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DUBLIN 
UNIVEKSITT MAGAZINE, 



yiterarg wnti '^alximl ^ammh 



VOL. LVII. 



JANUARY TO JUNE, 1881. 



DUBLIN: 

WHiUAM ROBERTSON, 23, UPPER SACEVILLE-STREET. 
HURST & BLACKETT, LONDON. 

MDOCOLXI. 



pvBUii: nmnD mt albx. rao« li ftom, 67 It 88^ abmi 



DUBLIN 
UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE. 



No. OOOXXXVII. JANUARY, 1861. Vol LVII. 



▲ GREAT GOUNTBT'S CHSAJPB8T DSF£27CE. 

From first to last the Volunteer tion. In spite of timid friends, and 
moYement in these realms has been ill-wishers, open or disguised, under 
one long surprising success. Starting all kinds of hindrances, active and 
under a cloud of ridicule, distortion, passive, in a time of outward peace, 
and half-hearted praise, that would of seeming devotion to selfish in- 
surely have froeen the life out of any terests, and of outward acquiescence 
scheme a whit less sound in itself— a in the cant of Mammonite philanthro- 
whit less proof against outward draw- pists, the British Volunteers have 
backs— it has managed, in little more soeedily proved by the most unanswer- 
than a twelvemonth, to outdo the able logic, how much of the old uncon- 
hopes of its stanchest friends, and querable courage that fired the coun- 
to odie the warnings, if not entirely tiymen of Pitt and Queen Elizabeth 
to hush the growls of its most bigoted still bums in the hearts of a genera- 
opponents, in little more than a tionbred to dreams of universalpeace, 
twelvemonth after the first calls for and taught to measure human phi- 
a large muster of volunteers, a stand- losophies by their infiuence on the 
ing army of a hundred and nfty thou- price of cotton, or the dealings on 
sand lo^ Britons, mostlv well drilled. Change. With the needful help of 
equipped, and organizecL has nJliea the dnll-sergeant, and a timely order 
round its Queen in defiant answer or two from the Horse Quardis, they 
alike to the taunts of un-English de- have already given cheering promise 
magogues at home, and the lip-deep of their future fitness to tackle at 
assurances of fund-jobbing conspira- least their own number of r^j:ular 
tors abroad. Unlike an army of fo- troops taken at hazard from the nnest 
reign hirelings, caring oi^y to fight and army in the world, 
plunder, or an army of ignorant. In the spirit with which this move- 
needy, or reckless recruits, ,mred by ment has been carried on we may dia- 
the daily shilling or a taste for ad- cover no lack of hopeful auguries for 
venture, from the backslums of Bir- the future. It is no ephemeral out- 
mingham and the wilds of Connemara, burst of blind anger, or insular mis- 
this noble force, raised for defence trust ; but rather the natural issue of 
alon^ and held together by no bonds that sturdy patriotism which shallow 
of ordinary soldiership or professional or suspicious statesmen have always 
exdttsivenessyhasgathereathesources been much too ready to ignore or 
of its main strength and future de- keep in check. Late experience seems 
velopment from amidst the wealth, to prove that the experiment which 
the learning, the landed greatness, has hitherto been making to such 
the toiling eneigies, the educated good purpose might easily nave been 
manliness of a free, well-ordered na- made at any moment during the last 

VOL. LVIL— NO. CCOXXXYZL 1* 



4 4 Great Ctmnhr^M Cheaped Defence. [Jan. 

• 
forty or fifty yean. Tlwiiverwoqld bis name enrolled cm the list of a 
always have flowed iiPttB present Tolunteer corps, 
channel, but Ux the damVbich ha- After all that has latterly been said 
man cunning had reaied across^ its or sonfr of our national degeneracy, 
path. In the steady zeal with which it is very ^ood to contemplate the 
they have porsued their one end, readiness with which those classes of 
taming oat for drill in idl weathers, whom least was commonly expected, 
braving no small amount of bodily haye come forward to help their coon- 
discomfort and mental annoyance, in try at the first blush of seeming dan- 
the fulfilment of a self-chosen duty, eer. Tradesmen, merchants, manu- 
incurring often no slight expense, or fecturers, shopmen, clerks, have rush- 
denying themselves no mean ei\joy- ed from counter and warehouse to 
ment in the attempt to master some assert the share that popular belief 
new exercise, the Volunteers seem to had b^un to deny them, in the in- 
have kept themselves thoroughly heritance of those virtues which have 
alive to the fuU importance of the helped the most largely to make Eng- 
work they have so well begun. Thus hmd what she is. ^* There is life in 
far they have shown no sisns of flag- the old land yet,'' when the great 
ffing, no trace whatever of a lurldng middle dass can devote itself with 
doubt in the permanent needfulness such easy good-will to the task of 
of their new calling. Even if their spending its spare hours in the pur- 
earlier efforts were quickened by the suit of military knowled^ and the 
dangerous aspect of things abroad, acquirement of a soldier-like skill in 
their later progress has betrayed none the use of an unfamiliar weapon, 
of those slackening tendencies which There is small need to fear for the 
usually mark the first moments of re- well-being of a country which can 
turning safe^, or follow the first depend, in the hour of her danger, on 
sharp spurt of unwonted enthusiasm, the warlike spirit of those classes 
Every week is adding its quota to which have naturally most interest in 
numbers already large enougn to set desiring peace. While that spirit 
our minds at ease regarding whatever flares up as steadily as it is doing 
signs of possible danger may yet be now, such a country will have little 
looming in the political horizon. Day reason to dread the issue either of a 
after day the morning papers keep us Chartist outbreak or a French inva- 
acquainted with the newest incidents sion. It is an ill wind that blows no 
of a tale still fresh to the most carer one good, and we may thank both the 
less reader, still fraught with endless blundering recklessness of our Admi- 
interest to the most dispassionate of ralty Boards and the aggressive move- 
English philosophers. At one place ments of our idlies across the Channel 
a new company of riflemen Has oeen for evoking a display of national ener- 
got together; at another the silver gy, which has added a new bulwark 
tones of some fair speaker have ac- to our weakened defences, and enabled 
companied the gift of a silver bugle us once more to eat the bresid of 
subscribed by herself and her admir- quiet trustfulness amidst events and 
ing countrywomen. Elsewhere there conspiracies of which no one can fore- 
hie been a grand review of many cast the likeliest issue. The peace of 
thousand volunteers, a sham fight in Europe may still lie at the mercv of 
some nobleman's park, a bout of rifle an intriguing despot; but it is piea- 
shootins marked by feats of skill out- sant to feel that a hundred and fif^ 
doing the most wonderful of former thousand disciplined volunteers will 
days. Eveiy day the movement seems shortly bar the road from Cherbourg 
to spread ; some new town or district or Boulogne to London, 
lights up in answer to the general It is in no spirit of empty boasting 
blaze, and everywhere the success al- that we dwell a moment on results 
ready gained seems but the acknow- like these. Englishmen have been 
ledged prelude to efforts yet stronger, rather ready to take for granted the 
and more successful in the future. If sounding phrases in which foreigners 
any trust can be placed in outward often display their happy ignorance 
tokens, some who are now alive may or hide their jealous dislike of the 
yet see the time when every able- British character. Of late years 
bodied Englishman, not serving in there had been nestling in our hearts 
the regular fleet or army, shall have a blind belief that England was not 



1861.] A Great Countrj/i Cheapest DrfenoRk b 

a military nation ; that in all thinra of our day ^nd in the very papers 
bearing on the art of war fingUsK ihat once Hid us how much oetter 
experience la^d very far benind all things were managed abroad, some 
the French. That such absurdities o^iis must lately have smiled to read 
should have found their way among of Frencrh officers being sent to study 
a people freeih from reaoinff^ the cletails connected with yarioiis parts 
great deeds of the Peninsular War; of pur military system, and of Swiss 
among a peorile with whom Crecy, officers coming over to receive ihstruc- 
Agincourt^ Blenheim, Minden, Que- tion in the musketry school at Hythe. 
bee, were household words ; a people If we are not a military nation in 
of whom many yet alive had seen or the large sense of those words, where 
shared in the great English demon- is such a thuig to be found 1 Our 
stration against the former Napoleon, regular army may seeln absurdly 
is but one more instance of the ease small to people whose Mves and liber- 
wherewith a good round lie can win ties are intnlsted to tne eare of six 
a footing and oommand a decent live- or eight hundred . thousand under- 
lihood from an ill-natured, credulous, srown conscripts, forced io incur the 
or easy-going world.^ Among foreign nardships and hazards of a soldier's 
nations the mistake had gone still life without even the small oonsola- 
farther, thanks, inpart, to the readi- tion of having chosen it for them- 
ness shown by English writers in selves. But what other nation has 
harping on facts and statements that yet tried to raise an armv as laige as 
seemed when taken alonCf without the ours by voluntary enlistment, on 
needful context or the fair explana- tern^ at which none but the idlest, 
tion, to tell most clearly in our di»- neediest, or most reckless of its mem- 
favour. The truth regarding the Cri- bers would care to grasp ? The French 
mean campaigns is gradually leaking conscript may see a marshal's staff 
out at last, but falsehood and mis- glimmering through the vista of 
conception nad, meanwhile, been run- many irksome vears ; but an English 
ning riot abroad, not only among out- soldier will fight for love of his 
side spectators, out even with those commander, for the credit of his re- 
allies who oould have set their neigh- giment, for the good of a country 
hours right if they had been so that rewards his highest services 
minded. Everywhere it was given with an ensign's commission or a pen- 
.out that France alone had stood be- sion of something less than twelve 
tween us and inevitable failure, and pence a dav. Are English soldiers 
the English name was become a inferior to french or Russian because 
laughing-stock to the pettiest prince they have a trick of fighting when, 
and the vilest scribbler on the Conti- by all rules of war,, they should be 
nent The tidings of our supposed running away % Wherever British 
defeat were noised about in Ej^t, troops have been engaged, with 
and carried out to India by the wily scarce one exception, they have either 
agent of him whose name will for won a glorious victory or sustained 
ever be coupled with one of the foul- an equally glorious defeat Thcj 
est massacres ever devised by a fiend may not be clever at providing their 
in human foruL Happily for us, the own quarters 9r cooking their own 
fall of Delhi and the campaigns in food, at pillaging a friendly people, 
Oade and Central India gave a death- or retreating before a superior foe ; 
blow to some of the more atrocious but they have made some of the 
slanders, and satisfied most thinking finest forward marches ever known, 
persons of our capacity for making have pushed their way against ap- 
war. But it remained, we think, for palling odds, have taken By assault 
such gatherings as those ,in Hyde strongholds Vrhich, perhaps, the 
Park and Edinburgh to cfear away troops of no other nation would, uii- 
the last spot on our fair fame, and to der like conditions, have had the 
teach the world those lessons which a hardihood to assail. If they have 
better aoauaintance with English his-, sometimes suffered for the mistakes 
tory would have taught it long ago. of blundering leaders or a headstrong 
Even among our French neighbours Qovemment, they have managed, nine 
there are some at last who honestly times out often, to drive before them 
avow the foUy of refusing us a fore- the best troops, commanded by the 
most place among the warlike nations best officers, of that nation which 



6 A Great Country s Cheapest Deftnce. [Jan. 

specially prides itself on its genius on thelandsof oarneighbonra But 
for war. It was not sEn English bat- when our neighbours show clear signs 
tery that fell to pieces after a few of an intent to do i^ harm, we can 
hours' firing before Sebastopol, nor prove ourselves as determined to 
was it the fault of Lord Raglan that frustrate as they may have been 
the allied armies wasted a whole eager to effect their purpose. Some' 
day on the field of Alma, or that the three hundred thousand, volunteers 
Russian troops were not followed into ' sprang^ up, at a idbment's ifotice,- in 
their stronghold after the defeat of answer to the challenge waved before 
Inkermann. The wtd mortality in us^ from the heights of Boulogne, 
the Crimea was not confined to the Recruits for the regular army kept 
British camp, nor was it the French pouring in as fast as they were want- 
armv whose efficiency was most re- ed during the campaigns in India, 
markable in the second year of the And now, on a mere suspicion of corn- 
war. If our commissariat in the ing evil, at the first wnisper of en- 
Russian war was badly organized, couragement from men in power, 
and our hospital arrangements were another army of unpaid English pa- 
at first imequ^ to the need, our sol- triots presses f(»ward to ml up all 
diers in India have been fed and gaps in our national defences, and to 
doctored in a style from which other show how far an intelligent enthusi- 
nations might take some useful les- asm will go to shorten the time re- 
sons. We are a quiet, i)eace-lovin^ quired by military usage for the 
people, slow to enter on a quarrel, making of a thorough soldier, 
and ready to forego the advantages At this point a new field of cheer- 
gained in fair fight for the mere plea- ful speculation opens out to view, 
sure of shaking hands again with a After a year's experience of things 
beaten foe. But while the fight lasts done, or still doing, is it possible to 
our blood keeps at boiling-point, our guess what part a volunteer army 
thoughts are onlv of fighting the would be fit hereafter to play in any 
quarrel out, our hearts leap within movement for the national defence 1 
us at each new success won oy those To us the answer seems only to de- 
very soldiers at whom, in peace time, pend on the extent to which an Eng- 
we are so ready to sneer, from whom ush Government shall, at any time, 
a grateful coUntrv withholds their follow out the course suggested by 
paltry share of hard-earned prize- past experience and the requirements 
monev, and looks for many years of of a sound economy. To our think- 
faithnd service Without even a slight ing, that course will be found to lie 
increase to the daUy pay. in a hearty and skilful turning of 
If military genius means only a the Volunteer movement to the ut- 
special fondness for war. a general* most possible account We are- ft 
hankering after the gooos of other peaceful and wealthy nation, but 
nations, or an eittravagant de»re to our backs are still straining under 
strut aoout in a military uniform, the burdens of by-gone wars, and 
then, indeed, we are bv no means a Garibaldi's dream of a peaceful dis- 
military peopla An English soldier armed Europe is likely to be still a 
thinks of himself, not as the creature di^am, long after the last of his he- 
and agent of a separate system, but roic followers shiJl have mouldered 
as a hving men^ber of a free self-go- into dust. Our wealth is great, but 
vemed British community. His ser- thirty millions a year for defensive 
vice is an accident, not an essential purposes seems a portentous price to 
part of his career. The English offi- pay for the blessings of a peace that 
cer doffs his profession with the uni- may have its throat cut to-morrow, 
form which he makes a point of re- And yet, while foreign politics wear 
serving for duty and dinner at mess, so dark and threatening an aspect. 
If he aspires to become a general it what less could be done than we nave 
is not that he may use his prefer- lately been doing ? While the Con- 
ment as an engine of political plotting, tinent is one vast parade ground, 
Englishmen are proverbially jealous filled with armies fightmg,manoeuver- 
of any thing that tends to enlarge the ing, or falling into their places ; while 
military at the expense of the civil France is dady enlarging ha: stores 
power. Save, perhaps, in New Zea- of ships, guns, and soldietB ; while 
land, we have long ceased to encroach Russia and Austria are seen onoe more 



i861.] A Great Countn^a Cheapest De/ence, 7 

drawinff closely together"; while our stonn; as long as winds and waves 
own alSanoe with Prussia seems to retain their old power to baffle and 
rest on the weakest footing j while appal ; as lon^ as pluck, hardihood, 
the new Italian kingdom is still presence of mind, self-reliant energy^ 
threatened by foes from within and and a stubborn sense of duty, are 
^without, iphat less can England do qualities of which our race still 
than prepare, at any cost,' for a crisis owns the lion*s share, it seems irra- 
wJbicb, hoover r^otein fact seems • tional to azvue that steam has bridged 
yet so immineift i|^ the genertu view, the ChanneL 
for a complication wherein, with all After the navy comes the consider- 
her efforts to prevent or avoid it, she ation of our landward defences. A 
must inevitably, sooner or later, be great deal of wild talk has been scat- 
forced to interfere ? tered abroad in discussing the chances 
Of course our Volunteer anny, and whereabouts of a hostile invasion 
however large and well disciplined it of our shores. A strong fleet, under 
may yet become, cannot be made a watchful captains, would make such 
substitute for aU other means of in- an event imi)088ible, save in the form 
aurinfc the national welfare. If £ng- of separate inroads on distant parts 
land IS to remain a first-rate power, of the coast As long as our men-ol- 
it needs no iirgument to show that, war did their duty, all attempts to 
above all things, she must manage to land a large army on one or more 
retain her ascendancy by sea. Even points of the seaboard most available 
Mr. Bright^ speaking in the interests for further proceedings, would prove 
of cotton alone, would hardly, at as nought in these days of steam and 
least in war time, recommend us to iron, as Bonaparte's great undertak- 
leave our coasts at the mercy of in^ proved in the days of short sauat- 
foreign armaments, or our merchant- built, wooden-sided sailing snips, 
ships at the mercy of foreign cruisers. Still there are many reasons for not 
Were France and Russia as far off intrusting our chiefports and arsenals 
as the United States, we might, with solely to the charge of fleets which 
safety, reduce our armed fleets to else might often be doing good ser- 
aomething like the dimensions of that vice elsewhere. Accordingly, none of 
which does duty for the stars and us is likely to grumble at any fair and 
stripes. As it is, the danger is al- seasonable ouuay on the fortification 
ways too near at hand to admit of of such places as Portsmouth^ Ply- 
our doing without fleets strong enough mouth, or Chatham. A few millions 
to guwrd the British seas and to give sunk in securing such places from the 
our commerce a fair chance of mak- perils of a sudden attack on any side, 
ing its way from port to port The m enabling them to hold out for a few 
strength of our navy must always days until our own ships, or soldiers, 
be regulated by that of those powers can come to the rescue, would be re- 
firom whom most mischief might be paid to us with larse interest in the 
expected in the event of a sudden long run. It would even be worth 
or wide-spread war. British ships, our while to lay out monev betimes 
manned by the countrymen of Nelson for the improvement and defence of 
and Dundonald, must stilly as ever, some other harbours, wherein our 
form the outermost line of Britain's vessels might take shelter from bad 
defences, the most enduring bulwark weather, or a superior foe. There can 
of Britain's power. A salt-water be no good reason why Ireland also 
channel, more or less broad, still should not have a larger share than 
flows between us and our restless she is likely to set of the money 
neighbours, and it rests with our- borrowed for our land defences : es- 
selves to keep it practically as im- pecially if she must still be left with- 
passable as ever for all hostile visita- out a Volunteer army. But there 
tions on a large scale. Science may seems no urgent need for making 
have put new weapons into our ene- Portsmouth quite as strong as Malta 
mies* nands, but it has also armed us or Cronstadt, and we can never spare 
with the means of turning our supe- a whole army to gairison the lines ol' 
nor seamanship to yet more service- a distant dockyard in the event of a 
able account tnan before. As Ions re^iar siege, a contingency lyine just 
as Englishmen love the sea, and feel within the outermost pale of things 
their spirits rise with the growing possible, Still less reason can be 



1801.] A Great Country^i Cheapest Defence. 9 

Bcont the idea of filling up berths in age powers stand to those of any 
the royal navy with eentiemen of the other nation as better than three to 
mercantile marine. Whenever £ng- two. Of permanent defences, save 
land finds a flaw in her armour, your those aforenamed, the less we have 
professional soldier is always for patch* the more money there will be for 
ing it in the old professional way. other means of national protection. 
He believes thoroughly in fortifica- Among those means most of us are 
tions, in field artillery, m regular sol- agreed to reckon a strong force of ar- 
diers, mounted or on foot, especially tillery and foot soldiers as only next 
if they have beenatwelvemonth under in importance to a strong fleet To 
drill But an irregular volunteer, who the former arm too much attention 
has mastered his manoeuvres, and can hardly be paid. Generally, our 
passed with credit at Hythe, all in armies have been as badly found in. 
the space of a few weeks, is a notion guns as our fleets have been in frigates, 
much too fresh and revolutionary to Henceforth, with the help of our Arm- 
find an early lodgment in his brain, strongs and Whitworths, we look to 
Accustomed to the higher details of see our field batteries no less efficient 
warlikescienoe, the officer of engineers in the numbers and training of their 
or artillery would have all England men, than in the make and aeadliness 
bristling with fortifications^ and re- of their guns. What English artillery 
sounding with the practice of innu- can do under the most trying circimi- 
merable great guns. Trained only to stances, whether of ground or relative 
deal with recruits taken from the strength, has been proved in many a 
lowest and dullest classes of Britons, hard-fought Indian campaign; and 
your infantry officer can see no safety the Sikhs have not vet forgotten the 
for England without a large addition wonderful efiects of that iron hail 
to our standing army. It was but the which kept pouring upon them for 
other day that a murmur to this effect three long hours at Goojerat Mov- 
rolled up from the Horse Guards; able batteries of four or six Armstrong 
and, about the same time, a general guns, duly manned, and stationed aS 
officer of some authority declared his certain custanoes along the weaker 
belief that volunteers, unaided by points of the coast, with companies of 
regular troops, would not be capable steadv riflemen to guard their flanks, 
of doing garrison duty. And a year would repeat on portions of an in- 
ago, even those military critics who vading fleet the lessons taught our- 
hoped the largest from the new-bom selves in the late Russian War, by the 
movement, hardly ventured, at least capture of the Tiger off Odessa, and 
in words, to look on their future com- the repulse of an English squadron at 
nides as more than a sorrv substitute Petropaulowsky. Artillery, cavaliy, 
for a like number of regular troops — and infantry should frequently parade 
such a substitute as the camels of together, to leam the advanti^es of 
Queen Semiramis were for the ele- mutual helpfulness in time of need. 
phants,who8eoutershapetheyputon. To every brigade of infantry there 
To candid thinkers, however, in red should be assigned, at least, two bat- 
coats or in black, the success already teries, each of four or six guns; and 
attained by this movement will sug- every regiment should have its own 
gest conclusions very different from detail ofmen practised in all the main 
the fore^ing. On the question of requirements of modem gunnery, 
fortifications we have already spoken. To what extent our gunners may 
For a nation so free, brave, and nu- hereafter be taken from other ranks 
merous as ours, a wall of living flesh than those of the regular army, is a 
and blood must, after all, be a surer question to which no exact reply can 
and worthier defence, in the last need, just now be given. Before it can be, 
than any number of strong places the volunteer movement must have 
never so cunningly contrived, and time to show its capacity for penna- 
fumished with all the newest appli- nent uses, and for various fields of 
anoes of defensive warfare. Entrench- self-development. In aught redd- 
ed lines like those of Torres Vedras ing the scientific branches of mihtary 
could be formed in a few hours at service nothing should be left to 
Aldershott, and such like points, in a chance, or even to likelihood. For 
country overmeshed with railways, some time to come, at any rate, the 
and filled with workmen whose aver- Government must continue to pay 



1861.] A Great CtrnfUrf^t Cheapest Defenet, 11 

lishGorernmentduTst for one moment the money-making philosophy that 
earry oat ; and if such a step were drivels at Manchester, and the ser- 
ever made possible, English freedom pentine diploma>|^ that crawls and 
wotdd have already begun to wither nisses about the Tuileries. 
away. On the other hand, beyond a It is easy, of course^ to say that 
point which we have now idl but untrainedenthusiasm will never stand 
touched, more-iwldien cannot be ob- before thorough discipline, and that 
tained by voluntary enlistment with- volunteers have only been successful 
out a large addition to the soldier's against blundering commanders, or 
pay, and other means of tempting troops absurdly overmatched. Yet 
into the ranks a class of recruits cap- volunteer levies fought like veterans 
able not onlvofraisinj; the moral ton& at Edgehill, against the experienced 
but also of sharpening the general soldiers of Lord Essex, volunteer 
discipline of her Majesty's army, armies cleared France of the foimid- 
Give our soldiers better pay, shorten able hosts who thought to take ven- 
the time of service to live or six years, seance for the cruel treatment of her 
add a trifle more pay to each terra of king. A nation of German volunteers 
re-enlistment ; let soldiers' wives, if rose up in arms against the general 
they will have such incumbrances, be whose troops had previously overrun 
treated with more regard for womanly their countay in a few weeks. A few 
self-respect, and soforth ; and, doubt- thousand volunteers, under Garibaldi, 
less, at the expense of some fresh harassed and defeated the Austrian 
draw-backs to the march of national troops on the skirts of Ijombardy, in 
industry, you will be able to muster the war of 1859 ; and yet later tele- 
more and better troops than a peace- grams told us how another army of 
able sea-girt nation would ever re- volunteers, led by the same great 
quire for any ordinary purpose. But hero of our day, beat off the last de- 
even Mr. Gladstone would shrink spairing efforts of a powerful Neapo- 
from laving any more useless burdens htan force to bring back to his forfeit 
on the back of a willing, but already capital the king who had aceom- 
over-worked horse; and few of us panied them into the field. What 
would wish to see the women of Eng- were Cromwell's Ironsides themselves, 
land toiling like those of France at but volunteers well drilled and ably 
work far better suited to able-bodied commanded t The neat bulk of 
men. Perhaps however, the strongest British troops at Watenoo were young 
argument ofaUajpainst a large regular recruits, who had scarcely mastered 
force at home hes in the excellent the platoon exercise, when they were 
promise alrcnuly shown hy^ British called on to stand a fire which would 
volunteers. We say defiberately, have tried the firmness of hardy ve- 
that an army of riflemen like those terans. During the late troublous 
who have lately been winnin^^ such times in India, now ereatly was Eng- 
frecj^uent applause from expenenced land beholden to the bravery and 
critics, foreign as well as British, martial skill of her unprofessional 
needs only time and good leading to soldiery — ^the men who defended Ar- 
render it a perfect matoh for the finest rah, protected Meerut and Agra, and 
regular soldiers in the world. Such helped largely in the defence of Luck- 
an army, if only it can be held to- now ! Discipline alone may work 
gether ny some bond more powerful wonders witn the most impromising 
than a rassing enthusiasm, will al- materials— may turn a number of the 
most suffice to guard us against all rawest, clumsiest, most unruly louts 
chance of serious danger from with- into an army of first-rate soldiers, '*fit 
out, and will infuse into our foreign to go anywhere, and do any thing." 
policy somewhat more than it has In yonder trim, clean-loolung cor- 
lately shown of that bold, determined poral, with an upright figure, firm 
spirit which marked its progress in walk, and proud, soldierlike air. few 
the days of Cromwell, Chatham, and of his former friends would easily re- 
Pitt Only let our natural leaders cognise the rough, unwashed, slow- 
persevere in keeping alive the flame movingeavage, who took her Majesty's 
they have kindled to such excellent shilling some two or three years ago. 
purpose in the present, and our law- Even a small body of (usciplined 
nil sway in the Councils of Europe policemen will clear its way with 
will qieedily be felt again in spite of oomiiarative ease through all tne pres- 



12 A Oreai Country's Ckeaptit Defence. [Jmn* 

Bare of an eager^ struggling, diaorderly other twelve month we may furly tmat 

crowd, fiut military discipline \b not to see that number raised to nearly as 

a charm to be wielded onlv on parti- much again, without reckoning mere 

cular chisses of men; ratner does it beginnersand men who are onlv volun- 

act the more powerfully the better teers on paper, or in places of pablie 

the stuff with which it has to deal. show. 

It moulded the fiery zeal of Crom- All such hopeful issues, however, 
well's yeomanry into a mighty weapon will rest partly on the public spirit 
of assault, before which the proudest of the nation itself, partly on the 
of England*8 chivahy were scattered steadiness with whien onr statesmen 
to the winds. A bodv of gentlemen, shall keep turning that spirit to the 
thoroughly disciplined, and buoyed up meet serviceable account Under the 
by the consciousness of a noble cause, persistent, yet hardly noticeable care 
would be more than likely to rout an of a wise government, volonteering 
equal number of ordinary soldiers, would settle down into a permanent 
fighting on otherwise equal terms, svstem of national self-aefence \ a 
Given to each the same amount of cheap and certain means of warmng 
discipline, equipment, and strength of too curious foreigners off the diggtnn 
arm, the result would soon tell in of a rich, peaceful, yet far from weuc 
favour of the higher intelligence and or unmanly neighbour. On this head 
the nobler enthusiasm. For like rea- there has hitherto beto little fault to 
sons, an ave^i^ regiment of volunteer find, and even the public expression 
riflemen, fairly officered, and enjoy* of goodwill from several of our lead- 
ing fair opportunities for self-improve- ing statesmen will go far to keep their 
ment, should reach a high stanaard of countrymen faithfid to the work they 
warlike efficiency with greater ease, have taken in hand. Among thoee 
and in less time, than an average classes by whom the movement has hi- 
regiment of the line. If it takes a therto been carried on, we are bold to 
year to turn a common recruit into a think that few signs of weariness in 
thorough soldier, the avera^ volun- well-doing are likely to crop ont dn* 
teer, with other work to mind, and ring the critical period which has yet 
far fewer and shorter intervalti to net to elapse, before its full scope and 
apart for drill, will find himself at the practical uses have been plaeed oeyond 
year's end prettv nearly abreast, if not further queMion. After that there 
some paces ahead, of his fellow- will be little cause to fear. Qnoe lei 
learner. Accordingly, no one who has us succeed in mustering a hundred 
watched this movement wilh clear thouRandrifleroen of the sort admired 
eyes — who has managed, from his own by Colonel M'Murdo, and nothing 
experience, or the accounts of others, but the most untoward blunderins. 
to strike a fair balance between or the unlikeliest freaks of fate, wui 
proven fact« and reasonable likeli- avail to rob ns hereafter of the vaa- 
noods, will feel surprised at the ex- tage gained by onr former exertjona. 
tent to which so experienced an officer Su<>h an army, thoroiishly orsanixed, 
as the Inspector- General of Volun- ec|uipi)ed, and trained in all the es- 
teers has lately endormsi the opinions sontials of military discipline, would 
which another officer, of higher rank enable n^ in onlinary tiroes of peaoe, 
and not less dirttinction, haff from the to disiienne with our home estaoliah- 
fint rei>eatetily avowed on the practice- ment of reguUr infantnr; and in times 
ground at Hythe. Any one who cares of danger or disquietude, would fonn 
to learn the truth am>ut a matter of the rul lying-centre for any number of 
no small moment to us all, may now freith volunt4«rB that the need or the 
be assured, on the best authority, temfter of the moment might draw 
that England ran already muster tog(>ther. 

about eigntv thousand riflemen, war- but if the Government werewiae to 

ranted aU out ready to take their refrain from over meddling with the 

place with regiments of the line, and earlier stagcM uf such a movemail* 

quite eonal even now **to the oondi- they should now beware of leaving 

tiona or the line of battled* If so too much to the unaided enthnalaam 

laige a number has made so steady of the volunteers themselves. Hi- 

an advance in one vemr, how rich a therto the popular feeling has done 

harvest may we not look to ^ther in every thing, aiid carried toe aehena 

the yean to oome ! £ven before aa- paat every drawback, but enthnaiam 



1861.] A Oreai Country^a Cheapest Defence. 13 

alone is a sandy foundation for a and soforth, should always be avail- 
building that we would have to last able from the ranks of the regular 
for ever. Without some solid ground- army ; and no pains should be spared 
work of practical inducements, and in testing the fitness of a volunteer 
some strong cement of military dia- formation for regiments of cavahry 
cipline, no volunteer system can be and artillery. Nor would the official 
countea on, wholly to withstand for mind be misemployed in attempting 
an^r time the secret workings of self- to ar^e out, on its own merits, the 
satisfied ambition, or the steady as- question that is sure to be raised, aa 
saults of woundea self-esteem. The to the relative working powers of the 
best of us are apt to grow weary of old militia and their youngest rivals, 
always doing the same thing, and mi- the present volunteers. 
litary obedience is not a virtue of With these and such like aids at 
eminently Saxon growth : we have to critical moments, the nation itself 
acquire it either by inevitable prao- would never allow the good seed, 
tice, or by learning to feel its merits for already sprouting forth with so much 
ourselves. If a volunteer is foolish promise, to be choked by the fruits of 
enough to be unrulv in the ranks, or its own carelessness or blighted by 
to shirk regular drill,- his superior the breath of influences always hos- 
officers should have full power to pun- tile to the growth of national free- 
ish the breach of military discipline, dom. Having once laid both hands 
in the spirit, if not alwavs after the to the plough, it will not lightly take 
letter, of military law. If a volunteer them off again. The amount of fresh 
company lacks the power to furnish work done to-day will encourage it 
itseu with needful tools and appli- to achieve the same to-morrow. Eveiy 
ances for insuring its thorough effi- new volunteer who attains the need- 
ciency, no one comd fairly object to ful cleverness with his rifle, gets be- 
lts receiving a little of that timely yond the rudiments of artillery driU, 
aid from Parliament or Exchequer or masters the more difficult details 
which we have seen so liberally ap- of military practice, will add one 
plied in behalf of railway companies more surety to those already gained 
and district schools. Every volunteer for the permanence of the building 
battalion ahould be enabled to com- he has helped to raise so far. A mas- 
mand the services of a competent tery over the rifle once attamed is 
staff of drill-instructors, and the use not easily lost, and there seems to be 
of a large convenient practice-ground, no eood reason why target practice 
A thorough mastery over his weapon shomd not become as popular as 
should be one of the first steps in evety cricket, or why light infantry ma- 
rifleman's progress towards perfect noeuvres should not create as deep 
soldiership ; and in making that step and lastins an interest as hunting 
nothing should be left to chance efforts or the billiard-table. The spirit of 
or futim likelihoods. Whatever the the movement has already taken 
Government can fairly or cheaply do hold of our public schools^ and 
to guide, strenf^hen, or control the the very street boys are learmng to 
popular enthusiasm, should be done play at soldiers. When the buUc 
without grudging and without delay, of our amateur riflemen have learned 
Next to encouraging the volunteer to handle their weapon with half the 
at his rifle-drill, it might easily place skill their forefathers displayed in 
at his disposal the resources open to handling the bow, the pride they 
the regular soldier in the camps of would naturally feel in their own 
Aldeishott, ShomcUffe, and the Cur- success, and the desire of others to 
rach. It is of the first importance that do likewise, would help to keep the 
volunteers should be accustomed to ball moving even among a people far 
manoeuvre in brigades and divisions less gifted with our proverbud talent 
as well aain single corps, and much for holding on. Under the able man- 
good would accrue both to the new agement of its present leaders the new 
service and the country at large, if army will lack no fair inducement 
volunteer regiments were allowed that private enterprise can offer to 
sometimes to fall in for field days and improve its efficiency and enlarge its 
exercise parades with those of the mi- numbers. Should the efforts of those 
litia and the line. An efficient staff leaders be fairly backed by the Exe- 
of inspectors, field-pffioersy adjutants, cutive,'its own efficiency will be 



12 A Great Countries Cheapest Defence, [Jan- 
sure of an eager, struggling, disorderly other twelve month we may fairly trust 
crowd. But military discipline is not to see that number raised to nearly as 
a charm to be wielded onlv on parti- much again, without reckoning mere 
cular classes of men; rather does it beginnersand men who are only volun- 
act the more powerfully the better teers on paper, or in places of public 
the stuff with which it has to deal show. 

It moulded the fiery zeal of Crom- All such hopeful issues, however, 
well's yeomanry into a mighty weapon will rest partly on the public spirit 
of assault, before which the prouaest of the nation itself, partly on the 
of England's chivalry were scattered steadiness with whicn our statesmen 
to the winds. A body of gentlemen, shall keep turning that spirit to the 
thoroughly disciplined, and buoyed up most serviceable account. Under the 
by the consciousness of a noble cause, persistent, yet hardly noticeable care 
would be more than likely to rout an of a wise government, volunteering 
equal number of ordinary soldiers, would settle down into a permanent 
fighting on otherwise equal terms, system of national self-aefence ; a 
Given to each the same amount of cheap and certain means of warning 
discipline, equipment, and strength of too curious foreigners off the diggings 
arm, the result would soon tell in of a rich, peaceful, yet far from weak 
favour of the higher intelligence and or unmanly neighbour. On this head 
the nobler enthusiasnL For like rea- there has hitherto be^n little fault to 
sons, an average regiment of volunteer find, and even the public expression 
riflemen, fairly officered, and ei^joy- of goodwill from several of our lead- 
ing fair opportunities forself-improve- ing statesmen will go far to keep their 
ment, should reach a high stanoard of countrymen faithful to the work they 
warlike efficiency with greater ease, have taken in hand. Among those 
and in les^ time, than an average classes by whom the movement has hi- 
regiment of the line. If it takes a therto been ouried on, we are bold to 
year to turn a common recruit into a think that few signs of weariness in 
thorough soldier, the average volun- well-doing are likely to crop out du- 
teer, with other work to mmd, and ring the critical period which has yet 
far fewer and shorter intervals to set to elapse, before its full scope and 
apart for drill, will find himself at the practical uses have been plaeed beyond 
year's end pretty nearly abreast, if not further question. After that there 
some paces ahead, of his fellow- will be little cause to fear. Once let 
learner. Accordingly, no one who has us succeed in mustering a hundred 
watched this movement wilh clear thousand riflemen of the sort admired 
eyes — ^who has managed, from his own by Colonel M*Murdo, and nothing 
experience, or the accounts of others, but the most untoward blundering, 
to strike a fair balance between or the unlikeliest freaks of fate, wui 
proven facts and reasonable likeli- avail to rob us hereafter of the van- 
noods, will feel surprised at the ex- tage gained by our former exertions, 
tent to which so experienced an officer Such an army, thoroughly organized, 
as the Inspector-General of Volun- equipped, and trainea in all the es- 
teers has lately endorsed the opinions sentials of military discipline, would 
which another officer, of higher rank enable us, in ordinary times of peace, 
and not less distinction, had from the to dispense with our home establish- 
first repeatedly avowed on the practice- ment of regular infantry; andin times 
grouna at Hythe. Any one who cares of danger or disquietude, would form 
to learn the truth aliout a matter of the rallying-centre for any number of 
no small moment to us all, may now fresh volunteers that the need or the 
be assured, on the best authority, temper of the moment might draw 
that England can already muster together. 

about eighty thousand riflemen, war- But if the Government were wise to 

ranted all but ready to take their refrain from ovor-meddling with the 

place with regiments of the line, and earlier stages of such a movement, 

quite equal even now "to the condi- they should now beware" of leaving 

fions of the line of battle." If so too much to the unaided enthusiaam 

large a number has made so steady of the volunteers themselves. Hi- 

an advance in one year, how rich a therto the popular feeline has done 

harvest may we not look to gather in every thing, and carried the scheme 

.e years to come ! Even Mfore an- past eveiy drawback, but enthusiasm 



1861.] A Cheat Country's Cheapest Defence, 13 

alone is a sandy foundation for a and soforth, should always be avail- 
building that we would have to last able from the ranks of the regular 
for ever. Without some solid ground- army ; and no pains should be spared 
work of practical inducements, and in testing the fitness of a volunteer 
some strong cement of military dis- formation for regiments of cavalry 
cipline, no volunteer system can be and artillery. Nor would the official 
counted on, wholly to withstand for mind be misemployed in attempting 
an^ time the secret workings of self- to argue out, on its own meriti^ the 
satisfied ambition, or the steady as- question that is sure to be raised, as 
saults of wounded self-esteem. The to the relative working powers of the 
best of us are apt to grow weary of old militia and their youngest rivals, 
always doing the same thing, and mi- the present volunteers, 
litary obedience iff not a virtue of With these and such like aids at 
eminently Saxon growth : we have to critical moments, the nation itself 
acquire it either oy inevitable prac^ would never allow the good seed, 
tice, or by learning to feel its merits for already sprouting forth with so much 
ourselves. If a volunteer is foolish promise, to be choked by the fruits of 
enough to be unrulv in the ranks, or its own carelessness or blighted by 
to shirk regular drill, his superior the breath of influences always hos- 
officers diouM have full power to pun- tile to the growth of national free- 
ish the breach of military discipline, dom. Having once laid both hands 
in the spirit, if not alwavs after the to the plough, it will not lightly take 
letter, of military law. If a volunteer them off again. The amount of fresh 
company lacks the power to furnish work done to-day will encour^e it 
itself with needful tools and appli- to achieve the same to-morrow. Every 
ances for insuring its thorough effi- new volunteer who attains the need- 
cienqr, no one could fairly object to ful cleverness with his rifle, gets be- 
lts receiving a little of that timely yond the rudiments of artillery drill, 
aid from Parliament or Exchequer or masters the more difficult details 
which we have seen so liberally ap- of military practice, will add one 
pUed in behalf of railway companies more surety to those already grained 
and district schools. Every volunteer for the permanence of the building 
battalion should be enabled to com- he has helped to raise so far. A mas- 
mand the services of a competent tery over the rifle once attained is 
staff of drill-instructors, and tne use not easily lost, and there seems to be 
of a large convenient practice-ground, no good reason why target practice 
A thorough mastery over his weapon should not become as popular as 
should be one of the first steps in every cricket, or why light infantry ma^ 
rifleman's progress towards perfect noeuvres should not create as deep 
soldiership ; and in making that step and lasting an interest as hunting 
nothing should be left to chance efforts or the billiard-table. The spirit of 
or futiue likelihoods. Whatever the the movement has already ta^en 
€U)vemment can fairly or cheaply do hold of our public schools^ and 
to guide, stren^hen, or control the the very street ooys are leammg to 
popular enthusiasm, should be done play at soldiers. When Uie bulk 
without grudging and without delay, of our amateur riflemen have learned 
Next to encouraging the volunteer to handle their weapon with half the 
at his rifle-drill, it might easily place skill their forefathers displayed in 
at his disposal the resources open to handling the bow, the pride they 
the regular soldier in the camps of would naturally feel in their own 
Aldershott, Shomcliffe, and the Cur- success, and the desire of others to 
lagh. It is of the first importance that do likewise, would help to keep the 
volunteers should be accustomed to ball moving even among a people far 
manosuvre in brigades and diviuons less gifted with our proverbial talent 
as well asjn single corps, and much for holding on. Unaer the able man- 
good would accnie both to the new agement of its present leaders the new 
service and the country at large, if army will lack no fair inducement 
volunteer regiments were allowed that private enterprise can offer to 
sometimes to fall in for field days and improve its efficiency and enlarge its 
exercise parades with those of tne mi- numbers. Should the efforts of those 
litia and the line. An efficient staff leaders be fairly backed by the Exe- 
of inspectors, field-officers, a4iutants, cutive,<its own efficiency will be 



14 A Gnat dmniry^i Cheapnt DrfeMe. [Ju. 

greatly enhanced by a wholesome ri- the enrolment of working men either 
valry with those regular troops whose in mixed or separate WKlieSb The 
place it may some day be odled on more that £ngfishmen of different 
extensively, if not entirely, to filL classes work tc^ther. the few«sr rea- 
In the constant presence of regu* sons will they gradually find to mia- 
lar troops our volunteers would soon trust or despise each other. Mr. Bright 
pick up those habits of general and his partisans are the only oiiea 
discipline without which no .army who would have aught to fear from 
can long hold together, and would the extension downwards of a move- 
strive after that thorough steadi* ment whose further issues must still 
ness on parade which forms the last flow, like its first beginning from the 
line of difference between ordin- zeal and prudence of our upper and 
ary levies and first-rate soldiers, middling classes.* Jeakmay of partica- 
Nor will other sources of permanent lar interests is the last feeung to which 
gain be left tmopened By frequently our volunteers should plead guilty, 
parading togeth^ in misseTof one On like firindples soLthini nJ^ 
or more arms, of infantry alone, or fairly be said in favour of a vqIuh- 
of infantry mixed with cavaliyand teer arm v for Ireland. That one per- 
artillery, the volunteer corps would tion of the British Isknda dioola be 
learn to vie with each other in tiie deemed unworthy a privilege freely 
smartness of their movements^ the accorded to all the rest, ia a coadu- 
predsion of their fire, the efficien<^ sion which nothing short of mend 
of their officers, the quick self-reh- certainty should tempt any one sen- 
ance, yet mutual helpfulness of their ousiy to affirm. Yet, whenever the 
men : in all those matters, in short, subject is mooted among ^gl^'h^ft^ 
whicn come under the head of what, some such conclusion is commonly 
for lack of a ^ood English e^quivalent, stated as a thin^ of course, in the 
we are still fam to call esprit dt corps, shape of an allusion, jocular or aooni- 
At other points of detail, small in ful. to the pusnadous habits of 
themselves, out practically far from Kilkennv cats, ft is idle to diqmte 
trifling, we can only glance by the that Ireland is still, in some reapecta^ 
way. With questions concerning the an exceptional country, where land- 
dress, accoutrements, manning and lord shooting is not yet unknown, and 
officering of volunteer corps, the good faction fiahts have not wholly paavd 
sense and public q>irit or tne volun- " into a oream of things that were." 
teers themselves may be expected to But surely, in this year of grace, 
deal rightly in good time. A showy, there are at least a few hright spola 
costly, fantastic uniform is a vanity amid the surroundins darkneH, a few 
on which no true soldier would pride homes of peace ana happy promise 
himself, any more than a thorough glimmering amid the nun caused hy 
gentleman would choose to array him- centuries of harharism, strife, ana 
self in waistcoats of the loudest co- misrule. Is Irish loyalty reflected 
lours or trowsers of the most extra- only in the columns of the Naiiom^ or 
vagantcut That cheapness, useful- Irish patriotism embodied in the 
ness, and neatness can go together, speeches of Archbishop OuUen and 
many companies have already shown ; the Pope's Brigade t The only way 
and no dress can be far wrong that to make men tniatworthy ia to 
combines the smallest amount of ahow that yon trust them, and the 
spare ornament with so much of pio- surest way of making Ireland loyal 
turesque effect as a careful regard for is to treat her as if you reckoned on 
workmanlike fitness of form, colour, her loyalty. Let her feel that Eng- 
and material will allow. Everv com- land expects her to share the honour 
pany should learn to think or itself and the risk of defending both coon- 
as part ofa system of permanent bat- tries from foreign invasion, and then 
tahons. and these again aa parts of are few of her sons who wll not rea- 
movable brigades and divisions. Each dily and warmly answer to the ealL 
battalion should strive to collect, and To keep up any needless distinctjon 
keep filled out of its own ranks, a between reaima so long united under 
competent staff of drill instructors, one Crown, is merely lo straagthen 
non-commissioned officers, and such- the hands of the riotous and ul-af- 
like aids to further progress. Nor fected few at the expense of the k»yal 
ahoakl anything be acne to hinder aadpeaoeftdma^y. 



1861.] A Kcum J)mded aganut lU^. 16 

We Infill are a aenfiitiTe people, and a fair effort be made to find them out 
the most loyal among us will not In our case it is useless to argue by 
be the last to resent so sweeping the past alone during a period of con- 
an exclusion from privileges open tinuous change. It will be wiser, as 
to the mass of our fellow-subjects well as more generous, to draw a oill 
across the water. We will ask for or two upon our future history. £ng- 
better reasons than have yet been land is trusting somewhat to chance 
shown, why the same people whose in her new mode of arming and build- 
blood has been shed like water in the ing her ships of war. Let her con- 
maintenance of British arms through- sent to throw a little more bread upon 
out other parts of the world, should the waters, in the shape of a small 
still be declared unworthy to aid in experiment at Irish volunteering, 
guarding their own hearths and home- Beeun with caution, and carried on 
steads from foreign defilement We witna just regard for all rival claims 
may ask if Ireland is no better now and feelings, such an experiment 
than she was before the Union — ^than could hardly fall throuf^ in the long 
shewaseventwentyorthirtyyearsago. run. A beginning might be made 
We can point to numbers of loyal with companies of artmeiy in those 
men — ^Protestant and Roman Gatho- districts where the people have hi- 
lic — who would as soon think of tufki- therto been more prosperous or less 
ing their arms against each other iis divided against each other. Power 
of joining in a plot to murder the might be given the lords lieutenant 
Lord Lieutenant and blow up the to enrol onlv men of proven good 
Castle. Have the Irish militia proved character and peaceful habits. Pro- 
generally dangerous to the public testants and Boman Catholics might 
peace, or peculiarly prone to quarrel be encouraged to serve together in 
among themselves 1 Do the bulk of the same ranks as readily as they 
educated Irishmen really desire no- often serve together in the ranks of 
thing better than a reign of universal her M^jest^'s regiments. The step is 
bigotry? Surely there is no lack of worth taking, and a failure will do 
g<Md men and true in Ireland, if only the government at least no harm. 



A HOUBB DIYIDSD AGAINST ITSELF. 

CHAFTEB Y. 
coifvuoni winioor amd wmiv. 

Still shone the sun throughout that that day, and of its swift and sure re-* 

summer day, tUL as he declined to- tribution. 

wards the west, nis rays filled a little But suddenly and violently was the 

room with splendour, and rested in silence broken by the trampling of 

solemn glory on the face of one who horses, loud shouts^ and the shaii) 

had no more need of sun and moon, rattle of musketry. A cry ranthrougn 

for the Lord was unto her an ever- the house, **To arms! the Cavaliers 

lasting light are upon us !" And a crv answered 

She slept on a rude conch where without^ ''For Qod and the King!" 
rough and untender hands had hastily The Royalists carried everything 
laid her ; she slept with hands meekly before them. The startled Parlia- 
folded on her bosom; her face was mentary troops made a short but 
pale, but very phicid in its deep re- fierce resistance : firine from the win- 
pose, and the smile of joyful triumph dows and defending tnemselves with 
with which she had depiurted was not desperateenergy from thosewho forced 
faded from her lipa an entrance into the house. But in a 

There was a great stillness in the few minutes they were overpowered, 
houses The Puritan soldiers in the and all made prisoners. The fight 
rooms belowmoved quietly, and sjwke was soon over, and the cavaliers took 
little. They had taken her life with- possession of the inn. Never did con- 
out compunction, vet their hearts quest give so little joy or triumph to 
misgave them, and they talked in tne victors, 
whispers of the deed they had done It was not long before a strange 



16 A Houae Dimded (tgainst lUdf, [Jan. 

silence seemed again to have fallen bad he failed to recognise hia old 

upon the house. Then the door of the companion; for three hours had al- 

chamber of death opened very gently, tered him as thrice three years might 

and Sir lionel Atherton entered. have failed to do. He looked the 

He came with quiet step, as if he mere wreck of the once " handsome 

feared to wake her firom her sleep, or Harry North f and if the chan^ in 

as if he trod on holy ground. He his countenance was great, that in his 

stood for a little while and looked thoughts and feelings were still more 

upon the pallid, saintly countenance appalling. 

so lovely in life, but still more lovely As their eyes met, Hany started 

in death — ^the countenance of her violenthr. 

whose life, dearer to him than his "Sir Lionel Atherton, are you here f" 

own, had oeen lost through his in- he cried, coming close up to him, * 

strumentality. clenching his fists, and speiddng in 

All doubt was over now ; suspense a voice half choked with fury. "Ac- 
had ended in an awful certainty. The cursed villain, are you come to look 
dreary gloom had deepened into a on her whom you have murdered 1 
ni^t of darkness and despair. Dare you enter my presence— dare 

Clasping his hands over his tearless you meet her brother 9 Have you no 

e^es, he knelt beside her in perfect shame— no fear) Have you no value 

stillness; and €rod alone knew the for vour life ) I have promised A<7^ — 

mortal agony of those moments^ and or, cried Harry, with a tremendous 

how his whole soul was filled with a oath, "you should not live another 

tumult of passionate self-upbraidings. hour.'' 

"How could I let her gof I am Lionel looked up quickly. No word 

her murderer! I, who would have that Harry had spoken was heeded by 

died for her !" him in comparison to one ; and a little 

So there he knelt and prayed for gleam of hope suddenly lightened the 

death — death his only hope— death thick darkness of his despair, 
which to him was life indeed. Of "Promised!" he exclaimed in wild 

such anguish who shall dare to speak 9 eagerness; "teU me, for Heaven's 

and who shall dare to approach too sake, what promise? to whom gave 

curiously the holy, awful presence of you a promise ]" 
grief and death ? For a momeiit Harry stood irreso- 

He never knew how long it was, for lute, 
he soon lost consciousness of the outer " For her sake, tell me 1" 
world : but after a time, which had Then his pride gave way : he was 

seemea to him an eternity of suffering, not capable of the cruelty of leaving 

he was recalled to himself by rapid that almost frantic prayer unanswer- 

footsteps without Listening for a ed; and what would he not have done 

moment, he recognised the sound. for her sake? So he replied, but with 

Lionel was a brave man ; yet as he awful sternness, 
thought that in another moment he " With her dying breath she sent 
should be confronting Harry North, you her forgiveness — ^you, her mur- 
his very blood ran cold. Recovering derer ! Nay, more — she said 'twas 
himself with a great eftbrt^ and sum- not your doing; but God knows it 
moning up all his courage, he deter- was ! I may not avenge her, but He 
mined to go forth and meet him ; for will !" He turned abruptlv, fearful 
he feared that words might be spoken lest in another moment iJl her words 
which would desecrate tne sanctity of should be forgotten, and the slight 
the place where he was standing. So barrier of his self-control should be 
with a firm resolution that let Han^y swept away in an overwhelming tor- 
say what he would he would bear it rent of passion, 
patiently, he opened the door, though "Harry, hear me speak," Lionel 
his hand shook so that he could implored, in such a tone of agony, 
scarcely turn the handle, and went that Harry,despite himself, was forcea 
out A few paces in the dunly-lighted to pause and listen. " Harry, bear 
corridor brought him face to face with with me a little — I confess it all — it 
the man whom he had most fatally was my doinc — I am her murderer, 
ii^ured, but whom, next to his bro- though I would have died rather than 
ther, he most deeply loved. that a hair of that blessed head should 

^t would have been little wonder have been harmed. I dare not ask 



1 86 1 .] A Home Divided agaifut lUdf, 1 7 

you to forgive me — ^though, thanks be the blood rushed crimson to his ashv 
to Almighty Gh>d, she has forgiven cheeks. ^ Yes, Harry '' he answered, 
me; but, by the suffering you endure, firmly, '*I do think that my honour 
have a little pity for me. You do not is unimpeachable in this matter. I 
mourn alone. I know how you loved would not willingly give you pain ; 
her ; but what is your love to mine 1 but the respect that is due to myself 
Your loss is great : but I have lost my and the honour of my house demand 
all.*' His voice faltered, but no tears that I should reply to you. The duty 
came to his relief; and^ after a mo- I owe to Ood is above the duty I owe 
ment, he added, in a tone of calm to any man or woman, be they who 
despair, *' I have no hope in this they may ; and what I did I believed 
world. What is there left for me to — ^yes, and do believe — was in accord- 
live for ? Ood grant that death be ance with that higher duty. I have 
not far off !'' Be was silent ; he but done for my cause what, I doubt 
claspNod his hands, and his head sank not, you or any other honest man of 
heavily upon his breast your party would have done for yours. 

Harry was strangely moved, and a There were no other means of sending 
sudden revulsion of feeling took olace the despatches: I had no messenger, 
in his really generous heart Uould I coula not take them myself, for I 
he see the man, whom once he had so had received an imperative call to 
loved and honoured, crushed, heart- serve my cause elsewhere. If it had 
broken, bowed down by the same not been for her — ^for that devotion 
sorrow which had darkened all his too lofty for me even to pive it a 
own life — could he see this, and add name — ^theKing*s service micht have 
bitterness to that sorrow! Again suffered serious injury. I, indeed, did 
those dyinffwords seemed sounded in waverat the first — my courage failed 
his ears, **f*oigive Sir Lionel !''— and me. I thought it enough to risk my 
had not the promise he had given all own life— I thought it hard to b« 
the sanctity of an oathi Yet how compelled to hazard something so in- 
could he rorgive what appeared to finitely more precious ; but she knew 
him the foulest, cruelest, treachery ; her duty better than 1 did mine. She 
had not Lionel sinned beyond forgive- bade me send her on this mission, 
ness ? Harry paced hurriedly up and and I dared not disobey her command, 
down the corridor in a storm of con- which was the command also of mine 
flicting emotions ; his better nature own conscience.'' 
struggling with evil passions for the '*Duty !" repeated Harry, in atone 
mastery. He had thought he hated of bitter scorn ; " this comes of those 
Lionel unto death — he had thirsted to accursed notions which you call 
take his life ; but the deep affection he loyalty ! Was it your duty — was it 
had felt from childhooa for his best honourable in you to engage my sister 
and kindest friend was still a living in any scheme to further the interests 
power. of that party against which you knew 

At last he again approached Lionel, I had drawn my sword— an^r scheme 
who all this wnile had remained mo- to iivjure my cause 1 What right had 
tionleas as a statue, and said^ in a voice vou to do this ? And more than all — 
of passionate reproach, '* Lionel, how how dared you engage her in anv 
can I forgive you ? — you whom I have scheme which vou knew to be hazard- 
loved and honoured above all men. ous to her life i You knew the dan- 
How have you repaid me 1 You have ger, yet you let her go 1 No matter 
betrayed and deceived me — ^you have that she sided with the King, how 
murdered her whom you say you love ! dared you forget that she had a bro- 
Lionel, Lionel, whom I once called ther who served the Parliament — a 
my friend, who was to me as a bro- brother who would exact a heavy 
ther, could the deadliest enemy have reckoning with you for thisi Sir 
more cruelly iigured me 1 If nought Lionel, you owe your life to her whose 
else oould have kept you from deceit deathvou caused." 
and treacheiy, ought not honour? '* Harxy," Lionel replied, with 
Think you, Sir Lionel," asked Harry, mournful firmness, " her life was 
his wrath again rising—" think you dearer to me than the whole world ; 
that your honour is unimi>eachable in but the cause of God and my King - 
this matter?" is still more dear. For that cause I 

Lionel proudly raised his head, and have dared to hazard all ; and if any- 

VOL. LVIL— NO. COCXXXVII. i 



18 A House Divided against lUelf. [Jan. 

thing yet remains for me to lose, for trembling 8te{>s. He had not seen hia 

that cause I will dare to hazard it." sister since his recovery from that 

Harry was silent for a moment ; merciful swoon which had deadened 

then continued, in a milder tone, the agony of parting, and he longed 

" But tell me, Lionel, should you not to enter the little room where she 

have remembered my principles and was laid to rest ; but he dared not, he 

respected them? I remembered yours ; felt he had no right to look upon 

but it was only to respect them ; for that countenance, to him so sacred, 

when was my friendship for you with her dying charge yet unfulfilled, 

changed by our difference m opinion % He had not yet forgiven Lionel. 

Did I not love you and trust in you Yes : he might forgive Lionel, but 

as though we had been fighting side could he forgive Colonel Sydney ? 

by side ? There were some who At that sudden, startling remem- 

doubted my integrity because 1 did brance of the man whose greater of- 

thus love and trust so notorious a fence had been for a while lost sight 

malignant ; but what cared I for that ? of in his wrath at Lionel's lesser of- 

Did I not confide in you wholly, un- fence, everjrthing else was forgotten, 

Buspectingly ; was not my trust in you and all Harry's better thoughts were 

unbounded] — ^you whom I thought swallowed up in one wild desire — a 

the soul of truth and honour ! 0, frenzied craving after the blood of 

Lionel, was ever friend so faithful to him by whom Courtenay's had been 

thee as I have been ? Would to God shed. Mentally vowing that he would 

thou hadst been as faithful unto me ! be avenged or die, he retraced his 

You have brought ruin on us all : tell steps, rushed past Lionel, and ran 

me how can I forgive you ?" swiftly down the stairs. 

Lionel made no reply, but he felt But no sooner had he reached the 

that at that moment he would gladly hall below, than a second thought 

have laid down his life to gain that checked his headlong course. He was 

for which his stricken soul hungered a prisoner and unarmed, and how 

and thirsted — Harry's fordveness. could he obtain the needful weapons 1 

But during that short silence, as he Harry stamped upon the ground, and 

stood waiting for an answer, suddenly gnashed his teeth with the fury of a 

and heavily did the accuser's con- wild beast who sees himself deprived 

science smite himself. Was there of his lawful prey. Was he thus to 

nought for which he needed pardon ? be defeated ; was the cup of sweet 

Had he no share in that day's work 1 revenge thus to be dashed from his 

— a lesser share, indeed, than Lionel's, very lips ] 

but still enough to cause him a life- He was standing in the vestibule 

long sorrow and remorse. Had it not of the inn. It was a scene of the 

been for the unconscious treachery wildest disorder, bearing evidence 

of the brother, whose duty and whose that if the recent fight had been 

joy it was to protect her from the short, at the same time it had been 

slightest injury, might she not, at hotly contested. The front door 

this very minute, have been living, was battered down, and the thresh- 

her safety and her liberty secure 1 old stained with a pool of blood. 

" Lionel," he murmured, in broken Here and there the walls had been 
accents, as the torture of that horrible perforated with bullets, and the floor 
remembrance wrung the confession was everywhere strewed with broken 
from him, " you know not all. I am glass and fragments of shattered fur- 
not -wholly guUtless, though my guilt niture. As Harry looked impatiently 
is nought to yours, for I did it igno- around, his quick glance was sudden- 
rantly ; you saw the consequences ly arrested, and his keen eyes glitter- 
from the beginning. But I cannot ed, for amongst all this confusion 
speak of this ; it kills me to think of there lay a brace of pistols, carelessly 
it Accursed be those, whoever they flung upon a chair. Not a soul was 
be, who have wrought these cruel di- near, and the sentinel Harry saw, 
visions between us all !'* through the broken window, walking 

Tears filled his eyes and choked up and down the court-yard, could 

his voice, and his slight frame was not observe the movements of those 

convulsed with passionate sobs. Turn- within. He darted towards the pis- 

ing hastily away, he quitted Lionel tols, seized them eagerly : they were 

and again paced the corridor with loaded, and Harry's face lighted up 



1661.] A House Divided against Itself, 19 

with a smile of fearful joy. And Captain North in the slightest esti- 
now to find the Colonel mation, as a " silly boy/' he had quite 
Eutering impatiently, one of the expected to find that his sister pK)8- 
numerous passages of the rambling sessed a strong family likeness to him, 
old house, he saw a Royalist soldier and that from her his artfully-as- 
pacing to-and-fro, and instantly con- sumed disguise would easily draw 
eluding him to be placed there as a forth, not only the much-desired 
guard, he accosted him with, " Where packet, but hosts of confidential se- 
xa your prisoner, Colonel Sydney 1" crets, and the whole history of Sir 
The man hesitated a moment, his Lionel and his plots. And if, by any 
suspicions half aroused by Harry's chance, this should not answer, there 
fierce tone and impetuous manner ; were plenty of strong arguments to 
but, upon the question being authori- fall back upon. And what woman's 
tati7e^ repeated, the sentinel, know- resolution would not be scattered to 
ing him to be the friend of Sir Lionel the winds by the sight of a single 
Atherton, pointed to a door at the loaded carbine, more especially if tol- 
further end of the passase. lowed up by a brother's authoritative 
How Hany's heart beat as he commands or loving entreaties, as the 
looked around the room occupied by case might be ? But everything had 
the Colonel ! Its very atmosphere failed ; and he, a man and a soldier, 
quickened the growth of his desire had been defeated by a woman 1 
for vengeance ; for it was the very Shame and dishonour ! " But I did 
room which, not three hours before, conquer her, and she has met with 
he had entered, in the unsuspecting the punishment that her treachery so 
innocence of his heart, gay and happy, richly merited." There was little 
full of buoyant life and spirits : and consolation in that, however. It was 
here, the next moment, all his mirth an easv thing to conquer bodily 
had fled for ever, and his very blood strength which, compared to his 
was frozen at those few words spoken own, was wealmess ; an easy thing 
by the Colonel with such cruel calm- to slay the defenceless and unarmed ; 
nesd ; and, more than all, here — ^yes, but it was no easy thing, nay, he was 
here — in his misery, he h:ul humbled powerless to bend the siteadfast will 
himself to kneel at the Colonel's feet of her who, in the majesty of strength 
and pray for mercy ; and here — should that indeed was superhuman had Did 
he not remember that 1 — here had he defiance to his threats, and had given 
been repulsed with haughty scorn : a welcome to her fate, knowing that 
and here the hour of death had in death she could serve her cause 
sounded ; and from here he had gone as she never could in life. He was 
forth to see his sister die. She never defeated, and he knew it. 
would return ! But he had returned, Moreover, the poor Colonel had 
and should it not be as her avenger ! other causes of complaint. At the 
Utterly unconscious of the terrible very moment of his leaving the inn, 
emotions he was exciting, Sydney was on his return to head-quartere, he had 
quietly seated, his back towards been surprised by that meddling, plot- 
Harry, at that very tablo on which, a ting Sir Lionel Atherton. Overpower- 
little while ago, he had outspread, ed, and made prisoner with all his 
with such exulting joy, those tempt- men, the despatches had been torn 
ing, but, as he soon found, incompre- from his careful guardianship, and 
hensible despatches of Sir Lionel restored to their rightful owner. He 
Atherton. His elbow resting on the was not allowed his liberty on parole ; 
table, his head upon his hand, his and he had reason to be thankful for 
dark brows bent into a harsher frown the smallest mercies, for the officer of 
than ever, and his thin lips compress- the troop which had accompanied 
ed, the prisoner seemed lost in gloomy Lionel from Bradford swore tnat, if 
thought And good cause had he, it had not been for the promise of 
inde^^ for unpleasant reflections. He quarter, which he deeply regretted he 
had laid his plans skilfully and well, had given, lon^ before this Sydney 
and had spared no pains m their ex- should be hanging from the nearest 
ecution ; and to be baffled by a wo- tree, as having his brains blown out 
man : it was gall and wormwood ! was far too great an honour for such 
And he had reckoned, too, so confi- a man. 

dently on success. Holding, as he did, But the Colonel's adventures for 

2* 



so A Houie Divided agairmt Ittelf, [Jan. 

that day were not yet over. The slight the striking of that fatal clock which 

noise of Harry's entrance aroused him had rung Oourtenay's death-knell ! 

from his reverie : he turned, and rose Whose death would it toll for now % 

hastily to his feet. There was some- Ab he asked hims^ that question 

thing in the look of the "silly bov'* his face grew even paler than before, 

that for a moment blanched his cheeKS, his handS trembled, and he shuddered 

and made him (^uail ; but he recovered in an agony of fear. But it was fear 

himself immediately, and, haughtily of himself, not of his enemy; for dared 

drawing himself up, said, in his old he live — still more, dared he die — 

sarcastic tone, "To what am I indebted with that awful load of guilt upon his 

for this honour. Captain North ?" conscience 1 Nay, for the sake of her 

The very sound of Sydney's voice for whom he had gone thus far, he 

raised a storm in Harry's breast ; it could go no farther. "Not by your 

needed all his self-control to check hand, Harry ! *' 

the withering curses which rose to He had just time to form a sudden 

his lips ; but the remembrance of the resolution, that, notwithstanding the 

sentinel without, and the necessity of shot which he knew would be aimed 

keeping himself tolerably quiet if he at his heart, he would return it by 

would execute his purpose, prevented firing in the air, when the signal was 

him from making any reply until he given. The sound of the first stroke 

had shut the door, locked it, and put of the clock was drowned in the sharp 

the key into his pocket— a proceeding report of Sydney's pistol ; and Harry, 

which somewhat disconcerted the vamly attempting to fire his own, 

Colonel. Then, striding up to his ^aggered, and fell heavily on the 

antagonist, he presented him with the ground. 

brace of pistols, and said, in a low, Was he dead? The Colonel did 

emphatic voice, "Take one, and de- not stay to look ; he saw only the still 

fend yourself. We do not both quit loaded pistol lying oil the ground, 

this room alive." Quick as thought he stooped down, 

" Captain North ! — this to me 1" snatched it greedily from Harry's un- 

cried the Colonel. "Know you to resisting grasp, and darted to the 

whom you are speaking?" window. 

"Yes, I do know, indeed, to whom A sentinel had been posted in the 

I am speaking ! and the world shall garden, and, alarmed at the report of 

not hold us both another hour !" fire-arms, he was hurrying to the win- 

For a moment Sydney wavered, dow. Sydney stood, half hidden from 
Should he summon the guard, and his view, coolly waiting, pistol in hand, 
consign Harry to his care as a raving for his approach ; when, as the soldier, 
maniac, to be pitied, but at the same surprisea and angry, looked up to ad- 
time to be closely watched ? But dress him, he raised his arm, took a 
Sride prevailed, and the desire of rid- deliberate aim, and shot him through 
inghimself from a troublesome enemy the head. 
— for the Colonel always hated those Then leaping from the window, 
whom he had iiyured. " So be it, which was but a few feet from the 
then," was his calm answer, as he took ground, and over the dead body of 
the pistol from Harry's hand. the sentinel, Sydney dashed through 

"And now," continued the latter, the garden, trampling down the flower- 
retreating a few steps, his eve steadily beds, cleared the low fence at a bound, 
fixed upon the Colonel, while his hand and the next moment was running 
pointed to the clock — "and now, Co- for his life through the orchard ana 
lonel, do you see that clock ] Do you across the fields, 
remember what you said? — ^When it Meanwhile the guard within was 
striketh, you die. In another moment not idle. He, too, had taken the 
it will strike again : let that be our alarm, and was bringingallhisstrength 
signal now." and the butt-end of his carbine to 

Sydney assented with a haughty bear upon the door, and was loudly 

bow : and in silence the two men took demanding entrance. His shouts 

up their positions, facing each oth^r brought several of his comrades to his 

with looks of undying hatred. assistance ; between them all they 

How long those moments seemed to succeeded in breaking down the door, 

Harry, as he stood waiting for the and one over another they rushed into 

ippointed signal, again listening for the room. 



1861.1 A Boiue Diinded against Itself. 21 

How they stamped and swore, and attending to the wound in Hanys 

made the walls ring with their threats side. In a few minutes he had the 

and curses, as they beheld, to their inexpressible joy of seeing the wan 

utter confusion, that Sydney had dis> cheeks of his patient warm and 

appeared ! The dead or dying Cap- brighten with a little colour. Sighing 

tain caused not the slightest sensation deeply once or twice, Harry at length 

in comparison to the vanished Colonel; opened his eyes, and gazed around 

" it was but one roundhead the less him with a wild, affrighted look, 

in the world ;" so they took no heed which became calm and intelligent aa 

of Harry, but employed themselves in it rested upon Lionel, and he mur- 

the most al>surd coi\jectures as to the mured the latter's name. 

whereabouts of his superior officer. Lionel stooped his head, in an agony 

One man looked up the cliimney, of longing to hear what Harrv was 

anotherswore the foulfiend must have about to say, and fearing to lose a 

flown away with the Colonel, when a single syllable. 

third pleaded that ^*he could not be '^Lionel, I did not fire — I repented 

called a thief if he had, for sure every at the last moment Lionel, if I die 

one had a right to his own"— when — remember — I forgave you." 

the doleful exclamations of one sol- '^ Thank God 1" Lionel solemnly 

dier, who, wiser than his fellows, had exclaimed, as he clasped the white, 

had shrewd suspicions as to how mat- chilly hand that Harry had feebly 

ters stood, caused them all to come extended ; then, bending still lower, 

crowding round the window, and the he pressed a fervent kiss upon the 

corpse of their comrade enlightening icy forehead of his friend. 

them as to the manner of the prisoner's In less than another hour the 

exit, they indulged in the use of some Crown Inn was restored to compara- 

rather strong language, and heaped tive silence and solitude. TheBoyalist 

the choicest epithets of their vocabu- Captain returned to head-quarters 

lary upon the Colonel, who by this with part of his troop and all his 

time wajB far beyond the reach both prisoners, excepting Colonel Sydne^r, 

of their curses and their carbines. who, having had a good start of his 

Silence and order were suddenly re- pursuers, and knowing the country 

stored by the entrance of the Royalist far better than they did, contrived to 

Captain, who sternly demanded the elude them, and so, a few hours later, 

reason of this uproar ; and, on being he was welcomed by his brother offi- 

informed, in ratner a crestfallen man- oers in Bath. 

ner, ordered in high wrath half-a-dozen That evening, every house in the 

men instantly to mount and pursue ouiet little Gloucestershire village was 

the Colonel "And one of vou," he nlled with tears and mourning : for 

added, '*go and ask Sir Lionel to come that village was entered bv a solemn 

hither." procession. Soldiers with lowered 

Lionel came, looking like a ghost, arms guarded a bier covered with a 

pale and speechless, feeling as though snow-white pall, and a Utter in which 

this last blow must, indeed, prove his was borne a wounded man ; and an- 

death. *^ This is my doing. I am his other man, wounded too, but not in 

murderer as well as hersr body, rode behind, closelv muffled in 

" Cheer up. Sir Lionel," said the his cloak. And so the brother and 

Cavalier officer; "cheer up. Poor sister were brought back to the home 

voung North is not dead; ne is only which that moining they had quitted 

Wly hurt, that is all. There is a in the pride and glory of strength and 

worse business than this, though, 'pon life — ^to that home which no more 

my honour ; that rascally roundhead would be gladdened by sunshine, for 

old Colonel has made olf, and killed it was darkened forever with the sha- 

one of my men." dow of death. 

But Lionel heeded nothing but * » « « 

Harry. Roused bv the Captain's The sun had set at last, and the 

words, he hastened forwards, and longest day in lionel's Hfe was end^. 

kneeling down beside the cold, motion- Darkness was coming — darkness more 

less body, which he could scarcelv be- to be desired than light, as death was 

lieve retained any life, he busied him- than life, 

self in employing restoratives, and The sun had risen without a doud, 



A House Divided against Itself. [Jan. 

but now a storm seemed gathering, hastily forward, his face almost as 

Great piles of purple vapour, their pale as his brother*s, and stammering 

edges bathed in crimson, and dashed with eagerness, he cried. " Lionel, 

with streaks of fire, towered round what is it ] Are you ill?' 

the horizon. The broad massive " Yes — dying, as I think," was the 

front of Atherton Hall rose up black answer, in a voice that was indeed 

and clear against the evening sky, like that of a dying man. 

chimney and gable, turret and tower, John was too much shocked to 

strongly and sharply defined by the speak. The tired horse came to a 

glowing light behind. Itwasalreadv standstill of his own accord, but 

midnight in the cool avenue, which Lionel did not move ; and it was not 

for more than half a mile stretched till his brother, recovering himself, 

from the carved stone gateway, in a had given him the assistance of his 

straight line to the house, for the strong arm, that he was able feebly 

trees were tall and arched overhead, to dismount. When he had alighted, 

and even at noon day, it was always he could hardly stand, and, leaning 

dusk, like the aisle of a cathedral heavily on John, he staggered rather 

The thrushes had ceased their even- than walked into the house. There, 

song, and the only sound that broke gasping for breath, he sank into a 

the perfect stillness was the rustling chair just within the door, 

of tne leaves in the rising wind. John left him for a moment, and 

Late as it was, the master of the flew into an adjoining room ; then re- 
house had not yet returned, and his turned with a glass of wine, which he 
guest and brother was wandering up held to Lionel's livid lips. He drank 
and down the avenue alone ; lost in it with difficulty ; then, as he some- 
deep thought, as was his wont. What what revived, he tried to smile, and 
was the exact subject of his medita- whispered, " I thank you, I am 
tions we do not presume to say. It stronger now," — ^but too weary to say 
might have been religious liberty, or more then, he leant back, and shut 
it might have been military discipline, his eyes. 

— ^those two favourite topics with His brother bent over him, in a 

officers of the Independent denomi- perfect fever of affectionate anxiety, 

nation ; or it might have been of a Something in Lionel's face went to 

sadder and tenderer nature — of hopes his very heart : it was not simply the 

blighted because conscience was obey- deadlv pallor of the cheeks, which 

ed, and of her whom he was always had lost all their natiu-al, healthy 

struffgling, perseveringly, but unsuc- colour, or the dark shadows which 

cessfully, to forget. surrounded the dimmed eyes, or the 

From this reverie, whatever its cold moisture on the forehead, roimd 

nature, John Atherton was awakened which the fair soft hair hung lank 

by the sound of horse's feet upon the and loose, which gave him pain to 

gravel. Looking up, and straining see ; but it was the deep lines of care 

his eyes, he could distinguish a horse- and sorrow which had been traced on 

man riding up the avenue. Who could Lionel's placid brow since he had 

it be ? Surely that horse, walking so parted from him two days ago, and 

slowly, at so weary and dejecta a the look of acute hopeless suffering 

pace, his neck drooped almost to the now worn by that countenance which 

ground, was not Lionel's " gallant then had expressed the most perfect 

grey," which always dashed gaily up peace. What was it ailed him ? Was 

the avenue, at a swinging trot? StiU he ill in mind or in body? John 

less could that man, almost bent sighed deeply as he remembered that 

double, stooping over his horse's on the following morning he was 

mane, painfully supporting himself bound by inexorable duty to leave his 

by his hands resting on the saddle brother and return to his quarters ; 

before him, swaying helplessly to-and- and he sighed to think of Lionel's 

fro at every step— -could that man be dreary, solitary life, longins for the 

Lionel? Lionel, with his firm seat, hundredth time that he had the best 

his stalwart form, and his erect and of companions, and that Courtenay 

manly bearing? North would be to him what he 

"^es, it was Lionel, and John felt feared no other woman ever could be. 

eart sink within him. Stepping For Lionel could not forget her, on 



1861.] A Hotue Divided against lUelf, ^ 

whom hiB affections were fixed hope- " Dear brother, I too could curse 

lessly, but for ever. The hearts of all who have acted unjustly in this 

half the voung ladies in the county matter." 

^were breaking for his sake, but John Lionel was in a moment recalled to 

knew well that none of these would his own gentle, loving nature. Rais- 

ever attain the honour, of which no ing his head, and looKing deeply dis- 

vroman in the world save Courtenay tressed, he answered sorrowfully, 

was worthy, of being Lionel's wife. "0, what have I said 1 John, I have 

With life, thought and memory re- iiy ured you as I have iiy ured everyone 

turned ; and when John asked him I care for. Will you grant me your 

whether he should not summon medi- forgiveness also? for, in truth, I 

cal aid, Lionel opened his eyes, and hardly knew what I was saying ; I 

raising himself from his reclining pos- am so very weaiy, my senses seem 

ture, said, almost sternly, " No, on almost to be leaving me.'* 

no account I am not ill — would that *' Nay, verily, there was nought in 

I were ! But she is dead." thy words for which thou needeet 

"Dead!" cried John, hoiTor-struck; forgiveness. And if there had been, 

" Courtenay dead ! My poor Lionel !" what would I not forgive from thee, 

Lionel looked up wildly at his Lionel ? What hast thou not forgiven 

brother. The fading evening light from me r 

glanced in from an opposite window After a short silence, feeling it was 
upon the tall figure of the Parlia- due to John, Lionel proceeded to give 
mentary major. Something in his him in as few words as possible, for 
dress or his accoutrements, or it might every word was torture, the history 
have been the colour of his scarf, re- of that dreadful day. John heard him 
called the most terrible associations, to the end almost without remark ; 
and for a moment the brother was he was perfectly stunned by the suc- 
forgotten in the Puritan. Lionel cession of horrors that was now re- 
started to his feet, and ex.claimed, vealed to him, till at last, when 
fiercely, " It was your doing — you, and Lionel passionately exclaimed, " Have 
such as you ; it was the men of your I not cause to curse the day when I 
own regiment — your own Colonel! was bom?" he answered, m a voice 
Shall I not curse all who serve the so earnest, it was almost solemn. 
Parliament ?" Then, exhausted by " Every one else hath cause to bless 
his vehemence, he fell back into his that day beyond all other. Lionel, 
seat, and covered his face with his Courtenay North is the noblest of 
hand& Ood's creatures save one !" He gazed 

John staggered as though Lionel at his brother with reverential afiec- 
had struck bim. Had then Courte- tion, but dared to say no more, 
nay met with a violent death ? And For a while silence was restored to 
was it by the hands of his companions the old hall, and the shadows deepen- 
and associates that his brother's hap- ed into night John seated himself 
pinesB had been destroyed ? He was beside his brother, and induked to the 
cut to the heart by Lionel's words, full his gloomy musings. What could 
It was literally the first time, through- he say ? now, that for the first time, 
out his whole life, that he had spoken their relative positions were reversed, 
to any living being, least of all to his and Lionel, who had ever been his 
brother, a single word partaking in brother's consoler, now stood himself 
the slightest degree of unkindness or in need of consolation. In the first 
injustice. John was not offended— moment of enthusiasm John forgot 
far from it, resentment was the last the cause in the sufferers for it But 
thought in his mind : but his eves Courtenav's self-devotion, noble as it 
were suddenly opened to see what was, sunk into nothingness as corn- 
must be the sufferings which could pared to Lionel's. For those the 
wring such a cry of pain from that world calU martyrs, such as Courtenay, 
brave and patient heart. Feeling in- lose life indeed, but they gain glorv ; 
stinctively that when restored to him- but what shall we say of him, wno 
self, Lionel's first feeling would be losing for conscience sake that which 
one of self-reproach, and, dreading lest is to nim of such infinite importance 
this pain should be added to the other, that his own life seems worthless in 
John— his usual austerity of manner comparison, gains only shame and 
strangely softened— said, kindly, dishonour, and if the approval of his 



514 A ffotue Divided agodiut lUelf, [Jan. 

conscience, yet the self-reproach of his which the present strife was almost 

heart 1 bloodless. 

Yes, Lionel and Courtenay were " It is an omen," said John, under 
martyrs — ^but for what ! was it not his breath, shuddering at his own su- 
for the cause of error against truth 1 perstitious fancies. 
Noble and true-hearted man and wo- " Yes, it may be so," answered Id- 
man, how comes it that your eyes onel thoughtfully, a« standing by his 
were so fatally blinded t brother, and laying his hand upon his 

"Lionel," said John, very sadly, shoulder, he looked down calmly at 

for he was vexed with doubts and the weapon at his feet. "The war is 

perplexities, " I pray God to comfort coming very near us. 0, John, I long 

thee, for how can 11 I know the to rest my weary head; I should 

very sight of me must be hateful to sleeo very quietly on the battle field." 

you." " l^ay," was John's vehement reply, 

" Nay, speak not thus," replied his shuddering more violentlv than before, 

brother ; " you are the only comfort and his fearless heart, that had ever 

left to me ; and yet I have a comfort risen high at the prospect of danger, 

which you cannot give : I have done now strangely sinking, " you must 

my duty. Men will call me cruel — not wish to die, for the sake of all 

I fear they will even call me dis- those whose example and whose bene- 

honoured ; but I know I have done factor you have ever been, and for the 

my duty." sake of him to whom you are the best 

At that, a thought suddenly flashed of brothers, the best of friends." 
into John's mind. Had not others Lionel answered by warmly grasp- 
done their duty ? Had not Colonel ing his brother's hand ; then exclaim - 
Sydney acted rightly in thus obeying ed, "And now farewell, for I most 
the resolution of the Parliament 1 go." 

Was not that doom, stern and cruel as " Go ! and to-night ! Whither?" 

it had appeared at first, only merited John asked in astonishment, 

by Courtenay ? And if John had been " Whither should I go but to Harry 1 

in his superior's place, must he not I had not lefb him but to see you and 

have acted as he had done, despite to tell you all," Lionel replied, as he 

friendship and esteem for his unfor- turned towards the door, 

tunate prisoner ? " What if duty But John laid his hand upon his 

ever called me," John mentally ex- arm, and sought to detain him. "Stay 

claimed, as that conviction forced it- here this one night, I pray you. Think 

self upon his mind, and made his ofyourself for once. You are ill, you 

very blood run cold, " to take a life will kill yourself." 

venr dear unto me 1" "And what of thati" answered Li- 

The next moment the stillness of onel mournfully. " My only hope is 

the hall was rudely broken by the that Grod will take my life, and spar« 

loud, startling, ringmg of some heavy Harnr's. But I am not ill ; you need 

metallic substance upon the oaken not tear for me. And I must go to 

floor, at the very feet of the two him ; I will not leave him night nor 

brothers. Too dark for them at first day ; I will tend him and watch by 

to distinguish what it was, surprised him until he is recovered My poor 

and alarmed, they sprans from their Harry ! I have made shipwreck of all 

seats. " What was that V cried John, your happiness !" 

as the echoes died away ; then ex- " At least, if you must go, let me 

amining the spot from whence the go with you," so John still pleaded. 

sound had issued, he found that one But Lionel refused with so much 

of the numerous swords, which, firmnessthat John could say no more, 

with suits of armour, decorated the "No/' he replied. solemnly; "to that 

lofty walls, had broken from its fas- house I must go alone ; but think of 

tening and fallen upon the ground, me this night; pray that God will he 

It had been worn by an ancestor, a with me through the valley of the 

certain Sir John Atherton ; and rusty shadow of death." 

and battered, it bore many marks of. Again the brothers clasped hands, 

the hard service it had seen at Tow- their hearts too full to speak; till Lioni^ 

ton and Tewkesbury, and other bat- turned away, and leaving the hall, 

ties of those civil wars, compared to went forth into the darkness. 



1861.] A HouK Divided against lUelf. 25 



CHAFTKB VL 
lAirsDOvrM. 



It ia the Fiflh of July : one of those swords, and crying to their followers, 
days which filled English hearts and " Come on, for God and King Char- 
homes with moununff, and dyed £ng- les 1" On they dashed up the hill. 
lish ground with English blood ; one almost unsupported ; Lionel ahead 
of those days whose morning saw no- of erery one, nis courage the terror 
ble hearts beating high with enthusi- of the enemy, and the wonder of all, 
astic loyalty to the Church of their who thought that day that, with Sir 
fathers, and to their crowned and Nicholas Slanning, he was immortal, 
anointed Sovereign — ^with passionate Down came from the breastworks on 
love of liberty and lofty patriotism, the brow of the hill the bullets like 
go forth to battle; and whose evening hail whistling through the thick 
saw those brave hearts stilled, and branches of the trees, down came shot 
heard a voice of lamentation and bit- and cannon-ball, and down went many 
ter weeping of those who refused to a high-bom Cavalier, whose plumed 
be comforted for their children, be- morion and gorgeous dress afforded a 
cause they were not mark for Puritan muskets. 

While preparing for the fearful Then the trumpets rang out again, 
contest, at the price of which they and the soldiers with fresh courage 
trusted to procure peace for beloved advanced to the charge, and gallant 
Enffland, the two opposing brothers horses and gallant riders rushed vali- 
haa knelt in solemn prayer : Lionel antly up the hill, led on by the brave 
in the auiet of his own home ; John young Prince Maurice, over heaps of 
on the oleak heights of Lansdown. slain, through blood, and fire, and 
The^ might have heard the answer smoke : Lionel, ever in the thickest 
to their pravers in the shouts of tri- of the fiffht, conspicuous everywhere 
umph which rose alternately from by his tall white crest and gleaming 
Royalists and Puritans, as victory de- sword, animating all by his dauntless 
clared itself now on the one side and spirit. His horse was shot under him 
no won the other. And this day, claimed and fell, and they rolled over to- 
by both parties as their own, was but gether ; but he was up again in a 
an emblem of the whole of that great moment and unhurt rushed on. 
strife, when, after long years of agony The Royalists had fallen upon a 
and persecution, both gained the vie- body of the Parliamentary troops, 
tory, and purchased with tears and and were making them give ground 
blood, crowns of martvrdom.for them- in every direction ; and Oonel^ glow- 
selves, and peace, and £lory, and free ing with triumph, was cheenng on 
laws and lawful freedom for their his men, when, in the heat of the 
country. conflict, his sword was shivered to 
* * * the hilt ; and, pierced in the breast 
While the fierce battle raged in the before he could recognise his assail- 
deep valley and on the wooded sides ant, he sank bleeding on the grass, 
of Lansdown, till a crimson river ran There was a cry of ** Lionel !'' Turn- 
down the green slopes ; while the long ing his eyes upwards he saw a tall 
mm was ploughed up with cannon Parliamentary officer standing over 
nhlls, or trampled down or heaped him. It was John, 
with dead ; wnUe lightning flashed He had sprung from his horse, dis- 
and thunder rolled from the artilleiy, covering the instant after his sword 
and thick clouds of white smoke shut had made the deadly thrust, that it 
out the sight of the sky, and the earth was his brother whom, in the ezcite- 
shook wiui the fury of the desperate ment and confusion of the battle, he 
encounter, Sir Lionel Atherton was, had unwittingly wounded, and was 
like other officers, at the head of his now lookingdown upon him in speech- 
men, encouraging those who at the less horror and remorse. As their 
beginning of the fight had been dis- eyes met, Lionel gave a little start of 
heartened by the far superior arms of recognition, and a sickening shud- 
the enemy. On dashed those '* brave- der ran through hiuL It was but for 
hearted gentlemen,^* waving their a moment; the next his pallid face 



89 A House Divided cLgainst lUdf* [Jan. 

was lighted up with his old sweet said the soldier to himself, as he ran 

BmOe, he put out his hand and was off. " Alack that I should have lived 

about to speak, when a loud shout to see the day when Master John 

rent the air, and in an instant John should have taken his life ! I fear 

was surrounded. " Strike him down ; but what 'tis all over with him. He'll 

strike down the roundhead villain never live till night." 

who has slain Sir Lionel !" John laid his brother gently on the 

For one little instant John felt a mtss beneath a tree, then goosing 

thrill of wild, almost delirious joy, as his helmet, filled it quickly at a little 

the swords flashed in his eyes, stream which flowed close by, and 

" Thank Grod, I shall not live to see dashed a few drops on his face ; then 

him die!" But the thought had taking a flask of brandy from his own 

hardly crossed his mind, when the pocket, he poured a little down 

weapons were lowered, and the iioners throat, again putting his arm 

threatening gestures of his assailants round him, and supporting his head 

changed into those of supreme aston- upon his shoulder. He knew that he 

ishment ; they stood motionless and still lived, for he had felt his heart 

dumb, for Lionel, with a sudden des- beat against his own as he carried 

perate effort raised himself to his feet, him; but would he ever revival 

and with all his remaining strength would those eyes ever open % those 

contrived to throw his arms about pale lips ever move again % 

John. " No, no," he cried, " ye shall And who can tell what passed 

not hurt a hair of his head ; he is my through John's mind as he looked 

brother 1" And then the noble head upon the form but a few minutes ago 

sank senseless on the Puritan's strong and stalwart, full of life and 

shoulder. energy, in the pride of vigorous man- 

They could not harm John now ; hood, now prostrate on the ground, 
and one of the Royalist soldiers, a unconscious, motionless, the great 
Marshfield man, and a tenant on strength gone, and life seemingly ebb- 
Lionel's estate, pressed forward and ing fast away. And whose hand had 
said, wrought this sudden change 1 

*^ Master Athei-ton, I knew not At last a faint colour came back 

it was you. God forgive you, sir, into Lionel's white cheeks, and his 

what is this you have done ] You eyes slowly unclosed, 

have slain your own brother ! Now " Is that you, John ? Then you are 

you will yield yourself my prisoner, safe, and all is well." 

of course, sir, and come along with "Yes, you saved my life," answered 

me, and let us carry Sir Lionel to his brother, with unnatural calmness, 

some place of safety ; maybe there " and I have taken yours." 

is life in him yet, poor gentleman !" Then he burst out wildly, " My 

John, without answering a word, God have pity ! My sorrow is greater 

had torn off his scarf in eager haste, than I can bear ! Why did you not 

and bound it tightly round the bleed- let them strike me down 1 Why did 

ing chest, then giving up his sword, you not let me die ? Why did you 

he suffered himself to be led out of save me for this % 0, Lionel, Lionel, 

the battle. And so, carrying Lionel would to God I had died for thee, my 

tenderly in his arms, he was con- brother !" His voice was choked 

ducted by the Marshfield man to a in convulsive sobs, 

field somewhat protected by a high "John, dear John," said Lionel, 

wall, a spot of comparative safety. clasping his trembling hand, " grieve 

"He IS still alive, I think, sir," not forme; grieve not that you have 

said the soldier, " and the bleeding is shortened a sad and darkened life, 

nigh stopt, we may save him yet ; Your hand has but opened the gate 

there is water in that brook, throw of death, through which God will lead 

some over his face, 'twill revive him. me to a joyful resurrection. I was 

And now I must back to my post, very weary ; but I shall die happy in 

You'll give me your word of honour your arms. Dry your tears, you liave 

not to escape, of course, Master but given me what I longed for — ^the 

Atherton." blessed gift of death." 

John could not speak, but bowed " Though you forgive me, yet how 

^*- head in token of assent can I ever forgive myself ? 1 am an- 

^r gentleman; poor Sir Lionel !" other Gain, and the blood of my bro<- 



1861.] A House Divide against lisetf. 97 

ther crieth onto beaven for vengeance the dear enemv luring on his breast, 

against me ! Yet I did but obey my and he watched hmi, as it seemed, for 

conscience when I became vour enemy : several hours. As he knelt upon the 

I did it in the integrity of my heart grass, John earnestly pondered over 

Again tears prevented his utterance, what his brother had been saving; 

and again Lionel tried to console him. hoarding up the words which he 

'*! know you too well to think that knew — though he scarcely dared to 

you would ever act but according; to tell himself so — must be almost the 

youroonscience. I know you thought it last. 

your duty— youhaveprayedandsuflfer- Truly had Lionel said, "I have felt 

ed — ^your doctrines may be the deviFs like you." John knew now what it 

teaching — but your pureheart is God's was to suffer the agonies of remorse 

giving. This is a strange perplexing for the accidental consequences of an 

worIa-~I am well quit of it. I shall act which his conscience told him was 

know all soon— how we who both his duty. 

prayed so earnestly for Ood's guid- And not only the present, but the 

ance could have taken such diverse past, seemed to rise up in judgment 

paths. I shall underatand it all in a a^inst him. All the words which 

very little while. John, grieve not his fiery and impetuous temperament 

for me, 'tis I should grieve ^r you ; I had driven him on to utter to his 

know what it is to have caused the loss brother, words repented of as soon as 

of a life far dearer to me than mine own uttered ; all the youthful, unpremedi- 

— lost because I did what I believed to tated, very slight offences, which Ldo- 

be my duty. I would have died to save nel had long since forgiven and for- 

her — I have felt like you— I would gotten, weighed heavily upon his 

comfort you with the same comfort mind. 

wlierewith God comforted me in my Was this the way he now repaid 

tribulation'* the best of brothers, the dearest of 

He stopt short, sasping for breath, friends ? Was this the requital of all 

utterly exhausted by the ^^reat efforts Lioners kindness, that had been un- 

he had made in speaking. John varying from their earliest years, and 

thought he was dymg, and in an had shone brighter as John's life grew 

agony of alarm resorted to every mea- darker ? For Lionel had used his ut- 

Bure ne could think of in order to re- most endeavours to preserve peace 

vive him. After a little while he wa« between his father ana brother ; and 

successful ; and Lionel looked up when their differences had grown too 

gratefully at his brother. wide for reconciliation, he had pro- 

" Dost thou feel thyself better 1" voked and braved the fierce anger of 

asked John, in a voice trembling with Sir Walter, because he still loved and 

anxiety. " Go<l, let him live, or let befriended that brother, and had ever 

me die !" he cried in anguish, as an taken his part as much as duty to hie 

expression on Lionel's face told him King had allowed him. 

there was no hope. Butsomeof John's bitterest remem- 

'* I shall be hotter very soon ; but brances were the last few weeks : 

not here. I can speak no more now. how he had been warmly welcomea 

Pat thine arm around me, dear brother in his short, but happy visits to his 

— soviet me rest a little whila" old home, though m arms against 

Then closing his wearied eyes he Lioners cause ; and how their affec- 

seemed as though he slept, had not tion was unchanged, and they had 

his frequent sighs and the sharp seemed dearer to each other because 

spasms of pain which now and then of their sepiuration. Now, in the first 

passed over his countenance revealed battle in which Lionel had been pre- 

that he was awake and suffering. In sent, and in which, moreover, he had 

truth, he was enduring dreadful tor- engaged without his brother's know- 

ture ; but if it had oeen threefold le^e, the sudden, awful end had 

more acute, no sound of complaint come to their companionship, and 

would ever have passed his lips, for John by his own hand had destroyed 

was not John by his side ? John, all the happiness that was left to him 

whose misery was far greater than in lifa 

anyhe could suffer. No thought of reproach or anger 

The roar of battle did not cease ; against the author of his death had 

but the Puritan heeded nothing save ever entered Lionel's gentle heart ; 



S8 A HijvM Dvoided against lUdf. [Jan. 

and — 0, miracle of forgiveness, as it be called ; and the brothers, one time 

seemed to John — his only idea was mortalenemies for the sake of Heaven, 

how to save the life of his destroyer, but then eternal friends in Heaven, 

*' John," said Lionel, with a wist- should stand around God's throne 

ful tone in his feeble voice, " be a among the white-robed multitude 

friend topoor Harry, he is all alone who have come out of great tribula- 

now. He has been very nigh to tion. 

death. I thought this morning there * ♦ * * 
was a little hope. Be his friend ; com- There is ve^ little to add respect- 
fort him. Poor boy, may Grod bless ingthe fate of the three Puritans, 
him and restore him." The summer had passed into late 

" For your sake," answered John, autumn before Harry North was 

" I will, indeed, be his friend." quite recovered. He rose from his bed 

*' And, dear brother, I would ask of sickness a sadder and a wiser man. 

thee yet one more favour. We have He was no longer able to take part 

buried her in her own village church ; in the dissensions of his country ; he 

lay me by her side. Mine in heaven, could not ^oin with those who had 

though not on earth. Dear, I shall be made his life what it was, nor could 

with you very soon. I know you have he abjure all his former professions 

forgiven me, he murmured, as a radi- and engage in the service of the King, 

ant smile shone upon his dying coun- So he threw up his commission, and, 

tenance. leaving England to her fate, was, for 

" Thou wilt do this, John 1" two or three years, a solitary wan- 

" Thou knowest I would do any- derer upon the Continent. The latest 

thing thou askest," he replied, as the account that I can find of him is, that 

tears again blinded his eyes. he had returned and was living in his 

Lionel could scarcely speak, but he old home, lonely no longer, a happy 

pressed his brother's hand with a look husband and father, 

of peaceful content and trust. Colonel Sydney, after gaining many 

So he lay quiet a little while. Then honours during the wars in England, 

once more he exerted all his fast fail- went over to Ireland, where he Tound 

ing strength. "We were enemies — plenty of congenial employment, more 

we thought it right~we are friends especially distinguishmg himself at 

now. Kiss me before I go." the takmg of Drogheda. He died 

John bent his head, but would not during the Protectorate, it is said, 

dare to press the dying lips till he had greatly esteemed and respected 

humbly prayed, " Lionel, say you for- John Atherton did not long remain 

give me ; say the words, or my heart a prisoner, but soon gained his liberty 

will break." by exchange for a royalist officer. He 

"Forgive you! Sweetheart, more ; never returned to Marshfield, for 

I bless you : you have sent me home." that place was fraught with too many 

He was near his departure now. bitter recollections ever to be his 

The lips were very cold, and the death- home. He rose to a high rank in the 

damps were on the pallid forehead, army, and was notorious for his des- 

and the feeble pulse was almost gone, perate courage — ^the courage of a man 

And John knew that in a few nd- who longs for death. But death on 

nutes he should be alone. the batfle-field was not vouchsafed 

Then suddenly there rang through to him, and he survived, uniiyured, 

the air a loud, wild cheer, a cry of many a terrible conflict In after 

victory from glad, exulting hearts. yeara he was a staunch republican, 

The djring ears heard and knew the and gained some eminence as a cham- 

shout, and the dying eyes looked up. pion of the people's liberties after 

" Peace on eartn ; pray for peace, the accession of Cromwell to power. 

Thine England, — mme no more ; I He was, in consequence, committed 

seek a better country — an heavenly." to close imprisonment, the rigours of 

A moment more and he was there, which broke down his already en- 

His gentle spirit had ioined the feebled health ; and, after about a 

noble army of martyrs, and John was twelvemonth's captivity, he died, per- 

left awhile to wait, with faith and secuted, but not forsaken. 

«».tient well-doing, till he too should E t S. 



1861.] Thermof Antiques Redivivoe. 29 



THEBMJB ANTIQUE REDIVIVJS : 
OB THE THERMAL AltO TAPOUR BATHS OF TUB AlfCIBNTB, BBVITBD. 

In the writings of clever non-me- years in the use of baths of this kind, 

dical men upon medical subjects, has supplied the writer with ample 

truth and error, science and ignor- materials ; how far he has utilized 

ance, wisdom and folly, are usually them the profession and the public 

blended. How can it be otherwise, must decide. Patholo^, as cultivated 

when they have not learned the first in the present day with untiring zeal 

principles of the art, the practice of and energy, has opened up a more 

which they vainly attempt to teach 1 perfect knowledge of diseases than 

Of the true nature of diseases they was possessed by our predecessors ; 

are as ignorant as they are of their and some before unknown have been 

exciting causes, and tne action of brought to light, and named after their 

remedies prescribed for their cure. In discoverers, as " morbus Brightii," 

no other profession do ignorant pre- " morbus Addisonii," &a 

tenders arrogate to themselves so In aid of pathological researches, 

much wisdom, or affect to treat the the stethoscope, the spirometer, the 

painful experience ofits most wise and opthalmoscope, the various speculae. 

skilful practitioners with so much ob- the microscope, the test tube, ana 

loquy and contempt Such presump- post mortem examinations, have been 

tion might occasion only a smile if it called into requisition ; but what have 

were not for the direful consequences they revealed ) Nothing more than 

to the health and lives of persons the result of morbid processes, the 

who put confidence in their unblush- progress of organic degeneration, the 

ing effrontery. As religious senti- effects of a diseased condition of the 

ment is dcj^raded by the debasing whole body. Have they not rather 

^stem of Spiritualism, so is med- tended to divert attention from the 

ical science by the homoeopathic and true origin of all diseases, namely, 

mesmeric systemsu which ma^ be the operation of morbific causes upon 

rightly designated medical spiritual- the pabulum morbi contained in the 

ism.'* To divest the human mind of blood and nerve-fluid ? and by so much 

superstition in physic or divinity is have they not tended to retard rather 

impossible, but to foster superstition than to advance medicine as a pre- 

and make it subserve the purposes of servative and curative science f I 

gain, to the ruin of soul and body, is would not undervalue patholo^ ; it is 

the part of a dishonourable and dis- absolutely necessary for precision in 

honest man. diagnosis, and certainty in prognosis : 

There is no royal road to medical but we ought to be on our guard lest 

any more than to other learning; it obstruct the advance of medicine 

and ** medicine made easy " is the in its curative operations, 

bane of the sick. As to the discover- It is desirable to prove to the pub- 

ies of the laity, they are for the most lie, through the profession, that Ther- 

part recoveries from the obsolete de- mal Baths are legitimate medicinal 

positories of ancient medical lore, the agents, revived after long disuse ; and 

Greek and Roman Thermss, to wit that they promise to do good service, 

With extra professional and popu- better perhaps by preventing than by 
lar pamphlets and papers in periodi- curing disease, 
cals on tneTurkish or hot-air baths the It should be premised, however, 
public have been overwhelmed. What that these Thermal, or so-called Turk- 
is wanting is a sound scientific disser- ish hot-air baths, ought to be of a 
tation, as a guide to medical men in suitable degree of temperature and 
prescribing them for the preservation moisture, which may render them 




ably upon the subject. air of the desert, of which we read 

An experience of upwards of thirty such appalling accounts. 



30 Themue AniiqucB EedivivcB, [Jon. 

On visiting a TurkiBh bath in Lon- ape tribe. This admirable provision 

don, a medical man who had seen is evidently desired for the protec- 

and used the baths at Constantinople, tion. of the delicate and sensitive 

agreed with the writer in opinion that *' cutis'* beneath it. 

the temperature of 120° in the me- Through the "epithelium" two 

dium bath, and of 160° in the hot kinds of ducts pass— the ducts of the 

bath was much too high. Our opinion sudoriferous and of the sebiparoiis 

was overruled by the bath attend- glands, the orifices of which consti- 

ant, who said he had no objection to tute the pores of the skin. It is 

a bath heated to 300°. Perhaps not ; penetrated, besides, by innumerable 

but in a less jolly subject something nairs, dispersed over the surface of 

more than superfluous moisture might the body, formed by the secretion 

be exhaled, and the patient might, from the hair glands. The cutis com- 

and probably would, suffer from ex- prises the nerve " papillae," constitut- 

haustion. ing the organ of touch ; the sudon- 

To preserve the public from blind ferous and the sebiparous, or perspi- 

^des, and place the Thermal Baths ratory glands, with their separate 

in a just light, has become a duty in- ducts, and the hair glands, with their 

cumbent on the medical profession several capillary arteries, veins, and 

with respect to an agent which has absorbent vessels, irnited into one 

already attained great popularity, and strong tough membrane b^ areolar 

promises to be generally adopted. tissue. Beneath the " cuticle " and 

That the human frame is ''fear- "cutis" are the pigmentary glands, 
fully and wonderfully made," is both which give the colour or complexion 
a truth and a truism. To compre- to the body, varying in intensitv of 
hend its disorders, an intimate know- shade from the fairest to the darkest 
ledee of its construction in health, races of the human family, 
ana of the various changes of struc- From this brief anatomical sketch 
ture it undergoes in disease, is essen- the great importance of the healthy 
tially necessary. Hence the value condition of the " cuticle" and " cu- 
and importance of normal and ab- tis", t« the welfare of the whole body 
normal anatomy in the successful is manifest If the pores of the " cu- 
study of scientific medicine. It is in tide" are obstructed, the "cutis" 
this respect that the moderns are su- becomes diseased; if the secretions of 
perior to the ancient physicians j not the perspiratory glands are arrested, 
only are our methods of cure more the blooa becomes contaminated, and 
accurately directed to the diseased diseasesof various kinds and of inter- 
condition we have to treat, but we nal organs are produced ; so that it 
are enabled to explain the " modus may m asserted, without hesitation, 
operandi" of those which have been that the well-being of the whole body 
always in use or which have been depenils upon the healthy condition 
more recently introduced. Amongst of this important int^ument 
these methods the Boman Thermae, In proof of the fact may be adduced 
the " Sudatorium" of the ancients, the local benefit of blistering the sur- 
has been lately revived under the face and promoting a free discharge 
name of the Turkish or hot-air bath, from the subjacent glands ; and the 

In order to undei*stand the " modus experiment of covering the whole 

operandi" of the Sudatorium, let us body with a coat of paint, by which 

review briefly t^e anatomy of the death is occasioned from obstruction 

■ skin, upon which its action is more of the pores, or as it ensues from deep 

immediately and sensibly exerted, and extensive bums, by ^hich a mul- 

The surface, or " epithelium," is titude of the perspiratory glands and 

formed of " laminae," or scales, which their ducts are destroyed! 

are continually being detached by the The excretions from the skin are — 

friction of the clothes and as continu- 1st. A watery vapour, secreted by the 

ally reformed by condensation of the sudoriferous glancis, which passes off 

subjacent cell-membrane. These "la- as insensible perspiration ; this, when 

min8e,"orscales, are thick and adherent increased by exercise, the hot bath, 

in proportion to the pressure to which or by certain diseases, condensed on 

they are subjected, as on the hands the surface, constitutes sensible per- 

of artizans. the feet of pedestrians, spiration. 

and the c^osities on the nips of the 2nd. Carbonic acid, formed by the 



Iii61.] Therma Antiques Redivivce, 31 

oambinatioii of the carbon secreted thebodyisexpoBed, andby theyaried 

ud the oxygen of the atmosphere. emotions to which the mind is liable. 

3rd. Uric and lactic acids, which, Within certain limits these transient 

in 8ome diseases, as gout and rheu- functional disorders of the skin aie 

matiam, are poured out in ^eat not productive of more than passing 

abimdance. discomfort or indisposition, which is 

5th. Various saline matters, which removed by the restoration of its 

we derived from the excess of salts functions to a normal condition, 

contained in the scrum of the blood. Beyond those limits a more perma- 

6th, Sebaceous, or fatty material, nent effect is produced — ^a febrile 

secreted by the sebiparous glands by paroxysm, more or less protracted ac- 

which the surface is lubricated, as by cording as the body has aeviated more 

a natural unguent, supplying the skin or less from the healthy standard. A 

and prraerving a healthy moisture by check to the functions of the skin is 

preventing a too rapid evaporation of almost invariably the immediate pre- 

the fluids of the body. This secretion cursor of every febrile and inflamma- 

is most abundant in the coloured tory disease : an accumulation of 

lacea, and in hot climates. sordes in the ducts and orifices of 

Lastly. Certain odoriferous parti- the sudoriferous and sebiparous glands 

clea are continually escaping from the (or pores) occasions impurities of the 

snrface, peculiar to persons in health, blood which are the cause of fevers 

and a pathognomic symptom in some destined to run a certain or definite 

diseases, as pneumonia, gout, rheu- course before they terminate in health 

matism, insanity, besides many others; or death. 

by which the experienced physician Fevers of this kind are of frequent 

detects their presence by the sense of occurrence among the class of persons 

8naelL To these may be added, the who are regardless of proper attention 

saline and metallic substances inhaled to the state of the skin. 

by the longs, such as soda by glass- From this category are excluded 

blowers, mercury by looking-glass fevers arising from a specific con- 

rilverers, lead by house painters, &c. tagion ; but even they are greatly 

The whole of the excretions from modified, and divested of more 

the 8kin are said by Lavoisier and Se- than one half of their danger, by a 

gnin to average about 15 ounces in previously healthy condition of the 

the 24 hours ; but this is evidently skin, which is the natural outlet of 

much under the mark, because the the contagion, as in small-pox and 

experiments must have been con- measles, scarlatina, typhus and ty- 

docted in a state of rest, during which phoid fevers, and other diseases of 

the excretions are at the minimum, the zymotic class. 

Md it is obvious how much they are If that outlet be free and unob- 

inereased by exercise. structed by sordes the contagious 

The great importance of the excre- material, or ferment, passes off 

tions from the skin is evident— not freely, with comparatively trifling 

onlr as a means of purifying the blood disorder of the health in other re- 

^1 thus of preserving heidth, but as spects. But if this natural outlet be 

ricarious of the secretions of internal oostructed, the ierment accumu- 

^'fg^ when their functions have lates in the blood, and creates a 

b^ impaired by organic disease. dangerous, and evQn fatal amount of 

Fit)m this brief sketch of the ana- febrile disturbance. The great value 

tomy and philology of the skin, its of a healthy skin, as a preservative of 

Nhologiod importance is at once health, and a prevention of some 

Qianifested. and alleviation of other contagious 

Tkis last — ^its pathology — may be disorders of a fatal tendency is thus 

afvided into three classes ; the one apparent. The means of preserving 

^jmprisiiig the state of the skin in health by promoting a healthy state 

health, in disoise, and its vicarious of skin, have claimed the attention of 

fxcretions in diseases of other secret- civilized nations, in all ages, and that 

log and excreting organs. in proportion to their advancement 

The functions of the skin in health in civiUzation. 

^ liable to be disordered by all the These means are comprehended un- 

A^ospheric vicissitudes of heat and der three heads — friction, ablution, 

cold, axynesB and moisture, to which and perspiration. The first only re- 



32 ThemuE Antiquae Bedtvivoe, [Jan. 

moves the laminae of exfoliated cu- these three methods of acting upon 
tide from the surface; The second the skin, that they are specially ap- 
removes obstructions from the pores p^licable to three separate and elis- 
or orifices of the ducts. The thinl, by tinct classes of constitution. Friction, 
increasing the secretions of the su- to be used gently and moderately for 
doriferous and sebiparous glands re- the purpose of nourishing the emacia- 
moves obstructions in the ducts, and ted, strongly and perseveringly for 
purifies the blood by Increasing their reducing obesity, and in all cases to 
secretions. To preserve the Ixniy in preserve the healthy condition of the 
perfect health the alternate use of surface of the body, 
friction and of ablution daily, and of The vapour bath, for moistening 
perspiration, at least, weekly is need- the dry constitution, and, at the same 
iul. time, supplying the fluids of the body 
To such perfection was the art of exhaled from the surface by the opera- 
friction earned by the ancients, as we tion of the bath, 
learn from Celsus, that Asclepiades £ut for the purpose of purifying the 
wrote a volume upon the suoject ; blood from excrementitious matters, 
but, to prove its greater antiquitv, for the preservation of health, and 
Celsus shows that Asclepiades merely the prevention of disease the thermal 
copied all that is really valuable in bath is pre-eminent, 
his work, from the writings of the For persons unaccustomed from 
most ancient medical author. Hip- infancy to the use of baths of eveiy 
pocrates, which is comprehended in a kind, some preparation, before going 
few words. He says that, " by forci- into the thermal bath, is necessary, 
ble friction the body is hardened, bv to secure its salutary, and to avoid its 
gentle friction it is softened, by much possible injurious effects, 
friction it is diminished, and by mo- This preparation is three-fold— 
derate friction it is increased in size dietary, meoicinal, and ablutionary. 
or bulk." Celdus gives explicit di- 1st The ordinary quantity of aui- 
rections for the proper use of friction mal food and fermented liquor should 
in health and in disease. Ablution is be slishtly cUminished. 
scarcely alluded to by the ancients as 2n(L A few doses of gentle ape- 
a domestic custom. Friction and the rient medicine should be a&iinisteied, 
bath were principally used for this followed — 

purpose ; the two modes by which 3rdly, by one or two warm soap 

impediments to free transpiration on baths. After this preparation the 

the surface, and obstructions to free thermal bath may be used with 

excretion by the pores and ducts were every prospect of permanent benefit 

in a measure removed. But the most from its continuous employment 

effectual means for the accomplish- Neither is it to be regarded simply 

ment of this two-fold object was the as a luxury, to increase the enjoyment 

Laconicum, which has been lately re- of life and its manifold pleasures, nor 

vived in this countrv, under the de- as a means of preserving health ; far 
signationof the ** Turkish," or thermal , more than this, it is a powerful aud 

bath, and the "Vaporarium," or va^ valuable agent in the treatment of a 

SDur bath, introduced by the Hon. variety of diseases. In the case of a 

asil Cochrane, in 1 822. common cold or simple catarrh, caught 

The operation of these three kinds by exposure to excessive heat in an 
of detergents is distinct The first, impure atmosphere, the symptoms 
friction, is superficial ; the second, the are at once removed and health re- 
vapour bath, supplies nearly as much stored by the use of the thermal 
water by pulmonary absorption as is bath. In cases of ague, the thermal 
exhaled from the skin ; the third, bath, used just before the cold stage 
or the thermal bath, operates upon of the expected paroxysm, speedily 
the body — 1st, by quickening the prevents the recurrence of the dis- 
circulation, it promotes all the se- order. 

cretions ; 2nd, by injecting the capil- In cases of malarious fevers, such 

lary vessels of the skin, it increases as those of Belgium and the Low 

the sudorous and subaceous excre- Countries, the Campagna of Rome, 

tions. the jungle fever of the East Indies 

It is evident, from this short ex- and of the African coast and the 

planation of the modus operandi of fever and ague of the backwoods of 



1861.] Thermae Antiqu/s EedivivoB, 33 

America, the thennal bath is pre- How much more effectual the ha- 

eminent^ and, on trial, will be found bitual use of the thermal bath, by 

to supersede all other methods and preserving the purity of the blood, 

meaoa of cure, provided the patient as a preventive against their severity, 

be removed from the sphere of the if not of their occurrence ! 

malarious influence and be supplied If a conjecture may be hazarded, 

vith pure water free from the mala- the entire immunity of the ancient 

rious unpregnation. Arabians, Greeks, and Romans from 

In its modus operandi " the ther- these scourges of the human race, 

malbath precisely imitates the natu- and their ingress in the dark ages 

lal efforts to expel the*' fomesmorbi" amongst barbarous tribes, and even 

by perspiration. In the treatment of among the modern. and more refined 

pUsents whose constitutions have nations, may have been owing to the 

been broken down by the frequent habitual use ofthe hot-air and vapour 

lecarrence of malarious fever — (and bath by the former, and the entire 

ferer of this kind is extremely liable ignorance or neglect of this mode of 

to recur for the remainder of life from purification by the latter, 

any cause which chills the surface Modem purification may be defined 

ftDd checks the perspiration, long i^ter as superficial; ancient, as reachiue 

remoyal from the locality where it the blood and all the tissues of which 

▼Bs caught) — ^and by the mercurial, the body is composed, 

saline, and tonic medicines prescribed Contagion in such a state of the 

for its relief, the thermal bath has constitution fiuds no material to fer- 

prored an effectual and permanent ment and assimilate to its own poi- 

remedy. It is impossible to speak sonous nature, and thus to propagate 

too highly of the boon to invalids of its destructive virus, 

thia class, whose activity and useful- Various prophylactics (as they are 

neas are destroyed, ana whose lives called) agamst pestilential diseases 

are rendered buraensome alike by have been proposed ; but if this con- 

tiie disease and by the means usually jecture be well founded, there is no 

resorted to for its cure. prophylactic equal to the thermal 

Besides fevers of the intermittent Dath: and it is not, perhaps, too much 

and remittent class, those of the ty- to amrm, that it is superior to vacci- 

uhous and typhoid type are marked nation as a safeguard against small- 

by eruptions on the skin of dark pox, as well as against other diseases 

spots, (pet^chise), and a rose rash, of the zymotic class, from which the 

(fflaeolffi), indicative of the mode of ancients, who universallv employed 

expulsion of the " materies morbL'* the hot-air bath, were happily ex- 

u^ previous to. or during, the rigors empt. 

which precede tne formation of these Is it too much to expect, in this 

fevers, free perspiration were induced age of progress and enlightenment, 

by the therm^ bath, the "femes that this powerful preservative of 

morbi^* might be expelled and all the health and prophylactic against dis- 

tedious and dangerous process of the ease should find universal favour and 

Ribeeaoent disease nught be pre- general adoption, when the positive 

Tented. It is quite as much, if not an(l negative benefits derivable from 

more, by the sweating they occasion its use are so momentous % 

as by vomiting that emetics frequent- The next claiss of diseases to which 

ly atiest, in limine, the progress of the thermal and vapour baths are es- 

eont^ous diseases. pecially applicable, both as a preven- 

, It is for the same reason that eme- tive and cure, are those of the skin. 

tics, administered in the outset of zy- In the great majority of these dis- 

motic diseases (under which head are eases the fault is in the blood, of 

comprised small-pox, chicken-pox, which the eruption is the outward 

measles, croup, thrush, diarrhcsa, dy- manifestation, those only excepted 

sentery, cholera, influenza, ague, re- that are engendered by parasites, 

Biittent fever, tvphus, erysipelas, hy- whether of a vegetable or animal ori- 

drophobia, scarlatina, and whooping- gin ; but even these can scarcely be 

cough), are so frequently and high^ considered exceptional. The food of 

beneficial in divesting these fatal parasites, whose sponiles and ova 

^^seases of more than one-half of float in the air ready to settle and 

^eir danger. grow, or be hatched and developed 

VOL. LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVII. 3 



34 Hi^TftvcB Antiqua Reditivce. [Jan. 

on the skin, are in the unwholesome the most destructive and loathsome 

secretions of the sebaceous glands ; in in their nature and in their tendency, 

the healthy secretions they find no All these zymotic diseases origi- 

Boil, no nidus, no sustenance, and, nated nearly at one and the same 

therefore, no means of existence. period, namely, about the end of the 

Dr. Friend, in his "History of Phy- fifth century; and, without contro- 

sic," writes: — versy, they were unknown to the 

ufTu^^i. ^«^ fi,;««..^ fv.^ ^.^ofoof ancient Arabians, Greeks, and Ro- 

•* There IS one thing of the greatest ^^„„ o^u^;* ^«;L;,. «>.««7»i»«.i,, «^ 

importance,whichwemu8tseekforonJy "^»?8- .^heir origin was clearly co- 

among these writers (the Arabian and eval with the disuse of the thermal 

Greek physicians), I mean the history of baths, which constituted both the 

the small-pox ; for, perhaps, from the luxury and the safety of those refined 

time of Hippocrates to this yeiy period, nations. This is an historical fact, 

there never happened anything so re- the hypothetical explanation of which 

markable in physic as the appearance of may not be satisfactory to the present 

this most surprising distemper, the ori- sceptical age : it is this, that the 

ginal of which may be traced up from existence of the pabulum morbi in 

their own authors much lurther back- ^^ bloodand tissues, like the" must^' 

ward than is commonly imagined, even . ^i . • ^ w*«°**c«, a»«.^ v^ i ^i: 

to the famous epoch of Mahomet himself ^^ *,*^e JUice of the grape, affords the 

—in the beginning of the seventh cen- matenais tor the contagion or leaven 

tuiy. to work upon, causing a great internal 

"The measles, which, no doubt, was commotion, and an explosive effort 

of the same age, called not improperly, through the^lands of the skin. When 

by Avicenna, ** Variola cholerica," they the pabulum morbi is small in 

look upon as a disease so near akin quantity, the disturbance is slight 

to the small-pox that they generally ^nd the resulting disease is mild : but 

treat of them both together, as if the jf ^he pabulum abounds in the ays- 

greater mcluded the less. This was a 4.^^ xi ^ ;i:„*„«u„„^« :„ ^ ^^\JL ^ a 

distemper, without dispute, unknown to *?"'' ,^^® disturbance is excessive and 

the Greeks, whatever some of the mo- ^^% disease is profwrtionably violent 

dems have said to the contrary, and first and tatal m its tendency, 
observed in this nation and described by This explanation applies to all dis- 

Mahometans." eases of the zymotic class. 

^ . To account for the different diseases 

^^^ of this class, there must of necessity 

•* By the earliest accomit we have of exist contagions of different kinds ; 

the small-pox, we find that it first ap- and the probability is that these con- 

peared in Egypt in the time of Omar, tagions were originally derived from 

successor to Mahomet; though, no the inferior animals. 

KTi^mili^s^^^^^^^^^^^ it ^it ^vnVa" "*t^^^ 

own country, and might derive it origU ^^ ^« ^^^>^^ to avoid or to escape from 

naUy from some of the more distant re- contagion which surrounds us on all 

gions of the East ; and as this people did Sides, our wisdom is not to suffer the 

propagate its religion and empire so did pabulum morborum to accumulate 

it no less this modem evil. Then, as to m the system, by returning to the 

the disease itself, Rhazes says, * This habitual use of the thermal oaths. 
IS a ferment in the blood like that in It is notorious that some persons 

**must" rthe expressed juice of the escape the contagion of small-pox, 

gnipe\ which purifies itself sooner or others of the measles, others of the 

fcnfero^tSfs*^^^^^^ scarlatina,othersofthe'pWtho^^^^ 

' * exposed to it m its most virulent and 

The term "exanthema," applied concentrated forms. Why is this? 

to small-pox, measles, and scarlatina. Because the pabulum did not exist 

which was long confounded with in the system in sufficient quantity 

measles, signifies an inflammatory for the contagion to operate upon as 

pustule, included under the generic a leaven, and this by reason of the 

term zymotic diseases, from ivfiwfia^ natural activity of the glands of the 

(leaven, or ferment). To this category skin. 

belong two other diseases—the plague Much, and deservedly, has been 

and sweating sickness, from the de- written in praise of vaccination, as a 

•♦motive ravages of which we are milder means of destroying the pabu- 

r)ilv exempt. lum of small-pox, and an attempt was 

have now enumerated diseases made by Dr. Home, of Edinburgh, to 






I86I.] Themux AntiqucB Eedivivas, 35 

'jiminifth the violence of measles by and rheumatism have been warded 
inocalation, which failed. How much off by this threefold mode of preven- 
more rational to expel the pabulum tion — temperance, exercise, and the 
morborum by the nabituaf use of thermal bath. 
the thennal bath, and by this means To pass from the surface and ei- 
to re-acquire the immunity from those tremities to the interior, we come to 
terrific zymotic diseases ergoyed by the congener of the skin, the mu- 
the ancient Arabians, Greeks, and cous membrane lining the air pas- 
Romans, than to attempt to destroy BSLgea of the chest, and the digestive 
it by Yaccination or inoculation of the and reproductive organs of the abdo- 
specific leaven or contagion. This is men, as catarrh, bronchitis, humoral 
scarcely too much to expect from the and spasmodic asthma, gastro-enteritic 
use of means so rationally directed to affections, including diarrhoea and 
an end. dysentery. 

Bat to effect this object to the full- Diseases of this kind, various as 

c§t and widest extent, the whole me- they are in symptoms, owing to their 

dical faculty must concur in opinion, several and distinct functions, are 

h)th as to the cause and the preven- characterized by two states — aug- 

tiott of those diseases. This, perhaps, mented secretion, and exalted sensi- 

is more than reasonably can be ex- bility depending upon the state of the 

pected in so large a body, and of such lymphatic and mucous glands, corres- 

oireFBity of sentiments upon medical ponding to the sudoriferous and sebi- 

bubjects. parous glands, and upon the state of 

Cutaaeoas diseases are not so di- the nerves answerable to the nervous 

rectly amenable to thermal baths as papillsB of the skin. 

i&ight readily be supposed. In cases of this kind, the thermal, 

Thifl class of diseases is seated for or the vapour bath used at the com- 
the most part in the sudoriferous, mencement — that is, during the chil- 
sebiparons, and hair glands of the liness which precedes an attack of ca- 
tkin, tarrh, bronchitis, &c., is a most effec- 

The primary operation of these tual remedy; but when feverish symp- 

bathsistoincrease the action of those toms have succeeded the preceding 

glands ; and, as they are already in a rigors, and the natural secretions are 

pjrbid state, to increase their action suspended, evidenced by heat and 

is to aggravate their morbid condition, dryness of the mouth, throat, and sur- 

It is for this reason that due pre- face of the body, large dilution and 

lotion by medicine, diet, and re- proper evacuations are necessary be- 

gimin is needful before the patient lore having recourse to these baths. 

^ises these baths for the cure of skin The efficacacy of the thermal or 

omplaints. But as preservation is vapour bath is not more manifest in 

better than cure, persons who habi- the treatment of any disease than in 

dually use them will rarely, if ever, cases of foul ulcers of long standing, 

suffer from any form of skin disease, particularly of the leg. 

Erysipelas, gout, and rheumatism The danger to the life of the patient 

^long to the family of blood dis- from drying these up is obvious, the* 

fi3«s, of which the grand outlet is by discharge from them having become 

the ^ds of the s^n. essential to the purification of the 

Aa in the case of cutaneous dis- blood, but under tne use of the ther- 

ttsea, medical preparation is requi- mal or vapour bath the myriads of 

^te before using these baths, lest the cutaneous glands pour forth a tide of 

Kifferings of the patient snould be fetid perspiration, which purifies the 

^^gnvated, and the disease increased blood and supersedes the necessity for 

iaseveritrand danger by accelerating the discharge from the ulcers, which 

ilie drralation before the ' materies then heal rapidly and with perfect 

Diorbi" has been in a measure evacu- safety to the patient. The health, at 

tied. the same time, undergoing the most 

In cases of this kind the value of marked improvement 

(^Tention by temperance in living. Of the truth of this statement the 

^J exercise, and by the habitual use writer formerly had repeated expe- 

Ji thetiienBal bath, to preserve the rience in the treatment of ulcerated 

^^ in parity and health is manifest, legs, among a most squalid population, 

Periodic attacks of erysipelas, gout, whose diet, whose habits, and whose 

3* 



89 A Mouse Divided against Itself* [Jan. 

-was lighted up with his old sweet said the soldier to himself, as he ran 

smile, he put out his hand and was oS, " Alack that I should have lived 

about to speak, when a loud shout to see the day when Master John 

rent the air, and in an instant John should have taken his life 1 I fear 

was surrounded. " Strike him down ; but what 'tis all over with him. He'll 

strike down the roundhead villain never live till night." 

who has slain Sir Lionel !" John laid his brother gently on the 

For one little instant John felt a grass beneath a tree, then Joosing 

thrill of wild, almost delirious joy, as his helmet, filled it quickly at a little 

the swords flashed in his eyes, stream which flowed close by, and 

" Thank God, I shall not live to see dashed a few drops on his face ; then 

him die!" But the thought had taking a flask of brandy from his own 

hardly crossed his mind, when the pocket, he poured a little down 

weapons were lowered, and the lioners throat, again putting his arm 

threatening gestures of his assailants round him, and sup^rting his head 

changed into those of supreme aston- upon his shoulder. He knew that he 

ishment ; they stood motionless and still lived, for he had felt his heart 

dumb, for Lionel, with a sudden des- beat against his own as he carried 

perate effort raised himself to his feet, him; but would he ever revive? 

and with all his remaining strength would those eyes ever open 1 those 

contrived to throw his arms about pale lips ever move again ? 

John. " No, no," he cried, " ye shall And who can teu what passed 

not hurt a hair of his head ; he is my through John's mind as he looked 

brother !" And then the noble head upon the form but a few minutes ago 

sank senseless on the Puritan's strong and stalwart, full of life and 

shoulder. energy, in the pride of vigorous man- 

They could not harm John now ; hood, now prostrate on the ground, 
and one of the Royalist soldiers, a unconscious, motionless, the great 
Marshfield man, and a tenant on strength gone, and life seemingly ebb- 
Lionel's estate, pressed forward and ing fast away. And whose hand had 
said, wrought this sudden change 1 

** Master Atherton, I knew not At last a faint colour came back 

it was you. God forgive you, sir, into Lionel's white cheeks, and his 

what is this you have done 1 You eyes slowly unclosed, 

have slain your own brother ! Now " Is that you, John 1 Then you are 

you will yield yourself my prisoner, safe, and all is well." 

of course, sir, and come along with "Yes, you saved my life," answered 

me, and let us carry Sir Lionel to his brother, with unnatural calmness, 

some place of safety ; maybe there " and I have taken yoiu^." 

is life in him yet, poor gentleman !" Then he burst out wildly, " My 

John, without answering a word, God have pity ! My sorrow is greater 

had torn off his scarf in eager haste, than I can bear ! Why did you not 

and bound it tightly round the bleed- let them strike me down ? Why did 

ing chest, then giving up his sword, you not let me die ? Why did you 

he suffered himself to he led out of save me for this ) 0, Lionel, Lionel, 

the battle. And so, carrying Lionel would to Gk)d I had died for thee,mv 

tenderly in his arms, he was con- brother !" His voice was choked 

ducted by the Marshfield man to a in convulsive sobs, 

field somewhat protected by a high "John, dear John," said Lionel, 

wall, a spot of comparative safety. clasping his trembling hand, " grieve 

" He IS still alive, I think, sir," not for me ; grieve not that you have 

said the soldier, " and the bleeding is shortened a sad and darkened Ufe. 

nigh stopt, we may save him yet ; Your hand has but opened the gate 

there is water in that brook, throw of death, through which God will lead 

some over his face, 'twill revive him. me to a joyful resurrection. I was 

And now I must back to my post, very weary ; but I shall die happy in 

You'll give me your word of honour your anns. Dry your tears, you have 

not to escape, of course, Master but given me what I longed foi^— the 

Atherton." blessed gift of death." 

John could not speak, but bowed " Though you forgive me, yet how 

his head in token of assent. can I ever forgive myself ? I am an- 

^^Poor gentleman; poor Sir Lionel !" other Cain, and the blood of my bro- 



1861.] A UovM Dimdeji against lUetf^ S7 

ther crieth unto heaven for vengeance the dear enemy Ipng on his breast, 

against me ! Yet I did bat ol^y my and he watched hmi, as it seemed, for 

oonsdence when I became vour enemy : several hours. As he knelt upon the 

I did it in the integrity of my heart, grass, John earnestly pondered over 

Again tears prevented his utterance, what his brother had been saving; 

and again Lionel tried to console him. hoarding up the words which he 

**I Know you too well to think that knew — though he scarcely dared to 

you would ever act but according to tell himself so — must be almost the 

yoor conscience. I know you thought it last. 

your duty—you have prayed and suffer- Truly had Lionel said, "I have felt 

ed— your doctrines may be the devil's like you." John knew now what it 

teaching — but your pure heart is God's was to suffer the agonies of remorse 

giving. This is a strange perplexing for the accidental consequences of an 

world— I am well quit of it. I shall act which his conscience told him was 

know all soon — how we who both hisdnty. 

prayed so earnestly for God's guid- And not only the present, but the 

ance could have taken such diverse past, seemed to rise up in judgment 

patiis. I shall understand it all in a against him. All the words which 

very little while. O John, grieve not his fiery and impetuous temperament 

for me, 'tis I should grieve for you ; I had driven him on to utter to his 

know what it is to have caused the loss brother, words repented of as soon as 

of a life far dearer to me than mine own uttered ; all the youthful, unpremedi- 

— lost because I did what I believed to tated, very slight offences, which Lio- 

be my duty. I would have died to save nel had long since forgiven and for- 

her— I have felt like you— I would gotten, weighed heavily upon his 

comfort you with the same comfort mind. 

wherewith God comfoi*ted me in my Was this the way he now repaid 

tribulation ' the best of brothers, the dearest of 

He stopt short, gasping for breath, friends ? Was this the requital of all 

ukterly exhausted By the great efforts Lionel's kindness, that had been un- 

be had made in speaking. John varying from their earliest years, and 

thought he was dymg, and in an had shone brighter as John's life grew 

agony of alarm resorted to every mea- darker ? For Lionel had used his ut- 

sure he could think of in order to re- most endeavours to preserve peace 

Tire him. After a little while he was between his father ana brother ; and 

successful ; and Lionel looked up when their differences had grown too 

gratefully at his brother. wide for reconciliation, he had pro- 

" Dost thou feel thyself better 1" voked and braved the fierce anger of 

asked John, in a voice trembling with Sir Walter, because he still loved and 

anxiety. " O God, let him live, or let befriended that brother, and had ever 

me die !" he cried in anguish, as an taken his part as much as duty to his 

expression on Lionel's face told him King had allowed him. 

there was no hope. But some of John's bitterest remem< 

^ I shaU be better very soon ; but brances were the last few weeks ; 

not here. I can speak no more now. how he had been warmly welcomed 

Put thine arm around me, dear brother in his short, but happy visits to his 

—so— let me rest a little while." old home, though m arms against 

Then closing his wearied eyes he Lionel's cause ; and how their affec- 

Beemed as though he slept had not tion was unchanged, and they had 

bis frequent sighs and tne sharp seemed dearer to each other because 

spasms of pain which now and then of their separation. Now, in the first 

passed over his countenance revealed battle in which Lionel had been pre- 

tbat he was awake and suffering. In sent, and in which, moreover, he had 

tmth, he waff enduring dreadful tor- engaged without his brother's know- 

tQre ; but if it had been threefold le^, the sudden, awful end had 

more acute, no sound of complaint come to their companionship, and 

would ever have passed his lips, for John by his own hand had destroyed 

vas not John by bis side ? John, all the happiness that was left to him 

vbose misery was far greater than in life, 

uyhe could suffer. No thought of reproach or anger 

The roar of battle did not cease ; against the author of his death had 

l>Qt the Puritan heeded nothing save ever entered Idonel's gentle heart ; 



do Thtrmce AtUiq^iae Bedivivce, [Jan. 

On visiting a Turkish bath in Lon- ape tribe. This admirable provision 

don, a medical man who had aeen is evidently designed for the protec- 

and used the baths at Constantinople, ti(m of the delicate and sensitiTe 

agreed with the writer in opinion that ** cutis'' beneath it 
the temperature of 120° m the me- Through the " epithelium" two 

dium bath, and of IGif in the hot kinds of ducts pass— the ducts of the 

bath was much too high. Our opinion sudoriferous and of the sebiparouB 

was overruled by the bath attend- glands, the orifices of which consti- 

ant, who said he had no objection to tute the pores of the skin. It is 

a bath heated to 300°. Perhaps not ; penetrated, besides, by innumerable 

but in a less joihr subject something uairs, dispensed over the surface of 

more than supernuous moisture might the body, formed by the secretion 

be exhaled, and the patient might, from the hair glands. The cutis com- 

and probably would, sufier from ex- pnses the nerve '* papilhe,*' constitut- 

haustion. mg the organ of touch ; the sudori- 

To preserve the public from blind ferous and the sebiparouG^ or perKpi- 

{^des, and place the Thermal Baths ratory glands, with their separate 

in a iust light, has become a duty in- ducts, and the hair glands, with their 

cumoent on the medical profession several capillary arteries, veins, and 

with respect to an agent which has absorbent vessels, united into one 

alreadyattained great popularity, and strong tough membrane by areolar 

promises to be generally adopted tissue. Beneath the *' cuticle " and 

That the human frame is '*fear- "cutis" are the pigmentary glands, 
fully and wonderfully made," is both which give the colour or complexion 
a truth and a truism. To compre- to the body, varjring in intensitv of 
hend its disorders, an intimate know- shade from the fairest to the darkest 
ledge of its construction in health, races of the human family, 
ana of the various changes of struc- From this brief anatomical sketch 
ture it undergoes in disease, is essen- the great importance of the healthy 
tially necessary. Hence the value condition of the " cuticle" and " cu- 
and importance of normal and ab- tis". t# the welfare of the whole body 
normal anatomy in the successful is manifest. If the pores of the *^ cu- 
study of scientinc medicine. It is in tide" are obstructed, the ''cutis" 
this respect that the moderns are su- becomes diseased; if the secretions of 
perior to the ancient physicians ; not the perspiratory glands are arrested, 
only are our methods of cure more the olooa becomes contaminated, and 
accurately directed to the diseased diseases of various kinds and of inter- 
condition we have to treat, but we nal organs are produced ; so thac it 
are enabled to explain the '' modus may be assertecl, without hesitation, 
operandi" of those which have been that the well-being of the whole body 
always in use or which have been depends upon the healthy condition 
more recentlv introduced. Amongst of this important int^ment 
these methods the Roman Thermae, In prootof the fact may be adduced 
the ''Sudatorium" of the ancients, the local benefit of blistering the sur- 
has been lately revived under the face and promoting a free disoharge 
name of the Turkish or hot-air bath, from the subjacent glands ; and the 

In order to understand the " modus experiment of covering the whole 

operandi" of the Sudatorium, let us body with a coat of paint, by which 

review briefly t}^ anatomy of the death is occasioned from obstruction 

skin, upon wnich its action is more of the pores, or as it ensues from deep 

immediately and sensibly exerted, and extensive bums, by ^hich a niiil- 

The surface, or " epithelium," is titude of the perspiratonr glands aud 

formed of " laminse," or scales, which their ducts are destroyed, 
are continually being detached by the The excretions from the skin are — 

friction of the clothes and as continu- Ist. A watery vapour, secreted by the 

ally reformed by condensation of the sudoriferous glan<ls, which passes off 

subjacent cell-membrane. These "la- as insensible perspiration ; this, "when 

iiiinse,"or8cales, are thick and adherent increased by exercise, the hot batli, 

in proportion to the pressure to which or by certain diseases, condensed ou 

they are subjected, as on the hands the surface, constitutes sensible per- 

of arUzans. the feet of pedestrians, spiration. 
and the callosities on the nips of the 2nd. Carbonic acid, formed by the 



1861.] Thermoe Aivtiquce Redivivct. 29 



TEXBMM ANTIQUE BEDIYIYJB : 
OB THE THERMAL AMD YAPOUK BATHS OF THE AlfCIEXTS, RETITEO. 

In the writings of clever non-me- years in the use of baths of this kind, 

dleal men upon medical subjects, has supplied the writer with ample 

truth and error, science and ignor- materials ; how far he has utilized 

ance, wisdom and folly, are usually them the profession and the public 

blended. How can it be otherwise, must decide. Pathology, as cultivated 

when they have not learned the first in the present day with untiring zeal 

principles of the art, the practice of and energy, has opened up a more 

which they vainly attempt to teach 1 perfect uiowledge of diseases than 

Of the true nature of diseases they was possessed by our predecessors ; 

are as ignorant as they are of their and some before unknown have been 

exdting causes, and tne action of brought to light, and named after their 

remedies prescribed for their cure. In discoverers, as " morbus Brightii," 

DO other profession do ignorant pre- " morbus Addisonii,'' &c. 
tenders arrogate to themselves so In aid of pathological researches, 

much wisdom, or affect to treat the the stethoscope, the spirometer, the 

p^ful experience of its most wise and opthalmoscope, the various speculse. 

skilful practitioners with so much ob- the microscope, the test tube, ana 

loquy and contempt Such presump- post mortem examinations, have been 

tion might occasion only a smile if it called into requisition ; but what have 

were not for the direful consequences they revealed 1 Nothing more than 

to the health and lives of persons the result of morbid processes, the 

who put confidence in their unblush- progress of organic degeneration, the 

ing effrontery. As religious senti- effects of a diseased condition of the 

ment is dejgraded by the debasing whole body. Have they not rather 

system of Spiritualism, so is med- tended to divert attention from the 

ical science by the homoeopathic and tme origin of all diseases, namely, 

mesmeric sy^stems, which may be the operation of morbific causes upon 

rightly designated "medical spiritual- the pabulum morbi contained in the 

isDL'' To divest the human mind of blood and nerve-fluid ? and by so much 

superstition in physic or divinity is have they not tended to retard rather 

imnoasible, but to foster superstition than to advance medicine as a pre- 

and make it subserve the purposes of servative and curative science f I 

gam, to the rain of soul and body, is would not undervalue patholo^ ; it is 

the part of a dishonourable and dis- absolutely necessary tor precision in 

honest man. diagnosis, and certamty in prognosis : 

There is no royal road to medical but we ought to be on our guard lest 

any more than to other learning; it obstruct the advance of medicine 

and "medicine made easy" is the in its curative operations, 
bane of the sick. As to the discover- It is desirable to prove to the pub- 

ies of the laity, they are for the most lie, through the profession, that Ther- 

part recoveries from the obsolete de- mal Baths are legitimate medicinal 

positories of ancient medical lore, the agents, revived after long disuse ; and 

Greek and Roman Thermse, to wit. that they promise to do good service, 

With extra professional and popu- better perhaps by preventing than by 
lar pamphlets and papers in period!- curing disease, 
cals on the Turkish or hot-air bathsthe It should be premised, however, 
public have been overwhelmed. What that these Thermal, or so-called Turk- 
is wanting is a sound scientific disser- ish hot-air baths, ought to be of a 
tation, as a guide to medical men in suitable degree of temperature and 
prescribing them for the preservation moisture, which may render them 




ably upon the subject. air of the desert, of which we read 

An experience of upwards of thirty such api>alling accounts. 



30 Thermos Antiquce Redivivas, [Jan. 

On yisiting a TorkiBh bath in Lon- ape tribe. This admirable provision 

don, a medical man who had seen is evidently designed for the protec- 

and used the baths at Constantinople, tioiL of the delicate and sensitive 

agreed with the writer in opinion that " cutis" beneath it. 

the temperature of 120° in the me- Through the "epithelium" two 

dium bath, and of lOO"" in the hot kinds of ducts pass— the ducts of the 

bath was much too high. Our opinion sudoriferous and of the sebiparotis 

was overruled by the bath attend- glands, the orifices of which consti- 

ant, who said he had no objection to tute the pores of the skin. It is 

a bath heated to 300^ Perhaps not ; penetrated, besides, by innumerable 

but in a less jolly subject something nairs, dispersed over the surface of 

more than superfluous moisture might the body, formed by the secretion 

be exhaled, and the patient might, from the hair glands. The cutis com- 

and probably would, suffer from ex- prises the nerve " papiUse," constitut- 

haustion. mg the organ of touch ; the sudori- 

To preserve the public from blind ferous and the sebiparou^ or perspi- 

^des, and place the Thermal Baths ratory glands, with their separate 

m a just light, has become a duty in- ducts, and the hair glands, with their 

cumbent on the medical profession several capillary arteries, veins, and 

with respect to an agent which has absorbent vessels, imited into one 

alreadyattained great popularity, and strong tough membrane by areolar 

promises to be generally adopted. tissue. Beneath the " cuticle " and 

That the human frame is ''fear- '* cutis" are the pigmentary glands, 
fully and wonderiully made," is both which give the colour or complexion 
a truth and a truism. To compre- to the body, varying in intensitv of 
hend its disorders, an intimate know- shade from the fairest to the darkest 
ledse of its construction in health, races of the human family, 
and of the various changes of struc- From this brief anatomical sketch 
ture it undergoes in disease, is essen- the great importance of the healthy 
tially necessary. Hence the value condition of the " cuticle" and " cu- 
and importance of normal and ab- tis", t« the welfare of the whole body 
normal anatomy in the successful is manifest If the pores of the *'cu- 
study of scientific medicine. It is in tide" are obstructed, the " cutis" 
this respect that the moderns are su- becomes diseased; if the secretions of 
perior to the ancient physicians ; not the perspiratory glands are arrested, 
only are our methods of cure more the blooa becomes contaminated, and 
accurately directed to the diseased diseases of various kinds and of inter- 
condition we have to treat, but we nal organs are produced ; so that it 
are enabled to explain the " modus may Wi asserted, without hesitation, 
operandi" of those which have b^n that the well-being of the whole body 
always in use or which have been depends upon the healthy condition 
more recently introduced. Amongst of this important int^ument 
these methods the Roman Thermae, In proor of the fact may be adduced 
the " Sudatorium" of the ancients, the local benefit of blistering the sur- 
has been lately revived under the face and promoting a free disoharge 
name of the Turkish or hot-air bath, from the subjacent glands ; and the 

In order to understand the " modus experiment of covering the whole 

operandi" of the Sudatorium, let us body with a coat of paint, by which 

review briefly t]>e anatomy of the death is occasioned from obstruction 

skin, upon which its action is more of the pores, or as it ensues from deep 

immediately and sensibly exerted, and extensive bums, by ^hich a muf- 

The surface, or '* epithelium," is titude of the perspiratory glands and 

formed of " laminae," or scales, which their ducts are destroyed, 

are continually being detached by the The excretions from the skin are — 

friction of the clothes and as continu- 1st. A watery vapour, secreted by the 

ally reformed by condensation of the sudoriferous glands, which passes off 

subjacent cell-membrane. These **la- as insensible perspiration ; this, when 

min8s,"orscales, are thick andadherent increased by exercise, the hot bath, 

«" *«roportion to the pressure to which or by certain diseases, condensed on 

re subjected, as on the hands the surface, constituted sensible per- 

ans. the feet of pedestrians, spiration. 

csdlosities on the nips of the 2nd. Carbonic acid, formed by the 



1861.] Thermae Antiques RedivivcB, 31 

combination of the carbon secreted the body is exposed, and by the yaried 

and the oxygen of the atmosphere. emotions to which the mind is liable. 

3rd. Uric and lactic acids, which, Within certain limits these transient 

in some diseases, as gout and rheu- functional disorders of the skin are 

matism, are poured out in great not productive of more than passing 

abundance. discomfort or indisposition, wnich is 

5th. Various saline matters, which removed by the restoration of its 

are derived from the excess of salts functions to a normal condition, 

contained in the scrum of the blood. Beyond those limits a more penna- 

6th. Sebaceous, or fatty material, nent eflect is produced— a febrile 

secreted by the sebiparous glands by paroxysm, more or less protracted ac- 

which the surface is lubricated, as by cording as the body has acviated more 

a natural unguent, suppljdng the skin or less from the healthy standard. A 

and preserving a healthy moisture by check to the functions of the skin is 

preventing a too rapid evaporation of almost invariably the immediate pre- 

the fluids of the bod^. This secretion cursor of every febrile and inflamma- 

is most abundant in the coloured tory disease : an accumulation of 

races, and in hot climates. sordes in the ducts and orifices of 

Lastly. Certain odoriferous parti- the sudoriferous and sebiparous glands 

cles are continually escaping from the (or pores) occasions impurities of the 

surface, peculiar to persons in health, blood which are the cause of fevers 

and a pathognomic symptom in some destined to run a certain or definite 

diseas^ as pneumonia, gout, rheu- course before they terminate in health 

matism, insanity, besides many others; or death. 

by which the experienced physician Fevers of this kind are of frequent 

detects their presence by the sense of occurrence among the class of persons 

smell. To these mav be added, the who are regardless of proper attention 

saline and metallic substances inhaled to the state of the skm. 

bv the lungs, such as soda by glass- From this category are excluded 

blowers, mercurv by looking-glass fevers arising from a specific con- 

silverers, lead by house painters, &c. tagion ; but even they are greatly 

The whole of the excretions from modified, and divested of more 

the skin are said by Lavoisier and Se- than one half of their danger, by a 

guin to average about 15 ounces in previously healthy condition of the 

the 24 hours ; but this is evidently skin, which is the natural outlet of 

much under the mark, because the the contagion, as in small-pox and 

experiments must have been con- measles, scarlatina, typhus and ty- 

ducted in a state of rest, during which phoid fevers, and other diseases of 

the excretions are at the minimum, the zymotic class. 

and it is obvious how much they are If that outlet be free and unob- 

increased by exercise. structed by sordes the contagious 

The great importance of the excre- material, or ferment, passes off 
tions from the skiti is evident— not freely, with comparatively trifling 
only as a means of purifvinff the blood disorder of the health in other re- 
ami thus of preserving heiuth, but as spects. But if this natural outlet be 
vicarious of the secretions of internal obstructed, the ferment accumu- 
organs, when their functions have lates in the blood, and creates a 
been impaired by organic disease. dangerous, and ev^n fatal amount of 

From this brief sketch of the ana- febrile disturbance'. The great value 

tomy and physiology of the skin, its of a healthy skin, as a preservative of 

imthological importance is at once health, ana a prevention of some 

manifested. and alleviation of other contagious 

This last — ^its pathology — may be disorders of a fatal tendency is thus 

divided into three classes ; the one apparent The means of preserving 

comprising the state of the skin in health by promoting a healthy state 

health, in disease, and its vicarious of skin, have claimed the attention of 

excretions in diseases of other secret- civilized nations, in all ages, and that 

ing and excreting organs. in proportion to their advancement 

The functions of the skin in health in civilization. 

are liable to be disordered by all the These means are comprehended un- 

atmospheric vicissitudes of heat and der three heads — friction, ablution, 

cold, aryness and moisture, to which and perspiration. The fij^t only re- 



3S TherfME AnJtiquae Redivivcs. [Jan. 

moves the laminae of exfoliated cu- these three methods of acting upon 

tide from the surface; The second the skin, that they are specially ap- 

removes obstructions from the pores plicable to three separate and dis- 

or orifices of the ducts. The third, by tinct classes of constitution. Friction, 

increasing the secretions of the su- to be used gently and moderately for 

doriferous and sebiparous glands re- the purpose of nourishing the emacia- 

moves obstructions m the ducts, and ted, strongly and perseveringly for 

purifies the blood by increasing their reducing obesity, and in all caaes to 

secretions. To preserve the lx>dy in preserve the healthy condition of the 

perfect health the alternate use of surface of the body, 
friction and of ablution daily, and of The vapour bath, for moistening 

perspiration, at least, weekly is need- the dry constitution, and, at the Bame 

ml. time, supplying the fluids of the body 

To such perfection was the art of exhaled from the surface by the opera- 
friction earned by the ancients, as we tion of the bath, 
learn from Celsus, that Asclepiades But for the purpose of purifying the 
wrote a volume upon the subject ; blood from excrementitious matters. 
but, to prove its greater antiquitv, for the preservation of health, ana 
Celsus shows that Asclepiades merely the prevention of disease the thermal 
copied all that is really valuable in bath is pre-eminent, 
his work, from the writings of the For persons unaccustomed from 
mos\; ancient medical author. Hip- infancy to the use of baths of every 
pocrates, which is comprehended in a kind, some preparation, before going 
few words. He says that, " by forci- into the thermal bath, is necessary, 
ble friction the body is hardened, bv to secure its salutary, and to avoid its 
gentle friction it is softened, by much possible injurious effects, 
friction it is diminished, and by mo- This preparation is three-fold — 
derate friction it is increased in size dietary, medicinal, and ablutionary. 
or bulk." Celsus gives explicit di- 1st The ordinary quantity of ani- 
rections for the proper use of friction mal food and fermented liquor should 
in health and in disease. Ablution is be slightly diminished, 
scarcely alluded to by the ancients as 2n(L A few doses of gentle ape- 
a domestic custom. Friction and the rient medicine should be a£ninistered, 
bath were principally used for this followed — 

purpose ; the two modes by which 3rdly, by one or two warm soap 

impediments to free transpiration on baths. After this preparation the 

the surface, and obstructions to free thermal bath may be used with 

excretion by the pores and ducts were every prospect of permanent benefit 

in a measure removed. But the most from its continuous employment, 
efifectual means for the accomplish- Neither is it to be regarded simply 

ment of this two-fold object was the as a luxury, to increase the eivjoy men t 

Laconicum, which has been lately re- of life and its manifold pleasures, nor 

vived in this country, under the de- as a means of preserving health ; far 

signationof the "Turkish," or thermal, more than this, it is a powerful and 

bath, and the "Vaporarium," or va- valuable agent in the treatment of a 

pour bath, introduced by the Hon. variety of diseases. In the case of a 

6asil Cochrane, in 1 822. common cold or simple catarrh, caught 

The operation of these three kinds by exposure to excessive heat in an 
of determents is distinct. The first, impure atmosphere, the symptoms 
friction, IS superficial ; the second, the are at once removed and health re- 
vapour bath, supplies nearly as much stored by the use of the thermal 1 
water by pulmonary absorption as is bath. In cases of ague, the thermal ^ 
exhaled from the skin ; the third, bath, used just before the cold stage 
or the thermal bath, operates upon of the expected paroxysm, speedily 
the body — 1st, by quickening the prevents the recurrence of tne dis- 
circulation, it promotes all the se- order. 

cretions ; 2nd, by injecting the capil- In cases of malarious fevers, such 

lary vessels of the skin, it increases as those of Belgium and the Low 

^he sudorous and subaceous excre- Countries, the Campagna of Rome, 

'ons. the jungle fever of the East Indies 

It is evident, from this short ex- and of the African coast, and the 

^nation of the modus operandi of fever and ague of the backwoods of 



1801.] Thermae Antiquw Redivivas, 33 

America, the thennal bath is pre- How much more effectual the ha- 
eminent, and, on trial, will be found bitual use of the thermal bath, bv 
to supersede all other methods and preserving the purity of the blood^ 
means of cure, provided the patient as a preventive against their severity, 
be removed from the sphere of the if not of their occurrence ! 
malarious influence ana be supplied If a coi\jecture may be hazarded, 
with pure water free from the mala- the entire immunity of the ancient 
rious impregnation. Arabians, Greeks, and Romans from 

In its ^ modus operandi^' the ther- these scourges of the human race, 
inal bath precisely imitates the natu- and their ingress in the dark ages 
ral efforts to expel the** fomesmorbi" amongst barbieurous tribes, and even 
by perspiration. In the treatment of among the modem and more refined 
patients whose constitutions have nations, may have been owing to the 
been broken down by the frequent habitual use ofthe hot-air and vapour 
recurrence of malarious fever — (and bath by the former, and the entire 
fever of this kind is extremely Uable ignorance or neglect of this mode of 
to recur for the remainder of lue from purification by the latter, 
any cause which chiUs the surface Modem purification may be defined 
and checks the perspiration, long after as superficial; ancient, as reaching; 
removal from the locality where it the blood and all the tissues of which 
was caught)— and by the mercurial, the body is composed, 
saline, and tonic medicines prescribed Conta^on in such a state of the 
for its relief, the thermal bath has constitution finds no material to fer- 
proved an effectual and permanent ment and assimilate to its own poi- 
remedy. It is impossible to speak sonous nature, and thus to propagate 
too highly of the toou to invalids of its destructive virus, 
this class, whose activity and useful- Various prophylactics (as they are 
ness are destroyed, and whose lives called) against pestilential diseases 
are rendered burdensome alike by have been proposed ; but if this con- 
the disease and by the means usually jecture be well founded, there is no 
resorted to for its cure. prophylactic equal to the thermal 

Besides fevers of the intermittent uath: and it is not, perhaps, too much 
and remittent class, those of the ty- to afl&rm, that it is superior to vacci- 
phous and typhoid type are marked nation as a safeguard against small- 
by eraptions on the skin of dark pox, as well as against other diseases 
spots, (pet^chise), and a rose rash, of the zymotic class, from which the 
(macuke), indicaJtive of the mode of ancients, who universallv employed 
expulsion of the *' materies morbi." the hot-air bath, were happily ex- 

If, previous to. or during, the rigors enipt. 
which precede tne formation of these Is it too much to expect, in this 
fevers, free perspiration were induced age of progress and enlightenment, 
by the thermal bath, the "femes that this powerful preservative of 
morbi'' might be expelled and all the health and prophylactic against dis- 
tedious and dangerous process of the ease should find universal mvour and 
Bubseauent dis^ise might be pre- 'general adoption, when the positive 
vented. It is quite as much, if not and. negative benefits derivable from 
more, by the sweating they occasion its use are so momentous? 
as by vomiting that emetics frequent- The next class of diseases to which 
ly arrest, in hmine, the progress of the thermal and vapour baths are es- 
contagious diseases. pecially applicable, both as a preven- 

It is for the same reason that erne- tive and cure, are those of the skin, 
tics, administered in the outset of zy- In the great majority of these dis- 
motic diseases (under which head are eases the fault is in the blood, of 
comprised small-pox, chicken-pox, which the eraption is the outward 
measles, croup, thrush, diarrhoea, dy- manifestation, those only excepted 
sentery, cholera, influenza, ague, re- that are engendered by parasites, 
mittent fever, l^hus, erysipelas, hy- whether of a vegetable or animal ori- 
drophobia, scarlatina, and whoopins- gin ; but even these can scarcely be 
cough), are so frequently and highly considered exceptional. The food of 
beneficial in divesting these latal parasites, whose spomles and ova 
diseases of more than one-half of float in the air ready to settle and 
their danger. grow, or be hatched and developed 

VOL. LVIf,— NO. CCCXXXVII. 3 



34 ThemuJB Antiqtta Redivivce, [Jan. 

on the skin, are in the unwholesome the most destructive and loathsome 

secretions of the sebaceous glands ; in in their nature and in their tendency, 

the healthy secretions they find no All these zymotic diseases origi- 

Boil, no nidus, no sustenance, and, nated nearly at one and the same 

therefore, no means of existence. period, namely, about the end of the 

Dr. Friend, in his "History of Phy- fifth century; and, without contro- 

sic," writes: — versy, they were unknown to the 

- There is one thing of the greatest ^"jlf ^ r^^>'^^^ . ^^^s, and Ro- 

importance, which we must seek for only n^?s. Their ongm was clearly co- 

among these writers (the Arabian and jval with the disuse of the thermal 

Greek physicians), I mean the history of baths, which constituted both the 

the small-pox; for, perhaps, from the luxury and the safety of those refined 

time of Hippocrates to this very period, nations. This is an historical fact, 

there never happened anything so re- the hypothetical explanation of which 

markable in physic as the appearance of may not be satisfactory to the present 

this most surprising distemper, the on- sceptical age : it is this, that the 

gmal of which may be traced up from existence of the pabulum morbi in 

their own authors much further back- ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ u^^^^. 

ward than is commonly imagined, even y"" '^*"."^ «t*^i,wouc«>, xuwc uuo f"^** 

to the famous epoch of Mahomet himself ^^ ^}^V^^^ ^\ **^® g^ape, affords the 

—in the beginning of the seventh cen- materials for the contagion or leaven 

tury. to work upon, causing a great internal 

'* The measles, which, no doubt, was commotion, and an explosive efiort 

of the same age, called not improperly, through the glands of the skin. When 

by Avicenna, ** Variola cholerica," they the pabulum morbi is small in 




greater included the less. This was a 11 ""Ii,?^-^^ »M^«txi*D m vuk> ojo- 

distemper, without dispute, unknown to ^^\V^^ disturbance is excessive and 

the Greeks, whatever some of the mo- **^« disease is proiyrtionably violent 

derns have said to the contrary, and first and fatal in its tendency, 
observed in this nation and described by This explanation applies to all dis- 

Mahometans." eases of the zymotic class. 

A ■ To account for the different diseases 

^ of this class, there must of necessity 

•* By the earliest account we have of exist contagions of diiifereiit kinds ; 

the small-pox, we find that it first ap- and the probability is that these con- 

peared in Egypt in the time of Omar, tagions were originally derived from 

successor to Mahomet; though, no the inferior aninmls. 
doubt, since the Greeks knew nothinff of a^vA:«„ i.u«« u^«, „i.4.^i« i. i « 

it. th^ Arabians brought it from their ., ™,S' *J»«°' ^P"^ "^^^^^ ^<>P«^ess 

own country, and might derive it origi- ^^ ^» ^^V^^^ to avoid or to escape from 

nally from some of the more distant re- cpntagion which surrounds us on all 

gions of the East; and as this people did Sides, our wisdom is tiot to suffer the 

propagate its religion and empire so did pabulum morborum to accumulate 

it no less this modem evil. Then, as to m the system, by returning to the 

the disease itself, Rhazes says, * This habitual use of the thermal baths. 
is a ferment in the blood like that in It is notorious that some persons 

** must" rthe e^PFffied juice of the escape the contagion of smaU-pox, 

gnipeV which purifies itself s<»ner or others of the measles, othera of the 

later by throwmg off the peccant matter a/»o^iof;«« ^fi,^«c.^<'*u^\vi«!l ail u 

by the glands of the skin/" scarlatina, othere of the plague, though 

•' " exposed to it in its most virulent and 

The term "exanthema," applied concentrated forms. Why is this? 

to smaU-pox, measles, and scarlatina. Because the pabulum did not exist 

which was long confounded with in the system in sufficient quantity 

measles, signifies an inflammatory for the contagion to operate upon as 

pustule, included under the generic a leaven, and this by reason of the 

term zymotic diseases, from ?w/<«^«, natural activity of the glands of the 

(leaven, or ferment). To this category skin. 

belong two other diseases—the plague Much, and deservedly, has been 

and sweating sickness, from the de- written in praise of vaccination, as a 

atructive ravages of which we are milder means of destroying the pabu- 

^y exempt. lum of smaU-pox, and an attempt was 

have now enumerated diseases made by Dr. Home, of Edinburgh, to 



1861.] Thermae Antiquas Redivivas, 35 

diminish the violence of measles bv and rheumatism have been warded 
inoculation, which failed. How much off by this threefold mode of preven- 
more rational to expel the pabulum tion — temperance, exercise, and the 
morborum by the habitual use of thermal bath, 
the thermal bath, and by this means To pass from the surface and ex- 
to re-acquire the immunity from those tremities to the interior, we come to 
terrific zymotic diseases eigoyed by the congener of the skin, the mu< 
the ancient Arabians, Greeks, and cous membrane lining the air pas- 
Romans, than to attempt to destroy sages of the chest, and the digestive 
it by vaccination or inoculation of the and reproductive organs of the abdo- 
specific leaven or contagion. This is men, as catarrh, bronchitis, humoral 
scarcely too much to expect from the and s^modic asthma, gastro-enteritic 
use of means so rationally directed to affections, including diarrhoea and 
an end. dysentery. 

But to effect this object to the full- Diseases of this kind, various as 

est and widest extent, the whole me- they are in symptoms, owin^ to their 

dical faculty must concur in opinion, several and distinct functions, are 

both as to the cause and the preven- characterized by two states — ^aug- 

tion of those diseases. This, perhaps, mented secretion, and exalted sensi- 

is more than reasonably can be ex- bility depending upon the state of the 

pected in so large a body, and of such lymphatic and mucous glands, corres- 

uiversity of sentiments upon medical ponding to the sudoriferous and sebi- 

subiects. parous glands, and upon the state of 

Cutaneous diseases are not so di- the nerves answerable to the nervous 

rectly amenable to thermal baths as papillae of the skin. 

might readily be supposed. In cases of this kind, the thermal, 

This class of diseases is seated for or the vapour bath used at the com- 

the most part in the sudoriferous, mencement — that is, during the chil- 

scbiparous, and hair glands of the liness which precedes an attack of ca- 

skin. tarrh, bronchitis, &c., is a most effec- 

The primary operation of these tual remedy; but when feverish symp- 

bathsis to increase the action of those toms have succeeded the preceding 

glands ; and, as they are already in a rigors, and the natural secretions are 

morbid state, to increase their action suspended, evidenced by heat and 

is toaggravate their morbid condition, dryness of the mouth, throat, and sur- 

It is for this reason that due pre- face of the body, large dilution and 

paration by medicine, diet, and re- proper evacuations are necessary be- 

gimin is needful before the patient lore having recourse to these baths. 

uses these baths for the cure of skin The efficacacy of the thermal or 

complaints. But as preservation is vapour bath is not more manifest in 

better than cure, persons who habi- the treatment of any disease than in 

tually use them will rarely, if ever, cases of foul ulcers of long standing, 

suffer from any form of skin disease, particularly of the le^. 

Erysipelas, gout, and rheumatism The danger to the life of the patient 
belong to the family of blood dis- from drying these up is obvious, the* 
eases, of which the grand outlet is by discharge from them having become 
the ^ands of the skin. essential to the purification of the 

As in the case of cutaneous dis- blood, but under the use of the ther- 
eascs, medical preparation is requi- mal or vapour bath the myriads of 
site before using these baths, lest the cutaneous glands pour forth a tide of 
Bufferings of the patient should be fetid perspiration, which purifies the 
aggravated, and the disease increased blood and supersedes the necessity for 
ill severitvand danger bv accelerating the discharge from the ulcers, which 
the circulation before the ' materies then heal rapidly and with perfect 
morbi' has been in a measure evacu- safety to the patient. The health, at 
ated. the same time, undergoing the most 

In cases of this kind the value of marked improvement 
prevention by temperance in living. Of the truth of this statement the 
by exercise, and by the habitual use writer formerly had repeated expe- 
of the thermal bath, to preserve the rience in the treatment of ulcerated 
blood in purity and health is manifest, legs, among a most squalid populat ion, 
Periooic attacks of erysipelas, gout, whose die^ whose habits, and whose 

3* 



36 ThermcB AnUg^HOf Bedwufoe. [Jan. 

occupatioiiB were most onfaTourable putatiiig the woonded or bitten parts, 
to purity of blood, upon which health or poisoning the patient with nar- 
ana all its eigoyments essentially de- cotics. 
pend. In asthenic or passive hsemorrha^ 

In the two forms of paralysis, the epistaxis, haemoptysis, hsematemesis, 
centric and the eccentnc, tne ther- h^ematuria, and menorrhagia, the ther- 
mal and va^ur bath are unaafe and in- mal or vapour bath, by equalizing the 
admissible in the formen but perfect- circulation and obviating local deter- 
ly safe and very effectual in the latter; mination of the blood, and by elimi- 
or perhaps it would be more correct nating those saline constituents of the 
to say, that in cases of paralysis de- serum which prevent the coagula- 
pendmg upon organic disease of the tion of the blood, is the natural mode 
brain and spinal chord, the use of ofarresting its escape by the capillair 
these baths is not unattended with organs. Cases of this kind, which 
daiu^r, and never productive of the have resisted every mode of treat- 
slightest benefit But in paralysis ment by astringents and tonics have 
arising from simple congestion of the yielded at once to the equalizing and 
cerebnd and spinal blood- vessels, or eliminating power of the thermal and 
inflammation of the brain and spinal vapour baths, 
chord, and extensive affection of the The relief from the pains and perils 
nerves, extending to the centre, after of parturition procured by the bath 
due depletion, these baths are most is i^srfectly safe ; na^, entirely free 
efficacious. A young lady, for in- from danger to the li& of mother and 
stance, whose eyelids were para- child ; which is more than can be as- 
lyzed by a flash of lightning, so as serted, with truth, in reference to 
to be unable to open them except by chloroform and other ansesthetics. 
lifting them with her fingers, was The subsequent recovery and the 
cured of this local paralysis by three secretion of wholesome milk, and, 
times using the thermal vapour consequently, the health of the off- 
bath. Other cases of local paralysis, spring, are promoted by the purifying 
arising from neuralgic affections, are process which thebloodof the mother 
speedily relieved by this means. imdergoes by the perspiration. Idio- 

Under this class may be arranged pathic dropsy — that is, dropey not 
those cases of facial paralysis occa- occasioned oy organic disease, as of 
sioned b^ a blast of cold air on the the heart, lungs, liver, or kidneys, 
face, as in travelling with the win- but sprin^ng from obstructed peispi- 
dow open, whilst the rest of the body ration or from inflammation of the 
is warmly clad ; and those caused by serous membranes — after the inflam- 
over-fatigue, particularly under the matory state has been removed by ap- 
hot Sim, all or which speedily yield propriate treatment, is more speedily 
to the thermal or to the vapour bath, and safely removed b^ the ther- 

Spasmodic diseases, depending upon mal bath than bv diuretics or drastic 
irritation either at the origin or peri- purgatives ; and even in cases of 
feral distribution or termination of oedema of the extremities, arising 
•the nerves are, perhaps, more eaflUy from organic diseases, the local effu- 
controUed by the thermal or vapour sion mav be removed by the local 
bath than by any other means. hot-sand bath. Some very satisfac- 

From several cases of relief from tory results have, by this means, 
spasmodic affections of the muscular been obtained when the use of the 
svstem and muscular contractions ; bath was contra-indicated by disease 
tne thermal or vapour bath is confi- of the heart and other viscera, 
dently proposed as the most power- Idiopathic jaundice and uremia, by 
ful remedy in tetanus, and even in deriving the flow of blood from the 
that direful, and hitherto invariably liver and kidneys, and determining 
fatal disease, hydrophobia. In these it to the glands of the skin, are re- 
cases the protracted use of the bath, moved by the thermal bath ; bile and 
extending over several hours, supply- urea being evacuated from the blood 
ing the waste by plentiful diluents, in thatdirection, givinc time and 
would be required to overcome the rest to those large intern^ glands to 

nasms and to eliminate the poison recover their tone, 
n the blood. How far preferable Cases of slow poisoning by acid^ 
\e unscientific procedure of am- acrid, and narcotic vegetable sub- 



1661.] Thermos Antiquoe JSedivivce. 37 

Btancea, taken medidnaUy or as con- received during the week, might be 
diments to food, by which the health eliminated before the rest of the Sun- 
is broken and the constitution gradu- day ; for it is in those stated periods 
ally undermined, are most effectu- of rest, when the natural perspira- 
ally cured ^ ^ the thermal bath, tion is suspended, that these metallic 
Under the innuenoe of the bath, the substances become more intimately 
necessity or the appetite for these blended and, as it were, incorporated 
slow poisons ceases to crave gratifica^ with the system, 
tion, and thus the patient is relieved The next class of diseases is pre- 
from the cause and effect of his dis- eminentlv under the control of the 
ease. thermal bath. It comprises the va- 
By the same means, under this rieties of neuralj^a, or nerve-ache ; 
head, is included alcoholic poisoning, cephalalgia, rachialgia, facialgia, or 
causing delirium tremens, which is tic doulereux. odontalda, gastral- 
cured, almost instanter, by the ther- gia, hysteria, dysmenorrnea, sciatica, 
mal bath. The copious perspiration, and every other non-inflammatory 
redolent of alcohol, with which the local nerve-pain, periodic or remit- 
victim of his own imprudence is be- tent in its recurrence. Traced to its 
dewed points out the direction in proximate cause, it will be found 
which relief is obtained. to depend either upon deficient secre- 
The peculiar odour of the perspi- tion of some important organ, and 
ration m the insane indicates, d nri- consequent retention in the blood of 
oriy the use of the thermal batn in some effete materials, or uixm the ba- 
the treatment of insanity. By elimi- bitual ingestion of some irritant or 
nating that odorous material from acrid substance, such as Cayenne 
the blood, by free perspiration, it is pepper or other oondiments ; in either 
not irrational to suppose that the case, the healthy relation which ought 
healthy, the sane relationship be- to subsist between the blood and tne 
tween blood and brain, micht be re- nerve-fluid is disturbed, of which 
stored, and that the delusions to the pain is the sensitive exponent, 
which that odorous material gives From this short explanation of the 
rise might cease, and the disease of cause of neuralgia, the effect of the 
the mind be cured. thermal or vapour bath in curing the 
Death fh)m slow poisoning, bvani- disease is appNU'ent By promoting 
inal poisons introduced into the blood all the secretions, and especially of 
by tne bites of various insects and the innumerable cutaneous glands^ the 
serpents^ by certain kinds of food blood is purified of effete and irntat- 
unaeigom^ slow decomposition, and ing materials, harmony is restored 
by putrid inoculations, as in dissect- between it and the nerves, and free- 
ing wounds and glanders, is prevented dom from pain is the consequence, 
by the thermal oath, provided time In this, as in everv other attempt 
has not been allowed for the whole to cure a disease aepending for its 
mass of the blood to become oonta- continuance on the haoits of the pa- 
minated by the poison. tient, his cordial concurrence and co- 
Metallic slow poisoning, by mer- operation are essential to a successful 
cary, lead, copper, arsenic, or by the result. 

mineral acids taken medicinally, or The use of acids and acescent 

gradually introduced into the system wines, as articles of food, acrid and 

of artisans in whose occupation these irritating condiments, araent spirits, 

substances are employed, is, in like and the whole class of narcotics, must 

manner, prevented b^ the thermal or be discontinued, in order that the 

vapour bath, the poison being elimi- bath may accomplish the object in 

nated from tne system by copious per- view — the purification of the blood, 

spiration. In this way dyspepsia, the cause of 

It would be a great boon to workers daily discomfort and the source of 

in metals, in silvering looking-glasses, many serious and fatal disorders, is 

in white lead manufacturing, in brass- speedily relieved, and the sufferer is 

founding and house painting, lacquer- restored to the ei^oyment of health 

ing, card-glazing, lucifer match mak- to which, perhaps, he may have long 

ing, if they could resort every Sar been a stranger, 

torday to a thermal bath, that the The last, though not the least, of 

metallic impregnation of the blood, burdens the thermal or vapour bath 



as ThermcB Antiqua Eedivivee, [Jan. 

is capable of removliig is obesitv, 3rd. In all cases of cancer, occult 
whicn may be defined as an oily . or open fungoid diseases, and gan- 

dropsy — an effusion of oil into the grene. descending to chilblains, and 

cellular tissue. This easily escapes irost-Dite, the baths are absolutely 

by the sebiparous glands under the inadmissible ; for, by quickening the 

action of the thermal or vapour bath, circulation of the blood, the morbid 

provided that due abstinence from process is hastened to a death of the 

food, rich in carbon, such as fat meats, parts, or even to a fatal termination, 

butter, cream, sweets, and alcohol, 4th. Apoplexy, central paralysis, 

be observed, and proper exercise epilepsy, and catalepsv ; softening of 

be taken in the intervals between the brain and spinal cnord, forbid the 

using the bath ; a reduction of many use of the baths, 

stone weight may be effected by this 5 th. Phthisis, in its advancedstages, 

means in a very short time, without organic disease of the heart and great 

any reduction— but, on the contrary, blood-vessels, also prohibit its em- 

with a relative increase — of strengtL ployment, however valuable it might 

With a diminution of fat, blood and prove as a means of preventing the 

muscle ate augmented, uix)n which development of those diseases, and, 

the strength and vigour of mind and consequently, their fatal tendency, 

bodv reaOy depend. 6th. However salutsuy the thermal 

The great utility of the thermal and or the vapour bath might be in the 

vapour bath in the treatment of in- treatment of idiopathic drop^, great 

fantile diseases, particularly those caution should be observed in cases 

affections of the head occasioning of dropsy symptomatic of organic dis- 

convulsions, and of the bowels, cans- eases, as of the lungs and heart, and 

ing diarrhoea, should not be passed great blood-vessels, lest in the cndea- 

over in silence. vour to remove the effect, the cause 

Having described the beneficial should be ag^avated, and the life of 

action of the thermal and vapour the patient placed in jeopardy, 

baths inthetreatmentof several of the The design of this papey has been 

many forms of disease to which the to put the medical profession and the 

body is liable, the less pleasant task public in possession of the experience 

of enumerating some of tnose in which of more than thirty years in the use 

it is not only not useful, but positively of the hot-air and vapour bath. The 

i2]jurious, if not absolutely oangerous, reason why it has not been addressed 

remains to be accomplished. exclusively to the members of that 

1st Cutaneous diseases^ depending profession is, that non-medical persons 

upon organic degeneration of the may see that the use of the baths is 

sudoriferous, sebiparous, and hair- not advised on empirical but on ra- 

glands of the skin. Such diseases tional principles, and that due regard 

of the skin, as might easily be sup- has been paid to its injurious as well 

posed, are aggravated by these baths, as to it« beneficial operation ; for it is 

Soothing applications are far more obvious that every medicinal agent 

suitable to diseased organs than in- which is potent for good when skil- 

creasing their activity by exciting fully prescribed, is no less powerful 

perspiration. for evil if misapplied. 

2nd. Diseases of the subjacent or It is obvious, therefore, that the 

areolar tissue, such as boils and car- application of the principles enun- 

buncles, which are often developed ciated for our guidance must devolve 

under a protracted water cure; and upon regularly educated medical men, 

in fact, instead of being regarded as a who alone are competent to decide in 

crisis of disease and signs of returning every case upon the safety and prob- 

health. they should rather be con- able salutary action of the baths, 

sidered as a morbid condition of the *' OoUimare scopum'' is our motto — a 

areolar tissue, engendered by inordi- direct aim should be our endeavour ; 

nate action of the glands situated for the real value of every remedy 

directly over that tissue. It is consists in its right administration in 

probable that a boil, or a carbuncle, the right cases, and under right cir- 

which is an assemblage of boils, com- cumstances. 

mences in the cutaneous glanos, the These are points to be determined 
morbid condition extendmg to the bythosewhohave made that wonder- 
subjacent areolar tissue. ful microcosm — ^man, in his physical 



laei.] 



Uunyadi. 



30 



and mental constitution — their care- 
ful and diligent stud^. It is for this 
reason that, under their sole guidance 
and direction, these potent and valu- 
able agents should be administered. 

The thermal bath, which is the 
safest and most agreeable to the sen- 
sations, is that in which the hot dry 
air of the common Turkish bath is 



modified by ^jet d^eau descending in 
a fine shower in the centre of the 
bath, as seen in the bath establish- 
ment in Temple-street ; where the 
medicated vapour bath, enclosing the 
patient under a canopv, is in use. By 
these arrangements, the greatest ad- 
vantages without the slightest risk 
are obtained 



HUNYAUr. 



BY PROPSaSOR DC TBHIOOUR. 



£vBBY nation has its glorious pages presented to the public, by the emi- 
in history ; everv nation, its heroes, nent patriots, Boldenyi, Count Teleki. 
beneflEictors, and legislators ; and and othei-s : Teleki especially has shed 
among the heroes, many of them re- an invaluaole light on the history of 
present in their individuality the race Hungary and her pre-eminent hero ; 
they belong to; they appear as the and were his labours more extensively 
ideal type or qrmbol of a nation, known, as well as those of others of 
Kone more so than Hunyadi, who his countrymen^ undoubtedly, Europe 
may be considered as the incarnation would have evinced a more effective 
of all the principles and aspirations and a warmer sympathy with the 
of Hungaiy. The authors ot general misfortunes of that knightly race, 
histories have been very neglectful The ancestors of the Hungarians 
of this grand mediaeval figure ; they formed one of those innumerable 
mention him briefly on one or two hordes over whom Attila reigned, 
great occasions, without further in- They afterwards . divided, and wan- 
quirieS) whilst in his fatherland, Hun- dered over the extensive plains of the 
yadi is the object of the most splen- north of Europe and A^ia. Towards 
did national legend ; he is the great the middle of the ninth century, this 
militant Christian of the fifteenth fraction of the Huns became the 
century, somethinff between a saint Magyar nation, from the name of one 
and a hero— much of both. The of its chiefs, Magor or Mager, and es- 
Qerman historians have not generally tablished iteelf on the banks of the 
been favourable to Hungary and her Danube. This Magyar nation sub- 
great men ; thev have often admitted divided again, and underwent num- 
caiumnies and misrepresentations berless vicissitudes. One branch of 
without exercising the zeal and saga- them, under the command of Amos, 
city in discovering truth which they a descendant of Attila, entered Pan- 
profesa, whilst they invariably have nonia, whilst another invaded Tran- 
admitted, with great reserve, the bril- sylvania. Amos abdicated, and the 
liant episodes and noble charactciis- nation raised on a shield his son Ar- 
ties that distinguish that unfortunate pad, whom they selected for their 
country. Thus, the great historian I)uke. This new chief, the head of 
orientalist, Von Hammer, has found a long and revered d3rna8ty, had to 
in the Turkish chronicles, acts of ex- repel the attacks of his neighbours, 
treme ferocity attributed to Hunyadi, Moravians, Slavonians, Bulgarians, 
and he has calmly related them to and Koumans, after which, his mar- 
the world, although they are in abso- tial bands finally settled in the lands 
lute contradiction to the chivalrous which, from that day^ave been call- 
character of the hero, and not even ed MagyarorsjEag, or Hungaria 
idluded to by any of the contemporary During more than a century after, 
writers and chroniclers of the west, this restless race were the terror of 
amons whom, several were particu- Europe by their incessant inroads and 
larly hostile to him. The chronicles, devastations. Finally, Otto the Great 
historical documents, and state papers surprised them near Augsbourg, and 
abound in Hungary, and have recently made a fearful butchery of them, in 
been analysed, and their substance 955. A hundred thousand of them 



40 Hunyadi. [Jan. 

are reported to have been drowned the individoal liberty of the citizen 
in the Lech. The Magyars, prostrate and of the comitat (county governed 
after this blow, renounced for ever by a noble), the unity of the general 
their system of plundering ; thev or- law applicable to the whole country, 
ganized settlements, devoted them- — ^when the sovereignties of Europe 
selves to civilization, and gradually were absolute. The name of Stephen 
embraced Christianity. The legends has remained incorporated with the 
of Hungary on the establishment of whole constitutions organization of 
Christianity are varied and numerous; Hungary. This constitution was, as 
"but the records on the consequences of it were, the founder of Hungary ; it 
the introduction of the religion of rendered that land powerful to resist 
Christ are most explicit ; Paganism the terrible invasions of the Mongols 
struggled fiercely in numerous sanguin- and Turks, and it became, under Louis 
ary revolts. There was a struggle, d* Anion and MathiasHunyadi, one of 
moreover, between the Christian sects, the first jwwers of Europe. Above 
The Slavonians, foes of theHungarians, all, it saved its national individuality 
had embraced the Greek Church ; from the absorbing influence of Ger- 
they were vanquished, and the Mag- manism. 

yars naturally embraced the doctrine The constitutional histoiy of Hun- 
of the numberless missionaries who gary comprises three periods: the 
were zealouslv proselytizing amons nrst, the epoch of its formation, from 
them. The ducal family embraced Saint Stephen to Andre II., extends 
Christianitv, with their chief, Valk, from the year 1,000 to 1,222. The 
who, on the day of his christening, decrees of the first king and saint, 
took the name of Stephen. A few constituted the three classes, clergy, 
years after^ an extensive Pagan revolt nobility, and people. The decrees of 
was organized, and committed great Saint Ladislas established the regula- 
ravages. towards 988. Stephen as- tions and foundations of the Church 
semblea the faithful Magyars, attack- (1,077). Immediately after, the first 
ed the rebels, defeated them in a san- collection of the laws was framed at 
guinary encounter, and was after- the insti^tion of Kalman, one of the 
wards proclaimed king. Another greatest Magyar legislators : and af- 
revolt took place, which he crushed terwaxds appeared tne**G<rfaOT Bull," 
with the same success. As long as under Andre II., the Crusader, which 
Stephen the Saint lived, Paganism re- was the final basis of the liberties of 
mained prostrate ; after him it made the orders composing the state. The 
new efforts, but they proved unsuc- dynasty of Arpad c^ised with Andre 
cessful. After Stephen, Bela and III., in 1,301. The Hnnwiaos 
Letdislas, his successors, continued his then elected Wenceslas, of Bonemia, 
work, and Christianity took firm root their king, and after his abdication, 
in Hungary. Otto, of Bavaria. But Pope Boniface 

The name of Saint Stephen is dear enjoined them to elect for their king, 
to the Magyars. At this day they re- Charles Robert, of the house of Anjou. 
vere the memory of their first king. Under his reign, Hungary attained a 
The crown that maugurated his reign high degree of splendour. It corn- 
had been preserved until recently, pnsed then, besides the original king- 
when the dark Austrian eagle laid dom, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Ser- 
its ferocious claws upon it, and per- via. Valachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, 
petrated an act of lawless spoliation, ana Bulgaria. Louis I., the Great, his 
The Magyars reverence in Saint Ste- son, obtained also by election the 
not only the hero, who shed crown of Poland. After him his 
them the blessings of Christian daughter, Mary, was declared king 
^^ ation, but the b«nefactur who by the Hungarians. She associated 
laid' the basis of an invaluable consti- in the throne ner husband, Sigismimd, 
tution, which, whatever may be the Elector of Brandenburg (1,386). Their 
unfavourable influences and modifica- reign was agitated by a revolt of the 
tions it underwent during past a^es, nobles, by the war of the Hussites, 
has, nevertheless, been the lasting and by terrible periodical invasions of 
^ wark of the true spirit of the Hun- theOttomanTurks, during whichHun- 
n nation. Thanks to that con- gary was the saviour of Christendom, 
uon, the land of the Magyars be- Hunyadi was bom under the reign 
md ex^oyAd a balance orpower— of Sigismund. 




166L] Uunyadi. 41 

The seoond epoch in the oonstita- militarycareer was that of every free 
tion ^ Hungary oomprises the ame- man. His early military adventures 
lioimtionB introduced by Louis the are wrapt in doubtful tales and tradi- 
Oreat (in 1.351), the founder of feu- tions, alonff with the discrepancies 
dalism, of tne military reforms, and of and contradictions of the contempo- 
a superior orfpanization in the ecclesi- rary chronicles. It seems that he 
astical jurisdictions and the Drivile^^es en^ed in the service of a Bulgarian 
of the burghers bestowed oy Sigis- pnnce, and that after a soiourn of 
mimd, ioUowed by the perfecting re- some length in Bulgaria, where his 
formsand institutions ofKing Mathias valour was handsomely rewarded and 
Oorvinus, son of our hero, flunyadi. encouraged, he returned to Hungaiy, 
After Corvinus most of his best and where he entered the royal army un- 
civilirinj; reforms disappeared during der Sigismund. He was then an ob- 
the internal dissensions, the oppression scure soldier, devoid of recommenda- 
of the aristocracy, and the destructive tions. His superior intelligence, his 
Turkish invasions. The third epoch zeal and valour, soon became the ob- 
ia one of perpetual violence and of ject of admiration. He passed rapidly 
resistance ; it consists of the inces- through all the military grades— was 
aant encroachments of Austria on the intrusted with a command, and be- 
Autonomy and fundamental liberties came one of the councillors of the 
of the Hungarians, and of the ener- crown. He accompanied Sigismund, 
ffstio efforts of that noble race to baf- King of Hungary^ when he went to 
Be the duplicity of the Germanic £m- receive the impenal crown j he took 
perors, whilst opposing an indomitable part in the Bohemian war. m the ex- 
valour to their unprincipled aggres- peditions a^^inst the Turks, and ob- 
sions. tained by his brilliant services high 

The birth of great men has ever dignities and valuable estates. At 

been the object of popular legends, the death of Sigismund he formed 

Many romantic poetical tales about part of the body of royal nobles, 

the birth of Hunyadi are still believed The successor of Sigismund was 

and related by the populations of Albert, Duke of Austria, Emperor of 

Hungary and of the neighbouring Germany, King of Bohemia and of 

states, several of which claim the Hungary. He only reigned twenty 

honour of consancuinity with the le- montus over the Magyar nation, and 

gendaryhero. Valachian and Polish died on the 18th of October, 1439, 

chroniders have affirmed his belong- leaving two daughters, and no sons, 

ing to their race, and his being of no- Albert had munincently recompensed 

ble blood. A tradition, frequently ad- the services of the two Hunyadi, and 

mitted by historians, transforms him bestowed upon them the rank of 

into a natural son of Sigismund : but Baron of the Kingdom, with estates 

the recent researches of Count Teleki appended to the titles, but situated 

on the Hunyadian Age have brought on the frontiersof Transylvania, which 

the truth to light Hunyadi, or Hun- were incessantly exposed to the in- 

vady, was in reality a son of Hungary ; cursions of the Ottomans. At this 

he was the offspring of a Magyar period the armies of the Crescent had 

fandly of respectable antiquity, al- taken advantage of the wars of the 

though impoverished, and was bom Hungarians in Bohemia, to extend 

in 1387 ; he had three sisters, who their conquests. They had estab- 

have left no trace in history, and a lished their suzerainty over Yalachia 

younger brother, whose Christian name and Moldavia, and extended their 

was also John: thus, there were, domination all along the shores of the 

therefore, two i/unyadi Jdnos, the Danube, from its i^outh as far as 

elder, our hero, and the youngest, Belgrade. This thickly fortified city. 

who followed his great brotner in his bulwark of Christendom, wasdefendea 

campaigns, was wounded, and no by a valorous chivalry. The Osman- 

mOre is heard of him after the year lis had already menaced it Theynow 

1440. The elder, the great Hunyadi, adopted a system of harassing thegar- 

vpeai his youth in grave, stem, hard- risen by frequent sur|)rises, alanns, 

working, occupations. Endowed with and skirmishes ; they ravaged the en- 

a powerful frame, fortified bjr ft con- virons, destroyed the neighbouring 

tinned moral conduct, he was instinc- population, and thus isolat^ the city, 

lively a soldier, in an age when the Hence their frequent destructive in- 



4S HunpadL [Jan. 

cursionB in Transylvania, and the her expected child would be a daufl^- 
awf ul position of the Hunyadi, as well ter. The ELnngarians now assembled 
as of the other noble proprietors who again to deliberate. A party pro- 
fought with them, mostly under the posed to leave the orown to Eliza- 
command of the elder brother. No beth, and wait ; another party, and 
rest for them. Attacks succeeded each Hunyadi among them, considered 
other ; the Magyars were always on that it would be wiser to offer the 
horseback, sword in hand : it was a crown to Wladislas, King of Poland, 
perpetual battle. The details of thou- who was young and brave, and would 
sands of high deeds, fabulous heroism, prove docile to the directixms of the 
are lost to history; many of them nobles, whilst the union of the two 
wouldvie with the days of Thermopylee chivalrous nations would enal^e a 
and Marathon, of Cressy and Agin- powerful resistance to be offeied to the 
cowrt. The reenilts bear testimony to enemies of Christendom. A marriage 
the magnitude of the struggle. between EHizabeth and Wladislas was 

Thanks to Hunyadi, the Ottomans further proposed as the most happy 

were repelled again and again from combinaticm, with the stipulation that 

Transylvania, and often pursued be- if the expected child proved to be of 

yond the frontiers. They were forced the male sex, he would reign over 

to raise the siege of several cities Austria and Bohemia; but t^t the 

whid^ they had begim, and which children of the Polish prince would 

were tjready far advanced ; they be recognised beforehand as future 

abandoned portions of the Magyar sovereigns of the elective kingdoms of 

territory, where they had already Hungarv and Poland, 

formed a permanent encampment. Tms last project was favourablyre- 

Hithertothelife of Hunyadi had been ceived by the Queen. Ambassadors 

that of a soldier and a general ; now were sent to the voung King of Po- 

commences his political life. From land. He solemnly accepted the pro- 

this period he will exercise a power- posal, swore to respect the customs, 

fd mfluence over his countrymen. laws, and institutions of his new sub- 

His destiny is interwoven with the iects, and proclaimed an intimate al- 

national destinies ; his life becomes liance between Poland and Hungary, 

purely historical The hero appears Whilst these preliminaries were tudng 

m his real grandeur. place, Elizabeth gave birth to a male 

The year previous to the death of child (22nd February, 1440), who re- 
Albert, the Hungarian Di6t issued a ceived the name of Ladislas the Pos- 
decree which insured the royal sue- thumous. This event annihilated all 
cession to his wife, Elizabeth, and her the many hopes for the future. Two 
descendants. Before expiring, there- parties were formed — a powerful (me, 
fore, he assembled the nobles, de- urging the Queen to annul what had 
clared to them that his queen was been done, invest her child with the 
prej^nant, and recommended her to regal dignity, whilst she assumed the 
their faithful loyalty. But soon after regency ; and another party, that had 
the funeral of the king, a profound the majority in the Diet, headed by 
anxiety seized the nation : the Bohe- Hunyadi, resolving to adhere to the 
mian revolution was stiU menacing; stipiilatedconditions,r6oogni8ingWla- 
theTurksgrew daily more formidable, disJias as legitimate king;, and repu- 
and were preparing to march on Bel- diating the claims of the Queen and 

gade. In this coiiguncture what oould her child, 

ungary do, governed by a woman? A civilwarwas inuninent. Thefor- 

The nation had great need of a man — - mer patriotism of the Queen had fled 

of a military conmiander. On the from her heaiiib Her maternal leveled 

other hand, tbe memory of Albert her to the determination of seating her 

was held in veneration, and there was bov on the throne of Hungary at any 

agreat reluctance to remove his widow risk In violation of the Ooostitution, 

and offspring. Elizabeth magnani- she annulled, of her own authority, 

mously put an end to this fatal inde- the stipulations with the King of Po- 

cision. She asisembled the nobles at land. She braved the deerees of the 

Buda, and solemnly abandoned the Diet ; had its ambassadors seized on 

decree they had voted in her favour, their journey, and thrown into prison, 

considering the dangers of the coun- destroying also their diplomas, letters, 

ind also her presentiment that and pubhc seals.' In the meantime 



1861.] Bunyadi. 43 

tbe Diet protested with energy, and resolved to proceed with the royal in- 
vrote to the King of Poland to hasten auguration. A diadem, said to have 
hia arrival. Wladislas, accompanied been discovered in the tomb, and 
by a brilliant Polish escort, advanced among the bones of Saint Stephen, was 
towards Hungary. He was received placed on the head of the King— a 
by a certain number of Magyars at gloomy foreboding of death in the 
the frontiers, and made his entrance eyes of the people* 
into Buda, «nirrounded by a crowd of The Polish prince had exhausted 
nobles, with Hunyadi at their head all means towards a conciliation. 
During this progress of Wladislas, Elizabeth, inexorable, had ardently 
Elizabeth was assembling all her ad- prepared for a mortal struggle. Hun- 
herents in another part of the king- gary became a vast field of battle, on 
dom. In this illegal assemblv it was which the Magyars slaughtered each 
decreed that her child shoulci be im- other. Hunyadi received the princi- 
mediately proclaimed and crowned; pal command, and was directed to- 
the Keeper of the Royal Treasures wards Transylvania, which had just 
brought ner by stealth the crown of been occupied by the most formidable 
Saint Stephen, and the ceremony teok body of rebels. Before the attack he 
place immediately, with the usual issued his orders to his army, for- 
oath of respect to the Magyar laws biddingpillage, massacre, and anvvio- 
and institutions. lence against the inhabitants ana their 
Wladislas, installed in tbe Hun- property. When he had pitehed his 
garian metropolis, spared no effort to tents before the fortress of Szegszard, 
appease the mtemaldis£iension& He ho sent to the rebels reasonable pro- 
biended skill with generosity in his positions, which were insolently re- 
condliatory measures. In the mean- jected. He then assembled his army, 
time, Elizabeth was agitating the and eloquently addressed the troops, 
ktiigdom by every i)ossib^ means, to explaining the justice of their cause, 
prevent the coronation of the Polish and urging them te chastise, with 
king. She was in possession of the their usuafvalour, the enemies of the 
holy crown ; she held several strong- fatherland. When he had ceased 
holds, and especially ^yor. whicn speaking, the army rushed enthusias- 
commanded ihe principal hignways to tically to the attack. After a deadly 
the capitaL This strongly fortified conflict Hunyadi carried the position, 
centre of the nartisans of the Queen took a great number of prisoners, es- 
was attacked oy Hunyadi, but with tablished himself in the fortress, and, 
very insufficient forces. He, never- faithful to his principles of humanity, 
theless, weakened it, compelled all the sternly checked any tendency to car- 
scattered bands of the rival faction nage and plunder, in an age when 
to take refuge in it, and havinc bloodshed and depredations were con- 
thus cleared the highways, attained sidered the legitimate right of the 
his object and withdrew. Now the strongest He afterwards returned 
Diet assembled. The M^yars en- to Buda, where he was affectionately 
thusiastically proclaimed Wmdislas of received by Wladislas. 
Poland their king, pronounced the The civil war raging in Hungary 
other coronation fraudulent, and pro- was not an opportunity which the 
ceeded to Uie immediate crowning of Turks could allow to escape. It roused 
their long. The crown, sceptre^word, their ambition ; they conceived that a 
and mantle, were sent for. During people thus torn up by civil discords, 
the ceremony it was discovered that would become an easy prey. For- 
the crown of Saint Stephen — ^the sacred tunately for Christendom, the Magyars 
relic of Hungary — had disappeared ; possessed sufficient vigour to resist 
the Magyars became frantic; thou- external as well as internal enemies, 
sandsof menacing swords were drawn. The Turks sent several armies to the 
The keeper, Gara, being question- north; they came with formidable 
ed, confessed that the real crown war engines to besiege Belgrade, and 
had been stolen ; the wretehed man batterea its walls, but the valiant de- 
would have been cut to pieces, had fence of the besieged baffled their 
not Wladislas darted through the fury : and in the meantime Hunyadi 
crowd and saved him by offenng his checxed them by continued, skilful 
own breast to the swords. The ta- diversions. Finally defeating them in 
mult gradually subsided, and it was a battle, he forced them to a nasty re- 



1 



Hunyadu [Jan. 

treat. This siege and campaign had HtinyadL When both armies vere on 

lasted abont six months, l^w recom- the point of rushing npon each other, 

penses were bestowed on Hunyadi, a report spread among the Hun^urians 

for his brilliant public services. The that the Turkish general had given a 

Kingappoint^ him Vigvode of Tran- description of the apoearance and at- 

syl vania, Commander of Belgrade, and tire of Hnnvadi to a oand of intrepid 

Military Chief of the Lower Danube. Spahis, with the order to make up to 

His new dignities, far from inducing the redoubtable Tanko^ as they called 

him to take to a repose to which he him, and take him dead or alive. This 

was fairly entitled, proved, on the report passed like lightning fromrank 

contrary, a new spur to martial ac- to rank ; every man was mintic with 

tivity. In order to inaugurate his the idea that the life of their hero was 

viceregal fimctions of Vsnvode, he un- exposed to such an nnmanlyjcon- 

expectedlyattacked the Ottomans be- spiracy. A Magyar, named Kerne- 

vond the Hungarian frontier with his nyi, who resemmed Hunyadi in ap- 

heavy cavalry, harassed them, and pearance, presented himself. He pro- 

retunied to Transylvania with a rich posed to change his diess, arms, hel- 

booty. met and horse with his commander. 

Sultan Amurath, exasperated at the thus to draw the attack and pursuits 
several defeats his arms had recently of the Turks to himself, whilst his 
suffered, resolved to strike a dgantic general would be enabled to lead 
blow against the Magyars. He pre- the Magyars to victory. Hunyadi, 
pared an expedition with wonderful pressed by his army, accepted this 
rapidity, and ordered it to penetrate sublime devotedness. He did so in 
bv forced marches into the very heart the name of the fatherland in danger, 
of Transylvania. Hunyadi, siuprised, with the fervent hope to save it by 
hastily assembled the troops within his strategic arrangements for the 
his reach, and rushed on the Otto- battle. The change was effected. Soon 
mans. He met them ravaging the after the Ottoman army assailed the 
sacred territory of the Holy Crown, Christians, the Spahis fell like an 
and attacked them with very inferior avalanche on the spot where they be- 
forces. His impatient ardour, and that held the white plume of the Yajvode 
of his troops, had rendered a strategic waving, and his arms shining on the 
attack impossible ; the audacity and person of Kemenvi. The Hungarians 
valour of both were of no avail in kept their ground heroically, the con- 
presence of the enormous masses of fusionbecomingsuchthatsoon nothing 
Ottomans. Hunyadi was defeated, was heard but war cries, screams of 
The victorious Tinrks slaughtered all despair, and the groans of the wounded: 
who fell into their hands. They push- and nothing seen but thick clouds of 
ed forward, destroying every thing dust, and flashes ofthe clashing swords, 
with fire and sword on their passage. Whilst the Ottomans were directing 
till they had arrived before the capi- their principal attack on the epoX, 
tal, Hermanstadt The city closed its where, they fancied, stood the great 
^tes, and the siege was commenced; Hungarian chief, the garrison of Her- 
if taken, Traneylvania was lost The manstadt made a sally, advancedinto 
defeat of Hunyadi roused his heroic the Turkish camp, delivered their 
energy to almost a superhuman de- prisoners, and surprised the enemy in 
gree. He proclaimed the rising of the rear. At the same time, Hunyadi 
the country en maste; he took no rest himself, who, until this moment, had 
Day and night on horseback, he col- with difficulty checked the impatient 
lected nobles and men from every ardour of his reserve, gave the signal, 
nook of the country ; he appealed to and launched them on. The Otto- 
the dangers of the fatherland ; he mans, disorganized by these various 
infused the enthusiasm and devo- attacks, broxe their order of battle ; 
tion into the hearts of all. As soon as and soon after yielded, and fled in 
he found himself at the head of a every direction. Hunyadi long pur- 
sufficient force, he fled to the succour sued the vanquished, and return^ 
of Hermanstadt The Ottoman gene- On the following morning, the im- 
ral, informed of his approach, raised portance of this memorable battle be- 
the siege, advanced proudly to meet became known. Twenty thousand 
the Magyars, and pitched his tents Osmanlis, with their general, and his 

etween the city and the army of son, were lying on the {ground. Onfy 



1861.1 Hunyadi. 45 

three thousaad Hiujigarian bodies money at an enormous interest, and 
were found, and among them the as security received the sacred crown 
noble,anddevotedEemenyi, with the of Saint Stephen, which had been 
flower of the Magyar blood. The stolen. A further sum being required, 
booty found in the Ottoman camp he insisted on occupying the Hun- 
was enormous, consisting of gold, pre- flnrian fortresses of Elijsabeth on the 
cious stones, rich spoils of every de- German frontier. The young King 
acription. valuaUe arms, and war en- Ladislas, was also intrusted to him 
ffines. After solemnly thanking God to be brought up, the crafl^^ Haps- 
for his victory, Hunyadi lost no time buig promising to govern in his name, 
in taking advantage of his triumph. He had only to wait now for a favour- 
By a bold« adventurous march, he able opportimity, in order to realize 
crossed the Karpathian mountains, cut his ambitious hopes. The Queen, in 
off the retreat of the Turics, destroyed the meantime, suspecting, x>erhap6, 
a great number of them, reached the imperial treachery, discouraged oy 
Roumanian soil, delivered the Yala- the little success of her efforts and 
chians from the suzerainty of the Sul- by the augmentation of the Polish 
tan, and advanced menacingly beyond party, evinced a disposition to open 
the Danube. Here he paused: he negotiationswith Wladislas; thepre- 
had accomplished, with unparalleled liminaries were in the course of being 
success and audacity, a most ardu- settled, when new military events 
ouB expedition. He now tnmed turned the attention in another direc- 
back, and, wherever he appeared on tion. 

the Magyar soil, the whole population Sultan Amurath resolved upon once 
crowded round him ; they nailed him more throwing an army of 80,000 
as their deliverer^ and blessed the men into Hungary to avenge the dis- 
hero, who, in their enthusiasm, re- ^ce of the vanquished crescent, and 
ceived the most gratifying reward to mtrusted its command to his most 
apatriot for his toils and sufferings, experienced general. This force fell 
Hunyadi, after this campaign, munifi- like a thunderbolt on Transylvania, 
cent^ rewarded his companions, and leaving a desert and ruins wherever 
allies, and laid down his sword. While it passed. The terror of Gkrmany 
resting from his military labours, he was great; Viermo trembled. As the 
earnestly engaged himself in the re- Hungarian nation was divided by civil 
storation of internal peace, but his war, it must soon be crushed, as it 
repMOse was not to be of long du- appeared to the whole of Europe, 
ration. One man, however, was living, who 

During this Turkish war in the ex- swore to perish or save the fatherland 
treme east of Hungary, the civil war and Christendom. It was HunyadL 
was continuing in the north. The As soon as he heard of the invasion, 
young Polish king Wladislas was he abandoned his diplomatic and ad- 
too young, chivalrous, and inexperi- ministrative labours, mounted his 
enced, for his struggle with Elizabeth horse, called all his vassals to arms, 
and her party. Tm Queen had soon and proclaimed a general rising. He 
discovered his juvenile magnanimity revived an old custom of his ancestors, 
and indecision ; it impelled her to ordering that a sabre, covered with 
greater hopes and exertions. She blood, should be carried through the 
wrote urgent appeals to the cities ; country, to invite thus every man to 
sent and Kept active agents in the rally round the national banner. In 
principal of them ; and endeavoured a short time, 30,000 had answered his 
to awake the patriotic pride of the appeal. Hunyadi, with this little 
Magyars, by exciting tnem against army of valiant patriota, did not hesi- 
Poland and the Poles ; nevertheless, tate to take the offensive against an 
the midoritv of the nobility remained army of 80,000 Osmanlis. He thought 
faithful to Wladislas whom they had it prudent not to wait for the enem^ 
freely selected and elected. The and reveal to them the paucity of his 
Queen then turned to Frederick, the resources. He commenced a series of 
crafty Emperor of Germany, rehtted " marches and countermarches, harass- 
to her through her husband. This ing the Turks incessantly, and drew 
Hapsburg Emperor promised assist- them into the mountains by his skil- 
ance, by appealing to the Pope ; he ful mancBuvres. When informed of 
could not spare any troops, but offered their disadvantageous position in a 






46 Hunpadi. [JaxL 

valley, he gradually sarronnded them, the surrender of Belgrade, or the pay- | 
having driven away all the advanced ment of an annual tribute, than he 1 
posts. The Hungarian ^neral had indignantly and menacingly reified 
admiraUy echelonned his little army ; that Hnn^Etdi would be oonsulted on 
here he must oooqiiar or periah. Be- the subject, sifter which a reply would 
fore giving the signal of attack, how^ be forwarded to Amurath. The war- 
ever, he luielt down to implore the like disposition of the young king was 
protection of Christ All the Magyars careful hr faaned by his neighmnri, 
followed his example. He afterwar(Ja who held the Turks in great terror, 
electrified them oy a few words, The Pontift'sent a legate, who forcibly 
spurred his horse, and led on his men depicted the dangers of Ohristendom ; 
against the Torkk A fierce conflict he flattered Wladislas with the pros- 
then took place, the Turks fighting pects of gicat military glory, adding 
bravely. The stru^Ie lasted ail day. that Hun;^r^' and Poland, now closely 
The sun was setting when the Os- united, were powerful enough to ac- 
manhs, overpowered by the heroism complish the salvation of Burope. 
of the Christians, lost their general, The young king was already resolved 
gave way and fled. Hunyadi was to venture an expedition ag^nst the 
again victorious ; he pursued the infidels, when the news arrived that 
enemy with his usual vigour, and re- they hadinvaded Serbia, butchered the 
turned with ^000 prisoners and 200 inhabitants, taken away the sons of 
standards. The carnage had been their prince, and frightfully mutilated 
awful. The whole of Hungary once them. A crusade was decided upon, 
more proclaimed Hunyadi the saviour Preparations were made with the 
of thelatherland, whilst he referred his greatest activity. The Diet voted con- 
marvellous success to the Almighty, sidcrable subsidies. Hun}radi raised 
This recent and sudden aggression a body of cavalry at liis own expense, 
of the Osmanlis, so heroicidly re- After imploring the protection of the 
pulsed, created great anxiety in Chris* Almighty, the King, with his corps, 
tian Europe. The infidels were van- left Buda on the 22nd of July, 1443. 
quished, but their resources were They advanced southwards, and were 
enormous; it was more than prob- joined by the different oontingents. 
able that ere Ions, they would re- Hunyadi formed the vanguard, at the 
peat their formidable attack. Unity head of twelve thousand picked horse- 
and concord among Christians became men. This memorable expedition, in 
of paramount importance. The pro- which the great Ma^ar appears, as 
positions of neauce on the part of in a romantic epic, the pro-eminent 
Queen Elizaoeth were, therefore, figure, by his adventurous audacity, 
taken into serious consideration. Fin- and in which he equals the greatest 
ally, after mutual concessions, an commanders of antiquity, consisted 
understanding was at hand, when of two campaigns— a first one as 
Elizabeth died suddenly. By this glorious as the second was disastrous, 
event the question was simplified, but As soon as the Sultan heard of the 
not resolved. The Emperor Frederick Cnisaders having actually commenced 
continued to keep Ladislas the Pos- their march, he sent three different 
thumious.and the crown of Saint Ste- corps to oppose their progress. Hun- 
phen, under his guardianship, as well yaui attacked and surprised them 
as the fortresses given up by Eliza- successively, dispersing them with 
both, whilst he was fomenting dis- great slaughter. A variety of skir- 
cords and embarrassments in Poland mishes, chivalrous deeds, and brilliant 
and Hungary. But it was of no avail, episodes, succeeded week after week, 
A loyal concord was established be- often, dav after day, during the pro- 
tween the Hungarians and the Poles, gross of the Crusaders, in aU of which 
The great idea— the great work of Hunyadi was the indefatigable hero, 
the epoch — ^was, war to the death The Christian army was advancing 
against the infidels. through Serbia. The Ottomans way- 
Early in the year 1443, a splendid laid it But Hunyadi, secretJy in- 
Ottoman embassy entered Buda with formed of their plan, surprised them 
propositions of peace from Amurath in the dead of night, and surrounded 
(Murad) for the young king. Wladislas them by a skilful manoeuvra The 
received them, but he had scarcely Turks awoke, hearing the war-cry of 
^erstood that the Sultan demanded the Hungarians. The terrible name 



1861.] ffunyadi. 47 

of "Yanko" echoed la their ears like their sufferings, and iirged them to 

a death-knelL They were massacred new efforts, when the Christians 

before thev could recover from their attained the frontier of Romnelia, 

stupor. About thirty thousand Os- they found every path, every val- 

manlis lay dead on the field. Their ley occupied by Ottomans. Every 

camp was plundered and burnt Four issue was Uocked up, and over them 

thousand remained nrisoners. Hun- was established a strongly entrenched 

vadi afterwards took Sophia, where, camp. The Turks had orders not to 

Deiug joined by the Kiu^, they entered attack, but to remain on the defen- 

Bulgaria, the population of which sive ; the tempest, snow, and famine, 

beinff Slavonian, gladly submitted to could not fau to exterminate the 

Wladislaa. The Christian army then Christians. Hunvadi imderstood at 

climbed the first heists of the Bal- once the plan of the enemy ; he sent 

kan. Another powerful Ottoman various bands to harass, provoke, in- 

armv, under the command of the suit, and challenge the infidels. The 

Pacha of Anatolia, who had boaated Turkish general, mdignant, forgot the 

of chastising the presumptuous Chris- orders of the Sultan, and sent down 

tians, was waiting for them there, his troops from their impregnable 

Hunyadi, with his corps, advanced position. The great Magvar had fully 

towa^ the infidels ; on coming clo^e succeeded ; he roused his country- 

to them one evening, he allowed his men ; restored order in his band 

men a few hours' rest, and at the first by hk enthusiastic appeals, and 

dawn, on the following morning, as whilst the other corps were forming, 

the Hungarians were preparing their feigned an attacJc on the Osmanhs 

arms and horses, a terrific sound of andafiight,drawingthemintoaplain 

trumpets burst upon their ears. They — in a disadvantageous position and 

beheld thick and numerous columns in the midst of the Christians. The 

of Osmanlis advancing with the ere- Crusaders assailed them with despair. 

scent waving over them. The Mag- The Ottomans were scattered, and 

yars, disconcerted by the multitude took refuge behind the fortifications 

of the enemy, and their inefficient of their camp. Hunyadi did not allow 

number, hesitated ; Hunyadi darted the ardour of his countrymen to cool : 

into the midst of them, called out to he pointed out to them the fortifiea 

them, not to tremble before the infi- passes, and exclaimed, "Onwards !*' 

dels— not to abandon their glorious A frightful bloody confusion ensued ; 

habit of conquering, reminding them another battle more terrible was 

how often, with the assistance of fought, and, finally, the Magyars be- 

Ood, the enemy had fied before them, came masters of the formidable 

assuring them they would flv again, heights, and beheld the green plains 

adding, that those who mi^nt now of Koumelia. 

meet with their death would nse in the On the following days the Christians 

realm of Christ Every man hailed continuedtheirmarch: they encamped 

his general with enthusiasm. He on the last slope of the Haemus, 

had instilled new life into them. The hoping for a little repose, but in vain ; 

Ottoman columns were shaken by the they found that their position was 

furious attack. They soon broke un, surrounded by a Turkish army, which 

and the proud armv of the Pacha took left them no rest The skirmishing 

to flight, be himself falling into the was incessant The Osmanlis avoid- 

hands of the victors. The carnage ed a battle, resolving to exhaust 

was again awfiiL On the following the Christian army by continued at- 

day this corps rejoined the Royal tacks, and the cutting off of every 

army, and the passage of the most communication. The King decided 

difficult passes of the Balkans was upon a retreat, despite the represen- 

commenced. tations and prayers of Hunyadi. 

It was severe winter weather. Dur- Every preparation bein^ made, the 

wg several weeks the army was deci- army departed in admirable order, 

mated by the labours and difficulties and arrived in Belgrade, the Turks 

of the march. Provisions failed, men not having venturea to attack or mo- 

and horses were falling asleep for lest them. Afterwards the Crusaders 

ever in the snow. Fortunately, Hun- returned to Buda, where their en- 

yadi revived their hopes and courage trance was a memorable triumph ; 

hy his persuasive words ; he shared they carried before them the rich 



48 BunyadL [Jan. 

trophies, arms, and standards of the and dlscossiosQS on several of the ar< 

Ottomans, followed by the prisonera. tides of the peace, it was finally 

When Hunyadi advanced, he was re- signed by both, the Christians ana 

ceived with deafening acclamations ; Mohammedans, each part^ taking a 

and hailed as the noblest represen- solemn oath, according to his religion, 

tative of the fatherland. During this to adhere to it and observe it f^ath- 

year he had vanquished the Turks in fuUv. 

six great battles. When he reached The Ottoman embassy had scarcely 

his home, his wife presented him with taken leave, when the news arrived 

a new-bom son, Mathias. The great that a fleet of Crusaders was advanc- 

Magyar thereupon knelt down, with ing towards the Hellespont, and that 

tears in his eyes, raised the child to- a revolt had broken out against the 

wards heaven, and thanked God for Sultan, in Asia. A messenger of the 

thus recompensing his faithful servant Emperor of the East confirmed this 

for his unworthy services in bestowing news, and urged Wladislas not to lose 

on him another defender of Hungary, such an opportunity of crushing the 

This ^orious campaign excited the infidels, who certainly could not be 
enthusiasm of Christian Europe. The trusted to observe the peace. The 
young king Wladislas received nu- King, perplexed, api)ealed to the Hun- 
merous congratulations from foreign garian Diet, in which (after having 
princes, who proclaimed him the taken cognizance of the diplomatic 
commander-in-chief of the army of letters and reports) the very men who 
Christ, and encouraged him to con- had hailed the peace joyfidly, now 
tinue the crusade. The Pontiff sent clamorously regretted its signature, 
from Rome the assurance of consider- Yiolent dissensions took place in the 
able succours from new allies, and assembly : at last it was resolved to 
the news that Scanderbeg had fled break ana annul the peace. All eyes 
from the Turkish array, returned to turned to Hunyadi, wno gravely pro- 
the true faith, and prepared to exter- tested against the violation of the 
minate the infidels in his paternal oath, adding, that a word of honour 
principality of Albania. Everything once pledged, ought to remain in- 
concurred to flatter the young king violate. Other members imitated his 
and induce him to commence another loyalty. Then the spiritual chief of 
campaign. In the meantime the in- the crusade, the representative of the 
temal state of Poland was deplorable ; Pope, rose and addressed the assem- 
a licentious aristocracy was trampling bly in a long and eloquent speech, 
under foot every law, human and di- He deduced arguments tending to 
vine ; but Wladislas, absorbed by the prove that the treaty concluded with 
Turkish war, remained deaf to the the Sultan was null, in consequence 
prayers and claims of the Poles. A of the divergence of manners, of prin- 
Hungarian Diet voted extraordinarv ciples, and. above all, of faith. He 
subsidies. Hunyadi was charged with concluded nis discourse by an argu- 
the preparations on the most exten- ment on the omnipotent nght of the 
sive scale, for the new campaign. In Pontifi*, in whose name he solemnly 
a few months every thing was ready, abrogated the treaty of peace, and ab- 
The Sultan, however, anxious to put solved from the oath those who had 
an end to the sangjuinary war, sue- taken it. 

ceeded, by concessions, in drawing His conclusions were received with 

away from the Crusaders several of the most enthusiastic acclamations by 

their allies, and manifested openly the Magyars. War was the only word 

his desire for peace. He sent an em- uttered ; all swore to die for their 

bassy to Wladislas at Szeged. The religion. The King, agitated, yielded 

ambassador, solemnly received in a to the universal feeling. Hejgave his 

numerous assembly of nobles, an- assent to the perjury. But Hunyadi 

nounced that his master wished for refused to disgrace himself by imitat- 

peace, and was ready to subscribe to ing them. The King, the cardinals, the 

nonourable conditions, advantageous greatest Magyars surrounded him, 

to the Christians. His propositions, and pressed him, sparing no armi- 

delivered in manly and eloquent Ian- ments. They flattered him, appealed 

guage, were enthusiastically received to his respect for his King and the 

" tlie assembly. Several conferences Pontifi"; to his love of country, and of 

>wed, and after many difliculties glory. The hero lost all consciousness 



1861.J Hunyadi. 49 

and volition ; he yielded, although re- sand men, had landed on the European 
luctantly, and joined his countrymen shores, having embarked on the £k>s- 
in one of those infamies that are an phorus in Genoese ships, at an enor- 
eternal blot upon the history of a mous expense, and thus avoided the 
nation. Christian fleet cruising in the Helles- 
Insurmountable diffleulties arose to pont The position of the Christian 
check the ardour of the Crusaders, army was desi)erate. The king held 
The Poles and Valachians who had a council. Vwious propositions were 
been dismissed when the peace was made. It was finally resolved to es- 
signed, proved reluctant to leave their tablish and entrench the army be- 
families again. A vast number con- tween Varna and Gralata. 
sidered the violation of the peace a dis- In the meantime Amurath was ad- 
honourable proceeding. An earthquake vancing with forced marches; in a 
terrified the public credulity. The few days his army stood in order of 
King also was agitated by gloomy pre- battle, opposite the Christian camp, 
sentiments. After many efforts, an A council of war was held in the 
army of about ten thousand men was royal tent ; a large majority proposed 
collected: they were, it is true, picked to remain on the defensive, to barri- 
men. They took their departure early cade the camp, use the war-engines^ 
in October, and proceeded to Widdin, and throw baclc the assailants tiU the 
towards Gsillipoh^ hoping to meet the expected allies arrived. But the im- 
auxiliaries promised by the Bjrzan- petuous Hunyadi advised the offen- 
tine emperor. The Turkish gariisons sive ; his reasons for this determina- 
were not attacked, the Crusaders con- tion were numerous, and the result of 
tenting themselves witli ravaging the a long experience. He exposed them 
count^ till they met their allies, with great clearness and warmth ; he 
Hunyadi joined the King with five appealed to the indomitable valour of 
thousand horsemen raised on his own the Magyars, and brought over to his 
possessions. Subsequently the army own views the King as well as the 
followed the valley of the Danube, bravest among the Folish and Hun- 
advancing towards the Black Sea. garian chivalry. It was decided to 
When the Christians arrived at Ni- attack the Turks ; Hunyadi received 
copolis, they plundered the suburbs, the supreme command; he assigned 
but met with a valorous resistance its post to each corps, and took the 
from the Turkish garrison. In Vala- most skilful strategical measures, 
chia the Vajvode paid his homage to When the two armies stood in pre- 
the King of Poland and Hungary, sence of each other, and on the point 
and excused himself on his having of commencing the battle, the Cru- 
heeu obliged to conclude peace with saders discovered on an eminence, in 
the Ottomans ; he inspected the army, the Ottoman camp, the gospel trans- 
and being struck by its inadequacy, fixed at the top of a long lance, along 
advised tne King and the Magyars to with a copy of the treaty of peace 
abandon the rash expedition. But that had been violated (No^mber, 
the pontifical envoy indignantly re- 1444). 

pudiated such a suggestion. He The Turks were the first to send 

affirmed that tlie Turks were not pre- forward a body of men, as it were, to 

pared for defence. The Valachian reconnoitre. They were attacked 

Vajvode was not listened to : he ad- fiercely, and the Ottoman cavalry 

joined four thousand horsemen, com- charged the whole front, when they 

manded by his son, to the Royal army, were met by Hunyadi, who repulsed 

and presented Wladislas with two them with his usual impetuosity. As 

intelligent guides, well acquainted he beheld their retreat, he fell upon 

with the country, and a few remark- the centre of the Ottoman army, up- 

ably swift horses in the eventuality set its ranks, breaking through its 

of misfortune. lines, and carrying all before him. 

The Christian army continued its The Christians, exulting in their suc- 

march, plundering and burning, at- cess, almost sure of victory, forgot 

tacking and destroying many for- the orders of their commander, and 

tresses, thus advancing towards the fell on the Ottomans with indiBcri- 

Black Sea, where the awful news fell minate fury. The infidels, on their 

Buddeidy on the Christians, that part, at first disconcerted, thanks to 

Amurath, in person, with forty thou- their great numbers, re-formed their 

VOL LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVII. 4 



50 Uwnyadi, [Jan. 

ranks, and regamed the lost ground, and the hatred of some of the Polish 

At this moment the young kmg was nobles for him, arose also from his 

persuaded by the Pontifical Legate, influence over the young king, who 

contrary to the instructions of Hun- neglected his country and country- 

yadi,to rush upon the Turks with all men, so much was he absorbed by his 

his chivalry, assured of immortal Hungarian crown. The Polish ca- 

glory as his reward. The battle long lumny has been searchingly refuted. 

remained an unearthly chaos, a blood- There is not one ground unon which 

thirsty insanity seeming to have seized it can be credited, and Giboon is un- 

both armies. At last the Turks yielded; justifiable for having accepted it 

the Ohristians hurled them down ; without investigation. Had the 

they penetrated int«> the camp of the orders of Hunyadi been attended to 

Osmanlis, and beean to plunder ; Hun- at Varna, the Christians would most 

yadi re-appeared, rallied them, and probably have conquered. Wherever 

the day seemed to have turned en- he was on that day, he repulsed the 

tirely to the advantage of the Chris- enemy. He certainly may be accused 

tians. of having advised a rash attack, con- 

At this moment, the Sultan recover- sidering there were 50,000 Ottomans, 
ing his confidence, rallied the Otto- and not 18,000 Christians, on a plain. 
mans, and commenced a dreadful at- Tliis he confessed ; and declared, long 
tack upon the Ohristians. Hunyadi, on after, that his fault was to have over- 
beholding the Ottoman masses rushing rated his anny. Tlie victory of the 
in that direction, abandoned his own Ottomans was complete ; nearly the 
victorious wing, hastened up, and whole Christian army was extermin- 
found the young king defending him- ated. Amurath, in order to announce 
self almost alone, surrounded oy the his victory to his subjects, sent to 
dead bodies of his followers. In vain them the head of the unfortunate 
Hunyadi implored him to retreat; voung king. Wladislas had been 
Wladislas remained deaf to his entreat- brave, just, liberal, modest, of pure 
ies. He gathered a few Polish knights manners. The Turks honoured his 
and precipitated himself on the Otto- misfortune ; they raised a column, 
mans, advancing rashly to the very with a commemorative inscription, 
tent of the Sultan, close to Amurath, on the spot where he had found the 
where he was cut down. In the death of the brave, 
meantime, the Christians whom Hun- The disaster at Varna became soon 
yadi had left, became confused ; it known throughout Christendom. It 
was whispered that the young king created the greatest consternation. A 
and his knights had disappeared, panic seized the kingdom of Hungary. 
Amurath at this juncture fell upon Several nobles took advantage of it 
^1 that remained of the Crusaders, to excite divisions and form ambitious 
with a fresh column of janissaries, factions. The Magyars were yeain- 
The prodigies of valour perfonned ing for Hunyadi. They discovered 
by H«nyadi proved of no avail, that he was a prisoner in Valachia. 
The Christians disbanded, rushed When he had left the field of Varna, 
from the field, or were slain ; Hun- he had long wandered, often alone, 
yadi remained almost the last; he and after long suiferings. ptresented 
was still living, and felt it his duty himself to the Valachian Vajvode, in 
not to give way to despair. His whom he thought to find a friend, 
country had great need of his life, but who, on the contrarv, threatened 
He disappeared in the mountains. him with death, and had him thrown 

Infamous calumnies were put in in a dungeon. The Magyars de- 
circulation in the fifteenth century, manded the libertv of their hero, and 
as to the conduct of Hunyadi at threatened the Valachian traitor with 
Varna, by a Polish chronicler, bitter- a merciless war, if he did not instantly 
ly hostile to the Hun^rian hero. He restore him to liberty. Hunyadi 
stated that Hunyadi nad abandoned having been delivered, re-appearcd 
the voimg king and fled It appears, among his countrymen. He arrived 
on the contrary, that the Polisn lead- when a Diet was sitting convulsed by 
era urged Wladislas to disobey the in- factious intrigues. By his exertions 
iimctions of Hunyadi. The great and influence another Diet was cou- 
ifagyar had naturally inspired the voked,more complete and regular. The 

itter hostility of envious mediocrity ; first question to be decided, referred to 



1881.] Uunyadi, 61 

the election of a king. Hunyadi at Through his intervention prelimin- 
once proposed Ladislas the Posthu- aries of peace were agreed upon, and, 
mous, ana explained all the advantao^es after enaless discussions and confer- 
that must result from his election. The ences, a formal treaty of peace was 
assembly adopted his proposition, signed. Ladislas, it was resolved, 
Ladislas was proclaimed King of should remain under the g;uardianship 
Hunsrary, Hunyadi appointed Gap- ofthe Emperor till his majority, Him- 
tain-General, and ambassadors were yadi being recognised as Governor of 
despatched to the Emperor Frede- Hungary. This suspension of hosti- 
rick III. in order to claim the young lities, gladly accepted by the Diet, 
king and the crown of Saint Stephen, was very necessary to Hungary and 
in the name of tlie Hungarian nation, her Governor. It permitted them to 
Himyadi was fully aware that an recover from an agitated and sanguin- 
Ottoman invasion would soon follow, ary j>eriod, and to prepare for the 
He lost no time in assembling a few future eventualities that could not 
troops, and started in order to watch fail to rise in the East, 
them. He obtained secret informa- Hunyadi received frequent infor- 
tion that the infidels had advanced mation of constant incursions, and 
as far as the Save, unsuspecting his attacks of the Ottomans on the Hun- 
being so near; he crossea the river garian territory. The day of Varna 
in the dead of night, surprised them, was lying heavily on his memory and 
and in two hours cut them to pieces, heart. He was deeply impressed with 
Afterwards he entered Valachia, the dangers of Hungary and Christen- 
ravaged the country, took the traitor dora, and commenced active diplo- 
Vajvode and put him to death, and matic relations with all the Christian 
established the Hungarian suzerainty. Princes. He received from all the 
In the meantime, the ambassadors highest testimonies of admiration and 
sent to the Emperor Frederick re- sympathy. In the jrear 1448 the 
ceived a vague and crafty reply : he Governor-General obtained a subsidy 
declined giving up the young king, from the Diet, formed an army of 
in consequence of nis youth, and the 24,000 men. besides 8,000 Valachians, 
sacred crown, because it could not be and suddenly advanced in Serbia. He 
wanted. The Magyars received this expected ajunction with the Albanian 
answer in a solemn assembly. They hero, Scanderbeg. But Amu rath, in- 
resolved to repel, by every means, the formed in time of the movements of 
Germanic influence and domination, Hunyadi, advanced in Bulgaria at the 
although anxious not to come to an head of 100,000 men. He found the 
open rupture with the Emperor. They Hungarians, evidently surprised, in- 
againproclairaed Ladislas King elect, trenched in the plains of Kossova. 
and Hunyadi Gk)vernor-General, with After one whole day of brilliant skir- 
extensive powers, but clearly defined mishing, the Govemor-GJeneral of 
in several articles of the decree. Hun- Hungary heard the divine service with 
yadi at first declined the heavy re- his army. Everyman took the sacra- 
Bponsibility, but being pressed by the ment. He then addressed them 
whole assembly, yielded, took the oath briefly, exhorting them to conquer or 
of fidelity to the articles, and was so- die for the religion of Christ The 
lemnly invested with the insignias and Hungarians then marched out of their 
prerogatives of his viceregal dignity, intrenched camp, and took the posi- 
A coaidjutor was appointed to aid him tion assigned to them. Hunyadi, con- 
in the discharge of his duties. As fident in their burning enthusiasm, re- 
soon as Hunyadi came into full poa- Jected propositions of peace sent at the 
session of his ncwpowere, he declared last moment by Amurath. The battle 
war against the Emperor Frederick, began; a deacfly struggle between the 
for illegally detaining King Ladislas two infuriated armies continued the 
and the Hungarian crown, and with whole day, till the darkest hour of 
^pid marches entered th^ imperial night. Then the combatants returned 
dominions, and ravaged several pro- to their respective camps. The next 
^inces, advancing to the very gates of morning, at dawn, the tattle was re- 
Vienna, but not pushing further this sumed with unabated ener^. The 
first campaign. The Emperor, uneasy small army of the Hunganans was 
at such unexpected proceedings, ap- fearfully reduced, whilst the Otto- 
P^^ to the Pontifical Legate, mans could bringforward fresh masses, 

4* 



52 Hunyadi, [Jan. 

and among them the formidable janis- pulated that Hunyadi would consent 
saries. At the same time, the defec- to the betrothehood of his young son, 
tion of the Valachians threw a fatal Mathias, with the daughter of Ulric 
disorder among the Christians, who of Cilley. The beneficial results of 
fell, one by one, actually crushed by this arrangement, however, were not 
the masses of the enemy. Hunyadi, of long duration. Cilley and his 
again, remained the last on the field^ father-in-law, both base perjurers, 
and finally withdrew with a handful were not long in manifesting their 
of men. Nearly the whole Christian deadly hatred for the pure, noble 
army had been annihilated. 34,000 hero, who was the last hope of the 
Turkish corpses proved how dearly nation, 

the victory had been purchased. The The disaster of Kossova created 
Serbians, then, turned against the exultation among those nobles who 
vanquished, their fellow-Christians, nourished an implacable aversion for 
and pursued the few that survived the Governor, who, to them, was a 
and escaped, as if they had been wild mere parvenu — successful, because he 
beasts. flattered the people. 

Affcer the fatal day of Kossova, They made no secret of their inso- 
Hunyadi, pursued, was saved by the lent delight, but formed a dark nu- 
swiftness of his horse. He wandered cleus from which radiated a mass of 
days and days in a desolate country, calumnies. A diplomatic conspiracy 
having many hair-breadth escapes, was formed against Hunyadi. The Pon- 
that are still remembered in popular tiff and most of the Christian princes 
traditions. Once he was five days received communications, in which he 
without food, and meeting a band of was represented as a tyrant, a traitor 
peasants, of whom he begged for a to his country, whose vanity and 

Eiece of bread, in the name of Gk)d, selfish ambition were the ruin of Hun- 
e was recognised, seized, and given gary. These calumnious assertions, 
up, for a handsome reward, to the skilftilly disseminated, proved sue- 
governor of a neighbouring fortress, cessful in more than one case. The 
A conspiracy was formed by the gar- Pope, to whom Hunyadi forwarded a 
rison to deliver the hero : it was dis- full account of his misfortune at 
covered, and Hunyadi given up to Kossova, in the humblest terms, left 
(Jeorge Brankovich, father-in-law of it without a reply, but officially in- 
Ulric de Cilley, who had been defeated duced the Diet to discontinue the war 
and pardoned by the great Magyar, against the Ottomans, in which so 
This man had the baseness to propose much blood and treasure had been 
to the Sultan to give up to him the lavished. The proud and sensitive 
terrible Tanko who had so often van- soul of the Governor felt deeply 
quished the OttoJnans. Amurath re- wounded ; he considered himself low- 
fused scornfully. Himyadi, who felt ered in the eyes of the Catholic na- 
how necessary nis presence must be tions, and robbed of the prestige that 
in his country, made propositions that invested him with the championship 
flattered the cupidity of the traitor, of the Christian religion. AccordU 
sent for one of his sons, whom he left ingly. he convoked a jDiet in 1450, 
as hostage, and returned to Hungary, and aeraanded whether or not the aa- 
An immense crowd of nobles and sembly would take up his cause, 'with 
people hastened, on his arrival, to respect to the past events. The no- 
congratulate him on his safe return, bles responded to his loyal appeal ; 
The Governor, in tears, saw in this they di*ew up a long, respectful epistle 
demonstration that, despite his mis- to the Pontiff, in which, with a me- 
fortune, the true national feeling and lancholy magnanimity,they expressed 
opinion were still with him. His first their unlimited approbation of the 
care was to punish the Christian trai- whole civil and military policy of 
tor who had offered him to the Turks, their Governor, Hunyadi. Neverthe- 
He turned, with an incredible rapidity, less, the calumnies continued their 
on Serbia, and ravaged it, till his son subterranean work, and the Court of 
was restored. Mutual friends inter- Rome manifested a violent opposition 
posed between Brankovich and Hun- to the great Magyar, 
yadi: they appeased the wrath of Hunyadi, at length convinced that 
the latter, and bonds of a mutual con- the internal discords of the country 
sord were agreed upon. It was sti- could only be brought to an end by 



1661.] Hunyadi 53 

the presence of the legitiiaate king, noblesandprclatesvho had responded 
resolved, by arms or bjr diplomacy, to the appeal of the Governor, mid be- 
to effect the installation of the trayed him, sold him to the Bobe- 
Toung king on the throne ; thus not mians, whom they had brought up 
hesitating to sacrifice his own to the and assisted. Hunyadi, undeterred 
general interest He aJso formed the by this treason, formed an army ra- 
project of chastising the Bohemians, pidly, calling some of his old troops 
who had constantly made incursions imder his banner. He then dashed 
into the land of the Magyars, and on the Bohemians, exterminated them, 
kept up civil dissension by their in- took all their forts ; and as they again 
trigues. He commenced by detaching had re-assembled, and when the 
from ^em those nobles who, driven Governor, although with an anny 
by a factious spirit, had been leaded very inferior in number, longed to as- 
with them. Puttmg aside his private* sail them, he received an order from 
resentments, he formed a close alliance the Diet to cease hostilities, and sign 
^ith the Palatin, Ladislas of Gara, the conditions of peace, wliioh the as- 
and the Vajvode of Transylvania, sembly had framea. These conditions 
They swore eternal friendship and were disgraceful to Hungary. Hun- 
concord. A body of Bohemians, rem- yadi, however, with a bitter hearty 
nants of the armies of Zisca and of submitted to the law of the land. He 
the Procopa, had established them- was only the representative of the 
selves in the north of Hungary, and King and had sworn to obey the As- 
there built castles, and fortified cities, sembly. 

as in a conquered land. They formed The peremptory interruption of the 

banda of brigands, who robbed and Bohemian expedition was a humilia- 

plundered under the name of La<li8las tion which Hunyadi felt keenly. He 

the Posthumous, whom they professed was surrounded oy unscrupulous ene- 

to defend. Huuyadi raised a body of mies, and saw himself the victim of 

troops at his own expense, and ad- the most odious calumnies at home 

vanced against those Bohemians, and abroad. Too honourable to foim 

whom he soon dispersed. He then for himself a special party of inferior 

proceeded to besiege Losonoz, their nobles and citizens, among whom he 

strongest fortress, and centre of their was very popular, he commenced 

settlement. As the fort, owing to its without delay the measures that 

adnurable position and its brave ^ar- would enable the Hungarians to ob- 

risen, resisted more vigorously than tain possession of their young king in 

was expected, the Governor, having a their own country. He concluded an 

totally msufficicnt foroe, had recourse armistice with the Ottomans, in or- 

to his viceret^ authority, and ciiUed der to be undisturbed in that quarter, 

on all the nobles and prelates of the Ho again sent ambassadors to the 

district to come to him w^ith men and Emperor without any result. The 

munitions. A great number responded Governor then appealed to the dif- 

to the' appeal. Hunyadi then found ferent Dopulations, Germans^ Bohe- 

himself at the head of a consider- mians, Moravians, who reitognised the 

able body. The besieged fortress Hungarian suzerainty. He convoked 

Goiild not out surrender. One night, their representatives in a general as- 

when the Hungarian camp was sembly, which decided that Frederick 

plunged in a tranquil slumbtT, a cry should be reiluced l)y force of arms to 

of akrm was heard. The ^Magj-ars give up Ladislas. The Emperor then 

roused, flew to arms ; the Bohemians withdrew to Italy with the royal 

advancing in order were in the camp, youth, to let the storm pass awa^. 

and massacring the besiegers as they But on his return he was besieged m 

wore rising. All the barons, prelates, Neustadt, and obliged to yield. A 

and nobles had disappeared. Hun- pea^e was promo tly concluded, by 

yadi hastened up at the head of a which UlricdeCilley was declared tu- 

small, faithful band, carved his way tor of Ladiaks,then only twelve years 

through the Bohemian masses, and of age, but under the direction of the 

retreated in a menacinc order. One Hungarian Diet. The young king 

of the Magyar nobles, taxen up wound- declared his desire to reside in Hun- 

ed on the way, and unwilling to ap- cary. It was acceded to reluctantly 

pear before God without asking par- by the imperial party. His appe^r- 

don for his crime, confessed that the ancc was nailed everywhere witii en- 



64 Hunycidi, [Jan 

thusiastic acclamations. A general Bolemn popular inauguration of his 

Diet was convoked for the first days reign, returned to Austria. Oilley 

of the year 1453 at Presbourg, for the there renewed his intrigues, isolated 

final and solemn installation of La- the poor young king, and again re- 

dislas with the sacred crown. sumed his calumnies and plots s^inst 

Prom that day the government of Hunyadi, whilst he was abandoning 

Hunyadi ceased. The documents re- himself to profligacy. Fortunately, 

specting his civil administrations are there were still some pure nobles at 

few. The chroniclers are generally court, who resolved to save the King 

silent on the subject ; they especially from the pestiferous influence of his 

represent him as the hero-patriot, in- crafty guardian. One morning they 

cessantly battling against the Infidel, appeared early, in a body, before La- 

NeverthelesSjmanyadmirablerefonns dislas, having baffled the precautions 

and institutions of internal adminis- of Cilley. They unravelled to him 

tration marked his civil government, the infamies of this man, dwelt on the 

These have been drown ea, as it were, discontent of his subjects, and finally 

in the tumultuous military agitation convinced the young king of all they 

of his life, but are, to this day, con- advanced. Ladislas then ordered that 

sidered by the Magyar race, honour- his unpopular guardian should be ig- 

able testimonies ofhis genius, integrity, nominiously dismissed. This mea- 

and humanity. sure, as well as the honours bestowed 

When the Hungarian Diet, after previously on Hunyadi, produced a 
innumerable difliculties, had settled most favourable impression on the 
with the Emperor the details of the Hungarians. They hoped for a period 
peace, Hunyadi resigned the extra- of repose and prosperity ; but this 
ordinary powers that had been in- hope was a merely transient gleam, 
trusted to him more than six years Mohammed II., the intrepid and 
before. The Austrian party and the enthusiastic son of the Prophet, had 
enemies of the great Magyar succeeded succeeded Amurath. The young Sul- 
in placing Ladislas under the infiu- tan had not feared to proclaim his de- 
ence of Ulric de Cilley. This profli- structive projects against Christen- 
gate, unprincipled man, j)oisoned the dom. Europe seemed, nevertheless, 
mind of the young sovereign. He ac- to be slumbering, when it was roused 
cumulated infamous calumnies on by a terrific crash. On the 29th of 
Hunyadi, who, informed, at last, of May, 1453, Constantinople had falloii 
the dangera he was exposed to, has- before the destructive masses of the 
tened to Vienna, bafiled the snares of Ottomans. Mohammed, now in pos- 
his implacable enemies, and only session of the key of the Medit«r- 
begged nis friends to obtain a hearing ranean, menaced Italy, France, and 
from the King and refute the calum- Spain. The consternation in Hungary 
nies of which he had been the object, was deep and universal : all eyes and 
Ladislas listened, felt conscious now hearts j^in turned to Hunyadi. The 
deeply he had wronged the Magyar young king terrified, but well advised, 
hero; and having assembled round his bestowed new proofs of his gratitude 
throne the greatest nobles, prelates, on the popular hero. In considera- 
anddignitanes of the realm. Hunyadi, tion of his eminent services he in- 
presenting himself, knelt oefore his vested him, by royal letters patent, 
king, and laid in his hands his titles with the property of four VaUichian 
of Governor of the Kingdom. The districts, as a national recompense, 
young sovereign rose, thanked him Hunyadi considering himself now 
for his loyal services, created him sheltered from coiut intrigues, recov- 
" Perpetual Count," and appointed ered confidence in himseS'. He felt 
him Captain-General of his army, that, at the head of his old companions 
Subsequently the King confirmed and in arms, he could brave the present 
legalized all the acts of Hunyadi as dangers. He pressed the King for an 
Governor, in a document of great his- immediate convocation of the Diet, 
torical importance, as it is a resum^. It assembled at Buda, and voted am- 
highly laudatory, of the whole politi- pie subsidies in men and money, and 
cal life of Hunyadi to the very day a general rising in case of invasion, 
of the resignation of his extraordin- Every measure was taken for the im- 

ry powers. mediate organisation of an army, and 

unfortimately, Ladislas, after this Hunyadi appointed Commander-in- 



i 



1861.] Bunyadi 66 

Chief. The Diet was still sitting Prague, to be crowned King of Bohe- 
when the news arrived that Moham- mia, and Hunyadl battling against the 
med 1 1. was advancing at the head of Turks, this league succeeded in calling 
an army. The Ottomans had ravaged an assembly of the orders of state. 
Serbia. Its prince, who had formerly and forming a committee, charged 
treacherously imprisoned and raur with the political, economical, and 
Bomed Hunyadi, bad come to Hun- military government, in the absence of 
gary to implore succours. The Mag- the King, which de facto abolished 
yar commander forgot the farmer the authority of Hunyadi. Fortu- 
treo^n, a8s«mble4l whatever bands nately the latter, on his return, took 
of Serbians and Hungarians he could the wise measiire of instantly for- 
collect, as the army was not yet ready, warding a messenger to the King, in- 
and advanced to meet the invaders forming him of what had taken place. 
with extmordinary rapidity. He Ladislus wrote back that Hunyadi 
avoided the principal Ottoman corps, must be member of whatever govem- 
and fell on the rear of the army, sur- ing body was instituted, thus leaving 
prised a portion of it, and defeated it. him sut&cient authority to continue 
The SuUAn saw himself obliged to his preparations for the Turkish war. 
retreat In the meantime Hunyadi But Ulric de Cilley thus defeated, 
had been obliged to withdraw, in or- turned to his old manceuvres. He 
der to crush an insurrection of the circumvened the young king, art- 
treacherous Cilley, in Croatia. But fully attributed to Hunyadi the most 
be soon returned with fresh troops, criminal intentions, forging proofs and 
whilst the Sultan had recommenced documents, till the terrifiea Ladislas 
his devastiitions in Serbia. The Hun- acquiesced in everything he proposed, 
garians marched day and night. Cilley persuaded him to invite, by 
One morning, at the rising of the writing, the General to an interview 
sun, the Ottomans beheld the Magyara somewliere near Vienna, lay a snare 
galloping in the front of their camp, for him, and murder him. Himyadi 
and the standard of the dreaded started on receipt of the Royal letter ; 
Yanko waving in the midst of them, but secretly informed by Austrian 
Hunyadi attacked with his usual im- friends of the plot, did not proceed, 
petuosity. The sanguinary struggle Cilley made yet another attempt. In 
lasted all day. The Ottomans at last the name of the King, he invited the 
took to flight : Hunyadi pursued them great Magyar to a second rendezvous. 
as far as Viddin, where, hearing that This time Hunyadi came with two 
immense Turkish reinforcements were thousand devoted followers, saw de 
coming up^ he withtlrcw to Belgrade Cilley, and scornfully reproached him 
with prodigious booty and an enor- withhis cowardice and infamy. Never- 
moua number of prisoners. Hunyadi theless, he felt anxious to see the 
then returned to Hungary, where a Kin^, and reveal the truth, unsus- 
multitude of nobles, citizens, and peo- pecting the royal sanction to Cilley's 

Elo met him, and again proclaimed snares. The latter seized this oppor- 

im their hberator. tunity, made an appointment again ; 

After this arduous campaign he and on Hunyadi nesitating to ap- 

went to spend a few days with his proach, met hin), urging him to ad- 

famOy. Ilis second son, Mathias, vance. Hunyadi, suspecting the trai- 

then eleven years old, by his preco- tor, called out to one of Cilley's 

cious energy and intelligence, was the knights, sternly demanding whether 

delisht of his parent and the hope of this was not a snare. The latter, 

the Magyars; but the father could not abashed, bowed his head in assent 

long inauke the joys of paternity. The indignation of the great Magyar 

He besougnt the Emperor of Ger- may be easily conceived. He branded 

many to assist Hungary. A Germanic the traitor and left him with his life, 

assembly, convoked for the purpose, out of respect for the King. When 

ended in fruitless discussions, and these attempts to assassinate their 

Hungary stood alone. The extraordin- liero were known among the Hun- 

ary power and honours conferred by garians, their frenzy became bound- 

thcAjng on Hunyadi had again roused less; armed multitudes appeared on 

the virulent animosity of his ene- all sides— nobles, friends, companions 

mies. Cilley and others renewed their in arms of Hunyadi, hastened from 

league; and whilst Ladislas was at every quarter. The fermentation took 



*66 Rwayndi, [Jan. 

a formidable aspect, and the throne wad baffling the efifbrts and exertions 

of Ladislas would have been endan- of the Oaptain-General ; difficulties 

gered had not the efforts and per- were fostered in every way. The 

suasions of the popular hero appeased object was evidently to ruin Hun- 

the storm. This manifestation stimn- yadi personally, who required all the 

lated him in the final resolution to manly energy of his nature not to 

save his fatherland from the infidels, despair and succumb. In the midat 

or perish. of these oonspiracies, letters from 

The Ottomans were steadily oonso- Belgrade, aYmounced that Mobanuned 

lidating their power in Europe. The with an innumerable fleet and army, 

new Pontiff, Calixtns III., invited had crossed Serbia, and was ad vanciB^ 

Christendom to a crusade against on the Danube. At this moment, all 

them. hatreds, disputes, ambitions, eeased ; 

But Ohristendom remained deaf to one name alone resomided among high 
the invitation J Hungary alone was andlow, in every street, in every valley 
expected to strike the Orescent. Ca- — Hunyadi ! He was exalted, flattered, 
pistrano, a pious Franciscan friar, was surrounded, proclaimed a hero, a sa- 
sent to preach the crusade to the viour,bytheverymenwhohadcalum- 
Hungarian people. By the pontifical niated him. In the midst of this un- 
influence, the mtemal dissensions of speakable enthusiasm, he hastened 
the realm were settled, and Ladislas the completion of the anny, took 
ftilly acquainted with the treason of leave of his king, whom he entreated 
de Cille^, as well as the magnanimity to remain firm among his people, as 
of his mtended victim. The King he would soon hear that the Orescent 
sent his excuses to Hunvadi, who had been crushed by the Cross. Ne- 
hesitated in accepting them. He vertheless, the general terror did not 
yielded, however, in the name of the subside ; exaggerated reports were cir- 
fatherland, and was appointed Cap- culated. The population of Budaabaa- 
tain-General of the Kingdom. Ladis- doned the city ; the streets were de- 
las renewed, in a solemn assembly, the serted. Not a man, not a soldier, 
expression of his gratitude and esteem could be seen. In the meantime, Hnn- 
for the ex-governor of the kingdom, yadi was flying, as it were, sooth- 
confirming all the recompenses ana wards. 

donations he had bestowed upon him. Mohammed had pitched his tents 

In the meantime the Crusade was in under the walls of Belgiade, on the 

vain preached in Germany and Po- 16th June, 1456. He had broaght 

land ; it only brought a few thousand with him about a hundred thonsaud 

lawless volunteers. Hunyadi, after men, with an enormous mass of am- 

having invited all the Hungarian no- munitions, artillery, and engines of 

bility to march under the national war. He had echelonned two hundred 

standard, once more resolved to im- vessels on the Danube and the Save, 

plore the assistance of the Christian to cut off all communication of the 

princes. Only one, the Duke of Bur- besieged with Transylvania and Hon- 

gundy, after great professions, con- gary. Belgrade was defended by a 

fented himself with performing some ifew hundred Magyars only, but naen 

military marches in Germany, after of loiig experienced valonr, eom- 

which he returned to his Duchy, manded by Michael Szilagyi, broUier- 

The Captain-General met with great in-law of Hunyadi. They all swore 

difficulties in raising his armv. A to defend the city to their last breath, 

singular lukewarmness had followed The Sultan flattered himself to take 

the excessive terror of the Turks, who it in less than a fortnight; b^ore 

were represented as having aban- which, he said, his father, Amurath, 

doned tneir systematic aggressions, had lost seven months, and all his 

Hunyadi implored his countrymen to glory. The siege commenced; it was 

have no faith in their apparent inac- carried on with prodigious vigour. 

tivity. He entreated the King to come Huge engines poured down on the 

to Buda and convoke a Diet; Ladislas city showers of destructive missiles. 

consented. The assembly, eloquently A first, a second, a third week passed 

addressed by Friar Capistrano, voted, on, Belgrade, with its walls tottering, 

in momentary enthusiasm, fresh sup- was still resisting. Every assault of 

plies of money and men, but a latent the Ottomans had been repulsed ; 

opposition of the enemies of Hun^^adi but the besieged, emaciated, exhaust- 



1861.1 Hunyadi, 57 

edf most soon sink : their only hope thiok oolumns, were seen emerging 

was in the xn«rcy of God, and the from their camp and unfolding them- 

atriyal of their Baviour, Hunyadi. selves at a short distance from the 

Hunyadi was advancing, but with walla The thunder of their tre- 
▼ery inadequate forces for suoh an mendous artillery battered the city, 
emei^ency. Fortnnately, Friar Capis- In a few hours heaps of ruins ^led 
tnao and his monks had explored the ditches \ a broad breach was 
Bohemia, Poland, VaJaehia, Moldavia, made. The Ottomans yelling — at 
and at their voice about 60,(K>0Folun- the sound of the myriads of voices 
teen, poor, simplecitizens, monks, pea- oiying ^ Allah '* — rushed to storm 
sants, sludentsr— all enthusiastic in the place. They met Hunyadi and 
their faith, and ready to die for Christ, his Magyars. During five hours the 
joined the Hungarian army. The broad, flashing sword of Hunyadi ap- 
firet great difficulty was to penetrate peared everywhere^ mowing down 
into the besieged city. Hunyadi, enemies, whilst his silvery voice en- 
after consulting with Oapistrano. the couiaged the Christians. The friar, 
worthy, indefatigable friar, and his Capistrano, impassible, joining his 
companions in arms, resolved to at- fervent prayers and exhortations, 
tack the naval barrier on the Danube, cross in hand, in the midst of this 
raised by the Ottomans. Two hun- butcherv. seemed as if he were in- 
dred little vessels were prepared with vulnerable. But the masses of the 
an incredible celerity on a stream, Ottomans increasing, thrusted the 
tributary of the Danube. A select Christians backwards. The infidels 
body of men was placed upon them, were overpowering them \ they took 
and the little fleet, carried down by possession of the first rampart ; the 
the stream into the Danube, and to- crescent had been already planted on 
wfljrds Belgrade, surprised the Otto- several parts of it ; the Hungarians 
man& A deadly combat took place ; were exhausted and discouraged, 
a wild enoounter, hand to hand. At '* Oh,'' exclaims Hunyadi, i^renarinff 
the same time, a bold, skilful sally on for death, '' Oh, Belgrade is lost r 
the part of the besieged threw disorder Capistrano, raising his hand, in a pro- 
amoag the Turks, who found them- phetic impulse, pointed to heaven, 
selves surrounded. They still fought and calmed the despaii* of the hero, 
like lions, while worthy Capistrano Hunyadi then cut his way through 
endeavonred to terrify them by pre- the Ottomans and rallied his men. 
senting to them the Gross, in the In tiie meantime, the besieged con- 
thickest of the battle. After five hours ceived, in their distress, the plan of 
of destruction, when the river seemed throwing down on the assailants 
transfurmed into a stream of blood, burning faggots, mixed with sulphur. 
the Ottomans, vanquished, disappear- Capistrano — transformed into a cap- 
ed ; hsM their fleet was burnt down, tain by the dangers of his fellow- 
aadthe Christians entered Belgrade Christians — ^led, in close array, a bodv 
in triumph. 8till the position of the of about two thousand men, with 
city remained perilous. The Sultan whom he rushed on the Turks, and 
was thundering forth on its walls, obliged them to retreat. At this 
aad would soon be able to launch two moment Hunyadi reappeared, fell, 
hundred thousand men upon it Hun- with the rage of despair, on the in- 
yadi, assisted by Capistrano, urged fidels, and drove them away, after 
the besieged to resignation, exalted another terrible encounter. In the 
their devotedness, soothed their suffer- exultation of victory, he followed 
ings by words of kindness, tenderness, them in the plain, accompanied by 
and hope, foretelling their final sue- Capistrano, attacked and dispersed 
cess, and eloquently depicting the the principal corps of Ottomans, 
glory that would foUow, and the Thus, inflamed by victory, reaction 
eternal recompense that awaited them of a momentary despair, the Hunga- 
in heaven. At the same time, he was rians continued to advance till they 
attending to the provisions, arms, e^- laid their hands on the Ottoman ar- 
trenchroents, and all the means for a tillery. But M(fl)ammed was foam- 
deadly def^race, exercising the inex- ing with fury. He called out to his 
perienced to the use of the sword. cavalry, and, his broad scimitar in 

Hunyadi had been seven days in hand, darted upon the Giaours. At 

Belgrade when the Ottomans, in the first on.^ct lie was wounded, fell, 



M Uunyadi, [Jan. 

and diBapi)eared. From this moment life had been a perpetual sacrifice to 
the Christians were in possession of his countiy. Hunyadi called his two 
a complete victory ; they took the sons, Ladislas — a brilliant youth who 
Ottoman artillery, pursued the fugi- had fought by his side at Bel^^e — 
tives with an unheard-of audacity, and the youngest, Mathias, yet a boy, 
penetrated into the camp of the in- but lion-hearted, with an eagle's eye, 
ndels and plundered it. The night, a lad who was destined to a^^ge 
and the rear of being surprised, his father and his country. The dy- 
brought them back into the city, ing father did not exhort them to 
On the following day the Ottomans avenge the insults he had suffered ; 
had vanished, leaving twenty-four he did not awaken in them ideas of 
thousand dead, their artillery, and ambition, but only sx>oke to them 
the enormous splendid bag^^e and words of pardon, forgetfulness, fide- 
provisions of their camp. £[unyadi lity to the king, urging them to de- 
announced the victory to his king vote themselves, body and soul, to the 
with admirable humility; he never glory of the Hungarian fatherland 
related any of his victories without and the preservation of its liberties, 
adding, ** Deo avxUiante" The sons knelt by his side, and the 
Hunyadi was not destined to relish father blessed them. He then turned 
the felicities of his triumph. A few to the Magyars, pressing reverently 
days after the defeat of the Otto- round him, and addres^ them in 
mans he fell a prey to a slow fever, the national idiom. He explained 
to some plague or epidemic disease, the clauses of his will which referred 
From his state of exhaustion and to the fatherland, recommending to 
long exposure, the disease very soon them to continue what he had corn- 
assumed a character of great gravity, meneed ; to destroy the Ottoman 
He was transferred to Semlin, on power ; to keep harmony and con- 
the other side of the Danube, away cord amone themselves, without 
from the ruins and dead bodies. The which the Hungarian republic would 
worst symptoms became, neverthe- perish. He tendered his sons to his 
less, manifest Oapistrano was ex- countrymen, investing the eldest with 
horting the poor sufferer to patience, his command and prerogatives till 
and wnen he found that the fatal the ulterior decision of the King ; 
hour was at hand ; when he under- he then bid a last adieu to ^, en- 
stood that the hero must soon leave treating his beloved Oapistrano to 
this world, the monk thought it his pray for him. He called afterwards 
duty to reveal the truth to him and every one present separately to his bed, 
recommend him to prepare for it. holding out his hand to each, pardon- 
Hunyadi, smiling, explained that, ing, thimking the others; he then dis- 
having so long and so much been missed them. He desired to be carried 
exposed to death, he had long since into the Church of the Virgin ; aad, 
made his will, disposed of every thing; in the midst of his faithful compa- 
that his faith had alwavs been un- nions in arms — all kneeling, praying, 
bounded, that he had always lived, weeping — he received the sacraments 
suffered, been wounded, in the ser- at the hands of Oapistrano. He 
vice of the true religion, and that he was immediately taken to a chax)el 
could not, therefore, have any thin^ prepared for him, and laid dpwn, 
to fear. He then thanked and blessed Oapistrano reciting the prayers for 
the pious monk, and requested him, the dead. Hunyadi once more 
when he retumedamong his country- cast a feeble glance of tender fare- 
men, to tell them that Hunvadi 36.- well on his friend, and closed his eyes, 
noshaddied the death of a Christian. A few minutes after his soul fied 
A crowd of nobles had arrived at from this world. Oapistrano rose, 
Semlin. They were admitted in the and, his face bathed with tears, pro- 
room where lay the suffering hero, nounoed these words : — " Farewell, 
They surrounded him and gs^ed on star of heaven ! Crown of the king- 
the ghastly figure that was so terrible dom, thou art no more 1 The light of 
and formidable a few days before, the Christian world is extinguished I 
and will be nothing more than a little Alas 1 the mirror in which the soldiers 
dust on the morrow; they admired of Christ always saw victory re- 
-'iraordinary man so often be- fleeted is dashed for ever ! Now, O 
nd calumniated, whose whole conqueror of the enemies of the di- 



1861.] Hunyadi. 50 

Tine name, thon triumphest among forth the lightnings of intelligent ac- 

angels ! Thou reignest in heaven tivity, of impetuosity, or scornful in- 

irith Jesus. 1 thou art truly happy! dignation. He was simple in his 

We are the unfortunate men ; thou mode of living, but careful in dress, 

haat left as in the valley of tears ! like all the Ma^rs. He was always 

O ! brave John, farewell, farewell !" to be distingui^ed among the nobles, 

The deliverance of Belgrade had in the assemblies, ceremonies, and 

thrown the Hungarian nation into especially in battle, by his floating, 

delirious rejoicings. Soon after, the embroidered, broad-sleeved mantle — 

news followed that Hunyadi waa his white plume, fixed with diamonds 

dead A mournful despair, dark fore- on his kalpak — by the gold and silver 

bodings for the future, succeeded to ornaments that adorned the equip- 

the exultations of an unexpected and ment of his horse. This splendid 

mlendid victory. The people had lost attire was no doubt a great source of 

tneir protector — the Secondarv Mag- fond attraction to the people and the 

yar nobility, their intrepid com- army ; but it rendered him also con- 

mander. The whole country was in M>icuou8 in the confusion of the 

tears. De Cilley alone could not thickest conflict, and enabled his com- 

wholly conceal his extreme joy ; he panions in arms, dispersed in the tu- 

conceived that now the kingdom of mult of battle, to rally round him. 

Hungary would be a prey to his cu- In his private life he was modest, 

pidity. The King had the good taste generous, extremely charitable, and 

to manifest a real, or feigm^l sorrow, tenderly attached to his family, and 

He confirmed Hunyadi's son, Ladis- of a constant purity in his manners, 

las, in all the dignities of his father. His private virtues have even been 

and publicly expressed his gratitude acknowledged by the too hostile chro- 

for the great commander who had niclers, from whom have been derived 

savecl Hungary and preserved his all the attacks on his public life, but 

crown. Christendom deplored the their hostility has succumbed igno- 

loss of the man, who, although so miniously und^ the grave and impar- 

often abandoned by all, had worn out tial researches of history. The life of 

his life in the service of his country. Hunyadi is, at this day, aa it will 

The Pontiff ordered at Rome a solemn ever be in the land of the Magyars, 

service in honour of the Magyar hero, a holy legend— a model of gjenius, 

and conferred upon him the title of heroism, self-denial, and probity — a 

'' Defender of the Christian Faith." principle of vitality and regeneration 

Mohammed II., on hearing the death of in the Hungarian people. 
his great enemy, fell into a long, silent. The calumnies of De Cilley and a 

brooding gloom; and afterwards, with few dastard nobles pursued the hero 

tears in his ejres, exclaimed that, in after his death. They again took pos- 

his age, no prince ever had such a session of the weak mind of the King; 

Bul:ject. Nothing, therefore, was want- they led him to acts of the grossest 

ed to the glory of Hunyaai : neither ingratitude and cruelty. Ladislas, 

the tears of the people, the enthusi- Hunyadi's eldest son, who was in 

astic admiration of those who had possession of his father's dignities, 

fought under his banner, nor the ho- lound himself accused of an imaginary 

nourabie testimony of the enemy he plot, snbmitted to a mock trial, and 

had vanquished. was one evening murdered by the 

The extenud appearance of the headsman of the King, in an obscure 

Seat Magyar was that of a soldier, comer of Buda, the King himself sit- 

e was of middle height, well pro- ting by a window to witness his deatL 

portioned, although with a vigorous Subsequentlv (March, 1457). a formal 

frame. His large head was covered decree was framed and published, by 

with thick, dark chestnut,curling hair; the same Prince and his council, des- 

biii face, ruddy and broad, had some- tined to demonstrate the reality of all 

thing of military roughness, with an the calumnies accumulated on the 

expression of pride and energy ; a father and the son, and written in the 

benevolent goocl-nature often rotated coarsest langnaga This royal docu- 

from his lips. His latge dark eyes, ment received a most effective refu- 

overshadowed by thick eyebrows, had tation. ' The Hungarian nation, pal- 

an expression of unfathomable depth, pitating with hatred, flew to arms, 

inspiring terror when they flasned The wretched royal calumniator fled 



60 History of the KnigkU of Malta, [Jan. 

to Vienna, then to Prague, where he bility, Mathiaa Corvinns, aboy fifteen 
died niiserably, four months after the years old, the second and worthy son 
murder of Hunyadi's eldest son. A of the saviour of Hungary, was pro- 
National Diet was assembled under claimed King on the 24tn January, 
the walls of Pesth, for the election of 1458. The hero Hunyadi thus received, 
a new sovereign ; and in .the midst of in death, an eternal crown of gratitude, 
the enthusiastic, delirious acclama- imparalleled in history, 
tiona of the patriots, people, and no- 



HI8T0BT OF THB KNIGHTS OP MALTA. 

PABT II. 

Thebe lies off the coast of Asia It was but one of three thousand 
Minor, at the foot of the Ionian archi- images of bronze or marble which, in 
pelago, facing the wide channel which the capital, challenged the admiration 
parts Candia from the southernmost of every educated eye. To name one 
points of Grreece, an island famous in painter is to deelajre the emiBenoe of 
song and story. Rhodes is its name, the Rhodian school. Protogenes was 
name of grsu^ and beauty, which the a Rhodian citizen. The severer stu- 
impress on its antique coins, a sort of dies were cultivated there with so 
"armoirie parlante," associates with much zeal, and were so thoroughly 
the rose, 'P(Sdoc, queen flower of alL x)opularized, as apparently to shame 
We believe, however, that the em- the efforts of our modern Mech^uoics* 
blem suggested the etymology, not the Institutes. It is a Rhodian tale which 
true etymon the name. For the ear- tells how, on its seashore, the wrecked 
liest Greek geographers called the philosopher, who knew not whither 
island 'o^(ov<ra, the snake island ; and the storm had driven him, took com- 
the Phoenician * rout,' or serpent, was fort when he saw the geometrical 
probably the sound modified into figures which some wanderer by the 
Khodos by those Dorian colonists seaside had left scrawled upon the 
who, first of such as spoke a dialect sand. Rhodeswas the earthly Elysium 
of Hellas, conquered the island and of architects and sbipbuilaers ; no- 
settled there. where did such high honour or such 

Be this as it may, poets, phlloso- profitable pay reward them. But its 

phers, historians, jurists, have com- jealous citizens punished with death 

bined to recount its glories and to sing mtrusive inquiiy into the secrets of 

its praise. From the epic scroll of their dockyards. In commerce they 

Homer to the enamelled lines of Ho- were, for centuries, without competi- 

racethenameof Rhodes gleams upon tors; and down to the days of the 

many a poetic page. Csesar, who refused to hear appeal in 

Tradition ran that never had one a salvage ease against the ^' lex rho- 

whole day been spread with gloom so dia," the law of the Mediterranean 

cloudy but what the rays of the Sun Sea was little else than the custom of 

God, who smiled on Rhodes eternally, Rhodes. The poor law of the island, 

had burst through it to make the Rho- too, had been amon^ the famous points 

dians glad. of the administration of its common- 

'Ev0a troTl Bpkxfi Ot&v BatriKkvc ^^^^j* -r xu i.-i • r •*. 

Xpvrrah vubdSeitn ir6\iv. . ,And if the versatile genius of its 

inhabitants, together with itaexqm- 

" That isle the king of gods," sang site cultivation, would seem to i^ve 

Pindar, "doth bathe in showers of token rather of Ionian origin and 

golden dew." kinsmanship with. Athens, the stur- 

In grateful token of Apollo's ac- diness of their valour and their un- 

knowledged favour, the bronze world- flinching fight for independence or 

marvel, the Colossus, wrought by the commercial safety showed them no 

Lyndian Chares, bestrode the*harbour mongrels, but true to the old bulldog 

to bless the outward and welcome the Dorian breed. 

meward bound ships of Rhodes. It was their just boast that in yain 



1861.] HiOory of the KrvigkU of MaUa. 61 

had Poliorcetes set up hifi famous proves him to have possessed the in- 

'xXtv^Xfc. the city-t<aking engine, stinctive genius of gi*eat statesmen 

against their walls. Not onlv equal and commanders. 

valour met and foiled him, but en- The chief maritime enem^ against 

^neering skill fnlly equal to his own. whom, for years, the Chnstians of 

Prom before the same walls Mithri- Palestine had contended was, of 

dates had gone baffledaway. It is true course, the Soldan of Egypt ; and in 

that at last the Ehodian common- regard of his position and that of the 

wealth had been absorbed into the naval armaments and commercial 

irresistible dominion of Rome ; but it fleets of Alexandria, the selection of 

lost its independence with so much of Rhodes was most judicious. At all 

courase and of dignity that it seemed, events it is undoubted that the de- 

in so Going, to fall in with rather than sign of seizing upon the island was 

to be conquered by the Roman system, first conceived by X)e Yillarets, deeplv 

In the latter days of its history, the so- meditated, and carefully planned. 

verei^ty of Rhodes had been vested, His greatest sorrow, when prostrated 

not without frequent, and sometimes by sickness upon what proved to 

long, interruptions, in the Emperors be his death-bed, was his inability 

of Constantinople. The Arabs had to accomplish a scheme which lay 

early swooped upon and plundered it. so near his heart But there was one 

Moawiyah, Lieutenant of the fourth knight in the Order, Foulques de 

Khalif Othman, had sold it is said, to Yillarets, whom some will have a bro- 

Jews, the fragments of the bronze ther, some only a cousin of his own, 

Colossus, which, as far back as the to whom,before dying, he made known 

time of Strabo, an earthquake had his intimate plans, and whose caiia- 

levelled with the ground ; and which, city and bravery pointed him out as 

as he tells us, an oracle had forbidden best fitted to insure their '^execution." 

the citizens to re-erect Aware of this, the Order forthwith 

In the feeble hands of the Byzan- elected him Grand Master, and from 

tine emperors the island was rarely that moment the whole of his abili- 

safe from piratical ravages, and its ties and energy were devoted to the 

creeks and narbours were not seldom great undertaking, 

fortified as strongholds by the pirates Passing over into Europe he ob- 

who ravaged it taincd at Poitiers interviews with the 

For a time, during the Middle French King Philippe-le-bel, and with 

Ages, it was held by the Genoese, to that Clement V. wno was so largely 

whom it fell upon the taking of Con- indebted to him for his accession to 

stantinople by the Latins. It re- the Pontifical chair. To them he 

matned, indeed, in their possession confided the secret of his design, in 

until John Ducas — ^whose surname of support of which, without divulging 

Yataces Miyor Porter's work, we its real object^ a new crusade, the last 

trust by a mere misprint, has trans- in effect, was set on foot, 

formed into " Vatiens !"— again re- Plenary indulgence was proclauned 

duoed it into Greek subjection. for all who should take arms under 

At the banning of the fourteenth Foulques' banner, and he is said to 
century tlds sovereignty had again have been encumbered by the over- 
dwindled into a name, and a certain flowingnumbersofthose who answered 
race of lords, or " Despotai,'' of lower thisappeal. Galleys for theirtransport 
Greek origin, Gualla by name, seems were collected at Brindisi, furnished in 
to have rtued in Rhodes over a mixed part by Charles II. of Sicily, in greater 
population of Greeks, Arabs, and part by the Republic of Gienoa. The 
Tnrkomana noblest ladies of that city sold their 

Historical recollections can scarcely jewels to furnish him with funds, and 

have swayed the mind of Guillaume these, together with certain advances 

de Yillarets, the twenty-third Master from the Pope, formed the bulk of 

of the Hospital, in fixing upon that the contents of his military chest 

island as the most desirable future From Brindisi, the armament, ig- 

nossession and residence of his Order, norant of its own precise destination, 

Neither could he have foreseen the passing in purposed feint by Rhodes, 

future establishment, in Constanti- steered for Cyprus, where it received 

nople, of the yet unborn Ottoman- reinforcement of knights and other 

TiurkUh power. But Uie selection troops in readiness at limissa Sail- 



62 History of the Knights of MaUa, [Jan. 

ing thence it put in to the Gulf of Foulques could pevail agftinst the 

Maori, the Glaucus Sinus of the an- city. The sie^e oecame a blockade, 

cients. New troops had to be raised ; new 

There, deep embowered amidst money found to pay them, borrowed, 

wooded hills, which rise behind it as with much difficulty, from the bank- 

if in continuation of its rows of seats, ing houses of Florence. Nevertheless 

stood and stands the ruined theatre the star of the Order of St. John was 

of the oracular city of Telmessus. It unauestionably still in the ascendant^ 

looks out upon a glorious bay, far and, on the 15th of August, 1310, the 

on the right of which the rocky chain victorious knights and their allies 

which runs between the provinces of carried the city of Rhodes by storm. 
Caria and Lycia projects its last bar- The submission of the strong castle 

ren articulations mto the sea, like the of Lindo, then of the entire island, 

spine of some huge fossil monster, and within no long time of the islets 

Nearer, on the left, two lordly moun- clustering in the neighbourhood fol- 

tain peaks arise. Grains and Anticra- lowed without intermission or serious 

gus, naunts of the fabled Chimaera. check. 

Their wooded bases are washed by As the busy folk of our own Chan- 
the waves, on which dance islets, nel Islands are said, perhaps bv too 
clothed to the water's edge with censorious tongues, to have found 
underwood of luscious green. On means, during the long wars which 
one of these the traveller still sees with closed the eighteenth and opened the 
interest the ruins of the fort, built present century, to combine to their 
bj the Hospital Kiiights. Inland the own great pecuniary profit the occu- 
nch plain is carpeted in simimer with pation of the legitimate trader with 
carpet of darkest green oleander, em- that of the dashing privateer, so 
broidered with the profuse pink of was it with the Hospitallers and their 
its rose-like blossoms. A rocky pla- subject population. Every knight 
teau comes down in a sheer cliff to in residence at Rhodes was bound 
one place near the ruins, and magni- to make, at least, one cruise in the 
ficent rock-tombs, with sculptured course oif the year. Such cruise, in 
panels, are carved in the livinff the technical langua^ of the Order, 
stone. On the slopes stand the grand went by the name of Caravan ; and, 
old sepulchral Sii^pot, huge sarcophagi if the commerce of Christian or even 
of hewn stone upon lofty pedestals : Saracen allies found in the knightly 
and here and there, from this city of galleys an active sea-police, the oom- 
the dead, over the ruins of the once merce of non-friendly Mahometans 
living city, dead likewise now, a soli- furnished a succession of rich prizes 
tary palm springs up and waves its to be towed into the Rhodian ports, 
bougns above the desolation. But, sooth to say, this course of life 
From this fair spot they say that and this source of revenue were soon 
Foulques— willing, if it might be, to found to be but little compatible with 
have right no less than might upon the severer features of the vows and 
his side m the attempted undertaking, former discipline of the Order. This 
not yet disclosed to any but his own is the time of the division into dis- 
8 worn brethren of the Order — des- tinct languages — a division in more 
patched a messenger to Andronicus senses than one. For although, as 
JPalfiBologus, at Constantinople, re- an expedient to quell the jealousies 
questing from him a formal investi- and heart-burnings which arose cou- 
ture of sovereignty. The answer was ceming the distribution of honours 
a negative; and, by-and-by, when and ofnces amongst the brethren from 
Foulques was already landea and in different nations, it was resolved to 
conflict Jit Rhodes, a body of Byzan- attach definitely and perpetually cer- 
tine troops sent to reinforce its de- tain of these dignities to each sepa- 
fenders against him. Authentic re- rate langue or tongue, yet after-ex- 
cords of the protracted struggle which perience proved that th e separate ties 
had to be sustained for the mastery thus formed became too often the 
of Rhodes are very few. It is known bands of intrigue and conspiracy. 
*^at many of the volunteers from Pride, luxury, and an inordinate love 
'•ope returned when the object of of riches becan to develop themselves 
campaign was clear. Master of among the knights, in apparent for- 
3pen country, it was long before getfulness of the docnn which their 



1861.] 



History of the Knights of Malta. 



63 



eyil reputation in this respect had 
brought upon the Templars. Of 
course it ia not to be supposed that 
the reproach of these vices had hither- 
to been cast upon one brotherhood 
only. Mart^e, in his "Colleotio am- 
plisisima," has edited a curious lam- 
poon, in Latin verse, which dates from 
the thirteenth century, and must have 
been written, as one perceives at a 
glance, before the final evacuation of 
the Holy Land. The satirist repre- 
sents himself as weary of the world's 
ways, and anxious to betake himself 
for penitence and asceticism to some 
one or other of the existing religious 
orders, and proceeds thus : — 

" Sed auj* diver?a9 species eunt religionis, 
Nmcio pnrcipad quie sit habend* mihi. 
8i erace Bignatis rubelL me eonfero Tempio, 
Trans mars in« mittent soWare vote Dao. 
Sarvus ero serYum facient proeal esse seor- 

SUXD, 

Serviamt et forsan in regiotie Tjri. 

Non tamea ibo pede, sed e<|uo qui pastas 

aTena 
Crasstts et »d calces sit tener atque ley is ; 
Qoiqae pedem senrans, et fractis gressibui 

yersans, 
Molliter iocedet : regula nostra jubet, 
Scandere trottantem prohibet quoque regula, 

nolo 
Qaod y» me careat oido rigore suo. 
Ipgreoiar miles ne Candida paUia desint ; 
Bad tunc ab belluro* nox rediturus ero. 
I>e cute corrigiam nostra soldanus habebit 
Et comcdet carnes bestia ueva meas. 
Ant circaroeisi gladius mea viscera fundet, 
l>aliacto corio cvteta dabtt hnrno. 
Kursum si uero cracis Hospitalarius ille. 
Ad Libaaum mittar ligna referre domum. 
Cam larr^is pergam scutica ccdente tri* 

nodi, 
Et renter vacuus et quasi vellus erit. 
Multa Host sabeant mihi, nil de jure Hcebit 
Pnster mentiri magnifieando domum. 
Bt si tngressua fecero semel atque secando, 
Vade foras dicent, diripient que crucem." 

Which, for the benefit of lady rearl- 
era, we submit in Hudibrastic para- 
phrase: 

** Bat since these Orders be a host 
Whither should I betake me most? 
Would I a red-cross Templar be? 
Than must I sail bejond the sea, 
Sent from my eountry fiu* away, 
Mr vovi in distant lands to nay : 
To liva a drudee and rise no nigher, 
Perchance 'witnio the walls of Tyre. 
Tet not i^oot : I might bestride 
A nag, of easy pace to ride. 
Well stalled with oats, who plump and 

sleek 
Would pick his steps, well -broken, meek. 



To mount high trotter breaks the rule, 
Which yet enjoins it. Sure a fool 
Were I to make that Order be 
False to its strictest rule for me. 
A soldier midst the white cloaks too 
Needs must I march, if men were few : 
But from a battle-field, alack ! 
Perchance I never might march back : 
And my poor skin, well tanned and dried. 
Might serve the Soldan as a hide, 
I^ng after jackals, in the field, 
Had gnawed my luckless carcase, peeled 
By some fierce circumcisM hound. 
Who left it weltering on the ground. 
But if a Hospitaller profest 
I stitch the white cross on my breast : 
To Lebanon all clad with suow 
To bring home logs I needs must go. 
Too late to weep my servile lot 
In reach of thong with triple knot. 
Nor might 1 finu, though hungry still. 
Wherewith my stinted paunch to fill. 
Whatever thoughts my brain might crowd 
*Twere best not utter them aloud : 
Unless I chose, with bragging lies, 
T extol Our Convent to the skies. 
And should they catch me once in fault. 
Or twice (since human gait will halt). 
They'd strip from me their cross I wore, 
To send me packing, . . * 'There's the door !** 

In England, in the next centiuy, 
and at the time of the great rebeUion 
of the Commons of Easex and Kent 
under Richard 11.^ the special fury of 
the rioters was directed against the 
houses and possessions of the Knights 
of St. John. Their magnificent pnory 
in Clerkenwell was sacked and fired, 
burning for seven days together. 
Though the Order generally, and its 
belongings, would seem to have been 
obnoxious to the rebels, it is probable 
that the personal demeanour of the 
then Grand Prior may have provoked 
this rancour. He was a certain Sir 
Robert Hales, and was, moreover, at 
the time Lord Treasurer of the King- 
dom. When the rebels, gathered on 
Blackheath, sought a conference with 
the king ; and when some thought it 
best that he should go to them and 
know what their meaning was. Sir 
Robert breathed nothing out wrath 
and punishment : and together with 
Simon de Sudbury, Arcnbishop of 
Canterbury, "spake earnestly against 
that advice, and would not by any 
means that the king should go to 

* such a sort of barelegged ribalds^^ 
but rather they wished that he should 
take some order to abate the pride of 

* sucJ^ vile rascals,^ *' 

From the date of its foundation by 



Sic. 



64 Higtory of the Knights of Malta, [Jan. 

Gerald, to the fatal day of the bloody The internal history of the Order 
retreat from Acre, two centuries of during this new cycle presents few 
exploit and adventure fill, as we have features of interest to others than 
seen, the annals of the Order. Upon its professed students. Ab might 
these we have dwelt at a length some- have been expected, leadership and 
what disi»'oportionate, either to the office having now b^me not simply 
space occupied by its whole records the martyrlike pre-eminence in posts 
in general nistory, or to that which of danger, which they had oeen 
we can in this article devote to re- in Palestine, ambitious rivalries and 
membrance of them. But this we dissensions not seldom arose concern- 
have done advisedly : in part, because ing their disposal 
we have thought that we should thus Even the division into languages 
enable the reader to seize more firmly was not found sufficient without the 
upon the true notion of the character formation of an additional ona The 
and development of this great Insti- original division was into seven : — 
tution : in great part also, because France, Provence, Auvergne, Italy, 
this most interesting pristine period, Germany, England, and Ajagon. To 
is that in which a far more extended counteroalance the overwheuning in- 
and accurate acquaintance with the fluence of the French element in the 
history of the times than was pos- Order, the latter tongue, towards 
sessed by Vertot or even Bosio, is re- 1461, was separated from that of Por- 
quired for him who shall, in modem tugal, with Leon and Cafitille, de- 
times, become the successful historian tached and compacted into an eighth 
of the Knights of St. John. No such tongue. 

wholesale destruction of their ar- Neither is it any way surprisiog 

chives, records, statutes, and other that the Roman pontiffs, who nad al- 

historical documents, ajs occurred in waysexercised an acknowledged right 

the disaster of Acre, ever again befel of patronage, if not of suzerainty, 

them : and, thenceforward, there does over the Institution, should have en- 

not lie upon their historian the same deavoured to profit by its dissensions, 

obligation to collect his materials from for the purpose of increasing their own 

vast and widely scattered masses of power of interference with nomina- 

information, wherein that which ac- tions and supreme elections, though 

tually concerns the peculiar history such interferences were in detriment, 

of the Order lies in grains only, as for the more part, of rights and im- 

smaller '* nuggets" in great cradles- munities conceded and confirmed by 

full of quartz. the see of Rome itself. 

For two more centuries after its As to the actual dominions of the 
establishment at Rhodes, did the Or- Order, they were not only extended 
der of St. John run its next cycle of and consolidated in the Archipelago, 
an existence even more distinct and but advanced guards and poets of 
individual than it had hitherto known ; vants^ge secured the coasts of Asia Mi- 
retaining the peculiarity of its cell- nor. The site, for instance, of the an- 
bate and quasi-conventual character, cient Halicamassus was seized on as 
yet assuming attributes and exercis- a sort of compensation for the loss of 
ing functions common to other ordin- Smyrna, and its massive ruins con- 
ary independent and temporal sove- verted into a strong fortress. It would, 
reignties. perhaps, be difficult to decide whether 

And it is but fair to say, that if the the fragments of those masterly sculp- 

remembrance of its semi-ecclesiastical tures, wherewith Artemisia aidomed 

nature made men, not without reason, the renowned memorial of her mau- 

often contrast invidiously the secular soleums, and which even now are 

aspect of the Order's actual practice being disposed in the portico of our 

with its religious profession, the un- national museum, are indebted rather 

deniable services which it was yet for preservation than for mutilation 

destined to render Christendom, to the military builders of the Hos- 

threatened by the consolidating and pital. 

expanding power of the Ottoman Smyrna had been confided to the 

dynasty, made it retain claims uni- guardianship of the Knights upon \ta 

versally allowed upon the indulgence, capture from the Turks, in 1344, by 

and even admiration, of its contem- a combined fieet oi Papal, Venetian, 

poraries. Cypriot, and Parian galleys, in con- 



1B61.] History of the Knights of Malta, 65 

junction with those of Rhodes. It a temporary revival and lustre under 

was wrested from them by Timour, Gait-bey, gradually dwindling to its 

who massacred everv knight in the extinction under the growing might of 

fortress upon its fall by storm, an the Ottoman Turks, 

event announced to the ships, which "Constantinople first, then Rhodes." 

brought a tardy succour, by the hurl- Such had been the warning howl of 

iug upon their decks of severed heads the dread war-wolfL Mahomet II. 

from the catapults of the Tartar. No sooner had Byzantium fallen, 

Four years before that event, the tlian the queen-island of the Archi- 
Knights had once more been seen, as pelago received, and, of course, re- 
in the older crusading days, in the sad- ]ected his summons to subjection and 
die against the inndel : a rare cir- tribute. The*military successes of the 
cumstance in these later times. It great Hunyades delayed, but could 
was on the occasion of the great bat- not avert the breaking of the storm 
tie of Nicopolis, in 1395, delivered upon the Rhodian ramparts, 
against Biuazet, who had not yet Barker and darkergrew the eastern 
been attacked and routed bv the sky. Trebicond capitidated to Ma- 
hordes of Timour. Their Grand Mas- hornet; but David Oomnenus, and 
ter, de Naillac, rode with them in the seven of his eight sons, expiated with 
cavalry rank» of the impetuous and their lives their glorious scorn of 
ill-fated Count de Nevers. apostacy. Mitylene is stormed. Con- 

We are really sorry to be obliged tempt of faith, no less than the most 

here again to hit a blot in Mi^or Por- savage ferocity, marks the conduct of 

ter 8 historical accuracy; but the mild- the Sultan. Men who had made free- 

est laws of literary criticism would dom the prioeofsurrender are dragged 

surely compel us to remonstrate into ruthless captivitv. They would 

against his describing, patronymicatly, have died arms in hand, but for solenm 

as " Archbishop de Grand,' ' that Pri- promise of safety, are beheaded or sawn 

mate of Hungary, Prince Archbishop i n sunder, their carcases thrown to the 

of '* Gran," whom he richtly repre- lean scavenger dogs of the East. The 

sents as e8ca])ing with King Sigis- horrors of the sack of Negropont sur- 

mund in a frail £)at on the Danube, pass, if possible, those of the storm of 

and rescued, at last, by the galleys of Mitylene. Anna Erizzo, a noble Ve- 

St. John. netian virgin, meets with her death 

Those galleys in truth were now bv the very hand and scimitar of 
the war steeils of the knights. By Mahomet himself, for spitting on 
them they had hoped to gain master- his odious love. But the Turk es- 
ship of the Morea, a favourite and pies among the galleys, which in 
tenaciously-held design, in pursuance vain seek to r^se the siegn, the 
of which they are now seen to bar- white cross banner of the Knights 
gain and even pay for the somewhat of Rhodes. Thither once more he 
visionary rights of the tricky ** por- despatches an herald, no longer to 
phyrogenet, Theodore Palaeoiogus, — claim tribute, but to denounce impla- 
oQt of whom they hardly extorted re- cable enmity. He swears that no 
payment upon his f^ure to fulfil his quarter shall be given to any Hos- 
word; — now to make furiousdashes at pi taller, and that with his own hand 
those Turkish garrisons, which, in con- shall their Grand Master be slain, 
tempt of any rights but such as the The man who filled that office, 
ficimitar and the Koran gave, had when in 1480 the threats of Ba- 
fortified themselves upon the Morean jazet received their partial fulfilment, 
coasts. These same galleys had enor and that siege began^ with rumour of 
bled their forward, enterprising spirit wh ich Europe and Aaia were soon ring- 
to crush, in the harbour and dock- ing far and wide, was one of the great- 
yanls of Alexandria itself, the expe- est captains and most able stat^men 
dition preparing there against them whom the Order, fertile in such, has 
m 1440, by their old enemy, the Sol- shown to history, 
dan of Egypt. But though in revence, Pierre d'Aubusson, descended from 
the Egyptian Saracens laid formiua- the ancient Viscounts de la Marche, 
hie siege to Rhodes, in 1444, whence one of the noblest lineages in France, 
they were repulsed after forty days, had made his first campaign, against 
that was almost an expiring effort ; these very Turks, in Hungary, under 
the Egyptian power, though gaining Albert of Austria, son-in-law to that 

VOL. LVIL— NO. CCOXXXVII. 5 



66 HisUyry of tin KmghU of MaJUa. [Jan. 

King and Emperor Sigismund, whom of Europe were growing then, and the 
Mr. Carlvle of late' has pleasantly power of the commons struggling 
noted as ''^Sigismund super gramma- mto existence. Alphonse of Aragon 
ticam." This prince, in spite of his was embroiled with the Pope, on a 
terrible lapsus on tnat occasion at question of Sicilian investiture for his 
Constance, was, according to Gterson, bastard son, Ferdinand. Henry of 
the learned Chancellor of the Sor- Castille, profligate and cowardly, was 
bonne, no such mean scholar, and the hemmed in by his own rebellious sub- 
studious turn of young d'Aubusson's jects, and the still strong Moors of 
mind recommended him to his es- Granada. In the North, Denmark 
pecial notice. Upon his decease, the and Sweden were convulsed ; and a 
young Frenchman returned to the bloody day, the long tragedy of the 
court of his native country, and Roses, was beginning to dawn upon 
through the interest of his kinsman, En^nd Scarce any, save the !IOng 
De La Marche, became companion and of Portugal, with no great resources, 
brother in arms of the Dauphin, son and the Kmg of France, who gave 
of Charles VIL At the siege of Mon- him sixteen thousand crowns, could 
tereau, and other passages of anns, do aught to assist him. As for Venice, 
his bravery attracted special notice; with her ambitions craft and Punic 
and his diplomatic aoilities were faith, there was but little trusting 
discovered when the evil influ- her ; all the less, that the conflicting 
ence of Agnes Sorrel had brought claims of Catherine Comaro, the 
about an open rupture between the ** daughter of St Mark," to the king- 
infatuated Charles and his crafty, dom of C3rpnis, against Charlotte de 
supercilious, obstinate son, the future Lusignan, tne prot^^^ of the Order^ 
eleventh Louis. This reconcQiation was on the very pomt of arraying in 
was chieflvnegociated by Pierre d'Au- hostility against it the whole might 
busson, wnom thenceforward Charles of the imperious and haughty re- 
employed in many delicate and secret public. 

afliedrs of State. But whilst the court Nevertheless, when on the death of 

at Nancy was celebrating peace re- Battista de Orsini, the unanimous 

stored with jousts and tourneys, over voice of the Order called Pierre d'Au- 

which presided Margaret of Anjou, busson to its head, Rhodes rang with 

promised bride of our sixth Heniy; such acclamation of joy as micht 

whilst the kings of France and Sicilv herald the morrow of a victory, rather 

contended for the prize against Suffolk than the eve of a deadly encounter, 

and the flower of the yoimg English At this very period was maturing 

nobles, evil tidings were rife from the that marvellous invention, one of 

borders of Hungary and Albania— as whose early achievements was the 

a tocsin and f\meral knell came clang- embodiment and preservation of the 

ing the news of the fatal day of Varna records of that great passive of arms, 

in the affrighted ears of Christendom, wherein the genius of D^ubusson, 

Pierre d' Aubusson had a brave uncle, the valour of his knights, the hearty 

Louis, knight and commander in the and devoted concurrence of every dass 

Order of St. John. This circumstance, within the island, down to the de- 

in much likeUhood, determined him. spised Jews, resisted gloriously, and 

Passing over to Rhodes, he took the with triumphant success, the whole 

vows. force of him who had taken Constan- 

His rise in the ranks of the Order tinople. 

we dare not attempt to follow; but Those who may be familiar with 

we may notice that to him had been the choicest typographical treasures 

confided the somewhat hopeless mis- of the British Museum, may know 

sion of endeavouring to cement in that amidst the precious ornaments 

Europe a league against the Turk, of its reserved cases is to be found 

which might ward off from Rhodes Caxton's impression of that account 

the expected calamity. The moment of the defence of Rhodes, which was 

was mauspicious, though pregnant translated from Latin into the vema- 

with dancer to Christendom. The cular, by John Eaye, poet-laureate to 

spirit of the Crusades dead, neither King Edward IV. From its preface 

longs nor people would stir one step we venture to give a short extract 

eastward. National were succeeding literatim : — 

mere feudal strifes, for the nations ** Certayne ji ys, moste gracyous 



1861.] Bigtory of the Knights of MaUa, 67 

Srynce, that he,* fewe dayes afore hjrs " An one after that the Khodianes had 

eth, layde siege to the nohle cytee of knowleche of thees werkes, a ehipman 

Khodes, whidi is the key and gate of all wel experte in swymmying wente by 

Cryfltendome. But there he was put nyghte and untied the oordes fro the 

to hys worse and to shame ancre and knytted them unto a stone of 

I have thought more beter labour and the banke, so that Ivghtely when the 

more commendable purpos yf I, in the Turkes drewe the corde* they knewe wel 

TCTerenoe of Jhesu Cryste, and in the that they were begyled of the Rhodyans. 

worship of your gode grace, shulde put The Lorde Maystre of Rhodes, undcr- 

with dylygenceout of Latyn in English, standynge this noble act, rewarded the 

and to the understandyne of yonr peo- forsaydsliyppmanworshipfullyandryght 

pic the dy Icctable newesse and ti chy nges largely. ** 

of the gloryous victorye of the Rho- ^ x . xi.- xi. x i.i. r _xi. 

dyanes against the Turkes, whereof they Uur regret is this, that the tourtn 

redvng shal bare joyc and consol icyon, Edward's poet-laureate, should not 

aud shal alwey beter knowe by dayly have known, or should have neglected 

myracles and goddes werkes. the ines- to specify, that the doer of "this noble 

tymable power and certentee of our acte" was indeed one of those " moat 

Crystenfeyth." manlyest men borne in England," as 

Now we ourselves shall not pre* he has it, concerned in the siege ; and 

Bume to describe that siege, nor to that the types of our Endish Carton 

take away, even indirectly, from one did not bring, amonast other "dylect- 

80 well qualified as M^or Porter, a able newesse," to the *' understand- 

gallant officer of engineers, the task ynge" of his countrymen the English 

of describing what in Edward Kaye's name of that brave English "shypp- 

transktion are set down as " instru- man so experte in swymming," and 

mens of werre, that is to say, bom- so bold in his expertness. 

bardes, gonnes, culuerynes, serpen- Twenty years had elapsed from the 

tines, and suche other/' nor or re- day when the knights, who stood 

lating how, " a man of Grece, wyse round the dyine b& of their octo- 

and experte in sieges counseyled the genarian Grand Master, D'Aubusson, 

Lord Mayster to make and ordayne uttered, upon his drawing his last 

an engyne called Trebuke. lyke a breath, a wail so loud as to tell them 

filynge, whyche was grete ana mighty, that stood in expectation without, 

and caste grete and many stones. that " the Buckler of the Order'' was 

But this much we may add, without no more. Forty and two years had 
infringing upon our resolution, that passed since that on which the forces 
the vicissituues of that famous siege, of Mahomet had fled in disorder from 
and the play of individual character their last fierce but vain assault upon 
which its records reveal, render the the bastions of Rhodes— when, &gain« 
perusal of its details, in almost any the look-out upon St Stephen's Hill 
nistorian, matter of deep no less than made signal that a vast Turkish fleet 
varied interest There is one little was rising up on the line of the far 
incident of personal daring duly re- horizon. Soijrman the Ma^ificent, 
corded by M^or Porter, oonceming was coming to do the work m which 
which we will venture to confess a the power of his ancestor had been 
regret such as we imagine most readers foilea; and, within the city, was in 
will share with u& Ohq Roger Jervis, command against him one worthy to 
an English seaman, had detected the wield the sword, even of Pierre 
manner in which the hawser of a cer- D'Aubusson. It was in the month of 
tain floating bridge had, by the Turk- June, 1622, and Philippe Yilliers de 
ish engineers, been fastened to a large Lisle Adam was Grand Master of 
anchor beneath the surface of the Rhodes. So far as Europe was con- 
water, near the tower of Saint Nicho- cemed, other actors were on the 
las, a point of desperate attack. Their stage ; but ready, if the phrase may 
intention was to warp the bridge by be hazarded, to act out the same in- 
means of it, across the inlet of the action as in the day when the con- 
harbour. This intention he conceived, queror of Constantinople had sent his 
and executed the bold desi^ of frus- force against the dty. Rhodes must 
trating. The book of John Kay e tells fight it out unassisted by anv al- 
the transaction thus:— liance. Henry VIII. of England, 



* Mahomet IT. 



B* 



68 History of the Knights of Malta. [Jan. 

Francis I. of France, and the great between himself and the Order, a 

Emperor-King, Charles V., can spare, proceeding most unusual and porten- 

or rather, in their cases it may be tous on the part of a very proud and 

justly said, will spare neither man powerful tyrant, whose "interests 

nor money to do battle with the continually suffer by us." 

Turk. Yet the first-named prince Again, when, in 1521, De Lisle 

affected, and, perhaps, felt, a con- Adam had succeeded to the grand 

siderable interest in the Order of mastership, he communicates to King 

St. John ; and would seem to have Henry, Selim's threatening announce- 

been flattered by the title of " Pro- ment of his taking of Belgrade, and 

tector," which the grand masters earnestly commends to the English 

were accustomed to festow on him. monarch the Rhodian cause. 

The Cotton Manuscripts* in the Brit- Nine days only before the galleys 

ish Museum contain manv letters of of the Turks were descried from St 

the period addressed to himself and Stephen's Hill, he wrote to Wolsey 

to his great cardinal-minister by giving notice of Solyman's near ap- 

these functionaries, who kept himself proacii, of his summons to surrender, 

and Wolsey constantly informed of and of his own answer to the chal- 

the aspect of Eastern affairs. lenge. 

In 1517, for instance, on the 19th "We hold this our city well forti- 

of August, Fabricius del Caretto, De fied, and hope by favour of Gild's 

Lisle Adam's predecessor, writes to clemency to defend it manfully in 

inform him of Selim's declared inten- God's honour, and to thrust back the 

tion to do great things against the insolence of the Mahometan, with 

Rhodian power, so soon as he shall damage and disgrace to his own self." 

have destroyed the Mamlook power But from the country the poor 

of Egvpt. He tells of the great Christian folk have been flocking into 

Turkish armaments at Alexandria, the city's girth, and provisions are 

and the Mouth of the Nile, at Con- much needed for these helpless multi- 

stantinople itself and at Gallipoli, plied mouths. He implores the car- 

which he spells Rallipoli. He men- dinal to take order, that no hindrance 

tions the verv singular circumstance be given to his drawing upon the 

that in Selim s armament were multi- Order's English resources ; but that 

tudes of Jews and Christians, not contrariwise help may be given him 

simply chained to the oar as galley- besides. Help, however, he got little 

slaves, but in arms and in the ranks or none, from England or elsewhere, 

of fighting men ; adding that in his save such as his own Order's finance 

European forces the number of native could give. The Pope, certainly, had 

fenume Turks was exceedingly small, already despatched one " carrack," 

le calls upon the king to observe the with arms and ammunition, to the 

isolation of Rhodes, and the terrible beleaguered city, and had instructed 

shock its bulwarks must inevitably his special envoy, Bemardius Bartho- 

sustain, and ends by praying that lotto, to entreat Henry VIII. and 

his gracious leave be given to Thomas Wolsev, "by God's bowels of mercy," 

Docray, the venerable Grand Prior of to render some assistance, quoting the 

England, to pass over into the island Psalm : " Blessed is the man that 

and help witn such power, resources, considereth the poor and needy," and 

and counsel, as may be. Within six vehemently asserting his own convie- 

weeks he writes again, estimating the tion that the utmost danger threatened 

troops of the Turk present in camp, Christendom, unless the Turk were 

on one spot, at some thirty thousand timely resisted, 

men, and stating that his naval arma- The landing of his forces on the 

ment consists of one hundred and island, which took place on the 26th 

twenty-six sail. No little astonish- of June, was not known at Rome iin- 

ment, suspicion, and alarm, had been til exactly that day month ; and, in 

created at Rhodes by the unwonted proof of the great store set upon the 

circumstance, that he had sent an none ofaid from England, the College 

ambassador tnither to propose a peace of Cardinalst despatched in haste that 



* See principally Otho and VitelUua. 
t The original document is in the Cotton MSS. ; Vitellius, B. v. 75. 



1861.] Eiitort/ of the Knights of Malta, 60 

same day (Lstft hor&) to the king, an- fruitless chase of him. At Rhodes 
uouQoing the receipt of this intelli- he was hailed with every demonstra- 
)]^ence, and urging upon him that he tion of respect ; there he at once de- 
should not wait for other princes, but manded to be admitted a member of 
himself forthwith take that foremost the Order, and was accordingly re- 
step in such great emergency, which ceived into the Language of Italy, 
is so praiseworthy in so noly a work. The grand cross was at once awarded 
All in vain. Not even the Venetians, him, a rare distinction, and his pay 
who had, before the siej^e was out, a was fixed at the same rate as that he 
noble fleet of sixty gaflcys, close at had forfeited in abandoning the ser- 
hand in Oandia, would stir one foot vice of the Republic. To nim were 
to help. Nay. worse, they took mea- entrusted the command of the armed 
sures of fiscal police, which were a townsmen and strangers, and an ab- 
positive hindrance to the preparations solute authority over all that con- 
for defence of Rhodes. There is a corned the actual fortifications of the 
bitter sentence in a letter of the period, place. Hia capacity and his bravery 

E reserved in the collection whence we proved upon keen and long trial e(jual 

ave quoted, written in a bold soldier- even to the highest expectations 

like hand, by one of the Rhodian de- formed of them, 

fenders; unhappily, the letter has But into the details of this last 

been seriously defaced and ii\jured by siege, as into those of the year 1480, 

fire, and sprinkled water too ; never- our space warns us that we dare not 

theiess, the sentence stands out clear : enter. There are two highly character- 

— " VenetioptimiTurcffi ;" "theVene- istic and ample repositories of them, 

tians are first-rate Turks ; for tliey which have been given to history by 

have proscribed two of their citizens two eye-witnesses of its whole course 

who brought provision to R . . ." and its every catastrophe. By a singu- 

The excuse to be made for them is larly happy coincidence of contrast 

that their general policy was then in they are written by a soldier and a 

fault, and that having but recently civilian ; by a western gentleman and 

oonduded peace withSolyman, thev a Rhodian-born jurist. This latter 

felt bound to observe a strict neutral- was a judge, by name Fontantis : the 

ity. This, indeed, was the answer former what the title-page or his 

made by the governor of Oandia to book sets forth, which runs as fol- 

Gabriel Martinigo, upon refusing his lows : — 

application for leave to serve as a "Oppugnation de la noble et che- 

vofunteer in Rhodes. Martinigo was valeureuse cit^ de Rhodes, assieg^ et 

a military engineer of great skill and prinse par Sultan Seliman, k pr^nt 

ability, as well as a soldier of dar- Grand Turcq, redig^e et escripte par 

ing and determinate personal valour, Fr^re Jacques, Bastard de Bourlx>n, 

who was then in the pav of the Re- CommandeurdeSainctMaulouisDoy- 

public of Venice. He had made up semont et Fonteynes au prieur^ de 

iiis mind to cast in his lot with the Franco. £t se vond k Pans k la Rue 

endangered knights, and to give them St. Jacques, h. Tenseigne des Trois 

the full benefit of his professional at- Couronnespr^ Sainct B^noist. Avec 

tainments. Accordingly, he com- privilege au provost de Paris, par 

municated his intention to the com- coramandcment de la court, pour deux 

mander of the Rhodian brig:iutine, ans finis et acconiplis.'' 

which had brought a request for his If there be aught to regret in Major 

services from the Grand Mitster to Porter's description of this beleaguer- 

the Candian authorities, and having ing, it is that he should not have 

fixed upon time and place, he con- drawn more freely than he haa 

t rived to escape from the town one done from these invaluable docu- 

night, and to get on board the ship ments. The very details of the must- 

which bore straight away for Rliodes. ers upon which the soldierly Bourbon 

Great was the indignation of the dwells, help us to realise the sense 

Venetian, who advertised a round more vividly ; and we like to be told, 

sum of money for tidings of him, how " Modsire Antonio Bonaldi," 

threatened to hang any man who although a Venetian, having come 

should harbour or conceal him : con- there with a cargo of wine, offered 

fiscated his goods in the island, and his person and his crew to the de- 

finally sent two galleys to sea in fenders.; how on the Fii*st of June, 



70 History of the Knights of MaUa, [Jan. 

he and his turned out in smart uni- On the 25th of Februdiv^ 1522, the 
form of green satin, slashed with Archbishop of Bari hears it «q all 
yiolet ; and how, dandy as he was, sides that Khodes is gone ; but appt- 
when the daycameforgrim encounter, rently he did not write from Borne, 
" ce capitaine s^est tr^s honn^tement for two days previously Pope Adrian 
I)ort^ ae sa personne, et se trouvait VI. has no lingering doubts. He 
aux liejix oUles gens de bien se doivent writes a Spanish letter to Catherine 
trouver,^* of Aragon, exhorting her to move her 
On the 27th of September, 1522. king to peace and union with all 
Richard Pace, Wolsey's confidential Christian princes, "viendo mayor- 
correspondent, writes to him from mente la necesidad v opresion de la 
Borne : — " The Rhodianes have de- Xandad por la p^aida di Rodn^ y 
fended their tonne valiantly as yitt. por otros infinidos peligros."* When 
The Pope's holyness puttith in aredy- the date of the capitulation was 
nesse certayne schyppis to sonde m known at Rome, it was remembered 
succurre on the sayde Rhodianes ; how that on the self-same day, as the 
which schyppis schal be accumpa- Popewasproceedingto his own chapel 
nyddewythe certayne caraks of Gene." in the Vatican, a great mass of mar- 
On the 3rd of the following January, ble had detached itself from an 
just two days before the actual evac- architrave, and in its fall had crushed 
uation, there was a rumour at Rome, to death one of his own ffuard, within 
one of those true forebodings of a few feet of the Pontiflfnimself An 
calamity which speed electric-like omen this, said many, of the direful 
across tne land and sea, that the city calamitywhichhadjust befallen Chris- 
had fallen indeed. The auditor of tendom. 

the apostolic camera is writing on that Viewing the Grand Master as an 
day to Wokey, and will not credit independent sovereign, as one, more- 
the truth of the rumour, at veiy men- over, whose sovereignty was of such 
tion of which tears start in his eyes, kind that in his least selfish and most 
" that Rhodes is taken by our faith's generous moments he must needs 
most cruel foes." On the 14th of the have considered its existence as one 
same month, one Mathew Gybertus of the great securities of Europe 
writes again to the Cardinal, that against the justly feared and hated 
there is no news stirring, save that increase of the Turkish power, it is 
the city was pressed sore, that in G<k1 hard to estimate fully the greatness 
alone there remained help for them and the bitterness of the desolating 
and defence. Kot long before, a trial which had thus fallen upon him. 
Rhodian knight had come to Rome He and his knights had seriously de- 
who had succeeded in making his bated whether it were their duty 
way out^ on the 14th of last No- to fight it out to the last man, not 
vember, despatched to crave assist- in any hope of saving Rhodes, 
ance and aid of Christian princes, but in despair of finding how to 
Scarce three thousand men remained make good otherwise to the last ex- 
at that date fit for the town's defence, tremity their vow of life-long battle 
The Turk had lost, by wounds and against the infideL For the sakes 
dysentery, a good nine thousand ; onlv of the remaining citizens and 
but his attack never waned nor soldiers tmbound by the Hospitaller's 
flawed for that. The three hundred vow ; for the sakes of Christian 
kmghts, the flower of the resisting women in danger of worse than death, 
band, were well resolved to die for and Christian children menaced by 
the Christian name. The women an involuntary apostacy, they con- 
vied in bravery with the ruder sex, sented, when defence was utterly 
and fought at every rampart. Even hopeless, and their besiegers were in 
now, if Christendom would stir, the the heart of Rhodes, to sign a capitu- 
TurKish fierceness might be foiled, lation. It was such as rarely was 
The defenders quailed not ; but they granted by the Turk, who was to suf- 
wantedfood. Bread and water were fer all to go forth free, knights and 
all that remained, scantily. inhabitant^ men and goods ; nay, 

* Seeing chiefly the need and pressure upon Christendom, through the loss of 
lihodes, and other infinite perils. 



1661.] MiOory of the KnighU of Malta. 71 

eYon to furnish extra ships, required roofed, and disposed with regard to 
for their transport to a place of safe- the inner courts, irrespective of the 
ty ; no churches were to be violated ; street without, the heavy, well-built 
no single Rhodian who should re- houses of stone have an Oriental 
main, forced to choose between the aspect not to be mistaken. Yet, no 
Koran or the sword. Exhausted as less unmistakably, they reveal at once 
the resources of the island had been, their western origin. A muUioned 
by the long and desperate conflict, window here, and there a doorway 
five years were to pass away before with a pointed arch ; here a quaint 
the remnant of its population should gurgoile, there a stone escutcheon, 
be compelled to contribute to the heraldically carved, remain to tell at 
necessities of Solyman's exchequer, every turn of the warlike Frankish 
Richly had the defenders of the gentlemen. Not this one street 
glorious island-city merited the wonls alone, but every comer of the older 
which fell from the lips of Charles V. town is crowded with these memo- 
when the details of siege, assault, rials. The royal lions of England, 
resistance, siurender, became fully the once fciir lilies of France, with 
known: — *' Nothing in this world was many a noble and knightly device 
ever so well lost as Rhodes !" from German v and Spain, grace the 
And even now, after centuries of deserted walls, for such tney may 
Turkish conquest and almost deser- well-nigh be called, of this most 
tion, its very aspect confirms the sav- ancient and well renowned citjr. 
ing to the gazer s eya Stately still. Scarce a soul is to be met with m 
though crumbling in many a place, many of her streets. Dwindled to a 
show the knightly defences of another fourth part of her former girth, 
island harbour, as the steamship, Rhodes is yet too roomy for her 
panting out of the grey twilight, scanty mongrel population. A ter- 
Dfings up the traveller at morning rible catastrophe has levelled to 
towards a projecting mole, whence the ground that church of "the good 
looks seaward a noble crenellated Saint John," which stood at the up- 
tower. Should the breath of the per end of the great knightly street 
morning shake out the folds of the The stout-hearted Crusaders who 
flaffwhichdroopsover it, the crescent sleep beneath its sculptiu-ed flag- 
ana the star are discerned, eleaming stones must have rejoiced as, with a 
in silver. The outline or tne ram- crash, the vaulted roof, still studded 
parts is broken by the feathery tufts with golden stars on the old blue 
of a few palms and the elevation of pannelmg, came thundering down 
a few tall, pointed minarets. Striking upon their quiet resting place. For 
is the contrast between their slender this was an end, at least, of that age- 
grace (true work of Arab hands) and long desecration which had ms^e 
the massive beauty of the square the saintly chapel a mosque for the 
keep upon the mole, designed and "paynim^' followers of Mahomet, 
built by men of other race and Nay, but why suppose that ever 
other creed, and misnamed only now knowledge of the desecration was ai- 
the Arab*s Tower. Nowhere — not lowed to vex their peace in death 1 
even where, across the blue strip of Better the poet's thought : — 

the BosphorUS, the opposing shores '^Thekniffhtsaredast, 

of Europe and of Asia seem almost Their good iworda ruBt, 

to exchan^ a kiss— mav there be Their bouIs are with the awnU, wo tnut." 

noted such intimate interbiending and What a strange homely feeling was 

marriage of the East and West in as- stirred, perforce, within the breast of 

soeiation of eyesight and idea as in any northern gentleman who stayed 

the streets of Rhodes. Landing, we to muse an hour within those conse- 

pass beneath a gateway, giving access crated and desecrated walls! How 

from the harbour quays to the inner should he not remember some far off 

town. It is of the nchest ornamented spot, where, beneath the pointed 

Qothic architecture. Two or three arches of some old country church 

boyish, ill-clad, slovenly soldiers of at home, the moonbeams straggling 

the Sultan lounse on guard beneath through the branches of some vener- 

or beside it Turning to the right, able yew, fall niehtly, broken by the 

we come upon a noble street ascend- window's mouldering tracery, upon 

ing a steep indine. Square and flat- some ancient tomb ? Boieath it 



72 History of the Knights of Malta. [Jan. 

sleeps some brave old Crusader, com- in their sorrowful hearts. Whither 
panion once, in tented field, of these should Lisle Adam now steer 1 The 
same buried Rhodian knights. Upon double danger was always haunting 
it his sculptured effigy, clad in trusty him : — ^first, on whatsoever European 
battle harness, has eyes upturned to monarch's coast he shall land he and 
heaven and hands enclasped, as if in his are subjects forthwith; next, since 
prayer. His legs are crossed, in allcentral authority now resided with- 
tokcn of the holy war in which he out " local habitation" in the mere 
bled. Beside him are his crested "name" of himself, an old and de- 
helmet, his blazoned shield, and his feated man. he must needs fear, lest 
old heavy double-handed sword. And dispersion snould ensue, and the veir 
here, underfoot, in Rhodes, rest his existence of the order he had ruled, 
true conarades, men of his own race crumble and disappear. In and out 
and name. And so it comes to pass of harbours in the Morea, Albania, 
that among the deserted Rhodian Zante, Cephalonia, Corfu, the lament- 
streets, under the waving palms, be- able expedition goes in detachments, 
neath the cloudless eastern sky, the begging its way somewhither. Scanty 
wandering Englishman sees, in vivid foc^ cold, exposure, old wounds gotten 
reminiscence, the old churchyard in the siege made ready victims for 
yew, the n\ossy gravestones and the the epidemic which had been raging 
old grey tower sta^ding under the in the South that year, as the letters 
cold, dull, fitful clouds in the distant from Rome, out of which we have 
English hej^ven. Apart from all its quoted other things, prove abundantly, 
classic glories, few cities among the Into Messina came the Grand Master 
islands of the eastern se^ are more at last, where, from the length of his 
worthy or more winsome of the west- absence, it was abnost concluded that 
em tourist's ftdmiration than this he had suffered shipwreck or had been 
other — taken by the Barbary pirates at sea. 

"... Europe^ bulwark 'gainst the Qttomite." ^* ^'^ mast-head was flyinga painted 

^ 6 . . banner— the pamtmg a "Pieta^ as 

Indeed, since the line forces the sug- the Italian schools have called it : — 
gestion, there is, in gazing on "the the Virgin Mother supporting the dead 
stones of Venice," something of con- body of her Son and Lord, and the 
tempt which mingles with our admir- motto, " Afflictis spes mea rebus." 
ing pity. Gliding through her ruinous Of the courts-martial held at Messi- 
water-streets we are, perforce, re- na upon the tardy bringers of succour 
minded of degeneracy and of decay, from the various European commande- 
Becrepit luxury is a loathsome sight ries and of their honourable acquittal ; 
to looK upon. But at Rhodes it is of the departure from Messina, and 
not so, nor can be. Rhodes lies as she the deaths by plague ; of the land- 
died in her glory, slain in fair fight, ing and encampment, in a strict qua- 
like an Amazon, beautiful and bold, rantine, upon the mainland of Naples, 
stricken on the forefront of the battle, near to the SybiFs Cave ; of the Grand 
Thus, then, did the Grand Master Master's journey to Civita Vecchia, 
and his brethren quit for ever their and thence to Rome ; of his reception 
fair island home. Along with them there, and the death of Pope Adrian, 
went living proofs of their sincere we must leave the historians of the 
consideration for lives and interests Order to tell, 
other than their own. No less than In these days of incessant publica- 
five thousand souls accompanied tion of ancient state papers, corres- 
them, with whom they brake daily pondence, memoires pour servir, and 
the frMjments of the bread of their the like, we almost wonder, and cer- 
own affliction. It is one among the thinly regret, that no one has thought 
most touching of historical episodes, good .to edit at length that c^rres- 
In the months of January and Feb- pondence of the Grand Master, Lisle 
ruary, 1523, during the course of a Adam, with Henry VIII., which is to 
most boisterous and inclement sea- be found in the Cottonian MSS. The 
son, the piteous fleet goes beating period of history to which they refer, 
over tempestuous seas. Candia rer the mind and temper they exhibit in 
ceives them for a few weeks, not un- the writer, render them, in our esti- 
kindly : but that feeling, " Optimi mation, well worthy of the honour. 
TurcfiB Yeneti," must have rankledsore It is by a letter of tie 6th of Decern- 



1861.] History of the Knights of Malta. 73 

ber that Lisle Adam azmoimces to plundered, thoush no settlement 
Henry " his incredible joy and ineffa- could be effected there. A district in 
ble delight at the election to the Candia^ the little isle of Cerigo, then 
Papacy of the Cardinal de Medici" that ot Elba, came in turns under 
(Clement VII). consideration ; but valid objections 

"For he is one who, in his youth, held gainst each and all finally, 
bare for many years the ctosb of our Or-' by advice, prmcipaUv, of the Spanish 
der, and has always ahown for it and us brethren, it was resolved to seek from 
a zealous, tender, and constant affection; Charles V. investiture of the isles of 
who has never apared pahis, labour, or Malta and of Gk)zo ; where, however, 
diligence to assist aud protect our in- it was considered that residence would, 
terests with forward and ready mind, after all, be impossible, unless with a 
So that we are not without hopes that, guarantee of tne right to free export 
under such auspices, and by his favour, ^^ ^^ subsistences from Sicily. This 
help, and ^^^]'^^^y^/>^^^2'(^^\I^^^ boon of investiture was not easily ob- 
S^n?LTu&'S^%Tar^ Uined from the Emperor, nor without 
strength regained? dignity sustained, mtncate and lengthy negociations : 
Towards the securing of which objects nor without manyjoumeys to and 
he has, of his own intent, despatched an fro into England, Prance, and Spain, 
ambassador to the Emperor for obtain, made by lisle Adam with anxious and 
ing the inland of Malta, and other matters unremitting perseverance — "non par- 
of prime necessity for our community, ^^jjg senio— as the gray-haired war- 
which he is about to commend, in form ^or says touchingly in one of his kt- 
of brief, to all Christian prince?." ^„ to Heniy VIIL What manner 

For now we have come in sight, as of possession Malta was. and what a 
it were, of that third stag^e of the contrast to their beautiful and fertile 
great Order's existence, which bears Rhodes, need hardly to be told. The 
inscribed upon its roll the name of report of the commissioner sent to 
Iklalta. Many and fluctuating had inspect it by the Grand Mast^ is not 
been the schemes proposed for its in- condensed amiss by another historian 
dependent settlement during the time of the Order :— 
that, by favour of the Pope, it held . ..Timt Malta itself, about sixty mUes 
residence in the city of Viterbo. ^^ circuit, was but an arid rock, covered 
There had been dreams — mere dreams in manv places with sand, and in a few 
— of a reconquest of Rhodes. Letters with a light scattering of earth, brought 
thence had spoken of the readiness of from the neighbouring continent or 
its inhabitants to rise, and of the poa- Sicily ; that it had neither river or rivn- 
aibUity of corrupting the fidelity of let, nor spring, nor any other fresh water 

theturbulent Jamssanesleft incharge ^^"^^'^ "^"^^^1^1 ^^lIT^Tl^^y^ 
•>u« «u^ ^tA*>><* 'f.P tanks or cisterns, except a few wells, 

by Solyman. It would seem ^^^^^^ rather brackish ; that it produced little 
CoUegeof Cardinalshadwntemplated com-not half enough of any thing to 
such a stroke as far back as March. ^^^^ the scanty popuUtion; that it would 
1523, when, writing to Henry, and be a very unpleasant residence, particu- 
compUmentiug him upon his bookjEu hirly during the summer — violently, 
— in repression, by most acute ana nearly intolerably hot; with not one 
learned arguments, of the rage vomit- forest tree, hardly a green thing to re- 
ed againat them by that mad monster, pose the eye upon ; and a sort of iU- 
T i.Tkai- f*n»iiu'p^fiji hfijitifw^ • thftv walle<l town, called its capital, in the 

i^t^It h& to bde^^th iis moit "^i^^le of ^^^ "»«'^^» »' * considerable 
entreat *^^,,.«> ^.^^^^^'^.^^^^^ dUtance from the sea; that, however, 
warlike soldiers, those transport .^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^P^^ ^^ 

ships of his, the Uke whereot nor ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^y to 1^ c^t into any shape; 
Ocean nor Mediterranean seas have that the people speak a dialect of Arabic 
ever yet beheld." Perhaps, however, or Moorish, and are noted for their frn- 
this may regard defensive operations gality of living ; that, for the rest, har> 
only; for it was certainly expected hours may be rendered good; and that 
that, after Rhodes, Italy would be what are termed Casali, are miserable 
Solyman's point of attack. Modon villages or shocking huts. lather befit- 
in the Morea was also talked of as **°8 fiihermen and pirates than the re- 
-1 1« u««j «,to,fo«, o iv»v;wol nowned llospUaliers ; tliat as to Gozo, 
a possible hewl-quaiters-a revival, .^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^,^^,^^ .^ comparison 

apparent y, of ancient a^^pirations ^^ y^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ pleasant" 

after rule m Greece. Some few ^ 

years later, it was attacked and But the one important considera- 



74 Hiitory oj the Knights of MaUa. [Jan. 

tion was, indeed, that harbour clause, ing taken place upoa the 26th of Octo- 

Major Porter is express, and justly, ber, 1630, the latter upon the 22nd 

upon this main topic :— of Aujjttrt, 1534. Dark clouds kept 

'* This was the great, indeed the only gathermg oyer the horizon of outward 

point of attraction, which the iahwd aspects during all the concluding por- 

possessed for the Order of Saint John, tions of this great man's life. But if 

They had been for so nuny years accns- we may judge from the touching and 

tomed to look io maritime enterprise as manly tone of submission which 

the sMirce from whence their wealth and breathes in his letters, written after 

L^^i^^i^rm^s^w'^e^^'i^^^^^^^ 2;LK.S'&-n^'*^' '^r 

80 highly esteemed in the waters of the ^^^ .^J"^^. ^«?1"^ *^® °^» ^**o 
Mediterranean, that they would not acknowledged the immense de- 
willingly resign the position which their mency of Almighty God, even in ex- 
naval superiority had given them, by the action of the due penalty of mis- 
establishment of a new home in any lo- deeds,^ such as must have lightened 
cality which did not give them the means for him the comparative gloom in 
of pursuing their favouritecaliing. This, which his sun was to set 
and this only, was the motive which in- Even in 1527t he had forebodinfls 
duced them to acc^t the desert rock of of what should befal the estateof^ 

^ent home '^ "'' ''''" ^'^?^ ^ ^S^""^ ^^ *^e ^^^^ P^ 

, ,, , ^, , tensions of Henry, even if no intima- 

In 1530, on the 23rd March, Charles tion of the religious struggles of the 

signed the document which made coming time were to bediscemed : 

over the islands of Malta and Gozo and he ventures so far as he dares, in 

to the Order, as a free and sovereign writing to the headstrong, fiddeTu- 

feud to be held under the kingdom of dor. to express his keen anxieties and 

Sicily, with the yearly payment of a to deprecate so much as the entertain- 

falcon. But there was a tenible clog ment of a thought concerning " the 

upon the freedom of the gift-one destroying, sepamting, and bringing 

which the Grand Master and his to nought of tnis sacred military O^ 

brethren had, in the foregone neffocia- der, founded so piously, guarded so 

tions, earnestly striven to cast loose, vahantly, clothed with such garb of 

but which the Emperor's unflinching victory and praise, which even now 

tenacity had bound firm upon their hasbeen snatched from Turkish fangs 

acceptance of the islands as the indis- by favour of God rather than wit of 

pensable condition of the transfer. man." And even more sad and bit- 

The fortress of Tripoli, upon the termay have been his reflections upon 

Barbary coast, then garrisoned by im- the lawlessness and violence of his 

penal troops, was to be held and de- knights in their internal broils • for 

fended by those whom hencefor- before his death he had the mortifi- 

ward we mav call by the name of cation of seeing the Languagesof Spain 

Knights of Malta : and they foresaw and Portugal draw their swords in 

from the first, that such a settle- the open streets of the new capital 

ment, isolated on the edge of the upon their jealous rivals, those of 

great African continent, separated Italy and France, 

from Malta by two hundred miles of Pierre Dupont, Didier de St Jaille 

sea, belted on the landward side by Juan de Omedes, who in turn succeed 

infidel populations, and exposed on to the Grand Mastership, are all care- 

the seaward to the swarming fleets of ful to announce their election to 

pirates, must prove to them, as it did, Henry VIIL, and still salute him as 

a drain of blood and treasure, to be " the singular protector of the militia 

spilt and spent without adequate, if of Jerusalem,^ as " him whose Ma- 

with any, return of advantage jesty has ever cherished and protected 

From the day of Lisle Adam's this Order ;" and the last named of 

landing upon the new unpromising these knights professes to remember 

island-seat of his domimon to that with pleasure the "comity" of the 

of his death, there elapsed a period king, which he had personally seen 

of four years, the former event hav- and admired, when, "so many years 

•Letter to Wolsey, May 22, 1623, Cotton MS& 
t Letter February 25. Ibid, 



1661.] HxBtm^ of ike KnighU of Malta, 76 

ago," he had been admitted to kiss forward the English Lan^age disap- 

the royal hand, beini^ then in atten- pears from its practical history. In 

dance upon Lisle Adam, on his visit 1782, under Grand Master de Kohan, 

to England.* there was another nominal revival in 

Even at the date of that writing, the constitution of a so-called An jrlo- 

this comity had given way to the fit- Bavarian branch. 

fill peraecutions which, oetween it The shadowy court of St Germain, 

«ad 1^^ brought many of the frater- amongst other ghosts and phantoms 

nity totM«fialbld, and drove others wherewith it doEdt, appears to have 

into perpetual exile ^om England, bestowed some of its attention and 

In the April of that year an Act BmiedeB upon such tailas aad ^iigsi- 

IMhssed both Housesof the Legislature, ties as still survived in Malta to mark 

vesting in the crown all the posses- what had once been the existence of 

sions, castles, manors, churches, the English Grand Priory, and its 

houses, and soforth of the Order of rights in the distribution of what 

St John. Out of this revenue, pen- were called the great conventual 

sions to the amount of jC2,870 were officea Major Porter has given us 

granted to the late Grand Prior, and to a letter well worth preservation as a 

other members of the institution. But curiosity in this kind, written, indeed, 

that officer, with broken heart, could later than even those St. Germain 

not endure to look upon what had days, by tl^e son of James II. As it 

befallen the body of which, in Eng- is not long our readers will, perhaps, 

land, he was head, nor to see the no- thank us for transcribing it : — 

ble Duildings of ulerkenwell turned ^ 

into a storehouse, where the king ^/;Tomvcou«iii, the Grand Marter of 

kept;toilsandtentsforhuntingan3 ^ t^'^L PoPo h'^^^^^^^^ 

war.'; He expired upon Ascension Tthe opportuni^ prei^ntiifg i™ 

Day in that aame year. In the third ^^ di^Tof the hrand Priories of my 

year of our sixth Edward, the greater kingdtm, nor to Rrant coadjutors to the 

part of the magnificent buddings in preaent Grand Prior without previously 

Ulerkenwell was destroyed by gun- hearing what I might have to represent 

powder ; and the remnant of that to him on that head, bis Holiness an- 

onoe grand pile, which had been re- swered he had told your ambassador 

stored to more than pristine magnifi- Jhat he would aUow the Order to act 

cence, after the destruction inSoted ff' '^}l i" f^ *f«" which regawied 

by Wat Tyler*smen,con8i8tinthatlow Jf J fui^l^iJ^l "^^^ "va ^7/ ^^^1/ * 

.' ,•' u:'uT\- T^i.««^«>,««« on tne Urder, it u with full confidence 

towerffiteway,whichDr. Johnsonwas ^^^^ j ^^^„,; jj. ^^ J^^ requeuing 

wont to .«ay that no man of learn- ^hat I may be treated with the mme 

mg and intelligence could look upon consideration as is shown towards other 

withoutreverence and emotion. There princes on similar occasions. No way 

was a sort of transient flicker rekin- doubting, after all ihe marks of your at- 

dled in the ruins of the English tongue tention and friendship which I have re- 

by the act of Queen Mary,t who re- ceived, but that you will confer on roe 

vived the oflice of Grand Prior, in the *>"• further favour, which will engage 

person of one Sir Thomas Tresham, "« f much the more to entertain the 

ml667. He was even summoned in most perfect esteem and fnendship for 

•-i Jr u A^Z^l^^J.^uTR^rtJrr. your Order, and your person m par- 

wtue Of such digni^ to the first two Ji^ular. On which I pray Go/ to 

ParhamentA of Elizabeth. That have you, my cousin, in His holy and 

queen, however, m 1569, re-enacted worthy keeping—Bome, Uth Sepember, 

her father's condemnation or abolition 1 725— Your atfcctionate cousin, 

of theOrder in her realm ; and thence- * • Jauss B. ** 

(Tobecontumed.) 



* Letter 28th January, 1536. 
t FttUer'B Ch. Hist. lib. vi. 357 , 



76 Mancliester : Its Social Aspects. [Jan. 



MANCHESTEB : ITS SOCIAL ASPECTS. 
It has been well said, that the life of Hark ! groaning on the unwieldy waggon 

every great man affords a remarkable , spreads 

illustration of some emphatic truth. ^^ """^^"^ ^"^^ tremendons ! o'er onr 
It seems equaUy to hold that the cha- projecting elm or pine that nod. on high, 
racter of every great city is the lllus- And threatens death to every paaaer-by." 

tration of some peculiar principle. t^ 4.i,« ^^ * ^ r i • j • 

Houses and streetimeak with-a voice „,^ *i^ PTS^oil*"^^ fi^T^^ *! 
of their own. A ramfie through them S^l J^*^ '^f JJ^ ^^ *•"* '^^•'1.*=* 
is often as edifying as a pulpit dis- ^L^,f "^^ A^ ^^i «°*'\> 
course ; and we may discern some new JT^^L T^^ZTJ''^ "t*1^ r H 
facts o^ human nature in duU walls ^^ J^^JS^T^f ,/ ***?? J^" ' 
and oyer roof-tiles. How often do ST-fit-Z^^^^^w**^ *^ ^""1 
we hear from poets and phUosophers ^l fT *^ "?"^ disposition of 
of the pleasur^ and profits of coSntry JX^^'^i^lTtim^ T^,^^ "^ ^1 
life ! ^rgil is always loud in praise oY !?!"^,*^ ^^<i*"^'° d^tchmg, and 
rusticity, and seeiis to deplore the Oj^'^;*!?! "^A^ turnips, and 
fatal ne'c^ity of human development, £tt^^^«,1t"n'tho°i^J^'fl°"tS*^'!^*P* 
which droveiiankind from the woodS u^^^JL^^-- f l^V*® 1™?' 
and the acorns, to the shelter of cities i**i^8 'i^'^tt^l,*^}*''^^ ' • ^? 
and to those culinary practices which & J!^ meet developed and cm- 
have given rise to tfie definition of ^^ T^^J^i *^^ "^^^ ^* *'*™ 
ManaSa Cooking Animal. Horace,of !^n*V°™5^°V? phrase, we may 
course, is enthiSiastic about the ^e- S^Ji^lw^^f^ "^.^ -f "? ^^ 
lighte of his Sabine farm, and <lilate8 ?^lTiS ,1 'th« I±f^ f v *?*^ "^ •"' 
vrith characteristic coi^ilacency on ^''^k*? ^J'*®/*?"^ "^ ^f '°1T^ 
the comforts and delights of rural S? *fe i*^* ^^^ I'* contemnlation. 
life Surely there was much more to Everybody remembers Carlyfe's ac- 
int^rest onein the « reeking Suburra" Z^^t^^lf^^^^T^if^t' u'^Z 
than amidst the green fields, where ^,™*^lu1**w i*""' "^ i^^ ^'«''^' 
Tityrus and Meliblus were "meditat- ^f w-fln^^hl*!"?^' ^^^ ^"''"^'** 
ing the rural muse on the slender tl!w^Tw*^?l '""''*??— .**?J?'*: 
re^" underthe wide-spreading beech SX*^^„i.'St.Ti^-TK *'^*^*i 
tree. Compare The^ritus, whom I^Sl?.^J'.^r3^fif^''*"^''P?u"^ 
somebody haScalled "Nature's Poet," t^ttf, ^™ °§l',hw' ^''^ ^^^t^'' 
with Juvenal, whom we may call, fc^" a" that wasp-aest or 

3SS£?tt aSK^s^hlfn? . ^ ^'^'^ "^t^" <»f *he popula- 

body derives muSh benefit from the *l''!!' r^?^"^*''*!?"''^' *nd.whether 

spectacle of Thyrsis and the Goat- SI °"*f*^^!S'^»f • "^P®"^'^" °*^' 

herd, or Midon md Battus, whilst the ,w.f f T k®- !,°"* denomination, 

phibsophic mind revelsTn that most fJf/Z'i.^^?*' *° exhaustive or 

glorious picture of a city ever painted f^ * wf*^!!*"'^ **'^"'* ''L^y 

fj. ™nrda •— "• ^^^ *" * """'' '^ something 

m wujuD. jjjjjjg ^YuM a crafty arrangement of 

" By the throng, *}*?"* '^^ tailoring, a city is some- 
Elbowed and ioatled, scarce ve creep along, thing more than a Conglomeration of 
Sharp strokes from poles, tuba, rafters, doomed briclu and inhabitants. According 
to ''•^el. to ancient traditions, every tree had 
And plastered o'er with mud from head to heel, its own attendant or tutelary nymph. 

See' from tile dole i yast, ^mnltuiu. thro'ng, Recording to our doctrine eveiy town 
lSachfollowedbyhiskitchen,pr.ur.along, naa its pecuhar deity and invisible 

Huge pans which Corbulo could scarce uprear, spirit Parili, for example, is under 
With steady nf ck a puny slave must bear. the especial inspiration of the Spirit 

And left, amid the way the flames eipire, of pleasure : and the fair Lutetia, with 
Wide nimbly on, and gliding, fen the fare; jjer sunny boulevards and dear sky 

Throueb the close press with sinuous efforts i ,•' ■v'"«"o <•••« v»c»i oivj 

^fnd, overhead, ever invites us to do ho- 

And piece'bypieca leave his botched ngs nour to her patron goddess. Edin- 

behind. bui^gh, with steep castle-rock, and 



1861.] Manchester : Its Social Aspects. 77 

bine line of distant hills, and its pic- gaged more or less directly in com- 

turesque old streets, seems the em- mercial enterprises of more or less 

bodiment of the spirit of ancient importance. There is no room for 

romance. The famous Dutch town Bond-street in Manchester. There 

of Brock, where brass spittoons are are no loungers, no mere *^ swells." 

placed at the street comers to keep There are no pure pleasure-seekers, 

the roads clean, and the cows' tails There are scarcely any downright and 

are tied up like ''my bonny brown actual scholars, in the Emersonian 

bair," with a piece of blue ribbon, may sense of the term. Thinkers there 

be regarded as the impersonation of are in abundance, even speculative 

the spirit of cleanliness. And Dublin, thlnkei^^ but the object of their 

our readers anxiously demand, what speculation is the market. There are, 

spirit hath the fair Eblana ? We do too, many who do not object to plea- 

not reply, remembering the excellent sure, but even with them pleasure is 

old niie, that present company are ex- postponed till the claims of business 

cepted. On this occasion our business are. satisfied. There are not a few 

18 with a certain important but smoky who love books and literature; but 

city in an important but smoky the first of all books is the ledger, 

county in the north of England; a city and the prime literature is the City 

which we select as being the purest Article of the Tirnes, 

representative of the spirit of com- On the whole, then, Manchester 

merce. mav be looked upon as more emphati- 

Manchester lias not the largest cally commercial, as more essentially 

trade of an;y^ town in England, andf its the city of trade, than any other town 

population is not even second in point in the empire. If this be so— and as 

of numbers. London has a far greater we advance, this fact will become 

and more important trade, and both padually more manifest, we cannot 

London and Glasgow are superior in but suppose that an examination, even 

their respective numbers of inhabit- though brief and cursory, of the 

ants ; but still Manchester will be thoughts, the tastes, the general tone, 

found, after a very little consider- and, above all, the probable tenden- 

ation, to be the purest and most cha- cies of the most characteristically 

racteristic embodiment or concentra- commercial city in the most com- 

tion of the commercial spirit. Lon- mercial county of Europe, will not be 

don has a more extensive commerce, out of place. We must premise that 

as we have said, but then Loudon is we intend to spare our readers the 

the seat of the legislature, of the trouble of wading hopelessly through 

court, of the executive, of most of the long tabular statements of imports 

learned societies; its inhabitants have and exports, and products. Many 

abundant sources of amusement and figures obscure counsel, and, further- 

distraction, as the French say, in more, our aim being to analyse the 

operas, concerts, theatres, balls un- social tendencies of the northern me- 

ceasing; its population is made up of tropolis, rather than to demonstrate 

all possible classes of men and women, its wealth, prove its commercial capa- 

placed under all possible varieties of bilities, or set forth its trade princi- 

human fortune, and undergoing every pies, the huge array of figures which 

conceivable form of human destiny ; the subject would at first seem to in- 

ita tastes are illimitably diversified, vite, would.be as inappropriate as 

and its opinions as various and as tedious. 

numerous as the men who hold them. Manchester is captable of a focali- 
London, in shorty is metropolitan; sation scarcely possible in the rase 
nay, it is more, it is cosmopolitan, of any other equally important town. 
Manchester is cottonopolitan. Its Once every week, on a Tuesday after- 
sole leading feature is its commerce, noon, at 1.30, in Manchester parlance, 
and all else is moulded so as to be in the visitor may look upon what is 
harmony and agreement with this — known as " high Change," a meta- 
all else yields to this, and every thing phorical expression, borrowed, appa- 
is banished which interferes with this.' rcntly, from the ocean. High Change 
It is not goin^ too far to say that, is certainly one of the most notable 
with the exception of the medical and spectacles which the country offers to 
cleric^ professions, every man^ wo- a stranger — ^a spectacle, too, such as 
man, and child in Manchester is en- no other land can boast or blush at, 



78* McmcJUfster : Its Social Aspects, [Jsn, 

as the case may be. The room in If the spectator Vould fully realize 
which Manchester becomes hebdoma- the force of the scene we have just 
dally concentrated, is, in itself, plain described, let him pass from the Ex- 
enough. It is of considerable length, change down an a^oining street to 
with a horse-ahoe end, and in the the blackened pile of the Cathedral, 
curve of the horse-dboe is a light iron where he will be Justin time for the af- 
gallery. It is Tuesday afternoon; ternoon service. Disraeli has remarked 
the hour is between 1.15 and 1.30, in "Sybil," the extraordinary snbli- 
and we are standing alone in this light mil^ which the *^ great Western Min- 
iron gallery, with the essence of Man- ster posseases for the wearied states- 
Chester beneath us, consisting of about man, who leaves, for a time, the 
two thousand men, of all ages, from heated debate of the adjoining cham- 
five and twenty to seventy, occupying ber, and gazes, in the cool moonlight, 
space which, to those unskilled in upon the almost terrible tranquiUity 
tne compressibility of the human of the pinnacles and towers of the 
species, would seem capable of hold- ancient temple. A still more remark- 
ing certainly not more than half the able feeling fills the mind as we pass 
number now before us — ^a vast mass from the harsh uproar of the selfish 
of talking, arguing, persuading, re- crowd on the Exchange into the still 
monstrating, protesting, wheeoling, solitude of the church ; and ugly as 
and possibly cheating humanity. The that edifice is, badly as the service is 
noise that rises from the eager crowd performed, the whole building, by 
is absolutely deafening ; nor is there mere contrast, seems filled with a di- 
any time-honoured simile by which vine afflatus, inspiring us with un- 
to represent it. To liken it to the speakable emotion as we sit in the 
hum of bees is utterly inadequate, dim light and listen to the subdued 
The sound of the woXw^Xoitr/Soio voice of the clergyman, and the soft 
OaXaaoTig is too soothingin its intermit^ echoes of an anthem, or the mellowed 
tent monotony to convey any idea of tones of the or^n — sounds inviting 
the uninterrupted roar of the Change to lofty meditation and a pensive ab- 
of Manchester. It is a hot, shsup, straction neither morbid nor unfruit- 
unceasing jangle, and combined with fuL A strange melancholy steals over 
the gesticulations which, though of us, as we remember the crowd we 
an argumentative character, are still have just left. Struggling and striv- 
as animated as the limited space will in^ in a hard, mercenary, material 
permit, is exciting to a degree even spirit, for mercenary and material ad- 
for the disinterested and philosophical vantages ; forgetful, most of them, of 
spectator. The roof is partially sup- the things higher and worthier than 
ported by large pillars^ which, iJesides wealth j forgetful that they have the 
supporting the roofs, support the germs of a rich mental growth, which, 
backs of the leading commercial men. if tended, will develop into the noble 
Each of the largest firms has one of character of a man, but which, if nc- 
these pillars, at which is to be found glected or misused, seem to produce 
its representative or representatives, a stunted and abortive embryo. 
Round the great man revolve the One is tempted to draw a parallel 
luminaries of lesser magnitude ; in between the clergyman before us, in 
other words, the small manufacturers his stall, and the merchant whom we 
or commission agents. The position but now watched at his pillar. The 
of these satellites, is, we suspect, very one reading prayers before a scanty 
various, and they may be compared and rather listless congregation, the 
to moths fluttering round a candle, or other making bargains in the midst 
to flies clustering about a sugar barrel, of a crowded and eagerly-absorbed 
There is one man leaning against yon multitude. Do we not see here a 
pUlar. who returns his annual profits two-fold phenomenon of marvellous 
as a nundred thousand pounds, and significance 1 The empty Church and 
yet he wrangles and jangles about a the overflowing Exchange are not 
trifling bargain, as if his soul's salva- without meaning to him who ob- 
tion depended on it. fTo anybody serves the signs of the times; and 
who is anxious to see ^ nation 6oii^?- the meaning they convey to us is 
Qui^re at work, we recommend the that our age and our country are gra- 
Manchester Exchange at 1.25, on a dually becoming hypertrophied. The 
Tuesday afternoon. money-change^ nave been driven 



1861.] Mancheder: lU Social AspecU 79 

out of the temple, and they have that the earnertneBB of meduBvafism 

built a temple of their own, with waa as ezcessive in one direction as 

Plutofi foraged. is the earnestness of Manchester in 

We do not intend to accuse the another. In fact, mediaeval earnest- 
men of Manchester of a greater dis- ness assumed two forms, directly an- 
regard of religious forms and pro- tagonistic one to the other, the form 
fessions than their neighbours. In of peace and the form of war. It 
fact, we suspect there are not many underwent a twofold development, 
towns where theological tendencies and became either ecclesiastical or 
are so strongly developed and theo- military. The middle Sj^es were the 
logical opinions so earnestly avowed scene of a constant conflict between 
as in Abuichester. What we com- these two hostile principles. The 
plain of^ and what we warn Man- monk in his cowl was the representa- 
chestcr against, is the absence of all tive of one, the knight in his coat 
vigorous speculative development of mail was the incarnation of the 
We assert that it is thoroughly ma- other. 

terial, that it quite ignores the more In our days, as M. Comte first 

exalted departments of the human pointed out, the military spirit has 

mind, and that it is so absorbed in been replaced by that of mdustry. 

the one service, the one idolatry. The knight with his lance has given 

that all the nobler elements in man way to the weaver and his shuttle. 

„ „ , . „ . J V *v. We need not say what has been the 

3/- '^^^ ^ corresponding development^of theec- 

^^ ' clesiastical element, out it is evident 

Mr. Carlyle is ever and again re- that the industrial spirit is as hostile 
preaching this degenerate a^e with to it in the sublimer forms as ever 
the earnestness of medisBval times, exploded feudalism was. 
What greater or profounder earnest- Considering that there has always 
ness can we behold than the earnest- been this conflict between material- 
ness of Manchester) The feudal lord ism and spiritualise,'*' it is notsur- 
marched to the rescue of the Holy prising to find it still continuing even 
Sepulchre ; the cotton lord is not a when both materialism and spiritual- 
whit less zealous in despatching ism have undergone entire changes of 
thither his calicoes. The ecclesiastic form. Where the feudal castle once' 
would dispute for hours, days, and stood stands now the cotton mill ; 
even consecutive weeks in support where once, at the foot of frowning 
of a theologiod point ; the Mancnes- ramjiarts, a handflil of alject serro 
ter salesman will wrangle with as dragged on a vegetable existence, 
much vigour and as much interest there are now the cottages of indus- 
in 8up|>ort of a price. The monk trious craftsmen. But the old church, 
spent his time in the illumination of with mouldering tower and ivy-clad 
missals and the transcribing of ma- porch, still remains. The same Bible 
nuscripts ; the modem is equally fer- is read to the cotton-spinner and the 
vent in the invention of patterns and " hand" as was read to the feudid 
the improvement of machinery. But, baron and the soulless serf Does 
it is said, the one were ever contem- one understand its spirit and its 
plating the things that are higher teaching much better than the other 
than mimdane, the other never bok did 1 

much beyond the things of sense ; In Manchester, then, as it appears 

the one, in fact» were busy in spiritual to us, the more spiritual regions of 

pursuits, the other are as busv about intellectual development are fatally 

pmsuits material ; the one had a con- neglected. We are far from asserting 

ndent belief in the supernatural, the that the men of Manchester neglect 

other are most confident about the the attainment of knowledga The 

visible. In any case, and what- manufacturing metropolis is rich in 

ever theory we mav choose to en^ Athenseums, Mechanics' Institutes, 

dorse, few will be disposed to deny Literary and Scientific Societies, ana 

* Soirihtatism, It is very curious thnt this name should have been taken for 
the title of the science (or rather art) of Media, and so has become significant of 
oae of the grossest forms of materialism. 



80 



Mandiester: Its Social A^)ects. 



[Jan. 



80 fortL Their magnificent Free Li- 
braiy is perhaps the most successful 
institution of its kind in the whole 
kingdom ; and one of the most en- 
couraging sights in the city is the 
spacious reading-room of the Free Li- 
brary on a winter evening. Every seat 
is occupied; and more than that, there 
are large numbers standing, and ac- 
tually undergoing some considerable 
bodily discomfort, in order to eJQtect 
what we suppose may be regarded as 
an increased comfort of mind. It is 
a hopeful spectacle — ^those long lines 



of hard-headed Bans of toil, in fristian 
iackets, with coarse and worn hands, 
but fresh and vigorous minds, drink- 
ing in, with significant aviditv, the 
lessons of wisdom and knowledge to 
be found in literature. 

We were told that the class of books 
most in demand had been thoae re- 
lating to history ; but that the study 
of the past was becoming rapidly 
abandoned for that of the present. 
The following tabular report of the 
issues afibrdfi proof of this most re- 
markable fact :— 



CLASSIFIED SUMMARY OF THE ANNUAL ISSUES IN THE RBFEBENOB J>EPABTX£KT. 





Vols. • Vols. 


Vols. 


Vols. 1 VoU 


Vrfs. 


Vols. 


Afigrt^^tft 




issoed 


issued 


Bssned 


issued t issued 


issued 


issued 


Issues ( 




in the 


in the in the 


in the in the 


in the 


in the for thfi 




Pint 


Second 


Third 


Fourth, Fifth 


Sixth 


Seventh ' Seren 




Year, 


Year, 


Year, 


Tear, | Year, 


Year, 


Year, j Yean. 




1852-fi3 l853-d4 


18M'55 


1655-66 1856-57. 


1857-58. 


1858-59. 1 


Class. 
I. Theology .... 










■ ■ ' ■ ■ 


1,184 • 1,346 


1,394 


2,153 2,218 


3.395 


3,317 15,009 


II. Philosophy . . . 


1,5691 1,417 


1,382 


970! 1,463 


1.751 


8(>6 


9.408 


III. History .... 


22,864 120,538! 18,867 


17,310 21,384 


24,642 


16,272 


141,877 


IV. Politics . . . . 


2.3-28 


2,395 


3,609 


6,6i»9 25,654 


32,133 


44,675 i 117,403 


v. Sciences and Arts . 


8,618 


8,578 


9,279 


10,427 i 9,364 


10,922 


9,035 66,2.:3 i 


VI. Literature and Poly- 








1 






1 
i 


graphy .... 
Total . . 


24,617 


30,302 


31,730 


33,301 41,918 


49,929 


41,041 


262,738 1 


61,080 


64,678 


66,261 


70,770 101,991 


122,772 115,206 602,653 

1 1 



We must explain, that under the 
head of Politics are included works 
on the Currency, all Parliamentary 
papers, and sdl specifications of Pa- 
tents. In the latter, the library is 
extraordinarily rich. 

We see from this table that the in- 
terest in a comparatively abstract sub- 
ject, such as histoiy, has been rapidly 
decreasing ever since the establish- 
ment of the library ; whilst that in 
works more directly relating to the 
material affairs of every-day life has 
gone on increasing with proportionate 
rapidity. In the first year, historical 
subjects had an advantage of sixteen 
to two over political and commer- 
cial subjects; and in the seventh 
year, 1 858-' 59, they stood to one an- 
other as sixteen to forty-four. The 
gradual nature of the change in the 
numbers testifies clearly that it haa 
not been due to any accidental cause 
of disturbance, but is in accordance 
with a specific tendency, itself the 
result of tne operation of some broad, 
general law. 

It is to this tendency of Manchester 
thought that we wish to draw atten- 
tion, because it is an extreme tendency, 



and as such, requiring all possilile 
watchfulness on the part of thoae who 
are voluntarily or involuntarily affect- 
ed by it It is a tendency which one 
who is, perhaps, the shrewdest living 
observer of social phenomena has de- 
clared inseparable from a hi^h state of 
civilization. Its effect is " the concen- 
tration of individual miergy within the 
narrow sphere of the individual's 
money-getting pursuits." Again, *'In 
highly civilizea countries, and more 
particularly amons ourselves, the 
energies of the middle-classes are al- 
most confined to money-getting." This 
is, probably, a somewhat exaggerated 
statement; for even in ManeheBter, 
which we take to be the most money- 
getting city in the world, the Art 
Treasures Exhibition wasaremarkable 
sign that individual energies do some- 
times travel beyond the region of 
money. Still, though exaggerate, this 

proposition contains a lan^e measure of 
truth ; and we refer to IVIanchester for 
illustration of that measure. In the 
very library where we should expect 
the pursuits of the day to be gladly 
forgotten, and studies in quite anqt her 
region as gladly taken up, we find 



1861.] Maru^ietter: Its Social Aajyects, 81 

that the faYourite works are those re- mittee of the Art Treasures Exhibi- 

lating to the very subjects on which tion. In his evidence given before 

the readers' minds have been intensely the Select Qommittee of the House 

absorbed during the day. of Commons, on the South Kensington 

We should imagine, for instance, Museum, in the month of July last, 

that amongst artisans, wearied with this gentleman showed clearly enough 

the day's htbour, Shakspeare would that he had learned to look upon tho 

be more generally read than Cassell's improvement of men as consequent 

Popular educator, or Weale's Series more upon a constant habituation 

of Arts and Sciences. Yet, if we may than upon casual or intermittent in- 

credit the Report, during last year the struction. Speaking of the improve- 

number of volumes of Oasseli issued ment of the taste of the masses, Mr. 

daily were nine ; of Weale's Series, Fairbaim declares his belief that it is 

nine; of Ure's Dictionary of the Arts, far better effected "by surrounding 

six ; whilst of Shakspearo there were them with objects of beauty and art, 

only five; of Bums, four ; and of Ten- than by any system of lectures or 

nyson, two. Can we hesitate to pro- teaching.'' In accordance with this 

nounce the state of things here so general principle, and with two im- 

Elainly indicated, to be a most un- portant doctrines more or less conse- 
ealthy condition 1 Can we doubt quent upon it, first, that the study of 
that this perpetual occupation of the any works of art is always beneficial 
mind in one and the same pursuit, in to those engaged in art manufactures ; 
one and the same direction, must be- and secondly, that men cannot be 
get a narrowness of view almost as brought into the presence of beauty 
objectionable as the overwhelming without some improvement of moral 
cloud of universal ignorance which it condition, Mr. Fairbaim suggested, 
replaces) Surely there is here a de- some time at the beginning of the 
plorable concentration of individual year, a proiect for the promotion of a 
energies within the monev-getting free art gallery and museum in Man- 
sphere;- for the subjects of the even- Chester, corresponding, in its general 
lug's study are precisely those wliich features, to the South Kensington 
engross the da^ s toil, and the direct Museum in London. A hundred 
object of the former is apparently to thousand pounds was the sum fixed 
increase the pecuniair profits of the as necessary for the execution of this 
latter. We thus see that butonepor- scheme: and we should have antici- 
tion of the mind receives any atten- pated tnat no great difficulty would 
tion or any improvement, and that the nave been found in raising what is 
students are never for a moment ex- such a bagatelle to the wealthy men 
alted from the region of their every- of this wealthy city. But the fact 
day cares, and wants, and laboura that such a difficulty does exist, and 
Yet whwt, after all, is the most valu- that grave obstacles are met with in 
able form of education, or rather what carrying out Mr. Fairbaim's wise and 
is the truest form? In our opinion, benevolent suggestion, is a confiima- 
not that which drives into a man a tion of what we have already proved 
certain set of practical rules, consti- a strong tendency of Manchester 
tuting an art, but rather such an order thought. Every thing beyond the 
of pursuit as will take him away from sphere of money-getting is considered 
the narrow circle in which his daily useless, or even worse than useless, 
lot is cast, which will purify histasces, Are the people of Rome or the people 
exalt his imagination, refine his of Florence any better for the splen- 
thougbtSj and take him away from did works of art by which they are 
his workmg self. on every side surrounded 1 Was 
Now^ we affirm of the masters and Paris, at the period of the First Em- 
men or this great northern city, that pire, improved by the fine arts? 
this form of education is not commonly These are the questions which Mr. 
apprehended, and therefore not gene- Fairbaim has to answer, and with 
rally adopted. There is, indeed, a whose sage propounders he has to 
handfol of men who appreciate the deal. 

undoubted necessity of some move- The writer of this article, some 

ment in this direction. At the head shoi^ time ago, had the pleasure of 

of them must be placed Mr. Thomas being introduced to a leading member 

Fairbaim, the Chairman of the Com- of one of the leading firms of Man- 

VOL. LVn.— NO. COOXXXYII. 6 



82 Manchesltr : Its Social Aspects, [Jan. 

cheater — a man of great wealth, and and tastes. The Uanchesiermerchant 

probably possessing some considerable looks with an edifying contempt on the 

influence. This part of the conver- speculations of abstract philosophy, 

sation was carried on with a strong For him the Utiknowable, and the In- 

Lancashire brogue of the most Boeo- finite, and the Unascertained, are aub- 

tian sort. "Do you think, speaking j(^ of the mostsupreme indifference, 

candidly '* said the present writer, Histoty is scarcely less dest>}cable. 

'Hhat education — say that given at Mr. Oobdeii, a great Manchester 

the evening classes of a mechanics' apostle, has declared that th^re is 

institute, or at some adult night-school more valuable knowledge to be got 

— ^is really calculated to improve a out of a single number of the Times 

working man, to make him a better newspaper, tnan out of the whole of 

workman ?" "No, I do not," replied Thucydides. Possibly he thinks also 

the learned Thebflk with ati accent that Richard Cobden is a wis^^states- 

which it is impossible io represent man than Pelicles. Some of the 

typographically. " Why not f^ "Be- practical sciences, snch as diemistry, 

cause I always Und that the best are looked upon without disfavour, 

workmen ar^ those who Work tnost because they ai-e of Use in manu- 

like milchiiies '* facturcs. 

" Then you ^rfeftr a hahd to aheadi" But speaking generaUv, there is hi 

"Yes." Manchester nd hELlance between the- 

"Wfell, but don't you think, that pry and practice. It is all jjptactice. 

if thfese Lancashire operatives werb Knowledge of first; priticiples, of sden- 

taught the elements or political eco- tific doctrines, and of most bther 

homy, they would ^e the mischievous thiiigs, out of the Exchange track, is 

folly of striked^ and thb advantage to not much valued : and the standard 

be aerived from friehdly relations be- set up by Mancnester society — the 

tween labour and capital I" standard which is to measure a man's 

"No; I do n6t thmk so:" moral and intellebtual irprth, io de- 

"But why?" . tennihe hid position in the World, is 

"Because I don't (wc). Infkctohe gold— 

can't have a reason for every thing "Gold I Yellow, giiUeiing, mcioiu gold ! 

one says just at oiie's finger feuds. But This will miJco 

rU tell you this mucli i these classes ^^^^ ^'ji*®; /?«*. '»»'; wwi^. right ; 

and lectures make the hands^ con- B«*«.i»oble5 old, young; cow».d, vaiiimt; 

ceited. They become hUppish.'' ^ill lug your pri'ests Ld nryants from 

Now, this vfery man, as It appears, your mdoB -, 

was a violent Radical, ahd firm sup- t*luck stout ihen's piUowg froin htHofk their 

porter of Bright ana his doctrines; heads: 

and owed his bwn position to the «,.,, , -. ^a u^Jc^J^-T 'flT^ *. 

"hu^pishness" or laudable ambition ^^LJ^^-af "^ ^'"^ "^«'""* ' "^ *^° 

of his father. Such be thy gods, Make the boar leproByftdort;pl»ee thieves, 

Manchester ! We fiUd nowhere more And give them title, knee, and cHPProba- 

striking examples of what Cointe „, twn, 

terms ^* the natural affinity betweea ^^^^ "'^»*o" ""^ ^^ ^«»«^- • 

narrow atidde&ultoryvifewsand selfish There can biB no question that the 

disposition^." Manchester is essenti- efifect of commercial avocations on the 

ally a place of narrow and desultory character, is to narrow it, and reetrain 

views— a placb whfere the constant its developnlent. Cicero, speaking of 

pursuit of one lo"^ object has pro- the different occupations suitable to 

ducied the oiiesidedtiesb sb naturally a gentleman, is, as usual, shallow aii<j 

consequeiit iipdn it. superficial. Hejudffed not from ati v 

Notning is mote certain than that, btore of experience, but simply fraui 

for a perfect developmeht of the hu- the d priori reflections oi a pmlo. 

inan character, there mlist be a pro- sopher iil the days when hobbdj con- 

per balancing of the varibus facuilies templated a philosophy of trade, au<3 



♦ THmon of Athens, Act iv. Sc iii. It might fteem a work of great sup^rogation 
to give the reference to such a passage as this, in Shakapeare's own coun^';^'. Ye 
it is discreditably true, that Shakspeare is coinparatively unknown to the majority 
of the flrit&H ttiblic. "^ 



1861.] Manchester: It$ Social Aspects, B3 

of a statesman in a state vrhere com- ever, do them the justice to say, that 

merce was scarcely recognised. "Com- they are Angularly courteous In their 

merce," he says, "if on a small scale, demeanoUt to the stratigers who find 

must be deemed a low calling ; but if their wq,j amongst them. The present 

it is very extensive, ikiid on a large writerismdebiedtomanyof tnem,d.il(l 

scale — ^if it collects an abundant va- to one gentleman, in particular, forth^ 

riety of articles from all quarters of facts on which tue article is founded, 

the globe, and dispenses them amongst Nothing can ei^c^ed the readiness with 

an equal variety of people in all hon- which they open their warehouses td 

esty, why, under these circumstances, the inspection of a " philosophic iii- 

it is not so very obiectionable/* Now restigator." Another memoraole trait 

Cicero himself woUld not have stigma- is, that they never throw off business, 

tized the commerce of Manchester as In their families, these merchants are 

"on a vmsAl scale." There is more reserved and abstracted, and, thoiigh 

baying and selling done in a single bodily bv the fireside, tney ate tneh- 

day, on the Manchester Exchange, tally at their pillar Hi the Exchange, 

than there was amongst the shons 6t As they dine, they di-e absorbed lii 

the Roman Forum in a year. Man- prices and sdles. As they sit at A 

cheater trades with reniote regions of concert, their thoughts are less of th^ 

the earth, of which the Romans never music than of the market. As they 

dreamt It has a market in Brazil listen to a sermon, they lUwdrdly 

in the West, and at Calcutta and smile at the singularly Unpractical 

Jerusalem in the ISast. The Syrian nature of the preacher's remarks, and 

chieftain wears a turbaii of Manches- possibly tliiuk what a sorry figure he 

t^r manufactui^ limoUgst the hills of would cut on the following Tuesday. 

Lebanon ; the Brahthan priest is clad In short, what the ereat Romaii, 

in a tunic from the Manchester looms ; whose words we have already quoted, 

the fop of Valparaiso walks the YaJ- said of the pursulte of the scholar, is 

paraiao Bond-street in Matichester precisely true bf the pursuits of the 

fabrics; and the naked savage of merchant in the city or merchants : — 

Owhyhee goes through his wild dance " They fere the business of youth, the 

with a Manchester rag round his delight of age ; they are a pleasure at 

loins. home, aud they ar^ no hindrance 

Manchester commerce is, therefore, abroad ; they are With u^ in the night, 

undeniably " magna et copiosa." But they travel with u9, they go into the 

is it, on that account, " non admo- country with us." 

dum vituperanda," not very objec- Unquestionably, this incessant con- 

tionablet centration of the mind upon one set 

As we walk from the Bank in Lon- of subjects, namely, those relating to 
don. along Oheapside, and so on, up commerce, and its constant direction 
to the tep of Regent-street, we may te one end, namelv, the acquisition of 
notice how the stern concentration of wealth, cannot fail to do grave dam- 
phyaiognomy, prevalent in the city, a^e to the mental and moral cpn- 
liecome gradually relaxed as we go stitiition. Nartow-mindednesfiL bi- 
westwards: lips are less and less tight- gotry, empiricism, and a fiagrant self- 
ened: brows more and more relaxed: conceit are the giant weeds which 
step less and less hurried, till we find grow from such an eVil. The blatant 
ourselves amongst the simpering, assumption of importance on behalf 
lounging crowd of fashionables. But of Manchester by its inhabitants is 
in Manchester you may go from one one of the most amusing characteris- 
end to the other, and yet never see a tics of the place, and reminds us bf th^ 
sign of relaxation. Everybody hurries obscure parish alluded to by Dickons, 
along the streete as if racing against which believed that the eyes of Eu- 
tiiue. Every brow is clouded with rope were upon it whetl it appointed 
care and thonght^ as if the fate of ite beadle. Manchester then do pot 
an empire were at stake. Con- scruple to pronoUhce their towti the 
versatiou is carried oti in short, most important in Ihfe kingdom. This 
bharp sentences, as if the talkera were ludicrous notion has partly iiriseh 
in a hurry to catch a train. The from the leading pjlrt ^hlch its Par- 
manners of Manchester are distin- liameUtaiy rettresentdtives took in the 
guifthed by a remarkablfibrusqueness, struggle for the repeal of the Com 
rerginguponrudenesi. WemuBt,hbw- LaWs. Of courde, thift pteposterodsljr 



84 Mancliesler : Its Social A^ecU. [Jan. 

exaggerated self-importance retards, dences, the thriving and enormous 
and will long continue to retard the population, the thousand evidences 
development of anything like catho- of wealth with which Manchester 
licity or cosmopolitanism of creed. At abounds on every side — ^what are 
the same time, it would be greatlv these but proud trophies of enterprise, 
modified, if those who are now so full and skill, and toil 1 The waggons 
of it were encouraged to spend their laden with gigantic piles of manufac- 
time in acquiring general knowledge, tures, the streets crowded with an 
instead of spenmng it in public- earnest and busy throng — what are 
houses, indulging tnemselves with these but signs that the same enter- 
huge draughts of mutual glorification, prise, and skill, and toil are still in 
and unthinking panegyric of their mil vigour? We have been showing 
city. the necessity of Manchester taking a 

If there be any truth in Mr. Rus- leaf from the book of the scholar, and 
kin's doctrine of the influence of leavening the great mass of material 
street architecture, many parts of the wealth with something of abstract 
Manchester character may be ex- thought and speculation. We may 
plained, as the result of surrounding with an equal propriety invite the 
a population with hideous buildings, scholar to turn his eyes to this manu- 
Moseley-street, for instance, is one facturing town, and take a lesson for 
of the most terrible conglomerations his own guidance from its energy- of 
of bricks that we ever remember to purpose and its vigour of execu- 
have seen J black, dingy, grim-looking tion. The man of business, whose 
edifices, without an e^rt at decoration mind never leaves the counting- hou se 
or taste. That ornament and taste with its ledgers, and the warehouse 
are not incompatible with places of with its bales, is not a whit more 
business is shown by the splendour guilty of stunting his mental dcvelop- 
of Messrs. Watts' warehouse, in ment than the dreamer who sur- 
Portland-street, which is reported to roimds himself with books, and shut- 
have cost £120,000. This is probably ting the door against the lessons of 
the most majgnificent warenouse in experience and the actions of the 
the world, as it is certainly one of the outer world, thinks that he sdone is 
finest architectural features of Man- following out the complex Jaws of his 
Chester. Not very far from it is another being. Let such an one rememl>er 
specimen of good building, though Emerson's emphatic dictum : — "Ac- 
of a quite different style, audit is, per- tion is with the scholar subordinate, 
haps, open to dispute whether Messrs. but it is essential ; without it he is 
Watts', or Mr. Mendel's warehouse not yet man. Without it thought can 
is a finer model for warehouse archi- never ripen into truth." 
tecture. We trust that these splendid So it is in all things. The great, 
examples may incite others to improve and as it might seem, the insuperable 
the aspect of this grim city. Its cli- difficulty is to keep the balance be- 
mate, always more or less ungenial, tween two opposing forces, whether 
assists the gaunt buildings in laying you call those forces theonr or prac- 
an oppressive incubus on all but the tice, or thought and manufacture, or 
abongines of the place. learning and working. How many 

In dwelling at such length upon there are who waste an existence in 
what we consider the defective and speculation and dreaming ! How- 
evil tendencies of this great city — ten- many there are who waste an exist- 
dencies in large measure flowing ence in manfacturing calicoes and in 
merely from excess of the virtue book-keeping! 
which has made it great — ^we have not Having thus laid down our thoore t i - 
for a moment forgotten the grand cal position, we may proceed most 
characteristics of its present position, brieny to point out in what way we 
Where else can we behold such a tri- conceive it might readily be carried 
umph of the almost sublime virtues into practice. The evil of which we 
of industry, perseverance, thrift, and complain is, that Manchester is too 
forecast 1 Where else are we to look material, and too purely practical, 
for such signal examples of the force The remedy we suggest and urge is 
of individuality, and the power that the initiation of its vounger inhabit- 
lies in individuid energy ) The splen- ants into pursuits oi a diametrically 
did warehouses, the palatial resi- opposite tendenpy. Let them vary 



1861.] Manchester: Its Social Aspects. 85 

practice with theory, and alternate Poetry is so popular a branch of 

specnlation with action, learning with literature, and its uses in elevating 

working. And this might be done, the imagination are so patent and ob- 

and done with the utmost efficacy, vious, that we scarcely need dwell 

withoutanyimpedimentbeing thrown upon it. Biography, again, should 

into the way of the money-getting form an element in the work of self- 

Sursuits ; without the disciples of education, more especially the lives 

[inerva becoming at all careless of heroic and high-minded men, whose 

about the worship of Plutus. actions were dictated by a firm faith 

For the majority of young men in in some lofty principle, and who 

Manchester, business hours terminate scorned with ineffable scorn the base 

at five or six o'clock in the afternoon, and selfish motives of the mercenary 

The entire evening is before them, crowd. A hundred other branches 

and we maintain that no better way of study might be indicated, equally 

of spending at least two or three fitted for promoting the object we are 

hours of that evening could be devised, advocating — ^the spiritualizaiion of 

than by cultivating the speculative the men of commerce, 

and ima^native faculties of the mind. We will conclude with a remark 

But this is not done by poring ovcrspe- upon the importance of the relations 

cifications or patents or dictionaries between Manchester and the rest of 

ofartsandsciencea Let such of tliem England. Its population may now 

as have any knowledge of the rudi- be estimated at little short of half a 

mcnts of Greek, or Latin, or French, million. Of course this is a small 

pursue study in those languages. It fraction of the London population ; 

IS marvellous what an opening of the but if we would form a proper esti- 

roind is brought about by reading in mate of its weight in the state, we 

anothertonguethanourown. Itisoue must remember that Manchester is 

of the prime producers of healthy cos- animated by one spirit. Its inhabit- 

mopolitanism. It introduces us to new ants are all engaged in one pursuit, 

literature, to new modes of thought, and one narrow circle of occupations, 

and varied tones of feeling, and has Their motives are almost identical, 

generally a clarifying effect, so to and the surrounding influence act in 

speak, on the student s intellect necessarily the same direction. This 

History, again, whether of our own intense unanimity, therefore, gives a 

or other countries, would be a most strength which is greater than that 

valuable object of inquiry— not the possessed by towns of larger popula- 

accumulation of dates and the ar- tions, but of more divided opmions. 

raugement of battles, but a philoso- Admitting that this half million 

phical endeavour to penetrate to the all pull one way, no one will attempt 

fundamental laws bv which political to deny that too great vigilance cannot 

events are indubitably regulated. We be exercised in directing the develop- 

uan plac» no limit to the mental im- ment of the commercial spirit, and 

provement which would follow a that too great pains cannot be taken 

careful study on the part of those in modifying the intensity and tem- 

deeply engaged in commercial pur- pering the onesidedness of that spirit, 

suits, of historical science — the science We have shown how this may be 

of man as a social being, whose office done ; and we believe if the men of 

is to unravel the intricacies of the re- Manchester were to follow out and 

lations amongst individuals, classes, improve upon our suggestions, they 

nations and races; to educe from the would be in the roadnfbr rendering 

dim shadows of past events clear and their life (to apply the words of an 

well d^ned laws ; to furnish modern illustrious writer, employed by him 

times witii lessons which ages more in a far wider and more national 

remote only learnt by a painful ex- sense), not what it now is, "puerile 

perience ; whose office, in snort, is not and insignificant, but such as human 

to illustrate another science^ but to beings with highly developed faculties 

bring forth a philosophy of its own, can care to have, 

more valuable than any other philoso- J. M. 
pby, because it is the most essentially 
practical 



8Q Iruh and ScoU Salmon Fi$hme$, [ii£ 



1^89 AlfD B00T8 BALHON FI8SEEU9. 

The Salmoii* a prolific rirer-fiah, has mentp Bome to determine the ab»tn.- 

been fruitful in acta of parliament, aucstionofthe best scaaon for aalr^ 

which the English, Irisk and Scottish nshing, and others, inveighing atpiii-i: 

legislatures have passed to regulate ''the greedv appetites and inunux^t' 

modes of catchinff the animaL from desires" or monopolists, pusit:>'* 

the day when King John's barons prohibited the use of any sU&*:.u 

met op an island in the Thames, and or fixed net. 

included two clauses in the great Of late years, the Imperial \es:»- 

charter in favour of a certain amount lature has consented to about a ao *- 

of freedom for this excellent eatable, of statutes in respect of Irisb a;.. 

How came the creature in question Scots salmon, 

to be more productive of law than The old kings of Scotland wen 

any other, map excepted 1 The pri- always making regulations ai:< i 

maiy reason arises from the nature of coradha^ cruives. or wein, Le^.!** 

the fish. Like a hare, this migratory enforcing the "Sunday blap-byr "' 

being is no man^s property until it is free pafi;iage up the stream on tl.- 

caugnt ; aiul its circumstances form Sabbath ; then settling the si^ : 

more complicated scientific, and, "ilk heck," cut, or gap, betv* 

therefore, legal questions than the cruive bar& and providing iiuhl- 

quadruped's. Though found ntost in ment fur "slayers of reda mc\x ;.. 

common waters, as the sea and the tide- fresche watteris." 

ways of rivers, our legislature has seen The rcaiion the sovereigns of St •: 

fit to sanction mono}Njlizing modea of land were so careful of the Ba!tt. *. 

taking it, thereby creating "several," fishery of their kimrdum id f »u: 

or private, fiishenes in those commons, in the fact that this resource, wL> 

to the detriment of other piscatory must have been of immense ralu*. 

interests in the stream* Considera- belonged to them ; for, tboQ(ch */ 

tions based on the presumed habits salmon is not, h'ke the whale a: : 

of this singular fish have formed sturgeon, a royal fiah, to which ll«- 

the grounds for permitting these Crown has claim, the richt of •Alnipc 

exclusive methods of capture. But fishing is ifiUr regalia^ u*ing h\ Uv 

here we are met by the difficulty ju4coroni4. Often good King lL>)«r 

of observing the conduct of an icthyo- and his sua^essors, the otu-it*.-. 




t up a cascade, and then hiding tlio lord of Ablxjtsford, such a/» f 

itself in an inland lake. So, unless " the thane*s nett," with the Uirii • 

a Select Parliamentary Committee duty of half the /ax, i.c aoliif :.. 

would consent to sit a few days in a taken, whether liy net or Ui^trr, « 

diving-bell, its members must learn h&x-tree, or salmon-spear ; and 




The great charter of EncHsh liberty song, still heard in the wynds of i . . 

having Deen extended to Ireland, aa towns on the Border :— 

fixed engines were deemed iUegal. •'Asl««ii«p0MMi-Ate, » 8m4-au.vi 

except on the sea coast, as mcluded SMidg»u, 

in the interdictinl IddU^ a wonl which As I wfst op Stad<pto, I bMid • ham* t- • 

originally implied the wicker basket ^^l,""*-^ ^^ li#rf ipw. tht k«rf nm u-- 

of a head-weir: whence the term, "a w • '"^i. a, • •. t .a. • , . 

kettle offialL^ St thirty1tSl.U« *-> -7 *• k«- ~- •*" -F «-*.-. U. 

were passed by the Dublin Parlia- ^ Weel m^y the boatie row that ean- 



RmH fnm the Seitd Qmmititie of iks Hmut of LonU im Sahmm JRakmf m 
Scoikmd, with Oc Miiamt€$ of Ewidnee. ParUamentaiy Paper, I6lh Jnlr, lano. 




1 8 61.] IrUh and Scots Salmon Fisheries. 87 

the bairna' bread" is );he burden of poetically celel)wte4 palace, c^e^, 

another chant, sung by lassies tun^- from them, Eincora. Tlie lea^eof this 

ed fish-wiyes ; and so, too, ip old wieir, whicK is the property of the 

Ireland, many poof woraeij, though Cqrporationqfthie city, having seventy 

--" ' ' *^ * ' •->"•. £300 a- 

,000 to 
ouf greatest 

of nature to our rivers. ' manufacturers. 

Thouffh inferior in amount of pro- It is of this weir the story is told 

dace, the salmon fisheries of this in Cardinal Wiseman*8 "lives' of t^Q 

oountiT have the merit of difiering Popes^" how, on ^ trial as to its lega- 

froin those of Scotland in one point, lity, tne'word "lax," puzzling every 

having been originally open to the one, was construed to imply a loose, 

many, not confined by law to the few; illegal weir, until' an antiquary ex- 

for, whereas all Scots fishings ape plamed to Counsellor O'Connell that 

frivate jjroperty, private rights m it is merely the Danish word for s^- 

rish fishings are t{ie exception. In mon. Among other antique piscatoiy 

by far the greater bulk of our waters apparatus in this country, maybe 

the public common-la'fir right of every noticed the dam-weir at Inchicore (i.€., 

person prevails who can ejnploy a the Island of the Fishing-weir), on 

Doat ana net. Tftiis. this difference, our metropolitan river, under KiJ- 

remarkable as affecting and compli- mainhain, to the old Priory of which 

eating the law of piscdry in Ireland, it belonged when knights of St. John 

is here in favour of prohibiting mo- flourished ; and fishermen there fami- 

nopoly of an article pf sustenance liarlycall this salmon-trap, "i^ohnny's 

which is the free gift of nature, re- Weir," in tradition of the time when 

quiring no expense, save in the mo(Je the Church asserted right to tithe of 

and act of capture. fish. In ol)edience to this right, the 

Some private properties in Irish Dukeof Devonshire pays ^200 a-y ear 
sabnon are of CTcat value, siich as the for the fourth ftsh, and about ;C70 a- 
Foyle fishery, belonging to the Irish year for the tenth, out of £700 annual 
Societj[, granted at a time when tlje rent for his dam-weir at Lismore. An 
Worshipful London Company of Fish- old " head-weir," po called because a 
mon^rs undertook to colonize Derry. man at its head hauled up the salmoi^ 
The Bann, once mi^ch richer, is owned it caught, or " timber-tied " weir, be- 
by the saine Society,' was rented by its cause consti'u.ctea Of stakes and wattle- 
first lessor, ap ancestor of Lord puffer- wort, b^lopged to ^he monks of Dun- 
in, at no less than ;C1,000, equivalent to broay Abbey, under the title of " God's 
X 12,000 ofoiu'mongv, and yielded one wefr.^' This antiquated contrivance 
year, according to Peimahf;, 3(X) tons was in the shape of a V, and being 
of fish, dimjnis{ie(J to 52 tons in the very inoperative compared to the 
year 1823. Then there is the fisherjr of Scotch s take-niet, one of these efficient 
the £me, at Batlyshannon, which engines was substituted^ and caught 
used to pay the Coiiolly family seve- " a power of fish," lintil, being pro- 
rdthousa|idpouji(}s sterling anpually. npunce4 illegal, it was destroyed hj 
In a historical point of view, it is od- ap inspecting Commissioner. Speci- 
servable that the principal fishing meps of theSe rp4.e coradhu n»ay be 
stations in this island appear to liaye see^ in the Npre, and elsewhere, 
been formed by Scandinavian settlers, proving tliat Magna Charts was dis- 
apparently immigrants froift the peb- regarded; j^n.d also showing why a 
noes, who introdiiccd the Scotic mode statute provided a pepalty for a man 
of fishing bv stmnd weirs, called alJowing'his pigs to wander on the 
coradha by tne Gaelic people of tl^e river shore, where they devoured the 
interior. salmon fry det^ed in these wicker 

The great cor^, or cmfve-yreir, and weed-covered contrivance^, 

called the lax-weir, at lamericjc, The values of the various public 

one of the oldest ana richest fishing fisheries, are, of course, difficult to es- 

properties in the United Kingdom, tlmaie ; but it appears that th^ gross 

was probably erected by the Danes, export from Waterford in 1844 was 

who may have also aided in the con- about 20,852salmon, weighing 151,646 

struction of the ceann-coradha^ i.e,j lbs. The home consumption was iu- 

head-weirs, near Brian Boroimhe'a calculable. At a shilling a pound tho 



88 Irish and Scots Salmon Fisheries. [Jan. 

export was worth £7fiQb ; the pro- lives, induced Government to inqnire 
duce is stated to have reached frcMn into the law, and it was found that 
^17,000 to £18,000 one year. these fixtures were illegal. Still, the 
Some further retrospect is requisite profit of a season's take of salmon was 
for comprehending the history of the enough to tempt risks, and fixed nets 
Irish Salmon Fisheries during the pre- were re-erected. Such was the state 
sent century. We have seen that this of uncertainty, iiresponsibility, con- 
fish, long ago, provoked "greedy de- fusion, and conflict whioh warranted 
sires " at home ; and it seems that, the government of the dav in bring- 
since its value depends on quick sale, ing forward, in 1842, a bill repeallDs 
the invention oi steam navigation all existing statutes, oonsolidatingana 
raised demand in England to an "in- re-enacting most of their sound pro- 
ordinate desire," so soon as it could, visions, and introducing others re- 

Eacked in ice, be placed fresh on quired by the recent introduction of 
london dinner-tablea To supply the efficient methods of fishing, 
new demand, numbers of newlv invent- The alterations in the law effected 
ed " Scotch nets," technically called by the Act of 1842 were extreme, in 
stake and bag nets, were set up in the some cases unjust, and in others un- 
estuaries throughout our island, par- scientific The bill presented to par- 
ticularly on the estates of influential liament was good on several points; 
landlords. Whether these fixed en- but, in committee, the fixed-net party 
gines were illegal or not, was a aues- introduced and passed two clauses, 
tion at law which would have been giving a colour of legality to stake 
(|uickly decided had the innovation and bag nets, that had stood for cer- 
injured rich, hereditary, private rights; tain terms of years, under particular 
but as the encroachment was upon conditions, thus rewarding their own- 
the public fishery, who was to pro- ers for having violated the law. Be- 
tect this right? In Scotland, there sides giving this ui\just immunity, the 
is no such right ; but in this country new statute enabled additional fixed 
it prevails in the tideways of almost nets to be set up in newly legalized 
all the largest rivers, being exercised localities, and gave facility K>r the 
by thousands of cott-men, fishing with erection of illegal stake-nets. In con- 
seines, or draught nets. The law as sequence, the number of these engines, 
to stationary nets was obscure, and which are notably efficient, increased, 
unenforced ; and, during this uncer- while, at the same time, no adequate 
tainty as to the title to maintain provision was made for the protection 
these engines, it was well worth while of the few fish they left behind to 
to erect them. Accordingly, although breed. The result, scarcity, might 
many were condemned by ludicialde- have been anticipated. 
cision8,andsomeoccasionallycutdown The effect of tne Act of 1842 was 
by the iiyured cott-men, others were to revolutionize property in the salmon 
set up to catch the profit of a season's fisheries of this island. The proprie- 
fishing. BeforetheActof 1842, which tary interest in them immediately 
was designed as a remedy, there were changed hands largely, and this change 
twenty-six acts of parliament, but is continuing. Before fixed nets were 
no authority was empowered to put used, the landlords along a great river 
them in force, in vindication of the had generally little return from it, 
public right of piscary; and, gene- save m isolated cases, which we have 
rally speaking, fishery law was a nearly counted up, as of cruive dams, 
dead letter, save where private in- and a few antiquated head-weirs, 
terest, that potent motive, enforced Almost all the broad tideways, ex- 
the law for substantial objects. The cepting the Foyle, were fished by poor 
public fishermen, instead of contri- cott-men, in virtue of the public right 
Duting money to try the legality of But the result of the Act of 1842 was 
fixed nets, combined, to remedy their absolutely to create a class of salmon- 
grievances forcibly ; and in some parts, fishery proprietors, namely, the land • 
as near Waterford, dn the Shannon, lords of the coast outside river mouths, 
and in Donegal, about Ballyshannon, For many years this new proprietary 
there were sharp conflicts. The people reaped the yearly harvest ; and even 
rose in immense numbers, and prostra- now they contribute, comparatively 
tedthe new engines violently. Serious with their profits, little in the shape 
breaches of the peace, with loss of of license duty, and seldom pay poor 



1861.] IriA and ScaU Salmon FiAeries. S9 

rate and ooanty oeiB. Indeed, an in- utere iuo ut alienum non Icedas, to 

crease of the assessment levied on allow one man to use this new engine 

fixed nets, for the protective poipose, to the destruction of the ancient pro- 

bas become essential perty of persons higher up the stream. 

Made powerful to kill salmon, the It may be well to describe ba^ and 

lower j^roprietors, naturally powerless, stake nets, that the reader may judge 

by their geographical position, to pro- what formidable competitors they are 

tect the or^dmg fish in the upper of the draught-net 

waters^ found the magistracy among A bag-net is so called from its 

the mountains more and more disin- pouch, or trap, at the outer end, sus- 

diued to punish their poor neighbours pended in the sea by buoys and ropes 

for breacmes of the law in this parti- out to anchors, and into which salmon 

cular. Consequently, a gradual de- are led by the net itself, called the 

clension of the fisheries, threatening leader, which stretches out from the 

their extinction, continued from year beach. The nature of the fish is 

to year, until 1848, when the License to coast along, their hydrographical 

Act was passed, providently imposing knowledge consisting m discerning 

duties upon every sort of engine em- fresh from salt water, and in seeking 

ployed m salmon fishing, the sums a river's mouth along shore. As they 

levied in each district to be applied move on, when impeded by the leader 

to protection. A total of between they swim along it^ till they get into 

if 5,000 and ;C6,000 annually has been the bag of the net. 

raised and applied for this necessary A stake-net is stretched on stakes 

purpose, with admirable and increaa- fixed in the shore of a river, from 

ing effect high water mark to the edge of the 

Gr^ierally speaking, the Irish sal- channel, where it has an intricate 

mon fishery is now settled in satisfac- chamber, into which fish are similarly 

tory ways, so far as carrying out the led The chief advantage these two 

present law. But since the question, fixed engines have over unfixed nets 

whether the law is judicious and just is, that they operate incessantly, day 

or not, is ever an open one, and as and night, save during the weekly 

points in this respect have been re- and annual close times. Being situ- 

cently mooted, concerning the Scots ated near the mouths of rivers, they 

salmon fishery, by a report of a Select also have the gce&t benefit of nearness 

Committee of the House of Lords, to the entry of the fish. 

we shall proceed to quote and com- The dispute whether salmon, in 

ment on tnis report, and the evidence entering a river, take the channel or 

published with it, as well in its bear- keep idong shore, is one that occasions 

m^ on the Irish as on the North a lively controversy, because if they 

Bntish fisheiy. run up the deep water, owners of the 

The main Question in legislating for " Scotch nets,*' called stake and bag 
the salmon nsheriea of large public engines, not stretching into the chan- 
riv^ is one of just distribution, nel, can protest that the fish get off 
Ph^v, the owner of an entire river scot-free. This moot matter, how- 
may do as he pleases; and if the ever, would be rendered less of a 
interest of purcnasers of this fish mysteiv if the amount of salmon 
should be most consulted, the prefer- entered in the ledgers of those owners' 
able way of fishing every river is by fisheries were open to inspection, 
means of bag-nets in its very gorge, whmi we should hardly require the 
beoMise salmon caught in the sea is sjssurance of an experienced vritness 
in a finer state^ and will keep longer, before the late Committee that " it is 
than one that nas been some time in only dose in-shore that the bac-net 
a river ; but as this way would enrich takes most of the fish.'' This shows 
a single landlord to the loss of aU the that, at least, they hug the sea coast 
other interests in the stream, the law, shore, if they do not also prefer the 
from the day of Magna Charta, has sides to the tideway channel of a 
refused to allow a monopoly. No river. 

Question but the *' improved mode of The salmon is a sort of sea chame- 

nshing." as these nets are stvled, leon. varying according to the interest 

serve the commercial value of saunon of the spectator, who, if an owner 

b^; yet it would be unjust, on the of sea-nets, says some salmon never 

grana social principle of libeily, nc go into fresh water, but spawn in the 



9Q IriAand Scok Salmon fisheriet, [Jaa 

pea, an aasertioD to be Uk^, cum indiTidtt»l8aliiioQ,"a^rihe,*^Pfodiiecs 

grano tal%%. So bigh iuhi the dispute about 20,000 ecgs, proper care or tbt 

run that Bcience baa been invoked breeding £9))* ^oulu au^tais iht 

to make disputanta ricbt by pronounc- stock ; and be estimates that ^ if oc?jr 

ing the salnio mlar eitber a sea or a a quarter of the Quantity came t<> 

river fisb, in order tbat the law for maturity," a few wx would sufioe. 

catcbiiig it may be framed accord- But, setting aside the fact tbat a 

ingly ; while, in truth, the animal is cock salmon lays no eggs, what rca- 

both one ana the other. But, sav the son is there for believing that he ba* 

stake-net men, though not reaay to the pleasure of seeing 5,0()0 |irc»gcnf 

hazard their profits on their assertion grow up from fry to salmunbood e veiy 

that salmon breed in the sea, noonecan year? As to this mystery, it can 

deny that they feed and grow fat ii^ onlv be solved bv some one who has 

it, and foul and thin in a river, fuliuled one of the oldest Irish Ita 

Granted ; the sole question, merely ditions, viz., has eaten of the " aalmt n 

one of curiositv, being what do they of knowledge,^* so we tnin to anutbcr 

fatten on* rrofessor Quekett, in poinj;. 

evidence before the Lords, finds, According to Magna Cbarta and 
from experiments, the ova of the the Scottinn law, new fixed engbe* 
echinus, or sear urchin, to be the sal- cannqt bo set up within a river, and by 
mon^s princi^I food ; and that this Irish law not within a mile from tm; 
edible lives m from six to twenty mouth, consequently another ptaca- 
fathoms salt water. Probably the toiy puzzle is, what are the limits uf 
urchin browzcs on sea weed, which a nver 7 Wliere does the o{)cu sea 
imperceptibly adorns, like a beard, commence 7 The cunstructiou of the 
the mouth of every river, an4 re- law depends on an answer whcreviT 
oeives a top-dressing by the deposit no legal definition has been anivni 
of eveiy flood, thus compensating at, and several actions have turm>l 
the country for loss of the fine earth on this point. Whether salt or fn-sL 
carried down, besides supplying ma- water predominate in the proponed 
nure to fields on the sea coast Again, limit would hardly serve as a critc- 
some bag-net men a^isert that if they rion. In the case of the Tay, Li>rd 
might not catrh salmon in the sea, Eldon hit upon what seems to us the 
the fish might wander into other natural limit, bjf giving liis opinion 
rivers, although there is hardly a tliat the prohibition to fish with stake- 
fact m natum history better es- nets in nvers extended, in this ca«e, 
tablished than that salmon return to to the bar^ which is a little outsidf 
the stream in which they were bred, the pn^jecting headlands forming the 
There is a marked difierence in their mouth. The \hu at a river's mouth 
ahape in various rivers, as there is is the neutral grount^ where ILp 
in aifierent breeds of cattle. Water- force of the river current no lungtr 
ford fish can be distinguished from prevails, and, therefore, by depositmg 
the Cork varietv. the XiScy breed its sediment, has formed sana-banks^ 
from that of the boannon^ and sharp- Ope witnct^ before the late Com- 
eyed fishennen even discriminate be- mittee, Horace Watsou, Eml, solicitor 
tween Bann, Bush, and Foyle fishes, to the Couunissiiiners of Woods and 
Gonnoisseurssay that the metropolitan Forests, handed in an able document 
river never shows the lengthier and on this moot point of defining the 
much better shaped fish of the Boyne, limits of % river, showing it was one 
nor the deep tliick fish of this ouir impossible to settle without the aid 
and Shannon. Again, sea-engine par- of an impartial commission, aincv 
iisans talk of '' I^arren*' fish, which, neither nature, nor law, nor int<*ma- 
say they, never asicnd aiiy river- a tiunal treaties serve as a guide in 
coogecturo rea^iring tf oof, being every case. In her infinite variety, 
quite oontraiy to the belief of inland nature has rendered it imixMsilile to 
piscators, that all sal inon pair toj^ctber, lay down any rule. Some rivers, b'ke 
no one bein^, like Itorace^s >>ucu^>r, the Nile, Bhine, and Uississippi, 
Untrue coiyttgU imwhemor. Doctors make deltas out m the sea. Some, 
also differ as to the proportionate like the Tyne, Wear, and Teet, mn 
quantity of spawn that arrives at straight into the sea. without either 
maturity. One witness has no horror delta or estuary. ''In these cases,'* 
of fixed engines, because since " each it is judiciously obsenred in tho me- 



IQQ}.] Iri^ and Scots Sah^ fi^herie^. ^} 

moiandWi 'Hbe bar at the mouth to Ssh m. The two olvects of thi^ 
would give a natuml limi^ In the close time afe. ^rst. to prohibit cap- 
case of the Seyeru. Shannon, and St. ture at the p^nod wnen n^any whnop 
Ijawrence, where the e8tuar;)r gradu- ii^ a riyer are sp yearly adyai^ced to- 
ally widepg into the ^ea, it would, wards ispawning aa to be unfit foj^ 
perhaps, be impossible to sav where food, mi to allow a sufficient number 
the b^ lies, ana to get any thing but to ascend to deposit their ova in tl>Q 
an arbitnuy limit upper streams, fishermen seem toler- 

Ikiough has uqw been said to show aoly a^eed that the great bulk of 
the complicated character of Irish spawning occurs in all rivers in De- 
salmon fisheries, cember. But the indubitable fact, 

Such was the abuse on aU sides, that various causes majce fish appear 

that prior to 1842, save in some iso- in certain rivers in various conditipna 

lated cases, the ^aw was totallv disre- at thp same late period of November 

garded— everybody fishing m the —as, for example, the majority re^ay 

manner that suited him, ^om weirs to spawu, some having doue so, and 

to spears. Some priucipal rivers others ^'iresh run'' from the sea, an^ 

were fisbe4 all the ypar round, neither with ova scarcely developed — renders 

Sunday nor the spawning season the question, whether any of these 

being observe4* The fine fisheries of rivers may be ^hed late or early, an 

theSarrow, Suir, Blac^water, Slaney, abstruse and much disputed one. 

an4 Boyne, were used in this destruc- The sixteen riyers called " parly^" 

tive manner. Magistrates did not or those in which good fish are fqund 

choose to become unpopular by en- in the winter months, are generally 

forcing the lav where the public short cpnduits from a lake, or great 

alone were interested ; and by degrees, reservoir of rain water, to the sea, 

this lancjlord and the other on the which presents a fadle ruii for 

estuary had ' set up semi-legal stake the fish from salt to fresh water. The 

and bag nets, which ^9 one was au- most remarkable of these aqueducts 

thorized eithpr to try the right to, or is the Carra, in perry, one of the 

te put dpwn. earliest to ha'^e new-mn ^h ; and so 

The large extent of the public in- abundant are its scaly denizei)s at t)iQ 
terest, its confiicjb with private claims, season when salmpn from large rivers 
consequent on private encroachments, are uneatable, that tnspectji^g Cqm- 
the firequepcy of senous breaches or missioner Ffennell pentions naving 
the peace, the confused state and iu- taken on the 23rd {ifovember seven- 
adequacy of the law^ and the need of teep fish there, fifteen of which were 
an impartial, scientific tribunal, au- ''as beautifu) and marketable as could 
thorized to interpose, combiped to de- be.^ This fact, of there being soupd 
mand that the whole matter of the salmon fn a stream at a date when 
Irirfi fisheries should be under some other rivers have only spawning, or 
control by public officers. Certain spent fish, is another physical njystery, 
powers were accordingly given, in of which the solution may be, that 
lS42p to the Board of Works, as Cfom- the superior clearness and warmth of 
missioners of Fisheries : but, owinjg a lake-fed conduit attracts the animal 
to several reasons, the Board did not sooner. 

exercise those powers, partly because One of the best services rendered 
it was overwhelmed with other busi- by the Inspecting Commissioners has 
nes^ particularly during the years of consisted m contenting the fishing 
famme, and partly because its mem- public on this question of fence time, 
hers had not, perhaps, sufficient tech- Our native legislate, haying, with 
nical knowledge of the matter, which a prudence now becoming recog- 
requirea practical acquaintance, and nised, nxed the general close time at 
moreover, such active supervision and from the 12th of Augjust to 1st Feb- 
local attention, as the Inspecting ruary, had relaxed this rule in favour 
Oommissioners. who were subsequent- of cettain rivers, the i^tures of which 
If added to ine Board, have since demand peculiar fishing seasons; but 
given. In one point alone, the ques- in 1642, an act framed on the idea 
tion as to a befitting Close Season, or that all rivers are alike in this parti- 
period of time during which capture cular, placed them, as to their seasons. 
qf Sainton ought to be illegal, the new in a rrocrustean bed. Nature ana 
statute made our waters more troubled law being at variance, the efiect was 



M Iruh and ScoU Salmon FuKeriet, [ Jl 



that, as regarded certain localities, impartial authority, can hear, weiicfi* 
the law was not observed. In the and decide whether the evidciice mf- 
case of hkte rivers, those which may fices to demand a change. Thoa, Mr. 
be fished later than others without Foley, the respected lessee of the Um^ 
detriment, the instance of the Slaney more weir, reprehends the recent ex- 
was the sorest; for. having been fished tension of the fishing season for the 
by custom up to the 12th November, fine river which feeds his weir up to 
three months' fishing was legally cut the 13th September, and mentiutts 
oif. Extension of the new piscatory that he took thirty-three salmon «■ 
tether was demanded also for the the last night of the season, all of 
Bandon and some other streams. A which were so far advanced towanU 
salmon salesman in London— the best spawning that the Dublin salesouui 
pKMsible authority as to the oompara- afterwatxls told him they had *'cot ^ 
tivevalueofthecommodtty— recentlv white as chalk." Whether it is de- 
gave evidence that many of the fisn sirable to give the few rivers churning 
received from Kerry in the month of variety of season the advantage cf a 
January seemed to have spawned, market at the time others are closed, 
then gone down to the sea in the must remain a question, suWect, how- 
early autumn, and returned to the ever, to these remarks, that thase 
rivers again, as new-nm fish, in the riven$arenotonlvfew,biittbe8maUcsl, 
healthy condition that salmon have and that the uniformity principle haa 
on their first return from the sea. obvious merits. We must, therefore. 
Such were those caught in the Laune, concur in the conclusions of Inspeci- 
which discbarges the waters of tlie ing-Oommissioner Ffennell, that, al- 
KiUamey Lakes into the ocean ; but though there certainly are some early 
the fish taken in the Lakes were dia* rivers, producing a few good fish, 
coloured, and, therefore of lower which fetch a very high price if takea 
value. Our theory, that the existence in January, that to relax the law for 
of a lake near the sea renders its dis- this sake would involve the capture 
charging river an early aqueduct^ is of countless fish in an unwholesome 
warranted l^ the cases in Scotland of condition, being either near spawniag; 
the Ness, and in this country of the or spent 

Carra, the Arra, or Munhim, Curraan, An early close time is the best pro* 
and Laune. vision for abundance. The aivument 
Accordingly, the close times have in favour of Early Closure is enhaaoed 
been made various, agreeably to the by the increased skill and numerous 
exigencies of different rivers, the de* enfnne« now employed to take fish, 
cisions being given by the Fishery which, in a dry summer, do not sed^ 
Bomrd on the evidence with respect to for several months— as June, July, 
fish entering early in some rivers and and August— to ascend the stream at 
late in others^ and these by-laws are all, but hang in the tideway, wl if 
reviewed penoilically, in order that taken, without leaving enough to 
there shall be no iinurious inalterabi- breed, when the rain comes, the uum- 
Uty on the part of the law, but an ber that remain are insufficient to 
elastic power of revision, according to sustain the stock. For this rMson, 
the better experience and Judgment the same experienced witnesa re- 
of the interested parties. Each deci- commends that fishing by nets be 
sion continnes for three years, and can prohibited between the 12th of An- 
then be rescinded, and another regu- ((ustand the Istof February ; obserr. 
lation made. In the case of the Foyle. mg, further, that the 1 8th of August 
the piscary being a*' several fishery,*^ prevailed, under the enactments of 
or private propert3^ the lessees may native Pariiaments^ as the commence- 
reasonably control decision as to the ment of the dnsc time ; and how re- 
profitable seasoa Although the law markable it is to find that motX people 
allows fishing to begin on the 1st Feb- concerned in the fisheries are cnming 
ruary, thev do not get any thing worth back to early closing, and that many 
taking till the middle of June, and of them advocate tlie very day that 
they wish to prolong the present sea- the old statutes fixed, thus recognising 
son throughout August Here, should **the wimlom of our ancestors?' 
^U error be made, one party only can The opinion of the Inspecting God- 
*^ured; but where many interests missioner, that ''it requires a large 
^ aflUBded, the Board, as an stock of salmon to atock a rirer 



1861.] Irith and Scats Salmon Fisfieries. 03 

amplv," is inoantrovertible, from the which are impartial, as we have no 
broad fact, hitherto unnoticed, that interest in any piscary, an early date 
however extraordinary may be this should be named in August as that 
fish's fecundity, it has, so far from for uniform closure; the period should 
replenishing any stream largely, only be five or six months ; and in any cases 
preserved the quantities taien in where the party principally interested 
nearly each river at an average rate, in a river gave good reason for fishing 
No question that protection will, in it for a short time later, a period equu 
individual caaes, increase the take to the extension shoula be taken from 
considerably, yet the augmentation the date of opening. 
beaiB small proportion to the prolific The Twend presents the most no- 
powers of the fish : and, therefore, torious instance of the ill effects of 
reasons must be sought why this fecun- beginning too soon. But the fact that 
dity becomes neutralised by circnm- the 14th of September is too late to 
stances, which are in part explained continue fishing up to, is now acknow- 
by the Inspecting Commissioner, who ledged almost universally throughout 
jusUv observes, that though people Scotland. In several cases the pro- 
apeaJc of the many thousands of eggs prietors have practically repealed the 
— something like 11,000 to 17,000 — law: the Dn&es of Richmond and 
in a large female salmon, there is, Sutherland, and Mrs. Mackenzie, of 
after the act of spawninc, great waste; Seaforth, have gone back to 90th, and 
and, as he fairly concludes, one reason even 1st August, with the best effect : 
why this fiah is provided with such a and the Tay proprietors have agreea 

?uantity of ova is to meet this waste, to eo bcusk to the 26th August The 
n the first place, he has remarked, 15tn, 12th, and 10th of this month 
much of the ova is not impregnated ; have been voluntarily adopted by 
another large proportion is lost, the other parties ; and as the importance 
fish failing to cover in the gravel, of early closure was much pressed on 
when the ova are carried away by the the Lords* Committee, they recom- 
current. Again, such of the ova as mend that the annual close time be 
germinates, like a braird of com, is from the 20th of August until the Ist 
attractive to trout and wild ducks, Februarv, and that rod fishing con- 
which feed anmienselv upon it So tinue till the 15th October: but that 
many accidents befall the fry while no salmon besold after 1st September, 
moving through flood and field, in Strangely enough, the question 
their descent to the sea, and they whether the weekly close time should 
meet so much voracity there— a pro- be observed by the owners of stake 
miein^ progeny of 10.000 is perhaps and bag nets in Scotland is a vexed 
sometimes decimated, and re-deci- one; though the "Sunday slap-by'' 
mated almost to extermination. has been religtously enforced there. 
With regard to the present annual for centuries, on dam weirs, ana 
Close Time in Scotland, most of the though it is observe bv nets in Ire- 
witnesses concurred in advising that land. Surely the bag of a Scotch net 
it should begin sooner. One of the can as easily bo rendered inoperative 
^esmen recently examined reason- as that of an Irish one) The Lords' 
ably ascribes the falling oflf to fishing Committee, however, accepting the 
too late — **a great error,'* and "at the objection that foul weather sometimes 
root of the scarcity." In that conn- causes difileulty, propose that either 
try, as in our own, cupidity caused fixed nets observe tne weekly close 
the fence time, as originally fixed by time, or be wholly removed on the 
law, to be commenced later from age 20th July for the yearly one. 
to ago, with consequent iigurious re- The principal objects of the Com- 
sults. At first the law prescribed mittee were to obtain evidence — 1st, 
from the 15th Au^st to tne 30th of against and in favour of fixed engines; 
November, of which the former date 2nd, as to the dose season ; 3rd, to 
is highly j udicioiis, but the latter the notice the working of the Irish Fishery 
very contrary. Subsequently, the dose Ac to, with the view of seeing how far 
time was from the 26th August to the their provisions are applicable to the 
30th of November; which was changed Scoto fishery, 
by Home Drummond's Act in 1829, Much testimony was given attri- 
and fixed from the 14th September to buting decline to tne use of fixed nets, 
the Ist Februaiy. In our minds, From the evidence taken before the 



94 



Irish and Scots Salmon Fisheries, 



[Jan. 



Committee on the Tweed Fisheries 
Bills in 1857 and 1859, and from their 
reports, it appears that there was a 
very large diminution iii the tftke of 
salmon in that river.between 1808 and 
1856 ; that ih the former year the es- 
timated nutxiber of salmon taken was 
37,333, while in the latter it had 
fallen off to 4,885. The Committees 
were satisfied that fixed nets and 
engines turere among the causes which 
Jed to the decline of the fisheries^ 
they therefore approved of their abo- 
lition. . 

The Tay has not sutfered so much 
as the Tweed It^ rental has varied 
from, in 1828. ^1^674 to, in 1838, 
;£10,285, in 1848. -612,057, and in 
1858, £11,487. Ail Aberdeen wit- 
ness, who has managed salmon-fish- 
ings for half h bentury, ascribes the 
diminution of the fish in weight to 
the new extradrdinary mode of cap- 
turing them in ihe second year of 
their growth. No " big fish,'* of from 
45 to 50 lbs. weight are now seen, 
and the old average of ten per cent^ 
from 15 lbs. to 24 lbs. i^ reduced 
The falling off in the Aberdeen rivers, 
the Dee and Don, is mainly attributed 
by him to the use of fixed nets, and 
is shown by these statistics : 





BECENNIAt GOBiPARISON. 




Number of 








Teftf. 


Boxes of 

112 lbs. 

each. 


Ytta. 




Borefl of 
Salmon. 


1834 


- 30,650 


1850 


M 


13,940 


1835 


- 42,330 


1851 


- 


11,593 


1836 


- 24,570 


1852 


• 


13,044 


1837 


- 32,800 


1853 


> 


19,485 


1638 


- 21,400 


1654 


■* 


23,194 


1639 


- 16,340 


1855 


- 


18,197 


1840 


- 15,160 


]856 


. 


15,438 


1842 


- 89,417 


J 867 


• 


18,654 


1843 


- 30,300 


1858 


- 


21,564 


1844 


- 28,176 


1859 




15,823 




280,645 


166,932 




186,932 










113,713 






Fnlling off. 









We can recall the time when Irish 
rivers were tar more productive than 
at present, and when some canny 
fishers fl*om the Scottish shore, 
which the^ had fringed with fixed nets, 
and BO had cleared out the rivers, 
used to boast that it would take them 
"^uch less time to empty our streams, 
ihe late evidence, it is declared 
the tojrth boast of Sutherland- 



shire was entirely stripped of tsatmoti 
in five year^ and that the number 
taken yearly having diminished from 
42,000 to 1,300, His Grace of Suther- 
land had to let liis rivers reihain ttn- 
fished. The Committee, after ^ving 
their best consideration to the evi- 
dence, report that, with a vieiv to 
the improvement of the salmon fii^h- 
eries in Scotlajid, aU cruives and 
fixed engines, of whatever kind, both 
in the rivers and the sea, dhonld be 
abolished ; and at all events, no he^ 
fixed en^es, of any description, 
should be permitted to be erected. 
If, however, it should not at>pear 

gracScable to enforce such & cotnpre- 
ensive provision, the Coniinittee 
would recommena— Firstly, the ap- 
pointment of a regulating bdiut]. 
Secondly, election of district donser- 
vators by the proprietors, with powers 
of assessment, for paying water<l3ai- 
liffs, &c. Thirdly, all stake and bag 
nets, and all other fixed eiigines, 
other than cruived already existing, 
shall be decbred illegal in rivers and 
estuaries, and their use prohibited 
within such distance of the moilih of 
every river as the board may deem 
proper. Fourthly, that the month, 
not already defined by law, be defined 
by the board, with eoltte other im- 
portant recommendations. Unable to 
offer ail opinion whether these pro> 
positions are just and politic, We areL 
at the same time, sumciently versed 
in the craft and mystery of ^iscatoty 
controversy to foresee that a bill 
based upon them is sure to enoounte^ 
Strenuous opposition. 

One curious quarrel, the case of 
Salmon ifersueSeal^Forpoised: Co. is 
specially in proof that dimring padies 
view fishes through tiie ni^um of 
their different intet^st— upper fisher- 
men pei-cteivitig clearly that the for- 
met nish are assisted by fixed net« in 

greying on the latter, whUe lower 
Bhers, the owners of these engines, 
cannot see this fact at ^ Pnor to 
the Bill of 1842, this plausible argu- 
ment was propounded : " These nete 
wUi dve to man's use salmoh that 
\^oUld otherwise fiill a prey t6 seals^ 
porpoises, and grampuses ; ahd the 
measure was promoted by this speci- 
ous notion. But there has since Seen 
iBvidettce without end that the real 
effect of these fiitures is to facilitate 
the destruction of salinon W thieir 
Oily enemi^ one b£ which, t£d seat, 



1861.] Irish and ScoU JSaimon Fuheriei. 95 

eatfl^ aecording to the proyerb, seven the seals and thingfs of that kind. I be- 
salmon per diem. Ab to this destruc- iJeve that they have tended to cause 
tire effect of fixed nets, viz., the faci- ™"ch more Bfllmori to be devoured bt 



rr *» . •IT. V Z ai nrsi ine seais wiu oreaK into it, out 

stoong BWimmert m the open sea, but after a bit, being very sagaeious animais, 

tbat, when one of the latter, chased they will lurk about it ; and in calm, 

along, oomed ^inst a bag-net, it fine weather, the fish coming into the 

is checked and snapped up by its liyen and estuaries, are frightened ; the 

voracious pursuer. Ofb^oi tnese nets seals plunge into them, and they are 

are burst through in hot water* driven into the sea, and a great many 

hunte, when a leash of porpoises fall a prey to the seals. We have many 

are making a rush, like sea-hounds, establlshmfents thit I have watched my- 

after a sh5al of salmon; and more tf/'flTh Knw ^Jf;:?!^^ 

A#^^. .4411 fi,»»<^ ^\A «««i « <.a1u««.*> *"® "^^' Now, there is the case of the 

often still, some old aea^ a sohtarf ri^, gi^ney. which is the worst in Ire. 

foUow« df sea sports, naunting a fand in ite circumstances, and the least 

particnlar bag-net, comes stealthily, improving. There are a parcel of bag- 

and seeidg a ssLldlon in the ba^ uets ctowded about the mouth, that are 

breaks in and robs the human fisher, istill outside the mile. It is not at all 

Eye-witnesses oi these piscatory pec^ uncommon in tbat river that the owner 

cadiUoea describe the rude operations of those bag-neta will not set them in 

vividly. It seems that some choice fine weathet for three weeks toget1ier< 

p W for a bag.net on the Scottish ^.^LrX ^J^r^r:^^^^" 

^ are sitoated in the favounte jje wiU wait tiU a storm It swUl gets 

hunting ^wrters of those finny de- ^p ^nd consequently his property la 

vourers, which Inay be seen, particu- the fishing is diminished, as well as ihe 

larly near the mouth of the Tay, river fishings.*' 
tumbling and disporting in seotes, 

waiting tor the salmon tnat are sent As we haire premised, the questioil 
out to sea <^ the shallows by striking of distributing the fish to the various 
the net To judge by word<>f*moutn Interests by jtist regulation of modes 
pictures of these chases, a pack of of capture, is the ^prand difficulty. 
porpoises attack a shoal of salmon as since obviously, if a nvet were owned 
wolves do a flock of sheep^ while that bv one man only, he would have only 
lone cmisei-, the seal, lies like a piiatie himself to satis^. 
schooner, off the month of a river, to The advantage of privacy, ad re- 
pick up its t>rey. Mr. Fole;^ had his specte this piscatorv property, is not- 
opmion, that fixed nets are ii^nriona ably evidenbed in tne case of a streani 
in scaring the fish at first from the rented by Lord Plunket from the 
river, confirmed by the following ob*- Marquis of Sligo, which his lordship 
servations : — has improved wonderfully, cultivating 

•*I moored,** he 8av«, "aboatotera it as if it were a farm, forming an 

bag'Bet; it was a calm day, and I lay artificial spawnlng-bed a quarter of a 

there perfectly stiU. I saw a laiige shoal mile long, and causing the brood-fish 

of fish come compact together, led by to be carefully protected, so that, be- 

one or two small iish ; the water was so gj^es the sport he and his friends 

^ y*if i^"^^ distinctly see them ; ^1,^^ ^ angling, he yearly sells se- 

Aey felt f^^ir 1^*7' "f^ wh^^ veral hundred p6unds worth of fish. 

rw^^^^T^Ui^VeS^^^^^^ But where the^e. are fifty interests 

fish were mbrte scAttfered, and ultimately along one stream, each fishermaii is 

four or five of them got bto the bag-net, antagonistic td the other, and the 

and boe of them hiving got foul in the chtlnce of each is generally dependent 

net, soared the othbrs outside ; they on his neartaess to the first approach 

to6k alarm Immediately, and went off of the fish, 
seaward.** Whatever the interests concerned, 

On this telling question, the follow^ and wherever salmon are causht, the 

ing paragraph is the evidence of In- sources of a river are manifestly those 

specting Commissioner Ffennell : — of i)roduction and profit, the area of 

" Thfere was a gteat deal toid in Ire- the catchment-ba^in, and the amount 

land abodt the effect of suike- weirs and of rain-fall; in ihch^ year!)', of a river, 

bag-nets being to rescae saUnon firom usually form the test of its )p6^tist 



96 Irish and Scots Salmon Fisheries. [Jan. 

as a salmon producer. Yet this is no quainted, and who rents a river running 

sure criterion, since there must be into the Iieail of a loch, thought it would 

suitable spawning places, clear water, ^ possible, by an artificial sj^te, to in- 

and a current A rapid-flowing, moun- duceanysalmonwhich might be waiting 

tain river is the natural habitat of the ^^^ a natural one. to wcend his nyer. 

1 w «ixo ix»i,i*xi«i«»w*u€»»vx i/uc Accordingly, he had a dam constrncted 

salmon ; a fish that will spawn only ^^oss it, so as to head back a consider- 

in a shmgly bed, where there is a able quantity of water. Some weeks of 

mixture of sharp, coarse gravel and dry weather endued, during which his 

small stones; and in running water, fishing was at* a stand-still; and the 

it being essential that the water be neighbouring farmers took advantage of 

not deep but pure and aerated. The the pool thus formed, for the purpose of 

attraction of fresh water is greater in washing their sheep. At length his pa. 

summer to this swimmer in streams tience became exhausted, and, a number 

than that of sea-water to human ba- ?^ ~^°}?JJ *»*^°? congregated at the 

thers. It would seem that a "spate," Jf^''^^^^.^^'^,'*'^^***® "''"''? ff 

ttr x. Ti ^'^l iM Z • °H"»^> his dam to be raised, and down rushed 

or fresh, or slight flood in a brack- his spate. Instead, however, of the sal- 
ish nyer pleases the fish s cuticular mon taking advantage of it to ascend to 
sensibuity, when up she runs to eigoy him, they, disgusted at the foulness of 
the coolnessofdeep pools in the moun- the water, turned tail, and retreated 
tidn glens. The months of August hefore it ; the proof being, that on that 
and September bring salmon in quan- night a large number were caught in 
titles from the briny sea, to enjoy life t'>e accursed bag-nete, which were wait- 
under romantic cascades, where they J"? ^ receiTe thena a couple of miles 

findshower-bathssuchasonlyawater- ^^!^' *"^ r}\^ ^' ^T%?^,"r«r?. 

nymph's nerves could endui^. previously, yielded comparatively httle. 

The opportunities salmon select for xhat objurgatory acUective, applied 

running up a river appear to vary to bag-nete, proves the writer a tho^ 

according to the amount of water and j-ough water-sporteman, by whom a 

Its quality. When the fresh water m ^et is held in as much horror as a 

the tideway is so si^nt that the nver Piaster of fox-hounds regards a trap, 

IS salt, they collect in the channel, because it kills without sport 

waitmg for such a '/fresh as suits with respect to the efl-ecte of spates 

them. They "hangm the tideway," ^nd floods, the above story leads to 

moving up and down, according to the conclusion that the operation of 

the state of the water : a spate causmar (drainage which has of late years been 

them to run up, and a turbid flood carried on extensively in Ireland and 

driving them back to sea, for they Scotland, has much affected this mat- 

cannot abide muddy water. When ter of salmon. Now, all the rain that 

at the mouth of a nver, and a flood foUg into the catchment-basin of a 

comes down, they will not face it, ^ver, flows through drains at once 

but swim away, because their delicate j^to the river, whidi is swelled enor- 

gills do not bear to let foul water pass mously, but sinks as suddenly. Seve- 

thrpughthenL Hence they mostly re- ^^1 ills result: a mountoin-stream is 

mam in the broad water, and do not turned into what, in Scotland, is 

a8(»nd till the dry times of summer termed a "riotous river :" a torrent 

and autumn, when the upper streams ^y^i^^^ ^^^^ng such a flood, tears away 

are pure and clear. ^he gravelly beds in which the ova 

The author of a Kossipping little ^re deposited, and brings an excessive 

book on fishing, just published,* men- quantil^r of gravel over others, and, 

tions that, if salmon axe detained for j^ some cases, even changes ite course 

a lengthened period inbrackishwater, through ^^le strathTor vaUeys. 

waiting for a spate, thejr sometimes Nor w this aU the evil The water 

become bhnd ; and he gives the fol- ^g j^^^ ^o strong and red for salmon : 

lowing account of the ill-success at- ^he river is a slhorter time in a fit 

tending an endeavour to brmg salmon ^tate for fish running up; and the 

up stream . gravel banks or fords sooner become 

** A gentleman with whom I am ac- dry and impassable; therefore, now- 

* * * Stray Notes on Fishing and Natural Histonr,*' by Cornwall Simeon. London, 
1860. A pleasing little volume* if alone for the author's appreciation of Isaac 
Walton. 



1S6X.] Irish and SeoU JSalman Fisheries, . 97 

a-daysy riven may be said to be too faetoriea impregnated with deleterious 
short a time in a runable state, matter, are proofs of civilization, but 
Though Bfr. Smith, of Deanston, the death to this deHcate fish, whose 
principal inventor of the grand a^- disap^pearance in the Thames, which, 
cultural improvement, drainage, in< certainly, is not owing to the use of 
jured our sensitive friend, the salmon^ fixed nets, is ascribed to the turbid 
in one way, this ^eat man served them and foul state of the water ; and the 
in another, by his ingenious invention growing commerce of Aberdeen, her 
of the now well-known Salmon Lad- factories, and steam vessels, have gone 
der, a sort of stone steps, built against far in banishinjjffish from the Dee. 
a river dani, and up which these ao- In short, the fishery of manv a river 
tive and lithesome fishes perform in the Three Kingdoms has been ex- 
" such a gettin' up stairs,'" as is re- tinguished by a hundred civilized 
joiceful to see. Millers are not opposed wajrs of making water dirty. When 
to this useful contrivance, for it can mines discharge their waters into a 
be adopted without imury to the river, the fish run away, as in the 
milling power ; and the 1[x>rds' Com* case of the Avoca, where copper has 
mittee, fully /appreciating it, re- put silver salmon to flight. During 
commend that it oe erected where the last month, steps were taken by 
there are natural as well as artificial the conservators of the Slaney topre- 
obstaclea in a stream. In many rivers vent iinury threatened to its natural 
there are large beds of rocks, which wealth by the effect of opening lead 
the fish have difficulty in ascending, mines in Loughnaculliagn, the lofty 
It seems that a waterfall, pictu- Wicklow mountain whence this beau- 
resque in the eyes of man, is a nui- tiful stream descends, 
sance in those of salmon ^ and there Art is now attempting to supply 
IB no doubt that these ammals would further means that may sustain the 
be benefited by blasting the rock, breed of salmo salar sufficienthr to 
so as to let them pass easily up. Mr. compensate for the invention of the 
Cooper, however, has applied the artfm contrivances which vie in de- 
fish-ladder to this purpose, to a fall stroying it The breeding ponds form- 
of some twenty-five feet at the en- ed in the Tay are considered valuable, 
trance of the Ballisodarc into its es- as insuring care of ova and fry. In 
tuary, and with such good effect as France, where the demand for fish is 
to have stocked some upper streams great, much has been attempted in 
with salmon, where tnis fish had the way of fresh-fish cultivation. The 
never been seen before. A design objects proposed to be accomplished 
and account of the " Fish Passage," there by means of the science of pisci- 
at this spot, Collooney, is given, with culture are considerable, viz. : to re- 
the following notes, entered by Lord fill the rivers with fish, to apply arti- 
EnniskHlen m the inspector's book : ficial means of fecundation to the sea- 
" Dec. 9. Vitited Cottooney ladder, coast fish, and to augment and orga- 
and Mw immcnae quaotitiea of fl«h ran* nize the cultivation of oysters aroimd 
Ding up. Fre^^uently saw four fish at the coast. 

the upper step jumping together. 10th. The following remarks on the state 

Not nearly so many moving to-do/: of pisciculture, both in fresh and sea 

countc^ at upper step 1 9 in five minutes, ^^ter, in the departments of La Ven- 

Thmed off the water and put up 26^^ d^e and Oharente Inf^rieure, are 

^'ie^^nrelnru^'es^"^^^^ tf^ "iZl^^Tr^^X^^^^^ 
water: the pondactuaUvaUvewithflsh. ^ ^^«^^» of 26th July, 1869 : 
in general larger and fresher from the <« Recent experiments of some natural- 
tea than those of yesterday. Put up 246 ists in fresh-water flsh cultivation have 
fish and then stopped, at the fish in the raised the question of pisciculture to the 
pond were getting sick. I am confident ruik of a science, not a mere speculative 
that we did not take half the number one» bristling with vague words, but ab- 
out, and that we left fh)m 300 to 400 in solute, and easy of application, its se- 
the pond.** crets being open to the lowest under* 

uiemcreased use of artificial manures, ^^^^ ^ the ^^l ^f flQing the inland 

hasmadesalmonyield to themterests ttreams and other watersof this fine coun- 

of sheep and cattle. Strong chemical try with fiesh-water fish, such as trout 

stviures, guano, and water nom manu- and carp, and the work hat been crowned 
Toi* Lvn.— KG. oooxxxvii. 7 



98 • IriA and 8eoU Sallm(m FiAeriei. [< 



with more or leM sucoets; Imt it wasre- was present when an upper 

■enred for M. Bene OailUmd to ezperi- who was netting tlie poole, ta thr 

ment on frucUfying French riyeri un- month of April, caoeed every ' ' 

frequented by ealmon. with thu • yeni- galmon taken to be Idiled, 



wn of the ^•{^•J •";! to «pw^^ obeeryed he, the bag-net took aU i 
riS"o/»ea?'S,m^^^^ could, and wcmldo'yybeb^bhalW 



Since the year 1862, there has been es- Jf^ng ^ *^« »™ ^f jV. ^ 

Ubliihed, at Su^on, under the direction thoee above it, and so starved oat. 

of M. Cailhind, a hatching apparatus This is no singular atate of thln^mb* 

for the ova of trout and saln^m. The proverb, qui a terre. a guerre^ base 

effort succeeded A merveilU, and every true of water as well as of land pc*» 

year since, hundreds of young and in- perty ; and it seems that ptopriiKmv 

teresting flnnv pimils, successively on some Scottish rivers qnaircl, light, 

brought into the world of waters, pro- ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ damage the ftahcsT 

^"^i^^f^^^^^^^J^i^l^: to vex one anotheiTtha* the fiah kA 

dee. In some of these rivers, tne scaly ^^„i j i,--j|„ ,,._ Jl^ i««r»«/. ^ 

ImmlgrantsBeemtohayebeenpronouDcea Would hardly pay the ^^J'J^. 

alieniby the ancient habitants, pikes i^^"*!* ***?» "*l!r^*®^iSt 1^ 

and eels, who waged so fierce a war on puted oyster is acted out, witb lli^ 

the new-comers, that they disappeared difference that there are no ahella 

ftfom these inhospluble scenes. But in left for the disputants. If, aa is pM- 

others, the new little fishes, deposited in tive, some Soots Uurds are of opiai^iu 

the month of April* I8d8» in a limpid, with their representative in *^BM 

runnmg brook, pre^nted next year an Gauntlet," that laws in favour of ftx^d 

increiued growth of six or seven times ^eta, " would make the upper beriton 

i^!f.^JJ\hIlTH; hL^mlJ^ » wrt of clucking hens, tThatch a# 

ffi '^^orl^nt^^":^::^ ^Jor people lehTto a^^ 

cessfUl; and some scoffing wits, who eat," it is likely some Irish squirea ai* 

permitted themseWes to Uu^, axe look- equally averse to act as incubatiw* 

mg forward to eat. The dominion of lor other men's profit GoMidemc 

the salmon, or rather his entrance into salmon a river-fiiBh, since an Ql^t 

new demesnes of man, has been enlarged, river is its mother stream, or, takmc 

and the rod wiU flourish over streams as a more practical view, seeing that up> 

yet unwhipped. Care would haje been per proprietors have the power, by Ihe 

tetoi to supply sauce meet for the neglect they show, to dimlniah pi^ 

fi^%^x\^ "^?? if *^^?7-^- ** T^ duction, or on the other hand, b/tJt^ 

that the lobster, which should indissolu- " . , <Y ;.. 1 7«t .wn i.^Tr..r7? ■ ■■ , 

bly be served up with every slice of the 9^ ^**7 bestow, to increa^ "'TTTt 

other, has prorVd an Intracuble being, ]««* ^d reaMmable eonoessioQ shool.l 

a vagabond, whom hardly the pot spe- oe made them m the matter of lotUac 

daUy made for him wiU hold, that is to enouffh fish up to sadafy amalMir 

say, a wicker lobster pot, not the iron wielders of the rod and line, 

vessel in which he turns fhmi blue to One witness, the aooompliahedcdHiw 

red. PTQTided with tong legs, claws, of the ^*<;oUma9i, mentions that>thoiurh 

and a strong taU, ho ctocts and darts by bw the upper proprietors on tfe# 

^^ ^V^^^ifJrX ^A ^U* '^^ ^ enVtled to use rod and line 

:S^CrS^y'':i:^j^Si^^^ for ^o weeks aner the do« or the 

where this amiable animal reposes in J®^ fislilng, the lower hCTitnia of 

conthiual content, even exempt, as some *«roa to let them angle the wbo«? 

suppose^ from the univeml passion of year round, because so venr analJ a 

love.** proportion of fish ia kiiled hf this 

puny meana; and, he added that* 

Let us revert to the Irish and Soot- when writing an artide for the JS^««* 

tish salmon question. imrah MtvinPy about twelve years 

The mode of taking salmon by fixed back, he obUuned returns from most 

nets tends rapidly to extirnato the stations on thia river, of both the uH 

breed in two ways. Pint, it is too and rod fishings, and that these sU- 

effective, it leaves too few fish to tistics showed tne proportion of sal- 

ascend ; and so disgusts the upper mon killed bv the rod to be only «m« 

proprietors, that thev will not attend to two hunm-ed killed by neta. No 

to the protection of those few. At disciples of Isaac WiUton ouiwrivea, 

the lime the river Spey was being aave aa admirers of the q>leiidkl atwtt 

scourged with stake-nets, one of the of salmon fiahinf with rod and lin^ 

witnsases befitte the lato Committee if we plead for ilm our eoont^^ ilia 



1861.] IriA and Scots Salnion FUheries, 9d 

that this attraction to reside here may ficiently to let peel, or grilse, go up to 

be presenred and improved. spawn, and another way would be to 

Some of the Scottish witnesses are stop this net early enough ; but the 

in favour of establishing a Board, or former course is indubitably the pre- 

oommission, in their country, invested ferable one. 

with powers such as have enabled the 3. The public interest, or fisher- 
Irish Board to do valuable service to men with the seine, should be re- 
our fisheries. There would be no dif- spected : but it is desirable to confine 
ficulty in assessing fishery proprietors it to a snort period, and to, of course, 
in that country^ and it is probable the most profitable one. 
that the majority are alive to the 4. The mterest of owners of dam- 
justice of a general tax for protective weirs is an old one; yet, as this 
purposes. Although the authority of mode of cimture does not take the 
a Board is not nearly so necessary fish in the n^hest condition, and is 
there as here, because public right wholesale, it is highly desirable that 
does not exist to clash with private; the hecks, or bars, shall allow free 
it certainly could be advantageously passage to peel, 
devolved on the proprietors them- 6. S'etting for salmon in fresh 
selves, so as to empower them to go- water is rarely practised in this coun- 
vem their own piscatory affairs, with- try ; and, were it prohibited, proprie- 
out coniing before Parliament in such tors would probably gain as mucn by 
a Question as altering a dose time. rod and line, whde benefit would 

what seems to us most wanting in accrue to the angling interest. 
the two countries, is, Istly, early 6. Regarding rod fishing as assist- 

closore of the fishing season ; 2ndly, ing to sustain the value of the com- 

care or protection of the breeding mercial, or really valuable, portion of 

fish : 3rdiy, the use of such a mesh these fisheries, it seems desirable that 

by fixed nets as shall only take full the interest of the sportsman fisher 

grown fish ; and, 4thly, extensive should be consulted by letting peel 

apjdication of the salmon ladder. up in plenty, and that it should not 

Having reviewed the report and only be enough to induce attention to 

evidence of the Lords Committee on protection of the spawning beds, but 

Salmon Fishings in Scotland, which that he should be allowed to fish up 

induded the testimony of several to the spawning time, in order to 

witnesses with respect to those in c&Tiy his care into that period, 
this country, we may, perhaps, be Having now noticed the six modes 

permitted to offer some suggestions of capture, we venture to suggest that 

ror the amendment of these latter. each mode might be limited to a 

There are usually six modes of tak- special time, because the difference of 

ing salmon in every large river. 1. situation, in each case, seems to point 

The bag-net, outside the mouth 2. out the propriety of a different period. 

The stake-net, in the estuary. 3. The Thus, rag-nets, which seldom take 

seine-nej^ in the tideway. 4. The spent fish, and should unouestionably 

dam- weir, or cruive, above the fiow begin early, might dose nrst ; stake- 

of the tideway. 5. The sweep-net, nets next, and stop next: seines, or 

in the fresh water. 6. Rod ana line, moving nets, later, and dose later ; 

1. If the interest of those who eat cruives, also later ; while fiy-fishing 
salmon should bo most consulted, the should not be permitted when there 
bag-net is the preferable mode of are spents in a stream, and should 
taking tluB fish, because it is in best continue the longest This suggestion 
condition in the sea. ma^ be concluded by another, on the 

2. The stake-net interest must be difficult subject of the most befitting 
attended to, as a matter of justice, fishing seasoiL Although the pro- 
Yet, since the entire question, in a fitable season of a few small rivers 
large pubUc and private river, is one may vary slightly from the general 
of fair distribution of the fish, the season of the minority of large ones, 
extreme efficiency of this engine may we conceive that experienced and im- 
require restriction. Under certain partialauthorities will admit that the 
circumstances, it exhausts the stock really profitable months are May, 
by over-capture ; an evil remediable June, and July; and we think the 
in several ways, of which the best same party would be of opinion that 
seems to be to enlarge the mesh suf- the nearer the open season was con- 

7« 



100 Iruik aiid Scots JSoUmoti FuJieriei, [J. 



fined to theee three monthfl, the more pen, basots, or spent fish. Ob iii«»y 

profitable it would become to all parts of the coast there is no €iti««T 

parties. effectual mode of fishing. Salmoti ar- 

Our theory may not please practi- frightened away more easily by a 

tioners, who not only kill the goose sweep-net, or moving object, than l*j 

for its golden eggs, but take the a stationary one. Some rirfsv atc 

mass of salmon so young, that this liable to heavy floods, which dri^ « 

practice kills goslings before they can the fish into the sea, and thcnfur*- 

lay eggs. The case of the Tweed is these rivers are adapted to snkHdi* -r^ 

the worst, as proving the eventual fishing with the bag-net Soch mr*- 

loss sustained by wholesale capture of advantages of this engine, the tut < -t 

peel or grilse ; which is like killing which fishe» some coasts extreibe \y 

all lambs or calves, though their closely, particularly in Scotland, wLt^ 

keep would cost nothing. Early the weekly close time is not owerffti 

closure also, however disliked by les- Its disadvantages are, first an^l ttjt* - 

sees, is indispensable for several most — that its success creates asi 

reasons, particularly to insure what mosity in the upper parts of rirtrrm. 

the initiated are agreed on— early among the veiv people on whom ttr*- 

spawning, which, say they truly, is tection of the breeding fish devoiTcas 

sure spawning. Professor Quekett, a and who, if hostile, can go far to dcfc i: 

practical fisherman, and student of the law, and the care given by WMtrr 

the natural history of salmon, declared bailiffs. By impeding the oooivr of 

in his evidence that he considered the the salmon along shaUow wwLter^ 

best protection would be to enlarge where it runs to escape ^m Lur^ 

the mesh of nets, so as to let grilse fish of prejr, the bag-net makes xhk* 

up to spawn. At present the young fish an easier booty to them. Yt-t. 

fish are killed when five or six pounds although much may be utj^ af&in«t 

weight, and before they have propa- it, the general public are indttbtOkh'v 

gatml their species. interested in the continuance of it* 

We approach with some diffidence reasonable use, since the facts are »z.- 

the question of the preferable mode controvertible, that the sea and xh* 

of tJcing salmon; and premising that lower parts of rivers produce th< 

we consider the stake-net more ob- finest salmon, and that the looccr 

jectionable than its rival, the bag-not, this fish stays in fresh water, xL^ 

we recount the advantages and disad- more it deteriorates. Therefore, p>> 

vantages of the use of tnls latter en- far as the commercial iroportaooe «Y 

gine, which may be succinctly stated the fishings is concenied, it is dcair- 

thus : — ^This contrivance, stretched able that the latvest quantity of mU- 

from a beach into the sea, does the mon should be taken off the coast, and 

work that would require several in estuaries ; and while facility oujrht 

boats and crews, with long sweep- to be given to this fish to asoeiKt 

nets, for raking the throat of the rivers when instinct impels them, it 

river. It provides a more regular sup- would not be for the public advaa- 

ply of saunon, and that, too, in finer tage to limit capture in the sea too 

condition than is afforded by river narrowly, 
fishing, and seldom takes kelts, kip- 



1661.] Notei on New Booh. 101 



NOTES ON NIEW BOOKS. 



m BOVTAVD DOUOLAt* TASATIIB Olf MATAL tfUNlTCRT.— OR. WHAmTOIf't DmODOCTORT ASOHB88, 
l<KDWlCa SCHOOL OF mDIGIITB. — WHITX'S AIJ. ROUITD TBB WRmUlT. — SALSfON VISHINO IN CAMADA. 
— O'BDLUVAJI'b OUNBOT, AXD OTBSR POBM8.— quids TO THB CITIL SXRVXCB.— CAMKLL'B IUUUB- 
TRATSD rAMILY BIBLK. 

Thx fifth edition of this standard precise, then, the Armstrong guns and 

treatise* appears very opportunely, ammunition have failed in the fol- 

The discussion relatire to wood or lowing particulars, 

iron as the best material for warships Firstly, the shells — ^made up of 

— ^now BO animated — can only be iron and lead, as they are ; and as we 

brought to a rational issue taken in described them on a former occasion, 

connexion with the powers and spe- — have not been found competent to 

dalties of naval great gun& resist the destructive action of Vol- 

Naval great guru/ And are they taic currents. Observe the end of an 

not identical with military great iron paling — lead imbedded—at the 

guns 1 By no means ; though many line where the two metals come into 

statements current would lead the contact After the lapse of sufficient 

public to think so. Poor Mr. Bowlby, time — ^it may be a longer or a shorter 

for example, not long a^o, penning time accordmg to difference of cli- 

his communication to the J'»me« news- matic and otner local influences — 

paner from China, si)oke so eulogisti- after the lapse of sufficient time, the 

caUy of the Armstrong field pieces, iron perishes away bodily; the paling 

that the leading journal appeared becomes corroded through and 

with an editorial article, vaunting through, as though by the stroke 

that, at length, the rifled ordnance of a chiseL This sort of alteration 

Suestion, in all its aspects, had been has taken place in the Armstrong 
efinitively solved : that, inasmuch as shells ; or at least many of them, for- 
rifled twelve-pounder shells had been warded to China. The bond of con- 
found competent to demolish China- nexion between the central iron shell 
men, ergo they would be found com- and the external lead coatine has pe- 
petent to demolish iron ships. No- rished, the lead has become loosened, 
thing could have been more incon- On firing many of these shells over 
sequentidL Firstly, twelve-pounder the heads of British outlying skir- 

Kns — ^whatever their merit — are too mishers, the leaden envelope has spun 

ht for any naval purposes : second- away, to the peril of all those out- 

ly, the Armstrong shells fired against lying. Owing to this result, the va- 

the Chinese, which cut them up so riation between the ranges of these 

cruelly (modified Shrapnell shells as shells has been great, and necessarily : 

they are) would be about the last va- because, distance being a function of 

riety of missiles selected by the artil- momentum, and momentimi a func- 

lerist to find their way through wooden tion of weight, the lighter shell would, 

sides— not to speak of iron. necessarily, describe the shortest tra- 

And here, before p^oine farther, we jectory. 

must state somethmg having refer- If such be the record of perform- 

snce to the Armstrong guns and Arm- -ance of the Armstrong field pieces, 

strong ammunition; something which how small the chance that larger 

the reader may not be prepared for. ordnance on Armstrong's principle — 

Accounts have been receimi by the rana of weight and caubre sufficient 

British Government signalizing the for naval purposes — ^will ever be made 

failure of the Armstrong guns in efficient) It may not be an accept- 

Chiiui in many important respects, able fact to state, in the present tem- 

Now, failure, though a strong ex- per of an English public, but it m a 

pression, is somewhat vague. To be fact, that Armstrong guns above 



* A 7V«a<ite on Naval Gunnery, bu General Sir Hcward Dougla§, Bart,, G, C.B., 
O.CM.C, D.CM, F,R,S. Fifth Edition, revised, with Illustrations. John 
Hurray, Albemarle-street. 1860. 



109 Nuia on Ktw Booht. [Jan. 

the size of twelye-ponnders have, for tioiiB of naval warfisu'e, but not alL 

some time paat, oeen regarded, in Of this opinion, too, appears to be 

professional circles, as a complete Sir Howard Dongbis ; as can be ga- 

lailare. Thus, at Eastbourne, some thered from more than one portion of 

months ago, a nundred-pounder Arm- this book. We must — ^for the time 

strong gun was disablea in thirty-five beins, at least— waive the discussion 

rounds; owing to enlargement of the of the arguments for and against 

touch-hole, and, from the first shot rifled and unrifled naval ordnance, 

to the thuty-fifth fire darted from considered as guns of general utility, 

the breech juncture in so fierce a jet, We are content to assume that hfl^ 

that those who worked the gnn ordnance, if pNOssible on board ship 

paused and consulted with Sir Wm. (possible, that is to say, up to the di- 

Armstrong about the consequences of mensions of ordnance requisite for 

this escape, during the intervals of naval uses), would be advantageous. 

firin£^ This assumption granted, then — of 

The difficulties experienced in ma- what variety are the naval rifled ord- 
nufietcturin^ the larger Armstrong guns nance of our service to be? The 
may bein^rred from the tenor of a French are stated to have armed, or 
statement which lately appeared in to be arming, their navy with rifled 
thei(f(0cAanic«i1fa^a2t72ey and,theau- thirty-two pounder guns, altered 
thority of which we believe to be ir- from old smooth-bore thirty-two 
refragible. l*herein it was stated pounders. Our country is understood 
that out of three 100-iK)under Arm- to have accepted the Armstrong prin- 
strong suns recently tried, two were ciple. If this principle, whatever its 
disablea in the proof. The screw of theoretical worth, be so crude and ill- 
one of them was split througL Out developed as previous remarks seem 
of thirteen forty-pounders no less to prove, then the question is — ^what 
than seven failea to stand the test variety of rifled onmance remains for 
We do not care to deal with the our naval service to adopt 1 
money questions involved — ^the cost For a time past the public voice 
to the country of the Armstrong guns has alternated its gratulations be- 
— ^but if it be true, as our contempo- tween Sir William Armstrong and 
rary avers, that each of these forty- Mr. Whitworth. Now, whatever the 
pounder guns costs the country the issue of the Armstrong gun may be, 
sum of i£450, whether it stands proof we acknowledge it as a most ingenious 
or not, that sum being paid to the weapon : — extremely accurate ; a tri- 
Elswich Compan;|r, the terms of pur- umph of mechani(»l skill. Of the 
chase are not satisfactory. Whitworth guns, having witnessed 

Of the Armstrong guns enough, near one hundred shots fired at a 

They are ingenious weapons, and target a thousand yards distant, and 

their accuracy is great ; but except that target tiever once hity it cannot 

difficulties be overcome which we be said that the Whitworth is an ac- 

never expect to see overcome, Arm- curate gun. Worse still, a Whitworth 

strong guns will never take perma- muzzle-loading field-piece, within the 

nent rank in any part of the British last month, being tried at Woolwich, 

military or naval servica missed a 12-foot square target eight 

Persons conversant with naval de- times out of thirteen ; and as for in- 
siderata of armament for the time genuity, we know of none, save in the 
beinfl, will understand the prominence manner of bringing the invention be- 
Whicn we have given to the Arm* fore the public, and of which there 
strong gun. The Admiralty seem to has been too much. Of the Whit- 
have oome to the conclusion that if worth breech-loading ordnance no 
every spreat -gun of a naval armament more need be said. Abandoned here, 
could DO rifled, aU the better. Now, and finally condemned by the French 
we are by no means so sure of this, naval authorities there seems to be 
Rifled ordnance, however good of an end of it. What then is to be the 
iheir kind, are, from their very prin- rifled great gun of the British servioel 
ciple, deficient in certain functional Sir Ho^^rd Douglas deals with 
qualities which seem to us requisite this question very ffuardedly. If we 
in conducting naval warfare. We underetand him rightly, he would ex- 
fear they must be looked upon as press the belief that the functions of 
special arms ; good for certain condi- rifled ordnance^ of laige calihrei xather 



1661 J Sir Howard DougUuf Trtaim an Naval Gunnery. 108 

suggest their adaptability to the de< for all, that the scheme of iron-mailed 

fence of coast batteries than to the ships, from whatever cause, is des- 

purpose of exclusire ship anoament tined to be abandoned, then probably 

This we conceive to be the gallant guns of much smaller calibre than 

author's deduction; one, it seems to us, authorities now deem necessary, would 

forced upon any unbiassed mind; bv be consider^ larse enough for naval 

testimony, so far as testimony is avail- uses. The naval architect and the 

able ; by theory, so far as theory can naval gun founder, are perplexing each 

1)6 adduced. other with recitals of their mutual 

Whatever the future ordnance of uncertainties. It cannot be helped. 

the navy, whether rifled or unrifled, Fate and progress have willed it so 

breech-loading or muzzle-loading, one to be, and oe it must Wise men re»- 

^uestion apphes equally to both ; and son on the conditions ; unwise men 

It is a most important question, pooh pooh them — ^and other men — ^not 

Whether— all fimctions and purposes wise, indeed, but who, on the autho- 

of a vessel of war considered — ^it is rity of a certain antithetical proverb, 

better that her projectile armament are still no fools— swear by the great 

should be a solid snot or a shell ar- guns made by some particular arms 

mament % company in which they have shares, 

The whole amunent for and against and think they have setUed the ques- 
is beset with difficulties. Theoretically tion of relative merit 
regarded, it does seem rational to as- Apeut from the relative powers of 
sume that— -the problem of demolish- shot and shell, the gallant author be- 
ing wooden edifices being in question stows some solemn words of warning 
— Duming is more prominently sug- on the danger of a fuU shell arma- 
gested than battering. Thus regarded, ment. It was an argument of Paiz- 
shells would seem to be the proper bans, that inasmuch as the powder 
Diissiles to be launched against ships, charge of a shell is boxed up within 
But there are limitations. The as- iron walls, it incurs no danger from 
sumption is latent that ships must be sparks and casual flame — contingen- 
as they are, and shells as they are. oies, that is to say, of battle. But Sir 
If the iron-mailed principle be fully Howard Douglas proves that if a shot 
carried into practice, then it would strike a loaded shell, and splinter 
seem that naval riiells, of present that shell, the charge usually explodes, 
dimensions and powers, would strike There can be no doubt about this; 
harmlessly and split to pieces: where- the evidences are too numerous. Fare- 
as solid snot would enter. Moreover, well, then, to the assumed harmless- 
the conclusion has long since been ness of the presence of loaded shells 
arrived at that naval shells, as they on shipboarcL These remarks do not 
are, avail little against stone defences, apply to shells with concussion or 
Bat if shells could bo made big enough, percussion fuses ; such as Moorsom's 
or rather if, when made, they could and Armstrong's: but to shells either 
be fired, then, shells, doubtless, must with time fuses, or, more simply still, 
be conned as more potent than solid shells plugged and not yet fused. 
shot for everv variety of purpose. Concussion and percussion shells are 
Can this be donel luqperience will exposed to dangers all their own; and, 
show, and nothing but experience. many of which, so far as we have 

Allowing the argument as to the seen. Sir Howard Douglas has been 
comparative efiiciency of solid shot the first to indicate. We cannot, for 
and shell to remain undecided, the the time being, at least, particularize 
gallant author sets forth the allega- these dangers. They will be contem- 
tions advanced on either side, fully plated with interest by all and every 
and fairly. This provisional inde- one to whom his country is dear, and 
daion is a necessity ; one imposed on her brave tars objects of solicitude. The 
every oaadid investi^tor of the author sets them forth, and to his va- 
points in dispute, i>rovided he would luable pages we must refer the inauirer. 
avoid being dogmatic. To a very con- To conclude a notice of naval gun- 
■iderable extent, the modifications of nery, without quoting a few lines re- 
naval guns, and the modifications of lative to the iron-mailed ship debate, 
naval architecture, are intimately would be deemed a shortcoming. 
eonnected. If the point could be Sir Howard Douglas, speakmg of 
satiaftfcctorily demonstrated, once and iron-mailed ships says :~^It appears 



104 Notn on New Booki, \3ul 

to the author that there is little to commend to the sympathieB of mor- 
dread from those unwieldy, flat-bot- tal men and women by any eulogy of 
tomedj top-weighted, heayy-roUing ours, their friend the doctor ? 
crait, m the open sea, or on an open Often has the circumstance been 
coast, against well-placed command- noted with regret, that, for medical 
ing coast batteries, strongly armed men, the ostensible prizes of life are bo 
with new lon^-range rifled cannon few; and that the opportunities which 
for distant firing, mixed with the society hajs of awarmng them a meed 
smashing effects at short ranges of of reco^tion so rarely come. Much 
shot or shell from powerful guns of this is inevitable; and much not in- 
which can fire either, and all well evitable is hardly a matter of regret, 
served by skilful artillerists. when temperately reflected upon. It 
"Let us pause in expending millions is inevitable that the whole nexus of 
of money in constructing smp, such sciences, which in their aggregate go 
monsters as the * Warrior and others, to make up the structure of a medim 
till the problem of the efficacy of education, is, and must remain, as the 
metallic defences be fully worked pages of a sealed book to the laity; to 
out. The farther we proceed in that a much more considerable degree tnan 
direction, the more will it be found the nexus of sciences and acquire- 
that iron, whether cast or wrought, is meuts which go to make up the pro- 
the worst material, excepting steel, fessional education of divini^, war, 
that can be used for strengthening or law. The mystic scheme of Chiis- 
either sea or land defences ; and that tian redemption, which is primarily 
it were better to expend the money the function of oivines to set forth to 
in forging, in abundance, the new Ohristians ; the doctrines of theology^ 
engines and bolts of war, than in vain of whatever faith and creed, engroBS— 
attempts to render ships proof against each and all — the attention of society, 
them. Whilst this is going through and are studied by men of all kinds, 
the press, a supplementary pamphlet, whatever their occupation, profession, 
written by Sir Howard Douglas, has or social spheres. Study of moral law 
reached us. Its object is to make concerns mankind no less generally ; 
known certain grave technical inac- inasmuch as even savage races ac- 
curacies which exist in the article on knowledge some moral precepts— men 
Iron-sided ships in the October num- on whom the lights of philosophy 
ber of the Quarterly, We hope to have not dawned; and whom, the 
notice this pamphlet in our next. piu'e spuit of Christianity has not 

reached. Every one again feels with- 

Medical science — using that term in in himself the incentive to study— in 

its largest sense — claims for itself, as all its general aspects^the branches 

it has ever claimed, a niche in the of knowledge upon which the struc- 

sanctuary of human sympathies. From ture of forensic nonours is based ; and 

the first dawn of man's babyhood to the merest student of history cannot 

the last moment of Hfe, the doctor is fail to acquire ideas qualifying him 

either our professional health-minister to imderstand the outlines of stratm : 

or our private friend. He sees us in, that most interesting part of the 

and he sees us' out Master of the science of war. But how difficult is 

ceremonies in our life-long dance, he it for a layman to acquire, in his or- 

does his best to make thin|» pleasant dinary passage through life, the mate- 

for us, and our partners. When each rials sufficing to foster an appreci- 

of us uttered his first baby squeal, ative knowledge, of the science of 

there were but two persons — (ay, medicine, properly so called. He may 

ponder on it !) — but two persons, oe- become a ootanist^ a chemist, an ana- 

yond the circle of our own kith and tonust — ^nay, even a physiologist, 

Idn, who had a word of welcome for (though lay acquisition of the last is 

the noisy little stranger : to wit, the mfficiut and unusuaJ,) and stiU not be 

doctor and the niu-se. And when — a physician. Notliinfr less than assi- 

the dance of Hfe over — death sum- duous study at the sick bed-side can 

mons us away, who then of all not ever make the physician ; and this 

flesh and blood of ours, so bent as he. study is evidently incompatible wi^ 

on making the simunons light, ana the ordinary avocations of mankind, 

shielding us from the cold blasts of the It simply follows then, that the ph]r- 

''''-mpest of dissolution ? Need we sician is often inadequately appreci- 



1861.] Whartan'i Introductory AddreM-'Ledwich School of Medid 106 

ated, and the value of medidne ill un- discorsively enter upon a multiplicity 
derBtood. Hie w<»rld is not so ui^ust of topics — Dr. Wharton has diosen 
as it 18 iffnorant The physician has the philosophy of "progress'' for his 
few Bocifd prizes open to him, because subject ; thus casting aside man^ a 
the world does not quite understand popular blandishment, and confining 
what social prizes would be most in himself wholly to the logic of his 
his way. Ajb we view the case, this single theme, 
latter circumstance has often been Since the day when Celsus wrote 
made too much of. On him, who by " Medicina est ars comecturalis," the 
predilection, becomes a votary of ex- uncertainty of physic has grown into 
perimental science of any kind, ex- something between a standing joke 
perimental science herself lavishes and a standing reproach. Partly in 
ample rewards : not in the shape of jest, vet serious too in part, that die- 
rank or wealth, but in the guise of tum has gone forth on the authority 
pure springs of knowledge revealed, of its Augustan author. It is verv 
and visions of the migesty of creation generally credited that doctors buckle 
thrown open. on their armour^ and go forth to at- 

Thougn the laity are not adequate tack diseases, guided by no fixed prin- 

to understand and criticise the a^gre- ciples of action whatever; opening the 

pite of scientific knowledge which chapter of accidents at random, and 

constitutes medicine^ they are perfect- placidly awaiting whatever issue may 

ly able to tiJce cognisance of^ and ad- result. Dr. Wharton gives the coup 

judicate upon, the merits or systems de grace to this absurd belief, by 

propound^ by a member of the heal- calmly enumerating certain examples 

m^ art as guides to persons not yet of progress which medical science — 

imtiated; a capacity in which each acceptmg the word medical in its 

member of the laity may be assumed largest sense — has disclosed. Having 

to fill the place of any imaginarv stu- in this way illustrated his motto, 

dent, whom the professor might be the medical essavist discusses the im- 

addiessing. portance of self-cultivation. "In 

Yearly, in October, as the medical what does this cultivation consist V* 

session opens, and medical teachers he pertinently asks. " Speaking ge- 

oome before the alumni of their col- nerally," he continues, "it implies tne 

leges, it has long been the custom for culture and disciplining of the mind, 

them to begin their campaign with whereby proficiency and eminence in 

an inaugural address. The literary literature and art may be acquired ; 

merits of these discourses, taken alto- and in carryin^it out to its proper ends, 

gether, vary of course. In the acgre- let it not oe foiigotten that it ought 

Siite, however, thev display a hign or- not to be strictly conHned to any sin- 

er of abUity, and set forth the rou- gle or abstract study, but to the pur- 

tme of subjects to be studied in a suit of knowledge generally." 
manner not only simple enough to be From time to time there has been 

Senerally comprehended, (wmch, in- great diversity of opinion as to the 
eed, oonsidennff the occasion, would relative advantages of concentrated, 
be faint praise), out in a manner cal- and discursive study. Perhaps the 
culated to beget the conviction that argument might have been brought 
the professors of medical science take to a satisfactory issue had the respec- 
their stand on the basis of sound tive advocates of either maxim dis- 
philosophy; not that of a coiyectural criminated between the abstract or 
art unapplied, in contradistinction to the 
We have, at the time being, one of applied and experimental The ma- 
these inau^iral addresses lying before thematician, taking cognizance ab- 
us, that recently delivered by Mr. J. stractedlv of space and extension, 
H. Wharton, F.RC.S.L, at the Led- may, perhaps, act well in concentrat- 
wich School of Medicine.* Unlike ting his mind upon a particular sub- 
many inaugural addresses delivered ject, to the exclusion of all others ; 
on similar occasions — ^addresses which we say "perhaps," forasmuch as 



* Tkt Introductory Addreu, delivered at the opening of the Session. J 860*61, of the 
ledmA School of Medidne. By J. H» Wbabton, 1^.R.C.S.I., Surgeon to the 
Hwth Hospital, &c, Ac. 



106 SoiUm on New Booh. [Jan. 

even this postolate ia not uniyeraallj lenmly, warns tibe student of medi- 

granted. But for him who has to eine a^inst the treacherous habit of 

make pro^-ess by the lights of ex- coaching up facts not based upon 

perimental inquiry, and to be guided reason and comprehension. He stre- 

oy the study of analogies, a wide field, nuously advocates practical know- 

of observations to be made, and oi ledge; and in this, we are happy to 

resources to be adopted, is an indis- say^ the regulations of medi(^ ex- 

pensable condition of progress. To the amming authorities have begun to 

medical student this reminder is es- lend efficient aid. We well remember 

pecially necessary; inasmuch as the the time when the only science ap- 

sciences which constitute the foun- pertaining to medicine that could be 

dation of medicine are apt to beset said to be taught practically in medi- 

the incipient student, siren-like, se- cal schoolsL was anatomy. To teach 

dtictively; each science claiming the chemistry ov actual manipulation on 

voung aspirant to medical Imow- the students part was never dreamed 

ledge for herself alone. of We have heard many a young 

As surely as a youth jrields his man gabble fluently through deoom- 

allegiance to one over-dominant sci- positions by rote, who would have 

ence, not subordinating it as an in- succumbed under the simplest prob- 

strument to an end, so surely does he lem of experimental chemistrv : — 

swerve from the only path that can who could have discoursed glibly 

lead to medical competence. He enough about tests for arsenic, but 

may become a great anatomist, a great who could not — ^had his life depended 

physiologist, a renowned chemist (St upon the issue — ^have, with all neces- 

Dotanist; but examples enough and to sary appliances at hand, extracted a 

spare are at hand^ all proving to de- erain of white arsenic from a basin 

monstration that he never canbecome full of oatmeal porridge. Chemistry 

a £^6at physician. must now, up to a certain point, be 

The Author, nevertheless, warns practically acquired in our medical 

those whom he addresses against the schools ; so must botany. The man 

even more common error of endea- who should dare to treat disease 

vouring to learn over-many things at without previously qualifying him- 

once. " I shall stamp the truth of self for the task by assiduous dinical 

this statement," says he, '*by quoting observation, is a homicide, if not 

an observation of a like import, to worse. 

which, many years a^o, I heard Dr. Finally, we would seriously advise 

Stokes give expression : — ^ That a all medical students, and as many oi 

student has spent his session well at the laity as feel any interest in the 

hospital who has learned nothing else doctor — ^who want him, or feel that 

than the proper administration of ikej may want him — ^to procure the 

wine in fever. clever inaugural lecture of Dr. Whar- 

**As it is with reference to ana- ton. and study its contents. They 

tomy, pathology, and hospital attend- will find many important lines of 

ance, so it is with reference to chem- thought suggested, and reflections 

istrv and every collateral branch of made of a nature particularly oalca- 

medical study. Thus, from a some- lated to stimulate and enluge the 

what extensive experienoe, I can state well-informed mind. Thev will be 

that although a man may be able to pleasedwiththeuniformandthorougb 

repeat, as it were, by rote, the good sense of Dr. Wharton's observs- 

chanjps which may occur many given tions, and with the clearness of the 

chemical solution, as he may be igno- style in which he lectures, 
rant of the laws by virtue of which 

such changes take place, he cannot The Wrekin is a wooded hill 1320 

apply them so as to account for the feet high, near Wellington, in Shro]^ 

changes of a like character which shire, and ''All round the Wrekin' 

may occur in a similar though differ- is a Salopian proverb which Mr. Wal- 

ent solution." ter White has chos^ for the title of 

Dr. Wharton seriously, almost so- his tour in that county. Chie-tbird 

•All Bound ikt T¥r€km. By Walter White. 8eooii4 edition. Uo^'^ 
f7hftp i |^ f^ A HlJl, I860. 



J 



1661.] AU Bound the Wrekifk 107 



of his book coHtaiaa a description of op three pulls the end of tiie wire has 
his fortnight's excursion, knapsack oa amyed ** *^f^ ^^^dle of the t^^^^ 

8houldor%r«2)-,l-^^^^ JL^^J^tS^tUVc^'Va^^^^^ 
the remainder bemg devoted to an ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ the purpose, 
aooonnt of some of the manufaotones -^^ ^^^^ ^ the cut made, than two 
of Birmingham and the black coun- g^^ p^gg gtm^ ^p from the surface of 
try.'* He discoaises pleasantly of the the table. Immediately in front of the 
timbered houses, the village inns, the piece of wire, a small thin lever ad- 
prosperous gardens and orchards, and vances, gives a thrust against the centre 
details the gossip of the countoy folk of the wire, which, met by the pe^, is 
in their peculiar dialect Aimed with pu»bed between them, doubling itself 
letters 5f introduction, he visited, J!? j^^f* *,^h« S^^.i^ rlii^^^^^ 
nBderfavourablecircumsto^ ^e•^V"limbs"SfTwpik 
of the noUble seats of the country, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ have a repres^ta- 
SDd relates his impressions with ap- ^^^ ^f this stage of the process. The 
parent candour. It is evident from thrust leaves the two ends of the piece 
nis picturesque jottings, that a week's of wire pressing against the pegs, and 
holiday may be well spent in Shrop- the thin lever having retreated, a com- 
ahire. In it may be comprised an pound lever approaching on both sides 
Excursion from Albrighton to lillies- at once, makes each end encircle a peg, 
hall Abbey, the ascent of the Wrekin, and bo forms the two little loops at the 

a visit to Mediaval Shrewsbury, the 5"« ^^J'¥ ^^.^-/Tv: *^ ^^* . J^^S 
o vMin vw ^'^^^l^^^^^^^'j^^K.. done their duty for the moment, sink 
^loration of Wroxetei-the Engbsh ^^^ .^^ ^^^ >^^1 . ^ ,teel flnger 

Pompeii, and trips to Longmjnd and ^ instantly upon the Uberated beak, 

Ludlow, or the Wenlock and Bndge- puahea it within reach of a small hinged 

north. flap wliich keeps on opening and ^ut- 

But we prefer, at present, accom- ting with a curious jerking movement, 

panying Mr. White in his inspection as if for pastime, and catching the beak, 

of the manufacturing dbtricts, and bends ito extremity suddenly back, and 

culling from his volume a few speci- to forms the hook, which immediately 

mens of his graphic descriptions of drops into the box beneath. Meanwhile 

the wonders w^^ht by m^^^^^ tSofe iT^^h^^f^rr^r^ 

In a dinar street m Birmingham ^^ ^ »^^ ^^t on to receive the 

he witnessed the making of hooks and final turn over. Another, and another, 

eyes by complex machinery, worked and another, with astonishingquickness, 

by a steam-engine ; his picture of the at the rate of about eighty a minute, 

process is so admirable, that we pre- So rapid is the succession ot movements 

sent it to our readers without abore- for the production of a single hook, tluit 

Yjlition : the eye follows them with difficulty ; 

••The machines standing in rows yet there is no confuaon or delay, ex- 

atong theTSr, ^ybe dLribed as cept at rare mtervals, from the bendmg 

h^^ iron Ubtes. about three feet in of the wire, and then the machme stops 

hS)fbt,^d furnished with so many of itself untd the impediment is cleared 

movable parts that you might almost away. 

fiucy them to be alive. A maze of Each of these machines makes 

movements kept going by the steam- 43^200 hooks and eyes per dav, and 

engine underneath, while hooks and jt is surprising what becomes of them 

eyes dron into boxes in a continuous ^^i The inventor preserves his secret 

stream, i«ter Aan the tickmg of a , ^^ ^j^ machines made in his 

s^No^^Xtr^t^.'^ruSfiT^ ^^r^^L^t^^thl'i^^ 

lh>nt of one of the tables, we notice a mmgham masters Kuard their seoretB 
coU of brass wire placed on a wheel, so by keeping fierce dogs at the thresh- 
as to be readily unwound ; the free end old of the workshops, who lash them- 
of the wire is brought within reach of selves into fury on the approach of a 
a vertical lever, the machine is set in stranger. In the face of these and 
motion, with a jerk to the right; the ^^^^ impediments. Mr. White ob- 
lever having seized the wire, pidls for- t^^ed entrance into several less 
ward the exact length required for a j^^^ manufactories, and has pho- 

l»«^<^.5y*»"*^<*«™yH?^;no^i^ tographed them in his instractive 
jerkmg itself back repeats the move- *~9,"^^ WiFA-i*«iwinff Kwwa-WttAr- 
inent, and so keeps on. having nothing yolume. Wire;drawmg, bras^batter- 

^ to do but to bring up the sunpUea mg, screw-cutting and steel-penmak- 

unta the coil is exhausted. With two mg are, amongdi others^ discnsaea 



108 Note$ on New £ooki. [Jan. 

in detail with inimitable power. We in front of the roller. At once the men 
have but space, however, for the fol- »t thewincUass begin to tnro; ttie roUer 
lowing extract from his account of a ^S^^ apreadB out tiie paste brfwe it, 
^itf the Birmingham Plate Glass .^ ^T-^l^^nf^^etT^^^^^^^ 
^ ®^*^ • length of the table, it stops at the wind- 
*< The casting is abont to begin. We lass. How the great red-hot plate seems 
are in a large gloomy shed, where, along to quiver still, for now a blnsh, now a 
each side, appear the mouths of anneal- paleness, now a cloud passes across its 
ing ovens. Against one of the mouths sur&ce, and gleams of surprising hue. 
stands a large, oblong iron table, mov- It appears leathery in consistence, as a 
able on wheels, its top warmed by boxes man passes an iron ' sword* under its 
of fire placed underneath, and its smooth outer end ; while some five or six others, 
sur&ce level with the bottom of the liftinga gigantic peel, pass it under the 
oven. At one end rests a large iron end of the plate just raised, other men 
roller, connected by a chain-tackle, with seize the ropes attached to the long 
a windlass at the other, which, when handle, and at the word 'pull altogether/ 
in motion, runs upon a bar of iron about the plate is driven into the oven, and 
half an inch thick, placed near each side there pushed to the farthest corner, for 
of the table. According to the thick- each oven will hold four plates. Forth- 
ness of the bars so is that of the plate, with another pot is brought, and another 
At sound of the foreman's whistle, his plate cast ; and when the oven has re- 
party, all well drilled te their several ceived its charge the mouth Is stopped, 
tasks, betake themselves to their posts, and the whole left to cool gradually for 
There is no confusion, no shouting, in- two days. By this slow cooling the 
deed scarcely a word is spoken, for each plates are annealed, and brought into 
knows what he has to do. The furnace- the condition which such glass requires 
doors are flung open, a wheeled crane, to make it useful.'* 
bearing a large ring at the end of its ,, Tm..^ i .^ * ^ 
arm, is thrust forward, and one of the Mr. White also spent a few days at 
pots or crucibles being encircled thereby, the monastery of St. Bernard's Abbey, 
the men drag it away to the shed. Even at Ohamwood, near Coalville, where 
at four yards distance we find its scorch- he was hospitably entertained by 
ing glare intolerable, inspiring a sense Brother Stephen, the guest-master, 
of dread. When near the table, two ^^^^^^ j^e failed to convince of the 
men, ^^o stand ready w^^^^ folly of shutting himself up from con- 

:^ThfiS&^^^^^^^ tact^ with the Vld. . Ibout filly 
&ce of the molten mass, and one then monks hve here m seclusion, employed 
dips out a scoopful as a test. Mean- ^ tilling a model-farm, and selling 
while the glare spreads around, illumi- its produce, which is highly esteemed, 
nating the dusky walls in strange Some of the brethren imderstand car- 
patches, streaming on the earthen floor, pentry and various mechanicaJ trades, 
and penetrating to the sombre span of while others prepare the gas used in 
the lofty roof. And there stand the the monastery. Their most useful 
men in expectant attitudes, awaiting vocation appears to be their Refonna- 
the signal, their feces glistemng in the ^ ^ ^^ j^ Catholic cul- 

tl^i,r^r:^!,^'s^r^T:^: PJ^^U^ 4he Colony^^^^ 

^qq/^ about 300 probationers are tramed m 

«*The foreman examines the test the trades for which they evince a 

through ahand-screen of smoke-coloured predilection, and receive secular and 

glass. He beckoned me to approach, reli^ous instruction from the monks, 
and I saw what may be described as a 

ladleful of red-hot boiUng paste, across SALMON fishing in Canada* is writ- 
the surface of which gleams of colour ten by an Irish clergyman resident on 
pUyed as on the sides of a dying dolphm. ^^^ ^ ^he greatest of the Cana- 
The foreman havmg satisfied himself as j- „ i„u«„ „i,« ?«««„-« ♦« vT^ ^„i,..^ 
to the quality, the pot is lifted by a di^i lakes, who appears tobe a fisher 
crane, brought over the table, when the f ^^^^^ ^^^?r than a fisher of men ; 
men, seizing the long projecting handles for a more enthusiastic disciple of the 
from each side, give a swing to and fro, gentle art we have never met. Hav- 
and, tilting at the exact moment, the mg fished in the rapids of the Shan- 
fiery paste is poured out immediately non ; in the romantic wateis of the 

* Salmon Fishing in Canada. By a Kesident. Edited by Colonel Sir James Ed- 
ward Alexander. London: Longmans. 1860. 



1861.] SalnKrn Fishing in Canada. 109 

coun^ of Wicklow ; in the Tweed, the Bhelring rocks, which just part them up 

Tay, tne Erae, the Moy, and the Bush, sufficiently at the head of the basin to 

he proceeded to the unexplored tribu- K^^f ^^^ progress through the whole of 

tanes of the St Lawrence, to which he its depths a risible impetus. IshaUnot 

th^mptingly inyit^ L^l^s e^r^f ^y ^^r ?n^prcl^! 

sporwmen .— ^^^y bottomed cove, which was worn 

'* Think of this, ye anglers, who have into the rocks on the right-hand side of 

been all your lives pacing the margin of the river, nor the dancing stream which 

some over-flshed river in England 1 leaped and kissed the overhanging eld. 

think of this, ye persevering labourers ers on the left, nor the island of gUtter- 

on the well-beaten waters of the Tweed, ing gravel wliich, about a hundred yards 

the Esk, the Spey, the Ness, and the down from the fall, divided the river 

Bealy !^think of this, ye tired thrashers into two streams, and thus enabled the 

of the well-netted streams of Erne, angler to fish every portion of it per- 

Moy, and Shannon 1 — that within less fectly. 

than a fortnight's steaming from your " Cautiously, lest he should disturb a 

hall doors, there are, as yet, twenty- fin, my frightlul friend paddled his canoe 

five virgin rivers in one small portion of through the still water on the right side 

Canada ; and that of the ten which have of the river, motioned to me by signs, 

been tried, they have all, with one single for we could not exchange a word-, 

exertion, been found not only to Trinity College, Dublin, not having 

abound in salmon, but to afford ample educated me in the Indian tongues-.thae 

facilities for taking that noble fish with I should disembark and proceed to fish, 

the rod and the fly." which I was previously burning to do, 

__ 1^ J .J Soon was the single splice of my eigh- 

The sportsman who decides on ac- teen feet of Irish ash, with one foot of 

oepting this invitation can sail any hickory and two inches of tortoise-shell 

Saturday from Liverpool in one of the at the top, tied together .with a strong 

Canadian line of steamers, which will ^nd well- waxed thread of hemp. Quickly 

land him in Quebec in ten days ; from ^^ ^y gold-tinselled fiery brown, with 

thence he must proceed to the fishing- f ^*«' ^^}^ "^d mixed wings, attached 

ground in his yacht, if he possess such ^ "^ f"'^^ 8^* «»^"»;i^"e ; for very 

i^x/uuu MMM. u«o jMvuv, A* uw t^v0«n»ao w«v** pju-eiy havc I usod auv other. Bapidlv 

a luxury, orm a hired wfcooner, tak- ^^ /^^^^ A^^ t^^ th^wVin the 

iDg^e to be well supplied with com- very jaws of the gorge, and just as 

cstibles of all kmds. Arrived on the rapidly, on the third throw, did an ani- 

banks of the river, no stately hotel mated mass of molten silver, as it ap- 

ffreets the angler, who is fortunate if peared, rush along the surface of the 

he find a woc^an's cottage, and still water, engulph my fiery brown In his 

more fortunate if he comes across our wide-spread jaws, and turn to descend 

author, who is famiharly caDed "the hito the ^pths beneath him. when he 

Bishop," or any of his three joUy Received from some involuntary and in- 

oomwmions, the Baron, the Captain, ^^^S^i'^^ ^'l"?^''^.."^ T^h '^^'^ ." 

jtTr^ • *^««vu, vu'o x^»|/»«iu, Qf^no^ ^jje "strike,* such a twinge in 

and the Commissioner, who are photo- ^^e lower part of his tongue, as made 

graphicallyportrayedinthisamusmg him believe that he was held fast by 

volume. something amazingly hot, which it was 

Ample information b given respect- his duty to extinguish and resist by 

ing several of the best salmon rivers, every means that was afforded to him by 

and especially of the Sagueny, the water, tail, and fins. His rushes to and 

Bersimu, and the Qoodbut as well as f«>> his dives deep and long, his leans 

fuU instructions upon the best modes ^^y "J? "P^^f.'^P^' *^« ^^ 

It *^^fi«'rv^r?^."^^^^ ^'^ '"^'"^"^ ^^^ '^' ^^* foo?of uSe 

$^„"*io I'y.ii 7°*. ^^ ^^^ was rolling off my reel: the steadiness 

Kelly, of Sackville-street , and quietude with which he brought me 

Armed at all points and well found over my fish; the celerity with which 

in all necessary equipments, the ansler he followed him in all his manouvres ; 

may count upon exciting spiort in Can- the skill with which he enabled me, 

ada» As an example, we quote our au- coaxingly , to draw him into the still 

tbor's description of a visit to the 7**f ' »* ^^? ^^ of **»« Pool ; wid the 

Chftte en haut^ or upper fall of the ^«^ P^^^^^J 'J'L^^u ' ****,**'*i'?* 

EKhemin :- ?PP*''i'^''?;\u? f""*^ ^X "^^^ *^ "" 

aMvuvut44A jjjg ^ jg . jQj ^Yi\^ J gpare the reader, con. 

«* I shall not attempt .to deseribe the tenting myself with stating that at the 

laU of the bright waters over a bed of end of about twenty-five ndnntes, the 



110 Notei on New Books, [Jan. 

« water aagd.' m a Yankee writer calls considerable talent> having embellisli- 

the salmon, was tested as to weight, and ed the diy narrative of the " Pacata " 

found to be rather more than twelve with numerous scenic pictures remark- 

Po^^- able for their local truth, and, while 

The scenery of Oanadais also graphi- drawing the principal and subsidiary 

cally de8cril>ed; but the great charm characters of the drama with a vigor- 

of the book, and that which will ren- ous hand, has displayed much grai)hiQ 

der it popular amongst other than force and spirit in the narrative portion, 

piscatorial readers, is the humour that eroecially in the account of the siege 

sparkles in every page. The volume ofthe Castle and the succeedingbattle. 

concludes with a sketch of the Hud- The poem, which displajrs throughout 

son's Bay Company, and a Chapter of an intimate knowledge of Celtic na- 

Anecdotes of Whale Fishing in the St. ture, is interspersed with numerous 

Lawrence. In an appenmx will be lyri<», several of which resemble, and 

found a valuable paper on the De- are perhaps little inferior to some of 

crease, Bestoration, and Preservation the best efforts of Thomas Davis ; and 

of Salmon in Canada, by the Rev. the minutiae of historic details are ar- 

William Agar Adamson, D.C.L., and tistically varied and relieved by the 

some observations on the habits of the variety of appropriate metres in which 

Salmon Family, by Dr. Henry. they are emoodied, and to which no 

small part of the interest of the poem 

Poetnr is a perennial product of attaches. In its rvthmical structure 
the Irisn mind : from year to year it indeed, " Dunboy' maybe considered 
springs up as naturally as the sham- original, and no less so in several of 
rock, and its spirit promises to remain the dramatic passages, which, for free- 
as indigenous a characteristio of the dom and naturalness, will remind 
soil as its fresh green ^nblem. Among readers of the force ana-simplicity of 
the late additions to the poetic litera- the old iELoglish ballad. Taken as a 
ture of " Young Ireland, we note a whole, this little historic poem is well 
volume, entitled ^' Dunboy, and other executed and sustained : its merits, 
Poems, from the pen of Mr. T. D. descriptive, dramatic, and Ivrical, are 
O'Sullivan,* many of whose verses ofnocoinmonorder,and in themselves 
have been familiarized to the public are sufficient to attract even that 
through Irish journals. The chief portion of the reading public whose 
and longest poem in his collection is sympathies are less Celtic than those 
a spirited efiort to versify one of the which its author manifests, and to 
most stirring passa^ in Irish history which, we may add, much of the 
during the reign of Elizabeth, namely, spirit which animates Ms descrip- 
the siege of Dunboy Castle by Sir tions is attributable. Many of the 
Qeorge Carew ; and to memorize the lyrics, which form an agreeable ad- 
character, actions, and destiny of its aenda to this little volume, are ^ of 
chieftain, Donal O'SuUivan. In treat- feeling and spirit, and marked with 
ing this subject, the writer has ad- much pictorial and musical power; 
hered closely to the account of the indeed, were it not for the abihty 
event preserved in the "Pacata Hi- shown in his more sustained effort— 
bemia, adding merely, as he states in the poem of Dunboy — ^we should say 
his preface, such minor details as may that lyric writing was Mr. O'Sulh- 
be supposed to have accompanied the van's specialty, 
principal occurrences. To versify local 

nistory on this principle, is. in all Thb numerous class of youn^ men 

cases, a difficult task, as the adherence who have chosen the civil semees of 

to the minutisB of old annals is calcu- the State for their profession w^ find 

lated to interfere with the require- some valuable information in the 

ments of poetic art; but in working Guide to Her Majesty's Civil Ser- 

out his theme and managing his ma- vice, lately pubHshed by Mr. Black- 

terials, Mr. O'Sullivan has shown wood.t it specifies the limits of age 

* Dunbmfy and other Poem: By Tunothy Daniel O'SnlUvan. Dabhn : John F« 
Fowler, Crow-street 

t A Compute Practical Gvide to Her Majeet^* CivUiService. By a Certificafe^d 
Candidate. London: James Blackwood 



IMl.] The SwaUow and the Poet. Ill 

prescribed for admission to the vari- on nomination. Though the Tolome 
ouB civil departments, and the differ- is not an inviting one to the general 
ent standards of qualifications estab- reader, yet to those who contemplate 
iJBhed by each. It contains questions entering the public service, it will be 
in geography, history^ and the various found systematic and practically use* 
subjects of examination, showing the fuL 
tiine allowed for each paper, the num- 
ber of questions in a set, and the de- Of Mr. Oassell's marvellous series of 
partinents for which the questions are cheap publications we have in a for- 
prescribed. The examination papers mer number spoken in terms of ad- 
for appointments to dvil offices in miration. His Illustrated Family 
India, and writerships in the India ^t&2^.*publi^edin penny numbers, is 
House, are given in lulL The volume calculated to be especially valuable to 
cloees with practical hints to candi- the youn^. When we view the beau- 
datea, relative to the nature of the tiful editions produced in such variety 
examinations appointed for the seve- at nominal prices — the whole Bible 
ral departments, the mode in which can be obtained for less than one shil- 
the examinations are conducted, the ling — ^it is difficult to believe, that in 
books selected by the Commissioners the twelfth century a manuscript 
in their examinations, the salaries of all copy of the Bible cost sixty poun£(. 
the officers, and the superannuation al- No ordinary care has been taken in 
lowanoe to which they become entitled the selection and preparation of the 
on retirement. From the " Hints to woodcuts which promsely illustrate 
Candidates'' may also be learned the this work, which we can heartily re- 
mode in which a nomination can be commend to families and teachers. 
obtained, and the steps to be taken 



THE SWALLOW Ain> THE POBT. 

" Comma eet oiseMi de paotge, 
Le poete, dani toua les tempi, 
Cheroba, de voyage en voyage, 
Leg roines et le printempi."— Viehr Hwgo. 

Swift bird that glidest o'er waters widest, 

Bv isles of beauty, o'er wastes of foam. 
Glad h my heart when thy noiseless wing 
Follows fast on the track of Spring 

To the streams of our English home. 
And the sweet South wakens the bridit flower-gemSi 
By Trent and Tamar, by Severn and Thames. 

Thyhaunts, swift swallow, are vale and hollow. 
Where rivers murmur, where streams run sort ; 

Castle and abbey are loved by thee, 

Buins royal where the clarion free 
In the good old dayh rang oft : 

Qay were those halls in the time of jore — 

But there comes no voice from the silent shore. 

Like thee, fleet swallow, do poets follow 

The winding river, the rippling stream ; 
Close do they cling to the ancient tower. 
Golden-gray in the sunset hour, 

Era sUrs through the twilight gleam ; 
And like thee, vovager swilx of wing, 
They love the breath of the sweet young Spring. 

MoRTiMSB CoLLora. 



CM$eit$ IQut^eiUd lte% BOU. London : Caisell, Petter, and Galpln. 



112 



Things New and Old. 



THINGS NSW AND OLD. 

The Qermans are the only people who Language should be a mean, Vmxx 

pa^ honour to passive genius. By never an end. Some oimtora cpemk 

thifl name they diBtinguuh a class because they have sometblBg to smj 

which we meet with eveir day, con- and others find something to cay w- 

sisting of eamest-mindeu men, de- cause they wish to speak. ETcntbrj 

voted to goodness and truth, and also whose compositions are redaadas: 

largelv gifted; but with hesitating with meaning often counteoa&ce * 

speecL and such a want of fluency false system oy tacking on oaplraa 

tnat tney cannot explain their own words to* fonn rounded penuia. 

ideas. They have conception, without "Multum in parvo** ahould be tL< 

expression. Their minds are like maximof all wno paint, whether virh 

black glass, absorbing all the rays of pen or penciL lit shows most pow^r 

light, but able to give none out for the who produces the greatest effect vita 

benefit of others. Jean Paul calls the least exjienditure of meana — wL j 

them the ^' dumb ones of heaven,'' for, spares every stroke that is not wanted, 

like Zachariah, they see visions of and never adds a line that does tuA, 

high import, and are speechless when tell Writing is like water- cotiiur 

they would tell them. drawing. It is easy to densify what 

is dear, but never to make wbal U 

That is an extraordinary expression, dense lucid. Double washes only sikkJ 

'beaming by heart" Mi^ht it not more the transparencies of your shadowa. 

correctly be called learning by mind, weaken the brilliancies of yonr lighta» 

or impressing upon the memory? Nay, and ruin the neutral effect of joar 

our ancestors were better philologists mezzotints. If your subject be once 

than ourselves, and they knew that confused, it is useless to overlay witk 

all knowledge was useless which was body-colour, or to modify by tradai^ 

not stamped upon the tablets of the for you can never regain what jua 

heart have lost 

€k>ethe wrote his celebrated " Theory 
of Colours** in opposition to the New- 
tonian system, denying that light could 
be a compound of darkness. But here 
he overlooked that m^tery of crea- 
tion, which adduces brightness from 
gloom, and happiness from pain. The 
rainbow cannot appear without the 
cloud; but while the drops yet fall, 
the light shines in the darkness, ana 
shows us every variety of colour. 
Hereafter all darkness will disappear 
in light, and yet there will be ''a rain- 
bow round about the throne**— fit 
emblem of the Gospel which shone in 
our vale of tears. 

It is very eagy to flatter; but venr 
difficult to praise. Women are sel- 
dom pleased with flattenr, for they 
have acute perceptions of the ridicu- 
lous, and are more likely to be piqued 
than {^ratified bv those exaggerated 
eompliments which overstep the 
bounds of common sense; but she 
mast be more than human who is in- 
ienaible to praise. 



Every false figure in rhetoric, 
every turgid outburst of 
spring from the supposition that tnitk 
does not contain the intrinsic elements 
of success among mankind. A faarv 
truism soimds so prosaic and aostrre. 
we are ant to fancy it cannot fight its 
road with the ignorant and the scep- 
tical. 

There are some minds whose faciil> 
tics of imagei^ and description neeia- 
ble that beautiful little instnimeBt— 
the stereoscope: bringing out plain 
facts into bas-relief, and giving them 
apparent substance. What we waat 
is vivid truth ; so that the homeliest 
household virtue, and the aimplert 
Christian doctrine, shall ^>peal to na 
ever and anon with new force aad 
reality. 

Patience is oltentimes cottra« ia 
repose; and he is the greatest oero 
who can suffer most silently. Calm 
endurance is better than hot daring; 
for the former is s|>tritiial and haa«a. 
whilst the latter ia merely pi^ymcai 



1 661.] Thingi Ntiv and Old. 113 

*^Tid is shared with iBferior animals, representative of a cardinal virtue. In 
Kegulus and Araold Von Winkelried the ethics of Aristotle, Socrates, and 
Twere nobler than even Scipio and TelL Pythagoras, it assumes a marked pro- 
Self-control may exist without en- rainence ; whilst Plato devotes a dia- 
tJiusiastic excitement, but the ''angel logue to the right investigation of the 
of martyrdom is brother to the angel word And by the Apostle it was 
of victory." chosen to represent the truest adom- 

. ment of women, and used to signify 

Recreation is necessary for the de- the habitual restraint of all uncnris- 

irelopment of human nature. There tian and unlawful passions. 
is too little tendency in many of our 

modem amusements to encourage Love founded on duty, t.^., on the 
those lightsome processes of thought natural obligations arising out of the 
Tvhich may at once refresh without ties of blood and of nature, is not for 
emasculating the mind. Artificial bar- that reason less necessary to be based 
riers of fanciful demarcation are drawn on real sympathy and regard For it 
here and there in a narrow and un- is a mockery to wear a fair outside 
sympathizing spirit ; whilst thought- show to meet the claims of a social 
ful persons are perplexed in the at- ritual, whilst the inner harmony of 
tempt to reduce these crooked boun- the affections is wanting. 
daries under any fixed and well-de- 
fined principle. We create numerous The conceptions conveyed by the 
fictitious offences, abstinence from same scene are essentially different 
"which is accounted a creditable thing, according to the souls that receive. 
These minor sins form a sort of sup- Men of genius are gifted with a sort 
plementary decalogue ; as though there of second sight. Science tells us that 
'were not enough crimes in the world beyond the ordinary Newtonian spec- 
already, without busying our intellects trum, there are outer rays and more 
in inventing new ones. delicate varieties of colour, which are 

only appreciable to the eyes of pecu- 

The secret of beauty is rest, and liar creatures : and so in this "uni- 

calmness is an alchemy whose touch versal frame" there are wonders and 

tumeth all to gold. When we are beauties, where the generality of men 

over-wearied by violent emotion, we see only darkness, 

feel the soothing effect of the ministry A man of aesthetic tastes actually 

of nature, and recognise the full sig- sees differentlv from others, for we 

nificance of the deepest of her tones, carry our minds into everything, and 

Who does not love soft low music, life "within us and abroad is one.'' 

which falls upon the ear like warm The clown who gapes in blank aston- 

rain into the thirsty ground — little ishment at the statues of antiquity, 

delicate flowers which do us good to physically beholds the same objects 

look upon — ^and that quiet grace in wo- as the lover of art, who finds in them 

men (tnat gentle blending of thoughts the full development of manly beauty. 

and feelings) which has often a greater The American who, gazing at Nia- 

fasdnation than physical beauty ? gara, calculated in his dull brain how 

There are certain states of mind when many water-mills it would turn ; and 

we prefer the adagios of nature to the the poet who finds " sermons in 

diapasons of her grandest chords. stones, " and " books in running 

brooks," have, strictly speaking, the 

Some hold that excitement is neces- same powers of vision. There is a 

saty to poetrv; but they should re- certain truth in the exaggerated afiir- 

member Hamlet's advice, ''in the very mation of Emerson, that few adults 

tempest of their passion to beget a are otherwise than blind, and that 

Umperance that may give it smooth- only children can see nature as it is. 

ness.'' Let a large company read the same 

In the modem application of this poem, and see the same picture, and 

word "temperance to signif;^ the the chances are that certain parts will 

moderate use of a certain dietetic come home to the consciousness of 

BubBtanoe. let us beware that it does one among the number, whilst they 

not dwindle tdtogether into a narrow are a strange langu^e to the rest, 

and limited signification. In the age For the old Platonic theory is correct, 

of the Greek philosophers it was the that a man sees himself in everything, 

vol* LVII.— -NO. CCCXXXVII. 8 



114 Things New and Old. [Jan. 

and recognises that which is without satirist alike continue it Tattling 

as a part of his inner being : for mat- aiises from the same propensity^ and 

ter must be subservient to mind, that morbid curiosityso often evinced 

Just as before a good photograph can with regard to murders and execu- 

be taken the paper must be chemi- tions, may be attributed (not so much 

cally prepared, or the light will have to cruelty) as to the interest occa- 

no effect : so without an inner cham- sioned by beholding another in extra- 

ber be ready to receive them, the im- ordinary circumstances of difl&culty 

Sressions of the eye will never be or distress. Deprived of fiction, we 

aguerreotyped on the heart make it for ourselves. Indeed every 

" Give me," said a preacher, " the man is, more or less, his own novel- 
stone walls aeainst which I may di- writer, in which novel self not un- 
rect my artUlery, and not the turf frequently figures as the hero, while 
banks which receive and bury my friends and acquaintances are adlowed 
shot !" to occupy subordinate positions. Ab- 

There is no task so difficult as that solute reservation of juagment is often 
of startling men from their conven- an utter imjjossibility. We must 
tional dulness and uniform complais- form some opinions on the conduct 
ance of indifference. One la tempted of others, and often f trusting to our 
to utter paradoxes sometimes upon previous discoveries and experiences), 
subjects that have been stretched we pass rash and hasty judgments on 
and worn threadbare by repeated insufficient evidence; and if a stranger 
usings — those usings having all been be detected in giving way to some 
in one fashion and one way. Every humour or impulse of the moment, it 
time an ordinary idea, or a conmion- is immediately set down to be ex- 
place image is associated with a great pressive of his peiculiar character, 
but familiar thought, the vividness while we consign him at random to 
and force of that thought are dimin- occupy a certain place among the 
ished to an infinite ratio. It is the " dramatis personae" of our private 
remark of one of our profoundest fiction. 

critics upon Shakespeare, that he has For these fictions (which day- 
long lost past recovery the full mean- dreamers write) have the same fault 
ing of that celebrated passage, " To which characterizes the generality of 
be or not to be ;" nor can he tell popular novels, t.c., they do not take 
whether it be good, bad, or indifferent, mto account the inconsistency of meu. 
it has been so handled and pawed The characters in most stories are 
about by declamatory boys and men, consistent throughout, and are repre- 
and torn so inhumanly from its living sentatives of certain ideal virtues, 
place and principle of continuity in But those of nature are maa&es of 
theplay, that it nas become to him a contradiction. " In the great world," 
perfect dead member. naively remarks a German essayist, 

Let our pulpit orators seek for sin- " men are compounded of truth and 

cerity and naturalness of expression, lies." Who can "fulfil himself," for 

Let them drink deeply from the old who knows himself? Our thoughts, 

catholic language, those stores of piety feelings, and actions are like the 

inexhaustible and undefiled. Let them varied colours in a kaleidoscope, 

bring up pure and holy water from doomed to endless confusion, till a 

those sacred wells of antiquity ! foreign power shall focus them into 

order. For what is character but the 

Many good people condenm fiction, will colouring the actions 9 and the 

because they think it leads to false unguided human will is ever variable, 

views of life, and engenders morbid having no optimist to depend upou. 

sentimentality. But they overlook The characters of Holy Writ bear in - 

the strong sympathy which Provi- temal evidence of truth because of 

dence has implanted in the human that very inconsistency of which 

heart ; so sta-ong that nothing is so infidels have complained. But the 

much an olyect of curiosity to man characters of most fiction writers are 

as man himself. Most people's minds represented as the author would have 

are stored with observations on the them, and not aa they are. They aie 

varieties of character. Children be- conventional repetitions of favomite 

gm the study betimes, while the phfl- tvpea, or so many manifest^itions of 

anthropist, the slanderer, and the the same idea. There are of coarse 



X 861.] Naval Warfare between France and England. 116 

noble exceptions, such as Homer and appear to touch the skv, whilst iia 

Shakespeare, or, in our days, Joanna roots are bound to eartn. Yet the 

Bailiie, Thackeray, and Miss Evans. highest natural proof of man's im- 
mortality consists in his aspiration 

All men, it has been remarked, and strong desire after a permanent 

liaye something of the Nimrod in satisfying good. Our greatest plea- 

t^lxeir dispositions. They like no prize sures are ever in anticipation. Hope 

^which stands still, and will have no leads us on and on. We could not 

^&me which has not first to be hunted eiyoy half the happiness we do, if the 

aown. enjoyment of the momentwerelimited 

to the moment. Be sure that our 

We can see the sunlight and the highest yearnings will at last be sa- 

staia, but we can only pluck the fiow- tisned, for a merciful Wisdom would 

era beneath our feet Perfection is not have created beings with faculties 

unattainable on earth, being not and desires never to be realized. We 

merely a negation of evil, but the are exiles from our native skies, and 

possession of all positive excellence, our longing hopes are the "mal de 

The holiest man can onlv be com- pays," ^r our ^Fatherland 
pared to the high palm, whose leaves 



NAVAL WABf ABE BETWZEN FBAKCE AKD EKGLAKD. 

A TSXATIS8 on the French Navy, con- navy, in organization and discipline^ 

tainingsomeremarkson the best mode to the army. ''If," he says, "this 

of conducting naval warfare between notion also consists in proposing to 

France and England, so as to insure substitute soldiers for sailors in the 

triumph to the former power, and espe- formation of the crews of line-of-battle 

cially including a plan of invasion, was ships, it would^ in my eyes, have the 

written last Spring by an experienced great effect of disallowingthespecialty 

and talented officer of the French ser- inherent to the sea calling— a specialty 

vice, Monsieur L. Foullioy, and litho- which nature herself will maintain, 

graphed at the expense of the Imperial in spite of human inventions." 

Government Having recently ob- This is the Capitaine de Frigate's 

tained this remarkable State Pap)er, of theme, and we shall endeavour to 

which a few copies only were struck show that want of able seamen is 

off, and presented to persons in autho- the principal deficiency of the French 

rity, we lay extracts, with some com- navy, 

meats, before our readers. Commencing by comparing the ca- 

The author has the character of a pabilities and circumstances of steam 

clever man, and it will be seen that and sailing vessels, he shows that 

he writes calmly, weighing well the ships of war must, in great measm-e, 

naval and military powers of the two be always dependent on sailing power, 

nations. His treatise seems to have for several reasons, among which is 

been suggested by Sir Howard Doug- the impossibility of carrying coal 

las*8 "Naval Warfare with Steam ^ enough for long use without dan^er- 

and he has since been appointed to ous diminution, in time of hostilities, 

fcervc on the English coast, where, no of speed — ^that virtue in a war-vessel 

doubt, he continues to make observa- which renders her powerful for of- 

tions valuable to France in case of fence, and able to avoid a superior 

war. • force, and which certainly should, so 

His design in writing is to refute far from being sacrificed, be increased 

an idea which, he says, finds favour in every way. 

anionff his countrymen, viz., militO' Estimating at their due value the 

ri^er Ui marine, or of assimilating the means afibrded by steam to manosuvre 



Contiderations sur U P^rBonnel et U Matiriel de la Fhtle, Signed by ** Le Capi- 
taine de Fr6gate, L. FouUiojr, Paris, 30 Mai, 1860.*' Brochure of 62 folio pfig#8, 
litbogiuphed at the Imperial X2thographio Office of Yin. JansoPi }9f RaeDauphme. 

8* 



116 A aval War/are between France and England. [Jiin. 

a fleet like an army, the writer would would it endure? Surely, the facts 

have a plan of future naval warfare must be known abroad as well as 

with England conceived and laid down they are understood at home, that 

systematically. In land warfare, he England acquired her naval prepon- 

observes, such a scheme is essential, derance by her commerce, and that 

to determine the required end, which she is bound to maintain it as ber 

can, when the time comes, be aimed best hope, under Providence, of ward- 

at with unshaken perseverance. In ing off such an invasion as this French 

contemplatiQg the event of maritime ofacer takes the pains to project 

war, he advises a earful previous Considering that France has the 

study of th^ "theatre of operations," mission of establishing '*the prin- 

and, in particular, of the several ciple of liberty of the seas,'' or of 

" zones ' ^ where it would develop itself equality, or "the equilibrium of forces 

— especially as to the ememy^s weak on the vast domain which belongs to 

and strong points. When this is ac- all people,'' the writer declares that 

complished, it would be necessary to " the future does not belong to Eng- 

decide what should be the diaracter hind," for modem means of <^ominu- 

of the war — whether offensive or de- nication have i^ndered continental 

fensive. nations eager to open the perspective 

In a few sentences the author com- of a new and grand scene, of which 

pares naval to land operations. The the ocean is the horuson. 

maritime frontier of France, he ob- *« France, with 2,400 kilometres of 

serves, represents at once the line of frontier bathed by salt water, for l ,Q00 

defence and the base of operations of kilometres of land fh>nti6r, must always 

her fleet ; her ports are her strong have, whatever be her political system, 

places and depdts ; and the roads in considerable maritime interests. In the 

front of them are entrenched camps, <iuestion of the liberty of the aeaa, her 

in which forces can be concentrated interest is not less lively nw less urgent 

and organised. Lines of communica- *^^ *^^'t °^ *^^ ^^^^^^ ii^ivm%^ for the 
«uuv* v*6»*a*«v>x*. *-*"^« "* v.vy*ix*ui**^iv«. nioment seems near when her admirable 

tion unite these depdts to each other, geographical situation will permit her to 

And the fleet, when quittmg its base, unite the people of the ancient and new 

will follow the "hues of operations worlds across her territory, by the ties 

which have been predetermined. Not that Providence has evidently destined 

to pursue the analogy further, it suf- her to form. Railways and steam navi. 

fices to say that the author recom- gation on one ^ide, the attracticm of 

mends a plan of operations on an ex- ^^^ facilities and the special adraotages 

tensive scale; and, to quote his opinion, ^^r commerdal transactions and ex. 

whenever France shall be sufficiently f.^f^e^^ ^? *^® ?i^^f ' wUl bring about, 

forward, by development of her flee( ^^^^d^^^^J^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

formation of additional fortified bar- ^^^ of modern nations, 

hours, and possession of a fleet of *• We use, then," he declares. •< a most 

transports— all together forming a legitimate right in preparing ourselves 

force that will render her capable to to resist England in case of necessity, to 

oppose, with success, the predominant combat her with enersry, and conquer 

maritime power — she may reckon her on some decisive ocoasioau if she, 

on being aided by secondary naval deserting, with our alliance, the cause of 

Powers justice, order, and progress in Europe, 

The motives for a struggle with ^f P^^'f^ exclusively by her tradition.*, 

T?««io«.i o^Jfi,^^ o^r^Ui.*.!, fu^ ™-,r should agam have recourse to the but 

Eng and are then set forth, the pnn- ^^^^^ allowable means of a former epoch, 

cipal one assigned being, that the '^We are,inpoint of fact, justittediu 

latter reims mns partage over the any precautions we may take, bv the 

ocean, and arrogates to interfere and example of this Power; for she has, du- 

dominate in the regulation of the ring the last fifteen years, been or- 

afiGeiirs of the European Continent, ganizingherselfopenly against us. £s- 

Without entering into this political pecially for the last two yeare she has 

question, we cannot refrain trom re- bestirredherselfwithinorwiible activity, 

marking how curiously the Gaulic under the pretext of sheltering herself 

idea of partition and equality enters ?T. **i® ??"^* ^^ * ^'"^"^t "»^??^o?. 
• I ^ r***"*".^" «*^« v^4i*aan/j ^Aiv^xo |j^^ truth to prescrve to herself the 

mto French views of the relation be- sceptre of the sew. She raises W na^? 

tween England and that country, to a figure which surpasses aU that a 

Why, let us ask, should there be marUime coalition could one dau oppose to 

maritime equality, and how long her. 



1861.] ifawd Warfare between Prance and Mngland, 1 17 

'* In m war against England, which extinction ; for without colonies, no 

should not have heen provoked by an mercantile marine, and without this, 

encroacbment on the continenUl terri- no naval forces." But his idea is a 

toryofEarope. we should have the right ^^^^ phantasm, since some of the 

to count upon at least the Bympathy of wealthiest people, as the Venetians, 

the other Fovrers. The most desirable K^^^T^a^}^^^^^^\^ nX^f^Al^ 

and the be«t alliance for us in such a putch,andthe Hanseatic Confedera- 

cAse would, undoubtedly, be that of ^^^J^ did not owe their prospenty to 

Russia.*' colonies out to commerce. 

Our foe, the French Oapitaine de 

Let us remark, that the idea of a Frigate, does not propose to postpone 
permanent alliance, offensive and de- a trial of strength until France shall 
fensive, with Russia, is far more po- rival the Three Kingdoms in the 
pular amon^alatige section of French* number and size of her colonies : — he 
men, including the mass of the army asks only the completion of works 
and navy, than the maintenance of now in progress, and a fuller develop- 
alliance with any other Power. Se- ment of the present active measures 
veral causes conspire to render them for augmenting the fleet With re- 
^leased with this notion, such as the gard to the force England has to op- 
tact that Kuasian gentlemen oonsort pose, the view he takes is both broad 
better with the French than any and sensible : — 
others contrive to do, the similarity of 

their two systems of government^ the ** Let us throw a rapid glance on the 

remoteness of the two countries, and entire power of England, and on thedis- 

the prospect that Russia is best pre- tribution of her forces. The English are 

pared to encounter and overwhelm essentially naval, -but they have neither 

British power in Asia. These and "^l^'^^y «P«^»^' n?'^ miUtary tastes, 

other pomte are sedulously put forth ^^^'^ maimers and social organization 

i« • vL^ r^o«»*a,i«f »*T^Aii;«««n oppose such difficulties to the recruiting 

m a recent pamphlet, L Alhanr.e ^^\^^^^ ^^ ^ tl,^^ ^^ ^% 

Anglaise. ou 1 Alliance Kusae. The generally constrained to have recourse 

treaty of Tilsit is referred to as hav- to mercenaries. The larger part of the 

iDg promised well for Russian and army is quartered in India, and in 

French ambition, at the time the numerous colonial possessions; there re- 

joung and ardent Emperor Alexan* mains but a slight portion in the depots 

der, fascinated by the prestige of ^^^ in the metropolis. The defence of 

Napoleon, undert/wk to partition Eu- ^^^ kingdom would devolve upon troops 

rope with him. Its non-fulfilment is ^^^o* notwithBtandmg all the efforts of 

S'^^j '^'r'l^^T^j^ itiff^^nsTirJ^^^^^^ 

also pomts to the breach subse- ^^^ cohesion, and probably without the 

quently made by England m her al- capability of fighting properly in line, 

uance with France, under Louis The country itself, traversed by admir- 

Pliilippe ; an alliance so intimate as able roads, extremely rich snd populous, 

to have occasioned the invention of does not possess, in the interior, fortified 

an express term, entente cardiale, to places capable of serving as strongholds 

signify the heartiness of the relation: for arresting momentarily the progress 

yet, observes the writer, England, 5^ «^ invading army. The people un- 

fearing tosee Mehemet Ali, the natu- ^erstand nothing of a war of partisans, 

i>oi IrSr ^ xf^*^^ ♦^^ «.<^^«» f^^ -fiiA nor of war in the streets; to their eyes, 

ral aUy of France, too strong for the ^j^^.^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ be the pSl 

Porte, bruBjiuely separated herself, udium of old Albion. This is also the 

to hinder French mterests from tn- Bentiment of the Government; for it 

mphmgon the shores of the Levant appears to attach itself rather to the 

Our allies ever turn their eyes from plan of augmenting the naval force, and 

borne requirements to foreign politics forbidding access to the coasts, than dis. 

and ideas of aggrandizement, and pnting the possession of the land with 

their tears at the loss of colonies du- *« enemy who might succeed in setting 

ring the last war mingle in the ink ^ ^"^^ thereon. Ports of refuge are 

dropped from this pamphleteer's pen. ?T^~^V * ^'""^^K^^HH^^ ''*•' 

WKa*«li^«;«- ^^\^th. i,M» ^»^»T>>-.r in 1843, the motive of this useful crea- 

)^ hat colonies are left are viewed by ^j^^ ^^^ j^ l,^^^ obvious that these 

him as the mere dehnR of that im- raniparts against storms would consti. 

mense shipwreck of French power tute efficacious means of defence against 

on a thousand distant ocean shores, the enterprises of a hostile navy, and 

' Our naval decadence,'* he says, " is also advantageous centres of attack on 

tbe direct consequence of our colonial France. This observation serves as the 



118 NawU Warfare hetweett France and JBn^^^mL [Jan* 

tiartlog point of the system of aggres- bours to seek, in the maintenance of a 

iion a£ipted hy our neighboan. new coast-goard, the means of creating 

" On the south coast of England, Ply- a reserve of choeen sailors, so as to im- 

month, Portland, and Portsmouth, are print on the constitution of the mari- 

entrenched camps, destined to receiye time personnel, the same character as of 

^uadrons of vessels ; Falmouth, Dart- the /y^sonne/oi the land army. Asvre^- 

mouth, Kewhaven, and Dover, are cen- gangs could no longer be employed, ex- 

tres of stations accessible to ships of an cept as a ffcsource, m cTtremis^ enrolment 

inferior rank, and particularly to gun- remains based on the principle of volun- 

boats ; all of them serve as ports of re- tary engagement, vivified by sacrifices 

fhge for the merchant marina The of money. 
Island of Aldemey, recently linked to 

the metropolis hy a telegraphic cable. Captain Foollioy might have added 

has become an out-post and a centre of that, in many cases, the men^ as well 

aggression, very important to the Eng- as tne bounty paid them, are sacri- 

lish fleet on account of its proximity to ficed, whenever, as occurs in hun- 

Cherbourg. , « , .^ , dredJs of instances, sailors bribed, as 

*« At the mouth of the Thames, the u «,«-p to PntArthe Oupen-a aervice 

roadstead of the Downs and the anchor- aJZ^^a ^ « -^ !!5A Jl^;«; 

age of HoUesley, with Chatham, and ««?ert, and necessarily enter foreigB 

Harwich, are ^ntres of stations for f^^V^ to avoid bemg taken and pun- 

squadrons charged with guarding the iBhed. 

narrow straits which lead to the Channel Noticing the difficulty of inducing 

and North Sea. seamen to enter for a long period, he 

^•Fortifications crown the works exc" refers to the pains taken to secure 

cuted to shelter shipping; forts have not good men for the reserve, and the 

been spared, and marteUo towers and gpedal care taken of the bovs, who, 

^T*"fi: 'l^f f!L«f t!!i*^ ^K^'*'°J® observes he, form the nurserV of fu- 

and to the most frequented anchorages. . , • , ' . hprnmp th^ heut 

•* The merit of aU these constructions ?^® ^'*"P? crews, ana Decome tne Dest 




ports, all the centres of ag< 

gression, are united together and with the discipline and imbued with the 

the metropolis b^ railroads and the traditions of the military marine." 

electric telegraph. ' Testimony is then borne to the folio w- 

Having taken this bird^s-eye view "^f i«»Portant considi^tions, which 

of the southern coast, the writer pro- ^^ f contmuallv and potentty on 

ceeds to notice the sea and fend ^^tll't'tf^ '""l t\^^^^Vlt 

forces to whom its defence is com- ?^^t '?'"'*^1 ""oJ^l^^^ ^^^« 

mitted. Of the corps called the coast- Queens seamen, siid any re^afa^^ 

guard, he remarks, that it Is not long ^t^^f" fjf^^i^ ^^!a^^!: ^''"'^ 

since the formation and control o! ^®.^??^.^^^'^^^'ti''^^^>THf*^^^ 

this service wafi transferred from the might disgust has been abolished or 

Oustom-House to the Admiralty, and ^i^^J^^ ^^ *^^ J^"^^S^?" i* 

that while it still exercises the old scnipulously exact m faithful ob- 

duty of repressing smuggling, it forms ^fJJ^^t ^^ T *v fJ^^^^T"!* ^^u 
aiiwerful and valuiBle defensive ,T*Vn''°?^''' Yet he concludes with 
arm; and a naval reserve. From this the following observation, which we 
consideration he passes to the subject ^^ ^^* "^^^^^^ ^ ®^^^ '-^ 
of manning the fleet, which is one of '•Experience will make known the 
such high national importance, that degree of efficacy of aU these means, 
our readers will, doubtless, wish to ?»c**'?d. it must needs be said by an 
peruse his brief but searching obser- ^™P«^ious nec^ty ; but already u is 
i/i' .: A*V 1 1 .T^ul • ** vwc* gjjgy ^ ggg f^^ tjjQ adoption of certain 
vationa particularly as he 18 much im- concessions, accorded to the character 
pressed with the need of active and and tastes of English saUors, has sen- 
careful measures m his own country sibly enervated discipline, and enfeebled 
for securing a sufBeieney of seamen, steadiness on board their vessels/* 
Of the system of entry with us, he ^, , , , , 
observes : — I't ^ ^^ "^^ asserted m the pub- 
«• The daily increasing difficulty of re- ^^^ journals, seamen in her Majesty's 
cruiting the English navy by means of ^^^^e are not as contented and 
voluntary engagement, and the neces- well disciplined as they ought to be, 
sity of rapidly arming the fleet at the common sense tells us that these de- 
first menace of war, have led our neigh- fects are not occasioned by coneeaaioxm 



1861.] Naval Watfart heitoeen Fra'nce and England, 119 

to fonner^eyances, but ezifit because reduced rateof wages. At present, the 
there is still much that is unsatiBfac- ten ^ars' term of service entitling to a 
tory. This grave matter having re- pension is too short, for a pension im- 
cently been discussed in those prints plies superannuation,andsnould pot be 
(the best of all possible ways), we will acquired too easily. In consideration 
refer to the two principal hardships of the promise of a pension, a just 
under which this valuable class of deduction mav be made from wages ; 
men are said to labour, namely, want but it is to be remembered that a 
of adequate amount of leave of ab- sailor on board a man-of-war has but 
sencc on shore, and insufficiency of a chance of living and serving long 
pav. enough to enjoy an annuity. The 
We rank the grievance of want of well-known fact, that the ave;*age life 
sufficient leave on shore first, because of sailors is much shorter than that 
it has ^en rise, on several occasions, of almost every other class of men, 
to portions of ships* crews showing a is the reason why they cannot count 
disaifected and mutinous disposition, on long tenure of either the in or the 
The difference between the Queen's out pension of Greenwich Hospital, 
and the merchant service, in respect The continuous service system, es- 
of the amoimt of time which each al* tablished in 1853, under which men 
lows aman for shore-going, is certainly are entitled to pensions afterten years' 
contrasted, in sailorr miuda, very un- service should, in our opinion, be con- 
favourably to the former. During verted into an annual retaining fee, 
changes of ships in the latter, which by the stipulation that it should only 
occur frequently, a man is fVee. The be payable while the claimant con- 
returns of punishments in the navy tinues in the Queen's service. By 
would show that nearly the whole this mode, the navy would secure a 
amount was incurred for breaking highly paid and contented class of 
leave and for desertion. The best able seamen. However, the present 
remedy would be slightly to increase system gives satisfaction, as is proved 
ships' crews, so as to admit of giving by the fact that there are now 22,000 
more leave — or, as Jack significantly continuous service men in the navy 
calls it, "liberty**— without detriment and 9,000 continuous service boys, 
to the service. Much of the alarm- while the remaining men and officers 
ingly great amount of desertion in are only 23,000. 
the fleet during the last two years has The assertion that the rate of pay 
originated, there can be no doubt, in in the navy is so much lower than 
the faulty system of giving the £10 in the merchant service as to induce 
bounty to eftch man who enters. This the wives of blue-jackets to exert 
hot-house mode of obtaining sailors their influence to keep their husbands 
brought the weeds of the merchant out of the navy, is not thoroughly 
service into the navy, who eame with warranted. It seems that the one is 
the fun intention of deserting, and £2 9«. a month, the other ;C2 10«. 
easily fbund their opportunities. If But the former is considerably in- 
the pay and other attractions of the creased by good conduct and high 
Queen s service were sufficient, there rating. The average pay of seamen 
would be no need to bribe men to en- in the royal service is probably equal 
ter. It i0 said that the State under- to that of merchantmen. The usual 
I^ys seamen beeause it undertakes to rate of wages for A.B.'s to all parts 
give them a pension after a certain of the world is X2 10«. The excep- 
term of service. But if Peter dies, tions are trifling, and only last during 
or never earns a pension, he has been the summer season. A deduction 
mulcted to create a fund to pay Paul's from the average receipt should be 

Snsion. Similarly, the clerks in her made for the periods wnen men are 

^esty's civil service were taxed to not shipped, for there is no continu- 

form a superannuation fimd, until re- ous service in the commercial navy, 

cently, when the injustice of this plan With regard to the men who either 

^ing proved, it has been abolisued. shrink or desert from the Queen's 

hi our view, one who has served the service, we conceive the causes are 

State long and well should be sup- rather to be found in their bad cha- 

ported, in his infirm years, on that raoter than in that of the service ; or, 

honourable account, and not because in other words, the good comportment 

M has given twen^ years' work at a required in the royal navy is insup- 



128 Nawd Warfar€ between France and BngkmeL [Jtft 



erery tea, and Inflicting upon ns those ipeed offen for t&KtUng 
diiastera which are undoubtedly less this preliminary operation wtmid ik4 
painful in the material ruin, which would re-act osefully upon the prineipal object, 
he the ultimate result, than in the serious that is to say, on the passsi^ of tht 
hlow they would giro to our indepcnd- army after the adranced guard timrt^l 
ence, prestige, and rank, among the with constructing the tete depomt^ except 
great powers. on the condition that we snould cmb* 
** In face of the maritime developraent mand the Ciiannel for aereral succcsiiTt 
of Great Britain, we cannot flatter our- days. For this it is necessary ihAt oe* 
seWes to make war purely on the offen- fleet should gain a deeisiTe riciorr, aad. 
sive ; on the other hand, to resign our- following up this success, shottd bear 
selves to act merely on the defensiTe, down upon the point cboson for Use de- 
would he to ignore the value of our harkation, so as to crush any rrsietsw 
forces and demoralise our maritime per- on the part of the coast-guard. ** 
so&nel, the remarkable *lan and resolu- -,. . , ^ , • • 
tion of which should be sustained by vieving the Channel u the thettie 
firmness of attitude and calculated au- or zone of operations, the writer pro 
dacity. The true system of war for us poscfl points of debarkation, and fnr 
to follow will be found between the two retiring to, in case nf a reverae, Cher- 
extremes ; by this means we shall pre. bourrr^reat, and Hayre, wonld aend 
pare, in the first Instance, a vigorous ^^^^ i^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ p^^s 

SSl^inTT ^a^ffi;;^^^^^^^^^ ri', f - ^hS Aeet and &a 

reign ^tUements, while we organize the ^0"\*^ concentrate, but most be at- 

active naval force in such a way as to «"r^ of porta of refuge, tince the 

render it eminently movable, and we axiom, that a prudent general secures 

should distribute it upon tlie strategical a way of retreat, applies to sea as 

points of the various tones where it may well as land engagements. 

wh J circun...anc^ a« f«.«»r.ble. .nd ^°-« -"^-h. --»» /«« Ch.rb«,j^ 

iLne 1^' ^*^'X*.n m„. »nt T^^l CaW«. having in front of them xht En.- 

^t f. viln*l -i^r !2i' AfL^^f «»h Kjiindron of the Down*, sod behioJ 

i^m J^nf lis ««r]ill ^^i^^th^ them other EnglUh sqiudion.. ttiwcth. 

of 0«>*t BritjJn , i«d It i. in fl«* but in ^S^'^nL^^U^nA^ 

*&TB.t^'toVr'lr^t?eri'?^iS -- r^i^r- [T r- 

neM of iu iwJatlon. To condMct, ihem. *<»''^ hecomo at the tame time the bttt 

«„- «_.-.. <- ik. -„;i _/• x'.„/-.j —V centre of opemtion* tliat we cooM pa«- 

put ihe mluarj, T*$ouTctt of the two em. froi the other aide of UiePai do CJai*.' 

ptre* to the trial, » at to find adoamlage «»•«» wu» »•»«.&••«»> v«wu. 

in our real nperioriin.—tHch it Ihe objfa The Meditcrnmean, oontintws the 

1" '^j ^u ^"fT %' "^ °^ \ o'toralhf y^^^r ^ould be the eecMd sooe of 

r^'in''th':Cr;StrcV^n''ci5"cre':S operaUon. OneportionofthePrench 

£nKUihaoMt.toierTea.abridgetotfae Aeot would be etni>loyed there m 

ioTading army after having opened the nwintammg eommOBicatioa ^th Al- 

pMiage for it, and to mainuin after, geria, m fightinffmdeUilthaKBglHh 

wardi, br iU mott rapid reuela, com- naval forcoe, which wtmid be eoa- 

municatfuna with tbc mother country." strained, by the diataooe of their but* 

nn.- • _i • __- 1 •__ iv. n • of Operation*, to eeparat*, In order to 

Th» " fcfP«*"«:. Ou"- Capi- ^i^^J^i and would Woiinbered by 

tiune de Fr.5gate then lay. down • coaUnetranaporta, while "onrdup^* 

■hort Mheiiie ol tnva«on :- ^^^^^^ ^^^ tr-^^^^j^ pcrhana, a^iu 

" On aeconnt of the nocertainty of carrr our legions to Egypt ** All 

*!•• ^^J?**."^ '" *''• Chunnel, ami of oiir 'strategic combinationa," oheerrc* 

thedefcn.ireorg.nit»tionofoarneish- 1,^ ^(i, g^t technical acuteoeci, 

•ectirity, if we oonld postibly posMH txixnontu in he ncjtneu «./ oirr 

onrtdTe*. by «irpri»e ot force, of a '<*!''*' ami crrtmnty that thtirma- 

port on the cnemy'e coa«t, which chinfnj will Ufork mlL For these 

wovM be flt to ttirt a* a tet* d* pout. CdsentiuleleincntBofstiooesa heooonts 

ItnnilbalMi. whatever teciHty gnat on the ability of Fkaeh eagiuMn, 



1861.] I^aval War/are between France and England^ 128 

who will, he sajs, preserve the su- pereonnel and materiel of that insti- 
periority already acquired in this tution. An exception, however, must 
point over our rivals. For ourselves, be made, in the matter of inscrip- 
we are not aware that English ships f ion, the despotic system b^ which 
of war are inferior, on the aver- the French Government fills its fleet, 
ao^e, to the average rapidity of the just as conscription keeps up its 
French. Satisfied on tne power of army. In our opinion, this method 
maintaining this excellence in speed, acts like palsy on the outer members 
our author comes to a point on which and limbs of that navy, while mal- 
he is the very reverse of content, viz., administration in Paris is a cancer, 
the numerical superiority of the £ng- eating into the heart of the service. 
Hsh fleet, which, he observes, would The sharp strictures made in the 
be ecrasantf in the Channel and Corps Legislatif, last Session, when 
Mediterranean, unless — and this qua- passing the navy estimates, on the 
lification is pregnant — means can be unsatisfactory character of tne naval 
taken to obhge that fleet to send de- accoimts. have proved the value of 
tachments far and wide, to protect freedom of debate by resulting in a 
the mercantile marine, and the mul- report, dated 17th November last, 
titudeof points "on which," observes from the Minister of Marine to the 
he, "the British empire is so vulner- Emperor, recommending the appoint- 
able." Hostile diversions must bo ment of a mixed commission of in- 
carefully prepared beforehand. It quiry into marine organization, under 
does not enter into his calculation to the heads administration and account- 
propo<!e a diversion in Ireland ; but ability, and naming nine coromis- 
nc suggests the formation of harbours sioners for this purpose. This re- 
ef refuge and aggression in the French commendation has been approved by 
colonies, whence legions bearing the the Emperor, and it is further ex- 
Bonaparte Eagle may suddenly be pected tliat in(}uiry will be made into 
transported to seize British posses- the still more important question of 
sions abroad. By such means, he con- IntcriptioUy the present mode by 
ceives, the enemy's fleet would be so which seamen are taken into the ser- 
called off and diminished, the shores vice of the State. The naval captain 
of England would become more open proceeds to say : — 
to attack. But he acknowledges 
that — •* Temporary circumstances, brought 

•• To complete this tnsemhU of opera- «^"* ^^i^'LIT''^"' ^^T' ^u'^'^Vtl 

tions we mist secure an alliance which ??^?^/^^*^l'\/lI!l5^^^ \^\ "!" 

would bring us the support of the Rus- i!il*!iA^*iu^*L^,!5rj'' ^^^ 

iian fleet, and which would stir up in ff "®?*^® ^^ the squadron of evolutions. 

our faroui the most poweriW of diver- *^** ^? *^^"***lS*VT7f»FJS'*'L"*'i^^ 

sions on the side of the Baltic Sea and cal value, on the type of three able sea- 

in IndJA.** ™^ gunners, three able fasuiers, and a 

^^ ^ little less than two top men per gun, it 

Representing the jyersonnel of his was sufficient to demand 50'/, men from 

country's navy as having seen close the maritime inscription, and 60*/ • re- 

their neighbour's line-of-battle ships, cruits from the conscription. Neverthe- 

they are confident of the result of a less, it must not be foiyotten that this 

struggle on equal terms-he, never- propoTUonapphe. itself to vwelsalrea^^ 

thelS^ inidste on several advances ^it^^lT^f^i^^ZT^^ 

towards placing this pereonnel ^ the ^^^f,^ ^^ above all, the Squadron of 

best and most contented footmg, and evolutions, will procure for us, when we 

concludes : — seriously wish it, excellent complements 

" It appears that there is much to be (cadresj^ it can be accepted as a fact 

done before our maritime frontier will which has the sanction of experience. 

b« in a state to act the double r6le of OurfacuUiesofarmament receive a very 

defence and aggression.** important extension as they are aug- 

Space does not aUow us to follow rented on one side 1« per cent, in re- 

CaptSnFouUioyinto his discussion "S^^ t^'^J'^^'^'^t^^M^^ 

of all the matters which he deems "^ll ^^^^^.^^^^^^ 

MM..* !i. r Ai. m • i« 1.1- cent, concerning conscripiion, taicen on 

requisite for the efficiency of the the most elastic basis, which is in reaUty 

Jrencn fleet, and which occupy the 32 per cent. We can, therefore, on 

bulk of his elaborate treatise, en- condition of improving our maritime 

titled, as it is, considerations on the inscription, of increasing the productioB 



iSfi Naffal Warfare between France afid England, [Jan. 

ereiy Bea, and inflicting upon us those speed offers for effecting surprises, 
disasters vliich are undoubtedly less this preliminary operation would not 
painful in tlie material ruin, which would re-act usefully upon the principal object, 
be the ultimate result, than in the serious that is to say, on the passagre of the 
blow they would gire to our independ- army after the advanced guard charged 
ence, prestige, and rank, among the with constructing the tete depont, except 
great powers. on the condition that we enould com- 
* ' In face of the maritime development mand the Channel for several successive 
of Great Britain, we cannot flatter our- days. For this it is necessary that our 
selves to make war purely on the offen- fleet should gain a decisive victory, and, 
sive ; on the other hand, to resign our- following up this success, should bear 
selves to act merely on the defensive, down upon the point chosen for the de- 
would be to ignore the value of our barkation, so as to crush any resistaiice 
forces and demoralize our maritime per- on the part of the coast-guard." 
sonnel, the remarkable ^lan and resolu- 
tion of which should be sustained by Viewing the Channel as the theatre 
firmness of attitude and calculated au- or zone of operations, the writer pro- 
dacity. The true system of war for us poses points of debarkation, and for 
to follow will be found between the two retiring to, in case of a reverse. Cher- 
extremes ; by this means we shall pre- bour<j, Brest, and Havre, would send 
r^'il!^ ^r* instance, a vigorous ^^^ i^rge vessels, and other ports 
T^^:^^''^.Z^Ti^^^^,7o: -^l o^es. This fleet and flotilla 
reign settlements, while we organize the ^^^1/ concentrate, but must be ^- 
active naval force in such a way as to sured of ports of refuge, since the 
render it eminently movable, and we axiom, that a prudent general secures 
should distribute Ic upon the strategical a way of retreat, applies to sea as 
points of the various zones where it may well as land engagements. 

be called to exhibit itself, so tliat it may .. rp • i« ^ * ^ *i, i 

everywhere be ready to take the offensive - " To provide a retreat for those naval 

when circumstances are favourable, and ^^^^ ^^^^'^; /J?f ^^SJ from Cherbourg, 

strike a decisive blow in the principal ^^l^ direct themselves to the Pas de 

zone at any given moment. A power ^±^'^^ ^^ ^°/ "^,1^°"^ °^ ^^«°^ ^^^ ^?^: 

such as France, which can dispose of ^^^ squadron of the Downs, and behind 

numerous and practical armies, has the ^^[T 1^^%^",^^'!^ squadrons, strength. 

certaintyofobtainingaglorioustriumph ^^fM^L^^'^^Si ?""* ^'l"'"^''^**: "t 

if she could once set he? foot on the soil S?^|^^ desirable to create m fitmt of 

of Great Britain ; and it is in fact but in ^oiJogne, and m front of Havre, two 

this way that she wUl ever be able to ^^^-^o^" ?f ^«^^,»«» ^i"^^ ^^'^d, more- 

,,-««♦:««♦«♦«•«,- ♦*»«♦ ^«,;*«- u« over, shelter these towns from bom- 



our armies to the soil of England, and ^.^j*"^^ "'. operations uia. we coma pos- 

put the miUtary resources of the two em- Jibly desire with a view to a deb^kation 

^ires to the triiU so as to find advantage ^rom the other side of the Pas de Calais. ' 

in ow^real superiority, ^^ch is the object The Mediterranean, continues the 

to which our system of war ought naturally ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^j ^ 

to tend. The part ot our navy is to make ^^^^ j.: «^„ n« « «^«+; «« ^f 4.1. * t?»^^ u 

a breach in the waUs which incircle the gyrations. Oneportionof the French 

EngUsh coast, to serve as a bridge to the fleet would be employed there m 

invading army after having opened the niamtammg communication with Al- 

passage for it, and to maintain after- geria, in fighting in detail the English 

wards, b^ its most rapid vessels, com- naval forces, which would be con- 

munications with the mother country . " strained, by the distance of their bases 

J^,t i^^If^^nv^L^^' ^""^ * coaling transporte, While "ourships/' 

Bhort scheme of invaMon :- ^g„,^|g j^^^ ^j^^^j^t^ perhaps, aga(a 

" On aeconnt of the uncertainty of carry our legions to Egypt" " All 
the weather in tlie Channel, and of oiir strategic combinations," observes 
the def«iMveOTgani«ation of our neigh- jj^, with great technical acuteness, 
a .teff^"^ rinti ^^ "^ "o-Sht to\ave as their fouudatS 
««nrity, if we could poMibly posses. «'l>enortty tn thf fv^neti of Our 
ourselref, by surprise or force, of a »««'?'». atid certamtff Oat O^r ma- 
port on the enemy's coast, wMch chinery will work wdl." For these 
would be fit to serve as a tete de pmt. essentialelementsofsuccess he counts 
NeTcrthden, whatever fiudHty great on the ability of Freaeh engineers. 



1861.] Ifaval War/are httween France and England^ 128 

who will, he saya, preserve the su- perwnnel and materiel of that inati- 

periority already acquired in this tution. An exception, however, must 

point over our rivals. For ourselves, be made, in the matter of inscrip- 

we are not aware that English ships ^lon, the despotic system hj which 

of war are inferior, on the aver- the French Government fills its fleet, 

age, to the average rapidity of the just as coTiscription keeps up its 

French. Satisfied on the power of army. In our opinion, this method 

maintaining this excellence in speed, acts like palsy on the outer memben 

our author comes to a point on which and limbs of that navy, while mal- 

he is the very reverse of content, viz., administration in Paris is a cancer, 

the numerical superiority of the £ng> eating into the heart of the service, 

lish fleet, which, he observes, would The sharp strictures made in the 

be ecramnte in the Channel and Corps Legislatif, last Session, when 

Mediterranean, unless — and this qua- passing the navy estimates, on the 

lification is pregnant — means can be unsatisfactory character of tne naval 

taken to obhge that fleet to send de- accounts, have proved the value of 

tachments far and wide, to protect freedom of debate by resulting in a 

the mercantile marine, and the mul- report, dated 17th November last, 

titudeof points "on which," observes from the Minister of Marine to tha 

he, "the British empire is so vulner- Emperor, recommending the appoint' 

able." Hostile diversions must be ment of a mixed commission of in- 

carefully prepared beforehand. It qniry into marine organization, under 

does not enter into his calculation to tiie heads administration and account* 

propo«o a diversion in Ireland ; but ability, and naming nine coramLB* 

he 6usgeats the fonnation of harbours sioners for this purpose. This re- 

of refuge aud aggression in the French commendation has been approved by 

colonies, whence legions bearing the the Emperor, and it is further cx- 

Bonaparte Eagle may sudden^ be pected tnat inc|uiry will be made into 

transported to seize British posses- the still more important question of 

sions abroad. By such means, he con- Intcriptiorty the present mode by 

ceives, the enemy's fleet would be so which seamen are taken into the ser- 

called off* and diminished, the shores vice of the State. The naval captain 

of England would become more open proceeds to say : — 
to attack. But he acknowledges 

that — •* Temporary circnmstances, brought 

»• To complete this ensemhU of opera- !!S?°Vp^il!Lt?^'"tI^^S Z?l^ ?hTw^r 

tions we mist secure an alliance which f^f J^p^^^^lfiL/r.^^^^^ th« ^r 

would bring na the support of the Rus- ^l^„^?LV*^?i\',^,;^^^ 

sian fleet, and which would stir up in ff T?*"® "" ..*l^!^ 1 r^^I^ ''*♦?• 

our ftiToui the most powerlNil of diver, ^^fllrnn ,hl t^^^^^^^^ 

lions on the aide of the BalUc Sea and ^«^ ^*'^'^®' ^"^ *,^® type of three able sea- 

in India.** ^^ ^^^ gunners, three able fusiliers, and a 

little less than two top men per gun, it 

Representing the personnel of his was sntficient to demand 50'/, men from 

country's navy as having seen close the maritime inscription, and 50*/ « re* 

their neighbour's line-of-battle ships, cniit* from the conscription. Neverthe- 

they are confident of the result of a lew* i* P"»' «?* ^« forgotten that this 

struggle on equal terms-he, never- proportion applies itself to vwsels already 

thelew, insists on several advances "iPPlied with already exercised compe- 

♦^^ITjI ", ."^ wu ocTci€»i c»uTi*ui^ ^ 1^^ maislraJtc«,our special 

towards placing this pereonnel q^ the ^^^^^^ ^^ ubove aU, the Iquad^ of 

Dcst and moat contented footmg, and evolutions, will procure for us, when we 

concludes : — seriously wish it, excellent complements 

" It appears that there la much to be (cadresj, it can be accepted as a fact 

done before our maritime frontier will which has the sanction of experience, 

bs in a state to act the double r61e of Ourfacalttesofarmamentreceiveavexy 

defence and aggression." important extension as they are aug- 

Space does not aUow us to follow rented on one side )« per cent, in rj. 

Captain FouUioy into his discussion Jg^' and^'o'SThnill^^^^^^ 

SLn?u^^^"^^!i^" «^^.*^^ ^® r^^.v® cent, concerning conscription, taken^ 

requisite for the efficiency of the the most elastic basis, which is in reality 

nench fleet, and which occupy the 32 per cent. We can. tliercfore, on 

tnilk of his elaborate treatise, en- condition of improving our maritime 

titled, as it is, considerations on the inscription, of increasing the ptodnctioa 



124 



Naval Warfare between France and England. 



[JaiL 



of our special schools, and of continuing 
to maintain at least a squadron of evo- 
lutions, arm a fleet a third more con- 
siderable than in the provisions of the 
budget of ) 857. We should enter largely 
into this course if we would possess a 
maritime power equal to the destinies 
and the financial and industrial resources 
of imperial France. It belongs to the 
patriotism of the nation to second the 



government of the Emperor in this re- 
storative work, as it has already done 
in the accomplishment of the other great 
things of these times. In taking the 
figure of 6 2, 000 men as the assured num- 
ber which may furnish the valid portion 
of the maritime inscription, and in de- 
manding 57,200 men of the recruits, we 
will have, en personnel, the means of 
arming a battle fleet of 



staff. 
60 vessels ^Algesiras type) manned with 1 .800 
10 )f Qtype Duguay Trouin, reduced) 300 
40 frigates (type Isly) . . . 680 

40 corvettes (type Phl6geton) . . 480 

fto Avi»na i ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ O'yV^ Monge) . 320 
ou avisos J ^Q second class (type Corsican) 240 



Sailon. 

52,980 
7,000 

15,840 
7,040 
4,600 
3,480 



230 3,840 90,940 

230 vessels of all ranks, manned with 3,840 officers of all grades and professions, 
and 90,940 sailors, of whom 45,470 are inscrits. 

Therewould remain for the armament ployed in the defence of the coast. If 

of the coast- guard and the fleet of trans- we could succeed in realizing such an 

ports (that of transports being estab- armament as this a few months before 

fished according to the ancient proper- the maritime war, our active fleet would 

tion), 28/2tiO men, without counting appear under conditions of more than 

what inscription outside its valid con- probable success. We could, for ex- 

tingent could furnish to the vessels em- ample, dispose it thus : — 

Brest and Cherbouig. Toalon. Distant Stations. 

35 line-of-battle ships, 25 line- of- battle ships, 10 line-of- battle ships, 

5 frigates, 5 frigates, 30 frigates, 

30 corvettes and avisos 30 corvettes and avisos 60 corvettes and avisos 

of second class. 



of second class. 



of second class. 



England, could she dispose of 100 ves- fleet If his and our estimates of the 

sels and 100 frigates, would have much inscription are correct, it appears 

to do to make head against Russia in there are about 93,000 enrolled whose 

the Baltic, and to fight us at the same ^^^.^i j^ ^ ^ required with- 

time with a numerical superiority, in ^„. • y JI; I^ ^u^ . • *^**'***J*' " ". 

the channel, in the Mediterranean, and ^^<^. \?J^P^ ^ *^® vanous callings m 

on aU the seas of the globe." ^^ich they are en^ged. In this 

category, stand the dock-yard men, 

The two weak points in the above who are all on the registers, excepting 
scheme are visible enough: — Russia the men employed in building iron 
is not likely to ally herself with ships— an exception made in their 
France in an attempt against Great favour, lest they should quit this 
Britain, and France possesses only 37 calling. From all we hear, the des- 
line-of -battle ships, or little more than potic system of inscription acts most 
half the number Captain Foullioy banefully upon every department of 
calculates on. The menaced country maritime industry. Within the last 
has 73 line-of-battle ships, and would month, a body of influential ship- 
certainly increase the numoer to more owners has laid a petition before the 
than 100, if France augmented her EmpeTor, proving that the appre- 
force to 70. Whether he has miscal- hension of being forced to serve in 
culated the number of seamen the the navy deters men from taking to 
in&cription could furnish, we cannot seafaring life, and ascribing the de- 
say. The entire amount of men in- cline of the French commercial navy 
scribed on the registers is, as we are to the difliculty of manning it The 
informed, about 155,000. Of these, complainants state that the number 
he estimates that 62,000 could serve and tonnage of the mercantile maiine 
afloat in the fleet, coast-guard, and of their country has been gradually 
transports. The total number of in- diminishing, and that, in consequence, 
scripts and conscripts to be put afloat the trade of France is carried on far 
is reckoned at 1 19,200, of which 28,260 more in foreign than native bottoms, 
would man other services than the Our readers will hardly credit our 



Ib61.] yaval Warfare Oetwceii France and England. 125 

assertion, which, however, mny l^e re- men, nearly treble the French total. 

lied on^ that this marine lias no more To return to the treatise before us, on 

than nine ships exceeding 800 tons ! le personnel et materiel de la Jlotte 

This result is, we believe, more due Franqaise: its author, quitting the 

to the law, which compels partition first part of his theme, congratulates 

of property, and thus precluaes accu- his countrymen on the forward state 

mulatiott of capital in shipping, than of the latter, saying : — 
to fears of forced service : yet, this 

latter condition of the law in France ** We reckon at this moment a greater 
is, no doubt, a main cause of her number of rapid veBsels than our rivals, 
maritime poverty and weakness. Ac- ^^ ^^ ^'*^« ^^® ***'^ °^ ^^^™ *« ^® '^^^' 
cording to inscription returns of last ^«f^^ *^^P«- ^^ ^«; ** If^st, apply cur- 
year, quoted in M. Clarigny's pamph- "^^T ^ K^T^^y^u ^"^^*^™. *^- 
Y v^ ' M«^»^ " ^- 1 *****o*V, r***"*'" vantage, which wiU allow us, at a ffivea 

let on the French and English ar- moment, to accept the struggle ; let us 
maments, the number of merchant also endeavour, with unceasing activity, 
seamen was 102,000 ; but wc suspect to discover and appropriate to ourselves 
this statement is an exaggeration. It the secrets which future holds in re- 
is probable that, were inscription in serve. In following this course, we 
force in the United Kingdom, the re- ought to aim at a normal effective such 
gisters would show about 500,000 as this:— 

£Ut-major. Sallora. 

ftO vessels, iron-cased and beaked, carrying from 

40 to 45 guns, ..... 1,500 45,000 

50 iron-cased frigates, carrying from 32 to 36 guns, 1 , 200 27 , 400 
60 vessels carrying 12 guns (type to be created) 1,020 18,000 

160 3,720 90,400 

" These vessels being destined to fight hours, with their usual foresight and 
at close quarters by boarding, and to practical intelligence, do not allow us 
sustain, for a long time, an engagement to be beforehand m ith them, and they 
in which they would fire both broad- are preparing a vigorous initiative. 
sides, should have strong crews, calcu- On our side, it is only by keeping the 
lated on the footing of armaments, ac- materiel all complete, afloat, in a perfect 
tive, on both »ides. The effective of the state of liability to be called into active 
fleet once fixed, it becomes possible to service; by watching with incessant so- 
dctermine with precision the develop- licitude over the conservation of the mar 
inent which suits its divers elements, in chinery and engines, and their good work- 
personnel and in materiel ; the adminis- ing, by verifications, rectifications, and 
tratioii would then lay do>vn a certain frequent essays; in hold ing always ready, 
basis to establish its provisions, combine arms and materials, as well as the pre- 
its projects, enlighten its march, and servation of the objects and the consis- 
give it all the advantages inherent to a tency of their fabrication will admit ; in 
complete and well defined system, with maintaining with foresight the material 
views of a whole, continuance in its acts, provisions in good order; by holding 
well-fixed principles, and sol id traditions, the whole framework easily visible, by 
all which are calculated to command the development of the personne/ in spe- 
confidence out of the department, and cial schools, and all the industries which 
to guarantee its own internal strength, produce naval men, that our naval ad- 
Neverthelessitmustbegrantedtliat with- ministration will be always found ready 
out the scheme of multiplied transfor- for every event. For a fleet so active 
mations, succeeding each other as by as that of which wc have indicated the 
enchantment, the task of naval adminis- possible number, it would not be too 
tration is, in this particular, one of great much to keep up, as was done in 1653, 
difilculty. A footing of peace, fixed and as the English do at present, two 
upon the known wants of maritime ser- evolutionary squadrons, one at Toulon, 
vice and eventual political necessities, is and one at Brest. A useful emulation 
easily transformed into a footing of war, would stimulate these squadrons; they 
and it is of great importance to be able would serve our diplomacy in the north 
to pass rapidly from the one to the and in the south of France; they 
other. If we succeed in acting fVom the would above all promote the precious 
onset on the offensive, we may prob- school of discipline and of tradition, 
ably, in the beginning of hostilities, ob- source of every progress in a military 
tain some success which might exercise navy, which has been represented for 
% decisive influence on the course of twenty years by only a squadron in the 
events. We must not, however, dissimu- Mediterranean.** 
late to ourselves the &ct, that our neigh* 



120 yaval War/are helwfen France and England, [ Jkl 

Thisgood naval captain iB evidently during two centariet, to raise mMI^ 

not free from the ordinary professional freaae iuelf every time ih*t the Su- 

failiuLMirhichledthetradeamaninthe ^^^ energetically demanded ii. Ui-.u 

fable to insist on the value of leather ^dmimstratiou were tupprrtwd, -• 

<^« ^./vt-»»f:»» k;. n«^:.*A »/Nwn Tu^x should bo constrained to have rrc oer w 

lor protecting hw native town. Tho- ^^ ^j,^ ^^^y^^ ^ rolonurr enmUpm., 

roughly informed as the Bntish pub- ^jt^ the bait of larje premidma. Theew. 

he now are as to every step of pro- tributor of Uies would pay Ibr Uiia aa- 

gress our warhke neighbours make ceasicyofthe public Krviee much dam 

towards augmenting their naval than he actually pays under a dtifemt 

strength, it is not likely that this form for protecting elScacKHtaly tha 

power will assume any dangerous di- painful industry of seamen, and for sei- 

mensions without corresponding ex- taining tho institution of all cUssa to 

ertions on our side of the Channel the greater profit of the national powrr. 

Meanwhile, it is interesting and in- Y\i^ ^®!Jlf ♦ 'J^* "•^'' sdmmu. 

^¥^^^\^^ ♦^ o^« k^«. ♦ki'o v^yx^\> (.«.; tration, reduced to hare recoone to ei- 

structive to see how this French sai- ^j^„^, ^^ „,^^ ^ recrultinjcof the 

lor combats the idea that a fleet ^^ ^ould no longer operate with tba 
can be made eftective by putting almost mathematical certainty that it 
soldiers on board it. To navigate and has at present in the levyinjr of a per«o«»- 
to fight, such is the double purpose nel of which it is aware exactly, and at 
of a modem man-of-war, '* of that any moment* of the number and the as- 
marvellous creation," says our friend, sessment. After rarious raccesahil a:- 
** destined to give to man the empire tempts, the system of inscriptkm substi- 
of the seas." Why he should write ^"'«1 for that by prMsure, and fecuij- 
in the future tense is not clear, un- ^Tn^ the genius of Colbot, has both 
less he consider his countrymen only Sl^ValfeS^^^ 
as worthy of the name of man. At t^^ sute and seamen. For In enrolUa^- 
the same time, he shows how atwo- sailors, in regulating the order of tbs 
lutely perfect seamanlike qualities ler>'ing, and, above all, in making ths 
are demanded of those who, as he periodical service on board the flt^t. 
says, ** will start from our ports, to the condition, sine and »o«, of ^U 
attempt the most audacious enter- participation in benefit arising in ma*:- 
prises against the territory or the ^'^"^^ affairs, the Sute has coattitatcl 
naval forces of the enemy." It is, he • common right on mariUme ind.^ 
•ays, when the gale grows into a try. or on the men who follow it: ion.. 
ITiJL ♦!,* .A. *;«r« «nS .n^n ii.v<k«yv ^*d pcoplo it lus guanuiteed Industra; 
•term, the sea rises, and men have to ui^^./ ^,j ^^^ TL-^erred th.* profit o ' .i 

mount the slippery shrouds at night exprc^.ly for them, which mean* iKi: 

to take in the stru^ri^Ung sails, that miiher a foreign nary, nor French m > 

the specialty of the seaman appears, jcrts. who are not liable to ser^i-* 

and controverts on high ground all charges, have the riirht in France u 

the theories opposed to its essential take to themselves any maritime Indu*- 

value. Further he writes : — try. without claiming a prIvUcfe an I 

committing an usorpation to the detn- 

**Up to this time the institutions of ment of tiic navj. The naval ailmin.s- 

the French marine have had in view tration is the guardian of this contract 

to produce a fleet not inferior to that In all timers its endeavour has been to 

of any other nation, either in the quali- maintain the terms equally, that it to 

tics of its men or of its material. Now say, to protect the sacred rights of 'h« 

all other navies occupy themselves in navy from the mares and abuses of aH 

increasing thonuml>erof their sailors, sorts, which have so often mcnaceil tt 

and in raising the cDoditton of this spe- It is the l>orn protector of naval meo, 

cial classof men by particular privileges oversees them, defends their intere^^ 

and ftecuniary advantages. Ru«siaand with an enlightened anxiety ennoblet 

Austria exhibit ptfrseverlng endeavours their roU^lon, and attaches its admlni*- 

to create for themselves a naval personi- trationswiih an intimate solidity, an 1 

flcation. England iropo«es u|>nn her.M?lf sttftcns tho rigours of tbe ri|rht of requi* 

heavy sacritlc.'s, in order tu draw into sition of wliich it is invented with rr. 

her n^vy the best fubjectM in her nier* gant to them. It does better still ■ by 

chant ser\'ici\ and to retain them aftiT- distributing thccharges of the service a« 

war is in her reserve. In France it is equally as ]v>s»ible, by tbe Improvement 

by maritime inscription that sailors are of the system of levying ; bv oootideno; 

eoucated and formed for the service of the liberty of sailors as well as clrciun- 

her fleet. It is too much forgotten that stances permit, and In being sc«Ums for 

It is owing to tldseminentlr conservative the increase of the profits of the naval 

institution that cor navy has been able, profession. It has brooght new snl^fcti 



1861.] Nav<U Warfare hetmm Fra^iee and Efighnd, 187 

under the banner of the inscription, and admonishes his government to be so- 
sat wfied justice towards a class of men licitous in the wliole matter of iu- 

l^^JatJl ^^J^:^r^- *?u«''^"^*'y scription; to take care not to alter 

guarantees of common ri:,'lit by an m- *u«v^««« ' *. ««„*^ i u * » r 

flexible State. If the welfare of the J^? Prfept paternal character' of 
public service and the prosperity of the ]^ administration, and to respect 
population of our coasts were only con- *"® liberty of seamen when not on 
suited, a union between naval men and service ; lest, he says, this means of 
the mariue administration would be in. obtaining sailors "be not struck with 
dissoluble. For two centuries all the sterility. Other remarks of this na- 
goveraments of France have maintained ture are thus closed : — "Any increase 
this order of affairs, and stamped it with of the debt which our seamen remj- 
adeamtive consecration. Sailors many larly acquit to the country, with ad- 
Ci> '^:.tl'SZ r^S^Thl^J muubleandscarcelyunde^od^^^ 
minds from the temptation of enrolling ^^ would provoke, an insurmount- 
themselves in foreign mercantUe navie? *P^® discust for les tnduHnes marp^ 
where work is better paid. But the ^^''^ ^'^^^ ^ ^ Bay, a repusnanoe 
charge of a generally numerous family, to any seafaring calling, which sub- 
joined to the privations and sufferings jects them to inscription. Able sea- 
inherent to the practice of a coarse and men, active top-men, the elite of 
perilous life, shows the imperious neces- ships' crews, are, he says, becoming 
sityof elevated pav. which ought not to scarcer in France from day to day. 

On ^1 VI J'uu% *"' ""* '*}^ ^'"if' The fisheries of the coast seem to fur- 
On one side, wealth and ease are hberaliy -.joU XL- «„:««:„«i ^„r^rA^ ^f «.^. 

spread out. mdustry foreign to naviga- ^} ^i ^^^^1^ f^^^^? ^^ /ll^' 

tion shows itself, and offers the aspect of «f^ although the character of this 

higher profits to recruits ill content with ^^^ ^^ very good, he declares, m many 

their lot ; on the other side, two import- pomts, such as "religious sentiments, 

ant branches of work for the sailors, personal courage, self-denial, fecun- 

coasting and long navigation, tend to dity in resources, and instinct for all 

decrease more and more by the concur- things connected with a sea life," 

rence of the railways, and by the recent such as make them the sheet-anchor 

blow to the protection of our flag. In of the service—it is, nevertheless, 

.^^m'^*vL"f*'ru^^*''^^*'^!-'''l?^ Clear that the French navy is ex! 

s^D w^ '^^ "^""^ ^ ^^^ ^ *^«°^^^y ^«fi"^°^ comparatively with 

^*^ ' ours, in men who have acquired the 

The foregoing paragraph, on the experience of top-men in the many 

virtues and claims of the French sys- thousand tall ships of our merchant 

t«m of impressment, intelligibly an- princes. 

nouncea that the pay accorded by the Without attempting to frame a 
8tate to seamen in her service is in- complete plan of defence for the 
adequate. On one hand, the Paris French coasts. Captain Foullioy pro- 
Admiralty is told that the effect of poses certain measures of this sort 
railroads has been to diminish the To create a coast-^ard, composed of 
coasting trade, and that the with- gun-boats of various tonnage and 
drawal of protection afforded by navi- of iron-cased vessels, provided with 
gation laws has diminished the ocean- beaks, of sufficient tonnage to with- 
going ships ; while, on the other stand a shock, but as short as is corn- 
hand, the rate of wages earned in patible with great speed, in order 
land employments is seducing youth that they mav turn readily in narrow 
from embarking in seafaring pursuits, channels. This standing force would 
The writer urges, as a "question of perform all the duties of the present 
justice, right, and humanity," that it douanitrsy or custom-house service, 
IS the duty of the State to exercise of port police, lighting, buoying, pi- 
or increase its paternal care of men lotsge, &c. 

liable to inscription. In accordance He concludes by strongly remon- 

with this view, a measure has recently strating against the notion of substi- 

been adopted for giving bounties to tuting soldiers for sailors on board 

fishermen, furnishing them with nets, ships of war, and his conclusion is 

and, in short, adopting that system assuredlv sound, 

of fostering which was tried in Ire- To take the foe by boarding has 

land, pronounced injurious, and ex- ever been a British specialty : so it is 

plodea. opportune that the French are still 

Out expenenceAoapUainede/regate inclined to try their prowess in this 



128 ' y aval Warjur^ bttioemi l^raitct and Eii^liXfidy [Jan. 

way. They have'lat^^, aeeu our also been estimated, our jjaTigating 
crews quite near, says (Saj^tain Foul- personnel amounts to about 300,000 
Hoy, and are eager for the fight. No men, this for<>& is probably superior to 
one doubts their bravery, but of a any probable combination of other 
truth, a regiment of Zouaves, sea-sick nations. . Bi^sides, we may ^Iso fairly 
in a three-decker, woiild ezcite^more .presume that severs^ nations, such as 
laughter than fear in piir J^ck-tars. the German, American, and Italian, \ 
The reason wliy our allies wish to would not suffer the French to erect 
ship more soldiers plainly is, because supremacy at sea on ourniin, because 
they have not enough sailors. But the people of France have less indus- 
we suspect there is also a secret rea- trial and commercial aptitudes, are 
son. impressed seamen, under-paid, far more military and aggressive, and, 
and hating the- service, might be apt on these two accounts, are not bo 
to redtess theit wrongs by mutiny ; likely as the English to use such bu- 
and, therefore, the-presenceof a picked premacy merely in the interests of 
soldiery may be requisite. Fi'ance commerce, and peace. Captain Foul- 
has no such coip$ as our Royal ,lioy b£Ms taken . a- world-wide view of 
-Marmes — amphibious men — ^good, ats the eflonnous power marshalled under 
their device saysj^^ar mar€ et terram, the scegtee- ^' -Queen Victoria. A 
who acquire sea-legs and hardiness messengerjo^KiT^ rapid aikd' ubiquitous 
on board ship, by service afloat in our ' than the aeiicatfe Arie^^Sbes her Ma- 
numerous cruizers. A sufficient nura- .jesty^s Irijlciing, in plotting a girdle 
'ber of • sailors has ever formed the rpund tho globe ; and so long as her 
military difficulty of the French, and commands do not aim at unjust ag- 
we trust it may continue to do so. gressions, we may be sure that most 
It was not until the First Napoleon .nations will acquiesce in her queenly 
could put some thousand Genoese on sway over the high seas, touis Na- 
board nis fleet, that he hoped to be poleon . Bonaparte is not a foolish 
able to cope with England ; and king who would go- to war without 
Bonaparte-phobists say, that the counting the cost ; and he knows that 
Third Napoleon fosters the growth of warfare with our Queen would reaeto- 
the Italian kingdom in the expecta- ble a game at cards, in which posses- 
tion that the coasts of the Latin Pe- sion of -most trumps decides the day, 
ninsula will some day supply him depending for its issue on superiority 
with 60^00 seamen. If ever the of a^^egate riches. In Cromwell s 
French fleet were recruited in this time, an acute statesman, Sir James 
manner, and Russia also took up arms, Harrington, in his " Oceana," or Eng- 
England would have to look aboiit land, laid the foundation of politics, 
her, and she could turn to hire Ame- by pronouncing that empire follows 
ricans for both her royal and com- the balance of property, whether 
mercial navy, with the paramount lodged in one, in a few, or in many, 
advantage of securing the services of This dogma, which was new. at the 
men who speak our language. The time, and was deemed as important a 
total number of c^h required for the discovery as that of the compass, is 
wholeof our war dteam-vessels afloat, particularly applicable to the Sove!^ 
building, and converting, was lately reignty of the Sea, which has ever fol- 
calculated at 96,812 officers and sea- lowed predominance in commercial 
men, and 16,929 marines. If, as has wealth.: 



DUBLIN 
UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE. 



No. OCCXXXVIII. FEBRUARY, 1861. Vol. LVII. 



SHIPS IN ABHOUB. 

WHSKthe French joanialB proclaimed, the gloiy attaching to the fact of 
mart GalUeOj that the iron-cased fri- haying outstripped us by launch- 
gati^ "La Gloiie," had '^taken pos- ing the first armour-ship, vhidh, if 
session of the sea," ve hailed the an- not invuberable, has been made far 
nonncement wi^ the philosophic re- less vulnerable thaa other vessels, 
mark, that it is veil to have ingenious without any jBacrifioe of speed ; ana 
Allies -from whom we may learn how in so doing they have lert us to a 
to maintAJn our naval supremacy. If stem chase, proverbially a long one. 
the warlike invention should fail, the They have gone ahead, and have done 
experiment was tried at their cost ; if so because promptitude is a charao- 
it should succeed, it is easy to imitate teristic of a despotic government 
it. Assuredly our Admiralty did wisely The annexed engraved view of the 
to await the result, braving shot and " Gloire " shows what a formidable 
shell from journalists, who daily blew vessel of war she is. Her mere look 
the Board up, or at least condemned is striking. She is of immense size, dis- 
it as woodeiL like, as the3r said, " its placing nearly 6,000 tons ; and to an 
antiquated snips :'* forgetting that its eye experienced in naval warfare, the 
armour of proof consists in the &ct severity of her form, the sharpness 
that the House of Commons wiU not of her h'nes, the mass of iron that 
allow it to risk public money in mak- covers her, her capacity for extraor- 
ing great experiments. dinary speed, and the large calibre of 
fSncased in this cuirass, the robur et her guns, give her a very terrible ap- 
art triplex circa pectus of British offi- pearance. The impression created by 
dai nilors, the much^bused Lords comparing her with the wooden line- 
CommiBsioners may dedare that they of-lMkttle-ship Ijfiag near her is, that 
never were blind to the merits of the new vessel is as superior a weapon 
blindage (as the invention of ship- as that our riflemen caM '*MiBS Min- 
armour is called in French), and may nie*' is to *' Brown Bess." Her engines 

Soint to the " Warrior '' as perhaps are 900 horse-power ; she is reoorted 

estined, if not to knock the sides of to have attained a speed of la^ Knots, 

'^ La Qloire '' in, to take the shine out and was the only ship that could keep 

of her. up with the imp^al yacht " Aigle, ' 

Meanwhile, oar Allies deserve all during a trip in the Mediterranean. 



Shai-^Ptoof Gun-SJuMstOBadaptedto Inm-eaud Ship§. By Captain Coles, B.N. 
Westminster, I860. 
SnfuHe. ihiiUde Commerce. mfeerAn^leierre, InduMtrie MetaUurgiq^. 8 vols. 

Paris, leao. 

VOL. LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVIII. 9* 



132 Ships in Armour. [Feb. 

Her real full speed, however, with harmlessly against her armour, while 

coals, &c.. on ooard, will probably she could throw molten iron into his 

not prove oeyond about twelve knots, unprotected sides. Man our '^wooden 

thouj^h more is expected. walls" as you will, yet what could 

With this wonderful celerity, which avail them against such odds 9 
surpasses that of all our ships of The dimensions of the '*Gloire" are 
war with scarcehr an exception, she 252 feet long, and 55 feet beam. She 
has the heels of almost every -ship, is, in fact, a huge corveUe, so called 
and if not absolutelv invulnerable, is from carrying her armament on a sin- 
proof against shell, and probably gle covered deckj and she exceeds 
against a ^at many shot No wooden most ships of the Ime in tonnage. Yet 
vessel comd encounter her in smooth she only carries thirty-fidx guns, and 
water, except at fearful odds. How- their calibre is no more than thirty- 
ever, she has an extreme defect. Her pounders, evidently because she can- 
sharpness of form and enormous weight not carry greater weight of metal 
and power drive her through thewaves, Thirty-four of these guns, which are 
so that she pitches heavily, and takes rifled, are on the main-deck, and two 
in water over her bows. To remedy are on the forecastle. The iron plates 
this, she is trimmed bv the stem to she is cased in are not, as some per- 
the extent of no less tnan about five sons have asserted, fifteen centimetres, 
feet. Her port-sills are but five feet or six inches thick but ten centi- 
eieht inches above water, and in case metres, or fourand a-nalf inches thick ; 
of a heavy sea, when she would be thesamethicknessasthe plates on our 
obliged to close her ports, a double- vessels. The iron of whicn the French 
tiered vessel could nave her ports plates are composed mav be 8ii8- 
open, and so have cette corvette cuir- pected to be of a superior description. 
assee at her mercy. If, as may be an- If not of peculiar quality, it ottlainly 
ticipated, the rest of the iron-cased is excellent forged iron; and itsmakers 
ships now in course of construction deem it so peculiar as to call it acier 
across the Channel partake of these fondu, or foundry steel This ques- 
ill qualities, they will only be smooth- tion is so important, that we propose 
water sailors, and will not be formid- to revert to it again, 
able antagonists under quick wa^ in We must not lose sight of the fact, 
a sea. In this essential point of view, though an invisible one, that the 
the wisdom of our Admiralty is ap- "Gloire'' is a steam-ram. The pro- 
parent, in having waited to see what jection of her cutwater at the line 
practice would do ; and further, until caUed " between wind and water," 
theory could devise a better form of would enable her to crush in anenemy's 
iron-coated ship. broadside at the most dangerous point, 

The "Gloire^' has, as will be ob- and the immense strength given to 

served, three slight masts and a short her cutwater shows that this mode of 

bowsprit fore and aft rigged, for try- attack is contemplated. She is not 

sails, ana can set a square sail on her destined for distant, active service, 

foremast. Her spars and top-hamper but is considered as a Idock-shipy or 

are therefore so light as hardly to im- floating-battery, capable of defending 

pede her when under steam. This the port she may be stationed in, yet 

very moderate rig is certainly most being also employed as a steam-ram, 

judicious, since the rapid way a three- to be proi)elled against assailants, 
master makes, when scudding under As a sea-going vessel the ''(Hoire'' is 

bare poles, proves how strong the a failure ; but she was never intended 

effect of the wind is upon them. Her to go to sea. ''Her riband equipment,'' 

great speed is also considerably due to said the Moniteur ae la FloUe, '^ indi- 

er fine lines at bow and stem. Not- cate that this vessel is not meant to 

withstanding the weight of her ar- go to a distance from our ports, but 

mour, her pace excels that of almost that she is made for operations in the 

every other ship of war— an element seas where hencefortn the great dif- 

in itself of enormous advantage, in ferences of European policy will be 

enabling her either to elude an en- settled." That is to aav, speakiixg 

ga^ement, or to select the most suit- plainly, she is meant tor Channel 

able distance for herself in one. That nghtins. Though much moiemoirable 

distance would be the point at which than the old floating batte^, she is 

her adversary's shot would rattle little else than a batteiy. So far as 



1861.] Ships in Armour. 133 

the infiuit science of building iron- that enemy's armament, which may 
plated shim has gone, she is the first be termed the force of resistance. 
modeLana the i>oint is to im]>roye The second is her power of destroying 
upon oer. Thus, she is straight-sidedf the foe, which may be called the force 
like erery other vessel, whereas the of destruction. These two powers 
form proposed to be given by Mr. will principally depend on the weight 
Josiah JoneSjaLiverpoolship-builder, of metal on her sides that she can 
has the important advantage — ^by oppose to the enemy's shot, and on 
sloping in-board from the water s the weight of metal she can project 
edge — of presenting a plated surface, against the enem^. The sloping-side 
that a shot from another ship, un- plan of construction for iron-plated 
less alongside, would not strike full, ships is, manifestly, a great step in 
and therefore would glance up and advance, and possesses the peculiar 
off from. By this method of evading, merit of endowing a ship's side with 
as well as resisting, the impact of a the power of resistance by simple 
projectile, a certain proportion of the means, viz., by the application of a 
strength, and consequently of the principle derived from natural laws, 
weighty of the new ponderous armour and not by mere increment of the re* 
can be dispensed with. Mr. Jones's sisting medium. The objections urged 
experiments, testing the shot-proof against iron-cased ships, as in for in- 
powers of tne butt he constructed, stance Sir John Burgoyne's '* Mili- 
f/vre ^|ood proof of the merit of his tary Opinions," are surmounted by 
mvention. The class of vessel he Captain Coles' contrivance, as we 
proposes would have an unusual shall perceive after perusing the fol- 
breadth of beam, and their sides lowingextract from Sir John's work: 
would slope from the water-line in- « Up to the present time, the protec- 
wards and upwards at an angle of tion is aomewhat imperfect ; the ships 
fifty-two degrees, and be faced with are not capable of resisting the effect of 
three-inch iron plates. Certainly his pieces of the heaTiest calibre, with which 
plan of construction possesses a deci- the shore batteries are now being armed, 
ded advantage over the ordinary form • • and, abore all, the decks, 
of a ship's »de, for, whUe it cannot f^^' undo- exposure ^ elevated bat- 
be doubted that thi Whitworth 80- *f '^« ^J ^^J*\^ ^^i^]^ ^ V*.^ n ^ ^ 
pomider could send a flat-fronted -t^^^ . •hot and shells a«3 totally un- 

smashing shot through wrought-iron ^ 

four-inch plates in a vertical position, Ko horizontal fire could strike Cap- 
neither can it be questioned that the tain Coles' structure above the water- 
shot would glance off from plating set line, except at an angle of forty de- 
at a sufficient angle. grees; and the vessel is protected 
The objection ur^ against this against vertical fire by an arched roof, 
form for a sldp's side, that it does An enormously strong ship is thus 
ttot present sufficient defence a^nst obtained. She is not weak, as or- 
waves, is remedied in the admirable dinary ships are, in numerous port« 
plan of Captain Coles, RN., by pro- holes, but has a continuous sideu 
vidinff sides of the ordinary form Moreover, the weisht of her guns lies 
outside, that may be termed a thick, amidships insteaa of at the sides, 
sloping, iron glacis. For floating pur- Several advantages would result from 
poses of attack and defence. Captain this position of ner armament : first, 
Coles' adaptation of the inclined plane she would reU much less than a ves- 
principle,and his combination of other sel having two broadsides; and, se- 
alterations, fonn a highly valuable in- condly, she could traverse her guns 
mention, which appears perfectly to in anj direction. The very act of 
meet toe ^peat desideratum of pro- working guns on the broadsides 
tecting ships' sides. How vastly causes our present ships to roll seve- 
his form of vessel would add to the ral degrees ; but here, the guns being 
<)uaUties of ships of war we shall in the centre, the motion of the ship 
P^i^ve on reflecting up^n what they would be steadier. Moreover, at a 
ve required to ho, Tne value of a time when, in a rolling sea, ports at 
ship, as an engine of war, depends on the side would altematelv oe under 
two qualities. The first is her power, water, a gun placed amidships would 
compaiativelywith that of the enemy, be perfectly clear. A Une-of-battle 
of resisting the destructive effect of ship of 120 guns can only bring sixty 



134 Ships in Armour, [Feb. 

guna to bear on one broadside ; but genius of the Emperor, givM irresi^ 

CaptamColes'sbield-sbipwouldbring iWe superiority to a naval attack against 

the whole of her guna to bear on either ^^7 fortiflcations in mamnry ; at the 

broadside, and four guns right ahead J*™® *^"™® A* proscribes, te the ftetnrc, 

or ri.ht Wn. &/this oV ^^^rii^^ SXSi'al^e^Sornt: 

^usfy advantageous plan^ of con- wiU,„ake known theinfluenS^thU 

Btruction to win its way in pubjio forged iron casing exerdses upon the 

estimation, we proceed to notice the nautical qualities of the steam-boat, in 

eeneral topic of " reconstruction of which the first eoncKtion, that of navi- 

tne British navy," includinfl; some of gahllity, must necessarily remain xDTar- 

the minor phases and detaUs of tiiia riable. One of the most intei«sting 

important national aiffair. questions in the order of the day is. 

The recent grand improvements in ^^^ ^^^ *t"* ^^»<* has far its 

increased calibre, range, Mid precision o^ect to counterbalance,- wfavoiirofa 

of^nnon,aspa^oftleart5 Sfrn^^^'fhr^TZS^^^^ 

were sure to ijroduce coxreroonding i^ ^ c^j^ain that a cuirassed vessel of 

improvements m the art of defence : g^eat speed, supplied with powerful ar- 

and the ship in armour is as natural tillery, sailing in the ordinary drcum- 

a seauence of rifled cannon as the stances of wind and tide, being enabled 

EUghland clansman's target was of to despise all the attacks of the enemv, 

his foeman's two-handed claymore, and crush the resistances which the 

Let us see how various authorities proceedings at present in iBc permit to 

have viewed this novelty. Sir John oppose to her, would reign over the seas 

Burgoyne indicates the probable real ^^ ^*^f ^^ dominion to 'jrery shore 

futiSe value of ships in armour in the "* ^^^ ^^^^ "^^'^ accea«We to her." 
ensuing passage; after which, while Here the opinions of an eqninent 

taking a limited view of their use, he Englishengineeroffioerandof aFrench 

admits them to be eapMble of further naval man are at issue on the question, 

improvement, yet considers that, since whether, in a tnal at war of Ships 

iron is equally applicable to shore fer«^« Batteries, the former ofUielat- 

batteries, their relative advantage ter would conquer. In our impartial 

over ships will be retained :— view the latter are sure of victcwy, for 

the simple reason that they ean carry 
•• Even with the imperfect ptotection f heavier weight, both of metal plat- 
that iron-cased ships have obtslned, they iiig a&^ ordnance, than ships easi. 
are as yet scarcely seaworthy ; and, on On this old quaorel of '^ there's no- 
that account, are far better adapted to thing like leather,*' our own blue 
defensive operations in smooth waters, jackets are at war with the red coats 
and to co-operatewhh the shore batteries as to the best way of defen^tf our 
than to act against them." ^^^^^ To j^^^ge l,^ ^j^ s^ Jack 

shows for land defences, he is keeping 

This destination is that of the first upTomCteffin's traditionary idea, that, 

iron-cased vessel of war as yet launch- «s for land it is of little value, except 

cd ; but there is ample reason for be- to cast anchor to, and get freah beef 

lieving that science will soon contrive frpn^' "Now," says he, ** the French , 

a successful sea-going shii)-in^umour. ^ith their 300 rifled cannon, in bron- 

The French capitaine de frSgcUe, clad ships, will laugh at all the brick 

Foullioy (whose remarkable treatise ^iid mortar, stone and earth of out 

on " Naval Warfare between France new coast defences" But sofUy, good 

and England" was reviewed in our Sir, our foes afloat can never laugh in 

last number), has the followinff para- the faces of most of these fortifications, 

graph respecting the vtdue of the new which will be constructed on the land 

mvention :— side of dock-yards : and we fancy that, 

should the French land and attack 

-To these militaiy qualities of the Ife^th^^^^^ 
screw-ship is now joined a new one. in- ?^^ of the hedge. The recomnaei^a- 
vulnerabUity, recently obtained by the ?^^^ ^ the naval section of the De- 
application of a cuirass, formed of plates fence Oommission axe Jiowever, highly 
of forged iron, of a given thickness, which Worthy of attention. Oonstdering that 
cover every visible yart of the vessel the scenes of naval warfare will, in all 
bel >w the deck. This transformation, probability, be the shoal parts of the 
the initiation of which we owe to the Channel, the CommissioneBl lecotn- 



1661.] Ships m Armour, 135 

mendthaoonttractionof vesBelBofnot 1,000 yards, would practically be in- 
more thui 8,000 tooB burden, drawing vuhienible. The quality of speed is, 
aboat aixteea feet water, and able to therefore, of far greater importance 
steam about ten knot& In order to than the thickness of the protecting 
overoome the difficulty as to sufficient metaL 

breadth of bc«m for fighting both Thicken the iron-case to obtain in- 

broadsides, those experienced officers vulnerability, and you lose mobility. 

advise an attempt to invent a ffun- The practical question is, to combine 

carria^ with less recoil, and the aaop- adequate steaming qualities with suffi- 

tion of breech-loaders, to enable more cientlyefifectualiron-plated protection. 

guns to be worked in the same space. Even the armour of the '* Trusty" 

The recent important discussion on yielded to Whitworth's 80-pounder. 

the qaesti<m of Iron-Cased Ships has Increased thickness of plate,within the 

established two great facts : nrstly, capacity of floatin|r power, can clearly 

that ixon plates can be penetrated, be overcome by increased power of 

under obtain conditions, by shot, and, gun. The question, therefore, is, in 

therefore, that no vessel, nowevw thus which case will the capability of in- 

protecteo, can be pronounced invul- crease sooner reach its limits 1 A 

nerable; secondly, that the requisite ship built to carr^ veiy thick plates 

conditions are dLmcult of attainment, comd not be dnven at the high 

and, tiberefior^ that an iron-clad ves- speed which must give superiority m 

sel would poosM a decisive advantage naval warfare. If she were to cany 

over an tmprotected antagonist many ver^ heavy guns, as well as hb 

Six-iaoh iron phites wo^ld pfpbably coated with very thick armour^ she 

carnr a vessel scatheless tmrou^h a would, even if not slow and unwieldy, 

single-handed action. But a thinner present a large mark to several smail- 

scantling would, under certain condi- er and swifter vessels, each carrying 

ttonS| be a protection against shells, a few powerful guns, and able to 

whicn are infinitely the most destruc- choose its distance for striking an 

tive. and, therefore, the most dreaded enemy which presents so large a 

implements of naval warfare, without tai^et. 

talcing into account other incendiary Iron -plated gun-boats of greater 

projectilesycomparedwiti^ which there tonnage than the present class might 

IS utile dread of cold shot ** Keep probably be constructed in a manner 

out the shells !" is the earnest cry. and oombininff the nearest approaches to 

any one who has witnessed the de- *tlie chief desiderata, speed, ihvisi- 

moralising*' effect of the explosion of bility, and invulnerability. A vessel 

a shell in action, within board a man- presenting only a small mark, and re- 

of-war, is best able to appreciate the quiring only a small crew, may be 

amount of courage that would be preferable to one offerinjB^ a large sur- 

givenbyaenseofsecurity against these face to shot, and exposing some 800 

terrible projectiles. men. as well as a costly ship, in a 

Ilie acienoe of applying iron sheath- single butt for the enemy's fire. 

ing as a defence to ships of war in- We are informed, on reliable autho- 

volves several complicated and diffi- rity, that the Emperor of the French 

cult considerations. The p(Hnt is, to has decided upon building, with as 

obtain the strongest protection to the little delay as possible, a number of 

vessers broadside, without overbur- steam iron-cased gun-boats, 

dening her, to the sacrifice of speed This decision will assuredly be fol- 

and armament Impenetrable plates lowed by a similar move on our side 

might certainly be Mopted, but only the Channel, since, in the game of 

on condition that the ship so cased sea-chess, we must oppose pawn to 

shall lie an inert, floating mass, merely pawn, and have vessels of light 

available for diore defence. Speed is draught to follow the foe : and if it 

eisaential to a vessel that is to form be true that ships of "La Gloire" class 

one of a fleet, and to every cruiser, cannot fight in a rough sea wav, it 

Moreover, superior swiftness enables might be that more than one of them 

a ship to choose her distance and posi- would fall a prey to a nimble flotilla 

tion toT attad[, and time for boarding, of boats armed with guns of calibre 

An iron-cased ship, with siffficient ad- sufficient to penetrate the new plating, 

vantage in velocity over its opponent Mr. Whitworthj, warm in declaring 

to "'MMijfcatn ft fighting distance of the latency of his gun to penetrate 



136 Ships in Armour, [Feb. 

the iron-plating in present use, almost at right angles, within the shortest 

dismissed the entire question in these safe distance, from the two most 

words : — powerful pieces of artillery ever yet 

* • The plan of warding off shot by pro- produced, effected onlp fuw penetea- 

tccting armour has been often resorted tions of the ship's side. The side 

to ; but the means of attack have con- which has exhibited this power of 

tinually proved the vulnerability of the protection is one of the first of its 

armour and driven it out of use. It is description ever constructed. Its 

to be shown whether this will be the ^^^y ij^jng of iron is slighter than 

case with our ships of war. ^^^^ ^^^ manufactured : the plates 

There are, be it observed, two sorts of which it is oomposea are much 

of projectiles, of which not the least smaller ; and. instead of beinff firmly 

dangerous, the shell, can be warded bolted upon the timber beneath them, 

off by armour as easily as a sword-cut they were found to be loose, owing to 

by the cuirass on a Life Guardsman's the shrinkage of the wood ainoe the 

breast. Hotspur's fop is the only case ship was built When struck near 

on record of a man who so doubted their edges, these plates were more or 

the efficacy of protection against "vU- less iiyured or broken; when near 

lanous saltpetre" that he would not their centres, more or less indented 

go to the wars. But it will not do to and cracked. With every advantage, 

provide merely against shells, for therefore, on the side of the guns, to 

though it has been proved that an an extent which could never oocur in 

iron plate one inch thick will stop action, these results may be safely 

these projectiles, the effect of shot accepted as conclusive proof that 

would DC to break up the metal coat' British manufacturers can produce 

ing and leave the vessel's side as ex- plates of iron capable of aJfording 

posed as before. such protection to the aides of British 

A difficulty raised by Mr. Whit- ships that the best of British guns 

worth discloses what might be the cannot penetrate them, 
case in a duel between two sea-hogs We turn now to the important ques- 

in armour. He observes, ^^ Ships tion, whether French ship-armour is 

which are hampered by the weight of superior to British, 
enormous plates are so overburdened Our neighbours stoutly assert their 

that they are unfit to carry a broadside superiority, which, on the other hand, 

of guns heavy enough to penetrate is jealously denied on oar side. If it 

the armour of vessels plated similarly exists, the fact is not surprising, since 

to themselves." Thus invulnerable, iron and steel had their^laces of ex- 

a single combat between two such ceUence in the days of l^lboa blades, 

paladins might come off like one be- Toledo rapiers, Swedish steel, and 

tween ancient knights cased in mail Ripon spurs, 
of proof, when, as in the fight between On the texture of the iron plates 

More, of More Hall, and the Dragon the decree of their resistance greatly 

ofWantley:— depends. The French Government 

'* Thouffh their strength it was great, are giving much attention to this im- 

Yet their skill it was neat, portant point, and an experienced 

And neither got one wound." French forge-master is engaged in 

The " Gloire," however, carries a manufacturing a peculiar sort of iron 

heavy armament, and it must never of uncommon toughness. We must 

be forgotten that a sufficiently power- take care not to be left behind in this 

ful gun, charged with powder enough, matter. People have talked of ^'steei- 

and a flat-fronted projectile that will plated" ships, but in practice steel has 

smash all before it, not merely cut a not been so applied. However, there 

clean hole, would soon decide the is a vast difference between one sort 

battle. of iron and another. In examination 

Captain Halsted's summary of the before the recent Enqui^.^ Monsieur 

e^eriments ho witnessed on the Petin, an experienced witness, com- 

"Trusty" gives the following results, ments on the superiority of French 

Seventeen shots, of from 80 lbs. to steel, in consequence oi the use of wood 

100 lbs. weight, made of special in the furnaces^ and remarks on the 

material, of special form and temper, importence of this consideration now 

fired with the heaviest charges the that warlike arms are entirely formed 

guns would bear, as far as practicable of steeL Several other witnesses ob- 



1861.] SkijfS in Armour. 137 

861*76 an advantwe to France in the yery forward state. The^are pierced, 
fact that, while &gland is obliged to apparently, for twenty-six guns ; ana 
obtain the primarjr matter of steel should their engines be of great i)ower, 
from Sweden, it is indigenous in their would asiurealy prove formidable 
c>>untry. These men, mostly iron- vessels. M. Arnaud has also con- 
masters, inaijst that their iron plating structed a singular style of gun-boat, 
is better than ours. It is reported to seemingl>[ about fifty feet long by 
be formed of a soft homogeneous iron, fifteen wide, with an extraordinary 
admirably adapted for resisting shot light draught of water. This boat, 
M. Dupny de IxHne, the architect of lately ^ne to Toulon, where its rig- 
the '^Gftoire," stated that plates of the ging will be completed, is on quite a 
same thicknees as those which did not new model, and is said to have been 
resist in England, resisted successfully buUt after designs given bv the Em- 
in France ; and further, that " the peror. It is made entirely of steel 
English, having sent to Viuoennes plate, and will be propelled by two 
some steel plates for blinding vessels, screws driven by a fourteen horse- 
we have learnt, with pleasure^ that, power engine, it is to carry only one 
on trial, they have broken into a gun. The boat is in the form of a 
thousand pieces, and that the French turtle, and the muule of the gun is 
plates have resisted perfectly." How- to appear just at the summit of the 
ever, it has recently been reported shell, which will present to the enemy 
that farther trial of the French shkbs an inclined plane, so that the balls 
hasresultedin smashing, causing much striking it will glance off without 
chagrininhijB^quarten. The strongest doing any imury. The crew will be 
armour which can be applied to a oompletelv sheltered under this kind 
ship's side ia, doubtless, mcapable of of roof, which is made strong enough 
resisting the impulsion of cannon-shot to resist projectiles of even the largest 
driven under certain conditions ; so size. 

that there can be no such thing as There were five floating batteries, 
positive impregnabilitjT. But the built of wood, and cased with iron, 
question aa to comparative vulnerabi- launched in 1856, 225 horse- power — 
hty remains. " Devastation," " Lave," " Tonnante," 
Satisfied of having invented a vastly " Congreve," and '* Foudroyante." 
improved vessel for naval warfare, the These are the floating batteries of 
French are concentrating their eiforts Russian war experience, and are no 
on multiplying this description of better than our own. 
man-of-war as mst as possible. They Two cuirassed frigates, or steam- 
have ceased to build ships of the old rams, with beak^ of 1,000 horse- 
class, and are employing the resources power, 281 feet m length, and 50 
of their dockyaros in the construction feet in breadth, are in course of con- 
of ships adapted to the exigencies of struction, viz. : ** La Magenta," to 
modem wamre. It is said that be- mount fifty-two guns, building at 
fore June next they can have between Brest and said to be very forward. 
400 and 500 guns afloat behind iron " Solierino," to mount fifky-two guns, 
walls, and that before another year is building at Lorient These two are 
over they will have fifteen sail of wooden vessels, plated above water ; 
annour-plated .steam-friffates afloat, whereas the " Couronne" is entirely 
while we shall have but four. of iron above water, in this possess- 
They have laid down six frtgaiu ing the advantage of freedom from 
eiriraMe««, and have launched[ two, of rottenness. The two rams will be 
which one, the ^ Gloire," is sumci- provided with beaks, 
ently sucoessf uL It seems likely that Prior to the launch of the ^ Gloire," 
they will have at least six afloat there was almost a cessation of shi 
before we shall have completed our building in the imperial dockyan 
first trial vessels. Besides those^ they showing that the £mperor intend 
lui^e four floating batteries, buildinff to cease rivalry with us in ships of 
in a private yitfd at Bordeaux, of the line and other vessels constructed 
150 horse-power, 157^ feet long, 47^ solely of wood But it seems that, 



broad : height, 21 ; draught of water, since the success of the first iron- 
Their names are ^'Palestro, 

great exertions are making to g( 
gon." These four vessels are in a many similar vessels ready. Orcters 



81 theuT names are"*" Palestro/^ cased frigate is tolerably satisfactory, 
' Paixhans," " Peiho," and " Sai- great exertions are making to get 



n 



138 Shipi in Armour, [Feb. 

were given last year to ky down "Leviathan" atmoiir fliiipy recently 

three more iron-cased frigates. These, ordered to be constructed in Chatham 

in addition to the ten now building yard, will be the most gigantic vesael 

and three launched, give a total of of war the world has vet seen. Her 

sixteen. It is also stated that these length, 400 feet, is double that of most 

three are to be completed by the 1st line-of-battle shipsL and about two- 

of January, 1862. thirds the length of the ''Great East- 

In addition to the iron-cased gun> em.'' Every device to render her as 

boats building in the imperial yards, shot and water-proof as possible will 

we learn from a Rouen newspaper that be adopted ; ana as she is to be armed 

ithasbeenresolvedtobuildl60of these exclusively with heavy Armstrong 

vessels by private contract, after the guns of great range, she will be the 

model of the gun-boat designed by the nsost formidable vessel afloat, 
i^peror at Bordeaux,eachtobeanned The '' Warrior" is the laxgest man- 

with a powerful rifled gun. This re- of-war ever built, and more wan 1,500 

port is, nowever, as yet unconfirmed, tons laiser than the largest vessel in 

Besides this formidable flotilla, and the world after the '' Great Eaatem." 

in ad(Ution to the six iron-plated ships When in sea-going trink her main- 

now building, ten more, on the model deck portsills will be about 8^ feet 

of the '' Gloire," are ordered to be laid above the water, and in this respect 

down with all despatch — ^viz., two at she possesses an important advantage 

Toulon, two at Brest, two at Roch- over the " Gloire,' whose porta are 

f<nrt, two at Lorient, and two at Cher- only some 5 feet 8 inches, so near the 

b(Htrff. This report, which appears water as to disable her guns in a rou^h 

entitled to credit, shows that the Em- sea. The size of her portholes is m 

peror has " entered," in the phrase^ process of diminution, and for the 

ologv of the turf, a great many racers space of nearlv two feet round them, 

for " the Channel Stakes.'' tne armour plates are seven inches 

Now for what we are doing. We thick, instead of four and a-half. 
have on the stocks four iron-cased The resistance of her iron shibs is 

frigates, two of which were ordered declared to be highly satisfactory. At 

by Lord Derby's govenmient nearly the ordinaiy range the shot failed to 

three years ago. When these are penetrate them. They are 15 feet 3 

launched we shall be a match for our mches long, 3 feet 3 inches broad, and 

neighbours in armour frigates afloat ; 4i^ inches thick, formed by a slow pro- 

and though they will sml have the cess of welding. They are fastened 

start of us in the numbers on hand, (m a covering m teak 18 inches Uiick, 

it will not strain our resources much on the broadsides of the vesaeL The 

to overtake them, considering the ad- fighting surface of the ship extends 

vanti^Se we possess in mechamcs, ma- for 210 feet in length and 27 feet in 

terial, and machinery. The two of depth^ reaching 6 feet below the water- 

the largest size, the ^' Warrior," now load Ime, presenting a surface on each 

launched, and the *' Black Prince," side of 5,670 square feet of iron, 4^ 

building at Glasgow, promise to sur- inches thick, benind which there are 

pass"LAGloire"ineveiv4nality. The two tiers of teak timber, eadi piece 9 

two smaller ones, the " Kesistanoe," inches square, one laid longitudinally, 

building in the Irne, and the " De- and the other vertically, over the iron 

fence," at Mill wall, are 16-gun cor- hull, the skin of which is | of an inch 

vettes, 100 feet lessinlength, and 3,668 in thickness, and inside thu there is a 

tons measurement teak lining. The fine lines, great 

The ^' Black Prince," an apt name length, and enormous steam power of 

for an English man-of-war that will this ship, combine to promise a speed 

do bittle encased in an iron panoply superior to that of her rivida, ana her 

coloured in the usual dark hue of the invulnerability is undoubted]^ creater 

Queen's service, will moimtthirtv-six than theirs. Such are her obvious 

guns, the same number as the "War- merits; but her defects will not be 

rior. The "Defence "will also cany fully seen until the future. One of 

thirty-six guns. She is building at these consLBtsinthefact, that she can 

Yanow, and is described as havii^ a only stow coals enough for six days' 

stem of enormous strength, fortified steaming; another in the unwieldiness 

with plating;, so that she may nm of her size; and another in the weight 

down any timber-built vessel The of her broadsides, This latter peculi- 



18610 JShips in Armour, 139 

aritj win cftOBe her to roll and work last month— tendmB have been ob- 

most destructiTely. To connteraet tained for building, by contract, two 

such motion, she has two ridges of ships ofabont 4,000 tons each, similar 

iron like lee-boards, on each side of to the '* Defence" and " Resistance." 

her bottom, extending almost along They are to be 280 feet long, 56 feet 

her entire length. Eiu;h of these fins broad, and plated with iron slabs fore 

is about two feet deep, and the resist- and aft In these, neither the slop- 

ance they will offer to her rolliiig, the ing side nor the ram principle have 

same as a fish obtains from its fins is, been adopted, although both have 

of course, considerable. Neyertheless, already won meh recommendation. 
she will roll, with the slow deep mo- The merits of the Steam Ram haye 

tion inoduoed by the osciUatoiy effect been put forward prominently, and 

of her ponderous iron sides. are so evident, we will not at present 

One of the main adyantages of Giap- enter upon them. 
tain Coles* plan is, that a vessel so Captain Foullioy,afterquotingfrom 
constraeted would not roll danger- Montesquieu on *' Le Grandeur et 
oualy. Whenever, therefore, the Ad- D^cadencedesRomains^aremarkable 
miraJty Board is sufficiently prepared passage, showing how the Romans, by 
to make the experiment, a corvette great exertions, successfully disputed 
on this model will, no doubt, be laid the sovereignty of the sea with the 
down, to test the sailing qualities of Carthaginians, observes that the par- 
this sort of vessel in those distant allel there drawn between the old and 
seas where they would be most tried, new navies of the rising pow» may be 
The slope inwards, or ^ tumble- applied to those of France, since the 
hom^'^ as It is termed, of the '^War- distance between the first and last 
Hor^s sides is only two feet, on an in- galleys of the Romans is about the 
cline little beyond a slope of fifteen de- some as between the sailing ship of 
grees. But this angle is not enough, the time of Louis XY. and the vais^ 
The incline proposed by Mr. Jones $eau cuirasti of Napoleon IIL The 
is fifty degrees. The butt constructed adoption of steam rams is the con- 
on this plan, and practised at by the version of the ship itself into a pro- 
•* Excellent," has 'proved the decided jeotile : and if ever iron sheathing be 
success of the angular armour. What appliea to sea-going hostile ships in 
is most certainly known is, that round- sufficient strength to resist shot the 
shot at SSOO yards, and Whitworth best way of meeting them will be to 
and Armstrong guns at greater dis- run into them, 
tancee, have penetrated the "Trusty's" A few words may now be offered 
sides, and smashed all i^inch plates, on the general topic of reconstruction 
fxeept ihoK that were placed at an of the roval navy, a measure which is 
cm</U of 45 degreesy from which the more or less demanded by the recent 
shot ffkneed. So far back as the wonderful improvements in gunneiy. 
14th September, it was announoed in The doctrine that *'the iron must 
the Thnei that, " after trying various enter the soul of the Admuralty" shall 
plates, under the direetion of Cap- not be edioed by us, if it implies that 
tain Hewlett, of the ** Excellent," the this material solely is to enter into 
resnlt obtained was the establishment the construction of the royal navy, 
of the success of the Jones' angulated It may suit a meroantileship, of which 
principle." The official report was, a totally different service is required, 
it is understood, decidedly &vourable and which her owner buys at as low 
to Mr. Jones' invention, which is a price as possible. Several impcftt- 
fbrther supported by the openly-ex- ant pros and cons must be weighed 
pressed opinion of many principal when talking of transforming our 
scientific officers in the Koyal Navy, wooden walls into iron sides. Let us 
The Emperor of the French is de- refer, first, to the obvious disadvan- 
clared to have ordered a vessel to be tages of iron. If, as has been uijged 
laid down on this design. Surely, by some, wood .can be knocked into 
present experience of the value of lucifer matches, the unarmed ntuts 
the angular principle is sufficient to of the ** Warrior' can be smashed like 
warrant the construction of a ship of egg-shells. Repairs of heavy iron 
war on this most promising model framing are difficult, costly, and if to 
Three additional iron-carad frigates be performed on forei^ stations, im- 
were ordered in October. Lat^y— iMucticaUe. The rapid fouling of the 



140 Ships in Armour. [Feb. 

bottom of an iron ship is a strong national economy in disusing public 
obiection against her. On the yards, save for dodsing, for slight 
other hand, a timber-built ship is repairs, and for fitting out ; and 
vulnerable from stem to stem, and favouring private estabBshments by 
combustible from her water line to throwing open the construction and 
her truck. When our ^at lexico- supply of the navy to competition, 
giapher obiected to a ship as "a gaoL At present the royal dockyards pre- 
witn the chance of being drowned, sent a mysterv of evil common to all 
he might have added, "and with the works carried on by Government ; 
risk of being burnt An iron-buUt and the only royal road out of it 
vessel, when strongly sheeted, if not seems to lie m evading and avoiding 
positively invulnerable, is so compa- it By this course a great saving of 
ratively with a wooden one ; bemg taxation would be secured, and the 
so, this fact is combined with inoom- countnr would soon possess, instead 
buatibility, which gives the indubit- of huf*a-dozen government yards 
able advantage of her being the only which are costly to keep up and for- 
means of laymg a land battery suffi- tify, half a hundred private establish- 
ciently close on board to breach it ments, habituated to supply the navy 
An iron frame is said to be absolutely with various articles, from a block to 
necessary for a vessel fitted with a a line-of-battle shin, 
screw, to enable it to bear the shak- Aeain, if the British fleet were 
ing action of this powerful propeller, chidoy composed of large iron cor- 
The vibration caused by high speed vettes, impelled by steam, the screws 
was so great in the case of the safely placed, the rigging light, and 
" Gloire,'* as that the armour plates the armament some wxfn of guna, the 
near her stem would all have worked personnel of the navy would not need 
loose had that speed been maintained, so many able seamen. 
Metal will, of course, bear the con- Our views are opposed to vessels 
tinually shattering power of the screw the size of the ^'Warrior." Some 
better than wood will On the en- people ima^e that they have only 
tire <iuestion. Great Britain, rich as to increase Dulk and weight to obtain 
she is in iron, would, by its use. more power. This may be true of the 
hugely augment her jpresent naval power of resistance of an iron plate, 
preponderance over France, where out is not so of the strength of ma- 
iron industry is less developed, and chinery when subjected to a strain. 
over America, where wood is likely The atomic cohesion of metal, on 
long to keep iron out of use. which its stren^h depends, is not in- 
Iron-built ships have found little creased by addition to its bulk^ and 
favour in the eyes of the Board of there is doubtless a limit to the size to 
Admiralty, for reasons about which which the constraction of vessels de- 
it is not necessary to enter further pendent on metallic materials shonld 
into details. Certainly, the motives be extended. 

for disnussing any prejudice on this The proof of a ship in armour will 
point are many ; and it \& time to be in the fighting. Yet there cer- 
adopt courses reauisite for introduc- tainly is sufficient reason for conclud- 
ing iron more fully into naval archi- ing that such fabrics must hereafter 
tecture. The royal dockyards are enter largely into the composition of 
six in number, and it may be a de- our national marine. Whether they 
sideratum that one of them should may be found available for foreign 
be devoted to iron-works for ship- service is an imtried question, but it 
building. Pembroke, from its proxi- may fairly be presumed that to some 
mity to Welsh coal and iron-fields, extent, ships of war will in mture be 
seems the best adapted. The (^ues- protected oy armour exactly as they 
tion, lately discussed ma distinguished nave come to be propelled by steam, 
contemporary, whether it would not Iron may not entirely supersede wood, 
be advisable to obtain the iron-work any more than steam has sup^seded 
of ships of war by contract is, how- sans, but iron may enter more largely 
ever regarded, a most important into the framework of vess^ and be 
one. objections to this mode are always applied to protect their sides, 
silenced by the fact, that all the Entire reconstraction of our navy is by 
steam macninery in use in the navy no means obligatory. Judmngby the 
is so obtained. There would ^ '^ Gloire," heavily iron-cased ships ai:6 



• 1861.] An Only Son. 143 

" Papa, dear, I've been and done it hand. Then, as if reafisured by her 

again. ^tleneas and fearlessness together, 

*' More mischief, Nedf ' asked Mr. it stood quite still and suffered her to 

Lodcdey, layinff his hand uix>n the pat its crested neck, 

curij head, fUdd looking down into the " There now, mamma dear, Selim 

bojvh srjreB which aought his in pev- and I are friends for good wad all. 

feet ooimdence. Do let me have the saddle on. It's 

" Yea. Yon know mammy's big onljr three o'clock, and the boys' half 

<diliiajar. Ifs a men^ it ain't atoms, hohday; weoonldhavaaadiacaiiter. 

I can tell you. But I knocked the Do, there's a dear!" 

moBBter'a head off with across-bolt" ^^ Then James must go, too. I can't 

^Aoeident or purpose, Ned? That tnwtToa with the boys alone the first 

makes all the difference you know." time.'^ 

^ Well, I shot at it on porposiL but Old James, the head groom, touched 

cot the dragon over by aooident and his hat. 

Ned's look drooped at rememoedng " I'd better ride the old brown 

the wantonness of his exploit hunter, my lady, he's as steady as a 

''Ibai?0D'ttimatohe«rit ontjust house.' 

now, Ned; 'you must tell me in my No wonder that Lad^ Constance 

study after tea. Lady Craasdale had both frame and face mstinct with 

waits you botii up at the House. She grace and beauty, for all she were as 

told me to send you if I came across yet a wild allp of a girl Forshewas 

yon, so be off at once." daughter to that beautiful andstate- 

Am they went along, Philip asked ly mother, whose motherly beraty 

of the other : widowhood had saddened into a sweet 

'*Do you always tell him things serenity owning a special loyelineM. 

■traiffht out that way, Nedl" The children ran in at open win- 

** To be sure I do. Don't yon tell dows on the ground floor. Lady 

LadyOransdale evety^ thing)' Cransdale moondted the terrace steps. 

*^ well, I do sometmies. Oonstanoe There was a marble vase upon the bal- 

do6B ahrays. But I say, Ned, will ustrade, with heavy handlea C^p- 

there be much row about this vile ing one of these with both her han<ttL 

beast of a griffin f" she leant her cheek upon Uiem, ana 

"You're hard on the poor griffin, looked out wistAdly, fint upon the 

PhiL He didn't ask to oe shot at, landscape, then heavenwud. 

yet he didn't olgect, like Tommy." '' Ah, Philip dear." she sighed, " I 

" Well, but what will your father wonder can tou see the childron now 1 

do to you fo'r breaking himt" Do you still halve the care of them 

"^ Not kMT^ can't say. Butifl withmel" 

eatch it, its a case of serve me right By-and-by the trample of skittish 

The jar is mammy's and aAie'd have hoofs was heardupon the gravel The 

bem monstrous sorry to have it boys looked up and bowed to her with 

smashed. Holloa! what's that 1 Your chivalrous grace. Lady Constanoe 

mother and Lady Oonstanoe on the cried, '* See how I have him in hand, 

wa&, with the new pony! Out along, mamma!" But she was too prudent 

PML and bother the 'gnffin till after to look off Selim's ears as yet The 

teal" Oountess smiled to see them go,--a 

In twominutes more they werexip sweet smile and bright She stood 

totfaeOoiflitessandherdaiighterwitn too high forany of them to have seen 

a rush and a shoot which set the pony that its brightness qsarkled through 

phinging. tear-drops. 

** £n't he too qxirited, Ooni" said The precise details of Ned's ccnfes- 

Lady Oransdale. " One of the boys sional tsonferenee that evening with 

had better ride him first" his father have not beenhandeildown. 

"Oh, please no, dear mamma, I The penanoe imposed included, i^ 

like tfuh in a pony. He's gentle pareniJy^ satisfaction to Tommy Wil- 

enoagn with it, I m sure." mot's ii^ured feeUngs, for he laid out 

She stepped up to the startled a bright sixpenee next day in ''candy- 
creature, which ^ed her with its rock" and tofiy, and irasm possession 
laiga, deer-like eyes, and with quiver- of a bag of marbles envied by the 
ing noatril eniflbd at her outstretched wh^e village sdiool. 



142 An Only Son, [Fd). 



AS ONLY SON. 

BV.TBB APTBOH OF *' A&TIBT AlCV CaJkmUAH.** 

CBAJPTEB. 1. 

>^ Capital ! But it wasn't on a live now" So,.perhiq», he would, but for 

bc^'fi head, thoi^b V « maey may-ifly and a hnsgi^awallow. 

'* What odds if it iiad beenT The nay-fly danoed ri^ m the line 

"All tbeodde in the wodd, Ned. of aim; the swalfew darted, snapped 

Punk makes a fellow's hand snake." at and seized her. The donu of the 

" StopabiLthen, and Til Regain bird'sglossybackdazsledjNed'a^etoo 

-withTonuny Wilmot Here ! Tommy! late to check the finger (m the tngger. 

Tommy !" Off went the liead of the goQen 

But wben it was explained to dragon of the dynasty of Ming. 

Tommy, the gardener's son, that he " Oh, Ned, Ned, weVe been and 

was to stand blindfold whilst Master done it^" was the JEarrs generous ex- 

Locksley shot a bolt at an apple on his damation* 

head, he manifested an unaccountable "IVe been and done it, not you, 

repugnance. In vain was he shown Phil !" was.Ned's jio less geiiiBKmis dis- 

Iwo apples spitted insttcoession by the -claimer. 

;mark8man's skill : in vain was he " I put you up to it and bullied you 

made aoquainted with the story of the -into it, soihe mischiefs mine as much 

gallant Switser's bey : in yain was an as vours : and that I'll stick to. But 

<>£fer made to dispense with the brass -.talk of sticking, Ned, eouldn't we 

ferule on the bolt stick the vile brute's head on again 1" 

Then bribes were tried, a new six- jaid Philip, transferring, as we all do 

pence and a bag of marblfls. Then sometimes, a share of ms annoyance 

came hard words : '^ he was a muff :" to the victim of his misdeed. 

*' he was a monkey." Lastly, J am ^^ Perhaps we could," answered the 

•Sony to say, came ttireats, whereat marksman, ruefully. "Its a good job 

he threw himself upon his back on it wasn't Tommy's eye." 

•the turf, kicking aiui screaming for " That's the provoldng part of it ; 

" Mammy !" the obstinate little toad will think he 

" Ugh ! the little toad !" said both was right to refuse. What «re you 

his tormentors, with the most in- going tor now, Ned 9" 

genuous indignation. ^ Only the cement bottle in mam- 

*' I have it, thou^" said the Earl, mys cupboard.'* 

after a pause. " Let^s get Mrs. Ijocks- V ezy good cement it wsas ; and, 

ley's big china Jar out of the back soon set hard, the Ming monster 

drawing-room, stick it on « stool with showed his grinders as well as erer. 

the apple atop. Its no end of fiinky The ingenious Earl bethought him of 

to shoot at" some gold shell in Ned's paint-bos* 

It was indeed. Even Ned's reck- (and dappxuff therewith the line oi 

lessness quailed. &acture maoe it almost disappear. 

'' A nice boy you are/' quoth his "Repairs neatly done gratiaior par- 
lordship ; " risk Tommy Wilmot's life ties finding ihek own eemest The 
or eyes andfunkthecrocdcery 1 Well !" jar's as good as ever, Ned. put it away 

This was more than x^ed could and there's an end <^ it 

stand. Indoors he went, and brought Not so, Ned's uncomprcmiaing ho- 

out the jar in one hand, a tall stool in nesty would not allow it His father 

the other. Onthelidsquattedagrin- soon after came up the lawn, where 

ning dragon with a smooth roundpate. the boys were still lounging under ^e 

Thereon a pippin was then crmily cedars. At his approach, Tommy 

poised, and the Earl stepped off the Wilmot, who was hovering about, 

diBtanoe at which they had oeen shoot- took to speedy flight. Who could say 

ing before. Their weapon was a cross- but some vague charge of complicity 

bow, their bolt of wood tipped with might affect and endanger him f The 

a brass ferule. Earl, who was peding a willow wand. 

Ned took aim so steadily that his was rather startled at hearing Ned 

companion muttered, " He'll do it, begin— 



- 1861.] An Only Son. 143 

" Papa, dear, I've been and done it hand. Then, as if reassured by her 

again. fientleness and fearlessness together, 

'* More mischief Nedf " asked Mr. it stood quite still and suffered her to 

Lododey, layiaff his hand ujion the pat its crested neck, 

cuil^ hetd, amd looking down into the *^ There bow, mamma dear, Selim 

boyish ejres which sought his in pev- and I aro friends for good and all. 

feet confidence. Do let me have the saddle on. It's 

'* Yes. Yon know mammy's big onljr three o'clock, and the boys' half 

<^iiiajar. It's a mercy it ain't atoms, hohday ; weconldhavasoehacanter. 

I can tell yon. But I knocked tive Do, there's a dear I'' 

moBStor's head off with across-bolt" ''Then James must go, too. I can't 

*' Accident or purpose, Ned? That trust yoa with the boys alone the f rat 

makes all the difference you know." time.'^ 

** Well, I shot at it on porposiL but Old James, the head groom, touched 

eat the dragon over by aoddent' and his hat. 

Ned's look drooped at rememoeQag " I'd better ride the old brown 

the wantonness of his CKploit hunter, my lady, he's as steady as a 

^I haiveoH time to hear it out just house.' 

now, Ned; you must tell me in my No wonder that Lady Constance 

study after tea. Lady Oraosdafe had both frame and face mstinct with 

wants yon both npatthe House. She grace and beauty, for all she were as 

t<dd me to send you if I came across yet a wild dip of a girl. Forshewas 

yon, so be ctf at once." daughter to that beantiful andstate- 

Am thcf went along, Philip asked ly mother, whose motherly beauty 

of the other : widowhood had saddened into a sweet 

"Do you always tell him things serenity owning a special loveliness, 

atraiffht out that way, Nedf" The children rsn in at open win- 

''To be sure I do. Don't you tell dows on the ground floor. Lady 

LadyOransdale evexy thing)' Oransdale mounted the terrace steps. 

^ Well, I do sometmies. Constance There was a marble vaseupon the bal- 

does ahnqrs. But I say, Ned, will ustrada, withhea^ handles. 

there be much row «bout this vile ing one of these with both her han< 

beast of a griffin t" she leant her cheek upon them, an< 

** You're hard on the poor griffin, lodced out wistfully, fisst upon the 

PhiL He didn't ask to oe shot at, landscape, then heavenward, 

yet he didn't olqect, like Tommy." '' Ah, Philip dear," she sighed, " I 

'' Well, but what will your father wonder can you see the children now ] 

do to you for breaking himt" Do you still halve the care of them 

"^ Not kaewing can't say. But if I with me 1" 

eateh it, its a case of serve me right Bir-and-by the trample of skittish 

The jar is mammy's and riie'd have hoofs was heardupon the gravel The 

been monstrous sony to have it boys looked up and bowedto her with 

auBSshed. Holloa! what's that? Your chivalrous orace. Lady Ccmstanoe 

mother and Lady Constance on the cried, " See now I have him in hand, 

wa^ with the new pony ! Cut along, mamma !" But she was too prudent 

PldL and bother the .gnffin till alter to look off Selim's earn as yet The 

tear' Countess smiled to see them go,— a 

In two minutes more th^ were up sweet smile and bright She stood 

to the Countess and her daughter witn too high for any of them to have seen 

a rush and a ^out which set the pony that its brightness ^Mirkled through 

phmging. tear-drops. 

** fin't he too spirited, Cent" said The precise details of Ned's confes- 

Lady Cransdale. ^ One of the boys -sional twaferenoe that evening with 

had better ride him flrst" his father have not beenhandeddown. 

** Oh, please no, dear mamma. I The penance imposed included, u>- 

like n>irit in a^ny. He*s gentle parently; satisfaction to Tommy Wil- 

enongn with it, rm sure." mot's ii^ured feelings, for he hud out 

She stepped up to the startled abrishtsixpenoeiieactday in "candy- 
creature, whieh eyed her with its rock^ and tofiy, and was m possession 
la^ge, deior-likeeyes, and with quiver- of a baft of marUea envied by the 
ing nostril aniffM at her ontsMcfaed whde vQlage sohool. 



144 An Only Son. [Feb. 



CHAFTEB II. 

Babbek of its chief bleesedneiBs is the moreover ; for she was ooimiy-fiunily, 
boyhood of him that has no mother, too, and the dames of the loftiest 
Bat Edward LocksIey*s boyhood had coo nty matgnates need not disown her. 
been blessed with almost a double "What a comfort," said Lady Heb- 
mother-loye. Lady Cranadale had blathwaite, at the manor-house, Sir 
more than half adopted him to son- Heniy s wifcL to Mrs. Mapes. of Ma- 
ship. There was hereditary bond of 'perley, "to nare the old Archdea- 
friendship and esteem between the con's grand-daughter at the Lodge, at 
house of Oranleigh and the Locksleys. Oransdale. The Locksleys, too, were 
The grandfathers of the two boys who always gentle folk, and the late Colo- 
played under the cedars had tightened nel a distinguished soldier. But I 
it. They were brother soldiers in one had my fears lest Robert, in his pecu- 
regiment during the American War liar position, might look us out some 
of Independence. Either had con- tuI^ rich woman." 
tracted close obligation to the other "In his position, dear. How so % 
for life or liberty in the vicissitudes The Gransoale a^ncy must be an ex- 
of that adventurous struggle. oellent thing, I lancy." 

John, Earl of Cransdal^ then Vis- " Excellent, indeed ; but still pre- 

count Oransmere. left the army before carious. Any day a quarrel with the 

the outbreak of tne ensuing great con- Earl, you know^ or with the guar- 

tinental wars. His friend, Edward dians, should a bfe drop and a mino- 

Locksley, followed the profession of ril^ ensue, eh V' 

arms until the day of Gonmna. There " Well, -to be sure, I never thought 

he felL in command of a regiment of of that And, as you say, a quaml 

Liffht Infantry, under the ^es of his or a change of dynasty: but Lu(^ 

noole chief, doomed to death on the Burkitt is Lucy Lookslev now. A 

selfsame day. dear good little girl she always was, 

His brother soldier did more than and I had a vast respect for her grand- 

a brother's part for his children, father, the late Archdeacon; and I 

Young Bobert Locksley, our Edward's shall drive over to the Lodge and call 

father, owed, in great measure, to the on Tuesday." 

Earl the completion of his school And Mrs. Mapes, of Maperley, did 

career^ his entrance at the university, call. So did Sir Henry and Lady 

and his early admiasion to a post of Hebblethwaite. So did the Very Bev. 

confidence and wealth. He had been the Dean of St Ivo and his wife. So 

now for years under the elder lord, did some greater and some lesser per- 

and then under his son, the late Earl senates tnaji these, until the social 

Philip, manager of the Cransdale es- position of the LocksleyB was indis- 

tate& intimate counsellor and friend putabl^ and most honourably defined, 

of all at Cransdale park. Their Edward was bom in the same 

Earl Philip had been a statesman, week as Lord Cransdale's heir, and 

andhadfilleaimportantofficesabroad. both babies were christened on the 

" I could hanily have gone upon same day. The Earl, who stood god- 
that Indian gov^norship/ he used to father to little NecL would say, laufh- 
say, " if I had not had Locksley to ingly, that he and Phil were twms, 
leave here in my place. But with and often brought one on each arm to 
him here, I believe the county gained be nursed as such by his Countess, 
by mv turning absentee." Lady Constance, in the full dignity of 

Robert Lo<£sley made a wise choice some two vears' seniority, call^ them 
when he chose the old Rector's daugh- both "ickle baby brothers." Sheher- 
ter, Lucy Burkitt, to his wife. "Meek- self had first seen the Ikht in the 
hearted Lucy" was her distinctive GovemmentHouseof an Indian pre- 
title in her own family. She was sidency, whence a change of Oabmet 
pretty; she wsjb gentle; she was ten- at home recalled her parents some 
der; a true helpmeet for him every months before the birth of Phi- 
way. Knowing, for instance, better lip. Edward Lo^sley proved to be 
than he could, all the folk on the e»- an only child, so the Earl insisted 
tates, among whom she was bom and upon his being playmate withhis own 
Ted. Gently bom and gently bred, children. One governess taught the 



1861.] An Only San. 143 

'' Papa, dear, I've been and done it hand. Then, as if reassured by her 

again. {lentleness and fearlessness together, 

'* More mischief, Ned ?" asked Mr. it stood quite still and sufifered her to 

lookBl^, layiiiK his hand u]^n the pat its crested neck. 

cuiij head, and looking down into the '* There now, mamma dear, Selim 

boyidi eves which sought his in pev- and I aie friends for ffood and all. 

feet oonndenoe. Do let me have the saddle on. It's 

*' Yes. Yon know mammy's big only three o'dock, and the boys' half 

ishina jar. It's a men^ it ain't atoms, hohday ; we oould have ndia canter. 

I can tell yon. But I knocked tiie Do. there's a dear!" 

moBsto's nead c& with across-bolt" ^^ Then James must go, too. I can't 

''Aoddent or purpose, Ned) That tmat you with the boys alone the first 

makes all the difference you know." time.'' 

^ Well, I shot at it on purposiL but Old James, the head groom, touched 

cut the dragon over Iqr accident' and his hat. 

Nad's look drooped at rememoeQag '' I'd better ride the old brown 

the wantonness of his exploit hunter, my lady, he's as steady as a 

*' I haven't time to hear it out just house.' 

now, Ned; 'you must tell me in my No wonder that Lady Constance 

stady alter tea. Lady Oraasdale had both frame and face mstinct with 

ws&tsyouboti&upatthe House. She grace and beauty, for all she were as 

tdd me to send you if I came across yetawildi^of agirL Forshewas 

you, so be off at once." daughter to that beautiful andstaie- 

As thejf went along, Philip asked ly mother, whose motherly bemily 

of the otner : widowhood had saddened into a sweet 

**Do you always tell him things serenity owning a special loveUness. 

straight out that way, Nedf The children ran in at q)ett win- 

'^ To be sure I do. Don't you Ml dows on the ground floor. Lady 

LadyOransdale every thing)' Cransdale mounted the terrace steps. 

^ Well, I do sometmnes. Uoostanoe There was a marble vase upon the bal- 

does ahrays. But I say, Ned, will 'ustrade, withhea^y handles. CQasp- 

there be much row about this vile ing one of these with both her hands, 

beast of a griffin t" she leant her cheek npon them, and 

^You're hard on the poor griffin, looked out wistfully, first upon the 

PfaiL He didn't ask to oe shot at, landscape, then heavenward. 

yet he didn't olgect, like Tommy." '' Ah, Philip dear," she sighed, " I 

** Well, but what will your nther wonder can you see the childran now 1 

do to you foir breaking himt" Do you still halve the care of them 

<" Not kming can't say. Butifl withmet" 

catch it, its a case of serve me right. By-and-by the trample of skittish 

The jar is mammy's and she'd have hoofs was heardupontnegraveL The 

bam monstrous sorry to have it boys looked up and bowed to her wiUi 

anushed. Holloa! what's that? Your chivalrous grace. Lady Gonstanoe 

mother and Lady Oonstance on the cried, " See how I have him in hand, 

wa]k, with the new pony! Out along, mamma!" But she was too prudent 

Plul. and bother the 'gnffin till after to look off Selim's ears as yet The 

tea! Countess smiled to see tiunn go, — ^a 

In two minutes more they were iip sweet smUe and bright She stood 

to the OooBtess and her dau^ter witn too high for any of them to have seen 

a rush and a edliout which set the pony that its brightness sparkled through 

plunging. tear-drops. 

"^^'t he too qnrited, Cont" said The precise details of Ned's confes- 

Lady Cransdale. '* One of the boys sional ^soBlerenoe that evening with 

had better ride him first" his father have not beenhandedfdown. 

*'0h, please no, dear mamma I The penanoe imposed included, ap- 

like spirit in a pony. He*s gentle parently^ satisfaotion to Tommy Wu- 

enougn with it, I m sure." mot's injured feelings, for he iaid out 

She stopped up to the startled a bright sixpence next da^ in '^candy- 

creatore, whieh eyed her with its rock" and tofiy, and wsam possession 

lufgd^ deer-like eyesy and with quiver- of a baff of marbles envied 1^ the 

lag nostril sniffiia at her outstretohed whole village school. 



146 An Only Sm. [Feb. 

" Why, Con, you know we shall be striding up stairs to his own room ; 

very sorry to leave you, and all that, "time for a think, and I want cue." 

you know : but fellows must go to Ned's wavs were quaint occasionally, 

school There's Hebblethwaite minor. He bolted the door, shut the shutters, 

in the * lower fourth' at Eton, and and lit a pair of candles. Then he 

even young Mapes, from Rugb^, con- took down a slate, and tilting it up u^n 

ceited moiieys, that try to lord it over a Latin dictionaiy , proceeded to write, 

us whenever we come across them." as if takine down the data of aprob- 

" It's not so strange of Ned, perhaps, lem in arithmetic, "If Philip goes to 

not to care for leavmg me," she con- Eton ; but mv mother don't like me 

tinued, with a slight flush, perhaps to go so far from home, why need I r 

indicative of Junonian resentment Plunging both hands into his curly 

after all; "but for you, Phil, my brown hair, and propping both elbows 

own, own, only brother," and here on the table, he glared at the slate, 

her voice began to tremble, and Philip and thought, 

to feel queer again. When the tea-bell rasff, he washed 

" How can you talk of being left his hands and face with scrupulous 

alone. Con ] Won't there be Mrs. nicety, brushed and combed his 

Locksley left and Mammy too, whom tumbled locks, returned the diction- 

you pretend sometimes to love much ary to its shelf, the slate to its peg, 

more than I do. As if a fellow could extinguished the candles carefully, and 

help go-go-going to schoo-oo-ool ;" he went very deliberately down stairs. 

an8werea,with an approach to a down- "I say, pappy dear," he began, 

right whimper. soon after tea was done, " Fve a fa- 

" No, indeed^" exclaimed her Lady- vour to beg ; important too." 

ship, brightenm^ up in view of the " WeU, Ned, what is it?" 

adversary's faltenng, " but you needn't " I want to go to school at St. Ivo.'' 

talk so much about its being * precious " To school at St. Ivo, Ned I" cried 

jolly' to go." his father in amazement, and his mo- 

" When did you ever hear me call ther dropped her knitting to stare at 

it precious jolly f demanded luckless him. 

Philip, with some asperity. " There's a first-rate master," he 

"After tea, on Monday, before the said, "at the cathedral school" 

lights were brought into the library," " Pray, Ned, who toW you that 1" 

she replied at once, with that fatal fc- "Ob, I heard the Dean aay, one 

male accuracy in the record of minor day, at the Park, that the new man 

events. The reminiscence was too there, Mr. Ryder, had put a new life 

precise to be gainsaid. into the whole concern." 

" Mrs. LocKsley heard it, and felt " Well, I believe he's done wonders, 

it too, I could see by her face." Here but not made an Eton of St. Ivo ; eh, 

Ned's valiance began oozing out, and Ned 1" 

he quietly left the room. . " Hardly j but its a deal cheaper, 

"Yes,' she continued, " and so did you know, msinuated artful Edward, 

poor dear mammy too. I saw her "That's more my look out than 

face, by the fire-light, looking so pale yours, my boy. I wonder what's put 

and sad. You might have some feel- this freak in your head ?" 

ing. Phil, for her at least." Lucy was not so strong of heart, 

''Oh Oon, how dare you say that I perhaps, as Lady Oransdale ; at least, 

don't feel for her, my own poor dar- she had not known the cruel need to 

ling mammy !" brace it, wliich the Countess knew so 

As he spoke he heard his mother's well. The boy's freak flashed a gleam 

footfall close behind him, and turning, of hope upon her. St. Ivo was not 

the boy's bravery gave way at sight ten miles off : Eton close on two hun- 

of her. He ran and thi*ew his arms dred. At St. Ivo she might have 

around her with a sob. weekly, daily sight of Ned, if she 

Ned, meanwhile, went home, whis- were minded. No need for mother 
tling, to the lodge. But Lady Con- lips to thirst so many weary months 
stance's word had pricked his heart for kisses. It was a sore temptation, 
also. His father and mother were With an efifort to conceal her eager- 
out and would be back late to tea, the nessL she asked : — 
^Tvant said. "Should you, then, really like St. 

*Gk)od thing, too," muttered he, Ivo better, Ned !" 



1^61.] An Only Son. 145 

three at first; later, there was one both for it. She went pricking about 
tutor for the two boys. with sharp words to find a soft spot 
"Kate," said the Earl, some time of cowardice or of tenderness in either, 
Uelore his death, " Kate, let the boys but with little enough success at first. 
;:ruw up together. Philip will want She racked her brains to think of all 
a)»rother. Locksley will make a n)&n the cruelties she had heard or read 
of hirt own boy if any father can. that big bullies inflicted upon luckless 
And if thev grow up as brothers, he youngsters. But this bugbear startled 
vf\\\ >)e a kiud of father, of coi^we, them not. They were country-bred 
to poor Phil. You are a woman^of lads, bold, active, and hardv. More- 
women, Katty dear; but a boy wants over, they declared it would take a 
a man's hold over him." strapping big fellow to lick them both 
lier dying husband*s wish became togetner, and they would fight for one 
to her a saci'ed law. The Lodge, as another to the death. Lady Constance 
the Locksley^s dwelling-place was thought that was likely enough, to be 
( :ined, stood not far from the great sure. 

iiouse, and within the precincts of its She tried an appeal to Phil's pes- 

l>ark. The boys had rooms in either, sible fastidiousness, 

where allthingswere ordered for them "You know vou*re nice enough 

as for brothers of one blood. Their about things at home, Philip. How 

little beds, their bookshelves, their shall you like to boil your big bov's 

desks, all in duplicate, save in so far eggs, and bake his toast, and fry his 

as individual character will stamp sausages, and, may be, black his 

differences even on the very features boots. 

of very twins. ** Prime !" he retorted, " specially 

But the time was come when both the cooking. You've a taste that 

l»«'yH must leave home. From fa- way yourself, Con, or had, at least. 

tiitr to son, for many generations, all Don't you remember the row you got 

rranleighsliad been Etonians. Cathe- into with Mademoiselle, for warming 

rine, Countess of Cransdale, spite of veal * croquettes ' on the school-room 

the desperate hug in which her wi- shovel once !" 

•lowed heart held her boy, was not ** Years ago, when I was a little girl," 

the woman to let her weakness falter she said, finng up with the conscious 

trom the manly educational traditions dignity of a lady in her teens. " No 

of his race. Philip must jro to Eton, Lady-bird nor Light-foot, nor Selim 

and Edward must go with him, of for you, Phil ; not one gallop the 

course. The boys were eager to whole dreary half ! Oh dear !" 

confront the adventures of that new This was an artful and unexpect^^d 

world. Had not each himself, and stroke. It told upon his Lordship 

each the other, to rely upon 1 evidently, whose face lengthened, till 

But that eagerness was hard for Ned came to the rescue with a sug- 

two mothers' hearts to note. It is gestion of "capital fun in boats." 

JH>t only when prodigals insist on " Boats, indeed ! As if either of 

lc:iving home tliat parent hearts you coulri row a bit. Nice blisters 

are wrung ; dutiful and loving chil- ytm'll have on both your hands !" 

ilren wring them sometimes by their This was a relapse into the Cassan- 

djeerfiU iwting smiles. Poor Lady dra vein, and was accordingly derided. 

Cransdale ! She wished in her secret '* Oh, ah ! blisters. Much we should 

^ul she could detect, in Philip's mind them, I suppose. Maybe we 

laughing eyes, a passing trace of that didn't blister our hands with pickaxes 

fc»'ling which it was costing herself when we dug out the badger in Crans- 

»*uch heroic effort to conceal. Lucy felt mere wood. 

u touch of the same anguish, but be- " Selfish creatures boys are, to be 

tween her noble friend and her there sure !" she said figain, after a pause. 

^;5is a world of difference. Lady " Neither of you seems to care a bit 

^ Vanadate had been a happy wife ; for leaving me here all alone. No one 

Lucy was one. Neither, however, to ride with but old James, |X)unding 

^vould betray to her son the keenness Whind ! No one to go fishing with 

^•[herinwardpan^. It was left to Lady up on the moor. No one to walk with 

Constance tooo this. She was indignant as far as the * Long Beeches' or over to 

*t what she thought their heartless- Oansmcrc wootl, where your badger 

'ic*, and did her fijst to punish them wab." 

VOL, LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVlll. 10 



148 An Oiilif Hon. [Feb. 

heart well. He tlierefore told liia "Whv, whftta fatW owes a 8on 

boy far more explicitly than ever yet owes ; 1 should have to go." 

what were his obligations to the It was a aingulai' saying ix a boy. 

Cransdale family. How he had found Locksley turned it over in hU mind 

a father in the old Earl when the aloud. 

Frenchman's bullet ha*! made him '"Whata father owesason owes,' 

fatherleaa : how his relations with the eh 1 That'suotatbougbt with which 

late Lord nad but ioereased the debt, my own life ever Bet me face to face. 

" I Bay nothing, Ned, of what his But you're right about it, Ned, quite 

widow has ever been to you your- right" 

self." Then, after a bit, "You needn't 

"No need, pappy. No fearl shall speak again about St Ivo to your 

forget it." mother.'^ 

Well, now, Buppostug yon had " Wasn't going to," quoth Edward. 

set your lieurt oh staying here at " For better or for worse yoii go 

home " with Phil to Eton." 

"Whii:h I haven't, miud," inter- "For worse, indeed! You mHv 

jmlated Ned. pappy ! Floreat Etoua !" 

"But if you had, and we into the And up went Ned's hat, with a 



CHAPTBK III. 

"We shall have a 'tuft' in thcclase- with a great horror of slovenlineM ui 

lixt, for a wonder, this term," said a any matter. He happened to employ 

student of Christ-church to another the best tailor in town and to liave a 

undergraduate of that stately house judicious valet Their judgment and 

of learning. uis own methodical tidiness bestoweil 

"High up}" on him his nnexccptionably fioe 

" A safe ' second.' " clothing. 

" What, Royston a safe second 1" But the student's confidence in 

"First, perhaps." Grymer's "coaching" acum^i was 

"Oh, nonsense about that" not misplaced. He pocketed his un- 

" Will you give me two to one in believinii friend's half-crowns, for 

half-crowns i^rainst him I" when the flass-listwas out, there 

" Willingly." stood in the distinguished fore-frimt, 

" Done with you, then." among the few names in " the first," 

"Done. But, I say, what makes "Royston, Dominus de. Ex Aede 

you risk your small cash that way? ChristL" 

Royston'a too dressy to be cut out for Among all the congratulations 

'a first' " which reached him, none were more 

" Well, Grymer, who ' coaches' me grateful than those which came from 

too, says he's lots of lof,'ic in Iiim for his kiiiBwoman, Ijuly Cnmsdale. As 

a lord. And he was a bit of a 'sap ' a small indication of hie gnititade, he 

at Eton all along, they say." ran down to Eton, took Phil out for 

This logical lord. Baron Royston, of the afternoon, and "tipped" him. 

Rookenhaui, was a distant kinsman "A regular brick is Royston," cried 

'' " (Jrausdale family, and their that young nobleman to Ned, whom 

leighbour in the county. He he met later, coming up from "out 

te Philip, his own son, as they of bounds." 

lut had lost both parents in " Here's something like a tidy ti[K 

ife. He wn« undoubtedly of a look," and he unfolded crisp and 

iisand thoughtful turn of mind, crackling, anew bank-note. 

j1 made the best of Eton and of " He's been and got a first ftt Ox- 

I. A parliamentary career was ford, Royston haa. I know they'll be 

bition. The dressiness where- no end of glad at home." 

lis depreciatory fellow-student But Ned did not seem sympathotii'. 

preached him wai but an indi- " We'll have such a sock, ran on 

of a certain real indifference to Philip. " I'll ask all the tellows in 

:rsonat appearance, combined the ten-oar, and nil of onr cricket- 



1861.] An Only Son. 147 

He looked her full in the face, and and all that ! I should think not, 

the boy, too, was tempted by the just about" 

oravinff tenderness which gleamed in " But if your mother should wish 

lier soft eyes. But his fatner's look to keep you nearer home, you're ready 

^wtLs on hiin also, full of manful help, to give it up ]" 

^* I didn't quite say that, dear He nodded assent. 

mammy." " You'll have to give up Phil, too. 

" What did you say, then 1" remember. He won't go to St Ivo.' 

** Only that I wanted, if pappy Ned gave a sigh ; but said reso- 

winild allow, to go to the catneurw lutely, " She's more to me than PhU, 

sohooL" or half-a-dozen. I'll do what she 

^* You are not afraid of facing so likes, please." 
many strangera as at Eton, surely," " Well, sleep on it to-night, Ned j 
said nis father. we'll talk it over again to-morrow." 
** The more the merrier," he bounced Lady Constance, proud of having 
out inadvertently; "I like ajoUy lot crushed her brother into contrition, 
of fellows!" looked anxiously the next day for 
He caught thefall upon his mother's signs of relenting in Master Ned. 
countenance, and was acute enough Perhaps she wished, perhaps she fear- 
to see that he had betrayed once more ed^ to Know whether, amongst other 
to her the feeling which Lady Con- thmgs, the boy would care a little for 
stance said had hurt her. leavmg her. Some say, to use a dyer's 
Lucy seemed to lose again the clue simile, that jealousy must be the 
she thought to hold. The fledgling's mordant to fix any tint of true love, 
wing was not so weak as she had al- even be it only sisterly. I fancy that 
most hoped. It was ready for a long with women it is almost always so— 
tlight from the nest She plied her much more invariably than with our 
knitting again, part sorrowful, part less sensitive brotherhood. But Ne<l 
proud, to note the spirit of her ooy. gave no sign. His countenance was 
Fresently she put the knitting by for imperturbable when, in the after- 
good and all. Her head ached a little, noon, as the ponies came round, his 
and she was going early to bed. Ned father told him that he must walk 
ran after her for another parting kiss home with him, instead of riding with 
before she reached her room. It sent the others. There was a whole cate- 
her to sleep happy. chism of que-stionings in Lady Con- 
" What put this notion of St Ivo stance's eyes as she rode off with 
in your head ]" asked Mr. Locksley Philip ; but Ned went, whistling and 
once more when the boy returned. incurious, with his father. 

" If you don't mind, I'd rather say " Don't, Ned. It worries me," said 

no more about it," answered Ned, Mr. Locksley. "I want to have a 

discomfited. reasonable talk with you.'' 

" But if I do 1" " All right, then,''^ and he ceased 

** Of course, then, I shall out with his whistling. 

it." " One good turn deserves another, 

" Out with it, then, my boy," said doesn't i^ my boy 1" 

Mr. Locksley. " To be sure, and more." 

So he told his father how Lady "Why morel" 

Constance "went on" at him and "Because the first's the first, and 

Philip about their obdurate cheerful- done out of mere good wilL" 

ness m face of approaching departure; " Bight, Ned. Saint John has said 

and how her Ladyship had given it ; * Herein is love, not that we loved 

them to imderstand, among other God, but that He loved us.' Love's 

things, that their respective mothers nobler than gratitude. The second 

were pining at the prospect turn wants miutiplying to come up to 

" Then, to put the (question as your the first." 

mother aid herself lUst now, you " Ah ! just about," said Ned, re- 

wouldn't like St Ivo oetter ?" lapsing into a whistle to ease the 

" Ohj my ! Better ! What 1 St overcharge of seriousness. 

Ivo, with thirty fellows in the poky " Don't, boy ; but listen." 

little dose, better than Eton with Trust begets trust, which little else 

hundreds, and the playing-fields, and has power to beget Locksley knew 

the river, and * Pop, and Montem, this much of the secret to win a son's 

10* 



140 Ships in Armour, [Feb. 

bottom of an iron ship is a strong national economy in disusing public 
objection against her. On the yards, save for docking, for slight 
other hand, a timber-built ship is repairs, and for fitting out; and 
vulnerable from stem to stem, and favouring private establishments by 
combustible from her water line to throwing open the construction and 
her truck. When our great lexico- supply of tne navy to competition, 
grapher obiected to a ship as "a gaoL At present the royal dockyards pre- 
with the chance of being drowned,' sent a mysterv of evil common to all 
he might have added "and with the works carried on by €k)vemment ; 
risk of being burnt An iron-built and the only royal road out of it 
vessel, when strongly sheeted, if not seems to lie m evading and avoiding 
positively invulnerable, is so compa- it By this course a great saving of 
ratively with a wooden one ; bemg taxation would be secured, and the 
so, this fact is combined with incom- countrv would soon possess, instead 
bustibility, which gives the indubit- of half-a-dozen government yards 
able advantage of her being the only which are costly to keep up and for- 
means of laymg a land battery suffi- tify, half a hundred private establish- 
ciently close on board to breach it ments, habituated to supply the navy 
An iron frame is said to be absolutely with various articles, from a blodc to 
necessary for a vessel fitted with a a line-of-battle ship, 
screw^ to enable it to bear the shak- Again, if the mtish fleet were 
ing action of this powerful propeller, chidoy composed of large iron eor- 
The vibration cauised by high speed vettes, impelled by steam, the screws 
was so great in the case of the safely placed, the rigging light, and 
*' Gloire," as that the arm6ur plates the armament some score of gans, the 
near her stem would all have worked personnel of the navy would not need 
loose had that speed been maintained so many able seamen. 
Metal wUl, of course, bear the con- Oiu views are opposed to Tessels 
tinually shattering power of the screw the size of the "Warrior." Some 
better than wood will On the en- people imagine that they have only 
tire question. Great Britain, rich as to increase oulk and weight to obtain 
she is in iron, would, by its use. more power. This may oe true of the 
hugely augment her joresent naval power of resistance of an iron plate, 
preponderance over France, where but is not so of the strength of roa- 
iron industry is less developed and chinery when subjected to a strain, 
over America, where wood is likely The atomic cohesion of metal, on 
long to keep iron out of use. which its stren^h depends, is not in- 
Ii'on-built ships have found little creased by addition to its bulk, and 
favour in the eyes of the Board of there is doubtless a limit to the size to 
Admiralty, for reasons about which which the constmction of vessels de- 
it is not necessary to enter further pendent on metallic materials should 
into details. Certainly, the motives oe extended 
for dismissing any prejudice on this The proof of a ship in armour will 
point are many ; and it is time to be in the fighting. Yet there oer- 
adopt courses requisite for introduc- tainly is sufficient reason for conclud- 
ing iron more fully into naval archi- ing that such fabrics must hereafter 
tecture. The royal dockyards are enter largely into the composition of 
six in number, and it may be a de- our national marine. Whether they 
sideratum that one of them should may be found available for forei^ 
be devoted to iron-works for ship- service is an untried question, Imt it 
building. Pembroke, from its proxi- may fairly be presumed that to some 
mity to Welsh coal and iron-fields, extent, ships of war wUl in niture be 
seems the best adapted The ques- protected oy armour exactly as they 
tion, latelydiscussedmadistinguished nave come to be propelled by steam, 
contemporary, whether it would not Iron may not entirely supersede wood, 
be advisable to obtain the iron-work any more than steam has supersedea 
of ships of war by contract is, how- sails, but iron may enter more largely 
ever regarded, a most important into the framework of vessel^ and be 
one. Oojections to this mode are always applied to protect their sides, 
silenced by the fact, that all the Entire reconstmction of our navy is by 
steam machinery in use in the navy no means obligatory. Judmngbythe 
is so obtained There would 1p« "Gloire," heavily iron-cased snips ai:e 



1K61. 1 An Onhj Son. 149 

iiig eleven at my dame's. Gome on, tory, for it was then that he first 

Ned. We'll have sausage-rolls, and made acquaintance \vith his first- 

raspberrv puffs, and champagne ! cousin by the mother's side, Keane 

Hooray r Burkitt ; then also that he first fell 

Still Ned was apathetic, and excus- in with Colonel Blunt. 
eil himself. He'd a copy of verses to Lucy Locksley's eldest brother, 
»how up, and must go and grind at James Burkitt, had been some years 
them. dead. In his lifetime he had been a 
" Vers*^ be blowed ! I'll tell you solicitor in the flourishing seaport of 
what, Ned ; you're always rusty Freshet. He had l)een a successful 
tihout Royston now-a-days. I can't man of business, and had known suc- 
conceive what ails you. It wasn't cesses in other ways. For instance, 
always so. I think he's an out-and- he had won, to his surprise, and 
outer, and so they do at home, I some said to her own, the hand of 
know." Isiibella Keane, the reigning beauty 
Ned knew it also. Perhaps "at of that watering-place. There was a 
homo" the expression might haA'e glitter in that showv young lady's 
been other. Countesses and tlieir eyes, which might have portended 
latly-daughters don't scatter slang greed and har(][nes8, and a restless 
with the CTaceless ease of their noble temper. Sh^made him, on the whole, 
young reuitives at Eton. But the however, a better wife than many 
sentiment was the same ; and the had expected; but did little towards 
sweet breath of their praise of him counteracting by her influence such 
was just, perhaps, whiat turned to faults of the same character as ex- 
nist upon the true steel of Edward's isted naturally in her husband, and 
feeling. The boys were doing well were fostered bv the peculiar tempta- 
iipon the whole at Eton. They tions of his calling. When he aied 
took their removes in due season he left his widow a reasonable pro- 
roj^ularly, and were "sent up for vision, partly realized and partly 
^cmhI " a satisfactory number of charged upon the profits of the firm, 
times. Ned was the steadier reader For, of course, as I may almost say, 
of the two ; but Philip was very James Burkitt, Esquire, Solicitor, was 
quick-witted, and held his own. in partnership. Burkitt and Goring 
They were never many places apart was the firm. A very confidential 
in school They were firm friends firm indeed ; in whose tin boxes, and 
Ktill ; indeed, almost as brotherly as more ponderous iron safes, the title- 
ever. But in the little world of a deeds,and wills, and acts of settlement 
public school, it was impossible for of half the families in Freshet were 
the old identity of taste and pursuits in safe keeping, to say nothing of do- 
to live on unimpaired. Ned cncketed, cuments and debentures affecting the 
Phil boated ; thus one was thrown interests of its commercial class, 
among the wet "bobs," one among It was stipulated andsecuretl that 
the "drv." Ned was a careless in due course of time, his son, Keane 
dresser, Phil followed at humble dis- Burkittj should, if so inclined, claim 
tance the sartorial splendours of Lord a desk m the firm's office, and ulti- 
R^yston. Phil's chums were chosen mately assume in its inner sanctum his 
from the rattlepates, Ned's from the father'sformer place of pre-eminence, 
more earnest sort in mischief or in Keane Burkitt was not sent to a 
l>ptter thinf^ Phil's mind was set public school His widowed mother 
on a commission in the Guards, Ned had not Lady Cransdale's self-sus- 
— those were not Crimean days, good taining firmness, nor the help from 
reader — would hazard a sneer at without which Lucy's momentary 
Windsor campaigners now and then, weakness found She sent her son 
Casual circumstances, too, bej^n to as day-boarder to the so-called Aca- 
hint at the divergence inevitable demy-House, at Freshet. There he 
even between brothers' paths as boy- had few of the advantages of a nub- 
hi>oil closes. Three vacations had lie school education, none of tnose 
Ijeen spent asunder. Twice the which strictly domestic training may 
(Jransdales had been on distant visits; afford. He had the manifest disad- 
imce the Locksleys luui spent summer vantage of becoming presently heatl 
lioUdays from home. That was a boy, without the ordeal of a sufficiently 
laemoroble period in £dward*8 his- powerful antagonismtohave made the 



142 An Only Son. [Feb. 



AN ONLY SON. 

BY. TBS AIITBOII OP *' AATI0T AXO CMJOVUIAK" 

CHAPTEU I. 

-*" Capital ! But it wam't on a live unr." So,.perhapB, be would, but for 

boy's head, though V jftMOcymay-^y and a hnnmr swallow. 

'' What odds if it bad been V The siay-fly daaoed ri^^ m the line 

" All the odds in the wocld, Ned. of aim ; the swaliow darted, snapped 

•Funk nudces a fellow's hand ahake." at and seized her. The flieam of the 

'* Stop a blL then, and I'll tnr again biid'sgloasybadc daszled ^ed'se^etoo 

^th Tommy Wilmot Here ! Tommy ! late to chedc the finger on the tngger. 

Tommy !" Off went the bead of tbe golaen 

But when it was explained to dragon of the (^nasty of Ming. 

Tommy, tiie mdener's son, that he " Oh, Ned, Ned, we've been and 

was to stand blindfold whilst Master done it^" was the JSarl's generous ex- 

Locksley shot a bolt at an apple on his damation. 

head, he manilested an unaccountable "I've been and done it, not you, 

repugnance. In vain was he ahown Phil !" was Ned's no less genctous dis- 

jtwo apples spitted insucoession by the -claimer. 

cmarksman's skUl : in vain was he "I put you up to it and bullied yon 

made acquainted with the story of the into it, sothe mischiefs mine as much 

gallant Switser's boy: in Tain waa an as vouis : and that I'll stic^ to. But 

offer made to dispense with the brass -talk of sticking, Ned, eouldn't we 

•ferule on the bolt stick the vile brute's head on again f " 

Then bribes wore tried, a new six- said Philip, transferring, as we all do 

pence and a bag of marcdeB. Then aometimes, a share of his annoyance 

came hard words : "be was a muff :" to the victim of his misdeed. 

" he was a monkey." Lastly, I am "" Poiiaps we could," answered the 

•sorry to say, came tlureats, whereat marksman, ruefully. "Its a good job 

be threw Mmaeif upon his back on it wasn't Tommy's eye." 

4ihe turf, ki<^ng and sereaxniag for " That's the provoldng part of it ; 

" Mammy !" the obstinate little toad will think he 

" Ugh ! the little toad !" said both was m^t to refuse. What are you 

his tonnentons, with the most in- going rar now, Ned?" 

genuous indignation. "Only the cement bottle in mun- 

" I have it^ thou^^" said the Earl, mVs cupboard." 

after a pause. " Lers get Mfs. Locks- very good cement it wias ; and, 

ley's big china jar out of the back soon set hard, the Ming monst^ 

drawing-room, stick it on a stool with showed>his grinders as well as ever, 

the apple atop. Its no end of funky The ingenious Earl bethought him of 

to shoot at" some gold shell in Ned's paint-box, 

It was indeed. Even Ned's reck- and &pputf[ therewith the liiie of 

leasnesB quailed. fracture maoe it ahnost disappear. 

"A nice boy you are/' quoth his "Bepairs neatly done ^^tisior par- 
lordship; "risk Tommy Wilmot'alife ties finding their own cement The 
or eves andfunk tbeerookeiy ! Well !" jar's as good as ever, Ned. put it away 

Tnis was more than Ned could and there's an end (^ it' 

stand. Indoors he went, and broufibt Not so, Ned's uncomprcmiising ho- 

out the jar in one hand, a tall stool in nesty would not allow it His father 

the other. Onthelidsquattedagrin- soon after came up the lawn, where 

ning dragon with a smooth round pate, the boys were still lounging under the 

lliereon a pippin was then cri^tily cedars. At his approacn, Tommy 

poised, and the Earl stepped off the Wilmot, who was novering about, 

distance at which they had been shoot- took to speedy flight Who could say 

ing before. Their weapon was a cross- but some vague charge of oomtdidty 

bow, their bolt of wood tipped with might affect and endanger him f The 

a brass ferule. Earl, who was peeling a willow wand. 

Ned took aim so steadily that his was rather startled at hearing Ned 

companion muttered, "He'll do it, begin — 



1861.] An Ofdy Sen, 161 

*' Ah^ but ve shan't have you, Bo- business with a pleasure-trip. Then 

U^rt, I am afraid. Ned won^t like there's something in what she says 

that any more than I shall, I know." about her boy, poor woman. I think 

^^But I don't know that jrou won% I'll take you down there, and come 

Lucy. We're in want of timber for again, perhaps, to bring you back." 

the new farms out l^ Oransmere, and And so the Lockideys, in due time, 

there are always Norway ships at went on a sea-side trip to Freshet 
Freshet. I might combine a stroke of 



CHAPTER IV. 

Thb sailing-boat was, indeed, a tri- sharp click of his boot-heels as he 
uniph of build and rig. A trinuner brought his feet together, and the 
and tauter never swam the still waters regulated precision of his bow could 
nf Freshet harbour — ^never skinuned scarcely be mistaken, 
the surf outside in Freshet bay. Ned " Colonel Blunt," said the widow ; 
was charmed with her. Yet when he '' Mr. and Mrs. Robert Locksley." 
read, in dainty golden letters on the He gave another precise bow to 
Htem, the name of ^' Lady Constance," Lucy ; and, looking hard into her hus- 
he frowned — a slight frown only— band's face, he said — 
hharp eyes were wanted to catch its "Locksley ! Why, bless me. Locks- 
momentary contraction on his fore- ley ! A thousand pardons, sir ! But 
liead. But cousin Keane's eyes were your featui'cs along with that name 
sharp, and caught it. They saw the seem to come back to me so forcibly, 
lips )a8t tighten, as the brow relaxed, Have I the honour of speaking to a 
to keep in a question which they brother officer 1" 
wcmld not ask. " No, not exactly," said Robert, 
*' She had none till we knew that good-humouredly ; " unless you count 
you were coming. Then my mother for such an ex-lieutenant of the Crans- 
>^iU(l your mother would like this one; dale Yeomanry." 
jtiul you, too, perhaps." " WeU, excuse me, sir. I thought 
Keane peered into his cousin's conn- you hadn't ouite the cut of our cloth. 
t«-nance, which at this warning was feut — Locksley — let me see — Locks- 
"u its guard and imperturbable. So ley 1 Had you an elder brother or 
tlK^y stepped on board the "Lady relation in the service, sir, may I make 
Constance,'* whose owner slipped the bold to ask V* 
luooriugB. "Neither, Colonel. But my poor 
" Can you steer, Ned 1" father fell at Corunna. He com- 
The Etonian fixed the tiller, smil- manded the Welsh Rangers, in the 
iiig. Light Division, all through Sir John 

*^ All right, then ; I'll naind the Moore's campaign." 
Kheets." " Good heavens, Mr. Locksley ! 
She was covered with white canvas That explains it all ; and accounts 
ill no time. There was a light breeze for the extraordinary impression made 
and a sunny ripple on the wave ; the at once upon me by your name and 
l)oy8 were soon standing out across face. I carried the colours of the 
the \)ay. Rangers at sixteen, sir. I stood not 
Mr. and Mrs. Locksley, as befitted twenty paces from your father when 
Beuiors, pacedsolemnly the Esplanade, he fell A gallant soldier, sir !" 
with Mrs. Burkitt. She judiciously He held out his hand, which Locks- 
dispensed familiar nods or statelier ley took with genuine emotion, 
courtesies to numerous acquaintances "How very delightful! and how 
and friends whom the breeze that very strange ! " said Mrs. Burkitt 
w)oled the summer evening brought " I had no notion, ColoneL that you 
out to eiyoy its freshness *upon the had served imder Mr. Locksley's fa- 
favourite public walk. By-and-by ther. You must follow up this chance 
they met a tall, thin gentleman, up- introduction, gentlemen. We dine 
fight of carriage, firm of tread. He at seven. Colonel, and sliall hope to 
vore a single-breasted blue coat, but- see you at dinner to-morrow at that 
toned to the throat, which was en- hour." 
^^^^hiahlackailkstock. The quick, " With greatest pleasure, madam." 



144 An Only San. [Feb. 



CHAFTEB II. 

Babben of its chief UeBsedneBs is the moreover ; for she was cotmty-fismily, 
boyhood of him that haa no mother, too, and the dames of the loftiest 
But Edward Locksle/s l)oyhood had county magnates need not diaown her. 
been blessed with almost a double ''What a comfort," said Lady Heb- 
mother-love. Lady Oransdale had blsthwaite^ at the manor-house, Sir 
more than half adopts him to son- Hem^r's wife, to Mrs. Mape& of Ma- 
ship. There was hereditary bond of «perley, ''to nave the old Archdea- 
friendship and esteem between the con's grand-daughter at the Lodge, at 
house of Cranleigh and the Lockslevs. Gransdale. The Locksleys, too, were 
The grandfathers of the two bovs who always gentle folk, and the late Colo- 
play^ under the cedars had tightened nel a oicrtinguished soldier. But I 
it. They were brotiber soldiers in one had my fears lest Robert, in his pecu- 
regiment during the American War liar position, might look us out some 
of Independence. Either had con- vul^ rich woman." 
tracted close obligation to the other "In his position, dear. How so ? 
for life or liberty in the vicissitudes The Oransdale agency must be an ex- 
of that adventurous struggle. cellent thing, I tancy." 

John, Earl of Oransdal^ then Via- " Excellent, indeed ; but still pre- 

count Oransmere. left the army before carious. Any day a quarrel with the 

the outbreak of tne ensuing gieat con- Earl, you know^ or with the guar- 

tinental wars. His friend, Edward dians, should a life drop and a mino- 

Locksley, followed the profession of rit^ ensue, eh 1" 

arms until the day of Oorunna. There " Well,'to be sure, I never thought 

he felL in command of a regiment of of that And, as you say, a quanrel 

Liffht Infantiy, under the eyes of his or a change of dynasty : but IxLcy 

noole chief, doomed to death on the Burkitt is Lucy Lookslev now. A 

selfsame day. dear eood little girl she always was, 

His brother soldier did more than and Iliad a vast respect for her grand- 

a brother*s part for his children, father, the late Archdeacon; and I 

Young Robert Locksley, our Edward's shall drive over to the Lodge and call 

father, owed, in great measure, to the on Tuesday." 

Earl the completion of his school And Mrs. Mapes, of Maperley. did 

career^ his entrance at the university, call. So did Sir Henry and I^y 

and his early admission to a post of Hebblethwaite. So did the Very Rev. 

confidence and wealth. He had been the Dean of St Ivo and his wife. So 

now for years under the elder lonL did some greater and some lesser per- 

and then under his son, the late Earl senates than these, until the social 

Philip, manager of the Oransdale es- position of the Loomleys was indis- 

tate& mtimate counsellor and friend putablj and most honourably defined, 

of all at Oransdale paxk. Their Edward was bom in the same 

Earl Philip had oeen a statesman, week as Lord Oransdale's heir, and 

and had fiUedimportant offices abroad, both babies were christened on the 

" I could hanily have gone upon same day. The Earl, who stood god- 
that Indian governorship,' he used to father to little Ned, would say, lau^h- 
say, " if I had not had Locksley to ingly, that he and Phil were twins, 
leave here in my place. But with and often brought one on each arm to 
him here, I believe the county gained be nursed as such by his Oountess. 
by mv turning absentee." Lady Oonstance, in the Aill dignity of 

Robert Loc&sley made a wisechoice some two years' seniority, call^ them 

when he chose the old Rector's daugh- both "ickle baby brothers." Sheher- 

ter, Lucy Burkitt, to his wife. "Meek- self had first seen the light in the 

hearted Lucy" was her distinctive Government House of an Indian pre- 

title in her own family. She was sidency, whence a change ofOabmet 

Sretty; she was gentle; she was ten- at home recalled her parents some 

er; a true helpmeet for him every months before the birth of PM- 

way. Knowing, for instance, better lip. Edward Ixx^ey proved to be 

than he could, all the folk on the es- an only child, so the Earl ixunated 

" teS) among whom she was bom and upon his being playmate with his own 

d. Gently bom and gently bred, children. One govemess taught the 



1861.] An Onlf/ Soiu 153 

swarming up into the trees. I took always make it out. We must sail 

a couple of knapsacks for a pillow, over there and have a day's rifle - 

and, stretched on my back, lighted practice at the gulls/' 

the remnant of a part-smoked cigar. It was not exactly to the Skerry to 

Those were not wasteful times, young- shoot ^Us that Ned's fancy had been 

sters ; we were saving of our minor travelling alone: the shining seaward 

lumries. I think I said it was after path ; nevertheless he jumped at the 

dusk. Well, the season was too eai'ly notion — literallv, off his chair, no less 

for any ripe fruit ; but the hard sto- than figuratively. The old Coloners 

machs of our * light-bobs* took kindly ear haa also caught the well-known 

to the stony green plums. As the word. 

men rifled tlieljoughs it was pleasant " What's that about rifles, young- 

to hear the riistie of the leaves, st^r ; can you handle one, pray f 

Presently came the voice of Corporal " Oh, Colonel,*' cried both the boys, 

Chunk, calling to a comrade in an- "come with us ; that would be prime, 

other trea We're going to the Skerr}' to shoot 

" * I zaay, Bill ! han't Vrench plooras gulls." 

win£8 V " What 1 in that gim-crack boat of 

"^ Wings, you blockhead! No; Burkitt's. The next major on the 

not no more nor English uns.' purchase-list would chuckle to see nie 

" * Doan't 'ee zaay zo, Bill ; now, get on board." 

tloan't 'ee !' cried the Corporal ; * else " Indeed," exclaimed her indignant 

I've a bin atin' cockchaafers more nor owner, " you've no notion what a sea- 

this 'aalf hour !' boat she is. Stands ba stiff as the 

"After that, youngsters," quoth lighthouse under half a gale of wind. 

the Colonel, "we had better go up You needn't be afraid, Colonel. Ask 

to the ladies, if Mr. Locksley don t any boatman in the bay." 

object." Impudent imp ! So I needn't he 

Upstairs, the drawing-room win- afraid of going to sea in a washing- 
clows were wide open — the night wind tub with two monkeys for ship's com- 
could scarcely stir the light muslin pany. Thank you kindly. But as 
tnirtains. There was a little balcony there's arms on board I think I will 
where IViward carried out a chair go, just to give you two a chance for 
and sat down, leaning his arms on your lives." 

the rail, his chin on his arms. A "Hun*ah, Colonel !" cried the mon- 

hroad path of heaving silver, laced keys, tolerant of insult at the prospect 

with dac^ 8ha<low-line8, as wavelets of his joining them, 

rose and fell, led his sight out, across When he did step on board with 

the bay, to sea. Whither led it his them he was concerned to And how 

thought and fancy 1 The " Lady little stowage-room there was for his 

Constance" lay at her moorings, right long legs. 

ai^ross the silvery track. The voices '^They've worried me many ways, 

of father and mother both were aud- these long legs of mine, and got me 

il>le in the room behind Once he taken prisoner once." 

looked back, and thought his own " Prisoner ! Colonel. One would 

heart ro<le at moorings, fast by their have thought vhat long legs, if ever 

love. As he looked out again a long, of use, would have been UBcful to keep 

glaasy swell came rolling m from the one out of that scrape." 

bay. The fairy craft courtesied with " Well, I don't know. Little, 

dan(*iug grace as it slipped under her. stumpy legs beat long shanks at run- 

What a shame to tie that life-like ning most times. But I didn't get a 

thing to mooring ! Soft as the breeze chance to run." 

was, her exquisite canvas would catch " Go about, Ned I" cried his cousin, 

every breath, if hoisted. What " It's your head you must mind tliis 

dreamy delight to sail, and sail away, time. Colonel, or the boom will take 

and yet away, beyond the sight-line, you overboard." 

all along that heaving silver 1 The tack successfully made, the 

" Lo<Mcin^ for the Skerry, Ned. or boys begged for the story, 

sentimentalizing 1" broke m, unplea- 'Twas on the retreat from Madrid, 

santly, the voice of Ke^ne. in 1812. We had the rearguard, ancl 

"The moonlight lie^ just about in were all higgledy-piggledy with the 

Hue for it ; but it's so far off one can't French van. Into villager an<l out of 



154 An Only Son. [Feb. 

them, like ' puss in the corner.' One " Beg pardon, Colonel, but we must 

night a party of ours came on an old go about again." 

fonda. Grand old places some of Havine cobbed under the boom 

those, with great vamted ceiling to again, and seated himself to windward, 

the stables and granaries overhead, he went on. 

The owners were gone, and all their "There were only some ten or 

goods with them. We ransacked cup- twelve of them, ana the stable was 

board and comer with no result but very long. My best hope was they 

fleas, dust,and dead crickets. They had might keep down to the stalls by the 

made clean sweep of all but the airt." door. 

" Luff, Ned, luff a bit," said Keane. " * Mon sergent," quoth a trooper, 

" Go on. Colonel." did we catch any of *em V 

" In despair I went out to rummage "'Catch, indeed! We couldn't 
the stables. I had known a muleteer boil up a trot between us. Poor Co- 
in a hurry leave a crust and a gar- ootte here has had three handfids of 
licky sausage-end in the hay. And chopped straw in her stomach since 
even a handful of horsebeans don't yjBsterday, and a stone under her shoe 
come amiss in starvation-soup, young- since this morning on the Sierra, 
•sters. It was a great big stable — That's not the way to catch English 
fifty mules might nave stood at bait " Voltigeurs." eh f 
in it ; but rack and manger were as " * Geux depays va. They talk of 
1)are as cupboard and shelf I had a chateaux in Spain : when I'm " Mar^- 
1 »lt of lighted candle and went search- chal Due de Irimporte quoi" I'll take 
iiig along. At the furthermost upper care to build mine out of it.' 
end of the lEist trough I came upon a " * En attendant, Francois, as thou 
little pile of lentils. It looked so neat art only Mar^chal des Logis, let's 
and undisturbed that I thought it look out for the hay-loft.' 
must have been formed after the *'To my discomfiture they lit a 
general clearance. I looked up and lantern and came upwards. 
saw a grain or two on the rack-beam. " ' MiUe Tonnerres, mon sergent !' 
Looked right up to the ceiling and cried Francois, gaping at the ceiling, 
perceived a crack. A lentil dropped. * Here's something now, for example ! 
Tiiere was^ then, a store-room over- Here's a pair of legs dangling down 
head. I chmbed up on the rack-beam like cobwebs.' 
and went along till I saw a trap-door " * Ah, bah ! thou art pleasanting.' 
in the ceiling. ' I'm in luck for once,' " * Pleasanting ! To the contrary. 
thought I. I could reach the trap Look at the boots and tro^msers !' 
witli my sword-point ; so I gave a " * Drolls of legs 1' cried the ser- 
shove. Open it went and fell back, jeant, holding up the light. * Farcers 
inside, with a bang. To spring up of legs ! Are they live, Fran9oiB V 
and into the gaping hole with the " Iheard the hilt clang preparatorj^ 
randle-end in my teeth was soon to * draw swords' — I wanted neither 
(lone ; but as I was in the candle-end prick nor scratch — and fell to kicking 
Wiis out. I groped onwards in the vigorously. 

dark. I could hear the rats squeak " ' Tiens mon vieux !' said Francois, 

and scamper in amaze ; but they were ' They're not only live but lively.^ 

not as amazed as I was at hearing — " * Ah 5a !' shouted the serjeaut, 

there was no mistaking it — a French apostrophizing my nether limbs. *To 

cavalry bugle in the court-yard. To whom are you ? and what make you 

make things worse I felt something there ? Ailons done r^pondez de 

give under my left foot Sure enough; suite.' 

crack went treacherous lath and plas- " There was nothing for it but to 

ter. I made a blundering attempt to confess in such French as I might 

right myself : crack and crash, both " * Tiens c'est un Anglishemanne !' 

heels went through I I was astride they roared with loud laughter^ and 

upon a cross-beam and both lees soon were up in the lort with a 

dangling down. Vain was the struggle lantern. 

to loose one lanky limb and then the " * Pardon, mon offider ! C'est la 

other. There was a fix! Then hoofs chasse aux oignons qui a fait vot' 

clattered, scabbards clanked, spurs petit malheur P 

'^gled underneath. The French "Sure enough, there was a noble 

asaeurs were in the stables." string of onions swinging just over the 



1861.] An Only Son. 166 

heap of lentils ; and a capital stew over him. Her clanging cry Beemed 

the Chasseurs made of them that fraught with reproach. Ned fancied 

night, I rememher." he could discern a blood-spot on the 

When laughter abated, Ned asked: snow of her downy breast. Would 

" Were you prisoner long, Co- she arraign him of cruelty for the 

loneU" death of her mates under the cliflfl 

"Oh, dean no. One of our flank " Pshaw, nonsense." He jumped up; 

companies — I told you we were all the bird's wings quivered, and she 

hig^ied^-piggledy — burst in upon the went screaming out to eea. To and 

fonaa just before daybreak. There fro, musing, he paced some fifty yards; 

was no spare nag for me, and Cocotte then forgot what had brought him 

couldn't carry double ; so they left to his feet, and found himself laugh- 

me behind when they scuffled away." ing at remembrance of the Colonel's 

" Keep her a point away from the long-legged misadventure, 
lighthouse rock, Ned." said Keaiie, *' I'll go and get another story out 
for the Skerry was full in view, loom- of the old campaigner." 
inglarge. He found him stretched at full 
The sea-mews had a bad time of lenj^tli, his face towards the ground, 
it The Colonel, l)esidos his old ex- his head propped on both hands, his 
l>orionce of the rifle, had made fur eyes on a little open book. Ned 
and feathers fly all round the world, started, for staining the white margin 
from almost as many species as tlic was a rusty spot about the size of the 
cases of the British Museum boast, blood-spot on the sea-mew's breast. 
Ned's accuracy of eye and steadiness " Ha, youn^'stcr !" said the Colonel, 
of hand had increased since the day without looking up, *' think it odd 
when grief came to the dragon of to find an old soloier poring over a 
Ming. Keane, like most seaport lads, prayer-book, eh ]" 
was a practised enemv of seabirds. ^' Colonel, what is that stain upon 
Tired of slaughter, and sharp-set for the margin I" wiis the answer, 
luncheon, they presently moored the " A drop of a brave man's blood, 
** Lady Constance" far out enough to boy," said the Colonel. 
icet off at ebb-tide, and hailing a He turned round, sat up, and sent 
coble sculled by the lighthouse-keep- a solemn searching look into the lad's 
»'r\s boy. got ashore, to the infinite countenance. It was also solemn, and 
iflief of the Colonel's legs. The he was moved to speak when other- 
Skerry was throughout a tilted table wise he had kept strict silence, 
of chalk — on top, a slanting ilovm " Sit (lf)\vn, and I'll tell you how I 
of thymy grass, close-cropped by came by it." 
hheep, whose backs, as they grazed, Edward sat down, 
made steep inclines. Shade was " It's in Latin, ^ou see," holding 
not attainable, but the breeze was the book towards him; "but the name 
fresh, though the sun was bright. It on the fly-leaf" — turning to it — " is 
was pleasant enough, when the mid- in German." 

day meal was done, to lie upon that " Gretli Steiner" was written there 

Hhort crisp turf, and gaze landward, in a thin-pointed female hand; uti- 

i>ay-dreams arc dreamy enough, I derneath, in strong, awkward, nuih- 

iiUow. The shapes that haunt them culine characters, " Muss oft gelesen 

are vacue and ill-defined. The very seyn," " Must often be read." 

coiist-One of the firm land itself "I was on divisional stafl*, in 1815, 

seemed to dance and quiver in haze at Quatre-bras and Waterloo. Late 

as Edward looked on it. But indis- on the latter day, when the French 

tinctness under broad sunbeams, look- game was up, I went galloping with 

ing landward, is other than vague- a message to the Prus8ian8 in pursuit. 

ness under weu'd moonbeams, looking None but the chiefs —and they not 

seaward. The sense of the indefinite always — know at the time the im- 

aud of the infinite are not one. The portance of even great victories. Yet, 

trickeries of the former work not the somehow, that evening, as I rode back 

tender passionate londngs of the lat- over the field, thick-strewn with dead 

ter. So Ned turned nat on liis back, and dying, I felt that I had played 

bv-and-by, gazing into the unfathom- my httle part in one of the great 

able heaven. ButaBeabirdcame,poi3- events of nistory. A desire seized 

ii)g hezself on broad lithe wing, right on me to carry some memento from 



166 An Only Son, [Feb. 

that bloody battle-ground. I dis- boy with the coble was there, and his 

mounted, threw the bridle over ray father, too. 

arm, and went picking my way " Neap tides this a'temoon, gen'l- 

through piteous obstacles. I thought men," holloaed the latter, though he 

at first, of taking a cross or medal stood within a yard of them. He 

for a keepsake, but could not bring was wont to lose one-half his wordts 

myself to tear from a defenceless blown down his throat, upon that 

breast what its brave owner would windy Skerry, 

have defended at cost of life itself. "Boat's aground, seemin'ly: can* t'ee 

Presently I came upon a group of wait tilFt turns again 1" 

men and horses overthrown in con- "Not if we're to make Freshet 

fusion : corpses of them I mean, of before sundown," said the owner, 

course: three slain lancers of the "What sort of bottom is it 1" 

Polish Guard, an^, evidently, their " Soft and sandy, master; ye mought 

slayer with them. You remember I pole her out into deep water wi'out 

said * a brave man's blood f " harmin' her keel, easily." 

He nodded assent. " Well, we'll try it, anyhow." 

" His horse had fallen first : per- " Send boy back for me, to help 

haps that alone lost him. He bad shove, if she's very fast, master !" 

not been killed outnjsht, for he wa« " Ay, ay," cried Keane, as they put 

sitting propped against the poor ofif in the coble, 

brute^s carcase. By the skull and Fast she was, sure enough. The 

crossbones on its trappings and his boy went back, and brought his broad - 

uniform, I knew him for a Death's- shouldered sire to assist Up to the 

head Brunswicker. Poor fellow ! he waist in water, heapnlied the strength 

was cold and stiff— his dying grip of those broad shoulders to tlie how. 

fast on this little book, open at this A few strains, and a few grunts, wal- 

very page. He had a wound, among ruswise ; then she began to slide, ever 

others, on his forehead. This drop so little. 

must have fallen as he bent over the " Yeo ho, heave ho !" and off she 

book. I took it, put it in my sabre- goes at last. 

tasch, moimted, and rode fast away. Keane was in the bows, pole in 
For days and days I was uneasy, as hand, and one foot on the sprit A 
if I had robbed the dead. I did not few words passed between him anil 
once take out or open the little book his helpers, which for the flapping of 
of prayers. When at last I did, the the sails that jbhe Colonel was hoist- 
sentence on the fly-leaf read like ing were not heard by Ned. He was. 
an absolution and a pious bequest at the helm again. They were soon 

* Must oft be read !' Ay, boy, I have out of shoal water, and had all on 
re:ul and read, learnt and repeated board ship-shape. Ned called out t<> 
these old Latin prayers, till I fancy his cousin — 

sometimes some of their spirit has "Did you 'tip' those fellows, 

passed into mine. At war, in peace, Keane 1" 

m camp, at home, I have treasured "No. Why should I?" 

and carried the dead Brunswucker's " They took a deal of trouble to 

book. They shall put it in my shroud get us off." 

with me. I wish I could take it " Well, why shouldn't tliey ]" 

bodily with me into * kingdom come' " I don't say they shouhln't ; hut 

to return it to the Bnmswicker. we should have ' tipped' them." 

Pray God I may meet him there, with "Bother them, they'll do well 

* Gretli,' too, to thank them for the enough." 

loan of it" " 'rhat's more than we've done." 

Then uprose the Colonel, and whis- " Don't seem to see it," amied 

tied "The British Grenadiers." That Keane. "The shilling's as well in 

i.s not a devotional tune, nor is whis- our pocket as theirs. What's the use 

tling a good vehicle for church music; of shillings at the Skerry ^ The sea- 

nevertheless, Edward Locksley felt mews don't keep shops : ha, ha, ha I" 

as if he listened to a solemn psalm. Keane laughed at his own joke^ 

"Now, Ned, look alive! Come but the laugh grated on bis cousin's 

along, Colonel!" cried Keane, from ear. 

below. " Time to be going aboard." This was but one day of many 

They descended to the Geach. The spent in the Colonel's company. He 



1861.] An Only Son, 157 

took as kindly to the youngsters as " Well said, youngster," quoth Co- 

they admiringly to hiui. Keaiie lonel Blunt 

saitl be thought him good fun. Ned The vacation drew to a close. The 
swretly resented this oflf-hand ex- elder Locksley came down again to 
pfession. He relished the ftin to the Fresliet, for no timber ships bad 
full as much as his cousin; but owned, been there when he first came with 
in the very fibre of his heart, that his wife and son. Ned had advised 
some better thing than fun might be him now that two Norwegians had at 
j^'otten out of the old soldier's com- last appeared. They were at anchor 
l^iny. The Colonel would laugh, him- far from the fashionable promenade, 
'^^^If, at camp jokes and anecdotes till opposite a crazy old pier, whence 
liU sides seemed in danger of split- a flight of steps, slippery with tangle, 
ting the cloee-bttttonednuhtary frock, led down to a strip of beaeh. The 
But under the straining cloth, Ned's shingle had long 'since disappeared 
eye seemed ever to discern the squared under layers of broken bottles and 
filges of the Brunswicker's prayer- fragmentary crockery, lobster claws 
Imk. "Old ColoneV* as the boys and oyster shells, battered tea-kettles 
roight call him, he was hard, and and sodden cabbage stumps. Not 
hale, and active yet. His stories came even daily ebb and flow could cle«r 
•lown to the moat modem militai-y the melancholy * " detritus " away. 
times. He was home on a year's fur- Thither came Kobert Locksley,' witli 
Inugh from India, where his regiment his son, to hail the nearest Norwegian 
vas likely to remain some time. He for a boat. But, lookuig downwards, 
would often say that he could bear Ned perceived the coble from the 
no longer the slip-shod scuffle of pro- Skerry, with her nose on that unsa- 
rneiuulers on the Esplanade, that his voury strip of sea-beach, and the boy 
w pined for the measured thunder asleep in her. 
"I a regiment's tramp. He declared "Holloa, boy, put us aboard the 
that the "Gazettes" in the I'wnwput barque there." 
him in terror twice a- week, lest he "Ay, ay, sir," said the boy, trained 
should read his own name amongst by his father, the old coastguards- 
unfortunates " shoved upon the- Ma- man, to obey at once a voice of autho- 
.l'>r-CTenerar8 shelf." rity ; but there was a sulkiness about 

" I don*t want to lay-by just yet, his deference, for all his practical 

\>y8. Tve neither chick nor child, obedience. 

and can't feel at home but in camp " Hold on alongside, we shan't be 

"7 Ijarrack-yard." long aboard." 

Ned's 2reat delight was to get him " Ay, ay, sir," with a grumble and 

';i> 'ti Indian ground — the only true a scowl. 

tifld for a solder's energy, as it then But the scowl vanished in a plea- 
appeared, surable ^rin, and the gnmible into 

** Tdl you what, Colonel, if I take the cheeriest of " Thank'ee, sii-s," as 

a *ihilling, I shall take it from John the coble touched the slimy steps, anil 

Company sooner than from Her gra- Ned handed over three half-crowns, 
t ions Maiesty." " You must be flush of money, Ned, 

The old "Queen's officer" — King's to pay such wages for such work, 

officer that had been so long— would Easy earnings, seven and sixpence for 

'hake his head at this, and purse up five hundrecl yards I" his father said, 
hisnwuth; nevertheless, Ned's rea- "Do you remember Tommy Wil- 

jymingB were not easily gainsaid. mot and the bag of marbles, pappy ?" 

"Take the Compan/s shilling!" "Can't say I do. Did you give 

cried Keane, contemptuously; "what's him seven and sixpence for it?" 
the good] India's used up. Nothing "It was a practical discourse of 

Wt diy sticks come rattling down, yours on compensation, pappy dear, 

i)ow-aiiy», ^or shaking the Pagoda that little affair of Tommy s. But 

^rw; "B^ljtet stop at home, and fea- never mind ; it's another man's secret 

thfTjiar ^lajt at Cransdale, Ned, my why the boy there got seven and six. 

^7- Come along." 

''Stop at home I rfiall," Ned an- Away they went, arm in arm, 

**ered, somewhat ruffled ; " but as happy father and happy son, trusting 

» T fptathers, Yd sooner have them on and trustworthy in a great matter or 

niy wiojpB than in my nest" in a small. 



168 An Onhj Son. [Feb. 

Thenext day was to be their last at the stern. The Lady ConsUimo 

Freshet. Mr. Locksley and the Colo- broached and fell away. Keane was 

nel were both to accompany the ladies overboard, with an agonizing cry for 

in a carriage drive to some ruin on a help. Bom by the sea-shore, and at 

headland, which Ned had visited, and home from boyhood on its waves, tbe 

did not care to see again. He, there- lad, like so many of his breeding, 

fore, and Keane took a farewell cruise, could not swim a stroke. The £toD- 

They sailed westward to a rocky islet ian was more truly amphibious. Coat 

half way between the mainland and and shoes were off m a twinkling, 

the Skerry. Thev had both fowling- lithe as otter or seal, he was in the 

piece and rifle aboard, though Ned water to the rescue, 
said he would shoot no more at sea- " All right, old fellow ! Here you 

mews. The rock was reached and are ! Dozr t catch at me ! don't splash 

rounded without adventure. On the so ! tread water gently and I'll Keep 

return, however, the5r came across a you afloat." 

large, rare, diving-bird. It kept He had him tightby the collar from 
swimming, ducking, disappearing and behind. So far so good The mis- 
reappearing right m front of them, in chief was, that the current was not 
the most persevering and tantalizing strong enough to keep t^e Lady Con- 
manner. Ned's vow was against pur- stance from drifting oefore the wind, 
poseless murder of sea-mews ; but the though strong enough to make push- 
securing of such a specimen could not ing Keene against it no joke. Ned 
fall under its provisions. Forbid it saw the distance increasing with dis- 
science ! to say nothing of sport. Ned may. To save himself were but a 
was as eager as Keane to get a fair sport of swimming : but this widow's 
shot at it. Bang land bang! went both only son— to think: of losing liim! 
barrels at last. But the saucy diver He stnick out with steady but des- 
must have witnessed experiments with perate force. A great floating rack 
Eley's patent cartridges before that of seaweed came happily down tlir 
afternoon, so accurately did it ealcu- current, plump asainst the broadside 
late their utmost range, and keep just of the boat, ana stopped her way a 
out of it. little. Ned had presence of mind t<> 

" It's not a bit of use, Ned," said note the slackening, and redoubled 

Keane, " shot won't touch him ; you efforts. Thus both lads' lives were 

must try the rifle." saved. But when they had hoisted 

Hetookitinhand,(and waited with themselves by main foroe over the 
patient, deliberate aim till the bird gunwale on board again^ he was ex- 
rose up once more in the water, flap- nausted, and for a few minutes lay on 
])ing his fin>like wings in a sort of his back. 

mockery. ' Crack 1' " No go !" said When he got breath again he sat 

both boys as, true to his kind, the up and took the tiller-bar in hand, 
diver dived. ^^ Mind the sheets, Keane, haul the 

" You've winged him, though !" jib closer home." 
cried Keane, breathless with excite- He put the boat's head seaward, 
inent, as the bird, once more on the "What on earth are you after, Ned I 

surface, took to churning the water Let's make for the pier-head quick," 

with piteous flaps. said the other dripping lad. 

" Haul a bit on the mainsheet ! " After the pumn, to be sure," he 

I'll steer down on him !" answered, imperturoably. "A little 

The Lady Constance skimmed the tauter : that will do." 
water as if the steersman's eagerness The bird was once more overtaken, 

Imd quickened her very frame. The and this time secured in safety. Nei- 

bird seemed unable to dive again but ther then nor thereafter did one word 

swam fast away. Not so fast, how- touching Keane's rescue cross the lipfi 

ever, as the Lady Constance, which uf Ned Locksley, which was charac- 

was soon up with and almost over it. teristic of him. But not one word 

Keane let tne rudder go and made a crossed Keane's lips either, which was 

clutch at the bird as it passed under also characteristic of him. 



166L] An Only San. 150 



CHAFTEB V. 

It was after Easter the following rare in that senate of patricians, greet- 

year. New men were in office. Their ed his winding up. When he sat down 

fiiBt measure of importance had been he had eamed a genuine and honour- 

ouried by a narrow m^ority in the able success. Several distinguished 

Commons. Upon its reception " in elders came across and shook hands 

another place" might hang the fate of with him. The subsequent debate 

Gwemment. An animated debate : was lively, but the division favoiir- 

perbi^ a close division, would en- able. And Lady Constance had been 

liren the decorous monotony of the looking on. 

Upper House. To make matters Her mother*s presence with her was 

worse, the noble Earl who led for a stronger instance of interest in their 

^linisters was feverish and in bed. youne Kinsman than even he had 

Much would depend upon a very dareclto reckon upon. Lady Crans- 

fouiu; debater, and still younger offi- dale had not been at a debate since 

cial, Under Secretaiy to the depart- her own dear Philip had spoken on 

ment which the Bill more immccUate- his return from India, those weary 

Ij affected. widowed years and years ago. 

** Nervous thing for Royston," said It was nappy for such interests of 

one junior peer to another coming in the British Empire as the business of 

from the lobby. " Does he funk it Lord Royston's Under-Secretaryship 

machl'' might affect that nothing complex or 

" I don't know whether he does : important was on hand next morning. 

hut I should think Government did. Choice between horas of one dilemma 

They looked up at the ladies muster- at a time is sufficient for the mind of 

ing m force already. anv budding statesman. And the 

Any thing worth looking at 1" noble Under-Secretary was soreljr ex- 

ittked one hereditary lespslater, who ercised by the momentous question : 

wore an eyeglass because ne really was "Should he call or not upon the 

near-sighteMl Oransdales to thank them for their 

** Nothing particular, except the presence]" To do so might savour of 

Cransdale girv' quoth his compeer, vanity; not to do so, of indifference. 

'^uperciIiously. It would not do to look ungrateful, 

*^ Well she is particular. And how nor would it do better to look like 

▼ell her mother wears." fishing for compliments. As he docket- 

'^ Ah ! to my mind, she beats Lady ed papers and scrawled signatures me- 

Constance hoUo w. ' * chanically, determination went swing- 

"Hanlly that jj. but she's a grand ing to-and-fro. The jiuestion ended, as 

^^)e certainly. There's Royston up so many do, by settling itself. Kiding 

Duw, im't he'l Hear, hear! up through St. James's after office- 

Wd Royston was up, and, luckily hours, he met the Cransdale carriage, 
f"r him, without suspicion that the and the Countess beckoned to him. 
<^ye« of Lady Cransdale and her "Well, Royston, I congratulate you. 
jiaaghter were upon him. His open- We were in the House last night." 
ing sentences were firm and self-pos- " Almost to my discomfiture." 
sf«cd. He was well on in his speech " Civil ! when we took so much in- 
when, during an interniption on a terest in your success." 
point of statistics, he first became " True, though. Friends make the 
aware of it. The discovery during an worst audience. ' ' 
oratorical period might have thrown " Then why do they co to back a 
iiim off lus balance ; but having a man up and cheer him t 
blue hook in hand and a string of " Oh, party friends, that's quite an- 
figures in mouth to confute his noble other thing. Yet they would be no- 
interrupter, time was given him to thing but lor party enemies." 
gcovcr before launching out again. " Do you really mean," said Lady 
His argument was precise and clear, Constance, '^ that you would sooner 
ftod as he came to the wider political face enemies than friends." 
^ moral aspects of the measure, en- "Than some friends, certainly," he 
thoriasn roosed him to eloquence, answered, flushing to his hat brim. 
(^hecTB with the chill off, somewhat "But last night," said her mother. 



160 Ah Only Son, [Feb. 

" the interest must have been too keen had shown him that he did- Now, 

to let you care for individual hearers, ingratitude was Ned's abhorrence, yet 

friend or foe." " there is a gratitude most ungrateful 

" Keen enough, but there are to him that pays it He owned obli- 

keener." cation, but telt its withes cut to the 

He was afraid of his own boldness, Bone tlie wrists it bound. For, as 

and did not dare to look up and sun my readers have seen long since, the 

his triumph in Constance's soft eyes, poor lad's heart had yielded to the 

when her mother assured him that mastery of that passion which makes 

many of the first men in the House boys men — and men, boys. He knew 

had spoken of it in the highest terms, not — how should he?— at what pre- 

"Have you heard from Philip f cise period Constance had lost her sis- 
he asked, to turn off the conversation terly character, and stood out robed 
and escape from its delicious pain. before his eyes in all the royalties of 

"Oh, yes! And the boys have whole love : but early jealousy of Royaton 
holiday on Thursday, so I'll have up had long since taught him how to the 
him and Ned to town. Come and word "passion" the old Latin mean- 
dine with us to meet them." ing clings — how truly it is "a suffer- 

"Delighted I" said theUnder-Secre- ing." Yet Lady Constance's manner 
tury, bringing his spurs, in unadvised towards himself was less reserved and 
ecstasy, so near his spirited horse's more affectionate than towards the 
flanks that he stai-ted off and went other. Ned would exult in this some- 
plunging up Constitution-hill in wild- times, and sometimes quail at it. 
est fashion. Sometimes his own lifelone intimacy 

"Royston's been and done it just with her would be countea gain, and 

about, Ned," cried Philip, bouncing sometimes loss. They stood upon 

into Locksley's room, the lUmes in such different footings that nothing 

one hand, and his mother's letter in fairly showed herjudgment as between 

the other. Unconsciously merciless, them. 

he threw down the newspaper and "If I, too, were a distant kinsman, 

insisted upon inflicting Ladv Crans- or he, too. were the close companion 

dale's accountofher visit to the House of her childhood, perhaps I might 

iil)on his friend. "I've a scrap of a conjectiu'e what she feels concerning 

note from Con, too, and she says it us! ' As for Lord Royston's feehng 

was *out and out.' " concerning her, spite of his equable 

"I don't believe it, "blurted out Ned, demeanour, Ned had with unerring 

beside himself. instinct conjectured it by countless 

"Don't believe what? Not what subtle tokens. He knew that one 

Con says of Royston's speech ? Read name lay hidden in his own heart 

it in the TinieSy then, and you'll see and in her kinsman's, and the know- 

'twas an out and outer." ledge was his daily dis(}uieting. 

"Perhapit was, but she never talks It never troubled him that Lady 

slang," said Ned, catching at a means Constance was his elder. For, first, 

of extricating himself. the difference was no great one at the 

" Oh, bother, Ned, we're mighty par- most ; and, next, man's conscious man- 
ticular all of a sudden, eh 1 Anyhow, liness carries a consciousness of head- 
Constance says she thought it fine ship with it which takes little account 
and eloquent. And we shall have an of difference in a^e. The feeling takes 
opportunity of patting him on the an ugly shape at times. An urchin in 
back for it. Mammy says we may the nursery, who cannot reach up to 
go Hp to town on Thursdav." the father s knee, will class himself 

Close conflict was in Ned's heart, withhim, andsay, "We, men," in full 

between delight at the thought of see- disdain of mother, nurse, and elder 

ing Lady Constance, and pain at see- sisters. Yet purge it of its arrogance, 

ing Lord Royston in her company, as fire of love can purge it purest, and 

Young " grown men " have an iiTi- the feeling is manly and worthy of a 

tating way sometimes of making young man. Younger men are wont to set 

"ungrown men" feel their distance their heart on older, older men on 

from their immediate elders ; but Lord younger, women than themselves. FiX- 

lloyston hail never so dealt by Ned. i)erience of life has not yet shown me 

^e. liked the lad, and respected liim ; that the older inan's is always, or 

>d, in his own undemonstrative way, often, the tinest ideal of what is love- 



1861.] An Only Sm, 161 

worthy in woman. But, in truth, it fully. I wish it had been in the 

did trouble l^ed right sore that the Commons though." 

man whose rivalry he had divined That was well; it was not all for 

should be his elder. Such a lady's Boyston's sake she had eigoyed it. 

wooerB must prove their worth, and "Why rather in the Commons 1" 

Royston was proving his worthiljr; "Because of the more lively stir and 

that could not oe denied Boyston's action, to be sure. Great questions 

were a man's efforts and a man's sue- are decided there, nine times out of 

cesses ; his own, mere schoolboy strug- ten. Boyston says he wishes his seat 

gles, and their meed a schoolbojrs were in that House." 

prize. His thought was ever fretting This dashed the cup of comfort 

at the contrast — ever fretting, and from his lips, all the more cruelly 

ever devising how best to burst uf)on that the young lord turned at hearing 

a sudden the boundary which fences his own name, and looked his pleasure 

boyhood off from man's estate. Oh, at her giving weight to words of his. 

for one single day of battle ! That It cost Ned something to continue, 

woold alter all 1 A beardless ensign " So you like stir and action ?" 

carries the flaunting silk into the " To be sure I do ; don't you?" 

storm of bullets, and comes out a ve- " What do you think of soldiering 

teran, with the torn flag in his hand, then^ Lady Constance?" henextaskei^ 

The countless deaths that have re- nerving himself as a gambler against 

salted have aged him in honour and his nervousness by calling a higher 

esteem. There be days of flght which stake. 

comit for years of service, not in the " Come, Con," cried her brother, 

Army last alone, but in tne common overhearing this, though Ned had not 

account of men's opinion. No soldier- spoken loud, "say your say about 

in^ was afoot in Europe ; but India soldiering, then we'U have Eatey's." 

was a frequent field of battle. One " I don t care for red coats and gold 

(la? of Hindostan might put a badge epaulettes, Phil, anyhow; and bear- 

of manhood on his breast at which skins are my bogies, 

old men should bow. " You're a muff, Con," he retorted. 

Such were the floating fancies in "Now, Katey, what say you 1" 
bis mind, which a few cmince words She had one brother m the " Cold- 
were soon to fix. There was no party stream," and one hoping for the 
at the Oransdales on the Thursday; "Fusiliers," so she cried, "The 
only another cousin besides Boyston, Guards for ever ! Phil." 
one Katey Eilmore, god-child and " Bravo, Katey; you shall be vivan- 
namesakeof the Count^ Of course, di^re to our battalion." 
then, the Under-Secretary gave his Whilst they were laughing at their 
J^rm to Lady Cransdale; PhiBp his to own fun, Ned said very CTavely and 
cousin Katey ; Ned his, with tremor quietly to Constance, " Of course I 
f)i ddijrht, to Constance. Poor boy 1 didn't mean the Guards, they only 
the damty white hand on his arm, the play at soldiers now-a-days ; but real 
\mA whRh had clasped his a thou- soldiering in camps and colonies ; 
^^ times in careless, childish play, what do you think of that?" 
DOW sent a thrill to hia heart's core at ** Better, at all events ; but all sol- 
e^erv touch. diering is dangling idle work in time 

*^ rhil tellsme. Lady Constance, you of peace." 

went to the debate." " Not everywhere. Not in India, 

He could not keep himself from for instance.' 

^F^kinff of what it vexed him sore to " India, I grant you ; that is a field 

think OL for a man's career. It should be mine 

^ What a strange contrast between if I were ona Soldier, statesman, 

''Phil," the old familiar word, and missionary — there are endless roads 

tbt formal "Lady Constance." Once to greatness there." 

it had been "Con," and "Phil," and she wondered, as she looked at 

"Ned," stall times; but an awe was him, what the rush of blood to his 

mt^ing over him against which the forehead should mean— what the 

oldest mtimacy could not prevail She blaze that kindled in his eyea 

did not teem to notice it " Since when have you thought over 

""Oh, yea ; and I liked it wonder- Indian careers, pray?" 

VOU LVIL— NO. CCCXXXVIII. 11 



162 An Only Son. [Pet 

"Since wiien have I not, Nedl one for whose love "a world" were 

Have you forgotten that I am aHin- indeed "well lost" And such was 

doo girl myself— that dearest pappy's Lady Conatance. She was nearly 

official greatness was all Indian! I twenty now; her girlish grsboe and 

have r^ all his despatches that are freshness not worn oS^ but ripening 

in print, and some in manuscript be- into womanlv glories. Two seasons' 

sides, and every book of Indian travel experience of the great London world 

or adventure I can lay my hands had left her untainted, but not un- 

upon." disciplined. Her conversation fed 

" How strange of me to have for- and sustained the loftiest of the lad's 

gotten it 1" said Ned. aspirations. Had he but counted her 

Thereupon he fell into dead si- as trulv sister as she held him brother, 

lenoe. She wcMidered all the more at all had been well, and this fresh in- 

him. She little knew her sweet lips timacy had proved tohiman unalloyed 

had spoken doom of exile i^ainst advantage. As it was now, the very 

a playmate from the cradle. Her mind was saturated with the aweet 

wonder did not outlive the day ; but poison wherewith the heart was sick, 

thenceforth dated a new manner of ^ut he put strong constraint upon 

intercourse between herself and Ned. himself, and hid this from her. That 

Down at Cransdale in the midsummer would have been perhaps impossible 

holidays, under the cedars at noon- could she but once have gained a sight 

tide, on horseback in the long soft of him at distance, so to apeak, 

evenings, they would hold continuous However, she suspected notning. 

and grave conversations. Phil voted He stood as he had always stood — too 

them prodigious bores. " A talk with near. 

you two is about as lively as an hour Those were blissful holidays. No 
u^ to Hawtrey in Thucydides. I Boyston was there to be a fly in 
wish I'd Eatey Eihnore to run wild amber. His very triumph had 
a bit upon the moor with me." brought him tribulation. His de- 
Boys on their way to manhood will partment had to undergo remodel- 
pass through certain heroic moods, ling in virtue of the very Bill that he 
such as more callous — shall I say had helped topass, and he waa chain- 
trivial? — elders mock at Silly scorn! ed to his Under-Secretary's desk. 
The tone and colour of the finished School-davs were over, too, for good 
life-picture may recal but faintly, by- and alL Neither PhU nor Ned was 
and-oy, the prismatic hues of the first to return next half to Eton. The 
V study" for it^ the grouping may former expected his commission dailv, 
be strangely varied, the firmest out- the latter wasentered at Christchurcn. 
lines show '^ repentings," yet each That troubled him, however, so there 
worthiest work must needs retain in- was a fiy in his amber after all. His 
deiible impress of that first concep- repugnance against any but a soldier's 
tion. career grew daily, yet he had not im- 
^^Heroicmoods, indeed!" say some, parted it to his father — a second 
" Walking on stilts, you mean : the cause of inward dist^uiet. 
lad's best friend is he that soonest His reserve on this one point was 
brings him to his legs again." " Not foreign to all their life-long relation 
if he break them in the bringing to one another, a new growth, not 
down," I say. And I would rather, rooted in any strange undutifulness 
when the stilts are dropped, see the or new mistrust j but only in exceed ve 
boy stride, or even strut, than lounge tenderness andlingeringself-devotion. 
and shuffle. He must not follow the promptings 
Scorn boy-heroics or not, good of a dream, pushing him out of the 
reader, you will agree with me that beaten track of duty. How oould an 
since a female figure must needs haunt Indian soldier — gone in quest of name 
them, it is huge advantage to the and fame, to find both or neither, 
man that shall be when its proper- perhaps on a fidd of death — ^play an 
tions of worth and beauty are truly only son's part to such dear parents 
just and noble — are genuine realities, in their ^uiet English home ? What 
not figments of his fancy. Come of vexed him most in brooding on hi& 
his green passion what may, 'tis well love for Lady- Constance was this 
for him that she who kindles it be doublefacednesa. Sometimes it seem- 



1861.] Antrim CasUe. 168 

edtheesaeaoeofunBelfislmeeayitwon bear to watch him^ and indicate or 

him 80 far oat of his inner self ; some- even entertain suspicion thus against 

times it seemed a selfishness in quint- hlstrustin her. 3ut it is hard to 

eaMmee, so utter^ did it seduce him keep a mother's hungry watchfulness 

into forgeifulness of them. And of love from ofif her only one. Fol- 

when either parent iqpake, as parents lowing with ddicate acsteness the 

will, of that coming Oxford life to boy's dreamiest glance& her own 

▼hich he could not feel heartily re- glance found itself carrieo, more than 

signed, he hated the half-hypocrisy once, into a comer of the sitting-room, 

which shut his lips or opened them where the grandfather's sword hung, 

with words of little meanmg. The blue steel seemed to pierce her 

Robert Locksley took little if any own heart then. She thought of last 

notice oi such ^mptoms of inner con- year at Freshet how quick and close 

flict as might sometimes have been an intimacy haa sprung up between 

perceptible in the outward bearing her son ana the old soldier, how Ned 

of his son ; nor would perception had relished his campaigning stories, 

di them have set him on oopjectura ffrave or gay. But she could hardly 

Ned's confidence was certain to be Bring herself to accept that int^re- 

given him in good time ; no fear of tation of her boy's unrest His will 

that Bat meek-hearted Lucy had had ever been too steadfast his very 

more misgivings : meek hearts look fancy too self-controlled to oe moved 

oat at elear eyes oftentimes. She lightly to some novel scheme of Ufa 
woold not question, she could hardly 



ANTRIM CASTLB. 
PABTU. 

Tn death tsi the etonny petrel of cording to that recondite authority, 
PreibyteiT,Sir John Clotworthy, first he was the son of Noah! an anoes- 
Visoount Massareene, in the month tral flight of fancy by no means 
of September, 1665, made way for his uncommon, for the ancient Greeks, 
aon-in-law. Sir John Skeffvngton, fifth when at a loss for an ancestor to one 
Baronet, second YisoountMiMsareene, of their heroes, wrote him down the 
ftB owner of Antrim Castle ; and from son of Jupiter ; and more than one Hi- 
theaoeforward the family name of bemian of unmistakable Milesian de- 
Ciotworthy became merged in that scent has rambled over the battle-field 
of Skeflyngton. The Saxon and the of Hastings for a putative ancestor. 
Komaa eontoid for the honour of But the Norman, disdaining etymo- 
giring birth to the founder of this logical evidence, appeals with confi- 
ftodent ftmily. The fonner, appeal- dence to ancient usage or the common 
ing to philolog:ical evidence, suggests law, and shows that in the twelfth, 
that the name is composed of the and down to the fifteenth century — a 
Saxon word seae/f a sheaf, ingey a period of three hundred years — the 
meadow, and tun^tk town — "the sheaf name was written and used with the 
ofthe meadow town:" and until about Norman prefix **De," namelv, "De 
the be^ning oi the present century, Skeflyngton,'' which proved their de- 
a shesi on a tun— a symbol of the scent to be Norman. In the General 
family— was pointed out in the win- Survey, Sciftitone is noticed in Domes- 
^w of an ancient mansion in the day Book, which was compiled in the 
village of Skeffington, in Leicester- year 1087, twenty-one years after the 
'hire. Another derivation is also Oonquest, and is stated there to be 
referred to, namely, iceav, a sheep, part of the royal manor of Bodolei ; 
and ton, a town, «.a, ''the sheep and about a hundred vears after- 
town." But the old 8ax<» Chronicle wards, 1168, Sir John a.e SkefiVng- 
interposes, and pointa out that 9eae/, ton made a grant of part of these 
or fcoeip, was neither a sheaf nor a lands to the Abbey of St Maiy de 
Bheep, hat a veritable BaiQon mssi, of Protis. 
reiy ancient bneaod indeed, for ac- John de Skeflyngton, living in 14S1, 



164 Antrim Castle, [FeK 

added conBiderably to the family pro- In the following year the Lord 

perty by his marriage with^argaret, Deputy Skeffyngton, accompanied by 

daughter and heiress of William Ould- Kildare, marched an army, increased 

bief and Maude Deane^ his wife, who bv the forces of some Irish chiefs^nto 

was daughter and heiress of Brien Tyrone, which they burned from Dun- 

Deane. This John de Skefiyngton gal to Aronmore, devastated the ter- 

was the first of the family that (kop- ritory of Bryan-na-Murtough O'Neill, 

ped the Norman prefix " De," in de- and demolished CNeill's castle of 

lerence to the sturdy opinions of his Einard, now Oaledon, but did not 

father-in-law, Ouldbief, who being of attempt to cross the Blackwater into 

Saxon descent himself, was chafed at Tyrone proper, for O'Neill stood be- 

the notion of any of his blood having fore them with an immense force, and 

a badge of the Norman conqueror they retired. The Lord Deputy, in 

about them. By this union, John the following year, 1532, undertook 

Skefiyngton had a son, Thomas, liv- another expcmtion into Ulster, where 

ing 1460 — a venr pious person, and he was joined by O'Donnell and Ma- ' 

particular friend of John Seaman, guire. Entering Tyrone, they demo- 

Erior of the Order of Carthusians, Qshed Dungannon, and spoiled the 
ondon. By Msun^ his wife, Thomas country. Skeffyngton and Kildare 
had three sons, William Skefj^gton, had now become open enemies, and 
who became Lord Deputy of Ireland; sent letters and messengero to the 
Sir John Skefiyngton, knight, alder- Council in England, containing mu- 
man of London, merchant of the tual accusations. Kildare thereupon 
staple at Calais, and lord of the man- went over to England, and succeeded 
or of Fisherwick, in Staffordshire ; and not only in having Sir William Skef- 
Thomas Skefiyngton. esquire. The fyngton recalled, but himself ap- 
eldest, Sir William SKefiyngton occu- pointed in his place. Hetumin^ to 
pies an importantpage in the history Dublin, in Aimist, 1532, he received 
of his country. He was knighted by the Sword of ^te froia Skeffyngton. 
Henry VII., and appointed, in 1529, On this occasion, the new Lord De- 
by Henry vlll. to the high ofiice of puty showed little magnanimity or 
the King's Commissioner in Ireland courtesy to his pr^ecessor ; for Hol- 
to inquire into and report upon the linshed states that " KUdare^ having 
admmistration of public afiairs there, received the sworde, would permit 
to suggest means to restrain the ex- Skefiyngton, who was late Govern- 
actions of the soldiers, call a parlia- oure, to dance attendance amone the 
ment, and have the possessions of the other suiters, in his house at Diibryn, 
clergy made subject to their proper- named the Carbry." Sir William 
tion of the public charge. Tne care retired to England to his house of 
and fidelity ne displayed in executing " Skeffyngton, leaving his secretary', 
the commission, obtained for him, Thomas Cannon, behind him to watch 
in the- lblk>wing year, the appoint- events,andhekeptupacorre8pondence 
ment (tf IMfa^r of the Ordnance in with Secretary Cromwell, which con- 
England, which he held only a few sisted chiefiy of refiections on. the con- 
months when he was sent back to duct of Kildare. The latter soon got 
Ireland, in 153(), in the more distin- into trouble. Grave accusations were 
guished ofiice of Lord Deputy, accom- made against him by the Anslo-Irish 

Sanied by Gerald, ninth Earl of Kil- nobles and Council, and also oy Can- 
are, who, being jealous of his ap- non, who formed one of a deputation 
pointment, found means to thwart him to England to accuse him. Kildare 
in the administration of public affairs, was summoned over to answer those 
HoUinshed gives a graphic picture charges. In February, 1534, he held 
of their reception on the green of St. a council at Drogheda, and nominated 
Mary's Abbey by the mayor and citi- his son Thomas, then only twenty 
2ens of Dublin, in procession ; how years of age, and of a "hot and active 
they hailed the Lord Deputy as their temper," vice-Deputy. On visiting 
debverer from *' the insolencies of King Henry's Court and Council, he 
O'Neill, O'Oonor, and O'More ;" the was consigned to the Tower. An un^ 
" pithie oration" of the Recorder, Fitz- founded rumour circulated that he 
Simons, and the Lord Deputy*s speech was beheaded; and on the mornin^: ol 
in reply to " Master Mayor and Mais- the 1 1th of June, 15d4, his son l^o- 
T Kecorder." mas, the young and haughty chief oi 



1S61.] AfUrim Cavtle. 165 

tiie Genddines, cast from him the to Offaly, where he was followed 

sword of state on the council table by the Lord Deputy, and surrendered 

at St Mary's Abbey, and rushed forth on promise of pardon, which was vio- 

into war. lated by Henry, who had him com- 

Alanned by this formidable rebel- mitted to the Tower, and executed, 

lion of the most powerful of his Ens- with his five uncles, to extirpate, as he 

liflh subjects of the Pale in Ireland, thought, the race of the Geraldines. 
King Heniy prevailed on Sir William Havins faithfully fulfilled his mis- 

Skeifyneton, then far advanced in sion and re-established peace, the 

life, and emoying repose at his an- Lord Deputy Skef^gton solicited the 

cient seat of Ske^ngton Hall, to re- king, by reason of his *' age and in- 

raxne his office of Lord Deputy, and firmities," to surrender his office, and 

suppress the rebellion. Skefl^gton retire home to England ; but Hemy, 

accepted the trust, and landed in Ire- after thanking him for his services, 

land, in October, with a large and "told him he must continue in his 

well-equipped army. His progress government." Skeffyngton bowed to 

was marked by consunmiate skiU. this mandate of his sovereign, and 

Sending his fleet towards Drogheda, died as Lord Deputy in the following 

he captured Brode, one of Fitzgerald's month of December, 1636, " leavins, 

naval oonmianderB. In return, Dro- says Playfair, ** the character of a 

^heda was besieged by Fit^^rald; worthy governor, and among his 

but the Lord Deputy marched there, other virtues, that of being very just 

raised the sie^ and proclaimed Lord of his word and promise." He was 

Thomas a traitor at the High Crosa honourably interred, according to his 

In the following spring, hostili- dignity, in St Patrick's Cathedral, 

ties re-commenced. Htzgerald, de- Dublin, and a monument was erected 

pending on the strength of his six to him in Skefiyngton. 
castles of Oarlow, Maynooth, Rath- Although he rendered important 

angan, Athy, Ley, and Portlester, public services, and sacrificed his 

pa^ed into Connaught to raise ad- health to his sense of public duty, 

ditional forces among his allies, when he needed repose, yet he obtain- 

Takmg advantage of his absence, ednorewardsoftitle or lands which he 

Skefiyngton laid siege to Maynooth could transmit to his posterity, while 

It is stated that the artillery played courtiers and carpet knights, intri- 

npon it for ten or twelve days with- guers and intriguantes, alike devoid of 

ont effect; but at last^ Parese, the pu})lic or personal virtues, were raised 

covemor, conveyed a letter to the from obscurity, gilt over with the 

Lord Deputy, mtimating that he tinsel of wealth, and emblazoned with 

would fiorrender on "certain condi- titles. Even his widow, the Lady 

tions which imported his own profit" Skefiyngton, had much difficulty and 

The offer was accepted, and rarese, delay in obtaining a settlement of 

after a successful sally made by the the arrears of his official salary, and 

earrison, gave them a "carouse to received most opposition in her de- 

that dMnee that they were idl dead mands from subordinates about the 

<}runk, and then, upon a signal from Castle, who had been her late hus- 

Pareae, the Enelish scaled the walls bcuid's most obsequious attendants, 
at a breach, and entering the castle. Sir William Skenyngton was the last 

obtained "rich spoil and plunder. Lord Lieutenant of Ireland of the 

Parese, by order of Sir William Roman Catholic faith preceding the 

Skeffyngton, was paid his reward. Reformation. His will, all in his own 

and instantly beheaded for his trai- handwriting, presents a strong illus- 

torous conduct to his master. tration of the tendency of tne En- 

At Naas, the Lord Deputy came up glish lay aristocracy, of that com- 

with the remnant of the Greraldine s munion, to make bequests for " pious 

anny, which was much tinned by purposes," and is referred to here 

desertioii after the fall of Maynooth, merely as an historical fact After 

And ci^yiaied 140 of his gallowghisses. bequeathing various sums to the poor, 

whom he put to deatL Fitcgerald he left certain sums " to the altio* for 

was never after able to muster any my tythes and oblacons forgotten in 

(^onsidecaUe foroe, although he con- discharging of my conscience ;" also 

tnmed to akiraush and ravage the sums to the i)arish church of Skev- 

Englishfale. Eventaally he retired ington, to the cathedral church of 



156 Aif Otiff/Sati, rr- 

that bloody Itattle-grouiid. I dis- boy with the coUe was thctr. «b4 i. 

mounted, threw the bridle over my fathor, too. 

arm, and went picking my way ** Neap tidea this a'teriKiact, v^ * 

through piteous obstaclea. I thought men/' holloaed the latter, tlNiaijifa .'- 

at first, of taking a cross or medal stood within a yard of tbfOft. ff' 

for a keepsake, but could not bring was wont to lofte one-half Ma wr«i- . 

myself to tear from a defenceless blown down hia throat, npna tii* 

breast what its brave owner would windy Skerry, 

have defended at oont of life itself. '*fioat*8a{^ound,8aemia*lT:eMi'i r« 

Presentlv I came upon a gi'oup of wait till't turns a^n V* 

men and horses overthrown in con- *^Not if we*re to make Frp*l«^ 

fusion : corpses of them I mean, of before sundown," said the awmer 

course : three slain lancers of the ** What sort of bottom U it f 

Polish Guard, and, evidently, their '^ Soft and sandy, maater; ye OMJOff;! 

slayer with thorn. You remember I pole her out into deep water wi^axt 

said * a brave man's blood V " harmin' her keel, eaaity.'* 

He nodded assent. ** Well, we'll try it, anyhow.** 

"His horse had fallen first: Der- "Bend bov hack for me, ti> hti-» 

haps that alone lost him. He nad shove, if sho s very fast, miwitpr *' 

not l)een killed outujErht, for he was " Ay. ay,*' cried Reaae, aa they pat 

sitting propped a>{ain8t the poor off in the cohie. 

brute's can^ase. By the skull and Fast she was, sure enoofdi- The 

rro.<slx>neri on its trappings and his boy went back, and limii^bthia brraii- 

uitit'onn, I knew him tor a Death's- shouldered sire to assist Tp tt» tb^ 

heail Bnmswicker. Poor fellow! he waiHt iuwat4;r,heapnliedthe*trra«?b 

M'as cold and stifi*— his dying grip of those broiul BhcAildeni to th^ !«#« 

fast on this little book, o]:»en at this A few strains, and a few groats, wmk- 

very page. He had a wound, among ruswise ; then she began to aliila. rr«r 

others, on his forehead. This dn>p so little. 

must have fallen as he bent over the *' Yeo ho, heave ho !*' and off pke 

book. I took it, put it in my salire- goes at last. 

tasch, mounted, and rmle fast away. Kenne was in the bowa, pole ia 

For days and davs I was uneasv, as hand, aud one f(X>t on the Wit. \ 

if I had robbed the dead. I did not few words passed lietween nha at ' 

onee take out or open the little book his helpers, which for the flapptaff •«! 

of prayers. When at la^t I did, the the sails that the Colonel was k«ii»t 

sentence on the fly-leaf read like ing were not heanl bv Ned. He « i 

an a))snlution and a pioiu bequest at the hehu again. l*hey were softi 

* Must oft be read !' Ay, Imy, I have out ot hIuniI water, and had all •- 1 

re:id and re:ul, learnt and re|)eAted board ship-shape. Ned called nut t > 

tliese old Latin prayers, till I fancy his cousin— 

sometimes some of their s(>irit has "Did you *tip' thoie fellow v 

passed inU) mine. At war, m peare, Keane f 

in camp, at home, I have treasured " No. AVhv should I f* 

and carried the dead Hninswicker's "They t^Hik a deal of trouble U» 

b<iok. They shall nut it in my shroud get us off.'* 

with me. * 1 wiidi I could take it " Well, why shouldn't tlu«y T* 

liodily with me into * kingdom (*ome' " I don't suy they Mhouhlii't : hut 

to return it to the Bruuswirker. we shi»uld have ' tipped* them. * 

lVay(to<l I may meet him there, with " 1 Mother them, theyUl do wr:l 

Miretli,' t<K), to thank them for the enou9{h." 

hmn of it.'' *' That's more than we're dooe.'* 

Theu upriM* the < %>lone1, and whiff- "I>on't seem ti> see it,'* anrniHl 

thnP'The British (irenmUers.'' That Keane. "The shilling's aa weR ia 

ix not a devotitiiial tune, nor is whis- our |MM*ket as theirs. What athf um* 

tlin^ a t;«KHl vehicle for churrh music; of shilliuKs at the Skerry t The sm 

nevertheless, £dward Lo<*ksley felt mews dt>n*t keep shops : ha« ha, h*' ' 

aa if he listentnl to a solemn psalm. Keane lauuhed at hia own juke, 

'*Now, Ned, hM>k alive! Come but the laugh grated on hit coustn « 

ah>ng, Coltinel!'' cried Keane, from ear. 

l)elt)W. '*Time to l)e {filing alMiard." This wai Imt one day of many 

They descended to the U'ach. The s|)ent in the Colonels oompany. He 



1861.] An Only Son. 157 

took as kindly to the youngsters Jis " Woll said, youngster," quoth Co- 

they admiringly to him. Keane lonel Bhmt. 

tiaiil he thought him good fun. Ned The vacation drew to a close. The 
secretly resented this off-hand ex- elder Locksley came down again to 
I)fes8sion. He relished the fun to the Freshet, for no timber ships luid 
full a« much as his cousin; but owned, been there when he first came with 
iu the very fibre of his heart, that his wife and son. Ned had advisccl 
f<ome better thing than fun might be him now that two Norwegians had at 
gotten out of the old soldier's com- last appeared. They were at anchor 
IHiny. The Colonel would laugh, him- far from the fashionable promenade, 
self, at camp jokes and aneciiotes till opposite a crazy old pier, whence 
his sides seemed in danger of split- a night of steps, slippery with tangle, 
ting the close-buttoned miUtary frock, led down to a strij) of beach. Tlie 
Hut under the straining cloth, Ned's sliingle had long since disappeared 
eye aeemed ever to discern the squared under layere of broken bottles and 
edges of the Brunswicker's prayer- fragmentary crockery, lobster claws 
lKH>k "Old Colonel," as the boys ana oyster shells, battered tea-kettles 
might call him, he was hard, and and sodden cabbage stumps. Not 
hale, and active yet. His stories came even daily ebb and flow coidd cloHr 
down to the most modem military the melancholy • " detritus " away, 
times. He was home on a year's fur- Thither came Robert Locksley,' with 
lough fmm India, where his regiment his son, to hail the nearest Norwegian 
was Ukely to remain some time. He for a boat. But, looking downwards, 
would often say that he could bear Ned perceived the coble from the 
no longer the slip-shod scuttle of pro- Skerry, with her nose on that unsa- 
iiienaders on the Esplanade, that his voury strip of sea-beach, and the boy 
ear pined for the measured thunder asleep in her. 
of a regiment's tramp. He declared "Holloa, boy, put us aboard the 
that the "Gazettes" m the Times'^Ml barque there." 
him in terror twice a- week, lest he "Ay, ay, sir," said the boy, trained 
.should read his own name amongst by his father, the old coastguards- 
unfortunates "shoved upon the Ma- man, to obey at once a voice of autho- 
.lor-GeneraFB shelf." rity ; but there was a sulkincas about 

" I don*t want to lay-by just yet, his deference, for all his practical 

lH>y8. Fve neither chick nor child, obedience. 

and can't feel at home but in camp " Hold on alongside, we shan't be 

«>r I wrack-yard." long aboard." 

Ned's zreat delight was to got him " Ay, ay, sir," with a grumble and 

\\\f*m Indian groimd — the only true a scowl. 

Held for a soldier's energy, iis it then But the scowl vanished in a plea- 

uppeared. surable ^rin, and the grimible into 

" Tell you what. Colonel, if I take the cheeriest of " Thank'ec, sii-s," a.s 

a shilling, I shall take it from John the coble touched the slimy stepfi, and 

(.'ompan^ sooner than from Her gra- Ned handed over three half-crowns, 

ciuus MjMesty.'* " You must be flush of money, Ned, 

The old "Queen's officer" — King's to pay such wages for such work, 

officer that had been so long— would Easy earnings, seven and sixpence for 

^hake his head at this, and purse up Yive hundred yards !" his father said, 

his mouth ; nevertheless, Ned's rea- " Do you remember Tommy Wil- 

8<>nin£B were not easily gainsaid. mot and the bag of marbles, pappy ?" 

"T«ke the Compan/s shilling!" "Can't say I do. Did you give 

cried Keane, contemptuously; "what's him seven and six])ence for it?" 

the good) India's used up. Nothing "It was a practical discourse of 

but dry sticks come rattling down, yours on compensation, pappy dear, 

now-ardftys, for shaking the Pagoda that little affair of Tommy s. But 

tree. Better stop at home, and fea- never mind ; it's another man's secret 

tiier voar ne^t atCrausdale, Ned, my why the boy there got seven and six. 

boy. Come along." 

*' Stop at home I shall," Ned an- Away they went, arm in arm, 

swered, somewhat ruflletl; "but as happy father and happy son, tnisting 

f'>r feathers, I'd sooner have them on and trustworthy in a great matter or 

uiy wings than in my nest." in a small. 



168 JnOuii/San, ;F-' 

The next day was to be their hist nt tbe stern. The Lftdy Om^t 

Freshet Mr. Lockslcy and the Colo- broached and fell away. KeAo* « 

nel were both to accompany the ladies overboard, with an agonisuiK ay 

in a carriage drive to some ruin on a help. Bom by the lea-ciiofe, aa- . * 

headland, which Ned had visited, and home from boyhood on its wavriw t • - 

did not care to see again. He, there- lad, like so many of hia bmcvi «i. 

fore, and Keane took a farewell cruise, could not swim a stroke. Th« &.- 1 

They sailed westward to a rocky islet ian was more tmly ampkiliUMi&. 4 'hj 

halfway between the mainland and and shoes were off m a twiaki'C-.. 

the Skerrv. Thcv had both fowling- lithe as otter or seal, he waa in t. 

piece an(l rifle aboard, though Ned water to the rescue. 
Haid he would slioot no more at sea- " All riffht, old fellow ! Hew > - 

mews. The rock was reached and are ! Dozr t catch at me ! d«m't nU. 

rounded without adventure. On the so! tread water gently and riiavpT- 

return, however, they came acrass a you afloat" 

larj;^, rare, diving-bird. It kept Hehadhimtightby theooUaLrf^'.• 
8Wlmming, ducking, disappearing and behind. So far so good. Th<» tn-j^- 
reappearing right m front of them, in chief was, that the correBt ws* ut : 
the most persevering and tantalizing strong enough to keep Uie La^y C-« 
manner. Ned's vow was against pur- stance from drifting before tbe wtl- u 
IKxscless murder of sea-mews ; but the though strong enough to make po^'* 
securinc^ of such a specimen could not ing Keene against it no joke. Ni^. 
fall under its provisions. Forbid it saw the distance increaj«ing with dM> 
science ! to say nothing of sport. Ned may. To save himself wens hot • 
was as eager as Keane to get a fair sport of swimming: but this widov « 
shot at it Bang land bang! went l)oth only son— to think of lomng hin. 
btirrels at last But the saucy diver He struck out with steady out 'i* - 
must have witnessed experi me uUi with perate force. A great floating rs^k. 
Eley^s patent cartridges before that of seaweed came happily down t- 
aftemoon, so accurately did it calcu- current, plump against the hn«idi;' 
late their utmost range, and keep jufit of the boat, and stopped herva% * 
out of it little. Ned had presenoa of nmi t • 

'*It*6not a bit of use, Ned,'' said note the slaekeninf^ and red(im)i!«* 

Keane, *' shot won't tou(*)i him ; you etforts. Thus both lads* livea wvr- 

must try the rifle." savt^l. But when they had h<ii»t«*. 

Hetook it in iiand, and waited with themselves by main force ofver !;•« 

patient, deliberate aim till the bird gunwale cm Itoard again, be waa n- 

rose up once more in the water, flap- haustcd, and for a tew minutes lay • r 

jiing nis fin-like wings in a sort of hirt Imck. 

mockery. *Cniekl' **Nogo!" said When he got breath a|rain be ^ : 

lK)th boys H8, tnie to his kind, tho up and took tne tiller-bar in hand, 
diver dived. ^' Mind the sheets, Keane, haul i: 

"You've winged him, though I" jib closer home," 
cped Keane, breathless with cxeite- He put the boat*s head aaawanl 
ment, art tlie bird, om^ more on the **Wnat on earth are yon after, Ne«i 

surface, t(X>k to churning tho water Let's make for the pier-head <|uick, 

with jiiteous flaps. said the other dripping lad. 

" llaul a bit on the mainsheet ! *' AHer the puffin, to be aore,*' h** 

V\\ steer down on him!" answered, imperturbably. ''A Iht'* 

Tlie Lady Constance skimme<l tho tauter : that will do.'* 
wiiter as if the steersman's eagemes.s The bird was once more overtakeo. 

had quickenetl her very frame. The and this time sivured in safety. N? i 

bird seeme<l unable to dive atoiin but ther then nor thereafter did one wr^rl 

swam fast away. Not so fiust, how- tourhinff Keane*s rescue croas the lip» 

ever, as the Lady Constance, which of Ne«l Li>eksley, wliioh waa chaimt- 

w;i8 soon up with and almost over it teristic of him* lUit n<»t one word 

Keane let ttie nnhler go and matle a erosseil Keane* t(li)iseit her, whidi 

i lut<'h at the bini as it past«< d under also characteristic of hinu 



1661.] An Only Son. 159 



CHAPTER V. 

It was after Easter the following rare in that senate of patricians, greet- 
year. New men were in office. Their ed his winding up. Wlien he sat down 
fiiBt measure of importance had been he had earned a genuine and honour- 
carried by a narrow majority in the able success. Several distinguished 
Conmions. Upon its reception " in elders came across and shook hands 
another place'' might hang the fate of with him. The subsequent debate 
Go¥emment. An animated debate : was lively, but the division favour- 
perhaps a close division, would en- able. And Lady Constance had been 
liven the decorous monotony of the looking on. 

Upper House. To make matters Her mother's presence with her was 

worse, the noble Earl who led for a stronger instance of interest in their 

Ministers was feverish and in bed. yoimg kinsman than even he had 

Much would depend upon a very dared to reckon upon. Lady Crans- 

yoiinff debater, and still younger offi- dale had not been at a debate since 

cial, Under Secretary to the depart- her own dear Philip had spoken on 

ment which the Bill more immediate- his return from India, those weary 

ly affected. widowed years and years ago. 

** Nervous thing for Royston," said It was happy for such interests of 

one junior peer to another coming in the British Empii-e as the business of 

from the lobby. "Does he funk it Lord Royston's Under-Secretaryshii) 

much ]" might affect that nothing complex or 

" I don't know whether he does : important was on hand next morning, 

but I should think Government did. Choice between horas of one dilemma 

They looked up at the ladies muster- at a time is sufficient for the mind of 

ing m force already. any budding statesman. And the 

^* Any thing worth looking at 1'* noble Under-Secretary was sorely ex- 
asked one hereditary legislator, who erciaed by the momentous question : 
wore an eyeglass because he really was "Should he call or not upon the 
near-sighted. Cransdales to thank them tor their 

"Nothing particular, except the presence]" To do so might savour of 

Cransdale giri," quoth his compeer, vanity; not to do so, of indifference, 

uunerciliouwy. It would not do to look ungrateful, 

" Well she is particular. And how nor would it do better to look like 

well her mother wears," fishing for compliments. Ashe docket- 

" Ah ! to my mind, she beats Lady ed papers and scrawled signatures me- 

Constance hollow. ' ' chanically, determination went swing- 

" Hardly that:, but she's a grand ing to-and-fro. The question ended, as 
type i^rUiinly. There's Royston up so many do, by 8ettling itself. Riding 
DOW, isut he '< Hear, hear ! ' up through St. James's after office- 
Lord Royston was up, and, luckily hours, he met the Cransilale carriage, 
for him, without suspicion that the and the Countess beckoned to him. 
eyes of Lady Cransdale and her "Well, Royston, I congratulate you. 
daughter were upon him. His open- We were in the House last night." 
ing sentences were firm and self-pos- " Almost to my diRComfiture." 
sessed. He was well on in his speech " Civil ! when we took so much in- 
whcn, during an interruption on a terest in your success." 
point of statistics, he first became " True, though. Friends make the 
aware of it. The discovery during an worst audience." 
oratori<^ ^riod might have thrown " Then why do they co to back a 
him off lus balance ; but having a man up and cheer him f ' 
blue book in hand and a string of "Oh, party friends, that's quite an- 
figures in mouth to confute his noble other thmg. Yet they would be no- 
interrupter, time was given him to thing but for party enemies." 
recover before launching out again. " Do you really mean," said Lady 
His arffumeut was precise and clear. Constance, " that you would sooner 
and as ne came to the wider political face enemies than friends." 
and moral aspects of the measure, en- "Than some friendsL certainly," he 
thufliasm ronsed him to eloquence, answered, flushing to nis hat brim. 
Cheers with the chill off, somewhat "But last night," said her mother, 



160 An Only Son. [FeK 

'*tbe interest must have been too keen had shown him that he did. Now, 

to let you care for individual hearers, ingratitude was Ned's abhorrence, yet 

friend or foe." * there is a gratitude most ungrateful 

" Keen enough, but there are to him that pays it. He owned obli- 

keener." cation, but lelt its withes cut to the 

He was afraid of his own boldness, bone the wrists it bound. For, as 

and did not dare to look up and sun my readers have seen long since, the 

his triumph in Constance's soft eyes, poor lad's heart ha<i yielded to the 

when her mother assured him that mastery of that passion which makes 

many of the first men in the House bo\'^s men — and men, boys. He knew 

had spoken of it in the highest terms, not — how should he ?— at what pre- 

"Have you heard from Philip?" cise period Constance had lost her sis- 
he asked, to turn oflf the conversation terly character, and stood out robed 
and escape from its delicious pain. l)efore his eyes in all the royalties of 

"Oh, yes! And the boys have whole love ; but early jealousy oi Royston 
holiday on Thursday, so I'll have up had long since taught him how to the 
him and Ned to town. Come and word "passion" the old Latin mean- 
dine with us to meet them." ing clings — how truly it is "a suffer- 

"Delighted !" said theUnder-Secre- ing." Yet Lady Constance's manner 
tary, bringing his spurs, in unadvised towards himself was less reser\'ed and 
ecstasy, so near his spirited horse's more affectionate than towanis the 
flanks that he started off and went other. Ned would exult in this some- 
plunging up Constitution-hill in wild- times, and sometimes quail at it. 
cat fashion. Sometimes his own lifelong intimacy 

"Royston's been and done it just with her would be counted gain, and 

about, Ned," cried Philip, bouncing sometimes loss. They stood upon 

into tiocksley's room, the l^imes in such different footings that nothing 

one hand, and his mother's letter in fairly showed herjudgment as between 

the other. Unconsciously merciless, them. 

he threw down the newspaper and "If I, too, were a distant kinsman, 

insirited upon inflicting Lady Crans- or he, too. were the close companion 

dale's accountofher visit to the House of her childhood, perhaps I mi^Lt 

ui>on his friend. "I've a scrap of a coniecture what she feels concerning 

iKjte from Con, too, and she says it us ! As for Lord Royston's feeling 

was 'out and out.' " concerning her, spite of his equable 

"I don't believe it," blurted out Ned, demeanour, Ned had with unerring 

beside himself. instinct conjectured it by countless 

"Dou't believe whati Not what subtle tokens. He knew that one 

Con says of Royston's speech 1 Read name lay hidden in his own heart 

it in the Tim^Sj then, and you'll see and in her kinsman's, and the knuw- 

'twas an out and outer." ledge was his daily dis(}uieting. 

"Perhapsit was, but she never talks It never troubled him that Lady 

slang," said Ned, catching at a means Constance was his elder. For, first, 

of extriciiting himself. the difference was no great one at tlic 

" Oh, bother, Ned, we're mighty par- most ; and, next, man's conscious man- 

ticiular all of a sudden, eh 1 Anyhow, liness carries a consciousness of head- 

(/onstance says she thought it fine ship with it which takes little account 

and eloquent. And we shall have an of difference in age. The feeling takes 

opportunity of patting him on the an ugly shape at times. An urchin in 

back for it. Mammy says we may the nursery, who cannot reach up to 

go up to town on Thursday." the father s knee, will class himself 

Close conflict was in Ned's heart, withhim, andsay, "We, men," in full 

between delight at the thought of see- disdain of mother, nurse, and elder 

ing laAy Constance, and pain at see- sisters. Yet purge it of its arro^nce, 

ing Lord Royston in her company, as fire of love can purge it purest, and 

Young " grown men " have an irri- the feeling is manly and worthy of a 

tating way sometimes of making young man. Younger men are wont to set 

"ungrown men" feel their distance their heart on older, older men on 

from t heir i mmodiate elders ; but Lord younger, women than themselves, Ex- 

lloyaton had never so dealt by Ned. i^erience of life has not yet shown nie 

He likc<l the lad, and respected him ; that the older man's is always, or 

and, in his own undemunstrative w^ay, often, the tmest ideal of what is love- 



1661.] An Only Son. 161 

'worthy in woman. But, in truth, it fully. I wish it had been in the 

did trouble Ned right sore that the Commons though." 

man whose rivalry he had divined That was well ; it was not all for 

should be his elder. Such a lady's Boyston's sake she had enjoyed it 

wooers must prove their worth, and "Why rather in the Commons !" 

Royston was proving his worthily; "Because of the more lively stir and 

that could not De denied. Royston s action, to be sure. Great questions 

w^ere a man's efforts and a man's sue- are decided there, nine times out of 

cesses ; his own, mere schoolboy strug- ten. Rovston says he wishes his seat 

gles, and their meed a schoolboys were in that House." 

prize. His thought was ever fretting This dashed the cup of comfort 

at the contrast — ever fretting, and from his lips, all the more cruelly 

ever devising how liest to burst upon that the young lord turned at hearing 

a sudden the boundary which fences his own name, and looked his pleasure 

boyhood off from man's estate. Oh, at her giving weight to words of his. 

for one single day of battle ! That It cost Ned something to continue, 

would alter all ! A beardless ensign " So you like stir and action ?" 

carries the flaunting silk into the "To be sure I do ; don't you 1" 

storm Qf bullets, and comes out a ve- " What do you think of soldiering 

teran, with the torn flag in his hand, then, Lad]^ Constance?" henextasked^ 

The countless deaths that have re- nerving himself as a gambler against 

suited have aged him in honour and his nervousness by calling a higher 

esteem. There be days of fight which stake. 

count for years of service, not in the " Come, Con," cried her brother, 

Army List alone, but in tne common overhearing this, though Ned had not 

account of men's opinion. No soldier- spoken loud, "say your say about 

ing was afoot in JSurope ; but India soldiering, then we'll have Katev's." 

was a frequent field of battle. One " I don t care for red coats and gold 

day of Hindostan might put a badge epaulettes, Phil, anyhow; and Inear- 

of manhood on his breast at which skins are my bogies, 

old men should bow. " You're a muff, Con," he retorted. 

Such were the floating fancies in " Now, Katey, what sajr you ?" 
his mind, which a few chance words She had one brother m the " Cold- 
were soon to fix. There was no party stream," and one hoping for the 
at the Cransdales on the Thursday; "Fusiliers," so she cried, "The 
only another cousin besides Bovston. Guards for ever ! Phil.'* 
one Katey Kilmore, god-chila and " Bravo, Katey ; you shall be vivan- 
namesake of the Counteiss. Of course, di^re to our battalion." 
then, the Under-Secretary gave his Whilstthey were laughing at their 
arm to I^y Cransdale ; Philip his to own fun, Ned said very jzravely and 
cousin Katey ; Ned his, with tremor auietly to Constance, " Of course I 
of delight, to Constance. Poor boy ! didn't mean the Guards, they only 
the dainty white hand on his arm, the play at soldiers now-a-days; but real 
hand which had clasped his a thou- soldiering in camps and colonies ; 
sand times in careless, childish play, what do you think of thati" 
now sent a thrill to his heart's core at " Better, at all events ; but all sol- 
e very touch. diering is dangling idle work in time 

" Phil teUsme, I^dy Constance, you of peace." 

went to the debate." " Not everywhere. Not in India, 

He could not keep himself from for instance.' 

speaking of what it vexed him sore to " India, I grant you ; that is a field 

to ink oL for a man's career. It should be mine 

What a strange contrast between if I were one. Soldier, statesman, 

" Phil," the old familiar word, and missionary — there are endless roads 

that formal " Lady Constance." Once to greatness there." 

it had been "Con," and "Phil," and She wondered, as she looked at 

*'Ned," at all times; but an awe was him, what the rush of blood to his 

creeping over him aurainst which the forehead should mean — what the 

oldest intimacy could not prevail. She blaze that kindled in his eyes, 

did not seem to notice it " Since when have you thought over 

" Oh, yes ; and I liked it wonder- Indian careers, pray I" 

VOI» LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVIII. 11 



162 An Only Son. [PeU 

"Since when have I not, Ned? one for whose love "a world" were 

Haveyouforgotten that I am aHin- indeed ^'well lost" And such was 

doo girl myBelf— that dearest pappy's Lady Constance. She was nearly 

official greatness was all Indian? I twenty now; her girlish grace and 

have r^ dl his despatches that are freshness not worn o£^ but ripening 

in print, and some in manuscript be- into womanly glories. Two seasons' 

sides, and every book of Indian travel experience of the great London world 

or adventure I can lay my hands had left her imtainted, but not un- 

upon." disciplined. Her conversation fed 

'* How strange of me to have for- and sustained the l<^iest of the lad's 

gotten it !" said Ned. aspirations. Had he but counted her 

Thereupon he fell into dead si* as trulv sister as she held him brother, 

lenoe. She wcmdered aU the more at all had been well, and this fresh in* 

him. She little knew her sweet lips timacyhad inrovedtohiman unalloyed 

had spoken doom of exile against advantage. As it was now, the very 

a playmate from the cradle. Her mind was saturated with the sweet 

wonder did not outlive the day ; but poison wherewith the heart was sick, 

thenceforth dated a new manner of But he put strong constraint upon 

intercourse between herself and Ned. himself, and hid this from her. That 

Down at Cransdale in the midsummer would have been perhaps impossible 

holidays, under the cedars at noon- could she but once have gained a sight 

tide, on horseback in the long soft of him at distance, so to speak. 

evenings, they would hold continuous However, she suspected nouiing. 

and grave conversations. Phil voted He stood as he had always stood — too 

them prodigious bores. " A tidk with near. 

you two is about as lively as an hour Those were blissful holidays. No 
up to Hawtrey in Thucydides. I Royston was there to be a fly in 
wish I'd Katey Kihnore to run wild amoer. His very triumph had 
a bit upon the moor with me." brought him tribulatioiL His de- 
Boys on their way to manhood will partment had to undergo remodel- 
pass through certain heroic moods, lins in virtue of the very Bill that he 
such as more callous — shaU I say had helped to pass, and he was chain- 
trivial 1 — elders mock at. Silly scorn! ed to his Under-Secretary's desk. 
The tone and colour of the finished School-davs were over, too, for good 
life-picture may recal but faintly, by- and all. Neither Phil nor Ned was 
and-by, the prismatic hues of the first to return next half to Eton. The 
.'^ study" for itj the grouping may former expected his commission daUv, 
be strangely varied, the firmest out- the latter wasentered at Ohristchurch. 
lines show " repentings," yet each That troubled him, however, ao there 
worthiest work must needs retain in- was a fly in his amber after alL His 
delible impress of that first concep- repugnance against any but a soldiers 
tion. career grew dailjr, yet he had not im- 
^^Heroicmoods, indeed!" say some, parted it to his father — ^a seccmd 
" Walking on stilts, you mean : the cause of inward disquiet, 
lad's best friend is he that soonest His reserve on this one point was 
brings him to hisle^ again." " Not foreign to all their life4ong relation 
if he break them in the bringing to one another, a new growth, not 
down," I say. And I would rather, rooted in any strange undutifnlness 
when the stilts are dropped, see the or new mistrust ; but only in excessive 
boy stride, or even stru^ than lounge tenderness andlingeringself-devotion. 
and shuffle. He must not follow the promptings 
Scorn boy-heroics or not, good of a dream, pushing him out of the 
reader, you will agree with me that beaten trace of duty. How oould an 
since a female figure must needs haunt Indian sdidier— gone in quest of name 
them, it is huge advantage to the and fame, to find both or neither, 
man that shall be when its proper- perhaps on a field of death — ^play an 
tions of worth and beauty are truly only son's part to such dear parents 
just and noble— are genuine realities, in their quiet English home 'i What 
not figments of his fancy. Come of vexed hun most in brooding on. his 
his green passion what may, 'tis well love for Lady Oonstanoe was this 
for him tnat she who kindles it be doublefacedness. Sometimeait^eem- 



1861.] Antrim Castle. 163 

ed the esaenoe of unselfiBhness, it won bear to watch him^ and indicate or 

him ao far out of his inner self ; some- even entertain susmcion thus against 

timeait seemed a selfishness in quint- his trust in her. out it is hard to 

essence, so utterly did it seduce him keep a mother's hungry watchfulness 

iDto foreetfulnesa of them. And of love from off her only one. Fol- 

^v^hen either parent sgake, as parents lowing with ddicate acuteness the 

will, of that coming Oxford life to boy*s dreamiest glances, her own 

'ivhich he could not feel heartily re- glance found itself carried, more than 

signed, he hated the half-hypocri/^ once, into a comer of the sitting-room, 

wl^ich shut his lips or opened them where the grandfather's swora hung. 

with words of little meanmg. The blue steel seemed to pierce her 

Robert Locksley took little if any own heart then. She thought of last 

notice of such symptoms of inner con- year at Freshet, how quick and close 

flict as might sometimes have been an intimacy had sprunff up between 

perceptible in the outward bearing her son and the old soldier, how Ned 

of his son ; nor would perception had relished his campaigning stories, 

of them have set him on conjecture, srave or gay. But she could hardly 

Ned's confidence was certain to be bring herself to accept that interpre- 

given him in good time ; no fear of tation of her boy's unrest. His will 

that But meek-hearted Lucy had had ever been too steadfast his very 

more misgivings : meek hearts look fancy too self-controlled to be moved 

out at clear eyes oftentimes. She lightly to some novel scheme of life. 
would not question, she could hardly 



ANTBIH CASTLB. 
PABTU. 

Tn death of the stormy petrel of cording to that recondite authority, 
Presbytery,SirJohnClotworthy, first he was the son of Noah! an anoes- 
Viscount massareene, in the month tral flight of faney by no means 
of September, 1665, made way for his uncommoiL for the ancient Greeks, 
son-in-law. Sir John Skeffvngton, fifth when at a loss for an ancestor to one 
Baronet, second Viscount M^sareene, of their heroes, wrote him down the 
as owner of Antrim Castle ; and from son of Jupiter ; and more than one Hi- 
tbenoeforward the family name of bemian of unmistakable Milesian de- 
CiotwcHthy became merged in that scent has itunbled over the battle-field 
of Skefiyngton. The Saxon and the of Hastings for a putative ancestor. 
Norman contend for the honour of But the Gorman, disdaining etymo- 
giring birth to the founder of this logical evidence, appeals with confi- 
ancient £unily. The former, appeal- dence to ancient usage or the common 
ing to philological evidence, suggests law, and shows that in the twelfth, 
that the name is composed of the and down to the fifteenth century — a 
Saxon word seae/j a sheaf, ingfy a period of three hundred years — the 
meadow, and ^?m,a town— ** the sheaf name was written and used with the 
ofthe meadow town:" and until about Norman prefix ''De," namely, "De 
the beginning oi the present century, Skefiyngton," which proved their de- 
a sheaf on a tun— a symbol of the scent to be N(»rman. In the General 
family— was pointed out in the win- Survey, Sciftitone is noticed in Domes- 
dow of an ancient mansion in the dayBook, which was compiled in the 
village of Skeffingtoxi, in Leicester- year 1087, twenty-one years after the 
shire. Another derivatioB is also Conquest, and is stated there to be 
referred to, namely, tceavy a sheep, part of the royal manor oi Rodolei ; 
and ton, a town, ue., "the sheep and about a hundred vears after- 
town." But the old Saoion Chronicle wards, 1188) Sir John de Skefivng- 
interposes, and points out that accu/f ton made a grant of part of these 
or «canr, was neither a sheaf nor a lands to the Abbey of St Mary de 
sheep, but a veritabk Saxon mwn, of Protis. 
reiy anoient linea^s indeed, for ac- John de Skefiyngton, living in 14S1, 



164 Antrim Cattle, [FeK 

added considerably to the family pro- In the following year the Lord 
perty by his marriage with Jfarearet, Deputy Skeffyngton, accompanied by 
daughter and heiress of William Ould- Kildare, marched an army, increased 
bief and Maude Deane^ his wife, who bv the forces of some Irish chie£aLinto 
was dau^ter and heiress of Brien lyrone, which they burned from Dun- 
Deane. This John de Skeffyngton ^ to Avonmore, devastated the ter- 
was the first of the fan^v that d5op- ritoiy of Bryan-na-Murtough O^Neill, 
ped the Norman prefix '^De," in de- and demolished O^NeilFs castle of 
Terence to the sturdjr opinions of his Einard, now Caledon, but did not 
father-in-law, Ouldbief, who being of attempt to cross the Blackwater into 
Saxon descent himself, was chafed at Tyrone proper, for O'Neill stood be- 
the notion of any of his blood having fore them with an immense force, and 
a badge of the Norman conqueror they retired. The Lord Deputy, in 
about them. By this union, John the following ^ear, 1532, undertook 
Skefiyngton had a son, Thomas, liv- another expedition into Ulster, where 
ing 1460 — ^a verv pious person, and he was joined by O'Donnell and Ma- * 
particular friend of John Seaman, ffuire. Entering Tyrone, they demo- 
prior of the Order of Carthusians, Iished Dunsaimon, and snoiled the 
London. By Mary, his wife, Thomas country. SkefiP^gton ana Kildare 
had three sons, William Skefj^gton, had now become open enemies, and 
who became Lord Deputy of Ireland; sent letters and messengers to the 
Sir John Skefiyngton, knight, alder- Council in England, containing nau- 
man of London, merchant of the tual accusation& Kildare thereupon 
staple at Calais, and lord of the man- went over to England, and succeeiled 
or of Fisherwick, in Staffordshire ; and not only in having Sir WUliam Skef- 
Thomas Skefiyngton. esquire. The fyngton recalled, but himself ^- 
eldest, Sir William SKefiyn^n occu- pointed in lus place. Returning to 
pies an importantpage in the history Dublin, in August, 1532, he received 
of his country. He was knighted by the Sword of State from Skefifyngton. 
Henry VII., and appointed, in 1529, On this occasion, the new Lord De- 
by Henry VlIL to tne high office of puty showed little magnanimity or 
the King's Commissioner in Ireland courtesy to his predecessor; for iiol- 
to inquire into and report upon the linshed states that '' Kildar^ having 
administration of public afiairs there, received the sworde, would x)ermit 
to suggest means to restrain the ex- Skefiyngton, who was late Crovem- 
actions of the soldiers, call a parlia- oure, to dance attendance amon^ the 
ment, and have the possessions of the other suiters, in his house at Dubryn, 
clergy made subject to their proper- named the Carbry." Sir William 
tion of the public charge. Tne care retired to Endand to his bouse of 
and fidelit;^ he displayed in executing '* Skeifyngton,'^ leaving his secretary, 
the commission, obtained for him, Thomas Cannon, behind him to watch 
in Uie- fbiiowing year, the appoint- events,andhekeptupacorrespondence 
ment df MaMer of the Ordnance in with Secretary Cromwell, wnich con- 
England, which he held onlv a few sisted chieflv of reflections on tiie con- 
months when he was sent oack to duct of Kildare. The latter soon got 
Ireland, in 1530, in the more distin- into trouble. Grave accusations w^ere 
gmshed office of Lord Deputy, accom- made against him by the AnRlo-Irish 

Sanied by Gerald, ninth Earl of Kil- nobles and Council, and also oy Can- 
are, who, being jealous of his ap- non, who formed one of a deputation 
pointment, found means to thwart him to England to accuse him. Kildare 
in the administration of public afiairs. was summoned over to answer those 
HoUinshed pves a graphic picture charges. In February, 1534, he held 
of their reception on the green of St a council at Drogheda, and nominated 
Mary's Abbey by the mayor and citi- his son Thomas, then only twenty 
zens of Dublin, in procession ; how years of ace, and of a "hot and activo 
they hailed the Lord Deputy as their temper," Vice-Deputy. On visiting 
dehverer from '* the insolencies of King Henry's Court and Council, he 
O'Neill, 0*Conor, and O'More ;" the was consigned to the Tower. An un- 
"pithieoration" of the Recorder, Fitz- founded rumour circulated that ha 
simons, and the Lord Deputy's speech was beheaded; and on the morning of 
in reply to " Master Mayor and Mais- the 1 1th of June, 1534, his son Tbo- 
ter Keoorder." mas, the young and haughty ohief of 



1861.] Antrim Castle. 165 

the Geraldines, cast from him the to Offaly, where he was followed 
sword of Btate on the council table by the Lord Deputy, and surrendered 
at St. Mary's Abbey, and rushed forth on promise of pardon, which was vio- 
into war. lat^ by Henry, who had him corn- 
Alarmed by this formidable rebel- mitted to the Tower, and executed, 
1 ion of the most powerful of his Ene- with his five uncles, to extirpate, as he 
lish subjects of the Pale in Ireland, thought, the race of the Geraldlnes. 
King Henry prevailed on Sir William Having faithfully fulfilled his mis- 
Bke%ngton, then far advanced in sion and re-established peace, the 
life, and emoying repose at his an- Lord Deputy Skeffyn^n solicited the 
cient scAt of Ske^ngton Hall, to re- king, by reason of his " age and in- 
sume his office of Lord Deputy, and firmities,'' to surrender hisoifice, and 
suppress the rebellion. Skefifyngton retire home to England ; but Heniy, 
accepted the trust, and landed in Lre- after thanking him for his services, 
land, in October, with a large and '^told him he must continue in his 
well-equipped army. His progress government'' Skefiyngton bowed to 
was marked by consummate skiU. this mandate of his sovereign, and 
Sending his fleet towards Drogheda, died as Lord Deputy in the following 
be captured Brode, one of Fitzgerald's month of Decemoer, 1536, 'leaving, 
naval commanders. In return, Dro- says Playfair, '* the character of a 
gheda was besieged by Fitzgerald; worthy governor, and among his 
but the Lord Deputy marched there, other virtues, that of beinff very just 
raised the sief^e, and proclaimed Lord of his word and promise.' He was 
Thomas a traitor at the High Cross, honourably interred, according to his 
In the following spring, hostili- dignity, in St Patrick's GathedraL 
ties re-commenced. Fitzgerald, de- Dublin, and a monument was erected 
}>ending on the strength of his six to him in Skefiyngton. 
castles of Garlow, Maynooth, Rath- Although he rendered important 
angan. Athy, Ley, and Portlester, public services, and sacrificed his 
passed into Connaught to raise ad- nealth to his sense of public duty, 
ditional forces among his allies, when he needed repose, yet he obtain- 
Taking advantage of his absence, ednorewardsoftitleorlandswhichhe 
Skefiyngton laid siege to Maynooth could transmit to his posterity, while 
It is stated that the artillery played courtiers and carpet knights, intri- 
upon it for ten or twelve days with- guers and intriguantes, alike devoid of 
out effect; but at last Parese, the public or personal virtues, were raised 
governor, convened a letter to the from obscurity, gilt over with the 
Lord Deputy, mtimating that he tinsel of wealth, and emblazoned with 
would surrender on ''certain condi- titles. Even nis widow, the Lady 
tions which imported his own profit" Skefiyngton, had much difficulty and 
The offer was accepted, and Parese, delay in obtaining a settlement of 
after a successful sally made by the the arrears of his official salary, and 
garrison, gave them a ''carouse to received most opposition in her de- 
that degree that they were all dead mands from subordinates about the 
drunk ;'^ and then, upon a signal from Castle, who had been her late hus- 
Parese, the English scaled tne walls bfuid's most obseouious attendants, 
at abroach, and entering the castle. Sir William Skefiyngton was the last 
obtained "rich spoil and phmder.'' Lord Lieutenant of Ireland of the 
Parese, by order of Sir William Roman Catholic faith preceding the 
Skefi^gton. was paid his rewajrd, Reformation. His will, all in his own 
and instantly beheaded for his trai- handwriting, presents a strong illus- 
torous conduct to his master. tration of tne tendency of the £n- 
AtNaas, the Lord Deputy came up glish lay aristocnu^, of that oom- 
with the remnant of the Gferaldine s munion, to make bequests for " pious 
army, which was much thinned by purposes," and is referred to here 
desertion after the fall of Maynooth, merely as an historical fact After 
and captured 140 of his gallowglanes. beoueathing various sums to the poor, 
whom he put to death. Fitzgerald he left certain sums "to the altar for 
was never after able to muster any my tythes and oblacons forgotten in 
considerable force, although he con- discharging of my conscience ;" also 
tinued to skirmish and ravage the sums to the parish church of Skev- 
EnglishPaia Eventually he retired ington, to the cathedral church of 



1^6 Antrim Cootie. [Feb. 

Lincoln, to the church of ^yleadon, graceful way, about these brotboB, 
the church of TyltoiL the church of which he calls " The Sorrow of the 
Tongby, to ^ every of the houses of Sk^lyugtoiis," It is not a fanciful 
FreersinLeicester, tobe paidtothem sketch, but founded on fact, the 
so soon as it is knowne that I am de- particulars being giinen at length in 
parted this world, that they may sing " Nicholl's History of Leioester- 
their trentals for mj soule immedi* shire." Sir Williasn Skefiyngton, the 
ately;" also to the priest of the place, eldest, married one of the loyeli- 
and to the ^^autar to pray for my est ladies of the land, a daughter of 
soule f and '* I will that a priest m Sir Kichard Cbetwode, of Wark> 
found of my goods" (t.<;., at his ex- worth; "but," says Burton, "he 
pense) " for the space of five years, was so possessed with the Italian 
to wait of my wife, and to sin^ at humour of jealousy, that he would 
Skevington for my soule, my wife's not vouchsafe that she should either 
soule, and my father's soule, and my see or be seen, to converse or be can- 
mother's. John Skevin^n, and Jesse versed withal, though she was a lady 
Inffwardly, my Lc^d Marquis* " (Dor- of many wortny parts, well qualified, 
set), '* and all the soules that I stand and of great deserts." No favourite 
charaed for and I am bound to pray of an Oriental despot was erw more 
for.'*^ He next provides for the secluded. When taking the air in '^e 
priest's salary, ana " black cloth for grounds and park of Sketi^gton, abe 
nis gowne." And bequeathes certain was always Receded and followed by 
sums to the poor people in the towns a body-guard of domestics, wbo were 
next adJoinmg »kevington. '^ to be not themselves to approach witbin a 
dealt all on one Friday, about ten prescribed distance, and were not to 
of the clock of the same day; and the allow others to approach on pain of 

griests of every of the said townes to instant dismissal. Sir WiUis^ died 

aveiiii<]^. to say masses of remember- s.p., in 1605, leaving his brother 

ing of my soule the same day, and John, by wh(»n he was succeeded, 

the "poor people to be warned to hear After mourning her liege lord for the 

the said masses." Certain specific usual period, with all the outward 

legacies which followed are curiously accompaniments iA grief, and not 

illustrative of the dress of the day. without some inward sorrow for one 

His eldest son was to have his who so idolized her, Lady Skefiyngton 

''gowne of tanneyvelvett furred with a|[ain mixed with the world: and 

booge, and a black damask gowne with personal charms undiminished, 

Ivned with sarsnett ;" his brother and pecuniary ones considerably aiig- 

Thomas his " black gowne bound mented, again became ''the cynoBure 

with velvett and furred with bocy ;" of neighbouring eyes." Penelope her- 

and to his cousin, William Durham, self had not more wooers : some of the 

his "black prick-gowne furred with highest names in the kingdom w^ere 

boge." in the list. They were rejected ; 

Thomas Skeffyngton, the grandson Lady Skefiyncton seemed to say to 

of the Lord Deputy, in addition to all, m the woras of another heixHne of 

the ancient manor of Skefiyngton, the long past — 

was possessed of Datchurst, in Kent, <« llle meos primM qui me rib! jiioxit, ainot«s 
and the manor of Arlev, in Warwick- Abitalit: iUo habtat aecam serv^tque 
shire. He married Isabella, daughter sepulohro," 

of Sir John Byron, of Kewstead, when the astmmding intelligence 

ancestor of the noble poet Byron, reached all ears that the inoons^ble 

and was sheriff of Warwick in 1588. Lady Skefiyngton was married. Yea, 

The famous Spanish Armada having she who had heard earls si^ng at 

threatened the shores of England, he her feet, had consoled herself with 

raised and armed 12,530 men in de- her own groom, Michael Bray I Such 

fence of the nation, and sent 2,000 of a m^sdliance, thouffh she was not of 

the choicest of them to Tilbury camp the blood of the SKeffingtona, natn- 

for training. He had two sons. Sir rally raised their indignation, especi- 

William and John, and several daugh- ally as Lady Skefiyngton bad extensive 

ters. power over the estates, by virtue of 

In that most agreeable work, Sb- William's wiH Diisputes arose, 

"The Family Romance," Sir Bernard and at last a Chancery suit between 

Burke relates a story in his own Sir John Skefiyngton^ Sir WiUiani's 



^6 1 .] ArUrim (JasU€» 167 

>rotber, and Bray was entered upon, made a reprisal across the Channel, 
iV'hileall parties wereat Westminster, and obtained the hand of an Irish 
n Novembery 1613, preparing for a lad v not less lovely, and of equal rank 
1 earing, Bome friends prevailed upon ana fortune — the Honourable Mary 
he litigants to attempt a compromise. Clotworthy, heiress of Antrim Castle. 
Pot this purpose they met at the Skeffvngton Hall, acoordin;? to Play- 
Hoop Tavern, in*Gray^s Inn. The fair's description of it in 1813, was 
conference began in conciliatory terms a very elegant structure, the south 
on both sides ; but shortly after, side castellated ; beautiful pleasure- 
Bray going down stairs, stopped at grounds surrounding it. With the 
the bottom with his sword drawn, naked eye mi^ht be seen, over a fer- 
and as Sir John SkeSyngton was fol- tile vale, the field of Naseby and the 
lowing him, gave him a mortal wound woods of Skefiyngton and Ladington. 
in his abdomen ! On first seeinff The rooms of this venerable mansion 
Bray's naked sword, Sir John Ske^ were spacious and numerous, the 
fyn^ton had drawn his own, and, in drawing-room measuring thirty-two 
fallmg, mortally wounded Bray. In feet every way, floored and wain- 
a few minutes l)oth had ceased to live, scotted from one oak that grew in 
His sisters became his co-heirs ; and Skeifvnston wood, no joint in any 
oneofthran, Ursula, married her third board of it In the breakfast-room 
cousin Sir John Skeffyngton, of Fish- was a curious old carved ohimney- 
erwickoy in Staffordshire, second pieoe,inthemiddleof which were the 
Baronet, whose father, Thomas, was arms of the fomily of Skefl^^n, 
erandson of the Lord Deputy. Sir with no less than thirty quartermgs. 
John, of Fisherwicke, was now repre- Sir Richard Skefl^gton, according to 
sentatiTc in the male line of the ancient Lodge, was '^a most worthy gentle- 
family of Skefiyngton, of Skefi^gton man." He represented Staffordshire, 
Hall, where he and his wife Ursula, and married Anne, voungest daughter 
Lady Skeffyngton, resided. of Sir John Newdegat^ knight, of 
He kept up right good state, in the Axbury, in the county of Warwick, 
style of the fine old English gentle- He died in the year 1647, and was 
man of the olden times, in that ba- interred in the church of Broxboume, 
ronial halL The farmers of the sur- where a monument is erected to his 
rounding district went resularly every memory, with an elaborate panegyric 
day to mnner at " the Hall ;" and at on his many virtues, his piety, mental 
a certain hour the poor attended also accomplishments, knowledge of the 
at a close or detached house near, liberal arts, and distross of mind at 
and were served in a circle with the divisions in Church and State, 
the remnants of the plenteous board. His wife, Anne Lady Skeffyngton, 
Sir John and the Lady Ursula Skef- preceded him to the grave ten years, 
fvngton had an only son, Sir William, bhe lies buried in St. Michaers Church, 
third baronet, who died without issue, Coventry, under a monument fixed in 
and was succeeded in the title by his the south wall of Mercer's Chapel, 
uncle, Sir Richard Skeffyngton. of with an eleg^, in verse, of thirty-one 
Fisherwicke, fourth Baronet, from lines, which is a curious specimen of 
whom the ancient family estate and the epitaphs of that day, and is intro- 
mansion of Skeffyngton Hall were duced thus : 

diverted by his cousin and niece, Ur- « ^^ elegiacaU epitaph, made upon the 
sula. Lady Skefl^nngton, who iomed death of 

the other co-heirs in bwring the en- that mirror of women, Anne Kewdegate, 
tail and settling the estates and Skef- lady 

fyogton Hall on the heir general, from Skeffyngton, wife to that true moaning 
whom it descended to an Irish eentle- turtle, 

man, Colonel Sir William Charles Sir Richard Skeffyngton, kt., and oon- 

Farrell, who assumed the surname , secrated to 

of Skeffyngton. Sir Richard Skef- ^^ f^'^J'^f "®°'''"® ^^ *^® unfeigned 

fyngton, however, had his revenge; ^^ ^^'^''J ^^ Bulstrode, knight." 
lor if a persuasive Irishman of the 

ancient house of O'Farrell of Anally. Sir Richard and Anne Lady Skefiyng- 

wooed and won a fair English lady, ana ton were the father and mother of 

<leprived him of his ancestral mansion Sir John Skeffyngton, of Fisherwicke, 

^d broad estate, Sir Itiehard's son fifth Baronet, second Lord Viscooat 



168 Antrim CaOU. [Feb. 

Massareene, and Baron of Lough more," the Jacobite general, lUchard 

Nea^h, the third owner of Antrim Hamilton, pushed further north, and 

Castle. the garrisons of Belfast and Antrim 

The second Lord Massareene, in his fled before his victorions arms to 

father-in-law's lifetime, represented Coleraine, burning in their retreat the 

the county of Antrim in the Parlia- boats and cots on the Bann, to pre- 

ment which commenced its sittings vent him crossing into the county of 

in the year 1661 and was dissolved m Deny. Lord Massareene, who was 

1666. He was also of the Privy then advanced in years, abandoned 

Coimcil of Charles the Second, was Antrim Castle, and reached Derry in 

appointed Custos Rotulorum of the safety with his family, 

county of Derry, and obtained, by Joming the Bishop of Deny, Dr. 

patents under the Acts of Settlement Hopkins, th^ sold their horses there 

and Explanation, grants of lands from to Colonel Forward, and sailed for 

the Crown in the baronies of Dunluce. England. But Lord Massareene left be- 

Massareene, KLlconway, Toome, ana hind him bis son and representative, 

Antrim, in the county of Antrim, as Colonel Clotworthy Skefi^gton, who 

also lands in the counties of Cavan, distinguished himself during the war. 

Clare, Louth, Monaghan, Tipperary, General Hamilton having reached 

and Westmeath, all of which, includ- Antrim Castle, occupied it with some 

ing the family estate of Massareene, detachments of his troops, who seized 

made a grand total of about 45,000 Lord Massareene's plate, and other 

acres, statute measure — ^no mean ap- valuable property, which were point- 

panage to a peerage, baronial castle, ed out by one of his lordship's own 

and wide demesne. For many years servants where concealed A oontem- 

after the Restoration, Lord Massa- porary writer, in noticing this circum- 

reene and his lady and family lived stance, observes, "Viscount Massa- 

at Antrim Castle, in the retirement reene, who, besides rich and plentiful 

of private life, without any disturbing furniture in his house, and a mighty 

''element to break in upon its repose stock ofhorses. mares, and cattle upon 

save the death of the Viscountess his demesne, nas lost above j^,000 

Massareene's mother, Margaret Vis- worth of plate in his house, and has 

countess of Massareene, daughter of not saved of it so much as a silver 

Roger, Viscount Ranelagh, in the year spoon." His lordship did not even es- 

1686. James XL, soon after he as- cape a levy from his own friends, for, 

cended the throne, in 1685, appointed according to Lodge, the garrison of 

his lordship of his Privy Council and Derry seized forty tons of salmon, out 

governor of the county of Derry and of sixty tons, which he had deposited 

the town of Coleraine. In three years in a warehouse near the city, and the 

afterwards the Revolution commenced Jacobites took the remainder. His 

almost simultaneously in En^and and lordship was attainted, with many 

Ireland. others, oy King James's Parliament-, 

The gentry of the county of Antrim, at Dublin; but the attainder was 
of the revolutionary party, with Lord reversed in the following reign, and 
Massareene at their head, met in An- Lord Massareene took his seat in the 
trim Castle, formed themselves into a House of Peers, in William^s first 
body callea the "Antrim Associa- Parliament, which met at Dublin in 
tion," published a declaration, and the year 1692. He afterwards departed 
appointed Montgomery, Lord Mount- this life on the 21st of June, 1695, 
Alexander, and tlie Honourable Clot- and was interred at Antrim. He had 
worthy Skefiyngton,LordMa8sareene's three sons and four daughters ; two of 
eldest son, commanders-in-chief of the the sons died young, and the third, 
Antrim forces. They next proceeded Colonel Clotworthy Skeffyngton, be- 
to raise troops, and Mr. SkeiSyngton came his successor. Twoofhisdaugh- 
levied and equipped a regiment of ters were married : Mary, in 1676, to 
foot, and assumed the command as Sir Charles Houghton, of Houghton 
colonel. In a proclamation issued Tower, in the county of Lancaster, 
soon after by the Lord Deputy Tyr- baronet; and Margaret, in 1681, to 
connell, ten persons were excepted Sir George St George, 
from pardon, among whom were Lord John, Lord Massareene, was not 
Massareene and nis son, Colonel remarkable for any particohiTly strik- 
Skefiyngton. After the ^'breakof Dro- ing features of character. His d^po- 



1861.] Antrim Castle. 169 

Rition tended more to domesticity six great boats, and passed Skeffyng- 
tliau public life. His conduct, how- ton's guards on the Bonn. Crossing 
ever, at the beginning of the Bevolu- about a mile above Portglenone. they 
tion evinced much decision. He was advanced on the town, and deieated 
amongst the very first that raised Edmondston's troops, who retreated 
the revolutionai^ standard in Ireland, on Coleraine. The main body of the 
and he adherea to it unfiinchingly Jacobites now advanced from Dun- 
throughout. His advanced years and gannon ; and at their approach the gar- 
domestic habits were unsuited to the risonsof Moneymore,Dawson's-briage, 
active military duties which followed ; Magherafelt,BelIaghy, and Toome, ana 
but in retiring from Ireland for the the troops on the passes of the Bann, 
protection of nis family, he left be- retreated, followed by Skeffyngton 
oind him the strongest pledge of hia and Hawdon's regiments, over the 
devotion to the cause he espoused, mountains to Derry. Coleraine was 
in the person of his only surviving shortly after deserted ; and, says 
son. Mackenzie, ** all the country came to- 

Sir Glotworthy Skeffyngton. sixth wards Derry as their last refuge." 

Baronet, and third Viscount Massa- The dragoons reached first, and 

rcene, was a man of energy and werequartered, by orders of Governor 

courage, and possessed considerable Lundv, in the neighbouring towns; 

military knowledge for a country gen- but when the foot arrived at the gates', 

tleman. He joined his father in form- on the 16 th of April, they were kept 

ing the " Antrim Association," and. shut out all night : but next day a 

with Lord Mount- Alexander, held captain of Colonel Skefiyngton's regi- 

tbe chief command of their forces, ment, being in no very amiable mood 

After the break of Dromore, while after the night's bivouac in the open 

Hamilton occupied Antrim Castle, air, fired at the sentrv, and threatened 

and Galmoy held Tyrone, Colonel to bum the gate ; when all the gatea 

Skeffyngton by a skilful manoeuvre, were thrown open, and the troops 

at the head of hisr^imentjpossessed entered. Colonel Ske£fyngton's regi- 

himself of Bellaghy Castle, Dawson's- ment participated in the memorable 

bridge, now Castle-Dawsou, and other siege which followed, and were re- 

I>asse8 on the Bann, above Portgle- lieved, with the rest of the famishing 

none. garrison, by the Mountjoy and other 

One detachment of his regiment, vessels, breaking the boom, under 

under Lieutenant-Colonel Houston, cover of the Dartmouth's guns. 

was placed at Toome, but could sel- Upon the death of his father in 

di)m relieve guards, by reason of the 1695, Colonel ClotworthySkeflfyngton 

floods that overspre^ the intervening succeeded to the title and estates. He 

woods of Creagh. Colonel Gordon had previously, in 1684, married Ra- 

O'XeilljSon of tne celebrated SirPhe- chael, daughter of Sir Edward Hun- 

lim Roe O'NeiD, of 1641, rested for a gerford, KB., of Farley-Hungerford 

abort tune in Antrim Castle, in March, Castle, Somerset, a lady of beauty and 

1688-9, and then pushed on for accomplishments of the highest order. 

Toome, and encamped on Drimislough If we mav judge from her j)ortrait in 

hi 11, which overlooKs DrumdergHouse, the grand ook room at Antrim Castle, 

tlio resiilence of Mr. O'Neill, of the taken in youth, Rachael, Viscountess 

Feeva. The remains of the earthworks Massareene, was, indeed, a lovely wo- 

which he threw up there are still man— the face oval and peachlike — 

visible. From thence he summoned forehead, capacious and intellectual 

Colonel Skefifyngton's garrisons of — head, well set, a profusion of dark 

Dawson's-bridge and Magherafelt to brown nair equallv divided in front, 

lay down their arms ; bu^ relying on and curled at either side up to thd 

^e impassable state of the roads, centre division, the luxuriant curld 

then flooded, Skefiynfirton refused, standing out, over the small and 

jnd O'Neill was unable to enforce neatly shaped ears — very full dark 

his mandate. In April a detachment blue eyes — rather full and x>outing 

of Skeffyngton's regiment, under Lieu- lips, and beautiful aquiline nose. His 

tenant-Colonel Edmonston, occupied loroship died in March, 1713, leaving 

Portglenone; but on the night of the Ciotworthy his successor, and two 

7th a party of Hamilton's troops, un- other sons, Hale, and John of Der- 

der Colonel Nugent, secured nve or vock. 



170 Antrim Ga^Ue. [Feb. 

Theeldestdaugliter, Jane, married law, Catherine Lady Massareene, a 

Sir Henry Hamilton, of Hamilton's- l«gB sapphire 8t«t», set round with little 

bawn, in the county of Armagh, Baro- diamonda, and a large trangparent dia- 

net. There is an interesting Dortrait mond drop hanging to it, and my pearl 

,?!,«« «r 4.1, « 1,; «!,««♦ ^^A^^S^t^^¥ necklace, and my ailver tea-table, to- 

of her, of the highest order of ment, ^^er with £50 to new make it. To my 

in the oak-room, taken when she was a grandson. Clotworthy, £2.ooo, to be put 

child of at)out ten or twelve years old. out at interest, or upon the purchase 

She lonna the principal figure in a of lands, or otherwise to be improved 

sylvan scene. Seated on the greens- for ten years, with all the profits thereof, 

ward, her left band rests on part of and a purse ofgold, several pieces whereof 

the drapery of her dress, which falls in are foreign coins and medals, with a gold 

graceful folds on a sheep lying at her ^ ^, <^« "aid purse, the par^ colours 

side, and looking up into her face ; ^ which gold is wrought with «y own 

her right hand is extended to it, the ^^ V^ *^« ^^ P^f**^ "^^ ^ ™™/ 

i i^"l ^il^L^ x^ Y^ r„«« ' A J. wrote m a paper with my own hand, af- 

for^nger pomtmg to its face. An ^^ ^ ^^e sSd purse, » also my lilrge 

arch smile plays on her beautiftil fea- enamelled seal set with dUmonds, and 

tures, while her lips are parted, as it another seal set with rubies and dia- 

addressing her silent companion. The monds; a large agate> with a (Aeopatra'a 

group represents childish enjoyment, head cut in it, set in a collet of gold, 

and 18 a tjrpe of purity and innocence, and another agate set in gold, cut in the 

Her sister, the Honourable Rachael f<wm of half a man and half a fiah ; also 

Skeffyngton, married, first, RandaU, my ring with a large ^emerald, aad a 

fomih Earl of Antrim, and next, pa*r of bracelets containing tweoty-three 

Robert Hawkins Magill, of Gill Hall ^}^,\^\ 'l^^l^'m^ Z ^^ 

^q., nephew and h^^^^ ^llf titf^c"^ W^^^ 

Ma^ill, Baronet There is a portrait Hay's picture, m a shagreen case, and 

of her first husband's father, Alex- likewise my gold box. To my grandson 

ander, third Earl of Antrim, in the Arthur, £bO and my sapphire ring. To 

dining-room in Antrim Castle, repre- my grandson John, £50. To my grand- 

senting him in his robes as a peer daughter Catherine, six dozen of half. 

of the realm, but without his coronet, guinea pieces, being £n is«. steriing. 

The third daughter, the Honourable ^J**» «« !»«<«• o^<^ gold, all in a purse 

Mary Skeflfyngton, married the Right "^^^^^ they now s^ and wherein my 

Rev. Dr. Edward Smyth, Bishop of »ft><i granddaughter's name is^wrote with 

T^X™^««i^ rrL^Jw^^^ T^ °*y own hand in a paper affixed to the 

Down and Connor. Their mother, ^,^ ^^^ ^ my^grane book, my 

Rachael, Countess of Maasareene, sur- cup of an ostrich's e^, with a ring with 
vived her husband wghteen years, and her two eldest brothers* hair. To my 
died in February, 1731. Her will, all granddaughter Rachael, thirty broad 
in her own handwriting, is a most Jacobus pieces of gold and a 5-gninea 
curious and interesting document, piece, also my filigrane case, with the 
showing a refined and cultivated *«if«> fork, and spoon therein, aad a 
taflte, particularly in her conection of 'ingwith a ruby stone, set with diamonda 
bijmthie, knowledge of preciouu ^S°w *^l^&*r!J^* To my grand- 
stones, tasteful an^gement of me- »onHungerfoid,£6p,tenJaoobaspiecea, 
mwuTjoj va^v^xKu, axxa^L^x^^uv ^u^ aud two 5-gmnea pieccs. To my grand- 
mon^s for her relatives and friends, «,n Hugh. £&o. To my dear sin John, 
and the wealth m ^ewelnr and articles X200 and my diamond buckle and thir- 
of vertu of an Irish lady a century teen pieces of gold in a purse, a parti> 
and a-half ago. For the fair reader, cular of which pieces are in a note wrote 
especially, it mtist possess some con- with my own hand, in the said purse; 
siaerable novelty and interest. After as also hii brother, Lord Maasareeoes^ 
giving certain directions as to her picture, set in gold. To my dear daugh- 
mterment, she proceeds:— ^^ ^^t Countess of Antrim, a large 
' mooua stone, with several small ones of 
*'I give to my sou Clotworthy, Lord the same kind round it, set in colleta of 
Massareene, his father's picture, my fa- gold, as also my mother^s picture, re-set 
ther's and his grandfather's. Sir Edward fii gold. To my grandson Arthur Earl 
Hungcrford's picture, set in gold ; my of Antrim, one 5-guinea piece and ten 
great unde. Sir Edward Hungerford's, Jacobus pieces, as a small token to re- 
picture, set round with pearl, the back member me by. To my granddaughter, 
and cover heliotropian stone, and my the Lady Helena Massareene, my fili- 
grandfother. Sir John Lacy's, picture, grane trunk, one 5-guinea piece and ten 
and my uncle Roger*s picture, enamelled, Jacobus pieces, as a amall token to rc- 
bothset in gold. To my daughter-in. member me by. To my daughter Smith 



«61.] Antrim Castle, 171 

£100 and vay Ttadj Northampton*! pic- Antrim £100, to be put oat at inteitst 
biire. set in gold, the back of the picture into the hands of such peraon or persona 
beinK a lapus lazali, and a rin{ir, with aa her executors and the minister of the 
mv late sister-in-law, tlie Lady St. parish, for the time being, shall think 
George'a, hair set with diamonus, to- most fit and secure, and the interest 
Rether with the little ring (for which I thereof yearly paid into the minister and 
have a great value) giren me by my churchwardens^to be distributed by them 
aunt, Mrs. Montagu. To my grandson, amongst the poor of said pu-ish every 
Skeffjngton Randal Smith, £50 and a year as the minister and churchwardens 
rin^ with Randall, late Earl of Antrim's thereof shall think proper, so that due 
hair, set with diamonds. To my grand* regard may be had, m such distribution, 
daughter, Hachael Smith, six doeen of to the condition and circumstances of 
haif.g^ninea pieces of old gold, with a such poor persons as shaU be deemed to 
purse of my own work, d^c. ; a parcel stand most in need of anv part or por- 
of lapia laxoli, set in gold, and a large tion of said money. To tne poor of the 
topaz, set in a collet of gold, with an manors of Fisherwick and Scire's Court, 
emerald drop hanging to it, and my in the counties of Stafford and War- 
largest turquoise-stone ring, with three wick, £20. * And whereas I am pos- 
diamonds^on each aide of the said stone, aessed of some few rings, books, some 
as also two little pictures of my son and few pieces of gold, some few medals, and 
daughter. Sir Hans Hamilton and his some rarities of little value, some of 
lady, set in gold. To my grandson, which I intend to give away in my lif^« 
James Smith, £60. To my dear ^ugh- time, and such of them as shall remain 
ter, Franoes Diana Skeffyngton, £100, at my decease I intend shall be disposed 
with the picture of my aunt Whitepole, of and given by my executors, in man-. 
set in gold, the back thereof enamelled ner hereinafter mentioned, that is to 
with blae, with a coronet and cypher say, that the person or persons whose 
thereon ; with a ring of Lady Lexing- name or names I shall affix to such thing 
ton's hair, the ludr and hoop thereof or things, in my own handwriting, shall 
set round with diamonds; my uncle havethethingorthings to which his, her, 
Lacy'a xiictnre, with a shagreen back, ortheirnameornamesshallbe soafixed.* 
hooped with gold, together with two And, after appointing her two sons her 
braoelsts, two lockets clasped withtur- executors, she concludes: — *I do ear- 
qooise stones, and twelve pieces of gold nestly desire and entreat all mv dear 
in a purse, a particular account of which children and grandchildren to uve in 
pieces are in a note wrote with my own amity, loving peace, and concord with 
hand in the purse. To my aunt, Mrs. one another.* ' 
Montague, the heUotropian seal I com- sir Clotworthy Skefl^gton, the 

iTonoJrTh^^ fV w"" To mrnifS? ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ *^d fourth VialjOUnt 

MrrE^lzlSIfh bIc^ -a ^SLT^^; ^TJZ^' ^^^T'^'^.^t.^^i' 

which I desire her to accept of and keep ^^ ^^J^f l» ,P«"^*«^«»* J^^^^^ Ji^ 

for my sake. To my niece, Mrs. Diana Bucceeded to the family titles. He 

Bleaks my silver box, with a cut agate took his seat m the House of Peera 

in the lid tliereof, which I desire she in the year 1715, and married, twa 

will accept of from me. To my niece, years before, the Lady Catherine Chi* 

Mrs. Lutwyche, as a token of my love, chesten eldest daughter of Arthur, 

two aiigrane boxes, Uie lids and bottoms third Earl of Donegal Her father's 

moth«r of pearL To the Bev. John portrait is in the dining-room at An- 

daTgC,"&S:^1k?hT§-.^^^^^^ trim Castle; his large flowing wig 

which I de^she^ll lay out in som^ ^^ ^^ %f ^, ^^« ^^^ «tnking 

hurting token to remember me, as also features of the picture. There is also 

» ring of Queen Mary's hair, set with ]^ the same room a portrait of Lord 

mbies and diamonds, and a topaz stone, Massareene himself, representing him 

Mi in a bcket, with a cypher cut in the en Cavalier^ with flowing hair, pe« 

stone, and a small silver perfuming pot. '* tronel in hands, slashed doublet, face 

She then directs her executors to give oblong, and not particularly striking. 

*; to my brother Hmigerford, to my He died in Antrim Castle in the year 

siBtw.m.Uw. ,the Lady Haughton, to lygg a^d left Clotworthy his heir, 

SJSSdStl^^'^^SS^"^^^^ four other sons, and two Whten,: 

H^li?a'iSSrB?q.r^ Catherine's eldest, marriedlrthur 

James Hayes and to my niece, Mrs. Viscount Doneraile. 

Usher, each a ring of my hair, set with Antrim Castle had for its next pro- 

(Uamonds, of the value of Are guineas pnetor Sir Clotworthy Skeffyngton^ 

wch/ Leaveslegadestoall her servants, eiffhth Baronet and fifth Viscount 

To the poor of ^e town and pariah of Massareene, a gentleman of consider- 



172 Antrim CadU, [Feb. 

able erudition, who took his degree as trae that it is old — that pity for a 
a doctor of laws in tlie University of handsome cavalier in the breast of 
Dublin, in the year 1740. In the woman " is near akin to love." The 
year 1766 he was advanced to the old adage turned out to be true in 
dignity of an earl. He waa twice her case. Mademoiselle Marie Ann- 
married — ^first to Anne, daughter of ette Barcier began to feel the first 
Dean Daniel, of Down, and secondly throbs of awakening love in that 
to Elizabeth, only daughter of Heniy gentle bosom of hers ; and Monsieur 
Eyre, Esq., of Router, in the county Milord Massareene was not slow in 
of Derby. His death occurred very making the discovery, from the per- 
Buddenly, on the 11th September, turbed state of his own feelings ; for, 
1757, under singular circumstances, somehow, the sidelong glances which 
He had been out shooting, along the stole so softly from beneath the silken 
Six-mile- Water, and, returning in lashes of Mademoiselle's peerless eyes 
health and spirits, after an excellent of hazel had penetrated through those 
day's sport, paused at the ruins of large blue or ds of his, to the exposed 
the old Abbey of Massareene. After bosom of the inflammable Irishman, 
standing there for a short time, he Incapable of sustaining a lengthened 
seemed suddenly transfixed with ter- siege, he surrendered — perhaps it 
ror, and uttering a loud exclamation, was the wisest thing he could have 
which included the name of one who done, under the circumstances — at 
had long since ceased to be a denizen discretion. The avowal was made, 
of earth, he fell to the ground, and the half-murmured words spoken, 
expired in the presence of nis terrified and the plighted troth registered in 
gamekeeper, while his dogs moaned heaven. But damp cell in dreary 
about him in a fearful manner. His dungeon was no fit place for hearts 
remains were borne to Antrim Castle, like theirs, nor the broken sobs and 
and in a few days more rested with stifled cries of anguish of parting kin- 
his kindred in the family vault at dred, as hour by hour they went forth 
Antrim. His lordship left Clotworthy, to glut that insatiable guillotine, fit 
his heir, and four younger sons and alttu* for nuptial rites. They sighed 
two daughters, three of whom, Henry, for liberty and the open air, the green 
William John, and Chichester, served hills and vales and murmuring waters 
in parliament. The eldest daughter, of the Owen View, which he told her 
Lady Elizabeth, was married to of, and how, once within the strong 
Robert Clements, first Earl of Lei- walls of his castle in the Green Isle, 
trim, and her sister. Lady Catherine, safety and happiness would be theirs, 
became the wife of Francis Mathew, Woman's wit laughs at locksmiths ; 
first Earl of Llandafl'. and one morning early. Monsieur Bar- 
Sir Clotworthy, ninth Baronet and cier rose, to find Milord Anglais' cell 
second Earl of Massareene, passed an empty and more than one bird flown, 
eventful life, chequered b^r romantic for Mademoiselle's sister and husbana 
vicissitudes of his own seeking. Fond became the partners of their flight 
of continental life, he spent a large to Ireland. Honourably wedded, Lady 
portion of his time in France. During Massareene found in the love of her 
the Reign of Terror he suffered im- lord, his embattled castle, and wide 
prisonmcnt in the prison of Chart- domain on Lough Neagh's banks, all 
reuse and the Bastile. When in the that her fancy painted Lady Mas- 
latter prison, he made a daring at- sareene died childless, in the year 
tempt to escape, which was rendered 1800. In the year 1805. his lordship 
abortive only oy his chivalrous devo- was laid to rest beside the partner of 
tion in refusing to forsake his com- his flight from the Bastile, in the 
panion in flight Once more an in- family vault at Antrim. It was dur- 
mate within its loathsome walls, he ing his residence at Antrim Castle 
witnessed, day by day, pass before that the "battle of Antrim" took 
his eyes to the scaffold crowds of the place, on the 7th of June, 1798. 
chivalry and beauty of France, the The rebels, led by Mr. Henry Joy 
lovely Marie Antoinette leading the M^Cracken, attacked the town, which 
way. At length the charming daugh- they carried after an hour's fighting : 
ter of the governor of his pnson saw but the military, having obtainea 
and pitied the gallant Irish peer ; and lai^e reinforcements, returned to the 
^ is an old saying—and not the less charge, and dislodged the insurgents 



1361.] Antrim CaMle. 173 

after a stubborn resistance. On tMs but the viscountcy and baronetage 
<iccaston the yeomanry Lined the walls continued, and devolved on the late 
of the terrace gardens of Antrim peer's only child, Harriet, Viscountess 
Castle, and kept up a continuous fire, of Massareene and Baroness of Lough 
For the last time the great gun of the Neagh, in her own right. 
mound, "RoaringTatty,'' was brought Antrim Castle haa now, a second 
into requisition ; and a youn^ officer, time, become the sole property of an 
assisted by the " Meg Merrilies" of heiress. The fair Baroness oJT Lough 
Antrim, placed it in position : he Neagh, high-bom, lovely, and ac- 
ftred, and Killed — nobody ! for the ball complished, with youth's fresh young 
went over the market-house, and tore heart, had, of course, numerous woo- 
through the roof of the church. That ers. Coronets were glittering in her 
young officer afterwards became a train, by the Six-mile-water, and 
clergyman, and a pillar of the church at the courts of the Viceroy and 
he had once all but destroved. To- Sovereign. Some of the highest 
wards the close of the fignt, John, names on the list of the peerage were 
first Viscount O'Neill, a humane proud to be enrolled as her suitors, 
and popular nobleman, was mortally One, the highest name on the ancient 
wounded in the back by a dastardly roll of fame in Ireland, whose lofty 
pikeman from Killead. He was car- bearing and regal mien spoke of 
ried into Antrim Castle, and after princely descent, it was thought, 
suffering intense agony for some would win the prize. On journeying 
weeks, died there, and Ms remains to enter the lists, his carnage broke 
were conveyed to the family vault in down. " An ill omen,*^ exclaimed the 
the Tillage of Shane's Castle for in- gallant but superstitious son of Mars, 
terment. and turned back. The hish-spirited and 
The late eccentric Lord Massareene lively lady, when she heard the tale, 
was succeeded in the title and estates smiled, and with playful wit spoke of 
by his next brother. Colonel Lord the faint-hearted knight at love's tour- 
Henry Skeffyngton, tenth Baronet, nament. who won not the fair lady; and 
seventh Viscount, and third Earl, who he lost nis chance, and the union of 
was governor of the city of Cork, and twin domains and perpetuation of his 
died unmarried in the year 1811, and ancient race. The Right Honourable 
was succeeded by his only brother, Thomas Henry Foster, only son of 
Lord Henrv Chichester Skefijrngton, Jolin, Baron Oriel, of historic fame 
theeleventn Baronet, eighth Viscount, as last Speaker of the Irish House of 
and fourth Earl. His lordship mar- Commons, by Margaretta Biugh, Vis- 
ried, in 17B0, Lady Harriet Jocelyn, countess Ferrard, in her own rieht, 
daughter of Robert, first Earl of Ko- distanced all competitors, and, in No- 
den, by Lady Anne Hamilton, eldest vember, 1610, won the hand of the 
daughter of James, first Earl of Clan- fair heiress of Antrim Castle; while 
brassil, and had an only child, the his sister, the Honourable Anne Do- 
Lftdy Harriet Skeffyngton. There rothea Foster, married James, Lord 
are portraits in the dining-room of Dufierin and Clanaboy. 
Antrim Castle, by the first masters In the library at Antrim Castle, 
of the day, of the relatives of Anne, over the fireplace, is an interesting 
ViBcoantess of Massareene, of her picture in a massive gilt frame— a 
father, James^ Earl of Clanbrassil, in family group — of Margaretta, Vis- 
a flowing white wig and costume of countess Ferrard, and her daughter, 
the Drivate gentleman of the period, Anna, Lady Dufferin and Clandeboy. 
of her grandmother, Ladv Harriet Both are seated, the Viscoujitess of 
Bentinck, Viscountess of Clanbrassil, Ferrard reclining in a velvet-cushioned 
daughter of William, first Earl of arm-chair— a aignified lady. She 
Portland — her mother, Anne, Lady appears at the climacteric of woman's 
Hamilton, Viscoimtess of Roden, and life, dressed in a loose white robe, 
of her first-cousin, Robert, third Earl with low embroidered bosom, lace 




niary, 1816, when the ancient baron- rose in the centre, the transparent 
^tageoftheSkeffyngtons and the earl- lace borders coming down low on a 
dom of JKaasareene became extinct; high and intellectual forehead A 



174 Antrim Castle, [Feb, 

few wandering ringlets of light brown 8th Foot, died in the year 1842. The 

hair have strayed out from under the Honourable and Reverend ThomaB 

borders; blue and intelligent eyes, Clotworthy Skeflfynffton married his 

oval face of bland and benevolent ex- cousin, Catherine, daaghto' of the 

pression ; fuU, well-formed nose, and late Lord Dufferin ; and the Honour- 

S outing under lip, and pretty dimpled able Henry Robert Skefiyngton died 
ouble chin. A black lace veil, em- in the year 1846. The Honoural^e 
broidered, falls from the head back Harriet Mar^retta Sksffyngton mar- 
over the shoulders, in the Spanish ried David Ross, of Bladensbuxgh, 
style. A white robe, worn over the Esq., Rostrevor, county of Dowu. 
gown, open in front, and worked on The Honourable Anne Skefffngton 
the wrists and arms, and down the married, in 18d6, Robert Foster De- 
front and at each side, with sham- lap, Esq., of Monasterboioe, in the 
rocks of the native hue, attests the county of Louth; and the Honourable 
patriotism of the much-loved wife of Mary Skeffyngton married, in 1854, 
Speaker Foster. Inside the robe, and Wilham Thomas Poe, £^., barrister- 
over the gown, a dark-coloured belt, at-law. 

fastened with a snake of gold having The present noble owner of Antrim 
two heads, attached to two medallion Castle, John, eighth Viscount Mas- 
heads from the antique. On the fin- sareene, and Bwnan Lough Neagh, 
gers of her right hand, which hold ft and Viscount F^rard, and Boron 
cambric handkerchief, are two rings. Oriel of CoUon, in the peerage of Ire- 
one a ruby. Her daughter Anna, Ladv land, and Baron Oriel of Ferrard, is 
Dufferin and ClaniUdoy, also seated, the peerage of the United Kingdom, 
young, fair, and lovely, such as her is a Knigot of the Most Illustrioua 
mother might be supposed to have Order of St Patrick, Colonel <^ the 
been at her age, each lineament of Antrim R^ment of Artillery, and a 
her parent bein^ delicately pencilled gentleman of polished mind and con- 
on her firesh, ammated, and expres- siderableliterBnrabilitie& Hislord- 
sive countenance, a closed book in her ship's published poems on sacred sub- 
right hand, her d^rk and flowing hair jects, display deep religious feeling, 
arranged curiously in front in a circu- and poetic merit of a high order. An 
lar division, diverging from each small unpublished work from hispen, nearly 
and well-formed ear, shading her ready for the press, will be an inte- 
lovely, animated, and expressive face, resting and umc|ue addition to sacred 
Such were the style ana appearance literature. It is a new version of 
of two Irish peeresses, mother and the ''Psalms of David," each in a dif- 
daughter, some years ago— one, the ferent metre. The iminrovements 
grandmother of Lord Viscount Mas^ which he has effected, according to 
sareene and Ferrard, Baron of Lough his own design, in the Castle and 
Neagh, and the other the wife of pleasure-groimds, display a rare com- 
the jyprand-uncle of the noble Com- bination of architectural taste and 
missioner to Syria — ^Lord Dufferin knowledge of land»cape and hor- 
and Clanaboy — ^whose travels in high ticulture. i^ his marriage with 
latitudes, as chronicled bv his own Olivia, the accomplished daughter 
graceful pen, turned, not long since, of Henry Deane O'Grady, Esq., of 
half the neaids of the fairest daugh- Lodge, in Limerick, and Stillorgan 
ters of England. Harriet, Viscount- Castle, Dublin, cousin of the nrst 
ess of Massareene and Ferrard, died Lord Guillam(»^, his lordship has 
in the year 1831, and her lord fol- \mited the old antagonistic races of 
lowed in the year 1643, having pre- the Anglo-Norman barons, De Glot- 
viously assumed, by royal licence, worthy and De Skeffyngton, with the 
her ladyship's surname of Skefiyng- Milesian chiefs, lords of Kin^-Dmi- 
ton, and left John, the inresent peer, gaill in Clare, and Killballyowen in 
four younger sons, and three daugh- Limerick, of the royal line of Connae 
ters. The Honourable Chichester Cas. 

Thomas, late an officer in the 27th In viewing AntrimjOastle, at the 

Foot, married Amelia, second daugh- end of two centuries and a-half, we 

ter of the late Arthur Blennerhasset, are led to doubt the old legends and 

of Ballyseedy, in the county of Kerry, tales of strife between native and 

esqmre. The HooouraUe William settler, and Roundhead and Cavalier. 

Anthony Skeffyngton, captain in the A woiidrous change baa beoi effected 



sfil.] The Maori War. 176 

y peace and fusion of noes. The nook. The chaste ivy-clad tower, 

ed flag ia lowered, the walls of the the tasteful pleasure-grounds, arbour 

Teat ooort-yaid are raied, the moat and terrace, grotto and cascade, 

i closed, tbe mound dismantled, and library and oak-room. Speaker's 

ho barque and gunboats are gone : chair and mace, books and paintings, 

he old frowning keep is changed French drawing-room and Doudoir — 

uto the modem desant mansion, and all things inside and around Antrim 

^dyMarian'arWoIfHlog" surmounts Castle are stamped with the impress 

10 longer the highest turret of the of elegance and refined taste, 
'astle. He rests quietly behind the Clanaboy. 

i^and entrance^gate in a peaceful 



THE MAORI WAS. 

Though New Zealand has been for births over deatha The Maories de- 
twenty years a colony, and is now one crease by the opposite excess ; and 
of the most promising colonies of this even the half-civilised habits which 
i\)untry, yery little is generally known they have adopted tend, for the pre- 
in England of the lelation between sent at leasL to cut short their na- 
the settlers and the aborigines. Some tural term of life. A man that dresses 
of us, probably, look on the latter as like an European, and changes no 
mere savages ; others see in them the more than when there was nothing 
very embodiment of our conceptions that he could change, and that in a 
of the primitive church. They are, climate damper than England, can 
however, evidently a remarkable race, scarcely escape the catarrhs and con- 
Thirty years ago cannibalism was uni- sumptions, which ever^ precaution 
vereal : now it is unheard of. Nay ! it will not quite waid off rrom us. And 
would be an insultevento allude to the so it is that now the European settlers 
former feasts in the hearing of men outnumber the aboriginal Maories. 
who^ in their youth, must have wit- The latter scarcely exceed 58,000 ; the 
uessed and assisted at them. StUl it former number more than 71,000. 
would be a nustake to consider the This has not escaped the notice of 
Maories as a set of peaceable villagerB, the Maories themselves. They see 
ia a midland county in England Uivi- the increasing strength of their neigh- 
lization cannot be the work of a single hours, and the^ have fears t^at it may 
generation. If the brave are fathers to increase too last They sell land to 
the brave, so is it with the civilized the settlers, and the settlers take pos- 
and refined They beget sons after session of it and grow rich upon it. 
their own likeness. It takes time to A country whi(^, when uncleared, 
wear out an ancient stamp. Very was their own old hunting-ground, is 
likely, if the New Zealander Uvea, he now full of European farms and home- 
will liye to present a noble type of steads. But the Maori does not feel 
man. Bat live he probably will not himself richer, because the money 
The kw that seems to rule the rela- which his land has brought him soon 
tion of the savage to his civilixed crumbles aw^y ; he only finds himself 
neighbours is ruling with him. Though with smaller space and wealthier 
not oppressed and hunted down like neighbours. The true remedy for 
the Australian of the neighbouring this would be, no doubt, that the na- 
continent — ^though not. to all appear- tive should imitate the settler — give 
snce, falling away from diseases, up the bush and take to the farm, 
either of body or mind, contractea A wild life, however, has charms for 
from Englishmen— yet he ii fading many who are not whoUy savages, 
away. The British in New Zealand No habits are so difficult to abandon 
inoraue and multiply, not only by as habits oi independent idleness, 
inuai^ration, but by the excess of The Maori will not follow the example 



7^ Com of the WkrimNem ZtaUnd, firom AtUhmUic DmnmeiUM. By E. Harold 
%ovii^ B.D, Camhridffe: Delghton, Bell, and Co. 



176 The Maori War. [Feb. 

of the Englishman, but looks on his law ; and so it was only determined 

wealth with jesdousjr and on his pro- that every effort should be made to 

gress with fear. induce the natives, who were dissatis- 

One consequence of this feeling has fied with the former bai^gain, to come 
been an effort on the part of a portion forward again and make Bargains that 
of the natives to prevent the further would be binding. One block of land 
alienation of lands. Some among was purchased early in the day — a 
them still desire to sell ; but others block of 3,500 acres— on which the 
are resolved, not only never to sell town of New Plymouth is standing 
property of their own, but also, by nowjandafewotherpiecesofground 
every possible means, to hinder tnose have been bought since. Still the 
who would. This land-league, as it greater part of the 60,000 acres re- 
is called, was formed many years mains a waste, and the natives occupy 
ago. It arose in the southern part it after the fashion in which natives 
of the north island, and took definite occupy in general 
shape about the year 1853, when a But here has come in all the trouble 
general meeting of its members was with which the land-league was likely 
held in the neighbourhood of New to be loaded. Some of the inhabi- 
Plymouth. It was then determined tants of this Taranaki region are still 
that the natives should repossess for selling some of their lands ; others 
themselves of what had formerly been are against all sale. Moreover, na- 
sold to Europeans, and drive out the tive tenure is of a precarious kind, 
settlers. Serious consequences have and native title very vague. Feuds 
sprung from this determination ; con- of the fiercest kinds arise from the 
sequences, in the first instance, most efforts of some to sell, and the deter- 
nearly affecting the natives them- mination of others to prohibit selling, 
selves, but latterly threatening the In 1854, a ^ear after the great land- 
peace of the whole country. league meetmg, and just as Sir George 

North of the town of Wellington Grey left the colony, a man named 
lies a district known as the Taranaki Hawiri desired to sell some of his 
country. Part of it was bought about property to the Government This 
twenty years ago for the New Zealand roused the opposition of those who 
Company from fragments of a tribe belonged to the party of the land- 
scattered, dispersed, and partly en- league. Doubts as to the right to 
slaved by a neighbouring tribe. The alienate were started, and the upshot 
purchased portion consisted of 60,000 of it was, that Rawiri, the would-be 
acres. The colonists landed there, seller, was at last cruelly murdered 
cleared the country, built houses, ana by Eotatore, a chief opponent of the 
laid out farms. The district seemed sale. 

the fairest in the island. But the The enforcing of English law is a 

settlers' prosperity became their ruin, difficult matter in a purely Maori 

The scattered tribe, which durst not district The policy of Government, 

live in its old home for fear of its old indeed, has been to persuade the 

enemies, and so had consented to the Maories voluntarily to put themselves 

sale of its inheritance, now came back under English law, rather than to 

by degrees, finding security from the force it upon them against their wilL 

presence of the foreigners. Then At this particular period, too, there 

there came back, too, a longing for was no governor in New Zealand — ^a 

the old possessions. The ancient in- deputy was governor. He, CJolonel 

habitants did not like to see strangers Wynyard, from his doubtful position, 

devouring their dwelling-place ; and felt it doubly difficult to act, and so 

so, by degrees, the natives turned out no action took place. The feud went 

the settlers from the lands which had on. One faction would sell ; one 

been sold to them. The farms, the would forbid all selling. Blood had 

gardens, and the homesteads were left been shed; and all savages have a 

to ruin, and the thistle soon spread rude justice, requiring that when 

over their sites. The Government man's blood is shed, by man's hand 

knew that the title of the English shall blood be shed again. In 1858 

settlers was good. It had been fully the murderer was himself murdered, 

examined and legally abjudicated on. partly in revenge of his crime, partly. 

But the Government felt either un- perhaps, in prosecution of the general 

willing or too weak to enforce the quarrel about the land. Thed&culty 



S61.] The Maori War. 177 

r 1858 was sreater than that of 1853. would allow no man to prohibit the 

f Colonel vVynyard was unwilling sale unless he was a pcurt owner of 

:> put the law in force asainst a the property. 

lurderer, because the muraer was Alter this, a native, named Teira, 

omnutted in a Maori feud and in rose and oifered to sell some land of 

laori territory, Oolonel Browne could his own. He expressed satisfaction 

lardly hang the man who, according at the Governor's declaration with 

Maori use and the rude justice ca regard to titles and claims and at his 

1 rude race, had punished the mur- assurance of protection. He minutelv 
Lerer. defined the ooundaries of his lana, 

It was evidently high time, however, and declared that he was the true 

:o do something. A fertile country, owner. He then repeatedly asked if 

jnce bright with cultivation, had the Governor would buv. The Oo- 

again become a wilderness. A flour- vemor answered, ** I will buy, if the 

Ishing European town looked over the land is clearly yours.'' Thereupon 

land, and its inhabitants longed for Teira placed a bordered mat at the 

room to spread out and find food for Qovemor's feet, as indicating that he 

their familie& Two million acres, to placed the land at his disposal. It is 

a great extent available for cultiva- said that if any one present had dis- 

tiou, were trodden down by about puted Teira's claim to the land and 

3,000 native inhabitants, much of it his right to sell, he would have risen 

a mere nursery of thistle-down, with and removed the mat No one did 

thistles so thick that a horse could this; but a man named Paora told 

scarcely make his way througL There, the Governor that Teira could not 

were many of these natives willing sell without the consent of himself 

to sell ground, believing that the set- and another man who had an interest 

Uement of the Europeans among them in a portion of it Teira replied to 

would be a boon, and not a bane, to this, and the proceeding seemed at 

them. But the offer of land was an end. 

made at the risk of their lives, for Then a chief, called William King, 

there was always a party ready, by long one of the opponents of the 

f:ur means or foul, to interfere with alienation of land, rose up, and said, 

the nesotiations for sale. " Listen, (Governor, notwithstanding 

In tfaia posture of affairs, the Go- Teira's offer, I will not permit the 

vemor went to Taranaki early in sale of Waitara to the Pakeha. Wai- 

1B59, and called a meeting of the tara is in my hands. I will not give 

natives inhabiting the disturbed dis- it up. Ekore, ekore, ekore (I will 

trict At this meeting, he declared not, I will not, I will not).^ I have 

that had he been in the island when spoken." Then turning to his people, 

the first of the above noted murders he said, " Arise, let us go," where- 

was committed, he should have had upon he and his followers abruptly 

the murderer arrested and tried ; but withdrew. 

that, with regard to the second mur- It was difficult to tell on what 

der, though it was horrible and dis- ground King had forbidden the sale. 

graceful, yet, as it was retributive, he Careful inquiry was instituted by 

had not punished the murderer. He the only person armed with authority 

warned tnem, however, that in future to investigate land claims. The whole 

all Maories living among Pakehas remainder of the year, nearly nine 

(^ugUshmen) shoiQd be subject to the months, was occupied in the investi- 

same laws as the Pakehas, and that sation. Mr. M'Lean, the chief Land 

he would no longer allow the peace Commissioner, was at the head of it 

of the countiy to be distiu'bed by — a man whose knowledge was un- 

evil-doers. He added, that he thought questionable, and whose whole life 

the Maories would oe wise to sell was spent in like occupation. The 

land which they did not use them- Governor was assured that the fullest 

selves, and that the rest would then and clearest title had been established 

ho more valuable. According to the by Teira and those ioined with him 

treaty of Waitangi, the Crown has in the offer of sale, that King had no 

the right of pre-emption in all sales right of any kind to interfere, and 

of native lands; and the Governor that his interference arose from his 

Baid that he would never buv land being a great leader of the Itdid- 

with a doubtful title, but that he league. King himself had in plain 

VOL LVII.— NO. CCCXXXVIII. 12 



17^ The MaoH War. [Feb. 

Jangnage adniitted that the land wai say that the Goyemor has not been 

JDeixa'B, Ij^ut that he, King, would not justified ^ that King's claims were 
et it be sold. The Grovernor was real and substantial ; and that they 
told that the Maories had oome to a have been ne^eoted and overlooked; 
resolution that no land beyond cer- that Teira had but a partial title ; 
tain Umits should be sold to the Euro- and that King, as a superior chief, 
ueaos. On the other hand, Teira and had a right to come in and pat a veto 
ais friends besought the Gk)vemor upon the sale. 
to make good his promise to purchase It seems agreed that native title is 
the land, and to protect the pur- marvellously complex. But one thing 
chasers. strikes us at the outset: if Teira's 
The Gk>vemor did as he was prayed, title was so bad. and long's right to 
fie ordered the ground to be sur- interfere so good, why was it so long 
veyed, its boundaries to be marked before those in authority were a{>- 
out. When the surveyors went to prized of this ? At the meeting in 
their work, King's people came down March, 1859, King merely declared 
in force, and stoppea the survey. The that though Teira wanted to sell his 
Governor went there again, sent a land he would not allow him to sell 
message to King, asking nim to meet iEven in December, 1859, King ad- 
him and discuss the ^oimds of his mitted that the land was Teira's, but 
opposition^ and promismg a safe con- said he would not let him dispc^e of 
duct to him and any number of his it It is really hard to believe that 
unarmed followers. Kins refused, this admission meant only that Teira 
went off into the bu&h, madeprepara- was a part jproprietor, but that Eang 
tion for war, and sent to other tribes, had himself an eaual or much greater 
those most disaffected to the Govern- claim. Great lignt appears to break 
ment, asking for aid. The Governor in upon the native mmd, when their 
then desired the ground to be sur- JDwn meaning iseimlainea to them by 
veyed again, and the military autho- their European advocates. But this 
rities in the neighbourhood to be fact is indubitable, that the Chief Xiand 
rei^y to protect the police. King and Commissioner, who has, in the last 
hiB people erected a war-pa on the dis- twenty years, successfullv investiga- 
puted territory, danced the war-dance, ted the titles of more than twenty 
resisted the commanding officer's sum- millions of acres, investigated this 
mons to evacuate. This was the befi[in- title with singular assiduity, and 
ning of hostilities. Unhappily, fightmff states in evidence, that all was dear, 
in uie bush goes ill witn disciplined that several purchases had been con- 
troopa We well know how unsuc- ducted in the same district on the 
cessful the efforts of the military have same principle, and that the validity 
been to crush the insurrection before of none of them had ever been di^ 
it was full grown. It has grown puted. Theseformer sales took place 
with every fresh failure to stifle it under former QovemorB, Gk)vemor 
The commanding officer was enjoined Fitzroy and Governor Grey : and the 
at first not to attack the enemy, till principle on which one of tnem was 
•the enemy had committed some overt conducted received the public appro- 
act of violence. Since then, the Go- bation of the Bishop of New Zeiuand. 
verament has given carte blanche to Could the present Governor doubt 
the general, and yet the troops have that he was bound to keep his pro- 
been able to do little but stand on mise to Teira, and to protect him 
the defensive. New Plymouth has from the violence of KW and the 
been almost in a state of siege, and a .tyranny of the land-league? 
few half-armed savages have been A variety of arguments has boen 
able to keep at bay 1,500 men of Her used to show that the purchase was 
Majesty's regular troops. not a just one. Those which seem 
And now. what has been the real aloneof any weight concern the quea- 
ground of tne quarrel, and is it a just tion of tribal title and the mode in 
or an ui\just war ? which the investigation was con- 
Some, whose names are weighty ducted. 
in New Zealand, and even weightier To take the last first The Chief 
in England, Bishop Selwyn^ BishoD Luid Commissioner is an officer in- 
^braham. Archdeacon Hadneld, ana vested with special authority for de- 
wen of scarcely less reputation, termining questions of native titleand 



lS6iO The Maori War. 17» 

condactmg sales of land. Owin^ to alone conducted the inquiry, and that 
the gfeat deHoacy of the (^uestionB his principal, Mr. MNLeAn, tntBted 
vMch arise between natives and all to him. But if Mr. McLean's own 
fiettien^ and the difficulty of a^i^di' solemn declarations before the House 
catingon alinatiYeafiairs, the oixlmary of Representatives be not wholly dis- 
eoorts of die colony have no power credited, he himself took the initia- 
here. The Oiaief JusUce stated m the tire in tne business ; he was familiar 
debates in the Legislative Ck)unoil that with the question even before it was 
the Supreme Court, over which he brought nublicly forward ; years 
presides, was altogether forbidden td ago he had had evidence as to Emg^s 
jadge in cases of native title to land; possessions and King's rights ; he 
and so, when tbe Bishops of New had begun the inquiries on the spot : 
Zealand and Wellington complained he had neard the evidence of the lo<»i 
that the case of Teira and Kmg was Commissioners acting under his in- 
not submitted to this Supreme Court structionB; he had himseU* travelled 
or to some regular court of law, and to the principal places where the 
witnesses there examined on oath, it members of the scattered tribe were 
must be replied, that if no court ex- dwelling, and where he expected to 
isted whicn could take cognisance find more dispassionate evidence than 
of sttch a caae, if the Chidf Com- in the immediate scene of contention; 
miasioner has ever been empowered and he had fully satisfied himself that 
to make these inquiries, ana if, for the title of Teira and his companions 
the last twenty years, ever since was such that no valid objection could 
New Zealand was a colony, his has be made against it. 
been the authority always appealed Here was the decision of the only 
to, under which near 25,000,000 of authority empowered to decide. The 
acres have been sold and bought. Governor had promised to buy the 
and that without oomi^aint of injus- land of Teira, if Teira could make his 
tioe or partiality; it was clearly ac- title good. The Commissioner de- 
cording to ancient usi^e, and con- clared that nine months' inquiry had 
Bostent with equity and rigKt, that the jP^ved the title to be unquestionable, 
case should be referred to nim. As to The €k)vemor had said that he would 
his own proceedings in the investigti- not permit a chief, who had himself 
tion, he nas declared in evidence oe- no claim, to interfere with another, 
f)re the House of Representatives and to prohibit his sale of land. It 
that he, first of all, made inquiries was reported to him that King was a 
himself in the ndffhbourhoodof Tara- chief without the shadow of a claim,, 
naki; that he then instructed the interfering with Teira's property on 
depaty Commissioner, Mr. Parris, to no principle but the principle <^ 
continue inquiries there, whilst he might. If the Governor did not 
lunuelf passed over to Queen Char- mean to break his word and to make 
Iptte's Sound, and afterwards to Wei- his power contemptible, he had no 
luu(ton, wh»« members of the tribe alternative but to proceed with his 
haTing daims upon the disputed block purchase. 

had heen long resident ; that he there To turn to the other question. It 
iostitnted fresh investigations, and it true that Teira's land could not be 
found the persons chiefly interested sold but by consent of all the tribe ; 
1^7 to give consent to the sale ; that that consent could be given only 
that, on thewhi^e, nine months were through William King, the acknow- 
(Koipied in the most careful conside- ledged head of the tribs ; and that, as 
ration of the question; and that he was ke refused consent, the title was bad. 
at length most fully satisfied that the This is the view which the mission- 
land undoubtedly belonged to those aries have taken, and which those 
▼ho wete offering it for sale, whilst who follow them now put forward aa 
uw opponent, King, had no title in the true one. But did the natives 
J|iiy way to forbid the sale, and that take this new before the Europeuis 
hu opposition arose only from his at- suggested it ] The Chief Commis- 
taehmeat to the principles of the land- sioner testifies, and his knowledge 
*®pie. * and experience are undoubted, that 
It has been said by Archdeacon the practice is diverse in different 
Hadfidd*— and his words have been tribes, and that in this tribes the Nga- 
^oed fay otheo-^that Mr. Parris tiawa, the custom has been for oertida 

12* 



182 The Maori War, [Feb. 

that they did not expect so formidable imjiedimeiits were really piaeed in the 
a refiistance. A factious chief^ with a way of Colonel Gold or of CTeneral 
frivolous pretext, was hardly likely to Pratt, beyond the humane prohibition 
aet all authority at defiance. And to shed blood, and so to make, ac- 
we think abundant eyidenoe exists to cording to Maori custom, the quarrel 
show that the resistance would not irremediable, until the resistance bad 
have been so protracted but for the been such that it wajs plain the in- 
failure of the first efforts of the mili- surgents were bent on extremities, 
tary to check it, and for the encourage- Colonel Browne is said to be an officer 
ment eiven to it by Europeans. who, when in command of her Ma- 
Ana now, to turn from the causes je8ty'B4l8t Regiment in India, waa 
of the war to the conduct of itthere nighly distinguished for his courage, 
is, indeed, much to deplora Where ability and humanity. We should 
the fault lies, or whether there be any hardly ex^t him, ther^ore^ to be 
fault, or onlv misfortune, it is hard to guilty of timid, thouch we grve him 
say. The disciplined English army mil credit for merciful couBsela. 
has ever been found singularly unfitted But though we eittirely acquit the 
for the bush warfare of Caffirs and New Governor, we are in no haste to con- 
Zealanders. Even the Irish bogs and demn the commanding offioeia. We 
the Welsh mountains have proved wait for fuller infoimatioiL, and are 
more accessible to poHoe than to mili- satisfied of the unusual difficulty of 
tary. In New Zealand, a regiment of their task.* 

disciplined soldiers marched out in Meanwhile, we eanestly hoipe that 

order, is like so many bright-coloured all needful reisfbroements will be sent 

nine-pins, safely and easily bowled out Nothing can make the war ge- 

down from behind bushes and in deep neral, and raise the whole native po- 

rifle-pits. Of oourse a pitched battle pulation against us so certainly as 

in an open country would decide for the haJf measures and insufficient means. 

English discipline against the Maori It is quite hopeless to szpeet the 

disorder. But the double-barrelled settlers to volunteer in numbere suffi- 

Sin in the hand of the half naked cient to hold their own a^^ainst the 

aori, dodging among the bushes. Maories, if the latter are determined 

every inch of which he knows, and to drivq th^n out. Every Maori of 

of which his enemy is utterly ignorant, adult age is a warrior ; every settler 

is worth many rifles in the hands of 1b a farmer or a civilian, lliough the 

the soldiers in scarlet and pipeclay, native population may no longer out- 

Probably, the first reverses of our number the European, it is probable 

troops in all encoimters of this kind that the native adnlts are moiB nu- 

have arisen from contempt of the merous than the European adults, 

enemy. But our officers must have The natives are almost whoUy inha- 

leamed by this time that sueh feel- bitants of the North Islimd ; and we 

ings are misplaced. What is most can hardly ex|)ect the peaceful colo- 

wanted is a body of irregular troops, nists of the Muidle Idand to give up 

Even volunteers may be preferable to th^ cultivations aad turn soldiers to 

regulars; for the very regularity is defend their felbw-coontrymen in the 

rum. North. It is remarkable how, almost 

Some bhime has been thrown on unanimonsly, the inhabitants of the 

Colonel l^wne, for having at first Middle Island, separated by sea from 

hampered the commandisjg officers the scene of stme, sympathise with 

with instructions not to begin the at- their brethren in the North and ap> 

tack on the rebels till the rebds first prove the justice and the policy of the 

made an assault on the troopa But war. But we cannot expect them, 

it appears, from the statements made any more than the people of Australia 

to the Houses of Assembly, that no or Van Dieman's ii^n^ to arm in de> 

* The extraordinary strength of a Maori war-pa, which is, in ftct, a first-rate 

fortification, may he seenhy referring to Thomson'^ '* Story of New Zealand," 

Part II., chapter viii; In 1846 a pa of this kind, defended by 250 men, armed 

with single and double-barrelled guns, utterly baffled the attack of oar troops. 

tnustering 630 men, with six gunn and a 3a-pounder, and aided by SAO native al. 
lies. Our loss in killed and wounded amounted to 100, r'a. , thirty-four kOled, and 
sixty-six wounded. 



1861.] TennyBorCs Philo$ophy.—In Memoriam, 183 

fenoe when they arethemBelveB in no is needful will entail a much larger 
danger of attadc. expenditure, which would otherwise 
Convinced, as we are, of the justice have been needless. The best and 
of the war, and that war sooner or the only hope of peace is to make 
later was inevitable, we trust that no war in earnest, and that without de- 
half ineaeures will protract it, and no lay.* 
OQtcries against an expenditure whidi 



TENNYSON'S PHILOSOPHY.— IN MEMOEIAM. 

In the Song of Moses, the man of or the valley will be our estimate of 

Ood, the eood land is described as the uses of science : — 

ilOTOlg with milk and honey. The «To some she is the goddess weat. 

promise is that Israel shall suck honey To some the milch cow of the field , 

out of the rock and oil out of the Whose hnsiness 'tis to calculate 

flinty rock, as well as the ranker "^^ moToA of butter she can yield.* 
dainties of butter of kine, and milk The feud between speculative and 
of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams practical science is far from settled, 
of the breed of Bashan, with the fat The Highlanders and the Lowlanders 
of kidneysL of wheat, and the pure are still at war : it will be a happy 
Wood of the grape. On the tops of day for both, when, weary of their 
the reeks, from the heights oi the endless maraudings, they shall begin 
rugged rocks, the bee should hive to barter the produce of each — when 
her honey, and the olive ripen its the Highland honey shall be ex- 
heny; the very hill tops of Palestine, changed for the Lowland milk, and 
now 80 barren, should then drop down barrenness and war give place to 
vith honey and oil; a basket full of abundance and peace, 
zed earth shaken between the crevices The use of mountains is to sow the 
of the rocks should suffice for the dust of continents ^et to be, and the 
oliTe to take root in ; there the wild use of speculative science to prepare a 
thyme should blossom, and thus the soil on which the useful arts may 
mountains should flow witii honey as grow. We have so habituated our- 
the Talleys flowed with nulk, maJcing selves to think this, that as He^el re- 
ap that twofold blessing which is the marked, philosophy in England is un- 
^m of all lands. derstooa to mean the construction of 

The world of mind is broken, like pumps and spy-glasses, watches, and 

the world of nature, into mountains diving-bells, whue all beyond this is 

ud valleyB, There are the hill tops, xemanded to the barren region of me- 

▼here the philosopher sets his spy- taphjrsics or mysticism. 

g*s88 and draws his triangles, and to Even Bacon speaks with indigna- 

which the mystic climbs, in nopes of tion of the way m which philosophy 

reaching heaven by rising above earth; had been degraded and perverted by 

uid there are valleys wmch the Utili- being applied as a mere instrument 

'jnan turns to prcmt, drawing out of of utility or of early education : — 

themthefatoftne kidneys, of wheat, "So that the great mc her of the 

ttd the tmre blood of the ^pe. sciences is thrust down with indignity 

•^coording as we love the lull-top to the offices of a handmaid— is made 



Since the preceding pages were written, the news has reached na of GleDeral 
fiatrt Tietory over the Waikatos. Though this is just cause for congratulatiou, 
It by BO iBeam proves tlwt the war ia at an end. The Maoris are a determined 
IJ^^^he defeat of theiv brethren may possibly prevent other tribes fh>m joining 
^ wnrrectioD, hat revenge is not unlikely to make desperate those already en- 
^*v^ ^^ ^ ^^ tmst that both the home and colonial goyemmeats may act on the 
I^naetple ef vigormiBly ehasdaing the rebels, and yet of showing mercy to the 
HtMimdied. The colony will for. some time require strong defencCj but a conci- 
iutory policy ihould accompany a demonstration of pover. 



184 Tenny9(m!s PhUodophy. — In Memariam, [Feb. 

to minister to the labours of medicine found one who has never felt a gap 

or mathematics ; or, again, to give either in his affections or his belief — 

the first preparatory tinge to the im- who has ^own to man's estate with 

mature minds of youth."''^ the same circle of childhood unbroken 

In this state of discord between aroimd him 1 The stars, it has been 
physics and metaphysics, a noble said, are the holes in the drop-scene 
poem has taught the world that all through which, like children at a play, 
IS not barren on the hill-topo of meta- we catch a glimpse of the lights be- 
physics. In the "In Memoriam" song hind, and learn that the curtain soon 
nas sucked sweets out of stones, and will rise. But he is a dull child who 
has tempted the world to climb those mistakes the painted drop-scene for 
hills ana to taste those sweets. Not the play itself, and to whom the 
only has the world put up with the lights flashing behind, and the tun- 
metaphysics for the sake of the poetry ing of the orcnestra do not suggest 
— a dose which, to borrow Tasso's something grand coming. Just such 
well-known metaphor, is like the is the easy dogmatist who has never 
medicine that we ^ve the sick child doubted, or the satisfied worldling 
in a cup tipped with honey; but it who wishes the curtain may never 
has even taught itself to think, in rise to dissipate his illusions. Sorrow 
order to relish the" In Memoriam." As and doubt are the two rifts made in 
the Russian epicure is switched over the curtain of life, and throu^ which 
in his bath with some aromatic broom we see the everlasting lights behind, 
as a preparation for the banquet, so To have never^ sorroweo, or to have 
the laureate has forced his admirers never doubted, is a state of prolonged 
to fortify themselves for eigoyinff his childhood, approaching veiV near to 
lark's and nightingale's tongues Dy a imbecility. TUl we have looked death 
preparatory discipUne of hard think- in the face, we cannot have felt the 
ing. It is impossible to taste one of reality of life ; tiU we have looked 
the hundred and thirty cups of dis- doubt in the face, we cannot be said 
tilled metaphysics which the "In Me- to have faith. In both cases there 
moriam" contains without some pre- must be a transition before the child, 
paration of self-reflection. This is who lives and believes, can be said to 
why the poem is either the most Aaw life and to Aavc faith. "Howbeit 
meaningless or the most suggestive that was not first which was spiritual, 
in the language. Either the reader but that which was natural and after- 
loves those wards that which is spiritual." So it 
"Short swallow flights of song iliAt dip IS with all of US. The child has a 

Their wingi in tears and skim away, * natural or animal Life, but it is in 

with all the intensity of truths often PJ?^"^^ ?f<./^^ *i!J* *iS??h **^ * 

felt, but never bo well expressed be- "P^ir^^l^,. f^,SJ^ ?f^ A^.f^^' 

for^ or else it is flung away as an ?°* ^^ steals upon it So the child 

unnieaning mystical twang/ like a ^" » ^"^TtniTJi^^i *^® "^ ''^^' 

Jew's han. in a schoolboy^ mouth f^^.t ?^M*^ w «?« f!?i^i,°SS^ 

trying to sing one of the songs of ^^ ^* " ^}^' ^'**,*J'® ^'i^ ^^'*=^ 

Zion 6 ° W.O jjo v» overcomes the world and removes 

Or airain if kind TcaAer von ar« mountains is the birth of love brood- 

on?W"diSL^7*sa^^^ hi sZtf 'clf'zelV'^^d^^^ 

common sense, who hate mystery and T f ^X"^ ^^a l^^l^ i?^ Aurora, 

suspect preteAce in whatever ^ not but of Chaos and Psyche. MorsJanucL 

sel/^vident, you had better not at- ,^^,",^/l^^?r^^^^^ 

tempt the *^In Memoriam." ^u^^^'lS"'-'^?*''^®" hatchments; 

^ that doubt is the doorway to faith la 

•• The song was made to be wang in the night, still a matter of dispute, bccause di- 

And he who reads it in broad-dav light, yinea etUl nourfsh the fond desire to 

Will never read its mystery anght, «««— r «»«•. ^^*« 4Vwv«» 4.^.^ ^-;4.i. ^ 

And yet it is childlike easy!" ^t^,."^ o° J^^fl ^^^^ ^'^J? "**^ ^f 

childhood to the faith of manhood 

If thei-e are any who have never sor- without wetting their feet in the cold 

rowed, or have never doubted, they waters of doubt. The amiable wish 

should not read it. But is there to be that the natural may develop of itself 



* Novum Organon. Lib. i. Aph. 60. 



1861.] TennywtCB PhUoiophy, — In Memorianu 185 

into the spiritaal is as vain in the one matic theology, and that so is the 
case as in the other. " Afterward that poet ; that the age is seeking some con- 
which is spiritual'' is the inevitable cordance between reason and faith, and 
law of the growth both of a spiritual that the poet is also seeking the same, 
life aad a spiritual faith. The chann of this poem is that it de- 
There may be cases where the faith scribes the experience of sorrow and 
of childhood seems to have developed doubt which a cultivated mind has 
into the faith of manhood without passed through on his way to a higher 
pasdnff through the** intervital gloom" faith and a contented submission to 
of doubt just as there will be cases of the ills of life. Those who are tread- 
those alive at the last day, when mor- ing the same path look to the "In 
tality shall be swallowed up of life. Memoriam''asap8almoflife,inwhich 
Bat in both cases this mortal must they read their own sorrows and 
pat on immortality as a vesture from doubts reflected in the heart of the 
without) not as a growth from within, poet They prize it, not so much as 
It ma^ be in a moment, in the a work of art^ or as a gem of thought, 
twinkhngof aneye — ^the faith of child- uniq^ue as it is in this respect It is 
hood mav be transfigured into spiri- for its deeper, its spiritual, beauties 
toal fai^ so rapidly that none have that they give it a place on the same 
matked the transition; but a tran- shelf witn Augustine's "Confessions," 
sition has been passed through, silent A Eempis' '^Imitation," and Bun- 
and soft as that by which John yui's "Pilgrim." All that can be 
Boanerges, of Galilee, became John said upon it as a poem has been al- 
the Divine, of Patmos; but a change ready said, and we refer the reader 
thrae has been. Doubt must be to the critics for a catalogue of its 
passed through before the faith of beauties and defects. As a work of 
unreason can oecome the faith of rea- art it has not escaped shipwreck be- 
son, before the leprosy of unbelief tween the Scylla and Charybdis of 
b eared, and the flesh of a man can prolix distinctness and concise obscu- 
beoome as the flesh of a little child. rity : 

The "In Memoriam" of Tennyson is <« Brevis esse kboro 

not a theological poem. It is not Obscnnufio." 

like Dante's attempt to create an jt could not be otherwise. Where 

eoic out of the theology of the md- there are deep thoughts there must 

die Ago, or Milton s out of the the- ^ ^ark sayings ; it is no use complain- 

ology of the Reformation. It is not j^g ^f this ; and till we can turn Job 

vH ?^^*. veraification of Bobng- ^r the Apocalypse into the lucid Eng- 

broke's t)eiam, or like the theology ^^ ^f fiJey or the Ttrnf* newspaper 

of the Evan^hcal Revival of last it ig idle to ask for clearness, 

oentary, done mto blank verse by the „ „ _j vi, ^ ,. ,* , 

g^'fotoey. Rome, the Refonna- ' J^l^^^^'^^.^:^ 

turn, the Rationalist, and the Revival t» , . . , , , x^ i 

movements have thus created four But to those who have thought on 

ereat religious poems, in which the ^h^se things and felt that we now see 

Sttth of the age has been caught in *!^oug^ ? riass darkly, the enigma- 

the flux, and oystallissed into certain ^"5 style is itself a charm. It is felt 

fixed shapes. Religious poems like t^a* you are with a true man who is 

these are as light, but as hard, as trymgtoteUyou his thoughts, and who 

cryBtalsL Dogmas done into verse stutters and repeats himself, it may 

may leflect the faith of an age, but H, ^ chUdren do when thev reaUy 

the light that is from them is not in *alk and not chatter. The professional 

them. The poet is the ambassador in seer knows ^1 about the next world, 

bondi of a higher teacher than him- Mahomet and Swedenborgboth could 

•elf; and, inflie fetters of verse, he I»i»* a vision of heaven and heU so 

preadies the faith of the age of wiich ^^ earth that the suspicion is forced 

ne is the poet Tennyson Ib not a re- <>? ^ *^** ^^J ^ere nothmg more 

Scions poet in the sense that Dante, *"»» ^^?*^ dreamers and ecstatics. 

ilton, Pope, and Oowper are. The ^ « «> ^^^ ^^ human descnptions 

•* In Memoriam" reflects the theology ©f the unseen— 

of its author only. It has nothing "Jupiter est qaodeonque Tidei quocunqne 

more in common with the age than movem." 

this, that the age is averse to dog- One person only in the Bible is said 



186 



Tennyton'i PkUosaphy.^In Menamam. 



[Feb. 



to have been cangfat op to the Third 
Heaven, but what he saw he thonght 
it was not lawful to utter. Ezqui- 
aitely has Tennyson alluded to this 
same thought : — 

** When Lazuns left his charnel cave, 
And heme to Mnry's hooee retaned, 
Wm tfaie denunded^ if he yeuaed 
To hear her weeping hy hi» grave ? 

** ' Where wert then, brother, these fonr da^rv T 
There live* no record of reply, 
Whieh, teeing what it is to die, 
Had Buely added pnuae to praise. 

** From every bouse the neigfabooiB met. 
The streets were filled with joyful sound, 
A solemn gladness even crowned 
The poxple Imyws of Olivet. 



M 



^ Behold a man nised iq> by Christ; 
The rest remainetb nnrevealed ; 
He told it not, or aomething sealed 
The lips of Oiat Evangelist.'' 

MTsticism is the vain attempt of the 
minatoeai)lainamyBtery,.a8lutional- 
ism is theattempt to explain a miracle. 
Mysteries and miracles lie, the one 
in the future, the other in the past; 
and we cannot drag them into day- 
light and think that by looking long 
at them we shall see fEui;her into 
theuL If we bend down all our lives 
over the mystery we only see our- 
selves in it ; till at last we take our 
own shadow for something new, and 
start back as if we had seen a ghost. 
It is hard to hold communion with 
the dead and not to. think we see 
them. Hamlet must have his ghost. 
"Let me not think on it,'' he says; 
" this way madness lies f but he does 
think on it, and so the thought be- 
comes a possession which ends in 
madness. The" In Memoriam" bests 
temperate music throughout ; not 
once does the jEancy bre& out into 
open vision. On the contrary, the 
poet reasons with himself that if he 
saw his friend he should not believe 
the vision, but dismiss it as some can- 
ker of the brain — 

'* If any vision shoold reveal 

Thy likeness, I might count it vain, 
Ot ont the oanker of the brain, 
Yea, thoogfa it spake and made appeal 

** To chances where onr lots were cast 
Together in the days behind, 
I might bat say, I hear a wind 
Of memoxy manniirxBg die past. 

'* Yea, though itspi^e and bared to view 
A fact within the coming year, 
And, Uiough the months revolving near 
Should prove the phantom warning tme^ 



Tb^ might Boi eeem tfa^ ^ 
Jmit spiritoal preaentimentSy 
And such refraction of events 

As often rises en they rise.** 

There is nothing of the mystic m this. 
Sorrow for the departed has not 
wrought a canker in the brain, as in 
the mystic, who sees by the law of in- 
verted peroeDtions, not from without 
but from within. Ghosts, like ruins, 
are seen best by moonlight With 
true disceniment of this, TeiuiyBon 
invokes the spirit of his lost friend — 

'* Come not in watches of the nisht. 

But where the sunbeam broodeth warm. 
Come beauteous in thine after fjorira, 
And like a finer light in li^t'* 

There is nothing diseased, nothing 
selfish in sorrow hke this. The poet 
neither shuts himself in with his lost 
friend nor shuts out new friends : — 

" My pulses, therefirae, beat again 

For other friends, that once I met ; 
Nor can it suit me to forget. 
The mighty hopm that make us men. 

" X woo your love : I eount it crime 
To mourn for any over much, 
I the divided half of such 
A friendship as had mastered time.^* 

Sorrow without hope stupefies the 
mind ; sorrow with hope refines and 
exalts it In this state of feeling the 
mind rises to look at things as they 
really are. A sorrow like this, which 
does not disgust us with life, but only 
weans us from worldly-mindedneas, 
is a sacred sorrow, a sorrow sent by 
God ; and the man touched by it, and 
who can teach us the lesson it has 
taught him, should be fistened to as 
one who has stood on the borders of 
the spirit world, who has looked down 
the deep abvss of death, and returned 
to tell us of the shapes that people 
k and of the master race that inhaoit 
""the land that is very far oflT, and see 
the King in his beaufy." 

Life out of deathjfaith out of doubt : 
these are the two truths which the 
poet has spelled out for himself over 
the grave or his friend Arthur HaUam. 
How far his philosophy is sound and 
Christian at the core, and how far 
it is touched with a taint of mysticism, 
it is our purpose now to inquire. We 
will begm with the first article of the 
Tennysonian philosophy— JIfor* ja- 
Tmavitce, 

The argument for existence after 
death from the ad desperandum con- 
clusion we are driven to when we 



1861.] The Maori War. 179 

conducting sales of land. Owin^ to alone conducted the inquiry, and that 

he great delioacj of the (^uestiona his principal Mr. M'JLeiuif trusted 

Mrhich arise between natives and all to him. But if Mr. McLean's own 

(cttlersy and the difficulty of a^judi- solemn declan^cos before the House 

'Atingon all nattTeafiairSy the ordinary of Representatives be not wholly dis- 

^ourts of the colony have no power credited, he himself took the initia- 

tore. The C^ief Justice stated m the tive in tne business; he was familiar 

ilebates in the Legislative Oouncil that with the question even before it was 

the Supreme Court, over which he brought publicly forward ; years 

presides, "was altogether forbidden to ago he haa had evidence as to ]^g^s 

judge in csasea of native title to land; possessions and King's rights ; he 

and so. when tbe Bishope of New nad begun the inquiries on the spot : 

Zealand and Wellington complained he had neard the evidence of the loou 

that the case of Teira and King was Commissioners acting under his in- 

not submitted to this Supreme Court structions; he had hunself travelled 

or to some regular court of law, and to the principal places where the 

witnesses there examined on oath, it members of the scattered tribe were 

must be replied, that if no court ez- dwelling, and where he expected to 

isted whicn could take cognisance find more dispassionate evidence than 

of such a case, if the Chief Com^ in the immediate scene of contention; 

missioner has ever been empowered and he had fully satisfied himself that 

to make these inquiries, ana if, for the title of Teira and his companions 

the last twenty years, ever since was such that no valid objection could 

^ew Zealand was a colony, his has be made against it 

been the authority always appealed Here was the decision of the only 

to, under which near 25,000,000 of authority empowered to decide. The 

acres have been sold and bought, Governor had promised to buy the 

and that without complaint of injus- land of Teira, iiTeira could make his 

tice or partiality; it was clearly ac- title good. The Commissioner de- 

conling to ancient usage, and con- clared that nine months' inquiry had 

sistent with equity and rigKt, that the pro^ed the title to be unquestionable. 

case should be referred to nim. As to The Governor had said that he would 

his own proceedings in the investiea- not permit a chief, who had himself 

tion, he has declared in evidence be- no claim, to interfere with another, 

fore the House of Representatives and to prohibit his sale of land. It 

that hSy first of all, made inquiries was reported to him that King was a 

himself in the neighbourhood of Tara^ chief without the shadow of a claim,. 

i\&ki; that he then instructed the interfering with Teira's property on 

deputy Commissioner, Mr. Parris, to no principle but the principle of 

continue inquiries there, whilst he might If the Qovemor did not 

himself passed over to Queen Char- mean to break his word and to make 

lotte's Sound, and afterwards to Wei- his power contemptible, he had no 

lington, where members of the tribe alternative but to proceed with his 

having claims upon the disputed block purchase. 

had been long resident ; that he there To turn to the other question. Is 
instituted fresh investigations, and it true that Teira's land could not be 
found the persons chiefly interested sold but by consent of all the tribe ; 
Tcady to give consent to the sale ; that that consent could be given only 
that, on thewh(^e, nine months were throu&h William King, the acknow- 
occnpied in the most careful conside- ledged head of the tribe \ and that, as 
mtion of the question ; and that he was he refused consent, the title was bad. 
^ length most fully satisfied that the This is the view which the mission- 
land undoubtedly belonged to those aries have taken, and which those 
who were ofiering it for sale, whilst who follow them now put forward as 
the opponent, King, had no title in the true one. But did the natives 
v^y way to forbid the sale, and that take this view before the Europeans 
his opposition arose only from his at- suggested it? The Chief Commis- 
tschment to the principles of the land- sioner testifies, and his knowledge 
le^e. * and experience are undoubted, that 
It has been said by Archdeacon the practice is diverse in different 
Hsdfield-~and bis words have been tribes, and that in this tribe^ the Nga- 
ecfaoed by othen-^that Mr. Parris tiawa, the custom has been tor oertaia 

12* 



180 The Maori War. (FeK 



hapus^ or mibdivimons of the tribe, to no sort of claim. HU claim mm an 

sell their property without asking the afterthought. He began, not with 

consent of tne tribe at large.* He claim, but with defiance. When finit 

stat€« that he has himself conducted Teira offered the land, and the Oorer- 

several purchases of land from mem- nor conditionally accepted the oOV r, 

bers of the Ngatiawa on the principle some of the natives who were pieartit 

of consulting onlv the hapu$ and said, ''Then Waitara is gone:** No 

their chiefs, and that that principle one denied the right Ko one U»*k 

has always heretofore been admitted up the symbolical mat which Teirm 

as just. He adds, that in former had hud down; but King rose op in 

sales William King had often made a anser and said the land should not lie 

claim: but that his claim had been sola He admitted to Mr. Parrisaft<T- 

proved to be worthless, and so had wards (and others were presen|L who 

been refused. Never before does he testified to the admission, BIr. White* 

seem to have put in a claim to veto ly, a Wesleyan minister, among the 

the sale as head or chief of the tribe, rest) that the land was Teira*s. lie 

The defenders of King's conduct refused to meet the Governor and dis- 
say again, that though the tribe of cuss with him the question of right 
Ngatiawa had once left their settle- His friends have indeed said that it is 
ment, yet they returned as a tribe, mere iKnorance of native usage and 
that, therefore, all their tribal rights Maori language which made the G«>- 
remained; and that one of those vemor, and the ministers, and tie 
tribal rights was, that no land should Chief Commissioner interpret all this 
be sold out by the general consent as it would naturally be mterpret^L 
Yet, besides what has just been said But King is not a simple sava^^ He 
of the Commissioner's testimony, it has been taught by missionanes ; he 
is not true that the Ngatiawa ever has lived much with Europeans ; he 
returned to their old residence as a has had experience of our customs, 
tribe. They had been wasted scat- ourways, our transactions of all kindji* 
tered, enslaved, by a superior hostile not least of our modes of bargain mn\ 
tribe. A few stragglers returned and sale. His very appeal to arms shows 
■old some of their land, including the that his cause was a bad one. Every 
spot in dispute, to the Europeans, effort was made to bring him to fair 
Their conquerors, too, the Waikato, discussion of claims and titles ; but it 
sold their rights over the same pro- was plain that he had long been pro- 
perty to the British crown. William paring for a struggle. He and hi* 
King himself had been a consenting followers were well provided with 
party to the sale by the Ngatiawa. arms and ammunition ; and from the* 
Thev never returned as a whole tribe very first he sent letters to the nei^h- 
tolaranakl Many of them still live bouring tribe for aid~-a tribe with 
in the neighbourhood of Wellington which nis own tribe had been at feud, 
and of Queen Charlotte Sound. The but which, having taken a line opposed 
British Government never acknowl- to EngliHh rule, and having set up a 
edged their tribal authority over native king, was likely to embrace nis 
those lands which had once been qtuirrel witn Government, whether it 
alienated to the English ; nay, Sir were right or wrong. 
George Grey gave strict injunctions It would be the purest mockery of 
to Commissioner McLean not to ac- justice, a mere psiody on true hu- 
knowledge their right to those lands, manity, to vield to every such asM r- 
though he was willing to re-purchase tion of right, as was made by this 
from them, as they had for some time arch-sgitator. If he were head of 
been allowed to occupy them and to the triue, and no land could be soUi 
drive out the settlers. without his leave, why did he not 

But it must appear to every un- veto the former sales to which he was 

pr^udiced eye that King at first made opposed, and in which his own claims 



* Some writers translate kapm by trihe, and the larger divisioos which we have 
called tribes, soch as the Waiksto or the Ngatiawa, th^ call Datkms. tliis it tbs 
wording of Dr. Thomson. He speaks of eighteen nations as inhahitin* New 
Zealand, each dirided Into several tribes or Aapaa, sod each hapn with a^ief at 
Us head. (*'8toryofNewZealand.'*I^art I.,chap. a.) Acoordinff to this aomcnda- 
tue the questkw would be, whether p r o per ty bdooged to a nanoo or to a tiibe. 



1861.] The Maori War, 181 

for compensation were equally repu- by skilL If King had had more solid 
diated ? The reason is plain. In the ground to stand upon, we may reason- 
former case he was not ready, but ably belieye that so flimsy a pretext 
now he was prepared for war. In as that of mana could never have 
Maori phraseolog^, the pafb had not been spoken of. 
been built before. If the claim of Suppose, however, the Qovemor 
the tribe, and of himself as head of did not commit iiyustice, still was he 
the tribe, were so plain and patent, as not "imprudent in the last degree?" 
his defenders tell us, whv had the If so, such a Governor would, indeed, 
whole tribe been convulsed for years be an " expensive luxury.** Impru- 
by factions and feuds about the sale dent he has been, we beheve. in the 
of land ? Why was one portion of last degree — if disregard of his own 
the tribe resolved to sell, and another personal interest be synonymous with 
portion ever opposing the sale ? If imprudence. It would have been 
the right of the tribe were undoubted, easy for him to patch up a peace, to 
or King's headship and authority over eat his own words, to repuaiate his 
it undoubted, why did not the selling promise, to ouit the colony, with the 
party yield, as governed by the ac- reputation ot having kept all quieL 
knowledged laws of the Maori race % and with no draw^k but that of 
But feuds had existed — ^not of a few leaving his successor with all the dif- 
individuals against the general will ficulties which he had himself in- 
of the tribe, out among rival claim- herited, aggravated tenfold by the 
ants—some proposing to sell their courage am confidence inspired in 
own inheritance, and others claim- the minds of the disaffected natives 
ing a share and portion of that in- by the evident pusillanimity of the 
heritance ; and so murders were British authorities, 
committed, as they have been in like When in one part of the island a 
quarrels in more Christian lands, movement for setting up a native 
Tet, when titles were made clear, king had been gaining head for yeareL 
when the different proprietary claims and a kins was actually enthronea 
could be arranged, there never arose and obeyed— when a still wider or- 
insuperable dimculties to the sale of ganization existed in support of the 
lands on the ground that they were mnd-league— when the Maories (as is 
lands held by members of a tnbe and proved by this very instance) had 
therefore inalienable. On the con- armed themselves to the teeth and 
trary, at least five separate blocks had made everv preparation for re- 
have so been sold in this very redon, sistance ; would the exhibition of 
and that without leave or license from weakness have been an indication of 
the tribe or the pretended head of wisdom) When the Taranaki dis- 
the tribe. trict, close abutting on the colony of 
Then comes the still vaguer asser- New Plymouth, was in a condition of 
tion of Tnana, Mana is a mysterious constant turmoiL owing to the dis- 
vord, and some of our home con- putes between tne land sellers and 
temporaries have used it mysteriously, the anti-land sellers ; when murders 
It was a wicked thing in the British had been perpetrated, and more 
Government to neglect this mana of murders were to be feared, not in the 
King's ; and yet, when its value is deep bush, but in the very contact- 
translated into our own current coin, points of tne Europeans and Maories; 
we are told on all sides in New Zea- when, according to all testimonv, not 
land that it means nothing else but only was the native district tnus a 
usurped authority. The mana is that scene of outrage, but the safety of 
right— for which^ indeed, prescription New Plymouth itself was threatened ; 
may be pleaded in most countries — a would Uie (Governor have been justi- 
law, which once prevailed in Europe fied, before any tribunal, in leavini^ 
as well as Australasia — thin^ to take their counS^ and ^. 
"Hm aadent ml*, the golden plan, trusting to his own good fortune that x^ 
That he ihoaid tske who hu the power, he should be removed from his go- 
And he shoaid keep who can." vemment before the mischief reached 
Mana is, in fact, nothing else but that its head % 

grasp over other people's privileges One thin^, most probably, neither 

and properties which a warlUre and he nor his nunisters foresaw. Indeed, 

powerful native acquired by force or it appears from their own testimony 



Ift2 77ie Maori War. [fth 

that they did not expect so formidable impediments were really piaeed in tfe 
a ref istance. A factiouBchief^ with a way of Colonel Gold or of 0«DCfmi 
frivolous pretext, was hardly hkelv to Pratt, beyond the hnmaae probibtti« 'Q 
set all authority at d^ance. And to shed blood, and so to make, sr 
we think abundant evidence exists to cording to Maori custom, the qoanr! 
show that the resistance would not irremediable, until the resistaiin* kvi 
have been so protracted but for the been such that it was pfana the ia- 
failure of the nrst efforts of the mill- surgents were bent on extremitirvk 
tary to check it, and for the encourage- Colonel Browne is said to be an ofii^r 
ment siven to it by Europeans. who, when in command of her Ma- 
Ana now, to turn from the causes jeslr's 41st Re^^ment in India, «m 
of the war to the conduct of it. there ni^nly distingmshed for his ooorairr, 
is, indeed, much to deplore. Where ability and humanity. We ahouM 
the fault Ues, or whether there be any hardly expect him, therefore^ to 1« 
fault, or only misfortune, it is hard to guilty of timid, thonch va give him 
say. The aisciplmed English army mil credit for merciful cownaehi 
has everbeenfoundsingularly unfitted But though we entirely acquit th^ 
forthebushwarfare ofCaffirssndNew Governor, we are in no haate lo coa- 
Zealaadera Even the Irish bogs and demn the commanding offioen. We 
the W^h mountains have proved wait for fuller informatkm, and arp 
more acoeesible to police than to mill- satisfied of the unnanal difienlly of 
tary. In New Zealand, a regiment of their task* 

disciplined soldiers marched out in Meanwhile, we eameetly hope that 

ordo*, is like so many bright-coloured all needful reinforaements will be seat 

nine-pins, safely and easily bowled out Nothing can make the war ge- 

down from behind bushes and in deep neral, and raise the whole nathre po- 

rifle-pits. Of oourse a pitched battle pulation against us so oertainly a* 

in an open country would decide for the naif measures and insnfficient meatw 

I^lisn discipline against the Maori It is quite hopeleas to expect the 

disorder. But the double-barrelled settlers to volunteer in nambmsolfi- 

Sin in the hand of the half naked cient to hold their own agaansl fth«> 

aori, dodging among the bushes. Maories, if the latter ara delcnnincd 

eveiT inch of which be knows, and to drivQ them out Every Mkni cif 

of which his enemy is utterly isnorant, adult age is a warrior ; every eettl* ■* 

is worth many rifles in the hands of is a farmer or a civilian. Thoogh thr 

the soldiers in scarlet and pipeclay, native population may no longer imc- 

Probably, the first reverses of onr number tne European, it is probahli* 

troops in all encounters of this kind that the native adnlts are more nu- 

have arisen from contempt of the merous than the European adultn. 

enemy. But our officers must have The natives are almost wholly inha- 

learned by this time that sueh feel- bitants of the North Island ; and we 

ings are misplaced. What is most can hardlv expect the peaoml ookw 

wanted is a body of irregular troops, niste of tne Middle Island to mve of> 

Even volunteers may be preferable to their cultivations and torn eoAmers to 

regulars; for the very regularity ia defend their feilow-conntranen in th«* 

rum. North. It is remarkable how, almoet 

Some blame has been thrown on unanimously, the inhabilanta of the 

Colonel Browne, for having at first Middle Island, separated by eea Iran 

hampered the commanding officers the scene of striie, qmpaihiae witn 

with instructions not to begin the at- their brethren in the North and ai^- 

tack cm the rebek till the rebels first prove the josticeand the policy of the 

made an assault on the troopa But war. But we oannot exped them, 

it appears, fix)m the statements made any more than the people of Anetrmiia 

to the Houses of Assembly^ that no or Van Dieman*s Land, to arm in de. 



* The extrsordinsiy strength of a ICsosi w-^, which Is, la ftci, a ftrsi*r«tc 
fbrtiflcstioii. may be seen by lefefriog to Thomsoot •* 81017 ef Nev Zealsad," 
PSrt n., coapter viii la 1M6 a pa of this kind, deteded by tao mea, a^lle^i 
with iiogle and doable>harrened gnas, utterly baflcd the attack of oar tfoopa^ 
mustering eso men, with six gnns and a SS-poander, and aided hy tso aatl^ al- 
lies. Our kMBin kUlsd and wounded amounted lo 100, vis., thir^*fcar killed, aad 
Bixt>'fix vonndetl. 



1861.] Tennpion's PMo9ophy,—In Memorianu 183 

fonee when they are themselves in no is needfU will entail a much larger 
danger of attack. expenditure, which would otherwise 
Convinced, as we are, of the justice have been needless. The best and 
of the war, and that war sooner or the only hope of peace is to make 
later was inevitable, we trust that no war in earnest, and that without de- 
half measures will protract it, and no lay.* 
ontcriea against an expenditure which 



Tennyson's philosophy.— in BCBMoniAM. 

In the Song of Moses, the man of or the valley will be our estimate of 

God, the good land is described as the uses of science : — 

flowing with milk and honey. The "To some she u the godden ewat, 

promise is that Israel shall suck honey To some the miicU cow of the field, 

oat of the rock and oil out of the Whose business *ti8 to ealcuUte 

flinty rock, as well as the ranker ""*• '^®^'** <»' ^"**« ■^'^ «» y»«M.- 
dainties of butter of kine, and milk The feud between speculative and 
of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams practical science is far from settled, 
of the breed of Bashan, with the fat The Highlanders and the Lowlanders 
of kidneys^ of wheat, and the pure are still at war : it will be a happy 
blood of the grape. On the tops of day for both, when, weary of then: 
the rocks, from the heights of the endless maraudings, they shall begin 
ragged rocks, the bee snould hive to barter the produce of each — when 
her honey, and the olive ripen its the Highland honey shall be ez- 
berry; the veiy hill tops of Palestine, changed for the Lowland milk, and 
now so barren, should then drop down barrenness and war give place to 
with honey and oil ; a basket full of abundance and peace. 
red earth shaken between the crevices The use of mountains is to sow the 
of the rocks should suffice for the dust of continents jet to be, and the 
olive to take root in ; there the wild use of speculative science to prepare a 
thyme should blossom, and thus the soil on which the useful arts may 
mountains should flow with honey as grow. We have so habituated our- 
the valleys flowed with milk, making selves to think this, that as He^el ro- 
up that twofold blessing which is the marked, philosophy in England is nn- 
fi^orv of all lands. derstood to mean the construction of 

The world of mind is broken, like pumps and spy-glasses, watches, and 

the world of nature, into mountains diving-bells, whue all beyond this is 

and valleys. There are the hill tops, lemanded to the barren region of me- 

vhere the philosopher sets his spy- taphysics or mysticism, 
glass and draws his trian^lef^ and to jSven Bacon speaks with indigna- 

wbich the mystic climbs, in hopes of tion of the way m which philosophy 

reaching heaven by rising above earth; had been degraded and pervertea by 

uid thore are valle3n8 wmch the Utili- being applied as a mere instrument 

tarian turns to profit, drawing out of of utility or of early education : — 

them the fat of the kidneys, or wheat, "So that the great mc her of the 

Ukd the pure blood of the grape. sciences is thrust down with indignity 

Acooraing as we love tne hill-top to the offices of a handmaid—is made 



* Since the preceding pages were written, the news has reached ni of General 
^tt't victory over the Waikatos. Though this is just cause for congratulatiou, 
it by no means prorea that the war ia at an end. The Maoria are a determined 
^^ The defeat of th^ brethren may poaaibly prevent other tribes from joining 
^ ininrrectlon, bat revenge is not unlikely to make desperate those already en- 
R^ed in it. We trust that both the home and colonial goTemments may act on the 
priod^ of TigoitHisIy chastising the rebels, and yet of showing mercy to the 
7>aquuhad. The colony will for. some time require strong defence, bat a conci- 
listcvy policy should accompany a demonstration of power. 



184 Tennyion*i PhiU>9ophy,^In Memmam, [F«b 

to miniBter to the labouisof medicine found one who has never felt a f»p 

or mathematics; or, again, to f^vQ either in his affectionfl or hit beli^-- 

the first preparatory tinge to the im- who has ^own to man*s estaie with 

mature minas of youth.'^ the same circle of childhood uabrokt :. 

In this state of discord between around himi The stars, it has be«n 

physics and metaphysical, a noble said, are the holes in the drop-soi't#^ 

poem has taught tne world that all through which^ like cliildren at a pky, 

18 not barren on the hill-tope of meta* we catch a glimpse of the liirbts U • 

Ehysics. In the ^*In Mcmoriam" sons hind, and learn that the ciutata aoon 
as sucked sweets out of stones, ana will rise. But he is a doll child wb«> 
has tempted the world to climb those mistakes the painted drop-scene fur 
hills ana to taste those sweets. Not the play itself, and to whom the 
only has the world put up with the lights flashing behind, and tbe tun- 
metaphysics for the sake of the poetry ing of the orchestra do not 90gtft9* 
— a dose which, to borrow Tasso s something gmad oominff. Just sorn 
well-known metaphor, is like the is the easy doffmatist who has nrrrr 
medicine that we ^ve the sick child doubted, or the satisfied worldling 
in a cup tipped with honey; but it who wishes the curtain may nnrr 
has even taught itself to thinly in rise to dissipate his iUusiona Sorrow 
order to relish the *'InMemoriam. As and doubt are the two rijfts made in 
the Russian epicure is switched over the curtain of life, and throng whirh 
in his bath with some aromatic broom we see the everlasting lights bebio*! 
as a preparation for the banquet, so To have never sorroweo, or to harr 
the Laureate has forced his admirers never doubted, is a state of prolonged 
to fortify themselves for e^joyine his childhood, approaching veir near u> 
lark's and nightinfipale's tongues by a imbecility. Tul we have looxed death 
preparatory aiscipfine of hard think- in the face, we cannot have felt the 
ing. It is impossible to taste one of reality of life ; till we have lookn! 
the hundred and thirty cups of dis- doubt in the face, we cannot be sai^l 
tilled metaphysics which the "In Me- to have faith. In both esses thnt 
moriam'* contains without some pre- must be a transition before the child, 
paration of self-reflection. This is who lives and believes, can be said ti 
why the poem is either the most Aatv? life and to Aatv faith. ^'Howbeit 
meaningless or the most suggestive that was not fiirst which was sptritosl, 
in the umguage. Either the reader but that which was natural and after- 
loves those wards that which is spiritual** So it 
** Short fwallow flights of song Uut dip » with ail of US. The child bss s 
Their wingi in t«an and skim aw»jr/* natural or animal life, but it is in 

with all the intensity of truth, often E"2 uJti^J^i^ 1.' 

Jew'8 han> in* 8choolboy% mouth ^^"'^ .f, ^i p'w tkL ^VS!tJ 

trying to sing one of the songs of **'* " " ^}^' o"* «>e futh which 

Zion overcomes the world and remorm 

selfevident, you had better not at- f*'*' »*wn^«^ •?«>»»<» ^^«^ 

ti^mnt thA "In MmmAriimi " IS pamted on Undertakers' hatchmcnU; 

tempt the In Memonam. ^,^ ^ ^ ^^ y^ ^ doorway to faith is 



•• The Mog wae mede to he rang in the aighi, atill a matter of dispute, because di. 

>«rd»T light, vines stiU nourish the fo 



Aad he who f«id« it i«hrD«rd«r light, ^Ines stiU nourish the fond dMtre to 

ILd ^TirAUdii"e^7-*^^ f«ny »*n o^w fh«i the iaith of 

childhood to the faith of nMabood 
If there are any who have never sor- without wetting their feet in the eold 
rowed, or have never doubted, they waters of douU. The amiable wish 
should not read it But is there to be that the natural may develop of it^lf 



Novum Orgaaoo. Ub, L Aph. SO. 



1861.] Tennyton^s PkUaophy, — In Memoriam. 186 

into the spiiitiial is as vain in the one matic theology, and that bo is the 
case as in the other. " Afterward that poet ; that the age is seeking some con- 
which is spirituar' is the inevitable cordance between reason and faith, and 
law of the ^wth both of a spiritual that the poet is also seeking the same, 
life and a spiritual faith. The chann of this poem is that it de- 
There maT be cases where the faith scribes the experience of sorrow and 
of childhood seems to have developed doubt which a cultivated mind has 
into the faith of manhood without passed through on his way to ahigher 
passinffthroughthe^'intervitalgloom" faith and a contented submission to 
of dooDt just as there will be cases of the ills of life. Those who are tread- 
those alive at the last day, when mor- ing the same path look to the "In 
tality shall be swallowed up of life. Memoriam" as a psalm of life, in which 
Bat in both cases this mortal must they read their own sorrows and 
put on immortality as a vesture from douhts reflected in the heart of the 
without) not as a growth from within, poet They prize it, not so much as 
It maj be in a moment, in the a workof art,orasagemof thought^ 
twinklmgofaneye — ^the faith of child- imic^ue as it is in this respect ft is 
hood mav be transfigured into spiri- for its deei)er, its spiritual, beauties 
tnal faith so rapidly that none have that they give it a place on the same 
marked the transition; but a tran- shelf with Augustine's "Confessions," 
sition has been passed through, silent A Kempis' '^Imitation," and Bun- 
and toft as that by which John yan's "Pilgrim." All that can be 
Boanerg^ of Gkdilee, became John said upon it as a poem has been al- 
tbe Divine, of Patmos ; but a chan|;e ready said, and we refer the reader 
there has been. Doubt must be to the critics for a catalogue of its 
passed through before the faith of beauties and defects. As a work of 
unreason can oeoome the faith of rea- art it has not escaped shipwreck bo- 
son, before the leprosy of unbelief tween the Scylla and Charybdis of 
is cured, and the flesh of a man can prolix distinctness and concise obscu- 
beoome as the flesh of a little child. rity : 

The " In Memoriam" of Tenn^n is » BreviB esM laboro 

not a theological poem. It is not Obfleanufio." 

hke Dante's attempt to create an jt eould not be otherwise. Where 

cmcoutof the theology of the md- there are deep thoughts there must 

die Agw, or Milton s out of the the- y^ ^j^rk sayings ; it is no use complain- 

ology of the Reformation. It is not ^^^ ^f this ; hik till we can tuii Job 

w^l ?''^*. v«™fic^J«>^, of Bohng- or the Apocalypse into the lucid Eng- 

broke s l)eism. or like the theology y^^ ^^ j^ '^^ the Times newspaper 

of the Evangpehcal Revival of last it ig idle to ask for clearness, 
century, done mto blank verse by the „ „ _j ,.u ^ ». ,* , 
poet^Otoey. Rome, the Refonna- * SSllSf!:;:^;^'^;:;^'^'^!^ 

tion, the Rationalist, and the Revival T>ij.xi. i-i. x* i^ 

movements have thus created four ^^^ *?, P^se who have thought on 

great religious poems, in which the ^^^^ thmg^ and felt that we now see 

faith of the age hasbeen caught in through a dass darkly, the enigma- 

the flux, and crystallised into certain tic style is itself a charm. It is felt 

fixed shapes. Religious poems Uke ^^a* ^^^ "? with a teue man who is 

these are as light but as hard, as trymg to tellyou his thoughts, and who 

ciystala Dogmas done into verse stutters and repeats himself, it may 

may reflect the faith of an age, but H, m children do when they reaUy 

the hght that is from them is not in ^^ ?nd not chatter. The professional 

them. The poet is the ambassador in eeer knows all about the next world, 

bonds of a higher teacher than him- Mahomet and Swedenborg both oould 

self, and, inthe fetters of verse, he 1^^ a vision of heaven and hell so 

preaches the faith of the age of ^ch ^^ earth that the suspicicm is forced 

le is the poet Tennyson is not a re- ^^ ^ ^t tney were nothmg more 

igious poet in the sense that Dante, *"¥* ^^^"??^ dreamers and ecstatics. 

Milton, Pope, and Oowper are. The ^ » «> "^^^ ^ human descnptions 

" In Memoriam" reflects the theology o' ^^ unseen— 

of its author only. It has nothing *' Jvpitwr wk jtinodeimqiie Tidei ^oennqne 

more in common with the age than morerii." 

this, that the age is averse to dog- One person only in the Bible is said 



184 Tenny8on*8 Philosophy, — In Memoriam, [Feb. 

to miniBter totlio labours of medicine found one who has never felt a gap 

or mathematics ; or, again, to give either in his affections or his belief — 

the first preparatory tinge to the im- who has ^own to man's estate with 

mature minus of youth.'^ the same circle of childhood unbroken 

In this state of discord between around him 1 The stars, it has been 

physics and metaphysics, a noble said, are the holes in the drop-soene 

poem has taught the world that all through which, like children at a play, 

is not barren on the hill-tope of meta- we catch a glimpse of the lights bie- 

Ehysics. In the "In Memoriam" sonff hind, and learn that the curtain soon 
as sucked sweets out of stones, and will rise. But he is a dull child who 
has tempted the world to climb those nustakes the painted drop-scene for 
hills ana to taste those sweets. Not the play itself, and to whom the 
only has the world put up with the lights flashing behind, and the tun- 
metaphysics for the sake of the poetry ing of the orcnestra do not suggest 
— a dose which, to borrow Tasso's something grand coming. Just such 
well-known metaphor, is like the is the easy dogmatist who has never 
medicine that we ^ve the sick child doubted, or the satisfied worldling 
in a cup tipped with honey; but it who wishes the curtain may never 
has even taught itself to think, in rise to dissipate his illusions. Sorrow 
order to relish the "In Memoriam." As and doubt are the two rifts made in 
the Russian epicure is switched over the curtain of life, and through which 
in his bath with some aromatic broom we see the everlasting lights behind. 
as a preparation for the banquet, so To have never sorrowed, or to have 
the laureate has forced his admirers never doubted, is a state of prolonged 
to fortify themselves for ei^oying his childhood, approaching verv near to 
lark's and nightingale's tongues by a imbecility. Till we have looked death 
preparatory discipune of hard think- in the face, we cannot have felt the 
ing. It is impossible to taste one of reality of life ; till we have looked 
the hundred and thirty cups of dis- doubt in the face, we cannot be said 
tilled metaphysics which the "In Me- to have faith. In both cases there 
moriam" contains without some pre- must be a transition before the child, 
paration of self-reflection. This is who lives and believes, can be said to 
why the poem is either the most ^w life and to Aave faith. "Howbeit 
meaningless or the most suggestive that was not first which was spiritual, 
in the language. Either the reader but that which was natural and after- 
loves those wards that which is spiritual" So it 

" Short Bwallow flights of song that dip 18 ^th all of US. The child has a 

Their wing! in tears and Bkim away/* natural or animal life, but it is in 

with all the intensity of truths often P^f^^f ? ?f. ^^*^ *^** *^ J^?^ *>^ * 

felt, but never so well expressed be- ^Pf^^^^liSa JTf ^t'"^^^ flf]".??; 

fore, or else it is flung away as an P^ ^i®' ^^i^'C^ '> ,^ ^^"^ ^'^^^ 

unmeaning mystical twang,^like a ^««,,* ^^T'^L^^i'^*^ *^^ ^^ ''^^- 

Jew's harp in a schoolboy^ mouth ff'^^'^f f H^^^T? .^ 5°^*,''"^?' 

trying to sing one of the songs of ^.VnmL^hi w'l.Vi'lnH^L^^'''^ 

Zion overcomes the world and removes 

Or; again, if kind reader, you are ??nif^nU*^«^lj^ til" vJ^f^' 

one of the iisciplee of the school of '?« ^„ w^f*7 *nW^L^^"* 

common sense, who hate mysteiy and t,,t „1??\.^*.fj f fj*^ */i. f~"^ 

suspect preteice in whatever & not but of Chaos and Psyche. MiynJanua 

sel^vident, you had better not at- f^^wawntiinent so common that it 

tempt the " li Memoriam." m painted on undertake™' hatchmenta; 

'^ that doubt is the doorway to faith u 

" The wDg ^ mad* to b. sane in the night, still a matter of dispute, because di- 

wm ««r3lll'^';Jl'£?'J[t *^'' ^«8 8tm nourish the fond desire to 

w 111 never read its mystery anirbt. ru i» a-l ^ • a»^ « 

And yet it is childlikeW" ^?^,.°^^^ ^^®F ^^?, *^J? ^^^^ ^^ 

childhood to the faith of manhood 

If there are any who have never sor- without wetting their feet in the eold 

rowed, or have never doubted, they waters of doubt. The amiable wish 

should not read it But is there to be that the natural may develop of itself 

* Novum Organon. Lib. i. Apfa. 80. 



1861.] TmmuwriBPhiloiQphy.—InMemoriam. 187 

doubt it, is very well pnt The pdeit ground with all who believe in s 

m^ well sftj : — aeparate aoul and a personal identity 

« Not in vain, BUTviving death. But here the ques- 

Lik« Pkal, ^th beasts I fovght with death ;" tlon starts up (and this Is the point 

£> •*. • xv^ ^^^ «u^^^*,-«^ v»«f Kw where Christian and Deist diverge)— 

fS' A "• J?''^^. S?T^«^,i«^7 ^^ether the soul is a substance* im- 

the Apostle Paul :-Eith^ the resur- ^ ^ therefore, entering 

rection of Christ IS true, or we are of ^i a higte eadstence at once on dis- 

all men most miserable. solution from the body ; or whether, 

" ^i.?^,.?"' ^! ^"""^r^ *^ "• *^ awaiting the resurrection of the body, 

S:lii^TiilS.:«:iX^^^^ itslum^onduringtheinterme^^^^^ 

ibid dngt and ashes all that is» state. Of the two alternatives, tne 

Platoidc or the Pauline* our poet in- 

«* This round of graen, this orb of Ssme; clincs to the latter. The Cnristian 

Fantastic beauty, such as lurks doctrine, that the soul is naked until 

W^r.:^^ci :;':^ihn""'" Jlothed upon with a si>iritualbodyoB 

the resurrection monung, is very ex- 
*« IWb wh«t wer« God t# such as I, quisitely touched upon : — 

'Tww hardly worth my while to choose a if sleep and Deafli be truly one. 
Of things aU mortal, or to use And every spirits folded bloom, 

A Utile pataanoe eie I die. Through aU the intervital gloom, 

^ .—^ , . . 1^ . i_ X !■ wme long trance should slumber on, 

** Twete best aft once to sink to peace, ^ 

jUke bMa the ehamin^ sjjpent draws ,, Unconscious of the sliding hour ; 
To drop head foremost m the jaws ^^^ ^f ^h^ bod might it last, 

Of recant darkness and to cease, j^^^ ^,^^^ t^/, ^f ^^ p„t 

This argument ad ahsurdum must Be of the colour of the flower.- 

underlie every other for existence g^^ tjje Platonic hypothesis, that 

after death. Let m&die and not live, death is a second birtli, the opening 

the soul says, if life is only phenome- ^he matrix from matter to spirit, has 

naL If I am here to-day and gone j^ fascination of its own, even for those 

to-morrow, why live out even to- ^j^^ believe it to be '*the wajRes of 

dayl gin." The poet ^ves way to Platon- 

*• ^were best at once te link to peace, |gin i^ the following lines : — 

Like birds the charming serpent draws.- a j ^.^ not any fond with death, 
Buddhism has adopted this theory of For changes wroi^ht on fomi or fisce 

the soul, that it is part of the univer- ^XS'J^l ht "^hCSt^f^Mh 
eal soul divided from it for a little ^^ ^'^ ^"^^ **'"' ~ *^* "^^ *'^*^- 
while, as a bottle of salt-water corked u Eternal process mo^ng on ; 

and let down into the ocean. Better From state to state the spirit walks, 

at once that the cork should be forced _ And th«e are but the shattered stalks— 

in, than to wait till it has floated its T»»« ^^^^ «^«^» «f «»•• 

time and iB dashed at last on the It was a well-meant attempt of 

rocks— a bubble rising and disappear- philosophy to dij the mourner's tear 

ing for ever. Either, then, a separate with the supposition. thAt» as all life 

immortality, and personal identity, ended in death, so all death resulted 

after death of every man, or none at in a higher life. The (me law was 

all, either of God or man. The con- certain : — 

elusion from no soul to no Gkxl. is in- <>^ Omnia mors poaoit, lex eit bob pcsoa 

evitable: and the Buddhist hardly perire." 

shrinks nrom this. The poet enters a f^^^ ^^s the dictum by which phi« 

protest against this absorption doc- loaodfciy tried to take the sting out of 

trine : — death, as i^ slurinking by anticipation 

" That ttidli who seems a smrtte soul, from the Christian aeconnt of the 

Bhouid move his rounds^ and fusing 4II niatter, it assured its diseiples that it 

The skirts of self again, should fcu, ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ a penalty, that all must 

R^neigingm the general soul, ^^ If by one law everv birth was a 

«• Is fisith M ^mm as all uasweei? prelude to a death, might there not 

Ktemal form shaU stiU divide DO somo other law, that every death 

The eienv^ soul from aU beside, <^a8, in its tum, a nigher birth 1 Who 

And I shaU know him when we meet.- ^^ ^U ^ The wish was father tO the 

Thus far the poet stands on oommon thought ; and so, because philosophy 



188 TtnnymnC% PhUotoj^hy. — In Memoriam, [FeK 

wished it were so, she reasoned herself Alexandrian amal^^ of Greek phi- 

into the belief that it must be so. losophy and Jewish theologj hmm 

The body certainly dies ; but what of passed current in our achoolsy and la 

that? it was the mortal part dropping now reputed orthodox since Kahr.p 

off; the spirit shedding its muddy yes- Butler has lent it the authority of b» 

ture of decay, and springing up into great name in the first chapter of tbe 

the empyrean a disimprisonea Psyche, Analogy. We have no riffht^tbcfv^- 

the skeleton being, as one of our Pla- fore, to complain of the aotaor of ^ la 

tonic poets compared it : — Memoriam, if he wavers between 

« A <*«• of flesh and bons Athens and Jerui«^em, the phU'-rv 

From whence the soul, the immortal put, pheme of the immorUllty of the SooL 

hM flown.** and the Christian doctrine of the 

.. . , xu J. i.'i 1. J resurrection of the body. Aba poet 

It IS dear that philosophy and re- y^^ ^^jrly say that doctore dSrr, 

hgion are at issue on this question, ^^j ^^^ ^jif ^^e dirines are agmd 

Death IS the last enem^ m the one between themselves, he is not to be 

case; he is the gaol dehverer inthe impeached for heresy, for following 

^^^a\ ^^^^®wuL- ™^^P^^« the Attic Moses in his oommunings 

Paul, to be unclothed is a state undo- ^^h the friend who lives in God :- 

sirable, except as a transition to that ..... 

glorious state when mortality is swal- ^'^VoTri ^^lillTo^^^ ' 

Wed up in Ufe. Plotinus thwiked ThWm«*iwitrood«dN;i«wifc«i. 

God daily that his body was not im- I mmd to lore tfaee men nad mora.- 

mortal, and resented all mquiriw after j^ were to be wished that there were 

itjasaHmduwouldto ^^ ^^ ^^e Ph»do and more of the 

^«T!S"v rt^^^fr^^ncl^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Corinthians in th^ 

the ^yj^^J^'^^J^^'^.^l meditations on the sUte of the de- 

at whose bars the soul beats her ^^ ^^^ „ j^ j ^^ ^^^ ^y^ 

wmgs, and pants to be free-a pnson- ^^^ ^ ^^ose of the Neo-Platanirta 

^K'^wlJ ''Ut^'''^ 7a ^Zu^n of Alexandria, who in many ea^^ 

i*^{yV>^%^Jl'T:.*!^^^^ were as schoolmasters to leii onto 

tumbre about our earssome day and ^y^^^ i„ Alexandria, the meeting 

allow us to escane. The poet oscU- j^^ ^^ j^ ^^^ ^^ JusSTaiia 

lates between tnese two views of fn^^.^,* iiv^ au^ /iv^wikV. ^u^ «#»«% 

death. At one time the daui. g'^^y'Sr^^lSrdSiSVre 

<• Wetcb, like God, the Tolltag boon, Jesus, found that which sulBoed for 

With Urpt^cuhm, mym thfta own." their spirits, a Father who has mani- 

At another time the spirit appears to fceted eternal life in his Son. There 

be like a folded flower, and the in- «« many Alexandrians hkewise in our 

termediate state is compared to a day who are pa«nng through phn«o- 

garden in winter, with t^ flowera phy to religion. Theexpenenccorin 

aU sleeping until the resurrection Memonam meets their case, ^tn 

mnrintw ^^^ It morc cxpucit, wnat It gained in 

■P"°^' orthodoxy it would lo«i in Rsattnc 

•' ^ Umi wm BoUilBg kMt to msB, tiveness for those whose faith is little 

l^^n^^^S^l^t^^ more than "honest doubt" It wina 

The tot.1 worffSoe life begM." Upon them by sympathy; for the 

poet IS at their own level, and pre- 

The latter is no doubt the Christian, tends to be no more than a searcher 

and the former the PUtonic view of after truth. Whatapenitentiml paalm 

death; and ^et such is the vitality of is to an Easter hymn, that the ** In 

an error which flatters human pnde, Memoriam*' is to the poetryof Kehle, 

and veils the penal character of death, Cowper, or James Montgomery. The 

that the philosophical account of the sun naa not vet risen, but the mom- 

future lire is held side by side with ing star is shining, not in its own 

theScriptoraL Jerusalem and Athens light, but inthe rosy light of dawn 

met mid-way in Alexandria. Plato tmU is stealinff on behind it, at the 

was '* Moses Attidsing;'* and Moses Messiah upon John the Baptist 
was re-invested in all the wisdom of 

the Egyptians, in the intellectual The second neat lenon of the "la 

c^Ntal of Egypt, bv Jews like Philo Memoriam'* is faith out of doubt Tlie 

and Christiatta like Origen. This lines are now elaasical :—> 



1861.] TmnyaofiCs PhiU>9ophy, — In Memoriam, 189 

" Peiplexed in fiuth, but pore in deeds, " I found him not in world or ion, 

At Uat he rung hit muiie out ; Or eAcle^a wing or insect^B eje. 

There livei more faith in honest doubt. Nor through the questions men may try, 

Beliere me, than in half your creeds. The petty cobweln we have spun. 

" He fen^ihis doubts; he gathered stren^^ ; " If e*er, when faith had fallen asleep, 

He would not make his judgment blmd : I heard a voice, ' believe no more,* 

But fiseed the spectres of the mind, And heard an ever-breaking shore 

And lakl them — thus he came, at length, That tumbled in the godless deep, 

" To find a stronger &ith his own, '* A warmth within the breast would melt 

And Power was with him in the niffht. The freezing reason*s colder part, 

Which makes the darkness and the light. And, like a man in wrath, the heart 

And dwells not in the light alone. Stood up and answered, * I have felt.* " 

'* Bat in the darkness and the cloud, To such a degree has ChriBtianity 

As over Sinai*s peaks of old, affected speculation that it has in 

. uY^; Iwa^iMde their go<b of ^old, many cases brought in the difficulty 

Although the trumpet blew so loud. ^^ ^^^^i it Only offers the solution. 

There was a Syro-Phoenician faith ^«^ ^f ^^? r?^*??^^,^^ ^^'' 

greater than any in Israel, in the days ^^^ ^^^ * ^^"^^^ ^^ *^ '— ^ 

when the Mftjiftiali came to his own : '* That nothing walks with aimless feet, 

and 80, perhaps, on the borders of That not one soul shall be destroyed, 

orthodoxy, a cry as deep for deUver- ™?' *??*!i^'v*,r*'*'l"^'*u" *^f ^""^^^ , ♦ 

^^_^ ^^ ' ^ itiJr « « «,:4.u:« When God shall make the pile complete. 

anoe may come as from any withm *^ ^ 

the Land of Promise. To those, who, *« That not a worm is cloven in vain, 

like the poet^ tW not a moth, with frail desire, 

•• Stretch lame hands of fiuth. and grope ^ ^« ^^^^ ^ a fruitless fire, 

A^l^er^rt «d chaff, and^caT ^' "^ '^^-^^ »"^«*»^ ■ «»»"• 

Towhat I trustisLordof all, The Athenian sage had no such 
And &intly trust the huger hope," ^^^^^ feelings for worms and moths, 
the heart searchings of the " In Me- Nature marked out, as he thought, 
moriam" are deeply instructive. He is that the Greeks were bom to be free 
not a jesting Pilate, who asks '* What and the barbarians to be slaves Phy- 
ifitnithf and passes on; not a sophist sical evil presented few difficulties 
of doubtj as Spinoza and Hume, who and moral evil fewer still. A Theo- 
trifle with creeds as the libertine dicee was an unfelt necessity to 
with maidens' hearts; not an artist, thinkers whose notions of the beingof 
like Goethe, who settles the question God were dim in the extreme. We 
that earth is dust and ashes, and sits do not hold, with the po^ that in 
down to cook his dinner on it, as the these matters imorance is bliss, and 
tourist at the cone of Vesuvius. He that so, 'tis follv to be wise ; but at 
is a doubter like Pascal, who sees least we may allow that it was mer- 
that of fifty contradictions there can ciful in God to veil the doubt until 
be but one kej to solve' them all, and the solution was also given. Horrible, 
that, as all rehgions cannot be equally indeed, would have men the state of 
true, that religion must be the truest mankind with a Sphynz of scepticism 
which solves some mysteries now and ever presenting her riddle, and de- 
promises to solve the rest hereafter, vouring the unhappy philosopher who 
He sees in death, could not solve it But the times of 
" The ihadow, cloaked from head to foot, this ignorance God winked at When 
Who keeps the keys of aU the creeds.'* there was no (Edipus there was no 
This is sceptical, no doubt ; but re- Sphynx. Plii}o8ophy has had her 
member, it Is witk the Aeart man be- fh^S^ ^ theology hw had her sects ; 
lievethiito righteousness. The poet but these were to the disputes of 1^^^ 
has exquisitely put this conflict^- J""®* ^,*^® Y^^ ^^ school-boys to 
tween the theology of the schools, 5?^ l»ttles of men. As the young 
which only breccET doubt, and the Napoleon at Bnenne acted a mimic 
theology of the heart, which breeds ^^^^^ <>' I^ with snowbidk^ so the 
gjj^jjijj^ ,__ ^ Stoics and Epicureans babbled in 
« «. . 1^. L ^ . •_ . ti Athens about fate and free-will as 
ThM which we dare lUToke to hless, ^ Gomaristo and Remonstrants, or 

Our dearest faith, our ghastliest douht ; T ^"*""\«"' •^^* *i»«*w*«n««*i«. w 

He, They, One. All : ^thin, without, the JansMusts and Jesmte of modem 

The Power, in dariuiMi^ whom we gae«. times. But the stnfe of ages waa 



190 Tennyion^s PhMomphff.^In Memorinnu \T^ 

then in its infancy. It waa a battle her beda of daiaiea and eoAtoafcaila ; 
of snowballs in Athens : a battle for but that little sister mast iwlyo w 
Ufe and death, with heayen and hell soon that early he^Ten and happy 
in the background, in Holland. It has Tiews, and we must be prepared toac^w 
always been the case, that the wider ripertmtj^to suit the ripening biiimL 
the area of light the wider the horieon In the transitioiL howerer, mm xht 
of darlmess. We must not complain faith of ehildhooa to the&J^of vsa- 
of this drawback, attendant on rere- hood the mind sidcens fbr awhfle. it 
lation, that it brings its doubts with sorrowsfor what it has lost, and cap- 
it ; that, like the Bomaa ambassador, not r^dce for what it has not yrt 
itoffere us peaoeaad war in the skirts found. This waa the disciptos' aur- 
of its Um, It holds out to us faith row between Aseenskm and I> B > le'- 
and doubt We are tempted to olose cost It may be compared to the 
with it and embrace it as the truth sickening which happens to the wh^iu 
from heaven ; and then, again, we are seed after it has begun to sprout in 
tempted to start because of tbeshadow the ground, and to put forth a tand«T 
in tne badcground. The light of re- bUcte. The seed which i^ the ol«i 
yelation has, therefore, been well life, is dying, ana the new lift ba« 
compared to that of a lantern—a not yet strength in itsel£ The fruit 
light only to our feet and a lantern of last yearns nanrest is becoming the 
only to our paths. On a dark night root of this year's ; but the Hf^TS^ 
it only makes the darkness visime. dying must be gone through, xlie 
It wraps all around us in thicker radicles must push through tiie hu»k 
gloom taan ever. Without the lantern and bury themsehres in the earth, 
&ere is the dull ^leam of the sky and become suckers to eonrey sap to 
so thickly strewn with stan that no the sprout overhead. So it is with 
canopy of clouds can shut out all the faith of childhood: while It is the 
the light; and so to the philosopher in implicit submission of one wiO to 
Fann durkness, the night is never so another, it is contented and happy ; 
da» that he cannot distinguish be- but so soon as it begins to take nv-t 
tween earth and sky. Igmati nullA for itself it sickens tor awhile, until 
cttpt(2o/ he feels no privation of light: the faith which is without reasi>o 
he can grope his way, and this is all has passed into the faith which i# 
that he wanta. But put a lantern in with reason. In this stage it k that 
his hand and his situation is altered, so many draw back and complain of 
He sees, it is true, the thin^ at his a religion that brings us doubts with 
feet better than before ; he ui in less one hand and belids with another ; 
danger now of dashing hisfoot against which solves some diificultiea, and 
a stone : but he also sees the horixon suggests others. The ot^jeetloa is 
of darkness, which he did not before, plausible, but those who make it 
Now, there falls on him a horror of should say whether thev are prepared 
a great darkness, and if he is of a to go back to pagan darkness, beeaoae 
feanul nature, spectres dance before the lantern in their hand does not 
him, the shadows, it may be, thrown clear up the whole horiiOQ, and 
by the lantern upon the bladmeas of throw light on every daiic oomer odT 
darkness around him. the earth. This is the problem whidi 

Thus, there is compensation every- ** In Memoriam" wrestles with, and, on 

where. In these ages of faith there is the whole, satisfactorilv. We should 

much unbelief; before faith came^ wish a more cheerful adcnowMg- 

when mankind, Jew and Gentile, ment of the light which we have, 

were under the schoolmaster, men The poet dwells on the mystery of 

doubted little because they knew lit- the pennission of evU, but does not 

tie. We need not envjr their case, admit, as he ought, that these are the 

mwAk less should we wish to retuni evelids of the morning, the skirta of 

to it The poet advisee: — tne mantie of Him who dedcs him* 

••Lmt* ihM tfcy mtor wkM ih* pnrf, aelf with light as with a garment 

Hot Mriy hwvvi^ Iwr hanvf vim, Three noble poems wrestle with the 

Nor thott with ilnJinitil htH eoafcw wish. 

Alif«UMftl«tdsiB«]MlMNwd*p.** ^ 



True, we would not allow the wild ^r^^/L?JiJ3lr!Sl 
boar out of the fomt to root un the SiilJ^TilJrii^ 

Sanlen where our little slater planU The ittiwi Oo4 vHhia ikt tMir 



ISOl.] Tainyson'n Fhilosophy.—In Mtmoriam, 191 

Bat they are fain to leave it, a wiah nuuido )" and miiflt expect the same 

and AO moze. answer, "What is that to thee, fol- 

'• Behold ir« knoir not aaythiiig. low thou me." It is CUriosity fWOttt 

W« out but wuh that good thaii iaiX others which produces doubt. We are 

At Ust, f« off-*t last to all. always asking the question, " Could 

And evexy winter turn to .pnng. ^^^ ^^3 ni^^^that Opened tile eyesof 

** 80 mai mj diwin ; bot what am I, ^^® blind, have cauMd thateven this 

Ab wfiuit erpng in the ni^t, mcui should not have died T If evil 

An inCMt crying for the ligbt, is cHTod in 000 part why not in anO' 

And with no langoag • bat a cry." ther, and if in one, why not in all 1 

It is a wiah that nature httself And the next demand is, why permit 

soggests more analogies against than i^^ in the first instance ? '' Why not 

forT God kill debbiir as the man Friday 

•^ So oamfol of the type ihe MeBM, sagaciously put it to Robinson Gru- 

Socaivicnoftheeingleiife. soe. The poet hints that all these 

That I, ooniidanng everywhere, doubtS are devil-bom, 

Her secret meaning in her deedi, .«v a n ^^v ^ t. # 

And Ending that offiftyBeeda, ^S^ **1^"*J!!,*^ ■*" ***^ "I'^Jl'i 

She often br&gt bnt one to iSS." Sweet-hearted you, whoM light blua 

eyea 
Nor is this all ; she is not careful Axe tender over drowning flies, 

eren of the type : — ^^^ ^^ ™* doubt is deTii-bom/' 

"From ManMd cliff and quarried stone Suppose we courageously tell our 

f ^i! ?" «' 5,!^*''*!^? V.T' "" ***"• • ^l»ol« lieart out, and confess, once for 

I care for nothing, aU shall go. ' ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ doubt is devil- 

Botany blows to the winds one bom. It ia a devil-bom doubt to 

wish of universalism, Palaeontology suspect Him who has spared not His 

another. Nature has no prophecies own Son. It is a devil-bora doubt to 

of redemption, she can tell us no- see a process by which evil is beingeli* 

thins of that restitution of all thin^ minated out of a world of good, and to 

which Crody by the mouth of all hia complain because it does not spread 

holy prophets since the world began, so fast or so wide as we wish. With- 

has spoken. The poet can only turn out revelation we should have no 

away, as Hagar in the wilderness, not doubts, it is true, but we should 

to see her child die. No hope is also have no faith. Our sense of evil 

wntteu in the desert duat, and in the would disappear, but with it also our 

aky of brass overhead. knowledge of the eventual triumph 

"Oh! life aaftitUe» then M frail; of good OVOT eviL All WOUld be dlS- 

Oh ! for thy Toice to cheer and bleii. eolved in One dream of Pantheism, in 

What hope of »»«wer aiid redress, ^hich Qod, nature, sin, heaven, heU, 

B^nd the Teil-beyond the veil." ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^j;*^ ^^^ ^p^ 

Dim as thia hope is, it is not yet pear in a mist The '* In Memoriam" 
darkness. It is the one star, like would have be^i complete if, like the 
that of Wollenstein, seen at times book of Job, it had called in theEter- 
throQgh a stormy sky, the star of nal to vindicate his own cause, and to 
his nativity, which would not allow siloioe the doubter sitting amid the 
him to despair. Bui oom|)«i6 this ashes and scraping his sorea with a 
with the Apostle Paul's vision of the potsherd. The Eaust of Goethe, and 
rMtitution of all things in the Ephe- the Festus of Bailey are imitations of 
nans^ or of St John in the Apoca- Job, in the letter only, not in the 
lypse, when a great multitude that spirit In both these modem ver^ 
no man can number, all white-robed, sions, more rightly called perversions, 
all waving palm branches, stand be- the devil comes o£f second beert, not 
fore Qod and the Lamb. It is like utterly worsted and slinking away in 
coming out of a vault into sunshine, silence as in the sublime origmaL 
The poet has tortured himself with So in Cain and Prometheus, evil is 
doabt^ because he has looked on one not overoome of good^ but defies it 
Bide of the question, and not on the still ; and even Muton hss been be- 
other. Instead of thanking revelation trayed into giving more of a Greek 
for showing so much, he has com- than a Hebrew turn to the duel be- 
plained of its not having declm^ tween the All-Good and the All-EviL 
more. He asks the same question as Such ia the case when art is called in 
Peter, "Lord^ and what shall this to heighten the effect of truth. The 



192 Beeent Papular N<mU [Fch. 



devil's advocate muni make out a caae new draw; we fear that in our 

for hk dient, and if he cannot get an lationa we hare lost some of the fta- 

acquittal must enlist at least some your of the original Alexandria waa 

sympathy in his favour. We would an unsafe school for theoloev, for xt 

not rate the *' In Memoriam'* on the was one of the haunts of phnosophv, 

same level as either Cain, or Festus. the meeting point of Jew and QroeL 

or Faust The poet has not sacrificed We put down the '^ In Memoriam" aa 

truth to art, nor cast the story of Job the early church put down Qngca, 

into the mould of the Prometheus of puzzled whether to pronounce him * 

.Aschylus, which is the great offence, heretic or a father, a Onoatie or aa 

inour judgment, of these three great anti-Gnostic. There are maayaen- 

poems of our modem age. But the ttments in this poet of Neo*Flainn« 

muse of Tennyson is too Qrecian to ism so exactly on the border line be- 

sing arigiit this Hebrew melody. like tween faith and philosophy that we 

Pope's Messiah, which came from leave off with him, as Paul did m 

Isaiah, through Virgil, or like the Corinth, in the house of a certain 

Hebrew Scriptures in Origen's Hexa- Greek Justus, whose house joined 

pla, written m the Greek characters, hard to the qrnagogue. 
the thoughts seem uncouth in their 



BECKNT POPULAB NOVXI& 
vmm Mnx ow thb wvom—rum womah im wkitb— amv LATnnuu 



Who is George Eliot f was the ques- the contentment of the least diaeera- 
tion common^ asked by curious or ing, while the more experienced will, 
puzzled readers of " Adam Bedei" from the first, have laughed to them- 
Why are female novelists so prone to selves at the affectation of a mystenr 
masquerade in garments borrowed which was neither needed nor weU 
from the sterner sex f is the question done. '* Onlv a woman*s book** is a 
likeliest to be raised by those critics phrase which no just or geaeraia 
who see no wisdom in the act of an critic would think of using aaaiiwt 
ostrich hiding her head in the sand writers of thestampof "Cnrrer BelL*' 
A disffuise which any reader of aver- ** George Sand," or the author of 
age shrewdness can pierce in a few " Adam Bede." Such woniien would 
minutes seems, to our simple fancy, have lost none of their present fsina 
an elaborate mistake. It is a poor had they always avowed their aex as 
compliment to male critics to suppose openly as Mrs. Hemans, Mta. Somcr- 
that the putting of a man's name in viUe, and lira. Browning have docM. 
the first paf^e of a new novel will Their pUce in modem literature will 
therefore ohnd them to the real au* be determined, not hy their genden 
thorship of that novel Their candour but by their books ; by the beantalol 
and their discernment are alike dis- thinfes they have written, rather than 
paraded bv an act from which the the oeautifUl things Uiey may have 
aoer nerself can reap, at best, a very seemed, in the flesh, to maaenliaa 
fleeting triumph or a very doubtful eyes, i^one but shallow or one-aided 
advantage. Some few of them, less dogmatists would speak of women's 
careful or less discerning than the books with an air of conadooa patron- 
rest, may possibly be tricked into age or affected reserve. To hua who 
saying about a man more or less than remembers that 
their courtesy or their contempt would 

have let them sav about a woman. " Wobmjj u Mt «aattrtoi* wm. 

But the murder will soon out, even to ^^ dlttrm,'' 

Tk€ MiU am thM flon. By the Author of ** Adam Bede." Blackwood and 8oos» 
Edinburgh. 1960. 

Tk€ Wtmmm M WkU9. By WUkle Collins. London : Sampson, Low, Son, aad 
Co. 1860. 

iMwmm, By the Authorof «< Doctor Antonio." London: Smith, Bdsr, and 
Co. laao. 



1 861.] Recent Popular Novels, 193 

a true woman's book will reveal its minuteness, the homely life of that 
own special charm, whether of Hall Farm in chapter vi., where 
ht ri'n*jth or weakness ; will speak to Mrs. Poyser pursues her ironing, after 
his heart in tones more or less differ- having relieved her tongue by much 
eiit from those uttered by his fellow- needless scolding of the industrious 
men. Like woman herself, it is no- housemaid ; proceeding, after her 
thinj; unless it be " piu*e womanly." work is over, to " spe& her mind" 
A good female writer, in her own way. again, but tnis time not quite so 
luis no rival among the brethren or roughly, to the quiet Methodist niece, 
her craft ; only in laying aside the who sits yonder busily mending the 
i^arb or the graces of her sex does she household linen. Nor would any 
lay herself open to the charge of other than a woman^s fancy have de- 
failure ill a character which she lighted in making such a hero as 
liad no business to undertake. Striv- Adam Bede so fooushly and wilfully 
ing to copy the man's free carriage, blind to the utter worthlessness of 
(leop tones, and hard reasonings, she his beautiful, but heartless, idol, the 
i^Q only succeed in behaving like a ready dupe of the first fair-spoken 
letter sort of monkey. Had poor tempter in fine clothes, the willins 
Charlotte Brontd tmsted more to her murderess of her own new-bom chil<L 
womanly genius, Rochester would A tnie man, too, with a man's high 
never have been allowed to test his notions of overruling principle and 
liKijT-love's kindne&s with confidences instinctive knowledge of manly na- 
which no Englishman, in such a case, ture, would have tuili?d the hiffh- 
would have tnought of making either souled, tender-hearted godson of Mrs. 
in print or in reality. Mrs. Browning Irwine into something better than 
herself has hardly improved in her the mean, cowardly snob who thought, 
|K>etry since she took to caricaturing under the shield of lawful marrmge 
Ikt husband's strong but eccentric with another, to hide the fruits of his 
Ktylc. And so, too, it may be, that own deliberate wrong-doing, 
some of George Eliot's harsher pecu- In " The Mill on the Floss" the 
liarities have grown out of her ambi- same marks of a woman's hand are 
tiou to carry out the part implied in visible at every turn. It is the hand, 
her literary nick-name. indeed, of no common writer, but it 
At any rate her acting of that part is not the hand of one who might be 
has not been moresuccessful than that expected to answer to the name of 
of her predecessors. If in some pas- " George." That a man may have 
sages she has shown more of the true thrown in a few corrective touches 
masculine tone and culture than here and there is not unlikely. There 
Ourrer Bell, in others the style and are thoughts which seem to have 
tH'ntiment are just as markedly fe- spmng from another fount than the 
ininine. In "Adam BedcL" as in brain of the apparent writer. But 
"Jane Eyre," some touch or natural the staple of the book is wonumly^a 
womanhood, some piee« of overdone fact by no means deplorable in itself, 
luanliness, some word, phrase, or sen- Few living poets have sung more 
timent oat of keeping with the main sweetly than Mrs. Browning ; few 
)>retenoes, keeps continually turning novelists of our day have written 
up to prove the hollowness of the more readable books than the authors 
mask 80 gratuitously worn. None of "Jane Eyre," "John Halifax," 
but a woman would have thought of and " Uncle Tom's Cabin." Who 
giving us the bed-room scene in chap- has not felt the charm of such books 
ter XV,, where Hetty, instead of go- of travel as the " Letters from the 
ing to bed. puts on some of her rustic Baltic V* Few letter-writers of any age 
tinety ana paces up and down the have outshone the fame of graphic 
room, now lost in admiration of her Mary Montague. Eminent in various 
personal charms, now revelling in other fields arethe names of Somerville, 
<lreams of a golden future, when Poy- Martineau, and Jameson. For a cer- 
Hor« shall cease from worrying, and a tain ease of expression and light play 
gentleman husband shall treat her of fancy, for quick observation, un- 
with the finest ear-rings and an end- studied warmth of tone, instinctive 
k9» variety of new silk gowns. Only truth of general treatment, our literary 
a woman's hand could have painted, sisters have few, if any, rivals amonp; 
with snch delicate though wearisome tiie men. In Gem'o Eliot^s novels 

VOU LVII.— NO. CCVXXXVIII. 13 



19i Recent Popular Novels^ [Feb. 

there is much that only a clever wo- pleased by uncharitable alluBions to 
man could have drawn so well, mingled, the inner faith and morals of Geoi^e 
indeed, with many things that most Eliot. Demurring to the fancy shown 
men, and some few women, would by a woman of true genius for dwell- 
certainly haye disdained to draw at ing on scenes and characters too coarse 
all. Nor is the contrast in her case or too trivial for the needs of art or the 
between so much strength and so moral gain of womanhood, they did 
much weakness likely to be lessened not, therefore, class her witn the au- 
by a vein of moral coarseness not un- thor of " Tristram Shandy," or sus- 
worthy of Goethe himself, and a pect her of a design to corrupt our 
wealth of masculine irony suggestive consciences under cover of an artful 
nowofThackeray, anon of Mr. Charles attempt to play u^on our religious 
Reade. feelings. Their objections, whether 
Few of our living writers have be- sound or otherwise, were teken, not 
come so widely popular in so short a to the woman, but to her work ; 
time as the author of " Adam Bede." not to any supposed flaw in her per- 
Favoured by her personal surround- sonal character, but to the inherent 
ings, the graphic raciness of her style, faultiness of her plan and the short- 
the comparative novelty of her sub- comings evident in its execution, 
ject, perhaps, too, bv the mystery The "Mill on the Floss," though 
which rumour had helped her to perhaps less popular thsm "Adam 
weave about herself, as well as bv feede, is, on the whole, an improved 
the interest which many readers toot edition of its elder sister. Of course 
in her delicate handling of somewhat it is built on the same faulty princi- 
nasty details, her first novel passed pies, and reproduces the same or very 
through one edition after another, and similar faults of detail. There is quite 
drowned in the chorus of general as much of the old wearisome twaddle, 
praise the voices of those few critics of the old photographic X)ettine68, 
who dared to question the seeming mingled with a larger vein of senten- 
thoroughness of her success. In an tious satire, and set off by a certain 
age of literal renderings from the amount of picturesque animalisuL Of 
book of nature, of cynical musings unpleasant characters and superfluous 
over the follies of an artificial world, scenes there is no lack. Perhaps, in- 
a work so full of the homeliest small deed, they abound more than ever, 
talk and the tritest sarcasm was sure The greater part of the first volume is 
to win the largest amount of incense taken up with the early childhood of 
from those to whom its higher merits Tom and Maggie TuUiver, whose aunts 
were likeliest to remain invisible, or and uncles coidd hardly be matched 
but very dimly seen ; while many who in real life, let alone fiction, for foolish 
could do justice to the higher merits notions and disagreeable ways. Mr. 
were naturally blind to faults which Riley is drawn for us in one chapter, 
they had always been trained to re- with such tedious carefulness that 
gara as beauties. To those few who we wonder the more at never seeing 
saw in the book a great deal of heavy him again. Chapter after chapter 
reading and much waste of high in- paints the growth of a blind, earthy 
tellectual power, nothing was, mean- passion, strong enough to drown the 
while, left but to hearken, with all most urgent calls of duty, honour, 
gravity, to the remarks of young la- kindfeehug — to sweep away the stout- 
dies enraptured with those faithful est barriers of social decency and ra- 
descriptions of e very-day life in coun- tional self-coutroL Mrs. Tulliver and 
try farms, or to the strictures passed her sister, Pullet, are less tolerable 
by old maids on the moral and reli- than Mrs. Poyser, or even Mi-s. Bede. 
gious peculiarities of a writer who The religious flavour which helped 
seemed equally at home in the most the sale of " Adam Bede," has been 
opposite realms of vice and virtue, in left out of its successor. Instead of 
the development of a gross seduction Dinah Morris, with her mild sermons, 
as much as in the poHraiture of a saintlike speeches, and apostoUc yearn - 
T>ure, sweet-natured, heaven-seeking ings, we have only a quiet, ladj^ke, 
Methodist preacheress. If their prin- tender-hearted Lucy Deane. Dr.Kenn 
ciples of art forbade them to share in is rather a faded copy of Mr. Irwine. 
any loud admiration of Mrs. Poyser, Still, after all deductions, we own to 
their sense of justice was not better liking the new work better. It is more 



1 861.] Jteeent Popular NoveU 105 

artijsticy has moreof sustained interest, family Bible, to avenge his father's 
than the other. In poor, weak, loving wrongs, if ever the day should comeL 
Mame, the writer has given us a Tom being a youth of proud spirit 
nobler heroine than Hetty of the and firm purpose, sets to work bravely 
rounded form and shrivelled heart in his uphill nght with poverty ; while 
H'lth the Tullivers, father and son, Maggie, staying at home with a father 
are drawn with a firmer and bolder wrapt up in gloomy thoughts, and a 
band than either of the brothers Bede. mother with whom she could have 
Bob Jakin, farcical as he may be little in common, goes through a course 
<)»>emed by many, comes in as an of self-culture, ranging through Latin, 
a'Teeable relief to the darker aspects logic, and geometry, until sue finds 
of the story, and keeps the last strands rest awhile from her disauietude, and 
of our faith in human goodness from sweet inspiration for the futurejin the 
snapping in twain for ever. Philip pages of Thomas k Kempis. With a 
Wakem isnot badly outlined, althougn mind braced up to the highest dreams 
his latter years miss the promise of of self-sacrifice, she comes once more 
his boyhood. Instead of a downright across the dearest friend of her child- 
seduction, the guilty courtship is al- hood, voung Philip Wakem, the de- 
lowed to end in Maggie^s penitent re- formed son of her father's hated foe. 
fosal even to marry tne selfish lover, Henceforth, under Philip's guidance, 
who leaves her no choice between her dreams take quite another turn. 
such a stei> and the scandal sure to While Tom is makinf^ money to pay 
assail her, innocent as she may be, on oflf his father^s remaming debts, his 
her return home. The interest, mild sister faJls deeper and deeper into the 
as it is throughout, keeps rising to- mire of an unconscious love, feeding 
yards the close ; and the catastrophe, itself in those secret meetings by the 
if it were really inevitable, lacks none Red Deeps. Of course the lovers are 
of that touching power and startling found out, and Philip is driven from 
clearness which mark off the genuine Maggie's sight by the taunts and 
artist from workmen of the stamp of threatenings of her hard-hearted bro- 
Mr. Wilkie Collins. -^ ther. At last comes a day when Tom 

The story itself is slight, spun ouV^ hands over to his father the monev 
and disappointing at tne last. Mr. that will make him clear of the world. 
TiiUiver, who owns the mill, a man of Flushed with success and new ex- 
ptrong prejudices, severe traditions, citement, Mr. Tuliiver returns from 
and much self-esteem, has two chil- feasting his creditorsto make a furious 
dren. Tom and Maggie, who are stiil assault on Lawyer Wakem, within 
at school, when hisiove of litisation sight of the mill. Maggie's arm saves 
ends in ruining them all, and laying the latter from the chance of a violent 
himself low with paralysis, brought end, and helps her father home to die. 
oD bv the news of his defeat at the Two years after, Maggie leaves her 
hands of his hateful bugbear, Lawyer place of governess to take a holiday 
Wakem. The boy and girl return with her cousin Lucy Deane, a pretty, 
home to find their father senseless, gentle girl, virtually betrothed to the 
and their mother — a weak, yet not all elegant and musical Stephen Guest 
unworthy offshoot of the Dodson race This gentleman speedily conceives a 
—plunged in grief at the thought of strong passion for poor Lucy's tall, 
selling all her treasured household dark-eved, enthusiastic friend, who 
jc:oods--the choice, spotted damask of herself struggles in vain against the 
her own spinning the fine Holland spell of his^ily presence, and finds 
sheets, that would have served for even in retirement no door of escape 
the laving out of her hiuiband, her from the pursuit of her headstrong 
best saver t«apot with the straight lover. Her best resolutions are sure 
spout, and the fair, white "chany" to give way at the critical moment, or 
which none of her sisters would care be thwarted by a perverse fate, which 
to buy. After the house has been sends the pair at last adrift by them- 
sold over his head, Tuliiver, his health selves in a pleasure-boat, far down the 
restored, consents to stay there as Floss, miles below their usuallanding- 
teoant of the lawyer, to whom, he place. For a while Maggie yields to 
fancies, all his sufferings are due ; his the sweet temptation — consents to m 
own son Tom, however, being first where love and Stephen may guide 
bound l^ a promise, entered m the her. But at length her nobler self 

13* 



196 Mecent Popular Novels, [Feb. 

prevails over all the eloquence of described as clearly in a few pa^'es 
looks and words, of endearments and what this authoress spreads over a 
reproaches, that Stephen brin^ to whole volume. We ask for meat, and 
bear on the woman he would wm at she gives us pap — for a history, and 
any cost. Returning homewards alone she gives us sermons. Maggie's child- 
from York, she meets with the usual ish troubles, her impulsive ways, her 
welcome awarded to innocence that April temperament — the private talk 
wears so startling a look of guilt, she holds with' her wooden Fetish- 
Disowned by her brother Tom, ac- her craving for the love of her stern, 
eused of the worst by an envious unsympathetic brother — Tom's alter- 
neighbourhood, she finds a refuge, nate fondness and contempt for her 
Cheered by her mother's love, under — his boyish quarrel with bob Jakin, 
the roof of her humble friend. Bob because that youth would not toss 
Jakin. The good old rector's perse- him fair — his efforts after Latin and 
vering but fruitless efforts to set her Euclid, imder Mr. Stelling, are drawn 
right with the world, a loving, generous witli great truthfulness and some tell- 
letter from poor Philip, and a visit ing humour. But what, after all, was 
of sisterly forgiveness from bereaved the use of provoking us to confess 
cousin Lucy, make up the few gleams how strongly we are reminded of our 
of sunlight that flash over the dark- childish pleasure in the works of Miss 
ness of her new lot. At length, in Edffeworth) Are we children, that 
despair of making head against the a whole volume should be token up, 
prejudices of an uncharitable neigh- not only with scenes of child-life, but 
bourhood, she is on the pointofseek- even with moral reflections on the 
ing a livelihood elsewhere, when the same ? If novelists ¥rill write about 
floods sweep over the country, and a children, let them write for children 
mass of timber, whhied down the only, or write books in which the 
raging waters, buries beneath them story shall end with the heroine's 
the boat in which poor Maggie had descent from the nursery to the draw- 
just rescued her newly-reconciled bro- ing-room. In novels, as in real life, 
ther from the mill he had so long manhood must have, at least as many 
been struggling to make his own. claims to our respect as cnildhood. 
Their bodies are found clasped in each Whatever else may be said of him, 
other's arms; Philip never marries ; the author of "Tom Brown's School- 
and Lucy is eventually united to the days" showed much good sense in 
truant Stephen. drawing the curtain on his hero at 
^ Here was matter for a good homelv the moment of his entrance into coi- 
tal e, in one volume, large or small, lege life. The geneitJ reader has 
In the hands of (joldsmith, Fielding, lately been somewhat surfeited with 
or Miss Austen, such a conception chilaish stories, but it was left for 
would have been carried out grace- (Jeorge Eliot to give him childish 
fully and quietly, with no waste of lectures as well, 
words, no heaping-up of meaningless Let any one carefuDy read the first 
details. In tiie hands of George volume of her last work, and then 
Eliot, it begins at the beginning of ask himself for what conceivable pur- 
all things, and stops short at the end pose it was written. Mr. Tulaver 
of her third volume. Could a fourth takes a chapter to inform his wife of 
have been added, probably Maggie his intention to ask Riley about a 
and Tom would have been allowed school for his son, Tom. in another 
to survive the flood. As it is, we chapter Mr. Riley gives his opinion 
have three volumes, one of which on the subject, and the author winds 
is wholly superfluous, while the others up with a long statement of his mo- 
might have been cut down one-half, tives for the advice so given. Then 
When will modern novelists learn we have two chapters of very small 
that the half is sometimes greater description, that read like a smart- 
than the whole*? Why should we ened version of " Frank," fitly capped 
go back to Maggie's earliest years to by two paragi'aphs of sentiment tnat 
get an insight into what she after- seems meant to pass off' with tie 
wards becomes? At any rate, a few weaker brethren for new. Another 
explanatory touches would surely chapter continues the history of Toms 
have told us all we cared to know, and Maggie's childhood, relieved by 
The author of "Lavinia" would have an introductory sketch of the Dodsou 



1»61.] Bec^iU Popular Noveh. 197 

family, with whom, in the next, we cide for iis whether the brain be an 
form a closer acqimintance ronnd the intellectual stomach, a sheet of white 
dinner-table of Mrs. Tulliver. For paper, or a field awaiting the plough, 
those who like Dutch painting, and any more than she wajs justified in 
are curious about the habits of a making us hear Tom and Mag^e 
class whose vanities and meannesses blunder over the Latin lesson which 
reflect their own, as it were, in a Tom is saying aloud to his kind- 
cracked and tarnished mirror, the hearted little helpmate. Nearly all 
account of this meeting will offer a the rest of this volume is taken up 
charm unsurpassed in any other pas- with further descriptions of Tom s 
sage from the same author. Let us, school-life, his gradual intimacy with 
too, give whatever praise may be the new school-fellow, Philip Wakem, 
justly due to a masterpiece of photo- and the friendship formed by Maggie 
graphic realism little less humorous with the lawyer s pale-looking, de- 
and far more truth-like than aught formed, but clever and iine-natured 
conceived by Mr. Dickens. If the son. 

painting a party of very stupid or very In this way does the novel drag 
unpleasant people, without curtailing its heavy length along. Instead of a 
a word of the conversation or slur- well-drawn, harmonious picture, we 
ring the smallest trifle that any one get a series of photographic studies, 
present might have felt, seen, or done, of which a good deal is provokingly 
oe in itself a great achievement, the commonplace, and a good deal more 
author's triumph is here complete, is tire-somely repellant. A life of 
Only we should fancy that a truer pervading selfishness, ill-nature, stu- 
artist would have dwelt rather less pidity, narrow culture, lit by stray 
fondly on Mrs. Pullet's wearisome and few gleams of high or holy feel- 
twaddle, on Mrs. Glegg's eternal ing, is the poor result of this micros- 
scoldings and squabbles with all copic inquiry, this pretentious striv- 
about her. on Maggie's wretchedness ing after truth. Even if this were 
after she has wilfully cut off her long art, is the writer of it, after all, true to 
shaggy hair. Then comes a long de- her experience of mankind at large ? 
tailed account of Mrs. Tulliver's visit. For whose profit or entertainment 
with her children and niece, to her does she work out effects so darkly 
sister Mrs. Pullet, whose love of displeasing with a brush so merci- 
physic and tenderness about fumi- lessly fine? To give half views of 
ture are brought out with a tiresome life is the besetting sin of our modern 
faithfulness hardly improved by a realists, but here the worst side is 
x'amish of funny writing about Mrs. kept turned to us of set purpose, 
Pullet's new bonnet or Tom's love for without any of the saving pretence*? 
animals. In two more chapters, we elsewhere offered. Mr. Thackeray, 
are told of Majggie*s revenge on Iaxicv at least, is too good a workman to 
for Tom's unkindness to herself, fof- draw his characters mostly without a 
lowed by her flight in quest of the heart But in these volumes there 
gipsies, who only send her home again are few touches of that better nature 
instead of making her their queen, which makes the whole world kin. 
Then follows a faithfully coarse, nn- In the first, especially, we escape 
pleasant, and wholly needless picture from scenes of pure childishness only 
of Mr. and Mrs. Glegg quarrelling to breathe an air heavy with moral 
over the breakfast-table. Worse still firedamp or intellectual fog. Through - 
than aught before, in its tiresome out them all we grope our way amid 
minuteness and pedantic trifling, is broad shadows, relieved by a few 
the long chapter devoted to Tom's flickering rays of cheap eandle-light, 
** first half" under the roof of Mr. and nothing more. In their moral 
and Mrs. Stelling. Here, if any- effects, they seem to remind us of 
where, the woman's hand is unmis- some faded old picture, bearing the 
takably shown, and the lack of true name, but hardly sustaining the cre- 
perspective becomes, most palpable, dit of Rembrandt or Salvator Rosa. 
A few lines would have said more If George Eliot really finds human 
than enough about Tom's broad- life, for the most part, as " narrow, 
chested tutor, and the failure of his ugly, and grovelling as she has drawn 
^*8tem when tried on such a pupil, it here, we neither envy her experi- 
Nw was the writer expected to de- enC'es nor care to see them detailed 



198 decent Popular NoveU, [Feb. 

in print Other, larger eyes than hers by her cousin Lucy— than she falls 

have usuidly traced out a very differ- slowly but surely into the snare, her 

ent kind of doctrine ; and even if the e3'es still open, her moral sense by 

mass of men had no more to recom- no means overpowered. The course 

mend them than the Tullivers and of this strange magnetic union is 

Dodsons, through whose lives she traced through a large part of the 

oooll^ bids us wade, there would still la«t volume ; with what purpose, save 

remain the fact, that neither human to show George Eliot's faith in the 

art nor human morals can be refined philosophy put forth by the autlior 

or ennobled by examples taken ex- of " Elective Affinities, we cannot 

clusively or even frequently from the say. The lengthened treatment of a 

meanest poorest, and grossest types mystery so full of doubt and danger, 

of human character. A book of this by an Englishwoman writing for 

sort tends neither to purge our pas- readers of both sexes, speaks as poorly 

sions nor to tickle us into wholesome for her good taste as the readiness 

laughter. The strongest feelings it wherewith a large-hearted girl yields 

leaves behind are those of scorn or up all her noblest scruples, her ten- 

dislike for most of the people drawn, derest sympathies, to the paltry fear 

and of wonderment at the author's of seeming cruel in the eyes of a 

taste in drawing them as she has weak, unworthy tempter, speaks, in 

done. our opinion, for her knowledge of 

In the second volume the story human character. Surely, no woman 
moves a little faster ; there is some- of Maggie's sort would have let her- 
what less redundancy of small details, self be wholly drawn away from her 
and a little more food for human in- love for the deformed and suffering 
terest. Maggie's earlier attempts at Philip by a mere outside fancy for 
self-culture are described with some the good-looking, sweet-voiced cox- 
power and feeling, nor are we unplea- comb, Stephen Guest Nor could any 
santly surprised at Bob Jakin's kindly moral or artistic end be furthered by 
remembrance of olden favours rather a close relation of the circumstances 
than recent grudges. But the reac- which made her so unaccountably 
tion caused in Maggie's heart by the false both to her old lover and the 
reappearance and eloquent sophis- cousin with whom she had been stay- 
tries of Philip Wakem draws us back inc. We are not for picking needless 
with her into the mire of that low holes^ and do not care to cry out with 
animal life from which she, for one, prudish horror at the notion of au 
had so nearly struggled out Under ardent lover rushing to kiss a hand- 
the guise of profitable intercourse some girl's beautiful round arm. It 
with an old friend, she indulges in is not for showing up a conventional 
frequent stolen meetings with a young fallacy, however respectable, that 
man whose only aim is to begude her George Eliot deserves our blame. But 
into returning a love as selfish on his in her hatred of things conventional, 
side as it is long unsuspected by her. she goes too often to the opposite 
One manly word from Philip would extreme. Tlie development of a gross 
have saved Maggie from that weary passion much more akin to lust than 
struggle between a rational sense of love, takes up far too many pages of 
duty and a blind veaming for fancied a work not specially written for stu- 
friendship, which ended, after a dents of modem fVench literature or 
twelvemonth, as such conflicts under the disciples of M. Comte. English- 
such conditions are always likely men have not yet come to believe in 
enotigh to end. the triumph — ^speaking vulgariy— of 

But a yet worse fall awaits the matter over mmd. With all due 
heroine in the third volume. The allowanoe for the power of circum- 
stolen meetings had been brought stances, they cling the more rever- 
to a sudden close, but Maggie had ently to their old faith in a sonnd 
pledged her love to Philip, and re- heart and a steady wilL In the love 
peated that pledge to him before her passages between Stephen and Mag- 
angry brother, even while she pro- gie, they find only a detailed unlikely 
mised never to see him again without picture of animal feelings, far less 
her brother's leave. Yet a new ad- suited to ordinary readers than the 
mirer no sooner opens his spells upon superficial coarseness of Joseph An- 
her -an admirer already bespoken drews. A litUe mate reticence ca a 



1861.] Recent Popular Novels, 199 

aubjeet so perplexiiig to the largest own merits the work must stand or 

minds would have saved the wnter fall. Its moral bearinjgs, however, 

much waste of time, and satisfied the present a fair mark for critical arrows; 

requirements of an art that has little and some of us may honestly demur 

to do with scientific problems or ex- to the strong sway which outward 

ceptional phases of life. circumstances seem, in these novels, 

it is true that Maggie does at last habitually to wield over innate 

regain her moi^d balance, but by that strenfi^h of character and clearness of 

time the volume is nearly come to an moral insight. Unlike the Greek 

end, while the story itself has still dramatists and our own Shakespeare, 

apparentlv some way to run. At the George Eliot seems too fond of showing 

eleventh hour the heroine is allowed fate triumphant not only against 

to put forth that firm will which w&9 human happiness, but still more 

«!onvettienti^ kept in the background against human virtue. " The good 

when the right use of it would have that we would, we do not ; the evil 

come much more easily, and saved all that we would not, that we do,'' 

omoemed hom much needless suffer- is a text which she never tires of 

Ing. The two lovers having reached illustrating, to the loss of artistic 

York together, might have been con- contrast, and the weakening of her 

demned to go on to Scotland, wed hold on human sympathies. In our 

.each other, and live imhappily ever highest moments we feel her pictures 

after ; but then we should have lost to be less and lower than the truth, 

the neighbourly greeting that awaited and lament that one who can write 

our strong-minded penitent on her w^ith such clear force and true feeling, 

return to St Ogg's, while Lucy would should have taken so much delight in 

have been driven to keep her spirits drawing the meaner instead of the 

up by accepting the love which Tom nobler asi)ects of human life ; the 

Tulliver was dyin^ to present her. ruined huts on the Rhone, instead of 

Ou the other hand, Stephen might the ruined castles on the Rhine. 
have been punished by the loss of George Eliot has much both to 

lx>th his sweethearts, and Lucy in learn and to imleam before she can 

time allowed to pair off with honest, take the place which her friends 

faithful Tom ; Maggie, meanwhile, would claim for her among the novel- 

l>eing left to work out her allotted ista of our day. Her clear, racy, 

(lenance before returning chastened nervous English, heightened by gleams 

and made whole to the arms of her of quiet humour and thrills or calm 

first and truest lover. Had George pathos, lends rather a perilous charm 

Eliot made better use of her mateiials, to passages teeming with the worst 

she would have found more room for a luxuriance of that petty realism which 

fit conclusion. As things are, the story passes with careless critics for art of 

is suddenly carried off its le^ in the the first order. Even these are less 

flood that drowns poor Maggie ; and intolerable than those other passages 

the remaining characters are hustled of laboured irony and didactic com- 

from the sti^ at one stroke, as if monplace, which read like bits of 

author and readers were alike glad private note-books foisted into their 

to be rid of them on any tenns. present places, on much the same 

We shall not imitate a certain re- principle that leads a clever school- 
viewer by asking what George 'Eliot's Doy to astonish his friends at home 
religious views may be. Ajs a novelist, with easv lectures on things not gene- 
she nas faults enough to amend, with- rally unknown. Where Thackeray 
oat being unfairly hit by an utterly himself cannot always tread with 
needless reference to her translation safety, George Eliot can only succeed 
of Strauss. A theolo|^cal novel may in falling. Her inteijectional re- 
be a fit subject for criticism on theo- marks are seldom very wise or very 
logical grounds, but in the case of a pertinent. In nine cases out of ten 
novel lie "The Mill on the Floss " they only interrupt the story, with- 
we have no more right to challenge out offering a fair sop to the reader's 
the author's private leanings on re- impatience. Utterly lacking the 
ligious questions, than we have to tender illustrative beauty of Uke halt- 
charv^ her with all the meannesses of ing-places in "The Newcomes" and 
the Dodson family, or the heartless "Vanity Fair," they often jar upon our 
senraafiflm of Hetty SoreL By its feelings with signs of imperfect know- 



200 Recent Popuhr Xovds. [Peb. 

ledge hidden beneath a great show of this novel, which clainiB a^passing 
phuosophic sarcasm and a sound of notice from the marked disproportioii 
idle complaining. With the peevish of its actual merits to its seeming 
fretfulness of a camel in the act of popularity, the spirit of modem real- 
loading, our authoress keeps groaning ism has woven a tissue of scenes more 
out her tiresome tirades against evils wildly improbable than the fancy of 
for the most part of her own imagin- an average idealist would have ven- 
ing. Only a woman or Mr. Charles tured to inflict on readers beyou<l 
Reade would have called our atten- their teens. Mr. W. Collins has for 
tion to the startling fact that a boy of some years been favourably known to 
thirteen really tooK pride in wearing the general reader as a painstaking 
a real swordi, or that he had ^'no manufacturer of stories, short or long, 
distinct idea how there came to be whose chief merit lies in the skilful 
such a thing as Latin on this earth." elaboration of a startling mystery 
She sneers and rails like a sort of traceable to some natiu*al cause, but 
womanly Carlyle at an unreal monster, baffling all attempts to solve it until 
called by her ** good society," which the author himself has given us the 
gets all its religion and science done right clue. Some praise is also due 
to order, and knows nothing of any to him for the care with which these 
high belief or saving enthusiasm, literary puzzles are set off by a correct 
Sometimes another Emerson seems to if not very natural style, a pleasing 
be telling us, in large and poetic puritv of moral tone, and a certain 
phi-ases, that boys will feel like boys, knack of hitting the more superficial 
and that old associations make life traits of character. When we have 
pleasant. Of these tendencies some said all we can for him, We have said 
will doubtless cure themselves^ with nothing that would entitle him to a 
the enlarged experience of the coming higher place among English novelists, 
years, while others flow from the in- than the compiler of an average 
herent faultiness of those art princi- school-history would eiyoy among 
pies which George Eliot has hitherto English historians. But to a higher 
followed. With better principles, the place he seems ambitious to rise, if 
work done by such a writer would his readers would only estimate his 
bring more credit to herself, and give last performance as highly as he does 
more pleasure to thoughtful readers, himself. At any rate, ne has tried his 
Wlicn she shall have learned the best to make the world aj^rtner in 
difference between painting and pho- his own illusions. " The Woman in 
tography^ between the poetic and the White " opens with a grand flourisli 
prosaic sides of human life, between on the author's own trumpet, and 
careful selection and careless accumu- echoes of the same sweet music greet 
lation of small details, between that us ever and anon throughout the 
larger insight and sterner self-control, work. That many have thus been 
which go to the making of a flrat-rate lured to take him at his own valuing, 
novel, and the microscopic cleverness is likely and natural enough ; and the 
that evolves a series of faithful but pleasure that comes to most of us in 
disjointed sketches ; when her eyes reading a story full of movement 
shall have been opened to the truths and strange surprises, will often ho 
of that highest realism which reflects enhanced by contrast with the sur- 
the "soulof goodness in things evil." f citing effects of certain other talas 
painting the bloom upon the cheek, wherewith the genius of a great liv- 
the light in the eye of Nature, and ing novelist has made us too familiar, 
discovering a wealth of ideal grace But to us it seemed as if all this self- 
and music amid all the discords and approval rendered us the more alive 
deformities of life : then, indeed, but to the author's weakness, even in 
not before, will sne find herself on those very points where he had 
the road to a higher and more lasting hitherto come out best. If he has 
success than aught she can otherwise never yet succeeded in writing a note- 
hope to achieve. worthy novel, he has signalfy foiled 
With all her faults, however, a for once in that field of mechanical 
writer like George Eliot may look excellence which redeemed his former 

lown from a very far height on such essays from utter neglect 
dweller in the plains as he who Mr. Collins ends his preface witli 

Tote " The Woman in White." In an implied request that his critics 



1861.] Hecent Popular NovtU, 903 

therein, and you find yourself, in- craziness. Yet it is veiy hard to 
steady wondering in a world as my- imagine that none of those who wait- 
thicai as that portrayed on the boards ed on the new prisoner should in time 
of a penny theatre or in the pages of have found out the deception ; and 
a nursery tale. A poor drawing-mas- the subseauent failure of her old 
ter, hired to spend a few months friends ana neighbours to recomise 
under the same roof with his future one who, till very lately, had lived 
pupils, falls in love with one of them among them from a child, surpasses 
— a pretty, blonde heiress, whose all rational belief either in the powers 
heart slips out of her own keeping of human dulness or the range of 
before she remembers that her hand, natural possibilities. A novelist who 
at least, has long been pledged to aims at bein^ natural, and writes 
another. Here is the problem which seriously, shoiud refrain from remind- 
the Btoiy has to solve : how shall ing us of so broad a farce as Shakes- 
theee two ever be made one ? Of all poare*8 " Comedy of Errors." 
the numberless ways to that solution Not less absm-d, to our thinking, is 
Mr. Oollins has chosen the least prob- the manner in which Sir Percival 
able and the most perplexed. In a Glyde secures the future disposal of 
tale of little or no pretension we look his wife's property. Her rights are 
for interest rather than simple likeli- cahnly sacrificed both by her uncle 
hood ; even in tales of otherwise com- and his kind-hearted lawyer, though 
manding merit we overlook, if we do a word from the latter would have 
not actually require, an occasional set Miss Halcombe on her guard, and 
draft on our credulity. But here you determined her, in her sister's inte- 
have a book of the loudest pretension rests, to secure the postponement, for 
to artistic truth crammed with inci- a few months longer, of a marriage 
dents each unlikelier than the last, to which neither of tnem looked for- 
As one lie is supposed to lead to ward with the slightest pleasure. In 
twenty more, so here one unlikelihood the circumstances, also, which lead 
seems to beget another, till even the to the removal of lady Glyde from 
interest of the story is nearly all Blackwater, even the dull wits of Sir 
merged in our displeasure at the many Perci val's housekeeper ought to have 
strange things we have to swallow, found much food for suspicion. When 
*''The Woman in White" — a crazy a gentlema n, during his wife' s illness, 
lialf-sister of Lady Glvde's — forms suddenly diSniiases every servant down 
the keystone of that arch of mystery to the cook herself— one alone, and 
under which the lovers part, and on that one the least fit of all, being left 
the ruins of which they eventuallyi to manaj^e the whole house imder the 
stand triumphant Her strange like-l orders ot a drunken master, even Mrs. 
ncss to her unknown kinswoman sug-l Michelson, stupid as she is, would be 
gests the villainv which Count Foseo^ inclined, one tninks^ to smell some- 
aad Sir Percival Glyde carry out for thing queer in the wmd. Any house - 
a time with full success, and points keeper in real life would mive re- 
out to Walter Hartright the time road fused, after what she had already 
to their ultimate defegJh..^oth the seen, to believe the story of Marian '.h 
writer and the roguesoftne story departure, or to let poor Lady Glyde 
make of her a most convenient tool, travel up to London by herself. Ou- 
At the right moment — prjather, for riously enough, too, the same old lady, 
the rogues, a day too soon— she dies, who can remember the least particu- 
and her imhappy sister takes her lar about Marian's illness — what day 
place and name in the madhouse the nurse arrived— how long the 
trom which she escaped at the open- Count was absent — how many days 
ing of the story. I t is barely po ssible the fever lasted — what Fosco, Sir 
that Lady Ghrde sEbuld nave been Percival, Ladv Glyde, said or did 
tortured oy fear and suffering into from hour to hour — fails entirely to 
weari^ a look of her dead sister recall the date of Lady Clyde's sud- 
strong enough to mislead those who den journey to London un<ler circum- 
had nursed and prescribed for the stances of marked mystery. And, 
latter; and it is just conceivable that stranger still, the clever Mr. Hart- 
a careless or stupid doctor might have right cannot perceive the glaring dis- 
mistslcen the signs of bodily and crepaucy between a statement of the 
mental pain for those of downright iioor ladjr's death on the 25th July 



202 BeeerU Popular NovtU, [Feb. 

in the mechanism of her last novel, the parable sorely against his own 
he has tried to better her teaching by will, nave extended a very short stoiv 
a device more absurd and far-fetdied over some thirty pages, even though 
than anv. Instead of keeping up that it was all taken aown from his die- 
seesaw between ''his diaiy' and'* her tation? How is it that the house- 
diarV' which spoils the reading of keeper at Blackwater Park, so stupid, 
"A life for a Life," he has achieved forgetful, and unsuspecting, should 
a literary feat wonderfully like to that have depicted her own experiences 
of the gentleman at Astle/s, who sur- with regard to Fosco, Glyde, and 
passes all rivals by straddling over others, in language strangely akin to 
six horses at once. "The story of tliat of Miss Halcombe's (fiary and 
the book is told throughout by the Mr. Hartright's confessions? A long- 
characters of the book," each of them ish statement by Mr. Fairlie's lawyer, 
iu turn taking up the wondrous tale besides going over some old ground, 
at the point where his or her shadow illustrates nothing but the kindly na- 
falls most invitingly across the scenes«J;ure of a gentleman with whom we 
How many witnesses thus give their never meet again, and who allows bis 
evidence we are afraid to reckon up : client's niece to fall too readily into 
but any one who has ever floundered the snare devised for her by her future 
through all the particulars of an im- husband. Some parts even of Ma- 
portant trial for murder, or about a rian's diary might have been cut away 
disputed will, can realize the bewil- without leaving her less worthy to in- 
tU'.ring effect of the same process car- spire her villanous Italian lover with 
vied out in the development of a that exceptional tenderness which 
three- volumed novel. The great dif- insured his ultimate defeat, 
ference aM,inst those who read the Had the story been wrought out in 
latter is, that in a court of justice wit- the old-fashioned way it could have 
nesses are not allowed to ramble far been told far more effectively and in 
from the point, while the judge con- less space. Much of the first and 
vcniently sums up for the general be- nearly half the second volimie might 
hoof those results which a curious have been easily condensed into two 
novel-reader is left to puzzle over for or three chapters. A story full of 
himself. Whatever some may think movement would not have kept us 
of the novelty of this arrangement, waiting so long beside Marian's sick 
we are really at a loss to see how bed, or among the art treasures of her 
'' the substance of the book, as well silly and selnsh uncle's sitting-room 
as the form, has profited by it." If at Limmeridge. A few pages on the 
abrupt changes in style and colouring, subject of Mrs. Michelson's narrative, 
needless repetitions of facts already and a few lines about the shorter de- 
known, much interweaving of imper- positions that follow, would have 
tinent trifles, and many wearisome told us all that was needful regarding 
demands on our credulity, be^ as we the plot laid for destroying the iden- 
honestly declare, the mighty issue of tity of Lady Glyde. Nor will it seem 
this labouring mountain, the pretend- bootless to remmd the author that in- 
ed profit must be far beyond our cidents alone do not necessarily help 
search. What movement the story the story forward, even if it be stuflfed 
has could have been imparted by as full of them as an omnibus is with 
much simpler means ; and we would passengers on a rainy day. If some 
rather have seen the characters de- of those in the present novel are use- 
veloped in the usual way, than by a f ul to mislead, others can only tend to 
process about as credible and straight- weary the reader, without adding a 
forward as that employed by the spi- perceptible link to the circimistantial 
rits who are supposed to move our chain. 

cbrawing-room tables, and play sweet But the attempt to combine new- 
music on accordions once attunable ness of form and substance with re- 
by mortal fingers alone. Do we get aHty of treatment has led to failure 
any further or more important light of a still more faring kind. Through- 
^o the depths of Mr. Fairlie's small out the book circumstances grotesque 
d by perusing his statement of or improbable meet you at every 
tbefelliimself atthetime of Miss tura. You are bidden to look at 
x)rabe'8 illness ? Would a sickly, scenes of real modem life, describe<l 
, irritable gentleman, taking up by the very persons who figured 



1861.] Hecmt Fopular Novels, S03 

therem, and jovl find yourself, in- craziness. Yet it is very hard to 
steud. wandenng in a world aa my- imagine that none of those who wait- 
thicai as that portrayed on the boards ed on the new prisoner should in time 
of a penny theatre or in the pages of have found out the deception ; and 
a noreery tale. A poor drawing-mas- the subsequent failure of her old 
ter, hirra to spend a few months friends and neighbours to recoenise 
under the same roof with his future one who. till very lately, had uved 
pnpila, falls in love with one of them among tnem from a child, surpasses 
-—a pretty, blonde heiress, whose all rational belief either in the powers 
heart slips out of her own keeping of human dulness or the range of 
before she remembers that her hand, natui*al possibilities. A novelist who 
at least, has long been pledged to aims at bein^ natural, and writes 
another. Here is the problem which seriously^ should refrain from remind- 
the story has to solve : how shall ing us oi so broad a farce as Shakes- 
thete two ever be made one ] Of all peare'a '* Comedy of Errors." 
the numberless ways to that solution Not less absurd, to our thinking, is 
Mr. Collins has chosen the least prob- the manner in which Sir Percival 
able and the most perplexed. In a Glyde secures the future disposal of 
tale of little or no pretension we look his wife's property. Her rights are 
for interest rather than simple likeli- calmly sacrificed both by her uncle 
hood ; even in tales of otherwise com- and his kind-hearted lawyer, though 
manding merit we overlook, if we do a word from the latter would have 
not actually require, an occasional set Miss Halcombe on her guard, and 
draft on our credulity. But here you determined her, in her sister's intc- 
have a book of the loudest pretension rests, to secure the postponement, for 
to artistic truth crammed with inci- a few months longer, of a marriage 
dents each imlikelier than the last, to which neither of tnem looked for- 
Aa one lie is supposed to lead to ward with the slightest pleasure. In 
twenty more, so here one unlikelihood the circumstances, also, which lead 
seems to beget another, till even the to the removal of Lady Glyde from 
interest of the story is nearly all Blackwater, even the dull wits of Sir 
merged in our displeasure at the many Percival's housekeeper ought to have 
Btrange things we have to swallow, found much food for suspicion. When 
"The Woman in White" — a crazy a gentleman, durin g^his wife's illness, 
half^iater of Lady Glvde's— forms suddenly diSnusses every sfePVttnt down 
the keystone of that arch of mystery to the cook herself— one alone, and 
under which the lovers part, and on that one the least fit of all, being left 
the ruiDB of which they eventuall3r| to manage tiie whole house under the 
:»tand triumphant. Her strange like-1 orders of a drunken master, even Mrs. 
neas to her unknown kinswoman sug J Michelson, stupid as she is, would be 
gests the villainv which Count Foseo^ inclined, one thinlos^ to smell some- 
and Sir Percival Glyde carry out for thing queer in the wind. Any house- 
a time with full success, and points keeper in real life would have re- 
out to Walter Hartright the true road fused, after what she had already 
to their ultimate defe|^t,.«^oth the seen, to believe the story of Marian \s 
writer and the rogues^ of the story departure, or to let poor Lady Glyde 
maJse of her a most convenient tool, travel up to London by herself. Cu- 
At the right moment — or rather, for riously enough, too, the same old lady, 
the rogues, a day too soon —she dies, who can remember the least particu- 
and her unhappy sister takes her lar about Marian's illness — ^what day 
place and name in the madhouse the nurse arrived— how long the 
trom which she escaped at the open- Count was absent — how many days 
ing of the story. I t ia hare lY J^ible the fever lasted — ^what Fosco, Sir 
that Lady Ghrde should nave been Percival, Lady Glyde, said or did 
tortured oy fear and suffering into from hour to nour — fails entirely to 
weariijg a look of her dead sister recall the date of Lady Clyde's sud- 
strong enough to mislead those who den journey to London under circum- 
had nursed and proscribed for the stances of marked myst^'ry. And, 
latter: and it is just conceivable that stranger still, the clever Mr. Hart- 
a eareless or stujjid doctor might have right cannot perceive the glaring dis- 
inistaJcen the signs of bodily and crepancy between a statement of the 
mental pain for those of downright poor lady's death on the 25th July 



204 Recent Pi/pular Noveh. [Feb. 

and the proofs, revealed by Mrs. Mi- latest essa^. At a time when George 

chelson's own story» of her being Eliot is widely read, and even " The 

alive at Blackwater Park in the be- Woman in White" runs through more 

ginning of August. And yet on a than one edition in a few weeks, it 

question of dates the whole catastro- seems the duty of an honest critic t«> 

phe is made to turn ! sav his best in favour of a writer who 

The third volume is utterly melo- tells an interesting story in a natural, 

dramatic. Sir Percival's convenient easy way, with no elaborate waste 

death by fire, ill-managed and poorly of words or accumulation of smart 

drawn, leaves his widow free t^ marry touches — no pauses of admiration at 

her whilom teiicher, whose efforts to his own work, or spirts of irrelevant 

l)rove her identity are luckily fur- railing at fancied evils ; — of a writer, 

thered by Fosco's absurd tendeniess in short, who thinks less about himself 

for that "grand creatui'e," Marian than about his subject — has a true 

Halcombe. A happy fluke which eye for characteristic humouis, telling 

places FoBCO at Mr. Hartright'smercv, incidents, picturesque scenes, and 

leads to a grand recital oi impossible abounds in genial pleasantry, in tones 

vilLanies, followed by the arch villain's of manly tenderness, in the spirit of 

final extinction in a blaze of lurid a large idealism, hallowing all things, 

mystery, under the recollection where- even as a landscape \r glonfied by the 

of we, too, may take our leave of a sun. 
work which, but for its popularity, "Lavinia" is a story which no lover 

we should never have tnought of of natui*al beauty would wish unread, 

noticing in the same page with ** The a story which no pure-minded Englif^h 

Mill on the Floss," still less with the lady need blush to read, nor any busi- 

novel that comes next under review, ness-loving gentleman of middle age 

To turn from " The Woman in scorn to take up in idle hours. Writ- 
White" to such a novel as "Lavinia" ten for no special purpose, guiltless of 
is like emerging from the lights and all attempts to preach up new gospels, 
noise of a fourth-rate theatre into the social or politic^ it carries you plea- 
fresh, sweet air of a summer evening, santly and not vainly along from first 
Pleasant enough to the reader, such to last, feeding alike your thirst for 
a change gives double pleasiure to the healthy emotion and your need for 
critic, whose sense of oeauty thirsts intellectual refreshment with a just 
for some worthier food than mere admixtureof incidents, neither beyont I 
melodramas or even photographic nor beneath the ken of a refined real - 
pictures of vulgar life. In this ism, and of characters wrought out 
natural, unpretending tale, written with dramatic truth and winning from 
though it be by a foreigner, whose you, each in his several way, that 
]nastery of our tongue can only have amount of curious interest which tlie 
l)een gained by long practice, we author meant him to inspire. It is 
have a work of which any Enelish a story of no pretension whatever, 
novelist might well be proud. With turning on that old theme of number- 
few exceptions the language is tho- less stories past, present, and to conie, 
roughly cnoice, graceful, and happily the love of man and woman for each 
turned. If a foreign word or pnrase other. As in "The Woman in White," 
sometimes fills the place of a good two persons, between whom frowns 
English equivalent, and the order of many a barrier of outwaid circum- 
a sentence now and then looks some- stance, are here depicted falling into 
what strange to English eyes, there love, and going through a course of 
are yet more instances of a wide ac- preliminary trial which leads them, at 
quaintanee with idioms not generally the end of the last volume, into the 
known to students of a foreign tongue, wished-for haven of wedded bhss. 
and too often, indeed, nejglected by But lAvinia and Paolo are very dif- 
English writers. But this is, perhaps, ferent beings to those conceived by 
the least charm of the book, and the Mr. Collins, and their adventures, even 
author of " Doctor Antonio" needs at the strangest, always retain that 
no fresh certificate of an excellence air of likelihood, which seems wholly 
so clearly proven some years ago. It wanting to those of Mr. Hartright and 
is for the nigher merits of which he Laura Fairlie. Their characters, seen 
gave such welcome promise before, at first in dim outline, come out more 
that we would call attention to his and more clearly as the plot moves on, 



1^61.] Brcetit PajHiiar Sovels. 2()5 

e^icJi nev Bituation revealing a fr&ili parcnU' sufierings, and lii^ own etirly 
4 »r illastrating a former trait Natural struggles, before the Englishman fir^t 
witlumt meanness, and self-consistent finds him copying a M^onna in the 
witboat being one-sided, they are Vatican. Out of those two chapters 
ueitlier moiifitera of virtue nor mira- a preRaphaelite novelist would have 
r ie8 of ropery ; still less have they of made, at least a volume, if not a whole 
k iiiiship with the strong-handed giants book. At Mortimer^s advice, and with 
f>f one novelist or the characterless his help, the young drawing-master 
heroines of another. Not being mere sets up a studio and speedily wins 
bundles of crude maxims or bladders renown as an original painter of his- 
filled with sentimental rhetoric, they torical themes. Ootnmunity of toils 
Tulk, write, and behave themselves and dangers, in the year of Home's 
like haman beings cast indeed in no last efibrt to be free, bound yet faster 
onlinary mould, but weak enough to the friendship which common tastes 
he a^Hnetimes jealous, unkind, ill-tern- and an under current of common feel- 
leered ; to be led by circumstances into ing had first begun. About this time 
deeds of folly or recklessness, whose Lavinia Jones appears on the stage 
fruit is bitter suffering and deep in- as a spoilt-child of fortune and nieco 
ward shame. Their career, full as it of a retired tradesman, whose great 
is of various incidents, and chequered wealth had just failed to save him 
with many shapes of passing evil, from the*'honour of being greeted as 
{^cems to interest us, chiefly tScause "OldJones of Piccadilly, by a former 
it is theirs, because they are living customer of more birth than breeding, 
friendsof ours, who come forth at last Recommended to take lessons of 
from their fiery baptism stronger, Paolo by one of his old pupils, and 
wiser, humbler-hearted, every way baffled in her first attempt to secure 
worthier of each other than before. his services, the determined young 
The book opens with a scene in a lady storms his studio, covered, of 
t^ninter fl studio at Rome. Mortimer * course, by her uncle, and at one good 
rhomton, an English ^ntleman, older stroke gains both an excellent teacher 
in suiiering than actual years, looks and the lover, to whom her own heai*t 
in to see how his young friend and was, in good time, to yield itself with- 
favourite, Paolo Mancini. gets on with out conditions. The silent but inevit- 
his new picture. In tne following able growth of their mutual love, the 
dialc^gue their characters are well con- disappointments, doubts, misunder- 
t mated, the Italian's eager, quick- standings, which fail to choke or 
dancing, open-hearted nature, ^^al- weaken it, poor Paolo's fatal outburst 
ways in extremes," against his com- of mad despair at Paris, Lavinia's 
panion*s "provoking British phlegm," grief at losing him, sharpened by re- 
covering, as it often does, a depth of morse for past acts of foolish trifling 
Ktrong and tender feeling, unfathom- with one so worthy of the best she 
able by dwellers in a sunnier clime, had to give, are all traced by the same 
An they ^j^ so they continue delicate yet manly pencil that drew 
throughout The buminff £tna under the less happy loves of Lucy and 
the coat of ice bursts forth, in due Doctor Antonio, 
time, with a power and fury the more In the present novel, as in the last, 
ravaging for its long suppression, and much is told in the fewest words, and 
leaves mhind a broad waste of Intel- hints go further than set phrases. A 
lectual ruin which neither time nor look, a word, a gesture is made to 
th)ctor'B skill can restore to its olden carry as much meaning as an artist 
m^esty. Paolo, on the other hand, less able or less conscientious would 
quicker to lose is much less slow to have spun out through several pages, 
rei^ain his mental balance, like some Lavinia's gossiping letters to her dear 
ships that heel over with the slightest friend. Lady Augusta, supply what 
wind, but are steadier beyond a certain links were needed to complete the 
^)«iint than those which usually sail chain of evidence re^rding herself, 
hUfter in a strong breeze. Thornton's her character, and her feelings towards 
IHut is not wholly revealed to us un- Paolo ; besides bringing out those 
til the third volume ; but Paolo's ante- nicer traits in Paolo's conduct which 
cedents are not long shrouded in mys- a woman would always be quickest to 
triy. Two short but touching chapters remark. There is no parade of her 
uDfoldthestory of his noble birth, his own feelings or fancies; she only 



806 Recent Popular Novels. [Feb. 

tells in a lively natural way what hap- too much from the other, in sheer 
pened at different times, how roughly ignorance of the other's peculiar 
Paolo seized her wrist to keep her training. Paolo, well-bom m fact, 
from climbing a dangerous part of the but brought up in poverty to love 
Colosseum, how pleased he was at the simple tnith and natural beauty, 
way she wore her hair, how angry at tau^t by sad experience to despise 
lier not resenting the rude stare of the Komans of his own order, accus- 
the wicked Prince Rocca-Ginestra, tomed to think for himself and to 
what a fight she herself had with her find in hard work a strong antidote io 
uncle, about an invitation to dinner his native indolence, takes Lavinia to 
for Signor Paolo. In the same way task on points of behaviour, about 
we discover how easily Miss Jones is which a lover less unsophisticated 
taken in by a sham count and led away would neither have said nor, perhaps, 
by a giddy marchioness j we smile at thought a harsh thing. The lively 
her lover's rebellion against the rules handsome English girl, on her side, 
ofdrawing-roomlife and his unsparing bred in elegant idlenees and busy 
hatredof Italian nobles; and we pity pleasure-seeking, among folks who 
the poor simple-hearted painter for worshipped riches only less than rank, 
pourmg out his soul on a brilliant and measured all beauty of soul or 
young beauty, whose love for him, body by the costliness of its golden 
imlike that of Donna Julia, seems but settmg, could only laugh at her lover's 
a small part of her daily being, too furious tirades against wickedness in 
weak to lift her above a selfish ^r of high places, against the manners and 
the world's opinion, or to draw her amusements of polite society, against 
away for a rew moments from the other things that seemed to her either 
close pursuit of those worldly plea- venial or comparatively blameless, 
sures which her lover was neither From a pedestal of pride and acci- 
willing to share nor able to tolerate, dental worth she looks down on the 
Other bits of useful information creep man who comes to a dinner-party in 
upon us here and there in the course thick shoes and brown gloves. Paolo's 
or the narrative, rather, as it were, by horror of low di'esses, wide-spreading 
chance than of s^t purpose, until we crinoline, and such like freaks of 
come insensibly to a fair division of modem fashion, is matched by Lavi- 
our sympathies between two people nia's wondering pity for a madman 
outwardly so difl'erent, yet each at who wilfully tears to pieces the docu- 
bottom so worthy to match the other, ment that proves his title to a mar- 
There is enough of fault and folly on quisate. His bursts of unreasoning 
either side to enhance our appreciation anger and wild despair seem almost 
of the good that belongs to both. warranted bv her insolent trifling with 

A story so well told cannot fail to the love of one to whose innate 
suggest some of those "liberal appli- nobleness she herself in her higher 
cations" which any thoughtful stu- moments delights to pay the heartiest 
(lent may always find for himself in homage. Ijavinia's ignorance of a 
the fields of art as well as nature, world outside the fashionable pale 
The author is too good a judge to be- leads her into acts of unwitting 
have like a lecturer in a dissecting- harshness towards the most sensitive 
room, explaining this peculiarity of of eamest lovers, while Paolo's hatred 
structure, dwelling on that symptom of all conventionalism blinds him to 
of functional disease, or speculating the sacrifices which Lavinia from 
on the probable uses of yonder tissue, time to time does really make on his 
He has left us to form our own con- behalf. Both of them have to learn 
elusions, while taking care to leave us wisdom through much trial In the 
grounds, enough for such a process, depths of poverty and outward hu- 
One moral in particular seems to miJiation, the one has to learn what 
wind about his story of these two poor things are rank, and riches, and 
Levers, like a delicate vein over the worldly snow, beside the loveliness of 
surface of a fair white arm. The a manly loyal heart. Cloyed with 
main secret of their early quarrels the frivolous excitements and sensual 
and long separation lies in those trifles follies of a gay bachelor's life in Paris, 
of outward circumstance by which the other also looks back with shame 
one dets too much and the other too to the days of his youthful innooenoe, 
little store. Each continually expects and owns at last that wealth and 



1 86L1 Beemt Fop^dar Novels. 207 

iiUeiMK may lead men into worse quence snatches Paolo himself at a 

tcmptatioDB than were ever yet de- very critical moment from the full 

x-iaea hj poverty and hard work, stream of sensualism on which he 

Prospenty naving laid bare the weak had let himself float despairingly 

spoU in Paolo's nature, while mis- away. 

fortune was bringing out the nobler In the by-play and other adjuncts 
traits in that of LaYinia» the two of the story there is no lack of racy 
li^vers are at length allowed to join portraiture and truthful shading. 
Iiands across the grave of their past From the purse-proud upstart, Mr. 
iiiusioDa» and receive with humble Jones, duped by the first impostor 
thankfulness that crown of happy love who puts Count before his name, and 
which sometimes, even in real life, ready to insult Lavinia in the hour 
awaits those who have dared nobly of her greatest helplessness, down to 
and suffered much. the reckless, light-hearted Thdophilc 
Nor are these two the only pair who Courant, who thinks the " Promessi 
end bappdly. Thornton also, the Bug- Si)osi" far too moral, and believes 
lifth woman-hater, whose cynical in Balzac as the prophet who has ex- 
waminKs failed to narden his young hausted all fields of fiction save that 
friend's poetic heart against one of passion alone, each of the lesser 
whose image had already begun to characters reveals, in a few distinctive 
nestle there, h& too, is made whole touches, the delicate movements of 
acain by the sight of her whose great the same master hand. The kind- 
love for him, cruellv as he had once hearted landlady with whom Lavinia 
wronged, and madly as he had re- finds a lodging, and who only looks 
nr»anoed it, was still, after long years in newspapers for tlie last "mvsterious 
of mutual suffering, to bear rich event' or ** shocking suicide ;" the 
fruit in the love which he had vainly quaint old sergeant, Benolt. and the 
striven to trample out of his own humble friends through whose ten- 
breast. His first meeting with long- der nursing Paolo is brought safely 
lost Olaxa is naturally ana touchingly through a serious illness ; Du Genre, 
Told; and if his previous madness the French painter, whose views of 
stemed hardly warranted by the ap- art are as realistic as those of Paolo 
l>'irent cause, the recovery at least is are the reverse ; the rattle-brained 
tjuite in keeping with average experi- Spanish Princess who puts her house- 
( uce. Clara's appearance on the hold in mourning on the death of a 
8cene leads to as pleasant a chapter as lap-dog, and knocks down a faithless 
any in the book — ^the description of lover on the stage of her private 
** (Jwtscombe and its inmates." In theatre ; all these, and yet more, play 
lK»rtraying the characteristic graces their several parts with much dra- 
•>f a quiet English household, the matic fitness and due regard to per- 
author Heeros no less at home than in spective. They seldom, if ever, say 
other more humorous sketches of life too much or harp too often on the 
at Rome and Paris. Mr. Aveling, same string. We get the cream of 
wUii his fine fancies, warm heart, their talk ready skimmed. In this 
and passionate phrases, happ^ in the novel, as in ** Doctor Antonio," a 
lovinff worship of a true wife and good deal of character is evolved in 
fiiithral sister, forms the fit centre of dialogue ; and the dialogue, always 
A wr*mp wrought out with the manly true to the speakei-s in substance, if 
humour and rich poetic grace of not in verbal form, veiy seldom runs 
Washington Irving. An excellent to excess or overflows into public lec- 
foil to the more tragic loves of Paolo turing. Unlike Ckorge Eliot, this 
and Lavinia is found for us in the author knows when to have done, 
long and faithful coiutship of Paolo's His tact and continence are remark- 
livdv, honest, little friend, Salvator, able in many ways. Paolo's down- 
and his brave, hard-working, patient, ward course, under the guidance of 
little sweetheart, Clelia. Salvator's Du Grenre and the patronage of M. 
happy flood sense and kindly hiunour, Du Verlat, is painted without gross- 
I set off oy abundant scraps from his ness, yet without prudery — enough 
favourite operas, keep Paolo's courage being shown to repel us from pryin^^ 
alive under the cooling effects of deeper. So, too, of Lavinia's trialn 
Thomtoa's sareasms and Lavinia's in the great English capital enough 
changefolness ; and his honest elo- is told to help us in realising the 



208 Dhrct Trctde between France and Irelund. [Feb. 

utter contrast between those davs of home circle at Owl8com))e, or beneath 
plenty and these of famine. Even the lowlier roof of poor Prosper, many 
II is patriotism, true and deep as it a ^ood thing is said with so little 
evidently is, never seems to cairy him, noise that a reader used to the screams^ 
as it did somewhat in his former work, and starts of other novelists would 
beyond the bounds of dramatic likeli- likely fail to hear t heniL The authors 
hood. Saved from mental ruin at way of handling a sentiment is the- 
Paris, the hero is certainly sent to roughly Horatian, though his philo- 
face bodily dangers among his coun- sopny is by no means Epieuraan. A 
trymen in the Crimea : but we are vein of delicate humour and genial 
])ored with no detailed accounts of raillery runs throt^h all his writing, 
liLs wariike doings, and listen only to and many passages are alive with the 
a few sentences of eloquent meaning true spirit of high comedy, seldom, if 
on the reasons that led Piedmont to ever, sinking into mere farce. Had 
join the Allies. he not written so good a story, we 
Whether derived from nature or might have expected him to produce 
jiractice, the glow of manly cheerful- a capital play. In a work so full of 
iiess and kinmy wisdom which lights beauties we have not cared, even if 
up ** Lavinia" reminds us pleasantly we had time, to point out famts which 
of Walter Scott. Like the works of any reader may detect for himself 
that great novelist, it embodies in To us they are but traits of natural 
artistic fonns a large amount of varied weakness in the character of one we 
culture and condensed experience, love : of weakness all the more par- 
tinged with a warmth of natural feel- donaole for not affecting the strut and 
ing more peculiarly its own. If there show of strength. We neartiiy thank 
is hardly a line of direct preaching in the author of "Lavinia" for having 
the whole three volumes, pearls of given us so clear a proof that the art 
large uhilosophy and noble sentiment of writing a classic novel has not 
keep aropping, on fit occasions, from wholly died out, even in an b^ of 
the lips of various speakers. Amidst groping realism and frantic straming 
the group of gay, young artists in after new effects. 
Pciolo's Koman studio, or m the quiet 



DIRECT TRADE BETWEEN FRANCE AND IRELAND. 

Whatever is calculated to promote ofreciprocity may reasonably be enter- 
cither the religious, intellectual, or tained, if the facility of direct conunu- 
material progress of this country has ideation should enable French artides 
ever been zealously advocated in our of various sorts to reach our shores 
)>age8. The recent Commercial Treaty with cheapness and celerity. At pre- 
M'ith France gives an oi>ening for in- sent the indirect nature of the traffic 
crease of material wealth, if direct deprives the trade between the two 
(^mmunication could be established countries of much of the profits which 
between that countrj' and some of our would reward its development by fell - 
j>rincipal sea-port towns. The con- ing wholly to the share of the imme- 
sumption of Trench goods in Ire- diately interested parties. But direct 
land was, in past times, considerable and mpid communication, by enabling 
in proportion to the wealth of this demand to be quickly suited by sup- 
island, and the recent augmentation i)ly, would have the effect of bnnging 
of our prosperity will leaid to a cor- more capital, in many hands, into the 
responding increase of these imports, traffic, and of giving a brisk torn and 
By afirstpiinciple in political economy, general spread tothis particular branch 
imDorts must be paid for by exports ; of commerce, 
ana the reductions in the French tariff' Up to the present time, the gooils 
offer expectation that we mav look and passenger traffic between thin 
forward to supply our neighbours country and the Continent has been 
across the Channel with several ar- carried on almost entirely tfrnnigh 
tides of primary necessity, and some England. This course teems, at the 
in a manufactured state. Prospects first view, less ol^'ectionable than that 



1S61.] Direct Trade between France and Ireland. 209 

the tnfficbetweenlreland and America Buffice to recompense the larger portion 
and Australia should be conducted of the current expenses. The fare by 
through the same medium, because it this line would probably not exceed 
does not, like the latter courses, in- £2, being about one-half the cost of 
Tol ve a retrograde movement At the travelling at the cheapest rate between 
f^ame time, several inconveniences re- Dublin and Paris. Calculations could 
9ult to the travellinff public and trad- be quoted, tending to prove that in 
ingoommnnityoflrdandfromwantof point of expense, time, and conye- 
flirect steam communication between nience, the superiority of a direct line 
this country and France. Our own would be great over the present routes, 
knowlet^e enables us to say that With respect to the probable amount 
many Irishmen and families, visiting of passengers, the data are by no means 
aud residing in the latter land, would accessible \ but this is a point we shall 
;;ladly avail themselves of the more return to. 

economic mode of transit, did it exist, The item of freight of goods 
instead of, as now, having to make a which might be expected for such a 
long and costly journey through Eng- lino offers some obvious conclusions, 
land. Ifthere were proper steamboats although the probable development 
plying direct between Havre and Wa- of the traffic is in genersd obscurity, 
terford, Cork, and Dublin, a large Our imports from France are more 
amount of passenger traffic mi^ht be considerable than might be imagined, 
counted on, from sources which we but our exports to that country are 
shall presently indicate. At present extremely small. It may reasonably 
the journey between the French ana be anticipated that the effect of direct 
Irish ci4>itals involves two sea voyages steam communication would be to in- 
and two railwav trips. Its expense, crease our imports largely, and to 
moreover, is sucn as to render a visit raise our export trade to a respectable 
to the Continent agratification beyond figure. With increase of wealth, the 
the reach of persons of limited means, demand for French goods will aug- 
But were such a line of steamers run- ment 

ning as we propose, an individual Let us be^ with considering the 
might go ana return for the amount article of wme. The extensive con- 
of the fare he would now have to pay sumption of French wines in this 
for going. country, in times when the duty was 

Travelling will soon no longer be low, proves the taste for them to have 
the luxury of the upper ten thousand, existed, and renders it likely to re- 
but will be availaDle for the middle vive, now that the duty is moderate, 
classes, with the widest beneficial The reputation Ireland acquired for 
effects. Already, the wjse Emperor importing good claret has continued 
of the French, recognising an influx to the present day. The reduction of 
of commercial travellers as one of the the dut^ oilers