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Full text of "Dutchess county"

DUTCHESS 
COUNTY 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



V. Kleek 

Van BomrneToi [ 
Seabury 



From the collection of the 



m 

Prelinger h 
ibrary 



San Francisco, California 





IT)! P U G H K E E P S I E 
IN.Y.F 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



DUTCHESS 
COUNTY 



SPONSORED BY 

THE WOMEN'S CITY AND 

COUNTY CLUB 

OF DUTCHESS COUNTY 

NEW YORK 



PUBLISHED BY THE WILLIAM PENN 

ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA 

MCMXXXVII 



Copyright; I 9 3 7 
by the WlLLIAM PfiNN ASSOCIATION 
OF PHILADELPHIA 
10 



Com pi I ed by 

THE WORKERS of the 

DUTCHESS COUNTY UNIT 

FEDERAL WRITER s' PROJECT 

of the WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 

in the STATE OF NEW YORK 



PREFACE 



ERRATA 

Page 10, 4th line from bottom for (See Tour No. 2, p. 117) read 
(See Tour No. 2A, p. 122). 

Page 15, 12t'h line from top for pp. 25-26 read p. 32. 
Page 16, end of first paragraph for p. 64 read p. 66. 

Page 23, last six lines read: An exception is Vassar College, the 
buildings of which have been designed by capable archi 
tects. As in the case of most of our American colleges, 
Vassar buildings present a history of architectural taste 
during the past three-quarters of a century, though 
some of them taken individually, are decidedly better 
than average. The heterogeneous styles and materials are 
saved from discord by the magnificent trees and lovely 
gardens that adorn the college grounds. 

Page 31, 12th line from bottom for activities read battles. 
Page 36, line 8 for authorizen read authorized. 

Page 43, Points of Interest 22 and 23 reverse order. Oakley House 
should precede Arnold Homestead. In line 6 under Oakley 
House, for north read west. 

Page 44, last line of Point of Interest 27 for Dannammer read 
Danskammer. 

Page 61, under Alumnae House for cryptic read triptych. 

Page 63, line 21 for municipality read municipally. 

Page 98, Line 39 for halmet read hamlet. 

Page 98, line 44 for DANHEIM read DAHEIM. 

Page 99, line 1 ditto. 

Page 105, line 18 for wa sson read was soon. 

Page 141, llth line from bottom, for rae read are. 

Page 142, line 30 for econd read Second. 

Page 142, line 31 for tate read State. 

Page 142, line 32 for Aairs read Affairs. 

Page 147, line 29 for Vilet read Violet. 

Page 152, line 18 delete Square. 

In the Index: for Cory, read Crary. 

for Lake Aerica read Lake Amenia. 



ised upon such a 
that of selection, 
material has re- 
iclude significant 
rations the many 
are now known 
been exercised to 
c original sources, 
ita have been re- 
id for such errors 
elicited. 

: cordial coopera- 
;ment is made to 
f offices, and the 
rches, and other 
Dr the use of his 
icnts, newspapers, 
t; Dr. Emmeline 
it state entomolo- 
lent MacCracken 
members of the 
Dutchess County 
is have rendered 

ng over Dutchess 
purpose. 

THE EDITORS. 



Ill 



by the \ 



TH 
DUTC 



FEDERAL WRITERS PROJECT 
of the WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 

in the STATE OF NEW YORK 



PREFACE 

The compilation of the DUTCH ESS COUNTY GUIDE is based upon such a 
great wealth of material that the most difficult task has been that of selection. 
To meet the requirements of a book of useful size much material has re 
luctantly been omitted. An attempt has been made to include significant 
historical data and to record for present and future generations the many 
facts in connection with places, houses, and people which are now known 
only to older members of the community. Great care has been exercised to 
secure accuracy, and as a result of this effort with the use of original sources, 
and much personal- consultation, some generally accepted data have been re 
jected as unreliable. For failures in judgment in selection, and for such errors 
of fact as may have crept in, the indulgence of the reader is solicited. 

The material could not have been assembled without the cordial coopera 
tion of many citizens of the county. Grateful acknowledgment is made to 
the librarians, to the clerks of the county, town, and city offices, and the 
Highway Department ; to the officials of schools, churches, and other 
organizations. Acknowledgement is due James Reynolds for the use of his 
grandfather's diary; to Isaac Platt for access to old documents, newspapers, 
and maps; to Dr. H. D. House, New York State botanist; Dr. Emmeline 
Moore, chief aquatic biologist; K. F. Chamberlain, assistant state entomolo 
gist ; W. J. Schoonmaker, assistant state zoologist ; to President MacCracken 
and Miss Cornelia M. Raymond, of Vassar College, and members of the 
faculties of Vassar and Bard Colleges. Members of the Dutchess County 
Historical Society, many old families, and local historians have rendered 
valuable assistance. 

If the guide adds pleasure and profit to travelers driving over Dutchess 
County roads, the book will have accomplished its major purpose. 

THE EDITORS. 



Ill 



CONTENTS 

Page 
PREFACE Ill 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS VII 

LIST OF MAPS VII 

DUTCHESS COUNTY: PAST AND PRESENT 1 

POUGHKEEPSIE 24 

VASSAR COLLEGE 54 

BEACON 62 

FISHKILL VILLAGE 79 

TOUR 1 

Poughkeepsie Hyde Park Rhinebeck Red Hook Pine Plains 
Amenia Millbrook Washington Hollow Pleasant Valley 
Poughkeepsie 86 

TOUR 1 A 

Junction US 9 and Old Post Road Staatsburg 103 

TOUR 1 B 

Rhinebeck Barrytown Annandale Tivoli 105 

TOUR 1 C 

Red Hook Dutchess-Columbia County Line 109 

TOUR 1 D 

Pine Plains Washington Hollow ...... 110 

TOUR 2 

Poughkeepsie New Hackensack Hopewell Junction Pawling 

Dover Plains Amenia 112 

TOUR 2 A 

Junction State 55 and 22 Quaker Hill 122 

TOUR 3 

Poughkeepsie Wappingers Falls Beacon Fishkill Brinckerhoff 

Hopewell Junction Billings Poughkeepsie 124 

TOUR 3 A 

Junction US 9 and New Hamburg Road New Hamburg 135 

TOUR 3 B 

Junction State 9 D and Chelsea Road Chelsea 136 

V 



Page 
TOUR 3 C 

Beacon Dutchess-Putnam County Line 137 

TOUR 3 D 

Fishkill Dutchess-Putnam County Line 139 

TOUR 3 E 

Brinckerhoff Wiccopee Dutchess-Putnam County Line 142 

TOUR 3 F 

Junction State 55 and 82 Moores Hills Verbank Clove Valley 144 

TOUR 4 

Poughkeepsie East Park Pleasant Plains Wurtemburg 

Schultzville Clinton Hollow Salt Point Poughkeepsie .... 147 

TOUR 4 A 

East Park Netherwood 152 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 154 

INDEX 162 



VI 



Illustrations 

Page 

Saw Mill of Henry Livingston I 

Dover Furnace 7 

Van Kleeck House, built in 1702 *6 

Old Brewery at the River Front 19 

Dutch House, known as "Old Hundred," New Hackensack 4 

Reformed Dutch Church at New Hackensack 4 

Poughkeepsie Railroad Bridge from the Waterfront 4 1 

Interior woodwork of the Lewis DuBois House, Gray's Riding Academy 41 

Blodgett Hall Arch, Vassar College 56 

Students' Building, Vassar College 57 

Along Wappinger Creek 69 

Reformed Dutch Church at Fishkill 80 

Road to old landing near mouth of Wappinger Creek 81 

Milestone near entrance to Crum Elbow 88 

Entrance Drive to the Roosevelt Estate 88 

Crum Elbow, the Roosevelt Estate 89 

A Family Burial Ground north of Rhinebeck 104 

The Whitefield Oak at Smithfield 104 

Churchyard at St. James' Church, Hyde Park 105 

St. James' Church, Hyde Park 105 

Doorway to the Oblong Meeting House at Quaker Hill 120 

Sycamore Tree, with embedded plaque, used as a whipping post during the 

Revolution, John Kane House, Pawling 121 

Oblong Meeting House, Quaker Hill 121 

Mount Gulian, the Verplanck House, Fishkill-on-the-Hudson 129 

Pasture Lands near Dover Furnace 136 

De La Vergne Hill near Amenia 136 

Old Mill and Falls near Amenia 137 

Storm Adriance Brinckerhoff House, Old Hopewell 143 

Abraham Fort Homestead, near Poughkeepsie 153 

Doorway of the Brett-Teller House, Beacon Tailpiece 

Maps 

Poughkeepsie, 1798 End papers 

Poughkeepsie 24 

Poughkeepsie Foot Tour 35 

Vassar College Campus 54 

Beacon 62 

Fishkill Village 78 

Dutchess County Tours 86 

VII 



DUTCHESS COUNTY 




^o; M/V/ o/ /frwry Livingston, 1792 

Geography and Geology 

Dutchess County lies between the Hudson River and the State of Con 
necticut ; and is bounded on the north by Columbia County and on the south 
by Putnam County. It lies between the parallels of 425' and 4126'30" N. 
latitude. The 74th meridian west of Greenwich passes about one mile west 
of the western boundary. Its area of approximately 800 square miles is 
divided into 20 townships. 

Dutchess County is a region of great interest to the geographer and 
geologist.* The economic importance of the county is partly due to its varied 
surface and types of soil. Except along its extreme southern and eastern edges, 
the section is gently rolling. Altitudes range from sea level in the western 
section along the Hudson River to 2,300 feet in the northeast. A truly pic 
turesque country, it consists of long ridge-like hills and trough-like valleys 
trending generally northeast-southwest. In the western part of the county 
these hills are low with an average elevation of 650 feet. In the central part, 



* No detailed study of Dutchess County rocks has been made till recently. Since 
1935. two groups of geologists, working in this field, have reached different conclu 
sions which have occasioned a controversy. The generalizations here made are still 
true, however, whichever set of detailed conclusions finally prevails. 

1 



however, they attain a somewhat greater height. In addition to the smaller 
valleys between the ridges, there are a number of more conspicuous valleys 
such as the Clove and Harlem valleys, the valley east of Stissing Mountain, 
and that of Wappinger Creek. These are long and broad and have very flat 
bottoms. 

This pleasing, rolling country is known technically as the Middle Hudson 
Valley. The geologist designates it as a portion of what is called the Great 
Valley, the longest valley in eastern United States, extending all the way 
from the State of Alabama to the Province of Quebec, a distance of more than 
1,000 miles, and includes the well-known Tennessee, Shenandoah, and 
Cumberland Valleys to the south. 

Bordering Dutchess County on the south and east is a mountainous mass 
which rises above the rolling country. In elevation it reaches well over 1,OOC 
feet and forms a distinct barrier to southward and eastward travel. On th* 
southern edge of the county this mountainous mass includes Storm King. 
Mount Beacon, and the Fishkill Mountains. On the east it is represented by 
Schaghticoke Mountain and other mountains immediately east of the Con 
necticut boundary. This high barrier is known as the Hudson Highlands. 
As in the case of the Middle Hudson Valley, the Hudson Highlands are a 
portion of a much larger physiographic province, which crosses the Hudson 
River below Beacon and extends many miles to the southwest, terminating 
at Reading, Pennsylvania. 

The marked contrast between the Hudson Highlands and the Middle 
Hudson Valley is accounted for in a study of the bed rocks which underlie 
the region. The Hudson Highlands are composed of the oldest rocks in 
Dutchess County. These consist of granites and altered granitic rocks, which, 
in places, have a noticeable banded character (gneiss). They have been 
formed by the cooling and crystallizing of molten rock which has risen from 
deep in the earth. These granitic rocks have been so greatly metamorphosed 
(altered by heat and pressure), that much of their original character has 
been obliterated. The greater resistance of these rocks to weathering, causes 
them to stand higher than the surrounding country. 

In contrast to the Hudson Highlands, the Middle Hudson Valley is under 
lain entirely by sedimentary rocks (rocks which were deposited by water). 
These rocks are all younger than the granites of the Hudson Highlands, 
above which they were deposited. The most extensive of these are shales and 
slates which have been named the Hudson River formation. They were com 
posed originally of mud which was deposited in horizontal layers on the 
bottom of a great arm of the sea once covering this area. Since their deposi 
tion, however, the mud layers have been buried and folded under great heat 
and pressure which hardened them into shales and slates. The folds in these 
rocks trend northeast-southwest, and impart a northeast-southwest trend to 
the ridges and intervening valleys. 

The broad flat valleys, such as Clove Valley, are underlain by the Wap 
pinger limestone formation, which is younger than the granites of the Hudson 
Highlands, but in part older and more easily eroded than the Hudson River 



formation. This is also a marine deposit, as shown by the marine fossils, or 
the remains of ancient sea life, it contains. In the western part of the county, 
near Poughkeepsie, the Wappinger formation is a true limestone composed of 
small grains of calcium carbonate. It has been used as a building stone, but 
does not break well for the quarryman. East of Poughquag the limestone has 
been highly metamorphosed and recrystallized into a marble. At South Dover 
the marble was formerly quarried extensively for building purposes. 

Dutchess County has had an unusually interesting geological history. 
After the granites of the Hudson Highlands were injected, the whole region 
endured a long period of erosion during which many thousands of feet of rock 
were worn away. Then, as the land sank, the sea crept in and the region was 
covered with sand and mud. As the sea deepened, the limy shells of sea 
animals and chemically precipitated lime accumulated on the bottom to form 
the Wappinger limestone. Later, streams brought in mud to be deposited as 
the Hudson River shale. These rocks were then buried beneath a great thick 
ness of overlying sediments and were intensely folded, crumpled, and meta 
morphosed. Since that time the land has risen, the sea has retreated, and the 
region has been severely dissected by the erosion of streams. 

The relatively recent geological process of most importance in Dutchess 
County has been glaciation. Many thousands of years ago, this region was 
covered with a vast sheet of ice which moved from north to south. Its thick 
ness here was probably 2,000 feet. Such a load of ice exerted a terrific down 
ward pressure on the region which it covered. At Storm King Mountain, the 
bottom of the rock channel of the Hudson River is more than 800 feet below 
sea level, indicating that the Hudson Valley sank after it was formed. At 
the end of the Glacial Period, with the change to warmer climate, the front 
of the ice sheet melted back toward the north ; and as the ice load was 
removed, the land rose. The Hudson River Valley was partly dammed at 
its southern end, and a long, narrow, fresh-water lake was formed. Here 
the fine clays were deposited which are now used in the manufacture of bricks 
at many points along the Hudson River. The poor drainage in Dutchess 
County is the result of the haphazard distribution of sand, gravel, and 
boulders left behind when the ice retreated. 

Flora and Fauna 

The characteristic native trees of the lower parts of the county are hickory, 
oak, sycamore, basswood, soft maple, elm, birch, dogwood, azalea, mountain 
laurel, laburnum, red cedar, pine, hemlock, black walnut, horse chestnut and 
tulip. At higher altitudes in the Taconic and Highlands sections there is an 
other characteristic assemblage of native trees, which includes some of the first 
group together with sugar maple, beech, white cedar, spruce, tamarack, ash, 
cucumber, and others. Some of the older trees are introduced species, from 
other sections of the country, from Europe, or the Orient, such as some varie 
ties of spruce, European larch (see Beacon), Lombardy poplar, old-world 
willow, mulberry, locust, and catalpa. These expatriates of Europe and the 



Orient are generally found on large estates or on lands that have been 
settled for many years. Chestnuts are exceedingly rare, a blight having de 
stroyed most of these fine, large-leaved forest trees. The second-growth 
chestnuts are said to be immune. 

Real forests are scarce in the county outside of the highland regions. 
Woodlots, however, are numerous; and hedgerows and road plantings are 
common. Especially in hedgerows are the smaller trees and shrubs found. 
Unlike many of the New York counties, there is no State forest preserve land 
in Dutchess. Taconic State Park, in the northeast, has been reforested to 
some extent with plantations of Scotch pine, European larch, Norway spruce, 
and white pine, all of which are relatively quick growers with root stock 
suitable for soil erosion prevention. 

Shrubs of all sorts are found, many having been introduced and planted 
on estates and in hedgerows. Some of the larger estates use shrubs as walls 
to hide the mansions from the highways. Rhododendron is somewhat out 
standing because it will not thrive much farther north, because it will grow 
in dark places unsuited to lawns, and because it has pleasing leaves and 
blooms. 

Too numerous to list are all the species of wild flowers. Common meadow 
flowers are daisy, black-eyed Susan, devil's-paintbrush, Queen Anne's lace, 
buttercup, wild strawberry, blue violet, thistle, butter-and-eggs, and golden- 
rod. Cattail, blue flag, broadleaved arrowhead, jack-in-the-pulpit, pond 
lily, and marsh buttercup are characteristic flowering plants of marsh and 
pond. In the woods are dogtooth violet (spring), wintergreen, trillium, 
bitter sweet, arbutus (do not pick), and a host of other colorful plants. Just 
which plants thrive in any one section is determined by soil conditions, 
amount of light, and altitude. 

Like the plants and trees, animals of the county comprise native and in 
troduced species. In a group by themselves are insects and arachnids (spiders). 
Lowly worms, slugs, ticks, bats, rats, frogs, toads, mice, shrews, and protozoa 
usually pass unnoticed. 

The largest animal is the common (Virginia) deer found in the mountain 
areas. It occasionally strays to inhabited sections but scuttles away when 
discovered. Fiercest of the mammals is the wildcat, which keeps out of sight 
in the mountains. Prowling domestic cats destroy many birds, moles, and 
mice. The groundhog (woodchuck) is a common burrower in more remote 
meadows and hillsides. Raccoons and skunks, although relatively numerous, 
are seldom seen, as they commonly run about at night. Skunks, attracted by 
automobile lights, are sometimes spattered about State roads. Gray and red 
squirrels live in forest, estates, woodlot, and city trees, but rarely are seen 
together because they are incompatible. Chipmunks, with black stripes reach 
ing down their brown backs to their thin tails, frequent stone walls but 
shun human company. The nocturnal flying squirrel is also found. Meadows 
and hedgerows are the favorite haunts of burrowing rabbits. Foxes, gray 
and red, are sometimes seen and often trapped in the mountains. Intermit 
tently, opossums come to the county, only to disappear again in what appears 



to be a fixed cycle of about seven to nine years. The little weasels, brown 
in summer and whitish in winter, prey on smaller animals. The otter and 
mink are not uncommon. The muskrat inhabits streams and lakes. 

The outstanding fowl are classified as game birds and song birds; many 
of each are migratory, and several are year-round residents. Most sought 
game birds are duck, goose, pheasant, partridge (ruffed grouse), and quail; 
the duck and goose are migratory, and the pheasant is introduced. 

Among the common birds are robin, sparrow (English sparrow, intro 
duced), house wren, swallow, grackle, starling (introduced), oriole, swift, 
gull, wood thrush, catbird, warblers, yellow throat, redstart, scarlet tanager, 
vireos, finches, rose-breasted grosbeak, cowbird, red-winged blackbird, pewee, 
flycatchers, kingfisher, woodpeckers, flicker, owls, hawks, killdeer, snipe, 
heron, and common tern. 

Only two poisonous snakes are found, the rattlesnake and the copperhead. 
Both keep to the uninhabited hills, are relatively inactive, and are not 
dangerous unless bothered or surprised. Other and more common snakes are 
the garter snake, the spreading adder, the water snake, the little green grass 
snake, and the black snake. 

Dutchess County streams are regularly stocked with game fish, mostly 
trout, by the State or by local game clubs. Hunn's and Whaley Ponds, as 
well as other lakes, are well supplied with pickerel, yellow perch, sunfish, and 
largemouthed bass. Smallmouthed bass and rock bass frequent faster moving 
water, such as Wappinger Creek. In the Hudson, shad and herring (oc 
casionally sturgeon) run each April to fresh-water spawning pools, and 
large catches are made. White perch are netted in the winter. Slack waters 
influenced by tides contain suckers. Carp have been introduced into many 
lakes and ponds. 

Insects of special moment are those which are destructive to shade and 
orchard trees. The worst offenders are the tent caterpillar, the codling moth, 
and the gypsy moth. Japanese beetles and Dutch elm leaf beetles, common 
and very destructive farther south, threaten the county's southern border. 
Reaching New York harbor from foreign lands, they are found in a widening 
circle, the Japanese beetle eating foliage, the Dutch beetle spreading a 
destructive fungus. 

Butterflies and moths of varied hues are common inhabitants of meadows 
and woods. The county has its full share of flies, mosquitoes, bees, hornets, 
and wasps. 

Early Exploration and Indians 

The history of the early exploration of the middle reaches of the Hudson 
River is shrouded in legend and uncertainty. The Florentine pilot, Giovanni 
da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag in 1524, and the Portuguese, 
Estevan Gomez, exploring for Spain in the next year, were possibly among 
the first to enter the mouth of the river. The theory that either of these 
pushed up the Hudson any real distance is untenable. Certainly neither 
ascended the river as far as what is now known as Dutchess County. 

5 



The first authenticated voyage up the Hudson was made by Henry Hudson 
in 1609. This voyage was recorded in the celebrated log of Robert Juet, 
English mate of Henry Hudson's Half Moon. 

On September 29, 1609, on the return voyage down the "great river of 
the mountains," later named Hudson's, the Half Moon dropped anchor off 
the present city of Beacon. The inhabitants of this part of the valley, as the 
Europeans had learned on their trip up the river, were of a friendly dis 
position. Native canoes brought out pumpkins, maize, and tobacco, which 
were readily exchanged for trinkets and "fire water." The next day the 
voyage was resumed, and for another three quarters of a century the Indians 
roamed the woods of Dutchess undisturbed by the whites. 

At the time of its organization in 1683 (November 1), Dutchess County 
was well populated by the Wappinger Indians, a branch of the Lenni Lenape 
(Algonquin) linguistic family. They called themselves Wapani (wapan, 
east), dwellers on the east bank of the river. The name Wappingers, however, 
is believed to have been derived from the Dutch Wapendragers, or "weapon- 
bearers." 

An affidavit of King Ninham, a Wappinger sachem, recorded in Albany 
in 1730, states that a tribe of the River Indians, the "Wappinoes," were 
"the ancient inhabitants of the eastern shore of Hudson's River from the 
city of New York to about the middle of Beekman's Patent." Doubtless this 
refers to Beekman's upper or Rhinebeck Patent, which would place their 
northern boundary almost on a line with the southern boundary of the town 
of Red Hook. 

Like other Indian tribes, the Wappingers were divided into clans and 
villages. Concerning the locations of the various villages so much conflicting 
testimony has been left by the early Dutch historians who were actually on 
the scene that it is difficult now to speak with any certainty. But however 
the precise divisions may have been, it seems clear that the Indian population 
was centered in the extreme southwest of the present county, where the 
mouths of the two largest streams in the region provided good fishing and 
good harbors for canoes. 

The name Megriesken, except Ninham the only recorded name of a 
Wappinger sachem, is preserved in an interesting document dated August 8, 
1683 an Indian deed conveying land to Francis Rombout and Gulian 
Verplanck. Covering land in the southwestern part of the present county, 
this is considered the only perfect transfer title made by the Wappinger 
Indians. This sale was of more than symbolic significance: it was a cession 
not merely of territory, but of those lands which the Indians themselves had 
chosen to occupy. Other sales followed, three of them before 1687. 

The peaceable and friendly intentions which Henry Hudson discovered in 
the Dutchess County Indians appear to have continued throughout the brief 
history of their relations with the whites. An impressive instance is the 
settlement of Amenia by Richard Sackett in 1711 and Uldrick Winegar in 
1724. Until the coming of the Winegars the Sackett family was the only 
one between Poughkeepsie and New Mil ford, and for many years after 



1724 the two families lived in complete isolation. Yet they appear to have 
had no defenses whatever against the Indians, while at the same time in 
Litchfield, across the Connecticut border, five houses were surrounded by 
palisades, and soldiers were stationed to guard the workers in the fields. 

Confronted by an untouched wilderness and a rigorous climate, the few 
bold white settlers had to fight tooth and nail to implant their traditional 
mode of living. It was perhaps inevitable that they should regard the Indians 
merely as one of the many forces to be overcome. The peaceable disposition 
of the latter served only to facilitate their exploitation. Their land was bought 
for small remuneration or acquired by trickery. When a first foothold was 
gained', both Dutch and English, at odds with each other, encouraged dis 
cord among the Indians. The whole story, to the passing of the last full- 
blood Indian in Dutchess, about 1800, is one of continuous disintegration in 
the face of superior force and complex motives. White civilization was in- 




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Dover Furnace 



tolerant and destructive of the ancient Indian modes of life; white man's 
diseases were particularly fatal to him; and he could not long withstand 
these influences. 

Virtually the last stand made by Dutchess Indians was at the remarkable 
Moravian mission of Shekomeko, about 3 miles west of the present village 
of that name, said to have been the first Moravian congregation of Protestant 
Indian converts in America. The Moravians carried on their ministrations 
from 1740 to 1744; in the latter year they were definitely ordered to leave 
the country. (See Tour 1.) 

The compulsory emigration of the Indians of Shekomeko was but an 
instance of the many migrations north, south, and west in which the native 
population of Dutchess melted away during the 18th century. Large numbers 
wandered into Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, and many more into 
Ohio. 

In 1774 the entire Indian population on both sides of the Hudson was 
estimated by Governor Tryon as only 300, and but a small number of these 
remained in Dutchess County. Although the proportion of women to men 
was always higher, a balance was struck by the intermarriage of many 
Indian women with the white settlers. Indian blood flows in many old 
families of eastern Dutchess. 

Territorial Patents 

Between 1685 and 1731, by a series of patents, the British Crown granted 
the territory of the present county to private persons. Although not valid 
as titles unless confirmed by Crown Patents, preliminary Indian deeds were 
required under English law. As noted above, a number of deeds were ob 
tained from the Indians. When Crown Patents were required to cover these 
deeds, a confusion of claims arose which extended over a number of years 
and led to some uncertainty as to the number of patents. However, his 
torians are in general agreement that there were 11 authentic patents. The 
first was granted to Van Cortland and Kip, Dutch merchants, and a Francis 
Rombout, of Flemish origin. Known as the Rombout Patent, it was based 
on the purchase of Rombout and Verplanck from the Indians in 1683, and 
comprised the present towns of Fishkill, East Fishkill, Wappinger, and 
parts of La Grange and Poughkeepsie. The second was the Minisinck grant, 
patented by Robert Sanders and Myndert Harmense in 1686, including part 
of the present town and city of Poughkeepsie. The Schuyler Patent of 1688 
comprised two tracts of land: one already partly covered by the Minisinck 
grant, and the other, along the river, including the greater part of the town 
of Red Hook. (In 1699 Peter Schuyler conveyed to Sanders and Harmense 
all his land rights in the present town of Poughkeepsie). Also in 1688, on 
the same day, the Artsen-Rosa-Elton Patent was granted, including 1,200 
acres in the southwestern part of the town of Rhinebeck. This land was 
in 1702 named Kipsbergen, after Hendrik and Jacobus Kip, whose purchases 
from the Indians in 1686, shortly after the Artsen-Rosa-Elton purchase, were 
included in the royal patent. 

8 



The most desirable land was along the river, the settlers' highway to the 
outside world. The first four patents occupied most of the 45-mile river 
frontage of the present county. The remainder was taken up in four suc 
ceeding patents covering territory the bulk of which lay inland. These were 
the Pawling Patent (1696, Staatsburg) ; Great Nine Partners Patent (1697, 
about half the territory between Crum Elbow Creek and Fallkill Creek, 
the bulk of the domain lying inland); Rhinebeck Patent (1703, Rhinebeck 
and part of Red Hook) ; and Fauconier Patent (1705, Hyde Park). 

Three wholly inland patents covered the rest of Dutchess: the Beekman 
Patent (1703, Union Vale, Beekman, parts of LaGrange, Dover, and 
Pawling); Little Nine Partners Patent (1706, Milan, Pine Plains, parts 
of Stanford and Clinton); and the Oblong or "Equivalent Tract" (1731, 
eastern Dutchess from North East into Westchester). 

The 11 Crown Patents covering 806 square miles of the present county 
were issued to less than 40 men, about half English and half Dutch. These 
freeholders held their rights by annual payment to the Crown of a com 
modity, usually wheat, which they received in turn from their tenants, upon 
whom the clearance and cultivation of the county depended. Virtually a 
feudal system, it was to cause much trouble and unrest in the 18th century, 
and to prove one of the main incitements, in these parts, to the Revolution. 

Territorial Boundaries 

Dutchess County was one of the 12 original divisions of the Colony of 
New York, organized by the first Colonial Assembly on November 1, 1683. 
It was named in honor of the Dutchess of York, wife of the Duke, later 
King James II, to whom New York had been granted by King Charles II. 
Duchess in that day was spelled Dutchess, and this has continued as the 
official spelling of the county name to this day. The original boundaries were 
the Van Cortland property (the Westchester line) on the south, the Hudson 
River on the west, and Roeliff Jansen's Kil (the present Livingston's Creek 
in Columbia County) on the north. From the river the county was to ex 
tend 20 miles east into the woods. Of these boundaries only the river re 
mains unchanged. In 1717 Livingston's Manor was taken from north 
Dutchess, and in 1812 Putman County was organized from south Dutchess. 

The boundary line between New York and Connecticut had long been a 
subject of intercolonial dispute. The Connecticut Charter established the 
"South Sea" as a western boundary and the royal grant of 1664 to the Duke 
of York designated the Connecticut River as its eastern boundary. Crown 
commissioners sent to settle the conflict agreed upon a line north-northwest 
from a certain point on the Long Island Sound, supposing it would run 
parallel to, and 20 miles east of, the Hudson. Actually the line struck the 
river below West Point. As a result, Connecticut agreed in 1731 to cede to 
New York a territory equivalent in area to the 61,440 acres which comprise 
the present townships of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, and Darien. 
The tract ceded by Connecticut to New York extended the whole length of 
Dutchess County along the Connecticut border and has been known since as 



the Oblong. A slight ambiguity in the surveying remained undecided until 
1879, when the present State line was finally established. (See Oblong, 
p. 123) 

Settlement 

Before 1664 the Dutch had made three successful settlements in the 
Hudson Valley (New York, Albany, and Kingston), chiefly for the purpose 
of exploiting the fur trade, and had systematically attempted to colonize the 
remaining territory under the patroon system. The wilderness of Dutchess, 
however, had been left untouched. But it was the Dutch, 20 years after their 
country had surrendered to Britain the territory renamed New York, that 
finally formed the vanguard of Dutchess County settlers. 

By the time the Rombout tract became the legal property of the patentees, 
settlement in Dutchess had already begun. A Nicholas Emigh was living at 
the mouth of Fishkill Creek, and a Peter Lasinck near the mouth of Wap- 
pinger Creek. Both family names, after many alterations in spelling, survive 
today. Almost simultaneously, settlements took place in Poughkeepsie and 
Rhinebeck. In 1687 Governor Dongan reported that none of these deserved 
the name of a village, but his notice of them at least indicates their existence. 

Although the soil of Dutchess was fertile and the river and streams 
abounded in fish, the conditions under which the first settlers lived were 
extremely primitive. The earliest habitations, of which there is little record, 
appear to have been caves dug into the sides of hills, lined with split logs, 
roofed with spars, and covered with layers of sods. Smoke from the cook 
fires found egress through a hole in the roof. Though small, these dugouts 
were doubtless warmer and snugger than the first crude cabins which suc 
ceeded them. 

The trend of village settlement in the first quarter of the 18th century 
was back from the river, as is evidenced by the old village centers of Fish- 
kill, Poughkeepsie, and Rhinebeck. The nature of the land, with its river 
bluffs and adjacent plateaus, was partly the cause, but the opening of the 
King's Highway from New York to Albany also exerted a marked influence. 
Authorized by the Colonial Assembly in 1703, this great artery was to extend 
from the northern end of King's Bridge, which spanned the Harlem (the 
first Manhattan bridge), to the "ferry at Crawlew over against the city of 
Albany." A special dispensation required sparsely settled Dutchess County 
to maintain only a path or highway wide enough for horse and man. But in 
1713 this path was widened to conform to the rest of the highway. 

In 1728, three years before the New York-Connecticut boundary line 
adjustment, the first settlers had arrived in the Oblong. (See Oblong, p. 123.) 
These were Nathan Birdsall and Benjamin Ferris, Quakers from Connecti 
cut, who settled on the long-famous Quaker Hill in the present town of 
Pawling. (See Tour No. 2, p. 117.) Later other settlers came from West- 
chester, Long Island, and Connecticut, and helped form the largest Quaker 
community in the county. 

By 1731 settlements were finally being made in every section. The county 

10 



was ready for the great influx of second, third, and even fourth generation 
pioneers from New England, inured to the climate and conditions of the 
New World and possessing the experience to establish themselves successfully. 
In the lapid growth of Dutchess during the mid-century, the abundant 
water power of the many streams, the fertile soil, and the extensive forests 
all played a part. Grist and sawmills were erected on many streams in the 
more thickly settled parts of the county; and as settlements reached farther 
inland, more mills were built until every hamlet with any potential power 
at all was self-sufficient in the essential staples of flour and lumber. 

County Government 

Legislation for a system of county government was passed by the Colonial 
Assembly in 1691. This was the supervisor system, which, except for its 
temporary suspension in 1701-3, has continued in effect to the present 
without material modification. It is said to have been the model of the 
system now generally prevalent throughout the West. 

In 1701 freeholders in Dutchess County were authorized to vote in Ulster 
County across the river as though residing there. Freeholders, or free prop 
erty-owners, alone held the right of suffrage. In 1720 their number had risen 
to 148, but remained a small minority of the total population. The provisional 
attachment to Ulster County continued until 1713; then Dutchess, with a 
total of 445 souls, including 29 slaves, was allowed its representatives in the 
Colonial Assembly. The first county officials, elected in 1714, appear to 
have divided the county into three wards, the first civil divisions (followed 
later by precincts and towns), which were established in 1719 by the As 
sembly as the South (Westchester line to Wappinger Creek) ; Middle 
(thence north to Esopus Island off the center of Hyde Park) ; and North 
(remainder of the county, north to Roeliff Jansen's Kil). 

In 1717 Poughkeepsie was named the county seat. A courthouse, first au 
thorized in 1715 for erection in the most convenient place in the county, 
was again authorized for erection in Poughkeepsie within three years, and 
appears to have been completed within the time set. (See Poughkeepsie, p. 31.) 

The first completely recorded election of county officers was held at 
Poughkeepsie in 1720. Supervisors of the three wards were chosen, together 
with constables, collectors, assessors, "overseers of the King's Highway," and 
in the North Ward, a "ponner for ofending beasts." 

Land Tenure 

Despite the growth and increasing affluence of Dutchess, there was much 
economic unrest. The source of all property rights was the Crown, to which 
patentees expressed allegiance in the form of annual quit-rents of money or 
produce. These tributes, together, with frequently excessive rents, were 
exacted from the actual cultivators of the land, the tenant-settlers. The man 
of Dutchess, therefore, could clear his land, build his home, and till his crops, 
but never could he become independent. Nor could he vote, for the suffrage 

11 



was extended only to the freeholders, absentee landlords for the most part. It 
was the feudal system in a form modified to meet American conditions. 

Numerous small rebellions against this state of affairs occurred in the 
Hudson Valley, and culminated in the celebrated " Anti-Rent War" of 1766. 
Armed resistance by the tenant-settlers to the collection of taxes broke out 
suddenly in Columbia County and spread rapidly to Dutchess. Here, led by 
William Prendergrast, a farmer, a formidable band of insurgents assembled 
on Quaker Hill in the town of Pawling. The grenadiers in Poughkeepsie 
were ordered to advance against the rioters, but refused until reinforced by 
200 troopers and two field pieces from New York. Successful resistance against 
such a force was evidently impossible, and Prendergrast surrendered. Tried in 
Poughkeepsie and sentenced to be hanged, he received a royal pardon won by 
the extraordinary efforts of his wife at the very moment when a company of 
50 armed farmers arrived at the jail determined to set him free. The temper 
of the populace is obliquely illustrated in an advertisement which appeared 
soon after the sentence of Prendergrast offering a large reward "to any one 
willing to assist as the executioner, and promising disguise against recogni 
tion and protection against insults." Although this brief struggle against the 
landlords ended in failure, its reverberations did much to loosen the soil for 
the readjustments that followed the Revolution. 

Dutchess in the Revolution 

The landlord-tenant situation gives a key to the two distinct attitudes 
taken in Dutchess towards the Revolution. An English writer at the time of 
the war estimated that two-thirds of the wealth of the Province of New 
York was owned by the Tories, or Royalists. Dutchess, with its 964 non- 
signers of the Revolutionary pledge, as against 1,820 signers, was well 
represented in this faction. But the thousands of struggling tenants, who had 
actually cleared and cultivated the now wealthy county, were eager for the 
political and economic freedom which revolution promised. While the Tory 
landlords opposed by every means in their power the soon irresistible move 
ment, the common people of Dutchess swelled the ranks of the militia and 
the Continental Army, fighting not only for the abolition of unjust taxes 
and the right to representation, but for a freeholder's title to the soil. Thus 
actuated, they poured out in large numbers, estimated by Governor Clinton 
at 10,000, to stem the British invasion in 1777. 

The first expression of Dutchess in Revolutionary affairs was the passing 
of mollifying resolutions at a meeting in Poughkeepsie in 1774, in which it 
was declared that "they (the people of Dutchess) ought, and were willing, 
to bear and pay such part and proportion of the national expenses as their 
circumstances would admit of." The following year Poughkeepsie was op 
posed to the sending of delegates to the Provincial Convention and the 
Continental Congress, but was outvoted by the county as a whole. 

At the first session of the Provincial Congress of New York in May, 
1775, county and precinct Committees of Safety were provided for. Circula 
tion of the Articles of Association, or "Pledge," as it was popularly called, 

12 



to obtain signatures, effectually brought into the open the trend of feeling. 
Weapons were confiscated from the non-signers. 

The Provincial authorities had determined upon the formation of four 
New York regiments, one of which was to be provided by Dutchess County. 
This, the 4th Regiment, was completed June 30, 1775. 

The year 1777 was critical in the Revolution and was the year in which 
Dutchess played its most important part. The paramount question was 
control of the Hudson Valley, by which the British could divide the states 
and isolate New England. Fishkill,. in its strategic location at the head of 
the Highlands and on a direct line of communication with New England, 
was the military center of the county. Here troops were quartered, army 
supplies stored, and prisoners interned. The newly formed Convention of 
Representatives of the State of New York met here from August, 1776, to 
February, 1777; and the village was the hospital center for the wounded 
from the battle of White Plains. 

At Fox's Point, PoUghkeepsie (see p. 45), the American frigates Mont 
gomery and Congress were built, as well as fire rafts and other small vessels. 
At Theophilus Anthony's (in Rudco, 2 miles south of Poughkeepsie) were 
forged parts of the famous chain strung across the Hudson at Fort Mont 
gomery to prevent enemy craft from ascending the river. The "Steel Works" 
near Amenia were busy manufacturing steel for the use of the army. Grist 
mills on every stream were grinding day and night to produce flour for 
the troops. 

In the crucial British advance up the Hudson, which commenced October 
4, 1777, little of note occurred in Dutchess County, though much alarm was 
felt and active steps for resistance were taken. On October 8, Governor 
Clinton reported that "the eastern militia were coming in very fast," and 
that General Putnam, who was in command of the forces east of the river 
and had stationed himself at Fishkill, would have "10,000 to head the 
enemy should they push up the river." As Putnam is said to have had at 
this time only 600 regulars, this figure represents almost entirely the 
militiamen recruited from Dutchess. 

On October 12, after breaking the famous river chain at Fort Montgomery 
(whereupon the two Poughkeepsie-built frigates stationed there for addi 
tional defense were fired to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands), a 
few vessels under Sir James Wallace proceeded up the river to Theophilus 
Anthony's (see above), where much of the chain had been forged. Here they 
burned a number of shops and mills. 

On October 15 a formidable force under General Vaughn was sent far 
ther up the river. The fleet anchored that night above Hyde Park. On the 
22d, General Putnam, who had followed from Fishkill as rapidly as pos 
sible, was in Red Hook, where a few buildings had been burned by the 
British before retiring to their vessels at the approach of the Dutchess 
militia. On the 24th, upon being apprised of the surrender of Burgoyne 
at Saratoga, the British fleet turned back towards Peekskill, where the 
British commander-in-chief, Sir Henry Clinton, had made his head 
quarters. This drive, the failure of which was decisive in the war, was the 

13 



nearest approach towards British control of the Hudson. In the remaining 
four years of the war fighting did not again come near Dutchess County. 

Ratification of the Federal Constitution 

Doubtless the most important and most dramatic event in Dutchess Coun 
ty history was the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by 
the State of New York in Poughkeepsie in 1788. The events leading up to 
the climax of the last ballot were many and varied. From June 17 to the 
end of July the village was the temporary home of the "best minds" of one 
of the foremost States of the confederated Nation. Governor George Clinton, 
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Robert R. Livingston, Melancthon Smith, 
Robert Yates, and John Lansing figured prominently in the proceedings. 
Sixty of the 65 elected delegates were in attendance. Governor Clinton, the 
chief opponent of ratification, was unanimously chosen chairman and was 
thus handicapped in debate, in which he was talented and brilliant. Chan 
cellor Livingston of Dutchess and Alexander Hamilton, who had been 
largely instrumental in drafting the Constitution, led the ranks of its sup 
porters. 

The village throbbed to the debates. Tears flowed freely during some of 
the passionate pleadings of the talented Hamilton, who, as was proved by 
the final ballot, did not plead in vain. Nor was the opposition of Governor 
Clinton without benefit, for it resulted in the adoption of the Bill of Rights 
amendments, which in later years proved to be the backbone of the Consti 
tution. 

Aside from the demand for a guarantee of liberty, opposition to ratifica 
tion was based on the importance of the Hudson River and the prosperity 
of shipping in the port of New York. Dutchess delegates subscribed to 
Clinton's opinion that by a tax on this shipping New York would be called 
upon to defray a disproportionate share of the Federal expense, while as an 
independent state it would easily be self-supporting. As debate progressed, the 
Dutchess delegates yielded this contention, but remained firm in their de 
mand that the proposed Constitution be amended to include the New York 
Bill of Rights as a condition of ratification. 

On June 24 word was received that New Hampshire, the ninth state, 
had accepted the Constitution. Virginia was still unaccounted for, and 
without her and New York the success of the Union was doubtful. On the 
afternoon of the second of July, Col. Henry Livingston, riding a foam- 
covered horse, galloped into Poughkeepsie to announce to the assembly that 
Virginia had unconditionally ratified the Constitution. He had ridden from 
New York in 10 hours, record time for those days. The news he carried 
was a blow to Clinton and his followers; to Hamilton, Jay, and Livingston 
it brought fresh hope and strengthened argument. On July 15, Melancthon 
Smith of Dutchess, one of the strongest opponents of ratification, moved 
for acceptance "on condition" that the Constitution be amended to include 
the Bill of Rights. Since the word condition would render ineffective a vote 
of ratification, the proposal was not acceptable to Hamilton and his fol 
lowers. Finally a motion was made to substitute the words "in full con- 

14 



fidence" for "on condition," and to this Smith acquiesced. This proved to be 
the climax of the assembly. On July 26 a final ballot was taken, and the 
Constitution was ratified, "in full confidence," by a majority of 30 to 27. 
Melancthon Smith, Zephaniah Platt, and Gilbert Livingston, three Dutchess 
County delegates, had changed their votes from nay to aye. Without these 
affirmative Dutchess votes New York would have remained, for the time 
being at least, a separate sovereignty, endangering the Union at its very in 
ception. 

Commercial and Industrial Development 

After the Revolution river traffic increased rapidly. Poughkeepsie, mid 
way on the river shore, soon pushed to the front as a commercial center. 
(See Poughkeepsie, pp. 25-26.) Other river villages, Fishkill Landing, New 
Hamburg, Rhinebeck, Red Hook also flourished. In all these places power 
was supplied by the all-important streams. On Landsman's Kil, in Rhine- 
beck, grist and sawmills stood so close together that the water from one 
mill pond occasionally backed up and interfered with the operation of the 
water wheel of the mill above. An ample supply of raw materials encour 
aged these early industries. The hills of the county were covered with virgin 
timber, and the cleared fields produced crops unexcelled in the State for 
quality and abundance. Transportation facilities and the proximity of the 
growing New York market combined to bring Dutchess to a temporary 
leadership among the agricultural counties of the State. 

Next to the river, highways were most important in determining the 
early development of the county. The King's Highway (Albany Post Road), 
the first officially authorized road through the county, exerted a marked 
influence upon the development of village centers, as in the case of Pough 
keepsie, which grew around the intersection of this road with the road from 
the east, rather than on the riverbank. The cattle drovers' route from Ver 
mont and New Hampshire to New York had an important effect on the 
growth of the Harlem Valley villages of Amenia, Dover, and Pawling. 

Stagecoaches began running regularly over the Post Road from New 
York to Albany in 1786. The necessity of changing horses every 10 or 20 
miles led to the establishment of the stage houses. In the hamlets these 
taverns were the centers of community life; travelers enlivened discussions 
with the latest news, and liquor flowed freely. De Chastellux, traveling twice 
through Dutchess, in 1780 and 1782, writes that he found taverns enough, 
but few sufficiently unoccupied to accommodate him. It is believed that by 
1800 there were nine taverns in Rhinebeck alone. 

By 1813 the industrial development of the county was well under way, 
and sloop-freighting had assumed large proportions. Of paramount im 
portance was the commerce in flour. During the first third of the nineteenth 
century Dutchess County ranked first among New York State counties in 
wheat production, supplying one third of all the flour produced in the State. 
Spafford's Gazetteer (1813) lists 14 gristmills in the town of Pough 
keepsie alone. Iron mines were in operation at Amenia, Deep Hollow, 

15 



Sylvan Lake, and Clove Valley. Nails were manufactured in Poughkeepsie 
as early as 1805. The next year saw the first of the Vassar breweries. In 1811 
began the development of the textile industry. In 1814 the first iron works 
were founded in Poughkeepsie, ore being transported by mule teams from 
the mines at Sylvan Lake. (See Tour 3, p. 134.) Fluxing lime came from 
Barnegat, and charcoal from various neighboring pits. The pre-Revolutionary 
shipyard at Poughkeepsie has been mentioned; others sprang up at Wap- 
pingers Landing in 1812 and at Chelsea in 1828. In the former, several 
United States gunboats were built, in the latter several of the early steam 
boats. In 1812 a slate company was formed in the town of North East for 
the production of flagging and slate roofing. Marble quarries thrived in the 
town of Dover. But brickmaking at Fishkill Landing (Beacon), which was 
well supplied with the necessary clay and sand, is the only important early 
manufacturing industry of the county that has continued to the present. (See 
Beacon, p. 64.) 

The Harlem Valley Railroad, the first in the county, was constructed in 
1845; the Hudson River Railroad followed in 1849; both are now included 
in the New York Central system. Later came the Poughkeepsie & Eastern 
and the Dutchess & Columbia (later the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecti 
cut), both now a part of the New York, New Haven & Hartford lines. 

The Civil War put an end to many county enterprises. In contrast to 
their forefathers of the Revolutionary period, in the 1860's the men of 
Dutchess were wholehearted supporters of the Union. Men and money 
were supplied freely. The 150th Infantry, mustered into service October 
11, 1862, was entirely recruited in the county, and many more local men 
joined other units. 

In the period following the Civil War industrial development in Pough 
keepsie and Beacon was intensified. Dutchess turned to the manufacture of 
agricultural implements for the rest of the State, with Adriance-Platt har 
vesters, Moline plows, and DeLaval separators. Other special types of in 
dustries developed. Beacon became a center of hat manufacturing. A cotton 




16 



Van Kleeck House, built in 1702 



bleachery was established at Wappingers Falls. Recently a trend to garment 
manufacture has appeared in Poughkeepsie. A number of small establish 
ment, have located over Main Street stores, and several large concerns are 
scattered throughout the city. 

Agriculture 

Parallel with the rise of industry came a decline in grain production, 
chiefly as a result of improvements in transportation. The completion of the 
Erie Canal in 1825 made competition with the West impossible. The change 
that of necessity took place was, however, accomplished gradually. By 1860, 
although agriculture still led industry, Dutchess had fallen to third among 
New York counties in the cash value of its farms and fifth in cultivated 
area. Not until 1880 at the earliest, however, can it be said that wheat prac 
tically disappeared as a cash crop, and even today an appreciable amount of 
grain is grown for local consumption. 

Meanwhile, as in industry, Dutchess turned to specialized agriculture, 
with the trend determined by available markets and local variations in soil. 
In dairying, which replaced wheat in the position of first importance, the 
Harlem Valley towns quickly assumed leadership. Since earliest times isola 
tion from the river had turned them to cattle raising; and the very rail 
roads which rendered them unable to compete with western beef encouraged 
them in the production of milk and milk products for New York City. By 
1860 Pawling and Dover had become milk centers for the New York 
market, and are said to have been soon afterward the most important milk- 
producing section in the State. 

The river counties especially, with Red Hook as a center, turned to the 
raising of apples. (See Tour No. i.) In the northwestern section of the 
county the cultivation of violets was put on a commercial basis. 

Thus with the diversion of land to these purposes, the last quarter of the 
19th century saw the peak of agricultural expansion in Dutchess in terms 
of land area, accompanied, however, by a rapidly accelerated decline in 
relative value. In 1880 farm land, including wood and swamp sections con 
nected with farms, amounted to 95 percent of the total area of the county. 

In the 20th century, rapid refrigerated transportation exposed the Dutchess 
dairy industry to upstate and western competition, which it found difficult 
to meet because of high overhead costs. As a result dairying has in recent 
years suffered a marked decline, though it still holds a place of importance 
in the county. In 1930 the total area of farm land in the county had de 
creased to 65.5 percent. 

With their decline in agricultural importance, the fine river lands and 
attractive farms were subjected to an active movement of conversion into 
country estates and summer homes. In the case of Hyde Park, long a fash 
ionable New York summer resort, between 1800 and 1900 a quarter of the 
land came into the hands of 13 men and was developed into river estates 
averaging 482 acres each. This trend established itself in other sections of 
the county a generation later. With improved roads and a steady decrease in 
the relative value of farm products, New Yorkers are yearly taking over 

17 



more of the rustic and now easily accessible lands and homesteads. It ap 
pears that the gradual suburbanization of Dutchess is in progress. 

Population 

In 1930 Dutchess County, with a population of 105,462, ranked nine 
teenth among the 62 counties of the State. This figure showed an increase of 
13,715 over 1920. In the former year, 82.5 percent of the population was 
native-born white, 14.5 percent foreign-born white, and 3 percent Negroes. 
Of the foreign born 5,859 reside in Poughkeepsie and 2,138 in Beacon. Of 
the remainder, Milan and Hyde Park have the largest percentage, while 
Fishkill, Pawling, and Amenia have the lowest. Approximately 16 percent of 
the farm population is foreign born, mainly of Italian, Austrian, Polish, and 
Czechoslovakian origin. There are a few Dutch, British, French, and 
Russians, and, more rarely, Scandinavians. Italian groups have concentrated 
in the industrial centers, particularly in the cities of Poughkeepsie and 
Beacon and in the village of Wappingers Falls. The Slavic nationalities are 
found chiefly in Milan, Red Hook, Pleasant Valley, Hyde Park, and Stan 
ford. 

While the population as a whole is increasing, the density of population 
per square mile is decreasing, indicating a trend toward urbanization. In 
1920, the township of Milan had a population density of 28; in 1930 the 
index had fallen to 17: 10 percent of the farms were abandoned during the 
decade. 

Political Organization 

Dutchess County is divided into 20 townships, the first of which were 
formed in 1788 from the original wards (later precincts) into which the 
county had been divided. They are Red Hook, Milan, Pine Plains, North 
East, Rhinebeck, Clinton, Stanford, Amenia, Hyde Park, Pleasant Valley, 
Washington, Poughkeepsie, LaGrange, Union Vale, Dover, Wappinger, 
Beekman, Fishkill, East Fishkill, and Pawling. Fishkill, the smallest, has 
an area of 24.4 square miles; Washington, the largest, 56.5 square miles. 
The eight incorporated villages, scattered throughout the county, are Fish- 
kill, Millbrook, Millerton, Pawling, Red Hook, Rhinebeck, Tivoli-Madalin, 
and Wappingers Falls. Pleasant Valley was an incorporated village until 
1926, when its charter was dissolved and it became a part of the township. 

The townships are governed by the County Board of Supervisors, com 
posed of 32 members, one elected from each township and one from each 
ward of the two cities (Poughkeepsie, eight, and Beacon, four wards). Dutch- 
ess County is represented in the State legislature by two members of the as 
sembly. One senator is elected from the 28th senatorial district, which in 
cludes Dutchess, Putnam, and Columbia Counties. 

Education 

Education in Dutchess County was concentrated in private schools until 
late in the 19th century. Poughkeepsie had at one time more than a dozen, 

18 




Old Brewery at the River Front 

and Beacon was the home of several. With the development of the public 
school system, these schools gradually disappeared. To-day in the two cities 
of the county there are a few business institutes, and parochial schools ar^ 
connected with the larger parishes of the Roman Catholic Church. Out 
side of the cities, however, private schools have continued to flourish, espe 
cially colleges and preparatory and elementary schools, such as Vassar and 
Bard Colleges, Bennett, Fox Hollow, Pawling, Millbrook, Oakwood, and 
Manumit schools. 

The county public school sytsefn is to-day undergoing a movement toward 
centralization, with transportation for students to the new central schools. 
Large, well-constructed buildings with modern equipment and up-to-date 
teaching techniques are supplanting the old one-room "little red school- 
houses." There are, however, many of the latter still in use scattered about 
the county. 

In the rural schools 60 percent of the enrollment is made up of chil 
dren from farms, 40 percent from villages. Although the farm is so heavily 
represented, the Pine Plains High School is the only one in the county which 
offers courses in agriculture and homemaking. Supplementing the training 
offered in the rural school system are 25 4-H Clubs (Heart, Hand, Head, 
and Health) under the sponsorship of the Dutchess County Farm Bureau, 
with a total membership of 615 school children. With the aid of these clubs 
the children study scientific methods of farming and stock raising, canning, 
and many handicrafts. 



19 



Religion 

The early settlers of Dutchess County showed a tendency to sectional 
segregation of religious sects. The Dutch Reformed Church was concen 
trated in the southwest, the Palatine congregations (Lutherans and German 
Calvinists), with a sprinkling of French Huguenots, in the northwest, the 
Society of Friends (Quakers) in the central and southeastern sections. 

The Dutch, who then composed the majority of the population, were the 
first to establish church congregations. These occurred simultaneously in 
the three wards into which the county was then divided. The first church 
building to be erected, however, was the old German Church in Kirchehoek, 
town of Rhinebeck, which edifice had been built in 1716 as a union church for 
Lutherans and Calvinists. Dutch churches followed in Poughkeepsie in 
1723 and in Fishkill in 1731, and the Presbyterian Church in Brinckerhoff 
in 1747. The Methodist and Baptist churches were organized shortly after 
1800. A Roman Catholic missionary visited the county in 1781 and ministered 
to Acadian refugees banished from their homes in Nova Scotia. There was 
no Roman Catholic organization, however, until 1832, when an association 
was formed to raise funds for the erection of a church, Saint Peter's, in 
Poughkeepsie. 

The younger church organizations, formed after the beginning of the 19th 
century, have developed rapidly and have in large part supplanted the older 
denominations in leadership. Union churches, in the sense of one church 
building serving two congregations, have with one or two exceptions ceased 
to exist, although it is commonly the case that suppers, parties, and enter 
tainments for the benefit of one sect are strongly supported by all, and union 
services are regularly held on special days like Thanksgiving, Christmas, 
and Easter. This is done to promote the attendance of larger congrega 
tions than any individual church can draw. The dearth to-day is not of 
church edifices but rather of supporting members. 

The Catholic, Methodist, and Baptist Churches, established in Dutchess 
after 1800, maintain organizations throughout the county. The Dutch Re 
formed, German Lutheran, Episcopal, and to a lesser degree the Presbyterian, 
hold to the sections in which they were first established. The Society of 
Friends has in most part been displaced, and all but seven of their meeting 
houses have either been removed or are utilized for other purposes. Oakwood 
School, a coeducational boarding school, is maintained in part by endow 
ments of the New York Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends. 

The Church of Christ Scientist, first established in Poughkeepsie in 1898, 
now maintains two churches in that city. 

The Jewish congregations maintain synagogues in Poughkeepsie, Beacon, 
and Amenia, and elsewhere hold services in private homes. 



20 



Social Life 

The social life of rural and suburban Dutchess County centers in the 
public schools, the village church, the village grange, and the veteran or 
ganizations, and finds expression in such activities as clambakes, portion 
suppers, food sales, school plays, dancing, sewing bees, and horseshoe 
pitching contests. The 25 grange units in the county hold general meet 
ings twice a month and frequent group meetings. While the primary ob 
ject of the grange is to promote the economic interests of the farmer, 
it is also the center of his social life. 

Sunday afternoon, formerly spent in neighborhood visiting, is now us 
ually devoted to automobile riding or listening to the radio. The younger 
generation depends largely upon movies and roadside taverns for amuse 
ment. The older generation of farmers has not contracted the "movie" 
habit. 

It has been found that in church and grange social gatherings there is 
a noticeable split between the farmers and the villagers, though the new 
centralized school system is gradually uniting the children and eliminat 
ing social distinction between these groups. 

The larger towns, while clinging to many of the pleasures and customs 
of the countryside, have a larger variety of organizations, such as are 
associated with the more complicated town life. Service clubs and commer 
cial, social, and educational societies have arisen in response to the charac 
teristics and needs of the population groups. With the improvement in 
transportation facilities throughout the county, the differences between the 
social life of the towns and that of the country are slowly being obliterated, 
especially in the case of the young, who can only with more and more diffi 
culty be kept on the farm. 

Architecture 

The oldest houses now standing in Dutchess date back to the days of 
the first settlement. They are built of rough stone, of which the settlers 
found an abundance on their lands. The same type of house continued 
to be built for about 100 years, and remains in considerable numbers, 
though often greatly altered and increased in size in later periods. Frame 
houses were built somewhat later than stone, and brick was little used be 
fore 1750. The reason for this choice is obvious. Stone was to be had for 
the labor of picking it up, lumber could be cut on any farmer's land but 
demanded more skill in its use, while brick must be either bought and 
transported, or else made locally, involving time and equipment. However, 
brick was more highly esteemed; as the country became more prosperous 
its use became more general, and by 1800 the practice of building in 
stone had almost ceased. 

The early stone houses were generally one and one-half story high, 
with roofs of moderate pitch. The high-pitched roofs and crow-stepped 
gables of Albany County do not occur in Dutchess. Gambrel roofs are 

21 



rarer here than in other parts of the Hudson Valley, and are found mainly 
on brick or frame houses built after 1750; less often on stone houses. Hip 
roofs are almost unknown, the plain gable being the usual type, with the 
roof carried over the gables, not stopped against them, as is the case in many 
examples in Albany and New York City. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century brick and stone came to be used 
in combination, sometimes with brick in front and stone in the rear, some 
times with brick gable ends topping stone walls. Houses built entirely 
of brick were rare until after the Revolution. Frame houses were occasionally 
built at an early period, but until about 1750 their use was not general. 

Most of the early building was done by the settlers themselves, the 
county then having few artisans. The stone walls are usually about 2 feet 
thick. Lime kilns are known to have existed in Dutchess before the Revolu 
tion, one group having been located near the present Camelot station, at 
what was then called Barnegat (Dutch for firehole) in the town of Pough- 
keepsie. A sawmill existed at Poughkeepsie as early as 1699, and there were no 
doubt others of not much later date. The first frame houses had thick walls 
filled with clay between the timbers, but brick filling was soon generally 
used. They were covered with wide clapboards, with shingles, or with 
shakes, often with rounded ends, as may still be seen in the Teller house 
in Beacon. 

It is a matter of record that a carpenter was hired for the work on the 
Teller house and lodged by the owners until it was completed. For 
the brick houses of the post-Revolutionary period, expert masons were 
evidently employed, for we find many houses of this date built with a degree 
of skill that plainly shows the trained artisan; while others were evidently 
built by the settlers or by country carpenters of ability. 

The first houses were small and simple. Many had but two rooms, usually 
with a hall between. Others had four rooms, two on each side of the 
hall, the front rooms usually larger than those in the rear. There were 
other variations, including a type with no hall, each room having its own 
outer door. L-shaped and T-shaped plans are represented, but these are 
generally the result of later enlargement. Many small old houses have 
been extended by the addition of larger buildings, the original house serving 
as a wing. 

A distinctive feature of Dutchess houses is the Dutch door with its 
horizontal division, which was almost universal in the county from the 
earliest days to the nineteenth century. The style, of course, varies: the earliest 
doors are of the batten type, while the later are paneled, often with con 
siderable elegance. Bull's eyes were often introduced, and later, sidelights 
and overdoor panels with leaded glass. Casement windows were probably 
used in the older houses, though few remain. The first houses had few 
windows, and these were small, for glass was expensive and heating difficult. 

After the Revolution the county became one of the most prosperous in the 
Hudson Valley, and its population increased rapidly. Many handsome frame 
and brick houses were built in the last quarter of the eighteenth century and 

22 



the early part of the nineteenth, and many older houses were improved or en 
larged. Adam mantels characterize this period, usually with composition 
ornaments. In many cases they have been added to older fireplaces and 
paneling. Another type of mantel, found also at this time, has Dutch sun 
bursts and reeding, cut in the wood with gouges and molding planes. Much 
of this work was done by country carpenters in a rather crude imitation 
of the designs from the popular pattern books, but some of the work done 
between 1790 and 1820 is equal to that in the cities. About 1820 the 
Empire influence began to be felt, and about 10 years later the Greek 
Revival became the fashion, though some good Colonial detail of later date 
is still extant. From the Greek Revival period on, Dutchess has followed 
the popular fashions in architecture, few of which have had any special 
merit. 

With the improvement in transportation, many old estates along the 
Hudson have become the summer homes of wealthy New Yorkers. Some 
of these estates preserve old houses, usually much enlarged. Others have 
new houses, palatial in scale and in all manner of current styles. 

In addition to dwellings, each village had one or more churches. Built 
of the same materials as the dwellings of the time, these were of the usual 
Colonial type, simple and dignified, commonly with a square tower or 
belfry at one end. The Lutheran stone church, built by the Palatines 
north of Rhinebeck on the Post Road, was of the same general type. The 
Quaker meetinghouses, of which several still remain, form an exception. 
They differ from the usual church type in being broader than deep, and 
in the extreme simplicity of their lines, unbroken by towers and belfries. 
They have separate entrances for men and women, with separate stairs 
leading to a balcony. The body of the church and the balcony are divided 
by a partition, usually with sliding panels. 

The farmhouses that were used as taverns differed little, if at all, from 
other dwellings. A few barns and mills of the early days remain, but they 
are naturally simple and utilitarian, though with much charm and character. 

Recent years have produced many large buildings in Dutchess County, 
including factories, hotels, State hospitals, churches, and government offices, 
but few of them have such architectural merit as to make them noteworthy. 
An exception is Vassar College, the buildings of which have been designed 
of a century, though some of them, taken individually, are decidedly better 
than average. The heterogeneous styes and materials are saved from discord 
by capable architects. As in the case of most of our American colleges, Vassar 
buildings present a history of architectural taste during the past three-quarters 
by the magnificent trees and lovely gardens that adorn the college grounds. 



23 



POUGHKEEPSIE 



Railroad Stations: New York Central, Hudson River Division, entrances near 
foot of Main St. and at foot of Mill St. New York, New Haven & Hartford (freight 
only), Cottage St., near Smith St. 

Bus Station: New Market St.; all lines for all points. 

Airport: Poughkeepsie Airport, 5 m. SE. of city on State 376; taxi to port, $1.25; time, 
15 min. 

Steamboat Docks: All at foot of Main St. Poughkeepsie-Highland Ferry (R), con 
nections with New York Central R. R. (West Shore) ; Central Hudson Steamboat Co. 
(L) ; Hudson River Dayline, N. of ferry slip. 

Taxis: At R. R. station, 5oc; all others, 25C within city limits. 
City Busses: Fare roc, 3 tokens 25c; to Wappingers Falls, 25C. 

Traffic Regulations: Speed limit, 30 m. p. h. No turns on red light. Full stop at inter 
sections with Stop signs. Parking limit in business section one hour. 

Accommodations: Nelson House (E), $2.00, Market St.; Campbell Hotel (E), $2.50, 
Cannon St.; Windsor Hotel (E), $1.50, Main and Catharine Sts. ; King's Court (E), 
$1.50, Cannon St. 

Information: Chamber of Commerce, 57 Market St.; Nelson House, 28 Market St. 

Street Order: Main St., running E. and W., divides the city into "north side" and 
"south side." Market St. (Albany Post Road) runs S. and Washington St. (Albany 
Post Road) runs N. from Main St., bisecting the city. 

Theatres and Motion Picture Houses: No legitimate theatre; six motion picture 
houses on Main, Market, Cannon, and Liberty Sts. 

Baseball: Butts Memorial Field, Church St. and Quaker Lane ; Twilight League and 
county championship games in Eastman Park. 

Horseshoe Pitching: Free municipal courts in Butts Memorial Field. 
Ice Skating: Eastman Park. 

Golf: College Hill Park municipal course, North Clinton St., nine holes, 4oc $1.00 
greens fee; Dutchess County Golf and Country Club (see Tour 3, p. 125), 18 holes, 
$2.00 greens fee. 

Tennis: Free municipal courts in Butts Memorial Field, College Hill Park, Eastman 
Park, and King Street Park (Corlies Ave. and King St.) ; Poughkeepsie Tennis Club, 
137 S. Hamilton St., admission by invitation. 

Swimming: Open air pool at Wheaton Park, children only, foot of Mill St. Popular 
swimming holes at Greenvale Park, admission sc, 3 m. SE. on State 376, and 
Morello's Pleasure Park, admission ice, 2% m. NE. on Creek Road, continuation of 
Smith St. 

Riding: Rombout Hunt Club, 2% m. SE. on State 376, scene of Vassar Horse Show 
in May, and the Hunter Trials in October, admission by invitation; Greenvale 
Riding Academy, at Rombout Hunt Club, by appointment, $i per hour with instruc 
tions; Vassar Riding Academy, 10 Raymond Ave., by appointment, $i per hour 
with instruction. 

Annual Events: Intercollegiate Regatta, on the Hudson, late in June. Concerts of 
the Dutchess County Musical Association during the winter. Concerts of the Euterpe 
Glee Club (male voices), Orpheus Glee Club (male), Germania Singing Society 
(male and female), and Lyric Glee Club (female), end of winter. 

24 



POUGHKEEPSIE (173 alt., 40,288 pop.), has long been known as the 
"Bridge City of the Hudson" because of the older of the two great bridges 
which span the river at this point. (See Water-front Tour.) It is the county 
seat of Dutchess County and enjoys wide renown as the seat of Vassar 
College and scene of the annual Intercollegiate Regatta. During the Revo 
lutionary period it enjoyed a brief interval of national importance. From 
1777 to 1784, before it was incorporated as a village, it was the capital 
of New York State. The little community was then the modest metropolis 
of the wealthiest and most populous of the 14 counties. The outstanding 
event of the period and of the entire history of Poughkeepsie was the 
ratification by New York State of the Federal Constitution in 1788. 
(See p. 14.) Otherwise the city has been locally prominent as the indus 
trial and shipping center of what was long a rich agricultural area. 

Poughkeepsie is situated on the east bank of tHe tidewater Hudson, mid 
way between New York and Albany. The pattern of the city is like that of 
many Hudson River towns. The long Main Street climbs the steep slope 
from the river, and, lined with offices, shops, and public buildings, extends 
eastward for about 2 miles. At the crest of the hill Main intersects with 
Market Street, which stretches north and south along the plateau. This 
is the center of the business district, passed by the flow of motor traffic 
on the Albany Post Road. The city has spread out in streets roughly paral 
leling these two thoroughfares, the newer sections departing from any 
orderly arrangement. 

Architecturally, downtown Poughkeepsie presents the miscellaneous col 
lection of buildings characteristic of older towns which grew up before 
the days of city planning. Brick and frame structures of varied heights are 
crowded together. An occasional old residence has kept its foothold, the 
lower floor pressed into commercial service. The residential districts in 
turn reflect the tastes and styles of their periods. The finest dwellings of 
the pre-Civil War period have almost all been destroyed or fallen into 
ruin. West of Market Street there are still numerous examples of the 
simple, substantial brick town house of the early nineteenth century. Along 
the water front, where the largest industries superseded the most pretentious 
dwellings of the city, the scene is one of alternate activity and dilapidation. 

The economic life of Poughkeepsie is about evenly divided between in 
dustry and commerce, with no one trade or product predominating. In 
1930, 40 percent of the wage earners were employed in manufacturing, the 
rest in the building and service trades, and in selling. Because of its location 
on the Hudson and at the junction of two great railroad systems, the city 
is growing in importance as a distributing point. The Dutton Lumber 
Company (see p. 40), the largest of four, stores lumber from the West Coast, 
the Scandinavian countries, and the U. S. S. R. for reshipment to New York 
and other eastern points. 

The chief manufacturing concerns are the De Laval Separator Company, 
producers of cream separators and oil clarifiers, and the Schatz Manufac 
turing Company, makers of ball bearings. There is one large cigar com- 

25 



pany, one trousers factory, and two companies producing neckties. Numerous 
smaller shops make men's and women's garments, machine parts, wood 
work, cough drops, ice cream, and loose-leaf notebooks. 

The Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation has general offices on 
Phoenix Place. This corporation, with approximately one thousand em 
ployes, serves a territory of 2,600 miles, including Dutchess and Putnam, 
and portions of Albany, Greene, Ulster, Orange and Columbia Counties. The 
company operates an electric generating plant and gas manufacturing plant 
in Poughkeepsie. 

There are many small clothing manufacturing establishments employing 
women almost exclusively. In 1930, 29 percent of the industrial workers 
in Poughkeepsie were women, almost all of them employed in these shops. 
Effective labor organization in Poughkeepsie is limited to the construction 
trades. 

The Poughkeepsie retail market, in the case of its large department 
stores, extends beyond the Dutchess County borders, east into Connecticut 
and south as far as Peekskill. Merchants complain that the high tolls on 
the Mid-Hudson Bridge prevent the possible extension of that market 
to the west side of the river. Like every city feeding on industry and a 
large agricultural hinterland, the streets and stores of Poughkeepsie are 
busiest on Saturday afternoon, with Main Street east of Market carrying 
the heaviest burden. Though wide as streets go, and though busses have 
been substituted for trolleys, the normal condition of Main Street is one 
of congestion. 

Native-born whites constitute about 82 percent of the total population 
of Poughkeepsie, or 34,429 persons out of 40,288. Of the remaining 18 
percent, 15 percent, or 5,859, are foreign-born whites, and about 1,200, 
or 3 percent, are Negroes. These percentages are identical with those for 
the county as a whole. The Negroes in Poughkeepsie are grouped in two 
sections, William Street in the southwest, and Pershing Avenue, in the 
east central part of the city. 

In the foreign-born group Italians and Slavs predominate. Employed for 
the most part in local factories, they make their homes in the northwestern 
part of the city, which lies north of Main Street and west of Washington 
Street. The Italian section includes the area between Main and Duane 
Streets and joins a region occupied by people of Slavic origin to the west 
of Delafield Street. 

Thirty-nine churches serve Poughkeepsie and its immediate vicinity. Of 
these 23 are Protestant (including 2 Negro churches), 7 Catholic, 4 Hebrew, 
1 Orthodox Greek, and 4 undenominational. The Catholic churches include 
4 with services in a foreign tongue Italian, Polish, German, and Slavic. 
The Greek Orthodox Church is a member of the Archdiocese of North 
America and South America, which in turn is subordinate to the Ecumenical 
Patriarchate of Constantinople. 

The Presbyterian, dating from 1749, was the first organized English 
church group in Poughkeepsie. The First Presbyterian Church, a large gray 

26 



stone structure in Romanesque style, at the corner of Cannon and South 
Hamilton Streets, is an outgrowth of this early organization. 

In conjunction with the Protestant churches there are several young 
peoples' and social organizations, the best known being the Christian En 
deavor, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Young Peoples' Societies, and Ladies Aids. 
The Catholic churches also offer social activities to their members in the 
Holy Name Society, St. Aloysius Sodality, Altar Society, Children bf 
Mary, Rosary Society, Sodality of the Holy Angels, and Sodality of the 
Infant Jesus. The Jewish social life is centered in the Hebrew Fraternal and 
Benevolent Society, the Men's Club of Vassar Temple, and the Jewish 
Center. 

The chief social service activities in Poughkeepsie are carried on in 
Lincoln Center. (See p. 46.) The part that Vassar College plays in that 
work illustrates its wider significance in the community life, especially 
in the fields of intellectual and cultural interests. 

The Poughkeepsie public school system is housed in 14 buildings. There 
are nine grammar schools, one high school, and two buildings devoted to 
high school freshmen, as well as a trade school, a continuation school, and 
an evening school. Incorporated in the system are medical and dental clinics. 
The curriculum in the grade schools includes physical education, art, music, 
homemaking, and manual arts, as well as the traditional three R's. The 
high school offers college preparatory, academic, commercial, and home- 
making courses, and training in art, music, dramatics, and debating. The 
Poughkeepsie High School debating teams were champions of the 1932 
State National Forensic League tournament, held in Albany; and in the 
national competition the same year at Sioux City, Iowa, the school was one 
of the 44 competing for the national championship. 

The journalistic history of Poughkeepsie began with the career of John 
Holt, who published the New York Journal and General Advertiser in 
New York City until driven out by the British in 1776. He subsequently 
fled to Kingston, and thence to Poughkeepsie, always a step ahead of the 
advancing enemy, and always publishing his paper. Although printed in 
Poughkeepsie, it was not a local publication, but carried foreign news and 
items from all parts of the country. 

The first distinctly local newspaper in Poughkeepsie was the Pough 
keepsie Journal, published by Nicholas Powers. The present Poughkeepsie 
Eagle-News is a fusion of numerous newspapers going back to two principal 
ancestors, the Poughkeepsie Journal (1785) and the Dutchess Intelligencer 
(1828). Through the years the names, owners, and policies of the papers 
frequently changed. The Dutchess Intelligencer became the Poughkeepsie 
Eagle in 1834 and was united with the Poughkeepsie Journal and Eagle 
in 1844. In 1850, the name was changed to the Poughkeepsie Eagle, which 
became a weekly, and in 1860 to the Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle, a daily. 
In 1892 it was given the present name. 

This paper has been closely associated with the development of the city, 
often having led in the advocacy of public improvements. Since the Daily 

27 



Eagle made its appearance on December 4, 1860, the name of Platt has 
been closely associated with it. The Poughkeepsie Railroad Bridge was 
first publicly proposed in an editorial written by John I. Platt in the issue 
of January 22, 1868. In 1889 Platt & Platt published the folio size Souvenir 
Edition of the Poughkeepsie Eagle, with its many illustrations, photo 
graphs, and historical data depicting the growth of Poughkeepsie. Its accu 
racy and completeness of detail still make it a valuable work of reference. 

The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News is now published by Platt and Platt, In 
corporated, and the Poughkeepsie Evening Star and Enterprise by the Pough 
keepsie Publishing Corporation. 

The Sunday Courier was first published by Thomas G. Nichols in 1872, 
and has continued an unbroken existence to this day. Upon Mr. Nichols's 
death in 1890, Arthur G. Tobey assumed control until his death in 1911, 
when his son, Earle D. Tobey, became the editor. Mr. Earle D. Tobey 
supervised for a quarter of a century, a newspaper dedicated to the best in 
terests of city and county. The Courier is now managed by his widow, 
Florence D. Tobey. It claims the distinction of being the only Sunday 
publication between New York City and Albany. 

Intercollegiate Regatta 

The famous Intercollegiate Regatta has familiarized the nation with the 
name of Poughkeepsie. For two days the city is host to thousands of visitors 
from all parts of the country. From many years of exeperience, the plans of 
entertainment and accommodations have been perfected, and these days have 
a definite place on the municipal calendar. The outstanding competitors that 
have appeared in recent years include California, Columbia, Cornell, M. I. 
T., Navy, Pennsylvania, Syracuse, Washington and Wisconsin. The recent 
victories of the Washington crew have attracted a large group from the 
Pacific Coast. 

The three races Freshman, Junior Varsity, and Varsity are scheduled 
at one-hour intervals late in the afternoon of a mid-June day, the exact time 
determined by the tide. The setting is one of the most beautiful that can be 
imagined, and the scene a pageant of rhythm and color. The race course 
includes an imposing section of the river valley the two bridges spanning 
the stream between the rocky bluffs with patches of woods on the west, 
and the broken slope of the city waterfront on the east. On the west shore 
observation cars, crowded to capacity, follow the races from start to finish. 
Great crowds stand on the bluffs and bridges. All available motor space is 
packed with cars. Yachts, launches and row boats are anchored in the river, 
leaving only space for the race course. Boats fly flags and the gay college 
banners. At the signal, a bomb fired on the railroad bridge, a slow procession 
starts down the river. Appearing as tiny specks in the distance the long, 
slender shells slip smoothly down the channel under the two bridges toward 
the finish, accompanied by the cheers of the spectators and the blowing of 
sirens and whistles from the boats. 

28 



Three times the spectacle is repeated, consuming in all about three hours. 
After the last race, bets are paid, the river traffic scatters, and the crowds 
on the shore begin a tediously slow but good-humored exodus: the crowd 
on foot mills around, cars move at a snail's pace ; vendors of pennants and 
souvenirs offer their wares at sacrifice prices. In a few hours the river scene 
is quiet ; by morning the city has resumed its normal routine. 

The date given for the first modern intercollegiate regatta at Pough- 
keepsie is 1895. But the local history of this and allied sports goes back far 
beyond that year. 

Crew and single sculling races have taken place here for a century. 
Another sport still more closely identified with Poughkeepsie was the ice 
yachting which flourished from 1807 to 1908, the modern form of which 
is said to have originated here. 

In 1807 the ice yacht was first introduced as a racing craft by Zadock 
Southwick and was subsequently made known to the world through the 
activities of the Poughkeepsie Ice Yacht Club. In 1858 the skate boat was 
developed, and experiments were made with various kinds of steel runners and 
different cuts of sails. The type ultimately accepted was designed by Jacob 
Buckhout, who has been called the "creator of the modern ice boat." 
(See Chelsea.) 

The Poughkeepsie Ice Yacht Club, representing the first formal organi 
zation of the sport, was founded by prominent Poughkeepsians in 1861. Its 
headquarters were in the Vassar Brewery until the brewery closed. Then 
it merged with the Hudson River Ice Yacht Club at Hyde Park, where 
all ice-boating activities have centered since establishment of the all-winter 
Poughkeepsie ferry in 1908. 

Most famous of the old craft were the Icicle and the Haze of John A. 
Roosevelt and Aaron Innis, the former of which won the American ice 
boat pennant in 1903. 

In the last 20 years, the growth of Albany as a port and the consequent 
employment of ice breakers between Albany and the sea throughout the 
winter, have virtually put an end to ice boating on this part of the Hudson. 
Only exciting memories of the sport remain. 

The first recorded rowing regatta held on the Hudson at Poughkeepsie was 
rowed August 11, 1839, by the "Washington" crew of Poughkeepsie and 
the "Robert S. Bache" crew of Brooklyn over a 2-mile course, the Pough 
keepsie crew winning. Subsequent early races were for a time rowed at New- 
burgh, but interest in the sport began definitely to center in Poughkeepsie 
after the staging here in September 1860, of a 2-day regatta in which 
Poughkeepsie crews won all events in both four- and six-oared races. In 
November of the same year occurred the celebrated race between Joshua 
Ward of Poughkeepsie, American single scull champion, and William Berger 
of Newburgh over a 10-mile course. Three thousand spectators on the river- 
banks watched Ward win. 

Poughkeepsie's great boat of the Civil War period was called the Stranger, 
with a crew organized from employees of local cooperages. Its last and most 

29 



celebrated race, July 18, 1865, was against the boat rowed by the Biglin 
crew representing New York, over a 5-mile course for a $6,000 purse 
and the American championship. As 20,000 spectators watched from the river- 
banks, the Stranger, after trailing over a large part of the course, reached 
and began to pass the Biglins, but was cut off and came in second. Because 
of the interference, however, the Stranger was declared the victor. Referee 
and judges were chased by an infuriated crowd into the Poughkeepsie Hotel 
and barely escaped with their lives. The decision was finally reversed and 
given 'to the New York crew. For days before and after this race the town 
seethed with unprecedented brawls and disturbances. 

The Shatemuc Boat Club, the first of its kind in Poughkeepsie, was or 
ganized in 1861, with headquarters in a canal boat anchored off the Upper 
Landing. (See p. 42). In 1870, after the canal boat had been dashed against 
the rocks and wrecked, a new boathouse was built, which the club used 
until its dissolution in 1878. In 1879 the building was reopened by the 
Apokeepsian Boat Club, a new organization of 40 members, which, with 
club socials, minstrel entertainments, and regattas, soon became prominent 
in the social life of the town. After a long decline, this club was dissolved 
in 1929. 

Just before the World War the advent of the motorboat and the auto 
mobile put an end to sculling as a diversion in Poughkeepsie. 

Service clubs include Rotary, Kiwanis, Lions and Exchange Clubs and a 
Chamber of Commerce. Notable among the service clubs is the Women's 
City and County Club, at 112 Market Street, the former residence of the 
late Laura Wyley, for many years professor of English at Vassar College, 
and a leader in local civic affairs. The Club has a county-wide membership 
of 300. The social clubs include the Amrita Club, Market and Church 
Streets, organized in 1873, and has a present membership of 250; and the 
Germania Singing Society, with a membership of 370, occupying Germania 
Hall, 197 Church Street, organized in 1850. 

History 

The Indian original of the name Poughkeepsie, mentioned in early docu 
ments with a great variety of spellings, has been the subject of much re 
search and century-old disagreement among historians. Throughout the last 
century it was popularly supposed to be Apokeepring, translated as "safe 
harbor" and referring either to the little cove at the mouth of the Fallkill 
or to the broad indentation which originally extended from the Slange 
Klip to Kaal Rock. However, Pooghkeepsingh, translated as "where the 
water falls over" and applied to the falls of the Fallkill, later came into 
favor. Extensive research in recent years by Miss Helen Wilkinson Rey 
nolds, with the assistance of the Heye Foundation of New York, has, how 
ever, established the Rust Plaets, a small marsh opposite the Rural Ceme 
tery, as being the uppugh ipis ing or "reed-covered lodge by the little water 
place," to which enough early documents refer to place it beyond reasonable 
doubt as the source of the modern name. The present spelling of Pough- 

30 



keepsie, despite the numerous haphazard renderings of the late seventeenth 
and early eighteenth centuries, has remained uniform since about 1760. 

The first record of white settlement within the city limits is a deed of 
1683 conveying land from an Indian, Massany, to two Dutchmen, Pieter 
Lansing and Jan Smeedes. This property appears to have been centered 
on the river front near either the Fallkill or the Casperkill, as the intent of 
building a mill is mentioned in the deed. Overlapping grants and purchases, 
delimited in the vague phraseology necessitated by an unsettled and only 
half explored region, led to several territorial disputes. 

Although the first settlers in Poughkeepsie, as elsewhere, clung to the 
riverbanks, usually where a creek provided shelter and offered power for 
gristmills, the location of the town center was determined chiefly by the 
passage of the King's Highway from New York to Albany, authorized by the 
legislature in 1703. The courthouse, a church, and a cluster of houses 
were built about the intersection of the present Main and Market Streets, 
which is still the business center. 

The growth of Poughkeepsie in the first half of the eighteenth century ex 
ceeded that of Dutchess County as a whole, but was none the less relatively 
slow. The first census, 1714, numbered 170 persons, of whom 15 were slaves. 
Except for a dozen French Huguenots and Englishmen, this population was 
entirely Dutch, although all public records were regularly written in a 
hybrid and phonetic English. The first courthouse, authorized in 1715 
and again in 1717, was probably completed in 1720. In 1725 the Van den 
Bogaerdt farmhouse on the site of the present Nelson House, was opened 
as an inn. The first ferry was established between Barnegat (Camelot sta 
tion) and Milton in 1740. 

In 1716 the Reformed Dutch congregations w r ere organized in Pough 
keepsie and Fishkill. The Poughkeepsie church was completed on the present 
southeast corner of Main and Market Streets in 1723. For 40 years, how 
ever, the English population was too small to attract even the occasional 
services of a missionary of the Church of England, and it was not until 1766 
that Christ Church was organized, the first church edifice being built on 
the site of the present armory in 1774. The church glebe and glebe house 
which are held jointly by the congregations of Poughkeepsie and Fishkill, 
date from 1767. 

Poughkeepsie was not involved in Revolutionary activities. No battles were 
fought in this vicinity, and only two cannon balls are said to have struck 
the town during the British invasion of the Hudson Valley. Two events, 
however, are memorable. On March 25, 1775, the first American liberty 
pole in Poughkeepsie was raised at the house of Col. John Bailey. More 
over, of the 13 frigates authorized by the Continental Congress, two, the 
Congress and the Montgomery, were built and launched here in 1776 at 
Fox's Point, and sent to Kingston for rigging. However, these ships never 
left the Hudson. In the fall of 1777, when the British advanced up the 
Hudson and burned Kingston, both ships were sent out to defend the chain 
across the river at Fort Montgomery, and were fired to prevent their falling 
into the hands of the enemy. 

31 



In 1777, after the burning of Kingston and the subsequent withdrawal of 
the British from the Hudson Valley, Poughkeepsie became the capital of the 
State. Gov. George Clinton made his residence here, where it is prob 
able he entertained both Washington and Lafayette, and where Kosciuszko 
called on him to offer his services in the Revolution. 

During the winter of 1778-9 a regiment of Continental troops was quar 
tered here against the remonstrances of Clinton, who believed that the 
supplies of food were inadequate for both soldiers and legislators. 

Possibly the chief event in the history of the town was the ratification 
here by the State of New York of the Constitution of the United States. 
This event took place July 26, 1788, in the third courthouse. In 1784 
the legislature began to hold its sessions in New York, although the State 
officers appear to have remained in Poughkeepsie for some time longer. 
Fifteen years later, in 1799, a resumption of the normal growth of the little 
community, with its population of about 1,000, was marked by its incorpora 
tion as a village. 

Among eminent Poughkeepsians of this time was Chancellor James Kent, 
who came here in 1781 to study law. Soon afterwards he married and es 
tablished himself in what, by his own account, was a very charming cottage. 
In the election of 1792, Kent was an advocate of Jay, and local partisanship 
for Clinton was so strong that he moved, reluctantly, to New York. The 
next year he was defeated for Congress by his brother-in-law, Theodorus 
Bailey, also of Poughkeepsie. In his Memoirs Kent speaks of the "great 
men who visited there (Poughkeepsie) . . . .Washington, Hamilton, Law 
rence, Schuyler, Duer . . ." John Adams, in his Diary, mentions a brief visit 
to Poughkeepsie. 

Early in the nineteenth century the increased cultivation of the hinterland 
and the establishment of local factories brought Poughkeepsie into considerable 
prominence as a river port. From several busy landings eight large sloops 
sailed weekly to New York, transporting Dutchess County grain to the 
metropolis and bringing back supplies and settlers for the provinces. The 
crooked roads leading down to the river, of which only Union Street now 
remains unaltered, were often choked with teams waiting their turn to load 
or unload. 

In 1814 Poughkeepsie became the first steamboat terminal between New 
York and Albany. The general introduction of steamboats about this time, 
and towboats a decade later, which permitted passengers to ride out of 
danger from exploding boilers, proved a further stimulation to the com 
merce of Poughkeepsie; and the improved "team-boat" ferries, introduced 
in the year 1819, gave the town an important position in the route of 
westward migration. With the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, however, 
western competition caused a decline, continuous to the present time, in the 
value of Dutchess County produce, and accordingly in the commercial im 
portance of Poughkeepsie. Passage of the Hudson River Railroad in 1850 
was a further blow to local shipping interests, because, while it opened the 
New York market to Dutchess County dairying, it effectually ended the ex 
port of local wheat. 

32 



To counteract these changes and hasten the inevitable transition from trans 
portation and commerce to industry, the Poughkeepsie Improvement Party 
was founded about 1830. Composed of prominent local business men, this 
group was very influential in directing the activities of the town at large, 
initiating industries, establishing schools, and even laying out whole streets 
and sections of the town. Mansion Square Park, was sponsored by the Im 
provement Party as a residential inducement. The Improvement Party went 
out of existence with the panic of 1837. 

The striking development of the 1830's, one the modern visitor would 
scarcely guess, was the short-lived but intensive period of whaling. This in 
dustry employed at one time seven ships, kept the docks above the Upper 
Landing humming, and caused the erection of several of the fine water-front 
mansions which industrial developments were later to mar or raze. 

Another short-lived but interesting enterprise of the same period was 
the attempt of the Poughkeepsie Silk Company to produce raw silk from 
silk-worm cocoons on mulberry trees planted near the junction of Delafield 
Street and the Albany Post Road. The company collapsed in the panic of 
1837. 

In the same decade Poughkeepsie acquired a reputation as an educational 
center by the establishment here of more than a dozen private schools. 
Best known were the Poughkeepsie Collegiate School, the Poughkeepsie 
Female Academy, Mrs. Congdon's Seminary, and Miss Lydia Booth's Semin 
ary. (See Vassar College, p. 54.) In 1836 the old Dutchess County Academy 
moved into larger quarters in the building now occupied by the Old Ladies' 
Home. This sudden efflorescence induced Harvey G. Eastman of St. Louis 
to move here in 1859 for the purpose of founding the Eastman Business 
College, which, after an enrollment at one time of 1,700 students, closed in 
May 1933. Vassar College, the one institution of Poughkeepsie known 
throughout the country, was founded in 1861. 

In 1854, the year Poughkeepsie was granted a city charter, Henry Wheeler 
Shaw, the "Josh Billings" of Yankee humor, took up his permanent residence 
here. Although he established himself as an auctioneer, he began here his 
career as a writer under the original nom-de-plume of Efrem Billings, which 
he soon changed to its classic form. Most of his books were written in Pough 
keepsie. He contributed to local newspapers, took an active interest in civic 
affairs, and in 1858 was elected city alderman from the fourth ward. 

The Civil War was ardently supported by Poughkeepsians who had 
given Lincoln an overwhelming majority in the election of 1860. Com 
pany E of the 30tH Regiment, the first company raised in the city, fought 
at Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, and in other important battles. 
The 150th Regiment, recruited from Poughkeepsie and the vicinity, was 
in action at Gettysburg, where 7 of its men were killed and 22 wounded, 
and was also with Sherman on the famous march to the sea. 

After the assassination of President Lincoln, the train bearing his mar 
tyred body passed through Poughkeepsie on its way to Illinois. Virtually 
the whole population of the city assembled along the tracks to stand in awed 

33 



silence as it passed. Draped in black, with muffled wheels, it ran noise 
lessly except for the tolling of the engine's bell, and was long remembered 
as the "Ghost Train." 

After the Civil War, Poughkeepsie entered a period of rapid industrial 
expansion. Factories began to spread along the water front, transforming 
its earlier character and substituting a multitude of warehouses, factories, 
and docks for the ordered system of landings, roads, and residences which 
had hitherto prevailed. Families of wealth and social position deserted the 
lively and picturesque slopes west of the Post Road for the undeveloped 
tracts to the southeast, entrenching themselves on the eminences of Academy 
Street and spreading out over the Hooker Avenue section. In Poughkeepsie, 
as elsewhere at this time, the "residential districts," newly created in costly 
and complex structures of brick and frame along new, characterless streets, 
established themselves in conscious opposition to the organic but unpredictable 
development of older quarters. Of the same period are the various philan 
thropic institutions, housed in the characteristic buildings of dull red brick, 
to be found in the various sections of the present town. 

Arlington 

Arlington is a vaguely defined suburb lying within the township of 
Poughkeepsie, just east of the city. Its center is approximately the corner 
of Main Street and Raymond Avenue. Its location adjacent to Vassar Col 
lege has been the chief cause of its development. It is a village community 
with small, frame houses, stores, two churches, and two schools. Many of 
the residences are opened to guests of the college on weekends and gala 
occasions. Shops catering to college tastes line College View Avenue and tHe 
east side of Raymond Avenue. On the west, near the Main Street corner, 
a large modern garage stands as a monument to the march of time its 
proprietor the owner of stables which for many years have furnished saddle 
horses for Vassar students. 

In Revolutionary times the Arlington section was known as Bull's Head, 
a name derived from that of a local tavern. Tory and Indian raids on the 
other side of the Hudson are said to have caused many families to settle here. 
John Holt, official State printer, appears to have lived here after his escape 
from New York in 1776. 

Among the earliest settlers were Bernardus and Johannes Swartwout, 
the latter of whom had a mill on the Casperkill, the small stream which 
is now dammed to form Vassar Lake. The same Johannes Swartwout may 
well have been the father of Capt. Abraham Swartwout of Poughkeepsie, 
who gave his blue cloak to make part of the first American flag used in 
battle in the defense of Fort Schuyler in 1777. 

In 1872, the name Bull's Head was condemned as undignified and re 
placed by the name East Poughkeepsie, and about 1900 changed again to the 
present name of Arlington. 



34 



WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 
FEDERAL WRITERS' PROJECT 



POUGHKEEPSIE 



FOOT TOUR NO. 1 
1.4 MILES 



START OF TOUR 



I MONTGOMERY 




FOOT TOUR 1 (1.4 m.) 



1. The DUTCHESS COUNTY COURT HOUSE stands at the busi 
ness center of Poughkeepsie, at the intersection of Market St. (the Post 
Road) and Main St. It is a three-story-and-attic structure of red brick with 
gray sandstone trim. A mansard roof of red tile is softened by a balustrade 
crown. The interior walls and staircases are lined with white marble in the 
typical courthouse manner. Built in 1902, it stands on the site of four former 
courthouses, the first of which, erected before 1721, was the original Dut- 
chess county Court House authorizen by the 16th Colonial Assembly 
in 1715 and 1717. The second and considerably larger structure, authorized 
in 1743, when the first had fallen into hopeless disrepair, became the tem 
porary State Capitol after the burning of Kingston ; this historical edifice was 
destroyed by fire in 1785. A third courthouse was in use by the end of 1787, 
and in it, on July 26 of the following year, the State of New York, after 
bitter and prolonged debate, ratified the Constitution of the United States. 
(See p. 14.) This building fell prey to fire in 1806, and was followed in 
1809 by a fourth and still larger courthouse, which stood until razed to 
make way for the present structure. 

From the Market St. intersection, W . on Main St. 

2. The CITY HALL (L), at Main and Washington Streets, a modest 
gray-painted brick building of the Greek Revival type, is the only civic 
structure in Poughkeepsie of much architectural interest. Built in 1831, it 
was intended to serve as the village hall and market. The market and fish- 
stalls which occupied the ground floor were discontinued shortly before the 
Civil War, and the whole interior altered. In 1865 the ground floor was 
reconstructed to serve as a temporary post office, and the Common Council 
met in the northwest room of the second floor. Part of the second floor was 
used for some time as a classroom of the Eastman Business College. The 
police station and city court in the rear were added after the Civil War. 

R. from Main St. on Washington St., L. on Lafayette PL, L. on Vassar St. 

3. The VASSAR BROTHERS INSTITUTE (R), Vassar Street and 
Lafayette Place (open daily 1-5; admission free), houses a museum of natural 
history, a natural science and historical library, and an auditorium. 

Fauna, Indian relics, and fossils collected locally are exhibited. On the 
first floor is a large and interesting group of insects. In the auditorium a 
series of travelogues and lectures on geography are given during the winter, 
usually on Tuesday evenings. The second floor has a large arrangement of 
animals, butterflies, and birds in their natural habitat, Indian artifacts, and 
fossils of the Hudson Valley. 

The red brick building is constructed in a style which might, for local 
purposes, be called Vassar architecture of the Civil War period, since all 
the institutions donated by the Vassars are built in the same style. This 
building was erected in 1881 on the site of the old Vassar brewery by the 
brothers, John Guy, and Matthew Vassar, Jr., to promote knowledge of 
science, literature, and art. 

36 



4. The VASSAR BROTHERS HOME FOR AGED MEN (L), 
Main and Vassar Streets, stands on the site of the home of Matthew Vassar, 
founder of Vassar College. Established in 1880 by John, Guy, and Matthew 
Vassar, Jr., the institution is equipped to care for 21 elderly men. To be ad 
mitted, an applicant must be of good character, a resident of Poughkeepsie for 
five years, at least 65 years old, and of Protestant faith. An admission fee and 
the transference of all personal property to the home are further conditions. 

Matthew Vassar, one of the two sons of James and Anne (Bennett) 
Vassar, was born April 29, 1792 in East Tuddingham, England. In 1796 
James Vassar with his family migrated to America, settled in Poughkeepsie, 
and entered business as a brewer. Matthew Vassar followed his father in 
the business, and in 1813 married Catherine Valentine, who died in 1863 
leaving no children. Matthew Vassar died in 1868, seven years after he 
had founded Vassar College. (See Vassar College, p. 54.) Following his 
example, his nephews, Matthew Jr., and John Guy, sons of his brother 
Thomas, became prominent in the community, founding and endowing a 
number of institutions in Poughkeepsie, and making further gifts to 
Vassar College. 

L. from Vassar Street on Main Street, R. on Washington Street^ L. 
on Union Street. 

5. SMITH BROTHERS RESTAURANT, 13 Market Street, oppo 
site Union Street, a landmark in epicurean circles, is unique in that its early 
development fostered the candy enterprise which later became the widely 
known cough drop business now conducted by Smith Brothers, Incorporated, 
at North Hamilton Street. The spacious dining room, with its great 
mirrors and portraits of the Smith brothers, "Trade" and "Mark," pre 
serves an atmosphere of substantial dignity. 

The establishment grew from a small restaurant started by James Smith, 
a Scotch-Canadian who came to Poughkeepsie in 1847. At his death, his 
sons, James, Jr., and Andrew, inherited the business. In 1876 William W. 
Smith succeeded James Jr., and his descendants still own it. The restaurant 
has always been conducted under a policy of strict temperance. 

6. The NELSON HOUSE, 28 Market Street, is the oldest hotel in 
Poughkeepsie. Since 1777, under various names and owners, an inn has been 
uninterruptedly maintained on this site, and before the Revolution the Van 
den Bogaerdt farmhouse, which stood here, was used as an inn from 1725 
to 1742. 

During the years when Poughkeepsie was capital of the State (177ST- 
83), most of the State and local officials made their headquarters in the inn 
opened here in 1777 by Stephen Hendrikson. Governor Clinton paid Hen- 
drikson for a room used by the State Council of Revision in 1778. 

The famous British spy, Huddlestone, after being captured at Yonkers 
in 1780, was brought to Poughkeepsie and hanged on Forbus Hill, behind 
the inn. The chief use of this hill in Revolutionary times, however, was as 
a vantage point for lookouts for river sloops, to ensure travelers' connections 
from the inn. 

37 



Hendrickson's Inn, having been enlarged from one and one-half to three 
stories in 1813, and, as the Forbus Hotel, to four in 1844, was torn down 
in 1875, and a new one, now the central part of the Nelson House, built. 
The following year it was renamed in honor of Judge Nelson, a former 
owner of the property. 

Another famous hostelry, which served from 1886 to 1917 as an annex 
of the Nelson House, was the old Poughkeepsie Hotel. Lafayette, Henry 
Clay, Aaron Burr, Martin Van Buren, and many other distinguished men 
had been among its guests. It stood on Main Street, at the point where New 
Market Street now crosses. It was razed in 1917 to make way for the 
street. 

7. The ADRIANCE MEMORIAL LIBRARY, Market Street be 
tween Noxon and Montgomery Streets, is a handsome, white, marble-faced 
building in French Renaissance style. It contains 85,000 volumes, the num 
ber being normally increased annually by about 1,500. Included in the 
library are noteworthy collections on local history. 

The building, designed by Charles F. Rose of Poughkeepsie and erected 
in 1898, was a gift to the city from six children of John P. and Marv 
Adriance as a memorial to their parents. Market Street continues as a right 
fork at Soldiers' Monument. 

L. from Market St. on Montgomery St. 

8. EASTMAN PARK, an 11 -acre recreational area, is entered at South 
Avenue (Post Road) and Montgomery Street. Its chief feature is the baseball 
diamond on which games of the twilight leagues and county championships 
are played. A field is flooded in winter for ice skating. There are two tennis 
courts. 

Purchased in 1865 by Harvey G. Eastman, the low-lying marshy land 
was drained and developed as a private estate. In 1867, with a display of 
Chinese lanterns and fireworks, and an address by Horace Greeley on tem 
perance, the park was formally opened to the public. Forty-two years later 
it became city property by gift of C. C. Gaines, who had married Mr. 
Eastman's widow. 

The old Eastman mansion on Montgomery Street, near the entrance, is 
now used as the office building of the Poughkeepsie Board of Public Works. 

9. The SOLDIERS' MONUMENT (L), opposite the main entrance 
of Eastman Park, an ornately figured fountain, was unveiled July 4, 1870, 
with a parade and a balloon ascension in the park, in honor of the soldiers 
of the Civil War. 

10. CHRIST CHURCH (Episcopal) comprises a striking group of 
English Gothic edifices of red sandstone standing in well-shaded landscaped 
grounds facing Academy Street to the right of its intersection with Mont 
gomery Street. The church building was erected in 1888 and the tower added 
in 1889. The Tudor rectory was built in 1903. Christ Church was estab 
lished in 1766, and the first church building was erected in 1774 on the site 
of the present armory at Church and Market Streets. 

L. from Montgomery St. on Academy St. 

38 



11. The site of the DUTCHESS COUNTY ACADEMY, (L), 
the first academy in the county and the first secondary school in Poughkeepsie, 
is at the southwest corner of Cannon and Academy Streets. Founded in 
Fishkill in 1769, the school was transferred to Poughkeepsie together with 
its original building, in 1791. Academy Street was named for the School. 

Although charging for tuition, the academy was partly supported by 
taxation and was under a Board of Regents. Its first principal was Rev. 
Cornelius Brower, pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1836 the 
large brick bilding at Montgomery and South Hamilton Streets, now owned 
by the Old Ladies' Home (see p. 50), was erected for the academy which con 
tinued there until 1866. 

L. from Academy St. on Cannon St. 

12. The building of the WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE 
UNION, Cannon Street, erected in 1836, housed for 50 years the Pough 
keepsie Female Academy. With its immense white columns, it is a grandiose 
example of the Greek Revival period of architecture. The academy remained 
one of the best known of Poughkeepsie's many schools until it closed in 
1886. In 1889 the building was purchased by the W. C. T. U., largely 
through the aid of William W. Smith. 

L. from Cannon St. on Market St., to Court House. 

MOTOR TOUR1 (3m.) 

The Waterfront 

The waterfront includes the industrialized and now partly-abandoned 
region lying riverward from the tracks of the New York Central Railroad, 
bounded by the extensive enclosures of the city's two largest industries, the 
Dutton Lumber Company on the north, and the DeLaval Separator Com 
pany on the south. The whole scene is dominated by the river, with its two 
great bridges and its miscellaneous shipping, and by the two important rail 
road arteries which intersect here. The four river landings of the 18th 
century village are still accessible as, with some restrictions, are the docks 
and wharves of the modern city. This region was the site of the first settle 
ment, and has remained the seat of the chief activities of the city throughout 
its history. On the river bluffs, almost squeezed out by encroaching indus 
trial plants in all stages of repair, stand the once imposing dwellings of an 
earlier day, while behind them on the irregular streets are grouped hap 
hazardly the frame houses and brick tenements of more recent times. Besides 
the many fine views of the river obtainable here, and the concentrated local 
history, the Poughkeepsie waterfront is unusually interesting for its contrasts 
and for the picturesqueness of its subtle compositions and colors. 

From Courthouse, Main and Market Sts., N. on New Market St. to 

Mill St., L. on Mill St. to North Perry St. Park car on Mill St. and 

walk (R) 100 feet up Charles St. 

13. The ARNOLD COTTON MILL (visitors welcome), built in 
1811, still stands in tolerable repair on the Keating lumberyard on 

39 



Charles Street. The old mill, built of field stone, is now the lower part of 
the central section of the main building. The waterwheel has been removed, 
and the course of the Fallkill, which powered it, gradually diverted to the 
north. The original cross timbers of oak and the one-piece oaken window 
frames remain. Cotton fabrics were manufactured here during the War 
of 1812, when the cessation of American coastwise trade necessitated the 
carting of raw cotton in wagonloads from Georgia. The mill failed because 
of the flood of imported goods consequent upon the peace treaty in 1815. 

Return to car. At Dongan Monument Mill St. bears (R), and at 
next traffic light, (L). 

14. The yellow walls of SAINT PETER'S CHURCH (R) AND 
SCHOOL (L), foot of Mill Street, stand amid tumbledown environs on a 
bluff above the tracks of the New York Central Railroad. This was the 
first Roman Catholic church in Dutchess County. The original structure, 
dating from 1837, faced west overlooking the river, and has been retained 
as the transept of the present church, erected in 1853, with additions made 
later. Of painted brick in a Renaissance style, this is one of the most strik 
ingly situated of the city's buildings. A fine view of the railroad bridge, ris 
ing above power plant and gas tanks, extends to include the Mid-Hudson 
Bridge (L) outlined gracefully against the Highlands. 
L. from Mill St. on Dutchess Ave. 

As the road curves right beneath Saint Peter's and turns left into Dutchess 
Avenue, an impressive prospect of industrial structures opens to view. Along 
Dutchess Avenue, one of the oldest streets in the city, a number of pictur 
esque old frame and brick houses are passed. 

Across the railroad overpass, the route turns sharp (L) into North 
Water St. 

The route here enters the water front proper, where dwellings have almost 
disappeared before the demands of commerce and manufacture. 

15. The route proceeds left, but a right turn on North Water Street, 
into the short dead end of Hoffman Street, affords the best view of the 
docks and yards of the BUTTON LUMBER COMPANY, largest of 
their kind in the eastern United States. The company is an important 
distributor of domestic and foreign lumber. Ocean-going ships, huge 
cranes, and stacks of lumber spread along the half mile of water 
frontage, create maritime impressions rare at such a distance from the 
sea. These yards play a major part in the American building industry: 
vessels of all draughts ply here from the West Coast, Norway, and the 
U. S. S. R. And the sense of activity and the color of the scene are en 
hanced by the immediate presence of the busy railroad tracks and sidings. 

As the route proceeds south along North Water Street, extremely slow 
driving will be repaid by views of a complex and vivid scene bridge and 
gas tanks on the right, and left, across the tracks, the string of colorful 
houses along Dutchess Avenue, the desolate slope with its automobile grave 
yard, and beyond, Saint Peter's Church crowning the background. 
(R) from North Water St. on Dutchess Ave. 

16. The DUTCHESS AVENUE DOCK, a public landing, adjoins the 
long wharves of the Dutton Lumber Company. The scene from this point, 

40 



Dutch House, known as "Old Hundred," MM? Hackensack 




Reformed Dutch Church at New Hackensack 



Poughkeepsie Railroad 
Bridge from the Water 
front 




Interior Woodwork of the 
Lcii'is DuBois House, 
Grays Riding A cade my 



doubtless one of the finest in Poughkeepsie, includes a splendi'd vista of the 
broad, busy river bounded by the smoke-plumed trains of the West Shore 
Railroad, behind which the horizon rises abruptly with the Highlands. Mile 
long freight trains cross the lofty bridges overhead in silhouette against the 
sky. 

The Dutchess Avenue Dock had a brief but intense period of activity in 
the 1830's, when, at the height of the great American whaling industry, the 
Poughkeepsie Whaling Company was established here. This company was 
followed by a larger enterprise, the Dutchess Whaling Company, which 
maintained a fleet of seven ships, one of them, the New England, mentioned 
in Dana's Two Years before the Mast. The romantic calling was abandoned 
in 1844. 

Back track to North Water St.; R. (S) on North Water St. 

North Water Street continues a short distance between the railroad tracks 
(L) and the Slange Klip (Dutch, snake cliff) (R), crowned since 1894 by 
the power plant of the Central Hudson Gas and Electric Co., and then dips 
quickly to the historic Fallkill Creek, which empties at this point into the 
Hudson. 

Pass under the Railroad Bridge. 

17. The RAILROAD BRIDGE, by reason of which Poughkeepsie was 
long known as the "Bridge City of the Hudson," is part of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad system. Begun in 1873, it was at the 
time a notable engineering achievement. The width of the river at this point 
is 2,608 feet, and the length of the bridge 3,094 feet. The roadbed is 214 
feet above water level. Six masonry piers support the steel towers that carry 
the cantilever trusses of the river spans. 

The erection of the bridge was the culmination of a quarter century of 
railroad construction linking Poughkeepsie with the four points of the com 
pass. Promotion of the great enterprise was chiefly the work of Harvey G. 
Eastman, founder of the business college, and John I. Platt, editor of the 
Poughkeepsie Eagle, who conceived its possibilities as a link between the coal 
fields of Pennsylvania and the manufacturing cities of New England. A 
company was formed and incorporated under authority of a special act of 
Congress dated May 11, 1871. John F. Winslow, partowner of the first 
patent on the Bessemer steel process and the chief financial backer of Erics 
son when the first Monitor was built, became president of the corporation. 
The act provided for a suspension bridge, but this, after thorough considera 
tion, was judged impracticable because of the long span. In the face of strong 
opposition from the river-towing interests, Eastman succeeded in getting a 
bill passed authorizing the erection of piers in the river. 

At this time the Pennsylvania Railroad, looking for an eastern connection, 
subscribed $1,100,000 of the total $2,000,000 required. Subsequent repudia 
tion, caused by the panic of 73 and the death of the president of the road, 
resulted in delay. In 1876 the American Bridge Company of Chicago, 
accepted the contract, and built three timber caissons and one stone pier 
on the west shore. An accident to this pier proved so expensive that it ruined 
the company. 

41 



A Manhattan bridge company was subsequently organized to carry on the 
project, and the construction was sublet to the Union Bridge Company of 
New York City. The success of the cantilever bridge which this company 
had already built at Niagara Falls suggested the combined cantilever and 
deck-truss construction; Arthur B. Paine was general supervisor. On August 
29, 1888, the last pin was driven in the cantilever span between Pier 5 and 
the east shore. The approaches were finished a few months later, and the first 
train crossed the bridge on December 29, 1888. 

In 1904 the bridge and the lines connected with it came under the control 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. Three years later 
it was found necessary to make repairs and reconstruction at a cost of 
$1, 500,000. Since its period of greater activity, during the decade before the 
World War, traffic over the bridge has registered a gradual decline. It is 
now used for freight only. 

18. Directly north of the Fallkill, within the enclosure of the gas and 
electric company, stands the old, neatly painted stone and brick HOFF 
MAN HOUSE, which was bought by three Hoffman brothers from Col. 
R. L. Livingston in 1800. In its stone foundation and walls something may 
remain of the house of Col. Leonard Lewis, built in 1717. The interior 
has been completely altered. 

19. Within the same enclosure, a few feet left, stands the OAKLEY 
MILL, a plain, gray-painted three-story building, a typical sturdy millhouse, 
built in 1810 by George P. Oakley. It is now used as a garage. 

From the little bridge that spans the Fallkill (Dutch, Val Kil, stream of 
falls), there may be seen two of the conflicting sources from which the name 
Poughkeepsie has been traditionally derived. On the right, the mouth of the 
creek, which is said originally to have had three times its present flow, once 
afforded enough shelter to Indian canoes for the place to be named Apokeeps- 
ing, or "safe harbor"; on the left is the FALLS, called by the Indians 
Pooghkeepslngh. The old course of the stream has been diverted to the north 
by a factory building. 

20. The mouth of the Fallkill (R) is the site of the old UPPER 
LANDING, at one time the busiest on the water front. This was the ferry 
dock from 1798, when the first regular service was introduced, until 1879. 
(From 1740 until the end of the century ferries also ran occasionally from 
Barnegat, 4 miles south of Poughkeepsie, to Milton). The first regular ferry, 
which plied from the Upper Landing to New Paltz, was a barge propelled 
by sail and oars in the hands of slaves. In 1819 a team-boat was introduced, 
which was propelled by four horses in a treadmill, making the crossing in 
10 minutes. Strongly built and easily operated, the team-boat was considered 
a great advance over the earlier ferries. A lively expectation that it would 
prove commercially important to the town as a link in the route of the 
contemporary migration westward reached its peak in 1825 when an un 
fruitful movement was started to make New Paltz Landing the terminus of 
a great State highway to Buffalo. 

The place became known as the Upper Landing about 1800, when it had 

42 



become a center of freighting and manufacturing. For a score of years, 
sloops carrying freight and passengers sailed daily to New York. Barges, 
towed by steamboats, replaced the sloops in 1821, and in 1837 regular steamer 
service was introduced. Falling gradually into disuse through the mid-century, 
the landing became inactive after 1879. 

The old mills gathered about the falls were razed by the New York 
Central Railroad to make way for its tracks, and the storehouses near the 
old landing followed in 1894 when the power plant was built on the site. 

21. Just past the Fallkill are the huge brick buildings and yards of the 
ARNOLD LUMBER COMPANY (R), established in 1821, the only 
survivor of the many early industries of the Upper Landing. 

22. The ARNOLD HOMESTEAD (L), 58 North Water Street, a 
weather-beaten frame house with central gable, was built about 1840 during 
the whaling boom. It rests on a terrace hemmed in by a brick retaining wall 
which is patched with stone where the stairway once descended. 

23. Directly beyond, the yellow clapboard OAKLEY HOUSE (R), 
rooted on a bluff against the irresistible encroachment of industry, was 
built in 1807. Oakley was a local politician and businessman, best known 
as the chief promoter of lotteries in Dutchess County. The main entrance, 
with its original door frame to which a two-story porch has been added, 
now faces the north. Originally it was part of the western facade overlooking 
the river. This and the Arnold homestead, across the street, with all their 
dilapidation, still retain traces of their past splendor. 

North Water Street continues between the railroad tracks and a vacant 
space which was once the site of the Matthew Vassar brewery. The approach 
to Main Street is of little interest except for occasional views of the Mid- 
Hudson Bridge. 

R. from North Water St. on Main St. 

24. The POUGHKEEPSIE-HIGHLAND FERRY, foot of Main St. 
on the river front. (Two alternate ferries operate on half hour schedule. 
Rates: car, driver, and one passenger, 40 c; additional passengers ', We; chil 
dren 5c.) 

25. MAIN STREET LANDING, foot of Main St. adjacent to the 
ferry slip on river front, is the only one of the four 18th century landings 
continuing in active use. Although noted under the name Caul (Kaal) 
Rock Landing on maps as early as 1744, it did not become important until 
1811, when sloops were already sailing to New York from all the other 
Poughkeepsie landings. The landing proper is the chief public dock of the 
city. Adjoining it are the ferry slip and the dock of the Hudson River Day 
Line (R), and the office of the Central Hudson Steamboat Company (L). 
The last named occupies the old Exchange House built in 1834 and con 
spicuous for its rounded shingles. 

Backtrack on Main St. (a short block) to Front St.; R. on Front St. 

26. The new MID-HUDSON BRIDGE (tolls: passenger automobile, 
including driver, 80 c; extra passengers, each 10 c; maximum fare, $1.00; 
trailer on passenger automobile, 20c; motorcycle with side car, 35c; children, 

43 



seven years and younger, free. Book tickets at reduced rates) unites the east 
and west banks of the Hudson River at a point midway between New York 
City and Albany. The eastern approach is from Church and Union Sts. 
Immediately west of the bridge the highway spreads to form a Y. Its northern 
branch connects with Highland and the southern with US 9W on the west 
bank of the river. 

The official permit for the building of the bridge was granted June 6, 
1924, and the structure was formally opened in August, 1930. It was de 
signed by Ralph Modjeski and Daniel E. Moran; the steel superstructure 
was erected by the American Bridge Company of New York City. The 
bridge is of the long suspension type, with the two river piers 1,500 ft. apart; 
each side span is exactly one-half the length of the center span; the entire 
length of the bridge is 4,530 ft. The west approach is by a highway \ l /2 
miles long. The cables are suspended on steel towers rising 280 ft. above 
the piers, and surmounting these are large oval lights, the rays of which are 
visible for many miles. The design of the towers produces an impression 
of strength as well as of grace and beauty of line. 

The river piers supporting the two steel towers are massive concrete 
columns faced with granite to a point 35 ft. below water level. The bridge 
has a 30-ft. roadway and a 4-ft. sidewalk on either side. The bridge floor is of 
concrete slabs with expansion joints. 

27. KAAL ROCK (R), Front St. (Park car just S. of bridge 
and R. of highway and walk 150 ft. (R) to top of rock.) 
Both this bluff on which the Mid-Hudson Bridge rests, and the one a little 
north of it, are known as Kaal (older Caul) Rock (pr. call; Dutch , Kaele 
Rughj bare back.) An erroneous tradition has it that passing ships were 
signalled or "called" from this eminence, and that the name was thus at 
tached to it. In any case, one may well wonder in what way it is a rock at 
all, until considering the actual Dutch name "bare back," which describes 
the precipitous and naked fall to the river, and realizing that the present 
English name is merely a case of false etymology. In 1824 the visit of 
Lafayette to Poughkeepsie was celebrated with a great bonfire on Kaal 
Rock and salvos of artillery. 

This, the highest point on the w r aterfront, affords a sweeping view of 
that part of the Hudson known to early Dutch settlers as the Lange Rak, 
or Long Reach, a straight sailing course of about 11 miles between Crum 
Elbow (see Hyde Park, p. 89) and a flat promontory called the Dannam- 
mer, on the west bank opposite the mouth of Wappinger Creek. 

28. The UNION LANDING, a dead end at the foot of old, winding 
Union St. (right fork), was for 47 years after the Revolution the chief 
shipping point of Dutchess County wheat and other produce. In 1831 a 
steamboat still carried freight and passengers daily from this landing to New 
York, but soon afterwards it was entirely superseded by the Main Street 
and Upper Landings. The sequestered dock shows nothing of its old im 
portance and activity. 

In the hollow of Kaal Rock is a cluster of gasoline tanks, beyond which 

44 



the rock juts forth again, supporting the square, gray building of the old 
brewery. Here again is a close-up view of the strong, graceful suspension 
bridge and the cantilever trusses of the railroad bridge. 

The Poughkeepsie Yacht Club, tucked in at the south end of the old 
landing, is officially designated as the half-way point in the annual speed 
boat races from Albany to New York. 

Backtrack on Union St. to South Water St. 

29. The GREGORY HOUSE (L), Union and South Water Sts., built 
in 1841, is stranded stepless on its high bare basement in the wired enclosure 
of a factory. Long abandoned, the weatherbeaten brick house designed in the 
Greek Revival style consists of a receding two-story center fronted by a 
Doric-columned portico and flanked by one-story wings. The fine doorway 
still bears the street number. The interior has been altered to serve as a 
factory warehouse. 

R. (S) on South Water St. 

30. The route passes through the deep shadow of the grim, deserted red 
brick factory buildings (R. and L.) formerly occupied by the MOLINE 
PLOW COMPANY, well known as manufacturers of harvesting ma 
chinery. Inactive since 1922, it was at one time Poughkeepsie's largest in 
dustry. 

31. The old SOUTHWICK HOUSE (R), South Water St., just be 
yond the Moline factory, stands among trees in one of the few early 19th cen 
tury gardens remaining in Poughkeepsie. The large yellow frame house with 
its gambrel roof was built in 1804 or 1805 by John Winans. In 1807 he sold 
it to Zadock Southwick, an early tanner and builder of the first Hudson 
River ice-boat. The Southwick family still lives in it. The garden remains 
substantially as it was laid out by Zadock Southwick. In it is a thorn-locust 
tree more than 14 feet in circumference. 

A short dead-end road (R) around the Southwick house leads to the old 
Southwick Landing. Here is an excellent view of the southern half of the 
Long Reach and of the two bridges to the north. 

32. The DELAVAL SEPARATOR COMPANY (R) (visitors wel 
come), at the end of South Water St. on the site of the LOWER LAND 
ING, is the largest Poughkeepsie manufacturing establishment. The main 
product is the centrifugal separator used by dairy and oil industries. 

The DeLaval property includes the sites of the old Henry Livingston 
estate of the 18th century and of FOX'S POINT SHIPYARD, where the 
Revolutionary frigates were built. (See p. 31.) 

Sharp L. from South Water St. on Pine St. 

Pine Street leads through a long underpass to the intersection with Tulip 
Street (L) and Prospect Street (R). The tour here leaves the water 
front proper, although Prospect Street for almost a mile skirts the river 
behind long areas of factories and warehouses. 

A pleasant route back to the Court House is by Tulip and Union Streets. 
The latter winds from the Court House down to the Union Landing. Laid 
out in 1767, it penetrates the heart of the old and picturesque south side 
of the city. 

45 



33. LINCOLN CENTER, Lincoln Ave. and Pine St., a stark yellow 
frame structure standing on a low bluff in a small recreational park west 
of Eastman Park, is the settlement house of Poughkeepsie. It provides recre 
ational guidance and facilities to the underprivileged children of this crowded 
district. 

The first floor of the building contains a gymnasium, a playroom for 
babies, and a child welfare clinic. On the homelike and friendly second floor 
are a dining room and kitchen for the use of members, a game room, a small 
club room and a larger recreational room, and a radio room, for the use of 
young people unable to entertain at home. On this floor are displays of the 
handicrafts of members. A small club room and a pool room are on the third 
floor. 

In 1936 the Mayor and Board of Aldermen authorized a WPA project 
for a gymnasium for boys which wiil leave the original house for girls' and 
children's activities. Other renovations and repairs have been financed by 
the TERA and the WPA. 

The center is open to all residents of the city, children or adults, with no 
discrimination as to race, creed, or color. 

Lincoln Center was started by Vassar students in 1917 as a play group 
for children. A house rented on Church Street provided space for handi 
crafts, games for little children, and gymnasium work for older boys, to 
gether with quarters for a city health nurse. In the influenza epidemic of 
1918 it was the only social agency in the district prepared to meet the needs 
of the sufferers and report cases to the Board of Health. 

In 1925 the old Riverview Academy building, a city-owned structure, was 
assigned by the common council to Lincoln Center for an indefinite period, 
with the provision that part of it be reserved for use as a city clinic. The 
reconditioning of the large frame building, which had been abandoned for 
10 years, was accomplished by voluntary labor supplied by the unions of 
Poughkeepsie. Neighboring families assisted in cleaning the grounds. 

Three paid workers, aided by various Poughkeepsians and by 60 Vassar 
students under weekly assignments, direct the activities of the 1,100 mem 
bers. The older boys and girls are trained to assist the younger groups. 

A striking instance of the effectiveness of Lincoln Center is shown in the 
reduction of juvenile delinquency in the district, which formerly had the 
highest percentage in the city and now has the second lowest, standing next 
to the privileged area. This is believed to have resulted entirely from the 
introduction of these recreational facilities. 

L. from Pine St. on Market to Court House (end of tour). 

MOTOR TOUR 2 (5.5 m.) 

From Court House, Main and Market Sts., E. on Main St., L. on N. 
Clinton St. 

34. Largest and by far the best known of the parks of Poughkeepsie is 
the COLLEGE HILL PARK, with main entrance on North Clinton Street, 
a finely landscaped area on the highest eminence of the city (375) ft.), offer- 

46 



ing unsurpassed views of the city and the surrounding country in a complete 
panorama bounded by the Highlands, the Catskills, and the Berkshires. 

Facilities for public amusement include a nine-hole golf course, open 
daily from 7 a. m. to 8:30 p. m. on the northeastern slope of the hill. The 
course is kept in excellent condition for play. A tennis court adjoins North 
Clinton Street Picnic grounds, with tables and fireplaces, overlooking city and 
river on the west slope. 

The drive up the hill offers a succession of expanding views. Below, to 
the southeast, lies Poughkeepsie spreading around to Arlington on the east 
with the Gothic turrets of Vassar College just visible in the southeastern 
distance. East and north, the broad plains and hills of Dutchess County 
extend to the distant Berkshires and Taconics, visible on clear days, which 
form the natural divide between New York and New England. The giant 
Catskills are banked in huge masses 40 miles to the northwest. On the south 
stands high Mount Beacon, its inclined railway and casino visible on clear 
days, from which the long Fishkill or Breakneck Range runs easterly along 
the southern horizon. 

At the summit of the hill stands a STONE SOLARIUM of conventional 
Greek Doric design, a monument to Guilford Dudley, a local financier, who 
left a bequest to be used for the erection of a shelter at this spot. Additional 
funds were provided by the TERA and WPA. The architect was John 
P. Draney, of Poughkeepsie, and the work was completed in 1936. 

The solarium stands on the site of the famous colonnaded building, an 
imitation of the Parthenon, which for 30 years housed the Poughkeepsie 
Collegiate School. This school in 1866 was renamed the Riverview Military 
Academy, military instruction having been instituted four years previously, 
and in 1867 was transferred from College Hill to a new site on Lincoln 
Avenue (See Lincoln Center). The hill itself had already been sold to 
George Morgan in 1865 under the gavel of Josh Billings, auctioneer, (see 
p. 33), and the building was reopened, though unsuccessful, as the Col 
lege Hill Hotel. The subsequent plans of John Guy Vassar to estab 
lish posthumously an orphan asylum on the site were frustrated by the in 
validation of the relevant clauses of his will. 

South of the monument, on a large pedestal, is a bust of William W. 
Smith, cough-drop manufacturer, who in 1892 purchased the College Hill 
property and gave it to the city. 

Rock gardens and greenhouses, in which plants for all the city parks are 
raised, lie on the slope east of the solarium. The most noteworthy display is of 
dahlias in August and September. Below the main greenhouse, the Clarence 
Lown Memorial Rock Garden contains, besides many more or less rare 
European plants, a bed at the base of which is calcareous tufa, in which 
Alpine and rock garden plants flourish. 

The open reservoir on the north slope of the hill was formerly the main 
water supply of the city but now supplies only hydrants. A new reservoir, 
higher on the slope, is concealed from view. Both draw their water from 
the Hudson River. 

47 



L. from College Hill Park on North Clinton St., L. on Oakley St. 

35. The FENNER HOUSE, Oakley St. (L), one and one-half story 
Dutch Colonial homestead with gambrel roof and dormer windows, was 
built by Thomas Fenner prior to 1815. Though the walls are weatherbeaten, 
the house is well preserved; and the fine, simple lines of the Colonial style 
still give it a real distinction. 

R. from Oakley St. on Smith St., L. on Main St. 

36. The CLEAR EVERITT HOUSE (L), White and Main Sts. 
(open weekdays, 10 a. m.-12 m. and 3-5 p. m., admission free), a historic 
house-museum under the direction of the Daughters of the American Revolu 
tion, has been popularly believed to have been the residence of Gov. George 
Clinton from 1778 to 1783. Research by members of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution has failed to confirm the tradition, but it is said that 
original documents supporting it were destroyed by fire in Albany. Other 
sources indicate 448 Main St. as the Clinton residence. 

According to early records, for a number of years the Clear Everitt prop 
erty belonged to Udny Hay, an officer in the Continental Army, and the 
present house was built by him under remarkable circumstances. In 1780, 
Hay resigned his post in the army and, with his wife, came to Poughkeepsie 
as purchasing agent for the State of New York, buying at this time the Clear 
Everitt property from Hugh Van Kleeck, who had inherited it from Clear 
Everitt, his wife's father. A house then stood on it. Two years later this 
house was destroyed by fire, and the Hays rented the Glebe House (see 
below) while building a new one. Masons and carpenters being scarce during 
the war, Hay wrote General Washington for permission to use workmen 
from the army. This permission was granted and the present house was 
accordingly erected. In the cellar of Hay's rebuilt house as it stands today 
are huge hand-wrought beams, some of them charred ; it may reasonably be 
assumed that these beams were saved from the original house built by Van 
Kleeck and used again when the army workmen reconstructed the building. 
A stone in the front wall marked "VK" doubtless also came from the older 
house. 

Although dating from 1783, the Clear Everitt House is externally in the 
style of an earlier period. The attic section, like those of many early Dutchess 
County houses, is constructed of wood; the foundations, 2 feet thick, are of 
rough field stone, crudely laid, and held together with a mixture of clay 
and gravel with a minimum of lime. The walls of the house are of the same 
materials and workmanship as the foundations, though pointed up recently 
on the outside ; and the typical Dutch doors are also suggestive of pre- 
Revolutionary Dutchess County. 

The first floor is divided by a broad central hall, with a dining room and 
parlor on one side and a large reception room on the other. One of the four 
rooms on the second floor is a museum-bedroom, which contains 18th century 
furniture, including a canopied bed and two heavy armoires. The downstairs 
rooms, though fitted out roughly as a museum, do not represent any attempt 
at a reconstruction of the actual period scene. A number of original state 

48 



documents and papers with signatures of both Governors George and DeWitt 
Clinton, pictures, Revolutionary relics and weapons, and 18th and 19th 
century furniture, are exhibited in the various rooms. The furniture includes 
Windsor, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Empire pieces, as well as two square 
pianos of early American make. There is also a large collection of household 
implements and dishes of Colonial days. 

Probably the most notable piece in the collection is the south mantelpiece 
in the large reception room, saved from the pre-Revolutionary house of 
Henry Livingston (site of the present office of the Phoenix Horseshoe 
Works) when it was torn down in 1910. Slender double columns, narrower 
at their bases than at their tops, ornament each side of the mantel, and 
Greek urn designs are carved in the cornice board. The north mantel in 
this room, as indicated by the pineapple carvings, is probably from about 1800. 
The mantel in the east reception room is said to date from 1812, and that 
in the dining room has the oakleaf and acorn carving typical of American 
furniture of the period of 1790 to 1815. 

The Mahwenawasigh Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu 
tion, chartered in 1894, obtained possession of the house in 1900 and trans 
ferred it in the same year to the State of New York. The society has restored 
and somewhat altered the exterior, installed and arranged the collection, and 
maintains the museum. 

37. The GLEBE HOUSE, 635 Main St. (admission free), built in 
1767 as the rectory of the English Church, later Christ Church (see p. 38), 
i probably the most charming house in Poughkeepsie. The simple story-and- 
a-half structure of red brick in the usual Flemish bond reveals indoor room 
and hall proportions that give an illusion of spaciousness common to the 
houses of its period but later lost. Two fine, large, cheerful rooms flank a 
broad central hall, well lighted by large window sashes with finely made 
and inconspicuous wood mullions, each with its ample fireplace. The rear 
room and the large square kitchen show an equal regard for space and 
freedom. A Dutch oven in the kitchen lies in the large chimney above an 
other Dutch oven and firehole in the cellar. Upstairs a four-room attic split 
by a broad hall-landing presents a variety of floor levels and wall propor 
tions due evidently to the numerous additions and remodellings to which 
the house has been subjected. 

Under the custody of the Dutchess County Historical Society and the 
Junior League, much interior restoration has been carried out and the be 
ginnings of a historical collection undertaken. Of the few pieces of furniture 
at present in the carefully painted and papered rooms, the most important is 
a large and very beautiful Hepplewhite sideboard. An equally beautiful hand 
rail, strikingly suited to the gracious simplicity of the hall, though it dates 
probably from about 1810, borders the stairs. 

The exterior of the house, showing at close view many restorations, con 
forms generally to the original. The lean-to in the rear and a small ex 
tension on one side, both of frame, are evidently later additions. The re 
cessed front door and its porch, of Colonial design, are part of a recent 
restoration. 

49 



One of the oldest houses standing in the city, the Glebe house was built 
on land of the English Church in 1767. Its first tenant, the Rev. John 
Beardsley, was exiled 10 years later because of his Royalist leanings. For 
a few years thereafter it was occupied by Revolutionary officers, and served 
again as Christ Church rectory from 1787 to 1791. In 1796 Christ Church 
sold the house, which, under various owners, remained a private residence 
until 1929, when, by a popular subscription, it was purchased for the city. 

Sharp R. from Main St. on Church St., R. on Market St. to Court House. 

Additional Points of Interest 

38. The OLD LADIES' HOME, Hamilton and Montgomery Sts., 
occupies the large colonnaded red brick building of the old Dutchess 
County Academy. It is open to Protestants over 60, in good health, who 
have lived in Poughkeepsie at least 5 years. The admission fee is $500, and 
residents must transfer all their property to the Home. 

The institution was founded in 1871, chiefly through the efforts of Miss 
Alice M. Fowler. The building and a permanent endowment fund of 
$20,000 were donated by Jonathan A. Warner. In 1897 the Home was 
enlarged and the endowment fund increased by W. W. Smith. 

The building was erected in 1836 to house the Dutchess County Academy 
and was used by the Academy until its close in 1866. From 1866 until 1871 
it was rented by the city for use as a public high school. Many of the orig 
inal panes of glass, marked by the initials and scribblings of former Academy 
pupils, remain in the windows. 

39. SMITH BROTHERS, INC., 134 North Hamilton St. (visitors 
welcome), are doubtless the best known cough drop manufacturers in the 
country. The business was established before 1850 by William Wallace Smith 
and Andrew Smith, the famous bearded "Trade" and "Mark." The two 
well-known faces were actual representations from photographs. The cough 
drops were first made in a basement by hand; now hand labor is eliminated, 
and they are manufactured by the ton in this modern factory built in 1914. 

40. The DIVISIONAL PRODUCE MARKET, Smith St. just south 
of College Hill, a PWA project, providing a central distribution point for 
local produce, occupies 2 acres of graded and paved land easily accessible to 
all nearby State roads and adjacent to the Central New England Railroad. 
It was completed in the winter of 1936-37 as an adjunct to the considerably 
larger primary or regional PWA market in Newburgh. 

41. The CITY HOME AND INFIRMARY occupies 32 acres of 
ground at Maple St. and Jewett Ave. North and east of the tree-shaded build 
ings in the style of the Civil War period lie 10 acres of cultivated fields 
bounded by a rocky slope used as pasture land. The group of buildings, of vari 
ous dates, constructed to provide a cheerful and comfortable atmosphere, com 
prises the largest public institution of the city. The latest addition, com 
pleted under the PWA in 1936, is the infirmary, which was carefully 
planned to equal a modern private hospital in comfort and efficiency. The 
capacity of the Home, exclusive of the infirmary, is 120. 

50 



The City Home was placed in 1930 under the supervision of the Board 
of Public Welfare. From 1854 to 1900 the board which directed this work 
was known as the "Almshouse Commissioners," and from 1900 to 1930 as 
the "Board of Charities." In 1901 the old "Almshouse" became the "City 
Home." The purpose of the institution, little changed during the years, has 
been to care for people in temporary or chronic need, investigate cases of 
poverty, place the mentally or physically ill where they may receive care, and 
attend to transients. Since the enlargement of the infirmary, many cases of 
non-contagious diseases formerly sent to local hospitals have been adequately 
attended to in the Home. 

42. The DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH, Hooker and Hanscom 
Aves., was built in 1922. Of native stone, it is in a style known as English 
Parish Gothic. The square tower appears to have been a tradition in the 
Dutch church buildings in Poughkeepsie, of which the present church is the 
fifth. 

43. The PRINGLE MEMORIAL HOME, 153 Academy St., a three- 
story, yellow clapboard frame building with wide, white verandas, was or 
ganized in 1899 by Clarence Fenton as a home for "aged, indigent, literary 
and professional gentlemen." Originally a private house, ft has nothing of the 
appearance of an institution. The name was given in memory of Mr. Fen- 
ton's aunt and uncle, who had left funds for the establishment of such an 
asylum. Membership is limited to nine. Applicants are required to be be 
tween the ages of 65 and 80 and in good health, and must pay an admis 
sion fee of $1,000. 

44. HOUSE OF TIMOTHY COLE, 39 Ferris Lane. In this tiny 
gray stucco house with unusual rolling roof, Timothy Cole, world-renowned 
wood-engraver, lived from 1917 until his death in 1931. Cole was born in 
London, England, in 1852, and when 4 years old was brought to America 
by his parents. He was educated in New York and Chicago, but was a self- 
taught engraver. Developing his own technique, he became the great master 
of the white-line engraving. In 1875 he became a member of the staff of the 
Century Magazine, and was assigned by the publishers to make engravings 
of the paintings of the great European masters. He is best known for these 
reproductions, which have been published in book form with comments by 
the engraver. 

The type of art Cole represented was brought to an end by the introduction 
of process engraving, but in the quality of his work, as in the delicacy and 
softness of his medium, he remains unsurpassed. 

45. The QUAKER MEETING HOUSE, Hooker Ave. and Whittier 
PL, is a simple, square red brick structure set in a neat lawn, shaded by a 
grove of Norway spruces. Designed by Alfred Bisselle of New York, it 
was erected in 1927. The general style of the 18th century Quaker meeting 
house has been followed, with its broad, harmonious proportions. The lines 
of the building, the Flemish bond, white marble trim, and white shutters, with 
the main architectural effect produced not by decoration but by proportion 
and tone, all approximate the Georgian type. The buff and white interior is 
neat and inviting. 

51 



Adjoining the meeting room on the left is a large Sunday school room, 
separated by an adjustable partition which permits the whole to be con 
verted into a single commodious auditorium when occasion requires. The 
old practice of separating the sexes, usual in the prototypes of this meeting 
house, has been abandoned, so that the meeting room, with its attractive 
white pews and pulpit, is similar to the interiors of other churches. 

The simple yard has been laid out with the same care apparent in the 
construction of the building. Well groomed conifers shade the street front. 
A low brick-and-marble terrace, before which stand two dainty Chinese 
poplars, bounds the shrub-planted lawn at the entrance. 

46. VASSAR BROTHERS HOSPITAL, Reade PL and Lincoln Ave., 
stands in 32 acres of pleasantly cultivated grounds overlooking the Hudson. 
The red brick buildings are bordered by a limestone wall on the river 
side. It was founded by Matthew Vassar, Jr., as Vassar Hospital; but, in 
accordance with the provisions of his will, the name was changed when his 
brother, John Guy Vassar, added an endowment. The hospital was incor 
porated in 1882, and the main building erected in 1884. A library and 
laboratory building was erected in 1899, and the hospital capacity was 
nearly doubled by additions in 1907. The hospital maintains 225 beds and 
the usual services, carried on by a staff of 38 attending surgeons and physi 
cians. 

47. The LANE BROTHERS HARDWARE COMPANY, near the 
foot of Prospect St., was the third manufacturer of steam automobiles in 
America. Following the expensive Stanley and White steamers of 1894-5, 
the Lane machine, a lighter and cheaper model, appeared in 1900. Auto 
mobile manufacturing started here as a result of the delay of the Stanley 
Company in filling an order of William L. Lane, who, becoming impatient, 
decided to make his own machine. In 1901 the Lane car was awarded a first 
class certificate by the Automobile Club of America in the New York- 
Buffalo endurance contest. With the increase of gasoline powered auto 
mobiles, production of the Lane car was discontinued. The company, under 
another management and under the name Lanebro, continues other manu 
facturing in the same plant. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

48. The KIMLIN CIDER MILL, Cedar Ave., 1.3 m. from its inter 
section with Hooker Ave. (open 10 a. m.-8 p. m. except Mondays; admission 
free), a local show place with "atmosphere," is a favorite rendezvous of Vas 
sar College students. It houses the largest miscellaneous exhibit of historical 
and antiquarian collections in the vicinity of Poughkeepsie. Many of the 
mounted birds and animals have been acquired from Vassar Brothers Institute. 
(see above.) The innumerable antiques crowd the low-ceilinged rooms. Re 
freshments are sold, with cider a specialty. 

49. The POUGHKEEPSIE RURAL CEMETERY occupies about 
150 acres of woodland between the Post Road and the Hudson River, 1.5 

52 



miles south of the Court House. Non-denominational, this is the only large 
cemetery of Poughkeepsie. It was incorporated in 1853 and is privately 
owned by a plot-owners' corporation. 

Attractive plantings, a charming pond, the partly cleared oak woods, and 
the magnificent views of river and city from the river bluff, more than com 
pensate for the relative lack of historic interest in this cemetery. 

In Section L, due west of the entrance gate, is the Vassar Acorn, so called 
from the sculpture adorning it, where lie the graves of Matthew Vassar, 
founder of the college, and his wife. The Livingston plot is surrounded by a 
hedge on the high ground in the northwest corner of the cemetery. The 
grave of Henry Livingston, an early land owner and a prominent figure in 
the Colonial history of Poughkeepsie, is surrounded by those of about 70 of 
his relatives and descendants, among them the eminent jurist, Smith Thomp 
son. Nearby is the nursery, where many varieties of ornamental trees, shrubs, 
and grasses are grown. 

A road winds up from the pond to Mine Point, a high bluff overlooking 
the river and offering an unsurpassed view of the entire long reach of the 
Hudson, 5 miles north to the bend of Crum Elbow and 6 miles south to 
the west bank promontory, Danskammer. This splendid expanse is framed 
on the west by the highlands of Orange and Ulster Counties; on the south 
and beyond Newburgh Bay, by Mount Beacon and the Storm King; and in 
the north distance, by the towering Catskills, visible on clear days. From 
this eminence the entire waterfront of Poughkeepsie is visible in clear per 
spective, with the two great bridges spanning the river to the left and the 
city spread out in wooded undulations eastward. Directly opposite, the high 
bluff on the west bank is the Juffrouw's Hook mentioned in many early 
documents. 

The white marble mausoleum on the summit of Mine Point, conspicuous 
from the river and from the southern waterfront of the city, was erected 
recently as a private memorial. It was designed in a semi-modern style by 
Presbery Leland of New York. A railed terrace beneath the monument has 
been designated as the Lovers' Leap of popular tradition. Two young Indian 
lovers, thwarted by the chiefs of the tribe, are said to have leaped to death 
from this point. 

50. SAMUEL W. BOWNE MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, Pendell Rd. 
just off Violet Ave. (State 9 F), (visitors admitted 3-5 p. m. daily) is a city- 
owned hospital for the treatment of tuberculosis. The hospital buildings are 
situated in a commanding position on a high knoll, the grounds including 32 
acres of land. The present capacity is 135 beds, 52 of which, housed in the 
Preventorium, are for children, and 83 for adults. The hospital was opened 
in 1909 as a camp for those suffering from tuberculosis. In 1911 Mrs. 
Bowne, widow of Samuel W. Bowne, who had been a partner of Scott & 
Bowne, makers of Scott's Emulsion, erected the first of the present build 
ings in memory of her husband. 

The Nettie Bowne Hospital on the same plot of land is a private sani 
tarium with 50 beds. Opened in 1928, it specializes in the treatment of 
chest diseases and cardiac troubles. 

53 



VASSAR COLLEGE 



The Vassar College campus is open to visitors, who may inspect the 
buildings and grounds, including the gardens and arboretum. Upon 
application to the Message Center in the Main Building, a guide will 
be provided. The campus of the college is closed to automobiles on 
Sundays and holidays. This regulation is a tradition of the college in the 
interest of maintaining an atmosphere of quiet one day a week. Parking 
space is provided outside the college gate for the convenience of visitors. 

Vassar College was founded by Matthew Vassar, a Poughkeepsie brewer, 
in 1861. The breaking out of the Civil War delayed the opening of the 
college until the fall of 1865. Though lacking a formal education himself, 
Mr. Vassar's innate wisdom led him to provide for others the advantages he 
had never enjoyed. He was influenced in his decision to found a college for 
women by his niece, Lydia Booth, and by Dr. Milo P. Jewett, head of the 
Cottage Hill Seminary in Poughkeepsie. Although he had many far-reaching 
ideas about the education of women which he expressed with complete free 
dom, at its first meeting Mr. Vassar transferred to the Board of Trustees 
all the funds for the college without restrictions or reservations. 

One year before the opening of the college, Dr. Jewett resigned from 
the presidency and from the Board of Trustees; and the Board elected John 
H. Raymond, then president of the Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, as his 
successor. Since the organization of the college, the choice of faculty, and 
the determination of policy fell on Dr. Raymond, he is often spoken of as 
the first rather than the second president of Vassar. 

The enrollment for the first year was over 300. In the second year four 
women received the A. B. degree: the two survivors of this class attended 
their 70th reunion in June 1937. 

For three years Mr. Vassar enjoyed close touch with the college and the 
company of his "daughters." On the day before the commencement of 1868, 
he died while reading his annual address at a meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Dr. Raymond died in 1878. His successor, Dr. Samuel L. Caldwell, 
served for 7 years. During the 28-year (1886-1914) administration of Dr. 
James M. Taylor, the enrollment increased so rapidly that it was necessary 
to limit the student body to 1,000. In 1915, Dr. Henry Noble MacCracken 
was elected to the presidency, which he still retains. 

The distinctive feature of the administration of Vassar College is its liberal 
democratic organization. The faculty is in control of educational matters. 
The students have self-government, an uncensored press, and are largely 
consulted in curriculum content. Through joint and advisory committees much 
responsibility is delegated to the community as a whole. The Students' Asso 
ciation, of which all students are members, charters various clubs, such as 
the Glee Club, the Art Club, and Le Cercle Francais, as well as the student 
publications, which include the Miscellany News, a semi-weekly newspaper, 
the Vassar Review, and others. There are no sororities at Vassar College. 

54 



Between classes the campus hums with bicycles operated under a system 
of licenses and traffic regulations administered by the students. There are no 
student-owned automobiles. 

The religious life of the college centers in the Vassar Community 
Church. In accordance with the intention of Matthew Vassar, the college, 
while distinctly Christian in government, has no denominational affiliation. 
Attendance at all chapel services is voluntary. The daily chapel services are 
led by the faculty and students. For the Sunday services the church brings to 
the college prominent leaders of religious thought. 

During the summer months the Vassar Institute of Euthenics provides six 
weeks of study, chiefly for college graduates who, as parents, teachers, or 
social workers, are interested in the problems of rearing children and the 
conduct of the family. During these six weeks the Wimpfheimer Nursery 
School holds a summer session, and trained teachers care for the children of 
mothers who are attending the summer Institute. 

Among the 9,021 (1927) living alumnae of Vassar College are included 
women of distinction in various fields. Poetry has been represented by 
Adelaide Crapsey and Edna St. Vincent Millay, and literature by Con 
stance Rourke. Pioneers and leaders in their chosen fields were Ellen Swallow 
Richards, Julia Lathrop, and Katherine Bement Davis. Administrative and 
executive positions are occupied by Josephine Roche, Ruth Taylor, and three 
college presidents: Katharine Blunt, Constance Warren, and Mildred Mc 
Afee. 

From the time of Harriet Stanton Blatch, '78, a pioneer, through that of 
Inez Millholland Boissevain, '09, until suffrage was an accomplished fact, 
members of the college took an active part in the campaign for the enfran 
chisement of women. In addition to their contribution to the general field of 
education, Vassar students and alumnae have increasingly participated in 
social and civic affairs. 

The Vassar student body is now limited to 1,150. The faculty numbers 
180 members, who teach in 31 departments. Vassar draws its students from 
private and public schools throughout this country and from abroad. The 
curriculum, several times revised, maintains the principles of distribution and 
concentration as essentials in liberal education, but leaves the choice of par 
ticular subjects and of special fields to individual election. The curriculum 
is divided into four groups of subjects: the Arts, the Foreign Languages and 
Literature, the Natural Sciences, and the Social Sciences. Credit is given for 
applied art and music, for the writing and production of plays in the Ex 
perimental Theatre of the English department, and for participation in the 
Nursery School, used by college students as a laboratory for child study. 

The aim of the plan of study is to secure for the student powers of self- 
direction, and to avoid the cramping effects of regimentation. The scope of 
the curriculum may establish direct connection with whatever life work the 
student may choose. If she plans a career in one of the professions, she may 
lay the foundation for further study. If her next step is to be a job, she may 
obtain training which will be invaluable when she comes to the problem of 

55 



earning her living. If she looks forward to marriage, she may prepare her 
self fully for the responsibilities of a home and family and citizenship. 

Tour of Campus 

The 950 acres of land owned by the college include, beside the campus 
proper, a 9-hole golf course, two small lakes, a large farm, two large 
faculty residences, and 27 other buildings. On the campus are 18 academic 
buildings, 4 social buildings, and 8 residence halls, as well as gardens and 
an outdoor theatre seating more than 3,000. The Vassar College buildings, 
erected over a period of 70 years, are notable for their variety of architectural 
style. 

The triple-arched gateway running through Taylor Hall (L) on Ray 
mond Avenue, is the main entrance to the campus. TAYLOR HALL (1) 
houses the art department. Loan exhibitions are shown throughout the col 
lege year. Outstanding in the permanent collections are three bronze por 
traits by Jo Davidson ; a bronze figure of a woman by Lachaise ; several 
notable Rembrandt prints; water colors by Turner from the personal col 
lection of John Ruskin; and a collection of the paintings of the Hudson 
River School, including some of George Inness. The most important paint 
ings in the large gallery are : Taddeo Gaddi's San Taddeo; St. John the 
Baptist by Bartolomeo Vivarini ; two Ulysses panels from the school of Piero 
di Cosimo; View of the Scuola di San Rocco by Marieschi ; Mattia Preti's 
Erminea and the Shepherds; a Landscape by Salvator Rosa; a portrait by 
Pourbus; Courbet's Jumping Jack; and a Landscape by Wilson. 

The gray, pinnacled THOMPSON MEMORIAL LIBRARY (2) was 
donated by Mrs. Mary Clark Thompson in memory of her husband, 
Frederick Ferris Thompson, a late trustee and friend of the college. Warmth 
of color is added to the gray stone and oak interior by five 17th century 
Flemish tapestries which tell the Cupid and Psyche story, and by a stained 
glass window in the west wing which represents the conferring of the doc 
torate upon a young Venetian woman by the University of Padua in 1678. 

The library contains 200,000 volumes, including several valuable collec 
tions: the Justice collection of material relating to the periodical press, the 
Village Press collection printed by Frederic W. Goudy, of Marlboro, N. Y., 
and a Browning collection. 

VAN INGEN HALL (3), a new wing connecting the Thompson 
Library and Taylor Hall, provides additional space for the art department 
and the main library. 

The MAIN BUILDING (4) is one of the academic buildings completed 
before the opening of the college in 1865. James Renwick, Jr., architect of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York, based his design on the famous 
Tuileries palace. To this old building clings much of the history of the 
college, and old graduates returning, although delighting in improvements to 
the interior, feel very much at home at the sight of old Main. Until 1893 
practically all the students and many faculty members lived in this building. 

56 




"Blodgett Hall Arcli, Vassar College 




Students' Building, Vassar College 



Now it accommodates about 350 students, business and administration of 
fices, the post office, the Cooperative Bookshop, the Raymond Reading Room, 
and several reception rooms. 

ROCKEFELLER HALL (5) was designed by York and Sawyer of 
New York in modified early English Renaissance style. This building con 
tains class and lecture rooms and offices for many of the academic depart 
ments. 

Rockefeller Hall forms the southern end of the dormitory quadrangle 
with RAYMOND (6) and DAVISON HOUSES (7) on the west, 
and STRONG (8) and LATHROP (9) on the east, all very 
similar in architecture. Each houses about 95 students. Since 1933 Raymond 
has been a cooperative house, the students doing all the housework except 
the cooking. This plan was started because of the depression, but has proved 
so satisfactory that it is being continued indefinitely. Since no student may 
live in Raymond who is not doing satisfactory academic work, to be as 
signed to this house is an honor. 

The quadrangle enclosed by these buildings is said to be the site of the 
field in which the daisies were picked for the first daisy chain carried by 
sophomores on Class Day. 

MILO P. JEWETT HOUSE (10), another dormitory, closes the 
quadrangle on the northern end. It is constructed of red brick with white 
stone trimmings. The central tower, originally built to support a tank for 
the college water supply, was not tall enough to provide the necessary water 
pressure, but its height, compared with that of the other buildings, has 
brought it much unfavorable criticism. It commands a remarkable view of 
the surrounding country. 

OLIVIA JOSSELYN HOUSE (11), which accommodates 132 students, 
was given by Mrs. Russell Sage in memory of her granddaughter. This 
dormitory, a red brick building, was designed by Allen & Collens in a 
modified Gothic style. Back of Josselyn to the north are tennis courts and a 
hockey field, shielded from the street by rows of lilac bushes. 

The STUDENTS' BUILDING (12) reveals its purpose in its name. 
Designed by McKim, Mead, & White of New York, its architecture is 
as simple and dignified as the Colonial town hall from which it was derived. 
The interior is finished in white paneled wood. The auditorium, seating 
1,200, is used for concerts and lectures. It contains a stage fully equipped 
for the plays given by Philaletheis, and furnishes ample space for the "junior 
prom" and other important dances. The auditorium is flanked by offices for 
the various student organizations, and the Council Room, for small student 
meetings, is on the second floor. 

Students' Building faces the CIRCLE (13), a lawn encircled by flower 
beds, shrubs, and pine trees. In the early days of Vassar a Floral Society 
cultivated these beds. At a time when athletics as practiced today would 
not have been considered "ladylike" and yet one hour daily outdoor exercise 

57 



was required, this work in the garden was very popular. Today, under the 
supervision of the Superintendent of Grounds, the Circle is one of the most 
beautiful spots on the campus. The lawn which it encircles is used as an ath 
letic field for track, baseball, and archery. 

GUSHING HOUSE (14), designed by Allen & Collens, is the newest 
dormitory. The exterior, constructed of red brick and half timber, is of 
Tudor design. The rooms, almost all single, accommodate 125 students. 

HELEN KENYON HALL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION (15), 
named for a member of the class of 1905, is of red brick and built on the 
unit plan. One of the four great wings built around the central dressing 
rooms is used for individual exercise and rhythmic work. In the other wings 
are basketball, tennis, handball, and squash courts and a large swimming 
pool. Under these courts run bowling alleys and an archery range. 

The MILDRED ROSALIE WIMPFHEIMER NURSERY 
SCHOOL (16), a small gray stone building, provides classrooms and play 
equipment for about 30 children from the ages of two to five, who come from 
the families of the faculty and of residents of Poughkeepsie. The Nursery 
School serves as a laboratory for students taking courses in child study. In 
this school Vassar has made a very successful experiment in co-education. 

The MINNIE CUMNOCK BLODGETT HALL OF EUTHENICS 
(17) furnishes facilities for education and research in the field of euthenics, 
a word which has been defined as "the application of knowledge to the better 
ment of human living." Blodgett Hall contains a demonstration theater, a 
large lecture hall, classrooms, laboratories for research, and studios for de 
sign and interior decoration. The north wing houses the physiology depart 
ment with classrooms and a well-equipped laboratory. In this building a 
group of about 30 students live under a cooperative system. Under the super 
vision of the director of euthenics they order the food, which they cook and 
serve, plan the menus, and control entirely the expenditure for food. 

The WARDEN'S HOUSE (18), with its cedar-hedged garden, is the 
private residence of the college warden. 

The OBSERVATORY (19) is the only academic building beside Main 
finished before the opening of the college. First professor of astronomy was 
Maria Mitchell, distinguished, not only as a scientist, but also as an ardent 
advocate of woman suffrage. She was the first woman whose bust was 
placed in the Hall of Fame in New York. The first years of her life were 
spent on her native island, Nantucket, where she got her early training in 
the observatory of her father, William Mitchell. At the age of 10 she was 
both teacher and pupil in his school, and in her thirteenth year she was 
keeping records of his observations. Before she was 30, international fame 
came to her through discovery of a comet for which she received a gold 
medal from the King of Denmark. The degree of LL.D., conferred upon 
her by Hanover College, was probably the first degree of its kind ever 

58 



conferred upon a woman by an American college. Professor Mitchell with 
drew from active duties at the age of 70, less than two years before her death. 
A bust of her, the work of Emma Brigham, a former student, stands in a 
niche in front of the Observatory. 

METCALF HOUSE (20) was given to Vassar in 1916 by former United 
States Senator and Mrs. Jesse Metcalf, of Providence, R. I., as an expression 
of gratitude to the medical department for the care given their daughter Cor 
nelia during a serious illness. Miss Metcalf became the wife of New York 
State Senator Frederic H. Bontecou, of Millbrook. The building contains a 
pathological laboratory, an apartment for the resident physician, and rooms 
for convalescents and rest cases. 

The SWIFT MEMORIAL INFIRMARY (21) is the hospital for 
members of the college family. 

ELY HALL (22) is now the health center, with offices for the medical 
staff and the nurses' suite. It houses also three art studios and class rooms, 
offices, and a laboratory for the geology department. Its name recalls to 
those who knew her, one of Vassar's distinguished graduates, Achsah M. 
Ely, professor of mathematics, 1887-1904. 

Back of Main are the buildings classed as the business group, including 
the laundry, the service building, and the heating plant. This last was the 
first central heating plant constructed in America. Nearby is the little 
ELEANOR CONSERVATORY (23) and the GOODFELLOWSHIP 
CLUB HOUSE (24), built by the Students' Association in 1902 as a club 
house for the employees of the college, both men and women. Here a trained 
supervisor lives, creating a home atmosphere for the members. She is as 
sisted by students, who conduct classes, direct the annual Good fellowship 
Club play, and often share in the social life of the house. 

The Lombard Romanesque ALIDA C. AVERY HALL (25) is one of 
the three oldest buildings on the campus. Although it has borne several 
names and has been used in many different ways, its exterior is scarcely 
changed since the time it was built during the first year of the college. It was 
then called Riding School and Gymnasium, but contained also a bowling 
alley, rooms for the department of music, and rooms for the families of em 
ployees. The New York Times reported the Riding School as "the most beau 
tiful in this country, second in size only to that of West Point." But in 7 
years it proved a financial failure; and the student paper of January 1873, 
contains the following mournful item: "The glory of Vassar has departed. 
Its Riding School is no more. False economy. Would the Art Gallery be 
abolished if it did not pay?" Today the building contains the Experimental 
Theatre; its director, Hallie Flanagan, has been granted an extended leave 
of absence to carry on her work as National Director of the Federal Theatre 
Project under the Works Progress Administration. The building houses 
also the classrooms and offices of the Greek and Latin departments with their 
fine collection of ancient vases, glass, coins, armor, and household utensils; 

59 



the offices of the English department, and the classrooms, offices, and work 
shop of the classes in Dramatic Production. 

South of Main stands the science quadrangle, the ground sloping away 
behind it to the Outdoor Theatre and the Shakespeare Garden. The earliest 
of these buildings is VASSAR BROTHERS LABORATORY (26), given 
for the use of the departments of chemistry and physics by the two nephews 
of Mr. Vassar, Matthew Vassar, Jr., and John Guy Vassar, both charter 
trustees of the college until their deaths. 

The SANDERS LABORATORY OF CHEMISTRY (27) contains 
laboratories and lecture rooms and has special laboratories for water analysis, 
study of foods, electrolysis, and physical chemistry. 

The HENRY M. SANDERS LABORATORY OF PHYSICS (28) 
contains laboratories and lecture rooms. 

Directly west of Vassar Brothers Laboratory is the NEW ENGLAND 
BUILDING (29), the gift of the New England alumnae. Over the door 
is set a piece of Plymouth Rock broken off prior to 1859, when the canopy 
was erected over it. The name of the vandal who procured this relic is not 
known. The building houses the departments of botany and zoology as well 
as the museum of natural history. 

The PRESIDENT'S HOUSE (30) stands near the southwest corner of 
Main Building. 

The CHAPEL (31) was dedicated in the fall of 1904. It is constructed 
of yellow Weymouth granite trimmed with limestone. The exterior is de 
signed like an English parish church in the Norman style. The interior is 
Gothic with hammer-beam-trusses copied from Westminster Hall, London. 
The stained glass windows are from the Tiffany studios, three of them de 
signed by LaFarge. The organ of 4,538 pipes has been rebuilt as a gift from 
the donors of the chapel. A rose window on the west was given by the trus 
tees to commemorate the twentieth year of the administration of President 
Taylor. The facade of the chapel faces north, with a square three-story bell 
tower on the western side. The tower contains a memorial room with tablets 
commemorating members of the college who have rendered conspicuous 
service to the college or to the outer world. In the upper part of the towei 
is a room used for religious services by the students. Here visiting preachers 
hold weekly conferences on Sunday evenings. 

The BELLE SKINNER HALL OF MUSIC (32) is designed in modi 
fied French Gothic after Mont St. Michel in France. It contains a large 
recital hall, classrooms, offices, rooms for instruction and practice, and a 
collection of old musical instruments. A library of books and music includes 
the Chittenden Pianoforte Library and the Dannreuther Collection of 
Chamber Music. The building is equipped with an auditorium and a sound- 
reproducing system, a four-manual concert organ with self-playing attach 
ment, phonographs, player pianos, and a stereopticon. 

60 



South of Skinner Hall are the COLLEGE GREENHOUSES (33), and 
across the street is a FARM (34) stretching over more than 900 acres, 
which supplies the college with many of its vegetables, poultry, and dairy 
products. 

To the north along Raymond Avenue and extending up College Avenue 
are KENDRICK HOUSE (35) and WILLIAMS HOUSE (36), faculty 
residences, and the DEAN'S HOUSE (37). 

ALUMNAE HOUSE (38) is on the Rock Lot between Raymond and 
College View Avenues, overlooking the campus. Both this house and Wil 
liams are in early half-timbered style. Alumnae House was given by two 
sisters, Mrs. Blanche Ferry Hooker, '94, and Mrs. Queene Ferry Coonley, 
'98. Many of the rooms have been furnished in memory of classmates and 
friends. A Japanese room was given in memory of the Princess Oyama, for 
merly Stematz Yamakawa of the class of 1882. The living room is a copy 
of a room in the Davanzatti Palace in Florence, and is furnished with 
antiques, reproductions of Spanish furniture, and a cryptic painting by Violet 
Oakley. The house is under the management of the Alumnae Association and 
is the home of its executive secretary. 

The OUTDOOR THEATRE (39) takes advantage of the hillside to 
form an amphitheatre and makes use of the pine trees and Sunset Lake as a 
backdrop for its stage. It was first used in 1915 to present a pageant during 
the fiftieth anniversary, which was celebrated that year. 

West of the theatre and enclosed by tall hedges is the terraced SHAKES 
PEARE GARDEN (40), begun in 1916, the year of the Shakespeare 
Tercentenary, by Shakespeare classes and classes in botany. At the foot of 
the hill is a tree said to be grown from a slip of the willow over Napoleon's 
tomb on St. Helena. Along this brook are cultivated, for experimental pur 
poses, most of the plants native to the county. The strip is known as the 
DUTCHESS COUNTY OUTDOOR ECOLOGICAL LABORA 
TORY (41). 

On the hillside south from the Shakespeare Garden and sloping down to 
Sunset Lake are the azaleas and rhododendrons planted for the class of 1875 
ARBORETUM (42). 

Most of the college buildings have been gifts from alumnae, trustees, and 
other friends of the college, who have not only contributed in this substan 
tial way, but have identified themselves with the activities and progress of 
the institution. 

The following paragraph, in the formal language of the day, appeared in 
u student magazine issued in 1873: "The artist who sketched the picture of 
our college as shown in the first page of the catalogue must have looked 
with the eye of faith to see waving elms and flourishing maples. The eye of 
flesh sees only here and there amidst the growing corn and trailing pumpkin 

61 



vines a few slender twigs. We can never picture our great great grand 
children wandering under spreading boughs." So spoke a pessimist, little 
realizing that not only her grandchildren but she herself might now walk 
for hours over the well-kept lawns and under the beautiful trees of the 
Vassar campus. 

BEACON 

Railroad Stations: New York Central, Ferry Plaza, foot of Beekman St.; New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, (freight only), 501 Main St.; connections with West Shore 
(N. Y. Central) and Erie at Newburgh via ferry. 

Bus Stations: Pizzuto Bus Lines, Bank Square, to Wappingers Falls and Poughkeepsie. 
City Busses: Ferry Plaza, to Glenham and Fishkill. Special bus service to U. S. 
Veterans' Hospital and Camp Nitgedaiget. 

Taxis: Ferry Plaza; independent lines, three zones, 25C, 400, 500. 

Steamboat Docks: Newburgh Ferry, foot of Beekman St., 6 a. m. to 1:45 a. m. Hudson 
River Dayline, via ferry to Newburgh, during summer after May i. 

Accommodations: Hotel Holland (E), 217 Main St., at South Elm St.; Dillon House 
(E), opposite new postoffice; Beacon View Hotel (E), 426 Main St.; Bennett Hotel 
(A & E), 248 Main St., at Walnut St.; Mount Beacon Cottages (E) ,on west spur 
of Mount Beacon, reached by incline railway. 

Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Recreation: Mount Beacon, via incline railway. (See Point of Interest No. 32.) 

Playground: Hammond Memorial Field, Verplanck Ave., N. side. 

Skiing: Junior ski course, along mountside, NE. Beacon. Ski-run, Mount Lane- 
Howland Ave. triangle, E. Beacon. 

Golf: Southern Dutchess County Club, North Ave., nine-hole. Greens fees $1.50; 
Sat., Sun., holidays $2. 

Tennis: Southern Dutchess Country Club; Hammond Memorial Field. 
Baseball: Wilke St. (Tompkins) Field, off Fishkill Ave. (State 52). 

Trap-Shooting: Southern Dutchess Sportsmen's Assn., oven-works range, Glenham 
(State 52). 

BEACON (350 alt., 11,933 pop.), the county's second largest com 
munity, marks the spot where Fishkill Creek flows into the Hudson. Mills 
and factories line the creek and river shores. The streets of frame cottages 
sheltered by elms and maples wind up and down and along the steep slopes 
of the two valleys. The better homes lie along the slope of the Hudson ; 
those of the middle class cover the slopes above the Fishkill ; and the poorer 
homes alternate with the mills along the creek-edge or hug the terraces 
which rise to the rugged side of Mount Beacon on the south. The city line ex 
tends far beyond the compact city streets, so that much of the corporate area 
is distinctly rural. 

Beacon is essentially a manufacturing community ; bricks and hats are now, 
as they have been for generations, the principal products, though the list 
exceeds 50. The brick industry is concentrated in one large plant at Denning 

62 



vin< 
chil 
rea 
for 
Va: 



Ne 
(N 

Bu 
Cii 
Ve 

Tc 

Sit 
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(I 

of 



Point on the Hudson. (See Points of Interest.) Of the few remaining hat 
factories, one occupies the site of Madam Brett's gristmill (See Point of In 
terest No. 12), and another a building in which handcut files were first 
manufactured in the United States. (See p. 66.) 

While almost every European nationality is represented, the Italians are 
by far the most conspicuous, comprising one-sixth of the population ; and 
their activities are those of the city. Americanization has been so rapid that 
old world customs are but faintly traceable. The influence of the early 
Dutch, Huguenot, and English settlers has been lost, other than in surviving 
names and buildings. An exception are the "mountaineers," who live on the 
flanks of Mount Beacon and look down upon the valley dwellers as "water- 
rats." These descendants of early English residents of Fishkill Landing and 
Matteawan, the two villages which were welded together in 1913 to form 
Beacon, are largely odd-job and day laborers and small-scale truck farmers, 
though some of them work in the city factories. 

Beacon has the distinction of being the first commission-governed city in 
New York State, as well as one of the first in the United States. The govern 
ment is managed by a board of five commissioners, each of whom has charge 
of specific details. The city council controls all public affairs excepting the 
department of education, which is under the supervision of the school 
board appointed by the mayor. A municipality owned water supply of 
three reservoirs is maintained in the nearby mountains. The climate is tem 
perate and the coolness of the mountains makes a summer resort of the city 
and vicinity. Over 70 percent of the city's 2,400 houses are owned by the oc 
cupants. 

River, creek, and mountains made of the site of Beacon and the sur 
rounding area a favorite resort of the Indians ; and not far from the mouth 
of the creek was located the village of a sub-chief of the Wappinger In 
dians. This good hunting, fishing, and trapping ground was called by the 
Indians Matteawan ( Mat-te-a-wan ) , the name later applied to one of the 
white men's villages. The Highlands were known by the Waranoaks of tnis 
section as the Matteawan Mountains. The name has been interpreted as 
"the place of furs," referring to beaver, once plentiful along the creek. An 
other claim is that it is derived from metal, a magician or medicine man, and 
wuin, a skin, hence "a place of enchanted skins." It is said also to have been 
derived from the stream passing through this area, from the nearby moun 
tains, and from the region itself. Interpretations are various: "river of shal 
lows," "the large water in the valley," "a good beaver ground," "goo3 
furs," "country of good fur," and a term applied to a junction of a stream 
with another or with a lake. 

The site of Beacon was included within the territory covered by the Rom- 
bout Patent; the land was purchased from the Indians in 1683. (See p. 6.) 
It is said that in the bargaining the Indians agreed to transfer to Rombout 
all "the land that he could see," but did not specify that his view was to be 
confined to the valley where he stood. Rombout led them to the summit of 

63 



South Beacon mountain, and extending his arm toward the northward and 
eastward, laid claim to the vast expanse of rolling hills and forests that lay 
beneath their gaze. The Indians had made their bargain and they held to it. 
The patent was based upon the wide boundaries of this purchase. 

The earliest recorded mention of this locality by a European was that made 
by the mate of the Half Moon, which on the trip down the river was com 
pelled by the whims of the weather to lie for a day in the vicinity of the 
present city of Beacon. (See p. 6.) The log of the voyage mentions the 
mountains and refers to the site of Beacon as an admirable townsite. 

For nearly three-quarters of a century after the visit of the Half Moon 
there were no permanent white settlers in Dutchess County. The first was 
Nicholas Emigh, who settled at the mouth of Fishkill Creek, within the 
present city limits, in 1682. Emigh, a Hollander and a soldier under Prince 
Rupert in the warfare against Cromwell, came to America with Robert 
Livingston about 1672. He was married on shipboard, and, with his wife, 
settled in this nearly unbroken wilderness. Their daughter was the first 
white child born within the precincts of Dutchess County. The next per 
manent settler was Peche Dewall, a squatter, who located at Fishkill Landing 
in the spring of 1688. His wife helped him to clear the forest and till his 
land. In the fall he had a tolerable crop; and in the winter he built a hand- 
sled and went to New York, bought a half-bushel of salt and a side of sole 
leather, and drew it home over a road then but an Indian trail. 

Development was slow. More Dutch, a few Huguenots, and some English 
settlers joined the trailbreakers ; but for many years Fishkill Landing played 
a mute role as the port of Fishkill Village, transporting flour and produce to 
New York and receiving foreign and manufactured goods. 

Active in the stirring preliminaries to the Revolution was Nathaniel 
Sackett, described by tradition as a jack of many trades and man of mystery 
who did his work under cover. He lived up on Fishkill Creek, in what be 
came Matteawan. He served as financial officer of the Committee of Con 
spiracies, member of the Flax Committee and of the Provincial Congresses 
and Assembly. When the news came to the Provincial Congress in New 
York of the Battle of Lexington, Nathaniel Sackett hastened back to Fish- 
kill like another Paul Revere, to spread the general alarm and organize the 
Committee of Observation. At the first meeting of this committee a Spartan 
woman declared with patriotic zeal that if exigencies required it her own 
sex would take up arms. 

In the summer of 1776 and on into 1777, the problem of the refugees and 
the poor from the city of New York was of considerable concern to the 
Colonials. A large number of these people were removed to Dutchess, and 
many were brought by water to Fishkill Landing. 

The war came close to the locality when the British moved up the Hud 
son in 1777. Almost all the men went to the defense of the Highland forts. 
When these fell and the British sailed up the river to burn Kingston, the 
people of the neighborhood hid their valuables in the woods. The approach 

64 



of the fleet was made known by the kindling of signal fires on the mountain 
tops. The present city takes its name from the fiery beacons that blazed forth 
from time to time on the summits of Breakneck Ridge to warn the Revolu 
tionary armies of the movements of the British. 

At the end of the war, when the proclamation of the end of hostilities was 
received, the people obeyed Washington's order and held an appropriate 
celebration. At night beacon lights proclaimed the news to the surrounding 
country. 

For nearly 30 years after the close of the Revolution the region continued 
its quiet rural life, the grist mills continued grinding their grain and the 
saw mills sawing their wood. The War of 1812 ushered in a new era. The 
Schenck mill on the creek at what later became Matteawan took on the added 
task of grinding grist for the fighting forces, and the flour industry hummed. 
But the influence of the war was much broader than that: it brought a con 
sciousness of self-sufficiency and internal strength; forward-looking in 
vestors and speculators began casting about them, seeking new resources 
and opportunities. And the war provided a field of activity by serving as an 
embargo against English textiles and giving domestic manufacturers a virtual 
monopoly of the home market for the time being. It was the beginning of 
the industrial age in America. 

To the attention of a small group of men was presented the possibilities 
of developing the power of Fishkill Creek, which drops rapidly from Glen- 
ham to the Hudson, with a fall of 40 feet in a short section where Schenck's 
gristmill already stood. Flour was nearly forgotten in the rush to turn out 
textiles. The first big mill was built at Glenham in 1811. The Matteawan 
Company, organized in 1812 by Peter A. Schenck, Philip Hone, John Jacob 
Astor, and others, erected a cotton mill in 1814 on the creek directly above 
Schenck's gristmill. Shortly thereafter they built a foundry on the east side 
of the creek, devoted largely to the production of cotton machinery. With 
the spread of the cotton craze, their machinery was distributed far beyond the 
bounds of the United States. 

Around the Matteawan factory grew Matteawan village, the name of 
which was originally restricted to the mills. The founders are reputed to have 
been Schenck and Leonard of the Matteawan Company. The Brett in 
fluence was represented in this development of the new country, since Peter 
A. Schenck's wife, Margaret Brett, was a granddaughter of Madam Brett. 

Fishkill, five miles back from the river, had long been the important vil 
lage of southern Dutchess. The lower settlements near the river did not 
amount to much, except for Fishkill Landing, where the sloops docked with 
merchandise and passengers to be hurried inland by wagon and coach. The 
new cotton mills stimulated the growth of the river communities. Another 
fillip was given by the introduction of steam, as a result of which river traffic 
grew in volume and importance. The Bretts (See Teller House, p. 74) and 
their associates were quick to turn to the new mode ; and the lower settle 
ments began to outrun Fishkill. 

65 



The power sites that were the chief stimulus to the development of Mat- 
teawan attracted other industries besides the textile mills. John Rothery, of 
Sheffield, England, built his file works in 1835 near the Matteawan factory. 
Various other industries located in the neighborhood : an oil mill, a clay mill, 
cooperages, tanneries, a leather belting manufactory, a shoe factory, soap 
and candle makers, and a brewery. 

Quantities of clay and sand of good quality were at hand, and brickyards 
were established near the landings in the late 1830's. At Gowdy's yard, and 
its successor, the Lomas yard, the pace was set in brickmaking: here was 
first introduced the circular pit and wheel, with horses on a sweep, for 
mixing materials, and a hand-press for moulding the brick. Previously the 
clay and sand had been mixed by driving oxen through it and moulding it 
by hand, a slow and laborious process. The next stage in the development of 
the industry was the use of the Adams contrivance of circular pit and 
wheel, mixing and moulding in one operation ; then the Chambers machine, 
mixing and die-cutting the brick in a continuous stream. 

After the financial crisis of 1837 the forties ushered in a golden age. The 
cotton craze continued, and in '41 and '42 a dam and factory devoted to 
cotton spinning were erected at Wiccopee, below Matteawan, now included 
in Beacon. At Byrnesville, the southern section of the present Beacon, flour 
mills were dismantled and cotton machinery installed. Freighting at the 
landings was stimulated by this industrial boom. About 1844, Alfred Lomas, 
operating a pin factory near the "Five Corners" (Bank Square), invented a 
machine to turn out 150 pins a minute. At Wiccopee in 1851 was begun the 
manufacture of rubber goods. In 1853, at the Upper Landing, a foundry 
was started for the manufacture of stationary and marine engines. The 
famous Fishkill Corliss engines were made here. During the Civil War this 
foundry turned out ordnance: and from the landing nearby, the steamboat 
Will:am Kent went into service carrying troops. 

After the war, in a new era of iron and steel, industry took another spurt. 
Railroad development helped, first the New York Central, and in 1868 the 
beginning of lines eastward from Fishkill Landing into New England. Thus 
Fishkill Landing became a railroad terminal point. The New Haven built 
docks and yards and operated a ferry freight transfer to the Erie across the 
river. In 1860 Jackson started his carra^e works; his wagons became known 
afar. At Matteawan in 1864 the manufacture of wool hats began. The knife 
and cutlery industry also started there, but moved to Walden, where it was 
developed. The wealthy Winthrop Sargent brought from England for use 
on his country estate the first lawn mower on American soil. Coldwell saw 
it, and worked at Matteawan on the first American machines. A. T. Stewart 
started his carpet mills at Groveville in 1873. 

Fishkill Landing was incorporated as a village in 1864. Matteawan was 
considerably larger than the Landing, but was not officially incorporated as 
a village until 1886. In the nineties the twin villages ranked next to Dan- 
bury, Conn., in the manufacture of hats. In that decade the British patent 

66 



holders established their American plant at Matteawan for the manufacture 
of fuel economizers and ventilating systems. The Corrington plant turned 
out air brakes. Benjamin Hammond came from Mount Kisco with his pat 
ented formulas for insecticides, fungicides, and the like. Potter invented and 
manufactured wagon brakes. The Van Houten brothers invented brakers' ma 
chinery and set up a factory. The silk industry thrived. The two villages ex 
panded and finally grew together, uniting in 1913 to form the city of 
Beacon. 

The present century brought a slowing up and a decline. The railroad 
terminal and transfer were removed ; the hat industry shrunk ; silk mills 
closed. But the diversity of industries held the community together and the 
storms were ridden out. And in the midst of all the industrial ups and 
downs the old Schenck gristmill, begun in 1800, continued grinding grist 
almost until the day it burned in 1915. The growth of the city has con 
tinued steadily. Between 1900 and 1930 the population showed an increase 
of 25.8 per cent. 



MOTOR TOUR (7.4 m.) 

The tour begins at Bank Square. 
W. on Main St. 

1. Site of UPPER LANDING, foot of Main St., which for many years 
was Fishkill Landing's front door. Peter Bogardus built the dock and store 
house, and in 1765 opened a ferry which ran from here to Newburgh across 
the Hudson. At the opening of the Revolution it was known as Bogardus 
Dock, and during the war the storehouse contained military supplies. The 
ferry was an important link in a military artery, the "middle road," which 
crossed the river at this point. 

In 1853 a foundry was built here for the manufacture of stationary and 
marine engines, the famous Fishkill Corliss steam engines. During the Civil 
War the foundry was converted into an Army ordnance shop ; and the land 
ing became a troop center. The Hudson River Railroad had a station stop 
here after its completion in 1849-50; and the Connecticut and Dutchess 
Railroad made the landing its western terminus in 1868. Extensive docks 
and yards were built at a point south of the present ferry; and a freight car 
ferry made connections with the Erie Railroad at Newburgh. 

L. from Main St. on River St.; R. on Beekman St. 

2. The BEACON-NEWBURGH FERRY (L), foot of Beekman St., 
was established at the LOWER LANDING in 1743. The original charter, 
which forms the basis of the charter under which the ferry now operates, 
was granted by King George II on the petition of Alexander Golden of 
Fishkill Landing to the Hon. George Clarke, then Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Province of New York. The first ferry consisted of sail and row boats. 

67 



Today there are four modern boats, sturdily constructed for ice-breaking 
and especially equipped for passenger and motor car transportation. Since 
1881 ferry service has been continuously maintained throughout the year. 

The river between Beacon and Newburgh is about 1 mile wide. This 
expanse, once known as Fishkill Bay, is now called Newburgh Bay. The 
ferry boat offers an excellent vantage point from which to view the much- 
praised scene at the north portal of the Hudson Highlands. When he was 
Governor of the State, Franklin Delano Roosevelt often travelled on this 
ferry, describing it as "one of the most historically colorful ferries in 
America." 

Directly below, and adjoining the ferry slip, is the historic LONG 
WHARF, built between 1812 and 1816. A promoter put a small fortune 
into this dock. The older portion of a yellow wooden building standing at 
the tip of the wharf was at one time an inn. Erected about 1830, it was 
an important hostelry in the heyday of river traffic. 

Backtrack on Beekman St.; Sharp R. on 2nd opening of Ferry St., western 
entrance to Bank Square. 

3. The REFORMED CHURCH (R) Ferry and Academy Sts., is the 
city's oldest standing church. A massive edifice of somewhat peculiar, modi 
fied Gothic architecture, it is built of red brick with locally quarried stone 
capping the buttresses. In 1859 it replaced the original one built in 1813. In 
1820, a negress, Margaret, was baptized and received into the church; and 
seats were thereafter provided for her race. Liberated slaves in 1857 es 
tablished a school nearby in the Academy Street neighborhood and later built 
their own church. 

John Peter DeWindt, wealthy trader and slave owner, was one of the 
founders of the Reformed Church. Millard Fillmore, as ex-president, at 
tended services here. Henry Ward Beecher preached here in the years 
before the Civil War, when he was being subjected to violent attacks for 
his strong anti-slavery stand. 

At the rear of the church an old graveyard extends down the slope to 
the old plank road. In this somewhat neglected burial ground, dating back 
to the 18th century, families are interred in rows, not in plots. Unusual 
also in this region are vaults built into the steep bank. On the headstones 
are the names of Tellers, Wiltses, and Boyces, and others who figured 
prominently in the early history of the section. The oldest inscriptions are 
those on the markers of Henry Schenck (1743-1799), William Sebring 
(d. 1814), and Dr. William Forman (d. 1816). 

L. from Ferry St. on Park Ave. 

4. SPY HILL (L and R), Park Ave. between Ferry St. and Wolcott 
Ave., gets its name from the eminent service it performed as a lookout point 
during the Revolution. Commanding an unbroken scene up and down the 
Hudson for many miles, it offers a view of the Highlands in the south 
with Storm King and Sleeping Indian Mountains looming against the 
horizon. Westward on the river terrace is the city of Newburgh, with the 

68 




Along Wa$pinger Creek 

Shawangunk Mountains in the distant background. In the northwest the 
Catskills tower 4,000 feet above the Hudson. The artist-historian, Lossing, 
speaks of the "broad and beautiful bay," its surface broken by a solitary 
rock island, Polopel. He sketched and published views made from this point. 
One of them includes lower Newburgh, the mouth of Quassaic Creek, and 
the villages of New Windsor and Cornwall. Private residences now 
crown the hill where blue-coated patriot soldiers once camped. 
L. from Park Ave. on Wolcott Ave. 

5. WHITE HOUSE SANITARIUM (R), Wolcott and South 
Aves., a large house with white pillared porches, was once the home of Prof. 
Charles Davies (1798-1876), mathematician, author, and instructor at 
West Point and later at Columbia University. Charles Dickens was among 
the distinguished guests entertained here. Between the Davies occupancy 
and the advent of the sanitarium, the house was used as a school conducted by 
Benjamin Lee Wilson, educator, English scholar, and cousin of President 
Woodrow Wilson. 

6. The LOUIS A. GILLET HOUSE (R), 263 Wolcott Ave., was 
built in 1836 and is famous for its door, removed from the DePeyster House. 
(See Point of Interest No. 11.) This second-oldest doorway in the county 
shows the Georgian influence in the grooved and reeded pilasters and raised 
bevelled panels. The bulls-eyes at the top of the door are typical of the style ; 
and the small panes of colored translucent glass in the side lights are 
unusual. The inside of the door has horizontal boards and long, iron strap 
hinges. 

R. from Wolcott Ave. on Sargent Ave. 

69 



7. The LARCH TREES (R), along Sargent Ave., which are inter 
spersed with hemlocks, are notable for their unusual height. Larch is the 
one conifer that sheds its needles in the winter the one evergreen that is 
not an evergreen. 

8. The MARIANIST PREPARATORY (L), opposite the larch 
trees, conducted by Brothers of the Order of the Society of Mary, trains 
young men for the priesthood and as religious educators. The main building 
was once the residence of William Kent, son of the Chancellor and Justice 
of the Supreme Court of New York State. The recently altered house is 
covered with cream, beige, and brown siding, suggesting stone. 

9. WODENETHE (R), opposite and a little farther on (public may 
drive through the grounds), was formerly the home of Winthrop Sargent, 
an early 20th century philanthropist. It is now one of the properties of the 
Craig House Sanitarium. (See Point of Interest No. 14.) The house is a 
large two-story structure painted yellow with white trim. A three-story sec 
tion is topped by a 4-hipped, curved pyramidal roof. The grounds were em 
bellished by the elder Sargent; and although he was an amateur, he may 
be called the originator of landscape gardening in the United States. 
Sargent was a friend of Downing, the famous horticulturist and architect. 
The gardens, and especially the Roman Garden, are renowned. 

L. from Sargent Ave. on South Ave. 

10. The BYRNESVILLE CEMETERY (L), corner of Sargent and 
South Aves., above the road cut, contains the unkept graves of early 
settlers: Roger Brett, Myer Thomas Pierce, and others. The earliest date 
on any of the dozen remaining stones is 1797. 

R. under railroad tracks. 

11. The DE PEYSTER NEWLIN BYRNES HOUSE (R), close 
to the railroad, was erected about 1743 and was occupied for a time by 
Abraham de Peyster, nephew of Madam Brett. It later passed through the 
hands of Newlin and Byrnes, and is now occupied by several families. 

It is a fine example of gambrel-roofed, Colonial brick house. The base 
ment story is of Hudson River blue stone, and runs back into the hillside. 
The story and one-half above the basement are red brick laid in Flemish 
bond, pierced by three windows in the gable ends. The high stoop fronting 
the main entrance is not the original; the first Dutch door was moved to the 
Gillet House. (See Point of Interest No. 6.) 

After the burning of Kingston, the British fleet dropped down the Hud 
son and anchored in Newburgh Bay. Lieut. Philip Hamilton, so the tale 
runs, came ashore with other officers of his ship and wandered into the 
forest alone. When he returned to the river, the boat that brought him ashore 
had gone; and the ships were under sail. He ran down the river bank in a 
vain endeavor to signal them. Dusk was setting. Seeking shelter, he knocked 
at the door of Abraham de Peyster. Frankly confessing his identity, Ham 
ilton was admitted and invited to join the family at the evening meal. 
Katrina, the daughter, presided ; and the young officer fell in love with her 

70 



at once. With characteristic Dutch caution, Abraham de Peyster conducted 
Hamilton to a room on the top floor, turned the key, and the following 
morning escorted him to Fishkill to face a military tribunal, which paroled 
him in de Peyster's custody for the period of the war. The romance and 
courtship thus begun ended in his marriage with Katrina in the fall of 
1783, after the surrender of Cornwallis. 

12. The site of MADAM BRETT'S MILL (R), occupied by the 
Tioronda Hat Works, is beside the Fishkill at the foot of a falls which 
furnished the necessary water power. The gristmill was built in 1708 
by Roger and Catharyna Brett, who also built a dwelling nearby and 
set aside 300 acres to go with the two buildings. No trace of the house re 
mains, as it was probably abandoned within a year, when they moved to a 
new house. (See Point of Interest No. 23.) The mill stood at the head of 
navigation on the Fishkill. Here an eyebolt, still visible, was set in a 
large stone by which to tie up ships. 

ROGER BRETT, a native of Somersetshire, England, was one of a 
coterie of young Englishmen who came to America at the time Queen Anne 
sent her young cousin, Lord Cornbury, to be governor of the province. 
He lived in New York in 1703, and after his marriage to Catharyna Rom- 
bout in that year, was listed as "a Master of Family in the City of New 
York." In 1703-06, his name appears as a vestryman of Trinity Church. 
He was on intimate terms with Lord Cornbury and entertained him at his 
home. Brett had married well, for his wife had fallen heir to the great 
Rombout Patent (See History) up the Hudson. Less fortunate was his death. 
In 1716, coming from New York in his own sloop, he was drowned when 
the boom of his ship swept him overboard not far from the Brett mill. 

13. The FISHKILL (since kil is Dutch for creek, Fishkill Creek is a 
tautology) (R and L) bounds down the side of the Hudson Valley and 
enters the tidewater Hudson at this point. The prosaic sucker, which is here 
in large numbers, has lent its name to the cascade immediately upstream. 
Between Sucker Falls and the road is the small FAIRY ISLAND. The 
Indians believed a manitou dwelt here, and they otten came to admire and 
worship. Painters of the Hudson River School and other later artists have 
pictured this scene of foaming water and mossy, tree-shaded banks. 

L,. from South Ave. on Grandview Ave., L. on Howland Ave. 

14. CRAIG HOUSE SANITARIUM (General Howland House) 
(L), first beyond intersection, was the home of Gen. Joseph Howland from 
1834 to 1886. Howland was a Civil War officer and a philanthropist. Eliza 
Woolsey Howland, his wife, and Georgeanna Woolsey Bacon, his sister-in- 
law and author of Handbook of Nursing, were both nurses in Civil War 
hospitals. The property and house, known as Tioronda, have been purchased 
by the sanitarium corporation, which has taken over many another South 
Beacon estate for the treatment of mental patients. A private institution, it 
caters to those who can afford to pay for the elegance and care the various 
units offer. 

71 



15. The UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT (New York City) SUM 
MER CAMP (CAMP STOVER) (R), just beyond the sanitarium, 
is a well equipped vacation resort for 700 boys and girls and some adults 
from New York's lower East Side. Facilities include a swimming pool and 
various buildings for camp use. Mountain Rest, the main building, is the 
remodeled former HOME OF REV. HENRY WARD BEECHER. 
The original house, which forms the nucleus of the present structure, was 
the 18th century ANNAN HOUSE, one of the first dwellings in this 
region. Annan, later a lieutenant in the Revolution, purchased a tract of land 
from the Brett Estate between 1757 and 1761. The present building, with 
its white clapboard siding, green trim, and red roof, gives little if any 
clue to the appearance of the original. 

R. from Howland Ave. on dirt road. 

16. The MOUNT BEACON INCLINE RAILWAY (L), end of 
road, (30$ round trip), climbs the west spur of Mount Beacon, giving access 
to the mountain top resort of the Mount Beacon-on-Hudson Association. 
This cable railway, powered by electricity, is reputed to be the steepest 
of its kind in the world; it is 2,200 ft. long, with a vertical rise of 1,200 
ft. The two observation cars are built on a tilt to correspond with the 
slope of the hill. A single cable, attached to each end of a car, passes over 
a rotating drum in the power house at the summit. While one car rises, 
the other descends; and they pass on a midway switch. The road was 
opened on Memorial Day in 1902, carrying more than 60,000 people the first 
season. (For Casino see Point of Interest No. 32.) 

Backtrack to Wolcott Ave. 

17. ST. LUKE'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH (R), Wolcott Ave. be 
tween South Liberty and Rector Sts., is a plain English Gothic structure 
of stone, erected in 1868. The building with its high gables, buttresses, 
and arched doors and windows, is a copy of an English church visited and 
admired by General Howland, one of the chief subscribers to the St. Luke's 
building fund. The Rectory and Parish House are set apart from the 
church, separated from it by a broad park which is studded with magnificent 
beech trees, imported from England. A chestnut-oak, the only oak in the line 
along Wolcott Ave., was propagated from one of the "Washington Oaks" 
which stood on Dennings Point in Revolutionary days, and under which 
Washington rested after ferrying from New Wi-ndsor. 

On both sides of the rocky knoll north of the church is a cemetery 
which contains the graves of many famous persons. Here are buried James 
Kent, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Chancellor of the State of New York, 
and author of Kent's Commentaries; Smith T. Van Buren, son of the 
president ; Dr. Frank M. Tiernan, Civil War drummer boy ; and many others 
whose names hark back to early settlement: Van Vliet, Tillot, DuBois, Van 
Kleeck, Schenck, Wolcott, Sargent, and Knevels. The northeastern part of the 
cemetery is the Presbyterian section, older than the Episcopal section, and 
contains a marker dated 1812. 

R. From PFolcott Ave. on Spring Valley St. 

72 



18. MARY ANN'S BRIDGE (L), spanning the Fishkill, is named 
for a woman who kept a tavern at this crossing before the Civil War. 
The new concrete arch bridge replaces spans dating back a hundred years 
and offers a fine view of the lower valley of the Fishkill, a sight often 
described, photographed, and painted. The creek cuts between the high 
banks, tumbling over several falls before it reaches the Hudson. 

Spring Valley St. becomes Mill St. Straight ahead on East Main St. to 
Howland A<ve. Main tour turns L. on Hoivland Ave. 
A side-tour continues on East Main St., locally known as "Mountain 
Lane." 

Right on Annan St. is the diminutive MOUNTAIN CHAPEL (R), a 
gray painted frame building which looks like a one-room country school- 
house. For many years it has served the mountainside people as an un 
denominational church. The "mountaineers," as they are called, are a 
peculiar folk group which has resided at the foot of the mountains for 
many generations, adhering to primitive traditions and customs. Although 
a large number of them work in Beacon as factory hands or odd-job men, 
they spend a great deal of their time in the hills, know every foot of the 
rough ground, and are natural woodsmen. Some of the older ones pride 
themselves on their wood-chopping ability. These people appear to have 
descended from some of the finer early families. A tradition among them 
avers that a British soldier was a progenitor of a representative family. 
Scotch settlers also came into the mountain fastnesses nearly a hundred 
years ago, a hardy people, who believed that elves, fairies, and gonomes 
inhabited the hills. 
At the end of East Main St., a bridge crosses Dry Brook. 

The HIKER'S TRAIL ascends an ancient road beyond the bridge. Early 
maps indicate that this was an important highway of the early igth 
century, and one of the pioneer roads of southern Dutchess a century 
earlier. It is understood that this is the old Danbury Road that left the 
Hudson at Willet Landing and crossed the mountains here to the Clove, 
thence continuing into New England. This route to the east was the 
most direct from the West Point vicinity and was used for military 
purposes during the Revolution when troops and supplies were trans 
ported back and forth across the Hudson between Fishkill Landing and 
the west shore. 

As it rises above the city, the trail leads up a deep ravine north of 
Mount Beacon and skirts the slope of Bald Hill (L). 
The character of the vegetation changes rather abruptly as the higher 
elevations are reached. At 700 to 1,000 ft. are thickets of laurel, azalea, 
and scrub-oak. Trailing arbutus, once plentiful, has become scarce. The 
rattlesnake and the copperhead are rarely met. 
At 1.25 m. (R) is a side trail to Beacon reservoir and Mount Beacon. 
Straight ahead the main trail leads to the head of the ravine and the 
abandoned Greer farm. 

A rough trail (L) leads along the ridges of Bald Hill and beyond, fol 
lowing the general trend of one of several roads constructed nearly a 
century ago for exploiting iron ore deposits. Near Bald Hill was located 
the ipth century property of the Manhattan Iron Works. 
Bald Hill (over 1,200 ft.) is named for its barren and rocky slopes which 
have only a thin covering of stunted trees. It is sometimes Called Burnt 
Mountain, for it has repeatedly been swept by forest fires. 
At 7.5 m. is HELL HOLLOW (Boulder Glen), a i,ooo-ft.-deep gulch in 
the eastern mountainside. Its bottom is choked with huge boulders, which, 

73 



combined with the precipitous sides, make the cleft practically inaccessible. 
A foot trail descends to the Albany Post Road (US 9), in the valley to 
the southeast. 
L. on Howland Ave. 

19. HIDDENBROOKE (R), Howland Ave. opposite green barn, is 
occupied by the Ursuline Novitiate. It lies in a little valley at the base of 
the mountains, and is surrounded by lawns and gardens. The institution 
is devoted to the training of novices for lives of religious work. The 
Novitiate chapel, erected in 1925, is of Gothic architecture. The exterior 
brick is laid in an irregular manner, and the roof is of heavy slate. A some 
what Spanish touch is evident in the stuccoed outer wall of the vestry. 
The nave, roof arches, hewn beams, oak paneling, and cloister are Gothic 
in design. 

R. from Howland Ave., on Washington Ave. 

20. GROVEVILLE PARK (L), Washington Ave. and Park St., once 
an amusement resort, is now the assembly grounds and cottage colony of 
the Nazarene Camp Meeting Association. The park is owned and operated 
by the Nazarene Society of the Nazarene Church. The members, recruited 
from a wide area, gather here in large numbers during the summer months 
to receive religious education and attend daily services. About 50 one- 
room cottages are scattered about under the trees for the use of visitors 
who have no camping equipment. 

L. from Washington Ave. on Park St., keep R.; L. on Liberty St. 

21. The GROVEVILLE FLATS (R), across the creek, are a nar 
row flood plain of the Fishkill. The mill and tenant houses were erected 
in 1873-75 by A. T. Stewart, merchant prince of Manhattan. The mills 
were a carpet factory; but now they are occupied by several small manu 
facturing concerns. 

R. from Liberty St. on East Main St. 

22. The EAST MAIN ST. BRIDGE (Fountain Square Bridge) of 
fers a view of the Mill Rapids (R) at the center of the old mill district 
of Matteawan. Factory walls rise abruptly from the Fishkill. The extensive 
yellow brick buildings (R), formerly the plant of the Matteawan Manu 
facturing Co., makers of wool hats, are now occupied by the Braendly Dye 
Works. 

L. from East Main St., on Main St., L. on Tioronda Ave., R. on Van 
Nydvck St. 

23. The BRETT-TELLER HOUSE (L), corner Van Nydeck St. 
and Teller Ave., is the oldest standing building and one of the first to be 
built (1709) in Dutchess County. 

This home of romantic and historic memories is a noteworthy landmark 
of the Hudson valley and a splendid example of the simple, solid Dutch 
architecture of its period. It is a story-and-a-half high; three long, graceful 
dormers on each side of the house, project from the gently sloping peaked 
roof. The house has thick stone foundations ; and the frame of massive timbers 
is held together by wooden pins. The main body of the house is sided with 

74 



scalloped cedar shakes 4 feet long, varying from 5 to 9 inches in width 
and fastened with handwrought nails. The east wing has wide clapboards. 

The interior, staircase, and woodwork details are representative of the 
better homes of the Colonial period. A mantel in the dining room is very 
plain, with a fluted pattern beneath the shelf; another, which was put in 
prior to 1800, replacing one faced with old Dutch tile, is of elaborate design 
with marble facing. The dining room has two alcoves with graceful arched 
and fluted columns. A large fireplace in the old beamed kitchen still has 
the crane and large iron pot. The cellar door is hung on wooden hinges 
and is fastened by a wooden latch which is lifted from the outer side by 
a string. 

The 4 acres of land on which the homestead stands was part of the large 
tract of 85,000 acres acquired by Francis Rombout and Gulian Verplanck. 
Verplanck died before the patent was issued. (See History.) Title to these 
4 acres has never been transferred and still rests on the original patent. When 
Francis Rombout died in 1691, his share of 28,000 acres "in the Wappings" 
passed to his daughter, Catharyna, who married Roger Brett. (See Point of 
Interest No. 12.) The Homestead is still owned and occupied by their 
descendants. 

After Roger Brett's early death, Madam Brett possessed and managed her 
vast heritage. She presented a commanding figure as she rode on horseback 
over her land, administering its affairs and promoting its development until 
well advanced in years. On church and gala days she rode in her coach-and- 
four, with three Negroes in attendance. She was a friend of the Indians, and 
was active in community affairs, holding a partnership in the Frankfort Store 
house, the region's first freighting establishment, at the Lower Landing. She 
died in 1764 and was buried in the cemetery of the Dutch Church at Fishkill, 
which she helped found. (See p. 82.) She left two sons, Francis and Robert. 

During Revolutionary times the Homestead was occupied by Maj. Henry 
Schenck, who in 1763 had married Hannah, daughter of Francis Brett and 
granddaughter of Madam Brett. As Quartermaster in Washington's Army, 
he stored military supplies here. The Homestead was then famed for its 
hospitality and was a frequent resort of Army officers. Washington, La 
fayette, Von Steuben, Abraham Yates, and other distinguished patriots 
were guests. 

The name Teller Homestead was applied to the house as a result of the 
marriage of Alice Schenck, second daughter of Maj. Henry Schenck, to 
Isaac dePeyster Teller in 1790. The latter purchased the property in 1800 in 
the settlement of the estate of Major Schenck, who died in 1799. One of 
Teller's daughters, Margaret Schenck Teller, who married Rev. Dr. Robert 
Boyd Van Kleeck, inherited the Homestead, which upon her death in 1888 
passed on to their daughter, Agnes Boyd Crary, wife of Rev. Dr. Robert 
Fulton Crary, oldest grandson of Robert Fulton. It is now held in her 
estate. The present occupants are the seventh generation in direct line to own 
and occupy the Homestead. 

75 



R. from ran Nydeck St. on Teller Ave., which becomes Fishkill Ave.; 
L. on Ver plane k Ave. 

24. MATTEAWAN STATE HOSPITAL (R), Verplanck Ave. and 
Canon St., (admission 1-4 weekdays only) is devoted to the incarceration and 
treatment of the criminal insane. The buildings, which are on a reserva 
tion of about 900 acres, reflect several periods of construction in their varied 
but harmonious architecture. All are of red brick with many barred windows. 
The main unit is in the state institutional, pseudo-Romanesque style. An 
other unit has red tiled roofs ; and another has small, white-trimmed windows 
and a gray slate roof of low gable. The officers' residence unit suggests 
Elizabethan architecture with half-timbering and leaded windows. A farm 
colony and various service buildings complete the plant. 

The hospital contains 1,348 patients (Aug., 1936). Completion of the 
building under construction will increase the capacity to 1,421. The number 
of patients has been increasing at the rate of 30 to 40 annually. 

Before the State acquired the property, it was the home and training 
ground of the famous John J. Scanlon trotting horses, winners and record 
holders of Hambletonian races. The Abbott (2:03^4) and Kentucky Union 
(2:07j4) are buried beside the readjust back of the present fence. The 
pyramid which marked their graves has been removed. 

L. from Verplanck Ave., on North Ave. 

25. The SOUTHERN DUTCHESS COUNTRY CLUB (R), fac 
ing Verplanck Ave., has for its nucleus an old Dutch building; date of 
erection is unknown. It is a low built, plain stone dwelling with a wide 
sweep of roof and thick walls. Early in the 19th century, it was slightly 
remodeled by John Peter DeWindt (see Point of Interest No. 3) for the 
use of his son, and was called "Stone Cot." 

At this point is a stretch of sandy beach, rare along the river. This is a 
small popular bathing place. Benches and tables are provided for picnic 
parties. 

Straight on North Ave. to Bank Square. 

Additional Points of Interest 

26. EUSTATIA, on Monell Place, is the Monell-Van Houten House, 
an Elizabethan-American country home built in 1867 by Andrew Jackson 
Downing, the landscape artist and horticulturalist who was lost in the Henry 
Clay steamboat disaster. This was Downing's first practical example of his 
conception of an American country home. Downing's widow, who was a 
daughter of John Peter DeWindt, married Judge John Monell. 

A short distance S. of Eustatia stood the DeWindt house. DeWindt, who 
was called "the Firebrand," was a West India trader, prominent in Hudson 
River commerce, and helped to develop Fishkill Landing as a port. Under 
his patronage, James Mackin, a poor boy, rose later to be Senator and 
State Treasurer. Mackin's wife, nee Countess Sally Britton Spottiswood, 
known as the "Belle of St. Louis," was an authoress and philanthropist. On 

76 



the DeWindt grounds lived Clarence Cooke, an art critic of the last century. 
His studio, Copy Cotte, is now in ruins. 

27. The BOGARDUS-DEWINDT-VAN HOUTEN HOUSE, 16 
Tompkins Ave., is a picturesqne dwelling, almost hidden from view by 
lilac bushes. Erected before 1800, it was first the home of Peter Bogardus, a 
local merchant, was acquired by John Peter DeWindt about 1825 and 
occupied by his widow ; and was later purchased by the Van Wagenen 
family. It is a good example of the story-and-a-half frame Dutch homestead 
of Revolutionary times. The house has interesting details of window frames, 
original trim, and original fireplaces. Except for the addition of a wing and 
dormers and the removal of a Dutch oven, it is little changed. 

28. The KNEVELS-STEARNS HOUSE (Sunny Fields), 75 Knevels 
Ave., erected in 1835, is a weathered shingle house of frame construction with 
plain gabled roof. Gertrude Knevels, a modern novelist, lived here early 
in the 20th century. According to tradition, the ghost of an Indian chief, 
stalking from the trees under which he used to live, frequently visits the 
grounds. 

29. DENNINGS POINT was early known as "the island" in Fish- 
kill Bay. It was in possession of Peter DuBois under a life lease from 
Madam Brett. Later, when the DePeysters came into possession, it was 
called DePeyster's Point. The Verplancks owned it for a time. William 
Allen, a grandson of William Allen, founder of Allentown, Pa., built a 
mansion here about 1814. Only the walls remain, on the high ground at the 
center of the point. This house contained an octagonal room, an eccentric 
form of architecture fashionable in that era. William Allen and his wife, 
according to tradition, lived here in such a lavish scale of elegance and 
hospitality that they became financially embarrassed. At the end of nine 
years they were obliged to sell the estate to the Dennings, who built a cause 
way to the mainland and called the promontory Presqu' lie (almost an 
island). Denning's famous cider mill, a large brick structure, still stands on 
the inner shore. Nearby is a fisherman's cottage ; and huge reels for shad nets 
are spread on the stony beach where the shoals stretch out into the little 
bay between the point and the mouth of Fishkill Creek. Washington was 
in the habit of landing on this promontory after crossing from his head 
quarters at Newburgh. Under large oaks on the river shore he found an 
orderly waiting with his horse and rode to the highway leading to New 
England. 

The DENNINGS POINT BRICK WORKS, at the foot of Dennings 
Ave., on the "neck" of the point, is one of the more complete and up-to- 
date of the electrical machine-operated yards in America. This concern began 
making the widely known Hudson River common brick here in 1880. 
Nearby are sites of pioneer brickyards. 

30. The HOWLAND LIBRARY, 477 Main St., was established in 
1872. The brick building of the Norwegian chalet type was built from plans 
brought to this country by General Howland. There are 15,000 volumes 
available to the public. 

77 



31. The SURVEYOR'S OFFICE, 181 Main St., is probably the 
oldest surveyor's office in continuous operation. It contains a file of old 
deeds and maps, including local charts drawn by Simeon DeWitt, official 
geographer of the Revolution. 

Points of Interest in Environs 

32. The CASINO, at the head of the Incline Railway (See Point of 
Interest No. 16) , besides being famous as a resort, is noted for the view it 
commands. Under the flank of the l,200-ft.-high mountain spur, the course 
of the Fishkill can be traced to the bay. Southwest, the vista extends to 
the north portal of the Hudson Highlands. To the west are Cornwall Bay, 
Sleeping Indian Mountain, and the terraced city of Newburgh, backed by 
Snake Hill. A blue barrier on the far horizon, the Shawangunk range forms a 
curtain in the west. The 4,000-ft. crests of the Catskills loom in the north 
west. 

Rising still higher above the Casino is the crest of MOUNT BEACON 
(1,500 alt.), reached by a foot trail, 1 m. This peak has gone by the names 
of Solomon's Bergh, Beacon Hill, North Beacon, and Old Beacon. The name 
"Beacon" dates back to 1777 when signal fires were lighted on the moun 
tain as a means of communication with military outposts in Connecticut, 
Westchester, and Sandy Hook. The city has borrowed the name of the 
mountain. The summit duplicates the view obtainable at the Casino. 

From Mount Beacon a trail extends to SOUTH BEACON PEAK (1,635 
alt.), 1 m., the highest in the Highlands of the Hudson. It is called South 
Beacon Hill by the United States Geological Survey, and was named New 
Beacon or Grand Sachem in Hayward's Gazetteer of 1853. Hayward writes: 
"The river is visible from West Point to Tappan Bay on the south, and for 
an extent of 50 miles on the north. The surrounding rich and highly culti 
vated country, dotted with villages, and wanting in nothing that renders so 
extensive a landscape lovely, lies as a picture before the observer." From the 
fire tower which rises 75 ft. above the summit, the skyscrapers of Manhat 
tan are visible on exceptionally clear days. , The Empire State Building can 
be seen with the naked eye, but binoculars are necessary to bring out the New 
York outer and inner harbors. 



78 



VI LAGE of FISHKILL 



*XS/>, 'V-x 
I **&*== i +\ 




FISHKILL VILLAGE 



Railroad Stations: New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. (freight only). 
Busses: Beacon-Fishkill Bus Line, New York-Montreal Bus Line, Mohawk Bus Line. 
Taxis: To Beacon, one to four passengers, $i ; each additional passenger, 2$c. 

Accommodations: Union Hotel (E) ; Ye Olde Fishkill Inne (A and E) ; Elm Lodge 
(A and E) ; Old Post Road Inn (A and E). 

Recreation: Hiking trails over nearby mountains. Swimming in Fishkill and Clove 
Creeks (stocked with fish). Skiing at Norway Ski Jump and on trails over the moun 
tains. 

Annual events: Middle Atlantic Ski-jumping Tournament, winter, when condition 
of snow permits. 

FISHKILL VILLAGE (200 alt., 553 pop.) is a residential community 
at the junction of US 9 and State 52, 4.5 miles east of Beacon, 13.5 miles 
south of Poughkeepsie. Sheltered by the sturdy Fishkill mountain range, 
this secluded little village still pursues serenely the placid life of its Dutch 
pioneers. Main Street, most important of the village thoroughfares, is broad 
and gracious, arched by great elm trees. To the east and west of the re 
stricted business section, stand fine old dwellings and historic churches. 
Neat white houses, some with Dutch doorways opening upon the street, 
lend an atmosphere of neighborliness suggestive of an earlier day. Several 
more spacious mansions are set in deep lawns bordered by old fashioned 
gardens and white picket fences. Among these relics of the past there are 
few tokens of today's world and never an intimation of tomorrow's. 

Fishkill was settled by the Dutch a few years after the granting of the 
Rombout Patent in 1685. English colonists from Ulster County across 
the river had seen the low, swampy land of the Fishkill valley and had 
scornfully rejected it as worthless; but the Dutch, accustomed to the low 
lands of their native country, were undaunted. Gradually they moved in, 
cleared the wilderness, drained the swamps, and built their homes. To 
the stream which flows through the valley they gave the name Vis Kil 
(Dutch, fish creek), which, in its Anglicized form, Fishkill, was applied in 
time to the village, the township, and the nearby mountains. 

The first to occupy the land now comprised within the village limits 
were Johannes Ter Boss and Henry Rosecrance, whose names appear in a 
list of freeholders of Dutchess County prepared in 1740. Ter Boss was an 
eccentric man. When a controversy arose in the Dutch church, Ter Boss 
transferred to the Presbyterian church at BrinckerhofrVille, to which he 
took his Negroes one Sabbath and sat among them, to the consternation of 
the congregation. 

The village probably owes its existence to the fact that here in 1731 the 
settlers built their first church, in which on alternate Sabbath mornings 
the people gathered for worship, many coming from as far as Hopewell 
and New Hackensack. De Chastellux, the French traveler, who visited 

79 



Dutchess County 45 years later, found in Fishkill only one Dutch and one 
English church, 12 to 14 dwellings, an inn, and a schoolhouse. Nevertheless, 
he rated Fishkill as the only village in the county, outside of Poughkeepsie, 
deserving mention. 

This was Fishkill at the outbreak of the Revolution: in that struggle 
the little village played an important part. It lay on the only practical 
military route through the Highlands of the Hudson, as well as upon the 
most direct route from the mid-Hudson valley to New England; it was 
readily accessible to the river and to West Point; and it was the center of 
a highly productive agricultural area capable of provisioning an army. 

It was early anticipated that the British forces in New York would 
attempt to establish direct communication with Quebec through the Hudson- 
Champlain valleys and thereby isolate New England from the other rebellious 
Colonies. Their path would lie through Wiccopee Pass, the narrow defile 
immediately south of the village, which might easily be held by a small army 
against a much larger attacking force. Quick to recognize its strategic import 
ance, Washington had the pass fortified ; three batteries of artillery were sta 
tioned there in 1776 and redoubts were built. On the plain to the east 
ward of Fishkill, and across the creek, barracks were erected for the quarter 
ing of troops, while Washington and his aides were quartered in and about 
the village in homes, some of which still stand. Storehouses were built for 
military supplies, and Fishkill became the military base and supply depot 
for Dutchess County, and headquarters for a year of the State clothing 
stores. On the good-hearted Dutch wives devolved the self-imposed task of 
making additional clothes for the poorly clad soldiers and preparing supplies 
for the military hospital. 

The Dutch Church was converted into a prison in which Tories, deserters, 
and British prisoners were confined. The English Church became the Army 
hospital, in which victims of smallpox, then raging in the ranks, and men 
wounded in the battle of White Plains, October 28, 1776, were cared 
for. According to an eye-witness, after the White Plains engagement the 
dead were piled like cordwood in the Fishkill street between the two 
churches. 

The New York Provincial Convention, evacuating New York City on 
August 29, 1776, before the threatened invasion of the British, came to Fish- 
kill. Its first sessions in the village were held September 5 of that year in 
the English church, and later sessions were held in the more commodious 
Dutch church until February, 1777, when it removed to Kingston. 

To add to the burden of the villagers, numerous refugees, the "poor and 
distressed," from New York and White Plains fled to Fishkill, where they 
found asylum in the already overcrowded community. Among these was 
Samuel Loudon, the Whig printer, who set up his press in the house of Robert 
Brett (see Obadiah Bowne house, p. 84), and issued on October 1, 1776, the 
first number of the New York Packet and American Advertiser, the first 
newspaper to be printed in Dutchess County. In this house he also printed the 

80 



ISjflt 




Reformed Dutch Church at Fis/ikill 




Road t* old tending near motfth of Wapp'mger Creek 



first copies of the Constitution of the State of New York, drawn up by John 
Jay, the Journal of the Legislature, and most of Washington's military 
orders. The State Constitutional Convention met in the Bowne house in 
1776, and the following year ratified Jay's Constitution in Kingston. 
Loudon continued his paper until the end of the war, when he returned to 
New York. 

After the war, the Dutch Church, emptied of its prisoners, was in such 
disrepair, that it was deemed unfit for use as a House of God. Accordingly, 
poor as they had become after bearing the burdens of war for seven years, 
the congregation decided to rebuild their church. The work, begun in 
1785, required 10 years to complete. All stone, timber, hauling, and labor 
were donated by members of the congregation. When the building was half 
done funds failed, and the villagers were obliged to borrow money from 
their relatives in Long Island to carry on. 

Although in 1789 Fishkill was considered important enough to be granted 
a post office, one of but seven then in the State, it appears that from the 
Revolutionary period to the Civil War the village grew slowly. The 
construction of the Dutchess and Columbia Railroad in 1869 brought 
the village a fresh impulse. A paper bag mill and other factories were 
built and the town's population mounted to almost 1,000. At that time 
Fishkill had four churches, a "select" school, a free school, two banks, 
and a weekly newspaper. Such prosperity, however, was not destined to en 
dure. Within four years the factories closed their doors, and in December, 
1873, the year of the panic, a fire, said to have been the work of an incen 
diary, destroyed many of the historic buildings. From this disaster Fishkill 
never recovered. By 1880 its population had decreased to 800, and today 
numbers but half that of 1870. The "select" school, one of the two banks, 
and the weekly newspaper are gone, and only the churches, the free school, 
and the savings bank remain. Most of the Revolutionary landmarks in the 
vicinity of Fishkill are included in Tour No. 3. 

Contemporary Fishkill is primarily the home of retired farmers and 
professional and business men, and the village has known some development 
as a suburb of Beacon. Foreign-born families, although they settle in the 
countryside, have avoided the village itself. 

FOOT TOUR (1 m.) 

The tour begins at the western entrance to the village on Main St. 
(State 52). 

1. Adjoining the now unused airplane landing field (R) on the out 
skirts of the village is the WHITE HOUSE (R), approached by a long, 
straight, tree-lined driveway. Dr. Bartow White, who built it in 1805, 
called it "Avenue Farm." A frame building, two stories high, with a 
service wing at the east end, it is a good example of the Dutchess County 
house of its period. Silver hardware w r as used throughout. 

Dr. White served as a member of Congress from 1825 to 1827 and as 
a presidential elector for New York State in 1840. In this house he reared 

81 



his ten children, one son and nine daughters, the last two of whom he 
humorously named Octavia and Novenia. 

On both sides of the street are substantial houses set in spacious grounds, 
varying in architecture from the simple Dutch Colonial to the more ornate 
style of the nineties. 

2. The edge of the business section is marked by the small brick BANK 
BUILDING (R), now Dean's, the shop of the village historian. The 
building is little changed since the banking business was suspended in 1877. 

3. East one-half block is the JAMES GIVEN HOUSE (L), a white 
house with green shutters, and fenced along the street front by white 
wooden pickets. It is a solid frame building of generous proportions. Its 
doorway is Georgian, the pilasters of the frame grooved in the upper portion. 
Given, the builder, came to Fishkill from Ireland in 1798. Prospering 
as a merchant, he built this dwelling in 1811, naming it "Shillelagh," after 
the town in which probably he was born. It is related that a bottle of wine 
used in christening the house failed to break, an incident which was taken 
to be an omen that the structure would never burn. The house was in fact 
spared by the 1873 fire. Given's memory is also perpetuated in the elms 
which he set out along Main Street the year he built his house. 

4. The ELM at the entrance to VAN WYCK HALL (L) is the 
pride of Fishkill. Planted about 1790, it now measures over 4 ft. in diam 
eter. The hall is a large frame building used as a community center. 

5. Across the street is the UNION HOTEL (R), a red brick build 
ing occupying the site of an inn kept in Revolutionary days by James Cooper, 
which may have been for a time the headquarters of Washington during the 
encampment in the village. Prisoners of war were tried here. The inn 
perished in the great fire. 

6. Just beyond is YE OLDE FISHKILL INNE (R) formerly the 
Mansion House, built by Cornelius Van Wyck in 1820. Though altered, 
it retains its stout oak timbers, original doorway, and triple windows in each 
gable end. Major Hatch, later manager of the Poughkeepsie Hotel (See 
Poughkeepsie, p. 38) was the first host. Among the noted men who have 
stopped here were President Martin Van Buren, Henry Clay, Aaron Burr, 
Washington Irving, and Benson J. Lossing. 

7. Across the street is the REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH (L), 
the embodiment of Fishkill's life and history. The oldest building in the 
village, it was enlarged in 1785 around the original church of 1731. Decid 
edly Dutch in character, it is a solid structure of stuccoed stone with brick- 
trimmed corners. Its walls are 3 ft. thick, and its steeple, 128 ft. high, has 
supported the same weather vane since 1795. 

In 1716 a congregation was organized in Fishkill by the Rev. Petrus Vas, 
fifth pastor at Kingston, in conjunction with one at Poughkeepsie. These 
two congregations were in the charge of one pastor until 1772. In 1731 
the members of the Fishkill congregation petitioned Governor Montgomery 
for permission to solicit funds with which to build a church. Permission 
was granted, and the church was immediately erected on land which was 

82 



not formally deeded to the congregation until 1759. Early prints of this 
building show a heavy rectangular stone edifice with a hip roof surmounted 
at the middle by a bell-tower and weather vane. Window lights set in iron 
sash frames were very small, and the upper story walls showed port holes, 
used in defense against the Indians. Some of these port holes can still 
be seen. Much of the labor on this structure was performed by slaves 
of the settlers, and the materials came from the hills and fields about Fish- 
kill. 

One of the pastors of the church was the Rev. Isaac Rysdyck, who served 
the congregation from 1765 to 1790 and whose reputation for learning and 
charm long survived him. He lies buried in the churchyard of the Dutch 
Church at New Hackensack. (See Tour 2, p. 113). In the Fishkill church 
yard are tombstones with Dutch inscriptions which antedate the church. 
The grave of Catharyna Rombout (Madam Brett), daughter of the patentee, 
formerly in the cemetery, was enclosed under the pulpit when the church 
was enlarged. 

This church figures in Cooper's novel, The Spy, the hero of which, Harvey 
Birch, was in real life Enoch Crosby, an American secret service agent, 
Crosby was held here among Tory prisoners, whom he had tricked into 
captivity, and by prearrangement with the guards was permitted to escape. 

8. The BLODGETT MEMORIAL LIBRARY (R) stands across 
the street a short distance beyond the church. This small stone building was 
given to the village in 1934 by John Woods Blodgett in memory of his 
father. It is an example of modern Colonial architecture. The library was at 
first opposed, it is said, on the grounds that "everyone in town has a library 
of his own." 

9. The FISHKILL GRILL (R) on the SE. corner of the junction of 
Main St. and US 9, is a lunch wagon of interest principally because it is 
a stopping place of President Franklin D. Roosevelt when en route to or 
from his Hyde Park home. 

10. One block beyond US 9 is the historic TRINITY CHURCH (R), 
erected in 1769 and known locally as the "English Church." It stands to 
day, a Colonial frame structure, very little altered except that a tall steeple, 
deemed unsafe, was removed in 1803. The high, many-paned windows 
are noteworthy. 

The church congregation was founded in 1756 by the Rev. Samuel Sea- 
bury. In that year, Seabury, a missionary of the Society for the Propa 
gation of the Gospel, came riding into the village of Fishkill on a sorrel 
horse. Ordained a priest in 1730 by the Bishop of London, he had been 
rector of an English church in Hempstead, Long Island, but disgusted 
with the constant bickerings between his congregation and that of a 
neighboring Dutch church, he resigned and set forth. In Fishkill the Dutch 
received him cordially, readily granting his request to preach in their 
church. It is said that more than 300 persons gathered from miles around to 
hear his first sermon. He soon formed his own congregation, which in 
cluded Dutchmen whom he had converted. 

83 



In 1776 Trinity Church, jointly with Christ Church of Poughkeepsie, 
had the Rev. John Beardsley as its rector. (See Poughkeepsie, p. 38). 
Another rector, the Rev. Philander Chase, who served here from 
1797 to 1805, afterward became Bishop of Ohio and of Illinois and founded 
Kenyon College in Ohio and Jubilee College in Illinois. The son of the 
founder of the church, also named Samuel Seabury, became the first Epis 
copal Bishop in the United States. This name and line are carried on by 
Justice Samuel Seabury of New York City. 

The gravestones in Trinity churchyard date back to 1770; many Revolu 
tionary soldiers and their enemies were buried here side by side in unmarked 
graves. A vault contains the bodies of several members of the family of 
Gulian Verplanck, one of the three joint holders of the Rombout Patent. 

Gulian Verplanck, grandson of the patentee, presented to this church and 
to the Dutch Church identical tankards, which are still used in the celebra 
tion of the Lord's Supper. These tankards are inscribed in memory of Engle- 
bert Huff, a Norwegian, who, once attached to the Life Guards of the Prince 
of Orange, died in Fishkill at the age of 128 years. A story is still in circula 
tion that when Huff was 121, he and a young man, 100 years his junior, 
simultaneously courted the same young lady. The story does not relate which 
of the lady's suitors won her favor. 

11. At the English Church, Main St. curves R. The OBAD1AH 
BOWNE HOUSE (L), now a frame structure, vacant, stands on a steep 
bank beside the railroad crossing. Obadiah Bowne built the house in 1818. 
It is set in a grove of old trees, which include a red beech reputed to be 
the first in the locality. The elaborate detail of the mantels and interior 
wood trim show, according to an authority, the hand of a traveling carpenter 
who was hired at a dollar a day plus board and lodging. 

A plaque set in a boulder in front of the house was placed conjointly 
by the Melzingah Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
and the State of New York to commemorate the uses of a previous house, 
which stood here during the Revolution. In this earlier house, owned by 
Robert Brett, son of Madam Brett, Samuel Loudon, the patriot printer, 
lived and worked, and here the State Constitutional Convention first met. 
Later the building served as the first post office in Fishkill. 

The junction with US 9 marks the end of the foot tour. 



84 



DUTCHESS COUNTY 
MOTOR TOURS 



NOTE ON MOTOR TOURS 

Motor tours are divided into sections for the tourist's convenience; at 
the beginning of each section it is necessary to set the speedometer at 
o.o m. Such parts of the tours as are on the main route are printed in 
larger type. Side-trips, leaving the main route, usually for only a few 
miles, are in smaller type, indented. The mileage on the side-trips is 
computed from the point of leaving the main route, which point is con 
sidered as o.o m. Upon returning to the main route, it is necessary to set 
the speedometer back to the main-route mileage given for that point 
in the text. 



TOUR No. 1 



Poughkeepsie Hyde Park Rhinebeck Red Hook Pine Plains Amenia 

Millbrook Washington Hollow Pleasant Valley Poughkeepsie. US 

9, State 199, US 44. 

Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie, 77.2 m. 

The road in section a is 3-lane concrete; section b, 2-lane macadam; 

section c, 3-lane concrete. Between Poughkeepsie and Red Hook, local 

and interstate busses; in other sections, local busses. 

This route follows main roads through northern Dutchess, exhibiting 
the variety of interests offered by the county. It winds up the historic 

86 





L.. 







/ 



J 

> 

3f 



I 1 







* 




Hudson valley through sleepy villages, past grand estates, and between 
orchards of apple trees; then sweeps east across northern and southwest 
across central Dutchess through a typical rolling and hilly countryside de 
voted to dairying and a quiet life. 
Section a. PoughkeepsieRed Hook. US 9. 21.6 m. 

From the Court House, Main and Market Sts., Poughkeepsie, the route 
turns W . on Main St. toward the river, and R. on Washington St. (US 9). 

This section follows the heavily traveled Hudson valley route between 
New York and Albany. Today the highway runs well above the river- 
level. In an earlier day, when river transportation was of primary import 
ance, the road dipped down at intervals to the villages along the water 
front ; these sections of the old Post Road are now side-roads leading to such 
sleepy villages as Camelot, Chelsea, and Staatsburg. 

The road on the east shore of the Hudson was first laid out from King's 
Bridge, New York, to the ferry opposite Albany, following closely an Indian 
trail which had existed long before the coming of the white man. Begun 
in the reign of Queen Anne, the road was at first known as the Queen's 
Road, later as the King's Highway, and since the Revolution as the Albany 
Post Road. 

The heavy traffic includes not only private cars and busses, but also a 
large number of trucks; much of the New York City milk supply is shipped 
along this route. Day-driving is not dangerous or unpleasant, but at night, 
when a majority of trucks do their traveling, caution is necessary. 

At 1.6 m. is the entrance (L) to WOODCLIFF RECREATION 
PARK, the principal playground of Poughkeepsie. Shaded picnic grounds, an 
outdoor boxing arena, an outdoor dance floor, and a modern swimming pool 
(adults 25c, children 15c, including lockers) are among the facilities offered. 
Overlooking the Hudson, the pool is supplied by a continuous flow of filtered 
river water. 

In the 1860's this was the estate of John F. Winslow, partner in a 
large iron foundry at Troy, holder of the first American rights for the 
manufacture of Bessemer steel, and staunch patron of John Ericsson. Plans 
for Ericsson's Monitor, the famous "cheesebox on a raft," were drawn in 
Winslow's home, now the Park Inn. 

At 1.9 m. is the entrance (R) to the HUDSON RIVER STATE HOS 
PITAL, an institution for the insane opened in 1871. It has 83 buildings 
and occupies 1,730 acres. Twenty-eight doctors and 1,100 employees care for 
an average of 4,400 patients. Ample provision has been made for the practice 
of recreational therapy. 

At 2.9 m. is the entrance (L) to the estate of Miss Ellen Roosevelt, 
cousin of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The house, 500 ft. from the road, is not 
visible from the highway. 

The ST. ANDREW'S NOVITIATE (L), trains young men for 
service in the Jesuit Society. Established in Maryland in 1833, the Novitiate 
was moved to its present location in 1903. The wooded grounds surround 
ing the five-story, red brick building are dotted with shrines. 

87 



North of this point, between the highway and the Hudson River, are 
large, well-kept estates hidden by trees. To the right are farms on gently 
rising hills. Old trees raise a green arch over the Post Road as it crosses 
a broad plain, still called by its 18th century name, the Flats. The plain 
was once thickly forested and some of the early woodland remains, especially 
several magnificent oaks. Portions of the cleared ground have been under 
cultivation since before the Revolution. The broad lawns, tilled fields, and 
meadows have been likened to the countryside of southern England, the 
riverside mansions to the manors of the English gentry. Westward, ter 
races drop from the tableland to the river's edge, and the heights com 
mand a view of the Hudson as it sweeps southward into the LONG REACH, 
the 11 -mile straight sailing course from Hyde Park to New Hamburg, name3 
in 1609 by Robert Juet in his log of the Half Moon and known to the 
Dutch as the Lange Rak. 

At 4.4 m. is the ESTATE OF MRS. JAMES R. ROOSEVELT (L), 
widow of the half-brother of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The two-story clap- 
boarded house, painted dark red with black trim, is visible through the trees. 
It was built between 1833 and 1835 by Joseph Giraud, but the original plan 
of the interior, with a central hall and stairway and two rooms on each side, 
was modified late in the 19th century. 

Included in the Great Nine Partners Patent of 1697, the land was first 
settled in 1748 by Charles Crooke, a New York merchant, who came here 
to remove his blind son from the difficulties of city life. Within the next 
75 years the estate changed hands several times. Edward and Joseph Giraud 
and Henry Kneeland, New York merchants, held the property until 1852, 
when it was purchased by Mrs. Walter Langdon (Dorothea Astor) for 
her daughter. James Roosevelt acquired the estate in 1868, leaving it to 
his son, James R. Roosevelt, whose widow is the present owner. 

At 4.7 m. is the entrance (L) to CRUM ELBOW, the estate of Mrs. 
Sara Delano Roosevelt and the birthplace and home of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt. The entrance can be identified by a red sandstone marker, the 
86th milestone from New York, which stands at the left of the road 
between this and the James R. Roosevelt property. (This marker is one 
of a series of sandstone tablets, now encased in fieldstones, which were 
erected in the 18th century along the route from lower Broadway, New York, 
to Albany). A guardhouse, in which state troopers are stationed when the 
President is in residence, stands inside the gate. 

When there are no leaves on the trees a glimpse of the house can be 
caught from the highway. It stands at the edge of a steep, wooded slope 
overlooking the river. Southward is a sweeping view of the Hudson and 
the two bridges at Poughkeepsie. Groups of old trees shade the lawns, 
with hedges of dense hemlocks and rhododendrons on the north. 

The house, built in 1748-51 by Charles Crooke, is a typical country 
residence of its period, 3 stories high and stuccoed, to which a semi-formal 
front and two stone wings have been added. A flagged and balustraded 
terrace leads to the curved Doric portico fronting the original building. 



Milestone near en 
trance 1 to Crum 
Elbow 




Entrance 
Drive to the 
Roosevelt 
Estate 







Crum Elbow, the Roosevelt Estate 



The balustraded deck on the rooftop is a copy of the "Captain's walk" 
commonly found on houses in New England ports. The projecting wings, 
of gray stone 2 stories high, are crowned with simple cornice and balus 
trade. On the first story of the north wing is an arcade, in one aperture 
of which hangs an old Spanish bell. Around the house is a mass of ever 
greens, ivy, and honeysuckle. 

The interior is simple and dignified. The library, in the south wing, is 
a large paneled room, with carved mantels at each end; the walls are 
covered with prints of figures in American naval history and early battles. 
The family interest in the sea finds further expression in the valuable col 
lection of books on naval history. The west windows of the library over 
look the lawn and the river. On the screened porch at the south of the 
library stands the tiller wheel of U. S. S. Gloucester, which took part in the 
battle of Santiago in 1898. The wheel was also used on the Mayflower, the 
presidential yacht during the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, William 
H. Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. 

At 5.6 m. is the entrance (L) to CRUMWOLD, the Col. Archibald 
Rogers estate. The son, Herman Rogers, present owner of the estate, was 
born here. Mr. and Mrs. Herman Rogers have for many years been friends 
of Mrs. Wallis Simpson, and during the crisis that resulted in the abdication 
of Edward VIII, entertained her in their villa in Cannes. 

HYDE PARK, 5.8 m. (150 alt., 738 pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York Central, .4 m. W. of center of village. 

Busses: Twilight Bus Line, New York-Montreal Bus Line, Hyde Park Bus Line. 

Accommodations: Zeph Hotel. 

Hyde Park, founded in 1741, was originally known as Stoutenburg for 
Judge Jacobus Stoutenburgh, Gentleman, the first white settler. Later, the 
name was changed to Hyde Park, in compliment to Edward Hyde, Lord 
Cornbury, who was Governor of the Province of New York from 1702 to 
1708. 

The village lies on a plateau at the edge of a bluff a half-mile from the 
Hudson. On all sides except the west, it is hemmed in by landed estates. 
Crum Elbow Creek forms the north village line. The older houses are neat, 
well-kept frame buildings clustered near the crossroads. East of the village and 
roughly paralleling the highway, an outcrop of Hudson River shale topped 
by a scanty growth of scrub oaks forms a rugged background. 

The village founder, a religious refugee and heir to a large estate, came 
from Holland at the beginning of the 18th century, moved north from 
Westchester and built three stone houses near Hyde Park village, on the tract 
known as the Nine Water Lots, one of which he owned. The big house of 
the Stoutenburghs and its extensive servants' quarters stood west of Park 
PL near Market St. Stoutenburgh erected a dock and boat-landing by the 
river on the site of the present landing. In October, 1777, the village was 
cannonaded by Gen. Sir John Vaughn as he retired down the Hudson after 
burning Kingston; marines came ashore to plunder and punish the Whigs, 
burned Stoutenburgh's landing, a shop, and an Army storehouse, and de 
parted. 

89 



In the 19th century Hyde Park was the home port of sturgeon fishermen. 
The fish were dumped in pens anchored near the village shore; the meat was 
shipped to Albany to be sold as "Albany beef"; the roe was prepared here 
for exportation. Porpoises and shad were also attracted by the reefs and 
natural breeding grounds along the river. An occasional whale sent the entire 
local fleet in a chase upstream. 

Throughout the two centuries of its existence, Hyde Park has witnessed 
the comings and goings of many celebrities and men who have been promi 
nent in governmental affairs: Alexander Hamilton spent much time here; 
Washington Irving was an intimate friend of James Kirke Paulding, who 
lived nearby; Morgan Lewis, the Livingstons, the Pendletons, and Dr. 
Bard, founder of Bard College, were guests or residents. 

One block S. of the crossroads is the JAMES ROOSEVELT ME 
MORIAL LIBRARY (L), Colonial in design, built in 1927 with stone 
from the Roosevelt estate. The library was given to the village by Mrs. 
Sara Delano Roosevelt in memory of her husband. Among the books on 
the shelves is a compilation of town records by Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Just W. of the crossroads (L) stands a building, now used in part as a 
plumber's shop, which was a 19th century inn. A long upper porch over 
looks the road ; a covered way leads through the lower story to an open 
yard and sheds where the horses of the Post Road stage-coaches were changed. 

North of the crossroads, on US 9, is the REFORMED CHURCH (R), 
established in 1789. The white frame building of simple Colonial design, 
with a square tower over the main entrance, has high, arched windows at the 
front and old-fashioned small panes and memorial windows at the sides and 
rear. In the yard behind the church, grave markers date back to that of 
"Mr. Noah Bunnel, 1790." 

At 6.8 m. is the ornate stone entrance (L) to the estate of F. W. Vander- 
bilt. 

At 7 m. is ST. JAMES' CHURCH (R), built in 1844 and long at 
tended by the Roosevelt family. English Gothic in style and set back from 
the road in a handsome grove of trees, it has the grave dignity and beauty 
of its forebears in the English shires. The chief feature of the front is a 
tall, square tower, with a low pitched roof that is more Italian than English. 
The interior, consisting of a nave and chancel, without aisles, is plastered, 
and has simple woodwork in black walnut, and hammer-beam trusses. The 
first two windows, with clear diamond panes, are from the original church, 
built in 1811. Two others, of simple stained glass, were brought from the 
Church of the Ascension in New York City. 

Dr. Samuel Bard, a famous New York physician and president of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, donated land for the 
first structure. The tract had been granted to his family by Queen Anne. 
The 125th anniversary of the founding of St. James' Parish and the erection 
and consecration of the original church was celebrated October 25, 1936, 
at a service attended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his family. 

North of Hyde Park the contrast between the formal estates and the 

90 



natural beauty of the countryside is striking. The highway here is flanked 
by concrete and steel fences. 

At 7.5 m. is the SITE OF PLACENTIA (L), the home of James 
Kirke Paulding, Secretary of the Navy under Martin Van Buren. Paulding 
was Washington Irving's biographer and collaborated with him in the 
Salmagundi Papers, a satirical literary periodical published in 1807. He was 
author of many books and for a time an editorial writer for the New York 
Evening Post under William Cullen Bryant. The house was occupied by 
Paulding from 1846 until his death in 1860. 

A view of ST. JOSEPH'S NOVITIATE (L), across the Hudson River, 
appears at 9.1 m. The massive stone structure, with its many spires, is situ 
ated on a high bluff overlooking the river. Since bluff and river are invisible 
from the road, St. Joseph's appears to be across the meadow. 

MARGARET LEWIS NORRIE STATE PARK, 9.5 m. (L), was 
donated to New York State by Geraldine Morgan Thompson in memory 
of her sister, Margaret Lewis Norrie. The 312 acres of ground, with 
wooded hills, slope down from the highway to the river front. In 1937 a 
large Civilian Conservation Corps Camp housed the young men who were 
developing the area into a recreational center. Plans have been drawn for a 
large swimming pool ana 1 picnic grounds with parking fields, and paths 
radiating from the highway to the Hudson River. 

At 9. 75 m. is junction (L) with the old Post Road, macadam. (See 
Tour No. 1A.) 

US 9 swings R. up a long, easy grade with views left across the meadows 
to the river. Twenty miles away tower the Catskill Mountains, their rounded 
blue bulk filling the Northwest horizon. 

At 13.1 m., north of a white mansion, is the PARTHENON (R), a 
small wooden reproduction of the Greek temple. It was built by J. W. 
Gardner, a corporation lawyer, and houses his valuable law library. A col 
lection of first editions of Blackstone is shown occasionally to visitors. Behind 
the Parthenon is an original Dutch windmill, imported from Holland. 

The Rhinebeck line is crossed at 16.3 m. 

At 16.4 m. is the junction (L) with the OLD MILL ROAD. 

Left on this dirt road is GRASMERE (Fox Hollow School), .75 m. (L), 
the home of the late Maunsell Crosby. The dignified mansion of red brick 
overlooks wide lawns and rolling wooded hills extending toward the 
Hudson. This was the birthplace of W. A. Duer, president of Columbia 
College (1829-1842). 

Grasmere was begun in 1773 by Gen. Richard Montgomery and completed 
by his wife after his death. The many locust trees on the grounds grew 
from seeds scattered by Mrs. Montgomery in her walks about the estate. 
In 1828, the 7oo-acre estate was purchased by Peter H. and Lewis 
Livingston, who lived here until 1850. It was purchased by Mrs. Fanny 
Crosby in 1894. It is now a private school for girls. 
Beyond the Fox Hollow School is ELLERSLIE, 2.7 m., the former home 
of Levi P. Morton, elected Vice President of the United States in 1888 
and Governor of New York State in 1894. The home is now occupied 
by his daughter, Miss Helen Morton. 

91 



WILDERCLIFF, 4. m. (R), is an estate owned by R. B. Suckley. The 
name is an example of the fusion of the Dutch and English forms in 
many place names in the Hudson Valley. With slight variations in spell 
ing, it appears to have clung to the estate for 200 years, and may have 
had its origin in the Dutch wilden, wild men or savages, and clif, old 
Dutch for rock. 

On the northern end of the river cove on the estate is an INDIAN 
PICTURE ROCK, dating from at least 1686, when the Indians sold the 
land. Originally the rock showed a cutting of two Indian warriors ; to 
day only one figure can be seen. The tomahawk which was in the left 
hand is gone, but the calumet in the right hand can still be made out. 
The carvings were apparently chipped in the rock by a tool with rotary 
motion. The picture rock is difficult of access and can be reached only 
by canoe or by wading knee-deep through water. 

RHINEBECK, 16.9 m. (203 alt., 1,569 pop.). 
Railroad Station: At Rhinecliff. 
Ferry: Rhinecliff. 
Bus Line: Twilight Bus Line. 

Accommodations and Information: Beekman Arms Hotel. 
Motion Picture House: One. 

As it approaches Rhinebeck, the road is bordered by large shade trees. The 
village has an air of age and substance, with dignified buildings close to the 
highway. In 1670 William Beekman, an employee of the Dutch West India 
Co., purchased land in this vicinity. In 1697 his son, Henry, secured a patent 
for a vast tract of land lying opposite Esopus Creek, which included the site 
of Rhinebeck. This section of the land passed to William Traphagen in 
1700. Among the early settlers, mainly French Huguenots and Dutch, was a 
group of Palatines, who are credited with naming the village for Rheinbach, 
a village in the Rhine valley. Other sources give the name as a German 
combination meaning "Rhine-like" ; still others contend it is of local inven 
tion and merely means "Beekman 's Rhine." 

Early in the 18th century the village was a change station for stage-coaches; 
during the Revolution it was an active military center. Modern Rhinebeck 
is engaged in dairy farming and fruit raising. The cultivation of violets, for 
many years an important industry in this section, recently declined, but is 
again on the rise. 

In RHINEBECK CEMETERY (L), at the extreme southern end of 
the village and bordering US 9, is the grave of Levi P. Morton. 

VINCENT ASTOR CONVALESCENT SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 
(L) is at the southern end of the village. It was established in 1901 at 
Rhinecliff by Miss Mary Morton, daughter of Levi P. Morton, to provide 
a suitable environment and recreation for convalescent under-privileged 
children of New York City, and was later taken over by the Vincent Astor 
family, patrons of Rhinebeck, who moved it to its present location. 

Built in 1809, the REFORMED CHURCH (R), on US 9, one block 
S. of the village center, is painted white, except for the ivy-covered north 
side and the brown cornice and blinds. The south end has a pediment with a 
bulls-eye filled with louvres, surrounded by a wooden tower and belfry. On 

92 



this side are both round and elliptical arches, with the usual Colonial key 
stones ; while the east and west sides have high windows with pointed arches 
and interesting sectional outside blinds. 

The sides of the building facing the two streets are of brick, while the east 
side, away from the road, is of stone. According to local tradition, this con 
struction grew out of a dispute between factions as to which material should 
be used. Those who could furnish stone did so and demanded that the 
building be built of stone ; others who could furnish money demanded brick 
construction. They compromised. 

The history of the church goes back to 1730. In that year Henry Beekman 
gave a deed for 2 acres of land to the inhabitants of North Ward (Rhine- 
beck) for the purpose of erecting a church or meeting house within 3 years; 
and he gave the minister, elders, and deacons the right to cut timber or 
carry away stones from his land. In accordance with the provisions, a church 
was completed in 1733. Henry Beekman was buried in 1776 in the church 
of which he was the benefactor. 

The BEEKMAN ARMS HOTEL, at the SW. corner of the intersection 
of US 9 and State 308, is the largest and most prominent building in the 
village. It claims to be the oldest operating hotel in the United States. The 
original inn was a one-story stone house with two rooms and a loft, built 
shortly after 1700 by William Traphagen on this land which he bought that 
year. His grandson, Arent Traphagen, enlarged the business, which at his 
death in 1769 occupied a building 2 stories high and covered the area of the 
present main structure. It was built like a fortress, with heavy stone walls; 
and the arrangement of the cellar indicates that it was intended to serve 
that purpose. The present third story was added in 1865. The wooden wing 
on the north, the brick wing on the south, and the pillared portico across 
the front are later additions. The original building is stuccoed, painted white, 
producing a harmonious general effect. The modern taproom has a fire 
place said to date back to the original building. The entrance hall retains 
its old beamed ceiling, but the post and knees ostensibly supporting it are 
apparently modern. During its long history the hotel has entertained such 
distinguished guests as George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron 
Burr, De Witt Clinton, and Theodore Roosevelt. Adjoining the hotel on 
the S. is a courtyard, used during the Revolutionary War as a parade and 
training ground for soldiers. 

The BOWERY HOUSE, a short distance E. (R) on State 308, is a 
frame structure painted yellow, with brown trim and small-paned windows. 
The main entrance is set off by a porch with Doric columns. 

This inn was erected about 1800 on the land of the Old Dutch Church, 
which served as the dominie's farm (Dutch, bouwerie). Abram Brinckerhoff, 
the first proprietor, was succeeded by Pieter Pultz, after whom it is often 
called the Pultz Tavern. It was once the stopping place of the Yellow Bird 
Coach line, and rivalled in fame the old hotel (Beekman Arms) on the Post 
Road. 

Right from the center of the village runs State 308, an alternate route 

93 



between US 9 and State 199. This new concrete road winds through a 
thinly settled farming country, the wooded sections interspersed with 
small truck farms. 

At 5.2 m. is the entrance (R) to LAKE SEPASCO (open), with an 
area of 25 acres. CAMP RAMAPO is located on the southern tip of the 
lake. Large picnic grounds surround the lake, which is ideal for swim 
ming and fishing. Boats may be hired at the northern end of the lake. 
At ROCK CITY, 6.5 m. is junction with State 199. (See section b.) 

The CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH (R), just above the intersection, 
is a low stone structure, Gothic in style, artistically comparable to St. James' 
Church at Hyde Park. Built in 1897 with funds donated by the family of 
John Jacob Astor, it was designed by Stanford White as a miniature of an 
English cathedral. Episcopal in faith, the church is a center of worship for 
the owners of estates in the region, and serves as music center for the village. 

At 16.9 m. is the junction (L) with a dirt road. (See Tour No. IB). 

At 17 m. is the NORTHERN DUTCHESS HEALTH CENTER 
(L), a red brick structure of the hospital type, which was built in 1931. 
Thomas Thompson of Boston, a frequent visitor in Rhinebeck, founded the 
Center 35 years ago. It is operated by a board of managers under the Thomp 
son Trust and maintains clinics and emergency and isolation wards for the 
northern towns of the county. Miss Helen Morton donated the operating 
room in memory of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Levi P. Morton. 

Opposite the Health Center are the ETHAN COONS GREEN 
HOUSES (R). The plant consists of 25 greenhouses which specialize in 
double English violets. It serves a nation-wide market ; flowers are sent by 
air to points west of the Mississippi. The Princess Mary, a semi-double, 
dark violet was developed here. 

Just beyond the greenhouses, a road runs R. to where the Dutchess County 
Fair is held during the first week' in September. The chief attractions are 
the agricultural exhibits in which the juvenile grange and 4-H clubs join. 
Special features of the fair are the horse and automobile races. 

At 17.3 m. US 9 enters ASTOR FLATS, a 2-mile straightaway used 
20 years ago as a testing ground for automobiles. It is a section of the vast 
local estate of Vincent Astor; the house and outbuildings lie on the river 
front. Tenant farmers care for the fruit orchards and guard the wooded 
game preserve. 

At 19.4 m. the road curves around the yellow, somber Evangelical Luth 
eran Church of St. Peter the Apostle, known for more than a century as the 
OLD STONE CHURCH (L). The edifice was built in 1730. In 1729, 
Lutheran residents in that neighborhood applied to Gilbert Livingston, the 
husband of Cornelia Beekman, for a lot for a church near "Kirchehoek," 
and near the Old German Church, then standing. Livingston gave the site 
upon which the stone church was built and also that of the adjoining 
cemetery, providing in the deed that the land should forever be used for 
church purposes only. The oldest stone in the cemetery, dated Jan. 25, 1733, 
is that of Carl Neher, who was actively employed in the building of the 

94 



early church. In 1824 the church was remodeled and enlarged and its present 
tower added. 

North of the Old Stone Church, US 9 passes through a wide and level 
area of rich soil devoted to the apple and grape industry. Orchards line the 
highway at intervals from Rhinebeck north to the county line. This is a 
favorite drive in the spring when the trees are in bloom. In late summer 
innumerable roadside stands carry on a brisk trade in vegetables, fruits, and 
preserves. 

RED HOOK, 21 2 m. (200 alt., 996 pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York Central at Barrytown, 3 m. W. 
Bus Line: Twilight Bus Line. 
Accommodations: Red Hook Hotel. 
Motion Picture House: One. 

The first settlers in this region were Dutch, who came to what is now 
Upper Red Hook, 3 miles N. of the present village, between 1713 and 
1727. As the result of a village quarrel, the postmaster moved the office 
to the site of the present village. The name is said to have been given 
the region by early Dutch navigators, who saw a hillside covered with red 
berries near Tivoli and called the place Roode Hoeck. The village is today 
the center of the northern Dutchess fruit belt. 

The RED HOOK COLD STORAGE CO. WAREHOUSE (R), just 
S. of the railroad tracks, has a capacity of 80,000 barrels. Apples are trucked 
to New York City and shipped all over the world. The production of cider 
and vinegar is an important industry. 

Opposite the Methodist Church on W. Market St. is a VILLAGE 
BLACKSMITH SHOP, now a rarity. The low, one-room building is 
cluttered with discarded horseshoes and iron work. The smith in charge 
remembers coach-and-four days and will talk of them. 

At traffic light, 21 .6 m., the route turns R. on State 199. (See Section b.) 

For continuation of US 9 to county line see Tour No. 1C. 
Section b. Red Haok Junction State 199 and US 44. State 199. 23.5 m. 

This section, across northern Dutchess, leads through a hilly region marked 
by self-contained hamlets, fruit orchards, and summer camps. The social life 
of the little agricultural communities centers in the grange hall and the 
church. Several high elevations along the route offer expansive views of 
the countryside. 

From traffic light in Red Hook the route turns R. on State 199. 

The RED HOOK COUNTRY CLUB, 3.3 m. (R), is a private club 
with an excellent 18-hole golf course and boating facilities. 

At 4 m. is the junction with State 308 in ROCK CITY (360 alt., 
75 pop.), a cross-roads hamlet named for the deep ravine on the edge of the 
village, through which a brook flows. 

At 8.1 m. is the entrance (L) to MARKS MEMORIAL CAMP OF 
THE TRIBUNE FRESH AIR FUND, sponsored by the New York 
Herald-Tribune. Throughout the summer, groups of under-privileged New 
York children enjoy two-week vacation periods here. 

95 



LA FAYETTEVILLE, 8.8 m. (700 alt., 25 pop.), a one-street village 
with a few houses on each side and a country store, was named in honor of 
the Marquis de La Fayette. LA FAYETTEVILLE HOUSE (L), so 
named in 1824, is a weather-beaten clapboard structure with first- and 
second-story rickety white porches running across the front of the building. 
This house was a famous relay station and overnight stop for post riders 
before the railroad era. 

At 11.6 m. is the CHRISTIAN CHURCH (R), dedicated in 1859. This 
white frame building is one of the many churches which sprang up in the 
boom times of the railroad era following 1850, and remained standing in 
secluded spots long after the people who worshipped in them had moved to 
larger villages. The building is now used as a storehouse and garage. 
At 14.5 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Right, on the road, is STISSING LAKE, .75 m., with Stissing Mt. (1,440 
ft.) in the background. The road around the lake, which is bordered by 
wild flowers and mountain laurel, passes a large summer camp for 
Jewish people. The lake affords excellent small-mouthed bass and 
pickerel fishing. There are public beaches and boat liveries. 

PINE PLAINS, 15.3 m. (474 alt., 500 pop.). 

Busses: Mid-County Bus Line. 

Accommodations: Stissing House. 

Motion Picture House: One. 

Recreation: Small-mouthed bass and pickerel fishing in Mud and Miller lakes nearby. 

Pine Plains is a peaceful country village built around a crossroads. Main 
St. (State 82) runs N. and S., crossing State 199 at traffic light. The homes, 
surrounded by wide, shady lawns, are set well back from the broad street. 

The stone TOWER surmounted by the village clock, on Main St. just 
R. of intersection, is a memorial to Dr. Henry C. Wilber, a physician who 
practiced here from 1887 to 1919. 

The COLE PHARMACY (L), on Main St., houses the FIRST PUB 
LIC LIBRARY in Dutchess County, which has been located in the same 
building since it was established in 1797. 

The ENO LAW OFFICE, Main St. (L), a one-story, yellow clapboard 
structure, was erected in 1814 by Stephen Eno, celebrated Dutchess County 
jurist who is said to have worn knee breeches and his hair tied in a queue, 
after the manner of the 18th century gentleman, until his death in 1854 
at the age of ninety. 

State 82 (Main St.), known as the Central Dutchess Highway, follows the 
E. bank of Wappinger Creek to a junction with US 44. (See Tour No. 
i D.) 

Beyond Pine Plains, State 199 ascends gradually through a narrow, 
wooded, sparsely settled valley. 

At 18.9 m. is a rear view of the Dutchess hills backed by the glimmering 
Hudson and the bulk of the Catskill Mountains, 35 m. W. 

At 23.5 m. is junction with US 44. The main route turns R. on US 44. 

Left on US 44 is MILLERTON, 1.3 m. (600 alt., 919 pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York Central R, R. (Harlem Valley Division), daily passenger 
and freight trains, 

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Accommodations: Brick Block Hotel. 

Millerton derived its name from a contractor named Miller, who built 
the railroad through the village in 1845, and established his headquar 
ters here. Millerton has a bustling business section and is a distribution 
center for a large dairy region, shipping the product by railroad and 
truck to New York City. 

The village lies at the foot of the TACONIC TRI-STATE PARK, a 
recreation area 20 m. long, on the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New 
York borders. Most of the New York section lies in Columbia County, 
immediately North. 

North on Maple Ave. is RUDD POND CAMPSITE, 2 m., with foot 
trails, picnic grounds, and campsites along the shore of Rudd Pond, a 
75-acre lake with canoe, boat, and fishing facilities, and hiking trails. 
Sites and tents may be rented nearby. Hills east of the lake have been 
planted with young pines; imported sand placed by CCC workers during 
1935-36 has transformed the muddy lake shore into an ideal bathing 
beach. 

South on Maple Ave. is INDIAN LAKE, J m., most of its 2-m. length 
in Connecticut; fishing and picnics. 

Section c. Junction State 199 and US 44- Washington Hollow Pough- 
keepsie. US 44. 322 m. 

Unexpected curves and patched macadam on most of route. The New 
York Central R. R. (Harlem Valley Division) parallels the route to 
Amenia. 

US 44 is a direct route from the Berkshires to the West. The Dutchess 
Turnpike, predecessor of US 44, was surveyed in 1802, and was completed 
from Litchfield, Conn., to Poughkeepsie in 1805. Since the days of the stage 
coach, traffic over this route has increased in response to changing modes of 
transportation, until today the road is an important link between the East and 
the West. It has a gradual descending grade from 900 ft. to tidewater 
level. The highway at first winds through the beautiful Harlem valley, 
flanked on both sides by mountain ranges. Small farming communities on 
the floor of the valley present a contrast to the wild beauty of the wooded 
slopes. 

From junction of State 199 and US 44, the route turns R. on US 44. 

AMENIA, 6.8 m. (573 alt., 1,560 pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York Central (Harlem Valley Division). 

Busses: Harlem Valley Bus Line. 

Accommodations: Amenia Inn, De La Vergne Farms Hotel. 

Dr. Thomas Young, a local poet, in 1762 named the village from the 
Latin word "Amoena," meaning "a pleasant place." 

The growth and development of the village was largely determined by 
its location at a focal point for routes south and west. Here taverns and 
stables sprang up, and dwellings followed. Then came the discovery of iron 
in the mountains; and, with limestone for flux at hand, the community soon 
developed industrially. The Amenia Iron Co. mines, now abandoned, on 
the west bounds of the village, were an important factor in the growth. The 
present prosperity of Amenia is based on its excellent farm lands. Some of 
the most prosperous dairy farms of the county are within the township. The 

97 



mountains afford little hunting but the small, rapid streams are well stocked 
with trout and attract many anglers in the fishing season. 

The GRANGE HALL, Main St., is a popular social center. 

AMENIA HIGH SCHOOL stands on the site of the Amenia Seminary, 
a Methodist school established in 1835. The Seminary existed for 53 years; 
students enrolled from every State in the Union. 

At center of village is junction with State 200. 

Left on State 200 is TROUTBECK, .75 m., the estate of J. E. Spingarn, 
nationally known critic, famous as the place where many authors have 
gathered and written. Here Luther Burbank spent much time and wrote 
the introduction to Charles Benton's book Troutbeck. 
At 3.5 m. is the NEW YORK-CONNECTICUT STATE LINE. Before 
the boundary was definitely settled (see p. ), the settlers in the doubt 
ful territory quarreled. According to local tradition, "The Connecticut 
settlers were Yankees, and there were witches in Connecticut. They 
never came over the line into New York." 

US 44 bears R. on West Main St. 

At 7.7 m. is LAKE AMENIA (L), one-half mile long, with swimming, 
boating, and fishing facilities and a bungalow colony. 

Near the end of the lake the highway begins its S-curve ascent of De La 
Vergne Hill, 1.3 m. long. From a point at 8.8 m., near the top of the ascent, 
is a view (L) down the pasturelands of the Harlem valley, with a narrow 
rock pass far south, through which State 22 makes its way. 

At the top of De La Vergne Hill (929 alt.), 9.3 m., is the junction (R) 
with State 82 A. (See Tour ID). 

For the next 9 m. the road gradually descends to an altitude of 565 ft. 
at Millbrook. This section is rocky and hilly, with few dwellings. 

At 11.2 m. is a dirt road (R), the entrance to MILLBROOK SCHOOL, 
a private preparatory school for boys, established in 1930. 

At 12.6 m. is the MILLBROOK THEATRE (L), one of the dozens 
of country playhouses developed by the little-theatre movement. Broadway 
try-outs are held here during July and August from Wednesday to Saturday 
(no matinees). The one-story building was originally a Quaker meeting 
house; the pews are still used and seat approximately 250 persons. The 
windows are of early design, with 6-in. square panes. Charles S. Howard 
and Edward Massey are directors. 

At 15.2 m. is an open-air SWIMMING POOL (L) (admission 35c), 
equipped with bathhouses and shower facilities. 

MABBETTSVILLE, 15.4 m. (692 alt., 40 pop.), a hairnet consisting of 
a store, a garage, and a cluster of houses, was early named Filkentown in 
honor of one of the Great Nine Partners. The present name was derived 
from James Mabbett, a commission auctioneer who settled here early in 
the 19th century. 

Between Mabbettsville and Millbrook lies the large private estate DAN- 
HEIM (R), formerly the property of C. F. Dietrich. Its 2,500 acres are 
partly improved and partly in the natural wooded state. 

98 



At 16.9 m., opposite main gateway to Danheim (R), US 44 turns sharply 
L. and enters the village of MILLBROOK. 

MILLBROOK, 17.2 m. (565 alt., 1,296 pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. (freight service only). 
Accommodations: Millbrook Hotel and Millbrook Inn. 

Millbrook grew with the building of the railroad and station in 1869. 
The name was given in compliment to George H. Brown, who was chiefly 
responsible for the completion of the road and who named his estate Mill- 
brook Farms. The village, incorporated in 1895, is a landscaped expanse of 
modern homes with trim lawns and shade trees. The hamlets of Mabbetts- 
ville, South Millbrook, and Mechanics are suburbs. The surrounding country 
side is particularly beautiful with hills, wooded slopes, and wide meadows. 
Much of this area is included in large estates, and several of the mansions 
are visible from the highway. A number of stables are maintained ; riding 
and hunting are popular. Writers and artists have been attracted to Mill- 
brook, and the summer theatre is enthusiastically supported. 

Both the Hicksite and Orthodox Quakers have continued active here. The 
Hicksites meet occasionally in the Brick Meeting House in Mechanic, on 
State 343, E. of South Millbrook. In 1926 the Orthodox joined with the 
Dutch Reformed and Methodist congregations to build the Federated Church 
in Millbrook. 

US 44 follows Franklin Ave. to North Ave. and turns L. on North Ave. 
At 17.8 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Right, on this dirt road, is the HART HOMESTEAD, .5 m., built in 
1800 by Philip Hart, owner of a fulling mill. It is a Colonial frame 
house, with hand-carved paneling and elaborately decorated window 
cornices. A 6-ft. fireplace of simple hand-carved design is in the right 
wing. Antique furniture completes the picture of a pleasing old home 
stead. When the house was built the front was painted white and the 
rear red, in keeping with the general practice of the period. 

At 18.4 m. is the BENNETT SCHOOL and BENNETT SCHOOL 
JUNIOR COLLEGE (R). The Bennett School was founded by May 
Friend Bennett at Irvington-on-the-Hudson in 1891. In 1907 Miss Bennett 
purchased the former Halcyon Hall in Millbrook, a vacant hotel, and 
moved the school to the site it now occupies. The buildings are on a knoll, 
surrounded by a wide lawn. The tennis courts and archery range are visible 
from the highway. Three graduates of the school's drama department, Mil 
dred Natwick, Helen Chandler, and Helen Trenholme, have appeared on 
Broadway. Betty Furness, featured film player, graduated from the high 
school department. Gail Bolger, another graduate, appeared with Helen 
Chandler in the 1936 production of Pride and Prejudice. Greek drama was 
first presented in 1920. In 1922 an outdoor Greek theatre was built, in which 
Greek Festivals are held each year. 

In 1935 the school's department of liberal and applied arts was chartered 
as a junior college, covering the 4-year general or college preparatory course. 
It also offers a 2-year course in academic studies, dramatic art, music, fine 
and applied arts, household arts, and secretarial duties. 

99 



At 18.5 m. is FOUR CORNERS MONUMENT, the junction of State 
82, State 243, and US 44. A stone shaft at the center of the intersection 
gives directions. US 44 turns R. 

SOUTH MILLBROOK, 18.5 m., was formerly known as the Four 
Corners and Washington Four Corners, and became Washington, N. Y., 
in 1869. The name confused postal clerks, who read the "D. C." (Dutchess 
County) as District of Columbia; and the name was therefore again changed 
to South Millbrook. 

Left on State 343 is the entrance (R) to the PHEASANT BREEDERS 
AND HUNTING ASSOCIATION, 4 m. A varying admission is charged 
for the privilege of hunting pheasants on the estate. 
At .7 m. is the MILLBROOK GOLF CLUB (L). Golfing, swimming, 
and tennis facilities are provided. 

The hamlet of MECHANIC, / m., so named because of the number of 
skilled workmen employed in the various blacksmith, carpentry, and 
wagon-making shops in the neighborhood, grew around the BRICK 
MEETING HOUSE (L), built in 1780 by the Nine Partners Meeting of 
Society of Friends. The two-story rectangular brick building, 40 by 75 
ft., is in such excellent condition that a casual glance might give the 
impression that it is of recent construction. It is free from ornamentation. 
The interior was divided into two parts one for men and one for 
women. A raised platform was provided for the speakers, and rough 
benches for the congregation. On both the women's and men's sides cast- 
iron woodburning stoves are still in position. No alterations have been 
made since the meeting house was erected. On the lawn in front of the 
building is a sun dial, donated by Jacob Willetts (see below). A horse 
block still remains on the driveway (R). 

Freed Negro slaves sought the protection of the Quakers a century ago 
and built a colony of huts near the church. The hovels were destroyed to 
make way for landscaping SANDANONA (Indian, Sunshine], the ad 
jacent estate of John D. Wing. 

The site (R) of the NINE PARTNERS SCHOOL lies 500 ft. E. of the 
meeting house. This school was opened by the Society of Friends in 
1796, especially for those of their faith who were in indigent circum 
stances. A thorough academic Course was offered; attendance reached 
100 students. It continued to prosper until the division of the Society 
of Friends in 1828 into Orthodox and Hicksite groups. (See Tour No. 
4.) Upon this division the Hicksites withdrew from the Orthodox Nine 
Partners school and established a separate and similar school under the 
principalship of Jacob and Deborah Willets, who had been among the 
first pupils to attend the original school. Jacob Willetts was the author 
of popular arithmetic and geography textbooks: to his inspiration we owe 
the useful lyric beginning "Thirty days hath September." Deborah 
Rodgers Willetts was a noted grammarian and mathematician. The Nine 
Partners School continued under the management of the Orthodox branch 
until 1835. Later it was reopened and continued under other direction 
until 1864. The building was then removed, and part of it was incor 
porated in the construction of John D. Wing's private residence. 

THORNDALE, 19.2 m. (R), occupied by Oakleigh Thome, is the old 
homestead made famous by the horses and cattle bred under the direction of 
Edwin and Samuel Thome. In 1860, Samuel Thome's herd of 70 short-horn 
Durhams, valued at $70,000, was regarded by authorities as the best herd 

100 



in the United States. The low stone house built in 1725 by Isaac and Hannah 
Thorne still stands on the grounds. The extensive flower gardens are open 
to inspection during the spring. 

At 20.8 m. is view (R) across the Dutchess woods to the bulging blue line 
of the Catskills. 

WASHINGTON HOLLOW, 23.8 m. (321 alt., 80 pop.), is today a 
residential village for Poughkeepsie commuters. The small white frame 
houses on the one street are shaded by large maples. Settled before the end 
of the Revolution, it was in 1813 the camp ground for artillery trains bound 
for Sacketts Harbor. For a number of years it was the site of the Dutchess 
County Fair. The lonely bandstand, racetrack, and rambling hotel are still 
intact (R) at the edge of the village, adjoining the N. junction with State 
82 (R). 

At 23.9 m., about 200 ft. from the road, with the grounds enclosed by a 
fieldstone wall, is the ZACHEUS NEWCOMB HOUSE (L), one of the 
earliest examples of the Dutch brick house in Dutchess County, built in 
1777 by Sarah Tobias Newcomb, while her husband, Zacheus, was away 
at war. Mrs. Newcomb not only superintended the construction of the 
house but also directed the manufacture of the bricks which were used in it. 
The pond visible from the highway, was formed by flooding the pit from 
which the brick clay was dug. 

The house is Georgian, 2 stories high, with a gambrel roof. The floor 
plan is that of the usual 18th century house, with a central hall bisecting 
the structure. The bricks are laid in Flemish bond. The south porch is an 
exact reproduction of the original, and the front door is the one built with 
the house, as are the mantels, window seats, corner cupboads, wood trim, 
and blue tile. 

At 24.5 m. is a view (L) of the Hudson Highlands. 

At 25.8 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road is the JOHN NEWCOMB HOUSE .7 m. (L). In 1802 
John Newcomb, a son of Zacheus Newcomb, built a fulling mill on the 
stream that crosses this tract. In 1808 he built the two-story frame struc 
ture. There is a leaded design over the Dutch door and small panes 
of glass on either side. The angles of the outside walls are bound with 
quoins of wood, and a rope design is employed under the eaves. The 
walls of the hall are plastered to resemble purple and white marble. In 
the southwest bedroom is a hand-carved mantel. The kitchen wing has a 
large stone fireplace, wide floor planks, and handhewn ceiling beams. A 
slave bench was once fastened to the wall beside the fireplace. This 
was a rough 6-ft. plank, an inch thick and a foot wide. When the slaves 
misbehaved they were forced to sit on the bench close to a huge dog 
tied at one end of the bench. The bench is in the possession of Mrs. Floyd 
Laird of Pleasant Valley. The property was purchased by Mrs. Alson 
Laird in 1867, and is now occupied by a tenant farmer. A few minor 
changes have been made, but in the main the house is in its original 
condition. 

PLEASANT VALLEY, 26 m. (200 alt., 300 pop.). 

Railroad Station: The New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. (Pine Plains Branch) 
(freight only). 

101 



Accommodations: Earths Hotel. 

Settled in 1740 by Quakers and Presbyterians while still a part of the 
Crum Elbow Precinct, Pleasant Valley soon became a center for grist and 
cotton mills operated by the waters of Wappinger Creek. The largest cotton 
plant was built in 1815, which in 1860 operated 80 looms and employed 
75 men, women, and children. Industry died at the end of the 19th century. 
The village today is a bustling Poughkeepsie suburb, its wide streets shaded 
by elms. 

At 26.7 m., just beyond the village, is the new power station of the 
NIAGARA HUDSON POWER & LIGHT CORPORATION (R). 

East of the plant stands a curious old stone barn, an interesting juxtaposi 
tion of the old and the modern. It is of interest primarily because its masonry 
is typical of the 18th century and because of openings formed in the walls, 
narrow on the outside, flaring within, similar to the loopholes in early block 
houses. Records of its origin are lost, but it is believed to have been erected 
in the 1750's as a defense post against possible French-Indian raids. There 
are four other such buildings in the Hudson Valley, at Harmon, New Paltz, 
Rensselaer, and Kerhonkson, Ulster County. 

From this point to Poughkeepsie many tourist cabins line the highway and 
cottages extend down the slope on the S. to Wappinger Creek. 

At 27.9 m. is junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is ROCHDALE, .5 m., a settlement of summer cottages. 
The hamlet is on Wappinger Creek, which provides boating and bathing. 
The excellent fishing in the creek includes bass, trout, eels, catfish, and 
suckers. Pheasants, rabbits, and squirrels are found in all parts of the 
township. The section is heavily wooded. 

At 30.2 m. is junction with a macadam road. 

Left on this road is the ZEPHANIAH PLATT HOUSE, 4 m. (L). The 
house was built in two parts. The older portion, erected about 1735 by 
Gilbert Palen, consisted of two rooms and a basement kitchen. Zephaniah 
Platt acquired the place in 1762, and before 1775 built the addition at 
the right which doubled the size of the house. The enlargement was 
doubtless made to accommodate the large family, for here twelve 
children were born to him and his wife, Mary, daughter of Theodorus 
Van Wyck, of Wiccopee. Platt was prominent in the political history of 
the State, serving in the Revolution as a colonel of militia and a member 
of the New York Provincial Congress; and later as a State senator 
and member of the Constitutional Convention at Poughkeepsie where he 
voted in favor of ratification. In 1798 he moved to the northern part of 
the State ; with his three brothers, and others from Poughkeepsie, he 
founded the city of Plattsburgh. 

The house stands today practically unaltered. It is built of native field- 
stone, with a second story in brick and a gambrel roof. The front door 
is of the Dutch double type and has a brass knocker of Revolutionary 
design. Two rooms are graced by deep fireplaces with carved mantels. 
The original cellar door is still in use. The hinges are of wood and the 
long bar that locks the door rests in crude wooden sockets. 
Left at the Platt House. At .5 m. across the White Bridge over Wap 
pinger Creek. Proceed up the hill, where at .8 m. is the junction of 
three roads. Take L. fork and proceed straight ahead. 

102 



At 1.2 m. is the SLEIGHT HOUSE (L), one of the few remaining ex 
amples of the early Dutch stone houses in Dutchess County. Of select 
native fieldstone, the building is 2 stories high, with a main hall bisecting 
it in the i8th century style. It was erected in 1798 by Jacobus Sleight, 
who married Elsie De Riemer, a descendant of Isaac De Riemer, one of 
the early mayors of New York City. The house was raised on the site 
of a smaller one built by Abram Sleight, father of Jacobus, in the second 
quarter of the i8th century. The old frame barn, E. of the house, in ex 
cellent condition, was put up in 1831. The present owner is a descendant 
of the builder. 

Across the highway from the junction is a farmers' cooperative market, 
where fruit and vegetables are sold in season. 

From the top of the hill at 31 m. is a view of the suburb of Arlington. 

At 31.4 m. are the modern office structures (L) of the NEW YORK 
STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT and the COUNTY HIGH 
WAY DEPARTMENT. 

US 44 passes through the business section of Arlington, on the outskirts 
of Poughkeepsie. 

At 322 m. is the Poughkeepsie city line. (See Poughkeepsie.) 

TOUR 1 A 

Junction US g and Old Post Road Staatsburg. Old Post Road. I. 7 m. 

Left from US 9 on Old Post Road. 

STAATSBURG, .5 m. (90 alt., 530 pop.). 
Railroad Station: New York Central, center of village. 
Busses: Twilight Bus Line, flag stop. 

In 1693, Captain Henry Pawling, an English officer, bought 4,000 acres 
of land in Dutchess County from the Indians. In 1698, his widow and chil 
dren obtained a Crown patent, but in 1701 sold their rights to Dr. Samuel 
Staats and Dirck Van Der Burgh, both of New York City, for 130 pounds. 
The village name is a union of the names of the two owners. 

In earlier years, ice cutting on the Hudson River was an important in 
dustry, directly west of the village of Staatsburg was one of the largest plants. 
In 1858, J. H. Bodenstein established a shop for the manufacture of ice- 
cutting implements. The business expanded, and today the Staatsburg Ice 
Tool Works sells its products throughout the United States and abroad. 

Beneath Staatsburg. is an underlying stratum of quicksand. Buildings in 
the village located above this stratum quiver when the New York Central 
trains pass over the section of the railroad tracks which crosses the quicksand. 

At the south end of the village, opposite the high school, stands the OLD 
STONE HOUSE (R), built early in the 18th century. It is a substantial 
square building with four chimneys, the porch and wood trim painted red. 
Tradition says that it was an inn in the stage coach days. 

About one-half mile L. from center of village on a narrow, macadam 
road is the LEWIS GORDON NORRIE PARK, on the banks of the 
Hudson. The entrance is marked by a monument. The park was donated 
to the people of Staatsburg by Geraldine Morgan Thompson in memory of 

103 



a favorite nephew, who spent the summers of his childhood in Staatsburg. 
He died in 1923, before attaining his twenty-second birthday. The park has 
facilities for swimming, boating, and fishing, and fireplaces and tables for 
picnics. 

One block east of Main St. is the TELEPHONE BUILDING, (L), 
a reproduction of a Colonial one-story stone house 25 ft. square. The wrought 
iron ornamentations are copies of 18th century handwork. The interior 
houses the village automatic dialing system. 

ST. MARGARET'S CHURCH (R), in the center of the village was 
built in the Civil War period in an adaptation of the Gothic style. It has 
in its south wall two three-panel windows brought from Chartres, France, 
by Ogden Mills, Sr., as a memorial to his wife, Ruth Livingston Mills. 

A NINE-HOLE GOLF COURSE (R) at the north end of the village 
is owned by R. P. Huntington. 

At 1 m. are the elaborate gates (L) of the ESTATE OF OGDEN 
LIVINGSTON MILLS. 

MORGAN LEWIS, son of one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, acquired this property in 1792. Judge Lewis was at the battle 
of Stillwater, and led the van of attack against Johnson and Brant at 
Klock's Field. At the bar and bench his appointments ranged from At 
torney General of the State to Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New 
York, and in politics from member of Assembly to Governor (1804-06). He 
served as president of the Society of the Cincinnati and is credited with 
being the founder of the common school system. He married Gertrude 
Livingston, sister of the Chancellor, and about 1795 built a brick house 
known as Staatsburg House. In his day the estate was noted for its hospital 
ity; among the many distinguished visitors were Joseph Bonaparte, who was 
entertained here in 1816, and the Marquis de LaFayette, who stopped here 
while en route to Clermont. The brick house was destroyed by fire in 1832. 
The massive walls survived and became the nucleus of the second house, 
which was remodeled by Mr. and Mrs. Mills in 1895. 

The property has remained in the possession of the descendants of Morgan 
Lewis; Ruth Livingston Mills, wife of Ogden Mills, Sr., was his great- 
granddaughter. 

The two main entrances lead through high, ornamented, ivyclad iron gates 
bearing the initials "R.L.M.," in honor of Ruth Livingston Mills. The lands 
of the estate bordering the highway have been left in a natural wooded 
state. The property is divided into two sections, the farms with their ex 
tensive orchards and prize stock lie R. The residence estate is west of the 
New York Central R. R. on the river bank. The formal mansion, visible 
from the Hudson, is a large white house with Ionic columns, standing on 
the crest of a hill, its wide lawn sloping riverward. 

At 1.6 m., adjoining the Mills estate, is THE LOCUSTS (L) the home 
of the late William B. Dinsmore. The large frame country house, sur 
rounded by maples and evergreens and wide acres of farmlands, is a river 
estate typical of this region. 

104 



he Whitefield Oak 
Smithfield 



, 





Family Burial 
Ground north of 
Rhinebeck 



Churchyard at St. 
Church, Hyde Park 




St. James' Church, 
Hyde Park 



At 1.9 m. is the entrance (L) to HOPELAND, the country estate of 
R. P. Huntington. "No Admittance" signs flank the gravel drive here and 
at other entrances (L). Only landscaped grounds and the peaks of modem 
barns are visible. 

Beyond Hopeland, rifts among the trees offer glimpses of the Hudson 
above Esopus Island. Beyond the hills in blue masses to the N. W. tower the 
Catskill Mountains. 

TOUR 1 B 

Rhinebeck Barrytoivn Annandale Tivoli. Barrytoivn Road. State pG. 

Macadam and 2-strip concrete road. 

The route winds through the wooded countryside of the river-shore past 
huge estates and picturesque villages surrounded by fruit orchards. The road 
offers vista after vista of the wide river and the Catskills. 

The route begins at junction of US 9 and Barry town Road in Rhinebeck. 
L. on Barrytown Road. At .7 m., L. on macadam road. 

At 2 m., deep in the Astor woods and 50 ft. above the road, is the site 
(L) of SUCKLEY CHAPEL, built in 1883, as a home for aged clergymen. 
The project wa ssoon abandoned and the land was sold to the Astor family. 
The chapel was torn down during the winter of 1936. 

At 3.5 m. is the entrance (L) to ROKEBY. The house, not visible from 
the road, was originally a two-story, rectangular brick structure built dur 
ing the war of 1812 by Gen. John Armstrong, then Secretary of War. The 
library wing and mansard roof were added by Mrs. William B. Astor, 
Armstrong's only daughter, who lived here until 1872. The estate is now 
owned and occupied by Margaret Aldrich, a descendant. 

An officer in the Continental Army, Armstrong moved from Pennsylvania 
to Dutchess after the Revolution. Before becoming Secretary of War, he 
served successively as United States Senator from New York and Minister 
to France. 

At 5.2 m. is junction with State 199. 

Left on State 199 is BARRYTOWN, / m. (100 alt., 469 pop.), known 

in the i8th century as Red Hook Landing. Granted a post office in 1828 

by Postmaster-General W. T. Barry, the village was renamed in his 

honor. Besides the postoffice, it consists of the New York Central R. R. 

station and a few scattered houses. 

In 1777 the British fleet burned local storehouses filled with grain for 

the Continental Army. 

ST. JOSEPH'S NOVITIATE, across field at top of hill (R), is a Roman 

Catholic normal school dedicated in 1930 by Patrick Cardinal Hayes, 

Archbishop of New York. 

At 5.6 m. is the QUINN HOUSE (L), a one-and-one-half-story gray 
stone house of the early 18th century. The N. end has wide clapboards se 
cured with handwrought nails. The floors are of broad, thick planks, and 
some of the original hardware remains. In the cellar is a huge Dutch fire- 

105 



place. The stone slave house, 10 by 12 ft., still stands, unaltered externally, 
at the N. end of the building. 

After burning the stores at Red Hook Landing, the British raiders seized 
and looted the Quinn House, then occupied by a family named Moore. 

Just beyond the Quinn House is the entrance (L) to the old MONT 
GOMERY ESTATE, which, without a sale, has descended through six 
wills to the present owner, Gen. John Ross Delafield. The house, built 
in 1804 by the widow of Gen. Richard Montgomery, is of stone, with 
walls 2 ft. thick and great windows and high ceilings, after the fashion of 
the time. The portico, terrace, and roof balustrade were added in 1862. 

Born in Ireland, Montgomery came to America in 1772 and settled in 
Rhinebeck, marrying Janet Livingston the following year. Until the out 
break of war, they were engaged in building Grasmere, 7 m. S. (See p. 91.) 
Montgomery was second in command under General Schuyler in the Cana 
dian expedition of 1775. He captured Chambly, St. John's, and Montreal, 
only to be among the first to fall in the disastrous joint attack with Benedict 
Arnold on the fortress of Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775. 

Mrs. Montgomery completed Grasmere, but moved to this new "Chateau 
de Montgomery" in 1804, where she lived until her death in 1828. In the 
summer of 1818 a steamer bearing Montgomery's remains from Quebec to 
St. Paul's Church, New York, paused before the house to fire a salute. 
Among various eminent men entertained here were LaFayette and Martin 
Van Buren. 

The next owner of the estate was Edward Livingston, Mrs. Mont 
gomery's youngest brother, counsel to the Lafitte Brothers, Louisiana pirates, 
and author of the Louisiana Code. He is generally believed to have been the 
author of President Andrew Jackson's Nullification Proclamation of De 
cember 10, 1832. His wife, Louise d'Avezac de Castera, a Creole from Santo 
Domingo, lived on the estate for 25 years after his death. During her 
husband's term as United States Minister to France, she is said to have 
been regarded as the most gifted and most beautiful woman at the French 
Court. 

At 6.1 m. is ANNANDALE P. O. (180 alt., 182 pop.), and just beyond 
is a triangular road junction centered by an antique village pump. The route 
takes the left fork and proceeds straight ahead through the village. 

The site of Annandale was part of the Schuyler Patent of 1688, and was 
first settled by Barent Van Benthuysen, who purchased the river-front from 
Schuyler in 1725. 

At 6.8 m. is the entrance (L) to BLITHEWOOD. In 1801 the estate 
was named Annandale by Mrs. John Allen (nee Johnstone), after a Scotch 
earldom in the Johnstone family. John Cox Stevens, one of the first prominent 
sportsmen in the United States and a founder of the New York Yacht Club, 
purchased the estate in 1810 and lived here until 1833. His ownership was 
followed by that of Robert Donaldson, under whom the estate became noted 
as an example of landscape gardening. The turf laid by Donaldson is still 
in place. 

106 



John Bard, founder of Bard College, bought the property in 1853 and 
revived the name Annandale, abandoned during the two previous occu 
pancies, because of a connection between the Bard and Johnstone families. 
The name subsequently came to be used for the vicinage as well as the es 
tate, and now designates only the former. 

BARD COLLEGE, 6.9 m. (R) (formerly St. Stephen's), has 26 build 
ings, most of which are of English Collegiate Gothic architecture. The 34- 
acre campus overlooks the Hudson River Valley. There are 300 students. 

Opposite the main entrance is a simple Gothic church (L), the CHAPEL 
OF THE HOLY INNOCENTS, built and named by Mr. John Bard, 
about 1858, as a memorial to his only son, and in 1860 designated as the 
college chapel. 

The college was founded by John Bard in 1860 to provide a classical 
education leading to the A. B. degree for sons of the Episcopal clergy. For 
many years thereafter a large percentage of the graduates entered the 
Episcopal ministry directly or entered seminaries to prepare for the ministry, 
a fact which was probably responsible for the legend that St. Stephen's 
College was a theological seminary. Bard was a grandson of Dr. Samuel 
Bard, founder of St. James' Church in Hyde Park. 

In 1828 the college became an integral but self-governing part of Co 
lumbia University, and in 1934 the name was changed to Bard College, in 
honor of the founder. 

At the angle of the road turning east is WARD MANOR, 7.2 m. (L), a 
2,000-acre property owned by the New York Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor and designed primarily as a home for the aged. The 
main building houses 50 persons and the secondary building 35, there being, 
in addition to these, 18 fully equipped bungalows, a convalescent unit, and 
summer camps for boys and girls. 

A part of the Schuyler Patent, this neighborhood was owned by Barent 
Van Benthuysen from 1725 to 1790, the part that is now Ward Manor 
passing in the latter year to Gen. John Armstrong. The house built by 
Armstrong was destroyed by fire, and for many years the place lay idle. The 
gray stone Tudor edifice, main building of the present group, was built in 
1915 by L. G. Hammersley of New York, who, however, never occupied it. 
In 1926 Robert Boyd Ward, a prominent bread manufacturer, purchased 
the estate and gave it to the present owners, together with an endowment of 
$1,000,000. 

At Ward Manor is the junction with a one-way dirt road, requiring 
cautious driving. 

Left on this road is CRUGER'S ISLAND .75 m. Off the N. end of Cruger's 
Island, Henry Hudson is said to have anchored for a night on his voyage 
up the river. Local, too, is the legend of an extraordinary Indian trial- 
at-arms held here a century later following the admission of the Tus- 
caroras to the Iroquois Confederation. A controversy arose as to which 
of the tribes should be dominant. To settle the question it was agreed 
that fifty warriors should be chosen from each tribe to battle for su 
premacy. Cruger's Island, then known as Magdalen Island, was chosen 
as the site of the conflict. After a long and desperate struggle, only 

107 



Mohawks and Tuscaroras remained, with the latter holding a numerical 
advantage. The Mohawks fled in their canoes and took refuge on Goat 
Island (then ailed Schlipsteen Island), a mile north. Lighting camp 
fires, they arranged logs and stones, covered them with blankets to 
simulate sleeping men, then hid in the underbrush. As anticipated, 
the Tuscaroras stole in during the night and fell upon the apparent 
group of sleepers. The Mohawks sprang from covert, surrounded and 
overwhelmed the Tuscaroras, and by this stratagem became the dominant 
tribe of the Confederacy. 

John G. Cruger, once mayor of New York City, bought the island in 
1835 and built a house upon it, the remains of which are still visible. 
A small chapel, standing on a rock at the S. end of the island, was 
constructed by Cruger in imitation of ruins discovered by John Lloyd 
Stevens, an American explorer, in Chiapis and Yucatan. 

At 7.5 m. is the junction with State 9G, a concrete road. The route turns 
L. on State 9G. 

This route is known locally as the Apple Blossom Trail because of the 
many apple orchards which line it on both sides. 

At 9.7 m. is the junction with a concrete road. The route turns L. on this 
road. 

TIVOLI-MADALIN, 9.8 m. (152 alt., 1603 pop.), derives its name 
from one of those grandiose but impracticable schemes that caught the 
imagination of so many Europeans in the early days of the republic. After 
the Revolution a Frenchman named Delabegarre purchased the property 
now known as the Elmsdorf Place, and built on it a reproduction of a 
French chateau, surrounded by moats and high walls. He named his creation 
the Chateau de Tivoli and planned to build a city within the walls. The 
dream remained unrealized and all but a high octagonal tower was re 
moved. The property then passed into the hands of the DePeysters, who 
built a house in which the tower was incorporated. This stood until 1930, 
when house and tower were torn down. Parts remain of the original wall 
that enclosed the estate. Madalin (once known as Myersville) and Tivoli 
were united and incorporated in 1872. 

At 10.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right, on this road, is ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH and 
VAULTS 0.2 m. (L). The first wooden church building was erected 
in 1818. The present structure was begun in 1868, and stands on an 
esplanade facing E. Slate-roofed, and constructed of rough stone in the 
Norman Gothic style, it is almost entirely overgrown with ivy. The 
windows between the buttresses are of ground glass. In the semi-hex 
agonal transept on the S. are pews once used by the Livingstons and 
the DePeysters. In the immediate rear of the chancel, and abutting 
against the foundation wall of the church, is a vault of Hudson River 
bluestone containing the remains of Gen. John Watts DePeyster. On 
either side of the wrought-iron door are lo-pound Parrott guns. North 
ward, in a semicircle at the rear of the church ,are eight other mausoleums 
of somewhat similar design, four of which are owned by the Livingston 
family. 

At 10.7 m. is the entrance (L) to the CALLENDAR HOUSE, a large 
frame structure with thick brick-filled walls, built by Henry Gilbert Living- 

108 



ston in 1794. The interior remains unaltered. The Greek Revival veranda 
dates from the 1830's. 

Before the Revolution the land was occupied by Indians, two of whose 
graves, containing skeletons, arrowheads, and carved stones, were discovered 
when the lawns were being graded in 1888. A part of the Schuyler Patent, 
the estate was acquired in 1781 by Joseph Ketcham, who built a dock on the 
riverfront, where the next owners, Jacob Bogardus and John Reade, con 
ducted a store for a number of years. Chancellor Livingston, experimenting 
at that time with steamboats, constructed a 30-ton vessel in the North Bay 
cove of the property. The craft, however, failed to perform satisfactorily 
on its trial trip. 

Henry Gilbert Livingston bought the estate in 1794 and built the house, 
selling it the following year to Philip H. Livingston. The latter named 
the place Sunning Hill and lived here until 1828. Among later owners, all 
of whom have been members of the Livingston family, have been Robert 
Tillotson; James Boorman, first president of the Hudson River R. R. ; 
Henry De Koven, a rector of St. Paul's Church, Tivoli, and father of 
Reginald De Koven, the composer; and Johnstone Livingston, who re 
named the property Callendar House. The present owner is Mrs. Katherine 
Johnstone Livingston Redmond. 

At 10.8 m. is the entrance (L) to THE PYNES, an estate owned by 
Mrs. Redmond of Callendar House, with which it is almost as closely linked 
in history as in location. The Empire vases on the gateposts were brought 
here from the old Chateau de Tivoli. 

The main part of the house is believed to have been built in 1780 by John 
Reade, who, with Jacob Bogardus, operated a store on the riverfront. The 
interior, in the familiar 18th century design bisected by a central hall, has 
been renovated. 

Henry Gilbert Livingston, a spy for Washington's army and builder of 
Callendar House, bought the property in 1794 from John Reade, his 
brother-in-law. The estate has never passed out of the possession of the 
Livingston family. 

At 11. 1 m. is the New York Central R. R. station and the dock of the 
Sunrise Ferry Co., operating auto ferries between Tivoli-Madalin and 
Saugerties. 

| ~ TOUR 1C 

Red Hook Dutchess-Columbia County Line, US 9. 5.1 m. 

The section through which this route passes is sparsely settled. Apple and 
cherry orchards border the highway. 

The route begins in Red Hook at junction of US 9 and State 199, and 
follows US 9 N. 

At A m. is the MARTIN HOMESTEAD (L), built in 1732 by Hen- 
drick Martin. The stone walls were recently covered with white cement, 
but the interior remains in its original state. The walls enclose an air- 
chamber, making the house cool in summer and warm in winter. Solid, hand- 

109 



hewn beams, 12 x 14 inches, span the rooms. The flooring is composed of 
planks 14 to 28 inches wide. The two-piece doors, brass knobs, and wrought- 
iron hinges and knockers are original. 

At 2.7 m. is junction with macadam road. 

Right on this road .3 m. is Upper Red Hook. In the center of the hamlet 
is the THOMAS HOUSE, (R), a brick tavern used by Gen. Israel 
Putnam as a headquarters in 1777, and a station for stage coaches in the 
halcyon days before the railroad. Directly beyond the Thomas house 
take right fork to SPRING LAKE, 2 m., a private summer resort with 
facilities for tennis playing, swimming, boating, bathing, and fishing. 

At 4.1 m. is a junction with a macadam road. 

Left on this road is the REDDER HOMESTEAD, .75 m. (R), built about 
1720. It is a one-floor and attic house of stone, painted white, with green 
shutters and a very steep roof. 

The original two-piece door has hinges, latches, and a door-knocker 
imported from Holland. The flooring-boards, 12 x 14 inches, are fastened 
by wooden pegs. Spanning the rooms are 14 x i8-inch hand-hewn beams 
with the draw-plane and adze marks visible. The molding and fireplace 
mantel are hand carved. While digging in the cellar, the owner un 
covered coins dating back to 1722. These are still in his possession. 

At 5.1 m. is the DUTCHESS-COLUMBIA COUNTY LINE. 

^ TOUR1 D 

Pine Plains Washington Hollow. State 82. 17 m. 

Leaving Pine Plains, the road leads into the Mid-Dutchess County valley. 
This is a dairy and fruit region; cultivated fields and orchards line the 
highway. 

At .5 m. is the junction with State 82A, a macadam road (sharp curves). 
Left, State 82A traverses a wooded countryside. Wild strawberries and 
blackberries abound along the roadside. Coarse bunch grass and brush 
line the road and extend back as far as the eye can see. Fallow fields 
and dilapidated houses tell the story of a once busy farming section. 
At 5.5 m. is the village of SHEKOMEKO (665 alt., 45 pop.), named for 
the Indian village which was located about 3 m. NE. Christian Henry 
Rauch of the Moravian Missionary Society established a mission here 
in 1740. Upon his arrival Rauch found the tribal remnants that had 
gravitated to the ancient Indian village reduced to almost hopeless dis 
solution by the neighboring white settlers as the easiest way to intimida 
tion and exploitation. 

In 1741 Bishop David Nitschman, associate of Count Zinzendorf, the 
founder of the Missionary movement, visited Shekomeko; and soon after 
ward Gottlob Buettner, a missionary from Bethlehem, Pa., came to stay. 
Count Zinzendorf himself visited Shekomeko with his daughter in the 
summer of 1742. Six Indians were baptised during Zinzendorf's visit, and 
a regular congregation was formed. The next year a bark-covered 
chapel was erected by the little group and the congregation grew to 
63 members. Although German Protestant and quite without political 
or national bias, the missionaries were bitterly denounced as Jesuits, 
in league with the French. 

The Brothers of the Mission were brought to trial a number of times, 
each trial resulting in a clear acquittal. Finally on Dec. 17, 1744, they 

110 



were summoned to Poughkeepsie on an arbitrary charge of aiding the 
French, and were definitely ordered to leave the country. 
The Indian Congregation subsisted until its members were driven by force 
from Shekomeko on the pretense that they did not own the land. In 
February, 1745. Buettner, who had been unable to leave because of 
illness, died at the age of 29, and was buried by his Indian converts 
shortly before they scattered. A monument replacing the defaced original 
was erected over his grave in 1869 by the Moravian Historical Society. 
SMITHFIELD, 9 m. (800 alt., 4.0 pop.), is a village with a cluster of 
attractive houses under fine old trees. Settled about 1712, the village 
stood at the center of an age-old hunting ground of the Pequot Indians. 
At a bend of the road, overlooking the cluster of houses, is the PRES 
BYTERIAN CHURCH (L), a square, low Greek Revival structure 
with Ionic porch columns, imposing in its simplicity. The dilapidated old 
horse-sheds still stand at the E. side. The burying ground across the 
road contains headstones bearing dates as early as 1757. At the en 
trance to the burying ground is a LARGE OAK TREE under which 
the great Methodist divine, George Whitefield, preached on June 19, 
1770, a few months before his death. His sermons drew settlers from a 
5O-mile area ; the crowd filled the graveyard and overflowed to sur 
rounding fields. 

Leaving Smithfield, the road winds through woods to a junction with 
US 44, W. of Amenia. 
Retrace route to State 82. 

On State 82 BRIARCLIFF FARMS, 1.4 m. (R), a center for prize 
Aberdeen-Angus cattle, are owned by Oakleigh Thorne of Millbrook. Milk 
Lake, on the farm at 2 m. (R), is so called because of the unusual white 
strip through its center. In stormy weather the streak widens and covers 
three-quarters of the lake surface. 
At .7 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road is HUNNS LAKE, 2 m. (80 acres), a private summer 
resort. 

At 7.7 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road is BANGALL, .4 m. (400 alt., 60 pop.) , a small village 
which owed its growth to the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. 
(formerly the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut). 

STANFORDVILLE, 8.5 m. (327 alt., Ill pop.). 

Railroad Station: New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. (freight service only). 
Busses: Mid-county busses stop on signal. 

This is a one-street village on the hillside with church, school, and general 
store. The history of Stanfordville is that of the decadence of a small inland 
manufacturing center. Neither Bangall nor Stanfordville has shared in the 
suburban trend swelling the larger towns of the county. Both are agricul 
tural communities, with social activities, centered in the school, churches, 
and grange. 

At 10.5 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Right on this road is UPTON LAKE, 3 m. (L), (70 acres), a summer 
resort for camping, boating, bathing, and fishing. 

South, the road is flanked by rich pasture lands and well cultivated farms. 

Ill 



At 14.5 m. is an old MILL (L), once part of a large cotton manufactur 
ing plant. 

At 15.9 m., beside the old County Fair grounds of Washington Hollow 
(L), is the junction with US 44. 

TOUR 2 

Poughkeepsie New Hackensack Hopewell Junction Pawling Dover 

Plains Amenta. State 376, 52, 216, 55, 22. 

Poughkeepsie Amenta, 53.3 m. 

Road is 2-lane, chiefly macadam. Local bus lines. 

This route makes a triangle covering a large part of Dutchess County. 
The entire route lies in a region of valley farms and foothills, rich in his 
toric interest. The road curves and dips constantly, with few level stretches. 
Section a. Poughkeepsie Gayhead. State 376, 15.4 m. 

This section of the route between Poughkeepsie and Pawling is the direct 
way between Poughkeepsie and southeastern points. The section on State 
22, between Pawling and Amenia, follows the historic Harlem Valley con 
necting New York and the north. 

The route starts at the Court House, Poughkeepsie. 

R. on Main St. to intersection with Raymond Ave. R. on Raymond Ave. 
to State 376. 

At 1.9 m. is Vassar College (L). 

At 2.7 m. the route bears L. on State 376. 

At 4 m. is GRAY'S RIDING ACADEMY (L), the headquarters of 
the Rombout Riding and Hunt Club. The Vassar Horse Show is held here 
annually early in May ; hunter trials are held in October. 

At the entrance to the academy a lane (L ) leads to the DuBOIS HOUSE, 
built in 1774 by Lewis DuBois. The front and gable-end walls are of yellow- 
painted brick, the thick rear wall of stone. The mansard roof, the porch, 
windows and shutters are alterations. The center hall and two adjacent 
rooms belong to the original design. Fine woodwork, a panelled dado, and 
staircase are the chief remnants of the 1774 interior. 

The land was part of the Rombout Patent of 1685. The builder was a 
captain of the Continental Army in the Battle of Quebec, later promoted to 
the rank of major, and still later to general of the New York Militia. 
Subsequent owners include members of the Livingston, Greenleaf, Ingraham, 
Adriance and Varick families. 

Just beyond the academy is the entrance (R) to GREENVALE PARK, 
where Wappinger Creek provides excellent swimming facilities. The stream 
at this point is approximately 75 ft. wide, with a depth varying from 2 to 
15 ft. A large shallow area affords ideal wading for children. There are 
parking fields, picnic grounds, horseshoe pitching courts, and bath houses* 
for men and women. 

At 5 m. is the POUGHKEEPSIE AIRPORT (R), a private enterprise. 

The route bears left on State 376. 

112 



From this point the curves of Wappinger Creek are followed through 
woods and pasture. 

At 5.1 m. a concrete bridge crosses Wappinger Creek. The old dam is the 
site of a vanished grist mill; and immediately S. is RED OAK MILLS (R), 
a picnic and bathing spot. 

Many bungalows, recently built between Red Oak Mills and New 
Hackensack, are the homes of people who work in Poughkeepsie. They repre 
sent the same suburban trend found E. of the city in the villages of 
Washington Hollow and Pleasant Valley. 

At 6.8 m. is the STEPHEN THORN HOME (L), a brick residence 
painted white. The inscription on the cornerstone of the modern stone 
chimney reads: "Stephen Thorn 1772." The dormers, the rear frame 
addition, and the Greek Revival porch are of a later period. 

The site is part of land deeded by the Indians in 1700 to Stephen Van 
Cortlandt, one of the original Rombout patentees. He held this land until 
1733, when it passed to his sister, Mrs. John Schuyler, who sold it in 1734 
to Tunis Van Benschoten. Samuel Thorn of Westchester subsequently 
acquired 210 acres, which were inherited by his son, Dr. Stephen Thorn, 
who built the house. 

A ghost story is told about a maid of the Thorns who was said to have 
been bewitched by a peddler because she refused to kiss him. Strange rappings 
followed her through the house and the furniture moved mysteriously. The 
peddler was finally traced and confessed to causing the disturbance. He de 
clared it would cease when a large stone in the attic was rolled down stairs. 
Such a thing came to pass and the trouble ended. 

At 6.9 m. is the entrance (R) to the NEW HACKENSACK AIR 
PORT, owned by the Federal Government, opened in 1932 as an emergency 
landing field. It lies in the direct airline between New York, Albany, and 
Montreal; measures 2,760 ft. by 2,110 ft.; is lighted and marked according 
to regulations; and is open 24 hours a day. The apparatus includes a wall 
map charting air beacons throughout the United States; a sending and re 
ceiving radio to check the course of planes; a teletype, which constantly re 
ports weather conditions. 

The REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, 6.9 m. (L), built in 1834, is 
a brick structure painted white. It is a curious combination of Greek and 
Gothic details. Buttresses to support the outer walls were a later addition. 
Windows and buttresses are pointed ; portico and cornice are Greek Doric. 

The congregation was formed in 1765. In 1766 Joris Brinckerhoff gave 
land for a church and burying ground. A wooden edifice was completed in 
1766 and remained in use until 1834, when the present structure replaced it. 

On the north side of the church the site of the original building is marked 
by the grave of the first resident pastor, Dominie Isaac Rysdyck, who in 
1765 came to America from Holland to serve the Reformed Dutch churches 
of Poughkeepsie, Fishkill, New Hackensack, and Hopewell. He served the 
latter two churches until his death. A student of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, 
he was, during part of his ministry, in charge of the Dutchess County 

113 



Academy at Fishkill. He died in 1790, leaving behind him a reputation as 
"the most learned man in the Dutch Church of America." 

The cemetery adjoining the church contains many early graves. The tomb 
of Johannes Schurrie (d. 1784) is inscribed: 

"Behold and see as you pass by 
As you are now so once was I 
As I am now so you must be 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

The WORONOCK INN, 7.1 m. (R), a long white frame building with 
a two-storied porch, is said to date from 1750, although the visible details 
are of a later period. 

NEW HACKENSACK, 7.4m. (110 alt., 130 pop.). 

Busses: Local lines. 
Accommodations: Woronock Inn. 

State 376 cuts through the village down an arch of great elms and locusts, 
The first settlers came here about 1750 from Hackensack, N. J., and 
named the hamlet New Hackensack. The region is still a highly productive 
farming country. 

In the center of the village is junction (R) with a country road. 
Right, on this road, is the JACOB VAN BENSCHOTEN TELLER 
HOUSE, .5 m. (R), erected about 1830. The land on which it stands was 
part of the estate left by Jacob Van Benschoten (d. 1830) to his four 
nephews, each of whom was named for him. Jacob V. B. Teller, one of 
these nephews, built the present house. It is a two and one-half story white 
frame structure in the Greek Revival style; the portico has four fluted 
Doric columns 2 stories in height. 

OLD HUNDRED, 7.5 m. (L), a white farmhouse, was built in 1754 
by Joseph Horton. The roof is a characteristic Dutch gambrel, more 
common in New Jersey than New York. The front is of brick painted white ; 
side and east additions are frame. The stairs and the panelled fireplace walls 
of the living room and kitchen are Colonial. 

The doors have some of their original wrought-iron hardware ; the front 
door has exceptionally broad boards and handwrought nails. 

Behind Old Hundred is the JANE RESIDENCE, an imposing mansion 
of brick painted white, of the Greek Revival style, set in a grove of aged 
hickory and locust trees. 

At 10.2 m., beyond Sprout Creek bridge, is CRYSTAL SPRING 
MANOR (L), a red brick gambrel mansion of 19 rooms, \ l / 2 stories high, 
erected in 1768 by Philip Verplanck, Jr. The date is built in the southwest 
wall in black brick figures 2 ft. high. Col. Richard Van Wyck, an officer of 
the Dutchess County militia and sheriff in 1819, purchased the home in 
1827. The front and end walls are of brick, the rear of stone. The front 
facade has three dormers and delicate Corinthian fluting. The Dutch door 
with its two glass bulls-eyes, handwrought hinges, and brass knocker, is 
original. The broad hall which cuts through the whole depth has carved 
wainscoting 3^4 ft- high. 

114 



FISHKILL PLAINS, 10.5 m. (300 alt., 60 pop.), is a one-street country 
hamlet with general store, blacksmith shop, and garages. 

South, the road ascends a mile-long hill. From the top of the grade is a 
view (R) to the Fishkill Mountains. 

Here the road makes a U turn and descends to the village of HOPE- 
WELL JUNCTION, 72.5 m. (220 alt., 305 pop.), once an important 
freight junction of the Central New England and Newburgh, Dutchess & 
Connecticut R. Rs. Both lines have been absorbed by the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford R. R. The junction gave origin to the village in 1869 and 
was once on a direct railroad route from Boston to Washington. Passenger 
service was discontinued several years ago. 

At 13.2 m. beyond the railroad tracks, is junction with State 82, the 
Mid-County Highway. 

Left on State 82 is the OLD BEEKMAN ROAD. .4 m. Straight ahead 
on broken macadam of the Old Beekman Road is OLD HOPEWELL, 
.9 m. (300 alt., 65 Pop.), settled in 1750 by Aaron Stockholm of Long 
Island, farmer and grist mill operator. Captain Thomas Storm was 
another early settler. 

The REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, / m. (L), is a yellow-painted 
brick building with four white columns, built in 1833 on the site of a 
church dating from 1764. The adjacent cemetery contains graves of the 
first settlers. Among them is that of Garret, son of Capt. Thomas Storm, 
who died in 1776, aged 2 years. It is inscribed, "I was born, look't 
round and died." 

At 2.5 m. is junction with the EASTERN STATE PARKWAY (not 
open in spring of 1937). 

At 2.7 m. is the STORM-ADRIANCE-BRINCKERHOFF HOUSE (L), 
a white frame residence with a red roof, surrounded by a white picket 
fence. On the lawn is a concrete marker recording Washington's sojourn 
here in 1778 when the army was marching from Fishkill to Connecticut. 
On that occasion, the commander-in-chief mildly rebuked the assembled 
residents for what he considered uncalled for obeisance. A rude stone 
bowl set on the marker is an Indian handmill found on the premises. 
The western or left end of the house is the oldest part. Porches and 
dormers are modern. In parts of the interior the old hand-hewn beams 
are still visible. A Dutch oven projects from the wall at the end of the 
oldest part. Some of the doors have original HL hinges. A trap-door in 
the old sitting room leads to a cellar where Capt. Thomas Storm is said 
to have kept his prisoners during the Revolution. 

Left, a dirt road north of the Storm-Adriance-Brinckerhoff House leads 
to Sylvan Lake (see p. 134.) 

At junction, State 52 turns R. into State 82, and 200 ft. W. turns L. 

At 14.3 m. is the entrance (L) to EMMADINE FARMS, model dairy 
and stock farms owned by J. C. Penny, chain store magnate. The enterprise 
includes 1,000 acres of land, and supports a herd of 500 Guernsey cattle. 
The milk product is distributed directly from the farms to consumers. 

At 16.1 m. is the once thriving village of GAYHEAD (officially known 
as EAST FISHKILL) (300 alt., 40 pop.), now merely a junction for 
State 376 and State 54. 

A mill pond (L) and an old dam (R) are remnants of a 19th century 

115 



grist mill. A local tradition asserts that the town came by its name because 
of an early inhabitant who wore bright feathers in his cap. The first settler 
was Aaron Van Vlack, a Hollander, who bought 500 acres from Madam 
Brett when the countryside was yet a wilderness. His son, Tunis, built the 
first grist mill by the pond. 

Section b. Gayhead Pawling. State 52, 216, 55. 14.8 m. 

In Gayhead the route bears L. from State 376 on State 52. 

At .9 m. is underpass beneath the EASTERN STATE PARKWAY. 
This was the northern terminus of the parkway in the spring of 1937. 

At 2.9 m. is road (L) down which Sibyl Ludington, daughter of a 
colonel of Continental militia, galloped on the night of April 26, 1777, to 
rouse the men of her father's regiment for a sally against British forces at 
Danbury, Conn. 

At 3 m. is junction with State 216 (L). The route turns L. on State 
216. 

Straight ahead on State 52 is STORMVILLE, .3 m. (340 alt., 157 pop.), 
settled in 1730 by Garret George, and Isaac Storm. The village had 20 
houses in 1860 and has changed little since then. Villagers still tell the 
story of Polly Tidd, who was kidnapped with a brother and sister by 
Indians from the family home 7 m. east. The brother was killed in 
nearby woods. Polly and her sister were carried across the Hudson and 
adopted by a tribe of Delaware Indians. 

One of the braves demanded Polly's sister in marriage. She refused 
and was slain. Later Polly received a similar demand. Warned by a 
friendly squaw to remember her sister's fate, she accepted. Two boys were 
born from the marriage. The young mother several years later escaped 
with her children to her old home, and found that her parents had died. 
After difficulty she established her identity, and recovered her father's 
property. The two sons died in early manhood. Polly lived alone until 
her death at an advanced age. 

Beyond the village, the road crosses wooded hills which offer panoramic 
views across the Hudson Valley, with the slopes of the Highlands S. 
and the blue lines of the Catskills N. 

At 3.7 m. is the entrance (R) to the LINCOLN DUDE RANCH, with 
recreational facilities simulating those of a western ranch. A small lake 
provides bathing, boating, and fishing; bridle paths radiate from the 
main building. 

PECKSVILLE, 5.3 m. (600 alt., 30 pop.), is an unmarked crossroads with 
a one-room general store and a half dozen houses. An unusually large 
grave in the old burying ground (R) near the crossroads is said to be 
the last resting place of one of Polly Tidd's sons. In the orchard at 
the top of the hill is the rock on which the Indians are said to have 
tomahawked her brother. 

On State 216 at 4.1 m. is the STORMVILLE SPEEDWAY (R), an 
oval dirt track, one-half mile long, the scene of auto races every other Sun 
day afternoon from Memorial Day until late November. 

BROAD ACRES, 4.8 m. (L), close to the highway, is a large farm op 
erated by the Hudson River State Hospital. 

116 



GREEN HAVEN, 5.2 m. (380 alt., 112 pop.), is the home of the Hud 
son Valley Nurseries (L), operated by the State Conservation Department. 

At 5.9 m. is the entrance (L) to LIME RIDGE FARM, a private estate 
of 1,200 acres with large fruit orchards, owned by A. H. Fortington. Lime 
Ridge apples have an exclusive New York City market and many are ex 
ported to Europe. The owner maintains a kennel for pedigreed dogs and a 
stable of thoroughbred horses. At the center of the farm is a private airport, 
well lighted and marked, with an expert mechanic always on duty. 

POUGHQUAG, 7.9 m. (400 alt., 180 pop.), (Indian for round lake), 
a little hamlet with an old-time atmosphere. The village store is the tradi 
tional rendezvous of local yarn-spinners. 

For the next 2 miles the road follows a narrow, wooded valley, paralleling 
the course of a clear mountain brook with numerous rapids and waterfalls. 

At 10 m. is junction with State 55. The route turns L. on State 55. 
STONEHOUSE (L) now vacant is a landmark, recorded on old county 
maps, and once served as a post office for about 15 families. 

Right on State 52 to WHALEY LAKE (L), /./ m. (690 alt.), 2^ m. 
long x % m. wide, the largest lake and most popular lake resort in 
Dutchess County. The road skirts the shore which is bordered by 
summer cottages. Set in the midst of wooded hills, the lake offers bath 
ing, boating and fishing facilities. 
At 6.4. m. is the Dutchess-Putnam County line. 

State 55 climbs Pawling Mountain. The steepest grade of ascent is 
reached at 10.9 m.; the crest of the hill is at 11.3 m. The steep, twisting road 
descends for nearly a mile. 
The steep, twisting road descends for nearly a mile. 

PAWLING, 13.7 m. (420 alt., 1,204 pop.). 

Railroad Stations: New York Central R. R. (Harlem Valley Division). 
Busses: Two bus lines. 

Accommodations: Dutcher House, Hayes Hotel, Pawling Inn. 
Motion Picture Theatre: One. 

The village, lying in the Pawling-Dover valley, was settled about 1740 by 
English Quakers. The first hamlet was known as Gorsetown; the present 
name derives from the Paulding or Pawling family, Colonial landholders. 

The business section is confined to Main and Railroad Sts. with residential 
streets radiating from this center. The railroad bisects the village. Farming is 
locally on the decline and the land is being bought up by New Yorkers as 
summer estates. 

The village has been an important dairying center since 1850 and once 
shipped 200,000 quarts of milk a day to New York City. Upstate and western 
competition has closed several of the shipping stations. 

State 55 follows West Main St. and Main St. (R) through the village. 

At 14.5 m. is the Pawling nine-hole GOLF COURSE (R), once the 
farm of William Prendergrast, leader of the Anti-Rent Rebellion of 1766. 
(See p. 12.) 

At 14.6 m. is the JOHN KANE HOUSE (L), a white frame residence. 
The original building was occupied by Washington from Sept. to Nov. 1778, 

117 



and a copper tablet commemorating the fact is affixed to a large sycamore 
tree on the lawn. The tree was used as a whipping post by Continental offi 
cers during the war. The present house was built in the 1830's, except for 
the kitchen wing, with small-paned windows and a Dutch oven (bricked 
up), which may have formed part of the original house. 

At 14.8 m. is the junction with State 22. The main route turns L. on 
State 22. Here also is junction with Quaker Hill Road. (See Tour No. 2 A.) 

Right on State 22, just S. of the intersection, is a sign (L) indicating 
PURGATORY HILL, so named because "it is halfway between Quaker 
Hill and everywhere else." Continental troops camped here from 1778 
to 1779. 

At 1.4 m. is the entrance (L) to MANUMIT SCHOOL, a co-educational 
elementary school for children from 5 to 12 years of age, the curriculum 
extending through the eighth grade and preparing students for high 
school. It is a non-profit-sharing corporation, founded in 1924 by the 
late William Mann Fincke, and directed by William Mann Fincke, 
Jr., with a staff of 22 instructors and counselors. The school, is housed 
in five frame buildings, with 175 acres of wood and farm land attached. 
It is an experimental institution designed as a correlating link between 
city and farm life; the students are employed upon the farm in duties 
suitable to their age. Adequate recreational facilities are provided. 



Section c. Junction of State 55 and State 22 Amenta. State 22. 23.1 m. 

This is the Harlem Valley route along the east border of Dutchess Coun 
ty, paralleling the Harlem Valley Division of the New York Central R. R. 
Underpasses are all old and narrow. The pavement is for the most part 
macadam with sharp curves. The plain is cut by the Ten Mile River, formed 
by the confluence of Webatuck and Wassaic Creeks. The scenery is attractive. 

At .9 m. is the GRAVE OF ADMIRAL JOHN LORIMER WOR- 
DEN (L), marked by a large gray granite tombstone with an anchor in 
bas-relief. Born in 1816, Admiral Worden was commander of the ironclad 
Monitor in the battle with the Merrimac in 1862, and in 1863 commanded 
the Montauk in the operation against Fort Sumter. From 1870 to 1874 he 
was superintendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and from 1875 to 
1877 commanded the European- squadron. 

At 1.1 m. is the PAWLING SCHOOL FOR BOYS (R), a college 
preparatory school accommodating 250 boys, founded in 1907 by Dr. Fred 
erick L. Gamage. The brick buildings stand on a hillside commanding a 
view of the Harlem Valley. 

At 3.1 m. is the entrance (L) to the SHEFFIELD-PAWLING 
FARMS, with model wood and stone buildings. Most of the milk supply 
from this section of the Harlem Valley is handled here. 

North of this point the road is hilly and winding, and there are few 
houses. On both sides of the highway are wild growths of young trees and 
underbrush. 

At 5.9 m. is the entrance (R) to the HARLEM VALLEY STATE 

118 



HOSPITAL for the mentally defective. A small city in itself, it occupies 
1,200 acres and is planned to accommodate over 4,000 patients and a per 
sonnel of 900. Originally designed as a prison, three buildings were started in 
1912. They stood vacant until 1924, when the New York State Department 
of Mental Hygiene took them over. Other groups of buildings have since 
been added, the latest in 1932. 

At 6.8 m. on a slight elevation at the north end of the grounds, stands the 
ALFRED WING HOMESTEAD (R), a white frame residence in a 
grove of old trees, built about 1849. Greek Revival in style, it was con 
siderably altered when the hospital buildings were erected. It is now occupied 
by the steward of the hospital. The portico has square wooden columns, and 
the exterior and interior molding is Greek in design. 

At 7 m. is the JACKSON WING INN (L), a two-story red brick 
building with a hipped gambrel roof resembling the later French mansard. 
The 24 windows have flat brick arches. The south end and west wings are 
clapboarded. The gable on the west wing is the only one on the building. 

The numerous Wing family and their kinsmen, the Prestons, were prom 
inent in the early settlement of the region. Jackson Wing is said to have 
built the house in 1806, and it soon became a favorite drovers' hostelry on 
the Harlem Valley road. Known as the Moosehead Tavern, it was used at 
one time for local elections. There were many such taverns in the late 
Colonial period, but this and the Old Drovers Inn 3.8 m. N. (See below), 
are the only two remaining today. The road was already well traveled by 
1775, and by 1800 an increasing number of Vermont and New Hampshire 
farmers used it to drive their livestock to market in New York City. A 
map dated 1814, now in the office of the clerk of Dutchess County, shows 
both these hostelries, and describes the highway as "The Great road from 
New York to Albany and Vermont, much traveled by Drovers and others." 

At 7.5 m. junction with State 55 (R). Route continues straight ahead. 

SOUTH DOVER, 7.8 m. (390 alt., 35 pop.), was once noted for the 
quarry of the South Dover Marble Co. 

At 9.1 m. (R) across an old bridge is the abandoned quarry. The large pit, 
the remains of three brick and cement buildings, and the piles of huge marble 
blocks suggest the scale on which the quarry was operated. The half dozen 
village buildings along the highway face the stream. The stone is chiefly 
dolomite, a composition of the carbonates of lime and magnesia in varying 
proportions. The Dover formation is coarse grained. Erosion has so softened 
some of the stone that it crumbles as readily as lump sugar. 

At 10.8 m. is the OLD DROVERS INN (L). The site was part of a 
large area owned by Ebenezer Preston, who settled here in 1727. It was he 
who named the Preston Mountains to the NE. The building was erected 
about 1750. John Preston, an heir, opened the inn about 1810. It soon be 
came a favorite with the drovers. 

John Preston was an eccentric landlord and a spinner of yarns. An anec 
dote relates his alleged method of fattening cattle: "My plan," he said, "is 
to plow a furrow or two around the grove of trees and plant gourd seeds ; the 

119 



vines run up among the branches and the cows climb the trees and fatten on 
the gourds." 

The low-ceilinged, rambling structure is still open to guests. The Georgian 
paneling of the interior and the shell cupboard are perfectly preserved, as is 
much of the old handmade glass, the hardware, and the hand-hewn beams. 
At the end of the center passage are three broad planks forming a partition 
rising from cellar to upper floor. The old tinder box in which flint and steel 
were kept dry, and the pig-scalding boiler may still be seen. The present floor 
in the former kitchen covers a cooling well, with shelves for food. 

Across the road (R) is the former coach house; on its gable end is a 
fresco (restored) of drovers and their cattle, inscribed, 'Tree Conscience; 
Void of Offence 1840." The sign salved the scruples of a landlord whose 
clientele compelled him to sell liquor against his principles. 

Cross creek and at 12.6 m. (L) is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on dirt road is DOVER FURNACE, across a pasture at 2.1 m. 
Beyond grass-covered heaps of slag, is the abandoned iron furnace. 
Behind the furnace a winding stream has cut a ravine through the 
hill; an old dam forms picturesque falls. The iron mines lie farther 
back in the hills. 

At 2.7 m. is the entrance (R) to SHARP AROON POND, a large sum 
mer camp operated by the New York Mission Society as a memorial to 
Russell Sage. 
The village of DOVER FURNACE is at 3.2 m. 

DOVER PLAINS, 14.3 m. (400 alt., 800 pop.). 

Railroad Stations: N. Y. Central R. R. (Harlem Valley Division). 
Busses: Two bus lines. 

Accommodations: Herbert's Hotel and Harlem Valley Inn. 
Motion Picture House: One. 

The highway crosses the western end of the village, passing for about 4 
blocks under arching trees. The business section huddles about the railroad 
station. 

The names of Benson, Dutcher, and Van Dusen appear among the first 
settlers of Dover Plains. They came as early as 1750. Until 1807 the village 
was known as Pawlingtown. The name Dover Plains was given by Jackson 
Wing. The town is bounded on the west by hills extending southward to 
the Fishkill Mountains. These hills contain iron ore and marble, which were 
the basis of important quarrying and mining industries 30 years ago. Deep 
pits and abandoned iron furnaces remain. Since then the principal occupa 
tion of the community has been dairy farming. The Harlem Valley State 
Hospital has revived economic life. 

A former Dover citizen, Theodore R. Timby (b. 1822), was the originator 
of what is known as the "Revolving Turret System of Offensive and De 
fensive Warfare to be used on Land and Water." Ericsson is popularly 
known as the originator of the plans, but when he, with John Flack Winslow, 
filed a caveat, he found that Timby had an earlier patent. Timby was paid 
$5,000 for a release of patent rights; and Winslow, J. A. Griswold, Ericsson, 
and Bushnell received for their plans $275,000 which they divided evenly. 
Left from the center of Dover Plains on road marked "The Stone 

120 




Doorway of the Oblong Meeting House at Quaker 



1 



ll 



< t lDENCE OF JOHN Ky 

ON THIS SITE 
^ A S HEADQUARTERS 

WASHINGTON 

FJ? OM SEPTEMBER TV 



WHILE THE SECON1 
OF TH| CONTINENTAL. 
WAS ENCAMPED ON OUA 



Sycamore Tree, 
with embedded 
plaque, used as a 
whipping post 
during the Revo 
lution, John Kane 
House, Pawling 



Oblong Meeting 
House, Quaker 
Hill 




Church," is a deep ravine 7.5 m., in which the process of erosion has 
carved a chamber with a Gothic type door locally known as The Stone 
Church. It may be reached by a lane and footpath, but a wire fence 
must be climbed and the stream crossed on stepping stones. Formerly 
the mountain brook plunged over the top of a 75-ft. precipice in a water 
fall. Eventually the stream worked through a fault in the rock, and 
now flows into the upper end of the chamber and out the open door 
an arch 70 ft. high and 14 ft. wide. Pine trees grow in the soil lodged 
in the ledge that forms the roof of the chamber. 

According to local legend, Sacassas, sachem of the Pequot Indians, was 
once compelled to come here for safety after a disastrous battle. He 
took refuge in the cave, where he subsisted on berries for some days, 
and finally made his way through the territory of his enemies, the 
Mohicans, to the land of the Mohawks. 

At 14.9 is junction with dirt road (L). 

Left on this road is CHESTNUT RIDGE, 3 m., formerly the home 
of Benson J. Lossing (d. 1891), historian and newspaperman. 
His best known works are Field Book of the Revolution, and Our Country. 
His former residence stands at an elevation of 1,100 ft., and commands 
a view 60 miles wide, between the Shawangunk and Catskill Mts. 

At 16.2 m. is junction with State 343. Route turns R. on State 22. 

At 18.3 m. is the entrance (R) to the WASSAIC STATE SCHOOL, 
administered by the Department of Mental Hygiene. Those admitted must 
be capable of some degree of training. The school attempts social readjust 
ment. There are facilities for housing and training 3,400 patients. 

WASSAIC 20 m. (458 alt., 260 pop.), is a small village of frame cot 
tages. Most of the residents were formerly employes of the Borden Co. The 
mountains overshadow the village, which lies in the narrow valley cut by 
Wassaic Creek. 

The BORDEN MILK CO. PLANT, across tracks from railroad, 
was the first in the United States to produce condensed milk. Later it was 
developed as a pasteurizing and bottling plant, the milk being distributed 
by the Borden Co. in the metropolitan area. In 1935 pasteurizing and bottling 
were discontinued, but the plant continued as a milk station. A part of the 
plant is now utilized by the Wassaic Fire Co. to house their apparatus. 

The first of the Borden milk companies was formed in 1857 by Gail 
Borden (b. Norwich, N. Y., 1801), who developed the vacuum process for 
condensing fluid milk. His experiments with milk condensation began about 
1851. Mr. Borden's first application for a patent, made in 1853, was re 
jected. At that time he had established a factory at Wassaic. It is said he 
peddled the limited output of his first factory from a basket. Patent No. 
15,553 for "producing concentrated sweet milk by evaporating in vacuo, 
substantially set forth, the same having no sugar or other foreign matter 
mixed with it," was granted on Aug. 19, 1856. 

Just N. of the village the road reaches the northern end of the Harlem 
valley. On the valley floor are scattered morainic hills. 

AMENIA, 23.1 m. is the junction with US 44. (See Tour No. L) 

121 



TOUR 2 A 

Junction State 55 and 22 Quaker Hill. Quaker Hill Road. 5.4 m. 

Opposite junction State 55 and State 22, in Pawling, is macadam road 

leading E. and uphill. The route follows this road. 

QUAKER HILL, 4.2 m., is part of the vast acreage known since 
Colonial times as the Oblong Patent, one of the most historical regions in 
Dutchess County. It is really a plateau 800 to 1,000 ft. high with hills rising 
as high as 1,600 ft. It is ideally suited to dairy farming, but is taken up for 
the most part by large estates, the country homes of wealthy New Yorkers. 

The territory was early settled by Quakers from New England and Long 
Island, who purchased it from Wappinger Indians. First to come was 
Nathan Birdsall, in 1728, and after him the Quaker preacher, Benjamin 
Ferris. In 1732 the century-old dispute over the boundary line between 
Connecticut and New York was settled (see p. 9) , and the disputed ter 
ritory of the Oblong was thrown open to colonizers. Fifty years later, by the 
time of the Revolution, Quaker Hill was fully as settled as it is today. Many 
of the estates were in the hands of the same families until 1930, when the 
ingress of New Yorkers began. 

The important role the Quakers played in the early history of the United 
States is richly illustrated in this region. In Colonial times, 100 years before 
the emancipation of the negroes, the Quakers declared their opposition to 
slavery, and it was the Oblong Meeting which first prepared a "Querie" to 
this effect in 1767. By 1775 slave holding was completely eradicated among 
Quakers. 

As pacifists, the Quakers were in a difficult position throughout the Revo 
lution, and the question of their allegiance was the cause of much deliberation 
among them. As a result of efforts to remain uninvolved, they were accused 
more than once of espionage by the opposing sides, while on the other hand 
both Whigs and Tories struggled to obtain their active cooperation. The 
records of Quaker Hill contain many confessions of "error" and penance by 
Quakers who were forced to some kind of compromise between their religion 
and their necessities, such as the purchase of their release from military serv 
ice. It is probable that the majority of Quakers were Loyalists because of 
their belief in non-resistance, a belief which undoubtedly cost them much 
moral and physical hardship, especially during the period of Washington's 
encampment here in 1778. 

CLOVER BROOK FARM, 2m. (R), home of Lowell Thomas, author, 
traveler, and radio commentator, lies at the foot of a steep ascent and in 
cludes nearly all of the long ridge known as Purgatory Hill, as well as a 
part of Quaker Hill and the valley between the two. The house is early 
American Colonial, built by the Quakers more than a century ago. Nearby 
are gardens and a swimming pool. The farm has been occupied for approxi 
mately 215 years. 

The New York-Connecticut line once ran through it, and near the house 
stands a MONUMENT erected by the New York State Historical Asso- 

122 



ciation, giving the date when the two states settled their dispute and shifted 
the line several miles farther east. 

A half-mile from the main house are the home of the superintendent and 
the fur ranch, with pens for some 500 silver fox, mink, and fitch, which are 
raised both for their pelts and for breeding purposes. One building, erected 
as a combination theatre and gymnasium, contains a radio studio fully 
equipped with special lines to New York, so that the owner may deliver his 
nightly broadcast here at will. 

At 32 m. is MIZZENTOP MOUNTAIN (1,000 alt.), from the sum 
mit of which a magnificent view includes the Harlem Valley and surround 
ing mountains. 

The elaborate grounds and buildings of the AKIN HALL ASSOCIA 
TION (R), founded by Albert J. Akin on Aug. 10, 1882, with the object 
of promoting benevolence and mutual improvement in religion and knowl 
edge, and providing and maintaining a place of education, moral training, and 
worship. 

The society was later re-incorporated to consist of a membership of 16 or 
more and a board of 5 trustees. An endowment of $100,000 was left by Mr. 
Akin when he died in January, 1903, for the upkeep of the Association, and 
$50,000 for completing and furnishing the library. 

At 4.1 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Right, on the road at .4 m. is the AKIN FREE LIBRARY (L), erected 
in 1898. The library consists of approximately 4,000 volumes selected 
by a committee. The historical room contains Complete collection of 
local antique household articles, old deeds, letters, Indian reiics, and 
Quaker wearing apparel. The most noted item in the collection is the 
key to George Washington's bed from the Reed Ferris house, where he 
stayed about one week . 

Just ahead at .5 m. is a splendid view (R) of the valley. The white 
frame CHURCH nearby, stipulated as non-denominational in the Akin 
will, maintains a summer pastorate. The inn and cottages are also 
maintained by the Association. 

At 5.3 m. is junction (R) with macadam road. The route bears R. on 
this road. 

The old OBLONG MEETING HOUSE, 5.4 m., erected in 1764, is 
the most interesting landmark on Quaker hill. The exterior is unpainted 
shingle, with 24-light windows, for the most part still glazed with the wavy 
glass of long ago. On the south side facing the road are two batten doors 
close together, one on the men's side of the church, the other on the women's. 
The interior is divided by a partition separating the sexes by means of ver 
tically sliding panels. The door on the east side has eight panels and is sur 
mounted by a simple pediment. These three doors still have their original 
iron drop handles. The balcony is supported by turned columns. The entire 
inner arrangement is very similar to that of the better-preserved Nine 
Partners' Meeting House near Millbrook. Across the road is a CEMETERY 
containing the graves of soldiers of the Revolutionary Army. 

For 150 years this little building was the center of community activity. 

123 



Here the famous anti-slavery "Querie" was adopted by the Oblong Meeting. 
During the Revolution the building was used as a hospital by both patriots 
and loyalists. 

After the Quaker schism in 1828 (see pp. 148-149), the Hicksites took 
over the Oblong Meeting House. For the next 75 years Orthodox and Hick- 
site went each his own way, but the disunion ultimately led to the dis 
appearance of both sects from Quaker Hill. 

TOUR 3 

Poughkeepsie Wappingers Falls Beacon Fishkill Brinckerhoff 
Hopewell Junction Billings Poughkeepsie to US 9. State 90, 52, 82, 55. 
Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie 40.4. m. Roads concrete with short stretches 
of macadam; US 9 is three lane. Between Poughkeepsie and Beacon US 
9 and State 9D are paralleled by the main line of the New York Cen 
tral. In other sections the roads parallel freight lines of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford. Pizzuto Bus Lines, Poughkeepsie to Beacon. 
Beacon City Bus Line, Beacon to Fishkill. 

This route provides a circular tour of the southwestern corner of Dutchess, 
predominantly a rolling dairy country. The first section, following the Hud 
son south, offers sweeping vistas of the Highlands ; the second section traverses 
historic ground associated with the military and political events of the Revo 
lution in New York State; the third section passes through a typical Dutchess 
countryside. 

Section a. Poughkeepsie Beacon. US 9 State 9D. 14.9 m. South from 
Court House on Market St. (US 9.) 

At 1.7 m. about 100 ft. up a slight hill is a spring (L), called by the 
Indians UPPUQUI-IPIS-ING, "reed-covered lodge by the little water 
place." This is claimed by reliable authorities to have been the origin of 
the name Poughkeepsie. (See p. 30.) 

At 2.2 m. is the entrance (R) to LOCUST GROVE (inspection by ap 
pointment), a 100-acre estate which was the home of Samuel F. B. Morse 
(1791-1872) during the last 25 years of his life. Numerous locust trees, ferns, 
and wild flowers provide the grounds with a setting of natural beauty. The 
broad view surveys the Fishkill Mountains rising in the south and the 
Catskills across the Hudson to the west. The famed "Long Reach" of 
Henry Hudson's first mate, Robert Juet, who kept the chronicle of the 
voyage of the Half-Moon, extends straight and true to the northward, and is 
the setting of many a varied scene in the saga of sail and stream. Of the 
estate as a whole, Mr. Morse, in a letter to his brother, dated July 30, 
1847, wrote: "I am almost afraid to tell you of its beauties." 

The estate was first called "Locust Grove" by Henry Livingston, Jr., 
whose father, Dutchess County clerk (1737-1789) and representative in 
the Provincial Assembly (1759-1768), gave him the property on the occa 
sion of his marriage. Mr. Morse bought the place in 1847 from John B. 
Montgomery, who had purchased it from the Livingston heirs. Mr. Mont 
gomery removed the old house and built a new residence, which is the 
nucleus of the present building a two-story, rambling frame building 

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painted a pale green. A wide veranda extends along the south side ; and a 
porte cochere extends over the entrance driveway. Doorways in the old 
section are finished with carved-leaf decorations, a novelty in this section in 
1830. Mr. Morse added the porte cochere and the cupola, a reproduction of 
one in Italy which he admired. 

Mr. Morse was a man of unusually versatile ability. He studied art abroad, 
became a painter, organized the association which became the present Na 
tional Academy of Design, and taught painting and sculpture in the Uni 
versity of the City of New York (now New York University). With scien 
tific and financial aid from others, he invented the telegraph, and in 1842 
laid the first submarine telegraph line. In 1836 he ran for mayor. His interest 
in photography led him into an association with John W. Draper, with whom 
he set up the first daguerreotype apparatus in America. He took part in the 
founding of Vassar College in 1861. 

The JOHN FREAR HOUSE, 2.3 m. (L), at the entrance to the 
Poughkeepsie Nursery, was built of stone about 1755. A section of the orig 
inal structure was torn down and rebuilt with part wood construction as it 
appears today. John Frear was colonel of the Poughkeepsie regiment of militia 
in the Revolutionary War. 

At 2.4 m. is the entrance (L) to the DUTCHESS GOLF AND COUN 
TRY CLUB, an 18-hole private course. 

The SILVER SWAN INN, 3.1 m. (R), an old residence now con 
verted into an inn, was built in 1751 in Dutch Colonial style. The house has 
been enlarged to meet the needs of its successive occupants, but the pleasing 
lines and proportions of the original structure have been preserved. The old 
brick fireplace, opposite the inn lounge, was uncovered in 1930 after having 
been hidden by plaster and wall paper for perhaps a century. In the dining 
room are the remains of a great Dutch oven, with the hooks that supported 
the crane. 

In the late 17th century, an Indian popularly known as "Speck" had his 
lodge near the site of this house. Speck and two other Indians put their 
marks on a deed conveying land hereabout as a free-will offering to their 
Dutch benefactors. This was the Arnant Comelise Viele deed, the earliest 
recorded in this section. The transfer included the present site of the Silver 
Swan Inn. Thus the early associations of the inn can be definitely traced as 
far back as 1680. 

Two springs, near the summit of the hill across the Albany Post Road 
from the inn, supply the water which flows unfailingly, winter and summer, 
through the channel of the Spackenkill. In the old deeds this water source is 
called by the Dutch word fonteyn. The water from these springs has long 
been famous, and people drive from miles around to fill bottles and jugs from 
the tap by the roadside a few rods to the south. The Indian, the Dutch 
colonist, the English settler, and the modern motor tourist have, each in his 
turn, been refreshed by this pure spring water. It is likely that these springs 
helped to determine the course of the highway. 

The brook or kill that runs by the Silver Swan was dammed to form a 

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pond that supplied water for the Indians, and it came to be known as 
"Speck's Brook," or, in Dutch, Speck Zyn Kit. In the course of two cen 
turies the name has been corrupted to Spackenkill. This brook lends its name 
to the road that forms a junction with US 9 opposite the inn. 

OAKWOOD SCHOOL, 3.2 m. (L), is a co-educational, college prepara 
tory boarding school conducted by the New York Yearly Meeting of 
Friends (Quakers). First established in 1796 at Mechanic, in the northern 
outskirts of Millbrook, it was subsequently moved to Union Springs and 
incorporated, in 1860, under the name of Friends' Academy. In 1876 it be 
came Oakwood Seminary. In 1920 it was moved to the present location, and 
the name was changed to Oakwood School. 

The campus of 30 acres, with the main entrance on the Spackenkill Road, 
is situated on a hill overlooking the Hudson River valley. The plant in 
cludes dormitories, dining hall, gymnasium, library, and administration 
building, as well as barns and other farm structures. 

The TREASURE CHEST TAVERN, 3.6 m. (R), built about 1741 
by Kasparus Westervelt, is one of many buildings in the county expressive of 
Dutch influence. The original exterior walls have been clapboarded and part 
of the cellar has been converted into a spacious dining room. The north wall 
of the adjoining basement room is 6 or 7 ft. thick and includes the original 
huge fireplace and Dutch oven. A few years ago an iron chimney head-piece 
of Flemish origin, dated 1620, was unearthed several feet from the house. 
This has been affixed to the north outer wall. The present owner possesses 
the original land grant from King George II for this site. 

The ABRAHAM FORT HOMESTEAD, 4.4 m. (L), an attractive 
Colonial residence lJ/ stories high, was built by Johannes A. Fort about 
1759. It is of stone, though the front wall and the gable ends above the 
lower story have been faced with brick and stone painted white. The house 
has lost its original lines by the addition of dormers, a porch, and a south 
wing. Portions of the original woodwork and hardware have been preserved. 

One of the panes in a window on the western side of the house has been 
the subject of considerable interest to local historians. The pane is marked 
"Jane Fort 1778 Henry Dawkin Engraver." Maj. Abraham Fort, a 
member of the Poughkeepsie militia, resided here in that year, and Jane 
Fort was his wife. She is buried across the road in a private cemetery. 

At 4.8 m. (R), at the base of a steep incline, is junction with macadam 
road. (See Tour No. 3A.) 

At 6.1 m. (traffic light) is junction with concrete road, State 9D. The 
route turns R. on State 9D. 

WAPPINGERS FALLS, 6.8 m. (115 alt., 3,235 pop.). In the center of 
the village the highway crosses a concrete bridge over Wappinger Creek. 
Just below is the FALLS, which give the village its name. The water here 
drops a sheer 75 ft., the highest falls in the county. 

The word Wappinger comes from the Indian name Wapani, an Algon 
quin (Lenni-Lenape) tribe which roamed the eastern shore of the Hudson 
River until the middle of the 18th century. 

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The creek waters have long been the chief stimulus to the growth of the 
village. Prior to the Revolution numerous grist mills lined the bank of the 
creek. At the foot of McKinley St. is a SHIPYARD SITE where Matthew 
Mesier built several sloops to carry wheat to the New York market. In 
1829 James Ingham, an Englishman, established here the first cotton print 
works in America. Its site is now occupied by the large plant of the 
DUTCHESS BLEACHERY, which normally employs two-thirds of the 
working inhabitants of the village. . 

The SWEET-ORR COMPANY, Mill St., founded by James Orr in 
California in 1849, has been known as the "pioneer overall business of 
America/' In 1871 it was moved to Wappingers Falls and conducted by 
James Orr's nephews, Clayton E. and Clinton W. Sweet. The establish 
ment grew and by 1876 had a force of 250 employees producing 1,000 pairs 
of overalls weekly. In 1880 the plant was enlarged, and factories were 
opened in Newburgh and in other cities, and the manufacture of coats, 
trousers, and shirts added. 

Across East Main St. is the MESIER HOMESTEAD (L), now the 
property of the village. Nicholas Brewer, one of the first settlers, built the 
original house, now the rear wing, in 1741 ; the addition was put up in 
1750. The building is a white frame structure with green roof and trim, 
little altered since its erection. Matthew Mesier, tea merchant and ship 
builder, acquired the property in 1777, and his heirs retained it until 1890, 
when the house and land became village property. Here in 1777 occurred the 
"Wappingers Tea Party," a rebellion of the housewives against Mesier's 
exorbitant charges for tea : they rose in revolt and compelled Matthew Mesier 
to reduce his price. 

At 7.6 m. the route turns R. 

HUGHSONVILLE, 8.2 m. (180 alt., 690 pop.), was settled as early as 
1800. Small white houses line both sides of the main street. An old two- 
story frame building (L) with long porches across the front, was once an inn. 

At 9 m. is junction with a two-strip concrete road. 

Right on this road is the entrance to the W. W. REESE HOUSE, 
.2 m., one of the four original Houghson houses. The building has been 
considerably altered ; and, although a portion of it may have been 
built before 1800, the front door and leaded light, a parlor mantel, 
and the interior door frames are all of the style of the 1830'$. 

South pjF Hughsonville the highway runs through a tract formerly part of 
the original Verplanck estate, acquired by purchase from the Indians and by 
patent from the British Crown. 

At 9.3 m. appears a broad view of the entire Fishkill Range in the distance, 
and in the foreground rolling farm lands of the fertile valley. 

At 10 m. (R) is junction with dirt road. (See Tour No. 3B.) 

At 11.5 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road is BAXTERTOWN, 2 m., a settlement of whites and 
negroes, now dwindled to a thin sprinkling of humble dwellings and 

127 



the ruins of the M. E. Zion Church, the roof of which has caved in 
from the weight of snow. In the blood of these negroes flows also that 
of the Wappinger Indians. Old residents speak of a former Indian 
reservation in the nearby woods, and one ancient grandmother tells of 
the return of Red Men in search of relatives. As white settlers took 
possession of the best land, the Indians were relegated to the poorer 
acres. Negroes, originally slaves intermarried with them, and the two 
races merged. Some of the first negro settlers were slaves in Fishkill 
families; others had bought their freedom or had come north on the 
underground railroad. The land on which they settled is rocky or marshy, 
unfavorable to agriculture. Today 4 negro and 10 white families re 
main. In their community cemetery on the crest of Osborn Hill are 
markers dating back to 1832. Some are for Civil War volunteers; 
one is in memory of James Gomer, "for 42 years a servant in the 
family of Prof. Charles Davies." 

At 12.1 m. is the entrance (R) to STONY KILL, built in 1842, the 
residence of the Verplanck family, direct descendants of Gulian Verplanck, 
the original patentee. Title to the land has never passed out of the family. 
The house contains many valuable paintings and family heirlooms. 

At 12.2 m,, at the SE. corner of a by-road leading eastward to Glen- 
ham, is a little RED SCHOOL HOUSE (L), standing as it has stood 
for more than a hundred years, with school still in session. The Little 
Red School House Club maintains an active interest in its continued useful 
ness to local children. 

At 12.4 m., at the foot of the hill S. of the school house, is the STONY- 
KILL DAIRY FARMHOUSE (R), an early stone dwelling believed 
to be over 200 years old, which gives an old world touch to the landscape. 
Nearby is another stone structure comparatively new, built to match the 
old house. 

At 72.7 m. is junction (R) with concrete road. 

Right on concrete road is the U. S. VETERANS' HOSPITAL, / m. 
(visitors admitted 11-12, 3-5, 7-8), situated on a bluff commanding a 
broad sweep of the Hudson, the distant Shawangunk Range, and the 
near Fishkill Range. This hospital for disabled tubercular veterans is 
administered by the Veterans Administration Facility of the Federal 
Government. 

The buildings include the usual institutional structures. The grounds 
cover 323 acres. The hospital has 479 beds and facilities for out 
patients. It was erected in 1924, and opened in September of that year. 
In the first 12 years 7,217 veterans were cared for. Patients are drawn 
from 1 6 counties lying chiefly in the Hudson valley region. 
The government provides recreational activities, including two movies 
a week, and various organizations provide band concerts and other 
entertainment. 

Castle Point, the old name of Chelsea, has been adopted by the hospital 
as its name and post office address. 

At 12.8 m. MOUNT BEACON, 1,520 ft. high, looms on the L. On its 
summit overlooking the river the Mount Beacon Casino, reached by an in 
clined railway, is visible. 

At 12.9 m. is MAGNOLIA FARMS (R). George Gale Foster main- 

128 



tains a summer camp here for the use of Beacon Girl Scouts and similar 
organizations. 

Across the highway, opposite Magnolia Farms and upon the summit 
of a gently rising hill, may be seen the massive red brick buildings of the 
MATTEAWAN STATE HOSPITAL for the criminal insane. The 
extensive grounds of the hospital enclosed by a high wirefence, border the 
highway for some distance. (See Beacon.) Before the State acquired the 
property, it was the home and training ground of famous trotting 
horses. In a grove of trees far back from the highway is the house 
that was once the country home of John J. Scannell, a prominent horse 
man and an associate of Richard Croker in the nineties. (See Beacon Point 
of Interest No. 24). 

At 13.9 m. stone gate posts and a white oak tree 15 ft. in diameter mark 
the entrance (R) to MOUNT GULIAN, the Verplanck estate. The his 
toric garden, one of the oldest in Dutchess County, may still be seen, but 
the house was destroyed by fire in 1931, leaving only the fire-blackened 
walls, a stark ruin softened by half-concealing vines. Much of the contents 
of the house was fortunately saved and given in part to the New York His 
torical Society. The old mansion, built in 1740, one of the first residences 
in the county, was a fine example of Dutch Colonial architecture, with un 
usual stone mantels. 

Many historic events occurred at Mt. Gulian. It was the headquarters 
of Baron von Steuben toward the close of the Revolution. Washington and 
LaFayette and other prominent leaders visited it. In 1783 the Society of the 
Cincinatti was formed here, with Washington as its first president. (The 
formation of this exclusive military order gave rise to its rival group, 
the Tammany Society.) During the Revolution the first Catholic mass 
in this region was celebrated here by two visiting priests. Great quantities 
of flour were stored for the use of Washington's Army in Verplanck's grist 
mill at the mouth of Stony Kill nearby. 

Since Colonial days the Verplanck family has been prominent in war 
and peace. Gulian Verplanck, grandson of the patentee, was one of the 
first to develop the Hudson valley region. His son Samuel held office under 




o-: 



Mount Gulian, the Verplanck House, Fishkill-on-the-Hudson 



129 



the British crown, and was a governor of King's College, now Columbia 
University, a founder of the New York Chamber of Commerce, and dur 
ing the Revolution a member of the Committee of Safety. Daniel C. Ver- 
planck was a member of Congress and a judge of Dutchess County in the 
early 19th century. Gulian C. Verplanck (1786-1870), member of Congress, 
State senator, and a prominent member of Tammany Hall, was also a 
publicist and edited Shakespeare. William E. Verplanck, author and his 
torian, occupied the house in the early 20th century. 

The GLAD TIDINGS HOME, U.I m. (L), is a summer home for 
poor children, a subsidiary to the Glad Tidings Tabernacle in New York 
City. All creeds and colors are represented. During the first two weeks after 
school closes in the spring, 50 girls are accommodated here; and during the 
second two weeks, 50 boys. This rotation is continued to the end of sum 
mer. 

At 14.2 m. on the outskirts of Beacon, a lane (R) leads to SPOOK 
FIELD, the J. B. R. Verplanck home, a modern country residence. Numer 
ous antiques have been incorporated in it, such as the mantels and fire 
places of older dismantled houses, many of them associated with the Ver 
planck family. Several ancient millstones have been utilized in the con 
struction of terrace and gardens. The odd name of the estate originated 
from an old legend that the ghost of a murdered Hessian soldier buried 
here often walks at night. 

Nearby on the river shore is the site of the traditional LANDING 
PLACE OF HENRY HUDSON. His famous ship, The Half Moon, 
anchored offshore here, and a number of the crew landed. The rock upon 
which they were said to have landed was removed in the course of railroad 
construction. The Indians received them cordially, and even offered them 
land. The scene has been painted by Robert W. Weir (1803-1889), for 
42 years professor of drawing at West Point. 

At Bank Square in Beacon, 14.9 m., is the junction of State 52 and 9D. 

Section b follows State 52; for continuation of State 9D see Tour 3C. 

Section b. Beacon Fishkill Brinckerhoff. State 52. 6.8 m. L. on Main St. 
(State 52). 

The road between Beacon and Fishkill is one of the historic highways of 
Dutchess County, dating from the early settlements. It follows the north 
bank of Fishkill Creek, with occasional glimpses of the little stream flowing 
in a deep cut to the right. Parallel with the road and a mile to the right, 
towers the majestic Fishkill Mountain range, dominating the scene by its 
natural grandeur. The road, though for the most part straight, is hilly: 
the immediate countryside is devoted to agriculture. 

At 2.3 m. is junction (R) with macadam road. 

Right on this road is GLENHAM, 2.5 m. (200 alt., 825 pop.). The 
name comes from the gorge cut through a ridge by Fishkill Creek. 
A dam impounds the water to form a long mill pond. Trees and under 
brush have overgrown the ruins of old mills. At a bend in the creek, 
a falls furnishes electric power to this little industrial village. 

130 



Until the panic of 1873, Glenham was a thriving manufacturing town. 
The mill period began about 1811, and in 1822 the Glenham Mill for 
the manufacture of woolen goods was organized by Peter H. Schenck, 
John Jacob Astor, Philip Hone, Dr. Bartow White, and others. Later 
came the Darts, who supplied indigo blue goods to clothe the army dur 
ing the Civil War. A. T. Stewart, the Manhattan merchant prince, 
built a woolen factory at the upper end of the glen. Most of these mills 
closed in 1873. On the site of the old Stewart woolen mill the Texaco 
Co. now maintains a laboratory for research in motor fuels. 
The HENDRICK KIP HOUSE, 3.6 m. (R), a long, low stone house 
painted red, was built in 1753. About 1777 it served as the Fishkill head 
quarters of Baron von SteubenJ Washington and Count Pulaski visited 
here. The interior consists of a hall with one room on one side and 
three on the other. The kitchen wing was added in 1860. A door in the 
rear is a perfect i8th century divided door with bullseyes in the upper 
half. In the north front wall, in line with the chimney, is a stone marked 
" J 753 " an d immediately to the east of the front porch is another stone 
marked "HK 1753." 

The ZEBULON SOUTHARD HOUSE, 3.9 m. (L), built in the 
middle 18th century, is a small, rectangular house; but its simple 
lines and proportions create an impression of generous and comfortable 
living. Zebulon Southard, the builder, was a captain in a Dutchess regi 
ment in the Revolution. 

The thick, hard walls are made of a lath framework filled with a mixture 
of clay, straw, and cornstalks, then clapboarded. The interior comprises 
two rooms on the main floor and a large half-story above. The basement 
contains a built-in oven at one side of a large fireplace, large hand-cut ceil 
ing beams, and great 18th century doors with wrought-iron hinges. On 
the main floor, opening upon the long front porch, are two divided Dutch 
doors which are battened and carry the original iron hardware. A steep, 
enclosed stairway in the southwest corner leads to the half-story. 

Near the road, at 4m. (L) is the site of a FORGE, where in Revo 
lutionary times John Bailey, a cutler who left New York when the British 
took possession, found temporary shelter and plied his trade. The forge 
existed as late as 1820, but Bailey returned to New York at the close of the 
Revolution. In this forge he made a sword for General Washington, and 
stamped it "J. Bailey, Fishkill." This sword, carried by Washington during 
the war, is now in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. It is 
said to be the sword that is shown in Leutze's celebrated painting Washington 
Crossing the Delaware. 

At 4.2 m. on the hillside (R), is the NORWAY SKI CLUB JUMP. 
Sponsored by the Norway Ski Club, a private organization, many experts 
compete here during the winter months. 

FISHKILL VILLAGE, 4.3 m. (See Fishkill Village.) 

At 5.1 m. is junction with US 9. (See Tour No. 3D.) 

At 6 m. (L), 100 ft. N. on the old course of the highway, is the site 
of the FIRST ACADEMY in Dutchess County, which stood on the hill, 
now the Rowestone Farm. The date of its erection is not known, but prior 

131 



to 1765 it was conducted as a grammar school, and after that date as an 
academy. From 1765 to 1790 Rev. Isaac Rysdyck, theologian and scholar, 
was in charge and many distinguished men received their early education 
here. (See Tour No. 2.) During the Revolution the building was used as a 
hospital, and several young physicians were quartered in a house nearby. 
For a time the Rev. Chauncey Graham supervised the academy. It was 
taken down shortly after the Revolution and rebuilt in Poughkeepsie. (See 
Poughkeepsie.) 

At this point there is a splendid long-range view of the Fishkill valley. 
Fishkill Creek, with trees and shrubbery lining its banks, flows through 
the center of the flat, undeveloped lands, with bare, open spaces stretching 
away for miles. 

BRINCKERHOFF, 6.4 m., called also Brinckerhoffville, once an im 
portant community with grist mill, church, academy, and general store, 
has lost all but the store. The village took its name from the Brinckerhoff 
family, the first to settle in this region. Derick Brinckerhoff came from 
Long Island and purchased 2,000 acres of land from Madam Brett in 1718. 
During the Revolution Abram Brinckerhoff kept a store: the building, 
though remodeled and greatly changed, is still standing. When tea became 
scarce during the war, Brinckerhoff was well supplied and took advantage 
of the scarcity to profiteer. An army of 100 indignant housewives of Fish- 
kill and Beekman, commanded by Vrouw Catharine Schutt and marching 
in military order, drew up before the store, and demanded tea at the lawful 
price of six shillings per pound. Threatened with the destruction of his stock, 
Brinckerhoff quickly met the demands of the housewives. 

The MIDDLE CHURCH (Presbyterian), 6.6 m. (L), built in 1747, 
rebuilt in 1830, and burned in 1866, stood on a knoll west of the high 
way upon the present cemetery grounds. It was used as a military hospital 
during the Revolution. 

DERICK BRINCKERHOFF HOUSE, 6.7 m. (L), at the junction 
of State 52 and State 82, is a fine old Colonial mansion built about 1719. 
In this house LaFayette was ill many weeks during the Revolution and was 
attended by Dr. Cochran. A monument at the roadside was presented by 
LaFayette Post, D. A. R., in honor of LaFayette. The house has been re 
modeled several times, but has never passed from the possession of the 
Brinckerhoff family. 

Site of the OLD STAR MILL (R), is beside the creek. It was built 
by Abram Brinckerhoff in 1735, razed by fire about 1777, and rebuilt 
by order of General Washington by troops encamped near Fishkill. This 
mill was used to grind grist for the Revolutionary army. When it was de 
molished of late years and a small electric transmission station erected, cannon 
balls were found beneath the floor. 

At 6.8 m. is junction with State 82. 

Section c follows State 82; for continuation of State 52 (See Tour No. 
3E.) 

Section c. Brinckerhoff Hopevuell Junction Billings. State 82. 11.2 m. 

132 



At 1.3 m. square stone gate posts mark the entrance (R) to a lane, 
bordered by old locust trees, leading to the COL. JOHN BRINCKER- 
HOFF HOUSE, erected in 1738. General Washington, a frequent guest, 
made the house his headquarters while the Army was in Fishkill. He occupied 
the bedroom back of the parlor. Another distinguished guest was General 
LaFayette. 

Architecturally the house represents an early type of stone construction, 
with brick gable ends and dormer windows. On the wall facing the road 
are the figures "1738" worked in black bricks against the red brick back 
ground. The house has two stones, the lower of stone and the upper of brick. 
The three dormers are later additions. The front is faced in stucco. 

The house and surrounding land are now included in CAMP LAMOLA 
(Finnish, vacation place), established in 1926 by the Finnish Co-operative 
Society of New York and Brooklyn. A little removed from the cottages stands 
a simple frame building the steam bath. Constructed according to Finnish 
models, it has three rooms, chief of which is the steam room, with benches 
tiered along the sides, and in one corner a huge Slavic stove. Large cobble 
stones on top of the stove are heated by wood fire inside, and when water is 
poured over them clouds of steam arise. The hour for the steam bath is 
struck one bell for the men, and two for the women. The hardy devotees 
of the bath follow the steaming with a dip in the cold stream nearby. 

At 1.7 m. is junction (L) with dirt road (red schoolhouse on left). 

Left on this road stand (R) the ruins .2 m. of the first house of JACOBUS 
SWARTWOUT (1734-1827), who had a long and varied public 
career. He was a captain at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1759, 
saw active service during the Revolution, and was successively a mem 
ber of the New York Assembly and Senate. As delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention in Poughkeepsie in 1788, he voted against 
the ratification of the Federal Constitution. 

At .4. m. (R) is the later home of Jacobus Swartwout, which dates 
from about 1789. This excellently preserved frame building, painted 
white with green trim, retains the charm and dignity of i8th century 
houses. The porch, although of a later period, harmonizes with the 
original plan of the building. In 1824, at the age of 90, Swartwout 
journeyed from this house to Poughkeepsie to be present at a recep 
tion in honor of LaFayette. 

GRIFFIN'S TAVERN, 1.9 m. (L), enclosed by a wood picket fence, 
was known in Revolutionary times as Griffin's Tavern or the RENDE- 
VOUS. In Rombout Precinct, which included the towns of Fishkill and 
East Fishkill, the Committee of Observation held three meetings in this 
tavern at the beginning of the war. The original record of the first meeting 
is still in the possession of a descendant of Colonel Griffin. Among the guests 
entertained here were Washington, LaFayette, Putnam, Von Steuben, and a 
number of French soldiers. 

AARON STOCKHOLM HOUSE, 2.4 m. (L), at a dirt lane, is a 
large, white clap-board house with fanlights in the gable ends. It is more 
than 100 years old. 

133 



At 3 m. State 82 passes the site of the former village of SWARTW- 
OUTVILLE, now marked only by the foundation of former homes 
and stores. Swampy lands bordering the highway furnished peat for a wide 
neighborhood, and peat-mining and brick-manufacturing helped develop 
this section. At present dairying and farming are the major pursuits. 

At 4 m. is the CORNELIUS R. VAN WYCK HOUSE (L), built 
about 1785, a story and a half in height, with a gambrel roof and original 
panel shutters. On the first floor are four rooms and a central hall. The 
staircase is enclosed in mid- 18th century manner. Behind the house are 
original frame buildings and a stone smoke-house. To the north and east 
is the family burial ground, enclosed by a stone wall. 

Cornelius R. Van Wyck (1753-1820), a captain in the Revolution, 
was a member of one of the numerous Van Wyck families prominent in the 
early history of the county. 

At 4.1 m. is the junction with State 376 in the village of HOPEWELL 
JUNCTION. (See Tour No. 2.) 

On State 82, at 4.4 m., the highway crosses the main line of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. tracks over a new concrete bridge. 
North of this point the main section of the Mid-Dutchess County valley 
is followed through fertile, well-developed farm lands. Parallel to the high 
way are the New Haven tracks, formerly the Newburgh, Dutchess & Con 
necticut line. 

At 4.9 m. is junction with macadam road. 

Right on this road is SYLVAN LAKE, 4.5 m., an oval-shaped body of 
water / m. long, its wooded shores marked by scattered summer camps. 
An iron mine formerly operating here was abandoned when a cave-in 
of a passageway beneath the lake flooded the mine. 

At 7.8 m. the new EASTERN PARKWAY will cross State 82. Grad 
ing operations of the lead-in roads are visible (R). 

ARTHURSBURG, 7.9 m., a dairy-farming and fruit-raising hamlet, was 
named for Chester A. Arthur, twenty-first president of the United States, 
who when a boy was employed here during one summer in a relative's grocery 
store. 

BILLINGS, 11.2 m. (440 alt., 198 pop.), a station on the N. Y., N. H. 
& H. R. R., is a shipping point for the surrounding farming and dairy sec 
tion. The Sheffield Milk Co. maintains a pasturizing plant here (open to the 
public). 

In the village center is junction of State 55 and 82. 

Section d proceeds L. on State 55; tor continuation of State 82, see Tour 
No. sF. 

Section d. Billings Freedom Plains Manchester Poughkeepsie. 
State 55. 7.5 m. 

This short section of the route has a fine concrete road, comparatively 
free of travel since it passes through sparsely settled farm lands. The road 
is winding and hilly, the high points offering extensive views which have 
made this a popular short drive out of Poughkeepsie. 

134 



FREEDOM PLAINS, 2 m. (325 alt., 104 pop.). The name Freedom 
was given to the township in 1821 by Enoch Dorland, a Quaker preacher. 
In 1829 it was changed by the Board of Supervisors to LaGrange, after 
the ancestral estate of the Marquis de LaFayette in France. Later the 
name of the village was changed to that of the township in which it lies. 

Freedom Plains is typical of the early 18th century American rural com 
munity. The FREEDOM PLAINS PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, built 
in 1828, is constructed of wood in Colonial church style. It serves as the 
principal social center of the community. In and about Freedom Plains 
are many houses built early in the 19th century. Diversified farming is the 
principal occupation. 

At 3 m. is the top of a hill, from which a backward glance will reveal 
a panaramic view of the Mid-Dutchess County valley. The Berkshires in 
the far distance lie in a hazy blue cloak, and the nearer Fishkill Mountains 
rise on the right. 

At the top of the hill, at 4.5 m., is another view. To the west lies the city 
of Poughkeepsie, the Hudson River, and the Catskills in the distance; on the 
southwest are the Fishkill and Shawangunk ranges. Many people drive 
for miles to view the sunset and the twinkling lights of Poughkeepsie from 
this vantage point. 

At 5.7 m. the highway leads under a bridge of the N. Y., N. H. & H. 
R. R. (The driver should proceed carefully as the roadway is narrow.) 
Immediately the road bears, (R) and crosses a bridge over Wappinger 
Creek. 

MANCHESTER, 5.7 m. The row of red brick houses (R) were formerly 
occupied by workers in a large brickyard recently abandoned. Limestone 
was quarried nearby, and there are clay pits in the vicinity. The site of the 
brickyards is now occupied by the office building of the Dutchess County 
Highway Department. 

Intersection of State 55 and US 44, 7.5 m. Straight ahead on Main St. 
to Poughkeepsie. 

TOUR 3 A 

Junction US p and New Hamburg Road New Hamburg. New Ham 
burg Road. 3.8 m. 

This route over a macadam and concrete road to New Hamburg closely 
parallels US 9. It has the quiet surroundings of a country road, with pleasant 
vales and undulating hills at frequent intervals. 

At .4 m. is junction with two roads.- The route continues straight ahead. 

The GALLAUDET HOME FOR DEAF MUTES, 1.1 m. (R) 
(visitors welcome), is situated on a high knoll occupying over 100 well- 
cultivated acres; the front lawn affords a view of the Hudson River. The 
institution was founded in 1872 by Dr. Thomas Gallaudet, who introduced 
deaf mute sign language in the United States. 

At 1.3 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Right on dirt road is STONECO, / m., occupied entirely by the New 

135 



York Trap Rock Company, owner of the largest dolomite quarry in 
the world. Its product, calcium magnesium carbonate (Ca Mg (Co 3 )a), 
used in road and building construction, is shipped all over the United 
States. The average daily output under normal conditions is nearly 
5,000 tons of stone. The ridge from which the stone is quarried is from 
80 to 100 ft. high and is known to extend more than 180 ft. below the 
river level. The product is 94 to 97 per cent dolomite with very thin 
layers of quartz. The surface stratum is calcareous sand. The houses 
in Stoneco are occupied by employes of the quarry and are owned by 
the company. 

Within the firm's acreage is the site of the former homestead of 
DeWitt Clinton. 

At 3.3 m. is junction with 2-strip concrete road. The route turns R. 
on this road. 

NEW HAMBURG, 3.8 m. (20 alt., 500 pop.) is located on a point of 
land extending out into the Hudson River above the mouth of Wappinger 
Creek. Its station on the New York Central R. R. is the shipping point for 
the village of Wappingers Falls, 1.5 m. NE. Fishing, the chief industry, 
is particularly active during the latter part of April when shad are running. 
A yacht club is maintained privately. 

Early 19th century river commerce aided in the development of the 
community, but the village grew slowly until the opening of Hudson River 
R. R. in 1850. Then several prominent families from the metropolitan 
district built summer homes here, many of which have been vacated in the 
past twenty years. 

A FERRY HOUSE, now used as a storehouse, built in 1813 to serve 
the ferry previously inaugurated between the New Hamburg and Marl- 
borough, still remains. In the outer wall of the building are several fine 
specimen of ripple limestone. 

TOUR 3B 

Junction of State gD and Chelsea Rd. Chelsea Rd. 1.9 m. 
The route turns R. from State 9D on Chelsea Rd. 

At .4 m. is intersection with another dirt road. The route turns R. and 
continues toward the river. 

At .9 m., on a high bluff with a magnificent view of the Hudson and the 
distant Catskills, stands the DERICK BRINCKERHOFF HOUSE (R), 
a white frame structure one and one-half stories high, consisting of a main 
unit and a west wing. The design in lead over the door is of the style of the 
1820's. In the east gable are two quarter-circle windows, a design common 
in houses of this period. A north-south hall with a center arch divides the 
main portion of the house with two rooms on each side. One of the two 
rooms in the wing has a built-in oven at the side of the fireplace. 

In Colonial times the site was the farm of Jacobus Ter Bosch. The house 
was erected before 1810, and in 1820 was sold to Derick Brinckerhoff of 
New York City, who made the place a summer home; the title remained 
in the family until 1873. 

136 




Pasture Lands near Dover Furnace 



De La Vergne Hill near Amenta 




4- * 



Old Mill and Falls Dover Furnace 



The road descends nearly to the river shore, and turns aburptly L. 

CHELSEA, 1.9 m. (10 alt., 150 pop.), served by the New York Central 
R. R., is a quiet hamlet shielded on the E. by the hilly bulk of the Van 
Wyck Ridge rising nearly 400 ft., and still retains the riverside atmosphere 
of its former shipping days. Picturesque frame houses stand close together in 
narrow streets which border the shore. Small river craft, sail and motor- 
powered, line the waterfront. 

The broad promontory upon which the village lies was by the shore-dwell 
ing Indians called Low Point to distinguish it from the higher promontory at 
New Hamburg, up the river. Taking its name finally from the Chelsea 
Paper Mill, a short-lived enterprise, the settlement had earlier been known 
as Castle Point, Carthage, and Carthage Landing. 

Chelsea has always been a riverman's village. Several captains well known 
in river history have made it their last anchorage, among them Capt. Moses 
W. Collyer, a one-time sailing master and co-author with Wm. E. Ver- 
planck of Sloops of the Hudson. Chelsea was really a seaport, avers the 
captain, recalling the halcyon days when nine captains and their ships, besides 
fishermen with their smaller craft, sailed from here. The Chelsea Yacht 
Club, instituted by Captain Collyer about 1870, was originally an ice- 
yacht club. Many of the fastest of winter craft skimmed over the frozen 
river out of Low Point. 

A shipyard was formerly operated here by a man named Carman, who 
is locally claimed to have been the inventor of the center-board. The sloop 
Matteawan, built by him, was the first boat in which his invention was in 
stalled. He also originated other devices, and even constructed a steamboat 
in the face of sailing masters' skepticism. 

Other industries came and went, among them Knox's stream flour mill, 
the Chelsea Paper Mill, and a Portland cement experiment. It is said 
that the first Portland cement in America was produced here. 

Route continues straight ahead through the village making sharp right 
turn toward the river, and parallels the waterfront. 

At 12.7 m. (L) behind a lilac hedge, stands the four-columned yellow 
LE FEVRE HOUSE, overlooking the river. 

TOUR 3 C 

Beacon to Dutchess-Putnam County Line. State oD. 6.7 m. 

From Bank Square, Beacon, S. on State oD. L. at .6 m. on Wolcott Ave. R. at 1.8 

in. on Howl and Ave. 

9D enters the SW. corner of Dutchess County, bounded by mountains 
on the E. and the Hudson River on the W. The present Dutchess-Putnam 
County Line was fixed in 1812. 

As the highway leaves Beacon it runs along a high bench at the base of 
Breakneck Ridge (L), known as GRAND VIEW. This elevation offers 
one of the most attractive motor road vistas along the course of the river. 
To the R., in the area of the 9-hole golf course of Craig House, a promon 
tory vaguely known as Little Plum Point is seen about due E. of the tip 

137 



of Dennings Point. Plum Point, another larger promontory, is almost op 
posite across the river. 

JOHANNES VAN WORMER VAN VLIET HOUSE, 3.1 m. (R), 
is a typical 18th century stone dwelling, now falling to ruin. It was located 
on the old Phillipse patent and was at one time owned by Judith Crom 
well, a widow, who sold the farm to J. V. W. Van Vliet. 

CAMP NITGEDAIGET, 3.4 m. (R), a workers' camp on the river- 
facing slope of Breakneck Ridge, is operated by the Beacon Camp Corpora 
tion as a rest and recreation resort. Accommodations are provided in cabins, 
tents, and a year-round hotel. The camp draws its patronage chiefly from 
New York City and from a social group known as "The Workers' In 
stitution." 

At 3.7 m. the highway crosses MELZINGAH RAVINE, a place of 
sylvan beauty where a small stream falls precipitiously from its sources 
in springs among rocky ledges high in Breakneck Ridge. A disastrous flood 
occurred here in 1897, after an unprecedented rainfall. Two dams gave 
way, flooding a brickyard settlement on the river bank. Seven lives were lost, 
and much property was damaged. 

An old LEGEND of MELZINGAH tells of the spirit of the glen held 
in sacred reverence by the Indian hunter who cast food into the water 
as a sacrifice to gain the good will of the spirits and be blessed with success 
in the chase. 

At 4.4 m. the highway begins the descent of the long Breakneck grade 
toward the river. This is one of the most scenic stretches of the whole Hud 
son valley highway system. Close to the road, at 4.8 m., stands a deserted 
vine-clad STONE HOUSE (R) of the 18th century, picturesque in its 
dilapidation. 

At this point POLOPEL'S ISLAND (BANNERMAN'S ISLAND) 
(R) can be seen just off the shore. Solitary and rocky, it rises from the river 
surmounted by an imitation medieval castle. The island is generally known 
as Bannerman's, named for the man who owned it, erected the buildings, 
and stored here a strange collection of arms and war material discarded 
and sold by the Federal Government after the Civil and Spanish American 
wars. Some of this material was utilized by the U. S. Army during the 
World War. The group of massive buildings, constructed chiefly of "Belgian" 
stone paving blocks from New York City, is intended to represent the fort- 
ressed retreat of a medieval baron, with moats and locked harbor, towers 
and lookouts. "Legend hangs thick about this rock," says Wilstach, "and 
on its adjacent shores are supposed to dwell the goblins which ride the 
storms in the Highlands. In sailing days it was the custom of the older 
sailors to toss apprentices overboard here, ostensibly in the belief that the 
ducking made them immune from the sorcery of storm goblins." 

During the Revolution, in 1779, the Americans under the supervision 
of Gen. George Clinton obstructed the river at this point in an attempt to 
prevent the passage of British ships. They stretched a line of iron-pointed 
pikes and cribs in the form of chevaux de frise from Polopel's Island to a 

138 



point near Murderer's Creek opposite. The isle was used also as a military 
prison during that war. Before the advent of Bannerman's arsenal, the island 
was the solitary home of a fisherman and the kingdom of his erratic wife, 
who imagined herself Queen of England and her husband the Prince Con 
sort. 

Not far above river level the highway approaches the rugged bulk of 
BREAKNECK MOUNTAIN (1,220 ft.) (L), the north portal of the 
Highlands. Here the road parallels the Storm King Highway across the 
river, and yields nothing to its better-known rival in scenic splen3or. The 
view at 6. m. of the natural gateway through the mountains extends nearly 
to West Point. This opening through which the Hudson enters the straits 
as through a tunnel, was once known as the Wey Gat or Wind Gate,, 
Two peaks guard the passage, Breakneck on one side and Storm King on 
the other. In the early days of white settlement the former was known as 
Broken Neck Hill from its jagged cliffs; the Dutch called the other peak 
Beutter or Bailiff, which was translated into English as "Butter Hill." It 
u as re-christened Storm King by N. P. Willis, the poet, though to the older 
generation it still remains "Butter Hill." Here the Fisher's Reach begins 
and Vorsen Reach ends its hazardous course through the Highlands. 

At 6.7 m. the highway enters the 600 ft. TUNNEL, bored in 1932, which 
pierces Breakneck Mountain and passes from one county to the other. The 
excavation of about 20,000 cu. yds. of rock solid gneiss and gray granite 
was completed in 27 working days, a world's record. 

Through the tip of Breakneck Point, just W. of the highway and at the 
riverside, run two railroad tunnels. One, which has existed since the rail 
road was built, has been enlarged and lined with concrete to accommodate 
the two west bound tracks ; the other was bored in 1928 for the two east 
bound tracks. 

The New York Aqueduct, bringing water from Ashokan, passes under 
all three tunnels, highway, and railroad, at a depth of from 250 to 280 
ft. below these bores. This mammoth engineering and construction feat was 
completed in 1917. From the north slope of Storm King, at Cornwall across 
the river, a syphon leads under the river at a depth of 1,100 ft. below sea 
level at its deepest point, off Storm King Mountain. On the east side of the 
river, the aqueduct climbs the north slope of Breakneck, then continues by 
tunnels through the mountains southward. 

TOUR 3D 

Fishkill to Dutches s-Putnam County line US 9. 
3.7 m. R. on US Q from State 52. 

Just outside Fishkill, at .3 m., the highway crosses FISHKILL CREEK, 
called by the Dutch Vis Kil. 

West of the creek stretches several miles of tranquil plain, the scene 
of military activity during the Revolution. Of late years the West Point 
cadets have camped on this ground during their summer tour. Columbia 
University has experimented in agriculture on this fertile soil, where horses 
of the Continental Army were once corralled. 

139 



At .5 m., beside the creek, surrounded by spacious grounds is the BLOD- 
GETT MANSION (L), built by Richard Rapalje about 1800. It has two 
full stories and gambrel roof. The house contains several mantels and an 
arch, evidently imported, although the rest of the trim is of local origin. 
The exterior is marked by a double Dutch entrance doorway. A cornice with 
a dentil course, panels displaying rope design, brass mantels, doorways, stair 
ways, and arched recesses in the dining room, decorated in plaster and 
typical of the Adam period: all give distinction to the house. 

The CORNELIUS C. VAN WYCK HOUSE .9 m. (L), was built 
about 1790. Lumber salvaged from the Revolutionary barracks, tradition 
says, was used in its construction. The house is a story and a half high ; 
the 18th century simplicity of the kitchen wing is unspoiled. A broad hall 
runs through the center of the house. An open staircase and a dado in raised 
bevelled panels around the hall belong to the post-Revolutionary era. At 
the rear of the hall a Dutch door, pre-Revolutionary in style, is hung on the 
original iron-hinged hardware of 18th century pattern. 

South on US 9 is the so-called WHARTON HOUSE, 1 m. (L) (open 
only on application), built by Cornelius Van Wyck about 1735 and the 
scene of stirring events related in James Fenimore Cooper's novel The Spy. 
Officers in command of troops stationed at the head of the Highland pass 
during the Revolution used it as their headquarters. It also served as Gen 
eral Putnam's headquarters, and records show that John Jay, Alexander 
Hamilton, Washington, LaFayette, and Von Steuben were among its guests. 
In this house the Committee of Safety conducted the mock trial of Enoch 
Crosby, the original of Cooper's Harvey Birch. 

The clapboard sides, the primitive east wing, and the interior finish of the 
house show work done before and soon after the Revolution. The mantels, 
staircase, and leaded light over the front door are typical of the late 18th 
and early 19th centuries. 

Close to the highway, 1,000 ft. S. of the Wharton House, is the SITE 
(R) of Revolutionary army barracks, workshops, magazines, and stockade 
within which Tories were imprisoned. This was the chief depot and winter 
quarters of the American forces. On the open plain and in the woods at the 
foot of the mountain there were at least 10 large barracks; after the war, 
many a house and barn was built in the neighborhood from wood "salvaged" 
from these barracks. 

At 1.3 m., near the base of the mountain, a gray granite marker by the 
roadside (L) commemorates a SOLDIERS' BURIAL GROUND. Many 
of the unrecorded dead were State militiamen. Few cemeteries in the 
State have as many graves of Revolutionary soldiers as are found in this 
long unnoticed spot. The Indian heroes, Daniel Ninham, chief sachem of 
the Wappinger tribe in 1740, and his son, David, a Christian tribesman, 
xvho fought in the Colonr'al cause and was injured in battle with the British 
at Cortlandt Ridge, are said to be buried here. 

An old-time POST ROAD MILESTONE, 1.4 m. (R), of red sand- 

140 



stone and well-preserved, reads: "66 Miles to N. York." Directly opposite 

is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road, the Van Wyck Lake road, along the N. slope of the 
mountains, is the country estate of WILLOWLAKE, 6 m. (R), the home 
of MARGARET SANGER (Mrs. J. Noah H. Sice), leader of the birth 
control movement. The residence stands on the brink of a mountain lake 
7 acres in area. It is built of native field stone, variegated and laid in 
line, with a steep Gothic type of roof, heavily slated. In the terraced 
gardens are valuable horticultural specimens a rare yew, and a hedge 
unusual in this country. The elevation commands a wide view of the 
Hudson valley and the distant Shawangunk and Catskill ranges. 

The Post Road enters WICCOPEE PASS at 3.1 m. This is a region 
of exceptional interest historically, topographically, and geologically. The 
pass was named for the Wiccopee Indians, a branch ot the Waranoaks, who 
dwelt in these Highlands. On the heights overlooking this pass, Harvey 
Birch, hero of Cooper's The Spy, had his mysterious interview with Wash 
ington after his escape from threatened execution at Fishkill. 

The highway makes its tortuous way along Clove Creek, through groups 
of rounded hillocks, 50 to 100 ft. high, which close in at the south portal 
of the pass. In the background, the towering, heavily wooded mountains 
dwarf these valley "knobs," which appear like over-sized haystacks in com 
parison. These mound formations in the bottom of the mountain defile, 
some barren, some green with scattered cedars, are mainly made up of glacial 
till, a deposit of gravel and small boulders. 

Countless years ago this region was the legendary home of a giant race, 
hunters of great water rats, fierce fighters that dwelt in the lake covering 
all the country north of the Highlands. To exterminate these racial enemies, 
the giants drained the valley until only the stream and the little conical 
hills, playhouses of the baby rats, remained. The bodies of the giants, their 
bathing place vanished, began to harden, and where they finally fell, springs 
of water bubbled forth. The high Fishkill range (R), the "long house" 
of the watery tribe, gradually solidified through the ages into the hardest 
of rock. 

At 3.3 m. is the southern defile of WICCOPEE PASS, a strategic point 
vigilantly guarded by three batteries from 1776 to 1783 to prevent the 
British from seizing the military stores at Fishkill. On the hills (R) 
rae the REDOUBTS, marked at the roadside by a tablet affixed to a 
large field stone . The lines of the earthworks, located several hundred 
feet apart in the form of a triangle, are still traceable on the hilltops. A 
substantial American force was stationed in this neighborhood during the 
campaign of 1777. Stockades and fortifications, erected on commanding posi 
tions to guard the approach, were regularly manned by detachments from 
the main camp. Two cannon were mounted in each fort to cover the im 
portant military road (Post Road) laid out by Lord Louden about 1755, 
during the French and Indian War. Toward the SW. may be seen a 
LOOKOUT POINT, used in relaying messages from Washington's 
headquarters at Newburgh. There were skirmishes in the vicinity of the 

141 



redoubts but no pitched battle. Thirteen interments were made in a ceme 
tery on the N. side of the main hill. 

Directly under the N. slope is the much remodeled FORT HILL FARM, 
now an inn, once home of Stephen, son of Capt. John Haight, the Revolu 
tionary officer who directed the building of the forts which he commanded. 
The Captain's old homestead still stands (R) about 1 m. S. on the Post Road, 
at the border of the "Neutral Ground," the "No Man's Land" of the Revo 
lution. 

TOUR 3 E 

At 3.7 m. is the Dutchess-Putnam county line. 

Brinckerhoff WicCopee Dutchess Putnam County line. State 52 and 
county roads. 6.1 m. 

Right from junction of State 52 and 82, on State 52. 

At .2 m. the highway crosses a bridge over Fishkill Creek and bears L. 
over the foothills of Honness Mountain. 

At 1.1 m. is junction with gravel road. The main route turns R. on gravel 
road. 

Left on this road is the JOHNSVILLE METHODIST EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH, .2 m., erected in 1825. A little white church with a graceful 
conical spire, it stands solitary, with old locust trees and a small bury 
ing ground beside it. It has exceptionally large windows, four on each 
side and two in front. The entire interior is of paneled woodwork in 
a simple design. 

Straight ahead on State 52 is the JOHN JAY HOUSE, .7 m. (R). 
Built in 1740, it is a large Colonial residence situated 300 yds. from 
the highway. This house was used by John Jay as a refuge when the 
British advance into Westchester County forced him to flee from his home. 
In a tavern nearby he presided over a local court. Jay (1745-1829) was 
one of the leaders of the Revolutionary period in state and nation: 
member of the First and econd Continental Congresses, President of the 
Provincial Congress, Chief Justice of the tate, Minister to Spain, Sec 
retary of Foreign Aairs, and first Chief Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court. 

During the unsettled war times, bands of outlaws, the "cowboys" from 
the neighboring mountains, frequently invaded the settlements, and a 
party of them robbed the Jay family of a large amount of silver. John 
Jay's mother died here in 1777, and he frequently came here to rest 
from his many duties. 

The house is on the original Theodorus Van Wyck farm, purchased 
from Madam Brett in 1736. The Wappinger (or Wiccopee) Indians 
Cultivated a part of this land until shortly before the Revolution. Van 
Wyck, son of the first settler of that name, first physician in the vicinity 
and member of the Committee of Safety, built the house. 
About one-half mile to the rear of the Jay House once stood a grist 
mill. The mill and the homestead near it (still standing) were built 
about 1760 by William Van Wyck. 

Right on gravel road is WICCOPEE, 1.4 m. (220 alt., 100 pop.). The 
Indian name Wiccopee, attached to settlement, stream, and region, was bor 
rowed from the sub-tribe that occupied a site in the Hook. (See following.) 

142 



At one time the hamlet was called Johnsville, after the first Dutch settler, 
Johannes (or John) Swartwout, who leased a farm from Madam Brett 
for "three fat fowls a year." The original name has been revived in recent 
years. 

The first mechanic in Wiccopee was William Cushman, a blacksmith 
who bought 6 acres in 1783 and built his house and shop of timbers from 
the barracks of the Revolutionary army camp near Fishkill. When first 
settled, Wiccopee was in the midst of dense forest, streams, and marsh 
pools. Settlers were obliged to keep their stock penned at night as a protec 
tion from wolves and panthers which infested the nearby mountains. Near 
Wiccopee there once stood a large pine tree on which, during the Revolu 
tion, "cow boys" banditti of the "neutral ground," were hanged without 
benefit of judge or jury. The site of Connor's Tavern of Revolutionary 
fame is said to have been on the Brinckerhoff Road (State 52) near the high 
way bridge. John Jay, first Chief Justice, is reputed to have held im 
portant sessions there. Meetings for arranging election matters took place in it. 
and tradition says that the inn was at the time known as The Dog's Nest, 
from the fact that each visitor when on public business was accompanied by 
one or more dogs to act as bodyguard to their masters. 

In the center of Wiccopee at 1.4 m. is junction with dirt road. The 
route turns R. on the road. (Caution, sharp curves). 

FISHKILL DAIRY FARMS, 2.3 m. (R), is part of the Morgenthau 
estate, operated on a lease. 

At this point (2.7 m.) is a forked intersection. The main route takes 
the L. fork. 

The right fork leads into the FISHKILL HOOK, 2 m., as this region is 
called. "The Hook" retains many memories of the pioneers and Indians 
who lingered here later than elsewhere in eastern New York. A few 
of the apple trees planted by the Indians remained standing on the 
Waldo Farm until recent years. 

FORT HILL, a ridge north of the Hook, is the site of an Indian fort 
of Sachem Ninham's tribe, a powerful tribe which as late as 1700 
numbered more than 1,000 warriors. Their village was located in a pocket 
on the hillside. 




Storm Adriance Brinckerhoff House, Old Hopenvell 



143 



On the L. fork is The ESTATE OF HENRY MORGENTHAU, Jr., 

3 m. (R), Secretary of the U. S. Treasury (1934 ). The senior 

Morgenthau, once Ambassador to Turkey, came to Dutchess County when 
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., was a boy. They then occupied the Hupfel place 
near Hopewell. 

The home is a large two-and-one-half-story Colonial structure. The north 
side was the original front, but alterations have placed wings to the front 
and rear, with the main entrance on the west side. French dormer windows 
and leaded-light doorway enhance the beauty of the house. 

Beyond the estate is SEKUNA HILLS, 6.1 m., a 1,000-acre bungalow re 
sort colony. 

Just beyond Sekuna Hills is the Dutchess-Putnam County line. 

TOUR 3 F 

Junction State 55 and 82 Mo ores Mills Verbank Clove Valley. State 
82 and Clove Valley Road. 13.3 m. 

From the junction of State 55 and 82 the route follows State 82. 

MOORES MILLS, 2.5 m. (460 alt., 99 pop.), was named for a mill 
operated by Alfred Moore on a tributary of Sprout Creek. 

At the crossroad, the center of the village, is the ROBERT WAT- 
CHORN HOMESTEAD (R), situated on a picturesque knoll. A small 
creek flows through the landscaped grounds. Little falls are spanned by 
bridges, and summer houses and benches stand under the fine shade trees. 
Robert Watchorn was commissioner of immigration during the adminis 
tration of President Theodore Roosevelt. 

Adjacent to the Watchorn homestead is a gravel road. 

Right on gravel road is OSWEGO, / m., a small hamlet settled in 
1761, by Quakers who established a meetinghouse of the Society of 
Friends. The original structure gave way in 1828 to the meetinghouse 
now standing. This simple frame building of usual Quaker meetinghouse 
design stands high on a hillside and overlooks the cemetery in which 
headstones date from 1766. At present the hamlet consists of scattered 
farm homes. Many of the original settlers established themselves in 
Moores Mills. Some of the dwellings, built by the first settlers, still stand 
near the present meetinghouse. 

North of the homestead the road ascends gradually for a distance of 
4m. 

VERBANK, 5.3 m. (560 alt., 147 pop.), was settled by the Dutch in 
the latter part of the 17th century. The settlement is said to have derived 
its name from the verdant hillsides. The surrounding hills are well wooded 
with ash and hemlock. For years the village was the center of a tanning 
and charcoal industry. Hemlock trees were felled and stripped of their 
bark for the tanyard, while in the pits the logs were burned into charcoal. 
These pits still remain with traces of charcoal. 

Directly north of the pits is an area thickly strewn with chips of flinj- 
stone, from which arrowheads were made by the Indians. A great number 

144 



of arrowheads have been found here. The site is locally known as thr 
"Indian Workshop." 

A mill pond in the eastern end of the village affords good trout fishing 
in season. 

At 5.5 m. (R) is the junction with a gravel road. (M. E. Church at 
corners). The route turns R. and leads through CLOVE VALLEY, a 
picturesque farming country. 

At 10.1 m. is the junction with an improved macadam road. The route 
turns R. on this road. 

Clove Valley, extending N. and S., derives its name from the cleft or clove 
in the mountains at its northern end. It is a pastoral valley, long and narrow, 
hemmed in on both sides by low-lying ridges. 

At 10.8 m. is the driveway entrance (L) to the FLORAL GARDENS 
and 1,100-acre estate of the Hon. John E. Mack (visitors welcome on week 
days during June). These gardens, occupying the western slope of Chest 
nut Ridge (L), rise on a series of long terraces from the base to the summit, 
and contain 1,500 varieties of flowers, shrubs, and trees, including many rare 
and unusual specimens introduced from Europe and the Orient and from 
the Southern States. During June 400,000 peonies of rare colorings and 
varieties are in bloom. Here, too, are 32,000 rhododendrons in three varie 
ties. Long rows of decorative shrubs and junipers, including the lacy Irish 
juniper, first acclimated by Mr. Mack, set off the flower gardens. In un 
cultured areas, mountain laurel, trailing arbutus, and a great variety of native 
wild flowers bloom in profusion. Upon the summit of the ridge a reforested 
tract of 300,000 white and red pine trees provide cover for wild deer, and 
wheat and other forage is grown for them. Since hunting upon the estate 
is prohibited, deer are numerous. Pheasants are raised on the property and 
released each year. 

A winding road extends to the crest of the ridge. From this vantage point, 
the whole valley may be seen, 6 m. long and 1 m. wide, pocketed cozily be 
tween the flanking ridges, which rise to an altitude of 1,000 ft. A panoramic 
view extending to a distance of 50 miles, spreads away to the NW. with 
the rugged peaks of the Catskills standing in silhouette against the sky. To 
the SW. Mt. Beacon and Storm King stand like grim sentinels, guarding 
the Hudson Highlands, through which the river flows oceanward. 

JOHN E. MACK, lawyer and jurist, was born at Arlington, Dutchess 
County, June 10, 1874. He has attained state-wide prominence as a mem 
ber of the bar and has served on the New York Supreme Court bench. He 
placed Franklin D. Roosevelt in nomination for President before the Demo 
cratic National conventions in 1932 and 1936. 

The CLOVE VALLEY METHODIST CHURCH, 300 ft. S. of the 
Mack homestead, was built in 1832, but alterations with the passing years 
have changed it greatly. It is included in the land of and is maintained by 
the Mack estate. 

At 10.9 m. is the EMIGH HOUSE (R) in a field 200 ft. back from 

145 



the road, and reached by a little-used driveway (open to visitors). Nicholas 
Emigh, credited with having been the first white settler in Dutchess County 
(see Beacon), is also credited with having been the first settler in Clove 
Valley. The date of his coming is not known, but it is known that he first 
built and occupied a log cabin and in the year 1740 built this commodious 
house. The date 1740 appears on the south chimney. It is a story-and-a-half 
stone structure, well preserved and outwardly little changed, though there 
is a clapboard addition on its south end. The doors and much of the interior 
trim and hardware are, however, of later date. Lath and plaster walls cover 
the massive 9 x 12 inch beams, which in Emigh's day were exposed. The 
fireplaces have been closed with brick and mortar. The floors, trod by early 
pioneers and primitive Indians, are the original 18-inch oak planks hewn 
and trimmed from primeval trees and fastened to the beams with hand- 
wrought nails. Emigh built this house with enduring Dutch thoroughness. 

The foundation of the windowless slave quarters, an 8 x 10 ft. building, 
can still be traced 8 ft. from the main house and opposite the east door. The 
Coe family, whose descendants now occupy the white frame farm house (R) 
next beyond the Emigh house and own the farm upon which it stands, was 
associated with Emigh in building the house and in clearing and developing 
the land. 

Some 600 ft. W. of the old Emigh house, is CLOVE SPRING, discharg 
ing several hundred gallons of water a minute. The spring was a factor in 
influencing the early settlement of Clove Valley. 

At 12 m. is the junction with a macadam road. 

Right on macadam road is the entrance of the CLOVE VALLEY 
ROD AND GUN CLUB, .25 m. (private). It is located on the W. side 
of the valley and controls an area of 5,000 acres of woodland and 
meadow. In its aviaries 5,000 ducks and 7,000 pheasants are annually 
reared and liberated. A pond upon this property is restocked each year 
with 9,000 trout. The club membership is limited to 55. 

The CHRISTIE HOMESTEAD, 72.5 m. (R), a stone house built in 
1747, is typical of the period. The house has been modernized and shingled; 
the hand-hewn ceiling beams and the fireplaces remain unchanged. 

At 13.1 m. is junction with a dirt road. 

Right on dirt road, the second house, .6 m. (R), is the home of the late 
JEAN WEBSTER, author of DADDY LONG LEGS, and the 
PATTY BOOKS. She was born in Binghamton, N. Y. in 1876, graduated 
from Vassar College in 1901, and died in 1916, shortly after her marriage. 
The house, locally known as the Skidmore homestead, is an outstanding 
example of early igth century Colonial. It is painted white, and is sur 
rounded by spacious lawns and formal flower gardens. A red brick wall 
separates the lawns and gardens from the highway. 

At 14.9 m. is the furnace (R) of the abandoned Sterling Mines, its high 
stack a monument to past prosperity. In 1831 Elisha Sterling built a char 
coal furnace here for the smelting of hematite ore, which he mined in the 
nearby hills. The furnace prospered for several years, but was finally 

146 



abandoned and only its ruins remain. In 1873, the Clove Valley Iron Com 
pany was organized and an anthracite furnace was built. Barges brought 
black ore from Port Henry on Lake Champlain, through the Champlain 
Canal, and down the Hudson River. This was transported in ox-drawn 
wagons to the Clove Valley furnace, and when mixed with the local ore 
produced an excellent grade of steel. In 1877 the Clove Valley Branch R. 
R. was extended four miles from Sylvan Lake to the mines. In 1883 the 
furnace closed, and one year later the railroad was abandoned. Thus ended 
the last attempt at industrial development in Clove Valley. 

From this point, the route returns to the village of Verbank, State 82, and 
turns L. to junction of State 82 and 55. 

TOUR 4 

Poughkeepsie East Park Pleasant Plains Wurtemburg Schultzville Clinton Hol 
low Salt Point Poughkeepsie. State 9 F and county roads. 
Poughkeepsie to Poughkeepsie, 38.2 m. 
Country roads; no R. R's. bus connections, or hotels. 

This route through a sparsely settled region over town roads should be 
taken only in summer. The reward is an intimate view of the mid-Hudson 
countryside. The character of the area changes under the influence of the 
variety of soils, which ranges from a rich productive loam to sand and gravel. 
Miles of stone walls paralleling the highway in the beginning of the route 
suggest the arduous labor expended in clearing the land. 

The comparative isolation and the numerous lakes make the region ideal 
for camping. Several camps have already been established, and there are 
indications that the recreational possibilities of the region will soon be more 
widely enjoyed. 

The route starts at the Courthouse, Main and Market Sts. 

E. on Main St. to North Hamilton St., L. on North Hamilton St. R. on 
Parker Ave. across bridge over N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. tracks on Vilet 
Ave. (State $F). 

At 1.7 m. (R) is entrance to Bowne Memorial Hospital. Route bears L. 

At 2.9 m. (L) and (R), are the entrances to the Hudson River State 
Hospital (see Tour No. 1.) 

CHAPEL CORNERS, 3.5 m., is a small but growing community of 
modest homes occupied by the Hudson River State Hospital employees. 

North of this point and for the next mile the Catskill Mts. are outlined 
against the horizon (L). 

VAL KIL HANDICRAFT CENTER, 4.8 m. (R), a small modern 
building adjacent to a clump of pine trees, contains equipment for the pro 
duction of hand-woven cloth from homespun and machine-spun yarn ; the 
former is in greater demand. The center was established by Mrs. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt as one of the Val Kil projects to encourage handcrafts and 
provide employment for the townspeople. It is under the direction of Mrs. 
Nellie Johanneson, who has utilized family patterns brought from Sweden. 

147 



At 4.9 m. (R) is the entrance to the first VAL KIL FURNITURE 
AND CRAFT CENTER, established in 1927 by Mrs. Roosevelt for the 
reproduction of antique furniture, metal work, and other handcrafts. Re 
productions of many fine museum pieces, constructed in the furniture de 
partment under the direction .of Mr. Otto Berge, are on display at the Metro 
politan Museum of Art and the Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York City. 
The metal crafts department, under Mr. Arnold Berge, specializes in repro 
ductions of pewter pieces of Colonial days. In May, 1936, the enterprise 
was turned over to the department managers, who continue to work along 
the established lines. Mr. Arnold Berge continues the metal and forge work 
at the original Val Kil shops, and Mrs. Johanneson the weaving in the hand- 
craft center nearby. The furniture and cabinet department was moved to the 
rear of Otto Berge's home, the William Stoutenburgh house in East Park. 
The Berges were trained in their father's shop in Norway. 

At 6.6 m. (L) is the WILLIAM STOUTENBURGH HOUSE, the 
present home of Otto Berge. The original section is a rectangular stone 
building overshadowed by a frame wing of later date. At the right of the 
front door the figures '4750" are marked in the stone, and at the left 
"1765." It is not certain which is the date of erection. William Stouten 
burgh was the son of Jacobus Stoutenburgh, an early settler. 

EAST PARK, 6.7 m. (233 alt., 204 pop.) Junction with a macadam 
road (R). (See Tour No. 4A.) Main route straight ahead on dirt road. 

At 7.3 m. (R), stands a weather-beaten RED BARN. Knowledge of its 
age, origin, and early history has faded with the past. The miniature six- 
sided cupola, or belfry, and the half-round window tops similar to the 
windows in the old Dutch Reformed Church at Fishkill, suggest that it may 
once have been a church. 

Beyond the red barn a brook (L) parallels the road. Lanes leading to 
farmhouses on the other side cross the brook on picturesque rural bridges of 
fieldstone and rough timber. 

At 8.3 m., and continuing for several thousand feet E. of the brook, ex 
tensive outcrops of limestone are visible on either side of the road. The 
strata are nearly vertical and trend southeastward. These outcrops are mainly 
in low ridges with a few ranging from 30 to 40 ft. in elevation. 

At 9.5 m. is junction with dirt road. Main route L. 

Right on this road at 1.4. m., is junction with macadam road, known 
locally as Quaker Lane. Right on Quaker Lane is the CRUM ELBOW 
QUAKER MEETING HOUSE (L), at 1.5 m. in a valley of pros 
perous farms. This simple, white, two-story building, erected about 1780, 
has been carefully restored, so that its stark rectangular lines still be 
speak the honest simplicity of the early Quaker faith. The cemetery 
in the rear contains many old graves, some of the mounds unidentified, 
others marked by rough, moss-grown slabs with crudely lettered, now 
undecipherable legends. 

Elias Hicks, founder of the Hicksite branch of Friends, frequently 
preached here. In this church he and the English Friends who opposed 
him engaged in the controversy which eventually resulted in the division 
of the Quakers into the Hicksite and Orthodox branches. 

148 



The controversy arose out of a difference of emphasis as between faith 
and theology on the one hand, and reason and morality on the other. 
During the i8th century the intuitive faith in the mystical communion 
with God which characterized the Quaker religion had developed to a 
high degree of self-righteous anti-intellectualism. By the early I9th cen 
tury, however, the currents of rationalism had reached these farmers and 
appealed to them on behalf of freedom of thought. New philosophies and 
a nascent industrialism called for a greater emphasis on logic and con 
duct and the practical issues of this world. Hicks was a product of these 
new forces. While his views did not depart radically from those of the 
orthodox church, they showed the way, and his followers gradually 
took the side of the intellectuals. 

Approaching Pleasant Plains, at 11.9 m. (R) before crossing the bridge, 
is a lovely waterfall. 

PLEASANT PLAINS, 12 m. (300 alt., 600 pop.), was once called 
Le Roys Corners after John Le Roy, one of the owners of the DeWitt 
house. Today the name applies not only to the few buildings at the corners, 
but also to the surrounding area of level, fertile land and scattered farm 
houses. General and dairy farming are the principal sources of income. 

The DEWITT HOUSE (L), at the four corners, a white, frame dwell 
ing, green trimmed, resting upon a high field-stone foundation was built by 
John DeWitt in 1773. Four years later the construction of an addition 
relocated the entrance, and in 1855 a later owner added the west wing. 

DeWitt served as an officer in the American Army during the Revolution, 
as sheriff of Dutchess County, and as member of the New York State As 
sembly. As delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1788 in Pough- 
keepsie he voted in favor of the ratification of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Directly opposite the DeWitt house is an old red GRISTMILL, built 
by John DeWitt in 1775 and operated by him for 27 years. The three-and- 
one-half-story building is in an excellent state of preservation. The original 
hand-forged iron hinges are on all doors. The rigging of the water wheel 
can still be seen on the south side. 

At the corners main route straight ahead. 

Road right from the corners up a hill, leads to the PLEASANT PLAINS 
WESTMINSTER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, .9 m. (R), a white 
frame building with Doric columns along the front. The original build 
ing, erected in 1837, was enlarged to its present proportions in 1859. 
The church was organized on March 28, 1837, by Rev. Alonzo Welton 
of Poughkeepsie. 

At 15.2 m. is the white WURTEMBURG LUTHERAN CHURCH 
(R), the third oldest church in the township of Rhinebeck. This frame build 
ing with gable roof and steeple was built by the Palatines in 1760 and 
enlarged in 1861. The original windows have been replaced by modern ones. 
The sides are clapboarded ; the entrances have leaded lights. The site offers a 
commanding view of the rolling hills of Whitaberger Land (a variable spell 
ing of Wurtemburg), the name locally applied to this region. 

At 16.2 m. is junction with gravel road. The route turns R. on this road. 

149 



This section of the county is sparsely settled and heavily wooded. 

At 17.3 m. bear R. at 18 m. bear L. 

The topography of this region is of glacial origin ; the scattered hills, 
compased of boulders and gravel, are technically known as morainic hills. 

At 192 m. is a SLATE QUARRY (R), extending back into the hills. 
It was once extensively w r orked. In 1798 it provided the slate that roofed 
the house of Mrs. Richard Montgomery of Rhinebeck. (See Tour No. IB.) 
After 25 years of operation quarrying was discontinued. In 1866 the quarry 
was reopened and continued in operation until 1896. Since that date it has 
remained idle. 

At 202 m. is junction with narrow dirt road. The main route turns R. 
on road, across a small stream and up a hill. 

Road straight ahead to JOHN TELLER HOUSE, bears L. at .4 m. and 
.9 m. The house /./ m. (R) was built in 1764 by John Teller, 
great-grandson of William Teller, founder of the Teller family in the 
Hudson Valley. It is a stuccoed stone house, \ l /2 stories high, with a cen 
tral hall and two rooms on the first floor. A so-called "witch-beam," with 
power to keep the witches away, was built against the wall on a stair 
way landing in the rear of the hall. 

At 20.7 m. is junction with three roads. The route turns L. 

This crossroads affords a view (R) of LONG POND, the largest of 
the three lakes on this tour. It is well stocked with sunfish, pickerel, bass, 
and perch. CAMP BOIBERIK, a large camp for Jewish people, is on the 
western shore. 

The road winds N. of Long Pond, then turns S. and follows the E. bank 
of Salt Point Creek. 

Left at 21.9 m. over creek. 

SCHULTZVILLE, 22.7 m. (375 alt., 46 pop.), is named for the Schultz 
family, early settlers. 

WARREN LODGE No. 32 (formerly No. 157) F. & A. M. (R), is 
housed in a small, white clapboarded two-story structure with an octagonal 
tower trimmed in green. The lodge is the oldest in the county and sixth 
oldest in the state. Warren Lodge No. 157 was instituted in 1807 and 
named for Gen. Joseph Warren, a general in the Continental Army who 
fell at the battle of Bunker Hill. In 1839 the name was changed to Warren 
Lodge No. 32 as part of the reorganization after the Morgan and anti- 
Masonic excitement which this lodge successfully withstood. In 1861 it was 
removed from Pine Plains to Lafayetteville, where it remained until 1864, 
its fifty-seventh anniversary. It was then moved to Schultzville, where it 
has since remained, meeting in a temple erected in 1865. 

At the junction at Schultzville, the route turns R. and proceeds straight 
ahead. The road parallels a winding brook which at intervals cascades over 
miniature falls. Where it now and then widens into a more pretentious 
stream, shade trees on little islands provide inviting natural picnic grounds. 

Approaching Clinton Hollow, the stream expands into a pond formed 
by an old mill dam in the center of the village. 

150 



CLINTON HOLLOW, 24.6 m. (300 alt., 311 pop.), lies in a deep 
valley of Salt Point Creek. The surrounding hills, none of which exceeds 
500 ft. in altitude, are densely wooded. The top soil, fertile, slaty loam, 
supports prosperous dairy farms. Resident families have lived here for many 
years; 95 percent of the population are native born. 

At 24. 6 m. is junction with dirt road. 

Left on this road, up a steep hill, is the REGINALD GOODE 
THEATRE, .3 m. (R), a summer theatre in which legitimate plays are 
presented by Broadway actors. The theatre is an old barn painted 
white, about 25 by 35 ft. and 2 stories high. The elevation offers a com 
manding view of the valley. 

At the junction in Clinton Hollow the main route turns L. and then 
immediately R. on the Clinton Hollow Road. This hilly, winding road, 
bordered by field-stone walls, passes through a narrow valley with restricted 
views and the road closely parallels Salt Point Creek, which widens here 
to 30 ft. 

At 27.9 m. is junction with macadam road. 

Left on this road is CLINTON CORNERS, 2.5 m. (288 alt., 330 pop.), 
a small hamlet in which the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. maintains express 
and freight service. 

Little is known of the early history of the village, but it is believed to 
have been settled in 1760. Clinton Corners early became a Quaker 
settlement; before the meetinghouse was built services were held 
regularly in the house of Jonathan Hoag, an early settler and community 
leader. 

THE QUAKER MEETING HOUSE, 2.6 m. (L), locally known as the 
Creek Meeting House, is a two-and-a-half story field-stone building, im 
pressive in its solid simplicity. It was begun in 1772, but since construction 
was discontinued during the Revolutionary War, it was not completed until 
1782. Outwardly it has undergone no change other than the laying of an 
asbestos shingle roof and the addition of a porch in 1874. The interior, 
however, has been remodeled to meet present needs, and the partition 
that separated men and women (the two entrances for the two sexes 
are still there) has been removed. The building is now occupied 
by Upton Lake Grange No. 802, though the Quakers still hold an annual 
meeting here. 

Adjacent to the meeting house is the BURIAL GROUND, one of the 
oldest in Dutchess County. The graves of many of the local pioneers 
are marked by simple slate headstones, the inscriptions almost obliterated. 

SALT POINT, 28 m. (240 alt., 250 pop.), is a pleasant country village, 
with the main street bordering the Salt Point Turnpike. The simple frame 
houses, set back from the road, are surrounded by aged shade trees. Accord 
ing to local tradition, the name came from the early settlers' custom of 
making salt licks to attract deer. 

In the first third of the 19th century, the valley for which Salt Point is 
today the freight transportation center was one of the most important 
wheat-growing sections of New York State. Up to about 1835 more than 
1/3 of the grain shipped from New York City was grown in Dutchess 
County, most of it in this valley. But the competition of western wheat after 

151 



the opening of the Erie Canal and soil exhaustion through lack of crop 
rotation and fertilization, brought wheat-raising to an end. Today the rolling, 
sparsely wooded land is used principally for pasturage, and the large dairy 
farms in the vicinity serve a wide area centering in Poughkeepsie. 

At 28 m., in the center of Salt Point, is junction with dirt road, called 
locally the Washington Hollow road. 

Left on Washington Hollow road .7 m. is junction with dirt road (R). 
R. on dirt road is CAMP NOOTEEMING, (L) .8 m., the Dutchess 
County Boy Scout camp conducted by the Dutchess County Council. Its 
176 acres embrace an artificial lake called Pocket Lake by the scouts. 
With its facilities for fishing, swimming, boating, and nature study, the 
camp provides all-round summer camping under adult supervision. 

At 28.9 m. is junction with Salt Point Turnpike, a macadam road. The 
main route turns R. and follows this macadam road past the many country 
roads that serve the widespread farms. 

At 37.5 m. (L) is junction with CREEK ROAD which becomes Smith 
St. at this point. 

R. from Smith St. on Main St.; Tour ends at Court House Square, 
38.2 m. 

TOUR 4 A 

East Park Netherwood Spelmann Road. 6j m. 

From junction with Tour No. 4 in East Park, the route turns R. on ma 
cadam road. The road crosses a wide plain dotted with small dairy farms 
and reaching to low rolling hills in the distance. This unfrequently traveled 
road makes an ideal short rural tour in the summer. 

The GARRIGUE SCHOOL, 1.2 m. (L), organized in 1933, is a mod 
ern private farm school for superior children from 4 to 8 years. It is a year- 
round boarding school with a capacity of 30 pupils. The two-story Colonial 
house is painted white, with green blinds. Standing on a knoll about .2 m. 
from the road, it commands a beautiful view of the valley. 

At 1.3 m. (L), at the top of a low hill, is a beacon marking the eastern 
line of the New York-Montreal airline. 

At this point the contour of the land changes abruptly and becomes rugged 
and hilly. 

The dairy and small truck farmers have dammed the little streams to 
make ponds, from which ice is cut in the winter months for household use 
and for cooling milk in summer. 

At 1.6 m. is junction with a secondary macadam road. The route turns L. 
on this road. 

CAMP WINETKA, 2.3 m. (L), a large camp for Jewish people, com 
prises a number of separate yellow cabins on a shaded tract overlooking a 
small pond. The main building is a mid-1 9th century white house. A large 
barn serves as camp theatre. 

At 2.8 m. is intersection of two roads. The route proceeds straight ahead, 
on middle road, over the hill. 

152 



At 3.4 m., at the fork of two roads, is the ISRAEL MARSHALL 
HOUSE (L), one of the most dignified and imposing buildings in the 
vicinity. It is a large, two-story Colonial structure painted white. Four 
Doric columns support the front porch ; a large half-round window near 
the peak of the roof is an added ornament. The figures "IM 1844" are 
carved in the stone steps leading to the eastern entrance. Israel Marshall 
erected this building as a tavern in 1844; after serving as such for 12 
years, it was remodeled to its present state. It has remained in the Marshall 
family to the present time. 

Opposite the Marshall House at 3.4 m. the route bears R. 

The NETHERWOOD BAPTIST CHURCH, 6 m. (L), was founded 
in 1791 and is "the original home of the Explorers' Club," founded in 
January 1931, for children of this section. The present structure, a simple 
white frame building with a square belfry and an octagonal, shuttered 
window above the door, was erected in 1863 on the old site of the first 
church, built in 1795. The adjoining cemetery contains many crudely cut 
field-stones; the oldest decipherable stone bears the date 1789. 

At 6.1 m. is junction with Salt Point Turnpike. (See Tour No. 4.) 




L V- - _^ ~~Z-^i5&&*** 



Abraham Fort Homestead, near Poughkeepsie 



153 



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Century of Population Growth, 1790-1900. 
Washington, D. C. Government Printing Office. 1909. 

Civil List and Constitutional History of the Colony and State of New York. 

Werner, Edgar A., editor. 

Albany, Weed, Parsons & Co. 1883. 

Cobb, Sanford, H. 

The Story of the Palatines. 

New York. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1897. 

Colonial Laws of New York from the Year 1664 to the Revolution. 5 vols. 
Albany, N. Y. James B. Lyon. 1894. 

Commemorative Biographical Record of Dutchess County, New York. 
Chicago. J. H. Beers & Co. 1897. 

Common Trees of New York. 

Washington, D. C. American Tree Association. 

Cook, Stephen Guernsey. 

The Dutchess County Regiment, (isoth Regiment of New York State Volunteer In 
fantry) in the Civil War. 
Danbury, Conn. The Danbury Medical Printing Co., Inc. 1907. 

Corning, A. Elwood. 

Washington at Temple Hill. 

Newburgh, N. Y. The Lanmere Publishing Co. 1932. 

Corwine, W. R. 

History of the Poughkeepsie Bridge. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Poughkeepsie Chamber of Commerce, 1925. 

Deeds, documents and maps, County Clerk's Office, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Directories of cities and towns in Dutchess County. 
Ditmars, Raymond Lee. 

Reptile Book. 

New York. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1907. 

Documentary History of the State of New York. 

O'Callaghan, E. B. editor. 

Albany. Weed, Parsons & Co. 1850-51. 

Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. 

O'Callaghan, E. B. editor. 

Albany. Weed, Parsons & Co. 1856-1887. 

Dyer, Edward O. 

Gnadensee, The Lake of Grace. A Moravian Picture in a Connecticut Frame. 

Boston, Chicago. The Pilgrim Press. 1903. 

Emmot, James. 

Letters About Hudson River and Vicinity. 

New York. Freeman Hunt & Co. 1837. 

155 



Encyclopedia Britannica. i4th edition. 
Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 1929. 

Gazetteer of the State of New York. 
Albany. J. Disturnell. 1842. 

Gazetteer of the State of New York. 6th edition. 

French, J. H., editor. 

Syracuse, N. Y. R. Pearsall Smith. 1860. 

Haswell, Charles H. 

Reminiscences of an Octogenarian of the City of New York, 1816-60. 

New York. Harper & Bros. 1897. 

Haviland, John, and Birdsall, William M. 

History of the Nine Partners, Quarterly Meeting and the Creek or Clinton Corners 

Meeting of Friends. 
Publication unknown. 

Hine, C. G. 

The New York and Albany Post Road. 

New York. Published by the author. 1905. 

Historic New York. The Half-Moon Papers. Series 2. 
Goodwin, Royce, Putnam and Brownell, editors. 
New York and London. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1899. 

Historical Notes of Saint James Parish, Hyde Park-on-Hudson. 

Newton, E. P., compiler. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. A. V. Haight. 1913. 

Historical Sketch and Directory of the Town of Fishkill, with an Appendix of Much 

Useful Information. 
Fishkill Landing, N. Y. Standard Office. 1866. 

History of Dutchess County, N. Y., The. 

Hasbrouck, Frank, editor. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. S. A. Matthieu. 1909. 

History of New York State, 1523-1927. 10 vols. 

Sullivan, James, editor-in-chief. 

New York. Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc. 1927. 

History of the Bench and Bar of New York. 2 vols. 
New York. New York History Company. 1897. 

Hodge, Frederick Witt. 

Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico. 
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Washington, D. C. Government Printing Office. 1910. 

Hunt, Thomas. 

Historical Sketch of the Town of Clermont, A. 

Hudson, N. Y. The Hudson Press. 1928. 

Huntting, Isaac. 

History of Little Nine Partners of North East Precinct, and Pine Plains, New York, 

Dutchess County. Vol. I. 
Amenia, N. Y. Charles Walsh & Co. 1897. 

156 



Jenkins, Stephen. 

The Greatest Street in the World. 

New York and London. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1911. 

Johnston, Henry P. 

The Storming of Stony Point on the Hudson. 

New York. James T. White & Co. 1900. 

Jones, Thomas. 

History of New York During the Revolutionary War. 2 vols. 

New York. New York Historical Society. 1879. 

Jordan, David Starr, and Evermann, B. W. 

American Food and Game Fishes. 

New York. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1902. 

Journal of the Legislative Council of the Colony of New York. 2 vols. 
Albany. Weed, Parsons & Co. 1861. 

Kip, Francis M. 

Discourse Delivered on the I2th of September, 1866, at the Celebration of the 

Anniversary of the First Reformed Church, Fishkill, N. Y., A. 
New York. Wynkoop & Hallenbeck. 1866. 

Ladd, Horatio O. 

Founding of the Episcopal Church in Dutchess County, New York, The. 

Fishkill, N. Y. Times Print. 1895. 

l.amb, Martha J. 

History of the City of New York. 2 vols. 

New York and Chicago. A. S. Barnes & Co. 1877. 

Lathrop, Elise. 

Early American Inns and Taverns. 

New York. R. McBride & Co. 1926. 

Legislative Manual. 

Albany, N.Y. J. B. Lyon Co. 1933. 

Lewis, John N. 

Reminiscences of Annandale, Neva York. Lecture delivered before officers and stu 
dents of St. Stephen's College. (Reprint from the American Historical Register} 
Pamphlet. 

Lossing, Benson J. 

The Hudson, from the Wilderness to the Sea. 

New York. Virtue and Yorston. 1866. 

Lossing, Benson J. 

The Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution. 2 vols. 

New York. Harper & Bros. 1851-52. 

Maher, Richard Francis. 

Historic Dover. 

Dover Plains, N. Y. 1908. 

Matthews, F. Schuyler. 

Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs. 

New York. G. Putnam's Sons. The Knickerbocker Press. 1915. 

157 



Mershon, Stephen L. 

Power of the Crown in the Valley of the Hudson, The. 

Brattleboro, Vt. Vermont Printing Co. 1925. 

Monell, J. J. 

Historical Sketches. Washington's Headquarters, Newburgh, New York, and Adjacent 

Localities. 
Newburgh, N. Y. E. M. Ruttenber. 1872. 

Mooney, Charles N. and Belden, H. L. 

Soil Survey of Dutchess County, N. Y. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Washington, D. C. Government Printing Office. 1909. 

Morse, Howard H. 

Historic Old Rhinebeck. 

Rhinebeck, N. Y. Published by the author. 1908. 

Muirhead, J. H. H. 

Map of Dutchess County, N. Y. 

New York. Dolph & Stewart. 1935. 

National Cyclopedia of American Biography. 
New York. James T. White Co. 1934. 

Neilson, Charles. 

An Original, Compiled and Corrected Account of Burgoyne's Campaign. 

Albany, N. Y. J. Munsell. 1844. 

New York in the Revolution as Colony and State. 2 vols. 
Roberts, James A., compiler. 

Albany, Brandow Printing Co. 1898 (ist vol.). 
Albany, J. B. Lyon Co. 1904 (2d vol.). 

Newspaper files and original documents. 
Adriance Memorial Library. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Old Gravestones of Dutchess County, N. Y. 

Poucher, J. Wilson and Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson, compilers. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Enterprize Publishing Co., and Hanson & Pralow. 1924. 

Partition Map of Dutchess County Showing Patent Divisions. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. County Clerk's Office. 

Pelletreau, William S. 

History of Putnam County, N. Y. 

Philadelphia. W. W. Preston & Co. 1886. 

Platt, Edmund. 

The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie from the Earliest Settlements, 1683 to 1905. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Platt & Platt. 1905. 

Platt, Isaac. 

Collection of Historical Documents and Maps. (Originals). 

Poughkeepsie, Charter and Laws of the Corporation of the Village of. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Platt and Ranney. 1843. 

Poughkeepsie, Charter, Ordinances and By-Laws. 
1874-1881, 1898, 1901, 1907. 

158 



Poughkeepsie, Charter, Ordinances of the City of. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Platt & Son. 1865. 

Poughkeepsie Eagle (Souvenir Edition) 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Platt & Platt. 1889. 

Powell, J. W. 

Indian Linguistic Families of America, North of Mexico. 

Washington, D. C. Government Printing Office. 1891. 

Public Papers of George Clinton, ist Governor of New York State. 10 vols. 
Albany, N. Y. State of New York. 1899 to 1914. 

Quaker Hill Local History Series. 16 vols. 

Pawling, N. Y. Quaker Hill Conference Association. 1902-1908. 

Records of Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson, editor. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Frank B. Howard. 1911. 

Records of the Reformed Dutch Church of New Hackensack, Dutchess County, N. Y. 
Tower, Maria Bockee Carpenter, compiler. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 1932. 

Records of the Town of Hyde Park, Dutchess County. 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, editor. 

Vol. III. 

Hyde Park. Dutchess County Historical Society. 1928. 

Reed, Newton. 

Early History of Amenta. 

Amenia, N. Y. DeLacey & Wiley. 1875. 

Reichel, W. C. 

Memorial of the Dedication of Monuments Erected by the Moravian Historical So 
ciety to Mark the Sites of Ancient Missionary Stations in New York and Con 
necticut, A. 

Philadelphia. J. B. Lippincott. 1860. 

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. 
Annals of a Century Old Business. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Frank B. Howard. 1920. 

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. 

Dutch Houses in the Hudson Valley Before 1776. 

New York. Payson & Clarke, Ltd. 1929. 

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. 

Dutchess County Doorways and Other Examples of Period-Work in Wood, 1730 to 

1830. 
New York. William Farquhar Payson. 1931. 

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. 

Poughkeepsie, the Origin and Meaning of the Word. Vol. I. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 1924. 

Reynolds, James. 

Diary. (From January, 1839 to December, 1843, in manuscript). 

Mr. Reynolds was a resident of Poughkeepsie. 

Rothery, John and William. 

John Rothery's Files, 1895. 

New York. Dennison & Brown. 1895. 

159 



Ruttenber, Edward Manning. 

Footprints of the Red Men. 

Auspices of the New York State Historical Association. 

Newburgh, N. Y. Newburgh Journal. 1906. 

Ruttenber, Edward Manning. 

History of the Indian Tribes of Hudson's River. 

Albany, N. Y. J. Munsell. 1872. 

Scott, Henry W. 

Courts of the State of New York, The. 

New York. Wilson Publishing Co. 1909. 

Sidney, J. C. 

Map of Dutchess County, New York. (1850). 

Place of publication unknown. John E. Gillet. 1850. 

Smith, Edward M. 

Documentary History of Rhinebeck in Dutchess County, N. Y. 

Rhinebeck. 1881. 

Smith, James H. (assisted by Gale, Hume H. and Roscoe, William E.) 
History of Duchess County, N. Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y. D. Mason & Co. 1882. 

Smith, Philip H. 

General History of Duchess County from 1609 to 1876. 

Pawling, N. Y. Published by the author. 1877. 

Spaight, F. D. 

Looking Backward. 

Fishkill-on-Hudson, N. Y. Fishkill Standard Print. 1896. 

Stone, W. and Cram, W. E. 

American Animals. 

New York. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1902. 

Sutcliffe, Alice Crary. 

The Homestead of a Colonial Dame: A Monograph. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. A. V. Haight Co. 1909. 

Sylvester, Nathaniel Bartlett. 
History of Rensselaer County, N. Y. 
Philadelphia. Everts & Peck. 1880. 

Thompson, Helen D. 

Report of a Housing Survey in the City of Poughkeepsie, A. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. The Enterprize Pub. Co. 

Tombstone Inscriptions from the Churchyard of the First Reformed Dutch Church, 

Fishkill Village, Dutchess County, N. Y. 
Van Voorhis, compiler. 
New York. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Van Gieson, Rev. A. P. 

Anniversary Discourse and History of the First Reformed Church of Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. A. V. Haight. 1893. 

Van Gieson, Rev. A. P. 

The Ratification of the Constitution by the State of New York. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Vassar Brothers Institute. 1895. 

160 



Van Rensselaer, Mrs. John King. 

The Goede Vrouw of Mana-ha-ta, 1609-1760. 

New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1898. 

Van Wyck, Anne. 

Descendants of Cornelius Barentse Van Wyck and Anna Polhemus. 

New York. Tobias A. Wright. 1912. 

Verplanck, Virginia E. 

The Verplanck Garden at Mount Gulian, Fishkill-on-Hudson. 

Privately printed. No date. 

Verplanck, William E. 

The Birthplace of the Order of the Cincinnati. 

The New England Magazine. August, 1896. 

Verplanck, William E. 

Old Dutch Houses on the Hudson. 

The New England Magazine. March, 1895. 

Verplanck, William E. and Collyer, Moses W. 

The Sloops of the Hudson. 

New York and London. G. P. Putnam's Sons. The Knickerbocker Press. 1908. 

Wheeler, Francis Brown. 

John Flack Winslow and the Monitor. 

Publication unknown. 1893. 

Wilson, Warren H. 

Quaker Hill, A Sociological Study. 

New York. 1907. 

Wilstach, Paul. 

Hudson River Landings. 

Indianapolis. The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1933. 

Wing, Conway P. 

Historical and Genealogical Register of John Wing of Sandwich, Mass, and His 

Descendants, 1632. 
New York. De Vinne Press. 1888. 

Yearbooks of the Dutchess County Historical Society. 

Rhinebeck, N. Y. Rhinebeck Gazette. 1914-1937. (none published in 1920). 

Yearbooks of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. Vols. i to 68. 
New York. 1870-1937. 

Yearbooks of the New York Historical Society. 
1868-1936. 

Yearbooks of the New York State Historical Association. Vols. i to 34. 
1901-1936. 



161 



INDEX 



Adams, John, 32 

Adriance Memorial Library, 38 

Agriculture, 17 

Akin Free Library, 123 

Akin Hall Association, 123 

Albany Post Road, 15, 74, 140 

Amenia High School, 98; Lake 98; Village, 
97, 121; Iron Co. Mines, 97 

American Bridge Company, of Chicago 41; 
of New York 44 

Annan House, 72 

Annandale, 106 

"Anti-Bent War", 12, 117 

Apokeepsing, 30 

Architecture, 21 

Arlington, 34, 103 

Armstrong, Gen. John, 105 

Arnold Cotton Mill, 39; Homestead 43; Lum 
ber Co., 43 

Arthur, Chester A., 134 

Arthursburg, 134 

Astor Flats, 94; John Jacob, 65, 131; 
Vincent, 92, 94; Vincent, Convalescent 
School for Girls, 92 

Avery Hall, 59 



Bailey, Col. John, 31 

Bacon, Georgeanna Woolsey, 71 

Bald Hill, 73 

Bangall, 111 

Bannerman's Island, 138 

Bard College, 19, 107 

Bard, Dr. Samuel, 90 

Bard, John, 107 

Baxtertown, 127 

Beacon, 62 

Beardsley, Rev. John, 84 

Eeecher, Henry Ward (Home of), 72 

Beekman Arms Hotel, 93 

Beekman, Henry, 92, 93; William, 92. 

Bennett School, 19, 99. 

Billings, 134 

Birch, Harvey, (See Enoch Crosby), 140 

Birdsall, Nathan, 122 

Bisselle, Alfred, 51 

Blacksmith shops, 95 

Blodgett, John Woods, 83; Mansion, 140 

Blodgett Hall of Evthenics, 58 

Bodenstein, J. H., 103 

Bogardus, Jacob, 109; Peter, 77 

Bogardus-DeWindt-VanHouten House, 77 

Borden Milk Co., 121 

Bowery House, 93 

Browne, Memorial Hospital, 53, 147, Obadiah 

(house of), 84 
Breakneck Mountain, 139 
Brett, Madam (Catharyna), 63, 65, 70, 83, 

84, 132; Robert, 75, 82, 84; Roger, 71, 

75; Mill, 71; Francis, 75 
Brett-Teller House (See Teller Homestead) 
Briarcliff Farms, 111 
Brick Meeting House, 99, 100 
Brinckerhoff, Abram, 93, 132; Derick, 132, 

136, (House of, &t Brinckerhoffville, 

Col. John (House of), 133, Jovis, 113 

113 

Brinckerhoffville, 132 
Broad Acres, 116 
Burr, Aaron, 82, 93 
"Butter Hill" (Storm King), 139 
Byrnesville, cemetery, 70 



Caldwell, Dr. Samuel, 54 

Callendar House, 108, 109 

Camp Lamola, 133 

Camp Ramapo, 94 

Camp Stover (See University Settlement) 

Cory, Rev. Dr. Robert Fulton, 75 

Casino, 78 

Caaperkill, 31 

Caul Rock (See Kaal Rock) 

Central Hudson Steamboat Co., 43 

Chapel Corners, 147 

Chapel of the Holy Innocents, 107 

Chase, Rev. Philander, 84 

Chateau de Tivoli, 108, 109 

Chelsea, 137; Paper Mill, 137 

Chestnut Ridge, 121 

Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, 38, 84 

Christian Church, 96 

Church of the Messiah, 94 

Cincinnati, Society of the, 129 

Circle, The, 57 

City Hall, Poughkeepsie, 36 

City Home and Infirmary, 50 

Civil War, 33, 34 

Clarke, Hon. George, 67 

Clay, Henry, 82 

Clear Everitt House, 48 

Clinton, DeWitt (Homestead site of), 49, 

93 

Clinton, Gov. George (General), 49, 138 
Clinton Corners, 151 
Clinton Hollow, 151 
Clove Valley, 145; Iron Co., 147; Methodist 

Church, 145; Rod and Gun Club, 146; 

Spring, 146; Furnace, 147 
Clover Brook Farm, 122 
Cole, Timothy, 51 
College Hill Park, 46 
Collyer, Captain Moses W., 137 
Committees of Safety, 130 
Congdon's, (Mrs.) Seminary, 133 
Connors Tavern, site of, 143 
Continental, Army, 12 
Coons, Ethan, greenhouses, 94 
Cooper, James Fenimore, 140 
County Government, 11 
Creek Meeting House, 151 
Creek Road, 152 
Crooke, Charles, 88 
Crosby, Enoch, 140 
Cruger's Island, 107 
Crum Elbow, 88 

Crum Elbow Quaker Meeting House, 148 
Crumwold, 89 

Crystal Spring Manor, 114, 146 
Gushing House, 58 



Daheim, 98 

Davies, Prof. Charles, 128 

De Chastellux, 15, 79 

DeKoven, Reginald, 109 

Delabegarre, Pierre, 108 

De La Vergne Hill, 98 

DeLaval Separator Co., 45 

Dennings Point, 62, 72, 77; Brick Works, 

77 

De Peyster, Abraham, .70 
De Peyster-Newlin-Byrnes House, 70 
De Windt, Peter John, 77 
De Witt, grist mill, 149; Simeon, 78 
Dickens, Charles, 69 
Dietrich, C. F., estate of, 98 



162 



Dinsmore, William B., estate of, 104 

Divisional Produce Market, 50 

Donaldson, Robert, 106 

Dover Furnace, 120; Plains, 120 

Du Bois Lewis (House of), 112 

Duer, W. A., 91 

Dutch Reformed Churches (see Reformed 

Churches) 

Dutchess In the Revolution, 12 
Dutchess County Fair, (old), 101 
Dutchess Avenue Dock, 40 
Dutchess Bleachery, 127 
Dutchess (County, boundaries original, 9; 

boundaries present, 1; deriviation of 

name of, 9; geology of, 3 
Dutchess County Academy, 39, 50, 114; 

Court House, 36 

Dutchess Golf and Country Club, 125 
Dutchess Turnpike, 97 
Dutton Lumber Co., 40 

E 

Early Exploration and Indians, 5 

East Main Street Bridge, Deacon, 74 

East Park, 148. 

Eastern State Parkway, 115, 134 

Eastman, Business College, 33; Harvey G., 

33; Park, 38 
Education, 18 
Edward VIII, 89 
Ellerslie, 91 ' 

Emigh, Nicholas, 64; (House of), 145 
Emmadine Farms, 115 
Eno Law Office, 96 
"Equivalent Tract," 9 
Ericsson, John, 120 
Eustatia, 76 



Fairy Island, 71 

Fauconier Patent, 9 

Fenner, Thomas (House of), 48 

Fenton, Clarence, 51 

Ferris, Benjamin, 122 

First Public Library in Dutchess County, 

96 

Fish, 5, 102 
Fishkill, Creek, 131, 139; Dairy Farms, 143; 

grill, 83; Hook, 143; Landing, 64, 66; 

Plains, 115: Village, 64, 79. 139 
Flanagan, Hallie, 59 
Flora and Fauna, 3 
Forge, Bailey's, 131 
Fort, Abraham Homestead, 126 
Fort Hill Farm, 142, 143 
Four Corners Monument, Millbrook, 100 
Fowler, Alice M., 50 
Fox Hollow School, 19 
Fox's Point, 13; Shipyard, 45 
Frear, John (House of), 125 
Freedom Plains, 135 
Friends (see Quakers), 148 
Frigates, 13 
Fulton, Robert, 75 



Gallaudet Home for Deaf Mutes, 135 

Garrigue School, 152 

Gayhead, 115 

Geography and Geology, 1 

"Ghost Train," 34 

Gillet, Louis A., house of, 69 

Given House, James, 82 

Glad Tidings Home, 130 

Glebe House, 48,49 

Glenham, 130 

Governor Clinton House (see Clair Everitt 

House) 

Graham, Rev. Chauncey, 132 
Grand View, 137 
Grasmere, 91, 106 



Gray's Riding Academy, 112 
Great Nine Partners Patent, 9 
Green Haven, 117 
Greenvale Park, 112 
Gregory House, 45 
Griffin's Tavern, 133 
Groveville Flats Park, 74 



H 

Half-Moon, 6 

Hamilton, Alexander, 14, 90, 93, 140 

Hamilton, Lieut. Philip, 70 

Hammersley, L. G., 107 

Hammond, Benjamin, 67 

Harlem Valley State Hospital, 118 

Hell Hollow (Boulder Glen), 73 

Hicks, Elias, 148; Hicksite-Orthodox Con 
troversy, (See Quakers) 

Hiddenbrooke, 74 

Highlands (See Hudson Highlands) 

Hiker's Trail, 73 

History, 30 

Hoffman House, 42 

Hone, Philip, 65, 131 

Honess Mountain, 142 

Hopeland, 105 

Hopewell Junction, 115, 134 

Hospitals, Hudson River State, 116; Harlem 
Valley State, 118 

Rowland, General (House of), 71; Library, 
77 

Hudson, Henry, 6, 124, 130 

Hudson Highlands, 2, 80 

Hudson Valley Nurseries, 116 

Hughsonville, 127 

Huguenots, French, 31 

Hyde, Edward, 89 



Indian Lake, 97; Picture Rock, 92 
Indians, Pequot, 121; Mohicans, 121, 126, 

128 

Inns (see taverns) 
Intercollegiate Regatta, 28 
Irving, Washington, 82 



Jackson Wing Inn, 119 
James Roosevelt Memorial Library, 90 
Jane Residence, 114 

Jay, John, 14, 140, 143; (House of), 142 
Jewett, Milo P., 54; (House), 57 
Johnsville, (see Wiccoppee); Methodist Epis 
copal Church, 142 
"Josh Billings," 33 
Juet, Robert, 6, 88, 124 



Kaal Rock, 44 

Kane, John Kane House, 117 

Kent, Chancellor James, 32 

Kimlin Cider Mill, 52 

King's Highway, 10, 87, (See also Albany 

Post Road) 
Kip, (Rombout patentee), 8; Hendrick 

and Jacobus, 8; Hendrick (House of), 

131 

Knevels-S'tearns House, 77 
Kosciuszko, 32 
Krum Elbow (See Crum Elbow) 



LaFayette, Marquis de, 104, 133, 135, 140 
Lafayetteville, 96; House, 96 
Lakes, Sepasco, 94; Indian, 97; Aerica, 98; 
Spring, 110; Hunns, 111; Whaley, 117 



163 



Landing Place of Henry Hudson, 130 

Land Tenure, 11 

Lane Brothers Hardware Co., 52 

Lange Rak, (See Long Beach) 

Lansing, John, 14 

Lasinck, Peter, 31 

Le Roys Corners (Pleasant Plains), 149 

Le Fevre House, 137 

Lewis, Morgan, 90 

Lev/is Gordon Norrie Park, 103 

Lime Ridge Farm, 117 

Lincoln, Abraham, 33; Center, 46; Dude 
Ranch, 116 

Little Nine Partners Patent, 9 

Little Plum Point, 137 

Livingston, Edward, 106; Gilbert, 15, 94; 
Col. Henry, 14; Henry, Jr., 124; Henry 
Gilbert, 109; Janet, 106, (see Mrs. 
Richard Montgomery); Robert (First 
Lord of the Manor), 64; Robert R. 
(Chancellor), 14, 109 

Locust Grove, 124 

Locusts, the, 104 

Lorn as, Alfred, 66 

Long Pond, 150 

Long Reach, 88, 124 

Long Wharf, Beacon, 68 

Lookout Point, 141 

Lossing, Benson J., 82, 121 

Loudon, Samuel, 84, 141 

Lower Landing, Beacon, 67; Poughkeepsie, 

Lown Memorial Rock Garden, 47 
Lydia Booth's Seminary, 33 

M 

Mabbettsville, 98 

MacCracken, Dr. Henry Noble, 54 

Mack, John E., 145 

Mackin, James, 76 

Magnolia Farms, 128 

Main Street Landing, Poughkeepsie, 43 

Mechanic, 100 

Manumit School, 19, 118 

Margaret Lewis Norrie State Park, 91 

Marks Memorial Camp of the Tribune 
Fresh Air Fund, 95 

Marshall House, Israel, 153 

Martin Homestead. 109 

Matteawan, 63; Company, 65; State Hos 
pital, 76, 129 

Mechanic, 106 

Melzingah Ravine, 138 

Mesier, Matthew (Homestead), 127 

Mid-Hudson Bridge, 43 

Middle Church, 132 

Millbrook, 99; School, 19, 98; Theatre, 98 

Millerton, 96 

Mills, Ogden Livingston ((Estate of), 104 

Mi'tchell, Maria, 58 

Mizzentop Mountain, 123 

Modjeski, Ralph, 44 

Moline Plow Company, 45 

Monell, Judge John, 76 

Monitor, The, 41, 118 

Montgomery, estate, 106; Gen. Richard, 
91, 106; ,Mrs. Richard Montgomery 
(Janet Livingston), 150 

Moores Mills, 144 

Moran, Daniel E., 44 

Moravians, 8, 110, 111 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (Estate of), 144 

Morse, Samuel F. B., 124 

Morton, Helen, 91; Levi P., 91, 94; Mary, 
92; Mount Beacon, 73, 78, 128; Inclined 
Railway, 72 

Mount Gulian, 129 

Mountain Chapel, 73 

164 



N 

Nazarene, Camp Meeting Association, 

Church, Society, 74 
Negroes, 75, 128 
Nelson House, 37 
Netherwood Baptist Church, 153 
New Hackensack, 114; Airport 113 
New Hamburg, 136; 
New York-Connecticut Boundary Dispute, 

98 

New York Provincial Convention, 80 
Newcomb, John (House of), 101; Zacheus 

(House of), 101 
Nine Partners School, 100 
Nine Partners Meeting House, 123 
Ninham, Daniel and David, 140 
Nitgedaiget, Camp, 138 
Nitschman, Bishop David, 110 
Northern Dutchess Health Center, 94 
Norway Ski Jump, 131 



Oakley, George P., 42, Mill, 42, House 43 

Oakwood School, 19, 126 

Oblong, the, 9 

Oblong Meeting, 122 

Oblong Meeting House, 123 

Observatory, Vassar, 58 

Old Beekman Road, 115 

Old Drovers Inn, 119 

Old Hopewell, 115 

Old Hundred, 114 

Old Ladies' Home, 50 

Old Men's Home, 37 

Old Star Mill, 132 

Old Stone Church, 94 

Old S'tone House, 103 

Orthodox (See Quakers) 

Oswego, 144 

Oswego Meeting House, 144 



Palatines, 92 

Parthenon, 91 

Patents, 6 

Paulding, James Kirke, 90, 91 

Pawling, 117; Mountain, 117; Patent, 9; 
School for Boys, 19, 118 

Pecksville, 116 

Pheasant Breeders and Hunting Associa 
tion, 100 

Pine Plains. 96 

Placentia, 91 

Piatt, John I., 41; Zephaniah, 15; Zeph- 
aniah (House of), 102. 

Pleasant Plains, 149; Westminster Pres 
byterian Church, 149 

Pleasant Valley, 101 

Political Organizations, 18 

Polopels Island, 138, 

Pooghkeepsingh, 30 

Population, 18 

Post Road, Old, (See Albany Post Road) 

Poughkeepsie, 24 

Poughquag, 117, 

Prendergast, William, 117 

Presbyterian Church, at Freedom Plains, 
135 

Preston, John, 119 

Presqu'Ile, 77 

Fringle Memorial Home, 51 

Provincial Convention, 12, 80 

Pulaski, Count, 131 

Pultz Tavern, 93 

Purgatory Hill. 118, 122 

Putnam, General Israel, 110 

Pynes, The, 109 

Q 

Quaker Hill, 122; Road, 118 
Quaker Meeting House in Poughkeepsie. 
51 



Quaker Meeting House, 151 
Quakers, 20; 126 
Queen Anne, 71 
Quinn House, 105 



Railroad Bridge, Poughkeepsie, 41 

Railroads, 16, 81, 115, 134 

Ratification of Federal Constitution, 14 

Rauch, Henry 110 

Raymond, John H., 54 

Reade, John, 109 

Red Hook, 95; Cold Storage Company, 95; 
Country Club, 95 

Red Oak Mills, 113 

Redder Homestead, 110 

Redoubts, the, 141 

Reese, W. W. (House of), 127 

Reformed Churches, Beacon 20, 68,; Fish- 
kill, 82; Hyde Park, 90; New Hacken- 
sack, 113; Old Hopewell, 115; Pough 
keepsie, 51; Rhinebeck, 92 

Regatta, Intercollegiate, 28 

Reginald Goode Theatre, 151 

Religion, 20 

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson, 30 

Revolution, 31, 93 

Rhinebeck, 92; Cemetery, 92; Patent, 9 

Rochdale, 102 

Rock City, 94, 95 

Rogers, Col.' Archibald, 89; Herman, 89 

Rokeby, 105 

Rombout, Catharyna, (See Madam Brett); 
Patent, 6, 112 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 68; (See Crum 
Elbow); Mrs. Franklin Delano, 147; 
Mrs. James R. (Estate of), 88; Mrs. 
Sara Delano, 90; Theodore, 89, 93, 144, 
145 

Rothery, John, 66 

Rudd Pond, 97 

Rust Plaets, 30 

Rysdyck, Rev. Isaac, 83, 113, 132 



St. James' Church, 90, 94, 107 

St. Joseph's Novitiate, 91, 105 

St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Beacon, 72 

St. Margaret's Church, Staatsburg, 104 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church and Church 
yard, Tivoli, 108 

St. Peter's Church, Poughkeepsie, 40; 
School, 40 

Salmagundi Papers, 91. 

Salt Point, 151; Turnpike, 151 

Sandanona, 100 

Schenck, Major Henry, 75; Peter A., 65; 
Peter H., 131 

Schultzville, 150 

Schuyler, Patent, 106, 109 

Seabury, Justice Samuel, 84 

Seabury, Rev. Samuel, 83 

Sekuna Hills, 144, 

Sharparoon Pond, 120 

Shaw, Henry Wheller, 33 

Sheffield Pawling Farms, 118 

Shekomeko, 8, 110 

"Shillelagh", 82 

Shipyards, site, 127 

Silver Swan Inn, 125 

Slate, 150 

Sleight, Jacobus (House of), 103 

Smith, Andrew, 50; Melancthon, 14; Wil 
liam W., 50 

Smith Brothers, Inc., 50; Restaurant, 37. 

Smithfield, Presbyterian Church 111; Bury 
ing Ground 111 

Social Life, 21 

Society of Friends (See Quakers) 

Solarium, Guilford Dudley Memorial, 47 

Soldiers' Burial Ground near Fishkill, 140 



Soldiers' Monument, Poughkeepsie, 38 

South Beacon Peak, 78 

South Dover, 119 

South Millbrook, 100 

Southard, Zebulon, (House of), 131 

Southern Dutchess Country Club, 76 

Southwick House, 45 

"Speck", 125 

Spook Field, 130 

Spottiswood, Countess Sally Britton, 76 

Spy, The, 140 

Spy Hill, Beacon, 68 

Staats, Dr. Samuel, 103 

Staatsburg, 103; Ice Tool Works, 103 

Stanfordville, 111 

Sterling Mines, 146 

Stevens, John Cox, 106 

Stewart, A. T., 66, 131 

StLssing Lake, 96 

Stockholm Aaron, 133 

"Stone Church, The", 121 

Stoneco, 135 

Stonehouse, 117, 138 

Stony Kill, 117, 138, 128, 129; Dairy Farm 
house 128 

Storm-Adriance-Brinckerhoff House, 115 

Storm King, 68, 139 

Stormville, 116; Speedway, 116 

Stoutenburgh, Judge Jacobus, 89, 148; 
William, (House of), 89, 148 

Stover Camp, (See University Settlement) 

Suckley Chapel, site of, 105 

Surveyor's Office, Beacon, 78 

Swartwout, Jacobus, 133 

Swartwoutville, 134 

Swartwout, Capt. Abraham, 34; Johannes, 
34 

Sweet-Orr Company, 127 

Sylvan Lake, 134 

T. 

Taconic State Park, 97 

Taylor, James M., 54 

Telephone Building, Staatsburg, 104 

Teller, Homestead, 74; Jacob, 114; John. 
(House of), 150 

Ter Boss, Johannes, 72 

Thomas House, the 110 

Thomas, Lowell, 122 

Thompson, Geraldine Morgan, 103; Me 
morial Library, 56; Thomas, 94 

Thorn, Stephen, (House of), 113 

Thorndale, 100 

Thome, Edwin and Samuel, 100; Oak- 
leigh, 100-111 

Tidd, Polly, 116 

Timby, Theodore R., 120 

Tivoli-Madalin, 108 

Tories, 80 

Traphagen, William, 92, 93 

Treasure Chest Tavern, 126 

Trinity Church, Fishkill, 83 

Troutbeck, 98 

U 

Union Bridge Company, 42; Hotel, Fish- 
kill, 82 

University Settlement Summer Camp, 72 

Upper Landing, Beacon, 67; Poughkeepsie, 
42, 44 

Upton Lake, 111 

Ursuline Novitiate, 74 



Val Kil (See Fallkill) 

Val Kil Furniture and Craft Center, and 

Handicraft Center, 147 
Van Benthuysen, Barent, 106 
Van Buren, Martin, 82 
Van Courtland, Stephen, 113; xviii-3 
Van Der Burgh, Dirck, 103 



165 



Van Kleeck, Hugh, 48 

Van Vliet, Van Wormer, House of, 138 

Van Wyck, Cornelius; Cornelius C., (House 

of), 140; Cornelius B., (House of), 134; 

Hall, Fishkill; Col. Richard, 114; Theo- 

dorus, 102, 142 
Vas, Rev. Petrus, 82 
Vassar, College, 33; John Guy, 52; Matthew, 

54; Matthew, Jr., 52 
Vassar Brothers, Home for Aged Men, 37; 

Hospital, 52; Institute, 36; Laboratory, 

60 

Vassar College, 33, 54, 62, 112 
Vassar College Buildings, See Tour of 

Campus, 56-62 

Vaughn, General (Sir John), 89 
Verbank, 144 
Verplanck, Gulian <the patentee), 6, 75, 

128, 129; Gulian (the younger), 84; 

William E., 137; Philipp, Jr., 114 
Veterans' Hospital, 128 
Vis Kil (See Kishkill) 
Von Steuben, Baron, 131, 140 

W 

Wappinger, Creek, 2; Indians, 6 
Wappingers Falls, Landing, 126; Tea Party, 

Ward Joshua; Manor, 107; Robert Boyd, 107 

Warfield, Mrs. Wallis, 89 

Warren, Gen. Joseph, 150; Lodge, 150 

Warner Jonathan A., 50 

Washington George, 122, 131, 133, 140, 93; 

Hollow, 101, 113 
Wassaic 121; .State School, 121 



Watchhorn, Robert (Homestead), 144 

Webster, Jean, 146 

Whaley Lake, 117 

Wharton House, 140 

White, Dr. Bartow (House of) 81, 131; 

Stanford, 94 

White House Sanatorium, 69 
White Plains, battle of, 13 
Whitaberger Land, 149 
Whitefield, George, 111 
Wiccopee, 142; Pass, 80, 141 
Wildercliff, 92 

Willetts. Deborah and Jacob, 100 
Willowlake, 141 
Wilson, Benjamin Lee, 69 
Wind Gate, 139 
Winetka, Camp, 152 
Wing, Alfred (Homestead), 119; Jackson 

(Inn), 119; John D. (Estate of), 100 
Winslow, John Flack, 41, 120 
Wodenethe, 70 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 

Poughkeepsie, 39 
Woodcliff Recreation Park, 87 
Worden, Admiral John Lorimer, 118 
Woronock Inn, 114 
Wurtemburg Lutheran Church, 149 



Yates, Robert, 14 

Ye Olde Fishkill Inne, 82 



Zinzendorff, Count, 110 




Doorway of the Brett-Teller House, Beacon 



166 



I? I POUGHKEEPSIE