«, aeaaoned with nalt, and hallowed by ftwikin- 
nae. waa naually an appendai^e tu the devotion 
nplied in tbe linnit-ofTeriiig; and the peacr-ofbr. 
inga for the people held the aanie place In Airoo^ 
firat lacriflce (Ler. U. 22), and in all othen of 
ipecial aoleninity. Tbe cbaracteriatic crremony la 
Lhe peace^oB^ring waa the eating of the fleah by 




(after the fa 

bad be< 

<n burnt btlcm 








belckeiied the eiiiu) 

neiit of < 

rilh God at '< th< 

table of Iht." Old, 





i, hi, n,er.y 

ad beatowed. of wbieh 

r. Sa, «•). To tha 

'an," and the ataf of tbe 
■t Ihli. LXX. irfU 

bonf bLa and ilaalpu, lb 

i In Uf. l.4,lilaaB; 

1. Paiaphr. oa LaT> a 

It it ckar from tfaU, Uukt tba ida* of MeriRte 
m 1 ODuplu idtB, innlnog tb* propUialur]', tlw 
iaikaWrj, wd Uu nuhirittte clcouut*. Aojr one 
il Ukh, tkk<s bj itac4f. wDuld lad (o anv uuJ 
wpntirinn Tbe pcupitiaturj alooB would Lsid 
Is Iba idea of aluusiiHit hj ncriliw br lin, u 
btiag iffiiml wUboW ui} couditiun of npent- 

eui laiufj Ciod'i jen'ioe, jtiid ii a 

ub> tbfl hettbcuiih ftU*-ui|il to '^briofl*' God b> 

nm m^ otifaringL AU tiino probaUy wm dhjr 

ia emuiifcriiig Ifet humrbal iiiflutiic*. th« iiiihtual 
■nais;, mud Uie Lyiitol i-jilue of neriSee. 

Nov tfat Iduli^ whila ll»/ iKm ilnri (o 
bvv nuiuot Lie idfoi of iKttpItUtLoii wul of 
•UEfaanhc oflcnii^ btbu whmi they perverted thev 
bj half-bnlbeiiub uipoitition, eoiutuntlj ifpiand 
tb* MU-ddliotiiHi vhisli i> tbg link betwesD tbe 
Mo^ and which ih* ngubi bunitniSiTiiig ■faoutd 
ban iaiimaal upon thcui M their duly thought 
and duj. It u therefore la tht> point that the 
Icaeltiug ot Itte I'ruphet* ii nuirily directed; iti 

■e&ta(ruiu"(l Sam. tv.2aj. So iniih 
dcdan (« iD L lU-30) that "Ibe l.ord deIi)[bU 
itot ID tbe hlwd of bullodu, or ianilK, or goata; " 
that to tboai *b« " cam to do anl and leant to 
da mO, .... thouKh their tini be u 
aoviet, tfaey ahaO ba iliile u mow." JtRmlah 
^Binda Umw (irii. H, ii) that the I«rd did not 
t-oiHwinga or ..... 
. " Utcy my voi«, and I will 1 
Eakiti ia full of iodipiaiit pnteti 
ifBB a. 19-U} aEaiiHt the p^ulioo ot tiod 
Kama hj oBetiaigt ot thou whose heaita n» wil 
tbiii' idUa. Huaea acta tiirUi Uod'i requlremeni 
(tL si in wordi which our [.ord binueir nni 
tiaiwd: >* I deiired msrcy aud oat aacriSoa, aii 
tbo knowteilp iJ God more than bitmt'^S^ringi. 
.\iiHa (t. 11-171 giutl It eren more ttrongly, that 
liud "kitat'' thidr auriSoa, aula 
run down like walfr, and rii;hteoi 
migbtj atream,'^ And Hieah (vi. 
Ibe quealiofl which lies at the root of aaeriftec, 
~ Wbsewitfa iluU 1 come lature the Lord 7 " by 
ibe word*. " What doth tfat ixwd require ot (bee, 
bal to do jiutlf, atid !■>•« nitny, and walk faumblj 
with Ihf Gud7" AU llie« putaijaa, uu' 
Mbtn, are directed to one objei^t — not 
eoorage aaerillee, but to puriTf and qNritualiia tba 
iadioga of tbe oSinfa. 

The aame truth, hera ctiuiteintad from without, 
■a neogiiixed fr-im ritliin bj the Polmiat. Iliui 
ba nj), in Ha. il. s-ll. " Sacrifice and meat- 
aAcin;, bumL^fferin^ mid lin-offering. Thou baa'. 
Mt nqubnl : " aud cocitmta with Ihein the hini.- 
Iga gf tbe beatt — " mine earj faiat Tbou botsl," 
and the actiie acnioe or life — " i/i! 1 come to do 
Hi; will, U tiod." U !*■. I. 13, 14, aaeriDce ii 
VOtraated with prayn* and adoration (eomp. Pa 
OIL Si: "ThiiikntthoB that I will eat bulla' Onh. 
^ dr^nk the blood ot i^mta? OBvr nolo God 
tmkttftiaf, fmj Ihj vowa to llu Moat Ujgbeat, 

and can upon ma Id lima ot IroubK" In Pa. K. 
16, II, it ia aimilarl; contraatsd »ith true npmt- 
aooe U tba beait: "The aacrifice of God ia a 
troubled ipidt, a broken and a oonlrilt heart." 

waa not luperteded, but porlfied: " Tl>n thalt 
Ibon ba pleiaed with bunit-oHtriiuia and oblBUoDt; 
Uxn ghaU tliey ofler young LuUucka upon tbloa 
altar." Thate paaia^ are cumlativs to i)ie othata^ 
eipraaing tba ferlingi, whiirh ihoM other) in (lod'a 
name ra^uire. It il not Ut Ik argued Troni then, 
that thii idea ot aeh'-deJicaliaii is tbe main one id 
aacrificB. The idea or pnipitiation lioa beliw It, 
taJun for gnuited b}' tlie I'tvphaU aa by the rbab 
peopla, but atiU envdopeil in myalery unt. tbi 
Anlitypa ahould oonH (o make idi dear, fur tht 
ei-olution of Ihia doctrine we oiuit look to tba Jl. 
T.i Um pc^iarUiaa Tor it by the I'roplieta waa (aa 
to apcaUi) negative, the poiiituig out the aullilj 
vi all other imipitJationa in tbetUBelvca, and thap 

in of tlie heart la Ha uieu'a hearts on tba 

ig lijoAly on tlv Kre:U sul<^*t 
ot the Alunemerit {wbich wuubl be (breign to (ba 
scope of Ibis article), it uitl l« sufflcieiil to rahr 
to Iha eoonection, eal^bliilied in tlie N. T., between 
it and tbe aacrilioefl of tbe Uoiaic system. To da 
this, we need do little mora Ihaa analyse the %ia- 
Ue la tbe Ilehnws, which contain tbe key of tlM 
wbola taciificial doclrine. 

In tbe first pbce, it liiUowa tin prophetic boo^a 
upliatic [erms, Ibe In- 




carnal onli- 

riaueea, impost on them (ill the liuw ot reforms 
tiou" (Sitftiam) (lleh. ii. S. ID). 1le nr; 
fact of their conitaot rciietitian it laid to prow 
this imperfection, which depeuda on the fundk- 
' J P""f' 

blood of bulla and goats should tak 

e away tin" 

I. 41- But it does not 

lead us (o in 

ter, that tb^ 

aetualy had no Bturitua 

elBcMy, if 

oReted in nt- 

pentanee and faith. U 

the contrary, the objaal 

of the whole episUc ia 

to show the 

t,pical 40d 


of it alone they bad a 

spiritual m 

Urd ia decland (see 1 

'el. i. 3U) < 

lo have beep 

ce " i>efore t 

of the worid;" or (ai 

t is u.on irtrikinglT ex 

preated Id Rev. liii. 8) 

■lain fron. t 

of the worid." Tbemal 

leriol sacriBaes Rpreaanttd 


lade and au- 

eepled in God's foicknowkdne ! and 

to Ihnewha 

gnsH "l>» W— 0' •i" 

pardon, »d «It-dedit^ 

liMi, aymbolladbtbem 

they were m 


■Ut into the Ur»in«t wbi-:h the One 

■rue SacriSiit 

alone procured. Other 

wise the wb 

ole aacriadaJ 

snara. The sins provided for by the sin^H^nng 
wfn Bertainly in soma Haws nior^, [See Sis. 
Ofwkhixo.) The whole of the Mosaic dwcripttm 
of aao'ibea e-:ariy irapliea toine mJ ■pu'Ltnai bene- 
At to be derived fnim tbein, beaida the tempcrat 
privileges beloogiog to the national thoooraej. 
Jutt at St. Paul argues [Gal. iii. lfi-39) tluit tba 
Proniita and Covenant to Abrahani nere of pfi- 
msrj, the only at temtidary, luiportaoce. m> 
that mot had under the more tban they had 
ly tbe Uwi aa U mwl be aaid «t (he UritW 



auriAcn. Tbejr could umrejr uothluf bi tbem- 
Klra; jat, u typa, tiiej might, IT mtoepUd b]P ft' 
true, thougb nacoHrtl; laip<rttet, fliJUi, ba mmu 
of coiiiayiiig In mom degrea tlw bka^ngi of tba 

llili tjpkal ebvwtcT of iJI ncriia bdsg Uiui 
•at foitb. tlia nut point dnelt npon U [he unloti 
bi our Ixmi't peraon of tha print, Uie oAerer, wid 
Uw aacriftee. [PuiKaT.] '[he inipnfKtioii of all 
■KiiAcet, wblcb mada tbam, in IhenuelvH, liiMe 
to aiipctalitlon, and tnn ln«iplkabk, liea In Ihia, 
Uiit, on the oiie hand, tbo victim iccmi arbitrarily 
aboaan lo be the •ulMtiluba lor, or the rtpmrntk- 
tive of, tba atmftMr; •> and that, on the othrr, If 
Ibere ba a barrier of ilo brtwm man and Cod, 
ba haa no rttht of approach, or arcurity that hla 
aKri6ce will 1« aeceptidi that there n»da. there- 
km, to be a Medialur. i, i. (according (o (he defl- 
niUon of lleb. t. 1-4), a true IMert, who ihall, 
H being One with man, oSU the lacriflce, and 
accept it. H being One with God. It ia tbawa 
that thb iniprrfeetlon, Hhicb neeeaMtii; oiialed in 
all tj^iea, without which Indetd thej would have 
been lubtlltutea, not prepareliont for the Antitype, 
waa altosether done away in Himi that in the 
ftrat place ile, h Ihe repreacnlative of Uw whole 
bunian race, ofTi^red no arbitiarily-chcaen victim, 
but the willing ucrifin of hb own bkod; that. In 
the aecond, He wai ordained bj God, lij a aolenin 
oath, to be a hiqh-prieat TDtmr, "after the onler 
of Alelchiiedck," one "in all polnU lan>pt«d like 
aa we are, yet without ilD," united to our hunuo 
nature, luKeptlble to it* inRrmitita and triab, 
]r«t, at the aiine tJn^e, the True Son of Uod, ei- 
■lled rnr above aU created thinga, and ever living 

An la over', and that, in the bit place, the barrier 
between man and God ii by hi> mediation done 
avaj fbreier, and the Moat Holy Place onca for 
all opened to man. All tbe pdnli. in the doctrine 
tt aacriflce, which had before been tminlalligible, 
mn thui made clear. 

Thla linn): "'« •:". '*■ "*'"■ fbUowa that alt tbe 
•ariou) kinita of ucriftcea were, each In ill moia- 
nre, reprcscnUtjvea and types of tbe varioua aapoota 
of the Atonement. It ii ctenr that Ibe Atonement, 
In thb epiitb. ai in the N. T. generally, la viewed 
In ■ twolbid IJuht. 

On tha one hand, it it eet forth dbtlnetlj aa a 
nearioiiB Mcriflce, wliicb wii reudend neenwry by 
Ibe ain of nun, and in wliieh the Urd " bare Iba 
rini of many," It ii iu aacnlial cbaracteriitle, 
Ibat in it He ttanda ahaulutely alone, oRMng hia 
Mcrifice without any (eference (o the faith or the 
ecnvenion of men — oAerini; it Indeed for Iboae 
who "were (till ainnera" nnd at enmity with God. 
Iloreover it l> calleH a " propitiation " (lAafffui or 
tXatrripar, Kom. iU. ib: 1 John 11. 8); ■ "ran- 
Booi " (inKirpmni, Itoni. iii. Si; 1 Cor. I. 30, 
te.)x which, ir tronl) mean anythin|;. muit Imply 

Qod and man, fhim aeparatlon lo union, from 
wfBth to bic, and a change in man'i itate from 
bondni^a lo freedom. In it, then, K> 

Ua HcHllce ii oRi^rvd oi 
Wed or repeat«d. 
Now Ihia view of th 

1 God and m 

.for all, ne.. 


Ibe Ff bUe lo Ibe Hebrein, aa lypiflcd by tba da- 
oSbring: eapccblly by that paiticular ain-oOMif 
wilb whieh tba highprieat eotrrml tbe Uoat Holy 
Hlace on tbe Gnat Day of Alcoement (li. T-191 
and by that which hallowed tbe innuguntion U 
Ibe Hoaaio eorenaul, and cleanacd Ibe icaaela of lla 
minbtiatioa (li. 13-at). In Ihe «nw way, Chriat 
b called "our Paaaovrr, acrificed lorua" (I Vat. 
V. T 1 ; and ii laid, iu even more atarllii^ binguaga 
to baia been " niiidr lin Ibr ui," though He " knew 
no lin " (9 L'or. v. SI). Thb ly[dca] rvbtion 1i 
purtuod ami into delaila, and our Lord'a aufiring 
without the city b compand to the burning of tlw 
public or prieaUy ain ofleringa witboiil Ihe camp 
(Heb. liii. IIKiai. The altar of mai&x (hwi- 
••rrtiamr) i> Mid to bate )U aniilype In hit Pw- 
aion (liii. 10), All the eipUtory and pn)[ritiBlory 
aacriScea of the Law are now fjr the fint time 
broDgbt Into full light. Aud Ibough the prlo- 
elp)a of vicarioui saeriDee atlU remain*, and mual 
remain, a mynlery, yet tbe fact of it* exbtoiee in 
ilim i« illiutrated by a tboumnd types. A* lb* 
ain^Hbring, though not Iha earileat, b tbe dkM 
fundamental of all aaeriHcea, ao tba aaped of tba 
Atonement, which it aynibaUi**,iatbeoiiaaawhidi 
all othen reat. 

On the olber hand, Ibe aacrifica of Chriat b set 
brth lo u* aa the completion of that pcriM 
•beditnce to the wilt of tha lather, which i* tha 
latnral duly of linleaa man, in whieh Me b th* 
repreaentative of all men, and in whiidi He call* 
upon ui, when reconciled lo God, to " take up tlie 
Crou and follow Him." " In Ibe day* of hb lleab 
He oS^red up praj'cn and aupplicationt 
and waa heard, in that Uefearedi Ibough [lower* 
i> Son, yet lean^cd He obedience by the thinga 
which he luflered: and being made peifbct" (h* 
that (uflbrlng; etc II. 10|, " He became the antbc* 
of •alnlion lo all them tbal obey Hlu" [r. T, %. 
9). In Ibb view hi* death b not tba [vindpa] 
otiiectj we dweU ralher od hi* knrly inotmatloa. 
and hb lile of humilily, lemptction, and auJRrinat 
to whieh that death waa but a fitting ck>*«. Id 
Ibe paaMge ainre refitned to Ihe alludon b not U> 
the Cms* of Calvary, but lo tha agony in GetbaeBt- 
ane. whieh bowed lii* bumui will to tba will «r 
hif Father. 'Hie main idea of tfait view of Ibe 

In the Gnt view the "aeonid Adam" undid bj 
hia atanbiK blood Ihe work of evil which the llrit 
Adam did: In tba wcoiid lie, by hb perliBt obe- 
dience, did that which the Knl Adam hrft undone, 
and, by bi* grace niakiii); ut like Himtelf, ealb 
upon n* lo folkiw Him In tbe unit pxlb. TU* 
btter view b lyplKed I'y Ihe liunit-oftaing: b 
reapect of which Iba N. T- merely quolei nod <•- 
forcea the buiguni:* already ntrd from the O- T., 
and eapecially (aee lleh. i. U-U) the worde of h 
iL 6, Ae.. which eontnut with material utntm lb* 
"dtHOg tbL- will of Hod." It b one, which eaonol 
be dwell upon at all without a prevkiui iiupfiotloB 
of (he other; a* both wen embncid It: one act, an 
an Ibey inseparaUy connected in idea- 'lliH* It b 
put fuTth in Koni. xii. 1, where ill* ■'Dirrdearf 
God" (i. e. tb« free aalvation. through tb* un- 
oflering of Chrut'* blood, dw-elt upon ia all the 
preceding part of the epiatlai are made the ground 
forcalli^ on u* "to pReeut our bodiaa, a liimf 

d Ihal volnclarT aa 



wrjllM, bulj ukd ■cnptalik b> God," inMDUob 
b M u* iU <K« c. 6) OM wHh Chrkt, uid mem- 
hn tl Ut bodj. In Uila Kiiaa It !• UiU ■« in 
■id lo b* "ctucIAhI with Cbriit"(Gil. U. 90; 
Em. n. 6); to bun "the ■uSMiip of Chrin 
Anond In IM " (3 Cor. i. fi); »rta U " Bll np Hut 
■kkt ii behiud " (ri itrr.pii^iara; IhtnoT [Cul. L 
M); Hid to "iif oBati" itwtrSttfai) "upon Ilie 
■cii&ce<ifliK&itli"oroUicn(l'hU.U. IT; camp. 
1 Urn. It. fl; 1 Jobo ili, Ifl). A> wJtbout lb« 
■a ii(faiii( 1^ tbc L'lw, Ihk, oor burnl-alfaii^, 
nold bB impo«lj|s, K> iilio wltbout the bumU 
sflering llw ibi oflking will to u« b« uniniling. 

With tbnSTiem of our Lard't ucrifin od eulb, 
MtDuScd b tbe l.eiiti(Hl HcriEeei oa Ibe outs' 
■lUr, k iho to be cooiKvltd lbs ufferiiig at hU in- 
fcniiiTou for D* in hana, irbKh «u nprrteolei 
b; tba hwDH. In tbc Kpiitle lo the Hcbrewi, 
lUi put of hii priotlj office it dwelt upon, with 
pitknkr refveuee lo Iba oflbring oT incciiH in 
Ihi Hoit tlulj I'kce bj lite bigb-prieM on tbe 
Gnt I>>j of Atnwanit (Heli. U. 0-28; camp. 
Ii. li-ia, n. IS, 30, Til. 2S). It iniplia Uial the 
■ been Dinde olia Tor iQ, lo rend 
I (of tin) between nun 4iid Uod; 

MpUd bj Him for tbe Mka o( the Great lulerced- 
ii^ High print. Tbal iutetceuioii ia the itrength 
ol our pnjen, uid ■■ with Ihe Miioka of ili in- 
<Bae " tbej rite up lo buven (Rer. riii. i). 

The tjrp^ HfiK or the nieil oBMng, or pence- 


chieT St tbe'pUa Luipbia," ii oJM in 1 IMr. fttL 

Saddeut the eaptaJn, who wm in the plaoo cf 

the tieanr;." In 1 EmIt. rili. 4a tbe nana k 

-'«Q •■ hddeue " in tbe A. T., m In Uw 0*- 

Venioa otboth paaugea. 

SADDLE. [Camel; Furmituubj Hobu; 


SADl>nO (XoItaMai: [VaL XiStavAjHwat, 
ai, A.Fraln:) S<ukic). ZaIiok the bigb-print, 
iceelor of Em (I ¥j6r. riii. 2}. 
SAD'DUCBES llaStovlid-H' Sad.Jmxm: 
Matt. iU. 7, ivi. 1, 8, 11, 12, iili. 23, 3i; Muk 

r pmue, 

ChriH himatf, than with tboH lacriflca 
Ihank^Ting. ctuuilj, and derotion, wh 
CbriitiBoi, uBb to liwi, and " with which he ia 
wtO pleaaed " (Heb. iili. II>, 16) u wilb •'an odor 
d(inMnMU,BBKTiAce acceptable lo God" (PbU. 
i'. 18). Thej betoken Ihit, through tbe peace aoii 
by Um iliKiaering, we hare alnady leen enabled 
Is dnUcalo ouraciift lu God, and they are, u it 
•m, tbe ornament* and acceiBoriea of that aelf- 


ua;, ampted and Bnctioiisd by (Joil, and made 
by Him one channel oF bii Iterelation. In virtue 
of that lanction it had a value. F^'^y lymbulical, 
(ailly aetnal, but in all napecta derired fnm the 
OM Trae SwriAce, i^ ohicli it wai the typa. It 
bralnd the expiatory, tbe lelr-dedicaKiry, and 
IhcaDsbarirfic idea*, ach graduaJly derelaped and 
nphined. bat all capible al full nplaiiatioa only 
bjtbab^l nJecIal faMk fruiti the Antitype. 
On tbe antiquarian part ol (be aulijecl valuable 
o may be (ouad In Speneer, De Ltj/Ua 
, Dt S-icrificii: 'rb 
twrilieu of tbe origin of HeriSce it treated clear] 
s litber ilda by Kaber, Oa thi (IXcine) Oeigin lif 
3acriAv,aiid byDavidion, laquirij inlu Oie Oiij/tr 
y&ienjtce,- and IVarhurtoii, Dir. Ltg (b. li. 
• S)- Ud the Reoeral lultject, aae Magea'i Ditto- 
■itua oa .dJuKiiKiU ; tbe Appsidii lo Tboluck'i 
T*ialim on tkt Htbrtmti Kurta. Otr AlUtAi' 
■ ■«tf t *« (^emAM, llllau, ISsa [Eog. trmnaU- 
lia by Jama Uulin, Kdiub. ISSl, In CLuk'r 
ArtifB TIntL Ubr.\ (omp. BU. Sacm, \x. 2T- 
>I]; and tb* etfalopw o^ utboritls in Wlner'j 
Bi a h iJrfaft., •■ Offa." Bat it nnda for ita eon 
■tealiao littb M tlM (brAiI atuly of Scriptun 
Wt A.B. 


• ForoUwrw 

BADDirCBBS 2777 

Ibl* luttlMit n* Um irfH> 

;vnict'i (Anitr. ed.}, toL iL p. 

ieS3 b, and tbe list preSied to the work of Kuitt, 

refemd lo. See abo an article by Dr. U. R. 

Sojea, Tkt 5oV™« DoctAnt of Sacrijict, in 

■e Chvirium Kxami»er (KaMon) for Sept. ias«, 

id the learned and elaborat* diacuwiun of th* 

bject in lUli«;h-a LattluiH, part I. CLond. 1867), 

pp. 1-418. A. 

SADAMI'AS (S™ii«M*). The nwne <i( 

H.M.I.UM, one of (he auceatonof Eira, iito writ- 

u in a Kadr. L 1. 

SA'DASCApvaJl Al». Avth: [Aid. 2i.I<(, =1 
Atd-wi). Az<iAi> (1 tadr. T. 18; comp. Iiiir. ii. 
12). Tbe lb 

of tbe AldiiK 

t will h 


I tin 


I. 27: A 
pnrty Ol 

tion of liod ti 

'. 17, I 
nioug IJ 

i. 0, 7, 

la oral la 

be obligatory a* 
Allbougb rr«- 
quently mentioned in the New Teitaiiient in ooo- 
junetion with the I'hariaeet. tliey do not Ibnnr 
ivid light as their Krvat antaRDiii-ti on Um 
giiiScanc* of Uhriatianily. Ilicept oa on* 
w, when they united wiLb (be I'bKnaeea in 
lufcly Baking for a aign from heaven OlalC 
4, Q], L'hriit never aviailed the SadduoM* 

— Tbe aourcn of Information r«- 
dducee* an uiueb Ihe unie ■• for 
[HiMMisElu, vol. iu. p. 2479.] 
I, however, ion>e eaceptiona nei^tiiralj. 
Saddncsee are not ipohai of at all iu lb* 
■pel, wbete the Hhariaeea an fnquently 
mentioned, John (ii. 33, U, il. 47, AT, iviit 3, 
viii. 3, 13-19, a- 13i an oniiiuan whieb, h Oigar 
■ag);e«t*, il not uiiimporUnt in reToenoa lo tha 
criLiciam of tbe (kapek ( Uridivifl md Uibvltt- 
nuigtn dlr Bibil, p. 107). Uonover, while St 
I'uil had been a Phariiea and wai tbe eon of • 
Phari^; vhile Joaephua wai a FhariM^ and ibt 
]iff T " ii * WH ■ PhaiiMkal digot of i1iart«lcd 



■ lingk usdsubtdl 

•^□iOM «Dd pnctiim, 

nillDg of u KluDwlmgeg oaoaiicf 

iowa lo ut, ■> that for ui ■cqiiuiiUuiB 

opliiioui wo «n nuiiil;' dependent on tl 

aiit*. Thia point abould be nlwiji boi 

in judEiog tlioir opiaioni, uid forming 

jf Iheu' clunctcr, u,d iU full baaing irill bo dulf 

ftppreciited by tliOM wfao reflect Uwt eten at Ihe 

pnoent diy, with ill tlw ebeclii igiinil oiiHTprt- 

■ertnUon ui^g fnin] puLilicit} wid tbe imtntian 

of prinlJiig, pioliaLlj no religkiu* or pDliliol p*nj 

in EngUuid vould be couleiit lo accept Ibe itate- 

n>enti of ui oppouent ■■ giiiug a correct view of 

Origi* of iht mmi, — like etjmologjn <if 
■mU. tbe origiu of tlio Muu* of s MCt b, in wnw 
cue*, almoet whoUj ininuteriaJ, wbila in oUier 

Muiding Ofuniom wbicb it !• propoaed ta iiitatti<- 

Cle. 1'be origin of Uw nuue Sudducea ii of Ibe 
tcr deuriptioii ; wd > reuonible sertainljr on 
(hi* point would go br (onrdi eniuriiiK corrett 
IdoM rapMtiiig the poiition of the fudducer* in the 
JswUli Male. The nilject, iiomer, ii iiiroli-ed in 
gnkt difilcullita. The Hebrew nord \iy mbich (he; 
WW alM in tlw Miabna ii TitiliU'H, the pluml of 
Tiddiik, Ttiich undoubtedly mean) "juit," or 
** r^bteouB," but wbich ii nei'er uaed ia tbe fiible 
nccpt u a proper name, and in tba Anglian Ver- 
•iou it «]way> truuliited " ZadoL " (S K. iv. SS ; 
aSam.Tili. IT; I L'hr. vi.8, 12, «c.! Neb. iii. 4, 
2B, li. Itj. Tb« nwal obvioui (nnihlion of tbe 
word, thenfere, ii to call them Zadoks or Zadok- 
lUaj and a qu«tian would tben ariie ii to why 
the; wen ao called. 'Iha ordinary Jewith MalA- 
■MDt li tliat Ihe; are named from a certain Zadok, 
a diaelpla of the Antlgoiiua of Socfaa, wl 
tloned in the Uiihna {AT6ih i.) ai havii 
tbe oral law from Simon the Jual, tbe 1 
Dten of tba Ureal Synigogtie. It a ircorded of 
Ihii Anligonui thai be uKd to tay; " Be not like 
Mnanla who ta-n their niniter for tbe taJie of re- 
eeiiiiiK a rcvard, but be like Knwta nbo lervt 
their mailer without a liew of receiving a rewind; " 
and (he current otaleiiMnt baa been that Zadok, 
who gnve hi> iian« to tbe Zadokltea 


le great Ir 

:i ujing ID far, a* .lOl only tt 
t truth tbit v-irtue ihoulil be th( 

tbe individuid agent, but likewiae to pruclaini tlit 
doctrine that Ibera wai no fblure lUte of reainli 
asd puniahmenta. (See Buitorf, a. r. p1*T^ i 

BuloJorcl, BiU. Kal*. It 2tll.| The nlinn 
BabU Natbag, autliDr at Uw treatU* ou Uie Jcl 
nada In Ibe Ar^h BHtir tba word ]>Din'3. Tbe 
tmllH Itwir waa pubJiihed lo a Ulln traiulat1< 
r. Ta^Ur, al l^ndoD. IW7. Tbi oritlnal piva 
•fceilnf Za>li*'i diKlplH <• prinlad b) Oeifrr I 
biaw,aiid truHtahid b] bim, (A>c4n/l,au., p. 1 

Mb* wbao b* Ured. Ua ~ 
m JKubn Aa'fiiUi, u ha 


"Tbia IUl>bl Nathan 


Lighlibot'a Hont Hcbinia* am J/nKA. IL 1) t^ 
the Note of Uaimor.ldea in Sunnhutiui'a MUlmm, 
It. 411.) If, buwevir, the itatement i* traced ^ 
to ila original aouree, It i> found that then ii m 
UMDtJoD of It eitber in tbe tliabna, or in aoj olbv 
part of the Talmud (Uaiger'a Unciiyt, eU., p. 
lOfi), aud that tlw fint menlioo of lometbing tl 
the kind ii in a email work by a cerUiin fiabhi 
Nathan, which be wrote on the Treatiae of the 
Uiahna called the MM, or " Kathrn." But the 
tffi In wbich Uiia Kabbi Kalhar lived i) uncertain 
(Bartolocci, HiUUM.rcii il"yt>n Haibiviar, voL iii. 
p. T7U), and the earlint meutun of bim ii in ■ 
wdl<kuawn RabbuiicalilicUonary called IhtAiuci,* 
wliicfa waa completed about tbe year IIJA, A. B 
Tba following arelliewordi of the abon^nenlimjd 
UablH Kathao of the Arvlk. Adrertin^Kto Ite 
paaaige In tbe Ulabna, ahvady quoted, reapedltiK 
Antigonua't aaying, be olaarea; " Antinonni «( 
Socbo had two dindplei who taugbt the aaying Id 
tbeir diaciplea. and Ibcae ditciplea again taught K 
lo thnr diiciplea. At but Ibese b^an to acruli- 
niie it narrowly, and (aid, ' What did our Fatban 
n>caa in teacbiiig ihig taking? li it poauUe thU 
a laborer ia to perform bt> work all tlie day, and 
not receive liia wagn in the evening? 1VtJy, If 
our FalhiTs had known tbat (here ia aiiother world 
and a reeiirrectioij of tbe dead, they would not have 
ipoken thut.' They (lien began lo arparale (hem- 
■elie* from the Law; a>id » ihcre aroae tm aecta, 
tlie Zadokila and llailhuiiana, Ibe tbrtner fnuD 
Zadok, and ths Utter Irum Uailboa." Kow it ia 
to be obKTved on diis paciage that it doea not jtB- 
lify the once current l>elieflhat Zadok biniMtf DIM- 
interpreted Anligoniia'i aajlngi and it miateata no 
reason why tbe loilowen li the auppoaed new doa- 
(riiiea ahouM have takrn their name fnim Zadok 
rather than Antigonut. IkarliiK thia In mind, In 
connection wilb Kieral other |ioiuta of (he aanw 
nature, lucb aa, lor eianipie, tlie total aikuca n- 
apecting any lucb atory In tlie workt of Joaephoi 
or in tbe Talmud 1 tlie absence of any oilier ipeeial 
Informatiun rtapecting ei-en tbe eiiilenre ol tbe 
auppoaed Zaduk; tbe imprubable and cblldiahly Il- 
logical rcaaona atiigned fur (he departure of /adok'i 
diaciplea from tbe Ijw; tbe circuiuatancc* that 
Kabbi Natbaii beld tl« teneU of the l-boriaeea, 
that the alalenienta of a I'hariaee reapecting tbe 

merve, (hat Habbi Nathan of tbe An'lh, lor augbl 
o (he conlnr;, m^ 



1 Kabbl JthiKUh tl 


to nJMt tLU Kibbi Nuhir'a nwntion m uiiwib- 
Ibj t^ credit. Another ucuDt viggfation Doacem- 
k«llw origin of ltwi«m* ^-SudducM " u in Kpl- 
r''*-''" lAihti-m llartta, lir. ), irbo UiUn th*t 
tba SaddiKM* <;»lWd tbtDHclm b; liM nun 
" ri^lMUina*," tlw interpntaUon of tb« H«bRir 
tcmI Z«iMi "ud tbM (iMca ma likawiM u- 
dntlj ■ 2iilut inMng tb« printo, but Hut llwy 
<id Mt KHitiiiua tu lb> deebinw of thiir chief." 

pited otfinakiftj ni cwRct, 
Jkom wu not TmUIIDib « ZiddikilM, which 
Wild hin been th* ngubr H«br«« adjoctiva for 
lla-Jnt." or-'KighWout"! aiid Sdl^. While it 
••UcDtlj inpba Ui>t Ibtj onus beU liia doctiinn 
rfui Hidnit priiat, Zwlok, irlu k em oiUsd Ihcir 
itaitf or mwtcr (h-irrir^i), it iotn not dhntJj 

■■7 thil Uis c 

Homm, il das not gira 
Zadok Snd, nor whil n 
whkh the SWducn mm 
<Hift«d &im. 

broken off' bum Ua^tlwii; or in odw wurda Sch 

n^MvJ ; (r Dooitbeui ni ■ heretic who lind tbout 
Ik tim of ChriM (Origon, oMra tittitm. lib. I. 
17; Cloneiu, RtcogaiL ii. S: VMim, Bib&M. 
m.), aiid Ifaoo, if Kppbuini «u aorrect, (I 
ipaimt ehanetnialie nf [ha Saddacui wan pro- 

n at*; t au^fiotilioi 

D of tba fh 

•HBieation of HfraMua leiUi the SvldiHH nwR 
thu lOO jtui befon ChiiiL [Sea Joie|>faia, A<U. 
lEL », f 8, ond »iU. t, | 3, whan obavra the 

H uira kpx*^ > Haiaa Epiph*- 

'' n of tba origiii of tba word &iddu- 
M iBHt ba T^KAti <ritfa tbut of Bibbi NiUun 
it tb* .IrM. la tbaae dniunaUiw 
■a bod to eoiOactura, tb* ftnt pdat 
«ad ia whMher the word ia UMj 


Iba Zadok of iba Sadduaaet It likd]' ut bura 
Hov. •asDiding to tha eiiititig reaord* of Jeoiah 
hiatoij, tbeia wm obi Zulok of tnnaaaodent in- 
portaim, and onlj ooei iiaiMly, the pricil who 
■dad inch ■ pnmlneiit put at the tlnia of DiTid, 
ml who declared in bfur of Sotonioii, when Abio- 
Ikar tmli Iha pari of Adonijab u aaaaaaaor to Iba 
UmcM (1 K. L SS-U). n,u Zadak vaa toXb in 
ducat, Hnrdliig to tba gauealopaa, ten Iba 
Mgfa-iwM Aann; wd wbalnw maj b« the 
aaat uplaiulioa of tha itatnwirt In tba lit 
.r Kii«a, il. 35, tbal Soknun put him in tbe 
rf Abiathar, tJtboogh on previoua ooanoi 


L Hi a. viii. IT), bii liiw 
I preeuineiiaa 
n in a Cbr 
tapraa c attd u pultiog h quaa- 
tion l<» tha priaala and Levitca gHkeraJy, tha an- 
aver ia altrihuted Lo Aaariah, " the chiaf priaal of 
UwhouMbf Zwlak;" and in tlaeJiiri'a pruphatlo 
%iuott tf (he lutun Temple, " the Hini of Zadok " 
and " tha prieato tba l^viiei of ibe Med of Zaduk " 
arc apolitu of with peculiar homr, aa tbota who 
kept the char^a of tha aanctuarj of Jehorah, when 
the cbildno of taiul weiit aalraj (liuli. iL M, 
lUii. 19, ilir. 15, ilriii. 11). Now. aa the tranaU 
liou fma Iha Bipnadon "aoua of ZHlok " aiid 
>' piifata of Iha aead Df ibdok " to Zadokitea ia latj 
Slid obviDoa. and ai in tha Acta cf tha ApoMlei t. 
IT, it ia laid, ^ Tktn the Aii/k-pritat rue, oinf off 

Umilitao, and warn tiled with iudignation," it )■• 
hHo envaolured bj Uaigar that Iba Sadducaa 

or Zadokiia* wart originalljr ideiitica] with the ■■■ 
of Zadoli, and coottilutad wlut may ba lermcd ■ 
kind of aacardotal ariatocracy ( l/rtcAi-i/l, ato., |l 
1U4). To Ifaae wen anerwirda attached all wb> 
in »]j rraaon nckonsd theinadrea aa beloofpng la 
the ariaUKncy; *uch, for eumple, u the funUlia 
of tha hiKh-fjriatt: obo bad ablained csiiaideralioa 
under the djuaaty of Herod. I'bna vwe fur Iha 
utoet part jiidgH." and inditiduali of tha officii] 
and governing claia. Now, aithoiiiifh Ihii view of 
Ihe ijwJdlHeea i* only iMferenliiil, and niainly coo- 
jecliirol, it ccrUiiJilj eapkiut llie iian« heller than 
ly olhn, aiid clueidalH at otioa w tha Acta of U« 
poatlea the otherwiaa oljicura lUleuteut that (ba 
gb-prieat, and thoae who were with him, wera lb* 
Kct of the Sadduceea. AcoepUni;. thenfoce, thk 
LiU a more prolmhie c«^jectii» ta au^mtad, 
of the principal peculjaritiea or aupfioaed p^ 
aoliaiitiet of tba Sadducaaa will now ba noticed in 
detail, although in au^ noltca aocoa pointa maat 
ha louehad upon, which hara baan alrcadj' putlr 
liacuaaed in apeakiug of the Itiariaeea. 

I. The Inding tenet of the Sadducaea waa tba 
lagatioo of tba lending tenet of their of^unenta, 
A> Ibe Phariiaea aiMiled, ao Ibe Sadduceea deoiad, 

of the Sadduceea, it ii proper to bear in mind 

iphatically bow daalituta of biatorital evidenoa 

c doclrina waa which thay dniiad. I'hal doctrioa 

at tba praaant day reacted, |n>ably by almoat 

all, if not by all, Chriaiiaoi: uid it ii indeed aa 

lureign to thnr ideaa, that the stealer number <d 

Cbriitiani bare Barar aien beard of It, thoujrA it 

older than Chriitianity. and haa baan the np- 

port and MiutobtlDn of tha Jawa uudar a leriea of 

■ whid 


bI and wicked periaoui 

I, all ovar tba world, by tboic who are caliad 
rlbodna Jcwt. 11 ia Iheiafun deainbla, to 
Ihe kind of arguuieiiCi by which at lb* 
it day, in an historical and critical aga, Um 

il arbtaaraa}, btlag " «1^ 



loetrine it d^ided. For thii m apportunltf bu 
been ffino during tba lut three jttn bj ■ lenmed 
Fmich J«r, Grmnd-Rabbi oT lh« eircunuerlption 
•f ('«ltnur (KMn, U JmiiiMmt. na h VMH 
U T'dmid, Mullwute, tSS9), vbo itill ■wrU : 
ttt, the ajctetitt of ■ Hoeuc Onl Uo. I'l 
(iill jiutkc lo fail vbnn, the orig^nkl oork thould 
be ptruied. But it b doin|[ ng injiutiFs lo hi 
loniiiig and kbllltj, to point out that not on 
of bi* UEumeiita hu ■ poeitiTe hiatoricoi riiw 
1'hua he rdiet m^nlj on (be inoHiceinbiiil]' (n 
iriti be a^in noticed <n thu arllde) tbat ■ Diriii 
K\Tiation ilwuld not hire eiplicitly prucUlneil th 
docttiiie of ■ future itjite of mnrdi and puniih 
niFiiU. or that !t thould bare pronuilgated lawi 
left In tiich an incanipte(« fimn, and requiring i 
much eiplaiiatjon, and ao many additionii, ■> th 
Un in the Pentateuch. Nov, argunienU of Ihi 
kiiid nu} be aouiid or mnoundj baaed on rruaor 
or illi'jocal ; and for inin; the; may haw a pliiki- 
BOphical or tbeolo^iioal value; but tbej have 
pntaiae to he re^jarded at hiatorieal, inatunuch 
the aaauninl preniiia, which involve a knouledse 
of tbe Bttrjbutea of the Supreme Being, and tlw 
muintr in which He would he likely lo deal witli 
man, an lu bej-ond the limita of hiatoricat verifi- 
ealion. The nearett approach to an hiatorical 
ugunient ia tbe fuUowing (p. 10); "In (he Hnl 
pUee, iKithinK prorea better Uie fact of tbe eiiit- 
dice of tlw tradiUoii than the belief itactr in tbt 
tndiliuD. An ni^re iiatinn doea not luddenl) 
fon;et ila relii^a code, i(t principle*, iia lawa, thi 
daily cerenioniea of ita woraliip, to auch * point, 
(hat It could eaiily be penuaited that a new d<ic- 
trine pntKiited by aome impoaton la the true an<j 
only ei]il&iia(ion of ita Uv, and baa ahnja de- 
termined and ruled ilt application. Holj Writ 
often repreeenta the tiraelilet at a itilf-neckeil 
people, impatient of the relii{iaut yoke, and would 

tome fine morning ? Such a tuppoaition deatroyi 
itacif, aiid we are obliged lo acknowledge that thi 

goee back to the origin of tli 
tnnanii((ed ftom biher lo 

id ilia 

lo ton aa (he word of tiOfi, 
it lived in the heart of the peo|de. identified Itaelf 
with the bhMd. and wai alwayi eoniidered u an 
bitiokble aulbnrity." But If Ihii paatage b care- 
flilly enunincd, it will be accn that it doei not 
tupi4y a aiik)[)e hd worthy of being reftarded ■■ a 
proof €tS a Hoaaie Onl Ijiw. fndepcnd«it Icsti- 
lunny of penona eontenipoiiu^' with Moaea that he 
bad (nuiinilUed inch a Uw to the lanelitea would 
b« hiitt^ial evidence; the tetlinwny of penoni In 
the neit genrrathm a« to the eilstcnee of tuch an 
Onl Law which their fathera told tlieni cante from 

dnice; but (be iielief of tbe linelim on tbe point 
I jno yean after Hoen, cannot. In the abeencc of 
any intenntdiatc teatlmony, he deemed evidence of 
an hiitorical Cut. Uoren-er, It ia a. miatake to 

Oirelbrd, aod RecIOTOf BatoD Blahoji. 678 pp. Lon- 
laa. UrlntlOD, 1810. Ttalrd idllloa. "Tbutdow* 
mUn ^alD to the mi^aml dilknltj [the origin vt 
WhMlitr UHaolatlonorvhkbttuMreniithorbBmaB 


ntaat, that they who deny ■ Hoa^ Onl U». 
iniagioe that tliii Onl wu at aome one tfaM) 
at one great eyitem, intnriueed auddenly inMogrt 
the Itraelite*. 'flio real mode nt eonoeivlng wbrt 
occurred It W dUkeent. After the relum ftom 
the ('aplivilj, there eiiitad probably aflion|!*t t^ 
Jewt a large body of cUitonia and deeiawna nqi 
contained In tbe Pentateuch: and Ibeee bad pns- 
tioi] authority over tbe people long befbn tbaj 
■eit attribulftd to Moaet. 'llie only plmiotneoon 
of IniportanH requiring eipbuiatk>n ii niil the (s- 
iateiice of the cuttoma lanrtjoiied iiy the Oral I.AW, 
but the belief aocepled by a certain portion el the 
Jewi that Moaea hud divinrly rrmled Ihiae im- 
tomi aa law> to the laraehtea. '['o eipbiin tUi 
historically from written recorda it impoaaiblc. tnm 
the lilenn on the nihject of the very aoaiitj Ua- 
lorical Jewiih writlngi purportiiiE lo be writtoi 
between tbe ivtiini tmm tbe (.^piivlty in A3S belbn 
Chriat and thiit uncertain period vhen tbe eaooa 
wat ckiaed, which at the eariieat could not ban 
been long befbn tlie death of Antioi-hua rpiphanat, 
R. <;. IM. For all thli apace of time, a pniod tt 
eliout STi yean, ■ period aa long aa from the aoiea- 
oT Henry VII. to the prewnt yw (IS«3) ■« 

temporary ar 

the hiilorj D 

«unt, t, 

lory of (he Jew 
d Nebrniiah. 

a from the Captivity: ao tJiat tb 
it a long and extremely important period of nx 
than two centuriei and a half More the her 
ritlng of the Uawaljeca, during which then ■■ 
(otol alieenoe of contamponry Jewiah iiittory. 
tbia doarth.of hiatorical nialcriaU, it ia idle 
rapt a potiti> 

under which the Oral Uw 

«came aaa 

gned (0 

Uoeet *■ it* author. It it 

nply auffie 


tatUftctory toggettion it madi 


It migtt 

have been attributed to Moas. and in thii then ia 

not mu<A difficulty Ibr any one 

who bean 


>ea Uwio 


aler dale were attriliuKd la 

Minot. 1 


Solon, and Numo. 1'ha unna 

«1ng tfait the belief in the 

ml tnditic 


with the acceptance of Uie oral Indilion, may b* 
itrattd by what oeenired in KuRland during 
preaent century liuring a period when Ik* 
« of niainlaining the clergy hy tltbca wat 
leeted. the theory waa put forth that the origia 
ithea waa to be aeilgiied to "an unrecorded 
lation nuuje to Adam." ■ Now, let ut aujipoM 
tjigland waa a country at tmall at Judas; 
. the Kngliah wen ai lew in nunilier aa tba 

lemlah. tliat a temple in I^ondon wat the omtn 
o( the tjigli^ religion, and that tbe pupulatim 
- • - 'in hardly ever reached bO.OOO. [Jkhu- 
a list).] ui fi:rther toppoae UM 

■ " ■ ' lol-tion ooi^niad- 

iiol impaeaible Uiat 

.,., L'.ooglc 

^ uwiitka of iu> nnnoardtd nxlitloa aa4r to 

AdwB, mlt^t tuia been gndiullj uceptid ij > 
hig< rdigicKii putj Id Engluid h ■ diriiic autbor- 
kj far tilbo. If thli bdirf lud aaq^iiiiMd in (he 
■mc paitj dmin; * |M4od of nwra Uua 2,000 
fnn, 11 IhM put; bad btooDia doaiinut In Ibe 
Eo^i^ Cburth, if br tliB fint 350 jam eierj 
MBlcmticnrj ncord of Eu-liah hittocj boauue kat 
(s mankind, ud if lU previoiii tjigliah writinn 
tIj eoDdemncd Um belief bj tlieir ulmce, lO 
Ifaat the |»uiiM date of Ibe origin of Uk bdi«f 
■nld not ba laocrUiDtd, wt ihould hire > parxIM 
I* ttaa njr in wbieh a balirf in a MomIc Onl Law 
■tj nUilj bave uuco. Vet It would hsvs b«n 
*«T iUogioil fiR- u Eneliib taaoocr in the jtmt 
MnO A. D. to bm irgued (mm tbe bordm tnd 
tBtojtaet of [njiiig tiUm to tb« corrKtnfM of 
Um tbnrj tbat Ibe inttitutlun of tiUia wu owing 
to Uii« onreavUfd rerektioii lo Adam. It b not 
naul bj Uiia illiulration ta Higgat tbat raunu 
■a ^edota could be advuced for aucb a divine 
grigin of tithes aa ecm fcr a Moaaii Oral Law, 
TkB main <dueet of the iUiutntion h to ahow thM 
(!>• aiitaHe of a pnctice, and tbe bdirf aa to tbe 
mi^ of a practiee, are two wbollj dLatinct poiiita; 
nd that tbtre ia no nuinmry eonnRtlon In time 
b(twaci> tb« intmductwii of a practice, and the lo- 
tnductna of tbe (reralent bdicf iu ill origin. 

Dmte thia bead we niaj add that it niuH not be 
aMwned thai tbe Saddiueea, because tliej njecrtad 
a Hosaic Oral Law, njected likewise all Iraditioii* 
and all deciibn* in npUnilion of paasages in tbe 
Pantatondi. Althougti Uxj pratated aitunst tbe 
anotiDD that tucb points had tiecn diiinelj settled 
bj Uoara, tbej prDbablj, in Duinonus iostaoMs, 
Ukwed praetieall}' tbe same Iradiliona u (be 
I^ariaee^ 'fbU will eapLsin whjr in tbe MisZuia 
^nBe points of diflennoe between the Pbarisen 
sod SadduecB are amtioDid, wEuch fn as UDim- 
portaot; such. t. g. as wltetber toncblng tbe Holy 
Scriptures made tbe hands (ecbnicallj "nnclean,'' 
In tbe Leritieal sense, and wbetber the atnam 
•faidi How* when wats is poured bom a cIbui 
n^ into an Bnelau one is itsdf teehnicail]' 
-daao" or "onelnn" (laiJBin, It. 9, 7). If 
lb* PbariMes aad Sadducna bad difAnd on all 
■atltra DM direst!)' eootaincd in tbe I'mtntoueb, 
H mnU aaradj bare ticai necsiwrj' to partic- 
■bMtee points of difltsttxie such aa tbeae, which 
to Chlistiani Imtmed with tbe genuine spirit of 
Cbriat's trading (UstL it. II ; Luke li. 37-40), 
moet appear so trifling, ss afanoat to neemble the 

bat bi tbe written U* jf Uu Pnl» 
is ■ totaJ ahseoce of any aistrtion ij 
a of Ih* resurnKtion of the dead. Tbe air- 

itii^rnbblng doctrine of the 

of man's reauiTection alter 


in (he Pentateoeb, among tbe pnHiiiwa 
>nd (hreati, tbe blestinga aud cumea, with which ■ 
portion «f that great work abounds. In tbe l^w 
Moses is repreas'ited sa pnHnisiiig to those who are 
obedient to the sommauds of Jriiorah the moat 
allunng temjnnd nwarda, such ss success in bnsi-* 
nesa. tbe acquUition d wealth, ihiilful seosoni, 
Hctorj oier Ibelr enemies, lung life, and fmd'iro 
from sicknas (Deut. vii. 13-16, uvili. 1-13; Ea. 
u. 12, iiiii. 35, 36); and he likewiM menaces the 
disobedient with tbe moat dnadful erils which can 
afflict humanitj, with porertj. (ell diseases, dia- 
satrons and disgraceful deteaU, suhju^ion. dib 
pvsion, opprasian, and overpowering anguish of 
heart (Deut. uriil. 1&-68): but in not a singl* 
instanos docs be call to his aid the eonsoUtion* 
and tBTors of rewards and punishments hereaTur. 
Monover, even in a mne restiietad indeduile stni^ 
such as might be inrolved in tbe InnsmigratiOQ 
of snuli, or in tbe imniortalil; of tlie soul km 
believed in bj Pkto, aud ippventl; bj Cicero,' 
there is a sitoilar ahaenoe oF au j aasertion bj UosM 
of a resurrection ot the dead, lliis but is pre- 
sented to Cbriittans in a striking manner bj tbe 
well-known wrads of tha Peiilateuch which an 
quoted b; Christ in argument with tbe Sadducee* 
on this subject (tli. ill. S, 10; Mark lii. 36, 37* 
Ualt. uii. 31, 33; Luke ii. 37), It cannot b* 
doubled thai in such a case Christ would quota to 
lis powerful adversaries the moat cogent teit bi 
be; and jet the tat aetuallj quoted does as( 
D mors than tuggal an iafeieace on thia great 
loctrine. Indeed it must be deemed prolnble ttat 
the Saddncees, Si tbej did not acknoaledge lltt 
dliinc autborltj of Christ, denied ewi the logical 
ndiditj ot tbe inlsnice, and argued Ibat tbe ex- 
pression (hst Jehovah waa tbe Uod of Abraham, 
" God of Imac, aiul the God of Jaoob, did not 
nssrilj metn more than Ibat .lehovah bad besa 
God of those pAtriarchs while tbej lii-ad oa 
earth, without convening a S)^;i(estion, one way <• 
another, as to whether thej were or were not stiD 
living ebewhete. It is true Ihit ia other parts of 
the OU Testament there are individual puaage* 
which eiptea a belief in a resurrection, such as in 
Is. utL 19: Dan. lii. 9; Job lii. 36, and in som* 
of the Psalms; and It maj at fint sight ba a sub 
Jeot of surprise that tbe Sadducees were not eon- 
Tinced bj the aulboritj of Ihnae passagca. But 
although the Sadduoets regarded tlie bcoka whlcb 
oonlalned theas psssagst at sacred, it la mors thas 
doubtful wbetbar anj of the Jews regarded tbem 

^led b pnciseljthe same sense ai the written 

Tbers Is a danger here oF confounding ths 

gnat legtslator; and It i 

■Itbooih a dWofBs. msj psrtasps bi aEeepted ss el> 
pnsilD( Dis pbUnegphlMl oplnknii nepecttng the la- 
aiDrtaUtj g( tbs eoBl. Ha bad haU, bnwerer. mj 
dUhnel languafs la tUa araam pn annifo, eap. 
IxL, tf a pasBfe whieh Is a slslklB|t |naf «r ttf 
pev^lai CsUsf at Botaa to bis ttin. See also Batlwa 
Qwlim. IL) Jama], U. IW; sal FUaj the MM 



Umn WM Ural ii ■ doIomii] Form. preSralncDt !n 
uKbority iban nil tiibHquent propbeU. Not onlj 
Hd bli wriM of tl^t uid mrndtn in Egjpt and 
U Hie RhI Sea tnoKOHl in niignltada uid brill- 
linej tho»e of iny other bolj men in the OW 
T«t»ment, not only wo be the mdUo In Mount 
8Lnu of tfafl wbctfl legislnUon of ibe fsraelitrflf bat 


b divine 

n ftom Jehonth ou peculinr to 
him klonc. While othen wen uidnsMd In Tiiioni 
or In dnami, the Supreme Being eolnmunlcdted 
with blm done moutb to mouth ind bet to £iee 
<Nuni. xK. 6, 7, S; Er. miii. II; Deut. t. i. 
niir. 10-11). Hence Kircelj mnj Jew wonld 
bBTe deemed himaelf bound (o briieve In mui'i 
ra u ntetion. unteie the doctrine hud been pnv 
eUlmed !>; Uoaa; tad u the Sndducni dliba- 
Beved the tniiiniinion of inj on] Ikw hy Homo, 
the (triliiiig ibsence of that doctriiie fttini the 
written Law ft»ed them ftnm the neeewitj of «e- 
ceptlng (he doctrine »i dirine. It i« not meant bj 
tfai) to deny tliit JewUh betierera in the muirec- 
tion hmd their liith itmiKthened »id eoiifirmed bj 
Mtmiaiu to ■ miirrection in wsllcted pasnsei of 
the other ncred writinga; but then theM pnmga 
mn Teed »nd interpreted bj nie»n< of the Mnfml 
Ii)^t which (tmmed from die Oral Uw. The 
SadduEtfea. however, not making; uk of that tiglit. 

d bU n 

}f holfm 

he pronoanced nend, but wliiiA nuld eeindj te 
•nppoaed to bate been writlen bj men who believed 
tn a leaurreetion (Is. nirlii. 18, 10; Pi. ri. G, 
XII. e, tixiviil. to, 11, ISi Ecel. Ii. 4-10). The 
real truth aeema to be thnt, ai in Chrialianttj Uie 
doctjine of the remrrection of man mta on belief 
in the neitnectlon of Jcsui, witb lubsidlarj ar|^- 
Dienti drawn (h)m teita in the Old Teetamenl. and 
horn min'i inithictt, upiratioiii, and moral nature ; 
•o, admlltlnfl fnily the nime lubtidiary argritiienti, 
the doctrine of the reonrreclten among I'liariseee, 
and the nuneniTe genetationi of Drthodoi Jewi, 
and Ibe orthodoi Jewa now living, hu iwfed, and 
reata, on a belief In the anppcaed Oral laM of 
Uoece. On thli point tbe atalement'of the learned 
Orand-Rabbi to whom allnaion baa been ahradj 
i.iade lieaerrea particular attention. " Wbat eauaei 
Doet lurpriae in pemaina the Pentateuch li tbe 
dlenoe which It teenia to keep reapeeling the moat 
ftmdanientil and Ibe nnet conaoVnic tntl]ia. The 
doctrinea of the Immoitalitj of the aoai. and of 
retribution beyond the tomb, are able powerfullr to 
fortiff man agaliiit the vhiience of the psnlona and 
the aeductin attractiona oT Tire, and to atreni^hen 
bia alep* In the rugced patli of virtue: of them- 
•elvn they amooth all (he difflntltin which are 
tdied, all Hie oljectioni which are made, againal 
thetiownmentara Dliine I'ruTidence, and uconut 
Ibr the good fbttune of the wicked and tbe bod 
fcrtune of the juat. But man aoirehct In vain for 
theae tnithi. which he dttirei n trdentlj; he in 
lain devoDti with aridity each page of Holy Writ; 
be doea not Sod either them, ix the aloiple doc- 
trine of tbe raurrection of the dead, eiplioiiJT 
■nnounead. Nevertheleai trutba •> eonaoliag and 
e( loch an elemted order cannot bare ben paaud 
HCT In alienee, and certainly Ood baa not relied 
IB tbe mm aagaritf of the hamiD mind In order 
to aonoona* Uum enlj implidllj. Bi lial (roiM- 


Motel remarrf Me Lnif from Sinai, It 
U lo ./oaAvn, Jotlmtn fo tit tUtrt, (Ae tUrrt ti-ow- 
mUttd it bi tkt pnpktlt. and tiit pivphrlt lo On 
•HU nftiit grtnt tyutgngat" (Klein, LtJmdiritml 
M la ViriU BIT h Talmtd, p. IB). 

oonncolion with the diabelief of a Teaoircetioa 
by the Sadduoeea, It li proper to notice the atata- 
' (Acta iilil. 8) that they likewise denied then 
"angel or apirit" A per^ileiity arista aa Id 
ncise aenie in whicb thia denial b to be oo- 
dentood. Angela an ao diilJncUj mnrtioDad ia 
uiUtcuch and other books of the Old Tcata- 
that It ia hard lo understand bow Iboae wha 
wtedged the Old TeiUment to have dirins 
authority could deny the existence of angela (aea 
Gen. i(i. T. ili. 1, iili. 11, uviil. tS; Ei. xiiil. 
aO; Num. xtii. S3: Judg. xlil- IS: 3 Sam. nlr. 
and other passageg). The difficulty is Increased 
the fact that no inch denial of angels is recorded 
of the Sadduoees either by Josephua, or in lbs 
~ "iahna, or, it Is said, in any part of the Talmudiaal 
ritings. The two priiiclpij eiphuiations which 
•n lieen suggested are, eiUirr that the Saddooeei 
regarded the angels of the Old Teatament ss tran- 
sitory unaulutuitia] represer^tationa of Jehovah, or 
-' ' they disbelieved, not the angels of tbe CAd 
>menl, bat ineRly the uigelieid ayslem which 
had become developed in the popular bdief of the 
.lewa alter their return from the Babylonlao Cap- 
tJrity {Heraleld, GfK^li<:^U da VMrt Jiimil, iU. 

(jlher of these eiplanatlona may possibly 

be oorrect ; and the flnt, althou^ there are numv- 
(eits to which It did not apply, would haw 
ived soma countenance from pasasges wberrin 
the ssme divine ^paraiice which at one time li 
called tbe "angel of Jehovah" I* anerwurda called 
simply ■' Jehovah " (aee the Inalancee pointed oat 
by OesMiiiu, s. v. "ny"?!?. Gen. irl. T, 13, xxii 
-1, la, nd. 11, IBi E^. IU. 1, 4; Jodg. d. 14, 
S, xili. 18, S9)- Perbus, boweter, another tag- 
jeaUon ia adniliiible. it afqnan ftoni Acts xxlil. 
B, that aome of the scribes on the aide of ib« 
Pharisees suggested the poaubility of a s|ririt or 
igel having spoken Is St. Paul, on the nj 
on when it is aiaerted that tin Saddueea 
dfuied tbe esislence of angd or spirit. Now tta 

r any such pbenomoia in their own time, although 
ler accepted all tbe atalements respecting angels 
I tbe Old Teal.iment; and thus the key to the 
oertlon in the 8tb t-ene that the Sadduceea dttiled 
angel or spirit "would be found eieiuaively bi 
the »th vtnt. Tbb riew of the Sadduceea may ha 
illuitrsled 1^ tbe preasnl stale of opbuon amiNm 
Christiana, the grnt rasjority of whom du not iw 
ly way deny the eiialence of angela aa reeo ni i d 
the Bible, and yet they ccrtahily diabePeve tl^ 

III. The opinions of the Sadduoea teqieedng 
the freedom of the will, and the way In whieb 
those opinlona are trealad by Josephua (Aal. liiL 
6, { 9), ban been ootieed elsewhere [Pkakiicm, 
ill. 9178], and an eiplanatioo his been there aaa- 
gested tl the prominenee given to a dinroneli 
thli respeot betweep he Sadducass and tbe PfaMt- 
sea. It may be here added that poesllJy the mM 
stTM kid by tba Saddueeea on the frssdom of b 

•U(b viminl jDOgn nn UcetM. Ji 
a tbdr Kodr, ilUKnigta Ottj I 
It of Kood 
( indnlE* ' " " 
■Hmd (o ba tba aruw 
■hilt rc|;(*Rl with ciKnp**'"'- *^ pnnlihinaita 
bdcMd OD Inriitiiliiiili whom i wtier mcnil tnln- 
^ uid B TDocv h>p(^j Ittluvqd tuIotc might hmn 
BHid* ibfTuI mnihcn of Bciftr. llHiaii Jewi who 
wn uluioft ocluiuTclj religioui tacben vouJd 
■kUomllj' ituUt OD Uie ini)>ili()' oT maji to do uij- 
tting Rood i[ (isd'i Itolj Spirit wm taken awiT 
from him (Pi. li. II, li). *i>d would enUrgc on 
tbv perili whicb lurToaiidH] niui from tbft tempt*- 
tl«« of SutKi and nil mngrli or iiilriti (I Cbr. 
Hi. I; Tob. lit. 17). But it u likdj that tb« 
loKlcneia of tbe judidil titm vould b* mom pno- 
liail aod direct, and mors ilrictlj in Haorduisa 
•Ith the ideal of the Leritkai prophet Hnkiel 
fniiiL ]1'I9} in ■ well-knuim paMnga in ahich ha 
(It^ the reeponijbilitj of bad actiou, am 
M attribotfl the power of perfonuing good 
tnhutTdj to the indiridual igeoL Uaacc lb* 
MoClnMiit of the Una — 

■■ Our aoli our Anf^ an, or food or 01, 
Oar eual iludm that walk bf m Mill," 
■a ii l J expna that portion of inth on which the 
" " ' ' "ietinf; poniifaTDenU, woold dwell 

it: ud la. In KHDe (enae, tbe^ 
dirtelwml in angda, then linea bare a pentlnr 
•Urn to h« noarded m a comet nponcnt of 3ad- 
tmemm Ihnnght.' And jet pprhapa, if wriUng* 
■*e axtant m whkh the Sadduaeea explained Ihrir 
•wn idcaa, we might And thai thcj rrcoDcilcd tbeae 
rrbeiplat. an duj be oataln that Eiekld did, 
■Hb otbv fillip Hppumllj of a dlBtnet import 
b Uw OU ratanwnt, and tbM (ba Una of demar- 
MloB between then and the PbariKei wia not, 
!■ IbcDrr, 10 very ahaiplj marked aa tbc aooovnt 
if Jcatpbm wmid lead oi ta mppoae. 

ir. aone of (ba mij Cfariatian wittin, nch 
m (HippoL PUbniikam. ii. », nd the cpa- 
riOB* additnn to TertoIL IM Prtner. Haiti, c 
1 (or 4S).] Epiphaniu) (/fsra. dr.), Origtn 
■nd Jvjma fin tlinr reapeetiTe Cominctitariefl on 
HaU. nii. »l, ti. S3) attribnte to the Saddncera 
tba r^niian ot aO the Sicnd Scrlptnm eiorpt the 
" ' ' Such rejection, if Ine. would un- 

. >mt>tu(« a mnt important addillona] 
tiSkreKe hetwna the Sadducea and PhariiMi. 
Tbc •tatemeat of Ottwi Cbrirtian wHIen i), bow- 
ttm, DOW tfmenHj admitted to hare litcn founded 

• Sadduceee 

See IJgbtfcot'a Hara He- 

I. [it T; IlmrCiM't GaeJiitklt di, 

mJifrnet, ii. 363. Joarpboa fa wholly slleiit 

I an antaifoniim on tbii point between the 


i 14). Again, tba aiiitance cf UKh a mi ■iiiitiiM 

antagonlam wddM ba IneompaUble with tba m*- 
n<r in which Joaepbin tpeakg of John Hjicbum^ 
who wn blgb-priot and kli^; of Jndsa Ihlrtj-ooa 
jnn, and wllo ncnrtbeloi, baring beoi pmiouil; 
a Phuiaee, becante a Sadduoee lowanlt the cloai 
of bia lita. Tbit HjrauiDa. who died about IM 
B. c, bad been lo inicteralelT hoatile to tba 3a- 
Diaiitana, (hat when abont three jam before bl* 
d<a(h hi took (heir dly (Umaria, he nied It 10 
the ETOUnd; and be 1> repmenlrd lo bare d 
carcmi in mrloui parts of lb 

» lo a lercl o 

d tbeii 

lure dug 

marki of nicb a eitj hating crer 
Sadduoeei bad eome s> near lo 
at to njrct (ba dirine autboritj' of all (ba bonkf 
of tba IHd Totaniant eieept Um Peatalcucb. it b 
•erj anlikely that JoerpbDs. after mentioning lb* 
de^ of HfRaDoi, abouM hare ipoken of bin 
Bl be doea In the fbUowIng manner: "He wM 
ednmed bj Uod worthr of thne of the gimtart 
priTllegia, the goreniincnl of Ibe nation, the dl^ 
nit; of the high-prlealbood, and prophecj. Far 
Uod waa with him and enabled biu to know fo- 
(nre erenta." Indeed, It maj b« Inlertwl tkoa 


'ital importance whether i high-prleal 
WBiiSaddueeeoral^arlMe — aktltudaofloin- 
(km which we may be confident he would not hait 
indulged in, rf the dirine autboritf of all the bookt 
of the Ok) Tdtament eitept the Pnitntencli. haj 
been at alake. What probablj bad more inSuenoi 
than injthing elM in nccuinnlng tbU miKoncep> 
lion reapecting the Sadducees, waa the climmiHanc* 
that in Bluing with liKm on the doctrine of ■ 
futOR hk, C'hriit quoted fttiai the Pentateuch only, 
although then i» atranger teiti In fiivoi of th* 
doctrine In aoma other booka of the Okl Tcatamnl. 
Hut pnbable realoni bare been alreadj aatigntd 
whj Cbriat, in anming on this aubject witii Ifaa 
Sadduceei, nA^rred onlj Id tbe eiippoeed opinion* 
of Moaea latber than la iaolalcd pasogei eitractad 
frnm tbe ptqduclHme of aoj other aiered writer. 

T. In ooncluiion, l( mnj be proper to notice a 
&ct, wbicb, while i( accounti for miKonceptiont of 
eirlj Chrittlan wrilin rcapecUng tbe Sadduceea, la 
on other ground) well wortbj to arreat tbe atlov 
tion. lliia bet U tbe rapid diiappeannce of thi 
nadduoea ftom biatorj afler the lirat cenlurf, and 
tbe aubaeqnent predominance among the Jcwa if 
the Dplnioni of tbe Pbarbeea. Two etreuRotanaea, 
indhicUr, but poverAin;, contHbated to pradtua 
thii mnlt: ItL The atalc of the Jem alter tbt 
capture of Jcmaalem bj Titus; and Sdlj. The 
growth of the Chriatlan religion. An Co Ibe flrat 
pdnt it li difficult to over-eatimatc tbc cmiMcma- 
thm and diaoiaf which tbe dcalructlon of Jerunlcn 
ocaaioncd in the mliidt or ainerrrl; religioita Jew*. 
Their bolj citj waa in ruina; Ihcir holj and Iwan- 
liAil Tmpla, the Feiiln of their worahip and (belt 
lot*, bad been mthleHlji burnt ts tbc ground, and 
Dot one atone of it waa left npnn another: tbeb 
ina^Sccnt bopei either of an ideal king who wia 
,lo reatore tba ampin ot David, or of a Son of MiK 
wbo wn lo appeaf lo them 'n tbe cloudt of bcailn, 

Panowaa'a Ua* " Etm •■ 



MMMdlo tbem Ibrk whllsUkaeniptjdmmiiaDd 
Uw iibob vbiU* worid wu, b> UkIf loHglnUloii, 
bhcknUhdoDlilioouKtil^ialr. In IhlitbdrhuUT 
of darkiMH sud ingulifa, tbe; nitimOf tiinwd to 
Ilia ooiuolatkmi and bopei of i futuretute, ind tlu 
doetilur of Um Sidducen thmt ibtn na uothlng 
b«jMtd Um pracot lUc would hm ifipand to 
Uwm cold, bcartlcM, uid hiUful. Again, while 
Ihtj wtrt Mink in tba lowst depthi of depmion, 

■ new KU,(kni whLcb tbej deapiied u • beiaj and 

■ lupentilion, of whidi on« uf Uxir o»ti nitior 
wu Ibe Direct, and ■nother Ibe unrivaUd miaaim- 
arj to the heathen, mu gnuluaUj nulling iu wa; 
aoKHig the lulyecti of theii dMstol conquawi, 

indouliUdl}' the viild belief in the reiunectiou of 
Jelua, and a conaequent reiurrection of all man- 
kind, which waa accepted b; It* beaUien conrerta 
with a puiionaU nrnealneaa, of which tboae who 
at the preiHit daj an fiinillar Ironi infancv with 
Um doctrine of the raurnctkn of the dead oin 
li»i]i onlj a faint idoL To allcmjil to check the 
pr e a raa of thl« new reliifion among the Jewa bj' an 
appbU to the tcniporar}^ rewarda and puniahmenti 
of the i>eiiULFUch, would hare heen aa idle aa an 
endeavor to clieck an eiploaive power bj ordinar; 
mechanical rotjaiuta. Conacioiulj', thenfoH, or 
unconicioualj, nmny elrcutuitancea com Lined to 

mitteil the new heretj, to rallj round the aland- 
ard of the Oral liiw, and to aaaert that tbdr boij 
ItgiiUtor, Moaea. had timiiamilted to hia faitliful 
people by word of nwuth, although not ui writir 
the reipialioD of a future atalc of rtwirdg ai 
puniahnienta. A grt»t 1«lief waa thua built up i 
a gnat fiction ; earlj' Itacliing and cuatuni auppli 
the place of evidence: faith in aa Imaginary fi 
ptoduced RtiilU aa atrlking aa could liave flowed 
ftoni Um fcct itadfi and the doctrine of a lloaaia 
Ofal Law, enahrining convictiona and hopea ierfXy 
noted In the human heart, baa iriumpbed fur 
M«l; 1800 yean in the idea* of the Jewiab f 
pie. Thla doclrfne, the pledga of eWmal life 
Umri, aa tha tttuimUon of Jcaua to Chriatiana 
ftill maintained by the m^ority of onr Jewiah c 
lemporarira; and it wiU prolialily continue to 
the creed of milliona long arier the pnaent genera- 
lion of mankind haa pasted away ftom the ovth." 
E. T. 
■ J!il<ra(iira. — It ahould be noted, pcrlutpa, 
that Uw Jewiah anla an tnated of in the latdy 
dlacottr*! Pl>ii.mitilimtitn or R^UoHo omnium 
Mai'FBiH*, now gencnlly aacrihed to liippolytua, 
Ub. il. ca. 18-30. 'llM Sariduceea 
by Phib, but iiroaaniann, Je Phiim 
t partL UpL IBae-W, 410, haa collected 

BOMB to reUU to them, Hia coiijcctiiraa. bowe 
hare not ban gencnlly adopted by acbolan 

icatMrad lia». In Ih* Uibnw Bcrtptun*, ll an In- 

* Tba primary naanlDf cf tCllH, aceordliif ti 
|aMMaanill)lalrtgll,la"pnn|" aeeoidlEi( to lUrtt 


Winw, aai. Btabiarlei*. ud ReiM Ed Hwi' 
Seat-EiKftL. art. SiuUucOer). Tba mora iMMri 
I napecting the Sadducoa are nxntiofiad 
Uie art. Phakibeks. toL UL p. 8479 
Among thoe, Kelm, Uonibourg and Hauantk 
may be ipecialty referRd to lor a view of the laIrM 
teaisrobea and i^nlona. Sea alao Flint'a Gt 
leAidiU da KarSaUitimt, S lob. L<i|t. lB6S-6a, 

' J. R. Ilanne, Die rhnriiitr u. SadihuAif 
aUpiilit. /■nrfeien, in Hiigenrcld-aZgtUcjtr. /.>>«. 
ThioL, ISBT, I. 131-17S, KIB-m A. 

BA'DOC ISadod). L Zadok the ancaata) 
of Kara (3 Eadr. I. Ij comp. Kir. di. !]. 

9. (ZdJiic Aidae.) A deacendant of Zerab- 
IiUmI toUwgCMalogyDf JeanaCbriat (UatLI. U). 

8AFFB0N (.Sin^,anxim!tpi„,:ercatt) 
la mantkined only In Cant. Iv. 14 with other odoraw 
' iiiKS, aoch aa ipikenar^, calaniua. cinnamon. 
Mo.; there ia not the atijihteat doubt that "mt- 
la the correct rnideHngof the Hebrew word; 
the Arabic Kmhan ia aiinilar to the Hebtow, and 
■ the Cncui inlicm, or "aalThin eroeoa." 
n haa Iram the rarlieat tlmea betn in high 
1 IS a perAime: "It la uaed," aaye Roaen- 
miillcr (Bib. But. p. 138], "for theeame purpeaM 
a the modem pol-pouni." SaRInn waa alao need 
a aeaaofllng dlahea (Aplciua, p. 3TD); it enteted 
ito the ooffipoaition of many apirituoo* nlraeti 
rhich retained tha acent {we Ueckmann'a llUt. rf 
■ncent i. 175, wl«« tl>e wlKje .uhject la ro? hDy 
dlacnaaed). Ilia part of tlic plant which waa uaed 
the atigma, which waa pulled out of the Bon 

atljtmai are p»paml by being aubmltted to 
preanirt, and Uiua made into cake nffhm. a fbna 
In wbich It la alill imported from feraia Into lo- 
Haaaelqiiiat (Ifnc, p. X) atain Uiat In 
oertoin plMca, aa atound tlizueaia. large qnaotl- 
tieaof Hflbm arepnthemi and nported todiSttoil 
in Aaia and Kurope. Kiitu (/'Ajh. IliiL of 
Pntett. p. SSI) aaya that the aafflower (,Cnrikrimm 
' "iua), a very diltereiit pbuit from tha cmna, 
ivated In Syria for the aake of the ftmrefa 
an uaed in dyelnii, hot the KKvkim no doubt 
denott* the CVocu tuiiria. The word aaifton li 
derived from the Arabic Z-i/i'm, ■' yellow." Tlh 
plant Kivea lla name to .SiittVun-Waldni, In EaaeK, 
rbere it la lai^y cultivated. It belotiin to tba 
Natund Order l.iJnaa. W. H. 

aa Uw Iranalatioo of dip orlta eognaUi, 
Inetaen timca aa the tnnaUtion of TDIT, 
which Hebraw wordt an with a few eiceptiana rff»- 
reKiilod in Uw IJCX. by £7101 and Siriai npeot. 
ivdy.* In aooM Inatancta when applied to man 

I," "fkaah;" aeeotd)n| to Mairr (Hrtr. in» 
p. SSb) " aipualed." Uupfeul aaeilbaa t* 
Tljn (tbwtwi. SB pa. iv. 4| a paaalva fcrea, "Ifc 
Toi*d.'> 'Ayui (fPom Ifo, iig^ai. nnmir, akin la 
tft^ai. BDtimiTin'a I^xiiijifi", I. JW I f. nana, p «T. 

by dartvurloo to algniiy "very pui«," tba 

'," Tba detlvartnn of onK, " halkml.'' la laa 
D (na Btnley. Gri.r«. H'^ri^Vu. 1. IM f: 
(. Trrmnian Id (be clwdri. Is UlbltniJ Oie^ ■• 

■BHtKl, la hattDCM u (be ifftwribed lod ippniprl- 
■IB Aitettr of tlion who bar it, H b uiplMil In- 
iWrimiTutelj (nfKuliy in Ura kla boou] to tha 
la^Ho, B ■ niUon cooMcntod b> God {Pi. L 5, 
tmB. 9; Du. tU. IS, 31, «, St, 9T ; ef. HU. SI, 
li. T; Siod. lii. 8; Num. xTi. S; 1 Eidr. tOL 

Iboa dJiUncUvrl; u renpecli either tbor oMfon- 
■bf «r their Inslilj, nor does It denote oatmnl 
mfantiim, dot don it itftr — mtleut ptimnril} — 
to their monl eliiiraeteriillca, irhedi(r the; ba 
riuKul H lardoned dnncn, w m tlic jmimon of 
ai fanpnted boUnai, or of (ome de^*e of Mtoil 
bolmca, or u ptvdHtinal to perfect boliont, or m 

pocunt Daniber o( irb«n Mie holji but it li u 
^ptfctioii oftll ChrMUiK u ChriitiwB. On b*- 
eamlDg Cfarutiint tbej' become ileo " laliit* " (et. 
Ik DB of Uw HBguUr in Pliil. ii. 91). Yet M 
la the O. T. the Inheroit mm of the mrd aOo) 
gleUM through th* tluaenUe, n in tfte H. T., 
ipeenblT to the aplritiB] nUnra of the Osutian 

' in tfa« tfiritml, tha comecnlion li Tiewed 
men h inlernitl uid penoiul, (ha fryuM uf alio 
■rulr 47«Hr^.'M, (Cf. 1 Cor. I. 3i Eph. i. 1, 4; 1 
Hat. iL 9.] (Note (ha Oactiatian ia (ha mevaiiii! 
of Iryyiia in Jofan itH. 17. I»; and lea Hab. li. 
II.) Thiiaoue, howertr, iionenhlchdoaenol eo 
■mcb lie in (be word itaeif, •• reaoK frnm the na- 
Um of the - people of God," *hieb » (he aainta " 
■aaMitute; anamlinKlir it cornea (o view with diC- 
fennt degm of dlitioctnea) iii diAmil ^wigea. 
tia nlue of tha term Ihr mora) lun ii gne>lj 
■ugmenled b; (hii vrrj SnilHlit; uid poaibla com- 
pnhneiTtDeia of liftiiifintion. 

The term ii a) » applied in the O. T. eeveral 
tia« (Unit, uilii. 2: ' b t. I, ir, IS: Ti. 
Uuli. ft, T: Zech. lir. b) Ij (beangebu preeml- 
atnlly >• bolj " ; and In one olocum |Din|£a. Hoa. 
Ii. li (lii. I, LXX. fail tfiot), lo God bimatir 
(/Air. wjfrf. If. Joeh. ail. IB ; Vnr. ii. 10, m- 
3.) lu the X. T., ilao, it ii tbowibt b; miaj 
eiposton to be losd oTbolj an^ebiri 1 Tbeea. lii. 
IS (ao .lode. nr. 141; in Rer. i*. 3 the nading 
" aainU " b nnsuatabied b; (ha M3S. 

Altboogta (be term la med In K«ne peauge* 
which refer A\tBj, If not eidniiTely. (o the eon- 
annnHUioD of tba Maidah'i kingdoni in tha worl'l 
to eoma (Efh. I. 18; Ori. L 19; of. -Vcta n. Si. 

v tha otbac hud, thooKh 


la nowhen tMd tn rtnilffiim 111 
n haaraD, at dktinguUMd ban 

In the saiata Christ wiU ba glorified U hia «n- 
ing (3 Tba«. 1. lU),aiid thej will ba In aonte Moae 
partleipasts In (be Jndjinisnt (1 Cor. ri. 9, 1; at 
Hatt. lix. 98; Luke iiil. 30). Nowbero bi tha 
Soiipdira* are thej TepnaeD(ad ai olgecl* of wor- 
■hlp. nor la [heir agency lawked. 

Tint naamctioii oT lainta, mentionad Matt, 
nril. G3, S3, haa raiaed aumj queitiOQa, rarj lew 
of which can be aoiwend eoiiOdenllj. That the 
idnta ipoben of were bnughi lo life Irom the dead, 
and that tbejr wetit into Jemialeiii aJUr Chriat'a 
nauireetioii and wen aeen bj nunj, (be bogu^a 
iBBtai nn doubt 'lliat their (onitia were In tha 
lidnitj of Caltarj aiid wtn opmed ei>iit*n)por>- 
tmKmiy with tlie (arthquaks. appaan to be impUad 
(B£nr54l. That the; woe not. or at leaat war* net 
aoU/, departed dieciple* of C'hriat eeemi prohablaj 
fc> « TOt "manj" of liim eould hardlj ba*t 
d)en l^irlher, (be term "laiiiti" applied thiu la 
a OhrLitian document (0 deceaaed .lewi who at tbt 
aune time ira ipoken of u ntKoi/t^fiirmrt^ Itll 
owre tha oongruitin of (be caae, make it probabli 
that the w<hi1 baa here a diUincUve force and da- 
note* Jewiifa aorlkia (d. 1 Pet. iii. S). The 
arTang«nieD( of (be worda brora the inlerpretatioB 
that ''thoF came forth from their eepulchrei wStm 
tba Lord'i reaurraetion ; " aooordingl; fryipenffait 
haa bean regarded bj aome eipoeitort at antM- 
patorj, by otbcn mora naturally aa aignifylng 
□cielj " raiaed to ^c," and ao diatinguiabiufi; tba 
Ivifiistlon fnxa the quiUiiic the tiunba. Tk* 
m^oritj, bowerer, have considered the reaniinaUoa 

' be rautnction aa aiioulUneoua^ ionic boU- 
hat both took plue at Chriet'a death, and 
tkat (he rleen tainu flret ■' came Into tha hal; aitj 
hia reaucreotkin : " while othen, and bj te 
(be grealer number, bare preferred to make tba 
aatumption (bat both were poelponed un(il altar 
'" (had riaen. Poeubly we niaj And In ainarm 
aupport ibr (ba auppoaitioii that they bad died 
recently (and ao were recognlied by tbcae (o wboa 
(hey appeared). Certaiuly there ia nothing either 
In (he uae of (hia word or of iriiparle8!iaiiy,' nor 
in tlie context of hintoric realitiee in whicb the 
incident Ilea imbedded, to lamr the theory tfait 

lined to (ha mind of tha " many " who law them. 
Theee Uat wa nuy. In accordance with Icta i. 41, 
plauaibiy infer lo bare been bUoviera of Jetua or la 
lympathy wUh biin. Whether the neen ninla 
leere clothed with Immortal bodies and aacnided 
■ritb their Lotd (aa tl 
coramoDly plcaaad to ai 

approprUalT oaed, ladaal. 

uite-Chrintaa, d«td' 

But homTsr pixpl«iln|{ our IgDonuxw OKj' I 
mptcting dftu'U, Um (nlaUnUal bell lUtoil iboi 
uuil bo mocepUd bj til wbo iccepC Um Iniplnd 
Ran), Tb dlKard that mord m ui iuUrpDlttkin. 
tf H lew critja baT« done, ii ■ pTDodura Ln dir«vt 
viulmtkin cif bU dlploDUtiii eddoiM In Ibe i 
robonted m tlut evidence !• bj aim or Ivo iii(a <ttl 
ehirseterUtir^ (larlicularly Ttji" iyti 
It. S), Not li Ihen uij^ prrteit Ibr regmlini; it u 
k Eajthkaiuiplifiaitlaii of U» bet tta*t Ki>n* 
3|iiaed bj (hs sirthqiuke. UuUiew. to b« i 
ii the onlj snogilut who nHotioua the Incident; 
but Hark wid Luke micur witli hitu In itxtiiig 
that the nil or the Templa ww rent. Wby. then, 
■hmild we not here m In other cuei oondder pir- 
tiinibn not nuoilestlj fiitK, nthrr u ooiiBraied bj 

mux to tpnrtot the *tiiry, tbiui u diicndlUil hj 
tbeir nfence mpecling Uw reuiamiltr t And wh; 
•bould the eiUlciice of apocrjphiil ■ppeiidiga* 
bring luiplciou Ujxiii thia tisy more thiu upon 
otber portloni oT the nrred iiairatix upon which 
•oeh exertiMncti were rvmi«l? Nor an the hj- 
pothnU of Stnuu Uj claim to pliuiibilit)'. lie' 
oonaira that Ihe atorj- wm fabricntpd to uawcr ■ 
tvoftihj Meniaiilo riprcLitiun of the timei whicb 
had Dot beoi fulHlkd li,r Jsui during bb lublitTT, 
namet;, that the Unaiah would eficct a gtturnl 
nuiTBction of the ploui dead, and that, loo. a re*- 
umctlou to inmmliil life. Yet the namtlt-e h 
made lo meet the Bnt requiranient oiil^ b; eiag- 
IBnthig Improbablj the nunierjeid forM of woAA^i 
and eoDoeniing a refurrectioa lo ininuirdi/ lib It 
^im, M haa been alreadj intlmatad. no blot. Ob- 
Tbniilj the Incident ought not to be eontwnpkted 
M an laolitHl lact, but >i one of the accompani- 
menta of Ilie crowning ev*nt In the hiilorj of a 
bring wboie entire tarthl; career wai attended bj 
miraclH. Viewed Ihua, il« blended (tranfttiiea 
and approprintaieia, ita " probability of Iniproba- 
bilitj," attbrdt apReuuiptkiuoriiB truth. 
For a llat of U» tnaUaea whieh tht 




[0 (Hh ad.). An idea of the apeculalioiia 
in wnicu wrilen have Indulged here ma; be galli 
(red bom Calniet'a diaantalioii. tranafaitad In tlw 
Jamai of 6iwn/ Lit. Sot Jan. lg*g, pp. l li-nb. 
J. H. T. 
SAXA (loJul: 8«U). Salah, or Shelah, 
Ibt rather of Eber (Luke lU. M). 

SA1.AH (n^tti [a mi-ilt, mapom ,- al«> 
Vvut]: 3a)ii: Salt}. The aon of Arpbaud aiid 


hllMrofEbei(0«i. i.H,^-I9 i*i Lakifli.lH 

Tba DMM la (l^ifloant of azfeiuioB, tb* mhM 
mb being afiiliaJ to Ibe afnailiog out of Iks 
biaiiohea of Inn (J(r. iiii. Si Ea. nil 
B). It thua leenia la Implj the hialorhal but of 
the giadnal aatawon of a branch of (be SemiU* 
raoa from l(a original Mat Id Nortbem Aiajiia 
towardi the river Euphratrc. A plaoe arllh a 
dmlbr name in Northan MroDpoUuia ia notioa: 
bj Sjrrian writcn (Knobel, in (I'm. iL); but we 
can banllj aaunie iU identitj with the Salah <d 
the Bible. Ewald ((.Vwib. i. 3M) and Von Uofatei 
(/ntrod. lo O'st. II. 305) regard the uanie at pDtel|r 
fictitlout, the furmer eiplaining it aa a •<» or o^ 
ipi-ing, the laUer aa It* /••tiirr of a n.t* TbMi 
'' lAUio la aigniticant doea not prove It flrtllJoaa) 
the ocfuluaiona drawn bj three wiltcn bi« 
unnuid. {Tht proper Ibnu of thia uame b 
Shelak. which m^ — A.] W. 1. & 

BAL'AMIB (loAHult [prob. fr. JUi, (M, M 


■ eltj a 

(■at end of the hdand of Cyprua, and Ihe fint plwa 
viaitcd bj Paul ajid Uamabaa. on the fint DilaaHm- 
nrj Joumej. after leaving the mainland at fldhimla 
Two reuona whj tbej took tbia eourw obiionti; 
augt^ thenurivra, nauelj', the &ct that Cfpraa 
(and probably Salaniial waa Ihe natiie place U 
"^ bbaa, and the geognphical proximity oT thb 

' the laland lo Aotloch. But a further raion 
ia indicated b; a circunialaiioe in Uw narratlv* 
(AoU xUi. G). IIn« aloiir, aiuoog all the tirxik 

iiait«d bjSl. 1*801, we r«d of "ajTi. 

00 '* in Ibe plural. Kenee wo Duneldde that 

were manj' Jews in Cj-pnu. And thia ia ia 
banuooj with what we niid diewhen. To ttj 
nothing of poatlbla nisrcaiilile reUtiuna In nty 
tarlj tlmea [Chittih : Crniub], .lewith naidati 
In the laland are Dienliuned during the period 
when the Scleucidn relgiied at Antioeh (I Uaeo. 
IT. S3). In the reign oT Auguatua ihe Cjpriao 
copper-minea were farninl to Henjd the (jrat 
(Joaeph. Ant. ivl. 4, % b). and tbb would prot*- 
ahly attract niaiij Hebrew liiniiliea: la aliich va 
ma; add etidenoe to Ihe aaine etiect From Phllo 
(Lrgal, ad t'"ia«) at the very lin^a oT St. Haul's 
jouniej. And agrni. ti a Liter period. In tb* 
relgiit of Ti^an aiid lladiinn. we are infoniied i< 
dndful liunulta here, cauied bj a tait multilud* 
of Jewa. Id the courM oT which " the wluile p<^- 
bui citj of Salaniia became a deaert " (Miliuaa'a 

I, US). 

if Sahiniia a 

innulneiilljr mentioiieil in tbe bcdjuiiI of the Bnt 
ipreading of the IJoii|kI bcjuitd I'slntjne (Act* 
li. 18, 90), even brfbre the Hrat niiialonarj eipa- 
lltUm. Mnaaon (iii. Ifl) niit<hl l« on* cf Ibcm. 
Nor ni^ht Mark to lie fbrgulten heiv. Ho wu at 
Sahuuia with l>aul,and hii own klnauian UanialMi 
and again he waa there with tbe suiie kiiianian after 

, aplrlla In prinn "<1 Pet 111. IBI. 


ill rolat ft £»!■«. If.ivt. M Pan)e. IT t 
L JpKT. N. T. pp. ;S0 (, BIO ti Um* 

pocr. p. aoi f. 


M alMDdKiteiidiBT "'t'l St Pul and Ik* M|«»- 
Jm (n. 39). 

Siiuu* WM not at fims Ua Bodvn /'oMit- 
fMria. It WM uUmUd pcv a rinr caBnl lb* 
hdiaiiK, <» low i^TuaiKl, vbidi i* in ElKt a «nUi- 
MtiOD at tb* pUn nmnbg up ista iba intMur 
Hvud tba plu wbn Jfiama, tha pnaaiL Oipi- 
Ul of Cjpna. naoda. We mut Dotia In n^ud 
to **'-'"" tbat ita haibor li ipobsi of bj Unak 
writcn ta nrj good ; and that od« of tba anelait 
NhW b>j« down a n*d bMwaao thk dt; and 
Patbos, Iba Hit placv which {"anl and BamabM 
(UUd on thnr jouniej. Salimli again hai rather 
an cuiWQl poailkai in ■abaaqaflot CbriatiaD hla- 
■orT- UoDataaliMi or bii luoimHr rabuilt it, and 
ailed it Conalanlia (" Saluole, qote oune Con- 
•Untia didtv," Hiaronjm. P*^n.),aiid,whilail 
bad tbia BamB, Epipfaaniua na coa of it* biaiiofA. 

Of tba tnnUan wbo ban iwitcd and deaeribad 
Sahnit, wa nut partkuliwlr menUoa Hooocka 
(Dt$e, «flk* Eatt, U. 3U) and Rom \,Hvf hk* 
Coi, aitSbimiim*, Rkatt, uad C^prrn, pp. 118- 
.U). Tbiae tnTcllen notice, ui tba neighborbood 
tt Salamia, a Tillage namKi SL Sn-]/itUy which it 
doabtkai a Kmiiuacam of Sergiui I'auliu, and a 
nwing tbe tiame of SL 
witb a legend conesiung 
tba diamrerf of bit relic*. Tba kgeud will ba 
bund in Cedrenu* (L fllS, ed. KooQ). [BaRsa- 
>Aa; Sehoius Paulu*.] J. S. U. 

SALAS'ADAI [4 ijL] {[Ala ] 

[TaL Bom.] 3afiiura»at: [Sin. 3apira»ai. 
IB] itvptnM). a t-amUoD Ibr Sttrw'd li (Smw 
aSot, Num. L S) fai Jad. riU. 1. [ZDUMrAUOAi.] 
a F. W. 

SALATHIEL (V'^'Tf't*. [''tTH^:] 
liOdfdiA: SaiirtW: "IhaTOajiad God" "'),•» 
*f J«chooia> king <rf Jodab, aiid &thei of Zwoba- 
Iiel, aeoardiug (o MaU. L 19; but ana of Neri, and 
bibs' of Zonbabel. ai-cerdui2 to Luke iiL IT; 
wiiilg tbe genealogj in 1 Chr. iii. 17-19, lean* It 
doubtfj] wbrtber b* i* tba aon of A*ii> or Jocbo- 
Diaa, and oiakea Zorobabel bi< nepbew. (Zehub- 
aAnn.] Upon tbe incontroTertibk) priocipla tbat 
BO gmeakjp vooid aaUf^u (0 tha true eon and beir 
Dfakiuganjiofcrloraud privtU paraoUgc, wbereaa. 
an tbe coolnuy, the aoo of a priiala pcr*oa mould 
rajai pedigieo on hl» l«- 

onEdena, [bat' St. Luke 

<m tbat Sabufaid waa the ton of Neri, 
tecadut of Nathan tbe aon of D*rid.» And from 
Ui inaotioD in tbe royal pedigree, botb in 1 Cbr. 
■id St. Hattbewi Goepel, after tbe cbildle** J(«bo- 


«a inAr, with do ka eonfiduwe, tlial, as Ite 
Ubua of Sokano'i Un*. ba waa tha nait bair ts 
tha tbnsa of IMvid. Tba apptwanoe of Salalhkl 
''e two pedignea, Iboogb one dedneea th* 
It fivni SoloiuoD and tba ether lioni Natbai^ 
IB perfecllj aioiplg, and, lodtad, tiecanr;; 
aa tba iiotion of SalathicI beiug etllcd Neri'a 
■ Vardley and other* have tb^^hl, bacMiaa 
be married Neri'a daogfalcr, i* pal|»blj aianrd on 
tbe tuppoailioo of hi* being lb* loo i^ JeshoDiaa. 
Os Uii* hat friuciple, jou miykt baia not tws 
hut about a miUtm di&nni pcdigiua between J^ 

1 jet JOU 

al account, vhj then abtnild aetuall; ba mora 
I one. It maj Ifaerefon be oontidend ■* ear- 
, that SalaUucI wu Ibe ton of Ken, and tba 
of Jeehouiab. Tbe queation whether be waa 
falher of ZAubhabel will b* eonaidcred undw 
, article.* Bealds the paaaHge* alnadj dlei^ 
iiM ocean in 1 IJdr. r. 6, 48, 56, rl. 9; 9 
£edr. T. IS. 

rcgudi Ibe oithotciaph; of tba Dane, it hi^ 
aa noted abore, two form* in Hebnw. Ilia cod- 
IrieWd lonn [Sbaltid] it peculiar to Haggai, wha 
luea it three time* out of five; while In the flnl 
ind laal Ten* of hi* prophecjr be uaea the fiiU ibno, 
vhich ia alao Ibund in Ear. ill. 9; Neh. ill. 1 
ila tb* 

ill. IT, 

but eTBj'where 

■1 in 1 C. 

I*e In tba a T. 
Juui Chhuti JKHoiAcnm.] 
A. C. H. 

SAL'OAH/ (nybp [uaMiams, ndgraHom, 
Fiintji a«x«'. 'Axi 2«aJ [Vat. BAx-Ji "-■ 
AfftAxai, EAxo, Ii^x^' S"i"'"'i Selcka). A 
eitj nanied In tbe cariy mordi of lanal aa the aa- 
treme limit of lladiau (UeuU Iii. 10; Joah. iliL 
11) and of the tribe of Uad (1 Chr. t. 11). Ob 
aoolbcr oeeadon tbe name aeem* to deoola I die- 
trkt.ralber [ban a town (Joah, lil. S). Bj Eo- 

ir bwriug had anj leal knawledg* 

entl; without » 
of it. 

with the town of SK- 
Idind, which rianda at tlie •outbeni eitRmitj al 
the Jebel Haunn, twratf milea 3. of KnaKot 
'the ancient Kenatb), which waa the BDuthem oiA- 
poM. of Ibe Lrja, the Argob of the 1 

lanied b; both the Cbriitiaii and 

Miui* of the middle age* (Will, of Tjtb, ni. 

"SetcUb:" AbulfHia, In Scbulleni' /iv/ea 
jto^. "SanhaJ"). It wa* Tiiiled bj Burckhaidl 
(Si/na, Not. 33, 1810), Seetzcn and olben, and 
mote recmtlj hj Porter, who deuribe* it at **■■ , 

fU, H>d of tbo trit>i of Jodkh " (A.J. AS, f 10). 
ana h* baUrred bbn to be Um » of Jtoaolab, of 
■^u hr had ipolua (i. 11, f 3), bm eonld hanllj 
hart MIed (o laj ». Oonp. X. T, « L 

nmi.n. aaB,tbat to Che ZOtb degree of ueHtr; amr 
uaa tiaaabonanillUoaoraiiEwUn, aadla UttUth 
ipirardi of a million mllUonfl. 

~ tb«i7 al t>a aalalbleU, of ' ' ' ~ 

□■■ tk for It — ■■ lodBMl Iba^ bav* 
««• of tble TCTj name. (SiieuBj 




bngth (Fict tVm, jl. 1T6-11S). II* 

Una iriU Sdnta ip|Hn to b* dn* lo GchIih 

(Banklmnlt'i Acun>, p. MT). 

laiuadiatilj IkIow StiiAad cORimaioa lb* pUlD 
af tb« gnul RuphnUa dwtH, whloh uppcui to 
*traleli iriUi h>nll]> to oaduLiilon tmo ban to 
Aui-n on Uie I'enlui tiulf. 'Hie toirn ii of ooatld- 
(nbla uu, two lo Uirte luUtt in sinuniftrtiice, 
(iirnHiiHJiiig k rattia on ■ loft)' iMiUtcd bill, wUieb 
itM WO or 4tW f«l aboTc the wt ot th« pb« 
(Porter, pp. I;B. 17B). Oiic oT tka gilemTi of Ibc 
audit hwn ui iiiKHplion coalwning iba dils oF 
A. i>. SM (180). A Win nriicr diXs. nupelj, A. i>. 
198 (Scptiniiiu !<«vmia), h (bund oii i |pvi'e-a(aii( 
<136), UUht v*nty |artiinilvt of ita btfr biXdrj 
wltl be (ound in I'oiUr. The hill on which the 

it* (idet ue ilill amend witb lolisuk cinder ind 
blodu of kn. G. 

■ Ut. I'oitcr dflirribM lh« pment oondltion of 
Ihii citj ill bia Ciinl CiiUt of B-thmi, p. T6 f. 
"niOiiKb ion^; doertwl, "fin hnndnd of ita hoiun 
■« itiit ilaiHlini:, uid from .100 to 400 hn.iliM 
Mlgbt «Ule )n it at >nj moment without U;ini; ft 

The elmmfennw of the town md oille ts^etlier 
It (bout Uim iiiiln. The open doon, the eaipty 
» uid weedi. Uie long, ilnig- 

gliiiK brunhlH in tit 

doormji end wliidowe. 

fernied n (trance. Iniprr«ii'a picture which 

newr teoce my nwnnr 

Street iIIh line 

hil «buM «id .Urtlini! 

he Ibif* from their 


Id the». of SalcJi 

The cnttU ram lo 


LUieni point of tlie m 


lie view from the top 


Ibat Ikm k uj oouuMtiai of tio* wfttMb* 
twMO Abnm'a enooUDUr with the king of Satel 
uid (be tppeaniKa of Heldundek. Nor, ap 
poring tU* Im» doubt lo be dl^Ud, ia u]> ^w 
■Abrded bj the meoUou of the ViUef of Bbm^ 
iiiHie the altudton erwi of that ia mora tbu bd- 

Dr. Wdff— DO neui uitbarit; m orienlal 

Kplalb to the Hebrewa undantood It lo be — ■ 
- lottb* Dwue of a pboe. " Kelebiwdek ol 

. . had a rojel titlej bo wm ' of 
KiffbtBDCunne^' in Hebrew Meleki-tei/ek. Al>d ho 
waa >1b ' King of Peiia,- Mrldi-Salem, Ami 
when Abtmbun cune lo hii lent be moie Ibrth 
bMd ami wine, and na aJM ' tbe Prieat id 
tbe llisbeat,' and Abrsham aare hiin ■ portion of 
bli apuiU Aud juat ao WolTa friend lo the deont 
of Ueru in tbe kingdom of Khin . . . wbooe 

It Abd-ei^KEhmu, which meua 'SliTO o( 
the uiereiful Uod ' . . . bu ajao m raj*] title. He 
ia called Sbahs-Adulat, < King of Klgbtwuanea ' 
' aaote aa if,kt<atdrk in Hehnw. And wheal 

lis peace lietwNn kiugi be beei* tbe title, 
ShaheSoolkb, ■Klngofl-Moe'— in Hebrew JTe- 

Tu rerert, bowe>er, to tbe topognphioal quee- 

(lic ^und tliat Jeruaaiem it 

; the plain of Hoal 

Aiukia Ol 

la, all of tbeni. 

oiie apiit 1 taw upwinti 
■> &r a> I could ate wi 
nke Salcah, but entirely dHerted." Sea the 

pnphet'a remarkable predi " ' ' 

Jer. dviii. l&-iS. 

BAXCHAH (np^: •i.Kxi; SJdia). Tbe 
fcmi in which the name, daewhere mure a«u- 
lald/ gi>eo Sai^caii, appeart in Deut. iii. 10 
only. Tbe Tiuyurn Ptud-jim. givei It M^pilVo, 
i. I. Selucia; (linugh wbtcb Scleucia thej can l>B>e 
ioppated ma here intended it ii difficult to ini- 
a^ue. G. 

BAXEM (C^r , i. ,. Shakm [BA<W.,pe./trt] : 
, a-A4fi: £"l™). I. Th» place of wblcb Mel- 
abiudek waa king («eii. lir. ISj Heb. vli. 1, 3). 
No a»ti*f*clory identification of it la perhapa poiti- 
ble. Tbe iiidicationa of tbe narrative are not autfi- 
aient lo (pre an; clew to ita poeiliou. It ia not 

(ntwoen Ilaaiaecua and Sodom : for Ibough it ia 
■ud that the king of Sodom — who bad probalil; 
Mgained hia own oitjr afW the retreat of the A i 
lyriana — mentout to meet {r^T^)" *'«'" 
fM it ia aiu diitinctl; ataled that llila wt* uj\t 
Mnaa had rrtuned ('n^^n? "TlDf) *«" ">• 
iMfkUr of tba kiogt. Indard, It la not oertain 

• lDclB*iawie,fiDataan,na/'(,U.4iBwald,Car'l. 

e aulifat age* of uitopntation. 1. Ilaloflfa* 
wiah oomnwiilaton, who— bma Oukdoe <7ar- 
111) and Joeephua (B. J. \i. lOi Ami. 1. 10, | S, 
I. 3. { Ii) lo Kaliach <C'<m)h. «• 6'n.p.S60) — 

D called in Pa. Iiiri. 
WT of poeta, or Ikean 

LiKencj of hla poem, 
chaie nante in preference to that In GOEniDOit aae- 
Thii ii quite fraiible; but It ia no argument tw 
the IdrntitT of Jeruuleni with the Salem of U(f- 
chiudek. See thii wrll put bj ll<-laiid (,PaL p. 
833). Tbe Chriallana of tlw 4th centurj held tia 
■Hie belief witb tbe Jewa. aa la etident (tmn aa ea- 
imuon of Jennie {"noatil ombea," t'p.tid Evim- 

9. Joonie falmaelf, bowerer, la not of the mm* 
)pinion. He aUlea (/p. iirf hwng. § T) withoot 
heailation, though appmnit; (aa juit ohaetved) 
alone ui bia belief, that tbe Sakui of Melchicedet 
wan not Jeruaaletu. but a town near Scjlbopalia, 
which In hia da; waa itilt called Saleui, and when 
Llie mat mint of the piilace of Uelchiiedck wen 
■till lo be aeen. lUaeR here ( Uimni. >■ Salem " ) h* 
iticat«a it more preciaelj at elicht Uoman mile* frooi 

I'urthiT, be Identiliea (hia Salrm with the Salim 
(SaA(i>) of Su Jolin tb* llapllat. Iliat a Salem 
I'liated wliere 61 .lerome Uiut place* it lba« need 
tie no doubt. liKleed, the name haa lieeii racomcd 
at tlie icieutiea] dittance bekiw Otuin bj Ur, Van 
de Velde, at a apot otlntwiaa euitalje for i£nou. 
Hut that thia Salem, SaUni, or Salumlaa wai tht 
Salem of Helebiiedek, ia aa unrerlain a* that Jen- 
nlem waa *o. Tbe mlm wen^ [■vlailil]' aa much 
the ruliia of Melcbizeitek'a palace aa tbe remaina U 
li'imrt rlKhiiUl, three niih* north of Hrhron, ait 
tboie of " AbnUiam'i bouie." Nor ia the deciakaa 
aaiiiUid bj a conaidcmtion of Abrani'i lonmaiid 
rouU. He probabi; brought back bia part; ^ 

hoi^g to tlw right ue«d«l to tba nppn kml ot 
Ih* maaizj bi (ba dinctioD of Huimt bat wbethB- 
bi croHd U» J«dui it tb* Jir Btimt Yatab 
dnv tlM Ljike of UcnncMnt, er ■( tb« Ji>r Jf*- 
iamia btlov It, bi wooBd tqatSj ptm bj both Sej- 
■ wUmiiit 


a (it Is 

ntorn, — awl nlhuanitf'bi bntr of SbIcti bang 

1. PMfcMct EwnU {Aaob'eU*, L 410, wM) 
pwni wM B llwt Sakm h ■ uvn oa tb« hrtbH 
adt of Jenbo, n tba road (tod D«o>houi (o 
iii. as, bDl 

4. A ndWoD Klicn bj EapnltaiM, ■ writ«r 
kDOWB mdj tbcmgta hgKMBta pratrtrt in the 
Prmpamio tvoii^tfisa of EomUib (ii. ITI.dif- 
tei ID «MDa Impartut potnU (hno tbe ffibUal 
Mcaant. Anonllng to Ihk tbe TDvUng took 
|lHa fn tb« imiibiarT of Uw ritj Aigirkbi, iihlcfa 
!• iBtHpRtad bj EnpolRnui to mtu " the Hi»n- 
Hin << Ita Hoit •HIgta." Acgvidii • b of 
nam jtor 6'cnBMt, Uomit GerliliB. The 
(oaror of Uw tnditioo U, tbrrcfon, protablj S«- 
■■rtUn, iiDce tba emuDter of Abnun and Md- 
^dxrick [• one of tbe nenti to which the Stmarl- 
tuB kj ddm fiir Uomit Gcridm. But it tuf 
alM pneeed hm the idnitlfiMtloa gf Salem «ilh 
Sbaeba^ wUA Iffog at Iba ftnt tf Oariilm muM 
mJj b* ooQlbanikd with the monatain Itaiir. 
[Sa Shalim.] 

B. A Satam Ii mentioDcd In Judith It. 4, wnong 
the plaecB wbkh were eeiied end (brtiHed bj (Im 
Jewa so the iffnach of Holotkmee. " TIte nllej 
rf Sabni." « il appsn in the A. T. (rir aiA^H 
2iiAi(^>, il poaublj, ■• Seknd he* higenlouij 
■^ga^fj (PoJ. « Sakm," p. »TT), a eonnplkni nf 
•If aiA,AM •IiSaAV~"'>>>o fx V^*^ to Sa- 
lem." It AiA^ k boc^ aocordlsg to Itaqiient 
oaga, (ba Jonkn " Vellaj, tboi the aalon rrhrml 
ID mtat itnlT ba that loentioDad bj Jerome, and 
ainulj noticed Bat In thk paaaaga it maj be 
«ftb aqiMl pnbaWUtT the tnad filalii of the 
MwUaia wbidi rtntchn fnnn Kbal and Gerlilm 
3D the on* hand, to the hllk oo whicfa 8<dim lUnde 
OB tba otbar, *hkh ia Hid u ba MKl taUcd the 
-pUa of aaflm-' (Portar, ffiwJhnb, p. UO a), 
mi tbraogh wbteh nint th« eeolra) sorLh nad of 
lb* tmuj. Or, H h pirbap* atUI man llhd]>, it 

t Pttaj 

*. T. U). 

tf a^wr k fvaaunlj ^pkvad to PakatiDe topof* 
«(lv ftr tbe (T*>t nikjr of Ih* Joidaa (a* Ba»bli 

8ALEH 2789 

Mtoi to aoothr BaUm otar Ztnn (S»mA\ nri «• 
the plaiB which nma up between Umae two pla*^ 
18 kr a* Jttiii, and whlefa lij dinvtJj In the n»H 
of the AiBjnan armj. Then k ootbLiig to ahov 
that the invadoi rauhed u kr iolo ttia liitarior ol 
the DDntitrj u the pkln of the Mukkita. And tba 
other ptaeea anumental in the *ene ttein, ai Ikr ai 

« point. 

S. (D^^ : U t\^rf: h poet'). Pi. hxA. %. 
It teeiD* to be agreed on ell hindi Ihat Salan ii 
hen empkfMl fbr Jeniealem, bnt whether ■* • 
mere ibknTiiUoii to suit lotne eugtnej ot Iba 
poetrj, md pnut the aUuaion to the peace {rJtm) 
which the dtj ei^ojni thnmi^h the protectloii rf 
God, or whether, aiW a well-knawn haUt ot poeta^ 


and ftunlllar oi , , 

The latter k the opinion of the .lewioh ramnen- 
tatori, but it k grounded on [heir bdiet that tha 
Salem of Mekhkeddi wai tba dlj which altar- 
wirdi became Jenaalrm. Thk k to b^ tba 
qneition. Sea ■ remirkabk pmage in Otdgft** 
Urtcirift, ete., pp, T4-7B. 

The utithcvi Id icne 1 between " Jndah " and 
" lanel " would aeem lo mf\y that MDe eacrad 
place in Iba norlhcni kingdom k being conEraalad 
with Zkm, the lancluar; of the nuth. And If 
Ibere wen hi the Bibk an j Mnction to (be idoitiA- 
eatlou of aalem with Sbtchera Inoiiced abote), (h* 
paMRga might be takes aa reieirlng (o the eoo> 
Itnued relation ot God to the kingdom of InaL 
fivt then are do maleriek ercn for a eon}ectiua 
oil tha poinL Zion Iha muiciubtj, howarer, iieliig 
named In the one member of the lena, it it lolar> 
ablj eertain kbit Sakm, it Jenuakm, mual denota 
tha aeenkr part of the dtj — a diatiiictkin whiab 
hai iiean aiieadj notioed [niL il. p. 1331] aa ft«- 
queiiUj oeeuning and ImpUed in the Pialni* and 
I'lophadee. 0. 

* In the paaaaga qootad abore, " In Jndah la 
Ood known, hk mma k great in laaei," we rtmg- 
niae not ** aotithcak " bvt ll» tfmmtffnoiu p<iraUtL 
itm lA lleliiww poetr; — aeeh term lieing genaiia 
and dealgnatjog the whole nation, aa bi Pi. oak. 
S — " Jitdah wai hk MuiMaar;, and brad hit 
dominion ' ' — wtiere the wonb will bear no oUnr 
eomtnMlon. In the next lane —" In aalem alw 
k bk talmuek, and hk dweifing-pkca in Zkn*'*-* 

mated," Mch indieaUng (he Uoli CItj aa th* 
ipeebJ icat of dirine wonhip. We an not abl* 
(o traaa In tba nerad willingi, nferred to abon^ 
aii7 dear dWination between the a* ' 


2790 BALIH 

■Bd the MCKd ZJOD, bat find tlM pfana 

8. W. 
SAXIH (SoArffi: Alu. 2aXA«fi: SoAn). 
A plus nuned (Johii iii. M) to dntaU (lie littit- 
tion of .Enon, ttt Kens of Bt. John'i lul t«p- 
tunu — Silim being tbi wfll-kr 

neu- it. ThsR it 
itHlf filing tbt tituition of Stiim, u>d tfa< 
dinet tntinionj m joimb It thtt or Eunblu* ind 
Jerome, who boUi iffirm unbaitxtingtj lOnoni. 
H.£non'') tlut It eililed In their d>j near the 
Jocdui, eight Romui inilet tmith of Sojthopolii. 
J«nim« uldt (under " SiJem"; that itt niun 
tbeo S^umiu. EUewbera {Jip. aJ J!vangi 
fi T, 8) Ih HMtm ihst it wh iikDUcd with tbe 
S^m df Mekhiiedek. 

Vmidui Mtemple b>*e been mere lecentlj mu 
lo detenoice Uw looilitj of thti inteteuiiur ipol. 

1. Some (m AUbrd, Grttli Tut. w) loc.) |in>- 
ne Shiuiik and Am, in the arid eounlrj' Stt 
Id the eouth of Judea, entirelj out of tbe elrde 
of iHiclUioni of St. John or our t^rd, Olhvi 
Identif; It with (he Shauh of 1 S 
Ihii Utter plnoe li Itadf uuknon, 
la Hebrew eonlaint "0, to eotreipand wllb which 
Hh nuM In St. John ibotild be XtysAil^ or 

9. l>r. Robliuon inggnli the nnderri Tillue of 
BnUm, thne mlka E. of JVnWii {BihL Ra. Ui. 
Ua), but thb ii no lOH ont of tbe cinJe of St. 
John't minlitntiDQi, and 1i too near the Samul- 
tnne; and altbougb there \» >ODie naaon to btUere 
tbit the vlUage oonUint " two Miiraei of Uring 
wa(cr " (iMf. SftB), yet thie li hardly luOeient for 
Iba abundaooe of deep water implied In the naira- 
Utb. a writer In the Caimial Ch. CAron., Mo. 
anil. W4, wbo ooncurt In thb opinion of Dr. 
BobluMni. wai toldofa vlUiigeanboureaM(?)of 
Balim "named Jis-dit, wjtb a eoploui ttream of 
water." The dbtrict caat of Salim I* a blank 
In the mapa. roiiM bea aboat 1( boor S. 
of Sallm, but Ihk can banllj be the plaee 
tended; and in tbe deKTiptlon of Van de Telda, 
wbo vkJted It (IL M(), ' ' 

I. Dr. Bardaj {CUf, ets., p. Ml} la lllled with 
■& " aanind oonTlction " that Salim ie to be liwnd 
fa) H'art]/ Htlrim, and ,£DDn In tbe copioua apringi 
of Ain far'ih {Md. p. efi9), among tbe deep aud 
inniale laHneg nme Are Diiiea N. E. of Jeruaalem. 
Tbii certain]; hat tbe name In Ita (avor, and, If 
the glowing deacription and pictorial wood-cot of 
Dr. Bardaj maj be tniatfd ^ baa water enough, 
and el luffident dqith tbr tbe purpoaa. 

i. Tbe name oT AiAm haa been lately dltcor. 
aed bj Hr. Van de Teide ISy: f PuC 11. 3ib. 
SMI In a poeition exaetlj In aonnlanoe with the 
Dotloe of Eueebiu), namelj, lii RiigUih mlln aouth 
(f BtMii, atid two milea wst of the Jordan. On 
Iba nOTthcm baaa of TiU Rtdghik la a lite of 
ntina.iiid near It aUnaolman tomb, which h called 
VJ tbe Ataba Shtj/kh Sniim [Me aim JfemotP. p. 
lib). Dr. RnUnion (Hi, )33J oomplalni that tbe 
israe it attached only lo a UnMolmin nnctnarj, 
ind aleo that no niint of an; eilcnt an to be 
bond Du tbe ipoti bat with ngard la the lint 
•t[)ft.t]on, eren Dr. RoblnKin doa not dlipoto that 
Om name It thva, and that tbi lo^ty la In Iba 


doMt aginuieut wHh tbe notiea <£ IbaAhk 

Aa to Iba leeond it b only iiij to pahit la 

Ktfi-Baia. where a town (Antipatrii), whiA n 
late aa tbe time of the dettmctlon of Jennlea 
wat cf gmt aiae and «itera1>ely foHified, im 
abaoluldj dbappeated. Tba career of fit. 3oba 
bt> been examined In a fbtner part of thb work, 
and it hai been ihown with great probabifitj (hal 
hie prognee waa fKm aouth to north, and that tba 
•one of bi> latt baptisma waa not br diataot 1Mb 
the (pot indieattd by Euaebiu*, and now reeorered 
by Mr. Van de Vekle. [JoBDaa. not 11, p. 1457.] 

of water. " Tbe brook of Wadf Ckmmdi rena 
dne to It, a iplendld IbiinlaJn jrotbee ont boldr 
the ITefy, and riTubta wind about In all dineUon. 
.... Of few plaoea In Paleetjne oooM it 
ao Iralj be eah), > Hera la mDob water ' " {Bmr. f 
Pal U. ittl- [J&soti, Atoer. ed.] 

A tradition la menlkmed by Rebuid (fiitartiii, 
p. STB) (bat Salim waa tbe naUt* plvie of Sfanoi 
Kelotei. Ibltlntteelfnenii to Imply that llB poei- 
tion waa, at the date of the toaditloD, btUer^ ta 
he neais to Galilee than is Judna. Q. 

SALXAI [8 ayl] 0^5. in V-at "Vj [p^. 
hoAn-mnktr, Oia.]: IqMj [Vat FA, tboa^ 

' properly aepaiated from preceding word,] Alei. 
k,i; Stiini). I. A Beidamite, who with MR 
of hli tribe Kttkd In Jenieabm afltf tba Captivity 

(Neh. il. 8). 

; FA.' a«A- 

a. (XiAat: [Vat Alei. FA.> oi 
Aol.}) Tbe bead of on« of tba oourace of piieeti 
who went up flom Babyhm with Zerulbabel {SA. 
ilL9D|. InNeb. ill. The It called Sai^. 

BAI/LTJ PiVp [iMffM]: 3«A^ InM: 
Alei. xa* hi 1 CbT.; Bah, Silhim). L Tfer 
KHi of Meahulkm, a Bet^amits who nttnned and 
■eUled in JeruMkm after tbe Captldty (1 Chr. Ii. 
T; Nch. il. T). 

8. {Ova. In Tat. HS.,' [abo In Rom., Ahx., 
FA.'i FA."] XaoHir: [Comp. 2=Aei;] Sffl-it) 
The head of one of Ibe oounee of prieeta wbo n- 
med with Zmibbabel (Neb. lii. T). CUIed aka 

SALLU'HnS (2.A»| 

_iAAsSfief: 3nhiiwi). 

SII; cofflp. Ear, 1.14). 

SAL-MA, or SAL-MON (np^tp, Hp^tp, 

JlD^fp [ctotted, (I janamt, Gea.] ; [in Kulh] 

InAfitfr [Vat laA^; \\b 1 Cbr. ii. II,] Abi. 

IkA^. but ZoAb/i^ both USS. in Ruth I*. 

fHtbcr 1 Chr. II. 51, 84: In N. T., taf^rY 

Snimwi [in Huth and N. T., Bnlmn in I Cbr.Jj. 

Son of Nahihon, tbe prince of Ibe ehlldtm of 

.ludah, and father of Boaa, the huibud of Ruth. 

~ ' lod'i ^e la diitliietly marked by that of hU 

T Nabtbon, and with thb agtcea tbe •tMemcni 

Cbr. U. 51, 54, that be wat of tbe eona of 

Caleb, and thi hther, or head man of Detblebeu- 

Epbntali, a town which acems to ban bean within 

tbe lerHtory of Caleb (1 Chr. II- », 51 J. [Etm- 

(; BvTni.EiiEM.] On the snirance of Ibt 

« bio Canaan. Stlmon (onk Rahab at 3 si 

be hb wift, and (htm thb union iptaug tbi 

Cbilet [Rakab,] FYom the rinumatancc cJ Sal 

baring lived at tbe timi of the ounqutat ¥ 

■o, m wWI m Itom fall beli^ the fitat pn 


frietor <f BMUriieo, wbva fail luollr canUnad n 
Hsj u c Mtui if, pBti>{a till the ttign of Domldm 
(EMb. A'cdu //i>(. 11. 90J, be m*7 b« silM Um 
hmdw of tba bona of Durld. Btildtt BMli- 
UbMD, tba NdDplullutai, tba hotm oT Jnb, tbe 
Ilorilaa, and m-vmt otiMr (uiiilts, iKikad to Sil- 
Bwn M liiai bad (1 Oir. li. U, AG). 

Tn drennuluaa «eiiii«l«l Kith Salmon ban 
■Had aome perplnitj : ma, the nriatisD ia tha 
•itbognpfaj of bia lUQta, tba ether, an q)pareDt 
miation in hia gtoaiogj. 

Aa n^aida the fint, tba vailaUon in proptr 
BUM* (whrtho- cauard bj tbe flnetoatlou otoapj- 
Ma, gr vbeths- tfaej niatad in pnotka, and mn 
hnind bj tbe ligniRcanca of the oanMa), ia ao 
ettmiKlj oomnaM. that aiufa alight diflbtocaa aa 
Ihoae iu tba three fonni of tfaii naaia ate tttntl! 
wjalh Doticiati. Compara e. g. tb* diflirent forme 
tt tbe name Stinwn, tha aoo cf Jena, in 1 Sam, 
id 9; 9Sui. illLS; 1 Chr. li. 13; or of Sxmai 
Paler, in Luke t, 1. Ac. ; Acta it. U. See other 
■hiiijiIm In Henej'i O'tntaL of or Lord, en. tI. 
and X. HoRoTcr. in tbii caae, tbe nriation ftxHn 

Hoai, namciy, Kalb ir. 30, 31, when the DotLai 
a( two different pfnuDi l«ng meant, though In 
now degree mnetioncd bj tbe aulhciitj of Dr. 
Kaoni>»U iDitttrL L IH. M3), li not wottfa r»- 
htiDK-* Aineardi theSdmagn Cbr. ii.Sl.M, 
bb BonDfctiou with Be^Wiem idwitlfle) hiin witb 
tba BOD ot Nababon, and tbe diange of the final 
n into H beloi^ doabtleaa bo the late date of tbe 
book ef Clirenidca. Tba nima ia ao written alaa 
to 1 Chr. il. II. Bat tba tiMb ia that tbe aole 

Uma and Salmon, ie the wteh to Itngtbeo tbe 
Bn* between Safana and Uarid, ia erdtr lo meet tbe 
Mb cbmnolDgT of tboea Umia. 
Tba nriation in Sabna'a gneakgr, wUob baa 
■ttbeSalmaof ICht. ». 
II,U ia I ~ ~ " 

hm the ( 

wfahk WBB SahnOD'a bberitance, waa part of tba 
lBTUa*T of Caleb, tbe giandion of Kphratah: and 
tbii aaaatd talm lo be nekooed among tbe aona of 

nch tapa;rapbiai] f^enealogiee to 

Ht Halt. 1. I, B; Lake iii. M. Tba qoeMioot 
ef Ua ^a aod tdeotUj are dlaeuMed in tba C'lmenl. 
ff oar Loni, eo. ir. and ia.; Jackaon, CAnM. 
Jaliq. I ITl; Halea, Annlfm, 111. 44; Bntrlng- 
laB,0eiwnJ:LlS8; Dr. Hill, VbuScofom-LorJi 
OoHttL p. 133, Ac. A. C. H. 

SALMANA'8AB(»'bMMnr). Sralmak- 
Mca, king of AmjrU (S Eedr. xilL 10). 

BALHOn 2781 

movAtt, Fent]; ti^pmr; [Vat. Aki. EumrH 
Satoum, Jndg. U. 48). 'lite name of a hUrMW 
"' sbem, on which Abimdaeta and bia Mlowm 
down tbe bongha with wfaieh tbej Kt lb* 
lower of KMchem on fin. Ita exact poritto^ it 

It ia nanaUj ioppoeed that tbii blQ Ia mectifiied 
in a Tcne of peiiipe tbe moat diScnll cf all tba 
PKJmt' (i^. Iioiil. 14): and thii ii probable, 
though the paiaage it ptculiarlj difficolt, and tba 
pmiK aQuiion intended bj tbe -toet Menu hof*- 
leaalf ioat. Commentalon diBi: ^m rieh otlur; 
ind Filnt, witblo 170 pegs of aia B,itidr<>rUr- 
I himaeir (aar 3^0^ and I'lI^V^ 
Indeed, o( iix diatingniabed modnn oomnicniaten 
— De Wetta, Uitilg, Bwald, HragiteDberK, Da- 
Gtiaeb, and Hupleld — no two gin dltllncU; Um 
tanie meaabig; and Hr. KeUa, in bit admintbla 
VerriOD of tbe Peahna, ^na a banlalioD wbkk, 
though poetlal, aa wai to be eipeeled, diJ&n from 
anf one of thoae auggtated bj Ibme iii KbotatB. 
llji b not tbe pfaica for an eihauttiTa exanina- 
if tbe paMaga. It maj be mentioned, how- 
. that tbe literal ttanaladon of tbe worda 
1HdV?9 aV^jJC le " Thou maluet It mow," or 
" It Bioira," with libolj to uae tha word either in 
tbe paat or in the fntnre toias. Aa notwltbatand- 
'>mpta, tfali lutqilieeno aatliJiictor; 
e la had to a IrantlatJon of doubt- 
ful validitj, " I'hou makeat it white ti anow," or 
It 1( white ta mow" — woidi to whieb nriona 
letapborical ouaningi haie been attributed. Tha 
lluiion which, through tbe Leilmn of tieaniiM, la 
moat genenll; reeaiiad, it tbit the wonla nfer l« 
tbe ground bring anow-whlle witb bonea after a 
dddU of tbe Canianite Ungt; and tbia maj be 
accepted bf thoae who will iilmit the eeaRelr pee- 
miaaibla nmning, " white aa annw," and who ean- 
rett aatltOed without attaching aome deflnila 
I to the piewge. At tbe aame time ft 
lembered that the flgora ia a nrj banb 
onei and that ilia not reall; jwtifled bj paai^ca 
quoted in illuatration of it from Latin claaiioal 
wiitsa, nob aa, "canipiqoe ingolet oaaihui al- 
bent " tVi^- j£n. iii. 3aj, and " humanit oa^bM 
albet bumue " (Odd, Fatl. 1. SM). fbr in theta 
caaei ttie word '■ bonn " li actuallj uaed In the 
teit, and ia not tdl to be eupplled bj the imagina. 
tioo. Granted, howeiar, that an aUuaion i> made 
to bonea of tha alun, there la a direiKense of 
ot»nlon ai to wbetber Salmon wee mentioned ilu. 
plj breauae it bad been tbe battle-ground in lama 
gnat defeat of tbe Ouaaniliib kinga, or whetlHr 
it II onlj introduced aa an Image of inowj wbite- 
neta. And of thcae two npUnatlona, the Ant 
would be OD tba whole moM probaUe: lor Saimm 
CBDnoC haTa been a terj high mountain, at tha 
higheat moontaiue natr Sbecbem are F.tal ud 
Oeriiim, and of tbcaa Ebal, the higheat <4 tha 
two, la onlj 1,038 fat bigba than tba oit; (M* 

a BanUaa (Cbn. Chih, lib. L BI haa bo aila- 
Mak( H u tha IdaoUtjr er tebna. 

a ■aaawnkbrRanai.DraeUBa^aHkaifilinaJr.^ 
* OnUwHf ntttHtcktr Nali aa^ KhuI, ■■ Snr 
■HvtaiHiJ:ipi/l,;(i>a,lKl. Isdapeiidanllj of IW 
■aaj i k e uiu i ailuitow, tha «ih Pialm MoBIni ibtp- 
■B faa( Aij^ura, iMlaillBI 2^^. It BKT be 
^■fai that tUa word la kwcbI/, aa Oaeanoa enc 
PMa a«iTr-i to V^StI, C-T^, Hl|*ini af 

T^IJ, "rain," wUch S^bl^H baMB to 2^^, 
"bbw." Owlai, TnbabiT, to Bibnw raUfloaa aaa- 



Bjial, fnL L p. 040: ud Boblnioc'i Camiia, p. 
Mb a). If tfaa poM lud dslred to OM tba imigi 
of ft aioirf mmintain, It would hm tmn mm 
MtunI lo •dun Hcrmon, wblcb )■ *1(ihlii from tilt 
mmm brow oT Geriilo], b lOiaut 10,000 tet bigli, 
ud u BOTcred iritb pcrpMuiI mow. SUU It it not 
VBnt that tbU drcumatuic« by Itnlf would be 
MMialuilivj for tbae m*; bftrg beni (lutkulir uao- 
ntUoD* iu Um mind at the poet, unknowo to in, 
■hieh ted him to pnTer Silmon, 

Id dMpair of imdmluidlng tba lUuikn to Sal- 
mon, some luppoae that SaloioD, 1. «. Ttnlmlm, 1* 
not a pnpa oaow in thia pamgt, but nmelj aig- 
iiifls "darkntB;" and thia interpretation, aup- 
ported bj tbe TBrgum. though (^poan] lo the 
Scfitaagint, h«a bmi adopted b; Ewald, and lu 
tha flnt atatemcnt in hia l.aiicon ia admitted by 
Flint. Since ItltM lifnlflee "ahwle," thlt <a a 
ban ctjiuologkal pmuibilitj. But no raeb word 
*• UalnAi OCCUR elaewben In tbe Hebif w lan- 
nage; wbiie (hen ars wvenl other worda for 
uriinas, In diflbrnt dcgtrra of meaning, auch as 
the ordinary word cAnMii, cfJiti, iijitilali, and 

tliikai tba puaa^ la gtren np aa oomipt, K 
Menu more in accordanca with naion to admit 
tbit thire wai arane alluaion pnaent to the poet'a 
nlod, the kef to which ia now kat; and thia ought 
Dot to turpriae anj at^oUr wbo reflect* bow muij 
tOuuooa theta are in Greek poeta — in I^ndar, for 
nampb, and In Arlalopliai^et — whidi would 
wholly uninteUigible to ut mw, wen It not for 
ootea of tinek edioliatta. To Iheae ootea the 
notblng eiactlj anak^ua in Helirew lllrrat 
and in tbe a1«eiiw oT aome auch ajwlatann, 
anaroidable thU then ahould be tei-eral patHigee 
In the O, T. mpecllng the meaning oT which w« 
unat ba eontent to remain Ignonnl. E. T. 

6AI/K0S tba Ufhs of Doai (Rutb It. 10, 
11; UaU. I. 4, Bt Luki iii. BS). [SaLha.) 

SALHO'NE (aoXu^m: Sabnimt). Tbt 
Eaat point of the lilaiid of ClirrK. In the ae- 
eonnt of St. Paul'a vojage to Kome ttib pramon- 
lorj la menthmed in auch a way (Acta i»ll. T) aa 
to aJIbrd a curloua lUuatraliDn both of the naviga- 

8t. I.oke'a namtive. We pAbtr tnm oUier dr- 
mmitaiiee* of the •orase that the wind waa blow- 
ing ftom the N. W. (Jranlsut, m. «; AmSu- 
rXooSrrti, nr, T). [See Hyka.] We are then 
told that the ahlp, on making CMnlrs, conk) not, 
by reaaon of the wind, hold on her eoiine, which 
waa paat the aouth point of Ureen, V/. bi| 
81k did, howerer, Jutt (rUA Cape Salntone, vb' 
btut 9. W. by 8. from t:nldua. Now we ir . 
take It ibr granted that ahe could have made good 
a eourae of kn than aei«i pointa IVoi ' 
[Ship]: and, atarting fnm (his asanmption, we 
■re at once btonght to [he nmdiiilDn that the wind 
mnit ban been betweei] N. N. W. and W. N. W, 
Thus what Palef wouM have called an "unde- 
ilgned coinddence " la ellcilcd by a eroaa-otamlna- 
lion of the nanatlre. 11)la Irirenlons argument la 
due to Mr, Smith of Jordanhlll ( lb}, and SA^ 
vrtek 0/ SI. F'lul, pp. T3, 7+, Ud ad.l, and ftom 
him It 1* quoted by Conybean and Howton (/.(/e 
•wf Ajqs. cfT Si. Poai, il. 393. Id ed.). To three 
MOb wa mnM nAr ibr IbUer dMaiOt. Wt naj 




wnllMr afaora, amoolL waler, ani 

nt, btfcro reaching Cnldui, and 

3WD to Ctpt Sahnow tbe uikn obtained rimihi 

adtaatagea under tb* leo of CreU, aa hr u Kan 

■KB, oew Labju. J. S il 

Ilia nortbeaat pidnt of CnU ia Qa pnaoH 

Ckpe Sidero, and baa gmnUy been anppoaad (u 

above) to be Loke'a galmona. (Captain Spntt. 

N., ditaanta bum thia opinlta ( ITVnKJa ami IU. 

ircAfi in Crtlt, Lond. IBaS). He admita that 

I andrnt wrilen, genmlly at kaat, appBed U>e 

lie to that Cape, but Ihinka that Lake leftra to 

the pratDOntory — Jutting out toward the eaot 

mllea to the eouth of Ctpt Sidero, and uQed 

Plaka. Hia naaona lor thia conclusion hi the 

lae of Luke are, jt'rA, - that Cape ^deto b, Im 

nth, not the headland or point his ihlp would 

lep neareat to in coming from (^idna; and, aeo^ 

••lly, that this pniDiontDry »u(h of tjnndea Day, 

called Plika bj the natives, la indeed now by aoma 

Lerantlne niTi|[alori called Cape Salmooc, to dto- 

tlnniiab H from Capa Sidao." Puidy {Nt» 

"-■^g DirtOimi, et«.. p. B», l.oiid. 1884) «rtli« 

amo ifcifcaaori, but m ' -■'- ' " 


SAXOH {Saxi/i: Sakm). Tba Gredi fim 
1. oT Shallum, the hther of Hilkiah <Bar. I. T). 
[Shallum.] 8. (Sf^Lmm) of fWn tbeblfaeTof 
Zlmri (1 Mace. 11. »). [Salu.] 

BALO'ME (loX.*^., [Heh. jwnct/U]: So- 
ne). 1. The wifc of Zebedee, aa appein ft««l 
niparing Halt. iiili.M with Uarkn.ia Itia 
further the opinion of many modem critka that aha 
was the daterof Uary. the Biolher of Jnut, to wboB 
rderenoe la made hi John xix. Sft. Tbe worda mi- 
mit, howenr, of untber and hiUieito geawaalty 
recelred dpbuiatioii, aecording to which they Rfc 
to the " hlary the wilb of Uropliaa " ImmediMdy 
afterwards menthmed. In behalf of tbe tuniMt 
tieit, it may tie mged that It geta rid of tbe diS- 
culty arlfling out of two dtlcti baring tbe aame 
name — that it barmonim John'a nanalno wttta 
thoai of Uatthcw and Mark — that thia dreniton 
manner of deacribing hia own mother ia in ehat^ 
acter with St. John'a manner of deacribing hln- 
adr— that tbe abaenca of any connecting link 
between tbe second and third dedgnalioo* awy ba 
accounted fbr on the ground that llie levr arc 
arranged' in two diatlncl couplets — and. Uatly 
that the PesbHo, the I'enian, and the JEtiaafh 
renkina mark the diaUnctioo between Iha aeMDid 
and third by iDlarpolating a caqJniKtion. On tk« 
other band, it may ba urged that the difficulty 
arialng oat of the name may be diepoeed of by 
aaanming a double niarrjage on tbe part of tM 
hther — that then ia no neceoity lo hartnoniia 
John with Miittbew and Uarh, lor that the time 
and the plan in which the groupa an noticed dlF- 
fer materidly — that the language aildrtaaed to 
John, "Behold thy mother! " fmorn tlie idea nf 
tbe abaence ntlier than of the pretence of hia nat- 
ural mother — Mid that the varying tnditiona* 
current in the early Church aa to Salome's parania, 
worthleaB aa they are in ibemHli-ea, j-et bear ■ 
negatli-B tdtlmony againal the idea of her baliig 
idaled lo the mother of .Ipsua. Altogethet »i 
can hardly tegsrii the paint se BPttled, though 0» 


Eritidm ia dacididlr in &nr of 
a WimelB, Slmd. «. Kril. lUO, 
p ereoti najnted at SakMut 

(Halt. n. 30), that *fae lUcndsd > 
of J«n (Uark it. 40), mod tliU 
M^khn (Mvk in. I). Sb« n 

3. Tbe duglits of Henxliiii bf her Brat b 
bud, Hvod Pbilip (JoKpfa. AnL irlii. &. J 
Slwis tbe "(Uii|;bln'ofil(Tudiu"iiu(ictdiiiBli 
ni. 6 H dancing Hon Hnod Anlipu, uid m 
i n uuuri ng «t bv iDolher'i inUijratloa tbfl deatb of 
John tlM Baptiitt. Sbe nurricd In Ibe fint plus 
PbUp the Ictnnb ct Tncbonitii. ber |al«Tia] 
■neb, and aeeoadlj AriMobuliti, thg kinj; of Chat- 

■dt ia to onndna. It waa en 
Hrtrawa. bsng I 

i (la- 

ic food both of m 

I. 14, a 

, (Job 

bfc antidola to tbe dfecta of tbe heat of the eti- 
nflic DO aidnia] food, but alK entn-Ing largelj into 
tboT idiKKMU Mrrii-s u an weompuiment to tbt 
Taiiooa oiftringi pmnud on tbe aJtor (Lrr, it. 
IJV Hm; poiaaaed an inoliauatlhle and nadj 
npplj of It on tbe aonthmi ibona of tbe Ilead 
Sen. Here maj hare be™ dtaated tbe Vallej of 
Salt (S Sam. tiii, 13), in pnniioitT (o Iba ntonn- 
lain of lonil alt which Robinaon (Krtnrdia, ii. 
IMl deaoibc* aa llt« milea in IniElb, and ai tbe 
diirf Botme of the aalt in Uw aea llaelf. Hen 
wtn a» aattfdta (Zepb. il. 8). probabl; fonned in 
tbe ""*>'— at the aoutbRn ewt of the kke. iKblch 
an eonpletflj ooated with aalt, depoaited period^ 
IcaHj hj tbe lUng of the walen; and btre alio 
wen the nuepHie pilhn of aalt which tradition 
haa ftnm time b> time idiDtiRed with Lot'i wife 
{Whi. I. T; JoK^. Am 1. 11, } 4). [Ska, the 
Salt.] Salt might aho be pmntnd from tbe 
MediterruMaa Sea, and from thia amine tbe PbcB' 
nidaiM would natnnllj obtabi the npplj necea- 
mtj fijf aalting flab (Neh. liil. 18) and for other 
porpoas- The .lewi itpptn to hale diitinflniiihcd 
btlwn rack-Mtt and that which waa ^ned bjr 
ha Talmnditta txtieukriie one 
I {probaMj the latttr) aa the -'laH of 
~ (Oarpnr, Appar. p. 7IB|, Tbt notion 

Hie aahpita brmed an important 
taane of moiBB to tbe ralm of the eountrf 
IJiMjit. Ant. liii. i, § 91, ind Antlocbua eonfeired 
a Tahabla boon on Jenuaiem b; pnaentini; the 
■tj with Sib bnriirb of mit for tbe Temple aer- 
fica UkT. ifi. S, { 3). lu adililion to the uaea of 
■H abcadj tpmird, the inlinor wtta wen ap- 
pBed H a manon to the nil, or to baXen tbe 
dtc uoi pn ^ Uon of doni (Mair v. t^l; iJiTu lit. 
K). Too higc an adnlituir! hoirever, wa« heU 
lo p rodu M BttfOitir, ■• eiempllKeii on the ihora 
of Iba Dad Sea (DeuL nit. 21; Zeph. II. 9) 
• - - " ]gf^ ,„, iinonjmnM with hamr. 

■ (Jobs 

. L A 7. tr. 8, { 1, in^vfiSnt ■<u tyauBt); 
nd boKS ibo aroae tbe cuitooi of aowinH with 
kit Um fauditfcna of a dntroTed dtj (Jiid)(. li. 
ft), u ■ tokon of ila Irrctrinible min. It waa 
a bdW af tU Jon that lalt would, bj npoMira 



SALT, cmr OP 


<)i and 

Maundnll (£nWy Tinrtli, p. a]2, liohn] aiMrta 
(hat be found the aurlace of a aalt rocli ill ttall 
condition. Tbe aiaociationa connected with aalt 

the moat MnlinI artlcla of diet, it tjoibollKd 
hoapitalitji la an anUaeptlc, durabtlil;, AdelitJ, 
and puritj. Hence the eipreui<Hi, -'corenantof 
Hit" {Lav. li. 13; Num. iviii. 19; 3 Cbr. dil. 
il, «• betokening an indieMhilile iQlance lielwecn 
friand*: and again llie eiprcuion, "aaJled vllh 
tbe aalt of the palace" (ICir. St. 14), not necei- 

the palace," aa the A. T. haa it, but that the; 

weie bound bj aaend obligation! of fidelitj lo tbe 
king. So in tbe jiRWnt da;, " lo eat bnad and 
tail togetlMr" ia an eipmuon for a league of 
mutual atoitj <RuMeIl, Atipjio, I. !33}; and, n 
the other hand, the Peraian (em for tiaiUr ii 
nnBrjtA.(rnn, "&ithltat to aalt" (Geaen. Tha. 
p. 790). It m probalilj with a new to keep thli 
idea prominentlj befon tbe minda of tbe Jeva 
that (he uae of lalt waa ei^joined on the laraetiUi 
in tbeiroa^ngitoOodi for in the lint initane* 
it wai tpecifleallj ordered for tbe meat-offering 
([.ev. ii. 13), wbich conugted niainlj of Bout, and 
Iberefora waa not liable lo corruption. Tbe ai- 
lenaion of it* uae to burnt aacrificea waa a bier 
i- S, * I), 



of l.eT. ii. 13. Similarly the hoitbena acooni- 
panied their aacrifleea witb ealted bartej-miB], tba 
(ireeki witb Ihdr oi\ox^iu (Horn. JL I. 4IU), 
Hie Romana with their M.W.' inlti (Ilor. SnI. II. 9, 
200) or tlieir uUa /rugn iVirg. ^n. U. 138). 
II niajr of eourae be tasumed that in all el tbeee 

Btricttieaa with which the rule waa adhered Id'— 
no aacri£ce being oHkred without aalt (Plin. ixtL 
41), and itltl man the probable, lliougb perbapa 
doubtful, admiitureof it in inceuie (tji. m. 3Jt, 
where Ibe word rendered "letnpend togetber" ia 
bj eome undentood aa''ialted") — leade to tha 
concluiion thai there wa> a lynibollcal force al- 
tacbed (o lu iiae. Our l.ord ref^ to the aaeril- 
cial UH of aalt In Mark ii. 49, M), though lonn 
of the other awxiationa may alao be implied. 
Tbe purifjilng property of aalt. aa oppoaed to tm- 
niption, led to lie aelMtian aa the outward aign in 
Ellsha-i mlnde [2 K. il. 20, 91). and ia ake 
devebped in tbe N. T. (Matt. >. 13: Col. It. 0). 
The cuiitom of rubbing InlanU wilb aalt (Ea. iH. 
41 otiglnaled in eanitu; contideraUona, but re- 
ceived aiw a ajnibolieil meaning. W. L. B. 

SALT, CITY OF (nVS"^*? : aJ wAiwf 
Iiiavri Alex, at woAji oAwr: aalnt $aHi). The 
lUlb of the all eiliea of Judah which Uy In the 
"wndeme«" (Joah. w. 821. lu prodmitj to 
Fji-gedi, and tbe name itaelf aeem to pmnt lo it* 

iiorbood of the Salt Sot. X^r. VaiAnm (BibL Ra. 
ii. 109) eipreiact bit bdief (hat it Wy aomewbin 
near tbe [JalD at the aoulh end of that lake, which 
ba wonU lilentify with tbe Valler of Salt. Thia, 
tbongb poeribly avpported by the reading of tba 
VaUcan LXX., >• tha dtiea of Sodom,' ii at pn«Dt 
a men conjectuie, ilnce nu tnce of tlw name or the 
city haa jet been diecoiered In that poaitlon. Oa 
Ilia other band, llr. Van de Tdda {Bfr.fP^t 



W{ Mmunr, p. Ill, wid Jf^i) mmtioni k fiiAr 
Mnlth which b* puMwl in hit nnita from (Tnr^ 
T-Rmnit to 5(Mril, Uw nuns oT which (though Um 
■rthogmpbf ji not cerlwn) maj bs Jbund to aV' 
tain * tmce of tb« Hebrew. It ii one of liim 
[■Tina which unite to fono Ihe Wvdg cl-Beihm. 
Another of the (bur, IT. •Amrih |£yr. <f /■, li. g»; 
Mtmoir, p. 1 1 1, .l/ii/il, ncnlli the ninie oT Uomar 
nb, Is the Ilfbnw of which it ii itrj limilir. U. 
• SALT SEA. [Ska, rne Sai.t.) 
8ALT, VALLEY OP (n^JQ K"!, Uul 
twlM wllh the enlelt, n^rl '}•. r<3f\/ft, 
^*A•^'>. NSiXilt, utd 41^7^. Tw lAAr; Kiel. 
r»wAa, rai^Aa: CnWa JJiiJinamin). A cvrtalti 
*«nBj, or perhepi mole 110011™*!; » "ririne," — (bi 
Hebrew ward 6> apiievliifc to bur thu iljETiiflat 
Hon, — in which Dtcumd Iwo memonhk viclurie 

1. That of Dmvid over the Edomitet (9 Sam 
•iU. 13; 1 Chr. iriii 12). U vpftm to have lni. 
imdUtclj followed hli Sj-rinn eampaiini, and wm 
Itirir one of the incldenti of (he gnit tjiomlte ■ma 
ef e»n»aii*tion.- Ilie luillle in the VaJlev of 
Silt kppean to hiiv l>eeii CDtiducled bj AtJibmi 
(1 Chr. ivlli. 13), but IMiid wid Jaab wen hotk 
le iisttle wd In the punull 

■iiieh b 

behind for ail nrontha to mnHimmite the doum 
of Iba coiiquend countr)' (1 K. li. IB, I6j II. li. 
title). The noniber of l-jlomilex ilnln In the Imt- 
tle It Dncertaln: the tiiiTriili .te of Saaiuel tnd 
Chronidct both Rive it nt IS.INK), hut tfaia flEUie b 
kaered in the title of Pt. Ii. to la.UOO. 

S. That of Amaiiab (3 K. iIt. 7t a Chr. iti. 
11), who li relaled to have tlain ten Ihoiuanil 
Edomllet In thii nJkv, and then to haie pro- 
«Mderi, with 1I>,(K)0 |>riBanert. to the ttrDiit^M of 
Ihe nation at km-Sth, the Cliff, i. e. I'etr*. and, 
*fta Ukin^ it, to have mamcred theni by huriinK 
them down the precipice vlilch gate it* ancient 

Nrither of these notina afliirda any clew to the 
rituaUon of Uie Valley of Salt, nor doe> the cunory 

Ib the Oiioin"i'iti»L Ily Jonqihut tl ia not named 
BD rither ocnslon. Scrlten {Hritnt, ii. aSS) woe 
probaMj tbe flnt to anKZ«t that It was the brmri 
•pen pbdn which Ilea at tlie lovtrr end of the Dead 
Sea, and interrmet between the lake itnlf and the 
lange of beighta which crusies the nllcy at 1 


oulh. ■Jlie I 

iveljl by Or. |{al>in.on (SiW. llrM. il 1( 
The plain la in fact the temiiuallon of the r.jtib 
lallej Uiraugh which tJie .lordan flowi froni 
Lake of nberiaa to the Itend Sea. Ita N. W. c 
Mr li occn[ded by the Ki-i/im Uidim. a mount 
of rock anlt, between which aiid (he lake ia an 

or b«D omlUHl br the Oi 

he pUin. Withoat prmntlng lo eop tl ^ 
I BngKeatlDn, which jet can hardlj b« 
with ttStlj 1m the Ter; impetfeet oDaditini 

S. E. of tbe tlewl Sea. it 

K \y^. R.-a 

(a.) The word Gt (K^), emplojwl Ibr tbe plaoa 
\n qoeadon, ia not, to the writer'a knowledge, da*- 
where applied to a broad nlle; or aunk phis ti 
the nature of the lower (Iklir. Socb traeU an 
denoted in (he ScrijituR by the warda limA tt 
Bika'ah, while Ui appean (o be rituiul for cIcAi 
deeper and nartowei' ebaiBcter^ 



priori, one would expect lb* tnet )■ 
qneauon to be called in Scripture bj (he paeidiM 
name unilbnnly applied to the mon northern puti 
of the matt niley — *.c .drdh'Jr -In the eami 
manner tliat the Araha now sail It <(-6'Mr— 6'M- 
being their eqniTalent for (be Hebrew Aribnli. 

(c.) The name "Salt," thongh at Brat aigbt 
conclualte, becomea lot to on reSeetion. It dow 
not follow, }j«Autc (ho Hebrew word nttroh aignt 
Bea aalL, that therelan (he valley ■>'< aalL A am 
eiaetly panild eiiaU at li-UWi, the npraaentatiK 

of Hebron. Like mt^t^, miU nsniAei tolt; but 
thete it 110 leatoii to believe that there it an; talt 
pnaent there, and l>r. Hobinion {tiiii. Rii. ii. Ml, 
aofc) hii&itif jually adducea it aa '> an inalance of 
the uaual tendency of pa|>ul 

Juit aa lUMilk ia the Atal>ic i«| 
Hebnw Moladah, to poetibljr 1 
Hebrew reprctcntative of iihih 

re of (he 
.nefncA (ha 
lie tdonilu 

(d.) What little can be InfaiTtd Ihxn Ihe narra- 
tJie at to the altuatlwi of the Ge-Mclacb i» In 
bior of ita being nearer to I'elra. Attuming 
Stlah (o be I'elra (the chain of evidence (or which 
it tolerably connected), it teemi diffienit to belie** 
that a Wg* body of prlaonen ahould have been 
dnggad ftv iipwarda of filly niilrt through th* 
heart of a bintUe and tnott difficult oouDtij, 
uerely (or Dianaere. G. 

SA'LU ((0^9 [wlffM]: SoA^i^r: Alei. 
[Cooip. Aid.] 3aX^; Bata). Ilie hllK.- of Zinrf 
the prince of the Sinwonllea. who ■wa thin hj 
"bineha* (Num. iiv. 14). Called alM> SaUiH. 

SAXUM (SaAoi^: tVot- eomipt:] A'dHo 
f). L SiiALLUH, the bead of a Gunily of gat*- 
keeperB(A. V, "portera") of the Temple (I E*dT. 

28i comp. Eir. ii.42l. 

S. (ZoA^fl [AM. XaAoEfuiO S('jmt,'\ 


BauuTM, a* hOirrel HilkUi aid uecHsr cf 
Eu> (I fe«dr. fiil. 1( Comp. Kit. lii. 3). CaUed 
ihu &ii>AiiiAs ud Sadoh. 

SALUTATION. SdBUUoiu uj be t 
■■far Uw too haad* sf coontmUuNul uid q>litiiki7. 
TV mhtalfcii at meeting fonutcd iu wlj time* 

■ndoo* onlo tbca" (Cien. xaiii'sS); " BiMMd t 
ttK««r theLwd" (Rnthiii. 10 j 1 Sun- if. U] 
'Vm l«d b* wilb jou," ■•Tbal^ifil blot tbee 
(RMh ±4}: ••TbaUnuBg of the toil be upa 
}m: «e binejoa is tbe HUM el Ibe Lonl" (Hl 



1 IL Tiil. Sfl). llie blMitiK m eonMinM lo- 
«oiB|Mnial wHb ioqwriee h to Ibe ballta iilher of 

The Hebrew 

ibil. ZTi Ex. xvtil. T). It ii iwd n 
am at •dnUtioD (in wbieh nie it 
randotd "to lelate," e. g. Jod);. in 
. I. 4; 1 K. L ll)i but ibD in otb 

; Jndg. T 

e pawn (On. iliii. 
1 Uir. uL 18; Dmn. 
n. when H ie oppoeHl lo " hurt;" i Sem. r 
», " dl b well ; - hmI a Sun. iL T. wben i 
■fflied to Uw prograi of lb* wur). Tb* mJi 
lieB at puting eombted oritcliuill; of ■ wtnplr \it*t- 
bg (Uen. uii. $0. uviii. 1, il>li. 10; J»h. uii. 
■), bat in hler tbof* (Jw leno •MW'S wu InUn- 
daied ben aim hi the fana "Go in peace," or 
Mtar •• KaRweL " (1 Sam. i. 17, u. 43; 1 ^ni. 
n. B). Thk* mil csimt at tb* lime of our 
garnoT'i inhiiiiVT (Hark t. Mi Lake rii. Mi 
Ada ni. M), and \» adopted bj Him hi bli parting 

... ._ ,.._ .■.^... .,.,^ riT.W). It' ■ 


■■ (Ijil 

>. ft). 

■Peaoe be nnto joo" 
»). The n»n oamiDoti •aJatation, bowenr, at 
thii pniod waa borrDwrd finm the (Ineka, Ihdr 
MTd X^V*" '^°S ™^ ^**^ >> nMetlng (llatt. 
mi. W, urili. B; Ijika 1. 18), and pivbablj aleo 


le lie 

nribe the Orienlal lalaUtion. 

Ti— bcwm of gieeling Ihat we hare noticed 
^TC frvJj eubinved aoionff jxnom of difftrenl 
rmka on tha oeanioii of a canal ineeUng, and tfaii 
(■CB when thej wen ilrai^on. 'ITiui Boaa a- 
jhaneed gtnting with bh napen (Rnth il. 41, Oa 
Inmller on the road idaUd the worlier in (he 
•tld (IVeuii. SLaodBMobcnDrtheanwhiD- 
lj intetebaagol gnMingi on iWng in the norn- 
tag (I^Dr. miL UJ. Tb« onir reMrteUem *p- 
fvn to han b«*d In tend to niiglni, tb* Jaw 
tfeU,M the *■ 

paying Um KMnpUnent oolf to tboae wbon b* M» 
tidend " brethren," t. c. memben of the nuoe i» 
ligiooi community (Matt. *. 47; Lane, li. 8; »>•■ 
bubr, DtKi-ijjI. p. 4J). Bvan tbe Apoitle St 
John (brbidi an interebange of greeting wbm II 
Implied a viab for tbe lunm of a Ud cam* 
[J .loba 111. In modern tln» the Orlenlab BM 
bmcd for the dalmnite fornialit; of tbnr greeting*, 
wbkb occupj ■ very eonildenble tlm*; Ibe in. 
•tance* jpreu in (he UiUo do not bear tueh ■ char- 
acter, and therefore the prohibition addreaaed to 
peiwni engiiged in urgent bvilneu, " Salute no 
man bj tbewaj" (a K. iv. 8M; Luke a. 4), m«r 
bert be nAcnd lo tbe delaj likdy to ainia Inn 
iubeequent oonnrtation. Anwng the I'er^ani tb* 
monanh wai D*nr approaebed witbont tb* m1i>- 
latlon "Oking! Uw for ew" (Dan. 11.4,40.). 
llien i* DO vHdenoe that this ever liecanie our- 
rtot among th* Jewi: tbe eipreaion In t K. 1. 31 
wa* cUeited bf the pnviooi allutlon on the part oC 
Uetid to bii own deeoua. In lira of It we meM 
with tbe Greek xiupt, "ball! " (Mut urii. 9B). 
Tbe act of lalutAtion wai aasmpsnied witb a »■ 
rietj ol grMurca opretolTC of diflkrent degma ol 
' niiliitlon, and ninetloKa with a kis. [Auniuk. 

If did 


B riduij 

driving [Uen. iiiv. 84; 1 Sam. »<v. 23; L 

ai|. Tb* nme euMom alill pccniUi in the Vait 
(Niebubr'i Dtiaifll. p. 39). 

Ilie epiiUlarj nJutationi in the period robe*. 

cut to tb« U. T. woe framed on the model et 

! Ijitlnitj'le: tbe addition of tbe term '■ peace" 

ij, bowerer, be regarded a* ■ veaUge of the oU 

Hebrew fonn (9 Mace. L 1). The writer placol 

oa-n nanie Bnt, and then that of tb* penoo 

im be nluled; [t waa onl; in ipecial caKa that 

I order waa revened (1 Maec i. 1, ii. I|; 

1 l-jdr. vi. 71. A eombinatiun of the Rnl and 

thlnl penom In the ternii of the lalutatiaii wa* not 

r^uAt (UiU. I. 1,3; Pbileni. 1; 3 l>et. I. 1). 

« term iiBcd (eilber eipmtrd or iindrntood) !■ 

: introduelar)' Mdutolni waa tb* (ireek vaiati» 

Bn(^ipl>cal«ii«tnKtion(l Muc. i. IS; 3 Maee. 

19; 1 h«tr.viii.B;Actaiiiii.S6l; Uii*, however, 

fteqnentlj omKted, and tlie only Apo*. 

which il 

t. as 

in i. I, a ciHucidaice which nude 
pruUble that UL Jaitin ooaipaaed (be letter to 
the foniier panaqe . A^ fiirm of prajer for ipirltiMl 
nierei«« ra aUo uaed. cmniBiiig geiienllj of tbi 
(emu " i^mre and pence,'" hnt in the three Paitonl 
Kpiatlea iuhI in 3 John "grace, mercir, and polce," 

luding nlutation ooiiaiitKl occaalonallr of a tnn*. 
Ltion of the Uttn i«fc(f(AcU iv. 2D, iiiii. 3D\ 
ut mora senerallj of the term io-iriifafiai. ■• I 
ilrte," or the eognUe BubaUntlve, ■ccompanled \q 
prajei- for peaee or graoe. SU Paal, who availed 
imaetf of lu anianuenua (Rom. ivi. Jjj. added 
M talutatlon with hi* own band (i Cor. iri. 
81; Col. iv. 18; 9 Tb*L ill. IT). Tlie ointo- 
n of the introdnmarr nlntallim In tbe Epiatb 
the Hebrewa i* vetj noticwbk. 

ff. I. a 



■nhoM [SnsLDiiiiL] In Jad. HU. 1 {amp. Ilaa. 
I 8). Tht fona in A. V. ii Riioi bj Aldta. 

B. F. W. 

!• <1 
ttdr. i. 9; tomp. 3 Chr. ui*. Si. 

a. SuKMAiAHoflhocHMof Adoollumfl Eadt. 
vili. 39; camp. Eir. viii. 19). 

3. (X<ih1; [Vat. 2(ji»u: Sin. SfutAiox AM. 
XoMofailJ Ala. Sfutiai: om. in Vul|[.) 'llit 
"grttt SwMba," fiUter of Anmiiiu uid Jni*(hu 


: 13). 

SAMA'BIA (iVipBT, i. 


belnvji Child. ITT'P^ ' 2<v^tia, 
lo^pwfl" [Aid. in-)' oflni Sofi^io, 
or FA. IP la., Jtr., Ulisd.; Sin. -«■■ In Jud. I. u, 
li. 4iJ ■luwpb. So^tM, but /nL nil. II, { b, 
iitiafi4it: Stimaria). 1. A city of Pidnline. 

Tlw word Shirmrrdtt ttwiuib, Btjnwlogicalljr, " per- 
MiiiiiiK to » mtcfa." or •• ■ mteh'iiHiuntain: " luid 
«■ ibinild iliDort be inclined k> thiiili Uut Die 
pMulisril; oT tbc ilbntion of Swiivia ertb oca- 
■ion to iU nime. Iii Ibo lerritorf oiiicliinllj l«- 
laiiging la tbe tribe of Joacpta, alKiut >ix mike lo 
tbe northwest of Shecb«m, Uivn b a wide liann- 
ibaped yalle;, eneireled wilb hiifh billa, almmt on 
the edj^ of the ((real plain whieb borden upon tbe 
Meditemnam. In tiie ceiilie of tbii biwin, which 
b on a lowtr lei-d than tbe nllej' of Shecbem. 
rJMi a toe elevated oblonn hlU, with tteep jet 
aceaaiblc eidea, and a long flat top. 

n Shecl 

whither all limel had come to make Hdioboain 
luni{. On the ■epustlon being njlly actompliihed. 
Jenhoam rebuilt that citf (I K. xii. Si), vibicb 
had lieeti rawri to the ground b; Abimelecli |.Jiid^. 
\i. 46). liut he soon moved to IHrzah, ^Uce. ai 
l)r. Staiilev obaerrM. of piat and proverbUil lieautj 

dtnee antU Zlmri burnt Iht palace and periibed 
In iU rain* (1 K. il*. IT, >v. 21, 33, >iti. 6-ISl, 
Oniri, who prerailed in tbe owlnt for the lunEdom 
that enaued, aftic "rdgning; aii jcara" there, 
■•boi^t the hill of Samaria (^'11911' 'V^-. t1 
tpoi ri 3(fi)fKir1 of Sbmter C^V^: ttnip. 
b. 3^ffe^>0l)for two talflita of dlTCT. 

Abab boot a U 
sa, 33): awl trom ttili d 
portion of tba eitj, poaaibl)' lortllM b; a lepafala 
wall, vaa oallad "the dt; of Ibe bouag of Baal" 
(t K. 1. 3&). Samaria mnit hare ban a pl«i 
ef gteai atnnjilh. It w*f twioa beairKcd bf tbc 
Syrian*, in B.C.U01 (1 K. u. 11, and in n. c. 8»a 
(S K. Ti. 21~tU. 30); but on both oeea^oni thf 
incActual. On the katbr, ijdeed, it 
d miiaculouily, bat not until the inbib- 
Buffived almoet iacredl1>lfl IxHTOfi froTB 
famine durins tbrir pIOUaMsd realBtanae. Tba 
pcnenor of Samaria wae ooukltTed to be rfe fatto 
king of lerael (3 K. it. 13, 14); and won 1» 
^ __.,_.. .t ,^j diroeled ^pi^nil 

ie^fe of Uina Jean, bj 8h^ 
MM, kiiiK of Anjrte (3 K. ndil. », 10), and 
klD)cdoni of the ten tribea wat pal an aid to. 
[Sea Mow, tio. 3,] Some jran afterwaidi tin 
(lietrict of which Samaria waa the centre wm r^ 
peopled bj Kaarijaddon ; but we do not hear wp*- 
laily of the aly until tbe daja of AleaandH tba 
ireat. 'lint eonquetor look the dt^, vhlcb aaenia 
1 ban 8on>«Kh*t raconrad lladf (Euaeb. Cknm. 
i ann. Abr. 16»4), killed a large portion of tha 

ie bill, a 

he built, after tbe name of the 
Samaria" (1 K. tfi. 33, 34). [Ohhi, Anier. ed.] 
Thia atalcmmt of courae di>penae« with the «j- 
mology aUn'c alluded to: bnt tbe cantral (lOHitini 
of the hill, ai Herod Ba(>acioualy ohacrved loni; 
aflerwvda, made it admirablj adapted for a place 
af obttitriiitm, and a fortrvaa to awe tbe neighbor, 
lag counlrj. And the lingular beautj' of the apot, 
npon which, to tbi* hour, traielkra doril with 

■tnKk the 'laaUful Idumean [S. J.'l. 31, f S; AnI. 
\ § 6). 


D.73I, 6 


,em hj a . . 

tbe a^iacenl temtorjr (Si^ia^imf x*l»l *• 
JewB to iiibal,it (Joaeph. c ^. if 4). 'incw 
Sjtn-Maoedaniana occupied (ha eitj onlJl the tint* 
of John HjTcanna. It via then a plana of con- 
idnablaimportaDBe, for Joapbua deanibs it (Ant. 
liii. ID, { S) ai a raj attong cit; iwi)ut ix<'p*- 
■drq). John lljroanua look it after a jear'a aiaga, 
knd did hit beit to deniolUb it oiliiely. Ha lnlv<- 
acted the hill on whieb it iaj witb tfeocbea: inle 
bfl be conductad the natural brook*, and thta 
nndermlued ita tbnndationa. " In &ct," uja tha 
"he look away all evldoKC of 
tbe nrj eiiatoice of tbe dty." Tbla atorj at 
' ' aeeiDB rather n^genled, i ' ' 

the blUj ail* of Saaurte. It maj ban 
relerted otJ]' to the anburb* Ijtng at ita ibot. 
But," aaya Prideaui (Cbwi. B. c. 109, note), 
llouamiu of Tudela, who waa in tha place, tcUi 
ua in hia liiiicnrj* that there irere npon the lop 
of thia hill tuanj fonnt^na of water, and flom 
thne water enough inaj hare been deriied lo fill 
Iheae treiicbee." tt ehould alao be rrcollecled tbU 
the hill of Samaria waa lower than tha bilW in ita 
iiei|[bi«rbDod. 'Iliia maj acoouut for the eiiatOMB 
of tbcae apringa. JoaepbHB deacribca the eitmi- 
which the luhablUiite wan reduced duiing 
SB, niucb in Iho tame way that tbe author 
Uook of King* doea during that of Ben 
{comp. AhL liiL 10. § 2, with 3 K. ri. 36), 
Jobn llfTeanua'reaaun* for aHa-king: Samaria wen 
the iiijuriea which iU inbabituita had done to thi 
people of Mariaia, eoloaUta and alUe* of tbe Jewa 
lliia conHrmt what wa* aud abora, of the naajca 
of the Sanurilan Dalgbbarbood lo tha Jewa tj 
Aleiaoder the Ureab 

After thU diaaaler (which oceun«d in n. n. lOt) 
itjl ni 

bi tba O. T. la I<vh!. 
auapthiDa : 1 K, 

(Mml, XviW^'li 

F. S; la. Td. fl. ; 

mln ut Tulala. See tbe edtUeM tl imtm Mi • 

1 U bi Uwir pdMMlon in the Una i/ 
Jionaiw I.AA lilL IB, { 1), ud until 
Fbiipej'gm U l»ek lo tba i1(f miliiili of Ui 
a^naJ inh » l i l Uote (nli ounKifin*)- 'TheH 
tUcft lUT pwdUy hum l>«>n Ibg S^o-Moc*- 
AidHa, but it ii man pntahla tW tbay wen 
SuMcituic pn^H-. wboH ueaitaii hid txan du- 
u na u ^i bj tha i^oaiaU of Akundcr the Grut 
Bj dinctliMia of Gabiniw, Suuria ud ol^er de- 
». 5, 5 s; " 

Bond Uw Grat, to «bon it h*d beea unnted bf 
AogBAiu, oa tlw d«th of Antonj Mid ClaopMn 
(dML i^ 10, f I, CT. a, Ml ^- -/- i- », I 3). 
Ua ailed It 5(«>ul*, ItAwr^ = Augmtin, ifter 
tin Ban* at Ui patrin <AM. it. 7, { 7). Jo«phiu 
^nm ao'dabonta docriptlon at Herod'i improre- 
BBiti. The nil HUTauadiiig It ma 90 itedie ii 
hngth. In the middle of it na it eloea, of a 


i to tl 


coloiiiied bj G,000 vitanot Mid othen, fbt wboaa 
lupport 1 miHl bceatiful end rich diUrict iimouod- 
Ing tlie citjr me ipproprielad. Uerod'i motine 
In tbeee unuigeneuta were probeblj', Gnt. the 
ooeapMioo or ■ omumandiiig poeitioa, end theu 
the daire uf dittinguiihiii); blmedf (br teite b)' 
the rmbeUiihmeiit oT ■ ipol elreedj » udoraad 
bj oilure {AM. n. g, % b; 8. J. i. SO, f 3: SI, 

Htnr long Sunerie meiiitelned ilj ^)Lendor eiltf 
Himd'i ioipronaienti we in not biibroMd. Id 
the N. T. the eilf itielf doei Dot eppw to ba 
lositJaaed, but nther ■ portiun or Iht diilricl to 
whidi, eren in older liuwe, it hid extended ita 
nime. Our Venioii, indeed, of Aeti viii. b «1)f» 
tbat Philip tbe deeaon " vent down Ui llit citj- of 
SiEOarii; " but the (iretk u[ tlw piwaige it •ioiplj 
(11 viKir rqi ao^wpefai. And we ow)' birlj 
•it;ue, both irom tlie itweooe of Ihe defiuile iiUck, 

end km tbe ptnbihilitj thet, hid the eitf Sinurii ( Llpiin, Lr;/. I. ifa Ctmibut, qnoted bj Dr. Roll- 
been intwdad, the torn employed would liive been ineoii). Viriooi epeclnitne of coini ilniek on tha 
Btin^, thit ume one city of the dlitrict, the i apot b*ie b»n pneerved, eitendini; From N'ero to 
pane of which k Dot apedSed, wu in the mind . Geta, tbe brother of (V«cillm IViiilmit, In Nu- 
af tbe wnter- In veraa 8 of the tame chipter | miajn. fittper., and Noria, quutetl by Heland). Hut, 
"the paoide of Sunahi" nprcaenta rh Km T^r tboni;h the eeU of i Konian colony, it eonid not 
JaiaiptUt : uid the phnae in rerae 9S, " many , bin tieen a pbkce ot much political Impoitinee. 
rilbgi* of Iha Samaritan*," abowi that the open- We Dnd in thn Colri ot Theodoiiui, thit by A. D. 
(fona of enneiliiinK wera not eonflned to tbe city M9 tlie Holy Ijuid had liwii divided into PalHtina 
m Samark Ibelf, If tbey wen erer curied on Prima, Suundi. and Tertia. Hala^ttna Prima 
tben. Coup. Halt. i. 5, "Into any city of the included the country uf tlie Philialinea, Saniari* 
awnaittan* aotw ye not;" and .'ohn iv. 4, 5, (the diatrict), and tha northern p«rt of Judra; 
wbce*, altar it haa ixan vid, '^And lie muat needa but ita capital waa not Sel-aale, hut Cfnarea. Tn 
ga tbroQgb Samaria," obriooaly the diatrict, it ia an ecdeiiABtical point of view it atood rather hiE;heT. 
■ibjeJoed, ■• TVo eoraeth He (o n eity of Samaria It -wu an epiicopal aee probably u early aa the 

Hoieefortli ita hiatory la vt97 nn- 
coimaElad. Saptimloi Sevinu planted a Roman 
Mfaay Ifan in tb* b^faming of the third eentury 

■ - Tha ■■ H ftalla with lb* naked *t* tnuB the 

third eentnry. At a>iy nl* Ita blabop w 
anwui^ ttuae of Paleatin* at Ibe Cowieil of Nici 
A. D. 33A. and auhaeribed it* acta aa " Uailn 
(al. Maiinua) 6ebaateniia.'- The i 
of hi* ai 

PelBtfj'iia, wl 

»fiK>d M Jcrankm, a. d. tM. The lilk <f tb* 
Hi otcun In Uic MrilaT Gnek ^ufitti, M>d in 
lb« ItUr UUu con (RtUod, PnL pp. 314-398}. 
Stbut* kU bita Uw buida uT tha Muhumaidui 
iuTilig lh« WCffl of jRuaaJem^ In tha couth of 
tba Cruada ■ Utln bliboprlc wu talablUKd 
there, the title of which «u neoKDlied b; tht 
Bomaii Chorch until tha fburteoith cenlurj. 
thia da; tfa< (It; ot Umrl and of Hand it 
Roanla) bi^ a »uaU liUagt retuning iinr vmtiKca 
gf tha paM nwpt lU iiaiua, Stbtuhl; an Arabic 
•orrupUnii oT Sebaile- Some irchit«Uinl rei 
H haa. partlj of Chnatian ODiutnictloii or adapU- 
lloii, ai Uie ruined chunh of St. John tha fiaptlM, 
fmrtlj, perhupa, tnea of Iiiunuwi niatniiSniice. 
•■ A kiUff avenue cl broken pilUn (ai}i Ui. 3t*ii- 
lejr}, Kt^jarmtly the main atreet of Kerod'i eilj, 
'm. M at Palmpa and L>amueui, adorned by a 

net oT the hlU." But the fngi 
the wliole phut nhibila i proent fulfillment of the 
propbecj of Uicah (i. 6}, tbougb it luaj ban beco 
hlfllled more lluui CHict pnvioualji b; Ibe ratft 
of Shalmaneaer or ot John Hfrcanu). " I i 
malie Sunui» aa an heap of the BrM, aM 
pUlitinga oT a vinejard: and 1 will pour down 
Mona thneof into tba vallaj, and I '" 

i. IS). 


iled k 

o.>kIj i 

■ (Uic 

I. Uoa. 

ihailF, irhich heiniurlaliljtdenlJBaw^th Sunaro, 
ni the place in which St. John tbe Baptial wia 
hiipriion«I and tullrm! diatli. He also niakea it 
Ibe burial-plKe of tb* propbeta iJUkt and Obadiah 
tm luHoua |mwic*) i»i«d bj Udaud, pp. SSO, B81 ). 
Epipbanin* ia at gnat pain*, in hi* woifc Aih. 
JKtrtMt (lib. i.), in wbish be ticata of tha biffuca 
ot the Siiiuariiajia with abiguhr minutenea, tc 
•OMHiiit fur the origiu al Ibelr aHDe. H* uitcr- 
|irH*ilHD^'!QC>,fdxu«>,or»kMpera." The 
bill on which Ote dt; wa* bniU vaa, ha 
dtxiirial^ SoDier or Someron (Jv/i^p, 2saH 
from a certain Sonioron the aon ot Sunu-r. ■ 
be coiitid^r* to have been of Lbe atoch of th 
eieiil I'triizitea or UiTKiuhilea, themsrlvci da 
anla of I'nnnan and Ham. Ilul he addi, tht 
Inhabitania may have l-een called Saniaiitana from 
their euardhiK the bud, or (conilnK ■'<"■'< much 
bier ill their hblcry) from thnr giurdinR the Ijiw, 
ta rIbtiiiisuiilwJ from the IiIit Kritinsa of ilie 
Jewlih (anuii, which Ihey nfuud lo allow. [Ser 


For modem deacripliona of Ihe condition ot So- 
Diiiia and IM neiihliorliDnd, aee Dr. kobinxxi' 
BMoil RtHirrir; il. 197-133: IMmi't P«lat- 
linn, pp. 3*i, »70-Ug3: Kuimer'i P<tlaH!w<, pp. 
lU-l4g, noln: Van de Vehle'a Syria nwt PaUt- 
Hot, 1. 303-386. and iU 3»fi. 2M. Mitp. Mid Mt- 
mim-: Ut. Sloalev'a Sinni iiml PoUHint. pi 
HS-aiSi and a abort vtide hj Ur. U. William 
bi Ihe lHa. -far-g. Ur. Kitlo, in hb Ptyi'a: 
H<tl.ny ■■/ PrUitint. pp. oivii., ciiriii., haa an in 
^Vbliii^ rvfpreiioe to and extract from Sandyi 
Blinlrjtii« ot its lopocrapb; and Keiieral Mp«t M 

S. The Swiiw 

1 HaH. >. ee (tI 

TtoBinV™) a e 
IM trritbioiiii ^ 

>f the Old and New Tca- 

m Hebi 

the knd of At 


axncUoD ia danbtlcM tupplied 
by Joarphut {AM. lii. 8, f 6), who baa Uarbaa 
"AKEaMA), a pbre which by in the nad to tht I'hilialine Phin, One nf tha 
Latin Veraiai>i f^ibita the aaie reediii(. 
which la acoeptad hy EwaU (G'lKib. Iv. SSI) Mid a 
heat of commentaloia (lee Grimu, K'atijr. Aw^ 
llajulb., on the paaaagel- Dnuiu* propaaed Sh» 
anim; but tfab la bntdly is fcMibb aa Uinahk 
and baa no utcrtial wpport. 

3. Saha'iiia ([3iua^it(i: Alei. lay lAen Zr 
^ucfW, and ao Sin. inlUace. and N. T., Wlkrfi 
by 'iKh. ill hb Sih ed. of the N. T.; — "tba 
counliy of Samaria," 1 Mace. i. SO, li. S8, 34, ) 

, Aki. . 


1 BibUaU phiMau 

which the former of tbeaa worda u applic»- 
IJe, and the oricin of the people to which the bUar 
i> applied in Ibe N. T. but * probable aolution ol 
■ hem n)ay be k*'""! ^3 cvefuJ attentioB lo the 
hiitorical atatenienta of Holy Seripbir* and of Jo- 
tephua, and by a eonatdasLioB of Iba gcogiapUcal 
faatirct of Palatial 

would be an inhabiuuit of the dry of Samaria. 
Hut it b not lound at all in tbia una. aiduainl; 
at any rata, in the O. T. b <ut, il niily ocmin 

3 K. ivii. 39. Iliere It b emphiyal ta deu^n'Ma 
thota whom Lbe king of Aayrb had ^ placed iq 
(what an called) the atirt of Samaria (■hatrra 
Ihne nttj be) inalead of tha chiMren of IineL" 

Were Uie word Sanuuitwi found tbcwiierr in tb* 
0. T., it wouM have de«i;nated Iboae who be- 
loniied lo the kingdom of Ibe ten Iribea, which ia 
a Innje aeiiie «aa called SMiiiuia. And u Ihe ei- 
leiil of thai hiiiKdoni varied, which il did verj 
much, KradiDilh dimiiibhine to the lime of Shaf. 
niaiwwr. hi Ihe eiteotor Ihe word SamariUui would 

:h JcnilMini i 

or U 

cInHrd all Ih 

r Jordan 

the eily of Samaria 
prophet who dwelt U llelbel " deuribiiiK the piis 
■lictioni of "the niwi ot Uod who esme tram 
Judah," in reference Id tlie altar at ilclbel, ai 
directed not merely a^ainat Ibat altar, bol 
" acniiiit all Uie houKa of Die binb-pLuca which 
are in Ikt cUitt •■/ Saman, " (I K. liii. SSJ, L & 
of count, Ihe eitin of which Samaria waa, ot ai* 
10 tit. Ihe head or cipilaL In ollii.r pLwn in Um 
liiMuricwl book* of the O. T. (wilii ilia eicepligo 
of 3 K. itii. 24. as, Se, £1] Saiiwri;> uema H 
denote the ci'if eiduaivelj. I)nl Ibt propbeli vm 
llw word, much u did Ihe oM prophet of Hethe^ 
in a Kiel U]- e (tended (ena. 'I'hui Ibe ■' calf ef 
litlbd " i* alkd by Hoaa (viii. 0, 01 the -gi^ 
otSwnirii"; in .Adim liii. S) Iba "mounlaiia « 

H^urfk ' are ipokcn cf ; uid Uw " wptnllj of ; 
8uM>i> lad her <Uii)!liUn " U ■ ptrnw fcnnd bt 
Eidutl (ttI. 53). HatBo ttw wonl Sunrilu 
inuM lute ikiintrd eraj ooa nib^ect to tba kkg ol 
Ifae Donbeni apitil. 

But, wbaUvcr eitait the nurd mttitit lun »o- 

IbmU of tb« kiiig()oin <tl land tin 
1p ill pruUiLilit]' the leiritor]' ot' ainieon and tbU 
of Uui mcv itry nvljr iilrtorbn] iit tbe kingdom of 
JbUl 'Ilia mmU ba «* Umiimtion. Not, tu 
M. c. 771 Mid 7*1) mpecti-^j, - J-dl, king of A«- 
■jnt, afid 'I ilKAtk-Pilkad'. ktiq; of Aiajtik^ euried 
mj Uk KcuhB'tlH uhJ tbc (ikiila. ukI tha hulf- 
tiUie (tf Maiimacb. u>d Irou^bt llieiD unto Hikih, 
■kI Hstnr. ud llua, ami ID Uw riwr G«cui " 
(ICliT. V. aU). TliU maU lit ■ Momd liiuiUUon. 
Hot the UCWT of thae kin^ wnit further: " Ha 
took ijaa^ uid A1xl-1«th-naiu:litljf uid Janoak^ and 
KtOah. tad Hanr. BHd (iiesd, and Ualikc, ^ 
lb* h>d if NaphUlL and curied (kem eafitin M 
A^rv" (S K. 1*. aa\. Tbii MXiId ba a tbinj 
"-"■"— Newly a (Batarj hribn, n. c BOO, 
-tin IjkO bad hegiui tu cut [and ibutt;" fx- 
■' HKBd. kinit oT Sjria, iiiiutc thou in mil th* 
Tl f t — -'; bom Jordan Butirard, all tin land 

:. ai,S3) 

h ia hjtl 
Don. cm Gile~j ».d BmIwi " (2 K. 
TUi. bamef'. u m maj conjecture Aqdi tba di- 
•mitj ot Fiinxiui, hid beui merHj a pualng 
iaroad, and had uiMdred no |ienu.nEiefi( iDlj«ct>oa 
•r tba eoaitTT ar deportatiwi uf ila ioliabitaMi. 
tlie iBTaaJom of ful aud of lllKUb-pUneaer wen 
■tter tiemnaem of Ibe poputitiwi. Tba terrjurj 
tkn *»uhlad b; tbdn mu pruliablj oaupled bj 
di^rera L; tbe piiiluiig Kmnnl uf the nelKhboriiig 
beatbn. or b; amugling Caiiiilie) uf tbe braclila 
tbeauetra. In vefacuoe tu the iiorthrm pari of 
Galihc *a know that a bettheii population pr«- 
nUed. Ilenea Uw phnae "Galilee of tha N>- 
tkaia," or >■ (iaiililei " (li. ii. I ; 1 Hacc T. IS). 
And DO doubt tbii vai tba eaae alio bejond Jor- 

a fourth Hmitatioti 



I lle'iekiah^t rapi. tliat Joat beibn the dep- 
saiUon ami d«th of llwlira. tlw bat king ot li- 
nel, tbe authoritj af tba kiiig of Jiidah, or, at 
kaat, bia itiHueiioe, iraa R«uf[iiiEed bj> [lortkina of 
labs, liKwhar, aiid Zebuluu, luid ewu of tlphnln 
■nd UHKiiKh |g Chr. ui. 1-2S). Ufa oma 
bom all fbtjae (riliea to the Panoier at Jeniaaleni, 

Mf biiila kid tlw kiiiKtloui uf Sannria been r- 
dvul, that vbtn, t»o cr Ihne jean altmnrda, 

OOK th« kmd," and aAer a iiege of Ihrea yan 
" E»k fWniaiia. ajHl carrinl Itfad aira; into Aa- 
ijna, asd ptwad tl>eni in tULi)i, aiid In Habor bf 
tfw riTCT liuaut, and in tlw dtiaa of tbe Sledea " 
(9 K. iiU. i. e\ aiid when aijain we are told that 
■* land sal earried awa; out <if thei 
iato AaairU" {1 K. %wi\. »l), wi 

, adj«ent atie. o 


^marla (the citj^), 
T viUa^ oolj, repre- 
Ai uiac aonunwn wiiidi bad onua eitcnded 
1 Bedid to Uui nwtbwaida, md ftooi tba 
mMnoma to the borden of Syria and Ani- 
I taatwiudi n^ b ftirtha' eDnAmiad bj 
1 «■ nad of Joiiah'a pnpvm. Id 8. o. 011, 

tfani^ " tba eitia* ot Maruunb, and Ephni% 
and aimaon, ann nuto Naphtali " (3 Cbr. mi*. 
8). Saab a prognaa would bare bsen iniprirtlai 
' *' and liUagei oonpial 

Samaritana. SbaJmaneaer, a 

I origin of I 
he N. T.,. 

n (S K. 

tb« ten tiibea whicb itiU ackiwiriedgad Hoibea'a 
authority, into AajTii. 'I'bi* remnant contiated, 
aa baa beta (bown, of Samaria (the citjl and a 
few adjacent citiea and HUai^ea. Now. 1. Did ba 
caiTT away all tbeir lnbal>ilOTta ot no? IL 
Whether tbej mra wbolly or onlj paltiallj daa- 
■dated, who nphoed tbe deponed popalationf 
On tba anawtr to Ukm inquitle* will depend ov 
d«(<rmlnatHNi at the quetiona, were the Sainul- 
laua a mixed noa, eompiaed partlj of Jewa, partly 
of new aettlera, or were they piintj ot Ibrtigii as- 

tn refemiDB b> tbe fomier of theae inquiriea, M 
ma; be obasred that tbe language of Scripti«« 
admjta o( acarcdy a doubt. ^ larael waa carried 
away " (S K. >ni. 8, i3), and other natioiu maa 
ptooed " in the eiliea of Samaria uuifiJ at tba 
cfaildreD of Iiraet " (2 K. nil. 8-1). Thtre i> dv 
mention whaterer, aa in the «ae o! the tomewtiat 
parallel deatnudou of tbe kingdom of Judah, irf 

for the new uibahilanta to have been » utto^ 
unaMe to acquaint tlieiiiaeivea with "tbe maaaar 
at the God or the land," aa Is require to be taught 
by Bonw prieet of the Captivity aent littm tbe king 
of Amjria. Beiidea, It wu not an unuiual thing 
with oriental oonquerati actualli to eibauat a laai 
of ita iohitbitanta. CuBip. He'md. iii. 14V, >• Tte 
Pvuana dragged {aay^niaami) Samoa, and 
delinred it up to S}kwin itripl of all ita men;" 
llemd. «i. 31. liir tlw applicatioo of 
other iataJida, where thp 
:r ia dacriled, and l> ooo- 
.rilie piipuliitjon UxBiiprt- 
I [»weijll)- oontraated with 
tlhcr trrritoriee to which traynyf^ 
tir waa not applied, .losepliui'a phrue in reftr- 
tiKC lo the eitiea of Swiiria it that Shnlniaiiewr 
" Kauiplanted all tbe people" {<<■'. ii. 14, i \). 
A threat againal Jvuaalain, which waa indeed on^ 
porliatly earned out, ahuva liow complet* and aunt- 
mary the deautation of the lut rvlii^ ol tba aialar 
kingdom niuat haie been: "I will atretcb oral 
Jeruuleai tha line of SnniBria, and tha plunimel 
of tbe bouae of Ahab: atnl I will wipe Jeruaalam 

upon tha liuw thereof" (i K. iii. 13). Tbii waa 
uttered altbin (iirty }Kin after b, c. T2I, during 

tba reign of Manaaieh. It niual haie ilerind 
Diueb MmiKth ftoni tha ncciitiwu and proiimMy 

We niay Ibeii eonclTide that the citiea of Sama- 
ria were not merely partiuUy. hut wholly evncualad 

of 9 K. nil. !4, " the king of Aaiyria MougU 
man from Babylon, and trom Cuthah, and frja 
Aia "nh, i K. iTiii. 311, and rroni Hamatb. aod 
ftom S^harrwm, and placed them in tha eltiaa ri 

8800 SAUABU 

BuMiUiDilMd ortliaehUdivnoriBHl: udtb«r 
BMiWiti SunutB, uid dvdl In the eltk* thnof.' 

mU tbem — wtn Anyriiuu lij blrtli or luljug*- 
doa, una ^lUtlj itnngen In Uia dtdct of Siunn' 
tlk, ud were euLiuiTcl]' Uw InbibiUnti or (hoM 

Wfaa wu Uis king of Aajrii tlut eBeotnl Uiia 
oolonizatioD 7 At fint u^ht, one would auppoeA 
ShtLnnUKHT! fbr Uift Duntin ii ■oreety bnJiaL, 
wd the rcpeopling ikdii to ba ■ nEtonl Kquencc 
•f the depopulBtiOD. Such would uppeir to have 
been Joepbui' view, tar ba oiji of ShilmuiFKr, 
" Wken he hid remoned ths people out of tb«r 
lutd, be bnniehl other iiUione out of Cuthib. > 
pUca M) called (for there » uill in Perui m river 
of OmX nuue), into Siioiarii uid the coookrj of 
the UrwliM" (AiU.ii. U, ;; I, 3; i. 9, }Tll 
bat he muM b>va been l«d to tfaii laterpraUtion 
■bnplj bj Uiejuitapogition of the two 
In the Hebrew teit. The Suniuituie 
In £>r. i?. S, 10, attributflrj tbrnr eokiniution not 
to SbalmancKr, but to " EWr-haddon, king oT A*- 
nr," or to " the giHt Mid nuble Anuppv," either 
(be king biniKlf or one of hii geneiili. It wu 
probabl}* on hli invuion of Judiih, in Uie reign of 
Mmweb, *Iiout b. c. STT, that Enrhiddon dii- 
eovered the inipalicj of Imiing * tnct upon the 
nj Iniilifn (^ that kinKdom tbui daalote, *b6 
detarmlned to gmrriton it with foreignm. The 
fcct, too, that eome of theee fbreignen cmie from 
Babjlon would aeem to direct lu to Eurhaddon. 
ntber Ihui lo hU Rnuidfutliv, Sbilmtuiner. It 
wu on)} recent]}' that Babjloa hail come into the 
handa of the Aujrian king. And there It >n- 
atlwr reaaon why ttali date ehould be preTerred. It 
ooincideawith the (erminntioD of the tiitj-llve jtan 
ef Iiaiah'a prophecy, deliiered B. c. TO, within 
which "Ephraim aliould be broken that It ihouia 
Dot be a people " (la. lil. B). Thia waa not elAct- 
aally aoconipliahed until the rer; huid ilaeir wu 
ooeu[Jed bj Btraiigera. So long u Ihia bad ngt 
taken place, there might be hope of return : af[cr il 
had taken hope. Joeepfaui (j^nJ. i. B| ^ T) 
Oapreuly uoticea thia ditftrai ^ ^' ' '' 

[of God- 

•anta, tt 

tied to he (ullad a Chrvxiaiij and. 9dly, Lo tho* 
bow (Dlireljr the Smoarituw of later daya dUftavd 
{nan thai anenton in nepeot lo idolatry. Joie- 
phoa'i acoount of the dIMnae of the Samaritani, 
and of the remedy for it, it rerj tindUr. with the 
eicsptiaa that with him the; art afflidad with 

Stub wat the origin of the poil-aapti>iiy or nrw 
Samarilaiia — men not of Jewiah eitraeUon, but 
from the further Eaal: "the Culhcana had fc(- 
meriy belonged lo the inner parte of Peaaia and 
Medk, but wtn then called ■ Sanwritau,' taking 

'Ilir land of the Ibniier 
at foreignera, the land of the 

ihlppad ■ Urange medta]' of ditinitiee. Kach of 
Uw fl*e natjout. uyi Joeephua, who la conliinied 

^ce waa found fbr the wonhip of Uini who had 
one* called the land hia own, and whcte it wat 
itill. <Joil't dii)>kaiiir« wu kindled, and they were 
infniod by bast* cf prey, which had probably 
iucreaaed lo a gnat eileut before their entnuic* 
upon it. " The Lord aent liona ainong them, whiob 
llew tMne of them." Un their BipUlnlng their 
uiaBable eondition to the king of Anyria, he de- 
^tabcd one of the captive prieMt to teach them 
■"bow they ahould fear the lard." Tho prieet 
Brae aocordin^iy, and henceforth, in the language 
.f (he lacred biitnrliui, they " (eared the Ijird, and 
■cred UiRr graven imagca, both thrir shUdmi and 
tbrir obiklreii'i children: u did th«r btlien, w 
do Ihey unto this day " (S K. ivil. Ilk Thia but 
iBilenoe waa prubably inierted hy Emk It HTVca 
two pnipoeea.- let, lo qualify (be pretentioDt of Ihe 


nyi Joaephua {Ant. i. S, f TV And 

again he nya {AM. ii. 14, { 8} tbey aia called " Id 

Hebrew 'Cuthaant.' hut hi Gmk ' Sr-idritana.* " 

Our Lord eipnatly tcniu thetn iAXoytwtU (t^ka 

Joeephua' whole aeaoDut of tbtm 

ibowB that he beltered Iheni to ban been fi^rowH 

i/Jiattyt7i, though, at be ttUt ui Li two pheat 

Int. i>. 14, { B, and li. B, { 6), they tomeUmB 

ive a difikrant account of their oiigin. Bat of 

ii by-and-by. A gap oocun hi thor bMoy 

itil judah hat retunied tnna captivity. Hwy 

en deiira to be aUond lo partidpata in the r»- 

liMiog of the 1'emple at JeruMkra. It la esri- 

oui, and perhapa indicative of the treaebeiDue 

cbAmeter <^ their deaignt, u> find (hem etes (In 

called, by anticipation, " the adrenariea of Judah 

' 'ilenjamin" (Ear. ii. 1), a title which tbey 

'arda fully juatifltd. Bat. to br la |wol»- 

go, they are uol enemkea; Ihey are moal 

111 lo be frienda. Iheir religion, they aaent. 

Is the aamo aa that of (he two tfibei, thanlbn 

(hey bare a right to ahare in that gmt retigiout 

undertaking. But they do not eall it a nalianiu 

undertaking. They adiance no pntentioo* lo Jaw- 

' blood. 'Hiey confeta their Atayiian deeecol, 

even put it forward otientaliouily, perhapa to 

uice the merit of tfaeir partial connnion to 

llist it waa but partial they ^ve no hint. 

11 may have become purer already, hot we haw no 

' ifonnation that it had. Be thia, howevs, at it 

lay, Ihe .lewa do not listen favorably to their onr- 

irta. Ezra, no doubt, from wboae pen we bare a 

lec^ of Ihe (rantaction, law tbem thtwigh and 

through. On Ibia the Samaritant throw off (ha 

maak, and b 

through (he feigns c 
a only actually liltni 
1 of [>ariiH HystHspla. H. c. ^IQ. 

9 the 

Is, and bcoaine devoted eielUBinly lo a tort of 
rahip of Jehovah, the more Ihey retwited (he 

itampt with which the Jewi treated (heir oSn 

fraloulialioa. Hatlcn at length cauie to t 

cliinai. About a. C. 400, a canain Manaiaeb, a 

of prieaUy liutage, en being expelled traa 

by Nebemish Sot an unlawful niarrian, 

oblaiued penuinion fhim the I'ersi-ii king of hit 

' y. DaiiuB Nothut, (o buikl a temple on Mouul 

irizim, for the ^niaritaiia, with whom ha ha^ 

lud raifuge. '{"he only thing wanted lo ctyMal- 

t the O[^uaitioa between the two ncet, nauitlr 

rallying point fur Bchiamatical wonhip. b«n| 

m (rtitaineri, thelt animoeity beeaow mot* intcMi 

than «er. 'lite 3apwri*su are aid to hai« doat 


— jihhig ti tlxu paw*r (o «4uk>j Jm Jfiai. 
Tka; voohl nfiue hoi{HtAli[j t» pUgrlsi* on th<[r 

•hU ef^ oafb; tbcn [n tlwir jonmej (J«eph. 
A»t. II. S, { 111 ud BUiDj ««re comptlkd UiiDugh 
fev lo take the loi^«r rouU bj tht out of Jordwi. 
Ortda Svmritau mn nid to lutn «>« peiw- 
Intoil into ttu Tcoplg of Jmnkm, ind (o baw 
■MM it br aattving d»d nHm') bona on [b* 
■Old ^miMnl (Anl. IviLi. 3. J S). Wc ire lold 
too of ■ itfugt |d((a of mockerr vliich n 

t Olint, ud OtihlBg lonnid 
ha rata titer <*>■ islnond In lb 
S* Iha GiMk pott npnMnU AgwasimKn 
nfHig tkt iwm of Troj'i optura lo tbe uiioiu 
nlcboi at Ujroan*. TboK wbo •■ Ht bj tbi 
m«i itf Ihhjkia" lookni for thh dgrud villi 

na «bo nra In tbor bUwr-knd, 
■na It pWM » tbau Uwt tlMj mn oet latgaUtn. 
Tbi SumriUiu Iboogfat Mora of 


probublj M lo lb* eooduct wbieh Induct Ate- 
koder b> b(«tga ud dcitroy Uh citj of Samuik 
itmhcm na iiidnd their nietropoliB, but the ilt 
itnietkin oT Samaria mnia to hiia Mtuned Alex 
loder.) Anotiiar Inilancc of cLum lo Jewiih 

deKOit appean in tbe wordi of the womaa ot 

SvDUia lo our Lord (John ii. 13), " Art Tbot 

gnaltT than oar blbw Jamb, who 

Uhu, bj IdiHOiiig a rinl Ibme and parpleilng the 
■atebo* OB iLg iiKHinUina.' Their own Impli 

oi Gvizim thej conaidfred lo be ranch lupcrior lo 
that at Jmaateni. There the; aamllced a paaa- 
(•v. Toward* Ibe D>ouiiUin. et«i afls the lom- 
(<■ oa it had blltn, wberenr ttaej irs*, tbej 
tineled their wonhip. To their copj of tbe Uw 
Uwf amgalod an aoliquit; and aotboritj greater 
Ihao at t a e bid to anj cup; in the poaeenion of Ihe 
Jeifa. Tbe Ljiw (C t. the An booU of Uoaet) 
na (bdr lolt code; for thej r^icted enrj other 
book In the Jewlafa eauon. Aiid Ibej pnfiMed lo 
timm It belMr than did Ihe Jen thsandTe*, 
mflejing the exprtMon not unfreqoenlJj, » The 

Uotaia othv Jewleh RnaRadfe bed bom Ii 
limm takMi nian wllh tl 

Jewkh Uuod, MpecfaUj 

nit their Intmrt iJoaepb, >i>C. if. g. { S: !i. It, 

{ t). A reniartabte loaUnce of tbia ii obiUted 

in a reqatel vbieh Ibej nude to ^ 

Gftat, aJioat B. C. 33 J. The; deiired 

pijnntt of tribute in tbe »bbiUieel jeer, on tbe 

fiB Ibal aa tnn btaelitei, deaoeiKbuiU of Kpbnum 

ud Mamnehi eoni of Joaeph, tba; refrained from 

eoUiTating (beir land to that jear. AleunibT, on 

woee jiieetlonlnj lbe~ .._...-.,._. 

)f their peata^oaa. 

■rted ■» ■ ■ 

{Ttrnj were gnMlr d 

lecting that ibt had jnit lirfure •IrDDgi)' coiitnulad 
Jevi aiid tbe Samarilane. Verj' for aere tbe 
1 from admitting Ibii claim lo conaangninitj 
on tbe part of theee peojile. Tbcj were ewr reiuind< 
\ag Ibam lliat Ibaj were after all tuere CulhRaot, 
DHie etrangtrt from AHjTia- Thej leciiaad tbea 
of vonhlpping tbe Idol-pidi buried long ago uudw 
-t oak of Shechem [lien. iut. i). Thejr *ouU 
m no dealing! with tbem tbit thej could poeal- 
J BToid.^ " Tbou art a Sa naiilan and baet ■ 
devil," n* tbe mode In irlieb thej eipreand 
ibnnwiree whtn at a io« for a bluer repnaob. 
F.nrTthing that a Sanurilan bud Unicbed na at 
'• floh to them. Tbe Sarouitan wai pub- 
cumd In their ■jnigo^uea — could not b* 
ed ai a iritneH in the Jnrieh couru — could 
not be admitted to anj eort of proeeljiiem — and 
boa, eo far at tbe Jew ooulJ aO^ hi* pari> 
deluded ftnrn bope of eternal 111*. The t»- 
dilJonal hatred In whleb Ihe .iew held him ia 
npraaed in Ecdut. 1. 13. IK, "There be two man- 
er of nation* which ray heart ahhorTeth, and tba 
bird ii no nation: thej (hat nit on Ibe moanliln 
f Samaria; and Ibej that dwell amoii| the PhUla> 
iiiea; luid tbat fooHih people that dwell in Sichsm." 
Lod K> Img wu it before nich * temper eould b# 
banithed froni tbe Jpwiih mind, that we find etea 
the Apoelk* beUerind that an lnhoi{^tab1e alight 
I bj a Samaritan Tiibufe to Cbriit would he 
radulj amgad bj oalling down An ban 

ufe Ic 

what Bi 

largo- hearted Son of Uao, and we And Him on no 

one ooeuion atlerinK anjrthbiK to ibe dbparage- 

' of Ibe SamariOni. Hii wnda, boweier, utt 

nsDrd* of hi* mlnlatnlion) conflmi moat 

I haa been taken above, 

not .len. At the IhM 

GMh of tbe Twelie (Mitt. i. S, S) H* 

tbem, " Go iwt into tbe nj of the l]en- 

d into wij dij of the Saniaritani enter y» 

: KO rather to the loet eheep of tbe boiua 

L" So again, in bia Una] addma to tben 

nt OUtet, " Ye ihall be wilneaH* to Me In 

id»&, and in Samaria, and 

9 uttertnoat part of the earth " (Acta 1. R). 

nine unthankrul lepcra, Jewi, were eon- 

hj Him with the tenth Irper, Ihe thankhl 

■ (i\kiiyHit), wlio wa» a Semuimn. 9c, 

reU-known pareblr, a nierciml Sanini^tan ia 

> •nrj worihip of the two nuea ia deacribed 
aa different hi ebaracter. " Vewonbip ja 



tmm Bot fbjA," tbit ii add of Hit SuurituB: 
■ We kiiqw what <r< ■onLip, fot Btlntton I* of 
IbeJsm" {John It. e3}. 

3ucb were tfaa SamuiUnt of oar Lord'i Dij : m 
people dlitinct from th« Jen, though Ijltij; Id 
the Ttrj mldit of the Jem; ■ people praerring 
their lilenlitj, though leven tmtnriei lind roUed 
■WIT lines tbrj hul bcwn bn>ught tmm Anjrift 
bj EHtrbiddoii. mnd (hough thej- had ahandouetl 
(heir pot}(bel>m Ibr i >ott of ultni Mouletani: a 
'people, who — though their linilU hid been grad- 
ulij eonlncted, and the rallying place of thdr 
TeUcion on Mount Geriiim had l>een dntmjed one 
hondnd and ilitj jnn befora by John Hjrcanui 
<B. c 130), Hid though Samaria (the dty) had 
been again and agun destroyrd, and though their 
totritOD' had been the b>ttto-Se1d of S}Tia und 
Kgjpt — aKD pneerved their nalionalitj. still wor- 
ihl|q>ed tmm Shecbem and their other impoierlihed 

Ibrir nationallt}, and could not coaleiec with the 
'OCu r aAtiM f tix'*' riS^ nf™., 

w that It had eter been n. "Samariiv.'' aaja 
JoaeiJiiH {B. J. lii. 3, f 4), ••liee brtwtei. Judm 
■od Galilee. It conimencea ftom a Filiate called 
Oiiuea (JfBhi), on the great plain (that of E»dra- 
ekn), and extendi to the topaithr of Acrsbatta," 
In the loner part of the teiTJtorj of Mphralni. 
7h«e pointa, indirating the alreme nwtliFni and 
Uw eitnme loulhem paratleli of latitude hetweni 
Which Samaria wai idliiated, enable Dt to fii lla 
houndariea with (olerablj eeriaintj. It wii bounded 
northward by the rai^^ of hUh which oommenei 
at Mount Cumel on the weit. and, aflfr malclng 
bmd to the MUthwat, mm iltnoat due mat to tt 
nllejp of the Jordan, fbrming the Mutbem border 
of Ibt plain of Eadradon. tt tonched tonrdi thi 
lonth, M neirij ai poialhte. tHe northern Hmita of 
Bnijamin. Thin it comprebended the ancient tct^ 
rttary ot Fphnim, and of Ihoae Mananilea who 
wcte WEit of Jordan. " Its character," Joaephni 
eontinoei, " !• in no n«p«t dlltergnt IVDm that of 
Jodna. Both aboond in mountain! and plalna, 
■nd are tuited for agricullure, and productlre, 
wooded, and full of fhiiti lulh wild and eultirated, 
thej are not ahondantlj waUniii but tniwh nln 
Uli th«. Ilie qsringi are of an eictedingi}' 
■wect taite; and, on account of the quantity ' 
Ipiod gTiN, the cattle then produce more m 
than ebewhere. But the heit proof of tbrir tit 
nttt and fertility ii that both an Ihicklj pop- 
olated." The aocoanti of modem trareilm con- 
Arm thia deacriptlon b; the Jewlnh historian of 
the •' good land " which wai allotted to that pai 
wftal portlnn of the houM of JoMph which crotsed 
(he Jotdan, on the llrtt dividon of the ten 
The Culhiean SamaritRni, however, poHeunl 
a few lowiit and lillagei of thlt large arc*, and 
Iheae lay almost tiigelher In the centre of the 


r Sych, 

lOLdy deaignatod) waa their chief settlement, even 
MAire Aleunds the (inat deitroyed Sai 
T because It lay almost chaa to I 

Afterwards it became moie ptomlnently 
there, on the dcttnielion of Um tempb on 
I, by .lobn Hyrcann (JoMph. AM. illl. •, 


I t),lheyhDDttbeniHlve*atnnpb. TbSDddsn 

rapreeeulatlvs of Shechem ii JViMwi, a 
of Ncapolls, or the " New Town," ^uil 
pasian a liulc to the west of the dder town whlck 
' ' At Nihlia the Saoiaritaiia hart 
conuaUng of about SOU persona 
Tet they oliierre Ihe Ijiw, and cekhmta the I'a» 
oier on a lacrH! spot on Mount Geriiim, with at 
exadjieai of niinuts ceremouial which the Jewt 
lemselvcs hare long intennitled : 

Ifnem Tn^aniBU, et Vif tain mt 
The Samaritans wei 
leir Jewiih neighlKns and to tbdr Roman nu*- 
n, In the flnt centory, A. i>. niata ehntind 
leni with a leTerity which led tn hit own down- 
Mi (Jonpb. JBI. iTiil. 4, { 11, and a shnghtv of 
10,600 of then took place under Ve^aaian (B. J. 
Ul. T, i St). In spits of these nrma the; b>- 
(Rased Rnatlf In numbera towarda Its lerminatkn, 
and appear (o ban grown Into injportance nndir 
Doalthem, who waa probably an apostate Jew. 
Bl^pbanius ("ifr. ffarnti, lib. 1.), In tbe ftinrth 
eentufy. coniiden them to be the chief and met) 
' igetoui advemuHca of Chriatiaiilty, and be «nu 
rales tbe sereral seels into which they bad by 
.t time divided theniselvee. They wb« popn. 
lariy, and even by aome of the Fitberi, BOnAiandBd 
' h the Jewi. Inioninch that a legal InteijtfetatloD 
the Goapel waa described as a tendency la 
fiapftTirr^Jt or 'loutaiviiii, This eonftuion, 
vrrer, did not extend to an IdentlAcation of the 
I races. It wu simply an assertion that their 
eilreme opinions were identical And pmloiuly 

^trage which they comtnltled on tbe Chtfa 

Neapolis In the reign of Zeno, towardi 
the end ot the fifth century, the dlatlnelion lielweoi 
the Jews was lufflclently known, and 
he Thcodosian Code. This 
was so senrely pnnlihed. that they sank Into an 
obacurity, which, though they are Jnit noticed by 
travellen of the twelfth and lintrteeiilh centiirta, 
was scarcely broken nntil the slxleerlh century 
In (he latter half of that century a eomspondoic* 
with them was commenced by Joseph Scali)^. 
(De Sacy has edited two of thdr letUn to that 
eminent scholar.) Job I.uddf ncdvrd a IcUet 
fVom them, in the latter half of the ncit century 
These thne lettera ate to be (bind In FJchhora's 
Rriieiinriim fir BUCichi md MotgaitSiiiiucke 
lillrrnlHT. vol. liU. Tbey are of great archsMt- 
hcical Interest, and enter very mlnalely Into tbe 
obsertanote of the 9ntnaritin rltntl. Among other 
points worthy of notice In them Is the Incon^itency 
"iplayed by the wrilen In valuing tbemselTes on 
t being Jews, and yet claiming to be descendants 
of Joseph. See abo De Sacy's Chmnymidaiiri 
•in SiTOinrfriiiu, etc., hi SfiUcatl Ea/r.dti MS)', 
ii In BibthUi. du Am', ele., vol ill. And, for 
mon modem aceonnte of the people Ihemseli'ea, 
Boblnwn'a Ribtical Rttfrfhtt, II. SSO-311, lii. 
ia»-.10i Wilson's Lnndt of lit BiUr, il W-78i 
Van de Velde's %ia and PaJHtM, Ii. SM seq. ; 
Stanley's Sinni nnd PairiHiK, p. MO; Rogm^ 
.Vrtierii/rti Afflrfcnt ftiBi-rrifciiu, p 8&; Uravwl 
sccount of their Day of AtonsDisnt In Vtmliom 
Touridt for JHI; and Dr. Stanley's, Of thelt 
PaMDver, In hla Ltcturu on At JiwM CUv S. 
[Pamoteb, roL Hi. p. BBT C, Aam 



* tta PM1I7 AMjTkD arigio of Um Km Sumri- 
lM^ b that <« Saieer, Rcbnd, HmudhmkI, Dnw<H 
!■ tiw Crilvri Sueri, M&MonaUia, Hmgitmbtrg, 
Hinmick, Robiunn, wd Ueui Tm^b. The 
ptadCT it Kfend W tlw nrj dni but t<» brirf 
tKamtoa al tha *iil««:t bj the iMt-owntioittd 
ImmJ vntcr, in hu Parailrt, pp. 310, 311, uul 
!• tkc uitbaritiH, <(p«uiUr Da 8hj, wfalfh in 
Use qwXad. Tbva ii do dooU in Um world 
IbU H m lb< lUKieut new. We luTe K«i whit 
Tayphni nld, uid C)Ti;^n, Euieblut, K^phutiiu, 
Ckraoatom, ud Tbeodorct, n; tbi 
Bocnta, It murt be adniliud, oik IJ 

■noBg tbanefaot* In 

Otiicn, u Wlntr, OiUlD- 
■n, lu>« held ■ diflkcsit liew, 
' ' a in tXlllingCT'i own 
ntu: -In tba notben pvt of Uw Pnnilnd 
l^nd (u appoMd to JndH prDprr; Ibtn ;;rew ap 
■ afaighd nua vbkb drew it* orittiD IVnni the 
nattuil of (ba IimelKea who ven kft brhlnd hi 
Ihc a«uil(7 oo tbt fenoni of tba Teii Tri)««, ud 
«Iki fta* tha bfKtbto eoloniaU who were tnui>- 
fhntod into tha citiet of land. Tbeir religion 
ma aa hTbrid u tbeir nlraetion ; tba; wmhipped 
Jtkonk, bBt. hi addition to Him, «ln the heathen 
Uoit of Pbmiieian orlsin which Ihaj had bimit;bt 
lam tbdr natin land " {lltidnthm mrl Jmifnt- 
Itaai, p. TS9, f T). It Ihewordior Scriptara u« 

rate, aa i>nulDa ob- 
KTtaa, the sulj mixture wai that of JeaWi ap«- 
tUa fbgithaa, loni aftar KaaHiaddfqi^a wknijation, 
DM at tbe (iiM of tbe solan iial ion. But modern 
■a lM( rtaw l«. it h«a for lome 3 ean been tbe pop- 
alar ooa, and ev«n Dr. Staolej aeemt, Ibouiih 
foita tncidHitatlr, Id ban admitted it (8. ^ P. 
f. SM). Ha doai not. hoiwv, enter upon lU (t«- 
faB. Mr. Gran ii aUo in bror of it. Sae hia 
aatiea tbrnAj mentioned. 

"Dm wrtborltj dua to the cop; of lb* tjiw poa- 
Mnad bf lb« Samaritana, and tba deteraiioation 
wbetbtr tha Sanuritan tndinft of Ueut. iivii. 4, 
Gtriam. or that of tbe Hebim, Eb«l, ii to be 
prafcrred, are diwiniaed in tbe nat article. [^ 
BjtHASTT*]! PKMTiratiCH; Eb«L; UamziMi 
Shbchemi Siciiem: Stciur.) J. A. I(. 

■ Od Samaria and the SainarilUH aee tbe riab- 
■ala artUa </ J. II. Petennann in II<ro$('i Rtnl. 

II (001 

<» Orin 

IMpt- 1B40-8I, L!6>'292). See alas Jobn Hilla'i 
Tkra MiMlJii- BaidtMci in NaUiu, limA. 1861, 
■ad a ^riei of inread aiticlea b; Dr. GeJRcr in 
(ba Ztiltckr. <L OmulitH wta-aad. Gn^tchan 
fe«i lasl tn IM«. A. 

■ SAHAKTTAV. [Samaria, 3.] 
rian of tba oemonnlj melTed Hebrew Teit of tba 
Hoole Lav, Id nae with the Samnriluu. ud writ- 
«B h] tb* iDddit Ilebrav (/M), ta ai>-«Oad 

a riKaiyb, TTT, n-ias ana a* «•■ 

fc«i*liad»a«H-ITP, rriWM nrO. Oamp. 
B a, Jbr. 4r. I. ft *(a Af. ;, S, .,. 


Kini^: ■' Saniaiilaid 

Cbureb, under 1 

Iter.' Thb recemlon b (bud 
' aonM of tba early Katbeti of Iti 

' name oT " naAw^BT** 'E0fal- 
apvTtut," hi coDlradiatinctian M 

■i -wtifi 'laubJairi " liittbH', ai 
VohimiiA," eW. Hiui Origai oa 

Num. lili. 1, . . . . " I Kol a»A it rairir 2i 

•uptiTM 'E&>al»i; utTi^dAafKr;" andon Num. 

Ill 13. . . . "tir^,„i 

jitp" eta- Jeronia, PivJ. U 

Miam Peotataucham Mojiii luhdr 

tba "HebRwa, Sjriani aiid CWdi 

habmt, flguria buituta et ipicibua 

'ttatariavrat tui \t eve Juftirii ir wiet 1 
I tbcta fMm DeuL n 

36, when tha Maaoretia tat baa otilj ''UIS ~mt4 

rvKTT minn "laT rv wyr- wb- "cur>«d 

be ba that oonflrnKth not* tbe vordi oT thia Lav 
to do them I " while tba LXX. raadi w S f Ufwraf 
. . tin TiXt \iy«rt) — ' qnam ob cauaaoi S|t- 
maritainnim ilebra* volumina r«(egeni invard 
fZ aaiptnu eMO) " ud he fbrthwitfa chaigaa Ihl 
Jewi with baring deUberUdT taken onl tba ^3, 
becuue the; did not wiah to be bound in£viihtnllf 
to rJJ tbe (^inansei: fiirgelting at tbe aaoie timt 
thu tfala lama 73 ooenn In tbe raj next ehap- 
br of tba Haaonlle toit (DeuL nrlli. IS) — ".di 
hii oommandiDenU and bfa aUUilea." Eoaebiu 
of Cmma» obarrve* that (be I.XX. and the Sam. 
Pent igne igainit the Receind T»t in the nam- 
bar of jeare Awn tbe DHun to Abraham. Cjril 
of Aleiandrii ipeaka of eertain worda (Uen. ii- S), 
muting in the Hebrew, bnt itaand In tbe Samari- 
made b; Prtxiopiui 

o Ueut. 

. (I; Nun 

I. 10, I 

9, Ac. Other piuui^ are noticed bj IHodorna, 
the (irtcli Schaliut. etc. The Talmud, on tbr 
other band, nirnlioni the Sam. Pent, diitinet^ 
and cOBlaniptiiouglj at a duniallj lorged record 
" r™ A'lw falmfitd' jour Prnlaltiidi;' taid R 
Elieier b. Shimon to the Sanivitin acribea, with 
reference \o a pnauiKe in Deut. iL 30, where tlia 
«ll-undFnlood ituni Shechem wai gratullmtir 
in«rted altf r " Ihe phiui of Monh," — ■' and }VB 
have not pniAied augiit bj it" (eonip. JcT. silali 
it Kef IT; B-bti i-1 I.J. On another oaca(i«t 
they Bra ridiculed un ncouint of their innoranea al 
one of the limpleu ruka of Helmw tjruuiutr, dl»- 
pUjed in their Penliteur h : namd;, the oie of the n 
IuctIt (iinlinowii, hn"«i»T, Mootrfinj; to Jtr, Urg. 
e, a.alao to the people of JcniMlem). ■' H-V.u A» 
nwMrd yM In UmidrrT" aald K. Shimon b. lUie- 
aer to tbem; lefnring to tbeir abolition of tba 
Hoaalc ordinance of marrfing the decewed lirotb 
ar'a wUi (Dnit. iit. A ir.),~thnHi^ a nii(inUr> 
prctatioD of tbe puiaga in qneation. which eijolna 
that the wife of the dead man ihaU not be " witb- 
out " la a itnnger, but that tba brother ihouU 
marrr b«r: tbej, bnnrer, taUng H'.'l'n 

■^y^nh) to be an arHbit .r nan, ••wM^- 

« lb* UU.. —4 taltep* b 



Mlj iJtr. Jtbam. S, i, Btr. B., 

Uown Id within the iMt twn hvndrad mi tAj 
nan, bvmTO', no copj of thli divofw' Coda M 
1a«« hud mehed Eunpt, uid it l>egui to be pnK 
■Mnuued m letion. md tha pliiii mrdi rl the 
Choreb Fithan — the belter known Mlhoritlca — 
wbo qiwled it, wen laljjetted lo mhtle intetpre- 
Ution*. Suddtnir, In ISlfl, TirtKi deli* Valle, 
MM of Um 9nt diMOitten Bba of the CandfanD 
inecripliont, (oquirtd a complete Codn lh>rD tha 
Sunaritana in Damaaeui. In 1633 It wia pra- 
■mtad b; Achilla Harlej da Sane; to tha Lil>nrj 
of the Ontorj in Paria. and hi ISSS then ap- 
pmied a brief deaerlption of it b; J. Moiioui In 
hU pnho U> the Koiuan Uit of the LXX. Tbne 
fan latar, ■bortl}' btfun it wai publitfaed in t 
Puii l-olf glott, — wbrncn It waa copied, with f< 
anendatloni frinn other codlBM, bj Walton, — j 
UoriDoe, the flnt rditor, wrote Vim £zerEi(n(iDnr( I 
Ealaiattica in ul'-vmipit Sanmriiaranttm Pmta- 
ttuchum, it! which he pronounced the newlj (bund 
Coilei. with all io innunwrabia Vi 


and one in tlw B*r1>erini at Roma. Ths* tha ma 
bar of US5. in Eurofia gradoallj jtrew to uiteeo 
Dnring the pnaent eeiitniy anolho', bat Terj fia^ 
mentar; copj, waa aequirvd bj the Uotha I jbrarj 
A cop; of tha entlR (?) PenUtauch, with TuguM 
(? 8*01. Venion), In parallel aolumna, 4to, «a 
pai^menl, waa brought l^om Ndbiut bj Mr. Groea 
in 1S61 for tha Count of Paiia, in whoaa liiinrj il 
i*. Single portione of the Sam, Pent., in a more 

ie teal, 10 

itelj luperigr 


tloo of the Received Tcit thmbj waa urged miwt 
anUiorita^vel)'. And now the impulae waa given 
to one of the Jterceal and moet barren lilenr; and 
(heologicat controTenita: of wl^ich mora uion. 
Between jsao and 1S30 ali additional cofiiaa, parUj 
aomi^eta, paitlj incDmplale, were acquired bj 
Uatber: ilte of which he depouted in l^jigliah 
Ubrarica, while one wai aent lo l)e Dieii. and baa 
diaappearad mjatarioualj. Another Codei. now In 
the Ambranan Ubrarj at HUan, wat brought to 
]lalj io 1B31. Peireae pcM u rad two more, on* of 
which waa placed In the itojal Ubiarj of E^ria, 

(wn 31 wma x^sp : iiannn ibo r 

(»•» UTWD " '3(Dn " 

W) D'tpi^tfi riHD " '»»^B?n " 
(fUj m--i - '•v^-yn - 

ow TDi-p " "D'nnn - 

tha Sara. Pcntateneb la haired In l«>. ril IS 
(fill, e, In Hebrew Tat), when the wordi "Middle 
af the Thorab " ' ace fonnd. At the end of each 
MS. the jear of tha eopyinn, tha name of the icrlhe, 
and hUo that of the proprietor, an oaiiallj itated. 
Vet their data >r uot alwaj^a truitirorlh; when 
glran, and toy dlSicuH Io be ooiijnttiml wlien en- 
tirelj omiUed, tinea the Saniarilaii lettrn afford no 
iotantal evidenea of the psiod In which they were 
written. To none of the MSS., however, wliieh 
h»n aa jet mchei] Knrope, can be BHigned a 
Ughw date tbui the KHhChrietian ontutj. llie 

Reapectlng the eitemal condition of Iheee M5S., 
it Riaj be obaerred that theii eiua rarj ftvm IBmo 
tc folio, and that no •eroU. each aa the Jewa and 
the SaEaaritani eae in their ajmagof^Ma, i« to ba 
Ibuud among them. The lettere, which are of ■ 
iding a that of tha booh, eiblUt 
varietiea of ahape ao i^uent in tba 

pended, inverted letten, etc. llieir nwttrial i* 
rellum or colloii-paper ; the ink uard b black In 
all caan uve the acroU uned hj the Samarilant al 
Ni'Aut, the letlera of which are in gold. Then 
tn neither vowcla, accanU, nor dlacritiral points 
The individual worda are a^iarated iioni each other 
bj a dot. tirealer or amalier diviaioni of the text 
an marked br two dote placed one above the oth«, 
and hj an aatcrUk. A tmall line above a conao- 
naiit indlcalaa s peculiar Dinning of the word, «■ 
unaauai brm, a paiaive, and Uie like; il ia, in bat, 
a cnnlritanee Io beqieak atlwtton.o Tha whol* 
PenUleuch ia divided into nine huodnd and aixtf- 
four paiagnphi, or Xntcni, the termination of 
which ii indicated bj tfaeae Bguna, ^, .-., or <^ 
At tha end of each hook tha number oif ita diii^ 
tootiaatatol thuii — 

1 [Maaoril. Oo<t 13 Bldraa (faiHileth), 60 ChapHa^ 



"I, Ablaba, 

- njn aDd nan, -ry and ij, -)^-j a-i 

1^7, '^ — V ^?M.:: and b^, K1|T 
■^ ^fP.t Sf ">d b, the nifflis at Iba and af a 

arm af Plnehaa. ton of Daacar, Mm of Aaron Uw 
Prleat, — upon thtmbe tbeUnceof Jebovaht To 
hia honor I^ve 1 written Uia Holj Ijiw at the en- 
trance of the Tabemarla of Ttalimon; on thi 
Mount Gerliini, Beth El, in tlie thirteenth jtuel 
the taking poaseiaion of th« Land of Canaan, and 
all it< boondHries around it, b; the (.'hildreii of la- 
raeL I piaiee Jehonh." (Letter of Hrshahnah 
b. Ab Sechuah. Cod. IS.TSl, Add. USS Brit. Mua. 
Comp. Ajji'af. Enm. StclifmiLinnn nrf Jufmm Lu- 
Mphum, CUE, taSB; Antig. t'cel. Orlrnl. p. 123; 
Huiitinglonl Jipiil. pp. 4S. (6i Kiehhom'a Rtptr. 
lOfiam/. bi6L vnd merg. U., torn, ii., etc.) Bat 
DO Eunpean ' haa ever mcceeded in Anding it ia 

a ptraon latalj al 

1 qoHtton " pi)Dg Ihrnngh U)< 
ht Tsit of tha Deulngne, aD 
ane colnnioi'.-' Conild'riDi 

•rIalBfKi UTfBoln, 

ba labon and pnCandad dl 


Ui •ooH, homvcr gmt the ptiOM bttlowti upun 
tk Movli («aip. Ekhbcm, ffn^O. U. 132}{ uid 
■mi if it hut b«ii Ibund. It mmld not hwv d*- 

Wi bmve brxS; lUlcd above tbU the Ea^dU,- 
tk mm at Morinu, vblcb pLMsd th«3AnuHlui I^ao- 
UKoch tkr abora Uu Knxiicd t«t b point at 
foaaamtm, — paiUf oa wnHuil of ItM agreeing in 
ttonj placa viUi Ibc IJiX^ and pviJ; on i«- 
miat ol iu ■uperior "iBoiditj »i>d himoDj," — 
ncilod wd kept ap for neu-tj' two hundred jeui 
MM o( tba moit alnordiiiiir]' (Dntntvereis od rec- 
ord. Cbancteniticalij ouugb. baveier, thii »iu 
at at re*t aoet (or ail bj (iic wj Gn( t}tltamiK 
mrtaiitfaiMm of ihe polut at iHue. U wtmid nov 
■ppnr MM if liie unqiiationiog raptorv with whieii 
cni7 new hlerirj dieeovirr wu IbnueHj hiilHl, 
(be taiiata uiioKHitjf ogdnitthe Miaoretie (Jewiihl 
Teit, the gtoml pjefereiiw for Ihe LXX., the de- 
IMJn *t>la of btmiiic etudiei, — u it we nj, 
■I tbeee put logeUwr were not eufficitnt 


Past. CIO a IM with I}w HiKintie' text, Init ens 
niae it, unawditiaMll;, Far eboie it- 'llwre wu 
bdeed uuther euiae at voric. rapteiillj In the Rrat 
psiod of the diipute: it wai a coutnwenul ipirit 
which pnvjjpted Moriijui and hie Eoijimrre, Cap- 
pdhn u>d otfatn, to pnnv to Ihe KeTonuen what 
kbd of value nt lo l« aiUehed to (AsV authoritj' ; 
the recei^-ed tanu of tiie Bible, upon whiofa aiid 
which aloiw thej profeaied to take their etond ; — 
k WH now evideiil that nothing ebort of the Di- 
vine Spirit, under tbe iriAueiJCfl and inipiration of 
vhioli tike SctiptJirs wen intspnied and «i- 
fDDBded b; the Koman Church, cnuM he relied 
BpDB- On the other hand. nioU uf Ihe •■ AiUiiiai. 
rnB-'M" — He Mojii, Ilottinjter, St. Mudiiiu. 

■dopteii, iiuoe a certaiu amoaat ef value, hoauiu 
limited, did attach lo It. Mkhaelie, Eiehhm, 
Bcrllwldt. -labn, and tlie nu^joritj ot Dwdem erit- 
ica, adhered In tbl* 0|4Dk». Ueie the matla 
retted uDtil 18ia, wbtD Gowlui {O* Pfit ram, 
nt. Indole, tt AudorUalt] aboliibed the ino- 
if the authoritj of the Sam. Pant. So nuia- 
twij, hicidf and clear are hii ai^meaEa aod bia 
proob, that there bai been and will be uo AirthM 
qutitioo u lo the abeenoe of all ralue in tbti B»- 
eention, and in iu pmendcd emendation!, la 
tact, a glance il the ■j'ttcnutie ananeaiiwnt of thi 
irianta, of which he tint of all Ivthoui^ht hiofldl^ 

lit tliey are lor the moat part mare bhindan, 
itiiig from an imperfect knovledge of the Gnt 
elrmajta of grammar and oegnie. 'Iliat othen 
owe their eiiileaui to a ttudied daigii of mntbnn- 
ing certain psMagei to the Samaritan nioda ol 
l^uught, apeech, and laith — more eapeciallj la 
iSow Ibat the Uourit Gerixim, upon whieb Lheli 
teiD]de Mood, wu tin ipol eboaen and indicated hj 

K lleifli 



I Ibe lulject 
« penmit of Uw 

a U-l .re within onra. 

allert 1 

^mition of the auperioritj 
•KT Ilia old vbcn Ihej fcund IL Of btgber 
■era, it ia tme, the labora of Simon, La tlirs, 
Walim, etc, at a later poind, who pioceaded eo- 
leetieallj, rqectuig manj readiuga, and adopting 
albn which aaenwd prdenble to thoae of the old 

aunied lo Uorinwi 
•otioo — akeadj gtotnUf abandoned — of Ibe un- 
foaaliDnabk and thorough (uperioritr. Ha, again, 
wm faOond mm Or leM eksalj bf KtDDieMt, Al. 
a St. Aqnilino, Lsbtfein, Gaddea. and olhen. The 
AacnwDn waa laken up onee mora on Ihe other 
tide, ehkdf bj Kafiua, vbo aoceeeded In biallj 
iiapoaing of tliia poiirt of th* aupcaioritjp {Hurdtl. 
PkiL n HuaMn, ProL Ugd. Bat. 1T5D). It waa 
bom hk da; Iiitwatil aUnml, almcM 00 al] I ' 

ami. Saabalow. 

■ D^ k tmaM h be laaar. br D~ ' 

be Korabipped." Kinnlljr, that othere ai 

ul,, u 

luig up al 

Kit! ImperfMtlom; i , , 

la of iMwIj'.inveitlad and Udly-fitting wonL 
phraaea. It muat, however, be pniniaed thai 
It two altenliooa (Ei. lili. T. where tba Saa 
I " ^>z daja ahalt thou at nnlnveiiad hrewl,' 
ad of the rec«ved •■ Sereii da}*," and thi 
ge of the word rm."!, " There ihall not tt," 
nTin. -Ccc," l)eut. iiiii. 18), the Moa^ 
lawa and ordinaueai Ibenudrea are nosbera tan- 

\Va will nuw proeeed to lay ipedniena of tbeaa 
uiK« au hiifhl; priced varianta b^bre the reader, la 
order that he maj judge for biniaelf. Wa ahal 
tblktw in thia the oommoalj raeettad atnngement 
of Ucaaniua, who djvidea aU tbeae nadlnga into 
eight cbaaea: to whiefa, aa we ihall aAerwanh 
iboir, Knnkel baa auggeated Ihe addition of two oc 
tbne othera, while lUrehhaim (In hi* Hebrew wmfc 
^y-la^rO VS) ammmea tUrtoo,* which wa 
wiU name bemftar. 

1. The jfrtf elaaa, thn, ooodata of raadlngi Iq 
which eniendatiooa of a — "-' — ■— ' — 

<nO Tba quieaecnt latteri, or aMsHod malttt 
itrtiaiU, are aupplied.' 

(i.) Tba nun poatkal lonaa of Uie pnoouBa, 

prohabi]' le*> known lo the Sani. an altered Into 

<" snbtii- nniws •» nh'wa ate: aoa* 

Hmai a 1 ta put ana whan the Hab. T. hai, in aa- 
endanea with Ifaa irammatteal rolaa, oolj a aben 
•awal or a ataani V:mniafcBndl« fi^. 

nvym » m*:^ 
1 vnz, or, Sjn, naeeaa y^rw, Tvsry 


(ft) IT* I 

t ]* uaietMa In lb* Oeiita 
if Um m-li*. Ibe tpoeopiUd or •hot hitute ki 
dtmd into Uw legnkr future.* 

(d) OulbeoUMrbuid Uu pingcglia] MUn 1 
ml ^ at Ui« aid of DODDi, tit almcat unlTOMllj' 
iliudi oat bj Iba Stm. e ot rtctar;* ud, Ip lb« Igno- 

k* luiginn tlicni Kniilen ucordiug to bii&Dcj.' 
(>, ) Tfat into. ^aol. li. in tb« qiulnMt muiti«r 

poalUe, ndncad to tfaa Ibnn of tho flnlto nrb.'' 
For oboolMa or tin fbrnii, th* inodcn uid mon 

«iT, in vhicb th« S*ni. not ojifreqiKnllj 
niinddt) wlUitlw LXX., ud whicb in in muij 
M« tvtdtntlj darired h; botb from (onit aadait 

S. Tbo liirJ ebu* nbibiti con^tnnl cmenda 
Hii — •oBiMiaia Bu from hipp; — uf ml or In 
■ginuj difficultiet in tb« Muoretie Teit.r 

4. Tb« /ddiIA cIm) dhiblK mdingi in wliid 
ippucnt deUdtncIa hiT* bc« comcttd or nip- 

• iijfi!Q iHMw T-anii na'^i i> mm 

•m> nWl; HnV'^n'b) toion»n''i «» 

■^ ^ of tfa* id pan. tao. plnr. fOL iaM H j-. 

* ^SW h AQrtm.4 into plff, VTH In" 

rm. a 

■M, tsw <DMt IT. T. M>.), rarm (o«. mi 

•<1 femlBlHtbawiiHt y^ (0«. HU. S), ^1 
(Ant. mUL Kk IE7B3 (Om. UtI. IE, •*!■) ; >hB 
nBttwniid n93 cuai* in lb* mbh i< <■ firi,' 



^3Ur\ " lk<r ntuud, tiMT wmt ud Uhj 
tniHd X (fles. tUI. 8]. Wliu« tb« hiBn. It sMd 
u adnrb, •. (. pmH (Oan. xil. IB), " hi sl^' 
M oitMwi bio nil'mn, ■■ mf ■«» Ai int: 
•tatsb mdm ttw |H-va alincat anlDtelUgibl*, 
■ UyiV tir BT3? (OM.lll. 10, llJi iV hi 

ibl (n. »Ji D'TIBS fcr lb* »ii«iii* -lies 

(". wi i niOH, " i-i»i» mmau," k> ninoM 
(«. 17)1 rona *3 nm:n mt^t ibr ibi «i- 
«fw»i aita {iita-uii '■n'-ia *» D^rma 

|>i. iitI. is, Mklni It dtimd from '•'SV) ; DI^TD, 
Uh !• iltand InM HJ^D (Ur. b. 3); ITn 
« wnm^put ftir ^,^ CUp-L m. of ^H— ^^)< 
19, lbs obooltia hnn. !• rtpluod b; tbi mon nenl 
V>S (NuD, dI. U) i Dh Bonl frm, miiilimliii 
7 (comp. VO'SM) VTDH. ta doDi.t.1 mu 

n*-i intD I" *b« BDMitauoo fw viu (bmi 

uu. 1) i "nn m ''"pn (nmt. mdH. IB), ate. 

/ ntmrt tPX, "■>« nd nmu," wd b^ 
tan. tU. 1 of ■nlia«l», !• olwncad Into rQp31 ~l^, 
■■*!• ud feBi*W|" 1143117 (Oan. niT. aOj, "bit 
Wtaa,"t«:.Am V^'IH, "UitiHotM:" R* 7TQ 


mon «!€• bare becii nihttltnUd in a gn 

(IndtSB.) k nbitltalad IlDIHDl KT>, 'ha wM 
"Ijn "Ijn b BaoilbnMd tdto -):- "ttW -ijn 

laT. aiiL 10)1 Qsbn Vh 'hVh -^';5 (»— . 

iillL 4), " And Ood m*t Bil«m," IxcoaiH wtib (ka 

8m.. 'a rw "bw Twbo hsd''\ -taa m. 
tftktLo^ f««Li BU.UD ; " ntunn bs 

(Oan. II, ■), "lot Ita> sHun," to uipUflid Inia 
rrU7Kn nTW Vr, " fcr tb. »t. of U» woman 1 • 
(»r '' -^aaV), fn™ 133(Dtiaol.,«imp. JjCi), h imt 
^TSSS, "IboH thml It* btfan bm,"1b csnOidli- 
tlKtloDlo" ttaoa>>bnwUlH»aflir nai" l^^riX 
"and iba tiiiiilM'' (b«[dlcbar Islo Iht lii>a(h,OaB. 
ixli. SO), bM nada room IW TniflT, " a»l abi 

i«**>«.i"nSU7 'mB13,"i-iiim..tth..o" 
(4. v., b. nil tt), li OMd. Dtp TltDiTa, " 1 
ibaU ba [aearebad] ftnnd than ; " Nan. nil. 16, 
b.ran tb. worda 7^:1^ ^3 DfVnn, "Haw 
Tou Ipuvd Iha lUb of oraiT hmala t " a mS?, 
"Wij," la inaartad (LXX.); *» niH* DIP ^3 
K-ipH a>aal. xz^ 8), " If I caU tba nan* af JalM- 
tata," Iba Bam. bM 0073, " la tba oana," ala. 

» tha flllpUii naa <al iVi, fraqaaol botb In Ba. 
braw aod Arabic, bdoc aridantlj nknon lo tba 


II. ITh'-aballacUif ba b 

-rbn*, "Mialllb^ 

roi, tha ana. ilKn kilo -OlDa H3, ' hi a( 
tfanafb lbadH«t"(LXX.,liiT^^^n). In Oao. 
in, «, TlS^a "rP lb ]n, -BabaU. mms 
II ba Knonlliii lo ifa; md," Iba lb (Anb. J) la 
HaBBtmad Into Hb, laadlTiiDl-MHbaBto 

ibT-ort." Oan. iii.»,mbnn nSa'jn bB% 

diH," wbieb la bulb nn.Btbran, ud Ibinatitam; 
Ballai la Ibr «»tiJ.tlon Oan ibi. 10, Vg^ 


ud ftom panllel piwg— Id Uw oominRi leit. 
StD. rrUL St, W, far " f itull not da it, • " I 
rinB not dartio]'," ' b Hitntitulid from Gfn. iTiii. 
ia,aL,3>. GtD.uxry.t.TTlH, -hutnthn.," 
b Kfibeed b; TSS, •• liU loiu," Ann tin fcrnKr 

TllSVr' (Muxtaial, into which Ibnn H BOiwt 
■k rii^Tta Vtffin (Hoibia) nbm it oonn u 
Un UMntk Codci. U<n AcqMM itill we th 
■ddiljgm of dn|[l« irocda uid tbgit phiua iu 
Mctid rrom pMiJkl fwigM >b<ra Uh Hdm 

oeoainil} itwiH iuUrpDUtiooi. 

5. The Jl/lh dm u ui ataiikw of tb* oat iai 
iPuMilj pneediug. aiid comprua lufer phrMa 
■dditicHii, ind repetiliina (TDia panllel pM«iga 
W hmc . u Hitlling i) mailioiMl u hiiiiig bee 
dDBt <it mU pntiamlj bj ll<«n, or *bai ■ omd 
oaad of God ia nlalcd « being sueulad, lb 
whol* ^Mch baring Bfion it b KgioiM aguo • 
bU bD^. Tbno Udiooi tad ilwtjt nperfliwii 

Ik* fword rf the plugwa (Dd ill 
liBiiM turn DaUntomj. 
«. Ts the «i^ oloM belDQc tb 


of r — IT" ""' wc*^ ■' <l» llebnw tat wbltk 

in wmcUibig olgectioiiahk In Ihe ejca of Un 

SmnmriUnt. oa ucoiint ehhpr of liivtori^ improb- 

itbLlitj or mppucnt wuit of dignity In Ibo term 

ipplia] to the Cteikr. Thui in the 3ui. Pmi, 

" anlediluiiu lioiH begeli hia Rnt 

«n ifla be hu lii'ed 160 }»n: but one hundred 

jetn UTS, whtn iiaxmrj, tubtncUd before, uid 

added efter ttK birth of the fin! »n. 'I hu Juid, 

■nwrding Is Ihe Hrbmr Teit, hei^ it 183 ynn, 

(iv«d Hftcnnnti fiOO jmn, uid " eU hia jeuv wen 

Hi ymn; " leoonting to the Sum, lie begot wbto 

' (ta fmn old, Uvfd >flennnLi 7Sfi jeun, "mud 

lb fwi wer« S4T." Ails- (be Udugc the 

•ite method it followedr A hundred or ftftj 

I *n wlded hefbre uid lulitnicted ifter th« b» 

getilng: *.;/■ Arptauad. xbo in the Coainioa Text 

' " " when be hredi Shrhb, ud liral 

)«>n: in all 4-18 — ll bftbe Sam. 

135 ;ean old w!»n be brgrU SheUta, Hid 

iljr SOU jtan aflennidi = 4d8. ('IV IJCX. 

baa, aeoonling (o ita own peculiar pajchological Rod 

clmnologicfil notion*, allend the 1'eit in tb« op- 

poaiU manner. [See SKlTfAUINT.]) An exceed- 

iiigl> important and oftcs diacuaaed entendation of 

teit reada, " Now the aqjounilDt; of Ibe ehililnn of 
linel who dwelt in Kg)pt wu Cour hundred and 
thirtj yean." The Samaritan (lupported \.y LXX. 
Cod. AL) baa "the naming of the chitdm of 
li-/ilA(.'4 «^ J»,k iu U,t hml <if 
■ie U'—t of Kgyiit — It y^ AlyiwTif 
ifHryp KoKuIr] waa four hundred ti-d thittj 
' ilopoUtwn of \-a} lale dalf iudaed. 

r^jy> "fc— Ut<m» Ua to," iDM »taH 
tmmt kit kawea," V^ST V^S. Ei. 
U, all ku ■•• of the Ban. Oodd. nad cVlvb 
nWI, " tie aiw BU lomt^r b^ima of 751, tba 

T^fST tlb, " tkat will bf ao bmlw d~t Or 

tee^ n;?3^ 1*? n;73T> "aod ui. <»»» (kaU babnaenL," afiLliiat both Ibe panlb 



Into 15, "aa Itaaa," 
DC I «1j that ttw n^, 

-icon vrm tti, "m., ho «/.. b. . Bmu- 

tuda," thasLn.,irlth !■ ohancteittflo aTonloD to, or 
nthor Ifnonuva o4 Uia uaa of poetical miction, nw^ 
"lEDD VW© 'n'T, "Kajth.™ba>iirr.*M,a 
nglUlirfe,'* tktrabj trjlnf pariiapi lo anaDaoMe aba 
tbaapfannldlrtultjoflhawotd nCDQ, atandliif 
Ibe " a (rM nomtier." Ao;tUD( won alnind tbaa 
tba lilHQ tB thb plana csald hardljr b* Imm^mi. 
IKlU. Ill, M 

Hon wp'';r; *n. 

• of Ibeo that rl 

tb "i, fSn b ai m ialad ; a wae< 

-rairra? tan*? itsntP"!. -and th., .bKh- 

mtt ItT thiBiaalna a alanhter." DhL utIU. 31. 

" new hV. ' OTTOH nb. 

e Thaa In Oan. L IS, the wot* hv TMlS 
V~IHn, "to (In Uihiapoti>ba(arih,''anl«BKid 
ftw ». 17i 0*0. d. e, tb. wort b^^t?*, "and a 

Ba(to. tb. B,IiT. Bl,hi 
DB}^,<<kn*aB,"l.(.abadiiaBa. IbM-n 

>-f'(nj7*1te CU7''1) a aaldan hsf ' opon ka> fea»' ■■ 


Alliii, to Gbi. U. a. "And God [? had] aoidw 
I '3*X? plujxrf.) on Iha MTOitli d.)-," ^pi^tr-, 
li dt«nd inlo^nfn, "the lixlt.,' lot Uod' 
■«*t OD ths Skbbalb-dty might Mem InconiptM 
(LXX.K In Gtn. nil t, B. " W. cmnot, unli! 
■U the eoelii be KiUiered logetlier, *iid (ill tfatj 
wU th> MODS trom the month of tha irtll," 
Un-TS, - floclu." i. rephcrf bj WVf-l, .. rii,p- 
litrdt," litice the flocki aniU not roll tfa« Moae 
from tba well! the comclor not beinj! Rppuvtitl; 

oUiBT UngniBSn, "Ihej" oc™ion»llj ntm M 
tila not pirtietikrly iftciSed penaiit. Well 
Gotnlui uk whet tbu curreclor would bire i 
ofli.niTii, [notiuri.]36: "And when Wtyi 
to the inoniiii((, behold (Ary wrre all deu! com 
TIh ■OTpBHing reverence of 
■liown in fmiMgei like t-x. uiir. 10, -'k 
beheld God,"" which u tniiuiuled tol^ ^^ 
U»r held bj, clung to, (iod"» — ■ raidins oer- 
t*lDl;leaiu fauniony with Um IbUowing — '• uid 



end I 

■nionK UieniKlvn, — M ftr *■ llie'rery IuhIM hilterto^uwn — Boilui. 
ing retiined tbe Htbrew iu Huny |,1«C( when Ue 
othen hive ujopled tlw new •quinleiila.i 

8. Thf tijA^A „,d W elua MnUiua ulimiioua 
n»dB in hror or ou Lehilf o/ Suimriuu theoloju, 
riomeallB wonbip. 1liiu tb* 

b Uie 

'art In U>e Hebrew IVntalnich, la to tba Sau- 
iritMi l'e..t. Joined to tbe ilngtiliir rerb (Ger. m. 
13, xul 63, HIT. 7i Ei. iiii. fl); end further, 
lotb Hithropomorpbiinii m well u antlirop4ipMk 
isnn ore carrfuLy expuuRcd — 1 [raclica wtj com- 
nan ui kbr t)m« tf tk. i..« —^ Ut 

imea." 'Hie liul i 

U iuU 

- arihn m itrrn. * irrwn. 

* tba f Bttonlt ud JAiri^eOan m* frafwutlj 
■ku«ad:-IS-l-)nbmB« DTlH (Oao. >IU.4|i 
*MD ti illand Into ""Sn (xiUI. IBli rUtP IdU 
S2a? (i»rtl. IB); >';rtt «■»!■ fcr ''bm (De«l. mil, 
■1)1 the n la abU(ad faile n >■ woida Ilka 3n3 
DTI3a,wlilebbacnii*ina,D^n32; niaallMad 
Wo]; — "^QniiaBBaa* ~IQ;. The "i b ftefBatl; 
<iiBbM(!aa» utarlaclkiiilaj: {I'tS'TI h 

iBwibraxD^ni M-i"Kfcrtn*»; "s* 

lfHi7 wona u* Jobwd i(«atbar ; — OT^T^ 

fcr -im -ID (Ki. m. 281 ; IWnS *, IM pS 

eeto. lU. 4G); D'i*"ia nn la *i«*}a onna-in. 

Tba pnuoBU nH ud ^/^H, td p. fto. Ubi- ud 
pmr., an ahu^ tulo \-|M, ^^flS (Ih. eta>» 
bala a*t>. fonni) ng^Ktlnly ; IbaiuO. ?f Into IB 
"7^ Into "p i Ibe teimluUoo of tba !d p. a. fcm. 
rnet. P]~j baeoma* ^H, Uka Iba lint p. ; tha aarbkl 
knm Aphal U oaad fbi Iba Hlpbil; »ni3TW fcr 
^mSrn l tb. madW letter of tba nrb I'jJ u 
MiailRW laauuad u H n '«, Inriaed Df MoK dnppad 
H hi tba Uab. Afibi, rerba of tba lonn n"b haTe 

hatnl <tf tha n. Henna irf tba jettma V^ 
ibjp, ate.) an olton apalt VdjT, Into wUah the 
^° 71^13 !• Ukwriaa oeculooaUy tnaitmmi. 
9f dbUncllj Samullu wonli luj be duUodhI; 

TPr(o«. "•niT,8i)-TH,T'f7("»'*i"'a«i" 
a<nn, rw uab. onin, "a-i;" rmbs, 

•a thditfi u badM," baeauia rTPlfiSS - Itai- 

naunt duuge of tU lhe^^a^»God viU 
oboo«. ■ .pot," tolD nna, "Ho bf eboMi," 
nanwij, Gariiim, and Uw well known aubatitntkB 
rf Gerlzlm for Ebsl iu Deut. iitii. 4; "UahaO 
be when je be gone orer Jordan, Uiat jt iball aat 

nn-CH 13: Dm, "wia^" nad. DlSHi 
■T5, "■poll,- 'TU; n'>a\ "dwa," mjT', 

' TOTIVd WV, "m of w»," u ..pnukn 
naadofOod(Ki.«.81,haijiiiBaa'o 1133,«kaNtf 

•™*«," n»JB-n\ "thawnthof IbeLonI 
b. klndM," la a.Utitnl«t; ib^VTO TK 
(Mnt.uil].ia),<'thaniak(aod)whb!h b^l tba*,-* 
ii Ehugad Into ibVin -IIS, "tha wan whlah 
(loriOaa tbea i " Gao. iltlJ, D'lPaKn,"lha naa," 
Biad of "tha uiala," haa bean raplaaad b; 

T'SKbsn, "tba aotala." SiRaoa mhh 

fcr lb. palrianba chufHl Tl-W, "Onnad k* 

thaj Ttnlntad In ■£• ftMtf ptC H T'T' 

nC37, "The balorad of God CBan>uuln, tha 

tdar of tba JudBo-Daiidlao ampin, baiefnl la 

Samultual abiU dnll aacnnl;,'' Imstoaar^ 

tbam tolo tba aluaat aanialiM Vl T ^ 

ncab 13D% - n. *-*, t*. w* of 6«d -UI 

"J^ar a (Dent. lit. 13, A. V. 11), " bj bla aaenM," 
bacnna nUJ^a, " bj bla fltab;" roVaiZJ*, 
eolbM oon « i ^' (DauL dtU. W), HDIJ aSlP- 
eonauBbMcunaai" pyba?,"! aVS*?, "to tba 
W ahaU ja throw II" (Kl. uH. aOl (A. V. ■!> 
"bB.-l I'ripn. "J. ab*U la*«d Ikras . 

.,.., Ia)i)^Ic 


n Umb (tafWi whkb I tetBOaai joa UiU di; to 
Haunt Etal (Sua. Otrmm), mud tlMn ihdt ttaoa 
buiU *D alUr imto tha Lord tbj God." «tc. ThI* 
DMngc guui ft cMttin inbnrt hoa WhMton uid 
KaoniopU hariag tbtiffii tb« Jtiet vlUi ODfrnpt- 
b« H (Mm G<fliim iiilo Eb*L Tlu* nq>paiitian, 
howncr, km mM b; RnliherlDrd, Putj, TjchHii, 
l^ilatciB, Vtnehoir. uid othtn, ud m u*d onlj 
idd that It il SDcnpktdj giren up bj modm Blb- 
ieal Mboian, although il canuot ha deoiad that 
tlHM k aaoM pivaA foot grtHuid for a dnqbt 
qua lb* (Dbjeet. To Ihii cbai abo balong Dxve 
Mpaoiallj Intapoktiou nf reallj aiatjng |ia*- 

tta Sam. In*, iminediatdj a 

n Deatanvuiin^ 
r tha T«D Com. 
tiona from Deut- 
inU. a-T aod li. 30: "And it ahall ba on tb« 
imj iriicn j« •bail paa orcr Jordan . . ■ ;■ ihall 
■at ip tteni al4iaa ... on Hoont Cmain . . . 
and tbn ahalt tboa bnild in ah*r . . . 'That 
awMMi'n ' oo the otber tidi Jocdas bj tb« iiaj 
■h«> tb* ann gofth down , . . In tba ehampalxn 
onr againat Gilgal. bonds tba plaina of Morah, 

thm of tba nibjMt, Uiat we did not chooaa thii 

'•aiAcatkm of Utasnhu btoauaa It appearad to m 
I ba allbar ajitenatis (Geaaulut nji blmadf: 
Coterum boila panplcitar complona ia hli ctaa 
ctlonea quarum uogulaa aliui ad allud ganui 
^fareftn^taD malit .... In unavel alUn 
iectiona ad allam claMnn referenda hand dlffialba 
erimna . . . . ") or aihaattivt, or gren b*. 
came the Uluatiatiooi tbeuiKlrea are unaatajlabla 
[n pdut of the naaoa he aiali^i for them; but 

ntc •ileriMc! tba utlerl^'unfoundHl though tloft- 

hallowed claimt of the Samaritan Pent»leuch. It 

A-] uKfuarj. aa we >^ helura, te CDllect ■ 

great naniber at vaiiatloni (or to take tbtm Awn 

Wallon), lo oompan them with the old t«xt ud 

with each other, lo place thorn In aame kind of 

ler befota the mdet and let thorn loll their own 

le. That thli waa not done during tba two 

indnd j eari oT the «ont<at bj a lingte one of th« 

oombatantg ii oertainij rather atnnga: albeit ual 

the onlj inilaace or ttu kind. 

Important additioni to thll liat harB, aa >• 
inled before, been tuado bjr Frankrl, aueh aa Ita* 
iriuut' preferenos of the impent. for tba 3d 
■ tb« abL abaoLi'' 

From tba iannaoa* nambei of Ibae worv than 
wiwthliaa luiaala Geaeniui baa angled ont lour, 
rtfadi ha Ifaioka prelTTable on Ibe wbde to tboae 
of tba Haaoretie TeiL We will eonlne oonelm 
U Dwotiomng tbem, and reftt the reader to the 
lagant eommoitatiea Bpon Uim: bo will Bnd that 
tbej loo baie Mooo bten, all but unanimouilj, 
r^«tei.« (1.) Alter thowarda, " And Cain ipoke 
pOtOl) to hla biDthtr Abel " (Gen. It, 8), tbo 
Sam. adds, "letnago bto the field," > in ignonnoe 
at tba abnlnU o* of 'HDt^ "lo wj, apeak" 
(OTBp.EE.iii. as; aChr. 1I.10 (A. V. 1I)|. and 
tb* abed. TTl (Gen. li. W). (3.) For ->nM 
(Oca. nil. IS) tba Sam. nadi ^TIH, i. e. inatead 
of "bahiod Um a lam," "one ram." (3.) For 
073 TRan (Goi. ilii. 14), ■• an Mi of bona," 
a. *. > Mnng am, tba Saa. bat &'^3 llon 
(TtoB- DTJ, SjF. p^jj). And {*.) fcr p-V1 
(Gn. liT. »), •• ha led bath hb tndnsd Mt- 
taptii" Um Sam. nada pTI, " ha Dwnbarad." 
W* mmt beiedj rtata, In ooadudii^ Ihia par- 

ignorance oF tl 

Galileaniama, — to which a 

latlon d the letteia AAen 

£'rvi. p. U, 

-inn, IDH, -IDS), in Ibe Samaritan Cod. ; tba 
oceaaional ai^nibig down (4 tlie S into 3/ <^ 3 
into 3, S into T, etc., and chiaBj the preaenn 
at worda and phraaea in the Sam. which are M< 
interpolated from paratlel panagea. but aieanlinlj 
wanting in our teiW Frankel derivea from theaa 
paaaagie cbieBj the concluiloD Ihat the Sam. 
Pent, waa, paitlj at Iea•^ emendated fhim tin 
LXX., OnkeloB, and other rer; late aotuoea. (Bm 

Wo now lul^n, Ibr the aake of completeneaa, 
the befbremrntlonod lbirC««n cbuaea of Elrebbetm, 
In the original, to which we bale added the Inula- 

1. D'ma -in nbpob d''''13U71 niDDin 

[Additima and allciatlona in Ibe Samaritan P«D- 
laleueb in brar of Hounl Qeridm.] 

2. nW'ro'? niBDin, [Addllkma Or Um 
purpoaa of eompletlon.] 

8. "nHO. [ConmcataiT, glMHB.] 

■ Kan, bo tlH lalat adItloD of Ilk Iwtnd., p. ESQ, 
aak 1, ■} a, " Ina the k> Taituta, whlah Oaanlai 
Mia to Iron ■« Ttna, Wl io Ibe pound oa dear 

* miPH rDTi 

• * r. a-)|Tn *K 3-ip* (■!. la. 4t); hQ'' 

rnnn (b. nar. u). 
- X r. nat «> TDt cfc.riB.iDi inn 

kt Dion (Fn. ». IE). 

a «#. Jpm*r PfffTKOas. tS-S)! IpTI 
•» 715 (flan, nasi Ki ^^Ti •» Untpn 


/warn fcr tPDITKOac.Kial.aB)! rOOT 
tor nOIDa (Ex. IT. 10). 

r On. nHi. a, alter SS-iMn n''1p3 iha 
weed! pS? bH are add-l ; urU. aT,aA» mmU 
tba weid hVd la band (LXX.); ilUl, Sg. the ptaiaaa 
DViVh^ Wim ir'Mn -p-ia l- loairtia alta 
the Bhsach ; iItH. «, D^l^sb T39n, aM 

■a. nuL at, WD DTI m»-i vmr\ oh n mm. 

tbnl la b. nUl. U, nadbic nHt XWS ^ 

a»5* ■'nVb wn ttt-'ti hsid ra?3. 


I. niBtPn *ii7n. [aiiiig« of douiu.] 

•. nH'Ctrn. [EmmMbtlon at Moiliif in^ 

7. nynwrt rmon. [p«niuiuu<« of 

I. Cr'*133. [ProwHtL*.] 
S. V&' [Gcndar.] 

la niSDian n-rmH. [Lettm »dcw.i 

IL Dn*n nrniK [Addition of pnpod- 
ttcu, oarOuiKtioiu, uikOei, fie.] 

13. TPS*) V^'^- [JuDctioo of Mpuslcd, 
■nd MpmtioD of Jidnad wonli.] 

W. nSw niB\ [ChronologteJ iktUntknu.] 
li Duj, pcrhi|M, not bs quite )up»fluoiu to < 
MTve, bafon w< procmd >iiy further, that, tii 
op to thit nnment no critiod edition of the Sn 
PmL, or eno u eiuuiiuition of the Codioa lii 
KenDicoti — who can only bo laid to hive l>egun 
Um worii — hu b«a thought oT, tlH (reatn ' ' 
the whole auViJKt renisina ■ moat pncaHoi 
ud bwit with urieu ■■-—■- 

mote or leai tclentiSe 
BOmiDon Saniarilau oiiatokei ud laliificatloai ap- 
pear* ts ua to be a lulyMt of rttj imaU 

It ia, how 

-alter i 

which b 

le other 

mueh Dion important 
Ori^n of the Sam, Pent^ aa an««ttkd Uh^j ai it 
waa wben it fint cams uiida Um DOtlc« of Eu- 
npeau KhaUn. For our own part we cannot but 
think that a* long aa (I) the hiilorj of the 
Sautatitana RDuini involticd lu the ol 
whioh a fonuer article will have giieu 
<3) wt an reitrict«d to a inuiu numl 
paraliieljrvcentCodicet; (3) neiUher tbeaaOdhci 
tbamariita hare, aa hu Juit Imi obMrred, 
tboniu[;hlj eollateil and recoilaled, nor (4) 
thui a Mile beKinnlnR haa booi mada witl 
thing like a oollation between (ha nrioua nadingi 
of tbe Sam. P«iL and [he LXX. (Wallan omitted 
the grottat Dumber, "cum uu" 
tateni ooniUtuant " | : to long 
Tariatj or tt« moat dlrergent oplDlona, all taaed 
OD '■ probalulitiei." wbich at* deaignatod on ' 
other aide aa "falie reaaoninga" and •• indivi 
omUbata," and which, moreover, not nufrequentl; 
■tart from flagnmtl} fabe premiaea. 

Wa iball, under Iheaa dnuniaUncoa, oonfliie 
nmdra to a ilDipla ainmeraUan of the leading 

• K «. It H IB, C*53 Iwtaad of Dy!J3 
^doplad bT Oeanlu In Tlui. p. 1017 a, wlUi 
maiitlaa at IB Kuraa, sUeli ha, bannr, dial 
aTowed to BcaaamflUar— scop. tP 3, p. 107, Dole 
H)! Jar.ULft, KTNT Inalaad of ITinii I Bam. 

iiiT. 11, onm ^ DTTHii fcr. rt.*, rnrt 
»w trm-, m nil. ao, 'nrnni nt TWTsmi 

Imlg ir.V, D^'nCm — Samno'i nigti dahof tbs 
Mm tf *■ PUUMnaa Mm |Kaa IB nHMtr }Mn 


1<^ tK and againat (hem : • 

Of U 

n J. U 

Walton, Cappellaa, Eennieott, Miehaetia, Befabora, 
Banv, Jafan, BertboMt, Sttudd, Haoda, Stunt. 
Darldatai, and Mban. Their rEaaont fm II bwt ba 
IhUB brieaj Rimnied up: — 

(a.) It Mcoa Improbdile that the S^nurllMi 
libould hare acaepted thoir code at bba han^ of Ite 
Jewa aftv the ulta, aa wppoatd bj aoiue cKltai, 
1 inteuae hatred betaaoi tkt 

(i.) The Samaritan Canon haa aalj tba P»U. 
teach la ooranwa wlU) tba Hebnw Vmm: Imt 
tfaat book hem ncelTad at a period «hai tba H». 
giographa and tba Piopbala were In Iha Ji«^ 
handa, It would b« lurprialng if tittj lad not A* 
nc^Tcd Iboae. 

(c.) Ilia Sam. MUn, arowadij tha iimtc n- 
eiant, are found in the Sam. Cod.: ^Hrdbn H ww 
writtan befora the allaration of the charaatw into 
tba iquai* Hahnw — wbioh datn fiom tl* cod of 
tba Eille — took plan*. 

[Wa cannot omit brMj to draw attention ban 
to a moat keen-ejed luggnlion of S. D. Luaatto, 
oDntniDBd in a letUr (o K. KIrahheIra (On* 
Siomron, p. 108, Aa.). bj the adepdoo of whkh 
maof mdiiiga in (ha Htb. LWei, now ahnoal an- 
inteUigJhle, appoir perfa|]]> cliar. He aMomaa 
that the copjiat who at aome time or other afto 
Eaia tiwi*crl)«l the Bible Into tba modem tumn 
Hebrew character, from the anelaut copiei writt^ 
In B<»aUed Samaritan, occaaionallj mlatook Swnaf 
itan lettara of liniilai lbrm.< And auiee oar Bam. 
reoL haa thoaa difficult rcadinga in common with 
the Haa. Tnt, that other moot point, whether it 
waa copied from a Hebrew or Samaritan Codn, 
wookl tbna appear to ba tolnd. Ita oooaiaBt 
ohangti of n and *1, ^ and 1, n and n — laU 
which am ilnilar in Heliraw, but »< In Sa- 
ltan — bale been long need aa a pownM aign . 
t for the SamariUn* baving rMcivad the PnL 
u a laj lata period indeed.] 

'■■nee the above opinion — that tha Pent, oun* 
the handi of tlie SaniarlljuiB Itom tbe Tm 
Tribe* — it the niott popular otia. we will bow 
« aoma of the chief najon* brou^jht againal 
d tba reader will lee bj the loniewhat Iba- 
ttura of tbe ar(!iim«iiU ou either aide, thrt 
tba laat word bai not jet been apulicu In tha m>t- 

I Thoe eiitled no religioa4 animotilr vtM- 
r between Judab and lind when thef Mp. 

BDlal *( 

1 of jbrty (ooBiii. Jtr. Seia, 1), acoo 
I & (DBmerltal letter Ibr t6r*y) In the grifhia. 
briuf mlataken Ibr 3 (IwtntjJ. Amlo, Stlir. uH 
S,/crty la pal bulMd of ar'niy (m>p. 1 K. till. M) ) 

Jii. 4. an'! ibc ^^*li «a lu. u, -ji^a 

*r D-na, ....: au U-a, latte^-fllan, ^ 

/ft •"! A, J and J, r ••* ^ - 

ittair verj eloaal;. 


DDlrr. OnU 
Wtmm tb* (kialj Jt^iteed SMOuiteu lod tbi 
Jn« anlj ^IB hm tlw momnit wtn tba UUr 
nAied la nMgun tba chin* of ttaa fanotr, of 
bckofl^t la Um uopk of (iod, »mi r^MUd tbeir 
■U io baildti« Uw Twiplri wh^ iLb, it it nid, 
dMuId Uwr oot int hng mdnd Ibc on* book 
riucb ■ii»ll bring tbMn inlo itill olcaa' eonlHTQkj 
>UhtliantaiiMd«mlM,ittlwirkDdi? Tha Iba 
J«*i ibaold jrtt ban nibnd to racein ibao h 
^fmtt it DO son •nipriiioft Uun that Ibt Samui- 
ton ban tlut tinw fbrmnl Inli iMr Maod qpop 
■i icrj L>v — ahaad aDConlmg to Ibt 
; and innd IMdi It tiiat Ihej 

mnft xiJ oUicr book of tb> 
D b DM to be Meounted hr b; 

i« n* no oUxr book la aiit- 

F* bwo ditulaling unoog Ibe people. But 
jhIdiuj with whicb tba SnoariUni ngwded .)i 
■km, and Ibc inlerae bitnd vbicb the; nitunllj- 
Mil Kind i^iiiNt tbe poet-HoiME wriun of 
tiooBl Jewiih biiiorj, would *u£ci«itlii wnniiit 
Ibeir >4«<uiK tlw Dthw books, 'm iB ot which, ■ 
Ittiam, Judges, ud Job, either Jennaleru. aa 
WDtie od ««ahip. or Daiid and hii Hooh, 
VUOed. If, bowenr, l^oewt bai raallr found with 
Ibem, aa be nparU in tbe AUgrm. Ztiiumy d, 
Jmlaiik. April ISIb, 1K». our Book of Ktnp and 
SeiocMHi'a Smg of Soogi, — wbieb ibajr tcrtainly 
■oold not ban nceJTad uibetqutsU;, — all tbtae 
Wgaiwta an peftBcUr gntuilou*. 

<&) Tba pmcot Habiew chancier wia aM in- 
mdiieed bj tkn atW Iba retum bum the Eiila, 
bnt earn* Into um at a much ktar period. Tbt 
Saiaarilaoa might tberefnv hare retaJTed tbe Peu- 
lateoch at the haiidi of the ntDmed iiUn, who, 
accvding to tbe TahnDd, tjierwatdt nbtiHgriA their 

tinguUi it tima tbe Saaiaritaa. "Original];," 
njaHtfSDtnC&rajlRir. ui. b}, " the Pentateueb 
waa giren to Imel in liri ■riling and tbe Holy 
(Qabraw) hnguagei It wai again giren to tbem 
lo tba daji cf lilzn in tbe Ailmrilli writing and 
Anmaic hngnaga. [sad then iriaeted the Ali>- 
«ith writing aiid the Hoi; langnage, and Ml Io 
Um HedhXn ClSwrai) tbe Ibri writing and thi 
AnoMie bngo^a. Wbo iie the Hediohe V Th 
OMbin <tSainaritani). What !• Ibri wriling! 
Tbe Ubooaab (Samaritan}." It ia well know: 

(S ' Tbe leeond leading opinion on tba ^^ a 
trigin al the San, Pent ia that it waa introdnc 
Ij Hananeb (aomp. Joaapbna, AiH. 11. 8, SS 9. 1, 
•t tba thne of the fimidatloB of the Samaritan 
BeBrtmry on Hoont Gtrialin (Ant. ran I»ale, R. 
Sinoa, PridcMn, FnUa, Hane, Da Wctle, Geae- 
■laa, HnpMd. Hengilenberg, KdL eu.)- In aup- 

Cof Ibli (^km an allied, the IdolalrT of the 
iritatu befora thay nnlired a Jawiah priiat 
ltemv> EnritaddoH IS K. nU. U-<tk M>d tba 


■M number of ratdbige ewnraoa to Uu LZZ. 
aud tUa Coda, againat tba UMoMio Ttit. 

(a.) Olbtr, but rely iiokted notlana, an Ibset 
of Marin, Le Ckn, INaioet, etc., that Iha fmelU- 
leb prieet not bj the king of Aaajria lo initruet 
w iiibibitanta in tbe religJoD of tbe count); 
brsi^hl the PntateiKh with biui. Fuitber, mat 
' I Samirilan Ptotalandi «a> the prodaetiou ol 
impoabir, Uonthnw (^StSDIl In 'I'abnnd), wba 
Und during tbe time cf tbe .ipoatin, and who U- 
•i5ed the ncred reoorde in order to prure that ha 
tbe H«iah (DMher). Agabiat whleh than 
■ onl}- tbii lo be obaertad, that then it Dot the 
■ligbteat aHentioD of neb a nalun to be taind. 
Finallii, IbM It i* a rerj' W* and bnltj neenelon, 
(ith addiUoni and eonuptioui of the Haaoiatla 
Tut (6lh century aftrr Chriat), into wbtcb ghlaBM 
rom tbeLXX.badbeannceiTed(Fnuike)). UtIJ 
tther tug)^t!ona hire been made, bi^ we tanoai 
lere dwell upon IbeiD : suffice It te bare meatioMl) 
tbaM to wbieh ■ certain pepuUritj and aulborilp 

lothcr queetion baa been raiwd: Hare all 
ariinU which we fiad in our copiea been i>- 
troduced at once, « am tbej th 

number of ngue ofMoM 
that point, we ban onlji roam ^n to addnoa 
at of Aiirith de Rdeai, who trana uaaf of tb* 
naaca (ClaM 3) bath in lb* Sam. and in the LXX. 
an ancient Targum in the handi of tbe people 
the rime «f Ena. and refen to tbe Talmudleal 
Miige of ftdar. 37: ■' And he read In the Book 
tbe Uw of Uod — tbia b Miira, the Penlatascbi 
SI1M1B, eipkoatorj, thii le TaTpan.- [Vbr. 
lUM).] Coneidtring that do Maeurah 
fined the Icttert and ligna of tbe Samar. Codei, 
notictil, the piincipai object 
u )mDathlj ai poaailile, it li 

■lie chief opiiiioiu with itapeet I 
of Ihe numeroua and la jet numnatigaled — erMi 
nncounted — mdlngi of the LXX. (of which Bh*. 
wIm no critical edilion eaiati M yel), and tbe San. 
Pent, an: — 

1. That lb* LXX. bare Iranalattd fron tb* 
Sun, (De Dieu, StMen, Hottiugar, Uaaeenousf, 
Eicbbora, eto,^ 

a. That muMal inlwpolatiana ban taken pbea 
(Giobua, Unher. RariiH, etc.). 

3. That both Venioni were fcmied IVvni Hehnw 
Codicea, abioh diflired among tbeaudne aa well 
■a from tbe one which afterwiide obtained pubBe 
aolborit)' In Palatine; that however rery nan; 
willfu] eemiplioni and Inteipolatione ban cnpl b 
in kter lima (Gneniui). 

4. That the Samar. baa, hi Iha mabi, been al- 
lend from Iba LXX. (Fnukd). 

It Riiuil, on Ibe olber band, be elated aleo, that 
the Sam. and LXX. quito M oden diaAgree with 
each other, luid roUow each tht Miaor. Teil. Alao, 
that tba quilationi in Ihe M. T. from Uw LXX., 
when tnej coincide with Ibe Sam. agdnit Ifat 
Hebr. Text, an ao amall In number aud of ao ns- 
Impottaot a natnn that the/ cannot be addiieeJ ■ 
an; argument whalaoerer. 

Tbe following ia a llat of tba HSS. of Ibe 8<W 
Pert, now b Eonpean Ubraria [Kanolaott] i — 


No. I. Oifcid (Uabar) Bodl., IbL, No. tW. 
Polect, auept liw flnt Inntj ud lut nine renei. 
No. 3. Oifonl iVmbtt) BodL, 4ti>, No. 112S. 
with ui Ambic renlon in Ssm, chuaolRi. Imper- 
(K(. Wanting Um wbol* of LeritJcui tod duoj 
poilioni of Uw other boolu. 

No. 1. Oxford (llHlur} BodL, ito. No. 8139. 
Wuitinc niui; portion! in nub book- 
No. 4. Oiford (Unher, Uud) Bodl., 4to, No. 
•94. Dafectln In pniU of DtuL 

No. G. Oitbrd (Muih) Bodl., 13iuo, No. IB. 
Waiitlnji aaoievtnN in tbt be^ning; SI cbipten 

No. 6. Oiford (Pooock) Bad^Mmo, No. B3Z8. 
?(Ma of kim kat; othprwiis perftet 

No. 7. London (Unher) Br. Uib. Claud. B. &. 
VcUum. Complete. !U lesTe*. 

Nol 8. l>*ri( (I'elnK) Imp. Ubr., Sun. No. 1. 
Benit MS., conuining tb( llebr. Mid Bun. Text), 
with an Ai)J>. Vm. in Uw Sim. ehirMttr. Want- 
ing Iba Snt H DC., and toj ddbetiio la miny 

No. S. Piirii (Peine) Imp. Ubr., Sun. No. 3. 
Ancient MS., wanting flnt IT diV=n of Gen.; 
lod all Deut. from tht Tth eh. Houhigant, how- 
ntr. quota from Utn. 1. 11 of tliia Cadei,a rather 
pnnling cirrumilance. 

No, 10. Pari! (Harl. it Saney) Ontoc?, No. 1. 
TLa ramoui MS, of P. daDa Valk. 

No. 11. Pari! (DoQi. Noliu] Oralorj, No. S. 
Hide- Dp oopf . 

No. 18. Parii (Ubr. St. Gen^.). 01 UtUe 

No. IJ. Roma {Pidr. and Barber.) Vatlean, No. 
108. Hebr. and Sam. teita, with Anb. Ven. In 
Sam- ebancttr. Ver; deTectira and recenU Dated 
ILe Ttb oentuTT ( ?). 

No. It. Kama (Card. CobeDutlui), Vatican. 
Abo luppoMd to be of llie Ttb cenlur;, but verj' 

No. IB. Uilao (Ambnidan LU>r.). Said 
nrj ancient', not ooUalsd. 

No. 16. Lejden (GoUui US.}, Ibl, No. 1. S^ 
lo be eocnpkt«. 

No. IT. Got}ia(DvcalUbT.l. A Ih^pnent ontj. 

No. IS. LsDdoo, Count of Pari*' Librarj. With 

Printed edltkni are contained b tlia I^iia and 
Walton Poljgbte; and a Kpante reprint ftnm the 
ktter ou made bj Blajnej, Oxrord, 1790. ' 
Faeaimile of the 30th cb. of Kiodua, tnta on 

he A'dUiu M5S., hai bc«n edited, vitb portiont 
of th« eorrraponding Huoretie text, and a Buvian 
Tranilalion and InlnductioD, bjr Levjaohn, Jeru- 
Mlem, 1880.' 

I. Bamarilan. — Th* origin, author, and aga of 
the Samaritan r«doo of Ibe Hm Booh* of M< 
■lai blUterto — eo Elchhom quaintly obauivi 

•alaajn been a gtMm apple to the InveitlKalon, 
and wUl very pn>t>ahlj remain to, until people leave 
•tr venturing deciaive judgmei^t* upon hiitorical 
mtfjeda which no one hu reoorded in antiquity." 
And, indeed, nwdem Inmtigalon, lireii ai the, 
hate been, have done little towarda the elucidatiuD 


of the mlilwit. Aooordtng lo the SamarilwH than 

acini (De Sacy, tfm. H; Ptaiat; Winerj. tUh 

highiiriert Nathaniel, who died about 30 B. c, k 

it* author. Geieniui put) 1t< date a few yean after 

Chrub JdtdImU thlnki that it bad long ben In 

' the aaoond poat t^rittlan century. Fraokil 

it in the poM-Uohammedan time. OtherlB- 

vfatigator* dale It from Un tinte of l^arinddoD** 

prieat (Sehwan), or either ihortlj befeiw ot afltr 

'' ' undatJtn of the tetnple on Umuit Geriiiin. 

m) oertaln, bowerar, Ibat It vai onapond 

before the dettnietlon of the eecond Iraple; and 

b^iig intended, like lbs Targunn, for the oMof th« 

.1 eieluiively, it waa written in the fopaim 

Samaritan Miom, « uditm of Hebnw, Aiamala, 

id Syriae. 

In tbb «enton the original haa bnn foUowwI. 
with a nry lew eieepliont, in a ilarith and Kan*- 
" lea perftelly childith manner, the eraH eridently 

of thii may ha addaeed 
DenLiii. 8; " The Zidoniui call HenwD X^IS 
(ShlrioQ), and the AmorilM mU U ~)<3tD (ShiDlr).'' 
The traoilalor derivtng ]^!ff Ihim '^tD "prinea, 
render* it T3~) " Dwilera; " and findliif 
Um lettsi reverxid in the appeUaUon of the Anxc^ 
ib> a* ~i*3Et?, reveraea aln tb* lam in hi* *ct. 
dm, and Inuvlalee it bj "aUvct" p'09D7Dl 
In other caaea, wlufe do tjamaritan equivalnt 
could be Ibund for a Hebrew word, the tianaiator, 
Initead of paiaphraaing it, limply tranapoet* iti 
letten, eo aa to make it look Samaritan. Ooea- 
■ionally be i* mlaled by the ortbogn^ihj of tbt 
origiDal: IKIES p CH, »»*>, when . . .?-' 
be renden miti p CH, .. if ao, I ahall bi 
wrath:" miitaking H1EH for 1£H, ftom ff* 
"anger." On the wbote It may be conaidend a 
nry valuable aid towardi ibe uiij of the Samar. 
Teit, on account of ila very eloee miial adhercoee. 
A tew euei, howeier, may be brought forward, 
when the Vmion hai departed froni the Text, 
either under the influence of popular nligioua no- 
tion!, or for the take of eiplanation. " We ptay" 
— Ml they write to Scaliger — "eveij day In the 
morning and la the evening, a* it i* laid, the ooa 
lamb ihalt thou prepare in the morning and tba 
lecoud in the evening; we bow to the ground and 
■ordiip God." Accordingly, we And the tiaulato 
Rodering tbe paMoge, "And Itaae weut b> 'waBc ' 
(niECb) in tb* field," by — "and bus w«rt M 
pray (n^>rDV) InlhalUd." "AndAbnbw 
roat In tb* morning ('V')^^)." b tndtnd "bSS, 
" In tbe pnytr," elo. Anthnpomorpbian* an 
■raided. "Tbe Image (TaiCTI) of God" k 
Kodrnd nCSa, "the gtory." OTP ^, 
" Tbe mootb of Jehovah," it tnmfbrmad tela 
mrP -in''D, "the word of Jehovab." FM 

■ Tbeodfbal lotMiHoD of tbe Bealaii Oovrddw 
pobiyb Ibe wholtCoiln In tb* lam* manosMH 

ipe that, If tbe woct li ew aikan or apln. It w 
U Inte awn eiapattat handl. lir. Lnyiobu'i I 

tkm, briaf ■> It la, ihowi bim to be BMKly 
ig botb Id Bholaretilp and Id erltidl aenm*^ 
enttialy noamiualiited lilti Iki 


ymlr iMid, eta. A pod difficnk; k oOhnd 1>t 1 Ooluki* OMamxuUtj amiHiat* to auipktt UatUft 
lia ;np«- DUDca wUofa Uili niiloa olho lobiti- 1 fcr louann — 

Onkals to Ai^tiw. Htm. 

mp -rab Km -na -nab a7nB'' nn 
•^n "IP p^rwi pnn -mrra : mrr 
»nar »b jrns -ran bm mn "TDm 
raasi ^nip^ Mb V3» nripiD bai 

Hn or Dm two nndofn ew 
Thw Vmiod luu Uknri 
Iba hwib of eopjiMi tod 
Buif iDUrpolMioiii Mid oomiptioiu. Tbc fint 
Mfij of it n* broogbt to Eurc^ bj Da Is Villa, 
b^atbcr with tba Smu. Tnt, in 1S16. Job. Ne- 
diiin» Ant poblitbad H Ic^atbfr witb a baltj Latin 
Buahtioo io Uh Paria Foljglott, vheoca it >■>, 
vjtb a fe« HDCDdatkna. nprintrd in Walton, witb 
MOM MtM bj CaileUiu. Singia porlioaa of II 
tppwral in Halle, ad. b; CdUriBL 1706, and bj 
nUcnaon, Lejpa., 183T. Compan Gtaaiiua, De 
PtmL Bam- Qi ^*«, Mo., and Winer'* OMDOgTBpb, 
Dt VirmtmU PoiL 8am. /arUc, Me., Laipdg, 

PnL in oppoailkin to tlia LXX. gf Ibc Jna. In 
Ihii nv at Icaat tba ailalMiec of sartaia A^nwalj 
rfaGnak Todoo of tba Sam. Ptnt., prenrrad In 
ma MSS- of a» LXX^ t<wetbv with poctloaa of 
Aqoik, STmimaba, Tbaodotloo, Mo., li looooDltd 

rl. 1, S. tea. Tan. la ArtanJ lUflm. 

OS bbo ; -iov)b n»iD cr nin > bboi 
nrw iH 133 iinb -invn btna?'* ^33 
mranob nna -na Tiab tPiD^ n? 
■mm ^on in* ami -rai id : nirrb 
mw -na bn wnuj'' »b arm *am 
X<ttrs>^ Tonsi ^aasi nntp* nb y^ya 
.bs** Hb 

fcr. Tbtaa fragmoiti an roppoaid la h« alliHled l» 
bj tba Greek Fatbtn dihIh tba nama Ai«ia^ti- 
rmir. It la doabtR bowam, iilictbgr It ew Bi- 
iatcd (at Gewnliu, Wlijer, Ju^nbull, luppoae) li 

nalni (a* Cattalliu, Voaa, tiarbat, hold; a certafai 
number of Hbolla truubttd ftom (be Sam. To^on. 
Otbcr eritisi again [Hinniidc, Hecgelenbax, eto.) 
•H In It only a conieted edition oT certain pnigai 

S. In lOTD an Anaie Venion of tba Sam. Peot. 
ma made by Abu Said in EgyjA. on Ibe baaie of 
tba Anine tnniUUon of Saidjib bagitaun. Uln 
tba original Samaritan it afoidi anLbnpomorpli- 
and aotbropopilhitma, replacing ibe latter 

bi=. . . _ 

eligbt alleratiooi, more eapaclaDj In proper nouDi. 
It i> extant In lenral H3. o^ca In Kuropean 
libtariia, and la Bow in couru of being ediled b; 
Kuenen, Lejden, ISliO-M. ie. It ippnn to ban 
besi drawn up (nai U» Sam. Teil, not from tb* 
Sam. Vernon; tba Hebrew wordi occadonaOjp 
reoudning anaKereJ In the tranilalloii.* OlUa 
alto It rcodei* tba original diflhrentlj from tka 

IM,tB Um 

1, fcw Aiant, Banodlb, 3''131D. 

0, « auav, TkAIi, TnXt <) lB»ab>. 

1,» 'ltilint,M>iB,)-|aD5. 

- - ftlah, labaah, ROpb. 

a, - BatB, liu, nsDV. 

n,- iii*a, mtbti, baso. 


rra-ip n'a'BS. 
. » bD, iiAah, ntD-'b. 

■ ^ - Jl Paiao, Fillabah, «M^ DDjl 

aibab rrwbs. 

-11^ •• llaB.Baalai, DK<33. 
— H, u Botab, nvh, mia. 

-n, ■ n>fah,io&Bta, nasa. 

Oan. IT. IB, fta In^uataa, Bhabiah, nHobV. 

- K, M laphafaB, Obuah, nHDIT 

n. 1, » Oanr, Alkilim, ^ibiTDS. 

ixtL i, u UtaralB, IMk, p*C3 (I beOM). 

mtl.S,a,fta.<i Mr, Oabtata, nbsa (Jatal) 

Wl, •> Babotath, lubl, ^*W. 

I(BB.zil.g|l, u BaBhan,BatbBln,7*3rD(Batan«a). 

iiilT.10,u Bb(|Aiami^>ltaalab,rPa3S(.^- 

», rPOBs. 
1, ntoian (p- 

DaM. n. I^ u Ar (19), i 
OL 4, " Anob, B1(0 

- IT, •• Obtamntb, Oepaw, 1D33., u Hod, nr »al|a, (Cbn "HB (* 
Mat TiD). 

ixg. Bi. iiii. u, Dm laB bs {•>■.▼« 

Om TVO b3) *-toi Jeli JjT: "*■ 

mw bP3 <«a». Ttt nnH inro) n «>■ 


Sunr. Yerrion." PrlniiipUlj ooUonble ii Um 
uoMtin dnad of udgiilng to tiod Mijthhig 
like bomu ■tuibots, pfaj^sal or mgnUL Fcr 
CnbHnirT',"Gixl," •■ Sod <«> iDSudub 
MMMims) aJJI kif^,"(liaADg«ltif God," 
Ibr "Um «;« of Qod" ws Ure (Dant. xi. 13} 
fcUt &1^^, "Um Beholding el God." 
For "BMd of Ood," aV^, «Ui« MCMury," 
Mo. Again, it acouhwall} iiddi bononble epittiete 
wh»B tbe Scripliiro Momt to buve ooi'"- ' ■' 
Mc It« languiga li ftr from elrguit ( 
net; ud iti uH miut likewin be confined to Ilie 
orlUisl lUidji of Cfaa Sun. Teil. 

*. To tbi* Anblc mkn Abu fiendat, 
SjriMi, «n)t« in 1S08 ■ BDiewbit ponphnMiB 
nniDienUrj, which luu by dcgrset oonw to bi 
looknl upon u m new Vanion — tlw Sgriac, li 
oootiaditUnctku In the Arabic, uid which L 
ofteti conlouiideti with it in Uw llSb. On botl 
BttMukHM MO Eidibani, Getoiiiu, JufnboU, etc 


It m»]' perhapa ool b« wperfluoui to idd htn 
• ococlae tcoount of Uie SeinuiUn lilenlun in 
|«Denl, lioet to ■ certain degree it lean upon oui 

1. CArDiuDM Samarilaium. — Ol tbe PenU- 
latcta and iti Veniona we hare tpokeo. We have 
■lao mentioned that tlia Saniarilani have no oUiei 
book or our Rccciied Canon. '■ llien ii ni 
Prophet but Uoaei" ii one of thdr chief dogmii 
and fierae an ttia iDveetim in which the; iudulgi 

— '— '"iB Samuel, "a Hegician and au In- 

»{Cllr<m.8Bm.){ Ehi SnloBKin, « Shi- 


Ml " {Geo. ilii. 10), <'<: t. the mao who ihaU 
fMtf tlie Law and whom manj nalkni wilJ Ibllow 
beeauKof their own HccntioumeB " (Do Sacy, 
Jf(m.«): Eira«cuned for ewr" {ItU. to flun. 
tmgfoB, ale.). Jo^oa akoe, paitlj on account of 
fail being to Ephralmltei partJ; becauee Sliecbem 
wu eelecled \>y him *• the icene of hie Klemn 
TalediclDfj addreat, aeema to hare found favor la 
their ejee; but the Soot of Joiiw, which Ihej 
perbapi poaeaaed in iti orl^nai forn, graduilly 
came to form onl; the groundwof^ of a iicUtioui 
aaliooat Samarilan hiitoiy, orergrown with tbe 
moat ftotaitle and anachmoiiUe legendi. Tlila 
la Uw BO-oalled "Samarilan Joabna," or CAnmi- 
OM AiMribmiM ^^^yi ^JJ ^aA^ ^j 

•ent lo ScalJgn- by tba Samwltans of Cairo In 1684. 
It w*i edited byJuTDbollfLefden, 1S48), and hii 
■auU bimllgallona liaTe abown tbit It wa> ndactsd 
Into fU praMnt form about A. D. IWO, out of four 
■pedal doounxBli, thme of which were Arable and 
one Hebrew (i. r. Samaritan). The Lejdco MS. 
tti 9 pta., which Gennlni, Dt Bam. TLtoi p. 8, n. 
IS, tbhiki unique, <i dated A. R. 764^19 (A. D. 
1«»-U18); — Uw Cod. Id Uw firiL Uuieum, 

• naa TTW, Oaa. Ua. 11 (Bm. Ter. rtD 
<kli<>ltr'').MaA>b. nw«nS-A«; Oan. all 
*paH tf*m. tec. Tn3->4»«f), tt* tab. ti 


iatel; aoqnired, datei A. H, Wa (a. d. IfiOS). 7^ 
chrmide embricea Uie time tmai Joabua to alioM 
A. D. SH, and waa wiginaUj writtoi la,or *aba» 
qneotlj tiuilated into, Anbie. After elgbt ob^ 
tera of lotioductorj niaUer b^ini the earij' hiiUr; 
tt " larael " under "King Joabua," who, among 
Dth« decda of amu, wagn war, with 30D,0CN 
mounted moi — ■■ half larael " — againit two liinga 

of l^i^a. TTir Init if^'i fi"ii ■ i jnl " am 

ia ShimalHo (Samaon), Uw haodaotneat and Bwat 
powetfiil of Uwm all. Theae reigned for Uw apaoa 
of 350 jean, and wen folbwed b; Are bigb-priaaU 
the but of whom waa Uai {?<=GbI, Ea. tU. 4}i 
WIUi Um hiatorj of Eli, " Um aaduov," whlak 
then foUowB, and Samuel "a aoroarer," Uw ao- 
connt, bj a audden tnnaition, nuu off to Neb«- 
chadneaiar (ch. W), Alnandcr (ch. 46), and Ha- 
drian (47), and ckiata luddaol; at the tloa at 
Julian Uw ApoaUite. 
We aliall onlj adduce bare a alngla -[-^-im 
I of the 46th ch- of Uw book, wbieh Ifaali af 
Uw auttject of the fenUteut^ : — 

Nebuchadiwuar waa king of Far^ (Hoaanl), 

Sjiia. In the thIrUsith year of tlntr attlt|n^ 
tlon Ihe; rtbdled, Infietbo- with tbe kingi of Jeni- 
(Kodth). Wbtnupon the SamarKana, to 
. from llie itngtadice of their pution, fled, 
and Psdin eokmiata took tlwir plaoa. A oina, 
howerer, nitad upon tbe land, and tbe new Imui- 
granta died from eating ef ita (hiila (Joaepfa. AiL 
Ii. 14, f 8). Tbe ehieftof Iitael ({. a. Samari- 
lau), being uked the rtaaon rf thli bj the kii«, 
etplalned It bj tbe abotiUon of tbe wonblp oT 
God. Tbekingupon thiipermittedUieai toretan 
and to itact a temple. In whkh work he laomiied 
aid tham. and ha gan tbem a lettor to all thai 
liaperaed bnthmi. lis whole Dlqieruon bow 
aKmbled, and Uw Jewi aaid, "We will now go 
ip Into Uie Holy Clly (Jeruaalem) and IIto tlam 
a unity," But the aona of HarOn (Aanw) and 
f Joapph (i. t. the prieata and the Samaritaoa) 
ulited upon gdiig to the "Uouut of Blnaiog," 
Geriiim. The diipule wai nfiuied to the kii% ud 
while tfaa Saniiritani proved thnr caaa ttom tba 
booki of Moaea, the Jewi grounded their j— fc r nwi 
'— Jeruaalem on tlw poat-Moaalo book*, llie (ope- 
fomof the Samaritan argumcn twai fully neog- 
idbytbeklng, Out Hcachiida~by tbeniooth 

lively, — diaiged Uic other willi baaing lU cialmi 
on a forged documtut, the mend booki of meb 
party were tulgectad to tbe ordeal of fire. Tba 

s Samaritan leaped Lhref 

<e KTuU, upon wliich tb 

ing had i^ 
I u) ua^B mn oHiiunied. Thirly^ii 
imniKllately beheaded, and Uw Samari- 
e number of 300,000 wept, and tU Iv^ 
wsrabippad beneeforth upon Uount GoUim — 
will aak oar help [com tbe gtacaof 
' mercy gnnted all tbear thinga, 

n Him 

e will cnfida." 



aj Aba'l FaUh.a Ttaii wmiirln tba hiilor; t/ 
lb* Jawi uij Samvilwi &«n Adui U ii. ii. 7M 
nd T98 (A. D. 1W5 ind 139T) nqKCtinlj ((lit 
to^-tBO fnn mail faara b«m aUad b; > hUi 
b af aquallT low hli*orie»l 
mlj Rmirlalik baton bang iU ujop- 
lioa of certain TaUnitdiatl ItgoxU, which it took 
UiKODd hand (romJodppOD ben Gorioo. Atturi- 
hg to thii duiHiide, tb« Mngs did not cot* 
Oobiiii, h ths ■«» Dunnw ■• thg HMtiuh (0tr. 
iW-J cxeoipu the vbola of PaltttlM from it. A. 
^Mdman, iikewiic od the ul)(«( of th« Paatk- 
Incb, oar Dot b« out of plaoai — 

In [hejcu-of the worid 4UtO. Mid in the 
jar if Phikde^iu, Uiii lii[« widwd (o lean Um 

euh «) adept of Um Graak 

If that he mijtbt aoU theni in tbd 
The Samarituu reod««d odj (Mr Pnl^ 
bto the bnguge oC th* lud, while Btmat 
E«d ■ inneli^kni of (he wh(W CuHm. 11m 


VbereupoD thej replied Ihtl tbue diAnocee chiri^ 
nnied upon two pointi. (1.] Uod kid shoMd the 
HboM of Onishn: ind If the Jew) wers right, 
■hj WM Uwre DO awntiOD af It in thdr Tbgra? 
^) The SwHiituw raid, Dart. mil. U, 
Qn DT*?, " to tb* liif tf <mi««Di 
■vd," Um Jiwi DP3 "S, "JfiM le 
■Dd nmd" — which left it niMntilii wbetb* 
Ihet nwud wv to be giren here or in the worid 
» can* The king then nked what wu their 
i^iiiu atoDt tba .lawiifa propbeta ind their wrlt- 
bpiand tba; rtjdied, " Either thej miat hire Mid 
M eoBtaiMd w)Mt itood in lbs PanlatOBoh, and 
IkM (iHfr ajlng it agaii] wu nqieiflaoaiiornKaai 
«r km: * dther af whieh vh a^ dtatlmtlj pea- 
UMed to (be Tborai or InaUj Uwj moit tan* 
tkamgtd lb* lavi, and tban wen ntMhangcatdb'* 
k Onift wbo itood near, otaorad that bwt nin 
a* idaiilH) to dfObait timea, and alMiad aerard 
ki^ji whae uiiw i the Sanuiltana prond that tU 
«aa tmlj tba eaaa wtth honan, Dot wfth dhtm 
«n-- momTCT, tba aerenlj KIden bad left Itian 
tfaa taflitkt eommand iiM to aoeept a mnl baridL 
Iha Thocb Tba Ung no* ftilljr appmred of tbrir 
taodalbn, and giT> tbem lith ptauila. But 
Ifaa Jf«( ha itrktlT «n}<>*n«d not end to apptoa 
M miW Oatlalm. Tbcta ean ba do doiibt tbat tb) 
b a MTtahi biriarieal hat, howner oeotoctad, 
Ita boUaa of tUi (ooDip. the Tabaadlcal and «(hn 
■a u Mtt el tU LXZ.), hat wa eaanol dow ftntbcr 
L IngUnofd atTMt t<m 

aUUBETAN pkhtatbdoh 281£ 

8. Anotbtf •< hiilorica] " work la the i_)l iff 
. U.,.M^ oQ tba hlitoT7 and gtonlog; of Ihi 

^Izlandi*, from Adam to Moaea, atliUnited ti< 
Uoa himaatfi perbapa the aama wbieta P«unnaiiB 
nw at f/aiiu, and wbiah conuiled of uitMD 
felliun Itana (auppoeed, howeier, to contain the 
hlMorj of the worU down to the end}. An anopj* 
mouB reoant eommeiitarT on It, A. H, 1900, A. p. 
im, k in the Brtt. Mue. (No. 1140, Add.). 

1. OTotlia' Samuitan worln, ehlelljrin Arabic - 
their Baniantan and Hetirew Htamtun hariDg 
moatlj been deitrojed by the Emperor Commo- 
dua — maj be 1>iieflj mentioned Commontaiica Dpatt 
the irbok or park of their Fentateueh, bj Zadaka b. 
Manga b, Zadaka:' hrtbtr, bj Maddlb Eddfai 
Jnamir b. Abi Said b. Khakf ; by Gbuel Ibn Aba- 
l-Sunr Al-9afawl AI-Ghanl ■• (a. r. 1 IS7-«8, A. D. 
lTbS-M,Br1l.Hna.),Ae. Thrdogical worki cbleflr 
in Ara]}te, mixed with Baniaritaniam*, by Abnl 
Haaaaa of Tjre, On Ike rrtiymu Manntn emd 
CiWm4 of Oil Samariinn; nwd Oie WorU » 
cone ,- by hlowaflek Eddin Zadaka el linili, A 
Gmptadiiam o/ RihgioK, ffm IJm tiatare q^ lit 
Dleiat Bring, <m Han, na Ikt Wottlilp </ fioij,- 
by Atnin Rddin Abu] Banat, On lAt Ten Com- 
manminUi ; b; Abn'l Haoan Ibn EI Harfciua 
(ioD^jam ben AbnlfanJ' Ibn Cbatar, (7a /'eaitaee ; 
by Uuhaddlb Eddbi Jaaauf Ibn aaJowah Ibn 
Joaeuf Al Aakari, .dn i:sciianlicn a/ Ike Motna 
Lracf. etc., etc Sotne ;raii]niatlcal work* may 
be farther menttonad, by Abu lahak Ibiahlm, 
On lk» Hibrtic Longest; by Abu Said, 0» 
raoda^dt BOnm TtU ((JioJl ^JX^\Ji). 
Thii grammar begioi In tha foUowing cbanoteiw 

d AbD S 

mGod ti 

" i^raiae be nnto Ood Kit Ui help, and I aik fc» 
bli guidaiioa (owardi a clear expoillion. I baft 
reaolved to lay down a few mlea for the proper 
maooaror nading the Holy Writ, on aeoontif 
the dl&rtnca which I fbond, with reapect bi it, 
among uur co-religiooiata — whom may God make 
nnmenHu and Inipire to obediciiee onto Him I — 
aitd in auch a manna that I ihall bring proob tat 
my iHntlon*, Itnra which the wlae oould In ao 
waydifier. Bat God kuowa beet 1 

••Kule 1: With all thdr ducnpanclM aboM 
do^aa or rallgloat rlewa, jM all tha oouftaon of 
tha HebrMT itHgka ^ree In tbb, tbat the D of 
tlia Gret pet*, (ilog. ftii.) it ahraja pnooaoMd 
iriUi Sana, tod that a ^ fcUowa tt, pnrtded U im 
no aulfii. It la tha nnu, when the laffii of Iba 
plural, D, [a added to It, according lo the nnanl. 
nunu teatimouy of tha HSS., eta" 

Udll,iHui PioU. lAdH nrtt ft Ocenmaaa 
rarti Dr. U. VUaar." Ootha, !»&, Sto. 

k Compan tha nll-lDiowB diEnii of Omi 
JaaaOibteB Ubna? [IMHn, al 

J^^tUaJI _^ (IWi aantoiT, Ban.) 

(UDteibaiiti. ^^UaJIuaU 


71>B tnMka eoodndii, at the end of tlia ISth 
DuMaor Knh: — 

" Often elio the perftct 1* tacd is U» km of 
the iniientiTe. Thue It I* iqiorted el k loui 
if the birt nfMalion, tlut he h«d oed the 
iorm at the impoMin Id the pMnge (Ex. ill. U), 
leu? HD ^*7 nDH1->Ai>dU>4riluIlnTU 
me, WbM le hie hum?' He who nportcd tbk 
to ma It e men of itrj high ateoding, ^ilrnt 
whoee tnilhfliliHM ooUiiiig nu be brought farwaid. 
But God kmn bntl 

•• There Me now e h« mote wordt w ha treeted, 
of *hkh, bomver, ■« wilt tiot rkd toca. Aod 
hleeeuJ be Uii dum IDnnrmon." 

b. Tbdr LituigkiJ llutatuie b mon olaiiin, 
tod Dot without e eertaiu poctial nlua. It ata- 
eiiU ebiaSj of hjmoe (LMbr, L>urriuj end pnjtn 
fat SikbbMb tud Fotat-da)*, ukI of oeouloiikl 
pnjcli at DUptuIi, ciTOumciilaDe, burUk, end the 
nke. We luliiuin • few epeeimetie from ltS8- ia 
the Britleh Hueeum, tnoKlibed Into Hebnw cJut- 

Tb> tbllowlng ia put of • Uteojr tor the dewl : — 

■ T31 • TDrna*ffnbM- mn^ • ijiw 

Lord Jehonh. XhihliB, Im Ih; meRf, »d fer TUh 
Own aek^ eiid tot Th; ouua, and Itar tlv (>i>iTi eod 
is Hi* Bk* of our LonH Abnbaa, eod Iieui end 

Jicobi eud our Lordi Moeie end Auuu, ejid Hmmr, 
end llbauiei', end tinahee, end Joebue, end Cakb, 
end Of Ualj AngHt, ud the Htntj Bdn, ud Ihi 
belj mooncelD of QnUm, BMb KL U Thou *c«pl- 
•et [D^tPD] Mt pBjer [HHpO _tiedln|], uej 
tbne fo ftirth Ina belbn Th]r holf eouDUuna e 
fin eiBi to prsUet lb* efbli it Tbj emwit, ^ jL* 
^^ y^l [S. U". eon of H.J, <rf tb. Keia of 

[ ], dMifbtK [ ] from the laBi o( [ ]. 

Lord Jabsnh, In Tbji mmj ben oODpeMkn on bin 
(,| [or] beTe eompealeii on her), eod leet bli (her) 
entl in the terden of Sdea ; end ft>t|ln him (. | 
IT) bw), end ell the tmtit^uiaa of Iinel who Book 
to KonsI Oertiln, Balb Bl. Amos. Ibnofh Uoiea 

The not li part of ■ bjmn (lee Klnbhelre'i 
Canu Bhomrtm, eawndatlotit on Geeeoliie, Gimi. 
SOM. iU.Ji- 


irW HVh nbH rV*^ Iben le h aod bat OB*, 

na'>9pD«nVH ne...<eMliwaed, 

Obsb IV Q^Vr''^ *^o ""th tnrar | 

pVn 'JS bS nS* Ood abore ell powen, 

Sbsbp^DI lud who thne lumetoetti 

fmrDrmiVna tanjfnuponrAen 

l-minnWl ItetThooe«en.L 

man irnnbio m »hj oodbeadi *> 

TbsD btet eendBEiod 

ns^ p rmbs nu wsm &« b4in- 


rPosinTaa Thrpow«wa.iUdd^ 

T&rmTTIBI IndlWitarandmeeej 

nnHD3innK'bai''ba i 

'i3i imnbM lobon »efc» tt. i. 


rV. Wo ibUl onlj brieflj loach hen, in oo>- 
diuion, apon [he itniigelj oontiadieioij nbbhilad 
kwi &u»d for the nf[ulUloD of tiw intcraoon* 
betwnn the two linl natioDaliliee of Jtwi ud 
Semaritaoa bi rdigtons and Htual malten; dk- 
otepuidee doe puti; to the eitr-ehUting [ilieiii of 
their mutual rektioni, peitlf to the tnodlBcatioat 
LcoDgbt about In tb* Semuitea cncd, end pait^ 
to the DOW leel now greater aequlnecnce of tho 
Jon In the reUgJou elate of the SumiUum. 
Thm we Bud the older Tebnndiial eulberilici db- 
putlng whether the Culhim (SMDerilMU) en la 
be conaidsed ea "Real CoDTOte" fTOM ^^"3, 
or ml; oomerti thnugh isar — •• Lion Connte " 
ni'HH ^I'lS — hi elluaion to the incident rckted 
in 9 K. iril. 21 (Bala K. aS) Kiduth. Tb, *e.J 
Une Rabbi holdi '<133 '■D'O, <■ A Sanantaa h 
to ba eonaidend aa a hcatbetii " while K. ^teot 
b. Gamaliel — the tun» irboBe c^lon on the Sam. 
I'ent. we had occeeion to quota befen — ptv- 
Dounet* that thtj an " to bo trtaltd In amy 
napcet like Ivaelitee" (ifm. Jcr. li.S; XeWt. 
]1, Ac.). It would appear that Datwillktiaadlw 
thur ration of all but the Pental«ueb, tber bad 
adc^itoi meuj tiaditional religioua pcacticca bm 
the JaWB — priticipallj iuch ai 

that tba; kept tli 
rigor than tlioee fnm wlioni thej adopted Umb. 
1^ utmoet eonSileiK* wae thenlon placed ia thea 
fur their rituallj ■laughlerlnc anlniali, even towla 
(CInd. i a]( their wdla an [nnoiineed ta b* 

Uiabuah {Ttuplt. MibB. a; onip- Mibc. % 
1). See, bowew. Abed"!, Znnh {Jrr. T. 4). 
Tbeir unlcaToned bread for the reeeoTfr li oom- 
Toended {Oil. 10; ChuL 4|i their eheeee IMat. 
LUjL Ij; and eien their whole food it allowed 
to the Jewt lAb. Zar. Jtr. i. 4). Compan inha 
It. S, when tbe dlidplfe an npiirted to ban gona 
Into the citjr at Senwrla to bu^ fbod. Ilielr teall- 
moof wai rained In that moat ttriiiittait miner of 
the letter of diioree {Mat. CWA. II.). Tber wat 
admitted to the office of ciicniucialng Jewlah bo^ 
(Jfn*. Culi. I.) — againal H. Jehndah, who iwrte 
that thej droDrndaa •• In the name of UoudI 
Gvlalm" {Abodili Znrah, iS). Tbe eriBilul 
law malua no dlS^rence whatever between them aod 
the Jtwi (ifoe. CUk. 3i Uukk. Si i and a 6a- 
maritao who atilclt}' adbena to hl> own wcdat 
oiead la honond with the title of a CDthl-Chabei 
{OHUn, 10 h Hiddn/i, 33 b). Bj d^net, bow 
erar, inblbitioaa began to be laid npoQ tl>e naa 
of their wine, tinagar, braad (Jfoi. ChU. 9 
Tetph. 77, S), it. Thit IntemwdlaK etage of 
Bnoattabi and Inconiialent Inntment, which uuM 
hai« bated for dbiIj' two oaitorka, la beet cfaar 
aetcrlaad bj the email rabblniul IraMlaa qmHai 
Bb«i« — JfoMceAcA CMlim (U OBt. A. D )• 


IM aifitod b7 Etreblxiim (fTCOSp bc VSOf 
bVtffTT) FniwtlSBl— tli*b<gtiiiili«ofwbk!h 
iwiU: " Tha nji (bHtmnl) of Uw Cuthim (S«- 
^ultana), Mn4<HUi Hks G«]im (bnUwu) umu- 
Urntt Eke bn^" No Im Miikii« b It* oddbIu- 

•• And wbj tn tfa< Cuthim i>M panmUcd lo etmis 
tato Uw DiiUt of tlw J«n? Bsoiin Uwj birt 
Bind with tha pnati of tlw hdghti " (idoIMn). 
B. IviBcl Bjii " Tliaj mn a< Jirtt pfoui OOD- 
Mta (rm '■'1'<3 = nl ImdiUa), uid «hr k 
{bibKraoDnavith tbenproluIdMd? Beooa) (tf 
IbBT BkgaOr bagotUn diUdren,* Htd bHuiie Onij 
i> not fulfill the dutu* oT S3^ (uurjing the 
fcrriml bnthar'iwifii);'' ■ liw wbich Ibe^uodo- 
ifand, ■■ «* «■ ibon, to appll t" tlie bctniUud 

(him), ud bslien in tfae Rsumclioa." ' 

We beer of tbeir adiuion b; K. Meir [Chid. 
I', In tb* third gowntioD U the Tinwm, uid 
kiw egwi DDder K. Abbuha, ILe Anun, U lb* 
titiM o( DioeWiin: thn Unm the euhiuon ww 
nil IJir. Abodnh Zarah, B, 
Pertuking of their Imad ' ni axuldend e 
. be poaiehed like nting tbe fleih 
I l&i. B, 6). I'ha intoitit; of tb«i 
lain period, ia bat ahown bj 
its- 28, 6. "M.J it iwvH 
lo Dw that I behoU a Cutfai." " Whoerer 
■ Uenuuitan haqritsblj in bit taouie, de- 
hat hi> childRn go into eille" {Ifynk. 
101, 1). In Hatt. I. & SamariUuit Mid Uaotilca 
ic« alnidj mntiofMd togttiiH': and id Lokt xrii. 
16 the demaritaa ia called ■*& atrangpr" (^\p- 
ytriith "^^ reaam for tins ncluaioD ia Tarioualj 
^ven. Tbef an wM hj aome to have uaed and 
■old the wine oT heathcna far aacHfieial purpoaei 
{Jtr. Ibid.); bj othm thtj were ch»ri(oti with 

ieh hangi, up lo Ihia 
a oertaiD mjaterioua doubt. Il haa. at 
r been brought borne to them, that 
' " a imi^e, aJtl>ough it WAe 
eren by recent IraioUerj. 
JotioiifHi. — 1. Original tcita. PeoUtflich in 
the PoljglotU of Paiia, and WalUm; alao (in Hebr. 
latUnj ^ BbTiMij, Ski. Ox. 1790. Sani. Yenlon 
Id the FolTgiotU of Walton ud Paria. Arab. 
Vm. of Abu Said, Ij6,-i Gat. Ex. el Let. bj 
KHien, 8to. Lugd. IBAl-lM; alu Van Ylotm, 
BptanBi, etc, Ito, Lugd. IS03, Liltra ad SerU- 
iftr, etc. (bT De SacjI. and Kpit^ila ad LudoljA. 
(EknoB), in Eiehham'i Heperlmium, xlii. Alio, 
■nth LetlBa In L)e 3aoj hinudf, iu Nmicu tt Ex- 
k-A, dea MSB. [toL ill.] Par. 1S31. Chromam 
•oaanritOMua, b; Jujmboll, 4lo, U}dffi, IMS. 
<feeiman of Sauuir. CommeDtarr on Gen. iBi. hj 
tihanmr. In Ejehbmi'a Ittptrt irl. Qma. Ba- 
wm: [ed-l Geamioa, 4to, Upa. ISM. 

( of D^'ITDa whian . 


a, DiMfletian«,ete.,J.HorinDa,£>nwilnliM«« 

eto., Par. 1831 j OpiaaJa Hibr. Bamai-i&», Pm 

165T; AnUjiuIalf EceL Orient., Loud. 1A89. J 

H. Uottinpr, £»rcii. ilnti-flUHiniEHia, etc., Tignr 
16U. WallOD, Dt Pat. Sam. ia PnJtgom. U 
PoljISlufL Caalall, ^niuukAwrauiui, in Polyglot^ 
<i. CeUariua. flora SnmarilaBa, Cia. 1689; ilaC 
GiOeclmHi, in ngolinl, ui!, Uuadan, Phiiihgr 
Btbr. Utf^. 1B8S. St- Morinua, Exerrit. dt Ling 
pi-immi, Utr. 16M. Bcbwan, EtMreitaSonit 
elo. Houbigant, PnUgomtita, etc., Par. ITli 
KaamioDti, SlaU of At Ht6. Ttxl. No., il. 1T&» 
J. O. CariBT, CriL Sacra V. T. Pt. 1, Llpa 
1T3S. Ilaaai iiiaiiiji, Eilldtcltter Urtpnmg, <M, 
0,O.T7cbieii,/>i^iiliif>D.eto.,Bilti.l7BS. BaMr, 
frit. Sner. Geaenina, Dt PiM. Sam. Origin*, 
etc.. HaL 1815; Saautr. Titnlogin, etc, HaL 
IS^i AiKcdnla iinn., Upa. 1834. HenKatenberg, 
Aaa. dn PaU. Haade, Bur fOrigint, etc.. 
Gen. 1830. U. Stnart, N. Amer. Stv. [toL uii.] 
Fnnkel, Vai-UuSen. IM^ ISII, [and A'njfwa 
d. pulaUn, tttgat, eln., ISIil.] KiRhheim, 
IIICW ''D-13, Fnnkbrt, IBAl. The £nM- 
mgm of Ekhbom, Bertb(4dt, Vater, De Wetl^ 
HihtRuek, Keil, [Ubek,] etc The Gnchiehltn 
of Joat, Unlaid, etc. 

S. Venioni. Winer, Di Vm Ptiu. Snm. 
I)e Sacj. Jf^n. mr ta Ven. Arait dtt Livrtt dt 
.VolM, in .tttm. dt LUUr.<lart, itii , Par. 1808; 
aUu LSut attutl drt SaiaaritaiBi, Par. 1S19t 
Dt Vertiont Samftriiano-Ambica, etc, in ICiob- 
hom'i Aag. BMuHkik, i. 1-178. E. U. 

■ On the Samaritan Pentateuch there are artide* 
hj Pnif. Stuart in tbe 8AI. R^m. for Oct 1833, 
end bj T. Walker ia tbe Ckritl. Examiat,- Ibr 
Maj and Sept. 1840. See il» Davideoii'i art. Id 
Kitto'a CyJ. of Bibl Lit., 3d ni., ill. 748 C; 
Roeen in tbe ZriJatAr. d. iltu/tchtn nutrgtnL G^ 
Htltch., ITiu. 682 ff.; S. Kohn, He Pculntaitit 
SamariUiBo. Vratial. I86S, and id. Samniita- 
mtctt aiudien, Bnalau, 1867. A. 

Tbe vbole lene ia rerj corrupt. 

■ SAHBCH, one of the Hebnw letlen em- 
ployed iu tbe alpbabetio eonipoaitiotia. [Poetbt) 
Wbituio.] H. 

SAMB'inS [3 itL] (So/uuh [Vat. ftvum. 
Aid. So^Tiii]). Shehaiah of the sona otlUrlia 
(1 Eedr. ii. 31; oomp. Ear. i. SI). 

loir] : Saatstmnlml. Od« of Ibo prince* or gen- 
eral! of the king of Bebjkm who oonunandad the 
Tldoriona armj of the Chaldcana at the oiptun 
of Jeroaalem (Jv. uiii. il). 'lite text, of tbe 
LXX. >• Domipt. The two namea " Samgar- 
nebo, Sanecbun," ere there written iafiayiii 
[AUi. tumtayiiS] mil 'SoBouaixap. The JVeio 
Ij tbe Ciiakliaan Mereurj ; about tbe :?ain|^, opin- 
iona are divided. Vor Bohlen lUKKtitcd tlut Fmn 
the Sanakrit ntngiTa "war," might be formed 
Biliajnra, ■• wanka," and that Ibla waa the original 

of the (n BamariDin aacla ballena In tba llMiirTaii 

Hon; RplptaanlDa. I«anUna,(tra(i»7lhaareat, uauq 




&Lia (T«31i: [Ttt. TMA'C AU. 3<yaO 
Ala. Sodit' TM). SnoHiU (1 Eidr. t. M; 
Mmp. Kit. U. iS). 

SA-MIS (Se/utt, [Vit. 3«^<.it; Ala. Xi- 
iHii; AM. Xipit:] om. Id Vulg.}. Shuuci IS 
(I Etir. U. U; conip. En-, i. 88). 

SAM-LAH (nScq? [jw-w-x] : s,,uU; 

Ala. XtAiv"; [iii T Cbr, Kara. S<^d: Vat. 
Alei. Jafum-.\ Stnl,\ Geu. xui-i. 36, 87; 1 Cbr. 
I. 4T, tS. One of tha liiQ)t> of lukun, tuccenor (o 
I1.IOAD or Haraii. Siinlidi, wIuh duw liKiil- 
■ca "■ ganaaik" ni of Uaukkkahi that bein|f 
proboblj the ebitf cltf during hii nign. Tbit 
bcDliiHi of a acpanta dtf ai bduiiglng lo «ach 

Burk Tor nilon, and ii 

ckar, thnnigbout tbit rejagi 
IVom Trou lo NeajioUi. Knmi tba ihura at Tioit 
SanioUinice it •wii to«triiig D> er Imbm (Horn. 
Jt. liii. la, 13; K%b>b«'i /.AArn, p. 64), aoJitk 
■Imlluj; ■ marknl Dl>t«t in (be Tie* fniin thahilh 
Moeni Neapolii and I'hilippl (Clarke'i TrnreU, 
'i. lili.). 'IlieM allinioni tend login TividntH 
oiia of liir luoat imporUiit Tojiga that ewr 
ok place. SnxHidly, Uia iii}*g» «> nude with 

SAM'HUS (Xui^i; (Vat. Xty^uiHO ^°- 
■MM,v SubUA <1 ^dr. Ll 43; eomp. HA. viii. 


. For iU bill 
tlu time when it mi a powerfut lueoiberoftbe Ionic 
oooSedeney to 11* recent itniggla agaliut Turkey 
during the irar of iudependaice, uid ^iict, ae muat 
nAr to [fae J}!eL if lirttk and Utot/.' 3a- 
hkk la a very kifty and eoniniaiHUit^ lalandi tba 
word, in fact, danolea a baiglit, ea|«ially by the Ha- 
■borai bmce, alao, [be name of SahutiihaCia, or 
" tba TUraeian Sanioi." 'lite loninii SnuiiM eomea 
DtfoR our nolice ru tba detailed uwuiit of St. 
Paul*! return from bit llilrd miBioiiary journey 
(Act! II. IS), lie bad lecn at <.'bioa, and nt 
alwut to proceed to Milduii, having paiast by 
Ephenu Hitbout loucbing tiiere. The topogripb- 
Ical Dutioa giitn incidenlally by St. Luke are 
moat nacU Tbe niglit wu (paiC hI Ilie anchor, 
•ge of Tkooylliuh, in the namiw atniit tielitaeti 
Eluiioe and the eilreuiily of tlie niniiilaDd-iidge of 
Mycale. Thii ipot ii lamoui Iwtli for (be gmt 
batUe of the oid Ureeki aeainit t)ie reninna in n. 
o. 4TS, and alM fur b giliaM a<:tiun or the modem 
Gneka againti the Turki in 1824. Here, boimw. 
It li more natural (eapecially aa we knov, IVoui 1 
Hue. IV. 33, that Jena rwded here) to allude to 
tbe meeting of Herod tba Great willi Mtticui 
Agrippa iu San»a, whence nauilid nmiiy privi- 
"evfii to tha Jewa (.loaepb. Aat. nvl. S. f{ 3, 4). 
At tliia tioie and wben SI. Paul wu there, it y* 
Bolilically t, " free city " In the proline* of Abia. 
Viriooi trartllm <Toumefort, Pocwke, DallawBy, 

e may refer 

■ auhject, 

itoni/rfi« dt tile dt PhIkioi el dt tUt de Samia 
(I'lri*. 1830), by V. Uu^rio, oho apent (wo 
FODtlu in the iibiid. J. 3. H. 

ntea. TM wait at A. (^o.ih. S 

o/Thvcey. ^rnu^mcix). ThrmeiKioK o(i!^ 

Uid, It b an e 


(•■0 daya, wb« 
e (Aeti 

idj paili i 

the [rchnlod word ben uted Uiievtfw 
M'^l'tr) linplit) that they nui before tbe wind. 
Now tbe pMitkm of Sniuothrace ii exactly nieh *■ 
to tomaponi with tb^ee naticea,aiid thui inddeot - 
ally to eonGnu the accuracy of a nioit artleat mr- 
ndre. St. t*aul nod hia companiwa anebond tot 
(be night off Saniothmce. 1lie aniient city, and 
tberefon probably Ibe Diual ancliorace, wni on Um 
" " ariiicb Kould \k lufflcienllv ilicltcred fron 
■ind. It inny he added, •• a rurfher prao- 
(ical coiuideralion not lo he oi'eriooked, tliat waA 
M be favomtite for oierconilng tlil 
oppoaing current, wbicli leta euullierly alYer lnt>ii|; 
(he Dardanelles, and anaterly Ictwnn Saniothrae* 
and tbe nialiibind. Fullw deUili are n^-na b 
U/t «nd l-:pp. of St. Paul, ad. ed. i. 3W-3». 
Tbe chief cbuticnl iMoelHtkmi of thii iiland af* 
mj-tbologleil and cunneeled with Ihe niyatarioM 
dhrhiitin called ('al>eiri. Peneua luok refuge bet* 
defat by tl>e Roman* at Pydiia. In St. 
.Hie Snmothnce had, acconlliiE to Plhij, 
tbe privilrgea '>f a amall (m atnte, (hont;h it wai 
doalilleas conaldervd a di^iendniey of Ihe pminoa 
of Maced^iiiia.' J. ». H. 

SAMP^AMES ([Rom. Sn.] £a^ifiJ^i|t. 
[Alex.] aoM^«wi,i: /^.t«/«"™«. «.w/«iwtj},. « 

ii |irolMl.lT DOt 


The >Min 
. it BW*n 

■1.1 id tbe lUi 

Jew* (1 Ma«c. i 

A. v.), hut of a 
^nmaunon the 
Sinopa and Trvbiio 

SAM'SON (I'ltrpiT- ■ 
i,: [&iiH«<>»,] "litlieiun. 
cording (o Jo<te|ib. Anl. r. 
the root ihtmtih hai (he sit 

U. F. ff . 

ly (o allude to (Iw " awe " u>d 
Ii whicb tbe btbet aiid nwtbet 

Jtie orlpclQ af IbeH rliMinil of KuieDt thn >M«cl*te4 

n fikmniAiali. See ain Oniwc'i ^mk«tik, I 

iM Qrwk foiure which baa geoaiKlly d 
■on tha miiderD GrHk Is found to be noiuiu 
tiH ranly ilaluil ntnata of the c d ItalkDie )■ 


oM .p. tb. «,|td who 
ttnh — ■> Jndg. liU. «, IB-W, lul Jovph, I. e.}, 
naof UuimIi, ■ inu of Um town ofZonb.bit^ 
MbaU Dmu, m Uie bmltr oT JiuUh (J«b. n. 
U, IV -nlrvulDui draimituwci or ha 
birth tn neordtd in Jw^. liii- ; and tte Ihreg foi- 
Iming elupttn u* dnalcd to tbt liiator; of hli 
Dfa uH oplMli. Smumo Ulic* hu plan bi Scrip- 
tain, (I) u kjodgc — an offica which he filled bv 
Hmlj jcva {Judg. iv. XI, iri. Il)r (S) ■■ m Nu- 
tttla (Jadg. liii. S, iri. ITl; Mid (S) » dm ra- 
Imrd witti npfCnMond power bjr tlw Spirit oUbc 
Lad (Jndg. dU. 25, ur. 9. IS, tr. U). 

(1.) A* a jiuhv bia autlurily Hcma lo ban bcca 
Ikiitod bi tlw dWrkt bonlerinn upon tha eouDlrr 
if tba ItdliaUnB, and hk aclion m a deliiow doca 
BCtaenn lo liave nt«nd«i bcjoiid doulturjr aUacii) 
■qioq Uw doaiiiMuil PbilUUnn, hj whieb tbHr bold 
Bp» 1hb(1 vai wtakentd, and Um wajr prepared 
fcr tlia Man cnancipatkn or kbe IvacliUa froco 
■Ur }*km. It ii cridenl tma Jndg. liil. 1, 0. n. 
»-il, 30, Hid the wboh hlatarj, Uiit tlie InMlilti, 
•r ■( leaet Judab uid Dui, wbicb an lta« onlj 
■ribc* vcDlioned, were tal-iu* lo Um PbiUMinca 
Uv<n«b the wbolt a{ Sanuon'* judgnfaip; ao tlut, 
rfc«ane,SanBiHi'B twentj jeannf idOc* woiikl be 
ta^L^ad in Lha batj jean al tbt i'hiiUina domiu- 
ba. i'ma the angri'a •paeeh U Sanuuii'i luollia' 
(Jadg. liii. S), it appeui funbrr UiM Uw lindila 
mn almdr (nhteet to tb« Phiiiuina at hli birth -. 
•Dd a* Sanacu caunM ban b^nn lo be judge Iw- 
fpre he mu twenlj jtai% at age, it f<Jkiwi Ihpt ikis 
>id|.aaliip nuut aboot ban coincided ilth Ihe lut 
bKmkj jmn el PtulUioe dominioa. But whtn 
«a nra to tb« Hiat Book of Sauupl, and eapHiaUy 
b> Tii. t-H, we Rnd tbM lb« PhiUuiu douiiikm 
imueL Heweilii 
Ibat the (vly part of Samuel > 
t with the iailer part of Saiu- 
capbin of the ark bf tbe Fhl- 
II tbc lima U V3i occnmd duriug 3aiiieon'> 
Then an bndee Mrml point* in tbc 



i which indicai* great proiiiuitj. MrW, 
ia ilie genoal promiDoirc of the Philiatijin 
ir niatjoii lo ImeL Sceoodlj, then ii the 
iidence of both SaiHOii ud San- 
«el being Kaiuitn (Jndg liii. 6, iri- IT, cdiu- 
pand with 1 Sam. L II). It looka a* if Ibe ensi 
nploit* «( th« joud; Daoile Naiaiita had lugiteWed 
to Hannah tbc aoneecntioD of her bob in Hke nan- 
Bir, or. It aU eventi, ai if r« aome reaaou the 
faaarile idw waa at tliat time {Bcnleol. No 
itr menlion vf Nanritea occnn in tilt Scrrptare 
£40*7 till Amoaii. It, 13; and cnn Ibvt ibe ai- 
lodoD Menu to be to Samuri and Sunacai. 'rhirdlj, 
tbera it a liniilar notice of the bouu of Dagon in 
Jsdg. in. tt. and 1 Sam t. % Fourthly, the 
Igrrii of tha I'hiliitinee an mentioned in > limilar 
•Bj ill Jndg. iH. 8, 18, 97, tad in I Sam. ni. T. 
ill of abich, takn togailier, iudicalei a iloaa 

pindmltj bttwan Um linM of Sbboi and Stm- 
aiL T1m« doM not leem, however, to be ■>; 
man of filing the time ol SaiMMi'i Jud(,-ethlp 
iDDfe imcbel;. The eflbct of hi* pioiren nuii 
han beae mof* «f a prejantiirj kind, bj aioDB. 
big Ih* rowed tpirit of hi* pmpla, and abaking tbt 
imoluit BMUfitj of the PbiliatiDaa, than in tbewaj 
of dmih* Tic4orT or deUveranca. Tbaw ii no 
aBnaiau whatcrer to other parti al Imd daring 
Samaon'i Jadgeahip. tict^ the ilngla fact of the 
men of the bwilet tribe of jDd*b. ;V0OO In nuD>b4«, 
IttebiDg blm feo tba nek EMn to deliver bin 
Bp lb tbt f^lllttiMi IJodg. IT. 9~U). The wbok 
nairatire la entinlj loea^ and, lika the Mlowi^ 
ttorj cDDCBiiing Micah (Jndg. iiii., iriil.). aeaaM 
to be taken ftom tb* adDab af Ibe Wba of Dbl 

(3.} Aa a Naiuite, Sanoon mblblli tlw law Is 
Num. tI. In bN pnxtUc*. [NAZABrra.] Tbt 
•mlnenee ef laeh NuaHlca aa Samam and Samn^ 
would teiid to give that dignity to tha prnhHlow 
which ia albded to In Lam. ii. T, 8. 

(3.) itemaoii la one of Ihoa* who an diitiaelir 
ipokeo of in Scripton a* otdomd with aaperaab- 
unl power bj the Spirit of the Lord. "Tbt 
Spirit of the Idcd began to idot* bin at Hmn la 
3d>b*n(^-l)aa." "Tba Spirit of the Urd eanw 
mightily upon bim, and the corda that wen iipoa 
hia unia became aa fini burnt with fin." "Ilia 
Spirit of tha l^rd cam* upon liini.uiil he went 
down to Aibkelon, and ilew thirty men of then. 
But, on tba atbtr hand, idler bia toeka wen cut, 
and fala atrangtb waa gone fnm him, it ia laid 
" He wbt not that the vai departed fton 
him " (Jndg. aii. iS, iit. 6. lU, iv. U, iri. ID). 
'Ilie phrue. "the S[Nrit of the U>rd muue npea 
him." b coninion lo him wiib Othiiiti aud Ukleon 
l-indg. Hi. 10, ri. 34): biHtbe eonnMtiaiiofgupet- 
niluml ptn-fr wiib Ihe integrity of tba Kauritli 
•ow, and tb* paninilir gift of great ilrength cf 
bodj, aa Men in tearing ia pieea a lioo, breaking 
hia bond* aauiidcr, cairying the gate* of the eitj 
opon hb liaek.and throwing down tbeiHlbin whiii 
■upporled the boiiae of I>>kob, u* quit* peculiar 
10 Samaon. Indeed, hi* wliale charaelcr and hik- 
tory ban no nact pvallat in Scriptun, It i* 

wouU be tanKbt, bj uich an enuuple. that thdr 
national atienglh bj in their complete •epontiM 
ftam idobtrj. and coniecntion to the true God) 
aiid that He could gin Uwrn power to auhdoe (brir 
mii;btiat eneniiH, If »nlj they were Bue to Ui 
acnice (comp. 1 3asi. ii. 10). 

It i« an iiiten*tti« qimtion whether any of the 
legcad* whiob biva attached thenuelvet to the 
Iiaine of llercuh* muy have heen derived liom 
I'biHiicun tnditlona c^ the atrenith of SaniKHI. 
'llie oomUnalion of gnat Mrenctb with inbinia- 
alon to the power of women; Ihe tlnjing of the 
NemeiMn boni tb* romliiif b^r hia death at tbt 
haada of hit wifa; and eaproially the itory told by 
lleiodotua of the eaptirity of Heroulca in Egypt,* 



w> eorfunlj rmuirlukbla ariaddauB. PbankiiB 
Indan niixht (uUf ban auriad lUitif eoocanlng 
tbe Hebmr facn to tlw difiirait oountria wtwra 
Ukj imStd, fpecialtj Gntes uid luljj and nieb 
ttonci woold hiiTc baai moulded aooonling 
tMta or IniigliiUloa of tb«e wbo baud 
Tbs (bUoving dmxlpUoo </ llercula given bj C 
O. HuUcr [Omwiik, b. ii. a. 13) mlgbt ilmtat 
ban bas WTitba for Suiuni: "Ilia bigheat ' 
gna of faumiui HiSbring and courage b atlnbu 
to HcKulai: hia obaraeur ii aa uobta aa could ba 
Bonc^Ttd la tboB nidaaod earij t 
b7 DO maaiit repnaanlsd aa frra from [be Uanilthai 
of buman Datun; on tbeoontjar}', ha i< freqiuntlj 
nhject to *i1d, nngonTnable paaaiona, wbgn the 
pobbi bidignatioa aiid aogcr of tbe auffering bcro 
digeimta into frenaj. Entj crime, boverer, ii 
•toned for bf aoma naw tuflbrinc; but oothlng 
bieaki bii inrincible eounge. until, purified (too 
cartblj comiptioQ, ba aaaenda Mount Oljmput.' 
And again : " HeRUlea waa a Jovial gueat, and no 
backward in ouojiiig bluiaelf. .... Itwa* 
Hneulee, above all otbcr beroea, wbom mjliiolagy 
placed in ludlcraui lituotioD*, and ' 

tba butt of Ihe buSboncrj' of othen. Tbe Cenopea 
are repnaentad aa altamatelj amuaing aod annoj- 
big tlie hffo. In wofka of art tbejr an ollai rep- 
KKntad ai taljn wbo rob tba bero of bia qi ' 
bow, aod club. Hennilet, anooj-ed at tbeta ioi 
binda two oT Ibem to a pola, and marebea off 
bla prtia. .... It alao leeniJi that mirtb 
•nd buObonerr wve oRan combined with the ftiCi- 
rab of Uareuka: thua at Attaena there waa a 
iDclety of liitf men, wbo on the fcatital of tbe 
Uoniew Hercalei attacked and an 
aod othen with uUiea of wit." 
thouEht, boweier, of lucb coinddefi 
that Clta hiitorj of Samion ia an 
not an aliat^eal narrative. It 
tioctlj lupematuraj element wliicli 
plained away. The biilorj, aa we now hate it, 
miiat haire bean written aeveral centuriea aft^ 
•on'a deatb (Judg. ii. IS, SO, iviU. 1, ilO, li 
thoupb probaUf taken from the annoli of (be 
of t>an. Joaephua baa giien it preltj fiiil]'. but 
witb allerationa and emhelliebinai 
after hla iDanncr. For eiampla, he do«a not make 
Saouon eat an; of tba bonaf wbleb h* took ot 
ef the hire, doubtleat aa unclean, and uoBt liir 
Naiarite, but make* him glra it to hla wife. Tt 
■oly meolion ot Samaoo in the N. T. ii that in 
tiiii. li. 38, where he ia caapled with tiidaon. 
fiaiak. and Jephthab, and apokeo of aa one of 
Ihaaa who "throu^ hitb waiad ralbnt hi Sgfat, 

tad Baal Uaaiman), and UHenlaa la waU kwirn, 
Oaamna [»«. ■. t. Vm) tdli m that, Id ontatn 
riiGenkdan Imeripdoni. which are nceompanled Ij:^ a 

' the Tyrlan Eleroulaa" ia the coruteDtOreek dvtlgiu- 

tta%i)iilaii LiiacriiidaDa K> Baal Hammon, whioli bg 
nniUn Baal Solatti: and alao a icalpture Id which 
Bui Hamman'i hiwl la nriDUDdad >lUi n;ia, and 
■Ttilch tiai an Image of Lha ann on the upper part or 

inolher KTldeiwe of thi Mantltj gf the Phanlcian 
■•al and Ilenulia maj be Ibnnd Id Baull, uu Bala, 

•M (fMnUT to oUM trim Bad. Thirlwall (HUf. e/ 


and turned lo flight the armiai of the dtea ■ 

See, baudaa the plaoea quolwJ la tbe onun al thb 
aniola, a full aitide iu Winer, Jiraluh.; EHwalt 
Gadiehlt, tu SIS, Ac; Itertheau, Oh Jmlgtt 
Bajla'a Did. A. a U. 

BAM'UBL (^t*^V$, i. e. ShemOd; 3a^ 
aintx: [Samuel-.J Arable, SuBucit, or Jtcitmn^ 
■ea D'HerbeLot, under thia latl uime). Diabwl 
derlvaUooB bare bean glreo. (1.) 7H DE17, " nanw 
of God! " w appanntl]' Origan (Ena. tt. A', ri. 
36), BtaiiXtrrit. (!) ^ QIB), "placed bf 
Ood." (8.) bn *?■»«?, "adml of God" (l 
Sam. 1, 90). Joaqibua Ingeniouilj nudua It ow- 
rtapODd to tb< well-knowD Uraek name Tktatttat 
(4.) bnSlatt?, "heanl of God." Thla, which 
maj hare the aame meaning ae tbe pmioua dedn- 
tlon, ia the utoet olxioui. Tbe latt Judga, tbe Bat 
of the regular aueceMion of Propbata, and tbe 
fbuuder of tba niunarch j. So impntant a paaiti«i 
did be bold In Jewijih hiatory aa tn ban given bit 
name to the aamad book, now dlridcd Into two, 
which coven tba whi^ period of tbe finrt eataUiab- 
maiJt of the kingdoni, oart«ipoiidiiu( to tba OMii- 
ner in which the name of Moaea baa been aaaignad 
to tbe aacreri lawk, now divided Into fin, which 
ooveii the period of the foundation of tba Jaal^ 
Churcb iltelf. In bet no chancier of equal mag- 
nitude bad ariaen does tba death of tba great 

He waa the aon of Klkanab, an Ephnthita « 
Ephniniite, and Hannah or .Anna. Uia btbir la 
one of the lew private dljietia in wboee bouaehold 
we find polfganij. It may [lOidblj hftve ariaen 
Irom the irreguiaritj of the period. 

Tbe deaceiit of blkanab ia iiirolTed in great ob- 
icuritj. In 1 3am. i. I he ia dnoribed aa aa 
l':phraimita. tn I Chr. vi. ^2, 33 ba ia made a 
deacendnnt of Konih the l.evite- Uengitenberg 
Ion Pi. Iiiviii. Daiid Eiwald (ii. 43d) eipUln Ihb 
bj auppoaing that the Leritet were oooaaionall; ii>- 
corporated Into tbe triln amongat wbom tbej 
dwdL The queation, bowmrr, ia of no praetled 
importance, booauae, even IF Saniud wen a LerilA, 

cactalnlr waa not a l^eil bj deacant. 

Hia Urtbplaoe ia one of the veied queationa of 
avd geography, ai bb deecent it of aacred geoe- 
alogj. [Sea Kahaii, and Kauathaiu-Zophiii.] 
All (hat appean with eertaiutv fimn the aaeouirti 
b that it waa tn tbe hilb ol Ephraim. and (aa maj 
be inltCTed from i(a nania) a duubb bdght, uaa^ 



tV AltlwlbMortli*billwuft«dl(iaHn. 
Mi. I)b Um brow of iu tW3 lummita vm 
■^. IlDOTB-lntlU bold mShowI, who b 
Bd Bwit It fall lud aboik. 

TIm ombiind fuiilj moit hsn bem 1 _ 
Paiiodih hwl wnni duldrao, ud Humih had, 
\mUm SuBucl, Ihnw nni uid two dm " 
Bnt of tben DotiilDg t) luwwD, noten Un 
■f tbr ■ma an Ihcw enununtMl In 1 Cor. n. 

It li on tke D»lh(r of auBnd tbt out ohkf 
Mmtiam b fixed in Um MCMiot of hi* bbth. Sba 
b dasribod m ■ woman of i higb raligkiai ml*- 
rioa. Almt a NuuiW Ij pnetka (I Swn. t. 
U), aiK] k propbctcH In ber gifti (1 Sub. U. t), 
A> angbt fton God tb* ^ of Uw tbildlbr wbidi 
■k* long*) wiUi * [KirioauM derotion of lUant 

rjtr, of which thm li no other CDUDpl* In tba 
T^ ud whim th« Km w^ gnuikd, th* nwnt 
wfaioh ha ban, and thoa Ant introdacad into tha 
xnld, aiprawtJ bar mm of the m^aiaj of ba 
ttbmtj — 3aimel. " tha Aikad or Hvri of Ood." 

Litatf la tba grant M[< of tswi, ibe had brfm 
Ua birth dedlmad him to the offise of ■ Nantita. 
ti a<cn aa ha waa wtaoad, lb* btntlf with h<r 
babutd brought him w Uw Tabenwda al Sbllob, 
whm tha had Rca*ed tha bat intimation of hi* 
birth, and tbara •olanmlr oooMcnlal bio. Tha 
Im of mmaaOoo ma iluilir to that withohlch 
Iha itraeular priaMbood of Jamboani «■« Mt uart 
ta bUr tlmea (t Chr. siL B) — * bnlladi of tbna 
jon old <LXX.), kana (LXX.), an tphah of 
■dot, and a ikin of wina (I Sara. i. U). Pint 
look plaoa tha un*] ncriAm (LXX ) by EDiaDih 
UoMair— than, tftrr the introduction of the child, 
Ibe qneial neriflce of lh« buUock. Then hli 
■otber owle him oro- to Ell (I. 2S, 98i. uid (ec- 
nrdlBg lo Ibe tiebraw taxt, bat not the LXX.) 
the ^IM himielf perfbrroad an act of wonbip. 

The bjma which followed on " 
la Ibe tnt of the kind In Ibe lacrea Toiac 
poMibb that, like ma,} of tba Pnhni, It 
ban oklai^ In later lima lo niit gnat 
rf rieUrj and the liks. Bnt nrw b (peelalljr ap- 
ttlm (0 tUa ennt, and feiata T, B maj " 
Iha BCDN enlertaliiad bj the popbeteaa 
tng moiiitlon in the fixtanea of her eon ead of hv 
waMrj. [UAinrAn.] 

From tbla dma Iha ehlM b ibnt op In t 
TabenMla. The prMa fmlebed him wllh 
■wad prment, an ephod, made, Hhe their ow 
•f wUla Umd, Ukk^ of InlMor qnalllj, and hie 
" V enfj jtar, apparenllj at the onlj lima of 



BOB It — Jtlre lo thu portion of the nairatlTa 
renal intneat. It li Ihii aide of Samuel*! 
that baa baan ao well caoght In the well- 
know* picture hj Sir Jeahna Rejiiolda. 

From Ihia momait the pni^ietlo ehanelar of 
Samad waa ealahllabtd. Hia woida ware traaannd 

dma of I 
(LXX, 1 

r tbe othrr dreaa, and 
■ badin till tba hUW 
(Mxim^ toL U, p. ITSS b.] 
to hare alqit wltUo the Holieat Phca 
Bam. iU. S), and hia apeebl dnt; wh lo 
I It wDoU aom, the aKred csodlaitiek. 

n — tbarananUaKfi — tb 

lo Uw pvae (f lb 

J ShUoh b 

« tbe n 

(iiL 1»-81). 

aw of tba aanetoarj, whirh h 
kFWed ahortl; co Ihia rlaion, we hear not wba 
■ - -- nail ai^wen, ^nbMy 
twenlj Tiara afterwanla, anddeoly amungat tb* 
people, warning them egnioat their iddatmua pia* 
iblj It Ulipata — 
prabablj the pliua of that name in tba triba 4 
" ' 'a — ud there with i ijmbolieBl rlla, ei- 
partlj of deep humlliatiotK parti; of lb* 
I of a licatj. thej pound nter on tba 
ground, Okj fated, and tbej oitraatad SaraBol tt 
' ' « "Ti f" "hieh Im waa known, hi 
Ood for them. It waa at the 
It that he wm oOkring np i laeriAce, aoi] 
ling Ihb kind crj' (oonpare Ihe alluatlon of 
PaaauiiH befcr* Ihe battle of l^aUea, Hcaod. Is. 
91), that tb* Hhiliatine hoet euddenl; bunt upon 
Tk>lait thundantorm, and (aooording lo 
JoaephuB, Ant. ri. 3. { 3| an earthquake, am* to 
" timel; aaabtaoca of im*L Th* Phihalina 
and, eaaMl; at Ihe apot where Iwmtj jtan 
t Ibej bad obtunad their gnat ridory, thej 
totally ronUid. A aloue wee act up, whiefa 
rtnkaiiifd aa a memorial of SaBiurra triumph, 
gara to the plaee He name of Elitii-eur, " Uw 
Stone oir Hdp," which ha* tiieiice paaaed into 
Chriatba phraieology, and beaonw a eommon nam* 
of Noneanfbrmbt chapeb (1 Sam. rli. 13). Tbi 
cU Canaaollee, whom tba Philielinea had dlapoa- 
■eaeed la the oatdiiRa of Ihe Judaan hllla, aeem Ic 
hare helped in the battle, and a large pottioo d 
terrilorr wna reoorord (1 Sam. tI. 14). "Hib waa 
Semoal't flnt and, aa hr a« we know, hb only 
lilitarj aehienmenl. But, aa Id the taae of tba 
u-lier cbieia who bon that nima, it waa appar- 
(Utl; Ihia wbbh raiaed Um to tbe office of " Judge" 
'»mp. 1 Sam. xll. II, iriien he b tbni nckoned 
ilh Jembbaal, Bgdan.ind Jejihtbah: and Eoclua. 
Iri. I(-1B). He riilted, hi dbcharge of bb datiee 
- Uw' 

which he liirthar 

altar (fiL IT). Hera be mairled, and two aona 
Dp lo repeat Dodtr hb ejea tbe aome par- 
renlon of high olBoe that be had hlmaelf witneaaed 
in hia cbUdhood In the caae of the two tone of BIL 
One waa AMah, the other Joel, tomeUmaa aaUed 
almply "the aemnd" {eoatni, 1 Chr. ri. W). In 
bli old age, aseordlng to the quad-htradltarj pais. 
dple, alrodj adojAed bj pnrlima Jndgea, be abared 
bn power with them, and tbeji enrobed Uxdr too* 
liona at tba •Dolhsn frunUcr In Beer-ahrtia (1 Sam. 
rlU. 1-4). 

3. Down to Ihb pdnl In Bamod'a lift Ihera b 
bat littb to dlitlDgniafa bb caner from that of hb 
preJeueeeoia. Uke maoj eharaeten in bUr da^a, 
had he died in Tontb hb fame wouM hanJl} ban 
bean graatw than tbM of Qldeon or Sameoi. B« 

., .A)l>*^lc 



«M ■ judge, ■ NioriU, > muriar, M>d (l> ■ MC- 
UId point) m propbat. 

But bl* paailkr poritiim in tb« mcni namtJTg 
binu Ml Un cmiM abioh foUoir. He li Uie in- 
•ugurUor (if tin tmuilioa from irlMt i> ooaunoiilj 
aUid the UwoaKj (o tba nionuchr. Tba mia- 
dMnewHT of liie own loni, in nodnng bribe*, wid 
in eilorling eiorbltaot inUrett on kana (1 Sun. 
*iil. a, i), pracipiuted tbe eUnatropht wblch bad 
Immi king pnperii^. Tbe people denundfd » king. 
JoMphoi (^nC rl. 3, S S) dfwrilxa tbe ibock to 
Sunuel't mind, "betwue of lti> inbcrn khh o( 
JintioB, lecuiM of hli faalnd of liingi, nM wo fT 
Infarkr to the iriitaenitic Ibnn o( jcunrnmeDt, 
abltb oontemd ■ godlike chinctcr oii tbon vbo 
Bred under it" For Uw whole night he tej (ut- 
liitc knd ilapbM, In the prrphiity et doobc ind 
dltBeultj. Ill the •lalon of that niithl, u ncorded 
bj tl>e tfcred blatoriu, li given tbe derk iido of 
Ibe new inalitutun, on wbkh Santoel dweJk on tbe 
liiUowing dij (1 Swn. i-iii, 9-18). 

Thii pnienti bli nlaetanee to reeeli-e lbs new 
«rdeT of thtiigi. Tbe wbole niiintli« of Uw recep- 

e flniil couBtc 

11 hie nibMque' 

which be 

It (jll)ial, Immediotd; ifter 
UK vKtoT}' orer ua AtniDOiiila. 1'he tpanirehj 
WH ■ lecoiid Uow •olounlj' inuKunlcd, umI (u- 
eordbig lo tbe LXX.) " Samuel '■ |in tbe Hebnw 
tut '>Sujl")"w»l all tbe men of lanel i^loed 
treallj." Then Ukea place bii tanwetl addrcM. 
B; tbii time tbe kmg Bowing kcki on wbleh no 
iwor bad et-er pawd wtn white with age (ill. S). 
He appeal! to tbeir knowledge of b<> integritj. 
Wfaalerer icigbt be lbs lawltee bablta of ibe ehidii 
Dflboee tinH — Hopbnl, Fbioehu, or hii own 
•on> — he bad kept aloof ftwn alL No ox or an 
bid be taken from tbeir italk ~ no bribe to obtain 
hb Judgment (LXX., J{Uair^) — not even a 
nndal (it6iyiiLM, LXX., and E«lti>. ihi. IB). I.t 
b thi) appeal, and Ibe mponie of tbe peiple, that 
baa made Grotlua call bini Ibe Jewiib Ariitide*. 
He then auma up tbe new liuintion in nhlcli they 
faiTe placed tbeinatl*eai and, altbougli "tbe wick- 
■dnaa of aaking a king" ia atill alnmuljr Inlated 
ra, and tbt nnuatial portent' of a Ihui.denlonn 
a May or June, in anawer to Samueli ynjtr. ia 
.rged *• a tlKn of IKHne diapkuure (lii. 16-lU). 
be geneial t^nie of tbe condemnation ia much 
aoAened from that which waa pmnnuncrd on the 
fliat intlmalnn of Die cbuige. Tbe fltsi k 
repCBtcdlr acknowledged ai « the tlpuab " or 
anointed of tbe Urd (ili. 8, 6), the future pn 
|NfU}' of the nation la decknd to depend on th 
Be or miiuie of the new conatilutkm, and Sann 
Ntirea vilb eipreadona of piodwill and hope; ' 
•rill teach fou tbe good and Jm right wa; . 
. . onlrhwibal^ . . . ." (ISam. > 

It ia tbt DMit dgnal oumple aSbrded In t 
3. T. of a gnt ebancter reconellinic blmeelf It 
afa>nK«d orritr of Ibinga, and of the Uiilne aucti 
naaug on hia aequieaHnce. For tbia naaon it 
thai AUianaaina la b; Baall called tbe SamiKl 
Ibe Cbonh (BaiU, ^ SS). 

ud wii atill Jodge. He Judged Ind »nff Oe 
o/ Ail Ji/e " tiii. IS), aod from Uue lo tima 
aeroM the kliig'a pMta. Bat tlwae inteneo- 
are ehieflj In aootbcr eapiKi^, wbich tbia ii 
lace to unfold. 

muel ii called emphatfoallj "tbi Propbet" 

(Aot* iii. aj, liii. aO). To aovlain eitent tUi 

in oonaeqnence of tbe gilt wbkb be ahamd to 

nun with otlin of hia lime. He waa eape- 

eiall}' known in bi> own age ai " Semtid tbe Seer " 

" 'Jhr. ii. SB, nrl. 38, nix. W}. " t am lb* 

," waa hia uitwer lo thoee who aaked " Wben 

lieaeer?" -When ii tbe aeer'a houae? " (1 

I, ii, II IS. 19). "Sev," tbe andsit name, 

not jetaupeneded by "Prophet" (I Sam. ii.). 

B; thii name, Samuel IWriH and Samuel i 0k^ 

be ia (ailed in tbe Ada Stmcumm. Of tim 

mode* bj which Divine CDmninnicatlotia wet* 

ttuo made. ■' bj dnanie, Urim and Tbummim, and 

propheti," the flrat wai Ibat !>j which tbe IKiina 

will waa made known lo Samuel (t Sam. iU. 1, i; 

Joe. AnL T. 10, £ 1). "The IarI uneurered Ua 

ipiT into It bl the itillnela of the nlghl 

I that wen lo be deUrered. It la tbe 

, liiUmation of tbe Meat of ■• Rmla. 

being (tea Geaenina, <■ tec 

conanlted Ibr and near on tba 

of liis; kjarea of "bttad," «r "tb* 

fourth part of a abekd of allnr," mn p*M tiir Ibu 

r\^S. Ha waa c. 
amalT alUn of iiis; 



thi* facultj, combined wHh Ui ofica cf 
awful nverenee grew up round him. No 
aactiSdal leaat waa thought comptate vitboot bii 
bleaaing (1 Sam. U. 13). When he appovol iml- 
denlj elaewbere for tlie aame purpoae, the vlUagvi 
' led " at hia appnacb (1 Sam. ivl. 4, 6}. A 

He ma conapicuoua in biter titnca amoogit 
thoee that ■■ cnii upon the name of Ibe Laid " (Pa- 
Sam, xii. 18], and waa pkeed witb 
ing " for pnjtr, In a ^ledal eeoM, 

B Loni " (Jer. 

F. ]). It W. 

conaolalion be ielt In hia parting addreaa that 1 

would "pnj to the Lord " for tbe peogde (1 8u 

lU. 19, S8). Tbaie wu eomethiug peculiar in tl 

•ualalned ay or about of airppiicMfcw, wbic 

ro otbo' piriniB whieb nxm e^a- 

ID with bavU 

) He repiwenU Ihe Independence of the moial 

law, of tbe UMne Will, aa dlitinct from regal oe 

aacerdotal enictnienta, which ia to remarkable a 

iracteriatie of all tbe later propheta. A> we 

ft Been, be waa, if a I^erite, jet rertwnly not a 

iaat; and all the atlempta to identifv liia'oppoai- 

D lo teul with a bienlcbicai intereat an bnndtd 

OB a complete mtaaanoeptlon of tbe facta of tM 

from the time of tbe o m t biu w if SUU^ 



Ifei pri««l; ordCT. Amdogit dl Uw pi 
^dad is hii pavnil or tdmloiilnU* 
■rilfcv SbiUi, iwi Nob, nor Gibtno, Uw 
Urn aenduUl outa, ve «w mentioiiHl. When 
ba counad* Sul, it it not u tin 
ffopbct 1 vbai he laenlln* <a bkiHi tb« acrlSca, 
it ii not H the print, but utbcr u an indiiidiud 
kadtc of Boinem, or ■■ ( ruler, lika 8«d 
tJL Sudi nn in both cuta nchm be anw 
loOiBoa with Samnd, ma not of intrading 
■aeardotal ftuKtiotia, but t^ diaobcdlcDca to 
pnjibMJe mica. The flnt >u that of uot wailiDg 
lor Samwl'i irrinl. ucarding to the tign gii 
bj ShubcI at bb original matting at Kamah 
8>m.x.8, iiii.8): the Hoiod wai that of not c 
rTiog out the ileni pnpbetic iiJunctiOD tar Iba 
deitnictian at the Amalakilo. Wbcn, on that 
acaaaon, the aged l-rophat alM tba eapdi 
WDn hho, and ailh bia own budi ba 
■mb fncD limb,* in reuibulioo (br the daaolation 
ka bad brought into the bonwa of bndi, and 
•Skad op bia mangled nmaina Blnnat aa a hi 
wriiea (" brtm the Lonl in Uilgal "), we ae 
nfmanl^n of tba older part of the Jewiah bla- 
taj. But it ta the true pnipbatla otteraast, auth 
aahrcatbei thrvngb tbt paaimiMaaad propbata, whan 
ha Hja to San) in warda ahich, fton thitjr poetJcal 
km, Dinat haie beeonia tlied iu tha Dationu ntin- 
«j, -To obejii bettar than 
hBfbn than the lilt of ranM." 

Tha parting *aa not dim c< rixla, bat of daar 
tki^fa diiidtd frienda. The King thron himaelt 
•a tba l>ropb(t with all bia liiica; not wlthouEi 
Tjiiint ^Kit (Jo*. Jul. tL T, f S) the pniphet 
Ian faimadf awaf. The loo; nianUa b; which 
he waa ahraji known ii nnt m tbeatraggle: and, 
the Ahijah after him, Samnd aa* b thli tha 
aom at tba comfaiK reit in Iba Booarehj. Tbaj 
parted each to hit home to meet no roon. Bat 
a kaig ahadow of grief fell ow the prophet. 
■ ^BDid DHumed for Seal." >' It griend Sannil 
ferSauL" "IIowkawi'lUthoniDOoniliM'aaal?" 
[ISao. IT. II, 3«, iiL 1). 

(V) HaiaUH<k« of the regular meii wl wi of 
popfaMa. -All tba propbata rrom Samnd and 
tboK that IoUbw after " (Ada ill. H). " Ei quo 
■BHtna Sanine) pn^brla caepit et deineapa donee 
popalH Iiraal in Uabjloniaoi eaptlTDi taheretor, 

lotmn M lenipm proptiatanin] " (Aug. 

eta. Dti, nil IV ' Uoara, Mirkoi, and Deborah, 
pafa^ Ktaud, had beai pnpbeta. Bat Itwaaonlj 
imm Saamat that the eontinm 
aabrohfn. Tbia maj bare been nerelj from the 
anlra Maura nf bia a^ipeanooa with the beginning 
rf the ntw order of thinga, of which the propbel- 
hal «Saa waa the ehkf eipradon. Sooie pndi 
paihig BUaae tbm nuj hare been in hit on 
hiuUj and Urthptaea. Hia nothcr, aa n hv 
mm, tboogta not aiprcaalj ao called, waa In laet 
pcopMaM; the weed Zat^im, aa tba aSi of Ra- 
nutbuo, baa been aiplaincd, not aDmaonablr, to 
" uab, bia father, to bj tha 

«Mipl* of tha (raphala." 

• Aaag la danlkad br Joapbaa (JM. *l. T, | S| aa 
a e>M rf ai agaH e i ai t ap pia i a a ea j asd baMa nagwd 
t^ ■traiUau. TU* b perbafa an liifciaaui frea 
*a airt nbT^q, wfeUi the Talpia aaMlaia 

SAHUBI. 2828 

the eontianit; of tba tAoe with Saomel appeara la 
be atm moie direct. It b in hit liratinw, hmg aAat 
b« had bMi oatabbbcd ai a pmphel" {1 Sam. 
iil. SO), that we hear of the eompanta of diaelpke, 
eaUed ID tba O. T, "tbaacaiaar tha prapheta," by 
modern wTilna" the acboob of tha proptaeta." All 
tba peeoliatitiaa of tbalr edueatioD aio impHed or 
eipniaad — the laend dance, the aaered muaic, the 
aolenui piweeaun (I 9am. i. b, 10; 1 Cbr. ut. 1, 
S). At the heed of tbia congre g ation, or ** ahurcb 
BB it were wilbin a choreh" (LXX. t))' fa«A«- 
olv, 1 Sam. 1 b, 10), Sawtiel ia nfnml; da- 
acribed aa " itandiug appolnled OTertbnu" (ISaB 
xix. aO). llieiT chiaf Taidmoe at Uiit tin* 

atruch root in other placaa) waa at Samuel'a om 
abode, Uamab, «bn« Ibaf Und bi babitetlaiM 
{A'n>L4A, 1 SaoL lix. 18, Ae.) iqipannUj of a ruati* 
kind, lika the lea^ huU which tJidia't diadpla 
afteiinrda occupied bj the Jordan {Saimk^ 
•• habitationa," but more apecUcall; need lor ■■ pa» 

In thoae acbooK and learning (o cultiTala the 
propbetio gifta, were aanie wh«n we kiiow Iot or- 
tain, othen whom we maj almoat ocrtainlj conlae- 
tore, to baTe been ao UniKd or influeneed. One 
waa Saul. Twice at leait he ia lifaerilwd aa bat- 
ing been io tba companj of Saniuel't diadpleB, aod 

baring caogfat from Ibem the {vt^betic lirfoa 
degree aa to have " pnpbeaied among 


1. 10, 1 

(1 Sam. .riiL B). Another 


David. The 


bouae of JaM 

[•aa UAViu]. Bnt the con 


n thna bagu. 

with tba abeph«d bo; muat 

bean COP tUiuad 


to "Maioth bi 

Uamab,-' aa to Ui .aeond ho<i 

He (1 


and tba gifta of mutic, of aong, and of lanpbeej, 

hso dareloped on an large a aoile, iti 
-■•- - -' •• Ib notieea of Iboaa who ksAei 
their Mbcr. It l>, Cjrtbtr, 
hardlj poaalble la (aaape the cciicluuon that UaTld 

to enlarge on the Importance wilb 


■blch Iheai 

the apiritiial hlher of 
the Paalmlat king. He ia alao tl<e founder of tb« 
fint regular In^totioiiB of rellitioua luatmotng, 
' oommnnitiea for the pnrpoeta of educBtlan. 
I ichoala of Orecet were not }ct Id eiitlenn. 
m theae Jewiah Initltutiona were developed, I7 
ituial order, tbe uniTei^tlee of Chrieteadnn. 
I it mar be furthrr added, that with tbia via* 

,fopbet — the onl; fntphet till tbe tinie of 
Inlab — of whom we know tliat ba waa k> from 
rlltal jeart. II ia thli conthiuit; of hk owD 
UA and oharKter, tbat Diakea hini ao At an lualn^ 
ibr eoodactlng bia nation thiuogh aa gnat 

Tba death li Samwl la daacribed aa taUng plaai 

Tba LXX. aoAana thb It 



in tba jtu of llw eloM of DaTtd'i intadeii>.gi. It 
b Mid with 0(00110 vnphiab, m if to niuk tfag 
km, that " bU tba lanelita " — iJl, with ■ mil- 
ftnlitj HV ipKlflHi beAiK — " «(n gathend 
log«tii«r " frnm all pHti of thli blllMfto dlrblod 
aonntrj, ud "luiaited blm," uid "burkd Um," 
not In wij eoTMcnttd plue, dot ouUlilo tb« walk 
vl hli dtj, but wiUiin hn own houw, thui in ■ 
muDor ooiueenltd b; balng tuned Into hia lumb 
(ISwn. uv. U Hii relin wm IniuUtcd '■from 
JudiH" (tba placa a not (pKl6«l) A. i). 406, to 
Coovtantinopla, and raooi^ tbere with much pomp 
bj tht Empavr Amdliu. Tbaj vtta landed at 
Ilia fkt of Uiakcdon, and IlienM ran'ajed to ■ 
abnreh, near tba paliea of Uabdamcn (aea Ada 
aoHctanm, Aug. 90). 

TliB altuaUon of Kamalhaini, u bu bm obHmd, 
la miBartaiii. But the pba lon^ pointcl uut ai bii 

naigbborbood of Jenualetn. imimdialdj abora tha 
■ — rn of GIbesii, known to theCniaadwa aa"Mout- 
' la Uia tpot from wbmoe thef 6nt aaw 
'rni, now called JVtAy Samail, "the Prophft 
oamuei." Tbe tradition can be Inced back aa 
&r aa tba 7tb onturj, wbsi It li ipoken or ai tba 
moaaaterj of St- Samuel (Kobliiaon, BiiL Rc- U. 
lia), and if once n dbmnl the connection of 
Hamatluilm with (lie namdcn dtj where 9amuel 
net Saul (aa la att Ibrtb at length in tba aniclaa 
Bakah; KAMATnATH-7opHtii),tliBeia noreauD 
wfaj tba tradition ahould be r^ected. A caie la 
■till abown underneath the floor of Uw moaque. 
■• Ha built tba tomb in hia lifetime," la the account 
of the UoBulmin guardian of the moaqua. 


Urec^," It ia the 
olilnu aoj direct connection with the flrat great 
prophet who waa born within ita Umltaf and ita 
commanding aituation well agres with the Impor- 
taoa aaaigned to him In the aacied hiatorj. 

Hia deacendanta nra hne till the lime of David. 
Hauiii, hia grandaon, waa one ot the chief aing- 

Q the LerlticaJ choir (I Clir. < 


IV. IT, 

Um qiparitkm 
utUI. U; Eodiia 

H lu been auppoaed that aamnel wrote a Life 
af Darld (of oouria of hia earlier yean), which waa 
■UU acCBible to one of the authora of tba Boot of 
Ukionidea (1 Chr. nil. W): but tUa appeua 
■eobtfuL [See p. !S3e b.] Varioua Other booka 
•f the O. T. bate been aacribed to him hj tbe 
Jawiab tradition: the Judgea, Kulb.Uie two Booka 
K Samuel, tbe latter, It ia alleged, being written 
n tba apirit of piophecj. He ia r^arded bj (be 
hmarilana aa > magldan ud an Infidel (Hottin- 
|V. HitL OritM. f. eS). 

The Peraian traditiona li bia lift In tba time 
st Eal-I-Kobad, %A king of Penla, «llb whom be 
ta Mid to ban conTcned (VUerbeh-t, Xni Kuhad). 

A. P. a 

baas Intended for a gnM natloii, IIHng und<t the 
immadlata l>l<rlne gownmant, ami oloaelj knit to- 
lather bj religiou* tis. Through their milUtli- 
Inlwaa to (iod, tbaj had become Tittle mora tbaa a 
eoUectlon of Independent tiibta, centinuallj ao- 
p^ad in haraaaing wan wlUi tbelr nelgbboa, and 


aboold ban a king to rennite them In one Balk» 
alltj, and enable them to make bead againat tbife 
foea. To thia Samuel waa nniCBtJjr oppoaed, ncr 
did ha acqnleac* in thrir wiah until eipteHl; dt 
teeted to do ao from on high. G«t law that tht 
people were too aioiU fur tba gnat deitlnj oOiTed 
them, and (bBcfcire it waa fit'jng that iu tbia 
matter of goTernment thaj ahould be isduaed tc 
the Lerd tt other nationa. It waa bj no meua ■■ 
"eumpla of tba UiTtne aanetioD reatlng on [Sui- 
uel'i] aequlaae e nea i" but imther of a Divine com- 
mand to him to let a itlff-necked people b>Ta Uieir 

In tbe Tabemacle Samiwl [vobahir alept in ■■« 
of tha chamban orer. or at tba aide of, tbe Tabcr. 
naole [TshplbJ. llie eilnnie iniprobabilit; that 
he ahould hare alept in tbe Holj of Uolica ia ao- 
hanced bj Ibe Swt that be waa erideullj bi a 
difiirent apartment from Eli (1 Sam. Ui, t-10), 
and if tha latter wa* not within the (ail, mudi laa* 
tbe fonner. There ia nothing in 1 Sam. iil. ( la 
(Dggeit auch a aU|^ioaltion. 'V\se •• Tonple " ta Umm 
particulariiad aa tbe place " where the ark of God 
vni." and tbe time ia Gied aa ■•beTore tbe lamp at 
God" — which waa outiide tbe tail — ••went oot 
in tbe Temple of the Lord." No bint la ginx of 
the plioa of Samuel'a chambor. At a lalM dala^ 
when the Ark waa taken into the Utlk with tiM 
Pbilialinea, it doea not ^paar that tbe TabenMala 
waa otlwrwiec diaturbtit. or that Samuel then gn« 
up bii rckidence there. It ia not likdj' that £«>- 
uel himaelf CTtr actuillj engaged in mililarjopeim- 
liona. In tba aueecaaTnl Iwle with tbe fbiliMina 
(1 Sauj- vii.) be aaaiated bj bia pnj^era, hut OOttld 
hare taken no part in tbe battle Itaelf, h b WM 
engaged at the time In oflfaing aacrlfice (tb- 10). 
The name "warrior" muat Iberefan he omittad 
from the lUl of bia titlee. 

Tba natratite in 1 San. ii. T, 8, aObfd* n» 
gmuad for tbe auppoaition that dtber be or otb« 
Iniptred [sopbeta ncdnd compeiiaatiiH) kn tbato 
utterancea aa a qvid pro quo aJlo' the faahitin of 
hcBlbeo aoothiajera or modem necromanooa. 
Saul, a joung man not of diatingulibed birth, and 
Kt taitira atrangfr to Samuel, did mA think It 
fitting, according la orienlal etiquette, to approaeh 
the great judge of land and divlnelj appointed 
prophet without a prcaent Tbia appeara in tba 
naiTalin mnch more ■* a tribute to tlw imnk and 
elation of Samuel Ihao aa a propoaed payment for 
hia counael — a thing abbotrent to the whole Ldaa 
of the prophetic office. 

1b 1 Sam. liil. the narrative diatinetl; makea th* 

tlona." Saulaaja (ver.lS|,"ThereJ<ire.iaid l,tb* 
Philiithiea wiU come down now upon me to Gilgal, 
and 1 hare not made lupplicalian unto the Lokd; 
I (breed mjiclf tfaerefuit, and oflmd a burnt otb- 
Ing," Samuel repliee — making no alluiioD to 
tlH not waiting (or hli coming, — "Thou haatdoc* 
fboliiblj: thou haat not kept tbe coniuiandmeotof 
tbe Lord tb; God." 

It ia impoaalble that Saul, and InprubaUe that 
Darid had anj training in the icboola of tbt 
irophetj under Samuel. Tbe Grat paeaage addneed 
In the article abate in evidence of auch training 
(1 Sam. I. 10) nada t 

pnpbeta met" Saul 

t bto 

anolnUng (when he apmt one night wlUl S 
whom ha bad not beroie known) and " tbe ipdrtt 
of God cane upon him, and be propbeaial aaMMi| 
Ihwi." Tba ml; other paMage gtw (] 8^ 


d> M) k qnta ht* io the nIgD of §ral «4icti U 
mm to Nantb ia ponuit of DHid, uid Um 
i^Mt k daj Hid ■ nigfat, ttfaik Uh ^rit o. pnt>l^ 
Mj «■• iqiDt. Um. in both emM Ika uMuib- 
■ut of Uw bdwiikn ii mpnMMl bj U« ockoia- 
tiDB, "bSM^tbo WBOog tbi pnpbaU ? " — wbieb 
tt nan* eoiMndicti Ih* wiipMitkin tint be had 
baai inoMd MDOog tltsm. in ngtid to tMiid, 
It ii iDMranUj Hid thu ti* Bni id ■• ' Kiioth lu 
Bmt^ • ■■ (o hia hhuI bm <1 Sun. lii. 19). " 
WW ia aaid ia OaJt " ba cwna to fiamuel to Ka- 
aab and k)U Um all that Saul bad dma to bim. 
Aad ha and Suwial went ami dnlt tai Nuatfa." 
Dand'a |iinpo« VM Id aok irfug* witb Samod, 
Iba ^;«d Jndga «b«n Saul Mill buad and »- 
■pMtod. Ha not Id bii nidwsa at Baonh. 
nr iwiiaia sot mantinnad, bat pnbablj liwD pra- 
daplial onidcntiona. tbaj Mt Ibiu togalbar and 
'w^ and dwalt at Nalotta." 

gAHtlBL, BOOKS OV Sgjfi 

' ebtained the name of » HalmakrioKla.'' 
Ike wUid^ Cirek, betMM HdmaliilDjfU ma lb* 
bit piwjbNDt nri dF tbt M8. that eaugfat tb* 
--. (lAkis'i aamthritgh, i. I). 

JtMerM^ tmd Date of lAe ftuL — Um moM 

artkik Um nadv wUI readii; eoirert fcr bbnadt 
F. O. 
BaoiAiiiw IIf4rqi Anrr/jM : l*btr Rtj/mm 
Primut, SeOBidia). Two butoiicai booki of tbe 
Old Tdtamoit, which an not npanttd froai each 
Blbpr in the Uebnw MSS., and *hich, from a 
oilical point of new, miut be regarded a* one 
book. Tbe pnaent dmiion waa fint made in the 
Sep t o a gint truulation, and wii adopted in (he VuU 
gaU from tba Sqituagint Hut Origen, ai quoted 
hjEniBblDa {ffulur. Kda. n. 3e),Hpnn]j'iUUa 
that tbay fbrmed onlj one book among the He- 
|m«s. Jerome t,Praf. in Librm Hi'iuud •! .l/>ii- 
ociUai) impliea Ibe nme itatemeiil ; and in tbe 
lUmod (Boba Balkra, (o\. 11, c. S), wlierein the 
iutbfirahjp La attributed to Samuel, thej ore dnig- 
tmUd bj the name of liii book, in the lingulir 
■nnlMr (IDDD SHX bttlDID). After the Id- 
(otiDa of painting tbej wen pobliibed aa one 
baoh In Ike Int edition of Ihe whule bible printed 
rtSoocioaln ItSH a. D.,aiid llkewiie bi theCom- 
philwrfin Poifglot prinled at AIoiIh, \btia-lbU 
A. D. 1 and It waa not tdJ tbe jtar IMS Umt the 
linaiaB d tfai Septuagiot wu adopted in llebt«v. 
h tbe edition <rf tbe »Ue printed by the Hom- 

Q,beoanae a queation eonneeled witb tbe eating of 
IB egg k tb* tnt nl^ dlaouwd In it. [fHAsr. 
IMMM, <vL IJL p. UTA a.] It ha* tieen niggeated 
indaad bj Abart>aDel, aa quoted b}' IJarpaoi (Sll), 
tb*t tb* book waa ealkd bj SamueJ'i name be- 
(aae all tbinga (hat occur in each book.Di»j, lii a 
aarlain amae, be referred (o Samuel, including the 
•Eta of Saul and IteTid, inaamueh aa each of tbem 
na anofaited bj him, and waa, aa it were, tbe 
■lek of hi* banda. Ilii*, bowerer, aeema to be a 
^uation for a feet which la to tie 
a lew artificial manner. And, 
pMTallTt, it ia to be obaerred that the kigtcal tltlt* 
of book* adopted in modem timea muit not be 
knkad for in Eutem worki, nor indeed in early 
•nka or modern Euiope. Thoa Davld'a Laowu- 
taliiB ara Saul and Jooatban waa mlled " The 
Bmt," for mrmt naaon eoonaded with th* oceiv 
M** of Itet wotl Id hk poMU (S a*ai. L l8-ail>: 
«d SiMna SbiTkaon'i Cbnokk of tba Kingt of 

t« of tlie htMorian, ai>d hia mean* of obt^li^ 
BOmct infermation. If thcae pointa ahouM not b< 
known, next in o(d«r of lolemt la tba preda* p»- 
riod of tlm* «ba> tb* work waa compoaed. On aQ 
theaa point*, bowenr, in retCnoee lo tbe book of 
Samuel, mora qnaationa ean be aaked Ihiin oan b* 
anawcnd, and the naulla of a diapaaaknate bquby 
an mainlf nagatlre. 

iBt, aa to the aalhoiablp. In eommon with aO 
th* hiaUrkMl booka of the CHd Totament, eieept 
Um beginning of Nehemiah, the Ixiak or Samuel 
oonUint no menlioo in U>e text of Ihe name of ik 
author. The earileiM Urork hiilorieal work eitant, 
written bj one who hat frequentlj been ealkd Um 
Fattier of Hiitory, commencea with the mrda, 
•• Thia b a pnblicatloii of Uw neareha of Herod- 
otDi of HaUcaniaaui;" and Uie niotJTM wbiA 
iodtieed tierodotiu to write tlie work are then Mt 
fcftli. Thuejdldea. the writer of the <ireek hk- 
lOfkal worii neit In order of time, who Itkewia* 
tptoiB** hi) rMaona for writing it, commanoea bf 
■tatlng. " Thuejrdidea Ihe Athenian wrote the fala- 
tor; of ttia war bHwoen the HekipanmalaBi *nd 
Atbeniaiia," and ftequenUy luea the formuk Uiat 
■uch or Buch a jear ended — the aecond, or ttilrd, 
or finirlh. aa tbe caae might be — •' of lU) war of 
whiefa Thacydlde* wrote the hittot; " <U, TO, 103t 
ill. 3D. 88, IIS). Again, when h« tpaka in OD* 
paaaage of erenta In whieh it i> iie«aaarf that ha 
ifaodd mention hk own name, he rgfen to hluadf 
u " Thvcjdlde* aon of Okma, who omipoMd U^ 
work" (ir. 1(H). Now, with the on* eieeptioi 
of thli kind already mentioned, no limilir infcnnn- 
tion la oonlajntd in any hlitorlcd l»ok "f Uie Old 
Tealament. althougti thrre are paniu^ not enlj In 
N'ebemiah, )>ut likeJiae in Ezra, mitten in the lln| 
penon. Still, without anj atatainent of the autbor. 
abip embodied in Ute teit, it i* poaeibk that bk 
torical booka might come down to u* with a Utla 
eootaining the name of the author. Tbk k tba 
caia, for euniple, witb Urj'a Konim HUtotTi, and 
■■ r'tCommabmitofikiU-meWm: In the 
latter ea*e, indeed, although C**iir mention) a long 
of hia own actions, without Inlmiallng tlMt 
alheauthorofthework, and tlma Utere ia u 
antecedent iniproliHbilitjr that be wrote it, yet tb* 
traditional title of the a-ork outweigba tbii Impnib- 
ability, (onflmied aa the title ia. by an unbroken 
obain of lealiniony, commencing with contempo- 
(acero, Unil. 7ft i Cmar. De Btll. (iaIL 
; Suelonlna. Jul. Cat. 56; Qulnctjlian, i. 1; 
TVdtua, Verm. 38). Hrre, again, there k notb- 
ig pieciariy ilmikr in Hebrew biiioTy. The fliv 
hooka of tbe PenUIeucb hare in Meiirew no titk 
ncq)t tbe Ant Hebraw worda of each part; and 
tbe tide* Geneili, Kiodua. I.eviticui, Kumben, 
and DcuteronoDiy, which are derived trom tbe Scp- 
tuagint, eonrty no informalioii aa to their auttHT. 
In like niuiner, the book or -iiidgea, tbe booki of 
the Kingi and tbe Cbiviiicla. arc- not releriBd to 
>y particular biatorun; and althuagh lii work) 
ar RapHtivdjr the namea of Joiliua, Hutta, &*D- 
il, fcna, Ntbeoiiab, and Eatber, there i« rMbii^ 
tba TOki urnueln* to ptBcluda the idea that 
■ach <*•• th* wliJMt «nlT -tf the ■eork mat 

bdkkl«d, ud Dot iu uitbonblp; ** li ihown «o- 
oha^Td; b; the Utlea BuUi and EMbtr, whicfa 
«oa tall fct Mintnied Lito tin uwrtioD Ui»t th 
Mlcbnled KaiDui mute lbs iiorki coiicrming llMm~ 
mItm. And II iiliiditputobkllut thetil)e"Swii- 
hI " doM not iiii|>lj' IhM the prophet n* the ui- 
thia of the book of Samutl w ■ whole; tat the 
death at iMiuuel ia molded in the bfgldnliig of 
the S&Ui cbnpter; •» that, under uif olrcum- 


the rtniuiilng cbiipten, cauitituliog conudenkl; 
more thui one half of tbe entire work. Agun, in 
nferoHw lo tbe book ot Siiinuel, tbe ibHiia of 
the buturiui't nune from both Iha teit and tbe 
tiOe u not lupplied hj *iij ttalentent of inj otbei 
writer, aimde witbin ■ muonthle period Inm tbe 
time wheu tbe book aiij be euppiioed to hire been 
Wliltmi. No meation of tbe Buthor'e nune ii 
made In tbe liook of Kings, dot, ai will be hen- 
•flv ahoKP, in tba Cbronldea, nor in anj other 
of tbe ucnd writinga. In like tnwiaer. it b not 
nantloned either iii the Apocrypha or in Joaephui. 
The iikence of Joaepbua ]> purtieubriy ligniflcuit. 
11b pabliihed hii AntiquiiUt alnut 1100 Tean 
after the d«Ui of Uavid, and in theni ba make* 
eonilwit UH of (be book of Saninel Ibr or 
portion of bii biatorj. Indnd, it ii hii eiduali 
autborit; for hli account of Saniunl and Saul, and 
hi) main anthDritj, iii conjunction with Uie Giron- 
ielca, Ibr the hittor; of l>arid. Yet bo nonliert 
attempt] to name Uie author of the book of Sam- 
uel, or of any part of it. Thrra ii a ainiUar lileiict 
Id the Mlabna, when, however, the infennce from 
■nob lilCTice ia far Icaa cogent. And it ii not until 
w< eome to the Babj'laniBn Genian, which ii lup- 
poMd to hai« been conipieted in ili preairnt forin 
■imewbcn about COO a. n., that anj .lewlah alate- 
m«Dt mpecting tba autboribip can ba poiuled out, 
■ad then ii )• Ibr the fint liiiie asurted ' " ' 
Balhm, fol. 14, c. 2), In a paauge alnadj i 
to, that " Samuel wrote hi) book," i. e. aa th( 
Implj, the book which heart bia name. But thli 
atatament cannot be prored to have baen made 
aarikr ttian 1I>5U j«ui alW the death of Samud — 
a bnger period than hna ebipied linca the death of 
the ^peror Conatantine ; and uimipported aa the 
■tatament ii by reference to anj authoril/ of an.i 
klDd, It would be unworthj of credit even if it 
■en not oppoacd to tbe Internal evidenoe of the 
book itaelf At the leiinj of Inming, an opinfou 
waa propounded by Abarttanel, a leonied -lew, 
t A. 1>. lliUS, that the book of Samuel waa written 
bf tba propliet Jeremiah <■ ( bj Aug. I'fnlKr. 
I^piig, ieB6J, and thia opinion waa adopted bj 
Hugo Urotim {Prrf, nd LUrvm prioitnt Jiom- 
Hi/u). with a general lUleniant that iJiere waa no 
diacrepancy in the languuge, and with onl/ one 
■peclal reference. Notwithltanding the eminence, 
howarer. of tbeia writen, (hla opinion muit be re- 
jected aa highly improbable. Under an; circum- 
■tanoea it oould not be r^gudad aa more than a 

tenanceil by pecuiinr aimlUritj' of laiiguage, or of 
atjia, between tlie hialory of Samuel and the wHt- 
li^a of Jeremiah. In our own time the moat 

pmaleot idea in the Ang^loan Cbotel miam k 
^ hate been that the fint (wentj^nr '.hapten of 
thoae I tbe book of Samuel were wtittai by tbe ptvpbct 
hiuaaH, and the net of (he cbaptcra by the prt pbeti 
Nathan and Gad. Thia ia U>e rlew fovored bj 
Mr. Home IM'-odiulioti (u the Half Seriplvra. 
ed. 1846, p. 46). in a work which haa had Tery ea- 
(anali-e circuUtton. and which amongit many revl- 
era baa been the im]y work of the kind conauiled 
in England. If, however, the authority adduced 
'" ■■- - ■ ■ ■■ ij iffliDd ti 

■ Ptabanir Illtid(, In 

ha polnta ddc. lat. •<>•«■ 
riBllarlty of 1>di:iu«> t 

! opimor 


ining U, 

ridence for Ihii ogdnkm In Iba 
i baa been already indicated, and It b diS- 
undenland how (he opinion ooold have hen 
atamped with real >alue through Ita adoption hj 
leamnl Jewa called Talmud!^ cr by learned 
Chtlitiana called Fathera of tbe L'htiatian Church, 
who iired aubaeqnentl)' to the publication of (ba 
Talmud. I'or (here it not (be iligh(e>t reaaon far 
auppoting that in the jnr £00 a. D nthcr Jewa or 
Chriatlana bad acceis (o tnutwon 
Ll>jn:t which have not bee 

not be ihown t 

at Uiey had 

any better meant of 

till) pwn( (ban 

we have. Two dr- 


ributed lo the adop- 

growth of 

1 the author 

wbicb ad> 

claimt lo 

ailj, the n 


Jiakljou of u 

nnibignoua paia^^ 

in the Hntlkmkofa 

Ihoritiea for the life of David. Tbe'flrat 
ir«i no comment. On tbe aacood point 
obterred that the (oUowing appeart to 
be tbe correct (rantlatkin of tba paiaage in quo- 
Now tbe biatory et David Arat and laat, 
behold it ia written in (be biatory of Samnd tba 
teer, and in tbe htttory of Nathan (be prapbet, 
and In (be bit(ory of liad the teer'' — in which 
the Vlehrew word dibtti, here tnnalated "lii» 
(dry," ban the tame meaning given to it each of 

■9 that 

I OHxl. 1'hii 

In the Septuagint, which it partioD- 
larly worthy of attention in reference to the Chroo 
' ay theCbroiiiclea an theiwy last work in the 


n the Ii 

ttid wbetl>er thii iroae frani their 

ito tbe C 
ipotfit, it it tcarcely pmbabte (hat any 
ill tba Septuaziiit. with one great ex- 
ception, w.-u made to toon after tbe couipoution of 
the original- 1'he rendering of the Septuagfnt it 
by tbe «'ord ^iym. In tbe tnae, to well known 
in HemdotuB. <^ ■>hia(ar;" (i. 184. ii, IBl, tL 
137), and iu tbe like tenie in the Apocripha, 
wherein i( it uwd to deaeribe the biitnry of Tobit, 
B<$\Bi kiyvt Tt/Bir. The word "biatoy*' 
"'tc^icAfc) ia Uhewiie tbe word four tiaiea uied 
Jie trantlitiun of thla paaaige of the Chroolelti 
l.ulher't lUbla, and in the modem vnian of 

bavlnl bean plaead (Hlcrig, Dit Aahnn, pf 
ITbttber th* oonduMon la «mei or Ineir 
t It a l^dmatt moOt ot iiMtmlin, and thaa 


rf tta iBOud Dr. ZatH (Balin. 1808; In Ihe 
Easlirii Vtmm, bomnt tlw wo.-d iStrti b (fan*- 
ktcd in the flnt lutmnec •'■oti" u iipplKd lo 
Darid, ukI Um " book" h ipplM to S-mueL 
Nirtbui. ml Gid ; ud Iha*, thrsuKh Um inibi- 
piitj of tba mri "book " Iha pouibilit; i> iitK- 
gatfad tbat eKli of titan thm propbcU wrote m 
book nqirctuig hi* owd lifc uid tima. 'Vb'a 
douUa rcndcHDg of Iht nine wonl in one pumge 
■OBI wbaQj itudmiMible; » 'u *1m, tbougb in ■ 
1b^ dffpzwi, tbe tniiaimtioii of tfibrei m "booVf'' 
lot vhkh IboQ ii i dittiitct IJebrfv word -^ 
•^ptcr. And it ninj be deemed monllj certain 
ttot ttaii ptMige of tbe ChroDtclee ie no aiiUiorHT 
br tb* fspi">*>tioii tliM, wbcD It wu written, in; 
■Dtk «u in oMtOin of iriiicli eitber Old, Na- 
than, or Sunod wm tbe mnthor.o 

3. Altbougfa the uthonbip of tba iuok of Smi- 

th ii evidence 
rartber b«k, but tbera nonld be itiU ■' lotnl *b^ 
•enoe at ou-Iitr ntcrniJ eridtoca on tbe luljeci 
than !• contained in the Chroniclx. If, bowefor, 
inal«ad of bwkiiij; iolely te tbe eitsiul H-idnioe, 
the internal eridence reeptctinff tbe book of 

tiona a* lo tbe dale of tbe work. And jet eren on 
tfaia pant do predoon b atttdnabka, and we miut 
b* aatirfed with a cmuecttim aa (o the range, ddi 
tt jean or decades, bat of centnrlo, witbin wbioh 
11m hiatorj *« pmbablj eompoaed. Eridenn on 
tUi hewi ia tjtber eitemal or IntamaL TV earii- 

to be the Graek tranilation 
: The euct date, bowerer, 

lioo of tbe Pentateuch in the rngn of llolemj 
PbitoddphiM, who died b. c. 347, and tbe centnrj 
taAm the birth of ariri^ Tlie neit beat eileninl 
UatinKHij ii that of a pauage in tba Second Book 
af Haceabeea (Ii. IS), in which it la aid of Nebe- 
B^ah, that ■•h*, fonnding a librarj, )i*<l>er«d to- 
gMb> Ih* acta of tbe kiiisa, and ihe pmpbcta, 
•Dd of Darid, and tbe e|HiiIlea of Ihe kings eon- 
eanioe the hot; Klfla." Now, aHhongh ihia piu- 
■if* MDDOi be itlied on for pmnn); that Nebe- 
d in fact (TO' fiiuud tueb a Lbrar.T,* 

. He doabled tbat thh phiaae waa in- 
Modal to itidade the \iook of Sutiucl, which in 
ro Artt booka of Kingi in tlie 
tbae it external evidmct that 
A ef Samud waa writt«i before tbe Second 
Book el HaBcabeea. And ]Mti]y, the paaage in 
(be ChnmietDi alned; qoalid (1 Chr. nil. 39) 
■eiDB hkewlMi to pnne eitemalij tbat tbe book 
of aaonid nw written before the Cbnmlclea. Thia 
ii not abaolntrij cert^n. but it ieemi lo be the 
BOit BOtoral inftrenee (rom the worrii that th* bia- 
lerj of DatU, lint and lait, ii eontained in tht 
Umary of Samod, tbe biitra-}' of Nathan, and the 
hbtorr of GwL Ftv aa a work baa come down lo 
m, entitled Samnd, which conUina an acooDnt of 
the lib of DaTid till witbin a ahort period befora 

the rule of rriigioua ol^ 
tbe Mosaic Law an fiiiailjr 
leboiafa were not lawful 
anjwbere but before (lie door of the TBbcmacle ot 
the congreiKtion, wlirtber (hii mt a pennanent 

hia death, it appeata moat reaasnabla to Bonelnda 
(although thIa point ii open to diiput«] that tht 
writer of the Chronieiti reArred U> tbii work bj 
tba title Hittorj oT Samuel. In tbit cue, admit- 
ting the date aa^^ed, on internal grounda, to the 
Chroniclea bj a modem Jewish writer of undoubted 
leaniinK and cridciil powen, Ibtre would be eiler- 
liitenoe of tbe book of fjam- 


I. 3!). 

13, 1 

i. 3, 4; 1 



hook of Samuel, tbe oAering of (acriflcei, or 
the erection of allsn, which iDi{%e> iacriftcei. la 
ioned at aeitra) plaoea, auch at MiEjieh, Ka- 
mah, Bethel, tbe IhrHhing place of Arauiiab the 
.lebnitle. and ei»«her8, not only without any dia- 
■ pprobation, a^iok^y, or exjilanatton, but in a uraj 

wne pleadng lo Jehovah (1 Sam. ni U, 10, IT, 
■1. 13. I. 3, iIt 35; 3 Sara. iilt. 16-35). Tbi* 
circnnittsnce pointe lo the date of the book of 
Samud aa Mirlier Uian Iha reformation of Jovab, 
when llilkiah Ibc hi^h-pri«t [old Sbapban tbt 
icriiie that he had found the llook of the Iaw in 
the hniue of Jehovah, wtini tbe Paaaorer waa kept 
u WHi enjoined ki that book, In a wax lu*' no 
I'lMuitr had been holden tinea the daji of tba 
Judge*, and when the worahip npon hi^-pbioci 
waa alvliilted lij' the kliig't orden {! K. iiii. 8, 
iiiii. S. 13. lA. 1». ai, 331. The prababilitj that 

would hue npreated dtBpprobalion of^ or would 
bare aMounted for, an; xeniiiig departure (h>ni Ihi 
lawiofUie Pentateuch by David, Saul, or SamuPl 

ilderalioni it la entitled to ]<eculiar Wright. Th* 
natural mode of dealing with iiKb a rdiginiii scan 

il. when It sbocki ttt ideaa of a later Jtriiemtioii. 

tdlowed by tbe author of the book of King*, who 


MxiDBbtodiT Gnd kUr tkao Um nfcrnatioB at lo- 
llih. or tbui tl» btgiiuuDg, mt kul, of llw sqitiT- 
KjafJndoli (as. uT. ai, ST). Thli miter B»- 
UoD* Ua loletkUai of WDnblp db Ugh-pken iriUi 
iimppntMiuk, Mt onljr in coudmUod «ith bkd 
Vtofft ■ocb ■■ MwjmmIi M>d Abu, bat liktwiH u 
m dimwbMk ts th» eueUcDM of oUier kiDgt, neb u 
Am, Jdwdiaplut, Jdwuh. Aoiiuili, Aufiab, uid 
JoUiBDif who mn piuHd for hariDg dona what vu 
rigbtlntfasiigbtof Jihonfa(lK.iT. U,uU. U; 
I K. xU. 3, lit. 1, IT. 4, SS, itL 4, ui. 8]; toA 
tomeihrng of tba mat hind might bna btco <i- 
pKlcd in tbg wnt«r of thi book oT Sunwl, If ha 
hid Uicd at a time wbas Iha wonhip «d hlgh- 
pbcM had been aboUibcd. 

a. ItliinaccordaDaewUh tfaiaMrljdataoftta'a 
book of Swuuel that alliulotii in it oraa to tba 
■latarc* of UoMt «• w few. Altn tba rcttm 
ban tba Captirily, and Bxm a|iacii% after Iha 
abangia Intioducad bj Ezra, Moaaa bacaaia Lhat 
gmt cculnl figura la tba lhDii(;hti and langnaga 
of dtvout Jeot Kbich li< could not fail to be (tbaoi 
ail the lam of Ibt PcnMleueb wen obKmd, and 
Dicy wen all refined tn him as lh« diiine pnpbei 
wbo coniDiuniialed them dit«cUj froai Jehoiah. 
rhia Innacerdant importance of lloeea mu«t al- 
ready hare commeneed at the finding of tbe Book 
of Ibe Law at the nfonnaUon of Joaiih. Now It 
ii remarkable tbat the book of Samuel ia the bii- 
lorical work of the Old Tertament in which tba 
Dame of Uoac* ooeun moat nrel}'. tn Jothna it 
Dcsuia M timeaj in Chronicle*, i'^ira, and Nelia- 

In Jodgea thna timrij but in Samuel onlj twice 
iZuiUL, Vorh-igt, SG). And It Is worthj oT not* 
that in each cue Moaee b merely mnitioued with 
Aaron u banng brought the lituclila oot of tba 
land of l^ypt, but nolhiog whalaitr it eaiil of the 
Laa of Most* (1 Sam. xii. 6, 8;. U ma; fca 

omisaion of the name of Moaei, Leauae. inasmuch 
as tba Lou ot Moece, at a wbole, was tTidentl}' not 
*cl«cl on in the time of Sunuel, l^arid, and Solo- 


. St-tt). Aiahi, k gMi^ an auiiil • 
tha puniihmoilB with whleh the laacHtaa mm» 
Ifatealened for diiobedienta of Ibe l«w hj M«e> it 
the book of Devtarooomj, Joaephw allribnlei la 
Mae* the threat tlial iImt teaipk tbauU be buutd 
{AntAt.i,\m-_ Bat no paMs* can be painted 

ccnn ; and In fact, MCOtdiiK to tb* lexiTad ehi»- 
lokig; (1 K. tI. 1), Of according to anj ebrcDol- 
ogj, the Snt leoapit at Jenualen »u not bnill liH 
•oma centHiita after tb* death of Hmc*. Yet thk 
aOuaion to Ibt bnrnlnfi of ao anbnik tempi* eiigt4 

of the h 

an hittotiaa who deacribe* peat ertnU lo glee na< 
eoDtdouit)' iadlcatiotit of hu Ueing bimaelf at k 
lats epoch. SimiUr naiaika applj to a taiHga 
• ' plrot (.diU. Til. *, i J), In which, giTing to 
; of Darid'a prqject to bnlld a tempW at Jv- 
I, ha taji that Daiid jaifmn* 
for (iod, "aa Hoaa eouaianded,-' tboagh 

bte ha lire 

11 fM' a 


r, bow«. 


TttJ ran Indeed for later writen to teftuin In Ihii 
wa; from importing tba idea* of Uieir own time 
Into tb* aeeonni of earlier Inntulioat. Thus, 
Tcr; earlj in the book of Kingi there it an allusion 
to what it "written in the Uw of Moaia" (1 K. 
U. 3). Thut the auUior of the book of Chronicles 
makea, for the reign of Llaiid, a cakulatlon of moot; 
hi Aa-ia, a Peraian coin, not likely to have b««D 
in common ute among tb* Jewi until the Peraian 
domination bad l«en fully olablisbed. 'iliua. 
more than once, Joacphua, in bis Antiquiiitt of 
Iht Je'n, attrjbulca eipmaione to peraonagee in 
Ibe Uld Tcstamint whiiji an lo be accountad for 
b; wbat waa familiar lo bis own mind, although 
they are not jiuliflod by hi* anthoriliea. For ta- 
ample, evidently copying llie bitlory of a tnuiiac- 
lion Erom the book of Samuel, be ivpneanta the 
propliel Samuel aa exhorting the peoplB to bear in 
mind " the oode of la*i wfaich Hoaea bad gimi 
Ibeni" (T^t H-Mm »o>u>»w(«i. Ant. H. B, { 3), 
though there it no mention of Moao. or of hit leg- 
MlalhMi, hi the eonetpondin; punge of Samad (1 

e Aa eovpared with Sunual, Iha peenllailtliB of 
lb* PenlataiKb are not quiu at ItilklDg as th* lUbr- 
BSH la laBfaafl batweto LueratlBt and Vlr(U ; lU 

th* pradonioanl idea Id hb mindi butUoaea 
■vuki not neeeaauily be of cigaal Importance lo a 

llebfB* hitlorian wbo liiid be&ta I 

ll lalliu with an early dale (at th* «Dmp». 
of tin' book of iseiDU^ that it it on* ot Iha 
pecimriit of iltbrcw proet in tlie golden aga 
ilTcw literalare. In pmaa it hoUt lb* tama 
pkic* Kbieb Joel and llw ondiapnted prc^ibeoMt cf 
iMtiab hold in poetical ur prophetical langa^a. II 
is free liHa the peedliaritieB f the book oif Jodgea, 
wliicb it is prc^oted to accoaul [or by lappcaing 
lhat Ibay bek;n|^ lo Ihe popubr ditint of Noithem 
PalHliue: and likewise from Ibe stiKhtpeculiarlliM 
Ibe PentAleucb, wblcb it la proposed lo regard aa 
arcbaitint'' ((ieaoiius, Hibtta l^rammar, ( % ft). 
1 it a striking coi^trait to the kncuane of the booh 
il Cbronidn, wbicb undeubledly lieloup to lb* 
ilrer age of lldirew proec, and il do*t nol contain 
■ muiy alleged CbaUaiamt •* tlie few in lb. book 
if Kinga. Indeed Ihe number of (Jhnldaiamt in Iba 
book of Samuel wliich tba meet rigid scrutiny haa 
sled do nut amoant to mole than about aii 
leae. tome of litem doubtful unn, In 80 pagea 
' modem I lebrew Hilik. And, conwdrttiig Iba 
Kcno^ pDiily of Ihe lenguaL'e. il ii not only pcaai- 
Mo, but proUble, that llie [rifling neiiluum of I'taal- 
daitint may be owing to ll]e inailiateace of L'bal- 
dee eopj ilia, when llebnw bad ceated lo he a liring 
kuguagc. Al tbe laiu* time tbia argnatent froa 
'nngiiage aiuri iiul be |iuihed ao fu at te impl] 
iiat, tlwidlng aloae, it would b* coneiurim fat 
uuic wrilioga, llie dole of which It about tlie tinw 
if th* C'aptiiiiy, are in pure Hebtcv, nieh aa Ibt 
propheciea of llabakkuk, the I'salmt ell., ciutli^ 
ciuii., pointed out liy Ueaei^ini, and by far tbt 
krgcat portion of the kller part of Ihe prophacica 
allributcd 10 " lni>b " |i1.-bn.). And we hae* 
not tuHicicnl knowledge ot Ihe condition of Iha Jew* 
al the lime of the Caplitily, or Ibr a lew cenlnria 
after, lo entilla any one to attert that Iheie waa na 

brew. Still thebsknceufprobaliiKulnclinetlolbt 
contmry direction, and, ms a tubiidiary argument 

LvQetlus' iraat posou w 


Mparitraf Uagmgt at lb* baak d gumd !• 

rioD d the Ten IVibo. Thin radti 
^i io I Sum. nrlL B, wbsrsiB tl !• Hid of U>- 
■U. "Tba Aekkta g*i« kin ZMi^ thit da;: 
■btfti« Zikbf pcrUiiHtli nnu tin Ungi of Jd- 
^ onto Una d&j.- " tbr MitlMr SmI, [tend, dot 
SgloBOB ia fa) m dngb inateiM nlkd kinj; of Jd- 

*k riBpl;. It U ITM Ibtf lllTld i* Hid, ID om 

nmtin ra^aetinf him, (•> hue Ri|;Hd In llebnn 
■1^ jan aad aii oxNitli* omt Jndah (S Satn. v. 
•) batas ha nigiMd ta Janmlsni thlrtj-lfane 
j^arcrd toad and Jadah: but b« k, nolwtUi- 
MandiDg, DCKT drvgnatad by tha titla King of 
Jiidah. Brfbm tha awcaaion, tba •ie^i^tion of 
Iba khw* n« that thtj imie kingi of Ivad (1 
SaoL dH. 1, IT. 1, itI. Ii I San. t. 17, viii. 15; 
1 K. tt. 11, it. 1, Tl. I, d. U). K nnj laMj. 
ll»aiAaa. ba unnad that tba boah at Saniwl 
idbU dM han edMad in Hi piciadt form 

d tha t 

;. 975. If ■ 

ttalD indieatidiH bil ua. The n| 

lUa day," mad ktctiI tima in 
1. T. I, Tl. 18. ni. aS; ! Satn. j' 
tothannofH in thcpu 

rbo coptojed It lind » 

b^ a eenturr. after tbo« ennta. The a 
■k ipf^n W the pbraae, " HwirioTe rt tisQ 
narb, 'I* Saul among the Pnjphrti?" 

SAifUEL, itoobs or 2829 

maj ba their pesnllariUia of laoicnagii or Uj^. IImj 
do net nflbH malrHali for a Bile infrmiee at ta 
which of tbdr autLon wai Jikdj to haie bem eon. 
Utaponry with the aothor o/ tbt book of Samurf 
AH that eu he aaaerted ai undeulahle ii, that tha 
book, aa a whole, can tcaro^j hare heen ajnipoeed 
hter than tha rrfonnatkni of Jcatah, and that H 
could not have niated Ln rta pment Ibnit earliR 
tbao the relicn of lieboboam. 

It it to be Miiiot that no great weif^t, in cfipo- 
ion Id thii eonduiion, ia due to the S$tt that ilia 
death of [>avid, akhoogli in one paaaage evidently 
id (ISara. r. t), iinotdirectJj rwDrded in the 
of SamueL I'rtm tha (act HsTenilck {Kin- 
. . g i*dat AUe Tttlanmt, part ii., p, IW) 
d<«tni it a cotain inftreiKe that tba author lired 
not kinic after the d«lh of Uirid. Rut thia is a 
very titght fotindaiiuii for lueh an infiwcnce, ilnce 
' low Dothiug c( the anthor'4 name, or of tha 
iiatitiicet under which he wrote, or of hii prfr 
ievH re^pectiok^ whnt ii required of in hiat^y 
We canihOt, therefore, amert, from theknowl- 
,. jf the cbanctfT of hli mind, thU h>a denning 
It logieullj requii te to make a fumial itatcment 
of thi\id'* denth Wiiuld haie dtpeiided co tdi liring 
a thoit tine or a Ion;; tinie after that erent. Ue- 
lidefl, it Ii Terj poaaibie that lie did fomiaUj rreotd 
it. and that the mrntioii of h wu ■ul.aeqiieiitly 
on>ilt«4 « acconnt of the nme minute delaila l>; 
which (he atonunt of Ilatld'a dnith ii pteceded 
in the Firat U>.4 of Kli.m. IlKre woukl hare 



n botba 

tain tut tha 

fAtrlhatnddaata to which be alJndea. 

oar, Iha nriou tndilioiu reapectinx 

b wfaieh Sawl Rnt baeaan acquainted with David 

(1 SaBL ni. 14-aa, irlL. M-68| — ntpectinir the 

wmmt of eul'i death (I Sam. mi. 2-6. 8-13; 

S Sam. L t~l3l — do not nneavirily iltnw that ■ 

Hf} lodC Ifaoa (myenn a oentflrr) ebpv^ tdween 

Ifei Mtoal •nnti and the remrd'of the traditi<n<. 

Ib an a^ aoterkw to the eiMemee of newipnpen 

Irw ewdd lead, thirty or tbrty yean, or eten leu. 
law becB aaflScient for the gnnrth of different tra- 

Ibe lanie htMorieal fact. Laitly. 

4 langua^^ lendi no aanitfanrr 
■ ' ' "Z yearc within 
•Udi (ke beak may baw bem written: for the 

id if* emnparatiiely dm, and not one of them 
" - hleh wontd ptaaetit the beat pirinfa 

V of foei, AiDOi. Hon, Mbeafa. Xahui 

■in poctianof thewriliBgamidK-thetitk 

The whole of theae writlnga together 

mated la oeenpyinK more " 


Ihet>»k iif Saniudi for, 
thoH who finally iiiaerted it in llie <'aiion did 
; tnnunit it la posterity with the name of any 
ticular nuthor, their hooetty waa hnolred, not 

adding anything, but ioJeJy L 
adding nothing which Iliey \ 
itlmg nothing of im| 

the hrt of theb 


In thia abxilute ignonnee of llie autlwr'i name, 
and lague ktiowleilge of the date of the work, 
-' ' ' whether the book of 

I if thi 

ii decided in tlw af- 

work ia a coniMlatios 
ftdlybere ii 

It ia out inieniled to eiitr 
traveny, reapectiiig wliieb the reader i> relemd t( 
llr. Ilavidaon'i luh-ahtt-tiiu to il,t Vrilicil Stud^ 
and Kmripit^iff of Hit //i<fg Scj-ipfureg^ London, 
Lon^ifan, 1650. m which thii anljed ia diipaa. 
nonitely and iairly treated. One ul*B^vtian. how- 
evw, of aooie practical iiiifUrtance, li to be bonir 
in mind. It doei not admit of much leaaonable 
doul* that in the bi>ok of .Sunud there are two 
diiftrent aecuunta (almdy alluded to) rtapeettng 
Savl'i Ant lequaintanee with Uaiid. and the cir- 
ciimaUncn of Saul'a death — and that jet Ilia 
editnr or anlbcr of the book did net ia bii miud 
work upon these two diffiprent aeeotmta «o ^ u t< 
uahe bin interjioae hii own ofpiiioii aa to which 
of the oonflicting aeoounti wai correct, or even to 

Suil-i death. 

And ii 

it an original hi 

aot the lem true, even if tla 
aceond account be OeeDied neoncHahla with tha irM 
b- the auppoailion that the Amakkile hid hbtl- 
eiled the itary ef Ui baring klUed Saul (i Sett. 


L d-lO;. Ahboogb powiUj Irue, tbii h u an- 
Gkdj (uppavUsD, becauw, m the Airskklla'a ob- 

«rt Id B 11a would hini bacn to cutty fnot wiUi 
David, it would h»8 b«u uslunl for biui to have 
4>rgfld Kaae itoi7 wbich would hate irdoundfd 
mora to hia own credit Ihic Lha cIuujbj and im- 

Cbsble statement Ibiit he, a merecuuil >pectalor, 
. kilted Saul at Saul'i owd request. But whether 
the Amdeklts K^d wlwt wm tnie or what wai 
Uie, an biitorian. m dietinguiahed from a compile, 
omild ■cued)' hare foUed to convey lii> own opinion 
on the point, aflkctiiig. u on one alleniatita it did 
material!;, the truth of the namtive which be had 
juat before recorded reapecdng the circunKloncot 
under which Saui'i deitth occumd. And If coni- 
|»1ation ii admitted in ngard to tbe two eventi 
Jutt nenlioned, or to one of Ifaeni, there ii no 
antecedent impnibabUity that the tame maj have 
been Uia caw in other iiutanco: tuch, for eiam- 
pls, aa the two eiplanstiona of the pioverb, '■ la 
Saul alto arnon); the Pnipheta? " (1 Sain. x. 9-19, 
ill. 23-31), or the two accomilt of David'i having 
fbrbome to take Saul's life, at the very lime when 
be wat a furtive tnm Saul, and hia own life wat 
In danger from Saui't enmity (1 Sam. uiv. 3-15, 
iivi. T-12|. Tbe lame remark appiiet to what 
nam to be tummarioa or eiulingt -* narr^ic* by 
difl^rent writers, such at 1 Sam. til. li- V, 1 Sam. 
F. 4T-G9, compared with chapter ii*.-, 3 Sam. 


•a a povltiw geDcnd ooneluaion. U La oaily quLttt 
twice in the whole BiMe, once aa a woik eontainlag 
Datid'a LamenlatloD over Saul and Jonathan (i 
San. L IS), and aacoudly, ti an authority for tte 
etatenienl that the tun and moon atord atill at Ibt 
command of Joahua (Joah. a Id). Tbtn can b« 
no douH that the lamentation of I'>a^ id It a poem ^ 
and it it moat prohai>le that the othrr puaag* 
rderred to aa written in the book of Jttbcr in- 
clude* lour linca of Hebrew poatry," thaUKh ibr 
poetical diction and rbjthm of the original an 
aomewliat impdred in a tiantlation. But tbe onl) 
lound deduction from these bctt it, that the book 
of Jather containol tome poema What elar M 

tiicly. Without referanoR however, to the bocA <il 
Jather, the book of Sanmd coiitaint •evenl poetical 
compoaitiona, on each of which a few obatmOioaa 
ing with the poetiy sf 

iii. 1&-1I 

, if « 

Bbaolutely iiolated. 

eontaiiisd no other inalance of compilation, tli 

Infacence to be drawn might be - - 

.libtion iiaa been 
work, all other teeming 
1 in ite liitiit, and it would 
be unreaaouahle (o conlett each of them tingly, on 
srinciplee which imply that compilation it at un- 
ukely aa it would tfl in a work of modern biatory. 
it ia to be added, that at the author and the 
prwiee date of the book of Samuel are unknown, 
ita hittoiical talua it not Impured by ita being 
deemed to a certain eitent a ooni[Jlatioii. Indeed, 

lempoimneout, or neatly ao, with tlie eventa dfr 

Sovrcet D/'tA< Soot o/SnmwJ. — Atauming that 
tbe book U a oompilation. It ia a auhject of rational 
Inquiry to atoertain the materiala from which It 
waa compoeed. But our inlbmiBtion on thu head 
ia acanly. The ool; work actually quoted in thii 
book it the book of Jaaher; i. e. tiie irook of 
tbe UprigbL Notwithatanding tbe grent leaming 
wiiich bu been brought to bear on tliit title by 
nunierout oommentAlort [vol. ii. p. 1215], the 
meaning of the title muat be regarded u aWlntelj 
unknown, and the character ol the book itaelf aa 
uncertain. The beat coiuecture hitherto offered at 
an induction (Irom facta ia, tbat it wat a hook of 
Voamt; but the fiuti an loo few to eatabiith thit 

D QllieDn!" may aatlaiy talDHl 

Mctlng Iba Itnaliltt la note Ihej wi 


tbtough David't having e 
the children of Judah (3 Si 
admitted to be tbe gennii 

taught to 
IZ), It universally 
ductiiHi of David. 
vantage over tb* 
Paalma; aa, owing to the uulbrlunate inaocunej 
of tome of tbe inacriptiona, no one of the pealma 
attributed to David haa wholly aacapcd ehalknga. 
One point in the Ijunenlation etpecially mrrita 
attention, Ibnt, contrary to what a later puet would 
have ventawd to rtpretent, David, in the generotltf 
and tendemeaa of hia nature, touudt the praitet of 

(2.) Davld'i 1 Jiuienbition on th* dfnth of AbnB 
(S Sani. ilL 33, 31). Tlieie it no teaaon to doubt 
the genuineneat of tliii abort poetienl qaeulation. 

(3.) 3 Sam. uii. A Soni{ of llavid, whieh ia 
introduced wil^ the intciiption that David apok* 
tlie worda of the ton); to Jehovah, in the day that 
.Tehovah had deUvrred him out of the band • ' " 

with a few 


iportant verlial diOivencea, ia 
ith Paalm, which beara lubttaiitially 
the aame iiiKription. For poetical beauty, tbe 
lOiig It well wortliy lo be the production of l>aTid. 
llw following diffieultiet, however, are connected 

out of the hand of aU hia 

-out of the hand of Saul" 

tbrtf yean alter Saui't daalb (2 Sam. 

it wat at king that he acliieiH the n 

Moreover, the piahn it evidently introdueed at 
oompnaed at a Late period of hia life; and it imtu*' 
diately precedea the Iwentv-thinI chapter, which 

worde of David." 
that tl>e nan^o of Sh 
a hottility, to &r d 

Hit wo*, bjDHidinhlfDoblBluMO- 

Ih.) In Uk liiung not (8 Sun. nu. bij, J*- 
bvnb a ipolun of la ibowiDg " nwny I 
OKiintid, Ddto Uivid utd hli md fbr ercni 
Thtat wordi iKiuld b« p»ni natunllj wiiUcD i^ 
Dwid tbu tj Uifid. Tbej nu;, bowew, be ■ 
hKr MiditiaB; u it owj be obKiTBl tbat M the 
fnamtdij, DDtirithitiiidii^ Uw Bfegninl of priut- 
ng, Uw pcctial wtitiop of liTiDg auLbunm ooor- 
riDoiUj iltaid, tdd it anut b« tMtd dufigured, 
in i>iBlad hjoio-baokt. SlUI, u br u Uiej in>, 
tfat wofd* l«od to nise & donkt wbellier Uis pulai 
■H ■nnco b; Daiid, u it cumot ba ji'omf that 
tttf *» an ■ddiltui. 

(e.) Id nne {luiigH of <Jk pnlin, tb« lUDOg- 
mI HaKlioiii >R aaii)» of (b« pogt't aprigbtneM 
■Bd pniitj. Ha m;* of bimtdf^ " AMording In 
Ito elfcnf of mj handt taith Ha neampeiDed 
DM. For 1 have Iwpt tiw vmjt of J«bovah, and 
hsra not wickedly departed bom mj Gad. For all 

npriitbt bckin Him, ud ban kept niyielf from 
mina Uqail; " (uil. 21-M). Now it n a luttjact 
of ftawcihle lutpiriM that, at uy pFriod after tb« 
(■infill inddeaU uf bia liA to ttie maUcr of Uriah, 
Uarld fthoold have lued tJui koguage eoncerniii^ 
binutlf. AdmiUiiiE FuUt that, in oonaeiiiHiee of 
tu< (iucre and biUer conliiliuo, " Cl 
teitof ir 

K> Tar in bia uae 
ncpectisg bia own Dj^btnaa in put tinin, 
nokg bim forgat Uiat he bad oikw Iwu betrajed 
kj bia puaiDna into adulUri and murder. Tbfae 
aaatftiona, if made hy Itevid bimielf, would fumi 
a atrikiog oontraat to the tAids bumilitj and aaJT- 

• gnat liiiog geniu of ipotleaa cbanKlH'. '" 
» Oukliaii Year," SOt Amvlny njla' T.-imti, 


L a-7). 

if Duid '- (3 

WH eompcHd bj " Dvrid tfai aoo of Jeaae, Ibe ma 
who waa raiaed up on bigb, the anointed of tb 
God of Jacob, and tfaa ineet paalmiit of Imiel. 
It ia wggeatal hj Uleek, and ia in itidf va; pmb- 
aMe, that both tie paako aiid the inacription 
lakftt frotn aome eoiWetioti of aonga or pi 
Then ia not aaffici«it raaaoo to dcoj [hat thia aoug 
■ tnmOlj Hcribed to David. 

(S) On otiitf aoDg mnaioa, which ia pe 
tb* moat poplndng In lfa« hook of Samml. Iliii 
ia the Song of Hannah, a wife of EUunah (1 Sam. 
i. 1-10). 0» difficullj ariaea from au atluaton 

*ah, manj jon beJbre the kiuglj pows* waa 
aataLliihed anxme the imeJitM. Another equally 
grait diUieulty ariaea from tha Internal ebancter 
of the long. It purporta to be written by one of 
two viral aa a lotig of thankagiting fiir having 
home a child, altrr a long period of tkarrenneu. 
>hich bad cauaed ber to he looked dov^n upon bv 
.be othei vife of her huaband. But. deducting a 
gmcn) allmlon, in nree A. to the bamn having 
Vome aevau, than ia DOtliing in the aong peeuii>ily 
ipffieabla to the auppoaed dnniaiataiKa, and lif 
far tha greater portion of it mma to be a aong of 
oilUDph liir drlimanoe from powerfiil eoeraiea ia 
tiatUe (n. 1, 4, lU). Indeed, Thcoina doea not 
Mdtato to ooqjeetnn Ibat it wai wiilten ij Dnid 


altar ba had akin (lolialb, and the l^tliiOnea had 
been deAalad in a gnat battle IKTtgtlucia Hani- 
Imck, p. 8). There la no hiitorical wanwit for 

tba •ictorj' of Uatid oier Uotiath, 
Jian to Uannah'l baving given birth to a child 
indar tin ciRumattnoea detailed in tha Srtt chap- 
er of Samuel. It would, Iwwever, be aquallj 
ippiopriata to aome other great bMtlca of the 

In adTaoelng a aingle atop bejond the eongi of 
he Ixnb of Samu^ we enter into tbe ret^ion of 
lonjflctura aa to tbe materiala which were at tha 
soimand of tba author; and in pointa which atiaa 
far conuderatbu, we muit he aMiafled with a aoi- 
penae of Judgment, or a alight halanoe of probia- 
For eunipte, it b^ng plain tbat in eoma 

ia deiirable to funii an opinion whether 

tinct onl tnulitiont. Thli point it opeo 
to diapute; Imt the Uieurj of written docuuecta 
prefarablei aa in [he alternative of men 
<jni tniditioRi it would have bean lupeminneotlj 
jnoatuix] eren for a oompiirr \a record tbnn witl> 
M\. bUUu); tu Lit uwD pefioii tbat there were diffn- 
■nt iraditioni renpecdiig tlie mnie ereiit. Agaio, 

>r lome portiuiia of the book of Sniniiel iiaturallj 

luggeat tbe idea tbat *Vvy werr Ibitiided on eon- 

etnponrjr doeumanl* or » pnuliariy tnutworthj 

tradition. Ilii* appliei apeciatl; lo the aecouat 

ctt between l)nvid and Uoliaih, whiek 

l« deliiiht of auccHMvc generationa, 

•a equally in diHereiit way> the old and 

the younK, tba lennied aiul tbe illiremte, and whjell 

ipta ui to deem it certjiiii that [he account oiBit 

e [mceeded from an ej«-wilii»L (hi tbe other 

hand, it i> lo 1« remenibend tku vividneaa of 

otlen depend! luore ou tbe diaceming 

the uarTHtor Lhan on mere bodily 

preuuee. " It ia the miud that Kfa," au that 300 

yean tRet the meeting of tbe [»rig rarlianKnt a 

iful imaginative writer aliall ponrnj t;roniw(Jl 

I vividly tiian Ludlow, a oonteinporary wba 

' biiu and oonveraed with him. .Moreover, 

bat docribed eventa of early IIai»Bn biatory 

which educated men regnrd in their detaik aa 

imaginary: and Defoe, Swift, and the anthon of 

Tha Arnbitn NighU have dewribed e>enta whieb 

lU nun admit la be ittiat-iiiar}', with auch aeem- 

ingly authentic detaili, with inch a charm of 

reality, movement, and apbit, that it ia aometimea 

iidy by a atroog edbrt nf reaaon tbat we escape 

from tbe iUuikm that the narrativn are true. In 

the abwiioe, Iheicftre, uf any eitemal evidence on 

; ii ufer to auapend our Judgment aa 

iny portion of tbe book of ^mud ia 

he wTilin;[ of a wiiteniporary, or on a 

Indition entilleil to any peculiar credit. Hertupa 

two corueeturea reipeeting the couipoaition of 

tbe book of Samuel which are inoit entitled f 

inaidtration are— let. 11ut the list which it 

intalni of oflicen or public fuiictlonalHea nndtf 

avid ia the reault of caHte<ii|Kirary reL'iittatloni 

id 2dly. That tbe book of S 

li theac 


liropliela, or penetcHted by tAei 
tba Sttt point, tba reader ia referred 
aagea aa 3 Sam. liii. 16-18, and ii. 33-2( 
regard to which one liut may be mentioned. 
haa already been itated [Kiwc, voL 'i f,\b< 

■pint. On 

2882 BAHCEL, BOOKS or 

»ti mtdtr tlw king* tlwra oMal u oOnr 
mIU Beoorder, Rnnnnlinnow, m Chmahkr: in 
, (Mnw, iiuuMr. Now It am MHcdf U m 
•aoidmUl calnddatc* Uut tath u offloer la 
Uconj fbr Ibe Int lim« is Divid'* rrign, and thmt 
It h finisi»ei<i fbr Divld'i reign l^t ■ liat of public 
hoMiourHa ii for the Ant tima tnnmiltBi lo 
Oi. On the •eemid p<riiit. it ctuinot but be ob> 
Mmd whri pronlnenM li ftirce to propheta In 
the hiatorj, m corDpuoi with pnati ind LenUs. 
This pnnuinmM ii to d«ided, thut It DDdoubtcdlj 
BMIribBted tonrdi Uio fenrallMi of tlm Dncritlcal 
Hfdaiou that the book of Samnd ma IJie prodoc- 
Uoo of the prophet! Sumuel, Nitlun. uid Gid. 
Tliie opinion li uoiupponed bj ulontl atidctice, 
ud !■ eaalmj to lnl«nul evidnin: but it ' 
BO SHuu itoprobable (but eotne vriten unoDft the 
•m ol lit* prophela rHOrded the ulioDi of thoH 
pnpbeU. Tliia would be pecoliu-lj prolsble in 
retmnc to Nithu') rebuke of Darid tSter the 
Diiiidcr of Uinb. Niithu here preaenia tbe im^ 
ef * prophet Id iti noblmt uid moH kttnetjre Ibrtn. 
ficddneo. tcndemsi, InventirmtM, uid tut, wen 
tvmbiiied in inch mdmlnble projwitiaii*, tfait > 
prcfibet'e fuDcttoni, if ilwrnji duishir|t«l in ■ aim- 
Uw muuitr with equid diioretion, would bin b*m 
acknowledged bj lU to be punlj beneficent. In 
hii iBterpmJtion then U k kind of Ideal monl 
beiuit;. to the tcboola oT tbe pn^heta be double 
len beU the place which St. Anibraw lAanudi 
beU in the niindi of prieita hr Uw eichiaion of the 
Emperor Tbeodoiiui Ihini Ibe church at Milan after 
Ihe maaacre at HieHlonicK, It maj' he added, 
Uiat Lhe following drcumitanm are in aecordane* 
with tbe (uppoeiUon that the eompikr of the book 
of Samiid «aa conncctnl with tbe icbaok of the 
icnpbett. Tbe deeignstion el Jehonh ai the 
" Lord of Hoeti," or tiod or Hoata. doea not occur 
in the Fenlaleuch, or in Jotbua. or in Judgeij but 
it oociui in the bo«k of Samutl thirteen time*. In 
the booh of Kinga it oeonri onlj aet«n tioica; and 
Id the book of Chronicla, aa far aa tbu ia an 
ariginal or independent wo^, it imnnot be aaid lo 
•cevr at all, fbr although It ii found in lltrae paa- 
■kgea, all of thne are etidenUj copied fmw the 
biok of Samuel. (See 1 l.'hr. li. 8 — in tbe orig- 
inal, predaelr the aanM worda aa in > Sam. v. 10; 
bhI aee 1 Cbr. ini. T. S4, copied trom 2 Sam. ni. B, 
M.) Now thia phrau. though occurring ao larelj^ 

often in the book rf Samuel aa In all the other 
lilatorieal vriUngi of the Old TeiUniHit put to- 
lietbcr, li a rerj &TOrite pfanaa in aome of the 
(Craat prophetical writingi. In laaiah It occun 
■ity-two timei (rii tiuea only in tbe cbapxn xl- 
jin.;, and in Jeremiah aiity-Ave tiniae at teaat. 
tlCiin, tbe piedaninano of the Idea of tbe pro- 
phetical oflw in Samud ia ihown bj the 1017 anb- 
or liliale pkee awgned in it to the Lavilea. Hi) 
dilltnDoe between the Chrniiclaa and the book ol 


Bimiid tn tUi raneot fi em men aMU^ t^ 
their difltnnee in the iiio of the apiMMton "La*4 
of Boita: " •• though bi ■ neaaw proportion. Ii 
the whole book nl Samuel tba l.e^taa are tmt- 
tioned onlj twice (1 San. ti. IB; 9 S«n. ir. S4t, 
while In ChnolsJea the; are uieatioiied aboal thirtj 
tinua Ib lb* fiiat book aloM, which eonluDa iIm 
blat<*7 of David'a reifn. 

In oonetttko, it may b* ebaewrt that II ia tcry 
inilructira to direct the attantioB te tbe piMagu 
in Samuel and U>e (Thnoidea whidi (nM of lit* 
generally, to IbeBMUKT in whitk 

•• life of I 

,Tid blr 

on the aUle of the Hebrew mind at Iha I 

the book of Samuel a 

the ideaa preralenl amonfi tbe Jewa ai 

yean hter, at the time of the esmpilatiDD ol th* 

Chrnniclea. Sooe paaaagea coiTaapoDd almeat pa^ 

oiaelT word for word; othen agree, with alight but 

rfgniScint altoiationa. In aoaie caaaa there an 

aUikIng omiaaiooa; In atbera there are no leaa ■*• 

niwk^le additiooa. Wilboat al 

hanat tbe luliject, nnw of the d 

the two hiatoriea will be now briefly pointed out^ 

thoDgh at the aame time it ia to bo borne in mind 

that, in dnaiug infcrmcea fhoni Ihea, it woaM b« 

uacful to reiiew llkewiee all the di fti e uMa betwon 

tbe CbRmiclta and the book of Kingi. 

1. In 1 Sam. tui. 19, it ia aUled that Ibe mea 
of Jabaab Gilead took the body of Swil and tbe 
bodin of hia aona lixHn the waU of IMh.ahau, and 

piler of tbe ChnHiiriee omlle mention of tbe bon- 
ing of their hodiae, and, aa il wnntd aetni, do- 
ai^nedly; fbr he aaja that the raliaot meat <f 
Jabeah Uibad buried the bwa of Saul and hta 
■ona unds the oak in Jabeaht whenaa If Umto 



inalead of Ih^ boiieB. Pcrhapi the oliiMiielgr 
ol'Jeeled eo lUongly to the burning of bodiea UmI 
be purpoady refrained fnra reBerding aoeh a bet 
zeapecting the bodiea of Saul and ha aou, eveat 

that incldei]!.'' 

i. In the C^nuiielee It ia aetigned aa one of the 
cautee of Saul'* Mmt thai be bad a^ed eournel 
of one that bad a familiar apirit. and » hwj not 
inquiied of Jehorah " (1 Cbr. i. 13, 11); wberaaa 
in Saaiuel it ia eipreaaly elated (1 Sam. iiriiL II 
that Haul Aid iuquired of Jehorah before he eon- 
Bulted Ihe witch of hjidor, hot Ibat Jebonh bad 

«r betweeai David and labboaheth Ihe urn of Saail, 
oor at Abner'a changing ildca, nor kia aaaauai^ 
lion by Joab, nor of the aaaaHnation «f hk- 
boabetb by heohab and Bwtnak (S Sam. ii. 8-M, 

It eaiDM be prond, Ihal tha; aver banwd Ibalr da*« 
Id tarly ttaoH. I^t puaage In Am. tl. 10 la ■vbli 
noQi. 11 maj m^ralj nftt lo the burning of boiUia 
aa a aanttarj precaution in a plague ; but it ia od 
unrlDubud dial buralDg la alladed M Sw fUnt t. p 
F|n3. Tba liBnilDg>r AaaQCt) •). U| la i9J 

8AHmi<, BOOKS or 

i. ObtM- 
fMn of Crkh to MTUin dMIh by DkM' 
O* •oham rabuke of Niithw. ud Itu jMittMiaa of 
Dnid, «n all (Masd onr in uaotele rilenet in 
Cbmiieta (9 Sun. il, xU. 1-35). 

t. In tbr laeainit pnn hi Suiual <3 Sun. 
t-11) al DwM'i IHUOTiDg tin Ark 6au Kiijatb- 
nadcoT lb* piW 

M ^n bMB -in Um ptoplg Unit swa with blm,' 
nd 'all tbe booH of Unel " an Mid lo h*T« 
plaftd Mora Jekmh a 

LiTiIci Id tlxtr oiliM and "nborba." md tfan k 
mid to bki* baen aMenlcd to bj aO Iba oong 
bn. A^ain, in tha prparalJoni ithieh an 
ir t^ naaptioo of Uw Aik «( Uw Conmnt U. 
Tainibiii, nolhing ia aud of Uw Lnttaa In Sam- 
■i; vtwtaH b tba Chraiiidca Uarid h tnUcdiwcd 
a* aajlug (liat Dona ought to ganj lb* Aik of 
God bat Ilia l^avlua; tbe apaeial nnmben of tbc 
Lerila and of tba ebUdran of Aaron an then 
pta ; and Damn d Lnita an apariflad aa bat- 
faig bcco appoiatod vngsi lod plajfn on omaMaB 

»^ iri. I-fi). 

B- Tbc iDddant of Daiid'a daneing ta pohlia 
wUi all bit nw^bt bdbn Jebonh, oban Un Ark 
na bnuf^t iato Jmmita, tbe oanairioiii nmarii 
af U* aifc Miehal on [latid'i eoodaet, Itand'i 
■nawa-^ and Miehal'i ptiai«baiffiti» ara fully Ht 
brtb in Samnd (3 Sain ri ll-l:i); but tbc wbok 
nl^Eet ia Botkctl in one vane onlj In Ctaro»ioiea 
(1 Ubr. IT. 8H). On tba otber hand, no nientioo 
■a made In Ijacnuel of Uaiid'i bavln^ compaaed a 
faafaa on tbia gnat aimit: vbenaa in Cbrwiiclia a 
palm ia M fxtb wbioh Llarid ii npnatnted aa 
having dahntad into tho IuukI of Aaafih and hii 
bcthm OS tlmt da; (1 Cbr. irl 7-36). Of tbia 

M an tlw 

t tlirw oof 

The bat 

i( tba CaptintT- 

7. it ii Kalcd in Samud that IMni in bU eon- 
fuel of Meab put to death tiro thirda eithw of 
tha inhabitaiiU or of tba Hoabituh irBiy (3 Sun. 
riiL 31. Tliia bet it ooiUled in Uhiwiain (1 <Jhr 
iriii. 3), liuugh tba wordu iwd therein In am 
tkning Iba loaqDcat are •□ ncail} idaitiod with 
Ihe beginBing and tha end of tha paoat^ in San>. 
ael. tbal in Iba A. V. Ibere ii no difirawe in th< 
bajhulon of tbe two loitB, »And beuBotoMoab: 
■Bd Um MoBblMa bnaiu David'a aariaiita, and 
bnoglil giAa." 

S. Id 9 Sun. ni. IS, It !• atatad that " tbcn 
■at a battle in Gob wilb tk PhUMinea, «b«n 

• Tb. FattM (Da Wattt, Mtrsd. Is 
d allh 1 Cbr, iL It 


■on of Jaara-onglm, a Betblahamita 
(la iha original BtU kaUatkmij, ilew Goliath tba 
GHtita, tba itaff of wboaa apear wae like a wnTtr'i 
beam." In Uw paralW paaawe In the ChnniiFica 
<1 Chr. II. B) it ia Mated that " Ettuman the mr. 
of Jalr ikv l.acdinii the brother of Uoliath (be 
Gittlla." Tbiu Lacbmi, wbioh In Uw romin can 
ia lattti} part of an idJrctiTa dtanlbii^ Elhanan't 
pkee of DitlTitj, irema In tha Chmnidei to be 
Ihe (ubatanUre name of the man whom EUianan 
alair, and la )o Innalaled in the t-T^ IElha- 
VAK, i. 6Sfl r.; LAHm, U. 1681,] 

». In Saaiud (2 Sam. nir. 1) it Ii Hitod tbal, 

the anger of Jeborib baring been kindled agonal 

iMt-A, H* mored David againat Ibeoi to gire ordcn 

for (aldng a mwue of tba popubtion. In the 

Qironida (t Chr. ol. 1) it it mentioDed that 

Darld waa promkod to take a eanana of the popo- 

ktion bj Sakm. Thia kat ii tba Snt and tba 

OBlj Initanoe in wbleh tba Dame of SaMn b Intra. 

' ' ito an; hletninl book <^ tba tHd Tnta- 

nwnt. In tba Panlateuoh .lelMTah blnwK ia 

r^raenled aa baidenfaiK HhanDfa'i heart (Ei. riL 

"", ai in Uiii paMSge of Samuel He 1> aaid to ban 

ited Daiid to give onlen fbr a ceneia.' 

.0. In tba incident* coiineetad with thp tbna 

daji' peatilenee upon tinri od aeainnt of the nn- 

tue, aome bota of a lerj renukable ehaiacter an 

narrated in the (.■hnmiilee, which are not meD- 

ned in the earlier bietory. Thoa in CHionicIea 

ia italad of the Angal of Jdionh, Uwl he etood 

tween the earth and the hearni, ha'-ing a dnwa 

ord In hil hand atrptcfaed iner .lerutalem; tbal 

terwarrit Jeho>ah ooninnnrfnl the aiigd, and 

that (be uiid put up avain hit ivord into ita 

ibaUi''(l Chr. iii. ib-U). It la TurUieT lUMd 

;rer. 2111 Ukat Oman and hla four toni hid tben>- 

■elvea when thaj «iw tbe angel: aiid thai shea 

Darid (rer. 36) had l>uilt an altar to .[ehonh, and 

And bumtoflMni;! to Him, Jebonh anawend 

hin fiwa beareii \-j Are opon tbe altar of burnt. 

D&ring. Kegarding all Iheae dminitoncea then 

abwduto tilenee In tha oomponding chapter ef 

1!. Tbe ChnmldM make no mention of the bof ■ 



li. a-B) Ibat l>arid ptrmittad the Uil-eDniln to 

iciit fbr the injuriea wbioh the (;ibeoiill« had Ibr- 
lerlj ncdred from SauL Thie haifionwa act tt 
ipcRtitiDn. whioh ia not laid to haia been oom- 
»nd«l bj Jebotah (n+. I ), ia one of the moat 
. linrol ineidenia in the Ufb of l>aiid, and can 
■carcelj he eiplalned Mhemiee Ihiw bj the aoppo- 
.i.:.^ .=.1 .L_. i._.jj ..._.. ... opportunitr to 
^^■■>K nrai cvimanta to Iba 
a. for a while at leaal, infected 
>ple of tbe PhiMiciani, who 
endeararad to avert tbe aoppoaed wrath of their 
[PH-EKiciA]. It waa, 
prrbapa, wbuUy Ibreign to the ideaa of Uw Je«« 

dlber that Ihivid • 

D the italse. It la owing lo thia Out 
lubHqaeDtl; ha« tfa* name et tha Out 
lelD. Bea Knt^^ Hmulicak fia «» 


It oolj nmuna (o MJd, tiut lu Uia nunmnia 
IwtaDca wboan then la ■ clow iwtal igncniBit 
bctmsn pungei In Swmiel mnd in the CblonlcW*, 
tha KUiKt ooBcliBion leema (o be that tba Cbtwl- 
:1m nn aipied from SuniHl, uid nut thM both 
nn eopiod (rom * comoton originid. Ill » mittfT 
at thia kind, wt muit pnwcad upoa raoogniied 
prlneiplM of eriticiun. If k vriUr of eta 3d or 
tlh oriiturj nunt«d titat* o( Rainui biitnrj >l- 
DKMt pfBCiKl; in the wonJa of Li«j, no eritio woold 
bciltata to aj tlut mil auch oairslina wen cofkd 
from Uvj. It would be regarded at a nrj ioi- 
probabls bjpothnia (bit Oiej vers copiHi frum 
doeumenta to vblcb Liij and lit later hiatoriiii 
had aqiuJ aonoa, ec^iiUy ohtn no praof what' 
BTcr wai adduon! (hat an; luch original docummta 
wm III ciittence at thii tinia uf the later biattdui. 
TLe aams piueiple appUea lo the rtlalion In ■hich 
lbs Chnmida atand lo the book of StnauL lime 
a paitlda of proof that iha original docu- 


lOTj tf Somurl," in whkh it b writtMi, ddM fea 
the wrlttMi rword. The [umage csrtalnlj MMrti 
tbat th« propbota mentioned did write an aeoDiiDt 
of Uand aiid hie reign which Baa atlll extant to 
the tinw of the writer of the book of CbiunkloK. 
The qiHstion wta 


menla, or aoj oi 


atence at the tiJ 

when the Cbnoidta were conipilHl ; and la the 
ioica of auch proof, it muat be takea for fluted 
that, where there ia a doae verbal cORapoiidenie 
betweeu the two woriu, (he compiler of tbe Cbron- 
lelea Mpied paaaagra, more «' leu cloadf, rroni the 
book of Samuel. At tbe aanie time it would be 

to diiptove, (bat the oomgdler, in addition to the 
book of SuDud, made uae of other biatorical docu- 
Dwnta which ata no longer In eiiitowe. 

iAteroekre. — The 1'olk>wil>g liat of Coninien- 
tariea ii (fiian bj De Wetle: Sertarii, Seb. 

piobabilitT or impmbabilit; ol 
(beude ^muel and Chronicle*) hanng hrai writ- 
of tbe aame etenta when one froni tuch autbot^ 
waa alreadj Id eaiateme. Poaaiblj the original 
work maj hare been more full, and the proeut 
booke hare been more or le« abridged ; but in thii 
ae tbej atJU remain wbeUotkUy, contempoiK- 

Tbe ai^menta girao aboie in &ror of an earij 
date of tbeae booka are entitled to nwra weight 
liau Li thm idSowed to tbem ; eepeeially the argii> 
lent fn>ni the language doea not reqnlre to be ae 
luota qualified. The InataDceaof pure Hebrewdled 
aa bdonging (o tlie time of the L^ptiritj, with tbe 
ungle eiceT^jon of I'l. cmvii, (wblob liloo brief Is 
lupport the inftrtnee from ite language] aU belong 
.0 a much earlier date. At loat, if tiie opinion ol 
jeaeiiiua and aome other wholan he oonaidend an 
oflKt to the lolid aniumenla for their eeriier date, 
the qucation muat Ic conaidertd *n open ooe; and 
thcM hooka cannot Iherelbra he Intimately le- 
lerred to at evidence of compoaitlona in pun Ue- 
ew aa late aa the time of tbe Captivity. 
On the other hand, tbe arKUmenta in ftnr of 4 
■upaiBtlvelj hie dale trquire important qualiOc^- 

i, Haur. ammr 

; Jo. Dm. 

•U, Amtotall, tn Loan diffic, Jvt., Jul., tt 
Vktorini Strigelll, Comm. I'n Uln: Bam., ittg., 
tt Paraliai.. Lipa. I6B1, fot.: Cup. Sanctii, 
Cemuh. m JV. Lib. Rtg. tt Pm-nUift., It2i. M.; 
Uenaler, Kriailtrmgen dti L B. Sam. u. d. Sa- 
laia. Dadapi-Oche, Hamburg, 179S- The beet 
Bode-n Comnieiitarj aeenii to l-e tbat of nenioa, 
ExegtIiKif Hamdbuch, Leipiig, 1B49. In thia 
work then la an eicelleiit InlioductioD, and an 
Intereating detailed compariwn of the Hebrew text 
In the bihla with the TraiulatioD of Ibe IJCX. 
There an no Commentariea on Saniud In Roien- 
mUlkri great work, or in the Compendium of hia 

The dale of tbe eompoeition of the liook of Sam- 
uel and ite autbotibip ia dlKuased in all tbe ordl- 
uary Introdudiona to the Old Teatament — aiKb 
ae tboae o' Home, HSi-eroick, Keil. De Wetle, 
which haie bean (rBjueiitlj' ciled in Ihie work. To 
Ibeee maj- be added the foUowing worka, which 
hare appeared aiiice tbe lint volume of thia Dic- 
tionary wee printed: Bleek'a Khtititimg in il"t 
AUe Tttnmenl, Berlin, 1S60, pp. SD5-3U8; Stl- 
bclin'a SprcitUa AinUitung ifl ttie KflotmUchen 
Mchtr da AUta relanunli, ElherMd, 1863, pp. 
U-105; Davldaon'i /nlivbiction lo tie Old T>it.i- 
mewl, Loodon and Edluburgh, 1862, pp. 


tbe article 

Hebrew word 
. in Engliab. 

• The alleged " mialrandalion " (i 
-ibove) of 1 Chr. iiii. 39, ia of a te< 
btuu a practical chancier. The la 
ia indcMl rendsed bj diflerenl te 
out only in order to eiprcn more 

■aarily be undei itood. " The hbtory of David " 
Kfalch ia written aomewhere, muat of eourae take 
Uaui) in tbe how of hiograjJiji wbik " tkt Ue- 

unto tbe king! 

of Judab 

lothit day," relied on 

lo prove that the 


not have been coinpoaed beTon tbe acccMon tt 

will not iuatain 

tbe infer- 

ence. Such a clauae 

mi«bt be a marginal note, 

crept into tlie t«t; bu 


OMTj. Aa Judah wa 

t1» knding tribe, it ia sot 

unlikely tbat ki^.j, o/ 

natod of kin;,, ..f 1, 

n./ to designate 

tbe nwn- 

areha, even before' the 

nereetion. The 

xiiitimry b 

aaaerUd above: " Refo 

re tbe Hcceaim>, 1 


Uon of tbe kinga waa 

bat tber were ki 

)ga of la- 

rael." But not one of the ubie trlere 

«■ giveo 

happen, to contain the 


all" king ovBS Iar« 

■' or " king <,VK 


reel," and Ibia la qui 

e a>.otl>cr i>iytter 

•hcn tbe 


■cise title. There 

are indeed 

ahieh are give 


i. tbe aame a. 1 


title -king of Ian 

el" being 

uteil. with tbe wurd t 

-Iff in Hebrew ji 


1. aiiv. U. >,.i. 


vi.SU). Butlbowini 

■««. of (bi> title akng with 

u»eaf"kingaof .KkId 

h " do not furni 


baua for a<i induct iu 

lb«e i., loo 


reuon why » kinga of J«dab " abould be 


Ziklag Mu one of tl« 

citiea originally a 

.«gned lo 

Judah IJoah. .V. 31 

y allolted 

Oil. b). When U 
came back from Ibe PbiiistiiAet » tlie private prop- 
erty of |ia<id and liii deecendanla, it did not Iw- 
bi>g lo Ibe kinga of Israel as incli, l>ut milj U 
thueo of Ibe trilie of Judab, and particularly, it dM 
not paai lo the inheriUnco of Simeon, Tbe fiial 


mi It rilnt H t« th* axtnigiilj orrr lJ» other 
kOn: and thai mt hut Duid bccuM kiiig onr ■" 
CMrtainlj It wh mton] Id hli neign to ftak 
ZlUig al pertifaiing " ants Iba king! of Jnditi." 

It u Irulj Bid Uiat from artun npre^ou In 
ihg book >■ it u not uriva that the miler ttred 
man lima agbtj jean aftn- the incidenli to wbith 
te aUadn." It •tioald kin barn ad.led ibM Umh 
■>! DO protmbb EolaranB tbat lh« 
n tluo imWy j^eui lAer tlw 


mp«tii^ the n 

llw " Tarioua tiaditjotis 
in abicb Saul lint becaiH 
(1 Sao. iTi. 11-33, iTii. U^aSj, m|i«ting lh< 
■luiDtr of Sanl'i dmth (l Sam. uii. i-S, 8-13, 
1 Sam. L 3-13)," are taalj abown tu tie qnita bar- 
BHuuoaa. It ii erident iliat llx pasnuce In 1 Sam. 
ai. 18-93 it chr«>ii)oi{iaaU; later than that in 
niLEiS-M (Mntber,i>ii.M-iri>i. 9); rot In th* 
ktUr Darid i» iqxwnted ai u unknawn nripGng, 
■hile in the tanitt (rcr. 18) be i* ■•■ migblj 
iaut man. and a man of nr, and prudent in a 
Un," aad aeeordinKl; in wnie e)irono]D|{iial 
nagaamiU. « io that of Towiianid, Ibe paaM(;« ij 
Ktoatlj tmupoaed, and then ia then lean to be no 

ration bj anticipation in erier to coiii|^le iriliiuut 
[ntemipUon the narrativp l-e-^n jti rpr. II. 

The other lupj-jacd inoonnji-lfnfj depeiidi en- 
lirdj upon the it«uiTiird tnitlifuhHii of an Amnlak- 

Tha tbesrj of " a oompilation " bat eurelj bnt 
f^t nq^iort in Iba mention of Saal't hatin;i been 
lOed vith the (piit of ptDpheej at the odj' timea 
wbao ha «a« Innijbt Into oloaa contact wlUi the 
companj of tbe piDpheti. and of hit haiiag twice 
hUm bito tba \rrwtr of l>aTld. Then ■> nDthlDe 
nrpiidog in the hct tbat boifa tbiae erenti abould 
hare occDrred tirke in tbe lih of Saul ; and erco 
KB* tbe aoooonl* tt thorn iitrm In M^iarata boolia, 
limj aia jat ID cltarir dirtinguiibed In time and in 
diAriDK eireonutuMH. that wo ihouM itiU be 
eomp i led to laeaid tbem aa Kparale ttent*. 

Then it i»lhin|{ then to fcrhid, but luwb to b- 
nr. Iba nippDaltion ttiat tb* eariiv part of tbe 
tnakt of Samool no wrlllon bj tba prophet of 
llat name, and tbe iMa part* bj hit KOCeMon in 
Ihe propbatic offia, Nathan and Gad : or at leaM 
that Ihej wtvtr tbe original biitorj, of which the 
!n«t boolu, if an abridfcnent at all, miiit have 

lare bean likelj to uif^ikiit the ori|fina]. 
mpvine tbe narratira of Samuel with tfaaf 
ontdea, liuiui polnia of difl&r eD ee are men. 
Dooea, two cr tbne of which an worlhr of furtlici 
ytoitlon. Tba (bit ImUnaa mar "^ >» cbuHi 

3f lliroi 

nenotilbflj Uhatnto the tnntwoithlne« of the 
Scrlptar* namtiTw. In Cbronielia no meclion it 
nadeof tbeburainnaf thebodia of Saul and hli 
ana maded b; SamB^i jet Un' het ia ncog. 
daid In Bjhig that tna mm of Jabaah QUead 

Hiperflrial rerlal oppoa^ 

bnned — not tJ 

fiicl, altlioujjb there 

lion in the manner of Haung li. noui aaacn inia 
Saul did Dot obtain toonael of the Lord, Samuel 
onlj ntntioninK that ha taiulj altenipteil to do ao. 
The bet ii thiuitpntatd bjSaniuel: he ioquiRd, 
but obtained no aiitwtr b«cauM of hii wiclitd heart, 
which led him into the further ain of iiiituiring ot 
itch of Eiidor; tbe Azne &ct it more t-rlcltj 


e i^r 

bia cDunael), hut leekio 

(Ouniel of the witch. 

Moat of the other iuttan 

M are mcrelj the fuUv 

nUtion of eveijle fa j one 

or Dllier oT the writcn, 

•faowinH that the author 

of (Jhiohide* had aeeaa 

to other uuioa of inform 

ati»D in addition to our 

pr«ent bouiu of Samuel, 

nd thiLt hediduottbinh 

t neccoarj to tranacribe 

cMj-thing ba found in 

ifice. .Saul hwl btulieii I 

land. To renuv 
nod thej ri 

the famiue liavi^ 
IJ iutiafitctiun Ihej niij 
c to haie aevivn of Saul'i 
leui. Ilitw 

. loihe 

aacrilin to Him: lint ai a jHilJic token tknt thef 
■ere Iheiuecltei appHUtd. If itiii pnniihmeiit oL 

moved a danger hniu Daiiil's tlimne. it wai an >d< 
ranlJtjn uot of hia own deriaing, Iriit brougtit atiout 
bj the lin mid crueltj of Suil rankling in th* 
uiinda of th* GibeoniUa. t', G. 

■ JttroXUfrafui'i.— OntbtbookaofSnmi^ 
wo maj ako refer to Palfrey'* Ltd. on lit Jtir-iih 
Sc'-ipiin-ci.A. 33n-300, iii. 1-13 (Boaton. 1S40-G3); SiwikZu. BiicliiT.iu iletwit'a AcrL 
EacgiL xiii. 100-412 (Gotha, IBGO); aad Kuenen, 
mn, cril. Jti lir,;i J, f ^ari™ Tt$l., I. 3T1-399, 
597-680 (I'arii, 1886); — Kwald, G^uk.d,, IuUm 
hrail, 3< Auk;., Bde. ii., iii.; and Slanlej, Hut. i^ 
(Ac JewiJt Owr*, Tob. i., ii. Ilie lateat wmintii- 
I^iiVi an bj Kail, Die Bm:l,t>- S.i«iihU, l.eipa. 
1SG4 (Theil it I>d. ii. of the fliU CtH»ia. bj Kail 
and Delititch), Eng. trana. Rdinb. ISSG (Cbrk'i 
Ffr. ThtoL ZtAi-.), aud Wordawurth. Ildg Biiti, 
irilh Niita ami Inlniductlinu, loL ii. pt. ii. (Und. 
ISnS). A iiew cditi»i of Thenlua'a commentflrj 
(Afuay^/. <»^./fnwA,iT.)wupu1rliahed in 1801. 
Other workt illuatntiwc theae boolta ara rdbred la 
mider CiiRu.NKLKa and Kukih. A. 

SANABAS'SAR (X>*uu><(<rrap<»: Alei. Xt- 

[1 IMt- ii. 13, 15: ooinp. Ezr. I 8. II). 

SANABAS'SABUS [3aSeKf«ra|»»i Alex. 
Jara$iirirapai: Snlivwuniiu), SHESHBlxXAa 
[1 Eadr. ti. tS, 90: csmp. For. t. l^l, IS). 

BAN'ASIB (JantlB- [VaL iioagmt All 
loHOtf^:] Ai». AnuTfifl:"tii). Tb* auM 
of -leddu, the son of Jaiii« are rMlronod ** among 
the will of Sanaaib," aa pdcala whc returned with 
Zonibabel (1 Eadr. t. 24]. 

BANBALXAT (Cl ??3 : Xi«fiaXAJr; 
[FA. 3ariiSa\m, etc;] Sanalfill'il). Of u'iea> 
tain etjmoloiQr) nocordiug to (jeaeuiua alter Yoc 


BtdibD, mwiliig Id SuakrH " gHng itRngth to 
tlM ■rmj," but manrding la rhnt ■' « ctKttnut 
l»e." A HoibiU of Horoniim. u ipptan b; bla 

dcdgnstioD " SubsUM Um Hotonitfl " (Vth. )i. 
10, 10. lUi. 28). AU thkt ws Imo* of blm from 
Scriptun fi tfatt h« had ■ppmoU]' (odw civil or 
Diltitarj oumnuuid in SuwU, in tba Mrviu oT 
Ajtueno (Nefa. It. S). uid liiit, from the mo- 
liHDt oF NehHiiiib'a irrinl In Jud«&, be Mt hlm- 
mIT to oppme ivcr; mniun for the oelfsra of .le- 
nudsni, tad «u ■ conaluit nJinwj I 
TInbMbk. Hit ompuilDiii In tbli boalilit 
TobUb Uie Ainmonitc. and Gobpni (be A 
(Ni4. ii. IB, it. 71. For the detail) of Ibeii 
rition tba reader ia refennl to the aiticlM NkiiE- 


wbera tbe mmit; betvtrn Ssnbi 

Ii brought out in tbe atrongut 

Stber incident iu bia life ia bit aJliti>c« with the 

high^rieat'a familj', by tbe nuniage of h 

tCT wi(b one at the gnuidaona of Ktlaabi 

from tbe rimihir connection Binned by Tohiib tJie 

Amnionitc (Neb. liii, 4), appean to have been part 

oT ■ tettkd folic} ooncetud betireen Eliai' " 

tbe Samaritan hctioii. Ilia eipulaion ft> 

prieatbood oT the guilty ann of Joiada by Nt 

muit have Hill further witlened the breach ' 

him and Sanballut, and between tbe two pvtia 

fai the Jewiib atats. Here, howerer. tbe Scri|jtural 

Dimulva eiidi — oicing. probably, to Nebeniiah' 

cetum U> Penia — wid with it likeniaa our knowl 

•dga of Sanb<dlat. 

But on tuniing to tbe pagea of .lotcpbui i 
-wholly new let of utioiu, in a totally difltreii 

biltat, while hli naiue ia entirely oniittad in ibe u 

wbicb ii pbtoed in tbe reign of Xmea. .iowpbui 
«lt«r interpoaing the vbole ivien of Artsieric 
{xingtmuiua between the death of Nebemlali am 
" ' vbich SanbillaL look part, 

on. Oclius 

>B Noll 


by hi 

mage U 

uneeqnmiiy tbe fourth In d 
•cent from hlJiaihib, abo vat hlgh-prlcat in t 
time of Neheniiab. He then relilea that on t 
threat of h<> brother Jaddua and tbe other Jcw> 
npel him from the prieathood unlen lie diuoro 
bia wife, Manuteh atated the caie to Suiballat, wl 
thereupon promiaad to aae bia influence with kli 
Dariua, not only (o glee him SanbaUat'i govcr 
ment. but lo aanclion tbe building; of a rival tamj 
M Mount Geriiini, of which tlanaaeb ahoulii be 
the bifch-prieat. Manaaaeh on thia agreod 

id Join 8< 

:'i lactlor 

Uier Blnogtbaied bj tbe 

prieata and Ijrniat (and they were maoy, 

Uken ilnnge win*. But jnaC at thta lime hap. 

pKcd Uw innaioD of Alexuid«r th* Grett; and 

ea aod tbeDdcUborlDfdlKtrtcla; Chat 

T,ODU nMD, iointd hln, kod M- 
nounced hti allegiance to Dariua (.(iit. li. 8, } 4> 
B^g faronblj raceired l>y (he conqueror, he bMih 
Iba opportunity of apaking to him lu behalf n 
Hanaaaeb. He repreaented to him how much It waa 
fiir bu inloHt lo divide the itrength of tba Jew- 
bb naUon, and how many then wen who wiihed 
Ibr a temple in Samariai and ao obtained Aleiaii- 
dcr'i pennlMlon lo buUd the temple on Uoiiiit 
Gertiini, and nialia Hanaaaeb Ibe beirditsT} bigli- 
piieal. Shortly aller thia, Sanballat died; but U» 

nplB or 

e called, c 


ehcniltei, ai 

permaneiit achUm, which wai conlinually fed by all 

the lawleai tind diaaflbeled Jewi. Such ia Joaephua' 

it. If there ia any truth in it, of eoune tba 

Hat of whom he ipeaki la a different peraoD 

from tba SanbaUat of Nehemlah, who SourialiHl 

fuQy one hundred yean earlier; but when wc put 

together Joaephua' lilence concerning a Sanballat 

bemiah^a time, and the many otiineidcncea la 

w of the Sanballat of Nsbeniiah and that ol 

Joaephua, tc^ether with lite inconalataielea in Joa^ 

'lUi' nanatlle (pointed out by Prideaui, CVmnccf. 

MS, 28S, 3901, and ita dlngrtement with what 

Fjiaet^ut talli of tba nlationa of Aleiaiider willi 

uok' {Chiva, I'nn. lib. pott. p. U6), and iv- 

iber how apt .loeephua 1* to follow any Dtrra' 

Scriptun. we aball bare no difficulty in COD- 

cliidlng that hia account of Saiiliallat li not hulor- 

ical. It ia doubtloa taken from lonte apocryphal 

ance. now loal, In which the writer, living undo 

empire of the Greeki, and at a Gnie when Um 

lity of llie Jem and Samaritina vaa at itt - 

height,* ehoae Iha downhll of the Peniio empin 

' " a epoch, and Sanballat Ibr the ideal inatn- 

mnit, of tbe conaolldaiion of tbe Samaritan Chutch 

(he erection of ihe temple on Geriiiin. To bor- 

eieiiti from lonie Scripture narrative and intro- 

a aunie Scri/ttuml penonage. without any r^^ard 

chronology or other propriety, wia the regular 

method of auch apocrj'phal bookt. See 1 Eadraa, 

j'phal Katber, apocrypliat addition* to tba 

book at Daniel, and ihe articlea on (hem, and tbe 

atory inaerted by tbe I.XX. al^ i K. ill 34, Sc , 

' ' JieotiaerTailonaoiiit in tbeBrt-Risna. vol. il. 

M). To receiie aa hiatraifs! .Toaephna' nam- 

f the building of the Samaritan temple bj 

illat, eirmmalantial aa It ia hi ita account at 

± 1 mi 

imanot and Alei- 
t Pri- 

aat don, to Iba duie of Piirius 
9), acemi acarcely cowpalible wilh aound criti- 
im. Kor a further dincuwHHi of Ihia aulject, arc 
e article N'KiiKMi.tii, UuuK of. ill. 30116; Pri- 
am, C-mci. I. 896-896; (.tnfl. of our Lont, 
338. ««.! Hlll'a rinrfic. if <mr LunTi OtTitaL 
p. lefi; Hika' Analg*. li. CM. A. C H. 

• SANCTUAEY. [TuEBiucLii Tem- 

BAHDAL (~VZ : twi»„/Aa, (rwlhUuwV Th* 

I, la whteb w* iwad (ch. L n. Ml 

, and ttM third li a 
• piilliKlnM, ao^ I 

Um Hrbnm in pntsctiiig Ih* fed. 
■imptjr of ■ Kila lUncbcd la UiB Ibot hj 

tU UrbiMtinii u-al-impUMHiiAu 

:■ pinpB- HDH bong that of caffimiMg DC 
in thi fcM with thoDgi: n hsi 
Doda of the tbODg » (1T^~)^' Ifuii 
ilcbet") ID ■cTtral pungM (Gen. iJ 

1 Hvi i. T). TtM Grak Icnn Awitiyia 
^iplia to Um wodal a ' ' ' 
rhtt u bouDft vidrf' the foo 
lid on the u«e of the tenn lij tb« Aleuo- 
-itni, u it wu npjilinl to uij emtring of 
, even to lh« militiirj rtiSgn of the Itoiiiius 
. B. J. vi. 1, { 8). A iimiUr ohwri ■* 
a nrSiAur, which b tued in m ga 
' in itA otjiellj ^1«*«i**l lajK, ind 

ID ■ Hebniied form bj the TalmD. 
B no dceeripticn of the iiuidll in the Bible 
it the deficiencj out be aopplicd from col- 
Dum Tbut we leuD ftom the TiliDud- 
: the nnteriib anfhjti in Um conatrnction 
oil wtn either k*th«r, ftll, dolh, or wood 

Jricnu. 12, }f 1, 3), ud I' ' " 

1^::^ \L v.^ 

^nOj ifaod with iron (SoU. S, f «}. h F«rpi 
nrioDi fibront aabatanna, «ncb M pilm tenia n * 
pipfnn HaUu, wen need in addition to kntl 
[Herod, li. 37; WiaUnaoa, il. 3-ia. i^i], while 
AsejTu, wood or loUhtf wu emplojed {Ij()A 
A^>«. ii. 3S3, 334). In l':i^ tbe nndali w> 
anal] J tumad np it tbe tea luit our Bkelo. tliou 
':lb« Ibmu, rounded uid pofnttd, tre dIb eib 
lied. In Amyrit Ihc btel ind the tide of tbe fi 
«ef* encued, ind ■ometinm the aaKlti eoniitleil 
cf fittk ebe than Ibii. 'lliii doe* not eppear I 
hn* boHi the cue in Pilotlne, Kir ■ beelilnp w» 
wentiil to ■ proper widil (Jt^m. 19, f 1 
Great attenthm wag paid bj the Mlei to their nr 
dale; thef were nude of the ikin of ui aninu 
named {"cAniA (El iri. tO|, whether a hyena o 
iml [A.V. "badger") iidonbtAil: the tkina < 
1 Bib (a ipcciei of Halison ) ire lued for tbli pui 

'dHH*.' Tbcn H b 
tUat tbe Jewi nallj w 
•bkb OuvioT {ili^anii. pp. 71 

(IroB Urald, U. SU-l 

liT. S3; EeeliB. iIH. ID), TIw} were not, ba» 
eter, worn il iH periods; th(j were diapenaed with 
lo-doon, uid were only p'll un h; penons aliuut to 
ondertike aonte budnaa awi]- Ttrtu Ihrir l^ina 
inch u 1 militw} CTpedition (li. •. 77; Epb. ri. 
IB), or a joanitf (I'li. lii. II; Joih. ii. B, 13) 
Acta lil. 8): on >uch occsaiuna penoDa cnrried an 
ntra pair, a practice which our 1.ord ol^jKled lo ai 
Str aa the Apoetlea were coticemed (MhIL i. 10; 
oomp. Mirk li, B, ind the eipmeiDn In l.uka i. 4, 
"do not carrj," wblch hinnunlic* the piueiign). 
An aim pair nili;bt In eeniiiii caaea be ntoied, ai 
the nln were liable to be aoon worn out (.loah. Ii. 
5). or tbe Ihon^ lo be broken (li. •. ST) llurinf 
nwnl-tliMi' llie feet were nndoubtedlj uncoiend, a* 
implied fn l.uke ili. 38; John lill. fi, 0, stii) In lb* 
eiceptioii apedallf made In Rferenee lo the l^aachal 

nIM w 

II): 1 

ininK ■< 

Plato, SymiKt. p. IIJ). 
e to CM off tin ahot 

■la wai practiced 
rt waa B niuk of 
n approaching a 

)Ios« at the buab (Kx. ill. b) Hid b 
le presence of the ingtl (.Toeh. >. 10) 
B {t\)unetianB the prieat* ui 

ucled ti 

Teniple harelout (TbeoHoret, mt Hn. lil. •pattl. 
■lid tlie I'nlinudialt etni liirbiMle anj penoa to p 
thrauich llie Temple with •hoei on (Mlahn. Smyi 
V, { b). 1'hl> reiereiitiil act w» not peculiar 

in the wonhip of I 'i brie at Kotne (I'rudait. Pti 

(V^rj, dboi. 

' i'Jtr)), « 

it of tbB eba 
Id f^, RMk 

the top of the t»t, 

n wed 

■ li pB- 



to 80. IbI. hi. is. tn ntodeni Unit* in m*; 
Bve Uw timiliir pndKC of tba HDhucniiKbuii ol 
Pdntim bcftn aitRiiig i nmqiM {KoMi 
Rftearcfitty H. 36), jind pulkuliri j beforr Hi(«nng 
tbii Kubi Kt Mooch (Bunk hard t'l Ai-aUx, I. 370), 
of the Yukllt ot M«*opaUiniii bcfan eiit^HnR th« 
tnmb of tWr patron mant (l^jurd'i f/in. i. 
uid of tbe SunariUtn «■ the; Itwd th« mini 
Mount (itriilni {Robinwn, ii. !78). Tbe pniMet 
of tb« luodfm Egjptiuis, vrbo dike off Uicir aboH 
befun tteppin; on to tbe mrpjiifd Itricrim, ipgHn 

rleanlineH. tliM tpot being devolcd to pnjwr ([jine, 
I. 3S), It <ru kIso ui Indication of violeiit emo- 
tion, or of mourning, If a penon BppMred borefixit 
in pnUle (1 Sam. iv. 30; b. u. 2; b. iiIt. IT, 
93). Tbii again ma bdd in eaiiinnn nith Mbn' 
nationa, aa Initaoccat at the funenl of Auxiutua 
(SiHt. Aug. 100), Md on tba oecaaioii of tbe ad- 
Mnn pRxntioo) whlcb dsind their name of KmH- 
ftdatia tnm thia featura (TertuU. A/U W). To 
CHtj or lo unlooae a penon'a landal «u a menial 
office betokening );nit liibrioritjon tbe prtoftbe 
peraon peribrming ft; It wu bence aFtectol bj 
Jobn tbe Ikptiit lo riprena his relitiDn to lln 
Hmtiali IMiU. Hi. II; Mark f. T; Jobn I. 9T; 
AeU liii. 3b). 'Urn eipreaalon In fV. U. B. criii. 

9. " liver Edom «il] I cut out mj aboe," eridentlf 
iiguiSc* tba uiljectlon of that counlrj', liut tbe 
oaet point of the coniptriaon la obacure : for It inaj 
refer eitho- to the eualom of handing k BUidal to ■ 
ilam, or lo tbal of dainiliig poswaibii of ■ propertj 
bj planting Um foot on il, or of acqiiiriiig It liy tbe 
ijmbolle aclion of cuUng Ute abac, or nEain, I'jiom 
DMj be ngarded In (lie itill niore tul-onliNiile piiai- 
Uon of a ibelr on ubicb the Muidali were nated 
while their owner bathed hla feet. Tbe um uf tbe 
•boe In the tfaiiiler of propertv ia noticed In Ktitli 
It. T, 8, and i aimilar BlgniScaiicj waa UUicbed to 
the act In conoectioD with tJie repudiation oFa l.>^ 
Tirate nuniage (Deut. at. 9). Sboc-ntakiriE, ur 
tsUier ainp-maktng (i. r. makiiig tbe (trapa for tlie 
■andal)), waa a recoonind trade amDiiH the -lews 
(Mlabu. PeucA. 4, { S). W. I. II. 

SAK'HBDRIH (accurate); Sanbedrin, 
]''^in3p, fomed ftom rw^V' '■^ aliempt* 
of tlw R^bliu to find a Hebrew etjmolog^ are 
Idk; Buitorf, La. ChTU. a >.), calle<l alao in tbe 
Talmud Hit ffrtnl STitAeJrin, the iiipreme Muticil 
gf tbe Jcwiah people in the time of I'hriit and 
McUer. Id tbe Mlabna It Ii alio tt} IH T*? •'*''9t 
Btii Din, " bouae of Judgment." 

I. Tliewi^'iof thia usriiihly ia traced In tbe 
Miahna (Sanitdr. I. 6) lo the leveiitj eMtra 
whom Moen waa dlncted [Num. xi. IS, II) lo 
aHOeiate with him In the gonniment of the lanel- 
itea. lliia bod; oonllnued lo eiiit, according ta 
tlie RAhbinhaJ account*, dawn to tbe ckiae of the 
Jewlah oommonwialth. Amonjc (-'hrialian wHten 
Bohickbanl, laaao Caaaubon, SalmMJua, Selden, 
and Urotlui have held tbe wme tiew. Since tbe 
time of Vorttiui, who took the iiround (f)e Syn- 
itrMit, Ii ib-iO) tliat the alleged identity betw^n 
tbe aeaemblj of aevenl^ eUera meclioiied In Num. 
d. IS, IT, and tlie Sanhedrim which eiiited in 
the later period of the Jewiah commonwealth, waa 
dmpl; a eot\Jecture of tbe Habbina, and that there 
ire DO trucet of aoch a tribunal In Deut. irii. >, 

10, TK* In (he age of Joabua and the Judge*, nor 
during ibe tiign ot tbe kiuga, It baa been gener- 

all; admitted that the tribunal eiUblUed I; 
Mcaea waa probahli' tanjorarr, atid did not eo» 
tinue lo eiiit after tbe lineli'ta had entered Pal. 
eaUne (Winer, «(DAi*-**r4, art. •• Sjntdrium ■■ ). 

In (he lark of delinite hiatorical Inroltnatiou ai 
lo the aUl>liihnien( of Ibe Sanhedrim, il can onlj 
be (aid in general (hat (be Gi«ek etjniologf of the 



lo point 

lupremae)' In I'akstlna. Lirj ax- 
•uuea (iIt. S3), " pntiUDtiatum quod ad 
SlacedoniK pertineiiat, aenatORa. quoa ijne. 

;. 47) ( 

(1* g 

irfied (be autboritj 
a, { 4) abowi tbal 

reicetit origlB. If tbe ytpevala rir 'levtaiw, 
' ~ " ,1. 10, Iv. 44, il. 9T, dengnatea tbe San- 
aa it probabi; doea — (hie ii tbe earlieat 
biilorlcal truce of i(i exi>(mce. On these grounda 
tbe opInkHi of Vonliua, Wlulua, Winer, Keil, 
and oiliera, ma; Le regarded aa probable, that (ba 
Sanhedrim deecribed in the Talmud arae allet 
Jewi ftam Bal^jkxi, and In tbg 

' the allenoe of Philo, Joaeplnia, and tbe Miahna, 
of tbe Sanhedrim, we 

n (he New TaUnient. From thrae we gather 

t coiiibtcd of ifxHpta. ehief prtcala, or tbe 

headi of the twenlj-four chusea into whieh tbe 

prieela were divided (including probably thoae who 

' id Im-ii high.priea(a), frfit<r|BvTtpai,el(ten. men of 

^ bihI eiperience, and ypa^l^lmT^7%. teriia, law- 

n. or thoae teamed In Ibe Jewiab law (UatL 

vi. ST, M; Mark iv. 1; Luke uii. 601 Aeti 


j. The RKBiier of memieri b (tniallj givm ■■ 
lentv-ane, but thia ia a point on whleb then la 
it a periiect agreement among (he learned. The 
wi; luianimoui opinion of tbe Jewa ia given Id 
e Miihna (^"nAc/r. I. 0): "tbe great Sanhe- 
drim eoniieted of eeveiilj'.oiir Jud|M. How la thia 
proved? yrom Kum. li. 16, where it la aid. 
•gather unto nie aeventv nien of the eUlera of 
lirael.' To tbe« add Moan, and we have aevrntj- 
Keiertheleaa K, Judab aaji there were 
;." 'Ilie innie dlRetence made h; (he addi- 
ir exclusion of Moan, appean In Ibe tmkt 
of Chrlidaii wKlen, wiiich acvounta for the varia- 

llaroiiluh however {Ad. Am. 31, i 10), and 

other Koinan Catholic wrilen. together with 

few I'rulea(«iila, aa Dru^ua, Grodua, IVi- 

, Jahn, Itrvliehnejder, ele., hohl that tbe 

lumber waa BC*ent}'-(wD, on the ground that 

Kldnd and tiedad.on wbnni it la eipreMi) aaid tbe 

nwied (Num. xl. Sfi), remained In tlie camF 

lould be added to the Kveiil; (ate llattmann 

arfiini; da A. T. p. 182; Selden, Or Pyitdi: 

I cap. 4). Between theee (brre nund-en 

;iven by the prevalent Jewiah tradition it eer. 

talnlj to be pnfared; hut il^ aa we have eecn, 

there il reallj no evidence fbr tbe identity of (be 

T elden auoimoaed by Moeea, and the 

SaDbsdrim eiiitlng alter lbs Bahyloniab (^ivltj, 

argument irom Num. (1. IS In reepecttath* 

iber of mamben of which the latter body ooa. 

d, baa no foree. a-id w> u< left, aa K«il ntl* 

riw {AnAiilogU, IL { 368), wHboot 107 lotaln 

"n* praKMDt oT ib'a bod; w» itjied K*^, 
ViB, and, ■cconltng lo Haimonidca mod Ligbtfoot, 
■M ebowD on tcconnt af bia cmiiKtice in worOi 
ud wiidoin. OlUn, if not geiKrall;. Ihii pm- 
mioFnc* mux icconlfd to the hlgh-pflnt. Thu' 
ttH h^h-pric*t prejidtd at tHe oondeniiuition o 
Jena (Mutt. iid. H2; U pLiin rrom the nam 
tin. Tbe Tice-fHwideut, alM in the Tilmu 
I'''^ D'<3 2H, oratbrr of tba bniw of Jndg- 
oMot,*' Bit at ttw riijit b*nd of tbe pmident. 
Some vritgn •peak of ■ Mcond lia-pnaldent, itylnl 
□^n, unite," bol Ihia it not laffldenUj 
IniKd (■» Seldni, De SyotiJr. p. 156 B.}. 
Babjbniui Genun atstea lb»t there wen two 
Kfibea, one of whom tegiittred tbe totu for 
idtttl, tbe other those for condemnUion. In Mi 
htL S8; Hufc ii«. M, Ac., tbe lictoci or ■llend' 
■nt* of tbe Suhtdrim ore referred to unde 
nwH of frmaiVai- While ii, vuian tbe S 
diim Bl ia the fomi of ■ hilf-vircle (6'm. nUm. 
CoaiL TiL Off S.iyJivlr. I.), oitb ill which ifiref 
the lUtenwnt of Miinionida (quoted hj Voi 
mm): ■'bim who ciali all otben in witdom the 
■ppoint head oier thrm and head of liie uaemliij 
And be it i> whom tlie wiM everjwhcn call Naai. 
and be ia in tbe place of our mastir Mneci. 
wUe bim who ia the oMeat among the seventy, 
plaoo on the right hand, and bim thej call ' I 
of the bcnue of Jiid^iHnl.' Tbi real of 
■etentj ait before lh(|H two, accocding Ui 
dignitr, in tbe form of a teniicinle, to that the 
inaideat and ncs-pnvdait mav have tbem all b 

t. Tbe plita in which the anaioni of tlie San 
bedrim mn oidinarilj held wai, Hmrding (s tbi 
lUmod, a hafl eabd •'^''43, Gn^lkiSmkidr.i.) 
I hj LIgbtfbot (Worb, L X»9) lo \ar 
' in the lontlKaat comer of one of thi 
le buUdln;;. lu ipecial eii- 
o hare met in the red- 
imee of tbe blgb-prieit (Malt. xxyf. V). Firtj 
Teart btfan tbe deitruclion of Jeruslem, and cun- 
BK)DenUf while tbe Sarlour waa teBching in Pal»- 
liiH, tbe teniona of the Sanhedrim wen removed 
from the ban timicta to a mmewhat greater dia- 
taoce ftnm the Temple buildinK. although atill on 
lb. Horiah (.4iaif. Z^rn, 1. Ueiu. Biibjl. ail Sun. 
irdr. r.). After aeioil other ehangra. ita K«t ■■> 
Inallj ertabiiahed at Tilieriae (iJgbtToot, IVorh, 

Aa a Jodlctal bodj the Sanbedrim ennalituted a 
npnme Dooit, to which belonged lu the Itnt 
nataMe the trial of a tribe hita into idulatrj, 
Uta propbeta, and the high^pritst (Mlibna, ^'fi- 
t«*. i.); «l» the other priests (Wi-AfofA, •.). 
B adminlttratl™ council it detenitinnl other 

t (.Irii 

i. *T), a 

PM«, John, Stephen, and Paol at 
onr and deceinn of tbe people. Krom Acta li. 
S 11 tppora tfaat tbe aanhalHm eierclied a degree 
<f anlluritj bejonrtithe iimia of Patertine. Ac- 
nriiDK to tbe Jeiiaalem Oenwra (qa,n«d b; 
aaldo, Ub. it e. 10, 11), the powei of inltirtlng 

e the deatniotkin of Jemta- 
I the •tiim at tbe Jewa to 
" h la net Uahl Idt « to ! 


pot an; num to death." Beyond the ureit, trial, 
and eondfznnation of one convicted of liolaUng tba 
eodeaiaatial law, the Jurisdiction of tbe Sanhedrim 
at the time could not be extended ; tbe confirma- 
tion and execution of tb* tentenca in capital cnea 
belongad lo tb* Roman procurain'. The atoning 
of Stephen (Acta rii. M, Ac} ia onlj an apparent 
exception, for it waa either a tumultuoui proceed- 
ure, or, if done b^ order of the Sanhedrim, waa 
an iUejcal aiaumption of power, u Joaepbut {lini, 
II. a, i 1) eiptwlj' declarea the eueation of tba 
Apostle James during; the abaence o( ttie prucun*- 
lor to have been (Winer, Jttabid. arL "Hjii*- 

The Tahnud aba mentlou * irwer S^nJitdrim 
of twentj-lhrta mamben In enrj city in I'aleitiiM 
in which were not lets than 120 bouseholdenj hot 
reipectJDg tbeae judicial bodiea Joaepbua ia a;:tird]r 

-liie leading work 
Sgaflriu rl Prafia 
mm, Und, IBM), , 
immenae leominfc. b 

n tbe >ul|]ect ia Seldeo, Dt 
•it Juii-Hcit ttltrnm Ebrm 
nat. 1BT9, ita It eihlbila 

Tbe monogripha of Vonliua and Witaioa, 
ooalained in Ugolini'a Tlutauiv, nH. iit., ar* 
■hie and jiidicioiu. The tame rolume oF Ugollid*, 
coiilalui also tbe Jeruaalem and Babylonian G*- 
maraa. along with tbe Mbhna on the Sanhedrim, 
with which niaj lie O/iDpared f>uo Tihiti Talmidiai 
Siintitdriit Ft Mnctoa, ed. Jo. Coch, Amst 1629, 
Ito, and Haimonidea, Ot Smtkidriii it Panit, 
ed. {touting. Amat. ]fl9S, Ito. Hartmann, DU 
Vtrbindvtg dtt Allen Talnmtalt mil drvt //am, 
Hamb. 1831. 8vD, ia worthy of conaolUtion, and 
for a eompteased eihibltion of the subject, Winer, 
Rcaimb., and Keil, JrcAooJo^ (>. B. U. 

SARaxKlfAH (n;Q3P [pnb<tJximdi,ain^ 
Kilrat]: itlmiii; Alei. iaHrdMn: Srnieimn;. 
" ! of (he towns In the toiith district of Judah, 
led In Josh. iv. SI only. The towns of thli 
district an not dislrihuled into amall KTOUpa, like 
thoae of the highlanda or the Skr/rM ; and aa 
ily nry fHr of them have been yet Identified, w« 
lie nothing lo guide us lo the portion of San- 
iinnah. It can hardly bare had any connection 
with KiHJ*TB-SAmi.iH (Kiijath-Sepher, or Ha. 
hit), which w«a probably near Hebton, many milea 
le moat northern pueition poaublt 
It doc« not appear to be men- 
tioned by any eiplorer, ancient or modem. G^ 
aenlua {Tht: p. SmS) ei|ilain» tbe name to tueao 
'■ palm-branch: '■ hot this ia contradicted by Pitnl 
(Wit*. II. 88). who derives it iiom a root which 
', iBes "writing." The two propoaltiona an 
probably equally wide of the mark. The toijea- 
tnre of Scbwan that it wu at Sinaim, on tbe nl. 

Tbe lermination 


iparinii tbe II 
tbwe in lii. S-T and 
nn tbat Beth-marcai 
luaah, ooeupy in the t' 
lannah and Sansaima 

ro last the phioe of & 
1 teipectlvely in "'"" ' 

exchanged for Sbaruben 
and Shaanlm. It it difficult to Ulieve tbat toeaa 
channel can h«»a ariaen from tbe mlitalKa <J 
copyitta aoleli, but equally difflenll to *»ign any 
other Brtiabetory nason. Prof. Stanley baa tdg- 
Igaatwl thu Beth-manaboth and Haiar-andm ara 

lokfu of tba truds ia duiiott ud hsnei ahicb 
imw Id Soknaon'i timej bu^ if n, hoir conin it 
IhM tilt «w nuna bear (o dsM ■ mamblina [a 
form Id the old om? Q. 

8APH (F)p [bb^ahil;^ <&*, Qs.]: 3^; 
Aln.lMC ^SnpA). OMartb«BMo(tlM^ant 
CPiu^ Amphn) dkhi bj Sibbwhki tba Huihi- 
tbiM in Uw battl* (gtUut tbc PhilitUnn ' "' 
or Gw ra S>m. cd. 18). la 1 Cbr. u. < 

s <i 
Blkd SippAi. The title of Pi. 
PMhilo Sjrlu ii, "Of Divld; >hen b« thw 
Awpli (8l4)h) tlM bratbcr of Qtijvl (OoliiUi), 
md tbuiktglTing (br ttut be hod eonquend." 

SA'PHA.T Itm^ir' om. in the VulgO- S"K- 
raATUa S (1 EmIt. t. B; oomp. En. IL 4|. 

BAPHATI'Aa (%.^«-fu; [V>t.3»^or«iO 
S^atvu). SHKniATiAH % (1 Erir. rllL 84; 
Mtnp. Emt. tUj. 8). 

BATHBTH (lofvf; p'tL 3a*i<«; Aid. 
W^»:] Ala. Jafvtn Htphtgi). Shefiutiah 
(1 Sail. •■ H; comp. Kir. U. 57). 

SA'PHIB ("l'?tf. [i. t. Shqibir./air, ieoit- 
Ii/)i0' niASi: piitlira, bnc in Jenow'i Cbiii- 
wunt. aaphir). One of the TlUigM iddRMsd bj 
the pophet Mioah [i. II), bot not tbeoben nwD- 
tloiud, Bj KuHbliu and Jwome {Onomnii. 
"Si^hlr") It ia dMcrlbed u "in tha mountain 
diftriet bttimn RteutbimpaUi and Aacakm." In 
thi* dinctlon a villa^ oallFd ei-Siuitfir lUU tilali 
(«r nlher ehrre with that oanH, two with affiin), 
poaibljr the rqinaentaUn of tbe aiidHil Saphir 
(Rob. tiibl. Aft. II. 34 wK* ,- Vau de Velde, U^: 
fPfU.p.li9). A'>-£nii>t;frliaaae\norelgbtnillt* 
* to Uii N. E. (rf AMaloo, and about 13 W. of Btit- 
Jibrin, to tlie right of the floaat nad Inm Gua. 
Totiler pRfen a village called Saber, elate to Ha- 
mifir, containing a ccploui and appannl)} nr; aii- 
nent well (Slk Wniu/tmng^ In o'le inipor- 
iBiit napect, however, the poaition of neither of 
tbne f^j^reea with the notice of the IMfmntticon^ 
ilnce it it not near the niountaina, but on tho open 
plain of the Shrftlnk. But ai Btit^ibtin. the 
auclent Eleutben^nlu, lUuda on the weeleni 
at the mountaini of Judah, it 1* dlfflcull to 
iUuid bow anj place could be wcetward of I 
bMwem it and Aacalon), and j-et be lUelt 
mountain diatrict, unlea that eipRailon may refer 
(0 placet which, though altuated in the plain, w(— 
for tonK tnaon conaldend ■• beloDglng to t 
lowiu of the ntountaini. We have alread; aeen 
iMion to lUipect that Uie rei'eraB waa the case wit' 
mmoUwri. [Keh^h; Nezib. etc.] 

Schwan, though aware of the eilit«nc« ot S' 
■14/tr (p. llfl), iuggeata ai the moat feuible Ider 
tlficatlon Ibe vilUge of Siifirigth, a couple of mill 
N.W. of l.jdd»(p.iaB). Tlie drawback to tbiaii 
tbat the piaceg mentioned bj Mtcah appear, u fn 
n we can trace them, to be moatlj near BtU-Jibrin, 
and in addition, that Snfi'i-i^h it lu clear conlra- 
dictuo to tb> DOlin of EuMbliu and JennnB. 

SAPPHI'BA (aw*f.(fni — ritb*' fvphir*. 
from rir^nftt, or btauti/Ml, trma the Sj'iiM 
>rV*Etf), TTm wife of Ananlat, and llw partlcf. 
palor both In hti guUt and In bii punlihntent 
(Acta V. 1-lD). The inlerral of three boun thai 
thpeed between the two death), Si^hlra'a Igno. 
nooe of what had happened to her huiband, tod 
lb* pradictin language of St. Peter towirdi hv, 

SAPPHIRE ri^S9, -rpptr; trJirf^VM 

inppiinai. A precioui Mono, appanntlj' of t 

bright blue oolor, tee Ei. niv. 10, when the Go« 

tuael is repreeented ae being seen in viaiiai hj 

am and the Klden with "a paied work of I 

tpb- atone, and u It wen the bodj of bsi-en jn 

cleutieH" (conp. Ec. I. 98). The ta/iiAr vwa 

I ecoond ttone in the eeoond row oT the bigb- 

eat'i breulplate (I'j. uriii, 11); it waa ei- 

inraelj pncioui (Job iiviii. IS); it waa one of 

llw ptedoui alonea that umsnwnted thi king of 

Tyre (Bi. iiriii. 13). Not withiUn ding the idea- 

litj of niuue between our aapphire and the air*tf 

m and tifjtphirvt of the Ureeka and Komana, it ia 

generally agned that the atipphiruM of tbe andente 

I not our gem of that name, name];, the azni* 

indigo-blue, cryatalline varietj of Corundum, tut 

liyiu-t'tiili lytirii-tiuirint]: thb pcdnt maj 

be Kgarded u eetaiiliabed, for Pliny (ff. K. xuiii. 

9) Ihut apeaki of the injiphina: •< It ia refulgent 

with ipot* of gold, of an a™re 1 ' 


are dedaive evidencee u lo tbe npcriAtunl dwi 

of the whole traiiuclion. \\e htetorj •! 

ihich might otfaeri 

of AnaolM, 
W. L.B. 

edU{ it is 

and b tMt wd 

ited for ongmviiig upon 


rd crjilBlii 

« particle..' 


*ers cuwUr 

lathe chanc 

la oT 

tlie lapia-laiuU; 

e •■cry.lalli, 

« particle." 



itea. which often 
It ii^'however, not to certain thai tbe utpph-al 
tbe Hebrew Kible ii identic^ with the bipia-hiuUi 
Ibr tbe Scriptural raquiremenU deniand tnuupar- 
ency, grt&t ratue, and good utaterial for the ta- 

uli doei not poaseea in anj gmt degree 
Mr. King (,Amiqw (irmt, p. M) Myi that Intagd 
\A of Koman tiinea are frequent in fht 
. but rarel; anj worka of much merit 
Again, the topptr wai certaiiilj pellucid, " nn* 
apud Judjwn," aaji Hraun {lit VtM. Sac. p. 680, ed. 
ISBO), '• aaphiroa pcllucidM nutu ftilne maniieatla- 
tinium eat, adeo etiam ut /ullaculaai Uknim phl- 
lo»phi« dicatur T'ED, i-pAir." Backnuiui 
{IlijI. of /no.n(. I. 4721 ie of opinion that tha 
titp^r of the Hebrews ie tlie anme ai the lapla- 
'azuli; Roeenmijller and ISraun agree in favor 1^ 
ta being our Mpphtre nr precioui Onrundum. We 
in Inclined to ailupt thii Utter nphilon, but art 
inable to come lo any intiBractury conclusion. 

w. n. 

SA-RA (2<yi«! S-ir-o. 1. Sabah the wife 
of Abnhani (Heli. il. II; 1 Pet. ii 

8. Tbe daugliler of Rasuel. In 
hlalorj of Tobil, 

mamed 10 leveo buBiianui, wuu werv an eiaju on 
tbe wedding night by Aanindeiu. the evil ipiriL 
who Im-od her (lob. Ui. 7). The l.nacuig of 
the ipell and the chuing away of the evil ipirit b> 
the •■llabf funic," when Sar& wu muried u 
Tofalaa, are told in cbap. till. 

8ABABrAS01ivi>5[«: 5nr(tini). 81IUB 
BIAH (1 E»lr. Ii. 4S; conip. Xeb. vill. T). 

SA'BAH (TTltp, prvacux 2iM^: Snr» 
origirally '"^Ip: Idpa: Sorol). L Th* wUl v 
Abratuun and mother of InM. 


or bet yrth ind pannUgc we IttTC no cntein 
■Banmt in Soipture. Hit diibm ■( Gnl introdimd 
in Gen- il U, M folkin: "Abnm and Nshor 
iuok Ikem wirca: the duem of Abruu'i viffl mu 
iteni: ukI the hum of Nmhor'i -111:1 <nu tlikih. 
tlw duq^to' of HiinD, 'he futha uf Mileih uid 
tbs fiUher of boh." lo Ucn. u. 13, Abnhuu 
^latln <f bcr u '■ hli niler, tbc dui^^ter of tlie 
nan lUlar, but not Uw dughta uf the 

fa- gnodd b; JOKphni {AnL L c. 6, { 6) Mid bf 
St. Jeraoio ( QmoM. Iltbr. ad Gtnnni, to), iil. p. aiJ, 
■d. Bin. 173ej. 1> Out Sul it Uu wn* u liali, 
Iba •teuKbtd' of Hinn, uid tbe riiKr of Lot, vbo 
■ ealM Alnhun') "brotluT " in Gsi. UT- U, IB. 
J^ging ban the bet Ih^ RebeluEi, tbe jiiVKt- 
daqibtBr el Niibor, wm (ho wife of Imh the k>d 
af Abnhuii, Ibv* ia nnan to eoijeetan 
AbnluBi WW tbe joang^Ht kcotbcr, » thai 
wib nigbt itot impR>bmblj be joungvr duM 
wifc gf Nifaor. It b otrtiiliilj ilnnge, if tbe tn- 
dilHa be me, tbal no dimt moiljan of it k (band 
in Gs. n. 39- But it ii not imprabable In iceeir; 
it tii)](ilKa (be aeeaunt of tbe descmt of (be m 
•f tb* cbono noe, tbe atnisiDn ot which in ir 

« the Mabllib- 

■ndGod. That tbe nunc" Suih"BEninei" prin- 
am"m nninmlij acknowkdged. Bvt the laMD- 
feig of "Sam" 'a lU]) ■ nlifeet of enolTCvvr))'. 
Tbe aMcr iottrvntm (H, for euiuple, St. Jfronie 
ia OuK. /Mr., nut tlum who fijlow him) nip- 
poB ft to Dwwi ■'mj ftinctm;" «iid eipUn Ibe 
f^T a j^ i frm Susj to Suah, u tignifjing that iba 
wie no lonicff tlie queen of one runilj, but the 
n}^aiHeatimo(>'maBuuili«or(bee*r(h." lliej 
ako fappoK (hit tbe udditim of tbe letter H, u 


the DWtH* of Abnm uid Sini, mjntiisllj ligniflrd 
their ban); neeiml into »miint with the Laid. 
Among nndern llelniili tixre b gnat diTendlj of 
blerjniation. Une opinion, keepinf{ (0 the nme 
■ ■ ' "■ ■ . - ■ ■,Bboi-e,«ipbiii» 

"DOiile,'' "nobiJitj," ete,, an eiplaiia- 
■ ! other, la" 

larm of TV^ (StrigUi}, and to ^Ifj " Jtbo- 
nh ft mW." 'Dot tbii gina no (brca whaterer (o 
(ha eb*fi|^ and baidea intmdiieei tbe Hnie name 
Jai tarto k props' name too mrij In tbe bidory. 
A Ibiid (Mining Kwild) derin it ftom iTlij?, 
■ nut wbkb la Mind hi «iai. uiil. !S, Hoi. lu. 
4, In (be aeoM of <■ (o Ighl," and eiplilni it ai 
••eoUentioui" lUreiuadilig]. Thii \Mt Mem (0 
la MTnuloKiaHj the moat prolaible, lud ditkn 
baa Ui* othen in giring greit fcrce uul dignit; 
to the efaaage of HUM. (Sao Gaa. Tha. iiil. iii. 

H« bialorj b, of eonna, that of Abribam. 
She euw vkb Um from Ur to llano, from Hano 

iiga of hb 1 

eeoomponied birr Jn 
I. Ha- oiilf indepei 
it Hagar ud Ishmid iboald 

itloo la 

, ith bfT and I 
dtoiand, ajniboliaillj ajipliad in Gil. ir. 93-31 to 
(be digpliucnKnt of (he Old Connant bj the New. 
The tiiDfli in which the plaji the [noat impoftint 
part in the bialorj, ire the tinw wbai Abraham 
waa •Djouming, Grat in Egipt, than in Gaar, and 
■here Sanih ihared hi* di^t, toward* Pbiiudi 
and tomrdi AUnielech. On the firat oeeuioo, 
about the middle of her life, ba pnwnil tmntj li 
upon aa ila cuiae <Uen. lil. Il'lft): on tbe 
I, jutt before (be buth of Iiue, at ■ time 
ahe wia old (thirtj aeren feai* bofon her 
dealh), but when her ligor but been mlntculoualj 
natcred, the unia ciDae ia alluded to. aa auppoaed 
bf Abnhim, but not actuiUr itXal (u. 9-11). 
In both caiei, ttpecMlj tlie litt. (he truthfulnaai 
of the hii(oi7 li leen in the uularonble contrut 
in which (he conduct both of Abnhim and Suih 
itanda to that of rhinoh and Ablmelech. She 
Hebron at tbe age of 127 jmn. 38 jam 
before her huibaud, and waa buried bj him in the 
are of Muhpelih. Hrr burial place, purchiani 
of Ephron the Hittite, «u tbe onlj poaaeiiioo of 
Abraham in tha land of proniiae; it hia remained, 
hilbwed In the tyei cf jewi, Chriitiini, ai>d Mo- 
huKmedina atilie, to Ibe preaaut dsj ; and in it tbi 
' abrine nt Sarah " ia pdiited out oppoaKe (a that 
if Abraham, with thoie of [rue and Kebekah on 
iie one aide, and thoae of Jacob and l.eab on (be 
o(her (en SlanU^'t UeL m Jiaiik CJimxi, a{^ 

chanKter, like that of Abnham, ia no Ideal 
tjpe of eieelleuce, but one thorouKklr nalunl. Id- , 
(Mor (0 (hit of her huaband. and indj fLimuint, 
defect*. She ii (b* 
wife. Her natuni 
motberl; aflection ia eeen In her touching dedia 
for children, even from brr bondmaid, and lu b« 
tforgiring jealouaj of that 

'; In h 

r^icing ff 

lunc. and in (be jealouay i 

■lighteat inaolt to him. and forbade libniae] 
: hli aonahip. It makta her cruel to otlien 
aa tender to her owii,° and ia rtanarkibljr a 
nl with liie lecrifice of natural fcelini; an 1 
of AbnUiim to Uod'i ooinniaud hi the li 

■ (Gen. I 


mile of a. 

her itonical Uugbte 

low liejond >1[ hope; her (reiuliling 
liuzhler. and her ciuuigc of it to tb* 
laughter of tbanlirul Joj, wtiicli alie coiumeniondal 
tJie niire of Iiaac. It ia ■ chancier ileeplf 
id tTv]; aflectionate:, bnt inipulaiie, Jealoui, and 
iperion* ii> iH alRetion. It ii Rfaned (o in tb« 
N. T. ■* a tfpe of omjugtl oMienoe hi 1 Pet. ill. 
' end aa one of (be ttpea ot bilb in Heb. li. 1] 
A. a 

3. (rV^^- SifMi [V*t'' M. KopaO Snra., 
Sesah the du^hler ot Aiher [Num. uri. 46). 

SA'RAI [3 ijl.] C":^ ["• '^'"''l' I<if- 
Snna). Tbe original name of Sniii. (he wlfo of 
Abraham. U li almja uaed in tbe hlatoff hoai 

lMie<a mintage raedlitclr iftel (be ■ 

■ tf ■anb'a lialh alaiMtla 




0«k il. m to nil. IS, when It wh diuifad to 
Btnb U Ua hum Um« Out her hiuhiHid'i nun* 
ftom Ahnm becMM AbnfaiuD, uid th« Uith ri 
Inu wu mon dlitinctlj fonlold. The nxaning 
at the name ippeui to be, u Enid hu (ag- 
isted, "contenlioui." [Sahah.] 

BARA1A8 [3 «jl] (lapalai-- om. In Volg.). 
1. SkiuiAH the hlfch-print (1 Eedr. t. i). 

S. {'A(iu»(ail Alei, [Aid.] lBpo/«; Atm-i,^ 
Atarrm.) Skkaiati tbe bUm of Em (I F^r. 
riU.1: 2RHlr. t. 1). 

SAR'AMEL ([Bom.] Alet laponA: [Sin. 
and] oHin MS3. ■AaapofLix ■■ Amnmrl). The 

Jam ma IkM it wblch tbe high-printhoDd inu 
confttTfd upon Sinion Aliweabciu (1 Muc ilr. 
tS). 'llie fHvl thM UlB i.anie ii found onlj In thli 
ptanee h*a led to the coiijectan that t( f* ui im- 
perfect renton of ■ word in the oriciml tUlir«« or 
Sfriu, tmiii which the preuiit Gredi 
lUccHbeea b > tniitbtion. Some (■ 
hare Imled it u * comiption of Jen 


dob], ooEvriiigTob. 1.11. TV fcra In A. 7. it 
Saditrdimmi fpfn to be in um right- [•• BBtam 
- m titt Aldine edition. — A.] & F. W. 

SARDB^H (ZfpoAlai; Ala. ZaptuAn [*• 
TiHh., biitZa«>taHu,IWwr'ied.; AU-^Mftain'] 
T^ediat). AcizA [1 Kidr. ii. S8i eomp. Es. 

BAEDINE. SARDIUS (QlK ««•■. <r^ 
ar: wriJuu) it, ucurding to the l.XX. ud 
Jowphu* (BrB. JwL t. G, f T).tha oomd l«.ld(T- 
ing of the Hebrew term, which oecun is Ex. iiiiii. 
'~ mil. 10, ■■ tbe ntuiM of the Uoiie ihich 
ipied Uie finl pbua in the Bnt row of tba h%h- 
pri«t"i bre«tpl«Le; it ihould, howeiw, be notiecd 
' ' 'Hephm ii not itrictJj 

Tonleni: but 

__. ._. .. .. ncaynblethat 

•o well-known a nwiw ahould he tompted. Tbe 
atber mnjecturei ere enumenled bj Grimm In the 
Kmx'jrf. atylacha llnJieb. on lb« paoage. A 
kw Dill) n«J lie namcJ here, but none Hem per- 
bdl; Hliafa'rtorjr. All appear to adopt the reiul- 
iif Aritnm,L 1. llnhnUar Milla. "tbe court 
of Millo," Ktillo Iwing iwt itnprolally the citadel 
of Jeruulem [ml. iii. p. IHS?). Tbi) ii Ibe oon. 
Jecture uf Umtiui, and liu at leaat tbe merit of 
Ingeimily,' 2. Il-ttnttir Am ti; "theeourtof 
the pi-oiJe of (iod, that ii, the creat court of tbe 
Temple." Tbi) i. due to (CctcA. ii 


rll-kiH>im Saritlh 
. ^ n bj Riiaeliim u tbe title of thi 
III hiatorjt. [See MaCcahees, vol. ii. p. 
ITIS-I 3. Ihakiar Am M "the gate of tbi 
people of Cud." adopted by Winer (R-.Ffii*.). * 
Bauar Am El, " prince of the people of God," u 
if not the name of n p1ai-e, but the title of Simoo, 
Um " in " hnvini( been inaerted bj puuled copjiita. 
Tbi* li adopted by Grimm hinwif. It hai in ili 
hnr the fact Uiat wilbout it Simon ii ben itjltd 
higb-|iriot uiilj, and hia Kcond title, "cnptiUD i ' 
gonnior of the Jewi and pritita" (ter. 4T), 
then omitted in the toltnin official recon! — 
Tei7 place where It ougbt to be found. It i 
■rrnia to be eounlenaiiced bj the Te^ilo-Sjiiae 
•cnion, which cenabilj' omita tbe title of "bigb- 
prieat," hut inaeru Rnliba dt fimrl, " kader of 
larael." None of theie ciplanationi, bowtnr, can 
be regarded aa entirely aatlifaclorj. G. 

BA'RAFH (fl'jip ilmrmag, JIay. pei$tn- 

Tb* & 

mtnUontd hj Eiekid (nriij. 13) aa me of tbe m»- 
ramta of the king <d Tjre. In Rn. Iv. 3, St. John 
dedarea that ha whom ha BW aitting on the 
heanniT throne " waa to hnk upon like a Jaaptr 
ardint atone." Tbe ^th foundation of 
of the beavenlj Jonaaiem w« a tardin 
(Re*, ul. aO). Then can acarcdj be a doubt 
ither tbe aird or tbe aaidonji ia tbe atone 
d b; Airm. Tbe authoritr of Joaephtn m 
t rrialea to tbe bigh-pntat'a bnaatplata <a ol 
the gitttwt iralue, tor as &aun (Dt IVaL Sot 
Hii. p. 63G) baa remarked, Joaephua waa not c*ilj 
■ ut a prieat, who might ha« wen tbe bnaat- 
ith the whole aacerdolal veatmenla a buo- 

TCin hi 



I*: [V-i 

«0 I 

tlotied in' I Chr! ir. 22 amarg the descendinta of 
Kbelah tbe aon of Judah. Burrington ((Imnl. I. 
ITS) makea Senipb a descendant of .loliim, whom 
bo Rgarda aa the third lun of Shelah. In tbe 
Taigura of K. Joaeph, Joaah and Sanph are 
Uaitilled with Mabbm and CbUion, "who mar- 
Itod fl^?:?) in Uoab." 

SARCHED'ONUS ([Rom. Vat.) 3«x<P- 
lonf,, [Alei.] I^x'pti" [AM. Z<vx<>'r» 
Artl-BiimruMr. AiAenaanr, Sarcedoniutar), a col- 
Un*I form of tbe name Eaar-haddoD [Esab-h 

■ JnalH and I'lumtUInt nn^ It bj hi avla m 

Ing; theTulgate agren with bia mmenclature : in 
Jenmie'a time tbe hnBit[data waa atill to b* Ib- 
ipeeted in the Temple of Concord: boioe it wiO 
leadilj be acknowledged that thia agreement of Iba 
~ ^0 ia of great veicht- 

The aard, wlikh la a auperior vuietj of agate, 

baa king been a (arorite atone for the eiigraTer'a 

-.; ••w thla atone." aa;a Mr. King (Anti^at 

Bit, p, 5), •' all the (beat worki et the moat 

ebrated artiata an to be found; And tbti not 

Diout good caoM, inch ia lU tonghneaa. CKilitr 

working, beaut)' of cotor, and the high poliab 

which it It tuueptible, and which Itlnj atatca 

it it retaina knger than anj other gem." Sarda 

ftr in color; there ii a bright ted tarie*r which, 

IMiny's time, waa the moat eateraied, and, pK~ 

hapa, tha Heb. (Wcm, from a root which meana ■' to 

' red," pointa to Ibia kind; Iban li aho a palar 

bonej-coknd varielT: but In aO aardi thcac ia 

aiwaja a tbada of yellow mingling ■Itb tha lad 

(aee King'a ArU, titmt, p. fl). The aardioa, ae- 

'■- to riinj (//. If. mrti. 7), derived Ita 

om Ranlii In Lydia, whB« It waa firat 

found; Babylonian apedmena, howerer, we™ tha 

moat cateemed. The Hebrewa, In the time rf 

Mnea. could tuilj have obtained tbelr aaid alonta 

trom Arabia, In which eonnlrj thej wm at tht 

Ume the brewtplate waa made ; other predoti* aloi« 

nut acquirable during their wanderinga, may ha»a 

been brought with them from the hind of the* 

bondage when " iber apolM Iha EgrpUaoa." 

W. H. 
8AH'DIS[or8ARDE6]{*W*ifV Ad^ 
aitnated about two milta to tha aonth al 0» ibw 
Hmw, J«t bdow tba >an|* of Taabn IBm 




n TBfkbb mpeU. Soma of tlit vooloi mMia- 
etnna, of * pMullarlj fine Inlun, wen calkd 
I ^AariwiBtt. Tli« lull ttaniugii which the kinft 
1 of Pertim pMKd from hii lUU iputmeDl^ to thr 
■ i^aXjB when he mounted on hii hone, wu lud with 
I that, ud no Tcot but Ihiit of the monarch WM 
> aJlamd U tioid on them. In the dt*cri[)tii>n 

)!iiiei of the hiliit* oT ■ J'oung Cypriin eiquiait* 
- oT invit wolth, he ii reprcMnlcd u repoiing upon 

% bed of which the feet were ailva, imd upon whi^ 

Omgk\ w m ipir of which ila seniMlIi bh bnOt. * 

It «■■ tba ■neient reaidence of the kinKi of Ljdi*. Ii 

AAo- ■(■ eonquat b; Cfnu. the rtnuim itinji ^ 

kitpt k gurieon in the cilxdel, on afnoni 

■ttiml (troigth, which induced Aleui 

GiHt, wben it w» luiTendeRd to bim in the t 

m^ml at the hUtle of ttie Gnoiciu, ainiiUrlj to a 

aacapj IL Sudu wu id mj e»lj time*, both ^ 

ban the eitmiidy lertile cbmcter of tlie neigl 

botini; Rgkici, vid fnini ill conTenlent poidlion, 

•oosMKiil mut of importvice. CbotnuU were uieae i^iAvrdiriati iojitiarai were ma u > nut- 

tot {■udueed in the neighborhood, whieh procured tnaa- Sudii, too, wu the pbce where the nietil 

than the oune oT MKmrn loftianl. 'i'be ut | (^Onim wu procured (Soph. Aniig. ID37); him) 

of djong wool ia tnjd bf f iinj (o hure been it wu thither HuX tbe SpnrtAni eent In the ililh 

l>Rtitad Uwret ud at aoj rale, Serdii wu tba ccntur; B. c. to purcbue gold for tbe piirpoM of 

•itnpM of the djed woolen minufaofaiiH, of wbich gilding the bee of tbe ApoDo at Amyclc. Thk 

rar jKit with 111 tut flock* (wsAinrpo^aTorrJi-ii, "U pn>b>bl} furniibed bj the Kurirfroui und of 

Herod. T. 49) hnriitbed tbe n« msteriaL Hence tbe Vutoloa, ■ brook which «me fnm Tn-oloi, 

*a hev of the ^ncflei Soplionf, und Seppho and ran through the ngom of Sudii bj Um adi 

^iiki «f the w«atl).at itaatMii AiJuw n\ir ot the gpeit temple of Cibebe. But though ih 

tntr, ^ikfa >u pcrhapa lonicthiag ttko Uw mod- gold-wuhinp ma; haia been celebnlad in tt^ 

m of Svdii in It* beit daj 
D iU genenl commercial i 
■ u u aitrepfit 

■Unr and goU eoini wne there Rnt minted, but 

Uwre aln tba cb« of (JmAm [itationurT Iradrrs 

m (uitiadiitiliguuhed tnm tbe ffiwopoi, or tisid- lU produci 

Eog meRhwital fimt anie. It wu ^im, at uij 

rale b etwtn the Tall of the I.jdian vid that of the 

Pinnaii djuaitj, a >bTe-maTt. 

Sardit reooTCTed the pnvilei^ of municipal gov- 

lAsmrda, tbe right of a lanctiurrl upon iti lur- 
■hIk la Alnandcr tbe Great, but iti fortune) for 
Ihe n«t thne Intndnd ^eut an t^ obacnre. it 
ikaogHl bwidi more Uian once in thu conteata ' wealth 
WniB Um djnaaliea which arcet alter the death niied 
rf AletMidv. In the jrar 314 a c, it wu taken ; found I 
mi mtkti bj tbe arm; of Antioehni the Ureal, the ito 
eht entegad hia eoadn Aehana in it fcr two jean the eentn of one 
■ be at kit £d tknd^ trtaefa- ' allhongh It wu 

fining pOMenion of the penon of Ik 
luirr. Ader the ruin of Antiochua'i Ibrtnnei, H 
paiaed, with tbe real of Ada on that aide of Tao- 
' t the doniinioD of the kiiij:* of Pei^pmiua, 

n of Alia b; Ateuuider. Of tlie few 
which bare been di>«vere<l. all. ur 
eloiig to the time of Ihe Ifonian empire. 

I. The muiive temple of CjImIw atill 
jm in ita fragmentary remaiiig to the 
archilectniBl ikill of the |»>|<le Uud 
Mr. CockerelT. who visited it in 1SI8, 

«lumna alandlnz with their architrave, 
' which (tretcbed In ( idiigle block ftna 

e Urgeet of theanhilni« 



it gdnikiM miut hun wel^Hfl IS tom. Thr 
lIuHlcn nf the columnt nippartln; it m S Icet 
1| inchM >t ibout W fM btiow ttia eapitiO. Tbt 
pncRit lOll (ipponntly furniH] b; Lli« crumbling 
iw»j of Um bill whkh hmcki th« Itinplc on iu 
•u<«ni •Idt) ii man tbui 35 fret ibOTe the piTs- 
ment. Stich proportiona m not inrerior lo tfaon 
at the cDlunini In the Heneum it Simot. wbicb 
dlridei, in the allmetlDn of Htndotui, with lb« 

the detillt, " the o^Itili ippeued," U> Mr. I'ock- 
Wrll, " to lurpM* vif >p«iinen oF the lonis he hiu) 
■een in perfoction (rf dnl^n Ind eiKallon." Ou 
Ibe north ^e uf the KTOpoUi, Drerlookint the 
talky of the Itmnut, ia i thtatn nnr 400 l«t In 
dlanirter, ntUcbfd to ■ gtwiium of ibout 1,000. 
Thij probnblj ni emted nfter the netortlion of 
SHdi* bj Aleuuider. In the atlKk of Sudii by 
AnUochui. dnerilwd bj l>olyblui (rli. lA-lBI, It 
•nnalilntHi one oT the chief polnti on which, tlla 
entering tlie city, tbt unolting force WM dimtnl. 
Tba temple belongi la llie en of the Ljdiin 
djnMt)-, and ii nor); tonlenipanneoua with the 
lemph of Zeua PwibeQcDiut In .£elna, uid that 
of HerA in Samoa. To the tvne dale mmj be u- 
aljtnod the " Velley of Swefta " (y/tutbi *7«it»). 
■ picunre ground, the fame of vhieb Poljcnttt 
MidtHfortd lo rini h; the ao-eaUed ^.aiirn at 

The modem name of the mini at Sudii-ti SrH- 
Knlrui. IVatelloi dtacribe the uppesnnce of Hit 
bcalilj on eppreuhini; It rrom (he N. W. u thai 
efeompleleaDlilude. The I'm toln> ■ *'•—■' 

r. all 1)1 


WadU^cliiti (HrmiuBl, In the neighborhood of 
town, la between liO uid BO jiirdi wide, end neuij 
I fiiet daep, bnl ita *iiten an turi>id »id dintcm- 
■tde, end an not ci»l} widad aa unlit for diink- 
big, but hare the Innl reputAtion of Kcnolins 
the ttrrr which h the acourn of the neighboring 


In the time of the empmr TiheHoa, Sardla wu 
dnoUtad bj en earthquilte, la)!«h«r with ele^m, 
or aa Knaebint aara lwel>e, otiin Import-inl dtita 
of A^ The wh'ule hce of the cannlrr ii aald to 
hire been chanaed by Ihja coiimlaion. In the 
Mae of Sjudla the caleniltj waa incmaed hj ■ pea- 
Ulential fever which followed j and ao niucb coni- 
naaion wu In conaequence eiciled for (he tUj al 
Roma, that ita tribute waa nmilled fur l!ie jean, 
and It tKdvcd a benefaction (torn the prlry purae 
of iht tniperor. Thii wu In the jeiir IT A. it. 
[fine rean altmnrdi the Sanllung are fonnd 
among the eompetiton for the honor of nwin);. 
■a reptnentfltiiea of the Aaiatle cilita, a lemple to 
Ibdr Icnelador. [Smtkm.!.] On thia ocrulon 
the; pind, nul nnlr th«r ancient aenicea to Home 
In the time of the Maenlonian inir, but (heir wetl- 
watered coantrj, their climate, anil the riehn»« of 
the neiithboring aolh there t> no allutkin, howei'er, 

of th« nrlj tlmea. In the time of Hin; It waa 
Incliided In Ibe aime amrniatjariiKciH with Phil- 
adelphia, with the Caduenl, a Mandonlan colon; 
in the ad«hbortiDari, witli gome Kltlementi of the 
|M Klaonian popDlation, and a In other towni of 
taa note. Thew Mconiaiii allll continued to call 
Banlla bj ila ancient name Hjdt, wbteh it bore in 
' -' la of Omphalc 


a, b RcT. IU. 1-e. Thiee ia nothing I 


[it which appean to hare Mj apedtl nAnnai k 
the peculiar clreumitaiicea of the city, or to mj- 
thin^ tlae than the moral and apiritna) condlttan 
of the Chriatlan communil; eilallng tlicre. Tbh 
httcr waa prababiy, in ita aecular nlatlona, pct^ 
■Marij Identical with that at Pbihdelphi*. 

(AthenKUi ii. 48, ii. 931, xli. 514, MO; Ai^ 
riao, I. IT; PVay, //. N. t. S9, hi. 83; S(rph» 
una By j. TSq; Pauaaniaa, Ii). 9, 5; l>iod<»- 
rua 8ie. ■>. lOT; Soboliaat, Ariatoph. P.ic. llT4i 
Boechh. Iwicrlpdma Oraca, Noa. 316I-94T9; 
HenxtoluB, I. BU, M, ill. tS, riil. 10B: Straho, liiL 
I i; Tacitui, Aininl ii. 4T, lii. 61, In. DA; Coekw- 
ril. In Lake'i Aiia Mimr, p MX; AnukdeO, Ola- 
eopcWu in Ana Mhim; I. p|>. 9S-iSi TebihaldM^ 
Aiit iffnflo-e, pp. Sua-84S.) J. W. a 

8AR-DITES THB CTTiPn [patr.] : 1 1^ 
tSf [Vat. -Sii]: SmvHla). 'Tba dtKandaula rf 
SiHKD Iba BOn of Zebnion (Knm. url. S6). 

SARDONYX (iriuMrvf: mrdmyie) ii ma- 
tloned In the N- T. once only, namely, In Ytm. 

d thef 



ita ijamelmplka. a aard with a while ground bencMb 
It, like the fltah nnder the lliiKeMiail." Ihe hp- 
diinyi conaiala of " a white opaque layer, aapnim- 
poeed npon a red tmnaparent atntum of the tnV 
red nrd " {Aniqut Urmi, p. 0); It la, like Ih* 
aard, merely ■ rariety of BK«ts, and ii fMqneotly 
enipbjtd by eneravtra fbr the purpoat of • ii|ni<*- 
ring. W. H. 

SA'RGA {Snren). One of the fira aeriba 
"ready to write awillly" whom Eadna wu coiD> 
tnanded to Uke (S l-jdr. lir. 34). 

SARGPTA (3<liHirTa: Snrrpla: Syiba, 
Tnirp"<h ). The finek form of Uw name whieh la 
the Hebrvw leit of the U. T. appean u Zau- 
PHATH. The place ii dn^Enaled by the aune fbr- 
mula on ita tingle occurmic* in the K. T. (lAik* 
)f. 26Mhatit iawheiiflntnieitlionedin theLXX. 
mahm of 1 K. irU. 9, " Sarepta of Sidonia." 


SAR'OOH (l'''75 (PB*- P«w-, priM* <f 
lit im, Get.]: 'Af>»: Snrgam) «m om of Ih* 
grmleat of the Anyrfni Ung*. tlk name ia read 
in the na[i>* inacriptiona aa Saiglna, while a town 
wliich he Irailt and called altar him^ (now Kbcr- 
uhad) waa known aa Sitri/hm to the Arwblaa 
gtncrvphen. lie ii mentioned by name only one* 
ia Scripture (Ik. ii. 1), and then not in an hlilor- 
icil look, whirh hmneily kd biiluriana and eritiu 
to auapert Ihal lie wa> not really a king diatinet 
from thoae mentioiked in Kings and Cbronielea, hrtt 
nther M^of Ihowkingsunderanothernanie. VI- 
trlnea, Ulftrhani. I'jchhoni, and llnpfrM Idenlifleil 
him with ShiUmannrr; Grotiui, Uwth, and KeO 
with Smnachnib; I'criioDiDa. KaHnaky, and Hi- 
chatlle with I'jarhaddon. 

g hytl 

Aaairian Id- 
aTe been di>- 

laaigned by Koaenmllller, Geeenhn. Kwal 
ler — brtwnm Shalmaneier and Sennac 
le waa certainly Scnnaelierlb'a father, ai 

rf Babjlan, whieb, Kcoding to PUIeaj'* Quioo, 


« been I 

« inacripUoni be 
amtallj aToidi all moitiou of bii biber. It bu 
been enjcetund tfaM bs took idnuiUge ol Sbii- 
BrniBwr'i >ta*nce *t the pcotneUd uege of Sama- 
ra H K. xtU. i) to (Act a nvolutioD at lb« w^ 
it gawniiieBt, bj iibkh that king mi d*po«d, 
md be biiBHlr tubatituled in hi* room. [SiiAt.- 
Jt.] It ii RinarkablA tbu Satgon claimi 

King! a/ftnrt to aauf^ U hia prediemor. He 
flMX til* event in hii Snt jear. belbre aaj of hu 
wbcr expcditiotu. Ferhapa, tberefore. b« b tlie 
o king of AMjTia " Idloided in S K. i>ii. 8 and 
trilL 11, who m Dot nid to be SbaJmaaeaer, tliough 
■c might aatunll; (uppOM to from »o oLbrr nuue 
being mcntioaed.^ Or pvhaps 1m ctninieJ tbe 
eouqacat aa bii own, though SbalmuieHr mdlj 
aceonipUilieil it, becaius tbe capture of tbe dtj oc- 
tnmd tlUt be had been acknowlediied kioi; in the 
Aia>riw eapitaL At an; rata, to liini belongi tbe 
•ctllRiieiit of the Samaritaiu (27,SSfl faniiliea, ac- 
nvdiog to hia on Matemeot) in Hahh. and oii 
the llabor IKhnioar], (ha riter of bona, and (at 
a later period probablj') In the oitiet of the Meilea. 
Sargon wai undoubtedlj a great and tuccebful 
warrioc- In bii annala. which cover a ipdce of 
tfteen jt*n [from a, c. TSl to B. c. TOfl), be givei 
an account of hia wariike eipeditioni agalntt Itabj'- 
kmk tad SuaianaoD the aoulh. Media on tbe bA, 
Antenia and Cappaducia lonrdi the north, S;ria, 
Palatine, Aiabia, and Eii^pt towtuili tbe w»t and 
the Butliweit. [n Bal.^lonia he depowd Mero- 
dacb-Baladan, and eitabliihed a riceroy; in liledia 
ha built a numlitr of citiea, which he paojiled with 
optirea from other quwrtoi : in Anneiiia and the 
ne^ihbaring oountriet be gained nianr victoriea; 
wtiiie in the far weit he nduced Pbiliatia. pene- 
trated deep into tbe Arabian peninaula, and forced 
Igjpt - 


MBuia to bare vailed thiee w 

d }ear (8.0.720), for tbe 
stber in hia liith jrear (B. c, VIS], when J 
ttf vat th> Dijeet of attack ; and a third i 
ith (B. c. 713). when the tpeeial lulject of 
a iabdod. which Sargon look by oi 


■ th< 

D Scripture. Iiaiah 
waa iniinjcua at ue ume of thia eipeditian to 
" put off hia aboe, and ga naked and barefiiDt,'' tot 
a li^i that " the king of Aitjtia ahouid lead awa> 
tb* ICjU'pUani phamert, and tb« Rthiopiani cap- 
tjn*. joung aiiH old, iiikad and barefoot, to the 
riianie of tjfjpt " (ii. ii. 3-41. We maf gather 
bom iJiia. ntber that F4biopiana and %jpiiui 
farmad part ut the garrtton of Aaltdod and wer 
•aptonad with the dt)', or that the attack on th< 

Egfpt ilarif, which waa diiaitniua to (he Egyptian! 
IW fear of the attack, bang B. L-. TIS, wuiUd fal 
bto the nign of tbe firat Ethiopian king, tSaJiaeo 


ith l^ia [that] Svgoo 
ipeaki of Egjpl aa baing at thia linie anlgcct to 
UtmS. Baaidea Iheae eipeditiona of Saigon, bi> 
oxmuaienta mention that he took Tj-re, and re- 
cived iri1>ule frvm the Gncka of Cjprua. againat 
liioiu tliere ia aunie reaaon to think that be oou- 

It ia not aa a warrior oolj Ikat Sargoo deaerrci 

peoial mention among the Aaajrian kingi. lie 
(a> alao tbe builds- of uaeful worki and of one of 
tbe moat magalSoent of the Aaiyrian pataeei. He 
lelato that be tboroughlj repaired tbe walla ol 
Nineveli, which he aeenia to lui-e elet-ated fmn ■ 
provincial cit; of lome importance to the flrat puai- 
tionln the empire: and aJda furiber, that in ita 
neighborbood be conilrucleil llie palace and Iowa 
wbicb ho made hii principal realdenec Thia wa« 
■'le cilj no* known aa " the French Nineveh," oc 
Kluiraabad," from which the valuahle aeHea at 
Auf riao uionunieala it preaeut in the Ijwm la 
derived almoat entiretj. Tracea of Sargon'a build- 
ing! have been iinind alao at NlmrHd and Koyun- 
Jik; and bia tioM ia marked by a eonaidanl-le ad- 
' I tbe uaeful and oraanientJil aita, which 
have proflled by tbe connection which b« 
eatabliihed lielwtan Aatyriaud Kgypt. He probably 
igned nineteen yean, from H. c. 731 to B. c. TUl 
len be Ipft tbe tbioua to hia aon, tbe cclebntod 
Sennacherib. G. R. 

SATtlD (T-ltp l™e left, n miTi-por] : 'E>n- 
ryttltS,' 3titeiK: Alei, Xa«iAI, Sunt' Sniiill. 
cbief landmark of tlie territory of Zehulun, ap- 
parently the pli-ot of the weiteni and aontbeni 
laundsriM (Jo.h. ill. 10, 19). All that can b« 
galheml of it* poxitian la that it lay to the wast ol 
iloth-Tabor. It waa unkiu>wn to KuseUua and 
ime. and no tm* of it aeenii to hare baan 
id by any Iraieller liiice their day [Onona, 

Adlod. 'Iliii may be only Auni the Intercbanga, 
go Ireqiieot in thia veraion, of R and D. At any 
rate, the Aahdod of the Pbillatloe* cannot be h|. 
tended. O. 

SA'BON <Tkr SaifWH! in Boma USS. ovr*- 
pa.™,.". '. plj^n [rtepiim]: Si<mw). 11^ 
diitrict in which l.j-dda itood (Acta ii. 39 only); 
IbeSiiAHOMof tJwO. T. TbaabaeiHsof the ar- 
ticle from Lydda. and ita preaenc* bBfi>re Saron, Ii 
noticeable, and thon that the name denotea a dia- 
tiict — aa in -The Shefelah." and in our own 
" The tt'eald," " 'nie l»owna." O. 

• The I'lain extended akHijt the aai-coait fron 
Joppato Cuarea, about 30 milea. Though coo. 
necled by nai to Lydda, in AcU ii. 3i, Sanin in- 
cluded that city. It baa Imn cuyectured that tliert 

"!■ ilitbunh T< 

c Tliia ba.'barDiia mid la obialoal ttf Jolntiif to I 
'I dd tb* lial aotd of the IMIawlnc «*, n^]?% 

. . - , Mi 

- (. [AM,] 3.p««,J: 0.,™.ti). "TheioniDf 
Buothic " lire uiKHii: Ihc son* of tl» Hmnli of 
Soloainn who retiinHnl with Zorobntwl. KCordiiig 
In tb« li«t In 1 Rwlr. t. 34. Tbtn u uoUiiog cor- 
nqnadiug lo 11 ii> tha Hebnw. 

SAB'SECHIM (ff39-l» li«i«ce >■/ ih 
timMhi]: Sartnchim). Oiig of the Kenniila ot 
Ncbuehiulnanr'i irmj *t the Uklug oT Jeniulrni 
(Jtr. xiiii. 3). H« >pp«T> to hiiB held the offi» 
of chief nintich, for Hnb'B&rii !■ pTohably & title 

•bubvi It culled Rub-mna, " chief eunuch," and 
the qimtlon lU^tea *bethn- Xebnahubwi and Sar- 
■echini inaj not b« naJnei of the aame penon. In 
llie LXX., lenn 3 uid 13 ue mlied up loitlher. 
and ao hopelfulj comtpt tluL It b iniposMhle lo 
aiijtling from their rtwlini; of Nnflownlxap 

SAltUCH iiafaix- Sarvg). Sekuo iLr 
nn of Rau (Luke iii. 33). 

HATAN. The wrad Itaelf, tht Hdirc* )^^, 
It •impl)' nn " ■dreraw]','' and Ii to Died In I Sam. 
nil. 4: 3 Sun. III. !3; 1 K. r. 4 (LXX. hi- 
Bb<,\b,}\ in 1 K. >l. an (LXX. irT,..l^,m): i" 
Num. iiti. 2S, and Pa. eii. 6 (LXX. Ii<tfio\oi ai^ 
oognala •rordi}; in 1 K. d. 14, SS (IJCX. nriirl. 
Th<> oHglnal leiiie li atill found in our Lord'a ap- 

Sllcatlon of Uie nano to St I'Mcr in Malt. ivl. 21. 
t ia uied nt a prDper n*n» or title oiilf four limes 
in tilt U. T., nuiiel}', (with the uticle) in Job i. S, 
la, ii. 1 ; 2eeb. Hi. 1, and (without tbe artiele) In 
1 Chr. ni. 1. In fach caw. Uw IJCX. bat tid^o- 
A«t, and the Vulpite &if«H. In Ihe N. T. Ilie 
ixird ia raruvt, Ibllowed by the Vulgate Snlonat, 
eicept In i Cat. xii. T, where aiair ii lued. It ia 
fbuiHi in Iweiitj-flce plana (eicluuve of panilkl pni- 
•aget), and the oormponding word 6 iii0o\in In 
about the aaine nuniber. The liile i fyx^t tai 
rail ia used three timn; i ronipi! 'a 
iniei, probahlj mora frequeiillj. 


I book; but, hwinic done Uiii, it unt tb« 
accept and underaland, wlUiout being ahle to tttk 
or lo eipliln. the dia-^urea of thii Lliiine auUm>> 
-J upon auLJHia l«jond thia world (the ''bwml; 

laclcse (hem, san the '■ Son of Man who ia id 
It ii true, that Iiuman Ihougbt can aaaert aa 
priuii protwhilltj or improbabilit; in snch itate- 
leiilamade, based on Ihe pineplJon of a i^reiterct 
Icai degree of accordance in principle between the 

e^cta, which are liaible, and the cauaea, which ara 
rpaled from Uie rfjilont of mjiitery. Itot et«n 
ii power of weighing probnliilitf it applirabia 
Iher to the fact and lendenc]'. than lo the mtthod, 
■upeniatural action. This la true eien of iiatn- 

In the dlKutuDo of the Pluialilj of Worlda, tar 

iple, H niaj be aiKtted wilbout doubt, that 

I the orbi of the unlrerte Ihe Dliihe power, 

wiadoni. and goodiieat mutt benerriaed; liut the 

Inference that Ihe melhod of their eierciie ia Ibnnd 

II la with the IScriplunt cerclation on the in 
)ect that Ke are here concerned, and it it clei 
from thii ainiple enunicralion of paatagea, that it 
lo U sought in the New. rathec than in the 

(A.J HwEkibtemcb. — IIWDuldbea wa.->leof 
[inif to prove, thai, in larioua deisreea of dcanin*. 
the p«r<H>nal eiiilence of a Spril of Kvil ia re> culed 
igniii and afain in Scriptore. Krerj quality, e^erj 
irlion, which can iiidicnU penonslitj. ia atlribuled 
lo hlui in language which cannot beeipbiiiiHl away. 
It ia not difficult to aee why it thould he thua re- 
la of apiritual importance, and it ia also clear, fmm 

uiy tiippoaed manifeatationi of lupeniatiiral p 
and uiy weerted prineipla of Dirine action, < 
Ul aiUiln ita aphcre of eiperienco ("the earthly 
Ibinga ' of John iii. 13|i it may by auch eiamina- 
ioD wtitfy itieU of the truth and divinity of a Per^ 

bringa, ia 
Still mar 



idude that In their ci 

ne KOtemmenl mual be carricil on by Uie union 

idkldual fncdom of action with the orerTuliiig 

if of God, and muBt tend finally to that good 

which it hit «nlnil allrihule. But beyond thia 

un, and can tcamlf 

even aay of any part of the method of thia gotem- 

ment, whether il >i antecedently [robable or im- 


Thua, on our present auliject, man can aacertalu 
hj oliMTYaUon the eiialtnee oF evil, that ia, of beta 
id llionghta contrary to the ttandard which een- 
ience aaaert* lo be the true one, bringing wilb 
em auHering and mlaery ai their inavilabla re- 
lla If he attrnipta to tnue Ibem lo their canaea, 
: flndi them to ariae, lor each individual, partlj 
Dm the power of certain internal inipubea which 
I upon Ihe will, partly from the Influence of ei- 
icmal circumitancea. TTwi* drcumilanto tliem- 
ariie, either IVoni tha hvt of nilure and ao- 
or by Ihe deliberate action of other tn«i. 
in conclude with certainty, Ihal both terlia of 
■ niii>t riiat by the peruiiiaion of God, and 
finally l-e ovrruM to hit will. But whether 

ot the c 

ing in the origination of tha 
e Ihe will, thia ia a queatlon 
liver with certainty. Analogj 
n of tlie only nllimalc oauit 

tiendl3 hi 

I Ii^ him 

le uiquiry re 

1'he tendency of the mind in ita Inquiry It g«a- 
eraliy towtrda one or other of two eitreniea. Tha 
'g lo coiiuder evil a< a negative imperfection, 
g. In Bonie unknown and ii>eiplicalila way, 
the nature of matter, or ItODi aomr diaturbing 
iicca which limit Ihe action of goodneia on 
: In tatt, to Ignore iii much of evil at poaalbltt 
and lo decline lo refer the reaiduum lo any podtJit 
at all. Tlw other n the old Pervin or Uw. 
n hypotheaia, which inoei the amUDS* «l 


wB *■ a rinJ CnaOar, not ■ubordirula to tlw Cn- 
Mor of Good. Uwach ptrhiia iiiicrwr In Uim in 
fat a . Had ikstiHd U> b* ottreoma bj Him M Utl. 
BM*eeu Uiat two ntntua Iha iniud nrwd, 
(iumgli muj endatioiii of Iboiucht ukd counUoa 
Igrnu of Hijjmtjtianp Euli hjpMlheaiii bAt iU ir- 
giniiaiUu(pnl>«l.illtT>E>inittl>e other. Tliifint 
Unmt uihIct Um difficultj of Iciiifi limifficient u 
tB aooMiiit Iff tbc uionisbua fjctn. mid iiulctcniii- 

MOQiJ viuieil aifaintl tliU Mid in tha Cuitj of 
God uul Uic ii>(iir^ niprei'iarj uf ifoodnr^ wliL-h 
■ HpfiorUd lij tin d«)»'( inaiiiKti ol tha heart. 


« N. T. 

rcbid ii 

re btvoii 

Moklrj, wtthout am hinting, whit Ih 
dccbn* pkinlf, that xuh aril tnipUMl ■ 

Via book of Job itiuidi, In tny cue, iloa 
(whHlia' we nfte it to wi earij or ■ laler poiod) 
on the bub of " niOunl relii^on," iput from tb* 
d and ofderl; tvoiiiliooi of ths Mosaic nra- 
Ution. In it, Ibr the Ant time. *« find ■ diitinst 
■ m of " SnUn," " the adi-enarj " of Job- 
: ii imporiut M mii^irli the emphitic itraM 
I hb luijordliiite poaition, on the abaenoe at 
; delOKited poww, of all Imtot, and nil grauJ- 
faii chi««ter. He o 

UmtUt, iMwt* the inih. ud rdhivo the error iit- 

hwtat in l»th the« hj|MI«H. It auecta in the 

tiiUa purpoaea, oil b aUoawl M eiiri (aee tbr 

Mdp. Ham. ix. M. iii. It R-,raiil4 thb mil ■> an 

tioo and AUiiinneiit. I'ln ooiH)Uut of it besin 

nrtiullv in Unl'i oHiiui»« mfter the FaU itx.'If. 

•M e&cted •cIihIIt oh the Cnu. «id .halJ be 

iwHeelfll in iU rewlu at tiH) Jodi;ment Uaj. 

Um> htU, not oMy u fdt in outward cireuni- 

Muwc* ;- the world '1, a..d u >nl»m in tlie aoul 

bom the inBuena of an Eiil 8[iiril, «erclang 

tatiMMl etnluna |«h«, to rM maainit Hini 


Satan u bat graduallj rereded. In the fint en. 

ntend Old; lo tht aerpent. It b (r>e that the 

iritob DanUive. and Hpeciallj the apiHtoal natum 

■lutcd b> the ■e.ieoal nwUn. would fDrte oa an; 

thoHghtta reader- the euidualon that aomethii.g 

>nt the time waa nM then euiiie h> renal, 
•Aerwanla waa revealed, that ■■ be who lUHieth 
h of tiie deril" (I John iii. 8), that "the old 
Mtptut" cf <;eneii* waa "edled the devil Hud 
fWau, arbo deeciielh tbe whule world " (Kei 

TfanHuihuiit the wbule period of the palria 

■nd Jewiili diipeDntiuii, Uiit neat and imperfect 
■enbtiuii uf the I4>Hirt« of Kvil aiune waa g' 
llie Su3r» of ail iioud ia aet KiHh in all hii 
fittne and mutppraeeiiaiile M^^ntj; «*!! b kl 
BCgalivdy a> llie r^Uiri^ away tram Hini; aiii 
■■•Mjitj " of iduk, railKT than mj paail»e 
islBeuee. i* reimeulod at the oppoaita l< 
fwlitf uwlgaoduaH. The likw gives 'llMki 

:» of evil to Ibato it 


• Varibb nuoD, If lur M oUier, It rttoM iup 
■Ja teaaiift tbs tataritaMIJoa ol " AbkI," iIw 

If liefore 

milled U> ban icope. In 

ml J for God't own por- 

ia eapedallf nninrksble tliat no power 

of tplritual influence, but oaly a power over out- 

ud clreunutancea, ie Utiibut«d lo him- Allthta 

widelj diStmit from the otsar and taribb mfr- 

tioiia of Uie N. 'f . 

Tit Captivitj brought tbe liraelitea face lo &M 

th tha great diHlbm of the Penian mjthokgj, 

e eonSict of Ormuid with Ahrinian, the M- 

dinate Spirit of EiiL In the boolu written altec 

e f.'aptivity we have attain the name of "SaUa** 

dee tnenliunedi bnt it ia confeaaed hj all tint 

e Salan of Scriptore bean no rescoiblance to th* 

Perdaii AJiriman. lib luljord I nation and intef- 

oritj are aa Mnnglj niarkect le ever. In 1 Chr. 

' re the naii« occurs witliuut the artid* 

tary." oot '• lit adverearj "), the oom- 

b 2 Sun. uiv. I ahowa iliitincUf that, 

ipt3tion of Uarid, Sntan't malice we* 

o worlc out tbe <• aii;^ of the I.OTd " 

■gainat lintd. In Zech, ill. 1, 9, "Satan" li 

t irrflicaf (at in 1 I'et. v. 8), Ihe aocuaer of 

befbre the throne of Uod, rebuked and put 

a h) Hini <comp. Pa. di. 6). In the etta, 

le good angela, » alw of the f.vil One, tbt 

preaelicw of tabb and idoUtrj gaio cauM lo th* 

lifeetatioD of the truth. [Anorus, i. S7 b.] 

H>uM have been iuiposiiUe lo jtnard the ttrael- 

greal duaJisllo Iheorj of their comjuerora. 

'- ia pcrbapa not dilficult (u conjecture, that tha 
1 of tbb reeervB a> to the dtsilusure of tb* 

ivet«r3te tendenejr of tbe lir^itea to idoiatrj, 
an idobtry baaed ai naual, in great dc^Tee. on lb* 
nppoted power of their lalie goda to inflict atlL 
'he eiutene* of evil apirita ia au^nrealed to then 
I the item prohibition aud punialiinent of wildi 
craft <Ei. uii. IS; Ueut. iviii, 1U|, and iti tb* 
nimtire of (be poaiesiiion of men bv an "evil" « 
"Ijiug apirit Trom the Tj)rd" (1 Sam. ivi. !( 
1 K. uii- 32 k the tendency lo teek tlieir aid ii 
ahowu by th« rebukea of tbe pruplielt |Ia. viil 
19. Ac.). Ilul tbii tendency would have been in- 
cteaiwl tenfold by the revdiUion of tlie eiiitence of 
tlK grent enemy, ooneentrsting rouid liiuiielf all 

it would Kein, tbe rei-cbtiun 
armed " waa withheld until 
he*' should t>e made nianilcat. 
•r in Ihe New Test, tbii nscri- 

nvpce lo tlu if'Mt at Evil. 8 

' tbe " 


Biit Ihs Apocrjph^ Book* (m, for eKiunple, Toblt 
ud Judltb). wbiJs dodliDE un "dftDoni" [ttu/io- 
ru)- h'v i>o notice of Satan. The aait maj b« 
Bb*en«d of Jotophua. The oiilj iDitiuioa to the 
■Hitiarj ii Ihc nkmuN ahtaij made to Wiad. U. 
U. rt ia to bo Dotiofd alu tint the Tugamt ofl«n 
Introduce tlie name of Satwi iaio the dncriptloni 
af lin and (cmplalini (inind ia the 0- T. ; ai for 

wonhip of the gglden calf (camp. Uie tradition u 
to the bodj of Mom*, Dnut. uxir. b, 6; Jude 0, 
MlCHAKL). Bill, while a maai of Table and (uper- 
itition gKW up on the general )ul|JHt of evil 
ifHritual influenee, atill the eiiiUaice and nature of 
Satan nmalned In the background, felt, Init not 

The N. T. flnt bring) it pUliilj' forword. Fnm 
the iKgliitiing of the Uotpel, when he appean u 
the personal teiupter of our Loid, through all Ifae 
tieapels, EpMlu, and Apocalypte, It i> auerted or 
imrjieil, again and ajiain, aa a biuiliu and Im- 
portant Imlh. To refer thii to mere ■' acconmo- 
dation " of the lani^uage of the Lord and hie 
ApoflUe* to the ordioary Jewuh hdlef, ia to conti>- 
diet facta, and evade tiie tueaiiin); of vorda. The 
■ubjeet li not one on nbich error could be lelemtad 
m unitiiportaut; but una iiuportant, practical, and 
eren nvfitl. The lanj^uage uwd mpeclinE it it 
either Uuth or bUelMXHli and unleu «e injputa 

KcelTe the doctrine of tlie eilatence of Satan aa a 
eertain doctrine of Rerrlatioii. Without dwelling 
en other paaugn, the plaiii, aolenin, and nnnieta- 
pborica) wordi of John viii. 44. muat be aufficienl: 


probation, bat wbow -«■<«-■— n~> k now bl* 
voeaUj fixed. 

Hut of the lime, cauaa, and manner of fata Ul 
Scriptim lelli ui acanel}' anjthinc. It linita iu 
diicliiaurei, aa alwaja, to that which we need to 
' now. Ilw [HBHga on which all the fabric of 
wlition and poetry Lai bam raiaed ia Ke>, lii. T 
, which ipealia of "Michael and bia aoi^" m 
fighting agsii^it the dragon and hii aneala," til 
it "gt«tt dragon, sailed tbe devil and Satan," 
M "cut out lulo the earth, and hb anKela out 
lit with him." Whaterer be tbe maniiii; of thta 
aaaage, it ia cotain that it cannot refcr to tbt 
rigina] laU of Satan. Tbe onlj other paaaga 
bich refera to the M of the angdi ia S Pet. ii. 4, 
H God ipared not the aogele, when thej had ainned, 
'vciiig cut thein into htU, deliitnd than to 
ehaini of darlinesa (nipnir (i^ov TOfirapitma 
wapitmiitr), nfttrtd ui>lo Judgment," with the 
parallel puaaeie in Jude 6. " Angela, who kept not 
" ' fint eatate [-rj,« Imn-ir ^xi'i' ^"^ Ul 

It Day." Here again 

o the 


fntber II 


wu a murderer from the banning, and 

Ifnv'y) "»t "1 the 

he ipeaketh a tie, he apealiHh of Ui* own, fo 

» liar and the father of it." On thii lubJKt, M« 

DUIONl.tC8. vol. i. p. h85. 

10.) HiaMATUUE. -Of tbe natura and original 
■tale of Solan, little u reveiled in Scripture. Moti 
sf tbe oomiuon notioni on the luhject are drawi 
from mere tradition, populariied in Knglaiid b] 
Hilton, but witiiout even a >()lige of Scriptural 
authority. He ii apoken of a* a " apiril " iu Epb. 
tt. 3, aa the prince or ruler of tbe "demou" 
(twftJna) in DIatt. lii. 34-30, and aa baring 
"angeli" luhjoct to him in Malt, iiv, 41; Iter, 
lIL T, e. llw whole deuriplion of bia power im- 
pliei a|Hrltiuil nature and apiritual iiiBueiice. We 
eonclude theiefure Uiat be wu of angelic nature 
[AxiiKU], a mlional and ipiritual creatute, *nper- 
bnmin in |iowrr, aimium, and energ) ; and not 
•lilj ao, hut an arcliiuiKeJ, one of tlie " prinen " of 
heaven. We cannot, of courae, eotuieiiv that any- 
thing n>eiitl»lly and oriiilnally evil waa ereated by 
God. We find byei;«ience, tbat the will of 
free and rational creiilun can, by bia permiigio] 
ojipoee hi* will: that Ihe vrrj raoception of free- 
dom impliea ca|ncily of temptation; and that 
•Tcrjr ain, ui^lem anwLcd by Ood'i fre«h gift of 
grace, alreugtliciiB ilie hold of evil on the apirit, 
tIB it may tall into the hopelou atate of repro- 

nd the Advenary, u 

Setting; tbeae paaaagea aaide, we hare aliU to eoi- 
ider the declaration of our Lord in Luke I. II, 

I beheld Uttiifouv) Satan, aa UghUiiug, Ml 
roni heaven." Tbli ma; refer to the fact of bia 
riginal bll (allliough ll>e uae of the Impoftet 
eiiie, and the liirce of the coiiteit, rather refer ll 
Agutatively to the tnaniph of the diaeiplra over Lb* 

" )iriUI : but, in an) csm. it tell* nothing of iti 

d (John < 
" that 

Inilh, becauae there it no truth in him," " that he 
la a liar and the father of it." But htfe it icem 
likely tbe wonlt iv* ipxvi n^" <■> ^ l-eginning 
of hit acUou upon luui; perhapt the alluiion i 
to hie temptation of Cain to lie the Ant aiurdcn-, 
an ajluiion eiplicitljr made in a aimilar paaeage in 
1 John ill. 8-13. The word imm («roogl]i 
rendered "abods"in A- V.), and llie real of the 
veree, refer to preaent time. The paiaaga therelbf* 
throw* little or no light on Iba canae and uetbod 
of bia fall. 

Perbapa tbe only one, which bu any ralut. la 
I Tim. iii. 6, " letl being lifted up by pride he bU 
into tlie condrninstion (calua) of the deiiL" It 
i> concluded fruui this, that pride wu the eanaa 
of the itevil* ouiideinnaliou. TIte inference I* a 
proliable one; it la atrenctbciird hy tJ»e only anat 
ocy within our reach. Iliat of tlie liill of man, ia 
which the apiritual temptation of pride, the de- 

Still il 

t cannot be regarded « a s 
Hut, while thcae point* ai 

tr of certain Bet*- 

a fallen an^vl, wl 

e had a 

M LXX. have ^rrato, 9 


MOm. Tliii h po mtUm of buna nmubUaB 
l» IhoM who bj jialding Is tvil m*j bMOOW U 
■■duldm of Salu," isMad oT "ebiUnn of God. 
Tba idol of gDodiHH BBijda upofUw thnagiwt 
wnl >ttribaUK of God, Lore, Truth, ud Purilj 
V Hnlinf; coobinod with that ipuit, which li 
tb* mtnnil temper of ■ Sniu tmd dcptDdsit ct^ 
ton, tha tpaii ot Kaitfa. Wo find, aocordinglj, 
Uwt Um oppiwita* lo thcM qtialiiia m dwdt upoo 
w (ba di«r«Hm»tif« of the deiil. In John lUl. 
U. cDupued with 1 John liL 10-16, n have 
batnd and fklnbood: id tha omituit meiiti 
Iba ooDcleui" ipirit*, al which bt la the cb'ut, 
w» fiod isipuntji from 1 Tim. iii. S, eod the oar- 
raljra oT tha THS|Kation, we trace the iidrit of 
prid^ Thae an eapeciaJI j the ^ aiiu of tba devil ; " 

I INxirEB AND AcTtoN. — Bo(h ibfe 

. «l»Ct«) Willi OUI OWD 

d nlialion. an ireated with ■ rliilJiirtnrae 
lod (alliMa* maariiabl]' watnalad with the ob- 
MOrit} of the pmiHia auhject. 

The power of SaUn otet tha aotd b rapnamtad 
aa mMiiaml, ather dinctlr, or bj hu inttr - 
Hk dinst iuauauce uw Ibl aoul » ■Lmpl^ 
a powarAtl and eiil iialure on thoaa in whoi 



, awtr of aeting bj 
1 ot thoughla. without tba mediuni (^ 
r wonh — a power which <a oolj in iwj 
■flcfat dagm eifTeued bj mn upon nob otbn. 
TbM influence ii apokai of hi SieripUire in the 
<ro w{ ea* Umia. aa a ml eitenul iDflueisee, oor- 
nlatlve to, but not to be eanTounded with, the 
Biatauee of aiil within. In (be panble of the 
mar (HaU. liiL 1U|, It ia npmaniot aa a nva. 
Ute influmM, takiuR awaj tba action of ibe Word 
of God fcr good: in (lial of the wbnl and the 
tana (H^t. liii. 3l«l. at a poailii-e inaunice for 
iriL, iotroducliit; wickediieaa iiito the world. St, 

It maata ua agabi and agalii in paaa^ta tinl^} 
pnotlcaJ, taken tar gnotad, u abaad; Eimiliai 
Itee Bom. iri. »; J Cor. li. 11; 1 Tbtm. li. 18; 
a Tbaai. iL Bj 1 Tim. *. IS). The Bible dote 
Dot abrink tnm putting tbe fiket of Satania iuflu' 
auea orer the aool before va, in plain and terriiile 

Yet at tha aama tlnia It ia to be obeerred, Ibat 
fla language ia tuy &r froia oounleuancing, avau 
lor a moDiant, Ibe hurron of the UanichBiD tb*- 
orj . llie ioflitenoe of Satan It alwaja epeken of 
aa tempofvj and liuiited, eubonliuated (o the 
l^rlce oounael, and broken bj tbe iDcamata SoQ 
of Cod. It ia brought out riaibly, in Iba Innn of 
poaeeaion, In the onhtj Ufe oF our ].ofd, oi-lj Im 
order that it niajr jjlta tbe opportunitj of hie 
triumph. Aa for iliDuelf, eo fur hi) ledtemnl 
onea,itiB true, Ibat "God ahall bniiH Salan under 
their bet abortlj" (Ham. in. aO; csn>p. Gen. liL 
19). Nor la Ihii all, for tbe hi>t«7 of tbe book 
of Job ahowi plainlj, what ii elKirbeio conaUuitlj 

that Sabuiio inBuenca b pemiitted. is 
be OMrruled to good, to tcaeb humilitj, 

Fftice hitb. IV ui)tUr; of tbe eiitlenet 
kn uiMsplainedl but iU prraent lubordi- 

■d future extinction are luniliar tnithi. So 
aceotdingi]', on the other hand, hu power ia apokta 
oT aa cspaiJi of beiog miited bj^ tba will of niiui, 
when aided h}''tlie grace of Cod. "Keaial Ibe 
devil, and be will St* from ]ou," I* the cuutant 
buiguage of Scripture (Jam. ir. 7). It ia indeed 
a power, lo which *' place" or opportunity " ia 
EivaQ"onlTbj tbeconiint oFmanawiU (l-^pb. ir. 
27). II ia probablj to lie traced mint ditliDMIj im 
the power of evil liabit, a power ml, but not in«- 
aiatilila, created bj pretioue ain, aud by every lue- 
ceuive aet ol un riveted more elowly upon tba 
Kxd. It ii a power which cannot act directly aod 

to get ailvwitage over man by entangling the wUL 
The "wila" iKpb. vi. 111. the ■■deticaa" (S Ccc. 
ii. ID, Ibe "anare" (1 Tim. Iii. T, ri. 0; 3 11 ra- 
il. aS) '■ of (be devil,'" are eiprmiooa which hidl- 
iral chancier of tb« 

j> diiffuLa tbe wi 

with tl 

A Agrippa that hb toiiaion 
men fmoi darkneH to Uibt, and 
r Uftviriai) of Satan unto God," 
tbe euDDinuntcalkn. wbicli eota 
be gf«e uf Cbriit in hb I 'hureh, aa 
"delinramof them unto Satan " (1 Cor. *, li: 
SO). Tba ■UM truth b conn^ed. tboneh 
a boldo' and nwre (taithng form, in the Kpiitlea 
tha Chorcbea of the Apocalypie, when tbe bod; 

I Ti[ 

■ (Rev. ii 



ioatrioe an ealled - tbe deptba of Sabiii " (ii, U). 
aid tbe ■■ tbrma " aud " habitaCioa " of S«an an 
Mi^ to ba ae( np ID oppoeitlon lo the Church of 
Chriat. Another and eren more RmarkalJe ei- 
iwirai of tbe auu idea b found in tbe EniMle 
• tba Ijahnnn, whan the dEath of Uhriit b ipokiii 
|f aa intaided lo huSa (■«-■»(») "him that 
Mlb tbe power irb (piretl of death, that la, the 
linl;" hr dealb u srldrutly renrdad aa tba 
"VBcn of ain." and tba power of death ai in- 

Pible Inim tbe poww cf eorrvptloa. Nor b 
Initb only miuiiil diifetlj and f^rnallji 

IT of eill. It ii 

eth b: 

1, keepeth hi 

If. and tbe nicked ooa l-fuob- 

1 T. 18), 

direct iiiBuenee, tha Scriplim 
oat* to ua Uie foct that Satan b the leader of 
at of evil apirita or angeb wbo bIur bia evQ 
I. and for whom tbe >' ererbaling fin b pre- 
pared " (Malt. nv. il). Of their origin and fiB 
no mora than of bit. tar tbay eannot ba 
>a Ibe fallen and imprieoned angeli of 
9 Ph. li. 4. and Jnde 6: hut one pBaaa^a {Matt. 
21-20) idenliliea Iham ditltncUy wilb tbe 
Jra lA. V. "devib"') wbo bad power to 
■at the (ouli of men. Tba Jewi then ip«k 
Beebahub (Bt.Af«flo*Al, -a prince o( the 
dofnont," whoin Ibey identify with, or aymliolii* 
by Iba idol of FJiron. the "god of flba" [.ea 
' jamtr Iboy acouie out 

Lord of catting out damona. Hb aiuwer ia, ■' How 

lUfstoi, bnl alee t> ImiUngn. 

2850 SATAN 

■dSMucul MitSOui?" Ttig inference li cfau 
Uut SMu> b BrdKbub, and Uurdbn tb« dcmcm 
■re ■• Um uigeU of tfas d«il : " uid [hii inrcnDce ii 
itnnKtJiHiFd bf Acd i. S8, id which St. I'lter 
iteKrlba the poMMaed M icaTa3vmrrtiKtfiVi>iiiii 
ivh Tti tia8i>f.Bv, uid b; j.uka i. IB, in irbleh 

Lurd witli lb« "fUl of BiUii from hearen,'' ud 
tbdt punr indudtd bf Him In (lie '■power of the 
Hitaij" (Teii;v9poC):i»nip.Miat. iiil.M)). For 
UmIt luture, aeebuiuMS. Tbcj uimoitl]' ipokni 
of in Scriptura in refcrtnce to poMCvlon ; biil In 
Epb. Ti. li thej an dcacrilied in wioiu liRhla, 
*B "FrinoitalitiM" [ijix"'). "powm" (Weiwiai), 
XRiLin of Ihe dariiiH of (hii world," and 
" (piriUial jiowcn of wIckedniH in htnTCnlj plaCM" 


emp. John Ti. TO.) In tfati ma lb* Btrif 

T^uda all aim ai tlw "wtjrki of Ibe dnili" 

(n«i to hini, through hit mlulMcn. aB 

qdritual evil uid trmr (S tor. il. U, 15), aod all 

tilt pmMutioa and bindnncea ahlch i^poac tht 

" ipel (Her. ii. ID; 1 Thim. ii. IS). Moat of all 

bia indirect action of SaUn manifttlol Id tboM 

who driibRstdjr mltlead and Uuipt meo, ud vbo 

' lait, indepnidnit of anj Inlrrnt of tbeir own, 

■ ati plniun in tba alulit of 


■gainit U«>ou1 of man. The lanie reference la 
Diade lai eiplkill; in Root, viii 38, aitd I'ol. Ii. 
IS. In Ker. lii. T-D the; are ipoiiMi of u Bgfat' 
lug with " the dragon, tlw old terpeiit called the 
devil and Satfui,"aKaiiiit "MkhuelaiHl biinDgela," 
and tu cut out of beaten wilb their chief. I'aUng 
all tbiM pauagM loKether. He find them ihaiing 
Ibe enmity to Uod and man implied in (he Dan>e 
and Datureof Sataa; but llidr power and action 
re but little dwelt npon in cofflwirlaon wiLh hia. 

■col 'A7ija 


mjalery which only Kevdation can dlickiae; but 
whether it ii eierciied by few or bj manj la a 
matter of comparative indiflerence. 

But the Kvil One ia not only Ihe " prinoe of (he 
demona," but alio l« ii cnlied the "prince of thia 
world '■ (4 ipx'" TO" t^i't""' T»^ou) in John lii. 
SI, liT. 30, xvi. 11, wd am tlw god of thbi 
world " ii e,i, Tov oism rai^oi.) Id 3 Cor. iv. 
(; the (wo eipreaniani lieing uniltd in Uie wordi 
Toit ■•fffieupjTiMaf TaD ffniravt Taii alirm 
Toiray, laed in Epb. vi. 12 ■ Thii power be 
dainied for hlmaeir, ni a drlrgnlrd mutin-ily. In 
Ihe tcDiplation of our \/iti (Luke iv, 6); and the 
templAtion would have been unreal, had he iptJien 
allogelber labdj. It iniplio another kind of in- 
dinct iDfluenoe eierdicd through earthly inilru- 
menta. IlierB are aonie iDdlcaliaiia in Scripture of 
the eiereiae of thit power tlirDunb inaniniate in- 
Mmnieiil*, of an Influence orer IIk powen of na^ 
ture, and what men call (he "chancea" of litB. 
Such a power ii diitiiicdy aawrted in the caae of 
Job, ai]d prolialjj implied in the caae of (he woman 
with a (iiirit of iiiBrulty (in l.uke lili. 16). and of 
8L rtui'i "tbom in the flab " (3 Cor. lii. 7). 
It ia onl) coiiiiatent with (ha aUribuUon of luch 
action tu (he angria of ljo<l (aa in Ei. lii. 33: S 
Sam. iilT. 18; 2 K. lii. Zb: Ada lii. !U|; and, 
In our Igiianuioa of the method of connediDn of the 
iecoiid eauH* of nature ailh (lie Supreme Will of 
God, we cannot ei-en »y whether it baa in it any 
iLtnedent impcohability ; but it !• liUie dwi4t 
upon in Scripture, In compariun with (be otiw 
neniae of tliia power through the banda of wicked 
men, who become "children of tba deiil," and 
aceordiiigly "do (he luita of their fatlier." (See 
John >Ui. U\ AcK liii. 10; 1 John lii. B-IUi 

a The wDTil tinint, properly refcrring le (be ■.lilu 
tf till nnlnnw. and k uHd Id John 1, 10, U leniallr 
WflM In ScHpture (o humaa •oriH)' aa allaoatMl 
(VB Had, with aiafareD«(o the "pomp and nnil;" 

tbe ijccial idea of " letting M 
fT." InUmN.T.tbewoni JiJSoAo, 
ii uted tbrea timca aa an epithet (t '11m. iil. 11 ; 
3 Tim. iU. I; IK. ii, 3); and hi each caae wilfe 
■omelbing like tbe ipeclal meaning. In (be appli- 
cation of the title to Satan, botb tba genetil and 
tiwelal teniea ibouhi be kept in view, Hb general 
olject it to break (he londu oF commnnlcD between 
Uod and man, and the \janAt of truth and lore 
'bkh Und men (o each other, to "act" each aoul 
at nrbnce" botb wi(h men and God, and ■> 
reduce it la that lUte of aelf-will and lellabDCM 
tbe aeed-plot of ain. One ipedal mean* 
- do piii, ia ilands of God t« 

ril-doing in oUiera (Koni 
lite method of lib » 

:. 32). 

title I.J which he b di 

L Hymp. p. i23c.- Siafl^Ai 

10 Uod. 

'Ilie ilaiideror God U 
I. 4. Ii: ' 

n bnt It 

Cod dotb know, iliat 
tbertof your eyea aball be opened, and ye ahall b* 
eodi, knowing good and evil." llieae worda 
itain (he germ of (he IiIm notiona, which keep 
n TroiD U<>d, or reduce their aartin to Him to a 
rd and couipiilaorj ilai-ery, and which tbe ht»- 
ui ao oRen adopted in all their hideoUNHB, wbm 
!y reprTaen(ed thehr godi u eilbM- cuekaa of 
man atal and woe, or "mtiotia" or human ei- 
oellence and bapruiieM, They attribute idfttbiMH 
)ealoufly to (lie (jiver of all good. 

ough (ev-i 

t (lie in 

which b added) lo pervert n 

•ti'i lututal Ion of 

ftmdam. tiU it lel.el. 


that which ia mad* 

lo appeer aa a bard 

aiMi a 

,i(.»ry tyrannr. umI 

.cek; to aet up, a. 

tbinka. a fmr and nobhr 

ttaiHlaid of iU own. 


• Uieabnderof God 

to man. by which S» 


fab ageni* MiU UriK 

againet hb teuniUng grace. 

■llie ilander of mai 

b iUualrated by lb* 

book of .lob (Job i. 


lo it, Satan b odied 


of man in 1 I'et. v 

g, and 

ebaracter in Zecb, ii 

1.2: and n«re phinlj itiO 

. 10, » 

"llieaccuaer of out 

bretben, who afcuted tliein 

Wore our God d«r 

and night" It b 


what can be Ihe need 


lion or tlie power of 

dH-der, ruder the .1 


gejeofGod. 11h 

iD " accomniodatloa " of 


Bs^jjadgmeat to Uw imlog] otmr hnniu ei| 
riaoca; bat *• nnienUDd bj it > pnctkal ai 
mfDl truth, thu vmj on i^ Bbi, ud ann t 

dm Um BUl M (heir oi 
ti lumtr that (epunUkm fisai God, (o 
thnwKh tbeiii. WB turn jitldfd aumlTca. 
"in SaUn tluJ] in hbw w»j tnu ■ 

> poiuU, tmimrtaiit M thf j in, ire of 
liM tuoDVDt thu Ibe (liKtoiun oF iht niaUiad of 
Suuie action npoo th« twnrt ItHlT. It ma; be 
■amued up ID tKD wonh — Tamptatiou ami Pua- 

Tba «Bl<}Kt of ItiDptatiMi it iUnatnleil, not onlj 

br alatnct aulciiiailii. but iW bj tha mnn' 
la of AiUm aod of oui Lord. 1 
I down (aa hi Jimei I. 3-4) 

M lapadly 
Hia a|. 

bk 6wultta, iitiieh aiU at Gnt oiilji 
(lur^ifj) miul be brout^l out lonin 
tffleiBie)- (^f.jFyti'^) lij free atnae." 
titea and paiaiona tend t4> \\vk\t u^jtcla. vuipij wj* 
BnnMTTHllj, iritbout injiRt to Ibe rii;Jitiie« d 
■noenaa crT tfadr ohtajniiig iheai; Uicj ntnl t 
b* (becked bj the mon and eon«!i«Kc and tbi 

BATAIT 2851 

13; Jan. Ir. T, te; bat it ean be .b mUed mAj 

bj jieldtng to tbe grace of Uod, and hj a atmggk 

' xnetlnica an "apnj") in ralianca on 111 


It ia euTciiBd both MgntiTdT mmI ptaitiNlj. 
Iti negitlTe emeiae ia refened to In tbe panble of 
er, M lokiBf; awaj Ibe irord, tba ~ fli)(raft«d 
(Jatnei 1. 31) oT grace, >. e. u inlefpoalng 
itaelf, b; eoneetit of inan, betwen bini and tbe 
cbaniieb o( Uod'i graee. tie poaitlTB nprciia la act 
' nb in tlie panble of tba wbeal and tbe (ant, 
^reaented aa loirii^ actual aeed of evil in tbe i»> 
liidual beartor tba world fnuantU^; and it i* ta 
he nctiied, that tbe couiilentiaD of tlie true na- 
ture of Ibe Urea ((ifttnu) leMh to tbe iniicliiuo% 
which 11 dnUred |>lnb»)jr in 3 <^, li, 14, nanielj, 
that evil ii introduced into tba beait stcatlj m 

Tbii eierclae of tbe Teioptet'i pomr It pMribk, 
neo againit > uiileaa natuie. We eee thit in tba 
Temptitim of our Lord. Tbe temptationa p(a- 
•enled to Him appeal, itnt to tbe uitunl doit* 
and attA tit Food, iiett to the deaire of power, t# 
be uvd forjioud, which ii iiiberenl ui tbe noUM 
mindij and Uatlj, to the deaira of Intlli)^ moA 
realizini^ (lod'i ipeeial protection, wliicb ii tbe iD- 
eiitable tendency of human wnkneaa uiidrr a real 
liut itnperfect Diilb. The oKjeeta mntenipliiled in- 
volved in nocuepoaitivciinruliieu: the leniptalioa 
them b; preaumptDoua or bj nnbolj 

prevail, tbe ipirit receiiea itmigth and etowIIi; i 
k be DVOHime, tbe lower nature lendi to ptHkim 
Mte, and tbe man haa bllen away. Beridel Ibij 
the will itaeir dalighta in rndcpendenoe of aetiot 
iiuch iodepoHteiice of phjiiod eompoliion ii il 
higb priiilege; but tbtre ia over it tbe Moral Powi 
ef Irod'a I4W, which, bj tbe verj bet of Ita tnit 
and goodneaa, ac^tDovledged aa thej are bj tbe 
1 1 ■■III I and tbe Bananeoee, abould r^cnlala tbe hu- 
■nn wilL Tbe need of ginng up tl>e individBal 
will, tnAj and \>j ooovietkai, eo aa to be in har- 
anaj with the wiU of God, it 1 atiD eaven trial, 
with tbe reward of itill greater apiritnal progrem, 
if we Bualain it, wltb (be pDniihmeDl of a aul<tln 
and more daneemua Ul if we luccumb. In it< 
■trngnie tbe qiirit of niaii can onlj gain and tot- 
lain ila totlwntjr bj that oomtaiit grace of God, 
pnn thnuith aanimuiiion of the Holf Spirit, 
■birfa i* the breatb of ■[^ritual Ufa. 

It ia tbia tentabilitj of man, even ill bb original 
Baton, whiob ii reptnented In Seriptort at Ki*>nR 
Kopa to tbe evil Ktion of Satan. He it called the 
-lemplrr" (u in Matt Ir. 3j 1 Tbeaa. ti 
He Ina power (ae the ncord of Gen. iii. 1 
rirmiij), firat, to preaeiil to tbe appetlica or par 
ilKir oliiecta in livid and captinljng fbrrai, 
to induce nuu lo teek tbtee objeeta againtt the 
law of God "^written in the heart j " and lie ^ 
K( upon the Uh deore of tbe will far inrf 
Jaice. tbe detire " to be aa godi, knowing " 
^ Itraeticallr, Judging and determining) ■■good 

tatBee it ia under tbe eontrDl and oretruliDg power 
4 Ood, aa It •mphaUcall)' laid down b ) C 

b and Ion hj 

e Son of Man 


d therefon at 

le bice 1 

le IjirdH 

ty in liinple Kaitb, reating 
S'ord, l«piiig 10 bit wtji 
■nijilile tlie iituea uf actioi: 
lone. Such faith it a n 

U lelt^ 

on the cncc nf God. 

But In the lamptatien of a bllea nilote Sataa 
hae a greatca power. Kverj tin cominiUed make* 
a man the ■■temnt of tin " foe the futui* (Joha 
viii. 34i lioin, vL ItO; it tbcrefbre crcitea in the 
ipirit of man a poeiti^e teudcncj to evil, which 
■jnijiatbiiei wilb, and aidt, the temptation of tba 
Kvil One. Tbia ia a facl ncoeiii/ed bj n]«Tirnce; 
the doctrine of Scripture, inncrutub])! Dijiirrioiia, 
but unmi(Ukal>ly dnlared. it thai, uiice the Kail, 
tbia evil tendency it bom in man in cepAcity. prin 
lo all actual eini, and cajjable of Leing Imnigbt ofi 

it h thit which St. I'atil oalL ■■a law," >. e. <ae- . 
cording to bit univeraul uae of the word) an eitci> 
iial power ■< of lio *' over niwi. Iirinuinc the inner 
man (tbe rofi) into aptivitj (Hon vii. 14-84). 
Ill power u broken by the Atonement aiul tbe gift 
uf tbe Spirit, but j-et not conipkldj «ut oul; il 
ttiU ■> butt againtt lite ipirit " u> Ibst men ■' rao 
nut do tbe Ihlnge which tbej would " IGiL v. IT). 
It it to tbia ipiF^tui] power of evil, the tendencj to 
Cilsebood, crudtj, pride, ud nnbelief, independenllj 
of an; beiieliU to be derived Irum tbeni. that 8atu 
it tild to appeal In Icnipting 01. If bit tenipta- 
tiont be jieliied lo wIiIiduI re|>entan«, it beeonua 
tbe reprobate (at^dfioi) mii^d, wliicb ddiiilite in 
evil for iti own take (Kom. i. 38. 331 «nd' make* 
men empbilinlly ■■children of tbe devil" (Jobs 
viii. 14; Actiiiii. 10: IJobn iii. 8, 10), and "ao- 
curved " (UiU. uv. II ), St for " tbe Sn pea- 

u tj wbleh H ia ■• 



pmd h Um d<idl utd hli uigak" If Ibtj Im 
miMcd, u by God'i gna tbcj maj b« roltted, 
then Uw wil power [the "Bedi" or tb* "old 
nun ") ii ifnuluailj "crudfted " or "moitifled," 
audi the muI ii preputd for tint homn, where 

'I'bit tmfbld power at tfimptatkn li frequently 
rerrmd (o iii Scripture, u eurcieed, chieflj b; (he 
■uiUfeition of evil thoughtA, but occaklcHiidly bj the 
ddecMed power uf iMau over outward circum- 
■tkiioc*. To Uile butet power b lo be Intai 
(u liu be«ii uiJ ) the trial of Job bj Iciupunl low 
uid Wiljr ludpriii^ (Job 1., iiOi the remirlubie 
fiprfMion, lued bj our l-oid, •« to the woman 
with ■"•pint of iufli-mity " (Ijike liii. 16). the 
••tlKim In Uw fleah," which St. Paul Dalit the 
"nirsHii^ oT Sntau " lo buHet him {3 Cor. xU. 7). 
Ila Laiigiiaue ii plain. Incapabk of being eipliiiitd 
' r. ur [loetjcal penoiiilicitkiii oT an ab- 


It. xIU.], "Sdrim rel inoubonei rel Htjioa is 

tj'lcMtni quoadam bomiDot quot nouaulli hluot 
flcario* toeaiit, aut dBmonum gtmra InteUlgusL" 
Thi* eipUnation raoeivee oonBrmation froni * pea 
ug* in I«T. ivU. T. '•tiitj ahalJ no mm aSa 
llicir tacriBoM unlo Sitiini," and fiwn a limilai 
one in B Chr. xl. IB. 'Dm luwlilea, It b ^ai,. 
able, had beoooie acquainted with a form of goat- 
wonhip from the Egjpliaiu (mo Bocbut. Hiiret. 
Id. S3£; JttbloDaki, Paat. Jigig*. i. 9T3 ff.). 
'Ilie opinion held bj Ukhaelli («^. p. 8349) and 
Ucbtoulabi {CommailaL dt Simianm, et<., | 4, 

iciple. lU g 

iieml il 

(^. beaidea 

Ihoae alread/ mentioned, l.uka iiii. 

3; John ilU. 

B7(Jud«i); l-ukexxii-aidMerli 

cla .. 3 (An. 

iniaa and l^pphira); 1 Cor. til. b: 

aCor. ii. 11; 

1 'I'luia. iii. b.) -I'he (ulgeet iUelf 

!• the nuMt 

■tan ling form of the myitery of evil 

it b one on 

nectionof the 

Flnl CauB with Kwind CaUK. i 

Nature, uid 

of tlie procwi of oiiginalion of hu 

nan thought, 

aitlier to eonfiroi or tu oppuae tho 


Un tlia lulijrel of roHenian tee DKmiMats. 
U ia uittlcient liere lo remark, that althoiiKli wide!)' 
ditlHvnt in lenu, }el It b of llie aame inlrinaic 
dinradeT aa the oUirr power uf Nitan, includlns 
boUi Ihut eilenial aiid internal Influence (o ulilcb 
(demice biia been made «boi«. It b diK'luted 
b llie reielatjaii uf that 

Ctrnoeevbalia. (■grpMas MoBumaaia ' 

I, aqq.), that tbe Sitrlia probably dniute • 
tclta ot' ape. liai been aanctioned bj llami 
nKitU''-Ape." Fiuni a 

I. l>lliiy HI- '' 

I. w) it 

at the UiTHt Hay. lu end b urn in Uie A|ia 
Ijpae, where Siitwi ia flnt " l-onnd fur a Ihoun 
yean," then art frt* for a lin« for tlie bul coufl 
and finally "aat into the bike of fire and bd 
Ham . . . (itrei-er and ever" (u. 9, 7-10). 

7'ni/jii, 2 voU. Uipa. IWIU, Svo. A. 

SATHKABUZA'NES (Sa8f«doi'f<t>^v 
(Vat.once.flDBpfami:] !i»liTlmi-u,Mi, Siiktii 
AiiiioK.NAi (1 I'Jidr. vi. 3, T, 37 [vii. l]i camp 
Kir. r. a,6, vi. 0, 13). 

SATYRS {Q'"irV?,j;irt™; |a,,jM; /h7,«i 
Ibe nndeiing in Uie A. V. of (be alMve-iiaina 

or "ruu^h," b frequently applied to ■■he-goala' 

Bfiiim, however, of Ii. ilii. 31, and uilr. U 
Whare tlie jinvpliet pretlicta (be deiolation of Baby 
ton, haie, prulmljy, no alluiion (o any ipeciea B 
pM obeUier wild or lauie. AiNiordliii; (o (lie oli 
- - '- t, and nearly all the ci - 

by Satyn are aoinrllnwa lo b< 
I of ape or uioiike]'; Col. II. Smith hai 
fi)tiired the Jfuciicu A-'Mmt a> beiDR the pn)b- 
Ilia utyr of UabjU-n. 'llial tome apKlta of Cj/iib. 
ipliaJttM (dog-bced bahoon) wai an animal that 
' ~ ' '' ''leology of tlie ancient h^ypdaiia, 

.1 Satyn, that ie 

re iiiloided. Conip. Ji 

le (Owini 

irapollo (L 14-16) be* lohl u 

W. H. 
SAUL (VW^, i. «. Shafll I'-lird /«r, ie- 
arniffAf]: tiui\.: Joaeph. XdouXoi: S<t§l), men 
accurately Shaui*, In which tvntt il ii given OD 

■evend occuioiu in tlie Authorlied Venion. The 
name of varioua |xnon* In llio Sacred llltlor;. 

1. Saul of Iteliolioth by the Hitrr waa one of 
the early klnga of I'jlom, and •ucowor of Suiiiah 
lUen. luvi. 3T, 3tlJ. In 1 Clir. i. 48 be ii nlM 

X. Tha lint ki»|! of Itnel. 'Hie name here 
fiTti appear! in tl» hintory of lirael. tlioiigh found 
■•efore lu the tidoniilv prince already nientioiied; 
and in a aon of Simeon «ieu. ilvi. 1(1; A. V. 
Sliaul], It alio occun auioiig llie Kohubltea id 
iJie genedggy of Samuel (I Chr. vi. 34}, and U 
Saul, like tlie kiri)-. of tlie tril>e of Benjamhi, beUar 
known n) Ihe A|Kjalle Paul (aee bduw. p. 3U7) 
.loaephut IB. J. 11. IS,} 4) nienlioni aSaul, UlMt 
of one Simon who ddlirsKUiabnl hiniaelf at Seylbsp 
olii In the early part of llie Jtwith war. 

In the fDUowiug iieDcalugy may be obawl - - 




L 11m n^illon in two gowmluiDi of tlw namM (i.) MaleliUliah-^ Ji-Aim. (c.) Edi-toils.Iih- 

rf Ekh ud Ncr, nl NxUb ud AU-udib, init of iotktii. (d.) Mqitai- (or llcri-) b<tal=m Hrplil- 

IblifailnbMh. S. The oecnmnee of tbe nVM of tc«4(U. 4. TIm kng CDnUniMnn of Uw bmllj 

Bad in thm nccnaiTt gaxntloiM; po^blj in ' down lo the tine* of Ebb. B. li It poaible Uut 

Kmt, h llMn woa two HephHKMhetb*. S. Tba Zinri (I Chr. ii. 41) cu ba tba tnurprr of 1 E. 

Hnuat lUMngi of tba mma of Uod H ineor- nL — if ao, ttaa but Utenipt of tha boom ot Sral 

■■ ■ i:(n.)ilWd=-yit.hH!L l ~ - 

r. 0U|>li4tfi,«) 

Tbcn Ii > ocntndietlan brtwtai tha pedlgraa io 
1 Sun. ii. 1, iIt. II, iriiieh rtprwita Saul Mxl 
Abu* u tba gnodaona of Ablcl, uiil 1 Chr. rlil. 
n, ii. 39, whieb rapnnpla tbam ■■ hi* gmt- 
pwMlaoin. If we idopt tba Dwra duboniU pedi- 
fm in ttM Chnnicla, wi mart lappoaa dtlKT tbM 
■ Bnk bia bean droppad tietwteii Abie] ud Kiib, 
In 1 SuD. iL 1, or that tha cMct Klih, tfae wii of 
AIM Cbr. li. K), fau b«i mnlbiuided with 
Uw joangcr Siib, lb« ion of Mar (1 Cbr. Ii. 30). 
Tba padigna in t Cbr. iriil. la not fraa from con- 
fWoD, M it omita, unongH tba Mm of Ablcl, 
Kb-, who In 1 Chr. ii. Se l< tha flftta Km, uid who 
b both la onda tha bthn of K!ah. 

Hla cb>ract<r li in prt llluatnlad bj tha fima, 
nywud, flIAil nature of tba triba [BawAMis], 
and in part accounlad for b; Ilia itng^ batwrao 
tha did and naw ajitema In whlob ba fimnd bin> 
idf Inmlnd. To thla we murt add > t^nt of 
madnaaa, which bnlia out b Tiolant frenij at 
tiinaa. laftriog Ida with kmg locid Intsnk. Hli 
dbctiooa wan itrong, u appcara In hli Ion ■^h 
far DkTid and bit Mm Jonubwi, bat tbaf wart 
■nqm] ts tha wiU aco ai iea of raliglona m * 

■ O^T In 1 Sam. H. U and alaawbara 
"faa."' Tba UOL km wfcaw 

bitaoltj wbich nllimalalj lad to bb niia Ha mta, 
"In tba aarliar Judgca, of whom Id om aanaa ba 
laj be counted m the •ucranor, Rtnarkable for bl* 
irengtb and actirit; (S Sam. I. 33}, and he waa, 
ke the Homeiis henca, of gigantic alatun, loUaf 
J head and ahouldeti than the net of the pcDpla, 
nd of that kind of haautj denoted b; (he Hebmr 
word "good " (I Sam. ii. S), and wliich caiuid 
lo be Mimpand to tba guaUe, " the gaiella 
of larael." <■ It wti probably theae extemal qu*U< 
tiet which led to tha eplthH wblcb li frequentlj 
attached to hla name, "choaen" — "whom tba 
Lord did chooaa" — " i!ee je (i. a. lAik at) bbn 
whom tha Lotd hath choaenl" (I 9am. ii, IT, 
1.94; S3am. id. fl). 

Tha birthplace of Saul k not aipreaal; dmd- 
tionedi but aa ZeUh wu tba place of Kiah-a k|»> 
nlehre (S Sam. ul.), It waa probablj bia natii* 
Tillage. There li no warrant for aajiog that II 
waa Qibeah.' thouitb, from Ita aubaequent eonnas- 
tlon with him, it ia called oflen " (iibenb of Saul " 
[Qibkah]. Hla bthar, Kiah, wu a powerfol uid 
wtalthf chid, tbodgb tin famil; to which ba ba- 
kmgcd wii of Uttla Importanca (1 Sam. Ii. 1, SI). 

with a Terr itmllu word, and mdar 11 Ir^Awn*, 

i Vtm AUtI, er JahM (1 Oht. till. 3), U. SB), k 
eanad iba fcibtr tg "(MbaoD," It fNbabl; b^ 

28r>4 SAUL 

A portion of h!i propsrtjr muutad of ■ dfon of 
■us- In HUch or Ukk uaea, ffn>6 ulnj on 
the mouuUinii, bs Knt hi> ion Suul, iccanipiuiied 
bj > ■cT'iuit," wbo *cUd »Ih u > giiid« uid 
giurdutl cf the joung nju) [il. 3-JO]. After ■ 
Uine (liji* Joumej (ii, 30), ahicfa it hu biUtsto 

Cvrd imyonible to tracks ULrouj;h tlphrftim uid 
{j»nin [Shaubha I Siuum; Zltm], Uicj 

wben !i»u[ proposed to ranm booie^ but wu d*- 
lensl by this iidvke of tbe (erTMit, iiho iiigf^atMl 
tbU bcfors doing n tbe; tbould aoniolt " m nun 
•t Uod," "■ MuT," u to the fnU of the um — 

Kcuriiig bi> oncis by ■ pmenl (iactthiiii) of m 
^uuttr of 1 lilvo' ihekrl. 'I'bej were intlnieted 
by tbe nialdena it U» w»ll outiide Ibo citj to c«t*h 
the ewr « be ornie out of the city to ucend (o k 
Mcred enilneaoe, where » ucrificinl feeat mm nit- 
iOK for hl> bd^dictlDti (1 Sam. Ii. 11-13). At 
tbe )iiite tliff met the ten for tbe Snl time — it 
wu 6*mud. A divine iiiUmUioii hid IndlcXed 
to bim tlie Bppn»cb uid the future deatln; of tbe 
youthful itetijimite, SurpriKd it bii lingtilge, 
but itill o1«}ing hia call, the; ucended to the blgh 

(ft '«T<iAf>uh LXX,, il. Vl found thirtj or 
(IJfX., Kiid Joeepb. HiK. vl. 4, { 1] Hi-mt; gunti 
ueenililed, iniongtt whom Ihej took tbe chief place. 
Id inticipktion of lonK diitingulahot itnnKer, 
Suiiuel had hade the cook n*en« i boilfd iboiibJer, 
from which Saul, aa tlie chief guat, wat bidden to 
Isr olT the Bnt niorael (LXX,, li. 93-14). Thej 
Iben deacended to tbe cilj, uid a bed na prepared 
(br Saul or tbe houwtop. At daybreak Samuel 
rouaed hinj. Tbey dractnded t^i^n to tbe aklrta 
of the town, and there (Um wrvant having left 
Ibem) Samuel poured over Saul'i brad the oonae- 
oatecl dl, and iiitli a ktu of nlulatlnn announced 
to him that he vaa to be the ruler and (LXX.) 
dallnrer of tbe nation (li. Si-i. 1). From (bat 
moment, at be turned on Samuel tbe huge ibouldec 
which towered above all the rat (i. 9, LXX.), a 
Daw life dawned upon bim. He returned by a 
ronie which, Uhe that of bli ecareb, it li inipua- 
rible to make out diitluctly; and at every ntep 
homeward It wai conflmied hy the bieldeiita which 
lecordiiig to Samuel'i prediction, awaited bim (i. 
«, 10). At Unehel'a wpulchre be met two men,* 
wbo announced to him the movery of the aaaee — 
hie louer earea were to ceoac. At lbs oak ° of 
Talnr [t'l^in ; TahoR, l't^i:< or] be met thne 
men carrying giita of kldi and bread, and a ikin 
•f wtne. aa an oAsing to Uetb-el. Two of tbe 
loam nere otibed to him at if to Indicate bii new 
dignity. At "the hill of "God" (whatever may 
be meant (hereby, pimihiy hit own city, GtBEAti), 
b* met a hand of prophet* deicendlng with mual- 
aU Inatrumenta, and be caught the IniplratJon bx>m 
Dmo, aa ■ aign of bla new life.' 


lUa li what may be caUed Ihe plintfc, IniM 
view of hIa call. The outer call, which ia iriatea 
independently of tbe other, ma aa liJkiwa. Aa 
auembly WM oonroted by Samuel at Hiipdi, and 
lota (ao often practiced at that time) wem caat te 
" ■ family »[■ ' 


Saut V 

i, by a Divi 

timatton. found 1 

imjunded the i . , 

atatura at once conciliated the public lealing. and 
for the liret time the about wa* raited, aflemanla 
often repeated la modem time*, >' Long liii Iht 
king" (i. IU,S4), and he ntumed to hii native 
(illieah, accompanied by tbe fighting part/ at the 
poople, of whom be waa now to te the eapeeial 
td. llie murmnn of tbe worthlcat part of (be 
nmunity wbo refuaed to aalute him witb tbe 
^uttomed prceeota vm aoon dlBpelJed v by an 
aiaiou ariiiug to Justify the aelection of SuiL 
! ma (having apparently letumed to hia private 
1) on hia way home, driritui hia herd of oien, 
len lie heard one of tboee nlld InmtnlatiotM in 
I city of Glbesh, each at marii In eutem towna 
> arrlM) of a gnat caUmity. It waa the tidinp 
the tniTst leaned by Kahath king of Ammon 
■galnit Jabeth Gilcad (tee AxHoN). llie Inbab- 
" - of Jabeah wen conuected with Bet^amin, 
I old adventure recorded In Judg. iii. It 
If tfaia one ^ark waa needed to awaken the 
nt apirlt of the king. "The Spirit of tbs 
sme upon him," aa on the ancient judgea. 
Tbe aby, retiring nature which we have obacfrcd, 
iniahed never to ntum. He had recoorw to tbe 
(pedlent of the earlier diyi, and tunmoned tb* 
people hy tbe bonet of two of the oioi from th* 
herd which be waa driving: tbreo (or tii, LXX.) * 
hundred tbouaand fblluwed fn^m ttrael, and (per- 
bape not in due proportion) thirty (or aennty, 
LXX.) thouaand lyoui Judah: and Jabeah waa 
I. The efrei-l waa iiiaUntaneout on tbe pen- 
pie { the puiilthnimt of the muimuren wai d» 
■Handed — but Rfuied hy Saul, and the monaithy 
waa Inaiitturalrd anew at tiilgal (il. 1-16). ll 
ibould be, however, obeerved thai, according to 1 
Sam. lii. IS, (be affair of N'tbaab prrefM and 
lioned [he election of Saul. He bacnniu king 
of laraeL But he atlll ao ttiT reaeniblM (be eailitr 
judgci, a* to l>e virtually king only of hia own 
tribe, lierdaniln, or of tbe inimedlnie iieielikorbood. 
Almoat all hli eiploKa are conBued to Ihla click 
of territory or ataoclittoni. {, 

Samuel, who bad up to Ibia time been dill 
amed aa ruler with Saul (li. T, It, 141, no* oitli 
drew, and Saul became tlie acknowlrdged ehiet,* 
In the 3d j-ear ' of hia rdgn, he l>ruaii (o organln 
attempt to ahake off the Philiatine yoke whlob 
preutd on hit eountrj; not leait on bli own tril>i, 
' i long been stotkHied 
ail I. 3). Antniiy.of 

>Tte «.d la -lis, "MrnuV not T^J, 


• Ha* te tbb Imld (Ul. S-W). 

/ Vnn, " lb* atmclb," th* hut, x. It i amp. 
t Mm. nt*. S. Tbe wart " 

pleytd In lb* A. T. ftic TI1|, a nry dllhraBt ttna, 
-"*- ^ atrkl Dianlni of It* own. (Tioor.J 

lit vordt wbkh iloM 1 Sam, i. 37 ar* in tbt 
w text " b* waa •■ ttaoDgh he •«« ikaT ; " h 
JoatpA. Jni. it. 5. | I, anJ ttii LXX. (Mlond bj 

.1h 3 Sao. I, IG, LXX., ibr "Lord." 


Um WM fanned, -hM fa* mm 
Mid tdgcUwr muul bin; and Joiulliui, ippuwitlT t 
Wilh hia lUKtlm, naa agBiiHt the <dBeer' and r 
rim him (iGi. 3-4). Thli inuKd Um vbola for^t i 
rf Ibc PhiUdJDB nation ajtnlnat blm. 'fhc ipiHt f 
of hnd >M eomplMdj brckao. " 
ttwiril I m In tha caivrnt ; nun; eroawd tb« Jor- ' 
tm; all war* dHanncd, outpt Skul and hi* ton, t 
whli thair immadiHla rtUiosa. In thi* cnai*. 
dani, DOW on the trj eonfinff ot hb kingdom at 
Gilgal, feuud blmadf in tba poaitkm loni^ Ivfbn 
denUcd i-j SiUDual : torisinE to eiaciia bii lu^al 
ruht of ■VTiGcr. jrt detand b; hli ■rih of Db»- 
UtacB to lite impbet.* At Uit, on tht Tth dnj, 
be could wait do kmstT, but jiBt alter th« ueriftce 
wtM aomplated Sanmd arrircd, and prDi»an«*d the 
Ant cone, an bla inipetnoui ml (liii. A-U). 
Umnwhib U>* adTmttmui eipknt of Jonathan Rt 
Mkbmaah hcuuibt on the criaii irhich nltiiiiat*!/ 
<ra«e Uw Philidim back to tb«ir own tnritoij 
[JoNATHUi], It wu UfcnuliiHl b; Im rmiuii- 
tUs iDcUaiu in the iir« of Saul. One <ni the 
htt apfHanDoe oi hi* madrKai in the nab voir 
■faidi all but coit the lira of bii Kin (1 Sam. u>. 
U, 44). Tba other ni the erection of hit flnt 
altar, bailt fithcT to eeletinla the Tietnj, or to 
*tpialt tba aatage Iciat of the bmiihed people 
(li*. U). 

Tb* cTpnkiaa of the Philiitlna* (lUtboaiih not 
mi6nlj eoDipleted, liv. 53) at onaa placed Saul In 
a poaition fairer than that of an; previovt nlrr 
if lanal. Prababl^ tma thie lime ni formed 

ow of the lutDn inititutkmr of the 
The boat ol 3.0110 hat been alnad; 
" " '" " ■ a. ixri. S; aimp. 

a (9 S 


3G; LXX.V He wu nedtd <>i 
1 battle bf tbe tongi of the Itruiile '' wonjen 
9am. iTiii. 6 ), amonpt whom h* wat on tndi 
laiona ^tecUlly known a* briiif^g back IVom 
aiemj aoarlel robe*, and golden ontamenU kt 
ueir appard [J Sam, i. 34). 

The warlike chanctrr of hb rrian natunllj atiS 
pndanibmtad, and he *■* now able (not meielj, 
like hb temponrj pTtdtcaHon, to ut on tba 
defenvre, bulj lo attack the neighboHnit trities of 
Uoab, Ammoti, Mom, Zobah, ai>d Hnyllj AmalA 
(lir. 47). 'llie nr with Amalek b Iwia rebtad, 
Bnt btieflj (il>. 48), and then at lm,;th (iV. 1-S). 
lU ebitf connection with Suil'i hlitorj lici b lh« 
ditohedianoe (o tbe pn>pbetieal comumnd of bam- 
ud; ibowu in the ipnring of the king, and tha 
retention of the apoil. 

The aileimi nation oT Amalek and the auhnqnenl 
eiecutioa of A^^n^ bdonjf to tlu Eenera] qurttioD 

to nippoae (bat 8>al upand the kioR lor an; olbef 
Tcaiaii than Ihiit fur which be retained the ipoll — 
namrlj, to nuika a more iplcndid ihaw *( tbt 
taerificial thankagiving (xr, 31). Such wat Ika 
Jewiih tradition preienod bj JoNphut {AnL ti, 7, 
{ 9), who eipmalj' uja that Agxg wat ipared for 
hb itatura and binutf, and *ucb b the general 
impnition left b^ the dncription of tbe celebration 
of tbe Tictorjr. S>ul ride* lo tbe Hiuthem Cannel 
in a chariot (UCX.), nerer mentioned eUewben, 

r. 50). 



Cuard wat abo formed 

■ee I Sam. iri. 16, 17, 

Of Ibii DaTld wat after- 

The« two WOB the prln- 

nlL 14, IT, an 

waHa mwla tbe 

ripal offieefw of the court, and tale with J( 

K Iba king-a table <I Sam n. 35). Anotlier 

lOecr ia Ineidsitiillj inentloned — tba heet«r of 

" ef tba kintc, meb at appatn in the lilcr 
' r (1 Cbr. urii. W). Ha i* the Ant 
taatnee of a torriKns empkired aliout the aonit 
-bdni an Edomite or (LXX.) Sjri*n. of tin 
aana of Doeg (1 Sam. oL 7, nil. B). AoooTding 
to Jewtafa tradition (Jer. Oil He«. ad loo.) he wu 
Iba acTTant who acoimpinied Saul in bit punull 
af hit btbcr'a ttaet. who eounaeled hlni to tend 
far Darid (ll.. irl.]. aid »li(w ton nllimatalj 
■- - ■- - ' ■ -- 'ITieblsh. ■ ' ■ 
r Abjjah) vu in 
ephod. when be 
jelf bonnd lo atM 
1-9, uil. 14). 
Tba kio;; binuelr wu ditKKgnlthed bj a Mate 
■ot bctire marked in (be nilera. He bad a tall 
ipev, of the aune kind at that deaeribed In tbe 
baod of Golialli. [Abhm.] Thb H>nr bft him 
— IB nioae (I Sam. nlii 10, ill. 9); at hb mcab 
,n. nil at nat (ntl. 11), In batlla (S Sam. L S). 

9 Sam, iiiii. ISl, which b the Jcwiah tndiliont 
[Jerome, Qu. l/ti, ad bw.) wat a triDm]ibai arch 
of olive*, mvrtlet, and palma. And in allu^on to 
hb ctvwnlnir triumph, hamuel appliea (o (jod (be 
pbraaa. >■ Tbe Victor; (Vol);, lrta»/iAiih>)-)of Inael 
*:!! neither lie nor repeat" (it. 3S; and comp. 
I Chr. ixli. 1 1 ). Thu Moond act of diKbedlenoa 
called down the lecsnd curw, and tbe lint distlnet 
iiidmation of tbe trantference of tbe Uiiedom to a 
rital. Tbe atni|;itle between Samuel and anul ir 
Ibeir final parting li indicated bf the rent of 
Samuel'i robe of atale, a* he lean hlmneir nwa) 
ftom Saul'* giatp (for tbe galore, tee Joeeph AiU 
rl. 7, f 51, and bj the long nioumiii|t of Samnd 
for the aeparation — "Samuel nioumeit for Saul." 
-'How long wilt thou mourn for Saul?" (it. 311, 
nl. 1). 

The rtat of Saut'a lib b one long tiaged;. Th* 
fitnzj, which h«l ginn Indicationa of ilaelf bafbta^ 
now at time* look alnutt entire poaacaaion of him. 
It b de«!rilied in miitd phruiet u "an e>il iplrll 
of (jod " (much at we might apeak of ■■ reiiieioui 
raadnee*"), which, when it came upon hlm,almaal 
cb<riiad or tlnuiglcd bin IVom lb violenca (ivi. 14, 
UCX.; Joeeph. AaL d. 8, } 9). 

In thia cria'it Uavid wa* mommanded to blm bj 
one of the juung men of hb guard (in the Jtwiah 
tradition groundleaalj anppoeed lo h« Dowa. Ja- 
rome, On. /fri. ad kic). From Ihb lime forward 
tbdr lirea are bltoded U^ether. [Uaviu,] In 
Saul' batter momenta he nerer kiat tbe atrang af. 

d. Ifi). N. B. — Tba wotda " had appdntld ■ 

S856 BAXrh 

hstion vhioh bi hkl eonlraeted for Dulil. « He 
lond bim |{;n*tij " (>ri. SI). " S>ul wooU IM 
blm go no toon bom« lo bh blhiT'i houB " (niil. 
1). " Whnvfon conicth not Um nn of JoM lo 
aint/" (II. ST). " l> thii tbj nice, m]' •on l>>- 
TJd. . . . ItMimi, mj ton ItsHd ; bkeoed be Iboii, 
mjr lOii Dmcid " (x>i>. IS, »tL IT, ib). Oc»- 
Ooiuillf tm bli prophetital gift nUima^, blfiidnl 
with his in»dn««. He " propliericd " or " riTwl " 
In (ha midst ttt hl« boiiae — *' be propbfliLa] and Uj 
down nakfld ill dayui^ all night" it iUniah (ili- 
M|. Dut bii uti of fietn. wihl ml inctBUKl. 
ThB inuncn uf the ptinti. wlUi «U thdr fiuniliN" 
{nil.) — tin muucn, prrhapa it lb» mait tim«, 
of U« Gib«DnilAi (S Sim. lu. IX uid tb« lioknt 
atirpMiDii uf the necmmanecn (1 Sam. iiviii. 8, 
•), an all of the nme kiiid. At lut iJw moDarch}' 
llicir. which he bid nifnl up, bnika down under 
the wialiiiai of lU htwl. Ilie I'hlliitlnM n«i- 
tcnd Uk coun(i7, ind with their ebariot* ruid 
borsc* occupied the I'IiId ot tjdnwloa. Tbdr 
omip waa pitched on the laalheni ilopa of Ihe 
range nmr oJi«l Utile Hermon, by Shunem. On 
the oppoair« lide, on Mount Irilboa, wai the Inael- 
Ite imi;. cliniilng u iniwl (o the belfthia which 
mrB tlieir nfetj. It ■« nrar (he ipriog of Gid- 
•ui'i enoinipnieiit, hence called the iprin); of Harod 
cr " litnililing " — and now the nanie aanmed ui 
nil Dtan, and the btart of the liing u he [ritehed 
fill cunp Ihwe "treirljled ei«eiiingl;i ' (I Sani. 
UTili. b). In the loa of all the uiuil mean) of 
Doniulllng (be IHtnne will, he deliTmlned, with 
that Wat wwd mliturt of luprntltion and Rllsion 
«hlcb marked hit wliole cuwr. to apply ■> to one of 
llie iiTCroniaiimn aha hid e«ca{ied hii pereecution. 
She waa ■ wonian linni; at Endor, on the other 
■ide of Little llmnoni ihe !■ olM a wwn 
"Oh," >. I. of the (kin or bladder, and thi 
LXX. hai Tendend bj iyyvcrfiln^tt or Tcatrilo- 
qdlM, and the Vuleate hy Pytbmai. Aoco 
to the Hebrew tradition tnentioned by Jerrnm 
wu the mother of Afaner, and benn her < 
Irrnn the ireneral manicre of the nMromancm (lee 
Leo Albitiue, Dt /■.nymfriwyfAo, cap. 6. in Crilid 
Saai, il.). Volumia ban been written on the 
qntatlon, wbetber in Ibc icene that foilon w 
to iiiidmtiind an inipaiture or ■ naJ ipparitii 
Samuel. Euttathiua and moit of tin Kitheti take 
the fomifr view (repremitlng It, hovvter. ai > llf^ 
ment of the devil); Oriften, tbe I>tler view. An- 
cottine waven. {See l.eo Aliatiui, vl mpra, pp, 
1063-IIU.) The LXX. of I Sam. xi>ii. T (bj 
Ihe abon traniUtioii) and the A. V. (by lU omU- 
tkm of ■•hlmarlf " in iirlll. 14. and linertlon ol 
"when" 111 nviil. 13] lean to tbe former. Jdm- 
pboi (nbo pmnounna a glowinic eiilogy on tbe 
■ ' ■ ■ 1, H 8- 31. »i"l t''« l-XX. of 

tCtar. I 

13, t- 

I inipoaalblfl to determine the Trlatlvi 
amount of Ihiud or of realitv. thnufth the obTioui 
■uanlni of tbe nuraiive liwjf tmdi to Ihe hypoth- 
■d* of HitBe kind of apparition. She rtODgniEei the 
dimuiaed king Hnt by the appearance of !>aoiiKl, 
Neniingly from bli threatening aepect or tone m 
toward! bit enemy.* Saul ^iparently ia« nothing, 

but IMned lo ber dwrlptloo of ■ god-Hki §fm 
of an aged maa, wnq)pad n«md with tbe niyal «r 
Bred roha.'' 

On bearing (be dmnnelalion iriiich tbe *ff^ 

Ikn oODieyed, Saul leU Ibe whole Ingth ef bli 

glEantlo atalun (» nviil. BD, mai]gin) m U» 

ground, and nmained motionleia till tba wooaa 

d bia Mrranla forced bira to cat. 

The neit day tba buttle came on, and aooordiog 

to Joeephut (^W. ti. H, f T), petfcapa aecoidiDg 

to Ihe ipirit of Ihe aiered narrative, hia conriga 

and aelr.davolioii Rbimed. Hie Ivaelila wen 

L up Ihe lida of tiilboK. Tbe thna aooa of 

Saul wan ilain (I Sam. mi. B). Saul biraadf 

wltb bit armor-^bearer wu ponaed by tbe aroban 

and the efaarloleen ot tbe enemy (I Sam. uii. 9: 

a Sam. i. 6). He wa wooDded In tba itomaeh 

(LXX., 1 Sam. iiii. 9). HU thleld waa cait away 

m. 1. 11). Aosording lo one aoraont, be Ml 

bb own iword <1 Sam. mi. i). Ataordiac 

ither account (which may be reeondled with 

the fbrtner by luppoilng that it deavlbea a later 

inddcnt), an Amaldilla' came up at the rnoeaeM 

if hia death-wound (whether fnim Umirlr or the 

enemy), and found him " falln," but leaning en 

' fiaar (3 Sain. 1. 6, 10). Tba dfaslnH of d«»h 

gathered over him (lAX., 3 Sam. 1. B). bo* 

•at (till alive: aud he waa, at hli own trqnt* 

out of fail pun liy the Anialekit*. who look od 

hli royil diadem and biaeelet, and carried the nowi 

David (3 Sam. 1. T-IO). Not till th«, aeaord- 

( lo Joaephui lAil. vl. H, } Tl, did the UthU 

noMomr Ml on hii iword and die with hia 

San. lui. S). The Imdy on being fauni by 

I I'hihatJDea waa itripped, and deeapilaled. Tba 

nor wai aent into the HbiliiUne elliea, a< If In 

irlbution lor the •pollation of Goliath, and Anally 

depodlsd In tbe temple of Aitartc, apparently In 

the ndgbborjng Canaanitlab citfof HetiHataan; aad 

over tbe walli of tbe lama city waa hung Iha naked, 

beadleM corpee, with tboae of hi* thne aoni (tt. S, 

The bead waa dqiotited (probably at Aab- 

in (hstem[4aor Dagon (1 Chr. x. 10). Tba 

, I waa riDiand ftnm Beth-ahan by the gtatltada 

of the lubabitanlB o( Jabcah.glbad, who came oeer 

the Jordau by night, carried off the bodin, bamt 

tbem, and buried Ibem under (be tiicirtak at J»- 

btab (1 Sam. xxi). IB). 1'hence, after the lapaa of 

•ereral yean, hie aibea and thow at .lonathan wci« 

removed by IMvid to their aiieeatral Hpulchra at 

Zeiah la Berjaniln (3 Sam. ul. U). [Ilsl^t 

BoanrrH, vol. iii. p. less A } A. P. S. 

* On the biitorj and character of Saul may be 
mentioned Ewald, llftdiidiU dri I'uUe* ImtL 
StAuig. (lesS). lil.3-J~T8; &ia< 
In Henog'i J/^. lill. i3I-48T; Wnndrt^ 
lich, in Zeller't Bibl. I('«r»r4. 11. 40T-B; BUup 
Hall, CanlrmiAuioin <m tit O. ind jV. TfMnmimU, 
bka. illi.-iv ; Mllman, llitlory o/ Iht Jrm. 1. 915- 
331 [N.Y. 1860)1 !itinley. writer of (ha preceding 
•ketch, " KoDK of Saul," in hia /.rcfarn nn On 
JiKlth Clmrch, II. 1-44; and Arehbiihop Tivneb, 
SJiipicrfda b/ F"iih: Three SmTioni pnnahed 
halbre tbe Univmlty of (.'anihridge in May, 1887. 
Tb la laat writer hai drawn a aad picture of tbe gm- 

• Ttah li ptacad by Jo 
(oUt, bnnfhi OB by the 
•LIS. 17). 

"Hawi. Merer, p. M). 
« WbH wa taft h«d 0( BaBl^bawi 

br, not haHni, Ba 

Id Ibe Biamcra of tbe priaai 
» of D*vM (III. U> allenalad htai 
' It^nnirJiirWUa (Jaaeph. Am. it. U, 1 1|. 

L. .,..., j>Coi)^^lc 


(Mil lalMiiii lb« bBf^ding >ad tlu eloa of Swil'i 
^MT. AU tba finer nod nobis dnueoti of hk 
A»mets diipU^ tbtourina it th> onlMt erf hi) 
m iM fill life ; iriiila at tha aid wa han befcra n* 
th* DiDantAil ipaetada at "Of gmtuti broking 
down ander the nar aod tb« Uw of tba mrid, 
utiwT Um inllueiHa ef niindiUd lonptatioua, of a 
Wtj Knt: Uw nnworthj doM of a Uto mrUilI]' 



9. Tha JawWi unw et 3- 

(. pAtri. TUi n> 
n Um gcnakigtea of 
Iha triba of Uaijamin, to which tba Apoatls Mt 
■na prhk to briongiag (Rom. iL 1 ; PhIL ill. 9). 
Ha himaelr kada at M awdite bii nam* -itfa that 
•( tha Jawiab king, bj tha mailied mj In which he 
MBHaM Saol in hla addrea at Uw t^ildiu Aiitl- 
aah: " Uod gaTB onto them Sant tha (oa of Oi, a 
^B <f tha tiilia ot Ua^amin" (Acta liii. 21). 
llaaa iniSatio*ii ai« in bannon j with the intcnad; 
J«^ Qiirit of wbleb tba lih of tba Apoatle ei- 
bUU *o maaj aUp*. [Padu] Tba earij eeckii- 
Mkal wrkaa did not Ul lo notice (be pconiinenca 
Ihia gnaa bj St. Puil Ij> hb tribe. TartuUian 
(adv. Marc r. 1) apfiUei to him the ijina wordt 
af Jaoiii CO Ba^janiLn. And JcroiM, la b^ >./»- 
l^MiM /■oiilia ({ S), alluding 

glToi of the Mord " SaTloar," and thai of bb mrt 

oC iilntko, aa unfolded and taught in the New 

Tcatameot- [Sea ileo HKaaiAH.] 

I. Trk Wobd Savioitb. — The lenn "iiar- 

r," aa applied (a our Lofd Jetn Chriat, npn- 

ta the linak Mtr (awHif), whieh In turn rep. 

nta oettain derintiTee man tha HebKW loct 

(diA'a (V^^): ptrUenkri} the paitkipla ot tha 

1 Ibrm mMfa O^^QtHD): whidi li nroillr 

renderal " Sarfonr " in tba A. V. <(. j. It il». 

\ ilii. 9d). In conideriiiE the true Import of 

3a>ioar," It b enentia] tor ue to eniuine tha 

isinal tcmn anevering to it, including in our 

ow the nae of Mtr In- the LXX., whence it wa* 

lorc imiuodiatelj derlTed bj the wrilcra of tba 

^ew Tstiment, and further noticing the oognala 

Mr of U 

li (Jud^. I 

■l" UxnporB the artk 

NathinK eartain b CDOwn ahoat Uw ofciiig* af 

Ua Af(Mla*a Dame ftoni " ■ - ■- 

9t, to wUch rabioKa I 
(PAin, Tol iiL p. aasa »,] Two chief eoi^t- 
Ofaea pnnil eoneereing the chinga. (1.) That 
al Jamie and AugnatiiK, that tba name waa ila- 
rirad &Din SEKOiua Paului, the lint of hii Uen- 
tib eoDTarta. (3.) Tbat which appean due to 
ligblfcot, lint Padut wai the Aportle'i Koniiui 
aenin ae a eitim of Taran*. natorallj adopted into 
eom^^n oae hj hb biof^ph^ when his bbort 

thoeo ia adopted bj Obbmiaen and Hejer. I 
Al tha Tiew of KmU lOrtdi. li. 4IU, 4901, 
■iiiaa to eonudo' It mU-inidatt, mhJ looki on 
ahaoiea of aiif eiplanntioii ottheebinge ta a proof 
that it wai BO ondnatood bj all the readcn of the 
Aita. (Sea tdL til. p. SMB i, and mMt. Aamr. 
ad.] HowvTs this rwj be, albr Saul has taken 
lib piaee dallnilinlj aa tba Apoatle to the GenUle 
■arid, hi> Jewah nana la entlirij dropped. T*o 
«ri*ina of Ua bk an «eU uarted bj the uae of 
•te Mo iMmta- J. LL D. 

SAV'AUAN U %mfir; [SiD. a Au^; 
OnpL with 4 MSS- Avofw:] /Sat Saum, Atit. 
niM D, an aroiieoui tma of the Utle Avrn*, 

boai! is the common teiti In 1 Hace. t1. 43. 
fbl- tin g, nl. L p. 896 a.] R F. W. 

flAyl'AS (DO. in VU.; Alei. 3«hJ.; 
T.ib.}. Uzxi the sno-bir of Em (1 Eidr. rlU. 
I; aomp Ear. rii. *), 

SAVIOUR The (bUowing uttck. logetber 
•U Um on* en tha San OF (ion, formt the oom- 
■Imat to tbe Ule of oar Lord Jaaui Cnxisr. 
[Sm (oL U. p. I4T7.] An BiplioUloD k Bnt 




in the iJCX. than tha Imn "Saviour" in tha 
V. ot the Old TntaniniL It rrpnaenla not 
7 tha wtml mMrn above mentioned, Imt aba 
nrj froquenUr the nouuycM'a <?^) and ylthSttl 
(n^B#^): which, though properij eiprcaaivs «( 
Um ahetrift Dolioa " satntion," are jet aometimca 
In a coiicnie nnte (or •> Saviour." We nmj 
■ in eumple. Is. Mi. II," Behold, thj siIt*. 

»,tlj " 

with him 

' when eri- 

io Afialu I 

ms an connectod imniediatelj 
the penon of Uie Uodbnd, M <n Ps. Ixviii. 
the God our Satiwir" (A. V. "God of ow 
ulrstion"). Not only in luch ouis a> these, but 
in nianj othen where the sense d«a not require it, 
the LXX. has >«<r whov the A. V. has "ailn. 
tion;" and thus tba woni "Sa>'iDur"WM mors 
familiar to tba ear of the reader of tba Old Tetlif 
nient In our I.oi^'s aselbMi it ii to us. (S.) llM 
nme obeetvitlon holds good with r^ard to tha 
ver<i oii^ir, and ths substuitiia drrq^ila, as used 

which thej occur ihowi that thej elatid as equl<»- 
lenls fur words coniej'ing Ibe notions of well-being, 
succor, peace, and Ibe like. We hive funhcr to 
notice ffVTiuHa In the sense of TKuverj of the bo<k 
i'y health (2 Mace. Hi. 32), touether with Ihcetj- 
mulogical connectioa supposed to eiiit betwoen tha 
terms atrriia and amiuL, to which St. Paul evl- 
dendjiUudetinEpb. V. 3.1i PhiL Ui. (3.)' 
If we turn lo the Hebrew terms, we cannot kil to 
be stnicli with their comprehcDslienca*. Uur T«ib 
"to save" impliea, in ita ordinir)' sense, thrreo- 
cue of a penon Ihitn actual or Impending dsnger. 
TbI* b undoubted!; included In the Hebrew root 
ydtA'n, and ma; be siid to be its ordinar? aenae. as 
tesliflod bf the frequent accompaniment a tba 
proposition aria (]D: oonipara the niait iw* 
whieb the ange) glres In aipbnation of the naa* 
Joua, Hatt. i. 91 ), But jrfM'n, bejond (bit, <■■ 
prsases nutidmce and prUrcium of eterj kind ■ 
assistance in aggmslve measures, protection aiaint 
attacli; and, In a secondary sense, the mulla of 
such aaaiatance — Tlclor;, tttelf, protpnitr, and 
h^pincaa. Wa maj> cite as an ioslaites of tb* of- 


2858 SAViocB 

Srm in waim. Dent. n. 4, " to Ight kr jm 
pgaint jour enemin, U> mn jvo ; " id pivlrtli'm 
tgniaa ilUck, b. uvi. 1, » HlTition vUl God ip- 
fiiiit fur HiUi uid liulmiiti " of riclor]i, 9 Swd. 
liii. e, " Tb« Lunl pntemd D«Tld," i. e. gun 
hiin iklor}' ; of jmipcriljr uid Imj^f, li. ki. 
18, '■Thou (lull aUlhjHdliSilntion;" lg.UI, 
lOt " He hath ckothcd me njtfa tho gknuenU of 
MhBtiun." No better liutuiec dT Ihia last eniie 
Oku ke addiued thon the scIeiuiUoo " UoMniiit." 
RWMiing, " SaTC, I banch tbes," whieh wu uUend 
M ■ prajtr fbr God'i blMtlng on trnj jojoui oco- 
Am IVt. ciiiii. 35), H U our Ijirdi mtr; into 
JtruHleni, when the etjmologJMl cunmction of tlw 
Mmxi* HoHiinn and Jeiui omiU iwt hire be«n lort 
an the e*r of the Rebnw (Slatt. ui. tt, IB). 
Uiu) npiciira ttwt tiM llebnn' ud Greek tenni 
tbeir poaitite m well u thnr negilitc tide, b other 
inwdi that Ihej eiprewed th« pracucB of blenii ., 
M «dl H lbs sbaence of diU)|^r, Htiml leeurlt; h 
s«U >* tlie rcnioixl of inMcuiitj.o (4.) lie faiitra^ 
Inl penonaget to Hhom the lermi ire upplied fnr- 
ther illuilrnte Ihla rieir. The jodicca tn itjltd 
"Hiiours," H having racued tlxir aniiilr}- froi 
- - • ■ idsge (Judg. iii. 9, 16, A. V. -de 

pflftred, Tbe bMro loiuid vi the word would oopjun 
I Man hie InMginatka riikin* of ddivnuncB, le- 
jilj, pcaco. Mid imupenty. 
II. Tub WodK nf Till! Savimik. — 1. [fat 
ne hnt Eruige^te. u we kjHnv, mt^nt in ehov- 
iDg Uut Jeeui uulbUed hii nuHige to tb* dieci- 
•)« bjr de)(re(* He wnugbt Um niiiaelen tlal 
melobetlieiindDitlaliofUieMeidafa! He hid 
loan the gnU principln »f tbi (kepel tomlitj, 
intil iif hul otehliibtd In tba nuod* «f tin 
I'welie the conrictiou that Ha wm tb« Chriit of 
^odr Ttaeii IB the cioudi oT doom grew darinr, 
lOd Iha maUea of the Jewi beeeae Bun intone 
i* tutoed ■ new page ia hli tcacblng. Unwing 
tvm hii dltciplai the oodfeMloa of llinr Gdth in 
Him w Chriat, Ha tlMn pavad abnipUj, aa to 
' truth Uiat nmiined to be Itnincd i> 
lie mlnialij, Aat hia wort 
cQ 11 tenriiiiiit (Matt. iTi. 

■ Neb 


m U. ' 

FT lami IVoiu the STmni (3 K 
to the laiua atiwe Joaqihua U;k« (be dellTeraiic 
from ^jpt a ''aalratLOn" {Ant. iii. I, { ]' 
Joahua on the other hand i-erified the promiee con 
lalued ill bii name b; hb conqueata over llw Ca- 
manite*: the l.ord waa hit helper in an aggmaive 
inue. SimiWlylliaoffioeaf tlia"iarioura"proni- 
iied 111 Obad. 91 waa to execute venganfe on VAxn. 
The namai laiiah, Jeahua, Ishi, Hoaa, HoshtK. 
■nd \uUy. Jeaua. are all expreaaln of lite gnxnl 
tdeaofnwufnnccftiim tliel.onJ. The Gmk kUi 
waa in a (iniilar inanner applied In Ihe double aem 
ot a dtliierer from (brtign Aim aa in (he caie < 
)*lolein7 Soler, and a general protector, aa in tl 
nunieroiB inalancca where it waa appendtd ai tbe 
tide of healheii deitiea. (BO Tbeie 
bdlcatloni in the O. T. that the idea 
aalnllon, to )« effnitid hy God aloi 
■ id of the p 

le l>aalnii 


P). laiiah In particular ippropriBla 
•'ntiour" to Jehotah (ilill. 11 1. and 
with the nolioni of juatice and righleoi 
11, li. 18, 1T):beuldu(nitutbeaptGlaIn>Hm>er 
In which Jabotah rereaJi Kimieltto man (il>. 15); 
ha hinta at (he meana to be adopted (or eflirlini 
aatraljon in puaagea where he comtecla the tem 
" aaTlour " with " redeemer " (jfoll), aa in ili. 14. 
illi. 36, li. 16. and amln with "nnsom," aa Ir 
xllii. 3. Similar noUeea are Mattered orer (he pro- 
lAetleal hooka (e. g. Zech. i<. S: lioi. I. T), and 
though in manj inalaitcea these notiHa admitted 
M* a reference to proiimaie ereTita of a lempon 
nature, thej n ' ' " ' ' ' 


••Saiioar" wbo ibouM far aarpMi in Wt 

I of aln and of tbla wortd an let 
itn fiir a time, bo that He ahall bs 
bolrajfd tn tlie Jewa, reacted, deliratd by tbcan to 
the (]en(ilea, and by them be mocked and acouTQeil, 
cmcllied. and alaiii ; and that all thia Bkill bt dona 

•nilttn of Him by (he pnpheta — theia w« do cer- 
luntj find, lliey Inmt tba death of Jcsoa wi(h a 
peculiar uKnificaneej thajaet the mind iDqiiiring 

Ib Ud on Him. lor Il» enawH we knli to othv 
plaon: bat at leaat there ia here no contradiction 
(0 (he docUine of iBcrifiee, though tlie Ijitd doai 
not yet tay, " I beai the wrath of God ■«*iiiB( your 
Bina in }oiir itndi I becoma a curat for yuu," <H 
the two aidca of thia mj-ateriuua doctrine, — Uiat 

a doom laid on Him bb of neceaiKy, bevaaie aooia 
one mnK bear it, — i( ia the latter tide that la mad* 

1, not of hu dtaiia to die, but of tba bniden 
lata on Him, and the power gitao to otbara againat 

a. Had the doctrine been eifUned no furthv, 
then wouM baie been much (o wait for. Rut the 
■eriee of aiinounccmentB In thtae pauages kada up 
lo one niora dcHnita and complete. It cannot ha 
dmied (hat the worda of the inetitction of the 
l«nl'a Sopp« qieak moat dlBlinrtlj of a aacrifiee. 
" Drink ji an of tbli, for tbla la my bkiod ot the 
new eonnuit," or, to folh>w St. Lnke, " the new 

>lloy («11. «) H 

T tn aa iBBiirlpIlaB of (he agB of Tn^ <erwliT, p 
I. Ho, bi. Tbli aai adoplad by lAilaIku wrilsn ■ 
la most adequate tqnlTslcnt ibr vrr^f, Itaoa^ ob 
rdooB wen aildeutly raised against it [Aafuslto 
Abocbat tenu, taiutifif^str^ ww 

. 4T i l>> On. Or. t. Wt- 



tBimmi b mj Uool." Wa in cvrU Wk bj 
IbtM word* to tbe ftnt eorsiuit, to Um iHv with 
MiUi« piBiu*, u>d Ibe buret oflkridjii iind pease- 
lArin^ cf onn, wtd tb« btaod of tbf netimt 
^nokkd on the iltu ud oa (Ih F»pk, and U» 
unnli of Hon h be iprinkkd it: '- Behold tb* 
blood of tha conDaat vblch tbe Lord bath inada 
■itb ]wi eoDeaiiiDg *U lb«n wmli " (Ei. uit.]. 
No latv[ntcr hai ira Ciikd to draw (tarn tbsae 
paaMgpa tba tnw ncaniDg: '• Wbco mj (uriBce ii 
Keonpltahed, m7 blood iball be theHnction of lb* 
The Tord "n^Qee*' ia nuting; 
id DOthioft elM b deacnbed. And 
>n men figiira taed for illutlntlon, 
when (bej ban tenrd tbat turn, 
imlraoai of Ue." Thaj an tbe 
h the Cfatmh ii to Ititfvpret the act 
af Jem* to Ok tod ct titiw. Tbej are reprodn 
nacUj bjr St l*aiil (1 Cor. li. iS). Then, 
aoir, Chfiatiani nxt (sgttha, and hj a loleiDn 
act deeland tbat thej eoonted the bkrad of Jena 
aa a ■oiftcc wbnnn a new comuDt tu valnl; 
and of tbe blood of tbat wTihs thajr partook b; 
emaeJita tbetvbj willint; to entff 
« qcioUed with the hiood. 
1. So br we bar* cuniinod tb« thne •• lynop- 
lie " Goapek. Tbe; follaw a hutorical ordor. In 
lb* (arl; ehapten of all tbne tbe doelHne of our 
Lord'a aerillce ii not foand ' ' ~ 


CO be ii directed to 

of (bat itgenmtioii. Tht eanwat gaiv nl 
mndad loul la to be tha ooaditioQ of itacuiv 
aod that gua la to be tumed, DM to Jeau on tbe 

nioanttin, or In tbe Temple, but on tbe Croea,. 
Thii. then, ii do paaaiDg allituoD, but It ii tbe lab- 
itaoee of tbe Chriatiau leaching addreend to ■■ 
uiHat aeeko' after truth. 
Another paaaage claimi a rsnrent attention ^ 
IT BDj man eat of tbu bread, he ihaU Uve km 
rcr, and tbe bread tbat 1 will giie ii m; Oeeb, 
'hicta I will gin for the lift of tbe world " (John 
He ii tbe bread ; aiid He will give tba 

Oatl " before He ibowi tbeoi " What 
week?" Hut at length the ui 
■lade, eolbrced, npeated; until, wl 


I tbe feet of 
led errand, 

and ia ginn wiilch Kcum that the death of 
aball be d<emi«cl forever a> a aacrifice an 

bg cood to manj. 
■ent aboBld enm to I 
Dr Wetta hi 

It. John 

HI with Nteodeniue, ndiicfa took 
litace eari; In tbe mintetrj; and there, under tbe 
lenre of tbe braaen lerpnit lined up, the alaning 
nrtoe of tba Lord'e death ii fuUj art forth. » Aa 
MaiEa lifted up tbe aerpent In the wildeiaeaa, e^en 
an moat the Son of Mao be litled up: tbat whow 
Cfir betiereUi in Him abould not periek, but bate 
Menial tile " (John Ui. U. 15). Aa in thia inler- 
a— iij act, tbe imai>e of the dradlj, hateful, and 
xcBiaed (Gen. iU. 14, IS) reptile became b; Uod'a 
Inne tbe mewn of hadth lo all who kskod on it 
wnestl;, eo doea Jeena in the Ibrm of linfnl man. 
if a decttnr of the people (Matt, iirii. 03), of An- 
kbiM (Matt. lii. S4; John iviii. S3), of one ae- 
uacd {Gtl iii. 13), beoome tbe meana of our aal- 
•atioB; as that •rboerer ftuteni the eamrat gaieol 
hith no Uim aball Dot periah, but ban eternal life. 
ThMC Ii even a ilgnifieanoe in tbe argrd •' lilted 
If!" tba Lord need pmfcabl; the word f]jn, 
■kfah Id older Hebrew meant lo Ult up In tbe 
■IdaM enaa. hot began In the Anmaie to bare the 
■line of lifting up fcr ponl 
tbe dfting Dp waa a aeeming 

--■ -*-itfcin. But the ronteit iri 

tbat diacourae, which haa well been aiOtd tba 
PrsjTr of ConKcration ofised bj our Hifth Pricit, 
there i> anotbtr paaaage which annot be alleged aa 

b; Jeai 

dlaeiplee lad Hinuelf muat bar l> 

a preciiel;' the « 

B (Ur. I 

nail; pertinent to thii inquirj: ■' Sanctify then 
through thy tnilb; thy wivd ia truth. AJ rhoa 
hut aeiit Me into the world, e>en ao have I alao 

Iheni into the world. And br their aakee I ' 
•imctiff lil)aeir, tbat tbej abo nii^bt be aauctibd 
through tbe tnilh " (John i«il. IT-ID). Tbe weed 

iyiiC"*, '■ eanrtifjr," 

I JCX. for the oiferin] 

and ioT the dedication 

Tiee (Num. lii. 15). Hen the preunt terns '■ I 

coiiteerale," uaed In a diacoune in which our Idfd 

aaja He ia "no more in the world," ia concluaiva 

It Ihe biterpretation " I dtdioale nij lift to 

" for life ia over. No aelf dedication, Gieqtf 

that bT death, can now he apoken of aa prtaenl. 

- 1 dedicaM M^kIT lo Tfare, in ni; death, thai 

tlieee ma; Iw a people eonaecnted to Thee) " luob 

he )ir«t.lboiiE)ii In tbii aulilime paaaaffe, whieb 

1 well with Ilia other declaration, that the blood 

lia aacTifice aprinklea them lor a ue* covenant 

1 (rod. To the great ni^rity of ejipoailoni 

from ChrjWitom and Cjril, the doctrine of recon. 

dliation through the death of Jeaua ia aawrted lo 

The Kedeemer haa alreadj' deecribed Hirnaelf aa 
tbe Good Shepherd who laja down bia life for tbe 
^eep (John i. II, IT, IB), taking care to diatin- 
guiah bia death from that of one who diea acainal 
hia will in atriving lo cOmpaaa aome otlier aim> 
" Therefore doth mjr Father love Me, becauae I la; 
down ni]' life that 1 might lake it ig^. No niaa 
taketh it ftnoi Me, but I lij it down of MjneM. 
[ have power to lay it down, and I hat« powei la 
take it apin." 

(John 111. «)liciid>lD« 
»haa, irhov H« at;* tlu 
aid Is ^n hi) Hie k n 


4. Iltn, Umd, ipnln Jam of HIoikV. Whit 
Mj bli wlttiMMa or Him? " BsboU th* Ijjab 
gf God," Mrt Ide Bkptiil, "whleb Uketb mnj 
tlwiiaDrthc>orid"(JtitiDi. S9). QmmmUton 
tmtx ibont tha ultiidon implied in thU name. Dot 
take >nj ons of tbdr Dplnjoni, inri ■ Bcrifln !• 
Implied. Ii It Um PaKbil hmb Ifamt In nftmd 
toV Ii it Ibe hmb of tbi dillj Hcrilln? Either 
mj [he dmth oT tin ilctiiii li brought lidbn ui. 
Hut (he ulliulon lu ill prab«blli(j It to the mO- 
knoini propheej oT iuiih (llil.) to the l^atiib 
broiufht to the eJuij^bttf, rho bore dot gricfa mA 
niTled oor Bmnn.o 

G. Tbe ApMls after the RemrnctiDn pmeb do 
monl ajitctn, but ■ beHeT in ind lore of ChHet, 
the eruclHed and riieii Ijird, througb whom, it 
thtj nfmt, mm sball obtdn ailntion. llib wu 
iWr') pTMcblng on the daj' of l^Cecoat (Acli 
U.): and he (ppeahd boldij to the prophet* on tbe 
ground of an tipeetation of a euffi^rinji Mtulnb 
(AcU 111. 18). fhllip Ifwxd out for the Fjmneh, 

K hoUne 


known cluipur of Inlab, the linnawnta of J«i 
of NaiuMh (Act* vlii.; Ii. Uil.). Tbe fint ler- 
reon Id > Uentilg hoiUFhoId pruolaimed Cbritt ilaln 

iriiOHwrer'litUeTeth In Him ihnll nceire remlailoh 
of lint" {Acta i.). Pad at Aniioch pmu'bea "a 
Sarlour Jeiui" (Ada iliL SSj; "through Ihli 
Man ii preached unto jou tbe for^Teneaa of iliin, 
nd h} iilm all that bellere an Jmtilled from all 
Ibingt rron] which je oouM not be Juitlfled \-j the of Mow)" (Acta ilii. 38, 89). At Theui- 
Vinica all thnl we Uam of thia Apoatle'a preaohina 
■a " that Chrlat muat nesdi ban auRbvd a»d riieii 


■■ (Act. 


Agrlppa he dedatnl thet be hail pmcbed all 
"that Cbriat ibould auAer, and that He >l 
(he Brat that ibould riee Ihrni (he dad 
nri. 33]; and it vaa thia declaration U 
tincen hla royal hearer that he waa a cnued 
'llie account of the Bnt EbundliiR of the 
in rhe Acta of the Apoatlea la coiicIm lu 
wcnlarr; and tomeUnieawe have hantly an 
rf Judging what place tbe inflerinia of .'e 
In tlie teaeblnft oftbe Apoetke; but when 
that they '' preecbed .leaiii." or tbe tike, il 
Mr to infer frufn other paaBUiea that the Ooaa 
of Chritt waa neter conreided. wheiher Jewi 
Qneht, or Urbarbm wen (he tia(cncn. And 
•WJ pertinaclt}' thowa how much weight tbej at- 
tached to the hcta of tlie Yilt of our l.ord. Tbe; 
lid not m«el; repeat In each new plHce the pure 
sorallty of Jenie u Ha uttered it in the Serinon 
•n the Mount: of anch lawont we have no nmrd. 
nw; look in thtgr handa, aa the itrongeat weapon, 
•ha fact that a twtaJn Jew erui^fied alar off In 

M Ibia [Maage dtaenaaad ftallj la lb* IK 
, >»■• {BiUlwtrti, aod Alford. Tb* rtf 
a heehal lamb Dnda IhTor wlih Orotliit and 
I ', the wftwu B* to Iialah la a|iiiRiTed b; tihrj" 

>| o( Ow Baittat, aot tb* baarliia k (f4>«r, 


JiRKlnn wn Uw Son of God, wbo bad died la 
n frcnn thdr aina: and Ihef oflbnd to al 
iDtenat, tbraugb laltb, hi the rea un eetloa 
bnin lb* dead of thia outOHt of bla own peopla. 
4o wonder that Jewa and Greek*, judging In thiir 
rorldlj wa;, Ihonght thia atraiu of prnebing eanit 
if tcBj or madno*, and turned from wb^ tbeT 
tboogbt imnieanlng Jargon. ' 

a. We are able lo complete ftvm the epiatlea on 

■econnt of the leaching of the Apoatla on tbe doe- 

Irlneirf Atonement. "IlieBIaii Cbriat Jeaaa " ii 

lbs Mediator Between God and man, for In Him Iba 

n ha linlev puritj, 1* fitted up la 

the Uirlne, ■> that He. exempt from gnllt, can 

'od for the gaUtj (1 Uni. li. 6; I John ii. 1, 1; 

eh. Tli. 29). 1'hui He ia tbe aecond Adam Ihtf 

lall rednm the *In o( the flnt; the Intamta al 

len are bound up In Him, aitiee He baa power to 

ike tbem all into Hinuelf (Kph. r. 19, 30; Uom. 

1. 6; 1 Cor. xi, 13; Kom. t. II. IT). TbI* •*!■ 

idon waa proilded bj tbe Father, (o "rtcencili 

I to Himaelf " (3 Cm. T. IS), lo wbom the name 

' "Sariour" Ihui belong* (I.uhe i. iT); and our 

redemption i* a alt^jO pcoof of tbe lore of God la 

a (1 John It. 10). Not kaa ia il a pnuT of the 

in of Jeaut, alr.oa He freely laja down hb Ufa lor 

a — oAen it aa a pncloua gill, eapahle of pui^ 

chadne all tbe kMl (I 'Uni. II. di Tit-li-l-); tlpb. 

' " >p. Matt. II. M). Bat then la anothtr 

side of the Irulh more pdnftil to our natural rea- 

me thia eihlbilion of Uirhie Ian to 

Jecauae wialh had abtadj gone oat 

'llie chnidt of God'a anger gathssd 

whole human nice; they diacharged 

.Irene only. God bai made Him to 

who knew no din (9 Cor. T. II); Ha 

ine" (a thing acturaed) (or oa, that 

hanp orer iia may be Tmiored (G»L 

Ui. 11)1 He bom our ^na in hla own body on lb* 

[1 l-et. il, 84). Then ara thota who would 

M the page oT tbe Ulhle only the aumhine of 

Ulvinc loie; hat (he matlerlng Ibundera of. 

ne wrath agalntt tin are heard there abo; and 

who alone waa no child oT vralh, nieeta tha 

ahock of the tbundenlorrn, becomea a mne lor ua, 

a 1 1 Bli of wnith ; and the laya of kin btiah 

t that thunder-gloom, and ihhie on tbe bowed 

of Him who bang* on the Ctoaa, dead ft* oar 

a hare apiAen, and adrltedly, M If tbe New 
were, aa to thia doctrine, one hook In 
hamiony wilh itarif. That there are In the New 
Teslament diflerent type* of (he one tme doctrine, 
may be admitted without peril to the doctrin*. 
'ilie principHl Cypea are four in number. 

T. In tbe Kpiitle of Jamea ihete la a remaikabla 
■harnee of all eiplanntlona of tbe doctrine of Ui* 

» much aa may at fint aj^Hir. 1>u, the key- 
note of tbe epuriie li that the Qoapel 1* the Law 
made perfect, and that it ia a ptactkal moral lya- 

•■Pms, of Ctettt b* VMki ia ■ difltnot aMt. 
Hr oik UuMlJ •' ft KTtut If God uid of tha 
L«4 Jmos Cbriat," who ka - tlia l«ri gf (Arj. 
U* i^ok* of Uw Ward cf Truth, - " ' ■ 

TkM u4 liln 
Mt a( (h« ifkra ^ Ebi«ltkb imtbirg. Tba 
hiqiimJ wiita mm tte Sariour, is tba Vithafi 
|krf, pcfafiag b> ntuni lo jaiffi Urn qal«k aod 
iu^ Ua pWa fgrtb CliriM m Praphat wd King, 
far ha Makaa Utii Taaebcr ud Jad^ of Uw 
•arid; b«i Uw aOaa dT tba Piiat ha dm not 
dvall OB. FirbaUboDUilDiajlhatba kaon 
g uDit ban Ukan pha btlair 

» tfMta " jour 
■u> ' ' aa laMMiag Muiaai anadf, nat t* be 
p^acd bj Urn f^tii (Jams L 8, 3, >1). Hii 
pnrpoae ia a pardT [aaetieal anai 'lliiaa ii » 
iiilaitiiNI t» anlbU a Uhrotalogf, Biafa 
•hid aHhai tba l^lla M tba Bnuana 
aUe- AHBoiiBK Ibat Jama ha« loaoiftM^ Htn- 
wU, aad bagawaa aoa* tba hiniaii net, ha aarka 
la Bake (baoi pnj *"'■ aiidindtd bawU, ud 
ha eoaBdarate la Iha peer, aad Mrivt iritfa laita, 
tK vhiek OtftJ Ma4 oil. Got 

a. lo tba • — '■-g af St P<br tba doedri 
tba l"!**!!! of ov Lord la eauMolai ttheUy •rjth 
(bil of ha iruHi M Sarioar and Uaaiah. 

■aid aa the icnw'id or hii own ruht (a tiach, tlwt 
be «aa ■■ a wiuxai of Uh luAriogi of ChrUt'' 
(1 Pet- >. 1 1' The mtamiag lirUn of tlwM uif- 
toin^ be daalb on wilh ineuliu' ampbiaii; and 
mat !•■ aa ao the parifjia*; LnBueBce of the Aluue- 
aaot fH iba baaria ef briiercn. Ha npea t a a^aio 
and api> tta* CfariK died tbrna (1 Pet. IL II, 
uL la, kr. L); that Ha ban oar lina in hk owD 
bed; an the Ina' (1 PM. iL M). He bare (ham: 
aad «h>t doc* tbia phran nggnk, b«t the goal 
Ihnc -thaU bear" the ialquttir* of the peoide of 

Utaelf alliad with (b«e 
bieh ooDiKet uionlRtirm*- 
Ibo iriih the death of Jaaua. Ha bare oar nni 
IhM ■• mixht lin wito rixhteiiaiH. Hii death 
kaarllfB. Waaranottoba oonteat with a edr- 
■llalli I eentmpialioa of oar ndaamad itate. bat 
ta Um a lib wiwthjr of it (1 Pat. U. )■->&, iiL 
U-ia>. la tbea paaaagaa the wbola Goqid ia 
HMHoed; wa an JaaUSad bj (be death of Jam, 

Ulhaie »■ ear OswM tbat "*■ ja" (M^ 
rl^iM "In oBt ataad'-dnw. HI, tbta IMi 
• vMihaKtalBalbatoHr.wiMMM«UatnM. 

8AVIOUB 2861 

life of godlliKK And ft«ai lU. 

o tba D 

leef "tb 

aa weU u from Joha tba Baptiati and tba pi 
gf laaiah coms Lank Eipoo na wltb u 
dwimaw. We an ledeKud "with t 
blood of UiiiM, aa of a hiaib without I 
without apoC" (1 Pet. i. 18, IB. with 
Enrjtvril carria (■ back lo tba Old 
and ita aaerifiEiaJ ijitem : tba apotlraa rictim, tba 
nleaae bow lib bj iU bk»d (etaewbcn, i. a, bj 
tka ifrinkiias of ita blood |, are bare; not tba Ij'pa 
aod ibadow, but tba tnitb of them^ ooi a aa^ 
Buuial purgatlan, but as adeetual reconeihment sf 
sua and Uod. 

9. lo tba iuaplcad writing of John we era ttruak 
at oDce with the amphitio •UtemeDta aa to tba 
Dirine and hiunao naturae of ChrtiL A rytbl 
belief In the Incamation ia the tcM oT a Chhatiaa 
BUS {1 John ir. 3; John 1. 14: 3 John 1); •• 

Bod that Ha ii raanifnted to deatnj tba work* of 



e in the Oeah ia the One who alone 
■a been in the boaora of the Father, aeea the 
bitu^ that huiuaa ejaa have nerer aeeo, and baa 
ania lo declare tbeni unto ui (I John i. 9, it. Hi 
obu i. 14-18). ITiii Penun, at once Dirine a«l 
unaan. it "the piopitutaw for our tiiM," odr 
Advocate with the Fitber," aaot into Ilu world 
that we iBtebt live through Him;" and the 
laaoa waa hia laying down hi* U(e for ui, which 
Iwuld make ui readj to Itj down our liTea Ar 


i. IS, V. 6, 1. 7 

i. ai I, 

ia. that "the blood of 
SUB (^liriit deuiietta u* from all aiii'' (1 Jobs 
T). IIm uilinuile oonneelioo between hie wort 
id our bulinrai it the niaiii «ul^ of hia Oral 
■iltle ■■ •• Whuauetn- ia born uC I lod doth nal 
Huniil (in " (I -lobn iii. fi). A> with Si. Petw, 
I with St. .luhii; *>«rj point of the doctrine cd 
le Aloiieiiient cumn out with ahuudiut cl^^weai 
4 aulatitutiuti uf aAolhtr wito can licar oor aio^ 
r lu wbo eaiiDoti ihc luftringi and death aa tba 
cam of our ndemption. our juatificatioa thereby, 
id our pnjgnaa ia boliDeaa aa the nault of oitf 

-". ro foUow out a* fun J, in the mon mlund. 

writing* of St. Htul, tbe paaaagea thai apaal 

IT •alvBlioa, would far traiiiKRaa the iiinili <£ 

IMpir. Man, aeeorduig lo Ihia Apoatle, ia • 

If tb* I..W. Hit unaeitooa teUa bin 

that he eaiinot aci ap to that [.aw whieh. tlM lanii 

admita, ia IHvine, and binding upon 

Througb the old diapeiiaationa nian reniuned 

I oooditioa. li>eii tbe Uw of Hoaei ohiII 

not juatifr him: it onlji bj iu ttritt bebeiU bald 

lea that iU frtibie*a might 

Falbn- wbo had nem Cutsotten ha; git-eii to. not 

iied bj djing oa tlM Cidm bt them, aud bnuing 

-' iI«d<'(S t'or. T. 14-ai; 

a pmpitiation tbrougb 
faith in hi* blood " (Bon iii. 36, W. Uompaia 


'lAooT^puir u 

t p»pb irill Bnd 

- ■■ ilJT««U- 



fU, br tbt red«nptJsii of mu froni 
(Tltui U. U). Itii wiBth of tiod 
•UD, but It did not 1U1 on mu. God nisdi) hii 
'Son "lo b* iln Tor ui" though lis kn*H 
Mtd Jnui luBbad though - • ' < 

thii met God u 


», lOj 

I Cor. T. la-aO; Epb. II 16: (Jul. i. Ul). Oil 
tb« ude of mm, tnut ind Ion ud ho]ic tika tbt 
pluc ctttu and of an tvU ajnncltncei oii tfae il ' 
oT (iod, tfait Mtrible wntb of hii, >blch b i 
mind from Iiwrm agaiiitt *1] ongodliDm >. 

IS, >. B; 1 'llitM. I. 10). Tha quntluii wbetbtr 
■ only, or God i> iU< 

purpDMl)' lean that 

oaeUad to ut, migbt ba 

phjiical groundij but w* purpOMl)' 

sna lide, oonlfiit to ifaow lli*t al all cmili Iba In- 

taiUoD of God to puniah man n avcrtod b]i thii 

•■ pnipltiatiou " and " raconeilement." 

11. DiArant ntfin an held about tho author- 
(bip of tha Kplxtle to tba Hcbnwi, b; modeni 
nitlo; out iti uunieroui ptdiita of cDiitact nilh 
'th« Dlhar epiMlt* of 8t. Paul niuit lie racognlied. 
'In both, tha incompIetcMM of Judaitm ii iloelt on ; 
tadanpUon from lin and ({uilt it wbal rdigion ba« 
to do for man, aiid tbii the Law fiulad lo tHun. 
In both, rennciliatioD and forgWeiieu and a nao 
nonS poller In tha btlienn are the TrniU of the 
nrk of Jbu). In the EpiiOla to the lioiouit. 
Paul ahon that tha Lav biled to justift, and 
tbM hith in the blood of Jaani mart ba tha ground 
of juiUlkation. In tha EpiiUa to the Hebren the 

i folloiri Avm *i 

T dif- 

iRont: all that the .lewiih lytttoi 
■oconipliahad inObriitin ■ fiv niore perfect man nar. 
The Uo^l hai a batter I>ri«l, more efKelual ueri- 
- ■ ■ ■ epi.Ue 

the Law Hemi set a^de wboll]' for Ibi 
Wlh; in the other the Law ueialted and gkrlHed 
In ila Gaptl ihapa; but the aim ia prrcUclj' tile 
tama — to ihow llw weakncai of the La« and the 
eStetual (hilt of the tioapal, 

12. We an now in a potillon lo we how br tha 
leaehln; uf the NewToUnient on the etfecU of tha 

' declaration! of our Lord 
le aa Ihow of Jams and Pe 
1 are Ihow of tha Apotlka i 

ibout HiniHir tl 

in from ain and death, and tlie 

<3.) UvdtheVatherlaid upon hi> Son Ihcwi 
rf tha iin> of tha whole world, m that He bti 
hia own bodj the wrath which men muat elae 



n,ind able to bllow hi 

Uao Ipta. L T <lx>XVtpwr<t ) i 1 Cot. 

In thoitar wordi, tba lacrlfioa irfUw death o< 
Cbiiat ia a proof of Dtvlna iw , and of Dirln* jm- 

Of the faor greM wriltn of the New 1'atanHBt, 
PeUr, Pwl, »d John Mt ibith mtrj dm of then 
point*. Peter, tha " witno* o/ tb* ndfai^p <f 
Chriat," lelja ua that wa are redeemad with tha 
blood of Jonia, ai of a kmb without bleaibh a>d 
■itboHl apol; Mja that (.'brlit bare oar aim in Ui 
own bodj on lb* tm. It wt "ban taalsl tM 
the Lord la gracioui " <1 Pat. ii. 8), w« moit as* 

•Ule, hot muat Ui« a life worthj of It. No ■»• 
tail veil doubt, who itadi the two epiatln. thM 
the iDvaof God and ChrtM,and tba juatiBa of(^ 
and the dutis thareb; laid on w. all ban Ihdi 

tbajualloe, whilat the 

the mMal and prasUtal working of the Cnm of 

Chriat upon the liiea of man. 

With St.JobD,aBaln,allthr(«pointa Ind ptaM. 
Thai Jewia willing]; laid down hk Ufa for na, ud 
ta an adneaU wllh the Father; that Ha la aln tha 
propitiation, tba auBeiing aacrifica, ftr onr aiaa; 
and that tba blood of Jaaa Chriat okanaelli m 
from all tin, for that wboarv It bom of God dotk 
not commit lin — all are put forwud. The dnth 
of Chriat b both Juttloa and lore, both a pio- 
pmation and an aot of laving adf-m — ' 
the moral ellcct tipon ut It m 

In tha epiallea of Paul tha three eh 


who waa"made tiu (o 

HI," tha wnik 

of God aRaUHt tin. and Iha mod* 

UI which 11 WM 


waj, an pnaenled lo ua. 

Vel not wn(h 


thui Judge, that if one died for aU, tba 

were all 

dead: and that He dM 

ir all, that tbej 

•elxa, but unto Him whieh died lor them, ud 
roM again " (S Cor. t. 11, 16). Ijire in Him ba- 
gets Idle in ua, and In our reconciled itate the hoH- 

'ITie raaaoni for not findini 
ir eiideiioc, we ban apokan 
Now In which of tbete pol 

k, fcebiif 

lueh at we UI ulterlj to aompn bend on ■ 
I of human motirea. Yet no one take* (hxa 
hit precioua ndeemlng life; He laja it do«a 
of Hlmxif, est of bit gnat lore for men. Bat 
men an lo denj themttlvei and lake np their eron 
and Iread in hit itrpt. Ilia; nra hia ftienda onlj 
" -"-rj keep hia eommaudi and follow bit fosi- 


muat oonald 

tr It prored that tbfie tbna 


in the doclrlnc of the wholt 

4e« TeaUmeiit. W 

lut it then aboul 

.it leaching 


n lin;et pait an 

ptwnt ta 



Not the hanlneai 

of Ihedoa- 


— for none of 

the tlieorin put 

in ila pho. 

w do dM nhriiji raoMmbcr thM the luiiidi tta*t 
•uoniN thii m Irjiag to mika * njMerj Iota 
Ihtarj, to iudnita tnth iota m Inilc one, UKJ ( 
ndBflfl the fjmaX thingi at Uod luBo Uie 

scBrrns 2t)68 

the A. V. bM<'iiiiKl"ar"Uiliikot" The 1«m 
dcnnd, iil(uuit«lj, thnugb [be Fmioh iioaa 

iBtm; O. K. H'lvr, nrb i/ihto', ftoni th* UU> 
r/Mn, nHuiing priiuarilj (o (otle or intei^ tbea 
I iSiam, potKu dimxi-ntntnt or InmcUdge, do. 
Tbe noun cmiur occun virj olbn in tfa« A. Vt 
uid ilQioit klmirt In tbe nan (uon beoomiug ob- 
■uleie) of " odor." A. 

SAW.' Eoptiu —Mt, n br M hu jel bna 
Konctd, mfe diigfe-buKM, though St. Johm 
hu boo tlMughl M lUiKle lo ckcuUt bwi. Ai 

pra^, tin incanwUM. tha lumotUillj' of tb«*oul. 
■>« all Mb^ect* Uut pu br bcjand our rui|{« of 
thoKghl. And hm ae •« tbe wudoni of Uod in 
OkiMettag B ckmlj 

piMe thnrj vf nlTMion, do dout 
in tht Ukte mod) ta nrk. fbe Uimj li gitbmd 
bf friMtiiiwit* oat (]f niaiij ui nbottMioa aid wim- 
iag; Boarhera d«a It Uand oat etitin, ud without 
It^cal Onr. But if n unnH tbU tbe N'l 
(un«iit la writtH for tbe gulJiDoe <d liiihiJ bfarta, 
■a hid a owiderfal aptiH* fur Ihgt pajticulir 
Jeaaa ia fttkUmtd u llM •olace uf our fean. u 
the Imndtr o( oat narti lifh M (he ra 
4art Rhtion inlb oar huber. If He 

IM u* Anf omdvoi; if He luOeRd far ab^ IcL lu 
haU lia. And (be qoeetku ought not to b^ Wf 
do aH tbam 10511011* mtml bat, An tb 
thm^bu ranllf (neb •* will nrva (0 guide oar lih 
ud to aBuage Mr Itnon ui Ike hour of death '' 
Tbe uanr ia twoUd —ooe from hiitiirj and at> 
from eifKrieoea. The preacbuig of tbe CroM » 
the Lord 

Tbe nnie i 
ay deOiitle hope tl 

■e fljid in ouncJna, of Air- 

tbqe «ul{^eetj tbe reMkr J 
OB^OD tbe "Itn-' '' 

I oljeetioiii urged agaiuat it. 1 

which al 

rerencft to the author'. 
J ChriK," ill Aids lo F.A 

ootain the labatanoe of Ibe pnaeiit 
[See alio tbe uta. JK«i;a Chhibt, Mes- 
■lAK, SuK ur Uod, aod Sox or Hah, Id U 
DkUonBTf.] W. T, 

• HAVOUK aa a Tarta oonira In tbe A. V. 
lul; in UaU. iri. Sa, aiid (be pwaliel paaogB 
Uach liii. U, in our Lord a rebukeof Vtta: "l-boi 

that he r( meu." 'Ilie Greek, ai fftmlt rk n 
0tti, ete , Din; be ad reiidend, u it ii hj Mi 
iinra in hl« TofM Sae Tat., "Thir nibid la 
Bot on tbe tbiDKa of Uod, but un Uhm of 1 
l>r. JoluaDn de£Dca tbe word « romr bere **\a 
aabiNl a (aaCe Cur," ajid |irobab]f nuet K 
■vadara ao andenUnd it. But it maj ban 
led hj Qtrr tnUHletnn In a more compcTb 
Boae, oOCTiianHiiig tu tbe trandatioii gimi : 
VfytUm rendn CoL liL S {VrOg. fan t 
■Ml, uifiU], -ftrrr j» tbo (biiigla that Dcn 

n. Till, t, aiL 3, ISi Pbil. iiL IB, ete., wbm 

lually iodine toward tbe liatidJ 
Ihim it like ouii. The; hate in 

I, ippaniitly Mtacbed la (be bandlea bjr 
leatiiem tboiigi, but uoie of tlHue bi tbe britiah 
•eum have their Uadea let inla them like our 
ttt- A double-handed imi uw hu been ibuod 
at Nininld: aud doulie nwi itnined with a sord, 
lb H modem arpenten uie, were in me amo^ 
9 lEomaiii. In uiriiiK "'ood tlie E^ptUna 
loed the wood pFTjieuilieuliirlj in > aort ot btaim, 
[] cut it dawtiwanlii. So evidence eiiito of (ba 
! of rhe taw apjiJied (o etoiie in l^pt, nor with- 

sd in tbe Temple. \l K. m.9: (k«. itt: p. 

S; WilklUMn, AiK. fgsp. ii. 114, 119; UrU. 
Mm. ^93^. Riiom, Ko. 90461 Uyard. iVi'ii. nwl 
"'4. p. 195; Jerenie, Cu«im. in I: ntliL ».] 

e aawa » unds "or - in " > wbicb David la aaii 
have placed fab captive 

iipl)- I 

S San. I 

. 31 d 

riniinal between boarda, and tlien bej^inning 
: hold, ia mentioned h; Shan, True. p. 154. 
(See Diet. <^ Atiiiq. "Semu") [lUxiiiCKAPri 
I'UHiHHHGaTS, III. i. (3).] H. W. p. 

SCAPE-GOAT. tAro»E«KjiT, Dxr or.) 

SCABLET. [Cou>Bii.] 

SCEPTHB (133??). The Hebrew term aU- 
btt, like ill Ureek equiialeut cx^mpn, and our 
defivatii« Mcr/jliv, originall; niewit a roii or tlitf 
It waa thenee BpeciRaUr applied to the ihcpbenri 
crook (Ler. ii>ii. 3£; Hie. vli. 14), lod to tba 
wand or leeptre of a ruler. It faai been inferred 
that the latter of thas lecondary aciiMH ia derind 
lhimthef<>riiicr(W'iiKT,i{r.>fiE«." Sceptre "I: but 
tbii appean douhtful Froiu (he eireuuiitanoe thai 
the (ceptn of the t^yptuui kiii^a, whence the idea 
of « tctpUt waa probablj borronted bj the cartj 
Jewa, reeeoibled not a iliepberd'a aook, but t 
phiugh (Ulod. Sic iii. 3). Tbe UH of the a(aa'u 
a ajnibol of autbotit; waa not ooiiliued to kiiiga; 
it RiiKht be lusd by any leader, aa Inatanced is 
.ludg V. 14, wboe for "pen of the writer," aa Im 
Ibe A. v., we abuuld lend ">ceptre of the lender." 
Iiuleed, no inilance of tbe nrrptre hclni.' urtiuDy 
liatidled bj a Jewiafa king occura In (be llilde: Iba 
alluiioni to it an all of a metaphorical chanotar, 
and deacribe II iimplj aa one of (be iniiiriiia of lo- 
preme pow« (lien. ilil. 10; Num. iii». 17; Pa. 
lit. B; la. liv. i; Am. i. 6; Zech. x. 11; Wlad, 
1.14; Bar. ri. U Lor Epiat.i/Jer. 14]). We m 



.-am^mnilly imabk to dncribt tb* utict* ftom 
my BlblloJ Dotioij wt mij inta from tbc turn 
Arbrl, Ui*t It via pnUiLlj niada or avod ; but 
wg are not wunuitcd in quoting Et. xli. 11, iu 
■upport of lliit, II done by Winer, for Ibt term 
nDderad "rocU" iu«j betlCT be rendered "»hool«," 
or '* iproula " u ^ i^Mp-ing. Tb^ icvptn of tha 
PeniMi nioiwchi i> dociibai u "golden," {. t. 
pmbnblvorniiulvBgokl (Kith. It, llj Xen- Cyv/j. 
Tiil. I, § 13]: the [iiclliikUon at It Uiwuiti ■ lub- 
Jeol by tbt monucli wu > tign of bmr, ud kiu- 
ing it an «[ ol hoDuge (KitlJi. ir. It, r. !|. A 
Hrred iior}' WalT diMOtend M Ninrfld ia tup- 
poicd to hmve been > Keptre (Ijiyard, A'tn. ami 
Bai. p. IBB). Tlia aHptra oT Ibe Egyptlui 
queeiii la rapRaeotcd In Wilhlnaon'i Ajk. Ey. 
I. are. The tarm ihibtt h nodend in Ilia A. V. 
"rod" in two paatHgea vbere terptri thouU le 
nbatituled, nanieij, lu 1^ li. S, ahere •■ KeptTB of 
iron " u an eipceauon k* itrong autboritj. and In 
Pi. cii*. 3. W. L. a 

SCETVA (SictHi: Sava). A Jnr ituding 
at KpliBui At Hit lima of hi' Paul'a Kvond visit 
lo that [own (Acta lii. It-lS). Ha ll dtacrilwd 
•i • "biEb-priait" (idx"'^<iii)> "tbar M baviiig 
aurciied Ibe oflica at Teniaalam, or M being cbief 
of (Hie of Uie twenty-four cluae*. Ilia eeven loiii 
Utanipted la exorciae ipiriU bj uiing the name of 
^eaua. and on one occaaioii eeiva iiijury mi In- 
lictad by Uw deiuoniao on two of Ibem (u ImpUol 
in the tenn iudHrr^MiVi tba trua reading in rar. IS 
buteul of OUT.*). W. L. a 

• SCHOOL. Aeta lii. 9. [TritAKKtiB.] 

[Samukl, 3 IP); FBorHET, II.] 

SCIENCE (tin?: yrixia: Kit«6a). In 
tba A. V. thli word oomin only in Uaii. I. 4, and 
1 Tim. tI. 3U. Kbewherv the rendering for the 
ik nordi Mid Uieir cognatea it 
hile tba Vulg. haa at unifonuly 
taimvi. IU UM in |lao. i. 4 ii prubsbly to Ix 
explained bj the number of aynonymoui wcntti In 
tb> nrie. forcing the Innilalan to look out for 
dlvenillBl eqiuvaknta in EiigUth. Wby it ihould 
baie been cliuaeii for 1 Tim. vl. 20 ia not eo ob- 
noua. Ita eRvct ii iijarioui. aa tauling Uie reader 
lo auppoae Ibat St. I'aul ia apeaking of aonietliins 
riae tli»u Uit " knoHlrdge" of wbieh both Iba 
Judaiuiig and the mjillc aPcU of the apoalolic age 
whieh ha eo urgenllj 


WUl meUng by lam in iiaMu*. II kM taa 
burled aiiccaiifij at the hfadi of eitronoDien aad 
geoloipBla, wbeueter men bare been aknueil at 
wliat they bate deemed the antagonlnn of pby^i& 
"eoieuee" to religion. It wouU iv iiitatnting ta 
aacertain irbethar thia sere at all the nHiHu it 
the traoalaton of the A. V. — Hbetber tbey urn 
to look with alarm at tba union of akep. 
I aeienoe, of wbicb the common pronrb, 
mtdiri ■luo nlifi, waa a wltneaa. Ai it 
tat ooitteiit oureelvDt with noting a lew 
la HiUlical liiatory of the Kugliah word. 

itly than niigbt han been eipecled in a im- 
dan baied upon the Vulgate. For tba ■' kiunrbdp 
of iaiiation " of Ibe A. V. In Luke I. TT, w« hn* 

edenoe of taedlh." In Chriat an hid » the 

rea of wiadom and of acienaa " (CoL U. t>. 

Tim. tL 9D, bowenr, WiekllA hai -kvi- 

, ) Tiodal, njeetlDg>'aeitoce"aa a randceiBg 
elaewhen, iDlroduoai it bece : and la fcUowed by 
Ciannier'a and tlie Ucnan lUbln, and by Ibe 

:i would obiionBly be out of pkee to enter imt 
1 Ibe wide queation what wen Ibe imMreit 
t ^tuSorO^UHi yrAitmi of which St. Paul 

••knowledge," i 

■ (I 

■ eo highly 

nitunl iienetiion of tlie Qieaiiiiig of the teil bu 
fcUowed fcuin lliii tranikiUon. Men hare *ien In 
U a wnriiiiiM, not aguinat a apurioua tbeoiophy — 
•T which Sttnleiiborgiiiniim la, pnhapa, the neaieat 
IDodeni on^liigiia — biU agalnat tiut which did 

it lud. we nny ljelie>B lie wouhl hare weleonied — 
the study of the worka of <jod, the remgnili 

■ Tba Mlowtng laoaHoo fiom llodal la dadi 
IB tba nnaa In which be mad tba word, li 
ftat ba ronlMoplatMl no fOrm of Kitncr (In Ihi 


I Wick 



Gnoatieiam of L 


dume. What 

for a DicUonar' 

, Eputlxs to. 

E.H. P. 

SCORPION (3717?, 'ojtfiti rnpwloii 
itrpie). The well-known animal el that name, 
bekinging lo the cUai ArndiHkln ud Iria Put- 
in, which i* twin mmtloned in the O. T. 
bnrtimn in llie N. T. Tb« wildeniiiaior 
ia especially altudtd to M being lubaliited by 
•corpioni at Ibelimeoribe Eiodua(I)eut.TiiL It), 
and to lliii day these anininla an common in Uw 
•nme ditUiel, as well aa In aoms paita i>r I'altatine. 
Khrenberg {Sj/tni. Pl-i/t.) enuniemtei fl>e apeeiea 
aa uoi^iirring near 111. Sinid, eonie of wbioh an 
found ako in the l.eb*nDn. 1-Jekiei (ii- 1) ia loU 
ID be ill no fear of tbe nliclUoui liraelitca. hen 
compared lo ecorvions. Tbe Apcalica were endued 
witli power lo reniat the itinga of eerpenta and 
soorpiona (I.uke i. 1S|. In tba vision of St. John 
(Iter. ix. 3, 10) the kieuita that eaine out of lbs 
inioke of tlw bollomleea pil an said lo have bad 
tails like unlo Korpioiu," while tbe fAi naoit- 

n thia 

A scorpon fur an 
al>ly a proverliial eipr 
mua ibe Gncka hru! 1 
Krii iTKofiwiia/)- Soor 

» (Luk 

i. lS)i 

« taJl ebntcd. The eUng, abkb li 

I obtRttoiu Sfalnit ai 

■t tbs titnniit; of ttw UU, hM It Hi 
bud tbU McraUi & pataaomw fluid, whliib 
iaXo the wound bj two mlnuta or- 
eitniiut;. Id bat -"""'r tb* itlng 
onvi owaaoDi much infeioj^, ftnd lOiiMtinrti 
■hnaing ■jmptonu. 11m Mknna^ *n (be ipe- 
dB of KorpkHM oxaitioiMd bjEhraiibarg: Scwpio 
mao-9cai/rvt, S. p-iUmatut, S. Inoilor, S. trjibicAt- 
St, 3. /ucKu, iD found t Ut. Siui; 5. ni^ro- 
fvvtfiic,^. flHZnunfHLfi^ £. jDJuioAu, Ut. LebiDOn.^ 
BtKdM thnc PtItMtine lod Sinai kindi, in otban 
•n reeoried ■■ occunlng la EgTpL 

IT* " •earpioni " of 1 K. iH. 11, U, 9 Chr. i. 
II, 14. ban darij no iDndoo whitcrer to the 
uIomI, but to aanw irwlininKiit of •coot)[ir)r — 
imlwi, iiHkad, tbs opmiion ia m men fii^n. 
aUu ifKerat. IL 461 tbinb tb* " Korplon " 
MDnrga w» tbt tpiaj Mem of what tlig Ante edi 
BAt f^ jtX:»l. Ibe SaliBmt mdoTigaa, nr. 
MntnftBJi, CfR-plMit, titeanw, leoordinK to Abdul 
Full, this i^t, fnnn Iba nwoihlanee of ita Fvnei 
IoUm itingof a Korpion, wu lonKCimet cmllet, lie 
"norpliin tfaorn;"but in ill prolabtlitj tbii In- 
•Inimait of puniahment wiu iu tbs (bnn of a «bip 
vmcd witb iron poiiiU " Virn* — il nodosa Tel acu- 
Inte, ■corpio mtiainu nomine nwatur, qui arcualn 
tvlnoc In corpua inlucitur." (laidoniB, Oriff. Laf, 
t, 77; and K« Jnhii. Sii. Am. p. 387.) In (lie 
Gnck of 1 llac«. vi. M. KHne bind of nr miidie 
ii toaiOoneS under the name mpifliov; but we 
■ml bi&cinitiaii bolb as to lu fonn uid the les- 
ion of il« name. (See Diet, of AnHjtalUi, urt. 
- Tonnentam.") W. H. 

SCOtTHGIN 0.> TIm ponielinient of Komf- 
Ing «i prevribn) bj the Uw In tfae oie oF a be- 
InUiad bondwonian (niltj of tmcliiutitj, and per- 
hsfs in the eav of both the guilty powni (1^. 
dc »). Women wets lut^et to icourKinK in 
Igjpt, as Uhj itill are bj the Uw of tba Korin, 
fer hnoalineoes (Sale. Kornn, chap. nlr. and 
Asp. h. aote ; laiM, .VaL Egjp. i. 1« ; Wilkin- 

8CBIBk« 2866 

■OD, Jk. fjip, abild^. il. 911). The tnitni- 
mcnt of puniahment in andsnl. Rffjpt, aa it ta aba 
In modern timet genenllj in Uie Kait, waa uauaU) 
U>e Mick, applied U> Uw aola of the feet — Iwtl- 
nado (Wilkiwon, I. e.; CbMdin, vf. Ill: Lane, 
ifodl A'jjp. 1- 140). A more mntn uourge li 
po^blj implied b the Vara " *«irpi(>ns," wblpa 
inned with pointed tallt oT lead, the " boiribil* 
tiageltum " of Hraaea. thoogh it ia moif probablj 
mo^jf 1 Tiiid figure. t^Dda- the Roman method 
the enlprit waa stripped. stRtched with cordi or 
thonga on a ftama {ditaricntia\, and beaten with 
nida. After the Fonian law [h. r. 300), Ramui 
citiaeaB wen enmpted (Tom toourging. but ilafH 
■nd Sirngnen were liable to be beaten, eren to 
de^ (GeacD. T^lei. p. 1062 1 laid. Ong. r. ST, 
■p. Sobelltr, Lix. L-L Satrpio-. Hor. 1 Snl. 0. 
41, iU. IIS; PniT. itt!. 8; Acta ivi. 22. and Gn>< 
tina, ad I, ixji. SI, SS: 1 K. ill. It; Cio. Car. 
llLS8,29i /iroArri.4; I>.x.Sj SalL C'nl. Ml 
[PUSISHHKMTH, III. e. (4.)] H. ff, P 

_ SCRIBES (pnOiD: yp„,t,a!v,U: KrIM. 
I oceiipied by the Scribe* In 
" -' ■■ ■' ' -inowl 

r Lord'a Hork. It na 1^ 
Utar inflaenee that tbs later rorm of .ludsiim had 
been determined. 8acb waa when tlie"Dew 
doctrins " was firit procLiini«t, it had heeome 
through them. Fur more than priesti or Levitei 
thcj repmented the rellEloua life of the people. 

in order to nndsntand the innunx 
contniat ]vacnt«d hj oiir Ijird't i 
On the other, we muit not forget i 
■lad, Ineritablj, point* of nseiiibb 
In Ita / 


<. Hew: 

, jet, in 

I of n 

iHt there wen 
ice. Uppossd 

Rabbia (John i. 

riar. Hib. iL Chi-iitvt Ri'Mnin 

I, JVome. — (1.) Threo meanings are conneated 
with tbs nrb arfjiAir ("IB5) therootof SrptnVa* 
— (1) to wilts. (SI to act In oider. (3) to oonut. 
Tba explanation of tlie word has been referred to 
each of then. Ths Sopliti-im were an called b»- 
ause ihcf wrote out the I*w, or tnnuse thej 
elaetifled and amngnl its preerptj, or because thsj 
onnled with acmpnbtit minutsiitaa evrrj claoas 
and letter It eonfaunol. The Inuii^ona of tb* 
Scribea, glorying in their own aciilerrnitiita.^ wtra 
in &Tor of the lait of thcee etjnwioeiea {Sikrlim, 
B; Canso*) 'ipp- CnL ii. I3i). Tlw second fid 
in bat with lbs uiilitarj riinettoni connected with 
the word in the earlier ataees of ita hiitorj (in/rn). 
The authority of moat Hebrew acholan ia with tba 
lint ((;es(!nlua, i. e.]. The Greek eiiulnleiit an- 
Bwm to the derived nther than the oriiiiiuil nwaii' 
ing of the word. The yfattiiaTtij cf a Gnek 

nslrtet tbs fsnot ftnrpdg t 
Mlab bats aiflit, and ADdmto^aa to Ifaoas wUel 

■ L fc Hni(B,Cil8f: tbs mates, tsSaf: ^ir 
iifT ^W^l-ii ,- alK> la A. T. " whip." 
* BQOf : ftm! -fmdtnUmm; eOij b> Jeab 

ON. U. Bttaar a antet. cr tbs Inf. In FW (Og*. ■. 

c Tbty had aaesrtahied that Ihs eeniral Mtar of tba 
wbele law nt ths ■■■ of ]'lnj In Lei. il. 43, ao< 
wntsH aecordlBCIf bi a buisr ebaracter. {KMdatk 
la Ulthttbol, On li^ I.) Tha; nwiiWd np In Ufa 

tMt m mt th« mm wiildr, but tha kaqNT nd 
nibtnir of ptiliEo doramaiu (Tboa. W. lU, TiL 
10. Hin Acliili. S6). Tli«Schbe>otJcniM)aa 
were, in like nrnnner, tlie mutodiuu uid interptrt- 
Ml of Ihc ■ypi^iit.Ta upon which Uia polily of tha 
nation r«ttd. Olhor word) (pplKd ' - 

M>tt. ] 

[li. 36, lixkt Ti 

IB N. T. Na^.iio( >| 

kH ii tliM iffauiiaTtdi •ppemn I 
c IcriDj tbit in Laka t\. 4G It i> ec 

itcU T, 34. H 

utit: thit roiiaiilt 

th« tMholnl 

phu (/ln(. itU. B. S 3J puspfai 
word bj iiirrHTiH ri,iuf. 

(S.) TJlB nuns of KlRJATH-SwirilR 

ffOfi^idmy, LXX., Jo«h, IT. 16; iadt. 
nsj poMlblr ooniwct iudf with tamt *«rij un of 
ilw title. In tha Song of Debotmh {.ludg. t. 11] 
Uic word Hppnn to poinl to mWUmy fUnctioiu o( 
mat hind. Tlie"pen of the writer" of the A. 
V. (LXX. h fiiaSf ».vri<>*'t twmut'-O !■ 

— It J ._ ,cep,„ ^ II,, jonimaiidtr 

linK Ilia Inwpa.' 1lie title 
rlj hiilorji 

probohlj the rod 


of the 


n a Sui 

tai tlila Inttann ti 

M of Scribe under Dii 
viil. n, 11. atl; 1 K. iT. 
nulUntfluilf], Their funo- 

to Uwtn, >Mo hj tide with tha hi((h-p™t uid th< 
eipUin of tlie hot*, inipllei power and honor. Wt 
maj think of Ihem ■■ the hliiK'a Kerelarin, writinu 
hfa lettcrt, drawing up bit decree*, nianafiind hit 
flnancM (oomp. Uie wori of the Scribe under Jo- 
tii, 9 K. xil. 10). At a klrr period the word 
•gain connect* itaelf with (he act of numl * 
rollilarj forcca of the countrji (Jer. lii 
probably Ii. nxiii, 18). Other awKlnli 
trer, btinn to mthtt ronnd It about tha 
llod. The zeal ut fineliiah led bim to foMer the 
gnwlh of a bodj of men whoae work it waa to 
bUioilw old recorda, or to put In writinj; what 
bad been handed down oraElj' (Pro*, lit. 1). To 
Hill period. Bcmrdlnelf, lielonjta tha tiew ali^iB- 
Moce of tl>e IlUe. It no longer dnipialet onlj an 
•Acer of the kine'a court, but a claaa, atudenta and 
iDlarpreten of lb* Law boaating of their wbdom 

trenlj feai* of the CapUntj gtn 

(Jar. •111. g). 

(8.) The 
ftah fflorj 

■niioui al^re all thinei to preacrte tha Hcred 
booki, the last, the hjmni. the prophedea of the 
paat. To know what wat worth prtaerdnK, to 
tnnaorlba tha older KeKrew documenla accuratelj, 
when the apoken lancna^ of the people waa paaa- 
*"- '-'- ' ■- -o explain what wa* hard and 

hif Into Aramde, It 

nncmwnl, tbonOi ea<i>>clan) 
B. 1 T7|. Hn"flcrit»a,"».aij 

Baahedrim. The " Hoaton of tl 


Jan, no. Hrtir, t. 


T(ft«. aw. L U8 [18l,».ABa.]), 
ai 141111 that to BBtlf, "ajtld)a." 


obKur* — (hia WM what the DanatitL a (tf tb* dn 

damandad. Tba nian who mat tliam l«Mraa ma 
pbalicallj Eira the Sorib*. tba prlMtlj hnetlDm 
«ling Into tba baokftmind, aa the wiaatlj onla 
llaelf did before the Seribwaaiekaa. Tha wwde 
of Ea. vii. 10 daaeriba iba high id«] of tU naw 
office. Tha Scribe ii » to taeh (arij) tha law of 
the [.ord and to do it, and to toieb in larael At- 
ulea and jodRnienla." Tbia, br nwta than Ua 
pridtbood, waa tha true rIotj of Koa. In the 
tjta ereti of the Peraian king he waa ■' a Scribe of 
the Uw of Ibe God of Hearen" (Til. IJ). Ha 
waa aaalated In hia worii bj other*, cbidfjr LcTitea. 
Publlclj Ihej read and eiponnded the Law, per- 
hapa alto tnnihited It IVmb the ilreadj obM>l(K*nt 
Hebrew Into the Aramalo of ib* paopl** (Mob. 

(4.) Of the time that foDowad we bava bat 
•eantj raoorda. The Scrihea' offl« appatantlj be- 
came mm* and more prominent. Trace* an foond 
in the bter canonical booka of tbeir work and in- 
Ruoioa. Alrtadj thej are tecoftnited ai " maalen 
of aMembLca," acting under "one ahephwd," hal- 
ing, that ia, aoroething of a oorporate H* (Eod. nl. 
II t Joet, JadinlA. I. 49). Ai audi Ifaaj aet thdr 
ftcea itoidilj to maintain the authoritj of the Law 
and tha Propbtti, to exclude rVom all ennafltj with 
them the "manj booka" of which "there ia no 
end " (FmI. IJL 11). Tbej appoir aa a diatlnol 
elaah "the ftmiliea of tlie Soriho," with a loa*l 
habitation (1 Chr. IL »). Thej oomplle, aa in the 
two booka of Chronielaa, txnt-pln and apllaniea 
of larger hiatorin (1 Cbr. iili. aS; 9 Cbr. ii. 99). 
Tba Dccunnice of the word nUrmh ("tli* atcay 
— maiKin, 'the commentarj ■ ~ of tha rrophat 
Iddo"), anmtaida *o menioiable, in » Cbr. dJL 
that tha work el eommenthu and ca- 

ll, nenh/m. 

d begum 

; «/Doclnn,.--Cl.) ItUet 

iTB no teooid of their name*. A hier ag* 

honored thani coUectiTel}' na tha mm of th* Gteal 
SjTiaeogiie. the tme aDccttaora of the Propbeti- 
{Pirlii AbM. I. I), but the men tliemaelTca bj 
atrenoT the Scrlpturea of the O. T. ware 
n in their prrMnl chaiaeteta,' eomjriled in 
pnwnt form, limited to Ihdr praent nom- 
Jmain unknown to oa. Never, perhape, waa 
*o important a work done ao ailentty. It baa bcei 
well arened (.loat, Jurlmtttim, I. ii) that it wat at 
of aet putpoaa. The one aim c* thoae eartj Scribea 

ir the L 


the ([roundmjrit of the pei^la'a life. Ibej would 
write nothing of their own. Im Itm worthj wonia 
•houM be raited to a larel with thoae of Uie oraclM 
of God. If Inteipfetation were needed, tbeir touh- 
ing ahouU be oral uiljr. No preeepta abonld h* 
peepatoatad i* ratting on thdr aatbotitj.' In th* 

ooad. (Oivip, La^rar, L p.) 

d Joat IJudnuh. 1. 69) dnrn attaatlaa to tba alnf» 
ir, iIiDMt nalqa* oantilDallona ef thIt pailod. 11h 
ilili laaobata kapl to the oU Utbttw, but Mt* 
lamale abanoloa, Tba RamarKant *Tokt Anmala 
Dl ntatotd tba olilar Habnw nlilna. 
• Th* pilai]])i)a ofaa UDWritian taMMiii wmtt^ 
lalMd amoBf iha Babbba nf Pnlaadna ap M Ma te 
fVoatlDB of Iba TaDpla (Joat, L PI, KI). 



Mria of ktir Jodaiim, Ukj deTotnl llmwiTn to 
Of Uitra (>. (. racitatioi^ nding. m in Htb. jSi. 
1), th* euefol itudy of tba lait, uid kid down 
r^H Kir tmneribii^ it iritli tbe moH umpnlau* 
imaHDn (coop, llw tnet BcpAtrim in tba Jcni 
bIbb Gvfimrm). 

(S.) A njiag b uoilnd to SIokiD tin Jut 
|B. c 100-390), tbe lut of Um ■ueceauoD at I' 
u*i of tltt Gnat Sjnigogua, which unlmliH I 
[nncqile oo wbicli tliej hid acted, and enabka 
to Inee tba next ttkift of tbe growth of their ■ 
Lem. " Our Eithan bare taugbt lu," be n 
■ thm thin;^ (a be caatunt in judging, to tn 
Baoj ■ebolin, and to set a fence about tbe Lav 
IPirte AboUi, L I ) Jat, i. SS)- Tbej wiihwl 
■uJu tba Law oT Uom tha rule of llfc for the 
riiole nitioa and for individuil men. 
in tbe Baton of twrj kmIi law, of v.-aj iolunnal, 
lialf-ijiteniatic code, that it raieea queeljoua wb' ' 
It dora not lOlTe. CiroiuuaUncei cbanga, while 
Law lani^Ba tba Mnie. The infinite varktj iJ lile 
ptcHnU caaei which it hai not conletupiaM. A 
SoDian or Gn^ jnriit would have dealt with tbeat 
an gmtnl pcindplc* of eqult; or polilj. Tbe 
J««i*h Icaeber could rteogniia do principle* bejond 
tba fneepti of the Law. To him Ibey all itood 
an [be aame footing, were all equill)' dii 
pnatible caaat mmt he bnnght wiUiiQ th 
decided b; tbeir aulboiltj. 

(3.) The mult (bowed that. In thii u in other 
tnatanoea, tbe idolatr; of the letter wu deMructlv* 
af the \TTj remw.ce in which it bad origlniUed. 
Step bj (tep the Scribal were led to condiudoni at 
which we may betirve (he eaHier reprtuntativca of 
tha ofda- woold have itartol back with horror. 

a Bompla ij-stam of caraiitrr. Tiat new prsceptj, 
aliU trmnnDittod uroU^, moie praciadj Bttinj; ' 
tbe drcunutance* of mm'i liret than the old, 
practieillT to lake [heir place, na » Wocda of 
tba Saihet " (D^I.^TD ""^a?, now ned 
oieal ph n aa Ibr tbeae decisionfl) wm bonorvd above 
the Law (IJgbtlbol, llirnt. i. § TT; Joet, Jade 
I >3^ It via a grmUr erinie to ol%nd agahut 
UwtD tlian a^init tbe Law. Iliej were u win" 
while the prFoepta of tbe Iaw wvra aa wiler. Tl 
Bnt aCcp waa taken toward! annulling tlia eov 
atodniBila of Uod for the lalie of their own tr 
ttiona. 1'ba OMahttj hecsme at once mltle ai 
pnrient,' ending tbe plainart duUea. laraperii 

right relation of moral and eermionial Uwi 
DDt ooij fargMtai, but abaolutd; ini'ertad. Thti 
wia tka rcauit of tbe pmlbuiHl reverence Ibr the 
leUo- which gave no beed to tbe " word abtdini in 
then" (JobiiT. 38). 

(4.) Tha bbtorj of tba tUl detefopment of Iben 
|i9dcodea bdnnga to a hialor; of tba Talmod.* 
Uare H win be eooogh to ootiise in what waj the 

> It wnU be tndUea to aownalate pn 
Hi. thcaa who oaia fbt tba maj And tfa 
•nlaaf. Sftrnftga Jmdnira ; HCML OU PbAs, B«- 

a richt or a wrong ei 

<i ■Vh, tbat II waa tb> wmll ar tba leaelHrlolb 
■tl thai prlDdpta Into raha, (GoDpar* 

making to that TtaulU Tb^ lint work wm la 

report the deciiioni of prvrioua Kahbia. Theai 

t the naUidiBlk (that which gets, tlw cHrreiri 

!epU of the icboola) — preo^ita binding on th 

■ciencs. Ai tbe; aeeumulatcd tbey had to be 

ijHlad aad daeeified. A IMW code, a woond 

Capiu Jmii, tbe Miehna (Sivrrp^iii), grew ddI 

become m ita tum tbe lubjeel of Irnh 

id eommenlariea. Hera ultimaUlj tba 

e eoninieotaton took a wider rai^. 

The anecdota of the icboola or courti of law, tb- 

abitti- dieltx of Hahbie, the wildeat lablea of Jewirii 

aupentitioa (Tit. i. H), were brought In, with a 

without anj reiatioo to tbe context, and tbe Ca 

mara (completeneaa) flUed up the nnauTe of tb> 

liialltutei of Kahbiiiic Law. The Miibna and tta 

iDitether were known aa tbe Talmud (Id. 

ofetvj learned Jew (Jori, JtdtnUi. il. 303-3X3). 
(ao Side b; itde with Uiii m a derekpoienl ; 
anolber direction. Tbe Mcrtd booki wan not 
studied aa a code (^ lavi ml;. To acni-cA into 
their nmulng had from the tint twtonged to tba 
Ueal office of tha Scribe. He who io aearcbed waa . 
nun, in the langoags of tha Scribes tbenieelnat 
rererhiating life (John t. 39; Pirk< JhxA, ii. 8} '. 
lut hen alio tba book tnggailed thooghla which 
eould not logiadly be itdatrd from it. Man cams 
to it with new belkli. new in form if Dot In enemK ' 
id, not flnduig anj ground fur them in ■ literal 
iterpretation, were conipeUed to ban rreourae to 
1 interpretation which waa the rei-oae of lileraL' 
Tbe fhiit of tbii eflbrt to And what wai not then 
the Mid'Vtthifi (aenrchinga, tnTeatig^- 
the ae'-eral hooka of tba 0. T. IV •■ 
procean l-j which tbe iDeaiilr]g, moral or mjitical^ 
wu elicited, waa known aa /Ingtida (lajing, opia- 
ion ). There waa obriouilj no laaignatfc limit to 
luch a proceai. It hecanie a proterb that no ooa 
ought to spend a daj in the Betb-bam-tlidnub 
[lithe houaaof the intarpnter ") without lighting 
on aoniething new. But tbrre ]xj a itags higbea 
txto than tbe EiaEHia. The mjatical ichool of in- 
Ivpretation culminated in the Knblinln (nceptlon, 
the receix-ed doctrine). Every lettor, twy nmn- 
ber, Iwcame pregnant with mjiteriea. With the 
itrangeit poeftible diitortkm of iti original mean- 
Ing, tha Ureek word which had been the Trpra- 
aeiitatii« of tbe mott nact of all icieiicea wu 
cboaen for tha wildett of all interpretationi. Tha 
(ieniHtria (= ytmiiiTplm) (bowed to what deptlv 
tbe wrong path (ouM lead men. Tbe mind of tha 
interpreter, obrtinatdi (hutting out the light of 

of lantaitk fjdola (comp. Carpior, A/p. Cril. I 
T; Scboettgen, Hit. Hti. de Mtm. 1. 4; Zuta, 
aoHfKlitnilL ydflrige, pp. 43-61; Joet, Judmdt. 
ill. 95-81; [filnshurg. The ffnWaM.- lU Doe. 
/riaej. Dtrrb'pment, and LUtrature^ \jn\i. IM^: 
alio hii arta. KiMnUt and MbinUli in Kilto'a 
Cybp. of SUL Lit, 3d ad.]). 

2868 B0BIBE8 

tn. /TMoTji — (1.) The nuuM ef tli* vtthr 
SeriliM pwKd unj, ■• bu bnn laid, unnnaried. 
Simon Ui« Jmt (dr. B. c, SOft-990) tppetn u 
(be hit of tlia men of tba Gmt Sjnugoipw, llw 
banner of a iHw period, lie mnnnrmble nmnie* 
3l tba Cinws UuU rolkiirn) ^ Aiiligonui uf Socbo, 
Z«lok, BoetbM — conneet UwniHtTa wJIb lbs rite 
gf the flnt opfmitioa lo Ibf tnditloiwl ■jftem 
wbkh WM growlnit up [S*i>i>ucee».] Tb«l*n«t 
of the S»ddueee», bowiwr, nevrr comnwiMiBd the 
adbtaion of men Ihn ■ iiniiB mhiaritj'. It tended, 
bj muntainlng the nffldaicj of the kller of (he 
I^w, (o datro]' the Terr oeeu]ieti«i of e Scrilie,' 
Mid the elaa, *t Hich, belonj^ to (be part; of il 
opponent!. The word) " Scribee " wid " Hhetieeee ' 
•en bound together bj the cloeet poalble elliuic 
(Malt. Eliil. pnuim ; Ijike r. 30), [PHAMlaEM.! 
Within tbit pertj there were ihodet wi ' 
dltluon*, end to andetitand their reklion 
other In our'i Utse. or tbdr ootineetli 
hi* lift aiid tCBcbiiig, we muet look bub to wb»t ia 
blown or the fiie pein (HXTC} of leedien who 
rapraentfd the ecrlliel aueeei^on. Whj two, end 

onlT, . 

« onlj 

<n>jccture, but the Rubblr 

■Inp the NmI or I>nddent of the Sanhedriin u 

e conneU, the other the Ab-beth-din (Kether of 

tlie Houae sf Judgment), prtelHinK In t) 

tonrt, or In the Swihedrim when ft tat 

not imprabeUe (.loat, Jwlmlh. I. ISO}. 

(S.) The tvo nuiiee thai ituid flnt ii 
Jnm hen.jDeceT. * prieet, end Joan ben-Joehenen 
(dr. B. c. lKK-130). The precepta eacHbed 
them tndicile ( tendenif to a grnler riehoratton 

of all rulea eonnened with - ' ' ' " 

Their dtaire to irparrUt t} 
elpin from all occadona o 
hmlahed the atarlini-polnt Ibr the name of I'ha 
tee. 'fhe hnre atruKRle with the Syrian lc)n 
hail tnnied ehieftj on quallona of Uiia nature, a 
It waa the wlih of the two (enchera to prepaie t 
people for anj future conflict b; founding a fl 
leniitj (the O/nbrrim, or aiaociateal bouml to t 
adicleet obteTvanea of tbe Lrw. F.oerr mem) 
of the order on hla admiaion pledfted bimarlr 
thl* in the preeenoe of thne Cl"'litnm. Iliej 
looked on eacb other a* brothere. The rat of tbe 
nation tbej' looked on n " the people of the 
earth." The apiric of Sorihedom waa growinR, 
The preeept aa*«iBted wHh the neme of Joar* hen- 
J<Her. " l,et thy houae be the .laaendily-phee for 
the iriae; duat thjvir with the duH of their fert; 
drink eufcerly of llieir worda," pdnted to a fuTiher 
mwth {Pirte Ahr-4, I. 1; .loat, i. M3). It wa" 
hardly cheeked by the taunt of the Saddueeea (ha 
'■theae Pharieea wontd porifj the aiin Itseir 
(Joat, 1.317). 

(3.) ,Iaehiia ben-Pieachiah and Kithal of Ar- 
bdt were eoiitemponrj with John HTreinni (eir. 
r.. >i. IJfi'lOS), and enjO]«d hit hmt till towardi 
tbe ekiae of hia relen, when o^irica or Inlemt led 
hlni tu pea orer lo the camp of tbe Sadducen. 
The aajinE aacribed to Joahua, " Take to Ihjeeir ■ 
lEMhv {Rab), Ret to tbjself an avodate ( CAnier). 
iaifia ererj man on hia better aide " {Pitkt 
Abea, 1. 1), while iti hat daoae attnieta o* by III 

emdor, ihowi bow eaailj eren a 

mlBbt eorae to leeogniie no bonda oT fellowalilf 

outiuda the Umlta of fall aect or order (Joat, I 


•eeeedon of Hyrauma tpToIred Ux 
Phariteea, and Ibertfore the Seribea aa a elaai, •■ 
diffionUee, and ■ period of confbalon feDowed. 
The meetinca of the Sanbedtim weie auapended ot 
beeame predaminanlly Saddncew. Under hia aoe- 
oaeor, Aleiander Jannal, the influence of Simon 
ben.SbetBeh orer the queeii-motber Salome re£» 
li^iabed for ■ time the aacenilenej ef tbe Scribes. 
Tbe Sanhedrim once aicein iMembled, witii nooa 

ipoee tbe dominant I'hariiaie partj. Ilie da; 

leeUnfc waa obaened aflerwarda aa a feetiid 
loa aolemn than tlioae of Porim and tb* 

:eatlon. The return of Aleiander ftvn fali 

lalKn againit Gaza apiin turned tbe tables. 

Eif[1>t bandred HbnriaeeB took reflige in a fortrev, 

were beeii^ed, taken, and put to death. Joahoa 

ben-Perarblah, tbe ireneTiilile bead of tbe ordv, 

I driren Into etile. Simon ben-Shetach, hit 

I. The Saddueeea failed, bowerer. to win the 
ifidenoe of the people. Haring no body of oral 
ttaditiona lo fall lack on, thej iMgan to eo^Hiplle a 
ode. The; were tceiiaed bj their opponent* of 
riihinjt to Kt up new lawa on a terd with thtai 
if Mnea, and bad to ai>andan the attempt. On 
he death of .lannal the influence of hla widow 
tieiandn wai alloeelher on tbe nde of tbe Seribea, 
md .Simon ben-.Shetach and Judab ben-Tabbal 
intend on their work aa Joint teaebera. Under 
ibeni tbe jorlitie aide of the Serilie'a funcUoni 
beeame prominent. Their ruka turn ehieA; on 
U>e Itwa of erldenee (Piribe AbM, i, I). In twn 
inatancee thej ahowed what lacrilSoei 
the; wen prepand to make In aupport of thoae 

ineaaea lo destb, Hia lent aealnat the EtdH 

I to necleet the nde which onl; pmnitled 

that penally when it wouh} hare been tbe eonw. 

of the orii^nal aceiiaatlon. Hia coHeagot 

. abrliik from retinkin; him, "Una haal 

Fioeent blood." Kn>m that da; Judab iw- 

aolred nerer lo giro judgment without connilting 

erer; daj tiire* himaeif on tbe gnn 

of tbe man he bad eondemned, Imploring pardoti. 

Simon, in hit turn, ahowed a liiie aenee of lb* 

anpreme anlboril]' of the Law. Hia own aoo waa 

brooK'it before him aa an oHender, and be *m- 

tenced him lo death. On tlte waj lo eiecntioo 

the witneaaea eonfeaeed that the; had apokCB 

lidBelj ; but the BOn, non aiiiioiB UiM tbe; tiMwM 

aiilAr than that he bimtelT ahonkl caeape, turned 

round and eiitresled hla father not to riop the 

CDmpletlon oT tbe tenlence. The character of aueh 

a man could not fall to impreti itaeif upon hia 

followera. To ita Inflaenn nui; probabl; be tneed 

tbe lndomItBl>la oounge in defenae of tha Temple, 

which won tbe admiration ens of Ibe Roman 

generala (Joat, 1. a31-!4T). 

(B.) The two tbit foDowed, ShemiUBh and Ab- 
talion (the name* atao appear under the form ol 
Sameea, Joaeph. AnU dr. 9, } 4, and PoUio, Jo- 
aeph. All. lir. I, f I), woe conepivuoua for •>- 
Diha reaaon. Ifow, for tbe fini lima, tbe teadk- 

« iwi mo or a> 


K bit bciicdiclWD into t 
■wiin, nid, witli m m)ied cmttbiwi*, " tlaj lie 
mwirf tin ofioi Wilkin pHOo!" Tbtuuirwnr 
tbe two Mchcn ninanl ttwfnUng ofiaini with 
whiefa Um one otder wu btginatuji to look upon 
tb* atbtr: " Ym, Uw nu of Iba iUb ibaU iudcfd 
nik in pww, for Umj do tb« watt af peace. Not 
•a UiB BO cf Aum vbo felknn uM in ike fbot- 
tfcps of liii Uha." Hwe ilao *• luii« loino itg- 
nifieKi ^jin^ Tha j^Torin^f lore ot liUa of 
honor WM cliacked bj Sbeuuiib bj tba couoail 
lint " nMO iboukl lai« tba woik, but bala Uk 
B>M)i*hip." Tw UadOK} to new opinioDi (tbc 
bvUa, jmfaalilj, ot Um fktcr apociUoa of the lla. 
ffodn) mt nbflktd bf AbUlioD in ■ precept which 
■iwnpa ■ pu>blc: ■■ Take good Iteed to thj worde, 
lot, if tIlOB wuidcr, tbou light npm » pluct when 
(be wdU an polHOfd, ind tb/ KhoUn who coin* 
aftir tb« dnnk deep IhRvaf and dig" iPCke 

M,l 1 

Tbe k 

upon trU daj*. The/ had oaun 
ebaek the riiiiig pimcr of Herod 
■sea of tbe t^ubedrini (JoKph. 
WbiD be abowsl bimadf to T ' 
Iba wiadont to Hilimit, and wen luSived tn am- 
liiiae their worii in peaon. Iti glac/ wu, boweiw, 
tn gnat meaaiuc, KCnc lie docn of tlwir Kbool 
wen DO kmner IhiowD opoi to all amiien n lliaC 
enwd* niigbt lisUn to tlK leaeber. A died (ee^ { 
had to be pud en iiilniKe. TV mnilatiou vai 
fnbablj ifitaided to diacounf^ the atteikdance of 
tbe jwntg Tues of Jenualemit tbe Soihq' plue^; , 
and appwcntl; it had that efftct (Joit, i. a4g-9.n3}. 
On the ikath of Sheiiulih and AbtaJioo tlxn were 

eooi of Helben, otlianiiM uolmaini. liir * tine oc- 
copied It, but tlwj wen Ibrmadm wiuciuiu of 
their incoeapetcDce. A qaeatun waa Leuiifht Lie- 
fon Ibem wUcb oeitba- Ibej oar asf of tl^ otbir 
Serilxa emild UHwar. At iaat tbej aikad. in their 
pspkutj, " Wm then dom preant who had lieen 
a die^iir of tha hn who bad bMO » bonond?" 
Tbe fontkn wm nanTgd bj HiM tbe hab/lo- 

nha, known aUo, tben or afterwaida, ai the na 
of Darld. He wtnd tbe diffleultj, appralnl In 
the/ demanded autbofHj 
ided bj aajing, '* So luva 
' oiaalen Shemaiah and AblB- 
decitlrc. TlM toni of Bethel* 
wiibdrcw. HiMwaiLiril^b/aecbmation toan- 
Icr oil hia higb office. Hit •Oeiei daeoent fnin th« 
boBM at David nuy hare addad to hi* popularitf. 
(B.) TTieiuMof HilW (bom eire. s. C. 113 'J 
baa bardlj receix-ed tbe notice due to it from (to- 
denti of tbe Goipel biatorr.' Tbe nolJeat and 
moat geoiai repreaentatiTe of hia order, we ma/ Mft 
ID him tbe bat fruit wliieh the a/iteiD of tb* 
Scriica waa eapaljle of produeii^.'' It it inatriw- 
live to mark al onoa bow &r be prepared tbe nj 
Tor the bibber teacbliig wbieb waa to fuUow, ho« 
hi be iiKTilaU/ fell abort ot it. -Tbe atHting- 
point of hia cans- ia told in a (ale which, (boni^ 
deitcmed b/ KahUnic eiagg aatioM, it yet fknb 
aod geiiial enough. Tbe yonuit atiaknt had com 
froni (jotab in l^h/lonia to ttudy under SbeiDaiaK 
and Abtalion. He wu poor and had no tponeji. 
The new rale raquirlng pa/ment wu in (broe. Kor 
the nwat part he worked for hia livdiboud, k<pl 

Uk Tm to tbe colk^e-poiter. On one da/, bow- 
ma, he had hiilad to And eniptojinent. The doo)- 
beeper reftutd hini autranae; but hi* leal to 
knowleilge wu not to be baffled, lie MalioDed 
hiniedr outaide, nuder a window, to calf h what hi 
eould of tbe wordi of tbe Scrihea witbin. It wu 
wintrr, and the mow btgvi to dU, but he !•- 
maiiitd there tbU. It Ml ti'il it U/ u|»n him rii 
cufaiti bii;h [ ! ) and the window wu dxtkened and 
hkcked up. At laat the two leached noticed il, 
aentout to aea whateaoaed it. and when Uie/ftxiuj 
oal, received the eacer acholar wilhuul pajioeot. 
"tor lucb ■ niao." KJd Itbeniaiab, "one nilgbl 
even Irnak tbe SiMnth " (Ueiger. at •u/i.ii ; JaU, 
1. SM). In tlie earlier da/a of h» aclirit/ ililM 
had a* bia cutlcanue Mcnabcni. prohibi/ tbe aani* 
la the I'laaeiie ilauaaii of Jotepbu* {Ani. iv. 10^ 
{ t). Ho, bowerer, «u tempted b/ Uw growii^ 
powv of Herod, and, with a large number («igh^ 
in tbe Uabbialc Indition) of bia bllowen, enteral 
the king'i lervioe and absndoiKd at once their caB- 
ing aa 3cribe( and their hahil* of deiotion. Tbej 
appeared publiel/ in the gurg«)ua apparel, glltuv- 
iiig with gold, which w— iiiouiiiialait with bt,'.b' 

■ tk* 

JllbePaUloof Jr 
>. i. at*, died b/ Swald) b* li 
a flourUhlnf (hdi abom 

tUa arllslal, eo* b«t aaa. In addlttoo to tb* w«k* al- 
caedj niirrel to In lb* bod/ aflbaaMklhaTjuMBiea- 
UDDad, Bwald'a JoM. d. BiU. inurHK**/>. '■ W^« 
(lulMtanUaJJ/ raprodaeed la hia (HtrJiieku^ u Bbenmt. 
and Ibm Inlanaliiic litU* pamphlel of DalltBcta, Awt 
laJ HiUrl, inil RiUitiUtl an/ K«*> KOrf Oflrtr ttr- 
eUiMi*. * Asfl., Krtancan. 1807. A. 

r ThaiihauannnattaabrOlicTiaUeoUDl. IVt 

leud lb* ipeeeb c^ u 


(jort, 1. aes). Tb« ^H» 

■Uad b; Sbamm^. Tb« t 

lbs* TKuit m •> 

Hiul booDr. Ont, in Jewiih lEnEin^ «M tbo 
K*^ tb« other th* AbJxUi-dln of tb* Sanhedrim. 
Thej did not tneb, homnr. m their pr«dM«Mora 
bid done, (n entira himionj irith web otber. 
WItbin (be putj of the Pbrnruen, within tbe or- 
dar sf the Scrihea, than came hr the tint time to 
b« tio KboDla wltb dittlnctlj oppoaed tendenclei, 
coe nbflinntlj, rigtdlj oHhodoi, the other ortbo- 
doi Uto, but with ui orthodoi; which, In the kn- 
guage of rnodetn [ulitlca, might be dmaed « Llb- 
Bkl Conatmlire. The point* ou which tiie; dif- 
tced were ilmoet innumenUe (ramp. Geiger, ul 
■prn). In nuKt at tbfDi, quealioiis u to tbe 
•uuta and degma ol nDclfluiDeaa. u to tlte liw of 
craitnctt or of wUb, we eu Siid iittk or no biter- 
ert. Oil tbt fbrnwr clue of niljecte the Kbocd oT 
B hMTTn a i repneenled thaeitremBt detelopment of 
tbe Piiuinic epirit. Ereiytbing Ibil could poui- 
Ujr bare been touched b; a beathni or an undau 
■bnellle, became iteelf nncleaii. "Defilement" 
'«aa aa a contagioui diMris which It wai bardlj 
lioalbk to avoid even witb the eareTul acrupukaltT 
dtacribed in Muk lil. 1-4. The; wen, in like 
manner, rigidly labbatariaii. It waa unlawful (o 
do anytfaiuc iieToce the Sabbath which wouhl, Id any 
tenae, be in opeiation during it, e. if, to put cloth 
bta a dje-Tat, or net* into tbe sea. It ma uu- 
■bwtul on the SabUUi itself to glia money to tbe 
'poor, or to leach children, or Id liiil the liek. 
■Tbey maintained the mairiage bw in iU atriitneai, 
and beU that nothing but the uJuitrrj of the wlh 
eoiiM Juiti^ npudiotkn [Joit, i. SST-SOS). We 
uuit not think of tbem, bo«ev«r, aa rigid and 
■auatare in their Urea, Tbe leligiou world of Ju- 
daiim preieiited llie Inconiiatenciea wbicb II ha* 
often preaentcd alnce. Ilie "atraileat wet" waa 
alao tbe moat aecular. Sbammu bimaelf waa aaid 
to be rich, luinrioua, aelf-induigeiit. tliUel re- 
Oiained to tbe day of hie death aa poor aa in hie 
youtb (Geiger, L c). 

(7.) The teiching of Hillel ahowed aome capac- 
ity for wider Ibougbta, Hia peraotia] character wat 
uort hirable and attractive. Wliilc on the one 
ride be taught aa from a mind well atored with the 
IraditiDiii <k tbe eklen, b« wai, 

tliii^ bat a ilavlab roUowvr at t 

*a tbe lirat to hiy down prinei)ika foe aa 
.ble cuiiatructioa of tbe Law with a dialactat 
predaion which aeema almoat to imply a Greek cat- 
ton (Joat, L UT). When the letter of a law, a* 
). g. that of tbe J ear of releaae, waa no longei 
iuited to the tinm, and waa working, ao br aa it 
waa kept at alt, only for eril, be auggealed an iu- 
lerpretition which met the diffleuHTor pncticaUj 

manner an adaptation to the temper of tbe age. h 
■nu hiwrul Ibr a man to put away hit wife f^ anj 
SUM of dlafsror. ercn for ao alight an offbm a* 
Lbat of ipolliug bii dinner by ber bad eookini* 
[Geiger, £ c. ). Tbe genbd chancta- of the nua 
conin out in aome of bia aajlngi. wbicb remind ua 
of tbe tone of Jraua the eon of Sinch, and praaal 
not tiiiiit appioilDialion* to a higher leaching: 
Truit not tbjielf to tbe day of thy dMb." 
Judge not thy neighbor till tbou art in hia placa." 
Leave nothing dark and obacura. aaying to tby- 
•JS, I will eipiiiin it when 1 bare time ; Ibr binr 
nowat thou whether the time will eome?" 
(comp. Jamea iv. 13-]b|. " He who galna a good 
name gain a It for himielf, bnt be who gun* a knowl- 
edge oTtlie Law ttaiui oerlaalutg life" (comp. Jobs 
T. 3D; Pirkt Aioli, li. 6-8]. In one niemonbk 
rete we find tbe Deareat approach that bad aa yit 
been made to the great eommandmail of the Gcw- 
pel: "Donolhint; to thy neighbor that tbou would- 
e*( not that he ihould do to thee." » 

) The oonlraat ahowed llaelf In the csndiHt 
! followera not leu than in the tiacben. Tba 
diaciplea of Sbammai were conipicuoua Itor tbtit 
Berceiieaa, appealed to populai paatlona, uaed (be 
■word lo decide Ibeir controfenica. Out of (bat 
•cbool (>rew the party of the Znlola. Bene, fana^ 
al, vindictif e, the Orangemen of Pbanaaiem {Joat, 
W1-WV). Those of Uilld weie, like Ibeir ma*. 
X (comp. f. g. the adttce of GamiJiel, Acta t. S4- 
it), eautioua, gentle, lolennt, unwilling to maka 

ve achool realited, the othrr waa diapoeed to Ha- 
ter tbe atudy of Gnek literature. One aought Is 
impoee upon the prueelyte lma\ hntheniam the fuU 
burden of tbe Ijiw, the other that be abould ba 
d with aome ajmipnthj and iudulgtnsa. 

Olbo. Hiu. Bmlarum Mimitonim, In Ufnllul, TVr. 
ail J. The bet tlial the alam. tharp wonla oT a di- 

■ II la &lr lo add that a fraal Babblnki acholar 

linlalna that Ihia "apolllnt (ha dinner" waa 

lU.knowo agmatln pbiaia for condutt whici 

ou(tat abama or dlaendll on the huaband {Joat, 


> The btalarr eonntctad wllh Ibli aayli« ta In 

larmlotly char 


In In (baljiw 

g — " Do Ihia. aid tbou bait fUlSllad tha l^w 
tie Piopheta " {UFl^n, w ikfra). [Uomp. ToUl, 
5, I «.ff."«Mi|*n'">-«'i"TH, an