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Full text of "Duquesne University Bulletin 1985-1986 Graduate School"

Duquesne 
University 




Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 



1985-86 

School of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences 



Graduate Course Catalog 



Directory 

Graduate School of Liberal Arts and Sciences 

Duquesne University 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 

Telephone: (412) 434-6400 



ADMINISTRATION 

Bruce D. Martin, Ph.D., Acting Dean 
Ethel Goppman, Administrative Secretary 

DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION 

Biology 

Howard G. Ehrlich, Ph.D., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6332 
Chemistry 
Andrew J. Glaid III, Ph.D., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6340 
English 
Joseph J. Keenan, Ph.D., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6420 
History 
Jerome E. Janssen, M.A., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6470 
Institute of Formative Spirituality 
Susan Muto, Ph.D., 

Director 
Telephone: 434-6028 
Modern Languages 
Francesa F. Colecchia, Ph.D., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6415 
Pharmaceutical Sciences 
Douglas Kay, Ph.D., Dean, Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6376 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry and 

Pharmaceutics 
Mitchell L. Borke, Ph.D. 
Pharmacology /Toxicology 
Gene A. Riley, Ph.D. 
Philosophy 
Charles D. Keyes, Ph.D., Chairman 
Telephone: 434-6500 



Political Science 

William Markus, M.Ed., Chairman 

Telephone: 434-6486 
Psychology 

Rev. David L. Smith, C.S.Sp.,Ph.D., 
Chairman 

Telephone: 434-6520 
Sociology 

Chester A. Jurczak, Ph.D., Chairman 

Telephone: 434-6490 
Theology 

Rev. John F. O'Grady, S.S.D., 
Chairman 

Telephone: 434-6530 

FINANCIAL AID 

Frank M. Dutkovich, Jr., Director 
Telephone: 434-6607 

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 
ADVISOR 

Rev. Sean Hogan, C.S.Sp.,M.Ed. 
Telephone: 434-6113 

REGISTRAR 

Thomas Bailey 
Telephone: 434-6212 

RESIDENCE LIFE 

Associate Dean of Students for 

Resident Life 
Telephone: 434-7802 

LIBRARY RESOURCE CENTER 

Paul Pugliese, University Librarian 
Telephone: 434-6130 



Duquesne University 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 



Graduate School 

of Liberal Arts and Sciences 



1985-1987 



As the educational process, from admission through graduation, requires continuing 
review and appropriate approval by University officials, the provisions of this catalog are 
to be considered directive in character. The University, therefore, reserves the right to 
change requirements and regulations, contained herein, including fees, tuition, and 
board and room, and to determine whether an individual has satisfactorily met the 
requirements for admission or graduation. 

NOTICE OF NONDISCRIMINATORY POLICY 

Duquesne University does not discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, 
national or ethnic origin, handicap, or age (as provided by law), nor in the administra- 
tion of its admissions and educational policies, scholarship and loan programs, and 
athletic or other University-sponsored programs. It admits individuals to all rights and 
privileges, programs, and activities generally accorded or made available to students at 
the school. 

Under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, access to student records by non- 
University personnel is restricted unless granted by the student, or dependency of the 
student is demonstrated by a parent or guardian. 

Information contained in this catalog is accurate to the date of publication. Faculty 
listings are as of Spring, 1984. 

Published annually by Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282. 



Contents 



Directory (inside front cover) 

Campus Map (inside back cover) 

Academic Calendar 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

The School, 1; The University, 1; The Community, 2; 
Accreditation and Affiliation, 3; Research Facilities, 3. 

ADMISSION INFORMATION 

Application, 6; Types of Admission, 7; International Student 
Admissions, 8; Registration, 9. 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION 

Tuition and Fees, 10; Room and Board, 11; Refunds, 12; 
Room and Board Refunds, 13; Student Financing Program, 13; 
Billing Problems, 13. 

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

Assistantships, 14; Scholarships, 14; Federally Funded Institutional 
Aid, 14; Student Guaranteed Loan Program, 15; Army ROTC, 
16; Negro Emergency Education Fund, 16; Clerical Discounts, 16; 
Catholic Lay Teacher Discount, 16; Senior Citizen Discount, 17. 

ACADEMIC POLICIES 

Grading, 17; Semester Grade Reports, 18; Transcripts, 18; 
Confidentiality of Student Records, 18; Degree Requirements, 19; 
Ph.D. Sequence, 20; Thesis and Dissertation, 20; Restriction on 
Time, 21; Statute of Limitations for Ph.D. candidates, 21; 
Language Requirements, 21; Residence Requirements, 22; 
Transferred Graduate Credit, 22; Cross-Registration, 22; 
Auditing Courses, 23; Cancellation of Courses, 23; Change 
of Schedule, 23; Withdrawal from Course, 23; Combined 
Bachelor's and Master's Degree, 24. 

SPECIAL GRADUATE SCHOOL PROGRAMS 

Career Studies Program, 24; Master of Liberal Studies 
Program, 25; Reserve Officer Training Corps, 26. 

DEPARTMENTS AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAMS: Basic Health Sciences, 28; 
Communications, 33. 

DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS; Biological Sciences, 37; 
Chemistry, 43; Classics, 49; English, 50; History, 55; Institute 
of Formative Spirituality, 61; Mathematics, 69; Modern 
Languages, 70; Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71; Philosophy, 82; 
Political Science, 92; Psychology, 96; Sociology, 105; 
Theology, 107. 

THE UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION * 

Duquesne Corporation, 119; Board of Directors, 119; Officers, 120. 

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND 
SCIENCES 

Administration, 120; Graduate Faculty, 121. 

INDEX 128 

iii 



ACADEMIC CALENDAR 

1984-1985 

FALL SEMESTER— 1984 



July 13 


Friday 


August 22 


Wednesday 


August 23 


Thursday 


August 24 


Friday 


August 25 


Saturday 


August 25 


Saturday 


August 25 


Saturday 


August 27 


Monday 


September 4 


Tuesday 


September 3 


Monday 


(To Be Announced) 




(To Be Announced) 




(To Be Announced) 




September 8 


Saturday 


September 15 


Saturday 


September 21 


Friday 


September 22 


Saturday 


October 10 


Wednesday 


October 19 


Friday 


October 19 


Friday 


October 22 


Monday 


October 26 


Friday 


October 26 


Friday 


November 1 


Thursday 


November 13 


Tuesday 


November 19-24 


Monday-Saturday 


November 29 


Thursday 


December 7 


Friday 


December 8 


Saturday 


December 1 1 


Tuesday 


December 14 


Friday 


December 15 


Saturday 


December 17-22 


Monday-Saturday 


December 22 


Saturday 


December 22 


Saturday 


December 24 


Monday 



Latest Date for Pre-registration with Pay-By-Mail Option. 
Final Registration. 
Final Registration. 
Final Registration. 
Final Registration. 

Latest Date to Cancel Registration without Penalty. 
Latest Date to Register without Late Fee. 
Semester Begins. 
Latest Date to Register, 
Latest Date for Change of Class Schedule, 
Latest Date to Declare Pass/Fail, 
No Refund After this Date for Credits Dropped. 
Holiday: Labor Day. 
Pharmacy V. Externship Begins. 
Pharmacy V. Externship Ends. 

Pharmacy V. Classes Begin. Latest Date for Pharmacy V. 
Students to Register and Change Class Schedules. 
Latest Date for 80% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for 40% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Apply 
for Graduation. 

Latest Date for 20% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 
Reading Day. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates to Remove Temporary I 
Grades from Spring Semester and Summer Session. I 
Grades Not Removed by this date to convert to F. 
Latest Date to Submit Mid-term Grades. 
Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Submit 
Thesis Outline and Schedule Comprehensives. 
Due Date for Instructors to Submit Undergraduate I Grade 
Removal Grades. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates Other than First Semester 
Freshmen to Withdraw with W Grade. 
Holiday: All Saints Day. 
Spring Semester Pre-registration Begins. 
Holiday: Thanksgiving Recess. 

Pre-registration for Spring Semester Ends; Latest Date for 
Pre-registration with Pay-By-Mail Option. 
Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Submit 
Approved Thesis to School Office and take Comprehensives. 
Holiday: Immaculate Conception. 
Reading Day. 
Reading Day. 

Latest Date for first Semester Freshmen to Withdraw with 
W Grade. 

Final Examinations. 

Semester Ends. Latest Date for Graduating Students to 
Complete Degrees. 

Latest Date for Graduate Students to Remove Temporary I 
Grades from preceding Spring and Summer. 
Holiday: Christmas Recess Begins. 



SPRING SEMESTER— 1985 



November 29 


Thursday 


January 10 


Thursday 


January 1 1 


Friday 


January 12 


Saturday 


January 12 


Saturday 


January 12 


Saturday 


January 14 


Monday 


January 19 


Saturday 


January 19 


Saturday 


January 19 


Saturday 


January 19 


Saturday 


(To Be Announced) 




(To Be Announced) 




(To Be Announced) 




January 25 


Friday 


January 26 


Saturday 


January 28 


Monday 


February 2 


Saturday 


February 9 


Saturday 


March 1 


Friday 


March 1 


Friday 


March 8 


Friday 


March 8 


Friday 


March 25 


Monday 


March 27 


Wednesday 


April 1 thru 6 


Monday thru Sat. 


April 8 


Monday 


April 11 


Thursday 


April 12 


Friday 


April 29 


Monday 


April 30 


Tuesday 


May 1-7 


Wed., Thurs., Fri 




Sat., Mon., Tues. 


May 7 


Tuesday 


May 7 


Tuesday 


May 10 


Friday 


May 10 


Friday 


May 11 


Saturday 


May 16 


Thursday 


May 27 


Monday 


July 4 


Thursday 


August 15 


Thursday 



Latest Date for Pre-registration with Pay-By-Mail Option. 
Final Registration. 
Final Registration. 
Final Registration. 

Latest Date to Cancel Registration without Penalty. 
Latest Date to Register without Late Fee. 
Semester Begins. 
Latest Date to Register. 
Latest Date for Change of Class Schedule. 
Latest Date to Declare Pass/Fail. 
No Refund After this Date for Credits Dropped. 
Pharmacy V. Externship Begins. 
Pharmacy V. Externship Ends. 

Pharmacy V. Classes Begin. Latest Date for Pharmacy V. 
Students to Register and Change Class Schedules. 
Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Apply for 
Graduation. 

Latest Date for 80% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Submit The- 
sis Outline and Schedule Comprehensives. 
Latest Date for 40% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for 20% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates to Remove Temporary I 
Grades from the Fall Semester. I Grades Not Removed by 
this date convert to F. 
Latest Date to Submit Mid-term Grades. 
Due Date for Instructors to Submit Undergraduate I Grade 
Removal Grades. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates Other than First Semester 
Freshmen to Withdraw with W Grade. 
Reading Day. 

Fall Semester Pre-registration Begins. 
Holiday: Easter Recess. 

Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Submit Ap- 
proved Thesis to School Office and Take Comprehensives. 
Fall Semester Pre-registration Ends. 

Latest Date for May Graduating Students to Pay Accounts. 
Latest Date for First Semester Freshmen to withdraw with 
W Grades. 
Reading Day. 
Final Examinations. 

Semester Ends. Latest Date for Graduating Students to 
Complete Degrees. 

Latest Date for Graduate Students to Remove Temporary I 
Grades of the Preceding Fall. 
University Convocation and Honors Day. 
Graduation Mass. 
Commencement. 
Holiday: Ascension Day. 
Holiday: Memorial Day. 
Holiday: Independence Day. 
Holiday: Assumption, 
v 



1985-86 

FALL SEMESTER 



1985 



July 19 



Friday 



August 15 
August 21 
August 22 
August 23 
August 24 
August 24 
August 24 
August 26 
September 2 
September 3 


Thursday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Saturday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Monday 

Tuesday 


September 7 


Saturday 


September 14 


Saturday 


September 20 


Friday 


September 2 1 


Saturday 


October 8 
October 1 1 


Tuesday 
Friday 


October 18 
October 18 


Friday 
Friday 


October 25 


Friday 


October 25 


Friday 


November 1 
November 14 


Friday 
Thursday 


November 22 


Friday 


November 23 
December 2 
December 8 
December 9 


Saturday 
Monday 
Sunday 
Monday 


December 1 1 
December 12 
December 13 


Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 


December 14 


Saturday 


December 20 


Friday 


December 20 


Friday 


December 21 


Saturday 



Latest Date for Fall Semester Pre-registration with Pay-By- 
Mail Option. 
Holiday: Assumption. 
Final Registration.* 
Final Registration.* 
Final Registration.* 
Final Registration.* 

Latest Date to Cancel Registration without Penalty. 
Latest Date to Register without Late Fee. 
Semester Begins. 
Holiday: Labor Day. 
Latest Date to Register, 
Latest Date for Change of Class Schedule, 
Latest Date to Declare Pass/Fail, 
No Refund After this Date for Credits Dropped. 
Latest Date for 80% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for 40% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Apply 
for Graduation. 

Latest Date for 20% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 
Reading Day. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates to Complete I Graded 
Courses of the 1985 Spring Semester and the 1985 Summer 
Session. I Graded Courses Not Complete by this date re- 
ceive the Permanent Grade of F. 
Latest Date to Submit Mid-term Grades. 
Due Date for Instructors to Submit Undergraduate I Grade 
Removal Grades. 

Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Submit 
Thesis Outline and Schedule Comprehensives. 
Latest Date for Undergraduates Other than First Semester 
Freshmen to Withdraw with W Grade. 
Holiday: All Saints Day. 
Spring Semester Pre-registration Begins.* 
Other Dates: November 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 
(F, S, M, T, W, H, F.) 

Latest Date for 1986 Spring Semester Pre-registration with 
Pay-By-Mail Option. 

Last Class Day Before Thanksgiving Holidays. 
First Class Day After Thanksgiving Holidays. 
Holiday: Immaculate Conception. 

Latest Date for December Prospective Graduates to Submit 
Approved Thesis to School and to take Comprehensives. 
Reading Day. 
Reading Day. 

Latest Date for First Semester Freshmen to Withdraw with 
W Grade. 

Final Examinations Begin. Other Dates: December 16, 17, 
18, 19, 20. (M, T, W, H, F.) 

Semester Ends. Latest Date for Graduating Students to 
Complete Degrees and Pay Accounts. 
Latest Date for Graduate Students to Complete I Graded 
Courses of the 1984 Fall Semester. 
Holiday: Christmas Recess Begins. 



*See Semester Class Directory for Time Schedule. 



SPRING SEMESTER— 1986 



November 22 


Friday 


January 9 


Thursday 


January 10 


Friday 


January 1 1 


Saturday 


January 1 1 


Saturday 


January 1 1 


Saturday 


January 13 


Monday 


January 18 


Saturday 


January 18 


Saturday 


January 18' 


Saturday 


January 18 


Saturday 


January 24 


Friday 


January 25 


Saturday 


January 27 


Monday 


January 31 


Friday 


February 8 


Saturday 


February 28 


Saturday 


March 7 


Friday 


March 7 


Friday 


March 14 


Friday 


March 22 


Saturday 


March 31 


Monday 


April 3 


Thursday 


April 7 


Monday 


April 14 


Monday 


April 25 


Friday 


April 28 


Monday 


April 29 


Tuesday 


April 30 


Wednesday 


May 6 


Tuesday 


May 6 


Tuesday 


May 8 


Thursday 


May 9 


Friday 


May 9 


Friday 


May 10 


Saturday 


May 26 


Monday 


July 4 


Friday 


July 14 


Wednesday 



August 15 



Friday 



Latest Date for 1986 Spring Semester Pre-registration with 
Pay-By-Mail Option. 
Final Registration.* 
Final Registration.* 
Final Registration.* 

Latest Date to Cancel Registration without Penalty. 
Latest Date to Register without Late Fee. 
Semester Begins. 
Latest Date to Register. 
Latest Date for Change of Class Schedule. 
Latest Date to Declare Pass/Fail. 
No Refund After this Date for Credits Dropped. 
Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Apply for 
Graduation. 

Latest Date for 80% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Submit The- 
sis Outline and Schedule Comprehensives. 
Latest Date for 40% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for 20% Tuition Remission for TOTAL WITH- 
DRAWAL from the University. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates to Complete I Graded 
Courses of the 1985 Fall Semester. I Graded Courses not 
completed by this date receive the Permanent Grade of F. 
Latest Date to Submit Mid-term Grades. 
Due Date for Instructors to Submit Undergraduate I Grade 
Removal Grades. 

Latest Date for Undergraduates Other than First Semester 
Freshmen to Withdraw with W Grade. 
Last Class Day Before Easter Holidays. 
First Class Day After Easter Holidays. 
Fall Semester Pre-registration Begins.* Other Dates: April 4, 
5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1. (F, S, M, T, W, H, F.) 
Latest Date for May Prospective Graduates to Submit Ap- 
proved Thesis to School Office and Take Comprehensives. 
Latest Date for May Graduates to Pay Accounts. 
Latest Date for First Semester Freshmen to Withdraw with 
W Grades. 
Reading Day. 
Reading Day. 

Final Examinations Begin. Other Dates: May 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. 
(H, F, S, M, T.) 

Semester Ends. Latest Date for Graduating Students to 
Complete Degrees. 

Latest Date for Graduate Students to Complete I Graded 
Courses of the 1985 Spring Semester. 
Holiday: Ascension Day. 
University Convocation and Honors Day. 
Graduation Mass. 
Commencement. 
Holiday: Memorial Day. 
Holiday: Independence Day. 

Latest Date for 1986 Fall Semester Pre-registration with 
Pay-By-Mail Option. 
Holiday: Assumption. 



*See Semester Registration Schedule for Other Dates and Times. 



vn 




Vlll 



General Information 



THE SCHOOL 

The Graduate School of Liberal Arts and Sciences offers a broad, 
diversified program of advanced study in a variety of academic disci- 
plines. The graduate program offers qualified students the opportunity 
to broaden their knowledge in a chosen area of study, to acquire 
proficiency and experience in the traditional academic pursuits of 
scholarship and research in a personalized setting, to contribute to the 
advancement of knowledge as teachers and scholars, to increase their 
professional competence, and to enhance their knowledge of current 
issues. Areas of study include both traditional humanistic and scien- 
tific disciplines and newly designed interdisciplinary programs in 
career studies, liberal studies, and basic health sciences. The Graduate 
School, with 100 faculty members and 600 students, provides the 
graduate student with a highly personalized learning and advisement 
environment. 

The Graduate School offers advanced degree programs in nine dis- 
ciplines at the doctoral level and in 1 9 disciplines at the master's level. 
The Doctor of Philosophy is offered in biochemistry, chemistry, 
English, formative spirituality, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical 
chemistry, philosophy, psychology and theology. The Master of Arts 
or Master of Science is offered in biochemistry, biology, career studies, 
chemistry, communications, English, formative spirituality, history, 
archival/museum/editing studies, liberal studies, medicinal chemis- 
try/drug synthesis, ongoing formation, pastoral ministry (health care; 
family life), pharmaceutical chemistry/pharmaceutics, pharmacology/ 
toxicology, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and 
theology. 

THE UNIVERSITY 

Duquesne University opened its doors as Pittsburgh Catholic College 
of the Holy Ghost in 1878 with an enrollment of 40 students and a 
faculty of seven. Founded by the Fathers and Brothers of the Congre- 
gation of the Holy Ghost, the university has provided the opportunity 
for a superior private education for students from many backgrounds 
without regard to sex, race, creed, color, or national/ethnic back- 
ground. In 1911, a university charter was obtained and the name 
Duquesne University was adopted. From the original school, which is 



2 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

the present College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, have evolved the 
Graduate School (1911), the School of Law (1911), the School of 
Business and Administration (1913), the School of Pharmacy (1925), 
the School of Music (1926), the School of Education (1929), and the 
School of Nursing (1937). The University offers degree programs in 89 
areas — 34 at the baccalaureate level; 47 at the master's; and nine at the 
doctorate. 

Duquesne has increased in size and stature over the years, and it is 
proud of its growth and its modern physical facilities. The original 40 
students have expanded to more than 6,500. In the past twenty-five 
years, the University has undergone a dramatic transformation from a 
make-shift physical plant occupying approximately 12 acres to a mod- 
ern, highly functional educational facility that is located on its own 
self-enclosed 39-acre hilltop overlooking downtown Pittsburgh. 
Through all its growth, the University has never lost sight of its 
primary mission — the academic, cultural, and spiritual development 
of the students who become part of the Duquesne family. 

THE COMMUNITY 

One of only a handful of private Catholic urban universities in the 
United States, Duquesne University, from its position adjacent to 
downtown Pittsburgh, offers ready access to the many professional, 
cultural, social and entertainment attractions of the city. Pittsburgh 
itself is the third largest corporate center and one of the ten largest 
metropolitan areas in the United States. The city is renowned for its 
ethnic diversity, its lead in urban renewal, and its liveability. Within 
walking distance of the campus are Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts 
(home of the symphony, the opera, the ballet, and other cultural 
events), the Civic Arena (center for indoor sports, popular concerts, 
exhibitions and conventions), Three Rivers Stadium (home of the 
Steelers, Pirates and Maulers), Market Square (entertainment and 
nightlife center) and the new Convention Center. The libraries, muse- 
ums, art galleries, and music hall of Carnegie Institute in the Oakland 
area are easily accessible by public transportation or by private auto- 
mobile. In recent years, the city has also developed a vibrant public 
theater and a number of experimental theater groups whose produc- 
tions throughout the year have added to the cultural life of Pittsburgh. 
Duquesne's urban location offers its students a rich experience beyond 
the classroom. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 3 

ACCREDITATION AND AFFILIATIONS 
The University 

Accreditations 

Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 
State Council on Education of the Pennsylvania Department of 
Public Instruction 

Memberships 

American Association of Urban Universities 

American Council on Education 

Association of American Colleges 

Catholic Educational Association of Pennsylvania 

Commission for Independent Colleges and Universities 

National Catholic Educational Association 

National Commission on Accrediting 

Pittsburgh Council on Higher Education 

The Graduate School 

Memberships 

Council of Graduate Schools in the United States 
Midwestern Association of Graduate Schools 
Association of Graduate Schools in Catholic Universities 
Northeastern Association of Graduate Schools 
Pennsylvania Association of Graduate Schools 

RESEARCH FACILITIES 
The University Library 

The University's newly constructed five-story Library Resource 
Center houses over 445,000 volumes, more than 3,600 periodicals and 
journals, and a large collection of microprint and audio visual materi- 
als. A modern research facility, the library also offers graduate study 
carrels, typing rooms, and group study and reading areas. There are 
also certain outstanding specialized collections. 

The African Collection. This collection serves as a regional 
resource in the areas of anthropology, linguistics, and economics. It 
contains more than 9,000 books as well as a collection of pamphlets, 
microfilms, tapes and records. In addition, more than 290 journals are 
available. 

The Rabbi Herman Hailperin Collection. A specialized resource 
which contains nearly 3,600 volumes reflecting the history of Chris- 
tian and Jewish scholarship during the Middle Ages. 



4 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

The Silverman Phenomenological Center. The Center is dedicated 
to the acquisition of all literature and other materials, regardless of 
language, dealing with phenomenological and existential thought both 
in its philosophical expression and in its application to the social and 
natural sciences. Included in the Center are the Erwin Straus and 
Aaron Gurwitsch Alcoves containing personal papers and works of 
the respective authors. The Center was established because of 
Duquesne University's wide reputation as a center of phenomenologi- 
cal thought. 

The Catherine H. Balkey Theology Collection. This extensive and 
ongoing collection of major books and journals in theology, with an 
emphasis on the Catholic tradition, is the largest of its kind in the 
region and is available to students and scholars. 

Richard K. Mellon Hall of Science 

Housing the Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and 
Physics of both the graduate and undergraduate divisions of the Uni- 
versity and the School of Pharmacy, Mellon Hall provides a modern 
and attractive setting for scientific research. Designed by one of the 
world's greatest architects, Mies van de Rohe, the building won the 
"Laboratory of the Year" award for 1969. Facilities include class- 
rooms, seminar rooms, student laboratories, and research laborato- 
ries. 

The University Computer Center 

In January 1981, the new University Computer Center opened, hous- 
ing a Sperry Univac System to provide for the instructional and 
research needs of the Duquesne Community. Remote terminals are 
located conveniently throughout the campus. 

WDUQ Radio and Television 

The University's radio station (WDUQ — 90.5 F.M.) and television 
(closed circuit) provide academic support to the individual schools 
and departments through seminars, workshops, laboratory experience, 
and extracurricular opportunities in communication skills for individ- 
uals and groups. Most positions on the staff are filled by students. The 
University radio station operates on a 25,000 Watt frequency over a 
radius of seventy miles. 

Career Planning and Placement 

Students and graduates of Duquesne University have available to 
them the full services and programs of Career Planning and Place- 
ment. Persons with uncertain or changing vocational goals may seek 



GENERAL INFORMATION 5 

career planning through personal contact with the professional staff 
and use of the career resources. Early use of this service is encouraged. 

The individual with well-defined career goals may seek employment 
advice including resume preparation, job application and interview 
techniques, job referrals, and credentials. The graduating student may 
also be interested in campus interviews with visiting employers. 

Any student group or academic department may contact Career 
Planning and Placement for aid in developing a career program and/ 
or in securing a career speaker. 

The part-time and summer employment program is important to 
students in financing their education and to those seeking practical 
experience to augment college training. Placement in campus jobs is 
largely, though not totally, dependent upon financial need. Part-time 
and summer jobs in the community are also available, with new 
listing arriving daily. 

Health Services 

The University Health Service is located on the second floor of the 
Duquesne Towers Residence Hall. Nursing service is available Mon- 
day through Friday 8:30 a.m.-9:00 p.m., Saturday and Sunday 1:00 
p.m. to 5:00 p.m. A physician is available Monday through Friday at 
specified hours. 

Primary health care is given to all resident students and to com- 
muter students who have enrolled in the University Commuter 
Health Plan. Emergency care is given to faculty, staff and visitors. A 
completely equipped ambulance is maintained by the University. 
Should an emergency occur the Department of Public Safety should 
be contacted immediately at 434-4747 to provide services of E.M.T.'s. 
Treatment or diagnostic procedures by non-University physi- 
cians,clinics, or hospitals must be paid by the student or his family. 

Health Insurance 

It is recommended that each student carry some form of health insur- 
ance. International students are required to carry the University 
health insurance program. The University provides a Student Health 
Care Program which has been designed to meet the needs of the 
student, and is priced lower than individual health insurance policies. 
Complete information about this insurance plan may be obtained 
from the University Insurance Officer, Second Floor of the Adminis- 
tration Building. Note: The University is not responsible for medical 
expenses resulting from participation in intramural sports. 



6 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Center for Training and Research in Phenomenological Psychology 

The Center for Training and Research in Phenomenological Psychol- 
ogy is staffed by the Psychology Department and is available to stu- 
dents for personal counseling. Counseling interviews provide the stu- 
dent with an opportunity for personal growth through the 
development of his ability to find his own solutions for difficulties of a 
personal nature. Single conferences or a series of interviews in indi- 
vidual or group counseling can be arranged at the Center's Office, 
which is located on the first floor of the Conseling Building. 



Admission Information 



Graduates with the bachelor's degree from an accredited college or 
university, ordained priests, rabbis, and ministers who have com- 
pleted a four-year course of study in a recognized seminary will be 
considered for admission to the Graduate School. 

Applicants shall have, in scope of study, a sufficient preparation in 
their proposed field of graduate work, and shall show that they main- 
tained a superior academic record. Deficiencies must be remedied 
without graduate credit. 

APPLICATION 

Each student applying for admission, either as an applicant for a 
degree or as a non-degree applicant, must file with the Graduate 
School an application for admission and such other documents as 
may be required. An application form will be supplied by the Gradu- 
ate School upon request. Such application should be made not later 
than one month before the beginning of the term in which the entrant 
anticipates commencing or continuing graduate work. (Psychology 
and Chemistry have earlier filing dates.) 

Official Transcripts A student applying for admission as a degree 
candidate must assume the responsibility of having the registrar of 
each institution previously attended mail an official transcript of 
record directly to the Graduate School. A transcript must be received 
from each institution attended, including any attended during sum- 
mer sessions, regardless of whether or not the transcript of the last 
institution attended lists the record at the other institutions and 
regardless of whether or not credit was received. 



ADMISSION INFORMATION 7 

Transcripts and other documents which are accepted toward admis- 
sion become the property of the University. 

acceptance After all transcripts, application for admission, letters of 
recommendation and other documents have been received the appli- 
cant's file is reviewed. If accepted, an official notification of admission 
to graduate studies is mailed to the student. Students whose records 
have been unfavorably reviewed for admission will receive notice to 
that effect. 

Admission to pursue courses in the Graduate School is not to be 
construed as an assurance of ultimate degree candidacy. 

At the discretion of the Dean of the Graduate School or of the 
Chairman of the Department, a personal interview may be required of 
any applicant before admission. 

TYPES OF ADMISSION 

Students will be admitted in one of the following ways: 

1 ) Regular. This is a full and unconditional admission into a gradu- 
ate degree program. 

Qualified applicants who file their application during the final year 
of work toward a bachelor's degree, may be provisionally accepted as 
regular graduate students, pending their successful completion of their 
course of study. They must submit a supplementary transcript show- 
ing that the degree was awarded. 

2) Provisional. Subject to fulfillment of a specific requirement nor- 
mally stated in the letter of acceptance. When the requirement has 
been fulfilled, the student must submit a request for a change in status 
to the Dean of the Graduate School. 

3) Unclassified. This is granted to those qualified students who are 
not enrolling for a degree program. They must apply for admission in 
the usual way, and if admitted they are held to the same scholastic 
standards as other students. Later, if an unclassified student wishes to 
apply for admission to a degree program, only such work as satisfies 
the requirements of that program may be transferred. 

4) Special Students. A qualified student who does not wish to 
become a degree candidate may, with the approval of the department 
or professor concerned, enroll for a particular course or courses. He 
may receive official credit for the course but may not apply that credit 
toward a degree at Duquesne University. 



8 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

"Special Students" must submit to the Dean of the Graduate School 
a written request to attend graduate classes and evidence of a bache- 
lor's degree from an accredited school. The application fee is five 
dollars. 

5) Temporary Transfer. This is granted to a student in good stand- 
ing in any recognized graduate school who wishes to enroll in the 
Graduate School of Duquesne University for one term or summer 
session and who plans to return thereafter to his former college or 
university. He will not be required to submit a full transcript of 
credits, but he must present a statement signed by his graduate dean 
that he is in good standing in his graduate school. 

6) Campus Courtesy. Registered students in the undergraduate 
schools of Duquesne University, who require not more than twelve 
semester hours for the completion of their Baccalaureate studies, may 
begin graduate study with the approval of their Dean, provided, hav- 
ing met all other conditions, they have completed a minimum of 
eighteen undergraduate credits in the subject they wish to pursue. To 
such students, only courses numbered 500-599 can be offered. The 
maximum amount of credit thus earned shall not exceed six hours. 
Graduate students in other Schools of the University may enroll in 
graduate courses with the approval of both deans. 

7) Auditor. With the persmission of the Dean of the Graduate 
School, auditors may attend certain courses, provided they pay regular 
rates per semester hour. Under no circumstance will credit be allowed 
for such attendance. 

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ADMISSIONS 

International students who wish to apply to Duquesne, in addition to 
the credentials required of all candidates, must provide proof of profi- 
ciency in English and proof of financial support. All students from 
non-English speaking countries are required to take the TOEFL (Test 
of English as a Foreign Language) examination and have their scores 
sent to the Graduate School. Proof of financial support can include 
bank statements, scholarship grants, or, in the case of religious, a 
statement of support from the order. In addition, applicants who want 
to be considered for teaching assistantships must take the TSE (Test of 
Spoken English), administered by the Educational Testing Service. 
Upon receipt of these documents and acceptance into Graduate 
School, the International Student Advisor will send an 1-20 form. The 
student takes the 1-20 and a valid passport to the nearest U.S. consu- 
late or embassy and applies for an F-l visa. The Consular Officer may 



FINANCIAL INFORMATION 9 

also require proof of English proficiency and financial support. He has 
final say in approving visa applications. International students must 
be full-time students. Health Insurance is required of all international 
students and can be purchased through the University. TOEFL — 
admitted students will be required to take an "English Diagnostic 
Examination" when they arrive on campus. Depending on the exami- 
nation results, they may be required to take an English course. 

REGISTRATION 

prior advisement After a student has been admitted to Graduate 
School, he should consult the Chairman of the Department in which 
he intends to do his major work for advisement as to the exact pro- 
gram he will pursue. The written approval of the Chairman of the 
Department or his delegate is required in advance of each registration 
for any course creditable toward a graduate degree. Approval of pro- 
gram may be obtained during the pre-registration or registration peri- 
ods of each sessions. 

where to register Following departmental approval the student will 
receive final endorsement and instructions on how to complete regis- 
tration at the Graduate School Office. The registration days and hours 
are listed in the University Calendar. 

official registration Registration is considered complete and offi- 
cial only when all charges are paid or when satisfactory arrangements 
have been made with the Business Office. Admission to any class is 
permitted only to those students who have officially registered for that 
class. 

continuous registration All graduate students who are not regis- 
tered for a course but who are working towards a degree must register 
in each such semester for Continuous Registration and pay the 
assigned fee. 



Financial Information 



All figures are per semester 

For yearly total, double amounts where applicable. 

The University reserves the right to change tuition and fees at any 

time. 



10 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Important: Registrations will not be processed or recognized as official 
registrations unless satisfactory financial arrangements have been 
finalized. This may be accomplished by: 

1 . Making payment in full to the cashier at or prior to the close of 
final registration. 

2. Coming to final registration and utilizing the student financing 
program. 

Delay or postponement of payment will cause forfeiture of class 
places obtained. 

All charges and computations made at final registration will be 
computer audited. Resulting corrections will be either credited to the 
student's account for over-payment or billed to the student for 
underpayment. 

TUITION AND FEES (1984-85) 

APPLICATION FEE. An application fee of $20.00 is charged all 
applicants for admission to the University. This fee must accompany 
the application form. It is not refundable. 

Tuition (for all Graduate level courses) 

Per Semester Hour Credit $180.00 

N.B. — The fees for auditors are the same as those for 

regularly matriculated students. 

University Fee $ 1 1 per credit 

Continuous Registration (0 credits) $ 50.00 

This fee is charged all degree candidates not registered for 
courses, absent from campus or engaged in thesis writing 

Late Registration Fee $ 25.00 

This fee is charged to all students registering later than 
the last day of the regular registration period. 

Credit by Examination for each semester $ 20.00 

hour for recognition of 
proficiency of course credit. 

Change of Schedule per form processed $ 5.00 

Registration Correction Fee $ 15.00 

Thesis and Dissertation Fees. (See Thesis and Dissertation Instruc- 
tions and Semester Schedule.) 

Doctoral Dissertation $ 80.00 

Masters' Thesis $ 70.00 

Graduation Fee — Master's Degree $ 40.00 

Graduation Fee — Doctor of Philosophy Degree $ 55.00 



FINANCIAL INFORMATION 1 1 

Classics 551-552 

per course, per semester $160.00 

Modern Language 051-052, per course, per semester $170.00 

Laboratory Fees 

Dept. Biological Sciences $ 35.00 

Graduate Chemistry 520, 561 $ 35.00 

Graduate Communications 512 $ 25.00 

Graduate Psychology 571 $ 15.00 

Graduate Pharmacy (each lab) $ 30.00 

ROOM AND BOARD (1984-85) 
Graduate students should make application for dormitory residence 
to the Assistant Dean of Residence Life, who will forward the neces- 
sary residency forms to the student. Graduate students who desire 
private room accommodations are encouraged to apply for housing 
early as the supply of single rooms is limited. Single room accommo- 
dation cannot be guaranteed. 

The University requires that a pre-payment of $100.00, which is 
applicable to the following semester's room and board account, 
accompany all room reservations or renewals. 

Reservations are made on a semester basis: August to December, 
January to May. Summar rates are also available for students attend- 
ing summer classes during the months from May through August. 
Rooms may be occupied at the orientation or registration period. All 
students occupying the University dormitory rooms are required to 
take their meals at the Resident Dining Hall. 

All resident students must present evidence of health and accident 
insurance coverage; such coverage is available through the University. 

Residence halls are closed during vacation (Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas and Easter) periods. 

The University does not provide dormitory accommodations for 
married students. Nevertheless, the Housing office keeps a list of 
available rentals in this area. While accommodations are plentiful, 
married students are advised to apply as early as possible for rental 
housing. 

The right to modify these charges, if exigencies require such action, 
is reserved by the University. 

Regular Session 

Room and Board* Per Semester 

Single $1,565 

Double $1,305 



12 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Summer Session 

Room and Board* Eight Weeks Six Weeks 

Single $765.87 $574.40 

Double $635.20 $476.40 



*Twenty meals per week; meals served commencing first day of classes. 

Those desiring residency for the Summer sessions should make 
reservations with the Assistant Dean of Residence Life no later than 
May 31. A deposit of $20.00 must accompany each application. After 
occupancy, the deposit is applied toward the room and board 
expenses. This deposit is not refunded if the room is not occupied. 

REFUNDS 

After the last day of the period provided for change in program, as 
announced in the University Calendar, no tuition shall be refunded 
for any course which the student may discontinue. Exception to this 
rule may be made only in cases of total withdrawal from the Univer- 
sity. 

Students who withdraw from the University for a satisfactory rea- 
son within five weeks after the opening of the semester are entitled to 
a proportionate refund of tuition provided that they notify their dean 
at the time of withdrawal. Fees are not refundable. 
Refunds are made in accordance with the following schedule. 
Withdrawal Refund 

First Week 80% 

Second Week 80% 

Third Week 40% 

Fourth Week 20% 

After the Fourth Week 0% 

(This schedule applies to tuition only — fees are not refunded) 

No refund will be made in the case of students who are requested to 
withdraw as a result of faculty action. 

During the Summer Session, remission of tuition is made as follows 
for the six-week session: 
Withdrawal Refund 

First Week 60% 

Second Week 20% 

There are no refunds after the second week of a Summer Session. 
Fees are not refundable. Refunds for sessions other than the six-week 
session are in proportion to the six-week policy. 



FINANCIAL INFORMATION 13 

ROOM AND BOARD REFUND 

No refund of room charges will be made where withdrawal occurs 
after the opening of class. In the event of withdrawal, board will be 
refunded at the rate of 75% of the balance left on the student's meal 
plan up until mid-semester. After the mid-semester point, no refund 
will be made. 

A student is only considered to have vacated a residence hall upon 
return of room key and ID Card, has signed out, and left a forwarding 
address. 

STUDENT FINANCING PROGRAM 

Duquesne University students desiring payment of their tuition and 
other charges for the semester by installment should contact in person 
the Student Finance Section at Final Registration. All prior charges 
must be paid in full before the student is eligible for this plan. The 
Student Financing Program provides financing for up to 50% of the 
current semester charges less financial aid authorized and other pay- 
ments, to be repaid to the University in two equal installments. Inter- 
est is charged at the current rate of % of 1% per month. A delinquency 
charge on each monthly installment in default for a period often days 
or more will be charged in an amount equal to 5% of such installment 
or $5.00, whichever is less, except that a minimum charge of $1.00 
may be made. 

For convenience, Master Charge or Visa (Bank Americard) can be 
utilized to pay tuition and other fees. 

BILLING PROBLEMS 

Take the billing statement to the office indicated for an explanation or 
correction on these billing matters: 

a. Balance Forward, Credits, Payments, Deposits — Accounts 
Receivable Office 

b. Financial Aid Awards, Federal Loans, Guaranty Loans, and 
Employer Billing — Office of the Director of Financial Aid 

c. Student Finance Program (Deferred Payment Plan) — Stu- 
dent Finance Office 

d. Housing Reservations and Housing Charges — Office of As- 
sistant Director of Residence Life 



14 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Financial Aid 



ASSISTANTSHIPS 

The various departments of the Graduate School have available 
approximately 80 graduate assistantships. They are assigned on a 
competitive basis to students who have completed their undergradu- 
ate work with distinction. Appointments are made for a period of one 
academic year. Reappointments are made upon the basis of proven 
competence. In addition to a stipend, an assistantship award generally 
carries a waiver of tuition and University fees. It does not, however, 
carry a waiver of any special fees (such as late registration fees and 
condition fees), graduation fees, thesis or dissertation fees. 

SCHOLARSHIPS 

A number of full and partial tuition scholarships are available to 
qualified candidates. Recipients of these awards are selected by the 
departments. Those interested in applying for these scholarships 
should notify the department. 

FEDERALLY FUNDED INSTITUTIONAL AID: 
NEED BASED 

National Direct Student Loan. Loans are available to both full-time 
and part-time students who demonstrate financial need and are mak- 
ing acceptable progress toward a degree. It should be noted that due to 
limited funding, these loans are normally awarded only to full-time 
students. Recipients are selected in accordance with guidelines pub- 
lished by the Federal government. Loan repayment does not begin 
until six months after the borrower terminates at least part-time study 
and is scheduled over a 10-year period at a current interest rate of five 
percent a year. 

Student Employment. Two programs of employment are available to 
financial aid applicants who demonstrate need. The first is the College 
Work-Study Program which is financed principally by Federal appro- 
priations and awarded as aid in accordance with guidelines published 
by the Federal government. The second program is referred to as the 
General Program which is funded by the University. In addition to 
considerations of financial need, placement in a part-time position 



FINANCIAL INFORMATION 15 

depends upon the student's qualifications for performing successfully 
in the job. Student employment is limited to a maximum of 15 work- 
ing hours a week when classes are in session. Students working under 
either program may not retain outside jobs during academic periods. 

INSTITUTIONAL AID— APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

1 . Applicants must be currently enrolled in the University or be 
in the process of applying for admission. Incoming students 
should not wait for official acceptance to the University 
before submitting necessary forms for financial assistance. 

2. Obtain the formal application for financial assistance. Forms 
are available in the Financial Aid Office. Complete the appli- 
cation and submit it no later than May 3 1 . 

3. Obtain from the Financial Aid Office a Financial Aid Docu- 
ment. Complete and submit it according to instructions. 
Statements take four to eight weeks to process and therefore 
should be submitted as early as possible. 

4. Students who have attended any other post-secondary insti- 
tution for undergraduate and/or graduate study must file a 
Financial Aid Transcript from each institution. These forms 
are available through the Financial Aid Office. 

5. New students must submit a copy of their letter of admission 
to the Graduate School as soon as they receive it, since their 
financial aid application will not be processed until then. 

GUARANTEED STUDENT LOANS 

This program provides long-term, low interest student loans available 
through the cooperative efforts of federal and state governments and 
participating private lending institutions. These loans are available to 
students enrolled in an institution of higher learning on at least a part- 
time (minimum 5 credits) basis. To apply, the student should inquire 
at a local lending institution where the student or parents have an 
account. The maximum that a graduate student may borrow for any 
academic level is $5,000. Repayment of these loans begins six months 
after graduation or withdrawal from school with a nine percent inter- 
est rate. A four to six week processing period is anticipated. 



1 6 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

AUXILIARY LOANS TO ASSIST STUDENTS 

Loans are available to graduate students with a maximum amount of 
$3,000 per academic level. Repayment begins 60 days after disburse- 
ment of funds at an interest rate of 1 2 percent. Applications and 
information are available through banks and other lending institu- 
tions. 

ARMY ROTC 

Graduate students interested in ROTC scholarships should direct 
inquiries to the following address: Army ROTC, Duquesne Univer- 
sity, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, or Air Force ROTC, University of Pitts- 
burgh, Pittsburgh, PA 1 5260. Applications should be made by May 3 1 . 

NEGRO EMERGENCY EDUCATION FUND 

Both full- and part-time students may apply for grant assistance 
through N.E.E.D. Inquiries should be sent to: NEED, 429 Fourth 
Ave., Room 2003, Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 

UNIVERSITY DISCOUNTS 
Clerical Discounts 

University-recognized members of the Christian and Jewish clergy 
and religious who have been ordained or professed are eligible to 
enroll in certain graduate programs at half-off the regular tuition rate. 
The reduced tuition benefits may be applied toward any terminal 
master's degree program. The reduction does not extend to the Insti- 
tute of Formative Spirituality, the Master of Liberal Studies program, 
doctoral degree programs, or any designated special program with 
differential fees. Only one Duquesne degree may be obtained under 
this reduced tuition policy. University fees, laboratory costs, room 
and board, and other non-tuition related expenses will be charged at 
full rate. 

Catholic Lay Teachers Discount 

Full-time teachers in Catholic schools, who have completed a mini- 
mum of two years teaching at an approved dioscesan school, are 
eligible to receive a tuition discount. They must be admitted to the 
graduate program of their choice under the usual and standard condi- 
tions. The discount is 50 percent of tuition only. The same restrictions 
indicated under the section on "Clerical Discounts" apply. 



ACADEMIC POLICIES 17 

Senior Citizen Discount 

Men and women who are 60 years of age or older may also enroll in 
certain graduate programs at half-offthe regular tuition rate. The same 
restrictions indicated under the section on "Clerical Discounts" apply. 

Application for the above University discounts must be made each 
academic year with the Financial Aid office. Proof of status is required 
each academic year to receive the Catholic lay teachers discount, but 
only with the first application for clerical or senior citizen discounts. 



Academic Policies 



GRADING 

The following grading system is in effect in the Graduate School: 

A Distinguished scholarly work 

A- 

B+ 

B Normal progress toward degree 

B- 

C Warning — student subject to faculty action! 

F Failure: course must be repeated, also student subject to faculty 

action 

I Incomplete: grade is deferred because of incomplete work and 

must be removed within one semester's time under terms set 
by the instructor. The I grade remains permanently on record 
as such. 

W Official Withdrawal 

P Pass: used in certain courses without quality points 

Graduate students must maintain a letter grade average not lower 
than B (3.0 Q.P.A.) while in course. Students failing to meet this 
standard may be subject to faculty action, including dismissal, for 
failure to maintain normal progress toward a degree. Any student 
having less than B as a final grade average at the conclusion of course 
work will be ineligible for graduation. The above plus and minus 
grades may be used at the discretion of the individual instructor. 



18 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Quality Point System 

The student's overall academic quality point average (QPA) is 
obtained by dividing the total quality points earned by the total num- 
ber of semester hours attempted. These quality point values of grades 
are used for each credit attempted: 

Points Per 
Grade Credits Attempted 

A 4.0 

A- 3.7 

B+ 3.3 

B 3.0 

B- 2.7 

C 2.0 

F 0.0 

Courses in which grades P, I, and W were given are not used in 
calculating the quality point average. 

Semester Grade Reports 

Every registered student who is free of financial obligations to the 
University is sent a report of grades to the permanent address on 
record soon after the close of each semester. 

Transcripts 

Each student receives a summary transcript of his or her complete 
academic record at the close of each academic year. Students should 
carefully examine their records for accuracy and immediately report 
errors to the Registrar. 

To obtain additional copies of their academic records students must 
write to the Registrar for transcripts for themselves or for the other 
institutions and agencies. All official transcripts issued by the Office of 
the Registrar bear the signature of the Registrar and the embossed seal 
of the Office of the Registrar. Whenever an official transcript is 
released directly to the student it will also bear the stamped designa- 
tion, Issued to Student. 

No transcript will be issued unless all financial obligations owed by 
the student to the University have been fulfilled. A fee of $2.00 is 
charged for the issuance of each transcript. 

Confidentiality of Student Records 

The University regards the student's personal information and aca- 
demic record as a matter of confidence between the student and the 
University. The contents of either may be revealed only in accordance 



ACADEMIC POLICIES 19 

with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (Public 
Law 93-380, Section 438, as amended). 

DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 

The requirements for each degree are listed in the section of this 
bulletin devoted to the appropriate department of study. 

The following may prove a useful check list of general requirements 
that must be completed before receiving a graduate degree: 

1. In order to receive graduate degrees students must have been 
admitted as "regular" graduate students. 

2. The minimum number of semester hours of course work re- 
quired by the department must be completed with a grade 
average not lower than B. 

3. The Modern Language requirements, where applicable, should 
be met at least one semester before graduation. 

4. An outline of thesis (under Plan A) or dissertation must be filed 
with the Graduate Office before registration for thesis/disserta- 
tion credits. 

5. After all requirements in course work have been successfully 
completed, candidates are generally subject to a comprehensive 
examination covering the major field. 

6. For graduation at the end of a particular session, candidates 
must submit their thesis/dissertation for approval to their read- 
ers and the department. The signed copies of the thesis/disser- 
tation must be delivered to the Graduate School no later than 
the date set in the calendar for that session. See Thesis and 
Dissertation Instructions available in the Graduate School 
Office. 

7. The candidates must have made formal application for the 
degree at the Office of the Registrar prior to the date listed in 
the University Calendar, and should be present at the Gradua- 
tion. 

8. The candidates must make complete settlement of their finan- 
cial accounts with the University. 

9. All work leading toward a master's degree shall be completed 
within a maximum of six years. 

10. All work acceptable towards the Ph.D. degree shall be complet- 
ed within the period of 7 years after the Ph.D. qualifying exam 
or such other designation described in the specific program of 
the Department. 



20 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

11. Any other specific requirements of the department must be 
fulfilled. 

PH.D. SEQUENCE 

The following order, suggested by the department requirements in the 
Bulletin, will avoid unnecessary difficulties: 

1) First foreign language examination. 

2) Qualifying or preliminary examination (admission to doctoral 
program). 

3) Second foreign language examination. 

4) Completion of course requirements. 

5) Comprehensive examination (admission to candidacy). No com- 
prehensive or qualifying examination (or portion thereof) may be 
retaken during the same semester as the original examination. 

6) Filing of dissertation outline with approvals in both Departament 
and Graduate school offices. 

7) Defense of the dissertation. 

8) Filing of dissertation in the graduate school. 

A full-time student will normally complete 1, 2 and 3 by the end of 
his second year; 4, 5 and 6 by the end of the third. 

One semester must lapse between the comprehensive and the 
degree. 

THESIS AND DISSERTATION 

Master's candidates, following Plan A, shall present a thesis. All Ph.D. 
candidates must present a dissertation which meets the requirements 
of the Graduate School. Master's candidates who are working on their 
thesis register for thesis credit; doctoral candidates register for disser- 
tation credits. In each instance, the academic credit value is six semes- 
ter hours and partial credit is not permitted. On approval and accept- 
ance of the thesis/dissertation outline, the student is to register for 
three credits in two successive semesters or, in the case where the 
student will graduate at the end of the semester, the entire six credits. 
After completing the credit requirements, students are required to 
register for credits in thesis/dissertation each semester until the work 
is completed. Students registering for credits will pay the continuous 
registration fee. 

Students engaged in thesis or dissertation writing should be careful 
to note in the annual calendar the last day for submitting theses and 



ACADEMIC POLICIES 21 

dissertations to the Graduate Office. Approved theses and disserta- 
tions shall follow Thesis and Dissertation Instructions available in the 
Graduate Office. 

An abstract must accompany each dissertation and thesis. Care 
must be taken in the preparation of the abstract. The abstract will be 
published in Dissertation Abstracts or Masters Abstracts without fur- 
ther editing or revision. 

RESTRICTION ON TIME 

Candidates engaged in activity other than graduate work will accord- 
ingly be limited in the number of semester hours they may take during 
any paticular session. No part-time student can anticipate completing 
the minimum requirements in course within less than two years. All 
work acceptable toward the master's degree shall be completed within 
a period of six years. 

STATUTE OF LIMITATION FOR PH.D. CANDIDATES 

All work acceptable towards the Ph.D. degree shall be completed 
within the period of 7 years after Ph.D. qualifying examination. 
Extension will be granted only under special circumstances with 
approval of the Dean based on the recommendation of the Director of 
the thesis and the Chairman of the Department. 

LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS 

Language requirements and options are listed in the section of the 
individual department. It is advisable for prospective graduate stu- 
dents to be proficient in at least one acceptable foreign language. 

This requirement may be satisfied in the following ways: 

(1) By receiving a satisfactory score on the Graduate Foreign Lan- 
guage Test offered by Educational Testing Service, Princeton. 

(2) By passing a translation test administered by the Modern Lan- 
guage Department. 

(3) By taking a "language for research" course (numbered 551-552 
or 051-052) and receiving a satisfactory grade on the final examina- 
tion. (Option (3) is not sufficient for students in Psychology.) 

No course taken to satisfy the language requirement may be 
counted toward the 30 hours required for the master's degree. 



22 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS 

Requirements are met in course for the Master's degree. Those who 
wish to complete their degrees wholly in the Summer Sessions in those 
departments where allowed, must be in residence for five terms. Doc- 
toral students are expected to spend at least one full year in full-time 
residence at Duquesne University. This consists of a schedule of no 
less than nine credits or the equivalent for two semesters. A leave of 
absence from a degree program must be obtained by a student who 
interrupts his course of study for reason. Such a leave must be 
approved by the Dean on request by the student. 

TRANSFERRED GRADUATE CREDIT 

With the approval of the Chairman of the Department, graduate work 
done at other accredited institutions may be offered in partial fulfill- 
ment of course requisites, provided the grade is not lower than the 
grade of B. After a reasonable time has elapsed to observe the stu- 
dent's work in course, a maximum of six credits may be accepted 
towards the Master's Degree. Transfer of credits toward a Doctoral is 
determined by committee action in each individual case. 

CROSS REGISTRATION 

Full-time Duquesne University students may cross-register in the 
Graduate Schools (Carnegie-Mellon University, University of Pitts- 
burgh, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary) of the Pittsburgh Council of 
Higher Education (PCHE) on a space-available basis. Students should 
check with their advisor concerning departmental cross-registration 
regulations. Duquesne University students who are participating in 
this program are charged tuition and University Fee in accordance 
with the current rates charged by Duquesne University; however, 
students are responsible for paying any course or laboratory fees to the 
host institution. There is no cross-registration during the Summer 
semesters. 

The cross-registration is subject to the approval of the Deans of the 
Schools involved and must be recommended as well by the student's 
advisor and approved by the professor in charge of the course. 

Full credit and grade will be transferred; the academic regulations of 
the host institution will prevail. 

The lists of courses will be available at the office of the registrar. The 
cross-registration forms will be distributed from the office of the regis- 
trar. 



ACADEMIC POLICIES 23 

AUDITING COURSES 

To audit courses, a student must be officially registered and pay the 
same charges for courses that are taken for credit. Enrollment in a 
course for audit is subject to approval of the student's academic advi- 
sor. Registration in a course as Auditor must be declared at registra- 
tion and is irrevocable after the mid term exam period. 

CANCELLATION OF COURSES 

The University makes every reasonable effort to offer courses as 
announced in the Semester Schedule of Courses and the Summer 
Session Bulletin. It reserves the right, however, to make changes or 
cancel courses in the academic schedule because of insufficient enroll- 
ment or for any other equally valid reason. 

CHANGE OF SCHEDULE 

Students requiring a change of class schedule, to add or to drop a class, 
are permitted to do so during the pre-registration period, the final 
registration period, and the first class week of the semester. Change of 
class schedule is not permitted after the Latest Date for Change of 
Schedule as announced in the semester academic calendar. 

All schedule changes must be approved by the academic adviser 
and processed with the Registrar. Schedule change requests processed 
with the Registrar during the first class week must also have the 
signature of the instructors whose classes are being added or dropped. 

Students who tardily process change forms are not entitled to 
refund for the course credits dropped. Courses dropped after the dead- 
line for making schedule changes are classified as course withdrawals. 
(See "Withdrawal from a Course," and "Withdrawal from the Univer- 
sity" mentioned elsewhere in this catalog.) 

Except for changes requested by the dean or advisor, a fee of $5.00 
is charged for each change form processed after the close of pre- 
registration. 

WITHDRAWAL FROM A COURSE 

If a student wishes to withdraw from a course, he may do so with the 
approval of his academic advisor and by processing the proper form 
up to the day prior to the start of final examinations. 

If a student wishes to withdraw from a course after that date, the 
student must present valid reasons and seek approval of his advisor 



24 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

and the Dean of the Graduate School. If approval is given, the student 
then initiates the appropriate form through the Graduate School. 

A student who is not granted approval of the request and withdraws 
from the course unofficially will receive an F grade for the course. 

COMBINED BACHELOR'S AND MASTER'S DEGREE 

Duquesne students of superior standing with 90 credit hours and a 3.5 
average may inquire in the Graduate School about a combined bache- 
lor' s-master's degree for honor students. They must have fulfilled all 
required courses for the bachelor's degree and receive the recommen- 
dation of their department. See the undergraduate bulletin. 

Some departments offer the students the option of combining a 
bachelor's and a master's degrees into a five year program. Prior to the 
junior year, the student meets with his advisor to design a course 
sequence that will fulfill requirements for a bachelor's degree in two 
years and a master's in three. In the senior year, the student will be 
admitted to graduate school. He will take two 500 level courses (6 
credits) that will be transferred to the Graduate School. The additional 
requirements for the Master's degree will be completed the following 
year. Interested students should check with their departmental advi- 
sors to discover if this option is available. 



Special Graduate School Programs 



CAREER STUDIES PROGRAM 

Many career professionals are discovering that traditional graduate school 
programs do not offer the diversity and flexibility they need for their personal 
educational requirements. Duquesne University's Graduate School of Liberal 
Arts and Sciences has developed a special Career Studies Program for the 
career-oriented individual, which enables students to "tailor" graduate pro- 
grams to meet their specialized career needs and interests. 

The program emphasizes traditional graduate education with career aims. 
Students designing their own graduate program will work under the close 
advisement and guidance of a faculty advisor as well as the staff of the 
Graduate School. The program crosses traditional disciplinary lines, enabling 
students to select courses from among some of the 250 classes offered each 
year by the Graduate School. In addition, students may have the opportunity 
to select courses they need from some of Duquesne's professional schools. 
Students enrolling in the program can receive up to six graduate credits for 
relevant work and internship experience. 






SPECIAL GRADUATE SCHOOL PROGRAMS 25 

For the convenience of working professionals, students will find that most 
of the courses are held during the evening hours. 

Admission Requirements. Students seeking admission to the Career Studies 
Program must have educational needs that cannot be served through tradi- 
tional graduate programs. In addition to the usual credentials, applicants will 
be asked to provide a written statement outlining interests, goals, work experi- 
ence, a preliminary description of the desired program of study, and an 
indication of their qualifications to enroll in the graduate course work out- 
lined. The goals of the student and the program outline will be evaluated by 
the Career Studies committees. Admission to the program is not automatic. 

Requirements. For graduation a total of 36 credits are required. Twenty- 
four course credits (not including thesis credits) must be taken in the Gradu- 
ate School of Arts and Sciences. A thesis (six credits) is optional, but students 
who elect not to write a thesis must prepare a final essay integrating their 
course work. Certain senior-level undergraduate courses may qualify for 
application in the Careeer Studies Program, with the approval of the Graduate 
Dean and the advisor. A maximum of six such credits may be included in the 
student's program. Participants must complete established prerequisites for 
admission into any course work. Students must maintain a 3.0 QPA to receive 
a degree. There is no language requirement for Career Studies students, unless 
specified in the student's program. 

Degrees. Graduates of the Career Studies Program will receive either a 
Master of Science or Master of Arts degree upon completion of the program. 
Student transcripts will indicate participation in the Career Studies Program. 

MASTER OF LIBERAL STUDIES PROGRAM 

Throughout its century-long history, Duquesne University has been commit- 
ted to fostering the ideals and values of liberal education. While higher educa- 
tion offers many opportunities for the younger student to pursue the liberal 
disciplines, there are only limited resources available to the mature student 
seeking a non-specialized educational program with a terminal, post-baccalau- 
reate degree. To meet this growing need, Duquesne University's Graduate 
School of Liberal Arts and Sciences has developed a curriculum leading to the 
Master of Liberal Studies (MLS) degree. This broad, interdisciplinary pro- 
gram emphasizes self-directed, value-oriented studies by the mature student 
seeking a liberal understanding of contemporary man and society. 

Admission Requirements. Individuals holding a bachelor's degree from an 
accredited college or university are eligible for enrollment in the MLS pro- 
gram. No particular major or field of study is required. No entrance examina- 
tions are required for admission, but personal interviews are suggested. All 
candidates are required to present a written statement describing their goals in 
pursuing the MLS degree. 

Degree Requirements. Students pursuing the Master of Liberal Studies 
degree will be required to complete a minimum of 30 hours of graduate course 



26 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

work. All participants are required to take the two-semester sequence, Intro- 
duction to Liberal Studies. These courses are designed to introduce students to 
the interdisciplinary nature of liberal studies, and to provide the basic histori- 
cal, philosophical and humanistic context of all MLS course work. The bal- 
ance of the courses can be selected from the semester offerings of the MLS 
program, as well as from the regular course offerings in the School's graduate 
departments (provided the student can fulfill departmental prerequisites). No 
thesis is required as part of the MLS degree program. However, at the end of 
their program, all MLS students must participate in a three-credit Colloquium 
in Liberal Studies to provide a final forum for the discussion of the issues that 
have been raised by the MLS course work. A written project will be part of the 
requirements for the Colloquium. There is no foreign language requirement. 

Financial Information. Tuition for the Master of Liberal Studies program 
has been set at $285 per three credit course for 1984-85. In addition, there is a 
$10 non-refundable application fee, and a library fee of $25 per semester. 
MLS courses can be taken for transcriptive audit credit at the same tuition as 
regular credit. 

Subscription Information. Courses in the Liberal Studies program can be 
taken on a subscription, non-credit basis. The subscription fee is $85 per 
course plus a $5 application fee. Subscription is open to qualified and inter- 
ested students who wish to attend classes without taking examinations and 
writing required papers. Certificates will be given to those who complete the 
program on this basis. 

Course Information. Details of special MLS courses offered can be obtained 
by writing to the Director of the Liberal Studies program. 

RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS 

The Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program is open to male 
and female graduate students on a voluntary basis. The student would enroll 
in the two year program. Interested incoming students are encouraged to 
enroll immediately so that the ROTC program and their graduate studies are 
phased properly for graduation. ROTC credits cannot be applied toward any 
graduate degree. For entry into the two year program, the student must have 
two academic years remaining as a full time student (9 credits). The Professor 
of Military Science invites letters or telephone inquiries. Questions will be 
answered promptly. 

Department of Military Science 

Department Head: Major Frank W. Burpo, USA 

Two- Year Program. All students in the two year program are required to 
complete the six week ROTC Basic Camp or have prior active military ser- 
vice, before enrolling in the two-year program. 



Departments 

and 

Courses of Instruction 



28 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAMS 
BASIC HEALTH SCIENCES 



Chairman, Admissions Committee: Douglas H. Kay, Ph.D. 
Faculty: Professors Gawron, Kay, Martin; Associate Professors Gangjee, 
Lovsted 

PROGRAMS 

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ARE PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE MASTER OF 
SCIENCE DEGREE AND TO THE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE IN 
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY. 

Prerequisites: Candidates must be graduates of approved institutions of 
higher learning and must have completed undergraduate work in pharmacy, 
chemistry, or in biological sciences. Any deficiencies in undergraduate courses 
such as physical chemistry and pharmacology must be made up without 
graduate credit. For course descriptions, see department listings. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE 

Students pursuing a Master's degree will be required to take a minimum of 31 
credits, including seminar credits. The following courses (26 credits) will be 
required of all Masters' candidates: 

Pharm Sci - 522 - Spectral Methods 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 523 - Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 524 - Advanced Medicinal Chemistry II 3 credits 

Chemistry - 523 - General Biochemistry 3 credits 

Chemistry - 545 - Advanced Organic Chemistry 3 credits 

Chemistry - 547 - Organic Reaction Mechanisms 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 691-92 - Seminar 2 credits 

Pharm Sci - 700 - Thesis 6 credits 

Students admitted with an equivalent of Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I 
and General Biochemistry will be permitted to substitute electives. The fol- 
lowing electives (5-6 credits) are available to students: 

Chemistry - 525 - Intermediary Metabolism 3 credits 

Chemistry - 526 - Metabolism of Nucleic Acids and Proteins 3 credits 

Chemistry - 621* - Enzymes 3 credits 

Chemistry - 640 - Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 503 - Pharmaceutical Literature 2 credits 

Pharm Sci - 521 - Analytical Separation Methods 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 623* - Selected Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 3 credits 

*Enzymes (621) and Selected Topics (623) are especially recommended. Other electives 
may be permitted in special cases by approval. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 



29 



EXAMINATIONS AND EVALUATIONS 

1) There is no language requirement for the Masters Degree, but students 
planning to seek the Ph.D. degree are advised to begin language study, prefera- 
bly German. 

2) All candidates for a terminal M.S. degree will be required to complete a 
thesis and must be prepared to present and defend the research in a seminar 
setting. 

3) A comprehensive examination will be administered to those seeking a 
terminal M.S. degree upon the completion of 31 credits. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE 

Candidacy for Doctoral Program: The faculty will recommend to the Dean 
of the Graduate School for matriculation as candidates for this degree, those 
students who have satisfied the departmental requirements. These require- 
ments (met by examination, participation in seminars or otherwise) empha- 
size originality and independence of thought, a wide general understanding of 
chemistry, a specialized knowledge in medicinal chemistry, and excellence in 
laboratory performance. Mere attendance at classes and passing of courses no 
matter how carefully pursued will not suffice to meet these requirements. The 
period necessary to achieve matriculation will depend upon the quality and 
quantity of the student's knowledge at the time of his admission to the 
Graduate School. 



COURSES 

Students pursuing the Ph.D. will be required to take a minimum of 60 credits, 
including required courses and electives. The following courses (43 credits) 
are required of all Ph.D. candidates: 

Pharm Sci - 522 - Spectral Methods 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 523 - Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 524 - Advanced Medicinal Chemistry II 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 623 - Selected Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 3 credits 

Pharm Sci - 691-92 - Seminar 4 credits 

Pharm Sci - 701 - Dissertation 12 credits 

Chemistry - 545 - Advanced Organic Chemistry 3 credits 

Chemistry - 547 - Organic Reaction Mechanisms 3 credits 

Chemistry - 642 - Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds 3 credits 

Chemistry - 523 - General Biochemistry 3 credits 

Chemistry - 640 - Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry 3 credits 

Students admitted with an equivalent General Biochemistry will be per- 
mitted to substitute an elective. The following elective (17-18 credits) are 
available for doctoral candidates. 



30 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Pharm Sci - 501 - Manufacturing Pharmacy 

Pharm Sci - 502 - Pharmaceutical Formulation & Development 

Pharm Sci - 503 - Pharmaceutical Literature 

Pharm Sci - 510 - Advanced Pharmacokinetics I 

Pharm Sci - 521 - Analytical Separation Methods 

Pharm Sci - 539 - Bionucleonics 

Pharm Sci - 540 - Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals 

Pharm Sci - 615 - Advanced Pharmaceutics I 

Pharm Sci - 616 - Advanced Pharmaceutics II 

Pharm Sci - 621 - Advanced Analytical Chemistry 

or 
Pharm Sci - 622 - Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis 
Pharm Sci - 671 - Pharmacodynamics and Methods of Evaluation 

of Drug Action 
Pharm Sci - 672-73 - Advanced Pharmacology 
Chemistry - 524 - Molecular Basis of Biochemistry 
Chemistry - 525 - Intermediary Metabolism 
Chemistry - 526 - Metabolism of Nucleic Acids and Proteins 
Chemistry - 621 - Enzymes 
Chemistry - 546 - Physical Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry - 640 - Synthetic Methods Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry - 641 - Special Topics in Organic Chemistry 



3 credits 
3 credits 

2 credits 

3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 

3 credits 

3 credits 
6 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 



The Ph.D. candidate will be required to take at least one elective in both 
Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry. 

EXAMINATIONS AND EVALUATION 



1) Ph.D. Qualifying Examination: This examination is to be administered 
at a time determined by the faculty but not before twenty credit hours of 
course work have been completed. The intent of this examination is to test the 
student's ability to apply information, interpret and analyze data, to propose 
approaches to research problems, as well as general background information 
or knowledge in the area of the student's major. This examination will, as 
much as possible, be restricted to the area in which the student has elected to 
specialize. 

2) Comprehensive Evaluation: This form of evaluation is in three parts and 
is intended to provide evidence that the student has attained a level of 
preparedness appropriate to the degree. The three components of the evalua- 
tion are: 

A. Specialty Examination — A written examination with or without refer- 
ence material available that is designed to test the student's scientific 
approach to problems in his area of specialization. 

B. Research Proposal — Each candidate will be required to submit briefs to 
the department on three topics of potential research but not including the 
topic he has chosen for his dissertation. The department will select one topic 
to be developed by the student into a full research proposal. The student will 
submit the written research proposal to the department for study and will then 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 31 

be required to defend his proposal in an oral presentation before the depart- 
ment and invited guests. 

C. General Evaluation — The student's previous performance in areas such 
as seminar presentations, laboratory skills, course work, contributions to the 
academic atmosphere, general attitude, potential for future growth, etc., will 
be evaulated by members of the department. The evaluation is subjective and 
attempts to evaluate the student on basis of attributes other than formal 
examination. The Specialty Examination, Research Proposal and General 
Evaluation must be completed after all course work is finished at least six 
months prior to the expected date of graduation. 

3) Language Examinations: Each doctoral candidate must demonstrate abil- 
ity to read technical literature in two approved foreign languages by passing 
examinations as required by the Graduate School. These examinations should 
be passed as soon as possible and no later than the second year of graduate 
work. At the option of the department, demonstrated knowledge of a com- 
puter language and/or programming may be substituted for one foreign 
language. 

4) Oral Dissertation Examination: This examination is taken at the end of 
the doctorate program and represents primarily a defense of the dissertation. 

DISSERTATION 

The student will select an advisor for his or her Ph.D. dissertation project, and 
in conjunction with his advisor, will select a dissertation committee. Upon 
successful completion of the research, the student must prepare a dissertation 
according to the guidelines set forth in the current pamphlet prepared by the 
Graduate Studies Committee of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 
and in the Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the 
Graduate School office. 

In addition, the doctoral dissertation may be published in whole or in 
abstract in a recognized pharmaceutical or chemical journal, and twenty-five 
reprints are to be presented to the Graduate School. 

RESIDENCY 

Students are expected to spend at least one full year in full-time residence at 
Duquesne University. This consists of a schedule of no less than nine credits 
or the equivalent for two semesters. Unless a leave of absence from the 
graduate degree program is granted by the Dean of the Graduate School, 
continuous semester registration is required of all matriculated graduate stu- 
dents. 

THE FACULTY IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY — 

Major Advisors: 

Dr. Aleem Gangjee Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 

Dr. Elsie M. Lovsted .... Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 



32 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Dr. Bruce D. Martin Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 

Dissertation Advisors and Research Interest 

Dr. Aleem Gangjee Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry, 

Antitumor agents related to folates; cholinergic agents; nucleosides as vaso- 
dilators, stereochemistry. 

Dr. Elsie Lovsted Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry, 

Mechanism of Drug action and toxicity - Cardiotonic Steroids. 

Dr. Oscar Gawron Synthesis of Biological Active Peptides 

Dr. Bruce D. Martin Synthesis of Organic Medicinals including 

betaphenylethylamines, antiradiation compounds and nitrogen heterocyclic 
compounds. Other interests in the area of pharmaceutical analysis include 
the use of infrared spectrophotometry and nuclear magnetic resonance for 
structure identification. 
Dissertation Consultants 

Dr. Andrew J. Glaid Biochemistry 

Dr. David Seybert Enzymology 

Dr. Kurt C. Schreiber Organic Chemistry 

Dr. Jack W. Hausser Organic Chemistry 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 33 

COMMUNICATIONS 



Program Coordination: John Gibbs 

Faculty: Professor Zbozny (English); Associate Professors Jones (Journalism), 
Thames (Speech Communications), Robotti (Speech communications); Assis- 
tant Professor Johnston (Speech Communications) 

Adjunct Faculty: Jane Beckwith (Associate Director-Public Relations, Family 
Communications); Barbara J. Haas (Director, Department of Public Affairs 
West Penn Hospital); Timothy A. Tassone (Vice President, Manager-Design 
Services Division, Mellon National Corporation); Jacob L. Engle (Executive 
Vice President, Ketchum Public Relations); Robert R. Toothman (Director, 
Corporate Advertising, National Intergroup Inc.); Warren H. Anderson 
(Director, Corporate & Community Relations, National Intergroup Inc.) 

THE PROGRAM 

The Graduate School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, in cooperation with the 
Departments of Journalism and Speech Communications, offers a Master of 
Arts degree in Communications, emphasizing practical training. The program 
is designed to provide professionals with 

• a basic understanding of the institutions, methods, and impact of modern 
communcations 

• professional preparation for a career in communications 

• a broader understanding of the world in which the communications 
media operate. 

The program is designed to offer communications professionals diversity and 
substance in their studies, encouraging a deeper understanding of such related 
areas as the social, political and economic sciences, business and industry, 
education and the health sciences. By judiciously selecting courses, the M.A. 
candidate can develop the skills and expertise needed to better serve today's 
business, government and social service sectors. 

ADMISSIONS 

Applicants for the M.A. Program in Communications must hold a bachelor's 
degree from an accredited college or university. The undergraduate degree 
does not have to be in a communications-related field, but applicants are 
required to demonstrate a basic understanding and awareness of the commu- 
nications profession. Applicants who, in the judgment of the Admissions 
Committee, do not fulfill this or other prerequisites may be asked to complete 
additional undergraduate work before beginning their graduate studies or be 
required to enroll in Introduction to Graduate Communications (499). No 
credit toward the M.A. will be given for this work. 



34 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Additional admissions requirements include: 

• An undergraduate Q.P.A. of 3.0. 

• Successful performance on a test of general aptitude (i.e. the Graduate 
Record Examination or the Miller's Analogies Test). 

• Successful performance on a test that measures writing ability and knowl- 
edge of the field of communications, to be administered by the Communi- 
cations Admissions Committee. 

• Three letters of recommendation from individuals who can evaluate aca- 
demic and/or professional performance. 

• A statement by the student of his/her professional and career goals. 

• If possible, an interview with a member of the Admissions Committee. 

Students are normally admitted only in the Fall. The deadline for completed 
applications is July 15. 

DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 

Students will receive a Master of Arts in Communication upon successful 
completion of 36 credits. A "B" average must be maintained. All students 
must meet the following requirements to complete the Master of Arts 
Program: 

1. Completion of the following required courses: 

a. Professional Writing for Communications (500) 

b. Communications Research (502) 

c. Communications Marketing (505) 

d. Responsibility & Ethics in Communications (504) 

e. Communications Practicum (601) 
(see details in course description) 

2. Twenty-one credits selected from either the offerings in the Communi- 
cations Program or other graduate courses at Duquesne. Up to three 
courses may be taken outside of the Communications Program. 

There is no foreign language requirement. 

THE CURRICULUM 

499. Introduction to Graduate Communications 1-3 credits 

500. Professional Writing for Communications. 3 credits 

An intensive practical course designed to provide students with a variety of writing 
projects which will prepare them for professional communications. Included will be 
exercises in preparing brochures, annual reports, financial reports, technical reports, 
house organs, and business correspondence. Required of all communications 
students. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 35 

501. Communications Theory and Systems. 3 credits 

A survey of the theory of how people communicate and the systems by which 
communications occurs. Will include a historical and philosophical inquiry into the 
socializing functions of the various media and a socio-linguistic study of communi- 
cations formats and methods. 

502. Communications Research. 3 credits 

Review of the basic models of research in the social sciences, with special applica- 
tion to the area of communications. Theoretical models and experimental design 
will be studied and the students will become familiar with computer applications in 
the area of communications. Prerequisite: Comm. 500 and 505. Required of all 
Communications students. 

503. Rhetoric and Persuasion. 3 credits 

An analysis of and practical experience in the theories and techniques of rhetoric, 
persuasion, and oral communications. Methods of persuasion will be studied in 
their ethical as well as their technical aspects. Students will learn to communicate 
orally in a wide variety of settings. 

504. Responsibility and Ethics in Communications. 3 credits 

Faculty, students and working professional will discuss the problems of truthfulness, 
privacy, honesty and social utility that face the modern communications industry. 
Guest speakers will include both critics and supporters of the industry who will be 
invited to lend their perspective to the discussion. Required of all Communications 
students. 

505. Communications Marketing 3 credits 

An intense study of the fundamental and complex aspects of marketing as applied to 
the communications field. The course will focus on the design of communication 
marketing plans, including objectives, strategies, advertising, promotion, pricing, 
distribution, research and competitive assessment, utilizing case studies from the 
communications industry. Required of all Communications students. 

506. Public Opinion. 3 credits 

An examination of the processes involved in the formation, measurement and 
analysis of public opinion, with particular attention to the role of the communica- 
tions media in shaping opinions. Specific case studies will be used. 

507. Communications Management. 3 credits 

A general course designed to introduce the communication professional to the 
principles of management. Planning, budgeting, financing, organizing, actuating and 
controlling will be discussed. The course will contribute to the formulation and 
execution of effective communications policy for all types of institutions. 

508. Advertising. 3 credits 

An examination of the principles and practices of advertising. The class will investi- 
gate the theories of how advertising works, with special emphasis on the psychologi- 
cal theories that underline much of modern advertising. The class will study one 
successful and one unsuccessful advertising campaign. Prerequisite: Comm. 505. 

509. Public Relations. 3 credits 

An intense study of the current "starte of the art" in public relations, which will use 
the case study approach and investigate such issues as determining the nature of the 
"public," using opinion polling and other such aids, and developing and implement- 
ing a public relations campaign. Prerequisite: Comm. 505. 



36 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

510. Law and Public Policy in Communications. 3 credits 

An investigation of the impact of the law on the field of communications with 
particular emphasis on the public interest in communications as it is determined 
and applied by political institutions. Attention will be paid to law as the interface of 
technology, corporate policy and policy in society. 

512. Visual and Graphic Communications. 3 credits 

A study of non-verbal materials in the presentation and distribution of information. 
Students will be introduced to design and layout, as well as the selection of effective 
illustrations. They will learn to think visually rather than verbally and to use films 
and graphics in the presentation of concepts. 

513. Electronic Communications. 3 credits 

This course will investigate the impact of advance in electronic communications, 
including tele-communications and computer communications. Students will learn 
the ways in which electronic communications are used for the effective acquisition 
and dissemination of information. 

514. Corporate and Organizational Communications. 3 credits 

A study of all aspects of corporate communications, both external and internal, with 
the purpose of understanding both the development of a unified image for the 
organization, and the management of communications at the corporate level. 

516. Communications for Non-Profit Institutions. 3 credits 

Hospitals, universities, foundations, museums and non-profit social service agencies 
have special and growing communications needs. This course will survey the 
requirements of such institutions and the most appropriate ways of implementing an 
effective communications program. 

The Practicum 

601. Communications Practicum.. 2-4 credits 

Required of all students, the Communications Practicum will allow the individual 
to demonstrate the application of what has been learned in the program. Depending 
on the circumstances, the Practicum can be fulfilled through a supervised experience 
at an appropriate agency, company, or institution or through a detailed project 
undertaken by the student under the supervision of a faculty member to demon- 
strate the application of what has been learned in the program. Depending on the 
circumstances, the practicum can be fulfilled through a supervised experience at an 
appropriate agency, company, or institution or through a detailed project under- 
taken by the student under the supervision of a faculty member. 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 37 

DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS 
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



Chairman: Howard G. Ehrlich, Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professors Baron, Castric, Ehrlich, Liu, Subhas, Thomas; Associate 

Professors Boyd, Sideropoulos; Assistant Professor Butler. 

PROGRAM 
THE DEPARTMENT OFFERS THE MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY 

Prerequisites for Admissions: Applicants should have an undergraduate 
major in biology or related science with a broad and basic foundation in 
biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Students will be considered on 
the basis of their intellectual capacity, motivation, and aptitude for advanced 
study. To apply, submit application form, three letters of recommendation, 
offical transcripts of all college and university academic work, available GRE 
scores, and, for foreign students, TOEFL scores. 

Degree Plans: The department offers two approaches toward the degree. 
One approach emphasizes laboratory research (the Plan A Program) and the 
other is centered on a broader range of course experience (the Plan B 
Program). 

Students select either the Plan A or Plan B Program by the end of their 
second semester or the completion of 12 credits, whichever is first, for full- 
time students and 12 credits for part-time students. To do so, students obtain 
the written agreement of a faculty member to act either as Plan A or Plan B 
Advisor. Plan A students also secure the written approval of a thesis title and 
begin the research prior to the third semester of their presence in the 
department. 

If no such selection is made or research initiated, students automatically 
become enrolled in the Plan B Program and are assigned to a Plan B Advisor 
by the Department Chairman. 

ASSISTANTSHIPS 

Available graduate assistantships are offered to the most qualified appli- 
cants for stipulated periods of time and considered for renewal at the option 
of the department. Assistants bear special responsibility in the discovery and 
promulgation of knowledge, and the awarding of an assistantship or its possi- 
ble renewal reflects the department's expectation of a continuing demonstra- 
tion of the recipient's special academic and technical performance. 



38 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE 
PLAN A: Thesis Program 

COURSES 

Course work covering a minimum of 24 semester hours plus six 700 Thesis 
Research credits are needed. Any 690 General Seminar credits are additional. 

DEPARTMENTAL SEMINAR 

Continuing participation (including attendance and registration) in all sem- 
inars in the department's 690 General Seminar program is required, unless 
waived by the Departmental Chairman, and each student presents a mini- 
mum of one seminar based upon his thesis research. 

THESIS OUTLINE 

This is a proposal of the research to be done and consists of a thesis title, a 
statement of the thesis problem, an introduction to the problem including a 
brief literature survey, and a proposed method of solution. See Thesis and 
Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the Graduate School 
Office. 

THESIS 

Each candidate must present an acceptable, completed research thesis. Basi- 
cally, the candidate writes a detailed account of the solution of a biological 
problem of some significance, based upon original research work performed 
by the candidate. 

DEFENSE OF THESIS 

Each student must pass an oral examination and otherwise demonstrate to 
the graduate faculty competence in his chosen field. The examination nor- 
mally is centered around a defense of the thesis but at the discretion of the 
examiners may be broadened to become comprehensive in nature and include 
writing. 

PLAN B: Non-thesis Program 

COURSES 

Course work covering a minimum of 30 semester hours, in addition to any 
690 General Seminar credits. 

DEPARTMENTAL SEMINARS 

Continuing participation (including attendance and registration) in all sem- 
inars in the department's 690 General Seminar program is required, unless 
waived by the Department Chairman. 

COMPREHENSIVE 

Each student must pass a comprehensive examination and otherwise 
demonstrate to the satisfaction of the faculty basic graduate level competence. 
The examination normally will cover the subject matter specialty as well as a 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 39 

broad spectrum of biological knowledge. The examination may be oral or 
written, or both, at the discretion of the department. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

411. Ecology. 3 credits 

430. Animal Behavior. 3 credits 

431. Animal Behavior Laboratory. 1 credit 

444. Cell Physiology. 3 credits 

The 400 numbered courses listed above may be taken for graduate credit, provided that 
no previous similar course has been taken. See Catalog of the College of Liberal Arts 
and Sciences for course descriptions. 

500. Biotechnology: Laboratory Techniques. 3 credits 

A course to familiarize the student with a variety of biological and biochemical 
techniques useful in such areas as laboratory technology, medical and industrial 
technology, science education, and biological research. Lecture and laboratory. 

501. Biotechnology: Research Skills. 3 credits 

This course provides students who have an interest in research with an exposure to a 
variety of important skills which are often inadequately covered in conventional 
courses. "Hands-on" experience will be offered in a number of useful laboratory 
techniques including: small animal surgery, histology, fluorometry, thin-layer chro- 
matography, electrophoresis, usage of various types of physiological research equip- 
ment, and basic electronics and instrument troubleshooting. In addition, the course 
will emphasize necessary methods for the design, evaluation, and presentation of 
research including: experimental design, applied statistical method, computer usage, 
and the writing of scientific papers. Laboratory. 

503. Cell and Electron Microscopy. 3 credits 

A basic course in the cytology and electron microscopy of procaryotic and eucaryotic 
cells. The structure and development of cellular protoplasmic systems, their organ- 
elles, activities and interrelationships at various levels of organization are studied. 
Further consideration is given to the genetic consequences of that structure and 
activity. Laboratory stresses techniques and methodology appropriate to investiga- 
tions in the area. Lecture and laboratory. 

505. Molecular Genetics. 3 credits 

A course providing the fundamentals to the rapidly growing field of molecular 
genetics. Emphasis is on gene structure and function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic 
cells. Areas to be discussed are DNA structure, template functions of DNA, mecha- 
nisms involved in DNA duplication, transcription, translation, nature of the genetic 
material, genetic fine structure and colinearity, genetic regulation including muta- 
genic aspects of pollutants, DNA repair and molecular aspects of the process of 
tumor induction. Restriction nucleases, plasmids, genetic engineering, gene cloning 
and in vitro recombination are described. Prerequisite: a course in microbiology. 
Lecture. 

511. Comparative Vertebrate Physiology. 3 credits 

Different phylogenetic groups of vertebrates living in diverse environments have 
evolved a wide variety of mechanisms, based on established physical principles, to 



40 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

satisfy similar basic biological needs. This course examines the diversity of physio- 
logical mechanisms employed by these animals. Prerequisite: a course in animal 
physiology. Lecture and laboratory. 

512. Mammalian Physiology. 3 credits 

Studies designed to provide the student with a sound background in the areas of 
respiration, circulation, renal function, and muscle physiology. Neurophysiology is 
also considered to the extent required for an understanding of the control of these 
processes. Prerequisite: a course in animal physiology. Lecture and laboratory. 

513. General Endocrinology. 3 credits 

A survey of the endocrine system and neuroendocrine integration with a particular 
reference to vertebrates. Lecture and laboratory. 

514. Neurophysiology. 3 credits 

An examination of the physiology of neurons at various levels of complexity, includ- 
ing consideration of the biophysical basis of nerve function, receptor mechanisms, 
and peripheral and central synaptic arrangements and interactions. The neurophysi- 
ology of motor control, selected sensory modalities, and the intellectual functions of 
the brain including learning and memory also are discussed. Lecture. 

520. Experimental Embryology. 3 credits 

Studies on the mechanisms and dynamics of animal growth, differentiation, and 
development. Prerequisites: a course in embryology or permission of the instructor. 
Lecture and laboratory. 

522. Microbial Metabolism. 3 credits 

A course examining forms of metabolism carried out only by microbes. This 
includes energy yielding metabolism such as anaerobic respiration (denitrification 
and methanogenesis, for example) and utilization of inorganic sources of energy 
such as iron, hydrogen gas, and sulfur or nitrogen compounds. In addition, the 
unique features of bacterial photosynthesis will be examined. Mechanisms of micro- 
bial active transport and biosynthesis, especially nitrogen fixation, will be included 
as will microbial methods of metabolic regulation. Prerequisite: a course in microbi- 
ology. Lecture. 

524. Immunology. 3 credits 

A course in the fundamentals of the rapidly expanding field of immunology with 
reference to applications in basic research, medicine and public health. Topics 
covered include the mechanisms of induction and expression of the cellular and 
humoral responses, tolerance, immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody reactions, com- 
plement, immunogentics, hypersensitivity, and immunologic disease. Laboratory 
exercises are designed to familiarize the student with a variety of basic immunologic 
techniques. Lecture and laboratory. 

526. Pathogenic Microbiology. 3 credits 

Study of the infectious agents of human disease with emphasis on host-parasite 
relationships, unique aspects of bacterial activities and organization, metabolism, 
regulation and genetics which contribute to pathogenicity, including identification of 
bacteria, and principles of prevention, treatment, and laboratory diagnosis. Prereq- 
uisite: a course in microbiology or permission of the instructor. Lecture and 
laboratory. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 41 

528. Microbial Physiology. 3 credits 

A study of microbial structure, function and behavioral relationships. This includes 
an examination of bacterial membrane and procaryotic and eucaryotic cell envelope 
structures as to biosynthesis and function. Specific examples of microbial behavior 
such as taxis, differentiation, and secondary metabolism will be examined as will 
ecological associations among microbes and between microbes and higher orga- 
nisms. Prerequisite: a course in microbiology. Lecture. 

531. Biology of Fungi. 3 credits 

Comparative structure, development, and ultrastructural cytogenetics of fungi, 
including plant host-parasite interactions resulting in disease. Lecture and 
laboratory. 

535. Microbiology Seminar. 1 credit 

Student presentation of journal articles in the selected field of microbiology. Maxi- 
mum of two credits. Prerequisites: 203 and 204, or consent of instructor. 

573. Behavioral Ecology. 3 credits 

In depth examination of the evolution of behavioral adaptations that allow animals 
to cope with ecological problems. Selected topics include: habitat selection, the 
ecology of reproduction, parental care and parent-offspring conflict, theory of forag- 
ing strategies, social symbiosis, the ecology of social behavior, and the evolution of 
animal communication. Prerequisites: either an ecology or animal behavior course, 
or permission of the instructor. Lecture. 

577. Evolutionary Ecology. 3 credits 

Ecological processes at the population and community levels are examined in an 
evolutionary context. Selected topics include evolutionary theory in ecology, life- 
history strategies, population growth and regulation, r and k selection, predator-prey 
interactions, intra- and interspecific competition, and community dynamics. Prereq- 
uisites: a course in ecology or permission of the instructor. Lecture. 

580. Urban Ecology. 3 credits 

To provide integrated information about population, food, resources, pollution and 
the impact of technology. The case history method will be used as applicable to 
specific industrial metropolitan areas. Analysis of ecosystems with respect to matter 
and energy flows will be described. Prerequisite: a course in ecology or permission of 
instructor. Lecture. 

614. Plant Reproduction. 3 credits 

Study of reproductive mechanisms and principles of species perpetuation in higher 
plants, with emphasis on seed production. Lecture. 

616. Reproductive Physiology. 3 credits 

A comparative study of reproductive processes in laboratory animals, domestic 
species, and man. Lecture. 

619. Virology. 3 credits 

A study of viruses as obligate, intracellular parasites with major emphasis on animal 
viruses. Topics include morphology and chemical structure, classification, replica- 
tion, virus-host cell interactions, virus infections and diseases, and control of virus 
diseases in the individual and the community. Lecture. 

620. Cell Culture and Virology Laboratory. 2 credits 

An introduction to the methods of vertebrate cell culture as a tool in microbiological 
research and technology. Exercises in viral growth and identification are included as 



42 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



applications of cell culture methods. Special emphasis is placed on active participa- 
tion in the lab. Completion of or concurrent registration in Biology 619 is recom- 
mended. Laboratory/ Lecture. 

625. Microbial Genetics. 3 credits 

A study of the genetics of bacteria and bacterial viruses. Areas to be discussed are 
transformation, conjugation, transduction recombination, mutation and the mea- 
surement of mutation rates, mapping methods, control of gene expression, molecu- 
lar basis of resistance to antibiotics, bacterial plasmids and their pathogenic traits. 
Prerequisites: a course in microbiology or permission of the instructor. Lecture and 
laboratory. 

651. Special Topics. 1-3 credits 

Topics of current or special interest in biology. Lecture, laboratory or combinations. 

690. General Seminar. 1 credit (P, F) 

Discussion and analysis of current topics in biology, with emphasis on individual 
participation. 

695. Biological Research. 3 credits 

The student engages in laboratory research on a problem approved or determined by 
the individual instructor. The research performed may not be used to satisfy a thesis 
requirement. Maximum of three credits. Registration by permission of the instruc- 
tor. Laboratory. 

700. Thesis Research. 1-6 credits 

The student solves a biological problem of some significance based upon original 
laboratory research which the student performs and details in a written document. 
Registration by permission of the thesis advisor. 

Extra departmental credits (with permission; maximum of 6 credits allowed outside of 
the Department of Biological Sciences). 

486. Shop Techniques (Physics). 1 credit 

507, 508. Introduction to Computer Science (Mathematics). 3 credits each 

523. General Biochemistry (Chemistry). 3 credits 

525. Metabolism (Chemistry). 3 credits 

539. Bionucleonics (Pharmacy). 3 credits 

540. Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals 

(Pharmacy). 3 credits 

621. Enzymes (Chemistry). 3 credits 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 43 

CHEMISTRY 



Chairman: Andrew J. Glaid, Ph.D. 
Faculty: Professors Emeritus Gawron, Li, 
Professors Glaid, Hausser, Schreiber, Steward 
Associate Professors Greenshields, Seybert, Wang 
Assistant Professor Stein 
Adjunct Professor Weisman 

PROGRAMS 

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY AND MASTER OF SCIENCE 
WITH A MAJOR IN BIOCHEMISTRY, INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, ORGANIC 
CHEMISTRY, OR PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. 

Prerequisites for Admission: A minimum of thirty-two semester hours of 
undergraduate chemistry, including one year of physical chemistry, together 
with at least one year of physics, mathematics through calculus. A reading 
knowledge of German is strongly recommended. 

Candidacy for Doctoral Program: The Department of Chemistry will rec- 
ommend to the Dean of the Graduate School, for matriculation as candidates 
for this degree, those students who have satisfied the departmental require- 
ments emphasizing originality and independence of thought, a wide general 
understanding of chemistry, and excellence in laboratory performance. Mere 
attendance at classes and passing of courses no matter how carefully pursued, 
will not suffice to meet these requirements. The period necessary to achieve 
matriculation will depend upon the quality and quantity of the student's 
knowledge at the time of his admission to graduate shcool. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR DEGREES 

Courses required of all Graduate Students: One semester each of the following: 
analytical, inorganic, organic, physical chemistry, and biochemistry. 

This requirement is normally fulfilled by the following courses: Advanced 
Organic Chemistry, Theory of Inorganic Chemistry, Thermodynamics, 
Instrumental Methods, and General Biochemistry. Substitutions may be 
made with department approval. 

MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREES 

CREDIT REQUIREMENT 

A minimum of thirty semester hours exclusive of seminar credits is needed 
for the degree. This requirement can be fulfilled with twenty-four semester 
hours in course credits and six research credits or with thirty course credits. If 
the former option is selected, the results of the research must be submitted as 
a research thesis. See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distrib- 
uted by the Graduate School Office. Students must take twenty-one credits of 



44 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

course work in the Chemistry Department. The remaining credits with the 
approval of the student's advisor may be chosen from the Chemistry Depart- 
ment offerings or from the recommended courses given by other departments 
listed at the end of the Chemistry Department offerings. 

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION 

The presentation of a seminar including the preparation of a seminar 
abstract and the defense of the seminar shall take the place of the comprehen- 
sive examination. 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

COURSES 

A total of sixty credits including chemical research and dissertation are 
required for graduation. A minimum of forty-eight hours of specified course 
work, including seminar, are required of all students. In addition, the depart- 
ment may direct the student in choosing optional courses to be audited or 
taken for credit to broaden the student's training. 

The distribution of the specified forty-eight course credits should be as 
follows: Eighteen in the major field of specialization, nine credits in a minor 
field of specialization, no more than six credits in seminar, and the remainder 
in elective credits approved by the department. 

EXAMINATIONS 

1) Qualifying Examination: This examination consists of three parts; 
namely, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and either inorganic chemistry 
or biochemistry. The candidate must pass this examination before being con- 
sidered as a fully matriculated candidate for the Ph.D. degree. Permission to 
take the Qualifying Examination is granted by the faculty of the Department. 
Demonstrated research ability is a consideration for permission to take this 
examination. 

2) Major Field Examination: The major field examination requirement 
should be completed no later than six months before graduation. At the 
discretion of the faculty of the particular field, these tests may take different 
forms. 

3) Language Examinations: Each doctoral candidate must demonstrate 
ability to read technical literature in German, and French or Russian, or 
under special circumstances, with permission of the department, another lan- 
guage in which there is significant chemical literature. A computer program- 
ming examination may be substituted for one of the foreign language exami- 
nations. These examinations should be passed as soon as possible and not 
later than the end of the second year of the doctoral program. 

4) Dissertation Preliminary Examination: This examination is designed to 
acquaint the dissertation examination committee with the nature of the doc- 
toral research problem, to determine the candidate's comprehension of the 
work, and to permit the committee to evaluate the quality of the research. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 45 

This examination is to follow the successful passing of the major field exami- 
nations and is to be held six months before the dissertation defense. 

5) Dissertation Examination: This examination is a defense of the disserta- 
tion. The oral presentation is open to the public. 

SEMINAR 
Each doctoral candidate must present two seminars. 

DISSERTATION 

Following consultation with the various staff members, the candidate will 
select a research director and a problem to investigate. The research director 
then becomes his advisor and sponsor of the candidate throughout the 
remainder of his program. The results of the investigation are embodied in a 
dissertation. The dissertation is evaluated by the faculty for its scientific and 
literary adequacy, and, if approved, is then submitted to the Dean of the 
Graduate School in accordance with the regulations and dates fixed by the 
Dean. 

See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the 
Graduate School Office. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

520. Biochemical Techniques. 3 credits 

An introduction to laboratory work in biochemistry. Lecture, one hour; laboratory, 
eight hours, weekly. 

523. General Biochemistry. 3 credits 

A survey of modern biochemistry including structure of proteins, nucleic acids, 
carbohydrates, etc., kinetics and theory of enzymatic action and metabolism of 
amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Offered every year. 

524. Molecular Basis of Biochemistry. 3 credits 

A discussion of the chemistry of amino acids and proteins from the viewpoint of 
structure, physical chemistry, and analysis. An introduction to enzyme chemistry is 
also included in the course. Prerequisite: 523 or permission of the instructor. 

525. Intermediary Metabolism. 3 credits 

A detailed mechanistic discussion of the metabolic reactions of carbohydrates, 
lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, with emphasis on the interdependence and 
regulation of the various metabolic pathways. The central roles of biological oxida- 
tions and chemiosmotic membrane energy transductions in metabolism are dis- 
cussed in detail. Prerequisite: 523 or permission of the instructor. 

526. Metabolism of Nucleic Acids and Proteins. 3 credits 

An examination of the synthesis and transformations of nucleic acids and proteins 
in living organisms. A survey or recent advances in molecular biology, such as 
cloning of DNA, DNA sequencing methodology, and the structures of genes is 
included. Prerequisite: 523 or permission of the instructor. 

531. Thermodynamics. 3 credits 

Comprehensive treatment of thermodynamics with emphasis on the applications of 
the three laws. Every Fall semester. 



46 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

532. Statistical Thermodynamics. 3 credits 

An application of statistical mechanics to the equilibrium states of systems in which 
intermolecular forces can be neglected or simply approximated. Simple models of 
crystals, liquids, and polymers are considered as well as ideal gases. 

533. Chemical Kinetics. 3 credits 

A review of rate laws and chemical mechanisms, including photochemical processes, 
is followed by the statistical theories of reaction rates and an introduction to molecu- 
lar dynamics. 

534. Chemical Engineering for Chemists. 3 credits 

This course includes those aspects of chemical engineering which involve the trans- 
port and separation of materials and the transfer of heat. Material and energy 
balances are discussed and the principles of momentum, heat, and mass transfer are 
derived from a physical chemical viewpoint, then developed into simple engineering 
applications such as fluid flow, steady and unsteady-state heat transfer, and various 
types of molecular diffusion. The latter part of the course is devoted to chemical 
engineering unit operations. 

537. Quantum Chemistry. 3 credits 

A preliminary survey of useful mathematical techniques is followed by an introduc- 
tion to the quantum chemistry of atomic structure, the chemical bond, and conju- 
gated systems. 

538. Group Theory. 3 credits 

Elementary group theory is developed and applied to problems of molecular struc- 
ture and spectra. 

544. Organic Geochmistry. 3 credits 

The course is designed for the student desiring a better understanding of the organic 
geochemical processes related to the energy field. Topics to be covered include: 
chemistry of the primitive earth, sedimentary organic chemical make-up, geochemi- 
cal transformations, petroleum correlation and characterization, source rocks and 
their organic extracts, and isotopic abundances of certain elements. 

545. Advanced Organic Chemistry. 3 credits 

A study of organic reactions is presented to provide the student with a thorough 
knowledge of the chemistry, applications, and signficance of the various reaction 
types. Special emphasis is given to reactions having synthetic utility. 

546. Physical Organic Chemistry. 3 credits 

The correlation between structure and reactivity of organic molecules is emphasized. 
The nature of bonding and the influence of steric and electronic factors are 
examined in relationship to physical properties of molecules. The logical steps in the 
elucidation of reaction mechanisms and the physical, chemical, and kinetic methods 
used in physical organic chemistry are presented. The role of reactive intermediates 
in organic reaction mechanisms is considered. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 47 

547. Organic Reaction Mechanisms. 3 credits 

A detailed study of the reaction mechanisms of ionic, free radical, and molecular 
processes is undertaken. Essential in this study is a fundamental understanding of 
the factors that effect molecular structures, intermediates, and transition states. 
Every Spring Semester. 

548. Industrial Organic Chemistry. 3 credits 

A survey of the basic raw materials available to the organic chemical industry 
together with the chemistry of converting these into the major chemicals of com- 
merce will be discussed. Topics such as economics of chemical manufacture and 
polymers as a major component of the chemical industry will be included. 

560. Instrumental Methods. 3 credits 

The theory and application of instrumental methods of analysis will be presented. 
Practice is given in the use of various instruments, depending upon the student's 
past experience and major field. 

561. Instrumental Methods Lab. 1 credit 

Accompanies 560. Four hours weekly. 

571. Theory of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 credits 

A survey of the basic principles required for understanding inorganic chemistry 
including atomic structure, periodic properties, chemical bonding, nonaqueous sol- 
vents, inorganic stereochemistry, and oxidation-reduction potentials. Every Fall 
semester. 

572. Inorganic Syntheses and Mechanisms. 3 credits 

A survey of the important synthetic methods of inorganic chemistry; mechanisms of 
inorganic reactions will be discussed in detail including nucleophilic displacement 
reactions, electron-transfer reactions, and free-radical reactions. 

621. Enzymes. 3 credits 

A detailed study of the molecular basis of enzyme action. Enzyme-catalyzed reac- 
tions are analyzed in terms of the chemical changes which occur as substrates 
proceed to products, as well as in terms of the functional groups on the enzyme 
which participate in substrate binding and catalysis. State-of-the-art experimental 
approaches in the study of enzyme mechanisms are emphasized, including chemical 
modification, kinetics, and spectroscopic techniques. Prerequisite: 523 or permission 
of the instructor. 

622. Special Topics in Biochemistry 3 credits 

635. Special Topics in Chemical Physics. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in the field of chemical physics will be presented. The 
choice of subject will vary from year to year, but may include such topics as 
statistical mechanics of real systems, advanced topics in molecular orbital theory, 
magnetic and optical properties of molecules, and the many-body problem in mole- 
cules and solids. 

640. Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry. 3 credits 

A lecture course in the important synthetic methods in organic chemistry. 

641. Special Topics in Organic Chemistry. 3 credits 

642. Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds. 3 credits 

A detailed discussion of the chemistry of heterocyclic compounds including a 
selected number of alkaloids. 



48 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

671. Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds. 3 credits 

A comprehensive view of organometallic chemistry with emphasis on the theory of 
carbon-metal bonds, general synthetic methods, and correlations of chemical and 
physical properties. 

672. Coordination Compounds. 3 credits 

A detailed discussion of the chemistry of coordination compounds, particularly in 
respect to the following topics: synthesis, nomenclature, structure, theory of coordi- 
nate binding, equilibria in solution and substitution and isomerization reactions. 

675. Special Topics in Inorganic Chemistry. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in the field of inorganic chemistry will be presented. The 
choice of subjects will vary from year to year, but may include such topics as 
transition metal chemistry, non-aqueous solvents, radiochemistry and inorganic 
reaction mechanisms. 

681. Organic Spectroscopy. 3 credits 

The course is concerned with the basic theoretical principles, special analysis and 
chemical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic 
resonance, mass spectrometry and other recent organic spectroscopy. 

682. Molecular Structure from X-ray Analysis. 3 credits 

An introductory course on the basic theories and methods of x-ray diffraction as 
applied to the investigation of the three-deimensional structures of small molecules 
and macromolecules. 

690. Seminar. 1 credit 

The Department seminar program consists of seminars presented by students and 
invited speakers. Regulations concerning seminar are available in the Department 
office. 

698. Advanced Research. 1-6 credits 

699. Chemical Research. 1-6 credits 

Open only to Ph.D. candidates. 

700. Chemical Research, Masters (Thesis). 1-6 credits 

Each master's student selects a subject for experimental investigation and a faculty 
advisor to direct the work. 

701. Chemical Research, Ph.D. (Dissertation). 1-6 credits 

Courses in other disciplines which carry credit toward an advanced degree in Chemistry: 

507. Introduction to Computer I (Mathematics). 

508. Introduction to Computer II (Mathematics). 
510. Modern Learning Theories (Educ). 

514. Human Growth and Development (Educ). 
522. Microbial Metabolism (Biological Sciences). 
528. Microbial Physiology (Biological Sciences). 

539. Bionucleonics (Pharmacy). 

540. Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals (Pharmacy). 
621. Advanced Analytical Chemistry (Pharmacy). 

625. Microbial Genetics (Biological Sciences). 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 49 

CLASSICS 



Chairman: Lawrence E. Gaichas, Ph.D., 1984-86 

Faculty: Professors Clack, Gallagher, McCulloch, Snyder, Gaichas, Newmyer 

COURSES IN LATIN 

551. Latin for Reading. I. No credit 

An accelerated course intended to introduce graduate students to the fundamentals 
of Latin. 

552. Latin for Reading. II. 

Readings in this course are chosen where possible to suit the needs of the students 
enrolled. Prerequisite: Latin 551. 

562. Independent Reading and Research (Latin). 3 credits 

COURSES IN GREEK 

551. Greek for Reading. I. No credit 

An accelerated course intended to introduce graduate students to the fundamentals 
of Greek. 

552. Greek for Reading. No credit 

Readings in this course are chosen where possible to suit the needs of the students 
enrolled. Prerequisite: Greek 551. 

561. Independent Reading and Research (Greek). 3 credits 

COURSES IN ENGLISH 

556. Greek History. 3 credits 

A survey of the history of the Greek world from pre-historic times up to the death of 
Alexander the Great, emphasizing the polis, its growth, decay and signficance for the 
political and cultural development of Greek society. 

558. Hellenistic History. 3 credits 

A survey of Mediterranean history from the death of Alexander the Great to the 
collapse of the Roman Republic, with emphasis upon the final cultural flowering of 
the Greek world and upon the expansion and eventual domination of the Roman 
state. 

560. History of the Roman Principate. 3 credits 

A study of the consolidation of the Roman imperial structure from Augustus to the 
death of Commodus. 

561. History of the Late Roman Empire 3 credits 

An examination of Roman history from the ascension of the Severe to the death of 
Justinian. 

600. Seminar in Ancient History. 3 credits 

An in-depth study of a specialized area of ancient history or historiography. 



50 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

ENGLISH 



Chairman: Joseph J. Keenan 

Faculty: Professors Clair, Hazo, Labriola, Provost, Zbozny; Associate Profes- 
sors Boettcher, Chivers, Davidson, Keenan, Niedermeier, Smeltz, Tindall. 

PROGRAMS 

MASTER OF ARTS AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

The Department offers two choices of emphasis in its graduate programs: 

1. traditional preparation for literary scholarship; 

2. preparation for teaching of literature, language, composition. 

Prerequisites for Admission: Candidates must have completed an under- 
graduate major in English Literature or its equivalent in a fully accredited 
school. Normally this means at least twenty-four semester hours of English 
course work beyond freshman composition. 

MASTER OF ARTS 
PLAN A: 

COURSES 

A minimum of twenty-four semester hours of graduate courses is required 
plus a thesis of 6 hours. The student will include in his studies English 500 
and one course from each of the groupings, I through VI. Those courses and 
his electives will be chosen in consultation with the Director of Graduate 
Studies in English. 

EXAMINATIONS 

Language: Candidates must demonstrate a reading knowledge of one of the 
foreign languages listed under "Language Requirements" for the Doctor of 
Philosophy. This requirement can be met by any of the ways described for the 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

Comprehensive: During the student's last term of course work, he will take a 
written examination to determine his comprehensive grasp of the develop- 
ment of the English language and literature and his familiarity with the princi- 
pal writings of the major authors, even though they may not have been 
specifically studied in classes. 

THESIS 

An acceptable thesis demonstrating mastery of basic research techniques is 
required for completion of the program. See The General Directions for 
Theses and Dissertations printed and distributed by the Graduate School 
Office. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 51 

PLAN B: 

COURSES: 
Same as Plan A except that a minimum of thirty semester hours is required. 

EXAMINATIONS 
Same as Plan A. 

SEMINAR PAPERS 

Two seminar papers, each approximately twenty-five pages long, written in 
courses at Duquesne, are required in lieu of a thesis. These papers need not be 
written in courses formally described as seminars but may be written in most 
graduate courses if the professor agrees that a topic is satisfactory. 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

COURSES 

Normally the requirement is thirty hours beyond the M.A. degree, exclusive 
of credit for a dissertation. 

With the approval of the student's advisor, a limited number of graduate 
courses outside the English Department is acceptable. 

EXAMINATIONS 

Oral Preliminary Examination: In the semester after the student's comple- 
tion of twelve credit hours beyond the M.A. degree, he must take the Oral 
Preliminary Examination for Admission to the Ph.D. Program. 

Language Examinations: Students must demonstrate a reading knowledge 
of two of the following foreign languages: Greek, Latin, French, German, 
Spanish, Italian. Substitutions of other languages must be approved by the 
Department of English. Students in Group I (Old and Middle English Litera- 
ture) must demonstrate a reading knowledge of Latin as one of their lan- 
guages. Requirements may be satisfied in the following ways: 

(1) By receiving a satisfactory score on the Graduate Foreign Language Test 
offered by Educational Testing Service, Princeton. 

(2) By passing a translation test administered by the Modern Language 
Department. 

(3) By taking a "language for research" course (numbered 051-052) and 
receiving a satisfactory grade on the final examination. 

This requirement must be satisfied before the student is admitted to the 
Written Qualifying Examination. It is strongly urged that the student satisfy 
the language requirement as early as possible in his graduate study. 

Written Qualifying Examination: A student is eligible for the Written Com- 
prehensive Examination for Admission to Ph.D. Candidacy after he has 
passed the Oral Preliminary Examination, fulfilled his language requirements, 
completed his course work, and been recommended to take the examination 
by his advisor. The seven-year statute of limitations specified in the general 



52 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

introduction of this catalog begins upon successful completion of this exami- 
nation. 

Oral Defense of the Ph.D. Dissertation: This is the candidate's defense of his 
dissertation. 

DISSERTATION 

When a student has successfully completed his Written Comprehensive 
Examination, a dissertation director and a first reader will be appointed. An 
outline of the proposed dissertation must meet the approval of the director, 
the first reader, the Chairman of the Department, and the Dean. The finished 
dissertation must meet the approval of the director, the first reader, the sec- 
ond reader, and the Dean. See The General Directions for Theses and Disser- 
tations printed and distributed by the Graduate School Office. 

RESIDENCE 

The minimum residence requirement for the Ph.D. is three years beyond 
the baccalaureate. The residence requirement may not be satisfied in summer 
terms only. The student must be in residence at Duquesne for two consecutive 
semesters beyond the M.A. degree. 

Note: Upon request the English Department will provide a more detailed 
statement of M.A. and Ph.D. degree requirements. 

COURSES 

500. Introduction to Graduate Study. 3 credits 

Principles and methods of scholarly research in Language and Literature (a basic 
requirement in all programs). 

GROUP I: OLD AND MIDDLE ENGLISH LITERATURE 

501. Introduction to Old English Language and Literature. 3 credits 

502. Chaucer. 3 credits 

506. History of the English Language. 3 credits 

507. Middle English Literature. 3 credits 

509. Special Studies in Old English Literature/Middle English Language 

and Literature. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken). 

690. Seminar: Old English Literature/Middle English 

Language and Literature. 3 credits 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 



53 



GROUP II: RENAISSANCE LITERATURE 

511. Spenser. 3 credits 

512. Shakespeare. 3 credits 

514. Sixteenth-Century Non-Dramatic Literature. 3 credits 

515. Milton. 3 credits 

516. Seventeenth-Century Non-Dramatic Literature 

to the Restoration. 3 credits 

519. Special Studies in Literature of The Renaissance. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken.) 

691. Seminar: Literature of The Renaissance. 3 credits 

GROUP III: RESTORATION AND EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY 
LITERATURE 

522. Restoration Literature 1660-1700. 3 credits 

524. English Classicism. 3 credits 

528. Late Eighteenth-Century Literature. 3 credits 

529. Special Studies in Literature of the Restoration 

and Eighteenth-Century Literature. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken.) 

692. Seminar: Literature of the Restoration/Classicism/ 

Late Eighteenth-Century Literature. 3 credits 

GROUP IV: NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH 
CENTURY LITERATURE 

532. Romantic Literature. 3 credits 

534. Victorian Literature. 3 credits 

537. English Literature Since 1890. 3 credits 

538. Contemporary British Literature. 3 credits 

539. Special Studies in Nineteenth or 

Twentieth-Century Literature. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken.) 

693. Seminar: Nineteenth or Twentieth-Century Literature. 3 credits 

GROUP V: AMERICAN LITERATURE 

543. American Literature: Before Civil War. 3 credits 

544. American Literature: Civil War to Present. 3 credits 

549. Special Studies in American Literature. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken.) 



698. Seminar: American Literature. 



3 credits 



54 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



GROUP VI; COMMUNICATION: LANGUAGE AND LITERARY 
THEORY AND PRACTICE 

551. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 credits 

554. Literary Theory. 3 credits 

555. Modern English Grammar. 3 credits 

559. Special Studies in Language and Literary Theory and Practice. 3 credits 

(Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken.) 

591. Teaching Writing. 3 credits 

593. Teaching Humanities in the Two- Year College. 3 credits 

595, 596, 597. Teaching College English. 1 credit 

(A weekly seminar designed for teachers of 101 and 102 English Composition. 
Teaching Assistants must enroll for three successive, one-credit sessions which are 
acceptable toward their degree.) 

699. Seminar in Language and Literary Theory and Practice. 3 credits 

700. Thesis. 0-6 credits 

701. Dissertation. 0-6 credits 
710. Readings. 3 credits 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 55 

HISTORY 



Chairman: Jerome E. Janssen 

Faculty: Professors Astorino, Costa, Janssen, Lydon, Mason, Morice, Opie, 

Vardy, Weiss; 

Associate Professor Hunter. 

MASTER OF ARTS IN HISTORY 

Regular Master of Arts programs in history are in the following fields: Early 
Modern Europe, Late Modern Europe, Early America, and Post-Civil War 
U.S.A. Courses are offered also in Medieval, Russian and Eastern European 
history, Latin America, and Asia. The regular Master of Arts programs in 
history are traditional in nature and reflect the needs and interests of a major- 
ity of students. But, the faculty of the Department also is deeply interested in 
innovative approaches to the study of history and is aware of the fact that 
some candidates for the Master degree share this interest and have the neces- 
sary background to pursue it. Accordingly, subject to advisement, qualified 
students may design special programs of study for the Masters degree in 
history by combining course offerings drawn from several of those fields 
regularly offered by the Department and have also the option of applying 
courses from outside the Department and from sister institutions in the Pitts- 
burgh area to the successful completion of their Master of Arts program. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

An undergraduate major in history or the social sciences judged adequate 
by the department is required. Normally such a major should have included 
twenty-four hours in history with a grade average of B or above. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE 
PLAN A: Thesis Program 

Students who have demonstrated unquestioned research abilities may elect, 
subject to the discretion of the Department, to undertake a research thesis 
approved by their major advisor and a second reader. Upon successful com- 
pletion, the thesis will be awarded six hours graduate credit. See Thesis and 
Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the Graduate School 
Office. 

PLAN B: Non-thesis Program 

Thirty semester hours of graduate-level course work. Eighteen credits are to 
be taken in a major field of concentration and twelve credits in other areas. All 
students are required to enroll in the Introduction to the Graduate Study of 
History in the first semester of their program. In addition, all students must 



56 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

successfully complete one research seminar in their major field of concentra- 
tion. 

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATIONS 

The candidate must pass a comprehensive examination based on course 
work and guided reading in his major area of concentration. Comprehensive 
examinations consist of a four-hour written examination and an oral exami- 
nation not to exceed one hour. Comprehensives are given in November, 
April, and July of each year on dates listed by the Department. Candidates are 
required to notify their major advisor in writing of their intention to take the 
comprehensive examination at least one month prior to its scheduled date. 

N.B. Upon admission to the program all candidates must secure a copy of 
the M.A. Regulations in History available at the departmental office. 

Graduate students wishing to consider 400 level courses should consult 
with the Chairman of the Department. 

ARCHIVAL, MUSEUM AND EDITING STUDIES 

The interpretation of the nation's past has, in recent years, moved beyond 
the classroom into historical museums, historical societies, living history sites, 
private and public archives, and state, local and federal agencies. Trained 
historians are needed by such organizations and career opportunities for those 
who possess needed skills have expanded. Duquesne University's graduate 
Archival, Museum and Editing Studies Program was designed, with the sup- 
port of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, to provide 
an opportunity for historians to enhance their knowledge off the past and to 
develop those skills which will help them to meet the needs of these agencies. 

The AME Program combines a strong historical component with training in 
two of the three professional areas. In addition to those who have majored in 
history as undergraduates, students in areas like anthropology, archaeology, 
political science, sociology, the fine arts and journalism will also find the 
program valuable. 

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS 

Students seeking admission to the AME Program must have an undergrad- 
uate degree from an accredited college or university and must fulfill the 
general requirements of the Graduate School of Liberal Arts and Sciences. A 
strong background in historical studies is highly desirable, although students 
from other fields will be considered. Students seeking admission to the AME 
Program must submit a statement, not more than 500 words, indicating their 
career goals. 

PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS 

AME students take 36 credits, including 
• 24 credits of graduate history courses 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 57 

• 6 credits of the 9 credits offered in Archival, Museum and Editing 
studies 

• 6 credits in the appropriate internships (Archival, Museum or Editing) 
A special certificate program is available for students who already have a 

graduate degree in history or art history. Certificate students take 18 credits, 
including the series of two professional courses and two internships plus 6 
credits in graduate history courses. 

ASSISTANTSHIPS 

Assistantships are available in the Department of History. Applicants 
should have a general quality point average of at least B, and A and B grades 
in undergraduate history courses. Candidates for assistantships are required to 
submit a copy of an undergraduate research paper or its equivalent in support 
of their application and, since successful candidates will assist department 
professors in survey courses, should specifically request those who write letters 
of recommendation in their behalf to comment on their potential teaching 
abilities. Fellowships are also available. 

EUROPEAN HISTORY SURVEYS 

501. Medieval Europe. 3 credits 

An exploration of the elements which taken together comprised the unique culture 
of the Middle Ages. 

513. Renaissance and Reformation. 3 credits 

An investigation of the sources and nature of the Renaissance and Reformation 
movements and the challenges and responses that they provoked. 

514. Special Studies in European History. 3 credits 

Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken. 

517. Reason and Revolution 3 credits 

A survey of the political, social, and intellectual developments that forged Modern 
Europe. 

519. 19th Century Europe. 3 credits 

An examination of the European experience between 1815 and 1914, with special 
emphasis on political, social, and cultural trends. 

522. 20th Century Europe. 3 credits 

A study of the European experience between 1914 and the present, centering on such 
issues as the great wars, Fascism, and evaluation of the contemporary trends in both 
Eastern and Western Europe. 

EUROPEAN HISTORY TOPICAL COURSES 

503. History of the Papacy. 3 credits 

The development of the institution of the papacy from the origins to modern times. 
Special emphasis will be placed on crucial formative periods such as the first, and 



58 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

fourth centuries, the Gregorian epoch, the Reformation era, the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

515. Early Modern Britain. 3 credits 

A study of the significant political, social, and economic developments, concentrat- 
ing on crisis periods like the Reformation or the Civil War. 

521. Western Europe in the Era of Fascism. 3 credits 

The impact of World War I on European society; the rise of the fascist movements 
and the paralysis of democracy; the nature of the fascist regimes; and the impact of 
fascism on European diplomacy. 

543. Origins of Modern Science. 3 credits 

Scientific change from Copernicus to Darwin and its relation to major cultural 
developments. 

545. Imperial Russia. 3 credits 

The study of the political, social, and intellectual evolution of the Russian Empire in 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

546. Soviet Russia. 3 credits 

The study of the political, social, and intellectual evolution of the Soviet Union 
since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. 

AMERICAN HISTORY SURVEYS 

563. Colonial America. 3 credits 

The exploration and settlement of the New World to 1763, with emphasis on British 
America. 

567. American Revolution and New Nation. 3 credits 

A survey of the major events, persons, and movements during this critical hinge 
period in American history from 1763 through the Age of Jackson. 

568. Sectionalism. 3 credits 

An intensive study of the sectional tensions which finally brought on the Civil War 
and the era of the Reconstruction. 

570. Special Studies in American History. 3 credits 

Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken. 

571. Expansion and Reform, 1877-1932. 3 credits 

Deals with American History from Reconstruction to the New Deal, emphasizing 
the Industrial Revolution; Progressivism, the Conservative Reaction of the 1920's, 
and the Rise of America to World Power, including the Spanish-American War and 
World War I. Emphasis will be placed on the political, economic and diplomatic 
history of the period. 

574. Age of Maturity: U.S. 1932 to the Present 3 credits 

Contemporary U.S. with particular emphasis on its appearance as free-world leader 
and the increasing role of government in the socio-economic life of the nation. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 59 

AMERICAN HISTORY TOPICAL COURSES 

533. American Women in Historical Perspective. 3 credits 

An intensive investigation of the historical experiences of women in the U.S., with 
special attention to changes in their status since the 19th Century. 

552. History of American Technology and Material Culture. 3 credits 

Explores the tools and physical resources of American Civilization; studies the man- 
made physical world around us; considers eras of material scarcity and plenty. 

560. The "New Immigration" to America. 3 credits 

The examination of the social and economic causes of the "New Immigration" of 
the late 19th and early 20th century, and the study of these Southern and Eastern 
European immigrants 1 adjustment to American Society. 

561. American Science and Technology. 3 credits 

The development of science and technology in America from colonial times to the 
twentieth century. 

562. The American Character. 3 credits 

Since the discovery of the "New World" it has been claimed that the American 
Experience is unique. The course will investigate the American Character through 
the examination of a variety of psycho-historical studies on American history. 

569. The Frontier and Environment. 3 credits 

The Westward advance of American settlement in the perspective of the Turner 
thesis, environmental analysis, and frontiers in world history. 

578. Family and Society. 3 credits 

A survey of the social history of the U.S., centering on the development of the 
American family. 

579. Modern American Empire. 3 credits 

An in-depth examination of the rise of the U.S. to world predominance from the late 
nineteenth century to the present day. The nature of American diplomacy, foreign 
policy making, economic expansion, and military involvement will be discussed. 

THIRD WORLD COURSES 

559. Comtemporary Near East. 3 credits 

A study of the major trends and development in the Near East during the twentieth 
century. Special emphasis will be given to such subjects as nationalism, moderniza- 
tion, and the Arab-Israeli conflict. 

590. Special Studies-Third World History 3 credits 

Subject matter varies. Course may be retaken. 

597. The Rise of Communist China. 3 credits 

History of the Chinese Communist movement; the organization of the Communist 
Party and the government; relations with the Soviet Union, the United States, and 
other nations. 

599. The Rise of Modern Japan. 3 credits 

The cultural and political history of Japan since the Meiji Restoration; effects on 
World War II; and major cleavages in the postwar period. 



60 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

SEMINARS 

611. Seminar: Early Europe. 3 credits 

621. Seminar: Late Modern Europe. 3 credits 

661. Seminar: Early United States. 3 credits 

671. Seminar: Modern United States. 3 credits 

691. Seminar: Selected Historical Topics. 3 credits 

699. An Introduction to the Graduate Study of History. 3 credits 

700. Thesis Research. 3 credits 

ARCHIVAL, MUSEUM AND EDITING COURSES 

524. Historical Editing. 3 credits 

This course concentrates on two primary areas: (1) the collection, cataloging, editing 
and publication of manuscript sources, concentrating on techniques of preservation 
and organization, methods of interpretation, and procedures for editing and publica- 
tion; and (2) professional journal editing for historical societies, corporate publica- 
tions, government agencies, and other public and private institutions, emphasizing 
selection and editing of manuscripts, layout and design, printing and publishing, and 
development of editorial policy. 

525. Archival Studies. 3 credits 

This course is an introduction to the basic principles and practices of archival work: 
(1) acquisition, evaluation, organization and description of archival materials, (2) 
archival and manuscript research problems, (3) techniques of document preserva- 
tion. Field trips and guest speakers will be utilized. A term paper or archival project 
will be required. 

526. Museum Studies. 3 credits 

This course stresses museum practice in the United States, including history, art, 
and science museums. It investigates exhibition policy, the character of collections, 
and the administrative, curatorial, and educational responsibilities of a museum 
staff. Students use library resources, participate in installing exhibitions, and 
examine local museum programs. Guest lecturers bring special expertise to the 
classroom in such areas as grantsmanship, conservation and museum educational 
programs. 

Internships (Editing 657, Archival 658, Museum 659). 3 credits each 

In order to guarantee the acquisition of technical skills, internships have been 
established where students can apply the knowledge gained in other divisions of the 
program. Here students gain the essential practical training needed. A specific pro- 
ject — research and development of a museum exhibit, editing of a museum register, 
arranging archival material, development of an historical editing project — will be 
completed during this period. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 61 

INSTITUTE OF FORMATIVE SPIRITUALITY 



Director: Susan A. Muto, Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professors: Adrian van Kaam, C.S.Sp., Ph.D. and Susan A. Muto, 
Ph.D. Associate Professors: Charles Maes, Ph.D. and Carolyn Gratton, Ph.D. 
Assistant Professor: Richard Byrne, O.C.S.O., Ph.D. Lecturer: Rev. Frank C. 
Sokol, Ph.D.' 

The graduate program of the Institute of Formative Spirituality (IFS) was 
initiated at Duquesne University in 1963. Its primary purpose is to establish 
and foster the science of foundational human formation (or formative spiritu- 
ality) via research, writing, publication, and degree programs on the master's 
and doctoral levels. The Institute secondarily seeks to develop a foundational 
theory of Christian formation through a Christian articulation of the findings 
of the science of formation and through formative reading and research of the 
scriptures, of the classical and contemporary masters of the Christian forma- 
tion tradition, and of the experiential-practical dimensions of Christian spiri- 
tuality. 

The Institute also publishes two journals: the tri-annual STUDIES IN 
FORMATIVE SPIRITUALITY and the bi-monthly magazine ENVOY. Both 
journals, in addition to commanding an international reputation, are integral 
to the Institute's training programs in spiritual formation and formative lead- 
ership. A detailed brochure describing all facets of this unique art and disci- 
pline of formative spirituality can be obtained by writing to the Program 
Coordinator. 

MASTER OF ARTS 
(Major: Ongoing Formation) 

The Institute makes available a master's program in ongoing formation 
requiring 30 credit hours. 

The need for such ongoing formation is felt at present by clergy, religious, 
and laity. The program is meant first of all for the student's own foundational 
human and Christian formation. At the end of the program, it is possible that 
some qualified persons, in the estimation of their dioceses or communities, 
may be ready to share with others their knowledge of formation. This letter 
decision would be the responsibility of the dioceses, communities, or lay 
spirituality centers who appoint formation personnel and/or resource persons 
on the local level. Such judgment is usually made in terms of the needs of each 
particular situation and in view of the talents, background, experience, and 
spiritual maturity of the person appointed as formation director, directress, or 
resource person. 

A student who has met the requirements set by the Institute and the Gradu- 
ate School of Duquesne University will receive a Master of Arts degree with a 
major in ongoing formation, provided he or she enters the program with an 



62 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

undergraduate bachelor's degree or its equivalent. Diocesan clergy or mem- 
bers of religious communities, who have received within their seminary or 
community, theological, spiritual, and religious formation, but who did not 
receive a bachelor's degree, may apply to this program. If accepted, they can 
receive a professional master's degree, the Master of Ongoing Formation, 
upon completion of the requirements. The same opportunity exists for lay 
persons who did not receive a bachelor's degree but are sufficiently qualified 
in the estimation of the faculty of the Institute. 



MASTER OF ARTS 

(Major: Leadership in Formative Spirituality) 

This leadership program, requiring 45 credit hours, responds to the needs of 
those persons who are called to assist others in their spiritual formation. It 
includes all of the ongoing formation courses and in addition offers the stu- 
dents assigned to a leading position in formation work the opportunity to take 
advanced courses that prepare them to instruct and form others in this field. 
Under faculty advisement the student embarks upon a program of prepara- 
tion to serve his/her own needs as future directors of formation or as leaders 
in some form of Church ministry. 

Special features of the program include a general introductory course to the 
principles and practice of formative direction. A companion course offers an 
initiation into the principles and practice of formative direction-in-common. 
It is built around a supervised practicum in formative reading, teaching, and 
direction conducted under the auspices of the Epiphany Association in Pitts- 
burgh, an apostolic center that specializes in direction-in-common for clergy, 
religious, and laity in and around the diocese. A third course introduces the 
students to the principles and practice of private formative direction. This 
course also includes a supervised practicum in a one-to-one formative direc- 
tion situation. In the final semester of residence, each student is required to 
compose a formative reading program as well as to write an integration paper 
based on guiding comprehensive questions emerging from the course work 
and applicable to the student's upcoming task orientation. These assignments 
are done under the guidance of a faculty advisor. 

A student with a bachelor's degree, who has met the requirements set by the 
Institute and the Graduate School for this program, will be granted a Master 
of Arts degree with a major in leadership in formative spirituality. A person 
who does not have an undergraduate bachelor's degree or its equivalent, but 
who in the opinion of the faculty is otherwise qualified for this program will 
receive a professional master's degree: Leadership in Formative Spirituality. 

NON— DEGREE SABBATICAL PROGRAM IN SPIRITUAL FORMATION 

We receive many requests from clergy, religious, and laity here and abroad 
to make available to them a program of relaxed and reflective growth in 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 63 

human and Christian living. Because this new approach to spiritual integra- 
tion has not been developed elsewhere, many want to benefit from this practi- 
cal wisdom in their quest for graced wholeness, health and happiness in the 
Lord. They may need a sabbatical year in their busy life — time off from their 
daily duties and apostolic endeavors, time for their own deepening. During 
this year of leisurely updating and integration, they can assimilate insights 
gained over the years by the Institute of Formative Spirituality. 

The Institute extends an invitation to men and women in this situation to 
take part in a leisurely program of formative development tailored to each 
person's needs and interests without the ordinary degree-oriented pressures. 
As a participant in this non-degree program, the student, in consultation with 
an experienced Program Coordinator interested in him or her as a unique 
person, takes both introductory and advanced courses in the Institute's curric- 
ulum. Since this program aims to foster one's own ongoing formation at a 
leisurely pace, participants register for courses on an audit basis. Hence, no 
exams need to be taken nor papers written. Non-degree students are also 
welcome to share as participant observers in the practicum work conducted in 
formative spirituality at the IFS-affiliated Epiphany center. 



SUMMER PROGRAM 

In its summer program, students can obtain the master's degree in ongoing 
formation over a period of approximately three or four summers. Each sum- 
mer program consists of 3 or 4 three-week units, allowing students to take as 
many as 12 credits over a twelve week period. 

The summer program is also open to people who do not want to pursue a 
degree, but who do wish to take courses for their own spiritual formation and 
enrichment. In this case, participants register for courses on an audit basis. 
Hence, no exams need to be taken nor papers written. 

Summer courses are taught by the core faculty of the Institute, by its Ph.D. 
alumni, and by graduate assistants currently enrolled in the doctoral program. 
Occasionally, a distinguished visiting professor in a field related to formative 
spirituality is invited to teach one or the other summer course. 

Course schedules vary each summer, thereby giving our summer school 
students the opportunity to take all of the Institute's core courses. 



Supplementing all of these programs as well as the doctoral sequence is a 
variety of one to three credit course offerings in the form of mini-courses, 
praxis-oriented seminars, and lecture series hosting renowned speakers in 
discipline-related fields. 



64 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

DOCTORIAL PROGRAM 

(Doctor of Philosophy: Major — Formative Spirituality) 

The Institute administers a doctoral program in the science of formative 
spirituality. This program aims to develop the following theoretical and prac- 
tical skills: 

1. A comprehension of the foundational formation of human life and world 
that takes into account the relevant contributions of the arts and sciences 
and of both classical and contemporary formation traditions. 

2. The ability to do independent research in the art and discipline of forma- 
tive spirituality and its articulation in various religious traditions. 

3. A thorough familiarity with the classics of Christian spirituality and the 
theological foundations of Christian spiritual life. 

4. Mastery of the formation theory of personality and skillfulness in the 
integration into this theory of relevant human experiences in dialogue 
with objective findings of the arts and sciences. 

5. An understanding of the principles and dynamics of spiritual direction in 
private and in common. 

6. The ability to communicate clearly in written and spoken language about 
the basic conditions, obstacles and dynamics involved in ongoing 
human and Christian formation. 

7. Satisfactory participation in praxis-oriented courses that foster the appli- 
cative dimensions of the science of formative spirituality. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PH.D. DEGREE 

COURSES 

Course work covering a minimum of 54 credits beyond the 30 credits on the 
master's level and exclusive of the 6 credits required for dissertation. During 
their doctoral residence, students will be required to take a minimum of 6 
credits of the above requirement in discipline-related faculty-approved course 
work outside the Institute. 

EXAMINATIONS 

1. Language 

Each candidate must demonstrate a reading knowledge of one language, 
either classical or contemporary, approved by the faculty of the Graduate 
School. This requirement may be satisfied by one of the following proce- 
dures approved by the Institute and the Graduate School. 

1. (a) By passing a translation and comprehension test, given by the Mod- 
ern Language Department or Classics Department on authors or journals 
suggested by the graduate faculty of the Institute. This test will be given 
on two predetermined dates each semester. 

(b) By translating a whole article, at least 30 pages, given to the student 
by the graduate faculty of the Institute and then passing a test in the 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 65 

Modern Language Department or Classics Department based on that 
article. 

2. By passing qualifying courses 051-052, Language for Research, given 
every semester. Students who feel they have some knowledge of the 
language may take only the second semester course 052. 

3. By passing the Graduate School Foreign Language Test devised by the 
Educational Testing Service of Princeton, N.J. 

This requirement ought to be satisfied before the student is admitted to the 
comprehensive examination for the Ph.D. candidacy. It is, therefore, 
strongly advised that the student satisfy the language requirements as early 
as possible in his/her graduate study. 

II. Comprehensive 

Students who have completed at least a base 30 credit program in the 
Institute and at least two of the four required research seminars and who 
are deemed ready for this exam by the faculty are required to take a com- 
prehensive exam prior to their acceptance for doctoral candidacy. This 
exam, both written and oral, is comprehensive in nature, covering the 
course work and literature pertinent to the science assigned during and 
beyond the master's program. The exam will be administered on a date 
determined by the faculty and students concerned. Upon acceptance to 
candidacy, students fall under the statute of limitations set by the Graduate 
School. 

III. Research Exam 

All doctoral candidates are required to take an oral examination upon 
completion of their work in the research seminars and of the dissertation 
proposal. The candidate's dissertation committee is assigned upon success- 
ful completion of this exam that validates his/her research ability. 

IV. Oral Dissertation Defense 

At the end of the doctoral program, the candidate must present a defense 
of his/her dissertation. This defense must be done within the statute of 
limitations set by the Graduate School. 

V. Dissertation 

In consultation with research seminar advisors and fellow researchers, 
the candidate will select for study a foundational thematic of formative 
spirituality. The candidate will follow the methodology of the field as 
explained and supervised in research seminars conducted for four consecu- 
tive semesters of full time residency. The results of the research are eventu- 
ally embodied in a dissertation of publishable quality. Once this work has 
met with the approval of the dissertation committee, it is defended orally in 
a public presentation and then submitted to the Dean of the Graduate 
School. The time it takes for a student to obtain the Ph.D. degree cannot be 
predicted, though completion of the work of the program must be in accord 
with the statute of limitations set by the Graduate School. See Thesis and 



66 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the Graduate School 
office. 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

510. Introduction to Formative Spirituality. 3 credits 

Aims to provide a theoretical-practical introduction to the science of formative 
spirituality and its corresponding Christian formation theory. The course explores 
foundations: that is, the basic principles of distinctively human and Christian 
formation. 

511. Introduction to Formative Reading of the Spiritual Classics. 3 credits 

Introduces students in a practical way via lectures and shared reading groups to the 
art and discipline of formative reading of classical and contemporary spiritual texts 
acknowledged as original sources of ascetical-mystical formation. 

512. Introduction to Spiritual Direction. 3 credits 

Integrates the principles and dynamics of spiritual or formative direction with the 
insights of the arts and sciences insofar as they may be relevant to Christian forma- 
tion and to direction both in-private and in-common. 

513. Human Development and Christian Formation. 3 credits 

Analyzes the formation phases of human development and their relation to the 
principles and dynamics of human and Christian formation. 

514-515. Dynamics of Spiritual Self-Direction. 3 credits 

Explores everyday life as an event of spiritual self-direction calling for ongoing 
appraisal of form directives given and received. 

516. Spiritual Transformation and Formative Reading. 3 credits 

Approaches scripture and the classics through a mode of reading that opens one to 
reflection, prayer, and contemplation. 

517. Becoming a Formative Oresence. 3 credits 

Offers an integrative approach to formative leadership as linked to the Christian 
spiritual tradition and as applicable in a variety of communal situations. 

529. Formation Theory of Personality. 3 credits 

Explores the integrative personality theory developed in the science of formative 
spirituality. Students study and discuss, among other things, the bio-genetic, vital- 
sexual, social-personal and spiritual factors involved in human and Christian 
formation. 

530. Foundational Formation and Everyday Living. 3 credits 

Fosters creative reflection on daily life in the human and Christian community. 
Students consider spiritual unfolding in Christ in and through the common ways of 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 67 

community living as experienced in family life, parishes, daily work environment, 
schools and religious communities. 

535. Formative Dimensions of Liturgical Life. 3 credits 

Offers a scripturally-based introduction to lived aspects of the Church's celebration 
of time, word and ritual action and its significance for Christian formation. 

555. Scripture and Spirituality. 3 credits 

Deals specifically with the formative message of the Hebrew and Christian 
scriptures. 

570. Christian Formation and the Mystery of the Church. 3 credits 

Studies and reflects on various biblical and theological ecclesiologies and their 
impact on our formation in Christ. 

571. Christian Formation and the Life of Grace. 3 credits 

Focuses on the indispensable role of the dynamics of the life of grace in the ongoing 
transformation of the Christian as illumined by the historical development of the 
theology of grace. 

590-594. Foundations of Human and Christian Formation. 3 credits 

Presents the developing theory and practical implications of the science of forma- 
tion. This series of courses also examines the Christian articulation of formative 
spirituality via attention to the contributions of spiritual classics, schools of spiritu- 
ality, and other sources of knowledge that deepen our understanding and apprecia- 
tion of the Christian formation tradition. 

601-606. Resources in Formative Reading: Ancient to Medieval and 

Medieval to Modern. 3 credits 

Guides students through the reading of classical and contemporary texts pertinent to 
the development of the spiritual life in all ages. This series of courses introduces 
students in a personalized way to the rich treasures of religious traditions, particu- 
larly the Christian. It teaches them the method of foundational theme tracing by 
which one can disclose the foundations of one's faith and formation tradition, 
thereby separating historical and cultural accretions from the wisdom of formation 
that is lasting. 

670-673. Research Seminars in the Science of Formation. 3 credits 

Are required for students in the doctoral program. In dialogue with fellow research- 
ers and faculty members, the research group engages during four consecutive semi- 
nars in theme selection; in an introduction to the research methodology; in relevant 
written exercises; in the structuring of the dissertation proposal; in the writing of 
outlines for the various divisions of the dissertation; and in extensive discipline- 
related bibliographical research. 

674-677. Science of Foundational Formation. 3 credits 

Introduces students to and updates the principles, presuppositions and methodology 
of the science of foundational formation or formative spirituality. Classes deal with 
such topics as the formation theory of human and Christian development; its foun- 
dational conditions, dynamics, structures and dimensions; its application to Chris- 
tian formation. 

678-679. Seminars in Human and Christian Formation. 3 credits 

Are designed to acquaint students in a more personal way with traditional and 
current, personal cultural obstacles to and conditions for formation in contemporary 
human and Christian life. They deal with such topics as: formative thinking; the 



68 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



VI 

tive 
c 



tal and functional dimensions of the spiritual life; spiritual discernment or forma- 
.ve appraisal; dynamics of social justice, peace and mercy; the depletion-repletion 
ycle of social presence; and the consonance-dissonance dynamics in formative or 
deformative attitudes and praxis. 

680-681. Practicum: Formative Direction-In-Common. 3 credits 

Is a vital part of the leadership program. The aim of these courses is to present 
spiritual direction-in-common as practiced in and through formative speaking, 
teaching, preaching and shared reflection on classical and contemporary texts. Stu- 
dents also engage in a supervised practicum in the application of course principles. 

683. Formative Spirituality and Pseudo-Spirituality. 3 credits 

Studies the syndromes and dynamics of personal and cultural disorders, their rela- 
tion to spiritual growth and to the art of appraisal as practiced by the formative 
director, teacher, and/or leader. 

685-686. Practicum: Individual Formative Direction. 3 credits 

Is also an integral part of the leadership program. The aim of these courses is to train 
master's and doctoral students in the practical dynamics of personal integration and 
spiritual development, relating these to the inner and outer obstacles and conditions 
of spirituality and to the art of individual formative direction. Students engage in 
supervised practice of this form of spiritual direction. 

689. Formation Traditions and the Life of Faith. 3 credits 

Aims to help students understand the indispensable role of traditions — religious, 
cultural, familial — in the shaping of faith experiences and ongoing spiritual 
development. 

690-691. Foundational Formation and Contemporary Thought. 3 credits 

Attempts in a creative way to relate formation theory to other relevant, contempo- 
rary contributions of auxiliary arts and sciences. 

701. Research (Dissertation). 0-6 credits 

Credit is given upon submission of an acceptable dissertation. 

710. Readings. 0-6 credits 

For well-qualified students, who desire to do individual research or study, a reading 
course may be taken, following consultation with the Program Coordinator. 

Mini Courses. 1 credit 

Address aspects of human and spiritual formation, which complement regular 
course offerings. 

956. Master of Arts Degree: Major: Ongoing Information. 

958. Master of Ongoing Formation. 

959. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.): Major: Formative Spirituality. 

960. Master of Arts Degree: Major: Leadership in Formative Spirituality. 

961. Master of Leadership in Formative Spirituality. 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 

MATHEMATICS 



69 



Chairman: Charles A. Loch, M.A. 

Faculty: Professor: McDermot, Taylor; Associate Professors: De Felice, Lee, 

Loch; Assistant Professors: Beck, Bradley, D'Amico, Malloy, Sacks, Shaw. 

COURSES 

507, 508. Introduction to Computer Science. 3 credits each semester 

Designed to introduce the student to a modern electronic digital computer system. A 
language through which the student can communicate with the computer will be 
developed thoroughly and some modern mathematical techniques in solving 
problems numerically will be examined. The student will be given problems to 
analyze, select a proper technique to effect a solution, formulate the algorithm in a 
computer language, run the program through the computer, and interpret the results. 
Given during the summer session. 




70 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

MODERN LANGUAGES 



Chairman.Francesca. Colecchia, Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professor Colecchia; Associate Professors Lucente; Del Vecchio; 

Assistant ProfessorH'icks 

FRENCH 

COURSES 

051, 052. French for Research. No credit 

Open only to graduate students in other departments to develop reading knowledge 
in French for research in their field. Review of grammar; readings in various fields. 
(Tuition: Fee) 

GERMAN 

COURSES 

051, 052. German for Research. No credit 

Open only to graduate students in other departments to develop reading knowledge 
in German for research in their field. Review of grammar; readings in various fields. 
(Tuition: Fee) 

SPANISH 

COURSES 

051, 052. Spanish for Research. No credit 

Open only to graduate students in other departments to develop reading knowledge 
in Spanish for research in their field. Review of grammar; reading in various fields. 
(Tuition: Fee) 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 71 

PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 



Chairman: Douglas H. Kay 

Faculty: Professors Block, Borke, Feldman, Galinsky, Hodes, Kay, Martin, 

Riley, Winek; Associate Professors Fochtman, Gangjee, Harris, Lovsted, 

Pilewski 

PROGRAMS 

THE DEPARTMENT OFFERS THE DOCTORS OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE 
WITH A MAJOR IN PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY AND SPECIALIZA- 
TION IN PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS. 

THE MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE IS OFFERED WITH A MAJOR IN 
EITHER PHARMACEUTICS, PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY, OR PHAR- 
MACOLOGY-TOXICOLOGY. 

FOR THE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 
AND THE MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, 
SEE THE BASIC HEALTH SCIENCES ENTRY. 

The program in Toxicology has working affiliations with the Pathology 
Department of Mercy Hospital, the Anesthesiology Department of St. Francis 
Hospital, and the Allegheny County Coroner's Office. Experience in the prac- 
tical aspects of pathology and toxicology is gained through work in these 
facilities. The program in Pharmaceutical Chemistry has working affiliations 
with the Nuclear Medicine facilities of Mercy Hospital and Allegheny General 
Hospital. 

Prerequisites for Admission: Candidates must be graduates of approved 
colleges of pharmacy or other institutions of higher learning and must have 
completed a minimum of twenty-four semester hours of undergraduate work 
in pharmacy, or in chemistry, or in the biological sciences depending on the 
proposed field of major concentration. Any deficiencies in undergraduate 
courses must be made up without graduate credit. Challenge Examinations 
are not accepted for graduate credit in the Department of Pharmaceutical 
Sciences. 

All students whose native language or principal language of instruction is 
not English are required to take the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign 
Language) examination and have their scores sent to the Graduate School. All 
TOEFL-accepted international students must take an English diagnostic test 
upon arrival at the University for appropriate placement, regardless of the 
academic level of acceptance. In addition, students who are applying for 
teaching assistantships are also required to take the "Test of Spoken English" 
(TSE) examination and have their scores submitted to the Graduate School. 



72 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE 

Candidacy for Doctoral Program: The Department of Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry will recommend to the Dean of the Graduate School, for matricu- 
lation as candidates for this degree, those students who have satisfied the 
departmental requirements. These requirements (met by examination, partici- 
pation in seminars or otherwise) emphasize originality and independence of 
thought, a wide general understanding of chemistry, a specialized knowledge 
in one broad field of chemistry, and excellence in laboratory performance. 
Mere attendance at classes and passing of courses no matter how carefully 
pursued will not suffice to meet these requirements. The period necessary to 
achieve matriculation will depend upon the quality and quantity of the stu- 
dent's knowledge at the time of his admission to the graduate school. 

COURSES 

Students pursuing the Ph.D. will be required to take a minimum of 60 
credits including a minimum of 12 credits in an approved minor, a maximum 
of four credits of seminar and dissertation credit. In addition, the department 
may direct the candidate in choosing courses to be audited or taken for credit 
to broaden the candidate's knowledge. Physical Chemistry is a prerequisite for 
candidacy toward the doctoral degree. 

EXAMINATIONS AND EVALUATION 

1) Ph.D. Qualifying Examination: This examination is to be adminis- 
tered at a time determined by the department but not before twenty credit 
hours of course work have been completed. The intent of this examination is 
to test the student's ability to apply information, interpret and analyze data, to 
propose approaches to research problems, as well as general background infor- 
mation or knowledge in the area of the student's major. This examination 
will, as much as possible, be restricted to the area in which the student has 
elected to specialize. The present areas of specialization within the major of 
pharmaceutical chemistry include: Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutics 
and Biochemical Pharmacology. 

2) Comprehensive Evaluation: This form of evaluation is in three parts 
and is intended to provide evidence that the student has attained a level of 
preparedness appropriate to the degree. The three components of the evalua- 
tion are: 

A. Specialty Examination — A written examination with or without refer- 
ence material available that is designed to test the student's scientific 
approach to problems in his area of specialization. 

B. Research Proposal — Each candidate will be required to submit briefs 
to the department on three topics of potential research but not including the 
topic he has chosen for his dissertation. The department will select one topic 
to be developed by the student into a full research proposal. The student will 
submit the written research proposal to the department for study and will then 
be required to defend his proposal in an oral presentation before the depart- 
ment and invited guests. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 73 

C. General Evaluation — The student's previous performance in areas 
such as seminar presentations, laboratory skills, course work, contributions to 
the academic atmosphere, general attitude, potential for future growth, etc., 
will be evaluated by members of the department. The evaluation is subjective 
and attempts to evaluate the student on the basis of attributes other than 
formal examination. 

The Specialty Examination, Research Proposal and General Evaluation 
must be completed after all course work is finished and at least six months 
prior to the expected date of graduation. 

3) Language Examinations: Each doctoral candidate must demonstrate 
ability to read technical literature in two approved foreign languages by pass- 
ing examinations as required by the Graduate School. These examinations 
should be passed as soon as possible and no later than the second year of 
graduate work. 

At the option of the department, demonstrated knowledge of a computer 
language and/or programming may be substituted for one foreign language. 

4) Oral Dissertation Examination: This examination is taken at the end 
of the doctorate program and represents primarily a defense of the disserta- 
tion. 

DISSERTATION 

The student will select an advisor for his or her Ph.D. dissertation project, 
and in conjunction with his advisor, will select a dissertation committee. 
Upon successful completion of the research, the student must prepare a dis- 
sertation according to the guidelines set forth in the current pamphlet pre- 
pared by the Graduate Studies Committee of the Department of Pharmaceuti- 
cal Sciences, and in the Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and 
distributed by the Graduate School office. 

In addition, the doctoral dissertation may be published in whole or in 
abstract in a recognized pharmaceutical or chemical journal, and twenty-five 
reprints are to be presented to the Graduate School. 

RESIDENCY 

Students are expected to spend at least one full year in full-time residency at 
Duquesne University. This consists of a schedule of no less than nine credits 
or the equivalent for two semesters. Unless a leave of absence from the 
graduate degree program is granted by the Dean of the Graduate School, 
continuous semester registration is required of all matriculated graduate 
students. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREES 

COURSES 

A minimum of twenty-four semester hours in course work including two 
semester hours of seminar is required of all students. All the courses may be in 
a single field or eighteen hours may be offered as a major with six additional 
hours in a related and approved minor field. 



74 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



EXAMINATIONS 

A comprehensive examination must be taken and passed at the end of the 
course program. 

THESIS 

A satisfactory research thesis in the field of major concentration and on a 
topic approved by the department must be presented by every candidate. 

RESIDENCE 

The candidate must spend at least two consecutive semesters on the cam- 
pus during which, in each semester, he must take the equivalent of at least 
nine credit hours. 



OUTLINE OF COURSES 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmaceutics 

Coordinator: Mitchell L. Borke, Ph.D. 
**501. Manufacturing Pharmacy. 
**502. Pharmaceutical Formulation and Development. 
***503. Pharmaceutical Literature. 
**504. Industrial Pharmacy and Governmental Affairs. 
**510. Advanced Pharmacokinetics I. 

*521. Analytical Separation Methods. 

*522. Spectral Methods. 

*523. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I. 

*539. Bionucleonics. 

*545. Advanced Organic Chemistry. 
(Chemistry Depattment) 

*546. Physical Organic Chemistry. 
(Chemistry Department) 

*621. Advanced Analytical Chemstry, or 

*622. Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis. 

***691, ***692. Seminar. 

***700. Thesis. 
*701. Dissertation. 



4 credits 
4 credits 
2 credits 

2 credits 

3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 
3 credits 

3 credits 

3 credits 

3 credits 

2 credits 

1-6 credits 

1-6 credits 



*Courses representing the core curriculum which are required for all stu- 
dents majoring in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

**Courses representing the core curriculum which are required for all stu- 
dents majoring in Pharmaceutics. 

***Courses required for all students in the Department of Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry and Pharmaceutics. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 75 

If a course is not scheduled during the residence of the student, another 
course may be substituted with the approval of the coordinator. 

Physical Chemistry or Basic Pharmaceutics (physical pharmacy) is a prereq- 
uisite for all students majoring in pharmaceutical chemistry or pharmaceutics. 
Course may be taken during academic program without graduate credit. Phys- 
ical Chemistry is a prerequisite for candidacy toward the doctoral degree. 

Courses available for fulfillments of major and minor requirements in Pharma- 
ceutical Chemistry. 

510. Manufacturing Pharmacy. 

502. Pharmaceutical Formulation and Development. 

510. Advanced Pharmacokinetics I. 

523. General Biochemistry (Chemistry Department). 

524. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry II. 

525. Intermediary Metabolism (Chemistry Department). 

531. Thermodynamics (Chemistry Department). 

532. Statistical Thermodynamics (Chemistry Department). 

533. Chemical Kinetics (Chemistry Department). 

540. Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals. 

541, 542. Radiological Health. 

546. Physical Organic Chemistry (Chemistry Department). 

547. Organic Reaction Mechanisms (Chemistry Department). 
561. General Toxicology. 

563. Pathology. 

565. Instrumental Methods of Analysis in Pharmacology-Toxicology. 

566. Clinical Toxicology. 

571. Theory of Inorganic Chemistry (Chemistry Department). 
621. Enzymes (Chemistry Department). 

621. Advanced Analytical Chemistry. 

622. Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis. 

623. Selected Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 

641. Special Topics in Organic Chemistry (Chemistry Department). 

642. Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds (Chemistry Department). 

671. Pharmacodynamics and Methods of Evaluation of Drug Action. 

672, 673. Advanced Pharmacology. 

615. Advanced Pharmaceutics I. 

616. Advanced Pharmaceutics II. 



76 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Additional courses applicable to M.S. program in Pharmaceutics. 

615. Advanced Pharmaceutics I. 

616. Advanced Pharmaceutics II. 

539. Bionucleonics. 

540. Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals. 

523. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I. 

524. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry II. 

521. Analytical Separation Methods. 

522. Spectral Methods. 

621. Advanced Analytical Chemistry. 

622. Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis. 

623. Selected Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 

531. Thermodynamics (Chemistry Department). 

000. Additional courses in the Departments of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Chemistry, 
Biology and/or Mathematics subject to approval by the student's advisor. 

Pharmacology-Toxicology 
Coordinator: Gene A. Riley, Ph.D. 
503. Pharmaceutical Literature. 

523. General Biochemistry (Chemistry Department). 

524. Molecular Basis of Biochemistry (Chemistry Department). 

525. Intermediary Metabolism (Chemistry Department). 

526. Metabolism of Nucleic Acids 
and Proteins (Chemistry Department). 

560. Biosynthesis of Natural Products. 

*561. General Toxicology. 

*563. Pathology. 

**565. Instrumental Methods of Analysis in 
Pharmacology-Toxicology. 

**566. Clinical Toxicology. 

567. Pathophysiology. 

569. Toxins. 

666. Special Topics in Toxicology. 

667. Forensic Toxicology. 

668. Special Problems in Pharmacology. 

*671. Pharmacodynamics and Methods of Evaluation 
of Drug Action. 

672, 673. Advanced Pharmacology. 



2 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


4 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


3-9 credits 


3 credits 


3 credits 


4 credits 


6 credits 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 77 

*691, *692. Seminar. 2 credits 

*700. Thesis. 1-6 credits 

000. Additional Courses from the Departments of Chemistry and Biology. 

*Courses representing the core curriculum which are required for all students 
majoring in Pharmacology. 

**Courses representing an addition to the core curriculum which is required 
for all students majoring in Pharmacology-Toxicology. 

Undergraduate courses in Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology are 
prerequisite courses for all students majoring in Pharmacology-Toxicology. 
With special permission from the chairman, some of these courses may be 
taken during graduate program without graduate credit. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

501. Manufacturing Pharmacy. 4 credits 

A comprehensive study of the techniques and equipment utilized in the large scale 
processing of pharmaceuticals. Lecture and laboratory experience is provided in the 
processing of liquid, solid and semi-solid dosage forms. Special emphasis is placed 
upon methods of quality control, tablet manufacture, aerosol production and sterile 
processing of parenteral medication. Class, one hour; laboratory, six hours. 

502. Pharmaceutical Formulation and Development. 4 credits 

A course designed to introduce and apply the principles of formulation and develop- 
ment of pharmaceutical products. Laboratory procedures involve familiarization 
with instrumental methods used for the evaluation of the acceptable and desirable 
characteristics of products as well as individual investigation of selected formulation 
problems. Guest lecturers from the pharmaceutical industry will supplement lecture 
materials with discussion of current developments in dosage form design. Class, two 
hours; laboratory, eight hours. 

503. Pharmaceutical Literature. 2 credits 

A comprehensive study of the literature of the pharmaceutical sciences. Emphasis is 
on methods of searching the literature and presenting technical information effec- 
tively. Class, two hours. 

504. Industrial Pharmacy and Governmental Affairs. 2 credits 

A course designed to provide a broad, general background in industrial pharmacy 
relating to governmental regulations and governmental agencies. The course 
includes current concepts in governmental affairs which affect pharmaceutical and 
cosmetic product research and development, formulation, manufacturing, product 
validation, assessment, improvement, and distribution. Prerequisite: Pharmaceuti- 
cal Formulation and Development 502. Class, two hours. 

510. Advanced Pharmacokinetics I. 3 credits 

Problems and pitfalls in the interpretation and mathematical modeling of 
pharmacokinetic data will be discussed with an emphasis on the statistical evalua- 
tion of data and the analysis of temporal data. Prerequisite: Pharmaceutics- 
Pharmacokinetcs IV or permission of the instructor. Lecture and recitation, three 
hours. 



78 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

515. Instructional Techniques. 2 credits 

A graduate course designed to acquaint the student with teaching theory as it applies 
to college/university teaching; competency-based education; testing systems; instruc- 
tional procedures and development of student-teacher communication skills. Class, 
two hours. 

521. Analytical Separation Methods. 3 credits 

A course concerned with basic theoretical principles and the application to chemical 
and pharmaceutical systems of chromatographic methods of analysis. Practice is 
given in the use of the various instruments according to student's past experience in 
major field. Prerequisites: Analytical Chemistry, Basic Pharmaceutics or Physical 
Chemistry. Class, three hours; laboratory, four hours. 

522. Spectral Methods. 3 credits 

A course concerned with interpretations of ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic 
resonance, mass spectra and optical rotatory dispersion. Discussions and correlation 
of organic molecules. Demonstration and laboratory practice of ultraviolet, infrared 
and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry application. Class, three hours; labo- 
ratory, one hour. 

523. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry I. 3 credits 

A course devoted to the study of drug action at the molecular level. Emphasis is 
placed on the theories relating physiochemical properties of drug molecules to bio- 
logical activity, the nature of drug receptors, drug-receptor interaction and drug 
metabolism. Class, three hours. 

524. Advanced Medicinal Chemistry II. 3 credits 

Selected individual classes of drugs will be discussed. Special emphasis will be on 
structure-activity relationships, mechanism of action, synthesis and current research 
in each area. Class, three hours. 

539. Bionucleonics. 3 credits 

A study of the fundamental techniques of manipulation and measurement of radio- 
isotopes. Experiments performed individually by each student, include measure- 
ment of radioactivity with Gieger-Muller counters, flow counters, ionization cham- 
bers, proportional counters, crystal scintillation counters, and liquid scintillation 
counters; study of the characteristics of radiation; gamma ray spectrometry; some 
application of radioisotopes in pharmacy, chemistry, and biology, etc. Prerequisites: 
General Chemistry, General Physics. Class, three hours; laboratory, three hours. 

540. Advanced Bionucleonics and Radiopharmaceuticals. 3 credits 

A course devoted to the practical application of radioactive isotopes in chemistry 
and biology. The scope of the course includes neutron activation analysis, gamma 
ray spectrometry, tracer methods, and radiopharmaceuticals. Prerequisite: Bionucle- 
onics 539. Class, three hours; laboratory, three hours. 

541. 542. Radiological Health. 8 credits 

A course designed to review the fundamental physical and biological principles of 
radiation protection, and the application of these principles to the measurement 
techniques, radiation hazard evaluation, radiation protection surveillance and 
administration. Scientific principles most applicable to solving problems of protect- 
ing humans from unacceptable levels of radiation exposure both in occupational and 
public environment are emphasized. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 79 

560. Biosynthesis of Natural Products. 3 credits 

A comprehensive study of the biosynthesis pathways involved in the formation of 
pharmaceutically important alkaloids, antibiotics, glycosides and volatile oils. Class, 
three hours. 

561. General Toxicology. 3 credits 

A lecture and laboratory demonstration course dealing with the multidisciplinary 
aspects of toxicology with emphasis on the biological test methods for toxic sub- 
stances and the general clinical and analytical procedures used by the toxicologist. 
Food and Drug Administration regulations and suggested tests are also considered. 
Lecture-laboratory, three hours. Alternate years. 

563. Pathology. 4 credits 

A lecture presentation of the cellular, organ and systemic changes associated with 
the human disease process. The course also deals with the relationship and signifi- 
cance of the various laboratory values that can be used in conjunction with clinical 
observations and tests to diagnose and follow the course of the various disease 
states. Prerequisite: Physiology. Lecture, four hours. 

565. Instrumental Methods of Analysis in 

Pharmacology-Toxicology. 3 credits 

A course covering the methods used in the detection of toxic materials in biological 
fluids and other media. Emphasis is placed on purification and identification. Work 
is also conducted at the Allegheny County Coroner's Office. Lecture-Laboratory 
combined. Eight hours. 

566. Clinical Toxicology. 3 credits 

A lecture course dealing with the symptomatology produced by toxic substances and 
its treatment. Emphasis is placed on the underlying pathophysiology produced by 
toxic substances. Prerequisite: Pharmacology-Drug Mechanisms I and II. Class, 
three hours. 

567. Pathophysiology. 3 credits 

A lecture presentation of the cellular, organ and systemic changes associated with 
the human disease process. Also discussed are the physiological responses of the 
body's organ systems to the disease process and the contribution these responses 
make to the production of signs and symptoms that are normally associated with 
each disease state. Class, three hours. 

569. Toxins. 3 credits 

A comprehensive study of bacterial toxins, mycotoxins, amatoxins, phytotoxins, 
ichtyotoxins, marine animal toxins, insect venoms, and snake venoms. Class, three 
hours. 

615. Advanced Pharmaceutics I. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in pharmaceutics are presented in depth. These include: 
prolongation of drug release from dosage forms; optimization of drug delivery sys- 
tems; degradation kinetics of dosage forms and/or active ingredients therein. Prereq- 
uisite: Pharm. Sci. 510 or permission of instructor. Class, three hours. 

616. Advanced Pharmaceutics II. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in pharmaceutics are presented in depth. These will 
include: rheology and rheological evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations; micro- 
meritics. Class, three hours. 



80 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

621. Advanced Analytical Chemistry. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in analytical chemistry are presented in depth. The choice 
of subjects which vary from year to year presently includes competitive aqueous 
equilibria, method validation, the analytical approach to problem solving, 
chemometrics, laboratory information management systems, and legal ramifications 
of analytical chemistry. Prerequisite: A basic course in Analytical Chemistry or 
Quantitative Analysis. Class, three hours. Alternative years. 

622. Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in pharmaceutical analysis are presented in depth. The 
choice of topics which vary from year to year presently includes the use of high 
performance liquid chromatography, micro and high speed HPLC, bonded phase 
capillary gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, ion-pair forma- 
tion and its analytical application, radio-immunoassay, and computer-aided analy- 
sis. Prerequisites: Advanced Analytical Chemistry 621 and Analytical Separation 
Methods 521 or their equivalents. Class, three hours. Alternate years. 

623. Selected Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 3 credits 

Topics of current interest in the field of medicinal chemistry will be presented. The 
choice of subjects will vary from year to year but may include such topics as CNS 
compounds, antitumor agents, cancer chemotherapy, carcinogenesis and carcino- 
genic compounds, mechanism of bio-organic reactions, drug design and modern 
theories of drug action. Class, three hours. 

666. Special Topics in Toxicology. 3 credits 

A special, minor research problem is assigned involving specialized equipment or a 
subject or current interest. A lecture or discussion period is also provided each week 
during the semester. Class, one hour; laboratory, eight hours. Repeatable to nine 
credits. 

667. Forensic Toxicology. 3 credits 

The drugs and chemicals of forensic interest are described in a "case presentation" 
format. The tissue distribution, metabolic rate, and excretion of forensically impor- 
tant chemicals and their analytical methods are included. The medical-legal implica- 
tions of each group of toxicants are discussed. Prerequisite: General Toxicology 561, 
Clinical Toxicology 566. Lecture, three hours. Alternate years. 

668. Special Problems in Pharmacology. 3 credits 

A minor research problem is assigned, involving specialized equipment or a subject 
of current interest. Class, one hour; laboratory, eight hours. 

671. Pharmacodynamics and Methods of Evaluation 

of Drug Action. 4 credits 

A study and performance of laboratory methods utilized in the determination of the 
sites and mechanisms of action of drugs. Methods for evaluating the pharmacology 
and toxicology of new drug compounds are emphasized. Lecture-Laboratory com- 
bined, six hours. This course is open only to graduate students majoring in pharma- 
cology or toxicology. 

672, 673. Advanced Pharmacology. 6 credits 

A course designed to present the student with a basic and research oriented under- 
standing of the mechanisms involved in such areas as automatic, cardiovascular, 
endocrine, and central nervous system pharmacology. This is accomplished by pres- 
entation and discussion of current and classic research papers relating to the specific 
topics assigned within each major area. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 



691, 692. Seminar. 1-6 credits 

Oral presentation by graduate students, faculty and visiting lecturers on topics of 
current scientific interest. Participation required of all graduate students in the 
Pharmaceutical Sciences during each semester of registration in the Graduate 
School. Maximum, six credits. Registration open only to resident graduate students. 

700. Thesis. 1-6 credits 

A report of experimental investigation carried on by the student under faculty 
advisement. 



701. Dissertation. 

A continuation of Course 700, required for doctoral candidates. 



1-6 credits 




82 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

PHILOSOPHY 



Chairman: C. D. Keyes, Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professors Embree, Keyes, Ramirez, Scanlon, Schuwer, Strasser; 

Associate Professors Polansky, Wurzer; Assistant Professors Holveck, Madden 

PROGRAMS 

THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS 

Prerequisites for Admission: Candidates should have completed a minimum 
of twenty-four semester hours in undergraduate Philosophy. This preparation 
should have included an adequate education in fundamental problems and 
History of Philosophy. The Department, through its Admission Committee, 
reserves the right to satisfy itself by special examination as to the student's 
knowledge of the field, and to require a student to supplement his undergradu- 
ate work wherever it may appear to be deficient. Such supplementary work 
will not be credited toward a graduate degree. 

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

Prerequisites for Admission: Admission to the Ph.D. program normally 
requires completion of M.A. (in Philosophy) with a very distinguished record. 
On the basis of evaluation by the Admission Committee a student may be 
required to take a special qualifying examination. 

ADVISORS 

Each graduate student shall select a member of the graduate faculty of the 
Philosophy Department to act as his advisor. After a faculty member has 
agreed to be his advisor, the student should inform the Department Chairman 
of his selection. The student should consult with his advisor regarding course 
requirements, examinations, research projects, and any other procedural mat- 
ters. Any variations from the regularly required program must be recom- 
mended in writing by the advisor and approved by the Department Chair- 
man. 

MASTER OF ARTS 

The program of the Master's degree requires one three-credit course in each 
of the four historical periods of Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and Con- 
tempoary Philosophy. 

PLAN A: 

COURSES 

Work covering a minimum of twenty-four hours in courses and a thesis of 
six hours. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 83 

EXAMINATIONS 

Language: Each candidate must demonstrate a reading knowledge of one of 
the following: Greek, Latin, German, French. This requirement may be satis- 
fied in the following ways: 

( 1 ) By receiving a satisfactory score on the Graduate Foreign Language Test 
offered by Educational Testing Service, Princeton. 

(2) By passing a translation test administered by the Modern Language 
Department. 

(3) By taking a "language for research" course (numbered 551-552) and 
receiving a satisfactory grade on the final examination. 

This requirement must be satisfied before the student is admitted to the 
comprehensive examination. It is strongly urged that the student satisfy the 
language requirement as early as possible in his graduate study. 

Comprehensive: A comprehensive examination, both written and oral, is 
required at the end of the course program. This examination must be taken no 
later than the semester following completion of M.A. course requirements. 

THESIS 

The student will select a research topic, a thesis director and one additional 
reader. The completed thesis, approved by the director and the reader, will be 
submitted in a form acceptable to the Graduate School through the Philoso- 
phy Department. See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distrib- 
uted by the Graduate School office. 

PLAN B: 

COURSES 

Work covering a minimum of thirty semester hours in courses. With the 
approval in writing of the Department Chairman, a student may take six 
hours in a minor field. 

EXAMINATIONS 
Language and comprehensive examination as described above. 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

The Department of Philosophy will recommend to the Dean of the Gradu- 
ate School, for matriculation as candidates for this degree, those students who 
have satisfied the departmental requirements. These requirements emphasize 
independence of thought and a wide general understanding of thematic phi- 
losophy, contemporary philosophy, and the history of philosophy. Mere 
attendance at classes and passing of courses will not suffice to meet these 
requirements. Hence independently of course assignments, students will be 
expected to be familiar with the more important texts and readings in the 
field. The requirements are met by examination, participation in seminars, 
research papers, etc. 



84 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Formal Requirments for the Degree: The formal requirements for the degree 
are of four types: course work, examinations, research and dissertation, and 
residence. 

COURSES 

A minimum of sixty-six semester hours credit (excluding dissertation) 
beyond the Baccalaureate degree is required of all students. Candidates for the 
doctoral degree must take as their core program two three-credit courses in 
each of the four historical periods of Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and Con- 
temporary Philosophy. In addition the student may choose couses to be 
audited or taken for credit from other departments to broaden his background 
and to provide him with an interdisciplinary program. 

Any variation in a student's program must be recommended in writing by 
his advisor and approved by the Chairman. 

EXAMINATIONS 

Special Admission Examination: At the discretion of the Department's 
Admissions Committee the entering student may be required to take a special 
examination. For the student who takes his M.A. at Duquesne, the M.A. 
comprehensive examination serves as an admission examination for the 
Ph.D. 

Language Examinations: Each candidate must demonstrate a reading 
knowledge of two of the following: Greek, Latin, German, French. One of the 
two languages offered must be German or French. His requirement may be 
satisfied in the following ways: 

( 1 ) By receiving a satisfactory score on the Graduate Foreign Language Test 
offered by Educational Testing Service, Princeton. 

(2) By passing a translation test administered by the Modern Language 
Department. 

(3) By taking a "language for research" course (numbered 551-552 or 051- 
052) and receiving a satisfactory grade on the final examination. 

This requirement must be satisfied before the student is admitted to the 
comprehensive examination. It is strongly urged that the student satisfy the 
language requirement as early as possible in his graduate study. 

Period Examinations: All courses, except seminar and research, are fol- 
lowed by special examinations covering the subject matter of the courses in 
accordance with the general regulations of the Graduate School. 

Comprehensive Examinations: All doctoral candidates will be required to 
take a comprehensive examination, which will be both written and oral, not 
later than one semester before graduation. 

Oral Dissertation Examination: This examination is taken at the end of the 
doctoral program. It represents a public defense of the dissertation. It must be 
taken within seven years after completion of the Ph.D. comprehensive exami- 
nation. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 85 

DISSERTATION 

The candidate will approach a research director with a problem to investi- 
gate. Subject to acceptance thereof, the research director becomes the advisor 
and sponsor of the candidate throughout the remainder of his program. He is 
thereby constituted as chairman of a three-person faculty committee. The 
results of the investigation are eventually embodied in a dissertation. Once 
this has met with the approval of the director, it is submitted to the two 
readers for further evaluation of its philosophical clarity and literary ade- 
quacy, with the understanding that substantial revisions will normally be 
required only by the director. Once it is approved by the entire committee, it 
is defended orally in a public presentation, and then submitted to the Dean of 
the Graduate School in accordance with the regulations set forth in the bulle- 
tin of the Graduate School. See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed 
and distributed by the Graduate School office. 

RESIDENCE 

The candidate must spend at least two consecutive semesters in residence, 
during which in each semester he must take at least the equivalent of nine 
credit hours. 



OUTLINE OF COURSES 

The program for graduate work in the Department of Philosophy is 
designed to give the student a broad knowledge of the development of philo- 
sophical thought and an understanding of the principal issues of contempo- 
rary philosophy, to train him for independent research, and to prepare him to 
become a competent teacher of philosophy. 

These aims imply — 

(1) An acquaintance with the research techniques and methods used in 
philosophy as well as the bibliographical resources available in the field; 

(2) A solid knowledge of the various philosophical systems and the funda- 
mental problems which have arisen in the course of time as seen against their 
historical background. 

(3) The development of a power of critical evaluation; 

(4) An understanding of significant ideas or currents or thought which arise 
in contemporary philosophical thinking, and the ability to give them most 
careful consideration. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

History of Ancient Philosophy 

502. Pre-Socratic Philosophy. 3 credits 

A study of the fragments with special attention to the interpretations given by Hegel, 
Nietzsche, and Heidegger. 



86 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

503. 504. Plato. 6 credits 

A study of selected Platonic dialogues with special attention to the significance and 
philosophical basis of the mimetic-dramatic character of the dialogues. The empha- 
sis is on close textual study. 

505, 506. Aristotle. 4 credits 

A detailed study of certain major treatises of Aristotle. Normally an entire semester 
is devoted to one major work such as the Physics, Metaphysics, De Anima, Ethics, 

Politcs. 

History of Medieval Philosophy 

518. St. Augustine. 3 credits 

A study of his philosophy, its sources and development, with special attention to his 
psychology and his doctrines of knowledge and God. The significance of Augustini- 
anism in the history of philosophy. 

521. St. Thomas Aquinas. 3 credits 

Fundamental positions of St. Thomas on the problems of being, God, and knowl- 
edge. 

522. St. Thomas Aquinas. 3 credits 

Fundamental positions of St. Thomas Aquinas on the philosophy of man, ethics, 
and philosophy of law. 

523. Scotus and Ockham. 3 credits 

A critical analysis of some medieval approaches to problems of theory of knowledge, 
metaphysics and ethics. 

524. Early Medieval Philosophy. 3 credits 

From Scotus Erigena to Abelard, with special attention to problems of faith and 
reason. 

525. The Thirteenth Century 3 credits 

A study of the syntheses and controversies of the Golden Age of Scholasticism. 

History of Modern Philosophy 

526. Origins of Modern Philosophy. 3 credits 

The mathematization of nature; the emergence of new concepts of being and know- 
ing; the quarrel between the ancients and the moderns. 

527. The Philosophy of Descartes. 3 credits 

The main ideas of Descartes drawn from the reading of his works and seen against 
their historical background. 

528. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Philosophy 

(Locke, Hume, and Berkeley). 3 credits 

An intensive study of the 17th and 18th Century classical British philosophy, either 
as a whole or by concentrated consideration upon a selected individual figure. 
Consideration may be given to either of the two major aspects of this philosophy, 
namely the epistemological and the moral-political, or may be focused upon one of 
these dimensions alone. An attempt will be made to understand the systematic and 
historical importance of this philosophy. 

529. Spinoza and Leibniz. 3 credits 

An intensive analysis of either Spinoza or Leibniz's philosophy as based upon a 
selection from their most important writings. An attempt will be made to consider 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 87 

in detail the philosophical teachings of either Spinoza or Leibniz as a whole in all of 
their various dimensions, or to consider their teachings by means of focusing atten- 
tion upon systematic and historical problems encountered in their respective philos- 
ophies. 



530, 531. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason. 6 credits 

A study of Kant's first critique regarded as an attempt to provide a ground for 
metaphysics through the delimitation of the possiblities and limits of human reason. 



532. Kant, Critique of Practical Reason. 3 credits 

A study of the Kantian problem regarding the possibility of the practical employ- 
ment of pure reason. Attention will be given to the question of reason as the ground 
of the determination of the will through law, to the nature of duty and the moral law, 
and to the postulates of practical reason. 



533. 534. Hegel: Phenomenology of the Spirit. 6 credits 

First course: Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the major transitions of the 
book. Second course: Reason, Spirit, Religion, and Absolute Knowledge. 



535. Hegel, Science of Logic. 3 credits 

A study of the significance and structure of Hegel's logic in relation to the Phenome- 
nology and the Hegelian system as a whole. 



536. German Idealism. 3 credits 

A detailed study of a major work by Fichte, e.g. Foundation of the Entire Doctrine of 
Science, or Schelling, e.g. System of Transcendental Idealsim, On Human Freedom. 



537. Topics in the History of American Philosophy. 

A detailed study of a major figure or major movement in the history of American 
philosophy. 



541. Dialetical Materialism. 3 credits 

The historical background and philosophical origins of Marxism, Historical and 
Dialectical Materialism. The theory of class struggle and the philosophy of history. 

543. Kierkegaard. 3 credits 

The existential critique of Hegel; the development of Kierkegaard's thought and a 
detailed study of selected works of Kierkegaard both in terms of their intrinsic value 
and in the light of their influence on the history of philosophy.* 

544, 545. Nietzsche. 6 credits 

A study of certain major works of Nietzsche, special attention normally being given 
to Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Consideration will be given to such topics as Nietzsche's 
interpretation of tragedy and of the Western philosophical tradition and to his 
concepts of nihilism, revaluation of values, will to power, and eternal recurrence. 



88 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Contemporary Philosophy 

539. Contemporary English and American Ethical Theories. 3 credits 

American and English ethical thought including William James and Gilbert E. 
Moore, particularly after Moore. The impact of logical positivism on ethics. Particu- 
lar emphasis can be expected on works or authors considered of special value or 
influence or representing ethical trends in this area. 

540. Contemporary British and American Authors. 3 credits 

Neo-realism. Neo-positivism. Analytic philosophy. Pragmatism. Logical positivism. 
Special attention may be devoted to a particular trend or author. 

542. Marxism and Phenomenology. 3 credits 

The confrontation of phenomenological philosophy with Marxian views on such 
philosophical questions as: the individual in society; historical determinism and 
self-alienation; the interrelations of theory and practice; concrete thinking, dialecti- 
cal theory, and phenomenological reflection. Marx, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sar- 
tre, Paci. 

546, 547. Husserl. 6 credits 

A study of any of Husserl's philosophical writings, whether a complete book or a 
selected part of one. The approach may be an exposition of the method and rationale 
of phenomenology as a fundamental approach to the clarification of philosophical 
issues. Or it may be a more detailed study of Husserl's phenomenological analysis of 
some selected theme (e.g. evidence and truth, internal time-consciousness, percep- 
tual experience of another conscious individual . . .). Or it may be a combination of 
the two perspectives. 

548. Wittgenstein. 3 credits 

A study of the major works of Wittgenstein with special attention being given to 
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations. Consideration will 
be given to such topics as the picture theory, truth-functions, the mystical, silence, 
and the therapeutic nature of philosophy. 

549. Marcel and Jaspers. 3 credits 

Being and having. The ontological mystery. Creative fidelity. Philosophy of ques- 
tioning. The sphere of the Transcendent. Ultimate situations. 

570. Ricoeur: Philosophy of the Will. 3 credits 

Introduction into the method and the main ideas of the phenomenology of the Will 
of Paul Ricoeur as contained in Freedom and Nature. Special emphasis is put upon 
the pure description of volition. 

571. Ricouer: Phenomenology of the Symbol. 3 credits 

A critical discussion of Paul Ricoeur' s works on the symbolism of evil and on the 
psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud. 

572. 573. Heidegger. 6 credits 
A detailed study of Heidegger's major work, with attention to the question of 
fundamental ontology, the concept of the world, and the problems of death, tempo- 
rality, and history. Some consideration may also be given to Heidegger's later self- 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 89 

interpretations and to the general relation of Being and Time to Heidegger's later 
writings. 

574. Sartre. 3 credits 

Phenomenological ontology of Being and Nothingness. Contribution to existential 
phenomenology. The problem of the other. 

575, 576. The Later Heidegger. 3 credits 

A study of selected later writings of Heidegger dealing with such topics as language 
and poetry, science and technology, the problem of metaphysics, time and Being. 

577, 578. Merleau-Ponty. 6 credits 

The contents of earlier or later texts will be examined with special attention paid to 
themes such as the critique of casual thought, the phenomenological method, behav- 
ior, being-in-the-world, speech, thinking, and flesh. 

579. Philosophy Anthropology of Scheler. 3 credits 

Studies in the thought of Max Scheler, with emphasis upon his phenomenological 
approach to the nature of man. Selected readings. 

580. Levinas. 3 credits 

A detailed textual study and critical evaluation of Emmanuel Levinas' Philosophy of 
Intersubjectivity as expressed in his work, Totality and Infinity. 

588. Contemporary Continental Thomism. 3 credits 

An introduction to the systematic metaphysics according to the school of Joseph 
Marechal and further developed by such thinkers as Karl Rahner, Johann Baptist 
Lotz, Max Muller, Andrea Marc, etc. 

Thematic Philosophy 

550. Problems in Metaphysics. 3 credits 

A study of selected texts or problems in classical or modern metaphysics. 

551. Epistemology. 3 credits 

A topical study of some selected epistemological issues raised by developments in 
the natural, social, and formal sciences and by philosophical reflection on scientific 
and extrascientific modes of knowing and on the interrelations of knowing and 
being. 

552. Philosophical Anthropology. 3 credits 

The problem of man's self-understanding considered in the light of certain develop- 
ments in modern and contemporary philosophy. 

554. Aesthetics. 3 credits 

The beautiful, the sublime, the art object, and the creative process. 

555. Philosophy and Poetry. 3 credits 

A study of certain philosophical writings about poetry or a consideration of certain 
poetic works in reference to the problem of the relation between philosophical 
thought and poetry. 

561. Problems of Ethics. 3 credits 

Evolutionary Ethics. Ethics of obligation. Ethics of love. Religious and non-religious 
origins and implications of ethics. Normative and non-normative ethics. 

581. Philosophy of Space and Time. 3 credits 

The roles of space and especially of time as horizons for ontological understanding, 
investigated in reference to the philosophies of Leibniz, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, 



90 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Husserl, and Heidegger. Some topics considered: the spatiality of the lived world, 
the relation between space and time, space and time as transcendental and the 
concept of transcendental philosophy. 



582, 583. Philosophy of Science. 6 credits 

A study of the philosophical implications and presuppositions of the methodology 
and conceptual framework of modern science. Contrast between classical Newtonian 
and contemporary physics regarding such philosophical questions as the nature of 
matter, space-time, technique and technology. 



584. Philosophy of History. 3 credits 

A phenomenological and systematic investigation of the nature of man's involve- 
ment in history, the problems of human tragedy, time, symbolism, and the search 
for meaning in life. 



585. Social and Political Philosophy. 3 credits 

A study of major philosophical problems in political and social thought. This will be 
accomplished by means of an intensive consideration of an individual philosopher, 
or a selected group of philosophers, or the perspective of a particular problem, or 
from a matrix of such problems. 



586. Symbolic Logic 3 credits 

An introduction to the methods of symbolic logic and a consideration of various 
issues in logical theory with regard to their philosophical signficance. 



587. Philosophy of Intersubjectivity. 3 credits 

HusserPs attempt to clarify the experience of an alter ego within the context of his 
transcendental phenomenology. Phenomenological explication of concrete social 
structures of the lived world (.e.g. A. Schutz). Varied approaches to the phenomenon 
of social reality as represented by Hegel, Heidegger, Sartre, Scheler, Marcel, 
Merleau-Ponty, and Buber. 



589. Special Problems in the Philosophy of God 3 credits 

Philosophical considerations about God in scholastic and modern philosophy. 



590. Philosophy of Language. 3 credits 

A study in the phenomenology of language. Among the topics considered are the 
character and limits of formalistic approaches to language, the centraility of the 
speaking subject, and the relation of language to thought and to prepredicative 
experience. 



591. Contemporary Atheism. 3 credits 

The meaning of atheism as a contemporary phenomenon. Philosophical interpreta- 
tion of religion and critical evaluation of some sociological and psychological theo- 
ries of the origin of religion. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 91 

Practica, Advanced Courses, Research 

662. Teaching of Philosophy. No credit 

Primarily for advanced graduate students with teaching responsibilities. 

663. Practicum in Medical Ethics. 0-3 credits 

The purpose of this course is to prepare advanced graduate students to teach the 
undergraduate course Medical Ethics. A graduate student enrolling in this practicum 
will work individually with the professor. 

664 Practicum in Philosophy of Death and Living. 0-3 credits 

The purpose of this course is to prepare advanced graduate students to teach the 
undergraduate course Philosophy of Death and Living. A graduate student enrolling 
in this practicum will work individually with the professor. 

665. Practicum in Business Ethics. 0-3 credits 

The purpose of this course is to prepare advanced graduate students to teach the 
undergraduate course Business Ethics. A graduate student enrolling in this practi- 
cum will work individually with the professor. 

670 to 679. Advanced Lecture, I to X. 3 credits 

A topical or textual study conducted primarily through lectures. The topic and text 
vary from semester to semester. 

680. to 689. Advanced Seminar, I to X. 3 credits 

A topical or textual study conducted primarily through discussion and through 
presentation or papers. The topic and text vary from semester to semester. 

700. Research (Thesis). 1-6 credits 

A report on the investigation of a philosophical problem carried out by the student 
under the supervision of his faculty advisor. 

701. Research (Dissertion). 1-6 credits 

A continuation of 700, required in addition to that course in the case in which 
results are to be incorporated into a doctoral dissertation. 

710. Readings. 1-3 credits 




92 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

POLITICAL SCIENCE 



Chairman: William E. Markus 

Faculty: Professors Beranek, Webb; Associate Professor Moors; Assistant 

Professors Dunham, Markus 

PROGRAM 
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS 

The department offers a comprehensive Master's degree in Political Sci- 
ence. Political science studies the political ideas, institutions, behavior, val- 
ues, and goals of human collective life. The department stresses an under- 
standing of political life as a necessary complement to the study of human 
existence. Through an awareness of, and appreciation for, the similarities and 
differences among political structures, political actors, systems of law, political 
ideals and thought, and the ways by which political activity relates to the 
dimensions of life as a whole, the student becomes familiar with the political 
as an expression of deeper and more fundamental considerations. The depart- 
ment pursues both the normative and empirical approaches to the study of 
politics. Computer terminals are available one floor below the Political Sci- 
ence office. All M.A. courses have from three to twenty students. Graduate 
students do not take undergraduate courses. Graduate students receive exten- 
sive individual attention from department faculty. 

Prerequisites for Admission: Candidates are ordinarily expected to have 
completed a minimum of twenty-four semester hours in Political Science with 
reasonable strength in the areas of Political Thought, American and Compara- 
tive Government, and International Relations. 

Each graduate student is expected to take at least one course from each 
professor during his or her M.A. program. 

All students who are deficient in any of the four principal areas of Political 
Science (Western Political Theory, American Government, International 
Relations, and Comparative Government) are expected to remedy such defi- 
ciencies through: (a) Taking specific graduate courses; (b) Remedial readings; 
(c) Informal auditing of the undergraduate course, Introduction to Political 
Science. 

It is strongly suggested that a student going for his Ph.D. write the six- 
credit, M.A. thesis. 

Graduate students are expected to maintain an average not lower than "B"; 
those failing to meet this standard will be subject to faculty action. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 93 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE 
PLAN A: Thesis Program 

Courses 

A minimum of twenty-four semester hours of course work in the major field 
is required plus a thesis of six hours. 

EXAMINATIONS 

Comprehensive: An oral comprehensive examination at the end of the 
course program is required. 

THESIS 

A research thesis on a topic approved by the department must be presented 
by every candidate. See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and dis- 
tributed by the Graduate School office. 

PLAN B: Non-thesis Program 

A minimum of thirty semester hours of course work, together with the department 
comprehensive examination. 

The master of arts degree completed according to PLAN B is viewed by the depart- 
ment as a terminal degree. Students who have followed this plan ordinarily will not be 
recommended by the department for graduate study beyond the master's level. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Political Theory 

501, 502. Western Political Theory. 3 credits 

A survey and critical analysis of the political theories and ideas of the great political 
thinkers. 501 considers the classical and medieval periods. 502 considers the mod- 
ern period. 

507. Contemporary Political Theory. 3 credits 

A study of central topics in political thought from Marx to the present time. 

509. Seminar in American Political Thought. 3 credits 

A study of representative American political writers, based on direct readings from 
primary sources. 

601. Seminar in Political Theory 3 credits 

Intensive investigation of an individual theorist or topic. (Students allowed to take 
twice, if subject matter varies.) 

605. Seminar in Marxism. 3 credits 

A critical analysis of the basic political writings of Marx and Engels. 

American Political System 

522. The American Presidency. . 3 credits 

A study of the role of the President at the center of the decision-making process in 
the American political system. 

523. American Political Parties. 3 credits 

An intensive study of the roles of interest groups and political parties in the deci- 
sion-making processes of the American system of government with attention 
devoted to the internal dynamics of these institutions. 



94 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

524. The Decision-Making Process. 3 credits 

An intensive study of the dimensions of governmental policy selection on all levels 
of decision-making. 

525. Principles of Public Administration. 3 credits 

A detailed examination of the methods and objectives of administrative study, with 
an emphasis upon both theoretical and practical applications. 

528. American Constitutional Law. 3 credits 

A detailed examination of Supreme Court cases concerning the nature of American 
federalism — Congressional and Presidential power, commerce clause, state powers, 
judicial review, due process clauses, and apportionment. Students are introduced to 
court and appeals procedures, the reading and briefing of court decisions, and the 
nature of the court review process. 

529. American Civil Liberties. 3 credits 

A detailed analysis of Supreme Court decisions bearing upon Bill of Rights guaran- 
tees, with specific reference to the freedoms of speech, press, assembly, the dimen- 
sions of search and seizure, right of legal counsel, equal protection and due process 
rights, voting rights, and the adjudication of the fourteenth amendment application 
of rights to state action. 

621. Seminar in Legislation and Legislative Procedure. 3 credits 

A detailed study of the operation — or non-operation — of the American legislative 
process and of the influences that bear upon it. 

Comparative Political Systems 

530. Theory of Comparative Politics 3 credits 

An examination of the basic theories and concepts in contemporary approaches to 
comparative political systems. 

534. Government and Politics of the USSR. 3 credits 

An intensive analysis of the origin and evolution of the Soviet political system. 

535. Government and Politics of Eastern Europe. 3 credits 

An analysis of political developments in the communist regimes of Eastern Europe. 

538. Politics of the Third World Countries. 3 credits 

A topical study of the politics of the emerging nations including nationalism, politi- 
cal integration, political parties, and elites. 

Courses not usually offered within a Three- Year Cycle: 

531. Government and Politics of Great Britain. 3 credits 

An analysis of the factors underlying contemporary British political institutions. 

532. Government and Politics of France. 3 credits 

Primary attention is given to French political institutions from 1870 to the present 
time. 

533. Government and Politics of Germany. 3 credits 

A study of the government systems of Germany in their historical and ideological 
development. 

International Relations 

540. Theory of International Relations. 3 credits 

A study of various theoretical approaches to an understanding of international 
relations including political realism, systems analysis, decision making, and equilib- 
rium analysis. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 95 

541, 542. International Politics. 6 credits 

The first semester of this course will deal with basic issues and problems in interna- 
tional politics such as war, sovereignty, nationalism and diplomacy. 

The emphasis in the second semester will be on international law and organiza- 
tion. Numerous cases in international law will be covered, as well as the history and 
structure of the League of Nations and the United Nations. 

543. American Foreign Policy. 3 credits 
An analysis of factors, past and present, that influence the conduct of American 
foreign policy. 

544. Soviet Foreign Policy. 3 credits 
An analytical study of the development of Soviet foreign relations with special 
emphasis on the post-Stalinist era. 

545. Nationalism 3 credits 
A study of the dynamics of nationalism, with emphasis on the role of nationalism in 
current world political problems. Includes the development of nationalism in 
Europe. 

560. War and Peace in the Nuclear Age 

An analysis of the grave threat to world peace posed by nuclear weapons and the 

arms race. 
651. Seminar in International Politics. 3 credits 

Case studies of major international problems. 
700. Thesis. 0-6 credits 

Methodology and Research 

527. Empirical Methods and Research in Political Science 

and Other Social Sciences. 3 credits 

Introduces the graduate student to the scope and method of research in Political 
Science and other social sciences, including philosophy of social science, empirical 
theory, and methodology of political research. The course presents a study of 
research design, measurement, and data analysis. Students receive instruction in 
computer application to the social sciences. 
661. Pro-Seminar. 3 credits 

Research and thesis preparation. 




96 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

PSYCHOLOGY 



Chairman: Rev. David L. Smith, C.S.Sp., Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professors Barton, C. Fisher, Wm. Fisher, Giorgi; Associate Professors 

Knowles, Maes, Murray, Richer, Smith, von Eckartsberg 

The Psychology Department at Duquesne University aims to develop and 
articulate in a systematic and rigorous way psychology conceived as a human 
science. Far from adopting the position that a human science is impossible, 
the Department believes that the conception of psychology as a human sci- 
ence is a positive attempt to incorporate the insights of the twentieth-century 
thinking into psychology. At Duquesne, the program is focused on developing 
a specific type of human scientific psychology; one that flows from insights 
established by existential phenomenological philosophy. As such it is commit- 
ted to discovering, articulating, developing, and applying these insights in a 
way that a viable science of the human person emerges. 

Prerequisites for Admission: A broad based background which shows expo- 
sure to various styles of thinking is preferred. A background in philosophy 
and at least one foreign language is desirable, but not essential. 

A Master's degree in Psychology is ordinarily required for admission to the 
Ph.D. program. Admission into the M.A. program is open to students with a 
bachelor's degree in fields other than Psychology, provided such students have 
a minimum of 9-12 credits in Psychology. Preferred courses for such students 
are statistics, experimental psychology, learning theory and some area of 
general psychology such as perception, memory, etc. 

Selection of candidates for the programs is based on several criteria. Under- 
graduate grades and three letters of recommendation are required. In addi- 
tion, the student should submit a written essay concerning the reason for 
electing the program at Duquesne University. Students are admitted only in 
the Fall. Applicants should contact the department for any specific require- 
ments. The deadline for completed applications is March 15 for M.A. and 
February 1 for Ph.D. Only fulltime students are accepted. 

The Department draws attention to the following items: 

1 ) Assistantships: Assistantships are available in the Department, and in the 
Center for Training and Research in Phenomenological Psychology. These are 
assigned on the basis of departmental and faculty needs. Many students find 
employment with hospitals, clinics, and agencies in the Pittsburgh area. 

2) The Center for Training and Research in Phenomenological Psychology: 
The Center is an integral part of the Psychology Department. The opportunity 
for supervised training in personal counseling and for research in the field of 
counseling and psychotherapy is available to selected students through this 
facility. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 97 

3) The department strongly advises students to limit themselves to a work 
load commensurate with their course studies. This should not exceed 25 hours 
per week. 

4) The Silverman Phenomenological Center ofDuquesne University located 
in the new library provides a facility for extensive research in world literature 
in phenomenology. 

PROGRAMS 

MASTER OF ARTS 

The Master's program is designed to introduce the student in a thorough 
way to the theory and practice of a phenomenologically based, human scien- 
tific approach to psychology. While theory and practice are equally empha- 
sized, the M.A. degree prepares the student for further training and practical 
work. 

The M.A. program is a one full year block, self-contained, complete course 
of study with limited electives during the summer trimester. The fall and 
spring semesters each consists of two praxis and two theory courses for all 
students. At the M.A. level there is no distinction between the clinical and 
theory/research concentrations. 

PLAN A: Thesis 



CREDIT 

Graduate course work totaling a minimum of 30 credits, 6 of which are 
thesis. Only students contemplating a stay longer than one year should con- 
sider this option. Students in Plan A must take the eight regular courses 
provided in the fall and spring terms. 

LANGUAGE 

Candidates who wish to apply to the Ph.D. program must pass an examina- 
tion in a modern foreign language approved by the department. The M.A. 
language requirement must be fulfilled by the end of the first semester in the 
Ph.D. program. This requirement is waived for the Terminal Master Degree. 

PLAN B: Non-thesis 

CREDIT 
Graduate course work totaling a minimum of 30 credits. . 

LANGUAGE 

Candidates who wish to apply to the Ph.D. program must pass an examina- 
tion in a modern foreign language approved by the department. The M.A. 
language requirement must be fulfilled by the end of the first semester in the 
Ph.D. program. This requirement is waived for the Teminal Master Degree. 



98 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

The Ph.D. program is an advanced course of study specializing for the most 
part in the phenomenological approach to clinical psychology with a concen- 
tration also in theory/research for a small number of selected students. Since 
this is a highly selective and intensive program, only a few students are 
admitted. (Select Ph.D. applicants must have a personal interview with the 
admissions committee.) The program integrates theory, research, and clinical 
practice. 

The doctoral program is recognized by the Pennsylvania Board of Psycholo- 
gist Examiners as a Ph.D. program in Psychology and is listed in the List of 
Designated Doctoral Programs in Psychology developed and published by the 
Council for the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology. 

CREDIT REQUIREMENTS 

A minimum of 48 credits for doctoral studies beyond the M.A. degree 
(exclusive of the 6 credits for dissertation) is required of all students. The 
residence requirement is fulfilled in course. These credits must include the 
following: 

A. For all Ph.D. Students: 

1 . Two research courses. 

2. One credit in Ethics and Standards and one credit in Basic Statistical 
Concepts. 

3. Three credits from the traditional area, "Biological Bases of 
Behavior." 

4. Three credits in Integrational Seminar. 

B. For Clinical Concentration students: 

1. The clinical practica sequence 640, 641, 663, 664. 

2. Three credits in contemporary philosophy. An additional 3 credits are 
permitted. 

3. A one credit mini-course. An additional 3 credits are permitted. In 
place of the 3 optional credits in philosophy or the 3 optional mini- 
courses, a 3 credit course may be taken in the Institute of Formative 
Spirituality. 

C. For Theory/Research Concentration Students: 

1 . Two additional Research courses. 

2. Two courses (6 credits) in contemporary philosophy. 

3. Four mini-courses. 

4. Four Theoretical courses. 

5. Two electives (6 credits). 

EXAMINATIONS 

Comprehensive: The comprehensive examination will take the form of a 
comprehensive integrational seminar, usually taken in the candidate's third 
year. Students must prepare qualifying papers due on dates set by the depart- 
ment in the fall and spring semesters. If the paper is not accepted the student 
will be notified and must re-submit a qualifying paper another time. Only 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 99 

three such attempts are permitted. If, in the judgment of the committee, a 
qualifying paper is deemed slightly deficient, the student may be asked to 
submit a corrected version of the paper by a set date. 

Language: The language requirements in French or German may be satis- 
fied by one of the following procedures approved by the Graduate School: 

(la) By passing a translation and comprehensive test, given by the Modern 
Language Department, on authors or journals suggested by the Psychology 
Department. This test will be given on two predetermined dates each 
semester. 

(lb) By translating a whole article given to the student by the Psychology 
Department and then passing a test in the Modern Language Department 
based on that article. 

(2) By passing qualifying courses 051-052, Language for Research, given 
every semester. Students who feel they have some knowledge of the language 
may take only the second semester Course 052. 

(3) By passing the Princeton test. 

The option of the Princeton test may be taken by the student with the 
permission of the faculty only if the student has failed one of the other 
options. 

Oral Dissertation: The examination is taken at the end of the doctorate 
program and represents primarily a defense of the dissertation. 

Dissertation research is conducted under a research director who is consti- 
tuted as chairman of a three-member faculty committee. The results of the 
research are eventually embodied in a dissertation, which is evaluated by the 
committee and faculty for its psychological import and literary adequacy. See 
Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by the Graduate 
School Office. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

501. Experimental Psychology.* 3 credits 

An introduction to the methods and experiments of traditional psychology. Selected 
areas of experimental psychology are critically reviewed and the theoretical implica- 
tions of the data of the experiments are discussed. Phenomenological contributions 
are also included. 

513. Theory and Practice of Research in Psychology. 3 credits 

A course designed to introduce the student to the approach, method and practice of 
phenomenologically based research in psychology. Practice in description of numer- 
ous phenomena as well as their analyses will be performed. Contrasts with tradi- 
tional approaches to same topics will be evaluated. The theoretical advantages and 
limits of descriptions and qualitative analyses as part of a larger human scientific 
approach in psychology will be emphasized. 

519. Foundations of Personality Theory. 3 credits 

A general introduction to theoretical psychology with special emphasis on personal- 
ity theory. The theories of Freud, Jung, Sullivan, Erikson, etc. are examined in the 
light of such phenomenologists as Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger and Binswanger. 



100 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

520. Psychology of Motivation. 3 credits 

An in-depth survey of natural scientific and phenomenological theories of motiva- 
tion. The theories of Freud, the behaviorists and the cognitive dissonance psycholo- 
gists are contrasted with those of Ricoeur, Sartre and other existential-phenom- 
enologists. 

523. Psychology of Creativity.* 3 credits 

The existential phenomenology of human creativity. The integration — within an 
anthropological psychology — of theoretical and empirical contributions to the 
understanding of creativity; the implications of the psychology of creativity for 
diagnosis, therapy, counseling, guidance, education and mental hygiene. 

525. Psychology of Man and Woman.* 3 credits 

Existential phenomenology of the male and female modes of existence. The integra- 
tion — within an anthropological psychology — of theoretical and empirical contribu- 
tions to the understanding of maleness and femaleness; the implications of the 
psychology of man and woman for integrational research, diagnosis, therapy, coun- 
seling, guidance, education and mental hygiene. 

526. The Phenomenology of Human Development. 3 credits 

An approach to Developmental Psychology that incorporates Existential-Phenome- 
nological thought and traditional theories of development. (Repeatable) 

531. Psychology of Consciousness.* 3 credits 

A description of consciousness, with focus on the fundamental characteristics of this 
phenomenon, and the development of empirical approaches to the study of it. 
Historical development of the understanding of consciousness is emphasized as well 
as a broad spectrum of theoretical perspectives. 

535. History of Psychology.* 3 credits 

A dialectical approach to the history of ideas in psychology which elucidate the 
history of philosophy as the source from which various psychologies emerged. Philo- 
sophical views of man are discussed in their influence on the views of psychology. 

537. Foundations of Psychology as a Human Science. 3 credits 

A critical approach to traditional psychology is presented — history and systems — 
and factors that contribute to the development of psychology as a natural science are 
discussed. The thesis that psychology should be a human science is then presented. 
The latter approach leans heavily on an existential-phenomenological approach and 
thus relevant concepts from that philosophical viewpoint are introduced and criti- 
cally examined. 

540. Psychology of Perception.* 3 credits 

A detailed and in-depth consideration of the physical and psychological factors 
influencing perception from the traditional, transactional and phenomenological 
points of view. 

542. Psychology of Anxiety. 3 credits 

An extensive examination of the meanings of anxiety in human life. The student 
reads characterizations of these meanings that have been offered by personality 
theorists, e.g., Freud, Sullivan, etc., physiological psychologists, behaviorists, e.g., 
Mowrer, Dollard and Miller, etc., experimentalists, e.g., Spielberger, and existential- 
phenomenologists, e.g., Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Fischer, etc. The student is also 
helped to enact qualitative research of the phenomenon. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 101 

543. Existential Approaches to Psychopathology. 3 credits 

A survey of some of the foremost existential-phenomenological thinkers with regard 
to their approaches to and characterizations of psychopathology. Included among 
these would be Boss, Straus, Minkowski, Binswanger, von Gebsattel, and Sartre. A 
comparison of their works would also include a discussion of natural scientific 
approaches to the same subject matter. (Repeatable) 

545. Introduction to Theory and Practice of 

Therapeutic Psychology. 3 credits 

A practical introduction stressing the fundamental dynamics of the process of ther- 
apy and ways of viewing the interaction in the light of existential-phenomenological 
theory. 

546. Major Theories of Personality.* 3 credits 

An in-depth examination of one or more of the most prominent theories of person- 
ality. Included among these would be the orthodox Freudian, the neo-Freudian, e.g., 
Sullivan, Fromm, Horney, etc., the ego-psychological, e.g., Erikson, and the human- 
istic, e.g., Rogers. (Repeatable) 

550. Theory and Practice of Group Psychology. 3 credits 

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the unique impact that the 
group experience has on his personality development, as well as the contribution 
that he as an individual makes towards the formation and development of that 
group of which he is a part. Emphasis will be placed on the dialectical structure of 
the group process. 

551. Social Psychology I. 3 credits 

Traditional theories and research methods in social psychology are reviewed. Person 
perception, social motivation and learning, communication, attitudes and opinions, 
leadership behavior and conformity, small group research and encounter are the 
primary focus. Associated research instruments and strategies will also be dealt with. 

552. Social Psychology II. 3 credits 

This is an extension of Social Psychology I. Primary focus is the problem of social 
interaction and encounter in the light of Gestalt Psychology and Phenomenology. 
The theories of Kurt Lewin, Fritz Heider and Alfred Schutz receive particular 
attention. Specific research methods in the study of social interaction will be 
reviewed and practical research exercises conducted. 

553. 554. Advanced Social Psychology. 3 credits 

These courses will be in-depth extensions of various aspects of Social Psychology. 
(Repeatable) 

559. Medical Aspects of Psychology.* 3 credits 

A course designed to introduce psychologists to behavioral manifestations of basic 
neurological disturbances. 

560. Physiological Psychology.* * 3 credits 

Structure and function of the nervous system and endocrine glands with reference to 
man's behavior. Neural, physiological and biochemical substrates of emotion, learn- 
ing, and abnormal behavior. Physiological effects of work, fatigue, drugs, alcohol, 
brain surgery and other influences on neural processes. An introduction to psychoso- 
matic affectations, psychiatric drugs, and psychotomimetic agents. Basic anatomy 
and function of man's senses. 



102 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

566. Introduction to Psychoanalytic Theory. 3 credits 

An exploration of the original development and construction of psychoanalytic 
theory; its significance for personality. 

571. Theory and Practice of Assessment Psychology. 3 credits 

Theory and practice of assessment psychology. Introduction to individual assess- 
ment, utilizing intelligence tests, Bender-gestalt, TAT, and drawings. Emphasis on 
descriptive reporting. Readings in assessment and professional standards. Includes 
practicum and clinical placement. 

595, 596, 597, 598, 599. Contemporary Psychology. 1-3 credits 

Discussion and critique of selected points of view in contemporary psychology, 
presented by a visiting professor. (Repeatable) 

603, 604, 605, 607, 608, 609. Advanced Systematic Psychology. 3 credits 

This series of courses investigates the areas of perception, thinking, learning, con- 
sciousness, imagination, memory, experienced time. They include a critical review 
of the traditional approach to these areas, and then an existential-phenomenological 
approach is presented to allow for an integrative understanding of these phenomena. 

606. Psychology of Merleau-Ponty. 3 credits 

This course considers the contribution of the French existentialist-phenomenologist, 
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, to the field of psychology. It reviews his criticism of the 
traditional objectivistic approach to psychology and his concern for an experiential 
and structural approach to the study of man. 

612. Advanced Research in Psychology I, II, III, IV 

V, VI, VII, VIII. 3 credits 

An examination and articulation of the applications of phenomenology to psycho- 
logical research with special emphasis on qualitative approaches. Dialogue with 
traditional approaches to the same topic is encouraged. (Repeatable) 

613. Special Research Topics. 3 credits 

Special problems in contemporary psychology are selected for intensive study and 
research. (Repeatable) 

621. Current Psychological Issues. 1-3 credits 

Discussion and critique of selected points of view in contemporary psychology, 
presented by regular faculty. (Repeatable) 

622. Basic Statistical Concepts. 1 credit 

This course is intended as an introduction to the significance and use of fundamen- 
tal statistical concepts. Emphasis is given to such topics as sampling, the normal 
distribution and inferential statistics. 

623. Ethics and Standards in Psychology. 1 credit 

This course reviews established principles of psychologists' ethics and professional 
practice, and their relation to current issues and local, state, and national organiza- 
tional structures. 

638. The Psychology of Emotion. 3 credits 

Either a general survey of different approaches to the study of emotionality, includ- 
ing such theorists as Arnold, Schachter, Lazarus, Freud, etc., or an in-depth study, 
both theoretically and through qualitative research, of a particular affect-emotion, 
e.g., anxiety, guilt, shame, etc. (Repeatable) 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 103 

639. Psychology of Communication.* 3 credits 

An exploration of the phenomena of inter- and intra-human communication in 
terms of their verbal and nonverbal aspects, and the development of empirical 
approaches to studying these phenomena. 

640. Basic Practicum in Psychotherapy I. 3 credits 

This course provides in-class training in psychological counseling with a strong 
emphasis on existential-phenomenological theoretical reflection. This course is a 
prerequisite for 641. Field placements are an integral part of the course. 

641. Basic Practicum in Psychotherapy II. 3 credits 

This course provides further in-class training in psychological counseling with a 
strong emphasis on existential-phenomenological theoretical reflection. Course 640 
is a prerequisite. Field placements are an integral part of the course. 

642. The Process of Personality Integration.* 3 credits 

This course is designed to confront the student with some of the vital issues that lie 
at the center of personality integration, with particular emphasis on the creative role 
of the imagination. 

651. Psychology of Space.* 3 credits 

There will be a review of the existing literature on the importance of spatial concepts 
and the experience of space in psychology. Starting with Gestalt Psychology and 
Phenomenological writers, students will consider the significance of space in human 
interaction, particularly with reference to encounter and psychotherapy. 

659, 660, 661. Existential Theories of Man. 3 credits 

The study of a particular Existential Thinker with special emphasis placed on his 
Philosophical Anthropology, for an understanding of personality. (Repeatable) 

663. Advanced Practicum in Psychotherapy I. 3 credits 

This course involves faculty consulting with clinical trainees concerning their actual 
work with clients. The course will also be thematized around specific authors and 
theoretical themes. Psychology 640, 641 and permission of the instructor are prereq- 
uisites. Field placements are an integral part of the course. (Repeatable) 

664. Advanced Practicum in Psychotherapy II. 3 credits 

This course involves further consultation between clinical faculty and trainees con- 
cerning work with clients. Psychology 640, 641 and permission of the instructor are 
prerequisites. Field placements are an integral part of the course. (Repeatable) 

668. Seminars in Psychoanalytic Theory. 3 credits 

A semester course devoted to an exploration of one of the following analytic think- 
ers: Freud, Adler, Jung, Rank, Sullivan, etc. (Repeatable) 

671. Advanced Assessment. 3 credits 

Alternately offered as a continuation of 571, utilizing the Rorschach (Exner's system) 
and the TAT, or as an individualized opportunity of integrating theory and assess- 
ment praxis. A Research readings and practicum included for both; clinical place- 
ment optional. (Repeatable) 

672, 673. Special Topics in Clinical Practice. 3 credits 

Seminar on a particular clinical method, problem area or field of literature. (Repeat- 
able) 



104 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



691. Reading Course in Psychology. 3 credits 

An intensive reading course in some special area of Psychology directed by one or 
more professors. Permission of chairman required. Permission for an Independent 
Study is given only in exceptional cases and should not be presumed. (Repeatable) 

699. Integrational Seminar. 3 credits 

Implementation of the phenomenological approach to concrete problems of psychol- 
ogy. Required of all Ph.D. candidates. Qualifying paper required. Comprehensive 
review and discussion of all traditional literature dealing with the specific problem 
selected is part of the implementation process. 



700. Thesis— M.A. 

701. Dissertation— Ph.D. 

indicates that this course is scheduled on a non-regular basis. 



1-6 credits 
1-6 credits 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 105 

SOCIOLOGY 



Chairman: Chester A. Jurczak, Ph.D. 

Faculty: Professors Fails, Jurczak, Kupersanin; Associate Professor Yenerall; 

Assistant Professors Fineberg, Mandel 

PROGRAM 

Master of Arts in Sociology and Human Services 

Prerequisites for Admission. Undergraduate sociology, criminal justice, ger- 
ontology or social work majors should have a "B" average (3.00 on a 4.00 
point system) in their major, and 2.50 on a 4.00 point average overall; others 
should have a 3.00 overall quality point average. Otherwise, admission is by 
Graduate Record Examination in Sociology for undergraduate sociology 
majors, and by either Graduate Record Aptitude Test (score of 500 mini- 
mum) or Miller Analogies Test (score of 50 minimum) for other than sociol- 
ogy major. In addition to the regular student catagories as spelled out above, 
provisional or special student may be assigned in rare instances. 

RECOMMENDATION: 

Prospective applicant should secure three letters of recommendation from 
faculty members. Applicants employed in an agency should secure additional 
letters from their supervisors. 

TRANSCRIPTS: 

Student copies of transcripts may be sent with the applications, but they 
must be replaced by official copies before acceptance to graduate studies. 
Those applicants who have not graduated at the time of application must send 
a completed transcript of courses before starting graduate work. 

COURSES: 

A minimum of thirty semester hours of course work. Undergraduate course 
or additional graduate work may be required after review of the prospective 
student applications. 

EXAMINATIONS: 

Student must pass a comprehensive examination covering the course work 
area. 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 
SOCIOLOGY/140-11 

502. Contemporary Theory. 3 credits 

Analysis of contemporary sociological theories. 

503. Research Methods. 3 credits 

Advanced research techniques covering preliminary operations, data collection and 
data analysis. 



106 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

512. Problems and Deviance. 3 credits 

The study of frameworks used to understand contemporary issues and their possible 
alleviations. 

515. Social Adjustment and Role Behavior. 3 credits 

Consideration of the nature of the social adjustment process, with application to 
man in his various social roles. 

517. Child and Adolescent in Society. 3 credits 

Analysis of the organization and disorganization patterns of childhood and adoles- 
cence in contemporary society. 

526. Socialization. 3 credits 

Study of the theory and research related to the socialization process and its attendant 
problems. 

710. Readings. 3 credits 

HUMAN SERVICES/143-11 

502. Human Services and Sociology Research I. 3 credits 

Preparation for study, data collection and data analysis in social science. 

503. Human Services and Sociology Research II. 3 credits 

Conducting of an independent research project; advanced research methodology; 
utilization of research by social science. 

504. Human Services Practice I. 3 credits 

Practitioner-client interaction. 

505. Human Services Practice II. 3 credits 

Practitioner to group-community interaction. 

511. Therapeutic Counseling-Human Services. 3 credits 

Counseling theory and practice in human services. 

518. Human Service Administration and Social Planning. 3 credits 

Discussion of supervision, administration and planning problems in human service 
agencies. 

519. Group Dynamics. 3 credits 

Introduction to key concepts of group process and how leaders can apply these 
concepts to work with a variety of types of groups. 

521. Human Behavior and Social Environment. 3 credits 

Discussion of personality growth and dysfunction. 

522. Social Policy. 3 credits 

Critical review of programs and policies related to human services. 




COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 107 

THEOLOGY DEPARTMENT 



Chairman: John F. O'Grady, S.T.D., S.S.D. 

Faculty: Professors: M. A. Schaub, J. F. O'Grady; Associate Professors: C. J. 
van der Poel, C.S.Sp., F. X. Malinowski, C.S.Sp., J. P. Hanigan, G. S. Worgul, 
C. J. Fenner, C.S.Sp., D. F. Kelly; Assistant Professors: S. A. Ross. 

MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES 

OF THE GRADUATE PROGRAM IN THEOLOGY 

THE MISSION 

The mission of the graduate program in theology is to guide the student to 
an advanced academic study of Christian Theology. 

THE GOALS 

Goal 1 . To assist the student in acquiring a specific as well as synthesized 

knowledge of the principal areas of Roman Catholic Theology, within an 

ecumenical Church. 

Goal 2. To emphasize and contribute to the dialogue between Roman 

Catholic theology and contemporary questions and situations. 

Goal 3. To offer a program that will be personally enriching to the student. 

Goal 4.To enable the student to achieve a professional competency that 

can be of service to others. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

A candidate applying for admission into graduate programs must fufill the 
following requirements: 

1. Possess a B.A. with a major in theology or its equivalent to enter the M.A. 
program. Possess a M.A. degree in theology or religious studies or their 
equivalent to enter the Ph.D. program. 

2. Submit transcripts of all undergraduate and graduate work. 

3. Submit three letters of recommendation, according to the Theology Depart- 
ment's format, from former Professors. 

4. Receive a positive evaluation of all the above requirements by the Admis- 
sion Committee. 

5. All pertinent material should be in the theology office by May 1st for 
admission into the program in the Fall and by November 1st for admission 
in January. 

ADVISEMENT 

1. Upon acceptance into the Program each student will be guided by a 
member of the faculty. The Director of the Master's Program will advise 



108 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

all M.A. candidates, except for those in the M.A. in Pastoral Ministry, 
who will be advised by the Director of Pastoral Ministry. Each Doctoral 
candidate will be advised by the Chair of the department until the stu- 
dent has chosen an advisor for the doctoral dissertation. 

2. Guidelines 

a. The advisor discusses and signs each semester's class registration form. 

b. The student will meet with his/her advisor on a regular basis, at least 
once a semester. 

c. Students should fulfill required courses as soon as possible. 

d. The sequence of courses should be discussed with the advisor. 

GRADING 

The student is expected to maintain a "B" average. More than 2 "C" grades, 
although the student still maintains a "B" average, makes the student liable to 
faculty action including dismissal. 

No student may maintain an "I" grade (viable to be changed) beyond one 
semester without special permission of the Chair and the Dean, after consulta- 
tion with the professor. 

PROGRAMS 

THE MASTER OF ARTS IN THEOLOGY 

The purpose of the Master of Arts in Theology is to acquaint the students 
with broad areas of theology enabling them to both experience and research 
the Christian tradition and provide a professional competence that will be of 
service to others. It also offers a basis for continual theological studies on a 
doctoral level. 

All students are required to take graduate courses totaling 30 credit hours 
which must include the following distribution of courses: 

2 courses in Scripture (One in O.T. and one in N.T. 

3 Doctrinal courses (520; 508 or 570; 531 or 538) 
2 Moral courses (541; 543 or 544 or 546) 

2 elective courses 

All students are required to take written comprehensive examinations. 

Each student must take two electives, one of which must be an Advanced 
Graduate course (600 level). 

The aspirant to the doctoral program is strongly advised to take a language 
examination in French or German or any acceptable research language. 

PROJECTION OF COURSE WORK 

The candidates may complete a program of courses within a minimum of 
three semesters, even though they may choose to extend it beyond this time. 
All work accepted toward the Degrees shall be completed within a period of 
six years. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 109 

Unless a leave of absence from a graduate degree program is granted by the 
Dean upon the recommendation of the Chair, continuous semester registra- 
tion is required of all students matriculating during the regular academic year. 
The continuous registration is charged all degree candidates not registered for 
courses. 

The Department allows six credits outside the Department to be applied to 
the degree. All Duquesne students may cross-register during the academic 
year, at no additional fee, in the three Graduate Schools (Carnegie-Mellon 
University, University of Pittsburgh, and Pittsburgh Theological Seminary). 

DEPARTMENT AREAS 

The Department areas are the following: 

1) Scripture 3) Moral 

2) Doctrine 4) Pastoral Ministry 

WRITTEN COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATIONS 

The Theology Department Comprehensive Examination is designed with 
two major objectives: 1) to integrate course work and 2) to demonstrate his/ 
her overall competency in theology. 

Key Statements drawn from course work and Basic Bibliography are the 
basis for examination questions. Key Statements and Basic Bibliography are 
available from the Department Chair. 

Questions will deal with basic themes, proponents, historical developments, 
and contemporary research. A student in theology from any University would 
be expected to have knowledge concerning such questions. 

MASTER OF ARTS IN PASTORAL MINISTRY 

The purpose of the Master's Program in Pastoral Ministry is to provide 
persons who want to be involved in the ministry of their church with a solid 
knowledge of theology as well as with a contemporary and professional under- 
standing of the ministry in which they intend to work. 

The student can choose to specialize either in Family Life Ministry or in 
Health Care Ministry. Other specialties may be added when their need is 
proven. 

ADMISSION 

In addition to a genuine interest in pastoral ministry the basis for considera- 
tion for admission to the program is a bachelor's degree that includes 24 
credits of preparatory course work, preferably in theology and philosophy. 
Suitable adjustments for various kinds of preparatory work can be made on 
an individual basis. 



1 10 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS 

A. Core Curriculum: Six courses will be taken in the Master program of 
theology at Duquesne University. These courses will include Scripture, 
Moral Theology and Systematic Theology. 

B. Special Requirements: 

1. Family Life Ministry: Two courses: the Theology of Family Life 

and Family Life Education; Two courses in 
social sciences (Sociology and Psychology); 
Six credits (equivalent of 2 courses) in Field- 
Experience; 

2. Health Care Ministry: Two courses: Health Care Ministry and 

Health Care Ethics; Two courses in person- 
ality development and counseling theory; 
Six credits (equivalent of 2 courses) in Field- 
Expereince. 
For enrollment in any course for the Pastoral Ministry Program explicit and 
personal consultation with the director is required. 

PH.D. IN ROMAN CATHOLIC SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY 

The Ph.D. in Roman Catholic Theology specializes in systematic theology, 
encompassing the fields of doctrinal and moral theology. Since Vatican Coun- 
cil II, the Catholic Church has urged the development of a contemporary 
systematic theology which incorporates the best of the theological disciplines 
with the best of the human and physical sciences. The Department of Theol- 
ogy is committed to the development of a Ph.D. program in theology which 
listens to the other voices of human learning, including history, the history of 
religion, philosophy, anthropology, spirituality, sociology and the physical 
sciences. The Ph.D. program offers a perspective and identity which has, as its 
origin and focus, the Roman Catholic faith-tradiiion. 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS 

A. A minimum of thirty-six credit hours (excluding the Dissertation) 
beyond the Master's Degree is required of all students. 

B. The following distribution of courses at the 600 level is required: 

• Two Scripture courses (one in the O.T. and one in the N.T.) over and 
above any requirements in O.T. and N.T. met by a Master's Degree. 

• Three Doctrinal courses. 
•One Moral Course. 

In addition, two courses in other graduate departments of the University 
are required. 

C. Colloquia: Once each semester. Non credit. 

D. Dissertation: The dissertation carries six credits which are added to the 
credit hours. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 1 1 1 

EXAMINATION AND THESIS REQUIREMENTS 

Language Requirements 

Each candidate for the Ph.D. in Theology must demonstrate a reading 
knowledge of Latin and German or French. The language requirement may be 
satisfied in the following ways: 

1 ) By receiving a satisfactory score on the Graduate Foreign Language Test 
offered by Educational Testing Service, Princeton. 

2) By passing a translation administered by the Modern or Classical Lan- 
guage Department. 

3) By taking a "language for research" course (French 051-052; German 
051-052; Latin 551-552) and receiving a satisfactory grade on the final 
examination. 

4) A departmental examination. 

The language requirement must be satisfied before the student is admitted 
to the comprehensive examination. Students are strongly advised to satisfy 
the language examination as early as possible in their graduate study. 

Hebrew and Greek Recognition 

Each student must be able to recognize the Greek and Hebrew alphabets as 
well as the principal theological words in these languages. 

Comprehensive Examinations 

All candidates for the Ph.D. in Theology will be required to take a compre- 
hensive examination, normally not later than one year after the completion of 
all course work. 

Required Areas: 

• General Principles of Moral Theology 

• Sacramental Theology 

• Foundational Theology: Scripture and Tradition in Roman Catholic 
Tradition; 

Church: Offering saving presence of Christ through a hierarchical 
community. 

• Two areas selected by the student and approved by chairman + bibliography. 

Method: 

• Oral examination of approximately 1 l h hours. The board will consist of five 
(5) members of the department. 

The student will be informed of the results after the exam. 

Oral Dissertation Examination — 

This examination is taken after the candidate's dissertation has been 
approved and represents the public defense of the dissertation. It must be 
taken within five years after the completion of the Ph.D. comprehensive 
examination. 



1 12 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

DISSERTATION 

The candidate for the Ph.D. in Theology will select a topic for investigation 
and a research director. The director, in conjunction with the Dissertation 
Topic Committee, will approve the topic for its theological signficance and 
import. The research director will become the candidate's advisor and spon- 
sor for the remainder of the program. The research director is thereby consti- 
tuted as chairperson of a five person Dissertation Defense Committee. In 
some cases one member other than the director may be from outside the 
department or the University. The results of the candidate's research are 
eventually embodied in a dissertation. Upon approval by the research direc- 
tor, the dissertation is submitted to the other members of the Dissertation 
Defense Committee to evaluate theological clarity and literary adequacy. 
Once the entire committee has approved the dissertation, it is defended orally 
in a public presentation. After its public defense, the dissertation (with any 
necessary modifications) is submitted to the Dean of the Graduate School in 
accordance with the regulations set forth in the bulletin of the Graduate 
School. See Thesis and Dissertation Instructions printed and distributed by 
the Graduate School Office. 

Courses of Instruction 

500 Courses: Graduate 

600 Courses: Advanced Graduate 

AREA 1: Scripture 

*509. Introduction to the New Testament. 3 credits 

A survey of Synoptic, Johannine and Pauline theology through concentration on 
selected books of the New Testament. 

*510. Introduction to the Old Testament. 3 credits 

A survey of Pentateuchal, Prophetic and Wisdom theology through concentration on 
selected books and passages of the Old Testament. 

511. Torah. 3 credits 

An historical-critical study of the Pentateuch in the light of the present status of 
literary, historical, theological and archaeological research on the Old Testament and 
its environment. 

512. Synoptic Gospels and Acts of the Apostles. 3 credits 

A study of the Synoptics and Acts in their literary, historical and theological aspects; 
particular focus on major trends in scholarship and on the scholars who have contrib- 
uted to the development of these trends. 

513. Prophetic Literature. 3 credits 

A study of the origin and development of the prophetic movement in Israel and its 
relationship to other prophetic movements in the Ancient Near East; analysis of the 
prophetical books of the Old Testament and of the role of the prophets. 



*Not accepted for Ph.D. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 1 1 3 

514. Pauline Theology. 3 credits 

An analysis of major themes in the Pauline writings, with attention to chronological 
development, especially in the areas of Eschatology, Christology, Justification, Pneu- 
matology and Ecclesiology. 

515. Wisdom Literature. 3 credits 

A study of the Wisdom Books of the Old Testament with emphasis on an examina- 
tion of the position and the limits of Wisdom within the message of the Bible. 

516. Johannine Literature. 3 credits 

A study of the Johannine-writings (Gospel, letters, Apocalypse) in their origins, devel- 
opment and principal theological themes. 

610. Old Testament Theology. 3 credits 

An analysis of the basic issues that determine the character of Old Testament theol- 
ogy and a study of past methodologies and of current trends. 

612. Selected Old Testament Texts. 3 credits 

An exegetical and hermeneutic study of selected passages having major historical and 
theological import, especially as related to Systematic Theology. 

613. Individual Book or Block of Material in the 

Old Testament. 3 credits 

The professor will choose a particular book of the Old Testament and deal with 
exegesis, theological positions and hermeneutical implications. 

615. New Testament Theology 3 credits 

Distinct theological approaches to Jesus, the Church and ethical questions will be 
carefully explored both exegetically and hermeneutically. 

617. Individual Book of the New Testament. 3 credits 

The Professor will choose a particular book of the New Testament and deal with 
exegesis, theological positions and hermeneutical implications. 

618. Selected New Testament Texts. 3 credits 

An exegetical and hermeneutic study of selected passages having major historical and 
theological import, especially as related to Systematic Theology. 

AREA 2: Doctrine 

508. Theological Foundations. 3 credits 

An examination into the bases of theological thought and formulation, viz. Revela- 
tion, the sources of the transmission of Revelation, faith and its response to Revela- 
tion, and the reasonability of these bases. 

520. Christology 3 credits 

A systematic study of Christ, his person and life; and examination of the various 
traditions that have developed about Christ as man and as God, and an assessment of 
the significance of Christ today. 

531. Ecclesiology 3 credits 

A study of the Church in its origin and its subsequent historical-theological develop- 
ments, with particular attention given to post- Vatican II perspectives. 



1 14 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

535. Liturgies 3 credits 

An analysis of the phenomenological and biblical foundations of Christian liturgy, 
emphasizing the Psalms and New Testament hymns; survey of the liturgical develop- 
ment of the Mass and selected sacraments, emphasizing post-Vatican II practices; 
description of the Liturgical Year; introduction to the relation between liturgy and 
Christian symbolism in music, art and architecture; consideration of some common 
words, prayers, postures, gestures and accoutrements in Christian liturgy. 

538. Theology of the Sacraments. 3 credits 

An analysis of the origin and development of the notion of sacramentality and of the 
seven rites which the Catholic tradition recognizes as sacraments; an evaluation of 
the various Christian meanings of "grace" in relation to sacrament. 

539. Theology of Ministry. 3 credits 

An analysis of the concept of ministry; meaning of the term and its historical expres- 
sions; the evolution of "presbyter" and "episcopos"; the issues of ministry outside 
Roman Catholicism; women's ordination; "new" ministries in the church. 

570. Historical Development of Catholic Theology. 3 credits 

A study of the major periods of the theological development in the history of Catholi- 
cism; patristic, early medieval, scholastic, Reformation, counter-Reformation; an 
evaluation of the major theological schools, controversies, Councils; a discussion of 
the nature of the evolution of dogma. 

580. Theological Anthropology. 3 credits 

An analysis of what it means to be authentically human in Judaeo-Christian teaching; 
a discussion of the relationships of the person to self, others, world and the Divine as 
the basis for humanness; a study of the themes involved in these relationships, e.g., 
image of God, freedom, grace, prayer. 

623. The Question of God. 3 credits 

A study of the ways that Christianity has attempted to explain the idea of divinity; the 
problem of the content of Trinitarian theology; an analysis of the special role of the 
Holy Spirit, especially in biblical and patristic sources. 

625. Grace and Eschatology. 3 credits 

An exploration of the theology of grace; the Pelagian controversy; the relationship of 
grace and nature; the meaning of time; the final goal of human history. 

631. Theology of Evangelization 3 credits 

A study of the nature of the Church as a society for all cultures and peoples; the 
necessity, nature and goals of evangelization. 

635-638. Individual Sacraments. 3 credits 

Each year a particular sacrament will be chosen and studied. The Biblical, historical 
and contemporary approaches will form the basis for the detailed study. 

639. The Development of Doctrine. 3 credits 

An historical analysis of the development of doctrine from the biblical period, 
through the patristic and medieval period culminating in contemporary theories of 
development. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 1 1 5 

670. Hermeneutics and Theology. 3 credits 

An analysis of how to study and interpret teachings of the Church Councils in the 
light of the nature of dogma; special consideration of Trent, Vatican I and Vatican II; 
the relationship of language and dogma, hermeneutical principles of interpretation, 
concrete applications. 

672, 673, 674. Patristic Theology. 3 credits 

An analysis of the theological thinking of a Church Father and his impact on later 
theological developments. Selection varies. (Repeatable) 

676. The Thought of Thomas Aquinas 3 credits 

An inquiry into a significant aspect of Thomas' thought which has influenced the 
development of contemporary systematic theology; a critical contemporary examina- 
tion of Aquinas' theology. 

AREA 3: Moral 

541. Foundations of Moral Theology. 3 credits 

A study of the principles of moral conduct based on the New Testament and on the 
teachings of the Church; special treatment of human divine relationship, the place of 
Christ in human life, human freedom, conscience and self-determination, sin, conver- 
sion; analysis of the pluralism of ethical methodologies in Christian moral theology. 

543. Catholic Social Thought. 3 credits 

An examination and evaluation of the teaching on major social issues in the papal 
encyclicals, conciliar documents and episcopal pronouncements from Leo XIII to the 
present day. 

544. Moral Issues in Interpersonal Relationships. 3 credits 

An analysis of the methods and problems involved in moral decision making in 
interpersonal relationships such as sexual relationships, relationships of trust and 
confidentiality, of superior and subject, and of collegiality. 

545. New Code of Canon Law. 3 credits 

A study of the theology of law; a general view of the new code of Canon Law; an 
understanding of legislation as a principle for guidance rather than as a restrictive 
element in the Christian community. 

546. Health Care Ethics. 3 credits 

A study of the theological meaning of human life as a basis for health care ethics. 
Analysis of ethical methods in health care. Application to topics including life and 
death issues, prolongation of life, experimentation, genetics, reproduction, and 
others. 

547. Sin, Conscience and Conversion. 3 credits 

An in-depth study of the theological, psychological and social meanings of the reali- 
ties of sin, sins, conscience and conversion with an analysis of their ethical implica- 
tions. The course examines original sin, personal sin, social sin, conscience in relation 
to feelings, judgment and self-awareness and moral development, and the process of 
conversion in the religious and moral senses. 

640. Method in Moral Theology, Past and Present. 3 credits 

An analysis of the theological bases, the ethical methodologies, and the fundamental 
principles and norms used in Christian ethics through its history, with a special 
emphasis on foundational issues of current interest. 






1 16 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

642. Bio-Ethics. 3 credits 

A study of some specific theological interests in genetic engineering, test-tube baby 
research, cloning, etc. with a view to determining the boundaries of moral/ethical 
judgments in these areas. 

644. Marriage and Sexuality. 3 credits 

A theological and historical study of the institution of marriage as the normative 
place in Christian life for sexual activity; the human and religious meaning of human 
sexuality. 

647. Christianity and Society. 3 credits 

An analysis of the social teachings of the Church in regard to the norms that guide 
political, economic and international life; the relationship of the Church and the 
Christian people to public authority and public responsibility. 

648. Theologies of Liberation. 3 credits 

An analysis of the method of liberation theology and the ethical implications emerg- 
ing from its emphasis on orthopraxis, with a focus on ecclesial responsibility for 
peace and justice. 

Pastoral 

560. Family Life Ministry. 3 credits 

A study of family and family relationships as participation in God's creative pres- 
ence. The role of family relationships in the sanctification of family members. The 
responsibility of Church and community to assist in achieving these goals. 

561. Health Care Ministry. 3 credits 

A study of the historical development and theological meaning of ministry to the sick 
and to health care professionals. The theological and human meaning of suffering. 

562. Family Life Education. 3 credits 

A study of the theological basis of family life education. Theological analysis of 
content design of such existing programs as Christian Family Movement, Marriage 
Encounter, Cana Conferences, etc. The role of faith in contemporary family life 
education. 

575. Introduction to Catechetics. 3 credits 

A survey of the historical background of catechetics; an examination of the nature 
and theory of catechetics and its function in the ministry of the Church; analysis of 
basic principles, themes, elements in contemporary catechetics based on the official 
documents, texts and writing of major religious educators. 

579. Catechetics: Methods and Theories 3 credits 

A study of selected educational theories, methods, approaches as applied to catechet- 
ics today; an investigation of major psychological schools currently affecting Ameri- 
can religious education. 

583. Field-experience Health Care Ministry I. 3 credits 

Section I is conducted during the Spring semester. It consists of: 1) Discussion/ 
seminars on such topics as: Hospital organization, Sacramental ministry, Psychologi- 
cal/spiritual needs and understandings, etc.; 2) Clinical conferences; 3) Group ses- 
sions and verbatims; 4) Patient visitation and -reporting. 



COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 117 

584. Field-experience Health Care Ministry II. 3 credits 

Section II is conducted during the Fall semester. It consists of: 1) Pastoral-Theological 
seminars on Ministering to the terminally ill, to the dying and bereaved, to amputees, 
etc.; 2) Clinical conferences; 3) Group sessions and verbatims; 4) Patient visitation 
and reporting. 

585. Field-experience Family Life Ministry I. 3 credits 

Section I is conducted during the Spring semester. It consists of: 1) Discussion/ 
seminars on topics such as Youth Ministry, Ministry to young married couples, 
Ministry to widowed people, Ministry to divorced people, Education for human 
sexuality, and other topics. 2) Observation of existing programs in these areas of 
study/discussion. 3) Reporting on observed programs in seminar discussion. 

586. Field-experience Family Life Ministry II. 3 credits 

Section II is conducted during the Fall semester. It consists of: 1) Selection of a field- 
project in consultation with the supervisor, and submission of an outline for content 
and method. 2) Conducting the project, including making arrangements for place, 
time, speakers, etc. 3) Reporting on regular intervals to the supervisor. The supervi- 
sor will do some on-the-spot supervision according to need. 4) Submission of a report 
for final evaluation upon completion of the project. 

Complementary Courses 

590. Directed Readings in Theology. 1-3 credits 

An opportunity to work with a faculty member in his field of competency on a 
tutorial basis, in order to explore a theological theme chosen by the student which 
would serve as a vital complement to his program. Maximum permitted is 3 credit 
hours. 

598. Practicum: Theology. 1-3 credits 

A program enabling the student to apply theory and gain practical experience in 
theological research, religious studies or religious education through e.g., directed 
religious education, research with a scholar, field work, publication or presentation of 
a theological paper. 

599. Thesis. 0-6 credits 

680-681. Special Topics in Systematic Theology 3 credits 

The exploration of a significant theme of a major theologian in an area of systematic 
theology. (Repeatable) 

682. Phenomenology of Religion. 3 credits 

A survey of the history, beliefs, practices and influence of major world religions. 
Issues in methodology: phenomenology, myth religion and symbols, structure of 
religious experience, definition of religion and spirituality. 

690, 691. Independent Study. (Repeatable) 3 credits 

701. Dissertation. 0-6 credits 



11 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Anglo Catholic Studies 

The special M.A. program is intended for Anglo Catholics and other traditional Angli- 
cans in the Episcopal Church and other branches of the Anglican Communion, such as 
the Church of England, Anglican Church of Canada, etc. All courses are selected from 
those regularly taught by the University and involve a major in Theology and a minor 
in Philosophy. Tutorials are conducted by priests of the Episcopal Diocese of Pitts- 
burgh, and most of these are held off campus. Anglo Catholic Studies is situtated in an 
ecumenical environment, and yet it emphasizes those qualities which are distinctive to 
traditional Anglican theology and liturgy. 



The Reverend C. D. Keyes, Ph.D. 
Professor of Philosphy 
Duquesne University 
Pittsburgh, PA 15282 



Th.d. 




119 



The Duquesne Corporation 

Edward L. Murray, C.S.Sp Chairman 

Francis M. Philben, C.S.Sp Vice Chairman 

Charles J. Fenner, C.S.Sp Secretary 

Louis F. Dolan, C.S.Sp. John E. Nader, C.S.Sp. 

Joseph A. Duchene, C.S.Sp. David L. Smith, C.S.Sp. 

William R. Headley, C.S.Sp. Joseph L. Varga, C.S.Sp. 



Board of Directors 



Officers 

A. William Capone Chairman of the Board 

Joseph A. Katarincic, Esq Vice Chairman of the Board 

Rev. Charles J. Fenner, C.S.Sp Secretary of the Board 



Term Members 

Robert J. Buckley 

J. Earl Burrell 

Honorable Richard Caliguiri 

Mrs. James L. Coleman, Jr. 

William H. Cosgrove 

Robert A. dePalma 

John F. Donahue 

Rev. Francis R. Duffy, C.S.Sp. 

Thomas F. Faught, Jr. 

Herman Fineberg 

Merle E. Gilliand 

Edward I. Goldberg, Esq. 

Carl G. Grefenstette 

Rev. William R. Headley, C.S.Sp. 

John J. Henry 

Robert E. Irr 

Aaron P. Levinson 

E. D. Loughney 

Joseph A. Massaro 



Raymond J. Mulligan 

Thomas J. Murrin 

Most Rev. John B. McDowell, D.D. 

Rev. Donald S. Nesti, C.S.Sp., S.T.D. 

Honorable Henry X. O'Brien 

James F. O'Day 

Mrs. Patricia P. Olivo 

Anthony J. F. O'Reilly 

John L. Propst 

Honorable Joseph H. Ridge 

Daniel M. Rooney 

Frederic B. Sargent 

Frank J. Schneider 

Mrs. Elizabeth M. Scott 

Richard S. Smith 

W. Bruce Thomas 

William A. Uricchio 

Albert C Van Dusen 

Rev. Francis W. Wright, C.S.Sp. 



120 GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Associate Members 



Eugene P. Beard 
Murry P. Berger 
Francis A. Devlin 
Sidney Dworkin 
Edward F. Eddy 



Claire M. Garrecht 
Charles D. Home 
Daniel R. Lackner 
James L. Snyder 
Richard L. White 



Officers of the University 

Rev. Donald S. Nesti, C.S.Sp., S.T.D President 

Rev. Henry J. McAnulty, C.S.Sp Chancellor 

Carol Ann Smith, Ph.D Acting Vice President for Academic Affairs 

James O. Allison, M.B.A Vice President for Management and Business 

Dennis C. Golden, Ed.D Vice President for Student Life 

Kenneth P. Service, B.A Vice President for University Relations 

Rev. Charles J. Fenner, C.S.Sp., Ph.D Secretary of the University 



Graduate School of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences 



Administration 



Bruce D. Martin, Ph.D 
Ethel Goppman 



Acting Dean 

Administrative Secretary 




FACULTY 



121 



Graduate Faculty (as of March 1, 1984) 



SAMUEL J. ASTORINO 

Professor of History 
B.A., University of Pittsburgh 
M.A., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

FRANK J. BARON 

Professor of Biology 

B.S., University of California 

Ph.D., University of California 

ANTHONY BARTON 

Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University 
M.A., University of Chicago 
Ph.D., University of Chicago 

ROBERT E. BERANEK 

Professor of Political Science 
A.B., St. Vincent College 
M.A., Fordham University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

LAWRENCE H. BLOCK 

Professor of Pharmaceutics 
B.S. (Pharm.), University of Maryland 
M.S., University of Maryland 
Ph.D., University of Maryland 

RALPH C. BOETTCHER 

Associate Professor of English 
B.A., University of Detroit 
M.A., Columbia University 

MITCHELL L. BORKE 

Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
B.S. (Pharm.), University of Illinois 
M.S., University of Illinois 
Ph.D., University of Illinois 

KENNETH R. BOYD 

Associate Professor of Biology 
B.S., Denison University 
M.S., University of Illinois 
Ph.D., University of Illinois 

RONALD G. BUTLER 

Assistant Professor of Biology 
B. A., State University of Oswego 
Ph.D., Syracuse University 



PETER A. CASTRIC 

Professor of Biology 

B.S., Oregon State University 

Ph.D., Montana State University 

FRANCES JAHRLING CHIVERS 

Associate Professor of English 
A.B., Smith College 
A.M., Columbia University 
Ph.D., University of Buffalo 

JERRY CLACK 

Professor of Classics 
B.A., Princeton University 
M.A., University of Pittsburgh 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

JOHN A. CLAIR 

Professor of English 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Western Reserve University 

FRANCESCA F. COLECCHIA 

Professor of Modern Languages 
B.A., Duquesne University 
Litt.M., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

ALBERT B. COSTA 

Professor of History 
B.S., St. Mary's College, California 
M.S., Oregon State University 
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

LOREN K. DAVIDSON 

Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Asbury College 
M.A., University of Kentucky 
Diploma, English Studies, 

Edinburgh University 
Ph.D., Duke University 

DONATO A. DeFELICE 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., University of Pittsburgh 
M.S., University of Pittsburgh 



122 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



HOWARD G. EHRLICH 

Professor of Biology 

B.S., Marquette University 

Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

LESTER EMBREE 

Professor of Philosophy 

B.A., Tulane University 

Ph.D., New School for Social Research 

ELEANOR V. FAILS 

Professor of Sociology 
B.A., Saint Mary's College 
M.A., University of Notre Dame 
Ph.D., Loyola University Chicago 

NORMA FEINBERG 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 
M.S.W., Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

JOSEPH A. FELDMAN 

Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry ■■ 
B.S. (Pharm.), Rhode Island College of 

Pharmacy 
M.S., University of Wisconsin 
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

REV. CHARLES J. FENNER, C.S.Sp. 

Associate Professor of Theology 

B.A., St. Mary's Seminary 

B.D., St. Mary's Seminary 

J.C.B., Gregorian University, Rome 

M.A., Duquesne University 

Ph.D., Catholic University of America 

CONSTANCE T. FISHER 

Professor of Psychology 
B.A., University of Oklahoma 
M.A., University of Kentucky 
Ph.D., University of Kentucky 

WILLIAM F. FISCHER 

Professor of Psychology 
B.A., University of Michigan 
M.A., University of Connecticut 
Ph.D., University of Connecticut 

FREDERICK W. FOCHTMAN 

Associate Professor of Pharmacology 

and Toxicology 
B.S (Pharm.), Duquesne University 
M.S., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 



LAWRENCE E. GAICHAS 

Associate Professor of Classics 

B.A., Xavier University 
M.A., Ohio State University 
Ph.D., Ohio State University 

ALVIN M. GALINSKY 

Professor of Pharmaceutics 

B.S. (Pharm.), University of Illinois 
M.S., University of Illinois 
Ph.D., University of Illinois 

ALEEM GANGJEE 

Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical 
Chemisty 

B.S., M.S. (Chemistry), Indian 

Institute of Technology 
Ph.D., University of Iowa 

OSCAR GAWRON 

Professor of Chemistry, Emerities 

B.S., Brooklyn College 
Ph.D., Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn 

AMEDEO P. GIORGI 

Professor of Psychology 

A.B., St. Joseph's College 
M.A., Fordham University 
Ph.D., Fordham University 

ANDREW J. GLAID, III 

Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Duquesne University 
M.S., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Duke University 

CAROLYN GRATTON 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
and Spirituality 

B.A., University of Toronto 
M.L.S., University of Toronto 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 

JOHN B. GREENSHIELDS 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Carnegie-Mellon University 
M.S., Carnegie-Mellon University 
Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University 



FACULTY 



123 



JAMES P. HANIGAN 

Associate Professor of Theology 
A.B., Fordham University 
M.A., Fordham University 
B.D., Woodstock College 
Ph.D., Duke University 

MARILYN F. HARRIS 

Associate Professor of 

Pharmaceutical Administration 
B.S.P., University of Saskatchewan 
M.S., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

JACK W. HAUSSER 

Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Case Institute of Technology 

Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

SAMUEL J. HAZO 

Professor of English 
B.A., University of Notre Dame 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

BENJAMIN HODES 

Professor of Pharmaceutics 

B.S. (Pharm.), Albany College of 

Pharmacy 
M.S., University of Michigan 
Ph.D., University of Michigan 

ELEANORE W. HOLVECK 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., University of North Carolina 
Ph.D., University of North Carolina 

JEAN E. HUNTER 

Associate Professor of History 
B.S., Ursinus College 
M.A., Yale University 
Ph.D., Yale University 

JEROME E. JANSSEN 

Associate Professor of History 
B.A., St. Norbert College 
M.A., University of Wisconsin 

CHESTER A. JURCZAK 

Professor of Sociology 
B.A., St. Mary's College 
M.A., Fordham University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 



DOUGLAS H. KAY 

Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
B.S. (Pharm.), Massachusetts College 

of Parmacy and Allied Health 

Sciences 
M.S., Ph.D., Massachusetts College of 

Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences 

JOSEPH J. KEENAN 
Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

REV. DAVID F. KELLY 

Associate Professor of Theology 
B. A., College of the Holy Cross 
M.A., S.T.B. Catholic University of 

Louvain 
M. Rel. Ed. Loyola University, Chicago 
Ph.D., University of St. Michael's 

College 

CHARLES D. KEYES 

Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., University of Oklahoma 
M.A., University of Toronto 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 

RICHARD T. KNOWLES 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Fordham University 
M.S., Fordham University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

MICHAEL KUPERSANIN 

Professor of Sociology 
A.B., Kent State University 
M.A., Kent State University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

ALBERT C. LABRIOLA 

Professor of English 
B.Ed., Duquesne University 
M.A.T., Columbia University 
M.A., University of Virginia 
Ph.D., University of Virginia 

ROSALINE H. LEE 

Associate Professor, Mathematics 
B.S., Webster College 
M.S., University of Michigan 
Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University 



124 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



NORMAN C. LI 

Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus 
B.S., Kenyon College 
M.S., University of Michigan 
Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University 

PEI-TSING LIU 

Professor of Biology 

B.S., University of Shanghai 

M.A., Boston University 

Ph.D., Catholic University of America 



FRANCIS X. MALINOWSKI, C.S.Sp. 

Associate Professor of Theology 
B.A., St. Mary's Seminary 
B.S.Th., Fribourg University, 

Switzerland 
Ph.D., Duke University 

WILLIAM MARKUS 

Assistant Professor of Political Science 
A.B., Harvard University 
M.Ed., University of Pittsburgh 



CHARLES A. LOCH 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., Duquesne University 

ELSIE LOVSTED 

Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical 

Chemistry 
B.S. (Pharm.), University of Minnesota 
Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

CARLA E. LUCLNTE 

Associate Professor of Modern 

Languages 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 



BRUCE D. MARTIN 

Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
B.S. (Pharm.), Albany College of 

Pharmacy 
M.S., University of Illinois 
Ph.D., University of Illinois 

PAUL T. MASON 

Professor of History 
B.S., St. Louis University 
M.A., St. Louis University 
Ph.D., St. Louis University 

james a. Mcculloch 

Professor of Classics 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.Litt., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 



JAMES G. LYDON 

Professor of History 
B.A., Harvard University 
M.A., Boston University 
M.A., Columbia University 
Ph.D., Columbia University 

ROBERT E. MADDEN 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
B.S., St. Joseph's College 
M.A., Villanova University 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 

CHARLES MAES 
Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., University of Denver 
M.S.W., Tulane University 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 



ROBERT G. McDERMOT 

Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

KENT F. MOORS 

Associate Professor of Political 

Science 
A.B., St. Anselm's College 
M.A., University of New Hampshire 
Ph.D., Northern Illinois University 

JOSEPH R. MORICE 

Professor of History 

B.A., LaSalle College 

M.A., Fordham University 

M. Litt., University of Pittsburgh 

Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 



FACULTY 



125 



REV. EDWARD L. MURRAY, C.S.Sp. 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., St. Vincent College 
M.A., St. Vincent College 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Duquesne University 

SUSAN MUTO 
Professor of Literature and Spirituality 
B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

STEPHEN T. NEWMYER 

Associate Professor of Classics 

B.A., Duquesne University 

Ph.D., University of North Carolina 

REV. JOHN F. O'GRADY 

Professor of Theology 

B.A., M.Div. Mary Immaculate College 

& Seminary 
S.T.L., College of St. Anselm 
S.T.D., University of St. Thomas 
S.S.L., S.S.D. Pontifical Biblical 

Institute 

JOHN OPIE 

Professor of History 

B.A., DePauw University 

B.D., Union Theological Seminary 

M.A., University of Chicago 

Ph.D., University of Chicago 

NORBERT A. PILEWSKI 

Associate Professor of Pharmacognosy 
B.S. (Pharm.), University of Pittsburgh 
M.S., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., Ohio State University 

RONALD M. POLANSKY 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., Yale University 
M.A., Boston College 
Ph.D., Boston College 

GEORGE F. PROVOST, JR. 

Professor of English 
B.S., Louisiana State University 
M.A., University of Oregon 
Ph.D., Louisiana State University 



J. ROLAND E. RAMIREZ 

Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., University of Notre Dame 
Ph.L., Le Saulchoir, Etiolles, France 
Ph.D., Institut Catholique de Paris 

PAUL A. RICHER 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Bard College 

M.A., New School for Social Research 
Ph.D., New School for Social Research 

GENE A. RILEY 

Professor of Pharmacology 

B.S. (Pharm.), Duquesne University 

Ph.D., Western Reserve University 

HERSHEL SACKS 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., in E.E., University of Pittsburgh 
M.A., Yeshiva University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

JOHN D. SCANLON 

Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., St. Mary's Seminary 
M.A., University of Detroit 
Ph.D., Tulane University 

MARILYN SCHAUB 

Professor of Theology 
B.A., Rosary College 
Ph.D., University of Fribourg 
Diploma of the Ecole 
Biblique, Jerusalem 

KURT C. SCHREIBER 

Professor of Chemistry and 

Acting Dean 
B.S., City College of New York 
A.M., Columbia University 
Ph.D., Columbia University 

REV. ANDRE SCHUWER 

Professor of Philosophy 
Ph.D., University of Louvain 

DAVID W. SEYBERT 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., Bloomsburg State College 
Ph.D., Cornell University 



126 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



SYDNEY P. SHANOR 

Professor of Pharmacology 
R.N., St. John's General Hospital 
B.S., University of Pittsburgh 
M.A., University of Pittsburgh 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

ARIS SIDEROPOULOS 

Associate Professor of Biology 
B.A., Concordia College 
M.S., North Dakota State University 
Ph.D., University of Kansas 

REV. DAVID L. SMITH, C.S.Sp. 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., St. Mary's Seminary 
S.T.L., University of Fribourg 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Montreal 

MARTIN D. SNYDER 

Professor of Classics 

A.B., Loyola College 

M.A., Catholic University of America 

Ph.D., Catholic University of America 

PAUL B. STEIN 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., University of Massachusetts 
Ph.D., University of Oregon 

OMAR STEWARD 

Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., University of Delaware 

Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

MICHAEL W. STRASSER 

Professor of Philosophy 
B.S., St. Louis University 
M.A., University of Toronto 
Ph.D., University of Toronto 

TATA SUBHAS 

Professor of Biology 
B.S., Utkal University, India 
B.V.Sc, University of Madras, India 
M.S., Utah State University 
Ph.D., University of Georgia 

KATHLEEN TAYLOR 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., University of Dayton 
M.S., Michigan State University 
Ph.D., Michigan State University 



STEVEN P. THOMAS 

Associate Professor of Biology 
B.A., Pennsylvania State University 
M.A., Indiana University 

(Bloomington, Ind.) 
Ph.D., Indiana University 

(Bloomington, Ind.) 

SAMUEL J. TINDALL, JR. 

Associate Professor of English 
A.B., Columbia University 
M.A., University of South Carolina 
Ph.D., University of South Carolina 

REV. ADIAN van KAAM, C.S.Sp. 
Director Emeritus, Inst, of 

Formative Spirituality 
M.O., Dutch Study Center, Gulemborg 
Ph.D., Western Reserve University 

STEVEN BELA VARDY 

Professor of History 
B.S., John Carroll University 
M.A., Indiana University 
Ph.D., Indiana University 

ROLF von ECKARTSBERG 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
A.B., Dartmouth College 
M.A., Harvard University 
Ph.D., Harvard University 

JIN TSAI WANG 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., Oregon State University 
M.S., Carnegie-Mellon University 
Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University 

HAROLD WEBB, JR. 

Professor of Political Science 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania 
M.A., University of Pennsylvania 
Ph.D., Brown University 

BERNARD J. WEISS 

Professor of History 
B.A., University of Illinois 
M.A., University of Chicago 
Ph.D., University of Illinois 

CHARLES L. WINEK 

Professor of Toxicology 
B.S. (Pharm.), Duquesne University 
M.S., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., Ohio State University 



FACULTY 



127 



GEORGE S. WORGUL, JR. 

Associate Professor of Theology 
B.A., Niagara University 
M.D., Niagara University 
M.A., Niagara University 
Ph.D., S.T.D., Catholic University 
of Louvain 

WILLIAM S. WURZER 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., Oakland University 
Ph.D., University of Freiburg 



JOSEPH YENERALL 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

B.S., California State College 

M.A., Duquesne University 

Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

FRANK T. ZBOZNY 

Professor of English 

B.A., Duquesne University 
M.A., Duquesne University 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 




128 



Index 



Academic 

Calendar iv 

Policies 17 

Academic Policies 17 

Auditing Courses 23 

Cancellation of Courses 23 

Degree Requirement 19 

Language Requirement 21 

Grading System 17 

Ph.D. Sequence 20 

Quality Point System 18 

Residence 22 

Restriction on Time 21 

Statute of Limitations 21 

Thesis and Dissertation 20 

Transfer Credits 22 

Withdrawal Course 23 

Accreditation and Affiliation 3 

Administration and Faculty . . . 120, 121 

Admissions Information 6 

Application 6 

International Student Admission ... 8 

Types of Admission 7 

Application 6 

Fee 10 

for Financial Aid 15 

Archival, Museum and 

Editing Studies 56 

Army ROTC 16, 26 

Assistantships 14 

Auditing Courses 8, 23 

Auditor's Fee 10 

Bachelor-Master's Program 24 

Basic Health Sciences 28 

Billing Problems 13 

Biological Sciences 37 

Biochemistry 43 

Board of Directors 119 

Calendar, Academic iv 

Cancellation of Courses 23 

Career Studies Program 24 

Career Planning and Placement 4 

Catherine H. Balkey Theology 

Collection 4 

Catholic Lay Teachers Discount .... 16 
Change of Schedule and Fee .... 10, 23 

Chemistry 43 

Classics 49 

Clerical Discount 16 

Communications 33 

Computer Center 4 



Costs. See Fees and Tuition 

Courses 27 

Auditing 23 

Cancellation of 23 

Cross Registration 22 

Curriculums 27 

Archival, Museum and 

Editing Studies 56 

Bachelor-Master's 24 

Basic Health Sciences 28 

Biochemistry 43 

Career Studies 24 

Chemistry 43 

Communications 33 

English 50 

German 70 

History 55 

Institute of Formative Spirtuality. . 61 

On-going Formation 61 

Formative Spirituality 62 

Spiritual Formation 64 

Liberal Studies 25 

Medicinal Chemistry 28 

Pastoral Ministry 109 

Pharmaceutical Sciences 71 

Philosophy 82 

Political Science 92 

Psychology 96 

Sociology 105 

Spanish 70 

Theology 107 

Deferred Payment 13 

Degree Requirements 19 

Degrees and Programs Offered 27 

Discounts 

Clerical 16 

Catholic Lay Teachers 16 

Senior Citizens 17 

Directory Inside Front Cover 

Dissertation, Thesis and 20 

Dropping and Adding Courses 23 

English 50 

Financial Aid 14 

German Courses 70 

Grade Reports, Semester 18 

Grading 17 

Graduation Fees 10 

Health Insurance 5 

Health Services 5 



INDEX 



129 



History 55 

Interdisciplinary Programs 28 

Basic Health Sciences 28 

Communications 33 

Institute of Formative Spirituality. . . 61 

Laboratory Fees 11 

Language Requirements 21 

Library Resource Center 3 

Loans. See Scholarship and Loans .... 

Master of Liberal Studies Program . . 25 

Mathematics 69 

Medicinal Chemistry 28 

Mellon Hall of Science 4 

Modern Languages 70 

National Direct Student Loans 14 

Non-Discriminatory Policy, 
Notice of ii 

Officers, Administrative 120 

Pastoral Ministry 109 

Pharmaceutical Sciences 71 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry 74 

Pharmacology-Toxicology 76 

Pharmaceutics 74 

Ph.D. Sequence 20 

Philosophy 82 

Pittsburgh Community 2 

Placement, Career Planning and 4 

Political Science 92 

Psychological Center for Training 

and Research 6 

Psychology 96 

Quality Point System 18 

Radio and Television. WDUQ 4 

Research Facilities 3 

Records and Reports 
Confidentiality of 

Student Record 18 

Semester Grade Reports 18 

Transcripts 18 

Refunds 12 

Room and Board, 

Withdrawal and 13 

Tuition 12 

Registration 9 

Change of Schedule 23 

Cross 22 

Official 9 

Late 10 

Requirements, Degree 19 

Residence Requirements 22 



Restriction on Time 21 

Room and Board 11 

Costs 11, 12 

Withdrawals and Refunds 13 

Scholarships and Loans 14 

Application Procedure 15 

Assistantships 14 

Guaranteed Student Loans 15 

National Direct Student Loans ... 14 

ROTC 16 

School Year iv 

Senior Citizen's Discount 17 

Silverman Phenomenological Center . . 4 

Sociology 105 

Special Courses 24 

Statute of Limitations, Ph.D. 

Candidates 19 

Student Employment 14 

Student Financing Program 13 

Television, Radio and 4 

Temporary Transfer 8 

Theology 107 

Thesis and Dissertation 20 

Transcripts 18 

Transferred Graduate Credit 22 

Transfer Students, Temporary 8 

Tuition and Fees 10 

Application Fee 10 

Auditor's Fee 10 

Change of Schedule Fee 10 

Graduation Fees 10 

Laboratory Fees 11 

Late Registration Fee 10 

Remission of Tuition 12 

Removal of I Grade 17 

Resident Hall Pre-Payment 11 

Room and Board 11 

Withdrawal and Refund 12 

Scholarships 14 

Tuition 10 

University Fee 10 

Tuition Remission Schedule 12 

Within the Semester 12 

Within the Summer Session .... 12 

University 1 

Accreditation and Affiliation 3 

Administrative Officers 120 

Board of Directors 119 

Buildings 3 

Duquesne Corporation 119 

History 1 

Library Resource Center 3 

WDUQ Radio and Television 4 



130 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES 



Withdrawal 

from a Course 23 

from the University 12 




Duquesne University Campus 




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