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In and Around Towns 



Donaldson Medallist y etc., Holder of the Godwin Bursary and Medal^ 1892 ; 
. Member of " The Mansion House Council on the Dwellings of the Poor; " 
Author of "Remnants of Old English A rchitecture^' etc. 


" Wherever masses of human beings congregate, whether in towns or 
villages, or in armies in the field, camp or barrack, an artificial ex- 
istence, to a certain extent, springs up. Each individual is no longer 
dependent upon himself ; the habits of those around him influence his 
own position. The preservation op the health of every class 
IN a community is equally important to the rich and to the 
POOR. It is important to the wealthy that the poor should be kept in 
health, for the influence of infection, once introduced into the dwell- 
ings of the poor, often spreads far and >^ide, and is no respecter of 
persons. It is important to the poor man, as his health is his wealth.'* 

— Baldwin Latham. 




BuTLKR & Tanner, 

Thb Sblwood Printing Works, 

Fromb, and London. 



. or 



Believing that the most important duty of 
sanitary authorities is the control of building 
operations, and that it is better to prevent the 
erection of insanitary dwellings than to attempt 
the correction of their defects when built, I 
have no hesitation in writing a few words of 
introduction to Mr. Worthington's truly admir- 
able and most comprehensive treatise. 

A treatise by an architect, whose published 
work has already shown a keen appreciation of 
the artistic side of his profession, but who, 
nevertheless, is impressed with the fact that a 
house has not merely to be looked at, but also 
to be lived in, must be hailed with satisfaction. 
This work, by an author who shows that he is 
fully alive to the difference between the best 


attainable and the best conceivabky and that 
while accepting what for the present is inevi- 
table, is nevertheless conscious that something 
much better may be arrived at in the near 
future, must command the respect of all 

There is probably no more important ques- 
tion than that of providing dwellings for the 
working classes. The right solution of this 
question must have immense influence on the 
moral welfare of the people ; and its bearing 
upon many of the so-called ** labour questions," 
is, I believe, far greater than is generally sup- 

Much has been done in this direction during 
the past half-century ; and very much of what 
has been done, in spite of the best possible in- 
tentions, has not been entirely satisfactory, but 
has encouraged an increasing rather than a de- 
creasing concentration of population. 

Mr. Worthington has studied the question 
practically, not only at home, but on the Conti- 
nent ; and his instructive book, which is 
crammed with practical details, shows ; that he 
is not inclined to be the slavish follower of 


custom ; that he is fully conscious that some of 
our most treasured sanitary measures are not 
free from defects ; that he appreciates the differ- 
ence between a barrack and a '* home " ; and 
that he is impressed with the necessity of allot- 
ting an ample area of ground to every house, 
as being probably the most important sani- 
tary question in connection therewith. 

Agreeing as I do with very much that is 
written in the ensuing chapters, I can only 
express the hope that the work may have many 

G. V. Poo RE. 


In preparing this little book, I have found it 
difficult to decide what matter to include and 
what to omit, but have endeavoured to indicate 
the more important bearings of the subject, 
and make some practical suggestions towards 
meeting the needs of the time. The present 
condition of the dwellings of the poor in our 
large towns, and the best means of improving 
them, are matters that cannot fail to interest all 
thoughtful persons. A portion of the following 
text is an amplification of my paper rea^i before 
the Incorporated Society of Medical Officers of 
Health, and published in the May (1893) issue 
of Public Healthy the journal of that Society. 
A digest of my report to the Council of the 



Royal Institute of British Architects on the 
technique of the dwellings of small-weekly- 
wage-earners in France, and an article in the 
August (1893) issue of the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society Review, in which I endeavoured to 
shortly describe the social and financial aspects 
of French dwellings of this class, form the 
subject-matter of two chapters. 

In discussing the facilities offered by existing 
legislation for the improvement of the present 
state of things, and the further steps which 
should be taken to provide good and suitable 
dwellings, I have found it impossible to conceal 
my strong feeling in favour of a more even dis- 
tribution of population, and of the advantages of 
isolated self-contained homes, whilst realizing 
the practical necessity in some situations of 
well -constructed block-dwellings. Dr. Poore 
(Honorary Secretary General to the Seventh 
International Congress of Hygiene and Demo- 
graphy) has powerfully argued in favour of 
decentralisation in his interesting and lucid 
work on ** Rural Hygiene." I have already 
given expression to such views on this subject, 
in a lecture given at Essex Hall in 1889, and in 


a paper read before the Seventh International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography, 
August, 1891 (published in the Transactions, 
Section VI., pp. 114, 115, 116), in which I ad- 
vocated the desirability of meeting the pressing 
demand in this direction, by the repair and 
alteration of old cottage properties and the 
erection of cottages and cottage- flats. 

Having been for several years closely asso- 
ciated with the problem of small town dwell- 
ings, and having had some personal experiences 
of the needs and requirements of the case, I 
write from conviction, based upon acquaintance 
with facts. I wish, however, to express my 
gratitude for the information laid before the 
public in the writings of Monsieur Georges 
Picot, Mr. Charles Booth, Miss Octavia Hill, 
Mr. John Hamer, Monsieur Emile Cacheux, 
Dr. Shirley, F. Murphy, Mr. James Hole, Dr. 
G. V. Poore, Dr. John Tatham, Dr. Louis C. 
Parkes, Dr. Arthur Newsholme, Dr. John F. J. 
Sykes, and others. 

The illustrations are especially prepared for 
this publication, but must be considered merely 
as being sketches supplementary to the text. 


and the reader will, I trust, realize the impos- 
sibility of reproducing on so small a scale de- 
tailed designs and plans. 

T. Locke Worthington. 
23, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 




Past and Present i 

Decentralisation and Diffusion. . . .12 

Open Spaces 22 

Space adjoining Dwellings 31 

Old Cottage Property 42 

Cottages and Cottage-Flats . . . -51 

British Freehold Homes 60 

• •• 





French Cottages and Freehold Homes . . 67 

Block Dwellings 76 

French Block Dwellings 85 

The Hotels of the Poor 94 

Light, Ventilation, and Damp Prevention. . loi 

Drainage 107 

House Refuse 114 

Legislation — Old Dwellings . . . .120 




Legislation — New Dwellings . . . .133 

Companies and Agencies 145 

Conclusions 158 


Primitive Dwellings 
Space Adjoining Dwellings 
Back-toBack Cottages . 
Suburban Homes . 
Cottage Flats 
Workmen's Freehold Homes 

Dwellings for the Poor in Town 

Metropolitan Dwellings in Farringdon Road 





„ South Lambeth 
„ Chelsea . 

Tenements in a Lancashire Cotton Mill 
Block Dwellings in Paris . 




Rouen . 

An Hotel for the Poor 














" Domestic Life creates a People." — Cardinal Manning 

One of the essential needs of man has in all 
ages been a protection from the climate and 
weather. He needs shelter from heat or cold, 
from dryness or moisture. The dwellings of 
peoples are dependent in their features upon 
the habits and civilization of the human beings 
who live in them. We have abundant evi- 
dence that pre-historic man took very little 
trouble to provide anything but the most pri- 
mitive abode, and the circumstances enabled 
him to supply his requirements in the natural 

D.P. B 


protection of crevice, hollow, grotto, cavern 
and forest. The distinction of classes, except 
in physical strength, did not then exist — all 
were poor ; or shall it be said all were rich ? 
As communities developed themselves and mi- 
grated, the tent of skins and hut of wood came 
into existence ; whilst the dwellings of the latter 
part of the pre-historic age bring us to crude 
constructions of stone, combined with other 
more perishable materials, in which there is 
evidence of a certain amount of consideration 
in the plan. Primitive dwellings akin to these 
bygone works of our wild forefathers are now 
to be found amongst the Esquimaux,^ the 
American Indians,^ and the races of Equatorial 

What a strange contrast is to be found be- 
tween these primitive homes and some of the 
nineteenth-century ** rabbit-warrens '* of Glas- 
gow, Manchester, Birmingham and London ! 
In the first place, these early single- room 

^ Descriptions of these dwellings may be found in M. 
Charles Garnier's recently published work, L^Habitation 


tenements were stationed on advantageous 
sites. This cannot always be said of our 
present dwellings for the working classes, 
which are built where commerce demands 
them, often regardless of the fitness of the 
site. In the second place, these early shelters 
had plenty of air space surrounding them, 
and were almost invariably detached ; indeed, 
many of the huts were perched on posts 
and had free air space below. Thirdly, the 
absence of any covered up sewage ramifica- 
tions may suggest the possibility that many 
of our modern methods may be wrong in 
principle, and that science, aided by ingenuity, 
should give its utmost powers so as suitably 
to expose to the purifying effects of the atmo- 
sphere, and as directly as may be possible, all 
sewage, which, under due treatment, should be 
utilized to manure the oft-starved farms of 
England, and not sent out to waste in the 

Passing to historic times, more certain data 
are to be found in the dwellings of ancient 
Egypt. The homes of the poor appear to have 
been small and primitive. The houses of the 


upper classes had generally a delightful bel- 
vedere and open terrace on the top, which couH 
be imitated in modern block buildings by cover- 
ing the barren flat with a winter garden, which 
might thrive well even in the centres of towns 
with direct sunlight and air on all sides. 

The contrast of construction in the movable 
tent of the Arab and the solid-terraced house 
of the Hebrew might also furnish suggestions 
for the housing of the masses in the twentieth 
century. Movable camps under strict govern- 
ment control, with administrative, organizing 
and educating agencies, might be the means of 
usefully transferring a portion of the submerged 
population of our large towns into the depopu- 
lating counties of England, Wales, ScotlaTid 
and Ireland. Such communities might be 
trained to assist the farmers at moderate wages, 
or themselves produce valuable results from the 
land. Nomadic at first, they might give rise 
to a successful series of permanent and pros- 
perous rural settlements. 

The homes of the upper and middle class 
Greek and Roman citizens were generally 
spacious and well built, but the houses of the 


people were of very primitive construction. 
Indeed, in the larger Roman cities, the crowding 
together of the small tenement dwellings in the 
narrow back streets must have been unhealthy 
in the extreme. It might almost be said that 
in proportion as the nations of the past were 
powerful the homes of the poor have been 
unsatisfactory. The same may be said of the 
small town dwellings in Western Europe dur- 
ing the Middle Ages ; though, probably owing 
to the customs of serfdom, which had its good 
as well as bad points, the proportionate number 
of unhappy poor was then less than at the pre- 
sent time. 

The great Renaissance movement of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries has left us 
ample evidence of the vast improvement in 
the homes of the well-to-do classes, but the 
dwellings of the people still remained small, 
still comparatively primitive, and as wealth 
increased and population became centralised 
some of the dwellings became more wretched 
than the huts of the primitive uncivilized tribes. 

Matters remained in this condition till in 
modern times the increase and concentration of 


population brought about crying evils, which 
the Government and local authorities have 
been compelled to recognise and provide 
against. Thus towards the middle of this cen- 
tury some efforts were made to consider the best 
means of housing the masses in and around 
towns. In 1842 a ** Report on the Sanitary 
Condition of the Labouring Population of Great 
Britain " was presented to Parliament, and in 
1843 ^ Royal Commission was appointed to 
inquire into ** the present condition of the large 
towns and populous districts of England and 
Wales.*' In 1848 a General Board of Health 
and Local Board of Health were founded by a 
Public Health Act, the powers of the General 
Board falling to the Local Government Board 
in 1871. In 1851 the Earl of Shaftesbury 
succeeded in passing the Common Lodging- 
Houses Act, which provided for the well- order- 
ing and registration of common lodging-houses ; 
also the Labouring Classes Lodging- Houses 
Act, which enabled parishes with a population 
of not less than 10,000 to raise money, by mort- 
gage of the rates, for the purpose of providing 
lodging-houses for the working classes. The 


Nuisances Removal Act, 1855, provided for the 
abatement of nuisances in privies, ashpits etc, ; 
and in the same year the Metropolis Local 
Management Act was passed. In an Act of i860 
sanitary powers were given to any inhabitant 
and to the police to take proceedings in case the 
local authority neglected their duties. The 
Sanitary Act, 1 866, made provision in respect of 
overcrowding, inspection by local authorities, 
registration, etc. 

The Torrens's Acts,^ known as the Artizans* 
Dwellings Acts, 1868 to 1882, provided for the 
gradual demolition and improvement of insani- 
tary dwellings of the working classes, and for 
the building and maintenance of the improved 
dwellings. Lord Cross's Acts,' known as the 
Artizans and Labourers Dwellings Improve- 

1 Comprising three acts: the Artizans' and labourers' 
DwelHngs Act, 1868, the Artizans' and Labourers' Dwell- 
ings Act (1868) Amendment Act, 1879, ^^^ P^'^ I^- o^ the 
Artizans' Dwellings Act, 1882. 

* Comprising three acts : the Artizans' and Labourers' 
DwelHngs Improvement Act, 1875, the Artizans' and 
labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act, 1879, ^^^ ^^^ ^' 
of the Artizan's Dwellings Act, 1882. 


ment Acts, 1875 to 1882, were mainly in- 
strumental in doing on a large scale what the 
Torrens Acts did for smaller areas. 

The evidence given before the Royal Com- 
mission of 1884 showed, however, that there 
had been very little progress made in reducing 
overcrowding in our towns. This evidence dis- 
closes cases of overcrowding almost beyond 
belief. For instance, in Clerkenwell a house 
was described containing six rooms, which were 
occupied by six families, and as many as eight 
persons inhabited one room. After the Royal 
Commission of 1884 the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1885, was passed. Then 
came. the important Housing of the Working 
Classes Act, 1890, which consolidates and 
amends the Acts relating to Artizans' and 
Labourers' dwellings and the Housing of the 
working classes. The Public Health (London) 
Act, 1 89 1, which came into force January ist, 
1892, is an extension of the Provincial Sanitary 
Code of 1875, and practically repeals about 35 
Acts. If these two latter Acts and other 
sanitary laws were enforced ** to the letter," there 
need be no slum property in the whole of 




London, or, indeed, in any town in Great 

Recent disclosures in 1893 fully bear out 
the statement that at the present time in many 
parts of London, Manchester, Liverpool, and 
other large provincial towns, there are scan- 
dalous examples of overcrowded and insanitary 
homes. For instance, in one of the metro- 
politan evening papers of June 26th, 1893, there 
appeared a specific account of a basement 
dwelling in Lexington Street, near Regent's 
Street, in the West End. A wom^n and five 
children were living in a room 15 feet x 13^ 
feet, and 7^ feet high, the ceiling being, con- 
trary to regulations, on a level with the street. 
The room was insufficiently lighted from a nar- 
row area, contrary to all legal requirements. The 
walls were damp and filthy through want of a 
little attention from the landlord. At the back 
of the room an unused cellar contained rubbish 
heaped up. It is useless to give any further 
particulars. Suffice it to say that both woman 
and children had good characters, and were par- 
ticularly clean, both in habits and appearance. 
The public should bear in mind how much re- 



sponsibility rests in their hands as to the proper 
housing of their fellow citizens. All similar 
cases should be made known to the local 
authorities, whose duty it is to attend to them, 
and to require the landlord to apply suitable 

Then again, not long ago a very bad instance 
of overcrowding was exposed by ** The Mansion 
House Council on the Dwellings of the Poor," 
in Gilbert Street, Clare Market, where in the 
third-floor front room an old man, three grown- 
up daughters, two children and a baby all dwelt : 
four adults and three children living and sleep- 
ing in one room 14 feet x 12 feet x 8 feet 
(1,344 cubic feet). 

In July, 1893, a large block of ill-constructed 
buildings for twenty-four families in Shoreditch 
was exposed by the parish authorities. The 
circumstances in which this hive of human 
beings had been living from 1891 to 1893 
would surprise those who consider that at 
the present time there are no very bad cases of 
insanitary dwellings in London. In this case 
the buildings were not old, but the construc- 
tion was execrable and the drainage neglected. 


Then, again, exposures this year in Stratford 
and other outlying districts of the metropolis 
should convince active and intelligent citizens 
that there are innumerable insanitary dwellings 
outside the fashionable fields of philanthropic 
labour, many of them situated east of the 
People s Palace. 

The words '' Whitechapel " and '' East End " 
do not locate the worst areas of the slums of 
this great capital. The filthiest and most 
insanitary dwellings are often to be found in the 
"West End" and in the outlying districts of 
the metropolis, snugly tucked away from the 
haunts of the reformer or the inquiring news- 
paper correspondent. 

If there are any people who think that such 
instances are rare and are put forward as show- 
cases, let them visit some of the houses in the 
parish of St. George the Martyr or the district 
of Rotherhithe, and their views will change. 
It is useless to legislate if legislation is not 
acted upon. 



" ... It is wonderful how soon the immense 
impurity, which daily passes into the air, is removed, 
except when the perverse ingenuity of man opposes some 
obstacle, or makes too great a demand even upon the 
purifying powers of nature." — Dr, Edmund A. Parkes, 

It is desirable and possible that all human 
beings should have ample air and space sur- 
rounding the places in which they work, play, 
and sleep. Yet what is the tendency and 
fashion of modern times? It is to crowd to- 
gether on limited space in masses of superim- 
posed dwellings. Concentration of population 
in the towns and depopulation of the rural 
districts are well-known deplorable character- 
istics of modern times. Decentralisation, 



accompanied by extended powers in local 
government, is one of the great requirements 
of the day, and should be the movement of the 
future if the welfare and physique of the com- 
munity are to improve. The workman who 
joins the crowd in town often does not realize 
that his higher wages are swallowed up by the 
extra cost of living, in addition to which he 
loses his detached house and allotment. 

The population ^ of England and Wales on 
the 5th of April, 1891, was 29,001,018 (as issued 
30th June, 1 891), of whom 20,802,770 persons 
were urban, and 8,198,248 persons were rural. 
This showed an increase since 1881 in the urban 
districts of 15*3 per cent, whilst in the rest of 
the country the increase was only 3*4 per cent. 
These figures alone clearly indicate the tendency 
of the times towards the massing of population. 

Innumerable statistics might be quoted to 
prove that the life of a large town is detri- 
mental to individuals as compared with rural 
life, both as regards disease-rate and death- 

1 For further statistics see the census of England and 
Wales 1891 (53 & 54, c. 61) and the 54th Annual 
Report of the Registrar-General. 


rate. The Registrar-Generars report shows 
that in three selected towns the aggregate 
infantile mortality is more than twice as high 
as it is in three rural counties, the exact figures 
being 21,803 deaths in the former, to 9,717 in 
the latter, in each case out of 100,000 births. 
An analysis of the tables for the first year of 
life shows that in the first week the town rate 
exceeds the rural rate by 23 per cent, and in 
the third week by 83 per cent., w^hilst at (Rx 
months of age the deaths in the towns 
are 273 per cent, in excess of the rural rate. 
These figures clearly show a progressive in- 
crease in the hurtful effect upon child life of 
town conditions as compared with country 
life. Dr. G. V. Poore ^ has pointed out that 
crowded Lancashire and London show a death- 
rate of children under five years of age of 66*5, 
and 65*2 per 1,000, as against 30*3 in Dorset- 
shire and 3 1 'I in Wiltshire (the average death- 
rate throughout the country to 1,000 persons 
living being 20*2). 

^ Lecture delivered at University College, London, 
February 24, 1892, by Dr. G. V. Poore, M.D., F.R.C.P. 
See " Rural Hygiene " by same author. 


According to the latest census, London was 
found to contain 4,211,056 persons, or about 
one-seventh of the entire population of Eng- 
land and Wales. The death-rate in the central 
districts of the metropolis varies from 25*6 to 
32*0 per 1,000, and in the outlying suburbs 
from 18-4 to 257 per 1,000. Dr. Tatham's 
** Manchester Life Tables " ^ give a most in- 
teresting and exhaustive analysis of the 
population of that large city and the surround- 
ing townships, and certainly assist in showing 
that the poor and working class population ought 
to be discouraged in so far as possible from 
living in the central quarters of the metropolis 
and large provincial towns, and that attractive 
and well-constructed dwellings should be built 
for them in the outlying districts. 

Artificial precautions have been necessarily 
provided to protect the town populations from 
a multitude of evils, and the regulations are 
ever increasing in complexity. Although 
this heavy and involved machinery will re- 

1 " Manchester Life Tables, " by John Tatham, M. A., 
M.D., the Medical Officer of Health for Manchester. Man- 
chester : H. Blacklock & Co. 


quire constant improvement, It requires, above 
all things, in London more simplicity. Any 
person who has studied the question at all 
must know how difficult it is now to pro- 
perly enforce the various Acts and bye-laws. 
If the poorer population in the central circles of 
London and our large provincial towns increases, 
the friction and difficulty will also increase. 

The practice of transferring workshops and 
workpeople into the rural districts should be 
encouraged. It may be advantageous often to 
all parties concerned that many kinds of manu- 
facture should be distributed throughout the 
country, and each small community of workers 
well housed, with plenty of allotment and space 
to their homes close to the source of their 
livelihood. Our country is everywhere inter- 
sected by railways inviting such a develop- 
ment, though the capitalist's arguments for 
concentration near the old centres are in some 
respects hard to meet. 

It is perhaps almost ridiculous to talk of 
changing the sites of Glasgow, Manchester, 
and London, but might it not be done to a 
certain extent, and ground which once was 


occupied by crowds of dwellings be converted 
into well laid-out, cultivated areas. The Indian 
city of Jeypore is only about 170 years old, 
and is situated about five miles from the 
ancient city, which was removed in accordance 
with a wholesome custom of the maharajahs to 
change the site of their capital city every 500 

To enable small weekly wage-earners, who 
depend for their livelihood on work in large 
towns, to live in well-constructed suburban 
cottage-homes, with the invaluable allotment, 
cheap services of trains, tramcars, and omni- 
buses, etc., are essential. The year 1893 
should be memorable for agitation concerning 
an improved service of workmen's trains from 
the town to the suburbs, though the legislative 
results have been so far meagre. Both the Re- 
port of the London County Council on Work- 
men's Trains, which was the result of two years' 
work and investigation, and Sir Blundell 
Maple s Bill read a first time in the House of 
Commons in January, are efforts to assist in 
supplying the demand. Before the Cheap 
Trains Act, 1883, the amendment of which is 

D.P. c 


proposed by the London County Council, no 
provision was made by any Public General Act 
to compel railway companies to run workmen^s 
trains. Provisions for such trains were first 
made in the North London (City Branch) Act, 
and the Metropolitan Act, i86i,^ afterwards in 
the Acts of the London, Chatham, and Dover, 
and the Great Eastern Railway Companies 
with regard to their respective metropolitan 
extensions, and in the Acts of the Metropolitan 
District and Great Eastern Railways in 1864, 
and in some other subsequent Acts. 

There is great difficulty in solving this ques- 
tion of cheap trains with justice to all parties 
and without disturbing the general railway 
traffic. There are nearly a million and a half 
of the metropolitan working classes who could 
live in the suburbs if the facilities and accom- 
modation were improved, whereas now only 
a little over half a million avail themselves of 
the railway service. The Bill of January, 1893, 
proposed that the maximum daily return fare 
in workmen's trains to and from the terminal 

^ Report of the Royal Commission, 1884. 


Stations should be — twopence, not exceeding five 
miles ; fourpence, exceeding five miles and not 
exceeding ten; sixpence, exceeding ten miles and 
not exceeding fifteen ; eightpence, exceeding 
fifteen miles and not exceeding twenty. The 
arrival trains would be before 8.0 a.m., and the 
departure trains after 5 p.m., except Saturday, 
when it may be after 12 noon. The two- 
penny and fourpenny fares are within the 
means of a considerable portion of the work- 
ing classes. However, the ten-mile limit could 
not be exceeded by many men working in town, 
and the very poor could not avail themselves 
of the trains at all. So that all the needs of 
the case would not by any means be thus solved. 
The Public Health and Housing Committee 
of the London County Council recommended, 
April, 1893 — 1st, that workmen^s tickets be 
available for return by any train carrying third- 
class passengers ; 2nd, that the issue of 
quarterly or monthly third-class tickets be ex- 
tended to all stations within the limit of the 
cheap train service ; 3rd, that the conditions as 
to the issue of workmen's tickets be conspicu- 
ously advertised ; 4th, that, except in the case 


of quarterly or monthly third-class tickets, all 
workmen's tickets be daily ones ; 5th, that all 
third-class trains arriving at the London 
termini up to 8 a.m. be workmen's trains 
throughout the area of the cheap train service ; 
6th, that all third-class trains from London 
termini up to 7.30 p.m. be also workmen's 
trains ; 7th, that when insufficient third-class 
accommodation is provided in a workmen's 
train, the holder of a workman's ticket be 
allowed to travel by a superior class without 
extra charge ; 8th, that the zone system of 
tariffs be adopted. The committee considered 
that a three zone system would be better than 
a four or a five zone system. The first zone they 
suggested should be five miles, and the charge 
\\d, ; the second zone twelve miles, and the 
charge 3^^. ; and the third zone twenty miles, 
and the charge d^\d. Alderman Beachcroft, in 
introducing the report, pointed out that " among 
the thirteen companies the minimum rate per 
mile was from one-tenth to one-quarter of a 
penny, and the maximum charges varied from 
one-third of a penny to three farthings." 

Every shareholder of every railway company 


has a personal responsibility in this matter, and 
it is for them to decide whether or no their re- 
presentative directors shall give greater facilities 
for carrying small weekly wage- earners to and 
from their work. Are the majority of the 
masses to be ** stodged " in the central zones 
of towns, or are they to live in healthy homes 
in the outer zones, wnth garden allotments ? 
The matter at present, to a limited extent, 
rests with the Board of Trade under the Cheap 
Trains Act of 1883, which in the opinion of 
many persons requires amending. The State ^ 
purchase of railways, as suggested by Mr. James 
Hole, should facilitate the dealing with this 
question. If, in fairness to all classes and par- 
ties, the difficulties to be overcome should be 
found to be insuperable, one more argument 
in favour of the more even distribution of 
population will be furnished. 

1 « 

National Railways." By James Hole. Cassell & Co. 



'" There are two great wants in the life of the poor of our 
large towns, which ought to be realized more than they are 
— the want of space, and the want of beauty." — Octavia 

" Wide streets and numerous open spaces are required, 
where vegetation might grow to gladden the eyes of the 
inhabitants. Crime cannot harbour in wide, open streets 
so readily as in courts and alleys. It withers in the light 
of day ; it dies when exposed to the public gdize*^— James 

A REFORM of equal importance with decentral- 
isation and closely allied to it is that of the 
provision of suitable open spaces amidst dwell- 
ings in towns. The public and responsible 
authorities seem, during the last few years, to 
have realized the pressing need of breathing 
spaces and green spots where the town dweller 
may find immediate relaxation and relief from 



the monotony and roar of the streets. Mr. 
John Hutton, Chairman of the London County 
Council, in his annual address in 1893, pointed 
out that no less than 1,000 acres had been 
added to the parks and spaces during the last 
four years, and that the Council possessed 14 
parks, 30 open spaces, and 22 gardens. How- 
ever, those who visit the well laid-out quarters 
of London do not realize the great deficiency 
of space in some less fortunate districts. At 
the time of writing, one London parish — viz., 
that of St. George the Martyr — does not con- 
tain a single satisfactory open space. It appears 
that the parish of St. Saviour's, to the north, 
has only one public ground, about thirty yards 

Not a few, but the whole of the disused 
burial grounds in the city, amounting to up- 
wards of 1 50, should be turned into open spaces 
for the use of the people. It is satisfactory 
that some of these churchyards of our city 
churches have already been suitably laid out 
and thrown open to the public. 

Pleasant recreation grounds should gradually 
be provided throughout all large towns, at 


intervals of never more than one-third of a 
mile from centre to centre, in every direction. 
Such grounds should be carefully maintained 
by the local authorities, and might be inspected 
by voluntary vigilance committees. They 
would be appreciated by both adults and chil- 
dren, as evidenced by the use of the present 
spaces. The London County Council are 
about to set a very good example near Shore- 
ditch church. The Boundary Street Scheme 
here includes a large circular open space. 
Trees, turf, and flowers will ultimately be 
planted in suitable positions, and a central 
fountain or bandstand provided. 

The Metropolitan Public Gardens Association, 
thanks to the activity and judicious guidance of 
the Earl of Meath and Mrs. Basil Holmes, has, 
since its foundation in 1882, done much good 
in assisting in the provision of attractive 
breathing spaces round the smaller tenement 
homes in London. Their undertakings have 
comprised the laying out of recreation grounds, 
tree-planting in thoroughfares, seats for roads 
and recreation grounds, assistance in the ac- 
quisition of public grounds, and preservation 


from encroachment on open spaces. London 
owes chiefly to the energies and tact of this 
Society the present enjoyment of over 200 
open spaces or pleasure grounds. There are 
various Acts under which these and other 
public spirited persons work in this matter — 
viz., the Open Spaces (Metropolis) Act, 1877, 
for affording facilities for the enjoyment by the 
public of open spaces in London ; the Metro- 
politan Open Space Act, 1881, an enlargement 
and amendment of the former Act. There is 
also an Act concerning Disused Burial Grounds, 
1884, a further Open Spaces Act, 1887, and 
another Amendment Act, 1 890. 

The development in the suburbs of **the 
People's Pleasure Grounds " has of late years 
been most satisfactory, but the supply falls 
very far short of the demand. The Water- 
low People's Garden on Highgate Hill, the 
Victoria and Battersea Parks, providing for 
cricket, boating, bathing, and sea-sand pits, 
form excellent breathing spaces. Amongst the 
recent welcome acquisitions may be named 
the 61 acres added to the 55 acres of Bostall 
Heath, near the Abbey- wood Station on the 


South Eastern line, providing a delightful air- 
ing for southern Londoners. Then, again, 
nearer the heart of the metropolis, 60 acres 
of wooded land have been added to the spaces 
of Peckham Rye, Goose Green, and Murhead 
Green. There is every reason to believe that, 
with the knowledge that these lands are part 
of the inheritance of the people, the bye-laws 
made in the public interest will be respected. 
" Private parks " or small allotments should be 
encouraged when the land is available. The 
London County Council are laying out about 
30 acres at West Ham, where, for a nominal 
rent of 8^. a year, a workman may have an 
allotment of ^ of an acre. 

It is not proposed here to discuss the merits 
and drawbacks of the ** American rectangular * 
or ** the English radial " systems of laying out 
streets. It would appear that both for traffic, 
appearance, and health, a comprehensive cir- 
cular and radial plan is the best. Direct broad 
main streets, where possible, not less than 80 feet 
wide, and planted with trees on the Boulevard 
Haussmann principle, are desirable improve- 
ments for the hygiene of surrounding small 


dwellings. Such works tend to promote a 
more healthy distribution of population. The 
arguments against such reforms, as to the con- 
sequent displacement and condensation of 
population in the side streets, are often ex- 
aggerated and overdrawn.^ The displacement 
from an overcrowded area is generally de- 
sirable ; the condensation, the law, if properly 
carried out, will prevent. As regards the side 
streets, the minimum width of 40 feet for new 
streets should be altered to 50 feet, so as, in 
the outlying parts of the town, to provide 
against future crowding. The efficient paving 
and cleansing of these side streets should re- 

^ The London County Council have set a ijiost admirable 
example by carefully providing for the displaced population 
from a portion of the Boundary Street area. Their efforts 
have secured that of the 732 tenants displaced from a certain 
portion of the area, 412 found rooms within a quarter of a 
mile, 226 within half a mile, 57 within one mile, and only 37 
beyond one mile. A register of all the desirable tenements 
vacant within half a mile was kept at a temporary office on 
the area. Certain compensation money allowed was not paid 
to the displaced tenants till the Council's officers were satis- 
fied that the dwellings to which they had removed were 
sanitary and suitable for occupation. 

[For further particulars, see London, August 3rd, 1893.] 


ceive far more attention than is given to them 
at present. Clean side streets are by no means 
common in our towns, and have a great deal 
more to do with the health and comfort of the 
small houses than many suppose. 

Though the removal of buildings consequent 
on the construction of overhead railways and 
railway stations in large towns is responsible 
for much of the overcrowding and reduction 
of space amidst small dwelling-house property, 
the suggestion which has been made that the 
different main lines should come to, and round, 
but not through cities, is not a practical possi- 
bility, at any rate, in London. It seems, how- 
ever, desirable to encourage smokeless under- 
ground electric railways. The stations and 
tunnels should be well ventilated and lighted, 
and laid out in circles for outer and inner zone 
traffic, with radial connections. Our railway 
companies, who carry the people about at a 
considerable profit, are responsible for much 
that is unsightly and ugly in their stations, etc. 
The bridges, station buildings, and embank- 
ments should be beautiful, as well as useful. 
They may be so with very little increased cost. 


The difficulty as to area and space in the pro- 
vision of sufficient terminus platforms might 
be met by a system of superimposed lines. 

This matter of the proper provision of open 
spaces, the laying out of streets, and the im- 
provement of railways, etc., affects small towns 
as well as large cities. The former are often 
frequently suddenly developed from a village of 
a few cottages into a hap-hazard collection of 
workshops and houses, no one often, except 
perhaps an incompetent or indifferent local 
authority, bestowing a thought upon the future 
agglomeration. In this respect precedents 
often rule the fashion of procedure, and the 
eye of the local public accepts what is con- 
sidered to be the inevitable. Provision in all 
cases for future developments would be advan- 
tageous for the successors of both landlord and 
tenant, and would be convenient even for the 
present generation. 

As we crowd together in our large modern 
towns, artificially protected from disease and 
death by modern science, let us remember that 
it is natural to be discontented with the circum- 
stances of such surroundings, and to prefer life 


and work in less congested regions, and in 
more direct touch with nature. Goethe's words 
vibrate with truth : *' With every green tree/ 
whose rich leafage surrounds us, with every 
shrub on the roadside where we walk, with 
every grass that bends to the breeze in the 
field through which we pass, we have a natural 
relationship — they are our true compatriots. 
The birds that hop from twig to twig in 
our gardens, that sing in our bowers, are 
part of ourselves ; they speak to us from our 
earliest years, and we learn to understand their 
language. Let a man ask himself, and he will 
find that every creature sundered from its 
natural surroundings, and brought into strange 
company, makes an unpleasant impression on 
us, which disappears only by habit." 

1 7th chapter. Wahlverwandschaften (Elective Affinities). 
Translation by Carlyle. 



" The greater the amount of population concentrated on 
a given space, the greater the precautions requisite to 
secure the health of the population."— ^/^w^^ Hole, 

The provision of space immediately round 
dwellings duly proportionate to their area and 
height is a matter which most certainly requires 
amended and extended legislation. This 
remark will apply to the town dwellings of the 
well-to-do classes as well as to the tenement 
houses of the poor. Even in large blocks of 
middle-class flats, of which so many have been 
recently erected in various parts of London, and 
which are generally well constructed and well 
arranged, there will often be found in the rear 



open space so confined that the lower rooms 
are most imperfectly lighted. Such defective 
provision for the proper lighting and ventilation 
of all rooms and offices should be avoided in all 
new blocks of middle class as well as of work- 
men's dwellings. 

The old Metropolis Local Management Act 
of 1855 has in this matter, in spite of many- 
merits, set a very bad example. Section 29 
contains a requirement, which is now, how- 
ever, practically over-ruled — viz , that ** every 
building used or intended to be used as a 
dwelling*house, unless all the rooms can be 
lighted and ventilated from a street or alley 
adjoining, shall have in the rear, or on the side 
thereof, an open space exclusively belonging 
thereto of the extent of at least 100 square 
feet/* What hygiene ! to provide a space say 
12^ X 8 feet in the rear of a dwelling-house! The 
Metropolis Management and Building Acts 
Amendment Act, 1882, timidly improves matters 
a little. It is therein provided that ** every new 
building begun to be erected upon a site not 
previously occupied in whole or in part by a 
building after the passing of this Act, intended 


to be used wholly or in part as a dwelling-house, 
shall, unless the Board otherwise permit, have 
directly attached thereto, and in the rear thereof, 
^nopen space exclusively belonging thereto of 
the following extent : where such building has a 
frontage not exceeding 1 5 feet the extent of the 
open space shall be 1 50 square feet at the least. 
Where such building has a frontage exceeding 
1 5 feet, but not exceeding 20 feet, the extent of 
the open space shall be 200 square feet at the 
least. Where such building has a frontage ex- 
ceeding 20 feet, and not exceeding 30 feet, the 
extent of the open space shall be 300 square feet 
at the least ; and where such building has a 
frontage exceeding 30 feet, the extent of the 
open space shall be 450 square feet at the least 
Every such open space shall be free from any 
erection thereon above the level of the ceiling 
of the ground-floor storey, and shall extend 
throughout the entire width (exclusive of party 
or external walls) of such building at the rear 

Some of the provincial bye-laws respecting 
space round dwellings are an improvement 
upon the provisions of the London Acts. 

D.P. D 


The Manchester bye laws with respect to 
this sufficiency of space about buildings to 
secure a free circulation of air are decidedly 
good, though by no means liberal enough for 
thoroughly ample space. Section 48 requires 
that ** every person who shall erect a new 
dwelling-house shall provide in front thereof 
an open space, which shall be free from any 
erection thereon above the level of the ground 
floor, except any portico, porch, step, or other 
like projection from such dwelling-house, or any 
gate, fence or wall not exceeding 7 feet in 
height, and which, measured to the boundary of 
any lands immediately opposite or to the 
opposite side of any street which such dwelling- 
house may front, shall throughout the whole 
line of frontage of such dwelling-house extend 
to a distance of 36 feet at the least, such dis- 
tance being measured in every case at right 
angles to the external face of any wall of such 
dwelling-house which shall front or abut on 
such open space : provided that in case of a 
new dwelling-house erected in a street of less 
width than 36 feet, and which is now a public 
highway, or in respect of which, although 


not constructed, plans have been duly approved 
by the Corporation on or before the date of 
the confirmation of these bye-laws, the require- 
ments of this bye-law shall be satisfied by a 
distance of 24 feet in lieu of 36 feet/' Section 
49 of these bye-laws requires that ** every 
person who shall erect a new dwelling-house 
shall provide in the rear of such dwelling- 
house an open space exclusively belonging 
to such dwelling-house, and of an aggregate 
extent of not less than 150 square feet^ and 
free from any erection thereon above the 
level of the ground. He shall cause such 
open space to extend laterally throughout the 
entire width of such dwelling-house ; and he 
shall cause the distance across such open space 
from every part of such dwelling-house to the 
boundary of any lands or premises immediately 
opposite or adjoining the site of such dwelling, 
house to be not less in any case than 10 feet. 
If the height of such dwelling-house be 15 feet, 
he shall cause such distance to be 15 feet at the 
least. If the height of such dwelling-house be 
25 feet, he shall cause such distance to be 20 
feet at the least. If the height of such dwelling- 


house be 35 feet, or exceed 35 feet, he shall 
cause such distance to be 25 feet at the 

Such regulations may serve to secure a mini- 
mum in proximity to those houses of the poor, 
which are constructed only two or three storeys 
high, but are inadequate to meet the require- 
ments of space round high block dwellings. 
The London County Council in their require- 
ments for building on their own land recom- 
mend that the space between two blocks of 
dwellings should be one and a half times the 

A general rule to procure the minimum 
desirable space round block dwellings in towns, 
and which necessarily affects their height, is 
that all buildings should stand below a line 
drawn at an angle of 45*" from the sill of the 
windows on the ground floor of the buildings 
on the opposite side of the adjoining street or 
area. This rule has been frequently laid down 
by specialists, and is, at any rate, recognised 
as a desideratum by most enlightened persons, 
though it is to be feared that many consider that 
such space is too liberal. As regards this distri- 


bution of Space on 
a site round block 
dwellings, Dr. 
John F. J. Sykes 
made an interest- 
ing suggestion at 
the late Interna- 
tional Congress of 
Hygiene. Assum- 
ing that the 45° 
line is adopted to 
provide the mini- 
mum amount of 
space, " one inter- 
space will serve 
the opposed fronts 
of two blocks ;. 
that is, each block 
will have on either 
side of it one half 
the amount of open 
space due to it, 
and the width of 
open space to be 
calculated with 


\, -it 



'■-. ..» 

'A: A 
/ ■« 


^- 4"- ^ 


each block will be proportionate to the height 
and number of the storeys. The same ap- 
plies to the ends of the rows of blocks. 
Therefore, the depth of the block, plus the 
width of the open space on one side, will 
equal the depth of total space occupied by 
one block, and this divided into the total 
depth of the area will give the number of 
the blocks. Assuming that the length of 
the blocks is equal to the length of the area, 
less the space required at each end, and that 
each storey or stage is of the same height, then 
the cubic capacity of one block multiplied by 
the number of blocks will give the total cubic 
space enclosable." 

This question of open space in relation to 
dwelling-houses is a very irpportant one, and a 
general rule ought not to be applied to all 
classes of such property. There should be 
separate regulations for hotels and middle-class 
flats, for lodging-houses and artizans block 
dwellings, for middle-class dwelling-houses, for 
workmen's tenement-houses, and for work- 
men's cottages. There are innumerable 
instances of this lack of space round block 


dwellings to be found in our large towns, more 
particularly in the south and south-eastern 
districts of the metropolis. More than one 
instance may be seen from the railway adjoin- 
ing the terminal stations on the south side of 
London, where the blocks abut at right angles 
to the railway and declare their faults in a most 
barefaced manner. Dr. Louis Parkes, in a 
paper on ''overcrowding" read before the 
Sanitary Institute in 1891, mentions a bad case 
in another part of London. The buildings are 
described as being five storeys high and front- 
ing on streets only 19 feet wide, the courtyard 
between the backs of the blocks being only 1 2 
feet wide, rendering the rooms on the two 
lower floors almost dark at midday. To avoid 
such a state of thinors as exists in the above- 
mentioned and many other instances, the 
maximum number of persons who can be safely 
and well housed on an acre should be clearfy 
stated by law and enforced by the local 

On June 13th, 1893, it was proposed but 
not carried at the London County Council to 
limit more rigidly the height of dwelling-houses^ 


according to the space about them, whether 
built on old or new foundations. At present 
buildings constructed in streets less than 50 
feet wide, in place of old buildings erected be- 
fore 1862, are practically exempt from the pro- 
visions of the Metropolis Local Management 
Acts Amendment Act (August 7th, 1862), as 
to setting back of frontages on the 45° rule 
(Section 85) and at present cannot be properly- 
controlled as to their height The recommen- 
dations of the Council's Committee (1893), which 
will probably shortly be carried in a modified 
form, were (i) that any building rebuilt so as to 
be higher in any part or to extend further in any 
direction than before should be subject to the 
Building Acts and Local Management Acts ; 
(2) that no building shall be made higher, 
measured up to the parapet or eaves, than the 
width of the street ; (3) that the Council should 
have power to make bye-laws, relaxing or 
adapting these provisions in special cases, 
or allowing complete or partial exemption. 
Alderman Beachcroft has also suggested that 
it should be forbidden to build houses within. 
20 feet of the centre of the roadway on pre- 


viously occupied sites, no matter what previously 

The extreme limit of height of any new 
London buildings, which necessarily applies 
particularly to streets laid out before August, 
1862, is 90 feet, as laid down by the London 
County Council General Powers Act, 1890 
(section 36). It would appear that many 
members of the Council rightly consider 90 
feet to be too high for buildings in any street, 
and 75 feet has been suggested as a limit, 
which, however, is not at present (October, 
1893) the law. In the case of Block Dwellings 
this limit should be further reduced to 50 feet. 
The present legal limit of 90 feet is from the 
footway to the top of the external wall, and 
does not include two storeys permitted in the 
roof ; so that, as regards circulation of air, the 
limit is over 100 feet. Fortunately the height 
of dwellings is otherwise controlled by the 
rights of adjoining owners. 



" If you suffer the poor to grow up as animals, they may 
chance to become beasts and rend you." — Danton, 

" The law should make it an offence, punishable by 
heavy fine, to own property in a state unfit for human 
habitation."- -y. Chamberlain. 

The greater part of the dwellings of the poorer 
classes in the metropolis and large provincial 
towns are, or rather originally were, self-con- 
tained cottages or houses for a single family. 
The Commissioners of 1884 very specifically 
pointed out what holds good for a large por- 
tion of the dwellings of the small weekly wage- 
earners in 1893 — viz., that the great majority of 
tenement- houses were originally built for single 
families, and have since been broken up into 
tenements, with a family in each room, or 



several families in each house. Many of these 
dwellings are most unfortunately arranged, and 
are often in a lamentable state of dilapidation. 
Although the system of sub-letting is often a 
remunerative arrangement for the persons in 
receipt of the rents, the sanitary condition of 
the buildings is rendered worse from their having 
been utilized for a purpose for which they were 
not constructed, there being often not more 
than one water supply and one water-closet 
for each house. At the present time many 
thoroughfares in London, which appear to be 
lined by respectably built cottages, or even three- 
storeyed middle-class family houses, are in reality 
lined with a mass of single and double room 
tenements. Such houses, built originally for 
another purpose, should be carefully altered 
or pulled down. 

On the other hand, I am of opinion that, in 
so far as artizans and the respectable thrifty 
poor are concerned, the old system of isolated 
cottage or house dwellings in our streets is, 
generally speaking, the right one, though under 
existing circumstances it may be necessary to 
house ** the very poor" in collective tenement 


. — f 

blocks or hotels, if they cannot or will not live 
in the country districts. It is the detail and 
execution of the old cottage sytem which alone 
are wrong. 

In a short paper read before Section VI. of 
the Seventh International Congress of Hygiene 
and Demography, 1891, I laid special stress 
upon the desirability of putting in order rather 
than demolishing many of the existing dilapi- 
dated cottage tenements to be found in almost 
all large towns. ** The Mansion House Council 
on the Dwellings of the Poor" has done much 
in compelling the local authorities to see that 
the owners of such bad property do this, by 
laying before them specifically and persistently 
the dilapidated and insanitary condition of 
houses, under the powers of the Public Health 
(London) Act, 189 1, and the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890. The powers in 
the hands of the central and local sanitary 
authorities are now very great, but the machin- 
ery has proved heavy and complex, and needs 
much simplification. 

The plan of purchasing houses, purifying 
them and fitting them for habitation has been 


— p — ■'   

successfully carried out by ** The Tenement 
Dwellings Company," and other agencies. 
Miss Octavia Hills well-known successful ex- 
periments have paid a reasonable return upon 
the capital generously provided, whilst at the 
same time conferring great benefit on the 
tenants. Miss H ill's labours have not only 
succeeded in reaching the thrifty poor, but the 
lowest classes. By careful personal manage- 
ment she hits at the root of the difficulty, and 
raises the individual as well as the surroundings. 
Miss HilVs method is directly opposite to that 
of the careless or absent landlord. The weekly 
rentals vary in such property from 2s. to 10^. 
per family, the cost of accommodation being 
from about ;^i20 to £\2P^ as compared with 
the cost of accommodation in block dwellings 
of from ;^ 1 50 to ;^300. 

Although certain sections of the public do 
not yet seem to have understood the errors of 
the system of back-to- back dwellings, which 
have been so extensively constructed in Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire, most, if not all, experts 
now recognise that the system is to be con- 
demned in all forms. Dr. John Tatham, the 


Medical Officer of Health for Manchester, in 
April, 1 89 1, and more recently in December, 
1892, reported to the Corporation of Man- 
chester concerning back-to-back dwellings. -He 
pointed out that much of the oldest and most 
unhealthy property in the slums of the city is 
built on the back- to-back plan. It is stated 
that in certain portions of the adjoining borough 
of Salford the general mort^ility in back-to-back 
dwellings exceeded that in through dwellings of 
the same class by 40 per cent., and also that the 
mortality from diarrhoea was more than twice 
as heavy in these dwellings as it was in houses 
possessing the sole additional advantage of 
through ventilation. There are four schemes 
given in this report for converting these old 
back-to-back houses into improved dwellings, 
The first plan (^4), by setting back the main 
wall of one row of dwellings, secures additional 
width of street between rows of cottages stand- 
ing too close together, each tenement having 
through ventilation, and separate yard and w.c. 
The second plan (^) comprises the removal of 
every third pair out of a row of back-to-back 
cottages, with structural alterations providing 



good yards, water-closets, and dust-bins. The 
third plan (C) provides for the conversion of half, 
the back-to-back dwellings of each block into 
double houses, with through ventilation for each, 
and retains a certain portion of single houses 
with improved lighting and ventilation. The 
fourth plan (Z?) consists in the pulling down of 
every alternate pair of houses on one side of a 
back-to-back block facing the two streets. 

Old tenement houses perhaps require more 
attention than any other property, both in 
London and our large towns. The exami- 
nation of their defects may be made, prior to 
professional assistance, by any careful visitor, 
who must not be misled by the deceptive 
respectability of their exterior. Such visitors 
amongst the poor — in fact, all ratepayers — 
should be acquainted with the existence of 
specific regulations to prevent overcrowding. 
They may, provided the tenant is willing, in- 
spect any house and cause notices to be issued 
for repair, and in default take proceedings be- 
fore a magistrate, who may order alterations, 
shut up the houses, and inflict penalties. At 
the same time both tenants and visiting friends 


'. r " "* 

should beware of being misled by mere cleansing, 
painting, and whitewashing, where improved 
drainage and structural alterations are really 
required. Such voluntary inspections may do 
a great deal of good if supplemented by due 
professional surveys, but the universal provision 
in all towns of one competent official inspector 
for every 2,000 inhabited houses would do far 



„. i 


.« ^ 

- n. 


i^. >■> « 

■•■• A 



- -» -- ."< "^-'f 

■?'  -t 








" The most lovable word in our language is * home,* and 
English home life is held up as a pattern to other countries. 
The little cottage in the country, with its well-kept garden, 
or the large country house, with its park, are ideal homes ; 
and perhaps even the suburban villa and the smart town 
house may be giyen the same endearing title. But in the 
back streets of our large cities what a mockery it would be 
to hear the familiar words, * There's no place like home ' I " 

— Lord Comptoiu 

North, south, east and west of the metropolis 
and around our large provincial towns there are 
springing up vast areas of new cottP ;e and small- 
house property inhabited by the weekly wage- 
earning classes. This spreading of population, 
which has been advocated in Chapter II., may 
be advantageous if the properties are well laid 
out and well built. It is to be feared, however, 



that during past years many of these com- 
munities of small houses have been indifferently 
laid out and constructed, and that occasionally 
the supervision of the local authorities has been 
careless or interested. Outside and around the 
towns precautions against overcrowding, and 
the efficient control over the drainage construc- 
tion and ventilation of houses, are quite as im- 
portant as in the centres of the towns. Indeed, 
the erection of suburban cottages has in places 
proved of merely temporary benefit, and in 
time a new area of slums has been created. 
This matter seems to have been often over- 
looked by those directly interested in the hous- 
ing of the people. It is, however, fair to say 
that quite recently '* jerry-building " has been 
rendered increasingly difficult by improved 
legislation and more active local government. 

In the regimental rows of monotonous small 
houses ever springing up round all thriving 
towns may be found in this commercial age the 
supply for the demands of the times. Let us, 
however, not be content with the quality of 
that supply ! The plan and type of the 
ordinary row of cottages is so familiar that I 


do not propose to dwell on the subject. It 
should, however, be borne in mind that, with- 
out any increased cost, but by careful and 
experienced design, the monotonous street may 
be made attractive, and the ugly small houses 
transformed into pleasant dwellings. 

The fashion has been to pack our citizens side 
by side in the suburbs, and top on top in the 
towns — in rows of abutting dwellings in the 
suburbs, and in block-flats in the towns. Both 
city and district home alike require more open 
space. Large common areas must be provided 
adjoining the town block dwellings, and 
reasonable allotments annexed to each suburban 

Let us, however, consider the ideal dwelling 
for a clerk or labourer. It is a compact and 
conveniently arranged detatched cottage with 
ample space on all sides, situated not far from 
a suburban station. Although this may be com- 
mercially impossible in some London suburbs, 
there are localities within a reasonable distance 
of metropolitan business centres where such 
can be found, with a small allotment, at weekly 
rentals of from 4^. to 8^. Although 30 or 


more such cottages may be placed on an acre, 
with small gardens, it is desirable to provide 
thereon not more than lo detached dwellings. 

The semi-detached workman's home, with 
reasonable allotments, is quite practicable on 
vacant land in parts of London not outside the 
six-mile circle, at weekly rentals varying from 
3^. 9^. to 7^. 6d. Cottages may be advan- 
tageously grouped in rows of four and six, with 
front gardens and allotments behind, as the site 
may permit. Without any extra cost, such 
cottages may be attractive in appearance, if 
skilfully designed. The cheap suburban archi- 
tecture of Liverpool, Manchester, and London 
is very unsatisfactory. But this blot on our 
modern civilization is not an insurmountable 
one. The future suburban homes of England 
might present pleasing pictures without any 
increased cost to the tenants or the general 
community. They may be well drained, well 
arranged and damp proof, at but little increased 
expenditure. Thousands of small street houses 
are put up by ignorant, speculative persons, 
who are anxious to escape the trained and effi- 
cient guidance of professional men. Matters 


are, it would seem, however, about to take a 
turn for the better. Discontented tenants and 
the public press have persuaded many capi- 
talists that it is a better permanent investment 
to construct sound dwellings, with a chaste, 
simple exterior, than to build cheap showy 
cottages, which soon fall into dilapidation. It 
should be borne in mind that well-designed 
houses, with good plan and suitable exterior and 
interior, often secure a better return than badly- 
planned dwellings, with ugly exteriors. It is 
greatly to be regretted that so many people 
look upon a pretty cottage as being necessarily 
lacking in hygiene and comfort within. The 
300,000 artizan citizens of London — viz., those 
having comparatively short hours and regular 
employment — should live in cottages with 
allotments as have been described. 

Another desirable form of dwelling for those 
workmen who must live in town is the cottage- 
flat. In this type of house each home should 
be self-contained, and each flat, where possible, 
should be entered by an independent door and 
way, direct from the street. For well-to-do 
weekly wage-earners this is preferable to living 



in high collective tenement- blocks under the 
care of a superintendent, though block-dwell- 
ings may be desirable for the very poor and 
those who cannot look after themselves. Quite 
apart from the sense of proprietorship which 



Cottars - Fuit« 

the isolated tenement gives, the independence 
is valuable in encouraging the self-respect of 
the household, which the high collective block- 
dwellings, perhaps, tend to take away. With 
careful designing and arrangement, and where 
land is of moderate value, the small cottage- flat 


system,^ with not more than three superim- 
posed floors, can be made commercially practic- 
able in the centre of towns, whilst, owing to 
the popularity of this form of construction, 
vacancies and empties would seldom occur. 
As regards cottage- blocks^ of only two super- 
imposed homes, it may be true that in many 
parts of London they would only return a very 
small percentage, if they were let at low 
rentals and at the same time efficiently con- 
structed and managed. On the other hand, it 
is quite possible to build them in most of the 
side streets of large towns. Cottage- blocks for 
the near suburbs, with liberal open spaces, are 
both desirable and would probably be popular, 
though the absolutely detached or semi-detached 
house is preferable where the site and cost of 
land will permit. 

There are some cottage estates in and around 
London which may be taken on the whole as 

^ The writer has prepared various arrangements and 
details for these cottage flats, and procured contractors* 
tenders on detailed quantities, which show a varying return 
of 4 to 5 J per cent, with reasonable rentals, on land averag- 
ing from 2\d, to 35//. per sup. foot per annum. 


satisfactory examples of what such dwellings 
should be ; for instance, at Noel Park there is 
an estate laid out by the Artizans', Labourers*, 
and General Dwellings Company. The houses 
lining the streets, which are from 40 to 60 
feet wide, are of five different types. The first 
and second-class houses are of less interest than 
the third, fourth, and fifth, because their weekly 
rentals amount to ^30 and ;^26 a year, figures 
far too high for any but well-to-do weekly 
wage-earners. The following short account 
is taken from Mr. R. Plumbe's description of 
these dwellings, read before the International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography in 
1891 : " The third-class houses are built on 
plots having a frontage of 1 5 feet by a depth 
of about 70 feet, and possess a floor area of 
about 800 feet, containing six rooms, three 
being bedrooms. The weekly rental of these 
houses is about 9^. {£22, i6s. a year). The 
fourth-class houses are built on plots having 
frontages of about 14 feet 6 inches by a depth 
of 70 feet, with a floor area of 660 feet, con- 
taining five rooms, there being two bedrooms 
on the first floor. The rental of these houses 


is about 7^. 6^. a week (;^i9 105. a year). The 
fifth-class houses are built on plots having a 
frontage of 1 3 feet by a depth of 60 feet ; the 
floor area is 470 feet, containing a front living- 
room, with kitchen and small wash-house 
behind, with two bedrooms over. The rental 
of these houses is about 65. a week (^15 125. 
a year)." 

Some of the cottages recently built round 
Lancashire and Yorkshire towns and in the 
outlying districts of the metropolis are well 
planned, but, as a rule, require more attention 
and care in the design of detail and appearance. 
The quality of the materials used in their con- 
struction is often deplorably bad, and the works 
are frequently but poorly supervised by the 
local authorities. This is not only detrimental 
to the tenant and the public, but also punishes 
eventually the capitalist. It has now been 
proved a good investment to build well. 



" When the causes of the present condition of the homes 
of the working classes are examined, it will be seen how 
the property on many estates has passed for long periods 
out of the effective control of its nominal owners, with the 
consequence of utter disregard for the condition in which 
it is kept." — Royal Commission^ 1884. 

Proprietorship must necessarily be an in- 
terested incentive to the occupier to carefully 
maintain a dwelling. The acquirement by 
working men of their own homes, which is 
discussed at some length in the chapter on 
French cottages, is no new idea, but requires 
development. Although a difficulty exists in 
the fact that a large portion of the working- 
classes are migratory, owing to the changes and 

the irregularities of their means of livelihood, 



for moral, social, and economical reasons, the 
freehold homes of England are a great good, 
and should be encouraged in every possible 

It should be borne in mind that the work- 
man wishes to purchase at a fair price what is 
due to him. He does not wish to be under 
an obligation. Self-help, co-operation, and the 
capitalisation of labour are the truest spurs to 
the advance of a happy democracy. A most 
interesting description of such institutions as 
the Schulze-Delitzsch, the Raiffeisen, and Luz- 
zatti banks may be found in Mr. Henry W. 
Wolff's ** People's Banks." These banking 
associations have shown what an inexhaust^ 
ible resource of power exists in the labour and 
thrift of a nation's workers. It is such capital 
which should in the future secure the freehold 
dwelling of the British workman, not only in 
the country, but in and around towns. Such 
methods of securing credit for freehold homes 
must not be confused with the ordinary build- 
ing society referred to at the end of this 

It is a matter for consideration whether 


Parliament might not afford facilities for the 
purchase of freeholds. Municipalities and local 
authorities might be authorized to borrow 
money and land on mortgage to enable work- 
men to purchase houses, on such terms as 
would pay the cost of loan, sinking fund and 
administration. The object of the Occupying 
Tenants' Enfranchisement Bill is to assist 
tenants in becoming proprietors of the land 
or house they occupy as a dwelling, or for 
trade purposes. The qualification for en- 
franchisement is the occupation of the pre- 
mises for twenty years, or the holding of a 
lease of the premises of twenty years unex- 

Amongst early Co-operative Building As- 
sociations may be named those of the Edin- 
burgh Co-operative Building Company, who, 
about 1855, erected 1,500 tenements not far 
from the Abbey Hill Station. Many of these 
were bought by their occupiers on 21 years 
purchase rentals. Similar undertakings have 
been tried round London and in other pro- 
vincial towns. It would appear that, through 
the medium of a co-operative building associa- 


tion, irffrom 12 to 20 years the tenant may pay 
off the value of the land, house, and interest to 
his landlord, only spending a little more than 
he would on an ordinary yearly tenancy. It 
should, however, be borne in mind that it is 
useless, however, for a man to acquire the free- 
hold of a dwelling only to find it in dilapidation 
and badly constructed. The dwelling should 
be in such a state that, when the freehold 
is duly acquired after 15 years, the con- 
struction and stability should be satisfactory 
and fit for a permanent holding. In past ex- 
periments there has been too little consideration 
for the future freehold by the capitalist, who 
is too eager to secure his profits by the 

Owing to the mismanagement and fraud 
lately connected with so many building so- 
cieties, there is much public odium attached 
to them ; but the best of these institutions are 
doing good work in assisting those who wish 
to live in dwellings either erected or purchased 
by themselves, and they encourage the accumu- 
lation of small savings by offering a high rate 
of interest. Many of these associations were 


formed under Acts 6 and 7 William IV. c. 32, 
and 9 and 10 Victoria c. 27, the first notice 
of them being in 1836. The modern building 
societies have been controlled by an Act of 
1874 as amended by Acts of 1877 and 1884. 
Fresh legislation is in preparation with a view 
to altering the law with regard to auditing and 
sending in returns, etc., so as to place all 
building societies on a safer and more satis- 
factory basis. In 1893 ^^^ following Bills 
were brought in — The Building Societies Bill, 
The Building Societies (No. 2) Bill, The Build- 
ing Societies (1874) Amendment Bill, and The 
Building Societies (No. 3) Bill, and have been 
reported upon by a committee. In spite of 
failures and drawbacks these benefit socie- 
ties have exercised an advantageous influence 
on the poorer classes, by presenting the oppor- 
tunity of investment previously possible only 
for the comparatively well-to-do. They ac- 
cumulate capital by the subscriptions of the 
members to make advances by mortgage upon 
freehold or leasehold property. The payments 
are handed in weekly or monthly, being gene- 
rally a small payment per share. As regards^ 


the acquirement of land or houses, payments 
are made weekly over periods of 10, 12^, or 
15 years, securing the freehold at the end of 
that period. 

As an instance, the following may be taken 
as one of the actual acquirements which has been 
brought about in the Nineteenth Century Build- 
ing Society : a labouring man purchased for 
;^iio the lease, having 90 years to run, at a 
ground-rent of ^3 a year, of a cottage for which 
he would have to pay 7^. a week. He was able 
to find ;^20 towards the purchase-money, and 
borrowed the remaining £()0 of the Society, 
repayable by monthly instalments spread over 
12 years. His yearly repayments to the 
Society at 17^. iid. a month amounted to 
;^io 15^., the ground-rent was £2>y ^^^ rates 
and taxes £7^, making a total of ;^i6 15^. So 
that by paying ;^20 down and ;^i6 155". a year., 
he would acquire the house in 1 2 years ; where- 
as, if he had taken it at a rental of js. a week, 
he would have paid ;^i8 4^. a year, and yet 
have acquired no right of ownership in the 

The gradual universal creation of small free 

D.P. F 


holds in and around towns, as well as in the 
country, is a practical possibility, and might 
be arranged for the mutual advantage of the 
present large estate owners and their tenants. 
As bearing upon this question, it may be 
mentioned that the South Eastern Railway 
Company has obtained parliamentary powers 
to advanpe money to its employes to assist 
them to purchase their dwellings. The rate of 
interest is 4 per cent, and the time for repay- 
ment is to be spread over a period compatible 
with the resources of the tenants. The legal 
expenses are not to exceed two guineas. It 
would be well if all companies who give com- 
paratively permanent employment did likewise. 



"Wherever the economic conditions admit of it, de- 
tached dwellings with small gardens should be preferred in 
the interests of the workman and of his family." — Resolu- 
tion: International Congress held at Paris^ June^ 1889. 

It should be of interest to all to study the 
comparative state of the dwellings of the poor 
in France^ and England, and to learn what 
progress has been made by our neighbours 
towards the solution of those difficulties which 
have become in both countries so serious and 
so difficult to deal with. Both co-operative 
and private enterprise have done something 
towards the improvement of French town 

^ For a more complete account by writer see Proceedings 
of R.I.B.A., July, 1893, being the Godwin Bursary Report, 



dwellings during the last fifteen years, but 
more especially since the International Con- 
gress held at Paris in 1889, which did good 
work in arousing public interest in the question 
of the better housing of the poor. Those com- 
panies and agencies described in this chapter are 
instrumental in encouraging the working classes 
to live outside the crowded centres of popula- 
tion. They have also to a limited extent 
succeeded in obtaining for the weekly wage- 
earner the permanent acquisition of his house. 
The construction of cottage tenements in towns 
has only been carried out on a limited field, 
but the action already taken is the result of a 
sincere effort to assist in solving a most difficult 
social problem. 

In the sou til- west quarter of Paris, and with- 
in the fortifications, is situated the group of 
dwellings of the Villa Mulhouse, founded by 
the Soci6t6 Anonymedes Habitations Ouvrieres 
de Passy-Auteuil. This society was estab- 
lished in 1882 for the purpose of constructing 
small model houses, of which the tenant may 
become proprietor in 20 years by an annual 
payment in addition to his ordinary rent ; and 


its regulations limit the rate of interest on the 
capital to 4 per cent. It built at first 56 houses, 
at a cost per house varying from ^141 to 
^229, to which must be added for cost of land 

Tf^«x Ty^«ic 

about £62 for each house. On occupying a 
house, a tenant who wishes eventually to be- 
come the owner must pay down a first instal- 
ment of at least ;^20. The rent is calculated 
on the basis of 4 per cent, of the value of the 


house, to which is added i per cent, for the 
cost of management, taxes, etc., and 3^ per 
cent, for the completion of the purchase in 
twenty years. Thus, for houses offered at a 
price of ;^2o8 an annual payment of ;^I7 is 
required. It is a pity that the dwellings are 
not more substantially constructed, though they 
are duly provided with good drainage and 
water supply, and have a yard and small 
garden. No shop is allowed on the property 
except a co-operative store, nor is any public- 
house permitted. There is a cheap and con- 
venient access to all parts of Paris by steam- 
boat, tramcar, omnibus, and train. 
. Similar cottages in such quarters as Billan- 
court, Passy, Lilas, Boulevards Kellerman and 
Murat are interesting as efforts to provide de- 
tached houses for the poor in convenient situa- 
tions and with due allotments. 

The Villa des Rigoles is an interesting group 
of cottage tenements belonging to La Societe 
Cooperative Immobiliere des Ouvriers de 
Paris, On each side of the central way are 
little blocks of two and three-floor buildings 
with separate enclosed gardens, which, though 


on a narrow and confined site, and somewhat 
out of repair, are well placed, so as to give open 
space about the houses. There are five types, 
including superimposed tenements, and homes 
occupying both floors. 

La Societe Anonyme des Habitations Eco- 
nomiques de St. Denis has constructed dwell- 
ings of various types upon property in the 
neighbourhood of St. Denis. There is plenty 
of air and space about the houses. The 
majority of the tenements consist of two floors, 
and never more than four. The rents vary 
from £\\ to ;^20 a year, and the return on 
capital is about 4 per cent. 

Like most of the great industrial societies, 
such railway companies as La Compagnie du 
Chemin de fer du Nord and La Compagnie 
des Chemins de fer d' Orleans, have spent con- 
siderable sums in the purchase of lands and 
the construction of cottages for their employes. 
Examples of these dwellings, with allotments of 
about 850 square yards, may be found near the 
stations of Lens, Bourget, and Cond^kerque. 
At Bourget the tenements are grouped together 
in fours. The living room is 9' io"xi3' \" 


with bedroom and attic above. The cost of 
one house in such a block of four is £\^^. 
The general expenses of purchase and laying 
out the land, fences, etc., were £6^ per dwell* 
ing. The rent is lo shillings per month. 

Two small workmen's **cit6s'' at Le Havre 
are interesting, more especially as the experi- 
ence gained by one of them extends over 20 
years. They are the work of La Soci6te 
Harvraise des Cites Ouvrieres, founded in 1871 
with a capital of about ^8,400, divided into 
400 shares of about £2 1 each, to assist work- 
men in becoming freeholders. The rent, re- 
demption included, is calculated on the basis 
of 10 per cent, of the cost price of each house. 
The freehold can be secured in about 14 years. 
The land tax and insurance are chargeable to 
the tenant. A current account is opened with 
each tenant or lessee, who is debited with the 
value of the freehold from the day of entering 
into possession, and credited with his monthly 
payments. The rents are payable monthly. 
The lessee pays in advance as guarantee a de- 
posit which varies from £\2 to £20, according 
to the size of the house. The tenant can, in 

•  » 


addition to his rent, make further payments in 
sums of not less than ^2 is. Sd. The different 
sums are carried to the credit of his account. 
If from any cause a tenant desires to quit his 
holding, his deposit on current account and 
about one-third of his monthly payment is re- 
funded to him. Of the 117 houses no less 
than 70 were entirely paid for by their occupiers 
up to January, 1890, and since that time the 
number has increased. The gardens vary from 
500 to 1,500 square feet. They have also a 
small yard in the rear. The purchase money 
varies from ;^i54 to ^^250, according to the 
size of the gardens and the cellars, etc. When 
a tenant has paid a third of the freehold, he 
can complete the purchase by deed at his own 
expense. The Society holds a mortgage till 
payment is completed. Since 1871 the share- 
holders have received 4 per cent., the highest 
rate allowed by the constitution of the society. 

In Marseilles there are many such cottages. 
The Caisse d'Epargne et de Pr6voyance des 
Bouches-du-Rh6ne have erected workmen's 
dwellings at La Capelette, the railway fare to 
Marseilles being only id. These houses, which 


have each a garden of about lOO square yards, 
can be taken on lease or purchased by annual 
payments. The ordinary tenant pays a rent 
of about ;^I2 a year, payable quarterly, in ad- 
vance. The purchaser pays for 28 years an 
annual sum of ;^I9 155"., including rent and pur-' 
chase money — Le,, £\ \Zs, \\d, every quarter, 
payable in advance. 

La Soci^te Le Cottage was foun.ded with 
the object of providing small houses for sale to 
workmen. One of their experiments has been 
tried at Oullins, near Lyons. The rules of the 
society require that the shareholders shall not 
receive any dividend exceeding 5 per cent. 
There are upwards of sixty of these cottages 
near the works of the Paris, Lyons and Medi- 
terranean Railway Company. The cottages 
are constructed to order, a contract being 
entered into before building. The society thus 
knows in advance who will be the occupier and 
intending purchaser. This method has certain 
advantages, the society having the certainty 
that its buildings will be occupied as soon as 
constructed, and that, consequently, it will not 
suffer any loss of interest. TJie purchaser has 


the power of making such modifications in the 
standard type of plan as may be required by 
his personal tastes and wishes. At Oullins two 
types are provided. The first is a small bunga- 
low, and costs ;^i33, having three rooms, a 
cellar, an attic, and a garden of 125 square 
yards. The monthly payment is ;^i, redemp- 
tion money included, and the property is ac- 
quired at the end of 15 years. The second 
type costs £\\(>, having four rooms, an attic, 
cellar, and good garden. The monthly pay- 
ment is £\ \s, 8^., and the period completing 
the purchase is 16 years 5 months. 

These and other French experiments in pro- 
viding freehold houses both within and outside 
the towns are most instructive, and their origin- 
ators have worked in a spirit both philanthropic 
and business-like. They act on the principle 
that it is not sufficient to provide that the 
workman should have an agreeable and healthy 
house, but that it is also desirable to so arrange 
building operations that he may have a secure 
holding, and shall eventually become the owner. 

C^ a" 

*> \ 



" I am stating the result of a deep conviction when I say 
that the destructive part of the duty of the authorities is of 
more importance than the constructive. That the first 
and most essential step is to get rid of the existing haunts 
of moral and physical degradation, and ihe second is to 
watch carefully over constructing and reconstructing." 

— Z?r» Gairdner, 

Most persons interested in this question have 
probably read Mr. Charles Booth s great work, 
Labour and Life of the People. He gives 
a most lucid account of the advantages and 
disadvantages of this block system. Mr. Booth 
divides block dwellings into five classes — viz., 
very good, good, fair, bad, and very bad. The 
three latter divisions comprise about one half 

of the blocks which have been erected during 



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the last fifty years in London. On the other 
hand, a number of convenient and healthy 
block dwellings have been built by some of 
the well-known companies and trusts. 

I propose to classify block dwellings under 
three heads, and to refer only to those examples 
which are fairly well arranged and efficient : — 

(i.) Blocks in w^hich the necessary appurte- 
nances of each dwelling are all contained within 
the tenement ; 

(2.) Blocks in which the wash-houses, water- 
closets, etc., are respectively grouped together 
for economy ; 

(3.) Blocks arranged so as to house either 
single men or single women, which have an 
administration department, common living- 
room, kitchen, etc., known as common lodging- 
houses (see Chapter XL). 

The first class, in which each tenant has his 
own private wash-house, water-closet, water 
supply, and sink, is undoubtedly the best, 
though comparatively costly. The arrange- 
ment is in the central districts of our large 
towns possible for thrifty workpeople and the 
better class poor, but has hitherto proved com- 


mercially Impracticable for housing " the very- 
poor." The economy of class 2 Is obvious, and 
a large portion of the older block dwellings be- 
long to this class, though the system has many 
drawbacks and has become rightly unpopular 

of late. The problem, indeed, of housing very 
poor families in large towns on a sound com- 
mercial basis has not as yet been effectively 
solved. A compromise between classes i and 
2 goes far to fulfilling the necessary require- 


vhile satisfying the eco- 

ments at low rentals, 
nomic demand of 
4^ per cent, on 
the capital, where 
the land can be 
obtained at a 
reasonable price. 
The arrangement 
proposed makes a 
scullery and a 
water - closet com- 
mon to two tenements. The wash-houses, 
with drying grounds, may be placed on the 
roof or on each floor, common to four houses. 
There are 

in and around 
London up- 
wards of six 
hundred block 
dwellings for 
the working 
classes on the 
flat system. 
About one half of these dwellings are fairly 
well constructed, the most suitable being 


amongst those belonging to the Improved 
Industrial Dwellings Company, the Metro- 
politan Association for Improving the Dwell- 
ings of the Industrial Classes, the Artizans, 
Labourers , and General Dwellings Company, 
the East End Dwellings Company, the Pea- 
body Donation Fund, and the Guinness Trust. 
Many, however, of the remainder of these 
so-called model dwellings are worse than the 
cottage property they replace, and have close, 
enclosed courts, dark stair-cases, and gloomy, 
involved passages. 

When housing the people in large concen- 
trated block dwellings the capitalists should 
realize that, whilst perhaps benefiting a small 
portion of the community, they are simply 
encouraging the overcrowding on space, for 
which the modern town has such an unenviable 
reputation. A recent experiment in Man- 
chester of converting a cotton mill into flat 
dwellings for the very poor is interesting, and 
may provide for a want in the neighbourhood, 
but no amount of clever planning can properly 
light and ventilate the central portions of the 
tenement homes in such a wide block. The 



experiment should be regarded as a result of 
the tendency of our times to concentrate the 
population on a limited area, an experiment 
which has had all the assistance which pro- 
fessional skill and mechanical appliances can 

A LA»«Ctl«Hllt« CeTTOM. MlLU 

It is quite impossible to specify here in much 
detail the arrangements and construction of 
model block dwellings. Both walls and floors 
should be fireproof, and the joinery should be 
stout and strong, but very simple in detail. 
The foundations and walls, fittings and finish- 
ings, should be of the best materials and work- 




manship. It is a great mistake to assume that 
the exteriors of such buildings need necessarily 
be ugly, though the majority of the existing 
blocks are so. On the accompanying . design 
for block dwellings for the very poor the treat- 
ment is kept absolutely plain, and depends for 
appearance largely on coloured materials, which 
cannot be shown on an etching. Designs for 
artizans dwellings at higher rentals can well 
afford to have some well-considered detail. 

As regards the sizes of rooms, the London 
County Council regulations for dwellings on 
their own land originally proposed that (i.) In 
a one-roomed tenement the minimum super- 
ficial area should be 144 feet. This would be 
conveniently provided in a room measuring 1 2 
feet by 12 feet. (2.) A two-roomed tenement 
should have a similar room, with an additional 
room containing 96 superficial feet, or measur- 
ing 12 feet by 8 feet. (3.) A three-roomed 
tenement should have a large room containing 
144 feet in superficial area, and two rooms each 
containing 96 feet. 

As regards infection, in block dwellings such 
as classes 2 and 3, in which complete isolation 


is difficult, as compared with detached cottages 
or completely isolated tenements, the . dangers 
from fever may be gre;at. , It would appear that 
generally death-rates have declared in favour of 
the best block dwellings in London as against 
any surrounding dilapidated and ill-arranged 
old property. Dr. Arthur Newsholme, M.D., 
after a most careful examination of the facts, 
when addressing the Royal Statistical Society 
on the vital statistics of the Peabody Build- 
ings, pointed out that the infantile mortality 
is much lower in the Peabody Buildings than 
in all London, and that during the nine years 
1882-90 it averaged in London 151 '9, and 
in the Peabody Buildings 139*2, per 1,000 
births. He stated further that the death-rate 
of the Peabody Buildings averaged about 2 
per 1,000 lower than that of London during 
the twelve years ending with 1885, but that 
during the four subsequent years the death-rate 
of the Buildings had remained stationary, while 
that of London had shown a further decline. 
Dr. Newsholme's statistics further show that 
the death-rate from diarrhoea is slightly lower, 
and from enteric fever only half that of the 


whole metropolis ; whilst the diseases more 
immediately due to direct infection, such as 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, and 
measles, are more fatal, and therefore probably 
more prevalent. 



" . . . . The amelioration of dwellings is the best 
guarantee of civilization." — Georges Picot 

During the last few years there have been 
a few groups of well-arranged, superimposed 
dwellings built for the poor in Paris and some of 
the provincial towns of France, but some of the 
works of the philanthropic companies are not 
in all respects satisfactory models. Amongst 
the merits of the best specimens of this class 
of building may be named lofty rooms, cheer- 
ful treatment of exterior and interior, and the 
excellence of the cooking appliances in the liv- 
ing rooms. 

The Soci6t6 Philanthropique has, amongst 

other works, erected three blocks of high tene- 



ment dwellings respectively in the Boulevard 
Crenelle, the Rue Jeanne d'Arc and the 
Avenue St. Mand^, all of which I have visited, 
and found excellently maintained. The general 

arrangements of each block are much the same. 
Each tenement is distinct with its own kitchen 
range, cupboard and water-closet. The position 
of the latter is not satisfactory. Large windows 
with balconies, the sill of which is within ten 


inches of the floor, light each room. The 
block of the Avenue St. Mande et Rue Fabre 
d' Eglantine stands seven storeys above the 
ground floor, and contains fifty-five family tene- 
ments, some being arranged for seven or eight 
persons. The total cost of such tenement is 
£22jy and the rents vary from ;^I2 to £2*j a 
year. Each tenant has a numbered lock-up 
cellar. The concierge on the ground floor can 
overlook the two staircases, approach to which 
can only be obtained by. one entrance from the 
street. The net profit for the year 1890 was 
4' 1 8 per cent. 

In the Faubourg St Antoine are two blocks 
situated on each side of the Rue de T Industrie 
Saint Antoine, near the Place de la Nation, 
constructed by La Soci6t6 des Immeubles 
Industriels. The ground floor, basement and 
mezzanine are occupied as workshops, and most 
of the rooms above by small householders. 
The buildings erected between 1870 and 1873 
appear to be in fairly good condition. Most 
of the tenements are self-contained, with living- 
room, kitchen, bedroom, store-room and con- 
venience. The total cost of. land and construe- 


tion amounted to ;^ 104,1 66, on which outlay 
there has been a return to the society of from 
4 to 5 per cent. 

A block has been built by the Association 
Protestante de Bienfaisance in the north of 
Paris, near the Avenue St. Ouen, Butte 
Montmartre. The dwellings consist generally 
of a kitchen, two rooms and store, with two 
conveniences on each floor, one for men and 
the other for women. The rooms are let at an 
average rent of 6*39 pence per square foot. 

Immediately surrounded by small property, 
but close to one of the wealthiest districts 
of Paris, N.W. of the Pare Monceaux, is a 
large block of working-men s dwellings with a 
frontage to the Rue de Tocqueville. It is 
a cheerful but plain block of seven storeys in 
height, but what appeared particularly in its 
favour was the spacious internal court, the 
centre being tastefully planted with evergreens, 
protected from the children by a balustrade, 
a feature which at little cost might be intro- 
duced into the courts of our London model 
dwellings. The tenements consist of two and 
three rooms, with closets and cupboards. 


Under the courtyard are cellars for each tenant, 
approached by two sloping ways. The rents 
of the tenements vary from ^16 to £i\ a year, 
so that in these buildings the tenants are of a 
somewhat well-to-do class of employes. 

Amidst the old houses of Rouen, in the 
Martainville quarter, the Soci^te Anonyme 
Immobiliere des Petits Logements has erected 
a tine block of dwellings. It is of four storeys 
besides the ground floor, and is designed on the 


same system as the better-class English blocks. 
The general arrangements are good, and the 
details and construction have been well carried 
out by Mr. E. Lecoeur, the architect. The 
entrance to the block is from Victor. Hugo 
Street, on the one side of the vestibule being 
the attendant s office, and on the other a notice 
indicating the various tenements and the names 
of the occupiers. This vestibule gives admis- 
sion to a large cheerful court, part of which is 
concreted and part gravelled and planted with 
trees. The block is divided into six main 
groups of self-contained tenements, and is pro- 
vided with separate staircases to each group. 
In case of need, the six blocks can all be placed 
in communication by a central connecting pas- 
sage in the roof, by means of doors, of which 
the superintendent and the porter have the 
keys. The ground floor facing the streets is 
divided into a series of shops, which have all one 
or two small rooms connected with them, and 
lighted from the court. The distribution of the 
tenements above the ground floor is practically 
identical for the four storeys. Generally speak- 
ing, the arrangement comprises three tenements 


on each landing. Each tenement has at least 
one window looking on to the street, and most 
of them have frontage both to the street and 
court. This through- ventilation from street 
to court is a special feature of the buildings, and 
is much to be commended. In most of the 
Paris blocks this arrangement of through- venti- 
lation has not been sufficiently attended to. 
The total cost of land and buildings was 
;^ 1 9, 307, and the annual rent of tenements 
varies from £^j^ 1 2s, 6d. a year for single-room 
dwellings on the top floor to ;^i8 15^. for 
four-room tenements on the first floor. The 
return on capital varies from 2f to 3^ per 

The Soci6t6 des Logements Salubres et a 
Bon Marche de Marseilles have erected in 
the Quarter Belle de Mai dwellings for poor 
people of the lowest class. The dwellings are 
of two storeys, built on each side of a court 
opening into the Rue Gu^rin. The larger 
tenements consist of a well-ventilated kitchen 
to the front, of a room behind the kitchen 
opening on to the back area or balcony, and 
a large room divided by a partition seven feet 


eight inches high, with an open space over 
such division, and with windows on both sides 
of the building. The conveniences are placed 
behind the house and approached through the 
open yard on the ground floor, and through an 
open balcony on the first floor. There are also 
tenements for single men on the ground floor. 
All the rooms are white-washed, wall-papers 
not being allowed. The rents vary from ;^5 
to £9y being for the very poor, and the profits 
are 3^ per cent. 

Another group erected at Marseilles by the 
same society is situated in the Rue Lambert. 
The rentals for four and three-room tenements 
vary from ;^5 i^s, lod, to ;^I2 10^. 10^., and 
the buildings are occupied by workmen in con- 
stant employment with wages of ^s. yd. to ^s. 
a day. 

A most useful society was formed as an out- 
come of the Congres International des Habita- 
tions k Bon March6 of 1889, for the examination 
of the whole question of cheap dwellings from 
the social and technical points of view. This 
Soci^t^ Fran9ais des Habitations k Bon March6 
was founded December 17th, 1889, and sane- 


tioned by a decree of the President of the 
Republic March 29th, 1890. The society does 
not, however, actually erect dwellings, but is a 
most important unofficial organ for guiding both 
public and private enterprise. 



" It was found that upon the lowest average every work- 
man or workwoman lost about twenty days in the year from 
simple exhaustion, and the wages thus lost would go towards 
paying an increased rent for abetter house." — Report of the 
Royal Commission^ 1884. 

There are in London about nine hundred 

cheap lodging-houses, or ** Hotels of the Poor,*' 

accommodating from thirty to forty thousand 

persons. The majority of these have not 

been specially built for the purpose, being 

generally old dwellings adapted to their present 

use. The police supervision of some of the 

London lodging-houses is most praiseworthy, 

and licenses are only given for houses having 

beds with certain cubical space for each lodger. 

On the other hand, sometimes fifty beds are to 



be found in one large room; without any privacy ; 
so that in this respect alone the provision of 
private cubicles in new model houses is a great 

The erection of model lodging-houses, such 
as those in Gl^gow, and in Parker Street and 
Bond Street, London, has been the most im- 
portant and beneficent movement lately under- 
taken in block-building. So far as single men 


and single women are concerned, they solve 
the problem of providing on a sound commer- 
cial basis for the housing of the **very poor." 

An examination of the three best of the 
Glasgow houses shows the great Clyde Street 
building, which was completed so far back as 
1879, at a cost of ;^ 11,500, to be the most 
instructive type. Good food at the lowest 
possible price is sold to lodgers. The men 
can cook their food on a large range in the 
kitchen. Lockers are provided for storing 
provisions and clothing, etc., with a number 
corresponding to the number of the bed 
occupied by each lodger. The living-room 
measures 74 feet by 32 feet, and draughts, 
chess, newspapers, etc., are furnished free of 
charge. The prices vary from 3^^. to 4^^. per 
night. There are on the upper floor 324 
compartments arranged in two rooms. In each 
cubicle there is a chair and clothes-peg, etc., a 
spring mattress two feet six inches wide, horse- 
hair mattress and pillows, a sheet, two blankets, 
and a rug. The bed of each cubicle is so 
arranged that one is superimposed above the 
other on the bunk system, but entered from 


different sides, and boarded so that complete 
privacy is secured. The confined air space 
round the lower bed is not quite satisfactory, 
though the arrangement secures great economy 
of space. The cost to the Corporation of seven 
of these lodging houses was ;^87,ooo, the money 
being borrowed at 3 J percent. The net annual 
return has been 5f per cent. So that the finan- 
cial result has been decidedly encouraging. 

The Municipal Lodging- House erected by the 
Public Health and Housing Committee of the 
London County Council in Parker Street, Drury 
Lane, was completed in 1892, at a total cost of 
;^2 1,403, of which ;^i 5,353^ was expended on 
the building, the remainder including the cost 
of land, furnishing, and fees. The accommo- 
dation is for 326 men, and the charge for a bed 5^. 
a night. This is expected to secure a 3 per cent, 
return and a sinking fund to cancel the build- 
ing capital. The details of the building are 
admirable, though it may be doubtful whether 

^ The original cost of the building was ;£^i4,3oo, but in 
October, 1893, it was found that a bill of extras and omis- 
sions amounting to ;£^i,o53 13J. 2d, had to be met. 

D.P. H 


the arrangement of the dormitories is the best. 
They are placed in galleries round a common 
covered space, which, however well ventilated, 
gives a cube of air common to a very large 
number of persons. Also any traffic or noise in 
the court is so very audible. The cubicles them- 
selves are eight feet high, seven feet long, and 
four feet wide, being well ventilated, and lit 
by electricity. The living-room, kitchen, shop, 
library, lavatory, and baths, with feet-washing 
troughs, are efficient, if not luxurious. 

Private enterprise has erected a similar ** Doss 
House '* in Wentworth Street, Spitalfields. 
Accommodation for 350 men is provided, at 
charges of from 5^. to 6d. a night. 

The building opened in 1893 for 470 men in 
Bond Street, Vauxhall, is due to the enterprise 
of its proprietor. Lord Rowton. The- charge 
is in this house 6d. a night. To the right of 
the turnstiles are the lavatories, fitted with hot 
and cold water, baths, feet-washing troughs, 
etc. There is a good wash-house and. drying 
room, and a chamber for hair-cutting and black- 
ing boots, etc. On the left of the entrance 
is a large sitting-room, the tinted walls and 


glazed bricks giving a clean and comfortable 
appearance. The dining-room, 114 feet long 
and 18 feet wide, extends throughout the rear 
of the ground floor. It is furnished with 
two large stoves, where the lodgers can cook 
their own food, purchased at a shop near the 
entrance. There is also a central office for 
service adjoining the kitchen, sculleries, and 
larders. Lockers are placed at each end of the 
dining-room, partitioned off. The water-closets, 
etc., are well placed, and a recreation ground is 
provided in the rear. A comfortable reading- 
room and retiring-room is provided on the first 
floor, 70 feet long and 18 feet wide. This 
room is hung with well-selected engravings, and 
open book- cases supply the lodgers with all sorts 
of good literature, which is by no means allowed 
to lie useless on the shelves. The majority of 
the beds in the dormitories on the upper floors 
are arranged on the cubicle system, partitioned 
off, seven feet high, and having a bedstead, and 
not a bunk, as at Glasgow. 

It is very desirable that similar lodging- 
houses should be provided for single women as 
well as single men, as has already been done 


to a very limited extent in Glasgow and else- 

If these institutions for men and women are 
well arranged and successfully managed, it is 
impossible to over-estimate the value of the 
strict discipline and regular hours which they 
require. A system of well- managed cheap 
lodging-houses throughout the country might be 
a means of raising the very poor and unfortunate. 
They afford an excellent opportunity for com- 
petent persons to refine and help the inmates 
by friendly intercourse. Suitable lectures, 
literature, and pictures should be provided. 

The Glasgow Corporation are about to erect 
a model lodging-house for poor nomadic families, 
and the example should be followed in London. 
It is to be a kind of boarding-house, or a com- 
promise between the Single Men's Lodging- 
House and the Metropolitan Artizans' Dwell- 
ings — an amplification of the previous model 
lodging-house experiments. The building will 
contain 176 private dormitory rooms. Such 
** Family Hotels" for the **very poor" are 
required in all our large towns. 





" The breathing of vitiated, or air loaded with decom- 
posing or other deleterious substances, will lower the 
natural vitality so as to render the human subject suscept- 
ible to disease, and in this state the subtle germs of disease 
hold uncontrolled sway, and produce results as certain as 
if the person attacked had received a dose of any well- 
known poison." — Baldwin Latham. 

Well lighted and ventilated rooms, accom- 
panied by the cleanliness of the tenant, will 
atone for many faults in the arrangement and 
construction of the town dwellings for the work- 
ing classes. 

It is not intended here to attempt any specifi- 
cation, but rather to mention a few rules and 
desiderata in accordance with which small 
tenements should be constructed. 

First, as regards lighting the living-rooms 



of tenement-dwellings, it is most important that 
the windows, particularly on the ground floor, 
should not be obstructed by surrounding objects 
above a straight line drawn at an angle of 45° 
from the sill. For the dwelling rooms, it may 
be considered sufficient to have a vertical 
window space, if unobstructed, giving light of 
20 square feet to a room of 1,200 cubic feet — 
/>., 60 cubic feet should have one square foot 
of vertical opening for light. In some instances 
one square foot of light in a vertical wall 
is sufficient for 100 cubic feet. The proper 
and ample direct lighting of all water-closets 
and sculleries is often overlooked, and in many 
block dwellings we find an unnecessarily small 
window. Every comer and cranny of a water- 
closet or scullery should be well lighted, as well 
as well ventilated, as it is much less likely for dirt 
and vermin to accumulate in a full light than in 
ill-lighted quarters. The tops of the windows 
should be not more than seven inches from the 
soffit of the ceiling. 

The necessity for most carefully contrived 
methods of ventilating the living rooms of the 
poor has not been sufficiently recognised by 


those who have constructed model dwellings 
in our large towns. Many of the houses of 
the working classes have no special provision 
for ventilation, which is assumed to be suffi- 
ciently provided for by the opening of windows. 
These windows are, however, almost invariably 
closed, except in hot weather. It should also 
be borne in mind that the fireplaces, whilst 
serving the most important function of drawing 
off vitiated air, are often in summer blocked 

An arbitrary law as to the minimum cubic 
capacity of a room per person is a most difficult 
question, as so much depends on the proper 
ventilation of the room. The minimum capacity 
allowed by the bye-laws is 300 cubic feet per 
adult. In a well through- ventilated tenement 
300 cubic feet may be sufficient, but in an ill- 
ventilated dwelling 600 feet would not be 
enough. Prof. Huxley states 809 cubic feet 
to be desirable, whilst the Poor Law enacts that 
500 cubic feet are needful. It has been calcu- 
lated that a healthy adult male during sleep 
requires 3,500 cubic feet of fresh air per hour. 
It is useless, therefore, to provide a liberal cubic 


capacity of even 7CXD feet in a bedroom, if such 
room contains practically no circulation of fresh 

The means for providing entrance for fresh 
air and exit for vitiated air should be simple 
and efficient. The fireplace is one of the most 
important means for providing proper circu- 
lation of air in rooms. It is a most common 
practice for poor people in winter not only to 
close tightly all doors and windows, but, being 
badly off for coals, to close the fireplace too. 
This should never be done, and the soot trap 
really should not be provided at all. Besides 
the top and bottom sashes of an ordinary 
window, providing a blow through when thrown 
down and up, a permanent inlet may be secured 
by making the internal cill bead about three 
inches deep, so that if the lower sash is lifted 
two inches there is no opening at the sill level, 
but only between the sashes and well above 
the heads of the occupants. Another means 
is that of boring holes through the lower part 
of the frame of the upper sash. Inlet tubes, 
with the external opening at the floor level, 
protected by a hood from the wind, may be 

* « 


introduced so as to open into the rooms well 
above the heads of the inmates. Inlets in the 
outer walls may be also connected with the 
hearth of the fireplace by tubes and be provided 
with valves* Outlet grids may be placed in 
the chimney breast opening into special flues 
at the top of the room and having valves to 
prevent a back draught. 

All closets, sculleries, and wash-houses should 
be ventilated directly through the outer walls 
and by top and cross ventilation where possible. 
All staircases should be cross lighted and venti- 
lated where possible, and the landing openings 
for light should not be glazed. 

Dr. Max Von Pettenkofer has very clearly 
shown the great advantages of thorough dry- 
ness in the walls surrounding a dwelling room. 
It should be borne in mind that damp walls 
absorb much more heat than dry ones, and that 
they are frequent agents in causing rheumatism, 
kidney disease, and colds. Rising damp from 
the ground may be prevented by most simple 
means. Six inches of good Portland cement 
concrete should cover the whole site of the 
dwelling, and concrete never less than nine 


inches thick should underlie all walls. A damp 
course should disconnect the whole of the 
foundations from the superstructure. This pre- 
ventative may consist of a double layer of thick 
slates bedded in cement, or of patent perforated 
stone- ware blocks or of three-quarters of an inch 
of best asphalt. Where the outer walls abut 
against the ground there should be a vertical 
damp course over the whole abutting surface of 
the wall. Damp often occurs owing to the roof 
and gutters being insecurely executed, and also 
owing to the bricks or stone being improperly 
Jaid and of inferior material. Hasty or careless 
building is almost always followed by most 
annoying and persistent dampness, which may 
be always prevented by thorough construction. 
Dr. H. R. Kenwood, M.B., in an admirable 
essay delivered before the Incorporated Society 
of Medical Officers of Health, in 1893, pointed 
out that the greatest reductions in death- 
rates of recent years have been in connection 
with those diseases which have not been 
shown to be associated with dampness in the 
abodes of the patients. 



" It has been proved over and over again that nothing 
is so costly in all ways as disease, and that nothing is so 
remunerative as the outlay which augments health, and, 
in doing so, augments the amount and value of the work 
done ... In many cases . . . the employer of 
labour finds that, by proper sanitary care of his men, he 
reaps at once an advantage in better and more zealous work, 
in fewer interruptions from ill health, etc., so that his 
apparent outlay is more than compensated." — Dr Edmund 
A, Parkes, 

The tendency of modern times is to carry out 

drainage provision for the sewage of houses 

and surplus water on too wholesale principles. 

The requirements of rural detached houses and 

cottages are recognised as quite distinct from 

the requirements of adjoining acres of crowded 

dwellings. What would be best for the one 



might prove, if applied, a fatal provision for 
the other. Where it is possible, however, 
in the suburbs and outlying districts of towns 
each house or cottage should provide for the 
disposal of its own sewage on its own allot- 
ment, and, instead of increasing the local rates, 
produce a return to the tenant by manuring his 
garden. If a house or cottage has no garden, 
this, of course, cannot be done, and small weekly 
wage-earners, who live in our crowded centres, 
must join with the well-to-do in paying for co- 
operative sewage disposal. When this is done, 
the outfall should never be allowed to pollute 
rivers, and only a slight overflow carried out 
to waste in the sea. The sewage should be 
converted into useful materials by manufacture, 
and also distributed to farms in the country. 
Round London there might be at least forty 
rich sewage farms outside a circle of about 
fifteen miles. This system of sewage farms 
has been very effectively carried out on a large 
scale at Berlin. 

The fundamental requirements of town 
dwelling drainage are that, first, the system 
should be so laid as to prevent any sewer gas 


from entering areas, rooms, passages, etc., 
either through the joints of the pipes or by 
the defective apparatus of water-closet, sinks, 
etc. ; second, the house drain should be suitably- 
trapped and disconnected from the back gases 
of the main sewer; and third, all excreta or slops 
should be rapidly removed to the main sewer. 

It is useless for a house to have the most 
perfect system of drainage if the tenants do not 
carefully carry out the most simple require- 
ments of maintenance. The tenant should see 
that the water-closet is well flushed with water ; 
when the glaze of the stone-ware in the closet 
basin is corroded, it should be replaced. All 
traps should be periodically flushed, and contain 
water not less than three inches deep, to discon- 
nect the gas. A large quantity of water with 
chloride of lime or other disinfectant may be 
used to flush a congested system. Holes in the 
lead soil pipes may be detected by having about 
half an ounce of oil of peppermint and hot water 
poured down the top water-closet. 

The latest regulations of many of the local 
authorities are efficient ; but regulations are of 
little use unless they are rigidly and effectively 


enforced. The drains on the premises of all 
town houses and cottages should be laid in 
straight lines wherever possible, and with an 
easy and regular fall. An interceptor syphon 
trap should be placed in the drain on the 
premises as near as possible to the sewer, 
and beyond all branch connections, and an 
inspection chamber provided. An inlet for the 
admission of air should be provided, the mouth 
of which should be constructed so as to pre- 
vent the admission of solid matters into the 
drain. At the highest part of the drain a 
pipe at least four inches in internal diameter 
should be fixed, for the purpose of ventilating 
the drain, and should be carried up to such a 
height, without bends or angles, as will afford a 
safe outlet for all gases. All drains should be 
made of glazed stone-ware or cast-iron pipes. 
When stone-ware pipes are used, they should be 
socket pipes of the best quality, and should be 
jointed in the best cement. Where fixed in- 
side the house the pipes should be bedded in 
good concrete at least six inches in thickness 
all round. The main drains should be at least 
six inches in internal diameter, and branch 


drains at least four inches in internal diameter. 
When cast-iron pipes are used, they should be 
socket pipes of best quality and heavy metal, 
and coated internally with Dr. Angus Smith's 
anti-corrosive* composition. The pipes should 
not be less than five inches internal diameter 
for main drains, and four inches for branch 
drains. The inlets to the drains should be 
properly trapped with fixed traps, except inlets 
used for the purpose of ventilation. The inlets 
to the drains should be outside the house, 
except the necessary inlets connected with 
water-closets. The yard guUey should be at 
least six inches in diameter, and should have 
an outlet connected with the drains at least four 
inches in diameter, and should be covered with 
an iron, or other grating. The waste pipes 
from scullery sink, baths, and lavatories, aad 
all pipes conveying foul matters to the drains 
from inside the house (except soil pipes from 
water-closets), and every rain-water pipe, ex- 
cepting such as may be used for the purpose 
of ventilation, should be made to discharge 
over or into a gulley connected with the drain 
outside the house. Drains should not be laid 


under any part of a house, if it be practicable 
to lay them outside of the house ; and in all 
newly erected structures the soil pipe of every 
water-closet should be of lead or iron, and 
should be placed outside, and not less than four 
inches in diameter. The soil pipe should be 
continued, without diminution of diameter, up- 
ward from its junction with the water-closet, 
without bends or angles, to such a height and 
position as will afford a safe outlet for foul 
gases. The joints of the soil pipes, ventilating 
pipes, rain-water pipes, and all other pipes 
discharging into the drain should be made air- 
tight. Every water-closet should be provided 
with suitable apparatus for effectually flushing 
the basin, which should be of such a shape that 
it will be self-cleansing with the flush of water 
discharged into it. 

The London County Council requirements 
as to conveniences, etc., issued June 22nd, 1893, 
are so important that at least a few of their 
regulations not embodied in the previous 
statements should be mentioned. In con- 
structing water-closets one side at least shall be 
an external wall abutting on a space in no case 


less than icx) square feet. No water-closet must 
be approached directly from a living room or 
store for food. A window of not less than two 
square feet is to open directly into the external 
air. It must be properly ventilated by air 
brick, shaft, or otherwise. The flushing cistern 
is to be separate and distinct from any cistern 
used for drinking purposes, and the receptacle 
must be of non-absorbent material, and its 
quality and that of the apparatus efficient. 
D traps or other similar traps are not allowed, 
and an efficient syphon trap must be provided 
There are regulations for the soil pipes and 
equally important requirements as to earth- 
closets and privies. 

Let it be remembered that "health is the 
capital of the labouring man," and that all dis- 
tricts the dwellings in which are in an insanitary 
condition are proportionally an expense and 
drawback to the community. 





"The solid portions of the sewage of all well-ordered 
dwellings, whether they stand singly or in the street of a 
town, consisting of animal and vegetable refuse, dust, ashes, 
and other substances forming kitchen waste, as well as the 
excretal refuse from earth closets, require only careful 
collection and frequent periodical removal to render them 
free from nuisance." — Bailey-Denton, 

There is perhaps nothing in the management 
of a house which may be a greater nuisance 
than the disposal of its refuse, if the tenant is 
slovenly and careless, and the local authorities 
corrupt or negligent. 

In the first plade, all waste vegetable or 
organic matter should be burned by each 
tenant, as far as possible ; and it might perhaps 
be desirable to fine those persons who insist in 
mixing organic refuse with the ashes. 



In London alone there are nearly two 
million tons of house refuse produced in the 

The old ashpit should be abolished. Indeed, 
the refuse receptacle should always be a port- 
able galvanized iron pail, of a form which has 
been recognised by most local authorities. In 
one London parish a covered galvanized iron 
bin, sixteen inches in diameter and eighteen 
inches deep, has been used. It is fitted with 
handles and perforated, so as to prevent any 
liquids settling. It should be noticed that the 
new bye-laws of the London County Council 
require, with provisional exceptions, that the 
receptacle shall not exceed two cubic feet. 
Whether the receptacle is fixed or movable, it 
should always be covered and protected from 
the rain. 

The dust-bins should preferably be removed 
daily before 8.0 a.m., by the local authority. 
The receptacle should be carefully cleansed 
each time during the removal of the refuse and 
nothing whatsoever spilt or dropped within the 
premises or its yards and areas. The local 
authorities are responsible for using proper 


carts covered up and constructed so as to prove 
no nuisance by either smell or slops ; in fact, the 
new bye-laws require the dustmen to remove 
any refuse from the place where it has been 
slopped or spilt, and to thoroughly sweep and 
cleanse such place. The Sanitary Authorities 
are responsible for the removal of the refuse at 
least once a week from all premises. 

One of the most difficult problems of the 
times is how to dispose of this refuse in a 
thoroughly satisfactory manner. Whilst it is 
most desirable to abolish the contractors, it is 
most decidedly a question whether the recent 
movement for the wholesale burning of this 
refuse is altogether a desirable one. It would 
appear far more desirable that the London 
County Council should provide some means for 
taking it down the river, and there sorting it in- 
to materials useful for manufacture and manure, 
to enrich the open land or suburban farms. 
The parish of Lambeth have the refuse moved 
out of the district at a cost of ;^ 14,000, whilst 
Paddington, by careful management, sorting, and 
selling, only expend ^2,800 a year. The parish 
of Hammersmith sends its dust to Barking at a 


cost of 35. per load. The parish of Shore- 
ditch alone has 20,cx)0 tons of dust, slop, 
refuse, etc., to dispose of per annum ; and it has 
been said that there are 260 tons of dust and 
refuse per 1,000 persons produced. These 
figures show that refuse disposal in any crowded 
centre of population is a very serious matter. 

A most interesting report on Dust Des- 
tructors has this year been made to the 
London County Council by Dr. Shirley F. 
Murphy, the Medical Officer. It is reported 
that **dust destructors of the modern type were 
first used in 1876, and that since that date 
there has been a steady increase in the number 
built year by year. ... By its operations 
the matter collected is generally reduced to one- 
third or one-quarter the size. The organic and 
combustible matters are burnt, and the residue 
consists of ash and clinker, free from matters 
which can become offensive and contagious." 
The principal forms seem to be the Fryers 
destructor, used at Barking in connection with 
the main drainage ; the Horsfall, used at Old- 
ham ; and the Hewson, used at Leeds. Dr. 
Murphy describes the furnace in use at Man- 


Chester : ** The material to be burnt is intro- 
duced into the furnace by means of a shoot ; it 
falls upon fire-bars, to which a rocking motion 
is imparted, and it is slowly carried forward for 
the whole length of the furnace, the com- 
bustible matters being destroyed as the material 
traverses the furnace, whilst the clinker drops 
through the door provided for the purpose at 
the front end of the destructor. . . . The 
fact that the Manchester Corporation are now 
providing a very large installation of this form 
of destructor, after having given it an extended 
trial, must be regarded as evidence of the 
value of this appliance." It should be borne 
in mind that this burning of refuse is not alto- 
gether wasting it, as, besides being a generator 
of heat, it produces ashes and clinker, which 
may often be sold at from 2s, to 3^. a ton. 

The bye-laws of the London County Council, 
under the Public Health (London) Act, 1891, 
issued June, 1893, provide that no refuse, 
otherwise than in course of removal, shall be 
deposited within 300 yards of any two or more 
dwelling-houses, any school or assembly hall, 
or any public recreation place. In the case of 


temporary deposit for subsequent removal, the 
time allowed is not to exceed 24 hours. The 
refuse must be removed out of the district or 
destroyed by fire. 

The first clause of these new bye-laws provid- 
ing for the proper removal by road or otherwise 
of refuse is most important, though it would 
have been better for the pedestrian public if the 
limit for morning removal had been made earlier. 
** Every person who shall remove or carry by 
road or water, in or through London, any faecal 
or offensive or noxious matter or liquid, whether 
such matter or liquid shall be in course of removal 
or carriage from within or without, or through 
London, shall not remove or carry such matter 
or liquid in or through London except between 
the hours of 4 o'clock and 10 o'clock in the 
forenoon, during the months of March, April, 
May, June, July, August, September, and 
October, and except between the hours of 6 
o'clock in the forenoon and 12 o'clock at 
noon, during the months of November, Decem- 
ber, January and February." 



" ... As to these sanitary evils nothing is really 
wanted beyond this, that the law shall do in effect what, as 
matters now stand, it professes to do." — Salisbury, 

It is unfortunate that the general public do not 
realize how much they are to blame for a state 
of things of which they constantly complain. 
The ratepayers should consider themselves 
responsible for the unhealthy dwellings which 
exist contrary to law in their respective districts. 
Theif representatives forming the local authority 
should be most carefully selected. These mem- 
bers of the local government are responsible 
for the efficiency of the salaried staff of offi- 
cials whose duty it is to enforce the provisions 



of municipal law. If the existing Acts, bye- 
laws, and regulations were strictly enforced, 
there need be no slums in our towns. This 
legislative machinery requires, however, to be 
considerably simplified, and some unnecessary 
formalities done away with. 

" The Housing of the Working Classes Act, 
1890," embodies and extends the main provi- 
sions of the Shaftesbury, Torrens, and Cross 
Acts. Mr. Ritchie, in introducing the Bill, said : 
** The great object of the present Bill has been 
to make owners of insanitary property respon- 
sible for their condition, and to compel them to 
put- those houses in a habitable state if they 
wish to avoid a closing order. It is made an 
absolute duty of the medical officer of health to 
report to the local authorities any premises in- 
jurious to health and unfit for human habitation ; 
and it is also made the absolute duty of the 
local authorities to order proper periodical sur- 
veys to be made of their district, with a view 
to seeing that the medical officer of health ful- 
fils his duty.'' 

Part I. Section 4 states an area to be an un- 
healthy area when there are within it any houses. 


courts, or alleys unfit for human habitation ; 
or when the narrowness, closeness, and bad 
arrangement, or the bad condition, of the streets 
and houses or groups of houses within it, or the 
want of light, air, ventilation, or proper con- 
veniences, or one or more of such causes, are 
dangerous or injurious to the health of the in- 
habitants, either of the buildings in the area or 
of the neighbouring buildings. The Act pro- 
vides that on receipt of a representation as to an 
unhealthy area the local authorities, if satisfied 
of its truth and the sufficiency of their resources, 
are required to prepare an improvement scheme, 
and apply to the Local Government Board for 
its confirmation. Section lo provides that if 
they fail to pass any resolution as to the area or 
decide not to proceed, they must report their 
decision to the Home Secretary, who may order 
a local inquiry to be held. 

Sections 5 and 16 provide that the officer of 
health may be required to report on any area 
by any two or more justices of the peace acting 
within the district for which he is officer of 
health, or by twelve or more persons liable to 
be rated to the local rate. If he fail to inspect 


the area or to make an official representation, or 
if he represent that the area is not an unhealthy- 
area, an appeal may be made to the Home 
Secretary, who is then required to appoint a 
legally qualified medical practitioner to inspect 
the area, and to make a representation as to 
the facts of the case ; and if the report of the 
latter state that the area is an unhealthy area, 
the local authority is required to proceed as if 
they had received an official representation to 
that effect. 

If the London County Council proceed, they 
may apply for a contribution towards the 
expenses from the Vestry or District Board, 
and the latter, in proceeding, may apply 
for a contribution from the Council. In 
the event of want of agreement, the Home 
Secretary may determine the amount of contri- 
bution. The local authorities are required to 
pass a resolution that a scheme ought to be 
prepared for the improvement of the area. 
Notice is then to be served on every owner, 
lessee, and occupier, and the Local Govern- 
ment Board petitioned for an order sanctioning 
the scheme. The Local Government Board 


may hold an inquiry and approve the scheme 
with or without modifications. The local 
authority may then purchase the whole area 
by agreement. In case of disagreement the 
amount of compensation is determined by 

Part II. of this Act provides for dealing with 
small areas. The clauses as to the inspection 
and registration of unhealthy dwellings are of 
great use in improving the houses of the poor. 
Section 32 requires every local authority to 
cause to be made from time to time inspection of 
its district, with a view to ascertain whether any 
dwelling-house is in a condition so dangerous 
or injurious to health as to be unfit for human 
habitation, and to forthwith take proceedings 
for closing any such house by applying to a 
magistrate. Section 34 requires, when an order 
for the demolition of a building has been made, 
that the owner shall within three months after 
service of the order take down and remove the 
building ; and if he fail, the local authority are 
required to do so. Section 38 provides for 
the demolition of any building which by its 
proximity or contact with other buildings ob- 


structs ventilation or otherwise renders the 
adjoining property unhealthy. 

The Public Health (London) Act, 1891, re- 
peals the greater part of thirty-five previous 
Acts, and has done good work in assisting in 
the consolidation of metropolitan sanitary law. 
It has already been the means of betterment in 
thousands of the dwellings of the London poor. 
Section 1 provides that it shall be the duty of 
all Sanitary Authorities to cause to be made, 
from time to time, inspection of their district, 
with a view to ascertain what nuisances exist 
calling for abatement under the powers of the 
Act, and to enforce the Act for the purpose of 
abating the same, and otherwise to put in force 
the powers vested in them relating to public 
health and local government, so as to secure the 
proper sanitary condition of all premises within 
their several districts. The County Council 
exercises (Section 100) power over the local 
authorities in London, which are, the Commis- 
sioners of Sewers in the City, the vestries of 
certain parishes, and the district boards in cer- 
tain groups of parishes which are united in 
districts ; and, on its being proved to their satis- 


faction that any Sanitary Authority has made 
default in doing its duty under this Act with 
respect to the removal of any nuisance, the 
County Council may institute any proceeding 
which the authority might have instituted or 
done for that purpose. 

The following nuisances (Section 2) may be 
abated summarily : any premises in such a state 
as to be a nuisance or injurious to health ; any 
pool, ditch, gutter, water-course, privy, urinal, 
cesspool, drain, or ash-pit so foul as to be a 
nuisance or injurious to health ; any accumula- 
tion or deposit which is a nuisance or injurious 
to health, provided always that no such accu- 
mulation or deposit as shall be necessary for 
the effectual carrying on of any business or 
manufacture shall be punishable as a nuisance 
under this section when it is proved to the 
satisfaction of the justices that the accumulation 
or deposit has not been kept longer than is 
necessary for the purposes of such business or 
manufacture, and that the best available means 
have been taken for protecting the public from 
injury to health thereby ; any occupied house 
without a proper and sufficient water supply ; 


any house, or part of a house, so overcrowded 
as to be injurious or dangerous to the health of 
the inmates, whether or not members of the 
same family ; any such absence from premises 
of water fittings as is a nuisance by virtue of 
Section 33 of The Metropolis Water Act, 1871. 
Notice of the nuisance may be given to the 
Sanitary Authority by any person. 

Section 48 provides that an occupied house 
without a proper and sufficient supply of water 
shall be a nuisance liable to be dealt with sum- 
marily, and if it is a dwelling house shall be 
deemed unfit for human habitation. Again, 
Section 49 provides that where a water company 
may lawfully cut off the water supply to any 
inhabited dwelling house, and cease to supply 
such dwelling house with water for non-payment 
of water rate, or other cause, the company shall 
in every case within twenty-four hours after ex- 
ercising the said right, give notice thereof in 
writing to the Sanitary Authority of the district 
in which the house is situated. 

Section 50 requires every Sanitary Authprity 
to make bye- laws for securing the cleanliness 
and freedom from pollution of cisterns. The 


cleanliness and provision of covers, and discon- 
nection of the waste-pipe from a drain, may be 
enforced under Section 2. 

Section 37 enforces the provision of ash-pits 
and of one or more proper and sufficient water- 
closets, and makes the Sanitary Authority re- 
quire a proper water supply and water supply 
apparatus ; whilst Section 39 requires the County 
Council to make bye-laws with respect to water- 
closets, earth-closets, privies, ash-pits, cesspools, 
and receptacles for dung. Section 30 makes it 
the duty of every Sanitary Authority to secure 
the due removal at proper periods of house 

Section 94 requires that every Sanitary Au- 
thority shall make and enforce such bye-laws as 
are requisite as to houses let in lodgings ; viz., 
for fixing the number of persons who may 
occupy a house or part of a house which is let 
in lodgings or occupied by members of more 
than one family, and for the separation of the 
sexes in a house so let or occupied ; for the 
registration of houses so let or occupied ; for 
the inspection of such houses ; for enforcing 
drainage for such houses, and for promoting 


cleanliness and ventilation in such houses ; for 
the cleansing and lime-washing at stated times 
of the premises ; for the taking of precautions 
in case of infectious disease. 

It must be evident that the powers given by 
the Public Health (London) Act, 1891, are very 
important, and if carried into effect by the 
vestries or local authorities, would tend to a 
marvellous improvement in the neglected por- 
tions of London. It is, perhaps, too soon to 
expect any considerable result, but it now be- 
comes the interest and the duty of the rate- 
payers to see that the powers are duly acted 

In reference to Section 94, referring to lodg- 
ing or tenement houses, it will be interesting 
to select a few of the most important clauses 
of the bye-laws of the important district of St, 
Pancras, which bye-laws, though made by the 
local authority under previous sanitary Acts, 
and confirmed by the Local Government Board, 
1890, continue in operation in 1893. The first 
clauses have reference to the registration of 
tenement houses. Clause 4 requires that the 
landlord of a tenement house proposed to be 

D.P. K 


registered shall within a period of seven days 
after he shall have been required by a notice in 
writing supply to the vestry the information 
necessary for the registration of such house, 
such as the number of rooms, the dimensions 
and use of each room and the name of the 
tenant, the number, age, and sex of the occu- 
pants of each room used for sleeping. Further 
clauses require that no landlord or tenant of a 
registered house shall knowingly permit or suffer 
a greater number of persons than will admit of 
the provision of 300 cubic feet of free air space 
for each person to occupy at any one time as a 
sleeping apartment a room in such house ex- 
clusively used for that purpose ; no landlord or 
tenant of a registered house shall knowingly 
permit or suffer a greater number of persons 
than will admit of the provision of 400 cubic 
feet of fresh air space for each person to occupy 
at any one time in such house used both as a 
sleeping apartment and for some other purpose. 
It is required that adequate means for the admis- 
sion of air into every habitable room and every 
passage and staircase shall be provided by the 
landlord, also an adequate supply of water for the 



) .   — -» -■■ I, -■■■■-■  »■■  ■■■■■■-■■ — 

use of the tenants. Any cistern or pipe supply- 
ing water for drinking or for any other ordinary 
purposes must not have any connection with a 
drain or water-closet such as may lead to the 
contamination of the water contained in such 
cistern or pipe. The landlord shall keep all 
drains and drainage apparatus in proper working 
order, and he shall provide privy accommo- 
dation in the proportion of one properly con- 
structed and ventilated water-closet, supplied 
with a fit and sufficient water supply^ etc., for 
every twelve persons lawfully occupying the 
house, and shall keep the same in good order 
and efficient action. The landlord shall cause 
the surface of every court, yard, area, and wash- 
house to be evenly and imperviously paved and 
sloped to a trapped gulley grating, so as to 
effectually carry off all rain or waste water from 
such court, yard, area, or wash-house ; and shall 
keep such surface and grating at all times in 
good order and in proper repair. Subsequent 
clauses state at length that the landlord is re- 
quired to keep all staircases, dust bins, and 
water-closets, passages, etc., in good structural 
condition. It is further required that the land- 



lord shall once in every year cause every part 
of the house, including cellars and yards, to 
be cleaned. Surely such local powers should 
be sufficient to do away with wretched 



" When we mean to build, we first survey the plot, then 
draw the model ; and when we see the figure of the house, 
then must we rate the cost of the erection. . . . Much 
more, in this great work (which is, almost, to pluck a 
kingdom down and set another up), should we survey the 
plot of situation, and the model ; consent upon a sure 
foundation ; question surveyors ; know our own estate, 
how able such a work to undergo." — King Henry IV,y Fart 
II y Act ly Scene 3. 

Our large towns have rapidly increased with 
too little consideration how each particular 
addition will affect the near or distant future 
of the whole community. If there is one par- 
ticular detail more than another which should 
be most carefully considered and supervised, it 
is the laying out of any new properties for the 

housing of small weekly wage-earners. 



The present regulations are not particularly 
exacting ; indeed, the required widths of new 
streets might with advantage be considerably 
increased. The requirements of the Metropolis 
Management and Building Acts Amendment 
Act, as to the formation of new streets in the 
metropolis lay down that forty feet at least 
shall be the width of every new street intended 
for carriage traffic ; twenty feet at the least shall 
be the width of every new street intended only 
for foot traffic. These widths include the 
carriage and footway only, exclusive of any 
gardens, forecourts, open areas, or other spaces 
in front of the houses o.r buildings erected or 
intended to be erected in any street. These 
streets are required to have at least two en- 
trances of the full width of such street, and be 
open from the ground upwards. Two clauses 
of these regulations specifically state how the 
roads and footpaths must .be constructed as 
to fall, etc. ; whilst Clause 4 states that the 
measurement of the width of every new street 
shall be taken at a right angle to the course 
thereof, half on either side from the centre or 
crown of the roadway to the external wall or 


front of the intended houses or buildings on 
each side thereof; but that where forecourts or 
other spaces are intended to be left in front of 
the houses or buildings, then the width of the 
street, as already defined, shall be measured 
from the centre line up to the fence, railing, 
or boundary dividing or intended to divide 
such forecourts, gardens, or spaces from the 
public way. 

The regulations as to the Sites of Dwell- 
ings and the Foundations should be enforced 
with the most rigid exactness. No fault need 
be found with the metropolitan provision of 
laws in this matter, but exception may be most 
certainly taken to the efficiency with which they 
are carried out. Constant supervision by com- 
petent surveyors and honest official inspectors 
seems the only means of preventing the erec- 
tion of dwellings upon bad and rotten subsoils 
and substructures. The London County 
Council Bye-laws (1891), under Section 16 
of the Metropolis Management and Build- 
ing Acts Amendment Act (1878), require that 
no house, building, or other erection, shall be 
erected upon any site or portion of any site 


which shall have been filled up or covered with 
any material impregnated or mixed with any 
faecal, animal, or vegetable matter, or which 
shall have been filled up or covered with dust, 
or slop, or other refuse, or in or upon which 
any such matter or refuse shall have been de- 
posited, unless and until such matter or refuse 
shall have been properly removed, by excava- 
tion or otherwise, from such site. Any holes 
caused by such excavation must, if not used for 
a basement or cellar, be filled in with hard 
brick or dry rubbish, or concrete, or other 
suitable material to be approved by the district 
surveyor. The site of every house or building 
shall be covered with a layer of good concrete, 
at least six inches thick, and smoothed on the 
upper face. 

As to the foundations of the walls of every 
house or building, it is required that they shall 
be formed of a bed of good concrete, not less 
than nine inches thick, and projecting at least 
four inches on each side of the lowest course of 
footings of such walls. Then follows a specific 
statement as to what the concrete should be 
composed of. 


The same code contains regulations concern- 
ing the description and quality of walls, and 
requires that the external walls of every house, 
building, or other erection, shall, except in the 
case of concrete buildings, be constructed of 
good, hard, sound, well-burnt bricks or of 
stone. . . . Stone used for the construc- 
tion of walls must be free from vents, cracks, 
and sand-holes, and be laid on its natural bed. 
All bricks and stone work are to be put to- 
gether with good mortar or good cement. 
The mortar to be used must be composed of 
freshly burnt lime and clean sharp sand and 
grit, without earthy matter, in the proportions 
of one of lime to three of sand or grit. Then 
follows description of cement, etc., to be used. 
Most important of all is the requirement that 
every wall of a house or building shall have a 
damp course composed of materials impervious 
to moisture, to be approved by the district 
surveyor, extending throughout its whole thick- 
ness at the level of not less than six inches 
below the level of the lowest floor. Every 
external wall, or enclosing wall of habitable 
rooms or their appurtenances, or cellars, which 


abuts against the earth shall be protected by 
materials impervious to moisture to the satis- 
faction of the surveyor. 

The top of every party- wall and parapet- 
wall shall be finished with one course of hard, 
well-burnt bricks set on edge, in cement, or by 
a coping of any other waterproof and fire- 
resisting material properly secured. Then 
follow specific regulations as to concrete walls. 

Under Section 31 of the London County 
Council (General Powers) Act, 1890, there are 
a series of bye-laws as to the description and 
quality of the substances of which plastering is 
made, and as to the mode in which, and the 
materials with which, any excavation outside the 
site of a building is to be filled up. These 
regulations are more intimately connected with 
the hygiene of the dwellings of the poor than 
many persons may perhaps think. 

The thicknesses of the walls of dwelling houses 
in relation to their height and length is given 
fully in the Metropolis Local Management Act, 
1855. It is this Act which controls the greater 
part of the construction of houses in London. 
The majority of the requirements are suitable 


and efficient, but some require considerable 
amendment. Section 23 names seven feet as 
the minimum height for a room. Such a regu- 
lation may almost be regarded as a satire on 
the possibilities of our modern civilization. 

There are provincial bye-laws which are in 
some respects a vast improvement upon those 
in force in the metropolis. In reference to the 
subject just mentioned, the bye-laws of the city 
of Manchester (Section 47) require that every 
person who shall erect a new domestic building 
shall so construct every room intended to be 
used as a dwelling or sleeping room (not being 
in the attic or roof) so that the same shall be 
in every part nine feet in height, at the least, 
from the floor to the ceiling, and so that every 
room intended to be used as aforesaid in the 
attic or roof shall be seven and a half feet in 
height at least, from the floor over one-third 
the superficial area of such room. These bye- 
laws also contain regulations which are not 
contained in the London Acts ; for example, 
Section 46 give specific regulations with re- 
spect to the timbers of new domestic buildings, 
such as floor and ceiling joists, bridging floor 


boards, lintels, purlins and roof battens. With 
regard to windows in habitable rooms, Section 
52 requires that every person who shall erect 
a new building shall construct in every habit- 
able room of such building one window, at the 
least, opening directly into the external air ; and 
he shall cause the total area of such window, 
or, if there be more than one, of the several 
windows, clear of the sash frames, to be equal, 
at the least, to one-tenth of the floor area of such 
room. Such person shall also construct every 
such window so that one-half at the least may 
be opened, and so that the opening may extend 
in every case to the top of the window. 
Sections 55 to 61 form an excellent code for the 
drainage of buildings, and Sections 62 to 77 
for water-closets, earth- closets, privies, ashpits, 
and cesspools. 

The Building Regulations approved by the 
London County Council, December 3rd, 1889, 
concerning blocks of workmen s dwellings con- 
tain some excellent provisions. They are, 
however, only the conditions which the Council 
attach to the erection of artizan dwellings on 
land which the Council sells for this purpose or 


which guide the Council if it builds itself. It 
is stated that ** a central staircase in blocks of 
dwellings is objectionable ; and as regards con- 
venience of plan and thorough ventilation of 
each dwelling, the best amongst the modes 
commonly in use is that which provides a 
staircase close to the outer wall, and having 
large openings communicating with the open 
air. Such a staircase can be conveniently 
arranged to give access to four dwellings, and 
the ventilation of such dwellings can be affected 
by means of open doors and fanlights, so that 
a thorough current of air can be obtained when 
it is desired. If it is felt in the winter time 
that this arrangement leaves the persons using 
the staircases too much exposed to the weather, 
windows partially enclosing the openings can 
be provided. The chief alternative to this 
kind of staircase seems to be one which is 
centrally situated against the outer wall of 
the block, and gives access to dwellings on 
each side of it In this case the ingress of 
fresh air to the staircases can only be through 
the Entrance doorway and along a short pas- 
sage, and through the skylight at the top of the 


Staircase. Upon this the dwellings opening 
from the staircase have to depend for their 
through - ventilation. Staircases in buildings 
more than three storeys high should be at least 
four feet in width. The walls of the staircases 
to a height of about four feet six inches should 
be finished with glazed or hard-pressed bricks ; 
the upper portions with hard bricks, neatly- 

** . . . Unless they are in close vicinity to 
public baths and wash-houses (a condition 
which can very rarely happen), bath and wash- 
house accommodation should be provided to 
every block of buildings ; and this can best be 
provided in a separate building, or on the base- 
ment floor, or in a distinct section of the block 
that can be constantly under inspection, and 
to which inexpensive arrangements for water 
supply, etc., can be applied. In connection 
with this matter, the water-closet accommoda- 
tion has been considered, on the assumption that 
the dwellings to be built or promoted by the 
Council will generally be for the accommodation 
of the lowest class of the population which 
inhabit separate tenements, a class just above 


that which uses the common lodging houses, 
and for which neither private speculators nor 
the societies for building artizans dwellings 
make any provision. It seems inexpedient 
that either water-closets or separate water 
supply or sinks should be constructed so as to 
be immediately accessible from any dwelling 
rooms. A sufficient number of closets should 
be supplied to each floor of dwellings to which 
a separate staircase is provided, together with 
a provision of sinks and water supply for 
common use. Such closets should have both 
doors and windows opening directly to the 
open air ; and where possible there should be 
one closet to each family. Dust- shoots should 
be provided from each common scullery, or 
from the landing adjacent, to discharge into 
galvanized- iron movable dust-bins, which can 
be carried out and emptied into the dust-cart. 
. . . The standard height for every room 
should be nine feet. The walls of the rooms 
should be finished in some hard material, for 
which purpose Portland cement upon brick- 
work, or bricks with pressed face on both sides, 
should be used up to a height of about three 


feet six inches. The upper parts of the walls 
can be finished by a thin coating of hard 
plaster upon brick- work ; but upon this point 
some further inquiry is desirable." 

There are now stringent regulations by the 
local authorities as to water-closets, drains, 
sinks, refuse, etc. This matter is considered 
in Chapters XIII. and XIV. 

The model bye- laws issued by the Local 
Government Board have been of much assist- 
ance in enabling authorities to frame efficient 
and desirable regulations. 

The London medical officers of health are 
with rare exception a most able body of pro- 
fessional men, and the local inspectorate 
throughout London has been vastly increased 
and improved ; but, in spite of this, the difficulty 
of properly carrying out the existing laws is 
enormous, and there is much, very much to be 
done. Public opinion must be brought to beai: 
on the local authorities and their officials, so 
as to secure the efficient use of the existing 


" Build nothing, or build yitW^—/ohn Ruskin. 

In a small volume such as this it is impossible 
to give a complete account of the companies 
and agencies which are engaged in efforts to 
provide model dwellings for the less fortunate 
portion of English citizens. In this chapter, 
however, particulars are given of some of the 
most interesting and instructive attempts to 
house the poor in a suitable manner. 

One of the oldest agencies is the Peabody 
Donation Fund, the total capital of which up to 
Jan. I, 1893, was ;^ 1,080, 763. The trustees 
have provided for the artizan and labouring 
poor of London 11,273 rooms, with bath- 
rooms, laundries, and wash-houses, occupied by 
20,144 persons. These rooms comprise 5,070 

D.P. MS L 


separate dwellings, 75 of four rooms, 1,787 of 
three rooms, 2,404 of two rooms, and 804 of 
one room. The average rent of each dwelling 
was 4^. *g\d, per week, and of each room 
25. i^d.y the rent in all cases including the free 
use of water, laundries, sculleries, and bath- 
rooms. New blocks are to be built on a site in 
Stamford Street. 

In 1889 Sir Echvard Guinness placed 
;^200,ooo in the hands of three trustees for 
the erection of model dwellings for the labour- 
ing poor of London, and ;^50,ocx3 for the 
poor of Dublin. The income derived from 
the* rents of the houses is to be reinvested, 
with a view to the further development of the 
scheme. Up to Jan. i, 1893, there were 2,043 
persons living in the Trust Buildings then erec- 
ted. The buildings in Lever Street, Clerken- 
well, have been completed some time, and the 
buildings in Marlborough Road, Chelsea, and 
Columbia Road, Bethnal Green, were com- 
pleted during 1892. The buildings in Lever 
Street are being extended in consequence of 
the gift of ;^2 5,000 from the Goldsmiths Com- 
pany towards the further provision of dwell- 


ings. There are further operations in Vauxhall 
Square and in Bermondsey. In Dublin the 
Thomas Court Buildings have been completed 
and occupied, and there are further works in 
Kevin Street, etc. 

The freehold estates of The Improved Indus- 
trial Dwellings Company Limited, consisted in 
February, 1893, of thirteen blocks in various 
parts of London, comprising 5 six-room tene- 
ments, 2>1 five-room tenements, 488 four-room 
tenements, 1,503 three- room tenements, 239 
two-room tenements, 28 one-room tenements, 
20 shops, and 28 workshops. The leasehold 
estates consisted of 26 buildings in various 
parts of the_ metropolis, comprising 8 six-room 
tenements, 261 five-room tenements, 1,183 
four-room tenements, 1,443 three-room tene- 
ments, 135 two-room tenements, not any single 
rooms, 97 shops, and 13 workshops. Each 
tenement is structurally distinct, and contains 
separate offices, such as kitchen, water-closet, 
coal place, etc. The total number of dwellings 
and shops under the control of the Company is 
6,123 fo^ ^^ accommodation of about 31,000 


7 he Metropolitan Association for Improving 
the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes have 
fourteen various properties, including the Far- 
ringdon Buildings, the Gatliff Buildings, and 
the Ingestre Buildings. The rates, taxes, re- 
pairs, and expenses of one of these properties, 
the Farringdon Buildings, were, March 31, 
1892, as follows: — 

£ '■ •!■ 

Ground-rent 682 10 o 

Rates 688 10 II 

House duty 211 i 

Income tax 90 10 11 

Water 171 10 6 

Gas 45 12 7 

Repairs of buildings 434 2 10 

Sinking fund for leaseholds 70 o o 

Superintendents' wages "715 3 

Cleaning, materials, etc 29 16 4 

Insurance 23 16 3 

Making a total of f.'^^ZS^ 16 8 

£ <• d. 

On a capital cost of 421376 11 11 

With a gross rental of 4,910 7 g 

And a profit of 2,553 " ' 

The buildings contain 253 tenements, inhabited 
by 1,264 persons. The Pancras Square Blocks, 


, _ — *-  - ,■■■■,-■■■ I  

containing 109 tenements, with a capital cost 
of ;^i8,4i5 15^. 2d.y a maintenance of £T2% 
8^. "jd. and a gross rental of ;^ 1,961 6^. 6rf., 
gave in 1892 a profit of ;^i,232 17^. \id. 
This company has paid a dividend of 5 per 
cent, for several years. 

The Artizans\ Labourers, and General 
Dwellings Company, Limited, — The report 
shows the particulars of the various properties 
of this company January i, 1893. There are 
upwards of 10 block buildings. They com- 
prise 1,467 tenements, 3,495 rooms, and 148 
shops. The rental for 1892 amounted to 
;^26,578 4^. 6rf. 

In addition to these block-dwellings, this com- 
pany has made considerable provision for the 
people by the erection of small convenient 
houses. The Shaftesbury Park Estate of 42^ 
acres provides 1,198 houses and one block of 
22 tenements. The rental for 1892 amounted 
to ;^24,895 7^. 8^. The ground-rents produced 
£>^n S-^-j niaking the gross income ;^2 5,472. 
The loss from irrecoverable arrears of cottage 
rents during the year was only £*] \2s. 6d. 
The Queen's Park Estate of 76 acres provides 


2,297 houses. The rental for 1892 amounted 
tO;^59,322 8^. 6d. The ground-rents produced 
;^288 17^., making the gross income ;^59,6ii 
55. 6d. The loss from irrecoverable arrears of 
cottage rents was ;^58 19^. The Noel Park 
Estate of 100 acres provides for 1,305 houses, 
covering at present 50 acres. The rental for 
the year amounted to ;^3i,02 7 99. 8^. The 
loss from irrecoverable arrears of cottage rents 
was ^58 175'. 3^. The Leigham Court Estate 
consists of about 66 acres. Several houses and 
shops have been erected, but the development 
of this estate is by no means completed. 

The East End Dwellings Company, Limit ed^ 
have lately completed buildings with 208 rooms 
in Mansford Street, Bethnal Green Road. On 
the Cromer Street Estate the Midhope Build- 
ings comprise 245 rooms, besides a workshop, 
a club - room, and an estate office. Other 
properties comprise Katherine Buildings, 
Lolesworth Buildings, Gordon Dwellings, and 
Museum Buildings. The company now pays 
5 per cent. 

The Tenement Dwellings Company was es- 
tablished for the purpose of purchasing or 



renting what is known as ** weekly property," 
and letting it in good and sanitary condition at 
fair rentals to members of the industrial classes. 
It is stated that large profits are frequently 
made by owners of property of this description 
by the imposition of high rents on the tenants, 
and the absence of all expenditure on sanitary 
and other desirable improvements and repairs 
to the property. The directors hope that by 
<:areful management and the exercise of proper 
caution in making purchases a dividend of 
5 per cent, can be secured, while letting the 
company's property at fair rents and keeping it 
in a sound and sanitary condition. 

Amongst other metropolitan agencies may 
be named the Corporation of the City of 
London, the Strand Buildings Company, the 
Victoria Dwellings Association, St. George's 
Model Dwellings Association, the South Lam- 
beth Dwellings Company, Limited, the Mafy- 
lebone Association for Improving the Dwell- 
ings of the Industrious Classes, the National 
Dwellings Society, Limited, Miss Sharpes 
Lever Street Dwellings, and ** The Homes for 
the People Company.'* 


Besides private individual and co-operative 
enterprise, the County Council and local autho- 
rities must be included in the agencies for pro- 
viding new dwellings. The London County 
Council, which has now a merited reputation 
for metropolitan improvements, has been lately 
active in bettering the dwellings of the poor. 
Besides their excellent lodging-house off Drury 
Lane, they are responsible for improvement 
schemes on the Boundary Street area, Bethnal 
Green, in Shadwell, in Limehouse, Poplar, Dept- 
ford, and Greenwich. The whole of the claims 
for compensation by owners of property on the 
15 acres of the Boundary Street area, near 
Shoreditch Church, were settled at ;^266,S32. 
This is the first large area dealt with under the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. 
The efforts of the Council to obtain purchasers 
for portions of the land for the erections 
of workmen's dwellings by private enterprise 
under their stipulated conditions did not meet 
with success. The Council has therefore now 
decided to proceed with the construction of 
dwellings for 4, 700 persons on the whole area 
from which 6,000 persons had been displaced. 


the works to be carried out by the Councirs 
own employes. One block of five storeys in 
height, and one block of four storeys, comprising 
the first section, are to be erected at once, 
accommodating 272 persons. The second sec- 
tion, which is being proceeded with, will re- 
house 1,100 persons. If the whole scheme is 
to be carried out, including many sections, it 
must necessarily take three or four years to 

There have been numerous provincial schemes 
to assist in the better housing of the poor. 
Some of the works of the Improvement Trust 
of the Edinburgh Corporation, founded in 1867, 
are well carried out, such as Well Court, Water 
of Leith, Rosemount Buildings, adjoining the 
Caledonian Railway station. West Port Build- 
ings, near the Grass Market, and View Crag 
Row and Prince Albert Buildings, near the 
Queen's Park. There are many other dwellings 
for the working classes in Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow, some of which, as Mr. Joseph Corbett has 
pointed out, are by no means models in their 
arrangements. An early experiment in Salford 
was a group in Greengate, built in 1870, but the 


area is very confined.^ In 1881 a small company 
erected blocks in Medlock and Weston Streets, 
Ancoats, Manchester. The Manchester Corpo- 
ration are building in Oldham Road, Ancoats, 
dwellings for about 2,000 persons, and in Pol- 
lard Street dwellings for 700 persons. The 
large scheme is arranged in two quadrangles, 
giving abundance of space and light. They 
provide chiefly for double and single-room 

The Manchester Labourers Dwellings Com- 
pany, Limited, should be noticed particularly as 
having begun their labours by an original un- 
dertaking, which has, however, decided draw- 
backs. A large fireproof mill, known as the 
Jersey Street Mill, has been converted into 149 
dwellings (see p. 81). The several tenements 
are entered from balconies, which are reached 
by four staircases, one at each angle of the main 
building. Single-room dwellings are provided 
on two floors of the main building, and have a 

^ The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company have 
built several blocks in Salford, which are fairly well arranged 
in four storeys with balconies, and having wash-houses and 
drying grounds on the top. 


recess screened off for the bed. On the re- 
maining floors are provided two and three- 
roomed dwellings, each having one or two re- 
cesses for beds, thus practically adding one 
or two more compartments to each dwelling. 
Sinks are provided for each house, with hot and 
cold water supply ; gas being laid on to each 
tenement, stairs, etc. Each dwelling is pro- 
vided with a receptacle for coals. The water- 
closets on each landing are flushed automati- 
cally, and dust-shoots extend from landing to 
landing. Laundries and drying rooms, with 
club-rooms for men and women, and a co- 
operative store are provided. 

In Liverpool there are several block dwell- 
ings of interest. Those in Ashfield Street and 
Silvester Street are good types. The Liver- 
pool Corporation^ in 1885, executed a most 
successful scheme under ** The Artizans' and 
Labourers Dwellings Act, 1875," on an area 
known as Nash Grove. The area comprises 
about 9,195 yards, of which only 3,924 are 
occupied by^ the ** Victoria Square dwellings,** 

^ Two years ago the writer inspected these buildings 
throughout, and considers them to be in many respects truly 


SO that there is a liberal allowance for ap- 
proaches and open space. The large central 
space is covered with asphalt on nine inches of 
concrete, which underlies the buildings as well. 
The buildings are divided into 13 blocks of 
22 tenements, each block being entered by a 
separate vestibule from the area. Of five 
storeys in height, their appearance both to- 
wards the streets and the quadrangle is deci- 
dedly satisfactory. There are 271 tenements 
altogether, and the cost of the buildings was 
;^58,ooo. Three-room houses on the ground, 
first or second floors are rented at $3. dd. per 
week, whilst 4^. ^d. is the charge for a two- 
room tenement. On the third and fourth floor 
the charges are 5^. and 3^. td. respectively. 
Such rent covers, of course, all charges. The 
dimensions of the three-roomed tenements are 
13 feet X 12 feet 4 inches, 15 feet 3 inches x 
9 feet 7 inches, and 13 feet 8 inches x 8 feet 
6 inches. The sizes of the two-roomed houses 

model dwellings. For the dimensions and rentals he is 
indebted to an account of them by Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, 
M. Inst. C.E., the City Engineer, who lately described them 
at the Sanitary Institute, London. 



are the same as the two larger rooms of the 
three-roomed dwellings. The one-room tene- 
ments are 12 feet x 12 feet. On three of the 
floors in each block there are two tenements of 
three rooms, and two of two rooms, there being 
on the top floor four two-room dwellings and 
two one-room houses. The dust-shoots are 
conveniently arranged, and four tenants have 
the joint use of two water-closets, and two 
double sinks, and one laundry. 

In Birmingham the Town Council have 
constructed good model dwellings at weekly 
rentals of from 5^. to 6s., without burdening 
the ratepayers ; but little has been done in the 
provinces to provide central model tenements 
for ** the very poor." 



" I am certain that I speak the truth, and a truth which 
can be confirmed by the testimony of all experienced 
persons, clergy, medical men, and all who are conversant 
with the working class, that until their domiciliary condi- 
tions are Christianized (I can use no less forcible term) 
all hope of moral or social improvement is utterly in vain." 

— Shafteslniry. 

In recording the following conclusions and 
recommendations it should not be thought that 
they are intended as exhaustive, or that they 
are considered by the writer to be infallible. 
They have, however, been the result of much 
consideration and extended practical observa- 
tion on his part, and are with confidence recom- 
mended to the thoughtful attention of all who 
are interested in this subject. 
It is considered — 

(i) That wider distribution of population 



should be judiciously encouraged by legislation. 
That such distribution of population in a com- 
munity tends to improve the physical condition 
of individuals ; whilst, on the other hand, the 
concentration of population deteriorates indi- 
viduals and tends to place almost insuperable 
obstacles in the way of the provision of healthy 

(2) That travelling between the central areas 
of towns and the suburbs or surrounding 
country districts should be cheap and con- 
venient. That improved tramways and under- 
ground electric railways should be encouraged 
for easy communication between town and 
suburbs. That there should be an improved 
service of overland railways in the outlying 
districts, both circular and radial, and that the 
stations, bridges, and lines should be most care- 
fully constructed, with a view to beauty as 
well as utility. 

(3) That manufactories, mills, workshops, 
and other centres of labour should be, when- 
ever possible, placed outside the large towns. 
Such works should desirably be distributed in 
the rural districts, so as to encourage the work- 


man to labour and live under healthy conditions. 
In such small communities he might have ample 
recreation, and could have a detached dwelling 
and productive garden. 

(4) That the proper housing of the people, 
and especially those of very limited means, is 
the most efficient aid to thrift and temperance. 
A warm and comfortable public-house, fitted 
up luxuriously, is naturally preferred, after a 
hard day's work, to a cold, cheerless, unhealthy 

(5) That open spaces and recreation grounds 
should be provided and duly distributed through- 
out the areas of concentrated population. Small 
public playgrounds and play-rooms should be 
also furnished for children. 

(6) That ample space should be provided 
both in front and in rear of all dwellings, so 
that efficient light and ventilation may reach 
all rooms, especially those on the ground-floor. 
No obstruction to the access of light and air to 
any room should occur above a line extending 
from the sill of the ground-floor window at an 
angle of 45°. 

(7) That the following methods should be 


employed for improving the dwellings of the 
people : — 

{a) Suitably altering, adapting, and fitting 
up old properties. 

{b) Erecting various types of new dwell- 
ings in the towns under very strict 
restrictions as to * cube, height, 
materials, etc. 

{c) Erecting various types of carefully- 
designed cottages and small houses 
in the suburbs adjoining district 
stations, and where possible in the 
towns themselves. 

(8) That all agencies for providing suitable 
dwellings for the poor should observe strict 
business principles. The tenant requires just 
management at a fair rental. He is willing to 
pay a reasonable return on the capital which 
provides a good dwelling for his family. 

(9) That it is not fit that any tenant what- 
soever should pay ^ to | of his income in rent 
for his house, which is now frequently the case ; 
f to ^ is quite sufficient. 

(10) That where it is required to house ** very 
poor " families the cost or loss by demolition 

D.P. M 


of the old properties on insanitary areas and 
the transfer of the land should be borne to 
a varying extent, according to circumstances, 
by the ground landlords on whose land the 
improvement is made, and by the ratepayers 
of the parish. That the new tenements for 
these **very poor" families should be let at 
low rentals sufficient to cover reasonable in- 
terest on the cost of building, the cost of 
maintenance, and also to provide a reasonable 
sinking fund on same. 

( 1 1 ) That it is desirable to follow and extend 
the successful experiments which have been 
made to a very limited extent in London, 
Glasgow, and other towns for providing model 
lodging-houses for poor single men and poor 
single women. That the commercial possibili- 
ties of thus lodging the very poor are sufficiently 
good to go far towards solving the problem. 

(12) That all dwellings, whether they take 
the form of cottages, tenement dwellings, or 
block buildings, should be arranged invariably 
so as to have ** through-ventilation.*' ** Back- 
to-back " houses have now been generally 


(13) That the materials and construction of 
both old and new dwellings should be subject 
to a more systematic and exacting control than 
at present, and that, above all things, the in- 
spections by the local authorities should be far 
more thorough and far more systematic than is 
the case in most districts. 

(14) That it is desirable for all tenants to 
have their own private scullery and water- 
closet, and also wash-house and bath, except 
where proper public baths and wash-houses are 
provided. In no case should the same sink or 
water-closet be used by more than two tenants, 

(15) That the recognised cubic space of air 
— 300 feet — for each adult is not sufficient, but 
should be at least 400 feet. The 300 cube is 
one-half the minimum allowed in prisons and 
barracks and less than the amount found in 

(16) That the rating on cottage property 
for small weekly wage-earners in towns should 
be less than for other properties, so as to 
encourage the erection of attractive, well-con- 
structed and sanitary dwellings of this class. 

(17) That the acquisition by working men 



of their own houses is desirable, to encourage 
which every facility should be given by legisla- 
tion and other suitable means. Co-operative 
Societies should be assisted in developing their 
growing influence in this direction. The Build- 
ing Societies Acts should be amended so as to 
protect the public from fraud, whilst encourag- 
ing reputable associations. 

(18) That the present Acts affecting the hous- 
ing of the working classes require further con- 
sideration. That in the case more especially 
of high superimposed tenements the present 
Acts and bye-laws are not sufficiently specific 
with regard to their construction and the sur- 
rounding space. 

Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frome, and London. 





** * The Principles of State Interference ' is another of Messrs. Swan Sonnen- 
schein's Series of Handbooks on Scientific Social Subjects. It would be 
fitting to elose oar remarks on this little work with a word of com- 
mendation of the publishers of so many nseftil volumes by eminent 
writers on questions of pressing interest to a large number of the com- 
munity. We have now received and read a good number of the handbooks 
which Messrs. Swan Bonnenschein have published in this series, and can 
■peak in the highest terms of them. They tLTZ 7n4«ten b^ mail of con- 
■Iderable knowledge of the sabjects they have undertaken to discuss ; they 
are concise; they give a flair estimate of the progress which recent dis- 
eussion has added towards the solution of the pressing social questions 
of to-day, are well up to date, and are published at a price within the 
resources of the public to which they are likely to be of the most use." — 
Weatminaier Beview, July, 1891. 


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and unjust." — Manehsater Chiardian. 

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social questions." — Beview of the Ohurchea. 


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