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Duke Alumni Association 

Distinguished Alumni Award 

The Distinguished Alumni Award is the highest award presented by the Duke Alumni 
Association. It shall be awarded with great care to alumni who have distinguished themselves 
by contributions that they have made in their own particular fields of work, or in service to 
Duke University, or in the betterment of humanity. All alumni, other than current Duke 
employees, are eligible for consideration. 

All nominations should be addressed to the Awards and Recognition Committee, 
Alumni House, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 27708. Nominations received by August 31 
will be considered by the Committee. All background information on the candidates must be 
compiled by the individual submitting the nomination. 


Field of Achievement 

Description of Accomplishments 

(Please attach curriculum vitae , letters of recommendation , and other supporting documents) : 

Submitted by Phone Day Evening 


It is essential that the person submitting the nominations send all materials pertinent to the nominee. 
The Awards and Recognition Committee will not do further research. 

For additional information call: Barbara Pattishall, Associate Director, Alumni House, Duke University 
(1-800-367-3853 or 1-919-684-5114) 

Duke Magazine is 
printed on recycled 


Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 
Sam Hull 

Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 
IV-nnis Meredith 
Jason Schultz '93 
Adriane Hirsch '94, 
Rochelle Woodbury '94 
West Side Studio, Inc. 



Stanley G. Bradingjr. 75, 

pr L \sjJ, m, James D. Warren 75, 
president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderburk Jr. '60, secretary- 

Sylvester L. Shannon B.D. '66, 
Divinity School; J. Samuel 
Mcknight B.S.E. '60, M.S. '62, 
Ph.D. '69, School ,>t h'nijjniviiin;: 
Schoolt>f the Environment; Kirk 
J. Bradley M.B.A. '86, Fitqua 
School o\ Husnu'ss; Richard K. 
Toomey 77, M.H.A. 79, 
Department of Health Adminis- 
tration; David G. Klaber J. D. 
'69, School of Law; Robert M. 
Rosemond M.D. '53, School of 
Wcdicmc; *, 'hnslnic Mundie 
Willis B.S.N. 73, School o/ 
Nursing; Marie Koval Nardone 
M.S. 79, A.H.C. 79, Graduate 
Program in Physical Therapy; 
Margaret Adams Harris '38, 
LL.B. '40, Half Century Cluo. 

BOARD: Clay Feiker '51, 
chairman; Frederick F. Andrews 
'60; Peter C. Applebome 71; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah Hard- 
esty Bray 72; Holly B. Brubach 
75; Nancy L. Cardwell '69; 
JcrrolJ K. Footlick; Edward M. 
Gome: 79; Kerry E. Harmon 
'S2; Elizabeth H. Locke '64, 
Ph.D. 72; Thomas P. Losee Jr. 
'63; R. Robin McDonald 77; 
Hugh S.Sidey; Susan Tifft 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

Composition by Liberated 
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© 1993 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs; vol- 
untary subscriptions $15 per 
year: Duke Magazine, Alumni 
House, 614 Chapel Drive, 
Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 
27708-0570; (919) 684-5114. 



Cover; Desperately seeking success — 
not/iing less than an A — can often 
overtake the rational pursuit of excellence . 
Illustration fry Waller Stanford. 


/? rcL.'i ue-5 

318 15h 


While Ivy League schools are rapidly becoming places where everyone graduates with 
honors and, apparently, there's no such thing as average work, Duke hasn't completely 
followed suit — yet 


"It is not a matter of autobiography or confession," says North Carolina poet, novelist, and 
professor of English Fred Chappell. "It is the using of one's very marrow and soul as a means 
of expression." 

CAN YOU LOCK OUT CRIME? by Beth Szymkowski I2~ 

As it tries to insulate itself from an increasingly violence-prone society, the university also 
grapples with internal incidents of theft, vandalism, and sexual assault 

A PATCH OF THE FUTURE by Monte Basgall 37^ 

Duke botanists are creating atmospheres of the twenty-first century in order to see how 
vegetation, soils, and animals react 


California's chief environmental officer embraces an ecosystem approach, which broadens 
the emphasis from preserving single species to protecting an entire habitat 


An early role model for women at Duke 



A career of comforting the terminally il 



Saving military bases, faulting tenure policy, questioning athletic equity 


A verdict for free expression, a facelift for a library, a change for football 


Gatherings: a first novel that intrigues and lures one on 


Assessing Middle East peace prospects, pondering the health of the health-care profession, 
debating an all-freshman East Campus 





While Ivy League schools are rapidly becoming places 
where everyone graduates with honors and, apparent- 
ly, there's no such thing as average work, Duke hasn't 
completely followed suit — yet. 

When Ph.D. candidate War- 
ren Hedges signed on to 
teach the University Writ- 
ing Course (U.W.C.), a 
required class for all first-year students, he 
didn't know the level of apprehension 
among his students he was to encounter. 
This very palpable fear had nothing to do 
with using proper syntax or correct gram- 
mar. It had to do with grades. 

"In the U.W.C, no grades are given for 
the first half of the semester," says Hedges. 
"And it's a real source of anxiety for stu- 
dents. They're so used to being ranked that 
you have to work to get them to relax and 
honestly engage in the material without 
thinking about how they rate." 

It wasn't easy. Students tried to coerce 
Hedges into performance assessments. "We 
know you're not giving grades," they'd 
say, "but if you were, what would I be 

Hedges' response? "I told them that if 
anyone was doing work below a B-minus 
level, I'd let them know. That provided 
something of a safety net." 

When Clark Cahow came to Duke as a 
freshman in 1946, it was generally under- 
stood that A's were few and far between. 
Now a history professor and director of 
Canadian Studies, Cahow '50, B.D. '53, 
A.M. '65, Ph.D. '67 says that those days 
are long gone. "We had quite a few people 
come through here in the late Forties and 
early Fifties who graduated and got into 
Duke Medical School, and other top med- 
ical schools, with a B-minus average. And 
they went on to become nationally and 
internationally recognized physicians and 
surgeons. That's out of the question now. 
Now, a B-minus is seen by many students 
as almost a kiss of death." 

In an essay that appeared in The Chroni- 
cle of Higher Education earlier this year, 
Harvard teaching assistant and Medieval 
literature specialist William Cole charged 
that grade inflation is endemic at his in- 
stitution. He claims that the so-called 
"gentleman's C" has given way to the 
"gentleperson's B," a generous stamp of ap- 
proval for average or, more often, below- 
average work. 



mm" * **** 

Syndicated columnist and U.S. News 
and World Report writer John Leo expanded 
the inquiry to higher education in general, 
and declared that the hardest mark to get in 
many American colleges is a C. For proof, 
Leo cites some startling statistics. "At Har- 
vard in 1992, 91 percent of undergraduate 
grades were B-minus or higher. Stanford is 
top heavy with A's and B's, too; only about 
6 percent of all grades are C's. At Prince- 
ton, A's rose from 33 percent of all grades 
to 40 percent in four years." 

"Give A's and B's for average effort and 
the whole system becomes a game of 'Let's 
Pretend,' " Leo concluded. "Parents are 
pleased and don't keep the pressure on. 
Students tend to relax and expect high 
rewards for low output." 

How widespread is the problem at Duke? 
From young scholars like Warren Hedges to 
veteran teachers like Clark Cahow, faculty 
members find that students are hungry for 
good grades. But while Ivy League schools 
are rapidly becoming places where everyone 
graduates with honors and, apparently, 
there's no such thing as average work, Duke 
hasn't completely followed suit — yet. 

"In the Seventies, there was grade infla- 
tion at Duke, and everywhere, because of 
the Vietnam War," says university associ- 
ate registrar Harry DeMik '69, M. Ed. 73. 
"If a guy flunked out of school, it was 'See 
ya. Drafted. Next stop Saigon.' That put a 
lot of pressure on faculty members and 
grades drifted up." 

Judging from comparative records, they've 
never drifted back down. In 1970, when 
the university began compiling data on 
grades, an A grade (which spans the range 
from an A-plus to an A-minus) constituted 
23.8 percent of all grades. Forty-four per- 
cent of grades were B's, and 24.1 percent 
were C's. For the 1993 spring semester, 
42.5 percent of all grades were A's, 36.7 
percent B's, and 10.5 percent C's. 

But numbers don't tell the whole story. 
An argument can be made that students 
today are better prepared for college than 
their predecessors and therefore truly de- 
serve the high marks they receive. Another 
view holds that with so many 
students going on to graduate 
and professional schools, and 
facing fierce competition in 
the graduate-admissions pro- 25 

cess, it's perfectly valid to 
"up" a borderline grade. 20 

And while nearly every fac- 
ulty member contacted for % 15 
this story agreed that grade 
inflation exists on some '* 

level at the university, none 
said that they themselves s 

would give a student a higher 
grade than he or she 
deserved. Certainly, there 

The "gentleman's C" 
has given way to the 
"gentleperson's B," a 
generous stamp of 
approval for average 
or, more often, below- 
average work. 

are classes known as "crip" courses, which 
require minimal work to get an A or a high 
B. In one instance, an untenured assistant 
professor announced in Duke's student 
Chronicle that anyone who signed up for 
his summer session class would get an 
A. The course filled up immediately. 

Says associate registrar DeMik, "When 
you looked at his class list, you couldn't 
believe that those students performed at 
the level they were graded on. We saw a 
lot of names that were very familiar to us." 

But such laxity doesn't seem to be wide- 
spread. Several years ago when a local 
newspaper wrote identical profiles of each 
of the schools in the ACC basketball semi- 
finals, one sidebar listed courses students 
took if they needed to improve their grade 
point average. Unlike the other three 
schools, which had any number of easy sub- 
jects to choose from, Duke's section included 
only one, a popular introductory jazz course. 

Even if a student wanted to build a 
schedule around undemanding classes, it 
would be next to impossible. Specific cur- 
riculum requirements must be met, includ- 
ing a fixed number of upper-level courses. 
The natural sciences tend to ask more 
from their majors than the humanities and 
social sciences. To earn a B.S. in chem- 
istry, for example, a student must have ten 
or eleven upper-level (not introductory) 
courses to graduate, while the humanities 

Percentage oi total grades awarded 

A+ A A- 8+ 

c+ e c- 

and social sciences require an average of 
about seven. And every undergraduate must 
take subjects from at least five of six so- 
called "areas of knowledge," meaning that 
poets might find themselves in a physics or 
geology class and engineers might learn 
something about nineteenth-century nov- 
elists or modern American history. 

To be sure, certain offerings are acknowl- 
edged to be manageable even if you think 
you have no capacity for the subject. But 
associate registrar DeMik says that just 
because a class attracts huge numbers of 
non-majors doesn't necessarily mean it's 
been "dumbed-down." For example, an 
anthropology course called Human Origins 
enrolls non-majors in droves. "It's a mis- 
nomer that it's a crip course," says DeMik. 
"The reason it has that reputation is 
because it fulfills a natural science require- 
ment without having a lab component. 
But last year, 30 percent of the grades were 
A's, 40 percent were B's, 20 percent were 
C's, and the rest were D's and F's. So, in 
comparison to physics, biology, or chem- 
istry, yes, it's an easy science course. But is 
that such a bad thing? In my opinion, there 
should be courses like that for non-science 
folk. Everyone can't be good at everything." 
(Over the past two years, a curriculm 
review committee analyzed the current 
course load requirements and looked at 
ways to provide greater "breadth and 
depth" within a liberal arts setting. One 
finding recommended that students take at 
least two courses from all six of the areas of 
knowledge; another would have increased 
course requirements for the major. The full 
faculty, though, acted only to unburden stu- 
dents of an existing requirement — that a 
certain number of selected courses be some- 
how "related.") 

As it turns out, students are embracing 
the tough classes. A non-science major 
may sign up for Human Origins, for 
instance, during a semester when he or she 
has a particularly arduous upper-level sem- 
inar within the major. They also choose 
their professors carefully. Gossip spreads 
quickly along the undergraduate grapevine, 
and those faculty members 
known as outstanding teach- 
ers are in high demand, even 
if their workloads are heavy. 
Zoology professor David 
McClay has taught cell biolo- 
gy for twenty years. Because 
of the volume of material 
covered, and his high expec- 
tations for his students, 
McClay has earned the 
moniker "No A McClay." 
When reminded of this en- 
93 dearment, McClay laughs 
good-naturedly. "Actually, I'm 
easy A McClay. I tell stu- 


dents right up front what I'm going to do, 
and what I expect from them, and what the 
grading system is." 

In McClay's opinion, students are better 
prepared now than they've ever been. But 
even if they're coming to his class with 
excellent background knowledge of the 
material, McClay doesn't allow students to 
coast. "People hate my exams," he says. 
"It's not a lazy man's exam. I really at- 
tempt to challenge students. Part of that is 
because it's a biology course, and some of 
biology's answers are less precise. There's a 
built-in ambiguity. And that frustrated stu- 
dents in 1973, just 
as it does now." 

Even though 
McClay gives out 
D's and F's, his 
courses are always 
full, with majors and 
non-majors alike. Al- 
though Cell Bio isn't 
a required pre-med 
course like organic 
chemistry, McClay's 
thoroughness has 
become legendary, 
and many pre-meds 
consider it to be an 
invaluable and im- 
perative part of their 

Judith Ruderman, 
director of Contin- 
uing Education, is 
newer to the Duke 
classroom, but no 
less exacting. When 
she taught her first 
seminar at Duke in 
1989, no one in the 
fifteen-person class 
earned an A, and 
three were in the C 
range. One student, 
upon learning she 
was getting a B, dis- 
solved into tears. 
"Word went out that 
I was a very difficult grader, stingy with 
good grades," says Ruderman. "In the years 
since, I continue to have a warning attached 
to my name, though at the same time there 
is a high demand for my seminar." 

Ruderman admits that no one has re- 
ceived a C grade since that semester and 
that she now awards A's and A-minuses on 
occasion. Why have her grades gotten "bet- 
ter," at least from a student perspective? "I 
think it's partly because after that first year I 
included more grading opportunities, more 
possibilities to lift one's average," she says. 
"But another possibility is that the weaker 
students avoided my class as soon as the 
word got out about its requirements." 

Still, Ruderman says she is disturbed by 
the trend, even among gifted students, to 
look at grades as the be-all and end-all of 
the academic experience. It's the bane of 
every professor's existence to be bombard- 
ed with the same questions on day one of 
class: How much does the final exam 
count? Do you grade on a curve? Can we 
write two ten-page papers instead of one 
twenty-five-page one? 

There's also an economic factor at work. 
With soaring tuition costs, many college 
students and their parents have come to 
view higher education as a commodity rather 

than an exciting intellectual undertaking. 
And they're wanting some kind of guaran- 
tee that they'll see a tangible return on 
their sizable investment. 

"Let's be honest, a lot of pressure on stu- 
dents to get good grades comes from par- 
ents," says university registrar and associ- 
ate professor of political science Albert 
Eldridge. "Parents are saying, what am I 
getting for my money? They can't look 
inside their son or daughter's head and see 
how much knowledge is there. So they 
look for other indicators, and those indica- 
tors are grades. It's very much the notion 
in some people's minds that if you get all 
A's, you're better educated and you've 

somehow legitimated the $25,000 that's 
been spent annually." 

In the Career Development Center's 
survey of the Class of 1992, the over- 
whelming majority of students (89.3 per- 
cent) said that, at some point in the future, 
they planned to return to school for a high- 
er degree. For those going straight to gradu- 
ate school, 18.1 percent had been accepted 
to law school, while medical school and 
Ph.D. programs attracted another 16 per- 
cent each. 

John Noble, director of the Career Devel- 
opment Center, says that while extracurri- 
cular activities may 
look nice on a re- 
sume, it's the trans- 
cripts that really 
count. So even for 
those students who 
aren't quite sure 
what they're going 
to do when they 
graduate, there's 
quite an influence 
from classmates 
who've made the 
link between career 
choices and grade 
point averages. 

"When everyone 
is fighting for top 
scores," says Noble, 
"those students who 
aren't necessarily 
planning to go 
straight to grad 
school start to get 
nervous. They see 
everyone else wor- 
rying about grades 
and so they start 
worrying, too." 

Constant agoniz- 
ing over compara- 
1 tive achievements 
fe troubles those schol- 
ars who consider 
themselves educa- 
tors, not scorekeepers. History associate 
professor Kristen Neuschel, a past winner 
of the alumni association's Alumni Distin- 
guished Undergraduate Teaching Award, 
says that this competitive drive is unfortu- 
nate but not altogether surprising, given 
the current caliber of students. "It's a chal- 
lenge for any student, not just at Duke, to 
let go of the pervasive mentality that per- 
formance and success are most important 
and, instead, take a risk on intellectual 
endeavors," she says. "Duke students aren't 
to blame; that's what they've been told 
they should do. It's how they got into 
Duke in the first place. But I think this 
Continued on page 50 



1 993 









In a 1963 Duke Alumni 

Register photo essay, 

Chappell wondered as he 

wandered: "Here I am 

walking. Except for my 

figure, this picture is 

reminiscent of a poem 

fry Verlaine. Why do 

straight lines converging 

in the background suggest 

infinity? The row of bare 

trees looks like a troop 

marching forward . " 


"It is not a matter of autobiography or confession," says 

the North Carolina poet, novelist, and professor of 

English. "It is the using of one's very marrow and soul 

as a means of expression." 

^B ^B flV rought iron rails surround 
VflBV the porch and ivy crawls 
HH the yard outside the sturdy 
brick house that Fred 
Chappell '61, A.M. '64 shares with Susan, 
his wife of thirty-some years. The house, 
shaded on all sides by old oaks in a hilly 
and unpretentious neighborhood, is near 
the University of North Carolina at Greens- 
boro, where Chappell has taught since fin- 
ishing his graduate work in Duke's English 
department. Inside, in the library at the 
back of the house, bookshelves are full from 
floor to ceiling. More volumes — mostly lit- 
erary journals — rest in piles on the hearth. 

Finally , Chappell himself appears, wear- 
ing a freshly laundered shirt, the tail flying 
loose. He's barefooted and carrying a wad of 
brown socks in one hand and a worn pair of 
lace-up brogans in the other. His hands are 
thick and calloused. Working man's hands. 
Chappell grins and apologizes for the infor- 
mality. He sits and bends to put on the 
socks and shoes, as if he were preparing to 
go out and check the animals, admire the 
lay of the land, talk crops and the weather. 

But this is not the mountain town of 
Canton, North Carolina, near Asheville, 
where Chappell was raised. This is the 
house where professor Chappell often brings 
his eager graduate students in creative 
writing for their group critiquing sessions. 
This is the room where Chappell manages 
to read, by his own account, some 200 to 
300 new volumes of poetry a year — an 
exercise that leads to his highly regarded 
critical reviews that regularly appear in 
magazines such as The Georgia Review and 
The Southern Review, two of the nation's 
oldest and finest literary journals. And this 
is the literary maverick whom Duke's cele- 
brated English professor William Black- 
burn reportedly declared to be the finest of 
all the gifted students he had known — a 
group which also included the likes of 
Pulitzer Prize-winner William Styron '47, 
best-selling novelist Anne Tyler '61, 
Duke's own acclaimed creative-writers-in- 
residence Reynolds Price '55 and James 
Applewhite '58, A.M. '60, Ph.D. *69, and 
the late Mac Hyman '47, author of No 
Time for Sergeants. 


tr*~*'.Ji *♦■< 


r ^» 

"Fred has the greatest gift of all of them," 
Blackburn told author and University of 
Virginia professor George Garrett, as the 
two sipped bourbon together in Durham 
late one evening in the spring of 1961. 
(Garrett recorded their exchange in the 
Mississippi Quarterly.) "Of course, whether 
he will ever manage to do anything with 
all that talent," Blackburn went on, "and 
whether he will ever be recognized, remain 
to be seen." 

More than thirty years later, Fred Chap- 
pell, now fifty-seven, has "managed" to do 
a few things: six novels; thirteen volumes 

of poetry; two short story collections; "a 
play or two," as Chappell puts it; The Fred 
Chappell Reader, composed of selections 
from all of his work and an excellent intro- 
duction to his writing; countless reviews; 
and a range of critical essays collected in a 
new volume, Plow Naked, issued by the 
University of Michigan Press. 

Given the fertility of his extraordinary 
intellect as it has been brought to bear on 
his most personal experiences, now ren- 
dered into literature, plowing naked seems 
the perfect image to represent the literary 
labors of Fred Chappell. He once explained 
his method in an essay for the Mississippi 
Quarterly: "...a modern artist throws his 
whole personal life into the breach, hoping 
to make up with the intense qualities of 
that raw material what time does not allow 
him to master in the way of more objective 
technique and stratagem. It is not a matter 
of autobiography or confession; it is the 
using of one's very marrow and soul as a 
means of expression." In other words, 
plowing naked. Digging deep. 

In this vigorous plowing of his native 
soil across several genres, Chappell has 
identified himself in many ways: Fred, the 

son of schoolteacher/farmers, coming of 
age during World War II. Fred, the coun- 
try boy finally introduced to High Culture 
at the Big University. Fred, the self- 
destructive drinker journeying to the dark- 
est pit within himself. Fred, the bard, bal- 
ladeer, and curator of Appalachian culture. 
Fred, the learned scholar and genial 
teacher who will never say no to his stu- 
dents, even to the detriment of his own 
work. Fred, the writer's writer, whose depth 
and wit have been most appreciated, not 
by the general public, but by his literary 
and academic colleagues — at least those 
who have not been occa- 
sionally stricken by jealousy 
at his prodigious gifts and 
prolific output. 

Few authors are as candid 
about the autobiographical 
sources of their work, but as 
Chappell once explained to 
North Carolina poet Shelby 
Stephenson at a literary 
forum at Emory and Henry 
College, "I would give any- 
thing in the world if I could 
deny that [the first three 
novels] were anything more 
than close, autobiographical 
proj ections. . . . They would 
not be that if I could write 
better, if I had 
Henry James' or 
Tolstoy's way of 
creating char- 
acters in the 
round, of seeing 
other people as vividly as one 
sees himself. Everything that 
I write like that seems flimsy 
and false to me, so I have to 
fall back on my own secret 
fears, terrors, desires, dreams." 
However potentially self- 
indulgent his material could 
be, Chappell overcomes the 
danger of navel-gazing by 
manipulation of form and wild 
experimentation. His daz- 
zling mastery of craft enables 
him to take risks in his work, 
to break the rules, and often 
to stretch readers to the limits 
of their suspended disbelief. 

Chappell's propensity to- 
ward risk-taking was already 
evident in his behavior as a 
teenager, says one of his ear- 
liest playmates, Gene Good- 
son '57, B.S.M.E. '59. Good- 
son's and Chappell's parents were friends. 
The children played together as toddlers 
and all through elementary school. Good- 
son was, in fact, influential in Chappell's 
later choice of Duke University. Today 

he's CEO of Oshkosh Truck Corporation. 
"As we got older, into high school," Good- 
son says, "Fred became more and more the 
different one. He was always doing some- 
thing that was on the edge. He always 
wanted to experience things to their 
fullest — things that if I had done, I would 
have gotten in trouble. Fred actually did 
get in trouble pretty often." 

"Fred has always been launching out and 
reaching after things. He is the ultimate 
traveler — and I don't necessarily mean 
physical travel," says classmate and fellow 
Archive editor Wallace Kaufman '61. "When 
we were in school, on any given day, Fred 
was always ready to go treasure hunting with 
you — to the seediest part of Durham or in 
the deepest stacks of the library. I think Fred 
has always seen the world as both a cornu- 
copia and a place full of whirling razor 
blades. That's why his writing is so excep- 
tionally rich. He's so aware of the world's 
treasures and also has a good-humored ac- 
ceptance of the world's dangers." 

From his earliest writings at Duke, 
notably the sketch "Darkened Light," 
which appears in A Duke Miscellany, a col- 
lection of student prose and poetry edited 
by William Blackburn in 1970, Chappell 
was already pushing his prose to the edge, 
playing with magical realism, stretching 
the boundaries of the reader's belief. In his 

poetry, however, Chappell often takes the 
opposite approach. He will bring a tradi- 
tional, highly formalist style to subjects as 
raw as a hog-killing, the cleaning of a well, 
or the gruesome burial of a mule without 


the reader's necessarily noticing rhyme or 
meter except as a kind of tacit lyrical plea- 
sure. Chappell's experiments with form 
and fantasy have led critics to toss his 
name into sentences with the likes of 
Gabriel Gar- 
cia Marquez, 
Dante, Twain, 
and Faulkner. 

"Well, if I'm 
not having fun, 
I don't write 
the poem," 
Chappell says, 
now rubbing 
his hands on 
his thighs and 
gazing out the 
window of his 
library. "I feel 
no duty to 
grind out a 
poem on a sub- 
ject because it 
is an urgent 
subject or good 
for the world. 
Sometimes my 
don't work at 
all. So what?" 
He shrugs. "I 
read a whole 
lot of bad poet- 
ry. It doesn't 
hurt my char- 
acter to read it, 
and it doesn't 
irritate me. 
What would I 
be doing if I 
weren't read- 
ing poetry? I'd 
watch televi- 
sion, which'd 
be even dumb- 
er. So I don't 
feel bad about 
writing some 
bad poetry now and then. I just wish I 
wouldn't publish it." Chappell lets loose 
with a big bellowing laugh. "I think you 
should take a chance. Enjoy it. Have fun." 

He makes it sound so simple. Fred, the 
poet of dirt-poor Appalachia, who will 
oftimes drop his g's and pronounce the 
word write as "raaht." Ole Fred, as North 
Carolina's literary community fondly calls 
him, who gives a reading at Durham's Reg- 
ulator Bookshop on a gorgeous spring 
afternoon and begins by saying to his audi- 
ence, "Now aren't you good folks glad to 
have a nice poetry readin' to come to 
instead of bein' out in this tumble weather? 
Even when you all know that poetry is just 

making a big deal of when the moon goes 
behind a pine tree and such." Ole Fred 
then reads from his recent book of a hun- 
dred epigrams called C, offering his audi- 
ence playful translations of Martial, Petrarch, 

Chappell's career harvest: 

, thirteen volumes of poetry , two short story collections , a play or 

Holderlin, Rabelais, and his own clever 
and biting verses on topics ranging from 
infidelity to televangelists, from decon- 
structionists to North Carolina's own Sen- 
ator Jesse Helms. Finally he takes off his 
half glasses with one of those big farmer 
hands and says, "Thank ya'U. You been 
real patient." 

While Chappell may often poke fun at 
things pretentiously academic and assume 
the most modest posture in presenting his 
own work, there is no more devoted schol- 
ar of literature. "He's the best read person I 
know," says the University of Virginia's 
George Garrett. And Chappell's command 
of literature naturally leads him to layer a 

great deal of classical allusion into his 
work. Yet, as many of his colleagues have 
noted, you can read Fred Chappell simply 
for the pleasure of his storytelling and his 
skill with concise language, or you can dig 
deeper for the 
external ref- 
erences. As 
poet Shelby 
puts it, "His 
work is as 
available as it 
is obscure." 

Witte '82, 
fiction editor 
at St. Martin's 
Press, says he 
believes that 
by virtue of 
these traits, 
Chappell "is 
one of those 
writers who is 
going to last. 
He is one of 
the few people 
going today 
who can write 
a narrative 
poem. He is 
also a writer 
that repays re- 
reading. For 
the attentive 
reader, there 
is more there 
with every 
pass — in the 
poetry and the 
„ The stay- 
jj ing power of 
| Chappell's 
| work was most 
l« recently af- 
firmed by the 
I n g e r s o 1 1 
Foundation, which named him the 1993 
recipient of its T.S. Eliot Award for Cre- 
ative Writing, a $20,000 prize given to 
"authors of abiding importance whose 
works affirm the moral principles of West- 
ern civilization." Chappell adds this honor 
to the prestigious Bollingen Prize for Poet- 
ry from Yale, the Award in Literature from 
the National Institute of Arts and Letters, 
the Best Foreign Novel Prize from the 
French Academy, and a Rockefeller Grant, 
among many others. 

Despite these accolades, does Chappell 
worry about the dwindling audience for 
contemporary poetry? Not particularly, he 
says, though he's enjoying the current dis- 

countless reviews c 

-December 1 993 

cussion in literary circles prompted 
by the publication of Can Poetry 
Matter?, by Chappell's good friend 
Dana Gioia. Gioia argues that 
poetry has lost its audience because 
of its deadly portrayal by high 
school English teachers, literary 
critics, and college professors as a 
tedious little animal to be dissected 
instead of an experience to engage 
the reader's passion, senses, and 
intellect. Or as Chappell once put 
it, "The whole purpose of poetry, of 
all literature, is to help us think 
with our feelings and to learn to 
feel with our thoughts." 

Chappell agrees with Gioia about 
the dangers of an over-critical ap- 
proach. "I think Dana pulled his 
punches, though," he says. "He 
could have stated his case even 
more strongly without hurting any- 
thing." Still, Chappell is optimistic. 
"Good poetry is likely to be found 
almost anywhere, on either side of 
the formalist question. On either 
side of the ethnic question. It 
doesn't matter, really. There's still a 
whole lot of poetry out there being 
written. Anybody can come at you 
with any kind of attitude and still 
turn out real good poetry. Writing 
well is the most important thing." 

On the prose side of his work, 
Chappell has begun to discover 
that his more recent novels — 1 Am 
One of You Forever and Brighten the 
Comer Where You Are — are being 
widely read in high school and col- 
lege classrooms and, as a conse- 
quence, he is being inundated by 
mail. "Teenagers want to know, 1 
'What did you mean by this in that 
book and why and how come you 
mean it?' I hadn't realized this 
would be an activity one would 
engage in after writing novels. It must just 
drive Reynolds [Price] crazy." Chappell 
shakes his head. "I'd like to do some essays 
about writing so that when I'm asked these 
questions, I can just give people a copy of 
the book and say, 'Here, read this.' " 

Chappell's slight annoyance at this 
demand on his time is misleading, given 
his reputation for generosity as a teacher 
and advocate for his students. Asked if he 
learned his classroom technique by model- 
ing himself after William Blackburn, 
Chappell suddenly confesses that he "never 
attended one of Blackburn's classes, so I 
don't know exactly how he taught, but I've 
heard lots of stories." But he came to Duke 
having heard of Blackburn and knowing 
he wanted to write, Chappell explains. "By 
the time I could have taken one of his 
classes, we were personal friends, he'd read 


Shall the water not remember Embtr 

my hand's slow gesture, tracing above oj 
its mirror my half -imaginary airy 
portrait/ My only belonging longing; 
is my beauty, which I take ache 
away and then return, as love of 
teasing playfully the one being unbaing. 
whose gratitude I treasure Is your 



from myself, yet cannot not 
live apart. In the water's tone, sioim! 
that brilliant silence, a flower Hour, 
whispers my name with such slight light 
moment, it seems filament of air, fan 

the world become cloudswell. 


— from Source 

some of my stuff, and he said, 'Man, just 
stay home and write. Don't come to class.' " 

Chappell does admit that he modeled 
himself after a certain attitude of Black- 
burn's, "which was to be on the side of the 
students rather than against them. To 
treat them with a mixture of respect and 
humor — ironic humor — which Blackburn 
had a wealth of." 

Chappell dropped out of Duke for three 
years before finishing his undergraduate 
degree in 1961. "I worked in a farmer's 
supply store. Worked at my father's furni- 
ture store. Farmed. Collected bills." He 
grins. "You know, just what most guys do 
and what all writers do — just a variety of 
jobs and chores. And I got married." 
When he came back, living off campus on 
Onslow Street between West and East 
campuses, Chappell was elected editor of 

The Archive and landed a scholar- 
ship to do graduate work at Duke. 
Meanwhile, UNC-G had already 
offered him a job upon completion 
of his master's, all based on one 
paper he had presented at a confer- 
ence on the Renaissance. 

Shortly after Chappell's arrival 
at UNC-G, where he taught fresh- 
man comp and one poetry section 
in the new Master of Fine Arts Pro- 
gram in Creative Writing, poet 
Randall Jarrell died tragically and 
Chappell took on all of Jarrell's 
writing classes. Since then, Chap- 
pell has had a significant influence 
on several generations of writing 
students. Duke's own Angela 
Davis-Gardner '66, author of the 
novels Felice and Forms of Shelter 
(Ticknor & Fields, 1991) was the 
very first student to be awarded the 
M.F.A. degree at Greensboro. 
Other Chappell students have in- 
cluded poet Robert Morgan, now at 
Cornell University; novelist Eliza- 
beth Cox, who teaches in Duke's 
English department; Kay Stripling 
Byer, winner of last year's Lamont 
Poetry Prize; poet and prose writer 
Kelly Cherry; the comic novelist 
Tim Sandlin; and Rodney Jones, 
winner of the National Book Critics 
Circle Award. 

Today there are more than 250 
degree programs in creative writing 
in the U.S., but when short story 
writer Peter Taylor and poet 
Robert Watson began to put to- 
gether the Greensboro program in 
the early Sixties, there were only 
five or six M.F.A. programs in the 
country. "Peter and Bob devised 
the program. I just sat in a chair 
and watched them do it," says 
Chappell, with characteristic mod- 
It's probably one of the ten best in 
the country today because of the principles 
that Peter and Bob enunciated early on; 
namely, that we would not be teaching or 
training students to publish as the main 
objective. We thought that if any of our 
students published something in the next 
twenty years, that would be okay, but our 
purpose was to teach them to read critical- 
ly from the inside, with technique in 
mind, examining the way writers write." 

The method is not the same as teaching 
literature from a critical point of view. 
Instead of examining theme, meaning, and 
context, Chappell encourages his students 
to look at a story or poem for its architec- 
ture, whether it works as a whole and why. 
"One of the other things we were very 
careful about," Chappell goes on, "was to 
make sure that the program did not 




become competitive. That is, that the stu- 
dents did not feel they were competing 
against each other. There's going to be a 
certain amount of that. You can't stop it. 
But we don't encourage it. Competition is 
encouraged in other places. It's disastrous. 
The philosophy here is that this literary 
racket is so tough, you're going to need 
every friend that you can get, so you. better 
not make an enemy while you're here. 
You're going to have plenty of them to 
deal with later on." 

The demand for creative writing cours- 
es, which rose dramatically in the Seven- 
ties and Eighties and created the current 
proliferation of creative writing programs 
in the United States, is still something of a 
mystery to Chappell. "I know that people 
were fed up with the rather tedious disci- 
pline — the footnote factory — that gradu- 
ate English studies had become a decade or 
so ago," he says. "And that extreme 
pedantry of approach gave rise, I think, 
not only to the writing schools but to the 
newer philosophic schools like structural- 
ism and deconstruction. People simply got 
tired of looking up in almanacs to see 
whether it rained on the day that Boswell 
said it did." 

Asked if he sees a swing back toward a 
more traditional approach to literary criti- 

"Plowing naked" seems 
the perfect image to 
represent the literary 

labors of Fred Chappell. 

cism — an approach that accents the con- 
tent and architecture of a literary work — 
Chappell wrinkles up his face. "I don't 
know. I don't care." He laughs and then 
grows more serious. "I would like to see a 
return to more traditional scholarship, 
partly because some terrific work is being 
done along those lines and is not getting 
its rightful due." 

For his own creative future, Chappell 
sees not just a return to the familiar but 
also some imaginative experimentation. 
"I'm going to do a book of fantasy stories 
and 1 need to write the third novel in the 
sequence that began with I Am One of You 
Forever. I was going to do that this sum- 
mer, but I made a mistake and accepted 
too many student manuscripts to read. I'd 
like to write a couple of plays — comedies. 

And I guess I'll keep on teaching for a 
while. I haven't made up my mind about 
whether to retire or not. As long as it's 
fun, as long as there's no rancor attached 
to it, I'm willing to keep on doing it." 

Of all the ways that Fred Chappell has 
applied his extraordinary gifts, plowing 
naked, exposing his deepest struggles and 
yearnings in his writing, it is finally his 
identity as the son of two school teachers 
that seems to have become the dominant 
persona. "I started out like anybody else — 
having a job so I could pursue my interest, 
which is writing," he says. "Other people 
have jobs so they can take off, have yachts. 
I had a job so I could write. But I learned 
very quickly that I owed my students more 
than that, and I owed myself more than 
that, too. I know now that I'm a teacher 
before I'm anything else. I'm a teacher 
before I'm a writer." 

And with that, Fred Chappell is off to 
campus. ■ 

Eubanks '76, director of the Duke Writers' Work- 
shop, was recently elected to a three-year term on 
the North Carolina Humanities Council. 


When George 
Witte was a 
fledgling writer 
at Duke, he helped bring 
one of his favorite poets to 
campus for a reading, never 
anticipating that one day 
he'd end up as his editor. 

Witte '82 studied poetry 
at Duke with James Apple- 
white '58, A.M. '60, Ph.D. 
'69, won the Anne Flexner 
Prize and another award 
from the Academy of 
American Poets for his 
writing, and in his junior 
year, was editor of the stu- 
dent literary magazine, The 

While he was on the 
magazine staff, Witte was 
instrumental in bringing 
Fred Chappell '61, A.M. '64 
back to campus. He had 
never met Chappell before. 

After completing his 
master's in English at UNC- 
Chapel Hill, Witte suddenly 
decided he didn't want to 
become an academic. 
Instead, he returned to his 
native New Jersey and 
answered an ad in The Neu; 
York Times. St. Martin's 
Press was looking for an 
editorial assistant. Witte 
landed the job and, within 

a couple of years, had man- 
aged to persuade his superi- 
ors at St. Martin's that Fred 
Chappell should be signed. 
Witte became Chappell's 
editor for the first anthol- 
ogy of the author's work — 
The Fred Chappell Reader. 

"When I came up to St. 
Martin's, it occurred to me 
that so much of Fred's 
work was either out of 
print — the early novels — or 
was not as widely known as 
it might be — especially his 
poetry. I love his work and 

pick up his poems all the 
time to read and reread," 
says Witte, now a senior 
staff member at the pub- 
lishing house. 

Witte has continued his 
own writing, with his 
poems appearing in The 

Atlantic Monthly, Poetry, 
Kenyon Revieu/, Shenan- 
doah, Gettysburg Review, 
and a number of other 
literary magazines. A col- 
lector's-edition letterpress 
chapbook of his work was 
recently issued by Seacliff 
Press. Witte says he gets up 
early every morning to 
write before heading into 
St. Martin's, where he 
works with authors of both 
literary and commercial 
fiction, and non-fiction 
authors in the areas of 
sports, business, and writing. 

Since the publication of 
the Reader, Witte has also 
edited Chappell's latest 
novel, Brighten the Comer 
Where You Are, and the 
story collection, More 
Shapes Than One. Before 
Witte's initiative, Chappell's 
work had not appeared 
under the imprimatur of a 
major New York publishing 
house since 1973. 

N ov ember-D t 







As it tries to insulate itself from an increasingly 

violence-prone society, the university also grapples 

with internal incidents of theft, vandalism, and 

sexual assault. 

Graduate student Kate Horst '91 
never runs alone on campus. 
Attacks on lone women joggers 
in the past few years, including 
three since January, have made her wary. 
"Sometimes I have to run by myself, but 
the whole time I'd be thinking, 'What 
would I do if something happens?' " 

Horst has seen a lot of improvements in 
security during her six years at Duke, yet 
she says she felt safer during her first year 
than she does now. "Maybe there's just 
been more awareness about crime. It seems 
like you hear of more things happening 
than you used to." 

As a resident adviser for two years, 
Horst was responsible for giving first-year 
students in her dorm their welcome-to- 
Duke safety talk as well as keeping them 
informed about crime throughout the year. 
She tells of being called at three o'clock 
one morning and told to post signs in the 
dorm's lobby because a student was assaulted 
the evening before. Despite the educational 
programs and warnings, Horst doesn't think 
first-year students are more cautious than 
those six years ago. "Unfortunately, new stu- 

dents aren't used to thinking about safety." 
The university, on the other hand, has 
been scrupulously aware of crime on cam- 
pus, both because of a genuine concern for 
the Duke population and a desire to mini- 
mize liability. In the late Eighties the Safe- 
ty Task Force, a body of administrators, 
faculty, employees, and students, was formed 
to analyze and improve campus safety and 
to respond to crises. 

One of Duke's obvious weaknesses is its 
location in Durham. From 1982 to 1992, 
the city's violent crimes increased more 
than 150 percent. Its vehicle thefts more 
than doubled, and its burglaries increased 
by about 70 percent. 

Duke has been able to keep its crime 
from increasing at the same rate as 
Durham's — a result of physical changes 
made about the same time the Safety Task 
Force was formed: Dormitories are elec- 
tronically locked twenty-four hours a day 
and are accessible only with a resident's 
Duke Identification Card or by residents 
buzzing in visitors from their rooms. Doors 
into the dorms cannot be left open for 
more than five minutes without an alarm 


sounding and alerting residents, and Public 
Safety, through its computerized system. 
The main quads and previously dark park- 
ing lots and paths are well lit. Academic 
buildings are locked at night, with some 
accessible by card readers. Public Safety 
officers watch parking lots on video moni- 
tors. Some university vehicles are part of 
the Security Alert System; they are 
equipped with two-way radios so employees 
can inform Public Safety of any suspicious 
behavior they see while driving on campus. 

Older programs like the emergency 
"blue" phones all over campus are still 
used. Public Safety offers rides to students 
and employees who can call at any time of 
the day or night, and student-run Safe- 
Walks and SafeRides are available in the 
evening for those who find themselves 
stranded on campus. 

Duke's security program is as extensive as 
those at universities like Columbia and 
Penn, located in much larger, more tradi- 
tionally dangerous cities. The only thing 
Duke lacks that Penn and Columbia have is 
a twenty-four-hour security person at the 
entrance to every dorm who checks identi- 
fication and requires visitors to be signed in 
by a resident. Columbia's Security Force 
investigates crimes and its officers can make 
citizen's arrests, but it must alert the New 
York City Police and hand over cases for 
prosecution. Duke boasts a Public Safety 
department that is able to make arrests and 
prosecute criminals in. the same manner as 
any municipal police department. Though 
it acts independently, Duke's Public Safety 
doesn't isolate itself from its Durham coun- 
terpart. The two forces keep each other 
informed of criminal activity and compare 
notes when crimes in Durham and at Duke 
are similar. 

When pressed to name 
some improvements Duke 
could make on campus, 
students all want more 
lights added on Campus 
Drive, on paths behind 
the Bryan Center, and in 
parking lots. But Public 
Safety director Paul Dumas 
is hesitant to install more 
lights on campus. "I think 
lighting is the most overrated crime deter- 
rent there is," he says. According to Dumas, 
about half of the crime on Duke's campus 
over the years has occurred in daylight 
hours. "No matter how much we light, 
there's always going to be a dark space at 
the end of that." Students, he says, can 
always find a way to get to where they 
want to go by taking a lighted path, 
although that lighted path might not be 
the most convenient route. 

Peer Pressure 

Duke's crime statistics looked 
high compared to other universi- 
ties in a report published in the 
January 20, 1993, issue of The 
Chronicle of Higher Education. The 
paper published the crime statistics 
outlined by the Student-Right-to- 
Know Act and Campus Security 
Act of 1990, which require universi- 
ties to make crime statistics public. 

Even taking locations into con- 
sideration, the numbers are hard 
to analyze accurately because they 
don't adjust for factors like the 
size of the student body and the 
percentage of students who live 
on campus. Reporting methods 
also vary. Duke's burglary number 
is inordinate, for example, be- 
cause Duke's Public Safety is more 
liberal in categorizing crimes as 
burglaries when other campuses 
define them as larcenies, which 
are not reported under the law. 
The statistics also don't show that 
Duke's police force covers Duke Medica 
Center and the 7,700-acre Duke Forest. The 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
has a separate force for its medical center 
and it only includes crimes on land adjacent 
to the main campus in its figures. 

"The intent of the federal law, which is 
good, is to let people know that crime is 
occurring on campus," Dumas says. "The 
intent is to inform, not to look good to the 
United States. That's why when we have 
two methods of counting, I opt for the one 
that produces the larger number. I think 
it's my job to inform, so if in doubt, I tell 
it." Duke has compared its reporting meth- 

Crime statistics tor the 1991-92 School Year 




U. Penn 




Aggravated Assault 


Motor Vehicle Thefts 














Source: The Chronicle of Highe 


ods with those used by other law enforce- 
ment agencies, and — based on those com- 
parisons — may consider changes. 

Students are relatively well-protected if 
they take precautions, Dumas says. "Cam- 
puses are generally safer than the rest of 
America. I can say that if my wife or 
daughters, if any one of them wants to 
walk alone at night, I would rather have 
her walk alone around West Campus or 
East Campus than around Northgate or 
South Square [malls]. But I don't want her 
doing it at Duke, because safer isn't safe." 

One night Trinity junior Kai Pittman 
found herself walking alone to her Central 
Campus apartment. She says she was 
uncomfortable, but not uncomfortable 
enough to call Public Safety for a ride. "I 
don't think that's exclusive to Duke," she 
says. "If I walked anywhere alone at night, 
I'd feel uncomfortable." Pittman says she 
feels "very safe" at Duke, but is careful not 
to put herself into dangerous situations. 
"I'm not going to walk through the gardens 
at night. Clearly, that's just a sensible thing." 
This is the crux of Dumas' argument: 
Students need to be responsible for their 
own safety. He uses an analogy between 
campus safety and driving. When 
you drive, he says, you routinely 
do things like stay on the right 
side of the road, stop at red lights, 
and use turn signals to reduce 
your chances of being in an acci- 
dent. "That's the approach I'd 
like people on this campus to 
have about crime," says Dumas. 
"Not that they're worried about it 
all the time, but they don't go to 
sleep in their dorm rooms without 
locking their doors. And they don't let some 
drunk man into their room." 

The Danger Within 

If you ask Ellen Plummer where the most 
dangerous place on campus is, she'll tell you 
"the dorm rooms." Plummer is the interim 
director of the Women's Center and the 
former coordinator of Sexual Assault Sup- 
port Services (SASS) at Duke. Her office 
gives support to victims of sexual assault 
and their friends and family and sponsors 



Upe This Trail With A P&rtner 
Emergency Phones Every Half Mile 
No Motorized Vehicles 
Stay Off Golf Course 
Frail Closed After Sunset 

Duke Public Safety 684-2444 

Sign of the crimes: warnings about jogging 
alone and electronic access to dormitories 
|m wide /m itectu >n /< rr tJi< ise wh< > comply 

educational programs like Sowrids 
Dangerous, a student-written 
play that dramatizes acquain- 
tance rape. Estimates are that 
one in four college women will 
be the victim of rape or 
attempted rape sometime in her 
college career, and that only 
one in eight cases are reported. 

Plummer's office handled nine rape 
cases that occurred in the 1992-93 aca- 
demic year. In addition to those nine, 
SASS offered support for twelve victims of 
non- intercourse sexual assault, five cases of 
sexual harassment, and four cases of assault- 
and-battery. Of those thirty cases, twenty of 
the perpetrators were affiliated with Duke, 
including undergraduate and graduate stu- 
dents, employees, a teaching assistant, and 
a professor. 

A study done by the Towson State Uni- 
versity Center for the Study and Prevention 
of Campus Violence suggests that 80 per- 
cent of all campus violence is perpetrated 
by students. No such statistics are available 
for Duke, but students think the number is 
accurate. Trinity senior Brett Henrikson 
says, "I don't think Duke students take the 
moral high ground. They steal and definite- 
ly assault other students." 

Dumas doesn't question the statistic, 
either. "The most dangerous place on this 
campus," he says, "is the main quad after a 
basketball game victory." According to 
Dumas, the number of students Public Safety 
took to the hospital the night of Duke's vic- 

tory over Michigan for its sec- 
ond consecutive national bas- 
ketball championship was high- 
er than the annual totals in 
recent years. "The gravest danger 
to students at Duke University 
is booze. Getting drunk and get- 
ting wild," he says. The same 
Towson State study estimated 
that 44 percent of assaults done 
by students involve alcohol, 
again a figure uncontested by 

The university has been try- 
ing to curb alcohol consump- 
tion on campus by changing the 
previously lenient alcohol pol- 
icy to one that, starting in the 
fall of 1993, only allows alcohol 
to be served 
on Friday and 
nights. The 
change is the 
latest of a 
series that 
started in 
1991, when 
alcohol distri- 
bution at kegs 
was limited to 
through Sat- 
urday nights, 
« along with a 
g host of other 
| regulations 
such as re- 
quiring non-alcoholic beverages and food 
to be served at parties where alcohol is 

Plummer, who says most of the assault 
cases SASS handles involve alcohol, sup- 
ports the changes but would like to see 
more. "Totally free alcohol for whoever 
asks for it is very unsafe. As the night goes 
on, you don't have to think, 'How much 
have I spent?' like you would in a club. 
You don't even have to turn in a poker 
chip [for a drink]. You have no sense of 
how much you've consumed because 
there's no exchange." 

Plummer lauds Public Safety and the 
university's efforts to improve campus safe- 
ty. She says her former position as SASS 
coordinator, one of the only ones like it in 
the country, is an example of Duke's pro- 
gressiveness on the issue of sexual vio- 
lence. "The school can really be proud of 
the work it's done, and it's not done it by 
itself. It's had student activism," she says. 
"The students really made us look at an 
issue we didn't want to look at. We don't 
want to talk about [rape]. We don't want 
to know that it happens. I think collec- 
tively we can be really proud." 

Law and Order 

As the former director of Sexual Assault 
Support Services, a position now held by 
Selden Holt '91, Plummer was also respon- 
sible for being an advocate for assault vic- 
tims — particularly those victims who take 
their cases to the Office of Student Devel- 
opment for a hearing. Among other 
things, the Office of Student Development 
is responsible for handling judicial code 
violations at the university. Student cases 
may be heard and judged either by a dean, 
by a body of administrators, or by the 
Undergraduate Judicial Board (UJB) — a 
combination of students and administra- 
tors. The violations tried through the 
Office of Student Development make up 
an entirely different side to the crime situ- 
ation at Duke. The board hears cases that 
may not be represented in Public Safety's 
statistics if the victim in the case chose 
not to prosecute criminally. 

During the 1992-93 academic year, the 
UJB heard forty-seven cases and another 
266 cases were heard either administra- 
tively or by a dean. While alcohol policy 
violations, citations for disorderly conduct, 
and honor code violations are some of the 
most commonly heard cases, a variety of 
others like thefts, assault-and-battery, and 
sexual assault cases are also handled by the 
office. Last year, nineteen theft charges 
were levied, in addition to fifty-five charges 
of property damage, eighty-four charges of 
disorderly conduct, and two assault-and- 
battery charges, among others. 

The system has been brought under fire 
by sexual assault victims who say the 
employees in the Office of Student Devel- 
opment try unsuccessfully to be impartial 
advocates for both victim and accused. 
Sue Wasiolek '76, M.H.A. 78, LL.M. '93, 
the dean of student development, acknowl- 
edges past problems. "I think that's one of 
the reasons Ellen Plummer's [SASS] posi- 
tion was created," she says. 

Kristi, a Trinity sophomore, was sexual- 
ly assaulted by a student who walked her 
home from a fraternity party during the 
spring semester of her first year. A week 
after the incident, she pressed charges 
through the Office of Student Develop- 
ment. She was then contacted by Plum- 
mer, who accompanied her to the meet- 
ings about the case and offered emotional 

Kristi and her attacker agreed to have 
the case heard by a body of administrators, 
because neither of them wanted to go 
before the UJB and tell the story to a 
group of students. "I've heard they're not 
aware or competent," says Kristi. The 
administrators did not put her on trial, 
which she says she'd heard commonly hap- 
pens in sexual assault cases. Instead, they 
asked her and her assailant to tell their 


■December 1 993 


sides of the story, asked questions, and 
recessed to make a decision. 

Her assailant was found guilty of sexual 
assault II — "Touching of an unwilling per- 
son's intimate parts or forcing an unwilling 
person to touch another's intimate parts." 
She says he received two years of discipli- 
nary probation, meaning that if he is 
found guilty of any other violations during 
that time, his punishment for them will he 
more severe than normal. He was also 
required to attend educational programs 
about sexual assault, she says. Another stu- 
dent found guilty of sexual assault II 
received disciplinary probation and was rec- 
ommended for psychological counseling, 
and he was required to attend CHANGE, 
an educational program in Durham for men 
who batter. 

The sanctions are surprisingly lenient 
for sexual and non-sexual assault cases. It 
is generally accepted in the student popu- 
lation that cheating is the only way to get 
kicked out of Duke. Committing a violent 
crime can get you suspended for a few 

semesters, maybe force you into communi- 
ty service, but nothing more. Dean Wasi- 
olek says she believes the last expulsion 
from Duke, which was for academic dis- 
honesty, was in the Seventies. 

Other students found guilty of assault- 
and-battery received suspensions from the 
university for varying amounts of time — 
time that included the summer session, 
whether or not they planned to attend. 

Wasiolek believes the sanctions are suf- 
ficient. "I guess I would say they are 
lenient sanctions if the student returns in 
a year and finds himself or herself facing 
the judicial board again. But if that year 
away from Duke has done exactly what it's 
supposed to do, and that is really allow the 
student to mature and come back and real- 
ize that behavior will not be tolerated, 
then I think a year is fine. 

"In most cases, that hearing process — 
sitting in a room and describing what 
you've done and why you acted the way 
that you did, and facing the person that 
you victimized, and seeing the impact that 


The first-year students 
seated in the Reynolds 
Industries Theater were 
concerned about time. "How 
long is this thing going to last?" 
a woman asked to no one in 
particular. Others shrugged 
and looked around. Someone 
a few rows down said the ear- 
lier group got out in an hour. 
Satisfied, the students from 
the Class of 1997 relaxed and 
read the program for Sounds 
Dangerous, which said the play 
"addresses the issue of date 
and acquaintance rape." 

The first scenes show the 
building of a romantic relation- 
ship between two students who 
know each other through 
mutual friends. After a week of 
dating, the characters, Nick 
and Shawna, are in his room 
drinking beer and making out 
when Shawna tells him she 
doesn't want to have sex. Nick 
tells her they won't do any- 
thing she doesn't want. The 
stage fades to black and the 
two rise, walk into two sepa- 
rate spotlights, face the audi- 
ence, and describe their ver- 
sions of what happened next. 
Nick says he meant it when he 
said he didn't want to do any- 
thing against Shawna's will, 
"But I couldn't..." Shawna 
interrupts. "He wouldn't stop. 
I just kept screaming, 'Stop it!' " 

The play details how both 
characters and their friends 
react after the rape, and it 
shows another situation in 
which Nick's macho buddy 
Tad tries to force himself on 

Sally, who manages to push 
him away and leave the room. 

Sounds Dangerous is spon- 
sored by the Duke Women's 
Center and has been a manda- 
tory event during first-year 
orientation for the past three 
years. Ellen Plummer, interim 
director of the Women's Cen- 
ter and former coordinator of 
Sexual Assault Support Ser- 
vices at Duke, says she hopes 
the play will start conversa- 
tions between students and 
make them more aware of how 
peer pressure, alcohol consump- 
tion, and miscommunication 
can lead to potentially danger- 
ous situations. 

The play was written by 
Michelle Silberman '91 in 
1990. Silberman is an actress 
(she played Sally) and writer 
who is working on projects 
similar to Sounds Dangerous, 
using theater to bring about 
social change. With guidance 
from the Women's Center, she 
has altered the content of the 
play every year to address 
some of the different emotions 
and reactions people involved 
in an assaultive situation expe- 
rience. For example, this year 
was the first year in which one 
of the characters successfully 
fought off an assailant. It was 
also the first time the actors, 
with the help of training from 
the Women's Center, remained 
in character after the play 
while answering questions 
from the audience: 

"Nick, what were you think- 
ing when you raped Shawna?" 

"Rape? I didn't rape any- 
body," responded Nick. "I 
didn't jump out of the bushes. 
I don't know what you're talk- 
ing about." 

"Shawna, why didn't you go 
to the police?" A distraught 
and visibly shaken Shawna 
responds, "Because I don't 
want anyone to know and I 
don't feel strong enough to be 
able to do that. Everyone 
would know. I would probably 
have to tell my parents." 

When Nick explains that 
Shawna had been giving him 
signals that meant yes all week, 
an angry student asks, "How 
come you are able to read signs 
that meant yes but didn't 
understand a simple spoken 
no?" The audience cheers and 
Nick, nonplused, says "Some- 
times no means yes." 

"Tad, do you have a sister?" 

"Shawna, why didn't you 
keep saying no?" 

"Sally, aren't you afraid 
you'll get the reputation of 
being a tease?" 

"Shawna, what do you want 
your friends to do for you 

"Nick, did it feel good?" 

The freshmen, so eager to 
get the program over with 
when they entered, had so 
many questions that Plummer 
had to end the discussion while 
hands were still raised. 

For Ellen Plummer, that 

> a success. 

you had on that individual — is an incredibly 
enlightening experience. And that experi- 
ence many times is a real education for 
those folks. For some students, the educa- 
tion doesn't start until they leave this 
place — until they leave Duke and they 
leave their friends, and they leave what 
they consider to be all their hopes and 
dreams, and they have to postpone that. 
They go home or they live elsewhere and 
they are forced to reflect on what they did. 
Ninety-nine percent of the time Duke stu- 
dents come back from a suspension and 
say, 'That really changed me, and it 
changed me in a positive way.' " 

Many times, Wasiolek says, if you ask a 
victim what his or her goal is, "Their 
response is, 'I want to do everything I can 
to make sure that this person doesn't do it 
again.' They don't necessarily want the 
person incarcerated, and they don't neces- 
sarily want this person punished so severe- 
ly that it changes their life in such a dra- 
matic way, that it brings an end to some 
things, particularly their college career. 
But they want to do everything they can 
to educate this person." 

While some colleges' judicial boards do 
not hear felonious cases such as sexual 
assault, Plummer thinks the university 
should continue to do so. "I want victims 
to have as many options as possible," she 
says. One of the reasons for continuing to 
allow the judicial board to hear felonious 
cases, Plummer argues, is that often the 
criminal alternative is too difficult for stu- 
dents, who are aware of the low conviction 
rate for rape cases in criminal courts and 
the negative attitudes that persist about 
rape victims. 

As of 1993, the university doesn't have 
any major physical security changes slated: 
The buildings are locked, the campus is lit, 
and no one need travel anywhere alone. 
According to Plummer, the changes that 
need to be addressed right now are educa- 
tional and psychological. Students, she 
says, need to learn to respect each other's 

Kristi says she walked by her attacker 
once on campus this year but did not speak 
to him. Although she occasionally goes to 
keg parties, she hasn't been back to his 
fraternity this year because she's afraid of 
the reactions of his fraternity brothers. But 
she says her assault hasn't tainted her pic- 
ture of Duke. "I think if I went to a differ- 
ent school the same thing would have 
happened." B 

Szymkowski '91, M.A.T. '92 is a reporter 
for the Sanford Herald in North Carolina. 




We need your news. There's no 
longer a backlog that once put 
the class note you sent in 
September into the May-June magazine. 
In truth, there's a dearth of information 
from alumni. 

News isn't restricted to just job changes, 
marriages, or births. Of course, we want 
you to continue sending us those updates 
for publication and for our records office. 
Even if you're settled in job and family, 
you still have news to share: volunteer 
activities in your community, awards and 
honors, local fine arts performances, or 
that you've rehabbed a house, retired to a 
tropical paradise, completed a quilt, driven 
cross country, published poetry, and so 
forth. Your classmates are indeed interested. 

Be sure when you submit a class note 
that you include your spouse or partner's 
name, where you live, your full name, and 
your class year. News submitted for 
reunion booklets or other publications 
doesn't necessarily get shared with the maga- 
zine, so please keep us in mind when you 
communicate with the university. 

Send your news to Class Notes Editor, 
Duke Magazine, Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 
27708-0570, or fax it, typed or legible, to 
us at (919) 684-6022. Since we like to 
have a written record for verification, we 
can't take notes dictated over the phone. 



Four athletes were inducted into the 
Duke Hall of Fame at a November 
banquet held in Cameron Indoor 
Stadium. The latest members are track star 
Werner C. Brown '42, football lineman 
Robert L. Burrows '54, basketball coach 
Charles G. "Lefty" Driesell '54, and foot- 
ball captain Ernest M. "Bear" Knotts '47. 

Brown was a standout on Duke's track 
team from 1940 to 1942, winning a total 
of five Southern Conference titles during 

mil v Smither 
Long '42, left, 
and her hus- 
band, J.D. Long '41, 
check names on 
plaques honoring 244 

Duke graduates — 
mostly men and 
women in the classes 
1939 to 1944— who 
died in World War II. 
The Longs, along with 

were instrumental in 
raising funds for the 
university's first all- 
inclusive World War 
II memorial. The pro- 
ject was spearheaded 
by the Class of 1941. 

The new memorial, 
located in the court- 
yard to the north of 
Duke Chapel and 
beside the Divinity 
School, was dedicated 
September 1 7 to coin- 
cide with the fiftieth 
reunion of the Class of 
1943 and the Half 
Century Club. Cere- 
monies included a 
color guard represent- 
ing Duke's Air Force, 
Army, Marine, and 
Navy ROTC units; 
remarks from Presi- 
dent Nannerl O. Keo- 
hane and Jack L. 
Bruckner '41; a prayer 
of remembrance and 
blessing by Louis H. 
Fracher '42; and the 
playing of "Taps." 

Before the crowd 
joined in singing 
"America the Beauti- 
ful" — with its refer- 
ence to a "patriot 
dream" that sees 

"beyond the years" — 
Keohane observed 
that "the dream of 
more livable and 
human cities, like 
Martin Luther King's 
powerful dream of a 
more inclusive and 
less segregated world, 
a world of brother- 
hood, is worth singing 
about and fighting for. 
This is exactly what 
our compatriots who 
gave their lives 
believed was worth 
dying for — cities that 
would gleam through 
human years, human 
brotherhood that 
would fulfill the 
promise of their sacri- 
fice. We are honored 
in honoring them." 

The twelve bronze 
plaques were laid into 
a new limestone cop- 
ing atop an existing 
wall at a cost of 
$44,000. The second 
phase of the project 
will encompass work 
on the walkways and 
lighting as well as per- 
manent benches to be 
placed in the court- 
yard of the memorial. 

his career. He swept the indoor and out- 
door championships of his specialty, the 
440-yard run, and represented Duke in the 
1942 Penn Relays, where he was a member 
of the quarter-mile relay team. He was 
track team captain as a senior, the year he 
set a Southern Conference record time of 
50.9 seconds in the 440. Brown, a retired 
director of Hercules, Inc., lives in Menden- 
hall, Pennsylvania. 

Burrows earned three varsity football 
letters from 1951 to 1953, emerging as one 
of the top college linemen in the country 
and earning third-team Associated Press 
and honorable-mention United Press All- 
America honors. As a guard, he helped 
lead Duke to two conference champi- 
onships, was elected Most Valuable Player 

by his team in 1953, and earned All-ACC 
honors in the inaugural year of the league. 
Burrows lives in Raleigh and is a sales rep- 
resentative for J&J Southeast Corporation. 
Driesell played center on Duke's basket- 
ball squads in 1953 and in 1954, the year 
the Blue Devils won the state championship 
with an 18-8 record. He went on to become 
a legendary basketball coach, averaging 
twenty wins a season, and was among just 
thirteen to have reached 600 victories. He 
has won fourteen conference championships 
during a career that has spanned nine years 
at Davidson College, seventeen years at the 
University of Maryland, and — since 1988 — 
a head coaching stint at James Madison 
University. He coached the Terrapins to an 
ACC Championship in 1984 and produced 


December I 993 


a record of 348-159. At JMU, he has gone 
to four straight National Invitational Tour- 
naments. Driesell has been named confer- 
ence Coach of the Year eight times, includ- 
ing the ACC in 1975 and 1980. 

Knotts was a Blue Devil lineman from 
1943 to 1946. The two-way guard earned 
All-America and All-Southern Confer- 
ence honors in 1945 and was named team 
captain his junior year. Duke's 1944 squad 
captured the Southern Conference crown 
and then defeated Alabama 29-26 in the 
Sugar Bowl. That year he earned third 
team All- America honors from the College 
Press. Knotts is president of Bear Insurance 
Service in his hometown of Albemarle, 
North Carolina. 


Trent Carmichael '88 and other mem- 
bers of the Duke Club of Northern 
California have been tutoring Bay 
area high school students for the past three 
years to help them improve their chances of 
getting into college. The DCNC SAT Prep 
Program was designed for students who can- 
not afford to take preparatory courses, 
which can range from $125 to $500. 

With a $900 grant from the Community 
Foundation of Santa Clara County, Car- 
michael and his volunteer tutors moved 
into more low-income schools. Now the 
program has evolved into College Bound, 
supported by alumni from Duke, Dart- 
mouth, Santa Clara University, and Stan- 
ford's Graduate School of Business. 

"One of the primary goals is to open 
awareness about college and the various 
choices a student has," Carmichael told 
the San ]ose Mercury News. He says the 
program has been successful from the start, 
proving that "students who take a prepara- 
tory course score higher in the SAT. Some 
of these kids will improve by 300 points." 

Carmichael was also successful in per- 
suading Barron's, publisher of a standard 
SAT guide, to sell its books to the group 
wholesale. Funding was again provided by 
the Community Foundation and Santa 
Clara University's East Side Project. He's 
also had T-shirts printed with the Duke 
Club of Northern California's logo as gradu- 
ation gifts for students completing the three- 
week course. 

Last year, College Bound volunteers 
helped more than 250 students through 
workshops. The program is now a tax- 
exempt public charity and is a sponsored 
project of the Tides Foundation. This 
enables them to raise funds from founda- 
tions, corporations, and individuals on a 
tax-deductible basis. 


Les Brown '36 is a man of renown — 
not only for his band but as an 
accomplished musician. He is not 
only a conductor, but also a composer and 
arranger who is, as one person wrote in 
nominating him for Duke's Distinguished 
Alumni Award, "as comfortable and com- 
petent conducting a symphonic orchestra 
as he is a swing band." 

Les is more: 1 993 Distinguished Aiumni Award recipient 

Brown, the 1993 recipient of the Duke 
Alumni Association-sponsored award, was 
born in 1912. At fourteen, he attended the 
Ithaca Conservatory of Music on a bassoon 
scholarship and then the New York Military 
Academy before coming to Duke in 1932. 
Within two years, he was the leader of a 
campus band, the Blue Devils. After 1936, 
he and the band toured the country and 
recorded with Decca, becoming the first col- 
legiate band to be signed by a major label. 

Brown founded his Band of Renown in 
1938. The dance band played at major 
American colleges, theaters, restaurants, 
and nightclubs for nearly a decade. In 
1947, he and his band joined the Bob 
Hope show on radio and later television. 
He became band leader and master of cer- 
emonies for Bandstand Revue in 1951-52, 
and musical director for The Steve Allen 
Show on ABC-TV from 1949 to 1960, 
Hollywood Palace on ABC in 1962, and 
The Dean Martin Show on NBC-TV from 
1963 to 1971. Brown has performed in 
television specials and movies throughout 
the years. He and his band have played at 
four presidential inaugural balls, and twice 
at the White House. 

In 1958, Brown co-founded, with Sonny 
Burke '37, the Michael Burke Foundation's 
annual Christmas Ball, which has raised 
more than $2 million for St. John's Hospi- 
tal in Los Angeles. He established a music 
scholarship at Duke in 1969, and later at 
Ithaca College and Florida A&M. He also 
established, with James P. Poyner J.D. '40 
and the George Smedes Poyner Founda- 
tion, the Les Brown Fund for a music chair 
at Duke. In 1989, he recorded a compact 
disc for commercial release, with all royal- 
ties going to the fund. 

Brown has received numerous citations 
for meritorious service from the U.S. Army, 
Air Force, Marines, and Navy for enter- 
taining G.I.s in England, France, and 
Morocco, and for eighteen Christmas tours 
entertaining troops in the South Pacific 
with Bob Hope. 

He has been a guest conductor for the 
Denver Symphony, Burbank Symphony, 
Inglewood Symphony, North Carolina 
Symphony, Los Angeles Symphony, Duke 
Wind Symphony, and — four times — for 
the U.S. Air Force Symphony. He and his 
band were selected by Frank Sinatra to 
provide the music for Queen Elizabeth 
when she visited Los Angeles. 

Brown and his wife, Claire, live in Cali- 
fornia. He and his son, Les Jr., are at work 
on an extensive radio show, The Big Band 
of Renown, covering the musical scene 
from the 1920s to the 1990s. 

Nominations for the 1994 Duke Alumni 
Association's Distinguished Alumni Award 
can be made on a form available in this 
issue of the magazine, or from the Alumni 
Affairs office. The deadline is August 31. 
To receive additional forms, write Barbara 
Pattishall, Associate Director, Alumni 
House, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, N.C. 
27708; or call (919) 684-5114, (800) FOR- 


September meant back to school for 
new alumni leaders, this time for a 
weekend of learning about how to 
run their clubs and admissions advisory 
committees and about Duke today. Two 
dozen new chairs of Alumni Admissions 
Advisory Committees (AAAC) and near- 
ly forty local club presidents and officers 
traveled to campus from as far away as 
Oregon and even London, England. 

Following a buffet lunch, the group 
attended an afternoon of presentations. 
"Duke Today" included Alumni Affairs 
Director M. Laney Funderburk '60 on the 
goals of the Duke Alumni Association 
(DAA), welcoming remarks by President 


Nannerl O. Keohane, and academic up- 
dates from Engineering Dean Earl H. Dow- 
ell and Dean of Trinity College and Vice 
Provost Richard A. White. Vice President 
for Student Affairs Janet Dickerson mod- 
erated a panel of students who candidly 
discussed what's right with Duke, what's 
wrong, and what they're doing about it. 
The session's finale was a talk by men's 
basketball head coach Mike Krzyzewski 
and a slide show of highlights, with music, 
of the last three years of basketball ban- 
quets. Dinner featured Senior Vice Presi- 
dent for Public Affairs John F. Burness 
as speaker. 

Saturday morning, breakout sessions fol- 
lowed a conversation about the university's 
needs by Senior Vice President for Alumni 
Affairs and Development John J. Piva. 

In the AAAC area, Edith Sprunt Toms 
'62, Alumni Affairs' assistant director for 
alumni admissions, discussed the AAAC's 
workings as a cooperative effort by the 
alumni and admissions offices. Undergrad- 
uate admissions director Christoph Gut- 
tentag discussed the AAAC's history, goals, 
and objectives, and the recruiting strate- 
gies for next year. Financial aid director 
James Belvin dealt with financing a Duke 

The clubs workshop, led by Bert Fisher 
'80, Alumni Affairs' assistant director for 
clubs programs, dealt with the expecta- 
tions, organization, and planning of events 
and the philosophy of alumni service in 
local communities. Admissions director 
Guttentag also provided an update on Duke 

Both groups broke for a pregame barbe- 
cue, then Duke vs. Army on the gridiron. 
Afterwards, it was back to workshops. For 
the AAAC, admissions officer Caroline 
Light explained how Duke reads and eval- 
uates 14,000 applications a year, followed 
by four case studies on admissions and a 
mock admission committee. In the clubs 
workshop, DAA President Stanley G. 
Brading '74 presented a national overview 
of the alumni association. 

After-dinner workshops were ask-the- 
experts sessions, with New Jersey AAAC 
chair Nancy Page Jackson '68 leading a 
panel of other AAAC leaders who explained 
what does and does not work in interview- 
ing. Club sessions dealt with programming 
and community service, with panel members 
Kathy Stone Sorley 79 of the London club, 
Eva Herbst '87 of Duke in LA., and Jeanine 
Poore Geraffo '84 of Charlotte. 

Another club workshop, on Sunday 
morning, featured veteran club leaders 
Carol Robert Armstrong '63 of the Duke 
Club of St. Louis, Ann Wooster Elliot '88 
of the Duke Club of Nashville, and Pat 
Dempsey '80 of the Duke University Met- 
ropolitan Alumni Association. 


Claudia Koonz practices total immer- 
sion. She's no Baptist preacher, but a 
German history associate professor 
who brings to her classroom the sounds, 
flavors, and personalities of Germanic cul- 
ture. She's also the recipient of this year's 
Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate 
Teaching Award, sponsored by the Duke 
Alumni Association. The award is chosen 
by a student-run committee from nomina- 
tions submitted by students. 

Koonz's immersion technique was a 
refreshing departure for some. "Where his- 
tory could just entail a discussion of the 
succession of events, this professor inte- 
grates aspects of the German culture into 
her lectures," wrote one student in a nomi- 
nation. "Several classes were spent looking 
at slides of German art and listening to 
German music composers. Reading and 
discussing German literature, as well as 
field trips to the Rare Book Room to view 
Nazi propaganda posters, further provided 
us with an all-encompassing look at Ger- 
man history." 

Another nomination discussed the indi- 
vidual attention Koonz gives her students: 
"Her interest in my intellectual develop- 
ment is something I never imagined I 

would receive at a large university 

Another time, she inquired as to when I 
would be presenting a chapter of my thesis 
so she could come and listen. She is clearly 
interested in developing another genera- 
tion of scholars, and not in just promoting 
her own career." 

Koonz, who came to Duke in 1988, 
teaches German history survey courses and 
upper level seminars, including "The His- 
tory of Women in Modern Europe" and 
"State and Society and the Third Reich." 
While earning her bachelor's at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, she spent her junior 
year in Munich. She earned her master's at 
Columbia and her Ph.D. at Rutgers. She 
has taught at Long Island University, the 
College of the Holy Cross, and Rutgers. 
Her book, Mothers in the Fatherland: 
Women, The Family, and Politics in Nazi 
Germany, was nominated for a National 
Book Award in 1987. 

The Alumni Distinguished Undergradu- 
ate Teaching Award, presented in Decem- 
ber during Founders' Day ceremonies, in- 
cludes a $5,000 stipend and $1,000 for a 
Duke library to purchase books recom- 
mended by the recipient. Koonz has ear- 
marked Perkins Library's Special Collec- 
tions for works related to women in 
history, either manuscript material or rare 
books written by or about women. 

Teacher of the Year Koonz: bringing the sounds , flavors , and personalities of her subject to the classroom 


ber 1993 

Continuing the 


experience through 

more enriching 


"Travel is part of education. . . a part of 
experience... He that travelleth goeth to 

— Francis Bacon, (1561-1626) 

Trans Panama Canal 
January 16-26 

The Crystal Harmony trans-canal adventure will 
carry you in elegance and luxury on an unforget- 
table voyage to festive Mexico, the historic 
Panama Canal and colorful Caribbean Islands. 
You'll cruise from Acapulco, cross the Panama 
Canal on a full-day, 50-mile adventure. The 
Canal passage is truly an experience of a lifetime. 
After transiting the Canal, cruise to the beautiful 
Caribbean Islands of St. Thomas, St. Maarten 
and Aruba. Finally, dock in San Juan, Puerto 
Rico. Come, enjoy the ultimate in comfort and 
gracious service on one of the world's most ele- 
gant ships.. ..the Crystal Harmony! From 
$2,710 per person, double occupancy with free 
air from most major U.S. gateway cities. Early 
booking discount of $150.00 per person applies 
to reservations received by September 30, 1 993 

Swiss Winter Escapade 

February 3-10 

Switzerland, the "Roof of Europe". ..more than 
its stunning mountain peaks, it offers most 
everything your heart desires in spectacular 
scenic variety. It is a treasure chest of architec- 
ture spanning twenty centuries! Come with us 
to Interlaken at a wonderful time of the year! At 
1,770 feet above sea level, Interlaken lies at the 
foot of the world-famous Jungfrau in the very 
heart of Switzerland.. .the ideal getaway for 
excursions to all corners of Switzerland. Or if 
skiing is your pleasure, enjoy one of the world's 
paramount ski resorts. Grindelwald is glorious 
in the winter and lies only a short distance from 

Interlaken. Whether you wish to "see" 
Switzerland or "ski" Switzerland, come with fel- 
low alumni for a simply grand vacation at a 
most affordable price! From $995 per person, 
double occupancy from New York; $1,095 from 

Australia/New Zealand 

February 9-23 

Back by popular demand! It's summer Down 
Under, and Royal Cruise Line's twelve-day 
cruise between Auckland and Sydney shows you 
the best of its wonders, including friendly 
Hobart, Tasmania and the stunning natural 
beauty of Milford Sound. Plus proper British 
Christchurch, delightfully Scottish Dunedin, 
Melbourne and more! Our home for this 
adventure is the beautiful Royal Odyssey, a 
stunning liner offering single dining seating and 
service second to none. Special Duke prices 
begin at $3,696 per person, double occupancy 
including air from most cities. 

Passage to India 

March 11 -April 2 

From Singapore to the Taj Mahal. From the 
Strait of Malacca to the Bay of Bengal, the 
Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.. .explore an 
intriguing corner of the Orient and exotic India. 
You will be captivated by the ancient and mysti- 
cal, by lands steeped in tradition and religion. 
You'll visit Malacca, Pulau Besar, Kuala Lumpur 
and Penang Malaysia; the Maldives; Cochin, 
Mangalore, Goa, Bombay, Jaipur and Delhi, 
India. This journey to the exotic lands of 
Malaysia and India is a kaleidoscope of new 
sights, new sounds and intriguing contrasts. 
From $6,595 per person, double occupancy 
from Los Angeles. 


April 28 -May 7 

Explore this broadly European country with its 
colorful people and rich history. You will reside 
at the elegant Royal Windsor Hotel in the heart 
of Brussels surrounded by narrow cobblestone 
streets, quaint shops and beautiful architecture. 
We have planned a full day excursion to the fas- 
cinating cities of Ghent and Bruges, boasting the 
grandest medieval architecture in all of Europe. 
You will see the great port city of Antwerp stop- 
ping at one of the diamond markets as well as 
visiting the artistic riches in Reubens House. 
Travel to the battlegrounds of Waterloo, and the 
Castle of Gaasbeck brimming with priceless 
antique furnishings. Enjoy the historic wind- 
mills on you way to Delft, home of the famous 
Delftware pottery. Spend a day exploring the 
sights and sounds of Brussels with its museums, 
the great medieval Grand' Place, and enchanting 
open-heart restaurants flashing their culinary 
brilliance. $2,453 per person, double occu- 

Mediterranean Cruise 

May 5-15 

Cruise aboard the magnificent Silver Cloud. 
This all suite ship carries a maximum of 300 
people which allows for extra spaciousness and 
service. You will start your trip with an 
overnight stay in the exciting city of Venice. 
Sail the Adriatic Sea to Vieste, Italy and into the 
Aegean to visit the charming Greek Isles of 
Crete, Rhodes and Santorini. You will end your 
ten day cruise in Athens. Special rates start at 
$4,195 per person, based on double occupancy, 
including free air from the east coast. 

D-Day Anniversary/Seine River Cruise 

June 10-24 

The picturesque beauty of the heart of 
Normandy is highlighted this year of 1994 as we 
observe the 50th anniversary of D-Day, when 
courageous Allied troops landed on the beaches 
of Omaha, Utah, Sword and Juno. Begin with 
three nights in London, one of the truly remark- 
able cities of the world. Ferry across the English 
Channel to Caen, France. The charm of 
Normandy unfolds on your drive to the popular 
resort town of Deauville. Then board the M/S 
Normandie. Fascinating ports of call include 
Honfleur, Caudebee, Rouen, Les Andelys, 
Vernon and Mantes. Paris awaits as you enjoy a 
gala Illumination Cruise through the "City of 
Lights." Commemorating the historic events of 
D-Day with a cruise on the legendary Seine 
River will make this truly a once-in-a-lifetime 
travel experience. From approximately $3,995 
per person, double occupancy, from New York; 
$4,195 from Adanta. 


July 1-12 

It was back in the early 1700's that Peter the 
Great, with his towering physical strength, 
unerring vision and often ruthless tactics, trans- 
formed Russia into the greatest power in 
Europe. Now, you can follow in the historic 
pathways of this powerful czar as you cruise 
from St. Petersburg, Peter's celebrated capital 
and "window on the West", all the way to 
Moscow on waterways previously accessible only 
to Russians. See the country as Peter saw it, 
with its many treasures still beautifully preserved 
and its stunning scenery virtually untouched. As 
you explore Russia's two great cities.. .Moscow 
and St. Petersburg.. .the M.V. Kerzanovsky will 
be your hotel. The famous Hermitage in St. 
Petersburg, the czar's Summer Palace, 
Petrodvorets, Moscow's onion-domed St. Basil's 
Cathedral, the Kremlin and Red Square are just 
a small part of the rich cultural heritage of this 
great country. From approximately $2,995 dou- 
ble occupancy per person from New York; 
$3,195 from Atlanta. 


Danube River Adventure 
July 14-26 

Combine the ease and comfort of a cruise ship, 
with the intimate, behind-the-scenes-experiences 
of an overland journey on a journey through his- 
tory from Budapest to Munich. Our exclusive 
thirteen-day itinerary features nine continuous 
nights aboard ship - including two days in 
Budapest and two days in Vienna - with accom- 
modations and meals conveniently aboard ship 
with no packing and unpacking. In addition, 
visit the charming ports of Esztergom, Hungary; 
Bratislava, Czechoslovakia; Melk, Austria and 
Passau, Germany. Enjoy scenic sightseeing in 
Regensburg en route to Munich for a two-night 
stay. From $2,895 per person, double occu- 
pancy, including round-trip international airfare 
from JFK. 

Scandinavian Capitals and St. Petersburg 
August 2-15 

As it has since Viking times, the summer sun 
signals a celebration in the enchanting capitals of 
the Northlands. Join us on this twelve night 
cruise to the great capitals of Scandinavia; Oslo, 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, Helsinki plus Berlin 
and St. Petersburg. Sail in luxury aboard the 
beautiful Crown Odyssey. Special Duke prices 
begin at $2,999, including air from most cities. 
An optional two-night London Theatre package 
is also available. 

Midnight Sun Express and Alaska Passage 

August 15-27 

Alaska.. .it catches the imagination and fills it 
with vistas of untamed space as far as the eye can 
see. Our thirteen-day itinerary provides the best 
of the Last Frontier - by land and by sea! First, 
two nights in Fairbanks. Then board the 
Midnight Sun Express train for a scenic journey 
to Anchorage. En route, spend one night at 
Denali National Park, America's largest wilder- 
ness preserve. Following two nights in 
Anchorage, begin a seven-night Inside Passage 
cruise aboard the Crown Princess from Seward 
to College Fjord, Glacier Bay, Skagway, Juneau, 
Ketchikan and Vancouver. Optional Vancouver 
extension available. From $3,239 per person, 
double occupancy from Fairbanks/Vancouver. 
Reserve by December 31, 1993, and save up to 
$1,300 per couple. 


September 17-29 

Experience the classical splendor of Italy with 
visits to Rome, Florence, Siena, San Marino and 
Venice. Gaze upon the Sistine Chapel ceiling of 
Michelangelo in the Vatican and walk among 
the ruins of the Roman Forum and the Palatine 
Hill. Experienc Florence, the greatest 
Renaissance city in Europe - the city of the 
Medicis and Machiavelli, and the Florentine 
School of Painters. See Pisa's famous leaning 
tower. Visit Siena with its imposing 1 lth-cen- 
tury Gothic Cathedral, and San Marino, the 
world's oldest and smallest independent repub- 

lic. Roam the canals and back streets of Venice, 
the city of Marco Polo and between the 9th and 
13th centuries the dominant maritime and com- 
mercial power in Europe. From approximately 
$3,495 per person, double occupancy from New 
York; $3,695 from Atlanta. 

Marco Polo Passage 

September 29 - October 13 
Marco Polo began his return voyage to Venice 
from China in 1292, sailing across the South 
China Sea and around the tip of Malaysia. 
Along the way he stopped at what is now 
Vietnam. We're pleased to offer an eighteen- 
day voyage recalling the great explorations of 
Marco Polo on a ship appropriately named after 
the great Venetian traveler. Walk on the Great 
Wall of China and explore the Forbidden City 
during a three-night visit to Beijing. Then it's 
two nights in Hong Kong, bargain capital of the 
world. Your 10-night cruise aboard the M.V. 
Marco Polo visits Canton, China; Da Nang and 
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Port 
Kelang/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Singapore. 
From $4,595 per person, double occupancy, 
including round-trip international airfare from 
Los Angeles. Reserve by December 23, 1 993, 
and save up to $ 1 ,000 per couple. 

October 6-23 

China. ..a land of treasure and tradition. ..a land 
where time stands still. Expetience the magic 
that has drawn travelers to the mysterious East 
for centuries past. From the comfort and ambi- 
ence of the M.S. Pinghu, cruise the Yangtze 
River and view the spectacular Three Gorges — 
ofter called the world's most scenic wonder. 
Stop in Xi-an where you'll travel back to ancient 
China to pay tribute to the world-renowned 
Terra Cotta Warriors. You'll discover.. .Beijing, 
China's capital that embodies the heart, soul and 
spirit of this mystical land with the Great Wall, 
The Forbidden City and Tiananmen 
Square.. .Guilin with its majestic limestone peaks 
and mysterious underground caverns.. .and 
Hong Kong, a shopper's paradise. Don't miss 
this chance to see a land whose civilization has 
endured longer than any othet in the history of 
the world. From approximately $4,895 per per- 
son, double occupancy from Los Angeles. 

Turkey, Past and Present 

October 11-22 

Turkey is a country of subtle beauties., .a 
nomad's tent with a mesa in the distance; the 
incredible blue color of the Aegean Sea, a cara- 
van of gypsies in their picturesque wagons pass- 
ing the moonscape of rock pinnacles once hol- 
lowed out and inhabited by early Christians, the 
palm trees lining the waterfront in Izmir gently 
moving in the wind, with its ancient citadel 
dominating the town, the sun setting into the 
Golden Horn, seeming to turn the water to gold 
and thus giving the river its name. This jour- 
ney, led by an accomplished art historian guide 

with extensive knowledge of Turkey's history 
and sites, promises to be a most memorable one! 
Please join us as we explore this legendary coun- 
try! Approximately $3,900 per person, double 
occupancy, including air from New York. 

Holy Land 

November 1-10 

For years this fascinating land was closed to trav- 
elers. Today multitudes of visitots enjoy the 
experience of their lives as they embark on this 
educational travel opportunity visiting the his- 
toric and religious sites of the Holy Land. Walk 
in the Garden of Gethsemane, take a boat ride 
on the Sea of Galilee, visit the Shepherd's Fields 
near Bethlehem, experience the vast spectrum of 
deep fertile valleys, rolling mountains and 
ancient seas. Stay in Tiberias on the Sea of 
Galilee and near the Old City in Jerusalem. 
$2,232 per person, double occupancy. 

For More Information: 

Indicate the trips of interest to you for detailed 

□ Trans Panama Canal 

□ Swiss Winter Escapade 

□ Australia/New Zealand 
D Passage to India 

D Belgium 

□ Mediterranean Cruise 

□ D-Day Anniversary/Seine River Cruise 

□ Russia 

D Danube River Adventure 

D Scandinavian Capitals and St. Petersburg 

D Midnight Sun Express and Alaska Passage 

□ Italy 

D Marco Polo Passage 

D China 

□ Turkey 

□ Holy Land 

fill out the coupon and return to: 

Barbara DeLapp Booth '54, 

Duke Travel, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 

27708 919 684-5114 or 800 FOR-DUKE 

Travel advertising, brochures, and ■>>:■ 
alumni arefidly subsidized by participating t 

November — December J 993 


With the inauguration of Presi- 
dent Nannerl O. Keohane and 
the earlier appointment of Vice 
President for Student Affairs Janet Smith 
Dickerson, women have achieved a rela- 
tively new prominence in Duke's leader- 
ship. And this brings special inspiration to 
the women who helped shape Duke in the 
past, including Anne Garrard '25, A.M. 
'30, who was assistant director of alumni 
affairs from 1939 to 1970. 

For more than thirty years, Garrard 
organized homecoming events and class 
reunions, and advised the nursing school 
alumnae association and the Woman's 
College alumnae association. She worked 
with student groups, local businesses, politi- 
cians, and Duke administrators. In essence, 
she brought together many aspects of the 
Duke and Durham communities in a cohe- 
sive manner — which is one of the goals 
driving Duke's current leadership. 

In Garrard's day, this cohesiveness was 
crucial to successful community events, 
says Associate Director of Alumni Affairs 
Barbara Pattishall, who worked with Gar- 
rard for more than twenty years. "Back 
during those times, all the students had 
homecoming displays, they had the parade 
through town, and there was a huge home- 
coming show with skits put on by the 
women from East Campus. Plus, the whole 
Durham community came out for home- 
coming," Pattishall says. "Ms. Garrard was 
the focal point that brought all this 
together. She had that wonderful sense of 
community, bringing together students, 
alumni, and Durham." 

Before the modern breakthroughs into 
positions like Keohane's and Dickerson's, 
women like Garrard served as influential 
leaders and role models for women at 
Duke. "For Duke female students, without 
a doubt, she was a role model," says Pat- 
tishall. "I think at that point in her life, 
she had accomplished a great deal in the 
position she held. For a woman in that 
period of time to be a professional was 
amazing. She put all of her energy and all 
of her time into her profession." 

Garrard was already breaking ground at 
Trinity, almost literally, when she became 
the first Durham woman to live in South- 

Garrard: remembering the way women were; 
inset, Chanticleer senior photo, 1925 

gate Building, the first dormitory for 
women, just completed in the fall of 1921. 
She was sixteen. 

When the first women came to Old 
Trinity, their opportunities were extremely 
limited, says Garrard. The Giles sisters, 
Class of 1878, A.M. 1885, weren't even 
allowed to sit with their fellow male stu- 
dents; they had to sit in classes behind 
a screen. 

As more and more women enrolled, facil- 
ities expanded to accommodate them and 
classes were integrated. But all of the pro- 
fessors, administrators, and student leaders 
were still men. In response, Garrard and 
other women began to form their own 
groups. "My senior year, for example, we 
organized a women's honor society, the 
White Duchy, that recognized the seven 
most outstanding women in the senior class." 
This was one of the first times women 
were identified on campus as achievers and 
leaders. Others could look up to these 
women as role models, says Garrard. 
"Women began to run almost everything 
[on their campus]. There were women's 
musical groups. They were very active in 
dramatics. There was a women's student 
government association and a women's 
athletic association." 

Garrard attributes the expansion of 
women's roles to female leadership in the 
administration. "One of the most wonder- 
ful things for women was when Dean Alice 
Baldwin came in 1923. She was a wonder- 
ful person. She was the typical New Eng- 
land lady, but she tempered dignity with a 
good sense of humor." Baldwin was joined 
in 1930 by Mary Grace Wilson, later dean 
of women. "More than any others, these 
two leaders provided the stimuli for female 
student development over the years." 

In the 1920s, opportunities for college- 
educated women were limited. Teaching 
school, Garrard says, was one of the few 
options she had. After leaving Duke to 
teach at Greensboro College and serve as 
dean of women there for several years, she 
returned to Durham to work with the 
alumni affairs office. 

While there, Garrard kept track of al- 
most every known alumnus and alumna. 
During World War II, when many Duke 
men left to fight, Garrard worked intensely 
with female students to keep up with the 
men overseas. "I'd say that was my fondest 
memory. All the folks were going away 
and we were getting addresses and all. I 
decided we should keep a card file of the 
people in the service and where they were. 
And the girls [from the Woman's College] 
had an organization — COGS, Coeds Orga- 
nized for General Services. They came and 
spent untold hours working with me." 

These students helped Garrard make 
the numerous phone calls, military infor- 
mation requests, and follow-ups necessary 
to maintain a detailed listing of more than 
11,000 Duke servicemen and their military 
records. The file, now in the university's 
archives, was recently used to help com- 
pile Duke's World War II Memorial. 

Such efforts for the Duke troops did not 
go unappreciated. "One Christmas, I came 
up with the idea of sending a letter to 
everybody [at war]. It was a serious sort of 
thing. I think I wrote it long-hand. But I 
got all sorts of people to sign it — people in 
the kitchen, all up and down over the 
campus — so those boys could look and 
remember them. And it meant a lot to 
them. I received a lot of wonderful letters 
saying how much it meant to them." 

One of the most drastic changes Garrard 
witnessed came when Duke merged its 
women's and men's campuses in 1972. This 
integration blurred many of the boundaries 
between men and women on campus, 
leaving Garrard with mixed feelings about 
the idea. Women sacrificed much of their 
autonomy, she says, but they also gained 
access to many of the men's resources and 
opportunities. "So many things were chang- 
ing. Women had leadership positions that 
they gave up, and it took a long time for 
them to regain them. It seems like just 
now they're starting to get them back. Duke 
women have come a long way." 

— Jason Schultz '93 




WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazine, 
Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only, please) 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
Box 90613, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. Please 
include mailing label and allow six weeks. 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of 
class note material we receive and the 
long lead time required for typesetting, 
design, and printing, your submission 
may not appear for two to three issues. 

to include spouses' 
names in marriage and birth announce- 
ments. We do not record engagements. 

40s & 50s 

Robert C. Oshiro LL.B. '52, LL.M. '53 received 
an honorary degree from the University of Hawaii at 
Manoa during its commencement in August. He 
helped found the Democratic Party in Hawaii and was 
a state legislator. 

Norwood A. Thomas Jr. '55 retired in March 
1992 from Centtal Carolina Bank as executive vice 
president and senior trust officer. He has joined 
Wayne F. Wilbanks '82 in Norfolk, Va., to form 
Wilbanks, Smith and Thomas Asset Management, 
which specializes in investment management for cor- 
porations and individuals. 

George W. Paulson M.D. '56, the Kurtz Profes- 
sor of Neurology at the Ohio State University's Hos- 
pitals, was named the hospital's chief of staff. He 
chaired the neurology department from 1983 to 1991. 

L. Thompson A.M. '58, Ed.D. '68, 
director of financial aid at Duke from 1959 to 1966, 
retired as associate dean and adjunct associate profes- 
sor from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of 
New Jersey. A past president of the Medical History 
Society of New Jersey and a fellow of the College of 
Physicians of Philadelphia, he is a history mentor for 
Thomas Edison State College's Guided Study Program. 
He and his wife, Betty, a U.S. Tennis Association 
professional tennis umpire, live in Plainshoro, N.J. 

William K. Quick B.D. '58, the minister at 
Detroit's Metropolitan United Methodist Church, 
represented Duke in October at the inauguration of 
the president of the University of Michigan-Dearborn. 

John H. Amsler '59 represented Duke in October 
at the inauguration of the president of Morningside 
College in Sioux City, Iowa. 

Charles B. Duke '59, senior research fellow at 
the Xerox Research Center in Webster, N.Y., was 
inducted into the National Academy of Engineering 
in October for "providing the theoretical foundations 
for developments in xerography." 

MARRIAGES: Robert E. Cowin '46 to Ann 
Wilson Smoot '47 on April 17. Residence: 
Stuart, Fla. 


D. Bundy Jr. '60, who retired from the 
N.C. Department of Public Instruction after 32 years 
in state government, is working for the education 
division of Colonial Life and Accident Insurance Co. 
in Raleigh. 

Glenn E. Ketner Jr. '60, J. D. '63 represented 
Duke in October at the inauguration of the president 
of Catawba College in Salisbury, N.C. 

Carol "Cookie" Anspach Kohn '60 of High- 

land Park, 111., represented Duke in September at the 
inauguration of the president of Wheaton College. 

Thomas M. Vernon '60, who earned his M.D. 
from Harvard, is executive director for medical, scien- 
tific, and public health affairs, a new position with the 
Merck Vaccine Division, a unit of Merck &. Co., Inc. 
He and his wife, Patricia, have two children and live 
in Philadelphia. 

Joseph C. Bowles '61, M.Div. '65 is senior vice 
president and manager of the corporate affairs depart- 
ment of Bank One, Texas. He was corporate affairs 
executive for NationsBank Corp. in Dallas. He and 


Forget the myth of 
the solitary writer. 
After a distin- 
guished career as a 
New York City editor, 
Marshall de Bruhl 
decided to write a 
book, and he says it 
was the most fun he's 
ever had. 

"I think the notion 
that the writer's life is a 
lonely life is nonsense," 
says de Bruhl '58, 
whose biography of 
Texas politician Sam 
Houston was published 
by Random House. 
"Writing was the most 
exciting thing I'd ever 
done. I was staying at 
my sister's house on 
[North Carolina's) 
Lake Lure while I was 
working, and I would 
conduct research all 
day, and organize my 
notes. Then I would 
walk about a mile, 
come home and have a 
drink while watching 
MacNeil-Lehrer, and 
then I'd get to work. I 
found I did my best 
writing at night. Some- 
times I wrote until the 
sun came up." 

De Bruhl, a former 
editor at Scribner's and 
Doubleday's Anchor 
Books, had heard 
about Houston as a 
boy while growing up 
in western North Caro- 
lina. Although best 
known as a protege of 
Andrew Jackson and 
later as president of the 
Republic of Texas, 
Houston spent his 
early years in western 
North Carolina, near 
de Bruhl's childhood 
home in the Asheville 
area. De Bruhl had 

De BrM: Sam Houston biographer researched by day, 
wrote by night 

tried to sell other writ- 
ers on Houston's story, 
but no one was curious 
enough to take on the 
project. So five years 
ago, he decided to do it 

With blessings — and 
a book contract — from 
colleague and Random 
House executive editor 
Robert Loomis '49, de 
Bruhl began to piece 
together Houston's life, 
from his hardscrabble 
youth and heroic ac- 
complishments in the 
War of 1812 through 
his celebrated political 
career. Through exten- 
sive research and inter- 
views, including some 
with surviving Hous- 
ton family members, 
de Bruhl put together a 
historically informative 

human interest story, 
Sword of San Jacinto: A 
Life of Sam Houston. 

"From early on, I 
decided the only way 
to do it was from birth 
to death, a linear pro- 
gression rather than an 
approach or told 
through flashbacks," 
says de Bruhl. "And I 
wanted to teach history 
as I went, so that peo- 
ple learned about the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill, 
for example." 

Houston's life was 
celebrated in John F. 
Kennedy's Profiles In 
Courage. And Texas' 
largest city was named 
in his honor. But for de 
Bruhl, Houston's life 
was an intriguing mix 
of romantic adventure 

and professional 

"When he was a boy, 
his mother moved Sam 
and eight brothers and 
sisters to Tennessee, 
where he lived about 
five miles from the 
border of the Cherokee 
nation. As a teenager, 
he ran away to join the 
Indians and fight in the 
War of 1812. And 
when he returned from 
the war to study law, 
he got married, but his 
wife left him after 
eleven weeks of mar- 
riage." Houston did 
find happiness with 
another woman, 
though, and they had 
eight children together. 

De Bruhl says he 
was particularly 
impressed with Hous- 
ton's ambition and 
ability to overcome 
initial obstacles. "By 
his own admission, he 
had a very limited edu- 
cation," he says, "and 
yet he was extremely 
eloquent and wrote 
extraordinary letters 
and speeches." 

De Bruhl's now 
looking to write more 
books, including one 
on the bombing of 
Dresden during World 
War II. Although he 
came to writing fairly 
late, he says it was an 
easy transition to 
make. "It was fantastic 
background as a writer 
to have been an editor 
for so long. It eases the 
way. So when my edi- 
tor, Bob Loomis, asks 
me to do something, I 
intuitively know what 
he wants." 

mber-D ecember 1993 


Tune is precious 
for everyone. 
So it's no sur- 
prise that parents 
often agonize about 
whether they're 
providing their kids 
with both quality 
and quantity tune 
together. To help par- 
ents and other care- 
givers make playtime 
rewarding, Playspace 
was started in Raleigh, 
North Carolina. 

"Playspace was 
designed to be an 
interactive facility that 
encourages learning 
through play," says 
Patricia "Patsy" Hod- 
gins Fyfe '76. "We 
don't provide child 
care, we provide the 
facility and supervi- 
sion for parents and 
their pre-schoolers." 
Before taking over 
as executive director 
of the nonprofit ' 
organization, Fyfe had 
been a volunteer at 
Playspace since its 
incorporation in 1990. 
She mopped floors, 
scrubbed bathrooms, 
and payed the bills. 
Her husband, Charles 
R. "Chuck" Fyfe Jr. 
'68, M.B.A. '74, was 
the unofficial repair- 
man, fixing anything 
that broke. (Founded 
by Linda Rogers with 
help from husband 
Walter Rogers '74, 
Playspace opened its 

doors to the public in 
June of 1991.) 

Now that she's a 
paid staff member, 
Fyfe will turn her 
sights to tasks that 
involve more long- 
range planning. Her 
responsibilities include 
fund raising, facility 
and personnel man- 
agement, and budget- 
ing. She'll also work to 
strengthen outreach 
programs that refer 
children and their 
parents to Playspace. 

"We're serving a lot 
of stay-at-home moms 
and stay-at-home 
dads," says Fyfe. "And 

J^k B^^ pare 

^^^^^^ not luu 

we have a grant from 
[pharmaceutical man- 
ufacturer] Glaxo to 
bring in children who 
are physically or eco- 
nomically disadvan- 
taged. But we'd also 
like to identify young 
parents through the 
Department of Social 

Services, or foster 
parents, who might 
have much expe- 
rience in how to play 
with their children." 

At the 3,000- 
square-foot space, 
there is a mini-city 
where kids can get 
play money from an 
automatic teller 
machine, shop for 
groceries at the store, 
dress up in costumes 
and see themselves 
projected on a video 
screen, and pretend 
they're a doctor or 
patient at the town's 

Fyfe, mother to 
Andrew and nine- 
year-old Shannon, 
says her involvement 
with Playspace has 
been a valuable lesson 
for her entire family. 
"My children have 
learned that it's impor- 
tant to donate your 
time to make sure 
things are better for 
other people. So it's 
really been a family 

Playspace: where all ages, including parents, learn w 
play and play to learn 

his wife, Chris, have a child and live in Farmers 
Branch, Texas. 

Leslie Bernard Branch '61, a physician, is an 
associate with Mayer & Karim, P.S.C., practicing 
allergy and clinical immunology in Lexington, Ky. 

Jessica Richards Linden '62 made her the- 
atrical debut in the 1993-94 season-opening produc- 
tion of Tina Howe's Approaching Zanzibar at Actors 
Express in Atlanta. She retired from IBM in 1992 and 
is now focusing on a second career in the performing 

Larry K. Monteith M.S.E. '62, Ph.D '65, chan- 
cellor of N.C. State University, was made a fellow of 
the American Society for Engineering Education, one 
of 10 named this year for outstanding contributions in 
the field. He is a former dean of the NCSU College of 
Engineering and a past chair of its electrical engineer- 
ing department. 

George A. Timblin B.S.E.E. '62 received the 
1993 James H. McGraw Award in Engineering Tech- 
nology Education in June from the American Society 
for Engineering Education. He is head of the engi- 
neering and advanced technology department at Cen- 
tral Piedmont Community College in Charlotte. In 

1990, he- 
the Year. 

H. Bennett B.S.C.E. '63 is vice president, 
civil engineering, for American Electric Power Ser- 
vice Corp. in Columbus, Ohio. 

A. Everette James Jr. M.D. '63, a radiology 
professor at Vanderhilt University, is the senior pro- 
gram officer for the National Academy of Sciences' 
Institute of Medicine. He is also the new treasurer of 
the International Society of Art in Medicine. A col- 
lector and art historian, he is the cover editor of the 
International Journal of Art in Medicine, a member of 
the arts committee of the Cosmos Club, and a patron 
of the Art in Embassies program of the U.S. State 
Department. He and his wife, Jeannette, have three 
children and live in Nashville, Tenn. 

Aileen Blakinship Fletcher '64 has been ap- 
pointed instructor of art at New River Community 
College in Dublin, Va. She lives in Christiansburg, Va. 

Jay R. Miller Jr. '64, a Navy rear admiral, has 
assumed command of the Naval Reserve Readiness 
Command Region 20. He is also commander, Naval 
Air Force Eastern Atlantic, and assistant chief of staff 
for readiness Naval Air Force, U.S. Atlantic fleet. 

Some of his awards include the Distinguished Flying 
Cross and the Meritorious Service Medal. A commer- 
cial pilot, he is also the general partner for Miller 
Land and Title Co. He lives in St. Petersburg, Fla., 
and Park City, Utah. 

Malcolm G. Lane A.M. '68, Ph.D. '71 was 
named a partner at KPMO Peat Marwick's Washing- 
ton, D.C., office. As a principal in the international 
accounting and consulting firm's Policy Economics 
Group, he specializes in international tax system com- 
puterization. He also plays the trumpet and is a classic- 
car collector. He and his wife, Maureen, and their two 
children live in Manassas, Va. 

Bonnie Stanley Birkel B.S.N. '69, who earned 
her master's in public health at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, is assistant director of maternal health and 
family planning for the Maryland Department of 
Health. She is also co-chair of the State Family 
Planning Administrators and president-elect of the 
Maryland Perinatal Association. She and her hus- 
band, J. Wayne Birkel '66, have moved to Balti- 
more from Washington, DC, where he works as a 
security officer for the federal government. 

Russell Ann Nobles '69, an attorney, has joined 
the Garden City, N.Y., office of the law firm Nixon, 
Hargrave, Devans & Doyle. She had worked for the 
N.Y. State Medical Care Facilities Finance Agency 
since 1982. 

James R. Thompson Ph.D. '69, a researcher at 
the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Lab- 
oratory and a physics professor at the University of 
Tennessee, was elected a fellow of the American 
Physical Society. He and his wife, Dawn, and their 
two children live in Knoxville. 


Ward M. Cates 71, D.Ed. '79 was promoted to 
associate professor and granted tenure at Lehigh Uni- 
versity. He specializes in instructional design and 
software development. In 1991, he received the 
American Educational Research Association's Distin- 
guished Service Award. He was named to Who's Who 
in the East in 1992-93 and to Who's Who in American 
Education for 1994-95. He and his wife, Anne, and 
their daughter live in Bethlehem, Pa. 

Robert G. Atcheson '72, a founding member of 
the Jordanian American Fulbright Commission, was 
elected director of its governing board. He is regional 
director, Middle East and North Africa, for Lockheed 
Corp. He and his family have lived in the region for 
17 years. 

Curtis R. Kimball '72 is the national director of 
Willamerte Management Associates' valuation prac- 
tice related to federal gift and estate tax concerns. He 
has been a principal in the firm since 1988. He lives 
in Portland, Ore. 

Stephen Ash Lacks 73, M.B.A. 75 represented 
Duke in September at the inauguration of the presi- 
dent of Regis University in Denver, Colo. 

Nancy Becker Lehman 74 is a psychiatrist in 

clinical practice in Durango, Colo. She and her hus- 
band, Dale, and their son live in Durango. 

Christopher S. McCullough 74 joined the 
faculty at the University of Virginia as an associate 
professor of surgery. He specializes in liver, kidney, 
and pancreas transplantation. He and his wife, 
Karen Anne Ahern-McCullough B.S.N. 79, 
and their four children live in Charlottesville. 

Shawn G. Rader 74, a partner in the Orlando, 
Fla., law firm Lowndes, Drosdick, Doster, Kantor & 



Reed, was appointed chairman of the American Bar 
Association Torts and Insurance Practice Section of 
the Title Insurance Committee for 1994. 

e Sved 74 was elected president of 
the Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists, a 
national organization of more than 500 members, 
affiliated with the American Psychiatric Association. 
She lives in Raleigh, N.C 

H. Clayton Foushee 75 is vice president of 

flight operations at Northwest Airlines. He lives in 
Washington, D.C. 

J. David Hughey III 75, who earned his M.B.A. 
in 1991 at UNC's Kenan-Flagler business school, was 
promoted to vice president/secretary' of the company 
at The Durham Herald Co. He was the company's 
corporate secretary. He lives in Durham. 

Roy H. Rowe D.Ed. 75 writes that after four years 
of living and working in native villages in Bush, 
Alaska, he has been invited to return to the Univer- 
sity of Alaska, Anchorage, to chair the department of 
administration and foundations in the School of Edu- 
cation. "The fishing is great! Come on up for a visit." 

Janice Trawick 75 is the senior education ad- 
viser and speechwriter for S.C. Gov. Carroll A. 
Campbell Jr. She lives in Columbia. 

Janet A. Holmes 76 won a Bush Foundation 
grant for 1993 in literature (poetry). Her book of 
poems, The Physicist at the Mall, was awarded the 
Anhinga Prize for 1993 and will be published in 1994. 
She works for Merrill Corp., a financial printer head- 
quartered in St. Paul, Minn. She and her husband, 
Alvin D. Greenberg, live in St. Paul. 

Kibbel Kwiatek 76, director of the 
Creative School of Jewish Learning in Cincinnati, 
was named chair for the 1994 Conference on Alter- 
natives in Jewish Education to be held next year at 
Indiana University. She and her husband, Ken, and 
their three children live in Dayton, Ohio. 

O'Neal Ph.D. 76, a professor of English i 
South Carolina's Columbia College, was named the 
school's Outstanding Faculty Member for 1992-93. 

P. Rausch Ph.D. 76, a theology profes- 
sor at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, 
edited The College Student's Introduction to Theology, 
published by The Liturgical Press. It is his fifth book. 

Nancy DeLong Dugas 77 is the principal at 
DeLong Associates, a financial insurance specialty 
agency in Connecticut. She and her husband, Ken- 
neth, and their daughter live in Rocky Hill, Conn. 

Boek Werness 77 has a private law 
practice specializing in civil litigation, with a focus on 
domestic relations, personal injury, and guardianship. 
She has offices in Old Town, Alexandria, and Arling- 
ton, Va. She and her husband, Bruce, a physician, live 
in Alexandria. 

Elba Brown-Collier Ph.D. 78 is an economics 
professor at Eastern New Mexico University's College 
of Business. She was associate dean of the University 
of Texas' College of Business in El Paso. 

Philip L. Schaefer 78 is a director at Sylvan 
Lawrence Co., Inc., a Manhattan real estate firm. He 
was the exclusive representative in the relocation of 
Bill Communications, Inc. to a 70,000-square-foot 
Park Avenue South space, one of the largest office 
leasing transactions in Manhattan in 1992. He and his 
wife, Wendy, and their two children live in Manhattan. 

Harry C. Weinerman 78, a pediatrician in 
W. Hartford, Conn., was elected a fellow in the 
American Academy of Pediatrics. 

Larry W. Leckonby 79, who was assistant direc- 
tor of athletics at Old Dominion University, is now 

athletics business manager at Boston College. He and 
his wife, Cris, live in Boston, Mass. 

Robert L. Thompson Jr. 79 is PC network 
administrator for the Cargill Corp. in Liberty Corner, 
Pa. He and his wife, Marybeth, and their son live in 
Buckingham, Pa. 

MARRIAGES: Dianne Butler Murchison 72 

to Joseph Patterson Lawson on Sept. 1 1 . Residence: 
Richmond... Kenneth F. Trofatter Jr. 73, 

M.D. 77, Ph.D. 79 to Michele Offutt Webb on Nov. 
6, 1992. Residence: Knoxville... Nancy Becker 
74 to Dale Lehman on Feb. 23, 1991. Residence: 
Durango, Colo.... Janet A. Holmes 76 to Alvin 
D. Greenberg on March 26. Residence: St. Paul, 
Minn.... Sandra Boek 77 to Bruce A. Werness 
on March 6. Residence: Alexandria, Va.... Larry W. 
Leckonby 79 to Cris Snarsky on June 19. Resi- 
dence: Boston. 

BIRTHS: First child and daughter to Eric Vlahov 
70 and Denise Vlahov on June 1 1 . Named Rachel 
Leah... First child and son to Nancy Becker 
Lehman 74 and Dale Lehman on July 2. Named 
Jesse Becker... Fourth child and first daughter to 
Christopher S. McCullough 74 and Karen 
Anne Ahern-McCullough B.S.N. 79 on 
March 28. Named [Catherine Annemarie Ahern 
McCullough. ..Third child and son to Carol Ann 
Williams Lyons 76 and John C. Lyons 
B.S.E. 76 on Feb. 20. Named Colin Cornelius.. .First 
child and daughter to Nancy DeLong Dugas 77 
and Kenneth R. Dugas on Aug. 13. Named Carolyn 
Jane... Second child and first son to Philip L. 
Schaefer 78 and Wendy Schaefer on July 22. 
Named Gregory Drew. . .Fourth child and first daugh- 
ter to Karen Anne Ahern-McCullough 
B.S.N. 79 and Christopher S. McCullough 
74 on March 28. Named Katherine Annemarie 
Ahern McCullough. . .Second son to Andrew 
Jacobson 79 and Debra Jacobson on July 2 1 . 
Named Stephen Leonard . . .Second son to Greta 
Nettleton Lalire 79 and Rex Lalire on May 17. 
Named Luc Pierre... First child and son to Robert 
L. Thompson Jr. 79 and Marybeth Thompson 
on June 26, 1992. Named Michael Robert. 


H. Barkin '80, who earned a graduate 
degree in architecture from Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute, has a private practice of architecture in 
Westport, Conn. He worked six years for the interna- 
tional architectural firm Cesar Pelli & Associates, 
Inc., in New Haven. 

John Kirch '80 moved to Monterey, Calif., after 
working abroad for eight years in England, Hong 
Kong, and Japan as director of Far East Asia for 
Comshare, Inc., a supplier of management support 
systems. He has joined the management team of Soft- 
bank Inc., a high-tech start-up company developing a 
CD-ROM-based product "focused on revolutionizing 
software product sales, marketing, and distribution." 

Phillip W. Kuhn '80, who earned his M.B.A. at 

Emory University, is director of marketing for Cabot 
Medical Corp. in Langhorne, Pa. 

Edward R. Laskowski '80, a physician, is co- 
director of the Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center. 
He and his wife, Linda Chiovari Laskowski 

'80, have two children and live in Rochester, Minn. 

Cary Laxer '80 was promoted from associate to full 
professor of computer science at Rose-Hulman Insti- 
tute of Technology in Terre Haute, Ind. 

Steven T. Maher '80 is a technical manager in 
the process safety field for EQE International. He and 

his wife, Lupe, and their thtee children live in Mis- 
sion Viejo, Calif. 

Richard A.F. Schaf er '80 is manager of the San 
Francisco branch office of TIAA-CREF (Teachers 
Insurance and Annuity Association-College Retire- 
ment Equities Fund). His branch serves California, 
Alaska, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 
He and his wife, Nancy, and the two sons live in 
Mill Valley. 

Gayle Weinraub 'SO, who earned her master's in 
social work at Washington University in 1983, is a 
caseworker/therapist at Medina Children's Home in 
Texas. "After 1 1 years in St. Louis," she writes, "I am 
enjoying the change of pace and the beautiful Hill 
Country scenery." She lives in Kerrville. 

Benjamin Zeltner '80 is a partner in the 
Atlantic City, N.J., law firm Levine, Staller, Sklar, 
Chan & Brodsky. Besides practicing law, he and his 
law partners are developing Kenny Rogers Roasters 
Restaurants in southern New Jersey. He and his wife, 
Nancy, and their two children live in Linwood, N.J. 

Kenneth Kleban '81, an adjunct professor of 
international marketing at the City University of 
New York, was appointed by Secretary of Commerce 
Ron Brown to serve on a trade advisory committee 
examining pending international trade issues. His 
firm, Kleban Associates, provides trade consulting 
services worldwide. He and his wife, Barbara 
Kemp Kleban '8 1 , and their two children live in 
Weston, Conn. 

Alexandra "Lexie" Bryan Klein '81 is com- 
pleting her master's in linguistics at the University of 
Illinois. She and her husband, Jeffrey, and their three 
children live in Hinsdale, 111. 

Kevin D. Sack '81 is the Albany bureau chief of 
The New York Times. He and his wife, Vickie More- 
land, and their daughter live in Albany, N.Y. 

Laura Puccia Valtorta A.M. '81 has had her 

first novel, Family Meal, published by Carolina Wten 
Press. She is an attorney in Columbia, S.C. Her hus- 
band. Marco Valtorta A.M. '83, Ph.D. '87, is an 
assistant professor of computer science at the Univer- 
sity of South Carolina. The couple and their daughter 
live in Columbia. 

Jennifer Warburg '81 is a free-lance photogra- 
pher living in Durham. Some of her photographs 
appeared in Adventures m Mainland: Behind the News, 
Beyond the Pundits. 

Monet Bossert '82 and her husband, Charles 
Beith, run a custom home construction business in 
Sunriver, Ore. She is a founding board member of the 
Central Oregon Environmental Center in Bend, Ore., 
and manages its Nature Book Stote. She is also an 
appointed member of the Deschutes County Bicycle 
Advisory Committee and is a seasonal botanist and 
naturalist with the Deschutes National Forest, working 
with endangered plants and conducting raptor surveys. 

Thomas Christopher Havens '82 earned his 
law degree from Washington & Lee University. He 
and his wife, Robin, are both associates at the New 
York law firm Reid& Priest. 

John S. Shaver '82 is director of advertising for 
America's largest weekly motorsports publication, 
Winston Cup Scene, a weekly newspaper covering 
NASCAR stock car racing. He and his wife, Tia, live 
in Charlotte. 

Margaret J. Tinsley '82 is manager of media 
relations for The Valentine, The Museum of Life and 
History of Richmond, Va. She earned an M.F.A. in 
creative writing from Virginia Commonwealth Uni- 
versity in May 1992 and has had poems published in 
the New Virginia Review. She lives in Richmond. 

' e c e m Dei 

Wayne F. WilbankS '82 has changed the name 
of his Norfolk, Va., firm to Wilbanks, Smith and 
Thomas Asset Management. One of his new partners 
is Norwood A. Thomas Jr. '55. The firm spe- 
cializes in investment management for corporations 
and individuals. 

Gerald Zinfon Ph.D. '82 was promoted to full pro- 
fessor at Plymouth State College in New Hampshire. 

Lisa Spencer Dull '83 is a vice president in sys- 
tems development for Wachovia Operations Services 
in Winston-Salem. She and her husband, William, 
and their son live in Winston-Salem. 

Suzanne Molinet Lord '83 is a partner with 
Tatham EURO RSCG Advertising in Chicago. She 
and her husband, Keith, have a son. 

Michael E. Scher B.S.E. '83 is project engineer 
at the Ensign Bickford Co. He and his wife, Madeleine, 
and their daughter live in Simsbury, Conn. 

Anthony F. ArmentO '84 is controller/computer 
systems administrator for Durham's Carolina Theater, 
scheduled to reopen in 1994. He earned an M.F.A. in 
theater management from the Yale's Drama School in 
1988 and a master's in accounting from UNC's Kenan- 
Flagler business school in 1993. 

Michael Leighton '84, who completed an 

orthopaedic surgery residency at the University of 
Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert John- 
son Medical School, is in a sports medicine fellowship 
at Chicago's Rush/Presbytetian/St. Luke's Medical 
Center. He and his wife, Andrea, and their two chil- 
dren live in Chicago. 

visiting assistant professor of religion at Eastern New 
Mexico University in Portales. 

Karen Hohe Suchomel '84 is the manager of 
South American operations for an environmental 
consulting firm. She and her husband, Barton, an 
exploration manager for an Australian mining com- 
pany, have two sons and live in Santiago, Chile. 

G. Baynes '85 is a third-year corporate 
at Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson & 
Hand in Washington, D.C. She lives in Bethesda, Md. 

Gordon Bernard Berger '85 is an assistant 
treasurer in the capital markets division at the Bank 
of New York in New York. He and his wife, Rhonda 
Karol, a dermatologist, live in Manhattan. 

Diaz Liakos '85 is s 

gram manager for two major accounts for Ground- 
water Technology, Inc., an international environ- 
mental consulting firm. Her husband, William G. 
Liakos Jr. '85, is in his second year at the Univer- 
sity of New Mexico's medical school in Albuquerque. 

Sondra Slivon Martinez '85 is pursuing her 
master's in teaching at National-Louis University. 
Her husband, Anthony, works in marketing for 
American Airlines in Dallas. 

McCleskey '85 works for the N.C. 
Department of Human Resources as program and 
management analyst for the divisions of Child Devel- 
opment and Youth Services. He lives in Raleigh. 

Neil D. McFeeley J.D. '85, an attorney with the 
Boise, Idaho, law firm Eberle, Berlin, Kading, Turn- 
bow & McKlveen, was re-elected to the American 
Judicature Society's board of directors. He is the 
author of Appointments of Judges: The Johnson Presi- 
dency, published in 1987 by rhe University of Texas 

David S. Phillips '85, who earned his M.B.A. at 
UCLA, is an agent at the William Morris Agency in 
Beverly Hills, handling writers, directots, and actors. 
He was a literary agent at Metropolitan Talent Agency. 

Reaves Pickett B.S.M.E. '85, M.B.A. 
'91 is a project developer for Enserch Development 
Corp. His wife, Andrea Jonas Pickett M.B.A. 
'91, is a product manager for Schering Plough Corp. 
They live in Millburn, N.J. 

S. Campbell Bradford '86, who earned her law 
degree at the University of Florida, is an associate in 
the Orlando office of the law firm Akerman, Senter- 
fitt &. Eidson. She specializes in creditors' rights and 

Genny L. Carter '86 is a teaching assistant in 
American history at the University of Georgia. She 
has taught high school Spanish and has worked for 
Club Med and Young Life. She lives in Athens, Ga. 

was appointed special 
assistant to the administrator of the Environmental 
Protection Agency in Washington, D.C. The former 
Duke Chronick editor was legislative assistant to 
Florida's Sen. Bob Graham. 

Thomas K. Hoops '86, who earned his M.B.A. 
and J.D. degrees in May from UNC-Chapel Hill, is an 
associate with the investment banking fitm Lloyd & 
Co. in Greensboro, N.C. 

Michael J. Mahaffey '86 graduated from the 
University of Florida's dentistry college in 1990 with 
a D.M.D. and completed an orthodontic residency at 
the St. Louis University Medical Center, earning his 
master's in 1992. "With exceptionally poor timing," 
he writes, he joined a private orthodontics practice in 
Coral Gables, Fla., "just ptior to Hurricane Andrew. 
We are still tebuilding our South Dade satellite office." 

F. Benjamin Purser '86 works for the international 
exchange division of Maryland National Bank in Balti- 
more. He and his wife, Karen, live in Elliott City, Md. 

Steve Bader '87 writes that he "has continued to 
work in the movement for justice." For the past five 
years, he has been director of the N.C. Student Rural 
Health Coalition, "helping African- American com- 
munities and workers organize for better conditions." 
He and his wife, Jodi Kristen Hall, a social worker, 
live in Raleigh. 

Marianne Jones '87, who earned her master's in 
education from the University of California at Berke- 
ley in 1989, is an elementary school teacher in Palo 
Alto, Calif. She and her husband, David G. Mehuys, 
live in San Carlos. 

Karin S. Newman '87, who graduated from Har- 
vard Law School, is the senior policy analyst for U.S. 
Rep. Dan Glickman of Kansas. She concentrates on 
judiciary and women's issues. 

Stephen J. O'Brien '87 is in his third year of 
pediatrics residency at Vanderbilt University's med- 
ical school. His wife, Kathy Swanson O'Brien 

'88, works in the housing office at Belmont Univer- 
sity. They live in Nashville, Tenn. 

O. Dennis Hernandez Jr. '88 is an attorney in 
the Tampa, Fla., office of Honigman Miller Schwartz 
and Cohn. 

Jeffrey S. Hersh '88 is a student at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business. 
His wife, Lora Berson Hersh '91, is director of 
marketing for WonderCamp, Inc., a children's enter- 
tainment corporation in New Jersey. They live in 

Richard J. Mendelow '88, a Marine captain, 
was promoted to his present rank while serving with 
the Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 2, 
1st Marine Air Wing, Marine Corps Air Station, 
Iwakuni, Japan. 

Karen M. Muller '88 earned a master's in physical 
thetapy from Philadelphia's Hahnemann University 
Graduate School. 

Louise Anne Serri Murray '88, who earned 
her D.V.M. from Tufts University, is a veterinarian at 
the Animal Medical Center. Het husband, David 
Jonathan Wolfson '88, who earned his law 
degree from Columbia University, is an attorney with 
Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. They live in 

Kathy Swanson O'Brien '88 works in the 
housing office at Belmont University. Her husband, 
Stephen J. O'Brien '87, is a medical student at 
Vanderbilt University. They live in Nashville. 

Terry Ph.D. '88, who completed het 
post-doctoral fellowship in the neurology department 
of the University of Miami's medical school, is an 
assistant professor of psychology at Florida Atlantic 
University. She and her husband, Stephen Tine, and 
their daughter live in Ft. Lauderdale. 

David Jonathan Wolfson '88, who earned his 
law degree from Columbia University, is an attorney 
with Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. His wife, 
Louise Anne Serri Murray '88, who earned 
her D.V.M. from Tufts University, is a veterinarian at 
the Animal Medical Center They live in Manhattan. 

Sally MacCowatt Black '89 ii 

manager of marketing analysis for Tiffany & Co. in 
New York. Her husband, Josiah M. Black '91, is 
an account executive at a Washington, D.C, public 
telations firm. 

Christopher Todd Boes '89, who earned his 
law degree in May from Columbia University, is an 
associate at the New York law firm Dewey Ballantine. 
His wife, Julie, works for an investment firm. 

Carrie Christine Chorba '89, who earned her 
master's in Hispanic studies at Btown Univetsity, is 
pursuing her doctorate thete. Her husband, Robert 
Shein, is also a Ph.D. candidate at Brown. 

Charles S. "Chad" Greene III '89 is an air- 
borne-qualified military intelligence first lieutenant 
in the Army, stationed at Fort Monmouth. He was 
deployed this fall on a three-month tour to Southwest 
Asia. He and his wife, Kate McElhone Greene 
'91, live in Eatontown, N.J. 

Robert E. Kohn '89, J.D. '92 has completed a 
clerkship with a U.S. Appeals Court judge in Mont- 
gomery, Ala., and joined the Washington, D.C., 
office of the law firm Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer fit 
Feld. He lives in Washington. 

Thomas M. Schwark '89 is in his second year 
of law school at Tulane University. He lives in New 

James R. Tobin Jr. '89 is director of the politi- 
cal-action committee of the National Association of 
Life Underwriters in Washington, D.C. His wife, 
Kathleen, is an economist for the Senate Finance 
Committee. They live in Alexandria, Va. 

Richard Turk '89, who graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Texas Graduate School of Business in May, 
is category manager, customer marketing, for the 
Nestle Food Co. in Glendale, Calif. He lives in Los 

MARRIAGES: Thomas Christopher Havens 

'82 to Robin W. Weintraub on Aug. 7 . . Elizabeth 
A. Kennard '82 to Patrick Donadio on Aug. 14. 
Residence: Columbus, Ohio...Marjorie Sue 
Strauss '83 to Charles Albert Flink II on July 
17... Mark David Koepke '84 to Doris Elaine 
Davis on June 26. Residence: Albuquerque, N.M.... 
Christopher Bauder '85 to Mary Diesing on 
May 30. Residence: Chatham, N.J. ...Gordon 
Bernard Berger '85 to Rhonda Leslie Karol on 
May 2. Residence: New York City. . . Phillip 
Reaves Pickett B.S.M.E. '85, M.B.A. '91 to 
Andrea Lea Jonas M.B.A. '91 on June 12. Resi- 
dence: Millburn, N.J. ...Sondra E. Slivon '85 to 




The Search For Meaning 

April 21-24, 1994 
location to be announced 

Expeditions of the Mind 


For those who miss the excitement of learning, 

exploring, discovering, and discussing 


Why am I here? Where am I going? What is the 
purpose of life? Join us as we confront life's 
ultimate questions head-on and discover how to 
search for answers to them. This outstanding Duke 
course, offered in seminar form for the second time, 
involves coming to grips with what it means to be a 
human being who lives, loves, works, plays, suffers, 
and dies. Our faculty will be the creators of the 
course: William Willimon, Dean of the Chapel, 
Thomas Naylor, Professor of Economics, and 
Magdalena Naylor, psychiatrist. 

Spoleto Festival U.S.A. 
May 27-30, 1994 
Charleston, South Carolina 

Indulge in a "cultural feast" as you partake of three 
days and three nights of music, dance, opera, and 
theater in historic Charleston. Enjoy excellent seats 
at performances, receptions in private homes, visits 
to historic sites, and accommodations at the famous 
Mills House Hotel. Faculty host will be Lorenzo 
Muti of Duke's music department, who conducted 
the Spoleto Festival Orchestra at Spoleto 1993. 

Exploring the Southwest 

July 1994 

Santa Fe, Taos, Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon 

Discover the rich heritage and beauty of the 
American Southwest as you spend time studying 
the arts, architecture, and cultural geography of this 
unique region. Visit the homes and studios of 
practicing artists, explore galleries and museums, 
journey to contemporary Indian and remote 
Spanish villages, and trek through ancient 
archaeological sites. If you desire, extend your 
journey to include two of America's most 
spectacular national parks: Mesa Verde, with its 
Anasazi Indian cliff dwellings, and Chaco Canyon, 
the high point of pre-Columbian civilization in this 

Spend half a day in close contact with one of 
Duke's outstanding professors. These stimulating 
and thought-provoking programs, centered around 
a single theme, are held in cities across the country. 
In 1993-94 seminars are planned for Atlanta, 
Nashville, Boston, Cleveland, Cincinnati, northern 
New Jersey, Seattle, and Denver. 
Alumni and friends in these areas will be notified of 
dates and topics. 


Excavations at Sepphoris 

June 2-17, 1994 
Sepphoris, Israel 

Here is a unique opportunity to participate first- 
hand in an archaeological dig. For the past nine 
years noted Duke professors Eric and Carol Meyers 
have led excavations on the ancient city of 
Sepphoris, near Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Not 
only have they unearthed ancient buildings and 
underground chambers, their discoveries have 
included bronze statues, religious artifacts, and the 
famous "Mona Lisa of Roman Palestine," a 1,700 
year-old mosaic pavement containing a hauntingly 
beautiful female portrait. Participants will spend 
their mornings at the excavation, with afternoons 
free to sight-see, rest, or assist with artifact cleaning 
and cataloging. Accommodations will be in an air- 
conditioned hotel near the site. Weekends will be 
spent visiting Jerusalem and Galilee. 

The Oxford Experience 

September 4-17, 1994 

The University of Oxford, England 

What is the Oxford Experience? It is an opportu- 
nity to immerse yourself in centuries-old traditions 
of learning and community, to study in small 
groups with renowned Oxford faculty, to explore 
the English countryside and visit historical 
landmarks, to be students once again. Choose a 
course from topics that include art, archaeology, 
politics, and history. Attend classes, participate in 
field trips, enjoy special events, and savor the 
atmosphere of one of the world's great centers of 


Contact: Deborah Weiss Fowlkes 78 

Director, Alumni Continuing Education 

Box 90575 

Durham, NC 27708-0575 

(919) 684-5114 or (800) FOR-DUKE 

All programs sponsored by the Duke Alumni Association 

Put me on the mailing list to receive information about the alumni educational programs listed. 


Duke Directions 

September 20 and October 22, 1994 
West Campus 

Rediscover the true 'Duke experience"— the 
classroom experience! Return to Duke for a day of 
stimulating classes designed for alumni and taught 
by top Duke faculty. Choose from a variety of 
topics, including science, religion, literature, 
economics, history, political science, and health. In 
addition, hear about student life from a panel of 
current students, and get an update from the deans 
on new programs at Duke. 

Return to: Box 90575, Durham, NC 27708-0575 

November-December 1993 


Take two uninhib- 
ited brothers, 
place them in 
exotic locales, and 
videotape them as they 
explain nature's un- 
usual inhabitants. The 
wacky but informative 
result has been 
described as Mutual of 
Omaha's Wild Kingdom 
meets Bill and Ted's 
Excellent Adventure. 

Martin Kratt '89 and 
his brother Chris 
formed Earth Creatures 
three years ago to 
channel their zoology 
degrees into something 
useful and entertain' 
ing. "Earth Creatures 
isn't about presenting 
footage, it's about pre- 
senting wildlife in a 
fun, educational way," 
says Martin Kratt. "We 
try to show what it's 
like to be these animals 
for a day." Designed 
for elementary- to mid- 
dle-school kids, Earth 
Creatures' productions 
include Real News For 
Kids, which airs on the 
major networks and 
several cable stations. 

Kratt got his start in 
documentary work 
while enrolled in an 
amphibian ecology 
class with zoology pro- 
fessor Henry Wilbur. 
Hellbenders, a short 
feature about giant 
salamanders that live in 
the North Carolina 
mountains, won the 
Hal Kammerer Film 

Kratt says that every- 
thing he's done can be 
directly traced back to 
inspirational Duke 
professors. As a research 
assistant to Kenneth 
Glander, professor of 
biological anthropology 
and anatomy and now 
director of the Duke 
Primate Center, Kratt 
traveled to Costa Rica 
and made three films, 
including Slowly Qoes 

the Sloth. In Madagas- 
car, the Kratts shot 
Looking At Lemurs 
under the guidance of 
Patricia Wright, who 
has since left Duke. 
And most recently, 
they accompanied 
John Terborgh, a pro- 
fessor in the School of 
the Environment, to 
Peru's Maiiu National 
Park. The resulting 
documentary, Amazon 

Adventure, won top 
honors for best chil- 
dren's film at this 
year's Jackson Hole 
Wildlife Film Festival. 
Until the video bug 
bit, Kratt was planning 
to be a veterinarian 
reproductive specialist 
for endangered species. 
But he says his docu- 
mentary work is 
equally effective 
because it helps spread 

the message that there 
are habitats worth sav- 
ing. "It's amazing how 
interested kids are in 
animals, but if their 
curiosity isn't satisfied, 
we lose them. One of 
our goals is to encour- 
age that appreciation of 
animals and wildlife so 
that they'll grow up to 
be responsible adults." 
Earth Creatures' still 
and video photogra- 

pher, Gray Carr 
Bridgers '89, shares 
Kraft's enthusiasm for 
teaching important 
material in an offbeat 
way. "In the Amazon, 
we found huge, color- 
fid caterpillars. And we 
wanted to convey the 
fact that insects or ani- 
mals this colorful are 
usually poisonous," she 
says. "So instead of 
simply saying that, we 

invented a French fash- 
ion show where each 
caterpillar would 
'model' its outfit. And 
afterward, when we 
asked kids why the 
caterpillars were so 
colorful, they remem- 
bered it was because 
they were poisonous." 

Bridgers, who 
majored in biology, 
says she and the Kratt 
brothers use their 
undergraduate knowl- 
edge constantly. "We 
all conduct the back- 
ground research for 
each film. That in- 
volves talking with 
researchers or reading 
articles in specialized 
periodicals. Then we 
have to translate that 
to a kid's level. If we 
didn't already know the 
terminology, it would 
be very difficult" 

Since winning the 
Jackson Hole Wildlife 
Film Festival Award — 
the youngest recipients 
ever — Bridgers and the 
Kratts have been 
approached by several 
national and interna- 
tional cable companies. 
As Earth Creatures 
gains a wider audience, 
the trio isn't worried 
that their playful 
approach might not 
translate to different 

"Most of our humor 
is something everyone 
can relate to," says 
Kratt. "When we're 
swimming with the 
otters and bump our 
heads on a log because 
we don't have 
whiskers, or we hide in 
a clay bank and our 
mom gets upset be- 
cause we're covered in 
mud — these are things 
that all kids can appre- 
ciate. We do audience 
testing and the response 
is always positive, 
whether it's in inner- 
city Baltimore or rural 

Anthony R. Martinez on July 17. ..John P. 
Chazal 'S6, M.E.M. '93 to Nicole M. D', 

'88 on July 25. Residence: Chapel HU1...F. Ben- 
jamin Purser '86 to Karen Teresa Tamayo on July 

3. Residence: Elliott City, Md.... Emily W. Whar- 
ton '86 to Dayne D. Piercefield on May 29. Residence: 
Orlando. . . Steve Bader '87 to Jodi Kristen Hall 
on July 3. Residence: Raleigh... Marianne Jones 
'87 to David Glenn Mehuys on June 26. Residence: 

San Carlos, Calif.... Stephen J. O'Brien '87 to 
Kathy A. Swanson '88 on July 10. Residence: 
Nashville, Term.... Nicole M. D' Andrea '88 to 
John P. Chazal '86, M.E.M. '93 on July 25. Resi- 
dence: Chapel Hill. ..Edwin S. "Ted" Gauld '88 
to Barbara Jean Goldner on April 11, 1992. Residence: 
New York City... Jeffrey S. Hersh '88 to Lora 
E. Berson '91 on Aug. 1. Residence: Philadelphia. .. 
ck III 88 to Jennifer Woodard 

'90 on July 17. Residence: Pearl River, N.Y.... 
Louise Anne Serri Murray '88 to David 
Jonathan Wolfson '88 on Aug. 28. Residence: 
Manhattan... Kathy A. Swanson '88 to 
Stephen J. O'Brien '87 on July 10. Residence: 
Nashville, Term.. . .Brooke Conley Wight '88 1 
Christopher Shepard Cahot on July 17. ..Valerie 
A. Bischoff '89 to William Cooley in August 
1992. Residence: New York City. . .Christopher 


Todd Boes '89 to Julie Ann Balaschak on Aug. 
7... Carrie Christine Chorba '89 to Robert 
Stuart Shein on Aug. 14. Residence: Providence, 
R.I. ... Charles S. "Chad" Greene III '89 to 
Kate McElhone '91 on March 13. Residence: 
Eatontown, N.J.. . . Sally P. MacCowatt '89 to 
M. Black '91 on July 17. ..Karen Eliz- 
Marden '89 to Gregg William Brinegar on 
July 1 7 . . .Susan Jane Porter M.H.A. '89 to 
Robin Frederick Oles on Aug. 21.. .James R. 
Tobin Jr. '89 to Kathleen Ann Leonard on Aug. 
14. Residence: Alexandria, Va. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Bonnie Beavers 
Anderson '80 and John L. Anderson on March 6. 
Named Lucas John. . . A daughter to Dorothy 
Addison Hutcheson '80 and Sam Hutcheson on 
July 15. Named Dorothy "Holly" Holloran... Second 
child and daughter to Edward R. Laskowski 
'80 and Linda Chiovari Laskowski '80 on 
Dec. 18, 1992. Named Lauren Connie... Third child 
and second son to Katie Byrns McClendon '80 
and Aubrey Kerr McClendon '81 on Nov. 18, 
1992. Named William Upton... Second child and first 
daughter to Benjamin Zeltner '80 and Nancy 
Zeltner on May 19. Named Julia Morgan. . .Third child 
and second son to Alexander "Lexie" Bryan 
Klein '81 and Jeffrey D. Klein on July 27. Named 
Timothy Stuart. . .Third child and second son to 
Aubrey Kerr McClendon '81 and Katie 
Byrns McClendon '80 on Nov. 18, 1992. Named 
William Upton... First child and daughter to Kevin 
D. Sack '81 and Vickie Moreland on Aug. 24. 
Named Laura Evelyn. . .Second child and first daughter 
to Daniel J. Hasler MBA 82 and Katherine 
Vasu Hasler '82 on Aug. 9. Named Brooke 
Gallagher. . .First child and son to Lisa Spencer 
Dull '83 and William Morgan Dull on April 12. 

Named William Morgan Jr.... First child and daughter 
to Celeste deLorge Flippen '83 and J. Brooks 
Flippen on Oct. 2, 1992. Named Maya Carolina... 
Second child and first son to Janice Yvonne 
"Von" Mims Jensen '83 and Scott C. Jensen on 
July 18. Named Connor Douglas... First child and son 
to Suzanne Molinet Lord 'S3 and Keith Edward 
Lord on Nov. 12, 1992. Named Braeden Edward.. .A 
son to Steve Salzer '83 and Laura Salzer on Aug. 

18. Named Jake William. . .A daughter to Michael 
E. Scher B.S.E. '83 and Madeleine Scher on Dec. 

19, 1992. Named Sarah Elise...A daughter to Mark 
E. Stephanz 'S3 and Rita Anne McCoy 
Stephanz '83 on Feb. 7. Named Hannah Grace. . . 
First daughtet and second child to Michael 
Leighton '84 and Andrea Leighton on Aug. 5. 
Named Ariel Blair... Third child and first daughter to 
Laurie Thompson Miller '84 and Michael 
Miller on July 30. Named Shelby Nicole. . .Second 
child and daughter to Alice Lucretia Mays 
Saunders 84 and Christopher James 
Saunders '84 on June 1. Named Margery 
Mays... Second daughter to Seth Zeidman '84, 
M.D. '88 and Eva Pressman Zeidman M.D. 
'91 on Aug. 22. Named Anna Elizabeth... Triplets to 
Thomas Farrell '85 and Michelle Farrell on Aug. 
12. Named Christopher, Alison, and Emma... First 

child and son to Thomas James Gorman J. D. 

'85 and Nannette W. Gorman on July 8. Named 
Patrick Gerard... A son to Melissa Yoder Ricks 
'85 and Thomas Wayne Ricks on July 26. Named 
Thomas Wayne Jr.... First child and daughter to Eliz- 
abeth Musselwhite Wallace '85 and Robett 
Wallace on July 31. Named Elizabeth Hamilton... 
Second daughter to Susan Long West '85 and 
KirkT. West on June 3. Named Katherine Anne... 
Second son to Audrey Grumhaus Young '85 

and Jon Young on July 4- Named Zachary Dean... 

First child and daughter to Diane 
Hoffmeister '86 and Bob Hoffmeister on March 8. 
Named Allison MacLean... First child and son to 
Amy Sears Nichols '88 and Philip M. 
Nichols '88. Named Thomas Anthony. . .First child 
and daughter to Gary R. Pierce M.B.A. '88 and 
Susan Pierce on May 1 1 . Named Lindsay Anne. . .First 
child and daughter to Mary Penrod Ruggiero 
'88 and Robert A. Ruggiero '88 on June 24. 
Named Katharine Clare. . .First child and daughter to 
David A. Simon '88 and Sharon Simon on July 
27. Named Arielle Rachel... First child and son to 
Michael Robert Grace '89 and Suzanne 
Carter Grace '89 on June 30. Named Michael 
Robert Jr. 


Sherad Cravens M.B.A. '90 is brand manager for 
New Lite Snacks at the Quaker Oats Co. He was 
assistant brand manager for Cap'n Crunch Cereal. He 
lives in Chicago. 

D. Paul Deitrich II J.D. '90 is an associate with 
the Florida law firm Akerman, Senterfitt & Eidson. 
He practices in the Otlando office's real property 
practice group with transactional, development, and 
commercial lending work. 

John W. Heinecke '90, a Navy lieutenant j.g., 
completed a two-month deployment to Australia 
aboard the guided missle frigate USS Thach as part of 
a spring training exercise. 

Robert Lane Ph.D. '90, an assistant professor of 
English at N.C. State University, is the author of 

A Season 

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Blue Devils and their [ j 
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the ultimate test . . . the NCAA Tournament. And with A Season Is 
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follow the Duke basketball teams' emotional journey to the 1991 
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| Expiration Date: 

November-December 1993 

Edmund Spenser's Sherheardes Calender and the 1 
tutions of Elizabethan Society, published by the Un 
sity of Georgia Press. 

E. Latham II '90 graduated from 
Louisiana State University's law school in May and 
was inducted into the Order of the Coif, an honorary 
society. He is an attorney at Kean, Miller, Hawthorne, 
D'Armond & Jarman, a Baton Rouge law firm. 

Ivan Ong B.S.M.E. '90 is a Ph.D. candidate in 
materials science at Johns Hopkins University. His 
wife, Cynthia L. Traub '90, is pursuing her 
M.B.A. at Loyola College in Baltimore. 

L. Roberts '90, who earned her master's i 
secondary education from Vanderbilt University in 
May, is teaching Spanish at Independence High 
School. She lives in Bethesda, Md. 

Schlosberg '90 graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Denver College of Law in May. She lives in 
Aurora, Colo. 

Mary Ellen Todd '90 earned her J.D. degree in June 
from The Dickinson School of Law in Carlisle, Pa. 

Cynthia L. Traub '90, a consumer loan under- 
writer at Provident Bank of Maryland, is pursuing her 
M.B.A. at Loyola College in Baltimore. Her husband, 
Ivan Ong B.S.M.E. '90, is a Ph.D. candidate in 
materials science at Johns Hopkins University. 

Josiah M. Black '91 is an account executive at 
Barron-Birrell Inc., a public relations and governmen- 
tal-affairs consulting company in Washington, D.C 
His wife, Sally MacCowatt Black '89, is an 
assistant manager of marketing analysis for Tiffany & 
Co. in New York. 

Kimberly Dowell Broadnax '91 works for 

Organon Teknika. Her husband, Lewis Marvin 
Broadnax III '91, works for DataWatch Corp. 
They live in Durham. 

Sharon Shanklin Freeland M.T.S. '91 is a 
member of the Hillborough advisory board of United 
Carolina Bank. A member of the board of the Orange 
Community Housing Corp., she is also executive 
director of Orange Congregations in Mission, an ecu- 
menical ministry of 43 churches in northern Orange 
County. She and her husband, Theodore, live in 
Hillsborough, N.C. 

Kate McElhone Greene '91 is a chemist for 
International Flavors and Fragrance, Inc. in Keyport, 
N.J. She and her husband, Charles S. "Chad" 
Greene III '89, an Army first lieutenant, live in 
Eatontown, N.J. 

Lora Berson Hersh '91 is director of marketing 
for WonderCamp, Inc., a children's entertainment 
corporation in New Jersey. Her husband, Jeffrey 
S. Hersh '88, is attending the University of Penn- 
sylvania's Wharton School of Business. They live in 

S. Liu B.S.E.E. '91, a Navy ensign, was 
awarded his "Wings of Gold" as a naval aviator, after 
completing flight training with the naval air training 
unit at Mather Air Force Base in Sacramento, Calif. 

Andrea Jonas Pickett M.B.A. '91 is a product 
manager for Schering Plough Corp. Her husband, 
Phillip Reaves Pickett B.S.M.E. '85, M.B.A. 
'91, is a project developer for Enserch Development 
Corp. and they live in Millburn, N.J. 

Dara Grossinger Redler J.D. '91 is an associate 
in the Atlanta law firm Alston & Bitd. She and her 
husband, Daniel, a marketing representative, live in 

Amy B. Reydel '91 works in retail marketing for 
Major League Baseball Properties in New York. She 
lives in Manhattan. 

Talitha Robinson '91 is pursuing a doctor of 
optometry degree at the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry in Philadelphia. She was a vision therapist 
in an optometry office. 

'92 is pursuing a Ph.D. on a fellow- 
ship in the University of Minnesota's ecology pro- 
gram. She lives in St. Paul. 

Andrew D. Archer '92 earned his M.Sc. degree 
in development economics at the University of Oxford 
in England. 

>ila Trevion Gerberich '92, a Navy ensign, 
completed officer indocrrination school in Newport, 
R.I., where she trained in naval history, personnel 
administration, military law, close-order drill, and 
other military subjects. 

Catherine McLeod Johnson Kelly M.B.A. 
'92 is a marketing manager for NationsBank. Her 
husband, Robert Jackson Kelly M.B.A. '92, is 
marketing manager for the Coca-Cola Co. They live 
in Atlanta. 

Eleanor Elizabeth Lassiter Ridley '92 is a 

social studies teachet at a junior high school in 
Decatur, Ga. Her husband, Stephen William 

Ridley B.S.E.E. '92, works for Andersen Consulting 
in Atlanta. They live in Atlanta. 

Alexandra Maynard Crutchfield '93 and her 

husband, Scott Lee Crutchfield B.S.E. '93, are 
both graduate students at the University of Texas at 

Lloyd S. Melnick M.B.A. '93 is the founder of 
the Durham-based Trade Support Institute, a non- 
profit organization dedicated to improving trade rela- 
tions and understanding among the U.S., former 
Communist countries in Eastern Europe, and the 
former Soviet Union. 

Catherine F.L. Stanton J.D. '93 has joined the 
Chicago law firm Keck, Mahin & Care. Her husband, 
Larkin Flanagan, is a vice president at an insurance 
brokerage firm. They live in Chicago. 

MARRIAGES: Caroline P. Coolidge '90 to 

Kevin S. Brown '91 on Aug. 7. Residence: Ft. 
Walton Beach, Fla.... Ellen McLaughlin '90 
to Edward P. Ardrey on July 31. Residence: San 
Antonio... Jonathan S. Meyer '90 to Georgina 
Twiselton on Sept. 4. Residence: Greensboro... I van 
Ong B.S.M.E. '90 to Cynthia L. Traub '90 on 
July 1 1, 1992. Residence: Baltimore. . Paul S. 
Quick '90 to Erica Lyn Prater on Sept. 4... Jen- 
nifer Woodard 90 to Whittaker Mack III 
'88 on July 17- Residence: Pearl River, N.Y....Lora 
E. Berson '91 to Jeffrey S. Hersh '88 on Aug. 
1. Residence: Philadelphia... Josiah M. Black '91 
to Sally P. MacCowatt '89 on July 17... Lewis 
Marvin Broadnax III '91 to Kimberly Ann 
Dowell '91 on June 19 in Duke Chapel. Residence: 
Durham. ..Dara S. Grossinger J.D. '91 to Daniel 
S. Redler on Aug. 28. Residence: Atlanta. . .Andrea 
Lea Jonas M.B.A. '91 to Phillip Reaves 
Pickett B.S.M.E. '85, M.B.A. '91 on June 12. Resi- 
dence: Millbum, N.J. ...Kristan E. Looney '91 to 
Lee Livingston on May 8. Residence: Charlottesville, 
Va Katharine "Kate" McElhone 91 to 
Charles S. "Chad" Greene III '89 on March 
13. Residence: Eatontown, N.J....Dhruti Paleja 
'91 to Ronald W. Jakes '91 on July 10. Resi- 
dence: Atlanta... Sara Seten '91 to Alexander 
K. Berghausen '92 on June 5. Residence: 
Raleigh... Steven Richard Church MEM. 
'92, M.B.A. '92 to Debra Dee Perkins on July 10 in 
Duke Chapel. Residence: Durham... Catherine 
McLeod Johnson M.B.A. '92 to Robert 
Jackson Kelley M.B.A. '92 on Sept 1 1 in Duke 
Chapel. Residence: Atlanta... Eleanor Elizabeth 
Lassiter '92 to Stephen William Ridley 
B.S.E.E. '92 on July 17. Residence: Atlanta... Scott 

Lee Crutchfield BSE 93 to Alexandra 

Lynn Maynard '93 on July 31. Residence: Austin, 
Texas... Catherine F.L. Stanton J.D. '93 to 

Larkin S. Flanagan. Residence: Chicago. 

BIRTHS: Second daughter to Eva Pressman 
Zeidman MD. '91 and Seth Zeidman '84, 
M.D. '88 on Aug. 22. Named Anna Elizabeth. 


Lucile Strickland Noah '27 of Raleigh, on 
Aug. 9. She is survived by two sons, two sisters, five 
grandchildren, and a great-grandson. 

Thomas F. Culbreth Jr. '29 of Spartanburg, 
S.C., on May 27. He was a rate supervisor with New 
Jersey Bell for 44 years, before retiring in 1973. He 
earned his master's at Rutgers University. He was a 
member of the Telephone Pioneers of America. He is 
survived by a son and a brother. 

Mack Ivey Cline '30 of Mt. Pleasant, N.C, on 
May 4, of a heart attack while working in his garden. 
He had owned Cline Poultry Farm and was former 
president and current vice president of Cabarrus 
Mutual Insurance. He did graduate work in agricul- 
ture at Clemson University and had served as an edu- 
cational adviser and company commander of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps. He is survived by his 
wife, Mary, a son, a daughter, a brother, and four 

Harry M. Holtz '31, M.D. '35 of W. Orange, N.J., 
on May 27, of a heart attack. A retired ophthalmolo- 
gist, he trained in London, England, and Debri, Hun- 
gary, before serving in the Army during World War 
II. He was a former chief of ophthalmology at the 
Newark Beth Israel Medical Center and associate 
chief of ophthalmology at St. Michael's Medical Cen- 
ter in Newark. He is survived by his wife, Roslyn, a 
daughter, a son, a brother, two sisters, four grandchil- 
dren, and a great-grandchild. 

James Wiley Fowler '33 of Greensboro on July 
10. A United Methodist minister, educator, and 
administrator, he was director of the Lake Junaluska 
Assembly from 1953 to 1966 and the founding direc- 
tor of the United Methodist College Coordinating 
Council. He is survived by his wife, Lucile; a son, 
James Wiley Fowler III '62; two daughters; and 
five grandchildren, including James McCleskey 
'85 and Matthew McCleskey '94. 

Martha Howie Trembath '33 of Charlotte on 
Aug. 9. She had retited after 1 9 years as a social 
worker for the Mecklenburg County Department of 
Social Services. She is survived by her husband, Jim, 
two daughters, a sister, three grandchildren, and one 

Robert Lee Kincheloe '35 on Aug. 10 of pneu- 
monia, following heart sutgery in May. He was the 
former associate pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Hilton Head Island Chutch, where he had served for 
10 years after retiring from 35 years in the ecumenical 
movement. He earned a B.D. from the University of 
Chicago and Colgate Divinity School and his D.D. 
from Alderson-Brandus College. He was the organiz- 
ing pastot of the Community Church of Greenbelt, 
Md., and later worked as executive director of the 
Council of Churches in Baltimore, South Bend, Pitts- 
burgh, and Detroit. He was a past president of the 
Association of Council Secretaries of the National 
Council of Churches. He is survived by his wife, Jane, 
four sons, a daughter, eight grandchildren, and a sis- 
ter, Mary Kincheloe Bradley '37. 

Henry G. Morton B.S.M. '36, M.D. '38 of Sara- 
sota, Fla., on July 9, of a stroke. A retired pedi; 
he had served in the Army Medical Corps. He 
member of the Kiwanis Club and the Orchid Society 


of Sarasota. He is survived by his < 

Morton B.S.M.E. '62, three daughters, and seven 


Arthur Lyman Wright '36 of Elmira, N.Y., on 
July 17. He is survived by his wife. 

Steen B. Goldey '37 of San Diego, Calif. 

George P. Snyder Jr. '38 of Lakeland, Fla., on 
May 29, 1992. 

H. Gibbs LL.B. '39 of Charleston, S.C., 
on July 6. He was a Navy veteran of World War 11 
who retired as a commander in the Naval Reserve. A 
partner in the law firm Sinkler, Gibbs and Simons, he 
had a history of community service as a Ward 2 alder- 
man, chair of the Charleston County Zoning Com- 
mittee, chair and vice chair of the county planning 
board, and chair of the United Community Welfare 
Planning Council. He was also a former member of 
the board of directors of St. Francis Xavier Hospital 
and a trustee of the College of Charleston. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Margie; two sons, including 
Charles H. Gibbs Jr. J.D. '69; a brother; a step- 
daughter; and tour grandchildren. 

Allyne Wilder Landis A.M. '39 of Jackson, 

Miss., on June 19, of pneumonia. She taught for 1 1 
years before joining the Postal Inspection Service. 
She was a member of the D. A.R. and sponsored a Girl 
Scout troop and a 4-H club. She is survived by her 
husband, Robert O. Landis M.Ed. '39. 

Betty Jane Mo wry Beyer '40 on Aug. 2 at her 
Napierville, 111., home. She was a member of Sigma 
Kappa sorority and the D.A.R. After World War II, 
she and her husband, along with 30 other families, 
formed the Village of Bayside, Wis., where she was 
active in many civic organizations. She is survived by 

, a brother, a sister, 

her husband, Sheldon, a c 
and three grandchildren. 

George B. Culbreth '40, B.D. '43 of Ramseur, 
N.C., on Aug. 5. A member of the Western N.C. 
Conference of the United Methodist Church, he held 
pastorates in Canton, Bryson City, Asheville, Stoney 
Point, Greensboro, China Grove, and Ramseur, 
where he retired in 1979. He is survived by his wife, 
Vivian, a son, two daughters, a brother, and a sister. 

Robert C. Shane '40 of Bradenton, Fla. 

Marion Crossan Kitchens '41 of Barefoot 
Bay, Fla., on April 22, after a long illness. She is sur- 
vived by her husband, Paul, a son, a daughter, a 
brother, and two grandchildren. 

Kenneth James Morgan M.F. '41 of Roswell, 
N.M., on Feb. 19. A retired Air Force lieutenant 
colonel, he graduated from Cornell University. Dur- 
ing World War II, he was part of a photo reconnais- 
sance unit that followed Gen. George Patton's army 
around Europe. After the war, he founded the forestry 
department at Stephen F. Austin College in Texas. 
He was recalled to active duty during the Korean 
War. He then taught Air Force ROTC at Brigham 
Young University before returning to the Air Force 
and serving in Japan and Ohio. He helped found the 
Christian Science Church in Korea, where he was 
stationed for 18 months. After retiring from the Air 
Force, he taught drafting, mechanical drawing, and 
surveying at Thiokol Chemical Corp.'s vocational 
school for American Indians. He is survived by his 
wife, Bertha, two daughters, and a brother. 

Frank X. Donovan J.D. '42 of New York City 

on Feb. 22, of ALS/Lou Gehrig's disease. A Navy 
veteran of World War II, he practiced law in Stewart 
Manor, N.Y. He is survived by his wife, Eileen, two 

daughters, three sons, a sister, two brothers, and t 


Dunn '42 of Hilton Head, S.C., on 
Aug. 20. During World War II, she was a member of 
the medical library staff of Montclair General Hospi- 
tal in New Jersey. She was a member of the auxiliary 
board of St. Luke's Hospital in Manila, the Philip- 
pines; the American Canadian Women's Club of Port 
Elizabeth, South Africa; the American Women's Club 
of Oakville, Ontario; and the University Women's 
Club and the Pan Hellenic Society of Hilton Head. 
She is survived hy her husband, Albert W. Dunn 
'43; two sons, including Stephen R. Dunn '72; a 
daughter, Christine D. Miller B.S.N. '74; and six 

Donald W. Fuller LL.B. '42 of Cape Coral, Fla., 
on June 5. He practiced law for 35 years in Endicott, 
N.Y., where he was also village attorney, assistant 
police justice, and a member of the zoning board of 
appeals. He was a past president of the Endicott Visit- 
ing Nurse Association. In 1945, he ran for mayor of 
Endicott and was a candidate for the N.Y. State 
Assembly in 1976. He is survived by his wife, Phyllis, 
two sons, two brothers, and four grandchildren. 

Vergil E. Queen B.D. '42 of Durham on Aug. 26, 
after a long illness. He had taught at Duke's Divinity 
School and was a minister at Duke Memorial United 
Methodist Church before retiting. Other pastorates 
he held were in Carrboro, Chapel Hill, Fayetteville, 
Elizabeth City, and Southern Pines. A member of the 
N.C. Conference of the United Methodist Church, 
he was a past superintendent of the Wilmington dis- 
trict and later led the organizing of the Sanford dis- 
trict. He also helped establish the Haymount United 
Methodist Church in Fayetteville and served on the 
U.M.C. Conference's Commission on Worship. He 

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ber 1993 

was a member of the original board of trustees of 
Fayetteville's Methodist College, which bestowed on 
him its first honorary doctor of divinity degree. He is 
survived by his wife, Frances, and three brothers. 

Ralph M. Swenson Jr. '42 of Barrington, Pa., 
on Feb. 23. He was president of the Puritan Life Insur- 
ance Co. before retiring in 1986. He earned an 
M.B.A. from Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute and a 
master's in economics from the University of Hart- 
ford. A World War II veteran, he was a member of 
Barrington's school committee and its chair for two 
terms. He was a member of the town council from 
1983 to 1988, heading its zoning review committee 
and the Senior Citizens Services Study Commission. 
He organized and oversaw the community's blood 
drive for 25 years, was a past president of the Rotary 
Club, and was a former clerk, deacon, and treasurer of 
the Barrington Congregational Church. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Margaret, a son, a daughter, a sister, 
and four grandchildren. 

Joseph L. Conrad Jr. '43, M.F. '47 of Kinston, 
N.C., on Aug. 30. He was a retired forester with 
Champion International. He is survived by a son and 
three grandsons. 

Thomas Moser Wilson '43 of Annapolis, Md., 
on July 31, of congestive heart failure. A gynecologist 
and obstetrician in Bethesda, he retired in 1988 after 
36 years. He earned his M.D. at George Washington 
University and served in the Army Medical Corps 
during World War II. He was chief of obstetrics-gyne- 
cology and chief of the medical staff at Suburban 
Hospital. He was a diplomate of the American Board 
of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the National Board 
of Medical Examiners. In 1964, he was a delegate to 
the Republican National Convention and president 
of the Montgomery County Council. He later ran for 
Congress but was defeated in the Republican primary. 
He founded the Montgomery Counts, a barbershop 
quartet, and was a member of the Bethesda Kiwanis, 
the chamber of commerce, Pi Kappa Phi, and the 
Beta Omega Sigma honorary society. He is survived 
by his wife, Elizabeth, a son, a daughter, and a grand- 

Gordon M. Carver '44, M.D. '48 of Durham on 
Aug. 14- He was an Angier B. Duke Scholar and won 
the Robert E. Lee Award as Duke's most outstanding 
student in 1944. One of university's top all-around 
athletes, he earned nine varsity letters, four in foot- 
ball, three in basketball, and two in track. He won 
All-Southern honors in 1944 and 1945. In football, 
he led the team in receiving all four years, rushed for 
more than 1,000 career yards, and punted for a 40- 
yard average. He was captain of the 1944 team that 
beat Alabama in the Sugar Bowl, Duke's first bowl 
victory. He was a member of the Duke Sports Hall of 
Fame and the N.C. Sports Hall of Fame. During 
World War II, he was in the Navy ROTC and the V- 
12 training program in medicine. He continued his 
medical training at Johns Hopkins to become a gen- 
eral and thoracic physician. He is survived by his wife, 
Patricia Kelly Carver '46, two daughters, a son, 
a sister, eight grandchildren, and a cousin, Eliza- 
beth Carver '40. 

Ernest C. Newton '45 of Norfolk, Va., on Sept. 
8. A retired Navy lieutenant commands , he was a 
veteran of World War II and the Korean War. He had 
retired from Azalea Garden Junior High School. He is 
survived by a daughter, two sons, a brother, and 10 

H. Marx '46 of Alexandria, Va., on March 
6, of pneumonia. A commander who was decorated 
with a Legion of Merit, he retired from the Navy in 
1964 after 21 years. He was in Guam during the 
Korean War and was an adviser to Taiwan. He earned 
an M.B.A. from Harvard University and later founded 
and was president and CEO of United National Bank 
in Washington, D.C. In 1968, he became comptroller 

in the Overseas Service Corp, and in 1969, senior 
vice president of Young World Corp., a travel and 
singles organization. He worked for the Commerce 
Department from 1970 to 1991 as director of capital 
development of the Minority Business Development 
Administration and as director of loan management, 
credit and debt management and liquidation, and as 
deputy director of the Economic Development 
Administration. He is survived by his wife, Eddie 
Beatrice, two daughters, two sons, his mother, and 
two grandsons. 

William R. Lamar Jr. '48 of Bethesda, Md., on 
May 29, of prostate cancer. An Army veteran of 
World War II, he retired in 1991 after 23 years as 
president of the Lamar and Wallace, the Landover, 
Md., millwork company where he had worked for 44 
years. He is survived by his wife, Jane; two sons, includ- 
ing William Robert Lamar '80; a brother; a 
half-sister; and four grandchildren. 

Hal A. Masengill J.D. '48 on Aug. 23. After grad- 
uating from Berea College, he served in the Army in 
the Pacific during World War II. He began his law 
practice in his hometown of Blountville, Tenn., in 
1948. He is survived by his wife, Carrie, five daugh- 
ters, a sister, and 12 grandchildren. 

Grace E. Kaufman '49 on March 19, of cancer. 
She was a retired geography and Spanish teacher in 
Davidville, Pa. 

Edward P. Kingsbury M.D. '49 of Union City, 
Tenn., on May 16. The retired pediatrician attended 
the University of New Hampshire before serving in 
the Army during World War II. While in service, he 
attended the University of Mississippi and UNC's 
medical school, finishing his internship at Duke. He 
opened his pediatrics practice at the Union City 
Clinic in 1953 and retired in 1981 due to poor health. 
He is survived by his wife, Mary, a son, two sisters, 
and a brother. 

John C. Potter Ph.D. '50 of Modesto, Calif., on 
June 25. 

Yerger H. Clifton '52 of Memphis, Tenn., on 
July 20, of cancer. An English professor at Rhodes 
College, he was the founder of the school's British 
Studies at Oxford program. He earned his master's 
from the University of Virginia and a doctorate from 
Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. He also studied at 
Washington & Lee University, Oxford University, 
and the University of Munich. He joined Rhodes' 
faculty in 1965. He was also dean of European Studies, 
a semester-long program in Oxford sponsored by 
Rhodes and the University of the South in Sewanee, 
Tenn. In May, Sewanee awarded him an honorary 
degree. He is survived by a sister. 

Robert Drane Barnes Ph.D. '53 of Gettysburg, 
Pa., on Jan. 15. After serving as a Navy medic in 
World War II, he earned his bachelor's at Davidson 
College. He was a biology professor at Gettysburg 
College for 37 years and received the Lindback Foun- 
dation Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1982. He 
was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and was awarded an 
honorary degree by Davidson College. He was the 
author of Invertebrate Zoology, a textbook in its sixth 
printing with editions in English, Spanish, and Ital- 
ian. His latest book was Zoology. He was also a con- 
tributing writer to the Encyclopaedia Brittanica and 
Harper and Row's Field Guide to North American 
Wildlife. He was a consultant to both the Smithsonian 
Institution and the National Science Foundation and 
a visiting professor at the Duke Marine Lab for many 
years. He is survived by a daughter and two sons. 

Rush Sr. M.Div. '53 on April 
3, 1989, of heart failure, at his Lynchburg, Va., home. 
He was a retired United Methodist minister who led 
churches in Dinwiddie, Norfolk, Colonial Heights, 
Falls Church, Virginia Beach, Madison Heights, and 

Roanoke before retiring as pastor of the First United 
Methodist Church in Hampton. He served in the Air 
Force during World War II and graduated from Ran- 
dolph-Macon College. He is survived by his wife, 
Mabel, a son, and three brothers, including Laird 
Rush Ed.D '74. 

E. Clifford Shoaf M.Div. '53 of Edenton, N.C, 
on Aug. 9. A retired United Methodist minister in 
the N.C. Conference, he held pastorates in Chapel 
Hill, Lillington, Durham, Raleigh, Edenton, Fayette- 
ville, Fremont, Mebane, and Manteo. He also held 
degrees from High Point College and Western Caro- 
lina University. He served as field education director 
at Duke's Divinity School, and his last appointment 
was associate director of the Conference Council on 
Ministries in Raleigh. He is survived by his wife, Jane; 
three sons, including Eric C. Shoaf '82; two 
daughters; and two brothers. 

i. Shufelt B.S.M.E. '53 of N. Augusta, 
Ga., on July 22, of a massive pulmonary embolism 
following open heart surgery. He was an engineer for 
Westinghouse at the Savannah River site. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Marguerite, four daughters, two 
brothers, and two grandchildren. 

Willis J. Wilkins Jr. 53 of Eustis, Fla., on Jan. 
30, of a cerebral hemorrhage. He is survived by his 
wife, Carol. 

Robert H. Williams '54 on July 8 in Charlotte. 
He was a retired self-employed marketing consultant 
and former owner of Holiday Furniture and Chem 
Tex, both in Wilson, N.C. He is survived by his 
mother, a sister, two sons, and a granddaughter. 

George H. Winecoff B.D. '54 of Clyde, N.C, on 
June 23, of cancer. A World War II Navy veteran, he 
earned his bachelor's at Erskine College in 1951. He 
was a United Methodist minister for 3 1 years, serving 
at N.C. churches in New London, Kannapolis, Char- 
lotte, Mills River, Maggie Valley, Clyde, and Canton 
before retiring in 1983. He was named minister emeri- 
tus in 1990 by Central Church of Clyde. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Mary Lela, three daughters, and six 

Bolich Vincent '59 on May 25 at her 

Bedford, N.Y., home, of cancer. She was a former 
chair of the Rippowam Cisqua School's board of 
trustees, a former trustee of the Episcopal Mission 
Society, and a partner in the educational placement 
firm Educators Ally Inc. She is survived by her hus- 
band, Robert; two daughters, 
Walker '85 and Caroline 
son, Robert C. Vincent III, a first-year law stu- 
dent at Duke; a sister, Anne B. La Due '53; and 
two granddaughters. 

John J. Grotpeter A.M. '61 of St. Louis on 
June 28, of a rare genetic disorder. He is survived by 
his wife, Peggy, and a daughter, Jennifer K. 
Grotpeter 91. 

'66 on April 21 in his Arling- 
ton, Va., home, of cancer. An attorney specializing in 
employee benefits law, he joined Hunton and 
Williams in Richmond in 1982 and transferred to its 
Washington, D.C, office three years ago. A graduate 
of Emory University's law school, he had practiced 
law in Georgia, Tennessee, and Michigan. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Linda Bergquist Tilton '65, 
two sons, his parents, and six brothers and sisters. 

Roger G. Whittaker P. A. Cert '69 of Redding, 
Calif., on July 13, 1990, of colon cancer. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Charlene. 

Kathryne Lynn Wright '73 on Aug. 28, after a 
brief illness. A psychologist in private practice in 
Atlanta, she was an ordained Universal Brotherhood 
minister and was a disciple of Swami Chidvilasananda 
of the Siddha Yoga lineage. 


Michael F. Nolan B.S.C.E. '84 on Aug. 3, of com- 
plications of cystic fibrosis. He was a civil engineer 
who had worked from 1990 to 1992 as a reservations 
sales agent for United Airlines. During the 1980s, he 
was an engineer with Omni Construction and Chil- 
dren's Hospital in Washington and the Du Pont Co. 
in Research Triangle Park, N.C. He was also a volun- 
teer public speaker for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. 
He is survived by his mother and a brother. 

Math Professor Elliott 

William W. Elliott, a mathematics professor who 
established the W.W. Elliott Research Professorship 
in Mathematics at Duke and at Hampden Sydney 
College, died on July 1 1 . He was 95. 

Elliott earned his bachelor's at Hampden Sydney, 
his master's at the University of Kentucky, and 
his Ph.D. at Yale. He taught math at Georgia 
Tech, the University of Kentucky, Cornell, and 

Yale before coming to Duke. He retired in 1968. 

An outstanding bridge player, he held many offices 
in bridge organizations and earned the title Life Mas- 
ter, the first in North Carolina. 

He is survived by a sister, Katherine Fortescue, of 



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iber 1993 


Hugh Westbrook believes strong- 
ly in the importance of death 
education. He should know; 
he's been teaching it for most of his 
life. A pastoral minister for more than 
a decade, Westbrook M.Div. '71 taught 
his first course about the psycho-socia 
issues surrounding death in 1976 a 
Miami-Dade Community College. 

The program was so successful, he began 
to teach the topic in medical school class- 
es and seminars, eventually formulating it 
into one of the first government-recog- 
nized hospice programs in America. 

Now CEO and chair of VITAS Health- 
care Corporation, the largest provider of 
hospice services in America, Westbrook 
has devoted his life to the needs of the ter- 
minally ill. "Hospice care," Westbrook 
says, "is about giving dying people a 
choice — a choice to spend their time at 
home with their families instead of in an 

Westbrook began to implement his hos- 
pice program in 1978, when he and his co- 
instructor, Esther Colliflower, opened 
their first hospice in Miami. Since then, 
he has helped open thirteen more hospices 
across the country, including a special hos- 
pice for AIDS patients. 

Westbrook first developed the idea of 
teaching people how to cope with death 
during his divinity training at Duke. While 
interning as a chaplain at Duke Medical 
Center, he was given pastoral responsibility 
over two wards. "It was the first time I 
became involved with giving care to termi- 
nally ill people. It was an experience that 
stayed with me. It taught me that pastoral 
care to dying people was an important part 
of health care." VITAS incorporates such 
spiritual care into its hospice program, 
Westbrook says. "It's as much a part of 
health care as physical and mental care." 

After developing his program, he ran 
into legal and financial barriers. "Not only 
was there no money [for hospice]," West- 
brook says, "there was no legal way to do 
what we wanted to do. There was no 
license that permitted us to operate. They 
told us that we had to become a hospital 
or a home-care facility. We didn't want to 
do that. We had to change the law so hos- 

Westbrook: offering hospice nationally as an alternative 
pices could exist. Dying people needed an 

So in 1979, he began to work with the 
Florida legislature, eventually writing a 
comprehensive hospice-licensing law that 
same year. Next, he moved on to Washing- 
ton, D.C., helping to draft a similar federal 
law and successfully lobbying Congress to 
implement Medicare reimbursement for 
hospice services — the only additional ser- 
vice added to Medicare during the Reagan 
and Bush administrations. 

"The federal law helped define what 
hospice was going to be legally in Ameri- 
ca," Westbrook says. "The standards that 
we were able to put into law really shaped 
and molded what hospice has become and 
is becoming. At that time, there were less 
than two dozen hospices; now there are 
over 2,000. And about three-quarters of 
those are certified under the federal law 
that we were involved in writing and get- 
ting passed." 

Although the lawmaking process was 
ugly at times, Westbrook says his educa- 
tion prepared him well. "Duke Divinity 
School helped create the ability in minis- 
ters to use government to create good 
social policy. If you have a set of values 
that orient you to serving people, you need 
to recognize that there is nothing in this 
country that has a greater impact socially, 
economically, and substantially than the 

"There were people who opposed us — 
the AMA and the American Hospital 
Association — all of whom today endorse 
hospice," Westbrook recalls. "Then, they 
didn't want to rock the boat. They didn't 
want us to compete with them. Today, 
they see the good in it." 

With health care becoming more of a 
political issue than ever, Westbrook plans 

to continue moving into the political 
realm. This past year, he ran "get out 
the vote" programs focusing on non- 
profit organizations for the Clinton 
campaign as well as voter registration 
drives targeting minorities. In January, 
Senator Bob Graham of Florida 
appointed him as national finance 
chairman of the Democratic Senatori- 
al Campaign Committee. Westbrook 
says his hospice work leads directly 
into President Clinton's agenda. 

"Hospice itself is part of the move- 
ment for health-care reform in this coun- 
try," he says. "We are trying to create 
access for terminally ill people to the 
health-care system. They make choices 
about their care. The whole notion of 
health-care reform is something that I'm 
comfortable with and have been advocat- 
ing since I've been involved in hospice." 

Under Florida law, Westbrook says, hos- 
pices are required to provide care to inter- 
ested individuals, whether they can pay or 
not — part of the Clinton administration's 
universal coverage philosophy. 

Even with his corner office, his CEO 
responsibilities, and his national political 
appointments, Westbrook says he still 
thinks of himself as a minister. "I never 
quit the ministry. I don't view it that way 
at all. I have moved from one form of min- 
istry to another. One of the things that I 
liked about the Duke divinity school was 
how it encouraged creativity and alterna- 
tive forms of ministry, not just serving in 
local church." 

The one thing divinity school didn't 
prepare him for was running a business. 
VITAS, formerly Hospice Care, Inc., has 
met its share of troubled fiscal times. But 
even though hospice work requires skills 
distinct from the traditional ministry, 
Westbrook says that to succeed in each 
requires dedication and risk taking. 

"I don't think I ever looked at the min- 
istry as something I was interested in get- 
ting into because of security," he says. "In 
some ways, you get uncertainty because of 
the commitment. You commit to being 
driven by your values and basic under- 
standing that can lead you anywhere. 
That's what hospice is all about — commit- 
ting to the needs of other people." 

—Jason Schultz '93 



Please limit letters to no more than 300 words. 
Duke Magazine reserves the right to edit letters 
for length and clarity. 



As a retired Naval officer and a member 
of the "Defense of Charleston" lobby group, 
I found Robert Bliwise's article ["Playing 
Hardball with the Bases," July-August 
1993] on Jim Courter and the 1993 base 
closure process quite interesting. I testified 
before the Base Realignment and Closure 
(BRAC) Commission when they came to 
Charleston, attended the final hearings in 
Washington, and worked hard over a four- 
month period as a voluntary consultant to 
the Charleston Chamber of Commerce 
and elected officials as we tried to save our 
naval facilities from the axe. 1 have two 
major comments and one disagreement 
with the author. 

First of all, Duke University should be 
proud of Jim Courter, who did the best he 
reasonably could to remain independent of 
politics. He maintained control of a poten- 
tially volatile process and preserved the 
faith of many in need of an independent 
commission. It is hard to imagine what 
might have happened on a nationwide 
basis if the process were left to the Penta- 
gon and the Congress. 

Secondly, the author argues that the 
process was independent of politics. Not 
true. The weak link lies in the original list 
of bases recommended for closure that 
were proposed by the Secretary of Defense. 
This list is subject to political influence on 
the Army, Navy, and Air Force as well as 
flag officer preferences and sometimes even 
military value or long-term strategy. Once 
a facility or base is unfairly or unwisely tar- 
geted for closure, it is almost impossible to 
get removed from the list, because the af- 
fected community must prove to the com- 
mission that the Department of Defense 
significantly deviated from the eight base 
closure criteria. Historically, only about 5 
percent of facilities listed for closure are 
spared by the BRAC commission. 

My disagreement with the author is over 
his statement that "Charleston's efforts 
were to no avail." The original list targeted 

six Navy commands in Charles 
ton, but by fighting hard and 
being right, the "Defense of 
Charleston" organization suc- 
ceeded in saving the Navy 
Hospital, the Naval Elec- 
tronics Engineering Center, 
and part of the Navy Sup- 
ply Center. We saved 
about 5,000 direct and 
15,000 indirect jobs. We 
lost our shipyard and 
naval base and took 
the biggest "hit" of any area in 
the country, but it would have been a lot 
worse if we had just given up without a 
fight. The commission fairly judged our case 
within the limitations of the BRAC statute. 

Glen A. Dilgren 
Charleston, South Carolina 



The beginning of Nan Keohane's tenure 
as president of Duke must bring pride and 
pleasure to graduates of both institutions. 
For Wellesley alumnae, the sorrow in see- 
ing her leave is balanced by the gratitude 
for her accomplishments at the college and 
pride that we have provided one of the few 
women presidents of a major university. 
Duke alumni can be proud of a university 
that continues to strive to be at the leading 
edge of education and which does not al- 
ways take the safe or conventional option. 

As an alumna of both institutions, the 
present occasion has led me to reflect on 
the connections between the two from my 
student days. Perhaps others who attended 
both will also share their recollections. 

Wellesley in the late 1940s and early 
Fifties was a very Northeastern-oriented 
institution. There was also a number of 
students from the Upper Middle West and 
some from California, but those of us from 
the South, the Southwest, and the North- 
west were not very numerous. I was the 
only member of my class from North Caro- 
lina. Duke was, therefore, generally outside 
the Wellesley consciousness. 

Duke was then a very male-dominated 
place, leavened a bit by the undergraduate 

Woman's College, 
which lived and part- 
ly learned on its own 
East Campus. There 
were very few women 
faculty. I was in resi- 
dence as a graduate stu- 
dent in history from the 
all of 1953 to the sum- 
mer of 1955; I was the 
only female graduate stu- 
dent in the department. At 
the Central Carolina Welles- 
ley Club's annual meeting, I 
met two of the few Duke facul- 
ty women. One was Frances 
Acomb, who was a member of the history 
department but not allowed to teach grad- 
uate students. Her office was on East Cam- 
pus, and since graduate students went to 
class and to the library on West, we never 
even saw her. I have always regretted not 
knowing her better. The other Wellesley 
woman was Louise Hall, who taught the 
history of art. I knew her better later, for 
she and my husband shared the field of 
medieval architectural history. 

A slightly later connection was through 
Elisabeth Jastrow, a refugee scholar who 
had taught art history at Wellesley. When 
I began teaching at the Woman's College 
of the University of North Carolina in 
1965, Miss Jastrow was teaching there. 
When she retired from Wellesley, she 
went as a research scholar to Duke. 

Conclusions? Even when opportunities 
for women at co-ed universities were few, 
those few were often filled by Wellesley 
women. The tradition, broadened one is 
happy to say, continues. 

Barbara Brandon Schnorrenberg Ph.D. '58 
(Wellesley '51) 
Birmingham, Alabama 



Your article on tenure ["The Tenure 
Years," July- August 1993] was most inter- 
esting, but I was left feeling that teachers 
were getting slightly short-changed. Duke 
University exists to teach. That is why the 
campus is there. It could well be even 

N ov embt 

ember I 993 


more of a research center than it is, but then 
it might not be a university. 

I spent four years at a leading high 
school in Indianapolis and four years at 
Duke. In that time, I had seven superior 
teachers. A history teacher in high school 
left me with an interest in that subject 
that still burns bright. Paul Gross was the 
only teacher in my major who made his 
difficult course understandable and inter- 
esting. There were others in the chemistry 
department who were well known for 
research but were not good teachers, to put 
it charitably. 

There are not too many people who can 
make a subject live; they may well be out- 
numbered by those who star at research. 
The good teachers are the ones who create 
the future researchers as well as the future 
generations of leaders in all fields. If you 
lose an understanding teacher, you lose a 
resource you probably cannot replace. 

I certainly hope that the boards who 
make the decisions on tenure will think 
carefully about the students who come to 
Duke for a superior education and are enti- 
tled to the best teaching you can provide. 

Fred Dennerline '48 
Palm City, Florida 



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New York, NY 10003 

Fax: (212)228-3897 


Though Bridget Booher is circumspect 
in her review of tenure at Duke and careful 
to avoid taking a position, her article nev- 
ertheless left me with the conclusion that 
tenure is a troublesome anachronism and if 
it were not already in place at Duke today, 
it would be difficult, if not impossible, to 
make the case for its existence. 

In a society which is increasingly de- 
manding of greater openness and account- 
ability from its key institutions, tenure 
comes across like something out of the 
Middle Ages. 

The AAUP sounds like a union to me. 
If so, we can be sure that the interests of 
students and the future of the university 
will eventually be subordinated to the in- 
terests of tenured faculty. 

This is the twentieth century, soon to 
be the twenty-first: the Information Age. 
Duke should re-examine tenure: its need, 
the process, the costs, the benefits for 
everyone. In short, get Duke back in step 
with the changes in our society. With 
good will, honesty, and openness on every- 
one's part, Duke could begin the process of 
phasing out tenure since it is no longer 
needed. After all, back at the turn of the 
century, when Ms. Booher states tenure 
was finalized, who would have dared to 
imagine that a major university would 
have a woman as its president? 

John J. Machowski '48 

Little Compton, Rhode Island 



As president of the Women's Sports 
Foundation and as a former Duke athlete, I 
cannot let Michael Townsend's article 
"Leveling the Playing Field" [July-August] 
slide. It is simply not good enough for 
Duke to be "quite high on the national 
average" in regard to Title IX compliance. 

At Duke we pride ourselves in doing the 
right thing. As an elite athlete, I was the 
beneficiary of this philosophy several times. 
Duke continued my scholarship with no 
obligation to do so after I returned from win- 
ning at the Olympics. However, with less 
than 1 percent of Duke's athletes becoming 
Olympians or professionals, sports are about 
preparing its participants for tomorrow. 

The reason why sport exists in a univer- 
sity setting, the reason why it receives tax 
breaks, and the reason why student fees 
pay for part of college sports programs, is 
that sports participation is part of the educa' 
tional experience of the university. There is a 
strong relationship between sports partici- 

pation and upward mobility. Lifelong 
lessons on how to win and lose with grace, 
self-esteem, how to postpone short-term 
gratification for long-term rewards, how to 
be part of a team (teamwork cannot be 
learned on a blackboard), are all part of 
any sports experience. There are reasons 
corporations like to hire athletes. 

Revenue and fan support do not justify 

The biggest myth confronting gender 
equity is that men's sports make money. 
Football may have heavy revenues, but it's 
tremendously costly. According to the 
NCAA, only 13 percent of NCAA institu- 
tions made any money in college football. 
Of the Division I schools that lost money, 
the average loss was $628,000. University 
funds and students' fees — men's and 
women's fees — largely pay for the discrep- 
ancy. Nostalgic football alumni treat it like 
a golden goose, when it's more like a white 
elephant. [Duke Associate Athletics Direc- 
tor] Joe Alleva told me that even with Iron 
Duke contributions factored in, our foot- 
ball program does not break even. Sure, I 
enjoyed the games, but at whose expense? 

What the athletics department consid- 
ers fair just isn't. Nationally, men receive 
$ 1 79 million more than women in athletic 
scholarships. While Julie Exum credits 
Duke for creating a great atmosphere for 
women at Duke, I wonder what she would 
think if she had a well-qualified sister who 
couldn't get a $100,000 Duke scholarship 
because she was a female athlete rather 
than a male athlete? 

Football cannot be excluded when com- 
paring men's and women's sports opportu- 
nities; the law doesn't provide for exclu- 
sion. Is the fourth string of the football 
team more deserving of financial aid than 
a nationally ranked gymnast? Imagine the 
math department denying a scholarship to 
a qualified applicant because she is female. 
And as Brown University discovered, the 
"we're better than average" defense is legal- 
ly invalid. 

I would like to think that I got a schol- 
arship because I was the best swimmer in 
the world. Sadly, it had little to do with 
my qualifications. I owe my college athlet- 
ic opportunities to that piece of federal 
legislation, Title IX. After twenty years, 
the time has come for full Title IX compli- 
ance. Duke can either take the bold steps 
of complying because it's the right thing to 
do, or it can be forced into it by the 
NCAA or the courts. 

Nancy Hogshead '86 
New York, New York 




Botanist Boyd Strain regu- 
larly hikes into a very spe- 
cial area of Duke Forest 
that is more than a ver- 
dant and quiet refuge of 
loblolly pines, sweetgum, 
dogwoods, and honey- 
suckle. As he makes his 
way through the undergrowth, he is all too 
aware that the small patch of woods repre- 
sents the harbinger of a worrisome envi- 
ronmental future, in which humans have 
altered the composition of the Earth's air, 
forcing nature to adapt in ways that are 
now largely unpredictable. 

Strain and his colleagues have, in fact, 
created a patch of the future there to help 
understand one of civilization's more in- 
sidious impacts on the forest. They have 
built a circle of sixteen towers, each dangling 
long pipes from spindly metal arms that loom 
over the trees, bushes, and weeds, and over 
Strain as well. These towers spew out a com- 
puter-controlled stream of excess carbon 
dioxide, a colorless, odorless gas whose con- 
centrations are al- 
ready quietly but 
steadily increasing 
in Earth's atmos- 
phere because of fos- 
sil-fuel burning and 
land clearing. Strain 
and his colleagues 
will study how the 
resident vegetation, 
soils, and animals 
react to the over- 
enrichment of the 
gas after plants 
"breathe" it in. 

The project is 
called the Free Air 
CO2 Enrichment 
project, or FACE. 
Its audacious aim is 
to create a large 
bubble of twenty- 
first-century atmos- 
phere over an open, 
100-foot-wide por- 
tion of growing Turning 



Duke botanists are 

creating atmospheres of 

the twenty-first century 

in order to see how 

vegetation, soils, and 

animals react. 

woodland, in the face of all wind and 
weather conditions. 

Besides the biological effects Strain 
studies with FACE, the steadily increasing 

ring of monitored trees 

atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide may 
soon cause the Earth to run a low-grade 
fever. Higher carbon dioxide levels will 
trap the sun's heat more efficiently, raising 
atmospheric temperatures. Many scientists 
predict that this "greenhouse effect" will 
have potentially disastrous consequences, 
and some contend that it has begun already. 
For all these reasons, carbon dioxide, or 
CO2, became Strain's life's work as a 

In one of nature's most important 
processes, plants draw carbon dioxide into 
their leaves and then transform it with the 
help of sunlight. Plants need the CO 2 to 
make the sugars and starches that allow 
them to live and grow. This biochemical 
rearrangement, called photosynthesis, 
releases the oxygen that supports all ani- 
mal life. In turn each animal exhalation 
releases carbon dioxide. 

For much of the time since life began 
on Earth, nature has kept the levels of car- 
bon dioxide and oxygen in balance. But 
since the dawn of the Industrial Revolu- 
tion, the developed 
world's smokestacks 
and exhaust pipes 
have tipped this 
balance by belching 
out extra CO 2 — 
enough to double 
the atmosphere's 
concentration by 
sometime in the 
twenty-first century, 
many scientists pre- 
dict. Carbon dioxide 
from land clearing 
has enhanced the 
increase. In Strain's 
view, all that extra 
CO 2 may have sig- 
nificant effects on 
plants, perhaps al- 
tering the composi- 
tion of the world's 
forests. He's preached 
that message since 
1978; he had dis- 
agreed with the 

N ovember-December 1993 


conclusions of an early scientific summit 
on the possible effects of rising atmospheric 
carbon dioxide levels. 

He had missed that 1976 meeting in 
Miami because of his sabbatical leave in 
Germany. "When I got back and read the 
report, I decided those people had missed 
the boat," he recalls. "Even the biologists 
who were there believed this story that the 
real effect was going to be climate change. 
They weren't recognizing the importance 
of carbon dioxide as a fertilizer. We have 
known since the 1930s that carbon diox- 
ide is a fertilizer and would act like a fertil- 
izer. The Dutch and the German horticul- 
turists were making bigger carnations and 
bigger tomatoes by then, by enriching 
their greenhouses with CO 2" 

Other scientists were perfectly aware 
that any substance required for plant growth 
could stimulate that growth if more were 
available for uptake by the world's trees, 
crops, flowers, shrubs, vines, and weeds. 
But Strain believes that many failed to 
grasp the import of what that fact might 
mean. He says their attention may have 
been diverted by the dramatic specter of 
global warming, with its scary scenarios of 
melting icecaps, flooded cities, devastating 
storms, and droughts. 

So Strain raised the plant question him- 
self in 1978, when he convened his own sci- 
entific meeting in Durham. The next year, 
he got his first grant (from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation) to study what happens to 
plants in the predicted high-carbon-dioxide 
atmospheres of the future. He's been at it 
ever since. In fact, he thinks his research 
team has published more papers on the sub- 
ject than any other group. 

Strain and his graduate students have 
done much of their work in Duke's phy- 
totron, a large, high-tech greenhouse 
where plants can be grown under any sim- 
ulated condition — past, present, or future. 
One of his favorite experiments in the phy- 
totron's computer-controlled growth cham- 
bers showed how okra's growth was drasti- 
cally stimulated by high CO 2- Okra is what 
he calls "a high-temperature loving plant," 
failing to grow or even reproduce at tem- 
peratures as moderate as 73 degrees. But 
when okra plants were cultivated in air 
with double the current carbon dioxide 
levels, they did as well at 73 degrees as they 
normally did at 89. "That really showed me 
the compensating effect of CO 2," he says. 

Since then, Strain's group has also 
found that CO 2 lessens the stress effects of 
salty soils. And other studies have shown 
that high CO 2 will reduce plant water loss 
and thus counteract drought effects. "So 
there are a great number of current agri- 
cultural and environmental stresses that 
are going to be ameliorated by the extra 
carbon dioxide," he says. 

Strain believes increased 

levels of CO2 already 

in the atmosphere have 

contributed to enhanced 

crop yields achieved 

during this century. 

Strain believes increased levels of the 
gas already in the atmosphere have con- 
tributed to the enhanced crop yields 
achieved during this century. "From an 
agricultural point of view, we're fertilizing 
the atmosphere of the entire world," he 
says. And in the future, some major crops 
could do even better. Cotton, wheat, rice 
and soybeans, for example, have all been 
reported to increase their growth in high 
CO2, when soil nutrients and moisture 
were readily available. 

Despite such advantages, Strain hardly 
believes that the world should keep pump- 
ing out high CO 2 levels. For one thing, 
experiments suggest that other important 
crops like corn, sorghum, and sugar cane 
are already absorbing about as much car- 
bon dioxide as they can; any additional 
concentrations are not expected to in- 
crease those species' yields. He and other 
researchers have also found that even 
when high-C02 does enhance plant 
growth, it actually decreases the nutritional 
value of leaf tissues. Collaborative work by 
David Lincoln of the University of South 
Carolina, for instance, has shown that the 
leaves of plants prospering from the extra 
CO 2 end up being protein deficient. So all 
of Earth's plant-eating animals, from 
insects to sheep and cows, could end up 
eating more to get less. "And people who 
eat the green parts of plants will be getting 
less-nutritious materials, even when you 
fertilize the soil," Strain says. All this may 
disrupt the balance of nature. Insects may 
have to consume more plant material just 
to survive, and more may suffer starvation. 
Animals that consume insects may, in 
turn, have fewer to eat. 

Strain and his colleagues also have labora- 
tory evidence that high carbon dioxide will 
boost the competitiveness of the very plants 
that gardeners seek to uproot. Since weeds 
are especially responsive to carbon dioxide, 
we'll likely see "an increasingly weedy 
world," Strain says. "I am concerned that 
that world will be a harder place to manage. 
But while that particular part of the future 
will be an inconvenience and an expense, it 
is not going to be the end of civilization." 

According to Strain, "plants that do best 
in high CO 2 are things like kudzu and 
Japanese honeysuckle and dandelions and a 
lot of the agricultural weeds." Trees, too, 
could alter their growth patterns. Leslie 
Henry, a former student of Strain's, who is 
now on the North Carolina State University 
faculty, has found evidence that sweetgums 
will spread more aggressively than loblolly 
pines in a higher carbon dioxide atmosphere. 
"You won't get a loblolly plantation," he 
says. "You'll get a much more mixed, and 
therefore less profitable, woodlot." 

While the phytotron has helped Duke 
researchers make important findings, its 
simulated environments aren't natural 
ones. Its growth chambers don't let in real 
sunlight, or real rainfall. So in 1989, 
Strain's team also began piping CO 2 into 
some clear turret-shaped, "open-topped" 
chambers they built in Duke Forest. Their 
open tops give plants growing inside a 
measure of exposure to the elements. At 
the same time, the structures' plastic walls 
serve as windbreaks so that extra carbon 
dioxide can be effectively mixed with the 
air inside. Despite the open top, the plants 
can thus be exposed to steady doses of ele- 
vated CO 2 levels before the remainder 
escapes to the outside. 

Strain acknowledges that open-topped 
chambers are wasteful. "You're not recy- 
cling the CO 2 at all," he says. "You're just 
blowing it though there." And while open- 
topped chambers offer less-artificial condi- 
tions than the phytotron, those are still 
decidedly unnatural ones. The scientists 
must constantly ask whether the plants are 
doing better because of extra CO 2, or 
because of pampering by the plexiglass 
windbreaks. "You get a 20 percent fertility 
increase just because you're containing the 
plants and keeping hard winds away," 
Strain says. "And insects can hardly get to 
a plant that's being treated that way." 
Open-topped chambers are also limited in 
holding capacity. They can't accommodate 
a full-sized tree, for example, let alone a 
complex forest environment. 

So, in his continuing quest for real-world 
conditions, Strain is focusing on the ring of 
towers built last winter and spring at Duke 
Forest by collaborators from Brookhaven 
National Laboratory. FACE was devised by 
George Hendrey, the head of Brookhaven's 
biosystems and process science division. To 
accomplish the feat of maintaining precise 
CO 2 levels, Hendrey 's system mixes pres- 
surized carbon dioxide from a holding tank 
with air to the desired elevated concentra- 
tion. Then the C02-enriched air is piped 
to the ring's center and distributed back 
through a network of other pipes to valves 
on each of the sixteen spindly towers. 
Instruments on a taller central tower moni- 
tor for wind direction and speed. Taking 



the wind information into account, the 
computer then decides which valves to 
open or close to keep the distribution of gas 
within the bubble as uniform as possible. 

Initial tests last summer showed that 
this system can maintain carbon dioxide 
concentrations within 10 percent of the 
ideal for 80 percent of the time. "That 
isn't too bad a control," Strain says. "This 
means that for almost all of the photosyn- 
thetic [daylight] hours the plants are see- 
ing high CO 2 levels." 

FACE's biggest 
expense over the 
long term will be 
"the delivery and 
supply of CO 2," 
predicts William 
Schlesinger, an- 
other Duke botany 
and geology pro- 
fessor who works 
with Strain. 
"You're essential- 
ly maintaining 
elevated levels in 
an area of the 
land with no 
You're doing it all 
the time knowing 
that it's blowing 
away from you. It 
looks terribly in- 
efficient, but it's 
essential to do it 
that way." 

group from Brook- 
haven pioneered 
the FACE con- 
cept by building smaller rings to adminis- 
ter extra CO 2 to cotton crops in Arizona 
and Mississippi. The Duke Forest experi- 
ment is the first attempt to use FACE in a 
woodland, and Duke may eventually build 
as many as sixteen more rings in the same 
vicinity if researchers can find the funding. 

The walk-through FACE ring is a long 
way from the modest beginnings of Strain's 
carbon dioxide research, which started in 
the mid-1960s in California's White 
Mountains. In those early studies, Strain 
would enclose tiny alpine plants in small 
chambers, called "cuvettes," to measure 
the amount of CO 2 that each plant used. 

While the purpose of that research had 
nothing to do with increasing atmospheric 
CO 2 levels, his instruments told him that 
those concentrations were rising from year 
to year. In fact, he didn't believe his own 
results at first and sent away his calibration 
apparatus to be checked for defects. He 
was assured there was nothing wrong with 
his equipment. At the time, he was a 

young assistant professor at the University 
of California, Riverside. It was his first job 
after getting a Ph.D. at the University of 
California, Los Angeles. 

With his tanned, rangy look and his 
salt-and-pepper beard, Strain fits the image 
of a seasoned cowpoke. He is, in fact, a 
native of Laramie, Wyoming, and his orig- 
inal passion was hunting and fishing in the 
great outdoors. "So when I had to pick a 
career," he says, "I decided on being a 
game warden." He proceeded to major in 

Watcher in the woods: Strain devised 

date experiments on full-sized trees 

biology at Black Hills State College in 
Spearfish, South Dakota, only to graduate 
into a world with no game warden job 
openings. "So I decided to be a biology 
teacher, but found out I had to have a 
master's degree." He dutifully earned a 
master's from the University of Wyoming 
in 1960, and was offered a job teaching 
biology at Casper High School. Strain was 
supposed to teach five classes a day and be 
assistant wrestling coach on the side. 
"That sounded terrible," he recalls. "I real- 
ized I had a lot of fun doing my master's 
research, so I applied to Ph.D. schools and 
got into UCLA." 

Looking back, Strain can't remember 
exactly why he decided to specialize in 
plants instead of animals. "It was just a for- 
tuitous thing," he says. "It turns out that 
plants are the base of the ecological pyra- 
mid, and they are the most important 
organisms in the world." 

Strain moved from Riverside to Duke in 
1969, because Duke had the "best known 

program in the country for physiological 
ecology." He was a replacement for an 
eminent Duke ecologist, Henry Oosting, 
who had died the year before. Strain 
became a full professor by 1977, the year 
before he began a decade's stint as director 
of the Duke phytotron. 

Just as his most ambitious ecology experi- 
ment is getting off the ground, Strain is 
backing off the project. He recently handed 
over the job of local FACE scientific director 
to Schlesinger, a world authority on how 
soils affect CO 2- 
Strain says he's 
turned over the 
reins because he 
plans to retire in 

will seek enough 
grant money to 
build and operate 
twelve more 
FACE tower 
rings. He says the 
first FACE tower 
ring has proved 
that the concept 
will work, but it 
will actually not 
be used for many 
scientific experi- 
ments because 
workers "trashed" 
the environment 
while building it. 
"We learned not 
only how to build 
one, but a lot of 
aspects of how 
not to build one." 
The new units 
will be constructed with conservation in 
mind, and they will also be located in a 
cleared area instead of in existing forest 
land. That way, undisturbed woods can be 
allowed to grow up naturally from scratch 
once the towers and the piping are fin- 
ished. And as they rise, the woodlands can 
be constantly fertilized with CO 2, year 
after year. 

With the rise in atmospheric carbon 
dioxide, "I don't expect that we'll see an 
increase in species diversity," says 
Schlesinger. "In almost every case in which 
a fertilizer has been applied to a natural 
community, it has reduced species diversity. 
That's true when you dump phosphorous in 
a lake, nitrogen in a grassland, and I expect 
it to be true of subjecting a forest to carbon 
dioxide. So my gut feeling as an ecologist is 
that it will reduce species diversity." 

It's the kind of big question, he says, 
that a project as bold as FACE can help 

November-December 1993 




In central California's Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta estuary swims a 
translucent, finger-length smelt 
that feeds on plankton and is said 
to emit the fragrance of cucum- 
bers. The estuary is the only place 
on Earth the Delta smelt is known 
to reside. Until recently, they were 
of little interest to humans except as bait. 

Unfortunately for the smelt, the Delta 
also happens to be the transfer point for 
California's two largest water-pumping 
projects — a supply that serves two-thirds 
of the population. As viewers of the Jack 
Nicholson-Faye Dunaway film classic China- 
town will recognize, the wholesale move- 
ment of water from north to south has 
embroiled Californians in controversy 
since the turn of the century. When the 
declining population of Delta smelt in 
1991 was proposed for "threatened species" 
status, requiring controlled pumping of 
Delta water, it had the effect of a declara- 
tion of war. 

In such clashes, 
much of the respon- 
sibility for achieving 
consensus falls to 
California's chief en- 
vironmental officer, 
State Secretary for 
Resources Douglas 
Wheeler LL.B. '66. 
He oversees 14,000 
employees and a bud- 
get of $1.5 billion, 
dispersed among fif- 
teen departments in- 
cluding Water Re- 
sources, Fish and 
Game, Forestry, and 
Parks and Recre- 
ation. Wheeler is the 
liaison between those 
departments and the 
governor and legis- 
lature. He also must 
resolve internal con- 
flicts: "I have on one 



California's chief 
environmental officer 
embraces an ecosystem 

approach, which 

broadens the emphasis 

from preserving single 

species to protecting an 

entire habitat. 

Exceptional species: a 

who balances ecology and development 

hand the Department of Fish and Game, 
which wants very much to protect the 
Delta smelt, and on the other, the Depart- 
ment of Water Resources, which wants 
very much to move water through the 
Delta unimpeded by concerns about en- 
dangered species." 

Following a lifelong career in public ser- 
vice and conservation, Wheeler was ap- 
pointed to the Resources Agency in 
December 1990 by Governor Pete Wilson. 
He has been vice president of the World 
Wildlife Fund and the Conservation Foun- 
dation, executive director of the Sierra 
Club, president of the American Farmland 
Trust, executive vice president of the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 
and a deputy assistant secretary at the U.S. 
Department of the Interior. 

Wheeler is in the vanguard of public 
officials — including U.S. Secretary of the 
Interior Bruce Babbitt — who embrace an 
ecosystem approach to resource manage- 
ment. The ap- 
proach broadens 
the emphasis from 
preserving single 
species — the 
heart of the 1973 
Species Act 
(ESA), under 
which the Delta 
smelt was listed — 
to protecting an 
entire habitat. 
To avoid the 
when develop- 
ment plans are 
derailed by an 
ESA listing, eco- 
system protection 
|| requires cooper- 
|8 ative planning 
j| among govern- 
ment, conserva- 
tionists, and land- 



owners to prevent species from becoming 
threatened in the first place. 

The threat of an ESA listing remains a 
critical "stick" that motivates diverse in- 
terest groups to cooperate in resource man- 
agement. As Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM) State Director Ed Hastey wryly 
observes, "When you put them up against 
a wall and they don't have any alternative, 
that's a pretty good incentive." 

Ecosystem protection is rooted in the 
concept of "biodiversity" articulated in 
Harvard zoologist E.O. Wilson's widely 
read 1992 work, The Diversity of Life. The 
concept calls for creative solutions that 
recognize the legitimacy of the motive for 
economic gain while holding firm on the 
need for species diversity. 

Wilson argues that the tremendous bio- 
logical diversity of the planet is what 
allows areas of the Earth to revive after 
lightning storms, volcanic action, 
flooding, and disease. Thus, endem- 
ic fauna and flora, he says, are "part I 
of a country's heritage, the product 
of millions of years of evolution 
centered on that time and place I 
and hence as much a reason for I 
national concern as the particulari- 
ties of language and culture." 

The ecosystem approach recog- 
nizes that in the long run, econom- 
ic growth depends on natural 
resources, and that natural re- 
sources are part of interdependent 
biological systems. With biodiversi- 
ty, "we've got a very important new 
tool" that helps people understand 
the relationships between environ 
mental and economic concerns — ; 
tool that "gives us a way in which to 
resolve some of those conflicts," says 

Hastey credits Wheeler with getting the 
ball rolling in California. "As soon as he 
came out here as Secretary for Resources, I 
became close to Doug in terms of really 
pushing the idea of a multi-jurisdictional, 
multi-habitat, multi-species approach to 
planning in California through bioregions 
or ecosystems. We'd break down a lot of 
the institutional barriers and involve 
counties to do planning, and bring togeth- 
er Forest Service, BLM, Fish and Wildlife, 
State Parks, along with counties, to man- 
age habitats and maintain social and eco- 
nomic growth." 

Biodiversity as public policy was adopt- 
ed in an agreement — the first of its kind in 
the nation — signed in September 1991 by 
twenty-seven federal, state, and county 
officials who formed the California Execu- 
tive Council on Biological Diversity. The 
council, headed by Wheeler, has divided 
the state into ten bioregions. The ap- 
proach is all the more ambitious in that 

the bioregions cross political boundaries. 

Two initiatives for which Wheeler has 
high hopes are the Sierra Project in the 
Sierra Nevada mountains and the Natural 
Communities Conservation Planning 
(NCCP) project on the southern coast. 
The sparsely-populated Sierra Nevada range 
along California's eastern boundary is pro- 
jected to grow 50 percent by the year 
2010. Motivated by that fact and by 
reporter Tom Knudson's "Sierra in Peril" 
series, a Pulitzer Prize-winning account of 
environmental destruction in the region, 
Wheeler saw an opportunity. "It's a place 
in which the resources truly are impor- 
tant — not just the extractive resources, 
timber and minerals including gold and sil- 
ver — but recreational resources and water 
and air, which are supplies depended on by 
the rest of the state. 

"It's an attractive place to live and the 


Board of education: sign near Hal/Moon Bay, California, 1992 

foothills are simply in the path of what is 
essentially an inward and northward 
movement of the state's population. We 
had a chance, it seemed to me, to antici- 
pate the impacts of those pressures." 

From this realization was born the Sierra 
Summit, a convention in 1991 of local cit- 
izens, people from various levels of govern- 
ment, scientists, environmental groups, 
and industry groups, at Fallen Leaf Lake 
outside of Lake Tahoe. The meeting 
resulted in five town-hall sessions that 
broadened local participation, organized 
around the region's watersheds. The U.S. 
Forest Service, in cooperation with a 
group of scientists chaired by John Gor- 
don, former dean of Yale's School of 
Forestry, is conducting an inventory of the 
bioregion's resources, and numerous local 
initiatives are restoring degraded creeks 
and streams. 

The NCCP, a pilot program authorized 
by the state legislature and administered by 
the Department of Fish and Game under 
the Resources Agency, was launched in 
1992 in the coastal sage scrub area of 

southern California. Ninety percent of the 
habitat has been lost. In the remainder, 
more than fifty wildlife species are poten- 
tially "threatened" or "endangered" under 
the Endangered Species Act. The area is 
under heavy pressure for development. 
The nearly 250,000 acres in question are 
in the most populous area of the state, in- 
cluding Orange, Riverside, and San Diego 

The NCCP program brings together 
property owners, developers, local govern- 
ments, and conservationists to protect the 
habitat before more species are listed. 
After conservation plans are composed for 
some dozen subregions in the habitat, the 
state will work with landowners to assist 
conservation without shutting off develop- 
ment. Wheeler says the options include 
government purchase or transfer of lands 
and sale of easements, in addition to regu- 
atory restrictions. The state has 
engaged academic and field biolo- 
gists to advise the participants. 

Wheeler's approach to resources 
management is pragmatic: "Pull out 
the carrot, not the stick," he says. 
"Make it clear to landowners, local 
government, and community orga- 
sm nizations that public agencies have 
I significant positive resources to 
1 bring to bear on biodiversity conser- 
^ vation problems, such as money, 
I staff, and expertise, and not just 
1 restrictive sanctions." 
I Wheeler has been lauded for 
~ improving coordination among the 
| multiple federal and state regulatory 
agencies to which the private sector 
must respond. The task is particular- 
ly challenging, given the fact that 50 per- 
cent of California's lands are federally 
owned. Says Monica Florian, an NCCP 
participant and senior vice president of the 
Irvine Company, a large corporate land- 
holder in southern California, "I think the 
NCCP is a good example of a conserva- 
tionist (which I think Doug is) saying, 
'You're right, and I think we have to find a 
different way of doing it,' and having the 
ability to pull together ideas from all par- 
ties to come up with a really new concept 
of doing things." 

In his personal dealings, Wheeler is rec- 
ognized as intelligent, articulate, and outgo- 
ing. Steve McCormick, vice president for 
The Nature Conservancy, California, a 
national preservation organization on whose 
board Wheeler serves, has known him for a 
decade. The Nature Conservancy has been 
closely involved with the Resources Depart- 
ment on California land use projects. Says 
McCormick, "He really has a great ability 
to use words, coupled with a great sense of 
humor and a relaxed sense about himself. I 
find that an incredibly valuable combina- 

N o i 


I 993 


Two years ago, photog- 
rapher Robert Daw- 
son and writer Gray 
Brechin boarded a small 
plane and spent four hours 
flying over the Los Angeles 
Basin from one end to the 
other. From the air, says 
Brechin, Los Angeles looks 
like a colossal microchip. 
Even from that altitude, the 
energy is palpable. 

"You get an idea at about 
2,000 feet of how endless, 
how vast it is — and how 
vulnerable," he says. "The 
mountains around the val- 
ley aren't mountains — 
they're fault escarpments 
10,000 feet high. And they 
cross all the water lines and 
electric lines. Here's a 
conurbation of 13 million 
people who take for granted 
the flows coming in that keep 
the whole city running." 

The image crystallized 
for California natives Daw- 
son and Brechin into the 
realization that, ecologi- 
cally, California's human 
population has far overshot 
the state's carrying capac- 
ity. Moved by ecologist 
Raymond Dasmann's 1965 
work, The Destruction of 
California, which did much 
to provoke environmental 
reform in the state, the 

writer-photographer team 
decided to review the land- 
scape nearly a quarter-cen- 
tury later. The sobering 
result is their work in 
progress, Farewell, 
Promised Land. 

The project gained 
Brechin and Dawson the 
1992 Dorothea Lange-Paul 
Taylor Prize, which is 
awarded annually by the 
Center for Documentary 
Studies at Duke. Inaugu- 
rated in 1991, the prize 
encourages collaborative 
documentary work. 

Brechin, an architectural 
historian and urban design 
critic, has been influenced 
by the writings of Lewis 
Mumford and by studies of 
the environmental suicide 
of classical civilizations. 
His book Imperial San 
Francisco is due out next 

Dawson, who teaches 
photography at San Jose 
State University and City 
College in San Francisco, 
has just completed a photo- 
documentary study, The 
Qreat Central Valley: Cali- 
fornia's Heartland, with 
Stephen Johnson and Ger- 
ald Haslam (University of 
California Press, 

In a review of events 
dating to 1915, when 
simultaneous world's fairs 
in San Francisco and San 
Diego beckoned thousands 
with California's "bound- 
less" resources, Brechin 
and Dawson propose that 
the natural wealth that 
bankrolled California's 
phenomenal growth has 
been overdrawn. 

Brechin offers a 1916 
sample of Golden State 
advertising copy from Los 
Angeles architect Irving 
Gill: "Delightful little 
home-made cottages of 
redwood are to be found all 
through California," wrote 
Gill, "...they cost their 
owners but a few hundred 
dollars... Everybody has 
one and lives therein hap- 
pier than any king, enjoy- 
ing a simple, free, healthy 
life, breathing eucalyptus 
and pine-scented air, rest- 
ing full-length in a flower- 
starred grass, bathing in the 
fern-bordered streams." 

Through haunting pho- 
tographs and razor-sharp 
prose, the pair show how 
the state since those heady 
days has accumulated a 
huge environmental deficit. 

And the debt is coming due 
in the form of social unrest 
in environmentally devas- 
tated inner cities, cultivated 
lands becoming deserts 
through salt buildup and 
aquifer depletion, and 
salmon fisheries dying from 
timber clearcutting. 

Brechin and Dawson link 
environmental impoverish- 
ment with civic impoverish- 
ment The civic impulses 
that prompted Californians 
earlier in the century to 
build exemplary public 
universities, community 
libraries, and tree-lined 
urban streets have given 
way to flight from urban 
centers, semi-privatization 
of once-public institutions, 
and increasing unwilling- 
ness to pay taxes to main- 
tain the city's social net- 
work. The result, they say, 
is increasing polarization of 
"haves" and "have-nots" in 
a state that once prided 
itself on egalitarianism. 

To stop the continued 
destruction of California, 
the authors say the state 
must kick the habit of end- 
less growth, supported by 
artificially cheap energy 
and water, and develop an 

ethic of preservation and 

They see shoots of hope 
in grassroots efforts to revi- 
talize abandoned urban 
centers. One such project is 
an agricultural cooperative 
in crime-ridden East Palo 
Alto. The blighted commu- 
nity once was a Utopian 
agricultural development 
that attracted residents with 
the slogan "an acre of land 
and independence." 

Community activist 
Trevor Burroughs encour- 
ages residents to tap into 
that agricultural heritage. 
Community plots have 
been cultivated with 
organic vegetables that are 
marketed to restaurants in 
the well-heeled nearby 
community of Palo Alto. 

Farewell, Promised Land 
is a plea for frank self- 
appraisal. It is a reminder 
that the American dream — 
as much as the California 
dream — is rooted in the 
Earth we inhabit and sus- 
tained by the air we 

Clear cutting: Klamath River 
drainage, California, 1992 

tion in trying to develop consensus and to 
work with a spectrum of people." 

BLM's Hastey gives a folksy spin to his 
appraisal of Wheeler: "What I like about 
him, I can understand most of what he 
says. Some guys that talk — you know, 
what they say sounds good, but when you 
think about it, you don't know what they 
really said. He is really a practical guy, and 
he always makes the point that you can 
have a good environmental situation and 
still have economic stability or growth — 
they go hand in hand." 

Known as an environmental moderate 
with a gift for building consensus, Wheeler 
often finds himself facing off with former 
colleagues, such as the Sierra Club, over 
contested environmental terrain. "One of 
the things we have found it difficult to do 
is build a coalition at the center in a state 
where environmental issues, like most 
issues, tend to be polarized left and right," 
he says. "We have very strong partisans on 
both ends of the spectrum... but the orga- 
nized constituencies on these issues aren't 
typically found in the middle." 

California environmental groups have 
embraced the ecosystem approach with reser- 
vations. The chief weakness, in the view of 
environmentalists, is that consensus can be- 

come a euphemism for concessions to devel- 
opers. As Michael Paparian, state director 
of the Sierra Club, says, "It's a good idea 
that's starting to go astray a little bit. It's 
being used as an excuse for not addressing 
the issues associated with individual 
species." He cites the de-listing of the 

Mojave ground squirrel as an endangered 
species by the Department of Fish and 
Game. The Mojave Desert is the focus of a 
multi-agency effort to protect threatened 
species' habitats while accommodating 
community expansion. 

Anne Notthoff is a San Francisco-based 



planner with the Na- 
tural Resources De- 
fense Council, a legal 
research and advo- 
cacy group. "We cer- 
tainly support an eco- 
system management 
approach to protect- 
ing endangered 
species," she says, 
but adds, "It's been 
our experience that 
if industry winces, 
then [the state re- 
sources agency] wi 
step back, whereas 
we have to fight 
tooth and nail to try and keep our position 
in there." 

Complicating the task of forging consen- 
sus on middle ground is that the middle 
ground has shifted with the recent econom- 
ic downturn in California. The sense of 
environmental crisis that gripped California 
during the 1987-1992 drought (the second- 
worst in four centuries) dissolved with the 
returning rains, to be replaced with an 
equally gripping sense of economic crisis. 
Already fragile environmental-economic 
coalitions have been wrenched into new 
bargaining positions. 

"Business in California has for many 
years wanted to slash environmental regu- 
lation, and they just haven't had the 
opportunity. Now they're using the down- 
turn as the point of the lance to go after 
environmental regulation," says Luke Cole 
of California Rural Legal Assistance, an 
advocacy group representing poor, rural 
clients on issues such as water use and 
toxic waste disposal. 

Wheeler's response? To regain momen- 
tum, environmental organizations must 
adopt new strategies, engaging economic 
interests in problem-solving. "My own 
view, having had long experience in the 
not-for-profit field, is that the organizations 
that make that shift will be the most suc- 
cessful in affecting public policy," he says. 

The Nature Conservancy's McCormick 
supports Wheeler's view. "The concerns are 
legitimate and we don't want to compro- 
mise the environment to the point where 
consensus is really cosmetic," he says. "But 
what we risk in time if we don't accept 
some compromise is a complete dismantling 
of whatever laws we have as they begin to 
be more and more pressured by the demand 
to do more and more development." 

Nowhere do the poles of environmental 
opinion stand farther apart in California 
than on water policy development. One 
water policy arena in which Wheeler's 
Resources Agency has made inroads with 
consensus politics is wetlands manage- 
ment. Marshes, pools, and swamps once 

The chief weakness, 

in the view of 

environmentalists, is 

that consensus can 

become a euphemism 

for concessions to 


were viewed as pesti- 
lent wastelands. 
Across the nation, 
wetlands systemati- 
cally have been 
filled in and put to 
other uses, including 
agriculture and hous- 
ing. In California, 
more than 90 per- 
cent of the state's ori- 
ginal wetlands have 
been converted. Now, 
however, people are 
increasingly con- 
scious of the impor- 
tance of wetlands in 
purifying water supplies, preventing floods, 
and providing wildlife habitats for a third 
of the nation's endangered species and half 
its migratory birds. 

The question is, how to turn back the 
clock, especially when such a large per- 
centage of the nation's wetlands is in pri- 
vate hands? 

Wheeler is in the forefront of policy- 
makers who believe landowner incentives 
for preservation and restoration are critical 
for success. By making wetlands an asset 
for people who own them, Wheeler 
believes the state will expand the base of 
support for wetlands beyond their environ- 
mental constituency. In August, he an- 
nounced the Wilson administration's com- 
prehensive state policy to increase 
California's wetlands by 50 percent, revers- 
ing the effects of years of water diversions, 
pollution, and drought. The plan was 
drawn up after consultation with the agri- 
cultural community, business and develop- 
ment concerns, conservation organiza- 
tions, and state and local agencies. It has 
been endorsed by groups as diverse as the 
National Audubon Society and the Cali- 
fornia Building Industry Association. 

A key achievement of the wetlands plan 
is transferring the permit-granting authori- 
ty for the San Francisco Bay Area from the 
federal to the state government. This pilot 
program effectively removes a layer of 

Another main element of the plan is 
state funding for "mitigation banking," 
whereby a wetland can be developed if 
another wetland is restored or created else- 
where. The state's first wetlands mitigation 
bank was set up by the California Coastal 
Conservancy, under the Resources agency. 
The Conservancy in 1981 purchased a 
northern California marsh, allowing devel- 
opers who build on wetlands in the city of 
Eureka to mitigate the loss by helping to 
pay for the marsh's restoration. 

Environmental consensus is an elusive 
grail for Wheeler, and the battle over the 
Delta smelt remains unresolved. But he's 

still optimistic. "I've been in this now 
since the first Earth Day, almost exactly, 
and a lot has happened," he says. "You can 
become frustrated by the momentary 
obstacles, but if you look back, as a society 
we've made enormous strides in planning 
for a future that is more sensitive to envi- 
ronmental concerns." ■ 

A former California resident, Norman lives in Dur- 
ham and is a frequent contributor to the magazine . 

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November-December 1993 



Flags on campus flew at half-mast and 
the Duke Chapel tolled eighty times 
in memory of Doris Duke. The 
daughter of university founder James 
Buchanan Duke died October 28 after a 
long illness. She was eighty years old. 

Her death came just two weeks after the 
announcement that she was giving Duke 
University $2 million in support of AIDS 
research at the medical center. It was her 
first public gift to the university in many 
years, although she had continued to sup- 
port Russian studies, the Primate Center, 
and other university programs anonymously. 

In her will, read November 1, Duke be- 
queathed another $10 million to the uni- 
versity. "Miss Duke's bequest," says Presi- 
dent Nannerl O. Keohane, "continues the 
remarkable philanthropic tradition of the 
Duke family to Duke University." 

Doris Duke had praised Keohane with 
the announcement of her gift for AIDS re- 
search, saying she was confident that 
Duke's new president would "provide fresh 
ideas and thoughtful leadership to this 

magnificent school, which was founded by 
my father and meant so much to me." 

Duke's cousin, Mary Duke Biddle Trent 
Semans '39, who chairs The Duke Endow- 
ment, told The Chronicle, "I'm sure she was 
never very far from the university." 

The bulk of her vast estate, valued at 
$1.2 billion, is to be donated to charity and 
the new Doris Duke Charitable Founda- 
tion. According to an article in The New 
York Times, the new foundation will be- 
come one of the nation's best-endowed 
philanthropies; it will rank among the top 
dozen and will provide funds for performing 
arts, environmental and ecological causes, 
education, the prevention of cruelty to chil- 
dren and animals, and medical research, all 
causes Duke supported in her lifetime. 

The university was one of several institu- 
tions to receive bequests. The Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art in New York also re- 
ceived $10 million, and the New York 
Zoological Society received $1 million. 

In 1925, a month shy of her thirteenth 
birthday, Doris Duke inherited the bulk of 
her father James B. Duke's $300-million 
estate, whose source was the American 
Tobacco Company, Duke Power Compa- 
ny, and real estate investments. He estab- 


Duke continues to stay 
true to its pledge to 
make recycling and the 
environment a primary con- 
cern — a concern outlined in 
Duke Magazine's "It's Not Easy 
Being Green" article [March- 
April 1992]. As part of a pro- 
ject put together by the Envi- 
ronmental Defense Fund, the 
university has joined McDon- 
ald's and NationsBank in an 
effort to use more recycled 

According to a front-page 
New York Times article, "the 
project, which will start with 
feasability studies, plans to 
reduce the burden on landfills 
and pumping up the anemic 
market for recycled paper by 
creating demand for billions of 
dollars' worth of secondhand 

John Ruston of the Environ- 
mental Defense Fund says the 
coalition was formed to send 
a message to paper compa- 
nies that if they make "envi- 
ronmentally friendly paper," 
buyers will follow. In the 
United States, about 22 mil- 
lion tons of paper is produced 
annually, but only 6 percent of 
that is from recycled sources. 

Paul Brummett, a purchas- 
ing manager at Duke, says he 
thinks the new alliance will 
have a number of positive 
repercussions. "From a campus 
standpoint, we'd like to have a 

market for all the paper we 
collect through Duke Recy- 
cles. If we don't, all we're 
doing is sorting trash that will 
end up in landfills." 

"From a larger perspective," 
says Brummett, "we're creating 
a model that others will follow. 
And we're doing it by working 
in a cooperative spirit with the 
[paper] industry." 

lished The Duke Endowment with $40 
million in 1924, with the understanding 
that old Trinity College change its name 
to honor his father, Washington Duke. 
Upon his death a year later, Duke's will 
provided for an additional founding endow- 
ment of $40 million. 

Until her gift for AIDS research in Octo- 
ber, Doris Duke's relationship with Duke 
University was very quiet. She was close to 
President William Few, who worked with 
Benjamin Newton Duke and later James 
Buchanan Duke, and with Wilburt Davi- 
son, the first medical school dean. Her last 
public appearance on campus was in 1961 
on the occasion of Davison's retirement. 

Doris Duke is survived by a nephew, 
Walker Inman, and cousins Angier Biddle 
Duke, Anthony Newton Duke, Nicholas 
Benjamin Duke Biddle, Buchanan Lyon, 
Laura Elizabeth Lambert Lyon Smith, and 


Men's basketball assistant coach 
Peter Gaudet has filed a lawsuit 
contesting a controversial Na- 
tional Collegiate Athletic Association rule 
that limits his salary to $16,000 a year. 
The rule, passed last year, eliminated the 
category part-time assistant basketball coach 
and replaced it with "restricted-earnings 
coach," a position forbidding annual earn- 
ings of more than $16,000. The measure 
was intended to help institutions save 
money and to create a temporary, entry- 
level position for coaches. 

According to The Chronicle of Higher 
Education, Gaudet, who has been an assis- 
tant coach at Duke for eleven years, was 
earning $25,000 a year from the university 
and $50,000 a year from Deblin, Inc., a 
company that runs a summer basketball 
camp at Duke. 

His suit, which was filed in a state court, 
claims that his contracts with Duke and 
Deblin should have been maintained 
under the NCAA rule's "grandfather" pro- 
vision, which allows existing agreements 
to continue. 

Ken Kirkman, Gaudet's lawyer, says the 
suit did not challenge the constitutionality 
of the NCAA rule or the association's 


right to govern its members. Instead, he 
says, "it is a very simple state-court, state- 
law case focusing on the rule's impact on 
the existing contracts of one coach." 

The suit was filed against the NCAA, 
Duke, and Deblin. 


Duke's eighty-eight-year-old student 
newspaper, The Chronicle, is going 
corporate. The university's trustees, 
meeting in October, approved an operat- 
ing agreement between the newspaper and 
the university that lays out the terms of 
the relationship between the two. Several 
issues were addressed, including the rent 
for the newspaper's office space and the 
use of university benefits for Chronicle 

The Chronicle's leadership, filing papers 
for incorporation in early October, hopes 
to make the newspaper more responsible 
for its content and ensure its editorial 
independence, says second-year law stu- 
dent Adrian Dollard '92. Dollard chairs 
The Chronicle board, the paper's governing 
body. Aside from receiving free space on 
campus, the paper has operated without 

direct financial subsidies from the univer- 
sity for several years. 

Duke's board of trustees supported the 
decision to incorporate. "Since the univer- 
sity is their beat, it is essential to avoid the 
appearance of conflict," says trustee Eugene 
Patterson Hon. '78, the former executive 
editor of the St. Petersburg Times, who chairs 
the trustees' student affairs committee. 

Incorporation will also clarify liability. 
Before the newspaper was incorporated, a 
successful libel suit could claim the assets 
of the newspaper, of all students and 
employees affiliated with the newspaper, 
and of the university. Now liability is lim- 
ited to the corporation's assets, which will 
be covered by insurance, Dollard says. 


The Greek system's role in the resi- 
dential, social, and intellectual life 
of Duke will be examined by a new 
task force formed by Vice President for 
Student Affairs Janet Dickerson. The 
group will also examine housing patterns 
and policies. 

"We need to look at the impact of the 
[Greek] system on Duke undergraduate life," 

Dickerson says. "This is not a conspiracy to 
do away with organizations here on cam- 
pus: male, female, Greek, or otherwise." 

The task force is made up of six stu- 
dents, six faculty members, and six admin- 
istrators. Chemistry professor Steven Bald- 
win and Susan Coon, associate dean of 
university life, have been appointed co- 
chairs and administrative representatives 
of the task force. Other administrative rep- 
resentatives are M. Laney Funderburk Jr. 
'60, associate vice president for alumni 
affairs and development; Leya Tseng '92, 
undergraduate admissions adviser; Martina 
Bryant, associate dean of Trinity College; 
Chris Kennedy Ph.D. 79, assistant vice 
president for athletic affairs; and Thessie 
Mitchell, a Duke Public Safety captain. 

Of the six students, five were appointed 
by Duke Student Government, one by the 
Graduate and Professional Student Council. 
For the DSG nominations, six students — 
DSG members and non-members, males 
and females, Greeks and independents — 
read through all fifty-seven applications. 

Four of the six students selected for the 
task force are Greek. "I don't foresee that 
as being a problem," says DSG President 
Paul Hudson, a senior and a Greek him- 
self. "I think the three [Greek] undergrad- 
uate students are coming at it with some 
very open attitudes." 

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iber-December 1993 

Some students, though, did criticize the 
prevalence of Greek representation. "The 
proportion of Greeks on the panel should 
reflect the proportion in the student body," 
says engineering senior James Kong. Kong 
also questions Hudson's circumventing the 
application process and announcing he 
would be on the task force. "Self-appoint- 
ments are not unbiased," Kong says. 

Others disagreed. "I think the adminis- 
trators are trying to do away with Greek 
activities," says engineering senior Kevin 
Hilton. "They are so anti-Greek I think 
it's reasonable to have a student represen- 
tation that is very pro-Greek." 

The committee will make its final recom- 
mendations by next May, Dickerson says. 

■^^HH^H^SU^^S^ft 1 IT* MBS 

-~3^^S?f^^a^^7ij_ r'~*'C~. -"*■?• -*■ 

Animated: librarian Agee with Disney video laser discs 
participation in the filming of The Pro- 
gram, by Touchstone Films, which is 
owned by Disney. Portions of the film, 
which deals with the pros and cons of col- 
lege football, were filmed on the Duke 
campus last fall. 

"We had such a great experience at 
Duke, and we wanted to show our appreci- 
ation," says Duncan Henderson, executive 

producer of The Program. "After doing 
some investigating, we found that the 
library has an extensive film collection 
and we're pleased that we can now be a 
part of it." 

Included in the video laser disc collec- 
tion are cartoons from the early days of 
animation, music sing-alongs, and well- 
known favorites such as Winnie the Pooh 
and Aiice in Wonderland. Jane Agee, Duke's 
film librarian and non-print bibliographer, 
says the discs "are a marvelous addition to 
our growing animation collection." 


M^ n undergraduate attempted to con- 
>■ fiscate dozens of copies of The 
^^^^Duke Review, a conservative stu- 
dent publication, to protest its content. 
The paper is distributed free of charge 
from bins on campus. 

According to news accounts, Trinity 
junior Nico Tynes, when confronted in 
September by Review editor-in-chief Tony 
Mecia, said, "They're trash, and I'm going 
to throw them out." 

Similar events at other universities 
around the country have sparked a nation- 


■■ orty-one video laser discs, valued at 
Hfl $2,500, have been donated by the 

1 Walt Disney Company to Duke's 
film and video collection at Lilly Library. 
The discs, featuring rare cartoons, short 
films, and television specials, star a num- 
ber of Disney's most famous characters, 
including Mickey Mouse. 

The gift comes in recognition of Duke's 


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sity's campus, Durham's first deluxe hotel 
offers 171 luxurious guest rooms and suites. 
Enjoy international fine dining at the Fairview 
Restaurant. Relax with a drink and good 
conversation at the Bull Durham Bar. And, 
although the Duke University golf course 
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forward to the grand re-opening of a more 
beautiful and improved course in Spring 1994. 
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ZSe Re 

wide debate about the lim- 
its of free speech on col- 
lege campuses. Last spting, 
a group of black students 
at the University of 
Pennsylvania confiscat- 
ed 14,000 copies of the 
student newspaper to 
protest a conservative 

Mecia says Tynes' 
action violated the 
spirit of the univer- 
sity, which should 
be to promote free speech and a 
free press. "This is a speech issue — I don't 
think speech should be censored for sub- 
stantiative reasons," he says. 

President Nannerl O. Keohane responded 
to the incident immediately, supporting 
the Review's right to publish and freedom 
of speech for all on campus. "At a univer- 
sity, which should function as a market- 
place for ideas, it is unacceptable to deny 
others the right to express their views or to 
distribute material that might be offen- 
sive," Keohane wrote in a statement. "The 
response to an idea one disagrees with 
should be to combat it with one that is 
stronger, or to expose the falsity of its 
premise. No ideas or beliefs can be over- 
come by preventing their expression and, 


in the best tradition of Duke University, 
I condemn any efforts to do so." 
In early November, the Under- 
graduate Judicial Board found 
Tynes guilty of theft. The board 
voted 3-2 to place Tynes on disci- 
plinary probation for the remainder 
of the academic year. Disciplinary 
probation carries no day-to-day sanc- 
tions, but it increases the possibility 
for more serious punishment if a stu- 
dent is again convicted of violating 
the judicial code. A record of the pro- 
bation is not placed on a student's per- 
manent transcript. 
Mark Goodman, executive director of 
the Washington-based Student Press Law 
Center, told The Chronicle that Duke is the 
first university to take official action 
against a student who tried to confiscate 


Duke has balanced its budget for the 
twenty-fifth consecutive year, after 
completing yet another successful 
fund-raising campaign. The university 
generated $144,672,817 in private gifts 

and grants for 1992-93. That figure is a 
13.8 percent increase from the previous 
year's total, which also set a record. 

"This record support from our alumni 
and friends is crucial for Duke, especially 
given the relatively small size of our 
endowment and the heavy competition we 
face for the best faculty and students," says 
President Nannerl O. Keohane. "It is 
impressive testimony to the affection felt 
for the university by those who know us best, 
and it confirms Duke's strong momentum 
stemming from the effective efforts of our 
network of volunteers and the strong work 
of the development staff." 

Keohane told Duke trustees in October 
that, as a result of careful management of 
financial resources, the university was able 
to complete a planned transfer of almost 
$12 million to reserves, principally to sup- 
port academic priorities and to replenish 
the university's interest stabilization re- 
serve, which protects the university's oper- 
ating budget from fluctuations in short- 
term interest rates. 

"One has only to look at the general 
economic picture facing higher education 
today to appreciate that Duke's alumni 
and friends have been extremely generous 
this past year," says John J. Piva, senior 
vice president for alumni affairs and devel- 
opment. "After last year's well-publicized 


I N 

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N ovembe 

i e c e m o e i 

cost-cutting measures at the uni- 
versity, these fund-raising totals 
are a tremendous signal of sup- 
port from our alumni, parents, 
and friends." 


fter several months of 

renovation, the Lilly 

Library on East Campus 
re-opened in September and, in 
keeping with its new focus, is 
featuring collections in art and 
art history, philosophy, drama, 

and dance. Also, the university's Rooml " i/, " !V '" : "'*""""<" 

film and video collection was moved 
to Lilly from Perkins Library on West 

According to library administrators, ex- 
panded services will provide faster and 
more comprehensive access to information 
and library materials. The library will offer 

ter, and the art history comput- 
er cluster will continue to be 

The renovations were funded 
primarily by a $2.5 million gift 
from Ruth Lilly of Indianapolis. 


ting /or modernized media services 

two-hour delivery service of books between 
East and West Campus libraries as well. 
Enhanced reference services will en- 
compass electronic access to multiple data- 
bases and full-text retrieval of many news- 
paper and journal articles. Fax service, 
photocopiers, a Macintosh computer clus- 

P resident Nannerl O. 
Keohane welcomed the 
Class of 1997 this fall 
and urged the new students to 
savor their years at Duke, 
expand their horizons, and 
avoid worrying too much about 


Duke's emphasis on 
diversity in student 
and faculty recruiting 
has spotlighted such matters 
as racial backgrounds and 
geographic origins. Although 
Rebecca Christie may not 
stand out from most under- 
graduates in these areas, she 
likes to think of herself as 
adding to diversity in a dif- 
ferent category — age. 

These days, few pause in 
the course of her studies and 
activities to ask her about 
the aspect of her life which 
used to define her and her edu- 
cation — the fact that she was 
born in 1978, fifteen years ago. 

Christie is majoring in classics 
and plans to graduate in 1995. 
She volunteers for the com- 
munity service fraternity Alpha 
Phi Omega and is a member 
and speaker for the Golden 
Key Honor Society. She tutors 
local high school students, sings 
in a coed a cappdla group she 
helped found last year, and 
works for The Chronicle as 
city/state editor. 

Christie cherishes her accel- 
eration because people finally 
treat her like a college student, 
both intellectually and socially. 
Deeply frustrated by both the 
junior high school social life 
and curriculum, she entered an 
advanced education program at 
Mary Baldwin College in Vir- 
ginia at the age of twelve. 
There she found intellectual 


Christie: accelerated student 

3, she says, but was 
still frustrated by the social 
barriers placed upon her. After 
two years, she transferred to 
Duke as a junior. 

According to Christie, the 
administration at Mary Bald- 
win, a women's college, gave a 
message of "We want you to 
do college work, but act like 
high school students." 
Students were held to early 
curfews and forced to follow 
strict study schedules. "By my 
sophomore year, the program 
became really confining; I had 
outgrown it" 

She says she feels that soci- 
ety and the media use age too 
much to define the identities of 
accelerated students. Respond- 
ing to a recent article in Red- 
book magazine — "What's It 
Like to Raise a Genius?" — 
Christie wrote, "The term 
genius serves as a way of alien- 

ating others — a way of 
putting oneself above one's 
peers simply because of an 
unusual talent or character- 
istic. People have a tendency 
to regard a 'genius' as they 
would a talking monkey — 
amazing, but not very 

Christie says balancing 
social, academic, and extra- 
curricular activities in col- 
g lege has helped her learn 
IS how to deal with complex 
concerns, like interacting 
with different kinds of peo- 
ple and formulating personal 
priorities. "I found out for 
myself what works and what 
doesn't. I'm finding out what 
my limits are. 

"People always ask me if I 
feel I missed out. They do not 
realize that in exchange for a 
small sacrifice, I am not only 
happy but have been given five 
years of my life back. My high 
school didn't have a football 
team and I would have gone 
dateless to the prom — the only 
things I wish I had done were 
manage the high school base- 
ball team and play violin in 
Vivaldi's 'Four Seasons,' which 
my old orchestra performed 
my first semester in college. I 
think I'm a lot i 
now than I was in 1 

—Jason Schultz '93 

their future. 

"If I can borrow some terminology from 
our distinguished medical center, I would 
say that the biggest cancer on an under- 
graduate education is worrying too early 
and too much about what you are going to 
do afterwards," she said at a convocation 
for new students in Duke Chapel. "That 
kind of worry consumes your time and 
energies, redirects your vital juices per- 
versely, and drives out the healthier 
impulses." Keohane urged the first-year 
students to be "intellectually bold and 
adventurous" in selecting their courses. 

"If you stick entirely to subjects that you 
already know something about and think 
you have a good chance to get a good 
grade in, you'll miss the opportunity of dis- 
covering whole new ways of looking at the 
world," she said. 

"You will be like an explorer who 
chickens out just before the big voyage 
and decides, instead of traveling up the 
Amazon or trying to get to Mars, to play it 
safe and go to the town next door instead. 
If you don't play it too cautiously, I can 
promise you will be richly rewarded with 
discoveries you cannot now envision. You 
may find your whole life's vocation in a 
subject that you can't even pronounce." 


■ John Hope Franklin, James B. Duke 
Professor of History emeritus, was honored 
by President Bill Clinton as one of five 
winners of the Charles Frankel prize, 
awarded annually by the National Endowment 
for the Humanities. In a distinguished teach- 
ing and writing career that has lasted fifty 
years, Franklin became a leading scholar on 
African-American studies and an active 
voice for social change in the United 
States. In the same ceremony, Clinton 
conferred a National Medal of Arts award 


on Pulitzer Prize-winning author William 
Styron '47. Styron was one of fourteen arts 
medal recipients at the October ceremony. 

■ Michael Israel has been named chief 
operating officer for Duke Hospital. Noted 
for creating a cost-effective and patient- 
friendly health care environment at St. 
Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, 
Israel will be responsible for running the 
day-to-day operations of the 1,1 25 -bed 
medical facilty, with an emphasis on mak- 
ing the hospital's operations as cost-effec- 
tive as possible. Israel spent the past six 
years at St. Luke's in positions of increas- 
ing responsibility, including the last two as 
executive vice president. 

■ Stephen Cohn, an associate director 
at Duke Press, was named by Provost 
Thomas Langford to the new position of 
director of publishing operations. Cohn 
replaces Lawrence Malley, former director 
of the press, who resigned in August, ten 
days after the university revealed that the 
press had a deficit of $316,000 last year. 
The loss was $261,000 more than the uni- 
versity had budgeted. Cohn will be 
responsible for the financial operation of 
the press and is charged with reducing its 
dependence on university subsidies. Until 
an executive editor in charge of the press 
is selected, he also will serve as the chief 
editor. Cohn, who has been with the press 
since 1985, has overseen a four-fold 
increase in revenue from the journals divi- 
sion. The press now publishes twenty- 
three different journals, up from seven 
when he arrived. 

■ Barry Wilson, Duke's sixteenth head 
football coach, announced his resignation 
in November, following the Homecoming 
loss to Georgia Tech. His four-year win- 
loss record after that game was 12-29-1. 
Wilson came to Duke in 1987 as Coach 
Steve Spurrier's recruiting coordinator and 
tight-ends coach. When Spurrier left Duke 
in 1989 to take the head coaching posi- 
tion at the University of Florida, Wilson 
was named his successor. At a news con- 
ference, Wilson said he was stepping down 
of his own accord because he was unhappy 
with the team's win-loss record. Athletics 
director Tom Butters told reporters, 
"There is not a person at this university, 
maybe not even in the conference, who 
has worked as hard as Barry Wilson. He 
exemplified the very best in intercollegiate 
athletics." Duke registered a perfect 100 
percent graduation rate last year in win- 
ning the College Football Association's 
graduation award for the fifth time. 


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Continued from page 5 

reflects a larger problem, which is a lack of 
understanding about what learning really 
is. It's not about absorbing knowledge like 
a sponge, but rather acquiring knowledge 
through a continuous process." 

To spark that curiosity, while trying to 
downplay the significance of a letter grade, 
some professors have devised alternative 
schemes for evaluating student progress. 
History professor Clark Cahow refuses 
to grade papers, but writes extensively 
throughout the margins, questioning stu- 
dents' arguments or challenging their con- 
clusions. At the end of the semester, he 
tailors a final exam based in part on those 

"If I were to analyze and critique your 
paper and give you a C-plus, you're not 
going to go through and read each of my 
comments," he says. "You're going to say, 
'Okay, what will it take to get a better 
grade out of Cahow?' " 

For political science professor Albert 
Eldridge, the challenge is twofold: to give 
students a reality check about grades and 
to interest them instead in the thrill of the 
intellectual hunt. Eldridge, who teaches a 
large lecture course that breaks down into 

Those faculty members 

known as outstanding 

teachers are in high 

demand, even if their 

workloads are heavy. 

smaller discussion groups, says that he 
works closely with teaching assistants 
(TAs) to reach this goal. "We start off the 
semester telling students that the standard 
for the course is satisfactory work. That's a 
C, not a B. And shock waves ripple 
through the class." 

Through an elaborate system of checks 
and balances, Eldridge and his TAs collab- 
orate on exam questions, meet weekly to 
discuss class progress, and grade all papers 
anonymously. In the event that a student 
appeals his or her grade, the TA who origi- 
nally graded the paper does not read it 
again; however, Eldridge and the other 
five TAs all read and discuss the work. 
Sometimes they think the grade should be 


On graduation day last 
year, proud parents 
and their sons and 
daughters celebrated the con- 
clusion of four years of hard 
work. But for one graduating 
senior and his lawyer father, 
the day was spent threatening 
lawsuits against various univer- 
sity administrators and staff. 
The reason? In a second- 
semester English course, the 
young man had received an A- 
minus instead of an A, which 
caused him to graduate merely 
cum laude rather than magna 
cum laude. Okay, so maybe his 
class performance hadn't been 
superlative, the student con- 
ceded, but he had made an 
effort and therefore the A 
grade was something that he 
was entitled to. Not that it 
made any difference in his 
post-college plans: The honors 
student had already been 
accepted into medical school. 

Such grubbing for grades 
renders meaningless the notion 
of searching for intellectual 
enlightenment. While an 
extreme example, this case 
would be laughable if it 
weren't rooted in a very real 
and pervasive attitude about 
grades. Students often feel that 

because they meet all the 
course requirements and 
attend every class, they plainly 
deserve top marks. 

As director of the University 
Writing Program, George 
Gopen oversees the mandatory 
first-year writing course for all 
incoming students. Hundreds 
of instructors, most of them 
graduate students, lead the 
seminar-size groups. Each 
teacher participates in a gen- 
eral orientation session, but 
grading is left to the individual. 
Gopen says despite the lack of 
formalized guidelines, the dis- 
tribution of grades remains 
constant, with 90 percent of 
students falling in the B-minus 
to A-plus range (C-plus to F's 
constitute only 3 percent of 
total grades). 

Is it really possible that 
incoming students are such 
strong writers? More likely, 
isn't this a clear example of 
grade inflation? "The problem 
is not grades," says Gopen. 
"The problem is the pursuit of 
those grades. If we didn't give 
grades, they'd pursue the letter 
of recommendation" or some 
other evaluation method. 

Gopen says that instructors 
are subject (and succumb) to 

incredible pressure from 
accomplishment-oriented stu- 
dents for whom a C grade is 
unthinkable. College is no 
longer the last stop for young 
people. With increasing num- 
bers of "pre-professional" stu- 
dents, college has become like 
another high school, a four- 
year way station where pupils 
mark time before medical 
school, law school, or the "real 

This mentality is partly a 
result of "the decadence of the 
Eighties," says Gopen. "The 
hostile takeover is appropriate 
symbolism from that era. The 
message is: It doesn't matter 
how you go about it, what mat- 
ters is that you get the whole 

Such an attitude, says Gopen, 
feeds directly into the argu- 
ment about a lack of true intel- 

i on campus. 1 
would get rid of all grades if I 
could. But if I did, the time 
would come for a student to 
decide whether to do her 
chemistry lab, history midterm 
take-home exam, or the 
weekly U.W.C. paper, which 
won't get graded. And you can 
bet which one would go." 

higher, but in a couple of cases last year, 
the group thought the grade should be sub- 
stantially lower than what the first reader 
had given. 

As director of the brand new Center for 
Teaching and Learning, Eldridge says his 
mission is to enhance the classroom envi- 
ronment and, in doing so, perhaps assuage 
the prevalent performance anxiety among 
students. In his international relations 
course, Eldridge challenged his students to 
a "scavenger hunt" that could only be 
solved using international computer net- 
works. "They had to seek out information 
that would be hard to find in the library," 
he says. "We wanted to show them how to 
get into the CIA's declassified code book 
on various countries, or into Hartsfield 
International Airport's weather server, or 
into the United Nations system to get a 
copy of the North American Free Trade 

When Eldridge asked for a show of 
hands to see who would be interested in 
going through the workshops required for 
such a "game," he expected twenty or thir- 
ty students to respond. Instead, three-quar- 
ters of his 200-person class raised their 
hands. "The computer science folks had to 
scramble when we realized the demand," 
says Eldridge. 

While some students may have initially 
signed up just to learn how to use e-mail or 
computer bulletin boards, Eldridge says 
that the assignment forced them to discov- 
er on their own how different computer 
pathways work. In the process, students 
also gained confidence in how to use 
emerging technologies. These newly- 
acquired skills, says Eldridge, will be in- 
valuable in other classes, as well as in their 
own personal research projects. 

"People who are obsessed with grades 
are putting the cart before the horse," says 
Eldridge. "If we can help them develop 
intellectual and analytical skills, and gen- 
erate excitement within the classroom, the 
grades will follow. They'll pursue that 
knowledge outside the classroom." 

Encouraging as Eldridge's own experi- 
ments have been, other observers say it's 
unlikely that students' obsessions with let- 
ter grades will fade any time soon. Despite 
the superior quality of the students he 
taught at Duke, Warren Hedges, the 
U.W.C. instructor who has since earned 
his Ph.D., says he's ready to move on. "It's 
amazing to me that in the first semester of 
their college careers, eighteen-year-olds 
are already concerned about professional 
schools and GPAs and transcripts. I'm 
looking forward to teaching students who 
aren't quite as well prepared for academe 
as Duke students are, students who are less 
geared to getting 'The Grade.' " ■ 



B;y Marina Rust '87. New York: Simon 
Schuster, 1993. 237 pp. $19. 

hat lingers 
after the read- 
ing of this first 
novel, Gather- 
ings, is an at- 
mosphere, of 
the homes and 
iving room 


gatherings of a very wealthy family at the 
edge of dissolution. 

Within that richly detailed setting, 
there is one thread of the multi-strand 
story that intrigues and lures one on: the 
fascination of the young Meredith with 
her elegantly corrupt cousin Pearce. 

These elements, and some writing that 
is wonderfully graceful and spare, give a 
haunting quality to Gatherings, in spite of 
serious deficiencies in the novel. These 
problems include characters who emerge 
slowly or not at all, story lines that seem to 
strive for suspense but do not achieve it, as 
well as some writing that is melodramatic. 

The story is of a teenage girl first entering 
the complicated world of her rich cousins, 
after her mother's death. The sensibility of 
this girl Meredith is coolly observant. She 
is a camera's eye on the surfaces of the life 
lived in Heyton Hall and on Park Avenue 
and at the beach house in Maine. 

She describes the letters from her grand- 
mother, "pale smoke-blue envelopes that 
crackled from their thin tissue lining." 
And a family get-together: "After dinner 
that night we take coffee. A civilized fire 
burns, and the living room smells of warm 
logs and furniture polish. Gilbert passes 
the tray of demitasse, which he leaves on 
the low table by the fire." Even the slivers 
of emotion that break through near the 
end of the story are glimpsed through the 
details of setting. For example, a moment 
of comfort and reprieve: 

I climb the stairs back to the rose 
bedroom. My footsteps are muffled 
by carpet; the house is quiet again. 
I feel better, with the sunlight. 
The pillow feels soft and cottony 
on my cheek as I lie, stretched face- 
down, on the white Marseilles 

The air conditioner — the old 
fashioned kind — hums steadily and 
every now and then gives a kick. 

At the beginning, Meredith is so cool of 
temperament that she seems frequently 
absent, as if it were not her withholding 
nature but the author's negligence that has 
allowed this absence to occur. But then as 
Meredith begins to 
follow cousin Pearce 
with her eyes, she 
starts to become more 
than a camera. By 
the end, she has begun 
to emerge, with the 
stirrings of strong 
feeling beginning to 
show through her 
careful surface. 

The relationship 
with cousin Pearce is 
handled in a delicate 
way that is very ef- 
fective. As Meredith 
and Pearce closely 
watch each other, 
moving in the same 
houses, the same 
family, over years, 
there is a building 
tension. The episodes 
involving these two are also notably origi- 
nal; the scenes feel appropriately off- 
balance and odd, authentic. Early in the 
novel, the two cousins sit on boulders on a 
Maine beach: 

Pearce played with the laces of my 
white canvas Keds, slowly looping a 
string from each shoe into a gentle 
knot. I watched, fascinated, as his 
hands — well-formed and 
unmarked — pulled to finish the work. 

"Untie me," I said, pushing my 
toe against the boulder. . . . 

Slowly, he took the glowing end 
of his cigarette and pressed it onto 
the white string, near the knot.. . . 

Pearce, and the reasons for keeping an 
eye on him, are the most compelling parts 
of the story. 

The writing in Gatherings is wildly 
uneven. The most vivid, and witty, parts 

are when the author says a great deal in a 
few lines. At the beginning: "The only 
time my mother took me to Heyton Hall 
was Easter of '74. We were there for Aunt 
Helen's garden wedding — a small one, her 
third, a Mr. Bolini." It is weakest at points 
that have a soap-opera quality: " 'Don't 
you see it's the only way?' he'd said, win- 
dows fogged with breath. 'Don't you see 
we're all there is?' " 

The book is episodic, 
with many short vi- 
gnettes, some very tell- 
ing, some that don't 
seem to quite play a 
part in the unfolding 
picture of this family. 
There is also a major 
focus on a character 
who is dead; we're sup- 
posed to wonder what 
happened to him. But 
he never comes alive 
within the story at all, 
and so the revelation of 
his fate is anti-climactic. 
And the family is fre- 
quently described as 
crazy, but that doesn't 
come through consis- 
tently. Instead, some of 
the characters make 
sudden radical crazy moves that seem 
simply out-of-character. 

Even so, Gatherings leaves an after-image 
that doesn't quickly fade. It is hard to forget 
the pale smoke-blue envelopes, the Mar- 
seilles coverlets, and Pearce coming down 
to dinner, his hair slicked-back and wet. 

In the end, it is not the story itself that is 
satisfying; the story seems to fade away, 
with the warning that it is not "things" that 
bring happiness. Ironically, the strength of 
Gatherings is a bringing-together of vivid 
images of things, objects and settings, to 
which tantalizing threads of emotion cling. 
When the melodrama and the other weak- 
nesses of the book are forgotten, Gatherings 
is a sort of still-life, a domestic interior, and 
as such is memorable. 

— Peggy Payne 

Marina Rust 

Payne '70, the author of the novel Revelation, 
has just finished a new novel, Sister India, set in the 
Hindu holy city of 

N ov embi 

■ember I 993 

What books outside your discipline 
have influenced your thinking the 

Professor of Art History: 

Wharton says her current inter- 
ests — how cities changed between 
the third and fifth century, partic- 
ularly in terms of their public 
spaces, public attractions, and 
systems of authority — have been 
informed lately by Chaos Bound by 
Katherine Hayles, Ideology: An 
Introduction by Terry Eagleton, 
and Hopeful Monsters by Nicholas 
Mosely. These books, "all, in their 
different ways, address the quest 
for understanding causes of 
change in a way that's very useful 
for me in rethinking shifts in 
ancient paradigms." 

"Traditionally, change has 
been explained by single overrid- 
ing causes. For example, ortho- 
dox Marxists might argue that 
changes in economy cause 
changes in space, religion, poli- 
tics, and so forth. Or people in 
religion might say that the com- 
ing of Christianity changed the 
economy, the culture, the art of 
the late antiquity." 

Ideology traces how ideology 
has been used and "what it 
meant through different periods 
and in different schools of 
thought. Ideology provides the 
broadest framework for under- 
standing not only change, but 
why change is political." 

Chaos Bound discusses chaos 
theory, "which represents a 
direct frontal attack on estab- 
lished epistemologies." 

And Hopeful Monsters "is very 
much a postmodern novel in 
which the main characters them- 
selves discover postmodernism in 
a pre-postmodern moment. It's 
about growing up in Germany 
and England in the interwar 
period — with the rise of fascism 

and the discovery of the destruc- 
tive force of the atom. It deals 
with the impossibility of tracing 
specific origins and causes." 

What is the significance of the 
Israeli-PLO agreement? 
"The agreement is extraordinarily 
significant because it constitutes 
the first formal acknowledgment 
of mutual recognition on the part 
of Israelis and Palestinians. The 
real test is going to be the imple- 
mentation of the agreement. It's 
going to take time. It's going to 
be very difficult. It's going to be 
opposed by sub-groups on both 
sides. And its going to require 
that the leaders persevere in the 
face of enormous obstacles. 

"Soon, there is going to be an 
elected Palestinian leadership 
that will have legitimacy within 
the territories. After the elec- 
tion, a process will begin in 
which the Israelis gradually with- 
draw and the Palestinians take 
control over their own lives — 
short of fully-sovereign statehood, 
but to an extent much greater 
than limited autonomy might 
have meant. What you're going 
to see is a process in which the 
extent of territorial withdrawal is 
somehow related to the quality of 
peace that is established. The 
Palestinians will be given in- 
creasing authority over greater 
amounts of land to the extent 
that they are able to demonstrate 
that they can control what's 
going on in the areas over which 
they have jurisdiction." 

Terry Santord I nstitute of Public 

policy studies, who teaches the 
course "The Palestine Problem and 

We asked twenty-five undergradu- 
ates who are considering careers in 
the medical field: 

What kind of influence has 

Positive: 4 
Negative: 6 
No effect: 15 

Governmental control, choice of 
doctors, and the cost of the 
reforms seemed to be the overrid- 
ing factors in the way undergrad- 
uates think about the proposal. 
Yet a large number of respon- 
dents said they believe there are 
too many issues to fully grasp. 

One student said, "I frankly 
feel ignorant about the whole 
thing. It's too confusing; too 
much uncertainty." Many stu- 
dents echoed his sentiments. But 
those who were familiar with the 
issues had definite opinions. "The 
plan hurts specialists. It's going 
to lower [doctors'] income — it 
can't work," said one student. 

Amid the doubt however, 
there was a seedling of support 
for the proposal. "It will 
definitely help both sides out, 
those who receive care and those 
who provide care. Insurance 
costs are way too high now, and 
there's too much bureaucracy," 
offered one pre-med student. 

All the respondents did man- 
age to agree on one thing, 
though — the public needs clearer 
information and more of it. 

"I don't believe that East Campus 
should be reserved for freshmen 
only. One of the nicest aspects of 
freshmen living on West is the op- 
portunity to interact with upper- 
classmen on a daily basis. For a 
school that preaches diversity, it's 
contradictory to the stated goals 
of the university to segregate an 
entire group of people based 
solely on their age. East is an 
entirely different atmosphere and 
should remain that way. There 
are a variety of students living on 
campus; there should be a variety 
of living experiences as well." 

Rollins Wykle '97, president of 
West Campus, 

"The freshman class lacks a 
strong sense of identity, which is 
related to the fact that we are on 
three different campuses. If we 
were brought together, it would 
enhance our entire freshman 
experience. So even when we 
branch out and go our separate 
ways in the future, we'll have 
that class unity. I think upper- 
classmen should be able to live 
on East as well, but that core 
unity within the freshman class 
will still be there for the rest of 
our college career." 

president of the Class of 1 997 

compiled by Jason Schultz '93 
and Raj Goyle '97 





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Residential campers 
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Residential and day campers 
Two 2-week sessions 

Now in its twelfth year, Duke Young Writers ' Camp offers a variety of courses in creative and expository 
writing. The curriculum focuses on the creative and analytical aspects of writing, and is designed for 
students who have average or above average academic abilities and enthusiasm for writing. The camp, 
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confidence in their writing. Recent courses include: Journalism Plus, That Perfect Scene, Journal 
Writing, Writing the College Essay, and Poetry for Everyone. Residential campers live in West Campus 
dormitories and participate in organized afternoon and evening recreational activities. 

Entering its second successful year, the Duke Creative Writers' Workshop provides an intensive 
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pants the opportunity to share their work in small groups, and to provide feedback to one another in a 
supportive environment. This peer review and critique process will help writers identify needs for 
revision and sharpen their critical thinking skills. With encouragement from instructional staff and 
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autonomy as writers, and build confidence in their own abilities. Afternoon and evening extracurricular 
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A unique summer enrichment program, Duke Action is designed foryoung women who are enthusiastic 
about learning science through hands-on activities and have average to above-average academic 
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Fax: 919-681-8235 

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The Duke 


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printed on recycled 





Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 
Sam Hull 

Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 
Dennis Meredith 
Jason Schultz '93 
Adriane Hirsch '94, 
Rochelle Woodbury '94 
West Side Studio, Inc. 
Funderburk Jr. '60 

Stanley G. Bradingjr. 75, 
president; James D. Warren 75, 
president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderburk Jr. '60, secretary- 

Sylvester L, Shannon B.D. '66, 
Dii'init\ Sc/khjI; J. Samuel 
McKnight B.S.E. '60, M.S. '62, 
Ph.D. '69, School o/ Engineering; 
NJimm/h/ (he h'nrnimment; Kirk 
J. Bradley M.B.A. '86, Fuami 
School of Business; Richard K. 
Toomey 77, M.H.A. 79, 
Department n/'l leuWi AJminis- 
natum; Pa\ id G KlaberJ.D. 
'69, School of Law; Anthony J. 
Limberakis M.D. 78, School of 
MeJie/ik'; i Christine Mundie 
Willis B.S.N. 73, School../ 
Nursing; Marie Koval Nardone 
M.S. 79, A.H.C. 79, Graduate 
Program in l'h\^uai Therapy; 
Robert F.Long '41, Half 
Century Club. 

BOARD: Clay Felker '51, 
chairman; I'reJenek F. Andrews 
'6P; Peter C.Applebome 71; 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah Hard- 
esty Bray 72; Holly B. Brubach 
75; Nancy L. Cardwell '69; 
Jerrold K. Footlick; Edward M. 
Gomez 79; Kerry E. Hannon 
'82; Elizabeth H.Locke '64, 
Ph.D. 72; Thomas P. Losee Jr. 
'63; R. Robin McDonald 77; 
Hugh S.Sidey; Susan Tifft 73; 
Jane Vessels 77; Robert J. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

Composition by Liberated 
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Offset Tan 

© 1994 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Office of Alumni Affairs; vol- 
untary subscriptions $15 per 
year: Duke Magazine, Alumni 
House, 614 Chapel Drive, 
Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 
27708-0570; (919) 684-5114. 

Cover: Portrait of a president — Duke's 
Ncmnerl O. Keohane. Photo by Chris 

LIVING THE LIFE OF THE MIND by Robert]. Bliwise with Bridget Booher 2 

It's been a long, rewarding intellectual adventure for Duke's eighth president. Early in her 
presidency, some themes are readily apparent: engagement, risk-taking, and breaking down 
barriers that impede intellectual sharing 

THE MARSHAL'S PLAN by Scott Halpem 6 

"This was one of the best things we have ever done," says University Marshal Pelham Wilder 
of the presidential inauguration 


Thirty-four years after his parents told him that his membership in the NAACP was "part of 
what it means to step into manhood," Ben Chavis is now leading that venerable organization 


They're over-exposed to television and under-exposed to writing. They're driven to succeed, 
but they're worried about graduating into a failing economy. Are today's young adults, 
coined Generation X, hopelessly disengaged or merely misunderstood? 

DRAWING THE LINES by William Sasser 35 

Two Duke law professors met before the Supreme Court to argue opposing sides in a suit 
that has recast the national debate over affirmative action 


Neurobiologist Allen Roses and his team predict that their long-shot discovery of a genetic 
basis for Alzheimer's disease will lead to a preventive drug for a disorder that affects millions 


Reflections on times of war, patriotism, protest, and social change 


A triple-majoring Rhodes Scholar, a two-tiered tuition hike, a many-sided conversation 
about race 

BOOKS 50~ 

Cigarettes are bad for you, goes the argument in Cigarettes Are Sublime from Duke Press, 
and that is why they are so good 


Quibbling over drinking rules, mixed assessments about security concerns 









Presidential perspectives: 


inaugural address 


It's been a long, rewarding intellectual adventure for 
Duke's eighth president. Early in her presidency, some 
themes are readily apparent: engagement, risk-taking, 
and breaking down barciers that impede intellectual 

^^k robably her favorite departure 
^B gift from appreciative Wellesley 
^^^^ colleagues, Nannerl Overholser 
Keohane tells visitors, is a moun- 
tain bike. "I ride it a lot," she says. "And I 
ride it hard and fast." 

Hard-driving, fast-moving — there you 
have the essential Nan Keohane. Six 
months into her term, there's a common 
refrain from observers of Duke's eighth pres- 
ident, a refrain best captured in the ques- 
tion: "Can you believe her energy level?" 

It's not just her physical energy, but her 
intellectual energy especially that prompts 
the admiring question. Committees have 
grappled for years, with a notable lack of 
success, to shape a university mission 
statement. In October's inauguration 
address, Keohane employed uplifting elo- 
quence and penetrating insight to explore 
the three-word expression, Eruditio et ReUgio, 
that happens to constitute Duke's motto. 
Erudition and spirituality are not contrast- 
ing aims, in her view; they're mutually 
important and informing. 

"The splendors of scientific research in 
any field are ultimately barren without the 
moral impulse to use those findings to help 
people achieve the good," she said. "The 
moral impulse to help humanity, as an 
expression of spiritual commitment that 
transcends solipsistic selfishness, is equally 
fruitless without the knowledge and disci- 
pline that come from scientific inquiry." 

Among the early themes of the Keohane 
presidency are engagement, risk-taking, and 
breaking down barriers that impede intel- 
lectual sharing or even collegiality. Those 
themes express themselves in subtle and 
not-so-subtle ways. They are evident in 
her first-day-on-the-job phone calls to city, 
county, and state leaders. They are evident 
in her insistence that the inauguration cer- 
emonies include, for the first time ever, 
official greetings from a representative of 
Duke's employees. They are evident, espe- 
cially, in her public intellectualizing about 
a university education. 

At the beginning of the academic year, 
Keohane delivered almost back-to-back 






addresses to new undergraduates and to 
new graduate and professional students. 
She urged the freshmen not to play it safe 
intellectually: Don't stick just with the 
comfortahle and the familiar, she said, or 
"you will be like an explorer who chickens 
out just before the big voyage and decides, 
instead of traveling up the Amazon or try- 
ing to get to Mars, to play it safe and visit 
the town next door instead." 

Keohane referred to Michel de Mon- 
taigne, a sixteenth-century Frenchman (and 
one of her research interests in French 
political philosophy), who actively ex- 
plored both the world outside and the 
world within himself. Montaigne's favorite 
place to write was the tower library on his 
estate. From that retreat he hit upon the 
image of "the backroom of the mind," Keo- 
hane said, an image ot individual mind-as- 
library that she commended to her listen- 
ers. "He suggested that we all have such 
backrooms in our minds, and that the most 
valuable and attractive people we know 
tend to be people who have rich and fasci- 
nating intellectual furniture in those spaces 
rather than a void between their ears." 

In speaking to the new graduate and 
professional students, Keohane seized on a 
different intellectual adventurer, German 
social theorist Max Weber. Weber 
sketched the distinctive qualities of two 
presumably different kinds of human life: 
the life of the statesman or politician, and 
the life of the scientist or scholar. The 
"beauty of Weber's message," according to 
Keohane, is not that he set up the tradi- 
tional duality of actions vs. contemplation; 
it comes in his conclusion that "these two 
types of lives are not wholly different at 
all." She quoted from Weber: "For nothing 
is worthy of man as man unless he can pur- 
sue it with passionate devotion." 

Keohane then wove Weber into con- 
temporary contexts. "Those of you who 
have chosen innately activist professions 
like business or law will have to work 
harder at being sure to find time for study 
and reflection after you leave Duke, so 
that your performance of your job can be 
informed and refreshed by thinking about 
larger issues than the immediate chal- 
lenges you will face," Keohane said in dri- 
ving home her theme. "And on the other 
hand, those of you who have chosen more 
contemplative professions should make 
sure that you do not neglect your responsi- 
bilities in the governance of your profes- 
sion or your community, rather than leav- 
ing all that sort of stuff to someone else." 

There's an inescapable novelty, and 
symbolism, to the Keohane presidency: 
She is Duke's first woman president, and 
one of just a few woman presidents of 
major research universities. (Late this fall, 
the University of Pennsylvania named 

Keohane is "the best 

sort of person to be a 

university president," 

says a former professor 

of hers, "someone who 

didn't really seek office 

or need power to satisfy 

one s ego." 

Yale provost Judith Rodin as its new presi- 
dent, making her the first woman to lead 
an Ivy League school. In one of her first 
public comments, she cited Keohane as an 
instructive pioneer.) Keohane plays that 
theme gingerly, telling a questioner on her 
first day on the Duke job, "I would hope it 
would be an aspect which would become 
more settled in its relevance — that people, 
for example, alumni or outside observers 
who find it unusual that Duke would have 
a woman president would pretty soon get 
used to it and cease to think it odd." But, 
she added, "In other ways it might be help- 
ful as a role model for women So I hope 

it will become both more and less salient." 

The power of the role model was accented 
in a post-inauguration column in the Duke 
Chronicle by Trinity senior Jennifer Greeson. 
Greeson wrote about her summer job inter- 
viewing "older professional women." Her 
interview subjects perhaps appreciated "the 
enormity of the change" signaled by Keo- 
hane's presidency better than younger 
women, Greeson said. "They have struggled 
throughout their lives to open doors closed 
to them because of their sex. Seeing such a 
large door at last swing wide to a strong, 
capable woman seemed to fill them with 
both astonishment at the changing times 
and regret that it didn't happen sooner." 

Ultimately, Keohane says, the choice of 
a woman president was not astonishing for 
Duke. "Duke perceives itself not only as an 
institution with very Southern roots, but 
as a very vital place. And it's to that aspect 
that this appointment speaks." 

Keohane was born in Blytheville, 
Arkansas, and grew up in places like Green- 
wood, South Carolina, and Hot Springs, 
Arkansas. Though the family moved every 
three or four years, she never left the South 
until she went off to college at age eigh- 
teen. She learned to appreciate the region, 
she says, "for its civility, for its graciousness, 
for those qualities that make it possible for 
people to be a little more comfortable with 

each other. Civility and graciousness are 
part of my approach to the world." 

From an early age, she loved "the life of 
the mind," and her father — a Presbyterian 
minister — cultivated it with discussions of 
music, philosophy, and history. (Keohane 
is named for the sister of Mozart. Duke 
music professor Alexander Silbiger notes 
that the earlier Nannerl, born into a musi- 
cal family, has become a personality of 
interest for feminist scholars; they wonder 
if, in different historical circumstances, she 
might have earned a stellar musical reputa- 
tion on her own.) 

Keohane's brother, Arthur Overholser, 
is a professor of biomedical engineering at 
Vanderbilt. Her sister, Geneva Over- 
holser, is the Pulitzer Prize-winning editor 
of The Des Moines Register. Geneva Over- 
holser recalls lively dinner table conversa- 
tion within the family, and also a parade of 
interesting and exotic guests. People 
always ask her to explain the fact that 
both sisters are super-achievers, Over- 
holser says. The answer has to do with 
childhoods filled with stimulations and 

"There was always an air of expectation, 
of there being a wider world out there. Hot 
Springs was an odd place to grow up," she 
says. It had the character of "a small 
Southern city," but was filled with "people 
from far away who came there to take the 
baths and became part of the community 
temporarily, and part of our lives." Moving 
around so much, as a minister's family was 
obliged to do, "was helpful in my becom- 
ing a reporter because you really had to be 
willing to go up to people and inject your- 
self," Overholser says. "Being the new kid 
was a tough act. That engenders social 
assertiveness that's useful for a university 
president as well." 

Asked which parent her sister takes 
after, Overholser says that Keohane is a 
"strong representative of both Mom and 
Dad. Her love of learning and the life of 
the mind at its most intricate, its most deli- 
ciously puzzle-like way, is very much Dad. 
But her charm and graciousness, her social 
intelligence, is Mother's, who was wonder- 
ful, interested in people, and very bright." 

Their mother — who had an English and 
journalism degree — felt increasingly con- 
strained by her role as minister's wife. Keo- 
hane says Grace Overholser came to be 
"sorry that she gave up her own career and 
wanted very much to re-launch it." She 
eventually got her chance, teaching high 
school English in the 1960s after her husband 
moved the family to Laurinburg, North Car- 
olina, to become a professor at St. Andrew's 
Presbyterian College. Then she joined the St. 
Andrew's English faculty, where she was the 
first faculty member to teach black literature, 
according to The Charlotte Observer. She also 


began a book on the subject. When her hus- 
band decided to take another teaching posi- 
tion in Florida, she refused to follow. They 
divorced. She remarried; shortly thereafter 
she died of cancer. 

Their mother "may have communicated 
a degree of restlessness" to the sisters, Keo- 
hane says, "a sense of what she was not 
able to do." 

It's regularly pointed out that Keohane 
and Bill Clinton attended the same high 
school. Keohane says that she and Clinton 
were both strongly influenced by a history 
teacher; when the teacher died, both for- 
mer students wrote "very powerful and 
very similar" essays in tribute. "He was 
someone who came to teaching with a 
great deal of intellectual restlessness, but 
also frustration. He later became an alco- 
holic; he was not particularly rewarded by 
his teaching." But when he found a stu- 
dent eager for intellectual engagement, he 
was "incandescent," Keohane says. 

"He believed that I had a lot of intellec- 

Already, says one 

faculty leader, 

Keohane has made her 

mark on matters of 

planning and priorities. 

"This is an exciting time 

to be at Duke." 

tual talent, and that I should really push it. 
He was the one who encouraged me to 
look at a Seven Sisters or Ivy League 
school. So in that sense, he changed my 
life. My family was delighted for me to go 
to Wellesley, but it wasn't part of what we 

would have assumed that I would do." 

Even more important, Keohane adds, 
the history teacher "had one particular 
pedagogical instrument which literally 
changed my life." In a course in American 
history, he asked as one of the mid-term 
exam questions, "Who should have won 
the American Revolution?" 

"I gave him the nicest little essay on 
why the Americans should have won the 
American Revolution — a real gem for a 
high school essay," Keohane recalls. "And 
he gave me an A-minus. At this point, I 
never got A-minuses." So she approached 
her teacher, who called the essay "perfect" 
within its own terms. But, he told her, 
"You should have argued why the British 
should have won the American Revolu- 
tion. That would have been much tougher 
and more interesting." 

"I'll never forget sitting in his office and 
having him say that to me. It never occurred 
to me that that's the way you learn — that's 
the way you develop as an intellectual." 


Robert O. Keohane 
may not have the 
public profile of wife 
Nan, but he's unquestion- 
ably an academic luminary. 

Now Stanfield Professor 
of International Peace at 
Harvard, where he earned 
his master's and doctorate 
(and the prize for the best 
dissertation in 
government), he was chair 
of Harvard's government 
department for four years. 
He has been president of 
the International Studies 
Association, editor of the 
journal International 
Organisation, and the 
author of articles ranging in 
themes from "International 
Liberalism Reconsidered" 
to "The Big Influence of 
Small Allies." He has writ- 
ten, edited, or co-edited ten 
books, with topics like post- 
cold war Europe, interna- 
tional environmental pro- 
tection, and "neo-realism 
and its critics." 

And here's just a sam- 
pling of his awards and 
honorary appointments: a 
German Marshall Fund 
Research Fellowship, a 
Guggenheim Fellowship, 
two fellowships at the Cen- 
ter for Advanced Study in 
the Behavioral Sciences, 
and the Grawemeyer 
Award for Ideas Improving 
World Order. 

With all that (and much 
more) to his name, it's not 
surprising that right after 
Nan Keohane was named 

to the Duke presidency, 
the political science depart- 
ments of both Duke and 
UNC-Chapel Hill began 
vying for Bob Keohane's 
talents. After weighing the 
possibilities this fall, Keo- 
hane announced that his 
Harvard obligations — and 
the ease of traveling be- 
tween Boston and Raleigh- 
Durham — would keep 
him in Cambridge. As 
of Thanksgiving, which 
brought the whole family to 
Durham, Bob Keohane was 
able to report that he and 
Nan had been together 
every weekend since she 
began at Duke in July. 

Even as he persists at 
Harvard, Bob Keohane 
says he considers the Uni- 
versity President's House in 
Durham his home. He has 
moved his books there 
(expressing appreciation 
for the rows and rows of 
shelves designed into the 
house), along with his com- 
puter. The two Keohanes 
have given the house — 
tucked into the Duke For- 
est and conventionally 
described as being "in the 
style of Frank Lloyd 
Wright — an artistic 
upgrade. They've added 
sculptures, folk art, and 
large, color-rich paintings 
for large, color-deprived 
walls. Some of the artwork 
is borrowed from the Duke 
art museum. 

Like his wife, Bob Keo- 
hane was conspicuously 

engaged in meeting the 
crowds during back-to- 
school events, reunion 
weekends, and, of course, 
the inauguration weekend. 
After twelve years of shar- 
ing Wellesley's lakeside 
presidential house with 
Nan, he says he's quite 
used to the role of presiden- 
tial spouse. "You're 
expected to appear at 
events," he says, "but 
you're not the center of 

From this marriage and 
their previous marriages, 
the Keohanes have four 

grown children: Sarah 
Williamson, who works for 
the McKinsey Company, 
an international consulting 
firm; Johnathan Keohane, 
a University of Minnesota 
doctoral student in astro- 
physics; Stephan Henry, an 
actor in Los Angeles; and 
Nathaniel Keohane, who 
graduated from Yale last 

In a profile last year, U.S. 
News & World Report noted 
that the Keohanes "have 
managed to instill the next 
generation with their views 
on sexual equality." A 

dozen years ago, said the 
magazine, Nathaniel Keo- 
hane told his parents that 
he had finally resolved his 
conflict over whether to 
become a biologist or an 
astronomer. Nan recalled 
his saying, "I'll be an 
astronomer but marry a 
biologist." And her reac- 
tion, said Nan, was simply 
to feel "great that at age 
nine he understood the 
rewards of partnership, of 
an egalitarian marriage." 

Colleagues and companions: Robert Keohane stands by his high'profik spouse 

J anuary -F ebi 

Keohane went off to Wellesley and 
earned her degree in 1961. There she rev- 
eled in the intellectual influence of Dante 
L. Germino '52. Now a University of Vir- 
ginia professor, Germino taught Keohane 
history and political theory her sophomore 
year. "I had always intended to be a philos- 
ophy major," she says. "But he, by the 
power of that single course, and of his deep 
affection for and knowledge of that subject, 
and his charisma as a teacher, basically per- 
suaded me that the field I was meant for 
was political philosophy and the history of 
political theory." In company with her 
father and "a few other intellectual influ- 
ences," Keohane says, he was "the one who 
persuaded me to be a professor because I 
was so taken with the way he lived the life 
of the mind." 

From his perspective, Germino — who 
came back to Duke for Keohane's inaugu- 
ration — says that of "the thousands I've 
taught," Keohane stands out. "I can't say 
enough about how talented she is. Even 
though it was so many years ago, I vividly 
remember the way she debated and argued 
and expounded in class. And her papers 
were so superior. Her honors thesis on 
Plato was many leagues above the usual 
sort of thing one sees." 

"She's not ambitious in the way that so 
many people are in academic life," Germino 
says. "That's the best sort of person to be a 
university president, someone who didn't 
really seek office or need or want power to 
satisfy one's ego." Germino says that it's 
extraordinary to find a political theorist in 
a position of power and influence, that 
Keohane combines in a rare way theoreti- 
cal and practical skills. Last fall he told his 
classes that with Keohane stepping into 
the Duke presidency, he feels like Plato: 
"At least I've managed to have an influ- 
ence on a philosopher-king, or in her case, 
I guess we should say philosopher-queen." 

From Wellesley, Keohane went to 
Oxford with a Marshall Scholarship. She 
earned a master's, with first-class honors, 
from Oxford, and then a doctorate in politi- 
cal science from Yale. 

David Price, who has taught in Duke's 
political science department and is now a 
U.S. congressman from North Carolina, 
was a graduate student with Keohane. He 
got to know her best through a seminar on 
Hegelian political thought. "This was a 
graduate seminar at its best," he recalls. "It 
was a small, rather intense group discussing 
big ideas." Price says "there was no ques- 
tion" that Keohane "was the star of the 
seminar group." 

Just a year out of Wellesley, Keohane 

married her first husband, Patrick Henry, 

who was also completing a Yale Ph.D. 

When Henry was offered a tenure-track 

Continued on page 8 


Though inauguration weekend was 
marked by displays of art and athleti- 
cism and lessons in political theory, 
the structure and flow of the proceedings 
were the products of a pure scientist's work. 

From establishing a precise formula to 
determine the invitation list to comparing 
a university president's tenure to the half- 
life of a radioactive chemical, University 
Marshal Pelham Wilder organized the 
weekend with a precision and order befit- 
ting his life as a chemist. 

"There was a cohesiveness, a sense of 
commonness of purpose that I have rarely 
seen," Wilder says, reflecting on the inau- 
guration of Nannerl Overholser Keohane as 
the university's eighth president. Indeed, if 
there was an overarching theme for the 
weekend's events and the widespread par- 
ticipation by members of the university 
community, it was that of continuity. 

From seminars and symposia featuring 
leading scholars from a variety of disci- 
plines (including the president's husband, 
Robert Keohane, 
moderating a 
symposium on 
ethics and inter- 
national rela- 
tions) on Thurs- 
day and Friday to 
campus-wide so- 
cial events such 
as an early-morn- 
ing jog and mid- 
night dance on 
Saturday, Duke 
was temporarily 
shielded from its daily concerns. 

Several students protested during the 
weekend to retain upperclass housing on 
East Campus and for a more multicultural 
curriculum. But while they handed out 
fliers and held banners, they were far more 
congenial to the broader themes of the day 
than those who threw a smoke bomb to 
protest Duke's "status quo mentality" dur- 
ing the 1970 inauguration of Terry San- 
ford as the university's sixth president. 

Wilder, who has taught chemistry at 
Duke since 1949 and also planned San- 
ford's inauguration, has had plenty of time 
to learn the importance of continuity dur- 
ing his tenure as marshal. In fact, Keohane 
is the fourth Duke president installed with 
Wilder leading the procession, meaning he 
has now been personally responsible for 
directing the inaugural events for one-half 
of the university's leaders. 

Talking with him, one gets the impres- 

sion that Wilder has acquired an easy mas- 
tery of the tasks involved — so much so that 
he admits having "toyed with the idea" of 
writing a short manuscript on the academic 
protocol of such ceremonies to be followed 
by other institutions. "If you go to any 
Duke convocation that I plan, it will begin 
and end the same way," he says. "It's what 
is in the middle that may change." 

For the record, each of Wilder's cere- 
monies begins with the National Anthem 
and ends with the Alma Mater. At this 
year's inauguration, songs by the Duke 
Chorale were interspersed throughout the 
ceremony in accordance with Keohane's 
desire to emphasize the arts. 

Wilder's job as university marshal 
becomes most visible when he leads the 
procession at graduation or — as he did in 
October — places the chain of office around 
the neck of a newly inaugurated university 
president. But most of the marshal's work 
is not as readily apparent. Wilder coordi- 
nated the inauguration committee since it 
was organized last January, and handled all 
the preparations and scheduling required 
for the inauguration ceremony itself. Ever 
the perfectionist, Wilder says he was still 
"fine-tuning the fine tuning" of the cere- 
mony just one day beforehand. 

^^^^^^^^ One of the mar- 
| shal's most diffi- 
cult tasks is orga- 
nizing an invitation 
"The worst 
thing about this 
job is the omis- 
sions that have to 
be made," Wilder 
says, seemingly 
S dismayed that not 
< all 2,300 institu- 
I tions of higher 
education in the 
country could be invited to march in the 
procession. Wilder decided who would be 
invited to march in this year's procession 
the same way he always has — by dividing 
individual institutions into categories. 

Participating in this year's procession 
were delegates from all fifty-nine members 
of the Association of American Universi- 
ties (an organization of top research uni- 
versities of which Duke has been a member 
since 1938), all degree-granting institu- 
tions in North Carolina, learned societies 
such as Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, and 
several liberal arts colleges with whom 
Keohane worked closely at Wellesley. In 
total, about 130 delegates marched in order 
of the date of their institution's founding. 

The inaugural committee was far less 
restrictive in sending out general invita- 
tions. More than 57,000 invitations were 
mailed to every member of the Duke facul- 
ty and staff, all current students and their 


families, and all alumni within a three- 
hour driving radius of campus. 

The invitation list wasn't Wilder's only 
challenge. Other potential crises were 
insufficient parking and the chance of 
inclement weather. Had it rained on Sat- 
urday, the ceremony would have been held 
inside Duke Chapel, which only seats 
2,200. Fortunately, the Saturday afternoon 
sunshine allowed more than 5,000 to 
watch the outdoor ceremony on the 
Chapel Court. "If anything goes wrong, 
always hear; and I haven't heard any sig 
nificant criticisms," he says. 

Members of the inauguration commit 
tee, which consisted of students, faculty 
staff, and two members of the board o1 
trustees, organized everything from the 
decorations around campus to the commu 
nity-wide dance at Cameron Indoor Stadi 
um on Saturday night. 

Virginia Shannon, director of specia 
events and coordinator of all the week 
end's social events, says all the greenery 
and flowers used as decorations for the 
weekend were cut by the grounds crew 
from around campus. These plants and 
other decorations were not wasted: They 
were transferred from event to event 
throughout the weekend — a task demand- 
ing precise scheduling and the help of 
many workers, especially when the decora- 
tions from the Saturday afternoon celebra- 
tion had to be moved to Cameron for the 
evening's dance. The dance presented its 
own set of challenges for the planning 
committee. Shannon says it was difficult 
to find a band that would play music 
appealing to the different tastes of the 
guests, as Keohane requested, and to trans- 
form a stadium known for basketball 
championships into a dance hall. 

All of those challenges were met — 
including the widely popular band Liquid 
Pleasure playing at Cameron — largely 
thanks to the dedication of hundreds of 
university employees who worked over- 
time to do everything from setting up 
chairs to wiring the speaker systems to 
catering the invitation-only lunches and 
dinners for delegates, faculty, administra- 
tors, and other guests. Tim Searles, general 
manager of technical services, says his full- 
time staff all worked between seventy and 
eighty hours the week of inauguration, 
while he worked more than twenty-two 
hours just that Saturday. 

According to administration estimates 
released by The Chronicle, the weekend 
cost more than $150,000. Included in this 
sum were 425 pounds of assorted cheeses, 
390 pounds of cut vegetables, 12,000 mini 
desserts such as petit fours and hazelnut 
cookies, and 20,000 hors d'oeuvres — just 
to whet the appetites of those attending 
the post-inauguration reception. 

C j Hiding /< >rcc : \\ 'ildcr lakes the ceremonial lead 

Several students said they thought the 
weekend's festivities were exorbitant, but 
such sentiments were mild compared with 
student reactions following Sanford's inau- 
guration. At that time, the president of 
the student government refused to give the 
traditional welcoming speech from the stu- 
dents, decrying the inauguration as "a 
worthless and irresponsible waste of time 
and money." And following Sanford's 
inauguration, the editorial staff of The 
Chronicle criticized the "lavish black-tie 
dinners, country-club groundskeeping, 
embossed invitations, and a lot of other 
extravagant expenses." 

Wilder, who says his Presbyterian 
upbringing made him "frugal" by nature, is 
convinced this year's celebration was well 
worth the price because of its "therapeu- 
tic" effect on the university community. 
"It's a time when the university can look 
back on itself, see who it is and how it got 
to where it is today," Wilder says, mar- 
veling at how the institution has grown 
"from a log cabin to Trinity College to a 
fledgling university" to one of the nation's 
top-ranked institutions. 

"It's not just for the heritage. You do all 
this so you can look ahead," he says. "If 
you only look back you become stagnant." 

Keohane herself elicited images of con- 
tinuity when she launched the inaugural 
Fun Run Saturday morning. The run, with 
a field of approximately 500 students, fac- 
ulty members, employees, and friends, was 
in the spirit of "continuing Duke's tradi- 
tion of athletic excellence" and of "linking 
East Campus to West," she says. 

According to Shannon, Keohane origi- 
nally wanted to start the run at the Chapel 
steps. But another location had to be 
selected because the chairs for the inaugu- 
ration ceremony were set up there several 
days in advance. Shannon consulted with 
head track coach Al Buehler to chart the 
course of the run, and they decided to 
begin the run at the statue of Washington 

Duke on East Campus and finish at Wal- 
lace Wade Stadium. Students from the 
special events committee of the University 
Union came up with the idea to award "I 
ran with Nan" T-shirts to the first 500 to 
finish the two-mile run. 

Perhaps the clearest example of continu- 
ity was the installation ceremony itself. 
When trustee chair John Chandler B.D. 
'52, Ph.D. '54 officially installed Keohane, 
he used many of the same words as former 
Trinity College president John C. Kilgo 
when he installed William Preston Few as 
president of Trinity in 1910. Few would 
later lead the institution in its transition to 
Duke University in 1924, becoming the 
university's first president. 

By the time Wilder was placing the 
chain of office around Keohane's shoulders 
Saturday afternoon, he had already begun 
to enjoy the festivities, he says. Though he 
never strayed too far from Keohane during 
the celebration, just in case she had any 
urgent needs, and never made it under 
either of the two huge tents set up for fes- 
tivities, Wilder had long since stopped 

"I worry anxiously and actively in the 
planning stages and try the best I can to 
make the best decisions for my university, 
and then I relax," he says. "Still, I couldn't 
help thinking this was one of the best 
things we have ever done." 

Wilder says he had planned to attend 
the Saturday night dance at Cameron with 
his wife. But after the successful comple- 
tion of the fourth presidential inaugura- 
tion under his leadership, the chemistry 
professor fell fast asleep on his sofa. 

"I really love this place," Wilder says. 
Does he expect to plan the inauguration of 
Keohane's successor? Wilder laughs. "I 
think breaking in four is enough." 

Halpem, a senior psychology and economics major 
from Springfield, New Jersey, is medical center 
editor for The Chronicle. 

January-February 1994 

position at Swarthmore, Keohane followed 
him and took a part-time, temporary posi- 
tion in political science. Keohane says 
they were married too young — "much too 
early" — and came to realize that they were 
"not the right people for each other." 

They divorced in 1969. The next year, 
she married Robert Keohane, a professor in 
Swarthmore's political science department. 
She says she "had to have my conscious- 
ness raised by my future husband" to agi- 
tate against rules that barred part-timers 
from informal faculty discussions. For his 
part, Robert Keohane explains the attrac- 
tion of his wife-to-be in simple terms: 
"She's charismatic, don't you think?" Keo- 
hane's sister offers exactly the 
same description. 

In 1973, the Keohanes left to 
take jobs at Stanford Universi- 
ty. When Nan took the presi- 
dency at Wellesley, Bob Keo- 
hane accepted a teaching 
position at Brandeis. A highly 
regarded and prolific scholar, he 
moved to Harvard after four 
years as a chaired professor of 
government. (He later headed 
the department.) With his 
wife's appointment at Duke, he 
was openly courted by both 
Duke's and UNC-Chapel Hill's 
political science departments. 
He has decided, at least for 
now, to remain at Harvard, citing his 
obligations to graduate students, to ongo- 
ing research projects, and to his depart- 
ment (which is somewhat depleted in his 
area of international relations). 

Seattle Times associate editor James F. 
Vesely, who attended Stanford in the mid- 
Seventies, recalled Keohane's memorable 
teaching in an editorial written a year ago. 
"Time and distance do not diminish the 
lessons a great teacher gives," wrote Vesely, 
reflecting on Keohane's appointment to 
the Duke presidency. Keohane's graduate 
seminar on "Freedom and Equality" en- 
rolled students aspiring to their doctorates, 
a smattering of journalists, and a lawyer. In 
this "academic version of gang warfare," 
Keohane "guided the self-assured toward 
less assurance," as Vesely put it. "She 
forced the true believers to reconsider 
their beliefs. She did it all with a smile and 
bone-crunching intellect." 

Keohane would later extend that bone- 
crunching intellect to feminist concerns. 
When she began teaching at Stanford, one 
of her first graduate seminars was on 
Rousseau. "I had taught Rousseau my whole 
career, and I'd always loved Rousseau. One 
of his books that I always taught was Emile, 
which is a novel about education, a great 
work. The last book of Emile is about 
Sophie — about the woman in Emile's life. 

A Wellesley trustee 

says that "the amazing 

thing about Nan is the 

extraordinary amount 

of energy as well as 

ability. She seems 

rather tireless." 

run: husband Bob, left, son Stepha; 

And she is very clearly just that. Her whole 
existence is derivative from that fact that 
she is going to become Emile's wife." 

It took an encounter with a graduate 
student in her seminar, though, to make 
Keohane re-examine her earlier reading. "I 
was waxing full-throat about what a won- 
derful book Emife was, and she said to me, 
'How can you teach Emile without worry- 
ing about Sophie?' And I thought, 'She's 
right, how can I not worry about Sophie?' " 
So she decided to start worrying, and found 
an intellectually welcoming environment. 

Stanford was "an amazing place to be in 
the mid-Seventies for someone who began 
to be interested in feminist theory, one of 
the best places in the whole world," Keo- 
hane says. "I was drawn into this fantastic 
group of mostly women — there were a few 
men — who were just totally absorbed by 
these questions in their fields with the 
same novelty that I felt. It's the 'click' phe- 
nomenon. Why didn't I think about 
Sophie? And when you're all asking these 
questions together, and following each 
other intellectually to find answers, you 
couldn't have helped getting a dose of 
feminist theory." 

At that point Keohane was finishing her 
survey of French political philosophy from 
the Renaissance to the Enlightenment: Phi- 
losophy and the State in France. She decided 

to dedicate the book to her mother. "She 
exchanged her press card for an apron when 
she married, and taught us and tended us 
until we were all through college, when she 
went back to a promising career cut short 
by an early death," Keohane wrote. "I am 
grateful for what she did, yet frustrated by 
the knowledge that she never had the 
opportunity to finish her own book." 

Had she not left Stanford to take the 
Wellesley presidency, says Keohane, she 
would have embarked on studies of Virginia 
Woolf and Simone de Beauvoir. "That's 
where my questions were taking me, not 
different from what I had done, just a natur- 
al evolution of the questions I had been 
asking all along: Why should 
people obey authority? What's 
fair? What's just? Why should 
people behave in certain ways 
and not others? When you begin 
to ask those questions with a 
gendered lens, you get a fascinat- 
ing new set of questions that 
almost nobody in the past had 
asked or answered." 

But Wellesley came calling 

and, in 1981, she accepted the 

presidency. Her only adminis- 

« trative experience, she points 

| out, had been as chair of Stan- 

| ford's faculty senate. 

andNanKeohane after Fun Run ^^ lured h ,. er t0 the J°b 

was a mixture of curiosity and 
loyalty to her alma mater. But before she 
made the career-changing jump, she took 
a long, pensive walk with her brother 
around sprawling Stanford. It was Thanks- 
giving 1980. "I could see my path for the 
rest of my life. I was only forty years old, 
but that path was already defined by my 
scholarship and teaching in political phi- 
losophy and feminist theory. I had a sense 
of what I would turn out to be. I had no 
sense of another life. And the best alterna- 
tive became administration, which would 
provide me with an entry into a whole 
range of unexplored areas, even corporate 
boardrooms. I knew it was a tremendous 
gamble; at first it was a tremendously diffi- 
cult choice. But I never regretted it." 

It would be tough to find people at 
Wellesley who regret that choice. There 
Keohane led the largest fund-raising drive 
in the history of America's liberal arts 
college; today, Wellesley has the largest 
endowment of any American college. 

Some of her successes were quieter, 
though no less solid. Nancy Harrison 
Kolodny, Wellesley 's dean of the college 
and a member of the chemistry faculty 
there since 1969, says Keohane "changed 
the intellectual profile of Wellesley by set- 
ting her own personal example and tangi- 
bly by supporting faculty scholarship." She 
says Keohane's easygoing interaction with 


everyone on campus, from faculty to stu- 
dents to the housekeeping staff, was 
remarkable. "Everyone on campus thought 
she was theirs" — to the point where some 
Wellesley students felt a sense of betrayal 
with Keohane's departure for Duke. 

Luella Gross Goldberg is chair of 
Wellesley's board of trustees and was act- 
ing president for a time after Keohane's 
departure for Duke. Keohane brought "a 
focus to the institution," she says. "She 
had a real ability to articulate a mission 
and a vision for the college. That mission 
may not have been fundamentally differ- 
ent from the mission of its founding — to 
provide the best possible education for 
women who will make a difference in the 
world. But one of the most prominent 
things Nan did was to re-articulate the 
vision in very current terms." 

"The amazing thing about Nan," Gold- 
berg adds, "is how well she did all of it, the 
extraordinary amount of energy as well as 
ability. She seems rather tireless. And after 
taking on the job of acting president, I 
have even more empathy for the relentless 
pace that she put forward." 

Goldberg was on the search committee 
that wooed Keohane to Wellesley from 
Stanford. Some thought the choice repre- 
sented a risky move on Wellesley's part, 
Goldberg says. "But those of us who sat on 
the search committee could see an excep- 
tional leader, a leader with a vision and 
the ability to articulate it. We thought she 
was the type of person who could handle 
administrative responsibilities well. If that 
wasn't obvious based on her track record 
when she came here as president, it was 
obvious by the time she left." 

Certainly her dozen years at Wellesley 
prepared Keohane for some of the issues 
she's confronting at Duke. At Wellesley, 
there's a built-up electronic-mail culture. 
At Duke, the image is more of a catch-up 
game in terms of electronic integration. 
Keohane convened a visiting committee — 
which included a Wellesley computer spe- 
cialist — to explore Duke's electronic inad- 
equacies. It recommended that the 
university hire a chief information systems 
officer, bolster the budget and staff for 
computing, and restructure the campus' 
fragmented computing organization. 

Wellesley has done remarkably well, its 
officials say, in recruiting a diverse faculty 
and student body. In the Duke context, 
"diversity" is often pegged to the 1988 tive- 
year commitment to hire one or more 
black faculty members in each of the uni- 
versity's hiring units. The university fell far 
short of that goal. Keohane argues that in 
certain ways the initiative did succeed — 
notably in feeding the scholarly pipeline 
with minority students — "but not in the 
most public ways." She says it was probably 

A one-time student 

of Keohane's says she 

"guided the self-assured 

toward less assurance" 

and "forced the true 

believers to reconsider 

their beliefs." 

unrealistic to think that every department 
could achieve the goal, and that the goal 
was "conceived in too narrow, rigorous, 
numerical a way." The result may have 
been that black recruits were "made to feel 
like they were instruments being used to 
meet the goal." George Wright Ph.D. '77, 
the new director of Duke's African and 
Afro-American Studies Program, is leading 
an administrative review of the initiative 
in cooperation with a faculty committee. 

Near the end of Keohane's presidency 
there, Wellesley was hit with a nasty free- 
speech controversy around a professor's use 
of the book The Secret Relationship Between 
Blacks and Jews. The book — widely con- 
demned as anti-Semitic — asserts that Jews 
played a dominant role in the slave trade. 
The college's academic leadership defended 
the professor's right to use the book, but was 
vocal in denouncing its conclusions. Early 
in this academic year, Duke faced a free- 
expression issue of a rather different order, 
after an angry student confiscated copies of 
the conservative Duke Review. Keohane 
quickly issued a statement asserting that 
"The response to an idea one disagrees with 
should be to combat it with one that is 
stronger, or to expose the falsity of its 
premise. No ideas or beliefs can be over- 
come by preventing their expression, and in 
the best tradition of Duke University, I 
condemn any efforts to do so." Keohane 
arranged to meet with the student confisca- 
tor, who was later put on disciplinary proba- 
tion by an independent student-faculty 
hearing board, "so we could reach across this 
symbolic division as two human beings." 

Although hardly strife-free, Wellesley is 
famous for its community-mindedness. 
Stories abound of how Keohane defused 
campus tensions — through techniques like 
"town meetings" and gestures like supply- 
ing fast-food meals to arrested student pro- 
testers — surrounding such issues as divest- 
ment and the Rodney King verdict. 

Duke of late has been struggling with 
the large question of how to create a 
tighter campus community. That question 

has spawned no fewer than three task 
forces that began work last semester: on 
Greek life, residential life, and intellectual 
life. Keohane insists she is not anti-frater- 
nity. "There are powerful ways in which 
the fraternity culture alleviates some of the 
things that are problems at Duke — the 
sense of a very big place in which one can 
be isolated or get lost." But she worries 
about a culture that inspires or at least 
allows episodes of vandalism, disrespect for 
and violence toward women, and drinking 
habits that may lead to alcoholism. She 
says that anti-intellectualism, while not 
strictly "a fraternity factor," grows from 
"weekend parties that are so totally sepa- 
rate from the rest of the week that they 
feed this exaggerated 'We work hard, we 
play hard' motif." 

A self-described student activist, senior 
Mark Grazman, says he considers the uni- 
versity "at a crossroads," and that students 
are looking to Keohane to articulate "a 
cogent philosophy, a cogent meaning, to 
assert the heart and soul of this university." 
He says he was impressed that Keohane 
resisted the temptation to build additional 
dorms on East Campus — a temptation 
fueled by cost considerations — because the 
university is still wrestling with an overall 
vision for student life. 

As chair of the President's Advisory 
Council on Resources (PACOR), law pro- 
fessor James Cox has had a close-up view 
of Keohane. Already, says Cox, Keohane 
has demonstrated courage, conviction, and 
persuasiveness on several fronts, ranging 
from a commitment to build a recreation 
center to refocusing the university's plan- 
ning approach away from "unharnessed 
entrepreneurial energy" toward a more dis- 
ciplined approach. He adds that Keohane 
was particularly skillful in balancing the 
competing philosophies of how Duke 
should frame its tuition policy. "We have 
had situations where there have been dis- 
agreements in approach between PACOR 
and the president. But we leave the table 
feeling good about the dynamics. 

"She prepares for meetings, she listens 
to what's said, she asks sharp questions, 
she states her reservations about your posi- 
tion and challenges you to meet her objec- 
tions, and she lets you know when she's 
not persuaded. Her judgment seems to be 
exceptional. She is truly an extraordinary 
leader. This is an exciting time to be at 
Duke, and a large part of that enthusiasm 
is a result of her leadership." 

Fuqua professor Richard Burton says he 
is struck by Keohane's engagement with 
the work of the Academic Council, the 
faculty representative body that Burton 
chairs. Keohane succeeded at bringing 
"clarification and precision" to a some- 
Continued on page 42 

February 1994 









Thirty-four years after his parents told him that his 

membership in the NAACP was "part of what it 

means to step into manhood," Chavis is now leading 

that venerable organization. 

J very day on his way home from 
b school, Benjamin F. Chavis Jr. 

^^ walked past his hometown's main 
B library in Oxford, North Carolina. 
One afternoon, during his twelth year, 
Chavis stopped walking and stared at the 
gray stone building. It was 1960 and he 
knew that, legally, he was allowed to 
patronize the Richard Thornton Public 
Library. But Chavis and other members of 
Oxford's black community had continued 
to use the Colored Annex at the First Bap- 
tist Church. 

Looking back, Chavis M.Div. '80 recalls 
the moment with equal measures of digni- 
ty and mischief. "I decided I needed a 
book that had both covers on it," he says 
now, with a smile. "The books in the 
annex didn't have both covers and they 
sometimes had pages missing. You give me 
a book with pages missing, and I think 
you're hiding something." 

Chavis decided that it was time to chal- 
lenge this unspoken but continued segre- 
gation. A priest called the boy's parents to 
tell them what their son had done, trying, 

perhaps, to put young Chavis back in line. 
But brick mason Benjamin F. Chavis Sr. 
and schoolteacher Elisabeth Ridley Chavis 
stood proudly by their son. They had, after 
all, presented him with a youth member- 
ship card in the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People 
(NAACP) for his birthday that year. And 
the boy's great-great-grandfather, the Rev- 
erend John Chavis, taught both black and 
white children and was the first African- 
American Presbyterian minister ordained 
in the United States. 

Ben Chavis got his book with both cov- 
ers intact. But that night, he couldn't 
sleep. Excited and restless, Chavis consid- 
ered which Oxford institution to desegre- 
gate next. "I'd learned at an early age," 
says Chavis, "that some things have to be 
challenged. If you don't challenge wrong, 
then wrong is still in control." 

It's a lesson that continues to guide his 
life's work. Thirty-four years after Chavis' 
parents told him that his membership in 
the NAACP was "part of what it means to 
step into manhood," Chavis is now leading 


that venerable or- 
ganization. As the 
youngest executive 
director ever ap- 
pointed to the na- 
tion's oldest civil 
rights group, Chavis 
is delivering the 
imperative of social 
progress to troubled 
urban neighborhoods 
and to powerful cor- 
porate boardrooms. 

"The issue is em- 
powerment in a 
world that seeks to 
disempower," says 
Chavis. "Can you 
bring about justice in 
a world that seeks to 
define justice exclu- 
sively? [Martin Luther] 
King said it right 
from the Birmingham 
jail thirty years ago: 
An injustice any- 
where is a threat to 
justice everywhere." 

Chavis certainly has 
his work cut out for 
him. With the coun- 
try confronting in- 
creased racial strife, 
he must persuade 
people to see beyond 
race. With worsening 
inner-city conditions 
everywhere, he must 
give economically dis- 
advantaged residents 
hope while fighting 
on their behalf in 
political arenas. And 
at a time when the 
NAACP has come to 
be seen as an enclave 

for middle-aged, middle-class blacks, he 
must reach out to younger generations for 
whom the abolitionist and civil rights 
movements are history lessons rather than 
bloody personal struggles, while also seek- 
ing the participation of people from varied 
ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. 

In many ways, Chavis seems tailor-made 
for the job. Growing up in the segregated 
world of the rural South, he says he saw 
every day of his life "that something was 
wrong," and looked for an opportunity every 
day of his life "to help straighten it out." 

The first African-American to earn a 
degree in chemistry from the University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte, Chavis 
gained a valuable education outside the 
classroom as well. Active during the Sixties 
in the NAACP, he also worked on behalf 
of the Congress On Racial Equality, the 

"The issue is 


in a world that 

seeks to disempower,' 

says Chavis. 

Southern Christian Leadership Confer- 
ence, and the American Federation of 
State, County, and Municipal Employees. 

Like many civil rights advocates who 
participated in sit-ins and picket lines and 
marches, Chavis encountered hatred and 

resistance along the 
way. Tear gas burned 
his eyes. Trained po- 
lice dogs snapped at 
his ankles. White su- 
premacists shouted ra- 
cial epithets. Friends 
and fellow workers 
were murdered. These 
episodes only strength- 
ened Chavis' resolve. 
But his biggest test of 
faith was yet to come. 
In 1971, while 
working for the 
United Church of 
Christ's Commission 
for Racial Justice, 
Chavis led a group of 
activists in Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina, 
to protest segregated 
schools. When Chavis 
and others refused or- 
ders to leave town, 
police arrested them 
on charges of burn- 
ing a white-owned 
grocery store and of 
conspiracy to assault 
police and firefight- 
ers. Known as the 
Wilmington Ten, the 
group drew prison 
sentences, but as the 
church- appointed 
leader, Chavis' was 
the harshest: twenty- 
five to twenty-nine 
_, years. After serving 
|p four-and-a-half years, 
1^ during which time 
|1 Amnesty Interna- 
I tional listed the group 
b as the first official 
!< U.S. case of political 
prisoners, Chavis was paroled. All charges 
against the Wilmington Ten were over- 
turned when an appeals court ruled that 
spurious evidence in the case had been 
coerced by police. 

It was during this trying period of false 
imprisonment that Chavis came to Duke's 
Divinity School. (His tuition was paid by 
the United Church of Christ.) Every 
morning a prison van and two guards 
brought him to West Campus, where they 
dropped him off in front of Duke Chapel. 
And every evening they returned to take 
him back to jail. (Chavis was moved 
around to five different prisons, ostensibly 
to prevent him from rallying inmates; 
instead, such exposure "put me in touch 
with more inmates to organize," he says.) 

Despite his status as a convict, Chavis' 
assimilation into the Divinity School 

] anuary -F ebt 

■y J 994 

/ ? * 


*:■ w —- — -. ■ 


Passionate preacher: While a student in Duke's Divinity 

was uneventful. If people thought they 
were getting a revolutionary full of fire 
and brimstone, Chavis turned out to be 
quite the opposite. A thoughtful, quiet 
scholar, Chavis impressed both his class- 
mates and his professors with his deep 
spirituality and commitment to human 
rights issues. 

Jed Griswold M.Div. 79 says he knew 
very little about Chavis before he enrolled. 
But Chavis quickly came to symbolize the 
ethical high ground, not so much through 
his words (as part of the prison release 
agreement, he was prohibited from speak- 
ing with the press and in general kept a 
very low profile), but through his earnest 
conduct. When a contingent from South 
Africa was scheduled to present a forum 
about that country's political struggles, 
Griswold and friends did some digging and 
found that the supposedly neutral group 
was actually being sponsored by the South 
African government. 

"Ben really couldn't get involved," 
recalls Griswold. "So we would hold 
meetings and ask ourselves, 'What would 
Ben do?' We were all inspired by what he 
had gone through, and was still going 
through." They "couldn't just stand by" 
and let the South Africa government 

School, Chavis apprenticed, through a prison-release agreement, with Durham's Russell Memorial C.M.E. Church 

apologists come to campus without objec- 
tions, he says. In the end, the group can- 
celed its trip. 

Clarence G. Newsome 72, M.Div. '74, 
Ph.D. '82 had Chavis for his American 
Christianity course and was so impressed 
with his pupil's performance that he invit- 
ed him to serve as his teaching assistant. 
"Ben has a first-rate mind," says Newsome, 
now dean of the Howard University 
Divinity School. "At the same time, he 
takes to heart very sincerely the Christian 
message. At a time when people are cyni- 
cal about religion in general and Chris- 
tianity in particular, Ben is one of the real, 
true Christians we have today. He's not 
perfect. He struggles with his faith day in 
and day out. But every fiber of his being 
strains to prove the validity of the Christ- 
ian way of life." 

Psalms From Prison, a volume of Chavis' 
religious writings while incarcerated, con- 
firms his theological strength. Anger occa- 
sionally seeps through, but it is anger 
fueled by frustration rather than bitterness. 
Divided into three sections — Oppression, 
Struggle, and Liberation — the book offers 
a decidedly contrary view of an alleged 
agitator. In Psalm 137 ("Push For Justice"), 
Chavis writes: 

We must push together with Jesus Christ 

by our side 

push forward for justice 

in all the halls and courts 

wherever our people are 


and treated unjustly 

we must together 

push forward for justice 

even when it may appear 

too unpopular 

we are called by God 

we are called to push forward 

for justice 


and for human fairness 

we must push together 

push forward for justice 

Such convictions are why Newsome and 
others who know Chavis find it disturbing 
that media accounts of the NAACP leader 
portray him as an iconoclast. A profile in 
Time magazine last April, shortly after 
Chavis had taken office, claimed that Chavis 
represented "a new militancy" for the 
NAACP, and that some of the association's 
old guard considered him "a scary radical." 

Demonizing activist leaders is nothing 
new, says William Turner Jr. B.S.E. 71, 



M.Div. 74, Ph.D. '84, director of Black 
Church Affairs for the Duke Divinity 
School. But depictions of Chavis as a zealot 
are particularly ironic. "Ben is not a Jesse 
Jackson or an Al Sharpton or a Louis Far- 
rakhan. You're talking about someone who's 
milder than Martin Luther King or even 
[former NAACP executive director] Ben 
Hooks. But if you've ever been tarnished [in 
the media], you never quite get it all off." 

Chavis' true character, says Clarence 
Newsome, is steadfast and serene. "The 
image that comes to mind when I think of 
Ben is that of a lamb. Not to mean that he's 
meek or retiring when it comes to human 
rights or social justice, but he comes to it 
with a certain tenderness. His passion is 
persuasive, his commitment is sincere. At a 
time when we have so much difficulty judg- 
ing someone or something to be genuine, 
there is truly something genuine about his 
manner, his presentation, and his spirit." 

Chavis refuses to allow media jabs to 
affect him. "As African-Americans have 
attempted to maximize our participation 
in the political process," he says, "it has 
caused a backlash. And we have to 
respond not by folding our political tent, 
but expanding it." As it was in the begin- 
ning of his political awakening as a young 
man, Chavis' response is to deflect atten- 
tion away from the man and focus it 
instead on the mission. Steeled by his 
unwavering faith, Chavis has honed other 
tools for advancing the NAACP's agenda. 
Politically savvy, Chavis, who is an 
ordained minister, is at once a charismatic 
preacher and a no-nonsense pundit. And 
he's not afraid to stir up the status quo. In 
fact, that's exactly what he's after. 

When a Maryland Denny's refused ser- 
vice to six black Secret Service agents, 
Chavis told top execs that the incident, in 
and of itself, was unacceptable. But more 
importantly, it implied that the parent 
company was, at best, doing nothing to 
combat prejudice throughout its ranks and, 
at worst, guilty of encouraging discrimina- 
tory practices. After some persuasive pres- 
sure from Chavis, Denny's committed itself 
to a seven-year, $1.2-billion initiative to 
promote blacks into management jobs and 
make it easier for minorities to acquire 
franchise rights to open new restaurants. 

In August, the NAACP took Hughes 
Aircraft to task for its allegedly dismal 
record of hiring minorities. (As reported in 
The New York Times, Hughes officials first 
learned of the allegations after the 
NAACP held a public press conference, 
which gave the company no chance to 
refute the claims.) And Safeway, Inc., 
agreed to follow the NAACP's recommen- 
dations on doing increased business with 
minority suppliers. 

These examples underscore one of the 


Chavis says he wants 
older men and women 

to reach out to a new 
generation, a generation 

sadly lacking in wise, 

learned role models. 

Outreach: a young Chavis with Russell Memorial's 
the Rev. H.L. Whether, left, and Bishop Nathaniel 
Lindsey, right 

central goals of the Chavis-led NAACP: 
economic democracy. "So much of the 
racial discrimination in our society is due 
to institutionalized economic inequality," 
he says. "Aspirations of brothers and sisters 
in the so-called underclass are the same as 
yours and mine. They want a decent life. 
They want to be able to provide for their 
family. They would like to get an educa- 
tion, and a job where their income would 
enable them to participate in society with 
pride, not with shame." 

Immediately after his NAACP election, 
Chavis flew to South Central Los Angeles, 
where he stayed in a public housing pro- 
ject in Watts. What he saw and heard 
confirmed his theories about the impact of 
race and education on economics and poli- 
tics. "Los Angeles is going to explode 
again if we don't do something about lev- 
eling the economic playing field," he says. 

Lest anyone charge that Chavis' admon- 
ishments are racially skewed, he is just as 
quick to criticize blacks or Latinos or other 
people of color who ignore the needs of their 
own community. At a November lecture at 
Duke, Chavis had the audience shouting 
"Amen!" and "That's right!" when he took 
Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas to 
task for his stance on affirmative action 
"when it was affirmative action that allowed 
him to go to law school in the first place." 

"We have not worked as hard as we 
have," Chavis intoned with a fiery, 

preacher's passion, "to open doors to uni- 
versities and corporations and electoral 
politics and all aspects of our society, only 
to have the sisters and brothers who have 
gone through those doors forget how those 
doors were opened. The more education 
one has, the more responsibility one has to 
make a contribution and open doors for 
others to come through." 

To that end, Chavis says he wants older 
men and women to reach out to a new gen- 
eration, a generation sadly lacking in wise, 
learned role models. Just as his parents and 
other adults took the time to educate him 
about the civil rights movement, Chavis 
says, so do community elders need to "take 
the time now to bring along a new genera- 
tion of Malcolms, a new generation of Mar- 
tins, a new generation of Sojourner Truths." 

People are listening. In the first six 
months on the job, Chavis boosted mem- 
bership by 110,000 people, half of whom 
are twenty-five or under. And the 
NAACP helped organize a kind of reverse 
Freedom Ride this fall when 300 young 
people from around the South traveled to 
New York to mobilize voters. 

Chavis relayed this fact at the Duke lec- 
ture, and then paused briefly to admonish 
the media. Although the majority of 
African- American young people are not in 
gangs, are not criminals, and do not use 
drugs, he says, they somehow don't seem 
to warrant society's attention. Little was 
reported about the fact that the voting 
rights group traveled hundreds of miles to 
help people they didn't know, says Chavis. 
"But you can bet that if one of those young 
people we took to New York got in a fist- 
fight or did something wrong, it would 
have made the network news." 

Despite the formidable job he's got to do 
in his own backyard, Chavis intends to 
internationalize the NAACP. The organiza- 
tion will send voting rights workers to assist 
in the upcoming South African elections. 
During trips to such places as Angola and 
Zimbabwe, Chavis has been an NAACP 
missionary, signing on new members. It's ill- 
advised to limit the struggle for freedom and 
justice to the United States, he says, particu- 
larly given the dismal human rights records 
of countries all over the world. 

"We've come a long way, but we still 
have a long way to go. And we must get 
serious; the struggle for civil rights and 
human rights is life and death. Life and 
death. While we're sitting here, there are 
people who will die who should not die. 
There are children who are hungry who 
should not be hungry, not only in this 
country, but around the world. 

"My simple point is that every person, 
whether African-American or white or 
Latino, has a responsibility to challenge 
every manifestation of what is wrong." ■ 

J anuary -F ebruary 1994 


H|HP J 88 ^B2B Efl SHI H BAB 4i^| 








They're over-exposed to television and under-exposed 
to writing. They're driven to succeed, but they're 
worried about graduating into a failing economy. 
Are today's young adults, coined Generation X, 
hopelessly disengaged or merely misunderstood? 

■ our back-to-back Ralph Lauren 
_ images spill out of the back-to-col- 
^^^* lege issue of Rolling Stone: a rugged 
landscape, a rack of rugged jeans, a 
rack of rugged jackets, and a young couple 
with identical pouting expressions and 
blond curls. A few pages later comes a 
pitch for Apple's PowerBook computer. A 
young professional occupies her computer 
bytes, we're told, with "poems I'm working 
on" and "a movie treatment I'm writing," 
along with "my checkbook and budget" 
and "illustrations of cats." Deeper into the 
issue, a screaming- red 1994 Acura practi- 
cally leers at the reader. It's not an empty 
status symbol. It's a performance machine. 
It has dual air bags and lots of horsepower, 
and it "says to the world you've 'made it,' " 
declares the caption, "but that you didn't 
become a jerk in the process." 

All of this ad talk about "making it" in 
your own style makes Marian Moore think 
back to the recent wedding of her twenty- 
five-year-old niece. Recalls Moore, an 
associate professor in the Fuqua School of 

Business, "She wore a gorgeous dress, the 
groom wore a tuxedo, his hair was longer 
than her hair, and she marched down the 
aisle to Heavy Metal music." It was a cere- 
mony of independent spirits — something 
borrowed from traditional culture, some- 
thing loudly new. 

Today's virtual adults value their posses- 
sions, not as ostentatious symbols of hav- 
ing "made it," but with the features that 
testify to their independence. They are 
assertive of that independence. But they 
are also anxious about it. It's not that 
being young is hard. It's that getting older 
is worrisome. After all, there's no assur- 
ance that the clothing, the computer, and 
the car will survive a future of corporate 

The younger generation is the product 
of a consumer culture, and also of a con- 
fused culture. For their parents, television 
variety meant nipping among NBC, ABC, 
and CBS. International rivalries meant the 
United States facing down the Soviet 
Union. Now, everywhere, options are mul- 



tiplying. Twenty years ago, who could 
have imagined the visual assault from 
eighty-two channels? And everywhere, 
complications are deeper. Twenty years 
ago, who could have imagined the eco- 
nomic assault from a militarily lackluster 
Japan — or the workforce assault hy the 
zealots of leanness and meanness? 

"Traditional culture has eroded as com- 
munity, church, family — the base institu- 
tions — have eroded," says Duke sociology 
professor Ida Harper Simpson. The norms 
associated with a "code of civility" have 
basically vanished, she says, to be sup- 
planted by rules of behavior. And rules are 
a flimsy way to forge a civil community, 
especially one that hopes to embrace its 
rules-resistant younger members. With 
such little anchoring elsewhere, young 
people are sucked into a commercial world 
of "mass culture, much of it fads and fash- 
ions" and dictated by peer influences. 

The Fuqua School's Marian Moore 
points out that many of these young people 
grew up largely in the absence of parents. 
Both parents were probably outside the 
home working, and one may have been a 
more permanent absence from divorce. So 
their tastes were defined more by their 
peers than by their parents. Deprived of 
family life around the dining-room table, 
they reveled in the pursuits inspired by 
technology, packaging, and commercial- 
ism. They were "consumers-in-training" 
from their early years. "This is the first 
generation that grew up going to the mall 
to have fun," Moore says. 

The peer relationships forged in the 
modern mall culture, though, provide little 
grounding for a secure future. "In an earlier 
time, they would have seen their lives 
embedded within institutions," says Simp- 
son. "Fifty years ago, if you asked someone 
what he or she wanted to be, there would 
have been no hesitation. Now, the image 
of what someone might want to be — as far 
as morality is concerned, as far as concrete 
achievements are concerned — is much 
harder to construct. At every phase of a 
young person's life, the image of the next 
phase is not clear." 

That social uncertainty is captured in 
the term "Generation X." It is a term pop- 
ularized in Douglas Coupland's novel of 
the same name, a quirky exploration of 
rootlessness that calls itself "tales for an 
accelerated culture." Coupland's charac- 
ters have everything — clothes, computers, 
cars — except a guiding center, a fact that 
leaves them having nothing. 

Though a product of the Sixties, that 
romanticized decade of upheaval, Duke 
professor Janice Radway isn't enamored of 
such broad-stroke portraits. Radway, who 
teaches in the literature program, says, 
"Certainly those of my generation — the 

generation that was in college in the Six- 
ties — defined ourselves in part by our age." 
She suspects the current college genera- 
tion doesn't have the same self-identifica- 
tion — which doesn't stop commentators 
from pegging it. "It's one of the ways the 
culture tries to tell stories about itself, it's 
one of the ways that the culture tries to see 
its future, and it's a particular arena in 
which social conflicts are fought out." 
Radway says efforts at "typing" the younger 
generation are, in part, "a projection onto 
young people of the very complicated 
social factors that seem to be producing a 
society-wide sense of malaise, disaffection, 
and disaffiliation." 

They've been written about in lots of 
places, but maybe not talked to enough, 
these products of malaise, disaffection, and 
disaffiliation. So Duke Magazine gathered 
five Duke seniors for a pizza-leavened con- 
versation. They are not necessarily repre- 
sentative of a generation. But they are 
articulate and reflective in talking about 
their own habits, goals, and fears. True to 
Marian Moore's memory of that family 
wedding, the conversation produced 
impressions of a generation that's proudly 
independent-minded without being reflex- 
ively resistant to tradition, but that's also 
anxious about its prospects. 

Today's young adults 

value their possessions, 

not as ostentatious 

symbols of having 

"made it," but with the 

features that testify to 

their independence. 

Largely clad in generic jeans that consti- 
tuted hard-to-read fashion statements, the 
assembled students weren't big on genera- 
tional labels, past or present. "There's this 
view that the Sixties were this incredibly 
homogeneous time, and everyone was liv- 
ing in communes, wearing love beads, 
smoking pot, and protesting the war," said 
Raegan Diller, who proudly eschews the 
J -Crew catalogue look that she sees as the 
near-uniform of young achievers. "And I 
think we know from our parents' experi- 
ence — at least from my parents' experi- 
ence — that though they were young in the 
Sixties, they were very conservative. Well, 
my mother did get married in a mini-skirt. 
But were people in the Sixties so sure of 

their solidarity that they could meet any- 
one and it was, like, 'Peace, man,' and 
they would all really get along 1 " 

Today there is no all 
consuming Vietnam War 
no clear-cut civil rights 
struggle, and young peo- s 
pie don't have an obvi- 
ous energizing issue to 
take them beyond ' 
themselves. Tom 
McCollough, a Duke 
associate professor of 
religion, talks about a 
pervasive narcissism— 
"this generation's version 
of the characteristic Ameri 
can individualism," as he puts it 
"There is not so much cynicism about 
social institutions as there is apathy and a 
lack of any sense of social obligation or of 
membership in a public community. But 
young people always reflect the society in 
which they grow up. These kids grew up in 
the Reagan years, when the country's 
moral imagination was eclipsed by the feed- 
ing frenzy of Wall Street. It had its effect." 

"We certainly have not had something 
like Vietnam that would mobilize our cul- 
ture," said Paul Kelleher. "But we have had 
twelve years of a White House which had 
maybe a more subtle and insidious effect, 
economically and politically." Kelleher is a 
former writer for the arch-conservative 
Duke Review who has transferred his voice 
to the mainstream campus Chronicle. 
There, writing as the "Armchair Pundit," 
he muses on themes like constructing a 
gay identity and the relationship between 
power and prejudice. As Kelleher and 
some of the other students saw it, morning 
in America degenerated into a nightmare 
of huge debts and an array of social ills. 
"It's hard to rally around cynicism," Kelle- 
her said. "It's hard to see folk music com- 
ing out of the Reagan years." 

Colby Walton had a somewhat different 
take on the much-maligned Eighties: He 
called it "a refreshingly honest period in 
American history, when we were very open 
and honest about what our society values." 
The idea of a gentler decade of the Nine- 
ties is "media posturing," he added. His 
generation, he said, has internalized the 
much-maligned values of the Eighties. "I 
don't think we are any less greedy or any 
less selfish today." 

With a view toward a time of cynicism 
from which today's students sprang, critics 
see this as a generation fixed on entitle- 
ment — whether it's entitlement to a good 
job or, in the context of the college cam- 
pus, to free-flowing beer. In the student 
discussion, Brad Rubin took offense to that 
statement. "I think you just described 
youth to me," he said. "You just described 



the youth of the last thousand years. I 
think that's basically called growing up. 
You eventually have to assume responsibil- 
^ ity, but for a good period of time, every- 
H^ one wants to have their cake and eat 

Oit, too." Intense, energetic, a fever- 
ishly-fast talker, a seasoned singer 
^ with Duke's "Pitchforks," and 
EL' associate university editor for The 
Jfe Chronicle, Rubin assumed adult- 
like responsibility to fuel the stu- 
H dent discussion: He magnani- 
V mously employed his Duke debit 
card for a pizza delivery. 
"I think the concept of instant 

Go tell your Mom that you want this doll. 
It gets ingrained in your personality at a 
very young age that there's nothing wrong 
with caring about something and then 
wanting it immediately." 

If the coming-of-age generation of the 
Sixties grew up with the television image, 
these young people have mastered its 
nuances. Duke's Janice Radway says young 
people are still readers. "But they are 
astute analysts and observers of visual 
materials. They can read visual images 
with a speed and a complexity and an 
attention to nuance. You could show an 
MTV video to a bunch of kids and they 


The collegiate generation 
is shaped not just by its 
upbringing but by its 
faith — or lack of faith — in the 
future. Many students worry 
about graduating into an insidi- 
ous economy, one which may 
not be so ready to reward their 
years of preparation and their 
indebtedness from years of 
tuition payments. 

Typically, more than a third 
of Duke's senior class pursues 
graduate or professional 
school — mostly in law or medi- 
cine — right away. Most of the 
rest go job-hunting. When 
asked to rank possible influ- 
ences on the career path taken, 
more than 58 percent point to 
their parents; graduates cite 
their academic majors, intern- 
ships, extracurricular activities, 
and faculty members less often. 

"The whole aspect of fear 
flavors career planning," says 
John Noble, Duke's director of 
career planning, whose office 
runs the survey of recent grad- 
uates. "That tends to be the 
motivating factor for students 

in their career choices — fear of 
the future." 

Noble says the relationship 
between loan obligations and 
career choices isn't clear cut. 
Just 1 1 percent indicated in his 
survey that indebtedness from 
college loans would figure in 
their career planning. If 
they've had to work toward 
paying their college bills, stu- 
dents may actually develop 
confidence in their future 
money-earning power, he says. 

A lot of students do look for 
the prestige quality in their first 
job, which often takes them 
along the professional-school 
path. Says Noble, "There are a 
good number of people in law 
school who don't know why 
they want to be lawyers. That's 
just been their expectation." If, 
as his findings suggest, Duke 
students look first to their par- 
ents in making career choices, 
it's easy to say how the parent 
factor is linked with the pres- 
tige factor: Thirty percent of 
Duke's students report their 
family income as exceeding 

$150,000, and another 20 per- 
cent as greater than $100,000. 
Noble thinks the career field 
is coming around to an almost 
eighteenth-century mode of 
apprenticeship and mentor- 
ship. Ironically, those qualities 
are more important in a world 
driven by technology, he says. 
Students are learning the 
importance of asking who 
they're going to be working 
for — not what company, but 
what person. "These students 
grew up with technology at 
their fingertips. They're able to 
get information quickly 
through nonhuman mecha- 
nisms. But even with desktop 
computers that do everything 
in information retrieval 
there's still a need 
for personal ^ <& 

contact and ^ V 
personal /(" "■ 
connec- A _!»»*• 4ffl 

gratification is a lot more prevalent," said 
Raegan Diller. "There is a lot more of a 
sense of you don't just decide you want 
something and then wait for it. You want 
the thing and you get it, like, right away. I 
just don't know that that attitude has 
always been there." Rather than going for 
her own instant gratification, Diller is tak- 
ing the increasingly popular path of a year 
off before graduate or professional school. 
From that, she hopes to figure out exactly 
what she wants to do. 

"Our culture has become so commercial- 
ized that youth doesn't have much of an 
option but to feel that way, because all the 
media and all the advertisements tell them 
that," said Molly Joondeph, who has done 
a bit of selling as a tour guide for Duke. 
"Like in the Saturday morning cartoons: 

could give you an 
articulate narrative V 
of what it's about, 1 
why those images are 
put together the way 
they are. It's a ver 
sophisticated reading 

and interpretive process. It's 
exerted on different texts, it's using 
different strategies, but it's just as sophisti- 
cated as somebody being able to interpret 
a print novel." 

Youthful conversations aren't "this end- 
less string of rehashing old TV shows," said 
Colby Walton, who would emerge as the 
evening's champion stereotype-smasher. "I 
do think TV plays a great role in our cul- 
tural dialogue. The Brady Bunch, The jet- 
sons, whatever, become common catch- 

phrases and characters. They crop up a lot. 
But I don't think they define everything 
we talk about." As a cultural common 
denominator, television characters are 
today's equivalent, said Brad Rubin, of the 
Superman comic books of the Fifties and 
Sixties. Because print culture is so frag- 
mented — with publications aplenty to fill 
every particular market niche and to 
appeal to every special interest — the likeli- 
hood of a shared reading experience "is 
pretty small," Molly Joondeph said. 

For these young people, an equally basic 
common denominator is ease with informa- 
tion. They'd be lost in the library without 
electronic data banks, and overwhelmed 
as writers without word-processing. Some 
said they had virtually no experience with 
a typewriter. Van Hillard, assistant direc- 
tor of the University Writing Program at 
Duke, is interested in how students 
approach the increasingly on-line research 
library. "The library used to represent a 
kind of structure of knowledge," he says. 
"It was a place of investigation, a place to 
exchange ideas and to see the forms of 
relatedness among texts." Now the library 
has become an "information warehouse," 
and "reading the library," says Hillard, "is 
the equivalent of getting a data dump, like 
fly paper snatching information. Whatever 
sticks is good enough." 

Through their high school years, stu- 
dents are asked questions about their read- 
ing that demands back information but not 
interpretation — questions that go 
something like this: "What 
^ does Melville really mean 
■^ in this passage?" and 
B^ "How many times 
oes Moby Dick 
surface?" Both 
questions are 
"equally dis- 
abling," says 
Hillard. "They 
call for facts, 
for the right 
answer, for a 
response that is 
not mediated by 
any individual con- 
sciousness." From 
years of meeting that 
educational expectation, 
"Students are very good at rat- 
ing rather than reading," he says. They 
approach books with the undisciplined zeal 
of "information hounds, with their high- 
lighter in hand." 

These students were more eager to con- 
ceive of expectations on the rise than 
analysis on the decline. Students today 
analyze just as sharply as students ever did, 
said Colby Walton. Teachers, though, 
know of students' easy access to informa- 

] anuary -F ebruary 1994 


tion and their ability to perform electronic 
cut-and-paste; they "don't feel horrible 
about assigning a twenty- or twenty-five- 
page paper." There might be a temptation 
to "throw a lot" of information into a 
paper, said Raegan Diller. But "it isn't 
painful to put it in in the first place, so it's 
not so painful to take it out." Brad Rubin 
said his education has stressed "how to 
deal with whittling down vastly large 
amounts of information," so that the 
process has become "second nature." 

You can't make much of a life, though, 
out of information expertise. If the Six- 
ties — that inescapable generational mile- 
stone — was a time of upheaval, it was also 
a time of idealism. And what's been lost by 
today's version of the Lost Generation, say 
the critics, is idealism. 

Duke Dean of the Chapel William H. 
Willimon, who last spring issued a hard- 
hitting report on student life, says that 
"The majority of students seem to believe 
that the university is merely a step on the 
way to law school, a necessary evil to be 
endured before Wall Street." In her orien- 
tation address to the freshman class, Duke 
president Nannerl O. Keohane confronted 
that theme — and tried to redirect under- 
graduate attention. She said that "the 
biggest cancer on an undergraduate educa- 
tion is worrying too early and too much 
about what you are going to do afterwards. 
That kind of worry consumes your time 
and energies, redirects your vital juices in 
perverse directions, and slowly drives out 
more healthy intellectual impulses." 

But to these students, there's little 
choice in how they direct their time and 
energies. Brad Rubin said "the stories are 
everywhere" about college graduates frus- 
trated in their job searches. That economic 
uncertainty, he said, is the defining reality 
of this generation. It weighs on him as a 
bitter reality. "I really think that we are 
the first generation in a long time, maybe 
the first generation ever in this country, 
that doesn't have access to a piece of the 
American dream. Economically, this coun- 
try is not what it once was, is not what it 
was ten years ago, and our generation is 
facing the very bitter prospect that we may 
never achieve the standard of living that 
our parents have. I've got friends who 
graduated from here and did nothing 
because they simply could not find a job." 

Rubin's brother graduated four years ago 
from another prestigious school, "did noth- 
ing" for a time, and still "doesn't have a 
job commensurate with his degree," he 
said. "I think people of our generation are 
working very hard. I was told in my child- 
hood that if I worked hard, I would 
achieve things that were commensurate 
with my effort. And that is not turning out 
to be the reality." 

With such little anchor- 
ing elsewhere, they are 
sucked into a commercial 
world of "mass culture, 
much of it fads and 
fashions," dictated by 
peer influences. 

"Look at something as simple as wanting 
to provide for your children," said Raegan 
Diller. "How much is college going to cost 
when it comes time to send your kids to 
college? I think people are saying we have 
to get jobs where we make a lot of money, 
because it's going to be obscene how much 
we're going to have to pay for that. Public 
schools are getting worse. How many peo- 
ple are going to have to place their kids in 
private schools? I don't think we're talking 
about living in some twenty-six-room 
mansion. We're talking about a larger 
amount of money to attain a middle-class 
lifestyle, a decent standard of living, where 
you're not always thinking, 'How am I 
going to be able to afford that?' " 

Today's students may be stressed from 
more than economic realities, says Jane 
Clark Moorman, the director of Duke's 
Counseling and Psychological Services 
(CAPS). Intellectual giftedness doesn't 
necessarily translate into social adeptness. 
In many cases, she says, students who have 
known little intimacy at home have a hard 
time developing close relationships with 
their peers — to the point where Moor- 
man's staff finds students suffering enor- 
mous emotional damage from such con- 
ventional life events as girlfriend/boyfriend 
breakups. "When they lose that, there's 
nothing left emotionally." 

Student users of CAPS take a self- 
assessment test that's considered a stan- 
dard indicator of depression. Seven years 
ago, less than 6 percent answered ques- 
tions in a way that marked them as severe- 
ly depressed. Now, three times that num- 
ber do. A few years ago, the counseling 
service referred 5 to 10 percent of its stu- 
dents for long-term psychotherapy. Now, 
the figure is 20 percent. 

Part of the reason for that troubling 
growth statistic in apparently troubled stu- 
dents is the loss of the stigma once attached 
to psychological counseling. Part of the rea- 
son is the success ethic characteristic of 
Duke students. But Moorman sees more 
pernicious symptoms of changing times. 

"We have a lot of students who do not 
have what most adolescent theory of the 
last fifty years has assumed — that is, a solid 
home life where they feel secure and stable 
enough to rebel against it in order to 
develop a sense of autonomy and indepen- 
dence. Those are the key issues in late 
adolescence and young adulthood. What 
we're seeing instead is students coming 
from homes where there is not stability 
and where they may very well have been 
emotionally if not physically neglected, 
and where they may have been emotional- 
ly if not sexually abused. They haven't got- 
ten from their parents what they've needed 
in terms of love, in terms of discipline, in 
terms of support, in terms of all the ordi- 
nary parental functions that we think of." 

There are plenty of statistical signs of a 
diminishing solid home life. (There are 
also anecdotal signs: The Chronicle this fall 
published one student's reflections on his 
suicide attempt, and another's thoughts on 
being an incest survivor.) Every year, the 
Higher Education Research Institute at 
the University of California at Los Ange- 
les surveys college freshmen. In 1972, 
about 9 percent of freshmen said in the 
survey that their parents had divorced or 
separated. By 1992, that proportion had 
risen to 25 percent. Duke sociologist Ida 
Simpson calls divorce — and, in particular, 
the absence of the father — an "insidious" 
social phenomenon, producing problems 
for children in handling authority and in 
forming lasting relationships. 

Dean of the Chapel Willimon begins 
his freshman seminar by having students 
write a short "Personal History Paper." 
Last year, from the sixteen papers he 
received, seven mentioned that the most 
profound life-changing event for them was 
their parents' divorce. 

But the students we talked to weren't so 
quick to harp on divorce. Paul Kelleher 
said he knows of both-parents-present 
households that, however socially accept- 
able, are brimming with hostility — produc- 
ing "the most evil situation I could imag- 
ine," as he put it. "I'm from what would be 
the absolutely most traditional home you 
can think of," said Brad Rubin, "and I had 
my share of problems. So I don't think it 
has to do with broken or unbroken homes." 

"What's affected the kids of broken homes 
is the fact that parents didn't get along after 
they got divorced," said Molly Joondeph. 
"That is what has hurt a lot of people I 
know, when the parents fight and the kids 
are the pawns. My roommate's parents were 
divorced when she was very young, but 
they're still very close and keep a good rela- 
tionship. I think it would have been more 
harmful had she grown up in a home where 
the parents stayed together but didn't want 
Continued on page 5 ] 




early 3,000 alumni and family 
members came back to campus 
over two weekends this fall for 
education, contemplation, and celebration: 

• Duke Directions — a day of classes 
and discussions with top Duke faculty on a 
variety of topics, ranging from "Women 
and War" to "Religion and Violence: Peo- 
ple's Temple and Branch Davidians"; 

• Panel discussions — the Half Century 
Club and two current Duke students on 
"Nostalgia to Nostradamus: Then-Now- 
Tomorrow"; the Class of 1963's "Class 
Conversation" on emerging patterns in 
their lives since graduation; the Class of 
1968's "Duke Generations," from 1943 to 
1993 [see "Retrospectives"]; and the Class 
of 1978's "Educating Our Kids for the '90s"; 

• "Duke Pride" — a campus and commu- 
nity-wide Homecoming event on the Wal- 
lace Wade concourse, featuring cheerlead- 
ers, a pep rally, banners, floats, music, beer, 
and local restaurants offering sample fare. 

Young alumni were welcomed to Octo- 
ber's Homecoming Weekend with special 
events, such as "Slideaway to the Hide- 
way," the Kappa Sigma Schoonerfest, and 
a "Welcome Back Bash" in the CI for the 
classes of '89, '90, '91, '92, and '93. 

Total attendance was 2,770, with class 
gifts totaling a record-breaking $1,990,231. 
Seven classes broke past giving records. 

Here is the breakdown: Half Century 
Club, 201 attending, with the $589,072 
class gift setting new HCC record; Class 
of '43, 216, $158,848; Class of '48, 93, 
$90,562; Class of '53, 223, 
$241,102, a record gift for 
fortieth reunions; Class of 
'58, 158, $213,237, a record 
gift for thirty-fifth reunions; 
Class of '63, 154, $301,909; 
Class of '68, 356, $309,915, 
a record gift for twenty-fifth 
reunions; Class of '73, 266, 
$222,416, a record gift for 
twentieth reunions; Class of 
'78, 211, $229,225, a record 
gift for fifteenth reunions; 
Class of '83, 484, $168,176, a 
record gift for tenth reunions; 
Class of '88, 408, $54,841, a 
record gift tor fifth reunions. 

J anuary-February 1994 



efore Stanley G. Brading Jr. '75, the 
Duke Alumni Association's new 
president, chaired his first full DAA 
board meeting, he welcomed another new 
president to office, Nannerl O. Keohane. 
Brading represented the alumni body on 
the podium at the inauguration of the uni- 
versity's eighth president on October 23. 

Immediate past president 
Edward M. Hanson Jr. '73, 
A.M. '77, J.D. '77, who chairs 
the Alumni Continuing Edu- 
cation and Travel Committee, 
noted that the twenty-year- 
old travel program, which 
annually serves nearly 400 
alumni and friends, brings 
needed revenue to the DAA, 
helping to support other pro- 
grams. Lifelong learning, 
DAA's continuing education iTf^TT 
component, had approximate- 
ly 700 participants, attracting a younger and 
more diverse population than the travel pro- 
gram. A new program, the Great Teachers 
Series, featuring outstanding Duke faculty 
on video, is in the planning stages. 

Laurie Eisenberg May '71, chair of the 
Alumni Admissions Advisory Committee, 
reported that applications for admission are 
up 10 to 12 percent this year, perhaps 
reflecting an increasing number of eigh- 
teen-year-olds. As for the current freshman 
class, the Class of 1997, there were 13,789 
applications; 429 alumni children applied, 
232 were accepted, and 142 matriculated. 

Reporting for the Member Benefits and 
Services Committee, Ralph M. Delia Ratta 
Jr. '75 outlined both the service-oriented 
philosophy and the revenue-raising poten- 
tial of that area, encompassing lifetime 
dues, the affinity credit card, SkillSearch, 
alumni directories, insurance, and other 
future projects such as the Great Teachers 
video series and DIABLO, a computer- 
interactive information service. The dues 
program boasts a 25 percent alumni partic- 
ipation rate; demographics show that a 
higher percentage of older alumni pay dues. 

Reports from initial meetings of the task 
forces followed. John E. Hansen '59, repre- 
senting Infrastructure, announced that the 
alumni/visitors center idea was being revis- 
ited. Surveys of other successful alumni 
association programs may be helpful, he 
said, in determining what other programs 
and opportunities exist to utilize current 
resources and/or increase revenues. 

Robert T. Harper '76, J.D. '79 spoke for 
Lifelong Relationships, a task force charged 
with building stronger ties within the 
Duke community. Members will review 

the time-line of the Duke experience, 
divided into seven segments, from apply- 
ing in high school to induction into the 
Half Century Club. The committee also 
identified The Chronicle as a key element 
in building a stronger student-campus- 
alumni community. 

John A. Schwarz III '56, who chairs the 
Internationalization Task Force, reported a 
key university concern of enhancing 
Duke's international reputation. Only 1.6 
percent of current Duke students are from 
abroad, compared to Princeton's 
7.4 percent. Several strategies 
were outlined, including having 
international students interact 
with Triangle host families and 
DAA-sponsored receptions in 
tandem with Duke's Interna- 
tional House. 

Lifelong Learning/Faculty Re- 
. lationships, headed by Sandra 
I Clingan Smith '80, M.B.A. '83, 
J reported on working with a fac- 

: liT ng ulty committee to identif y «** 

kinds of alumni data that might 
be useful to faculty interested in making 
use of alumni as a classroom resource. A 
survey is planned for the spring. The com- 
mittee also discussed, she said, the ways to 
reconnect and reach large numbers of 
alumni, including electronic communica- 
tion (DIABLO), Renaissance Weekend- 
type programming, affinity groups, "net- 
working" and career planning, and "Great 
Book" discussion groups. 

Ross Harris '78, M.B.A. '80, who chairs 
the task force on Communications/Corpo- 
rate Identity, said it would be concerned 
with determining the "brand image" of the 
DAA. Duke is a lifetime experience and 
should be promoted as such, she said, 
adding that a focus group from the campus 
will be assembled to discern what the 
DAA means, and could mean, to them. 

Paralleling the DAA board weekend was 
the annual weekend retreat of the Duke 
Magazine editorial advisory board. In addi- 
tion to taking in the inauguration cere- 
monies, the board heard from Dean of the 
Chapel Will Willimon, who talked about 
his survey of Duke student life, and from 
Senior Vice President for Public Affairs 
John F. Burness. The closing brunch fea- 
tured Bruce Lawrence, religion professor 
and director of Comparative Area Studies, 
who discussed the Islamic world; and Ole R. 
Holsti, George V. Allen Professor of Politi- 
cal Science, who reviewed his long-term 
project on American elites and the forging 
of a foreign policy consensus. The director 
of Laughter on the 23rd Floor, Jerry Zaks, 
good-naturedly fielded questions, giving 
board members a rare opportunity to "talk 
back to the theater," as one of them put it. 
Laughter, the new Neil Simon play that pre- 

viewed on campus, had been the main 
event for the board the previous night. 

The editorial advisory board's chair is 
Clay Felker '51, a long-time force in jour- 
nalism and publishing and founding editor 
of New York magazine. The retreat weekend 
attracted three new members: Peter Apple- 
borne '71, Southern bureau chief for The 
New York Times; R. Robin McDonald '77, 
staff writer for the Atlanta Journal & Con- 
stitution; and Kerry E. Harmon '82, associate 
editor with U.S. News & World Report. 


Duke CARES (Community Action 
Response Encouraging Service), an 
international project of Duke clubs, 
was launched as a day for doing for others. 
Last year, that day was October 31 and 
alumni pitched in with Halloween parties 
for underprivileged kids, neighborhood 
clean-ups, food for the homeless, and other 
volunteer efforts. Such efforts, never limit- 
ed to just one day — though symbolized by 
one day — have snowballed. For 1994, 
Duke CARES Day is May 2 1 . 

Last year, DUMAA (Duke University 
Metropolitan Alumni Association) members 
participated in a city-wide event on October 
16 sponsored by New York Cares, a nonprof- 
it organization founded by Bob Evans '80. 
The group has gained national attention for 
its success in mobilizing thousands of young 
professional volunteers to renovate low- 
income housing, tutor children, and feed the 
homeless. New York Cares Day's project was 
to paint the entire school yard fence for Pub- 
lic School 126 in Harlem. 

Now DUMAA continues its long-estab- 
lished volunteer work throughout the year, 
staffing both the St. John the Divine soup 
kitchen and the University Soup Kitchen. 
Chrys Tsilibes '87 is the club's community 
service organizer and Pat Dempsey '80 is 
DUMAA's president. 

The Duke Club of Memphis-sponsored 
Halloween carnival for the children at 
Estival Place was so successful last year 
that the Vanderbilt alumni club requested 
a joint venture for this year. Estival Place 
offers rent-free housing for a year to the 
previously homeless as they prepare for 
long-term independence. There was face- 
painting, a play, bingo, games and prizes, 
and "goodie bags." Sue Bartow Matthews 
'74 and Paul Matthews '74 were the club's 
contacts for the event; Anita Burke '91 
and Santiago Arbelaez '92 are the club's 
new co-presidents. 

Another joint venture, Christmas in 
April, was the service project for the Duke 
Club of Charlotte last spring. Christmas in 



April, a national organization, celebrated 
its second decade this year. Under the 
direction of Jeanine Poore Geraffo '84 and 
Shep McKinley '87, area alumni helped 
renovate seven homes for the elderly and 
physically challenged. Tasks ranged from 
flooring to roofing, plumbing to painting, 
carpentry to landscaping. Charlotte alum- 
ni also rewired homes for lighting and 
heating, built wheelchair ramps, hung gut- 
ters and shutters, and installed windows. 
The club's president is Kelly Graves '77. 

The Duke Club of Chicago repeated the 
previous year's successful service project by 
working with Habitat for Humanity to 
build and rehab low-cost houses in July. In 
November, the club assisted the Lincoln- 
Belmont Food Pantry by dropping off 
empty grocery bags in neighborhoods and 
picking them up the next week filled with 
food. The Pantry feeds more than 10,000 
people, nearly half of whom are children 
living below the poverty level. Leslie Jones 
'86, Bill Rountree B.S.E. '84, and Laura 
Van Peenan '87 were the club contacts; 
Alex Geier '85 is the club's president. 

The Duke Club of Tampa Bay held 
its annual Habitat for Humanity Workday 
in December, and even provided a catered 
lunch. Ed Reefe B.S.C.E. '68 organized 
the activity; Brad Welch '83 is the club's 

The Duke Club of Central Indiana sup- 
ported the Fountain Square Church Com- 
munity Project for its Duke CARES ven- 
ture. The Project rehabilitates inner-city 
houses for purchase by deserving families, 
who also contribute "sweat equity." David 
Arthur M.B.A. '90 oversaw the event; 
Bernard F. Tobin M.B.A. '91 is the club's 
new president. 

Duke teamed with Yale in Boston on 
the City Year Servathon in October as 
part of the Duke Club of Boston's commu- 
nity service effort. City Year is an "urban 
peace corps" developed in 1983, in which 
young adults pledge nine months of full- 
time community service to the city of 
Boston. They are paid a weekly stipend 
and receive a $5,000 scholarship toward 
college. Mark Vasu '84 is the group's Duke 
connection. Boston alumni volunteered to 
work on a project for the day and collect 
pledges for City Year. The club also partic- 
ipates in the Greater Boston Food Bank, 
which sorts and redistributes canned goods 
to shelters across the city. Willis Brown 
'74 and Amanda Calder '83 are the club's 
contacts; Lillian Habeich '87 is the Boston 
club's president. 

The five-year old, award-winning PIE 
(Partners in Education) Project initiated 
by the Duke Club of Washington serves as 
the model for adopt-a-school programs. 
Alumni volunteers provide tutoring, men- 
toring, arts and crafts, sports, and holiday 

events for the Ludlow-Taylor Elementary 
School in Northeast D.C. Joan Hilton '52 
is the club's president. 

Another adopt-a-school project, the 
Duke Club of Southern California and Pio 
Pico Elementary School, is in its second 
year, with Saturday events such as Go Fly 
a Kite Day and Career Day. The club is 
kicking off an adopt-a-class program in 
which alumni can adopt a small group of 
kids with whom they'll share their talents 
and creativity. A health and fitness fair 
was held in January and a school beautifi- 
cation and environmental awareness day 
was held in May. Club president Eva 

Herbst '87 and Laine Wagenseller '90 are 
the contact people. 

Charity still begins at home. In October, 
the Duke Club of the Triangle held an 
open house at the newly refurbished 
Ronald McDonald House, temporary home 
for the families of Duke's pediatric patients. 
Volunteers played with the children, baked 
brownies, assisted in the office, or made 
phone calls for the Women's Basketball 
Tournament. Proceeds from ticket sales for 
the December tournament go to the 
Ronald McDonald House. Carolyn Ketner 
Penny '57 was the motivator for the event; 
Herb Neubauer '63 is the club's president. 













Byron Mckane, Department of Religion, Washington a lee university 


Return to: Duke Alumni college, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, nc 27708 


J anuary -F ebruary 1994 


It's not just the post-Baby Boomer 
Generation X that has commanded 
the media spotlight. At Duke and 
elsewhere, this has been a year of anniver- 
saries, some of them inspiring ambiva- 
lence, some of them emotionally wrench- 
ing. Both the Class of '43 and the Class of 
'68 returned to campus for their reunions, 
prompting fifty and twenty-five years of 
reflection on times of war, patriotism, 
protest, and social change. 

Despite being born a quarter-century 
apart, the classes shared the experience of 
war. Vietnam and World War II weighed 
heavily on the two Duke classes, in many 
ways waking them from their Gothic 
scholarly slumber. During their separate 
reunion weekends, members of the classes 
gathered to reflect on the tumultuous 
times of their undergraduate years. 

The good war: so proudly they served 
When the Class of '43 entered Duke, 
the political problems of the world seemed 
far away, almost irrelevant, said Bill Wet- 
more '43. "We had started school before 
the war, especially before the European sit- 
uation had developed. So until 1941, [the 
conflict] was pretty distant." 

But on December 7, 1941, the Japanese 
attack on Pearl Harbor shocked the campus 
into reality. "I remember that day clearly, " 
said Wetmore. "It was a Sunday afternoon, 
shortly after lunch. We went to a movie. I 
was kind of stunned. I wasn't sure I under- 
stood exactly what had taken place because 
I really had no feeling that the Japanese 
were even really considering such a thing. 
Needless to say, there wasn't a single bit of 
work done the rest of that day." 

In the weeks and months that followed, 
hundreds of Duke men enthusiastically 
signed up for the military. "One of the 
immediate reactions was, 'This isn't going 
to take long. We're going to bomb them, 

get out, and that will be it,' " said Wet- 
more. Although patriotism provided the 
primary motivation for enlistment, igno- 
rance and youthful innocence played their 
parts as well. "We were too young and 
carefree to think about [the consequences 
of] the war," said Clair Gingher '43. 
"Everybody immediately signed up in one 
service or another." 

"Most of us had no idea what war was 
all about," said Ralph Morgan '43. "They 
asked us to sign up in the Navy, and, gosh, 
all they had to do was ask me." 

In fact, Morgan had special surgery 
specifically so he would be eligible to 
enlist. "I had had some problems with 
some pains in the lower gut," he said. 
"And when I signed up, the doctor gave 
me an exam. He said, 'You better get your 
appendix out if you want to go. You never 
know where you'll be when you'll have 
another attack.' So I went the next week 
and got it taken out." 

This passion to expedite enlistment 
even extended to some of the faculty. "We 
had this final exam in an electrical engi- 
neering course that the mechanical engi- 
neers had," Gingher said. "The professor 
passed out the blue books and said with a 
real serious look on his face, 'Okay fellas, 
put the date and your name on the blue 
book and pass it in.' That's all we needed 
to do to pass." 

For the Class of '68, there was no single 
catalyst for Vietnam, no Pearl Harbor. "It 
just grew," said Betsy Farmer '68. "Looking 
back, nobody paid attention to it. It wasn't a 
factor until they started shipping large groups 
of young men over there in the draft." 

In some ways, the draft became a bigger 
issue for the Class of '68 than did the actual 
war. "In 1967, with the Tet Offensive, there 
was a great cultural shift," said Cleve Calli- 
son '68. "People began to perceive that 
America was losing the war, and that it was 
continuing to eat people up. And, of course, 
as we got closer to graduation, we began to 
wonder what was going to happen to us." 

Initially, protest and opposition to the 
war went against the upbringing of most stu- 
dents. But, eventually, the personal impact 
of the draft challenged the Class of '68 to re- 
evaluate their priorities. "The opinions of 
students many times at first reflected the 
opinions of our parents," said Don Brannon 
'68. "The opinion of parents was that 'Our 
wars are right,' and it wasn't until later that 



student opinions started to disagree for the 
fitst time with parental opinions." 

And this opposition many times result- 
ed from pure self-interest. "The war wasn't 
so much political for us as it was personal," 
said Callison. "It wasn't so much, 'How 
can I demonstrate my opposition to the 
Vietnam War?' It was, 'How can I get my 
draft deferred?' " 

Some men and women from the Class of 
'68 did fight in Vietnam. "There were a 
number of people who actually left school 
and signed up," said Janet Bolinger Har- 
ington '68. But attending college provided 
an exemption from the draft, forcing many 
students, administrators, and faculty to 
rethink their loyalties. "Duke changed the 
grade system," said Harington. "It was pretty 
much a C curve the first 
couple of years, and it 
pretty much turned into 
a B curve by the time we 
graduated. They didn't 
want to flunk anyone." 

"Earl Clemmen's psych 
class was like that. He 
said, 'I don't want to send 
any of you to Vietnam so 
I'm going to pass all of 
you as long as you show 
up and take the tests,' " 
Harington recalled. 

Today, these exemp- 
tions still generate feel- 
ings of guilt and privi- 
lege for- the Class of '68. 
"I was in the Army Re- 
serve," said Joe Kennedy 
'68, a former Duke bas- 
ketball player. "I went out to Seattle and 
made the [professional basketball] team, 
and they got me in the Reserve unit 
because my draft number was something 
like thirty-four. I would have gone off to 
the war. 

"But when I did active duty, I was in a 
unit with Reservists and National Guards 
that were all doctors and lawyers. We went 
through basic training with a bunch of 
guys who were drafted. And they were all 
from the Los Angeles area, at the low end 
of the socio-economic level. So the ones 
who went over there were the ones who 
probably didn't make it back. And they 
were the ones who probably couldn't find 
another way out of it." 

"My mother was an English teacher," 
said Callison. "And she flunked a guy who 
was a year behind me at this little college 
where she was teaching. She flunked him, 
he dropped out of school, got drafted, and 
went to Vietnam and got killed. And his 
family never spoke to my mother again." 

"I think that's something our generation 
hasn't yet come to terms with," Brannon 
said. "There's a fair amount of guilt in 

deferments. We were able to go to college. 
That's a class issue." 

Attending college, especially one of 
Duke's caliber, also offered the Class of '68 
further exemptions — greater access to grad- 
uate school and the Peace Corps. "I was 
going to become a lawyer," Brannon said. 
"But the Vietnam War got in the way, and 
that changed occupational planning a lot. I 
ended up going into the Peace Corps 
instead." Brannon said that the prominence 
of John F. Kennedy's public service agenda 
and the altruistic attitude growing among 
young people influenced his decision to 
join the Peace Corps. "But as much as any- 
thing, it was the Vietnam War, and the fact 
that the Corps was a way out of the war." 

For Wetmore and his fellow '43 South- 

The bad war: so boldly they protested 

gate engineers, there were no exemptions 
from World War II. Returning to Duke for 
their fiftieth reunion, the class still dwells 
on the names of those who perished. 
While other memories of college faded 
with the years, the faces and personalities 
of those who didn't return from the war 
remained a constant subject of conversa- 
tion — and the conversation was enriched 
with the dedication of Duke's new World 
War II memorial. 

"When war broke out, they accelerated 
our graduation so we could get into the 
military. Most of us had already enlisted in 
one program or another anyway," said Don 
Schlerf '43. "Most of us didn't even have a 
graduation," said Clair Gingher '43. "We 
left for the war in March." The threat of 
death and the postponement of a non-mil- 
itary career were almost non-issues. "Get 
the war over with, that was first," Gingher 
said. Companies didn't recruit for jobs in 
1943 as they do today. "I don't think any 
of us had a job lined up anyway." 

Twenty-five years later, job recruiting 
did affect the Class of '68. "I remember 
they used to bring corporate recruiters on 

campus," said Kennedy. "And you'd go 
over and talk to someone from Procter &. 
Gamble or Dow Chemical and they'd say, 
'We don't even want to talk to you unless 
you have a draft deferment.' " 

Marriage and personal relationships were 
among the influences on campus of World 
War II. "I was pretty close to a girl here," 
said Schlerf. "And when I went off to war, 
it cooled down." 

"It was the opposite for me," said Carl 
Edens '43. "I met a girl here, married, and 
settled down. It wasn't on a planned basis. 
But it was accelerated by the feeling of 
pressure from the war." 

"I started dating my future wife two 
weeks before graduation — two weeks 
before I was pulled away," Gingher said. 
"So war certainly had that 
effect on me. I think that 
was an accelerated thing." 
Farmer felt the same 
effect on the Class of '68. 
"I think it might have pro- 
pelled some people into 
marriages they would not 
have made if the war had 
not been there." 

In addition to Vietnam, 
the late Sixties provided a 
series of shocking episodes 
a that shook the national 
| psyche; America appeared 
I to be falling apart at the 
| seams more than it ap- 
1 peared to be rolling toward 
g victory and self-assertion. 
The deaths of Robert Ken- 
nedy and Martin Luther 
King Jr., the increasingly turbulent nature 
of the civil rights movement, and the sex- 
ual revolution were all coming to bear on 
the campus. 

Women's roles and expectations began 
to expand. "Probably half of us [women] 
got married right after college," said Har- 
ington. "That was still kind of an expecta- 
tion. Most women in my family weren't 
expected to go to graduate school. The 
men were. I didn't question it." 

"What was confusing for us is that for 
women of our generation, all of a sudden, 
we were beginning to think we did have a 
choice and in some ways that was confus- 
ing because we were raised in what I call 
the Lady's Home Journal world of the 
Fifties," Farmer said. When they arrived at 
Duke, she said, many of the women stu- 
dents didn't question the social constraints 
which their parents had placed on them. 
"And then all of a sudden we were begin- 
ning to think that maybe the world wasn't 
going to turn out the way we were raised to 
think it was. And that was confusing, 
because then you were trying to decide what 
it was you wanted or what you should want." 

J anuary -F ebruary 1994 




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|^ Durham, NC 27708-0747 
(919) 684-3847 

Inevitably, civil rights became a press- 
ing issue on campus. In the fall of '67, 
there was a university referendum over the 
issue of segregated off-campus facilities. 
The student government, widely acknowl- 
edged at the time to be mostly controlled 
by liberals, proposed that no university- 
affiliated student organization should be 
allowed to hold social affairs at segregated 
off-campus facilities. There were still 
white-only locations in the Durham area 
at that time hosting fraternity parties, 
including the Hope Valley Country Club, 
which listed among its members basketball 
coach Vic Bubas, football coach Tom 
Harp, athletics director Eddie Cameron, 
and president Douglas Knight. 

Students voted down the referendum, 
leading close to seventy black students to 
stage a study- in outside Knight's office 
until the administration eventually over- 
ruled the vote and outlawed organized off- 
campus parties at segregated places. 

Episodes like the segregation referen- 
dum remind Callison that while many 
remember the late Sixties as a time of 
campus contentiousness, the majority of 
Duke's campus remained silent on such 
social issues. Only the minority of those 
politically inclined or personally affected 
took overt risks by speaking or acting out. 
"The Chronicle was a real center for ac- 
tivism, but I think a lot of students didn't 
agree with The Chronicle at all," Callison 
said. "A lot of students were very much to 
the right of where The Chronicle stood." 

Jack Preiss, a Duke sociology professor 
at the time (now emeritus), told Sports 
Illustrated in 1968, "If anyone has to give 
labels to generations — and no one does, of 
course — I'd guess I'd call this the Timid 
Generation. The kids seem to constrict 
themselves, shut things out, and go about 
their business with a quiet anxiety. They 
seem to have no direction, nothing that 
they find worth fighting for." 

In the same article, Alan Ray '69, associ- 
ate editor of The Chronicle at the time, said, 
"I would say that, at most, 10 percent of 
the student body is involved — at all — with 
what is going on beyond their own lives." 

President Knight agreed. "There is not a 
great deal of preoccupation with protest 
here," Knight said in the article. "And 
that, I think reflects the background of the 

According to Farmer, debates raged 
mostly over campus social issues such as 
whether students were allowed to have the 
opposite sex in their rooms, or who could 
have liquor in dorms, or whether the uni- 
versity should allow Playboy magazine to 
be sold on the campus newsstands. But 
there wasn't the collaborative political 
uprising that resonates with our cultural 
view of the late Sixties, she said. 

"I mean, how often did Duke students, 
when we were here, sit down and watch 
Walter Cronkite?" asked Farmer. "Viet- 
nam was there, but it was not until maybe 
our senior year, particularly with men, that 
it became a huge issue. People were study- 
ing, dating, you know, going to parties. 
What are we going to wear? Where are we 
going to have the pledge formal?" 

"There were discussions over etiquette," 
Farmer said. "Could a fraternity or an 
independent group allow women in dorm 
rooms during parties, and if so, how many 
feet had to be on the floor at the same 
time?" These parties, called "open/opens," 
were traditionally held by men. But soon 
women began to plan them as well. "It was 
the first time that women's dorms were 
allowed to have open/opens. You know, 
men upstairs was a huge issue." 

"You could go into a boy's room, but 
you had to leave the door open far enough 
for a book to fit between it and the wall," 
Harington said. 

"So we got matchbooks," said Brannon, 

The Class of 1943 also managed to some- 
what insulate themselves from the outside 
world. Even though the war became 
increasingly important in daily life, the 
Southgate engineers still took the intra- 
mural football championship away from 
Sigma Chi. They still guarded the statue of 
Washington B. Duke with firehoses the 
night before the University of North 
Carolina game. And they still built floats 
at Homecoming. 

"And that was important," Brannon 
said. "In order to have that greenhouse 
effect, in stimulating intellectual growth, 
you have to have that Gothic Wonderland 
environment. Because you have so many 
other things impinging upon it, then 
you're thinking about those things. And if 
the campus offers some worthwhile stuff, 
you have to have some protection to think 
about that stuff. You have to be able to go 
to a diner at 4 a.m. and talk about it." 

"It's never the real world. Whenever 
you take the straight-A students from high 
school and put them together, it can't be 
the real world," Harington said. "It's 
always going to be somewhat artificial; it's 
always going to be in a bubble." 

Despite the social and political issues 
that confronted the Class of 1968, they 
shared a heritage with the Class of 1943. 
Watching fellow students risk their lives 
to fight for America — whether in Europe, 
Japan, or Vietnam — had a complacency- 
shattering effect. Still, life continued 
beyond the wars for most, leading to fami- 
lies and careers that left the days of inter- 
national uncertainty behind. 

— Jason Schultz '93 



WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazin 
Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only.'please) 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
Box 90613, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. Please 
include mailing label and allow six weeks. 

class note material we receive and the 
long lead time required for typesetting, 
design, and printing, your submission 
may not appear for two to three issues. 

Alumni are urged to include spouses' 
names in marriage and birth announce- 
ments. We do not record engagements. 

20s, 30s & 40s 

Claudia Burgess Hollowill Mitchell 26, 

who retired in 1970, writes that she "has worked in 
the church, done a lot of volunteer work, and traveled 
here and there." Her stepson, Doug, lives with her in 
Greenville, N.C. 

Armand E. Singer A.M. '39, Ph.D. '44 is a professor 

emeritus of of Romance languages at West Virginia 
University, where its university press has published a 
new and enlarged edition of his book The Don Juan 
Theme: An Annotated Bibliography ofVersions, Analogues, 
Uses , and Adaptations. He lives in Morgantown, W.Va. 

James M. Poyner J.D. '40 was the honoree at 
the 1993 Commemorative Men's Member-Member 
Golf Tournament at the Country Club of North Car- 
olina in Pinehurst. He was one of the club's charter 
members and served on its board of directors for its 
first 25 years. An attorney at the law firm Poyner & 
Spruill, he and his wife, Florence, live in Raleigh. 

Robert A. Wolff '42, the longest-running sports 
announcer in television history, has extended his 
contract as sports director/anchor of News 12, the all 
news, sports, and weather channel, with headquarters 
in Woodbury, Long Island. In June, he was honored 
in Washington, D.C., by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion's "Voices of the Game: Legendary Baseball 
Broadcasters" series. He and his wife, Jane, live in 
Rockland County, N.Y. 

Lowry N. Coe Jr. '47 heads Coe Communica- 
tions Inc., where he writes and produces films and 
videos and organizes meetings for business and gov- 
ernment clients. He writes that his almost five-year- 
old son Lowry "Pepper" Coe III is "the focal point of 
my second life" with his wife, Janice, and her two 
teenage children. They live in Gaithersburg, Md. 

Jr. M.D.'47 received the 1993 
Distinguished Southern Orthopaedist Award from the 
Southern Orthopaedic Association. He lives in Raleigh. 


Robert C. Block Ph.D. '50 has been appointed 
associate dean for academic and student affairs for Rens- 
selaer Polytechnic Institute's School of Engineering. 

: J. "Jule" Gwyn '50, LL.B. '57 was hon- 
ored by the board of trustees of Rockingham College 
for his nearly 30 years of service to the school. He 
lives in Reidsville, N.C. 

Frieda E. Penninger A.M. '50, Ph.D. '61, profes- 
sor emerita of English at the University of Richmond, 
has had her book Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde and 
The Knight's Tale published by University Press of 

Loy H. Witherspoon '51, B.D. '54, a professor of 
philosophy and religious studies at UNC-Charlotte, 
received the UNC-Charlotte Alumni Association's 
1993 Faculty Service Award. 

'54, a licensed mental 
health counselor, was certified in 1992 as a national 
certified counselor and a national certified geronto- 
logical counselor. She lives in Melbourne, Fla. 

A. Buchheit '55, professor and chair of 
neurosurgery at Temple University's medical school, 
was elected president of the American Academy of 
Neurological Surgery. He has been an officer of the 

Academy and an editor of the its Round Robin. He is a 
governor of the American College of Surgeons and is 
past president of the Society of University Neurosur- 
geons, the Pennsylvania State Neurological Society, 
and the Mid- Atlantic Neurosurgical Society. He has 
received the Congress of Neurological Surgeons' Ex- 
ceptional and Distinguished Service Award and Tem- 
ple Medical School's Physician of the Year and Alum- 
nus of the Year awards. He lives in Flourtown, Pa. 

Robert Burrell '56 is president of Industrial Prod- 
ucts Sales Co., a state sales agency. He writes that he 
is also a grandfather for the first time. 

Peter R. Schmidt '56 is the president and CEO 
of Boyden Consulting Corp., a metro New York 
licensee for Boyden World Corp. He has worked for 
the executive search and consulting company for the 
past 25 years. One of a dozen 1993 recipients of the 
Charles A. Dukes Award for Outstanding Volunteer 
Service to Duke, he lives in Mendham, N.J. 

Vernon F. Boozer '58 is a member of the Mary- 
land state senate. He lives in Baltimore. 


When Hatcher 
became headmaster of 
the Blue Ridge School 
in Dyke, Virginia, in 
1963, he wasn't inter- 
ested in seeking out the 
best and brightest high 
school students. Instead, 
Williams '40, A.M. '49 
wanted to reach those 
boys who needed a 
little extra educational 

"We've turned down 
kids because they were 
too smart and didn't 
need our help," says 
Williams, now retired. 
"Our students might not 
earn the top test scores, 
but they're very bright. 
They just lack acade- 
mic self-confidence." 
Williams knows all 
too well what it's like 
to question one's intel- 
lectual worth. As a 
pre-med student, he 
struggled through the 
required courses, but 
one of his Duke profes- 
sors, Clarence Gohdes, 
praised his writing abil- 
ity, so Williams switched 
his major to English. 
"Gohdes told me 1 
had 'some ability' in 
writing, which was 
high praise coming 
from him. He didn't 
exacdy toss out bou- 
quets," says Williams. 
"I had a poor opinion 

Bricks and mortals: his namesake library, 
above, which honors former Blue Ridge 
School headmaster Williams, right 

of myself after pre-med, 
so I thought that if he 
believed in me, it must 
be true." 

After graduation, 
Williams got a teaching 
job at his high school 
alma mater, the Dar- 
lington School in Rome, 
Georgia. It was a perfect 
match, and Williams 
returned to Duke for 
his master's degree 
before continuing what 
would become a life- 
long career. When he 
took over the Blue 
Ridge School in 1963, 
it had been closed for 
two years. Williams 
turned the institution 
around, doubling the 
enrollment in the first 
year alone. 

Rather than foster 
the competitive envi- 
ronment found at many 

the Blue 

"builds on successes 
rather than failures," 
says Williams. "You 
don't scare them by 
giving a test no one can 
pass; you give a test 
that everyone can pass 
so they gain confidence 
in their abilities. So 
many schools are try- 
ing to get everyone 
into Harvard; we're 
trying to change their 
attitude about their 
individual worth and 
the whole way they 
look at life." 

Even though he re- 
tired nine years ago, 
Williams continues to 
be an active presence 
at the Blue Ridge 

School. He's a dedi- 
cated fundraiser for the 
school, and two of his 
daughters have held 
their weddings on the 
scenic campus located 
in the foothills of the 
Blue Ridge Mountains. 
And in September, 

was hon- 
ored at 
the official 
of the 


Hatcher C. 
modesty, Williams says 
he was initially worried 
that construction of 
the library would strain 
the school's resources. 
But when he found out 
that the money had 
been donated specifi- 
cally for the Williams 
Library, "I had to stop 
my protests," he says. 
The morning of the 
dedication, it was clear 
that Williams' legacy of 
learning continues: On 
a beautiful Saturday, 
students were busy 
studying inside the 
new facility. 

] anuary-F ebruary 1994 


A background 
billboard for 
Pizza in The Addams 
Family was seen by 
throngs of moviego- 
ers. And judging from 
the popularity of the 
frozen pie, Tombstone 
can be found not only 
in campy horror 
movies, but in count- 
less freezers. Founded 
in 1 962 by a family- 
run tavern located 
across the street from 
a cemetery, Tomb- 
stone Pizza, now 
owned by Kraft Gen- 
eral Foods USA, is the 
leading brand of 
frozen pizza sold in 
the United States. 

But thafs not 
enough for Tomb- 
stone president Betsy 
Holden '77. She wants 
to double business by 
the year 2000. "The 
pizza market overall is 
very healthy, and it's 
growing," she says. 
"We'll continue our 
strong growth through 
a combination of new 
products, strong mar- 
keting, and continued 


Pie power: Tombstone 
president Hoiden 
geographic expansion." 
Holden says one of 
the lingering misper- 
ceptions about frozen 
pizza is whether it 
stacks up next to 
home-delivered pies. 
"In any situation, 
you're going to wait 
twenty minutes," she 
says. "In that twenty 
minutes, your pizza 
can be in someone's 
car or baking in your 
oven. We like to 
emphasize the conve- 
nience factor of hav- 
ing it when you want 
it, hot out of your 
oven. And as quality 

improves, frozen pizza 
is even closer to fresh. 
We've found that 
when people try it, 
they're converted." 

Before she assumed 
the top spot at Tomb- 
stone, Holden was 
vice president for 
"meat enhancers, 
sweet brands, and 
dinner categories" — 
Kraft's barbecue 
sauces, macaroni-and- 
cheese and pasta-and- 
sauce combos, and 
candy products. And 
in her eleven years at 
the company, she's 
also worked in new 
product development 
and strategy. 

Despite her rise to 
the top of the market- 
ing food chain, 
Holden didn't always 
have nutrition ambi- 
tion. At Duke, she 
pursued courses in 
education, music, and 
dance. After earning 
her master's in educa- 
tion at Northwestern, 
she taught and pub- 
lished film strips for 
children. A burgeon- 
ing interest in market- 

ing prompted her to 
return to Northwest- 
ern's Kellogg Gradu- 
ate School of Manage- 
ment for her M.B. A. 

Given Holden's goal 
of putting more Tomb- 
stone Pizzas in ovens 
everywhere, she's got 
some tasty work ahead 
of her. "Our primary 
competition is other 
frozen pizzas, with 
home-delivered as 
secondary. But many 
households are dual- 
users. So we've been 
doing a lot of product 
sampling to see what 
our competitors are 
offering. I try other 
frozen pizzas and visit 
pizza restaurants." 

Even though 
Holden could proba- 
bly have all the Tomb- 
stone Pizzas she could 
fit into her freezer, by 
the end of the day, 
she's usually not in the 
mood for more. "I've 
eaten more pizza since 
I've had this job," she 
says. "I eat pizza at 
least once a day." 

MARRIAGES: Alan Clair "A.C." Robbins '58 

to Carolyn D. Miller on Oct. 1 7 in Duke Chapel. 
Residence: Chapel Hill. 


Phil Johnston '61 is founding chairman of the 
N.C. Electronics and Information Technologies Asso- 
ciation, a new state trade organization for information 
technology employees. He lives in High Point, N.C. 

Charles J. Ping Ph.D. '61, president of Ohio 
University in Athens, Ohio, was elected to a five-year 
term as chairman of the Council on International 
Educational Exchange. 

Robert M. "Mack" Thompson '63 is an assis- 
tant vice president and retail banker at First Citizens 

Catharine White Tucker '63 chairs the Vir- 
ginia Council, Trout Unlimited, and is a member of a 
joint subcommittee on storm water management for 
the state. She lives in Richmond. 

Charles A. Powell LL.B. '64, a partner in Birm- 
ingham-based law firm Powell, Tally & Frederick, is 
chair-elect of the American Bar Association's section 
on labor and employment law. He is a founding mem- 
ber of the American Council of Employment Lawyers. 

C. Marcus Harris '65, J.D. 72 is a partner in the 
law firm Poyner & Spruill in its Charlotte, N.C, office. 
He is a member of the Duke Alumni Association's 
board of directors. 

Ann Rogers Salisbury '65, a professional artist, 
is one of 12 watercolorists selected to have her paint- 
ing technique spotlighted in the November 1993 issue 
of American Artist magazine. She lives in Raleigh. 

Margaret Everhart Burton '68 received the 
1993 Outstanding Biology Teacher Award for Arizona 
from the National Association of Biology Teachers. She 
has taught in the Phoenix school system for 24 years. 

William O. Goodwin '68, general agent for The 
Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co., has been 
named to West Virginia Wesleyan College's board of 

A.V. Huff A.M. '68, Ph.D. '70, a history professor, 
has been appointed to the William Montgomery Bur- 
nett Chair in History at Furman University. 

Thomas E. McLain '68, J.D. '74 is partner and 
head of the corporate department of the Los Angeles 
law firm Perkins Coie. He specializes in complex 
international business transactions, with a special 
emphasis on Asia. He is a member of the advisory 
board of International Computer Lauryer and the advi- 
sory committee for the U.S. Agency for International 
Development-funded Indonesia Law Reform Project. ■ 
He lives in Los Angeles. 

Vinton L. Rollins '68 is a principal of Shattuck 
Hammond, Partners in New York City. 

William J. Bates J.D. '69 chairs the real estate 
section of the S.C Bar Association. 

Larry Brunner A.M. '69, Ph.D '73 is the head of 
the English department at Hardin-Simmons Univer- 
sity in Abilene, Texas. He and his wife, Lana, and 
their two daughters live in Abilene. 

Elizabeth F. Kuniholm 70, J.D. '80, who has a 
solo law practice in Raleigh, was named to the N.C. 
Bar Association's board of governors. She is vice pres- 
ident for legal affairs for the N.C. Academy of Trial 
Lawyers and chairs the state bar association's litiga- 
tion section. She and her two children live in Raleigh. 

James W. Stines Ph.D. 70, a professor of phi- 
losophy and religion at Appalachian State University, 
has had his book, The Primacy of Persons and the Lan- 
guage of Culture: Essays rn William H. Poteat, published 
by the University of Missouri Press. His book is an 
introduction to the scholarship of Poteat, a professor 
emeritus of religion and comparative studies at Duke. 

Donald L. Huber Ph.D. 71, professor of church 
history at Trinity Lutheran Seminary, was elected to 
the Southwest Licking Schools' board of education. 
He and his wife, Shirley, and their three children live 
in Pataskala, Ohio. 

Roger Smith M.Div. 71, pastor at the Spruce 
Street United Methodist Church in Morgantown, 
W.Va., has been named to West Virginia Wesleyan 
College's board of trustees. 

Elwood W. Hopkins M.D. 72, a commander in 
the Navy, completed Primary Flight Training in Mil- 
ton, Fla. 

Barry Jacobs 72 is the author of Three Paths to 
Glory, A Season on the Hardwood with Duke, N.C. 
State, and North Carolina, published by Macmillan. 
He has covered ACC basketball since 1983 for The 
New York Times and is the author of the annual Fan's 
Guide to ACC Basketball. He lives in Hillsborough, 

Janet Thompson Sanf ilippo 72, M.B. A. '80, 
who was associate dean for administration at Duke's 
Fuqua School of Business, is assistant provost at Johns 
Hopkins University. Her husband, Fred Sanf il- 
ippo Ph.D. 75, M.D. 76, is the Baxley Professor and 
director of pathology at Johns Hopkins' medical school. 
He was on Duke's medical faculty. They have two 
children and live in Baltimore. 

Ph.D. 73 represented 
Duke in January at the inauguration of the president 
of Southwest Missouri State University. He lives in 
Springfield, Mo. 

Roger Reed J.D. 73 is dean of academic affairs 
and professor of political science at the American 
College of Switzerland. 

Jared N. Schwartz M.D. 73, Ph.D. 75, director 

of the department of pathology and laboratory medi- 
cine at Charlotte's Presbyterian Hospital, was elected 
to the College of American Pathologists' board of 

James L. Steipan 73 represented Duke in 
October at the installation of the chancellor of the 
University of California, Irvine. 

Geoffrey Waggoner 73, an attorney in Charles- 
ton, S.C, was elected to the Charleston County 
School Board. He has bought a home i 
ough that he plans to restore. 

73 chairs the university 
curriculum and faculty development committees and 
heads Computer Science and Information Systems at 
Hawaii Pacific University in Honolulu. He maintains 
a residence in Atlanta when he is not teaching, and 
he writes that he is in both the Honolulu and the 
Atlanta phone books. 

Gilbert J. Genn 74 is a member of the Maryland 
House of Delegates. He lives in Bethesda, Md. 


Johnson 74, Ph.D. 79 has 
been named dean of academic affairs at the Univer- 
sity of St. Martin, the Netherlands Antilles. Previ- 
ously, she was a professot at the school, which she 
calls "the fitst university based on American standards 
in the Netherlands Antilles." 

William P. Brandon Ph.D. 75 is the Metrolina 
Medical Foundation Distinguished Professor of Public 
Policy on Health at UNC-Charlotte. He was a profes- 
sor of public administration at Seton Hall University. 
He and his wife, Pamela, live in Charlotte. 

Dana L. Dembrow '75 is a member of the 
Maryland House of Delegates. He lives in Silver 
Spring, Md. 

Allyson Duncan J.D. '75 is a member of the N.C. 
Bar Association's board of governors and the commis- 
sioner of the N.C. Utilities Commission in Raleigh. 
She was an associate professor of law at N.C. Central 
University before becoming the first black female 
judge on the N.C. Court of Appeals in 1990. In 1989, 
she was named NCCU's Teacher of the Year. She 
lives in Durham. 

Tina Marrelli Glass B.S.N. 75, a home care and 
hospice consultant, has published her third book, The 
Nurse Manager's Survival Guide. The second edition of 
her Handbook of Home Health Standards was released 
this fall by Mosby. She is in gtaduate school at Ohio 
State University's nursing school. She and her hus- 
band, Bill, live in Ohio. 

Fred Sanfilippo Ph.D. 75, M.D. 76 is the Baxley 
Professor and director of pathology at Johns Hopkins 
University's medical school. He was on Duke's med- 
ical faculty. His wife, Janet Thompson Sanfil- 
ippo 72, M.B.A. '80, is assistant provost at Johns 
Hopkins University. She was associate dean for 
administration at Duke's Fuqua School of Business. 
They have two children and live in Baltimore. 

Laura Morgan Waggoner 75 is vice president 
and city managet of NationsBank Trust in Charles- 
ton, S.C., where she and her three daughters live. She 
is also a member of Duke's Estate Planning Council. 

George Saint Anthony Ferguson Sr. 76 

earned his doctor of ministry degree at the United 
Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio. His thesis 
and project is Stewardship and Discipleship Development 
in the African American Church. He lives in Upper 
Marlboro, Md. 

Griffith T. Parry J.D. 76 has started the law firm 
Parry & Howard in South Orange, N.J., concentrating 
in insurance and reinsurance litigation and arbitration. 

Riley M.A.T. 76 was appointed by Gov. 
Jim Hunt as director of the N.C. Center for the Pre- 
of School Violence. 

William W. Traynham Jr. 76 of Orangeburg, 
S.C., represented Duke in November at the inaug- 
uration of the president of South Carolina State 

G. Gray Wilson J.D. 76 is a partner and litigation 
attorney in the firm Wilson 6k Iseman, concentrating 
on professional malpractice and insurance defense. 
He is a member of the N.C. Bar Association's board of 
governors. He and his wife, Marty, have four children 
and live in Winston-Salem. 

Rhys T. Wilson 76 is president of Jackson & 
Coker Locum Tenens, Inc., a national health-care 
recruiting firm specializing in the temporary place- 
ment of physicians, nurses, and allied health profes- 
sionals. He and his wife, attorney Carolyn Saf- 
fold Wilson 78, and their two children live in 

H. Beskind LL.B 77 is of counsel to the 
firm Blanchard Twiggs Abrams & Strickland, P.A. in 
Raleigh. A founding director and past president of 

N.C. Prisoner Legal Services, Inc., he is listed in Best 
Lawyers in America. He is a past recipient of Duke law 
school's Mordecai Society Award for excellence in 
law teaching. 

Susan Lieberman 78 received a Chicago Emmy 
Award nomination for Sandy and Sam, a children's 
musical she wrote for WGN-TV. Other TV shows 
include Charlie's Risk and A Hill of Beans, broadcast 
locally on CBS. Her plays, Marek's Monkey and 
Steamship Quanza, were produced in Chicago and 
upstate New York. She and her husband, Jim Stoller, 
and their two daughters live in Wilmette, III. 

Anthony J. Limberakis M.D. 78 was elected 
president of the Duke Medical Alumni Association. 
He is associate staff radiologist at Thomas Jefferson 
University Hospital and has a private radiology prac- 
tice in Philadelphia. He and his wife, Maria, a physi- 
cian, and their three children live in Rydal, Pa. 

Scott Sokol 78, J.D. '82 is a director of field 
operations for Save Our Everglades, Inc., a nonprofit 
coalition of businesses and environmental otganiza- 
tions based in Orlando and Key West, Fla. He is 
on the board of directors of the Juvenile Diabetes 
Foundation International-Central Florida chapter, 
Orlando, and the Justice & Peace Coalition in 
Apopka. He and his daughter live in Winter Park. 

Carolyn Saffold Wilson 78 is an attorney and 
partner with Parker, Johnson, Cook Firm. She and 
her husband, Rhys T. Wilson 76, president of a 
health-care recruiting firm, and their two children 
live in Atlanta. 

Eric Denton 79 is a visiting instructor of German 
at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pa. 

Michele Clause Farquhar 79 is director of 
policy coordination and management for the Na- 
tional Telecommunications and Information Admin- 
istration at the U.S. Department of Commerce and 
the agency's chief of staff". She was vice president for 
law and regulatory policy at the Cellulat Telecommu- 
nications Industry Association. A member of the 
Duke Alumni Association's board of directors, she 
and her husband, attorney William Thomas 
Nesbitt Farquhar '80, live in Washington, D.C. 

Kevin S. Hannon 79, A.M. '80 was named 1993 
Trial Lawyer of the Year by the Trial La«7ers for 
Public Justice Foundation in Washington, D.C, fot 
service in the public interest. He established a law 
firm in 1988 in Denver, Colo., where his practice 
emphasizes environmental law, including toxic torts, 
insurance bad faith, products liability, and other 
personal injury law. He is also editor-in-chief of the 
Colorado Trial Lawyers Association's monthly maga- 
zine Trial Talk. 

L. Jensen 79 has completed het resi- 
dency in pediatrics at St. Christophet's Hospital for 
Children in Philadelphia, Pa. She writes that she has 
recently bicycled her first century (100-mile) ride in 
Vermont. She lives in Chalfont, Pa. 

Preston L. McKever-Floyd M.Div. 79, assis- 
tant professor of philosophy and religion at Coastal 
Carolina University, had his essay "Masks of the 
Sacred: Religious Pluralism in South Carolina" 
included in the book Religion in South Carolina, pub- 
lished by the University of South Carolina Press. He 
lives in Conway, S.C. 

MARRIAGES: John R. Guthrie M.A.T. 71 to 
Natasha Kalinitcheva on Sept. 18... Andrew 

Nadell M.D. 74 to Eleanore Edwards Ramsey on 
July 24. Residence: San Francisco. . Claude 
Hughes Jr. M.D. 77, Ph.D. '81 to Linda Ann 
Sakiewicz on Sept. 1 1 in Duke Chapel. . .James 
Jeffrey 78 to Michele Schipani on Oct. 3... 
Margaret E. Figueroa 79 to Robett B. Wesley 
II on Feb. 27. Residence: Atlanta. 

BIRTHS: First child and son to Gilbert Dale 
Scharf 70 and Ruth Calvin Scharf B.S.N. '80 
on Oct. 14- Named Benjamin Mack... First child and 
son to Peter W. Waxter B.S.E. 75 and Lacey 
Bordeaux on June 30. Named James Bordeaux... 
Third child and first daughter to Michael Bon- 
giovi B.S.E. 77 and Debra Bongiovi on Oct. 5. 
Named Rachel Mae... Second child and son to Jay 
R. Hone J.D. 77 and Heathet Wilson on Oct. 12. 
Named Joshua Paul. . .Second child and first son to 
Judith Howard Tompkins 78 and Edmund 
F. Tompkins '81 on Oct. 6. Named Lucas Ross... 
Second child and son to Claudia Thompson 
Burnette 79 and John H. Burnette '80 on 
Jan. 21, 1993. Named Nathan Drew. ..First child and 
son to Karen Sperry Chatten 79 and Robert 
T. Chatten 79 on Nov. 5, 1992. Named Matthew 
Wade... Second child and daughtet to Sally Stra- 
han Matthews 79 and Sandy Matthews on April 
19. Named Sarah Beaudry. . .A son to Joan Golds- 
berry Woodward B.S.E. 79 and Matthew A. 
Woodward on June 8. Named Robert Hayne. . .A son 
to Evan H. Zucker J.D. 79 and Paula Eisenhart. 
Named Cameron Paul Zucker. 


Stephen M. Hunt B.S.E. '80, a Navy lieutenant 
commander, is stationed at the Naval Air Weapons 
Center, Weapons Division, Naval Air Weapons Sta- 
tion Pt. Mugu, Calif. As F-14 systems engineeting 
officer, he heads softwate development and weapon 
systems integration for the F-14 A/B and the F-14D 
fighter aircraft. He and his wife, Monique, live in 
Camarillo, Calif. 

David M. Seymour M.Div. '80, a pastor of Hol- 
land United Church of Christ in Suffolk, Va., earned 
his doctor of ministry degree in the field of liturgies at 


Your campus flower 

connection- No one knows 

town or gown better! 

Phone orders with a major credit card 
can be placed from anywhere in the country- 
Call toll free: 


124 E. Franklin Street and 
University Mall 

January-February 1994 

Chanler: crusading for consumers' continued good heahh 


You know you 
should take 
care of yourself 
by eating a balanced 
diet, exercising, and 
avoiding risky behavior. 
But what about the hid- 
den threats to your 
health? From the china 
you serve food on to the 
fumes you breathe while 
filling your gas tank to 
the consumer products 
on your shelves, hazards 

A small law firm in 
San Francisco is fight- 
ing back on behalf of 
consumers. Founded 
by Cliff Chanler*82, 
Chanler & Associates 
is making a name for 
itself as a tenacious 
consumer-interest con- 
cern. The six-attorney 
firm has forced makers 
of fine china to agree 
to reduce the lead lev- 
els in their dinnerware. 
(Lead is the leading 
toxin in this country, 
and is found in even 
the priciest plates.) Last 
year, their litigation 
prompted the solvents 
industry to eliminate 
the use of a notorious 
carcinogen, methylene 
chloride, in many paint 

They've also made 
headlines for targeting 
toluene as a prevalent 
and pernicious compo- 
nent in spray paints 
and contact cements 
like airplane glue. This 
fall, Chanler played 
David to the multibil- 
lion-dollar cosmetic 
industry's Goliath and 
got manufacturers to 
remove toluene from 
nail polish. 

According to the 

U.S. Agency for Toxic 
Substances and Disease 
Control, toluene is the 
thirty-seventh most 
toxic chemical and can 
cause birth defects, 
ranging from small 
brain size and facial 
deformities to low birth 
weight. Toluene evap- 
orates quickly, which 
makes it an attractive 
and inexpensive addi- 
tive for glues, paints, 
and polishes. 

"We forced more 
than 150 of the largest 
companies to remove 
this toxic chemical 
from their products," 
says Chanler. "They 
were supposed to be 
providing warning 
labels, but failed to do 
so. We brought the 
cases towards trial, 
thereby exposing the 
violators to millions of 
dollars in penalties. We 
agreed, however, to 
waive the penalties if 
they would agree to 
remove toluene from 

their products. Paying 
a penalty for past viola- 
tions doesn't serve the 
public interest in the 
future; the elimination 
of toxins in the 
marketplace does." 
Maybelline, Avon, 
Revlon, Cosmair 
(maker of L'Oreal and 
Lancome), and Procter 
& Gamble (Cover Girl, 
Max Factor), among 
others, backed down. 

"The bottom line is 
that it was bad busi- 
ness," says Chanler. 
"To have such a dan- 
gerous reproductive 
toxin in a product used 
by women, many of 
whom are in their 
childbearing years, was 

One of Chanter's 
strategies was to send 
retailers such as K- 
Mart, Wal-Mart, Wal- 
greens, and Safeway 
reports about toluene's 
health risks and 
informing them that 
they were legally 

responsible for what 
was sold in their stores. 
If the products didn't 
carry warnings, the 
stores could be liable 
for penalties, too. 
These chains, in turn, 
informed cosmetic 
behemoths that they 
wouldn't carry their 
products unless they 
were reformulated. 

The victory was one 
in a continuing series 
of suits Chanler's firm 
has brought under the 
conditions of Califor- 
nia's Proposition 65. 
Designed to protect 
consumers from toxic 
and carcinogenic addi- 
tives, Prop 65 requires 
warning labels on such 
everyday items as paint 
strippers and cleaning 
fluids. But not all man- 
ufacturers have com- 
plied. That's when 
nonprofit and environ- 
mental groups such as 
California's As You 
Sow, the Sierra Club, 
the Natural Resources 
Defense Council, Rain- 
forest Action Network, 
and the Environmental 
Defense Fund call for 
Chanler's counsel. 

"We're on a crusade 
to educate consumers 
about what's in the 
products that they 
buy," he says. With 
watchdog groups look- 
ing over their shoulders, 
manufacturers then 
feel bound to "spend a 
litde more money on 
research and develop- 
ment," as they look 
for safe alternatives to 
cheap but noxious in- 
gredients like toluene. 

Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary in Colum- 
bia, S.C.. 

3, A.M. '84, M.D. '84 is the 
medical director of oncology' research at Methodist 
Hospital in St. Louis Park, Minn., and will be director 
for stereotactic radiosurgery. He and Christian 
Laettner '92 and the Minnesota Timberwolves are 
initiating an annual Cancer Research-NBA Basket- 
ball Game Benefit to support his research program 
and give underprivileged children in the area a 
chance to attend an NBA game. The first benefit is 
scheduled for March 1994. He and his wife, Jody, and 
their two children live in Chanhassen, Minn. 

Marjorie Sybul Adams '81, a partner at the law 
firm Gordon Altman Butowsky Weitzen Shalov & 
Wein, specializes in corporate and securities law. She 
lives in New York City. 

Karen E. Carey J.D. '81 is a partner with Womble, 
Carlyle Sandridge 6k Rice, a law firm in Winston- 
Salem, N.C. 

Margaret Donnelly Grossinger '82, B.H.S. 
'87, M.H.S. '91 is a physician assistant at Duke Med- 
ical Center's pediatric infectious disease department. 
Her husband, Samuel Marc Grossinger 

B.H.S. '88, is a physician assistant for Durham Emer- 
gency Physicians at Durham Regional Hospital. They 
live in Durham. 

Susan Shepherd Ittner '82 is the director of 
information systems for Diagraph Corp. She and her 
husband, Curt, live in St. Louis. 

Jacqueline Scurfield Paulsen '82 earned 
her master's in liberal studies at Dartmouth College 
in 1993. 

H. Swofford '82 has a medical practice in 
North Wilkesboro, N.C, where he and his wife and 
their three children live. 

Teresa A. Fralix '83 is a medical student at Duke 
Medical School and expects to graduate in spring 
1996. She lives in Durham. 

Jim Koon M.B.A. '83 is a senior vice president 
at NationsBank and consumer deposit and invest- 
ment group manager for its marketing division. He 
and his wife, Mary, have three children and live in 
Matthews, N.C. 

Joseph D. Fincher '84 is a member of the firm 
Hall, Estill, Hardwick, Gable, Golden & Nelson in 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Cate Anderson Jarrett '84 is director of mar- 
keting and communication for the French Institute/ 
Alliance Francaise, a cultural organization in New 
York. Her husband, Greg, an attorney, is an anchor/ 
correspondent for Courtroom Television Network, a 
able TV network. 

A. William Mackie J.D. '84 is a trial attorney 
with the U.S. Department of Justice. He and his wife, 
Linda Haile Mackie B.S.E. '81, Ph.D. '87, and 
their three children live in Rockville, Md. 

Frank H. Myers '84, a Navy lieutenant, received 
the Meritorious Unit Commendation, along with his 
shipmates, after completing a six-month Mediter- 
ranean and Red Sea deployment aboard the aircraft 
carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt. 

David T. Thuma '84 started the law firm Jacob- 
vitz, Roybal, and Thuma, specializing in bankruptcy, 
commercial litigation, and business law, in Albu- 
querque, N.M. 

Xavier Van der Mersch LL.M. '84 is a partner 
in the Brussels office of McGuirewoods Battle 6k 
Boothe, handling general corporate matters, with an 
emphasis on Belgian law. 

Vicky Hart Brewster '85 is director of develop- 
ment and community relations for Foothill Presbyter- 
ian Hospital. Her husband, Lewis Brewster '85, 
is director of strategic planning for Rockwell Interna- 
tional. They live in Newport Beach, Calif. 

Douglas D. Hahne '85, a Navy lieutenant, com- 
pleted a six-month deployment to the Western 
Pacific and the Persian Gulf as part of the aircraft 
carrier USS Nimitz Battle Group. 

Anne May Knickerbocker '85 is senior editor 
at Lawyers' Cooperative Publishing and is responsible 
for the Florida text and jurisprudence products. 

Peter Middlebrooks '85, a hydrogeologist in 

Albuquerque, N.M., writes that he recently climbed 
to the summits of the highest peaks in Europe and 
Central America. He also raced bicycles this past 
season with a cycling team. 

Glenn Butcher B.S.E.E. '86 is a systems associate 
with Merck Pharmaceuticals in Whitehouse Station, 
N.J. His wife, Randi Rosof Butcher '86, is the 
corporate director of education for Lincoln Technical 
Institute's corporate office in West Orange, N.J. They 
have a daughter and live in Millbum. 

Susan Callahan '86, who earned her M.B.A. at 
the University of Chicago Graduate School of Busi- 
ness, is working for the M.B.A. Enterprise Corps as an 
investment manager with the Bulgarian-American 
Enterprise Fund in Sofia, Bulgaria. 

Chris Capen '86, the founder and president of the 
San Diego-based Tehabi Books, won two Benjamin 
Franklin Awards for his book America's Cup 1851 to 
1992. The 208-page coffee-table book earned first 
place prizes for Best Outdoor Recreation/Sports Book 
of 1992 and Best Interior Design. It was also honored 
as one of three finalists for Book of the Year for Excel- 





Continuing the 
experience through 

"Travel is part of education. . . a part of 
experience... He that travelleth goeth to 
school... " 

— Francis Bacon, (1561-1 626) 


April 28 -May 7 

Explore this European country with its colorful 

people and rich history. Visit Brussels, Ghent, 

Bruges, and Antwerp. Travel to Waterloo and 

the Castle of Gaasheck and to Delft, home of 

famous Delftware pottery. 

$2,454 double occupancy 

Mediterranean Cruise 

May 5 -15 

Cruise aboard the magnificent Silver Cloud, 

an all-suite ship carrying 300 people. After an 

overnight stay in Venice, sail the Adriatic Sea 

to Vieste, Italy, and into the Aegean Sea to the 

islands of Crete, Rhodes, and Santorini, and 

finally to Athens. 

From $4,195 double occupancy 

Passage to Victory 
June 10 - 23 

Commemorating the 50th anniversary of 
D-Day! After three nights in London, ferry 
across the English Channel to Caen, France, 
and on to Deauville. Board the M.S. 
Normandie, with ports of call in Honfleur, 
Caudebee, Rouen, Les Andelys, Vernon, and 
Mantes. Finally Paris, "The City of Lights." 
From $3,995 double occupancy. 


July 2 -13 

Follow the historic pathways of Peter the Great 
as you cruise from St. Petersburg to Moscow on 
the MV Alexei Surkov on waterways previously 
inaccessible. Visit the Hermitage, the czar's 
Summer Palace, Petrodvorets, St. Basil's 
Cathedral, the Kremlin, and Red Square. 
From $2,995 double occupancy. 

Alaska Passage and Midnight Sun Express 

July 11-23 

Our itinerary provides the best of the Last 

Frontier by both land and sea. After two nights 

in Anchorage, board the Midnight Sun Express 

to Fairbanks, with an overnight stop in Denali 

Park. After two nights in Fairbanks, board the 

Crown Princess from Seward to College Fjord, 

Glacier Bay, Skagway, Juneau, Ketchikan, and 


From $3,299 double occupancy. 

Danube River Adventure 

July 14 - 26 

An overland journey from Budapest to Munich 

includes nine nights aboard ship, as well as two 

days in Budapest and two days in Vienna. Visit 

the charming ports of Esztergom, Hungary; 

Bratislava, Czechoslovakia; Melk, Austria; and 

Passau, Germany. 

From $2,899 double occupancy. 

Scandinavian Capitals and St. Petersburg 

August 2 - 15 

Join us for this twelve-night cruise on the 

beautiful, five-star Crown Odyssey to the great 

capitals of Scandinavia. Visit Copenhagen, 

Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki, as well as Berlin 

and St. Petersburg. A London theatre package 

is also available. 

From $2,999 double occupancy. 


September 15 - 27 

Experience the classical splendor of Italy with 

visits to Rome; Florence, the greatest 

Renaissance city in Europe; Siena; San 

Marino; and Venice, the city of Marco Polo 

and the dominant maritime and commercial 

power of Europe. 

From $3,495 double occupancy. 

Marco Polo Passage 

September 29 - October 13 
Your eighteen-day voyage includes a ten- 
night cruise to Canton, China; Da Nang and 
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Port Kelang/ 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Singapore. A 
three-night visit to Beijing and two nights 
in Hong Kong complete this exceptional 
From $4,595 double occupancy. 


September 30 - October 17 

China is a land where time stands still. Cruise 

the Yangtse River, stop in Xi-an. Discover 

Beijing, China's capital that embodies the spirit 

of this mystical land. Visit Guilan and finally, 

Hong Kong. 

From $4,895 double occupancy. 


October 11 -22 

Turkey is a country of subtle beauty, from the 
Aegean Sea to the waterfront in Izmir, with its 
ancient citadel dominating the tour and the sun 
setting into the Golden Horn. This journey is 
guided by an art historian with extensive 
knowledge of Turkey's history and sites. 
From $3,900 double occupancy. 

Holy Land 

November 1-10 

Enjoy the experience of your life as you embark 

on this educational travel opportunity. Walk 

in the Garden of Gethsemane, sail on the Sea 

of Galilee, visit the Shepherds' Fields near 

Bethlehem. Stay in Tiherius and near the Old 

City in Jerusalem. 

From $2,232 double occupancy. 

For More Information: 

Please request detailed brochures 

D Belgium 

D Mediterranean Cruise 

D D-Day Anniversary/Seine River Cruise 

□ Russia 

□ Danube River Adventure 

□ Scandinavian Capitals and St. Petersburg 
D Midnight Sun Express and Alaska Passage 

□ Italy 

□ Marco Polo Passage 

□ China 

□ Turkey 

□ Holy Land 

Fill out the coupon and return to: 

Barbara DeLapp Booth '54, 

Duke Travel, 614 Chapel Drive, Durham, NC 

27708 919 684-51 14 or 800 FOR-DUKE 

Last Name 

First Name 


Street Address 




Travel advertising, brochures, and mailings to 
alumni are fully subsidized by participating travel 

] anuary -F ebruary 1994 

lence in Marketing and for Best Cover Design. The 
book has been translated into Japanese, French, Ger- 
man, and Spanish and distributed abroad. At Duke, 
Capen was editor-in-chief of the 1986 Chanticleer. 

James M. Cohen J.D. '86, who has lived in 
Japan since 1989, is the founder of Cohen & Associ- 
ates, a legal consulting firm, and 1LES, an education 
service for Japanese lawyers. 

John F. Grossbauer J.D. '86 is corporate coun- 
sel at Collins & Aiknan Group, Inc. He and his wife, 
Tracey, live in Charlotte, N.C. 

Bruce Lineker '86 is the new curator at the South- 
eastern Center for Contemporary Art in Winston- 
Salem, N.C. 

Robert J. McAfee '86 won the American Soci- 
ety of Composers, Authors, and Publishers' (ASCAP) 
Nathan Burkan Memorial Competition at Campbell 
University's law school with his essay "I'll State My Cose 
in Four-Note Phrases" : Digital Sampling and Copyright 
Law. He is a third-year law student at Campbell. An 
editor and a writer of fiction, he lives in Coats, N.C. 

Richard C. Brown B.S.E.E. '87 earned his M.B.A. 
at Dartmouth College's Amos Tuck School in 1993. 

Stephen A. Humber '87, a Navy lieutenant, 
received the Meritorious Unit Commendation, along 
with his shipmates, after completing a six-month 
Mediterranean and Red Sea deployment aboard the 
VSS Theodore Roosevelt. 

Stephanie A. Lucie J.D. '87 is an associate in 
the corporate department of the Houston office of 
Weil, Gotshal & Manges, where she practices in the 
area of securities. She is also an officer of the Houston 
Young Lawyers Association and the Houston Young 
Lawyers Foundation. 

Julie O'Brien Petrini J.D. '87 has joined 
Polaroid Corp., where she specializes in trademark 
law. She lives in Cambridge, Mass. 

Brian H. Whipple '87, M.B.A '92 is a consultant 
in the Chicago Strategic Services practice of Ander- 
sen Consulting. He lives in Chicago. 

Sandra Hargrove Andrade J.D. '88 is an asso- 
ciate with Foley & Lardner in Washington, DC. 

Samuel Marc Grossinger B.H.S. '88 is a phy- 
sician assistant for Durham Emergency Physicians at 
Durham Regional Hospital. His wife, Margaret 
Donnelly Grossinger '82, B.H.S. '87, M.H.S. 
'91, is a physician assistant at Duke Medical Center's 
pediatric infectious disease department. They live in 

Greg Walker '88, who earned his M.B.A. at 
UNC-Chapel Hill's Kenan-Flagler School of Busi- 
ness, is a supervisor for U.S. Steel. He and his wife, 
Colleen, live in Pittsburgh. 

Kathleen Westberg Barge J.D. '89 and her 

husband, Steve Barge J.D. '89, are both associates 
at the law firm Covington 6k Burling in Washington, 
D.C. They have a son and live in Fairfax, Va. 

Ill '89 is director of research 
for Investment Research Institute, Inc. He and his 
wife, Kimberlyn, a children's store manager, live in 

Sunny Rha '89, who graduated with Alpha Omega 
Alpha honors from Hahnemann University School of 
Medicine, is a resident in general surgery at Emory 
University's medical school in Atlanta. 

Wendy Sartory J.D. '89 joined the Los Angeles 
law firm Shearman & Sterling, practicing in banking 
and real-estate finance areas. 

Paul D. Seeman '89, a Navy lieutenant, is s 
tioned at Naval Hospital, Jacksonville, Fla. 

MARRIAGES: Stephen M. Hunt B.S.E. '80 to 
Monique Anthis on May 23, 1992. Residence: 
Camarillo, Calif. ... Barbara L. Greenberg '81 
to David M. Denton on Aug. 15, 1992. Residence: 
Brookline, Mass.... Margaret Ann Donnelly 
•82, B.H.S. '87, M.H.S. '91 to Samuel Marc 
Grossinger B.H.S. '88 on Oct. 10. Residence: 
Durham... Mark David Plunkett '82 to Sharon 
Rose Cooper on Oct. 2. Residence: Durham. . . 
Belinda Boles '83 to Frank Sawyer on May 28. 
Residence: Atlanta. . .Catherine Kennedy 
Anderson '84 to Gregory Jarrett on Sept. 11... 
Roger Cook J.D. '84 to Amy Brannock on Oct. 2... 
Jeffrey Fox '84 to Melanie Parham in Maui, 
Hawaii, on July 3 Pola Alicia Ayllon '85 to 
Greg Harry Changnon '85 on May 30. Resi- 
dence: Los Angeles. . .Aaron Besen J.D. '85 to 
Jennifer Jai on June 27. Residence: Portland, Ore.. . . 
Craig S. Hecht '85 to Suzanne Silver on Sept. 
11... Taylor D. Ward '85, J.D. '88, LL.M. '88 to 
Sally Foster McSween on May 9. Residence: Astoria, 
NY... John F. Grossbauer '86 to Tracey 
Burnett on Sept. 18. Residence: Charlotte. . .Robin 
i Jonathan Green on Aug. 29. . . 
O'Kelly '86 to Elizabeth Shaw on Oct. 
9. Residence: Silver Spring, Md.... Andrew 
Quigley '86 to Sarah Radcliffe on Oct. 2 . . . Mara 
Cohen '87 to Steven Marcisz on Aug. 21.. .Juan 
Carlos "J.C." del Real '87, M.B.A. '91 to 
Wendy Hartman '89, J.D. '93 on Aug. 28 in Duke 
Chapel... Molly Dyke '87 to David Dillon on Sept. 
18... Edmund Carpenter '88 to Patricia 
Zimand '88 on Sept. 25. ..Janice Cohen '88, 
M.B.A. '92 to Jeffrey Beckmen M.B.A. '92 on 
Oct. 3. ..Samuel Marc Grossinger B.H.S. '88 
to Margaret Ann Donnelly '82, B.H.S. '87, 
M.H.S. '91 on Oct. 10. Residence: Durham... 
Karina Pergament '88 to Andrew Houghton 
on Aug. 21.. .Greg Walker '88 to Colleen Murphy 
on July 17. Residence: Pittsburgh... Wendy Hart- 
man '89, J.D. '93 to Juan Carlos "J.C." del 
Real '87, M.B.A. '91 on Aug. 28 in Duke Chapel. . . 
H. Price Headley III '89 to Kimberlyn F. Wood- 
Webster on May 30, 1992. Residence: Cincinnati. . . 
Sheila Kraeuter B.S.E. '89 to Gilles Van Ned- 
erveen on Sept. 4. . .M. Katie Leiva '89 to John 
Shriver B.S.E. '90 on Nov. 21, 1992. Residence: 
San Diego... Sally MacCowatt '89 to Josiah 
Black '91 on July 17. Residence: Charlottesville, 
Va.... David P. Mitchell '89 to Jennifer L. Ingram 
on Aug. 21. Residence: West Palm Beach, Fla.... 
Ashley Powell '89 to John W. Stanier on Oct. 
3 . . .Anne M. Spence '89 to Robert D. All on 
May 22. Residence: Greenville, S C Elain Woo 
'89 to Keith R. Lamirande on Sept. 4. Residence: 
Laurel, Md. 

BIRTHS: Second child and son to John H. Bur- 
nette '80 and Claudia Thompson Burnette 

'79 on Jan. 21, 1993. Named Nathan Drew.. .Third 
child and first son to Ann Zimmerman Jessup 

'80 and Harley Jessup on Aug. 1 1 . Named Graham 
Harley. . .Second child and first daughter to Daniel 
Katz '80 and Nancy Katz. Named Liza. . .First child 
and son to Ruth Calvin Scharf B.S.N. '80 and 
Gilbert Dale Scharf '70 on Oct. 14. Named 
Benjamin Mack. . .Second child and first daughter to 
Juli-Anne Cook Constantino B.S.N. '81 and 
Vincent J. Constantino B.S.E. '81 on May 4. 
Named Angela Gabrielle. . Third child and first son 
to Linda Haile Mackie B.S.E. '81, Ph.D. '87 and 
A. William Mackie '84 on July 28. Named John 
Marshall. . .Second child and first son to Edmund 
F. Tompkins '81 and Judith Howard Tomp- 
kins '78 on Oct. 6. Named Lucas Ross. . .First child 
and son to Alan T. Gallanty J.D. '82 and Sheila 
Koalkin Gallanty J.D. '83 on Feb. 15. Named 
Eric Tyler. . .First child and daughter to Susan 
Shepherd Ittner '82 and H. Curtis Inner Jr. on 
Sept. 22. Named Susanne Woods. . .Fifth child and 

Jean Sih Lidon J.D. '86 on May 4. Named Siob- 
han Elizabeth. . Third child and first daughter to 
Joel H. Swofford '82 and Melinda Swofford on 
June 28. Named Sarah Gwedolyn. . .Second child and 
first daughter to Elizabeth "Betsy" Field 
McGuffog '83 and Neil C. McGuffog on Sept. 5. 
Named Ellen Leigh. . .Second child and daughter to 
Carol Marquis Auerbach '84 and Craig Auer- 
bach on Aug. 26. Named Emily June. . .First child and 
daughter to Michelle "Shelly" Putter 
Barnea B.S.N. '84 and Mark Barnea on Jan. 5, 
1993. Named Jessica Lauren. . .A daughter to Bar- 
bara T. Dubrow J.D. '84 and Kenneth Dubrow 
on June 11. Named Samantha Rose. . .Second child 
and daughter to Laura Mauney Foster '84, 
M.B.A. '88 and Daniel Lavelle Foster M.B.A. 
'88 on Sept. 19. Named Griffin McGinley. . .First 
child and daughter to Andrew D. Gordon '84 
and Deborah Skolnick Gordon '85 on Aug. 
19. Named Madeline Jane... Second child and first 
daughter to Claire Hockmuth Lohmann '84 
and Jorg Lohmann on July 2. Named Amelie Char- 
lotte. . .First child and daughter to Vicky Hart 
Brewster '85 and Lewis Brewster '86 on July 
3. Named Christina Lee.. .First children, twin daugh- 
ters to Colin Mark Carter '85 and Alexandra 
Scribner Carter '86 on Sept. 19. Named Paige 
MacGregor and Jordan Kathryn. . .Second child and 
son to Amanda Flaherty Messinger '85 and 
Michael Messinger '85 on May 15. Named 
Kevin Hugh. . .First child and daughter to Elisabeth 
Butler Keith '86 and Geoffrey Spencer Keith on 
Aug. 25. Named Hayley Copeland. . .First child and 
daughter to John Kliewe '85 and Miriam Kliewe 
on Aug. 12. Named Samuel Oliver... First child and 
son to Anne May Knickerbocker '85 and Bob 
Knickerbocker on March 29. Named Robert George 
II. . .Second child and first son to Alan Baklor '86 
and Daniele Baklor on Oct. 4- Named Michael Sas- 
son. . .First child and daughter to Randi Rosof 
Butcher '86 and Glenn Butcher B.S.E '86. 
Named Emily Anne. . .Fifth child and daughter to 
Jean Sih Lidon J.D. '86 and James P. Lidon 
'82, J.D. '85 on May 4. Named Siobhan Elizabeth... 
First child and son to Sandra Hardgrove 
Andrade J.D. '88 and Juan Andrade on Aug. 9. 
Named John Alexander. . .Second child and first son 
to Daniel Lavelle Foster M.B.A. '88 and 
Laura Mauney Foster '84, M.B.A. '88 on 
Sept. 19. Named Griffin McGinley. . .Second child 
and daughter to Barry Joseph Hassett B.S.E. 
'88 and Melanie Colson Hassett on May 19. Named 
Dylan Grace. . .First child and son to 
Westberg Barge J.D. '89 and J. 
Barge J.D. '89onAug. 14. Named Aaren... Second 
child and daughter to Mary McKinney-Penley 
'89 and David Penley on Nov. 7, 1992. Named 
Seleste Shadoe Penley. 


Robert L. Freund '90, a Navy lieutenant j.g., 
graduated from the Submarine Officer Basic Course at 
the Naval Submarine School in Groton, Conn. 

Robert W. Ganowski B.S.C.E. '90, a Navy lieu- 
tenant j.g., returned from a seven-month deployment 
with Naval Mobile Construction Battalion One. 

Kyle A. Glerum '90, a Marine first lie 
stationed with Marine Fighter Attack Training 
Squadron 101 in Santa Ana, Calif. 

Chris Pappas '90, a Marine first lieutenant, was 
designated a Naval Flight Officer after 18 months of 
training in Pensacola, Fla. 

William M. Bellamy III M.B.A. '91 is vice presi- 
dent of Clayton Brown and Associates Inc. His wife, 


Jennifer N. Pons M.B.A. '91, is senior finance 
manager for Sara Lee Bakery. They live in Chicago. 

Christopher P. Colwell BSE. '91, a Navy 
lieutenant j.g., completed his assignment as gunnery 
officer aboard the USS Antietam and is in Orlando, 
Fla., attending the Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School. 

Jason K. Jones '91, a Navy ensign, was desig- 
nated a Naval Flight Officer after 18 months of train- 
ing in Pensacola, Fla. 

Brian G. McAdoo '91 is a Ph.D. candidate in 
geology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. 
He attended the University of Otago in Denedin, 
New Zealand, on a Fulbright Scholarship and finished 
a degree on his research on the Alpine Fault of the 
South Island. In September, he was involved in a 
series of dives in the submarine Ak'in off the coast of 
Oregon, and he will be going to Costa Rica in the 
spring with the Alvin on a research cruise, diving to 
4,500 meters. 

Dara Grossinger Redler J.D. '91 is an associate 
with the Atlanta law firm Alston & Bird. She and her 
husband, Daniel, live in Atlanta. 

Schaser A.H.C. '91, M.S. '91 received 
the Geraldine S. Taylor Fellowship for Advanced 
Rehabilitation Professionals from the Rehabilitation 
Institute of Chicago. The fellowship will enable her 
to create a wheelchair manual for patients. She lives 
in Chicago. 

Tara L. Shoemaker '91 earned her master's at 
Bucknell University in May. Her creative thesis was 
in poetry. She and her husband, Chad, live in Mill- 
ville, Pa. 

Carolyn E. Suh '91 is working in Los Angeles 
with Major League Professional Soccer, Inc., a sub- 
sidiary of World Cup USA 1994, Inc., whose mission 
is to create a professional soccer league in the U.S. by 
spring 1995. 

Peter Barton '92 is a water reclamation engineer 
with Sheaffer & Roland, Inc. He lives in Wheaton, 111. 

Elizabeth DaTrindade-Asher '92 has been 

appointed by President Clinton as congressional liai- 
son for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 
Development. She lives in Washington, D.C. 

Lea Page Davis '92 is a writer and editor for 
Journalistic, Inc., a Durham publishing house. She 
was a student intern at Duke Magazine. 

Kristi A. Hubbard '92 completed Officer Indoc- 
trination School at the Naval Education and Train- 
ing Center in Newport, R.I. 

Neeraj Sharma '92 is a second-year student at 
the University of Texas at San Antonio's medical 
school. She lives in San Antonio. 

N. Wayne Simms J.D. '92 is an associate with 
Rushton, Stakely, Johnston & Garrett, P.A., special- 
izing in appellate and insurance defense litigation. He 
and his wife, Melissa, live in Montgomery, Ala. 

William G. Beamer '93, Douglas S. Belvin 
BSE. '93, George D. Brickhouse '93, Jason 
A. Burgess '93, William H. Carter '93, 
Minal B. Dimani BSE. '93, Mark M. Don- 
ahue '93, James E. Duncan '93, Derek W. 
Edwards '93, April L. Fields '93, David E. 
Grogan '93, Jeffrey A. Hancock BSE. '93 
Thomas W. Hash BSE 93, Armin D. 
Heravi '93, Grant T. Hollett BSE. '93, Doug- 
las E. Holt BSE. '93, Craig D. Hutchinson 
'93, Karl W. Kottke BSE 93, Christopher 
Mulligan '93, Eric C. Nesbit BSE '93, 
Christopher J. O'Reilly '93, Jonathan 
Simon '93, Elizabeth Toussaint BSE. '93, 
Amy Updike '93, Stephen M. Whearty '93, 
Scot A. Youngblood '93, and Michael S. 

■ '93 have all been commissioned as ensigns 
in the U.S. Navy. 

Neil Giordano '93 is a policy assistant on educa- 
tion finance reform for the Chicago Panel on School 
Policy and the Coalition for Educational Rights. He 
works through the Public Allies program, a prototype 
for President Clinton's National Service program. 

Peter Hart igan '93 is an associate with Battery 
Ventures, a venture capital business in Boston, Mass. 
He lives in Cambridge. 

Matthew L. Pangaro B.S.E. '93, a Navy mid- 
shipman, is stationed aboard the guided missile cruiser 
USS Chancellorsvilie, whose home port is San Diego. 

Mary Pickens '93 has been named executive 
assistant to U.S. Rep. Butler Derrick of South Carolina. 

Matthew Schousen Ph.D. '93 is an instructor in 
the government department at Franklin & Marshall 
College in Lancaster, Pa. 

MARRIAGES: Christopher Bennett '90 to 

Julie Anne Neale on Nov. 20. Residence: Chapel 
Hill. ..Bert Allen Davis '90 to Laura Porter 
'91 on Sept 4. Residence: Durham. . Samuel W. 
Hiser M.B.A. '90 to Enid K. Haller on Sept. 18... 
John James Shriver BSE '90 to M. Katie 
Leiva '89 on Nov. 21. Residence: San Diego... 
William Murray Bellamy III MBA. '91 to 
Jennifer Neill Pons M.B.A. '91 on Sept. 25. 
Residence: Chicago... Josiah Black '91 to Sally 
MacCowatt '89 on July 17. Residence: Charlot- 
tesville, V.i Dara S. Grossinger II i '91 to 
Daniel S. Redler on Aug. 28. Residence: Atlanta... 
Lawrence Krawitz '91 to Carolyn 
Schwartz '91 on Sept. 12. ..Michael J. Mars 
'91 to Sarah Robbins on Oct. 2. ..Thomas P. 
McDermott M.D. '91 to Frances Gail Buoyer on 
Sept. 23 in Duke Chapel. Residence: Dutham... 
Michael O'Leary '91 to Elizabeth Honey- 
CUtt '92 on Oct. 2 in Duke Chapel. . Laura 
Porter '91 to Bert Allen Davis '90 on Sept. 4. 
Residence: Durham... Tara L. Shoemaker '91 to 
Chad R. Holdren on June 26. . Kristin Van 
Peenan '91 to Steven R. Wild '91 on Aug. 14. 
Residence: Nashville... Elizabeth Honeycutt 
'92 to Michael O'Leary '91 on Oct. 2. in Duke 
Chapel... Krisanta Kuulei Lasko '92 to 
William Abbott Silva 91 on Sept 25. Resi 
dence: Prescott, Ariz....Susan O'Callahan '92 to 
James Pratt B.S.E. '92 on Aug. 28... N. Wayne 
Simms J.D. '92 to Melissa Kent on May 1. Resi- 
dence: Montgomery, Ala.... Randy Van Buren 
M.S. '92 to Lisa Barwick on Oct. 2. Residence: 
Durham. . . Michael Weiner M.D. '93 to Cynthia 
Miller on Sept. 5. 

BIRTHS: First child and so] 

Hays J.D. '91 and Robert D. Hays on June 26 

Named Robert Daniel III. 


W. Porter Kellam '26, A.M. '29 of Nokomis, 
Fla., on Aug. 29. A graduate of Emory University and 
the University of Illinois, he was director emeritus of 
the University of Georgia Libraries. He served as 
editor of the journal Southeastern Librarian and was 
president of a number of professional organizations. 
He is survived by a daughter, four grandchildren, and 
a great-grandson. 

Fannie H. Lee '26 of Dalton, Ga., on Aug. 24. 
She is survived by a brother. 

Lucile Strickland Noah '27 of Raleigh, N.C., 
on Aug. 9. She is survived by two sons, two sisters, 
five grandchildren, and a great-grandson. 

Robert J. Ruark '28 of Raleigh, N.C., on Aug. 
18. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania's 
medical school, he was one of Raleigh's first doctors 
to specialize in obstetrics and gynecology. He prac- 
ticed medicine for 40 years. He is survived by his wife, 
Celeste, a daughter, a son, and two grandchildren. 

Glenn Galloway Reynolds '29 on Sept. 16. 
After retiring from L.A. Reynolds Co. in Winston- 
Salem, N.C., he became interested in local and 
church history at his home in Lewisville, N.C. He is 
survived by a daughter, Susan Reynolds 

Florence Dailey Shaw '29 of Charlotte on 
Sept. 19. At Duke, she was a member of Kappa Kappa 
Gamma sorority. She is survived by her husband, 
Johns S. Shaw '30, A.M. '39. 

Robert E. Williams '29 of Clinton, N.C, on 
Oct. 21. 

Peter A. Mazza '30 on Oct. 17. A retired anes- 
thesiologist who lived in Durham, he graduated from 
the University of Siena, Italy, and served in the Army 
Medical Corps. He is survived by his wife, Ruth; two 
sons, including Jeffrey Mazza '67; a daughter, 
Gail Mazza Harp '60, A.M. '66; eight grandchil- 
dren; and six great-grandchildren. 

Ernest Coleman Anderson '31, M.Ed. '47 of 
Lenoir, N.C, on Oct. 4. A World War II Army vet- 
eran, he retired in 1970 from Reidsville High School 
as principal. He taught adult Sunday School and was 
a member of the adult choit at his United Methodist 
church. A life member of Alpha Kappa Psi, he was 
also a member of the N.C. Education Association, the 
N.C. Principals Club, the Kiwanis Club, the VFW 
and American Legion, the N.C. Wildlife Association, 
and the state and national Fox Hunters Association. 
He was listed in Who's Who in the South and South- 
west, N.C. Lives, Personalities of the South, and the 
Dictionary of International Biography. He is survived by 
his wife, Lucile, a brother, and two sisters. 

Antoinette Hauser Needham '31 ofPfaff- 
town, N.C, on April 27. She is survived by a son, a 
sister and a brother. 

W. Alfred Williams 32 on Oct 25 at his Dur 

ham home. During World War II, he was a lieutenant 
in the Navy. He worked for the Home Insutance 
Agency for 41 years and retired in 1979 as chairman 
of the board. He was a member of Kappa Sigma fratet- 
nity. He is survived by his wife, Margaret Gib- 
bons Williams '33, a son, a daughter, six grand- 
children, and three great-grandchildren. 

Alfred F. Henderson '33, M.D. '37 of Palm 
Beach, Fla., on Sept. 4. He was a resident on Duke's 
urology staff from 1938 to 1943. He served in the 
Army Medical Corps during World War II as chief of 
urology in the 137th Hospital in the European The- 
ater until 1946, when he moved to Flotida to open a 
practice. He is survived by his wife, Frances 
Klein Henderson R.N. '34. 

'Doc" Haydock '35 of Venice, Fla., on 
July 15. He is survived by a son and a granddaughter. 

John M. "Jack" Hennemier '35 of Savannah, 
Ga., on Nov. 4. He was a World War II Navy veteran 
and lieutenant commander in nine major engage- 
ments in the Pacific. At Duke, he was a football line- 
backer, was named Duke's Most Valuable Player, and 
won All American Honotable Mention. He coached 
at Duke, Washington & Lee, and the University of 
Maryland. While the defensive coordinator at Mary- 
land, the team won the college national 
championship. He was a member of the Greater 
Savannah Athletic Hall of Fame. He was head of the 
Calgary Stampeders in Canada and retired after 1 8 
years as pro scout for the NFL Denver Broncos. 

] anuary-F ebruary 1994 

Dorothy Holt McElduff '35 of Durham on Nov. 
3. She was a recorder at Duke's engineering school 
from 1942 to 1977. She is survived by her daughter, 
Barbara Browning, three grandchildren, and four 

Deans M.Ed. '36 of Wilson, N.C., on 
Aug. 24. She received a doctorate in education from 
the University of Cincinnati. She was co-author of a 
series of elementary school mathematics textbooks 
and assistant editor of Arithmetic Teacher magazine. 
She was supervisor of elementary education in 
Arlington, 111., from 1952 to 1961. She was a class- 
room teacher in North Carolina and Illinois and an 
assistant professor of education at the University of 
Cincinnati. She was a member of the American Asso- 
ciation of University Women and the Arlington 
Retired Teachers Association. She is survived by a 
sister and a brother. 

Robert C. Mervine '36 of East Orange, N.J., on 
Nov. 2. At Duke, he was a member of Delta Sigma 
Phi fraternity. He was head of the client service 
department and set up a cash management depart- 
ment at First National State Bank, now First Fidelity 
Bank in Newark, N.J. He retired in 1984. 

Albert Corbett '37 of Wilmington, 
N.C., on Oct. 10. He taught Sunday school at Wilm- 
ington's First Baptist Church, where he was a deacon 
and was named deacon emeritus. He was a partner in 
Corbett Package Co. and Corbett Brothers, and held 
offices in Corbett Industries, Corbett Lumber Corp., 
and Marvil Package Co. He was also involved in 
farming operations in North Carolina and Florida and 
served on the board of directors of Wachovia Bank. 
He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth, a son, four 
daughters, three sisters, and 13 grandchildren. 

Gordon Wood A.M. '38 of Collinsville, 111., on 
Oct. 4. He earned his Ph.D. in English at Princeton 
University in 1941. He was a veteran of World War II 
and a retired lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army 
Reserve. He was a professor emeritus of English at 
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, where he 
was the first chairman of its English department. He 
was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and the American 
Association of University Professors, and was author 
of Vocabulary Change. He is survived by his wife, Sara, 
a son, and two grandsons. 

Wade Robert Bustle M.Div. '40 of Greensboro, 
N.C, on Aug. 21. He was a retired minister and mem- 
ber of the United Methodist Western North Carolina 
Conference. He served pastorates in the districts of 
Salisbury, Asheville, Greensboro, Gastonia, High 
Point, and Winston-Salem. He retired in 1977 as an 
associate with Mt. Pleasant Church for eight years. 
He is survived by his wife, Vesta, a son, a daughter, 
two brothers, and a sister. 

Smith M.Ed. '41 of Penn Acres, 
Del., on June 30. He earned his bachelor's at Wash- 
ington College and served in Europe in the Army 
during World War II. He was the principal of William 
Penn High School until 1972 and director of the state 
Division of Social Services from 1975 to 1977. He was 
a past president of the Delaware Association of 
School Administrators, the Wilmington Suburban 
Principals Association, the Middle Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools, and the New 
Castle Rotary Club. A member of New Castle United 
Methodist Church, he was president of its board of 
trustees and chairman of its administrative board for 
10 years. He was a life member of the National Educa- 
tion Association and was elected to life membership 
in the Headmasters Association in 1967. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Alberta, two daughters, two step- 
sons, a stepdaughter, and two sisters. 

Alice Stroude Winegardner M.Ed. '41 of 
Findlay, Ohio, on May 22. She earned her bachelor's 
from Findlay College in 1928 and did graduate work 

at Ohio State in the summers of 1 930 and 1 93 1 . In 
1974, she retired from the Findlay city schools after 
45 years teaching English and serving as a guidance 
counselor at Glenwood Jr. High School. She was a 
member of the Ohio Retired Teachers Association, 
the Hancock County Retired Teachers Association, 
Blanchard Valley Hospital Auxiliary, the Blanchard 
Valley Health Association, and the Hancock Histori- 
cal Museum Association. 

Francis L. Dale '43 of Pasadena, Calif., on Nov. 
28, of a heart attack while visiting Victoria Falls, 
Zimbabwe. He earned his law degree from the Univer- 
sity of Virginia and became a partner in a Cincinnati 
law firm. During World War II, he was the command- 
ing officer of the USS Pillsbury, an antisubmarine 
craft. He was publisher of The Cincinnati Enquirer 
from 1965 to 1973 and president of the Cincinnati 
Reds from 1967 to 1973. He was a supporter of build- 
ing the downtown Riverfront Stadium, which became 
the Reds' home when the ball park opened in 1970. 
He was chairman of President Richard M. Nixon's re- 
election campaign and was appointed U.S. represen- 
tative to the United Nations in Geneva in 1972 with 
the rank of ambassador. He resumed his newspaper 
career with The Los Angeles Herald-Examiner as pub- 
lisher from 1977 to 1985. He was commissioner of the 
Major Indoor Soccer League from 1985 to 1986, then 
left to become president of the Mike Mansfield Foun- 
dation at the University of Montana. He is survived 
by his wife, former Duke trustee Kathleen 
Watkins Dale '43; two sons, including Mitchell 
W. Dale '71; two daughters; a sister; two brothers; 
and 1 1 grandchildren. 

Sally Moore Starke '43 of Bristol, Va., on Jan. 
7, 1993. A member of the Women's Appointed Volun- 
teer Emergency Service (W.A.V.E.S.) during World 
War II, she worked in Japan for the U.S. government 
after the war. She earned her master's in international 
relations at Columbia University. She worked for the 
state department and the Social Security Administra- 
tion before retiring in 1968. She is survived by a niece, 
Sally Austin Tom 73, B.S.N. 75 

M.D. '44 of Claremont, 
Calif., on Sept. 8, of cancer of the pancreas. He was 
an orthopaedist for 40 years in Pomona. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Peggy; a daughter; two sons, includ- 
ing James Edward Boatman M.D. '83; two 
grandchildren; and a cousin, Richard B. Smith 
M.D. '55. 

Anne Elizabeth "Betty" Bayes Treffer '45 

on Feb. 17, 1993, at her Merritt Island, Fla., home, of 
cancer. She was a past vice president of the Brevard 
Symphony Central Guild, a past president of the 
Merritt Island Woman's Club, and a member of the 
Colonial Dames and Tri Delta sorority. She was an 
elder of the Merritt Island Presbyterian Church, 
where she chaired its worship committee. She is sur- 
vived by her husband, Brough, two sons, a daughter, a 
brother, and six grandchildren. 

Arthur B. Craig J.D. '47 of East Lansing, Mich., 
on Sept. 3. He earned his bachelor's degree from the 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He retired as bill 
drafter and head of research for the State of Michigan 
Legislative Service Bureau. He is survived by his wife, 
Isabel, a son, his mother, three sisters, and a grandson. 

James Jeffries Heffner II '47 of Richmond, 
Va., on Oct. 8. At Duke, he was a member of the 
basketball team. A World War II Navy veteran, he 
was president and CEO of Poythress Laboratories, 
Inc., and a retired sales vice president for A.H. Robins 
Co.'s pharmaceutical division. He is survived by his 
wife, Anne, a son, a daughter, and a brother. 

William A. Smith '47 of Orlando, Fla., on June 
13, of heart failure. He retired as assistant claims man- 
ager with Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. in Miami, 
Fla. He is survived by his wife, 

Smith '49, a son, his mother, and < 

Robert W. Walter '47, LL.B. '48 of Mission 
Viejo, Calif., on May 6. He served in the Marines 
during World War II and earned his law doctorate at 
New York University's law school. He was president 
of Central Pipe and Supply and Alpine Pipe and Sup- 
ply in Denver, Colo., for many years. He is survived 
by his wife, Charlotte; four children, including 
Robert Walter J.D. '81; three step-children; and 
seven grandchildren. 

Westwood H. Fletcher Jr. '48 of Holmes 
Beach, Fla., on June 1 . A retired Air Force colonel, he 
was a fighter pilot during World War II, the Korean 
War, and the Vietnam War. He was also a graduate of 
the National War College and the Geneva College in 
Switzerland. He was a Manatee County commissioner, 
chairman for several years, and a county administrator 
for two years. He was a past director of the county's 
YMCA, headed the local chapter of the American 
Heart Association, and was on the board of the Man- 
atee chamber of commerce. He is survived by his wife, 
Audrey, a son, two daughters, a brother, a sister, and 
four grandchildren. 

Muriel Kirtley Griese '48 on Sept. 29 at her 
Prospect, Ky., home. She is survived by her husband, 
Harry F. Griese Jr. '48, two sons, and two 

William J. Edwards '49 of Roanoke Rapids, 
N.C, on Aug. 7. He was president of Tri-City Motor 
Co. He is survived by his wife, Gloria Koltinsky 
Edwards '48, and two children, William J. 
Edwards III 71 and Susan D. Edwards '74. 

Alma Courtner Perkinson '49 of Danville, 
Va., on Sept. 21. 

>. White '49 of Grand Isle, Vt., in Feb- 
ruary. He was a member of Theta Alpha Phi at Duke. 
He is survived by his wife, Shirley Shapleigh 
'49, and a daughter, Betsy Ann White '74. 

Walter Dmytro P.T. Cert '51 of Kalamazoo, 
Mich., on Feb. 13, 1992. He earned his degree in 
dentistry in 1957 and practiced in Kalamazoo. He is 
survived by his wife, Margaret. 

Harold I. Lindsey LL.M. '51 ofLutz, Fla., on 
March 6. He had retired after teaching law at Mercer 
University in Macon, Ga., practicing law for 15 years 
in Charleston, S.C., and teaching at Stetson Univer- 
sity's law school. He was a member of Wig and Robe 
legal fraternity and the Spinning Wheels and Temple 
Twirlers square-dance clubs. He is survived by his 
wife, Mary, a son, a daughter, a step-daughter, a 
brother, two sisters, and three grandchildren. 

Leslie E. Mack '51 of Long Beach, Calif., on July 
2 1 . He is survived by a daughter. 

J. Kitlowski '52, M.D. '57 of Abing- 
ton, Md., of a heart attack. He practiced plastic and 
reconstructive surgery in Baltimore from 1963 until 
1986, when he became the medical director of Hid- 
denbrook, an alcoholism and drug-dependency treat- 
ment center. He chaired the Committee for Physician 
Rehabilitation of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty 
and served on state and local impaired-physicians 
committees. He was also on the board of Pathfinders, a 
United Methodist church halfway house, and was sec- 
retary of the Medical Professional Group of Alcoholics 
Anonymous. He also lectured in the psychiatry depart- 
ment at the University of Maryland's medical school. 
He is survived by two sons and a granddaughter. 

Harry G. Turner Jr. '52 of Swansboro, N.C, on 
July 16. 

Shirley Hildreth Eveleth '55 of New Britain, 
Conn., on Oct. 31. A former elementary school- 
teacher, she had been a real estate agent for the past 
18 years. She was a past president of the New Britain 


Youth Museum and the New Britain Memorial Hos- 
pital Women's Auxiliary. She had served on the state 
board of the Girl Scouts of America and the hoard of 
the New Britain Symphony, and was a member of the 
local Junior League. She is survived by her husband, 
John, three sons, and a brother. 

Andrew J. Glaid Ph.D. '55 of Mt. Lebanon, Pa., 
on Feb. 1, 1992, of a heart attack. In 1954, he joined 
the chemistry department at Duquesne University, 
where he earned his bachelor's and master's degrees, 
and had been its chairman since 1975. He received 
Duquesne's Distinguished Alumni Award in 1973 and 
was elected to the school's Century Club in 1991. He 
is survived by his wife, Mary Lou. 

Walter E. Tisdale B.D. '57 of Sanford, N.C., on 
May 1. In his 39 years of ministry, he served churches 
throughout North Carolina. He was a 32nd-degree 
Mason. He is survived by his wife, Diane, his parents, 
two sons, two daughters, five stepchildren, and three 

F. Hall Jr. '62 of Topping, Va., on 
Aug. 23. 

George S. Heath '65 of Waycross, Ga., on Aug. 
3 1 , of cancer. He earned his medical degree at the 
Medical College of Georgia and began a family prac- 
tice in 1970. He was a past president and the current 
secretary of the Okefenokee Medical Society. He is 
survived by his wife, Jennifer, a son, a daughter, his 
mother, two brothers, and a sister. 

Penick '65 of Durham in 1993. He 
earned advanced degrees and certificates from North- 
eastern University and UNC's executive program in 
professional management education. He was the 
senior vice president and chief actuary of Durham 

Life Insurance Co. and was president of the Mid- 
Atlantic Actuarial Club. He is survived by his wife, 
Bettye, a daughter, a stepson, his parents, and a sister. 

Omer M. Abdelrasoul Ph.D. '76 of Dammam, 
Saudi Arabia, on Oct. 26, of pancreatic cancer. He 
was a professor of English and former director of the 
English program at King Faisal University at 
Dammam and al Hoffuf, Saudi Arabia. He is survived 
by his wife, Brenda Bland Abdelrasoul A.M. 
'75, Ph.D. '79, and two sons. 

David James Zimmerman Ph.D. '83 of 
Durham on Nov. 6. He was a senior scientist at TRC 
Environmental Corp. He is survived by his wife, 
Susan Marie Regier, his mother and father, and a 

Christine O'Reilly 

The youngest of Duke's tennis triplets, Christine 
Frances O'Reilly '90, died on October 10 from head 
injuries sustained in an automobile accident. She 
was 25. 

O'Reilly, who worked in sports promotions for 
Korff Enterprises, was on a California business trip 
scouting potential sites for a ballooning festival pro- 
ject. The car, driven by a business associate, overshot 
a curve and hit a utility pole. Her associate was killed 
instantly and she never recovered from a coma. 

She and her sisters Patti and Terri attended Duke on 
full tennis scholarships. O'Reilly lettered all four years, 
posted a 78-32 record, and won four ACC team cham- 
pionships, advancing to the NCAA Championships 
three times. She teamed with her sister Patti to form a 
doubles team that was ranked eighteenth in the nation, 
earning an NCAA Championship bid. She suffered a 
back injury and did not compete her senior year. 

At Duke, O'Reilly was a member of Pi Beta Phi 
sorority, Omicron Delta Upsilon International Eco- 
nomics Honor Society, the Newman Center, and the 
senior class gift committee. After graduating, she 
joined the international tennis circuit, but chose a 
business career because of her recurring injury. How- 
ever, she participated in charity tennis events and was 
sister Patti's grass-court warm-up partner for Wimble- 
don last year. 

Last summer, while assisting sports promoter Steve 
Korffs production for the Pathmark Tennis Classic in 
Mahwah, New Jersey, "she not only competed in the 
event, and with her sisters squared off against Bjorn 
Borg and Guillermo Vilas for charity, but also orga- 
nized a basketball exhibition to help the Tomorrow's 
Children Fund," according to The New York Times. 

She is survived by her parents, Eugene and Delores 
O'Reilly; sisters Patricia Marie O'Reilly '90 
and Theresa Ann O'Reilly '90; and three broth- 
ers. Her sisters have initiated the Christine O'Reilly 
Children's Fund as a memorial. 

Treasurer Emeritus Harward 

Stephen Cannada Harward '43, a past treasurer of 
the university, died October 2 1 in Durham after a 
long illness. He was 71. 

The Durham native served in the European The- 
ater during World War II as a B- 17 bombadier. A 
certified public accountant, he came to Duke in 1956 
as an internal auditor. In 1961, he became university 
controller and, in 1972, was named university trea- 
surer. He retired from that position in 1986. 

Harward was active in a number of Durham civic 
organizations, serving as president of the Tobaccoland 
Kiwanis Club and treasurer of the Durham Jaycees. 
He was also a member of the Durham City Board of 
Education for twelve years. 

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Chief Engineer Howard 

William Kenneth "Ken" Howard Sr. B.S.E.E. '35, 
chief engineer at Duke for twenty-seven years, died of 

cancer October 25 at his Durham home. He was 83. 

After graduating from Duke, he worked for the 
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Robinson O. Everett 
LL.M. '59 set out to 
reshape the political 
map of North Carolina 
when he challenged the 
constitutionality of two 
black majority con- 
gressional districts in 
the state. And he may end up reshaping 
the national debate over race. 

Everett argues that the new districts 
amount to "racial gerrymandering," which 
actually sets back the 
progress of race rela- 
tions and violates the 
rights of white vot- 
ers. H. Jefferson Pow- 
ell A.M. '77, Ph.D. 
'91, his Duke col- 
league who argued 
for the state, main- 
tains as passionately 
that race-based reme- 
dies are a just means 
of rectifying past 

While Everett's 
challenge focuses on 
the constitutionality 
of majority-minority 
electoral districts, the 
questions he raises 
have broader con- 
text. Some Everett 
supporters contend 

that the case calls to question the whole 
notion of racial preferences. They fear 
remedies initially viewed as transient have 
become embedded in the fabric of the 
nation and are leading to a "Balkaniza- 
tion" of American politics and society. 

At issue are the 1st and 12th North 
Carolina congressional districts, drawn as 
majority black districts by the state legisla- 
ture following the 1990 census and 
endorsed by the U.S. Department of Jus- 
tice. The 1st District meanders through 
eastern North Carolina from the Virginia 
border almost to South Carolina. The 
12th District (see map) follows Interstate 
85 for 160 miles through ten counties, 



in some stretches not much wider than 
the highway. Voters in parts of Durham, 
Greensboro, Winston-Salem, and Char- 
lotte now find themselves in the same 
congressional district. In 1992, the 1st Dis- 
trict elected Eva Clayton and the 12th 

Two Duke law professors 

met before the 
Supreme Court to argue 
opposing sides in a suit 

that has recast the 

national debate over 

affirmative action. 

District elected Mel Watt — the first blacks 
to serve the state in Congress since 1901. 

Citing the 1965 Voting Rights Act, the 
U.S. Justice Department rejected an earlier 
plan that drew one black majority district 
in the state. The Voting Rights Act 
requires that minority districts be created 
wherever reasonably possible to end race- 
based voting discrimination. 

Few ever thought, including Everett, 
that his appeal to the Supreme Court 
would be heard. Citing long-standing case 
law supporting the 
state's redistricting 
plan, a three-judge 
Federal District Court 
panel dismissed his 
I legal challenge in 
I 1992. The high court, 
i however, decided to 
i hear Everett's case 
§ and in a 5-4 deci- 
£ sion last June ruled 
| in his favor, finding 
§ that the 12 th Con- 
I gressional District 
J may indeed be 
% unconstitutional. 
I In an opinion for 
| the majority, Justice 
| Sandra Day O'Con- 
$ nor wrote that the 
| districts are "irra- 
| tional in shape" and 
bear "an uncomfort- 
able resemblance to political apartheid." 
O'Connor said the plan reinforces the 
view that members of racial groups have 
the same political interests, think alike, 
and vote alike. The plan entrenches racial 
division, the court said, and may violate 
the rights of white voters. The decision 
casts a shadow on two decades of court 
opinions upholding race-conscious solu- 
tions to past discrimination. 

While the Bush and Clinton adminis- 
trations and the national Democratic 
Party have supported the redistricting 
plan, the new districts have been widely 
criticized for their strange shapes. Propo- 
nents say the shapes are necessary because 

J anuary -F ebruary 1994 


the black population is dispersed almost 
evenly throughout the state: North Caroli- 
na has a black population of 22 percent. 
Critics, including Everett, contend the 
political lines have more to do with pro- 
tecting white Democratic incumbents 
than promoting black candidates. A hand- 
ful of black political observers such as state 
representative Mickey Michaux and Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania law professor Lani 
Guinier worry that minority political 
power will actually diminish by concen- 
trating black constituents in voting blocs. 

Following its ruling last summer, the 
Supreme Court sent the case back to the 
U.S. District Court in Raleigh, where a 
decision is expected this winter on whether 
the two districts represent unacceptable 
racial gerrymandering. North Carolina 
must prove it has a "compelling state in- 
terest" in drawing the two districts, with no 
reasonable alternatives. 
The ruling could affect 
similar majority-minor- 
ity districts across the 

Politics often make 
strange bedfellows. And 
Shaw vs. Reno has 
placed natural political 
allies — many of the 
players Duke law facul- 
ty members and alum- 
ni — on opposing sides. 
Everett, sixty-five, de- 
scribes himself as a life- 
long moderate Demo- 
cratic and supporter of 
the civil rights move- 
ment. He was a promi- 
nent advocate in sever- 
al desegregation actions in the 1960s. But 
Dan Blue J.D. '73, Speaker of the North 
Carolina House and the state's most visible 
black politician, shepherded the legisla- 
ture's redistricting plan to approval. Blue 
staunchly defends the constitutionality of 
majority-minority districts. 

In another ironic twist, Everett finds 
himself in the unusual position of having 
his views on a constitutional issue endorsed 
by the national GOP. While Republicans 
have supported minority voting blocs as a 
means of boosting conservative candidates 
in neighboring districts, they believe the 
main goal of the legislature in this case was 
protecting Democratic incumbents. State 
Republican Party chair Jack Hawke J.D. 
'66 persuaded the Republican National 
Committee to file a brief with the 
Supreme Court supporting Shaw vs. Reno. 
Both Blue and Hawke are former students 
of Everett's. 

While he represented the state when 
they faced each other before the high 
court, Powell — like Everett — was arguing 

Shaw vs. Reno 

has placed natural 

political allies — 

many of the 

players Duke law 

faculty and alumni— 

on opposing sides. 

Challenger: Everett claims 
"racial gerrymandering" 

his convictions. Although they are divided 
in their views on using race to draw politi- 
cal lines, they are close in their political 
philosophies and personal backgrounds. 

Powell, thirty-nine, is also 
a Democrat. Each grew up as 
a precocious only child in 
small-town North Carolina, 
graduated from an Ivy 
League law school, and 
returned to his North Car- 
olina roots for a teaching 
career at Duke. While they 
came of age in different eras, 
their views on race were 
shaped by parents who de- 
fied the conventional social 
mores of the desegregated 
S South. 

| Oil portraits of Everett's 
I parents hang beside each 
other in his law office on 
Main Street in Durham. 
His mother, 
Katherine Robinson Everett, 
was among the first women 
to study law at the University 
of North Carolina and in 
1920 became the first woman 
to argue before the North 
Carolina Supreme Court. 
Reuben Everett was 
Durham's first city attorney 
and the first prosecutor in 
Durham Recorder's Court. 
Prominent Democrats in the 
state, the Everetts were also 
sympathetic to the early stir- 
rings of the civil rights move- 
ment. In the 1920s, the 
senior Everett sponsored 
anti-masking leg 

[ion tar- 
geting the Ku Klux Klan and in the 1940s 
helped appoint black precinct officials to 
encourage blacks to register and vote. 
Katherine Everett was elected to the 
Durham city council in 1951, with heavy 
support from black voters, and served for 
twenty years. 

Robinson Everett was raised in a house 
on the corner of Dillon and Liberty streets, 
five blocks from where his downtown 
office is today. "We lived a block from the 
bus station, and I remember that vividly," 
he says. "Late at night in the summer, you 
could hear the buses being announced." A 
homeless shelter now stands on the site of 
the Everett home. 

Everett left North Carolina to attend 
Harvard and graduated from Harvard Law 
School in 1950. Like the nighttime bus 
passengers he heard as a boy, Everett 
would also return home. 

Following a stint as a judge advocate in 
the Air Force during the Korean War, 
Everett became a full-time faculty member 
at Duke Law School in 1956. In 1958, 
Everett and his parents formed the law 
firm Everett, Everett, and Everett. Four 
years earlier, they had become the first 
family to be sworn in together before the 
U.S. Supreme Court. 

Although he has never run for elective 
office, Everett has spent a lifetime in- 
volved in Democratic politics. He was the 
local manager for Terry Sanford's 1960 
gubernatorial campaign and from 1961 to 
1964 served as counsel for Senator Sam 
Ervin's judiciary subcommittee on consti- 
tutional rights. In 1966, he represented 
Durham resident Ruth Shaw in a success- 
ful suit against congressional gerrymander- 
ing in the state. 

From 1980 to 1991, Everett was Chief 
Judge on the U.S. Court of Military 
Appeals. With a rank equivalent to a 
four-star general, Everett made deci- 
sions that were reviewed directly by 
the U.S. Supreme Court. 

As Everett considered 
another suit against the 
state in 1992, he con- 
tacted Shaw to sign on 
as plaintiff. Everett, 
his college-age son 
Greg, his secretary 
Dorothy Bullock, and 
Duke law professor 
Melvin Shimm — all 
registered Democrats — 
added their names to 
the case that became 
Shaw vs. Reno. 
i Everett says he be- 
£ lieves that on the issue 
of race, lawmakers 
should strive to create 
a "color-blind Consti- 
tution." He compares the use of race in 
drawing political districts to racial consid- 
erations in jury selection or employment, 
practices struck down by the courts as 
unconstitutional. "When you try to have 
racial considerations or quotas in politics, 
in the long run, it's destructive in a demo- 

Proponent: Powell, for the state, says 
one ...has been denied the right to vol 



cratic society," he says. "It is unnecessary, 
unwise, and unconstitutional." 

Everett says his ten years on the U.S. 
Court of Military Appeals helped form his 
opinions. "The military is a color-blind 
society I observed closely and first-hand. It 
works and works well." He points to the 
success of prominent black leaders as evi- 
dence that minorities can succeed in the 
national and state political arenas on merit 
alone. Former chairman of the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff Colin Powell, Dan Blue, former 
Charlotte mayor and U.S. Senate candi- 
date Harvey Gantt, state senator Howard 
Lee, and state auditor Ralph Campbell are 
among the examples he offers. 

In addition to his career as lawyer and 
professor, Everett is a real estate developer 
and part owner of several television sta- 
tions. He lives in a modest apartment near 
Duke's West Campus with his wife, Linda. 

"He's really a remarkable person when 
you consider the range of activities in 
which he's involved and the genius with 
which he follows through," says Shimm, 
who has known Everett for forty years. "It's 
amazing the number of balls he's been able 
to keep in the air at the same time. He's 
the best-put-together person I know." 

Pursuing Shaw vs. Reno has come at 
some personal cost, Shimm says, adding 
that the suit is perceived by some as a 
reactionary attempt to thwart the progress 
of civil rights. Shimm describes an editori- 
al published in the Duke law school news- 
paper as a thinly veiled charge of racism 
against Everett and him. "To charge 
Robinson Everett with racism is ridicu- 
lous," says Shimm, who was also promi- 
nent in desegregation actions in the 1960s. 

Blue, who in the early 1970s was one of 
four black students in his law class, has 
kind words for Everett. On Shaw vs. Reno, 
however, he disagrees with his former pro- 
fessor. "While we strive for a color-blind 
society, most folks realize that sometimes 
color has to be taken into consideration in 
order to ultimately get to a color-blind 
society," says Blue, the first black speaker 
of a Southern legislature since Reconstruc- 
tion. "The military may be a good example 
of such a society. But President Truman 
used an executive order to decree that the 
military was no longer going to discrimi- 
nate and was going to take action to ame- 
liorate past discrimination." 

Powell and Blue come from the same 
generation. A native of Rockingham 
County, Powell as a teenager witnessed 
desegregation of Burlington city schools. 
"My views on Shaw vs. Reno were steeped 
by my experience growing up," he says. 

Powell's parents, Haywood and Lillian 
Powell, were small-business owners, and as 
a boy he had many black friends. "I 
remember my parents' whole reaction to 

"It's difficult to be a 
lawyer and a Christian," 

says Powell. 
"The American system 

of justice is not a 

perfect system of justice 

by any means." 

school desegregation was, 'Why does this 
bother people?' One of the great lessons 
my parents taught me was the importance 
of all people and the need for racial justice 
in this country," he says. 

Graduating from Yale Divinity School 
in 1979, he explored the possibility of 
becoming an Episcopal minister before 
entering law school, also at Yale. Powell 
became a law professor at Duke in 1989, 
following a stint at the University of Iowa. 
He continued his study of religion and 
earned his Ph.D. in theology at Duke in 
1991. Powell has written a book, The 
Moral Tradition of American Constitutional- 
ism: A Theological Interpretation, based on 
his doctoral thesis. Published by Duke 
Press in 1993, it argues that American 
constitutional theory is a moral as well as 
political tradition and can be understood 
in the context of a national debate on 
social and political morality. 

Duke divinity professor Stanley Hauer- 
was, who supervised Powell's dissertation, 
describes him as private man, dedicated in 
his work, and very close to his family and 
small circle of friends. "He's extraordinarily 
intense in a wonderful, friendly way," says 
Hauerwas. "He leads his life very seriously, 
but with a good deal of humor. He's also a 
serious Christian and does theology with 
integrity and with a candor that is unusual." 

Powell lives in Durham with his wife, 
Lorri Gudeman Powell J.D. '90, and their 
one-year old daughter. A cross-country 
runner as an undergraduate at St. David's 
University College in Wales, he continues 
to run on the wooded paths of the Duke 

Powell says Christianity's call for justice 
in society shapes his political views, 
although he is quick to add that he sepa- 
rates his personal morality from his work 
as a lawyer. "It's difficult to be a lawyer 
and a Christian," he says. "The American 
system of justice is not a perfect system of 
justice by any means." 

In Shaw vs. Reno, however, he argued 
his moral beliefs. "Race is still one of the 

great moral questions this country faces," 
he says, pointing out that the Constitution 
was shaped by the Framers' inability to 
resolve the issue of slavery. "My ideal 
world is a place where we are not con- 
cerned about the race of candidates. In my 
own opinion, we're not there yet." 

Powell believes that North Carolina's 
black majority districts are mandated by 
the 1965 Voting Rights Act. He argues 
that the rights of white voters are not vio- 
lated by the districts. "No one under the 
North Carolina redistricting plan has been 
denied the right to vote," Powell says. "I 
find more disturbing the fact that no black 
had served North Carolina in Congress 
since 1901 than the irregular shapes of the 
new districts." 

With an academic pedigree that could 
take him anywhere in the country, Powell 
chooses to remain in North Carolina. 
Growing up in Rockingham County im- 
bued him, he says, with a strong sense of 
family, community, and place. "I got 
involved with Shaw vs. Reno because of 
work I've done for the North Carolina 
attorney general's office. The reason I got 
involved with the attorney general's office 
is the obligation I feel to contribute to the 
community and also growing up with a 
very lively sense of being a North Caro- 
linian. I have the sense that the state has 
given me a great deal, and I in turn want 
to make a contribution." 

Powell will not be arguing the state's 
side of the case when it returns to district 
court. Last fall, he headed to Washington, 
D.C., for a post in the Office of Legal 
Counsel at the U.S. Justice Department 
under Walter Dellinger, another member 
of the Duke law faculty. He commutes on 
weekends to be with his family. 

Regardless of which side of Shaw vs. Reno 
prevails at the hearing later this winter, 
appeals to the U.S. Court of Appeals and 
the Supreme Court are likely. Noting that 
the state has budgeted $500,000 to fight the 
suit, Everett has started a nonprofit corpo- 
ration to accept donations for the plaintiffs 
legal battle. He hopes a settlement with the 
state is possible and has promised to fight 
any attempt to delay redrawing the districts 
until after the 1994 elections. 

Everett continues to sit for cases on the 
U.S. Court of Military Appeals. At Duke, 
he recently completed setting up the Cen- 
ter for Law and Ethics and National Secu- 
rity. "I've had a chance to participate in 
some things that I thought were impor- 
tant," he says. "I think that's all you can 
hope for out of life." ■ 

Sasser is a free-lance writer living in Chapel Hill. 

] anuar y — F ebi 

■y 1994 



John Roberts rests his spare 
frame in an easy chair in a 
book-lined living room. A pale 
light comes from a picture win- 
dow revealing a luminous scene 
of woods basking in a crystal- 
brilliant autumn day. The sunlit 
fall leaves flutter in the breeze, 
glowing an incandescent golden- 
But the courtly gentleman of seventy- 
four does not see the scene outside his win- 
dow. His focus is elsewhere in space and 
time. The retired professor sees his father, 
his cousins, his uncles and aunts, and his 
sister and brothers, almost all now gone. In 
a softly lyrical Southern accent, he speaks 
fondly of their personalities, their talents, 
their achievements. He remembers how, in 
too many of his family, an inexorably 
advancing Alzheimer's disease tragically 
robbed them of those qualities. At first 
subtle, then more painfully apparent, the 
disease beclouded their minds, stealing 
from them thought, memory, and finally 
life. Many in his family were spared, but 
many were not. (Roberts' and the family 
members' names are all pseudonyms.) 

"My sister did have symptoms," he 
recalls, his fingers deftly fiddling with a vis- 
itor's business card. "Very definitely, bless 
her heart, but she was such a strong charac- 
ter and she was so positive in life, that she 
would tend to cover up some of her mental 
deficiencies. But I noticed this in Elizabeth, 
perhaps six years before her death: I would 
carry on a conversation with her, and she 
would repeat a question that I'd just 
answered within two or three minutes. She 
was always so self-disciplined. She was one 
of the most self-disciplined people we ever 
knew. Our siblings always had a little joke 
going, that if we were laying around listless 
and perhaps slumping, one of us would say 
'Elizabeth!,' and everybody would sit up 
straight." He chuckles. 

If Elizabeth represented the dimming of a 
lively personal spark from the disease, 
Roberts sees in a brother how talents could 



Neurobiologist Allen 

Roses and his team 

predict that their 

long-shot discovery of a 

genetic basis for 

Alzheimer's disease will 

lead to a preventive drug 

for a disorder that affects 


be lost to its ravages: "Now, Brother Frank 
was, in a way, to me the saddest case in our 
family. Brother Frank was someone who 
was really special to me. He's two years 
older than I am. I always felt that he was 
the sharpest person in our family. He was 
just kind of my hero," says Roberts of the 
athletic, brilliant sibling who flew his own 
plane and founded a successful company to 
build machines of his own invention. 
"When I first began noticing that Frank was 
not quite making sense, it was subtle at first. 
His reasoning seemed to be breaking down 
just a bit. I knew him, and I could tell that 
his mind was just not working as well." 

The problem became more severe about 
the time Frank's company began to fail, 
says Roberts. "I guess over a period of six or 
seven years, he got to a point where he was 
just not mentally competent, and it's taken 
a terrific toll on Catherine, his wife," he 
says. Roberts tells how she was finally able 
to put Frank into a full-time care center, 
where he died on Christmas 1992. 

John Roberts and his family reveal the 
tragedy of a disease that afflicts 4 million 
people and touches the lives of 19 million 
more relatives of Alzheimer's patients. It's 
a wasting malady, in which up to a third of 
the brain's nerve cells, or neurons, mysteri- 
ously wither and die. Ominously, the dis- 
ease's prevalence is expected to triple by 
the mid-twenty-first century, as the popu- 
lation ages. But the Roberts family also 
exemplifies the courage of scores like them 
who have willingly put themselves under 
the microscope of science in an effort to 
help researchers understand and treat the 
disease. As part of their participation in 
the Alzheimer's studies at Duke Medical 
Center, they've submitted to lengthy fami- 
ly questionnaires and exhaustive psycho- 
logical tests, and have given blood for 
analyses. In many cases, they've authorized 
autopsies on affected family members im- 
mediately after death, yielding brain tissue 
with its structures still largely intact. The 
voluminous data from these studies rest in 
the computers of the medical center's 


Joseph and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimer's 
Disease Research Center. 

These data, mined by a scientific team led 
by Allen Roses, have yielded a scientific 
advance that has launched Alzheimer's 
research in a drastically new direction. Both 
scientists and journalists cordially loathe the 
word "breakthrough." But that term can 
appropriately be applied to the Duke team's 
work. Roses and his colleagues are con- 
vinced that the new path they have opened 
will lead to a diagnostic test for Alzheimer's 
disease. And more importantly, they believe 
that a still-controversial theory arising from 
the research will lead to a preventive treat- 
ment — perhaps a drug so benign that it 
could be taken like a vitamin pill. Such a 
treatment could save some of the $100 bil- 
lion a year that the disease costs America 
and reduce the 50 percent of nursing home 
patients confined there by the disease. 

The researchers have learned that a 
major form of the disease originates with 
an infinitesimal difference in a single gene. 
This gene, in turn, produces a different 
version of a protein that normally trans- 
ports key cellular molecules. The trans- 
porter, called apolipoprotein E4 — or 
apoE4 — somehow leads to the subtle dete- 
rioration in neurons that causes their mass 
death. A "4-4" person — who inherits an 
apoE4 gene from each parent — runs a high 
chance of contracting Alzheimer's disease 
just as does a heavy smoker of contracting 
lung cancer. A "3-4" person — who receives 
the more common apoE3 gene from one 
parent, and an apoE4 gene from the 
other — runs a lower risk, perhaps similar 
to the risk a person with high blood pres- 
sure runs of suffering a stroke. 

Of course, the realm of Alzheimer's dis- 
ease is far more complicated and subtle, 
emphasize the researchers. There are "4-4" 

people who will never get the disease. And 
there are "3-3" people who will. The hard 
lesson, they say, is that somewhere else 
deep in our genes, or perhaps in our envi- 
ronment, other contributing factors wait 
to be discovered. Nevertheless, the latest 
discovery is of profound importance, since 
it helps explain some 80 percent of the 
cases of Alzheimer's disease. 

To understand the scientists' break- 
through, first believe that the cell is not the 
amorphous, gelatinous grab bag of chemicals 
and cell components that introductory biolo- 
gy seems to teach. Instead, the cell is a mas- 
sively intricate, well-organized, three-dimen- 
sional molecular machine — the equivalent 
of a New York City loosed from the bonds of 
gravity. In such a city, skyscrapers, power 
plants, libraries, subways, workers, cops, 
trucks, buses, and taxis could all sail freely 
about their business, organizing the complex 
commerce that keeps the city vital. And so 
in living neurons, the intricate business of 
life depends on a precise three-dimensional 
organization of cell structures, enzymes, ener- 
gy molecules, and DNA genes. 

The apoE protein is among the cell's 
molecular delivery trucks, but its full range 
of cargo remains mysterious. The apoE3 
protein is an "inter-city" truck, plying its 
simple trade mainly in the space between 
cells. ApoE3 shows up to clutch cholesterol 
and move it into cells. And, in fact, apoE4 
is a known villain in arterial cholesterol 
buildup in heart disease. ApoE transporters 
also show up when cells are injured, per- 
haps as a molecular ambulance carrying 
substances necessary for repair. 

And that's about all that was known 
about apoE when Roses was first persuaded 
into the Alzheimer's disease business in 
1984. Nobody suspected then that the 
modest apoE caused Alzheimer's when 
William Anlyan, then Duke chancellor for 
health affairs, asked Roses to apply for fed- 
eral funding for an Alzheimer's Disease 
Research Center at Duke. In fact, few sci- 
entists believed that the disease had a 
genetic origin. Almost all Alzheimer's 
researchers had spent their professional 
lives exploring tiny globs of protein sludge 
called amyloid plaques that collected 
around the dying nerve cells of Alzheimer's 
patients. They had staked their research 
careers on the assumption that the amyloid 
sludge was the key to the disease's destruc- 
tive power. And that sludge, they believed, 
must arise from some environmental pollu- 
tant, virus, or just an insidious, random 
misbehavior in the cell's machinery. Cer- 
tainly not from genetic error, they insisted. 

"I basically told Dr. Anlyan that these 
Alzheimer's disease researchers were part 
Gene screener: molecular geneticist Saunders' tests 
can determine a person's genetic makeup from dark 
spots on X-ray film 

Generic geneal >,irv : cpidcmu id igist Pericak- Vance 
traces Alzheimer's through patients' family trees 

of a club," says Roses. "They had this 
ongoing work, and they had the National 
Institute on Aging put out a request for 
applications so that they could get fund- 
ing. I was not a member of the Alzheimer's 
club. I'd never really worked in Alzheimer's 
disease. Anlyan didn't seem to care. He 
wanted an application, and Anlyan could 
be very persuasive." 

So, Roses dutifully wrote out a proposal 
that came in sixth in the competition, 
with only five federal centers funded. The 
proposals' reviewers didn't believe that 
Roses and his colleagues could manage a 
key part of their plan — to perform autop- 
sies on Alzheimer's disease patients so 
quickly as to preserve the delicate struc- 
tures of the brain cells for study. "Nobody 
had ever done it before, and very few have 
done it since," says Roses. If Roses was to 
be funded in a second-round competition, 
he needed startup money to prove the 
concept, and Anlyan knew where the sup- 
port could be obtained. There was a kin- 
dred soul in the person of Greensboro, 
North Carolina, businessman Joseph Bryan. 
Bryan's wife, Kathleen, was in the final 
stages of Alzheimer's disease, and he, too, 
believed the disease was genetic. 

After a twenty-minute meeting one fall 
day in 1984, Roses and Bryan discovered 
that they occupied a common ground of 
belief. "He asked me what I wanted, and I 
told him," recalls Roses. "I handed him a 
budget for $246,861, and he told his assistant 
to make a check out for $250,000. He made 
a comment that scientists are very exact, but 
in the real world everything wasn't quite like 
that. And basically we got started." 

So during the next round of reviews, 
Roses could startle the doubting reviewers 
by presenting the first successful results 
from rapid autopsies. The funding was 
won, and the Joseph and Kathleen Bryan 
Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at 
Duke was born in 1985. In 1990, it moved 
into the Joseph and Kathleen Bryan Neu- 
robiology Research Building, funded partly 
by Bryan. "I actually became a principal 
investigator of an Alzheimer's center with- 
out ever having published a paper on the 
disease," says Roses. "At the time, it was 
somewhat of a joke." 

It wasn't a joke to Joseph Greenfield, 

chairman of Duke Medical Center's de- 
partment of medicine, even though few 
people in the field took the Duke team's 
Alzheimer's work seriously. "The conven- 
tional wisdom at that time said that to 
look for Alzheimer's as a genetic disease 
was childish," says Greenfield. "It made no 
sense." Nevertheless, Greenfield was will- 
ing to bet money on Roses. Besides giving 
early support to Roses' laboratory, he 
authorized funding of a Memory Disorders 
Clinic at the medical center to bring in 
patients whom the research team would 
need for its studies. "It was a clinic that 
from the inception was never going to be a 
moneymaking venture," he says. "It just 
took too much effort to see those people. 
But it did provide the materials for Allen 
to do his research and, obviously, it was a 
major service to the community." 

"I had faith that Allen was on the right 
track — not necessarily with Alzheimer's, but 
with all the other neuromuscular diseases he 
was studying," says Greenfield. "The Alz- 
heimer's was a long shot. And frankly, did I 
ever think anything would ever come out of 
it? No. But I knew something good was 
going to come out of that group." 

The genetic results first began to emerge 
with the work of the team's genetic epi- 
demiologist, Margaret Pericak- Vance. Her 
job was to trace the tortuously subtle route 
of Alzheimer's through the patients' family 
trees and to pinpoint the chromosome on 
which the defect lay. For Pericak- Vance's 
work to succeed, the family data had to be 
complete, even including blood samples 
from spouses of deceased family members. 
Sometimes Pericak- Vance and physician 
assistant Pete Gaskell, who works with the 
families, had to perform gentle diplomatic 
persuasion, especially of non-affected family 
members of Alzheimer's victims. "I get the 
comment from them that 'we don't have 
that in our family,' " says Pericak- Vance. "I 
tell them, it's like putting together a puzzle. 
Your children have inherited half from you, 
half from your wife or husband. If we know 
what they inherited from you, we can figure 
out what they inherited from them." 

A small room in the Bryan Building 
crowded with filing cabinets and computers 
is the nerve center for Pericak- Vance's work 
on Alzheimer's and other genetic disorders. 
Into the computers, the researchers have fed 
the family trees of the Alzheimer's families, 
carefully coded to mark victims and proba- 
ble victims of the disease. The scientists 
have also fed into the computer analyses of 
the DNA in the families' blood and brain 
tissue samples. These analyses consist of a 
biochemical tracing through the family trees 
of "marker genes" that rest on known chro- 
mosomes. The presence of a marker in both 
mother and daughter, for example, reveals 
that the marker, and thus that area of the 

The researchers have 

learned that a major 

form of the disease 

originates with an 

infinitesimal difference 

in a single gene. 

Key finding: protein biochemist Strittmatter , left, with 
Roses, discoverd the "glue" that produced "amyloid 
sludge , " an Alzheimer's indicator 

gene, was passed down. To pinpoint a gene 
underlying a disease, Pericak- Vance uses 
complex statistical analyses of the data to 
correlate the inheritance of known marker 
genes with that of the disease. Combining 
data from many families, she can elicit a sta- 
tistical pattern implicating a culprit chro- 
mosome as harboring the defect. 

However, the identity of a defective gene 
is often obscured in a fog of genetic complex- 
ity, says Pericak- Vance. "When you get to a 
disease like Alzheimer's, or multiple sclerosis 
or glaucoma, the mode of inheritance is far 
from clear," she says. "You may be talking 
about an interaction of genes, or an interac- 
tion of environment and genes. Or, you may 
not be looking for a single major gene; you 
may be looking at a moderate-effect gene 
that only gives you a susceptibility to a dis- 
ease." After years of painstaking analysis, 
Roses and Pericak- Vance concluded that 
chromosome 19 held an answer to the 
Alzheimer's puzzle. In the Alzheimer's fami- 
lies, some unknown gene or genes along the 
vast reaches of chromosome 19 seemed to be 
associated with a major form of "late-onset" 
Alzheimer's disease that begins in a person's 
sixties. But the identity of the flawed gene 
remained a frustrating mystery. 

The answer came with a jarringly unex- 
pected discovery by Wanen Strittmatter, 
who had joined the team as its protein bio- 
chemist. Strittmatter had designed a test- 
tube method to search for blood proteins 
that stuck to the individual molecules of 

amyloid plaque. He reasoned that such sub- 
stances might be the glue that produced the 
amyloid sludge, and thus a key to the disease. 
In one set of experiments, he found that one 
protein that was especially sticky was a com- 
mon protein that transported cholesterol — 
apoE. The finding was frustrating, because it 
wasn't obvious what apoE had to do with 
amyloid plaques and Alzheimer's disease. 

When Strittmatter presented his data to 
Roses and Pericak-Vance, they immediate- 
ly recognized apoE as a protein whose gene 
was on chromosome 19, right in the region 
that they had repeatedly demonstrated to 
be linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. 
The stunning discovery launched the labo- 
ratory in a promising new direction. 

Tiny slivers of Alzheimer's victim's 
brain tissue studied by neuroanatomist 
Donald Schmechel brought more exciting 
results. Schmechel stained the slivers with 
an antibody stain manufactured to attach 
specifically to apoE. Under a microscope, 
he could see the tiny dark blotches against 
the tan brain tissue, which revealed that 
apoE did attach to amyloid plaques outside 
the cells and to tangles of fibrils found 
inside the neurons of Alzheimer's victims. 

Strittmatter's discovery also brought Ann 
Saunders, the team's molecular geneticist, 
back to work from maternity leave. Her 
task was to modify molecular tests to 
screen people rapidly for the three forms of 
the apoE gene — apoE3, apoE4, and a rarer 
form, apoE2. Beginning with a droplet of 
blood or a bit of brain tissue, Saunders' test 
uses molecular techniques to "Xerox" thou- 
sands of copies of just the apoE gene, in- 
corporating radioactive tracers into the 
copies. The scientists then snip apart the 
apoE genes using other enzymes that 
behave like "smart scissors" — finding and 
clipping the DNA just at the minute dif- 
ferences among the three forms of apoE. 
The researchers then separate these tell- 
tale DNA fragments by using a tiny tickle 
of electricity to pull the mix through a 
thin slab of gel — a process called elec- 
trophoresis. They can then read a person's 
apoE genetic makeup as a characteristic 
pattern of dark spots on X-ray film laid 
against the radioactive gel. 

Saunders remembers the arresting mo- 
ment of truth, when her test first revealed 
the ubiquity of apoE4 genes in Alzheimer's 
disease patients. She had begun her trial 
runs by testing standard blood samples 
kept in the lab. "Everybody I tested turned 
out to be 3-3. Then I started testing people 
around the lab, and I could only find 3-3s. 
So, I ran my first samples on the gel from 
the Alzheimer's families, and the majority 
of people were 3-4 or 4-4! And I just sat 
here, and I said to myself, 'What am I 
doing wrong?' I took the results to Allen 
within four minutes. I held up the film, 



and I said, 'Don't get too excited, but there 
may something going on here!' " 

All the group's findings about apoE4 
were reported last March, and they quickly 
became gospel in the field as other scien- 
tists confirmed the results. To speed the 
development of a diagnostic test based on 
Saunders' technique, Duke recently li- 
censed the technology to Athena Neuro- 
sciences, Inc., of San Francisco. The scien- 
tists emphasize that, despite the power of 
an apoE4 genetic test to diagnose Alz- 
heimer's, it can no more predict the dis- 
ease than a survey of cigarette smokers 
could predict lung cancer. 

Even though the genetic test is not pre- 
dictive, it yields telling data on the dis- 
ease's inheritance. For example, Pericak- 
Vance and research associate Elizabeth 
Corder have done analyses of the families 
that show that each apoE4 gene a person 
has increases the risk of the disease and 
decreases the average age of onset. People 
who are 4-4 tend to get Alzheimer's dis- 
ease at age sixty-eight, but those who are 
3-4 tend to experience a delay until seven- 
ty-five. On the other hand, the apoE2 
gene seems to exert a protective effect. 
People with 2-3 or 2-2 inheritance tend to 
have a lower risk of the disease. 

In any case, diagnostic tests are not 
what the researchers are ultimately after. 
They seek a treatment for the disease. 
And, last November, Roses and Strittmat- 
ter proposed a controversial theory that 
they believe could show the way to that 
treatment. Their theory holds that it's not 
apoE4's effect on amyloid plaques that 
causes Alzheimer's. Just as garbage heaps 
outside a city do little significant harm, so 
the plaques are irrelevant to the cell's dis- 
ease, contend Roses and his colleagues. 
Instead, they propose, Alzheimer's arises 
from the insidious effects of the lack of 
apoE3. The theory might be called "The 
Tau of Alzheimer's," because it holds that 
apoE3 normally protects the neuron by 
firmly embracing a potentially dangerous 
protein called tau. This modest protein 
makes up the molecular cross-ties that 
brace microtubules — the subway tracks in 
the New York City of the cell. Cells 
depend on such filamentous microtubules 
to carry nutrients and other molecules to 
their metabolic destinations. 

In apoE3's powerful clutches, tau is unable 
to free itself in large enough quantities to 
undergo chemical reactions that would snarl 
the subway system into the mare's nest of 
"neurofibrillary tangles" — what Roses calls 
"hairballs" — found in the neurons of Alz- 
heimer's victims. The tau theory arose from 
Strittmatter's discovery that apoE3 bound 
tau so tightly that not even boiling with 
detergent could tear the two molecules apart. 
However, says Roses, "I don't think the hair- 

A still-controversial 
theory arising from the 

research is that of a 

preventive treatment — 

perhaps a drug so benign 

that it could be taken 

like a vitamin pill 

balls kill the cell." Instead, he says, it's the 
creeping instability in the cell's subway 
tracks — a lost cross-tie here, derailment of a 
nutrient there — that gradually eats away at 
the viability of the cell over decades. Even- 
tually, he says, enough neurons die and the 
deadly symptoms of Alzheimer's appear. "It's 
like any other neural degenerative disease," 
he says. "You reach a point where you're just 
working at the edge." 

Schmechel emphasizes the complexity 
of tracing cell death: "If the microtubules 
break down, God only knows what events 
you're going to kick off over time that may 
cause that cell to either die or be extreme- 
ly pitiful. None of these things occur in a 
vacuum. As soon as you muck with one 
part of a nerve cell's machinery, you cause 
problems elsewhere." Schmechel's stained 
slides of brain tissue have clearly revealed 
that 4-4 people suffer more devastating 
buildup of plaques and tangles. "It's almost 
night and day difference in staining," he 
says. "You could just literally hold the slide 
up and tell which case was which." 

Schmechel is now tracing in detail where 
apoE shows up in cells of Alzheimer's 
patients. He hopes to understand how the 
carrier insinuates itself into the cell, and 
how it creates its damage over time. "Does 
the nerve cell actually make some apoE, 
which would not be its ordinary thing?" he 
asks. "Or does it drink it up and, therefore, 
in a sense drink death to itself?" 

Strittmatter is exploring in detail the 
intimate chemical embrace between apoE3 
and tau, to discover what part of apoE3 
sticks to what part of tau. The result, says 
Roses, is the key to a treatment. "If you 
replace the function of apoE3 by a mimic 
that gets inside nerve cells, it can bind tau 
and prevent hairballs," he says. "It's proba- 
bly a drug sitting on some drug company's 
shelf, perhaps a compound so simple, it 
could be taken like a One-a-Day vitamin." 
Roses terms amyloid plaques an "epiphe- 
nomenon" that he sees as an effect, not a 
cause, of the disease. 

When the tau theory was first presented 

before a packed house of scientists at a 
Washington, D.C, scientific meeting, it 
immediately drew its share of fire from the 
group that Roses wryly dubs the "amyloid- 
centrists." For example, Henry Wisniewski 
of the Institute for Basic Research in Devel- 
opmental Disabilities in Staten Island, New 
York, stepped to the questioner's micro- 
phone, declaring resolutely, "I would like 
to challenge your statement that amyloid 
death was an epiphenomenon." Emotion 
tinged his voice as he recited the evidence: 
"You know that amyloid deposits kill.... In 
the target organs where amyloid fibrils 
have been deposited, tissue is dying. And 
it's proportional to the amount of amyloid 
fibrils being produced. . ." 

Answered Roses: "I have no doubt that 
apoE, among a whole bunch of other 
things, is interacting with amyloid. I think 
you're absolutely right that amyloid is asso- 
ciated with cell death. It's there when the 
cells are dying. I don't think there's any 
evidence that shows that it's the bullet 
that's making it die." 

But Wisniewski was persistent. Standing 
solidly before Roses, he declared emphati- 
cally in an Eastern European accent, 
"Wherever is amyloid present, cells die!" 

Whether the "Tau of Alzheimer's" theo- 
ry wins out over the "amyloid sludge" the- 
ory — or whether some other theory proves 
superior — Roses believes the Alzheimer's 
research community deserved to be shaken 
up. "Some people may like it, some people 
may not like it," he says. "But the reason 
we proposed it, was that it was another way 
of thinking about the same data. We think 
it's important in a disease that costs $100 
billion a year that we don't waste a lot of 
time going down blind alleys." Agreeing 
with Roses is Zaven Khachaturian, the 
National Institute on Aging associate di- 
rector who first championed funding for 
the Duke center. "Such scientific ortho- 
doxy is pretty dangerous," he told Science 
magazine. "By putting forth such a 
provocative idea, Allen shook the field, 
and I think that's healthy." 

Meantime, the Duke researchers are 
moving swiftly to elucidate the apoE3-tau 
bond. And they're discussing partnerships 
with drug companies to work toward a 
treatment. Many in the Alzheimer's field 
still believe their success remains a long 
shot. They believe that exploring some 
other of apoE's complex web of effects may 
yield the bullet that kills nerve cells. But 
Allen Roses is confident enough of his 
research team's discoveries that he was 
willing to make a blunt prediction on 
national television that rang like a decla- 
ration of war on the tragic affliction: "I am 
absolutely, positively sure that there will 
be a preventive treatment for Alzheimer's 
disease within ten years." ■ 

J anuary-F ebruary 1994 



Continued from page 9 

what amorphously framed harassment pol- 
icy, he says. "She is very much driven by a 
dedication to the ideal of what a universi- 
ty is in terms of scholarship and learning. 
People have a real sense that the leader- 
ship is in the hands of someone who truly 
understands what a university is and who 
has a vision for the university." 

In her first months in the Duke presi- 
dency, Keohane has led a whirlwind execu- 
tive existence, speaking at an employee 
awards banquet, participating in the facul- 
ty's Academic Council discussions, visiting 
dorm sections, leading a fireside chat in the 
East Campus Union, kicking off searches 
for a new provost and for a new chief 
financial officer, offering direction to the 
various task forces looking into aspects of 
student life, meeting the media, visiting 
key decision-makers on Capitol Hill, and 
mingling with alumni reunion groups (one 
of which serenaded her with "Happy Birth- 
day" when she turned fifty-three). 

This winter, Keohane emerged as a high- 
er education spokesperson on an issue of 
accountability and autonomy. She led a 
group of some twenty college and university 
presidents and representatives of higher 
education organizations who met with Sec- 
retary of Education Richard Riley and senior 
Department of Education officials. Earlier, 
Keohane had written Riley to express con- 
cern about the department's draft regula- 
tions for implementing 1992 amendments 
to the Higher Education Act. She agreed 
that institutions should be held accountable 
that have "violated the public trust" in 
administering federal financial aid funds. 
But, she added, the draft regulations would 
give the federal government "the power to 
intrude into the academic autonomy of col- 
leges and universities in issues such as cur- 
ricula, tenure decisions and processes, and 
financing that is unprecedented and, in my 
judgment, unwarranted." 

Keohane laughs when presented with 
the widely held idea that she sets a dizzy- 
ing pace for herself. This is, of course, the 
hard-driving mountain biker who also 
plunges into a Thanksgiving holiday 
rough-and-tumble family football match. 

"There are times when I wake up in the 
middle of the night worrying, and when 
get all absorbed in the problems," Keohane 
says. She is, she insists, also having fun. 
"It's an amazing place, and I'm finding this 
job extremely intriguing and intellectually 
refreshing and absorbing. I do relax some- 
times; there will be lots more chances to 
relax later on. But this is a unique moment 
when I really need to get into as many 
things as I can. It will never come again." ■ 

the priorities" for the cen- 
ter, both in terms of its 
elements and its users. 
She stresses, too, the need 
to "impose discipline on 
ourselves" — that is, to 
a good amount of 
the money before con- 
struction. The center 
"is going to make a huge 
difference for Duke," 
she says. 

Deans Council meet- 
ing. Keohane presides 
over a discussion that 
considers, among other 
issues, the future of the 
Duke Press. 

Lunch with student 
government leaders. This 
session inspires lots of 
discussion about the pos- 
sibility of an all-freshman 
East Campus. Students 
express varying degrees 
of concern about the 
idea. They express 
greater enthusiasm for a 
residential-college sys- 

a concept that 
would provide a stable 
living-and-learning envi- 
ronment for most of a 
student's Duke years. 
Keohane says that having 
a "critical mass" of fresh- 
men clustered together 
might provide a coher- 
ence and a focus to the 
freshman year, and might 
allow the university to 
program freshman-fla- 
vored activities, from 
opportunities to social 
events. "Lots of issues on 
residential life will be up 
for grabs over the next 
few years," she says. 
Instead of thinking of all 
the reasons why s 
new proposal wouldn't 
work, she suggests, 
maybe the approach 
would be to ask how 
Duke might structure 
itself residentially if it 
were starting from 


Meeting on Science 
Research Center, con- 
centrating on the fund- 
ing plan for the $77- 
million facility. 

Meeting with Roy 
Weintraub, economics 
professor and acting 
dean of the faculty of 
Arts & Sciences, who 
updates Keohane on 
academic departments. 

speakers series, and 
unveils architectural 
drawings of its soon-to- 
open building. Kuniholm 
points out that the build- 
ing — opposite the law 
school — will provide a 
superb view of Duke's 
baseball field. "People 
accuse academics of 
being off in left field," he 
jokes. "Actually, we'll be 
off in right field." 

Regular briefing with 
Charles Putman, execu- 
tive vice president for 

Meeting with Provost 
Thomas Langford B.D. 
'54, Ph.D. '58 and politi- 
cal scientist Peter Lange, 
special assistant to the 
provost for international 
affairs, on efforts to 
"internationalize" the 

Meeting with Chan- 
cellor for Health Affairs 
Ralph Snyderman. 

Get-acquainted meet- 
ing with Bruce Kuni- 
holm, professor and 
chair of public policy 
studies. Kuniholm 
secures Keohane's agree- 
ment to speak to the 
public policy studies 
institute's board of visi- 
tors, asks for some sug- 
gestions from Keohane 
on structuring one of 
the institute's visii 

Meeting with Paul 
Hudson '94, student 
government president. 
The two discuss an 
agenda for a "town 
meeting," plans for East 
Campus, and some of 
the issues being looked 
at by the Greek Life task 
force (on which Hudson 
serves) — such as the 
physical location of fra- 
ternities and the calen- 
dar for "rushing." 

Interview with Denise 
Magner, reporter for The 
Chronicle of Higher Edu- 
cation. Magner asks 
what Keohane misses 
about Wellesley. (Keo- 
hane says she's "too 
busy to miss anything at 
the moment," but adds 
that she can't help being 
nostalgic for Wellesley's 
lakeside presidential 
house.) They go on to 
discuss Keohane's priori- 
ties for Duke, the signifi- 

cance of her being 
Duke's first woman pres- 
ident, and her personal 
and intellectual history. 

Joining Senior Vice 
President for Public 
Affairs John F. Burness, 
rides out to the Research 
Triangle Park studio of 
public station WUNC- 
TV. There Keohane will 
be a guest on The Char- 
lie Rose Show, taped for 
national broadcast that 
night. Part of Rose's 
North Carolina theme 
week, the show also fea- 
tures UNC-Chapel Hill 
Chancellor Paul Hardin 
'52,J.D. '54, Andy Grif- 
fith (via a satellite feed to 
the North Carolina 
coast), and basketball's 
Grant Hill '94— who is 
introduced by a video of 
highlights from last sea- 
son. After probing her 
on her family 
background, Rose '64, 
J.D. '68 asks Keohane if 
college athletics are out 
of control. Keohane 
responds that there's 
need for vigilance, but 
that Duke athletes "have 
lots of other facets to 
their lives" beyond 

Meeting with the 
Dukes & Duchesses, 
students who serve as 
tour guides and who 
help host other univer- 
sity events (including 
the presidential inaugu- 
ration). Keohane thanks 
the students for being 
"such great representa- 
tives of Duke." She asks 
if they'll all be indulging 
in the cross-campus 
"fun run" over the inau- 
guration weekend. And 
she asks them to spread 
the word to their fellow 
students that "this is 
intended to be a very 
inclusive inauguration. 
It's very much an event 

for students as well as 
faculty, staff, and visiting 
dignitaries. And it'll be a 
very short ceremony." 

At Cameron Indoor 
Stadium, makes remarks 
at the Quarter Century 
Banquet honoring 
Duke's twenty-five-year 
employees. Keohane 
points out that this is her 
first time in "sacred" 
Cameron since becom- 
ing Duke's president. 
She says she's impressed 
by the loyalty to the uni- 
versity and "the sense of 
pride in Duke." One of 
her goals, she says, is "to 
bring people together" 
and to promote a spirit of 

teamwork. The relative 
youth of Duke, she adds, 
inspires the university to 
move in "creative and 
imaginative" ways. 

J anuary-F ebruary 1994 


Trustees tentatively approved an 11.2 
percent tuition hike for students 
entering Trinity College of Arts and 
Sciences, and a 7.9 percent increase for 
new students at the Engineering School. 
At the same time, the increase for return- 
ing undergraduates would be 4.9 percent, 
the smallest at Duke in more than a 
decade. Last year's increase for returning 
students was 6.5 percent. 

The two-tier structure is expected to 
raise about $4-9 million to meet Arts and 
Sciences capital needs, which include 
improving undergraduate computing, 
classrooms, laboratories, and equipment. 
Roy Weintraub, acting dean of the faculty 

of Arts and Sciences, drafted the proposal. 

Arts and Sciences has only half of the 
funds necessary for an estimated $8.25 mil- 
lion in capital needs. Inferior computing 
facilities and inadequate classrooms with 
bolted desks and broken blinds are the main 
forces driving the tuition increase, Wein- 
traub says. Some faculty members still lack 
computers, and four Arts and Sciences 
departments were using rotary phones as of 
last summer. According to Weintraub, if 
faculty members don't have computers, 
something as basic to teaching and research 
as an electronic mail system is "hopeless." 

"I was initially skeptical," President 
Nannerl O. Keohane told the trustees. But 
Weintraub "made a very strong case, and 
I'm a very enthusiastic supporter of the 
proposal," she added. 

Pending final trustee approval in May, 


Duke's Women's Studies 
program received a spe- 
cial gift for its tenth 
anniversary this fall — an 
undergraduate major. This 
addition, approved in Decem- 
ber by the Arts and Sciences 
Council, continues to expand 
women's involve- 
ment in academe 
and on campus, as 
featured in Duke 
Magazine [February 
March 1991]. 

The idea for the 
major first came from 
students, says Jean 
O'Barr, director of the 
Women's Studies Pro- 
gram. "After eight years 
of offering courses in 
women's studies, we 
began to hear some stu- 
dents asking for the choice 
to do more coursework." 

"The program is at its tenth 
anniversary, and it was time to 
take stock and improve it 
internally," O'Barr says. "The 
field of women's studies has 
been developing empirically 
and theoretically to the point 
where it needs and requires 
formal recognition. Duke's 
faculty is very strong in femi- 
nist scholarship, and this sends 
the message to other depart- 
ments that they need to begin 

to intensify their own research 
and teaching on gender." 

After the major was 
proposed, the Arts and 
Sciences curriculum commit- 
tee reviewed and 
endorsed it. 


When the 
motion was forwarded to the 
full Arts and Sciences Council, 
many faculty members spoke 
in favor of the proposal. 

Sociology professor Edward 
Tiryakian said the proposed 
major shared the strengths of 
Comparative Area Studies — 
"one of the great successes at 
Duke." Physics Chair 
Lawrence Evans expressed 
opposition to the major. "This 
is about the promotion of a 
movement fighting against 
oppression and for empower- 

ment," he said. "Such a move- 
ment should seek its recruits in 
a public forum, not a 

The Council, how- 
ever, passed it over- 
whelmingly, 26-4-4. 
Such support showed 
that "a large number 
of faculty outside the 
field of women's 
studies understand 
the developments in 
feminist scholarship 
and are supportive 
of these develop- 
ments," says 

Harvard, Yale, 
Columbia, Dart- 
mouth, Stanford, and 
nearly twenty other highly 
regarded institutions all have 
majors in women's studies. 
"We are one of the best pro- 
grams in the country in terms 
of financial backing, participa- 
tion, number of courses 
offered, the status of our grad- 
uate program, and the commu- 
nity and alumnae support we 
receive," says O'Barr. "Now it 
means that our formal struc- 
ture is more in synch with our 
range of activities and reputa- 

when next year's budget will be determined, 
tuition will be set at $18,590 for incoming 
Trinity students and $19,210 for incoming 
engineering students. Returning Trinity 
students will pay $17,540 and returning 
engineering students will pay $18,685. The 
trustees also earmarked 30 cents of each 
tuition dollar for financial aid. 



Writer and conservative critic 
Shelby Steele came to Duke in 
November to speak about 
"that very old American problem": race. 
The author of the best-selling book The 
Content of Our Character and a commenta- 
tor on last spring's controversial 60 Min- 
utes segment on race relations at Duke, 
"Equal, but Separate," Steele urged stu- 
dents to "struggle toward a form of racial 
reform.. .that actually takes into account 
the fates of both races." 

In an hour-long talk, Steele focused on 
racial reform in America and its different 
legacy for black and white citizens. Steele 
defined racism as the "habit of not seeing 
the full humanity of other people for the 
sake of our own convenience." He cited 
slavery and the treatment of Native Amer- 
icans as historic examples of "invisibiliz- 
ing" people, adding that racism is a matter 
of convenient "thoughtlessness" rather 
than hate. "It is the racist who loves our 
race; it is the sexist who loves our gender 
because they can then use it to conve- 
niently assault our humanity," he said. 

Steele said that whites benefit from 
racial "impunity"; they are removed from 
the race problem and see it as something 
that affects someone else. As an example, 
he cited a quote from the Holocaust film 
Shoah, in which a farmer, asked why he did 
nothing to help Jewish victims, responds, 
"Their finger was bleeding and not mine." 

While whites benefit from impunity, 
blacks have developed a racial "stigma," 
Steele said. Blacks need to move beyond 
their victim orientation and focus their ener- 
gies on overcoming educational deficiencies 
that are the legacy of oppression, he said. 

After his speech, Steele faced an agitated 
audience eager to question him. Many stu- 
dents challenged Steele's views on affirma- 


tive action, black separatism, and black 
academic performance. Steele criticized 
black students for putting too much energy 
into "being black" and not enough into 
academics. One student responded angrily 
to that comment, telling him, "It's people 
like you in our race that keep us down." 

Steele's visit sparked several student 
forums and the creation of a video of stu- 
dent reaction to the 60 Minutes piece. He 
was brought to the university through the 
collaborative efforts of the Black Student 
Alliance and the Duke chapter of the 
National Association of Scholars, a faculty 
group that supports traditional scholarship. 


A more confidential test for HIV, 
the virus that causes AIDS, is now 
being offered to students at Duke. 
The new method, called superconfiden- 
tial testing, differs from confidential tests 
previously offered to Duke students: The 
recipient's permanent medical record will 
now contain no evidence that the test was 
ever performed. First and last names will 
be recorded by a pre-test counselor, so that 
this information can be forwarded to the 
state if the tests are positive. By law, all 
positive results must be reported to the 
state department of health, where they are 
kept private. 

After a two-year waiting period, these 
results will be sent to the national Centers 
for Disease Control in Atlanta, where they 
will be used purely for statistical purposes 
to monitor national incidence of the dis- 
ease, says Sara Polonsky, a second-year 
graduate student in public health at the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel 

Hill and one of two trained HIV counselors 
working with Duke students. At that time, 
the state records will be destroyed, she says. 
If the test results are negative, all infor- 
mation pertaining to the students will be 
destroyed and there will be no record that 
the test was taken. 


Duke ranks significantly below other 
leading schools in computing capa- 
bilities, says a study conducted by a 
committee of outside scholars appointed by 
President Nannerl O. Keohane. 

"Duke provides substantially fewer ave- 
nues of support for students, staff, and fac- 
ulty than virtually any of its counterpart 
institutions," the report says. It goes on to 
blame the historic lack of resources, not 
university personnel, for the current state 
of computing. 

The committee concluded that the uni- 
versity should hire a chief information sys- 
tems officer, bolster the budget and staff for 
computing, as well as restructure the cam- 
pus' fragmented computing organization. 

The visiting committee's report tops a 
hefty pile of critical on-campus studies, each 
pinpointing similar problems. "I don't think 
[the report] told us anything we didn't 
already know," says Jerry Campbell M.Div. 
'71, university librarian and vice provost for 
computing. "I think it confirmed the direc- 
tion that [an on-campus] committee sig- 
naled in a report earlier this year." 

Keohane says she is in the midst of 
appointing a committee to conduct a 
national search for a chief information sys- 
tems officer. Robert Wolpert, assistant 
professor in Duke's Institute for Statistics 
and Decision Sciences, will chair the 
search committee. 


J0^. eorge C. Wright Ph.D. '77 has been 
wK H| appointed to lead Duke's renewed 
^9^r effort to recruit and retain black 
faculty. Wright is William R. Kenan Profes- 
sor of History, vice provost for university 
programs, and director of the African and 
Afro- American Studies Program at Duke. 

Wright's "role as a historian and acade- 
mician, as well as the rich network of 
resources available to him, are qualities that 
will be helpful in heading the black faculty 
initiative at Duke," Provost Thomas Lang- 
ford B.D. '54, Ph.D. '58 says. "He is well- 
informed on who is available and in what 

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capacity they are available, and I am confi- 
dent he will be able to work effectively with 
department chairs and deans to identify, 
recruit, and retain outstanding scholars at 
both the junior and senior rank." 

Duke is marking a transition between 
the end of the original five-year black-fac- 
ulty initiative and new policy recommen- 
dations by the Academic Council's com- 
mittee on black faculty due early this year. 

The original initiative in 1988 set a 
five-year goal to hire one or more black 
faculty members in each of fifty-six hiring 
units. Duke was unable to achieve that 
goal. The addition of twenty-four new 
black faculty was balanced by the loss to 
retirement or resignation of sixteen black 
faculty, for a net gain of eight. Currently, 
thirty-nine tenured and tenure-track faculty 
at Duke are black. 

Wright's vision has similar goals, but a 
different approach. "I know this is kind of 
tricky," he says, "but I think Duke's black 
faculty initiative doesn't need to empha- 
size an exact number of people to be 
recruited to make it a success or failure." 

"I am a real believer, as trite as it may 
sound, that it is the quality or the way peo- 
ple enhance your program. I hope the 
institution realizes that in some instances 
it's not recruiting just one person; it's 
important to have a 'core' and a core may 

be two or three people. It's hard to really 
know; you just have to look carefully at 
each unit and then make a decision." 


President Clinton's controversial 
candidate, proposed and then with- 
drawn, for U.S. assistant attorney 
general for civil rights spoke at Duke in 
December on "Race, Class, and the New 
Civil Rights." 

Lani Guinier, a professor of 
law at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, said she wasn't speaking 
out of anger, but out of concern. 
She said the national dialogue on 
race could be characterized by 
the "don't ask, don't tell, don't 
pursue" phrase. Rather than 
being provided with a Senate 
hearing as a forum to expand and 
stimulate the discussion on civil 
rights and political represen- 
tation, Guinier said, she was 
blasted in the national media and 
by conservative politicians as "radical" and 
"the Quota Queen," without ever being 
given a chance to speak for herself. 


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Given that chance at Duke, Guinier 
used a variety of metaphors and theories to 
explain her critique of majority rule and 
the political process. "Why should 5 1 per- 
cent of the people have 100 percent of the 
power?" she asked the audience. The ideal 
of majority rule, she said, is that the major- 
ity should fluctuate, allowing different 
coalitions of minorities to vote together to 
exercise power at different times. But in 
the American context, the ideal isn't real- 
ized, she said: Because of the two-party tra- 
dition and the historical dominance of 
white politicians, racial minorities are rarely, 
if ever, part of the majority. 

Guinier said she favors ex- 
ploring alternative "positive- 
sum" solutions. Citing exam- 
ples from local elections in 
Alabama to game playing in 
Sesame Street magazine, 
Guinier explained how one 
such alternative — cumulative 
voting — allows minority groups 
access to power. "If four chil- 
dren want to play tag and two 
children want to play hide- 
( and-seek," she said, instead of 

relying on majority rule to 
monolithically decide in favor of tag, "the 
children should play tag first, but then play 
hide-and-seek later." 

This sharing of power, or positive-sum 
solution, she said, does not only apply to 
racial minorities but to all minority coali- 
tions. In a local government in Alabama 
where cumulative voting was instituted, the 
county commission had both its first black 
and its first Republican representatives in 
its entire history. 

Guinier also cited the widespread sup- 
port of options to majority rule. More than 
thirty states, Guinier said, allow corpora- 
tions to elect their board of directors 
through cumulative voting. Even conserv- 
ative columnists George Will and Lally 
Weymouth advocated protection of 
minorities in the political process. The 
only difference in their arguments, Guinier 
said, was that they were defending wealthy 
New York land owners and the white 
minority in South Africa. 

But she has never advocated quotas and 
would have told the Senate that, she said, 
if they had bothered to ask her. 

Guinier's speech was part of a semester- 
long series commemorating the thirtieth 
anniversary of the enrollment of Duke's 
first black undergraduates. The series in- 
cluded speeches by Louis Sullivan, former 
director of Health and Human Services; 
NAACP Executive Director Benjamin 
Chavis Jr. M.Div '80; and University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill law profes- 
sor Chuck Stone. 



ichael Mezzatesta, almost the 
former director of the Duke 
University Museum of Art, has 
put behind him what some have called 
"the Battle of Baltimore" with the Walters 
Art Gallery there. 

After a nine-month search, the Walters 
hired Mezzatesta to replace Robert Berg- 
man, who left in May to become director 
of the Cleveland Museum of Art. But 
before Mezzatesta officially began his new 
job, the Walters asked him to "withdraw 
his candidacy," Mezzatesta says. 

"I had already been approved by the 
board and no one would give me a reason," 
he told The New York Times. "They must 
have gotten cold feet. It was obvious that I 
wanted to take the museum into another 
phase, to make it more international, and 
to build up its image in contemporary art. 
Even though I made this mission very 
clear to the board, it's obvious they 
weren't ready to move forward." 

Jay Wilson, chair of the Walters board 
told the Times he did not "feel it was con 
structive to say anything about the mat 
ter." He added that "a settlement agree 
ment had been reached" with Mezzatesta 
who had threatened to sue the museum for 
compensation for its reversal. Neither the 
board nor Mezzatesta would disclose the 
terms of the settlement. 

Mezzatesta will remain at Duke as direc- 
tor of the art museum. 


In December, Duke celebrated its eighth 
annual Founders' Day, recognizing the 
1924 signing by industrialist and phil- 
anthropist James B. Duke of the Indenture 
of Trust that created the university. 

Duke president emeritus and former 
U.S. senator Terry Sanford spoke at the 
Founders' Day Convocation, charging the 
university to lead the struggle for racial 
equality and academic freedom. Sanford, 
now a professor at the Institute for Public 
Policy that bears his name, praised the 
university's predecessor, Trinity College, 
for bringing Booker T. Washington to 
speak in the 1890s. Such a move was 
unprecedented because Trinity was the 
first white Southern college to invite a 
black lecturer. 

Sanford also praised the college's trustees 
for refusing to accept the resignation of Pro- 
fessor John Bassett, who was lambasted 
throughout the South for his praise of 

Washington and his call for racial tolerance. 
During the convocation in Duke 
Chapel, President Nannerl O. Keohane 
awarded University Marshal Pelham 
Wilder Jr. and Dillard University President 
Samuel DuBois Cook the university medal 
for "distinguished meritorious service." 
The university medal, which bears the 
133-year-old seal and motto of Duke, was 
first awarded in 1986 to recognize those 
who have made a lasting impact on the 

university. Recipients are chosen by the 
university president based on the recom- 
mendations of a special committee. 

Cook Hon. 79, a native of Griffin, 
Georgia, and a childhood friend of the late 
Martin Luther King Jr., became the first 
full-time black faculty member at Duke in 
1966. He has served as president since 
1976 of Dillard University, a historically 
black institution in New Orleans, where 
he has been praised for helping revitalize 

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finances and intellectual life. 

A Duke trustee from 1981 until this 
year, Cook has been associated with 
numerous national and regional organiza- 
tions seeking to promote social and eco- 
nomic development. 

"This year, we celebrate the thirtieth an- 
niversary of African-American undergradu- 
ates at Duke, and our African-American 
legacy more generally," said Keohane. "It 
seems especially fitting that this medal 
honors not only one of the members of our 
community who is personally most distin- 
guished and accomplished, but also one who 
has spoken passionately and effectively 
across the years about the importance of a 
more inclusive and diverse Duke University." 

Wilder, who has been at Duke since he 
joined the chemistry faculty in 1949, was 
honored both for his academic contributions 
and for his work as university marshal, 
organizing for many years formal university 
functions such as commencement, Founders' 
Day, and presidential inaugurations. 

Keohane also awarded D. Moody Smith 
Jr. B.D. '57, George Washington Ivey Pro- 
fessor of New Testament, the twelfth Uni- 
versity Scholar/Teacher Award. Smith has 
been on the Duke faculty for almost thirty 
years. The award was created in 1981 by the 
United Methodist Church's board of higher 
education and ministry to recognize "an out- 
standing faculty member for his/her dedica- 
tion to the learning arts and to the institu- 
tion." It carries with it a $2,000 stipend. 



Three botanists, plagued by lizards 
falling into their collecting buckets, 
have turned a minor nuisance into 
scientific insight. They decided to study 
how many lizards fall from trees. 

Duke's William Schlesinger and Ari- 
zona State University's Johannes Knops 



Hartemink: Oxford in his fi 

Trinity Senior Alex 
Hartemink couldn't get 
enough of Oxford Uni- 
versity last summer, so he 
found a way to go back — in 

Hartemink '94 was named 
one of thirty-two Rhodes 
Scholars this past December. 
He will join students from 
twenty-six other colleges and 
universities in spending two 
years studying at Oxford. 
(Last summer's Oxford stint 
was a feature of Hartemink's 
involvement in the A.B. Duke 
Scholars program.) 

"I really enjoyed the experi- 
ence at Oxford and especially 
the teaching method," he says. 
"You attend whatever lectures 
you want or think are impor- 
tant for you to learn the mater- 
ial. And you read whatever 
books you're interested in 

reading. Then, every week, 
you're supposed to report to 
your tutor about what you 
learned that week. 

"You write a paper and read 
it before your tutor and defend 
it. He'll interject if he has any 
criticisms or something he 
doesn't understand or some- 
thing he has to add or some- 
thing you got wrong." 

A triple major in economics, 
mathematics, and physics, 
Hartemink ranks third in his 
class, is a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa, is a Goldwater Scholar, 
and has garnered first-place 
awards in nine national mathe- 
matics competitions. 

In addition to doing research 
on topics ranging from number 
theory to congressional influ- 
ence on the Federal Reserve, 
he has played for the cham- 
pionship Durham city-wide 
volleyball team and has been 
a member of Duke's varsity 
fencing team. 

Hartemink says that even 
though the interview process 
for the scholarship was 
demanding, he enjoyed it. 

"It was a very fair process. 
They have questions that 
you're expected to know 
because you've done research 
about it or you've taken classes 
in it. And then there are ques- 
tions that are your opinions, 
your feelings, your 

"Then they'll ask some more 
technical questions such as, 'Is 
economics going down the 

wrong path in trying to model 
itself after physics, in trying to 
govern modeling people's 
behavior by numbers and 
equations? Is that well founded 
or not?' Or one particular 
zinger was, 'Trace the 
axiomatic development of the 
foundations of mathematics; 
discuss the logical and philo- 
sophical implications; give 
three or four leading figures 
and their works and how this 
has influenced the develop- 
ment over the course of his- 
tory.' That was probably one 
of the harder ones." 

While his intellectual skills 
and scholarship provided him 
with most of his answers, 
Hartemink also relied on his 
athletic background. "In the 
regional interviews, someone 
asked me, 'Which of the three 
fencing weapons would Aristo- 
tle have fenced with: foil, epee, 
or saber?' 

"I said that Aristotle would 
have definitely used the epee, 
because the target of the epee 
in fencing is the whole body, 
and I said Aristotle really 
addressed himself to all the 
questions of human knowledge 
and human pursuit. In other 
words, the corpus of his writing 
addresses everything from 
meteorology to the soul to 
metaphysics to natural biology. 
And in aiming himself at just 
about everything there was to 
aim himself at, I said that he 
would choose the epee." 

—Jason Schultz '93 

and Thomas Nash discovered that, during 
each year of their study in a California 
woodland, the "total annual lizardfall" was 
about 12,000 per hectare. A hectare is 
approximately two and a half acres. 

This information might someday pro- 
vide insight into the tree-dwelling lizards' 
habits or even how flight evolved in ani- 
mals, the scientists say. "There has been a 
long history of speculation about the evo- 
lution of flight," says Schlesinger. "The 
question is whether early birds evolved 
from lizards that began to fly from the 
ground or by falling out of trees." The 
study also epitomizes how scientists must 
be prepared to expand their research to 
take advantage of new opportunities, the 
researchers say. 

During the thirty-one-month study, 
they captured and released more than 200 
fallen lizards in their buckets. Almost all 
were tree-dwelling "western fence lizards." 
The botanists meticulously collected data 
on the seasonal pattern, sex, and length of 
the falling lizards. They also marked the 
lizards to identify "frequent fallers." 

Some buckets never caught a lizard, 
while one bucket drew eighteen. Most of 
the recaptures were near the original cap- 
ture, but one "intrepid lizard" traveled 
more than forty-five meters before falling 
into another collector. In the spring, most 
of the plummeting reptiles were male, per- 
haps literally falling in love, but in the 
summer the sex-ratios evened out. 



Former English department chair Stan- 
ley Fish has been appointed executive 
director of the financially ailing Duke 
Press. Fish, professor of English and law, 
was named to the new post by Provost 
Thomas Langford B.D. '54, Ph.D. '58. The 
appointment will last five years. 

"Fish has wide experience with and a 
solid commitment to academic publishing, 
and a firm belief in the potential of univer- 
sity presses," says Langford, the university's 
chief academic officer. "I believe he is the 
best person to lead Duke Press." 

As executive director, Fish will be 
responsible for long-range planning and 
give "intellectual guidance" to the mission 
of the press, says Steve Cohn, director of 
publishing operations. Fish also plans to 
continue to teach during the appointment. 

Cohn has headed the press since August 
28, when former director Lawrence Malley 
resigned after the university revealed the 
press needed $316,000 in subsidies last 
year, $261,000 more than was budgeted. 



■ Fred Goldsmith, head football coach 
of Rice University, now has the same posi- 
tion at Duke. He replaces Barry Wilson, 
who resigned following the 1993 season in 
which the Blue Devils finished 3-8. Gold- 
smith, a 1967 graduate of the University of 
Florida, has spent the last five seasons as 
Rice's coach. He guided the Owls to back- 
to-back winning records for the first time 
since 1960-61. Goldsmith was named the 
national Coach of the Year in 1992 by 
Sports Illustrated after compiling the school's 
first winning season since 1963. Before he 
came to Rice, the team had lost eighteen 
consecutive contests. Earlier, he was the 
defensive coordinator and assistant head 
coach at the University of Arkansas. 

■ Christian R.H. Raetz has been named 
chair of the biochemistry department at 
Duke Medical Center. Raetz is known for 
his discovery of biochemical reactions by 
which bacteria produce toxic substances. 
Raetz, whose appointment was effective 
October 1, was vice president for basic 
research in biochemistry and microbiology 
at Merck 6k Company in Rahway, New 
Jersey. Before that, he was a biochemistry 
professor at the University of Wisconsin. 

■ Robert Behn, professor of public poli- 
cy at the Terry Sanford Institute of Public 
Policy and director of its Governors Cen- 
ter, was elected a Fellow of the National 
Academy of Public Administration. The 
academy is a private, nonprofit corpora- 
tion chartered by Congress to improve the 
effectiveness of government at all levels. 
Academy fellows are elected by their peers 
and include Cabinet members and gover- 
nors, members of Congress, mayors, and 
business executives. 

■ C. Eric Lincoln, professor emeritus of 
religion, was found innocent of attempted 
rape and indecent assault, but guilty of mis- 
demeanor assault and battery, in Novem- 
ber. He was sentenced to one year's proba- 
tion. Lincoln was accused by a Harvard 
graduate student of sexually assaulting her 
after she asked him for help with her dis- 
sertation. Lincoln, a national authority on 
the black church and the author of The 
Muslims in America and the novel The 
Avenue, Clayton City, was a visiting profes- 
sor at Clark University in Massachusetts at 
the time. He retired from Duke in June. 

■ Bruce B. Lawrence, professor of reli- 
gion, has been named a Phi Beta Kappa 
Visiting Scholar for 1993-94, one of 
twelve men and women selected national- 

ly to visit a total of 100 institutions. As a 
participant in the visiting scholar program, 
Lawrence, an authority on Islam, will trav- 
el to ten U.S. institutions as part of a pro- 
gram designed to contribute to the intel- 
lectual life on campuses. During his 
two-day visit to each school, he will meet 
with students and faculty members in a 
variety of formal or informal sessions, 
including classroom discussions, seminars, 
and public lectures. His lectures will 
include topics such as "The Colonial and 
Post-Colonial Muslim World: Its Forma- 
tion, Scope, and Prospects," "Islam and 
the Changing World Order," and "Theo- 
rizing Violence in the Nineties." 

■ Evelyn Schmidt '47, M.D. '51, of the 
Lincoln Community Health Center in 
Durham, has spent her forty-year health- 
care career working in underserved com- 
munities and as an advocate for health ser- 
vices to the poor. To recognize her acts of 
professional service and compassion, the 
Duke University Campus Ministry honored 
her in December with its 1993 Humanitar- 
ian Service Award. Selection for the award 
is based on direct and personal service to 
others, sustained involvement in that ser- 
vice, and simplicity of lifestyle. 


Since the late 1800s, the Duke family name 
has been closely associated with excellence 
and achievement. Today the tradition con- 
tinues at the Washington Duke Inn & Golf 
Club. Situated at the edge of Duke Univer- 
sity's campus, Durham's first deluxe hotel 
offers 171 luxurious guest rooms and suites. 
Enjoy international fine dining at the Fairview 
Restaurant. Relax with a drink and good 
conversation at the Bull Durham Bar. And, 
although the Duke University golf course 
will be undergoing a facelift, golfers can look 
forward to the grand re-opening of a more 
beautiful and improved course in Spring 1994. 
Whether you're visiting the university or 
planning a getaway you'll feel like a special 
guest in a gracious Southern home. Call us 
at (919) 490-0999 or (800) 443-3855. 

' T 

Washington Duke 
Inn & Golf Club 

5001 Cameron Boulevard • Durham, NC 27706 
(919) 490-0999 • Fax (919) 688-0105 

] anuar y -F ebruary 1994 

Cigarettes Are Sublime. 

By Richard Klein. Durham; Duke Press, 
J 993. 223 pp., index, and twenty pho- 
tographs. $21.95. 

The habit of smoking is 
disgusting to sight, re- 
pulsive to smell, dan- 
gerous to the brain, 
noxious to the lung, 
spreading its fumes 
around the smoker as 
foul as those that come 
from Hell." Sound familiar? The words 
might be yesterday's dispatch from the 
Surgeon General, but they were actually 
issued, in 1604, from King James I, that 
pinched and puritanical little tyrant and 
murderer of our dashing Elizabethan hero 
Sir Walter Raleigh, who intro- 
duced tobacco to England and 
went to his beheading with pipe 
in mouth, quipping that the 
executioner's blade "is strong 
medicine, but it will cure all 

Raleigh's jaunty one-liner 
not only offers a fine smoker's 
laughing-in-the-face rejoinder 
to the current "healthist" hys- 
teria against tobacco. It also 
suggests the rhetorical flavor of 
Richard Klein's wonderful book 
Cigarettes Are Sublime. As its 
bravely insouciant title indi- 
cates, this is nothing less than a 
celebration of cigarettes and 
everything they have implied 
for the modern world. Well, 
every thing but one. Klein isn't 
about to deny the baneful phys- 
ical effects of smoking. He's 
simply out to inject a little 
common sense (as well as poet- 
ry and wit) into a "debate" that, 
for smokers and non-smokers 
alike, has been reduced to one 
element alone: health. 

Cigarettes, as no one else 
nowadays seems willing to say, 
are about much more than that, 
and it is Klein's contention that 
we will get nowhere in our 
public discussion of tobacco use 

until we understand why, in spite of its 
well-known noxious and even fatal effects, 
smoking remains so universally popular. 
"Addiction" doesn't even begin to explain 
its appeal, nor do such fashionable culprits 
as peer pressure and advertising. The real 
source of this powerful lure, Klein suggest, 
lies in a very human paradox. "Cigarettes 
are bad for you," he writes, "that is why 
they are so good." 

For the author, the effort to understand, 
to penetrate the mysteries of this most 
charming and demanding god, reflects a per- 
sonal agenda that's as full of whimsical irony 
as many of his arguments are. A longtime 
smoker, he decided to quit (and eventually 
succeeded, he assures us) not by pushing cig- 
arettes away symbolically but by enumerat- 
ing the pleasures, both physical and cultural, 

of their embrace. Kicking the habit by 
mourning its passing from his life, as one 
would mourn the death of a friend, Klein 
reworks the idea that "demonizing" cigarettes 
actually enhances their devilish appeal. 

Yet this is no newfangled how-to-quit 
manual but an exuberantly literary pane- 
gyric, with an airy title that's also scrupu- 
lously exact. The very real beauty of ciga- 
rettes, Klein writes, "has never been 
understood as unequivocally positive [but] 
has always been associated with distaste, 
transgression, and death. Kant calls 'sub- 
lime' that aesthetic satisfaction which 
includes as one of its moments a negative 
experience, a shock, a blockage, an intima- 
tion of mortality. It is in this very strict 
sense... that the beauty of cigarettes may be 
considered to be sublime." 

From this lucid premise, the 
author ranges widely, eruditely, 
and playfully in his paean to the 
dark glories of the cigarette: 
from Sartre to Baudelaire; from 
Bizet's Carmen to the war fic- 
tions of Remarque, Mailer, and 
Oliver Stone; from recent news 
items to Italo Svevo's classic 
novel The Confessions of Zeno, 
in which the hero spends his 
life trying to quit; from pho- 
tographs by Brassa'i and Lart'igue 
to the movie Casablanca, "in 
which," Klein notes, "every- 
body, except Ingrid Bergman, 
constantly, passionately, signifi- 
cantly smokes." 

Tobacco, he reminds us, was 
not always a demon. For Ameri- 
can Indians, it was just the op- 
posite: a god. For the American 
colonists, its cultivation and use 
were God-given rights that, when 
challenged, led to revolution and 
the founding of a new nation. In 
other eras and places too, Klein 
shows, it was associated with 
noble struggles for liberty, per- 
sonal and collective. In times of 
war, it was not considered "un- 
healthy" (an absurd notion to 
those facing immediate death) 
but essential, the soldier's great- 
est comforter and best friend. 


With the introduction of the cigarette 
in the mid- 1800s, the sprawling leaf was 
not only outfitted in a uniform which 
came to resemble modernity itself but cod- 
ified as a richly eloquent language of ges- 
ture, self-expression, and communal rite: 
a language which, though it may have 
reached its apogee in the refinements of 
those late-nineteenth century Parisian 
dandies who lived only to smoke, also 
informs much of the past century's litera- 
ture, philosophy, and art. 
Can you imagine Casablanca 
without cigarettes? Sartre? 

A professor of French lit- 
erature at Cornell, Klein 
mounts his polemical history 
tour with extraordinary ver- 
bal grace and constant good 
humor. Though he puckishly 
says that his aspiration is to 
create a "good example of a 
bad example of critical writ- 
ing," there's nothing bad 
(i.e., stodgily academic) in 
his elegant, genial prose. 
Quite simply, the book is a 
delight to read. Among its 
countless drolleries, my 
favorite is the small aside 
that punchlines a sentence 
noting that a certain French 
cigarette was introduced to mark "the 
occasion of an official visit to Paris of the 
ill-fated Czar Nicholas II, a heavy smoker 
whose habit was not what killed him." 

There is, nonetheless, a serious political 
argument at the heart of Cigarettes Are 
Sublime. Klein is suspicious of the motives 
of those aiming to wipe cigarettes from the 
Earth by official decree and excessive taxa- 

tion; from such notorious "antitabaganists" 
as James I and Hitler onward, he says, 
campaigns against tobacco have often 
masked more widespread and sinister as- 
saults on individual freedom. As for the 
mounting insinuation that smoking is 
somehow un-American, he reminds us 
that "it was America, in the person of 
James B. Duke of Durham, that made ciga- 
rette smoking universal, it giving to the 
entire world what at first had been a class 
privilege and what 
Pierre Louys, writing 
in 1896, called 'une 
volupte nouvelle' — 
the only decisive ad- 
vance in the knowl- 
edge of pleasure that 
modern European 
culture had achieved 
over antiquity." 

A refreshing re- 
buttal to the dour 
and one-dimension- 
al rhetoric that now 
Is surrounds smoking, 

I Cigarettes Are Sub- 
Is lime deserves to be 
IS read by anyone 
|s inclined to venture 

a an opinion on the 

II subject. To this ded- 
icated if (of course) 

conflicted smoker, Klein's book is itself 
sublime. And I mean that in the Kantian 

— Godfrey Cheshire 

Cheshire, a contributor to New York Press, Spec- 
tator magazine, and Film Comment, is a free- 
lance writer living in New York City. 


igarettes are not positively beauti- 
ful, but they are sublime by virtue 
of their charming power to pro- 
pose what Kant would call "a negative 
pleasure": a darkly beautiful, inevitably 
painful pleasure that arises from^some 
intimation of eternity; .*he taste of 
infinity in a cigarette/fesides precisely 
in the "bad" taste the smoker quickly 
learns to love. Being sublime, cigarettes, 
in principle, resist all arguments direct- 
ed against them from the perspective of 
health and utility. Warning smokers or 
neophytes of the ^dangers entices them 
more powerfully to the edge of the 
abyss, where, like travelers in a Swiss 
landscape, they can be thrilled by the 
subtle grandeur of the perspectives on 
mortality opened by the little terrors in 
every puff. Cigarettes are bad. That is 
why they are good — not good, not 
beautiful, but sublime.... 

The act of givkig up cigarettes should 
perhaps be approached not only as an 
affirmation of lije, but, because life is 
not merely existing, as an occasion of 
mourning. Stopping smoking, one must 
lament the loss to one's life of some- 
thing — or someone! — immensely, 
intensely beautiful, must grieve for the 
I of a star. 

— from Cigarettes Are Sublime, copyright 
1993 Duke University Press. Used v/ith 


Continued from page 18 

to be together. There's another friend of 
mine whose parents are in the process of get- 
ting a divorce but still live in the same home 
and fight all the time. They come down to 
visit him here and compete over who gets to 
eat more meals with him while they're here. 
And he's just going crazy because he's being 
used as a pawn in this game." 

The conversation about divorce brought 
a sort of traditional-values affirmation: 
Colby Walton spoke of the decline of 
"civility" and the need to rediscover a 
"cultural center"; Raegan Diller expressed 
disgust with the "selfishness" evidenced by 
parents who won't accept that "they're 
responsible for loving and caring for and 
supporting their child." There might have 
been something of worth, she said, to 
"the 'good old days' when people had 

more of a sense of obligation or duty." 

But it's hard to discern in these students a 
nostalgia for a world of fewer choices and 
limited possibilities. After all, they don't 
want to give up their computers for type- 
writers, their MTV (though some claim not 
to watch it) for I Love Lucy, or post-cold war 
flux for missile crises. They don't want a sta- 
bility that's stifling. They do want to be 
secure, and they do want to be independent. 
In the student discussion, the one TV 
show that brought a uniformly appreciative 
reaction was The Simpsons. Particularly 
through the animated (in every sense) 
problem child Bart Simpson, the show 
pokes fun at political hypocrisy, corporate 
sleaze, classroom tediousness, and, quite 
self-consciously, TV's usurpation of the life 
of the mind. Still, while the Simpsons' fic- 

tional everytown of Springfield is a commu- 
nity that often degenerates into pettiness 
and perfidy, it is also a community where 
the independent individualist can shine — 
or gain the ultimate reward of attention 
from Springfield's TV eye. Maybe Bart 
Simpson, with his effusive interest in get- 
ting ahead of the pretentious and hypocriti- 
cal crowd, is a Nineties kind of youth. 

And maybe this emerging generation 
senses that there is a bumpy ride ahead. As 
it happened, in last November's Macy's 
Thanksgiving Parade, the rude winds of 
New York blew the Bart balloon into an 
office building. Bart — self-certain on the 
surface — rode the rest of the parade route 
partially deflated. ■ 

J anuary-F ebi 

"I was definitely in support of the 
proposed ban. I believe the fra- 
ternity system should take the 
lead in alcohol reform and start 
becoming more in line with our 
national organizations. The pro- 
posal would have been a positive 
step for the social scene at Duke. 
Although it certainly was not a 
united front, 1 think a large num- 
ber of Greeks would have 
favored the change." 

Interfraternity Council President 
Cbetan Ghai B.S.E. '94 on an IFC 

"I definitely think that alcohol 
and alcohol abuse are things we 
need to work on here on the 
Duke social scene. There are 
problems out there, but this pro- 
posal did not do it; it was too 
limiting. The problem with Duke 
is there is nothing to do. If we 
start limiting ourselves, then that 
will only worsen the situation. 
People need to take the initia- 
tive, not be forced into doing 
certain things. We hope to foster 
the initiative without giving fra- 
ternities an ultimatum as to how 
they can exist." 

President Keith Demon '94, who 
voted against the proposal to ban 
open kegs from all fraternity func- 



"Movies should be a coming 
together of spirit and drama. 
[They] should be a catharsis and 
a reaffirmation of the spirit. . . 1 
try to go to the heart we all have, 
the collective unconscious. If I 
could do one thing in my life, it 
would be to tell something hon- 

on "spiritual essence and questing 

"We should not be surprised that 
the health-care system is ravaged 
by race. Racism is the major rea- 
son for hatred in our society. Our 
minorities have higher rates of 
infant mortalities, cancer, 
emphysema, heart disease, and 
other diseases." 

-Louis Sullivan, former U.S. Secre- 
tary of Health and Human Services 
under President Bush, speaking at 
Duke Medical Center 

"They were in control of the sit- 
uation; all they had to do was 
stay out of trouble. They had two 
chances, and this was the last 

I Jarrard, chair of the under- 

group on West Campus 

"He's the most positive kid I've 
been around during my coaching 
career. That will probably be a 
blessing for him in the months 
ahead. ... He truly loves the game 
of basketball and is an example 
for every kid in how to play the 
game and live life." 

—Duke bead basketball coach 

Mike Krzyzevrski, commenting an 

former Duke star Bobby Hurley 

What books outside your discipline 
have influenced your thinking the 

Owen Flanagan, Professor 
of Philosophy: 

Mothers in the Fatherland, by 
Duke history professor Claudia 
Koonz. Flanagan says he is inter- 
ested in the question of how to 
connect psychology and ethics. 
Koonz's book provoked him with 
its exploration of the ways which 
conventional people can become 
evil themselves or support evil 
projects, such as German citizens 
did during the Nazi reign of 
World War II. 

As a contrast, he also found 
Thomas Keneally's Schindler's 
List insightful. This work tells 
the story of a corrupt Christian 
running a Jewish factory in 
Poland for the Nazis. What fasci- 
nated Flanagan was how 
Schindler, a basically evil person, 
ended up using his vices to 
charm the SS into leaving his 
Jewish workers alone. So in the 
end, Flanagan says, he was a 
character who was not good or 
moral in conventional ways, but 
he probably saved as many Jews 
as Raoul Wallenberg, the famous 
Swedish rescuer. 

In addition, Flanagan was sur- 
prised after reading Unnatural 
Emotions by Catherine Lutz, an 
anthropologist. Her story centers 
on a non-Western society on an 
island in the South Pacific and 
the way in which their emotional 
life is put together differently 
than ours — the way human self is 
constructed. Flanagan says we 
can learn much from such a soci- 
ety, where we would consider 
their emotional values atypical 
and possibly unnatural. 

We asked twenty-five under- 

Do you feel Duke University 
is a se' 

Yes IS 
No lO 

Of those who answered yes, most 
said that the university could 
never be completely safe, but felt 
that what was being done to make 
it safe was sufficient. Some said 
that they felt the campus grounds 
were fairly safe, but that crimes 
internally, between students, such 
as rape, harassment, and theft, 
were still prevalent. "I think Pub- 
lic Safety is doing a lot," said one 
female student. "But we need a lot 
more education for us, especially 
the freshmen coming in." 

Of those who answered no, 
several said that they had person- 
ally been either the victim of a 
crime or knew someone who had. 
They also said they believe that 
Duke's administrative response 
could be quicker. One student 
commented, "Public Safety never 
takes any of our complaints seri- 
ously. They always show up late 
to give us rides home after dark, 
or they spend their whole time 
giving out parking tickets." 

Students also said that each of 
the different campuses had its 
own safety issues. Most students 
said that main West and main 
East campuses were safe from out- 
side crime, but the parking lots 
and fire lanes surrounding them 
weren't. Central Campus and 
North Campus, on the other 
hand, were generally felt to be the 
most dangerous and least secure. 
— compiled by Jason Schultz '93 
and Raj Goyle '97 


Take a year... 
to make a difference 

If you're interested in an opportunity to 
work in the White House and deal one- 
on-one with America's leaders, take a 
close look at the White House Fellowships. 

White House Fellows are a select group 
of men and women who spend a year early 
in their careers serving as paid assistants 
to the President, Vice-President, or 
cabinet-level officials. 

They are people of exceptional abilities, 
strong motivation and a desire to serve 
their country. 

White House Fellows have gone on to 
become leaders in many fields... business, 

politics, science and the arts. And they all 
agree on one thing: Their year as a Fellow 
changed their lives. 

If it often seems as though you have to 
choose between helping others, and 
helping yourself— here's a chance to do 
both. As a White House Fellow, you can 
serve America while learning skills you will 
use your entire life. 

And instead of just reading about world 
events, you can help shape them. 

Call (202) 395-4522 for a brochure, 
application and the opportunity of a 








I am a Duke graduate. I saw 
contribute but feel compelled to 
HIV-positive in 1987. My test r 

tories about HIV/AIDS. I can 
. My husband was diagnosed as 
When I was 



diagnosed, my major fear was that ■ II ml my life without feeling as if I had fully 
lived. Now, I don't have any regre^H it how I lived my life. Everything is out and 
My dear frieijH MIX p< -strive. She will develop AIDS. She will 


at a world thafl i II HR 'HIV f I Hie just another word in our 

Ai f 1 I 
M\ ^fvas always con. ■ i i^^b/it s, H|. 

die. I am mad at a world thafl 1 1 1 v . J ' [ 1 1 \ i I 
vocabulary. J^ M\ brother was alway 
going to feel after he was ne, but not in an egotM 
wanted to give us things wH Member him with happ 

ith how people were 

. More than anything, he 



For the first time, the glory of April in Duke Gardens captured on a full color limited edition print from a 
photograph. Overall size 25" x 34" (image size 20" x 30"). The prints are signed and numbered (edition 
1000). Printed on high quality stock with fade resistant inks. Five dollars from each purchase goes directly to 
Duke Gardens. To order send $40.00 in check or money order (includes $5 shipping) to Gary F. Vogel, 16 
Citation Dr., Durham, NC 27713, or call 919-493-0306 if you have any questions. 


Since the late 1800s, the Duke family name 
has been closely associated with excellence 
and achievement. Today the tradition con- 
tinues at the Washington Duke Inn &- Golf 
Club. Situated at the edge of Duke Univer- 
sity's campus, Durham's first deluxe hotel 
offers 171 luxurious guest rooms and suites. 
Play a round of golf on a championship 
course designed by Robert Trent Jones. 
Enjoy international fine dining at the 
Fairview Restaurant. Relax with a drink 
and good conversation at the Bull Durham 
Bar. Whether you're visiting the university 
or planning a getaway you'll feel like a 
special guest in a gracious Southern home. 
Call us at (919) 490-0999 or (800) 443-3853. 

Washington Duke 
Inn & Golf Club 

5001 Cameron Boulevard • Durham. NC 27706 
(919) 490-0999 • Fax (919) 688-010? 

Duke Magazine is 
printed on recycle 


APRIL 1994 




Robert J.Bliwise A.M. '88 
Sam Hull 

Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 
Pcnni* Meredith 
Kira Marchenese '95 
Brian Morgan '95 
West Side Studio, Inc. 
Funderhurkjr. '60 

Stanley G. Brading Jr. 75, 
president; James D. Warren 75, 
president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderhurkjr. '60, secretary- 

Sylvester L. Shannon B.D. '66, 
Divinity School; J. Samuel 
McKnight B.S.E. '60, M.S. '62, 
Ph.D. '69, School of Engineering; 
David E. Anderton Jr. M.F. 79, 
School of the Environment; Kirk 
J. Bradley M.B.A. '86, Fudua 
School of Business; Richard K. 
Toomey 77, M.H.A. 79, 
Department of Health Adminis- 
tration; David G. Klaber J.D. 
'69, School of Lmv; Anthony J . 
Limberakis M.D. 78, School of 
Medicine; Christine Mundie 
Willis B.S.N. 73, School of 
Nursing; Marie Koval Nardone 
M.S. 79, A.H.C 79, Graduate 
Program in Physical Therapy'. 
Robert F.Long '41, Half- 
Century Club. 

BOARD: Clay Felker '51, 
chairman; Frederick F. Andrews 
Debra Blum '87; Sarah Hard- 
esty Bray 72; Holly B. Brubach 
75; Nancy L.Cardwell'69; 
lerrold K. Footlick; Edward M. 
Gomez 79; Kerry E. Harmon 
'82; Elizabeth H. Locke '64, 
Ph.D. 72; Thomas P. Losee Jr. 
63; R. Robin McDonald 77; 
-high S. Sidey; Susan Tifft 73; 

Vessels 77; RobertJ. 
Bliwise A.M. '88, secretary. 

by Liberated 
Types, Ltd.; printing by Litho 

Inc.; printed on 
Warren Recovery Matte Whiti 

Cross Pointe Sycamore 

§ 1994 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
Dffice of Alumni Affairs; vol- 

ry subscriptions $15 pet 
rear: Duke Magazine, Alumni 
louse, 614 Chapel Drive, 
Sox 90570, Durham, N.C 
7708-0570; (919) 684-51 14. 

Cover: The hwnan dimensions of AIDS. 

WORK HARD, PLAY HARD, ARGUE HARD by Robert]. Bitwise 2 

It is a question showing up in faculty meetings and letters to the editor and fireside 
presidential chats: Are Duke students intellectually engaged? 

A SEARCH FOR THE SOUL OF JAPAN by Bridget Booher 8~ 

For Cathy Davidson, the very reason Japan was such an alluring topic, the ascetic beauty 
and quiet traditions, also made it formidable. "I didn't like the idea of Japan as this entity 
over there and me as this 'superior' American explaining the Japanese." 


On the end of innocence, the importance of memory, and the power of love 


The multi-billion-dollar issue for Duke Medical Center is whether it can reinvent itself 
to respond to health-care competition and consumerism 


Duke's art museum is helping forgotten Maya artists regain the prestigious identities 
they lost long ago 


"I can't give anyone talent or a sense of humor," says Danny Simon, "but I can help 
people learn how to think structurally about the process of comedy and give them a 
knowledge of the craft." 


Public policy's Philip Cook on crime and punishment 


From the Mississippi Delta to the savannas of Africa with a scientist-artist 


Lamenting inflated grades, celebrating accomplished women 


Criticisms of insurers, warnings from Reno, computer tools for students 


A high-tech variant of science fiction, an unabashedly personal memoir of Japan 


Creative Cameron fans, contestable honor codes, California vibrations 










It is a question showing up in faculty meetings and 

letters to the editor and fireside presidential chats: 

Are Duke students intellectually engaged? 

A rough semi-circle has been made 
out of rough lounge furniture — 
standard dorm fare. This eve- 
ning's dorm doings will be more 
provocative, though, than the usual hall- 
way water fights. 

English professor Susan Willis sits down 
in the semi-circle and begins an intellectual 
autobiography. She's dressed in jeans ap- 
propriate to her audience, twenty Duke 
seniors, and to her field, which is popular 
culture. As a mother to five children, she's 
been inspired to look critically at daily life 
and practices, to see "daily life as a proper 
concern for intellectual activity." And ear- 
lier, as a graduate student during a period of 
"continual sit-ins, demonstrations, boycotts, 
strikes," she shaped herself as an activist. 

Willis takes questions about the frag- 
menting influence of television. Then she 
asks the students for help on her latest proj- 
ect, an essay on how American culture has 
imagined dinosaurs. 

This dorm discussion — one segment of a 
semester-long "house course" — is a response 
to a question that has consumed the cam- 
pus. It is a question showing up in faculty 
meetings and letters to the editor and fire- 

side presidential chats: Are Duke students 
intellectually engaged? 

If not the first to ask the question, the 
first to send it reverberating through the 
Chapel was Reynolds Price '55. Price, a 
James B. Duke Professor of English and 
multiply-awarded writer, gave the Founders' 
Day Address in December 1992. While 
acknowledging "a nexus of extraordinary 
students who keep me teaching," Price 
referred to "the stunned or blank faces of 
students who exhibit a minimum of prepa- 
ration or willingness for what I think of as 
the high delight and life-enduring pleasure 
of serious conversation in the classroom 
and elsewhere." 

What is often "the main theme of dis- 
course" among undergraduates, he said, is 
contained in the expression "I can't 
believe how drunk I was last night." Such 
a theme strikes Price as "something much 
less interesting than sex and God, the top- 
ics of my time." 

Price's prescription for improvement 
begins with eliminating fraternities and 
sororities. Those groups, he said, are "our 
main force for division and waste"; as 
"grotesque relics," they "have long since 


ceased to serve any role not 
better served by means less ex- 
pensive, in every sense, of the 
university's time and lifeblood." 
He would have the university 
commit time, and certainly re- 
sources, to organizing student 
life on a residential college 
model. Price's ideal Duke would 
reconfigure itself into private 
student bedrooms and common 
dining rooms where under- 
graduates "could meet like 
sane adult members of a group 
dedicated to legitimate prin- 
ciples of thoughtful social life, 
punctuated by normal bouts 
of revel." 

Price's provocative presentation was fol- 
lowed last spring by a report from Dean of 
the Chapel William Willimon. Over a 
period of five months, Willimon had met 
with student groups over pizza, interviewed 
scores of individual students, attended keg 
parties, joined Duke Public Safety on their 
patrols, and stayed overnight 
in a dorm. 

What Willimon found re- 
flected the "work hard, play 
hard" spirit that, as he sees it, 
is the defining spirit of under- 
graduate life — and which he 
borrowed for the title of his 
report. Willimon recorded this 
comment from a conversation 
with A.B. Duke scholars: "Try 
bringing up a book you've 
read, or a great lecture you've 
heard in class, and other stu- 
dents will tell you, 'Keep it in 
class. My brain meter's not 
running now.' " Seen in its best 
light, Willimon said, "work 
hard, play hard" means that 
Duke students "are known for 
their exuberance, their enthu- 
siasm at basketball games, and 
their general love of life. At its 
worst, it means that our stu- 
dents are engaged in activities 
which not only do not contrib- 
ute to the academic mission 
of the university, but actually 
work against that mission by 
trivializing the time they 
spend here." 

Not interested in trivializ- 
ing her time, Rima Jarrah '93 
put together the house course 
featuring Susan Willis and a 
different professor-presenter 
each week. Jarrah says that to 
build an intellectualism ethic, 
Duke needs to take sharper 
aim at its freshmen. "If you 
don't from the very beginning 

impress on them that this is an intellectual 
institution, they're not going to get that 
message," she says. First-year students 
learn about the minimum effort required 
to accomplish the goal of placement into 
the right job or the right graduate pro- 
gram, "and they do the minimum, or may- 

be a little above that." Jarrah 
sees her course, "The Liberal 
Arts Epistemology," as some 
kind of undergraduate culmi- 
nating experience. She calls 
the course "A Senior's Guide 
to Intellectualism." Asked if 
there should be "A Fresh- 
man's Guide to Intellectual- 
ism," Jarrah says it sounds like 
a good idea. 

How does one take the mea- 
sure of an intellectual climate? 
Last fall three undergraduates 
in an introductory statistics 
. course tried to do just that. 
i They were frustrated, though, 
^ by a low response rate. Their 
survey group of students resisted quantify- 
ing their intellectual engagement. Students 
couldn't figure out how to answer a query, 
for example, about how much time every 
week they spent on intellectual activities. 

There's a mixed message from graduates 
in the most recent "Duke Experience Sur- 
vey," compiled by the alumni 
affairs office. Graduates of the 
Class of '92 considered Duke 
tough, but not too tough, and 
said they worked hard, but 
not too hard. They rated the 
academic pressure at Duke at 
6.6 on a scale of to 10. More 
than 45 percent said they 
spent fewer than twenty hours 
a week studying; 17 percent 
pegged their study time at 
more than thirty hours. Most 
thought the curriculum was 
neither more nor less demand- 
ing than they had anticipat- 
ed — which helps explain why 
the "overall Duke experience" 
earned a rating of 8.31. 

So most students are com- 
fortable with Duke. But im- 
plicit in the reports of Price 
and Willimon is the view that 
the university, responding to 
a student sense of "entitle- 
ment," may be making things 
much too comfortable and not 
very challenging. 

Richard Cox B.D. '67, 
Th.M. '69, D.Ed. '82, associ- 
ate vice president and dean of 
university life, has been trav- 
eling for the admissions office 
for some seventeen years. In 
the past decade or so, he's 
noticed an escalating interest 
in Duke. He's also noticed two 
sets of reactions among high 
J school students with whom he 
| meets — now in auditorium 
| settings. Cox asks for impres- 

March-April 199 4 

sions of Duke from those who have visited 
the campus or whose friends are enrolled. 
A few students will spark the discussion 
with issues of academic programs and poli- 
cies. But they're overtaken by students who 
"can't wait to come and party," Cox says, 
"though they think it would be fine to get 
an education, too." 

Duke's director of undergraduate admis- 
sions, Christoph Guttentag, sees consider- 
able reality behind the perception that 
Duke students, in his words, keep "the life 
of the mind and the social life distinct." 
According to that perception, Ivy League 
students incorporate the life of the mind 
into their social life — as "a part of fun, as a 
part of joy" — while Duke students assume 
"a narrow definition of the life of the mind, 
which is classroom-related and require- 
ment-driven." What Guttentag calls the 
"dichotomization of student life" — the 
work and play division — creates a peculiar 
atmosphere and discourages super-moti- j 
vated students, he says. "What we have is 
the notion that there's nothing other than 
work and play, that whatever isn't play is 
work, whatever isn't work is play. Where I 
does thinking come into that?" 

Guttentag is the first to say that Duke 
students are as bright as students anywhere. 
But last year, thirty-five students admitted 
by both Duke and Stanford chose to attend j 
Duke; 164 chose Stanford. Nineteen stu- 
dents deciding between Harvard/Radcliffe 
and Duke went in Duke's direction; 147 
went the other way. 

"If we did better against our toughest 
competitors, I would be much more willing 
to say, 'Not only have we found our niche, 
but let's be careful not to change it,' " Gut- 
tentag says. "If students who chose be- 
tween Harvard and Duke, Stanford and 
Duke, split 50-50, then I would say that 
students are making appropriate choices, 
they're finding the sort of distinguishing 
characteristics of each school, we have our 
niche, it's where we want to be. But when 
you look at our major competitors, there 
are a small number against whom we don't 
do very well. And I refuse to believe that 
they offer a significantly better education." 

That record "tells us something impor- 
tant about what atmosphere draws the 
brightest students," Guttentag says. "When 
you look at who those students are, they 
are not narrow, uncreative intellects. They 
are people whom the faculty would love to 
have in their classrooms, and whom the 
students would love to have as their class- 
mates. They are bright, they are interest- 
ing, they are active." 

What do the latest converts to the 
"work hard, play hard" ethic think of all 
this intellectual talk? Asked to write on 
the issue, most of the twelve freshmen in a 
fall semester writing course did not take 

Some say that the 
university, responding 
to a student sense of 
"entitlement," may be 
making things much 
too comfortable and 
not very challenging. 

kindly to the assumption of low levels of 
campus intellectualism. One questioned 
whether any of the professor-critics had 
ever been "present in the dorms and out- 
side the classrooms" to reach their assess- 
ment. (In the cases of both Price and 
Willimon, the answer happens to be yes.) 
One said flatly that he couldn't function in 
a work hard, play hard environment, 
because "I don't have the split personality 
that I think would be necessary to leave all 
intellectual thought in the classroom." 

Some, though, were a bit more self-criti- 
cal — like the essayist who observed that 
students "receive no credit or tangible 
benefit for a discussion of philosophy over 
dinner." Students come to campus fully 
formed: They know their (lawyerly or doc- 
torly) destination, and they know the path 
there. For most students, said this essayist, 
"intellectual enrichment" isn't a high pri- 
ority for their college years. "Duke stu- 
dents strive not to challenge and develop 
their minds, but to make the necessary 
grade to gain admittance to a professional 
or graduate school." 

To a great extent, the intellectual tone 
is set by the faculty, and particularly in 
how the faculty structures the learning 
process. Almost twenty-five years ago, the 
faculty lightened student course loads from 
a standard of five to four courses each semes- 
ter. The idea was that professors would in- 
crease the substance of each course and 
their expectations of students. Student 
Affairs' Richard Cox recalls a later Aca- 
demic Council meeting where student-life 
administrators were "raked over the coals" 
for allowing student behavior to get out of 
hand. "I said to them, 'I'm not going to 
argue with you. We do have serious problems 
with noise, vandalism, disrespect toward 
others, and drinking. But can't you help us 
change the climate of this community? 
How is it that these students can do as 
well as they do in the classroom and be 
drunk every night?' " 

Faculty members grudgingly agreed with 
the point, says Cox, that just as the overall 

student academic profile was rising, the 
academic demands on students were less- 
ening. More recently, one of Cox's student 
advisees was able to add a course to his 
schedule almost a full month into the 
semester. What's the message there, he 
wonders, about the intellectual rigor of the 

Last fall, the Arts and Sciences Council 
considered proposed curriculum changes. 
Those changes involved, among other 
things, requiring students to study in each 
of six broad areas of knowledge. The coun- 
cil decided not to add a requirement, but 
to remove the existing requirement that a 
certain number of courses in a student's 
program be intellectually "related." 

Not always celebrated for its intellectual 
contribution, The Chronicle saw this as a 
curricular cop-out. "In passing purely cos- 
metic changes to the Trinity curriculum, 
the council argued 'if it ain't broke, don't 
fix it,' a stunningly simplistic rationale 
from a supposedly world-class faculty," said 
the paper's editorial. "If 'it ain't broke,' 
then why do these same professors note 
that students come to the university excit- 
ed to learn and then lope through four 
years of beer-drenched oblivion? Couldn't 
this have something to do with the cur- 
riculum that 'ain't broke?' " 

What should be broken, many agree, are 
the boundaries between student experi- 
ences inside and outside the classroom. 
Some programs do that boundary-breaking 
as a matter of course. The School of the 
Environment's Marine Lab has a particular 
take on student-faculty interaction. There, 
it's an automatic interaction. In a fall 
newsletter, director Joe Ramus wrote about 
the lab's commitment to "total immersion 
in the curriculum" — an interesting and apt 
phrase in this context. The lab "is an 
island, both physically and culturally," 
wrote Ramus. "To the undergraduate stu- 
dent, a semester at Beaufort offers a simpli- 
fication of the complexities presented by a 
university campus. There is accountability 
because there is no place to hide perfor- 
mance, both excellent and mediocre." 

An island of intellectualism: Maybe 
that's not every student's Fantasy Island, 
but it is a useful example of a community 
of scholars. The chance to interact with 
undergraduates was important in luring 
Steve Nowicki from Rockefeller Universi- 
ty, a high-powered research center, to 
Duke. Nowicki is an assistant professor of 
zoology and neurobiology. Although quick 
to peg Duke students as extraordinarily 
bright, Nowicki is "distressed that they 
don't take outside class the intellectual 
spark that I try to ignite in class." Nowicki 
is himself an example of lively intellect: He 
studied the classical trombone but realized 
he would never perfect his performance 


skills, tested his interest in psy- 
chology and philosophy, then — 
while taking a college biology 
course to fulfill a distribution 
requirement — found an intellec- 
tual home. Now he studies ani- 
mal communications, particular- 
ly the singing behavior of birds. 

Nowicki masters the names of 
the 120 or so students in his lec- 
tures, employs undergraduates in 
his lab, eats on campus with stu- 
dent groups, invites students to 
his home for meals, and even 
performed as Santa Claus for a 
fraternity. Teaching and research 
are aspects of the same enter- 
prise, Nowicki says. "Research should be 
an intellectual activity. Part of being an 
intellectual is talking about what you do. 
That's the core of teaching — conveying 
your enthusiasm for a subject that you find 
interesting and stimulating." 

Students are oriented more than ever to 
"prosaic" goals, namely job aspirations, 
Nowicki says. And it's not just GPA-anx- 
ious students: Parents call him, worried 
that their son or daughter may not be tak- 
ing the right courses for that place in Har- 
vard Medical School. Faced with such 
pressures, the faculty needs to have a more 
vigorous conversation about Duke's educa- 
tional mission, Nowicki says. It's one thing 
to educate students to get a good job. It's 
quite another — and more important — 
thing to educate them to be leaders, mean- 
ing they're inspired to make intellectual 
connections and they're not just adept in 
some narrow field. Maybe the faculty 
should debate a common core of courses — 
a "Duke canon" — for the first one or two 
years, he says, in order to promote a shared 
intellectual discourse. "There can be no 
intellectual climate here unless we have 
agreement on our intellectual mission." 

Some say that there are all too few 
Steve Nowickis — that faculty research 
agendas, and the rewards system for tenure 
and promotion, intrude on easy faculty- 
student interaction. One of the writing- 
class freshmen wrote that "the root of the 
problem" of insufficient intellectualism is 
"the lack of interaction between students 
and faculty." For another assignment, he 
and the other students screened a new 
admissions office video, which shows six 
interesting undergraduates in their tri- 
umphs and tribulations over the course of 
an academic year. In the video, an anthro- 
pology professor shares tea with a student 
and probes her about her interest in 
becoming a veterinarian. The segment was 
real enough, say admissions staffers, but for 
these students, not representative enough. 

It was with the intent of promoting a 
community-minded environment that Duke's 

"What we have is 
the notion that 

whatever isn't play is 
work, whatever 
isn't work is play. 

Where does thinking 
come into that?" 

Bryan Center, last fall, unveiled "The Cafe." 
The Cafe serves cappuccino and muffins 
(sometimes free of charge for professor-stu- 
dent pairs). It was the idea of English pro- 
fessor Jane Tompkins, who supported it 
with a $1,000 donation and who volun- 
teers her services there. 

But shared cappuccino doesn't fuel a 
continuing intellectual dialogue. The 
excitement of a classroom of "active listen- 
ing and active thinking" does, says Rima 
Jarrah, the organizer of the intellectualism 
house course. Jarrah suggests that she was a 
bit spoiled by her pre-Duke experience at 
Exeter, where learning takes place primari- 
ly around seminar tables. If teachers just 
lecture to students, she says, it's easy for 
students to develop into passive note-tak- 
ers. And engagement doesn't come from 
responding to question after question in 
isolation, she adds. The intellectually alive 
classroom comes from weaving together 
the different ideas of students into some- 
thing coherent and provocative, from a 
large conversation that drives a point to 
an often surprising conclusion. In her 
courses over four years, not many Duke 
professors met that intellectual standard in 
the conduct of their classes — just "a hand- 
ful," Jarrah says. 

Her comments are supported by the 
observations of a former Duke administra- 

tor. While walking through one 
of Duke's main classroom build- 
ings, she found herself looking 
into classes in progress. She was 
struck by the persistent scene of 
divided territory: professors deliv- 
ering information from an elevat- 
ed platform, students as recipients 
seated in some great pit below. 

Laments over the intellectual 
climate are hardly distinct to the 
time, the mid-Nineties, or the 
place, Duke. In 1981, Jacob 
Neusner, then a Brown professor 
\ of religious studies, published "A 
- Commencement Speech You 
"^■ s Won't Hear" in the Brown Daily 
Herald. Although he addressed his com- 
ments to students, Neusner was harsh in his 
assessment of fellow professors. Lazy them- 
selves, they were guilty, in his judgment, of 
promoting their lazy ways to future genera- 
tions. "For four years we created an alto- 
gether forgiving world, in which whatever 
slight effort you gave was all that was 
demanded," he wrote. "When you did not 
keep appointments, we made new ones. 
When you were late to class, we ignored it. 
When your work came in beyond the 
deadline, we pretended not to care. Worse 
still, when you were boring, we acted as if 
you were saying something important." 

Faculty put up with such anti-intellectual 
standards, Neusner concluded, not because 
they wanted to be liked, but because they 
didn't want to be bothered. "The easy way 
out was pretense: smiles and easy B's." 

At Duke, a Committee for the Study of 
Student Residential Life was at work twen- 
ty-five years ago. Its summary section came 
from English professor Robert Krueger 
A.M. '58, recipient of two Oxford degrees, 
later the first dean of the merged Woman's 
and Trinity colleges, and somewhat famous 
more recently for his losing Senate cam- 
paign in Texas. In the report, Krueger said 
that architecturally and ideologically, the 
Oxford model of a residential college 
exerted a powerful influence at the time of 
Duke's founding. 

In the Oxford context, he wrote, rela- 
tions between student and instructor, or 
"tutor," are easy: "Although he grades the 
student's weekly essay, the tutor is not 
responsible for the final 'class' of degree 
that the student receives, which is based 
on a series of examinations graded by univer- 
sity and outside examiners." The tutors live 
either in one of Oxford's thirty-five col- 
leges or nearby. "If they live outside, they 
usually eat a number of meals in college 
and always have a sitting room-office for 
conducting tutorials and for entertaining." 
Although Krueger didn't employ the lan- 
guage of "work hard, play hard," he found 
the theme quite alive at Duke in 1969. "The 

March-April 1994 

student, like the faculty mem- 
ber, distinguishes between his 
academic and social worlds," he 
wrote. "Studying is one world; 
conversation with friends or dat- 
ing another." 

Today, some campuses are un- 
contested intellectual hothouses. 
Tellingly, the University of Chica- 
go features a lecture on "The 
Aims of Education" during fresh- 
man orientation. New students 
are required to attend the lec- 
ture, then go back to their resi- 
dences to unravel the themes in 
small discussion groups — one of 
which, last fall, included the uni- 
versity's new president. Chicago 
takes ironic delight in its rank- 
ing by Inside Edge, a magazine 
published by and for college stu- 
dents. In the magazine's poll of 
"fun" campuses, Chicago was dead 
last: number 300. The heart of 
the University of Chicago's 
social life, says a Duke faculty 
member who has taught there, is 
the library. 

Other campuses, though, are 
struggling with questions about 
intellectualism. Dartmouth pres- 
ident James Freedman took over 
a place with Ivy League cachet 
and, like Duke, an ingrained 
"work hard, play hard" attitude. Early on 
he made a famous plea for Dartmouth to 
become welcome to "creative loners and 
daring dreamers," students who play the 
cello and students who translate Catullus. 

Freedman may have managed to re- 
energize his campus. Still, as one Dart- 
mouth administrator sees the situation, the 
Dartmouth student body is like most stu- 
dent bodies: No more than one-third show 
genuine intellectual curiosity; the rest 
blithely coast through the four years. "The 
faculty don't want to risk unpopularity by 
making greater demands on students, 
the students are having too good a time, 
the administration doesn't want to buck 
the faculty, and the alumni want to pre- 
serve the campus' 'well-rounded' atmos- 
phere," he says. 

(Maybe some alumni are status-quo- 
driven. But a recent poll of 4,000 Dart- 
mouth graduates showed that a great major- 
ity thinks that Dartmouth should become 
more intellectual.) 

All the talk about student life devoting 
itself to the full "life of the mind" may be 
rather empty, a reaching back to a reality 
that never was. For most graduates, long 
nights spent with Nietzsche are probably 
not the most powerful of college memo- 
ries. Maybe talk of God loomed large 
in Reynolds Price's student days, and talk 

All the talk about 

student life devoting 

itself to the full 

"life of the mind" 

may be rather empty, 

a reaching back to 

a reality that never was. 

of sex, too, but was Sartre ever the Big Man 
on Campus? One colleague compares Rey- 
nolds Price's vision of the once-cerebral 
campus to Walt Disney's vision of the 
American small town — "a fantasy notion." 
In her survey of undergraduate culture, 
Campus Life, Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz 
traces back student hedonism — anti-intel- 
lectualism at its basest level — to the Colo- 
nial era beginnings of venerable Harvard. 
Harvard, "in the heart of Puritan New 
England," she writes, "caught its students 
playing cards, drinking, and stealing the 
turkeys of their Cambridge neighbors." 
Early nineteenth-century students at the 

University of North Carolina 
horsewhipped the president, 
stoned two professors, and threat- 
ened other faculty members with 
personal injury. Horowitz re- 
searched the book during a more 
subdued time, in the early Eight- 
ies. From her contacts with stu- 
dents of the time, she was dis- 
tressed that a college education 
seemingly wasn't making a mark 
in their lives — except insofar as 
it improved their earning poten- 
tial. Caution had become "their 
accustomed mode." 

An obvious example of today's 
intellectually engaged student is 
Alex Hartemink '94- This year, 
Hartemink was one of thirty-two 
students across the nation to win 
a Rhodes Scholarship. He volun- 
teers for a church youth group, 
competes on a College Bowl quiz 
team, has a job in the mathe- 
matics department programming 
computers, and writes poetry on 
occasion. A one-time varsity ath- 
lete on the fencing team and a 
runner, he plays basketball, vol- 
leyball, soccer, and tennis. He is 
a triple-major in mathematics, 
I economics, and physics. 

Working hard and playing 
hard: As Hartemink reads that 
famous formulation, it comes down to 
studying hard and partying hard. He says 
that neither pursuit is "as important to me 
as is thinking hard." There's exhilaration 
in the thoughtful act of writing poetry, 
doing crossword puzzles, or reading 
Sartre — or jumping into dorm discussions. 
"There are plenty of people here who 
would engage in intellectual discussion, 
who are capable of it, enjoy it, but who 
don't feel the environment is conducive to 
such interaction," he says. It's not that stu- 
dents aren't capable of thoughtful interac- 
tion beyond the classroom; it's a matter of 

Hartemink says he regularly partakes in 
conversations with friends on issues of phi- 
losophy, politics, science, and ethics. And 
he has successfully sought out faculty 
interaction, working on research projects 
and independent studies, asking professors 
to lunch and engaging them — as he did 
one philosopher — in issues like "relativism 
and absolutism." 

In the debate over intellectualism, 
Hartemink sees too much of a blame-game 
quality, and too little initiative on any 
side. "Students blame the residential sys- 
tem or say that the faculty are not interest- 
ed in them. But if they're really commit- 
ted, they can rise above the hurdles. The 
faculty say the students are not interested 


in them, that they have office hours and 
no one comes, that the students would 
rather be doing something else. But they 
can make their classes more interesting, 
challenging, and relevant to the real 
world. They can look for ways of innovative 
interaction, like class dinners and class 
trips. And students will respond." 

Since his student days, Reynolds Price 
said in his Founders' Day address, he has 
seen one student-life initiative after 
another "die for lack of commitment or 
continuity on the part of all involved." 
Richard Cox mentions a move in the mid- 
Eighties — inspired by an interest in height- 
ening intellectual activity — to establish a 
residential college on East Campus. Few 
students signed on, and the residential col- 
lege effectively died before it was born. 
"The idea started from the top down," says 
Cox. "And the students said, 'How dare 
you? All you're trying to do is make this 
place out to be another Ivy League school.' " 

That complaint still echoes. Senior Paul 
Hudson, the student government president, 
told the faculty-staff newspaper Duke 
Dialogue that "we're really corroding the 
old Duke by giving out the perception that 
Duke is in some mid-life crisis — that we're 
trying to become a Harvard." 

But today, many point to the fervor of 
the debate as a sign of Duke's intellectual 
vitality. And they point to tangible evolu- 
tion in the environment. 

Among students, an increasingly popu- 
lar option is the dorm cluster, or "house," 
that bases residential life on one of several 
themes, like the arts, women's studies, mul- 
ticulturalism, or environmental concerns. 
One such house, the Round Table, was 
founded to promote student-faculty inter- 
action, student-to-student interaction, and 
community service. The group of more 
than seventy organizes a faculty tea once a 
semester. It also has a professorial couple in 
residence who attend the house meetings 
and regularly mingle with the students. 
Every week, house members dine informal- 
ly with a professor. Junior Luke Dollar, a 
coordinator for the Round Table, says that 
"without a doubt," this "diverse conglomer- 
ation," as he describes it, could serve as a 
model for residential life at Duke. 

For its part, the faculty, through the 
Academic Council, set up a task force that 
is supposed to say something about the 
"goals of an intellectual community and 
objectives for the intellectual life to which 
such a community might aspire." Its chair 
is classical studies professor Peter Burian, 
who some years ago was a faculty resident 
in a dorm. Although the task force has had 
just a few months to wrestle with its 
charge, Burian is undaunted. An academic 
community "could study this forever," he 
says. "And it probably should." 

Burian says his group is looking at ex- 
panding the array of freshman seminars, 
making advising more of an expectation of 
the faculty, requiring students to complete 
an independent research project, and better 
integrating visiting speakers and artists 
into the residential environment. Duke is 
not physically set up for "colleges" with 
self-contained dining programs and live-in 
faculty, Burian says. (He does believe that 
dining arrangments should not be an 
"individual entitlement," granting students 
endless options in dining times and set- 
tings, but something that corresponds to a 
vision of community life.) 

Rather than growing lots of little Round 
Tables and other selective groups — "micro- 
communities," as he calls them — he favors 
a version of the residential college model: 
defining a dozen or so residential areas of 
the campus around the existing quads. Stu- 
dents would spend all of their four years in 
a single area. Each area would have its own 
faculty "quad master" to help in planning 
activities and have its own common space. 

For now, Burian says, the rites of passage 
into the college experience are largely 

defined by upperclass students. They're 
prone to pass along "great traditions like 
beer and basketball" and signal that the 
rewards of intellectual achievement "are 
all in good grades and career advance- 
ment, not in the thing itself." Burian 
wants to send out a different signal: Work 
need not be unremittingly grinding, and a 
classroom discussion or a library discovery 
or a paper assignment can be as transport- 
ing as a swish through a basketball hoop. 

The object of those leading the campus 
debate is more than a shift in message; it's 
a shift in culture. Once a moderately 
respected regional institution, Duke has 
perhaps moved farther and faster than any 
of the nation's universities. As some see it, 
Duke has finally found its niche, and it 
should consolidate its base. To others, Duke 
is too young to be fully formed, too vital to 
be complacent. 

Everyone agrees that change isn't easy. 
There's plenty of disagreement not just 
about the particulars of reinventing stu- 
dent life, but about how drastic the rein- 
vention should be. ■ 


As sectors of the campus 
debate the intellectual 
engagement of Duke 
students, some of those stu- 
dents are earning outside plau- 
dits for their intellectual talents. 

In March, a three-member 
team of Duke students took 
first place in the prestigious 
William Lowell Putnam Math- 
ematical Competition for 
undergraduate students in the 
United States and Canada. The 
Duke group scored best overall 
among the 408 teams that par- 
ticipated in the fifty-fourth 
annual event. Teams from 
Harvard have won the Putnam 
competition for the past eight 
years; a Duke team came in 
second in 1991. 

The Duke win involved 
tackling twelve hard questions 
requiring incisive answers. But 
the competition hinges less on 
knowing theorems than it does 
on "having a creative mind 
and the ability to see relation- 
ships," says David Kraines, 
associate professor and associ- 
ate chairman of Duke's mathe- 
matics department. 

The winning team members 
have been veterans of math 
competitions since high school. 
Senior Jeffrey Vanderkam was 
a gold medalist at the 1990 
International Mathematical 
Olympiad finals for high school 
students, held in Beijing. He 
was also a silver medalist in the 
1989 Olympiad and has won 

honorable mention in the USA 
Today All-Academic team. 
Freshman Andrew Dittmer was 
a gold medalist at last year's 
Olympiad finals in Istanbul and 
wrote several research papers 
by the time he finished high 
school. An A.B. Duke Scholar, 
he began at Duke handling 
graduate-level coursework. 
Junior Craig Gentry was named 
a Putnam Fellow for being one 
of the top six scorers in this 
year's competition. 

March brought honors to 
Duke students in another exer- 
cise of mindpower: Three 
undergraduates placed third in 
the world and first in the 
United States in the annual 
Association for Computing 
Machinery team programming 

In Phoenix, Arizona, the 
students met in a final pro- 
gramming showdown with 
teams from thirty-four other 
colleges and universities that 
had survived a series of 
regional competitions. Despite 
besting all their U.S. competi- 
tors, the Duke undergraduates 
lost to teams from the Univer- 
sity of Waterloo in Canada, 
which came in first, and Otago 
University in New Zealand, 
which placed second. 

Team member Greg Badros, 
a junior majoring in computer 
science and mathematics, mas- 
tered the BASIC programming 
language while still in elemen- 

tary school and is the founder 
of Data Date, a computerized 
personality matchmaking 
fund-raiser service for high 
schools. He is doing research in 
genetic algorithms and co- 
authored a research paper to 
be presented at a digital com- 
pression conference. 

Scott Harrington, a junior 
majoring in electrical engineer- 
ing, computer science, and 
mathematics, is also an inde- 
pendent consultant who 
designs sales training systems. 
While still in high school, he 
worked in computer support 
for an industrial firm. 

Nate Bronson, a sophomore 
and another triple major in 
electrical engineering, com- 
puter science, and mathemat- 
ics, programmed a Com- 
modore 64 computer in the 
BASIC language while in the 
third grade. He tied for first 
place in the world during the 
1992 International Olympiad 
of Informatics in Germany, 
earning a gold medal for the 
United States. 

The outcome of the contest 
"says these guys are good," 
according to Owen Astrachan, 
an assistant professor and the 
director of undergraduate stud- 
ies for computer science. 
"These guys are programming 
all the time, even outside of 
their courses." 

March-April 7 994 





The very reason Japan was such an alluring topic, the 
ascetic beauty and quiet traditions, also made it for- 
midable. "I didn't like the idea of Japan as this entity 
there and me as this 'superior' American 
person explaining the Japanese." 


An odd thing hap- 
pens upon reading 
36 Views of Mount 
Fuji, the latest 
book by Duke English professor 
Cathy Davidson. Regardless of 
your familiarity (or lack there- 
of) with japan, you come away 
from the book feeling that you 
know the country, and its peo- 
ple, intimately. You discover a 
longing for the polite courte- 
sies that shape daily life there. 

At the same time, Davidson emerges as 
a friend, a companion, a confidante. Dur- 
ing the course of the book's journey, you 
accompany her through humorous adven- 
tures and harrowing ordeals. While sharing 
her sense of being an outsider in an unfa- 
miliar place, you learn to appreciate the 
complexities and contradictions of Japa- 
nese society. You are at once part of, and 
removed from, this old world made new. 
So a strange, inevitable tension emerges 

between wanting to assume a 
closeness to Davidson and re- 
specting her from a distance. 
In Japan, a sense of gin, or recip- 
rocal respect, governs all ac- 
tions and interactions. This 
balance of the public and pri- 
vate self, between internal and 
external landscapes, is charac- 
o teristically Japanese. It's a deli- 
| cate symmetry, one not always 
J easily absorbed by those of us 
raised in Western ways. 

"I'm getting wonderful fan letters from 
all over the country, almost one or two a 
day," says Davidson. "But no one ever ad- 
dresses me as 'Ms. Davidson' or 'Professor 
Davidson.' It's always 'Dear Cathy.' People 
are obviously connecting on a personal 
level to the book. The flip side of that is 
that it's a little scary to have people you've 
never met before think of you as a friend." 
From the outside of her third-floor office 
in Allen Building, a visitor sees only a sim- 


pie handwritten note with Davidson's name 
and office hours. Unadorned, basic. Open 
the door, and you're surrounded by a wall 
of books, manuscripts, papers, phones ring- 
ing, letters waiting to be mailed or read, a 
steady hum of activity. Graduate students 
stop by to make appointments. 

An enlarged photograph taped to the 
back of the door shows a dark, inviting 
bamboo grove leading to a moss temple 
outside Kyoto. A two-dimensional visual 
escape? Perhaps. Yet on a more practical 
level, Davidson says in a whisper, as if con- 
fessing a mischievous deed, covering the 
door's translucent glass from within "makes 
it look as if no one's inside." 

Don't be misled; Davidson doesn't shun 
personal overtures. It's just that she's so 
busy these days — finishing two book proj- 
ects (including the million-word Oxford 
Companion to Women's Writing in the Unit- 
ed States), considering an offer to collabo- 
rate on a photo-essay publication, teaching 
students, fine-tuning details for an upcom- 
ing trip to Japan — that she seeks solitude 
in stolen moments. "I'm starting to try and 
enjoy my life more and not be such a 
workaholic," she explains. But then not a 
minute passes before she's describing the 
status of a novel in progress. 

With a vita that could make even an 
overachiever envious, Davidson is by every 
measure a go-getter. It's therefore surpris- 
ing to discover that it took this vibrant 

\Aarch-April I 994 

woman ten years to complete 36 Views of 
Mount Fuji. [See "Books," page 51.] But 
Davidson says the very reason Japan was 
such an alluring topic, the ascetic beauty 
and quiet traditions, also made it formida- 
ble. "I didn't like the idea of Japan as this 
entity over there and me as this 'superior' 
American person explaining the Japanese. 
So I kept trying and trying and trying to 
write this book, and I just couldn't figure 
out how to do it." 

Davidson first traveled to Japan in 1980 
to teach at a prestigious women's college. 
Long drawn to the romantic visions of 
Japan she carried in her head, Davidson 
initially encountered a far different Japan. 
Driving from the Osaka International Air- 
port, Davidson peered out the car window 
at the pollution and chaos of the city. "I 
was reminded," she writes, "of some grim 
old photograph of a nineteenth-century 
immigrant ghetto, zapped by a later-twen- 
tieth-century electronic overload." 

But on this trip, and three others that 
followed, Davidson found the tranquil 
charms she'd imagined. She reveled in the 
deliberate, therapeutic ritual of the com- 
munal baths and experienced the modest 
pride that comes with carefully folding an 
umbrella just so. Admittedly unskilled in 
grasping the intricacies of learning the 
language, Davidson nevertheless compre- 
hends and embraces the nuance of mean- 
ing in such words/concepts as shikataganai, 

an oft-used phrase conveying acquiescence 
to an inscrutable turn of events, or ishin 
denshin, which she describes as "wordless, 
heart-to-heart communication." 

Each of Davidson's excursions revealed 
new facets of Japanese culture, and helped 
break down false assumptions she'd con- 
structed. Japanese women, for example, 
weren't demure, passive figures who 
catered to their husbands' every whim. In 
fact, Davidson says, she found that femi- 
nism in Japan is in some ways more deeply 
ingrained in the fabric of domestic life 
than in America. Even though there is a 
surface illusion of feminine submissiveness 
(via advertising and deferential public 
behavior), Japanese women possess an 
underlying strength and authority. Hus- 
bands' salaries are usually deposited direct- 
ly into the family account, which the 
wives manage exclusively. 

Davidson relates an episode in which a 
neighbor casually mentions (on moving 
day) having to draw her spouse a map to 
their new house; he would see this resi- 
dence, bought by the wife, for the first time 
upon returning from work that evening. 
When Davidson expresses surprise, the 
woman explains that all purchases, from 
furniture to a car to a new house, are made 
by women, with practically no verdict 
from their husbands. Laughing, the woman 
teases Davidson by saying, "No wonder 
you like Japan so much!" 

Conversely, Davidson witnessed unfa- 
vorable elements of Japanese life that are 
routinely reported in the United States, 
from a relentless job pace that can result in 
karoshi (death from overwork) to intense 
pressures on young people to excel at their 
studies. One student, anxious over her pre- 
arranged marriage to a man she loathed, 
decided to gorge on fattening foods in 
order to become so unattractive that the 
fiance might call off the match. 

As a gaijin (outsider), Davidson was 
keenly aware of how that status brought 
on feelings of both alienation and free- 
dom. Incapable of truly belonging to the 
community, Davidson found unanticipat- 
ed respite in being forced — and freed — to 
step away from her American-constructed 
self-identity. The confident college profes- 
sor transformed into a vulnerable newcom- 
er bumbling through a "mandatory" physi- 
cal exam. On another occasion, that 
esteemed scholar gleefully abandoned pro- 
fessional decorum during a downpour, kick- 
ing up her heels while belting out a lively 
version of "Singing in the Rain." 

Upon her return trips to the States, 
Davidson would make sporadic attempts to 
chronicle her growing love and respect for 
her adopted country. But each time she 
tried to capture the mood in words, the 
narrative came off as somehow untrue. 
These false starts, says Davidson, "were 
travelogue, objective in some sense, in 
that I was personally detached." 

The breakthrough came about by way of 
her writing group. With Duke English pro- 
fessors Jane Tompkins and Marianna Tor- 
govnick, and literature and Romance studies 
associate professor Alice Kaplan, Davidson 
meets regularly to discuss developing work. 
And the group wasn't buying the version of 
Japan that Davidson was trying to sell. 

By chance one week, Davidson dashed 
off a short story comparing a night she 
spent in a Chicago flophouse when she was 
sixteen to a night spent in a Japanese tem- 
ple. "Both experiences were the same," she 
recalls: the sensation of being in a room 
where she could hear the breathing of 
complete strangers around her, and realiz- 
ing that her own breath had fallen in with 
the steady, unified rhythm of everyone 
else. Initially disconcerting and yet, ulti- 
mately, reassuring, Davidson's account of 
the two evenings struck just the right tone. 

Upon hearing the "experimental piece," 
as Davidson calls it, the group was unani- 
mous in its reaction. "That," they said. 
"That's what your book is about." 

"But I don't want to write about the 
flophouse!" Davidson protested. 

"Write about the flophouse," they insisted. 

Noting that Davidson's command of 
Japanese was troublesome, that American 
literature, not the East, was her academic 

As a gaijin (outsider), 

Davidson was keenly 

aware of how that 

status brought on feelings 

of both alienation 

and freedom. 

specialty, and that she felt pulled ever 
more strongly to return to Japan, the writ- 
ing group was blunt in its directive. "There 
has to be some passionate reason you're 
attached to Japan," they said. "That's what 
we want to hear." 

Ordered to scrutinize the deep, personal 
reasons why Japan affected her so pro- 
foundly, Davidson found herself freed to 
write "a very powerful book that was about 
self-exploration, rather than simply a travel 
book." The group's encouragement proved 
pivotal; Davidson finished the book in 
about a year. 

Named for a series of woodblock prints 
by Katsushika Hokusai, 36 Views of Mount 
Fuji offers a succession of "snapshots" of 
Japan, rather than attempting to illustrate 
a comprehensive overview. Hokusai's series 
shows scenes of everyday life while Mount 
Fuji remains a constant, enigmatic pres- 
ence in the background. In those prints 
where the almost perfectly symmetrical, 
sacred mountain isn't apparent, the action is 
taking place on the mountain itself. This, 
writes Davidson in the book's preface, rein- 
forces "the basic Buddhist (and quintessen- 
tially Japanese) idea that the person closest 
to a subject or event can never really see it. 
Sometimes it is the person passing through 
and at a remove who has the clearest view." 

By injecting her own emotions and 
reflections into her writing, Davidson is 
among a growing circle of scholars who are 
finding favor among a broader audience. 
In 1992, she published The Book of Love: 
Writers and Their Love Letters (Pocket/ 
Simon and Shuster), in which she selected 
romantic correspondence from authors 
ranging from Marcus Aurelius to Federico 
Garcia Lorca to Lillian Hellman. The 
book's chapters chronicle the course of 
amorous entanglements, opening with 
"Falling In Love," tracing the seemingly 
inevitable disappointments and betrayals, 
and ending with "Falling In Love Again." 

On the other hand, Davidson maintains 
a rigorous scholarly pace. She is president 
of the American Studies Association and 
has served as editor of American Literature 
since 1991. She's published dozens of books, 

anthologies, and reviews, and lectured ex- 
tensively in the United States, Canada, 
England, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, 
and Japan. Not to mention numerous 
awards and honors, including a Rockefeller 
Foundation Bellagio Study Center resi- 
dence and an upcoming Times Mirror 
Foundation visiting chair at the Hunting- 
ton Library. 

Having the best of both worlds, says 
Davidson, keeps her work fresh and her 
life interesting. "Many academics have no 
idea that I wrote 36 Views and The Book of 
Love. And the rest of the world didn't 
know about Revolution and the Word: The 
Rise of the Novel in America, which got 
ample attention in this country and inter- 
nationally within the academic communi- 
ty. So it's fun. It's like having two identi- 
ties I can slip in and out of." 

Some critics don't like the idea of per- 
sonal narratives creeping into the tradi- 
tional canon of literature. When Duke's 
English department found itself at the cen- 
ter of what's come to be known as the 
"multiculturalism debate" over which texts 
should be taught to students, Davidson 
spoke out in favor of taking a broad view of 
literature. In letters to The New York Times 
and other papers, and in op-ed pieces, 
Davidson refuted the notion that there is 
only one valid literary, historical record. 

Resistance to studying non-traditional 
authors, says Davidson, is nothing new. 
"People criticized 'multiculturalism' in 1790, 
they criticized it in 1890, and they criticized 
it in 1990. 1 just don't believe it will end." 

Within higher education, she notes, ex- 
ploring overlapping influences has in- 
vigorated the way people look at history. At 
a recent conference she attended, Davidson 
heard a visiting scholar present a paper 
about Shakespeare that included Karl Marx 
and slave songs. "Marx would take his fami- 
ly to Hampstead Heath, where they would 
read and act out favorite scenes from 
Shakespeare, and on the way they'd be 
singing African-American spirituals," she 
says. "And at the same time, I'm teaching 
how W.E.B. DuBois juxtaposes African- 
American spirituals with canonical, elite, 
white European, mostly male poets. This is 
all part of nineteenth-century culture." 

In one of her spring semester classes, 
Davidson has her students researching 
archival material at Duke to determine 
what nineteenth-century culture was like. 
"They're discovering the connections and 
complexities of culture at a given time," 
she says. "I think the so-called multicultur- 
alism seems more threatening if you're out- 
side the academy than if you're in it. If 
you're in it, it can feel very rich, intellec- 
tually rigorous, and exciting." 

Clearly, exploring interconnected themes 
fuels Davidson's curiosity. Most recently, 


this focus has turned to photography. Pho- 
tographs of the Dead looks at "the spiritual 
and psychological dimensions of photogra- 
phy, arguing that since the 1839 invention 
of the daguerreotype, we have become 
a profoundly photocentric culture," says 
Davidson. Using texts by such authors as 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, John Dos Passos, and 
Don DeLillo, as well as cultural comparisons 
of how photographs are used to preserve 
memory, Davidson is crafting another multi- 
dimensional, hard-to-categorize text. 

And farther down the road, Davidson 
will use this current fascination with pho- 
tography to make an actual — and symbol- 
ic — return to Japan's spiritual center. Still 
in the planning stage, Davidson intends to 
write a book, tentatively titled Peak Expe- 
riences: The Sacred Life of Mountains. She'll 
research ancient hallowed crests from New 
Mexico to Nepal. "I love to travel, so this 
book will get me around the world to con- 
duct oral history and research," she says. 

Then, after a brief pause, she switches 
gears again, and the academic becomes the 
adventurer. "Of course, Mount Fuji will be 
one of the mountains," she says, smiling. 
"And at some point in writing the book, I'm 
going to have to climb Mount Fuji." ■ 


Over the years I've run 
into several gaijin who 
have lived in Japan a 
decade or two and still haven't 
learned the language. I find 
this incomprehensible, repug- 
nant. I am judgmental. 

After three trips to Japan, I 
still do not know Japanese and 
it's harder for me to criticize. 

"You must speak Japanese 
very well," people inevitably say. 

"Hazukashii!" I think in- 
stantly, burning with shame. 

At the same time, I reluc- 
tantly admit to myself, I feel 
the seduction of subliteral 
peace. I am not good at lan- 
guage learning, but I'm confi- 
dent in my abilities to read 
situations where there are no 
words. One part of me likes not 
knowing Japanese. There is a 
freedom in not-knowing, a 
selectivity in foreignness. I 
wonder, sometimes, if its 
silence is part of what makes 
Japan precious to me. 

"I understand exacdy what 
you mean," says a friend, a 
volunteer at a local hospital, 
when I try to explain how not 
knowing Japanese sometimes 
makes me more intuitive, 
more observant and feeling. 
"It's like when I play guitar for 
the Alzheimer's patients. 

There's a level of communica- 
tion beyond mere words." 

As our son Charles once 
remarked, in Japan every con- 
versation seemed meaningful. 
Being without language forced 
a kind of meditativeness, an 
inwardness, a dependence on 
one's innermost resources. If 
one took the time to unravel 
and translate, even the most 
mundane conversation 
became an accomplishment, a 
reward in itself no matter what 
its content. But most times, 
one simply tuned it out. The 
constant chatter on subway 
platforms and restaurants — 
distracting back in America — 
was in Japan a sublingual hum. 
Ads were aimed only at others. 
Humanity seemed smiling, 
benign, quiet. Or simply irrele- 
vant. When communication 
did happen, it was a small mir- 
acle — precious, pristine. 

I cherish nonverbal commu- 
nication, but there's a big dif- 
ference between not needing 
to say anything in certain spe- 
cial situations — and not being 
able to say it. I want to be able 
to speak on Oki. I want to see 
Suzuki-san again and ask her 
about her life there, its isola- 
tion, about how she is able to 
keep her buoyancy and poise. 

Japan makes me want to 
communicate. The first year I 
was there, I worked at it, trav- 
eling with a dictionary, a 
phrase book, my flashcards 
and notebook, wherever I 
went. By the end of the year, I 
could understand most of what 
people said to me. 
Frustratingly, I could say 
almost nothing back, except an 
all-purpose, barely grammati- 
cal "Wakarimasu." The expres- 
sion is apt. It means "compre- 
hension," in the sense of "I 
understand." But it's also often 
used simply as a way of fore- 
stalling further conversation 
("I hear you talking; that's not 
saying I understand; in fact, 
I don't really understand; 
let's move on, Wakarimasul 
"Wakarimasu!"). When 
people spoke to me in Japan, 
I answered with a bow, 
"Wakarimasu," aware of the 

i 36 Views of Mount 
Fuji by Cathy Davidson. Copy- 
right © Cathy N. Davidson, 
1993. Reprinted by arrange- 
ment with Dutton Signet, a divi- 
sion of Penguin USA Inc. 

iarch-April I 994 



This is a story about the end of 
innocence , the importance of 
memory, and the power of love. 
This is a story about our class' 
mates, some dead from AIDS, 
others living with the disease, 
some tending to a family member 
or loved one, others fighting to find 
the cure, report the news, or 
increase federal funding. This is 
a story about telling stories so that 
we do not forget . 


A year ago this magazine set out 
to tell the life stories of those in 
the Duke community affected 
by AIDS. While the precise 
number of students, faculty, staff, and alum- 
ni who had fallen victim to the virus called 
HIV remains unknown, the "Class Notes" 
section provided the first clues — in brutal 

'71 on November 14, 
1983, of Kaposi's sarcoma; A. Brad Truax 
'68 on November 29, 1988, of complica- 
tions related to AIDS; Richard Nyquist 
Jr. '85 on January 9, 1990, of complica- 
tions from AIDS; Clark Thompson '65 
in January 1990, of AIDS; Paul Sher- 
man '81 on August 24, 1991, of AIDS; 
Christopher R. Naylor '78 on April 6, 
1992, of AIDS; Nat Blevins Jr. '75 on 
October 19, 1992, of AIDS. 

And there amid the somber parade of 
death notices, my friend Kevin Patterson 
77, dead in March 1988 of complications 
from AIDS at his home in New York. 

Bill Valentine '71, diagnosed with 
AIDS in 1985, was the first to respond to 
the magazine's request for people to come 

forward. Over lunch, the psychology major 
turned social worker explained why: 

I chose to talk with you because I imagine 
there's a number of alumni who may not 
know anyone with AIDS; there may be some 
who don't know gay people. While I don't see 
AIDS as a gay disease, I think there are a lot 
of stereotypes about gay people and about 
people with AIDS. If I could disturb some of 
those stereotypes, if I could put a human face 
on it to some people, I would like to do that. 
Many people with AIDS have suffered dis- 
crimination and ostracism. It's such a sad 
thing to see that happen. There are even 
some communities that have cast out people 
with AIDS and children with AIDS. To me, 
that flies in the face of what it means to be an 

Then, speaking from the darkness of his 
own heart, Valentine explained how in ten 
years he had buried all of his friends, save 
one. "It's strange," he says, his eyes blank 
from grief, "to be facing a terminal illness 
of your own and have all of these people 

My generation did not come of age 
expecting to find death in our midst. We 
were unprepared, untested, unsure. John 
Barnhill '81 lost his lifelong best friend, 
Larz F. Anderson II, nearly two years ago. 
"I miss him terribly," he says. "I had 
known him since we were twelve, and we 
were close for the next twenty years. 
While I have had lots of other friends, I 
most frequently discussed the big issues 
with him. Conversations with my friends 
or his friends just don't recreate the com- 
plex of tension and humor and acceptance 
and familiarity that I had with him. The 
most surprising thing I've noticed since 
Larz's death is that it feels like part of my 
own brain died." 

We have also been afraid to talk about 
this disease, loaded with its associations 
with sex, homosexuality, and drug use. This 
fall, I found this message on my answering 
machine: "You don't know me, but we went 
to Duke together. I'd like to talk to you 
when I visit San Francisco." Click. One day 
several weeks later, Eric (not his real name) 
called again asking to have lunch. Before I 
placed the linen napkin on my lap, he 
began to tell me what no one else knows: 
"My lover is dying from AIDS. I'm HIV- 
positive. Yesterday, I just broke down on 
the street. I couldn't stop crying. And this 
wasn't the first time. I'm scared." 

Not long after, I received a letter from a 
Duke graduate, a young woman who chose 
to remain anonymous. Her husband was 
infected and his doctor had advised them to 
be careful about revealing his HIV status. 
Now their friends and family are unaware, 
at a time when they are needed most. This 
is what is meant by life in the closet. 

I, too, once lived in the closet. For me, 
it was a first floor room in Kilgo Quad. 
And it was there — surreptitiously, simulta- 
neously full of dread and excitement — I 
first kissed a man, first made love to a 
man. When I saw the letter from Bob 
Kolin 78, my eyes jumped back from the 
page, refusing to read what followed. Bob 
was my first lover. Although we hadn't 
spoken in more than fifteen years, I did 
not want to learn that HIV was a part of 
Bob's life. For Bob represented all the pas- 
sions, possibilities, and precious innocence 
of my youth. During our conversation, it 
quickly became apparent that the Age of 
Innocence, once outs, had been overtaken 
by AIDS. Now a licensed massage thera- 
pist, Bob talked about his life since Duke, 
but really he spoke of a more universal 
experience — with lessons beyond AIDS: 

There have been lots of periods of anger over 
losing friends, over the unfairness of having 
to deal with death and dying at this point in 
our lives. When you're twenty or thirty, 
you're not supposed to be worrying about your 
contemporaries dying. I've been very angry 
about that, and depressed and withdrawn. 
The innocent life we knew has died off. It 
took me going through denial, anger, depres- 
sion, and bargaining before I got to a period 
of acceptance in the community and time we 
live in. I've chosen to get involved in taking 
better care of my physical and emotional 
health and have learned how to have real 
relationships with people, as opposed to 
superficial ones. 

In this respect, the Age of AIDS has been a 
positive influence because it really forced me, as 
I think it did a lot of people, to grow up. To pos- 
itively affect the quality of the day is no small 
achievement. That's how I feel when I work with 
my clients who have HIV. They give me a hug 
as they're leaving and tell me how much better 
they feel than when they came in. I now know 
I am doing something worthwhile. I've learned 
to give and accept love. 

Seth D. Krauss '92 is currently a law 
student at Washington University 
School of Law in St. Louis, "prayer- 
fully hoping" for his degree in the spring of 
1995. As a senior, he was elected to a three- 
year term as a Duke "young trustee." He 
wrote the following lettet to members of the 
administration after learning that his best 
friend — a fellow Duke undergraduate — had 
contracted AIDS from her boyfriend. 

September 15, 1992 
In my quite emotional and biased opinion, 
Duke University is guilty of being an 
accomplice to the death of a member of 
the Class of 1992. 

On August 24, I received a telephone 
call from a close friend. We had spent the 
last four years together at Duke. I had in- 
troduced her to her first serious boyfriend. 

That morning I was about to begin law 
school. That phone call should have been 
my friend telling me how much her books 
cost or how she thought everyone else was 
so much smarter than she. Unfortunately, 
this phone call was not a festive one. It is a 
call which I shall never forget. 

"Seth?" All she said was my name, but I 
could hear it in the tone of her voice. It was 
the tone of voice you rue. Her next four 
words will resonate in my mind forever. 

"I am HIV-positive." 

My dear friend is HIV-positive. She will 
develop AIDS. She will die. 

I am mad at a world that has allowed 
"HIV" to become just another word in our 
vocabulary. However, I am also furious with 
myself; and, I am furious with you.... We 
should have opened our mouths. We should 
have made it our priority to prevent this 
tragedy. We must now make it our priority. 
We need mandatory health education class- 
es for all first-year students, an openly adver- 
tised and easily accessibly free HIV/AIDS 
testing program for all students, faculty, and 
staff, more condom machines, more counsel- 
ing and support staff for students and staff. . .. 
These are just a few of the possibilities. 

My rage has subsided, but my anger will 
not and cannot just fade away. Duke 
Univetsity claims 
to be an institution 
of higher educa- 
tion. We must now 
seize upon those 
ideals. If Duke does 
not act now, then 
we are truly guilty 
of fostering the ig- 
norance and the 
apathy which has 
fueled the Ameri- 
can health crisis 
and which has sen- 
tenced my friend 
to death. 

[Currently, the university's stude 
health education program sponsors more 
than a dozen HIV prevention and "safet 
sex" education services to students. These 
range from dorm presentations by trained 
counselors and guest speakers who discuss 
aspects of living with AIDS to offering 
condoms in vending machines and "supet- 
confidential" counseling and HIV testing. 

Despite increased outreach to undergrad- 
uates about the dangers of sexually transmit- 
ted diseases, including AIDS, students still 
think it's something that affects othet peo- 
ple. Health education coordinator Linda 
Carl says that part of her staffs challenge is 
to break through the attitude among young 
people that they'te invincible. 

"The evidence is overwhelming that 
students know how you contract HIV; 
they know how it's transmitted," she says. 
"But what doesn't change is their behav- 
ior. They feel that AIDS doesn't happen 
to people who go to Duke."] 



graduated from 

Duke in 1971 
with a major in psy- 
chology. Before he went 
on disability related 
to HIV in the mid- 
Eighties, he was direc- 
tor of social work Valentine: his senior 
at Stanford University picture in The Chanti- 
Hospital. He lives in cleer; top, with partner, 
San Francisco. 



As a social worker, I've been in the position 
to be able to help people — gay people, people 
with AIDS — differently than I might have 
been before I was diagnosed. Being in my 
position as a diagnosed person gave me 
another opportunity to contribute, which is 
consistent with what my career goals were. 
The biggest loss with all this was having to 
give up my career at a time when I was enjoy- 
ing a lot of success and deriving a lot of fulfill- 
ment in developing programs to address the 
needs of people afflicted with the major social 
problems of our 

When I was diag- 
nosed, my major 
fear was that I 
would end my life 
without feeling as 
if I had fully lived. 
Now, I don't have 
regrets about how 
I lived my life. 
Everything is out 
and open. Every 
day, anything and 
everything in my 
life is up for renego- 
tiation or re-evalu- 
ation. I have lived 
a life making deci- 
sions that were true 
to myself. It's been 
very important for 
:ontribution through 

Yes, I'd like to live until I'm seventy-five, 
but if I don't, I've really liked my life. I've 
been able to do things that are really impor- 
tant to me — wonderful things. I had a great 
education at Duke and U.C. Berkeley, and 
I've been recognized for my work. I don't 
think that a long life is necessarily a good 
life — although I would certainly prefer a long, 
good life. But life has taught me that you 
don't always get what you want and that you 
have to make the best with what you have. 

me to make the social 

1 wotk — and I've been able to do that. 


" N a t " 
Blevins Jr. 
was a lifelong 

activist for human 
rights, both at home 
in Durham, where 
he lived, and 
abroad. He was also 
a tenacious fighter 
for people living 
with HIV. He was 
perhaps best known 
in the Triangle for 
establishing a fam- 
ily-care house for 
AIDS patients in 
Dutham in the late 

1980s, the first such home between Wash- 
ington and Atlanta. Three months before 
his death in October 1992, the G. Nathaniel 
Blevins Jr. House for People Living with 
AIDS was renamed in his honor. 

The following diary item was written by 
Nat's friend Linda Belans. 

October 19, 1992. Home 

Nat Blevins was about a lot of things, but 
courage and compassion are perhaps the 
most relevant. They are what guided him 
when he came out as a gay man to his 
family and friends. In the process of re- 
defining his life, he meticulously tended to 

those he had, in a sense, left behind. And 
courage and compassion guided him right 
to the end, helping people he loved and 
who loved him find a way to be at peace 
with his imminent death. He taught us 
about living and about dying and about 
taking care of unfinished business. 

Nat thoughtfully, warmly, and humor- 
ously educated students, corporate execu- 
tives, Vietnam vet counselors — anyone 
whose ear he could grab — about the quali- 
ty of life, about safer sex, and about living 
with rathet than dying from AIDS. He 
singlehandedly opened heatts and minds 
and doors with his ideas about community 
responsibility to those in need. He loved 
and cherished the quality of his own life 
and simply wanted othets to have that 
same opportunity. It was their right, he 
would argue. 

And when Nat's quality of life began to 
drift out of his reach, he asserted his right 
to "leave." Peacefully, lovingly, coura- 
geously, and compassionately, and with a 
rightful anger at the disease that unneces- 
sarily claimed not only him, but the hun- 
dreds of friends he buried and those who 
still do battle. 

Down, down, down into the darkness of 

the grave 
Gently they go, the beautiful, the tender, 

the kind; 
Quietly they go, the intelligent, the witty, 

the btave. 
I know. But I do not approve. And I am 

not resigned. 

— Edna St. Vincent Millay 

Nat died gently tonight at age forty-two. 
His companion, A.G. Woods, was with him. 


■ ohn Barnhill '81 
^H first met Larz 
4^ Anderson II in 
the seventh grade at 
St. Marks School in 

Dallas. They were best friends 
for more than two decades. It 
was John who delivered the 
memorial service at Larz's 
funeral on August 28, 1992. 

The following text is ex- 
cerpted from Larz's memorial: 

Like many of the important 
decisions in Larz's life, he ap- 
proached his coming out with 
some tentativeness and anxiety. But once the 
decision was made, he didn't seem to worry 
about it. He and 1 first visited New York dur- 
ing college and he showed me around the 
city when I first moved here. We went to 
straight bars and to gay bars, talked of boy- 
friends and girlfriends, talked of money and 
breakups and restaurants. I find that much 
of my development is linked with his. 

The following quotation is from a novel 
by Rilke. One character says to another, "Ah, 
Make, we pass away like that, and it seems to 
me that people are all distracted and preoccu- 
pied and don't really pay attention when we 
pass away. As if a shooting star fell and no 
one saw it and no one made a wish. Never 
forget to make a wish, Make. One should 
never give up wishing." 

Larz was both a 
wisher and a planner. 
While he had his 
moments of sophisti- 
cated ennui, he was a 
hopeful person. He 
wished to travel and 
to have a comfortable 
apartment and to 
make some money.... 
He wanted to have 
friends whom he cared 
about and who cared 
about him, and he 
wanted love and he 
wanted a committed 
relationship. He found friends and he found Bill. 
Larz's family was also very important to 
him. He loved to share a kitchen with his 
mother and was proud to share his name with 
his father. His family rallied around him when 
he became ill, but it never occurred to any of 
us, and certainly not to Larz, that they would 
not do so. Losing him must be a terrible blow. 
While AIDS killed Larz and colored the 
past few years of his life, he remained es- 
sentially the same. His lists became more in- 
tricate and he occasionally became finicky or 
anxious, but he faced his illness with a won- 
derful matter-of-fact courage and faced it 
without bitterness or anger or denial. As his 
death became imminent and he became 
weaker and thinner, he became too tired for 
many visitors. But his humor remained intact 
and his eyes remained sharp. 

As I was trying to write this, I realized I felt 
very lonely. I talked to my friends and to Bill 
and that was helpful. I talked to his parents 
and to his sisters and brother, and saw his nose 
and mannerisms in each of them. But the 
loneliness didn't really abate. I realized that I 
wanted to talk with him. But he wasn't there. 

Anderson-) arrett: with 
brother Larz, above, and 
as children, opposite page; 
top, Larz's Tomato 

Cate Anderson- 
Jarrett is a 
1984 Trinity 
graduate. Larz Ander- 
son was her brother. 
Cate, her mother, 
and Larz's compan- 
ion, Bill, took care 
of Larz through his 
final days in the 
summer of 1992. 
Looking back, she 
realizes that his ill- 
ness "brought [them] 
closer than we'd 
ever been. But it 
was a bittersweet 
thing, because you're 
happy that you're 
close, but it made it 
that much harder that he was gone." 

My brother was the most thoughtful person — 
especially after he got sick. He was always 
more concerned with how people were going 
to feel after he was gone and remember 
him — but not in an egotistical sense. More 
than anything, he wanted to give us things to 
remember him with happy thoughts. The 
Christmas before he died, he put together a 
cookbook for the family and his closest 
friends. He just loved to cook and eat — 
especially tomatoes — and so spent weeks 
digging up his favorite tomato recipes, had 
them typeset and bound. He called it Lara's 
Tomato Cookbook. That Christmas everyone 
in my family got a copy. 

About a year after Larz died, I was plan- 
ning my wedding, trying to find a way to 
make Larz present — at least symbolically. I 
very much wanted to use the red ribbon as a 
symbol, but I also wanted to personalize it in 
some way. Two or three weeks before the 
wedding, Larz's companion, Bill, had a group 
of us over for dinner on the anniversary of 
his death. It was then that I decided that I 
wanted the men in the wedding party to 
wear a red ribbon with a tomato on it. I 
didn't know how people would react; all I 
really cared about was what Bill thought. He 
thought it was a great idea. 

And I knew Larz was there with me. 

Jasper J. Lawson 
A.M. 75, Ph.D. 
'80 is a psychol- 
ogist practicing in the 
Boston area. Much of 
his time is spent coun- 
seling people with 
AIDS and running 
HIV/AIDS education 
workshops. His lover, 
Neil Passariello, died 
from AIDS in 1990. 
They had been to- 
gether for six years. 

Lawson: with Neil, right, who died in 1990 

What was it like to meet Neil? That's sim- 
ple: He turned my life around entirely. After 
thirty-six odd years, I had finally met some- 
one who really clicked for me and, even 
though we were very different people, we had 
strong and passionate feelings about and for 
each other. And we were committed to each 
other in a way that neither of us had experi- 
enced with anyone else before. Before he got 
sick, we talked endlessly about the future; we 
had hoped to adopt children, even to work 
together. He was a psychologist, too. And 
then all our dreams evaporated when he fell 
ill and died. 

After his death, I can only say I felt a real 
sense of emptiness and loss. I basically had to 
rebuild my entire life. 

The following 
letter was sent 
to Duke Magazine. 
The writer's husband 
is infected with HIV. 
Both she and their 
two-year-old son are 

I am a Duke graduate. 
I feel I must remain 
anonymous. My hus- 
band was diagnosed 
as HIV-positive in 
May 1987. While I 
am not infected, our 
lives have changed 
dramatically since the day "John" shared his 
test results with me. Although we do not 
dwell on the fact that his life will probably be 
shorter than either of us imagined, the black 
cloud over us never goes away. 

After we learned my husband was infected, 
his doctor advised us to think carefully before 
telling anyone about John's condition. As a 
result, neither one of our families knows that 
John is infected. Most of our friends are 
unaware also. It's hard to believe but every 
time we are out we hear a derogatory com- 
ment or joke about AIDS. We've even heard 
them from our family and friends. My hus- 
band and I look at each other when we hear 
these comments. We are hurt by their words. 
I often wonder how the person would feel if 
he or she knew John is HIV-positive. 

the mid-1980s, believes he must remain in 
the shadows. As he sums up: "My fear is 
quite simple: I'm afraid of being rejected." 



arcus A. 
1'58, M.D. 
'61 is a clinical pro- 
fessor of dermatol- 
ogy at the Universi- 
ty of California 
Medical Center in 
San Francisco. He 
has treated 5,000 
patients with HIV/ 
AIDS since the be- 
ginning of the epi- 

What's it like to 
have treated so 
many people with 
HIV? In a word- 
great — as long as 
you can stay focused on what your role is. But 
if you make the mistake of believing that your 
role is to conquer the disease or to prolong 
the individual's life beyond some realistic 
point, then every time you lose a patient it 
represents failure. 

Your role should be to help people get 
through the disease with dignity, to make this 
experience as good as possible, to give them 
as many good days as you can — even if that's 
just another month — to help them under- 
stand what's happening to their body so they 
can make appropriate decisions. 

If you can stay focused on those issues, then 
it's empowering, because as you see the patient 
progress through the disease and lose the 
patient, you don't focus on your loss; you realize 
you were there when no one else would do it. 
That's what doctors are supposed to provide the 
patient — the strength to be there right up until 
the end. 

] ot everyone would speak to the 
magazine for attribution. Duke grad- 
uate student David Raine (a pseu- 
donym), who tested positive for HIV in 

I'm at Duke for profes- 
sional reasons and I 
just don't need to 
have someone, any- 
one besides me, wor- 
ried, concerned, or 
even looking at me in 
a funny way. I'm not 
going to wear a big 
label that shouts: "I'm 
HIV-positive." For one 
thing, I'm absolutely 
sure it would affect 
my job prospects. The 
other thing is, I don't 
want people coming 
up to me and saying 
things like, "Why are 
you in school if you 

know you're going to die in a couple of years?" 
All I could do would be to reply: "Do you think 
I'd be in school if I thought I was going to die?" 

When you're a person living with HIV and 
having to deal with it, you just don't need the 
anxiety of coming out about it, too. I think most 
of the people who make statements like, "If 
everyone came out, the world would be a differ- 
ent place," are people who don't have anything 
else to lose. They are either completely out of 
the HIV closet, or they don't have HIV and 
they don't understand what's going on. 

I don't think I'm going to die. I'm not pre- 
pared to die. I'm simply planning for my future 
and Duke's a great place to go to prepare for 
your future. 

ob Kolin 
from Duke in 
1978, majoring in 
political science. For 
three years, he re- 
ported for the Ra- 
leigh News & Ob- 
server and then ran 
his own public rela- 
tions firm. In the 
1980s, after watch- 
ing several friends 
die from AIDS, Bob 
says he "felt like I 
needed to do some- 
thing in the com- 
munity that I could 
be satisfied with." 
His choice? Massage 
therapy for people 
with AIDS. In 1992, 
Bob (who is not HIV-positive) met Keith 
Miller at an AIDS conference; they were 
"married" last year and now live together 
in the Triangle area. Keith has AIDS. 

Two years ago I got together with some other 
therapists and people who do healing 

i\uun. with partner Keith I 

Miller, above; administer' I 

ing massage therapy to a H 
patient, right 

work because we all 
wanted to do some- 
thing of value in the 

AIDS community. It was at that meeting that 
I met Keith, who revealed to the group that 
he had been living with HIV for eight years. 

After several professional meetings, Keith 
and I realized there was more going on than 
just work. We talked for a long time and 
made the decision to date; to be honest, this 
actually caused a fair amount of concern on 
my part. I had already decided to be involved 
with AIDS on a professional level, but to do 
so on a personal level was taking a whole 
other step. I did this because I thought Keith 
was the right person at the right time. I would 
like to think that if I were to come down with 
cancer next year, he wouldn't back off me. At 
the same time, I realize that while he has a 
life-threatening illness, it's not necessarily a 
fatal disease that's going to lead to a quick 
death. He's already shown through the work 
he's done in his life that he's able to live very 
well with the disease. 

Last year we decided to formalize our rela- 
tionship. As part of the March on Washing- 
ton for gay, lesbian, and bisexual rights last 
April, there was a massive wedding ceremony. 
We exchanged vows there. The following 
week we came back here and had a celebra- 
tion with about eighty 
of our friends — even 
my mother came up 
from Houston. Now 
we're living together. 

To tell you the 
truth, the fact that he 
went to Carolina gave 
me as much cause for 
concern as the fact 
that he has HIV. 

Lisa Krieger '77 
is the medical 
writer for the 
San Francisco Exam- 
iner. She has written 
about the epidemic 
for twelve years and 
is the author of 

S£ ft 

AIDS WEEK, the nation's only regular col- 
umn on the subject. Krieger, married with 
a five-year-old daughter, vows to stay with 
the story "until the end." 

As an AIDS reporter for the San Francisco 
Examiner, I have watched the epidemic 
evolve from a mysterious and largely ignored 
"gay-related immune disorder" to a plague 
that penetrated every aspect of our city. The 
majority of people here in San Francisco were 
infected between 1978 and 1981, well before 
the cause of the disease was known. Now, 
twelve years later, we are losing three people 
every day. 

My message is simple: We are running out 
of time. Here in San Francisco — hard hit very 
early on in the course of the epidemic — we are 
seeing a progressive and inexorable deteriora- 
tion of patients' immune systems. Without the 
sudden and extremely unlikely appearance of 
a "magic bullet" cure, I fear we will lose virtu- 
ally all of our HIV-infected populace. 

More than anything, I fear that the general 
public is losing interest in AIDS. Our early 
therapies have failed us. The search for an 
effective treatment is more complicated than 
once thought. And to make matters worse, 
the epidemic is moving into society's most 
disenfranchised population. 

Lunch break is over. M 

Petrow '78, who lives in San Francisco, has 
written three books about AIDS. The author and 
editors wish to thank everyone who contributed to 
this article, for attribution or background, 
anonymously and for the record. 

will shape and expand 

"AIDS Window/Silver HIV on White Blood Cells , " 7 7" x 3 ' 1 0" 
silkscreen ink on canvas, copyright ©1994 (^ Car! Tandatnick. 


Philip Cook is a professor in the 
departments of public policy studies, 
economics, and sociology. Known 
for his studies on handguns and crime, he 
was a resident expert in the Office of Poli- 
cy and Management Analysis of the U.S. 
Department of Justice's criminal division 
and a member of a National Research 
Council panel on violence. 

Has crime become worse, or is 
there only the perception ol 

There's no question that compared, for 
example, with the supposedly tumultuous 
period of the Sixties, we live in much 
more dangerous times. The homicide rate 
doubled between 1965 and 1975, and has 
remained high since then. 

Especially for the more minor crimes, 
victims don't believe that anything will be 
gained by spending a couple of hours mak- 
ing a police report. Sometimes victims 
don't report a crime because of fear of re- 
taliation. And a lot of violent crime in- 
volves gang members and drug dealers. 
When they become victims, obviously 
they're not going to come forward. But the 
homicide rate is measured quite accurately, 
and that serves as a benchmark for all 
types of serious violent crime. 

Given the hike in the younger 
population, is it inevitable that 
crime rates will continue to rise? 

That is the age group that is most in- 
volved as perpetrators and also as victims 
of crime. So it makes sense that when we 
have more of them — and particularly more 
who feel disconnected to the wider soci- 
ety — there's going to be more crime. 

Is it a good thing to try juvenile 

There's an irony in this approach. Stud- 
ies have shown that juveniles often end up 
getting a lighter sentence in an adult court 
than they would have from a juvenile 
court. Kids tried as adults often don't look 
like serious offenders, compared with all 

the other felons who are coming through 
the system. Of course, the murder defen- 
dants are the exception. 

How do you read the message 
from high-profile jury decisions 
like the Bobbit and Menendez 

I find the decisions rather remarkable, 
especially in the case of the Menendez 
brothers, who were able to escape murder 
charges, at least for the time being. The 
argument in these cases seems to be that 
somehow the victims had it coming to 
them. That's the ethic of a television 
Western, not a principle of law. To the 
extent that it's viewed as acceptable to kill 
or maim people who are in some way 
objectionable, we are in for a savage time. 

Why is it that crime is going up 
despite added prison space? 

It's not surprising that we have had high 
crime and high prison construction going 
on at the same time; that doesn't prove 
anything about the power or the failure of 
a deterrent effect, since we don't have any 
good control group for this "experiment." 
From everything we know about human 
nature and judgment, however, we can 
make some guesses about the best use of 
the available prison capacity. Increasing 
the likelihood that a felon will serve some 
time in prison is probably a more effective 
deterrent than locking up a relatively few 
for very long sentences. 

So what's to be expected from 
more severe sentencing? 

In North Carolina, the governor wants 
life in prison without parole for first-degree 
murder cases. The result is that decades 
from now there will be some people still in 
prison who otherwise would have been 
released. And over the long haul, we'll 
have an increasingly geriatric prison popu- 
lation. Violent crime is by and large a 
young man's sport; as people become older, 
they're unlikely to commit violent crime. 
And it's unlikely to have any deterrent 
value to say, "Well, before we were threat- 
ening you with twenty years in prison, 

now we're threatening you with forty years 
in prison." That won't make much differ- 
ence to a twenty-five-year-old. 

Does the solution to crime rest 
with early-intervention 

In the area of prevention, we should 
recognize that we're in a learning phase. It 
seems clear that if you give people the 
appropriate schooling, family life, and 
preparation for work, you could prevent 
them from being caught up in a life of 
crime. But at the moment, we don't have 
government programs of demonstrated 
effectiveness. Even Head Start, which may 
be successful to some degree, is controver- 
sial. If you look at the programs designed 
to reach adolescents, typically the evalua- 
tions find no effect on subsequent criminal 

debate on legalizing drugs? 

Very much so. It's quite likely that legal- 
izing drugs would reduce the crime rate, 
especially the rate of lethal violence. On 
the other hand, drug abuse would probably 
become more prevalent if we stripped away 
the legal consequences. This is a harsh 
trade-off, but one we need to face up to. 

How much credence do you give 
the president's proposal to add 
to city police forces? 

Common sense says that if you have 
greater police deployment, the police can 
do their job more effectively and it will 
have some deterrent value. But that 
depends on what the police are doing. If 
they're sitting behind desks, processing 
papers, then maybe not. If they're employed 
in effective community-based policing, 
they can accomplish something. 

Would banning handguns have a 
positive effect on the crime rate? 

Guns don't have much relationship to 
the volume of crime. I did a study back in 
the Seventies that compared the robbery 
rates of the largest cities. The city at that 
time that had the highest robbery rate was 
Boston, which had a very low gun owner- 
ship rate. What's fair to say about guns is 
that they intensify violent crime. Any 
given robbery or assault is much more like- 
Continued on page 49 




Plan it and they will come. The Duke 
Alumni Association's first major 
foray into "alumni colleges," lifelong 
learning opportunities for alumni, has gar- 
nered quite a following. "Last year's 'The 
Search for Meaning' in Williamsburg was 
sold out," says Deborah Weiss Fowlkes '78, 
Alumni Affairs' director of alumni lifelong 
education. "So was 'Rising Seas and Shift- 
ing Shores' at the Duke Marine Lab and 
'The Arts of the Southwest' in New Mexi- 
co. It's become apparent that alumni want 
this type of innovative programming." 

The new schedule offers some popular 
repeats of past colleges, one with a new 
locale. "The Search for Meaning," April 22- 
24, will be held in Monterey, California. Says 
Fowlkes, "We wanted 
to offer a program to 
our West Coast alum- 
ni, who don't have 
the chance to return 
to Duke as often. And 
the timing was right." 
The book The Search 
for Meaning, by Mag- 
dalena and Thomas 
Naylor and Duke 
Dean of the Chapel 
William Willimon, 
was published in 
March by Abingdon 

Charleston's Spo- 
leto Festival U.S.A., 
May 27-30, was a bi- 
ennial favorite when 
it was part of Duke 
Travel. However, says 
Fowlkes, "This is the 
first time that facul- _ 
ty member Lorenzo 
Muti, who conducted 
at Spoleto Festival '93 and is a native of 
Spoleto, Italy, will be the study leader." 
Muti is a professor in Duke's music depart- 
ment and has conducted the Duke Sym- 
phony Orchestra for more than a decade. 
Even though founder Gian Carlo Menotti 

is no longer in charge of Spoleto Festival 
U.S.A., the city of Charleston, according 
to Fowlkes, promises that this year's will be 
the best yet. "Spoleto will be, as always, a 
first-class showcase of the arts." 

Alumni are invited for the second time 
to explore the Southwest, July 24-31, with 
an alumni college in Santa Fe and Taos, 
New Mexico. That program includes an 
optional three-day extension to visit 
ancient cliff dwellings in Chaco Canyon 
and Mesa Verde. Duke historian Peter 
Wood, who specializes in Native Ameri- 
can cultures and archaeology, will be the 
faculty study leader. Two highlights are 
Santa Fe's annual Spanish market, the old- 
est and largest market of authentic His- 
panic folk artists working in traditional 
arts and crafts, and the annual Santa Ana 
Feast Day at Santa Ana Pueblo, featuring 
ceremonial dancing by the Turquoise and 

Charleston charm: Spoleto Festival USA promises "first-class showcase of the arts 

Squash clans. "To be in New Mexico for 
these two special events is a rare opportu- 
nity," says Fowlkes. 

A new venture, "Digging the Past: Exca- 
vations at Sepphoris," June 2-17, lets alum- 
ni take an active part in an archaeological 

dig in Israel, with weekends for visiting 
Jerusalem and Galilee. The Duke faculty 
team of religion professors Carol and Eric 
Meyers will offer their leadership and 

The first "Oxford Experience," a two- 
week study program at England's Oxford 
University, was so popular that Fowlkes 
has scheduled another for September 4-17. 
"It's an amazing experience to be a part of 
Oxford," she says, "to be steeped in a cen- 
turies-old tradition of scholarship. Last 
year's participants praised the mix of class- 
es, field trips, and social activities." 

Another fall adventure in the planning 
stages is "Exotic Ecosystems: Life in the 
Tropics." This eleven-day program, based in 
Costa Rica, is being planned with the Orga- 
nization for Tropical Studies. Duke is the 
North American headquarters for the in- 
ternational consortium of fifty universities. 
The Alumni Life- 
long Education pro- 
gram is taking to the 
road to bring educa- 
tional ventures to 
major cities with 
Duke Seminars. This 
year's Alumni Dis- 
tinguished Faculty 
Seminar features his- 
tory professor Alex 
| Roland on "How to 
I Survive in a Danger- 
% ous World" and engi- 
1 neering professor 
| George Pearsall on 
1 "Life is Risky Busi- 
l ness." Roland will be 
| in New Orleans, Mo- 
| bile, northern New 
i Jersey, and northern 
6 Connecticut in April 
I and May. Pearsall 
§ will be in Atlanta 
and Cleveland. Says 
Fowlkes, "We want 
alumni in the area to reconnect with Duke 
through interaction with outstanding Duke 
faculty. And we're keeping the price as low 
as possible to make these seminars available 
to as many people as possible." Area alumni 
will be notified of dates and times by mail. 

larch-April 1994 


Another seminar, "Painting the Maya 
Universe," will be held in conjunction 
with a national touring exhibit of richly 
colored and intricately designed ceramics 
from the ancient Mayan civilization. The 
seminar's host is Dorie Reents-Budet. The 
exhibit is based upon the lifetime work of 
Reents-Budet, associate curator of pre- 
Columbian art at the Duke Art Museum, 
where the three-month exhibit closed in 
March. Duke Seminars, which include lec- 
tures and tours of the exhibit, are sched- 
uled for the Boston Museum of Fine Art in 
mid- April and the Denver Museum of Art 
in early August. Regional alumni are to be 
notified by mail. 

The exhibit will also be traveling to the 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 
October and the Yale University Art 
Gallery in February 1995. 

"This is a rare chance to see royal ceram- 
ics of the Classic period, 550 through 850 
A.D., the South American equivalent of 
Greek vase paintings," says Fowlkes. She 
says future programming may include tour- 
ing Mayan sites in South America with 


Planning for fall reunions began in 
January for alumni volunteers who 
have taken on the task of organizing 
their classes' events. Reunions were merged 
into two instead of three weekends last year. 
"People like the increased activity available 
on two weekends," says Lisa 
Dilts '83, Alumni 
Affairs reunions 
director. "There's 
a more festive air 
to reunions when 
there's a broader 
mix of classmates 
and class years. 
People get a chance 
to visit." 

Returning to cam- 
pus September 23-25 
are the classes of 1944, 
1949, 1954, 1959, 1964, 
and the Half Century 
Club. October 21-23 is 
reserved for reunions of 
the classes of 1969, 
1974, 1979, 1984, and 
1989. Both weekends open 
with the traditional lun- 
cheon on the lawn of the 
Alumni House, where there 
are registration tables, in- 
formation, and a home base for meeting 
classmates. Alumni Affairs sponsors a vari- 

ety of tours, from Duke's renowned Pri- 
mate Center to the Duke Chapel's stained 
glass windows. Alumni in reunion classes 
will receive their registration packets in 

This year marks the first time in recent 
history that a football game will not be 
part of reunion activities. Because of a 
change in the way ACC football games are 
scheduled, this year's reunions do not fall 
on home game weekends. In the past, 
game dates and times were set years in 
advance, enabling Alumni Affairs and 
other offices to plan events around games. 
Recently, the ACC determined that wait- 
ing until December for scheduling, nine 
months before the season starts, will 
increase television time — and television 
dollars — for each school in the conference. 
"We'll certainly miss the football game," 
says Ann Heimberger '92, reunions coordi- 
nator in the alumni office, "but the real 
reason alumni come back to campus — to 
renew old friendships and reacquaint 
themselves with our changing campus — is 
still intact." 

Returning alumni can also be students 
again through the Duke Directions pro- 
gram. For the first time since its inception 
in 1990, the popular academic mini-col- 
lege will begin on Friday of the reunion 
weekend, instead of Thursday, in order to 
make it more accessible to all reunion par- 
ticipants. Alumni can choose from a vari- 
ety of classes and seminars with Duke's top 
professors. "Those of us who have left 
Duke miss this," wrote a past Duke Direc- 
tions participant. "I was not 
disappointed. It was great!" 
Alumni who would like 
to get involved in plan- 
ning their reunion can 
call the Alumni House at 
(800) FOR-DUKE to vol- 
unteer. And those who 
would like to help with 
the class gift drive can 
call the Annual Fund of- 
fice at (919) 684-4419. 
Reunion leaders for 
1994 are: 

• Class of 1944, 
Anne Fountain 
McMahon, planning 
chair; and James R. 
Brigham, gift chair; 
• Class of 1949, 
Martie Krayer John- 
son, class president 
and planning co- 
chair; Gene Mor- 
gan Winders, planning co- 
chair; and Welsford F. Bishopric, gift chair; 
• Cldss of 1954, Dorothy Staub Caudle, 
class president and planning co-chair; 
Mary Bryson Dickinson, planning co- 

chair; and James C. Geoghegan, gift chair; 

• Class of 1959, John E. Hansen, class 
president and planning co-chair; George F. 
Dutrow, planning co-chair; and Rolf H. 
Towe, gift chair; 

• Class of 1964, Jeff Mullins, planning 
chair; James R. Ladd and Stuart U. Buice, 
gift co-chairs; 

• Class of 1969, Sally Miller Bugg, plan- 
ning co-chair; Rebecca K. Johnson, plan- 
ning co-chair; and Alice Blackmore Hicks, 
gift chair; 

• Class of 1974, Karen Cato Doran, 
class president and planning chair; and 
Joanne L. Mazurki, gift chair; 

• Class of 1979, J. Edward Turlington, 
class president and planning chair; and 
James E. Love III, gift chair; 

• Class of 1984, Miriam A. Dixon, 
planning chair; Mary Ellen Grossnickle 
and Howard A. Burde, gift co-chairs; 

• Class of 1989, Brian Dilsheimer, class 
president and planning co-chair; Elizabeth 
N. Tolbert, planning co-chair; and Julie 
M. Mackle and Katherine B. Maynard, gift 


annerl O. Keohane, Duke's new 
president, is visiting ten major U.S. 
cities the first half of this year to 
speak at alumni receptions and meet with 
Duke leadership at Development Council 
and Executive Leadership Board meetings. 
So far, the response has been effusive. 

Keohane spoke to nearly 500 alumni 
attending a reception January 24 at the 
Waldorf Astoria Hotel. Duke University 
Metropolitan Alumni Association presi- 
dent Pat Dempsey '80 welcomed the presi- 
dent to her first national gathering and 
introduced the event's underwriting spon- 
sors: Merilee Huser Bostock '62 and Roy 
W. Bostock '62, Betty Lu Albert Grune 
'51 and George V. Grune '51, Maria Esper- 
anza-Hernandez and Michael D. Hernan- 
dez '68, Brenda Lagrange Johnson '61 and 
J. Howard Johnson, Alan D. Schwartz '72, 
Anita and John A. Schwarz '52, and Carl 
von der Heyden '62. Duke trustee George 
Grune introduced President Keohane. 

Then it was off to the Windy City for a 
January 27 reception at Chicago's Four 
Seasons Hotel. Despite the weather, 200 
attended. Duke Club of Chicago president 
Alex Geier '85 shared the podium with 
Carol Anspach "Cookie" Kohn '60, who 
introduced the sponsors: Edward S. Don- 
nell '41 and Rose Kueffner Donnell '41, 
Robert Heidrick '63, Henry Kohn, Louel- 
len and Timothy M. Murray '74, Susan 
and Douglass F. Rohrman '63, Richard and 



Barbara Albers Rinella '65, and Lisbeth 
and Jules Stiffel '55. Tim Murray intro- 
duced President Keohane. 

Washington, D.C., alumni and friends — 
600 strong — welcomed Keohane at the May- 
flower Hotel on February 7. Joan Mader 
Hilton '52, the Duke Club of Washing- 
ton's president, welcomed alumni and 
guests. Trustee chair John Chandler '52, 
Ph.D. '54 introduced President Keohane. 
Sponsors for the event were Ellen Cates 
Adams '62 and Rex Adams '62, Janet and 
Calvin Hill, Florence and John Chandler, 
Linda and John Derrick '61, Patricia and 
John Koskinen '61, and Judy Woodruff '68. 

The rest of Keohane's itinerary calls for 
her to speak to alumni at receptions in 
Miami Beach on March 1 and Palm Beach 
on March 3, in Atlanta on April 5, in 
Boston on April 27, in Los Angeles on 
May 12 and San Francisco on May 13, in 
Dallas on June 13, and in Philadelphia on 
June 28. Alumni, parents of current stu- 
dents, and friends of the university in 
those cities will be notified by mail of 
times and places. 


It's never too early to begin the process 
of selecting the right college for your 
children," says Edith Sprunt Toms '62, 
Alumni Affairs assistant director, who over- 
sees the alumni admissions program. On 
June 24 she's offering the fifth annual 
Alumni Admissions Forum, a conference for 
prospective college-goers and their parents 
to provide "practical and concrete informa- 
tion, from the generic to the specific." 

The day-long seminar, which costs $95 
per family, will begin June 24 at 8 a.m. 
with a continental breakfast and conclude 
at 5 p.m. Participants will learn how to 
choose a college, what is expected when 
applying, and when and how to start the 
process. "Duke is the only university to 
my knowledge," says Toms, "that offers 
broad-ranging guidance to its alumni fam- 

Guest panelists are Carl Bewig, director 
of college counseling at Phillips Academy 
in Andover, Massachusetts; Sarah 
McGinty, a teacher, writer, and admis- 
sions consultant in Boston; and Katherine 
Jorgensen, director of college guidance at 
John T. Hoggard High School in Wilm- 
ington, North Carolina. "Our expert fac- 
ulty includes two veterans of past 
forums," says Toms. "Last year's question- 
and-answer session with the panel was 
lively and informative, according to all 
evaluations we received." 

Duke representatives sharing their in- 

dent affairs and 
dean of student 
development, will 
provide a panel of 
Duke under- 

graduates who will 
give their perspec- 
tives on campus life. 
The forum's mail- 
ing list is determined 
by the alumni records 
of alumni parents 
who have provided 
their children's birth 
dates. Rising ninth-, 
tenth-, eleventh-, and 
twelfth-grade stu- 
dents on file will be 
invited. Participation 

ill h 

Contemplating college: students and parents alike learn about the process 

sights are admissions director Christoph 
Guttentag and financial aid director James 
Belvin. Sue Wasiolek '76, M.H.A. '78, 
LL.M. '93, assistant vice president for stu- 

ave no ertect 
upon a student's 
candidacy for admis- 
sion to Duke. 
For information on this summer's 
forum, write Edith Sprunt Toms, Alumni 
Admissions Forum, Alumni House, Box 
90576, Durham, N.C. 27708-0576. 

Welcome to 
Summer Session 1994! 

May 12 
June 27 

June 24 
August 6 

^We>offer courses in over 50 departments, in subjects ranging from African & African- 
Amerifcan Studies to Zoology: 

Evening courses (in the following depts.): 

Asian & African literature; biology; drama; English; history; literature; 
management sciences; psychology; religion; sociology; university 
writing course; women's studies 

• Substantial savings over the academic-year rate 

• A special opportunity for non-Duke students to experience the intellectual 
and residential life of Duke University 

• A quick, no-hassle registration process 

Also Available: 

Duke Summer Institute in English Language and U.S. Culture: an intensive noncredit 
English program for international students and visitors (July 6-August 6) 

Languages for Reading Purposes: noncredit courses for graduate students and 
researchers who need to satisfy reading knowledge requirements in choice of sixforeign 
languages (May 12-July 8) 

For more information and materials: 

CALL (919) 684-2621 ; FAX (919) 681-8235; Or VISIT: 

The Office of Continuing Education and University Summer Programs 

The Bishop's House on Duke's East Campus 

March-April 1994 


At 12:30 on a warm July afternoon, 
A. Everette James Jr., radiologist 
and art collecto.r extraordinaire, 
placed his $1,000 wager. Walking through 
a Washington, D.C., art gallery with 
friends, James M.D. '63 bet he could venture 
into the city's urban neighbor- 
hoods and find at least three 
museum-quality folk artists by 
five that afternoon. The 
wager accepted, he rushed to 
his car to begin his search. 

"Within thirty-five minutes, 
I had the first one. Within 
three hours, I had four," he 
says. "You can ride down the 
road anywhere and usually 
find someone's creation stand- 
ing in their front yard." 

For James, a senior policy 
adviser at the Institute of Med- 
icine in Washington, D.C., 
such discoveries are not un- 
usual. Driven by a love of art 
and an unquenchable intel- 
lectual curiosity, he has traveled 
from the Mississippi Delta to 
the savannahs of Africa col- 
lecting art and conducting sci- 
entific expeditions. 

Most of his adventures have 
come while working as a con- 
sultant for the Smithsonian In- 
stitution and its various muse- 
ums and zoos. His first contact 
with the Institution came in 
the early Seventies while 
James was the director of radi- 
ological research at Johns 
Hopkins. Smithsonian cura- 
tors wanted to make radi- 
ographs, or X-rays, of some of 
their paintings in the hope 
that they might learn more 
about the works before attempting to re- 
store them. 

At first, James says, he was skeptical, but 
he found that radiographs could reveal a 
great deal about the conditions of paint- 
ings. "I discovered that we could answer a 
million questions by making radiographs. 
We could tell if the surface on which the 
paint has been placed had deteriorated. 

And whether or not they would someday 
find their pigment layer on the floor 
because the cleaning lady accidentally 
bumped the frame." 

Radiographing a painting is little differ- 
ent from radiographing a human. James 
simply places the object under the 
machine and shoots the film. Like muscles 
and bones, pigment and the material on 
which it rests absorb X-rays in different 

ways. The absorption of the X-rays also 
varies depending on the age of the paint 
that may have been applied to the piece. 
This realization enabled James to move 
from assisting the museum staff in restor- 
ing their paintings to helping them detect 
forgeries. "If the materials used in the 
painting were introduced in 1940 and the 
artist died in 1930," says James, "then it 

The collector: "You can ride down the 
road and usually find someone's 'cre- 
ation' in their front yard," says]ames, 
at left, amid folk art iry Charlie Lucas 
in Pink Lilly, Alabama; above, St. 
James Place, a Primitive Baptist church 
converted to a folk art museum in 
Robersonville, North Carolina 

would have been a little diffi- 
cult for him to have painted it." 
Throughout his career, James' 
affiliation with the Smithson- 
ian has deepened. Under the 
auspices of its natural history 
department and the National 
Zoological Parks, he has led ef- 
forts to radiograph a group of en- 
dangered golden lion tamarins, 
a primate native to South 
America, and has radiographed 
the mummy collection of the 
Egyptian National Museum in 

While James was assisting in 
the restoration of paintings 
worth millions of dollars, his 
own collection was still in its infancy. He 
was soon doing research on various artists 
and attending auctions. He quickly real- 
ized, however, that for a junior faculty 
member with three children to support, buy- 
ing well-known and expensive art was out of 
the question. Instead, he began collecting 
the works of artists, usually women, who had 
been neglected or dismissed. 


After a few years, James had amassed a 
substantial collection of paintings by 
female artists from the Boston Museum 
School. But little was known about them, 
so he began writing articles describing his 
collection and extolling the artists' virtues. 
Because of his articles and his generosity 
in lending works to various museums, 
the art community soon recognized their 

As his collection skyrocketed in value, 
he was able to sell some of his paintings for 
a substantial profit and then add other 
works to his collection. He now owns 
more than 4,500 paintings and sculptures. 
His works represent every era and style of 
American art, but focus mainly on land- 
scapes and Impressionism. (James' latest 
endeavor, St. James Place, is a folk art 
museum in Robersonville, North Carolina. 
Housed in a former Primitive Baptist 
church built by his grandmother at the 
turn of the century, the museum opened in 
October, "the day before my mother 
turned ninety," says James.) 

While James' art collection was growing 
in importance, his reputation in the field 
of radiology also rose. An internationally 
recognized expert in nuclear magnetic res- 
onance imaging (he is an honorary fellow 

in the Royal Society of Medicine at the 
University College in London), he was a 
frequent guest lecturer at conferences across 
the country. Wherever he went, he 
dropped in on local galleries or auctions to 
peruse their selections. Usually, the hono- 
rarium from his lecture went directly 
toward another painting or sculpture. 

As a standout basketball and baseball 
player in high school, James gave little 
attention to art and medicine. He consid- 
ered signing a contract to play minor 
league baseball until his mother insisted he 
go to college. He enrolled at the Universi- 
ty of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and 
decided to major in English. His principal 
ambition was to become a writer. This 
plan was interrupted, however, when two 
of his cousins — both pre-med and the chil- 
dren of doctors — flunked out of college. 

"We had a family meeting," he recalls, 
"and I was elected the family doctor for the 
twentieth century. I did what I was told, 
went back to school, and crashed through 
my pre-med courses in a year and a half." 

He graduated at the top of his class and 
enrolled in Duke's medical school. After 
receiving his degree, he did a year's tour of 
duty in Vietnam, then returned to the 
United States for his residency at Massa- 

chusetts General Hospital. He completed 
post-doctoral work in radiology at Johns 
Hopkins and was named a Picker Ad- 
vanced Academic Fellow at the National 
Academy of Sciences. In 1975, James was 
recruited to chair the radiology depart- 
ment at Vanderbilt University's medical 
school. He stepped down as chair in 1990, 
and continued working as a professor there 
until making the transition last year to the 
Institute of Medicine. The Institute is the 
medical branch of the National Academy 
of Sciences. 

While searching the world of galleries 
and auctions for art has been productive and 
rewarding, says James, some of his greatest 
finds have come on the dusty back roads of 
the rural South where he meets folk artists. 
"The tolk artists I like are the visionaries, 
the ones who just looked out their window 
one day and decided that their house was 
ugly. So they began painting sheets of tin 
to hang on their walls. They don't even 
think of themselves as artists." 

— Kelley Muffins 

Mullins is a free-lance writer living in Nashville, 


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vlarch-April I 994 


WRITE: Class Notes Editor, Duke Magazin 
Box 90570, Durham, N.C. 27708-0570 

FAX: (919) 684-6022 (typed only, please) 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Alumni Records, 
Box 90613, Durham, N.C. 27708-0613. Please 
include mailing label and allow six weeks. 

NOTICE: Because of the volume of 
class note material we receive and the 
long lead time required for typesetting, 
design, and printing, your submission 
may not appear for two to three issues. 

Alumni are urged to include spouses' 
names in marriage and birth announce- 
ments. We do not record engagements. 

30s & 40s 

Lewis C. Branscomb '33, former director of 
libraries and professor emeritus at Ohio State Univer- 
sity, is the author of Emest dishing Richardson: 
Research Librarian , Scholar, Theologian, 1860-1939, a 
biography of "one of the foremost library scholars and 
innovators of early librarianship in this country," 
published by Scarecrow Press. He and his wife, 
Marjorie, live in Columbus, Ohio. 

William C. Jennings '37 completed 11 years as a 
trustee of the Richland County Public Library. A past 
president of the Columbia Rotary Club, he writes that 
he has logged "24 years of perfect attendance." He 
retired from Exxon after 3 1 years and from the S.C. 
Commission on Higher Education after 1 1 years. He 
lives in Columbia, S.C. 

L. Flowers B.S.E.E. '38 was awarded an 
honorary doctor of science degree in May by Lenoir- 
Rhyne College. During his 50-year career, he worked 
with the U.S. Naval Research Lab and the aerospace 
divisions of Goodyear, Avco Electronics, and McDon- 
nell Douglas. He was named a distinguished alumnus 
by the University of Cincinnati and was awarded the 
distinguished service award by Duke's engineering 
school in 1984. He lives in Chesterfield, Mo. 

Edgar E. Cayce B.S.E.E. '39 is the co-author, 
with his daughter Gail, of Mysteries of Atlantis Revis- 
ited, published in 1988. The book has recently been 
translated into German, Japanese, and Spanish. He 
and his wife, Kathryn, also have a son, Evans 
Cayce B.S.E.E. '65, and three grandsons, and live in 
Virginia Beach, Va. 

Fern Coble Culbreth '40, of Charlotte, N.C, 
represented Duke in February at the inauguration of 
the president of Brevard College. 

Betty C. Holland '43 has retired as executive 
director of the Iredell County chapter of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross after 40 years' service to the chapter. 
She lives in Statesville, N.C. 

Harry Kittner B.S.M.E. '44, co-owner of Kittner's 

Department Store in Weldon, N.C, was named to 
the local board of directors of First Citizens Bank in 
Roanoke Rapids. He is also director of the N.C. Retail 
Merchants Association and advisory committee mem- 

ber for the Small Business Center of Halifax Commu- 
nity College. He and his wife, Sarah, live in Weldon. 

A. William Dunn M.D. '45 has had a scholarship 
and library fund established in his name by the Alton 
Ochsner Medical Foundation. He chaired the ortho- 
paedic surgery department at the Ochsner Clinic and 
Ochsner Foundation Hospital and taught at Tulane 
University's medical school before retiring in 1988. 
He and his wife, Clara, live on Fripp Island, S.C. 

William H. Baker '49, a law professor at DePaul 
University College of Law in Chicago, is the author 
of the article "Injuries to College Athletes: Rights 

and Responsibilities" published in the Dickinson 
Law Reitiew. 

Chester P. Middles worth '49 retired as vice 
president and regional manager for the Statesville 
Record & Landmark, a newspaper that has been in his 
family since 1938. He will act as a consultant to Park 
Communications, the company that bought the paper 
in 1979. He was regional coordinator for Parks' other 
38 publications in the 1980s. He and his wife, Pauline, 
celebrated their fortieth wedding anniversary in 1993. 


If Scrabble leaves 
you scrambled and 
you draw a blank 
playing Pictionary, 
don't despair. There's a 
new game on the mar- 
ket called Play It Smart 
that promises to tickle 
your intellect. Designed 
by Alan "A" Cone Jr. 
'78, the board game is a 
sort of thinking per- 
son's Trivial Pursuit. 

But that comparison, 
though meant as a 
compliment, makes 
Cone wince. "What do 
you learn playing Triv- 
ial Pursuit?" he asks 
rhetorically. "Nothing! 
You learn the distance 
between first and sec- 
ond base in baseball. 
So what? But play my 
game, and you'll learn 
useful information. It 
makes you think." 

Play It Smart is 
divided into six sub- 
jects: Business & Law, 
Literature, History, 
Science & Technology, 
ment, and Various & 
Sundry. The first 
player (or team) to 
answer five questions 
correcdy in each sub- 
ject wins. A sample 
puzzler: Give the com- 
mon name for silicon 
dioxide found in large 
quantities in all parts of 
the world. (The answer 
is sand.) Or try this: 
Name the three largest 
components that make 
up the Consumer Price 
Index. (Answer: hous- 
ing, transportation, 
and food.) 

Cone's creation 
seems to have struck a 
chord among game 
players who are bored 

by "dumbed-down" 
diversions. Play It 
Smart was chosen as 
one of the top ten 
games of 1993 by The 
Chicago Tribune, 
which described it as 
an "intellectually chal- 
lenging 'cultural liter- 
acy' game." And Fun 
& Qames Magazine 
named it the "Adult 
Game of the Year." 

Not a bad accom- 
plishment for Cone, a 
former corporate loan 
officer who now trains 
horses. After graduat- 
ing from Duke, he 
earned an M.B.A. from 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 
While working for First 
Union National Bank, 
Cone and some friends 
came up with the idea 
of a game for well-edu- 
cated people, a kind of 
anti-trivia Q&A quest 
A first edition of Play It 
Smart came out — four 
years before the publi- 
cation of die best-sell- 
ing book The Dictio- 
nary of Cultural 
literacy, Cone notes. 
Financial limitations 
forced him to shelve 
the project. But Cone 
began to hear back 
from people who had 
received copies of the 
game and loved the 
challenge. He decided 
to try again. 

At the 1993 New 
York Toy Fair, an in- 
dustry mecca for game 
buyers, distributors, 
and inventors, Play It 
Smart was picked up 
by dozens of retailers 
and The Paragon and 
World Wide Qames 
mail order catalogues. 
Then came the media 

Cone plays it smart: training horses and making hay 
while his game shines 

recognition. Between 
Thanksgiving and 
Christmas last year, 
nearly 7,000 units of 
Play It Smart were sold. 

Cone will continue to 
train horses on his 
Huntersville, North 
Carolina, farm. But 
with Play It Smart on 
the verge of becoming 
a national phenomenon, 
Cone is preparing for a 
busy year. As a one- 
man educational cru- 
sader, Cone seems ready 
to take on the world. 

"Millions of Ameri- 
cans are functionally 
illiterate," he says. 
"When people ask me 
if I plan to come out 
with a video version of 

Play It Smart, I say no 
way! Video games are 
the primary reason 
children can't commu- 
nicate, because video 
games don't foster 

Cone says he thinks 
Play It Smart is taking 
off because it allows 
educated people to 
show what they know. 
"When you play this 
with a group of people, 
a question that's easy 
for a literature major 
won't be easy for an 
M.B.A. And thaf s how 
you learn." 



Expeditions of the Mind 


For those who miss the excitement of learning, 

exploring, discovering, and discussing 


The Search For Meaning 

April 22-24, 1994 
Monterey, California 

Why am I here? Where am I going? What is the 
purpose of life? Join us as we confront life's 
ultimate questions head-on and discover how to 
search for answers to them. This outstanding Duke 
course, offered in seminar form for the second time, 
involves coming to grips with what it means to be a 
human being who lives, loves, works, plays, suffers, 
and dies. Our faculty will be the creators of the 
course: William Willimon, Dean of the Chapel, 
Thomas Naylor, Professor of Economics, and 
Magdalena Naylor, psychiatrist. 

Spoleto Festival U.S.A. 
May 27-30, 1994 
Charleston, South Carolina 

Indulge in a "cultural feast" as you partake of three 
days and three nights of music, dance, opera, and 
theater in historic Charleston. Enjoy excellent seats 
at performances, receptions in private homes, visits 
to historic sites, and accommodations at the famous 
Mills House Hotel. Faculty host will be Lorenzo 
Muti of Duke's music department, who conducted 
the Spoleto Festival Orchestra at Spoleto 1993. 

Exploring the Southwest 

July 24-31, 1994 (optional extension to A ugust 3) 
Santa Fe, Taos, Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon 

Discover the rich heritage and beauty of the 
American Southwest as you spend time studying 
the arts, architecture, and cultural geography of this 
unique region. Visit the homes and studios of 
practicing artists, explore galleries and museums, 
journey to contemporary Indian and remote 
Spanish villages, and trek through ancient 
archaeological sites. If you desire, extend your 
journey to include two of America's most 
spectacular national parks: Mesa Verde, with its 
Anasazi Indian cliff dwellings, and Chaco Canyon, 
the high point of pre-Columbian civilization in this 


Spend half a day in close contact with one of 
Duke's outstanding professors. These stimulating 
and thought-provoking programs, centered around 
a single theme, are held in cities across the country. 
In 1993-94 seminars are planned for Atlanta, 
Nashville, Boston, Cleveland, Cincinnati, northern 
New Jersey, Seattle, and Denver. 
Alumni and friends in these areas will be notified of 
dates and topics. 


Digging the Past: Excavations at Sepphoris 

June 2-17, 1994 
Sepphoris, Israel 

Here is a unique opportunity to participate first- 
hand in an archaeological dig. For the past nine 
years noted Duke professors Eric and Carol Meyers 
have led excavations on the ancient city of 
Sepphoris, near Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Not 
only have they unearthed ancient buildings and 
underground chambers, their discoveries have 
included bronze statues, religious artifacts, and the 
famous "Mona Lisa of Galilee," a 1,700 year-old 
mosaic pavement containing a hauntingly beautiful 
female portrait. Participants will spend their 
mornings at the excavation, with afternoons free to 
sight-see, rest, or assist with artifact cleaning and 
cataloging. Accommodations will be in an air- 
conditioned hotel near the site. Weekends will be 
spent visiting Jerusalem and Galilee. 

The Oxford Experience 

September 4-17, 1994 

The University of Oxford, England 

What is the Oxford Experience? It is an opportu- 
nity to immerse yourself in centuries-old traditions 
of learning and community, to study in small 
groups with renowned Oxford faculty, to explore 
the English countryside and visit historical 
landmarks, to be students once again. Choose a 
course from topics that include art, archaeology, 
politics, and history. Attend classes, participate in 
field trips, enjoy special events, and savor the 
atmosphere of one of the world's great centers of 


Contact: Deborah Weiss Fowlkes 78 

Director, Alumni Continuing Education 

Box 90575 

Durham, NC 27708-0575 

(919) 684-5114 or (800) FOR-DUKE 

All programs sponsored by the Duke Alumni Association 

Put me on the mailing list to receive information about the alumni educational programs listed. 


Duke Directions 

September 23 and October 21, 1994 
West Campus 

Rediscover the true "Duke experience"— the 
classroom experience! Return to Duke for a day of 
stimulating classes designed for alumni and taught 
by top Duke faculty. Choose from a variety of 
topics, including science, religion, literature, 
economics, history, political science, and health. In 

addition, hear about student life fn 
current students, and get an update 
on new programs at Duke. 

: from the deans 

Return to: Box 90575, Durham, NC 27708-0575 

March-April I 994 

Young: keeping alive memories of China's dark days 


Alone man 
stands defiant, 
facing oncom- 
ing army tanks, pre- 
pared to die. This is 
the image that res- 
onates most deeply 
when we think of the 
Tiananmen Square 
protests in China five 
years ago. For Megan 
Young '87, the event 
was particularly 
poignant. Having 
taught in China the 
year before, she wit- 
nessed first-hand the 
early rumblings of 
the uprising. 

At the Hangzhou 
Institute of Electrical 
Engineering in 
China's Zhejiang 
Province, Young 
tutored her pupils in 
economics and West- 
ern culture. In addi- 
tion to undergraduate 
and graduate students, 
Young's classes also 
included artists, busi- 
nessmen and women, 
and fellow instructors. 
Among other topics, 
she and her students 
discussed aspects and 
implications of the 
Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the Bill of 
Rights, and the U.S. 
Constitution. "It was 
such a free time," she 
recalls. "In fact, the 
only tune I ever got 
into trouble was when 
I brought up the sub- 
ject of religion." 

Back in the States, 
she watched the 
events in Tiananmen 
Square unfold on tele- 
vision, feeling "incred- 
ulous, although there 
had been a sense of 
momentum when I 
was there of things 
opening up. [The 
protests] were such a 
strong expression 
of freedom, but the 
hope was mixed with 
anxiety, because stu- 
dents were risking 
their lives." 

Five years later, 
Young is working on 
behalf of Human 
Rights in China. The 
nonprofit organization 
was founded by Fang 
Lizhi, the astrophysi- 
cist who took asylum 
in the U.S. embassy 

for a year following 
Tiananmen Square. 
Designed to increase 
awareness of human 
rights issues in China, 
the group is planning 
a commemoration on 
the anniversary of the 
massacre this June. A 
candlelight service 
featuring music, 
dance, and readings 
will be held in New 
York City and at vari- 
ous other locations 
across America. 

Young says she's 
been pleasandy sur- 
prised to discover that 
everyone she talks to 
about the sobering 
occasion recalls it 
vividly. "I thought at 
the time that I was 
reacting so strongly 
because I'd been per- 

sonally involved with 
people there," says 
Young, who, during 
the protest, forwarded 
faxes by former stu- 
dents to Western 
media. "But I was 
stunned at the realiza- 
tion that, in fact, the 
whole country was 
dramatically affected 
by what happened." 

Many Chinese dissi- 
dents remain in jail, 
says Young, "and for 
all intents and pur- 
poses, there is no such 
thing as freedom of 
speech there." But for 
those who dismiss 
Tiananmen Square or 
Chinese politics as 
some distant worry, 
Young points out that 
events in other coun- 
tries concern us all. 

"Think about the 
size of China's popula- 
tion and the impact 
that country can and 
will have on our lives, 
on our environment, 
our economy, our 
children's lives, on 
peace in the world. 
By sheer power of 
numbers, what hap- 
pens in China will 
affect our lives." 

For information 
about the Tiananmen 
Square commemora- 
tion, contact Human 
Rights in China at 
(212) 661-2909. 


Robert Bisselle '51 was elected secretary of the 
board of directors of the National Postal Forum 
(NPF), a nonprofit, educational organization for busi- 
ness mailers, the U.S. Postal Service, and major sup- 
pliers. A long-time member of the NPF's board, he 
has served as president, chairman, and treasurer. The 
retired banking industry executive is also on the 
board of directors of the Ivymount School in 
Rockville, Md. 

George C. Megill M.Div. '52, who was voted 

Outstanding Rotarian last year by the Louisburg, 
N.C., club, will lead Rotary's group study exchange 
team in April to Santa Catarina in Brazil. They will 
serve as goodwill ambassadors, speak at Rotary clubs, 
and meet with their professional counterparts there. 
He retired from the Methodist ministry last June. He 
and his wife, June, live in Raleigh. 

William A. Buchheit '55 was elected president 
of the American Academy of Neurological Surgery. 
He is a professor and chairman of the department of 
neurosurgery at Temple University School of Medicine. 

He has also served as officer, governor, and preside 
of several neurosurgical societies. 

Herd L. Bennett '56 is senior partner of the law 

firm Bennett & Bennett, with his son Gray W. 
Bennett '83. He and his wife, Louise, have three 
other children, including Sarah Bennett '88. He 
writes that he and Louise still own and live on the 
family's dairy farm, which they purchased in 1963 in 
order to "raise their children with the rigors of two-a- 
day milkings and farm management." 

William T. Graham '56, N.C. Commissioner of 
Banks, was named one of the "Newsmakets of 1993" 
by the Triangle Business Journal for leading "North 
Carolina's banks into a new legislative zone during 
1993's General Assembly: interstate branching and 

Johnny F. Hill '58 received the Christofferson- 
Fawcett Award from the Ohio Council of Teachers. 
The award recognizes distinguished service in mathe- 
matics education. He taught junior high mathematics 
at Miami's McGuffey Laboratory School and has been 
a consultant in mathematics education for schools in 
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, 
and Florida. 

Julia Broadway Caldwell Culp B.S.N. '59 
has worked in nursing education at the Presbyterian 
School of Nursing for 15 years. Her husband, Julian 
M. "J" Culp '59, works in health education at the 
Gaston County Health Department. They live on 
Lake Wylie in Charlotte, N.C. 

Russell "Russ" J. Rogers Jr. '59, who 
earned his D.D.S. at UNC-Chapel Hill, was awarded 
fellowship in the American College of Dentists, an 
honor that recognizes "those who have contributed to 
the advancement ot the profession and humanity." 
He is senior partner of Rogers & Barone, D.D.S. and 
has practiced general dentistry in Matthews, N.C, for 
30 years. 

MARRIAGES: Julia Broadway Caldwell '59 

to Julian M. "J" Culp '59 on April 24, 1993. 
Residence: Charlotte, N.C. 


Gary W. Dickinson B.S.M.E. '60, president and 
CEO of Delco Electronics Corp., received the Society 
of Automotive Engineers' 1994 Medal of Honor in 
recognition of his "unique and significant contribu- 
tions to SAE." He was instrumental in getting an SAE 
chapter started at Duke. He was the first chairman of 
the Emerging Technologies Board and was involved 
with the Mobility Technology Planning Forums, 
which brought a future technology focus to SAE. He 
is a member of Duke's Engineering Dean's Council. 

Linda Garrett Whitson '62 has had her article 

"Duke University and Pio Pico School: A Beneficial 
Partnership" published in the spring 1993 issue of The 
Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin. She has been a volun- 
teer since the beginning of the project, in which the 
Duke Club of Southern California "adopted" the Pio 
Pico Elementary School. An assistant principal at 
Henry Clay Middle School in south central Los 
Angeles, she lives in San Pedro. 

'64 was elected chair of 
Augustana University College's board of regents and 
is the first woman to hold the post at the university in 
Camrose. An attorney in Edmonton, Alberta, 
Canada, she earned her law degree from the Univer- 
sity of Calgary. She also holds a doctorate in German 
studies from Northwestern University. 

Philip Lader '66 is assistant to President Clinton 
and White House deputy chief-of-staff. He was deputy 
director for management of the White House Office 
of Management and Budget. 

Peter H. Blunt '67, an attorney, has a commercial 
real estate practice in Marin County, Calif., contrib- 
utes law summaries to a legal publisher, and writes 
that he "finally made Who's Who in American Law." 
He performs in amateur theater and is writing a novel 
in his spare time. 

Jackie Acree Walsh '67 represented Duke in 
March at the inauguration of the president of Hunt- 
ingdon College in Montgomery, Ala. 

Patrick Morelli A.M. '68 held a month-long 
exhibition in New York City of "We Ate One," an art 
education project he created to promote tolerance 
and understanding among young people. Under his 
supervision, junior high students from a New York 
City school district and elementary students from a 
Brooklyn public school district completed large-scale 
public works of art exemplifying the values of toler- 
ance and understanding. He lives in New York City. 

David B. Seligman Ph.D. '68 is vice president 
and dean of faculty, effective July 1, at Ripon College 
in Wisconsin. He will be responsible for the liberal 
arts curriculum and the selection and evaluation of 


faculty. He was a senior fellow with the College- 
University Resource Institute at Western Maryland 
College, where he had been vice president for acade- 
mic affairs and dean of faculty. 

Douglas M. Franks '69 is quality assurance man- 
ager, audits, in Charlotte, N.C., for Duke Engineering 
& Services, Inc., which provides engineering, techni- 
cal, and professional services to utilities and other 
businesses. He is assisting the U.S. Department of 
Energy in its high-level waste management program. 

W. Charles Grace '69 was sworn in as U.S. 
attorney for the Southern District of Illinois, after 
being appointed by President Clinton and confirmed 
by the Senate. He and his wile, Barbara, their daugh- 
ter Katey, and their son, Charles Brigham 
"Chip" Grace '94, live in Carbondale, 111. 

Carolyn Cody McClatchey '69 was named 

Volunteer of the Year by the Georgia chapter of the 
National Society of Fund Raising Executives at a 
National Philanthropy Day celebration in Novembet 
in Atlanta. She is a community volunteer and board 
member of the Atlanta Children's Shelter. She is also 
involved with Duke's Council on Women's Studies 
and is the reunion co-chair for the Class of 1969. She 
and her husband, William M. McClatchey '69, 
a physician, have three children, including W. Cody 
McClatchey '92. 


Taffy Cannon 70, M.A.T. 71 has written her 
second Nan Robinson mystery novel, to be published 
in the fall. Tangled Roots has Robinson investigating 
the murder of the heir to a Southern California 
flower-growing dynasty who is shot in his greenhouse. 
The author lives in Carlsbad, Calif. 

Phillip P. Carroll B.S.E. 70, a Navy captain, 
completed the Reserve Officer Joint Military Opera- 
tions Course. He joined the Navy in May 1970. 

George Walker A.M. 70 is associate director, 
analytical research and development, pharmaceutical 
research/analytical methods, for Schering Plough 
HealthCare Products. He lives in Cordova, Tenn. 

Harold G. Wallace B.D. 71, vice chancellor for 
university affairs at UNC-Chapel Hill, is interim 
director of the Sonja Haynes Stone Black Cultural 
Center. He is chair emeritus of the Black Cultural 
Center's advisory board and will lead center activities 
during a search for a permanent director. He has chaired 
the Black Faculty /Staff Caucus and the Upward 
Bound Advisory Board and has won outstanding 
achievement awards from the Black Student Move- 
ment and the Black Alumni Association. 

Lynne Michelson Brasunas 72 earned her 
master's in social work from the University of Geor- 
gia. She and her husband, Jim, live in Alpharetta, Ga. 

James W. Skillen A.M. 72, Ph.D. 74 is execu- 
tive director of the Center for Public Justice and the 
Association for Public Justice in Washington, D.C. He 
is also the editor of The School-Choice Controversy: What 
is Constitutional?, published by Baker Book House. 

73, an assistant professor of biology 
at Reed College in Portland, Ore., was awarded a 
$55,560 grant from the National Science Founda- 
tion's Research in Undergraduate Institutions pro- 
gram to support his project, "Peroxide Metabolism in 
Legume Root Nodules." 

S. Ward Greene J. D. 73 is the new president of 
the Oregon Law Institute, the largest nonprofit corpo- 
ration providing continuing legal education services 
in Oregon. He has been the managing partner since 

1985 of Greene & Markley, P.C., which focuses on 
bankruptcy, collection, real estate, and commercial 
law, in Portland, Ore. 

Miller M.D. 73, Ph.D. 73 is director of 
the division of hematology/oncology at the Univer- 
sity of Alabama at Birmingham's Comprehensive 
Cancer Center. He is also director of the Herman and 
Emmie Bolden Molecular Genetics Research Labora- 
tory at UAB. 

Helga Leftwich 74 earned her law degree in 
1993 from UNC-Chapel Hill's law school, where she 
was elected to the Order of the Coif, received the 
Chief Justice Walter Clark Award, and was editor-in- 
chief of the North Carolina Law Review. She is an 
associate at Petree and Stockton, where she practices 
business and corporate law in the firm's Raleigh office. 

Harold Hotelling A.M. 75, Ph.D. '82 chairs the 

humanities department at Lawrence Technological 
University in Southfield, Mich. He teaches 
and c 

"Woody" Myatt 76 was promoted 
to vice president and chief actuary for Liberty Life 
Insurance Co. in Greenville, S.C. He and his wife, 
Elaine, and theit daughter live in Greer, S.C. 

Stephen W. Unger M.D. 76 presented a lecture, 
"Laparoscopic Access tor Enteral Feeding," at the 
American College of Surgeon's postgraduate course 
on minimally invasive surgery in San Francisco in 
October. He is a general and vascular surgeon in 
Miami Beach, Fla. 

Scott Albert B.S.E. 77 was named vice president 
and chief investment officer of the North Carolina 
Technological Development Authority, Inc.'s Innova- 
tion Research Fund. The fund provides venture capital 
and seed funding to North Carolina companies. 

Craig D. Everhart 77 has a new assignment at 
the American Embassy in Vienna, Austria. He lives 
in Vienna with his wife, Suzanne, and their two sons. 

Beverly N. Jones 77, a physician, has joined 
the faculty of Wake Forest University's Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine as assistant professor of psychia- 
try, after completing a residency and fellowship at 
Johns Hopkins Hospital. He and his wife, Janet, live 
in Winston-Salem. 

Eugene Conti Jr. A.M. 78, Ph.D. 78 is the U.S. 

Department ot Transportation's deputy assistant sec- 
retary for budget and programs. He was a member of 
the staff of Rep. David E. Ptice of North Carolina and 
has worked for the Department of the Treasury and 
the Office of Management and Budget. He and his 
wife, Jennifer Wingard, and their two sons live in 
Chevy Chase, Md. 

Janet Moss Light 78 received the Outstanding 
Young Marylander award from the Frederick, Md., 
chapter of the Jaycees. The company that she and her 
husband, Greg, own — American Records Manage- 
ment, Inc. — is undergoing a business expansion for 
the fifth consecutive year. She is serving her fourth 
elected term on the board of directors of ProNet, a 
local women's group. She chairs the career develop- 
ment lane for her Rotary Club, where she pioneered 
the introduction of a Hood College "shadow 
program" that links college sophomores with busi- 
nesses specializing in their career interests. She and 
her husband and their two children live in Frederick. 

Barry DeGregorio 79 completed his residency 
in internal medicine last July at Otegon Health Sci- 
ences University, where he is doing a three-year fel- 
lowship in gastroenterology. His wife, Virginia 
"Missy" Rose 79, is a development officer at 
Lewis and Clark College. They live in Portland, Ore. 



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March-April 1994 

79 was named president of 
the board of trustees of Friends of Olana, Inc., an 
organization devoted to the preservation of the home 
of F.E. Church, America's foremost landscape painter. 
She is also an independent art consultant. She and 
her husband, Tom, and their two children live in 
Kinderhook, N.Y. 

Barbara Summey Marshall M.R.I- . 79, a 

Navy lieutenant, was awarded the Navy Achieve- 
ment Medal for superior performance of duty while 
serving as chaplain with 8th Motor Transport Battal- 
ion, 2nd Force Service Support Group, at the Marine 
Corps base at Camp Lejeune, N.C. Her efforts 
included individual counseling, topical classes, family 
events, and religious functions. 

Diane Prucino 79 is a partner in the Atlanta 
office of the law firm Kilpatrick & Cody, where she 
specializes in employment law. 

Virginia "Missy" Rose 79 is associate director 
of corporate and foundation relations at Lewis and 
Clark College in Portland, Ore. Her husband, Barry 
DeGrecjorio 79, is doing a three-year fellowship in 
gastroenterology at Oregon Health Sciences Univer- 
sity. They live in Portland. 

Gary J. Silverman 79 has a private practice in 
rheumatology in Scottsdale, Ariz., and is host of 
"Housecalls," a radio program about health on KFYI, 
Arizona's number one talk radio station. He writes 
that he originally started in radio at WDUR while at 
Duke. He and his wife, Joan, and their two children 
live in Scottsdale. 

Glenn A. White 79, who was an assistant profes- 
sor of medical research in Duke's cell biology depart- 
ment, is an associate professor of biology at Ashland 
University in Ashland, Ohio. He and his wife, 
Virginia "Ginger" Spivey '89, a graduate stu- 
dent at Case Western Reserve University, live in 
Medina, Ohio. 

MARRIAGES: Diane L. Prucino 79 to Thomas 
Heyse on April 24, 1993. Residence: Atlanta... 
Glenn E. White 79 to Virginia "Ginger" 

Spivey '89 on April 24, 1993, in Duke Chapel. 
Residence: Medina, Ohio. 

BIRTHS: Third child and second daughter to Anne 
McQuilkin Mayf ield 73 and David Langford 
Mayfield on April 24, 1993. Named Jennie Langford. . . 
Seventh child and fourth daughter to Samuel A. 
Owen 74 and Patricia Owen on Oct. 13. Named 
Emily Jayne. . .First child and son to Mark Garri- 
gan Gordon Barry 77 and Kathleen S. Barry on 
Sept. 22. Named Joseph Garrigan... Second child and 
first daughter to Janis Moss Light 78 and Greg 
Light on Jan. 1, 1993. Named Hannah Rose. ..Second 
child to Gary J. Silverman 79 and Joan Silver- 
man on Dec. 5. Named Avery Gardner. 


Maureen Kerr '80, a vice president in the inter- 
national fixed income division of Goldman, Sachs & 
Co. in New York, writes that "what began as a Sep- 
tember weekend respite at Virginia Beach resulted in 
a delightful mini-reunion for four Kappas from the 
Class of 1980." Sharing the family beach house of 
Brenda King Webber '80 and her two sons were 
Kim Makris Gumberich '80, Annie 
Franklin Wentzel '80, and Kerr. Webber will be 
relocating to Monterey, Calif., where her husband, 
Bill, will be stationed in the Navy. Gumberich is a 
homeopathic practitioner living in New Hampshire, 
and Wentzel and her husband, Carl, live in Norfolk, 
where she works with the Project Smile Foundation 
as a recovery-room nurse. 

Suzanne Tucker Plybon '80, a CPA who 

earned her law degree from Emory University in 1986, 
is an associate with the Atlanta law firm Arnall 
Golden & Gregory, practicing in estate planning, 
administration, and charitable giving. She is a mem- 
ber of the Atlanta Estate Planning Council, the board 
of directors of Big Brother/Big Sisters of Metro 
Atlanta, Inc., and the Duke Alumni Admissions 
Advisory Committee. 

Ellen Weiler Stief ler '80, who was practicing 
intellectual property and entertainment law with a 
Minneapolis law firm, has moved to Greenwich, 
Conn., with her husband, Jeff, president of American 
Express Co. They have three sons. 

Tina Alster B.S.N. '81, M.D. '86 is an; 
professor in the departments of dermatology and pedi- 
atrics at Georgetown University Medical Center. She 
is also director of the Washington Institute of Derma- 
tologic Laser Surgery and lectures worldwide on the 
laser treatment of several skin disorders. She is writing 
a book on cosmetic laser surgery, to be published next 
year. She lives in Washington, DC. 

Thomas P. Cornett '81, M.B.A. '85 is senior 
vice president at NationsBank-Florida and credit 
policy executive for the Florida Real Estate Banking 
Group. He and his wife, Dianna, have two daughters 
and live in Tampa. 

P. Ellis '81 earned her law degree in 1993 
from Wake Forest University, where she was execu- 
tive editor of the Wake Forest Law Review and a mem- 
ber of the Moot Court Board. She is an associate with 
Petree Stockton, where she practices labor and 
employment law at the firm's Winston-Salem office. 

Mike Fields '81 was elected mayor of Southern 
Pines, N.C. He is also a partner in H.C. Management, 
a real estate investment and management firm, and 
chairman of Southern Pines Wachovia Bank. 

Dudley A. Hudspeth '81 won the first Residents' 
and Fellows' Research Day at the Bowman Gray/ 
Baptist Hospital in Winston-Salem for his work, 
"Enhancement of blood cardioplegia with adenosine 
avoids postischemic dysfunction in severely injured 
hearts." A seventh-year resident in cardiac surgery, he 
earned his M.D. at UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Rex S. Jackson '81 is vice president and general 
counsel of Read-Rite Corp., a component supplier to 
the disk drive industry, in Silicon Valley, Calif. He 
earned his law degree at Stanford University and 
practiced in Los Angeles for seven years before 
returning to the Bay Area. He and his wife, Elizabeth, 
and their son live in Danville, Calif. 

Anthony Marzullo B.S.E. '81, an engineer at 
Sikorsky Aircraft, wrote a chapter on boron, quartz, 
and ceramic fibers for a handbook of composites to be 
published next fall. He lives in Old Greenwich, Conn. 

Robin Klatzkin Bochner BSE. '82 is decision 
support manager of operations at Lever Brothers Co. 
in New York City-. She and her husband, Alan, and 
their son live in East Hills, N.Y. 

Mark H. Lemer '82, M.D. '87 is a staff radiologist 
at Brigham and Women's Hospital and an instructor 
in radiology at Harvard Medical School. He com- 
pleted his residency in diagnostic radiology at Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, and a fellowship in 
CT/MRI/Ultrasound at Brigham and Women's Hos- 
pital. He lives in Boston's South End. 

Barbara Clarke McCurdy B S ME. 82 is a 

partner in the intellectual property law firm 
Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow &. Dunner in Wash- 
ington, D.C. She is also an adjunct professor at the 
Washington College of Law, American University, 
where she teaches patent law. She and her husband, 
Jeffrey, and their son live in Washington. 

A.M. '82, Ph.D. '87 has 
moved to Marion, Va., where he is pastor at Royal 
Oak Presbyterian Church. 

Keith W. Bennert '83 is a pathologist at Craven 
Regional Medical Center in New Bern, N.C. He and 
his wife, Elizabeth Ann Benson '84, an intern- 
ist, live in New Bern. 

Marc Fater '83 has completed his general surgery 
training in Philadelphia and is now a plastic surgery 
resident at Baylor College of Medicine. He and his wife, 
Patricia, have two sons and live in Houston, Texas. 

Susan L. Goodman '83, who was a practicing 
attorney, is now a principal of the Atlanta-based In- 
House Counsel, Inc., specializing in the placement 
of attorneys and paralegals on a contract or tempo- 
rary basis. 

Rick Hull '83 is an attorney and shareholder with 
the law firm Hull & Zimmerman, P.C., in Wheat 
Ridge, Colo. He and his wife, Lisa Ridley Hull 

'84, and their daughter live in Lakewood, Colo. 

Louis W. Joy III M.B.A. '83 is president of Manu- 
facturing Excellence, Inc., a management consulting 
firm in Newark, Del. He and his wife, Jo, the com- 
pany's vice president, are co-authors of Frontline 
Teamwork: One Company's Story of Success, published 
by Business One Irwin. 

Michael A. Lampert J.D. '83, a tax attorney, 
chairs Disaster Services for the Palm Beach County 
chapter of the American Red Cross. He is also trea- 
surer of the Jewish Family and Children's Service of 
Palm Beach County and president of the Palm Beach 
Tax Institute. He and his wife, Angela, and their son 
live in West Palm Beach. 

Robert L. Seaton M.B.A. '83, a Navy Comman- 
der, was designated as an Engineering Duty Officer. 
He is currently assigned at Naval Shipyard, Pearl 
Harbor, Hawaii. 

Arthur Stark '83, M.H.A. '85 was 
named one of 1993's "Up and Comers" by Modem 
Healthcare Magazine. Recipients are health-care pro- 
fessionals age 40 and younger who have "contributed 
to efforts to improve the quality of medical care, 
expand access to the system, and teconfigure the 
delivery system." 

Glenn D. Altchek B.S.E. '84, M.B.A. '93 founded 
International Marketing Associates, Inc., a Durham- 
based company engaged in exporting and distributing 
U.S.-manufactured home-building products in Latin 
America. He lives in Chapel Hill. 

Elizabeth Ann Benson '84 is an internist with 
East Carolina Internal Medicine in New Bern, N.C. 
She and her husband, Keith W. Bennert '83, a 
live in New Bern. 

Bonnie Carlson-Green '84, who completed her 
Ph.D. in clinical psychology, is a neuropsychology 
fellow at the University of Minnesota's neurology 
department. She and her husband, Martin Allan 
Green, live in St. Louis Park, Minn. 

R. Morris Friedman '84 is a senior resident in 
urology at Duke. His wife, Emily Miller Wright, works 
at Duke and serves on the hospital's ethics committee. 

Lisa Ridley Hull '84 is a systems engineer with 
Electronic Data Systems in Lakewood, Colo. She and 
her husband, attorney Rick Hull '83, and their 
daughter live in Lakewood. 

Bethany Spielman M.H.A. '84 is an assistant 
professor of medical humanities at Southern Illinois 
University's medical school. She earned her bachelor's 
at Concordia College in 1974, her Ph.D. at the Uni- 
versity of Iowa in 1983, and her law degree at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1992. She and her husband, 
Keith Miller, and their two sons live in Springfield, 111. 




ARROWHEAD INN, Durham's country bed and 
breakfast. Restored 1 775 plantation on four rural 
acres, 20 minutes to Duke. Written up in USA Today, 
Food & Wine, Hid- Atlantic. 106 Mason Rd., 27712. ' 
(919) 477-8430; outside 919 area, (800) 528-2207. 

ST. JOHN: Two bedrooms, pool. Quiet elegance, 
spectacular view. (508) 668-2078. 

LONDON: My delightful studio apartment near 
Marble Arch is available for short or long-term rental. 
Elisabeth J. Fox, M.D., 901 Greenwood Rd., Chapel 
Hill, NC 27514. (919) 929-3194. 

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: New luxury waterfront 
house on Little Mountain, Beef Island, fot vacation 
rental. Three bedrooms, two baths, pool, and spectac- 
ular views. Sleeps six. Beautiful beach for great swim- 
ming and snorkeling. John Krampf '69, 812 W. Sedg- 
wick St., Philadelphia, PA 191 19. (215) 438-4430 
(home) or (215) 963-5501 (office). 

bed and breakfast less than a mile from Duke, offering 
tum-of-the-century charm, comfortable lodging, and 
hearty breakfasts. 922 N. Mangum St., 27701. (919) 

FLORIDA KEYS, Big Pine Key. Fantastic open water 
view, Key Deer Refuge, National Bird Sanctuary, stilt 
house, 3/2, screened porches, fully furnished, stained 
glass windows, swimming, diving, fishing, boat basin, 
non-smoking, starting at $l,500/week. (305) 665-3832. 

BALD HEAD ISLAND, NC: Unspoiled island acces- 
sible by ferry from Southport. No cars. Transportation 
by golf cart, fourteen miles of beach, golf, tennis, nature 
program. Beautifully furnished three-bedroom, two- 
bath condo. Rent at discount directly from owners. 
(919) 929-0065. 

FIGURE EIGHT ISLAND, Wilmington, NC. Sound- 
front beach house, great ocean views, sleeps 8-10. 
Private island. $l,700/week. (910) 686-4099. 


OCEAN CITY, MARYLAND: Beautifully furnished 
apartment, two bedroom, two bath, sleeps seven. The 
Ocean Front Quay. $800/week. (301) 593-2312. Ring 
thrice only. 

LONDON RATS: Two elegant flats, Chelsea 
Bridge/Battersea Park area. Flat *1 6 for two or three 
persons includes lovely lounge, double bedroom, sin- 
gle bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, dining room, $650 
per week. Flat *18 for five persons in three bedrooms, 
bathroom, lounge/kitchen, $850 per week. Fully 
equipped household with daily butler and maid ser- 
vice. For three nights or for a week. Excellent value 
with a five-year history. Brochure, photos, and refer- 
ences upon request. Contact Thomas Moore even- 
ings, (801) 393-9120. 

ALSO: Owlpen Manor and estate cottages in 
Gloucestershire. This is the country estate of the 
family of Lord Nicholas Mander, with a magnificent 
manor house where Queen Margaret stayed during 
the Wars of the Roses. These dreamlike stone cot- 
tages and setting are convenient to Bath, Badminton 
House, Blenheim Palace, Stratford, Stowe-on-the- 
Wold, and Burton-on-the-Water. Cottages for two 
persons as well as larger cottages for large parties. 
Hospitality unending. Contact Thomas Moore. 

ALSO: The Granada, Spain, villa of the Mander 
family is available for groups of up to eight persons. 
This magnificent setting and lovely villa is available 
year-round for lettings of no less than one week. 
Contact Thomas Moore. 

PARIS APARTMENTS: Best locations, frilly fur- 
nished. Reasonable rates. Paris Connection (305) 

MYRTLE BEACH, SC: Ocean-front motel units. Also, 
five-bedroom ocean-front cottage in exclusive area. 
Duke alumnus owner. Free brochure. (800) 334-5547. 


PINEHURST— Country Club of North Carolina: 

1 ) HOME, 3,470 square feet, heated on 1 .2 acre 
wooded lot, $295,000. 

2) LOT, gorgeous golf course lot on Cardinal 13, 
wide-open view, $ 1 25,000. Buyer should be a member 
prior to closing. Call owner (910) 692-8187. 

Historic Victorian in picturesque downtown Southport, 
NC. Four bedrooms, two baths. Cape Fear River view, 
near boat harbors. (800) 346-7671 for information. 


Special Flags & Banners made to order 

Aluminum & Fiberglas Flagpoles 

Marian Zaren, 147 N. Main St. 

Yardley, PA 19067 (215) 493-2134 

FOR SALE BY OWNER: Contemporary Norman 
brick and stucco manor house on 10 pristine acres of 
hardwoods with flowing stream. Located between 
Hillsborough and Chapel Hill, 15 minutes from Duke. 
Four bedrooms, four full baths, gourmet kitchen, mag- 
nificent fireplace, garden room with heated soaking 
pool, soaring ceilings, and 6 ft. windows abound. 
4,200+ sq.ft. $439,000. Call Marcia Owen (919) 

THE CHANTICLEER. Alumni Affairs has copies of 
old yearbooks to sell for only $15, to cover handling 
costs and shipping. Many years available. Contact 
Bernice Charles, Alumni House, 614 Chapel Dr., 
Durham, NC 27708; (919) 684-5114, (800) FOR- 


WANTED: Opportunity to house sit in New York for 
the summer. Contact Duke student Hampton Harrell, 

Stocks, Bonds, Mutual Funds 

IRAs, SEPs, 401(k)s, and 403(b)s 

Christopher J.T. Clark B.A. '77, MBA 

PaineWebber, Inc. 

102 S. Tejon, Suite 900 

Colorado Springs, CO 80903 

(800) 624-3773 

(719) 520-3634 fax 

civilized, affordable way for grads and faculty of the 
Ivies, Seven Sisters, Duke, Stanford, MIT, Amherst, 
and Williams to meet alums and academics. THE 
RIGHT STUFF. (800) 988-5288. 

ALUMNI is being formed for future programming 
and Homecoming 1994. For more information, to 
help with planning, or to be placed on a confidential 
mailing list, contact Robin A. Buhrke, Ph.D., Coordi- 
nator of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Services and 
Sexuality Programming, Duke Counseling and Psy- 
chological Services, 214 Page Bldg., Box 90955, 
Durham, NC. 27708-0955, (919) 660-1000. 


renters, travelers, consumers, through Duke Classifieds. 

RATES: For one-time insertion, $25 for the first 10 
words, $1 for each additional word. Multiple inser- 
tions, 10 percent discount. 

DISPLAY RATES (with art or special treatment) are 
$100 per column inch (2 1/4" wide). 

REQUIREMENTS: All copy must be printed or 
typed; specify section (FOR RENT, FOR SALE, etc.) 
in which ad should appear. 

money order (payable to Duke Magazine) to: Classi- 
fieds, Duke Magazine, 614 Chapel Drive, Box 90570, 
Durham, NC 27708-0570. 

We also accept VISA and MASTERCARD. No 
phone orders, except FAX orders with credit card 
numbers: (919) 684-6022. 

DEADLINES: November 1 (January-February issue), 
January 1 (March-April issue), March 1 (May-June 
issue), May 1 (July-August issue), July 1 (September- 
October issue), September 1 (November-December 
issue). Please specify issue in which ad should appear. 

March-April I 994 


Remember when 
it was cool to 
be smart in 
school? Greg Sanders 
'92 does, and he's dis- 
mayed that today's 
bright teenagers are 
unchallenged in the 
classroom or, even 
worse, derided by 
other kids for wanting 
to excel. That's why 
he's excited about a 
new publication, 
Young Scholar, "The 
Magazine for High 

While other adoles- 
cent-oriented periodi- 
cals print articles on 
"How To Manage 
Your Mother" or "Hot 
Movie Sex," Young 
Scholar offers "The 
Truth About Getting 
Published" and "What 
College Catalogues 
Don't Tell You." 
Based in Durham, 
North Carolina, the 
bimonthly glossy 
boasts splashy graph- 
ics, reader-friendly 
text, and such regular 
departments as book 
reviews and "What's 
Hot Now," which spot- 
lights "cool products 
and things from all 

"Young Scholar is not 
written as a goody- 
goody magazine," says 
Sanders, the publica- 

the magazine for high performance students" 

tion's managing editor. 
"We try to make our 
editorial as tough as 
possible, not only to 
give our readers ideas 
for success but also 
to give them new 
perspectives on that 
success." Aimed at 
thirteen- to eighteen- 
year-olds, Young 
Scholar goes direcdy to 

the source for feed- 
back: Focus groups and 
student guest editors 
critique articles and 

Sanders' involve- 
ment with Young 
Scholar began serendip- 
itously. While working 
a post-graduation tem- 
porary job, he spotted 
an ad soliciting free- 

lance writers to help 
launch a new publica- 
tion. Sanders and the 
publisher, Webb How- 
ell (currendy a student 
in Duke's Liberal Stud- 
ies master's program), 
hit it off so well that 
Howell hired Sanders 
as managing editor. 
Available through 
subscription only, 
Young Scholar was 
named one of the three 
best magazines for 
young adults in a 
recent Dallas Morning 
News education sec- 
tion. And direct mail- 
ings to parents have 
been so successful that 
the publication has im- 
plemented a no-risk, 
money-back guarantee. 
"It seems that a lot of 
attention is directed 
toward kids who can't 
read or are from disad- 

g vantaged back- 

S grounds," says Sanders. 

J "And while that is defi- 
nitely a problem, at the 
same time there is no 
recognition given to 
academically talented 
kids. We want to reach 
out to that population 
and open their eyes to 
experiences they're not 
aware of. We want 
each child to do the 
best that they can pos- 
sibly do." 

Timothy D. Warmath '84, director of regional 
programs for the University of Miami's alumni rela- 
tions office, represented Duke in February at the inau- 
guration of the president of Florida Memorial College. 
He lives in Miami Beach, Fla. 

Lisa Koehler '85 is an emergency physician with 
Peachtree Emergency Associates at Piedmont Hospi- 
tal. She lives in Atlanta. 

Cynthia Ann Granroth Luis-Guerra '85, an 
Air Force captain, is an intelligence communications 
manager for Air Combat Command. She was trans- 
ferred from Germany to Langley Air Force Base in 

Joan Tabaek '85 is director of merchandising for 
the collection division of Liz Claiborne, Inc. She and 
her husband, Andrew Frankle, live in New York City. 

Lenora Patrice Carloek M.B.A '86 is author of 

Speak to Me, a book of motivational thoughts provid- 
ing "inspiration for every day of the year." 

Julie JaquiSS Collins '86 works in medical 
group services at Harvard Community Health Plan, a 
Boston health maintenance organization. She and her 
husband, Dan, live in Wellesley, Mass. 

Kimberly Reed '86, who graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Virginia's law school in 1989, is a litigation 
associate at the Washington, DC, law firm Howrey 
& Simon and is an officer at the Women's National 
Democratic Club. She and her husband, Chris Feeley, 
live in Bethesda, Md. 

Susan Henlein Haynes M.H.A. '87 is a man- 
ager with Practice Management, Inc., in Indianapolis, 
where she is responsible for the operations of nine 
physician's offices associated with Methodist Hospital. 

David Wayne Johnson Jr. '87, who graduated 
from Wake Forest University's law school in 1990, is a 
project attorney for the law firm Howrey & Simon in 
rheir Los Angeles office and a member of Lawyers for 
Human Rights in Los Angeles. He lives in Long Beach. 

Robert T. Johnson III '87 is in his seventh year 
with Metropolitan Life's employee benefit sales depart- 
ment as a senior group representative. He and his 
wife, Susan, live in Atlanta. 

Collins Perkins '87, who earned her 
master's in accounting at UNC-Chapel Hill's Kenan- 
Flagler School of Business last May, works for KPMG 
Peat Marwick in Raleigh, N.C. Her husband, Rob 
Perkins B.S.E. '87, is a telecommunications soft- 
ware engineer at Bell Northern Research in the 
Research Triangle Park. "The happy couple," she 
writes, "who just celebrated five years of wedded bliss, 

returned to Durham, N.C, in 1991 after three years in 
Berlin, Germany, courtesy of Uncle Sam. Look us up." 

Christopher J. Petrini J.D. '87, A.M. '87 is a 
member of the Boston law firm Conn, Kavanaugh, 
Rosenthal & Peisch, where he specializes in employ- 
ment and construction litigation. He also chairs the 
Framington School Committee, which oversees the 
7,500-pupil Framingham, Mass., school district. 

John Cullen Ruff '87, who earned his M.D. at 
UNC-Chapel Hill's medical school, is doing an 
internship in internal medicine in Wilmington, N.C. 
He plans a residency in radiology. He and his partner, 
Jack W. Gardner, live at Wrightsville Beach. 

Megan Young '87 is planning a major commemo- 
ration of the fifth anniversary of the massacre at 
Tiananmen Square for the first week of June. The pro- 
gram will benefit Human Rights in China, an organi- 
zation with which she has been involved since return- 
ing to New York after teaching in Hangzhou, China. 

Charm S. Amarasinghe '88, who earned her 
law degree from the University of Georgia, is an asso- 
ciate with the Augusta law firm Pardue and Massey. 

Geoffrey B. di Mauro '88, who earned his law 
degree in 1993 at Boston University, is an associate i 
the environmental section of the Orlando office of 
the law firm Akerman, Senterfitt & Eidson, PA. 

Debra Anne Donahoe '88 and I 

Thomas McKenna '89 both completed master's 
degrees in sociology at UNC-Chapel Hill and are 
continuing work on doctorates. They live in 
Carrboro, N.C. 

Jess O. Hale Jr. A.M. '88 is the federal/state 
relations liaison in the Washington, D.C., office of 
U.S. Sen. Harlan Mathews (D-Tenn.). He is also an 
attorney and an ordained minister in the Disciples of 
Christ church. 

Pamela Postma Khinda '88, who earned her 
M.B.A. from UNC-Chapel Hill's Kenan-Flagler busi- 
ness school in 1992, is a senior analyst with the Fed- 
eral National Mortgage Association in Washington, 
DC. Her husband, Philip, is an attorney with the 
Securities and Exchange Commission. 

Paul Alexander Rodio '88 is a history teacher 
and assistant football coach at Durham's Northern 
High School. He and his wife, Yonica, a physical 
therapist, live in Durham. 

Matt Anderson '89 received his M.B.A. from 
Stanford University and is working as an assistant 
product manager for Mattel Toys in Los Angeles. 

Dawn Taylor Biegelsen '89 is membership 
programs manager for the Nelson-Atkins Museum of 
Art, where she coordinates the educational, social, 
and fund-raising programs. She and her husband, 
Dave, live in Prairie Village, Kansas. 

Lisa Britchkow '89, who graduated cum laude 
from the University of Pennsylvania's law school, has 
joined the law firm Drinker Biddle & Reath, where 
she is an associate in the litigation department. She 
works in the firm's Philadelphia office. 

Carla L. Brown J.D. '89 is a partner in the law 
firm Honigman, Miller, Schwartz and Cohn and 
practices litigation at the firm's West Palm Beach, 
Fla., office. 

George Fox Jr. B.S.E. '89, a Navy 1 
assistant combat systems officer on the staff of Com- 
mander, Destroyer Squadron 8 in Mayport, Fla. He 
and his wife, Karolyn, live in Ponte Vedra Beach. 

Jonathan Daniel Lehman '89, who earned his 
M.D. in June at the Medical College of Virginia, is an 
intern in medicine at Mt. Auburn Hospital in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and will enter a radiology residency 


program at the University of California, San Fran- 
cisco, in July. He and his wife, Christine 
LeGrand Lehman '91, a third-year law student, 
live in Somerville, Mass. 

Steven R. Norris '89 graduated from Vanderhilt 
University's medical school and now lives in Atlanta, 
where he is pursuing a residency in orthopaedic 
surgery at Emory University. 

Virginia "Ginger" Spivey '89 is working on her 
master's degree in art history at Case Western Reserve 
University in Cleveland, Ohio. She and her husband, 
Glenn A. White 79, an associate professor of biol- 
ogy at Ashland University, live in Medina, Ohio. 

David L. Strauss '89, who earned his law degree 
from the University of Wisconsin's law school, is a 
litigation associate at the Chicago law firm Amstein 
& Lehr, and is licensed to practice in both Illinois and 
Wisconsin. He was editor of the Wisconsin Law 
Review, where his article "Where There's Smoke, 
There's the Firefighter's Rule: Containing the Confla- 
gration After 100 Years" appeared in 1992. 

Richard P. Turk '89, who earned his M.B.A. 
last May from the University of Texas at Austin, is 
a category manager with Nestle Food Co. in Glen- 
dale, Calif. 

MARRIAGES: James P. Cox III '80 to Kara 
Anne Obrien on Oct. 10. Residence: Charlottesville, 
Va....R. Morris Friedman '84 to Emily Wright 
Miller on July 17. Residence: Durham... Angel 
Renee Neal '85 to Michael Steven Marlowe on 
Dec. 18. Residence: Durham... Joan Taback '85 
to Andrew Frankle on Oct. 30. Residence: New York 
City. . .Julie Jaquiss '86 to Dan Collins on Aug. 
28. Residence: Wellesley, Mas Kimberly Reed 
'86 to Chris Feeley on July 4. Residence: Bethesda, 
Md... Robert T. Johnson III '87 to Susan West 
on July 24. Residence: Atlanta... John Cullen 
Ruff '87 and Jack W. Gardner II on Oct. 30. Resi- 
dence: Wrightsville Beach, N.C....Ann L. Sharpe 
'87.M.D. '91 to Jeffery Collins on Aug. 14. Residence: 
Nashville, Tenn....Lois Anne Estok M.B.A. '88 
to David Joseph Madden on Sept. 11. Residence: 
Dutham...Paul Alexander Rodio '88 to Yonica 
Lee Watkins on Jan. 15 in Duke Chapel. Residence: 
Durham... George Fox Jr. B.S.E. '89 to Karolyn 
May Mallarnee on Sept. 18. Residence: Ponte Vedra 
Beach, Fl.i Jonathan Daniel Lehman '89 to 
Christine LeGrand '91 on June 12 in Duke 
Chapel. Residence: Somerville, Mass.. . .Virginia 
"Ginger" Spivey '89 to Glenn A. White '79 
on April 24, 1993, in Duke Chapel. Residence: 
Medina, Ohio. 

BIRTHS: Second child and first son to Penny 
Wolfson Lieberberg '80 and Robert Lieberberg 
on Aug. 19. Named James Nicholas... First child and 
daughter to Sandra Clingan Smith '80, M.B.A. 
'83 and Steven Smith on Jan. 31. Named Kathetine 
Athelia. . .Second child and first son to Clare 
Brokaw Speyer '80 and Andtew John Speyer on 
Sept. 27. Named Edward John. . . A son to Robin 
Klatzkin Bochner B.S.E. '82 and Alan Bochner 
on Oct. 23. Named Daniel Jason. . Third child and 
second son to Shawn McQueen Smith '82 and 
Bradford T. Smith on July 3. Named Robert Chap- 
man... First child and son to Keith W. Bennert 
'83 and Elizabeth A. Benson '84 on Jan. 25, 
1993. Named Kevin William.. .First child and daugh- 
ter to Rick Hull '83 and Lisa Ridley Hull '84 
on July 20. Named Whitney Jane... Second child and 
first son to Charles Arthur Stark '83, M.H.A. 
'85 and Julie Ann Stark on July 30. Named Charles 
Connor. . .Second child and second son to Debra 
Baker Christie B.S.E. '84 and Fred Christie on 
Feb. 1, 1993. Named Jeffrey Louis... Second child and 
first son to Russell D. Owen '84, Ph.D. '89 and 

Elizabeth Harris Owen '85 on March 18, 1993. 
Named Tucker Harris. . .First child and son to 
Stephen S. Hirschfield '85, M.S. '89 and 
Melanie Hirschfield on Oct. 19. Named Camden 
David. . .Second child and daughter to Cynthia 
Ann Granroth Luis-Guerra '85 and Antonio 
Luis-Guerra on Sept. 30. Named Vanesa Caela... 
Second child and first son to Susan Henlein 
Haynes M.H.A. '87 and Robert Haynes. Named 
Joseph Carl. . .First child and son to Evan L. Jones 
'87 and Suma Ramaiah Jones '87 on Jan. 27. 
Named Kiran Morgan. 


Timothy S. Baird '90, who earned his law degree 
from the University of Texas at Austin's law school, is 
an associate at the law firm Mays & Valentine in 
Richmond, Va. He is working in business and com- 
mercial litigation. 

Jennifer McMillan Jasper '90 writes that she 
has returned from living in Saudi Arabia. She and her 
husband, Marc, now live in Hubert, N.C. 

Craig M. Hanson '91 was selected Student Naval 
Aviator of the Month (May) at Training Squadron 
23, Naval Air Station, Kingsville, Texas, and 
teceived a letter of commendation for his "skill, per- 
sistence, and aggressive nature" while training in 
aerial gunnery. He has completed intermediate flight 
ttaining, logging 100 in-flight hours, which includes 
landings and take-offs ahoatd an aircraft carrier. 

Christopher M. Joe '91 graduated from South- 
ern Methodist University's law school in May, where 
he was an editor of the SMU Law Review. He is a 
litigation attorney for the Houston, Texas, law firm 
Holt:man and Urqhart. 

Jose L. Lage Ph.D. '91 , an assistant professor of 
mechanical engineering at Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity, was appointed to the J.L. Embery Professor- 
ship in Engineering, an endowed junior faculty chair. 

Christine LeGrand Lehman '91 is in her third 

year at Harvard Law School and will practice law 
with Latham and Watkins in San Francisco after 
graduating. Her husband, Jonathan Daniel 
Lehman '89, a medical intern, will begin a resi- 
dency in San Francisco in July. They live in 
Somerville, Mass. 

Anna Morales '91 is sales manager of Latin Amer- 
ica for Overseas Filmgroup. Her husband, Tom 
Rhodes '91, works for HBO Pictures in creative 
affairs. They live in Los Angeles. 

Mark C. Bieniarz '92 is an officer and a class 
representative for his first-year class at Baylor College 
of Medicine in Houston. 

Jennifer H. Ehlin '92, a Navy ensign, graduated 
with honors from the Basic Surface Warfare Officer's 
course in Newport, R.I. 

D. Kramer '92, a Navy ensign, com- 
pleted Officer Indoctrination School in Newport, 
R.I., where he was trained in naval history, personnel 
administration, military law, and other general mili- 
tary subjects. 

Tamara K. Schnurr '92, a Navy ensign, com- 
pleted Officer Indoctrination School in Newport, 
R.I., where she was trained in naval history, personnel 
administration, military law, and other general mili- 
tary subjects. 

William G. Beamer '93, a Navy ensign, com- 
pleted the Basic Surface Warfare Officer's Course in 
San Diego. He was trained in ship handling and 
maneuvering under simulated battle conditions, radar 

detection, tracking and plotting of enemy fire, com- 
and damage control. 

MARRIAGES: Patricia Eileen Keogh '90 to 
Robert Alec Naslund B.S.E. '90, M.S. '92 on 
July 10. Residence: Durham... Ernest "Bud" 
Zuberer III '90 to Elizabeth Snodgrass on Oct. 30. 
Residence: Tampa, Ha Christine LeGrand '91 
to Jonathan Lehman '89 on June 12 in Duke 
Chapel. Residence: Somerville, Mass.... Anna 
Morales '91 to Tom Rhodes '91 on Sept. 18. 
Residence: Los Angeles... Nancy A. Decker 
B.S.E. '92 to Gregory D. Sabin B.S.E. '92 on 
Nov. 6. Residence: Phoenix, Ariz. ... Daniel C. 
Green M.B.A. '92 to Jamie L. Scarborough 
M.B.A. '93 on July 31. Residence: Cambridge, 
Mass.... Jennifer Elinor Killam '92 to James 
Persons Benton III B.S.E. '93 on Oct. 16 in 

Duke Chapel. 


Vera Wiggins McCown 19 on Nov. 4. 

James Erwin "Mutt" Cable '25 of Durham on 
Nov. 19. He worked for Burlington Industries for 40 
years before retiring in 1970. At Duke, he was a mem- 
ber of the baseball and basketball teams in 1921. In 
1947, he was named Durham's first Father of the Year. 
He was a member of McMannen United Methodist 
Church, where he served on its board of stewards and 
as secretary and treasurer. He is survived by his wife, 
Eunice, two sons, four grandchildren, and a great- 

Edna Kilgo Elias Walton '30 of Charlotte, 

N.C, on Jan. 18, 1993. She was the granddaughtet of 
Bishop John C. Kilgo, who was president of Duke 
from 1894 to 1910. At Duke, she was a member of 
Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. She was a charter 
member of the President's Executive Council. She is 
survived by a first cousin, Bailey T. Groome 
B.S.M.E. '43. 

J. Berkley Wilson LL.B. '32 of Indianola, Iowa, 
of a heart ailment. He was an attorney and senior 
partner with the law firm Wilson, Fowler, Fusco. He 
was a former member of the Iowa State Bat Associa- 
tion's board of governors. He is survived by his wife, 
Ena, a son, and two grandchildren. 

M. Brazwell '33 of Glendale, Mo., on 
Nov. 25, after a long illness. At Duke, he was a mem- 
ber of Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. He served in the 
Army in Iceland and Europe during World War II. He 
was a sales representative for Galey & Lord in St. 
Louis until he retired in 1974. He is survived by his 
wife, Pat, two daughters, and two grandchildren. 

George J. Sherman '33 of West Hartford, 
Conn., on Nov. 29. Since 1958, he was the senior 
principal in the law firm Sherman, Respess, Krause & 
Byrne. A member and officer of several local organiza- 
tions, he was also founder and incorporator of the 
Hartford Association for Retarded Citizens. He 
received his law degree from Boston Univetsity, and 
was active in the alumni programs of both B.U. and 
Duke, establishing scholarship funds at both schools. 
He is survived by his wife, Lottie, two sons and a 
daughter, and two brothers. 

Earnest T. Andrews Jr. '34 of Cortez, Fla., on 
July 1, of cancer. In 1933, he joined his father's stock 
brokerage firm and later became managing partner 
and chief executive officer. During World War II, he 
worked in the United Aircraft spare parts depart- 
ment, which he eventually headed. After 45 years as 
director and trustee of both the Hartford, Conn., 
county and city YMCAs, he received the 1985 Robert 

March-April 1994 

C. Knox Jr. YMCA Distinguished Leadership Award. 
He is survived by his wife, Marian Young 

Andrews '33, two daughters, a son, a sister, seven 
grandchildren, and five great-grandchildren. 

Carolyn Brooks Wilson '34 of Mayfield, Ky., 
on Feb. 5, 1993. She is survived by three sons, includ- 
ing David B. Wilson '68; a daughter; and seven 


Mary Covington Alden '35, A.M. '39 of 
Rockville, Ind., on Nov. 18, of cancer. At Duke, she 
was a member of Zeta Tau Alpha sorority. She taught 
in Fort Knox, Ky., from 1936 to 1941. After moving 
to Rockville, she was a province officer and president 
of Tri Kappa sorority, president of the Rockville 
Women's Club, and a member of a literature club and 
several community organizations. She is survived by 
her husband, John; a daughter, Elizabeth Alden- 
Rutledge '64; two sons, including John T. 
Alden '67; and eight grandchildren. 

■ Tompkins Berkey 35 of Winter 
Park, Fla., on Nov. 25. At Duke, she was a member of 
Kappa Alpha Theta sorority, chaired the Social Stan- 
dards Committee, was a class officer, and was a mem- 
ber of the May Court. She was also active in the reno- 
vation of the old "Ark" building for dances and other 
social activities. She worked in New York City for an 
advertising firm and for the radio station WWOR. 
She is survived by a son, William Gordon 
Berkey '68. 

William D. McCain Ph.D. '35 on Sept. 5. He was 
president emeritus of the University of Southern Mis- 
sissippi. He retired from the presidency in 1975 after 
serving 20 years. Under his tenure, the university 
tripled its enrollments and made the transition from 
college to university. He also wrote more than 150 
publications and taught at several colleges. He served 
in the U.S. Army during both World War II and the 
Korean conflict, and retired from the Miss. Army 
National Guard with the rank of major general. He is 
survived by a son, a daughter, three sisters, two broth- 
ers, and six grandchildren. 

Paul S. Reddish A.M. '35 of Elon, N.C., on Dec. 
18, 1992, of heart failure. He was a retired professor 
and head of the biology department at Elon College. 
He was also a former professor of photography at 
UNC-Chapel Hill and a former biology professor at 
N.C. State. He is survived by his wife, Nancy. 

Ray Weinfield Laird '36 of Houston, Texas, on 
Nov. 25, of cancer and heart failure. At Duke, he was 
a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He 
owned an insurance agency, Ray W. Laird and Asso- 
ciates. He is survived by his wife, Lisa. 

Leonard Nanzetta '36 of Winston-Salem, N.C, 
on Jan. 14, 1993, of a heart attack. He received his 
medical degree from the University of Michigan, and 
was head of anesthesiology at Forsyth Memorial Hos- 
pital in Winston-Salem for 25 years. He was also first 
oboist with the Winston-Salem Symphony for 43 
years, and first oboist with the National Symphony 
in Washington, D.C., for two years. He raised orchids 
and camellias, and won the Forsyth County "Out- 
standing Tree Farmer" Award in 1981. He is survived 
by his wife, Amy, three daughters, a so a, and four 

Gwendolyn Clark Baker '37 of Ogunquit, 
Maine, on Nov. 19, of a heart attack. At Duke, she 
was a member of Phi Mu sorority. She was an elemen- 
tary school teacher in Weston, Conn., for 20 years. 
She helped her students learn about early American 
folk art, American country antiques, and opera, espe- 
cially Mozart. She was also active in town affairs, and 
belonged to the Ogunquit Women's Club. She and 
her husband, William R. Baker '37, were married 
in Duke Chapel in 1939. She is also survived by two 
children, five grandchildren, and one great-grandson. 

Sept. 17- 

M.Ed. '37 of Dover, Del., 

Peace '37 of Hopkinsville, Ky., on 
Oct. 11, of a heart attack. He graduated from Murray 
State University. During World War II, he served as a 
chief accountant for the U.S. Army Air Corps. He 
owned and operated an accounting business and print 
shop. He then supervised Holiday Inns for Givens 
International for 16 years. He was also a jazz musician, 
playing trumpet for Les Brown and his Band of Renown. 
He later formed his own band. He is survived by his 
wife, Anne, a son, a sister, a stepdaughter and stepson, 
two grandchildren, and one step-granddaughter. 

Ada Tedder '37 of Lakeland, Fla., on Sept. 27. She 
was a language arts teacher at Lakeland Junior High 
School. She was also a traveling secretary for Delta 
Zeta sorority. She is survived by three cousins. 

Jack A. Sutor A.M. '42 of Tallahassee, Fla., on 
Dec. 10. 

Andrew Henry Thomas M.D. '42 of Pompano 
Beach, Fla., on Sept. 6. He received his pre-medical 
training at Roanoke College and completed his in- 
ternship at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut. During 
World War II, he served in the U.S. Army in France 
and Germany and left the service with the rank of 
major. He practiced orthopaedic surgery at Manches- 
ter Memorial Hospital for more than 30 years and 
volunteered on the staff of Newtington Children's 
Hospital for 25 years. In 1953, he was appointed by 
Connecticut's governor to head the Norwich Com- 
munity Clinic for the Disabled, a position he held for 
21 years. He is survived by his wife, Aldonna, two 
daughters, three sons, and six grandchildren. 

Robert W. Zion B.S.M.E. '44 of Honolulu, 
Hawaii, in June 1990, of a heart attack. 

John A. Barrett Jr. '46, M.D. '54 of Charlotte, 
N.C, in October 1992. 

Peter Maruschak B.S.M.E. '46 of Fountain Val- 
ley, Calif., on Sept. 21, of respiratory failure. He was 
an aerospace engineer. He is survived by his wife, 
Wilma, a daughter, two brothers, and a sister. 

Paul J. Marcikonis M.Ed. '47 of Elmwood, 
Conn., on March 11, 1993. He was a professor emeri- 
tus at Central Connecticut State University. 

Allyn S. Norton '47 of Durham, on Dec. 30. He 
served as a first lieutenant in the Army Air Corps 
during World War II. After the war, he worked in the 
physical plant and communications department at 
Duke. He was also an adult leader for the Boy Scouts 
of America for over 30 years, and he received the 
Silver Beaver Award for his distinguished service. He 
was also a YMCA lifesaving instructor. He is survived 
by his wife, Daisy; two sons, including Allyn S. 
Norton Jr. B.S.E. '60; a brother; a sister; a grand- 
child; and two great-grandchildren. 

A. Smith '47 of Orlando, Fla., onju 


Carlton F. Hirschi B.D. '48ofPittsboro,N.C, 
on April 18, 1993, of lung cancer. He was the minis- 
ter at Faith Methodist Church. He is survived by his 
wife, Martha, and a daughter, Karen Hirschi 


Daphne Mahon Holt '48 of Dallas, Texas, on 
Nov. 16, following surgery to remove a tumor. She is 
survived by her husband, Duncan W. Holt '43, 
J.D. '49; a son, George Mahon Holt '75; two 
daughters; and two grandchildren. 

Roy Magruder Jr. '48 of Jackson, Miss, on Sept. 
4, of a heart attack. He is survived by his wife, Patricia; 
a sister, Lila Jean Magruder LaMotte '48; 
and a brother-in-law, Louis C. LaMotte Jr. '48. 

Peggy S. Smith R.N./B.S.N. '48 on Jan. 24, 
1993, after a long illness. She was an educator and 
nurse in the school system of Greenville County, 
S.C., and was principal of Tigerville and Burgess ele- 
mentary schools. She was honored as an "Outstanding 
County Friend of Education" in 1979, and also was 
recognized for her work in the school beautification 
program. Her nursing career spanned 40 years, 
including 25 years at St. Francis Xavier Hospital in 
Charleston and the Greenville Hospital System. She 
is survived by her two daughters, two sisters, a brother, 
and three grandchildren. 

Carl Jackson Sink '49 of Winston-Salem, N.C, 
on Sept. 1 2. At Duke, he was a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa. He served in the Navy during World War II. 
In 1959, he joined the tax department of Reynolds 
Tobacco Co., now R.J.R. Nabisco. He retired in 1989 
as director for tax administration. He was a regional 
leader of the Tax Executives Institute. He was also an 
active volunteer, working with the Boy Scouts of 
America, serving as a skipper for a Sea Explorers ship, 
and helping several local organizations. He was a 
Sunday School teacher and chairman of the board of 
deacons for First Presbyterian Church. He is survived 
by his wife, Elizabeth, two daughters, one son, and 
two grandchildren. 

Charles "Chuck" P. White 49 of Grand Isle, 
Vt., on Feb. 9, 1993. He served in the Army Medical 
Corps in Europe during World War II, then worked 
for the Du Pont Co. for 36 years, retiring as a marketing 
director in 1985. He is survived by his wife, Shirley 
Shapleigh White '49; a daughter, Betsy Ann 
White '74; two sons; and five grandchildren. 

Banks Worth Clark B.S.M.E. '50 on Nov. 12. A 
mechanical engineer, he was involved in projects that 
included waste-to-energy conversion plants and inno- 
vative emission control devices. He also served clients 
as a mediator in construction disputes. He is survived 
by his wife, Lorraine Howard Clark '48; two 
sons, including Jefferson Clark '78 M.B.A. '84; a 
daughter; three brothers; and two grandchildren. 

Harold C. Austin M.Div. '51 of Charlotte, N.C, 
on Sept. 27. During his active ministry, he served at 
churches in Charlotte, Greensboro, High Point, 
North Wilkesboro, and others. He retired in 1990. He 
is survived by his wife, Meredith, a son, three daugh- 
ters, a brother, and 1 1 grandchildren. 

Walter V. Dunne '52 of Park Ridge, 111., on June 
25. He was vice president of the Advertising Checking 
Bureau in Chicago, 111. He is survived by his wife, Joyce, 
two daughters, two grandsons, and three brothers. 

Robert J. Hartsell '54 of Dowagiac, Mich. He 
received the Silver and Bronze stars during the Korean 
War. He taught for a short time, then became an 
antique dealer, specializing in antique art and jewelry. 
He is survived by his brother, Jack. 

Jr. '55 of Greenville, 
N.C, on Dec. 2 1 . At Duke, he was a member of the 
1955 Orange Bowl football team and president of 
Kappa Alpha fraternity. He was also in Navy ROTC, 
and served for 20 years in the U.S. Naval Reserve. He 
worked for Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co. 
for ten years. He then worked with hospital and health 
systems, holding a variety of managerial and execu- 
tive positions for Carolina Health and Hospital Ser- 
vices. He also served on the board of trustees of the 
N.C. Hospital Association. He is survived by his wife, 
Jean; two sons; his parents; a brother; a sister, Meta 
Eberdt Rockwell '61; a brother-in-law, W.J. 
Kenneth Rockwell M.D. '61; a niece, Eliza- 
beth Rockwell '93; and three grandchildren. 

Irving J. Goffman A.M. '57, Ph.D. '59 of 
Gainesville, Fla., on Nov. 16, of a heart attack. He 
was an economics professor at the University of 
Florida, where he won many teaching awards. He 
chaired the economics department from 1970 to 


1975. He was known for rallying students in the social 
movements in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and as 
adviser to Tau Epsilon Phi fraternity, he helped inte- 
grate the university's greek system. He also worked as 
an expert witness fot personal injury and malpractice 
cases. He is survived by his wife, Judith Kasler 
'56; two daughters, including Susan 
Jones '79; his mother; two brothers; a 
sister; and three grandchildren. 

Joseph R. Morris B.D. '58 of Winston-Salem, 
N.C., on Feb. 24, 1993, of a heart attack. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, Nancy. 

Carol B. Nelson '59 of Milledgeville, Ga., in 1991. 

Mitz M. Martin M.D. '66 of Easley, S.C., on Nov. 
6. He was a member of Piedmont Radiation Oncology 
Associates in Greenville, S.C. 

J. Murphy Jr. Ph.D. '71 of Cranford, 

N.J., on Sept. 10, of a heart attack. An engineer, he 
was executive vice president with Langan Engineer- 
ing & Environmental Service Inc. He earned his 
bachelor's and master's in civil engineering at the 
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He had more than 
30 years' experience in geotechnical, civil, and envi- 
ronmental engineering and worked on projects 
throughout the U.S., Middle East, Far East, India, 
South America, and the Caribbean. An adjunct pro- 
fessor of civil engineering, he taught at Columbia and 
Rutgers universities, Brooklyn Polytechnic, and the 
N.J. Institute of Technology. He was a member of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Chi Epsilon, 
Sigma Xi, the International Society fot Soil Mechan- 
ics and Foundation Engineering, and the National 
Well Association. He is survived by his wife, Susan, 
four daughters, a son, his mother, a sister, and a 

William James Berry III '72 of Durham on 
Dec. 12. He was president of Dracor Water Systems 
Co. He was on the board of directors of the Durham 
Arts Council and was a former member of the cham- 
ber of commerce. He is survived by his parents and 
a sister. 

William E. Waiter J.D. '73 of North Barrington, 

111., on Nov. 30. He was a corporate attorney for Borg- 
Wamer Corp. in Chicago. He is survived by his 
mother, a son, a step-brother and step-sister. 

Robert BarteltJ.D. '75 in October, of a heart 
attack. He was Cumberland County's assistant county 
attorney. A retired Army colonel, he had a career 
that spanned from World War II to the Vietnam War. 
In 1946, he worked in counter-intelligence in post- 
war Germany. He was a S|X\ lal F< irco officer in the 
early stages of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. His 
awards included a Purple Heart, the Bronze Service 
Medal, and the Legion of Merit Badge for outstanding 
service. After tetiring from the Army in 1971, he 
worked with the county government administering a 
federal job-training program. After earning his law 
degree, he began the first of several stints as assistant 
county attorney. He was a member of the Rotary Club 
and the Old Soldiers' Club, and he taught at Embry- 
Riddle Aeronautical University at Fort Bragg, N.C. 
He is survived by his wife, Noemie, five daughters, 
and his mother. 

David J. Arnett '78 of Eden Prairie, Minn., on 
Nov. 20. He was a computer network integration 
consultant at Control Data Systems. He is survived by 
his wife, Jennifer S. Brown, a daughter, a son, his 
mother, his grandmother, and two sisters. 

Law professor Sparks 

Bertel M. Sparks, professor emeritus of law at Duke 
and a well-known authority on real property law, died 
January 24 in Durham after a long period of declining 
health. He was 75. 

He graduated from Eastern Kentucky University in 
1938. During World War II, he was a special agent in 
the U.S. Army's Counterintelligence Corps. He grad- 
uated from the University of Kentucky's law school in 
1948, where he was editor of the Kentucky Law 
Journal. He earned his LL.M. in 1949 and his S.J.D. in 
1955, both from the University of Michigan. Before 
joining the Duke law faculty in 1967, he had taught at 
New York University's law school since 1949. He 
retired from Duke in 1988. 

He was the author of two books, Contracts to Make 
Wills and Cases of Trusts and Estates, and of numerous 
articles in professional journals. He was a member of 
the drafting committee for the Multi-State Bar Exam- 
ination for the National Conference of Bar Examin- 
ers, and was a member of the committee for the revi- 
sion of laws in relation to the administration of 
estates fot the Notth Carolina General Statutes Com- 

He is survived by his wife, Martha, two brothers, 
three sisters, and five nephews. 

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March-April 1 994 

Please limit letters to no more than 300 words. 
Duke Magazine reserves the right to edit letters 
for length and clarity. 



As a faculty member at Mary Washing- 
ton College, where we recently discussed 
the issue of "grade inflation," I found Brid- 
get Booher's article ["Obsessed With Being 
the Best," November- December 1993] to 
be quite interesting. I argued that either 
we should follow our definitions of the 
various grades (e.g., C = work of average 
or medium quality) in our grading prac- 
tices or we should change the definitions. 

We, of course, did neither, but I must ad- 
mit that our grades (Spring '93, A = 29%, 
B = 43%, C = 23%, D = 4%, F = 1%) are 

Your campus flower 

connection- No one knows 

town or gown better! 

Phone orders with a major credit card 
can be placed from anywhere in the country- 
Call toll free: 

124 E. Franklin Street i 
University Wall 

not as inflated as those at Duke. To put 
your article in better perspective, it would 
be interesting to see the definition of 
grades at Duke and, if a C is defined as 
average, an explanation of the comparison 
group (all college students or only Duke 

Incidentally, I hope the pre-medical stu- 
dent who threatened a lawsuit over his A- 
had his acceptance to a medical school 
withdrawn. He will no doubt be another 
physician who believes he is entitled to a 
seven-figure income just because he com- 
pleted medical school. Will he show as 
much concern for his patients? 

Roy F. Gratz A.M. '68, Ph.D. '70 
Fredericksburg, Virginia 


Thank you for the article about grade 
inflation. I am distressed, however, that we 
are not teaching our students at Duke or 
elsewhere the lesson I learned so well at 

The most prodigious effort in writing 
was a paper on "The Passover Plot" for my 
religion course in my junior year. I had 
over a hundred sources for my thirty-page 
work and was very proud of the result. My 
grade was a C, which I protested only to be 
kindly counseled by the dean, our profes- 
sor, that the magnitude of an effort did not 
necessarily translate into the quality of the 

I have always remembered that and now 
look for other ways to judge the outcome 
of my work. 

James T. Hay '68, M.D. 
Encinitas, California 


Your "Obsessed With Being the Best" 
article in the November-December issue 
got me to thinking: 

It was in the early 1960s. I wished very 
much to go to Duke Medical School. My 
undergraduate record was atrocious from a 
grades point of view (including some fail- 
ures), plus three or four changes of majors. 
I had graduated from a less-than-prestigious 
school, had frittered some years away chas- 
ing around the world with the Navy, and 
yet, audaciously, I applied to Duke. I had 
heard some wonderful things about the 
medical school from people whose opinions 

I regarded highly. I wanted the best, so I 
applied, and was accepted! 

Frankly, I was astounded and gratified; 
seemingly, I was reprieved from all my pre- 
vious academic misdoings. 

At the first medical school/faculty social 
(beer and conversation on Methodist 
Flats), I had nervously approached the 
chairman of the admissions committee, 
Joseph Markee, professor and chairman of 
the department of anatomy. I asked him, 
"Dr. Markee, how come Duke accepted 
me?" He looked whimsically at me, then 
turned and smiled to another member of 
the committee, then looked back at me 
and replied, "Son, the main thing the 
committee looks for is strength." That was 
all he said. 

One wonders, are there such commit- 
tees today? Your article suggests there are 
not, but that small voice in me hopes 
there still are. 

Incidentally, during these past thirty 
years, I have gotten around a little bit and, 
in my view, the Duke Medical School still 
is the best. 

Eugene Guazzo M.D. '65 
Chaptico, Maryland 



Many thanks for the good article about 
Anne Garrard ["Leading the Way for 
Women"] that appeared in the November- 
December 1993 Duke Magazine. It's an 
indication that Duke does appreciate 
devoted service, and that Duke recognizes 
women's contributions. In addition, Anne 
is such a splendid person; it's good to have 
her receive some notice. 

It was also a pleasure to see an article on 
Mary Grace Wilson a few months ago 
["Remembering Mary Grace," March- 
April 1993]. These women were such a 
very large part of Duke to so many people. 

Ann Barry Schneider '44 
Charleston, West Virginia 





he farmer's vice-like 
chest pains were wors- 
ening, especially when 
the middle-aged man 
tried to work his fields 
in the hot afternoon 
sun. His medicine wasn't 
helping any more, so he 
called his doctor, who urged him to come 
to the local clinic immediately. The mod- 
est clinic was only a storefront in the rural 
town, but the familiar Duke insignia on 
the door signaled its affiliation. 

The local physician decided to consult a 
Duke cardiologist. As the farmer settled 
into the examining room, the doctor 
touched a few buttons on the high-defini- 
tion video screen. The cardiologist ap- 
peared from his office 100 miles away, 
greeting them via the two-way link. The 
local doctor touched a few more buttons, 
and the farmer's EKG appeared at the bot- 
tom of both screens, along with 
read-outs of his blood tests and 
vital signs. The doctor also trans- 
mitted the farmer's heart sounds 
to the cardiologist. 

The three discussed the data, 
and the two physicians drew more 
details from the farmer about his 
pain. The trio quickly decided it 
was time for a trip to Duke Hospi- 
tal on its Life Flight helicopter for 
a few more tests and perhaps a 
cardiac catheterization. The car- 
diologist punched the request 
into the hospital computer, trig- 
gering a cascade of instructions to 
the appropriate departments to 
arrange for the visit. 

After signing off, the Duke cardiologist 
consulted his schedule for the day. Besides 
his patient load at Duke Hospital, he had 
five more video consultations elsewhere in 
North Carolina, two in other states, one in 
South America, and one in Russia. 

In his local clinic, the country doctor 
decided to "video-visit" one of his young 



The multi-billion-dollar 
question for Duke 
Medical Center is 

whether it can reinvent 
itself to respond to 

health-care competition 
and consumerism. 

patients at Duke Hospital. First, he con- 
sulted the electronic hospital records on 
the boy's condition. Then, using the video 
link, he chatted with the boy and his par- 
ents, arranging for a visit when the boy 
returned home. With a few minutes 
between patients, the doctor then called 
up a video seminar on skin disorders that 

he'd downloaded the previous day from 
the Duke continuing education system. 

This medical scenario of the next decade 
is certainly intriguing, but more significant 
is the profound change in treatment phi- 
losophy it represents. 

Like all hospitals, Duke University Med- 
ical Center (DUMC) is coping with change 
in the health-care industry, driven by 
competition and cost-consciousness. But 
unlike the average local community hospi- 
tal, DUMC and other academic institu- 
tions must labor under additional burdens 
of teaching, research, and service costs. 
Whether it can compete under these bur- 
dens is the multi-billion-dollar question. 

"Duke and the other academic medical 
institutions have been the real center of the 
health-care universe from the viewpoint of 
patient care, education, and research," says 
Joseph Lipscomb Jr., associate professor of 
health policy studies at Duke. "The main 
reason is that third-party payers 
have been collectively willing to 
foot the bill for this excellence. 
And patients have been willing 
to foot the bill because they 
don't pay their whole bill. This 
stimulus has not only rewarded 
individual physicians very well, 
but it's made hospitals and even 
the big expensive medical cen- 
ters able to prosper." 

The burgeoning costs of med- 
ical care have changed this equa- 
tion, says Lipscomb, and the aca- 
demic medical centers will have 
| to reinvent themselves. "The 
| academic medical centers are 
= the high-cost guys on the block. 
The business community that has to pay 
for care is increasingly asking questions 
about whether the extra size of the bills 
coming out of a major medical center is 
worth it. The whole nature of their mis- 
sion is being examined, if not called into 
question, all driven by this concern about 
escalating costs. And for many, the esca- 

Marc/i-April 1994 


lating cost ties in with a suspicion that 
we're not getting the health- improvement 
payoff for that escalating cost that one 
would like." 

DUMC has begun its drive to competi- 
tiveness by creating a Duke Health Net- 
work that will consist of a dispersed system 
of primary-care physicians, clinics, and 
hospitals linked to the medical campus. 
Under Ralph Snyderman, chancellor for 
health affairs, and Mark Rogers, vice chan- 
cellor for health systems and executive 
director of Duke Hospital, DUMC is also 
offering new cost-saving, customer-orient- 
ed services such as home health care. With 
health-care reform and increased competi- 
tion looming, DUMC is rethinking how it 
educates its medical students to adapt to a 
future demand for more primary-care 
physicians and fewer expensive specialists. 

As any patient or health-policy expert 
can testify, the nation's health-care system 
desperately needs an overhaul. Under the 
current system, medical costs have skyrock- 
eted because of the emphasis on expensive 
specialty care, duplicated high-technology 
equipment, and the costs of bureaucracy. 
A study by Harvard Medical School found 
that paperwork eats up about one-fourth of 
hospital costs. The study found that hospi- 
tals must deal with multiple insurers with 
different billing, payment, and oversight 

The rebellion by patients and industry 
against such burdens — and not necessarily 
the Clinton administration's health-care 
plan — are chief among the forces affecting 
DUMC's future, says Snyderman. "There's 
a momentum in health care that's been 
developing independent of any national or 
state policy. The people who are buying 
health care, particularly industry, are be- 
coming more and more uncomfortable about 
its cost. They're becoming increasingly 
knowledgeable about what they're paying 
for, and they're developing additional 
options for health-care purchase. So, the 
higher-cost health care that we deliver, 
which is based on the assumption that we 
are giving a far greater quality product, will 
not carry us beyond a few years from now." 

Thus, says Snyderman, time is short for 
the medical center to begin to change. 
"For us to be inactive now would be a dis- 
aster because, as we sit here, primary-care 
physicians throughout North Carolina 
who currently refer patients to Duke are 
being identified and solicited into net- 
works that will ultimately either be work- 
ing with us or competing against us." 

As Duke's planners envision the 
DUMC network, such methods as video 
could extend the reach of the medical cen- 
ter, enabling expensive specialists to "treat" 
more patients. Such telecommunications 
could also coordinate the use of expensive 

Duke Medical Center 
is forging a network 

of primary-care 

physicians, clinics, 

and hospitals linked 

together for quick and 

convenient care. 

medical instruments, reducing duplication 
and lowering costs. 

Competing on cost will be a major chal- 
lenge for Duke, which has historically sup- 
ported some of its medical training and 
research from patient costs. Duke economist 
Frank Sloan points out that community 
hospitals usually carry lower overhead and 
a lower load of indigent patients. For 
example, Duke provided about $200 mil- 
lion in total uncompensated medical 
care — including indigent care, hospital costs 
unreimbursed by Medicaid and Medicare, 
and bad debts — in fiscal 1993, say hospital 

Sloan, the J. Alexander McMahon Pro- 
fessor of Health Policy and Management, 
offers a ray of economic hope for presti- 
gious institutions such as DUMC. "On the 
other hand, there seems to be a cross-cur- 
rent in which the public is saying, 'I don't 
want to have my choice limited. If I have 
surgery I want to go to Duke.' But the 
question is how much of that should be 
underwritten by society, given the fact 
that there exist community hospitals that 
do some of the same things with a very high 
volume and very satisfactory performance." 

Hospital surveys have documented the 
higher cost of academic medical care. One 
state-produced guide to North Carolina 
hospital costs showed common surgical pro- 
cedures at DUMC and the University of 
North Carolina Hospitals to be significantly 
higher than the median of state hospital 
costs. The survey covered such procedures 
as coronary bypasses, angioplasties, normal 
delivery of babies, Caesarean sections, hys- 
terectomies, and cardiac catheterizations. 
Duke was higher than the state median for 
ten of the twelve procedures. For those ten 
procedures, Duke's average hospital charges 
were 28 percent higher than the median. 
UNC Hospitals charged more than the 
state median for eleven of the twelve proce- 
dures, averaging for those procedures a cost 
27 percent higher than the state median. 
By contrast, Durham Regional Hospital's 
charges were only above the state median — 

by an average of 6 percent — for six of the 
twelve procedures. 

Lipscomb says he hopes the new nation- 
al health-care plan will not only continue 
to encourage such cost comparisons but 
will also persuade Duke, UNC, and other 
academic centers to consider their place in 
the overall scheme of medical care. "Do 
we need all these major hospitals doing all 
the major care that they do?" he asks. 
"How much potential is there for regional- 
ization or for developing centers of excel- 
lence? Right now, there's no mechanism 
for collaboration in any of the health-care 
plans, because these are free-wheeling, en- 
terprising, proud entities. It is not a simple 
matter to ask those institutions to give up 
some program they spent years developing 
and have a strong intellectual, if not finan- 
cial, interest in for the sake of a larger 
social efficiency." 

Despite such cost differences, says hospi- 
tal executive director Rogers, Duke has 
much to distinguish it from even the best 
community hospitals. "Duke is a high- 
quality institution with an identifiable name 
that will attract patients if they are able to 
get here through their system," he says. 
"Duke is also an institution on the leading 
edge of medicine and, as a result, will al- 
ways have some treatment programs unique 
enough that it will be necessary to bring 
patients here because they will demand to 
come here." Rogers cites Duke's highly 
successful program of using bone-marrow 
transplants to restore immune-system func- 
tion after aggressive chemotherapy for 
breast cancer. The program has drastically 
reduced hospital stays for breast cancer 

Bricks and mortar also play a role in 
making a leading medical center, says 
Rogers. "Duke has also had the foresight to 
build modern facilities. It has resources to 
complete the complex of buildings for a 
new outpatient clinic without having sig- 
nificant debt, which undoubtedly would 
be a major limitation on the quality of ser- 
vice that we could provide." 

Even with top-flight machines and clin- 
ics, cost competition will still be paramount, 
says chancellor Snyderman. "I really don't 
know exactly how much of a premium ser- 
vice providers and patients would be will- 
ing to pay for the advantages Duke offers. 
This is totally subjective, but I tend to 
doubt whether they would be willing to 
pay more than 10 percent more." 

Duke should be able to pare costs effi- 
ciently, says Lipscomb, because of its im- 
proved accounting systems. "Hospitals 
have been relatively late as business enti- 
ties go in getting a firm handle on how to 
measure the cost of their operation," he 
says, "but they're doing much better now. 
And places like Duke that have advanced 



cost-accounting systems are putting them- 
selves in a position to learn about their costs 
and to manage them and control them and 
to bid in a smart way in a competitive market." 

DUMC's largely rural patient base also 
offers competitive advantages, says Arthur 
"Tim" Garson M.D. '74, a professor of 
pediatrics, medicine, and public policy, 
and chief of pediatric cardiology. "There 
are few rural medical centers of the stature 
of Duke. The other major centers are in or 
near large urban complexes, so we have an 
opportunity to show how to take care of 
patients at a distance with telecommuni- 
cations and with networking with physi- 
cians." Garson, who is also associate vice 
chancellor for health affairs, is among fac- 
ulty exploring telecommunications to aid 
rural health care. He is leading a study to 
determine whether children with heart dis- 
ease can be effectively "seen" by cardiolo- 
gists via telephone and facsimile machines. 

In all these expansion efforts, Duke and 
the nation's other health care centers must 

Medical costs 

have skyrocketed 

because of expensive 

specialty care, duplicated 


equipment, and the 

costs of bureaucracy. 

face a new concept of "capitated care" for 
financing treatment. Under capitated care, 
employers or other health-care customers 
no longer pay the medical bills according 
to the hospital's costs. Rather, they offer 
medical centers a set fee for each of their 
covered employees, and from these per- 

capita fees, the medical center must cover 
all necessary care. 

"Capitation turns health-care financing 
around 180 degrees," says Snyderman. 
"Most of what we currently do is treat an 
individual's illness. In the near future, we 
will be managing the health of populations 
in a much more concerted way. Our inter- 
est will be in keeping people away from 
unnecessary utilization of highly complex 
expensive treatments. It totally changes 
the mindset of treating disease toward 
more primary care and prevention. If we're 
getting paid a fixed rate per person per 
year, when somebody requires coronary 
artery bypass grafting or some complex 
neurosurgical procedure, that becomes a 
cost, rather than a margin. It will be im- 
portant to see that individuals get the 
level of care they need — no more, no less." 

Under capitated care, DUMC will have 
to cope with considerably reduced demand 
for hospitalization. According to Rogers, 
while the national occupancy rate for hos- 


The intricacies of the 
health-care machin- 
ery are just as myste- 
rious and subtle as any dis- 
ease. And determining 
whether treatments work, 
whether they're cost-effec- 
tive, and whether their 
delivery can be improved 
can save just as many lives 
as the latest drug. 

So in 1980, Duke 
launched the Center for 
Health Policy Research and 
Education (CHPRE) to 
improve health-care deliv- 
ery. The idea was to join 
faculty from Duke Medical 
Center, Arts and Sciences, 
the law school, and the 
Fuqua School of Business 
to explore health-care pol- 
icy problems. In particular, 
says director David 
Matchar, CHPRE has pro- 
vided hard statistical evi- 
dence to physicians on spe- 
cific treatments. 

For example, Matchar 
now heads a multi-univer- 
sity CHPRE study to deter- 
mine the best way to pre- 
vent strokes. The five-year, 
$7-million study will 
develop recommendations 
for stroke prevention that 
will be tested throughout 
the United States. Other 
CHPRE-based studies ad- 
dress treatments for sickle 
cell disease and arthritis. 

"The clinical studies 
remain a major strength of 
the center," says Matchar, 
"but in the last five years, 
I've sought to broaden 

CHPRE's agenda to include 
more health-policy issues." 
Thus, CHPRE faculty are 
studying under-insurance 
in North Carolina, the use 
of telecommunications for 
treatment, how government 
policies affect the develop- 
ment of new drugs, and 
how foreign countries treat 
congenital heart disease. 

CHPRE also sponsors 
seminars and courses on 
health policy and last fall 
inaugurated a Health Pol- 
icy Certificate Program for 
both undergraduates and 
graduate students. 

The revolution in health 
care has brought with it a 
new role for policy 
researchers, says Matchar. 
"The old approach was that 
clinicians would tell admin- 
istrators and policy makers 
what they need to do that's 
best for their patients. 
Then, administrators and 
policy makers would figure 
out how to provide those 
services and the 
equipment. Now, policy 
makers are saying that 
there are certain con- 
straints on what medical 
care can be provided, and 
physicians are asked to 
respond by saying, within 
those constraints, how they 
can operate optimally." 

CHPRE has helped 
bridge the gap between 
clinician and policy re- 
searcher, says Matchar, 
who still maintains a clini- 
cal practice himself. How- 

ever, he adds, many physi- 
cians still have difficulty 
accepting the findings of 
health-policy researchers, 
even from a clinically-ori- 
ented center such as 
CHPRE, which is inti- 
mately connected with a 
major medical center. 

"Physicians sometimes 
don't want to hear our 
results when they conflict 
with what they're doing in 
their practices. They may 
not want to hear that a cer- 
tain procedure or medica- 
tion is not effective from a 
broad health outcome per- 

spective or is not cost-effec- 
tive. Somebody's ox is get- 
ting gored, and sometimes 
you make an enemy." 

Frank Sloan, who joined 
the Duke faculty last sum- 
mer to broaden CHPRE's 
research, agrees. "I went to 
a meeting on organ trans- 
plantation several years ago 
and reported a study on 
whether high-volume 
teaching facilities give bet- 
ter results on kidney trans- 
plants. Basically, we found 
that volume or teaching 
status wasn't important. 

"Well, a doctor got up 

and said, 'Every physician 
in the room knows that 
teaching centers do better.' 
He couldn't understand the 
validity of the techniques 
we were using. But that 
attitude must change." 

Sloan emphasizes that "it 
will be necessary to support 
one's case with hard statis- 
tical evidence, not just clin- 
ical impressions" to prove 
that teaching hospitals are 
more effective and efficient 
than other hospitals. 

Matchar.- Physicians sometimes don't want to hear results that conflict with their practices 

March-April 1994 

pitals is now 64 percent, capitated care 
could cause that rate to plunge to 17 per- 
cent. "The reason is that in a normal envi- 
ronment of fee-for-service, you have nearly 
500 days of hospital care for every thou- 
sand people under age sixty-five. And in 
the managed environment, you have as 
low as 150 days per thousand." 

Despite its billion-dollar annual budget 
and 1,125-bed size, Duke Hospital is far more 
than a business, Rogers points out. "For 
Duke, this represents some very interesting 
issues, because the hospital is also the site 
of medical education and research, as well 
as clinical care, and is important for 98 
percent of all our activities." Thus, he says, 
Duke must make the hospital one part of a 
much more comprehensive health-care sys- 
tem to maintain 
the current flow of 

There's also the 
problem of deve 
oping the larger 
cadre of genera 
practitioners to 
populate the "gate- 
keeping" clinics for 
Duke and other 
medical centers. 
Snyderman says 
the demand for a 
different kind of 
physician means a 
different kind of 
medical education 
will be necessary. 
"We're going to 
be training our 
medical students 
far more in terms 
of the real world of 
patient care. The 
current theory of 
training medical 
students is for 

them to learn along specialty lines by deal- 
ing with very sick people in a hospital set- 
ting. They first learn to recognize the dif- 
ference between real disease — pathological 
processes that will go on to severe disabili- 
ty or death — as opposed to those things 
that won't. They build a mosaic of this 
experience in different clinical areas and 
then after a while, eureka, they're doctors. 

"That's the way I learned; that's the way 
virtually all physicians up until now have 
learned. But the new model may be to 
start with a far healthier individual in an 
outpatient setting and from there work 
back to learn to recognize disease." 

To help prepare students for the career- 
affecting jolt of a new health-care system, 
Tim Garson and his colleagues have begun 
a health-policy curriculum that includes 
an intensive round of lectures on health-care 

Intense cost competition 

could discourage 

medical breakthroughs. 

Ironically, innovations 

such as endoscopic 

surgery aim at 

reducing health-care 


Changing curriculum: Garson, right, with medical students, who can now swap 
lab research for health policy , health services , or epidemiology 

policy. Perhaps most radical, third-year stu- 
dents can opt out of the traditional basic lab- 
oratory research and choose to study health 
policy, health services, or epidemiology. 

One aim of the new curriculum, says 
Garson, is to produce more general practi- 
tioners to populate the clinics envisioned 
in the health-care world of the future. The 
pressures are increasing on medical schools 
to produce more general practitioners 
(GPs) — including proposed federal guide- 
lines for medical schools to produce 55 
percent GPs. Garson cautions that chang- 
ing the basic nature of medical students 
might be asking too much. "It strikes me 
that an academic health center such as 
Duke can really take the bull by the horns 
to help produce primary-care physicians — 
making an atmosphere that is conducive 
to the production of primary care physi- 

cians, and making a certain number of res- 
idence slots available. But we can't decide 
for these people. They have free will, and 
it is not the job of the academic health 
center to change people's free will." 

Lipscomb, in fact, questions whether all 
medical centers should strive to train an 
even balance of general practitioners and 
specialists. "An academic medical center 
could make a case that, while society as a 
whole needs to right the balance between 
primary-care physicians and specialists, it 
makes sense to have regional centers of 
excellence where more specialists will be 
trained." But even such centers of excel- 
lence should make sure they include general 
practitioners in their mix, according to Lip- 
scomb, so that the two "flavors" of physician 
will learn how to 
work together. 

"There's also the 
advantage of concen- 
trating the tertiary 
care from the stand- 
point of cost-efficien- 
cy," says Lipscomb. 
"There are often scale 
economies in the pur- 
chase of large ma- 
chines and the out- 
fitting of specialized 
wards and units." 

Under the new 
cost competition, 
DUMC administra- 
tors are also puzzling 
over the very thorny 
problem of how to 
pay for their medical 
students and post- 
graduate trainees. Tui- 
gtions and other fees 
| come nowhere near 
J paying for a medical 
education, and resi- 
dents add to the cost 
of medical care. The DUMC administra- 
tors agree that the financial burdens on stu- 
dents must somehow be reduced. Current- 
ly, the federal government helps medical 
centers pay the costs of training students 
by reimbursing hospitals. "The govern- 
ment is not likely to continue to do that," 
says Rogers. "Supporting medical educa- 
tion makes us more expensive, and we 
need to be able to compete economically. 
So, we're presented with a problem that no 
academic medical center has developed a 
satisfactory solution for." 

If the costs of educating physicians were 
to suddenly appear in the federal budget, 
Rogers says he sees the possibility of a polit- 
ical backlash. "The federal government 
may not want to have an identified amount 
of money in the budget that may be greater 
than the National Institutes of Health bud- 



get, or greater than the farm budget, or 
greater than other worthy causes." 

DUMC planners also worry that intense 
cost competition may discourage medical 
innovation — from bone-marrow transplants 
to bypass surgery — for which the United 
States is so renowned. "In this new envi- 
ronment, the whole incentive structure is 
going to change so that there may be some 
discouragement of new and expensive 
therapies," says David Matchar, director of 
Duke's Center for Health Policy Research 
and Education. "There's usually a learning 
curve in such cases; initially costs tend to 
be quite high, dropping with experience. 
But at the early points, there is a sense 
that there may be some disincentives with 
a chilling effect on innovation." The proof 
of such an effect, says Matchar, can be 
found elsewhere. "If you look at other 
countries that have greater constraints on 
their health-care systems, they are less 
innovative. As a rule, in Great Britain and 
Canada, they tend to be less innovative." 

Ironically, say DUMC's leaders, many 
such innovations, like endoscopic surgery, 
aim at reducing health-care costs. Endo- 
scopic surgery, or so-called "band-aid 
surgery," involves using tiny imaging 
devices and remote-control instruments to 
do surgery through small incisions. 

In Lipscomb's view, medical research has 
led mainly to increased health-care costs. 
"A number of leading economists believe 
that above all else, it's the burgeoning 
growth of medical technology, particularly 
since World War II, that accounts for a 
large fraction of the overall medical infla- 
tion that we see in this country and else- 
where in the Western world," he says. 
"Medical technology probably does not 
save dollars. That doesn't mean it's bad. 
New machines and new techniques may 
enhance the quality of life or extend life, 
but, ironically, the extending of life be- 
comes in fact a cost- increasing thing. You 
save the person only to spend more on 
that person later." 

Besides figuring out how to fund med- 
ical research, any new health system will 
also have to figure out how to reimburse 
medical centers for a broad range of ser- 
vices that are now implicitly supported, 
says Garson. "Physicians in the academic 
health center do far more than the funded 
research, formal teaching, and direct 
patient care that's paid for." 

According to Garson, medical faculty 
may launch important unfunded studies, 
provide informal education for students 
and other physicians, manage fellowships, 
manage medical conferences, serve on 
government advisory boards, review grant 
applications, and offer a myriad of other 
informal services. "These are the hidden 
costs of academic medicine that planners 

don't even think about when they start 
trying to figure out the cost of an academic 
health center," says Garson. "The way 
we're headed now, if we're going to be 
reimbursed exactly for our research, teach- 
ing, and patient care, it will not cover 
these many other activities." 

Such complexities mean that, even with 
all its prestige and talent, DUMC will still 
find it a monumental challenge to pull off 
such a profound change in its organization 
and, indeed, in its culture. Snyderman is 

optimistic. "We've been able to observe 
what has happened elsewhere, and I think 
we have a lot of talented, entrepreneurial 
department chairs and faculty." In his 
view, Duke has the will, the direction, the 
resources — and the health-care partner- 
ships — to emerge from the health-care 
debate as "a nationally pre-eminent aca- 
demic health center." ■ 

The DCL Medical 


A Prescription for Quality, 
Healthy Living 


ami stress/ 
therapy in the 
Wallace Clink 

At the 

Duke Center for Living, 

we don't just lecture you 

about what you need to do 

to prevent disease and live 

a healthier life, we give 

you the knowledge and 

the skills you need to 

implement lasting 

changes in your life — 

a lifestyle you can live. 





Duke University Medical Center 

Box 3022 • Durham, NC 27710 


Cardiac Rehabilitation 
Executive health 

Fitness and Exercise 
Diabetes control 
Healthy Lifestyles 
Disease Prevention 
recovering from surgery 
healthy weight 



Comprehensive Physical 

Asthma Challenge 
Relaxation Therapies 
Behavioral Modification 
Stopping the Diet Cycle 
Multiple Sclerosis 
. Treatment 
Diabetes Education 

March-April J 994 



Your elaborate headdress 
of highly coveted jade 
jewelry and your beauti- 
fully designed hipcloth 
indicate your status among 
the pre-Columbian Maya 
elite. Brush in hand, you 
complete a painting on a 
ceramic cylinder. Your ruler has commis- 
sioned the work. It will be used as a drink- 
ing vessel at ceremonial events and will 
convey your royal patron's wealth and 
power when he presents it as a gift to the 
ruler of a neighboring region. 

Bearing the title "its'at" (artist/sage), 
you are a master painter of a royal work- 
shop, highly revered for your skills in pic- 
torial composition and hieroglyphic writ- 
ing, as well as your knowledge in history, 
cosmology, and religion. While you share 
your society's belief in the value of art's 
longevity, it is beyond your wildest imag- 
inings to think that more than one thou- 
sand years later this same object will reside 
in the climate-controlled confines of an 
art museum, where it is regarded with awe 
by the people of a strangely different world. 
The Duke University Museum of Art 
(DUMA) is helping a number of ancient 
Maya artists regain the prestigious identities 
they lost long ago. With the cooperation of 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the 



Duke's art museum 
is helping forgotten 
Maya artists regain 
the prestigious identities 
they lost long ago. 

Duke museum has organized "Painting the 
Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics of the 
Classic Period," a nationally touring exhi- 
bition. Having begun its journey at Duke 
from January through March, the exhibit 
will travel to Boston's Museum of Fine Arts 
(April 15-June 27), the Denver Art Muse- 
um (July 15 -September 15), the Los Ange- 
les County Museum of Art (October 6- 
January 8, 1995), and the Yale University 
Art Gallery (February 10-April 23, 1995). 

The DUMA exhibition presents recent 
discoveries made by experts in pre- 

Columbian art history, Maya iconography 
and hieroglyphic decipherment, and ar- 
chaeology. These findings are documented 
for the first time in the book Painting the 
Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics of the Clas- 
sic Period, written by Duke art historian 
Dorie Reents-Budet and published by 
Duke Press to coincide with the exhibi- 
tion's opening. 

In sharing the culmination of almost 
twenty years of collaborative research, 
Reents-Budet says she hopes both the book 
and the exhibition she curated will help 
establish the work of Classic Maya master 
painters as one of the great classical tradi- 
tions in painting — equal in ranking with 
that of the major schools in Western art. 

Reents-Budet begins by debunking the 
common misconception that all civiliza- 
tions in the Americas were primitive be- 
fore Columbus arrived. "Approximately 
seventy years of archaeological study of the 
New World has provided significant evi- 
dence that indicates these people reached 
very high levels of social and political 
organization and sophistication in produc- 
tion and distribution of manufactured 
goods," she says. 

During the first centuries A.D., the 
Maya lived in a region that included what 
is now eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, 
and parts of Honduras and El Salvador. 


L I M ^ 

WpuLiM : 

Artists as art: The Classic Period painter makes frequent appearances on pictorial pottery . Here , two artists , one carving or painting a human mask and the other poised with 
a stylus, ready to paint in a codex (book) . This is one example of the innovative "rollout" technique used in photographing images on vases. 


Artist and implements: the epitome of the refined and 
educated individual who was the master artist during 
the Classic Period; plate is from the Nakbe region, 
Guatemala, circa 672-830 

The political structure, says Reents-Budet, 
"was one of interwoven polities, much like 
Medieval and early Renaissance Europe, 
with independent kings through- 
out the Maya regions vying for 
political and economic control of 
their and neighboring regions." 

Ceramic production during the 
Classic Period (A.D. 250-850) 
exemplified the Maya's wide range 
in production and trade of com- 
modities. "Form followed func- 
tion and both were determined 
by the consumer population," 
Reents-Budet explains. "Some of 
the workshops produced ceramics 
for everyday household use, while 
others created highly specialized 
objects for elite members of Maya 
society, the latter being the elab- 
orately painted polychrome pot- s 
tery for which the Classic Maya are 

These vessels were used for elite socio- 
political rituals and were placed in burials 
to honor the dead. Their complicated 
imagery "embodies one of the richest sur- 
viving sources of pre-Columbian cultural 
information, providing unique details of 
Maya elite life and politics, religious beliefs 
and cosmology, and the public and private 
rituals that reaffirmed these beliefs." 

The ongoing deciphering of hieroglyph- 
ic texts painted on the pottery has signifi- 
cantly increased researchers' understand- 
ing of the purpose of these vessels. While 
twenty-eight different Mayan languages 
are still spoken in parts of Latin America, the 
written history of the ancient civilization 
was lost through the burning of the Maya's 
books during the sixteenth century by the 
Spanish conquistadors, who were led by a 

Funerary ware: this Nakbe region vessel refers to God 
A-prime, a possible allusion to the ownerlpatron as 
deified dead person; personal names do not appear in 
codex-style pottery texts, reinforcing the belief that they 
icere mass produced 

group of Christian missionaries in banning 
all use of Maya hieroglyphic writing. 

The hieroglyphic texts encircling the 

Resurrection: curator Reents-Budet with cylinder vase, 
detailed below, from Chamd Valley region, Guatemala, 
672-830. Depicted is the Maya metaphor for resur- 
rection of the human soul after death; here God N is 
pulled from his shell by Hunahpu, one of the Hero Twins 

Like fish for chocolate : a supernatural feathered fish , 
whose skin is that of a boa constrictor, adorns this plate 
used to hold tree-fresh cacao , the pulp of the fruit used 
to make cocoa; from the Central Peten region 

vessels' rims are not esoteric death litanies 
as earlier researchers thought, according to 
Reents-Budet. "Instead, we have discovered 
they are dedicatory statements for 
the act of painting the object, 
which makes the vessel 'proper,' 
and formulaic phrases that identi- 
fy the vessels' shapes and con- 
tents. These texts end with the 
names of the previously anony- 
mous patrons for whom the pots 
were made and, occasionally, the 
names of the artists who painted 
these masterpieces." 

Reents-Budet notes that the 
artists' signatures are particularly 
significant because they quiet the 
former argument that these works 
are primitive because the artists 
were anonymous. 

Object by object, image by 
image, researchers are piecing together a 
composite picture of the Classic Maya 
world and offering new insights for con- 
temporary society in appreciating the sig- 
nificance of these masterpieces as well as 
the intellectual and aesthetic accomplish- 
ments of the pre-Columbian Maya. 

Reents-Budet writes: "This ancient im- 
agery gives faces to the powerful men and 
women of Maya society as well as to the 
individual artists whose works preserve the 
historical moments and most fundamental 
beliefs of this great civilization. Here even 
the dead can speak, at least to the extent 
that words and images, painting styles, and 
aesthetics find fruitful ground in our eyes 
and minds." Si 

Boyd '87 is a writer for the Duke News Service. 

March-April 1 994 




During a backstage 
shouting match, com- 
edy writer Danny 
Simon rattles off his 
credentials to make a 
point. He's written 
for some of America's 
funniest comedians: 
Sid Caesar, Phil Silvers, Jackie Gleason, 
Red Buttons, Jerry Lewis, Milton Berle, 
Victor Borge. He's been the head writer, 
script consultant, or comedy stager for 
countless top TV programs, including The 
Danny Thomas Show, The Carol Bumette 
Show, The Ann Sothem Show, and The 
Kraft Musk Hall. 

"I'm the greatest writer in the business," 
he boasts to his opponent, who shot back 
the truth that has dogged Simon since his 
younger brother Neil's first play opened on 
Broadway back in 1961: "Whad'yah mean 
the greatest writer in the business? You're 
not even the greatest writer in your family!" 
Danny Simon's impish face breaks into a 
wry grin when he tells this story to a rapt au- 
dience of comedy-writing students at a 
three-day workshop held at Duke. At sev- 
enty-something ("I'm lying to too many 
women to tell you my real age"), Simon has 
become a much-respected teacher of the 
comedy craft and can now joke about the 
identity crisis caused by being a successful 
writer still known, all too often, as "Neil 
Simon's brother." Of course, Danny Simon 
can joke about almost anything, although 
his favorite topic seems to be his height. 

"In real life, I'm six-foot-two with a full 
head of hair," quips Simon, who is short, 
round, and balding. Of Neil, who is six 
inches taller, Danny Simon protests, "but 
that's because he's standing on his money." 
During his nearly fifty years in the com- 
edy-writing business, Simon has schooled 
numerous top funnymen — including his 
brother and Woody Allen. But his formal 
teaching career began in 1978 when a 
friend asked him to give a guest lecture at 
the University of Southern California. "I 
was reluctant at first because I'm not a col- 



"I can't give anyone 

talent or a sense of 

humor, but I can help 

people learn how to 

think structurally about 

the process of comedy 

and give them a 
knowledge of the craft." 

lege graduate," admits Simon, who worked 
in a department store before an Army stint 
during World War II. "But once students 
started asking questions, and I began ana- 
lyzing how I do what I do, I realized that 
I've got a lot to offer. I can't give anyone 
talent or a sense of humor, but I can help 
people learn how to think structurally 
about the process of comedy and give 
them a knowledge of the craft." 

Today, Simon teaches an eight-week 
class in a private facility near his home in 
Sherman Oaks, California, and travels all 
over the United States and Europe, giving 
his three-day, crash course in comedy — for 
$350 stateside or $550 in Europe. His 
workshop at Duke, co-sponsored by the 
university's Office of Continuing Educa- 
tion and the North Carolina Writer's Net- 
work, attracted students from New York, 
Virginia, and all across North Carolina. 

"It was a thrill," says Jennifer Riley, a 
staff assistant for the dean of medical edu- 
cation at Duke Medical Center, who says 
she'd love to write a grant proposal to 

bring the healing power of comedy to 
patients. As for Danny Simon, Riley effuses: 
"He's a master." 

But as he glides down the escalator at 
the Raleigh-Durham Airport, Simon looks 
more like a retiree ready to play golf than a 
revered writing guru arriving to teach a 
workshop. He wears a light-blue fishing 
hat cocked at a jaunty angle over his brow 
and faded jeans belted below his round, 
protruding belly. His step is brisk and live- 
ly, his conversation quick and snappy, and 
he exudes the anxious energy of a prima 
donna gearing up for a major performance. 

"Don't take me to some fancy place 
with sauces I can't eat," he orders with a 
brisk wave of his hand when several 
restaurant options are presented for din- 
ner. "I want some place casual where I can 
get fish." 

Later, happily wolfing down broiled 
scrod at Squid's in Chapel Hill, Simon is 
charming, peppering his stories of TV's 
golden age with famous names like Carl 
Reiner, Mel Brooks, Alan Arkin, Norman 
Lear, George C. Scott, Gene Wilder. 
"Groucho Marx called me up and said one 
of my sketches was the funniest he'd ever 
heard," Simon boasts at one point, diving 
a hand into the hush puppies and holding 
one up quizzically. "What the hell is this?" 
He takes a bite, rolls his eyes in delight, 
and proceeds to polish off several more of 
the fried treats, shrugging, "Cholesterol, 

Simon makes a point early on of men- 
tioning that The Odd Couple, one of his 
brother Neil's biggest hits, was originally 
his idea. Back in 1962, the recently 
divorced Danny Simon was head writer on 
The Danny Thomas Show and was "envi- 
ous," he admits, "that my brother could 
write a play and live on that income while 
he wrote new material. But in my job, 
each week I had to top myself. So I was 
trying to come up with an idea for a play." 
Simon was living with another divorced 
man, and they got into a mock fight. "He 
said to me, 'Wow, dinner last night was 



sensational,' and I said, 'You think I'm 
going to slave over a hot stove again to- 
night? Why don't you ever bring me flow- 
ers?' All of a sudden it struck me, what if 
this were a real fight? And I got this fan- 
tastic idea for a play about two divorced 
men who have the same problems with 
each other that they had with their wives." 

Danny Simon started to write the play, 
but his heart wasn't in it. "I still loved my 
wife and my kids," he says. "It just hurt too 
much." He discussed the project with his 
brother, who encouraged him to keep try- 
ing and called it "the greatest idea for a 
play I ever heard," Simon says. Neil kept 
calling every few weeks asking, "How's it 
coming?" until finally Danny Simon told 
his brother, "Doc, you better take it." He 
did, and gave his older brother 16 '/ 2 per- 
cent of the profits, which has helped 
Danny Simon live "comfortably for the 
rest of my life," he says, "if I die Thursday." 

"It was my idea, but it was Neil's unique 
talent and genius to make it the neatest 
man in the world living with the biggest 
slob in the world," says Simon, who admits 
that his younger brother's smashing suc- 
cess with The Odd Couple "used to bother 
me. But I've benefited so much by it; he's 
repaid me in so many ways. I've made out 
with so many women because of Neil." 

Simon tells this same story again the 
next day to his class, which includes nearly 
thirty men and women of varied ages, from 
students to seniors, representing a wide 
array of professions: economics, law, com- 
puters, journalism, acting, screenwriting, 
and business. Although the class isn't 
scheduled to start until 2 p.m. Friday, 
Simon arrives two hours early, edgy and 
impatient, unhappy that the room he'd 
been placed in — the small auditorium in 
the Social Sciences Building on Duke's 
West Campus — is too formal. 

"I need people to feel comfortable about 
participating," he grumbles, poking into 
other rooms, looking for one he likes bet- 
ter. His body is tight and his mouth set in 
a frown, like a high-spirited toddler forced 
to sit quietly in a playpen. But as soon as 
the workshop participants begin to arrive, 
Simon's demeanor changes from petulant 
to exuberant. He engages people in con- 
versation immediately as they drift in, not 
waiting for the room to fill. "Yes, you," he 
calls to a woman fluttering her hand tenta- 
tively, but before she can speak, Simon 
snaps back, "No, you can't get your money 
back." The gathering students laugh and 
Simon beams, his body visibly relaxing. 

It is clear that center stage, cracking 
jokes, is the place Danny Simon feels most 
at home. Throughout the twenty-hour 
workshop, over the course of three days, 
Simon never refers to notes and doesn't 
even break to eat. "We've got too much to 

cover," he insists, advising students to 
order in pizza on Friday night and bring 
lunches on Saturday. His text is a videotape 
of comedy shows, such as Cheers, The Carol 
Bumette Show, and The Mary Tyler Moore 
Show, which he dissects laugh-by-laugh, 
strutting and posing to illustrate his points, 
teach by Talmudic reasoning," he an- 

nounces. "When old Talmudic scholars 
argued among themselves, they analyzed 
each idea to see whether or not it was 
good enough." Every comedy idea should 
undergo the same scrutiny, says Simon, 
whose teaching method consists largely of 
asking questions for students to answer. 
For example, "What's the first thing you 


If you didn't come into this 
room funny, you're not 
going out funny," Danny 
Simon warns his comedy- 
writing students. "Comedy is a 
creative process, not an exact 
science, and I can't give you 
talent. All I can give you is a 
way to think." 

Simon calls his approach, 
"Simonizing," a method of 
crafting humor that relies not 
on jokes, but on "real, believ- 
able situations. It's not easy, 
but it's simple once you've 
learned how to think." 

The biggest mistake most 
novices make, he says, is writ- 
ing "joke-jokes" — gags created 
solely to get a laugh. This is a 
cheap form of humor that stops 
the flow of the story, Simon 
says. By contrast, a good joke 
propels the story forward or 
promotes the relationship 
between the characters. 

"You don't have to do jokes 
to do comedy," stresses Simon, 
who boasts, "I can write funny 
about anything. But a story 
that people will care about 
while they're laughing — that's 
the barometer. Jack Benny 
once told me that the reason 
he lasted so long is that he 
never worried about joke lines. 

He just worried if the show was 

To remind students to 
"Simonize," Simon clasps his 
hands above his head so that 
his arms make a wide circle 
around his face. "When you 
see this balloon," he says, puff- 
ing out his cheeks comically so 
that his face and arms resemble 
Saturn, "it means look at the 
big picture. Don't focus in too 
tightly. Think about the whole 
concept of what you're trying 
to say." 

Here are some other princi- 
ples of Simonizing: 

• Something must go wrong. 
Comedy occurs when the 
unexpected happens. 

• Tell your story moment-to- 
moment. Start by setting the 
premise, then move the story 
forward one moment at a time. 

• Qo to the greatest extremes. 
If a messy person is funny, the 
messiest person in the world is 

• Let your characters have a 
flaw, foible, or idiosyncrasy that 
will prompt humor when they 
are put into an honest situation. 

• Use your characters as col- 
laborators. Get inside their 
heads and ask what they'd do 
at this moment to move the 
story forward. 

• It's more important to do 
something believably than it is to 
do it "funny." Reality is what 
happens; believability is our 
perception of what can happen. 

• Consider all your choices. 
Before you settle on a charac- 
ter, situation, or direction, come 
up with all your options. Do 
better than the obvious. Be 
selective and pick the best idea. 

• Ride the pace of your 
material. Don't milk a joke too 
long. Move on before the audi- 
ence stops laughing. 

• Curve the language. When 
appropriate, use words that say 
one thing in the text, but have 
a different — and humorous — 

• Raise the stakes. If it's 
funny that a man can't remem- 
ber a woman's name, it's even 
funnier if that woman is his 
boss' wife. 

• Look for the relationship 
between people to make things 
funny. People are funnier and 
more interesting than things. 

If you learn to Simonize but 
still can't write funny, says 
Simon, "What do you want 
from me? You've either got 
that kind of a sense of humor, 
or you should open up a drug- 
store for a living." 


■h-Apnl 1994 

need to do in a scene?" Simon raises his 
eyebrows quizzically, crosses his arms over 
his chest, and gazes sternly around the 
room for a response. When no one speaks, 
he asks again, louder, "What's the first 
thing you need to do in a scene?" 

A woman volunteers, "Well, you could 
start off by having two people. . ." 

"No!" Simon roars. "You're making up a 
story. I asked you to tell me the first thing 
you need to do in a scene." 

A man raises his hand and Simon turns 
to him expectantly. The man swallows vis- 
ibly and offers, "Establish where you are?" 

Simon beams, uncrosses his arms, and 
offers a mock bow. "Thank you. Yes, tell 
the audience, 'Here we are in sunny 
Spain,' then you can set up the premise." 
Simon continues, seemingly oblivious that 
the first woman is near tears. Throughout 
the class, Simon badgers people to partici- 
pate, praising them if they give the desired 
answer, and, occasionally — jokingly — tells 
them to shut up when their answer dis- 
pleases him. 

A handful of students take offense at 
this brusqueness. "Does anyone else feel 
bruised by all this?" one woman asks sever- 
al classmates during a rare bathroom 
break. "It's just his style," another woman 

"I'm very proud of what 
I've accomplished 
in my own career, 

but I'm a writer whose 
brother happens to 
be one of the most 

successful writers in all 
theatrical history-" 

comments. "Take what you like and leave 
the rest." 

But it's clear that most participants are 
enamored both of Simon's message and his 
methods. Several write him adoring letters 
after the class is over, filled with phrases 
like "sitting at the feet of a master," "a 
wonderful and enlightening weekend," 
and "thanks for the gold." 

Shrugs Simon, "My students idolize me. 
I've got fantastic letters from all over the 

world about how much they loved the 
class and how much they've learned." 

If most relatives of famous people feel 
like they have a monkey on their back, 
Danny Simon acknowledges "developing a 
hump from carrying a gorilla. I'm very 
proud of what I've accomplished in my 
own career, but I'm a writer whose brother 
happens to be one of the most successful 
writers in all theatrical history." 

Even this angst is fodder for Simon 
comedy. When Neil Simon was honored a 
few years ago by having a new theater in 
New York City named after him, Danny 
Simon sent him a telegram that was read 
at the ceremonial dinner by Mayor Koch: 
"Unfortunately, I can't be with you on this 
momentous occasion because I myself am 
being honored in Hollywood tonight 
where I'm attending the ground-breaking 
ceremonies for the new Neil Simon's 
Brother's Theater." 

Looking back, Danny Simon concedes 
that he's "a little frustrated. I should have 
written more plays." Neil was the driven, 
determined, dedicated one who, Simon 
says, "is a far better writer than I am. And 
he loves writing." But like Dorothy Parker, 
Danny Simon confesses that he "hates 
writing, but loves having written." 


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Neil Simon is also "more modest" and 
has "handled fame much better than I 
would have," says Danny Simon, a self- 
acknowledged "pain in the ass." But in 
teaching, he says, "I've found my calling." 
He is also writing a book, but refuses to tell 
what it's about because he doesn't want 
"to give it all away." He'll only say it will 
be published "after I write it. So far, I'm 
only five years behind schedule." Teaching 
and writing allow him plenty of time to get 
in some golf and to visit with his daughter, 
a graphic artist, and his son, a lawyer. 

And it also provides time for one of his 
favorite hobbies — revising his play, The 
Convertible Girl, which he wrote twenty- 
three years ago and has "re-written so 
many times you can see your face in it." 
Although it's been produced in countless 
smaller theaters — "standing room only for 
seven weeks in Chicago" — and is sched- 
uled for production off London's West End 
by one of his students this spring, The 
Convertible Girl never hit big. 

"It's so frustrating," Simon says, "be- 
cause everyone says to me it's the funniest 
play they've ever read." But producers 
think the subject matter — a Jewish boy 
who falls in love with a gentile girl — "is 
not widely understood or appreciated." He 

It is clear 

that center stage, 

cracking jokes, 

is the place 

Danny Simon feels 

most at home. 

still hopes that "one of these days you'll 
see it off Broadway." 

Despite Danny Simon's frustrations 
about his play, he wouldn't change places 
with his younger brother. "My clothes 
wouldn't fit," he deadpans. "And I could 
have it a hell of a lot worse than being 
called Neil Simon's brother all the time. 
What if they called me Neil Simon's sister?" 
All joking aside — although that's diffi- 
cult around Danny Simon — his affection 
and respect for his kid brother is obvious as 
he continually cites examples from Neil 
Simon's work. And in a surprise guest 
appearance during the final hours of 

Danny Simon's class at Duke, Neil Simon 
demonstrated a similar appreciation for his 
older brother. "My brother won't let me 
take his course," Neil Simon said quietly 
before the class started, "except to come 
and talk like this." 

He had just arrived in Durham, where 
his latest play, Laughter on the 23rd Floor, 
previewed at Duke, and he had come 
straight from his hotel to Danny's class- 
room. As soon as "Danny and Doc" were 
seated side-by-side in the front of the room 
to field questions, their banter and ribbing 

"You should have seen our first office," 
Danny tells the class. "It was on a stairway 

"Yeah," Neil shot back. "But I had the 
top step." 

The class explodes with laughter; Danny 
and Neil exchange delighted looks and 
brotherly grins. The Simon boys were off and 
running, creating comedy, imparting wisdom, 
and always, making people laugh. ■ 

Krucoff, a free-lance writer living in Chapel Hill, 
also teaches in Duke's continuing education 



Even If You Don't Golf, You'll Love Landfall 

Nicklaus and Pe 

idfall. We ki 




For women with advanced or high-risk 
breast cancer, experimental treat- 
ments offer some measure of hope for 
recovery. But in a study published in the 
New England Journal of Medicine, two Duke 
Medical Center physicians report that 
many insurance companies are "arbitrary 
and capricious" when deciding whether or 
not to cover patients' participation in clin- 
ical trials. 

Prepared by Duke Bone Marrow Trans- 
plant Program director William Peters and 
Duke Hospital chief executive officer 
Mark Rogers, the report exposed troubling 
inconsistencies. The physicians based their 
findings on research related to treatment 
on 533 women referred to Duke as candi- 
dates for clinical trials. In these pilot pro- 
grams, the women received high-dose 
chemotherapy aimed at killing cancer cells, 
followed by bone marrow transplantation 
(BMT) to restore their immune systems. 
The study found that companies frequent- 
ly denied coverage for patients who met 
the medical study criteria for the proce- 

dure but approved other patients who were 
not selected for treatment. 

"Patients' access to state-of-the-art care 
in clinical trials often depends on advance 
approval by insurance companies of the 
treatment," says Peters. "And such varia- 
tion in approvals is agonizing to patients 
already fighting a life-threatening disease." 

In their study, Peters and Rogers found 
that of 121 candidates for BMT who were 
denied coverage, sixty-two were selected as 
appropriate candidates by the medical 
study criteria and received the treatment. 
Of those denied coverage who later 
received treatment, thirty-nine eventually 
received full or partial coverage, some 
through legal action. 

Of 412 whose coverage was approved by 
the companies for treatment, ninety-six 
did not receive transplants because of 
medical study criteria. The report conclud- 
ed that "the predetermination process [as 
applied to patients receiving care in clini- 
cal research trials] did not correlate with 
protocol-based medical decision making." 

High-dose chemotherapy and bone mar- 
row transplantation for breast cancer has 
developed rapidly in recent years, and sur- 
vival rates are improving, Peters says. In one 


Olympians from Duke 
are a proud part of the 
history of international 
athletics, and the magazine has 
covered them in past issues 
[July-August 1984, Novem- 
1984]. But 
Randy Jones 
B.S.E. '92 is 
Duke's first wuv 
ter Olympian, and 
was the only North 
Carolina athlete 
competing in 
February at Lille- 
hammer, Norway. 

The Winston- 
Salem native was the 
brakeman for four- 
man bobsled USA 
and the two-man bob- 
sled. The former Blue 
Devil football player and track 
star (he holds the Duke 100- 
meter record) helped the U.S. 

team finish first in the 1992-93 
World Cup competition. 

Jones' job requires strength 
and speed to start the bobsled 
moving the first 
fifty meters. "As a 
brakeman in the 
two-man," he told 
the Durham 
"I keep the sled 
accelerating as 
the driver gets 
n and grabs 
the ropes. I 
do the same 
thing in the 

sled as every- 
body else is 
Jones joins the 

Olympic ranks of: Joel Shankle 

'55, who won a bronze medal 

in the high hurdles in 

Melbourne, Australia, in 1956; 

Dave Sime '58, who ran the 
anchor leg for the 400-meter 
relay in Rome for a disqualified 
gold— the 1960 U.S. team had 
run beyond the passing zone; 
Jeff Mullins '64, who played 
basketball on the U.S. team 
that took the gold in Tokyo in 
1964; Robert T. Wheeler III 
'74, who ran the 1,500-meters 
in Munich in 1972; Tate Arm- 
strong '77, who played guard 
for the 1976 U.S. basketball 
team that won a gold medal in 
Montreal; swimmer Nancy 
Hogshead '86, who won a gold 
medal in Los Angeles in the 
400-meter freestyle relay in 
1986; and Christian Laettner 
'92, who played in Barcelona 
in 1992 with another golden 
U.S. Olympic basketball team, 
whose assistant coach 
happened to be Duke's Mike 

study he conducted, 72 percent of women 
whose cancer had spread to multiple lymph 
nodes were alive and without recurrence 
up to six years after BMT. With conven- 
tional therapy, only 30 to 35 percent of 
women with that stage of cancer went that 
long without a recurrence. 

While the therapy remains expensive be- 
cause of the technology and intensive 
nursing involved, BMT treatment costs at 
Duke have dropped from approximately 
$140,000 to an average of $65,000. This 
drop is due to advances in the use of hor- 
mone growth factors to aid the immune 
system and the use of antibiotics to fight 


President Nannerl O. Keohane gave 
her stamp of approval to a plan 
adopted by the faculty's Academic 
Council to double the number of black 
faculty within a decade. The new "Strate- 
gic Plan for Black Faculty Development," 
devised by the council's committee on 
black faculty, also calls for stepped-up 
efforts to retain black faculty, an intensi- 
fied effort to recruit black graduate stu- 
dents, and programs to encourage black 
undergraduates to seek graduate degrees. 

"This is a thoughtful and achievable 
plan and I commend the faculty leaders 
who developed it," says Keohane. "Increas- 
ing the numbers of black faculty is a chal- 
lenge facing all universities; it is a chal- 
lenge we are determined to meet. This plan 
wisely focuses not only on recruitment, but 
the need to provide appropriate support for 
all new faculty to ensure that they thrive at 
Duke personally and professionally." 

The black faculty committee's report to 
the council examined the lessons learned 
from the 1988 Black Faculty Initiative, 
which was unsuccessful in achieving its 
primary goal: the addition of at least one 
black faculty member to each academic 
hiring unit within five years. Of 1,641 reg- 
ular-rank faculty at Duke today, thirty- 
eight (2.3 percent) are black. A total of 
8.8 percent of undergraduates are black 
and 5.4 percent of the professional and 
graduate students are black. 


Academic Council chair Richard Burton, 
a professor in the Fuqua School of Busi- 
ness, says that despite the 1988 initiative's 
inability to achieve its main goal, it has 
made a difference. The graduate school, 
for example, had more than met its goal of 
doubling the number of black doctoral 
candidates, and overall black enrollment 
increased by 160 percent over five years, 
with funding for black graduate students 
increasing by 168 percent. 

The new plan makes it clear that indi- 
vidual faculty members have the principal 
responsibility for the success of efforts to 
hire and retain black faculty, through col- 
legial support and mentorship of junior 
faculty, identification of potential black 
faculty candidates from industry and from 
other educational institutions, and nurtur- 
ing black graduate students. 

It also cites a departmental responsibili- 
ty in providing an academic atmosphere 
that is supportive of black faculty, protect- 
ing junior faculty from assuming a dispro- 
portionate number of departmental and 
institutional tasks that do not contribute 
to academic promotion, and developing 
recruitment strategies for bringing black 
faculty to Duke. 

Unlike the controversial Black Faculty 
Initiative, the current plan was approved 
unanimously by the Academic Council. 
The spectrum of backers included faculty 
members who opposed the 1988 initiative 
and such university representatives as 
Black Student Alliance spokesman Shavar 
Jeffries '94, who criticized administrators 
for failing to meet the earlier goals. 


Stained glass windows in Duke 
Chapel received some tender loving 
care early this year. First installed in 
the early Thirties, the Chapel's seventy- 
seven windows are beginning to show 
their age. Two of the most prominent — 
those above the main entrance — were 
removed, cleaned, restored, and reinstalled 
over the course of several months. 

Craftsman Dieter Goldkuhle, who worked 
on the National Cathedral in Washing- 
ton, D.C., came to Durham in January to 
extricate the stained glass portals. Careful- 
ly scraping out the aged putty around the 
windows, Goldkuhle disengaged each of 
the separate pieces comprising the win- 
dows. At his studio in Virginia, he then 
cleaned and re-leaded each piece, finishing 
with a protective coating to help them 
weather the next half-century or so. The 
windows were designed and made by G. 
Owen Bonawit of New York. 

Trained in his native Germany, as well 
as England and Switzerland, Goldkuhle 
worked alone on this particular phase of 
the project. He says he'd welcome the 
chance to restore other Duke Chapel win- 
dows to their original luster. "I like the 
relationship stained glass has with the 
light," he told the Raleigh News & Observ- 
er. "It's a filter between the beholder and 
the sun. Everyone reacts to color. It touch- 
es something in us and makes us pause." 


With America's population aging 
and with greater numbers of 
people entering retirement and 
older age, alternatives to traditional living 
arrangements are winning praise. Sociolo- 
gy professor emeritus Jack Preiss helped 
develop an innovative facility designed for 
low-income senior citizens in Durham, and 
it has been named in his honor. 

Preiss-Steele Place, a 102-unit apartment 
house that opened last November, enables 
low-income elderly to "age at home," liv- 
ing independently in their apartments and 
utilizing built-in services as their health 
and personal needs change over the years. 

"This is a place where a low-income per- 
son who is sixty-two or older can go and 
feel that he or she won't have to move later 
because she or he begins to need help," says 
Preiss. "What we are trying to provide is 
roughly the same security that high-income 
people have been able to have at more 
expensive retirement communities." 

Preiss is vice chairman of the Durham 
Housing Authority and president of Devel- 
opment Ventures Inc., the developer of the 
project. The corporation is a nonprofit enti- 
ty established by the Durham Housing 
Authority. The facility is in a mixed hous- 
ing neighborhood, with a private apartment 
complex, a single family housing develop- 
ment, and a shopping center nearby. 

The Long-Term Care Resources Program 
of Duke's Center for the Study of Aging 
and Human Development was involved in 
the project early and throughout its devel- 
opment. Program director and sociology 
professor George Maddox began working 
with Preiss on the concept of assisted inde- 
pendent living in 1988. Financing and 
development took years of work on the part 
of the city of Durham, various funding 
agencies, and a multitude of interest groups. 

The building was named for Preiss and 
Alma Steele, a public housing resident 
who has represented low-income tenants 
of public housing and is a member of the 
board of the Durham Low-Income Hous- 
ing Coalition. 


U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno 
says that the criminal justice sys- 
tem must adapt to meet the needs 
of a changing — and increasingly violent — 
society. And in a speech at Duke in Janu- 
ary, Reno expounded on what she consid- 
ers the most vexing problems and offered 
some possible solutions. Calling on women 
and men in every profession and walk of 
life to become part of a community-based, 
nationwide effort, Reno said we all need 
"to invest in people... to come together as 
one disciplined whole." 

Speaking as part of the Duke Law School's 
annual Frontiers of Legal Thought confer- 
ence, Reno addressed a packed house at 
Page Auditorium. Using anecdotes from 
her personal life and professional career, 
Reno implored the audience in general — 
and the future lawyers in attendance in 
particular — to never lose sight of "how the 
Constitution translates into people's lives 
and into people's very existence." 

With violence affecting more citizens 
than ever before, Reno said it's important 
to make the punishment fit the offense. It 
makes no sense, she said, to sentence non- 
violent, first-time offenders, many of them 
with substance abuse problems, for lengthy 
periods while dangerous repeat offenders 
are paroled having served just a fraction of 
their sentences. 

She also cited the lack of adequate sup- 
port systems for at-risk individuals, includ- 

March-April 1994 



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ing the mentally and emotionally ill, vic- 
tims of domestic violence, and drug users. 
Until these resources are available, she 
said, cycles of violence will continue. 

Stressing the importance of families and 
community in helping to "reweave the 
fabric of society," Reno asked, "What good 
are all the prisons in America going to be 
unless we give our children a conscience 
and a sense of the concept of reward and 


With the aid of gifts and grants 
of advanced software valued at 
$36 million, Duke's electrical 
engineering department has launched the 
Design Automation Technology Center. 
The center will provide students and re- 
searchers with industry's latest computer- 
ized tools for laying out the most complex 
of electronic systems. 

Students will now have an opportunity 
to become proficient with the same com- 
puter-aided design (CAD) programs that 
major companies use to map and test the 
most sophisticated types of dense integrated 
circuits and systems. Duke faculty, in turn, 
will have to go no farther than their own 
campus when they seek to design custom 

electronic circuits for their own research. 
Area corporations also may benefit from 
relationships with Duke's CAD design teams. 

"One of the goals of the electrical engi- 
neering department has been to provide 
our students with a unique educational 
program which joins traditional funda- 
mentals in mathematics, science, and 
engineering with the best available com- 
puter techniques for analysis and design," 
says department head H. Craig Casey Jr. 
Tools provided by Cadence Design Sys- 
tems Inc. will permit students to design 
and analyze circuits with as broad a range 
of options as industrial circuit designers 
use. And tools from both Cadence and 
Mentor Graphics corporations will intro- 
duce more flexibility and sophistication 
into the teaching of very large-scale inte- 
grated circuit design. 

Alumni have been involved in the cen- 
ter from the earliest days. Pivotal to the 
center's development was a group of 
Northern California alumni led by James 
F. Girand B.S.E.E. '59, a Palo Alto, Cali- 
fornia, sales consultant. Girand will head 
the center's industry advisory board, which 
will counsel the electrical engineering 
department on future software needs, 
research opportunities, and employment 
openings for its graduates. 

The general idea of enhancing the 
teaching experience with the use of CAD 
software has been in the planning stage for 


ore than three years 
after she arrived in 
the United States to 
work on a master's degree in 
music, twenty-six-year-old 
Bulgarian Penka Kouneva is 
the first candidate to enter the 
Duke music department's new 
Ph.D. degree program in music. 

A native of Sofia, Kouneva 
began to study piano at an 
early age with her mother, a 
music theory teacher. After 
graduating from the high 
school of music in Sofia, she 
entered the music conserva- 
tory there. "I was advised not 
to pursue a degree in compos- 
ing, but to get a degree in 
music theory so that I'd have a 
better chance of finding jobs in 
my country. So that's what I 
did," she says. 

But her drive to compose 
music led Kouneva to seek 
professional outlets for her 
works, including, in her junior 
year, an avant-garde theater 
company for which she wrote 
music for pantomime, voice, 
and drama. She also sang in a 
professional choir. 

Her breakthrough as a com- 
poser came when her piece, 
"Rhapsody," was sent to the 
United States in 1989. It won 
the Ellen Zwilich Special Prize 
for Composing, sponsored by 
the International League of 
Women Composers. She then 
began to look at music gradu- 
ate programs in the United 
States, choosing Duke, where 
she works with music depart- 
ment composers Stephen Jaffe 
and Scott Lindroth. 

During her time at Duke, 
Kouneva's commissions have 
multiplied. Her compositions 
have included a trio piece for 
the Mallarme Chamber Play- 
ers, a song cycle on the poetry 
of Edwin Muir for English pro- 
fessor and concert pianist 
George Gopen, and incidental 
music for theatrical produc- 
tions by the Duke Drama 
program and Archipelago, a 
Triangle theater group. She 
received a fellowship last 
year to the Aspen Music 
School, where she wrote a 
sextet performed by musicians 

Kouneva: first candidate in new 
music Ph.D. program 

"My work is definitely post- 
modern, influenced by jazz 
and rock," says Kouneva. "I 
also love the entire history of 
music. I know so many differ- 
ent styles from various histori- 
cal periods — I think that's one 
of my strengths, having the 
ability to integrate elements 
and stylistic ideas from differ- 
ent periods." 

— Debbie Selinsky 


Designing men: Overhauser, left, and Matteo Citarelli, 
research and development engineer, with computer- 
aided design — CAD — software 
a decade, but the Design Automation 
Technology Center only became a reality 
with the arrival of software from the CAD 
software companies. Those firms estimate 
access to the software is worth more than 
$36 million — based on list-price values of 
the license fees for the right to use multi- 
ple copies of their state-of-the-art design 
tools. In addition to Cadence Design Sys- 
tems and Mentor Graphics, the companies 
are EEsof Inc., Synopsys Inc., and Sunrise 
Test Systems. Other firms are also negoti- 
ating software agreements. 

A $75,000 grant from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation helped provide the cen- 
ter with an initial cluster of twelve Sun 
Microsystems Computer Corporation work- 
stations to run the advanced software and 
allow students to interact with it. Duke 
has acquired nineteen additional Sun 
workstations for the center. 

David V. Overhauser, an assistant elec- 
trical engineering professor who specializes 
in VLSI design, will direct the new center. 


■ David C. Sabiston Jr., James B. Duke 
Professor and chairman of the department 
of surgery, has been named a distinguished 
physician by the U.S. Department of Veter- 
ans Affairs. The VA's distinguished phy- 
sician program recognizes individuals who 
have made significant and long-term con- 
tributions to medical science. Distinguished 
physicians provide clinical and research 
expertise to the VA system, and help deter- 
mine policy for the national health-care 
system for veterans and their families. 

■ Ellen Mickiewicz, the James R. Shep- 
ly Professor of Public Policy Studies, is the 
first American honored by the Journalists 

Union of Russia. During the union's annual 
press day at the Kremlin's Palace of Con- 
gress in mid-January, Mickiewicz was cited 
for her work with the Commission on 
Radio and Television Policy. The commis- 
sion, supported by the John and Mary 
Markle Foundation and the Eurasia Foun- 
dation, was founded by former President 
Jimmy Carter to encourage the use of 
media to enhance democracy. 

Mickiewicz directs the DeWitt Wallace 
Center for Communications and Journal- 
ism at Duke and the Commission on 
Radio and Television Policy at the Carter 
Center of Emory University. 

■ Ronald S. Stone has been named 
director of development for science initia- I 
tives. He will be responsible for coordinat- 
ing fund-raising efforts for the $67-million 
Leon Levine Science Research Center 
now under construction. Stone was vice 
president of Cartermill Inc., a company 
based in Baltimore that markets a database 
of university research to corporations. Ear- 
lier he held senior administrative and 
development positions at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cornell 
University, and the Children's Medical 
Center in Boston. 


Continued from |\ige 18 

ly to end up with someone dead if there's a 
gun involved. That's a powerful argument 
for seeking more effective gun controls. 

What gun control 
would you favor? 

It would be good to start with stronger 
regulation of gun dealers, and then to 
require that people demonstrate compe- 
tency in handling the gun before they buy 
it. These kinds of provisions have broad 
public support. They're not radical steps 
that would deprive reliable people of the 
right to use guns in self-defense, and yet 
they would be a step in the right direction. 

What do you think off the 
attention being focused on 
pervasive violence in TV shows 
and movies? 

I see this as a spectacularly difficult area 
for evaluation. If there is an important 
effect, it's probably one that occurs over 
the years and over thousands of hours of 
viewing by young children. I don't know 
how you would subject all that to experi- 
mental evaluation. But the common sense 
of it is that if life is cheap in the movies 
and on television, then kids will learn that 
lesson and act accordingly. 

— Robert]. Bitwise 

ncui Book BY 

duke's Director of 

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Building Institutions and 
Community through Women's Studies 


Foreword by Kristin Luker 

Feminism in Action is Jean O'Barr's firsthand 

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promote the cause of higher education for 

women through the establishment of 

women's studies programs. "By taking 

Women's Studies curricula and classrooms 

as models, Jean O'Barr eloquently 

documents the ways that inclusivity and 

student-centered learning are necessarily 

linked. Anyone in higher education who is 

concerned with answering critics' charges 

that faculty do not care about educating 

students will have much to learn from this 

splendid account of creative teaching, 

learning, and institution-building." 

Marcia Westkott, University 

of Colorado at Boulder 

approx. 350 pp., $49.95 cloth, $16.95 paper 

ThE UniuErsity of 

north Carolina Pfess 

Chapel Hill 
Phone (800) 848-6224 or Fax I 

March-April 1994 

Terminal Identity: The Virtual 
Subject in Postmodern 
Science Fiction. 

B31 Scott Bukatman. Durham: Duke Press, 
1993. 404 pp. $18.95 paper. 


hat do Dis 
ney World 
chaos theory, 
video games. 
malls, fractal 
Ronald Reagan, the Alien, and quantum 
mechanics have in common? Only Scott 
Bukatman, who teaches film studies at 
New York University, can tell you the 
answer, and he does in Terminal Identity: 
the Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science 
Fiction, a dizzying exploration of American 
culture's interface with technology. Bukat- 
man's long and learned text explores what 
postmodern science fiction may be telling 
us about our identities as humans (former 
humans?) in an age sheathed in steel and 
saturated with silicon. 

Bukatman's is the latest entry in the 
currently trendy field of science fiction 
studies that concentrates on the subgenre 
of SF known as "cyberpunk," a street-wise, 
high-tech variant of SF that enjoyed its 
heyday between 1984 and 1987. Duke 
Press' last title on this topic was Larry 
McCaffery's 1992 Storming the Reality Stu- 
dio: A Casebook of Cyberpunk and Postmod- 
ern Fiction. 

While McCaffery's collection offered a 
montage of excerpts from critical and liter- 
ary works, Bukatman attempts a more 
cohesive analysis of similar material. His 
stated project is to define the new subjec- 
tivity spawned by our computerized era. 
He calls this new subjectivity "terminal 
identity": "an unmistakably doubled artic- 
ulation in which we find both the end of 
the subject and a new subjectivity con- 
structed at the computer station or televi- 
sion screen." Bukatman argues that this 
identity can best be flushed out of hiding 
from the pages of contemporary science 
fiction, for "it has fallen to science fiction 
to repeatedly narrate a new subject that 
can somehow directly interface with — and 

master — the cybernetic technologies of 

the Information Age " 

Intent that his readers leave their 
humanism at the door, Bukatman begins 
by destabilizing any lingering nostalgia for 
the "real." A heavy dose of Jean Bau- 
drillard, Guy Debord, and Duke's own 
Fredric Jameson lays the groundwork for 
an inquiry into what Debord termed "the 
society of the spectacle." Having estab- 
lished the transcendence of the image over 
any fantasy of "reality," Bukatman contem- 
plates the new forms of space imagined by 
science fiction. These computerized virtual 
spaces are the setting for the jarring colli- 
sion of human and machine that he calls 
"terminal penetration." The result of this 
(inter)penetration is terminal identity — a 
cyborg identity encased and informed by 
"Terminal Flesh," the lingering but con- 
tested surfaces of the human body. 

Needless to say, this is a massively ambi- 
tious project. An average chapter carries 
the reader through a lofty and shifting ter- 
rain of philosophy, literary criticism, film, 
fiction, and a bit of quantum mechanics 
for good measure. Well-written and richly 
supplemented with photographs, movie 
stills, and .graphic and computer art, the 
book is an encyclopedic resource for those 
interested in contemporary science fiction. 
At its best, this text documents why sci- 
ence fiction is becoming an increasingly 
legitimated field of scholarly inquiry: 
Along with the most canonical SF texts 
and films, such as UBIK by Philip K. Dick, 
the now immortalized Neuromancer by 
cyberpunk guru William Gibson, and the 
Alien and Terminator films, Bukatman also 
introduces the reader to less well known 

but fascinating works, including J.G. Bal- 
lard's "The Intensive Care Unit," Pamela 
Zoline's "The Heat Death of the Uni- 
verse," Greg Bear's Blood Music, James 
Tiptree Jr.'s The Girl Who Was Plugged In, 
and films such as David Cronenberg's The 
Brood and Shinya Tsukamoto's Tetsuo: the 
Iron Man. In one discussion after another, 
Bukatman demonstrates the incredible 
sophistication and revolutionary impact of 
the worlds that science fiction imagines. 

Unfortunately, the same cannot always 
be said of Bukatman's treatment of philos- 
ophy. When it comes to theorizing, Bukat- 
man has truly relied upon the "usual sus- 
pects" of the hip new school of literary 
criticism. Anyone acquainted with post- 
modern studies knows the list by rote: Bau- 
drillard, Debord, Bataille, and Jameson. I 
found myself yearning for a new philoso- 
pher or two to be stirred into the brew. Yet 
what is more troubling is the extent to 
which theorists such as Baudrillard or 
Debord seem to be granted a privileged 
claim to "truth" — a category that the rest 
of Bukatman's project works to undermine. 
Like much of the criticism now being gen- 
erated in this field, Bukatman's readings 
would be more gratifying if they were 
directed toward advancing or nuancing 
the thinking of these philosophers, rather 
than simply reiterating them. 

More generally, while its encyclopedic 
quality is a strength of the text, it is also its 
weakness. At times the reader may feel 
that sheer quantity has been achieved at 
the expense of detail and nuance in Bukat- 
man's readings. In this sense Bukatman's 
text, whether consciously or unconscious- 
ly, raises some interesting questions about 
the position that such academic texts 
themselves occupy with the "cyberculture" 
they seek to describe. 

While the average literary critical study 
might address three to four works or 
authors, Bukatman's addresses well over 
twenty. As a consequence, major prose 
works and films are allotted little more 
than a page or two of analysis (a shortcom- 
ing particularly evident at the conclusion 
of the study when Bukatman gives only 
the briefest discussion to the feminist sci- 
ence fiction that is crucial to his argu- 
ment). These "crit bites" as we might call 


them suggest the extent to which the soci- 
ety of the spectacle is informing even 
those critical works that attempt to cri- 
tique or define it: The effect of reading 
Bukatman's brief glosses is not unlike glid- 
ing through the TV channels with a 
remote, consuming spectacle after specta- 
cle without lingering to immerse oneself in 
greater depths of narrative complexity. 
Bukatman has brought the concept of 
"cable" to academic production. 

This said, Bukatman constructs an en- 
gaging vision of the American citizen as 
cyborg, with moments of true brilliance 
(see especially his discussions of Disney 
World and Tiptree's The Girl Who Was 
Plugged In) sparkling across an expanse of 
solid scholarship. As we read, we see our- 
selves refracted in a mirror of silicon, and 
the resemblance is striking. 

— Heather Hicks 

Hicks, a Ph.D. candidate in English, teaches nine- 
teenth and twentieth-century literature, specializing 
in postmodern and science fiction. 

36 Views of Mount Fuji. 

B;y Cathy N. Davidson. New York: Dutton, 
1993. 295 pp. $20. 

People create images of for- 
eign lands and cultures 
based on the information 
about them that they re- 
ceive, the manner in which 
they receive it, and the 
contexts — historical, polit- 
ical, economic, cultural — in 
which it is acquired. A Midwestern-bred 
American and professor of English who 
joined Duke's faculty in 1989, Cathy N. 
Davidson states plainly: "I dreamt Japan 
long before I went there." Thus begins 36 
Views of Mount Fuji, her warm, insightful, 
and unabashedly personal memoir of a 
decade's close experience with Japan and 
the Japanese. 

With her husband, a professor of Cana- 
dian literature, Davidson made her first 
trip to Japan in 1980 to teach for a year at 
a woman's college in the southern Kansai 
region. She was lucky to have arrived at 
the beginning of an exciting era of growth 
and economic ascendancy that, until the 
"bubble," as the Japanese called it, burst in 
the late Eighties, added still more to the 
country's mystique. 

What Davidson found, though, was 
both more and sometimes less than what 
was promised by her dreams of cherry blos- 
soms, graceful geisha, and lantern-laced 
sunsets as gentle as the colors of the Hoku- 
sai prints that inspired her title. At first, 
she admits, she had a hard time finding 
the nature celebrated in classical Japanese 

art under the steel-and-concrete urban 
sprawl of modern Japan. She also found a 
nation of stressed-out youngsters who 
cram, from the earliest grades through after- 
school juku lessons, for the tough and all- 
important entrance exams to top 
colleges; wives and mothers who 
tightly control their house- 
holds' finances, but rarely see 
their husbands and fret con- 
stantly about their children's 
performance in school; and 
legions of male office workers 
who are obliged to booze it 
up routinely after hours with 
colleagues and clients to 
cement working relation- 
ships and to close deals. 
They have little recre- 
ational time with their 
families. They are also a 
regular sight, stumbling 
through the streets of 
Tokyo and Osaka late 
at night and retching 
on station platforms as 
they wait for the last 
trains out to their overpriced, under- 
heated, tiny apartments in the crowded 

Still, with good humor and the inquisi- 
tiveness that distinguishes a genuine trav- 
eler from a mere tourist, Davidson wings it 
through unpredictable situations and devel- 
ops friendships that cross the cultural 
divide. They yield the kinds of memories 
that any visitor to Japan would cherish for 
a lifetime. Many involve other women in 
Japan's male-dominated society, about 
which Davidson, a feminist by inclination 
and intention, comments with under- 
standing and intelligence. 

In her classroom at the college, students 
teveal the fears and yearnings of Japanese 
youth, including arranged marriages (omiai, 
something the young women often fear) and 
"independence" (a goal many say they'll 
strive for in their lives and careers). In a 
traditional bathhouse, a feisty old woman 
offers her a shiatsu-inspired shampooing. 
In Osaka, a male colleague at her universi- 
ty escorts her through the fabled "floating 
world" — the neon-drenched entertainment 
district — of hole-in-the-wall eateries and 
smoky, members-only watering holes; it's a 
slightly flirtatious evening that culminates 
in a round of pun-filled poetry at a bar run 
by a former geisha. 

On a remote island off Okinawa at the 
southernmost tip of the Japanese archipel- 
ago, Davidson meets the gregarious priest- 
ess of the world's last matriarchal society. 
Through the dew and stillness of the 
morning, this down-to-earth holy woman 
leads her to an altar in a secret, sacred 
patch of tropical forest where no males 

may ever ttead. On Oki, another island 
between Japan and Korea, smiles, sign lan- 
guage, and an exchange of family snap- 
shots help Davidson strike up an emotion- 
al friendship with Suzuki-san, an enigmatic 
woman who runs a funky snack shop. 
There, too, lazy days of beach- 
combing lead to a 
deepening sense of 
self that mark a turn- 
ing point in David- 
son's evolving rela- 
tionship with Japan. 
With its clear skies, 
quiet beaches, and iso- 
lation, Oki affects her 
ike no place she has 
ever seen. 

After Oki and during 
subsequent trips to Japan, 
Davidson no longer feels 
herself such a visitor. In 
some ways, however much 
of an outsider she remains, 
Japan begins to feel like 
home. At one point before 
coming to Duke, she and her 
husband even considered 
moving to Japan to stay. But 
the insurmountable language barrier and 
othet real-life factors squashed that fantasy. 
Instead, the couple purchased a property in 
rural Cedar Grove, North Carolina, where 
they built a traditional Japanese-style house 
with tatami mats, sliding doors, and views of 
a tidy garden. 

Throughout 36 Views of Mount Fuji, 
Davidson writes candidly about experi- 
ences that have shaped the traveler she 
has become and about events in her per- 
sonal and family life — some of which are 
tragic or sad — that ttanspired during the 
Japan years she recalls. One might argue 
that, without some of them, she might 
never have seen and felt Japan as she did, 
nor would her time there have affected her 
as it did. 

"I don't think it's romanticizing to say 
we've touched one another, shown each 
other glimpses of one anothet's culture," 
she writes about her former Japanese stu- 
dents, but these lines could sum up her 
affair with Japan, too. "Is that enough?" 
she adds. For a mete tourist, which Davidson 
calls herself at the beginning of her jour- 
neying, it might even be too much to hope 
for. But as the reward of the adventure she 
refers to thoughtfully as "finding myself in 
Japan," it is the stuff a true traveler's 
dreams are made of. 

— Edward M. Gomez 

Gomez '79 was awarded the 1986-87 Fulbright 
and the 1989 Asian Cultural Council fellowships 
to Japan. He is a member of Duke Magazine's edi- 
torial advisory hoard. 

March-April 1 994 



"The Duke diploma is only valu- 
able insofar as people trust that it 
represents an honorable educa- 
tion. That diploma is devalued if 
people suspect or know about 
academic dishonesty. Academic 
dishonesty hurts everybody in 
the classroom. It makes hard 
work seem silly or frivolous. Aca- 
demic honesty is the currency of 
the university. For every transac- 
tion, there is a faith in the 
integrity of what the other per- 
son represents." 

importance of the university's 
honor code, pari of which reads: 
I accept as my personal responsi- 

"It's a necessity to have an honor 
code on any campus, but the one 
at Duke is inadequate. It only 
covers academic life. It should 
encompass all aspects of student 
life. It doesn't deter cheating. If I 
am required to turn in someone 
for cheating and I don't, then I am 
cheating myself. We don't have 
students who would turn in a 
quarter of the class if it's necessary. 

"Dishonest people are not just 
dishonest in their academic life. I 
think if you cheat at Duke, you 
should be expelled with no 
chance of return. They don't 
need to be at Duke. This holds 
for faculty as well. A professor's 
wisdom is not as important as my 
confidence in his integrity. 

"We need social regulations. 
The honor code needs to be a lot 
stronger; it's completely inade- 
quate and useless right now." 

I Alsobrook '94, adviser to 

Did the January earthquake in Cali- 
fornia — 6.7 on the Richter Scale — 
prolong the coming of the Big One? 

"The large earthquake expected 
in California will probably be a 
repeat of the Fort Pejon quake of 
1857—8.2 on the scale— that 
broke 1 50 miles of the San 
Andreas fault. The January 
quake broke only twelve to four- 
teen miles of a different fault. 

"The San Andreas fault is a 
boundary between the North 
American plate and the Pacific 
plate, including all of the United 
States and half of the Atlantic 
Ocean on the North American 
plate and Hawaii on the Pacific 
plate. When you move the entire 
continent of North America 
against the Pacific Ocean plate, 
you can understand why Fort 
Pejon is a major event and the 
recent California one is not. 

"The recent quake affected 
only a very small portion of a 
plate under the sediments of the 
greater Los Angeles Basin. It was 
not on the same scale as the 
movement of a continent, but 
it's still horrendous what the 
earthquake did. 

"The seismologist's unenviable 
job is to say that this terrible 
event was actually not so bad. 
We all need to make the effort to 
understand earthquakes well 
enough to reduce the impact, to 
reduce the danger to those who 
live in earthquake zones. We can 
build buildings, freeways, and 
dams that can withstand that 
impact. The Holy Grail of seis- 
mologists is to predict these 
events in advance." 

—Peter E. Malin, associate 


"In view of the reforms [in South 
Africa], it seems to me that the 
country needs economic encour- 
agement. It has suffered from the 
withdrawal of capital." 

chairman of Duke's board of 

"The place is filled with hand- 
some Gothic structures meant to 
make Duke look much older than 
it really is, like pre-washed jeans." 
—Humorist Garrison Keillor in a 

being taped for his weekly radio 

"For too long lawyers have just 
pursued their small path of 
process and procedure. For too 
long they have looked at words 
and the Constitution without 
looking at how the Constitution 
translates into people's lives and 
into people's very existence. Too 
often the word 'right' has become 
dissociated with the flesh and 
blood that that right is meant to 

We asked thirty undergraduates: 

Crazies have lest seme ef 
their creativity? 

Yes: 14 
No: 11 

No opinion: 5 

While opposing players and the 
rest of the nation may point to 
Cameron Indoor Stadium as the 
rowdiest and most intimidating 
place to play in college hoops, 
Duke undergraduates are divided 
on whether or not that reputa- 
tion is still deserved. 

"We keep recycling the same 
cheers over and over. It just loses 
its effectiveness the more we stay 
with the status quo," said one 
junior. A fellow student who 
questioned the power of the Cra- 
zies agreed. "Cameron is stale. 
We need fresh blood." 

Other students felt that the 
student body is creative, but sti- 
fled by rules and regulations. A 
sophomore offered, "The admin- 
istration has cracked down so 
much that there is no room to 
maneuver. Not only can we not 
throw anything on the floor any- 
more, but Coach K is even edit- 
ing our cheers. They need to let 
Cameron be Cameron." 

Among the bickering was a 
small group that professed disin- 
terest. One senior said, "Who 
cares? I've been to four games in 
four years and found that that 
was four too many." A junior said, 
"Even Grant Hill can get old after 
a while. Besides, I play soccer." 

On the whole, though, Duke 
students seem to enjoy Cameron 
for its good basketball and fun time. 

— compiled by Sam Hull and 
Raj Goyle '97 



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Pre-Columbian decoder: art historian Dorie Reents-Budet pieces together clues to the Maya civilization (page 40) 



MAY-JUNE 1994 




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JUNE 1994 




Robert J. Bliwise A.M. '88 
Sam Hull 

Bridget Booher '82, A.M. '92 
Dennis Meredith 
Kira Marchenese '95 Morgan '95 
West Side Studio, Inc. 

Stanley G. Bradingjr. 75, 
president; James D. Warren 79, 
president-elect; M. Laney 
Funderburk Jr. '60, secretary- 

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Ph.D. '69, School of Engineering; 
School of the Environment; Kirk 
| Bradley M.B.A. '86, Fuqua 
School of Business; Richard K. 
Toomey 77, M.H.A. 79, 
Department of Health Adminis- 
tration; David G.KlaberJ.D. 
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BOARD: Clay Felker '51, 
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© 1994 Duke University 
Published bimonthly by the 
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Cover: Campuses confront verbal volatility. 
Illustration by Walter Stanford. 


Duke historian William Chafe's latest hook explores the dazzling political promise and the 
dark personal turmoils of one of the Sixties' most contradictory activists 


For Atlanta's new mayor, the warm euphoria of his inauguration soon gave way to the cold 
reality of broken water mains, rising crime rates, and the heavy responsibility of the 
impending Summer Games 

WATCH WHAT YOU SAY by Bridget Booher lT 

It's a verbal minefield out there — particularly on college campuses — and unless you're sure 
where your audience stands, you'd be wise to choose your words carefully 


At Duke's Center for Living, participants do lose weight and get in better cardiovascular 
shape, but the philosophy is that self-denial is self-defeating 

MEN OF STEEL by Kate Dobbs Ariail 38 

Two young sculptors' similar undergraduate experiences have led to remarkably different 

SEIZING EVERY MOMENT by Kira Marchenese 42~ 

From early-morning walks to late-night talks, an observant undergraduate finds there's 
barely time to do it all 


Cover curses and surprising subjects: a Duke Magazine decade 


Reaching out to the community, adding a home for documentary studies, ending a 
tenure bid 


A novelist's anguished examination of Argentina's past 



The First Lady as a symbol for seniors, Whitewater as a study in media mindlessness 








Duke historian William Chafe's new book explores 

the dazzling political promise and the dark personal 

turmoils of one of the Sixties' most contradictory 


eroes are hard to find 
these days. Not so in 
the blushingly opti- 
mistic 1960s, when 
John F. Kennedy issued his 
clarion call for youth to ask 
what they could do for their 
country. When the right stuff 
sent Alan Shepard into space 
and ignited the nation. And 
when an astonishing personal- 
ity, Allard K. Lowenstein, led 
a generation of students to 
Mississippi to register disen- 
franchised blacks and later to 
Washington to end the Vietnam War by 
doing the undo-able: dumping a sitting 
president, Lyndon Baines Johnson. 

Duke history professor William H. Chafe 
was just short of his eighteenth birthday 
that chilly morning JFK delivered his inau- 
gural address. He was an even younger 
teenager back home in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, when Lowenstein, a rock-solid 
liberal, challenged Chafe's peers to make 
change from within the system, saying: "We 

Chafe: psychological pattern 
emerged from 125 inteniews 
letters , and archival research 

are the privileged and anti- 
septic generation; we move in 
the backwater of great events, 
well-clothed, well-housed, and 
well-fed. Struggle is not our 
hallmark and greatness is not 
our necessity." 

Enough Lowenstein listeners 
of the penny-loafer-and-pearls 
Q set were moved to prove the 
| activist wrong, helping South- 
" ern blacks build a civil rights 
coalition and leaving Lowen- 
stein's liberalism behind in the 
dust of radical left politics and 
groups like the Student Non-violent Coor- 
dinating Committee (SNCC) and Students 
for a Democratic Society (SDS). Chafe, 
now a white-haired fifty-two, was a gradu- 
ate student at Columbia back then, back 
when the "Sixties" were heating up Ameri- 
ca. And he remembers feeling empathy 
with the protesters who seized Columbia's 
administration building in 1968. Yet he also 
remembers his decision to stick to liberal- 
ism via Democratic reform politics, where 

Left-winging it: 
Lowenstein on National 
Student Association 
business as its president 
during the 1 950s when, 
unknown whim, it 
operated on C J A funds 


he was immersed at the time of his own 
Lowenstein encounter in 1966. 

"Lowenstein would come into the 
Democratic club where I was an officer," 
Chafe recalls. "And he would come in two 
hours late to a forum, and he just had this 
disarming charm. He could put you at ease 
most immediately. Part of it was his 
appearance — the fact that his necktie was 
always loose and he usually had one shirt- 
tail out. Yet he had this extraordinary in- 
telligence. He could put together a coherent 
presentation with wonderful logic and per- 
fect grammar without a note in front of him. 

"So he would come in and speak with al- 
most pure intelligence and political persua- 
siveness... and he was spontaneous and in- 

pirational and powerful." So much so that 
Lowenstein counted Eleanor Roosevelt, 
Norman Thomas, and Frank Porter 
Graham among his closest friends. 
So much so that he was a political 
adviser to Robert F. Kennedy, an 
architect of the student-led anti- 
war and civil rights movements, 
number 7 on Richard Nixon's enemies 
congressman — influencing such lead- 
ing liberals as Bob Kerry and Bill Bradley — 
and a frenetic liver of life until his assassi- 
nation in 1980. 

Still, that inspiration and power teetered 
precariously upon a shaky psychology. 
Lowenstein's low self-esteem and self-doubt 
were created by an early childhood trauma 
and a painful discomfort with his Jewish 
roots and his homosexual impulses, Chafe 
reveals in Never Stop Running: Allard 
Lowenstein and the Struggle to Save American 
Liberalism (BasicBooks, 1993). It's a biogra- 
phy that has fueled both rosy reviews and 
angry rebuttal from family members. It's 
also a book sure to cause unease in the ivy 
tower of academe, where Chafe's contem- 
poraries — forty- and fifty-somethings now 
who themselves opposed the war — have 
dwelled in comfort these many years while 
wrestling with those same internal combat- 
ants, liberalism vs. radicalism, that con- 
fronted Lowenstein. And perhaps confront 
Chafe still. 

"When I started the book, I saw it as 
being much more a case study of a politi- 
cal liberal who was always trying to push 
back the boundaries of a system but oper- 
ate within it, and I saw Lowenstein as 
clearly the quintessential liberal activist 
who would go so far but then not go any 
further," Chafe says. "And I always was 
puzzled and wondered at the degree of 
polarized intensity of emotions that devel- 
oped around Lowenstein: People either 
loved him or hated him. There weren't a 
whole lot of people who could say, 'I can 
take or leave him' — almost none." 

NX/hat intrigued him en route, Chafe says, 
were letters from ostensible girlfriends who 

unfavorably compared Lowenstein to his 
testosterone-crazed contemporaries with 
statements like, "The situation is not the 
same as with you. You never gave any 
indication there was any sex involved." 
There were also letters dealing endlessly, 
compassionately, with Lowenstein's inse- 
curities. "You get people talking about it 
being rooted in his concern about being 
Jewish," says Chafe, "about not being liked 
for his own qualities. And he writes about 
this himself, of course, when he responds." 

A framework Chafe hadn't anticipated 
began to take form, and he followed its 
path. He conducted 125 interviews of 
Lowenstein friends and family members, 
and was invited to use Lowenstein 
documentary transcripts and ar- fet 
chives — a monumental task since | 
Lowenstein was a pack-rat who 
saved and annotated everything, 
from 1950s meeting minutes to frag- 
ments of letters. "This is someone 
who by everyone's recollection was 
one of the sloppiest, least organized 
people you could imagine," Chafe 
says. The Duke professor was able to 
trace the politician's private life as 
well as his public one, and he found 
that the two intertwined in a way 
seldom found in a historic figure. "If 
you historically felt you were not 
likable and people would not come 
to you, support you, and affirm your 
worth, then one of the things that 
allows you to feel better about your- 
self and get the support of other 
people is to identify yourself with 
very principled causes," Chafe says 
of the psychological pattern that 
asserted itself over and over. 

The first trauma was Lowen- 
stein's discovery at age eight or nine 
that the woman who had raised 
him, his father's second wife, was 
not his birth mother. Keeping this 
secret from young Allard was a 
"family enterprise," and the little 
boy felt obliged to co-conspire, 
telling almost no one of his burden 
for fear of devastating the family. 

Another trauma: Lowenstein's 
homosexual impulses, considered 
deviant in the early 1940s. "The urge I get 
when I see certain boys is getting out of 
control," fourteen-year-old Allard confided 
to his diary. There was his loving but over- 
bearing father. And Lowenstein's own am- 
bivalence about his Judaism, expressed in 
his doubts about his looks, his pronuncia- 
tion of his name as Lowenstine, his efforts 
to socialize with blond-haired gentiles, to 
gain entry to a WASP culture and thereby 
escape the intensity of Jewishness in his 
native New York — and the Holocaust in 
Europe — which made Jews victims. 

Lowenstein's low self- 
esteem and self -doubt 
were created by an early 
childhood trauma and a 
painful discomfort with 
his Jewish roots and 
homosexual impulses. 

Southern exposure : as an undergraduate in Chapel Hill during the Forties 
he ended the segregation of Jewish students in certain dorms 

It was these currents that led Lowenstein 
south to college at Chapel Hill in 1945, 
Chafe says, rather than to his father's 
beloved Columbia. At Carolina, Lowen- 
stein quickly established his brilliance and 
his dedication to "principled causes," start- 
ing ironically with his successful effort to 
halt the ghettoization of Jewish students in 
UNC dorms, and continuing with his reso- 
lution to desegregate the student state leg- 
islature. "WE DON'T GIVE A DAMN," 
Lowenstein's personal stationery read at the 
time, "FOR Jim Crow, the Bosses, Franco, 

olives, radicalism... Fascism." Though by 
now a committed supporter of leftist causes, 
Lowenstein was also a devout anti-com- 
munist — a political path that he would fol- 
low throughout his life. Another pattern 
Chafe chronicles is the indecisiveness, the 
hesitancy to make decisions, which would 
prove self-defeating in Lowenstein's politi- 
cal career, in his six unsuccessful runs for 
Congress (Chafe's "never stop running" 
theme): Should he go all-out to win office 
or simply run on some high-minded prin- 
ciple to make a point? Convert people to 
his cause? Or take the risk of losing and 
being confirmed in his own self-doubt? 
Here Chafe takes up the dark side of 
Lowenstein: the activist's need to 
control, to "test" compatriots' devo- 
tion, expressed in his constant 
tardiness, his tendency not to re- 
pay loans on time, his manipula- 
tive demands. This is the second 
personal-political connection, Chafe 
says: Lowenstein's "unbalanced 
relationship with people in which 
in effect they are your followers 
and they may be told by you that 
you want them to be treated as 
equals. But in effect that's never 
really part of the equation." In 
short, if you didn't follow Al 
Lowenstein's bidding, you were out 
of the picture. 

The third connection revolves 
around sex. In a scenario sketched 
by only one previous writer, Teresa 
Carpenter of the Village Voice, Chafe 
= describes Lowenstein's pattern of 
| cultivating admiring younger men, 
\ usually tall, blond preppies, making 
sthem feel special, then invariably 
1 isolating them on an auto trip and 
§ taking a motel room with a single 
* bed — yet rarely consummating a 
§ sexual union. Lowenstein insisted 
| he was not homosexual — being con- 
sent instead to hug and lie close. 
| This was, Chafe contends, another 
| cornerstone of the personal rein- 
| forcement Lowenstein wanted and 
° needed. It also may have con- 
tributed to the reasons the activist 
was a fixture on college campuses in 
the 1950s and Sixties. 

Was Chafe on target here? "I question 
that," says Larry Lowenstein, Al's brother 
and director of development for the 
Horace Mann School in Manhattan. 
"There's only one kind of firsthand knowl- 
edge of [Al's homosexuality], and that's 
Dennis Sweeney, who was insane." Sweeney 
was also another Lowenstein acolyte — and 
his murderer. Larry Lowenstein, in fact, is 
critical of Chafe's entire thesis, saying, "It 
falls flat. [Chafe] had a goal and he tried to 
make every interview fit that goal." 


In contrast, Bruce Payne, a lecturer in 
public policy studies at Duke, lends sup- 
port to Chafe's connections, based on his 
own close friendship with Lowenstein. "I 
think that tracing the psychology of some- 
one who's gone, whom you didn't know, is 
always an exercise in interpretation that 
has to be uncertain," Payne says. "But I 
think that as far as I knew Allard, the early 
struggles Allard had, particularly about his 
mother, those were lively parts of his life 
and continued to be problems in one way 
or another.... 

"I think [Chafe] is right about how Al's 
erotic attachments with at- 
tractive young men developed. 
But the extent to which that 
came out of his early child- 
hood or was an inborn incli- 
nation, is hard to say. The ex- 
tent to which it came out of 
his resistance to every rule 
there was — and he was in- 
credibly resistant to rules — and 
his ambivalence about wanting 
to be accepted by the whole 
society and having these for- 
bidden or problematic impuls- 
es: Does Bill get it exactly 
right? I don't know. But he 
hears stuff that's really there." 

Chafe's own take on the 
sexuality question is to point 
out how, during interviews 
with Lowenstein associates, 
"I didn't raise the issue; they 
volunteered the information." 
The biographer was also care- 
ful to support his accounts 
of the thin line Lowenstein 
walked in guiding the Na- 
tional Student Association 
throughout the 1950s when the organiza- 
tion operated on CIA funds. By the 1960s, 
Chafe says, Lowenstein knew; earlier than 
that, he was kept in the dark. Chafe says 
he's certain of this from interviews with 
CIA people who ran the National Student 
Association and told him "that the last 
thing they would have done was include 
Lowenstein in the loop, because they didn't 
trust him." 

Lowenstein's strained relations with 
SNCC are another thorny issue. In the win- 
ter of 1963-64, Lowenstein saw himself as 
the point person to recruit white voter regis- 
tration volunteers for Mississippi, and there- 
fore thought he should be in control, Chafe 
says. But he was frustrated by the prominent 
role of the National Lawyers Guild and the 
Southern Conference Educational Fund, 
groups he considered tied to communist 
sympathizers. When he tried to assume con- 
trol, he trod heavily on the toes of SNCC. 

This is another point where Chafe and 
Lowenstein intersect. The son of a book- 

Showing a compulsive 
need to control, 
Lowenstein made it 
clear that if you did not 
follow his bidding, you 
were out of the picture. 

- Lyman , they had t 

keeper and a secretary, Chafe early on be- 
came involved in human rights issues in 
the Baptist church; he tried to desegregate 
his own congregation while still in high 
school. Committed by his college years, 
Chafe went south with the Northern Stu- 
dent Movement during spring 1965 prepara- 
tions for the Selma-to-Montgomery march. 
And there he witnessed firsthand the dual 
conflicts of liberalism vs. radicalism and 
blacks vs. whites for control. "It was clear 
that even though this was a year-and-a- 
half before black power became a public 
issue, the tension between SNCC and 
SCLC [the Southern Christian Leadership 
Conference] over issues of black power was 
very much present during the entire visit 
to Alabama and all the way back on the 
twenty-four-hour bus ride," Chafe says. 

"The debate that raged nonstop was, 
was it really possible for blacks and whites 
to work together? And what side would we 
end up on if, in fact, violence broke out and 
there was racial conflagration?" Another 

lesson learned firsthand, Chafe recalls, was 
"the way some people resented us for being 
there and thought we were acting in the 
role of colonial missionaries." 

By the time of this rite of passage, 
Lowenstein had washed his hands of Free- 
dom Summer, leaving his student recruits 
stunned and hurt for having believed so 
deeply in Lowenstein's theme that one 
person makes a difference. At the Democ- 
ratic National Convention in Atlantic 
City, their pied piper cemented his image 
as an establishment sell-out by breaking 
with the Mississippi Freedom Democratic 
party on an integrated delega- 
tion and trying to discredit 
SNCC. "It's definitely con- 
trol," Chafe says of Lowen- 
stein's actions, "but it's also 
obsessive anti-communism, 
which is in some ways from 
an earlier generation.... Most 
of the people he was working 
with, young students born in 
1940, didn't have this same 
point of reference." 

Small wonder that these 
= same youths moved hard to 
| the left to end the Vietnam 
| War, and that Lowenstein re- 
g fused to follow. He may have 
i been their hero for succeeding 
| in 1967 in dumping LBJ 
J- against all odds ("I've never 
| had any questions about [Al's] 
jj political judgment in the past," 
S a young Barney Frank said of 
| him, "[but] I think he's crazy. 
| The idea of upsetting a sitting 
| president with the power of 
'Lyndon Johnson.... Crazy.") 
But he could only bend so far. 
And, after all, Al Lowenstein wouldn't 
concede control. Elected in 1968 to Con- 
gress from Long Island's Fifth District as 
an antiwar candidate, Lowenstein warmly 
greeted leftist proposals for a nonviolent 
march on Washington. But it was typical 
Lowenstein all the way. "What you really 
need to do," Chafe relates Lowenstein 
telling Sam Brown and David Hawk, "is 
[have] a march from Arlington Cemetery 
to the Washington Memorial on the 
Fourth of July, led by an honor guard and 
people with [American] flags." Uh, no 
thanks, Al, said the leftists to whom SDS 
and the Weathermen were not nearly so 
repugnant. Lowenstein was so angry at the 
organizers' independence, Chafe reports, 
he tried to red-bait the event with his fel- 
low congressmen before coming on board 
for it at the last minute (the November '69 
march also drew 800 Duke students). More 
evidence, says Chafe, who attended the 
rally, of Lowenstein's rule of thumb: "If 
you're not all for me, you're not to be 

Maj-Jutie J 9 94 

trusted." Evidence also of Lowenstein's 
ambiguities: defending draft resisters, then 
denying he hacked draft dodgers. 

The New Left's distrust of Lowenstein 
accordingly turned ugly. "A professional, 
CIA-oriented politician," Tom Hayden 
acerbically labeled him. Added Sam Brown: 
"The left really grew to dislike Allard 
intensely He became a sort of nemesis." 

And so Lowenstein's political star began 
to fade. At the same time, the early Seven- 
ties, Chafe's academic star was on the rise. 
A young husband and father just starting his 
long tenure with Duke (where he is today 
the history department chairman 
and holds the Alice Mary Bald- 
win chair), Chafe would eventu- 
ally write eight books, including 
Civilities and Civil Rights, the his- 
tory of the Greensboro sit-ins, 
and four works about women's 
struggle for equality (including 
The Road to Equality: American 
Women Since the 1960s, to be 
published next fall). With all this 
material about the radical trans- 
formation of society, it's not sur- 
prising in Never Stop Running to 
find Chafe occasionally losing 
patience with his subject's intol- 
erance for the New Left. In fact, 
Chafe writes that Lowenstein 
"distorted much of what the New 
Left was actually about... organiz- 
ing people to transform their soci- 
ety and create a new government 
and economy." 

In an interview, however, 
Chafe is squarely back on the 
other side of the liberal/radical 
divide, stating: "I certainly would 
not characterize myself as a New 
Left person. . . . I've always been a 
liberal, I've always worked from 
the inside; I've never been able 
to get myself to work from the 
outside." He could have been 
with those radicals of the Colum- 
bia occupation, Chafe says: "But 
I wasn't. I grew up on the [other] 
side of that fault line of that gen- 
eration split." 

Despite such explanations, 
Never Stop Running has prompt- 
ed criticism for fence-straddling. 
Historian John Judis chides Chafe 
for his "rose-colored view of the New 
Left." Duke's Bruce Payne, who calls the 
book overall "enormously impressive," says, 
"Bill writes a book about the failure of lib- 
eralism to confront the problems of Amer- 
ica as if there were some doctrine or set of 
hopes or ideals that might do it better." 
And UNC-Greensboro historian John 
D'Emilio, whose jacket blurb calls the book 
"important and compelling," says in an in- 

Lowenstein suffered 
repeated defeats in 
congressional campaigns, 
where his political deci- 
sions seemed calculated 
to ensure his defeat. 

Gene ; 

supporting the peace candidate was part of his "Dump LBJ' 
while running for Congress 

terview: "Bill is tremendously sympathetic 
to Lowenstein. But I would say [Chafe] 
doesn't exhibit much faith in the ability of 
Lowenstein's politics to succeed." 

D'Emilio adds: "I think Bill believes that 
ultimately Lowenstein was caught by his 
allegiance to a system that is too inflexible 
to make the changes that were demanded of 
it. And yet there is that sympathy. In a way 
he's kind of positioning himself agnostical- 

ly between the radical and liberal camps." 
Whatever the conclusion on Chafe, his 
subject's place in history as the liberal 
champion of post-war America is clear. 
Wherever injustice was being addressed, 
Lowenstein was there. Though an avowed 
supporter of antiwar candidate Eugene 
McCarthy, he worked behind the scenes to 
persuade Bobby Kennedy to run as a more 
compelling alternative. Long before the 
issue was fashionable, he traveled to South 
Africa to focus U.S. attention on the hor- 
rors of apartheid. And he risked personal 
exposure by working against the Briggs 
amendment, which would have re- 
quired California school officials 
to report on gay schoolteachers. 

Yet at the same time he suf- 
fered repeated defeats in con- 
gressional campaigns, where his 
political decisions seemed calcu- 
lated to ensure his defeat. Per- 
haps that's why Lowenstein's 
legacy remains a query instead of 
a statement. 

"Just exactly who and what 
Allard Lowenstein really wanted 
to be is an unanswerable ques- 
tion," draft activist David Harris 
once wrote. "Like all historical 
creatures who are nine parts pres- 
ence and only one part position, 
Lowenstein will probably be ap- 
praised, finally, as much by his 
reflection in those he touched as 
by his individual achievements." 
And the numbers he emo- 
tionally touched were legion. 
Lowenstein's argument that the 
_ privileged younger generation 
| can awaken and make a differ- 
ence echoes throughout, from 
2 Lowenstein's 1950s speeches to 
£ those of JFK and RFK and the 
1 Port Huron Statement that estab- 
lished SDS. Three decades later 
1 Chafe believes it still. 
| "I definitely feel sad if people 
| don't feel that way anymore," the 
^Duke professor says. "I still feel 
| that way, and I still talk about 
Ithe ability for people to make 
| their own history when I teach, 
7 because the people I write about, 
whether it be the sit-in students 
in Greensboro or women in a 
consciousness-raising group or people who 
join an antiwar movement, are all people 
who have decided they could help make 
history, and they have succeeded." ■ 

Oleck is a free-lance 

r living in New York 


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May-June 1994 







In his inaugural speech, Atlanta's new mayor quoted 
poet Langston Hughes: "Hold fast to dreams." With- 
in a week, the warm euphoria gave way to the cold 
reality of broken water mains, rising crime rates, and 
the heavy responsibility of the impending Sum- 
mer Games. 

The burning cross isn't even among 
the most haunting memories for 
William C. Campbell J.D. 77, the 
mayor of Atlanta. It certainly 
wasn't his choice at the age of seven, in 
1960, to integrate the Raleigh, North Caro- 
lina, school system. Not by himself. One by 
one, close to two dozen of his peers' parents 
decided they did not want to send their 
children into such uncharted territory. 

But Bill Campbell's parents — Ralph, a 
post office mechanic who was president of 
the NAACP Raleigh chapter, and June, a 
secretary at a local college — persevered. 
"We wanted the best education for our chil- 
dren," his mother says. "It wasn't just a mat- 
ter of us wanting him to go to white schools." 
That fall, the Campbells had wanted 
their three eldest children to attend the 
then all-white Murphey Elementary School 
just a couple of miles from their home. 
The Raleigh school board approved the ap- 
plication for Bill to enter the second grade, 

but denied his older sister, Mildred, and 
older brother, Ralph Jr., entry to the eighth 
and ninth grades, respectively. A caravan 
of cars filled with friends and supporters 
escorted Bill Campbell and his parents on 
the morning of September 6, 1960. Crowds 
lined up for blocks waiting for them to arrive. 

The Campbells, each clutching one of 
Bill's hands, walked him from the curbside 
past the police and the hostile onlookers to 
his classroom. His mother recalls, "There 
was one little girl in particular — her name 
was Debbie — just hollering and screaming, 
'I'm not going to school with this nigger! 
I'm not going to school with this nigger!' " 

Bill Campbell was the only one of 410 
students at Murphey that year who was not 
white. Most of the other parents signed a 
petition to have him removed. But he 
stayed that lonely year, plus four more. 

"After Bill had enrolled, things would 
happen on a weekly basis," his older brother, 
Ralph Jr., recalls. "Once, a local funeral 

Campbell's gi-oup: 
at campaign head- 
quarters, candidate Bill, 
center, and family, 
from left, Christina, 
Sharon Tapscott 
Campbell, and Billy 


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home was dispatched to pick up my 
father's body. Of course, he had not died. 
But that was kind of a signal." 

Bomb threats were another. "I remem- 
ber vividly picking up the telephone and 
the person on the other end said, 'At 10 
p.m., that goddamn house is gonna blow 
up,' " Ralph recalls. On those occasions, 
the family took refuge at June Campbell's 
mother's house, just around the corner. 
Though bomb threats were never carried 
out, the incendiary harassment hardly let 
up. One white woman who frequently called 
said she never ate chocolate ice cream, 
because it reminded her of black people. 

Once rat poison was sent to the house 
with Ralph Sr.'s name on the bottle. And 
once a wooden cross was torched on the 
Campbells' front yard. "It was part of the 
routine," says Campbell today. "Burning 
crosses in those days was a fairly common 
occurrence by the Klan." 

Thirty-three years after those tough days, 
during his campaign to become mayor of 
Atlanta, Campbell told audiences, "You 
have to appreciate the irony of a child 
from North Carolina who glanced out his 
window to see the flames of hatred, and 
now that same person may glance out and 
preside over the flames of the Olympics." 

Playing host for the centennial summer 
Olympic Games in 1996 has placed At- 
lanta on the map of public consciousness 
as never before. More than anything else, 
the task and its outcome are inextricably 
linked with the political fate of Bill Camp- 
bell, now forty, and the fifty-seventh 
mayor of what's widely regarded as the 
capital of the New South. 

There is still much promise in Atlanta, 
but many problems, too, as Campbell him- 
self remarked the night he took office. The 
capital of the fastest growing state in the 
east, Atlanta has become U-Haul's top 
destination for one-way truck drop-offs. 
But less than 20 percent of the population 
actually lives within city limits. Three- 
quarters of the Fortune 500 companies have 
offices there, and a Harris poll of interna- 
tional executives last year named Atlanta 
the best place to locate a new business. But 
most of the new jobs — and residents — are 
in the suburbs. 

Despite Atlanta's boomtown mood, one- 
third of city households have incomes 
under $15,000 a year, and 13 percent live 
in public housing. Based on the most 
recent FBI statistics, Atlanta is second 
worst in crimes reported (behind Miami) 
among cities their size. Finally, Candidate 

Campbell pledged to run government 
without raising taxes, but Mayor Campbell 
soon learned city finances were in worse 
shape than he realized. 

Before coming to Atlanta, Campbell lived 
in Nashville, where he attended Vanderbilt 
University on a full-tuition scholarship. 
He blazed through a triple major — politi- 
cal science, history, and sociology — and 
after just three years graduated summa cum 
laude in 1974- From there, it was back to 
North Carolina — Durham this time — for 
law school, also on a full-tuition scholarship. 

"My three years at Duke were great years 
for me, in terms of intellectual develop- 
ment, but more in terms of life," Campbell 
says. "The campus was great, law school 
was productive, and I made many friends 
that have been very lasting." 

The most lasting relationship has been 
with the former Sharon Tapscott '78 of 
Washington, D.C., then an undergraduate 
transfer student. She was a junior art history 
and education major when Campbell spot- 
ted her reading a book in the law library 
her first day on campus. For him, it was 
love at first sight, a confession he would 
make to her even before their first kiss. 

That kiss didn't happen for a year-and- 
a-half. Although they had been friendly 

May-June 1 994 

during Campbell's final year of law school, 
the romance didn't begin until a mutual 
friend brought them together one night in 
the spring of 1978, when Campbell was 
visiting his family in North Carolina. 

"I think we are very well-suited for each 
other, and we could be very happy and 
have a life together," Sharon recalls Camp- 
bell saying. "When we kissed, I thought, 
'this is the one,' " she says. "I didn't know 
his history, I just knew Bill." Five dates 
later, they were engaged. The marriage 
came in August, just three months after 
Sharon had her diploma. 

Atlanta was where the couple made 
their home. Campbell was drawn to the 
city to work as a litigator for one of the 
city's most influential corporate firms, Kil- 
patrick and Cody. Two years 
later came a stint at the U.S. 
Attorney's office as a prosecutor 
before he launched his political 
career. He ran for city council in 
1981 and won, then was re- 
elected twice, earning a reputa- 
tion as a strong neighborhood 
preservationist and an advocate 
of better ethics in government. 

Though a city council mem- 
ber for twelve years, Campbell 
was unknown to most Atlantans 
outside his district when he an- 
nounced for mayor last spring. 
Polls put his name recognition at 
30 percent. That started to change 
after 10,000 of his Warhol-esque, 
red and white Campbell-labeled 
signs sprouted up on front lawns 
all over town. When Campbell's 
Soup protested the take-off on 
its trademark logo, the campaign 
quietly altered the distinctive script to bold 
lettering on future signs. 

If they didn't see his signs, city dwellers 
likely saw his face, in person. "Each morn- 
ing, we would go out in the middle of the 
intersection and walk among the cars as 
they were stopped at lights and knock on 
the car windows and give them our litera- 
ture and shake hands," Campbell says. 
"People were astounded. We also did that 
in the evenings at 5:30 and six o'clock." 

The candidate's energy carried over into 
the fund-raising drive chaired by longtime 
friend and law partner Steve Labovitz. The 
campaign raised a city record $1.5 million, 
more than double the closest rival. By sum- 
mer's end, Campbell was the frontrunner, 
though more Atlantans had their minds on 
the Braves pennant race than on the mayoral 
race. On November's election day, Campbell 
impressively came within a thousand votes 
of winning an outright majority in a field with 
three other significant candidates. The run- 
off three weeks later was a landslide, with 
Campbell capturing 73 percent of the vote. 

Candidate Campbell 

pledged to run 
government without 

raising taxes, but 

Mayor Campbell soon 

learned city finances 

were in worse shape than 

he realized. 

Inauguration night, 1994: 

trucks are banned from driving over them. 
The other half of the bond money is ear- 
marked for improving stormwater drainage 
facilities, plus erosion and flood control. 
The Atlanta Chamber of Commerce strong- 
ly backs the measure. "As safe as I want to 
be to walk down a street, I also want to 
know if I drive down it the bridge won't 
collapse," says chamber marketing director 
Bill Crane. "I want to know if I am consid- 
ering relocating my business here that I 
don't have to be concerned about not 
being able to have adequate water pressure 
to flush my commode." 

Atlanta plans to spend the bond money 
in three years and pay off the debt over 
thirty. In July, the referendum goes before 
city voters, who want to be reassured a "yes" 
vote won't result in higher prop- 
erty taxes. "Right now, we're ask- 
ing people to accept on faith," 
says Campbell. "I think if we 
were putting this bond referen- 
dum before the people a year 
from now, we would not have 
any problem getting it passed, 
because people would see the 
commitment we have to paring 
down government and improving 
the quality of service delivery." 

Streamlining government is al- 
ready under way. In order to sub- 
mit a balanced budget this year, 
as the city charter requires, the 
Campbell administration had to 
ctrim $37 million in planned 
1 spending to cover an unexpect- 
ed budget shortfall inherited 
% from the previous administration. 
"Nearly 300 recent hires, tempo- 
rary workers, and vacant posi- 
tions were eliminated. "One of the diffi- 
cult things Campbell was faced with is 
that he was supported heavily by labor," 
says Steve Labovitz, now the mayor's chief 
of staff. "But by the same token, when you 
look at the budget, 70 percent of Atlanta's 
budget is labor-related. So in order to cut, 
there's unfortunately going to be some 
labor costs." 

The administration weathered strike 
threats by public employees' unions, and 
its $374-million blueprint went into effect. 
With crime as the mayor's number-one 
campaign issue, the police department was 
one of the very few in the city that 
escaped the budget axe. Campbell is now 
banking on the "community policing" con- 
cept to make streets safer. This means 
fewer cops behind desks and more walking 
beat patrols. Following cities such as Port- 
land, Seattle, Kansas City, and Detroit, 
Atlanta is pushing for more crime preven- 
tion by getting police closer to the people 
they're supposed to protect. If not on their 
feet, more officers will make their rounds 

"Hold fast to dreams," he begged support- 
ers at his January inaugural gala. Quoting 
the poet Langston Hughes in a rhetorical 
highlight, Campbell said, "For if dreams die, 
life is a broken-winged bird that cannot fly." 

Two weeks later he was begging At- 
lantans not to shower. The warm euphoria 
of inauguration gave way to a winter 
freeze, which contributed to multiple 
water main breaks. Millions of gallons 
spilled from a pipe system originally built 
in the 1920s. With the link to the city's 
main reservoir severed, the new mayor 
declared mandatory restrictions on water 
usage, deeming drinking and cooking the 
only "essential" uses he felt should be 
allowed. Within three days, Campbell's 
first crisis ended, but it had symbolized the 
infrastructure emergency that would domi- 
nate his first year in office. 

The centerpiece of the Campbell agen- 
da became a proposed $149-million bond 
referendum. Half of that sum is designated 
for repairing city streets, bridges, and 
viaducts. Some are so unstable, buses and 



on horses and bicycles, or be stationed in 
new mini-precincts opened in the heart of 
residential areas, sometimes right inside 
public housing projects. 

Acts of random violence, especially 
black-on-black attacks, plague Campbell's 
city, whose population is two-thirds black. 
The mayor is prone to respond to these 
atrocities personally, as he told a group of 
city employees during a Black History 
Month presentation: "I got a call that a 
fifty-year-old female bus driver had been 
brutally assaulted, raped, and shot while 
simply sitting at the end of her run. And I 
went by Grady Hospital so I could some- 
how comfort her. We sat and we prayed 
together, and I'll tell you that if you want 
to get a sense of how senseless the violence 
is, sit in an emergency room with a fifty- 
year-old mother, holding her hand while a 
bullet is lodged in her neck, while the 
tears flow from her eyes, while the blood 
covers her. I don't know if I've ever been 
more moved. Ever. It simply illustrates 
how far we've fallen and how fast, and 
how vast a job it is for us to move back." 

The woman has recovered from her 
injuries and is back on the job, while a sus- 
pect was apprehended in the attack. 

As Campbell moves forward on the prob- 
lems of crime and infrastructure, he does 
so under a shadow of the Olympic games. 
The challenge of playing host has the city 
charged with mixed emotions of excite- 
ment and fear. "The risk with anything 
this large, like the Superbowl or the 
Democratic Convention, is if we screw 
up," says Bill Crane of the chamber of 
commerce. And screwing up means, once 
again, saddling the city with debt. Manag- 
ing the games is officially the job of the 
Atlanta Committee for the Olympic 
Games (ACOG), an independent body set 
on raising $1.6 billion — all in private 
sponsorships and ticket sales — to cover 
costs. A third of the money is for construc- 
tion and renovation of venues, which 
Atlanta can use afterwards. 

"I am an unabashed supporter of the 
Olympics," says Campbell. "Not only will it 
put Atlanta on the world stage, but it will 
bring jobs and economic development." 

How large and lasting that economic 
boost will be are the primary questions under 
debate: How much low-income housing 
will be bulldozed to build the new Olympic 
stadium? How many companies will really 
open offices — and remain after '96? 

Some corporate philanthropy surround- 
ing the Olympics is raising eyebrows. For 
example, a proposed Centennial Olympic 
Park would transform a seventy-two-acre 
blighted area of downtown into a lavish 
park, complete with water fountains and 
pavilions. The price tag is $100 million 
(two-thirds the size of the big bond refer- 

; Raleigh's Murphey School , I9b0: young Bill holds his mother June's hand, top 


Terry Sanford was con- 
scious of how people 
might view his actions 
ten or twenty years down the 
road. During his successful 
1960 campaign to become 
North Carolina's governor, 
Sanford was clearly the candi- 
date for school desegregation. 
But he never quite expressed it 
that way. 

"It was very much there. 
But I wasn't dumb enough 
politically to go out there and 
use words like 'integration' and 
'segregation.' I stuck behind 
the idea that we would follow 
the Supreme Court," Sanford 
says. Starting with the Brown 
decision in 1954, the court had 
directed states to end the era of 
"separate but equal" schools. 

"I never veered one millime- 
ter from the Supreme Court 
decision that we would inte- 
grate the schools," Sanford says. 
Indeed, once in office, he regu- 
larly admonished Carolinians 
that they needed to display 
massive intelligence rather than 
massive resistance on the issue. 
And he led by example. San- 
ford says after Bill Campbell 
broke the color barrier in 
Raleigh's school system, there 
was no question the Sanfords 
would send their kids to Mur- 
phey Elementary School, too. 
"It would have been an obvi- 
ous slap in the face if we 
hadn't, since that school was 
the closest school to the gover- 
nor's mansion," he says. 

Indeed, Murphey was less than 
two blocks away. 

"It took an awful lot of 
courage for Governor Sanford 
to make that bold decision," 
says Ralph Campbell Jr., Bill's 
older brother. "I felt supported, 
and I have nothing but praise 
for Governor Sanford," says 
their mother, June. 

But the pain of the experi- 
ence lingers for both June and 
Bill Campbell. "They said so 
many nasty things. The longer I 
took Bill, the more scared I got. 
I really didn't know it was going 
to be so hostile," June Campbell 
says. "All of it was so devastat- 
ing, I wouldn't do it again." 

Nor would Bill Campbell. 
"It was a sacrifice," he says. "I 
now have a ten-year-old, and 
when he was seven, I would 
glance down at him and think 
whether or not I could send 
my son into a mob, into a situ- 
ation where his safety could 
not be guaranteed, where he 
would be spat upon, beaten, 
and humiliated, and segregated 
every day. And I could not do 
it, would not do it, would not 
think about doing it. " 

Doing it alone was the 
toughest part for Campbell in 
1960. His second-grade teacher 
insulated him from the hatred 
and made Campbell's class- 
mates understand he was to be 
treated no differently from any 
other student. But she couldn't 
protect him all the time — not 
from the older kids in the hall- 

ways, the back of the audito- 
rium, or the playground. These 
were his scariest moments. 

"In almost every situation, 
there was a number of chil- 
dren, the Little Rock Nine, 
for instance," Campbell says. 
"Very rarely was it simply 
one person." 

The Murphey School closed 
in 1973. But before Raleigh's 
wrecking ball could strike, 
then-city councilman Ralph 
Campbell Jr. intervened. His 
efforts helped preserve the 
historic building and convert it 
into fifty units of elderly hous- 
ing. A plaque outside now 
commemorates the site's civil 
rights history. 

Assessing the Campbell fam- 
ily's actions of September 
1960, Terry Sanford says, "It 
made it easier for everybody 
who thought that was the way 
we ought to go." 

Seventeen years later, San- 
ford, then Duke's president, 
signed Bill Campbell's law 
school diploma. 

"He doesn't know this, but 
he was always one of my 
heroes," says Sanford, now a 
professor at the Terry Sanford 
Institute of Public Policy at 
Duke. "Probably nothing in 
his life was tougher or took 
more courage than walking 
into Murphey school." 

May-June 1994 

endum), but all in private funds. "If the 
business community has that much money 
to be able to put into that park, then the 
city has to wonder, 'hey, you've got to help 
us fix up the areas for neighborhoods,' " 
says chief of staff Labovitz. 

Help from the city's surrounding coun- 
ties that comprise the Atlanta metro-area 
is another one of Campbell's biggest hur- 
dles. While business is booming metro- 
wide, the city itself is lagging. Last year, of 
the estimated 85,000 jobs created in the 
metro area, only 5,000 were in the city, 
according to Georgia State University 
economist Donald Ratajczak. An adviser 
to Campbell, Ratajczak believes the city 
has lost its lead to the blossoming "Edge" 
cities around Atlanta, in counties like 
Cobb, Gwinnett, and Clayton. 

"One of the reasons the city is not com- 
petitive is it's taking on too large a burden 
as the industrial developer for the metro 
area," Ratajczak says. Whether it's the air- 
port, baseball's Braves, or the mounting 
infrastructure projects, the city foots the 
bill. Those city-maintained assets are mag- 
nets for companies like Hewlett-Packard, 
UPS, and Holiday Inn, which relocated 
their headquarters to Atlanta. But those 
three recent arrivals, like so many others, 

Campbell is now banking 

on the "community 

policing" concept to 

make streets safer. This 

means fewer cops behind 

desks and more walking 

beat patrols. 

have set up shop in the suburbs. "There 
are a heck of a lot of people who are bene- 
fiting from the largess of the city, and they 
don't even view it that way," says Ratajczak. 
"Even the darn county [Fulton], which has 
the city as half its people, is reluctant to 
help the city. That's a problem." 

It's a problem Campbell is eager to over- 
come. Governing Atlanta effectively 
means not only bridging the gap between 
black and white or rich and poor, but also 
between the city and its suburbs. Annexa- 
tion is not in the cards — the city hasn't 

really grown in square mileage since 
1952 — so cooperation is the key. "I think 
what's happened in the past is that there's 
been a real antipathy toward Atlanta from 
the surrounding counties and jurisdic- 
tions," says Campbell. "I'm simply trying 
to get them to see as Atlanta prospers, 
they prosper as well." 

So this mayor has traveled to the state's 
rural areas, initiated regular meetings 
between his staff and county commission- 
ers, and beefed up liaisons with the state 
legislature. It's all part of his philosophy of 
inclusiveness. Campbell says, "As long as 
you include people in the decision making, 
you strengthen your own hand." 

The ability to bring disparate parties 
together and broker deals is the essence of 
politics and governing. And these are 
skills Campbell's friends say he has in 
abundance. Mary Rose Taylor, a promi- 
nent civic activist who co-chaired his 
campaign, says, "Compromise is the only 
way that allows us to move ahead peace- 
fully, where we can minimize our differ- 
ences and maximize the things we share in 
common. And I think Bill is the leader 
that can achieve that goal." 

Taylor, who continues to serve as an 
adviser to the mayor, is one of several 

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F.O.B.'s (Friends of Bill) among his inner 
circle. Topping the list is Labovitz, his 
chief of staff. The men owe their connec- 
tion to Labovitz's wife, the former Sheri 
Silverman J.D. 76, who knew Campbell 
when they were both students at Duke Law 
School. She became reacquainted with 
Campbell's familiar face at an Atlanta 
Hawks game sixteen years ago. The chance 
run-in has blossomed into the closest of 
friendships, for both couples. 

No longer a classroom teacher, Sharon 
Campbell now works full-time as an ad- 
ministrator for the Atlanta public schools. 
For the past eight years, she has overseen 
the Adopt-a-Student program, a kind of 
big-brother project for problem students. 
In monthly workshops, volunteers from 
Atlanta's business world serve as mentors to 
students with bad grades, counseling them 
one-on-one. Sharon Campbell also runs the 
International Student Exchange, which 
sends one standout student from each of 
the city's thirteen high schools overseas for 
part of the academic year to countries as 
varied as England, Israel, and Korea. 

"Sharon is very much a woman who is 
totally self-defined," says friend Mary Rose 
Taylor. "She knows what her priorities are: 
Her children and family come first, and 

then her career, and being wife of the 
mayor is third." 

Sharon Campbell doesn't dispute that 
list. Caring for son Billy, ten, and daughter 
Christina, four, is the "joy" of her life. But 
the mayor does not diminish her political 
impact. "I could not have accomplished 
anything I've accomplished without her 
right by my side," Campbell says. 

Indeed, for Campbell family and poli- 
tics have always been intertwined, going 
back to his days as a boy in Raleigh, when 
picketing was a regular afternoon activi- 
ty — for equal access to lunch counters, 
hotels, and public swimming schools. 
Even when Campbell was only four or five 
years old, his father took him to smoke- 
filled rooms where grass-roots activists 
pored over precinct maps. And by the 
time he was seven, Bill Campbell himself 
was a veteran of the civil rights struggle, 
and schools in North Carolina's capital 
were never the same. 

All of Ralph and June Campbell's chil- 
dren are now involved in government. 
Bill's older sister Mildred and his younger 
brother Eddie both work for the North 
Carolina state government. And Bill's 
older brother Ralph Jr. is a groundbreaker 
himself — the first black person elected to a 

statewide office (besides a judgeship) in 
North Carolina history. After serving on 
the Raleigh city council in the 1980s, he 
won the job of state auditor, the state's 
chief accountant, in 1992. 

"I wish their daddy could be here," says 
June Campbell, at sixty-eight, now retired. 
Ralph Sr. died of a heart attack eleven 
years ago. 

"He was a person not afraid to devise a 
plan and then implement it himself — 
putting up yard signs, knocking on doors," 
Bill Campbell says of his father, his politi- 
cal hero. "I took a lot of my style from 
him. He had all the tools." 

Now Campbell has the levers of govern- 
ment at his fingertips in a job that, by his 
own account, has no off time. The only 
time he isn't mayor of Atlanta is when he 
is asleep, and even then people call and 
wake him up with the problems of the city. 
Yet he takes it all in stride. "It's consum- 
ing. But it's what I wanted, it's what I 
have, and I am on top of the world." I 

Hirschkom '89 is a national assignment editor for 
CNN in Atlanta. 



■**xsp'k \ 



M 1. 

s.--\ ■'-ilLT -JIP i<W*,. ■ a^MW&S^^. 


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It's a verbal minefield out there, and unless you're sure 
where your audience stands, you'd be wise to choose 
your words carefully. This is particularly true on college 
campuses, where speech-code proponents and First 
Amendment purists talk heatedly about talking. 


Midway through Sally Potter's 
film adaptation of Virginia 
Woolfs novel Orlando, the 
protagonist suddenly awak- 
ens to discover that he has become a she. 
As a male, Orlando had free rein to roam 
the grounds of his vast estate, but as a 
woman, she discovers her liberties severely 

One afternoon, Orlando finds herself 
dressed in yards of blue silk and lace, crim- 
son hair upswept, her fair complexion 
reflecting a protected life. Seated in a par- 
lor, she waits to be invited to join a tea- 
party circle of distinguished male writers. 
Thus summoned, she barely has time to 
settle in her chair before they begin dis- 
cussing the female sex. 

In voices dripping with sarcastic disap- 
pointment, smiling all the while, they lament 
the simple-minded, money-grabbing ways of 
women, stealing glances to gauge Orlando's 
reaction. Finally, when she can take no more, 
she protests in a determined tone that such 
reasoning is both unfair and untrue. 

Smirking, one replies, "Don't be offend- 
ed, my dear. Conversation is where ideas 
are tested." 

Conversation in today's society is still a 
place to launch provocative intellectual 
exchange. But as in Orlando's day, it is 
also used as a tool to pretty up ugly 
notions. Whether in the workplace or in 
casual conversation, talk can get you in 
trouble. Dare you tell that risque joke at 
your next dinner party, lest it be viewed as 
a sexist swipe? Should you reveal your mis- 
givings about congressional redistricting, 
and risk being called a racist? Will an off- 
hand comment about your co-worker's 
ethnic customs brand you a jingoist jerk? 

It's a verbal minefield out there. Unless 
you're sure of the political, social, and moral 
beliefs of your audience — or your name is 
Rush Limbaugh or Khalid Muhammad and 
you intend to offend — you'd be wise to 
choose your words carefully. This is particu- 
larly true if you are running for public office 
or live near a college campus, where 
speech-code proponents and First Amend- 


ment purists talk heatedly about talking. 

"This issue has teally divided people, 
and it's divided the ACLU in a way that 
it's never been divided before," says dean 
of student development Sue Wasiolek 76, 
M.H.A. '78, LL.M. '93. "In the past, the 
'pure' liberals always promoted free speech, 
and suddenly you're seeing a reversal of 
that. Now you have liberals saying, 'Free 
speech is fine as long as it doesn't offend 
anyone, as long as it's not insulting or 
oppressive because then we have to step in 
and do something about it.' Conservatives 
fought against freedom of speech in the 
past in that they didn't want certain groups 
to have the right to speak. Now, they've 
become the purists." 

Blame it on the political correctness 
movement gone haywire (if you question a 
course that teaches African-American les- 
bian writers, you must be racist, sexist, 
homophobic, and so forth). Or on the ris- 
ing factionalization of American society, 
with a diverse mix of minority voices lay- 
ing claim to representation. And don't for- 
get the gender maelstrom started by the 
Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas hearings. 

While policies restricting offensive speech 
and behaviors vary in the public and private 
spheres of the workplace, universities have 
found themselves thrust into the commo- 
tion like never before. And the stakes are 
high. Professional reputations and tenure 
decisions can be marred by mere whispers 
of bigotry. Courses are criticized because of 
books on the syllabus or authors not repre- 
sented. Free speech can degenerate into hate 
speech — most recently at Howard Universi- 
ty, with episodes of anti-Semitic agitation. 

To counter this disturbing trend toward 
contentiousness, many institutions find 
themselves grappling with tangled debates 
over the First and Fourteenth Amendments; 
the merits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of 
speech codes; and the shared responsibilities 
of all members within a particular academic 
community. But no one has easy answers. 

"Language is used as a weapon now much 
more than it ever was," says James B. Duke 
Professor of Psychology John Staddon, a 
member of the faculty for twenty-seven 
years and editor of the Faculty Newsletter. 
"This linguistic power play puts you at a 
disadvantage because you are not allowed 
to say what's on your mind." 

As example of this, Staddon points to 
the use of the phrase "code word." "Suppose 
I say I'm for individual freedom. Someone 
can say, 'Oh, that's a code word for racism.' 
But suppose I really mean I'm for individual 
freedom? What do I do? It's a way of render- 
ing your opponent impotent and I despise it 
and think it's an evil, evil thing." 

Rather than encourage open and honest 
debate, says Staddon, such loaded jargon 
creates barriers and puts people on the 

defensive. In the Faculty Newsletter, which 
Staddon has edited for three years, editorials 
and letters-to-the-editor from faculty mem- 
bers (and occasionally an administrator) 
express a range of political and social opin- 
ions. Staddon says he publishes everything 
that's submitted, even when the author, for 
whatever reason, requests anonymity. 

"There are bad reasons to run anonymous 
submissions. You don't want to shoot from 

Conversation is 

a place to launch 


intellectual exchange. 

It's also used as 

a tool to pretty up 

ugly notions. 

ambush where you say something mean and 
the person doesn't know who you are. And I 
would never do that. On the other hand, 
there are times you want to put certain ideas 
forth to be discussed, but you don't necessar- 
ily want to be identified with the topic." 

Printing controversial or even unpopu- 
lar views, says Staddon, should be a start- 
ing point for frank analysis, not an end- 
point for someone with an axe to grind. 
"Debate is the great solvent," he says. "If 
there's bullshit out there — and there's 
bullshit every place — once you put it out 
and debate it, it goes away. You begin to 
see where the truth is and where it isn't. I 
think people understand that the newslet- 
ter is honestly meant. If anyone is critical 
[of something we print], my response to 
them is always, write in, we'll publish it." 

In addition to his come-one, come-all 
submissions policy, Staddon has turned the 
Faculty Newsletter into a witty and, at 
times, irreverent read. (The "VP Count" 
notes the current number of vice president 
posts around the university.) When De- 
constructionist godling Jacques Derrida 
spoke on campus last year, Staddon penned 
a column that featured two professors 
scratching their heads over the speaker's 
impossibly dense discourse. And in a move 
that branded him with an unexpected 
measure of notoriety, Staddon scanned in 
a portion of an article critical of Duke's 
English department that ran, complete 
with lurid headline, in the London Daily 
Mail. That did not sit well in some quar- 
ters. At his last appearance before the 
Academic Council, then-president H. Keith 

H. Brodie called the move "divisive." A 
flurry of letters followed, all of which Stad- 
don printed. 

Other campus publications stir things up, 
too, to varying degrees of success. Guest 
editorials in The Chronicle, ranging from 
topics like homosexuality to abortion to 
race relations, keep the letters page full. In 
the past year, student-penned cartoons 
proved the flash point for heated exchanges 
from readers. One depicted an Asian char- 
acter expressing a fondness for "road kill," 
ostensibly a play on the urban folklore that 
Asians routinely eat dogs and cats. Another 
portrayed an incident of date rape as being 
the natural outcome of a beer-suffused con- 
cert for Rape Awareness Week. 

The Duke Review, a conservative, stu- 
dent-run independent publication (it gets 
no money from the university) prides itself 
on promoting "the ideals of the great 
minds of the Western cultural heritage." 
Published monthly by The Freedom Insti- 
tute, Inc., and supported through subscrip- 
tions and private donations, The Duke 
Review features a blend of short observa- 
tions about campus events, editorials, and 
longer feature stories. Among the groups 
getting the most ink from issue to issue are 
the English department, the Black Student 
Alliance, and the Women's Studies pro- 
gram and/or the Women's Center. 

Editor emeritus Tony Mecia '94 is up- 
front about his paper's purpose. "We have 
a bias and we're not afraid to talk about it. 
We don't try to pretend like we're objec- 
tive. We're not. We're traditionalists." 
While the Review staff is concerned with 
the big picture — "the importance of the 
canon, the commitment to free speech, 
conservative ideas" — Mecia says their 
intent is sometimes misunderstood. 

"We write about very controversial sorts 
of groups, such as the Black Student 
Alliance [BSA] or the DGLA [Duke Gay 
and Lesbian Association]. I think it's 
important that in criticizing these groups 
we make it well known that we are not 
criticizing the BSA because it is made up 
of blacks; we are criticizing them because 
of political positions they take. We really 
want to make sure that we don't give the 
impression that we are attacking people 
because of their race or their gender or 
something like that." 

One could argue, of course, that the 
things the Black Student Alliance deems 
important as a group reflect the concerns 
of a good portion of blacks on campus, and 
therefore the criticism is indeed along 
racial lines. But Mecia rejects that reason- 
ing. "I see what you are saying, but I don't 
think that is really our problem. As long as 
we feel that what we are doing is not 
racially based, but is more ideologically 
based, I don't think it's our problem." 

May-June 1994 

But one member of Duke's black com- 
munity thought the The Duke Review was 
too vitriolic in its criticisms of the BSA 
and took action. Last fall, junior Nico 
Tynes was caught confiscating eighty 
copies of the paper — available, free of 
charge, at various locations around cam- 
pus — and when confronted by Mecia, 
defended his actions by calling the Review 
"trash." Initially convicted of theft by the 
undergraduate judicial board, Tynes later 
had the charges against him overturned by 
vice president for student affairs Janet 
Dickerson. On advice from university 
counsel, Dickerson decided that the judi- 
cial board that heard the case "had created 
a new and unique definition of 'theft' as it 
is used in the Judicial Code, and retroac- 
tively applied it to the student." 

Dickerson's ruling received thumbs-up 
support from William Van Alstyne, 
William and Thomas Perkins Professor of 
Law and noted First Amendment expert. 
As he stated in a letter to the editor of the 
Durham Herald-Sun — published after the 
newspaper had criticized Dickerson's deci- 
sion, an editorial stand that it later 
reversed — the Tynes case set a precedent 
at the university: No student had ever 
before taken copies of a free publication, 
which became "community property" once 
it was on the stands. Van Alstyne agreed 
with Dickerson that the student's actions 
were "offensive and inimical to the free 
exchange of ideas," and agreed as well that 
the administrator had "sensibly concluded 
that application of the board's novel, after- 
the-fact interpretation of the rule [regard- 
ing theft] to the student was unfair." 

The incident raised interesting issues of 
freedom of speech, and put Duke alongside 
such institutions as Brandeis and the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, among others, 
where similar newspaper heists took place. 
As observed by First Amendment lawyer 
Floyd Abrams in a New York Times Maga- 
zine piece on free speech, students who 
throw out newspapers on campus are "doing 
something antithetical to First Amendment 
values, and I think they are the product 
of bad teaching. ..[destroying newspapers] 
should be beyond the pale in our society." 

At Brandeis, the campus paper ran an 
ad denying the horrific dimensions of the 
Holocaust that The Chronicle also ran sev- 
eral years ago, to much criticism. Ann 
Heimberger '92 was editor of The Chronicle 
at the time. Despite a column defending 
the paper's position, Heimberger and her 
staff found themselves subject to relentless 
protests; at a subsequent rally, one faculty 
member labeled her "a Nazi," and others 
called for her removal from the editorship. 

If she had to do it over, says Heimberger, 
now coordinator for Duke's reunions pro- 
gram in Alumni Affairs, she would run the 

"People always want to 

know what they can't say. 

They want a list. 

But to make a list of 

things you can't say 

misses the point entirely." 

ad again, while also including news stories 
about the group that bought the ad and 
editorials denouncing its position. "We 
eventually did all those things," she says, 
"but it would have been better if they'd 
run the same day the ad appeared. I still 
think that running the ad did more to 
stimulate discussion about the Holocaust 
than holding a forum or showing a movie 
would have done." 

Discussion was stimulated — though in a 
more controlled sense — when the con- 
tentious Leonard Jeffries spoke at Duke last 
year. Jeffries is the chair of the City Col- 
lege of New York's black studies depart- 
ment; he's the proponent of a famously 
dubious theory distinguishing the world's 
"Sun People" from the "Ice People." Jeffries 
has been criticized for making such anti- 
Semitic remarks as blaming "rich" Jews for 
financing the slave trade. One thing that 
appearance did was spark an organized 
workshop that brought together black and 
Jewish students — an interesting response to 
a speaker with a divisive message. At the 
forum, students were asked by professional 
facilitators to consider what factors they 
thought made their group distinctive, the 
ways in which they thought their group 
was misunderstood, and what they would 
like to learn about the traditions and per- 
spectives of the other group. 

Defenders of the Chronicle's decision 
to publish the Holocaust denial ad and of 
a student group's choice to sponsor a 
speech by Jeffries cited the tradition of the 
First Amendment. As deceptively simple 
as it reads, the First Amendment is clearly 
open to multiple interpretations. And 
that's when the troubles begin. As Duke 
English and law professor Stanley Fish 
notes in his latest book, There's No Such 
Thing As Free Speech... And It's a Good 
Thing, Too, there are disagreements on 
what actually constitutes speech (and is 
thus free from constraints). 

"Basically," he writes, "the strategy is to 
declare that the forms of speech found 
unworthy or intolerable are not really free 
speech and that therefore we do not com- 
promise our free-speech principles by regu- 

lating them. Moreover, the strategy is 
reversible when a court comes upon a form 
of physical action whose consequences it is 
willing to tolerate; for then it can say that 
while the behavior in question appears to 
be action, it is really speech — expressive of 
some idea — and therefore outside the 
scope of judicial action. 

"It's a wonderful game, and those who 
play it are limited only by their own con- 
siderable ingenuity. See, it looks like 
speech, but it's really action; or, it looks 
like action, but it's really speech; or, it 
looks like intimidation, harassment, libel, 
and group vilification, but it's really the 
expression of an idea. Armed with this 
marvelously flexible instrument, a court 
can have its First Amendment and make 
you eat it, too " 

Fish argues that, given the self-imposed 
restraints and value-system of any given 
community, it is unlikely (if not impossi- 
ble) that the unleashing of hateful words 
will cause that system to collapse. Writing 
about the campus scene, Fish urges his 
readers to think of the setting "not as a 
free-speech forum but as a workplace 
where people have contractual obligations, 
assigned duties, pedagogical and adminis- 
trative responsibilities, and so on...." 

At Duke, administrators have been re- 
luctant to draft speech codes per se, al- 
though a university Harassment Policy 
that took effect in January of this year is 
arguably such a measure. The policy has 
drawn both praise and criticism for its con- 
tents: Critics see it as impinging on free 
speech while proponents say it is a long- 
overdue step toward ensuring hospitable 
working conditions. 

Either way, it is ambiguous enough to 
encompass the range of behavior that con- 
stitutes harassment without making it easy 
for someone to press false charges. Harass- 
ment is defined as "the creation of a hos- 
tile or intimidating environment, in which 
verbal or physical conduct, because of its 
severity and/or persistence, is likely to 
interfere significantly with an individual's 
work or education, or affect adversely an 
individual's living conditions." 

Judith White, special assistant to the 
president and sexual harassment preven- 
tion coordinator, is the point person for 
the policy. In addition to hearing and 
advising individuals on particular cases, 
she coordinates educational programs to 
explain what the statement means. White 
stresses that the policy is not content-spe- 
cific; that is, there are no fixed things an 
individual can or cannot say or do. 

"People always want to know what they 
can't say," White says. "They want a list of 
words. But to make a list of things you can't 
say misses the point entirely. This policy 
asks for people to be attuned to how their 



behavior is affecting people around them." 

As White explains it, the first step in 
stopping an established pattern of hostile 
or intimidating behavior is to confront the 
person who's doing it. If that doesn't work, 
a supervisor may be asked to relay the 
same message, and warn that continuation 
of such conduct won't be tolerated. 
Although it sounds straightforward, the 
procedure is rarely un- 
complicated given the 
political dynamics be- 
tween an underling and 
boss, or a graduate stu- 
dent and faculty mem- 
ber. It's one thing if a 
manager repeatedly re- 
fers to a secretary as 
"babe" and ogles her 
every time she walks 
by; it's another when 
the attention isn't quite 
so overt, when passing 
comments or lingering 
glances cause feelings 
of discomfort. Is that 

For better or worse, 
says White, the burden 
of proof still rests with 
the person making the 
accusation. A lot of peo- 
ple are stuck with boor- 
ish bosses, and that's too 
bad, but it's not harass- 
ment. In that scenario, 
"If you were going to 
make a harassment com- 
plaint, you would have 
to show that that behav- 
ior was meted out to some people individu- 
ally. It's the targetedness of it that makes it 
harassment, rather than merely an obnox- 
ious management style," she says. 

Before White's position was created last 
year, there was no central office for han- 
dling complaints about harassment. A stu- 
dent might be told to talk to her resident 
adviser or a dean if she had a problem. 
While White's services are available to all 
members of the community, some students 
think the university could be doing more, 
particularly in the area of student-to-stu- 
dent harassment. 

During her junior year, Sarah Vaill '94 
awoke every weekend to a ringing phone 
at 5 a.m. The caller then proceeded to 
utter graphic obscenities. This continued 
for six weeks, during which time Vaill says 
her work and study habits, and her health, 
suffered. She suspected a classmate in a 
small seminar, but without sufficient evi- 
dence, there was little she could do. Duke 
Public Safety traced the calls to a com- 
mon hall phone, and one morning, at 
Vaill's insistence, they checked that 

phone and caught the suspect making 
other calls. 

When they apprehended the student, 
who was indeed Vaill's classmate, Public 
Safety told her that they felt sorry and 
embarrassed for him since he was obvious- 
ly extremely intoxicated. "I couldn't 
believe it," says Vaill. "Here I was, a com- 
plete wreck from enduring this for so long 

and they had me questioning my own 
anger. I felt defeated." 

Vaill had the option of pressing federal 
charges against him or taking the case to 
the undergraduate judicial board. She 
opted for the latter, a decision she came to 
regret. "Once I decided to go through UJB, 
I never heard another word. And then I 
got a call from a dean telling me that the 
case had been decided. Since he had con- 
fessed to the charges, they didn't call me or 
ask for my testimony. Regardless of how he 
confessed, I couldn't believe they could 
assign certain charges without hearing the 
relative damage done to me by his actions." 

Charged with violating the alcohol poli- 
cy, state law regarding illegal use of 
phones, and student conduct codes, the 
confessed harasser was required to attend 
two hours of alcohol abuse counseling, 
write Vaill a letter of apology (approved by 
the appropriate deans), and was placed on 
a one-year housing probation. 

(Hers is not an isolated case. According 
to Deborah Forbes '94, editor of The 
Archive and member of the Women's 

Coalition, every single person involved in 
organizing the Take Back the Night 
marches to protest violence against women 
gets threatening phone calls. "It's gotten to 
the point," she says matter-of-factly, "that 
we put a trace on all of our phones as a 
matter of course. It's that predictable.") 

Even now, Vaill gets visibly upset about 
how the case was handled and says if she 
had to do it again, 
she would press federal 
charges. "I wanted his 
name published on the 
front page of The Chron- 
icle, with my name front 
and center. I wanted 
him to be affected as a 
student. As it was, I felt 
as though he was the 
one being protected, 
not me." 

Vaill says she recog- 
nizes the inherent dan- 
gers of implementing 
codes prohibiting hate 
speech, but she thinks 
the university should 
help make students fully 
aware of what recourse 
they have when words 
are used to intimidate, 
threaten, or coerce. As 
she sees it, the current 
slap-on-the-wrist pun- 
ishment is little deter- 
rent to people who want 
i to bully with words. 
;And she says she'd like 
± to see students convict- 
is ed of a crime forced to 
own up to it publicly. 

From her vantage point as dean of stu- 
dent development, Sue Wasiolek says stu- 
dent-to-student harassment generally falls 
within three categories: along gender, race, 
and sexual-orientation lines. And the two 
avenues that create the most problems, she 
says, are either verbal abuse — people 
yelling out a dorm window or from a car or 
a bench — or in the form of flyers. Student 
groups, from the Campus Republicans to 
Duke Students for Choice, post brightly- 
colored flyers to convey information about 
meetings and events. Depending on the 
group, these are sometimes torn down or 

While Duke has explicit rules prohibiting 
assault and threats of violence, it has 
stopped short of implementing codes such as 
those in place at many state schools, where 
everything from "infliction of emotional dis- 
tress" to "advocacy of offensive viewpoint" is 
punishable. Instead of fostering mutual 
respect or eliminating offensive language, 
administrators reason, defining and enforc- 
Continued on page 49 

May-June 1 994 


With this issue, Duke Magazine 
marks its tenth year of publica- 
tion. We might have given 
you a stuffy, self-serving reflective essay. 
Instead, we've highlighted some of the 
more curious and unexpected aspects of 
our publishing record. 

Number of presidents pictured on 
the cover: four — Terry Sanford, H. Keith 
H. Brodie, Nannerl O. Keohane, and 
Ronald Reagan, who in the spring of 1988 
took part in a campus symposium on drugs 
in the workplace. 

tie here. A flopped (that is, mirror) image 
of President Terry Sanford made the cover 
for the issue that celebrated his fifteen- 
year presidency. At the same time that 
Duke Magazine used a Grant Wood paint- 
ing to illustrate its cover story about the 
future of farming, Notre Dame Magazine 
ran exactly the same cover. A 
few months later, SMU Maga- |~| VI 
zine published a Grant Wood — ! 1 )\ 
different painting, same subject — 
on its cover. 

Most embarrassing mis- 
take that was never pub- 
lished: A "spell-checking" pro- 
gram applied to a news story 
about filming on campus trans- 
formed actress Faye Dunaway 
into "Fade Runaway," and a 
mention of the Angier Biddle Duke schol- 
arships was renamed "Angie Diddle Duke." 
The computer's reworking was corrected at 
an early stage of proof-reading. 

Most embarrassing mistake that 
made it into publication: Through- 
out the text of a profile, John Adams LL.B. 
'62 was treated as executive director of the 
"National" Resources Defense Council. It's 
actually the Natural Resources Defense 

Most tantalizing design treatment: 

The accompanying art for the profile of 
Duke taste-and-smell specialist Susan 
Schiffman showed, among other delec- 
table elements, a chocolate chip cookie, 
a bar of bath soap, a rose, cinnamon 

sticks, mints, tanning lotion, lip balm, and 
a disembodied nose. 

Quickest career advance for a pro- 
file subject: Phil Lader '66 is famous for 
organizing the Renaissance Weekends that 
Bill Clinton wouldn't think of missing. Six 
months after being confirmed as deputy 
director of the White House Office of 
Management and Budget, Lader was named 
deputy White House chief of staff. 

Most unlikely subject to produce 
a flurry of letters: the "Retrospectives" 
story on Richard Austin Smith '35, who, 
after complaining a bit too vociferously 
about Duke's administration, was expelled 
by President William Preston Few. (Corre- 
spondents thought that the piece celebrat- 
ed Smith's free-expression stance at the 
expense of Few's reputation.) 


David Lender 
'90, J.D. '93, who as a fresh- 
man in 1986, was commis- 
sioned by the magazine to 
write a journal of his first 
weeks at Duke, and who seven 
years later wrote about his life 
as a Duke law student. 

Best recycled faculty 
subjects: Duke coastal geol- 
ogist Orrin Pilkey and eco- 
nomist Kip Viscusi, both pro- 
filed in separate stories that appeared in 
the same issue during the magazine's first 
publishing year, and who were re-employed 
last year in a story about risky behavior. 

Most memorable headlines: "Leap- 
ing Lemurs! A Living Library" (about 
Duke's l