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Full text of "Dynamic Sociology: Or Applied Social Science"


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4S 3^h^ j^'jH. 5r.*T:c«, aocLTLoo 
MAC r^E .,=s 3:«n-£i sosick 


C J-^dsmj^t^ j|ihiUUiAI J^A^iI'* 

3 rw'; '(PijtcieE 








vol. ti 
tMcavff MOfTtorf 

NEW yo«K 




FFB 23 1900 



ftmpROCUL HftAnum or mv tint the ummfli. 

Aim of Ae duplej^-Awltnde of oiture toirtid Tnin--llaii a part of anl- 
ure — Min u eToWed product of nature— Katurt oncoiudDiu and 
noo-intellij^t— Altitude which man abould aasomc Icurard aaiatc : 
1, that of a Btndent; % that of a mpater— The tfuviroimieiil— Ftmda- 
meatal Khisin between Ihe Tarious Bchools of thought — The phil<*& 
phj oi Kant— TcUologicil, dnaLi^ic, ipd Etpfllic modes of thought — 
DlTina frte-will — PradeBlination^Falalian*— 'Noccaallarianiam— Doo- 
tiiDS of depiwHy — Optimism — Ctmea in support of optliniam — Cuea 
opposed to optimism — UncDnadouA and non-IalenigeDt chaTHi;l«r of 
the nnirene — Iat«11igcnc« a product ttl tvoIutioD — CluaiflcaUon of 
pbenontena — Oeoetlc phcnomeaa — Telcological phenomena — Melhods 
of cponaUoti— The direct method at conatLon— Tbc bdirc?ct method of 
conation— Claarifl cution Into natural and artifldal — ReHpitulaUoD — 
Tabular eihibit—Stat«m«nt of the arguiaoit— De&nitLonfl— TZmrcma 
of djBamio Bociologj ..,...,.* t 1 



Katare and genMU of feeUng — Tbe object of nature, func^on ; objectirft, 
or biological, point of view — Tbe object of sentient beluga, pldsur^ ; 
mbjectire, or MoalogioL, point of ripw — The Indirect, or inleUKtoaJ, 
contTuted with tho direct, or phv^cal. method at cooatioD— Utilitari- 
■dtm — Tba Tmrfoua alleged ends of cooatioo ahoini to be merely 
to tbe nkimata end, happiDoa^— Right and vroog — Imporfoctjon 



of ika •>dH of law and vitilo^-OtflDnkaa p> iho *or4 biipplMta*— 
Bc^MfiiiX <>E ptdvurv and rAhi— [noRaaf «f Itilbg vrilb ih« il«gi<ao 


ruaiai VKiaa k tumult da naw noiuuta cm> or domttoki 

iIeOdvI— SoeCbl profTni dcJl[>*4 — la vtui iodal ptogMii mmf^W ^j 
Iijtri-lcifxiDa Qf ihf ImIIf*mui>Liu4 of cvMdoa— Of%hi «■! oaturc 
■n— 8iKi4l «4{Vtjd» vffvclbig buTDU |i< 11^1— Ctoftj»faa «f Ui 
iu|l»Eliitt p wi i uM f T tt actcMioa— rmin Auj noridctaiku of pnt^ 
In lilt ■InlEBv^f^icreaiikT i^tacM— CumiuuiilqiliKi vf Mkvi— I^r^ 
PUm *^t1rm taoj^natft and UMtaavv-^TLD tnmitVaii of prtfiLUip— 
Pmvall id M]3lt$inrMot Tna peaillou of ika flat aitA— JlrtMlaa oC, 
kImw 10 tH, vul n'ff flWH— SwmalTfl ino4ai bj vMcb pdollli 
Bott abuJind auL^icnM— Tbc acholUb cpoeb— lAfldal chaiactwj 
ot alv|ttBibn-*lliUi«Ul ^rinjwdra InvMan the ffOMial mvof 
ma Bupphtfi IJMot —tllofaitfQii ^ Koft^pi ■^Mlffa a(i!fidH^] 
OomoDiQl— ObjMa of gov«niaiiDl~PP«CECClc»— Anamnodittc 
ItaprvfCapcat — On^a sid ff»t«il o/ cDTcrsBtal — iAaH G°?<rrjibni1 
^Wbf ^DTHVKAit la qJIp i * ■JfaluFT fi4 Klvflj «ci>l 1tL« crloi^plu* 
flpaa «U<k»i rofU--Oaca«i*fl rlbdfiaUAtt of Ibi: mrciUsiiAd fmetloni! 
AflifBarailir rt«<«laft cf mmamBrtH TV *«o oppailu kflio*i4 or B<h 
cfekBliKbMliof (HOrlt tTvU Ao ilul ^KMlfli b(r« 1v>i<nu iTii-in— 
B>«1b#«4Cblfc«v#i*«7>>«MMlfaUid-»Gtfianl livtof aHkl profl^ 
w>— R'N^ia-t^lvUbiOf^-Ar Joha UNhaik^* dvibehtiva oC tfr 
llflaw-Ujjfir J. W. r«*vllV»7lLglo|M vlilh»vbf-'l1<'l'»^ "P-^ 
car^ ikv« oa ir^lgkui— Tb« ifciw ftaduuffiUl fT«vi«it« tii Mi\ 
^Ihmt ndvnl tt one, il*^ bcftd ta vphltiial t a hc *— C^ww LT 
WpW4 bi tW viltrnAl M^r In •fArilml Uin|*— llotkilon of r«> 
Btloa M hnafi r»tti'tfft— la Iimt fkr (ho laKBiUi (4 tvIIj^Imi vu 
•faj«cil«vlT (tw-Kti^iWo of iht teliif lb InnDonalHj— RivJniioa 
«f Ik* MM hi evUf^-Ro^^ a UCVi4ij of tlit nhU'^ nn>UiI<A< 
cf lliliti riiahiiiatir Ucattf el trU^ aafi •ci«H-«>n«li 
•wdMAifaaMlaf r^tflan »« «4nM» bra a la mma pcuDlof 
pwt tt f Pb akl w c« r^^tn aMi f-fvnwa lo MaU 
tapil ItaiiDVallRavAlfofRZliloiH-TV aioivl «aMllro of RUf^na ^ 
Sdaco 6t^n^ <n« iL# IdM hi teBrtttJlUj-Comn^cWi rf Uv 
■atiHtfw a* *ei>r ftfbjMlTa n>onl *(ftn«T of Fv^-'-^'»*l-P"ff'»* 
rifw MB^Hh e« wP^ ftidlil ttteta or aMpcMllkV-lbmfr- 


prtvdbeod— Ettfwtact nn fnio utm*— AMMMca-«4r4>M«n- 

1fl<«Ki sv&^ Bfld t^BH— CiMliata! Hm^oI of ham !■««"■ 
•B«Mni«f AMteUk^H 


dOM— ^ItfOnilrlfacT of ihf uural vnlc in tiBfJaiiilB^ aoA omnil- 
hv nriib ■Dndaat—Lev*— Jla^ar-Attbnlrti— Ariffctf— lBftf«tT< 

|idupw«i«f BanlqaMrjr— VttaMDtik><idrMrirtco— VlRwud 
tuvflw vT ih« ippKcMkO Of ikD lodtnvl MMhol «f WM t lpc 




|*rdA^ tt Uf«*-C-WTKIMM of Of^alMi'-Tl* xHtw t^ bAK 

M BkfUliv w te ■ppTftMttdvi— IHlkniKM ef oplolo* wwllf u- 

«f t^A* hi All lAArUufll— AaOilgiitr «d wrlifi iMmifoiM of An 
km ■tali« "- Ucit«rf ud *{4dM* ilfpnd DB As (*t4«>B* VfWfeUd. 

TuMCndw-^cUlaooM of «[4nlM Ift po4Mr-^b>ict-Btc«ct of optn- 
lou— AHtlo *4 (TlfAcBfe— Fmilbv MIrb^ lo Toem tpMiOf 
rr4Mir«J l uiB fpi of •fMt— »ibj«fl'e tafiiKw*— Atilr>nul Infti- 
«i«-|NiiMMld toflHOiv^MluMItT dif>hril«WO ff«« qHthrol 
OffahBfl, 4r U«i— Oti)Kil«« loiwcn* —TliMt; of nprW«M— 
0|*dMi tM IdMt tte mtk U #«p«HcoM, ud vU ORMpotd lo 


lo ttttpviimtf AtUfkhl 4«irnuiulifln «f ilffiiliM JTlhTfil 
uil Jjwdi; ofddoi* ^ Klblnl nft^MH — CWwIn «l iMnbvhk 
nHiKion— Tki Vibfvw 4«ilBffW| b I'tr fv vol ud In bcv Car 
fg4l|j u i jj n>B ik* ^ ulinamcc oovUcrol a» imiLTliliigG 0i*«4IiIimI 

oT iLt tvUb^iyr of Mbifftl ojiiuiaoi— V«n(fij; pwdi cf ruot«J Ji^ 
muMiiiul Onfuiiriillin it<llgwn «|ih iapm% ^^afoafcAtig nmnm 
•lib mgolUr-DriiMM «pUfla»— OMiB*l«slok1 Utu^ Ubk^pcAL ■ 
UM>-^aibKipohi^cHl ilwj-ltotWttoa Itot •Qmdinikm . . 40a 

CWArTEK Xllf. 

omnurt tin or ii«tf, u ivtm r^tinun km fv fUuKiH. 

Hit ^aU of LliDa(1ju-OHn|Miltp ditrac4d of nUll^CTMe— Tvo iafliwat T U 
t4pulH «wr»— I>*ii^™ of ;mtt liLullrtLvl ■rtltiij*-JI*Ldt* «U1du 
of iDldkrt 4ipl kiHvlntfu tpon adldM— bptUfliloa of (bd fu-t Llvt 
Ag n|vm fur kH«1aL%o tiu tAmttft cuv4txi 1i« •Jnotmi— ttcUiJio 
•tfVvlikvtilA iMillMl ud kMirMipr qbjU- lpEint>«d~-TFu> Ewo 
l4|llk«i«A« iiHi4«» of IncciJng bilc^lRt-t'ljaHB lictii«ei) iKc knt^itl. 
•dgp ttiam ud Uai ^uvtuAJ bj tbe «*mc« mtn^^/Unwi (4 tbu 
jinndlic Mft Ml—HpM KijrriecM u ibfl rrhlcta «f liEK>*Mjfp-* 
U«i of ibv ndiWl b anWlag tl nriaJnljr— JlI4 Miidwvd » UvfikA -. 
trfcaia fc dp i qwJMlTt Incnuft of konvUef^Wbal bunledg* 
b maM WiptfUH— 4IPB««Hlf u ft lot of bqwUspf— KuUa^lr 
■a ■ tM of tw|pittaKr-^aoaU4o i&J uiuficr^e %Mnkd|;c^-Ca> 
DCdbMlm of IV rrr-nt v^Lb lb4 I«d )<t«imHi>|| tka|4CTB— IMl^iI 
bn«Mff»— Ornw^ fcwmladpf— ft<M(pl<a <€ <tfl4od«^ljiDiV of 
ft^HfVlB ««iaiLt> - ItoMfW «r teruAt Umi^ mr nnp^ai j in^lu— 
I1v4arlJ«a «ni liJ<r]lni kbrtilft^E^-Ttw mi«v W <bt pdmrj «aiirv* 
of in bwwIfdfT— T€»i^i>^ M ft naJa of «BdalaUi«U« 4l^n9 nt 
vUb^-^tmfT ti i r i w li l [ kBi«U^yfr.HAfti«ili« of Utt^Mpf 
liH »l ««i tSM of lb* uteliv haqwhr la tbt *tTOK«la» of 
IwMfe 470 

*f CMte «n^ MMfti iipalwilift mi9 FoaU4f Iten^ 



«f llMWonl'-^dtieAiIen''— Dc4lnltii»u«f«dlMtiOft^Tb«arolliadtof 

«4iiAllrin, T\i^nt ripi^rimf^ nf /Lit t|i line, of qiUunt of rt«canh, ftiid 
tt \nfitriaitL\iia — CfluL-ntiuli "I utjftriviiM'^tfJqaillOlI at lllKlpltD^— 

KJuvaij^'U of (vlturt— Miiniitaii of mwank — Edu^llm of Intemi^ 
lldD— lUucaliun « ufl*! fLiiiciEiPii'--runi^»&r'Bclni ifiivltlf^tuiiw of llw 
dtffQnmt bnAdhu «! nc^amiDcai— L«0aJiiiivu lanuulut — Tim nlErotd 

pn^ultvl)- Jtlft^^Lvd fur tttTiJuullng •qfoatlAc VH^ SlUI bwlUiv f4r trnn- 
durtinc pdLiciii^'M] wgrk— UULinn of hiti" cductilDD^Abninlillrt Of 

j^vtLu c<Iiii.''lSi»ii-— riilfcrttl tiliu'^ilm^-Nvid of adtinttajf tkir du- 

nlloa^^riniiuJpDrj vJurvlikm— UiuJu to hv nt to qoItoihI hTuo- 
lloa— Edttatfon of ■oomi— Tlio luBlbr of tduuidoD— RrlucvH^nnJ 
aortfliLiffli*— Dn/rmlEifcE^on tnJ iiUliEKijE>a at f|ii:dal ■ptltudd — 
Voufe of 'dunlhdi'— Vf iJiul u1 r<t(if«ili>n — CvndiTiilnn , UO 

t4ii or pRjwirAL AirrKniirrLB HEfiBuni to 
\mx . . , > k . . 





.Aim of ibfl dupter— AttitDde of utarB tovtrd mu— Vui ■ p*rt of uture — 
Hu u erolnd product of utun — Niton onconjcloqB snd DOD-iotolU- 
gnt — AtUtode which mvi shQald 4iiiame (owud iiAtore: 1, tlut o( m 
itndeDt ; % ihit of ft miiBter — The «DT|rDfimont — FuDduuBntal Khlani be- 
tmes tbe virion* Achools of tbonghl— TliB pbLLoADphj of KanC — Tel»1og- 
icftl, doaUsik^ md gcDBiIc modea of thought — DLffiu free-win — Fredvtl- 
natkiit'FaUlbm — NecenluriftDiHii] — Docirine of depnHtj-^Optlmiain— 
CtfU hi idppoTt of opiimldoi — Cuu opposed to optlmlun— UocoDBdoiu 
and DOii'lptolHpDt chur^ctor of th« onlTene — Inte^UgCDcq a product of 
flTolntioo— CUuLfiaUoD of phenomeiu — Genetic phcnomeiu — Teleologies] 
phamicii^iu — Hoihodi of couUon — Tbe direct method of ODutiaa— Th? 
Indirect method of conatiDii— CUstifi«tion hito natunl and artifldal — 
Bookj^tuktian— Tiholu eihibit— St4temeiit of the usomoit— DeAniliOD« 
^nwonnu of djounio Bocblogj. 

In the introdnctoiy chapter of this work the cmineDtlj 
pn^cal character of the acience of Dynamic Sociology waa 
carefully set forth. The four chapters of the firet volume 
preceding the last one, dealing as they did with the funda- 
mental data upon which all true pbitoeophy must rest, were 
necessarily somewhat ahstmee, and bore only on indirect re- 
lation to the main purpose of the work. The closing chap- 
ter of that volame, though fairly entering upon the field of 
social science, was purposely confined to the statical and pas- 
sively dynamical conditions, which it was necessary to com- 
prehend thoroughly before the more important but less'fn^ 
deretood problems of active social dynamics, or applied social 
science, could be intelligibly stated and logically discnssed 
(vol. i, p. 66), 


And now ilie rutkr'fr IndnlgoncQ Is mked whUc rtill 

tllirr pcvliitiiiiLiFy ('Impccr in prnv-nrcH, which ftlMawTDft 

^uliul to i ci*iiJiilrtp prr^KUVlion for the intdiigcnt conipr^ 
IicDi^ti of &I1 tiw Ufmit, juiii [HNrfuUtnt i» liic litul ftrpuiituit. 

fioforo wc mrv folly prvfAred to rc>ti«id«r* in all tla length 
Bud brMdth, xltv lExijrortsQt pfopoaatiott ihni wfrit*^ rjin And 
sliould *er>oii*tj' iindiYUlo^ ihn iirtifidil intpm^omctil of iIh 
ci>n<iition opkon ficicotili« priTLoij'W fi^rirMr An^t^i^giniA to 
Uiovu bjr wLicli the rud« coridiijutii of natiirv luivu bcuii im- 
proved apOD In the prof!ee> wjiicli ir« call civilinti'iii ; !>►' 
fon) we ftrcf wholTj rmf^j ict vut^ upon An ftrpunent to 
provo tliu fiAiiibilitjr* tliu ikMntbitjlT, uid thv right of «o* 
oicty. All Auefa. to wlo|>t »u a^;gr«MtvQ rafunu poU^-j iniiUud 
€iilinjl_v by K-ictiti&c forvi|r^it reiulqnxl poniMo bj' ao lu; 
luUi^-ut iioiqDoEnlaTiee vlth tlf? funilamcntal kiri of bimmn 
Adtoii ; bvfure we esn jwl/ coalumpljitc man in Uia Aorijit 
corponiu ca|)«:Jijr aMuii'ing thir aliitudc of a tolDologic»l 
%gcnt at>d odopd&g mcaminfi in the inuura of final ean»?n 
for ibe pmdnt'rkin of rrmotr brnrfif-idl rfft-rt* — b*^oro wo 
OAD {irupcrl/ riw to thto pobitrcnf it *o«cnft TK^r^^Anf rliaf wo 
tfavnld Arrt (««k (o obuin m jii»« askI tnau a couo?ption v 
the hnnuui tiiind ia ctt]iiLb)o of |:nifpbi(;, of llie x^ atjU pre- 
rUc rvlatioiu wbkcli nun aim) luturo muinnllv »xtniii lo «u-h 

Tbid g<raen1 oompl<rx problvm OAtanUly mtolvc* it>elf 
into Iwo ittm« apodnt and drnpli* probkm^ TboM lira: 

Tint WkAt y tbo Attitude wbaeli lutwo aflAantc« lo- 
wBTtl njAQ f Aud— 

Sooond- Wbst Is (be attitode which mnn nbunld iuiKum« 
tvvftrd utarel 

^Tbc«6 are ib^ fnnd ^ rnwitAl t^oationA. iipoD tW nnftwcm 
tovbicb »n biiii.An romlopt, oiber ll(*n thai prompts! by 
aiffro impiilAo, depriuU Tbpy Am lh«*n-forv ibe i)ii««lion0 
wKich Mirietj ratA<t ouvfallr coneI>icr A&d conv^llv ani^wor 
bflri>ra l1 ran bo|3e MieoMsfnlly to e^io wifb the obaUclcM to 
lt«»cU-dIrocU*d prograiA. 


Wv vril] oucMder tbuotf (tu«»l»a» in Uu: onkT la itluvh 

hare bwdiBUit^ 
KiM, tlicoi, what U tbi? •ttitn'lc of namm tnvftnJ dmh t 
iSrtttl«rcd dironfc'i^^'^ ^^*^ preocdingcJia|iloniof tliv vofk. 
Evador bsg dMtbiJnft fvuiid aiunicriHU Uiiita at Um ^nml 
ichttJone lowud wUkli ili^^ frvcir-vjdociing furte of sdroctt 
Ihiti: teMiIrd nocuUnfljr to fiODTArgc. A hticf mtmnmrj of 
\\ -^ ' iSivtiJmui of l^f^ p.'Aeral o^-n^JwaiMi uajr be fill^ 
iir'i"! i btrfom <*nU7in^ iTii<> Uk-ir irhore g«m«nl con- 
■(iknituiii tn «>rinuuti<j;i wttli U» (-'miDruoi viowtf wliivh 
btTo b€Vi b^ in opposUion to Uietn. 
^. In tliA fint t^Imv, nddun ctiDit« xa mm in Ui* Tttbtieoi M 
tlir n^iolo to A port Man i* !Ui itktcgrmi F*rt of tha uniTrne, 
aod, tn otiitiT to bo ccrrcrtlj coMScivud nnl p^jputlj ■todii 
bu niiut bo concoived boi) studied as tn objective pheiuMOi 

«trn^.^* Nrirbtr thciuimil u>d vefEOtabl« furiOft, nor l)i« 
roek fornuu^ua^, n^r ihe fbcialoal «leni«fil«, we roona lo b« 
rggtrdod uc Minral objoote for sckntiflc study than srv io- 
dividiul men nrbuman norrirtiitf. Thr Inirii |^vftmiii|r llio 
mtgfnlioo* of bJrdiv or Uio geoj^pbic^d Uistribiati^^ii 'it 
pkiUi^ortho luoTvoiMt of fttonov^or ibe elecliv^ ftlfimtiw 
nf cftieiiuctJi^ ATV tuA more tbo legitimate mbjctliii of i^il-p- 
tltto bvoidj^oa tbaui am tho individiul or colktiirtr ac- 
tiuM of mm dt tlw oliaiiKos tint talco pltiw In liDtnari 
opinioiH and imbliu watiiiHrnt t'moi t)m Kt(-uti€c )h>Tni <rf 
viffw, nil pbc!iioinu>n v^ i^tgiULlly k^^lriionto objecta of «iud,T. 
^n llif^ toooftd pb«^ Mainrr prewnb ibc rc^i^ of pro- 
pm$M of man. llan n uot ooU a t^n of njfnru » A 
vImi1o» bat lutnnv A»t«dil«<l biin and bu produced biw. 
TIntk bcnrevcr, k Imo only in ibc MmM tLjrt U le tno of 
(*rf»rr - nri of tiafnrA. r^trf oilier objool tn tlw aid* 

rorvr^ :,.'., Mniri^l, trect rock, intUl, or ga« tluU isktiom 
It &D pn?e>»vlj' tbD raiDc munnor a pnidwH of nalure. Tiino 
whoa U bad no eibtcMe «a Budb tin ob|pci, and* in ibo 

• ILvm ^Ifflift Art nam VmimH,'* ■. saa. 



eonn^ i>f ikiv i.*tvriiitv of cUiogtd wLkU liivu lre«n guing od 
in mAUor. \i hta lien) And now tfsntntd Its prasant ahftpo 
QTii] cliumeicr. Ufla k firapl^ ono of tlicso nanjr prodnctt*. 
He, EDO, Km Xftffti idawtjr QvoSrad out of in«tert&li which 
liATe indof>'] aIwH_«« utitwt, Iwt hftvo tot VV17 rm«ntLy u- 
vuiiw^! tUtt f^rm, Tbo pntknlv fortn, dumcter, dractim, 
ofiil AtiHbiiicii n-hich Ix-Joog to tlie orcatimj dftnomUiatod 
man are bim^ aa tboy arv in Tirtne of an inc:roraMo rv^vjwb^y 
involved in tli* mtnrt of tiling ; Ihcy arc tho rvMilt o* iIjl» 
iDtvnuti<iii <if cuin^dvnl foroatt tliQ activttitw of nioleciilar 
BffgKffXe^ poaaoiein^ jnA ioicb dcgroca and bind« of ngSTO' 
gfttion, and tlirovrtt inlo jiutt ^o<^h relation* to fine anothRr 
njt wcrrv ndaptiKl to the dM^topment of jiul huch a Im^idj^ 
Tli« uvwttity uf 111* fxiMteuw &», Iheroforo, jnit equal to iJie 
impocobllitv of hia non-oxieUsQCO. Botli am «b«olnlo. Nat- 
ttK, UMrivfon?, o{<i*api«Pi tht: notation to man of cauao to cfFt^ 
of antaccdent to cooMqoent. But the proceu of caiuatSon 
U of the fliriotlv oiecliaDkal kind. Uu i« the preduot of an 
inHniio wrka of inflnitodRial ImpaoLa In ono general dinro- 
tioD. Ha hta, an it w«ns hecn gnMlnallj piuliad into 4ixitt* 
»niv« bv a st<X7n of poltii^ atoiM continued tbrou^h mill- 
iooa of jmn. Korcc«, bs tlins dvliiKid— a&d Uiia u tlia onJjr 
mJonal Hitory of fonw (vol. i, p, S0O| bavo Kurrrini^dDd 
tlH> aletiMinie out of vhfeb he i^aa «r«ated on tbut apoc, 
mhtnvcr it mar have hMR, wbicli was lh« tni« ors<lT« of 
ilia race, and molded liiin into human eliapa after having 
imt eoiDpelled him to a«unM for t^ aneooMiveIr the 
i4iapoft of a lon^ liao of ancoMnl snlnia] tvpcA Tlie mnM 
foreea have Impelled hiTn on throng arlvnnring gndtm of 
pbjeicat aikd mental cW^-dopnient to hie prv«cnt eondtlioiL 
If ha teeidod to Mrerr« to the right or left, tfaoaa foreoft ea»- 
laliMd tbo wajrwnH titndcni^j bj ioeraaia of power on the 
blterittf^ Aide. IVniirndeM to abort, rerert, or retrojtf^^'t 
vara coontetaet«d hy perftjstent Empuhee, *o Ihtt, in mo«t 
ptrti of tZio great sfnadin^ tree wfaicli tho heman fainiliee 
prewntf thn tmu]<fli«ka haire been itaadUy, thoogfi aIowI^, 




forwird in the tcaJo of ot^^uAtioiu But »o, too, miut w^e 

of iha niBifioMiou, oa duo to coantor, or oppMlof;, forci^ 
ittd Hit. rfftl ppDj^TttiM ichicTod m rvpRMnitiBg only ibe r^ 
niltAQt t>{ «]l t}iB clanea of fofoeo whic^ haT« conrtButljr 
vJIvct^ Uis conditioo, 

Ic tlw thinl uU Urt phcc, naturo mwt be rc^udod a« 
u>tA>n4r?r<Mi^. Tbro«j^1io«t iJl tlio elufign wbifih bite re- 
»uUitO iJi llu? evolution of man^ ibe proccci Km l>efii paretj 
auUiiuKiic No tlkonghl, hq idoa«, i»o plfto, tw pu/pwo liise 
cutorvd Uico the gn»t <K«a)(e morctne&t, ^ ibe wind* 
blicidly otiej ihe p)iv8l»l Uvs of tlkO fUthV «flp«ffbl chsn^ 
Ut, da« to it» motioAik, tU proitmitj to thi? Ann, ttJi orbJUl in- 
dUmtioo, uhI Ha metliotUeM Uud Aud wttcr duftnbuliou ; *fl 
tlie cIoimU fftlUer, brvaJCt vid pour thuir couwtkte b««k upoci 
tJic 4itrtii, ftfid then Tnntih or go fijlfif^ t/orrm ibo tl:v, £in- 
pdM bj wi!d, tniMlcM, ta%d rotkl^nt forvcA; ft* the celumct 
plungvi rmI tbv volcftDo Wldiv* iu obvcJieDoo lo vlom pb)*- 
iod ImpolM* to vrbkU w> odo think*, cxccft ootaphoricill^t 
of AttriboiiTig moHtft or IhidUIgpuce— » all the grtAt wouUr 
proccvei of nMore, induding tlw dovelopmeni of orgaiiw 
ionm mkI of n»n, h%ro boon intpcHod bj h\\tM\ and mlndJoci 
etMrnJM gnidt^l hv no intfilti^nirc or rcmiirJmu povrr ^~ther 
frnv wiibEn or frwrn witbo^t^ The inlierfrnt motioiui of tJio 
nltitnRti^ *Utma of primordal nkiti«r, m etenuil, aDcr«aUbl*i 
and Uidwtnietible m tbwo ^totiui tlionivdiro«y moit bv re' 
IE«nM u tbo ^-flnffldeDi cauee of all the rcenlte we ■««, 
howercf complrx Mtid wrMdri-fnl wo mnjr conaidor tboeo i^ 
ntU* to be. Bui tvaOt ibcre is no ooowioci for wonder. 
Tba firft slop in pHmordiiil aq^n^tk^fi (voL L p. S3^ >i llw 
onljr f»0t ibdLi nvvd draw apon oor ima^c^atloo. Ortolod 
iJat ivnteriid nuitit tend to oobcre Into nnite of tii^lier 
<vch*ni»4 fnpt of oomnioii obA^rvfttlon in til Iho wublbbcd 
■cwtwiQi — umI l[ii^ evoli^u^iQ of a nun if oo nitire nAOttJ*kAl))fl 
ibun the wolntkiQ of a taoUi <jr n crvitol. In tbu bivto^ of 
the nnlTitrw tbcro aro no ilrtie-Unilta. A proce» oucft wi 



up ilk ft giv«u dirttctioD in»jr mcli oil Ui« dctgrvo* that cut 
W cinbimcod in a lintte etno«: it niuy b« ovvn^Hoylusd 
tU it« Ui<»pik>ii bv 0ouuloM«iilraidee> it najr oontinae for 
tn (inlhnlt«d prriod at t osiforni nlio» ov it loij go on io- 
QircftVJifc in &u ftnihmotMml or a fE^onwtrioal prof^nMsion for 
s viii but fiiiiie period aitd «v«»UiAtly cqDilibnto ilwlf> 
The fbodUBCDlAl pdociplot of KTotutiL^t w formulntinl b^ 
Spciftoor rc^siru that all procuxi^ vboll in fact roacb a lliult 
Aiid be fiilowed by n rovertol vf the aotWttkfl wliit^li they 
bav« iijaiitfert«d. Dot Iv Qcito tmngs tb» gn.^t cydoL. or 
tkto vrandiag sonu of nny ixiwilt^al [Kt>w«», may lu iscmI^ 
he HO prolongcil in time w to Ll* practically Infinite in 
doration u lo b« rvJvioe<i lo Uie ncro fqton ^)^Ji c^n bo 
vjktcbol hy tli^ huiuftn o}«. The pmcoM wbicb hi* e^^lved 
ibu »^i>]tr ^j«tcint or tlw ridorto] a_v*tcni of uliicL it"fi>riQi 
ft port, l)ft« butciJ no Inti^r, n^Utlvd/ to tUwIntg ^vr^ 
nil/ of tim«s tfa»n liu that wbich inrMcnmi ibe blrtU, llffv 
time, uid doftth of ftU tnfosoriiuD » il likt« \»\mx under tL« 
continiioiu gua of the niiufwwfirf- SoiIIjw, if moftmred 
hj tlu* riftnduil, U tbo d^^j^e of oqgftdxfttkiti i>f ft ^vvftoit 
Ifneler tlifln Ibil of ft vitrut. There tre dome who Kniio »t 
Um toenllon of sucii ffw(H*piop coi«Fttri«>iw ; but tlic linnum 
mind RinFd T'^m tn ftrauftoiu iteelf to oantvibpldte iu1iu« in 
itft tm« rvWinn^ ftnd nmtcnltndei ^^ tU )iui(vi rai^ cmh 
nftver hm) to > jaU comoefiiioo of nHtam <ir of the rooiproea] 
]vbii^'»u« i>f tiuD and Miuro until tbe oetioti of Saftttitudo. 
both In dino oAil FpoM m veil a^ In powers bfti htstn dv6- 
nitdy fornwfll. It » iivtv>w. flnil«, iinthrup'>rooq^iic wd* 
twpttooi ol tkc niiirviw uiii(4i h^tvi^ d^ftrfcs) thi; labon of 
ot1i«rwlw grwt niliu^ and kopt ba<k \U imthn whith the 
ir<irld novt chfcdv vftlotf, and ll h dao lo tbe enlnrgcimftnt 
uf men'ft rteurs nwp«elin^ ihoTMtttuu of iiAtiire"* |K^riit(Jii 
ftud ipMXM thht bU tnio projrreM In onr ii{.*ijiai:iratit*ti with 
tbe tmivenvi hM been tcbivTed. 

' Tin-* twi> rttH'^-urk** i>f linic ind &pftoo hftvc I^Ti ut l4i*t 
Aoknon-lcdgod m »dmittin)f unliiaited wvxim of n^UtioD^ of 



nooMdoB uid co-Mistiin«»; * but tbo cat^sgocy of noMtioci 
[« ail 7c4 rvstriotcd to AiuEe wnc* of |i1ieiKniwiu. Tbl^ tco, 
muJl tw finloT]^ and ibo imili rocogDfjEod ihftt fon?e» havo 
bvMi st work from mil «<«fnkjr, UKd Uint procava of rA4t 
iratioTi Luvu biwo f^nireil to prodiiea tlie tdEucU wJiicli we 
liold atrMuid iiH, A MdcA of cbiogcfl in Uie direciion of 
ori^nixilioti mi^ m ^--auly be rotiMr«dt to cxU^imI Ihtvmgli 
milliijti* ijf centtiric* m dirou^i ■ fuvr Th'^Tiiund jfar*. uid 
fiM'li A i?ut)wptUfii (Jean slwaj^ ai uow th^L tbi&uuiAtiugku 
dunfter which aiKidi p]iccioii)oti& ottally pn»t*Dt. JFH ad- 
mtV^ri. AnufttmRot nt thtt loftr nadtca of Eutnnl pnys 
OWM Urtooita to llie iufmlito »Up» ^ lh« hnumi uiiixL 
Tbu «iili^]it4?AirJ iiilvUvti am/ eciii4«inplu« wtUi A Btnrtiuo 
&i r. of th«higb<«t(Nr<l«rt]i« njJutivuI^ v«t opfcniiod^ 

kJiC ..'-.'. .vcm«nU of |^ijRi<nI law, and thh b tlie final aimI 
purifivHl fottn of wlhit iA caflod lb« v^Uglooa secitftnent hi 
inu; bm lo low om's H-lf In w»Di5er ami «w<9 » onl^ to 
oonfcM ignoranco and refuoc iuatnMiion.f 

Kitidicr if tbuns uiorfl iwvd to oHfum^ aa (Mt4?r»Al raiv 
■doa knd inteTii^iil fr"idifiK' power tn biologj anil anlUro 
(toVogr tliui L«plu?uj fjKJnd in »(roiiomy.T Tho directitti 
]aw t* UuU fif ftiUptnElogT It b»iiq>ri«ingto?p<!li'>w<^iffic»lt 
[| icpfna to b^ for thr )iiininn tntiul lo gru|> thu cgnci^fition 
in ita v»iirviy,i Wliun Dei tloU-Ro/rbMid defend* tJic expU* 
iutk>D of Gallant, wbo Jtlntliiited tl>e apparcct liarmony ta 
MUr« bjr lli« exam|>k of dir looHc^ dl«r^ ho «rJDoos a toul 
biahtlitjr to ron>prr*bn>d iJio fun'lDtn^td ctotion of nahiTal 
aiWpuiioQ. WW better ia tlw tbvurj i>f llio luad«U iliua 

) K li r>U«rf MM *hii ultfrf W« kfl anU liafv wdta* v fM a *nk 
— if» ■* Mfeat^w O i ^ w " 1 lit* m >)M <4 ac gTtoa «| Ike lutrcne *|Lh- 

fej^Mbli^U" (tL RAb. fwTitr ^WM liVf^H w f)l|w<t -*1>lra vci ma 

ADAPtATioy.-Juy Ain> rut wivrasR 

tie doclnoe of cxicmil tdvological d«IgBl Huir 
tunethv Jjcv kadcdf Who biuled Uiuail If iK>t a peir- 
boimI deltjr «uaiiig ouUid« vt luKute and imkHjatiug it, then 
what otW agent cw bo tinmrd 1 ClnHjr tlik b do mw oe- 
pimlioo, trat ontjr the old one with a ^omowhAt oorcl illu- 
tntkiiL Qow, Uitmf U tbv bmuuitj' wv i«-t; tv tie ucoMt&lud 
for I W<r ehiU prcccjtilv coc roa£(Hi to boltove th^i ;he ^th 
grvo of ulipttttoD ill the vorid U fnr lc«i dun i« popularly 
ppoMd, but St Mimih«le» rxIsiH In an obTioim k%j. Trt 
Ib «ffoclu^7 aocooDlwI for l>j the iivl M 4lU drculsr prop* 
tioG that ilun^ arw adapted bcoiiuc tboy iirM adofM 
'w^ What vo wc ejdbts of noranlty. Il aU(;bt 
havv been other than it io, bad th<3 eonditioai bc«<i other 
than tJiej wtn. Tlic eondidoina bein^ wbit iUt^y wcrc^ the 
rooUd eould be uv oUwr Uiau tlwy w. A <?trr(kbi <1v|;tvu 
, of adaptation ia newmiy to tho lulstcaioa of a form ; ifacrd- 
■^rCf for foRUA to erint at all, thrjr mitM be t^ a Mttain «ic- 
^■ent adupted. If tboaofornia tkatnowexiatbMl witeiJMad, i 
Hpltien voitid Invt? exi*ti?d, Thcwu, Uko the pnsHAt one*, 
vottld alfio Lavo beM adapted. Tlx^ would bavu etood tbo 
mokD ebaner to btt higher h to bo Lower foniUL We hare on 
ratieh reoHo to wooider thftt v« do not «ee hfg^r foraiB 
a* tbai we mo foflM as high at ihora aciQall/ exktiiig, 
^Wom mco not adSofaotIf adapted to their EOiToaiidin^ 
ey would not cxiat to ooMOPipIate the want of ailaptatiom. 
mab omI planta wer« not §\m'i\ir\y adapted, titey wotikl 
ae be waiUlBg. Tlieraf jre, i&eioad of wondering at 
tlko dcgrco of adaplation diapliyod, tho onlj-tnio object of 
woodftr wootd h« the eittAmco of irhoUj tina^pted fonsL 
Rot tbeae m xioi-er Be«n, bevauae thr-y r^D not ozlHt In 
nattiro IJwro are none bat loaded dice. Tliv in oo ehof^oo 
world. It k a world of law)' of meebanioal eaaaatfion, of ne- 
eodty. Tlio oxtmpW of tho diee fa a poor one. In only 
one MAIM can ft be m>Jo t^ *PpV^' '^ ^'^ aft^ttine the nam- 
r Af dioo thrnwn to be nnlimitetl, o«!jr a wnall yt^rwtiUi^ 
whl;?lk aiv hwM, and all tliat are not thus leaded to bo 





ArrmTDE of sjtitic toward man. 

Botihero ifl iw dbtivccloc U.-tvQt![i iiL<^ dl« ucd ttic pUy- 
era. Ooft set of dice i« tbo c41IaI frntocctbtnl of a ncv »in, 
frotn vbici], w frocn Uie porpnt »t, onlj tht louW diw« tn 
MflMlvd tsd ibo ruU W«l. JJut, hIUI, ibo A&dc-gy i> forecil 

An will bo more faHj d^oira townrd tho ctoc&r T^f tl&s 
elapter ('V'^ P^ ^^)i i^^ure'* pcvwcMn u« not ti.-ii>ilc<g)c 

bi uinlUlvIv prtodtti tl. Tbovlfoct u ui ttumcdxiUi 

pT<. .. ..J to tlw Aiiae, TIjo chftUf^ Uke {ikce by differ- 
<mliAl«f aitd aJI i^lmmw v^ ihromg)^ dtfFemtijtlion. DtlTcrM- 
tittlioa k distiDgDliltcJ fnxn vnjiatlon in lint tliQ cliingM 
«ra aemBHinJjr prodiKoJ by oic4tii« of liiJTureiicw Uki mimilo 
to W sevonllj- bkcn tcconnt i>f. It U a rodccular proecei. 
Tb« inj»U'>n nf our n.-iir^tik in <iifw^lv imptrltvl to c*tl 
TU« pirijfic tdei^: i« impurwpublu ; but multiplicalion am 
ivpotittuRt nunilwff nwj time, wcoiapHeb ll>o rotullA 
MTvod. An l»iLu] motion inhcnn^ in ibo prlcnoij form 
vmatr* U thrnrffiro tlio iic»lc auutcc of ftU tti:ulion uid llw 

7ha irLoUjr BnoQbMnOTia and ui)iiit«Ul|^at ebtfwtcr 
n«tvre^4j prw«MH nttjr be mf<il^ «cmrii>d^ fn>m thdr 
netic *fajiip, lT)(^III]fpt)fV irorliB quite othrrwiir-.. The in* 
■epanM^i diftrwjturvtSc of convciovu aKiUm u tbnt it itt t«l 
rJofcicoL Came and cSoei ons rcmoCi? from oai>li 
Moaiu are idaf)U*d to distant cnd^. Tbc cbnln of 
impitlMA connecting antfre(l«ntfl with coiMMjumlii ia i>''it 
diiuei. Tbu adviuitagiu urv pnipuiiiuii^ lo ti>e int«fTaL 
Tiie tu<jrc rooiott lUe diect from tlie oaUH^ tli# grater ttmj 

* nib apluu^ 4j ^ ortmH ■JitpKUt wahmMntkUf OmI of Bptaii 
DtttHnfiiii, ivJ Lioida** Ui lltH l*f laOal lo iMrfiv ifl AftropriM* 
Ttnl "f tlv " ifonfc taaMT." twtvr ftlftfoCr tu ib* f «ll ooBDrTtUa. Im 
baft iii^f I in iT la tkr tht9ik:*l U« *4 pf«ii*nk*cH, TVe likft *f vajWr 
ttfliopv «1iM *iit M K*w li' IaaiJJet (J Ur n«ar|ilkii, Batld !■ nQ «i 



tM^prviportion be niiiilu between tbo auvm &iul tito edfofit 
t?Brh caanctf an calkJ '' ftul auaWf'* uid tlie eflmo amoottt 
of Di^irrj^ ex|)«iided la thmu coAvbc takAt^ io mnltiplj tlio 
sSwct to alniwt mJiy r«4iiire4 d^[Tee^ N>Eujv ovrcr umpfojs 
tbo *'tlDtl caiuu" but Old; tbe '^iiffialeiot otiwe." liuc tbo 
i«i>d4iiioj to orgfuiliAtiim vlJdi liu cxisicd on tliit plnoct 
for ft VHt pc^od, in cotmeetion whh flic ificn.-iutnfc adapt*- 
tioa of tlio oonditionN now foiiud upon iU ■arfa<^ from tht 
iitttt wIioQ it MVomed a eooM exterior to tlio pnMnt tim*, 
Ims graifaAlly cToKotl n cIom of form* called uilninb, !q 
wliirb Ou tvmArlciLfe quiltt.v dononiltiAfcd fykOKioii^iwn 
{vol. i, pp. 3^, 874) i* nj&njf«i«to4. Tlib <inatltjr cxhiliiU 
all (xiiKvivAbIc dc^iwn, from tltut wtfii in iLe DiociAd to that 
fuuiid in cuUf^tfiiiCHl nun, uid tLroitgliout tbfe 0eH«e tlio 
flftptcit; for tclfologlcal action W ^ICAdilj and Dniforml/ 
kfTpt pnco with tbo df^^rvo of intdligcnccu W« are tlicro- 
foru funod to outtdutSu tlrnt conifdoaimOM aw! btelli;^Dc« 
MO prodiieu of oi;ganUatFou ; timt or^ttitcd bftin^ arc, aa U 
were, devfcea for llie mQconiraliori &Tid bccnftiftoallon 4)f 
SDolccidAr MliviticM (vol, i, pp. S2^ 3^1) ; atid l!j;&t mtiid and 
^tbovifUt an; ajuuug tJie iivcoaiary pn^luvU of tniob r>^nova* 
^Hmiol and [nlcfiiJflod aoiivUIca— th« prv>perli^ of matter 
^BfaoA oT^fpntiML Thi> ^'i^zil of tnitli.*' t)ier«fi>n<, in The be- 
^Rcf tlint tlic Qviverw fxHciuca oODwiuotuuM. iiitcllj)^c«, 
aoil mind, CDUMiDt!) in Wtc fact that Hvo primarj a«dTltiM of 
di0Wd mafti>r— actWilI^ Vihlch are ni>vrr divoctvd frotn 
it— ooiufiinlo t\w liolr Hctiimt on( of wIiiHi. by riaiple fo- 
mliz^o^i, llwao (Qualities nrv prodiicod. ]$nt Uw thooght 
' BUM bo diffnl^^ and idiollj abaiidoned that la ttwlr dif ■ 
I fund morgantod Hate tbeao trdrltka aetnallj MDetitnte 
intMli^nM. Aa wrti prrwvml npob iho MumplMa that 
*'j(rt«" i« mllv "floJi,'' bccauM it i« known to he eon- 
T«rtib3o into it liv a ctwi pro<»v. Tbe »ficiitia1 mii^litkiii 
i« tliat pr^wuan, and witboat it tbero ia no luult Miiid ui 
fettnd onlj at ibe «nd ci the aerUa, aad sol at the licfcinnin^. 
the ^itinetire attribute of tbe creature^ and net of 



itor. It rcAidoi in man. &iid ii»l In iiAliini. TTnltM ibJ 
tmtb u rYWif^itxtH). ihir Iru^ altitude of tuturo tow&nl 
coll fi^vur U» cof rcctlv gniiorftUxxK 

Wo may ncra\ witli vrjoal tjnvily, ooontior tiM 
diru^iin of the ^CKrnU |in>bk-ia of tbe ronUiiil ralAltocuk 
una aihI nAitire, vix. : 

Wlui b UiO aUJttHk «ht«li ibfta should asciuiMi toT^nl 

^Vl|)lnm •pociolidng in thb p1a«, it «-IIl jmlBcfi ia nj 
IliAl this attitndc ebiynld b* of a twofold ch4iKt«r : tirsr, tluit 
of n f^liitlcm ; anif, fiwooi, tliRt of Ji magtvT. 

hlnn fiiidu hitntfclf an intcgnl part pf thU great nni 
nrfoiid i.<*t4tivu vbale eallijd naUtrOf etitjru miriulc fnMTtJt 
of which wi hj «ny jtrbviblff Tnonn* \m hroii^t wilhlu ll 
nngt of bU cApvHtdcc. AltJMKig^ it ouoeJAti chied/ 
largv mji«90#, jret itt fact tliwe loiuttcn a^rt coc»po«Ofl of molo- 
colts io minati> tliAl no mftj^ifvin;? power oan pmlfabli' im 
remlrr lUe Jatftent of tbvtii Ti*]bli<. ft h this fuoi ^liol 
vlucb gives Hm to ao mauj; fuuiljiai^niiil ^rr^ira lo prfmil 
livmaik jit^^rnf^nie. One of the mo^ pow^ul afi^nT^ 
tbfr rmrlti'i )iarf4»<, And nt tbi^ «anio timi! otMJof th« in* 
iiD|iiMiaEi1 iuid iuti.'Txvtiu^ objects witb vJuub mvci Lave &]■ 
«^rn and cvcry-vlwiv been compelled lo cotoe In eoninec, i* 
on bmxiMo ga^ tbr oarthV nlmof^iliotv (vol I, p. 48), wbr 
ciiftt^n^ aa a na\ ittMiEKro van >rnrr?1j' pnsjiedfd nni 
cbiroi^trj bad t^ronie a K-Ui»?e. It t* vt^y to ima^oo irliJ 
a fratttnl wanx of ^jrfof (-orTi nn ob)oct masl be lo an l^jfiw 
nukl Vfvrld. ItiU tbt^ 1^ ^mly a ntngic rixainpU. Otbt^nt 1i 
apfonfiit, but prod&rlire of far morv injunou ijltui^tna, imr- 

Irovnidt^I IIm) pntnhivo innn on ever j band. A f«w<if (bft^ 
pvat d^tlivfonv oihU^r trliich iho nioo has labored, and acII 
Umicb, wen^ jhmiiUhI out in tbe TxriiODrmax <vol. i, pfx 46- 
0^)- Tbc mil enbiilrd bj thU ncoevMrr ^rnonncoof )iJ« 
avm-nmlrngBarviiipmli-iibblc. lT>l««id,lL« greater fviH of all 
BuSi<ruij: ti <bo RviUt. din^ or rcraoUs of mcb tgnoranot). 
ObTicioilj, therefor^ iho flat ^reat ilutjr of Dnan tft to «ft- 


AnAFTATlOja,-ttA5 AXD THE UNrVfiRflE. 

qimiDt biiOMiU with hb ciivi^nmcnt. TJilf cag onlj be 

of Uitli! \A\of. 1'bov lEiUlewl at tivorv {any. S^A only muit 
tlwd««p4jifi^ faou, diffic«UL^^'ji^lu|f WjHjygbl oat witb 
gmi Ittl^r and peracrcrancG, but tlie^ mufll be c>~KkrfliiiUffd 
iato bwfi c4p»bl0 <if &ff(>rdin|( uf^ &ud rclubtc ic<^idca to 
hiiBiact opsmdoEU. To <ki tbiv rv^uir^ a Ttut aujuunl uf 
jialkiit *tiidy, Uoljtt littk- hue jot b««ti r0v«iAl«d o£ tbd 
iiKira miporloul tmtbfluf luUorv^ jvt conxdor tbo Amount 
of KMarcb whlcii it bM roqulrod ! KererflidenB, oalv a faw 
inttiTiiltiaU hivo conlributcd anj tbtn^ %i nil to ibe rwulC It 
i«Ka i^lrjTjJj tbv dimpler jind nwre vbvic»u< rolilttim butwicion 
aiftik and nature titat havo beHi dM^naiined. In lb« don»lu 
of phjBi(iil fon>Ci and cbc-mifAl tnbtUiv^ he h Mo to ex«r- 
CLM prvriftion IQ inAnj W4j« lo HM*utv AdrinU^cH and Anart 
evil*, bet In luuvt of Ibe bifcbur Held* of vitat, rnwlal. muni, 
and Gctciol pbcDomcGo, thow rvlatione nro eEihfrr nn^^rl^ ijf- 
norod or but dindv i^ithprj^r^^ f>o tbjit bU knowb-xl^^ of tbnin 
ATiili him notbing^ 'Die great work before lutn, tbcrefon, 
•UIl IB uiwij. 

In bU jturBiilt of InfotTji&tion witb nsgord to tbo ti^nro 
of Ibo noivcfvo uid bU po«itifnt in it, be mxtttt he drterruii 
bj ov fuAni, If be can crade llue actiou uf auiural Utrt, ]ie 
Ima tir> otbvir ftuvrce c>f tpprebeiMiou. Kalur^ bu« ncilbor 
foeli^j; nor will, ncltlior cvr^oncno* nor intdtigonoa ll^ 
cut Ujr Qivm Iwr boveU tnd Mtidj- ber nioM delkftte tiMii«a 
wjlb ^iilirv impiitiily, Biocpt u tbo great pmIIv« mothor 
of ftl) ibiiigs, this h $hmtluie\y pttilve toumni all runticnt 
bolni^ SbnV r^t lo probe uid |icoutnlo tbe do<'T>c<Bt 
iveivita of UwT imivcivn ii nb«nliito and uoiduilleiigcii. It \& 
onlj be biuBcIf wbu Um over renltirod to qof«ti<m it. Hi* 
utiTv brdop flUod viib a tfaooMnd otber dclonozti and Im* 
Ofiidaiei, bu fjuidDd god* and dcnwoa oatMdo of tinlwro 
forbbklins bim tu proaociito bia ataditt. But none of tbcae 
bav« evcv prv^nl^d Ui«nMBlT«i oxcvpt fn Inui^oalkin to llie 
Undaot of iiatoro, dcottMlii^ tb*t bo dmirt- Em>n of 


th^ kinclp bovyif^cr, tf:onp1cd viilt a g«?neral ATenioa to iha 
kbuHvu* ucthocl* of Minb ^iu\y, And ft loUt mbconoop- 
doD of wliftt uunMJiulia truo Ltivwlvdgv^ luvo provontcd tho 
raiv frmii ciftklu^ iho dvigrf^ of pr&p^Mi in dotonniaiug 
iU r^ium^ U> thif ntiWvmc wUieli ita braliHloTclopment 
ftoJ iU m^QtHl a<:tivil)«« pruvi* tlint it migtit liato modo 
BikilcraKi^TilllvcUro iuflu^io^- t>wi Lord Bio^n,* in ft 
uioJit^ot Wflj, n*fl«JU the mcicat »ujicnlitloii of inhu'n wb- 
•cfvicn^T to Nuiara. Her thoidd Indeed bo tlid feiicrprclor 
{"rjifcr^"), but iu uo pr^Jper *ki» the wranl {-miim^ 
ifv^^of XatBrMttd tbconly«yinwl««Ji»'«<»»«>"wtly 
inierpr*^ hjit fn^jnfoit rtvmrfc tl^t KiuuracaaoDiy Iwcvq^ 
i|iicrtHl 1*7 otuTJcifr Iwr,* i« to luikc tlii* obodknco oqtiivalimt 
(OAiiaM|WiEntaaDe wflEi uid rocKJ^nittoii of hrr latn. Ho 
b«^ hwn the iwrr^nt of Knturo too long. All trDc pr o grtM 
hu boon moMorcd tnr bis frruvrinjf miutcrj over t>cr, vbJch 
liM ill tarn bMii «tricUj proportional to bit knowlc*]^ of 
het Irutbi. 

Tbu U why, in the ncmiMt pbcc^ nun fJionld nffimiM 
towiM Xatiire tixt ftttitntii* ol a movl^ri or nilcr. Djr tliit t> 
of isoane tneaol m vHort to iji«ff«i0o over all natunt fwooi 
ADd pliano<n<ma « di^roc of dinetJoa and coitrol tnflHrnt 
lo pnit49rt hJnuelf from mjary^ and ptocuTV for biniwlf all 
tbi! benefits vUicb tbo3r ajv c^pcibk of reiiOerUiK, Theoe 
forco* nod pb«iioii>on& mo iuuUkt prad nor bed. Xo moral 
qm\iVf nacidue in tliorn. Good and bed Cen Aiilj tic predi- 
oetod oi en intcllii^isnl fl^mt, And, ■■ we have eoeo, Katvra 
'» luil Horh »r» ^^uL Bot, In ibo Mikoontrollod optjretioci of 
MktorKl bwi^buJLigecapeblu of fiMfhngKro linbk to inJQij, 
la *n uTvMsbeaginf^ «nviroDinvnt, thit df^^nH) of ram^pood' 
fiDoe ttn oemr be rnecbiMl in which no friction cen ooftir. 
It U ihU perpgtiul confiV* of vvoty «peci«s wlib IU edvvm! 
ewmwsdittgev thie grinding et ibu outcjr boundenvn of iti 

I 'fiqiM bUum iMurquftapMie) tlif^l«r" 'INai.0^'' 'WortD." 



■phcra of A^vji^f wbicli eoaeuml^ kovp« iu nnnifHrn dnvm 
to auodenAo limits bTtd its m^mbon ro^crk'(i>d lodefiiiUf? goo> 
gjapAucU am*. Wi^en wo conaputc tl^i; power of niulli^^liiM^ 
lion id mDjr vpociu^ wvn Uiv luuat prulitio^ uui LHjmpure UiU 
vriUi clia4ctUAl Diiiub«r capable qI surviving niul tv«Uj- uctant, 
vrc >re lidpntl to roAltxo Uic pot«n-^v ul thtfl tullutii«« m pcr- 
pvluill/ «Acncii h)- aa ttdvorw onTironniwt^ XLo Uvgree 
of h>iAplaU(fti u not ISO iKjrfoot buE liiai for €^^17 otio tbat 
varvU-Ofr fro«u Urn to toA tnilUoa arc dn«tn>yi^d. Ia nun tli 
nliok kt«« tbcui in knjr otbor utiuul, uid it u tbit wbi' 
huwabloU hiiu.tovuiuuoli greutvr ^oxUiTUtluntnyofbor 
ioJiimI, to tbon^ue bui narnbeia knd txjmnd bi« tcrritorijU 
limlli. T\tii Lu bwit diui !<■ bb nupcrior M^ncil/ uid 
oaftoiitg, Uj bffi iiil«lUg«Bo«, vliioL iu CWJi IkM gfv«ci tte 
BdH^tr, to ;;oTV!mEneQtf nnd to otber isrotef^tive imtitiitioi 
A)tnii«tJc iiionOitj' iu ite iiicipivnt fvnu u-ixA as *ooii 
huoUIgpnco bo^ioa to conntonot ihm u&Viral iiiduoincoe 
vhich mtDct popuiAtion. Ot>o of the t^ocrv^ of tbo moetm 
of tbo bnmui no» So ptopBttg tlto oniira globo biki booQ^ 
tJiii moml mdw wbicli po<fr:to olbon wboro tuitiinil lai 
wtiM ilr«troy tbfn. QorenBient, wbxili liM this exlrih' 
ivtural iffoti-ciion for it« objeet, hftd Its tiaa lA tbk aUn^M 
imtbrnml. tboogb in a tct^ Dodoveloped fonn Qf it— « 8ort 
4kl OjKoisiie iltrnkm. protot^tlojE dbon for iLo boDcflt of *oLEj 
Dot eT«A lltb 11m al^rl pcrliApA groatOMt ntjTp 1fLk<!n by t}il 
rwo miKl be ■itribQled I0 an inorvwod aoqmtiiLLnco wiUi lU 
rr^UHona to ibr irnrM nronii<] it. Thu liiiowlciljift «bb of an 
omptrifol Hiul^ but it urrvcHl tta pirpowi. All ibo traly 
tfOciolvipnnkI prof.TVM tbiu far inadf ba* bem bnivd o«i eiD' 
P^HpaI kni3rwM|eo- ft hiamffimJ to pWo mm wbcrv wo 
find Idm, wblch k a trnlv gimd ivmU. It must, boworor, 
tMrU nit tb4* impmiaat l<«oofi titdt oaiaro ii Roll^ canty cui 
troltod. A T<rr hulo ac^&^ntaBOft witb luliiral Uwi 
•uflkient til oEiablo Tin fo aebfeve Mcip^rmlonA cflcot*. 
llw fature of tbo Itnoian race matt iwt bo too c<mf]dvntljr 
Inferred fnxn Um puL Tbo difficol^oa iDereafe ^t a mu; 



gK«lcr roCc ihaa the dtnAtiy of [xipiiUlion. llie ywuipluxity 
of riviliK/i:iL>n nOK*"^"^ *t * rjilc? aUoj^cllicr t^uc uf prnpop- 
tJuu to llw a*Jvji[i(!c <if iNitiUIgotJ^'C; SIurL-oTcr, in the 
pmwnt »Uta uf («iili|;UtvfiOil «^K^lutuu^ tho progr^ta bvjui; 
mtulf h^ thu *^'to! ftf the- worhl iu «rjtiiiiitiL- divogTorj' aud 
in*^t»liiiriirait a|>i>ltc'uiion u far boyojid thu pof^lilc power of 
Utfi rnjL^.^, »iTi(lw exiAtiiig [ucUjod« of iiwtractii^n, lo com* 
prohtJid it, ThJft t^JuJe nijjjJIv to inci-tNur the dianproiKjirtioQ 
and cimfiiiiiim in *ocic(^, miJ ihrcftteas lu prvdpjtnto tho 
grand ciim wliich wjte luvn can not but forc^e Approocli* 
itig tinUm » nodical ob^nt^' L? toon innugurated in liie socisl 
(MJOfftitiiliPii of the d^-ilijwO w<>r]d. Sciciiec mnfrt diippJAiU 
empincipiii, atul fuDikmciiul knowM^ Iw uiJvurxally dlf- 

Tho prindpftl object which man hu in the MekIj^ of 
natore la lo «»*ble him (o ccmlrol it* forcos. To onlj a fow 
tnind* y tho MLiafjtction derived from lliu tii«rv AO^^Luition 
oiiij ;f4iaH;i<fU«uiwA of k]i<iwli.*d|fu jirt udL-ijTiato iiiccniiTe, 
Doubtlt^, ihjA BUtl0fu<^tlc>u hms ]i]uyi.'U a hirj^- part in tho 
lahon of tli9 fev wlio h^vo timde tho acanl^ oontrihutiuui 
tlins far oblain^td, and in tho iridiridnAl iForker it uiuat ww 
^DfilJtntfj a«QproiDo iii^^tivu:, while a pui^blo tnXa.ro ie coQ- 
ccivjihli% in VihU'h lliia, tlid lUghoat «ouro« of ImppincM, will 
al*o bv tt uni^until and popiilv one, iFilcfnjf ntnk &hMi£»idd 
of th^Mu <:u:&»or gr^ufLcations wIji»v niilhikntj i« now au- 
premo, becauae It h through thorn tlmt tlw mi-u if; prutcricd 
fltid perp«luat«d (vol. i, pp, 471, Ha, fif'T), Bul^ for iho 
pr^'Htiit and the immodlato fnturv, it mufit hv aunnied that 
the prim^iT)- end of kiiowluiigo ia to fiecuro practipaj otlvui- 
Ufja. Tho dcf^ree of com^pondcncc between iriiui and hU 
cnrinMnRien^ notwiih^ljui^iing hit Ki^orit/ and Eutellip:noa, 
by ftftfut d«vioca n&d protective inititutioiu, ffi not ho girAt 
but tbat a Iju^ unouul of fnuiiL^n coo^tantly oJLJ#t», Thla 
fririion oot <n]\y dociman** hi» mnkfl nnd hri&gtt the mujurit/ 
of mankind to prnmnturo donUi afl^r tho manner of tho 
fiaLoi uftd tbe harce, hut, vhat ohonld rcolTj' be rr^pu^lod da 




not If^g rociEtnne uid voalit nut be tf o«ioinl<tJU' drttnibl«), 
It jtiToIvc» a rmt AiniMitit of pbjAifal a&d mental dtttfcrii^ 
■Dil pr^veata tjui aUt« of uiuvunal «i«Jl-b«iitg vUch abmlil 
\he lli« lii^liwi Aim of liCc 

If vmpiricml kw^wled^ hw ii]fio«! tfl redorv the friftioD 
oFui Rdr^ret trnvinjitiDviil lu tiii» eilvnt vliicb >i^^j«ntv«Uw 
ennclitioQ of i&aa »o utdetj fn^ni tlut of otJi«r crealuraa <lc- 
Ti>id of tUa knoirledgr, it b cvrtololy logial to i^rgats tliai 
^igbur <1^r«« of knowlodip will Fvtilinue propottioonllj to 
wiJvn Urn toaintL If it ir«rv Irau tfait ])«rfectfoo m the 
'OOfropowlejM^ bMl aJnftd^ bcca >ttAin«d» thb rtaeoi^g 
*voiiU of ooorm be folbcioa«. But wo bave K«n tliat mcfa 
U ^ fn>m the CMC The Amoiint of suffMiDi^ in the h9* 
mui familjr niuiplj prmw lack uf currvspoikdjenev; Hen 
WO fttm poatinoallv iLtfhing bibtik «giitiit tb« 1)vri«rs 
vliirh 1h«T «]nvin>nTn<^< pre«onu la thtnr free AcUvittw. 
llmfHiI^ kiMirlMx^ hu aJTordAd tbcm % «BperficUl riev of 
\\ie vioHd Hiiil iLvtr rvlattoa* to It; but 1)«Eow lie hCdden 
tnith^ wliOM mo«eor tnanifc«4atioii« ai tbo nufacc an almoat 
Lwajit wroQglj Intcrptvbod, hwI from vbirii fioiw-loaioiw 
irtcWtf tli« reT«TW of tho tmtb ara &Di|uenttjr ilniinu 
Aotioni buod oci IImmo cocicloHiims K^ men into Innnmcst^ 
■bdu ptfalU, aiKl entail anj^iab an! FOflcTln^ wliere Immo- 
diate flwtriictfoQ Si ce»ped* Tlie Tmrvinai vaja Ui wliicli 
IgTtoranrQ of tbo«& tmiha aifecl tlie nf^ tvttd cwuEtunilj to 
IVMOii tlw turn of poMblti tn jo^mcot and to )ovttr lb« tooo 
of Knmttn tlfc. 

Tito woaiu achliii'iHl by min in in^rra^itt^ hUnnmhom 
ami in vid«fling hU KOOfi-npl^itAl nnnce han hvca ibo ivmli of 
a rvftiiit) ikgrod of ilii^vrrt oootntl wbicb UiA likcrvuMl Intvlli- 
||pc*nco ba« enabled bim to excrdw OT«r tbc foreca of nattiro 
OOOMitniln^ bk «nvirv>iifii«»tH l^ut^^vrr fiinbr.- ;<r>-^*TCt^ 
hti Diay OT^rr viukr In tb^ dircettoin of incmuinjr U'tt tltxri*- 
thii mitifcatinfc hi* evil*, a&J aUfftneiitin/ bia eaiiadty for 
hiipplBMt, niuat nsKiU from lui siKveu ia obtalnii^ tftOI 



piom coBa|>lol« iQkttvT^ or«r Ibo mItcim i^lentenU of lifai 
KUtoml lurToiiiMUii^ A uitipln mveluaitnit iUvicD i« ofua 
snArncnt lo convert ft liif^J [djoHimib element into t r«< 
ihlv b<fD<^Hml onr, ftnd^ hv hptr. rt^ttvming n barinfiil 
uul UicTU cngiliiijf b useful ouc, iiicrciwiii^y hlgU 
of corr^porxltiuce luay bu tlult)«0, uid u^ure aiid 
tOTQ [wrffcl oondirloua of «zi^teaco broDglil aboni^ 
Fn ibd 4^<)aitrol of tiAiurv ik* in tU «tni)jr, there Axti no >rbi- 
tiiiu&UJotuk Tbu riglit u klwaj^i codlvndrtr with thu 
iiitt, and oiih » filse, uiuifttiiml tIow of th/t cuw con «rvct 
1^ Dthor btrricT to mnn^A biviulon of lutunya domAin, 

Sudi &rv soiutt of tbo inott gVQcrul rvUtincw nbd^og 
bcfiwaoQ man adiI notnro, witboQt a ckdr ixuKopdooi of 
wliioh no fauU cui exlft for tlie «d«n«o <^ I>ymmac Sod- 

dkooe geiunl coofklci^tlom we mnj^ dow pan to 
of « mont f poci^ cluracter. 
Limarrk noenu to Iiavi^ hccs tbc first dcnrly ti> rer^;n^i'0 
ajkUiiiiiU<ttU,v to furiiiuUCo tbv Uvib uf tbv Iiitt^r>Jf*pvuU> 
GiKip mod motGi) rcbuloikd of living o^uiioite and ibcir ^r- 
^mdi&g inflnrnruv^ Th^ Utter ftu-tor htt f^an^t^ntfrit in 
vnyt »Jid €kmol#« bjf upvcu! approprutc Icraii. 
Qorjlfrnj ^nl-Hllunbad mcd tbo GXpn^Aioti m/^W'^omJ^- 
to irliirb Tjniutvk Midd* that of ntiiirv^* fP^>*>f7 ^^ <^ 
idtf «entc,niid niicii rju-xlill^ it u tbo mUttrti enj^iiymnttnt^f 
!■» utlcipatiii^ Wb Corat^'u ■'iwffW**t and Ilorlwrt 
|pnr>rr'f;m)niirablo&i^lilicqii|vDlcnt*'ciivEfoctnicnt." But, 
ID tbii iir|]4)lr, lAmuv^k 0inp1o3rAl xwitt fn>qurnt1y, M tnoit 
ComplfTtelj^oiLvv^iiig bin idea ii] tbt* ffTvatwt DUiulierof «;i«i<«t 
rfmjtlo word rtr^^nMant^ ami dio title of hh^ furjuitw 
:Eupt«r Vn of Iht^ "Plitlcaopbio 2on|rtpi(|«" i« a* fol- 
luvi: ** D« nnflu4fnce (Ua citvooitlaitcM sur W ACtioiu Ci 

4/Hi^,t*i, n, r?. ^«>4, 

I »l%llM«pyc P««4lii<" VOL d, ^ »1. 



fl*ts-\u\a. uo l>dtcr wurd could bo cLgMn to wcpriaa Um 
vhuW Hva uf div tbirioua luuiuiU Nctii^cfi and nvidiomtok- 
tng; plocf htttfccn tlm univcnc iwil diL' liuinfin raoc — tlie 
flMirr<XH»Ti] and Uic tnicrctf^Amn — oacIi «t Iimrs botii u-U«Q 
KDil putii'c, Uiaii Utia tuod yltda wvtd of i^ojTUDua parlAncO; 

All philcito|i9ijr Aline to flcvurtat for plL^noneifirkL Tlio 
lintnoD mind i* Kt conKHtnt«d tint no pvwcr van |ii-event 
it fiviu jwrpt^lu^lj Ktnvmi; towuU Uu^ uiid. All i^jiit^mia 
of t1ioiif,'i^TH EJOiurLJl^r full, III UitH twpect, under iv^t> gen- 
tfal divtfiioiw, tbfi td^^i^cal ond tlio ^p^ftfii?. Tbe onljf 
rndem lluit cvc« rbimod to dJiwivow botK IbcdO loM* l| 
llmC v( CuJiiU^ »hivlj m thii n^pvd inujt bv n-gafdoO nUiv 
s« a rorolt ug'jiiwt philowphy Ihui m b gyrtMn of pbiloeophjr. 
Cndcr t*otb U»au gcfitnJ div»u>iui tli^^rc Uaire grown up 
iismen>iu moT« vpf^inl dottrinea, wlil^^i Iiat^ eacU in Eta 
Coru fi^Ttiiistl Ducltfl for oiioor <iy»J«im«t lo which, ncoorduig 
to the epwlal lacDIftl iiruoltvitiw i^f ixtvli iudivjdiuil, luvu 
luv« givi^n in thdr adbiTiioD. To tbt.' tt4i:!o1f^oa1 dIvUtton 
propo-rly b^loog tlie docuincfl of pnre ibeologj, or divine 
ffUU'ttilU of prv^luuuiuUi And of fnUJUm^ To thlA jiTco 
dmut! ))e ftddtd Uiot modorn dtialirttv scliool wbo linlU ilut 
all pbeiwiinena nm Ui« nwilt of uovuTln^ kwv odci^ arUtrft- 
nlj iiiipnHHd opf^ thv mii^rM. Thb #c1iool, iHrwrri^r, 
txc:c)it !d » fir u» tbo pHiunl origin of tbMc Uwh U oun* 
oorood, mnj coiulatentlr bo cl>»cd ftJ tbc |i:<;u«lie divliion. 

TbiH Ui^nnir:^! ^Enteral cLuA doM nut poaae«l the nnmbor 
or Ttficly uf ikpociol hpcU found bi th« otber^ and in nil tbL>ir 
ouDSithl iL-QvU ita adhenntfi mxy b« rogiidod u pn<rtJf^»II/ 
■t oM, TboQfeh nppucDtly of modem origlii, tbo g^^^Uc: 
ittltool U in T^Ij » old ai Uio fullj doTclcped mind of 
man. Tli«* !»▼« »lwjij* Mn«t»d ih« two Antithetic wa^s of 
bokiiie ittlw vorid. Bud no Ag« W b«en whoUj witLfiui 

scDooiA or TnOCGlIT, 


adlittrabte to botb ot tbc»e teUouk, But Li>ere uo rauoDA 
in ibn lulore of UungS vbjr tlvb UlwdogiCil lubit of thoogUt 
taldt tiovD t9 iritliiD ft (^uito nsounl perknlp bifc muu- 
'tdaed tn oTMirfadmiu^ rapreniAJ'j oror ^ jceoedo luUt of 
lliiji^laH Tlw oo\y philowplMr wlii> imDi* to luiTft doHjr 
if«d tbo tnio iialun> uf tbU futulaiU9DUl uiEitlu^ an4 
ipCttd A BjrMeiialic kUAl/ftW of iLo priavipkv opju wtiicli 
rMbi, » Immonovl Kaat In bis <«lobnKod "Antloo 
msta " * iiuit (ill- prufuttnil iluiCVMion which folloim ihrm, hs 
liM bik] tW f^uiiiiUtk»u iu pi^jrcbigJo^, vhene it |>n>pvrlv bo- 
tungfs for ft ihoroi^^ nnilcP'teihdiiig of thitnuHt viul u\4 
prvticftUv im|mrt4iit ccoidilifin of kiunari tLought. Ill* 
""Uievn" ftJDd ''uLtiUiuMd" ^iHvt oulv in Uie diancter of 
tiiv wamptw gl\'Ufi from tiio pviiiiftry potUiUkft of tlio 
Uloobi^Mft ftnd ^^ctut^ nvjKCtivolj, and Ilk 
tof l«nna hj vlifch 1o cliarart^Tci tbo dofeiulon of 
pn>|io«itN>3tikt wliiio thoy ud ngt tfaoito whidi cither 
Ijr wxrald now Ackwl, ftrc potliftpi ft* littlu otijectiomUe ti> 
«3fw a» lo tbe ■;iUivr uf tli^w ^iftrtkft, 
Qc oftlU Uie oT^e ilic do^maiie and tlic otlicr tlLO^^nptnAi/ 
vivtt nf il^c worlil, but in liift tfmo and ootiDtr^r t1]« fomi^r 
«f Uttttt IcTnm had no! ACipiirod tb« ttigiiu wrhicb luut »iu« 
;d irndoftllj fftttoiKxl upon it* ftnd meunt a vefj diffenniL 
Crocu tbit wMob Doi^lu Joirold d«£[U!d ftt ^^pup- 
faU grown "; nhUo, as to tbo Uctri^, ibo praotici^ of 
iftjif rmpiriruin to quncttftUve acwntific dvtcrniiia- 
tkftt hsi ftl>o prukdpftUj' tfravR up dnee Jdt dft/. StHlf 
a« if eoiiwwLai aniadAfluit with ibiA vonl, 1]« imn«timM 
pdiplo/Hft vnUiiiiito fur itf uiU Glib tbi* iiMMleof iboygl»t 
mtli^l w U» f^/tfhrW meUiwL * 

itt itoiD|[ Div t4Tnii jAp^ism^m? u appUrftlilo to t]i« tdruv 
■cImk)!, Kunt dovbtliitt hnd in viovr th<i fjbri, 40 jipp*!^ 

IttOftll, tllAl it «Jr«t}lDkchoul tluUftVUUMxItDtDacbpiul^W^ 

', bein^; fftttuir in tlttt ft«««fidi<(iuj ; lod, w Ituf «urdii «nw- 
vWt criUeal, ftud «Iv/p/j<W, bo do doubt rooo^uicod tbo 

■ -'HflUkitfnkMa VcmVaaN. 


tcndfocj iif ft fev luinds nt nil lioiuM Co revolt o^inAt tfco 
pn>T«1tmff ooaroplLOiiA, oxvuin^ tlietr Mminc<l prtiu-iplc«, 
ftfbd Aobjofit thoai to tiicc^nnirnl aix] nnn^ericFi] toaU) ftiul to 
lo^icftl criti«wni« from rilian.il j^tindA. Ktir b^ docUm 
ihaU in favur of vrr^plinf; llie fwnii-r, vf d<i|nK*t^ vkw of 
tldAjeo, there exist ibreo prinolpd orguincDtfi; 1^ ih«t dft- 
rir«d from aj^nMikvl cnflcn^frf, friacc upon it appear to mt 
tJi« dftim* of religion ftnd tnomJity ; S, that derived from 
ft f/wWniiiV vrt^nvi^ aiuve b> £U bid Ibt? vnlirv fidd of 
^QDnbiion CB» bo compwMKl bjr tl^u mind, and rlic ^n- 
dttiocnd dinwtly dcnvcd tr&m the 1ln^^o«ldhionod ; nnd, Z, 
tlut drriveJ from popuiaritff^ niooe li« ooucuiTcd tbtt tlio 
giv>t majoritr would ulu'ivjf« be founij on lliitt md«. 

It is intcnsAing &nd roinarkftblo that fo ^[roat a mbd 
ibatdd btt able In fiftd no higher oiotivcA t)ian Uii^i^ Ti^fon 
Vt\vi^x to bttM tb«< clAJinti of dogrikatiBrn, wbii<b mraut ^id 
«tni Dkvanb iLe aceeplanoe of tbe niftln body of bolJ«fa of 
the age. Tho (im k of no low tit o?d«(r that it would »uoiii 
to Iw lipfioitb thn digniTj rtf n phitoaApber to rrnti^rlaia it. 
For wfa&t hu Qiuii'a pntcticul iutcmt lo do Vp'ttb pUiloMpliv, 
wiiL tbu atiainniBnl of tnith !u the deniain of al«tnol 
tboii^bt \ The nr^immt employed by Chbop Bnikr— that a 
puticmlnr Mifpon ]<bonld br rtnbmrcd, on fbcanlffgrmtrxirrf 
CO DO olhcrr. that Tbcrc eould be nothing lo kM« aid inigbt 
b« nin^ to i^u bv to dolag, wlin«« In (bo failiue to do Wi 
thcrvr irtA nothing to ^n luiii might bo tnnch to lom * — hat 
b««i gVMraltjr c«ndcrnr>nl em of n To^r nrdor, in »p)>ailinf( to 
pi«otiail intcn«t wbviv a iiiimltuii of ftb«tr^ truth vu in- 
volved. But B^op Hutler was arowedlj a w<Tlarun wribfr, 
dcft^nding hii; f^Hirnlur religion, and m^ low appv«h wem 
to be t-xptfiHcd. Hot, tbcn, iNjald Kant Jn^tlfj an analogotiA 
arguinuitt I As a dlnnlciiKMvd ]iliilcrtoph«r» tlii* wonltl At^em 
impc*»jh1u. Yrt Kant** jouificaiioii, from bfn own |H.'L'ulUr 
point of VMJWr thoQgli eoinowlat amuibig, wQI appear to b4 
qnlto aatia&DTtoay. It i« th»T Ndtbcr the theaiB nor tho 



[:fttititWn of kiij of hM <Lntiiii>mI«» b v«i.ub1e oi proof, or, 

rntWt boOi an <a[>d1ilc of hrmtH domucutntion ; aim], bvinp 

^«OQtrvlictork8| all vgumvitt IjcconM* BlMunl. VCU\i him 

Iho oiiIvoEM h a grnst dHonima, of which ftnjr oiw mtj Uk« 

iritbor boni iritli cxictlj i>t|iMJ chuKn of rcncbuig tb« Imth. 

nwet 10 Ijifl {iit«roel, and this, KadI iboQgbt, vw 8fti|iiCi»tioii- 

Preeiaeilj tlw mhiq mif^lit be kuiI of bn tbml nitoa for 
diooaiitg t)ktt iiiilo, vu., ibe ^rjiitige to be derii^ from 
jti KTUfltitr popularity. If pcBtdbW^ tbh olftim jiwarii ft erll 
lower Diorol woi^Lt cbtD ibkt of prnctlod intcrMC^ of wbicli 
it t^ iadci?ij, nMrcl^ a temponL furrn- Oul^ p^UtiriirTA tiow 
itrgv it »A moatv to InflcKiicing; loen^i^ o|iitnK>ru, Iioctaluly 
could ovTcr tw ikwcnitkj pui frjrvmrU cX(.M.-|it iti jxul Atiu!i b 
Qjc M Kant ooDctJTcxl liiia to be— « cue En whl^ U would 
otlitrwiM be ftWilotibr imtnUenil «h!i'h tlAa on<^ look. 

Tlie trutji iUcJf «nB Jiow^IuhIj UMdtUitiAblv, AnJ, if iliy 

vllerior coaifleK|uene«» werv, *■» & mutur of faol, to f»lluw 
eHber dodalon, one «&? *» Kkol.v to pf^ajin tlii^i bf Ibo uno 
eooTtm Ail bj tlie olbrr. Tlic onlv guiOc left, tbtnffprv, w 
winpljr prauiat advanl«f^; amil, be th^t Xlut leut ^rcoXer- oo 
the oae Ibatt ou tbe otW cMle. (bw wouki bo Huffidvnt to 
dotortnlne the deeldoo* 

K^nf* M^oond gmnnd for Aca>plinjt tbo ikcaU mtJiCT 
than thi* inUtben^ rut., thit of a i^^eonlaHve Interart, b^Inf^ 
b%b]/ pbIIoeop1ili«I. iltiiervee n>ore nUetttJoiL And, logio- 
■Ilj frnoQ^K wo find biin ODnmcntlng, Amoag tbi- Rdraulngitf 
vbicb ibr mind i* to dnivn fnim dioosiiig the dogmelk 
M(k of (Ui^v jmtiuomiw, cliat of otmwniftt^ or MM 
IfttmJcMK^Jbf^'t), nod a1«o tbM of ryvp^rf^^/fy. KoUnDj; 
ft trticr that) that Ectootogy w e relief to tbe OT«f«tmi&cil 
fnc^lltcr itrivinjz 1^ build ft tiQir«cM between two inflnitico. 
h m tbe philnik>phy of tlie Indolvnt brain, tliei^vwed ntlM, 
■Bd Ia Ibiti atUj^tf^l Tiofh to tbo childhood of tbi? world ^nd 
to iD tboec who wuary of inti-UcctBftl eifA>n. TLom) majr be 

■ ^ 


good rr.W(iTu ttbt-m al! hop« of arriving at objeetlTO Iruth fa 
r«ioun<!«d ; iboy could tifurrfh h? tii}mjltc«1 imdcr »njr oiiwr 
<*ii**uimliioce^ Tfiat thorc i" ui^ greater iitUiniic difnitj or 
tiobilltv in a UDiveno trrvatcd b^ dtvigu Hmtt iu wiv cimti^ 
bj rvolutian, fev men with spiontjflo hat^te of tfantghl will 
probcibly be able to JMhnit. Thcfr <iiuhtK« are not objccd'TD 
but ^bjocijf?* l^j do uot bvlong to tb« world, btit to 
tboM who cotttvoipbte il, and ibun au much of tbo fup- 
jpotcA vpcGulntive (ntoroel k nd€|pCod to tbo clu« of piw>' 

I'hu coi|>Lric]ft of Kjutt loM!* all tliMe adra&t8j];(«. Id 
cniSnunu^ tbu anf^t^^fS, bo tvnaovec 1lk« footidxtioiw of i«- 
Vj^n ^d of luoralHy, tbo btt«r conceived m dunriog all 
il« MrKTiIom fr\>m intTii^ntjr. *' If thrive DO primordial Bfr- 
ing {L^r\tt9m) dtitin<4 from tbo noivvnv, If tb« naiTcTM ia 
witWiit a U^nain^ and tb«refoti3 wilbout « creator, cm 
vrlll not f reo, ojid tl>c H)nl of tbc mnK) dini^biliiy and pcrUi- 
ability M matter, moml uImh mwI pnr>ri[^4 low nil validilj. 
aiid full will] tliG lra£i«Dv»dciit4l idcv wbicli fonr^ iMr 
tlwon>tii«] au|>|>ort.'' In tbfa pflMigo L« evtdc;jdr folU to 
diMingwL tlic fine afiodc*, on tbe utrcngth of wbicb manj^ 
modem wSentLrla ao Moiiilr rpjoct the i>bar^ of malciiil- 
iain;* yet ho bna rleatrly In vl«v tbo U«tn mudianical oon- 

trflMlUl'^vt ki»<vA« WttCauKlkajr wfiM iulb*rU dan »h&t mimlli'' 
{Dr. llmtj Miol-krr, - FnUlibtlj lUrtc*." jl>vwt. ISTHl p. Mt»- I1 maf be 

!!«■ ibHff cf f Hhrr uv iWo ibofr nf atdhvJ ifiitiiiirali Tfci- iiu f Lui ii^ 
|u4 thm *kI, w aJnl^ h a toattH*! nlHttan. WMuB from vihgr inM«rtb1 
thfcjp mIt m Lhew <mtf f ran CM fc^Blhcr. et.dOflf rffn^ihtUltf ipblb*! 

poMd, ih«T tfV ai^><|i fu nkiviUHir » rmriffTttc II a »» »u «t» Wb- 
tmlnd of mIkv mbiamppi 1 m! cbiic. 

7W otfvr «lkiiL *b* b*i* «W b«m nIM naif vUlliiMi, M an rcf^id 1^ 

§ni^Xf Lit ■ OBfUte fpaclA^Lvd Uad cf naltn, a oaIt of i(Aoifr«laitcio pas- 

%7 (li*i vi|uite4 nbMiaw «alM brvlb, ir aiw» #rti rt >aofc Biodkiag 

THB PDiLosornr op kast. 


nentioii between pli.enoiDCEU wjiicb cowcitub^ tbo bafb of 

Empinnrtm, tliai defined^ ii not, however, cntirrlj wfth- 
oot ib mIvuiia^i^- ll. Loo, powvwes « oprUfii ijiMTuJutivis 
ftiU*rf«r, in dcHiiin^ whuli Ku-it tnlW Ti>uf« dearly iih>>w^ tbaC 
lir vcM DtwtcflipiUtrit^ iIlaI >Amr univcrul ftniithfuu in Uio 
biuiun mind wMcU couwrn* u» Iwre. '^EittpirictuD/' imij* 
be, *iJ1C»rd« uIvauUj^ lo tlie Hjwvulalive i;]i^r««t of tbe 
m«on, irliEuU «rv trtf^ lWinDlm|r, bikJ faj- ?xocv(l tliofu whicli 
tbi* dogniflii:* ttsbclicr Af rutiobil UU^a an ^rmaiitc. In the 
ftimier, Uw iotvHecl u i1aa\'« ou iCtt i>ii^n |>vi.'uliHr f^ix^Ltnd, 
til., tLi; 0Hd <)f iii<ffv piMfclble expcriouoWf vKot« Uwa It 
ctn m«f back, and by tDMii& of vbkh U «ati esfMnxt iu own 
certain tod ciitiiprrlicusrblc knowt'^lfci^ vi1b<-tnt cii<]. . . . 
Tb^ oru jiirjcikl niU Duvcr aUou- auj vpoch ^f iialurc to In: 
atmrnoA m (be ftb*olnff;y fim, or nnv limit of hiK outlook 
bita lt»> mm^iini^in^ worid ti) l^e rrfcnrdnl .is t)i** oiitOTintial, 
ur mojr of tbc ubjcct* of uoloitr wbkli he e»n rtfoltu by 
mttbmttticff Ar by dWrrstlon An^ bring f^yntU^iuDy uudur 
hi* «ontuiii|ititt<>n (JrucAftiufsy) — tbo extendwl — to ^tim 
O^tr to tbow vrbkh noitlior mqim hot lainpn^lion c«n vvvt 
n|tireeQt m aonerftif— ihc iJoaplc.*' Surely biif "^ vni^ihdtt ** 
w bin* noT]«i Mbcr thtn a nwxicm gwiMiit, evolntUiiU^, oe 

Crtjti wImiiljngaU ibat Kant maintains fv^ flnit a|!uiii4 
tV two oppubi^ vtRVA, it nuy Httll W^ \ qiti^iu^n wbotber 
tbe TTtAidy ^nd«fieDdenc« iMvmaiy to Ili« ^nnpirivf^t w>miM 
not hv firvfrnibl* to llic jdlo retqwclabnitv clinrwtiiHitio of 
lb(» 'UitcriiMiBi^ 

PiiM UeuT to itlitAlnai^ ibf* two intnfp>T^Ut>c pWi4of 
lb<ru^ht, Kinl !i«4Pr1a Uut tlipy miU.iily Ibt* c>&fn«t l)«t«t<|ilt 
PUtottlitn and Epicvmoiicn. ^livtUer tbc toloolo^ti: can 

VM 1w mtfv iut^rrfd Ihui tUa niMpfba tf nInJ. «Ule ta ^itlrnd 

twifrkilir,*fcwdjibierib<walM(if fplrHaH^ -^atmr ite IMir 
■MA alM alBAVc* <D H Unchj Mil lndir«4He. 


abapi'ation^uax asd nic csivcrse: 

fairlj n-gaiO Plato in thc» foitn^rr. or finiL ^^roi&t repi 
tive. <>f l]j4*ir viom in p)ul9M>phy. nisj, it U tniCi, W opcu 
fOino question, but Umi Epicuni* funsljiuluwod, » f«ilJiftitlj 
u ct^Jtl be cxpudotL fiviii ihc rtAlo of knowloU^ In )xf» 
tbc lcnehing3 of modem science ui<l the priirdpW of llMk^ 
evoliitinnnry, rjtnAiHonal, or j^oelJc t«li<tot, cjlu not be dU- 
dkllj dciiimL Aad^ if Lis «jcl did iiolliing tl«, iWy eJearlj 
|iruvL'il tl^4i tbia n^riAruot <jDu«tJuti k'f upinioii really bus a pej< 
obologlcal bfl^B, and tucialA d&frp in ibc t:«injtitiitiiMi of iht! hii 
AiAtt mint^, morr- or ]c«« iiiil<r}>vTidtrijtly uf tlie tti^c vi kuuAv, 
od^ io tins worW. There alu^)8 Lavo «3u»te<J n few ntiui 
Wftw^niiif^ Id acoopl tlio dogmitum of tbtimnu. Tiiurc 
wtystToptout tn McletT amcrra (vr kw proiiounciNJ aunifc 
tins «f ralionaltiiii s* oppiw^d lo nuHwrity. Wliile thi«cl 
of viL*n« fioJi fvvr iipcn ulvo?at(^«, it kIwavi SniJB niEUif tacH 
«dkurvaiik ftwj, wb«u utt4!tv<l. a lar^-v tint ubiuIIjt in 
bio following CiSddfim of roccfvcd hfVief^ is ftlwftj^B 
to ft coDodorabl^T nnnibcr vbc rrjnicv nt the nvdlhrowof 
bsdoni of opiDipoii or ilia fjill of imraf^iiEi of tiiondity. Axu 
ihUi it » wlueli ofiuD ivftderfl ihe [hwico of wwiwly im«(TDT%* 
Till* *fltaMiiJjcJ oxio of momlfc in tlhn\y felt lij ihc hver 
v\mam to bv, in «oiiie rrtpoct*, radtcallv nn«ouni|. The broad 
oontmsE bL4wcGtt mon'* voTiuDat bviUeftt, m ^pokvc. and tlivjr 
r«al belief ns 4<f^dr U apparent «r«n to <-)iildn?n, ThQ 
ttwdanlof cooduot in w moch higher llmii that whuli thi 
coBtrtiUcTW of wkkIh-^ raa ihwnM-lvi.* liv* up to, rf\&ultiii^ 
alwavj in the puaitlinit'nt of the wisil *od iho jwor fnr thi 
nmo trAni^rTAii'>n!iAJtBrodail/«oiniiiittcd wiili luiptiuil^ b; 
IliD ridi ftiid iiiflaoDtial, ihht Ihc lowMt mbtmaDt feol^ thai 
lbet« la BOni«fundam»atal tt-roajc on(UH]rin|ttli<^ <^tirc todt 
fabric, oltboo^h Tiv cin nut w\\ nhAl tl 1*^. All thii miiM be r^\ 
pl^eA m tlio Ic^Umnco conMKinonou of tbv nndw aaprvmi 
of dc^l^tti^ idcM lUkd tolMt<igi«nl ooQOoptloiM In focwrtr. 
fw from fA*oorin|t, nvortlitj, ihfty im th« dinM?t caqh of ti 
tiMMl d«Qgvron» fomi of immomJitj, r\i^ a mttttnooa reroH 
■guu»t too MTcrc and ituajitnn] moml ratfuiiU,. Rnltf 01 




lil^ the norutt) inteUoot iiAiunillj* idtd » rowon for lift 

Dut tho wont <titici«in whldi Knofn docirioc« tdmh b 
tliit dirontiffJ a|:»i[ul Iiib unliiMiuiiuv UwuuvIvol II w not 
line Uial both &id«H of iIiIb qiteMloo admit ot cqiol proofo 
and ilU|iroof«. D(4rcgArdin|^ Kuii'fi lopcAl ilcmMixratioaift 
a« wirrllili.'T*? fti liU own >}kOwint{, ■inoi^ ihej n^»,-tt l1i« nr^^ 
immt on vi'iiiir iJiJu Ui nn abiuriiitj^. aimI j^j^p^in^ (o tbu in* 
fivctive m^iliDd, wUi^^b, wltlioLit claiming mtiiitibility, luu 
wponiihi «mofa iiiightj Tcenli^ for mazt, vo may with uffitj 
inaJDUu] Uial tJur liio of tbivo <inoUkom vUicb Kant tfalls 
Clw eiDpirtcal ban ipuoud U]x^ ihaX wliicb bo cslU tlio di^ 
huuId b nlKMt the nine proponloii as tJic kaowlttlgu ot 1J10 
PAtura fif ihing* bsu incrwod in tho world. Tbc i^pjKi of 
oppu*itioo lo UTc«i!o>(y cooltl tiukv no bcadway ao tpoii|c ad k> 
Hitlu w» knowci of iiitur^l prooaniM, LacroUuA wi^t writ« 
^'Oe B^nmi Natnm," bni wlut ho f>ii\d toy that irja truo 
nnit go DOHipfMiTtoil by fai4A and bfr di^-rvditivl, wLiJe mncfi 
tbat Uv miut ny tb&l wu Talti- KouLd be di»)>ror^ and throw 
fiHl ftroamr dI<Mrn>dit ui^uu hit tyniiiiH, la $a^h a«Ule6f 
[tfofixind i^Amnoc ^f tlic nnivene, tvlooio^tc^l «xi4an«1io«i« 
wen- tlic oiiij on« tbni ibe world wwaU ft«Gi^|it. Tbcj coM 
b« iinalcnlucr) ; f^rtol*«e]cpbnatici4ui oottMnoi. Appturaooea 
were all on on^v rkU. Tbu ilNper tnnbn could mc bo Aoon 
nor fealiccd. 

The i^nwti^ paradox wliicb aaianj prvvnU » ibil of 
od(ij.^iSUrj». Tbv wvnl iudf fv^QUiiifi an ainbi;!^iiy. It haa 
both an actiro and n Tiilddlc, or KAu4?tivc, iwii«o. Tlio former 
l« teloologloal, llio ljvH*r f^^notk?. Adaptation, in a popelj- 
pudvo 9txM^ b ftdmiltnd by »ll. So ono ilonio Oiat ilwrv 
etiiU a jfTBil >moiuit of ronmpondoyi ?e between Appflrently 
TO^ dloJbct objoi^ea. Tt u ^vidmt tluc tbi^y luv«^ in tfimo 
wajr, bran m*dc T/x^rretporid^ Tbw vital fjiiwlion Ik, TIow, 
aiu] by wbat p^^wcr, Ittvc cboy been ao nudv i Tba toUo1o#:ait 
ija. By A poarer fruin witliout — by dwign, Tbo ca«HiU<«iVk* 



ist my*, Bj ft power fn^m wiUitD — hj adaptation.* Just 
here ia tlie grand «eb£ain. 

U i« cwf to CK, toOf «hjr th^ UJoo^'^l* »Tiould at fint 
tocj&LTx-, Olid for h lung period rnauriAin, a •iiprvinibv;. Tlitt 
tokH>lo^^ an»u^r to uty qourtiua tw|ttinH ODUifrativd/ 
IjuIo iMclioctnoJ fAbrt. It is tbo M^M va/ <rf cocpliJn* 
ing thinga, the first cxpbuution th«t ffoggoftla lUolf- Not 
onLjr i* St inlriiuicitlly more nm^ilc, Iml il U motn in ■ooord 
witb IiutuAu u-ifMTrwuce aind tli^ ruiiund hahit of tliongliL 
Ifi otLor vrorri*, it b anllinjpoinnrphic. Thft miiiii will fpoci- 
taUKMUftlj M|>lAifi nutunl pjienoiiiena m tbi^ Mmc wat tbil 
ajrlifii.-ial jJkijnoiiieQa aro expkbwl. Agunhtj^ii »aiU|A«d to 
Ui9 bodj that JB to wear it A dnck"! foot !« adapted to the 
cfeimmt it lire* m<«t in. The o^tnuAHon of tlio firfti of tboao 
facta u Lrii>wn ; that of tte itnrvW in nnkrt{>tfn. Why not 
infer it fn^m tJiut of tliu Gnlt There e3i!«bt no other X^iovm 
eac|ilaDatkiiL To ^it ilovm and «Tc^ve one of an cttUrvlj- dif 
fmat kind la not oiily a Uborioiiaia»)c,lMit, wTwnaAnjuiruvti], 
rematnd aiipn>vocl ct^tSl a lur^ amount of H;i«ntific invofll- 
fpitiabdballhavotwiaUieJiol a broad Wr'of imlurtiou. Tbo 
akqilir, llivtwforr, yrhf* in iHp intannr of Imtrian tlion^l bad 
th« tosuprily lo cnggcAt tliaC tbii^ vri?rlE4>'i ont (bolr otHvmtd 
rvktioni; of corTOi|Minlcnra thfongh tbe acliriiioa tvftiiling 
within thrtn, waa met^ natnrallv e&omgh, wiili dvrinim, Ve* 
«very Mep that aci«aK«* ha» taki-n hna lyym in ibfi difcodon 
of tHdpn>viiig tJio popnkr nnd o«4ifinnin^ th« unjv>pu1ar 
Tkw. It baa been gndnulljr hut tuadtly vUidioatUig rvawu 

ttdfD iii|lMi1i>n aal pa^* tb* wrLd^ *timH A^ vWeb hui«n u-muHij 
aid toMDllcr. WbcB ■ pluti b brjlpnl (HT lli» r«*H or drprtrrJ of f«n>^ 
iBrffi or mdMun^ U Mnn iiTvniiitunl?, aad luMva* In prrrrti tu t^ilL l\<t 

ike ff\tDv7 ^lD<l<lo«. HtlrllinL !■ ekL*r «if, lU cfUAli* mtr dAln ■ ipedid 
■b^lalicn- Tliv ffwllat taovi UbM lb* ncalt Ti ■ mbimmj dDCMtamoa of 




tnrj connocckiD bctuoga ivlotwl faeU. 
From diis point i>f viuw wu may dov eooMiicr Kanri 
own fumrolatGd Antuii>mioiL The tint timis ie: 

^'Tlie nnWi^ne b»> a litf^nnin|E in time, and k a1«o in- 
«lo«c4witluB UwilB iu fc|>uoL'**; tL« nntitbcutf vf wIjIcU U; 
^ Tlw uiiTiefw iiie no bo^nriing aud &o Umita fn »p«C(*, bat 
tt ttenal iQ titiuj ttid ififiotttf In gjpnuo^^ Hu Mltnce uiy 
tbinftto ttj'oB UiM qni'ftion, arxl, if so, «hwli «Mi* itotv ii 
««|i«u» I t'nxloubl* IJj- HotiiKW luu 1i» do witb il, ai»l il aW 
d«u^ ttk«« flU«« upon fi. Qiiuijuiir« «liaii[Mff, du«n%]y 
horn m Kaiif a tioi«, bu pr«cck«Uy di«nM>atfnl«d Oie iiifiniro 
iliintioit of tbo uiuvvTBo in fwtftUiiJuDg th« iiwkrtriictibiliiy 
«f wiUsr. AMtvomdj, Co wlikli Kant'a own itittoorUl 
"^ TbcoHc doB nisinwU" Uelpcil t> giv« Its ntbiuil Impeliu, 
W ihiw BO ^fxpAJided th^ oODciJpCittn of epsux lluit it hni Ito* 
«0DW bal'ttiul lo ivicard tbu vnivcnv em abtoJatvlj Ticbont 
Qaktta. U :iTiy 'lae UouW Uib, let him cuai» ui eAort to |p» 
biufc to tbo old dogmatio oooc^ptlons and fignro to hifi mind 
ft U^inDingnri'fid co it«dnratukii,or1>ontiiUriaittoiNi»U]i)t. 
n« will find thk inpoiMble. and tbu impouibUitj U wItolLy 
dw» if tlie in«rQ«i«d baowtedg^ of tbo uoii^ne irUicb wienco 
bu ^^vti U> tbo world. It wna oocc poirible. it ia rtiU poa- 
«n4o to the tfcnnnnt, to «ct Ixmndfl to tiitie bail Apftoe^ but 
1^ ipdttctii'e ftri^jcMv hm neepi awaj tfu«li ftmle M*lTi»ldbkfff,*nd 
^^Mwiwd up to tfM> bunuu mind, aa it vorv, a view of tbe in* 

■ lUieoi 



It 14 ao tongiir a tmuoond^nlal qwrstion* Ii is n td«ft- 
lUie ouv to ba »olT«d, libu all ucJivr «wQtiA« qn«Ci01l^ b^ th* 
Mtiunal«tiuQ of f*rU, Kcibiuf- ffi voticru^ ecicnco la d«Di* 
wcnUid 4 /fW*. The prvMical trniliA of Uw wiitor«> 
aro cvublUiod a poaUriori^^hy miHinit t?ie cTideDMi In 
0HU15 iif Uw (|(tTKl[r>iia now rvirardud u 4eillwJ, ibv ovidcAco 
ba# IfMiff hfMD onfiditHiuif, and In sorna madi stiJl tvniaitia to 
be «aflbUiliod ; but, notwlthaiandln^ «ncb reaidiial fautis tlio 
pfvpoiidcraaca of evidnikco «iit one aide in eiitflcl^at to mv^kfV 

0HU15 1 
I bc«afi 


of Ibo grMt«« p»rl of Uie nciwntiBo truth of tlxi world. 
Ilut titv '[Qtttioiu involved in Kj^iuV intiitooiiu diilur dvm 
0rrfiiur7 ttci«rTti]>c pivibjrm« in tvo tvepccu. On tb« ocio 
lun*], itiJinii^ uin»t bo j*oiwl, mliirh ckm»»<fa special tvl- 
dctiwi ; l>n^ on ibo oiber haod, xlutrv «ru do ImtU oppoied to 
infinitr.ftll ihr> eridenoc being on m^ «M«, Kol <»imj dr- 
vuiMUacc* «aEi be namrd which points to a bc^Qtimj^ ur t-iid 
of oilL&r liiuu or apswo^ wUiie f^i^ry fnrt and orr^rj" bw thil 
bamBn fjb«erv[ition wid refiwlwn b*if* broHptit forth poinl 
to llk« boandlcsnoM of botli- Oal;? ignorauw v* tbuM 
foi^ntiit failure to oxerviM tKe retkmid focultj, tan prav«aii 
thu miivl frouj Gonccdlng IIlim Imlfa. 

W« will jiae» OTier ibo aoootid BOflnomj' rdatiw to tli« di- 
'fiHibflliy of matter, diw? tn formiilnung it Rani in>eiiifl lo 
bnro mUukrn tho skf^ptif J for the riojcmoCSG iMo, ['oj^jJjir 
belief h«* oiuaJlj rvjwU?i wUiW Bclvuoe li« «<oadilj tended 
to MUblbh ihtt raeliiv of maXier, which is iho eAitic tliEn^ 
U to «A!aK1Uh tbo «xiM€n(v^ of tlio nltim-itf^ iTidkTiAit>]o itc^nu 

Tbu ibini aniinf^mjr. wbicfi t* iht r«|>m(«ntAlivo ^rno, Tia« 
([j« followiag thatk: ''4]^ui^lit^ >c-<^:<niinj; to tho hwi of 
nfttnro is not tho <tn\y oaoBalUv from w}u\-b the plionomonft 
of tlif) nnivmkf mhj be dfrnrrd. le is still neceMArj to a*- 
anmo a oitiulily thtoogb froodom for ihelr vxplanfttion." 
The aniiibosiH »t: "Tli<»r« u no frrodoR), bnt vr^rr ibing 
in thu nnirvou toio* plocv acoordEn^ to hwa of nalnrf.** 

Tb« iunt k b«K «i^iaivly staleii. and b«r« tt tn iliAt aim- 
nnlalinfr ksowleilfc^ of tbo natttra of Ibing* b working •tuad* 
i\f and Qiiiformlj auaim: tbu ilo^inatic and in faror of tka 
euijifriffal mdu. Absolntdy no fact* arf bdng dlM^vwred In 
favor of freodocn, wbilo evoiy IhJnft ia Tanj^inj^ itarlf on ibo 
aide of nnivomi law. Prom ono de|>artiDunt after nnollior, 
and m mTVirr* propocilou to tlio 4<oinpW:iitv of tbo pti^moiD- 
tfu, and honcc in iWrvft ntio to Ifac o»c with wljioli tboj 
An ooaipr«b«aded, ancon^ U i^minatin^ all ilie facta wbW^i 
mpilm UfO bjrpothMia of fraadom tot U«eir oipbuatiotu 




From vtroiKKnjr, iroin J(t?olo^, Fmm |ibj^jiic» ^d ulwitkblr^, 
tliMC eutid li&v0 be«n iiice mi iv^ly «xpell«d ; 1IW7 »r« luivr 
being driven from tlt<7ir fortiflcnijoot in biology to tMr 
citsd«l in pi^cbolojQr- Eir«ii Ii«tc tbej m vigorcnijilr Nt- 
Uckwt by Um auliool of lkut> *ad Sp«ucvr vq tLv vDV luad 
oit'] of rtouroitt ftud Fomor oo tUo other, a&d iba interval 
bctirccii [klijna ukI ctfak«u«|«iu>ed b^ ihc hemrtlcw dinics 
of M*u<t*Je7, 

Wc tKv^\ nut go foTtlier «Dd iUte tlio fuurtli vad UtI o( 
K&r;*« ontinooiMs vu^ tb«t rekUng co die oxiFiokoe or 1100- 
uMteortf) of A '^XtsNUiKuy Being." TI10 tin« uid thitd 
uiCilbnv nl&lillalied, mottttute lJi« pivmMvs for llic <»;ab- 
IkliiDval or iJm (oiuth, Ecerttd niaUvr wiib iu cCcnol 
■otviiics siilHcoi to Mconiit f off aU tlM pltooomcaa a( dio 
SAfv^TM, whidi arr tf intinitA in runwion &t m dnnlian or 
rxlrtil. All Jt'iwrtritoDtA of H'iencu ootifinu iU'u tnitli. 
like muiv other ntu^ nwf ol livpotJiettoA, tliat of i^«^-UUol* 

gftoOHl IkT lliQ ffli!t ol arsOiTupO'^iUiijiogi/, hu oQtliTt<d it« 
BwfuJBrai, aiul, where dill coIM in, beoomw & border lo 
the MitnuiocnKinl of icicncc In wtrooomj', the nclinkr 
L^poUkMi*, vhlcfa Kaot founded aiid L^pUtM deiiioniii rated, 
htt coiMpWwIv imiwTwdod it In chomictry uid phjmc*. 
iho atomio thMtrj, formuliitiHl u a plulo«npbjr tr^ T)emo- 
cHtv v)d MtAl4iAhfd u A Mu<Mif>e bjr Bolton, renders ft 
vrdimdknl. I& biolofcy, the law uf adiplati<.»iu dvarijr tUaie'l 
hj LuiisrdE, and tliiir of nrlcvCioci* frnmnlniiTcIv ^Iciidod* 
fftnU»d h; IWirlfi, and tli« ifiUrr-oi^entiori of tbov aad that 
ftf li«nfdlt,?. Uioroaj^hlv rwt forib br SpeiKwr and TTaeekel, 
lian- frr^l ihU fi«Id fron^ t^loologloal tnninkvU alntofl m 
rv — \,... \y ^ ihoftv of ihe U«i oontpioiX wicneoK have hot'Q 
f^ !:i them- And ihw fa «etenee marching rctent- 

hmakf fnrwAH, abd r*i<iaiining one fletd %ivff anoUitV that 
hail h«cn M> lon^t jnvcn ov«« to doffinatic con^tfftiona, mrtil 
then b now acannli' ruooi to <luobt that £bi cvaqoeri niurt 
■IliBiitoljr hooofoo oomphtto. 

ADAprATiOH^irA?r AKD THE cyn-znsE. 


Bvt vliAt U it (hat bu thai bam oi^enniplwhinl f It b 
noChi&g laM tkui iLe trtmUinbmeiit of liu nittithuaa^, or «ia- 
|iirial |in>pQmuooty vf Kial'« »»liTtuuuuM. '£h%y bavv been 
rvmov^d from tliu di^inain of inuiKSMidoBUl pbiloMpliy. Bub- 
jvc-tod to fldcotUc tnetbodif anch a« an mpiiJied io »[1 4>t}i 
problem*, and proved u oUiw propmltioiM arv prav«il b 
tlio k^uctifo mcUipcl. l*bo •tvmily of imtlvr and tn^ilo 
ui4 tbv iuJImiade i>f iipaov b:&vv jwa^U rnto vHuutific \nfia- 
Istas while the aDiQtcrnipUrd uul Quliniitinl oaiual dc|>0Dd- 
cnce of dl pbonotnonA in tbm rolaiion ftf uilf«*dortr« and 
feeqovTico i« tbo fnndftiDctitjii >x:nni from wbirli ^1 icicQlifio 
iitwtigiiuoD iKiw |«roowd». Tim eiittro bvlf^ufficicnej q{ 
th« QBivDrnt 10 tbo (^r«at VctiL wlu^ib ^vancbg iDt«D%ecioe 
j« dtiil_v poPttrtTing luorv di'»rlj. 

But WQ afv nK>ro stpuwUy (wnOfrDcd bera witb tb« t 
rivml modcM of thought. It w inowrvct ta njipu^* tb^t 
consd prootku u wbolly excliiiled fn>m tbr mimlA nf tboio 
wlip tbiuk bobiUmJly upoD Uie do^hTAtic ndtL Tlio Giprc#> 
Bicui l(doola|;lail uid gviidii^ ooiljr n^tTBcmt tbe t«^ «x* 
lrvin«tt. All tdcolngwt* roMOti iiMire or Ivtf, but U ie wilbin 
tbo ttffi limilA of hfMwn prctnucf^ Tbuj, too, neOiginiM 
mtiini bwB 14 oj-^intinfc Kitliin a^rtain lipboTM, vbos& 6X- 
tmat b moMorad by tbo kitiomit mf web Qiw** knowMgvi 
In «ora0 tb^ ti^ld flf nntund bw b «c<iiflnad ti> tbo orory-day 
pbyBHml pbOBOcn«iu armind tlwrn—UKr ranouif; i>f urutvr, Um 
falUng of bodit*. tbo a-rtiw of tbt wind*. ot<^ In oibcrft. 
wiih a iri(^r t^uilook. it imj iodude all tbc pbcfwvncnA of 
^■tnxrainy, pbyi^Ii^ r,b«ni**rj\ and tb*j prwot kiivnn f»fl* 
of g«Dlo^, Sdil otbon, aomevbat b«llcr InfonmHl, may 
n]«fC fitologioal AtaelyMt1^ bat aoc^atit for all viul plicv 
AOQWia on tdsologM priocipl<«. Nut a few belioTr hM- 
c^v tn not on a mocbonWI Wift. bnt donj UiU of |frj^l>olpKy. 
Ami UivTo uv «vca iomo pby«kitanA wbo, fron tbvir fj 
fiarity witb Rivatal diango* broaubt about by diivct d 
wilb Uui br»in, bar* born lU*>roui«1dy conviiMed tJiat tbooj;' 
ia a pfwliut ol Ofirroua orpuiiGatiom but wlio, ti<*vvKb«l 




not be bfoui^t Ui fV|(BnJ wocUl jjIiouinimda w ndociblo 
Uw. To jJl liftWfi ^vivu* gtwiott of dnj^ulUm miut be 
iililed tbti fttill tnore oomplcx oooqicoiatte, noirwlAv* eon- 
MvrtXAy In rogiM, wliicb ooc of iu cniicMttt 'lcfct>d«n * bw 

ofiiTiajB; llic wiivcno as 90 pUoiied tn Wtwiof as mihio 
qiMDll/ Co wQtk -rat viiiiout furtbcr itiUrfc«vQ<«', and hi » 
tfrictljr ^«iiodc mud modiBaica] w«jr, &I1 the rosalu thai Ki- 
toov Juu bcQu nsvealiii^* 

TbcAC wtow iliftdcB oo*) grvLo* of tokology, alwst^ 
mixcH wrth moig ntiAnalurn, hni'o led FroJo^MJir HvckL"! to 
dnracturin Hue wbuk- tichoul m tbe daalt^tic f «rliool, wtiile 
.boni tlictr conuwUnit a-iliotviw:^ to obo uniform pri&dplc ho 
Tvr7 Approfiruktvl^ tlviiocaJnAlcsth^oUwrtlui inc^jrufBr buhvoL 
W^le tliAra oorttliiljr oxUt Uituic ptooliritiM ia different 
ailndft tft Adopt o«te or tie odior of Uie«e flmk^i of eji^kiti- 

•■ MW4 «i Wi fdoBl b Ibf bu^ptrvl sAlnB fltf Phihmpr <;. J AllaiH bfr 
vnfnd lain h ■labnu* irguiti^t iv pfDTnhM frriub^J^i; ^i tlinp); aii^tr- 

cWes Ui i4*ieM br ^anku^ hii AAdkncv cot ii> lafn Uhil ibt pfaMODiWt «f 
Nil ^ K 1^ Ocathi tn tn tlui ]«R tntioilpsd Ia (Uf Imirafctrlun Irrilft* 
Ukf, vliiA H Ibe bi4i of «]l i»wt ^Mwntnm^ u cWHt ■ pnq^nj ^.r ib* 
llmUil MlMfem pmlc^m ; I14I «BB«IUttBr. Oe bu^V ic»« ^UB- 
«M, l» i w iliiag «b*Ur diviiQrt ud ImJvpRMlrBl. B- ^m q<«^ Ifv"** tb* 
fibiiBW fafl ^M alwif «Ilb fttv|' muU-AUkm of MuWilf. b^ * ft ttWn^ 

Mf «l »«M UiAl QBd IV «rllvl4« tnflni1*ruF of ng'sU* call^, or tn tU nft 
fM4T4iHW rtfcMuM uf itfl ITyrnajit^r, v nf lb* «Cm«|« «f ;tt |bf trtBKl«fl 
•*»■<■■■ o' U^ fi Bwtoaitt^ IbtKimm (a maw CAnn nf rvrt^tfAitei a 
Mkiwl roWH* liUch, h»«*ir mvi 0* MiK h a«r«rlb«lM tbt ffrtl- 
■«Mi7e«nr i w <|ia*aJUw#*fc<frjft»Mof cofiMawftW* wJialnrt, Par 
«■« r«]iiul ba4 Mniiilni m PniHiHPT Il4n4«f't mcM fithsst *'>*« r*. 

Ui la4»h Addiw. dAttnd gifiaBb er lA, len, - Dk EiitrtkMap>kl»nw" 




hrtzoml, nv^vertlKlen Ibe f-effni of MionolEiUD cxut id mil 
miwl*, lud ID*; be dttvijUipei b^ expanding llie meaUJ liuri- 
MB. InefMiwJ kbQwIcdgo, if «blu to inflaoiieo tbu btHt of 
Iboagbt at all, must neoetaarfly InftiUQCC it in tli« com va^ 
of dtmiiiiAlHDj; tlwr tinnibc^' iittd «in!ttgth of MecJogittl W 
Uvfe/ftnl incTOKing tlitf ut« ov«r whicfti goiMic oo&ovpdofM 
hold ewny* Tlw idikn, tbvrefon, Uioii^ ftmdAmtntnl, 
jLivl inripoMiibte erv whofly to oblit^nu frutn tbo bumjia 
■niBil, U not M lkopc1o<vJjr ftigiened on munkinil t» for errr to 
vxolaiAo tltfl tnitb. After kJI «faotikl lavo bwn conipeDeJ 
lo aoKpt toccliftniml caiuttiioa And rcjort tclcologj', titii 
fbndameniil bldleeCtial dit^crfp^ntv wmlit find oilier but 
titorv innomit |>roUTidft of <lifFvrvno«. 'Rie liiolorv of m«ii*a 
Opj&iooj rwpt^ng ibe iratbi of ■BCroi>oaij and SM^log^ 
ahoTBtliat ilie mwt obdimtc rlTI not aIwmjs mUt dM» nurob 
of «rtab1Ubed fftct«. Thpc intdli-cl is hotxKt at li^-iut, and 
urDl jleAd bI I»t) s1tbo«i^b it ui»y K^nm tuounUiiM of 
jin>^. In ih\» i^tt lie* tl»R bopc of tho vticoeto uf ntloudl 
lilriM And xi-DcIro coricrplfonft. ^H 

It lA ftirllier WMrtfi ramarkmt; ibit, vbik ncwl v or <|Q)t4^ 
lit tekotogiM* «(]mil fj^rnriio i-x|>UuAtJofu lu uurt«iu fields, 
wlWMextoQt viHtf n-itb omtL mdiviOmr^ {ote)H)feficG and 
l&fomintion, ao one f« ncljijft^'^ s tniff f^nr^tlonttf wlio too- 
o^ifw ihn powJI>i1itT of tfleotogicaf ciplan&lion nnyw1i«««. 
Tbut u not m Itnc vbitjuKly dnwu \ty ihtp ruLuiiE V*tiy, 
l£ko (bo c^^f&G In iho Tnitt^i £taU»> acoordln;* (o vUloh 
Ibnievt Afrinui blr*o>l in jl mMi^A moH mikm him ft "rol- 
oreil tiiui.*' h ift 1 oatunit dirbion m wbbU UotU 
llv* nojuiiyce. Tliii. a^iu. itlu*mt«* tlm fiindaiiivnUI p», 
diolo^oal cbftraoicr of il» chMtftcflHoA. Il L4 »ubU 
oa tlw Imp hHtrotrn ilic nnltml And 1h< «np»ni»tiirol. TbO 
qonAioo Vp-ho^ ftOHwor delvrmiiKu to wUu'li elm ntif on 
b«loO|Qi i« not, To wbat eTiUst>t da 50a baImiK tlio fupfrmal 
ml I biit. Do yi^ti vbnii tbo Mponuitanil at ftllt If bc^ y 
ara ft dogiBftibL For, if yoa ttie capiblc of admitttog It t 




« tman dAfpiMi yon ara iM^tmUv cnpvble ^f ^Imitling it to t 
Ur^ degree. TE>e «Swt of tliis b ro limit ilu* uuinhtr of 
miif^Me Uiil propartiobAllj u> ilimitiU}i ttiotr Inflntoice. 
NOToAhfileiis all tdoologiAA uv &ut to bv tv^pmWd lu cqutll^ 
bad. Bo little nuCiorultjF coniQrt«ii( i* iLo liaoum miml tluU 
tbfl cJiief prograM whwli ndusuij idws havo made kM b^n 
hy ItHsKodiig b ncU iadivfidtul tfau dcgrc« nf hi« ajtnj^ 
pirttiJ ntioiultiETi *t tlie expeon of thit nf hU Mill pki^ 
tuj ilognaftlino, notil tlw fomwr Ht Uiit^b odioef ao fir to 
ivvdomimui over the bUi»r a« U> cijaitro) tho gi«ttor piEit 
of Ilk tbovglit and u^tSou. It i« limn thnt nianj prrvona of 
MI06TO theolofi^cAt conrictiona an able to «iubrMc« at Ibe 
aamo tima a lar^ ftharo of tho pliilomjtliy ijf «w'jliit^>n. 
TbL■J^ toMj btt wbuUv mcoiupatiblc, but nrc ucvurllielaw tneJi 
ttowod air&y £n M[«rM« eliambem of the hndn fa Biicb a 
Dinner— nnmlj^Uigiblo to ^oiMiatei^t cauMl]oni«ta— as ikot to 
■noSort Mch other. 

Tb« oiily tfU-itiatij uxplanatioo of thu powibUily of liii« 
wldfr^pnid dnal^m k loaopjKiio th«T la tbo iaalii» Usloty 
ItigicM] ideaii (or ntbrr tbn nAtnral aEtarhmcfiC |4^ Ihpvi) nm 
iabeeibsd, while jimetic kleiB are chicHjr acquired. But a 
cooBlJtatkiaAl pfwUkvclion ft^r aii^ cJua of idow ioaj be- 
eovic lereditarir if mode a |iar1 of oduoalion. TIic EcIcQliHc 
ux^hM flf thought jrrrvftiln Ur tnatturi kto than fonaerljr 
fur Itib reaMXi, and will dvut>t[ijHi contimw to iti^mae ^ 
Iv^mWiy m wknee ti raoru thoroughly ami miiverMltj 
*ht in iho icliooli^ It u ihrmfon; nalural tliot, wliile 
lof(T ii t4U4[bt >u tli« ^biircbpA and «rico(>v £n tho ichoola, 
tbe twv itjoika uf Iboi^Ul aIjouM «i>eKj«1 io all miocU irbi<rh 
hivo not dalitMnledj and iodependootly v<irkcd cut a «caidi< 
b|; analjMi, and mailo o oandkl and tboagLtfa] cotnpftrieoa 
of tlie^r rvafwctiTo eiaina. Xo dualht ran haro done Ui1«t, 
ai»0 all t^lttUogitfU ar« at the aame linte iltialiMii. V«tt fow 
d^tteleologMa «nt iw from iiihcritBit<:v. NvaHj all f^n re- 
bicmlwr wiiirn thcT vntn *\aa.]au ako. It k tbo fpeoUl char' 
actoifttic of Uila cLub— ihua far, at IcM, m hntnao hUxorj — 


thftt t1]«_v mcAt bo indopftidoiit tfaiulECn. T]i« unthinkin|; 
iiift«a« Are ncccuarilT tcLeoUif^nl in tii^ir tnvrul makfMipb 
Witli oU Uke UisKlvaiiteffi^b, tLoraforo, of the vJiollj cnunca- 
pltod Mlofiali^ he c^ vw fivl ibe proud cuiud<jaiuvM of 
omn^ hb pno(!fi^l(s to Iu« own individu^ offorte to aet lilm* 
wpU rtglit «it)i ifae ntrriMndliig woHd, uid Diai it in mmtm 
umd nol «dncauoD, utodi Um hurcdilj, to vrliicb be ovx<a lu* 
inwlloctii.ll iibort^. Thu cable* mu/ jet tum^ auid r^litjuaiiaiu 
cnciititutc tbfi rule, but St U iofc to prodiot that, wbon Thi« 
dav AJTii'tth ti^Viloiijr vnll hum dimppcftrtd rmtlreljr, nod tbo 
rirbl of ibu prcuwnt ntioiuilijtm, it it liw uiie, will t»e aoiim 
BtUl truer A&d piirar form of tuuBatloual pUUoKppli;. 

Itfiliimin^ Qovr lo tlio gentnl c}tu^^mtiftn prttviowdj 
iukJ« tti llio >QTond iiMKktt oE reganling ibe pbeiKMi>«iia o£ 
llic DEiircTM, let » (xiwidcr «Mk one MmowU&t mora is de- 

We AW tliAt out of liL« ^n^rntl t«W1ogi«Al rnrtliod thm) 
liSTV gnrtni ii p sovcrai > ubonUaKto MCta, HAch of wliicli Utiua 
• •MBOwhnt dilfereul vkvr of tlie qOMtiOB. Tlio tliny^ pHn- 
dpd (»f iftw« w6 tjII fark'ftj glAnee at Ii^re. lite tbrrc <lo> 
trinn rnop^t prominutttly aiJiiiilJUiM«d ^re: I, divide in^h 
v:iiU or cofitinuoua apewl lutcrfcrcaoo ; J9, pitidcttiaaioii, 
or furo<irUbuUun ; and, 3, f«taliMii. 

Tltff Unt of ihcM MMmm Ih^t iht doity dicfwsKcs rmrti 
ft! be plfnjv^ tfaht bo Wfttchtfv with a penunnl ere over tbo 
affain of bU ereaUou, nnd inUqicmfi whoiMTcr and wLcnT^r 
to Uim acwma proper. It rcfcordt bim in the liglti of a 
aftvorciigii, f>i«nEjid>^ a dioi(« in bia &c-lii»kfl rwpeclii^ both 
men aad nainre, dcpeoding. a« baiinn dioioo d^pviida, upon 
Ike ev^iMfr and Uio draaivtmnooa of oach panicnkr etae, 
Tkit la tbe ftret and nuM natuial. iImu^Ii lean rationvl, W 
ltcf« Bat mom^ ihoti^lfnl mJndA diKor«r ftoine of itAd«- 
Cecta Tbioj mo thai it nc^xauHiy dctncta fn»ro tbo at- 
tribqtea of dieitj. 1q the &rvl plaoo, it dutrori tW onkr uf 
tbo (uuvvn^ Old D&kMufvr^rtbbglo depend oponUiieteui- 


peMrp wflt of <ldt/t wliicL will, boiuif ttiilmi>wti 1o niio, 
rvdncoi wcnu W a oooditioQ w t>wJ u ibongh tlie_v ireni 
goTvni«d by nwn rfiaiwiu In tbc weanil pl^cc, it n:-fw the 
ilfrity of wnniftcfonoe. Ir prvaatuM tkat be nmJcn op bii 
vaind bcfora be ocui, aTid ibw pratoppom tljai Lu did uut 
kninv buEvre wuaic Uiingn wliicli bu Iim dnog dwouvwvd. If 
tUi be the nse. be mb mc know iU cUngt from Uie bo- 
ginnfng. For if, bdng omniiCMtt, be propoded to puniifa « 
«iui for bif crimcy he mtat bnvr Ittiowo from all «<«rii]ty 
both tluit Uie iiuui wouM oommit ihut criiiM) uoil tJmt ho 
would IntUcc tbo pemilty. Hcdoo o\'i3IU tnxttt Ukt pluo bj 
t^f> divin* fo£VknoirMg#, whi«h U nol dblin^kbftUe froan 
IcvLonliaKtioOf tn predoMiiution- 

Tby Utter tludriou impJUv Iboi ftU evil ui pnttnoditttlol 
by dirityt ^nd he&eo It dlvoMa bim citbcr of inirToy or of 
ooinipoloBc«. For 1i« eJlber could pnrvent i^-ril Ami dou4 
»ot wuJi to, or itlfo lui would ]miT«nt it but k not ^blo. 
il't friT 1 ovrtiln clui of niinU, ibm setMiw to bo tb* 
ttft torn of tb« d!]«mmft. Anil in fv*t k Fa more rwoo- 
sblo tbui puic dicoloj^, miCe it Admits Qocottity in pbo 

FatiliKm ««rlu la jirrnd ibo fnalU of bo4li thoAO tbeorftt, 
and cut* Ufc nvpun ability of ev«nt« upon obmocu It rftv 
ogalMB a iklly and > Uvr, biU *bovo botb thioo and in- 
depmdeDt of them E« f&if, wTj{<!b fioatroU rrvittR and l« tc- 
aiMcmble nellbor to G^•d nor to lutnro. The <i<-! ^f ibo 
fatalut dooa not oootrol ; ho <rn1y cixtitiE. The orttiTiury roti- 
t]»e ffOM oo iriih n^bHly and prodaEon. but 111* t'*-citt, 
ibe linHl dlfpofritSon, \b mthjcet to tbc nnfn«*M!n and inrvlat- 
ih]e decfM of dfiiUi^. It ia a EMWMlty, but vltJiont a 

Tbi» «xlit«noo of oril in tbo wnrld bav alvajn been ibo 
jtTval iinmMmjT'liJiM^k of atl th^ dilTi:fr*n1 wrli-vJfl of tc*!!:^!!^ 
gikla. So liiM^ oa oi«i nlonu *rew involrrd, tb<7 w*ro ablo 
til orjMk tli« imho by rcg;«rding aII rfil* a« p4iniibm<«lH fnr 
^vcn to ^a vfhofK p\ct»ntv waa iwamcd U> \a 


nnktuywa*^- lout, 19 iJi but tli« pHevthooiL But » kiiow]- 
«cl|EU vf luitun iDCfvaAtd, uii] men rvdvctvJ on Uicir vt^urjr- 
da^' obMTVAti'HkE^ It twimne raonEfcBt thii the foinn* of life 
IkIxw l]*r biiniAn wem eaiiiibinitty fwlijirCwl to wbtl, fmni 
tn^ teleoftogfmi view, muU b« n?K^nJc4t an jfntuitoiu Mifi^r- 
lag. 'flio diviiion t>f all Aniuiak inlLi liurblvoruue sod or* 
irirwnu* w«i « pttciit fact <o b« accoantcd for, ■£ wu aho 
tli« n|>paniit bDcuiitv tlint nrnn ihoulil puiz^lj Hnlviiit on 
AmIl To be coiuiM^'itl. it vat ikcc««MT7 to convict Uu:*e S&> 
ooccikt IbortjiTottv of cTJni«« mcli m Dt«^ irera eu|>fH)ee4 to 
luTo oominittod ■|;siimt oflieniilcd pvdftrUid forwhich olj dif- 
fering tn tbo hDiniD famflv wu rcj^irdod M « potiuUiiiMnL 

U WM In r«mpc Hiirli illogtoal rondMloiw m thl« tlut Ffr- 
tionflJunn tint rwud it* protort. it lirri utqiDcd tli« fonn 
uf noftttJuriuiHiDt wHxiaaliiifE for evil oa imsvpojimblo 
groondf, Mid it «ui Runvly Int juiitl to have (fv«ff flilofod its 
po«itinn iQ tli»> mtpfwL We imj tUrrvfon^ «ttlt rf^fird tka 
vntinr bmiy vf vpceuUlive oppuulioii to t«fJei>luK}' m voqtAE- 
tiillDf; Uw McttfliUH^ wliool L*f JlitlloKipllir- 

Tlir llC■^cfAtnrilln ptiilowphy. wlule it may t)o4 avoid oil 
nik|i>ti^waiil coQtt'ijiMiiK^^ At li^^atrifdA allalttiinrdU^: irlnlo 
»i>Qiu uf iLx lv)^liuiaic HloHncrionn muf be hurdi or nnpopti- 
br, ibcy &rv at ImM not impoMibJo or coutndictoij ; while 
Xhi*y may M*vm *0T«n> or biimEliatlng, tboj are U htti not 
»tiipjd or ridiotilowi. ft« leading prinriptoa \mtc bom al- 
nawjy «tatcd> Tli<-j' luiy bo brtcdr «D]nm«tl up m foUowa: 

JkEaucrhft* bIvji,1i-ii eiUt«d luid baaaU>ja b««n In Rio- 
ting, Tu moving; T>aniC!|«0 40«c4 om ftiiolbvr acconUng Ui a 
twii law wvll nnd^rrlor^l- tlifi law of t1j« ftnpoct of hodU». 
Tliv fofini iIliu prodofiM) tn.* tb« ^lifVln^ objVcu in tlie tinl- 
rerwb. Tbw unveaMit^ iml Ifon^iimin^ltiw motion piMdacra 
tittpnaiibig and ri>dH<M nban^ K^rcoj eliaii|^ of fi>nii ny 
anlti in mrw fomi, nnd tbo* an JnflnUc ftfrrira of clinn^ug 
fnmi* U kopl up. Wliai«TCT, tliorffi>rr» fixioa, u thr par- 
ticnUr fonn of ih< irii^n timo and pUreu It «x!NtA l».-aii«i 
il fav bKH prvdncoL Ita «(ie4vu^ h tbv uavre rttfult of 


ia« QjcifUncci -<»f ctnfto in iLu uinn of thingf. Ii 
not t»Q <nhct tlon it U, ublon thous pHor cmima bad 
boen other lliAit llivy vnrr. Ilifnoe, it ojihi^ of JMccmUjr. 
'Erery thing b w it muM bv. Ti^g ovlortul bwHcs pnent 
tha itppoAnuiCG and pv«cvi Oiu oonftj^mliuii ajid coiuliui- 
la «hic!i W0 ioc, b«caiiM nbii>1atu Iaw«, opentfn^ rn>m in- 
Inilj iaj>%tfU onltfVli'k^^ ctTvii '-horn Ummr cdiarv^n «! iljm 
ptrtfeiikr «poob. llie oRfth ttuna in tLk n^niou. Vtwt- 
g*h\itoA mattrr, wlirlb^r irlonuoUry or xjompotdus, k ouljr a 
pATtiirnUr form wbifli it !>«* been forced lo usume. Orj^- 
inijOQ U but ft fuodifioHtioa vroii^flit niidar tli« *aaM bw. 
Tlio pradvoilon ind tmittfamatioQ of oi^piown* b ilw rutaU 
ol fiditoQin^ circamfttiAec*. It ii noc dn extenul pUnuinf^ 
powtfriOrltilellifi^aoe, tint odapu t)»oin todroiiinKUiiceB, bni 
thff ctroamaUincM thomwlnv that ptrodoeo that odApCHlios. 
Id Dtlittr wnk) anliiiAb ftnd planU Mm niit BcUjitod to tlidr 
poculuj- circinQStatteWt bnt ^^ iWm. 

Tbfrn is ofiA point of view from whi«h DDoraitt4riAiiJ«cn 
miut t>o v^fpuntful wbidi. from iu lubilitj to be miflinilep- 
Kood, a* veil u from lU intnn^o mipovtAiiov^ reqii£r« w^ 
ekJ notfco. Tbb U iU nUtioD to tbo powr of ftcqoiring 
IcnowMici^ Th« tlioarj ol nocodalt^ b aciaoliHf', m nnQtnk- 
dktii]);^tiil>od from nil tli^ other doctrtnet coiiaidcrcd, wlikli 
wn iUt\ik>irf^^' A* * condiiMM of iHouglitf tli«rv1Wv, h 
H^<jn tbo auquititioii of Imowlcdgv vrlicro tli9 rtfft^Monr- 
•fee h»nd Ittvo tito tniiifl E11& vVate of Mtiiilird Ignnmnco. 
TliiiL m liftblo lo bo inUr.nd«ntOf>d, bcc^Ho (be tiurd ftAv«- 
M/y ooarpj* to Bomr iho ittiproi»tt>ti of fi:«itj, fUcL u tio 
pAorl W Hv«ilaliltf lo vltvigu or iudiu-niM). But thii i» ft m\^ 
tilEo, This obje«doii would bo rftlld ajtftlnM eUT>er fomor 
«linfttian or iaXhkwm, fiut it u ntut vftlJd i|ctiT^«t (onflal oeoeft* 
nij> For in (bu furrocr i3i*ea every ovcot ii< ftHiilnuiljr fixed. 
Kol io in tbe Utur. Tbu diicf oondrlion of the er^nt la tbo 
ftttDmpt to prodfioe it. Hik b a twooHofj «ondliioii to [to 
tMeonttneeb If ftn effort \a nudOt It will be eure to piodiino 

offect. Nothing i* fixfld, bnt tjx^ (hii^ U ykiblinC;. 



Hviic* to try 11 to aecomplikli. ThiA doc4Jiiio, tbrrelora, ia 
tupvnor to ill iJm veLen i[] tfucvim^lng letl^n. l^vt, gr«at 
M in iu Mlvnnugo in oiFeKng indnccmtotB to oiortioii, it m 
ol BtitI gnatur Ini|iort«nQ« in directiA^ dtot. It U io ch&i 
HtH iu cbitff »ttperioritj liet. For ksowM^ ia th« chi«l 
okfiunt of powmr in oiubliog tUo mind to oionci*? i cootn^ 
o^cET tbtf iDAt«fiAU nod foToo* of Dtlujv, u&d ft Aotdod ecmvEe' 
licD tLit cdbctd lunnt of BL'ooteitv follow and oorreepoad to 
CttUXM, r^idvra a1) vflurl6 to Af^miv VnnvMgth jmti^tM^ 
■nd tlic poMQMioD of mn^ ktiowkd^ pcaiibio. U^dur nuy 
of Uio ochLT »j«toiru tlicro arv hairmn and did«oun{[Ciuniitft 
to tht pttreult of tnitl). 

Thfi divinft frmswill must bo aihnlnrj-. TTot«M wo nik- 
mwo to bcT «ftp*b]o ol 6mliftg oot tbnt will, w« matt r«iiiaiQ 
ignoEutt of It If wo arc l|pioni&l of tbd will bv wLSch ibo 
nnivcrw) in ^ovttrn^d, ^1 itri«ineo ii «t an end, for, ihou^ vd 
dw»ver a Uw, li<tv ^n^ wc »MaT^ tbnt it will rcnuun nLcb t 
If Ibvm u > power otpublo of iwLliciif the hvi uf mturv 
wlilo ftt viT mooMTQt umI eDHcljiig now and different on«R, 
wbcro i« tho «ncMmj[K«iKmt to pnntuc tlio invrftj^lionof 
tliOM kwat If truth i* umplj tbo prMu*nt wisli of ft liGtnj^ 
wka b abaotiit*)^ frae. tlma Ibo inilh of yuat^rday is bnt tlio 
•nord to^Ujr, Un'lw nny form of thiti di>rtrin<s tbo coc- 
doikm ntwvoitUbljr foUowi that tbo parvnh nf knowtcdjfc b 
fnitlcftB. Ko W'>Tid<*r that tli« id(?> ttlionl^t prerul, amonpf 
Uioie wlio tak« ibi* rjev, ibat tcivuoo i» wick«d, tbnt edac*- 
tion is nmlMitf and thnt pmpitintion is imn'p bigbcKt dntj'. 

IJiiic bAtt«r ia I)ia docirino of fonv)rfliEutii>n ml^ulatcd 
to liuqWrt tlie paniiik of tnttli. For if all that vhicii extfia 
i> b«t tbu d^»pemalioii laaija at tW bogiiiidng by tbo gr««t 
fl bp ciwqr, tboB to readb tbo tamcn of tbiBga ft bocomcft iieo- 
tamry 1o ivmM tlio wiU of tliot baiti|^ at tlic begCnnln^ 
TfcU wonld bfi frr^n m*wo diflwTill, if paMlblf% than to l*Ani 
the pnaent will of m cwrvMiptirintcodiiifC Kttlor. If orrala 
haf« no iiDinadblo cauac, bat ninat be ivf«rrvd t^ tb« bvj^it* 
nhif of lino for a aauaes then It f» Impossible tolnnithotD 



or to dudnca an; vtaiulArU« bv wluch lo b« guidtKl Ui fat«i9b 
n tlto>' ar« tiio uera «)ulnuiati<Mtt of da-nwa wracd Ntt otor- 
nl^Ago, ihcjrui> not cGrubl; t1i« result <A hv. If iJmt 
whtrli oxku <loR« M, anC nf tiRrrftiity, bvt by mtonial conj- 
inUioo, Uwru in ito oc ocM ary r«l>tkm l>j wkudi vo 11U5 d^ 
t«nnuw UiAt wtikh vll] «xiA bjr tlut vlucb now ox^ or 
liw miftDil, AU tlungii 4r» appoinlcd both ss to tloao wmI 
pboa. TltCT ATO iMWMsry, tt i* trup, bat thcjr km not d«i- 
pi*DCknt ; eM^U lia^ >kn it>d<|)«ndeii1. coordiiutc? cxiflem^. 

Lti o« aoa vrlut oSoot nob a belktf mnei liave apoa tlid 
pBAuit of knDwIol^ EvidcnHy it iit {nmrnpatiUc irjtb \U 
For vtdn would be llio jrtt«4iipt to Mvftiira knoviW^gc U tiicra 
v«re 110 oeeMEHnr connection betw«eTk Irttlha. To aitctopt 
tovtorviwii; hi Um iniiid nuy ruiuber of imli^pendeiit fjHjta 
b fmind to bo a ni<¥t dUBcnlt tnnk at bot. What, xkcmf (ball 
wo fa jr of tn lUrmpA to diMx>Ti^r all tjjir trutlu uf tbentu- 
mi9 wben ««oli m al»o1(iU'ly iudopvodunt of tfv«rir otlivr v 
And of what ibo wouM alt ibis knowlotl^ bo, ov^ if k 
wm pomhlo I0 obUin U I WltAt oMonuioc would wo have 
UkAl iimfUr «vn)Li wouM of!«iir uodtT »iniiUrdn>vniMviceat 
A knoiiled|;« i^f fMria it of very tiille iiw Ut n» vnl«tt by 
neb knowledg* wo can cmU»h koidv Uw. Of wbai ti«c b 
IIm) itnily iif btitforj to tbo i>t»tcanui if \ic <un dcrirc no 
^rilMi|i]c« tberofroin tii j^ide bini In fnuainf^ mMaurua fi^r 
tbo ftt'T^raawnt of m«n t V«< ibU r^dd not t^o tbo ck>o if 
all (acta wvm loorvly fctfvordainud, mucv m llut ouo, Ibongh 
fiTCfj bet would Imvc « canac, yet n^ fact uoald baro a iioe- 
«liar7Can*tt. Tii^ canw of er^ry f*rt wanl-l Ik ttit^ Mun<^ 
fiK, (Jm will t*i the lorcofilain^r, and one efteel would >ke aa 
lUilo to naiuU rrom tbat «auM aa another. Tliaro would 1m 
so dow by wbich effoota oonld bo mKxxL Wliun tho cawa 
wia Kttcbed, it would noit bo (be jiartieulnr rsmtit of tuy \mr- 
tlMlar sffeel, but m f^eral caiue of all «^i>or«. Ilm'-n 
vriryeflori to anquiro cwTful knowbvlgo wcmld bo fruitl^. 
Ewy ono wbo rsUv bidiovis tbiJi d4x.-triav twU ilm ; aiiil, if 
tWt* bo any who pmfcM 10 beUevoitand stUl adrocnto Uis 



p«miit of knowMge, It b W*Ana» thej lavo a ceruia on* 
cnoMiotu iatahioia tlui their pbf1o«o|>hf is ancoand. TWy 

But th«rc i< on lDt«Riiedltt« ecbool who claim that it li 
Iav« aad Dot fuu tbjit Jin; pTimor<^]al1v »t*btiBli?4:t. iml tb^ 
ibow Llwi sra tliOTtiftftar HfSMir Itii^rlvtvd wttlj^ lliv tvpljF 
to Ibia la that it fe not foreonlio&tioD u all It h AcknowJ- 
ixl^n^ tho Uws of the tmirnTc, but MiagBiiig to tli«m a 
l>c|i]iiiimx !vnt) JL cTc&tioii, vrhicli in unacceaftUfT Attd betnji 
rsUore Iq cvucdrv of »ii iiifiuito ierio*. 

Fjitjiti^in i« no bMwr promoCor uf intoUigvaco tbau nhhor 
of ilic othior doc^triiioftCoiuddonxL If it be not toflra chaDOOf 
it b it It^arf tli« ttino tiling to men, Hoao do odo k&OVA tlio 
origin, oAiiio, Of parpo«« of 9tnj ovaot> tt^thcr cun know it 
Tiwrvforv, it is ruwisM to sook tbl> knowlud^u; uid lioni 
aj^tlii, » b&foro, fbi,* puniitt of IcDoirkHl^ ii a frnltl«aa task. 

It uttkw DO diff«ctiQG«(, Ibecirfovi), vrhicZi of tlio prfv^Hing 
b«livf« wo Ukonp; tboj iiU IojuI totbk rcvdt. Jo dojiriv- 
ing tntlh of it« nc«!Q<Mf7 cbmclcf, nnd miikiiig it dopcndont 
ttpoo touMtbtfl^ exterajU to ftMdf, tlio^ render it oontingcnt 
ftnd pronriciiM. TliAj mmd\o UuA Tbero oltiwr id no neoe» 
wktj Uw, or tLtl whftiuTvr w« o«II law la Uie orralion of 
Bomo oxtnnuJ powor, bo mm not to be rciublo or poRnuicaL 

la oontrui wttb oU thoee dogma* *t«»da tbe dODftiMent 
pbilooopliv of mtimI ciPcnnuunrOA. The ne^enlt/ of lutnra 
M ft ntiooMl u«c««Bty. lu irnXht »n> taclu not bocftHM thoj 
bavio bucfi willed or ducrved, but in and of ibt-aiMlfM^ Bj 
DoOQultj it la onl^ meant that pbonomcftA ara nnEform iod 
anwjriDii;, The um/^ dmimannnM mnkt prnr)ii<^ (he* «nni« 
ofl«cL If tmtlu wcr? nuit mctwHrv, tbcy couM nvt fn: rcliod 
opoo. If Uiojr wvr^ not aankryio^-, tboj oould nut be tr«c«dt 
diaooTorcil, or ntilized- 

Ict n« ulco aa illititnUJoci. Tbero i# one cIam of trucht 
wbidi all Mw oompo41«d to ftdiiUt ui be not onl/ iovariabto 
iikd fvUibK but alNolBtu and RooMury-— Uio trvUift of oiatb- 
flnutiu. Tbo cnoit obatimto prDdontuiflrioa ooutd not, if biO 



woold, ttonbt Urnt Imw two ht^ al w«j« m^e f oar, ui4 voald 
ha*« 4lo«« to if ao dt«n>e to tliAi «rffect hid Qv«r f(viM> tifvih. 
TIiVQ b tw nppurtvr of fipvcUl 4i«~iiji^ idpcrrUion bo ^u^^ 
dkl UN to bolioTG tlut Oiunfpulv&txT ItMlf itnpdiof tbc 
of nukirijc (be llirii>e an^*lo!) o( a trikRj;1a eitlior grafter or 
loit tlMJi two ri^ljl angW Uu mar «!iiina (o b«)WTi» lhi% 
Imt at llio KUu^ liim; lii; iJitut iiuflinctiv^ly iki^y it. Jlfl 
k&ott» It to Iw iaipo^ibl^, Aod UmI dooU truUio rm nwof- 
Mfy. Tbo ticcoMURU) doctrine pimplT JnvcFU all EriitbA 
with tlic uUribatc* vhtcii we coocnttd lf> tho«e of nuuhe- 
mativiL It diK'hrvB lldt tnitU «au not vxiu mwpt of JtH^fr 
aod UwmfoTO of oecotBit/. It thus iavoste eveij braiwh of 
knaw1«d|^ irhJi the ch«nicter of a ccionco^ nnd ort^ry icicnco 
iritli tlifr poC«ntal pontivitr of mfltlhonultCA. Tli(^ Uwn of 
bonikigy, of o|ilic«,of uwcliuiic*, aud of cla«Qk>»l prcpoc^ 
tknSi ora dnMdf foond to bo in thctiwdro* raitbocoatioal' 
\j cxvL And, M «rie!nec adraiKv^. tf^ iBiiie liftraaony b 
found lo pcrrftde til itatoril pli<«iaan«ii&. Seo with wlial 
^mmcvj tlw potaJc* i>Umenjt, aad po^tibt of flowum un u- 
ruDf^; consider the adaptation of ibo oj>d io the pAicnona- 
cn4 of li^lkt ; conlempUtr i\vt n^i\axiiy of fonn tn orTfUk, 
in BuiW'lUkM, In fmin-drofx, uid 1ft tho bcavneily liod>«< 1 

Bitl it may bo «ud that nature ali'juiido iti IrrvguUnliua; 
thit irkile it h tme tlutt tiM iMnDal form of tht trpUX b 
p4iljr)iadvott, j%t in fad nw«t OT^tfjUs are not perfect^ tin 
anr oHnItj found minting in some CK«t or angle oraxin; 
t^ wUltp tlioortf Icolt; tlw notnul condition of uiM 
may perbaps be mU to be erT^talltno, ^et in r«ftlJ^ tbc 
miM of it n amorphona; tbat yrhih p*ntf*ra1ty then la a 
voodorfnl vjmmatiy abo-jt the r«g«t&bLa world, jvt tbi 
■mdaiii b puxtiud Hth a tbonftuid «noaiallM and ImpofM 
fivdJoiHt ; t1i»t the Miiko ii tmc of i}ici anlmn) kingdom, nnd, 
iftdiH^J, of t\nry department of cKprrimrnCAl fi^imce or 
pr»irt»cal kr>owM>^, Alvi it may b? |>laiisiibly claimed that 
bmin eonsbu tbc dii4inctfon betvoen niatb«iiiiatical and aU 
«tW trath. But tbo nccocintarinn ia in no waj tfU^^cv^ 


bj llicfv Itctt. Ho pats tl»c Irrc^U/ sb wcU u tlw re^^iiUr 
midic-rLbo dominion nf kw. Thrrc u n legrtimntc mtM^n 
why evorj aitoinftljr (i/ there rtlll romitiiu luch ft thinjz) 
■hontd exiil, a nvocvMLTf cattvo for eAcli def iatJuu from iho 
nonnal cuudit^uo ; wad thmt r-iUH) i» a» aT>«o1ejIc u tb(? oH^- 
nal law by ^liioh lUe Dorinol c^iodilion in bmught nttont* 
yiirtbrtmorv^ tlift vjtfijuinn UidajiUMl to tlie i^iiao of rarU' 
tioQ M jirrciwly im tl>« iiomiAl c-^nHftinn Is tdapt«ft to tlw 
ca«*v ^liich prvduvw ii. A fvw ilitutntiow nujr bo foT' 
nitbiMi itp<}ii tbitf pciint. 

It may be a&ld that tbe tiorfnal cf^dition of a plnnoury 
^rbtt ift An cllifwi, vol no plant?! 4««crib« a pprfact vilifiv. 
All orbiU arc jrrtgolv. *rhl« »t Unl ^lU^W uid di»1i«u1> 
cEK-tl oHtrvTrmiK-nt. anil <Uix>lc thifir futtb in tbo oT'Im' of tbo 
nnivcTW. But iL^y flntJljr found ibat «ftch fN-rturlialion «w 
ivwiMimrd ; tIjAt it was not a in«av deriation froir, or noJji* 
tioD of, tbo gciiaral law, 1>ui iIiaI, on ilic oootrary, h ww fai 
obc(lionc« to another and a hi^'hcr law tliat of Ibc^ raotuil 
attractirm ftf all tnal1«r. Th^- abac<)i>1^ fkatli of ilia toooHf 
with rvfi.-r«nce fo a fixed linr, wrmM prf«ODl a figure wbieh 
voidd \j9 neitbcr drcli^ cUi|wv, ipinJ. n^jr any pUkor known 
cnrv^ It uvalcl be conaldvnvl ifrq^^lar la every nvpect, 
yet tfrerj ddriatioa from tbnT flued line is (anwd by some 
iwfl] and neoenarj eifettnifitAiie^. So truir ■'■ tbii, that Xhvm 
invgttlaHtJin bavo bwu colenluti-tl* adU Ibeiir inie cauaea def- 
initely ncecrtained. And if ibt>n? JH a r«:Uk;/n for all ib<uu 
apparent anonuljMf whidi «]>on bcnwn will cnuhle ii« to 
»Iru1ate til Mlvanc« w1n£ tho nnonulitA will be, why, tlicn, 
is not tbe law tbat |inKlticn« tboH* auoiiialiiw u litrtuiirj aa 
Uie Uw tiAt ^vcma tb« nonnal coodHIon t 

The iTTf^brllree of tbe more Imme'ItAlc obyeds aroimd 
u«, ubot^irr in the mlnaral, rc^tablfvor animal kmgdoiD, 
an autiject alito to law. U a <TyaUi liaa luat aa angle, tbere 
baa beoD some reafon for it : m«io nuterial dmiiManoe boa 
oomo in, and, for ihnl pirlicnlar caae* aet tmAe tbe general 
by ita •peeiaJ Uw. U a flower U deficient In Sea uvular 





liB*nb«r of pctftk, the xine cxptanftlioD a|>pli«« ; if » tne bin 
ft gtmrl^'vl tnuilt vr ou uiiEiiglitlj <»xcnvtvu'» upon it, >i^uiu- 
tbriifv hit- caiuod it ; and ihv^ mwl bidoone defonukjr Ift im 
uiintil i>r in ■ bnmAti bcin;^ (h^T mcott moTinIrrttu uhiwrnniy 
of Urtb ta phj^ti ^{rowtbT t]>e oivet loatbBOm^ ulcvr or Uie 
Motf t«ffrlbliu iUa»ue — sU aro tlw raulEii of oortaln cftiuuLUvia 
Indiiemxfi whicb ftn> m ii«cc«ur^ u tliv l>wn wbidi ^crti 
tbfT nAmul lyiocHlJnffi of the vi^^ublo or thu inUml wurM. 
Thou imthoJu^icBl iiitI;i<.'noeft muAt 4>iih1, or ilifi >>b^rviHl re- 
mlU would Do4 folJrjw ; jeiy given thuir uxUUoivo, thnnt U 00 
Ofcaping thtfii: rcffib«. Biil iboir v^it(Wucv 10 woMilung rcaJ 
uid ten^bb. It &A i>oe hiddtro, iiucrntAblc, or EiijrsMrioiu; 
tnd by pUiMil inTMli^iob ibtt faiiM* tif ibcw^ irn^gnlAriti^fl 

It foUowb fttMU tbvao t«ro jMiQciploe— vie,, fint, tli&t tbe 
fiffbcti obM^rr^d miMt raMh of tAfwmty from a dcf;niid 
«uu« ftr4ibJlj ^tifltJik^ in tlw nature of thing* ; andf vcood, 
UhI «ibat4)T«r does to exiU u npiblo i>f ducuvery— tbkt 
«Tei7 appuent aantraik in natura Ma be ^tl^raclortly m- 
QQimtal for anil NnVndlindly t^xjiUincd, And, if (hie i^ tmo 
Af apftfre&l vitkbtiftnA ot liw, a/oWn^, it tf tno <'f tbo«a 
llnDjp «bicli ujat in nttnifiMt otwdicucu tv bvr. It ic bera 
tli;^ t1i# ioniiVDM mperioritj of iUo Dtsceeeiuritax ilusMy bi>- 
Donm cridcDt, »iucc it opcoi tij^ to mui & l^cU of olbcc^ 

wko furlrtddcn fnifL 

Tnstb M n(* \nnp:r % pvjvittf^^d oomniudUj ; it m Lbe 
eowmnii prit|>vrtv vf all wht> wAni II. Tbe parnitl of 
knovleilf^ Ia no )onp-r llt^ jmivuit of a pbftrtt<>m, Tt ia & 
Mht biVMtiiicnt of time and taloDt lo lnrniEi;z tbat MI 
tratb k txf jJ iMary, o-c biv« also liuned thbt al in o1>Uiruible. 
Fvr, if wbal«v<r uxirin or bappoiK bw aitd tmn bavo but otiti 
duflalti;!, iwoem^ cause, vrftbont wbieK il cr>iild n<it i^Tim ^^r 
happfi>,anil vith wbkji it r»aTd not but «ua or hft|>pon, 
tbait it rrtily rrcnaiaft to maircrUm Ihjil caii40. And, luncc all 
•MMMO^Duiil of tval acul tangible c-mniiwta>oo« or ct^mbl" 
mHam vi diWDalsaooa^ tbej i^an In moet cuoa bo i^i^ 

44 Ar»Al-TATIO.V^llAll AYD T11£ UKlVEftSK. 

iliK«rl or pmvcTitvd id folaro uconUng u tbcj poliwe 
bniuffleul or inJtiHow R«n1ta. If wia An CKutc tLc nmo 
conditioiM, m ii>jhj be sum <rf tiie laino nvHlt; if ve can 
IuwIe op tbofo tioniJitioii«, vr^ cut avoid Ibr nswlu In thu 
wjLjr, M bcfOTV rvEDdTkud, ko niuv lu iimu nMuh thv nntoco- 
dertt fi4iH0A of ttie iDOit 8ii1>tl]« tniLb» of n^nirc, wliedier in 
llie fidd of nonnAl or alinomiiil phononirnaf vhnthcr in tboMft 
grmi lii,-Mf of ucdvcipvv^W kuowlvdjft wliich uv obt-iowly 
p>^'cnivd bjr tmiforuD Uwb or ntiioDg Uio«e luullipllej appv- 
ent uio«DftUn wlijch »o ob«tmct ibo p«th of pore 8cJCEno& 

II ift nec^uarj to lEe«p ooiutujitljF in ti«v the objnt lor 
wblcli we f^ out — nnuidT, U» coaiHd«r tLo uiDlnal nrlalione 
•ulwiFttng biftwucfi muii uud iiftturo—wtlhavicwto the effect 
wbidi A ei>rr«<n utiitureuuding of tliiriii inodt prodocfi itj>on 
huiDaxi opitdoii^ ftXkd bnnitn aoIiod, vrliicl;, W W9 ttiAll U*r^ 
^lor perceive, aro incimmolj' connoctcd. Men man tint 
orient i[i<*inwTT« before tbo^ <sii rJipr«l to go arigbL A 
iittn 1o«t In ■ forwl, or a piloi •( Ma in ft fo^' without i coin- 
pru», i* P^ ]iki:45. In oboyii^ hw Dutiont of tlic direetioB lio 
ehonld ^, to go b ibe ojtpMho direrlion or at rij^ht fkD|^08 
to the tnic dirvotion m Io kdopt tliat only cocrM wbfirli fan 
bring bim to *ftfpty. The dun««< of ^'ng wrong arv vartljr 
■gunrt bim. So ■ it witb igrt^^nnt huin^niTv in ibc fop 
aud foPDdCA of pbI)oK>|^iy, Ini^raiEdit;? irilt'lbK^tu&l pr>vor 
oftm ftVfTfii to Uttd mtf^n ftinlirr nMrftj* t}iH» pitrr uiiinil 
ifistiod coold (Ko. F»]«c Jdi,-u [in r^ubcd bj rtMoajnjj 
from fali* prtmira oocaletLii^ of deceptlvo sppeanBooi. 
ThHr mdnik b«ccrae imboed with f<rpjn vbirb thoy oatj 
know liow to foltaw Io tboir pc^rpetnftl injuiy^ And. UQ' 
fortiinatcW, tiany of tbete «rron are of sacb a kind ib^t 
tboj ilo not nt ftU Umd to cx>mx4 ibeoMJrw. Tho oi-iU 
cAluIicd in coaMqauiitt of tbvir pnnuU cmim; in vuuli wajb 
tb»t tltfjr «fO nol reoo^lied m tbe reflulta of uirb permit, 
80 «MnplMl«id &r^ tlie r«Jftli6ti« Itetvofrn Tiun juiit liU mir- 
TonndingB, ihti tbo remlU of hit nctioiii, tboiigb reUlj du* 


wcraw, often mrtogiben rfttlwr Uiati w««1c«q hU enatittnui 
bvU«li. 80 vnivwAriil >i>d iinrelbble >re Uie ilklsU« of pure 
raMoo that tbc tnwi tUoni and pvraiciMv vrron axe cbsr- 
lilnnl for f^^tt. ut^iriMiiiig oUier pro^itMlTe fctidciici<tf, ntnl 
finally cDuillng' i^rcmAiQro todo] tk^encTM^ (m/^ PP^ ^^^r 

IVtlluxit bt-n ouoa£tl«rUig tbt* mneilj fur lUn ttatv <»f 
tlilDij;«t wlikiti wQ] fonu die |> n>p«r uibjeH of fulurv cliap- 
ltf]% 1^ v> gluwe bncij &t n limit^Kl namW uf thcw; cmDrfL, 

Ono of iho mo0i alMonl haa been i)i6 ooiicm ol tlie f^ 
jjftvity of iini«ml objooti. 

How tlu» httiDiLa itjieul coviLI Kuccood in rccondling tUi 
fido* witb the b««Uws of tli« tiunnuw, anU with tbc concefi- 
tkKi of a bountiful and benorolntt Creator, aoenia dtfiicxrU 
to tindotstand. It pmbablv <HWt»titQt|i« ono of ibooo con- 
riocinip illoitrmtioiu uf tbv powi-r uf nlacalioii in Qvcniifing 
tbo Unnttn jadgmeot, of which bbtorjr U ao full. Ccttafai 
it lAf bowevroTf lluu l}ii> d^tctrino bts Jilwaya cxCf nMvdjr pny 
vutc<l anaong tDinlcioil^ I ppcak not mtrcfy of tlic alleged 
dupravitj of tbe butuan miml, but ot tbo anpfMAod IttJneu 
of CTorjr tldog natural. All mattor bu boim from time In- 
inenaria] ondM- t1i« Itaiif ai< Inberemlly tod cnciktiallj onboljr 
and impitrc. Mao hai been li^ld to b« lotallv d^pravvd^ aod 
«vorj doslnr, lumtvii* f*cu!tt, or attnbiit*^ of li» iialDn\ to 
lia torrufity anwonby, and aiwlcan ; bviK.-o lii* actwm, hiij?, 
bit m^ eii«tcoM, bare been condeomed m droncbed ^Ub 
Doral tiT]>itr>de, 

It iff qutii* uAnvowcary to tiddoco proof of Um maQuer 
{d wbit-fa tLU bdipf ha* ivtanlml Ibv |>ro|ET«ie of tlfo world 
botb iDMcrlalljr acd LcieTleeiiiallj. It ocod only bo poiiiiod 
ool bow nbtflo Um bc^ itA inrlitciKw, ^nrl lM>ir impnewiMo 
(t bat bevu for saob mn «fTor I0 dcvtroy it«If. Ita partial 
OTCrtbruw in toudcm tinMi haa rv^ulted froui joflBvooDa 
ttbrtlly forvi^i to all dlaaiAioo of it« mcriia. 

VTo maj takct n«iitt tbn doctrine of itpdRti^nt^ growing 
I7 vol of tbir b^ief in au iut«lligeni "Itulcr of ib^Q 



UniTcne/* It bu b««vi tiLalnlniaed that rmtf thing 
''for \h* bolt," »i>d nuny oatard «jrcnmKtancH b»rc boon 
cf^ocUilly emplo^uiJ tit tiutiun tbu bvlicf in b*Ah iiilvUigcni 
and b«fi6rokiut muitfofiCalJona in lunircv 

OpdiiiEfiin KsmA m i}irt<4ly i>|>iK4ml ui fiqinviij tlut we 
miglit wdl wotidcr iLal buiU aIij^ziM t^row utit of Uw iJc« 
uf « Pruvitkooc^ Yifl tliu^ uiiJo^jUuJIv bave Jcoio ki: ibe 
hiutr probaMjr from i»nJtad oti^ funHful Ulcii»; of ihi* n^Koe 
earr pur^ijr of the Om«Uo>* ftn4 ProrkUr, cuouwiul vritb bk 
grorcliiig uiti iJopen<jQcit cnalurvA ind crvoCioAA: the fomwr 
fn>m iLo fituLK'iruiry giivilQ(3M uf that Prwklof, ccmplvd wilb 
Ids au|>pOfi«d ability to AtrangA a11 ihiii^ for tho bust. B«t 
in ibb niJM pljikoof^bon^ have not, il« in llic otbur, bom «pn-> 
lent to li^ivL* ic ■ men: uudQiDonstrmtod tlogiua. roiiniring 
fftilb alfiw lo accept it, Tbej biro «4iajvd im pryv© U, 
uid onr rcrtainlj cnilrloii to the croOit of barfi)^ tiSruicisI 
■omt* r4*rf ifigfinii>ti» argnincfiiA ui ii« *upport^ TIw djkrf of 
Uxeiitf U tbo uUjitatioB of tbiiign in nature to tbu wuitn ot 
eeoxUnti bviugp, And ttficdallj of maa. In ihifi it Is inipiw- 
niblo foe ili<T ncoc«vifuri«n to ini*et ibcm on their <iwn groumj, 
Jn fft<4, ib(^' liiitb nloiin tbo mum ground^ unci? Iliu vtirv f^Mt 
of wUpUliou IB ibi3 vonioMlono of ncoiwUmTiI«m, Bnl 
tbo two pftiljoe ee« tbo aim<> pmc^M from prw^inly oppoeUo 
p«uU of v-iow. TTic r-ne My>* thr cirv^imrtancM fffi- ^«/><a< 
to du) enftture ; the other, tb*t Iho «3r«inifltAiuv« <K^4/f Uie 
crttlnre, Tbe nocendtaHan cl^nL4 that tb« drvQjr)«tJLTicu 
Bf* the «»/«» <jEnWi^« of the f^ri%f4>d fomw ; the nptimlrt, 
tbat ibe cntacA fonan nre tbu mum ,ibafa of thr Hrmm- 
•tanrN"*, go far, tbervforo, m ibw ia Minc«iT»d, tbrr^ am bo 
no furtbor irgmncni, Tbo eooflMng dntmn will have to 
mt it|>Ofi \lvir n*n rcaportiro rnb^rvnl crwltbitity. Bot» 
when tbo optJniiM gor» funhoTf and diM>bn.i» that nn ImprOTO- 
nionl Sn anj thJuft can bv oonwJvL^d of, thot all tiiittRn are tbo 
very b«el i\wy oouJd t« for all ttoatur«a, be hw r^mo out 
from hb fi^rtrw* of mtlccd dofrnu into t)i« opwi HM of r>rt, 
And bvni Im fiiajr be met. Th« noMMltuiaii tloot tbia b^ 



bkurlni^ loituMWii i>T if it v«tv i>Dt ft fciogle iBfUncOi in vliich 

111 tliu j^iwvL To 4q thk U a v^rj ^impUs buk. Hw cxIhI- 

ol aU<^lule optiniMU. Il u no Atwwcr lo Uu* ju^oicut, not 
uTtm If \m^ tLu vtUfurihc [vLt<l« Ui bnng git&tvr f uiuru Inp- 
piocK. >or lo claim ihnt ii k for tlw bcM, intrmiiKei Lho 
«]|H!rUtivo At odifc, Aiwl [wcIndA llbc ouoipnnuJTfi wliicb thm 
UMwrw^ioU ftUueiuuMly Bppjjr, Xbons qui bu no grmtcr 
Uifta Ox grcfttoec If U vnui &ln«dj fvr Uiu beat, tUcu Lttppi- 
note troiiM ti« Alnaidy at Jla bi^uM |>auitJu (mhiiL Wlit^re, 
tfauft, » Utb rvocn for pain or kny oUtor iBtcrumoaUJilj' to 
bum: U bigbnrf I^viUier m U jKi^^lbla lo uccApe by denfinff 
tliftC it im fur the bfvt that ihftc ihoald he the ^rcatoit hh}^ 
piiinM, Asncf^ if tlia* dotiul wen> jnM, li luut ftko boon pro- 
cludcd by thu pnjTJoii* cbum ibot pulu wu for tW b««l w 
ft turttUd Af iikemitiig ImppLiutfV) and tin cvpl!naSit k i^Diiii 

jhiL it b not tiooi<«iar]r to ooofiiM lb« diecoM^ U> tncU 
fownl pHndplea* Deeeeodliig lo p(»iiciilfti«, tro find liiat 
iltr optimiMie IJi^otj k bMOfl nthrr npon willfh] blindncM 
CO- uietmmlile icntfraiicv. Coikduirg it loa^tlent bvnngit, wo 
poncive thiL ibc wry li/c aud ploflMTD of one liaU t!io voHd 
dfffietwlft upoo tbu <i<'afh utd M^fft^rtnf; of tbo oclier balf. 
ITfft onlt do fiiJi«fl, rv|j<ilim, bJTvk. and brastc Uoontei tort- 
vrt, ft&rl dcvn«f one flnndirr and Chniir lower in tlio sciJo of 
boinir than lliMn*vlvft», bnt mynftd* of b>ir and dk^nw^ing 
Tcrmin, ftlni^itt distil ntvi of fiwtiu^. prvjr upvu ibo Uiglicat 
and oittft BcQiative bdniTk" 

HqI ibr f'pf [TnlHt ifMj nply to tbifl lltnl vfr only ^ncY ftll 
ft — ^vH« Im-i^imo vo can ivkt «ee tlio iriaoruUbl« vajraof 
1 .r«, Thu W tbo only ronnw bo oui adopt Imt ft ii 

■tinpiy niMnlin^ WTibin hi* rampirt of dftcmo, wbrrr bo la 
«f oomnfl wraro fracn all tbc vi^apAna of rraann. for lhet« la 
■* nnrJt forr^o in ft tvoppinfc dcfikl of Uik c1«Jni m in ita 



aaacntoii. n<*rc, ogdn, as \n hla flret AaamptIoii,all nrga- 
mrnt i» at mi vad. 

a luudi oiorv p^miduufr bdief Uiaii tlii« ■bMjtutv op4iiiikni, 
einoo tlic )ilt<tr i» pufvl.v K|HicuiAiivi.\ imil ootitbied to com- 

act Qj>0Q U, Were U not for &ii at)i:oTt«ciow current tjt com> 
BMW 0eD0e nuinii^ ouuni^^r lo aM lbti« pord^ginnk of tli« 
undfeoiiitinod racon, nuil [tmllr guldkn; tbo chief funcUav 
of Lift, thu hidldurs of nuA hfUt^U wonki iioon be tironglil 

U» dealTiKitiim {<hJi^ pp, £71, 4T!>]. AlwoInCc nfitimiKlQ, u 

well w tlw whole dcigMift of prD<l<vliTiat»uii, wodd, if Ic^o- 
aUjr piirenedf pni an wA to oil liidlrldnaL eflort «luii«T«r, 
Kixtc mil effort nwulu fivim & rrcn^iHoiTi, tf^n#rio»« or nn- 
coniCbOitS) ot llw ncovmtj- of ct-rloiu i^ccU faUowiiif[ ecfv 

Tlio qT]a}]fir<1 optiTnlsm nrferrtd to coiwftti; in the belief 
titat tlie viili<-«|>rvjK) Jtilapt^tion whirli nil aHniit ti exist In 
naluro la tn ali roipvcti pifrfi*ct, iidoR brc»u|rfit aloul Mcronil- 
iii|( to tiHT plaa ftf an omtEisc^iviil aiiO u[iitiij>utont dwigiwr, 
Tlie ;iTV3lical «vU of t^i« belief ariie* from a genonl \iw\» 
jHMiitiuQ to «««k to iuiimrt-o tbac wlikh tti alreai]/ cotx^^ifM 
to be pcrfuel. Not gettomilv \mj\u^ MulogifitM. it i» diiflcvlt 
to malc« UiDW o|3l)mMfl koo tlio praof« of imj^crfcct adapta- 
(ioD betvcvEi tbo k>v«r otigafit^nm and tbctr envinniiiicait, 
jwt berr tbe bannonj ia far f-nsatcr tJinn in tlie mw '*f mon- 
Aittmali ar« cownantly *a Hniil«! b> ili^* iiK«sMn( friction of 
didrnWToundlni^ tbil tl»eir pl^yW aei>iratioim art [>vi[>^ 
TiallT ptonnd down into »on»rtl»inn: like foittploie eorrcepond- 
«fir«. Tet.aibofomremaA'^.tlu* friction ia i^Iwajr* ''fy 
gml, dnttroTinic nrttijr tlmr* mons Uibd etur roaeh mituril^, 
and fwpr^if llje iiiHcivnl tondew^ to Hua lo hi^t'r ilagM 
of pbjflieal p*rrf<MJtwn - 1 lc[j<teiJ\^r "^'^ oti»toijoe h proved 
tij (WWT atti^mtrt to niliivate a wUd rtix'k artiftcinJl^. wWli 
ff»iwl« etitertv in iW rrmnval by inan of thu adT«n« inili*' 
.«f iU iinlaral cnt IfDomant 



fot oaiy ilo updiu£»U fsul lo percdv« Ihoie deeper 1ruth« 
of bii^ogy, biit Uwy KTO anftUQ to vco Uvo ^Urjog f«ctii wluch 
huniAn lifr prr«ciiu in proof of the imperfection of tlw nain- 
vol rehtJonH hritrMii tiun And TkAtnre. Yd, to ra&UEc tlilfl, 
ibv^ wvt-d but ixitibidvr bow Ab^oluti^Ij <1c]icti(1cnt imrn Mrc, 
hi Miriy &I1 |wrt« <>f Uio world, ujiofi ttiv apptiuictt uf An 
ulifioml MviliatioTi. Lot uj one uf tbcm imagine lilmaelf 
ifaftiidMn-d «nLiMl^ to nAtoTv^ and obliged lo tuUiFt, i« do 
tbu ukiniAlt and bjnk. in a wiEd irt^tc If be vUluw to ra^ 
ti^ito for a fortnight m tho niouuUirjB, bu tint pn>vid«a btm* 
■elf fnitt an exti-mtre ualAi and npplitv, coning wholly 
ol aHlflei*l objeeta. Nov, a1! 1I1.0M thtn^ «o abfolntrl^r 
wewaary to Kia i»tiflt4tn«i\ sn> d««»od him bj^ natnrv, uid 
unlv »<ippliod by artifictalljr angi^enttug the degrae of «or- 
iw]>ondcDcet and perfeotlnfE lli« vcrjr iiupttfMi ftdnjiCaifoB. 
It in onljr branch illiiflMllonD that «re art able to mltea hov 
vcfj alight thv natural adajititioa ia (vol. J, p. Tl)^ Poopit 
ntvlj itop to n-lk-ct i;p*in tLltjgK wlticL arc not ndnpiod to tho 
vanto of haovm nacw\ h«t are quick lu diicovvr any thing 
tliat » Jfi ailaptird. Tbo fatrt tliat a bir or pHoclp^ in nat- 
nro w thus ailapLed al '^oco cxc>t<s tbi^ir nvvruiMw bekI «wo, 
and tbiijr tucUiiv, What a woodvrfnl tUnstnktion of prori- 
dnitial claigii and tolicitudo 1 Tboy forg#l that their very 
MUBbbmeni at ^neh thtn^ U in i^onAeqiMn^^t and a ditvH 
piuaif, of thatr rantj, a»d tlwt the rvity of (bin|E> well 
nddjUvd provva on abumUne* of ibhigfc ill aiUpt4-J. 'nin ne- 
oadtsrian ae** nn mom for aAtoni^hmrnt tMi llim should 
b» a pvfoct adaptation in nuny intportant drrunutaaac«, 
tanee it u th« drenmAluieM tlietnaclvva tliat adapt. No 
wtt«ld \m aitinu«h«i lo *vo a aphere oomn from a ^btir- 
ttoM, ot wonder that it waa not a cnbe or a priani. 
Aaj tmo vronid oortalnly wonder if it waa ttoi a aphrnn 
Jm an with tlwa* cdnTumaUnrtit md contlilio»ii t>LHl ^niv 
mud avvry organkm. Tbe orgnniAna arv tlie cajtta fttMii 
liar Kiolda of elraniatfatioitf. If tbera von any oecinon 
frv antpriao, it would bo co find ao much want of aiUyULv»\ 



u eeTtftinlf <lo» nxiM* But thk k ovAy ut ap|iarDiit uioid- 
air, sinc« VATtetr of ^^JratiiiitttAitcQl prodQoa* a varietr of ob- 
jwu, Mid Ui« itdaptntion of tUotv oiijtfcU to tlw puticnlw 
condition* uhicli produced Ibtrm w nfitcivnt to prcvvrva 
tbe^ii; but it du«h iMJt follow tbftt tbe/ fthoiUd boaboadaiHod 
to ul]>i>r (.i>Ti(Lnofiit whidi hxTo niiiiltoil in l)io proilBCdon of 
otljer olje«U> N«>U:L?r U Uu» tbo ci^u, and Iwdc« oil ibo 
dUvordnDt dcnotitv i>f titling, iu liiu jwmuttvu ifrvrld llili 
dkcord m |miti, uid thi^ U ih<i uue aaludon *4 tbo great 

Tbc |iv«iivii uf (bi? qtulilivd optuabt u saflkumtij' jm- 
piiriduc t(j jiuufj' A fow IILiMtimUouii, WHton of a ttiJoo- 
1o^.l1 hufl are oouliiiutllj udvaciouig what they rof^rd u 
prooUnf intcIHgi^nt dnoga Mid benevolent prov»»oQ in ho- 
ItMii of •cU'.ii-iit bvii^, MfWCftftUy mu. In f»ct> uutii williii] 
ijiitt« A rvocnt perfodr lU pldlaeoi^jr wm itnttly anthrupo- 
etntric. uDil ib<> lowor |^d« of cre^tttttn oipaliliA of enjoy- 
jutakmidftufrcni^ wvrcvhoUv iffnurvd. lEiit,iituMimroe»ii 
lloKS, ft fi;ir uf thin i»cbool likvv tx^ziiidud lUdr «oh«fM to 
oiibniM tlie atiiinal irorld in p;viienlf tvndortnjif il toC-eoiilHc 
JDtfowl ol B&tlin^ioNiitHt:, dUioiigh Uk' oxiat«nco of hr^ 
4iidon of puruljr prxHifttor; trtMorcc, wholly dvpoiidoDt Qpou 
thdr povrer to inillrt jxiin ind d<^tli tipoo tbc rc^t. v a wmw- 
wlint dU^nn^ng fact, for llicSr plifluophj to umcniUtft, 

Jkfnflt of titf rximplcn cho-t h«T« bp«ti bnnij|c^> forward 
wm OfttabJuljin^c tlic optrntloa uf « itcuKnioif inti-Uip<<DG« and 
bwevtiieETit latont in ihb univcno oad bo dAMcd ODdcr two 
ftasoral bcniK Thrj an^ <HtW (1) rur* of Bttnnd or ^ 
nHic jjdjipt4l>oo. or (^) tbej arc ii^er« coiriddL*rM«L 

TaI itok Qxamtiw a fev of ewU «)u«. 

Mr< G. J. IiocituiG«. wliow ttttcmooM ■!« guDonlljr 
worlbj' ol tbe bU'»*^ rvp«et, ta an Artick bi tbo ** Qnar^ 
t«Hjr JonniAl nf SrifOK-t^/' IKT6, »p«<t3ei>tg of tb» mal^mal 
iiutJBi^ u;» : " Tliv toutiiur in Imiding bvr joHBg dov «i> ia 
obodiii&ce to n talioriicd itislincL, and nut rrom aujr tmr of 
•■bio(iii«nt avU-mpTMLcb U ibo kamt bcr fuuJIj to pcri^. 

oprrMrsTcc FAcra 


fihe foI[o*re the nk*Urra] laMiiiri, fci long «a it c<mtiDti«c in 
ftppnlioii, ja>C til rba woqWI follc>w tnj otber iiujliikct ; and 
ttK>*>t ^<r«n;, o *Fi,er< aecitifMi of Uivctsc thai iii tliu par- 
lioolAT laaanciJ iba «utttM i>f Mtioa irhkh llic uiMinct 
iMptt ia ft ooono of letion vliich iA conducive to the 

JS'w, Mr^ lEojiuii«» wtU Qnd(?rvUudi tint Ihii ^*mtre 
aooidvnt ** bM bMm lfi« reuU of ibe iionual i>i)crit)iMi of the 
kw of getieitc iidApUtioD, nuil, if (jucMJoticd on the nhjed, 
wottM donbtien Dot be«ftat« ro ■« knovledgi? it. Thu fvn- 
it Uw moco rOEUAriLablr that bti vlxmld have hllvwi^l 
l««n|{0 U) fo woipAliBod » on fti)gvimmi fur tbct iij|«- 
i^bt. It hM bc«n tfaown in a forma' p^n of thif* work 
(toL ), pu 4A0) thit Ttaa only in the cow nf tl>r mBtcnul in* 
■tiaet but in tliAt of all the lif^prtwrxin^- iwtiiivtK tho 
piitalory tuul wjiiuiJ hoc vx«vp4«d, th<ro \b alMiulolj no 
direct connectioTi betirorci ibc modro «hirb vccnrt* tho 
frlorauitin? of iUm^ n«cMttv:y acta and ilie imporunt caib 
rhidi lhi>5 tfuWfT*. Tlio arU «» ptirfomwd* «t«ii bjr 
In ccHct obodkoico to the intmcdbU} dutln«; tnd the 
llli&^ DEttHlion, rqnTodnotiaii, a&iI pmCivtion of odl^prio^ 
whblljr MDoiKhirr ukI ioctdcntol, ni^j or Dut«r thcuiEht 
of inovonortioci witli tliL' acU. it k UrangQ Um t«4coJo|^i8ta 
not tnorv frvqunuly nr^gnJ (Uih imporlsnt fut, Vnt it 
lanot tfi have been rtcognijunl hj iIk-tii uakiuiJi. the 
rikrf Kki gcnrr»lly pnvaiiuii cJiat lh«*« mtU wer>* performed 
tbd rvvnote ^d in vivw, *nd iJio rcnipiilion of ttju 
Irath W not fv.mc nniil tlic law of frvouiiij] ftdaptiitLOD 
bntn d«<v*lop4vl to «cp1jiin it an * nttiotiiil fact* 
Tho «tcc«i <if itinkf over female cfaiMren bom hw bfyn 
.citod ad a cue of proviijontiat doai^ to eompcmmic fur (he 
Iter dcif^ive of cxpoiuro to fstnl iuHol-iwos, purlicula/ly 
WMV^ nf ihe rnalfl m^\. Thi?L ia oot yet MaMMicd aa B 
for thi* tnttirv ])--»|>nlalioR of iJi* p^be, hiM appears lo ho 
trtic for iD«Mt noaiitrira wUonj accuna« »tattitu« havo hoan 
d. XdtW h it fullj- proved that the iikcra«d 



iDortAlIly b^ Ttolfinctt ftinong m$.\e* more- tluin f?oiiif}«Qttt«i 
fortbo incretuicd tii^ruUity vf fvmulv* due to ihe ^^reator ddi- 
cncj of nutcma] faiiutlvn^ BuCi ftiiuciU boUi tliw« tloubti 
be ro^vod, nml th<i <>x<>^flp3 of nudo btrtli* c«tabliilu»d tf a 
■donHfiir tmtb, It would b<- out- ni)f dtfl1>.*iih to 4crMini for 
on AduptdliuQ prlndpln.** ^or t^ny n»4itt irhich un be 
abown to bo advauugocHU Co tho niuo m luHuntfutly ex- 
pla1ne*3 by iUfuJmnUgcaiiwJMB. 

'Hic ^t tlidt the specific gravity of a^Tintio nntiiula » 
aloiOHt Vixiiotlv Ib^ of Iboir medium hM alio btwa referral 
to, u wdl 114 the alliE^ fact tbat tbu bouw uf binb tu« boUtm 
;Hid «^ommiuii(»t<] witb tbcf onler E^r; but tlwco com «ro too 
obvtoiifly ibo rMullA of n&tunl Mlcotioo to tvqutrc ftirtbcr 

Thcro ir^t bow9vor, certain ccmhUfd fort^ who«« <liivct 
connection In more oltJ^nrA, tiic\ M>inc of whidi MV (loubtlcu 
oulv pitfiiillf imUinl and [lartiilljr tridental. One of iIi«m 
is Uiv fa^crik- tbeine of i«lei>1o;fifate. alreuly tiefurrerl to a 
fov pAg« bftck, m,> thtt ccalmftuaroa. Their calatcDoo 
ectfainly b»d no dirftt onniMyftion wifb tbo d<>Yrlftpmrnt nf 
tlic Iftwirr IjpM of lifo. inoJwdiae that from wbicli tma 
apnnifC, or wttb mati'i duTv!opinent down to thi} end of tb6 
aUte^otb oeiiluij, wliea coal fint bcg«n co«omoiDta^T>rm] 
OM M f«vL If iii» fM ie to bfi dlreetl; cannttted wirh hU 
devclopncot, it m»t liu ftt a time lubMqir^nt to lliat lUle, 
and prub^j dianEi^ i>r iii>(iMS|Ucnt to tbo prG*«nl vpooh. 
Tb» ejctcn^vo d»^rui.ii<ia of tbo forwtf in Wt«t<^ni AtiM 
tuiil l-lfltfom ind Sonibcm Enn>p«v If «ontiDDE>d llivt^tiji^boQt 
Xi>rtl*om ilid WmUrm Krtrofi* and AmrrrirjL, mniLtimon foi- 
fjiil tlii> mtoit 4v^rt*v ol dvifftnoncj ovor tb« vehole ffiohe 
wbicb u &OV manifvtE in iLo«e regftuDs, once tlio oentar i>f 
tlw blgbfflt iat«ll«elaa] actintjr. Not tlmt %\wn> wcnnot 
otb«r oaiMM ai«Miat«d witb ihla ooe in brinjcitifr about tbat 
TMoU, but tUU cauM aloiie, «ip«daDj Is toldor iatilndai, 
miut, in Uw abavtioo of any tobithule for vck«1 u fuel, 



evQDtaally raralt hi ntidfcHi^ ttie world uninhAbitAble vx- 
Mf>t hy a ncv of niib?nWo l«i»|^ Jn *o Ui, tbcreforc, u 
Um coo^b«d* Lbv9 opumU'd in *]i^ aviiB^ u ■ ilbvct cfttt»e 
of tliu pnttent ttUitiM of tlio hiuniui noe^ thu c»n only bo 
l»rcdi<iatcd in tbe gcftcnJ Aeiwo flat, bj tlw recioird of tito 
f xi^'w^ of «Arbonic Mrid tml litonticti of Ito wmbuitiig utjr* 
f;vii, lliv prvoutt by wbicli tlivj witn formwl ui tbe mmo 
time pnriAed tliu aliuo»|)burd bo aa to rmdor ibo dovclop- 
mootof crcfttnrMof & liigltcr Oirf;;^ii}£Ati<in povib^j wliirh^ 
from Oio ooDitilntit^n of tlt«'ttntvvr« in gunvn], it vqt)it> 
le&t to rvfifkru^ Ui^ir dcvoloptiMiU noecflBiiy. In tUg aense 
it b A r«>n of ndjiptttion, hnt In tiny otfifr it tiin*4 be ro- 
f^rxlcfl. Dp tn intbm ft reOHit ptinod at UtM, m »m]Jjr > 

Vrrr iJinnRr to tliia caF« Is tlinl tiislu«d upon by Hugh 
HEUcr* uul olhfrns <if tlic \attt spptAniw^ gv^logicftUy 
>|)Mk]ng, of tbe tuohI Importiutt ccioDoriiic fuuUvB of plnUl^ 
tiiil jianti^iilHrly iba ^Etwoow ami 6'rDtMJiiAK Tbat tbe eaifll- 
«iKv of tbc blglwr htfUroroDK grtininivoroo«, and irtt^ro- 
KfO^ aiumtl^ from ii^nw Vmn of wliifli nun liw nnqamtion- 
abJy dc*e«ndcd, \nt in « inrgc mroaurv du« to thi? prwioi» 
Kppcmium of tliu Icmd of Horn rwc^ttAuy t4> supply tJieou 
widi fool of tbfll nutnttovu cUiractor con^iitcnt vith ilicir 
fttti d»velnpn>i*ni, ili^n> ^n 1H^ no (li>Tific. It It, tlw^^^forv, 
p«r1i«p«, not hJO inorfi to «y ttmt, but for ibo prariooA «l>i- 
fvlopouKit of ti»1i a v<^f^*utioiif no tudi higiivr atiiioalF, and 
Qfefrtifm^ no rrucb being »^ miui, ronld bavo lu^^i'.^ iLi^iir 
appmrmncc^ A p«rlnn! Ti*pro«-n!iQ^ tbo LoiM^^I^ t^^'^'s 
uid tiK OTftni^ tKiitif^ a mhiiatence amid tbo fbrmi, T,(^pi> 
dopbyt«a, and Caivnlloe of tlie (^:trlioiiiforoui rfu^i, vtuutd 
OMMlitnte an aiufrlirocimi trhusc n-aLiaation \\ wi>uld bo 
ImpiMAlblfi to irnifcine. Ikfurli Icm conU man btvo anb'ipl^t 
tbiifr, «r«ii laming (li« r\^pir«biUtr of ll)« atnMlpbcro. In 
lbl<Miiar, tbo bJgbvr jminult. iudndinjf nun, may 1)*r«gAn^«l 
Ifao [irodacilB t>i tbo impti>V4>d cijvw^r of tbo vi^Ution* 

• ' rfAteMT of ite Bo^" p. ViL 



ftonaldovcd ba the f>ffidcnt enuo i^f tltdr etiiiiftnor. 
'Other M4IW, ihe (wo fAi^U ■>« urmple e^ndd^cev, 

Vr« vritl bQV cnniiMniio a few ctfM of lh« advaatageoin 
0(Mni«(eiK» of itbdU^ bctwvon wbidi no mochitiiOBl AAmit 
/OH bo dbootcred, 

Kuit AnniMi»o««,* «h * diMOTery of kk own, Uie Eod Ui4t 
th» splumda] form of tbo «aith » of ibo grafttcst advuta^ 
to its inhabltmiite m pc^vuniiiig tmtpiUriti«i in it« modoot 
due to mMiAUinnnf^ and othar iiKqnaliile« of lu vurf»«t 
wliicU llie grMt mocntiiti, >a it w«*tv\ Iho m/viitruj* «i tlio 
«^tUtor, in coi»v<|wriicc of it* pcwtiufi and mipwior tnoavi 
Miitndijsu EUid coaun vrbolty to disuppwr. " Aiid jd.'* lie 
Adds, "ttiU vHm vnuu^meDt la explained wiUiout lituiU' 
lion from ttio ixjnitthnnTii of thfi ffirrnrxly flnid tham of tlie 
Vitrth'*; implvin^ tkil iU adv3[itii|{vou>na« aJong iniglit 
luve funibljiHl a KufllciL'uL OTp1anftLjoD» On tliia w« need 
onLv rvni^k tliAi inaf^fnu^h a? tho medinnirAl CTplariiHon 
M voiuplute wjllfuut Uio t^-lrol^gicAl on^, and wiJl Jipp^T to 
Mnj ttw VTMi vlierv it niiglu b*s i di>tadvviCageT thv httur 
-b at lowt uiUMiccpittr^. Thti fact la dearly a ampU colnd- 

Oito of thfi ntoat intvroitinK of all t)ie«e li*P1>T ^o<^ 
dvn^^ In ualurv it foiiTid in the fitct lliat lb«rv ih no iiatiml 
ivlaiiwi, and tlKreforo no ^x^d proporij^^n, l;otwv«n tlw db- 
permo nnd ibn rt^fntdiii^ puwm of dllTvrc^zit subvUuuwa ; n 
cirenmaunec of wliicL optfcbra h^v** !4Vr<n Ailvancnf^ In tho 
OoiutnUjtiDit of lij4 ^chroRiAtic Irnn, wtiii^li, it vonid M«nt, 
^MHdd never biTv lnwn ooconiplaibod If ihw tw prupurtwa 
tiAd inenftied cr lUmiDlaUcd Id the aan^e ratio. 

laftntd, howeTT-T, of llib indimlin^ b«flkpvoloni dof%o, 
there reri'inlf voM fteein to Th.^ a mof^ ffroat«r natimd 
Antoonlwl probalfilil^ llntt ihfMt pn>|henun nlK'nId hv tnde- 
pendvnt of «u*li ofJirr than tial llwjvlionlil bo dv^wadent 
■pen eedi ether. Wo are therofm dnipl/ Admiring: a r^ 
nk that wo tbottld cortninh Imve espoctrd had ft pMeevod 


OPntfrSTIC F\CT9w 



no adrtntiigo or diMdntnU]^. Uach cntliiuajuiii fa ex- 
|WtHlod ID tttSM of cJiift kimf. 

Tbe gtiMt v«lo«itjr of Jif^l hM boon r«Wred lo ■* bcili- 
tniin; HSnmomml oUcrTiiion, ** and i« lo r«ciur1c«4l by 
Itrinklisy that, if the voJodty of light Hitl U*cn mnoii lot* 
Uum it w, NBtnjfiuinj wmid Invv bvwi all but ui itnpavdblfft 
oekftoeu"* This le a typksileMe among rninvvb^po the j^ood 
or h$4 eflvct » delcraiiiiiud irliolly bjr tho diynv of til* <[xitl* 
itj rcfcfrvd iol In %\\ avch cuwv it b 4?<jii4l]v proper to mjr 
llot tlw rvMilt iri^lit lttr« b«ao nwru MlitifHi-ttiTT. If tbo 
boia miKt Im clKnctoiwd, vrc aiv &lwy» Wfc in ^cnilit 
irihiT pnuae or hUmu id in i^nttir. Poc^itc wh-i wr ihrfi 
irld from tliW point of in«w Are alwnys ihAiil^fo) for mw- 
fbrt«fte»— tiianlifiiJ Ui*t tlioy arvr not wot*c. Tliifi forin ol 
blfavv \p a\no tvrf popitlaj. 

Thfirc b otic t4her BabdiTfafaw of tbia clan of bitiHidal 
QoitkC>(leiK«« tb«l may be ^iMiagaltbod. ThnM^ nri^ (mw fan 
wlijch tbe aidvADU^ i« mor* ftpponml thin T«ftl,and becoin«H 
grvtUy ivdncitfd or <)ic(ipf>eftrv «Ilu^bi*r gn doMr «xMiiiaa- 
tioo. A ftitij^k iiutance under ih.\a he^ fnnflt mfllne. Tr \\m 
lonf bMn known ibat varnr utraiiLB it' fjT<^ti«9t d^ftritf at 
abotit S^l^ F«br^ or Tf^ ftbr^Tv ll«e {xritil of congvUtion, 
Tboi fact baa b«en loBlelod upon hy oeritbi plitvSeiilK* and 
iwUblj Count Rinnfoant, m o rRpJttl nganwAl \o favor of m 
vtM bnapficrtkTc in notnnL In cooaeqneuv of tlii> pn^rty, 
tt «» affn>^ ti»^< ^ ' <"3'" ■>' »a1«r cooIa, tbe «ald«r parti* 
fleftdonot devcend to Itie bottom* but, nflirr attiiitimg tiio 
tonpanmro of fLd^'^, float no tho aiiifan.% wliurtt oonf^ektlim 
bAgfaML Tbo elitfd of i£o ooco formed protooU tbo ir&tor 
brTow it from llw fnrtbrr inflnpnrr of «M. 

If frvninp br^ui d< tbu botlom, tliey my. )arfCQ reaer- 
Voin of watvr, darinjt wintor, vould bfifome toMd UooLk of 
Vr, vUdi the n>cc«eding mnuncra oonid not nMslt. Cooni 
Rumfori went im far a* to rUtm tb^l, bnt for tbb iHso |irD- 



TkidiT tl:« ocwa itwif would U) froMm »utjd, Mxi<i oa^ngstioD 

To lliie tifll mppodtloQ. the etiffl^ioni at»wor W tliAt the 
BUn« Uw of d^MiiT doca not obtun in ult u in fnoih wXvr. 
'HumbolUt, in JjU ' KoiEnos*'" »Iii^(^ tliAt^fruvh and nit 
wAt«r do not aitab tli^ir nmxituum ileiuiiy ai ihc ttmo teen* 
f>enitiir«, abc] tho tjuantt^ of idJt i>f tlic jwv lovren the tbeiv 
JiioiuHjSe d^^gr^c of tli'^ gTV4tr*<t HcuKiljr.** It ha* linco bcoQ 
dlwuvvrvd tluU fta-^jtvr c^ntjuuvfe tu ct^ntm^-t duwu to tiiv 
fn^cxinp poJtti,t tbus [>lu(>lug Uio oocAn Id ph^keljir ttic tame 
do|ilonihlt* ronditioin fmm whiVh it w,tA fiippnsrd n kintl 
Pfwidciivu bu*l n«L-uud it. SvxL, lu rvK^nli fjwli wfttcr, Uui 
tliOUfTT. uptjii duwr[ijapt)diuii^pruvviifMlbii:iuu«i Itv Autlion, 
in Uriug it (kiWD, fiLJlod to<li£<-i>vGr thai, b> thUBeinking, the 
upper 4ntam ft wolvr ironld immmtiatelj^ And itodf «iirv 
roiindfd by a vernier «tntiiEDf and ik|i;ain bcconw liquid, the 
f«6u}t of «bich «viiJiJ be tJmt (b«r« wtvuhl bv ixo k% &£ bIL 
qpon otir lOeantt and lalcfd uutil the vliolo b^d^ of the 
tnUr rrftrh^ tbo fn^^in^poinl, whtdi vould rf<jniro tb<^ 
*aate iutvnuitv of <x>Id vsliltk U now mjuiiet to freeie t^m 

Wfticr, ftft well w Ice, b 1 protcetion oguiMt cold, ajid tlia 
tenperatiirv of frw?^iiiK d-oc* not o<wnr tit ewrtam depths be- 
neath tlie «urf;ire of a laktvijr "lo^ tbftu it OLvan &t certain 
OoptJtf b«ii«nlh tbe Hrfftoe of the gronnd, allliou^ that 
4leptb b donbtloN eDnndombljr grvetrr If ioc vera comid- 
enbljr brevier than water, u u to trnd it once to liiik «■ 
MOO ea forirH<d, it i* do>ubtful vrbtftLvr kr^^ lAi^e would ev«r 
feacie ftt all, ojcre|it perhaps in (.hallow plaow a^>1Uld tboir 
ahoreit for es«li pertkJo ilv Iho »urfua\ a^ won ae it oonjccaled 
from conteri wirh the eoMer air, wonM doMODd immodiatdj 
to a ilrttum' Miflicientljr warm to lUfJt it, ami thia prooeei 
would go on inoescajatl/ vid iuwimlLil/f wiiEiout |>rodurlo^ 

•ToLiS lie 

OlTlltlSTlU FAC?m 



rinblu ufTM^t.* ll etjnUl novvr be cold coough to inem 
lb eotlro mavt to die botti»u. Yift, DotwitlurtuidirLg tko de- 
Coeiivca«fli of an the reuoiiii^ with re>^nl tu tlua nubjfct, 
we cdU find it forming a pnrt of modurn lcxt-book«,t md 
owwumJly cnpepcng into tLu lulvuMsd tnoJcru tiUrmtore of 

It w even KDppoiMid rliAt WAt<»r wm tlw nnl; lubsUiioe 
wkidi n«cb(?d it* iiin\i!i>a[ij drii«i:y 'iImv^* tbc point of i^lidi- 
licttiixi- Xtul it vrmai !tft^piidwuvcrvdtbHi|;liWftpoiaqwm* 
tli« Muv propoi^, and now Ic U a^eencd ibai ihi« also 16 llie 
<ttie witU manT oilier mbnUivy*, aich jt* hiJimtitK, AOtimonr, 
and ot«n irOE]- 1 Indvp^'udvitllj, Uicrtiforv. of ill dvav^, the 
dbaiMn lliat watvr tbvuld pu>n» lliio property Mroi^Liijut Um 
Hmv M tliat it «b(fQ]d tio1< J1;]L, u alroftd^ aIjowh, tho prop- 
<rtj iteelf is of doubtful advanta^ m man. 

A torj good example of tbe pare (xiincid4aic«< fftToralile 
to IminiiTi tL'dfarv U found id iIk: nmnuFactarc and uiav of 
aloubul. Tlw love t>f iatoxicotJDg driikH <.'ir[aoiHl by nvago 
r»M» ihiowa lh*t, hiwl th^ art of difiMng them bocD iuf- 
ficieatly iiin|tl« t« pUoa thrm «ith«it mtri^rion witliin 
tiiv raacii uf pniuiltve inaOi, tlii* appetite wouEd prubablj 
lare bt-cn indalgcd to t]ie totd d<?i>liticticiQ of tb« nco at 
•b Mrtj ii«j{« ill ita career. Tt is ccrtAinlj' a. fortsuie c>r^ 
aiuUno« ibat llio manufacture of dcobol cAn onljr bcf 

11. -ffrei*. ta «4Mi W art. lynlbic. )»^**«. '^ ■« *«**r, " Fofp 

IfevlWr <4^ fekl Ihdm alt Mnntntljr ita4 «* ddi<«bJ ihrvi^b i>ip iJitijAiirtit 

firfHCV lUiihk'* T«L t Ilii;i L p, 101, 

I liw^A't " Hijws' f* Wl i B»irfr»iim'» ■" Kcullanir of t»^* r *»• I 

U telWr'4 

■ :«-'* 

^H ft- 

I A 1L_ - 




T4iM<od to fur Uiftt tbey uru nbl^ ti> fg^t^uo iu utU dluct«, 
and, in a groat d<^groe. control xhtAr appctltod. Kacc« »o bw 
u to be iiHAhlc to do tluH haiyr not niilHcicttl inlrltigenc^ to 
fiiannfiKlurc thu ButNtaiiott wlucfa rejidvfv it tivvosnr^. 

It wuuld flWEu, Iiow«vcr> iipuo Um uLulu, tliui, ju^ tliis cats 
tli» fju- cxmaidored etanfJfi, U U a wrak nAtc for tic <i[Himiat, 
Gr&utln;^ aII lio rlnims ftiul giving to tbr fo^U n fnir Jiiif] 
rooffiiiuiMt; iDtcrprc^iujuu, ilrippoij of crrtaiu ut>vlQUs pupu* 
Ielt ^bcica, Uicw is T«r7 iittb caat^al oui of wUtvJi to 
cotutnict tlio t4^]oolog}ofti odil^cc, Vutcftt be r^jocia t)io 
adaptation thonry altogether, the grcati^i' pirt of bia iUm- 
tratioiiM atv Itirnt.-d orvr in a body (o tiio Bultf of tbo evolo* 
tloniiit. A largo ahua of tbusv whl<rti n'lfiain are aucfa » 
would be 38 lilcdj to occur fn tho mi^rincir ilut tlicjr do M 
Otberwifhc, undct tho 0[>fTarioti of tlio matliematicRt Uw of 
probabililio^ A ouDvidctublo pmpartiun of ibv baUfico 
turn nut to bo of doubtful ^v«nb^ wh&a fullv luidcr- 
Mood, Thf few «aInj^ideooM ^ai »tt left an probiUj no 
more Diiiuon>ii» lliajt A-re fouod in an^ depttriiuent of Mti^ 
nd plioDonKua. ( oiiicddvncva ar^ aimya }UUe to ocenr, 
emd miy one vbo hna erer dealt irith idajwhi of trhollj 
itidi>p^nd<a»t farl*, *nr>j u o<vur in tbo or^iurr ooijr*« of 
hntnin eitmU, privnto IJf->, or publiu lindiicriw, W IcamaJ 
that rcry ronarkabJu und coaiplioatcd 00QibIiiatJon« of fvrla 
a&d dgunM are &oqacnt]j bn^nght out— « fitrt whidi W 
giieii ribc to the familiar pruwrb that "o'ulli v rtrangv 
than ftodoiu" 

FtiUv to MWDTG the forci^ of the Utile «liioh bis caw 
prima Jaeia Affohll bitn, bowornr, tbn npltmi^ uxaa alao 
fbow that th«re «i)at do mttaoova in nattiro of tbe oppoMto 
c latf cww in which iLv facta exiubit an obTloua diiwlvui< 
t^o vhero MlvuiC^fo wotibl appear to hare been aa tnnA 
to be «QEpeet6d. A atng^^ cMmt of t1u» d^M at fatal to abio- 
Ivte optlmiMD, »i>d oren a wrj fw wnutd naUit«to power- 
AiU^ i^^iut 9oy form of qiuJISod optiniiam. 

WLit, th«n, i« till* r^ 0t«t« ol tbe qim I Are llicro, in 
bofv »7 sthnI «x«mplM of iljflV«lM>Uij^ io inriu«l Uo wo 
swtudljr too «n> vsnt ^f nikpUtkin «j tlw oryjikL^ui to ttio 
cnriropmmtl An: tlneni juiy impcrfcctuitti in the 4]i^Kfl 
ol MrrarpoiulMioot To the bioloj^'At, thmi* iif« pnerilc m- 
qtiiricsL Ta thv mortlul, tl» hifttorinD, U10 Uutc&rmu, llicj 
uicut tuaml fltnugu. To adjt totvU^vnt iibwrvor of ihe 
vorld, men, ftud tkiii^tliey ma*£ •uj;:giG0t a douirt, eitbvr 
M to the f«rTioD»c«0 «r Uio nnltj of die fntfrrrogalor. 

Wliik it mtj «ort lone fmiii* to oUlogno s n«p«ttaU(t 
DumW of ip*PitJUH >rKuuiCob fur optimbsn, it U nut tlio 
\mm irtmble to mnklplj ovMoDcce to tlic ivmtmrr. Opti- 
mlMs iDMC with them ta freqMntly u otlitt men, but rrfiL-si 
to tkdtnii tWm. A« Ij>rd iboooi t*y^ Uivy ^*m«rk wbva 

W© i*£|l eiiEuiurrnle in a npU\ iiEuiner a fcvr typiiul ^iww 
of tlib kiml, fitfli of whidi will ilo«btlew tnggfi^ a number 
«if vt^ni of tta own j^vn^nl eloM^ For (onvMueooe, Ibea^ 
iulicnaybo nni^lUy ^tsbdindad mtoiliroo group*. Tlioco 
fkUinj^ mwUf ihv fin4 of tbMC grmip* ore anab n^ rxliibit a 
ronJitkiQ ^ci«ntly tmfavonble to lifi* uo tti« gEobe, either 
of pints, tnltnalK or uieo. Tboeo iaHia^ nirJ^r tlie e^oond 
gmipflfo sufI] aa tM^iTGi in one form or atiothor, tbo a»- 
r ' thfi hnroin riA^ ia in any mnm>rr ibe upbdal 

vl, Ji'Tolenl dcvi^. Farta of ibe tUinl |^roii|>ai« 

tlidw la 4foa*equdu«Q of wbkb the progroeB of tljd woHil 
tflDdi oofiMEOtly to tkfoi iuclf. 

Of tfie UrU gronp, wbidi ziiaj Im calM anti-^^^Mitria 
facta, lot til firvt take an euinj>l« or two from thr vr^ahln 

Tbe oeter bark of maaj tniM, thoogb of ooihm eaMntial 

tba rcttotion nf lli« nap and proti'ctiun of tJM inaer bark^ 

iVf in c L"© of iu failure fi> lin-ii par* vnxU the 

fr«i]i -growing' : (if lb^ reel of tbe trnnk, a gnat lifn- 

dranoa Ut i\to pm«m of nalnml onlarg;omont, hy biiwllng fbo 
treak too tightly awl '?oinprviMng tb« oefU of tbo camUun^ 



Iflyor Tlio loDf^ttMltoal f>rooTo» tn t)tA tkark of mmct (r««ii u« 
<1iio t<f Ihci tuniv ^iiiMin;^ of thin ^onitrictjn;; forc«. A nim* 
pie proTiiion for ihc natural Yortical t«rjiHrAlion o( 1!j« curk^ 
l>j«r iatii mrrow BtripB would harv ^^vitl/ fnf:ilii«tod all 
afboreeccBC wt^oUtt^^ii. So olirianii w llii* that lionirahnr^ 
Mt* ftctnftlljr Hcciire thi* object^ uid vvxy tut.'ctWiiilj', t>jr 
atlificidlj tlitting the bari.^ 

Tho phtuwrnunon of iho atitiminal blooTniug of rvraa] 
ilcfl <>f pUnu liHA liuon viry frftiiiwitly rrmjivlcArl. Tbfi 
writer hftK M^i mil tfttOr) niirTii^ri.>Di» vvt}' intcitiitizijf «xuupk« 
of (liin dnu m the vjcjuity of WiJitjkiiti^ri^n.t wWrD itiMj<>f 
iImNukIktu nixl Southern icpcciivjuiit. Tbv punod of vrmna 
weather wliidi guncralljr oomw here Sa Oclober, frcqtioiitl; 
t^itf^nrling far int** Noifvinber, or eT«i op to tJ»« CIiHaIhim 
liolicitrs b Ten- fuvoribb lo tlw rantt Noir, pbniM tliof 
blooming a f«coud timo cbii not, a« a pmervl tlitii^. vltM a 
MooadfTOp uf fruitt and tlie wooud blooming Is thcnforti 
ttholJ/ ia (lie rjilur^ of A inijioamAgf. Otlwr «iHjr <l^ng 
Uooinor« often aoat^ ont fully diiriti^ a wnini period inr 
FciljrujLr7, i>r cren la Jatmir/t tnd ftre » «trUliily duiilton 
by tbo lifttvy frotto wMcdi ftfe «nre to fi>lkiv. Tbw I^. not 
only botiiNMiblo of cytUui JftpAn«*e *poci«« irliich can not 
bwotiiQ adapted to tho ililfvronoM bt-tw»?ii our cliiuftl^ nod 
Uiat of Jjtpui, bnl U truo of & number of aattvo Ireee, bucIi 
OB llie lilv^ nupk\^ It nUo ocean En ihelr mtivo hnimta 
vitb cerUtD li«rbac«ou« p|j|iil» %aih vt An^moM H^patU^y 
San^irvtria Citnad0m»^ •nd Vtaytaaia Virginia* ; aud lL« 
i^Mdix f4 Sj/iafific^rjnuJMfiu^ tJto ^uuk^oftUb^e* u oft<ni 

• S«efci. " L>i«tlwlk Air DMatfftr & ^Ol 

tSv«"n<U Ud raH-t." nl, ill, p. iri. - BullHLii oniM 1T«na4 9UMi 
ifaildua Hwiv^" V4h tt C' OulOo u fbr Run ot Vruhlivmn ■»! Vlcibllr "^ 

t rif iiliiiin 4f i^B HAmiui* iuwn full^ lilDfin of Ae^r /nnn hijbm itr* 
«allNl«d bf It* wriUt f mn ipwm tn iht umla of Vr»ddngb«a oii Jumn 1 «. 
ieT& M cnnc Oh* bloaomi *rn rphnur*^ tni emU MX hrrt ftniHwA 
lU r«u)c ikvfTt «r ib^Kva Irw^ ■]«« !■ Ifa#» tttfitr ■» no iiqironclb M« 



d^cloptucnt. On tbc thwtyaf jui uitclligvut dirvction^ notiu 
tMf diQM MMS oould ooour, bat, ivf«rniig er^ UUug li> tiai- 
form oiBHit ^Ia fa pre^fai-lj vUxt wv Aoii]d ex^et^ to find. 
L*< tn tk«it uko m few i^xafaple* from ftiii:nal lif^ 
Tlic *thi|[vf UI uiacd cMuictoof lliv ivviptuiUir of tlio 
fcsiiJe traaaToriDecl lolo & ir«^)oii of defenw- In eome^ it U 
M> «n»i|!tjF bu-bed ilut when ihriM into aootbor bMljr ii eta 
Dfit be wilbdnwn, aud ibe attuiDpt to do io rewnlu in vx* 
Incline llKJttiiufeffiMu Uio iiMfCt'to hody lOKVlltvr with Oie 
vi#C4rm wlih wliich h is tiucbcd, nAmlllng ii> tbu d«atli of 
Uir inH<i?t.^ Kri^rv Attack k itieroforn n ^nir^ln, itui thit 
ilciotmclztrD flf BO Qinnj: fetn^lec mnsC U? ditaitniMd^'oiiA to 
Elic kp«c>o». The v]Hina»t uiuitt cuEptun vihy eo uttiioiu « 

Femftln nfcHMinift lurin;^ ooljr tliirUfin nipplf* ^^To bcpn 
ICTiown to give birth ri> flftcen or uttoen vouiig ^ekI pboo 
them ill llio puiiclL. Now, tbo life of €ttdi eiiiNrvo (fur wLea 
tboi U-rt) Uj<rjr vu Morooly laon?) depends upon its pormi* 
lUflU Btu«liiiicnt to imc of tbo oipplm of the mother In 
thcee CWf«T Titnnfore, otie or two of tbe coibr^w taiiat of 
Aeaawtj ptittk, f a neiilc whioli u out of all UrmoDj wftli 
ehhor iatuni^nt or bencrolont dceij*n, 

Sa&j oth«r ouee Id vrhieh ihtiv is & AiiutUr hick of cyr^ 
IWpandttDo b&Te beea potnlcd ouLf 

Tbe fsUl propeiisUv of mothc and h«cdM to fly into a 
Hhm £s « fnK wrhidi aJ] have otMrrixl, hf<Ap« of ^^m^na 
Avqvontty Ijing ipuD the groatid i& tlw luoniiD^ ;it lh« (wd 
of thr Ixmp-po«fo. 

The tJMiMiiMM of bCrdo, He., oil dcvIv iliMovcf^d i^nn^ls 
kMhMD Buch dwdt upon In Liteyt^^inL' Of ctwrH, it is 


Ik - TW iN>|Hte Stfvm itcAihiy." toL iBi t tsrn ^ 1S«L 

oxplicalilfi on the tlicoij that tboy haxc to Imth tW luUurv of 
inui bj ctpi-Tii;tiw, tvul on i|j« tvlvolti^rttnl lhvor,v lliow poor 
creftiurv* divuM huvL- Lad lu itihtiiiuiivti (w ■>( inaa litt* 
pUntccI in tfadr nalurct. 

U> Litlr6* nsfbrif to Ui« unfortiiiuto Fart tW »nimaJ« 
uUjiokod Htlh ntb[v«, ijuvfuvi-r tsaocvBt Jt othi'r tiiiiut, iiu' 
nJoHialol^ Rctiiiijrv & djipo»tU>D to bJlv, whcrvl'V tbo dread- 
ful molJH^ u propi^tod to oilier cnvtnivf^ lint for this 
&ot, bjdropbobia woold be of MimiMratiTcl v nrv oociinmocL. 
It niDbt r«qiiire cr:jnkl(3vnkbl« inf^uull/ to ftxpl^ln thin uj>- 
timialiAlIy- But, ii lliiv diMsau i* duo iv llw laultipliuuion, 
witbb the blood of Uie viotlm, of a ponJculuj- fpi'ci<ti of 
fismxti natnrtl mIccLior will accoant for tlio faot, alnra it ia 
doMi^j to th(? ulTA&tA^ of ihn dbcMtfrorgnnUm th^l it W 
couvujtrU to Eijuiv Indit iduulUf &iid tbu partivula-r iifluct tiv4*u«> 
ttJ7 to oi^to i (Iwinj in thu &nlmd bJtUjn to b]t«? otLon Is 
one wliifh Uie dt»cftM>orguiiiaR diil}- lir^ inij^l^l io prodDC«^ 
■nd tbfl t^ndeocj to condoct IimU io ^udi s Jiunavr tt t9 
prodnec tbU o&<ct V04ikL bscoino lioroilitarv. 

Ur ll^lxirt Speoeor ftoLnti i>al * tlia ditodrAnt^f^M iin< 
d«r vrlikh cortmn ini|wrfc\<tU illli^^TlW>.1 aanubti^ Ubor, ttx/m 
tlic poMQMipD of n fniiltitmlc of Miuikr or^i4iiB id dUEorcut 
«gm«nbs Ukd iiuku tfiat thoj cut not b« arwoantofl f^r 
trieolp|Ei<^J- '■> liijclivT fonmt Ibvj firaMl^ biswm« atro< 
jAM fn>ui di«u«e. From tbu poim of vievr of evolation, tbe 
fwit iiv of coiiTW, pcrfortlv (-xplAiiwhla 

I'Awing now to thr MHund chM of 4nti-opdmi«tie fiirU, 
whiob mftjT bo mUicd tbc anh''anMrtf/>'j£^m/j^ ifroup, we 
itnd tliem oqitally abundant and obuiidT«u 

Ad Important mb^E:m«ip of tli«Mi mn^t^ frf thoM ^' milt- 
BflfnlATj oi^^a," t » thi-j Mt» called, wliicb, wlule tbcr per* 

J Tb# lent -ndlfKBt.''««fiitl«T*<«iW<43CT aid hp aiml^ vWilE*br4, 


tto kitotm fonotkittf^ aro >t ihe aune iim» the ««IM uul 
Mut of (Ui^rooA dinrajvA, 

Sudi, for eiuujftlUf orv U^o tfuifilk, wJiich ui» <if no In- 
telilf^^blt DM. and yoi t^frv tuudj sjbjool tu uko oii a diV 
n*c4 OQiKiltioii. Fcnotw nfllk-lod witli looifililk rar^jr n^ 
n>Ti<r frocn it nntil tiir to:iuU luvc dthcf UwD ivtnovod 
i.'&lirv]>, or w Iftci-Tvled l>v rvjxutvd lfci*«>pg lliftt tlivj iavo 
kite tliou' fonii aii<J «p(cta] ctjaraut4>r. 

Quho Dear to U»c kniffib, aii<l liloe tbem in tbift rc4pc«t se 
learft, b ibo UiTToid ffUnd^ WIl'jUj faoctkinlcH aoti phyiio< 
kiginllj' umJum, itiiH ^oikd i^ iwT«rtlMlR^ Uto ift«t uf lli« 
ttrious diiv»tt caUod gnitro or bmae^ocv^o. Wllbolm Ui&1> 
Ut baa tlnnrn tbat ibo tlijrroftd ^ii>d i» a lingcriitg rvpro- 
l»ulaihfi of irJiat U called tbo " bjpobnodual groove *^ of 
ovrtais kiwvr ammjilH, in kMlJi it »otv«ii mh Importaut llll^ 
poaa Jo ogaTvjring food to ihu ftomacb.* 

Tbn vcTTnifomi nppciuljt^ of tbr Imman Int^wtiniv W 
alnaady lKcn«iM} a tfil« cjuiuple under tbia hfotl. It»{dc« 
tbe dangftr tW «oiiw vxtrancuub nbitaikce, in paiung 
iiiroB£^ tbc 8TsioiDi tD»y perdianf* bo thrwx into tc und 
canu a ffltnl iiifiimmaJigin at HQcfa a diJieile anO inHyQ«ii>>]o 
part flf ibo body, Oicm m Utv JUUlitj lliat it mav e^asv a 
cooaitiktion Jn Um; iuLtfttiiM AiAcI«Bt «oiDpl«tel}- to dioh(9 
sp l&e pttsago, B^itg<ci vmvu of tkia lattiv cia» ara >aid 

r|o b&v« bcMi rcfiordcd tt vorificd bj aotope^ dova to tho 
ikit^d, or bfikl. r«iL ti El ««* hiB «a drpl«rt I1>« adupikn of * Mv wllfli 
mnw b*J iMiIihI I« ik« prf«inuOM «if «IT fiAOlMk «bi h Cil« sm, ■« la 
111 «tton, 1m«i«w> ■■* li^Ii lip <a «t* "iWBrw' '(^ fiupnfiii«L M Hw- 
rw, lfcf« At <i>M « frv iHrt ndlBMXftnr ••^i* *- '-» «»•" obfifc^lj In 

K j« t^lfM, BiaM bt «4af4H ti)4(WiM^k«v«bwTwiDl<ippuvUcb Utv 



jcu* IS73.* MwIcTQ bJulugT m'lily accounts for tbi* or^in 
ft* a Ttftti^ Qf tiio c«<cnEn of iho Inwrr anirnjilii. 

A Im^I of luM guiWErd rtniQwn, but vquully ApplicaMo 
bcrv, Ei the eipOftCd ootidltlon of the lower extremitj of ibo 
t^jAnxl ftinal. Iti thp pnlarprmrTit fif tbr Mcml vortchnp In- 
ddunl K» Uii; dHUinption br inuii of th« crt*ct pi^»t«rc, ■» 
upt^nfn^ wii£ kft by wlUeb ili« fiplual cviaJ Is iinpivtci'Ii^d lij 
ftnj Mavow fovcHog. I& cum of protncicd illncw, tbc bed* 
Hddcr^ imdf^nt oftpn Br« (N> locig upon thin part that t)i« 
libroiu oiuiiibntij? and akin, bv vrhicli &1oei« llifa moot dcfli* 
onto ref^uu b pruii,vlt<d, tale on intlAinmallon, wlilcli ulti- 
nialclj^ pTt£Tn(bi to the cnvclopM of die jiptiul marrow, constU 
luting rarbiilUn rnrTniDgiti*, vrlucb U alnvMC alw«_Yft toftJ.'t' 

A fcrw rtiorv anti-anlliropocMiFrc examples eel«ct«<J from 
vliicVjr dilferviit IWId^ whv bo n^dixt 

Lot iw tnkc tbc fnot tbat ibo iwicvico of motoorologj* 
Ahhoti^h probnbly tjii.- matt practicnlTr Imp-artant of all tlic 
d^itnaitu uf Immui ac'livily. wb^itlier we coTinder jt& ).i0ariufpt 
it|Kin itiiliujtry or cuinmoroft, ia. iicn-ortbclvaa, of h> coid|iII- 
catod And irrv-^Qlnr a chunctor that ft boa oTily bf^cn ihiring 
lb« Wt f«w yoan tliai tli^ aUo<mpta to prasccruto ila uliidy 
bave b^en attund«d viih xny pnclff^ advaiitug«* wbiitcver, 
and ibMV irc w yui vTty vli^ln. an<j ttt^lnod ocifjr et ^raat 
peonninj owt. Wv luve IvArtiud ibo ctiomifAl conatJmtion 
of llio ti^cd rtanv bat mn not jxrl prrdict ib« Approaf^b of a 
•Corm long on«i^h m adranco 1o present dii«aBti.'r.t 

The uloiticEit* of tlt« vokr ftjitfpin nrr not all thikt «ii]1d bo 
wUbcd, or u adranla^covu aa liQiiiAfi intoUtg^nE^ t^a\f\ mig- 

TjiplATo deoUrM * tktt, " if the moon itm ^T«n to liglit 
tJie eiirili bj tii|;bt, iiatttrv lina not nttaiood tlic oHjcet vfaidi 
k proptwd, Atnco wv are froqucmllf doprired of tb« ^Eift 

AX7I-A5niK0]^)CKVTlUC fXCTB. B^ 

'UNbodi tlw nm tnd mooa " ; wd Iiq proerak to bj dovn In 
d^Uil ttir diofigc* wliicli wunld bo n»f|afivd in thir pnvcot 
fvUttoiu of llir Hbotioiu iTi^ p^tion^ iff l)ie no, euUi, loit 
iDucii, in orili^r to fttcompluii i)laI o4>j^'i jund bring nbuut 
Uw inott ftdiKntnguoa* ttdJMlowmt. 

If ir« mippo^ iJiM liie looona of the brgor plooet* wen 
dosigMd lo b« iohibitttJf % nappAcitioo vluch liu Iimvi dc^ 
fvnded bv cininfnt utronmncn,* it i» an ilJ<<ioriibnd Ambgo- 
iiMnl tlmt in nU cuoi ihvy ibovld ■!««•,«> praaeut viw and 
Ilia aftmo side to tbeir primnrv, wiikli during tlidr liftbLiHbl« 
period mvtt h^ve «onMitalcd ihtf^ir cbirf Mmncc of tight And 

A)pn=t> rvt<aniiii|f (otbu i^rtJi, it vvuld bo mttch bvttcr 
for nun If tbcna muld be more My tbta night jiU tbc yctr 
ronikd- Tl>e ertrtsTiw d(ffetvnc« at tlie Aunim«r •i>Utice itt 
tttfnp«nl<i ktllodot if not yvt ioffici^nt loMwonr tbegmt- 
Qtt cooQociuc cff^e, 8i-\tuon hoan of activity and nght of 
■loop h iho Avimigi- ror|utrvfn^Dt of man, Ai t!K" V6dd i* 
oonrtittatcd, b» tL«Tpfon) «p(^dfl on no art^Kige f4>nr honw 
of tbo algbt in WAking^ artiTitj. 'ilig uiiMCircnj«tio» of 
workmg m ttiv n^it aro raantfutC^ and tbrr nott of iftEtiml 
light ti euortiMiu, rotwtitutiBK ^ inuMDmr drain np^'ii tbo 
natum} re»tn«M of Ibe mrth. 

Taking now an e]tain[»le frtia a v«tir dlffemit ftelO, ire 
mav p<iinl U> the j>rpT»lrtico of ihc dmninl *v«em of ao- 
tation. T\w number ten bdnj; ncith^ a bjnarr nor a cirhi^ 
and ila balf bvinff a prime* [iiimbr-r, tl k vvithriillv un ux- 
eeedfnffl^ kvrkward baslfi for a fij'^tora of notadoo). Either 
l^ne, tirelTr, or ^iittrn vrottld htre boon f>r bottcr, btrt tlie 
m4h*i trlFanTA^ro^ ntimbrr of all ^ urnin^vHonAUy ci^t^it 

LTKl- EvlrantAgw nt tlio ort/jsiat »T«teiti barv bwo fruipivntly 
r]ii-r!t npon.t and noc a few have Indul^J tbe dn^m il^t it 
mijcbt Iw oiw day mniic tc> imprr«rdf tho diw-imal, Hut thiit 
*ajLPNcfrtt,tii''Cm*ill3bcw^'' (« VsM^^X ^ frIO. 


tofttiinibic npoti to cJatniiy > ^ythtui t Why bavu aU iiAtion* 
an^ moM Uiut n» oa|iabl9 of cocDdn^ ton adofiud cilher tlio 

A viAleToletit drngoer might hire impoanJ Uiii ctU 
upon iiuu to «oiifi»« hu t<l«n uid tliwart bi« pn>j^re«a, but 
h beiMvolvckt dcdgscr aiiit4 ban; booii incApnbtc of lOch m 
act, To1gi>1o^* uUatIv fniU to acofiunt for it, but tctr-tttm 
hA* AaiUf^clonlT i>xi>UinKl it. ll in bev^ute tW Luaivi nee 
^j^'Mw to Lire fivtf G&gtrni on web Jund end tivo to9u on 
iTAcb fpoL Oti to p> funlic^r bock, it u bcfisntan in tbo 
imurftion from ibo flnnj Dipntuiia ti> tbe dij^iiAtc £<mo> 
Ariui/^Mt, 1I141 prorc«s of etfruiiulfon of dtgjti cbftDCed to b»* 
Done urrv«tc-J kI tlw oaaiUrr Bvn uisl^ad of At four, uf slx^ 
Dv«i^-1jt, vbi^ nuiubiu- mun timi mlieriUKl from tho bdc<»- 
ton of tlio PnaLeufl And Oic AxolotK Anti beliold irlial fill* 
pondoua crffcd* from wt trivial jl circutn^unce ! I c«D recall 
na mom fotviUu iUiistrntioa of tho utter UiniliH?» unJ ir?^ 
«|iocinbility of tliv c|>ertid<ittA of natciro^ 

T]j« kiiinAn hodj lup^ionA to pffi«GHi A 0)«ciflc jpTivlty a 
triflo icre&Ur tlmn ifanC of WHtvrr. In OiKnjiOtincnr<« of tbin, it 
iliikii vbt'ii pbtvd in w«ter, uulvci vuvbiiueit If/ Ibo nvtiun 
calM Bwbnmlag. Hik aciEod, iiK»re>civor, I& an art wLloU 
mcKt bo ncpvfttoly nrqojrod hj cncb fi;<)ividaftl, nn^ » not 
ndtunltj impkntiMl, ovrn ui it in in nmt oUicr Uml animal*, 
«iid M rt viiouJd bv uu Auy pivvldvutlKl tbeovjr of tl^e uni* 
vctw. PIumhI on a |f1ani>t, of vrUoso mpvrfidkl lura tuvoand 
foi3r fiftLn tiiiifff u mne^h t* icftt4>r w land, i^nd vthidi bo £a 
oblittPct to IrarCTM in all direction*, this cirmnmiancc bo- 
CMiMt ao iniriH'niw himlnuco lob« optratinna and AtcctvA. 
Why wv liv nu4 nudo li/f^ijvr iiutoMl of biTaTier lliaii viLteri 
Whj not irndowcd witb tbe iikiiiofi to «v-Uii I The eftmihi 
iDtut inrrt Utf>ii^ rpuwtiona a^nAiYljr. f^orix^ ia ntjaliod lo 
«jipbk][i tbit tbu ait«n<lrnJ rraktiire from vbiofa iii^n dc^ 
winded. ai>d vrbot« ktmciure and [ii»linctfl he bu Iei grMt 
put inlicrltcO, wm vo ^nr tvslncted to tcrrwuial Ufo tliat no 

Aim A:«TaRopocESTaic FAom 


tloa Bat liiu Imt« ft fiv« to adiiiit tli^t fiw^ au ad&ptft- 
UoQ wtmM Iw f&r Wtiv for nua u now dnnmuluicnl. 

U- Auf^Brt^ Cotitttf * W vcrj jiutiv fiAnuriied tlmt Ibd 
bt^rjt^ of liDtnan lifo conrtiiatM oiw of the priikcijwl c»un 
of tbu •luimuii of vur KCttL ^vvlopiDcut, b^tb ou Mvuunl 
of Uie tlno lo«t b^ ceoh lOMttsiTe gcocnlion In making i)i« 
propirtljoiw ae^ttbod by Itt predecMeor, and more c^pcciiJIj 

«OCQ|>let« from tba tiii|MMulHUlr of plwiufr jIbvU iu tUf miem 
pctidoo tod In ibe prefix dfroctlon of prevlov labon. b 
oftunlv ilncA >n<ii a« tltcni^ onr half of Ibr Avrm^ lifr- 
titm uf all Uauc wba rt^Uy Bcbkrr juiy ovful muili i« 
•^m Jo tbe pa*pftnitiMi mK^oMorj to pki% ihvui fuUj m 
nfpQP»#4 Willi ilHTir work. If. after luring vmde tlUa ini- 
HMDmb Avridrc, iht^y rnakl br wwimiif ft hundred jtAm mU 
didotnl In vbich to pirdU furwanl tli6 real work Of ihtir 
litv,l]i» invrqaavd icunlto wlikli tU-j inuel ucMiipluli wouli) 
Im «T<m graaUir propottionatly to th« timo ilun tbo^ nov 
■re Tbb would hniv ■ MWonduj infliienot!, moreover, 
wbirii wobLI jifobMy W m^^ru prodiKtive tinu ita iliwct 
inlliunitiL TbQbrvviijrof ]Jf«<R>rvi.>a8ft puwierful ttH^nvnt, 
tioi unlr to tlw Uvhig out of a lifo-worlk, bat to making; Ihc 
pnpaiktIoQ rtqtthltef^ Ua proMcntioa. InrraMod Inngcvitj 
woaU iKu« funbMb ui InJooemeni both to ic^uire Ai^d to 
tfmpUtjr knowludgv. 

'than i^^iw uo gTHM] iwon, cither wby brnaati Uf« 
to\ght E»<jtM writ bftve )hx*d^uuMi^ or treble ifbAl It bi. If 
Ji he atitl tbat tbift vonM bo ^ntnr^ to onr cimiaitotkiQ^ to 
<W nulBrr of iLv borlilr BlnduroiftiHl lbau«a, tbi-n tlw (|iiuft- 
tj'ia rvmkuii^ VTIiy uilgbt not tb<va bavo bovn adjtploJ toft 
p^tottCcr lonprvitjr I Tlirn^n nothing ftiilcoedcnilj imj>0(k<i1ila 
abiiDL itf Jl ift aiinplj % jMMilnv faci^ > nMVURUjr trtttlit 

■ fftm^* thtdnte km^^Htf dm w. 

t*iilB Aiv kMm U p«t- 



tfatt tbc nausJ naaimum of btimuD Uf« b about c<ium] to 
tovunW n;ruluti(j[jii of l\w tuih in \X« orbU iruiuid ibv ttuiu 

j« thi^ rr*iiU of ^mple ohanc'-<^, or ju^diii ill. 

\\\- luiut cuiuijQt ountflvtid wttb oii« odier exanple of 

Frequent alltifjon liw been mftdo to tho fact that all 
uprcir* ArcdrnimiwrihNl toltmitLsl an^iw&nc) nuniberb bjtho 
action ot an kdv^r^v ^fivir^nmr-nt. Thm Tn*.^ikh th^t. in lli« 
luAJodl^ of cani* tbo number of prviiiut.urc <lcntlii< in nuffi- 
duot 10 proreut tbnt npiii iDnltipiiufttiou by ttic fret opcrm- 
tioAi i^f wUdi anjr one of tbo 8p«t^fo# living; wi.iu1d aouti p«o 
pie tb« wli«>lft worlfl to the (rxclii»ion of n\\ olbcr*. In tiiany 
C8M4, tbi- wlrcrw vIcriKirLtn ii|fvrilc to d<sln>y unborn gornWi 
wid thou work Tjo fxKiiiw jmiri. bul It in nro tLbt tbt^y t^mfl 
to prw<*ot flTtf'ntpi* to muhiply or to prodnce infi»rlility. 
The QDtnbn' of iti(iiv)diia)H coiiiplctelj go»tatcd ftrid ActnaJly 
born U many tlaitf«, oftc^n ttja[>y hundred tlmce. tbi* nouibor 
thit moh inaT4irity, wbllo t)»o number Ihftt rcitrh llic oUi- 
in*h; limit of life <*t t\ic «pi*oio U re-ry *mftlL* TEii* indi* 
cato*. u buforo iiuiuted out. la uIiikmi inudcabbltf mnouut 
of ixvtdon Ht tbo i)*?riphcr>' of eaoh Ciunal area, ud this 
wliaUMJo d(vtni(?i]oa nf life U Atri-ndrd «ith ai^t^mvipond* 
In^^ BiiKiont of iiAin and AufTi^rif^. To lfii« »«ftiM«4r Itw num 
i*, nnforlnn^tely, »o ^xojpiioiL Mutv tJiou out- fuiirtJi uf 
^ tluU in? bom dfo lirfOTu tbcy hare ntc&inrtd thoir Uth 
yi**r. BJid nno half by thf^'titnc the fiftirtli ytn.r i»rriw^hrc3, 
Tlir fall liTitit i»f tif«* il^ a I'^rftxily TrtrfllTby p«r*ou in prub* 
ibljr on uri «ven^ epwani of ft hQudrod jnm, yet tint 
Actoal tvcn^ of biiinan lifo v only m triilo inoro than for^ 

* Am txvAimA iUmanAim W iW (colcprr in n*uira lo mutTlfilj libiVif4i«1a 

<bo antako. vIvM UopafAr hM b«« •« *cll wrlOfv In rivtHPcv a, Bmw 
6M4^«f lb» HnllliMdtt iM rtN H *^ h ft iMptr n*l Ih^av Ait AAvi«& Aa- 

>o cilia itt fiX th* A^rHKfoni of flrtiBon. M itamii^^ ht IB7«. -* 1VknnlJpff^'' 

0, AlvOVk K«« iTtfh, IVIUlJ 




jtmrr~ If wu oocnSikr thit ci*a of any tin^o ttidiviiltuL it 
m]wDji» mcuB u if dcadi ww oiuvod by mmud Uy timi tu in- 
flo«tioc fn the ptrtitmUr caee. TUe pordi^ial&r dboMO i« wo- 
411/ wkII imoWTi, uid liui long lud \tn »i>[>ropnito iijuim* in 
tbc •cicoc^a vf mi.<dJC3aQ, tutd its «j^nipioEii« u«J fvtalt>, u 
iti'U u often lid projiliuutu futidm, nrv luualljr luMlcivtood. 
If ilc«th \6 produced h\ Mxidoni, tlic drcoEiwtftDOee ftlteodlAg 
it Ji|>poar vhaUy oxrRpdonnl «nd prrnlur li> tfacw^iD ^Ufl^ 
tkiu. Tlwrv B gvuvnitly ou ttiflkulty in Bocoaotiag fur |jn>- 
mature dmtJi^ «i>d aM^^ti^ vhtt vo rcgAnJod u vrliolljr 
BtUfMtor^ CttUTfl^ Veit looked at from llie broA^lcr pbl- 
foinai of ronnif'jl phenoiMika, all dcfttlu thai oocor c»rii«t 
than tJic cxtn^OKj tiaitt of Inuiua Hfe an redljr tlio rcaiUt of 
tJaU auDe friction of the «nvlronm«cjt vliivh we lufe boon 
eoMilerin^ in tbo ftnimal world, Thry ina«t nttijiutf Ijr ^c 
tiBced bttok Id iWe kn9[i«nctf of odvimc i^ri^nniatAn^Tii Imflri- 
[n|f a|^ni< Ui« |jer|K'luAl tdniii vf Luuiaji vfiort Co ex|»cid lit 
nnmhttK and itc arw, anil i>T(rriitif|i ilic Uinlu pnw-Hbcd hj 
tbtt eonditkocii of natnro and ihu conatitutlooi <>f roouu Tlivy 
4a' iirclnced hjr ih^ KinfltanI tendeiMy of ibe po|nlalloti to 
OoMrip IIm n)«Mia of mbfticicncc, by Um exccw of the d«- 
naad for fi»d, dodii^ ^lidtcr, and ipdj«v cuoditiiMM of ex- 
b4«iti»orer ilidr apply. Tl» ir«k pbystoat eoKiIiDtlona 
of rnm And woinoD are the ultinwUr and nral oaiuo of |]m> 
nuttiiiQci^iiof diwiktrii to wbkh tb«jthtia heoonio a prry^aiMl 
tl>OM trisk conatitstwn* arv in turn dtrrivi^d C'lUtvr diivctlj, 
or bidinrily iliroii;-!] Inheritance, f n>m tbo adverse lnAnpf«or« 
that b^ru hc^t^n nf^iimt thcBi and dwnrfrd tly^m. Tifi^ b 
ai>d irT«r lia« been a atmf[g\t^ and tbi^ f4niji;^l<> b ofily aiv 
otl]«r Kami! fur friction of Uie enviroiUDenL. Kviii dt^lUi 
1^ flKldcni fimi riobnctt aro propoHy siiHbvttbIc 1o a lack 
<^ «ir>rtMpn<id»ici-, and are anaJofi^a to thofsf of moth* tfiat 
fly into tlm ouKUe.or the Jtorvesof Aruona that eoi the f^lal 
Mtnk^loi. In anlmnli thos mcoiunblDg, W9 ny thai tluar 
tfuClni^ arc not vdajHcd (o die nnw cofiditionn. In iKv <9«e 
of in«n, we dl^t^ the nme truth by tbc naMW of *' defect- 



iTo judgtDWit," W»r HmM » «&iplj ft hWnd cfli>ri 011 dre 
fOTt of RA incmung nusv lo bwil bmi tliv v&v» of adv^ivo 
•nmmndingK uid «vub1Di tira «ofi<lhIunfi to Elo furiJtcr in- 
cTr*i(^, wbilc pMtil^nco utd famtno arc ttH> ultiinflif »courgva 
«rbk<h QeiaUjt doolarc iIiaI it ho* jJnwljr advnncod too fjir, 
KDi) nioee tii>w hiH <ir rvlivBU 

fiiip-h being the fllct^ tUe qii<«tlonB r«wr, Wliy tbb 
dfiil wariUf of vlul caicrgf 1 Wbj' lbi« appalling tccucnti- 
^1l[Uou iif iTiuury A&d woe 1 If racca mmct lie drcaoiAcribod, 
vihy bas not nutare prvTiduJ fur a rviluv^ ft^rtllity I Tbu 
power to incn^ae mid nitHpS/ is never r hooked, Namro 
^rtQjtllv Mjii, Von fliftH hAve tircrj ^tlitj ivnil every in- 
dtiremont to nnlimited cTpanaion, but jonr ntunben nknW bo 

ecribcd ]iniil5. Sarvlj this i^ i>o opnimi^lic (chomo, and lit- 
tle dcttof^ the ACilnti eitbcr at inlcWi^evtc or 1)cnoTol«mcc. 
NoouHiUrlaniMii b tlic onlv form of plifloiu^iy vTiich CAD 
fnttiUb ftii adL*<itiate uiplaiiutifxi of such faou, 

lATIthottl dwclliiff* upon other it]«tai^ocA of iliU frrmip^ it 
tri1] ^nffii^ fQntjblj rn mnmemfr tbr fiiltriwjrjf; n'Miliuoal 
but nholtj divcontiociud facta : tbtt tbe wor%Ht of »ll Ibo Kt< 
tii|; envfiilue of nuuJciiid ai« too mbnttc to bt^ dieci^vpn>1 by 
Ibo btgllMt'pOwtttiT'i ni!rM«»-ip<fi^tbti Ao^dlbd f:tVfnt of 
diM^we ; tbal, in those latihidc^ vbem Cho ffr^to4 dfro^iy of 
pop'jUtion OGCiUtt, noHberly whidf^ omlljr pwTiil durini; 
ibe wtntcor uid lovtberl^ wb)d« during ibc «vmmer,* ihn» 
oxAggcr^t^ttg the oxtr1l^QlC«> of hoat uiil o^ld ; tIjAt in mount- 
ainous regioDH the niin-fjill m chiefly ou tbc topv of tti« 
mountiiiu u-berv tt U liHle Bvuilixl, white tbo fertile vnlWys 
rpqniiv AttlficlMl trHx^o*>i tl^ >bi> Dnort'oicfiil ai; well w 
tbo nMM bMtflttfw! objt^fte Id wtliira ore ntuiTlj- lli«^ moat 
rftre ; dut, ^lerm plaMuraa am siuallT modcnt** aiTrl liriMf, 
paim are nirually inton»Q md prolrvctcd ; and tlul, fitt:illy, po 
tvv am tbo onjojinonla, comforti. ami attmirtioiia of life, 

*frvilitiiilf4f«piror rrateMrLoMlalnihtiBlyaanbtf «f tWAnurt- 



$o mmj it« Aii1f«?rinp;i^ di-dSomf Artt, and dlrtn^tlon*, llut 
ikiay tiBTv fiiraWlwil % bAMi for » pw«ii)ti«liu «cboihl of jiiti* 
lo»o[>hy, uid Mm«d for tJw wgtUI froni dt^voiit tdeolo^Mv 
the dlb of a " Sibork — tlie peisnl Mfttlvrovoc -of cxpilriated 

A lafficwnl nnm W both of gmcr&llj (inti*biocoiilnc and 
ut •pccmUj nati^nUiRipiMiitric f«dii Imfiiig Xntm tliiiv np- 
idly OBuniOTated, Itt &t consider a fvw of Uiie third t^u^ 
wtiirb ifiAy bo d^[ioiTnin&t«^ niUi-«fKioomtri^^ 

In conndent)^ tii the lYntonronojr (vol. i, p. 76) llio 
pnoL'ijiul barrivrv to lUv tilx^uicv uf djtiuniw tociot'igy, a 
low of tlKf Bion gCfienJ Illiietratlons of i\\e maDDcr in wliJcfa 
linmui prognv* u mcuumtljr df?fG«tiii£ itjvdf vrm wrt fortli. 
It vill, therefor^ 0T1I5 be iiMrnnurj b«n^ to nimD a iiniill 
unmbtT of tuore t^ecuil eKMoipIvs awl«qr tbe niuo be«d. 

It WHS IL Aaguete CoidIo vbo find pointikl oot^aiid wba 
I1W cmpluMxcd it with t}ii> fon^r pnruliJir to liijt writing that 
lilt; pstot irndeocj of (bv bam«ti iiitdWct ha« been to igiwrv 
mibMaolbl reolilLU. and wajric iIp vnco^oa on ctnpty Dpecnla' 
tioviii rcB|MM-tinf; thorauMHof phrnninpiia,if He wi?Qt (00 fm^, 
and bhittc]f igii<irvd tbo diidinctioiL between ]Cf(ilini«l« aund 
Qleiiltlmjilv caiMO* ; bnt, Kh\]t* limit niding to diwk tU« Udo 
of jtfnfETov which h« MbrHbTitfv) m> much In bw«<]1, he baa 
never1hi4f9U nbiinrlavrtlj' proved the d>n^;*nki}« clfflr^iw of 
tbi« anti'progrufwro tofMltrnrr. Tbo nmontit if ink-Ueotual 
ewfg)-, ca|MlJt% if rijjhilv ap^vlM. of ootiKtiCntiiig a dirwt 
iiiLrtirty-pnwrr lo hBrrtfta proint^w, wMch ha^ bcmcipnndcd 
npon the wholly noi^progrcviiFQ dimiHion of irnVoSvab^ 
truiwWMhqital ijn>bl«iivs k rafficiunt to api^all 11>o modOTQ 
pbiloio(>hvr, with bW cjCB flnkHf opm«d to tbo ti«oi|i of 

fMHC* friM llLir vtflpi «r JcTMir Tb-Iv >vpMd>«f4 In* vmAchi wA cM l ftM 
-XatHrii Urn: Ab b^ b BiUeb." bj Bdlifc flbieoi, p. »• (wUa *• 



It hfta bflOQ well md tha by Tomto* tW, wl^Ue men 
lure ftlwin^ bftd this taatl &ccd, Ihuj^ Itavo unfortaDnUfly 
■I tJji> AAHic- Unie ijijiiii/tttti-d till? It-sjfl dibjnjhitiou, tu uxor^i«u 
tboir intcllociuaJ facultlcfL, Tbo wilj 6oc\a\ ^n>g?m wlildj Iiaa 
bMtJ flic.}iicvry| hw rfT«jlt«l frt>ru tht^ i^xiifiCLAi? of lh«r facul- 
lie»i» and yi?l tliirt liu^tU Wu aetomplubetl by a larrv liu-nd- 
folt 8s It wi?re; TJie |;roAt r^b»^ hnving remained, anU »till 
rvifiiJ[ntig, ontiro elnuigotv to iho proccva c^xccpt as the po^ 
fiivu ivvipk'nltf of ItA liL'uiJt^ Th4< jxitwubiUtiM wtiidi cnn 
bo inku;^inod from ft untven:k] mt4}1{cctnAl ftrtiviijr t^nd io 
bcwUdcr the mi ml. 

AlUod to tliU Jivt fuct, wo Ti:ay profitatiljr rcfluot npon 
di9 m&iincr Jii wIjIe:!!, in the prc«ent Male of K'if^iuifie 
pm^», ihti tVwftv^rf of tmth hy iho fcir (*sipcrim<'ntert 
and rhinkt-Tb i»di»Ucicin^ [lapaW inUlti^-vncv- Tbii world 
ia reiUl^v ^w^lluwlug icieiiw in doMa cotiraly too laiyv^ to 
bo oMimilAtciiI bjr iho aooinl *yi^em, «k ^nt po^jiirc oril 
DOi»iUDtI^ rcndti, not oi cnnnw mfHWont to overbaljuico 
tba good, but mfficiuat powvrfulljr to counteract ita influ-i 

The rcme-ij-. wliicli iica m the dSiwtion of wrtnnmring 
a portion of iIjp force of pn^bTon tsto force of dfHWion, 
or of f^nnliy hft^rvaaiag tba Zallvr vUik* ^vittg tho former 
nnaifectcd, n^ not bare ba coniidovd, auci; it ia tlio ux- 
iffltng fnrrt iHib wbiv'^Ji wo nrc at pretetit eoiioeru«d, (Soo 
iif/^i'l'*?'*^"- XIII »nd XtVj 

A* tbu (mquurraiiun mt^iil bo indofinitrtj prol^mged, 
and ainst aoonor or laM bo abrupt]}- brongtit to a cIoko, wo 
will liiiiil ll lo a ain^ additional ^xaruplct whidi, however, 
t% luic i>r grt^t importuice. It ^nDaiato In l1i« fart, to iinfort- 
\mNtj; fur llw progrtn of tlie linniaii rnce, tlial rjtrb uiid all 
of tlie Tanona omira, wldch tbu incrtaain|t inlelli^T^oi? of Ihe 
world baa aDcfmdrelj^ awept awaj« luvo t>otn dpfcntlcd to 
tlie lait bj a< k-a#l a fow of ihtu mtMt honnroil at>d otberulcHo 
iDoat progtviaivo mind* of dm Mfct", nml bare Wn eompcllod 

iMn-waocexTuc rAcm 


At \Mt Urdiljr to necDinlf to > Mrt of p^obr vcnlMt at 
tbo Fom) of oombva <»f la«er Uj^t* «iid jdu^w bmk, r^ 
Jncuntl^r iJeollQbg to foUov loQgvr tboa* wfaoia tii*; bHl 
AOOiuUkined to loolc op ta Cor eomnd md inielkctad 
Tbv tnifli W b«*o io ^i^ipMt ttipfwd bj t 
irnter,* tbai 1 oa du4 rof nin froiia i}uiXJng bk Wim4« : 

vhUe to th« procoM of iHMolntiotu bt^ alrsji found nme 
JQfilj Ivmored autliontj- m lliiBokisr. is HrcrBtar«, 1ft pkd- 
loAO|*hj, ill hv, and ill Kivonc iUcIf— k llkttlww JUIe, a 
LorO Bicuti. m Wvkjr, a C<pUon Hsilivf, au £Uio«M;a, a 
Uan, a Qiief(i>:7^ a ^allaee, on EawrMQ^ ta Agiariw, a Z>jll- 
MT, commUtooi o< li»mo<) aeadaouM, prdMOfa ia gnatt 
Golltt|^^>u> ctaad ht Ibcir bedodo, arnMMl villi ir^Dd^kn^ 
tnuUng tLuir awftw, and coovciuiituiaaljr •tHTlti|f to nuna 
thon bwlc to T^rona Ufo.*' 

Tlicni nnr noam twdim to wUom ao apology might b* 
due lur «o proliaetiad, aud lu tham doublkaa wiiiwwlttl 
ledlona, aa lUBtfMioo of iW f«w tod mh* of optitQim 
■**« pbilnvopliT n^irb Bmy bn «ippo««d to faava Uitip bean 
ofaaolcrtc^ To cucb wo can ooljr oty tint it ta grudl^ to bo 
npMad tliai the Vfts of macklui birc bj do Bi«aoa jwt 
nacbod their ad^tiKcd poiitkni, Wlulr optiflDUiDi aa m 
pbHoiophtc Ict)i4, ancb a* it vn^ 4r-fin«-J aftd dvfvndod by 
tin iwhoUrt of a century ago, Um, it inut b« adndtted* 
cvaaad »> eB|*rMa ilo ati^tioft of tbiokin^ mi&da, tbo qmli' 
Aed form of it wlitcH hu boen dc«enb«d^ and tawvd wbwJi 
tba forrf^oiinx oOQttfUmtioiu haro bmi pniidpallj dif«ct«d, 
■till fonii» tht) very warp of tlio comint plak«oplij oittaido 
of tbo doiuRin M toianoe, and to a grvtii extent wiibm that 
dotnilt). It ii tlie owcDCO of all irlcolngjcal oniMiepiian«* ind 
Ao genmllj pcrradtf the rw^ved thforW of litti aod a^*Ciou 
at to diilort coiopleitdjr the popular view of Hiv rvlatiun* ho- 



tvMOi mnn »ii4 tb>n nnirorw. Tlie ^al mflMof muakind 
■till Wkrvc in 1 conwimui intclllgo^^nc, tithvr KitLiuiit ur 
witbin tlM vrnvv^mst nliivb in iwrputnaUj udjiwibg mcsuia Uy 
«iiidA Id DQluns Tl]« majoritj rcgaid i]i:it ititdllgcnt^ k* 
in a nk&nncET hmign and d^mpBtlNilic, and, while i^rKirtij^ tlie 
•trifev and aLraici;!!!*, Ili« mifcringa ui<l fAiliuru of tU) M/n- 
tJwt tn>rIU,ar^i>^«roii iho ikitto gather «\it)«iLc<.%li>>wcv4jr 
•Icndpr, m mippnrt of ptxn-identu) iHterfvnMco and intoJ- 
Ugmt ilt«i^i. liiifilljgcDi.'OT bivwever, appnuv tmtlMT m a 
pruduirt Ili;it) us H ijiiaiJitT i>f n«tnr». In vain vrv luuL for on 
JnU'lIi^nt racognitioa of oor liunian omi>lii>iia in tb^ gal- 
txiua of tuoanOvMvnt voHi^ above n*. In vain wo look fw 
«n A]>i>r«d&ltng Tok« fixmi whhln diopciuiralia of llicAulh. 
Tm?, tI is niot thr ■nl<Tnn> of formal rvM ; the atArn ^low atkI 
tiJo j>]]LE^(:U mil, ihi! cTjmul «jjarklw ucid the lionvr bluonig, 
bnt E^cTt QAlQ vt rciwh tbo ftuirual irottd ia t}icTc one token 
of KTinpathy, fmc ovidonoo of joy, *ino ra^ Af intfiUIgeoM). 
Pm*tAinAj ti>ll of theareiiling UndiapftprT, thp nioHfal flovcrr, tliv 
■ngrr ot^caiti or llic poiinTt atreani ; tbwu aro biit fignrv* of 
apM^li, 101(1 noTTfr onl^ m UMriatinixn fnr ihc n^in<l. TIhtto 
i* bcamtj. tlK-re ia jrTaiHlciir. Ibw* i^ actiritr, Uicno is oven 
1tfet1>iil mind tWnt i« ni;iiio- Hion^'hi Ark<J fiwlln^ am ikot 
Uicfo. Hio VDivoTH) ■» inaundlilc Nutniv baa no mmI, 
altbo«t|;U within ber arv ^ tbe ek-ineut« of wri«U>iUtj and 
all Iho nnt«Hak of iDtolll^eiwc. For mind ti m^nly a rd*- 
lion. Tlwug^it ia a mcdo nf material anivity. Intellect tt 
a braln-wavtf. To Mnrurv it ovily rpqiilrM an appmpHoio 
form. Oiiit revaUtSrio of tbc vh^\ of orpin'itxi^km ovinlred 
t}ii^ lirin^ T^f;«iablfT world : another rnlminatcd In tlw cnv 
alioo of aontkul bcingi. [Uirhor arxj bijolbcT baa aria^n ibo 
ty|w, Caer vmL finvr baa groirn ibo prodndT till brain bas 
booodie ibe mlinft force, and man baa oracrfpHl from ibat 
darlrnoM wbi^'b bitbrnn Ivtd n«vrr prrmittH Nntnn^ to i^on* 
t««ii|*1at^ bcnelf. Tbia bij^iMt product of i^vulnFiob^ arid 
whicb may properly bo called epint^ bai bc«ii d«ecribod aa 
lliat wbidi '^Bl«v|ie in tiie atooc;, di^vc* in the animal. 



ftvmlriA in luui."* In tlic borgimic worM Ui« rnok>calar 
•etivibM ftra oo iD hual & M«le and «> litUe jdu^etaUiI tbct 
■iMiU iBAtcef, wliIW it i» bv no nwsrit d«ttd, iiuir b« dtlf j 
mlJod tlwpitig. Tbo animil, wliidl i&ilood oerv6ra[«, bi 
dortt Dnt itded, ihbj j»lly bu ttid to druam, wbiki the f^Uj 
awfekonad conAcJoiisiiHi onlv ftppcan u a prcHluft oF tbo 
gTtAt camp^ioaujd bmin-nuuii of tbn (biTf'lopwd niUi, 

i^uiiMtitia hdM b«ea ddtned w llnl quality of mttUir bj' 
«life1i It becomes «9n«0£fftMf^u»eqiflb[u tu imprvwioau frout' 
withosi (vol. i, p. 3*^r|). TbM nap*. %i irodiod in the 4wmhiii^] 
(iou krifrtro u fturvt*-n>aHer, *tuI feeling b «voivodi llr^t 
uHvtv of llib coriiUifjkliun, unj icrvdU-T rvfiiicniwit and ooill*-^ 
plimiiMt of this tvbsUMie, Meonnt for ill the pl]Oiio«n«u of 
WBilbilttj and frf intdloat The flm ttctp forward ia n&laiiy 
or tgicn^fUioti ; tbc ««ond m tlu^vvolatToo of d<4cTiniittt«^ 
fonw ; tbv Uiinl, Uiv pnxli>Ftioii of phjtdoal Lifv : tlu< fc^rtli, 
tbar (rf DoaecioQa wi>»bilitv, Tho^ ukcsi logctbor may be, 
ftkjti to cowGiitatv orguiwilinfi. 1l W^m tf |vopcrly vil 
tlie fint 11 iriih ili« ibird (vol. f, Pl'SII), And tfio TCty 
QOMl'tDtioti of imtUr ill M^t t}<ai und«r prvpvr oowlil 
h teada to orgvnin; tintil nil tJi««c rcvcral dogmi h»Tft beotf ' 
fMr)»-d. WbRibirr ft funlicr dovdopmnl f* poMJUo or nat 
11 ootra iiatt«rof ffpKMibt^.ticco tlainUDio fai^^iett poji 
loiuvrn to Imto been nnriicd in iha tiQiv«r*Q. Hili 
lofty for sng^lit vo kiww lio infloitv, or it my bo litnitcd. 
Wc nn roQipdlod, (bcrefor«^ to vogafd boib life and diEmI 
Md«rivalivo: U prodn«l<tof ivrtainitdnrw^ drji:nN-ii of ifi^w 
fl^opn^t ; a* R^t« of chuti^ in the unirt-nc. and oot a« 

Firm (|n«ltiicT< of Dttftreb W« ]c»oir tbat tto Rntft 
of ttio iiutivr of on gMio h both tmititnulo and ntdth^ 
tfttlijBi^nt; And, jodftinff from the rudidiliOM rOi|air«d hera lo 
prodocv tboM ivwlt«,ftnd from llio Vnowledge iHikh scii 

- ^t mji tWf trt Ibvr of " « ifTTM Hi nmn MhetJ* I Ut« 


ban jJmuJj oEFAnlocI nit of the ntX ot tlio mIut ftjrttem, we 
<mn but cuTidude that ttio M.rlh i« |MrhfL[x« the rn^t bif-^ilr 
^Torcd iROEubcT vi it ui Uii* r(»prct, and tJuti tt ia pNihablo 
tlittl t1i« gn^ bulk of tliftt mteiu Ik &t Uii« mouivDl ilcwtituto 
of both life Aurj coiuHonsDCES, 

The tnir plici' which mind fiU» in the fchcinc of niLtnn; 
u the mtMi imporUDt tmUi to b» leamed in tlic sluily of 
pluloiophj', uDtl. bciitf^ »u gen^rallj' n.ii«oono«dv«d, ooi»litut«a 
oiui of thu pdiDuiy 4utiJ4MjU rvJuiirc (o whkh IIiq tii«k of 
orfecUtioQ umlertUcicn (u thb chapter i« demaDdixi For 
thfi tfiif *>Mi»r of dowttopiTM*nl is from thf &An-pi^rhi<! to 
the i^jchic, aiid from Ibo lt-» pAjrcbic lo the intire pfjcUie, 
tai4 not, u ^ iKrj^ularJj^ iupi^KJfi^d, irom tbo h^)i««t toK'&nl 
tlw lou-c«t maniffeiatioiw of tlii« profiOTtjr. Thu giwt 
pf^fiie panuloK 3ic» At tfi<^ biuc of pbilo#aphj, aiut h« eror 
been ilji f uudunicutftl bnue. 

CLumi'tc-iiiJx or PuK3EO)(i:vi« 

It onty rcmjiiDiL^ l)cforif! prcxv^din^ with the nrxiim<vt, to 
»du?e to a tj^tvnj&tio form «iid to briiig togetlicr m a ulngW 
pl«c<t tl^ MToml priuctplvA thit nnderlJ^ phenotu^Dii, and to 
ckarify tbcoi anew with fpodol rcfcrvncc to tbcir ajiplitJAlioa 
to tho iclcnce of DvsfAVio Sooouonr. 

In order to do lbi«,»ccnci r«|tetitioii of stJt«inent«of lli««« 
l>riDciplei ftlfOMljr iittd«,l1iou^ in other ootsnodiow uid for 
otb«r pnrpoice, will tw UTinroidablc, iind, in view of thcir 
pvitnonnt ImporUiKtv wiU petli^pa be rej^vd^d bj th* 
rrttdw M jofttittalilo* 

li h |jralolo|pud to mj tbat we know only pbcnomciu. 
P1iM»o<iMQ« arQ iJBDplj ap|xi«r«tioc«, or uumif colotiooN and 
thoM on flfilj vxiHt in onrrcUlion wiih ecnM-|borccptioo. 
Tbli b th« mrtif^-iVMEit of lU knowMjEc Wli^torcr 
ooracv vrithin Uio nngo of puriTcpt^ it a ni»iitf««taiiim to 
tbe Hontiont hcnlty, Xh«f«fonK ovor^ thing of vbi<Ji nny 
tiling CM bo pndloUcd u plienoiDoooQ. Fcclitijr^ knoiriog, 
ind ihiakba^ Kdctga iro plMwd In Hid niidiC of & univenG of 



pereelvablo proooiwi* Tbovo an not a |«rt but fhm wM» 
_ of thrtr upvHuMOc, no6 covudnilc^ to Utr a* ^m pi^^diio 

riwnoaicaift con«i»c ontixvrlj oi ebuigM, i #., of ■dual 
BhmlioQW of loi^on in llio objoob which nuko vp thm 

tTnlca* ■DnMthlng ido^sWv timv c^ \nj do iiunifeM'Aititn, im 
porcvpticin, do knovkdge. Tho eriilcDoo cf plicnoim-OA, «i 
teMiGcU Up bj' euBicioiuiik«B^ provnD^ with di Uie autburity 

oontt^/ommm^ iliat chjcccc both cxiit and movo* 

ia fior ntind to ntiidj^ i« thoo nijQviDg objoeCib Tdn 

■ijr tWl ph«i>um«fu are p«rc«iTe<l ki, liierefow, ■ rircaUr 

pf«|KMtiioo, and would boifuit* tuoLom but fof tbo fvl tbifi 

it nggcMU >ti ulturior tnuli- Ttik truth h, tlut objedk ia 

nwiton pndttce ^^e^iU* Beoution b the prittuij ctfcct, hue 

a tnd cirperveiM« imcli t^^ai riauUr «Aecu sr» 

wherever oontaci oocunk Tb»«ffyct« |inNhio9d 

the ivtiiativci orgnnkm, nnlo* too violent, ravvftl tbo mtitto 

of thn vfftetfi prMliifiNl npttti Mbrr ohjcrta, kimI the 

port vf aU Lnou'lrtlgi} uunhiit* of mch uidu^t 

If^ngriD^. tewponrQy at lout, ihu naurre of Uie 
ohjcriA, it i# n eonvcnlrtit ftA troll w « WHToct rioir to rt^ 
thn f>crp«p4iblo DnivotMr Bn tiude Up of diaM|i;Q« wliioh d'^ni 
ooo^litikte Un* Muhjvcttf of mtdlo<!tinJ cotilesnplatioa w woO 
u tW h4v objocu of putlble coiifi«JCDt InAvrwL Thl^ beii^ 
dte ifeee. ahnoot th<! flnt qoaHoo vliMi ttxt noniiAl miod irill 
nimwithrei^rdto llk«mwi]lt«,n»virethAjcvmdt Tli« 
cttUM* of obwrYod phonomuM ha*^ alwaya fur:iH<<l Ibe Unt, 
&i>d tt« nifty dlmort av tho onljr, problema of pbilo^ph,v- 

Then are two inodca of oonccivtog the oemrrvDrc of 
plcTTufRirni, Wh of wfit»rh, Hi we fdiall prvfvntlj m>«, have 
liaiii* i& factf b«t thuir hv;j>ric«l order ia Um revorta of tiiiil 
ifi «Lkdi tb«y appeal to ilw nuod. Aooordii^ to oiw of 
thw MDnrptimm maicrial objects arc actod upon by a power 
OQtaklo tbiroiidroi; ariyirding to tho other, 1IM7 aro an 
mades or uot ao acted np^n. The 6t«t of tbcw roocwptl 




ADAPT&n01f.»U.VX A?n> THE rKTVBeSB. 

k nadily gn«p0d, m being bu«d od (bo ui^ugj t^f lohn- 
tarj iniiweuJRr acUwL ; ajclvClieM)D(nil,tlu>iigb U might htve 
btfttu eaalljr dttduMui frvui ibe Mppoeed ia4«q»«u]ciico of t}i« 
ToJttnlaf/ coDftdoue agvi^t, mcb wu Um dbuoee v^ikh t(;« 
tar]y miad pLiUod between tbo fttiinute and tlic ioaftiiuat«v 
that tbi* tfuJof^ «ppiAii> uut Iv bar« buvti pt-rvvivcti ncitil fO 
]aIo tbu cLo ab^iite freedom of Bodon bad licgun t4» 1« 
callod in qiK^om. It h^A th'Oi hApfonod tli^t tbo idr^ 
of tbe indepcfkilcivfie of pUffnomeiii, ah ft concopEion uf llio 
mUiO, w » Utv ijtfvijlojimtiiit of *uiciiit]£e tbuu^kt^ «ad 
eoATtol; find* a |ilnc» in sny of tbo sc^emea of ibo Ciieinaft. 

fipMLtAOcitjr — tL «^ the powor of a 1>ady to Ciri^nAtf iIj^ ovm 
ntotioti fnim a alato of mt — iLioafcb tvaIIj jnonocdvaNc nnd 
fiODitrarj to t1]« Uvt of ttiooglil, Lja tudovd boeu HMumocl; 
but tho otiljr fom la wticlj ^tbor rwMO or oalccioo \» vUUng 
to Mw^ ibu notion of chjuif^ not cnau^ hj on rmttido 
power, i» (bat witicb tiinply iivgntiT«» tb« lAftto of n^t^ and 
racofBkwe aliiuluie ooDtiiraity of moliovu Tlu^* bowvTor, 
though A lato fona of tbo&ghi, b dov b«aoiBliig an «M0DtU 
put of tbo ooMmokifry, And U regArdod m tbo priniaiT, and 
from ono point ol view ibo only, corw of all pbenoiDeiiA. 
Tbo trun*$iH» diBft of cbAOgn, a> tliojr msy be crnJIod, va^ 
tbo«» dao to an cxtcmil inHsunce, Iocoidc mbonluuito to 
Anlonutio cbAiig«^ And am iDtoq^rctable m MjitidAl niAuifcft- 
uriou* of fotfto due to ftoeldtnitAl ImpaclM, T)i«m tnnsitiTa 
pbenuQwoA bftvo klwafi boon Awocutod in tbo Imni^in niind 
«dtb An Aticbropnrnorpbio rolitiirn. And tbiJi u otfuuUjr tbo 
fttrt inovt pftftii'olnrlv noted in Uidr ooDl«inplAXJon, oo modi 
•o UiAt it liAA |[i»onkll>' hvaii dmit«r1 mfflotVmt todoffgntto 
Onfm •■ teiuologicnl, wbiub dvnotc* -Jiu '|U»]ity only wiUkwI 
oonbotiQg tbo n<>ro cHoeaitiAl one of o^tnineoua povar ab 
mob. An tbo iiuKiniaticoonooptlon gain* ground Ibr* tolnv 
logic oii« 1>«««. a^^ fi^am liavo bn;n ontcrtaintfd lest tho fult- 
wl coticowion of ibv furmvr «bf>uld bo foUowod by tbo eoov 
pbur AlvoogAtion rif ibif l&itor. 

60 f AT Afi Adoiico U oono«n»od, no voll<MaJod cam of ab- 



td«6loKf h bnoini, wid ve u« theivfore oompclM to 
ittt Micb ■Ilcfuvd pliuvHjnMoa to Ehe dcpartmoQt of trui- 

idtfoul pliik»opLy, tud I9 uliuit thnt aU tlio plicooiuciia 
of tfafT nnivcrwi ATotliu nauiU vf iuituriilin£>iio4i»«Uicli hire 
never tiwu cither tnitte of loi^ in AOMont thftn the; now mro, 
and vhkJi yn]^ iiuuiif««l iftriaj in ^onrnqaemoe of th4 
inriLHt uAturt: uf tlw Uurvlvpnl j^git^gaUtt wliicU lok^^ n^ 
tultod from aotccedenE <\iinbiEutiuii«. 

WbcD ITO romombcr liM bU tualtci Dxcrtd an iuflu^-uco 
■poo dJ oChor matter, it becooveft evid«fit tlut tliere c&n be 
M» mob tliinjc, iu fi^l, u tUoJntvly f r4« Motion. All plio- 
Bopicna ntiral tborofoni bo mgonlod a* tmnMtiira m tiiv sriuo 
iliftt tbcrjr MO dno ta tKr uiUboimc ad hhHji^ UBitcr aa tbeir 
ftat«ood«et«nM«,iiTliii!li d«tMinifM their cbancter aoooc^ng 
U> iUtf Uur» of iminoi. Tht< prohlvm i> thoirvforv nanowod 
ilowii to tha dtfiiifioatioD of ibe CfuatlTO cbngw oUHinvil 
l6 oMDr. ThtfM nuj Iw reodilj M|UtfAM into iwo r>^rioiUk- 
IjT iliblincl KTOupa, triiivh nu^ t>v Kpf>roxiiiutclj' du^ntixl 
m j^Kymtai wiO ffvy^Ai^tl^ Tv*^K*vtittly, occonlinff m tLujr 
wxio»t« from uumiintte or from mtmato objects. 

TluM» two riixci <liSc:r rJiipflv in the o1>vLounk««f of tbe 
iumiAdiil* <ftti«e«, PhjMOilljr prodaccd dumgcc are no Iocs 
duo to outtM thu) pBjtlikKllj- p^->dllced on«i. 7ht e^umt is 
Ea oU cMO* tlw unn>odiai4:ljr ant>v«dent diaogn and ra^ult- 
int impaou; bnl, m ilivm kv ump^y tlic Knkx in im mid- 
IcA <4uun tif oftOMtton, and duo to mutiouA wb&di bcleai^ to 
niAttvr and u« in>»]Mral>lfi from U— having, tboreforciinorvcr 
b»d wj- oH^ In timo—Et u n nat&nl rrror of tbe mind to 
look n|un tbem ai «pontAnoooa. JJut, u uln-tdj rvuiarkcd* 
thb M a fAlu MAiccpUon, or « p«Qnd idea," impljlug origina- 
tion in tho wriiWt whkdi uoi'cr hu occurred* 

Jvst vbat tonu U> om(4i>j for tba Ada|iiAt<^ «Kpn«iian of 
All HMirCfition hu b«on a adriom diffifidtj in modern voi* 
«na\ Nftmvfocu ttffi^rta havu hwa mndo to rceolrD ihi^ [K'^ 
fik-iity, Momu of whkdi have bc*.^ partiflllj; tivircMful. Of 
lb« uMDj£oTia*of exprondon whl«di hare been wg^eotodi 





nojM of ^bi^ an> ul^iute to Mlsf.v all iMiaiblc otioek the 
ofW which probably oo<ik« i>oftrc«t to tbis idc«l, aDd which 
vc tlierefortJ tuLopt, in thftt whidi dotmlm* tha «:ntim <t\tMi 
of |»hjucAl pbcnomenft m yFHffur. Tbb wofd combiiiM 
b«ti«T tbftn U17 other (hu i<lca of cauntJon in aII iu d«1Icai9 
fonni with ihai of ci^uticujincc, without •uggcMting citLcr 
m oriffin or ^ p^rfofit. It fimiibli« an adjective for tlio 
Ovnnfln W^nlm^ which raftT itself be fairly lmi«lAlcd b/ 

Pbj'chic fhcEi<JUii;ii!i, whild thoj, too, aru iodixvctly ps 
netir, in IImt flonm that mind £t»clf mti&t luv^ hail a p-cneitfa, 
di^ef in nianj marked PMpecu from thoDC wliiph ajv tlui 
imiitediBtv TvaiilEii uf pbvni^l olualk, <ud i^tAiul i& wide ood* 
Lnu^t wEth them Id aU tboir prEiM-ij^l vhiLrectvroClua. For 
mot^ a Urge jMit of the chaii£o« now known lo bdong to 
the gtci«tic ^9^ werv Rjppot«d to bo of psychic or^^ ; boc 
the tendency of kiiocoo Im itendiljr boen 111 the dirwiiuoi of 
liiQitiog this cloM to iboic which an known to eiimiiat« 
from origoniE^ beitiK* ciidow«d with a iicrvr>Tu f^«fii and 
■ome form of aoltiiatlon. Whatever diflicultieM injij be cn- 
tfntnlered in eMftctiig lo ftnd thi« litHS it U ut knct no lori^rtr 
■affi to ^pocnlato npon iho a*«iim«d pa^'cMc origin of at;/ 
phciwiDQttii n-liich GUI not bo idiown lo bav^ procncdrd from 
Hch o^mic form* a* poiaon In Uiair org&niution tbn acUro 
prfadplo of llfo called ptifi<yimm\, !iowi»Tt-r *UghUy :hat 
anbstanoe roaj hare b«m cn-onlinnted and intvgntofl Into a 
eoinipottnd and iwrnpliot <»r);Kni«in. Bui, while chore arc va- 
riouadcgrent in tho nutiifct-initiia of thif power uf caUMtion, 
defveoding upon the ikfrnw of orgnniialioD of the erMtnfv, 
Boraa of witich dvgreM are ao wide at ilntont t» rotistituto 
gooemsUj dirtim!t fomu of foree^ tlu> jwvdiii- pIirnomtmA 
aU tf^ree En ouq ewemtlat particnbr, vix.. in niaiiLfe^ting a 
^urpo§^ Aa oaunei of rlunjn^. m«nta1 frffort? alwaja n^ 
TCMBt jfiHtf ctfUAv; pKjehio piKmomena are alwaj* f^^ 

Tfaurv ai^ th«refor«v two prinvipaJ claaMa of piienomcna, 



iifeordiiki^wUieyftregetietkAnjor t«leol«glcal1jr produced; 
aiul il lu^efr beccimQ* imporlant, bvfcffv proocvditig foKlivr, 
to ei»iBbi9 foiiMwIiu d<Mrly the prvcim uaturv (^ ««cli of 
th«M two ontltiieUwl foniB of <.-uani*ODi aad Co iwipJiaetM 
tbn quilitki faj whidi thoy arc cIM^gnUiotl. Wo will ooci- 
ildte cMb db« aefitntAlf . 


Wfi have Alrct^ly mxn that dl phyoicd pbawmcwt mtmt 
tw gentiiik Tlie onljr conraTsble ennptjoa voakl b« the 
ii>of»jii«iit otf a frM i-ien>eitL Ea(I«p«i»d«ai4 ^ff dl oU«r«, Tliia 
ci»D<liiion, Um Hctiol u](Uti[>1*Di;y cf tbingv, «o far a« hnniui 
obierTaxion oas detctmiiicy nomplctcljr m^gatirua. It » tme 
thai i>bjecM anore bj rErtue of iiiliemmt aL-tirttfa iiueparaliL« 
frotD th«m, aryl wbsch Id tlw iggmgat^ Mv incApftblo of 
flithnr incremu or Jimtuuiioci, but audi m tbo cxivUng plcjtai 
of BUitedal cIoiiigqu tbai tbe poKEcnkr torms of phin^ 
■etoalljr prodimed att (irtcmiin^ hj tlie int4'Tnct»on nf rriuJ* 
\i\Ac uilltiDdct^, and each |ifaotM>ci>riukn i» tli« rvuiltaitl of kll 
tbu fuiTiai lu opentiiun U> pffodutie i(. Tin HuupltMl funii of 
« phiOcanBDOQ Ifl soon fn tlio impact of two bodJitf. ilonr- 
«rcr cooiplioitari tbc pbrooQieiwn, thr lumc lawn nprmtn 
wilb HgofOua CExnct&oVf tboQgh tbii truih u rcUcil by iLcir 
tnblik JDltinotfim. Tbu ouooeptlon of /ftvi^ or mr/yy* 
ran fiave no odior bacla of fact, aihI all oflcctc ^f wl}«tvv<Tr 
kiad 0ovr frnin iht inamcHLitiT ph^lcal ctmuci of mo^in^ 

Hill tnitli, dead/ ooiiiprdji!i>d«^i, confuiw thv ki^ lo 
Uwnanm of all i^rrotio i^eoomoaft. Q^iicbia ia oidyait- 
fitb^r nomr for fanfdUion, attd AauMtion Ia ibo pTodiKli*>ii of 
eliaaps tiirougli iiD|w^t. T1i« f»lare to f^rup ikia pniicipk 
hu ariwn diieSy from the foot tbj^i a laj^ proportion of 
Ibo phenomciia of ib« pOTOoptiblu nnhvntc aiv mcijtfinifiir', 
aiul It kM br«ii difficoU to n.^nl iii'^ltriili^a aa idcotkal wltli 
bi all ivapeuu vxc^pt Ibat of lux^iutdc. Tkero baa 
|ir«T«iJgd a fpedoi of mj-sUcbm napoctiog tbona noC nn- 


fttiDocphrre. Th«j luvo been relnol^ntlj mlmitlod inut tlie 
«al<f(0T7 of thinp^ and molooilAr ph^c« bu, ia fact, been a 
tort t>i tneEBphjruou But tlj< luvfv wu Leu/uof uulocnkr 
phonofiiCT^, tho more ve find tliem to Pj o tmblo molar phe- 
nomena, sikI we an? jiifAilird <>3C|>^riRi«iilttlLj-, lut «n u:rtL7t)^ 
Km tffrwrit in pronouuciag triottcr miifonu iu tIs law*. 

A cuvM ^Wmf, wbieli in tltu i^*ae(ic« vf Uio gvoetic 
pTDCAM, M jdmpty ft direct atMl immedbto cnaso— one In 
whioli (hure ia nftftticr inciTTVAl oaf imlireftioi^ bi^twc^n tbo 
aufi> and llui oifgcL Tim forru«« too, tlio Lc&dirjf; dtstino' 
tioQ bcCn-iTcn gcocUc and tnluuki^oal phenotnonn. hi the 
formrr. tbe tftnae balwavf in inioodUtu inwcDiiuDt o^junoo- 
llon villi t1ie«frf«t 

AtwUior coQtidotittioa miaU ooir be taken i&to tUe te* 
tfoniit. 0«noUc pbeaocaonA ftro ob^rrod in okkI Gaisn U» 
owor in prolMif^ Mri««, Hiora w «ocn to Ihs m t«mdoDC7 
toward th? nwnrrrflico nf Uii? Htnao Mi of clmngo in ft aingla 
dirvciiiio. ObMirvcd »t ooniifd«nibii> intcmJi of tine, Uio 
obuagM prodrK«d donnp ono intcrvil are seen to becoo- 
titnod ditoagli tlio noxt, and nsuica ciTcotiofl ai^ more or Um 
penmnent, to be Gftrried furtW at ««Hi iDM-miw interval. 
TZi<vw Mrioa Rk*j'b» jMending or d«B»udiuf:. aoDOrdi&g m 
Uii? pT<i«[nc1i gn^w ta^n or tws coinplcoi, and an asrtoidinc 
MriiM niav lie f^nnlnnllv ■jonvcrttd into ft dcftrcoding odd; 
bot in noArIf all mm some pro^tvMt ti <«nat«ntl7 inftdo in 
one dircoti<»n or the otbcr. So far u tb<? Iiulurj of our 
gliiW u kuown. tbe plivtioRMOft taking pUeo upon it linre 
pnwDtod ft doddod prvpnndcfiinAc (>f ftf^-rnditig fmct> frcm 
Ifao Manotm pori(.¥l« of vihkh •<wffic« fnmijIieA ildj^ Ao^ount, 
ftnd iracb wonki al»o t/tt^m to be tbu «nM> ihrouKlioiil IIju 
•o4ir vjvUao jit lavgv, vHib ^xi>;ptlonA onl^ in kvtei^ of tbo 
anmlUM bodlee* m tbo outb'a aal^llit^. Thcrr Ua thuM 
1nk«in plftoo a lorl of fdWWo/NNAtJt, or Mv/nrfam, wbich tii ibe 
{noT|^k vnrld proctvd* fnim a mora bonMgwcoua ftni) I<*ia 
(Uflmnlijited riftt* towftrd & mum botvnipKicoiu ftste ^ith 



gttMm couomviswitkm a# pftrta. In oo^nlc sstoto orgnla- 
tirtn tiiDT^4»e«, fdmnnre is n>(n|ilieitedt uid tLo pfaTsiolofcie*! 
Hivi'ion of funrtiiniiAl Uhor » o<iii»liiiMBd willi Ui« int«gniliun 
«f dittwrotntMl oi^pnA totd tliuir mbordimtioti lo U^gv com- 

Tbftio nnr mirface trntliB. A tnoir Keooiidlto tnitli oftro 
g>impM <h>teciioiL 'nttse perceptible cffncU roprcw^C emir 
Uw renllAiit of iuullipk» eaows. UuwdivuI is ua\y io uoo 
dtrerticoii biU impftcl i» in aJl dirv^tions. A Uw whldi In* 
bccficallcfl by Kpcnccr''tltoiiwt>l)jlttjDf the Homo^ttiiKntA^ 
f«qoU«H tkmt miAioti tinU ukc place* in Aome ono dirvctioii^ 
and wljjt that dtractkin ebalL W mint depvoJ upuo vlul* 
Is onr ignomc^ w* in ooiapellod lo caU dunce, Tbe 
diipf f»^l of iDtenvi, tlicreforDf Brwing out of tlm dyiumte 
vteU of niiiaro, b llie one IsMt oliiervcd xad lunnllj ijuito 
IgBOf^ : it ift, tlLst tbc incTemant in tbo diraetioo of moUou 
— tliv idgcbtmic Him of iIm forcoa of ptognaiUiii and rogre*- 
flAO lU fomiarrd witJi their anthmctin mm— ia cxrowivcijr 

No^lotvtJn^, for tbo proNmt, rutru^nMT? ttfmlcoeiis 
vbi^ |)reaii|ipA*i! pr op tw Ue odca, and oondibrfog all |iW 
nmivena aa iitidvrgoinK tlic Intlvr proi^eui, wo firai ohacrvo 
that ll»e inm>mpnt« of thi4 g«n«lit^ iirogrwa an vliat mt&j^ l>o 
ctlltil t/tjTrrrmeiaU— ihtt tfcc moTcmcQt lakca jikoe by mfird- 
tciSmal dlfr«Tcn(*c«w Tim ii pTMtnomrnal. r>r f " u dia* 

tln^UiHl fmm matliomjIicAl, or alirind, (I'lj - - ''iSioru 
Tlim objffRto inovinjE aro in Imntodble contact witli fho <^ 
jnrt* moTfwJ ; tbn Intifrr yirld milr at tbn inaCaot wb«ai tha 
former Impih^^-c; t)io nnlccMMUrnt and codiMf^o^Bl — tliA caOM 
aiid vffccf — are inlJmat^t^ bound up fci;*v4lier. 

It b vRarcoljr nvevHtan' to »Uti« Uw ct^njjbr^ lliat in g9- 
Dciie profcitaa tlw preat j>n.'puDdt:niiico nf fi>rcL* actuaJlj^ ca- 
^erled li loM {n ihe work of ao oraHy inaititainin^ tlie atato 
<rii«^7 npeodad in tlw niin^gTvadva 
-: , ^ ,::_: ,:, it cxponittd In tbtt pivffnwivv direction. 
Stf llib b not alL Every objuvt In tbo uniwrw la oxpoeod 



to intpftcU from all f IdoL TUo lUivcUoiii of muUuu U ikiuijil/ 
lUu line of I«u4 iwWUncv. If vd oonwmplalo a progr«eft- 
ing lR>djr ur Bjratem, we miiflt not onlj csDncoivu itA line of 
motion as ^mply that ftlong triilch the a&t&j^oaiEitij^ hiipactt 
■re IcMt in Amntint, but ire mTtbt «lfo conce^ir« tiul ufxai kU 
tfdea, e;iov(it Unl Unmudiatciy bi Trout tati tluit imirwilijiivt/ 
bohiniJt tlto impacte^ bow«7er gr^U ar& abftolQt4dv oquo]. 
Tlicfie bt<ffal impacta, howorer^ from thla drovmscatico of 
tnmr^iy Dfrutmliring cnch othgr, icbjr be iM|[1«cti>d, %itd attcn- 
tlwk flbtttd oiiljr <ia the diiwtl^ ImpuUwg tatd reUnlioif 
lorevi. All tliic Is u tmo of a complimtcd tmin of pbo- 
ii0Jiieiift,«ineti tk aid<]«TOnl ftj*t«mor n living orguiiun ihr tjic- 
ckfljUof a atngLe afg^^j^ti*, or boi^j-; QEtd pro^rcHinitract* 
arti dirrriopnMiQt coioea u etnctl^ uridtr iIl« Llw >a luere 
propMt in «pM», aooe, in a manner, the former majr bo 
omtyfi-'d bito flcii>rritH of ihi^ latUr. TIua law maj be coo- 
ddered in evorv OriNtrtrntrnt of pWnoineiiA, 8i]d nalnralljwe 
follow tbn ttvpe frvtin llitj lowest inor^uiic lo II19 liiglmt or- 

Tlw iwin]*jjform of iiiori^iie ilf^vc1opiDf*Dt 4>f vrbtcti we 
pOiieie Qoj ktiovrkdf,'« m lliat of world «3^li.*tn«. Ni^arl/ 
6TfV7 one who nllowB himiwlf lofpeculate at all now buHoreg 
that nch dcTdopnumt hu taken plaee^ and that tb« earth 
and ih^ aoTar tyvu^m aro prodocta of djuamk tcodcmdoa In 
tbDuniver««L It ia profivr tocall tbfa pn>ct*a»Hndall Icindrod 
ottofi wyonts^im, llio t«TO maoMum hu bwii applied 
to It, but in Ao doin^, &< wna pouitwd out In llio «uijr part 
of tbi* work (rol, i, pp. 16^ S4S>, r^ny grrat eonfoMoci ]iaa 
bean mirodaooiL WilTj llm qnAlifloatiorM thorv ni:u1«t, bow- 
orer, t}t«ro can be no terioiw objection to the tcnu uvoln- 
tion, imptftnf;, a^^ xt then will, the amno pivcwa In or^iio 
»in mtmir pbecofiMdix Tho Irae antago{)i«tic foivo«aro 
UnMc of ffmrUaiion and nviiatwn; And crolatlon, when it 
taktf placo, deiKitea a oertaui pfnloirduance uf the fonn«r 
oT«Ttho kttor. The nvclierli^^ I'lTfCt of gravJtatioD alone 
would qnkklj bring all thtnga to nwt in * wholly onofgaa- 

GE^icno rn^NoMESA. 


tnd ttMU i tliu of nAlatkn alono would qslckly ilfaiip«4« 
tl\ m>lt<r into gai* Th<i prefwuiiliffntiro r>f llin Utti^r wdqUI 
offcctUflllv prcTvnl tvmmctricsl fomm fman CTolvin^, whiU 
too gnuc vxocM gf U^*; torttua u'ihiI-J rvjiidlj' eoivdvouH Ili« 
manor of «pftoe tiito bot«rogi:Ticoii0. amotplwitt udcbm. It la 
llin jtoM«n fiKsn betwoon Uiem that MtfTiim titc tme cruln- 

OqE&nic i>i'i>1ati<in pnxwdi accordipg to lli« wuv gvn^nl 
Uw. Tbo doTOlofKn^t of anj ovguuAD eoiuuU vf k mto* 
of wIiaUj tmppmcUbln incTOmcntt, duo U> tlio fowHuit 
fort« in tLo dire'rfMm vi piDgrow. Hero thv tndiriHuAt 
niiut bo iguoTi»i jiml Uie «|mx'»« rIoin «oiMklenKL Uvrcd- 
hjr, hovei'cr, <&n t« ntlicd upoQ to prcMTi'V tke Idetititj uC 
ol] direnlj d«wi4idLHl iniltvMuaK ro Lhalit UaatlioD^ one 
livliifT<lnHl were oontitKioiw. MiiK*r VAriatuki:^ otxfur dnring 
tko lifo-UiDc i>f (^ach iodivkluRi, wUcli otq tbumtdTC* tnuu- 
mUlvtlf prxloriiij^ a vtcod; progn^e In a givra (lir»IJoii* 
BreidoD the ilfren vjiriBiioiu dtio to tli^ AOtiml iropwis npoQ 
tbp ituIiriijUAi. in the linvi of t!i« rviullanl of wliic'li Impewt* 
|in^;rv*i fpctt on, there it tlto nn itxli/ect form of Tariitjoii 
wliitfh Ee prvbably •till more potcot £n prodnc^n^ dmngi*^ and 
which Dsrwm c&lla *' «eIoctbn.^ Tim cptrtklM Hiny^f^h hiy 
Tttdilj in ibe direction of ulrant^i^ to the o^uilica Lii th« 
oociip««iiiou for i^xiHtvtMv. It b ondor the conjdnt o]Mn- 
of thMc Iir-i U^ which Sprraocrr lumc* direct and ia- 
llruct " nqiiUi brat ion,'' roep«i:i3vi-t;r, tW ftli tli« preMnt )i^ 
ElifC oqfaniatnt Imrc been dpr«lope<! from ilm l»w<«t fonnc, 
itid thuM in turn fioin thv inor^inic ulenicat*. At tbv htmd 
of tho or^BJiio MricB standfl nun, r«proBciitinj^ the highest 
rtoclietl in the prooeM of «rolDtMiL 

Aa, fn |««tui|t from oocmic to orgnaiP cvolatton, wo uw 
tli<«onUuuod operelkio uf thu aanw uniform taw, hi, in vrc«»- 
ingtiw booadu/idikb dlvld«B Qi;gw[c from aoperor^alt 
phcODmona — the anlma) froin the ioiul wnrld— vc ^m nblo 
to tmc« 1h«» Aainc tmbn^en ptoccM. Tho Luinaa rt/»§^ 
tike Ijvii^ OTgnnbmA, uo feoiue of tiMm i& tho aaoondii^ 



ind K>iDQ in tlio duwondni^ BerivoL Tb^ laltor if« mAv for 
Um pro»CDt dlftrefpanl, uid oimt9inj>U<e =ocifny iks Tipon the 
vholo, ft^vtndn^* Tbi» QilvaBocniM-tn, tike nil fi>rm» T'f do- 
Ti»lopcii«nt below it,tak«i plvw difTt-rvnltJiltj. It htj like lh« 
Otbcni> till; uit^rv rvBull&iil vf F!ili{;titlv tioei^fiiil im^iugiiTg 
forree on iJl ^ide& Ncglocling iIiq latornl inipiw!i« uhit^b 
tqnilibntc v^\i other, 4nd conttderin^ only tJid «oiiflt motive 
ind d«tlnKTtivR forae«, n'^ And that, wliile tJimc u« hr^th ia 
tlMiiuelvw «nomiou*, (h» dilT«r«ncc bctw«crt thrni i* Tor^ 
flight in fiu;l, IBP fJtglit ]» it tb;U St ih uvl (MtuUnily in 
ore directkuk. Eren En pciloilA of moet mpid devciopuicilt^ 
mHa) pKfi;n9W t/ikr* pljim bjr rhj^hniii^Al flnwn And dibt 
Thr bitter prordil during pnrto of ib»e («riodft, whiah im* 
plivB Uiat Btt-iuLj 4t thtiW tlwe* is Jr>Tmg f^njuud — /, f., tliat 

Uie dcemii:livo foroea ara Mlu.illy j^nrt of xiio tiuio in tho 
Aanndntit l^cppt in ft Kmit^d tmtiw, p7***fmtly to Iw Mm* 
ddprvL llilt tA ihiy nthiro of nil tbc «ocul jirOignsM whidi bn* 
tnlcon pbcc tbiv fur. 

8iich u the ^n^^ml ebftnMer nt fp^octbr plif^oiMiM tt»d 
geiwlii^ prognn In «I1 dop*rtmi»nu of nntDrfr: r>ie ilrn^kmlo 
iMv It trrouglit fthooi tbrvngb irifinit^tnial incivTiit^iiU ; 1I10 
gTcatL<r port of the fAree expcDdvd v ncutnliecd ia >o nenriy 
maThUlnin^ tho »tAtEf«] condition ; Oioiv t* ini;»^*#nnl rbjrthm, 
dMUoring at iittemlit moU nf Uip )itll>^ thai hv boon 
ginmi ; Uie e^«ct U in ifnmcdikto oontAct with tlic cmm, 
iOil cxacdj (<<]iiiv! lo It ; tlterv b no Icromgc or unc^nnl 
adtuilnge in the mc<)i<id of c^enin^ inflnoDM, lo tiiat onl^r 
tb* cnid««t nnd movt dinyst rwnlu uro VitpdJ>1e of buiii|f 
ivtdied. Whim mmwlly vivwrd^tlK^rrFofn, jind tlioT'onghly 
ctt)dcnt4>od, tbo pn«uu of uaturv prova tlie tuatt coonomie 
of nil conoohrable proooMM— « Uci wbich the vwttMn of Ibo 
nle oit vhipb it operatic nnd tbr Ahnolnte m^j^itttdn of tbo 
ranllB avtmllr anvjniplhlwd hy U li&ro iu Kn*«l nimturo 
ooiioqaW eron from tbo moit i^MMlghtod and tliOTi^hiful 
rtndpfitx i-if ^Atorc, 

It VM on» «iippoeod tint iiAtnrc^s mctbodft were tbo 





imiBn* for mttn M mpj irwtt. h wh« while tliE« vbew pi^ 

▼Sfl«ij tn all iJt!pajtiii<:tiU of Aci«<h'i^lfm1 '^piflJtml «eo4lO»iy** 

had its orl^Hit. Siii<*e llul linuf btolc^sbt hui^ abanclontl^ 
loctKomnu^ tlic <»tTor of tMs bdief, ui^l, h^ aodoJag; been 
lgfal3r ]iTOiin>^cd in bMogy, m Comtv k> jo^Uj Ittisl^d 
timi tt alxmltl be. ii wonkl liuw kept puw wHIi tlio o4}]«r 
pei«fM«> IB rej^flting tbb fwidanoDtBt ctrur. Bui tLin lu 
not Im«ii tlie OHC, vid WD And ftMU-itiMiec wnt^ra ?ifl1 
Uadlof^ tbu MfPTB «Mtw>my of natnrcV Uwa, llitr ecoof^mj, 
iws^Wt eoDckta onl^ m iIibi: Hiai, ttfiile ooUiiDg » doM 
rhiidi downot iocarv fouw ftdvantagv. hoveverflE^I*tJie 
of Mitfrgy expended in producing midi rmult need 
no propottMiD to llifl vjilur of tlw rocnlt. Katnn mIh 
th« ■Mttoaptiuti tbtt Utrr iVBOurat^ uv iiiL^xLaiMtitil*^ uid, 
%hile fhu now bo^ a wholly worthleM artkb, ilio u«G«Ujr 
iji an eitruv«Kvit prior (mL t, p. Sfil). 
No mti-m ift in^inl^ned «t piittiy tfopoAM; Ituui the n> 
Inctivc; yet conrider ottore'a pco^ix^titj in thU- Tbe 
ia order to bi^d it* own« miMt lajr SO.OOu «gg» ; < 
atsrgeoQ cmtll4>d Oil,600 ova b1 oik iqwwnin^, w 
lUd bj Dr Durkk&d; ihc nAdlUh prcnlofitf I.OtlO^DO 
ig fiih cttdi jewr, tliit tvo m«r tQirite aud tl>« fcj>«v{« 
buotinie mtioet ; tlw Myvtor *pftwiii S,O0O.0OQ embryn 
II ft BOMoo, if «U ol Thii^ odqM noeb nuturity, two or 
imliTiduh might sapply tK# nftriceAa of Uve vorld* 
■rofiNMT Baifd bu tttinuted Uioi an eel iu»7 conUin nt 
oiw linie ^/)0O,O0O ^(ge; a Dematode w» Eournl to bold 
,OOIV>00, and a tftpihwortn more thiin Uf)riO;»)0,000 ora* 
f4««a eoofmnt ti» in tbe v«^Tiftbli> klo^otu, faqi wo 
cuilj mention lluJ a unicte pluit of the common mold 
*snkiUiwt%crutt4icciim)wit)vn'X to eotitain ^00,000,4)00 

TIio a]>fmTvnt poafw wlu^h b rappoand to rei^ in orgsni« 
itnre i« \ii^h\y ilItM>ry. F^ttm iJio vegntmlion is at irffti, and 
le ramll of tiiAt tlrifo i« iiamcnedj to k>iTi-'r ibo po«*ibla 



aUndard of Qverv llvfog fpecke of pUnt* In the Anloial 
kingdom the tfruggU; h dcApc^Ui ai>d BDcea«ing, stid the 
naolt i* Do4 dtfftTODt from tbit in tlic wgeUbfo. Not only 

to the anoaiLt of lifo brought forth, bm, of the li^t b^ far 
t}io j^Kator port aic4>u with prtmatufv d<siriK^on. Ani- 
hiaI*, aa &lt know, pi-ej upon one another, producirt^ univcr 
tal »id iii'Jc^^iilablu «uff«ciu^, and placing erery Livjn;* 
thing in a aUlc of chronic tviror iu thu midnt of itx coimt- 
lu*ft vwfmic«. But even thin tvLlfl lc« heerUr upon the TitAl 
enerpe* ihfin doo* tW ^il^nt conflict wLirb rcAultJt froni the 
oomiwUiion for Uw iriwuia of Hubwtcuco. It u here tliat 
oncuni thu grvmlcvt vnMt^ if tbo oo«t of prcrrlucing ar}J dcrel- 
opEn^ un oTfcubm b comntoil At im^ihin^. 

ThiU ll>* RUi'L^ Uva have o|iorated in tho •opcv-orgaiiic aa 
in tli« Qr]^nic world u quite obvkiua* Not oisl^ the prograi 
oat of bsjWiein Into dvilixiUAn, lint thcT marr-h of civiltU' 
ttm Ktaelf, btt been attended with tho mido incidcntu tlut 
clianKAeHi* the doTelopm«nt of a^peoieeorof an indlvkl- 
ml, Thfi nrchinohj^l dif-a ttio Tvicainit of extinct (^ivilina- 
tlooa oat of the euth in much tJie aame manaer aa tho 
palootttoloj^at doa» thoae of extinet nnimala and plaula. Be* 
aide* hb wnn vrilh the vlemvuta aud with wild bcvta. man 
hna Uvu pi^rpotaally afflict^ bv wur* with hi* own ktnd ; 
end jM thU wnrfano of men with iTivir nurrotindaifE^ with 
othf^r epMMB, and irith on<f another, m the atnct audutci^c! 
of that of the lowtf forma of orgv&itod bdnga. Even tLo 
likont battlg fgr fubsUetiw hfta ila eMinta^rt in t};e rj>m' 
peiUlvo Mrtigi^ ol itHtoatrj. TIi* ttroe wnatt^fid metlioda 
prcvni) ill todUf u hi Uio aolitial and wu^et^llo kin^oaiiL. 
Tli« rutuml r»mT«ea of thu vortli am M|uandorml with a 
wsnlon diarogwd of the fulnTO. The forwle are cot down 
to t^pfij tampomry winhi, eonuiiTied by efoaplng eump- 

■flaw rrtdtaervaitAipffat w pn«siteJ bj Aevrilrr la in anlfl]«an 
"TV Laal DEfifili4&* oT tlviU.* irliia ippHrH la *'Tbt r^fukr Mcpoi 




or purpoaisJj ek&nxl fur tiUigv, until tbtt bftbiuUo por- 
tkvwof tho ortb are c^tiiMx^UTcLj traxwfofmcil iitfm UfdoM 
dcMftL Till! K>il IK mpuUjr oxluQAU)d hj tbe AM ooenpiBU, 
vlii> Iroow onlj tbe iinrnedkttt praMnt. Tbo vild A&iiDtli 
BBfifol tv mu Ew «vgii vxtinpikliud by the IwafUirM dntnio- 
tk>ii of tha fertilo fcmalo* uid belptfffli ^ounfC- PopuWIon 
dift/ilinto* itaelf to grv^t dti^dTiQUgr- i'lfii^ grow u|> villi 
tiurow, craoked i4i<or£», wliich tuuiit, from time tu thnr, ba 
wiileuftd ukd 4tt;fci]jcl]l«fied si l^irgv &Wlut« coiL Ftliii ami 
^aemo-gmtiB, diw to dcnw, utinigiilaiod popmlidaii, brit^ 
padWncc and jnrrop Mwajr at rhjdinuc mtmml* Ui* lUUMVv. 

tbotr way in doHog yean of plvoty. Bitter |iattiiR&iliip 
pwmU urcry-vhorQ ihronglioat Mclciy. tlio iworiy aneoeaa- 
fal cffnrt nf cafb parly being to mwUi w\uki Hi^ oilier liJia 
dono, LaUir aod oi{^fal, wb(tf«<lepeiHkiM« ii|)uq aach otber 
ifi abMfltiUi, urv romUiuly found la open boaUIKj, wliMi 
grratiy rvdncca tlio productivencat of both. Kxcbanf^ of 
|irodn<ia ia bt]^1y aim<Hl on )iy rrjInndaiH third pirtica, 
wJm, lliron^ no fault ui ibuir ovni. ttrc LiJJoirvd lo alaurb 
tiio Uri^t ttioro of tho o^lL |ifodiKvik. ThmIci ooiMtrta to 
a biffro cxtcut of unnooaiaMy and dupltcotia) tntiiiipartadno, 
Woaltli b tiol dniy un«^uaUj bmt in^^vibUy iljftlrihnicd. 
In 4iOTf, all ibe fnnetioM nt tupii^y an.' jurfomiv^ in a Mrt 
of cJumv tray, wIinJi if ptwiMly tko romfw of on>i»oa)ka)« 
bat wholly a>uki|poiiB tu ibo natural prooaaBiia of tlia lower 
oripinic world. Gnat raaiitta, it ti true, arc a^ompllilMd, 
avn in BOrictj, Ikv ihow nnrogulatod forooi, b«t IImv f^lt 
abort of «Ib1 may bo cvily poai to bo altaituititc ; tboy 
ikot tbo b»t. Tbu oi4imfi*tM riev luub li> aUgnotion by 
divntir«f;lng frlTori, wbilr all trso p ioflr a w vprin^ from ibat 
itoaiicM ■keptkdmi whitJi darca oron 1o <|iiration tJie method* 
of aatiirv, 

TfJniltigiail plicfiMncna an> CDch a« miAtiair fmm aro- 
oau organiiBu endowed with £eclinjr ; and, om iwlia^ it ilia 



iniiijil ttcp fn tbo cntinj teriis of p^chlc plienoTiiciia, th» 
domain of Icloology u •trirtlj- ro csi^nsivr witli tlic <loinatn 
of mind TLe bjitig of fi(rfri3»,atf dutin^iilK^t) from motiim, 
or luoveni^nt, U Ibo tr^dflteno^ oif c^'rit n«-jiliiig in tht? Kui< 
imlo i-jr^iiMo. DcNro U ftW tho r>rj|y mofirvf to action, 
Imt, dtliDfi^li »li iftion procoodH from dwrvi, all donrcA &» 
not follo^ved bj action. TZiib, faow«rar, b «lway« lu coiuw* 
qaonc« of a eonflbt of timntlanoou* d<>tln<* luvnlvln^ fyr 
iboir iatijtfjtctiuo tliit pt^rfurmoui^i.- i>t iiivi>m^liblu uciititifl. 
Dnlow thus iLnta^nixad and oiuilibmiod. crer; deidrc n-»a\u 
lo tilo AcHoD dcRintidod for \u tatititcthvn. At if ia, Oi«< 
dcnnimiitt d«im ptodaccH action, wbicli i* Hgnroiw in pro- 
portion lo ib de]gr«»of prt^vmnLkiici.-. Tliu Idvii bvolvod 
In tLc term tM^ \b not di^iingabhablc from ilib conc«p- 
lion of dc«ifc, «NC«|kt t)iat k prop^rTjr connotrj^ thin plnr^tltj 
of dvfdra*, aiid ivpTq«cnU tlic cflvct of thv dorntuant oqc in 
prudttfing Mtioti. AoUona whirlj are iIjv rv^jh of votlilo&s 
«n> calkd rciiRiary actJoos, and therefore nU proper action 
ia r«Hniiinllv volnotanr (iJt/Vif, p. 3I^)> Tlie only excoptlona 
to tliin tioulil bv aogU o»«a tf involr^d no plmallly lad 
iwnco DO confliut of dcairMf a ciiopU impDlio pvoducli^ iti 
nmp!ii action. This c1a«a accnH to be ttrJcCljr uleniicol wItU 
vbat aGo&loj^Kta call rtfi^ actiont. 

Tele<ilog»c]tal pTienovnma an twtteioutfy prodnced. Tlili 
foJlovv fpMJi the tniib atatod ia Clmptor V« (vob i, pp. 306, 
38A, 4ifijf tluit fwiUng itwlf, ctcii of tbo ttimplcct obnracti-r, 
ttnplicri ron»;&o«i«iatt lo fln^'li an eiCMtt tlijit to ipoak of un- 
coQdcloua atfottibilitT iiivolvoa a contradiction of tvcim- Kvon 
roAox Idiom inu»t» therefore, be legtrdod m botb conBciouit 
isd IdoologicaL 

TdmloRtfs] pboootncftJi inroUc /wfpci**. Tbu ie «»Lrco- 
Ij moTv than like dcAniiion of telvologir. It i« »* ftirnln^ at 
an ntd (b«t Um coocvplioa )iai i<uinc to r«rt.'iv^ lid* nnmo 
(^in riKtK, an «ml),and for wblcb tie <vvmufi biii^imj^-, 
vmlikc ocif ovm, poMonoa ao admirablo Ttrnacubr equlv&- 



EreijpfjtJuo nclMn Um lor iit r^imm J 'cfiv^oaie object, 
or mulf vbldi tlw O0Mok>iu orgnnitoi d<Airt4 to s^c^nre. It k 
|iroiMr to all tha und lliu cutMtf ul Ibe »cUuo, but* to di«uo< 
^ifrli ili»c4ndc from Midi aa cooslu in ADt«eiede<tt motionji, 
tni ciKiMilatif inp*'^! rcmlting in genetic phi^omcnft, al* 
rttdj tnntcJ, and wb*di ire calM ^fdtni oduvf (cutw* 
^fkia»Ut\ ihb i>e« vLm of ouks «p«nitiii& lu -wa umy 
Kiv, fr:):7i in front tTinUsMi of fnjui bditnd, bdiw long bo«B 
ftppiropniitcly termed Jtnal attuM (ouiM j^-ifm) ; ftUbomgh, 

i£ciil m in »Mbm]>ocnor|>liLe OK&tii;ft of die Luuiui mJnd 
aeai'4oined to obAerve iu own lokoUigicftl opcratioftA. 

Tlu? vikU iwimti(u:iDj; tlio motiroi of lJ]« &ctJoo of coo* 
vioufi iHTin^ <Jia«r witb tlic lutnrc of tli>o«o tHrmgv. Tho 
Mop ID tlM3 dovdoptiimt of ibe peyoktc f^iculty, from Uu 
IdwM orvAttirM cflfiaUo ooljT of rcdiex tctiati to tbo hnnkin 
twiEig Willi hit mn1ti(4i^ wvtbtr hare Mlrradj tioen aiW^ 
ciirtitlj iTBOcd tti Cbftptor V. We &rv \rvT^ L^hk-Qy cioiKtrotMl 
vHili tlw cooBtikntiott of tlw nAiore of tlieB« cmk, or pur 
piAM, of <ynfctoitt bdr^ ocpcRiAlljr of bniua heinj^ with 
a tImt lA Ukoir cJaudfiiUtiiaa ami their oo«nplet6 vom^rvlivti* 

M^c rocognEjw *l ihc oot«ct that all tt^lotilogiotl phpoorn^aui 
tcnait io fffori9 to ntcoiu th<i cndn, or pTirpn**^ of tbo motor 
imimUca. It by oi> miNuu follows tbftt, b«Mti»« tlie adloia 
k tsortain lo retail from tb^ molivc, ibir vnil u tli^vfow twr- 
UIb of inxbununL Tho orjly c«ruinly is tTiO ^Ai:. Bo«ne 
4eKnw of tticioM* nmrit, it u imr^ Rtl^'n'l mich t^UniU^ to in- 
utre The prvtervMNMi i>f tba life of the cro&ture', bcit, bojoiKl 
lki«v fuUMr« may be tlic ukojJ ns^utt. Adjf ^um wlio hatf lopg 
ir%toh«fll tJiv moToiuonia of pIsdToroiB blrda,uvd oliMrTed 
tlifl ^rnit T^* ' rwif of tlirir fuluran orrr thr-ir vm^cfMOi 

Is Mvorin;: ujr, will ap^nXTttto tbo uupun«moc of dl^ 

tinirni'hiEt;: tJiv /fftT^y from ihm end. 

Is tlw poooimI pUi9c, it ii D04 mivonallr tno tiat tlio 
action, \i ttuoeft^ul, will Mcnre llie «nd, Tbe moUT« h 



anivcrftslly a physiical dvurv ; Uitf truu «nJ ih, tlicreforo, thv 
vtlibCtLOtJttn of that dij»<ii\^ TLe din^t object of tbv actitiu 
cnn onlj bo elu iatenntxlinie T/jir^un^ to ttio end. But tho 
nicntd open^tion req^iiJnid to d^rli-riinnc tlint auch obj<Mi onn* 
frtiltitea Biicb nieAiiH 111117 ^^ Bomv<uli&t t-omplivsLtulf ancJr 
wilh the increMing ilegrtea uf (wmplicalion in sadi '^pora* 
tion, there ^-ill go lucnsaMug Imbllit^ to fiuluru in mch do- 
tenniiULtioii. the birda Umi i)ecked at the p^ppjt mi tlio 
cnnvftAof T^iivift, am^ the dtickA tliiit j^wAlloivryi tl^o bitb of 
rod-liot irou from the blnckstriithV niivil, uu illiiRtnition^ of 
Buoh fafbir^. 1^\\X^ Ltiiulde of ibv ludui.'ii(,Mf of muii, who ao 
greaOy nioiliflcfl Ibo <'nviTOnmoni of auiraals, ihero oxL^t 
ftbi3n<)ftnt (TxamplcH which ahow that in a oUte af nnnire nnd 
in tbvir normal bahltal gfval wwin of ^^orrespondeoi^e txiiit*^" 
ftnd tliat unimale mistah: ibu true ende of their being, 
ITpon this lurjj^ly depends the power of ei^rtftin uperice to 
ptitrnp nnU do^lrtiy others, ^ pro<M.«e wbifli ran not be gen^i** 
icnilj' <1i&(ing[]i»lird from tixiinV ftnecesfifnl offorta 10 aecnin- 
plbh tbo Kimc end- Even pUnt*, audi njt Pton^ra, Darling 
tttriift^ and Sarmt-r^iia^ avftil tbt*rnpelvL4( uf thin liabflil^ un 
the part of Iii^ecU I0 f-rr rosjK'Hlug tho pn*p*Tr injjnner of 
Bocuring tlic mfo p^tifirution of tbuir dyairuB, anO unirup 
thorn for thpir own nonri&lmiont- In rrrJin. whnac desirci* sro 
to m\illitudiuouB, and wbo#e envininment h »o iiTugidnr and 
compIoXi mch fftilvires ore of twiu^tunt nccurrenoc, and una 
Bpooifiniilly drnoniifiatod "crrora of judjrmi-'nt," 

Wo set, ihi^refore^ that the actual atlalnmcnl of tlic cnil 
of he\Dg bt & ooiiiplicatod opomtron, ftnd thnt in tho nppronob 
towiiH it ihpiv IF n tmoa of dialjiict peyi-hologital oTt-pw. 
The actual witisJat'tion of a desire ia coinplioalcd b^ a train 
of oondiuons wbiob arc liA^blo to dofoot it flt any of the dcfl- 
nile BtAfct« naniod- Tinit, it mnut tnki* iU c^ianpi*^ atnon^ 
cfjnilivtiug dvBitvs, and must hv 1b<j domuiaut ono. Sooond- 
1^, whilo, if It bo the dominant doHro it is van to nvult m 
ftction, Atillf to fiocnrc the ond, it mnitt not fafl In the effort, 

• SpniMr. " Ptjcbology," rol, IE, p. i;». 


U it in «0Q«tntit1y liable to di^ Thirdlv and finnlly, nippoft- 
mg it to wcuru tlic particijbr object jit wltich it luu jumtTd, 
it (4ili rutitt Uu^ ribk iluit Uiut c>lij<>tit whuu «vuuroU mny uol 
be ftdapud to cAii«fy Uio dcfire. 

BncocM, tbcrcfcrcT in securing thtt end of bdng i« diffi- 
cult juiii ovutin^Jit* It wllj JIB tt mlu b« proportioual to Uiu 
(Jegrao of com^Wil^ of tb<^ or^ni^iu. It is t^rvutett in tbo 
JovQfit orgmiiiinA, wiiiwa octionR arc oil rcilci ; it h Icni^t in 
Duui, vrlioM a^tionA nre rationAl to n brge extent, but whuii« 
tfuvij-uumei^t ie no tfnt>riuou0]3' cvtuplJoHt^ 

MKruui:« vv Cusation. 

f^ftntining our atlotiJion for rbe futare to the effort itirlf, 
WD i>b4cr%'c iliJt hU livJug orgaubms ure ]ac«^iu;tl> strii^ing 
to OOenro tlic«o onda of buing. This univortal nUr^ in tbo 
oigUkio world exIeDiia to man, and con^titulm one of the 
glvst fAcCi>i* in tlk« problems of gocinl icicEice. The old 
philfleophcTH wcquotiElly caughi a gJimpi^ of it in iJteir 
blind f^pin^ after qd cxplanBtioQ of ^a **wilL,*^ antL thoy 
nftnMd lli^ rap[bo*rHl foniltj of i\\v. mind whidi coTitnJItid 
volvnUrj action tho ^^cMiiativo faouItT^^ ifroni tli^ Ijittu 
won! fotuiri^ to cuJi-Bvur). Latt-r. Sir William Ilanjillon, 
fi»liiig iLg iie«d (if a corroapoading »nbetAiitivo, nvivcd tliv 
ecigiial^ won) ivbi(.-li bad been nwd by Scnoc4 (^fmaii^ uid 
oinploy^ d/aatu^ to d*>iguato tin.' fiuiulty iUelf, That 
»tjeh a torm w*« ntixJcd, wbclbtr frurn lln* cJd or Ihp new 
method of HuwiDg hnuuui action, ibcro I'Qn b« uu quvBliun ; 
and, ftltboDgb ]y^r1ifipii not nK^l linoc nuinllton, I gWIly 
Bcvcpt it u * coutributiun t'^ the tonoinoktgy of pythology, 
afl well aa cff (Hfoiulog}', 

In doing go. iho term ^(m4di<m will bo uuiployed in tbi« 
work to rrpTmrnt the rfforta which or/^anlamB put forth in 
aooking thv Kkiibf&clion of thtir deftrv*, And the end^ tliua 
vovgbtwill b»d«eigmt«d a» Uic ^/k^^ofcmtttion, Alfh^mgli 
■ thc*c apodfic onda ax^ aa mnltiiudiuou* aft Um defiiroj^ of ur* 
I ^uiiMiii tfc numcroua, tliejr nift^ all be roguded w bukx;^ 






Jng to ooc grvMt cboit, tincc tU d«uv« arc |Kjcli<ilpgictn^ 
hoiaogi;iMo<QiL Tbo goucml tiod of <!orutiou is xhnTGiore ibo 
MtufftOtion of dealre. In a&iiuAla Uils homoj;;«inciij of d^ 
aira b verjr obvioiw, but an mflQ, utd ««pocullT in ciTilixeij 
J&ny BO gTOftU^ Jo paittculftT <ka4rt« diilbr, tlut thurcr atq 
entire ffvmjm wliicb »re doi popnWlv reoognbod hy itttt 
njune- Sudi, lor examjiJo, aro the rnniivp« proceMin^r from 
«VTrtp»(liy and from aUmi«rie tcntitncnts in ^cocral, vhilfl 
thu indituiUon to Act m CMufuruiity tu luy iijLdle^um] con- 
vloiion fit titronjT bellvf or opbion u not 8pi>kcn <^ ao a do- 
tit^ Still, ppyrKolpgicAllv, aII mnUva vJuituvcr ato iln&in«^ 
uid tboir witUEw:ti^ii bc<xiQicA kn «iid of c^iiativD- In man, 
too, tlie «att»fac<tioii of dtvirv lu ^«iiera], wliioli fai vacii par- 
t^oiilir c«M la attonded tritb, or mlier coDBiata in, pleaaurot 
Acquire*, ID <!nn*cqii«iicn ad Uk highly dnrimliTe and greatly 
T«nod chaniet^r vf lii» doaRK, n dlcticctit^ a^me, ntA ap* 
pllmbli; to anltnjilH, uid 1» called ^^ijjjjinets. So fajr a^ tlio 
dirvot purpoio* of tho codologivt vc concerned, tiicroforOi 
ifac dtimol^ end of ooppation in hftppincm. 

Cnntfim|i1jaiDg lh« phi>rioi»<Tna of cottJilioR from a differ 
not point vi view, ve obsurve thtd tlioj do not all proceed 
icoortlln^ to tlitj uuno fE«ie»] metbod. Ac.licna are nLp4Ue 
of an im|ii>runt eUAuticntlon oocordii^ 1o nibotlivr ihay am 
prodn«ed hy the tHr&ai or tlio iwHrv^ mrih^ f^f cowtmi. 
Tilt* dietiiwtioa U<« al tbo ba^ of Bocial *elcn«- It iii of 
liwlo EnporUnoe^ bowovw, b> btolngj-. pm«> an i^xtiniiiution 
of iho oklonR of boinga lo»*r tb*»x man *ho»* limt. uilk 
r«i7 ttlfjilit qualification, thoy aiv dl jN-rfurmud accohling to 
tho ilirer-t mvUiud^ It i* chiolly in haman action tluU iro 
■IV Mv lo di'tocc Uie employment of tbo indirect mMbMl. 
In mail, however, tb«« i« no failnre to employ the dirvcl 
mribod, and bence it ia in >octological fjionoiwna olorio tliat 
ure w able to obwrvc and »tudy tbc Ofwndoo of bctli mclh- 
odo, and to oomparc tbo rcenlta. To conaidcr and point one 
UiIb impottani didtiuctioa It our next mk^ 



Th<^ fnndamniial prindplie uiulcTlyin^ iho direct modiod 
' ouoatauci k* Uuil tbv dvtiir^ uf wiitii-ut Uu^pi coutiEoU} tmo 
ml fgro««u Tliit tniiii n-u wt fordi in Cliaptcr VII (voL 
i, p|x 458, 4fi8, 4^), nsd aood not Ito ht^rr^ tmtllHi ftl lei^^ 
[t i0 Jiiiportuit* huu;oT«r, to Male ekvLj Uut tbii k aoi: a 
^«o«vuawut »ii»lug}' or pu»]Jel» but & lit«ral tratb of scwuoOt 
aod tfaftt, vUliouL tuiy modifiuatwii of lu ]VJnd|4M or deHiii* 
tbe UwoKSW ol ptij-4ia» majr bo Aiiettdod onr the 
itiftt fiold of biolog}', provided tbej do not ovwitop tbo 
Imodftrk* HK Lf tbo &Uivq propodtkio u itftU^. For tltnt 
rUJob primuHtj mirk» l!ic cluiriLctcr of & tnio lutunl fnrce 
Uml h obcjr tlu morliuika) HViom^ of pfi;rHC4 A4««IaI>< 
tbli^d tijr Nowion, and pupulvlv kitown u tlio tatn i^mo- 
V«l it cuf» be ibo«'Q tbat denirt» ua fora» do obey 
Iawv, Of tltc vaHoiu manifLAUtioiw of mocJ^ani^ 
ircn, Uic «Dnatiro foncca tmifC clcmcly rr*<iiab1o tlio«c of fcimvi- 
t^tiunorof t[iii|;octuna. TJw<Nxupciri«oii witb tboljpt'Cjitncd 
fonn of forvo cct-iut to ppoMMt mo dboemlble dlirtiiii-tloD. 
Tlie o1>j«ci of dwEre iflib«n the liomoJogiio of Die inft^et, 
Ofganwm iiitiiifc*tin|c tlic A&lrc rcfmctitiiiK ibc neb- 
ICO attnu*tv^ bf it. li iH uo4 pn^it^&dc-J ibHt iit lUi* Ukw 
Ucodt^, bitt onlj llut t^'0 lutuiv of tbe forco U tdontlcal 
C& A« &r i« ftn^ tfao f^hftn/Mcriftic* of tn^ tvo form« of foroo^ 
Tbo Snt of ibo bw« of moli-^ti ir, tlutt it tAko* plBCO in a 
•mi^bc lino, hikj one vbn ba* u-jildjcd tbo wstiuft* of aat- 
nmb W ikbiVirTfd tltit tbtj ob«;r lliU hw. Il k poAkularljr 
iiulM^fable of Oic lower orj^niuniL. TlifM^ bnriTtg thi* power 
of rtijibi nvmplify il roort cxiiii|>Wltflv, tii^oo i" Uio »ir tli«ne 
v«no peitnrbEnf; fon?M. IimelA nmtl^bnt uxHoii^la^aud 
ilbfi Tvlgimr Mtprrftiion. « *' h^Ntiiu-," Minplf aunki dji Uto QDi- 
■sfpcrimcu of pfioliciil pvopla ju U> tbe fidcHtj- irJth 
wklch tj>0 Uw oonfonm to yuwtoci*8 And Uw. Tlic oip«ri« 
of Ilober, Lnbbork. and otbnv, witli boc* ukI with 
donooitmc ibftt tbiw: pAjebkoDy hlj|[bwl eiiduvod m- 


Tvrtvtinttoi urp nvtrictod in dicir opcntiotu to xho direct 
mccbod ot eoctttioo. In ncur]/ oil tlio higher gmdu of &ni- 
iQik tliA Mate ia practlofilijr ira(<« and wlwm oxoepiiciDii oo 
tmr^M in bnaiiUof pro/ that «mpli>y uU, >im1 titbi-r c^rvtLT un» 
[h.it jdopi iiuvieoa i>f %-urti»iuf kind* to e^capo the former, '\i 
It foGuil that lon^ Mibjectioa to condidotui nf cnTironmcnt 
nadt^riij^ thLi oecoiMry to «xliitt!niv« bat d«v?lujtod in^inH^ 
vxvnUa^ Uf t?jv lu»^ of ai)z(|itMeion, tti> m tv rek<truL« Ibein 
to the cIhw of direct ooiUmfl. It is only in tho bfgliotc fonoA 
of Tcrt<»hntfi lifo bntow nurn — M in tlfifft^ nnd po^pA «paf^ 
in^ly in liorbv, but t\mlv nutntily to tliu i-ti.'phrLnl^'lbait uij 
uncnut^able Bigua of Lig^i,'7 |«ycfiic pouvra litLve 1>mii ei< 

II wmild ho ofl*j: als^ ti> Kh<*w tlial in thin pnwhTr drpurft- 
uit*Htof iittuirui furixT llio iccoc^rrJ uirolimifiaJ iiuximus to tho 
uiuidiil and dtreotloiiof cliiiu^'t>d motion Ebequdl/flppllcAble. 
T^ocomotkin in inimiln on diegroTind nnr! orirriincvnn «;ijr< 
fftoea pnuantin^ olAtrnfrdiMiJi in tm tioirty iitriijcht towiLnl tUn 
objwt of desire M tJic tiJijniifci&j; furcvs will pi-nnil, A boTM 
dnvon ftwuy imm h'jiae will #ovk to iviGru, itiid I0 ocly |W9- 
vcGtinl from iloing (n by tbo rrin. If it bo lu^row ui open 
foiintiy vitlidiit rtmAi, and tbt^ rein u finally nlAi^konofL, tb« 
uiiiiiaI will dt«erll« % curvo under Uio lulluvuf^ of Ui^ two 
dodrw, vix., tlif* f«>r of ft^ roaercT, vliom :i AuppoHi to viftli 
It to ^ froni Itomc^ and ibo drairo on tU own part to rvtitrn. 
f^tirb tn action b ft normal «n8e of ^ FOTislminod n^otfon,'^ and 
tbo rorto do»orib«d ir»«y l>o conipdircd »ith curvf» dcActibftd 
by Ibo cukstinl bodji^ uii'kr tbu iiiftuunoo of two or uon 

Tbo thlM hir of mi4\oa i^ tlut M^on and meHon ftPft 
•qml. TluA Hi oboyvd by dircH paychic phencmwrra, and 
cuiiKlitm«6 from Ibu pntc(i«l potnl of y'usv tbi'lr m(«t im- 
portant fttlriboEO. It \a moaiftfAod in tJio fact Uiat tbo n>- 
ralta ofeMiiplijdird am oe|iia) t/> and n^^rvati^r tbiui tlieen* 
«KT oxpoiilbd. Tli^fc is no diKproportion bctwiva thonuim 
■nd tbe c&xL Thvtv itnucie of tbelots invodvod jn gcnetJA 



but ximn J* »Sto iion« of Ibt g>in «ocurT<I by 
inset tvleDlogCcal phenomena. Tbo o^uiuun can uktr nv 
ulTA&tAge of lu rorronoiliii^ ami am t>lfUiu i>uUiiii|f iior 
wliicli it dow not pay % fiiil ^qnivaknt in mnKnlnr enofgy.^ 

Thcrrv ig, lunrvrt-r a fvriii of advAQUgo vhicb mtiado 
ftc|iuivft over iikex:JiQitk&] fovcoA, and whScli in duv tv tlw 
lio cccnomiiHng ol mokvulariwm aodvklcei omhling 
^Aiem not onij to traDsmit tUelr encrgf to dUtAnt p«Jl4 of 
tlio OfnuuHn, biU, Ui ^ dvui^ to t«ko AdvanUge of mch 
prindplea w Um Ivvcr aiid liikrvm, wbvrT^i; tlio 
i« f«nd«nHl grctttcr tluui tiie catMO. This roaU k alaa 
«f-cucnpliajied thmu^h ocgajuniion in ctU) aT>ot1i«T my^ vic^ 
lJi# OQtii'^niioii of nctfVff mico^c/ mto nxiutcuUr uioTPiueiit. 
Idf mvolvis wiiiu mcli pruidple of comcvntntiuu ju ilial <m 
vlikh ainMMplierie ck>firidt^ k oonr licld to bo prodoocd-* 
IWbile mntmUr aciioQ nuy rrmlly hftvo notliiiig in nninmoo 
vitb dectritsJ dbcltar^ tbc Utttrr at leait nigifnU an 
anal*^ wKii^b mKjr aid in funulii^ a oooooptjoii of it Xba 
btlat diOonnice beiir«en purely phyvkal and crcn tbo 
form of fMjrdiMs ptienomonft c^nMiibi in tW poirrr tho 
Utter pnwrt< tbroit^ or)(aiiii«tiMi of producing dfocU botb 
a dittuios itomt and of (p'^ii>r mluo tlian, \ko caiMU 
ii>Qi«BlTf«; »dr owing to tlio &b«oIiiic oorrrbtJon of wfll 
wilb pnrpoae^and riae tvr*j,tJkiji is mil; di<^ fundamental 
lbt£uctto«i bvtwv«n ftvncTiic and t«l«ologicU ^lenonienft. 
Eut d>OM organlo rituchaiiiieaJ u|ip]iUDtt am tlmaMslriM of 
flio or^n, Tbnj baT« boon drr^lopod In confonntty 
villi tlt« priodplea of ■dipUtion, and tbo Adrinugo wliich 

*a m i fc l* j bd»g a. poMr »«*«■ pbvaoaitov^lltHldHla-^MtM nr. 
0* vnUt. ■■! V tbf hM naMf4< tf ftr^mt lfiiirnaii tiiiA mwa 

dkM iMf ivfwffcWI tnM^ lb* gflifci'tfiM «f Mil} of ia««« niDite 

M* 0B« Wyrr dbc^ ■* lipfmt Hhnfe nl»4tin|« «n torarf, bn lb* 

tbfuWn^ H« *• (■■faiiwitiB, a nvU fail tovitalii h i»tt>r flwdfro*- 
IV nnll ■»« b« AB •iNlriMl libJaip^ «f ^mur «r tan vUtBOiv ** 



tlifj flCcnre h in ncv myuf payclilo orlglB. It ctn n<\t, Utere- 
font, bo eompfiW wilh ilit^ odvuicngo afcured thrtmgh tho 
•ppluwtion c*! tbu int^inxrl niotiiod, and tt tm\y Mirv» U- 
mark the uianijer In y/hkh tliv luv of |^ii«tfc ovolotW liaa 
<ifiomiod, in H«Jng b^ » #4?rio« of wdMoflnfid etcfe froru tho 
crttdMt genotit! 1o the higtu-xt inUJlociii*! AdiMVWQenU. 

Aw Uw ocoMmn' ttsalt oJ crgasltation, tiio ilimct moUwd 
jnv()JvL« tho itiKatiUnf^aa: cxrrci«c of miiw-ular n^ivity in 
\hv dirortion cif itociinn^ tbi^ oE>jciyt of dcsiirc. ]f tho object 
be iiv^r, tli« creuUirv M-um U directlj. ^ul ji{>prij|>riuU?4t it. 
If ilic farmer resist the prooOEB) tltO lattfr dimply oii^rte mii»- 
cuUkT ffirrvi to oTMVdnan lh# rtiDMAnr''- H ii )hi rr.mori), bj 
vliatcvcT MTma fltftectcd, tl mo(-«s in ft rifcht lico to it. If 
barricra inlunifiai-, it alihvr o»t'Pe«ai"* lljuin by dirtci wcer- 
iJoTi, or, ub«rc tbE^j aro lacflpablc of biinj*; tliu« ovorconiei it 
f!ipm(U it* Cfirrgy nnd comnt to reat. In pfipiibir IsngiiAgef 
tlie <ifN-rdtioii? <if Ibp diR«t method of «or»4lioD ooiUtitut« 
vhal la vallvd '* bruto furve,'* or mw9 ^ n-iUMlts** tlw ortJd«vt 
fonn of foTi?c H wU as tbo Ica^i cconomic^L 

A Inrji^t p«i of tlif (Jp^^ltion* of the buiiiJin wcc, oftpft- 
dftUj in il* lowrr nnriviliinl Map^ sti> K>ndncl«l ai^winlm^ 
to the &irvci mvthod^ ind vreii iu civlUfisi rwxti Uu* method 
lil la3f^«^ umployod. In thit l^ttur c^e it i& iiuyortHUi to 
oh f <rr» tlmt iLe «d4i|>lion cf ibis mvcJ^od u inwrt^y pro- 
portionil 10 the eoniplexitf of tho phenomDiUL wbtirh It h 
iteoeBtBry to inodifj in order to wenro tho '-nHH ^i^ii^-htH 
Thn$f wtillc in tho doinun of simplo ntvelumiojiJ fl>n^« and 
lnorpr*iii^ tnfttcrinl objoctc tbu method i« alii>oct wholly ct^ 
rJ^^wrd, in Uic higher departmoDtA of vital iad p^chk plie- 
Dotuvnft it i* Ibe one Tmi«C tfv>»iinoii1jr omploTod. ITtthont 
dwdlmg upQit tlie ititi^mwdiuto vtopK, wc iioctl onW coniador 
tho tDftnni r in v.-VH'}i fp>vonsatcvits fladcAvor to enforce tbvlr 
d(cn.<M. Tli« ami/ BTtd tlifi /MMn fwnitatw Are lb« tnifAt 
oxuitple* of "brut4> fore*" Clic oaljr wny in vhidi maii W 
Innnd to iT^flaoiwv tlieecxaplioAtod |klweM>oi«ndof «oeic^>\ 
AH Ijiwd, too, hrd cocrciv% irhotfaeraiAiulMofy orprahlhitoi>. 


Bflfora luring tho Mib>rt of (b« dircd mcibod of cv 

mtlon. Il maj l» furilipr jxiinU^l out, u a fad iM>t nrliollj 

iHfroni lliAt lwifttat«i|,Uiiit*lc«dd««Ui9tiwrdniti«ettUr 

of difvcti/ ftwddog ;Jie uoda Jveln^^ thcr^ W licwi 

devtiJojiod iriih ifao progniM of mttiil a N^r^^nd ntntiv wbJdi 

ijr be dffldngnlAhed u jAjGhic. Tbbi <iomiM« ta pvnnuuuiR, 

•xfaortetk^n, oTAppmltodomitunt «KitiitiuDl«, Abaiwrcliia 

^fJieiHiBieuon, lUif p«nuuivL« or i<xbortjitDr}^ tiittiioJ U a eli{^ 

liigW thai) lh» ptirvly muaeutar unCf hut it u »lUL dirrct 

tt aookft t« ftnwfc tb(; cmotJODs and tlieffvliy aeenre ili<^ ;«r- 

formane« of aH« b; mliori whicli tli9 priiuarr "S^i^^ dv^jn« 

to haw jwrfonnuJ. Tho )irmri|ial uxamplcit of diU o1m« of 

dhi>ct cpenuiovta an to be found in the h&atoiy of naonl 

tefona» tnd HlgloM {nodtmioiia, ahhoofi^i la tbo lart^roaao 

tbo ittdJrvct inetbod h« bv^n hii^ly vmpJoj^od. vr« kUo 

,wm CKMrltont cxcmplifteationa of tlw ptiyuhic, t^r vtlwrtatcoj, 

iftpplkatkoi of ilio dlnwt luetliod In modem phllamhropic^ 

ItbanUlilv, nji'l t«tfii[>tTfti»ee reforms — all of wbirh, Hkf. thft 

monil progtvM of hm')**!/, rTr-^Hr ileiDOMCrmte thi^ rdalWe 

jm|K>lvc>w of ihc iSirt-d uiL'thud uf ci^oadoii ta acuomidbhli^ 

.Hk enda of man and c>f Mcielv, 


TIic •coopd, or Endtn.4!t, madiod by vhEub oonwiow h^ 
Acck to ettaiii dedrod •iKto inv^ilrw oa otitiraJj iwv 
'prindplt*, and pmdiKrqfi wholly ililTtrcnt touIU. In tlie 
phJcc«N of llio doii^Lopiiwiit of th« bniiii and the p«ychi<: 
bcnltfoi, a Mago wn» nlttitiEitdv nwclicd at wbkh llic co«- 
Mfotmcaa toolc on tW ntCnhufe vhiob cnnhM h to pnriH-ivo 
a fitir of tbo grawrsl 1a«« of plwnomcna, and tbercbj to pro- 
'dicl from a givirn modilWatioa Htne of iW wooiidaij changM 
'«1d(li wftnid nvuU. TliU U (be stmplwl nttni&B>taUoit of 
tlw itMTf^Hoi fomltj, and k ^ tbia faculty tl>at cooalUntofl 

npw Henmnl rwinirefl to fofm the tniwidon from llie 
>4Ir«rt to ibv ip<lfrw< meitiml- Thb iruMitMci f^iuchuleB 
4NM of tiM grtal luape irhlcb mturo ba* taken along \U ooarv« 



ci oTolnilon, nnd the first brank in thM procoa fiiicv tho 
ilcvuIopiutMit of proti^hntiLp Hoiwefortfa dio pofldbniiiod 
of vJEftl (ici«itQFt> are ti> ba lual^pUod, and tbofAtoof ur- 
guiio progr«M cDormoiulj MCCcK^ratocL For vuoeoM intht 
■wntiMit vorJd in tUv uYjUil^ U> aIuUi iC« ifrida* «ud Uie ui- 
idlMtuiJ clement I0 t>:poclaUj ad^ipted to suginonting tliat 
powor. Bj tlie dirort io«Uuh1, Action in thi* <lirx^on i« 
rv4Trictj>d to csji(4 which Are withiti iho iiiti9i>LiUr Btrcn^cth of 
llic^rgiiiUAn, nod cavily 4<:cQ»iljiv williuut ikv iiit«rv«utiuu 
of obeudoa. Tbo nlmoac pouINo to bo uoogiripluljwl hj i$ 
VAi mr'AAtinvl by thr. cnrrgt ftf^iiaUv 4;!tpaudod: Tlifi LcaM 
o1«tn}L-lwu tii,'_^'oiul Uw pt»«<rr of lh« iudUidmJ to dew ^w%j 
\>y muavular forcv in «□ «iffucliMl btr to it* accvm to tlu) 
object of dc«iT«. By dio aid of thv n^vr elumvcit iJi IUm a 
cbiii|fC<r TntcqimirKl hAmcrn arc cVnidcil by rin-niloUA routes 
of apprmeb. Powerful rtatimJ force* if« by AppropfiHie 
adjnitBvnts iiBdelod<f lfL<» work of oTsnwnuDg rcinAtoiicc, 
and vliAt it wholly onaEWruiblo in Uto praeut i>» by tho 
ncciMuirv AiiaptntioQ, Kvnrod in the fnturoi 

Tbe int«1l«»?4<iAl eUriiMrnl. tiiougb raiomouly gmUmI a force, 
u uot Id nuHiy cocli. it l« cot compuiUe With Um uUaer 
true pHjcliic forccH. Tliu&c luthvmro obliged to do the fcaJ 
^ork thot ift |>OTform«d. tho ramc in thr> indirect a« in the 
direct im;l1io(|. The intallficl ooly f^iidcu Ibein 111 kuHi a 
niAnner m to »ecufe tlur unxiriinin ro^uli^ It alto IriiigB 
Otbvrnitunil fom^atoibtiiraid, nad^tu^ tii«9cftA(«iWcfr{M^ 
Th« ^nrnil proov** ^y which til tfii* b doue ia lliat of m»- 
tvn^/dit, tbn ptndttct U *»/, nnd ibrrofore tlie f^LCull v may bo 
lli^ llio tff«wn/nw f»calty, and tbo pLanomcnu prodocwi 

ijieiid plicnouflitt, 

Tbc on* priaciple connon to all form* of ^rt <ad Inren- 

i» thai of caiiffinft nnttiml forvo* thcniMlnifc to do tho 

that iDAU dwinM to have doooL Tbcro uv* hovuTar^ 

many wii>ii in ^\uch thw principle may op«nto» fa aomo of 

rVhich tlio iirini-iplb itnrif U aocncwbAt itiSccih of detociioni 

On tUe beds of thcue diffciVDoea, tbe modca of invontJoo, or 

niiiiK£c:r urruon cip ct)NAi<JOK. 


the klndfloC IndirDCt »ctioii> iKlinit of • roa^ aliAifiatiocu 
The Urgam gmn^ in lli» (rloaolflcatioci aiv ihoee iLai «0D- 
ccm re«piKHvi*1j tJie ^m&MMt snd rlw 'iimntuM of forco, la 
fvriuer cato, fn4<wll7 forvca xro iutmuificil ftiid hoBtilo 
Uijuiniiiliuil. In ti«o Jnttvr, nvatnU fvnMM, vr vtua Ikh- 
onA^ MTc tttmL-d to bcnudciil pmrpcAOr, or tJko latterr aro 
iilorwl li«Dtn1. WliowT frii^iKllT ft>nx* arc int^idfiixl, or 
^wnj Fbrifc* nude u^fnl iv nior<.- niffnl Ihjui before, tli«» 1d- 
wntiua b pontnA Wbvnx liovftk; furotn are dtlivr dimio-* 
or <0v«ned, tbe LnvODttoo U fu^oMw. To dniplif;p 

TbB pni>ci|)l« of <n^nj{/^/tojii !■ i^xomplified l>jr lUe 
Icfver a»d Ail<<xuiii< Ai hat W<t) utttkeaitlioallj- pruT«i], U^u 
prindple oiloiid^ to ombrnco tbo inclined plaAo, the pnUojr, 
wmI thft vHi»l anil nxbv Tbi* kv, tbcrrfnre, rcAl)^ under- 
tie* all vtrirtlf mvt^KMiical aiti 

Tbo princlpt« of tOr^itm h v«]| iltiMftratoii m 1h« nim- 

ilo art of irrigation wbic^ vaa pmctioctl Irr tiio Amcoicam 

rig;inM in iImt Ij^wt^r Slainit of BafbaHsm. Tho DeqCrn] 

rorco^ vbii^b iraa cajr>iu^ tli«> mouiitniiV'toimwc down tn thr. 

•CO, waa. by a almplu dorico, ptado 1o cutj it to tbe Itcldi of 

l>o. Tho Turiow mean* of Meiiniiga"lic»d''of iraier lu 

iL iTucliin«rT eanctirvte Attll more fn)qn««il examplM. 
«T1icra u a fuiiln-r Ihw of rummtifaU'^i vhioli Uat 1>ann 
COElentvTvljr ismplo)^, ximX wlri^^i may sonxiiBica iw bn^u^l 
oodtfr dn« aod iv^mctiiravi tti^iltfr ibo oiIhtt of tbe g«DenJ 
drriiMni abovo defined^ TIiua tim« i« ofton oActimiiiocl cir 
iTort«d into funw. a» in tai^tng a pik-^iTiwr^ ifitcnaiij and 
iwint effti^ Iwiiig FtcuPc^L nut by a niwfauiiiTu] prukc^ 
but Ity dirtrilwtiuQ of foroo oror a gnat^r uilorval of 
time. Tbfi rvvvme of xhl\ or a nr^liTc priiMriplo, M Mvn 
,1b Um plivoomeaa of wf^i^hu and upHnf^ to A|)eTmte t^ock^ 
rk. Otlwr aobonliiialif lann mif^t btr qoUnL, bui a anora 
mlnnin aodyifii ia not Doonaar^. 

Th* f-cf>«Tal prinriplc^ nodcflyhif tbo npplicoUoD i>f tlw 
Indtrvct n^vthod nnd tbdr bearing qpon aodal ician^ bav* 


ninittlj Iwva qmXe faUr vbtted in (^haptcr V LI (roU i, pp. 470, 
&5iJ, while tptvidy tjcamplvft wUl Iw |C^^^" ^° Cfiapltr XI 
(tn^POf p, d$r*). h wilt not, tbori^fon?, bo necv^^ary Lere 
cither to Trpr«t the former nr t<) juiH<-ipatii tbc^ Utlrr, It, is 
itulfii'ilMit to liftv« fluN) the piBilioH uf tbis mu*t importdJit 
of lUi iluf £a<^re of «>jcul (ivvt^opTii«rnt in Ju proper plaoe In 
a ^ystam of ck»i1{on:i(;rt of plicnomcnft* 

phubomcdia thus Ear coQ»id«ml, w an; nblc to pvrccUi: tliq 
Bevoral (rtsgCB of prognwi in tlio d^rMtiup of cooiioro; of ro 
mln. The Ioirc«t stftgo in iUb, m in nil other nvpoctn, fa 
^Jit »f gi^nfrtie pbfmofDOtiJi, in vhirh vn taw how jHv'Jtt wm 
^0 wsftte uiii bov excoodiDgiy mhhU tli? Jcgrev of pn>f[mi 
u oo«npaj0([ vitb tli« amount of ^luirgy ejtpoitd(?d. Thb Ib 
attarv'fi motiifwl, pun: nn^l simpl*^) 

l' Tho n«t itn^ \% Ihnt of tli« ilinvt inrtho<l of ennjiHon- 
Hfr« lliv phtfiiomoiu iuv luloological. kiitl lieJicv fur ouon: 
prL>JxicCjrv of rouiltA In prupoHJon to tlie forvo 4»x^rrU*d. Tlio 
[mmoiMa vtemimt of vnttc Ia climinitcH. Action that in not 
4y|iiilibnt«4 bj ftitMiiprinfc what h bcjrond Ute jwn^cr of tlie 
9igvnt ranillA in 8vcoaiplir<hing Um nme ainuuDt of worii M 
if nrprtMonted bj thcoQcrgj- put forth, but no moro< Ae fn 
gttnctJc plionomma wc wr^ro (tcnling ^vttl: tm'? vtntura! fof^rtt, 
if> in tJiOM tc-loolo^ii!!! ph<^Tioiiic7i.i vhifh Are AMunipli^bod 
bv the din^ int'lho<l ne are tflilJ dealing vvitb trou iintunl 
£i)n«& Thv ilifftTTciniw is ibat wbilo the g^^^He for<w» uv 
phjriMl tlic ti^l4fob^<?u1 for««« >ro p^rchinai. 

Hnnlly, wfi 1iav« u M tliird fteffo tbitl tn which th^ indi- 
rect laotiiod i» app]i«d, And herv wv Hee th« ntjuttniiim €con- 
oiDj and thft mBximum efliojflncy in tboaooompliihinunt of 
reaalta. With tlic dcrci1opm«Qt of ibift moik* of nctioiit firnvt 
■nd iiK^n^iffini; disproportion h Aocnmd bMwri^n tha onftr^ 
expeivdvd and tbc work accompUibcil ; Bpoox tioiOyand in* 
1«fn<rnin|; uUiat-lvfl uv ovcrooai^ uid th« ccfflditioiu are tl 
loBgtb MiUlalied for eoda] e^atioo. 

yAWRAi \m ^nncui mKvouEsx, lod 

TliQ s^tUui of ekoificatioa nbore BlceUliud a bued 
primftrilr nponi tliu fuuOjimoEJUl Oktiiution u-f gdwCioftnd 
tcli?oliv^:^l jjAiccioviw^ns, thU bdng iliu m<o*t impovtant bftsU 
^v wlilch to oo^tempUU; the BQCcaAivD «tvps in tfan pro^ 
nm townnl tlio iiiul ii»gc TvynM^ub^ hy tliv itiqiliailLuQ vf 
Ikfi iudin^ mediod. But llte ivudvr c:iii mA tmvo failed to 
peffwivo iLtt lU«ro is uotKrr voiTDcIv luen fuiidtmwotal dU> 
tlnction, fiimiiJiitig a Mootvl baaia i>f ddMiliciiiiMi too «Hett* 
tinl to bu ui-cf locked. Tbin U tliu dUitfiction of natvreU va^ 
ari^fiiioL It la cAon-^ too^ UiaI tlik dawiiUniioci will OT«ff- 
Up llo former, *» &< to plftO« ■ Ia^ct iliRre of «ll pbunncnciut 
ondiir Oic ftnc of tb<i«e g>^crt1 jcnwpA tb4ii fell umtor tliO 
IfToop of getivtfo phvuomettt, wluhj rv«trictiag tlio i«cciid 
of lla gnax grovps to « ntuoU mmivrer flcJd tlian that ocei- 
picd Ifjr l^aolingini] pfliononMni. A c!o*rr i&vptM^ukn ithovg 
Uwl Ibw UvWt-T cixifisU in rvJcg4tiiij|r from lh« depviai«fit 
of tfiUnlciriitt] pbouoinuiu U) thil uf j^nifLLiHl j>fauoouMka 
tlM ontJrv domain of tbo diroct meUiod of conation. 

Wo Mw thiit tU M^tioiMi prrfonoRil ttiNiordiog to dinrltivct 
netliod tfpw villi icRi«tio plioii-ucncnft in obcving the tu^ 
uhamed fu£om«t or printtij Uv» of nuidon. Tltf pboiLOinuiui 
nf t1u« jfTVOp niQil tfacroforc t«kc pUcc Uiroa^li the ae^oo of 
trae lutunl fonm ; iiwl bena: t!:« ilAimitf ^f njtunJ forr^ 
besiiSM ombradng tfao do]ttrtniuDt uf ^[ctict^ pUenoiMiu, 
Qkcut lUfo oxtsmi oTi«r 00 much of the field of leleolog^ml pbo- 
twinefii » fnlb Vp'!thin tluj apcratir^ii of tho dirrcl method. 
Th!« bclnj? the cuCs the doiiuio of jirtificUl phtiuiofi&A, 
oxdndin^ w it mna dl f^^tic lod nil dirt«4 t«leo1ufEkftl 
phemtfomu« U «o luvrowod dowu ■* to cmncido in ftll ro- 
fpMls Willi th4l of tiMlirael toLeoIo^ptnl pbu&oaieiia 11000. 

(iho [mport&ncQ of tho frM^ oxtrfml of the dom^hi of 
BMnnl pliefiomoQi majr 1m> bcttrr apprt«Mto<i when wo ra- 
■Utalwr thftt i( c«tittitnlt^ tlie k?^Unialo 5ebl f^tr iho vxer- 
CMi of IIm lorvntiTo fftcnltj', and Uut oTor^ ^wUera within U 


nucli pbi-'TLuni^uk Km ^mwcpttblo to modtficAtion ftjid cRiubl« 
of bcifij! rendered iidi^iiUgvuus to iuhu iu }.»tn]KjrLtuu ;u tlidr 
bwg lira coiBpPtbewJed. Uut okora ivpwjtHJIv >iu»- ihltt truth 
Gouocni thu «octc»kigiK% iinoo tie linds in ii tUo vcrr hopo of 
•odttL ■c^euift. H« koanii ih.it witbin thnt ^rnuit group c>f 
pl]«iioii:i<n& M:ib|wt to Lumiui t^tiulruL, and under iLtr Hubur< 
(linato hc>ad of dinvt tvloologicsl phoDoai«OBi stand tho pho- 
nomunn wtiicli rvfttilt imm Thc< rtpcraUon of the ttetal for'^ea 
(vol i, p. 4^»S), nitil in Ibis f*ct nnide* ibo enrlm ]MMibitiLy 
cf ail ariificLsl bcvrittl ^nj^^rvM. 

GviioUr chongM Uhw plhco throngh fnHnitoeiitinl inc-ro- 
moiiB*, and ur MAcaltrly atow, all but u uifTO dUbn^itiiLl of 
ODerf^ b^irif^ ImI fn ^qnilibntion. Vital plifdiomunu b^loitj; 
to tlio g*ii«4io dbt«. Sk'*nKt^ iihiwoiuoaft vo tvlsolc^caj hot 
dizvut, tbiM nKaritig ik> niuc^bjinkoJ mdvonlago abovtf tlmi 
Tj)ucb tlie fMrf^iiisnk itivlf Uuft secured tfaroQ^h lt« «tnictU' 
ra) deT«i1opmcint« Intallfectunl pTx^nomenn, nU't Mi^oTogicAlf 
alone «o<iiro lluh adrmt^fti, uid i( in lbi» wlikli ditttiajfui^iua 
■IJ forms of oH »d<1 ouniitUulw imi-lL luftiotui arilji^icl^ Wliilo 
ntjiny Hit(^fi j^-iiona tn? doubclua perforuioi bj tbo bl^beit 
munm^U, U rvqnirrn n dfMt duKritninnti^in to divtirtgniiJi 
them fmoj tiv/iw^ IcuimiH iumj ;iot iiiAppn>{irutvly be 
ttlled xmndttry orgQmMtim* nlDoe U secvrca, thnrae^ poralj 
geoecio iRviboda, snoh ennmkilnr adi^tions ab are Kcored 
bjr mnrpholo^rAl oi^nimtiun, wliL^rrrti^ eoftaiii mfdianicaL 
adTOntagea are K^iutd, ^>^> l.>Ti;e m tbe ereatuna rea«lii«aa itadf 
to tlio eonatanily rvcorring JDfliioaoea vf a clrmimHiribed 
baUtat, bat irhirb are u* iiKipfimdnr oetttdc cif thnl habitat 
aa tarn thri phjuolf^cal proivsapa tmUida of tfie otganiam. 
Initinct, tbvwforo, nuv be aid to fttoAd to tho iiidinvi 
mirtbod in llie mae relation tbst ibe ph/aioloi^caJ Apparatiis 
of livinf^<if|;anlnna0tandAin Tbrdiroct metliod. Jnut lu* rho 
lalua aiv porcO; fienatMr prodootii, attended vith eUpctii that 
appear to Iw pt^ditcao ibefonoerivaa equally pDr«^««LC<tie 
pmdeoU allondttl wtib effacta Oih( App«ar in )•« inlHh'^<tuiil. 
And h if iHth groatlj licdghtcocd interttt tbot ve now ob- 




Mrrc that tn>iCinct fomia still anoUiur of tbote abrupt »op#, 
tlrivtlj ftiulo^oufc to ib^ ottriied b^ coH-voDtmctiob in 
ininckit and Urvvtn^ in wt>doM aivd jcnqc^ to i^icrvo the 
tfio u'{<!c inti-rrbl Ih.'Cv'd^d xhr. pbctiiitiMrrut of t>io dfrect ami 
iWv of tiic imiirecl inetliw) ol ou<i«iiu!i- 

^^-^yii/g/o^/fft.— UritSj to rw:a|^ltibit« the fUllrtt mjl>' 
joct of th? iTbMiIIc^'>n «f phcnoinciu, we Rnd lliat tlie; 
RiAT he pnmunlj ilhtilttl into chc tirci grt-nt cbiwv, j^vfirlio 
uiij loln>iuj(icAL, ih'* first of uL]c}| %n m\myw pbTvicml iml 
oticon^ioufs >nd pnxluc« ohai^i^ ihrvu^rb iudtiiteiiunl io- 
cn^fiiHiUt vhllc tbo voMul ara lUwsy* |wyrhi<m1 tivl ifuti* 
*ri<>ij]S pt*xcet\h-jt from vr^Tition and invaldnjir p-nr^ioM. 
[.'M>Vjo^ tu fc^^nt^ie |Ffii;fii>uieiia, me Cud tbit tbvj urv iiqV 
i^ i IliI Into CHO gn>ii|kr— Sikti^nit^ Uio result ot \th}-t^ok\, or 

r^r.i'^, fATDCf* and odrgojiic^ ihn lyiitilt of viul, r>r IffifJcg- 
lol, fiinN3«. Lookinjc to Ic^lculcixicaf pbeiKimcnA, wc find 
tbftt Uiu>'. lou, bvtuiif; to t«v |!vnorjJ t^uUlii ifilviia — direct^ 
proeevdliig acoofding i» tho flinri nwil^cx) i^f i>c>Ti4iiom and 
indirect, ])n>cci4ing a<y>(}rdi(]g to tlio indirect mctliod of 
conatJoD. TMr^t cd«i>lifri<^I |>}wn^monA aw MNvrptibleof 
Ik MCundarv eahJiridiuii— irwucifi^itl Utf lUe Htck'\o^i Uut 
Boc fniidamc-ntoJ— into tach aa urv mnoifwcod in the animal 
tcjKjI Maw nun (xurilo^ual), aiul ^uch lU r^coiMitate Knnuui 
tu^t^^m {uathropoiiij^va.]), Thia taic wb-^roup b tU domain 
of ibo aocial fumv. 

IttffpmlLng tliM V tha primiuj ekawficnliun of pHonom- 
efia, vf' maj- oi-xt lake ikrcotiitt t^f (he >ttr«el;r I*^ iic^p-tftaiit 
MVfttiUry dAtnifiirnfiuo iDtf> nofv^ aimI <if^(A'ui^ NaIuthI 
pbaDonana indndtfall gunoiic phcn<>i»iiin, uml dirc<-l Idvo- 
Io^gaI pliciiDinam in atMiticio. Arlilim) plivuoim;ira eoui- 
dde aail are Ktrt^il^ idvhtkaJ vrlth Endlrooi lelcdogkal |dll^- 
BomonL All rmiiinl phoitoouriiA tiki^ pl.ici* »nvirding to 
■nlfrvnt lawPtol^iy tb« tnoeli>ninl aiiunv* itrc inipclluil bj 
tnuf Mltind forr««. Tbof aiv ^ftpable, tU^tvforv, of hvhig 
Infimt^paiMl, tbpEr nmllfl may bo p4V(|{rio<]. oiid tl.o plifr 
Domcua ibHRiKliY* mty bo nkodillnd at ilit? viil »f rational 




buiujj^ wlio liavo made tliomMrv* nctiLuintcti villi tlio lawa 
whicli ncik-rlio them. Artiftuiol plienuiitoiia ore iboee that 
tut^h from Midi lu^idifloation and control of aatoml phoQom- 
ittfl hy vuch Mtiou^ bLongs. Tlw troiuifonniaion* c1?ccU<J 
VpiMi Uie :;Ir>T>o bj' tiiitii--h'UiuhT uithuLit Ll» nitiouNl actioiu, 
v^onlit not luvc i^ktui p1u(.*e, and whlcU luoj bo doFigoatcd 
in g^ncrnl phrwc «* duo to the >gcrni.-i('.« ai nvUiaiioii — eoii' 
iu«t |inuoi|Ki])y of au^'b artitirinJ ^iV^wxni-na. 

Tbo foUou-big tabular exhibit williud Uiij rotd^rin 5xiii^ 
ihi^ rdbti^riA of tbi«c tcvunU {fronpD, n'hilv At t!w kiido timo 
it oonibiuw in a Ainf^lr itdieiDO both tbe Imttea of dftMdflafttiOQ 
thit h&T^ been (ODplojrtfd : 


liraeMdlng from vcJIiua khd iurDlvlu^ pi^ 

Ibv fvadll of 

Of)*antif ; 

■ * ^ 

Soflloelair AiiihniprMaflali 
*l innLfnE- ■« iiiuiirr«|£d 

UrvtMow naiii of tfia 

mt mf iliDd of 

^ hi 


Hue utuni fijiwH j pipflbk uf pndliKlon (Jul JwtUfls- 

rmi4ttlnt^ nf miU' 
mofHttLvl bf thv 

Btaticmickt or Ttttr ABfiDnort- 

T1]« pnrpow of lhi> firawnt chApto, u drotd/ annonnot^d. 
ku U«ii Ui Aococnpllili tlio complece oHontotion of the rrjtd- 
«r for dt» vojngo Wfon him. Without iblv mtLc-h thcit in to 
eomo might appoor DaeflDhk^eaa, or at IihuI lovo its point. 

frrAT£U£HT OF THE AfiGOUE^nr, 107 

N>Q think tn cyvtiTmA. Vo*! Kj^fteinatic trutiMV Are on- 
mtsllifpbltf nnlcu foUovC'd frooi tbo bt^imuig «imI gnApod 
in \hvirvn\lsvij. A fnnduncnuJ totto riq4 tbnmgh them 

invlijjUj: unhiMnl iu bolftied pnaa^, Tl]« otreful reader 
iif tmvkt wo«lu, witliOQt nccefmrilj v^jDinvung in Uio nutlior'a 
viewg. Ifi lUa at Uwl to cudiiprvlivni tbtfiu ud to Uo ju^tioc 

It ««* tliougbt tbit tbo oo«iEid«ratioiH sot forUt b this 
ltt|4«<r might amI in thns Hnridotin^ ibo p^iuirx] point nf 
'i«vi- fmoi wli]«h thu work w nriUva, unil ciubk the n«dor 
wito ilul) pcnwvcftj to tlio cttd to nuppl^ « frum wltit Iiq m&jr 
tbiu Iwn of tJw ideaft wliids t^u vriicr dcii^iM lo oonvej, 
tome of tbe deSoiencM in llio diMUMJonn vrhkoU &ne to fol- 
low. TIjciiq b a t«od«ocj — to wUIob, I prvaumotiJl nill con- 
feet— to allow the rrwlor's indirtJlDaHt^ to rrowd o<»t Out of 
[^llia WRtOT, fttiil thou im f^tr lo mingUt tbe kab]trc4u« wiHi Ibo 
tbjooHrd la to kavc tLo UlCvr iiii|>^rf«ctljr nHiinibitvd. For 
tlic rtudcr** own good, tltU Icndcncj' ^]0nt4l lie rettnuncd. 
only eitlnrf^ onr own oonoeptioTU bjr admittinfc thatc of 
fn,nol iK^rt^mrilv Ui 111* MOi^ ol acovptlng tLetQ^Wt 
limply cf appfvciotii^ tlican. 

In (he fonMrlrgE ailment, now fo he briHIy dated, and 

>lwy|nenf]jr to b« folly ehborat«<l, {he rtaiteiiMnta ludo in 

diapter« a« weQ as thove oonUiDcd b ibo pn^^in^' tqI- 

are to be iakom m the baala, or promU^^ and mni^i be 

tnttd ** for tht* aalco of tbo ar^mcDt " at tcwt, however 

Ihmy mav be dMtiunl in tteuuvh-ea. 



The ranilnder of tliU woHc will chicfij condM ifl the 
dUrnmrofi of via t«rnw, an<1 th«tifore, before enmlDj^ixpfin 
diaouMon, ft m n primary nccf«mtT to fnmt>b H^'d 
<4 oaeli of llicao tcnna. 


Fnr n pnrpfi«« wliirh will prvwntJr tp])«au- wc will MUgn 
to CRcb of tlirfti? tffriiM a iL-ttor^ whi^h will fix iltpoir ordot lo » 

The tirft of thcw» tvroH, wUich «ie wlU dcdj^ruU by flifi 
klt^r A» w //<j;>/;w*f ■ the Mxvinil. wtii^li wr viU (?i>i^nAtc 
bj B, in /*nisnv**; llio lliSwl, wliitli we wiJI (lc«ignMl<; hy t\ 
b /Jyifom^o /l«ffw«/ tbu ftnirtb, wbicli vg will 4o«4^n3le hy 
P, u Dyt^ntHk Ojfini^fn ; tht* liflb^ wliicb wc uiU dc.vigmto 
by E, \e Knowicd^; and tbo eljLtli, wlilch wo vJll daognAto 
by K, k /^BMnfboi*. 

Tb(T dvHuitkitia qf tbc*o iiiv tcmx ftrv ah follows: 

A. UttppliMA. £xG«i of jikuure, or cnjoymont, orfrr 
polB, oar dUcomfofl^ 

tt Pro g r W t BooccM in hannoTiinf^g nAtnnl phenom* 
«UA witb bntiiEin adwitii^. 

0. Dyiminic Acilion, Emplopnont of tbc bitcUcctnnl, 
itiTeiitiv<!, or iodirtwl niHliod <A crination. 

[>. l>ynatiiiL' Opmiofi. Currarl vicu« of Ib^ ivbitlous of 
mm to tbu univene. 

1v Knowlcdgcr. ArqttdiDtanoo wtt^ tbc envir^nmrnt. 

K Education. Uniwml ditirEbiittoii of exUkni kndir1< 


Tbbobqm of l>fKAmc Sorioi/>OT. 

CorrrKpocdbfT to ibc*c mx term* tliTU dt6iiLHl, ibtni jito 
iix tbvprvout uf dyiKunii? n^oluf^ vblob r«qiiir« lo be irlabo- 
mtcd iikd «euU£^i^U >nd tu vncb of vbkob a srpctnto chap- 
ter will be devoted. 

Conlinaing tbo lit«cd dc«igiutio4U^ tbiw tbeoroEDfl ora 
Ibo follow ing : 

A. HapplnM \% tbo altiBMlc txA of conation, 

B, Pro^TTM 14 tho diiv«f iDOaiM to H^pplnov ; it Ls tiiurv!- 
fore, tljo fint proxiiruto «fid of ciOMtion, or primary moame 
to tl]« nllliDftte «iid. 

0. dynamic Aotion b the dirwt meuu to ProgrrM; U 
k, therefore^ tbe noond proiimito ond of cuoaUoii, or aoo- 
ondary m«ati« to tbo vJtiniAtA end. 


D. Djnunic Opinioo is the direct tncoiu to Dynftznlc 
Action ; it ib, therefore, the third proziinBte end of eofkatioDf 
or tertbjy means to the ultimate end. 

E. Knowledge is the direct meana to Dynftmic Opimon ; 
it is, therefore, the fooith proximate ^d of conatioB, or 
fourth means to the ultimate end, 

F. EdacatioD ib the direct meam to Knowledge; it is, 
therefore, the fifth pronmate end of conatioii, and ifl the 
tifth and inittal meana to the ultimata end. 

Letting the ajmbole alone stand for the terms, and em- 
ploying the mathematical aign of equivalence ( ^o= ), to be 
read ^'will reeull in," the above prcpositionfi may be con- 
densed into a very simple notation, which at the same time 
present* the entire argument in a perfectly clear and intel- 
ligible form : 

A- The nltimate end, 






The special claim which \& made for thia scheme h that 
of ccTTtpleteneM. It is proposed to show that not only havQ 
we in the Grat term the abwlutely liltimat^ end incapable of 
serving aa a means to any nllerior end, bnt that in the last 
terra we have the absolutely initial meant incapable of 
being made an end to any anterior means. 

It wilL be fnrther eliown tbat the eeveral proTiimate ends 
conetiinte tme means for securing the neit respective higher 
ends, and therefore need not be pnrBucd as ends in them- 
aelvee, bo that the entire eeries above the initial means may 
be safely left to take care of itself, and the total social encT^ 
be concentrated on the initial means; tliat all power ex- 
pended on any of these proximate ends is lost so lonji; as any 
power can be laid out on a more remote one ; and that sue- 


«c«j for tlic mmtt tmetgj' expcmled, wiU 1>c pn^Mwtiouol to 
tbeivaiotCMMof tlwend tovviml wlilcJiit Ea^treGt«d,ao that 
tbe tiigIi«Bt eo«QWD; !• oiilj s^curt^ ui Ulrwtiiig U Ui tUe 
movt tviiioUtproKliiifttD^Ddt vrhich ifillic bid&t inoani. 1 

But wo viU MC lutfG fnnkcr nn^djuilc liuj trmtmcnt of 
ibe iQAiD problem. 

chaptkr IX. 

lUpnyEsa tve iriTtiUTV tsm or ooixk-nois. 

»inVj;lai^ fok^i t4 «lr«— TTU *«ijM uf toUiDi Uiop, pinim; ub> 
jfBlha,criccialci^4l.|iplAtiif iWv— TlivhitlliT<^ar lfti«|lM^Eitl,ncilrHM4 
«tth Awdlivel, iffpbviiul, oMTiUiJ bfcotiiCioD—l'tiliUrluiUia^Tlivnfi- 
•mt aU«cid md* ot Miitik« ahova to bt iiirrvlj miwit w tb» •diTaala 
Mid, ln^liiw ITWit tJiH ^twag— hnpcHwIko of ilv «*dM «f Uw Ukl 

^fafrrw itf fnDoi with (Tw it^rvf "^ orpudBOlin— T1* fam^ of 

At tlwi Imup of «TGnr pLilMkopljtoal ajfttem inTolrifij^ 
intomti of nun Ire t))u plwnomeDi of yiy/rny, Thow 
jilvfaaDinvBft con«liliito ttu> fu^4rat*iPi of Sociolo^, Tiittjr 
fkfiwto lorntftn iraportAnt factor hi Biolc^. finpoMfble 
tbrkOfTh [| inav lio to find a lino which elnll Bbftotiiiolv ibd 
in alt CDivt diHde the vegeUblo frvm the animal kin^^im, 
it k nBTertbvlcOT irao lliftt« fur nil fvtnui to unr uxttnit ^llliir- 
timlilod, ihe pi«e orf op or i>oopoM C «ion of f«?t>)uig u llw 
tliMiB^UIiinf iiuHc <^f thru two drjiarliui^ntM of 1)£(^^^. 
Fnr kU th0 pftttticftl pnr]*'^''''^ of a pliilrMophy. iIm f>1i«iiotii«va 
of lift; ni^ be cluioicd undiT iJm Of>e or thv olli^ ^f the two 
hoftdit tlio inswti^ nnd iho »^/<«»t Tbo tnuivf- 
friMn Ui« fombrr tA tlifr Utti7r, in tiMf pm^^rcw of tlio 
itiDD sDil uq^nnizulioii of nulter, ooiuitituttii odq of that^ 
l«*,or W]B, wLic-)^ nr^tTirt* oc<*Miii*>Tin1ly initios »"*! which 
to nurk off tlio «nu iu tiw lii^towj vi iitiivlop>»icPt, 


irmirT.-aj\?piNE»8 the tsn>. 

Utfl without foediiiig i» inwtitUtly jnmf^ mkI It* eapfltiHt- 
tieu jLrv liiuitud by tLv xaluiv uf niinvaudtu); circutufUnuw. 
Lifo with fueling twwmcfi a^uVi uod «Jtbor diivctl^ or ut 
(lirrrr.ljr rc^Li upon the etiTin>ntiic«l, modlfving dio face 
of DAturv. 

Tbe nalund gcD^eU of fwlin^ in oira of the arnX Inlor 
ffldng of biolo^cfll f ro1>)cm». Nut t!mt, on a fcicntillc ^nc«- 
tioo, it KlmitA of a r^rrum aolutioD^ but, &a unc of Uioao lii** 
loncail qucvtiun* lltnj«t u;H>n U8 b;ih«<faclAi>f bdoingr, irlitle 
it liunwLWb tlw limitfl oi uluun jLliuti, ii crq not be i-AclailtKl 
from tlw il<Mnnin of msional ini|itir^\ Lilco tuauy olbor kin- 
dfvvl qtutil iouB, tliAt of UiD <in)(in of fuulin^ :M<<^iiie to find Its 
III04I «^iCi»raiotory tolutioa Id iJie Kt^t JLnd nowly i3iAci>vrried 
law of «ol«iriion, or fltiaptalli^ii. Tbuugh to a ci;rtAia dvgrw 
rdfttfvc, llio phonoincrift of focli'n^ in.iT bo ivvolvtU titto tvo 
KtV4t |^n>i;p». «acl] mutually cxcliiriin^ Uia otbcr, tn ontr of 
wbioli ftll tliO fqwUugtt ATv iborv or bsw [ilvutunibl^ uhJlu 
ill th9 otlwr tbffj ire mow or Jav iwiofTiL SixwUod lodif- 
fcrtuit fueling* (rciL i, p. ^i}^ cnn not bo ftdmlttod et- 
c«p4 into lilt? iI(>|ajtfiiMit of pAjrdiulo^ proper, irlifrft, m 
tl>c ci^rrdHliA of perwpliuo, Uiiejr uv deiiomn^un] j^ciwa- 

FletMre nod luio, tijco, aiv the lemluifc chtncMstic* of 
•I) feolfn|>n. ToJboIo;;uttf Imve cmavv^ oam«nMi« oxplfl/ia- 
liotw of plcamro and pftiu, [nrtivukrl/ of Hie Uttt^r, onr of 
tbc clijcf of vliicli w thiit pain I& ^wn u m a <t]«ciplitw. In 
order 10 fi]ipTOv« our moniU or tncrt«§e ourn^rervooe for 
111* Cwator Dm, «£ cmima^ thin would not npply to the 
lower wiinule which Huffor Uko OHfwtvcft, ood the Mme ob- 
jwtioii iiyTiId •pplj to x\] the ammptt ntt<l« by (Lut wlioi>l 
to MDciiinc fiir tU exJbtdico of pl««fjiv« HtMi poiu. T]i«y 
rtTcljF o-)n<low^[id lo Xaktf «di hnnihle creotnro m nninmU 
irito th^^ir (..fty ci>nrid.cmion. Whfm IK«aitM ww mor by 
tJiii infiupentblt obfltacKbi* fuuive cendor uid lrtffic<Al rot>- 
•lM«ai^ drOT« htm to the wont ^a^fj of hie lifo— ibat of 



ng thftt rU onmial* were tnerc oufooKito, oBd ikvoid of 

WttoB tbtt prbcij4e of uuturul ad:4fUtkin, or eeledlaB, b 
f^rlj^ iii]fbr<i^Ml ftitct applioii lo tbo plkfllWDloiiA of 
ig^ llirj [rn-t t' oins of tlie aui«?9t cbuuitt of factn in ^o 
» nBgo of bioJogickl foiciiie^ to vield to Ita iui|sic U^uctu* 
Tbu diUd pbuua tt^if (in; uid tfaii hcMcd ot«tii, and c^ay- 
Ukd; noogiiUcA ilui icf U^x at tlio fum wbidi oUcoib bnro- 
ifi^ is wljail ffoqiifrniJj pimrrvcv iln lif«. It ia tiupMdUo 
totdiiiic Uut viijn uiaii, vvcrtf be aUofuUilv mitifTt-rviat 
rto imixi muMid b; nokfiit cootiwione, He,, voald bv liubJo 
t>i be ilotrojryd in dfeOttjnicU of ^mOk wii«nr« thift AtlH- 
bnltt now pr\j4««tft tod pctBcrvcii jdrn. If micIi ik lira osfO 
witli ctuldnjti BurTtniMled and pn)Cc<:tvd by nUfmial pcir- 
eou and frlendef htyw ttxuch iT^otn potJ^at mut tbin |irii> 
f' Ik in tb» protcctLott nnd pneaarradoii of noJi*i«Uoii*] 

It U uot ibo ftlwtrwt lonr of life, tlie iMtm dmre to !U-c, 
vldcii coitfCB tlie kana lo Aire U>o liocind, or the partni]^ ti> 
'«OOTor from tlio fmJcoo. It i» priiviarily th« dread of tlio ptin 
whkh faporioww t«MlM« woufd bo iidlictud b^ (ho teetli of 
tbr one uti) ttiu labm^ of the otJirr Ami «n il if thmti^h- 
out t)i« >4Mitient wurid- Tl>e d[V*d uf pdn in the npiir U* all 
lhuB« wriiviiir« wbirb neil\y remit in l)ie pra»erralion of life. 
Aiwt «04f liow Uieae facta aro coftvbted. It K«nua trohm 
to Mv iL&l doATh is th« rnxM^Mrj ^vmflpqtiCAfH; (^ high Ac- 
Itrtnf of Miftvniig. Tlot tbcrc i« nuillv tu> Io^alI codinoo 
bctti'iH'ii tIi«nL ITolit wv uiidvntami (bu Umnnt; of 
, iMtW'frvTind U« of Mi^hiJ, ilitro Ifl nbaolutelv no ad^ 
te rxpknatinfi of tbfa «r>rrelati<>n — no a priori groond 
for aMniinin^ tti> i^xi^tt^nce ; aiu^ it U only boctHflO wo kftljim- 
ol«TTv ^li*" fartB, ilmt moll A toitn»rtit« bvtwttm tfaum 
tJiai of catiM* tnil t'Q^'ct tbnoM Ija fidabliitUed in onr mind^ 
T|m» otti) t« ftnjdn^^jurt 10 lliit of ^fnvitulion. It nvria al^ 
ionl to apralc of « body morin^ upminl, 1. «^ awk/ frocn 



tlie caHli, wlwQ left to lUdf, limply be»ii» of udvoitil 
eiporiciice. Tbc kwe of thuught arc wbully tiCLAl!«ctod by 

bv tto Im^'^^I inoonfflittviiojr in lUe tvociattoii vi ilie }ii>-Wt 
degTBw of MJff^rin^ wiUi lh« l<>Dge0t duratioD of Yii^ aod 
onJj oxpcriUDOc negative* ^ucb & iitipfK»itic»n. Indct^, tli^ 
rcU^DiKs b&v« fftlk'H bauk on pure lo^ic \v]jeii£!W9, Uiink* 
ing no corporeal poni^hnieiit HilHcientljr' »f-vi.>rv, i. ^,, tmU 
ijcln^ tbm ilcatb wvu!ii cvrtjunlj Kupv^rvcJic bufviv tbv rwini- 
iiit« di[»oubt of poiu ouuld bu iiilliL'Uxl, tliojr liftvc ioruotud 
jflboc* of 'i^mo/ Uirmrni for the Bo»i« wherv f^o&tli no loii^^ 
«(tuic« fonrinl on « dioi^k upon itrjffvnnt^- i^it, wlivoi iLo 
Uw of tiiirvivftl u oncv clou'lj- cunwi^vil, it intrcKluvc* iu 
»dv<|<iht6 Daediauk*! c&uve for llio ruktba Of «lh|ucuuu b&- 
iwccn pain ftitd dcMb. 

[ma^m; tb<? world peopled bj myrindA of liHnj^ And 
ftcrtiTO brinp uf [i]J LiutU and i*inivt of tlivcrvty. Thvy uxu 
ftU Ui coiiioot with all tlio otbcr objeots cxbtlag ftboul tliem, 
And a |>rt7 1o all tlto viciwdtiwU^ wluch a coutunUy din^ging 
world procrtt*. Withi>ut feding, Uicjr mtut be vritlioat 
wiuiv or ]uUru4iiou of duBger, liiiil rapiijly, lEm>ii|;b fr^jUL'tit 
oxpouiiv to tboco ogODCrioR wbitlj dL«troj thvii Off^iii7;s,tiQtif 
tbcT vMtblyOnr 1^ ones diaaj)i>i^nr befcice iht? ndverw elb- 
meiitK tlul frvcr>--wli*rr* Hum^THid llietii. The iillfir «xtilHV 
duo of cvvry fyrm uudcar thcv* rircHmi,tan**e« otmld bo but a 
qottdoiiof time, nibd all notuil iifti wwiUt ^-atit»b frou tbu 
globen But lot lu AtippAM *4»i\e to bo all^hily ^ndowod with 
thd •iwoeirtibilitjr to J«iiw Tb«e wonld, in por«porfioimt*i 
deffiVQii. abun Ibja aji^VDciw <si)cttlated to dcntroy tbcjr or^pLni- 
tatfoQ. b«oaitfo mch vtm^d alw) bo, ou Ibo hj (wtbuniii, t]i« 
01UM whi^ would prodttoe paiiu Tbo forme tbua endowed 
viKtld, tbvrvfor^, mirririt Ipn^^ in prcportioa to tbe d^groo 
of •ensiliTOMw to pain, Tliue, under thn now cleirljr un- 
dciMood law of "njitmnl wlorti'*," ibv uiiiubur of wwitiont 
bdi^ wnald iDcrcAie^ while the tneoAtlMit oq» wouU bo- 
ooiD« ejUJnet, and wo aUoqM bj|T4» tbc voHil enboiAnttidly u 

0EKB3I9 OF PKKM!f(l< 


AotniDj K& ft- ^ ^1 <><* tlw irrdiiocid ueitttptlon ol 
wtuolUawiOQiL rrcaEion of living Uiio^ m oil rtrnpectA ju 
tfauy n^t «xc«pt in Ibe total abwuc^ of f«k-1iii^ if « dcgrat 
of MOUJtlvQDUOT. LoH^vvr btuAU, b^ aenuiwd obou U> uuikc it* 
■ppoTMDff, flcddent^l/ or oihi:nriii«^ tbo «oiitip1oe« deveJop- 
mcnl of a fl«nii<^t kiikf^^dom of beings oat of «iu^ a Mata of 
tfaings is pvrfMtl; explimUxf on th<i lunglc principlo of lulu*- 
nl idootioii, or Qmj pROT^rition of iJie b«>£ 4(t«pt«d, Ttut 
Mflh htf oM beOQ ibo tnouiwr la wbleli wniieni bd^ banj 
orig:iiate<i, neodfl tiot, of cowse. bo md ; bar, bo ilui bk^o 
what it nay, it u the nine principle to whWi vrc ntmi look 
for Uio oal> eipUiiiitiuQ tbftt imlurv a^orda uf tliv eiUtntcv 
of pain in tlic woflii 

Not km s^lcM \ft tUfi ^p^ouM of tha oppoaite «AaM of foifl* 
JiifE, viz. , /^Awvn-. Itttk^cd, a clooor vk-w make* at pmbU^Q 
llLat Ui9 exitl«iic« of pltiominbl) aeoMliocui wu« ctcn moro 
lUtfiMMFy than that of painful oqm, In Ohlor ti> inmrr tho 
pT^aerratioci of living beti^; ani] oiiljr Ui coi)«c!>qtivn{70 of 
tJMlr rwUliriljr ia Uic prmioipcioit ocdndud of tbn din>Da> 
Inpral prioriijr of lliia ehm lA fucfing. For artirft life oan 
oeily lie maiiilaioci) bjr tlid abmrptif^fi of iiQinmcot, and ihia 
mnrimeDt. for frr*nr thJojE hi^lnT tTian tlio ctiimihI, mtwt bo 
MV^I and uhuiu«xl by thu ptoiH«r of a Kreilnr or Uaa dv- 
gnM of individtttl effort Bat no imch «ffoH will bo put 
forth without a d<^fi(iiio ^imvliai iu thai diivclion. and th« 
only mth fdmaliH fiottihla b tiio plounrt^ of (^nitifyin^f de. 
•ire. Wo hav« no ri^l to dottbi that lh^^ UToo^tift «>Tpf>Hen«<« 
apoaitiTcplMimrvin iii>mWj^ » dlnfom^althotiffii lUrvreay 
bo room to (pinion whrthtr iLe l*i«*rJion of Ita h"Oy pn>- 
dwm aay pc«iiivc pain, A« wo amad in tho m«Ip of bobft 
wo fiO'l lli--ii, «o ^r aa we can judge, tlw «pority fmr plawar^ 
inrr«a>o«L jkiW /vmtu with hr^rrjuo of rtmctnrr. It may do! 
1» Inie that iho p1r««ir«^ f.f uking in noiiriitlifiMnl Ifr In- 
iMutfiad in d» prcw pniportion «f oriranintiom yet thb 
n an appronouu]i>n lo llie ttulb. Comport, for oitamplo, 
Uio Mtftn of taato iu liio ojeter vitli that of tlio opioimv 


r7!UTV."nAfMSE«» THt ESD. 

llutt na wguiicstion iuurc«K»T vtltur cipacitics for plwutv 
aHMt 11UU17 uf irluuh arid ju w>ciili«l to llie tUDtiiioatioti 
of Ufo «e are tliow oo&iieoUi>l viih duiHiIod. TIiutq U 
tJiegrM co-or<)i[ui(«i iqphImii, the tTpnklnrti%T, which, vhHo 
in tliv lo^cowt crcdCare* It •eeim to be lUtlo tuorc tluiD a 
tort of wpplomeutwy niitridoti* U»Qomc6 in Uigbcr oijfu^ 
iema dlflcreotiaKK] into ft vkolljr dJAinct fniiccion, ImrlD; 
\t^ own Mpr^iAl or^ci located in a ctiiTirnmt part of tho 
body, und ft aervi^ufl orguiicaliuii jicldin^ tlii- »(jv£)^v«t of 
mil ttiiiiuli lu tli^i iitl4jri8o plvuiufv of iu ■•vtavk^Oi Mliiio 
tbc iiiitriiti'o 4j^oin W for iu fnnctK^n tbo pivaervstkin of 
tli-e indiridiiiil* the rvpruductivA sy^Tom ha* for it« fuitctio[i 
ibc (>rv*<?rvatioo of till- ppipuJt?!. The odu i>nMm~o« UX*s tlio 
otbvr pt-rpeUiiLtw it, uid, in co {htm two inditipfTTtAablc tiling 
admit i>f a comp&Hsoii, fhc latter b fur tlj« moh? itnpormnt 
fiiocti<;u. Aad Uervy iuoit dihltui^tly iUan in ihu cu«u of ttic 
nnlritiTv vptt^ro, lh<! fvipadtj for pAcMum jidv&ncc^ with tLo 
gT\u\o (if dovdojimcnt. It «i « vijrnif^amt fMl^ ]Vt at this 
j>oiii( w bo iiotcd^ Uiat it U uut ubtU we reacb U»? hi^hvi- rer 
Uhmtnii, the; mAtnmnlun cIom, iluu w« fl&d tho higlilj spo- 
vUEoed maitt iotromitt^i wyan- Tli^ prrprtHnrion of ihoM! 
IiigbJjr oT|!:«]dxed belufpa domaodod a jH>wi<rfiit ftliinuEiig to 
tli*: pvrfomuiKe of tbe wprodacti ve net, and milure has sup- 
plied «B(?h 4 KlimuTiia in rbr dovrlopriMllt oi EpQciol argniu 
of eo|>uliitiun vHU nn attendant nerrouft *ppft»^*n*. 

In lii;cUeJ- t^rvaturoa there aro various otber wMtrtw of 
plftt^rv, The fltt:i]nmer^i of wblrh t* mftti* or l<i« uvcntial to 
ill? Ufo lorl b^lb of Vho orjzatiiiim, I'h,v itikplf^ u otctii< 
pliHed br tlio Rimboli of tho kmb or tlie «o1l. i« Aimplj th« 
l^mtilK.tTiiii of tbf^ rxjttanit donvmd of ihi* anini-il t-yttv^n for 
lu i>oooi»ar;r cmfcIm. Bolli Hahim of fc»Jmp an? *:upMy ac- 
co^ni^ ffir ia tho raanh of nahinl at^apUtion. PbntA, is 
ail fnr n* ti»*y an? OtroW <if fiH^lin;;, exi^t bjf vlftno -^f ollitff 
iiwnru of protociion. Fceliaf^t eo f ar kj: nattinr't objw^Ia c*n 
1)0 Bii4|«fBtood, U tnmplj one of tbo nM^na bj wbicli or^n- 
lircfl are protcirted and enabled to anhclst. The dJueoE of 

0SNE3B or r SEP KG. 


posMaaing il i>brioiuly cya]A DM vxiiX wicTiont It; 

i* loffty, tlie «Ktrianc« of a ilaw of Ufin^ |*'juKi««iiig 

tbo orgiiiinlioci nod all ttio dunolorif^lic* of «xirUn|r ten- 

Fent crettuii% dxoepl cbo oipoeitr for pkoimro «id P*IB| 

ildj BiKl«r iho nmc external tomliiionH, be utu-ri/ impoi- 

•ililtL Itoiaova ^vJiiigi and *ont« othvr adp^imte pnitcctioa 

til ruvjuiTo to bo ml«li1iii«Nt, «iid no Mber can bo iuaif^ 

tiMi wouJd bot ACCc««tijiio t cooiplct^ diiu)go of or^nt- 

wkm and lU rt^»da|)4iiti6n U> coltditjonI^ cqm)lj fiiarkod 

ritli that u'liidi diitinifiuib^ tlie pltol frum tliv miiiruL 

isiovtt the plofietiro dorired fVom eetin;^. iho ^stMorj 

nnrvra, ftnd the iodiri-rliijJ immodiiitcfjr |wHiihf>^ IEothoto 

•oiBft] n^pjvtitff and tbu moc furlliwilli tiecomn cxlinct- 

mova the »lituutuiB lu mwcular «xvrtiuii, ajid ibe oT^-umm 

1&iij*uIa1]M, And ooiMur or Inter tbc fpoolce mxtet sncnunb. 

t>» dip nOii*r hand, M tUn ttvrtilliNl " |»ti^ of hiif]ffvr" l»c 

<piJi-tvd without (iif nvrutuJ atfcorptiiun ni twor^hmvui^ ind 

detail fnMn tftarrartlon, tboxit-b ii tro ininbiK woiili be no 

oenidii. 8Dpp0M bU dLdoooifort tKfhi^ fn?iTi prolongnd 

ijil «1tftifw*noP to he r^mf^TfTiif and niA even eivlliKod iMnI, 

with aJI hi* forodght, oonld nrro^ ibo fp^^ extiu^ion oif 

lu own nu--t\ EvL-n mnwe* Ima N* ii!«A II \» yqiiivilwU to 

'tJi« pair, n-mltinf; fnMri want of iMmu] CJictmraof the facnl- 

IJm ai Ihe vrh'.ile a^etu. H«mo^ it <Mitin?lT, and a fotal 

[b«r]|^ wOTiId iwrnljTM tbu iwnlieait worid, So tudtcp^. 

bUo wjn ad tb« fonii» of fevJtii^'. 

It wonH t>o pa*y to diow thnt llw txlatonoe cif foolin;^^ 

of ptcojiino am) pun — i» iho BprHoi qiuliCjr vUob adnilto of 

Ibe bi^iiit foniv of or^n&batioti bcsii;r ait«inod. Far mitt 

tliao Wi>ody tj«vic, catcmou ahclli^ or bonjr platca, am tho 

Mfialtm- l^ntA^IrR, aiit«T;Tiat« TtbriMVp. Rtid pofnlln? of biitbljr 

Miu^l !inimnl4. An^l grottct ttiUb tho prolodion whidi 

V70 and lhi» w alTord to \\vc croitura fo tbo mid»t of 


DTii-tTT^nAimsEaa nre esd. 

dflQglvn. lint in prQpf>r1ioJi lU ibow ttfcguonJi cxiFt, ^11 i)i« 
dognw of or]gAUJiaUoa incruAM. riitr«ini£ti:!i>d by cttimn^ 
OOBtA of mallf iho titsiiM are fr^ tu o^paod. lo dLlF1.'^eTlt^atl^, 
Wimprovv, S^'ilb tile mc-juiAcifc«C&pTii^ nil Ibomdo AuaiilU 
from witliotit, Uiu ur^juUiu vulnthuUv ddio«-y furvtmigtb, 
Abd tiniciunU roflttcmoDt for coarec offcnelve and dGf«(id\*o 
AppliATion. fio ItMi tb* *niticnt fju^nltjr iit nnt <wilj^ n^Ctfnuy 
to the rxinco™ of bijililv oT>cAiiixcil omCiirca, btit higher or- 
gaiU£4lioi] lA CW vbivf rtvult vi (liv Utivvlupuieut uf lUv vuit 
deni facohy. TLg pragroa of one is the progrOM of both. 

Thft grniHMi of filing i* thii* crttttfnrtoiriljp «cpl;iinrd, 
trnl iti ii. M « wirolUry, or ntlvcr m tbe obrprte «Wc t.f it, jv 
dovlj- tovn ftliio tho gvn<wift of wclii^ot llfo tl^iebT- Tho ottlj 
nxiti'lvvtl [jiruL^ldu i« tbnt of tliu Duluro of ftHtUtiif, Kgrtliv 
tf|no»t3uiin ntill n^mturi: fTnir Ahonld itnr.b nn L^xpuilleiit Lsv« 
|]3piH.-aed to l>e hit njiork mi tbi* eiidowr[i«iil of orj^iised 
matu-r « iib tunmli^n f nxid, WW u it in fiMitknit inattt-r iliat 
dUEiEL^i^Zire ii from tnwnticnt (vol, i, p. 363) ! To auj tbjit 
Q«TT(jiiA iiinrtor |HiHinn« tJm propcrtj* only bringft ii« one 
ftlep D«anfr to tUv proUcu. It b liUlv inorv Uian ■ ttat^ 
TiMiit of tlic proljWui. W« will not httsXtly |^u«e ibit in the 
caicgory of Uie nnkiiowabTc, but will cbwrfnllv leave it fop 
tlw pTtw*at i» tliat <^»f the nnkntiwn, while viitb tmr po»itic* 
ht miipmtioD wo viil acovpc Uie immunto Stud wtilob fettl- 
ing icwlf four kmcb) prewDU lu tbe ex Wnoe of fwliiL^ in 
tbo ir>oM, 

In dotlisg vitb tlio in^iuvia of any floMi c*f pbrDoiiK-ruv 
W m«i* TiiT**«KU- kt*p ill view tlic cod, or piirt»ow\ t^j bt* 
MTTtd hylbe pbpnomena. Witlj tbii trutb lelt'ology boB 
iiotliinic wbalu*<»r to di. Wo htvc only '*> n*wgniaj lliat 
nothing <an OKict withcmt ft eauM^and w« are cbliff^d to 
iv|i;&nl tb<; cfffcet fn tho llgbt of an cod, or pijrp>.4u.^. T}ivrc- 
tvr% wilboiDt recTi^iinng any in1lit(?4if^0ft extenud to tho 
ttOihli^lv dupviMicTit ooiinc of nalai^l tbiin|!«t, w« nT« com- 
pulled lo lake nw*>niit of whnt mnrt 1# reorder! iw tho ob- 
jooto} or ondi, of iulon>. Liugiutg* for«« mt to eipruM tho 




itiao bjr Uww ijujUulbf uuU Uiu Uwa of Uioii^t requln 
t)» ii> funanlnto mch » Ck>ncr|>lioii before w€ cwi oompr^ 
hvnd ibc o|>er»tioiiiii <if mlntml law. Ilio diicf objci^U of 
tutMrcarv three: tbe pracrvAlJoii, tbv pvq)tittmti4j:i^ uid tlio 
Im|iru«v!UH-(hi vf oiipinbeO t>eingis l£j pfv«t'rTAtion u meant 
tlie lOftlniMinticc of the life of lh« Jndkkhiul a* Iodj( u tlio 
tfotuJitionA of i^xiitctt^^c will mdmit. IVqivttiHtwn u Uin 
vH^iuiliuii vf mfn ELidivultiuLi, whldi f^hall anuisilo tbo Ufo 
tMca erdted ftud trv&fliuit it to fotKro gnuAHdiMb By Im- 
provenMrnt Ib ractm progpeas £d tlie fiaiilUy of tlw orgftiij^a- 

Tile tirrt tiro of tlKSo objoota of ruhtro mncrt At a pobt 
down in ibn M&Uof «Eii^i«iiice, wbure^ tn tbv TV|fr^ue- 
in of «itlU hy iimplc diviidpn, tL» ci^tiiUEt-*! ptt3<:tsM tA 
BUtntkiD ii dirftucll^v trMvnbk: (vgl. i, p, as^^'^y. Tii tho «iid, 
too^ Ib^ an idenili^, md muy liodi be mluciHl t^^ tlia one 
twttlt jwnw M T J iioft — jtut M tbej c»n Im rt^dticc^ to oiw 
phjMolugiiMl ])rpo(^ — nutTilion. Cunronicncc, liowcvcr, 
duntinMk UiaI tlitj^ be ccawidoffod Mjaraluljrf a» in lliu binder 
fonoM of life no fumnioa* Mem mon widely divorigoot than 
lb« ntitritiw Aivl Uic ropn?diiGliv«L 

Tbu hat'BUEHHl obji>ct of nature, tito iin[in>voinTOt of 
i-lifri, d£ffen front iJie otlien in not bcin^ flt<v>lQtcly uuctv- 
Ad orgADiflD nttj oofitioitR tri c^ijH, UiiHif;b It bo 
tdttJIf dccvoeratiu^, nnd tbo qmliljr «f ibi or^j^aiiUatioii bo 
dtmbi«blnf, Aixl yni, irlicn mnro duudy rlo^vit, Hm U 
|TO« only tt-itlitti limit*, l^ the def^frfttion ootitiimu Twig 
C«io«glt, Kod it will mlliuifLtrly nMcb ihr limil wbMi dlrido* 
ovfEftnb from tnorganki matter* Cootinnvd dvtcnomaoD u 
cignivaU^t In nlilniAto extfiMtfoit. OuMktkn of uiy ol t^o 
iLnv RTPftt fnn^'iiV^^^ tlicrefWrr, kwlfl «v«niiud1y t-^ tlic Ntmo 
rmiili. iM nuiriilon lie ^wiieBded, tnd d«^i follows bn- 
nwdkatoly, i\ «^ In s fow hoore or dnj^. T^ rvpro<hK-t)i)«i 
FVftu, Acd llfr oitly t^ntlnoi^ i^nrinji* ibn uirviiral of ijia hi' 
diHdii&1-*a tnnt?!! Inncrr linw, bowc^vcr. f-4*t dov^j>^tncnt 
r, uhI lift' nuiy be continued A Htill lom^r pcriud, uid, 


irnLrrY.-.nApprra85 tab zbto, 

coutd wie imi^iii^ tlio Btaie of org^tzfttiaD to rifmtiti i^xnriljr 
llMMMttfi, it m^t 1)C pfoLotigiH in<3cti»itdy. B»i nidi ah 
anoitoptloB in |ir3rtimJ]j impOdHibloT ftikdtUtico vru >«ppo«9 
that it nowr riic* ^vu iim giwo pouil, tliin fe oi[iilraleiit 
iv A vurluia dugnM fji iititiulioiicv> Iiqwutdi* aqioIL In fact, 
all or^gftulo deitlOfKuetil b aiurc <)r Ich* rhjclmiieal, avid, i)n< 
len a gimn orguiiini w on iht? wfaole riiii^, it Es pretty c«r- 
UId IIulI it i» dccimin^. Every ttma I* cilbur on iu wny to 
a higher Ufc^ or vU^^ U U on \t& vny to i-jiiSrtrtjoTii And, 
fifirr all, tli«m lA rm nifw «J<«nfmt in iTiU prooeftft of develop* 
tiKriit. It ii uothin^ lUflTO than tho coriiiiniAtioQ of th^ 
OT^DiJ fomiJitivQ iinptiLv thst iir»t hmii^it life intf> tlio 
vorld. Tf> «y llijrt Uio tcn<l«!nry tr> prnf^mM U a Ren^ftU 
one, and pn>peHy b^longfi I>> iht; inject* of rtflTi:)?^ \t on1j t'l 
fiay that in tHo prtv^ml, a* in tbo p»t. tl»o grvnl or^nixih^ 
forco^ or nttua, » ut w<irk, nn wt-^ll on tJio vrviitnTX* ainudy 
piMteMinff conMd4^rabk* orpaniatioti M on lltotte In procOM 
of UTLjEtnatiun. 

Tbw i>otiH of vieWp from wbicli wo Imro lw«i cotitcui' 
pkling th(f p)irnom«ui of orgnnio Ufi;, vtd uliloh tuku^ ac- 
eonnc <»f wlial have bewi e^Ttrd the ol)j«Tt* of lulHre (voJ, i, 
pft« 4IU, f1'il> <>iU\, ifiAT Ihh ^^pvkUid M the i/j^-tive point 
of vi<iw. It u tho Mni^4 point of bhilufcy, ainl aifo«^ tbe 
lUOvnl oomlitiom for tlw tfUccttsBful invu^tlgalioo of tlit 
lavs of life, not only of tho lower orgnniATni^ but of tho lin- 
man race m wcIL , 

lint thorv i* nnotbor point of vicx from irliicb llic* eamo 
diM of pliHiotnma mny be raf-anloJ, wbirb wo will di^ttn- 
ipilali u Ibc ttfA^Viiv, ftfnoe it eonHtitntes tSo atsnd poini 
fn>m ii)iH*h wnliciit oivilumi UienvelvM moiit be cDnl'I^Ire<d 
u cotiicmplacJng tlw pbcnomcffiA of fcrihip. luid lliui fmui 
trhifb man intitiliv«dy cant*inplat«ii tliifm. thoiifrli miionnlly 
1i« corfainly does a.lu> ocmdidvr ibo ofajoctt rUiuimhI hy ibom. 
Wo ^avo aerm that tbu objocU vIiipIi nature tnu»t bo ra- 
^nnlcd Bf aiinfnp; to a«?omp)Ieb by tho birodu^rtKHi of jilon*- 
nrc a&d pain aro tho prcfDrvaiioo, perpotoatkittr luiii im- 




pTOV«B«nt of w:iii<nt orguiuiQA. Plvonan; aai pniit are 
mcrvlT tbu mtiuu tn tbu*c Msreml ttidl^ ftll of wbnc-h nra 
inoro or Ida rcrooic in *pp«'ArkQcc irotn iht Jtxtijm ctru^lityeit 
Ai fttro4dy c^owiit tlicrc U no rvcccimry ronttoction Iwt^rogs 
« jpTcn piMMnble or {oioful vcmatiuo, «iid Uw n»alt It 
occvkmpUiliw tu ppoeerring, pcrpotua^iiig. or perf»;ling tbo 
ojrgAhifini «EpcH«nctii^ iL 'Vhi* mmlt vt brought »bcmt 
tLrougU i kiftit of pra-e^tubliiJti-'d luniioiij, not iiul«cd of 
ft Mpumutont kiuii« but curtu-tmg, on Ui« c^uLrvjr^ of m 
pwd/ nuduwkal ftdAptatii>n of Uio moiiiG to tbo oftd, vlilch 
ite oonnootoii T>j tlw higbt^ cttuul nooiMatjr, jr«4 in imcb » 
nmattt^t that llw crcftturv obejiQK ^" ninodfttti vf U;« fonoor 
doQAfto vEUioiU tL« Ic^t n^^OjAKirj coiice|riiun vf weTi knovl- 
oilgQof Uiobtlcr hu onl^v after Uiu rcaeon ha;^ booomo 
«o fiir dAVi^lofN^I that ihti ilcpv^^Icnoo <%f th<^ fin<^ upon th^ 
other CAU be 4odQoed frvai tlie ta^i^ of titwn'arioci, Uiat 
Uie botngi iJiiwhqEvw 4rv able t« oonlenipUt^ thi* re^nJc* 
w tbo coTiJO(tiicaic» of tho muuu BiiJop(o<l eon^idcf^d as 
uktoecdirnti. T1u« coflkditiim Ji&A urardiug to thf. ohvi- 
MiMk«fli of tbo dcp«ii4enc^ bat ia ta^nx^y at ^U returlieO 
bj' any orwtfttM boloir tnko, aikI m <ni^y coraplotclj aUUiiivd 
bjr tho higWl bcclloctfio] typcft of Binnkind. And even 
b«re tbo cooMlention of tho «nd« tlonc wouM provo vh^tJ^ 
hMd«)ttftt« ti> AFiciiro tho gtntn} adoption of tbo iik^iui 
wvrv tbtt Apiir v( pkumirv jikI pun reiaut eil. whik> <t foHi- 
m, notio of tho objeeifi i>f nature coald orcr be mcnrod 
to tbo lovATp or IrmioctAl, cnefttJitvA ia tho ab«enee of th«M 
ttiinQli (vol. i. pp. 4>^, M>^>. 

Tho poiut of view, Uiurcron!, frooi irhjch tbo firtjoot 
Itadf cotiitcuipbUA thcAO pbuu<jmeiifi, i^om; whkli ooorcrta 
iIm inojtM of nature into the c&dfi of tbo r^rvfitnre. In ihort, 
tlio rroBturc ignotv tltf«c vnd* of D^turv, and l^ka no fnr- 
tbor tlian tlio pbenutticnn of fcwlla^ iducio. Accordiog to 
Um aaiiM fccenl hw of enloodod, by wMeU phritA am ao 
diffevftatiaiod bj; \^ pr^cnt a^lf- and HN^ira croa^fertiUu* 
lion, and liy vliicb utbe* rooiarkah^ AdaptotioQa havo been 


irriLlTY^-HAPPlKEftfi niE EKD, 

brought about la boUi iliv gn^t Lingilonu^ of lifo, thiia giuij 
Cflt of nil uJuiiUligim luv trcvii tflcctvd, wbcwli^ iv^tltiiit itx- 
iAl«ni.*o i\M bijon made poaiLl^r, and !liti paMinDuDit-iitU »>f 
life anr iwriiTrijilinhcfl thnoiigli tlic Minplf* c+Tfona rtf ibo or- 
gaauni to obUiu ploaaiaiv sad avoid jain, blmilly hcrdkv« <>f 
dl oouaix^ueuicve. Jiutevvti ii]v(-oiiit'in[>l^tiott uf ibu myriad 
fonnc thnt tiiu*t hA\x been *ncriti4rc'l to secure frtch an n<l!ip- 
tAtion cnn <1r]>nrf^ wi of our ailmimtioQ of no p«rfi^l r 

Wid^ Ac ]# tbe g^oeraluatiou lliAt all tbc &clJTHJe0 of tba 
organic world L&rc for tJictr kiIc ohjcot tijc ailnJumr-nt of 
pluMurc and Uii* avoidjiftce of |>nin. thU ia neipfrrth<Jt'«i tli* 
OMidOflCon to wbicli n llual inulj-hiii tiriiijpt tu, and uvifln^r 
Ui« niWs of logic nor tlio fflctfa of «xperk-r>iw will ponuh va 
to cxcvpt from tliiA tinivcival tmtli thr AccLonH, or niij one 
clftK of arlioiiAf pivformod by iriBnkiiid or anj portloti of 
uiaukiud, Tlie dfort to do tb&« — k:IujiI^ cfjicil^ by & faW 
prido ^hicb blinds men both to f^Lct atid ramtj — ie tbo Imn^ 
of (ihilnt'ipb^ l>'rtl: put and ciirrr:nt, I'orrajittn^* tjt it docn, 
iti Ttiy »oum», and pfttfoundly vitiating *rv*rjr «ta^ frf Its 

l«t i» rocog&b* llik tmtli, patont to the unUjocl mind, 
and, Ki doing, let oa ttsG to what coiirlnsioiu it Uad^ xn^ n>- 
^rdlcwic^f the natitn^of flto^ oondoMoniL 

Afi will bo roftdiljr pnvrivcd, auoli a nx^o^ilion will in- 
volro n coruploiv diango of bcuw of all pLiloKipliy. Wt? uro 
novr compelled to pla« ourAclvoa on tbo Maod point E<f ibo 
dercl<rtpiiig orgaiiibTTi, and lo limit our tww 1o the? (umplf^- 
«nds of tho crutum. Imtvad of any longer tonring aloft 
to ^at«mp|jito KftUiro in hrr remotu objvclv niid looking 
down «pt>n tbc univone of life m m raai ob}6etir« panoranu 
TnlUng on beJ<w im, v« ara obligod to tOng to urth with 
oil lb cmdo modiuiicBl dovioM, rerpognAct tlioogh tbt^y 1>o, 
ud tttikc otu p1sco» in tlic tbqIcs of Kalnru'a Btiuj;- arrnj, L« 
eontomplat* Ilfo u a matt of rvnl pboDomcnA, Hr>d oiitbcIvob 
and 04iir own actioiu kx an intvigral part of plienoRimju 

rnii/wopuT 01* FBiaiNa. 


flAving nvigpod onrgolvoe to sach a ty>ndiikift, the firvt 
'gmt trutit that soon bfigtns to (Uwq upon tu U tbe one 
■IreAilj iiinlod ll, thfti tlie i^bcnoai^fui of fodiog comtituto 
th« true bui« of d) tliJtt part uf jihQoiOphjr wbtcti ot ilJ in- 
volvu* tlio inturvfft of miixi. Tbuj &ni, in fhmt, tjie foundft- 
tiAH A-owof tLcMOcUecieacCL WLacfBikctiL^iiutobioh^, 
fwlinfE is to Awiologj, 

A« liaA oJrcAiJ^ bwR rantvked, Ui«re naott be iOflt« vbjt^t^t 
in pliilinoj^iv. tliv <Jeiv of iiitdlvcidd] gjiwiMtks for lu 
own mJco b^ goEM- br, To4ikjr men tbink for n poqioM. 
ThAt p<irjy«4^ i» one— tbe devalkon of nun. Thi« ]» tbe 
MiDo ci4>jcrt llut Im built np owry «jr«t<in of refi^ri, tbe 
Mine tbet b eroitfid lij Una edrwatcv of i:verv f^mi of ^r- 
emnwDL Tbe aubJeetiTO point of viuw L& (be ooljr one from 
vbirh iTiU pt>r|><?w can h« ■rvo«n|>firibf>1. Tbe renpiKUiD 
of focling m AD end it tin »tatc of mind nnrf tj to be ae- 
nuned before anj prof^rctA in eouSd pbDoeophj ma Iw mad^ 
1^0 hftTc ilrcedy eoeu that rnmd hi4 two eldce. u ob- 
renv nxE « mrcrw. The oni> bngin* with frtiMtiooi and 
end* witli lentimcnt ; tb« otlwr bc^ue witb peioeptjori aud 
enifa vlili reHsoii- Tbe one eun^tut«« the feeUB|j;a, Uie otbcr 
tbo uar-!k)rt (vol I* p, d8l). Tbe Uan^^nj m til egM 1i» 
been to ifEnom tlie fortnrr of tbeee gnftt din«»o«iB of the 
Dimil, wbicb U uwrirultf the pritnvy one; or, if recognixing 
Et at alij to flnblEinaie It into an LnUDgiUe eonetliliig eelled 
tbi? witi, irhTcfa no two pbi!r*.>j>hcTTv <hm\A aproo In drt^ning, 
and no otia MiconHl in oocnprobcndinfc ; whilr, it tbr Mmc 
lino, tbe glonea of tlic intellect Lave been uodulj eilvtiedr 
d ibtf Impreirfoii ctmcod that mind ooocttte eolejjr of in- 
Llnf^t awl will. Tev phltomph^T* hftvo coodcfccndcd to 
Ukv notfrc -^ff the dennNt tbe panuoni^ the oinotionfy and ttie 
noiabitiiiai, ti'biTi3 to-oaUeri '^faruliiua" of tbe mii>d liave 
been mdtij^lied and beapod up bj writen on ^' intcUeutuK] 
pbiloHiph^^i" and voIhtuch written uhcmt the nature of ''eoo- 
•donanML'^ Tbi depctidoin* of all theefr " fiiMiUI«a " ujmhi 
tbe primary pbeuvweiu of aeuMiion le foftioient to abow tbo 


crarrT.^HAppfiiESS TaE e^cd. 

necouity of dnt fiillj lUidcntHnditig ibo pbecnmenft; and 
tLe itIino»i Ictd failure to tnflt of tltcm, or tlMir brief fta4 
ADportickl trMtiDuiit tii ih& forai of Bi«iv apfwnilliM* U> Ui» 
trttttiiuof 'Mch tJio^ «ht>uM lmvofarnic<l the bnHe,ftbQri- 
dautiv ifip'jiiiia th« complete dL^Lmc of mctuphj^v arid th* 
dsuaod for a tha>nigli rwr^uijutiuti uf tli« |ibil4;«0{>ljjr of 
mind (Chspfnor V). W^ m* not* iiowever, h*m ooiioenwd 
witli tbk nwTfptrtUation. wliich i* «irtaJiUy pro^roffin^ fn- 
i«n1>I^, tfxcvfrt iu «o Ur an rL-^cnrils th« p6AitioD wli>ch tho 
fooling^ ^oold occvpy iu tliu praH^tiual t^uwllona cuuiK'ctnt 
wjib tbo ftonftt mid individual hctiaatof muQ. Li pi^cbo- 
lofp^l E*r«tV(Ei« we earv littlo vhal |>n«}tiaii iho^- jlh* nrnJi^ to 
occup^i but LI1 ftociologj xt Iwcoiuraof the ntTncwt inipflrtcmro 
tliftt tlicy fliouttl Ijo fully ructigiiiuMl ju tlio Iruo vndv auid 
flnal obJoctA of humnn ftotioiL 

Jgnorini^ for th« ptmnt tlio afig&tiro meaiM of oftlure 
(pouo), ftTid conGnbg our »Ki»n1ii>n to thv pofitivo mMtu 
(pIvAAirtr), it ti not difficult to porvi^ivo tlmt it Tiw mosy on*J 
vmrind formiL TWidnft tho jouipli! and dimct plntRnrm il^ 
rirvd fn>m tlio uulritii^ ftnd n;productiv<r a<*t» 8iid froTn 
wtiviw i.'f Ibo body, tt«we liae in tbo usilo of boingtifrt 
unljr dow vxdi ot iht*; Vioda of plcivmre exjiemd, iMinify, 
iDd booome oompouDd aid complex, bur; n rwtt numW nf 
new pWoMUWi ATMt, hjiring ihoir Miinv4 m tliv hi^'Wc and 
pure^ MenttEnentB, and a |ji>iiical tevt wilhiii tlw ImmIj- which 
it ii dilliviilt or iiapuofiblo to k>cftl<T witb yirwinion. 

Coruiderin^, flraC, ihoeEpatiuonft whicli tli(- prin^iLi'v |>b<«K- 
qr^ nnd«rgo w on^vtbatiou iocrewv*, wo ob<4Trro tl'iit thry 
fttv lowt marked Id tho nutritive tyOitm* And yc-t whi u wo 
ootaparv ibw Itrawt cn^hirof, wbich ftbAorh nonriiilinL^nl by 
ibe more vortieo« tliAt the mor«aient of th^r p-tliA uisJcM 
in th«» vraur in which thoy liro. witb tbu LiKhvr vortubmte*. 
fWlP*«ing vbbonto gmUtory aitcl fttimunUry »yit«miu we can 
«ot dovbt ibftt (hi: lAttvr miut derive a much higher ufiAfdMy 
tun from thn Tititritlru met thjui do tbn former. A cIim^t 
Gompvuoi) of t]i« gOftlatory plnuum in mwi utd in the 



lomr itkimib iboin a fortlier [ncnaMti^ wliEld bctVMn differ 
tint iJiwa of tmti thu roucrjui u itill greiier. I» tlii^ Liiicr 

itii) it*«si)pAu ilc*vuliupinuat aiuJ rvfiucnetit Imvc gWcn him 
die DiMK of vaMly ui^roAdiiiK the pl(iuiir<^^vin|; pover of 
tbu vtrionft nittriliifiui ^ubvtsiKVA, vUi^ tL« lAcuLCy ilwlf bu* 
bj iiU|<uiJou to tb» fu^tuyr dict» beeocnv cajitbU of ippro- 
cHluig tbcfb fniprovemcute in progrenivclj uicnoMiig^ ^ty 
gnea. To all tbv mttliitiidinaiii kin'lii of prepan^ ftMdj tiie 

jamt bo ad<Jcd Utc many dcd^oQs Urrcng^B. iikclodlog fer- 
iiKtited IkpUTdH, whicli, whaUi^r 1h«ir pbydol^onl poflition 
or tniond indiMmoCi arc Kinong tbr )iiglic»t conlribotioiw lo 
tbo vUick of linnuui plmMurav, uid oiaft tliervfoTD votur itit<^ 
tJie «uQUfintioD vt the obJeet» of go^tetofj eaJoymeoL 
Corro»poiH|iiiK to >lU iImm ol>jectfi tlicrv ahm Ac«|uiH>d Mto^ 
difierinp Ui diScrciit iudividuoUf but aOotig in aII, ter^inif 
io intvimfy tbv guncnl »;[m of Hia pJu«*uftM uf uutrlttoe. 
Tint inipdruooo of Hitste pleomraa Ba motira to huoiin 
Ikrtioo c&n not be tfviprcttiinAled, uid mii».t not b« lt#litl1iHl hj 
Um Muiolti^t I^ot only ara tbor tbo t-liicf objocta of tiie 
Ufu oif the grv^t iDM« c^f huiruukity wlicvo nioootoiwiM toU 10 
•ranvlj nfltrvtvl oiC<^ by TnrjiQ^ tbi^r «iualitv, but clieir 
poifrer ift «<|mUf ^nMt ovur tb« liig^itrdMMi, eipvoiaJTjr ilie 
luiiDtcUtfctu] vodJttjy. wbv Uvidi vmt mmm epun tba gnii- 
ficetion of ihi^lr nnFurtH>d «ppcrtlbM ; while avmj on« know* 
tbtt t!w iikillfu) lobbyiK CMti inm the vcbolr ttdr of the legiB' 
Utii>i! uf |eri:nt nUto* by tliL- tiu^ ipcU vt wvU-aiNinged 
dinncm tntl MnupCvofia buwgDrU. 

Ctififiidmiifc, tieit, eli« |>lNttttm (om»m^I^ w^tli tlicnpro- 
dlKtirfl fai>cli»n, w« 1iAr« Alrosdy i««lt b(»w pvftt tbo «top 
»M fpum the ntTCi^iMiiniuiJiin vavtebntts to tlw monHneftf* 
Not Milyftre 1)10 plfMAun-yMdiof^ mrbcM of Uie aexoRl 
oTfcui* fiv^tly inormH And tho I>v4l ftdaptatiotiJi pprforlEst, 
bol tbif DCtuv Ucto^ fiyat^iu, which n dcvditpod fodr thb 



|jur]H«e Ell botli ^oxva ukJ (rui>]jliv<l with apMin] uvni^ k 
Uiit Mot of «i»^CiL>nc of tli0 m'j«: powerful kind, rfsultiog in 
lira b>vd uf o&priti^ uid ulLvr iJillautitin] riimnli. Itt tbe 
higlkor typcA of man, puticntufj among tnoiiogamoni ncc*, 
ihi' «Ts|cm bocomc* c*pooi«]lv diScrciitiAUriii urid t'ukiimittoi 
iu iIiQ A^Borbiui; MU'^ilUtu vf Iwu, hi^ivJi hft« fi^rmod Uio 
ihomo of iniiQiDOF&blo poome and roTuftncr^, lloodifig ihi; 
world Willi a lit4>nihu« of Ite onm^ Ancl^ not cotitcnt wrih 
iho MlUfai^lbn ji£Fi>nlfd hy Htirnrj pn>duL'tiuiiif^ ihv I'ivUUi^d 
world lu» duuinndvxl iiioro vivid TcpTWeDUliona of tiwpbe- 
feonuna wLidi Atiiv Smm liiiA vrniimrni, nnci thuH wvf wc 
tlirongft in evi'ry Urj^p dij tii^'htlj tlijokiii^ tc tliotc plttCW 
wh«Tif ilnmolixcd rcokliutjuiui vt lU opvnitkiuj! m; 1>«*viru, 
and ducp<Tr dmugbt)' of Its njetfa^oas Bpin'i be dr&nk in. 
CoiTC*i>uTtO]n^ to Oiiii Miter ^losnAiuitnitton, tkicn KtUt 
thronf^ioiit Ibe mo»t adTftD<?vd »odetite« tiio«e ootmthaa rnl 
nuDaooeAi unwritten, untuii;^', and unrepivwoiled, wbich 
tbrow A bcKDtifiL] and irt^Lnblc charm over huimn life. 

Wo iH^, thmfni^, ihal IhiA foniimi^nt, witli alt tt:i lj<?lfkng* 
m^ Btid iij alt Hm rurijifioiiUoiuuiid rcJAtiutii^ COlit»|iUrt^H, iK'Xt 

to ilie Mid luflt cuubidorvd, thtf modt puwcrfuJ bljitiuluh to 
oAlion tljat bninuT: nature |io««MMe; indtf«<3, vrvn it 4>t]u:r 
wiji>, the cfidi of tishire would have f«ilcd of jkttjkiniiii-iit, 

O^rtaift pLiloH^pJiens and oocnbly If. Aii^nstif Comte, 
h^ve noognbed £u tho eentlmwt of rnnvi * ouv of llio )>rmio 
faetora of oT|i^nic dcvj?]npmotit iind tocitkl evolution. An tbb 
■ontuucTit in iKtt th(« n4^iiirc Hficf of > i^^t Liolo^col Initb, 
it 0001X1(1 a littk Piiinnilar tlmt Uio author of iho *^ I'caitivo 
PhlIoM>)Jij ^ iboald Imvc failed to seuo npi^n tJie |x»UIv« 
pr1nr{p]is and dhotald oontrtit himwlf villi ihe ac^tivo oae* 
^<ii»ut ia but tho pajn, ov dincoinfort, wbirli aJwav« fullowa 
til* d«f«rTvd onjdjrinuni of iko «x«r«**of natii7»l funrtioii- 
Such oKorcieo U a tno poddvo itkwun. ifid tJivn-f^fv ill 
the MtiTmihting and progroMivc temdeiiaios ob^arvod toorwe 
irom mnul alioold propcrtj be act down to t]io acoouit 



of luhinU cxercW. While tha common tfimnlDa may bu 
tn^vxe^ into loro of et««viw uxl fcir af i*jitttfj, t}to IdAtfr 
m*jr h»n? never boon «pcri«ticcd, ntnl thtrviov ncTcr 
fottftid ; wUilu tlw vlTwU am MvompliHlml Ui« Muue in utUim 
ewe, abm-lnj; llt«i tUc foniivr Ifi alootj ralfloknt In Eaot* 
f»iiu> i« nilJi«r nn trtif-Hal ftlmnfiw, and mi\y ^ftpttint iti 
CMB* wlurrp tlw iwnuAl Jibortj of Af.-iio[i liu bven Attiftelallj 
raitniii«d. Wlivre no «uvh n>tinuiit «iut^ Utom H ku exiust 
bAtittcIng of Ibo forcve within tb« oq^umia, and Uio ixidi- 

tttva of Mtivilv como to oxcwii tbo«tf ot rvpCiiO- Xlur tilndjr 
of UienvoremcDUof iu«ujai»]— for euu>pl«t ii dc^— ubivb 
k wlioWj onrcMftinod will soggCAt tlJi ctplonation apovicri- 
on. Tim timpVA loTf: of nrtiVity. thcivfore, k one nf tb& 
VudI pottvffful of all itimuli, aiul, neit lo tbe two more »p«cUI 
UdpulHM^readv vuuitj^n>d| €OBfiiilut«e Uio niJi«; JmjiorlaDt 
factor ID both org:ink aii<i Mipcr-orgnni« orohttion. Indoud, 
v]i«ii extended Ut thu fiill Icn^ whL^ Lb« pbenocnena 
Wiiinid wiuTUit* llu* mifcbt be iv^turdoO a^ tbo gcovric prii> 
cipic, of vlikh iKtt only thv two mlrcadjr montiuiiod, but all 
odicTH, AFi; hut «pMtal fonitR and loeailfced apfjIioatiu&K. Tho 
poMvaJ pnudpl<> luE^ht tlu70 be duDouiicatod ttie fctimuliu 
to M«rtvuD wladi tbu plcajtiixo of the Qonnfll tutenun of 
functMa <wnttitntc0, 

Ab fruoQ a* organic and ffnp«r<ii^^ie dOTelopoifnl TV«fb«d 
B ecrtnin poiftt, thcro ariaoi and proffnaircW dOTi»1op« aD- 
otlit^r winciDireLt, irhich CTmtiuilJj^ ftrnua a powerful apur 
lo lintHJin aotiufi io lite dimUoo of ictl prognm. Thl« It 
ibc n^niiinont of coato, tluc <vlhi!ti<^ Mmtimrnt. I nofd Dot 
dwvll upon ll:c gre^i matAof eiridciicie aiFordcd br hnnias 
hiAioryaiidaoeial lifeof Uiopot«novuf tLiiiKiurvfl i>f pleasure 
in c^rrjiDg hk-^ fomarU to ]ii|^bor Mtos of socbl aod iiidi* 
ridual j>^fv«cion. Tlw worb^^ Pbldiaa,<jf Mic?^-afI An^o^ 
and of TkloKut, lo^iJi^r with ikow of tboir hn^ aiyl briU 
lliat tnin of foll.->wcK au^i oollabonitoEy in all tlui dapart- 
BKOta of fine art, arv facta too fasiiliar to all to Mcd bs 


mmix^nAvrxss^ tick kmd. 

mon> thftn reforml to tlicir prO|K>r jiboe in tko gCMfftl orga- 

Tho p1«ttwr«« of tlie iDlellect fomn a Krimnliu nf fftaX 
«ti«ogUi fcr Um moMt higlily dcvdiopoi! iudWidiuU of Um 
race, Ukil, tbongh ru^rictcJ (u »o {xtk couipuvtivulr. ivii not 
bo kft out of ai(?i?o4tiit mi nioilvoR to huirtAH nctloa Jitd cn^lA 
of 1)«tru{. !l k^ liero ihsi the puq^x-j* of iinliiro and ll)« 
piirj»^>8ee of inan rkaI naftHj towt, »ud tbu ntunn* of iiutiJM> 
boeomc mottt mafly kJinUirftl wtUi (li? unib. For intcilloot 
ftloii^ caa appTediTe the ramfu <tf Ir^ own ^ITort^ fo thflt, 
wJilltf thij iiiunodiAto orxorctto of llio i.<or«brftl fu-iiltiw fornit 
tbo iin'ttJAfv fitimntiDt tu mt^uUl hbifr, iLc j>oaut U it locigA 
rCBLcbcHl Hi nlurh Uiid Auiirtro of eiijuirrueut b reonforeed by 
ft lively KR&o of The gootl whfch ihiA labor it dertliMd to 

lltui tbv ongiuHl oue. Af^ikin* iL<t <{Ualit^- of iiitdlvduAl vn- 
joyment la ^ far Hipcricr that it i« In tlib seiiM nfeed 
Abovv all ryxhf-.f Atitmili. nnii may l>c t!iu« e-TcihkxL Iiigbcr tJinn 
iti Umitc^l diffTi*ion woiiM ^itPiorwii*- jiiiitifr, am! ai»igrimi n 
}iWco Huiori^ iiiv yrhovy motivtw of bvidijiii avtion. And, m 
tbo uotli of oophdiaMon gncfion, this mniit conliiioo to bo- 
enma tnnrft anil room widtOy Hil?ii»(*(l^ imlil rrmtnaUy tho 
inuM uf amnkind wiil eiperi**TicF llie pi'uitiva&ii^o iiiipubo lo 
braiii-vKvrrlEv vIkmo coiibiT^atjuvoii hro vix'ia] woEutloo, 

Tbo«e, tlicn, an tbo fiv« primary etlinuli to progrcw in 
the anraa] ftrnk, tbn fimt thrvA of vthich arr oTttnlly prf««rT^ 
tive, wldk" ibo Wt la pn^emiuently pr^^T"**'**^ ('^t'L *> PI*- 
479, *"8, 470)v Sccondftry and dtrJvutlve Hiiiiuli mlj-iit be 
onum^ralcd, hot, a« moat of them could bo readily Krfcrrod 
to the flv« primary Ijpn, tbrir eontid^Tatinrt will \v nruittrd. 
Tbv Midft nf iiun, llifii, whkrh arv at the tAme tiriit? fho 
neau of natort^ are primarily ai^1 piriTirEpnIly tlicac : 1, the 
fdctanrn conrtcclcd irfib nntrition; S; ifj« ple«Aut-M rrvn- 
•odfid with n-prixhiction ; 3, the plfcutiirfr^ ^iinTkC^tcfl nilh 
genital pttyaicfll eicrcx*e: 4, the plvMtirwof U«<«; atid, 3, 
Che pliMwrw of tlw inC^llocJt Thtso pJcautrfu^ taluA id coo- 



ioD with tbof« eofODdif; o&e«d«rlv«d ttom Ui«fn, oowU- 
thc intnwilUti^ iiuvntiw* tn ii3l wtioo, find itu^ l>e oom- 
prebftatteil nnrftr tlie one iren^ml U-m happit^esm^ 

ilflppinew cjUBittlfl in llru naltulioii uf all Ibe pOMtivo 
forms of feeling, 3tt<>ndc<l by a more or \iim cof»|]|Qto abaenco 
of ibff p^jfttivi^ fornDi, known a« pciin. lltppfanM, ia tlib 
iun*i*, b \\av I'jk* UQd of life, tlii.^ primArjr vbjccl of i,\^»fciice 
— ft truili u'ljiidU coniu* fortli with k"** powt-r wbuu we iv- 
monbor Urn, Di>d«f the fnndiaiemCaJ Iait above fomialated^ 

attunmc^t of <hi« nnd i« <Tti4]n ti> h*^ ffjIfMml bj tbe 
tlUUmeot of tbtf vfidn of luttir*- To atUui ItapjiiiKflAy ia 
to fOBpIo; Ute jnMft^ wbvrtfl>>- Nature mrke out licr «udd — 
pfi^rration, pro^rraeiofi. 

7%c almvd M4uiiilf>mt>Avi<> am tho logical ftntroirm of ft 
lIxHychtf n1 Mudj^ of the [ilK.-uoincna vf f«dtiig. It iiiaf aeen 
tilniii)^ t<f toioQ diat th««e phvnomeaa should b^ thufl jtlacvd 
^«i Um) vcrj Imim of a philiwyphfc f^ritcfii wbof< «liiof object 
to Pialt t}ie intvlltwt, and ivliirfa evprvftJv- avoin) that onl/ 
by intfU^iud oaUiw and tLu iivrrrvAtc of kn^vl&i^ <ftii 
the true prcifrn-B of niiuikilMi be aepnrvd- There in an ap- 
puvDt ineuD^nitty betwMn the doctrincT on tbu ono liaud, 
titat prcHgroffi ounwia «iaei&tbillj and aokly £n the «JeTatlon 

the feelingii, the incrmae of plMBmrc, the elimmAtioA of 
kfo, th« iuteiiaifiwtioa x>i McrlitueTit, tbvcfivation and diff«- 
■Lou of now eiijoytn«4iiB, tho eiicotirai^eaur oi of BsiQnl «ino- 
lioiM, the gnuifinalion of the iMtinftl Itimid^tU, the mtitifaotion 
ol davre, awl the i^nenil pnrvait of hnppinem; and tho 
diiclrinc, OD tlio other hand, tlmt pmy^va in to boattftUiod 
^■ololy through ibo mftU-nHit^ of tho fnlolleirt, tho aeqwdiioii 

kiiowlfdp-e, a&d tb^ tlioronf-li atid nnWnaJ dhw cmhmt ion 
urd onforMd adoption of wlui.'Miiofiid iticaumfs for tlw eleva* 
tninafld nirtimailc dovctopment *A tb« ovId, objoviiw fao- 
' lldaa Off the mind. 

To hniifr l1m« two treaiin^^lf in^jhM«nt tt>d incorr^rm- 

dodrinw mto lianiionv, and (o ibow the true mi^ban- 
doptodctire of the ume upou the other, la euuic and 



le 01I9 of the priniikj^ objucb Qt ihU woffk* Tto 
imoQtJt fltLiDing u> do thid irill be found dUfmed 
lliron|>bc>ut itii pn^f^ an^l ftie rvfldor mnM aArept or KJecc 
them, ucuurJiug to tJie cOiMtittitiOiti of lii» mind, KfT«r ba bits 
Coi3ip1eU!d tbcdr ptroail At prmsitt, die uonrliuiion mtomo 
mi 1w (Sivtiiicctj tAAitdf uDd the gcocral liuc of Jit|;ttii)cat 
b«idt> iiidiuiLtvtl. 

W« Ii4v« jdrtjii^^' *wii lliat, wlule thft objt^otM of Nature 
«ro prewrvaifoD, pcrpccuntbn, imd itjjpruvuQ)i.<rilT \ver moans 
an? Ebn mrrfvponffinii; pKniiomtiia of feelit^^ juat (*imtti<)e!ru<l 
in iti^tflil Wu hfiTi.- rit»j »H>Q t)i:u N«hirc^ moiik^ bec4>tae 
Wm Kntient croatur^'ii oiidiv t'"' aUnlmucnl of whicb, always 
for tbdr ovni niLv, nviiltis Utn>ti^h oUaptaUon, in tLc KCoEn- 
IfJiidimcflttff tliOAC ulicH^^r cadif of ^nature of ifhlch tbo or- 
g^fam dauaUj luua no <^onc«p1l>>n, But, tbroug;h(riit (Lo uiii- 
viMitt, an<b ftfv only atCjuuod iLrvngb cnv^jt, h<^ wo liav« 
not AM rirt c^onfJiloTi-'d tlii; idudh bj which th<] crcntifro w- 
carM iu ^juU Tliidc Tucana &ro of two leinda, dirvct nud 
-]&dii«ct (tw/'iM,. p. 1*4). WVroritr tlio objtv'- nocwMrj for 
tho gnktificftliorL of a dc»in7 vna )w obtnlnod by i;triipli> np- 
prapniitioui tlii; mcuxu oru dixucC Whcrovcr ouiiiiiu^ slnito- 
■genit or, in fjicf; nny dfigreo 4>f roMonin^ is reqnlrod, HtB 
m«ui'i arc indirect. Uuij biglier aalmalf, donbtliw, em- 
ploy' iudir«ct mokiw in nnuy oomv, tbu ^jUbomtii iniitiuct» 
of fticvct* forming * flort of IndirDd mctiiw of miniitUfring 
to lh<*Ir wsntn {ivpra^ p, I04)l But tho only b»nj^ llml 
maVcA rxtvnAJvc and (VintinnMl mo of Lndiiwl m«OBi U man. 
In fjwt, bi» pTiigmv hka cliidly hi^m duo lo tbu ado|)UoH 
of iuth tii(^i^ find It li tlic^rvbir lli^t ho hn> 'ibtAuic<l «OGh 
compVtc control over nil ttihcr lirinj; ibingii. A ilill greater 
[•Mftrt 4)f liU sai>coM w tli«r Control Im ]i«a been enAbktl to 
|eurt, thr^fn^li tliL-«r< iuiKivct m^mni, over the phyuicjil fcnw« 
of nolnrvi. Tlw Uik' nourco of ibli powor \9> lli« Snt«lloct. 
The cniploymfint of indirwt mfunn of f^n'fir'atian mm- 
mKMJ» with th« b«f^&ninf; of tbo ntioiwl fjA^lly, ami 
grow* iu «uct proportloti to in gtwWu Tbu Iihi juv ouv 



' Vid tLo Mme. Tlio bigLvr dordopoiciit of Uii* puvtrr ii 
tooiked bj the adoption of £u4iro4 mcBiu *A j^ii^ilon 
ott ft widtf and iitcroMlngI/ wirkr «ale. Tt bo^iu by lital 

hgrade of tmuitng whtcb efi^nrM »» unu'iry (iflh or hare ; it 
gruwiL natil it mn pUn militiu^ mmpjiigiK and guin cQUtrd 
of mSUUiiu of peo[>leL Tbi>i tnilU nmvl not be illuBintCf]. 

iTbe tntpoTtsbt riling lo tw ht-n* notcH] in, ihat tbu a^lojrfion 
of ifldiretit ni»iii« iff f^t\i\<it\\va a ^vnuiiyiuotin wiib Ibo «x- 
»Rm <»f ilio intcllfcmal fucultu*, Atnl iIuj> bold* ihrougliout 

ktholii^Oft poadblo condUioinit of progruHu It iiwidtrnl to 
•very cUco^-^a^hWd mind that tbp £;nMt«T jwii of tb« e^iU 
vLicb «oc>Bijr i^iiffurfi ure duft U- tlid wuit of wudoiD of ite 
mvmbonL It nliould 1>c V4|uitllf dc^r tlmt mc^tvofc of wb- 
ilocd aa aIoqd rcnliut bigber dv^roc^ of iooid duT4TUi|>mcbL 

LTlie flUM«ss with wbiciti toc^ty hu ttitt» far mot hu htta 
lllio to tLp B'JofitiiJU of wjAtT «fid f&r^wK'ing Indinx-'t iin^ia to 
Ikk cod, Aikd whatDTtT further aiicciiM u dt^ftUnod to oosio 
to toeieljr mtMt cmop id Oil^ Niinu nianiMTr. 

tf aH OiiaU lri>o, it i* «wy t.-" ftw* ihat tltoprv>jETc<«of locv 
otjT iDU4t dupQnd on Uio prr>gTOi« of the intvUt'cl, ojid, «hili» 
tlui end of vodol m at UMvtdmi bcui^ in u> minutor in ibo 

[Itl|;beat pasAJble df^inrc l'> tbi^ f^^tii^ ibib cud oaa ficily ba 

Mcconplfaihed by cbo etkM tliorynighrullivatkmof cbcintvJkictJ 

Tlie iiierjiiBiHleiicy, or %i ]e«ut M|>piirvtit iijcohurcnct?, of 

^ thie part of Uii* Argnnottftt U tbtu ramov«d, ADd tba ooonco' 
tton c«tabIi»L<!d briworn iQ it* partiw nnnmti Kap[ilM:if«» 
-mhidi k lb» kind end of m)1 mmHaI effort, con only bo Bpcurod 

uby tbo oloTAiion and G:tjiG<Tfbiii>ik of iti« rawo^iiig poirvnof 
null, wbicb cnutitntn tbo itidim'^ but Kile dTectiiTD tmuu 
by vrliktb tbat vad cun be ottaitiod. 

It i» llii- ohjiwi of i)it^ present cli^ijic^r — leATing tba eyto- 
»fi<-mitno of all Xhtf proxiniAlc nnd» of liiuit&n vdTort vQo- 
im-rntL-d lu Uw jinflnliu^ cLjiptrr, to como id tboir onlcr 
of pn>iiui£iy In Oio uvomJ woocodioj^ otkCA^-to atahinrmto 
tJio Arei prop^lirm f^f the argnm^nt oiil/, irhirh dodama 

^lutppincaa to be ilio altioiatc «nd of cootatioQ. Tbo Dooottity 



iftr n forrtiAl dcfmiAf? of iKiJi prinri{tlo roito pArtlj upon con* 
iDdcmiiori« of tncthwif ju oc^i^apviirg an intporttnt pluvu lu 
ihv HjHtvi^JuLiu Irualruvul uf iIlj: guuonil isfiiu, and fronl/ 
Tipon iatriitk groarulf ; all glmilar ati^mpi^ ttmA fnr nudo 
hnrin^ procci^^vd from u>jT\c^h^ ditTf^mnt Muttd-poinU, iJid 

uot Du^ded for tbu complvtv AjiumtJlnr' of thi* tr«iiti». 

f It hafi already bwn (^otUdontlir iiiinitfej upon tlikt, witli 
Ttv^Ofi 1o &I1 form* of Hfn, or^m vi>[^Ul>tc foniift, tbu cnilfl of 
ruluro am iwn^ vtA,, KubfUitGnGa uid procrcmlitiQ ; tb&t ovu.ry 
•|Hwtcff brou^t into oxlutoiine fe provided with llio mcsazui 
aomiHry to oonnnim l)ijit exli4«pn^e for ao long a liowM 
inil^ OODftTitnffi a natiml Tifn, iiul aI«o to givii eiw>Um» to 
otIicr» of tlif^ Hxnc ftpvcicj. VThcw twA ob}«!tji arc all Ibnl 
nature tiecrnv lo Iiato n>t]^Ut (■> ]u*<.'<iiiupli«li, luaviui; ikvolop- 
moftt^ or pro^-ra*, to rtmtTiihlJinroa. T1ii«, tlicirofore, maj* be 
mUc<1 ro^tiicof- xtiility^ Mnooi it is fiineluinji! and biologioil, 
fttunding in r()Titrx<)i^incTii<>^ tti intirrirituti vtilify^ wbidi 
rcriU 4IFL fcMrliiifc, and in niorAl, or soc^ioluK^^^- ludi^'IJuul 
utfllty fipinarvdj more ifiun mere oxiJ^Unofr nnd thit pcrpctit- 
ato,L It drtnnnd* tlic fnjoymrnl tif funcUonal aiClivitjr. Tho 
Aaiuial dots Ti>jlLin|f «1h* Uit «i^?k Uietaliiifadioi] of iUdft- 
eintfi It fe incnpablc of pcrfomnliig a& aotion oxcvpt » ten* 
pelT^d hj ih<^ motive of obtnjning mioh mtii^d£tii>ii ; and ultto 
in man, wbcihor bin dMin* be bigb or low^ woriby or nn- 
vortfar, \\\vy nlonu prutiipt bin acrliuiUB, 

It fuflovTfl from tliii, loo, rbat utility ie a ndalitw term; 
i. A, it TAiifu with Ibe fnbj»*t. What Im uM-fnl for on© 
croftlure U not mi for aootber. 'Yhtd wbich vonld render 
mnii hnpplcu* on ibo whole night diniiiiMb lL« «n|o}ixmit of 
nil the nritt of aniiMt*^ fronb'on. The docnc^cfttioB hy 
ma-n of lb« anihinh tliat b<* bUai^bti^ni for food ur pula to Ue 
at^rrieo w iiot gonemlly «Hvtp|>oMid In be iti adiMnUgn to 
Ihoiu,* tbonjfh it ocTtaintj- U to Urn. Tliom »bo imp^ 



tiontljr ulc of wlut tift« tt«M, moNiuito««, ao^ p4r«ailic p««to 
Ona bO| for]gM Uiol tbiMo crntuiv* lukio a rifflU lo cxvtutuxs 
and n vtilitjr of (bi4r own. Thu tvurtO, m nv »«w m ibtj 
rb«i eh^iOrt b not «Dtlin>poocmrio: U M'oiild roqiiire tlio 
glvniUAt good to Uin vbnlo nnivi^tibr to non^tiitc ui a?.j>oJ[it4t 

Whb tbo low«r «iiiniAlfi, tbo d«Mrvs are uUloiq nwre iFiab 
prMeni Inipidft^; bai wiib miut, pcxvHMDg Fuffidunt ioict 
Wl to JEK^r norortwluit of ibu a>ikiv^ui-ac>eil at }iitt ftCbt, tlii^jr 
w €ioaitalUHl iiy nm*M utd Judj^iuviit. Thura ia, Lowcv^, 
110 ffcmeric didliMtiou. A uau ivfrvn^ from porforniing 4q 
'ftd wbfcfa Ills Inpabca prompt him to pcrfonn, only bocansc 
he JDili^ tliot mit^h pRrfnriRftiKs vaqU di^]>nvi! him of a 
ynai«r pkosurv irx Uiv fuiuivtlLxn it vooUiUrord in lliepm*- 
est. It iftunifianAlLy iIm^jvjIwI happ£iKttu>d tbij I«afli db- 
OOoifoH, cUlicr proaoitt or fntun?, tlut determine* hu ti^an 
■or inaction, Mod «ertftui lwul« act t» *i>mc cxtcrTi witli rcfrr- 
«mw U> tk« futttre; o<lie<wMJ lltv fvur i^f puuiaLiiivtiL i-o«dd 
Df>l influoMx) ft tawM of burdoR to »obii)Jt agaiiisl it* prewilt 
will to <h(j yoko of it« loutcr. Tho diffrPcncc, like all oth- 
^n iliat rui Ih.' dl*!over^ lMwH?a oien ATid aainuU, U oaly 
oa» of dfgT««, Mid tliefvfuff« It will nut bv iivciwaTj to rvfvr 
agn'm to thk ooiDptricon, uid wq nMy<^0Dflnc o«tw1voi fia 
fHtnrv to tlic boniaD ncy^ ftivl dinmittv tho r(«t of tlw aoui- 
tlri> world tfl iMt eaMnliil lo mir cajwcio) »ubjcet 

It WW rom>rlrod tbftt inau aoeU bap^iiacw i* lt» gnxt 
^nhfxx of liiM uxiatoncQ, and thftt tlib eanaiitut^A individual 
utility. But va tmtA gn a »lcp fnrtticir, im) maintain tlut 
liappinow ia t^ie oDly object of htjman c£Fort; tliat utility 
liim to aeeon^ Elm object i\o%K\ IIaI mitljitig ia xavUil anW 
it dooB vo UsoiU >i^ <W nil otlwr objecia— im&y tiniM, it U 
.tnte, mbtabfin for pndft— «m only niAuia of mcuHcij; tliia one 
Imate «^d of ccoadiMii activity. 

W rt iig m . Qaebtr H, IMft. Hw " D-tteth " «f iti» ndro (n1. K ^ 1TV 
J«M^ T)R|«|«>»pabi>bidlaMlial}B-Clih^9T1m« 



Thut nuiuA proportion is tim tno«t goii«i^l ombodlmmt 
of die iJueirmL* kTirrvn u otilitnriftnima. It luu com'; down 
to iiH frc^TH Epicurus, if nut fruiii i>till inort? reuoto Vitii|uit]r, 
Mid hiS boon (leforiiktd in aII j^«3 witJi mare or le«0 forces 
In fact, it in vhtii Kant ailb ctic " 0[npirir*:ilT'* or nkc-jidrA], 
view of the fcundH tjf>n« of 4<t1iif-d, aiiiI irt nitTmltr nphi^^l'i by 
lh(He ^ku itJalijicLiTvl^ luuk fuurarO lo llw nAifOii nillK-r Ihjiri 
outward to nailioritjr for & {^ido to belief. For tJi« ssmo 
rauoQ It lidK dwn^TA Imnsti uplififd b^ ft mull minciritT, cimong 
vbom arv DiimWrtd v^mo uf the mo*t rWrHigtiT<>d ritindH 
of their Ago, wliil« At ilie »tiie tlmv it in w<4l Hilkptod to fw 
cinaUf tko untaught mA^ nlwn^ obgirr to «oi2o npoo a poiut 
•f^ii^ iLc i<#t4iblUhcfl code of ctliio. It lin«, tWrvforCt not 
vilboiit Tv«4>Ti. Wn deemed iiec««%rir lo «nppreiie It wt far 
on poviblot Muiv of tbo ^freat^*' inindA, kdHi aa ICjuit or 
llamihoD, vUo baw no doubt muHirci tijv jupuriur dauim of 
tbla dtMTlrfuc upon Die j>iirff r<auion. lia*t* bualut^ lo enniui- 
ale it from pmeti?^ ronFi<k*nLti<irH, TInK it i* tni^» w a 
mil'i form nf the Jc«nitl<-jtl Jii-fum that "i\\c f^id Mnc>tiiicA 
thv rii«Att^'^ and it wrrvc to «liuu^ to what an «tU'tit thi« </^ 
futti iotlnoQeofi ili'jflo <Tvea wLo profoM lo ^bbor \u lint h 
]• Ligb time ta mlmit fmnkly thut thrtv U involrod in mifh 
action a UcV of faith in the iunopt-oec of Irutb, a spwie* 
of mor^ cou'AnJic« wbidi dots liltle i-rvdit to Ibe he«rt or 

It !» Doi a diffvTv-nt counw of action that it Duoded, bnt 
a fntiik aroval tlmt ete^ may oonir in nrliirli advjvary of 
truth lA produetiTi? of «Tilf and lite inctib^atiort of d^:4^aa 
knovrc to b« tmtruo ia noctmaij tn wunro the pruetirfti in- 
ii'Tv>.t- oi to^ii^iv. TCol CTC11 ihats srutimieDte fthould bo un* 
qualifii^illy ^'rnle*]^ l>oiv(Trf «troctg may bo the preferenoc to 
tnnt in Itx? «ni|i1o tnitb. 

The UttuaJ nivdu \j( dvjlhiK with iiu<*li prindple:* U to cti- 
veb^p tli«m at tJie outlet in a ^ort of hdo of myr^lie gt^n- 
Cfallttet, toiti obtrnro, by an oibibitioii of ]>rofundilVi tbo 
tme aimpHctty ol tbs tame iticlf Ad effort to avoid the 




admSMaoQ i>f a TCix>ffiu/ci] Imt tmvokomc tnitfa ntvy ofl«ii 
bo dctcctod bj tbiA iiiLriE. ) 

(It IP iiAid, tiQwcver, lA niliTifi tint the w^eeptmnee of tnilli 
will Icwl to vvil e^iwiHiiicfliiMv, siid it w n chirnccuHelio i>f tbo 
nceea»it»rEaji, (frMi^utifle, »cboo1 uf tlunkunt to pcocrod, ut- 
itfriy n^rdloffi of pmcti^nl oon^iilonttlovis, wilh tW duoemi- 
xiolioai of domoiwtnitod tmth, TIjU numifivUtion uJ iLpv- 
nor monX eomnge aal nijwrivr fvili id the cIeua wIw tfo 
•eeotfcd of dvfictencv ju jimi ihv^ iiiKLtitOA «iaMJtut» odo 
of ibo moAt notabk' of tlic mtitil p*ndox«A of DAlim. 

^Ajftintr iJio ati1iliui;ut pldlowptiy « jrro*> tiumbor of ob- 
jecttuEto hw: hoan roiA*d» « few of vrLivh it wilt bo lUKSOMwy 
(•> «oii«ldef, Amoikjf die mo^ tuiural, uad ono which ft 
Hkfrl; to fue flnt in tSo mlM of r <^ii*1 rc^ckr, ff tbnt of 
iH0iiii^ to ihw dor^tniic it low dUil viwlignilicd prtfilion. 1l 
U Uiougbt wl&di to ituot ibat all wv sc^k bi life i> o«r bap- 
plncBA, and It fe regtnfed in unwortbj oty'^xC to voric for, 
that of CEXtr^dtn^ to aII men thi? ficiliti<« for jrnlifjing tbnir 
ptiwwjil daJrcA. Tbia objcHioii, ItovcTCr^ floe* not wnimo 
tin cbuBctvr of ui u^nivut, but \% rlMcplY aa ii|ftHAl to our 
respoct for dignity In ^loiopliv wi(b"ut njg«rd for truth. 
Tbo true j>bil£t*oph(.'r cam afihlicr for di^iry nor for pApu- 
Urit^. ITbUo i; is «v11 to nvpect lbo*e tbiog*, to Umg m 
tbo7 ire oonNifitent whh truth, pbiUwiphj mott di^latv that 
tboLravtabUncQHhouliJ never bo kept op vIh^hj it UtKiCcnmr 
to do M At tbo cxpvme of troth. Titvit iMnbluK«. T oaj, for 
Ibore u«n be no ilij^ltjr En error; wbilo anjr tratb, p^'1|>e^)v 
viffvrod, it nieowirilv brco^l with dignitr. if, tJiervforot 
noD worib* that i^imHI; to tbtt which it iv>t tni«, wo iniky 
ra4 Mvnml tJml the ipulitj i* u fxUc m tbo t:m>r to wbfdi 
it !• imputfd. 

Dbaaiaatn^, tJicn, ilii^ niciv d/yuHi<mfNn m/ vr^cwidiumy 
lot UB CDiulder aomo of the more tcgvtinmte objootioniL 

It (« mIiI that it b Dol h«ppiM« that m ahooU ftitn to 
lui^riri^f bill ^irhi«, ITAppiii«M i* Tiv^nlml a* nr^ondiujr ia im- 
porianirv, whilfi tbo grett ood of &1L huin^i ajctiofi M cle«lar«d 


rnLiTT,-flAwraEss tiik esd. 

to be goodOGW, iiw>P«Jiiy, Tirtur. ThU in thn pnpiiUr idc«, 
tfio otaM w«ipon irlii^'Ji liEkn been wit'ldv.1 np^itiH thu utitlU' 

fiUppon liiat vonit:^ fn>ta nwpoeUbiilty uiJ vLuvtttoi lone, 
Indi^K), ii wnxAd \i*t6iy aeem poaafblo for so pure a doocrlDO 
ftA tliis iii:«(n« to bo In vorl any imotui dcUiia^Dt wli^xi nrti- 
mmUj' accoptod. It i> not, Uiervfure, a niHit«4ruf Aurpri«« 

ea^/ ciioukK to rufoto. It ts, from iu chsmctttr, wrj ditliuulb 

ill ponniderinjr tljU <!i>L'tririu, ibil virtue w llie reAl i.»bjt'cl 
i>I bunian Liidoivor, uo ituire rvwou^l'^ 4ju(»tioa* cau vim 
thui, WliAt Ifi Ibo neoCBllty for virtue I Wlvit good oui )» 
Rcri>mpJiB}k f Of wh«t hk ik it wlir^n wraml { Wlut doOft 
ttt6 wuHd wjnt vf virtue f Krcr/ uoic uiiut fevl ibAt lh«afl 
&rv legltiiuace qiKuiioiu^ Aiid tlut Ui^jr nut onlj deouud ta 
ftiuwcr, bni thit nn no^tror is pofudtib— 4bAl tboro i^ a uiJiv 
ble anaiTM' tn tbirm. Now, if Any uiMwor i» pcACLblo to tb<M 
ioquirii-Sy if nQ o^jix't «uti tv lumud for wliicli virtue id 
iW0i1m1, if ihan) ia aiiv end Ut whlirb, ur f»r flooring \c}i\r\ 
il k to be apjtliccJ, tJiti» ii folbn^ j|« a [iiAltcr of onurae. t1iat 
virtiiL' iC0df h iiot that tmd, l>al ^n\y a ai««oa to tt If thu 
qnoftt4on *^i fe^ir c;lii ho Hii^u^rad it all, it U dt^monrtratt^d 
ibaJt fiftnc i« no:, aa dAiiiiod, tlic nltimAlo t>V]i*cx af hunun 
H^sSMt, but mvrtfiy a ntuiitd of Aooario^ noato ulwrior object, 
wliati^Tcr thnt may he. 

6inc^ it ie A le^ptiTiatr ijiMetkin to ftsk wbat tfao world 
wutts of virtUL^ And there is 4 proprr Anitwert w* "^*J" "'^^t 
llit)uiiv wWt (l»i Aii«w«r u^ Bot it in obvimiK tJiAt the true 
objort of vittwi JA Uk ouko men bftp^ior, pnr to aj* tbit 
U is t^ tHiik* Ihom bctt«r, ti only to *ijr tlmt Tiriuo h noodod 
to make (liimi inorv virtucmfi. And ooc ciud thinlc of no r4hcr 
pmuible obje;^t of Tirtoo thaa that of umIcihk mi^n buppier 
Ko OQ0 can drn^ IIiaI ft do» tbi«, ii»d tlivrvforv it U civir Iliat 
It bt for ibi* porpiaie ibat U ut mv<M. But Uiui difflmUj doM 
not iiv'ut^nt iCwlf irhcu wi: uknoitl^dgii htppdaon lo be tTie 




object For, vbvii wc uk vrliat wo w^nt ha|iplii«>tf f»r, wo 
clairlj do rioltfuuo tu the l-uuiehoii oMleiKLUHling of ibc Icrnt. 
No onu etui KivG ft nttgijJ aiifitrcir to iach a qncuHon, h 
can iti>t b« ffi^d UkM lui|>piii«w *Luiila ju wy Mkck nUtium to 
aiiT ttliorior obj«c^ ; it \iM lui objoct, it U eonaplvto »iul flual 
in ittetf. WbcQ wo ft«k r>f wbu t]*e hoppinc^i i» to man, «« 
can not fay tJmt it «<rvLV to maki» h\m more rirtTtoiu, or 
Tiioro jiurt, or more mt^llif^t ; aikU if we eokv thut tt enxUca 
lutn (q uojoy iifu bvttor, «« onljr lay ll^^t It vjialfltn him to 
ie bttpplor, uid voiploT tbu "^ Tidmiit circle ** w bt^foKL Wc 
can not, ilicrefonvoBMpo llie eoitdtuwm llut bappiMw i« tfvo 

^ ^A|niii, St ku Uwn mid tlmt n>ui it pinoed hero for fm- 
proTviDCLT* tlat tliu I'ljjoct of bw exuti-Dcc b hu oirn dovcl- 
opnMEit JUid pcrfty^lumini^m. C«r1ik]]ilj no uiora noble oli- 
jf<t can. b« ntiuQiJ th«n Uuit of living Tor tiie pitqiuM of 
doTftlopUig ono'« fooolUw. Nor cnn our jmruticiiuit diitf to 
cxcft oanN^lTcii for t]i<t bneoinplbJinwrui of tUIn object be 
qncfltiomsd. And jcl it i> nc^^nn;? to Irval tbi> sab*titiit« 
in i\m> cbhiv naaucr «» tbv but; fur it ih fj^>i jHiwibW to 
etmcMvr. of 10^ importanco bb atcarklng 10 tho idea of pro- 
grfMioo or iniproi-emeDiv txci>pt in nonnof*iioti wiib tonM 
objvBt wlilcb ibid IB lo inbHirvo, mmc dIiioijUo purifM^ ooq- 
nnetiMl vitb mAa^ftpeeuluiriutun; n* > bciDjE oiL^lowt-d wiUi 
OH|hthalit)r« to t^iij- 

Wti«ti we vrttich ihn onfoldni^nt of worbln 111 tlu* Viw\- 
ivvM, aiul viib tba ^d of «denei^ ditoorii^ tite gjvikl x^cme 
of dtTclopmcni wbHi in pi^ng nn in voorfQuibed nutter, 
wbtf |Mir]>oM^ An wr inuigin^^ all ibi« cnokl Mrre if iborc 
WMip no bfriof^ Ld tlw imircric dpaEilo of beconiui|{ in anj 
munrr POfiwtotM of llik profVTwd^c i?bui^l Of what u^ 
ooald it aD bc^. If lh<<n^ uxijitcrl notblng <4i|uih1o of (snjojrfng 
ill VTf cin ikot Mo«.-ivo of ilie idea of otility t^xcopl u 
«OAaoct4xl witb aotiwoq^ninin Minvfttildu lo tbo imprwtdoiui 
of plf<ft*nrp And pain — no, nnl ev«D fn tl^ driljr* VhImb n<e 
ui litm KKh fliucopdbilHj. And m> wboD vo eon- 


mLTTT-tuPPiKFSs Tn>: vjxn. 

mAcT hnuum doTcdopoiviit, mc vnconfooxulj cmuiect it with 
Ihe Idoft thht In Boino wi^ <« oi^r U b UiiKlitifc 1*^ dimini4i 

«jnnvnt, like viitoc, b«ccaiM« then «(ily » owna to lli« uJtl- 
rioto cotlr happmOML 

Aiioflicr lioetnao iirovaflt t-ory pxt^iufvrfy amotif; & «rr* 
tflSn d>A« of pooplA, aztd trom lU prfrvalpnt^ iii»¥ itnntind 
0OEDO notion liefv, vlui'li its hvk of kny imtntfclinti^ nTlatioQ Ig 
flaj Immcb of nttiouul <vr wcm Mp«cuUtit-c pliUooopfcij niglit 
6tlieTWiM rfrnde-T tnAp|kropri«tc« [ ivfirr %<» tlial doftrin« 
vhich, in Ibn tftnKoJtff*^ r>f itA rotftrici^ tnaj b« mid lo A^ign u 
tliu great purpom i^f Ufv ttio priucaplu vuiUvlicd ju tlio for 
mul* '' the glurj of God." I3ut tli« Lulflerd of tbio doetriiw 
vonld AOt admit ihat tUcj^ bAlicrivl Cod ro bo mj Ii>m lliftii 
nlwolntfrly infinite in nU rMp«tju I*#"ity mnit, Uiprrforr^ b» 
hItcoJ)^ iuliuilv ill '' K^'^'J'-" '^ Uivjvfvrv iuvoh^m ko ubriuui 
aUurliijr to duppc^o tliAf tbo acts of men ran add to tbia 
iltrilMite. And, If tl ja rInJmcfl thjit hnmnn Act» ara Cfilcib 
lat«il to ploasc or dUpltut OocI, ibin iii>t oiilv di^l)i«a the 
laRitia< h>ppiti(»aof Mly (titK^ otbi;rw»t«, bo uould not ba 
r«Ddorod moro hnpp; or Im f>f<PP5 1>y nny ovont), bcit it la 
in Eftcl eui JulniMon of tbo ffliirt uTjJitnrinn doi4rinn tlmt thtt 
grviitvvl ainomrt of liaip)>inew !» tlie «vid of ^1 itdioiii^ onlj 
tnaofvmDj; ibe vubji^t "^ wWn tb^t hM]>^MTimti i» U> bv 
cn?at«d from tlio Gcmetiisx^ biing nian to th^ iWtv, n!«o re- 
g&hjivl «« MrniiiliT*'. Tlius it biA W^n liot<] thalT orrordinfc 
lo tbo llicory tbu rirtoc i^ '*"'* objec* of all hnuiHfi Jiirain- 
ment> vtrtoo u ncodtxl to pdoaw God ; ibat in, Uml it U not, 
for maii*i happinew, bul for that of dcitj,% lli^U mtu »LouIJ 
»0«lr TiHue, purity, aijd npHir^tnrw. 

Tbfov aiv ^ofliit wtiOt cii^likin^ (bu ti>r[ii4 pti?»un», hippi- 
nCM^ «itcv, M app)iC4l to dvUj, ?«CLUg tbat ih^y an» fonmlml 
on wmEbtlity, vUth tliey ma not attribatfl to Ood, hvte 
MHigbt l^ avoid tlih incaniti«t«nfiy bjr uwrtliltf? ■& «&*of«i£0 ' 
r^V^ lEMlcpcndcat of Ibo b»p|ni*OM fif *nY brin^ and of kH 
otbor principki^ ik« tbe coked will of deitr, idl f&Jture to cvn- 



form to wfai^li (d vrrong. Tbius Ibojr uHcgc ilut virliu U 
bol ft mean* of Arriving it UiE-i aImoJuIv priiKU]>l«, BdtuiUiii^ 
m tbojr mcut, tlutt il acrrreB lo prufiKit« litiiu^ 1i>ppllif«lt but 
denvii^ Uiat «iicll l» In aa^ bqom Hm o1»j«ct of Tirtoc. ThU 
tlickor^ bae medo rtcommoAiiationi vhicb nuko fct vupeiior tu 
tJiftlMt. Attd iriUI H wnrisifl a Wr^n apLMriilatioa lod.ilm 
tial ileity vuuld iviuirf & ri^tl lullMrTCbot to •nj- fixed mk 
» die objvQt of imainn «clic>n, vhoii ntdi ndbcrBfiua liAd 
ondiing U) do vitii tJie happinon of lUc bvtug of vbona h 
w cuffed, or of tny otlier bi'inj^ In llic unlvfirao. Then 
iiiijiiwtbingin the huiu«ii nuuA x\x^t iincrMirciomJj r«j«cC« 
audi A tbuory, >Dd in npjlv of iuvlf [wthut* m nu»ui>; tli« 
ioterioT iii<i:]iri<fl. Of wbnt u*f U 0ii«li an adbereora t Wbom 
ifl il to benftiil VTIiom hftppinoM fe Jt to iDcreuot anrlr 
WbjtblATttlAof ri|[bt, nnlnH itii obAcrran^e W oh iU ob- 
ject aiuI haool/ object (o diniiuutb imlIvrUi|f uid iocrtBitt 
en jojnKflt 1 

lAUlf, there ia & Hvm of monilUt* wKo «el Tip tt die ttltU 
mate cftd of Bction tlut vZii«b tbo; dpnofriTmlA '*doinj; rlj^bl.'* 
't\m iduHl, bowQTur, in oHuilly csLiily rvdnclbUf to oiM or otlitr 
of tbo pf«aediti;c To do ri^t U i>{tIiiCT to aot virtaoiie]^ or 
to fti*i HghtooiuJ/. Tlw focmor of th<i*o i« doarljr idcntti^l 
with aiiaing at virtue u IIk; end ; llio IaUct, u tbu word ia 
oofiimuolT vuipkijedf u vt|uivK]«>ui to kcLu^ to plcon tbe 
doitjr. Iii'jhtfoyuTi.t9$ U a religSonA term, and not a mofal 
aae~ It vrrni, bovcrvr^ a ^wrA purpoto in alilm;^ nn lo 
grwp Uib d»tuio4ioo. Xu root, ri^U as ordtRjiKly an- 
deniood, hta a monl aigniltnition, l. a, tt coai>oto» rdattona 
bocw«ni iDon and men. But it U nfir^n, a1«a, emp^o_>^£l to 
a»aot«t rrJjirioaa bolvetni nun uiU ibe 6gpr«fae Be)ii?» in 
«rkicb MUM it conrwponda iriib tL« derivntirt ri^Uousnt^^ 
i&eauJnj; (por^y. It b in tbU »cii«e tbat it t* vcd wlicci nudo 
tba «fid of action, Poin^ ri^i Iia« )irre no ^crnitvtion iHtb 
bnniaji welfnnft tlw die cad would W bum«n wvlfar^i k«^ 
bapp(ii«B«, and n'^ mercJy fhv ni«aii» of attaJninn t)i«t eiid. 
^tyAf tbui [iud«fitoodiaubuUy :LH»cm7. Our WI7 knowl- 



«d£V of It oinst bo dcrivcyl from boolc^ of rovclUiotu Tliosi 
wbo havR beUcrcd in ihi* ftrrni of rigbt Ii&tc^ tbi^n;forc, 
idapc!*^ fxtnonliniry ttTurtA to iM^rtnta Kiui ct>rre4.'t luttrrpre* 
tdiioti of rvvujtli^^i pr»L.^)its wLicb, Ixiiii^' uliollv vu; off (real 
iJio nMtktJUico of rt«*un, uru uA liable Co be of oqc cWnclor 
ta of Anoltitr^ and raottl be C(>rtiiinljr kfiown before tmy uuiinw 
ul euuduct dnrt* bo purvuv-j, II ir, iLrrvfurv, not to bo U'on- 
iJoti:^ *(, Au va^tljr fujpvruul is & corrc<rt nndrrstiuidinf; of 
pnat^lT *l'>^^ wlioro diJ9er«int inicrpnTtntioiu liaro twi^ii itinJt» 
<— uliicl, t-1nt[i|^ to fta^.Jutt frvt^ueudj oo^rrcd— ibo niosl 
IntOiiM foo!ing« bare bc^n arotJM.'<if and th<> mwt violf^nt And 
MngninATj irn^j;i;tM bave vii^uptL For uT^rrv tlubg, boUi 
hero aini h«r««ft«r, dep?Qdfc ujwu tLv pruciw luuKning t}t a 
woni, ami tiic ohjin^ of a eing-Io tc^r maj U'or1( the total 
d<vtmH:ioTk *if a *wt iw ti*lion — witncM tlie sij^Kl liaroc 
upoti tlic liiiU^ c>f niiULkind ai^d tbc* niAj» of Uic OUI World 
wliitJi wan iffn>ci(fbt by ibt* oontert oTcr tbo two Grtt>k wonl* 

With tliiji idvft of ri^, llio utilitarian pbtloftojtby «Xi 
Imvo Dotliliig to do. Il ^inplojs iIjIs temi in its inon] 
iACC|iCatiorL, lui implyiu^ jv]aiJ4>Tt« hrttfc^-n men uid tneiu 
AMOrdinx to tlicn ttcliixil vf thou^^bt, tbtri.<fon^. &n firtion tfl 
li^t if il^ tihiniMtv rtfiuju (i)v>:i all b^'ftift^ wElUin ft« tnlta- 
eno^, Olid capable ttt /WUt*^ X^iv cfFccc^ of tbat intlui^tiroT oiv 
of iiltJi ft olmrnol^c <o to ]»roduco mnrc p1cn«nn: than pain, 
or relieve mOTV pjvin than llier orrtuuoa. And, riV ivnta, 
an arrtEon U wrong whuii lbe*v ri'aalu. vfhli tbo wHuie lirTiit.i- 
t,ion\ prodnr* mow poin tban plt'teur^ or -.-auw W pIcAmnf 
than tiiev prpr^nt. Tl i* onlj l*y wrh a d>.*finitJon tliut mxr 
Gaa lay anj fiiundallon for mor.kTitj, vbil^ bj mo&nA of It 
iro roiliice clbiw to a *cac(itific batj'it. It U d^r iliat no 
otjofil ifi f^ood for anj tbin^ cvoi^pt b proportion u tl nffvcts 
the dTfranunt, It m thU power of an object to ppjdnpn an 
elTivi«bii^i alone i^n give tt nlility- This in aa npplirnblo 
to acUoM ad to objeclAi An thj&ei Itaa no pnu-pr to pnidiic^ 
effects npoQ tho tenter exopfvt tlirongb tta propertiW) wUi^di 



tJia ftcdtv loran of qbIuv auiiifwtiiig tJieuedrci iu 

Itflamu ways Uvih^ dlAsrest fonu* of nutter. Tbvf^ 

foTD, il tt iM>t llw otiJDcU llieiRwIvd wlikh prodtiuu Uicm 

upuQ tmr MUM*, but, iu U> «^wik, Ute «iaChMi^ of tbde 

jcctk And if u^ chM nicii with lutvnJ ob)«^U» u Uw 

mo0 of fkociccy and that of iiii>nl« raqvitv og to doy and 

il Ijidr Mioaw la tbo pmuUat modr* in vthkAi the 

inivcTM] force manifoue itwif tliroBi^i tkn maHer wbich 

compusM ll»«D>t wo lisvo iKitbin^ morv lliui tbv vitoiwoo 

oDQ clftA of objoul* of « prmdf>1c prcTlo^j appUod to 

^uiotber ckM. 

Tbu «rfTcd« of ncdofiB porformod bj men will }k ulmit- 
le^ by eUI lA l>o iLc Ijwifi of «UUij'. Iq w1ut> Ib^ti, do ikotus 
f^vrit <nn«if4, lo riOft*£»tiilo ah ftriion ti»efiil or tliorM.)i*lr«ryl 
Tlio HiJAViT to tliifl <)n^)u<i niuy be; cuttfotntily or noo<coQ- 
fomuty vritb riglil. Tbb 1jrtit|^ tu bock to Ui« i|iu^itj(ja of 
ri);ht and wrffl^/^. 

Tl b ti^OPi'Mry to fMAfrtinb .1 rlcnr dtAlin<4ioin bclnvni 
right KDd wrong on tbu oira bjui'j, uid ^iU uid iauooonco 
on tilt* (Ahcr. ActS'itw w ri^bt or wrou^ uacordiog oa lL«y 
■ctmlly upon tlio wbolo benflficotl or fDJoriouAf aim! ind«- 
indaokUy uf 9\iaiojc code of nctkio. Tb«y aro gui'ty or 
buioont * only in tbe opiuiuu of tiiuiklnd Avour(Uti|c m tlusy 
HoIat« or cottfonii to ^taUiflbod rultt of coiiOuuc. iliAoOt 
^ pcTion maj renlly bo innooi^t wlitle porfortnttig n irroog 
loci, or gulhy wliQc perfomtinp^ a rij^la ono. Guilt and 
innocoooe an Jihv«i no conftootMtt wiili iiCiliLr, 

Wv Ani. tbvrvforr, nomly to counik^r vlui tiukcs an t<y 
tiovi rigbt nr wrong, or wbat kind of rlFtctv mmt n»a1t from 
an ACtiofi to fionatittice it rij^fiL of wninf^. It £a eTideoL t]j*t 
L>*tf pfl«ct» aboald bo mkJi a« will rv4*uU in tJw gr«M««t 
to man, or tbu unvatutt good in ^\iivr[iJ. Ucncvf yic are 
ived down 10 ibo aiinplo fjucMion of the gnskai good. 

n« «t*vdQCr 4f lb* wnl '■ Idbdwdi,' i. <, Imlwt k* v^fevn* «nl If 
A4 loMl vbcK i?|4a1 to h«Daa ACZbBi, fri lilt ulUMb I* " pUl/.'' 



And, uwso nolhiiif i« |fOod exo«pt la &o /at w iL pnH}ucea or 
tencitt to produce agrwAbld eSeoCBi i, 4^ ptounn,* which i$ 
tho rendition to hapjnncni, thcrcfono, aocovding Ui tbo dcfi- 
nit]on,Rirh ionilcDc?jninkv*ftn iiction rij^lil- Ttis, of eoiD«e> 
muit W ox(0Qdvd lo vujbnoe ibo «aUire sum of ejects vlikli 
t]M action csn Q\Qr prodTico, Aim!, bdcq thv oltjuut gf bu* 
II1AT1 nction in in Kniform widi obii^vUf r^t, it f<}llow£ thftt 
Um attunntcnt of b&i>piD&u^ ca whtcli tliU ri{^hl w only ft«elf 
A xntfuus iH ihv ulUuJulo end to tto •oiigbt- 

Whai biu biMxi Hud tmi^ to «iiflki«ut for t dlrvd proof 
of tbo utiliUrian doctrine. It n^y noc, hofrevcj', be (]cc"^od 
aii|)«Tfluoo« tA ndd Anmo ooniidi^Tftlionii of ftn indimrt rlinmr- 
tor u Allowing tlie inconftubectcjr nnd ftbanrititjr wbidj tba 
dcniiil of thi* raB»uiag mind Uivulkv, Lvl us wt? f^jr h luu- 
mL-Dt u> what we are lod wboo wc doaj that tho principle of 
ri^lit !• ba^cd iijxin ili«i idr* of th« giY«C««t unount of liappl- 
new, or Ihu grcatert good^t It n^^^uld lliva follow that an 
AHion might t^; r!^1i% wid yet not prodooe tho greatest good. 
Thift ill, of oiimr, ftenonling tn tbo dcfinltionii^ n)HivAlr«it to 
myiug that an totiun to bo right ouod not pr^luce good at 
all, or that an action may b« riglit and yet pn>dnoc oril to 
an indH^iifti* At^^^t. Ai^ain, M right Kcd irron^ hare no 
cumcctiuQ ^ilh happlo^fli and oiihajvpiuwc, llu^u it oqiudly 
fofLowe that an aot may bo wrong, oud yc4 be np^n tho vholo 
brncficiii] to nnj dcjgroe* Yet, lu-tvIihfiCandin^ thcne patent 
inoongmiliM whioh mct-t n» «t every point wht^n w^ caU tbo 
ufjIituiKQ doctrine xi\ i[QvfllioiL, ncrvrtholom, the ing^nily 
of niim lias beoc tM*id (o tho nimoAt In ]iitcjii]rtiiig to over- 
tJirow tint doj^lrinc, Tfilnm^s hMT*T fet^en written^ and evwy 
pouihle c*«c, n^l or bypotltotical, hw been ctt^J in «np[>ort 
of tb^ opposite tht^ory, coiudderod ao doar to tho icpcitnnl xw' 
Xen^u of man, vij^, the lh»>T7 of abtfnct moral right^J 

■Kpcnoer, "D«ucf Rttuos'' |^ >n. 

I By "frnsHvi gml"l« uai moofti |?vi«r ffvul tbannt^ othar vltoD, but 
gvMiar ir»d thu DA i«b«a ; C a^ lb* atsvOikl* «ib *■ >* "c*^ ^ !<■ «fr«t* 

mOUJ AlfU W|it05Q, 


TliH foUowii^g u one of thoo cmm^ nfcrrvd ti> m bviog 
mmoBg Uic m<ttt ilil&uiUt to luuct: ll ban buon aiippotfud 
thai t plukutUn>|>idl of Uie «d1it«riaii ediool robs ft miur, 
for Uie bvii«1il of the nv«dy, of ortAin monejs vlaic^ ha 
Lvl fofgottcn bv iaiJ, Uil ourvr ducovvrcd to be tniiniig. 
In tUia cuue, tb« mo^ej, wbkdt utlieviirbe oculii uor^r liftvti 
beiMrfilod An^ bfldjr, hai bc^u niadc to AMompHfJt good to 
worthy ^.noiv^ witUial jir-xludn^ injr pmn, errrn to tlip« 
Blitvr bitnwJf. Bt«trwtiut{ (bin tv xhts ont? cam, wiUi aU iu 
at(ccid«iit cir^imulAuccM u dup|x»«dl, wu tbe action of the 
pKdaotLtiipiM right ur wrong I U u cliiinod tlitc tbo oom- 
■lOD aefttJnitiTit of mvikiiMl woulil nnite in dccluring it 

Now, I npprdiend tbu tbo ilocifioi] in m^ a cue voald 
DfierMMitjr turn updn tbe fact of rLotoric^y. limits to tho 
mn^ ifi>4uu!o, ami k> owiccttlod fmni viutr and pnblia wru- 
tbj tbftt tbero w» no powIbUitj of lU bdn^ nadd Ioiliwd 
t<^ anj p«flwpn but the p?rforni«r hiinM4f of th« act, it voaM 
involve rifudiiilfE rsiJU' tiutikonti, ithbough It migiit Iw r«- 
gmnl^vl ai amwwbat p«gm»th\ Ihe dlfflcihjr (oodfb ia 
ooBodriofr Mcb a «t4to i>f tblRj^ l4> mUi. It in not to ibo 
Mrt Itself that the mind »o ini-duntari^ cyKribo* tlio crrU^ but 
to tbo roTifii^ticanca of it* fioinfr edoiiIu leoown. For crei^ 
bndy fecU, frmm a onmmou iGiiowkdf^ of bamaa nature and 
hnniAn wcaknfM^ tint It woald 1hi tinprwwitil*^ for moft to ad* 
■triclly to toA » pfwwdcnl if it wcrv net op. Pie firat 
pt to apply h would pmhabl/ bo a violation of It, awl 
vocild nvialt in nniicbi«f. Ilmrts in forming an opinion, 
tlu«e coti««<jn«nco» ar* onctm^riontly and o t c ch a rily takifn 
into tbo ioootint, and Iwcooio m> oomplcl^ly £nt«rworon with 
llic art itaclf aa to bo oonftmnd^d with mnd miaUkon for it 
It Ia ihr wiDt of pvticlRon anpd pfrmpimidty in linman duduo' 
tin«ift gcnmlly whit^b renden it ao, and It ta chta wbkh Tiaa 
iprm riav to all tbo niUn uf condiar-t vitich voc-irtj baa 
«it4blbbecl tor Itralf. M«^ arv awar^ of tijdr own fwblo 
abiHtlM to follow nny thing bctt arbitnry niki, and, iLongTi 




tboc« nlw nay be I&Jiirioita Id «vuIii putifntlar few*, rtiQ 
tl tt oooindorod tio«i ^d lli« whott^ thai ili-j- b« ftlvjipi ni* 
Inrod to^ Artd, ha rr^nr^H infultit'ilily in thvM raLa», tboni 
i> a rcgnW gnditloo tUroti^lKiuL ibu nKirn] and JttdlcU 
codw {"i^'w, p, 451). 

/FlrnJ Ri*jr It j>l*fte^l tbfT roi* tW aovne antocFAlic nil«r 
•bonld and can »lwa>-« witb nifcty b» i>l)efed. Tbi^ ^vould 
<»f uvtri^iry jbdiiiit vf tm iuliuiiv number of excoption. 
Noxt coinc tbe Ih^t^ of naiJoaa moT« rivi1ijcr4l, im&'^tnd hy 
Icginbton of rarimia cjipkciiiw (op ju<l)piiff MdcI fnk[iiiTi|5 
tlierii. m'jsl of wliiub am fit_vl«d, Wid all of wb'wjli imiv ba 
duAed, a£ jvra jx^Uioitf or arlntnfy lam. T1u:!NCf tav. (m- 
nwdxatoljr follDw«;l hy cmmroon-Uw rciili!«, dt-rivM from fmb- 
loiittof 4Uff«vflitt af^H aikl p^p1e<k and fsivjiif; diifereiil and 
olltB qiiltg lnf«rUT v)ew« of itkun and things ail<] from tbo 
■dccimiIto dccufoiw of j"^gca of varied abilit:<n, muoli of 
wltdi niijcht jUm bo r«fcant«d aa Jtn pantivwn^ and «11 of 
hLicIi b, lu Kiv tbe luwt, vi^ far from «npabl^ nf morlitig 
nil tlio (^aMw iltal codW up niiitiQg laeD. 

So tai irt tlib tnw tbot ooorta of •quilj. p*tfl)fiihbtd for 
tlio pt)rpM>« of Miiitfiig lav« to dr^malane^ anxl prevoiit- 
iiijC thcw nrlMtraij raka from working evil in iitHnjr <^ 
tbvir ptsoLiml apf^icatjoua to iiiifotwfmtu camy, Imw boon 
fouii\l neccsaftTj (q all partially or wUoUy civiJixi^ cc^un* 

Aftor t.TiCMi comoA th* moral c<k1(-\ bdill tip from tbe 
uiiik'^l judfTtnont of all uwn ixi ull Agva, but rtitl very fmdo 
ami im|M-rfL^if tlioit^b luijirorliig alon^ with tnnb'a idudUI 
iinproviMiicnt. TbitHigliivnt tliia ootb UiCM may be fouiid 
Lbc <«uno rvfcalar i^rvlHti^in in the kUiAv^ perfc^ton of 
Uw rulw aaii tbuir aikputi<jii lo «aan. Tbin it oWrmble 
wbon WD urviiy tho wbok^ tM at a ^Dglo ^*Uii<v. 

It 11 pn>b{ililj llaf<^ to wiy thnt no goncral mlo for l^nintiti 
action woA c^^or i-itablklir^l or conocivod by ibit ctbit^l vX' 
posnleiv ut tbif vkvrld* tjndiT wbirh iw oa» oonld poMibty 
MOQf wlilcti would rendor iU elrict applkatiou mon? iujun- 



dui ImwSritL ftiUI, Bijmy tluit ve hftw are m uwlj 
t\e ei exorfdon^ that anj fttumpt to dcfiftrt frora 
tliom, ia the pruent «Ute of ihfl Imnkan mind, wMikt be 
EtftEiiwl_v penttcioufu All w* thia, LoDg expen^iw^ and 
lontion hivo to impHiKod them upon iIm ihId^ tZui va 
■» «bDck«d tl tli« Ld« of nti^ (ic|iftrtiUM^ Ukcl imh not ecm- 
an Uwt MDcdi » ovono <Aald fmil to n^uU in crll Of tlib 
b Ill« TQla tiul it M wnaig U> Btt«l ; Jin'i, lliough in tho 
Hiilfd nborc, with the diuuM impowtblc nvtrkiuin* and 
linLtoioQk annexed, it niKht roallj ho n^hl tj amJ 0' n>ch 
net could b* e^Jkd «t««ijn^), tttiW h> final/ It iho cottnctiOD 
Eod In Uw fiiijiii of nuui that thib nihi k in^ibl^ tlot ho 
oomo to adopt Ui« error thai right \» cumethtng ab*tncA, 
id iBd«p«ndNtt of tho cffcctH of tho acte cnjoaaud or ^n> 
hibltod. 1^ it tR with the mlc Aj/^inai falaiJiood. Vot camb 
tnallj occur u'hfrv it u no wrouff. hitt nllwr ft dotr, to 
falaely. Sappooe a MJoatiSo ox]>li>Mr like Ur. living- 
1, who«o hhon aiwL imccraa ato of icrcat wo to .mauhindf 
lo be pUtcd in atioh a prfNlIaimenly whilo in the fntorior of 
Aifk*, thai liulhiii)^ but a fahwhood, told to tho nvi^o* into 
looe huda bo had fallen, could mvo hu Itfo Co lu» bmi|^ 
frirwU, and hU n-taiUL^ nvoixbi to tho world— br»v 
roolbb, liar, how wn>ii|e, would be liia courvev ahonld h^ 
ii;h & mUlalwn notion tint ri^iu waa something abeolulo 
that fabobood w» norer jiMiUUblo, mcrlfieo io errvat 
to ao qDcAiaiiab&e a i>rindp1o ! * Thc*e atri-^nrt^ 
ligjjht bo extended to every njl« in llie moral co<l«, even Io 
ao-callod ^ ^Idon nhi," bjr the aioiplo vxordM of ioge> 
Itj h) fmiLin^- hypolhtftleal ceaea. 

I^Bch BlaleincoM will p<rbajH b; eome be j>rooo«ikood du- 
bnt, if ib(^ aro ba, it i« not ]micwii« thor are not 

* Stan* slefrt hA Ii> cnkt ibb in finpUoi, ub ih« gnqAt ibtf tanf** 
•n bvl propcriT rviiOMl (aIbj^ iW ifaai lb« p»«i|« of Aectlcluff llM« cu bo 

tB^M> TUi tW b ibiHwilQf ■■ ttabraiMt; ibe Iw Itfal don b C^a^. 
Ill TTMIiil 111 I nil all tti tiihBfNljniaWinirfliriiilwIinkntrnl 

cmjTT.-HAmiress the eto. 

Iru^ liut irc^a tbe UabUitj ol iiulividiul^ in t!i« prctcnt crodo 
JOtaUeclual cmidUiooi of Kicii-ttf^ io himuIlv upinrpnt for nad 
«xcopUoa»toUiv««Ubluii«d rolwof condticu TWrv i»iioe<l 
of A uourt of oqnit/ to Uke cc^iunou of thi^i^ nxr<ijjxioQnl 
C8Mit| buT, Ui iho <wle u unwriti«ii und co^ttLdble only lA 
j/oro a^racicnti^ th*t ooort cin onl/ hm tAUblubod bj tlw 
hil^ur JoTukiptueiU of <bc1i imLiridiuil mi[»l.* 

Wbtm iffo look Kt tlie uotM of tn<^i] at lir;^ wv lln^l UiJit 
Uti< priHdpk abovp lai*! down u the oiio tipon wbif h l}itfy are 
all jHrrfunuoJ. Wbvn, for eJCimpb), w i»w awunuH of active 
houiAJiiiv moving in nil jilrcctioim uftcb Individual at hit 
own p^!<Til«r pane, m* and down thf^Hiicf hI^tiaU of ar^ groat 
nictrt>T"^ipvu^ w>znL'tiTn<itAAkounvlveri wtintczm bctJkC vnric<i 
tEioli^x*^ whirL itiiptfl ^-.wEmjik*. A uumbt<ruf proUiblu objcH^la 
aiise in our minds — ujonoj', love* fanic, duTj. elc. Bui U 
there THUS a grn«>rir mntivfi wbii*^ «mbnioofiAn tlirupt Tlitm 
OOrtaini^' is urtd tbat motiTo is tbc atUiniiicTit uf lia]>pino««, 
or,wliatiaiho $ame Uun|^lbo tstc^pti irviu uul^i^tpiiiwi. AU 
them othi^r ititwntivicA an but Ibe 3Cir«nl mi^ane adapted to 
tlie vane<l dlspoftit^on^. and cirrrrmiitiATkrivof t*w)i foraUniiw 
311^ ih'i* object. tlvcQ 1h« n4iji^iuijiiii, vhoof uLl otUoia iroitld 
bo tUo inuHt cvncMl in dvuviny lUia (to liini) low and uortliy 
dortnne, M, bj bia vury Micf. ?i ron«Ufefit 0U|>|>ortGr ol Kj 
for il LA noUijn^ rJ*o bat tbc hopo of bappinoMt tliat actuate* 
bim lo porform vycoj act of dvvotion and of vacrilitv. Tliat 
the bippfocM* be «cekii U fiit^ro, docc not at aJI tdu-r tbu char- 
afrUir nf tbiwe nrta. 1T« u» pT^yuatneffitlj the Irae anJ prac- 
tical (T:\i-inplifiuiliuu of tit)iiUn«ni«a ai>d «vvn of bi<dot]i«ia, 

"Buu" aaya one, **lliifl nulcoA our iwto purely pelfiab. 
Cnn w« tto no unblc, di«iDtGrnit*df n&ttlfl«h action ?*' Wc 
certainly i>an do nmny nobU act*, bnt no Totnnfftrr action 
GUI bo di)inlvn<Bl«^L Xo act van be pcrformud llut i» ni>t 
prompii!<d br ibo niollve of incm^ini;. citbcr direcity or In- 
dirccily, tb<i poiwwwl vrrH^bcing of tbft A^cfit. It mn*t not, 
bowever, 1>g ftiip[>otted that in -ptAnt of fact tliOH? acu clo s^ 


.eve Uie objvct wMigbt It b on^ ddined tlut nidi U die 
lotivc^ tnd tbe Bct b alwa^ £11 obedie&oe ti> iliat mciivo. 
Thm MTttid alteiniii«nt of Uit; ohJMt d«fiMiila ujioix Uic judg- 

It i» qmtc nanu4:ubb that a;ititariaatttm *!intilil h%ve 
ibcoB ncatcOoDgly dL'ft^uilvd by KngiiA)i-fip<^ikin>- uriu^rt, 
'mWoet kngwgo u t\vU\hly dirftcient m tcnuA hy ^hich Ut 
Concrjp the deiiintc •L^da of r.n^Huiu^ rvquinnl for h« lulo- 
.qwte cluokLitifAi. TUo ueoO vf ■ milder ^1<?riiiii4! for ha/ypi- 
fait- been seriooilj fdt,ftnf) no ck.ubt strrw luuUtruct 
tbe p«T>groOT of rmtion^ vivw* oa thin Aubjwl. Tb&t tlie <1«- 
i»ot 18 in ibo hmgtuee acid nut in Uic eoixeptioiu ii wiiJcnl 
from diu fact tliat nicfft other Ungiu^ pctiuw 1>eti«r wtwh. 
The TTtttH'}x"UM^ifUr'' or tho Qtmntm '^Ofi^l'^h'yl^X'*'* 
lud tLev their «OQnU-r|iaK in EnxtiAli, wimVJ alTord a. dvligbU 

Wr imr cvwrtantly con^nod to th« woi^s plMunra, hnppt- 
ivnjnTmcDt— ^n too itrmng— ntilr** wi? full tark npoiii 
L^DCk/, Kv/^tiiv, or hfn^fit, tthlrh idu-aj* jecom to roquirc dirfl< 
sUioD b t«raui lif 000 of the otburs. 

Whh tho MomowhAt dmnKj iDtfniTnmt* whidi vo pn^ 
ftew, tbctt, lift m «t:4lcGkV'>r to ^iii a c^nM- idoa ol tbe apeaUl 
lutaiv vf utilit4riftAiiQi. 

That ill id«u of adnniago or dMivnittag« uo gn^mndisd 
l» llw oxporicwvB of p1«Mvfi( ami pain will docibtlw not bo 
qncvtkiHiMl. Tlio nfUiioM of ploMore and rain to Mrrh 
otlwrt lliODgfa iibnoofl in cxIrenM. wid «vcii ux oil ordmuj 
twBffK Ivcrtfno Mimi^lut obMiiro fat certain *|)ocal lwui^ 

Tliiry- pr\v*nt under coriAin condiliorm mo ftppaj«Dl rcU- 
iivUy, wkldi liu crvatod mooh oonfnijoo iit the niri\d« of 
mtnj writers. A«du Ctvm wbrtt have been mlM (bo " Isx* 

* Jb hwwIcBi «flMr, Dr. avlv W«iai««ife, di«<n aliauia* lo Ihit Biffl ta 


imLrrT--njiPW?fE8s tue ex& 

nrjf of t^uf**(U>d U]«" luxury of jntj,"*!! U Urue Uial kuL* 
dun pottlal relief from ^rreal pain totialu hi & wnaUJou wi£ 
dEetlngulslMUa from pIcumJV-t wli<«iO ns$.l natvro of ]««Bor 
paJn, Itonrcvcr, u «oon rcvijiLlcd, if ci>ntiDu«l onrliAJigcd for 
illort timu. On tlio utLer b&iiii> it Ih siid tli&t plMBttm 
Inuf be M inlGDAo as to aiuouiii pnicticall;^ to pftinfiU ten- 
|,8ath)iu,t The ph«aiommA of tUrhiii^ hn<l tilillfttioii proM^il 
lUJiiTV ctit^ii'U^t mmL Dcrtain jinirieiit mnotiunfl rvoder it ua^ 
)>c««Jblt* ti> ny wliollwr pli-JMirv t>r puirj ta vJkj>erj«uc«il. 

Tbofic two latter dauoa of wnwUoiu, howoi-or, «wia to 
fnrouli t)ii^ krv to tho firiEiamn nf tlw flUieif diHieullj. Pm- 
rJuDcjr of uii foiToft i* B »|Hx:i<K uf d^rt^ and d^on in itwlf 
iiM j^ry ticar t)i« Uuo of dl ihv *eui!<<nt foculLiu*. All Hva 
^fonoK of fooliii^ whicli crw be oaIW<1 iifi^f^rt'ti | «* tpwiil- 
bed foroL's v wlii^rc^ a port, like iLl^ ^ticU of tliu Qagom, Iiu 
iMV)QLred (he f:iL-al1y of recui^QuiajC ftli^fbt nvibUnow with' 
[DQt vxpfidenctng ffLilit-r jA'aeure or pain iLorofro-iu. hi mo«t 
<oio«, wliocbor in tbc developed or Id Uia iind>7V9lr>ped tTiiniiLl, 
to f«d Bt All m tJi uipcficfice ni^rvt^ibl* or dl^^noaUe AtutuH, 
T)ii« «*aA Qifcewu^- aI tho conunuiiovfacait (>f rli^ develo|v 
innil i>f tliu wntiocil Ucnlt^ («f/^ p. US). TTiL* di^t^no- 
liwi of o^fivwiWo and dingroMlile wa* ilie t.nly rawtm rf"^//^ 
of fcfilioKil iWoHliteL The piiniiit of iJie oiio und •TOid- 
Alice of tiw oUicr ttutw aJi that couJd nndt^r f^wUmc advwi- 
laptcw to Ihu orgftniwn. Bat, oH^nmnv, »gr«*We »ute» 
c^toia luvo onlj MulUid from tluj uurniil v3i«trim of fono- 
tion. T1i*i ojily ftdv(iftta(,-u pnwiWc wm in rtmirn^ m<-h 
ATcn^ur^ and to thu end all iho forohipji of thn OT^nwn 
iTiittl Iw xUptisiJ. OhIj ihoM btiitM would, thcrefoTO, be 
Aougbt wliitib secured tld> «nd» Mid onl/ iXtoiO avoided vUvh 

nor ll»»ifHeMn«ftrp|fViiFt«firiihriTb tho be^r >• «ip»W* w«alJ not 

rLKA&UR£ ^SX> ?MS, 


<] lU atUiiimeiiU It wmb fur ibla thU ikmoiUtw 
i«h!iUirdf and tliof could doC bo othvnriA tluui iu bftp- 
ID0D7 iricL tbo ml. At ihu oiflv itagt^ nC IvaM, i^louniro 
rAodJd b« dfttuioiJ M lb*t whkoh ttemttB llie full excrciao of 
id fuu^Uoo, Mj>d jwn a« ihftt which pnreDUAJcb fiiU 

of function tuiiai 1w umned W Uck bocIi moua, cilienrlw 

,.it wooM not *(wk tlM[D,4nd tlie lack «f tlic mcuw t<r tbo cxr 

of fnnctioti b tbti nunc vtatc vliicli U produced bjr ad* 

['WTM infliBciic^ of ttiiA(4i^r kind. Tbo orginitdi ii- in tb« 

^•aslO 9Ute nlicn di»{H«vd lu ivuvk lW tutuJiK of fulJiiJiu^ lU 

nanuftl pbTeka) wrUviti^e ae U ifi after tome cxutcaI c^um- 

.lUnoft liM dnprired it, in tbi-' kuiic i.-iliTnt, ul racti mC4nN 

^t^ricmnly jnnrainl, tix-^ the DTuiiinlled nutc, the duagre^ 

■bin «Uio, lb« fiainfiiJ aUlty, Ckafl> Mvixiitg tb<i»« ^e^oiva- 

^JenoM, W9 po^vu tbst tbo »iw wbtcb ]>rom|)tB lbs o^ 

gsniHii to «vul: any object rbttcv^ b |>rv]>vr]^, iboafcH to 

limited ik^iv<« of iutecuity, » fiUto cf paiiu Uut tbe in- 

tliitttiuD lo «M: nn nbjtf^ U dt^n?. «&d ihw dolro la 

pi^uJogieuHy > painful ttattj;* IJcniiv nuy, tJtcnifor^, be 

lUM n4svn/»fy /HiiV btf'iV tbe difittgimttble Hbite cx|)cri«>nced 

fnMn a Wk "i tbe neaw of fiiHlUnj! a nonnal fuiwtJoo, aa 

dUlin^i^hed fmm part fStvi pain, nbiob »■ iW di*aKiv»flUc 

ifltalp <MpprMm«»<1 fiv-iin liarinjr bocrn dcpnrc^d nf tnrb tncflV 

|>l«TioiBlv powooud. TliP tires boicvv «r, coin* aKain to one 

ttboi «« cotirffkr that, fn tbo flnt ft#wcTl i» tJio H-f^^ud, 

'At C^TKinwii bj* f>Trviom1y pftwi i WK*d tbf^^ ni<*a.nA an<l bc^nn 

dlrdei^niod of tl]<^ awl tbo only di*tinrll<>Ti rvmain- 

^Jng I0 die diAeiwoe of mode Ib wbkh tbe dvpriTaiiorL lua 

■ TV lnt» Hteiw rf iT*iiw leu l*™ rrmmllir minmlrnlft^iT fcf phUMO- 

Mhi* Am tW Vanttkl !• Mruiain« mo* thn n attjM viMW poMHiiAn li 
'anifbi. CaL knfnr, luld Ant i1i«4h vhtt ntbn^ ml f l uju a iifi<F ^a 



been acG4jnij>)ialie<]. In ihc firvt cue, tlie orgiiiUm 1ut« nm- 
all; ibM^ eowumod Uwm hi iU nf^rmil «xorc-J«e of funecton, 

wJT^rK uid cAU^rc^iJ i»^n«-EJco4 \\aT9 mnovotl tbcj;i, in which 
tlic |X\KH<H& nmy hiive l>vtD nbropt. 

We are obl^^>i, therefore, tfi rvoognlte iD di^in* & |>ain* 
ful ttAl4>f wlucb i« ctrtJvcTU^ Into a i»!w»ffiiral>k' sUfe by 
suppjjing tlic tt^ing dcured. Among Uie iiiglicr KpM of 
hiuuau litvj appai>Mit objvctiotw to tlii^ ricw nriBvy anil f<<irt]i'm 
detivBiivc df-j^irc, Afti^nming Hi^ form of hlfjfhlj d^vi'lojK^il 
•moliow, iqipuAr to Im? in r orrtjiin wtm pIcArar^blc, mtlior 
Ibau |Hiiiifut. But thi» pU-anoro bi4iirLg« iu hridi ummw to tlio 
/aint lerM, and ^D^itfttf k tbc ai)tk*tj)ia>uD,^ tUh>Qgli tlte 
action of 1 hightjr dovbloptxl EiiuLglnittion, of tho gndflcatlon 
of |]i9 dttttvt iu <^u«ittiuu. Snob caf4H, tbcTi>fi>i'o, fonir nr> 
eiwptioa h> tbo law abovx; r^niiiiktvd, bul bulvii^ U> ujiottier 
department oF pujoliology. 

Tlici olbrr imp»rl4iit jtMi^nl condnM^n wluch vc tbns 
PCAdi is llmU jurt a» iMro ie p»ln, ■o i« fbe gntiftcalioii of 
drmlnf f>lc)unr& Dni vrm lbv7*l«ATtiou-vit«iittlvet U dl 
pain d*«ir«^ u hll dctdre ie IhlIu t P^ie? all pIvMnre C0Qd»t 
in i1k* gntldcfttion oif defeirc, v all gnitilimiion of de«im rO' 

Bultnin pk4»ure( 

Tbt finit of tlifHtf qaediont roquiiw woie *^-rt*l qunlifl- 
mtiviifl U^furt) m ftffirti^arirc ftwwer can be given. In what 
we bare donnmraated m'^li'o pain, tlw i^Tm*flTi> i^biarl/ 
^^QLiivaleot, Tlnt^ro liavo «*!■& ibal Ibc IwocUmmoJ |"am 
am funtlrttiwntallv idculi*^!. *nd bcnco ihU rniirf aL*fj bo In 
i^fty troo of both wbon wo give tlift same gcaoral meaning 
tc ibc IcTTua, t)iongb rbi* may n^nin? a crHnin df^vifttion 

* PlMwm vf andcdpAilaa ar* inlcHef In Ueu) ■* trtll ■> ui )rp» t^ diw 

tlrtlR vtUi HiMli^Dr pimi aad hifbtr Um HVb K>d b1t«d. iW i-*. "fl^flrthfl. 
IfV, In t ™n*lii -ri-, |4llH>)oilnl. ot m^M. In iWr AwuMr. ttvl •Junld 
aH«r b* liidale«J m Lk! Hat *h«r« 1^ tend Id uouaw tbt r^« of iirld la- 


frotn tbe popular um of lli«ni. ft h «4cu-, liow«v«fr« iKit 
Itio ECJijotion of puftitivb y^in, i.>f vliilevor kind or dt^rvv, 
Inrolv^^ iIki cl^inj to bo raborcl frciRi il. uid butirtTnii mtcr] 
pftin Anil n)i-iy iU^hinj^ then- mny lie dl ilcgreea,« noorlj: 
every t*nc know* Irwu c]ii)^ri*iiK)e. 

To tbo MOciDil of the «bove i|DiMtionji do «ich <|U[Ui&ctt> 

«ation of <1c«aT^'' att it «]l liitko^ I>if the cioiviso of a ellght 
lit«nlitT in tlic ijipliciti'ju of tbo wi^rtbi, tntfivi>nvr-rtihl«L 
For, cTW) in tUu ca« of uuox pwied p1«n«iinK, iboj i^Minal m 
tbA MtiitfArlJun nf polmtUI onl^v, iiuteid of adul iloriiui. 
Tlie ciL>iMUi^)aul)ock, to E>coiiiu« %n Ai?CiT« object of driore^ 
omO onir bu vnggu«tvd to tfau mind. Tberv arv no i>9gaCiTe 
piccwind tio! iliafi explaiuiblti, uvd even ibu ])QMlve state 
(til]«d ■*contr^nimcQt ' ooiubto In Ibofdmpk and fiominnoiu 
rterriao nf nomwl fnncttofi*, nmdcnto in df^pvc, vbt^li, if 
witUkdii, nxvalJ givu riw ti> dfiiirei wlioee wibfacitUQ would 
nacore tfao j^^tco Biate. 

In ilic lowcrt fom»fi of Kfo nKl<iircd iritb fcrting, the 
<!*;?** of ^(r«<*«blM)tiM euppriefi^wt in performing tiKi func- 
lloiw JHWeAatjr for tlie niaiiit^tUiiuiA- L*t \iiv ib iluubtlutf vvwy 
low. ae l§ ftUo, rvlativdr, tbo degrvo of di»grombleneee ex- 
pcnmoed Htbcr hr llie Ab«i>fiiM^ nf tlio tnoene of wfh pef- 
fovRttiic« of function or bj tb« Advnr^ tgcnck* »bic!j fre- 
qmrtiily ect dpun tbe orgnniaiu ft[id ipjiiro or dcvtroj it. Bat 
tlw liigher tin orgaauadon ihe more intcniv tbv Bonj)at!oru, 
wbctbfT«{;TiMebleord5A«grcenJil«, ThU UhrcAiiMi ihi^ni^rct 
eoanplkntrd th« iiMtJiiiaMm the more deScste i1 i«, and tbe 
pcetvr ibo dHnie^ ooi^uooed bjvi e(£iuJ acni^nt of vto- 
lenc«. A Ui([fa di^<c of ftomiUlity U vnnoooAairr 1o ti li>w 
degree of orgar^tXAiion. nttca thi3 tfmAfitj of lifn k invrnvlj 

fjtropcirtkin^l to iIm^ rlf>^i«i5 of orKViixiliuo. yldrfibOf^TAtf* 
ttJid utlwr jirottfltis vliidi hulj lie iftiflehlly pfopof^t^d 
bjr eottlog ihcoi in pie«?c«,* do noi rvqninr nnv Gk1>nnito 

^ftppinbifl for wording oflF dutgcr. /irf^4;r TAn/f^'t, which 



voi oUcrvcd u> live ^x youri without food, vtimtlA In no 
gntit uuod of a kottQ «fiQSO of Lmigor. The h>^ti Mvm* u 
vecH ftftoT bcin|( turaed wron^ido out, Whcei-eel» flntj 
Urdigradcfl iwir^ nftcr twcniy-cight da^' dcnUdmiion bjp 
cbluridu vf liuiu uid tnilffliunc ucid in i v^cuuni, iwd ux- 
])OfiiTO 10 a tetupcninro *ji It^'* OitiL,' while Octopaa, the 
h^^iBst of tnolliinki^ Ki»l lobsien, th« hif^iMt of criMlAoctfi^ 
feplac* their ALmia iuid li^ -hLiuti Iu^l ±^»r^li cnAUuvs havo 
mmlvrntM powere boifi of cnjiiyincut nad itulfrriiig, bocnwa 
liigli jiowiTn dn> not dfsimndnl hj ihrir p1iy<iri1ojrifnl ccon* 
onDjr. .\b uu riw io llit< «f:rAlo. ihv mow Inv IiMb thniu^]^ 
out, ihot ih4»d(<^*TVtf ui fwliij^' uit^reuBw ^ifh lie d«^;reoof 
oq[Vunitk>iL From iho point, of new of natunil c-cpnoiny 
iad XaturtrV i^ndu, U i* ncrrw^ry to diipcl tli« iiks* lliiit ^o- 
Jojrfiif^l U an eod. It is vn\y n uivaa» to the end of (nftin- 
luDJni; life. NAlimj ^o&a not Mjent to ouv whaiber Iior 
riv,ilui*c« rnjoy nt lUU f^o long: w tl;ry pcnd^r. Sho iii as 
chditx^ i^f ihf rrfCtrtahlti ju nf £h<r Aziiti^Al kiitgdntn. yet here 
the end— ccntinuon* lif^— u ri;uDL«itted hj uUitr ufeRUAr^i^ 
In th« aaiinftl uorU], fuoltug tn ^huply n ^iiln^lliuto for cWLn- 
Jove (roL i, p, BIS). Both perform iJiv ono offino ai prrwrv. 
fllgthe ori^niAm, 

It Ullir^ aniiiiAl oTganihii) iuclf whkJi make* fwhng ui 
ciiti, but iLih it i« coiL«ti1"t4-d to 6i> a»d likoH umror>a]ly. 
To uU oTK'jinitTiJH fevUp^ U oiid niw.t of n«m»Fily bo tlio roi- 
pMBie and ultimate oiid of aU tlidr fl(liviti«v. To tUiff Uw 
mas b Dot ill ihtf l«ft*t degree tut exocptvi^ri. 

In hi^pr oi^nisnis and nutAl4y in tii^n, i\w Qmnbur of 
or^ni^ and llicrcfoirc ai fuiK^ltonis U nuitlr iiioTViu<iL Man 
^OB ttecyintc* r4p«blir of tboiimid^ of dMtiriirt Iciiidn of pli^s- 
vraaJiiid r«ttts Tinny of ubicli lutve only h rviuutt* cuuiieo* 
tion wilb ibo mcro lif^ufttunin^ functioniu TJiote are 

* l>v»trt> " Mk. for Iv Tftrilifadn a aur Uar prc^AlA ik rrrnur 1 14 
f^" t«lfl, K^ IIP, l!», ini. lU. tannltfr^ - BOb t>Airicjkill^m1>« 4I* 

Bi. V & «>• f »^ ts lo p. tie). 

pruDurr or sappikiss. 


taujr of tliDm at ad<v vtgne kmI iM«iim; pAHirnlnrly in 
tli« CM(T of pl«uiirve tlo tlM cmoliiiiiH wem to Hiu ut»t>vu tbi> 
MiiMft], Wdtiubld MMftUoiw of tbo U<d), aikd Kttl U» tho 
tmnaou populnr WIW llutvith tfomoof t)ietn tholMdy 
liH tii^ conDi-ctiorL. Tiio general Bam ft «J1 j)l«!MnrD«, i. e., 
llie mtiflf&frtton cf lUl dcsinn — being tbi; nitobtliitig on tbo 
ffiM nurt>k«J ex«rvitf« uf hU fvncti^m*— fe vrhtt roiistitiji«i 
lup|>toiw itj i\i^ ib^raet, and y« even thit ccrm cobmHa 
llie «iAotkm» bN> cilomly w&lh tlie IvMlilj oi^pnw to mdcfjr 
$omo people-, and, 41 T^Tfurv TvniitriceJ, mml Uii^ft|[et 
icw wM^ ^utAing 4 »iill inorv Mcnlfwd form of agreeablt 

of effort u msecfMriljr ilJisMled, and tJib lndupoiid^% of 

the Qonibtfv or kinil iif pn^xi^iuih^ nr iikNtrniftlUlt< i.-nib wliii^b 

mty tw nad^ Uio tikone inintediAte object* of |>uniiiti, m<A tn* 

d«pQt»loiilly, aJto, of wfieili^ tbuu j>rojdiint» ««iJ« ant or 

an not bdimHii to «oik9litiilc iht; nliltnotv ood. 

Gas bappinc^s lh<*n, bcr dircdlv nought t By ibo Sndi- 

ridnalf j«a. By aociely. dix The iiMliridoal nuy «eek U 

dirvcil^r, bvt an h^9i alUtn it bv Hwking i: induoctly. TIj^ 

aodil off^inium mcii4 f«il by ^cokin^ it dJTvctly ; It miy ano- 

cac4 by aeekinjK it indiivcily. Tliia tmd ia beat altained, In 

both ibe todivUiial :«?id \}w mtciit urp^rti^in, f >v Uro piininil of 

oerUiu mmnt toon dtroclly virltiA ibiir irnuji. Hul ara 

tbcM) mcana the aamo In t-oth ea«al Aiviirvdl^' u</U AimI 

Ibia becaaio tho bappineflfi of wit-tj i« nulling dfi« than ilie 

Itf^mu ul ha iitdiridual nmtfl, u-bile tbtt nM«iw mxvvwj 

to rviKln- tbuM uaiw bappy i-ary «'lcb ibo varying dianetm^ 

latlm of U^i;^ cr>Tti]wincnl Individ] nalitW. Tho nuaiia wl 

tlk« indLvidiid aiU>pti' inay bo >otn«wba£ vpotrkl — ibay 

b«Kudi m an» im>n- or \tm diroctly coiuwclad ftltb rnanN 

1I or «i>n£ual nalare^ Pleassro itcplf, atxl of ()i« 

Mctnal ktnd^ may, with entire wc^nis bo itiado tJi« 

bitioiNliat* aim. Tbu individail W bono ooly to beware 



lent \>y exMu i ^ivatvf future |«iD bo oubulod tliui prewnt 
pluisra deriveil, vi<i th^t Uii; lijippitiosf of o;h«n be not 
dlmtnUtiCKl. Wicbiti tlieMJ liiuits lL*^ purrait of prcMat 
ptoftHire in i:ot onljr leizitimato, \mi b ii>qQiTed «nd denioiKJcd 
bv tlio wauU of c^h ii»ifU idiul'ii tiatnrc . 

W1i«TC Indtrvctly jiumutMl, liw imauw nmy bo dodpl/ 
lH>und lip with thn ^nd, n wlittrc TlrtDf^ ciccUunce^ or up- 
ri^tocM U made t1i« pnl^lTllM4:■ cni], Thit 10 the domtn uf 

oat qnefrdon ibo opinion of lUr. Juliu Stiuirt JliU Uiut tbia 
■lionU prrrj-iln ftoil lon'c wQi»ort of fouiidatloQ for &acif>liigj 
wo* lu|cicjdty >oun<l (ruL k p- *n). Tlir prviximnti? vndi to 
bo 0Outr^t b/ tbo «u/tViV'uW loust rout upon the auffj^i^a 
bmnoh of mcufail tn&iiifu«iarit>n — tU4^ uiu«t Uv rvlftt«d to tlw 
^liiJiii^EinilbonuvarintboirciljiirAClH^Er. But the pmxiuuUe 
^di wlikh tocuty niu^ w«k, in ord^r lo »4 at ill ui l]i« 
wloittu of iwcunii^- ft foUvr muufiut» of buniflu Imppfnou^ 
most rv»i npjii tIiC<h^V^«zv bmncli of lucnt^l maELU«ebki£oD, 
mtijil bfr rrUtrd lo die nn.'^iditjuiitttf. And bn inytUeiuol Jn 

M'ith ili« former of Uimo «bvAM of praximtle ciid* of 
intifin—tbc monl dAflt-^m bAT« herv tittle to do. Oor 
I^ b lin^ited to tho 1atC4?r cIub— to the ron«idcRiUuo of ttio 
int^^llcetnallr robt^ nocial Midi of cciuitjou, whi^li sru prirav 
oveutiftlii in tbv ncbccnc of dyttimto voeE^^lv^, Wo baro to 
ooniidor tbe Kmportiiit (pif^ion trbf^b^r NxH^tj In its ror- 
por«to P4|n(^ftT niAy not ikriMt tnd ctrr^- onl m«iiaurMw1uoli. 
from tbtfir hiberocit cbar^tctirr, inuat hnvu w tlidr natiinit ro- 
tx\H Co oubsLnoc tbc geiwrol eiua of IiappincM among Bt» 

Thi* ctn-ontf be dooL^ by ■ ww wUcEton ol iDoana. 
An^Aitoinpt to iiKTOAAO buitiMtL ImppiuoiM % dJroct lo^fils- 
tioii luinit. m tibvmiy «br>wo, ntl4^rly f mH Whtt ir^mlU plopjo 
one wouM dUpl««ee Auotber, nnd aci m\e conid pnMMs tlie 
nac gflow y ftoxIbiUty to MiiMfy nil. FW^idf^ thia di>ipi«LEion 
to ftFck bappamvi is alrc^dv proiidod bj biitiiKA, aud ewU 

PUttflUlT OK ilAPflSESa 


[tMuoI noe^BtfU^ fioeks liU own Ittpplneu iritliozii mt^-^ 
^Mtion or dirvdiim from uiy Aoiinw. Scientific ntJIturian* 
km dom not hotd IbM bappiaon iliould bo nudo tho direct' 
Mpn of J^^lniiT* otiftctnwnt. lEut. revu^^uinic tluit tlui ha- 
ma Dr^wktu u »o oooititulvd Uot ic am porforiu do sctioa 
except from Uiift naodre, bm cbui, owing to lUrfrctive corny 
spondonOA hr-rirrvii orgMitfflm uid CDviro(iiiii:tit, ti Ur^ put- 
of tbtte nctiooi raU* tboir aim, it |iro|NMw* hy an im 
tiiKi of tbu Jmw of corT«poD(l<it»^ If poeidble. to ^tevkaj 
ncoiu wben>b^ a lav]^ propAninR of titow flctioofl aiftyl 
fliHVif«r1 in Hcnnn^ tbt- tjbjoct ju wlicli tb«> aim. The j>re- 
vailit»g oode of monU* triijuh QUikcn idcsiU of virttiouMic9«, 
nglitcousDcw, cxcoDeiKi^ and r%ht<loinff tb« eoiU of cona- 
tUm, Are llic npfrrficitl pntrhiroflE of an rraplrical moralitj,* 
itiidert&lcefi hj tbe iiidiviijQjd for tb« iiidi'^mJ, juid licno«H 
[npoedble to «ofon^ m nniTcnttl gnldca lo oondii«L RouJi*' 
fai|f tb»r moit ptrftfct Btat<? at an wljr Alag« in llio dcrdop-! 
ment ol ^verjr vocu.-4>'t UiCry tiiaio no furtbvr adiam^r tbrongh' 
aU tbe real of Eu bbiorj, wbTle^ imtwtthrtauiding ilwm, nod 
m FpJro of Ibom. rortdnct rifCA or falk with tlie tlc^roo of 
inlrlbgouocu AottiorUatiTn moial codM arc wKofly non- 
pKig;rcnlTef vid ecrvo mibor to ilviiotv tW ittuiv of toraetj 
tban to H^n-nj ir« ac1v:inrrniefit, Tti bd fai cft Uic^ arc Dcn- 
brecod in tbc iropc of *-jci(tU^, tli*y bckii^ to it* nlatical 
department, m data for aludy and fftCte to bo iNWirdiDGUMl. 
Oomtnf^ wbollj whhln l1i« domain of tbo fiwUni^ tUy ant 
to Tw rIaiKH amotiK lli* pbcnonnTna to be controQod hy Ujo 
iiiliflltsTtnal powM-, and not ait In any ttonae ft pow«r In 
tJMnksolvw for th« ooatrol of otbor plicnoineiva of lb« Mn- 

Oa tii« ot]i«T liand, M-j-ry tbinjc |«rogTCflflivo oomof^ from 
th* inte1l«cL If a Huii^< !■ t<j Iw r«a]1y inadk m tbt* A>n- 
4iict of ni«ti« It niufit bti bn>tt;-Ul aboat by tbp »doplion of 
tone ntiotiil wlwmi^ wblcb the wiadom of tbo a^o ahall 

* Mr. ^mmt U nttS-ifihU^^f tarmt la n4fV*klm ibn ftfrlo^ «* rDo- 
■wil; iwdM«od. U aiAtbakfteBl «te«<"rhtt £j IUde»,<'|Lat«^ 



toKBtM tt> be certain to sl^oth ilita cmd. To baj- Uiat thU 
oon not bd done u to fldmir ihnt the «ocid forces atv not 
cnfciblc, like otbrr forca, of Ini^ttg flircctcd to human adiau- 
lAff^-*to dtniT tliat ibore if^U ii aoivuw ul tf^uulogy. 

The problem of djodmlc eociologj l£ (he otyaikieati^ of 
^ui^in^*t. A cotton-mill m h lifidw by whicli, iftw a mtil* 
ticvde of int0TfofViiC4» wiUi a pvntbl^ut force aim) pvn^1«t- 
onl m.itvnnl^ im ultimate wi<J — the di-ih viiiDiifBiBtarud— la 
ailwt*tuinct1. It i^aprodticcof {ntdlcctoalefforl U^miif^b* 
out* ICcrf^ixmg tha impAMihilTtv of Acronnjt tho final 
objffot dituctly. a i«vi«ii of pruiirnak* uuds bare bisjii ckn-iwd 
auHl BUcoeftkvtfly fininiivd u tlie ««v^r&) Titojuifl to Uie altiju^ile 
Old. ]N<rt utliorwiio, in Ui^ inort g^cacml itf^port^, must bo tfao 
coniM whif*b fmJif{^toni<(1 nua «hull Adopt if ho hopr* to in- 
flooiK*! bis own pirogr«»«. TI^» too, mi^t £i>1eHtnr iriib (be 
ooDm of the cociii) foj^^w, now nmuing to wwtcs ami dirocC 
tbum into I'hnQnok of bin dtOi»iag vliich lead toward tho 
Siul objctf wbich be dcmmi to nfrciirc> If tIhoo aod t'tf^ht 
cooduvl aT« llio mtiiTin to individoAl bftfiptnoiv, th-pn mii^t 
iK>i»o m«ibod be doii^^ to render riglit conduct prvft-rabl© Lo 
\vToag cmid^iot. But moat of tho wnm); ccmditot ia due to 
doicctivG judgment, ^ «., dcfocdve <v>m^pondrrco betwo^n 
oi^uiiun And ctivironmonl. Bomotbin^ miut, therefore, bo 
done to compb^to tJio ad&ptatiun^ Error la the roauit nf iro' 
perft<«t ac-^iuiutauco with tho Hold ia wbicb aelfon tuiut bo 
taken. Tho creoinrc mn»t bi^romc better acquainted with 
itt hftbitJit If TtTOOld arciEd Htirppjnjt or«r duigrron* pnvi- 
pjcvo^ putftkii^ of p<jiwjuoii4 b4jrU4;t% or fnUijiif « yrvy to 
ferocfects enemies. Tbw 16 tho prmunt st&ie of mau, and 
thtrtforc the ftnprvmc dfin^^nHvia must bo ihar. r.f famUiAT- 
izin^ hiifiA^f with tho world m which he oxislt. iCnowL^fpv 
tiierofor^ is tho wd to bo noni dirootljr poMu^d, sinco 
ihnnigb hmm-lodgo eomot tho ontiro micooidoD of douniUo 
objociA— rlj^hi comdoct, pfogi«iii, happiueaa. But thl» knoiri- 
edgo oiUAt, he thokindofknowMf-e which hriTt^ ih4«r crd^ 
not Mnjthtug iK^t vij cno nuj ico fit to c&ll b^ tbnt namo— 



knowledge that ad&pta the organiam to the environment, 
knowledge that reveala the reUtiona of man to the Tuuverae, 
The highest and most generalized knowledge is, in reality, 
the most important and the most truly practicaL* 

* The qD»Ui>n u to *1u( conflUiatefl the practical can not be falrij attited 
until thfi doctriae of the4n:(i«] utilitfuiiniam is applied to it. Thu mmkn en- 
JoyiDeDi the aliimue BUDdud of thIdb — » BiAbduii, faoverer, which can not 
bA nioneiicallj eipreflfted or quKLtiLativelj compuvd. And jH its reot^nlticib 
mdorUcfl (b« doctrine of the " bkUnoe of trade-" Of the thoouiril dollars h- 
pended for flre-works, and homed up in id erenjn^ or the UiooAaDd expended 
for platloDm-ware vUeh will laM lor maaj geoerationi, or the same mm ac- 
pendfd tor books whofle Infln^im wUt eontinoe to be felt for agea aftpr tbej 
have moldered to dost, tlie qoeeLion u to which hut done mut gaoA mnat alwajs 
Temiio a qoalitaUTe one, uid jet the flotas thiia expended most bring retama 
dlff«r(ri|i immenaelj b their Crae Taloe, measored b^ (be Qtiiiiarian sundanL 


aocM«frwdU^:vU>«a rronMnl wdtbn Dy— ir «aal^ fc- 
iiHa-finlil pnfRM <W4ik4— Iq vWkl v<bl pnffi«B waibtt fjgiv 
dinlii of Ibt toJiiil oMbviJ uf flsilko— OilglD tot MHM «l Hi— 

fcqpffri «||MkI«*— FrvUmliurr «uaiElil«tiill«i td pr uy * ^ b iW tlHinei 
— hnpoirifc igarh* Cwaimaakika «r Uoc—Uiici^id— Wrtncm Im- 

I^M pwWwipf ibg Ikwiito— E«Udoft«f aAn»to kii. tod ri« rorvB— 

MltitCpMli— ArtlflMchuutwcf affrflbilbD-lliinli] ^MllHilaii In. 

Ibf pncnl vUEi of hucdMi hip|>lne»> trtULt ameEoffilktt yoo- 

>4nH'«^^a*>nuirAt— ^rtUnf pnfrnvfOi-^PvMpeiXlfiV*- 

— fapg<T »aKrt Oritfa uil pnupb of f«waB«Bt-4i«l 

yunm I >t wy pifnaiKiit b odlD»— Xinur* of tibtrtj Ukl 4h ptiiufr 

|1h vfoa irMcli |i r«*u— SDmnvtiv E-nvAnBdim of the llVtf ibmir fuoUoM 

■IlIlM fir JobD Lubbod:'* oUuilB««Ma «f nlljEltfi»-1litJat J. W, ro«^ 
•ITt ■jthelcff^Kl i»(ul<>«p!ij— llrtlwrt H|viicvr'A rtc*ni on wli^nn— Thfl 
tkm limJtmTnul «lHDffii»«f nltj^m-^Tbtu rvduqil tf> uot^ rU., ScUef 

Itdngi Rrlmrtua of nfi|kB to bamu pi^— 1ft 1in« Tu ib* HMniUli 
•r nAlflfm in D^Ml«el; me— fttdi4» ef Ae \jtlirt \o itnoart^^— 
Snlulfiiii bf Mm UIM Tn d'll^— IbCig^lAn ■ iimwmIi; 4/ Ebv »tt«>bg <h». 
dlUoa M dlagB-^FLimiiiHnul Umtfir «f r*1l)riuB ui4 Him*— Siamlun*. 
MA dt*tloplDm Df rOiLj^m UiJ KkliOt fMtt « csRinUft fiolnl fif ilrfArturv 
ftrfllan «f nUjfUa «1lb Hfenw lu axU |iiiiyfa* aU^wJ tcmpdnJ 




Ihc bdkf Id tamibruUij— Coiiifli^keiaQ at lb* ttiributia of dm;— Ail 
^f€titt mMkl iAn^ Af pnTtr— ADU'iiFO|;itHri« miekilH af r*l 

-^Ik/Knokm or pnpcrty U ftwoiib (JpgaritfM «C nftsioa In 
Ki^ltt* uf^cAiUdii, ih* pr1«tlki»ilv*D|n)H« of Baa fran lutui 

TW niWE bct-fvn rW^oq »iad bdiHV— <V)»du>^ ^ \tttirA vl 

DrxAint^ Sortni/;Ar ninu at the orgnniiAtion tvf lioppi- 
In IhJA it JrlTt.'rt tnati ntvnkl Kfivcov, wliich ftW> 
pi\Hliie:ii>ii of Uie ^TBAto^t bjppJiMa^ iMt wbirli ae«l 
tliu t-Dtl \iy tlio ud of n]I«« fof tlie ronirol of incIivMiu 
ecdidocL Su^ niliu are i»<>rtr/ tn thfrir chimM/T, ». «^ Ihi 
wn based oh tho fuulin^. Thtrv are in tlie natar^ of ai 
pmk. 'tliCT isav b« a|i}>P*J^ to IIht rnww, liii Id Whj 
iif tlio fediiigtt, ITmuUj^, bovuv^r, xhcj arc appt«bi to tbo 
ejmpfttlilcA. Thoy aro lup;^^^ to ibo fniner dinifdj by 
fitpcHiroco ftDi] oWrvntLOB. Keeling^ catbvr «goi«tic oral- 
liuudc, origioat«s tliom. Tlwij aro Dot in tlio nature of 
Itircndoiu, Tbi?T miy b« thoa^t ouL but tbqy ore nol 
^vififlti. Hkor ruft upon tl>o cioM obrloiui^ not npob d 
mori TQCondltOt IntUiD of bnnum nalnro. Tboy do not 
rvwgnuv maj nilurni (orcm a at work Ui Use Uucuain 
hmtn i«tio«. Tbvy nubur anuiDc lie qdid conformltjr 
human adlon with kw, Bat for bu<;1i aMamption lb«y 
woalil pomeH DO jtutific^tion. I'or, m k«IJ appcni to ibo 
wimk or the tMei w to ibo iv|uaUj lUvd fonwa of aocioty. 
It la tliiA wbidi hft) nwlf rvil all r«f^tivo «jmt47ai« io tm- 
ikuoopiwfiil It i$ Milj aa tlR«« aptiaib bavo Itocn ai 
|i«niiK) bj «ort«ipOB^ing iictlvo Bn«a«ai» tbot iJioy bai 
MicowjiM at all< Without knowiii|c K moral a^itiNiiatkta 
baT«, to a o^ruin exterii, n'on|i;i]{K<d the laws of eoodi 
and havA adopt^id rooA pKyftical roc*an» for contmlUigc 
tioQ. Tlirvn, of cournv, Iuvd prudtiwd cfloda, tboug:)i, fmm 
IlKiotauco of tbo trtui rbaiacler of ihotu lavn, Ibo dfoda 
Jiaro cftwi boon qoilo dlffurant from, *onMUiuca pmaMly tbo 


rftoGBcsA^reiUARY ueaks. 

ravcffM of,*tboM iluiirKi and uxpeelcd. Bst lilf U oti}y to 
1^ tiiat if:Dornnc)(i and error reepoctitg natural Uvs Iiavo 
opnAted in tli« vithq inAnncr in the iScpuiincnt of Hodfti, M 

Kond ttdonco — cren UiM wbioli Oin^arde teieuJugy aad 
profttieA to be mJOlul— b (?0Bcntin11j cmpinca). i\« ft «£- 
tfnoe, u Mr. Sp«iic«r luJmirA,* it 1>c1iii^ to the; dcportincDt 
of jiftthglcigT. Jt i» tittlr morv tbuu ;i aynivm of tbenqivQtic*. 
2t ot oiul^ no^ bat it ttta^T^tem wL<fe« meilKKi, lll^e UiepraTuU- 
ing mei^od« io DicdidBo, lA cnmiivo raibor than provc«iCitic9^ 

Now, A4 prvvioaiilj^ vhown [vol. i, pp, S7, IW, HO), tbo 
difttinguijihiiii,' ctiiirk i>f v^-ery pnici|iv«l Miuaou iii tliu uMinuer 
in wkicli lliij forces wltLlii iia lioaia^K adult uf Xmhig con- 
trollod bj- artiliciAl drrioo*. Until & flold of pbco':3moiiii hju* 
liecu anSjiMTUvI to tbui l<Ht. it cut not bo Hid to ^lavti b«t<n 
iuj\y m^umd Irj bi^iiTiix^^. 0£ tbe tvo mesnB of coolrulliiig 
nntiuaL forces. tJio diroct nnd tbo tndLnicI, tlio former has 
ftocoiDpiliAhod Dompnmiiirly very litttc. A* ww early poifit^ 
oat (toU t, p. 40^ the (lirect mc-Elio*! m ihnl of tlio bnito. 
TLonvjt^ t;m|>hijv it i^itiTutavuly aud mkoa do progr««« 
All ouignant poopk« dopcnd clit^f npon it. Th« ads 
vhinb lii^ licJiiiicl it %rv impiilfJTo artA\ thcj *pnii^ froori 
f«eUiij(. not from intoil«cC Every ihiitf; that ema&ate* ftouu 
tffotiri^ i* coriMTvntivo and Don-progrvwiv^, All progrow iai 
dm to iuCvilocttinl %Ct\tiiy, 

Of tlie tfro f?n«t cImm of mcuiji vUicli men employ 
lor tb« «ltjuDiu«9it of Ui6 ullimato end toirftid vhich >n 
actions Rre difocled, vli., dir^ mtana ftud ffldirect mnuMt 
tbu plicnoniviw mimUj djUMd rnidor tho boad of lounl «c»* 
onco bolonf; to ibiT fumter. Tlic^ b«ftr tlao atnw ralatioa to 
joifid tliAl bratisf^^roo bMn 10 mqwlo. Ai the nco ro«o in 
incnUl cnporitj, Uitb tlto pntMivy coonltnsto dopvliDcDtji 
of tniod^f^Ine ^^d i&tcUoei-— row together, and (or tbe 
pnnuaidial moUiod of gratifying doairo— fniwenUr effort-* 
the two wbidlBtew flpprml lo i^mprubv and niional birt^ 
•^thuot bUu^'r >HiSioi> 



relofMd eumilUnocHuljr, Out of tbe formor hAf« 
lh« exWUn;^ co<Ji;« vf nionlt ; oat of tliv Utu^r, tho iru 
^ind Edc&ccfi. Jiut thu ilirvct mctluHl cvdd tw morv [irovo 
pragr m ififl wbett founded on mltid thui wiien founded ou 
■UM^ Mid tb« oMi« of niomh liu rvouitked ikmIjt tL« 
inw Ibrwigbovt all Rgoi. Tbo program Httftinud b^ tlic in- 
ditcct motlioil U the ]^i^7v«t of tlw hTtt and ufenieeit. But, 
ior raaao* i^Xbitiiig in tbfi AKtnro of tliln^ the iadln«l 
[■tn«4bod hhfi 011I5 beieo api^lied lo the dopftrimfnit of phjricftl 
iQDSi tio<l Co tbow of DKiral uul of Koviml pLvnt^iDuna. 
[JIciioc, tbucu dcputtncntM biro Unguubud or zviuttbicd ata* 
t^fio&Ary on^cr the iuflii«iico of die dtrwt method aIodo. 

DjlMinic moologj eniMiffte in ftfiplfing tJt>e indirect 
mtllioU to llw oiiltvi of tbu «oaaL forcn, 

DiTllnbg Mwld prograu now uure tpwUlljr as wAtfJnMV 
Hif/^dtftf rA<t turn t^i/is/ f>^ Ammtn A«/ptJMM, iIdoa Ibb 4m- 
pl^ follovH from oar gtrncral definition (jmpra^ p. V^^\ this 
ttUT bo n^firdud m the pn>;KJiiiiitu vmJ. wbuete utiaiumvcit i* 
uquinklvat ti> the ntciuami-nt of Hve nllUuat^ t;iid- Tblfl Iiit- 
^'ler hciiijE: ImponibJev ejcoept hr tbo appltcation of l1k€ diran 
lod, tthi^, ft* we hftw M»<M, pronite* ni> uIvjdoc, it b^ 
[Mhw io]|iorUuil (u itrire tovnmt «uaie pncLimd niuMw Ui 
rhkh tbo indiroot mcihod may be applied* Socbl progrosi 
«iKh ft tnAna, aod it nui/ be aitaKncd thraogh uitcJIoctniJ 

Adhietltig itciutl^ to the defioitSoB herv giwti of aodal 
aa vbaterar uiore an a tt ibo t/nm total of b&maii b&p- 
pini^AA. llw- problem prvMMitcd bitfviinca tbtt of iitn-rtAiiuiiff 
wh«l auf^i pr«^];rtt« nttiM Kp«witic<i]]^«onp(iat. WImA irHxtf- 
>lia tnoM b« effwtvd m lUo locial tUt* to atCtmr tho 
rer^alrvd «0Dmninatia«i 1 

To Aolv« Uii^ prohl«an it vill lie nerwajy to fnito- K>mo- 
whai balotn exuntiiftti^n of tlie «ai^bi|p atmctDro of auci* 
Qtf. Tbo ijDMiioci luM bn cnwidarvd wJvathcr ioiw^taa 
pnaani cvjfwtitiitcd, eoutalna BDjr of tbo olmKOtl* rsqandto 
iimlerii^ it progrtttiTc Ib thia aena^ aod. If eo, wbat tbeao 


pnoGitfiss.— rBiUAP-T ueatcs. 

elenoctta are ; or vlMber, En otdca- to mscurv ttua endt dto* 
Momn wbolljr inrvr am] for^gn to Aoolotj mM be lotroduced, 
andf tf »o, wbftr Oiej ^vc ttqmr^ to bc- 

Xu tine \Mtttt u»o, the Udk tnij^lt w«LI I>c reig«rd«d u 
Ei(>p«ka0> II \i\t^ory aiiU e.\(>t?ri<]Dce fumIdlM*d no eo^ge*- 
tlf>n. cither po*otiTo or ncgntirp, no ©xnmjilo which c1«nrly 
poinU to hTiy nliltUinHu pmgre««, and nonn whicli w,irr:ii 
ftjcainjit kfj^^nittiuii ur dcigvuency^ ttj^it wunJd liulv*<d bv ft 
buld itiind U'liltjli ^lufiiM v^TDianj l<j twoiniti^vt^ a nuvo) anii 
DiitrJcd <«hcnic (xinocTiwil to hv ■Minplod to tccanag tlmt oli- 
JmI. But mch liH|ipilj U not the c«l>v. Tbcre )jaa certainly, 
Gjxm the vrholo, Ui«n tocu\ prugrv««, ftltLou^h tfronglit ;ib(>ut 
in tliv uBic cwfiMcsl vAj in vlucJi phv^iolo^cd pro^tvM 
Lut bvt*u udiiL'Vod, rix., tliron^'tt (hv oporation of the bliud 
ff>rcf« of nAtnre. 

h hM ji1t^J> Wa sliown (finpra, pp. 119, ISO) lliftt 
(Wvi4u}micEii in bit>IugT u tcsfoclv moro tlmn n conjEiury 
fi'ORi t}ic fnH of continuod tiicUtunoe. AWolaiu itagtu- 
tfon fotT any lengfli of CJin«i can not bo conceived of. It 
ia nagatired by th« law (if the instability of the hc-taojH^T'no 
oufi. TSantfon^ ull vrjianLeJod liftf uiiwt nitiier |>n>|*reH» ur 
rciro^Tftae* AMnmlng tbe tcndeiioy toward r&tro^rc«sioii 
nqoal to tliat toward pr^^^rmpjon, thi< iitjitfi of tliingp wbteh 
biolo^ Tvvf^N wontd *ffluin<v For rotroffnub fnnnH would 
•BC«:uiJib 111 i]xv\x Jui'upLiuii, miJ fonuB ul fimC iJiugrtw»iv<^ and 
aftorwani, owing towbatowr ch&n^^ in tbo cnvrronincut, 
t>cconi0 r«trogmriv«^ woiJd, ft* Rtit^jr an tliia »ntinn<fi} lon^a; 
cnotigb, dwippou", wbiiu ocilj progrcsiivi; fomitt ooukl |>«t^ 
■JiL W« whoald tliervfure Iwdicdd jvil oudi a world aa we in 
^ncC bobold. DorclopnifCil, tboraforttt or progFOH in orgAui' 
fiUloo, iMMttftarily followa ftom pnmtciuyT in lifo, 

Tl baa aJ» l>««n abown («v/irdr, p. 1:11) tbat in LJolog; 
prD^raa in orga&iiatioti h attobdod bj Uicnuw in Uic c[u 
pftdty for fecUtiic. Tlik fact pof att •troogl}' (o \h*9 quality 
of profprvM re()alrvd by oar defiDiiioni. For incrotuc of 
fMluig impLie* iocraaic of tnjojmcDC. The only meana 

8O0IAL |*KOG»E33. 


«f d^oiting thlB would bo to rcoido; tbo tncjoieod paiM 
moTft thu> great cctongh ti> 1iaUi>M) tlin int-rMiNvl |il«wiirM. 
But thw ntmrat^ ft ihf^ne of iowUpMion «o KTvat k^ nccc«» 
Wtrilv tu r«ad«r tho oqgautmi tLnb affi^ctvd a<(itjgn<wivv cuid 
iiltlmr«l; to uxtingviftb It.* iucrouu of fooling mii^, 
thcmfrvnif Id aU organiuiu tlut pef«te nnder it, lie attciul^fd 
wJtli ft cnfrwpondiBg incrmw of «njo|ii>ent 

Tlie ftpplSMion of tb«#c pdni^plv to nun lotd to wtcieiy 
U vorr dtnjjlu kivI perfectly luiciiiniNte. A tUiUi of HbfolQlo 
LiMgnnliVin cftii not gxib: Id ui^ fBco ^u- ftocreij. All mnA 
eflber b« ftdrancinf^ or roccidiiig, howorcr al(>vijr or vbjrti^- 
niidllj-. Uorcot-cr, Modftl ulvftnociDeal wliioh h hbU to 
mwt l>e of ibo kEnd ttiat aeourw UicnAn of eaj^y* 
irpon tbo whole nad la the Eod^ ran ; although, Lik &o 
eocnplnx a lirUI im that of hunuui jiocict/, tlic apjiArvnt rx- 
ceptiou to llik Uw oifty be mftDj, ft&d <lie law UbvU diffioiLt 
to proTQ a potdtriffru 

But*» of *c»dnl orgftnintjon, tpparen^j the hi^rtft, 
.ofl«n nvtiilt in ihr nuMt complete iiiibjn>Cioo of the inu^e*., 
and orrtnialy diminuh the luin of htppiDOee except at ^ tvw. 
lU-fouEided ftchviMft of govcnuoettt, nfli^on^ puMlc. mwq- 
omy, fina2ioe,[ut,or€vcnlit<!miHKvnuy prootHnl w oinch b 
dUnifnrd of the fta\ w«lfaro of tbo pvopl« u in fa^t, thon^ 
BiipanHLtlj hifihty developed lud progreaifvct, to roducc tlie 
loQO of okiitsni^ and groatly to 1c««n tlie nctnntt\ drf^rw of 
'onjoyaneot. Itat mch a Mate ii, m h^ rvOoffrcf^ivn, It 
uiotIdi the decline in th^ tifo ol s aucivtj, ttaoipK it m ia 
of becombg ^^^ and odiere In a period of obvtoGa 
leney whidi, if oot anveted, ninrt end in mkK«I hx- 


ExMtin;; nM^wtr conaitie of a vartiely of dSitiDct «la- 
meat*. TJj; tlate in whldi wo obaorro it W l<oen hiooglit 

It hy th<> iadnoDce of nuiDcrotm can«al favors. It fa 
ll<it cwmich t/« itAttt cfrmrndlir tlint Mwud prof^^w n duo to 
Uua great ooaoiiml tcndotwy wbioh ivi^ hare Incod throu|^ 


PBOonEss^ntiUABv hkatca. 

crttt the iMter dejiiiiuientfl of Ufe. It te ccrtiuitlj tmo that 
thia tendL-iipf exiMa^ md that it ts tbo romote ^nfc of KiciaJ 
■It wi-ll M of biologicfld prugrew. But crcn the biolofp«t 
loohfi cloBijr Aud umIj^sw thjo vmowt mtm uuntodialv bId- 
nwnu vKich combine to cunsiSiui^ tM» tendcno^. Much 
utoWi tbvn, u it tkr <)t)ty of ili« KicIulogiKt tci aiuJjne tlio 
pmgivwivi; icndccit7 in *ooiotj and to deteniuike the oaturd 
of iU i*lvmunb>w 

JoJt aa b biology them 4t9 found, i>poih ckMo iarMtign- 
lion, two jKvmcral idamDA at clnmontjif faromTile and adrr^rv, 
fo in uxTJL'tj tiivre arr found fu exitit bo^ progreMJTd ftud 
muti-jH^rvtftiT^ vl^ineu:^. The tidd of «ocial pbeoomcoia 
dliFen^ bowevur, frvm thul <jf Ufv in gouvral in ooo vcrjr 
ImportiDt ruM^icrt — thi^ vxii^rtirK f>f u% mteJIednal fan«, 
llik foroe W bwu dovelopipd ta tbu iheii^ co*tuioal mauutir 
m (be otlwr oodal forc«»— U19 detlres; but h nw^nh»]em 
differs 60 fnndancntnlly from ilicvc aii u> tnork a ttc^ in iho 
genvini profptMof ttitiim analogofiii to that which tliedfr-^ 
velopciwni <if ihtt former markod wbon tiwv fc^Nuviad tJiv 
Ktnti«nt from the uuvntiunT world. Tbia great atrp ttitda Ita 
fnllmt «3t|vnv»kra b tJa- lir*)rt'! atilillnwit wJiidi we biT» 
doikQtcd by the tcrma diroor nud Indiiwt mf4liod, >» apiplM 
tA tlifi rfTortN aI wTklJent br^nji;« to atUin tWh- «mda. In ^ 
irorld of fMrlinjof holow niAn, ihofo vAort* havo bc^rn made 
according to this direct tnvtbod aJoiiici,u]d bave miA^cvedeJ 
otilf inacpomplbblQf; t]M nii^fitonaaof- and p^rpetnatloQ of 
life^ ProgrMw Iirm 1«ct« boi<n diif f/i i'th*'T t^att^ t^twdy ti> 
ihe varioQB kindi of adajilHtioii or •vT^^tion : Ijut in man 
tb« indirect mt-tln^d iraa cvlj «p]4M« and vLlIo iti oertaliL 
QMt«,iDooTiBc>r|a«noo(vf erroraiid If-non&DO. it bad a rooctlv^ 
offprf, and hroii^t abfmt gntdnal degeneration or apeody 
doatmcfinn, fn olbera it proved proftrvwiTo, attil wtlb i^mter 
or leai* ntpidtlr doi'ated tbo ooftdition of tbo race. 

Tli« bnmediute ramlt of flie applloatioa of tlio IndJrectf 
or itttcnpctoal, iiMitbod va« the introdnctlon of a laf^ imm- 
ber of pordj' hocaati inatitntioni^ or devl««e for aUalning 



tdoiinxil «aidi, wiidt b tlwir hmo gvooftl mobo wo mny da- 

WLilooon4d«rJtiff tho nriooi "moto of *oqtiitcit>aa" in 
fCliaptor Vn (vol. i, \t. :,^4\, il wft« «liown iW iriC^lli^iitl 

dirocicd towani obJ«cu «p0kbl« of f^tii^, 1ah«v tli4! umft 
of rf/rr/i/j'Mt. Suc)i r«oonHite Iralh* M« MHnotinii-ti «x«fopJ(- 
■fiod iti BXi inU-rv4iting mntibor hy iho natiinl Li^torr of wurdl. 

Tbi! wofTl oW fumubvn c ci*« in puiiit. Apfdicd to id- 
otjeoto ItsoutHfe harmlcea comif li, hut oN«rrc tbo 
'diffortnce whMi AppJittI to AnimAk or noon. In ite. deriv*- 
tirt^ ^artful/' wo lute tlia mhio gMoraJ cotiooptkin u m 
'"■JtidcDBl," oxe»pc UutI Acbi to which ihv fonncr nmy bo 
a]>p1iod rofor lo tfain^ vluoh can iuffcr, vliile tlioao to 
vhidi thi^ htt^r k Applied are fc«4Iiiglm. 

W« nujr pcnwfc fftm Bach illnitntioiM tlut Uia u]«ft 
nndcrixlnif die word ort^ and pr«(«Ql in alt li« appli^ailooi 
fand doHrKiJTCfl, b ibe cweotUI, ditftngnttMng princTpto ot 
pnmlf intrllcetiuil antion. Tlii^ivfuru, all the prodaoiiona of 
pvitfly int«IWna] effort may io lh» g^et^l wnw bo dr-nomi- 
luU^ arU. Aoit OOW tlie additioitAl Uoth tiiuU Ira formally 
Mt dowo that, wliilo certain oHa an doriMd in i^onnea 
[and cvTor, aiid iwxiTt in tlie uibv«nioa of proKren, iLe 
gfcatcr part ^f thera ara cociix-ived in a siifBHpolly Wvb ap- 
PTCcialioQ of the uainre nt tbo forc« wbich tli«j Mwk to con- 
troj to aiKcwd in ib»'tr pxirpM% »nd rwult la aocuHttK ■ 
'gfTOUir or less di^roo of roit«rW wid »odil »fl9antag«, rm* 
lUfiiii; tJiom prnfrfv^lre. TWs tnay lo »llorfMt**d hy tU 
luMory of bsmajQ iarontlon, which is ainipiy a hruiich of 
huiian m, uid vona^totn th«? dcpirtni^nt of it wUcli muat 
iparfecUy dacidato* tho tnic olianotor of al! form* of artift- 

op«ntk«i. For ovi^n here a grcnt roan/ ilencw fail to 
the object* <«Tp<vtrd hr Uidr ded|gll«i», and v>hw 
'jnovD pKNiuelivtr of b&raifol vlTucts. 

Novr, vhil« tho prttcflit •tato of vooiaiy lun btcn bnwj^ht 
aUmt thnwj^h ibe op«tttloas of a gooanl taudaoc^ inlivmnt 


iu lituuui iuiQi«, jot thh g«>8n) toodooc; bk« in lorn bem 
due t<t curtiuo apMific ouiMst. Tlie unJ. |in>jLrix«, tui* beta 
ocbioTci] ihroi^ llie liMirumuuUlitj' uf iv^rtuiti muum witli- 
tmt wluch it could Dot h^vv been nrhicrDd^ T1iee» nM^ina 
ooOMVt ill Xtn vftrig«v farm* of iirt of which «-« hAV« •pokon, 
Tboae fonrif of >rL, Uivrefutv, c^tutiuitv tlm m<if« definite 
objiscti of ttimlj in ftuj bquu;)^ Into tho ooaditJonv of human 
pTOfcreu, Tlni^y ilItTtir gn^ixtlv iti UiLjir^aicrml diancUTf and 
nuaj (»f tbo in<»l jmp<>rtjiii of tliom derUte 40 widel; in 
tliidr «xlonKO cbiinclvrUtiua from lli« nonittl t^vpv tbut ilioy 
u<e not reL'oj^iLiKed In comnioTi pariiinvo by i\vk noum of acts. 
Sotno of tbt>ET> itro rnj^nclj' rimoTnitotod instiiviionMj or n^ttn- 
div, while otfaorv Are io nniircnviilly regnrdfd &i aui gm^rit 
thit thi^rc ii no gcnurio <»tm;vr'y to wbidi tbe langiuge oan 
rofet thifiiL Ab nlncadj remirkod, tbeso various utifiocal 
!derices of c^io bnmiLTi intellect mAjr be pritnnrilj ilivicled Into 
two genvnJ d a »» -tboaa bclou}£iii^ to oav vf which iro 
upon tho wliolo prograttir^ vbili; ;h>-4ti belonelii^ to tlie 
cilbt:^ ftne npun the irhole non-progroaeive. 

At fint sli^t it wt-inlil Be^nin fh-tt thin ditiw>Q would bfr 
an obrioa* one ttid trjiilj dnuii. bat tach ic bj do meant 
tlio Dtu. or connw, uU were orif^Iuollj intcndod to be pro- 
gMAiivd; nt Ifefit, wevo Intended to bc-nefit tho«o who lic- 
»ignnil thom, and probtM; I)io«r tbitt survived tbc cnHio^t 
tlagciof trial «o prDved. But it would noi u^vc^lxibiinl^' foV 
lov that, beoauM tliti/ bouvfited the dc^df^crA, they wero 
thf««fore pio g T M& jyo. Elonoe^ Ihej miicht lon^f Hnrvive nnd 
bonotit ibotT dotigDom, whi!o %}) th« tiiov injuring tUc tvt 
of tociuty* If AticU injnry woru nnmiKod witb bcDcdt, bow 
eror, it wootd raem Impottaihlo for them to (survive Iod^, aA 
Ihey would Mon incvElably rraot lo the nltiiiMto injury of 
the deiifcni^r jIm, Ind<*d, if thoir jfoiiend •ffi'cl wurv mora 
<»vn Uian good, tbin n^acUoa iniut uLUmttHy cotno* bat, whoro 
markod hcnoflta ac«nie aUatg with greater «v]l«. it in r^y to 
onikfrrtand b^>w, in th^ do&dj atate of tho nndtvelopi^d ra*- 
Mu, iiiabiliiy lo balance tho good and eril might resott b 



ir ptTpotiution for \oug prri<d« nspiitn-t lb« gviMml m- 
tcrottH ot «ocic4j< Till? ifvod vlIJ^.-U may U.' tmuutugfjr <lo- 

the far gvMici- oril cAce» may be ioaidioaa and im[>omf<]>' 
tibic few naiko Kow ^rett U tlw aiwwpdbalJty of idati io 
crrvr in Uiq Iow« «I«^ oC Iiitt dvwlupmepl, XIkw; wliu 
liATo fuQj rvoogtUzod thk will rcadiljr nndorEtand liow a 
ctmeinirly dctiud artitidal «j^cm majr bo regarded a« a 
blcwi^if for j^<?^ daring wliiuK it i* io realitj ikfcndio^ ita 
defemJenk A> h uociorete «xftiii|)4u, wbicli c'vtuA uv^ir t^ur^j^i 
hcmae to be roadH; oomprobviided b; alU H us in^cajice tbo 
ituctlntion of nhiil^^L 4jivnry w it nxijitod tn tho fK>ntliam 
Umtod 8toU» prior to tlie w%r of lb<il. If »o great a«lf- 
dvlnakm i* pijHAblu in an cmligJilvnod agv ami nation, liow 
TDudi gruaiur iielf-ilelii^otu may not have beeu (koadbl« iu 
Uie dark siagea of barfaarimi and Mvagary I 

ll will liierefore be aeea l>ow dlflfenU matt b^ Uie taA 
of diFtingnifJili^ tho prugrwu^vc and Dati-pn^ro»ir« intti- 
tntiomft irhicli Tnm huro f^tAblUhrd in i^vioiy, Mnrty flf 
tliotn arc no o^mplicAiud in tlntir ofTccU lliat tb« vHiuct men 
of llio world djdf:r dlanictritfoUy npon the i|iiu«tion of llieir 

ll Will be UupiMublu, » it W cpiiti* amiccoMaij in tlua 
brief sbctdi, to GAoridfir all thinao van^d buman enttttona in 
minof^ dcfaiL Hie eph^ioenil orm. who«« general injnri- 
omatm baa ao distinctly inauiftt^ed itaelf aA l<> bare Almdy 
ncullvd in tbiTir EQpprattoD. iDWt bo |«a^ oror in nilonoiT. 
Knmcfoiu coiitpctFaEivirly nTtiinpnTtant omcA, CA wliiebovfor 
daw thej nvtT bi-I<ru^, moat aUo be diarpfcardeil. Only a 
few of the great typca of om^i elav, wlioae «xktaikoe baa 
bavn oo-cxtoDsivo with Ibe knovn bi«tory ol aooktyi and 
vliaaadToera arfi Mitl makn^ ibrmvlnM felt Ui onrago of 
tha world A&ii b i\»v uioat ndr&ii^ aodetica, oan msir^ 
a|ieeial ooiMKlffntion wi onr baiMlt. 

Bcfoni cnunioratliig tbo oammptca vbidi wiU bo wlcvtj^ 
«i baat fonkbliig a baala for the goncnd disootfloD of tlio 



oOttdiHon^ to mk'ImI prof^rvw, il uill \k DUiMiuary to 
thtt thv pcrpulajr view of Uie rdntivo intlacnco of cbc difli 
ftnt wdtti H^EMicioi w oven now cxtridnelj' rmdo Rnd nT)pTi!li>> 
0Ofihic&L It i^ in n tii^Ii dc^^rec c\?peril<?U]i ud b in tli« main 
bamdQpon ovnAio rat«mil a&d obtnuiT«rcbanci«n «lii 
AN mkUodiQg nnO UccqUivo. It ii not too mncli to 
thftt the inaji>TJ1y of nunkinil nucrihc all Immjin prs'^mu bT 
indiMBoeo aa to itIjchc pro|cre«iivc chAmH^r the ck>npfst 
tltlnkera are Ld donbtf wbil^ tlie tru)/ jirogn^Mivv a|^iL<:JL<<, 
unifimRillv raeojguisMi m «udi bjr uXl who b^ve thought 
deeply upon the mbj^ct^ oiv almost vbolly ^nmH. fon- 
idilpmhljr more thxn i>Tt« half of mjinkuid, if n«krd u-bat tixfj 
R<^[«rcWil ftd tbv cbivF civilitittg ogivm;/, would clotibclni^ tin- 
bttesUtiti^ljr aain^, *' RuUjfkut." Yet n dngLo luliJiliani 
(^iMfilioQ yntaVA qalciljr T&rmi tbo f»ct that bj •* rcU^on 
encb on« Dbeuis ** mj rv!^;?i4>n " "^ ; for nU without «xoc<pt)i 
WMiM i^ive that all other rdigiona thnn ttiptt own vvi 
not only non-progronifo bat rclro^romTc in a higb dc^nw. 
TliU waM be; i-(|QAlljr irwr of Bnddbbt, Thfcrlwiiiinodan. or 
Cttrutinn. Wbil^ tbeti, aro <lbiul«r«ttfd ^peotAton to con- 
ollidot Ai betwvcn ibol which mU d^clAre to be true nnd 
that which nofy one Uix^lanv t^; bv true, Hk chuKno^ no for 
m IMimony p)M, are of coumo in faror of the icrmer. If 
th« qnvntAoo Itai] no inlrtnjric mmM, or if nnno wpnt knovn 
to tlw Inqnlror, W txinM^ if lofciod, ooocludv lint kII ivligtoni 
oro non-pivtgTi«iJvc 

Again, if ajJced what hnman inftitntion m&kod aoc^rnt \u 
Uie MVTicua it Uvl K^nderod to drilimlioti and proffTUM, an 
oqnaDj' lanfo majority woald prvbalily rvply^ " Gwvvniiutiit," 
But, aaidc imnx iho i-onAidiTAtKin nrgud in tbo <am of reJig- 
ion, whi^b brtx; nhow* iUdf in the fac*, llfat mo*t nationn 
^rd l[i«ir owti ptw^e furin of gOTornmcnt m rinni«Aiumbl; 
th€ bed, %n<i mJl Ptbcn aa little \tAivr »t Ut vono Uttui tn 
gov^mitn^t, wo hai'i^ liiftorr to i«»ch m (o bow xury 
AD utcot gcn«nim<*Dt in aJl agca haa bunkiwd anid opprc««e4j 

pQi*ULAS ui^xi-fceprHjya 



U^hilj- iipan Oie pooplc^ ta the rtpn^Mfiiadtv and rtncUj 
ItfMft^ /iv«fv g<ivcmin«nt of the TTnlrod SnUea, wb^re mtwtf 
tfm/i^ pa^rAili, and the nnrettridcd pow^r to o/AnkUintXa ib* 
]icuplu'v fuud fL>r Kakiu in ifiaitlvd o au " ubUuuablc ngUl " 
— efoa Fn m^ gommniMiia tlio poHti«al pvt^ vlibeli bap- 
pHift t> be in llie m^r-oritv, if by only t ftw tb»BiuiJ rote*, 
atid b«no» out uf [^vwor^ in oocirtanrlj diarp&g nfjiTmiinii. 
uid deolsriog ibe guven^mmt vofM tb»i nittrobj. 

In vkrw of nil tfau, tbv diADtertKUKt pbJlo«oplitr mint 
oorUlnlj tto pinioned for (^ncicluillng tlut f^T«mmeBli, m 
InmoMi iiHtitDtionft, bavo no4 been nttmixed blcwing*, 

On tb« oitivT h^d* how fow, ontMtio of tho ■Seep-tlilDk- 
ut^ cImmm, adeqnnCvljr value Uta; Mfrvioot iif lutgnogu, lUerm' 
tare, tho oieduitilml axta, &nd ^ic exact «ci«iiceB 1 TIimo are 
tbovfftltjr prq g rawiyc agrnoipi* t4 h-trirty; yri fKHr mHueaoe 
m M> KvntLe uii] niKNCIentntLuuii tbat thvy «re orvHiiokciij, flnd 
eivdlt for tbeir reanJU k g!v«a to tlioeo a^iiviva wbkb «ed< 
ploj tlid dirod motikL>d, niad \vi<tM Hmr aiaidi bjr load «p^ 
pcftU to «ji»[iUhjr aiwl pfumoti. 

Bucb bebi)^ tbu nature of the ^bjoct bvfore o*, it li 
decowd tbo mo^ «ulcat>lu y\m io eoMidvr, tint, ibo more tntt- 
dikioimUlftnd Uftrirint^einlidns sj^do^uid to aliow in 
what noaiitbi tluur reilly pro^mi*ivfT c^iHncIcr i» moMirod 
by tW M»n<litd adopl«d in oar dcfinilioo of j^irugrete; aad 
mftirwu/d to iavMli^stv ibe olalnie of goTomiutm; uiil re- 
Mpon to t}icir aluirc of tbQ credit for nbttoror Klviuiao baa 
baan lh«a far mado. 

Before altering f^Dy mto tbii ^HiciEo litio of inqnirY, 
)io«rvrcr, it irilt \te npnauan- to inako m fev prvUniinv^' ami 
•xjiUniitory rMnirlcA. 

A vor4,1in(, in Jufliflcalion of lb« <t«finUkin of prc^reM 
glr«n abow. Pregrvtt Ui ttagononJ nfliKt,or iaipror«iiioiit, 
Uofiim an approximation totwd parffctioa. Aft appltod to 
iuiorguila>d matter, it dcDMaa tbat MatA of dovilopmoil 



vliieh maieriftl objf«rB 9ntSiorff> tliroo^h tbo agcncr of tho 
pbjidc*! fm^rft- 'lliri^ in teuuiij, for cxAmp]«, to mippoor thjit 
tini «oUr *j^t4.-m bM bovo fur an indafinii^ iii^nud poHing 
throii^ uiowttdtvo dUgt« of s gmlul <l«fvelopfu«ut. nfipoMd 
1r> luivo oHginstct) in > Goinpriinilivcljr cbAoCic dula of ncby- 
\tia$ mAtl47r, and gt^iw on lilL at Ibis pvticnUr bU^ U pnv 
Miibt Uiv iLppt.*auajic« of a nitiuboT of *|)horoidftl bodies r^volv* 
Siw ra|!;uliirly alwnt ihw common ccuior of gnritv. 

S<\a1ao, ibcccmtitutiou of tboiMrtt],uidTb^ annlogTr that 
of ftll w^rldiv <n«y be nid to be f& a ftUtto o4 |irogrvBft, ftl- 
tlKHj^^ U may wi^lt bo donbh^d vrhcfhcr nil itii^ir inii.-rn^ 
dinogtM roirult iti a ^wUj muiv *ynititi*lric^ thxti buforc Uio^jr 
toolc |>Iuo«, Bat iliore tu&j be eoaoj dUEereol eUndjude of 
p«rfocr.ioTi- If Jiny planet, for example* cmiW be «hown to 
bavo once bcc^ bjiytnblc, tml to Iinvc Tiow pMU^d, in tiio 
CQuntu of iu tnuufurrualiuiifl, iiiIq a rtate inrapLblu ol *ii]>* 
poning Ui% some might condnda tlifit h» progrGAhad ooasod) 
Anrl ihe opfiodtCt or a degtraonuicinT bvt Itc^inn. £til), it 
intj{1it bis at tl]«sainc tiTTie^;n>wIngiDored«i]M^ tnorvHliapeljr, 
and i^iora rogukr. And IbiA t^nrvlioi) will me«l um ev«Tj- 
wli^rv ill tlw inoi^uiic vtctrld- F^ir, if a rioiw cnimblo into 
doHt or ft Mod-br-tp ^nUdifjr into ctmno, vbo iihal) «ar whic^b 
i* (b<* monc perfect ccndiiioii f II it dear Ibnt dcvt'kiprui?nl, 
or progrvce, in unurt'uiL'wl tuiiUt^ U fvbtiiu to tin.- jnojiy 
jui^in^, nuii d<TpcMidii upon wbaC li« ooDrfdore porfootion t^ 
ouai^st in. The fArroer woold ooiundcr Il»^ rii^h lonrn into 
vUcb tbe rock Lad GRirei)>M % far anpvrior iv>iidit)c>ii, wiiiJi; 
tlju gool<igi>t would iDwl admire tbe ftmlltiod Ivdj^ti 1q vhioh 
bo wnld rwul tbo biflorr of tbo pfl*t. Still, it if popnlnrly 
BUppoeod lliat alt nauire L^ pvti^rrVMrin^ ti^wnrd wmo ftRndnrrl 
of poTfocttflii, cif iImv rb&nkrl4^r of wbicb mia m Dot io a poai- 
lion to jetdK^ wttb uiy Ji^jtroo pf apmncy ; an id«A wbidi in 
pvrdv apocalalU^, UK «ab«t«Btb(«d bj wbot wo know at 
naivRSAad ratber oppo«od b^ tbo establ^j^ed docrriiio of 
the ponlsteneo aod EndciiniolEUIlty of botb mfittrr and 
forea wbi^ alwaya miut havo tJie aame ^[uantity. The 



bilifTcrcRt with orgnaiz^ nutter. For boro^cvccL m tJw 
T^Btftblc Wivrlii, Wtt tliid fl oertain MhptAtiooi to thn twu «qi 
of utun- Wfore Hlhiile*] (■■— t1t« inNliridoAl itiul the 
dfic vxbtoQoe* VVo liaatAh) ootr for inouicv, to deuUre an 
«KOf^oiii> sdparior to an coihigoooo* plmt, bocmuA wo 
tha tile foniter i« b«U«r pn4itvlr<(L by h&viaj^ » fimi trank 
antam it A^b«t coJd «m1 extc-riuL aU;u:kB. M^u Miy, tlicrv' 
foTOt liiat-UKuv hv bocD pf^rvM in tlw viig«UbIc kJngdoi 
fiibcv tbo urbootfurona age, At the bv^iitnintg of which 
ttridtfitM* em bo fonifed tbit anj ^:<cq^ioiui plnotd FTUt<-d,ai]d 
dariog whUb Uie gjminutfwmi. tW Ivwwl tjpe of tin* 
WM aQ tbst liod boon Imoi^t forth, wfailo now our foi 
tbnowl iu oftlc, booeh, bircli, uxl mnpk, and 
AOd monoootjIcdonoDfl plutilA cMxrupjr n rrr}' infrrriiw 
in tbe Wfroialilo worlil. 

Wh«ii v«i ooino to onuittlA, t3io prograniTo pHt>dplo 
cicari/ dJMendblc The xtilai^<v |)cdi3ctii>n cf noinnLi i* 
longar cnvfiiMNl to iheir mpfdivc powen of cndnraDee 
Mouritj of pvrpatiutioci, bot Ilea 9.\fo io tnttaadnU ocmnoo- 
wicli titcir pvculiar choravtvriatJe m flantwnt bt-ii]^ 
In iti enjisfntfi cltL^ir own orf^bna. TlieieforVT tbAt 
oqfuiiiai !«, io fcenersi, nkot porfcct wbi^ poicaaewi iJm 
gnsatutt VATicty of parta, oo tbv prjiici|^v tUil «vosy 
dOremeDt ytcHB ploseont, and tlmt jiLcaiorv v iiienaaod 
tlio facilitiM for aeiivitj are rcodorftl noro gxIciuEto and 

TIkorefor** it h tBxAy MtabJbfaod thai on tbo vbofe tlien 
haA Wn progT^«« in tba animal IdngdoiiiA tlixvuglioul Uio 
grdt^^fttl »|cn flf the Mnh, boflanae each cioocaiiTO o^ boa 
pTodiwed wuje LwuiK* of a mom TanM and elaborate tn^a* 
uatwu tlBin tiioae nf t)w if|v prceedin^ t1. 

WhlU^, Oii^rvfnra^ iu tho aaimal » w«U a< in tlw ve^n^labJon 
kfnfcdoni, ihtTC «ttU flxiat fonna aad itpraaa a« low pcrbapa 
aa aiiT Ibat uT«r coated ercQ at tbe bti^onifi^. atill tlmre liaa 
bcttft iwi^ran, baoivit^ while Ibue lower furaa eoikiitmo ut 
uiatthaaantcwtLettijvt Ui* bighaal fonn* now m ciii4' 




remote if^ra, and iQ K»nie nM]«el ■uperior to tlu? lii^hist of 

But, «• w^ Jouk orur Ilii« FnKjwt, uij ein not fnil to bo 
<track with the 1^1 ibat thb firuf^ratti Iuie iujI twcn fiu uiiipli 
due to th« indivnludl ttlorU of ft|H>rie« a« ti> ^^^tcninj cliyuiii- 
•tenccf^ vis., pbyalcal diaagw taking {jIocc in die uurtii, 4m- 
cadoaiT)^ dllTofvnctt in tlio nbnpo of llw Kurf^Lc-u, in tljo Wiu- 
pon&aro, tnd in tbft fjuality of iLq atiDoepliera and of the 
VAUir, It i« Dot Ao tnaob * Hi^fdnpnirnt cf *p<«ii^> n» the 
i*To!utioi] of n;.^vr t^wm Uttdar ibv opmtiun of vimt wc 
may oftUUiu Uw t>S /nvonAU cmuHthns^ ^-^^ordhn^ lo wLidi 
Dov ftnd fiopodor apccfw bftvo SDOOcmvdj modu tlinr Ap- 
poinnee m fnjit nt tht^ ifrrrmtrMl truufodnnjilloM would pe^ 
mit. For tUflUncc^ ni> LmU nuimAb. coiiM of ooitra^ flppMr 
anlil ihdrv wu» kiiJ on w]ii<4i to dwdl, and ibtt <l>d not «xkt 
to 9ir]^T ottont till tiro i^roit ^eoEoj^cnl ngti* httl gone by. 
NDTroiiIrE thnw ihrn ei£»l (Ainro nil taml oninul* maiit bo 
air-brcatliiug Amuiu!*) untiJ a long uitfi luji;iimnt rt^etfttlon 
liad oilnolvd tbe dupt-rttbnadaut qiuuilitia of airlx^k acid 
tnan dtc air and biiriod Ita Cftrtmn En the «artb, injcmtlnj^^ Its 
o%jffm to pnrifjr tlio otrnovpbere (vol, i, p, 2T3)> Tliow C(>n- 
dilioEitt rijiMt f&nt \m fulGt|j»] bvforo the h^ier ijpvu could 
bu l>njnghl ft>rlli. 

Thui vc ttc<! ihat this progTcu in iho jiniioal woilrl i" du9 
tn the iiuto to a ^rTCTtpuririing pni|:Tc» in th« p!ij-hi(;»l rijii- 
diEiociR of tbo oartk And ihi^ efiAl>l«e m to n^tlw the first 
^Itttud tUvudon of tlia £iibj<yrt wXo thnt pm^rrfM wblHi !« Hik« 
to oxtcnial eauitt, or ot>J>«tiT(^ i>rogTrM, nnd th»t which i« 
due to jpccitl uflorti of tDdlTidual»> or tKtbj«ctivu prx^^nw* 

Th:? fn^mor of tbeee dfTuiona baAoog;* jiroporfy lo a^ron- 
Dmjr, HEOotugj, and bo;flnj. The Inttor botf^ngi m the mnin 
to xodio^, and In 00 far DclUicr W iDor« than a fTallAi^^l 
baailn^ upon tbo qncKtion before w^ Xtnx, U we iwi d^Mc]/ 
tiUft l«lt«T bnuw'Ji — namc-lj', thAt p«n of tlio fn'o^tvat of aui* 
mal Jifo whkb baa boeu pn>dttOtfd by the fpedal efforta of 





ut^iTitlTiab — we ma^ obwrvc tlut H i^ ra^aM; (>f a Fortltor 
aubditfuloii it^to two bntDnliae Odu of tiuao Inatk to tlifi 
cuiuwkrvUoQ ol il-v dutvlppnic^it of ft|)eeti» b; " iiilDnl mIao 
titrar whtfreb)\ ikrougli Uwmir^mittm)^ aod aiiiio*l ikcpvmhi 
edEbrUof every iiulividuil of i^rciy «pix!iee to ovcreomtt IIm 
obctidwi to ib exifticiico, ^nut Aitd mlksi clkn&ji;Qa hive b«0(i 
wroun^t in Uiv IiaUu, dwrncUr, Kod roorj^boAogj of f^wcM 

Tlio utiier brVLcli t^f ibui mc|uiry> wbivli )l b impcmblo 
wholly to MpAntu frvcu Uil- Urtl, tMktu cuffDucauoe ol tbe Im- 
maicnd pan, AEid cliowa what inflooaoft mind oxette Bpoii 
iJiv juiiuihl world in prt^iiwtiii^ iU ndrutAonMDt. 

TLc niiurk maj bcr^ bu oiuJv UikI tlio uiilooiioei of ox- 
tfiftitil cinuniaCttDoet «iuJ of pUj^oU eflon wo not >lw^ 
■neb M to ndvADOo tlio spcdcft. <>n the wfaolo, th<^r« Uv 
doubUes bwn progrw ^m botli Uiciic indavnciv, bat tlwra 
Ittve broa jiuriud* of rcimgnMon fnxn nnfAvonblo condi- 
tioML, And petiiapA degencntkiD of AjvraiH bj perkMk of 
nporabuodut wppi; amd esconipttvii frut^ ocoemuy eitff^ 

AMi/^n wo mvib the pl4n« wbich niKn ooonpiM la llie 
aniriuiIiFotld^lbLiw kw* of jwlftptnlignf Hjlectioa, mnd mrvivi!, 
wbile iliejr Ara sot ultopitlior mtperacdod, and p^sjw op«ntD 
m powvHvlly M on ibe Xturtr cn^Uin^ at^rtrthvltm bfcnnto 
of on»ipan!ltv1v tm^W \a%f^tuiti^ m enivoqiKfiM of the 
vastly Hiorv polent InaoMicw doe to llw devdnpmmt of tbo 
title11c«C]ifll fiurnltT whirb oprnttoi a<«ordinff in llio initirn-C 
metiiod. Hir^ projc'^eM wbicb mart Itti niij(d>o, tbnojrb from 
toy abMrtnto fUndanI it nuy ajipev »1ijw »itd even aMukr, 
la notofUwIvK, w oom^arvd to ifaut vhloh fa br&Tij;ht abdtit 
nHher by owmJail AJtumtiuua in llio ctiTfroninent tm hj llie 
kw of aiUpktloiu or direct md Indirect eqniliboition,* m- 
tnoiidj mpiil ; w mocb nwre njnd thait tlul whicli rcenlt* 
(p>fii Ibo b^olutfirn] Uw* joM namod a» iliia W more rapid 
tfaao HiaM which raaaha from Uw oornniral U«« (vnL E, p. 
471). ThU progn^^ too, h eflMfted Cn apite of ibe fmptent 


FROGRBas.-pBuujeT uz\ys. 

bj a perrehfO aao of Ibc Proniotbeui tin (tij^v, p. ^7). 

Diolii^icil progrcMT vhiclt conmmt in increu! of ^Irucl* 
an, moU, » bvCons ■Iwwn, rwuJt lo iocrauo ul pkoeuro. 
Anthropological pnigroa, too, ffMch la tbe raioli of iIm ecm* 
tcftOQ* piimait of plutwarOf rnnvt attnin tbn obJMt of punvlt. 

It vfM bhowti in tiie preceding chsnU-r tlut happiooM h 
hvOi (bv DUL-titiT of evury ])«rlicuW nction and diu ultimuttf 
end (>f lUI ictiuti. It fujlgwi tbut thorc «aJQ bo bo liDpTore* 
mr-nt of dlui^b eoiiditJon iu>lc« it tnnd to M-mm lh«t rtt^. 
lIOBUUk pixignmnaj^ tbei^fon.% bo proptfljr dclitLcd m tlittt 
wbteli etcnne Ui» ra«rtfiu« ^' /lujncjn ha/ipiu^*, Uidoa* It 
do tbif, 110 muttor bow gnet a dvUf^ailL-u majr be, ft !« nol 
pm^rcMivr, If x lulion riitf?, ami cxtrnd itH Kvajr nvrr a 
vuft terrilurj', ttatonubtu^ tbe world with lU ixurcr, ito cult* 
urv> Aud lu wcttlth. lUa ftUmo does not couctitat^ pmnfran. 
It mi3»t firRi he 9h(ywn that Jt« peopio &ro happlor tJuifi tbi^ 
wo[ild <itIienriP4i batr htt^. If a pnpir be atumI wilb ■ 
rogv fur urt, uiid, in ijbcdi^icc tu thctr ituptdvu ov to uitioDul 
d«cTO(«^ the woalUi uf Uiat people bv Ufd out iti tbe L-u1civa- 
tka of Uio 6mt artA, tl)o cmpliivoictic of maeicr Artb-lji, tbo 
doeontkOB \*t Ufinpbr«i pnbliv juhI private bnildii:^ and ihe 
unbollidimcfil of draohi aiid gruoo^ du niatlvr to what d«- 
irrw ol p«Tf«ctton tbia purpoM be eaFrivd out, it U not prog^ 
n^ un1«« gn«t«r aadefncHon I10 donvcd lbi.Tefnia Umu wan 
mcnfttxMl in tbu duprlvaUorLa wbicK tfntli a courao iniut occar 
HOD. T« b*^ pt^^fne^vo ia the Inw mjuMi it mcrt woHc itn 
ibcntafi iA (be ram torn] of linmut cnjoTKivnt. Wbijii wu 
aujvuy tlic bUlorj of dTilizntion, we thoxM keep ibia tnith 
ID t[«w, and D»it Ulow ounelTai lo l>« da£ttiMl bjr iho ep1ond>^>r 
of p^^atmiTy, tbo glorj- of bonddry, or llw b*antjr of art, li^ 
ontnn?, pbilnaofit^ or n^lifino^t bnt dlwMld wvlgn lo <4M.*b ita 
tnM plnco a» mcutariyl by ihiA Mnndard. 

Id MnwCdtria^ m^u** fwculiar ciiand^TiiUr na n progn^a- 
dve bollif^ and in l|ow far hv mallT 11 4 pm^ivTii'iio I^K-in^ in 
any ollic? acciiA than 411 anbtkiUft an prqgfvairo leiuge, it 



"TOffff"^ tV TOE AQSriUCT. 

wfll not clo io omit tlic importunt foirt tlmt it ii onl^' a put 
of the bu&Lu nt«, &Uil a ooai{»r:Ltively ttiuU |NUt, ttat {.xin- 
ullittUfl at 3ill to ihU rMitlu )tr fHr ilio laiger pal of iha 
IMS, a« it tiow 9xi»U, voiwiduivU ju iiaticdui mud puopio, aru 
tnaliittgllttlooruoiutdluttuftl jiroj^r^itt^lmt araaiid liarefor 
9ffB boon Sd a oMuUlion in ihia ra«]>oct akin to that (if ani- 
mak; wlitle in tbcao nntionA ^lerc dviUxation m KtvnDcizi^, 
iko ffvat luajofjtjr cptitiibutu absoluUrljr nothing- lo ita ad* 
TUGctiMfiit, aiiuplj perfonulag tb^ functions vf aninulit 
Ti&, tlHHo hi main tain If If; thoir ovm cxiiitciicc and perpcta- 
athm^ tliur kind : a vorr f«w, the mvtilai Hnd materiiU inT»ti* 
galun uf Uitngs vrifpnJt^v ««'vry (iro^nisaiv« Liutitution. U 
ia to iheM fow only tlmt all aitUicul pragr«i iu tociutj ia 

Il u dajsiwd by vooio that, if w^ Mcopt tfiia d«fiailfon of 
pnignm^ vu., tlie incrcsM of btmino lia|i))*i>ow^ it will fol- 
kiw iImI tbttro haa dotct been aiij i>ro^'ivM oi all. Fcvf tlicj 
mjr that dTiliaiioai, aa it ha* eii^un] am^u^ iMtbOiu, haa not 
had the vtlFnt to iiicn^twc hapfiinff*^ biikt ratbor to dinilnlib 
it ; tiiat Uie kappMtit eoaditioei in wfaidi muUdiid on •lEat 
il that prittkivo, oDooDvcQliofuJ ^aUt wkkh pmcdoi aU 
dlotu at drilijcatirin, and idli^ws natw to tahe ita courae ; 
that ilw hnnihkal poMant, dwolting id lt4 Araadian rotreat, 
and ignonuit of the rIvbttUudw of Ufu amid tho «cqi>oi of a 
hi^h and icicidy civiUntioo, [e loore liappj than the nnroiu 
piir«iMirof fottnoif, faiur^ or knt-ivrlivif^.* 

U ca« nut be d^aiM llitl civilu!atii»ri« Uy tbv many fnbc 
pn>ctic» wliich it baa introduced* by dii- fadUtfea vldeh ils 
very ewnplexily afiordfi to the concealment of ctiant^ and by 
tbo HMMMRHH ayvivma of comiptirm vhM-Ji fftriiion, caata, 
ami onmmntionaUlj an? coabled i4 Bbullcr, ia Uir direct 
■ Jhh Jia|*4« Bommmm wtd oihtr nkn* bt«*nafeilikadtMt«k*, w<l 

la >«itifr « fw^rfi* laM M «• «a« ««>*•€&■ &«■&««>, F«D4Hri^n4- 
a«|v." Ir- link In tW iwoni la^ Aaa4ii g^m i>r ilit ttit*^i»tai of 
M^ rrlkiru Utr Mtrc traUmi «Ua g:nt4 forot ud d«mi. fin, du^ 



lr«cne; bnt tlKio am Uw ngcuvurv JnciJviiu to iu rtni^lee 
to adriuicc niujcr Uio doauiiuuu uf uutunl furcut ulunu. 

It wDuld IdvoIto ft gTV«t fiUlacy to itodnco fmm \\i\A lb« 
OOlkoJaiioit tbat ciTJliution bc^td* mimfj or rcxliu^n tfLi- Ijjiji- 
piagn of inuikiod. Agidi^rf. tlii* gruiv but ^puW luiaukv 
m%j be dtcd tlio prtodplo beforv iotroducad, wide!] U niaut- 
iuotiaJjt uvfvpCLd l>7 btologJAtt, UiAt 411 orgiBWiD j« perfect in 
prop>rii:>n n^ it* orgnfi* arc nuiuietrDtift ftnd vatiod. 'lUi* t« 
Usoiinto, thu mvTvvrjgnuti lJi«fv uv. ilic gfvaA«v is U» mpudlj 
for caijo^oMni- i'or ihu truju^'oifi-nt i^ qiijuitiutivo ik ireU 
■« quilitativi^, ami tlie gmtcsr the nutnlicr of f*Aaltic« tho 
greal^ b tlie pouqble isnjujment deriraMc from ihdr nor- 
cuxl eieroW Tv «iiy lUut prlD<i(ivo uijui U b^ppicr tluui 
Cttli^t«iUHl man, in a\xnva]rait 1o inyin^ that JUi oyitor tir a 
polyp «DJo>-« mora Uum an os^le or an nalebpo. Tbi* could 
b9 true i;o1y ou tlio ground tlmt the latter, m con«o<|Ht'i)co of 

If to be bappj \* to ciK»|>e froui all ttHilhig. tbeii it uvre Iwlter 
u> hn «lunoa or dodik and <biititu1e of cuiva^ns A-ii«iL]L*l v. 
If tbiJi bo tbo bapplnoM wbk'h rn«n hUooM accICt tJi^Ti U the 
BuddhiH in till) hi^bivt drgrm mnAiitoht wbcn bt pT*j^ foir 
tbe proiiiUtMl 3Vr£vfnaf or jiuuibibtioii. Dvt Uiia !a not hap- 
pincfX — jt m oqIj tb« ubwfive of it. Vor bftppdnoM can only 
be lncfrcft»rd Hy infrcnfntif? tVio cApm^iiy for forlin^, or emo- 
tion, and, irbrn thU in iEn^rMUNvl, 1{]f- m^vtHty for Miff^rin^ to 
li^Oiriw ni:cv«ffirilT mcroiavd. uid Hufk'rin^ inuat bt vndnnMl 
onion «iilld«fit Fa£>acilT a<xompTUiicc it to prevent iba< ccm- 
■cquencew And thnt i«> tlic tfuc»t proj^rvut* which. whUo It 
itiilofinirdy ntQ]ii|>lii>a i&d increawo ilie ficilit1<ML for onjoy- 
Dient, fnmidiot at tbv mtim Iini9 the luntt ofFiWivf^ moina 
vt prvvt^iiUx^ d*M<orururt, imd, tut nearly all vuffmTJ^ Ea 
ucoadonoJ by tlw violatioa of nalnra] hwh xhTcngh i^nor- 
aiiw of or error Nwpfvtlng ihoMr- hwa, thf-rffore tbat tn iho 
tmcAt pm^TiMhi vrbirb mrfwoda in overeomin^ ig;no«in*o and 
error (j'la/ni, Cliap(«r XIV). 



Htiniiui progrow 1% therefore, j^erfcotlv nnalo^uH to Iha^ 
pngTov wbicb i» gtnrtg on to rho world of auinml lift, nmo 
bolb oooabt in & muItJpliratioit, Tjtririti'>ii, am] rt^liij^-inojjt t^f 
tbo fnmltie* of enjovxiient, &iid anj ubaEij{« iii eltJiur w}iifh 
«lo» uol i-fftK-t (LU in not pri>gT\««. All bHppincffi oon«kt« 
In the f^niicati^^ti of deuirn. Evury fiwaltj' t^rtptmVnfei a 
niUiirnI vtitit to bo raerei^, and tbat wjoit i« n desire Tlio 
prmpi-r cxemi^r of tJinl fftniltjr U ihe AQppJ v of H.ul wamI and 
tbtf graliflohtioii of that <ioiiro. Tli«r« are two wnys^ l^n^fo- 
foroibyuUich rliebajipioaiaof u bdngoin boiD<^raue<J: fiM, 

Lhy (Wording tho opportuoJlj,- f..r punrijiiig etii^tiii^ Tkcdtics ; 
uid, «er<md, hy thci rmniion of new »nd julJiiioiid faeultiva, 
uid txlciidiu^ thuiv ttpporlunitiei to cLu cxcrcin; of thcai> 
Bj the Inw *jf ilcvclopmcnt nllndwl lo, and wlutili it n 
bK of btolctgiciil law of supply iLnd demand, tho mt.'rv prut' 
enpo i>f t\u'ji> oppoTtuiiiticu in all tliat in rc<]niivd to creaFo 
llie f^aUicfl ThetiKielvrt, for tbis reodew Tiie c'^iiditioit* for 
Uiee^tonoo of nuvU f3ii.-ultic(faTor»l>kT; ftiid. wliortf.lbcf ooQ' 
d]lfoii0 &ro favorable for tbc dcvcloptnciit of a fncnlty* that 
fikonl^ will drifts; wTn:^ tlm opportumlum for the c.iorciw 
of A faculty <VEMic, ihut fiif ult^ vill ftMlf e^^e in cxiBt, al- 
tbou^jh the wrj^ani* thrvui'L wlticL it wa» ^xvivlewiI :Hnv bing 

Thi0 Iaw eiit^nde with fiill forco to tbo social condttion 
of nuin, Whflti^ver ntTnrd* an ftpportnnjty for the ttcrnw 
of tt UKW ImtiJiui fucuUy CEvntnt luc-h h fu('ult>, crvLilvtt a de- 
sire for ItA cxcrcI^Q, and iLCtudly j>ratl^w tlini Ooirct thoB 
■dding t^ lh<* mm of huTnan hnppinevL Thi; CKJktion of 
rnieb fipporlTiuitioJi em, Utira, Ihu ort|tin of pTO g rn n ivg action, 
and it ti Ihww luitiiu up[H>rtui]ilioB| mcrvBM*J arid r^fiiivd, 
thai koop thai deriro in eicblcncc, nnd incrituo ita inivnctit^. 
Hurrcforr^ we maj rniinciatt? rhr prindjil^i that profifnw* la 
i& pn>poTfioTi to Ibe uppoTtQultwti or faeifit{«i for exercising 
tbf facullivA au^i «Hti^fyii)^ d«BJrv, 

* SpeSAT. " Uufl of Eth[(^" p^. im Kfl, uJ MI (^1 ft? a»l ion. 



1u »1\ ikt dofMnroenU of Hfo, tbe facalilet aj« ^rpetnallj* 
orow^ling tbo opportnuitict, All orgAniem^, hj their iohcir- 
•Qt tMidoncy to cLtvoIofi, nro oon^tiinll}' prvumg tipon Ifao 
KiTinmment. Tbu orgmj ii nlwaiv* in vxvuh uf lliu fuuo* 
tliHL Omlflc^on b DoVOT oqDol to dwin\ There le k 
.jtormuioiit T^^iHufini over striving nftor more oaai|4cie utis- 
faction. In tli« anmulu UOuw ma»rft grmt dc!f(tee of por- 
rapowleDOO it gviiCinll}' MtHUinhf^d, but tusrer to great but 
rtbftt tho Icul giving wuy cjf tlio wmll of droanatUncofi hy 
■whirJi ■ «poeiQ» in AnrrAunrir^d n»Dlte id ui !mnMNl»tn A<i< 
Taiuv of tbe Apediv ti> o«*upy ttte j^mund yidilod. Thi* 
trutJi b fordblj' i>3[eiu|ilitivd bv aU ibeplienoiooua wluVi Iht^ 
docDoniofttion of flnimala Bod plants proeooU In tiftturo 
tboj ore 10 a *Uto of t^nnibridfOf cudi aidmff llio inor^nic 
lOOMUlioM to k4«i> Eill otbmv m tliixr exteliag OMt. Huiivm 
'bl«rf«mic« dlslurbi tliifi «i^ullibriuin. a^«cto iMMt»Aiid pro- 
leot> it irKflc xho iiiflijonao of the roet, imprwtv die inof:g&nIa 
caulLiionH, Had giv<e free Kyi|K t^i thn i^rcmt in exc«w» wbif.h 
'f^wd** in ovocy «p«oio3; wbra'upoa duvplopuioiit bocumue 
VMpid, and i» onir arrvtletl when brv>u^bt c^min into ftmflict 
iritb ftdi'vrbe element* opnn i now and bigbcf plane of life 
Tlib powiv to advittcu in »tmrtupo » fHsl u opportnoUiee 
ftn nfTrriftl t» dne to ibe orij^ud and univerml rmim of tbci 
Utc»priot-ipl(.MU(If, pivl fwl« fundftmf'nialiy tipofi ibn pecid^ 
lar elunujttfi-bliiy of iha prltoordul lifiMiiiUluo^— Uul n»* 
iUt QnaUblo, n»i1cw, *ii(|, u jt wcrv, duMlifiSod form 
inflr.t^r^prot/>pljibiii, T\m> noveirwlkoUyaitfelcdilomn^ivf 
•eniiirat b«inff< aiv but Uie nwlee of m»nifMtor&on of tJi^ 
fandvDvflOftl t4rii(leQ«7 in tlic Hi^rrr forrn* of iife. With 
tbo prvfEKifl of ttiplt«)l2al(.»t, tlw inMiif«tetkHU of uuuiut- 
Qwn Md diautufaciion bv«r>me utonr proi»o«iMed, aod tbe 
elteei|i4« W bnnk llmragb unviroefn^ bimeni mam aui^v^om- 
fuL Bui not anlil U ]»e advuncd «o f^r u t4> ftdmil of iIia 
■nbtftkuiSoa, to howorer mttll « dogtwt, of the iudirvct for 

p6QGRE3dnr£ AGEvasai 


the ftircct ni«tlK>dt does t]ii» Mficeis bfocmM «ompl«i«^ ftiul 
the tfrii:ttjd}aliv[i uf ibu crv^ira Ulc? pi*o^ Tku eltgv U 
FBKlied Wkljr in nun, uid th« prugroMtrc tomka^ qui 
throcvfonr^nl i^nljr Ixt tiaMil in bim. Bnl ervn bi Lim ■«> 
ilc|;rr-c- of d(.^r<<lo^^>ont \? oror roamed In which tlurodoet 
not Ktill pCTp«tn«]lf rvmiin sji vxcm« of d»lroa ATer gnUk 
fioRtKitUf ■ niullUvdv uf wjiats anditlvtratL Ttw fju:ulti<M 
0!lll coStlQae lo crovd tbo opportnnltio^ of^nio niali^ 
preM» vpoo fmictiocikl cxtanw^ rcprulnctioti o»oroacfic« 
npon BijttnCioii, popubitifMi tremdicA npun tlic iiunuia gf miIk 

Social foaUct oocafllona mutiul dependency inil rooden 
ft rnoAn^L frf oAiatmiiniOAtirin a |iiir>mi>nnt ntwmtj. 

Tikitig into caiuidpratii>n ail tlic varied ttsnU vUicb 
taw-i luivi* viialod at tbu inception of buniut turautr, wq may 
coTirebiciitlr amojco tliou under two p^real f7^i«ipft. wbic^ 
vill ititni be dottot«d in Uie nwac giT<>eta1 nunner l>; tlie (to 
vDcdt iv^wdTrijp — 

1. CtMninnniottios. 

Kot but Uut iLc r«c« bid onjf>ved toto^ degrtv of Bbility 
to eciniQmiikKtQ lo^thf^r prior to the «tnge of developmunt 
iDenb'ciii«<1, Ijtit oiilr if^^l it wa» at thi« «mfc« that tbere nrMe 
llio nvviwtr for grvatlj lnarciU4«l fw^ultina in \lt\n din*rrt»n. 
And, wi re^udf »vbEi£t<;i>^. It wa± tbeo, VAt, ibal it bomuo 
oarniiaL to aiipTi«nil Ibc nipptjr farbfi/ond tb&t vfiidi nn- 
■kruHl tinluw >re!dH to tbo ordinary ouetltodn hf whidi anl- 

nr f»]low!ug t1i« h^ttyry ^f tbr bimi^n race from iliat 
ftUfpT to Ili« Iil«t ami bEgltc^t v^t rvA'-bL^'}. it will be ^tvr- 
r^\\v*\ tli^a U 1ia> bwjc doi^ thov two jKirticiiUr liiw- tiiit 
phjfreM liAi iTwm in^vi^l, Bi'trlj ^vtry r>?ci^lxfd Klpp 
bavfnp* AmiiJiln) citTcr in inprMAfi^ iKn fvilitint tar tbn 
fcnlffrojinmtink^ioii of iittia antoojc iul-zi or iii sngmT^iltDg 
tbcir powvr to vxlrsct &om uaUinf additicBil cupplBM of tbe 
bbccwiov of lifo. 

rKOGRE8&— rRlUARY U£Jh!fS, 

The art ol commitiilutinfe iil«s« pctfirMut &» mt^rf«iJDj; 
h\r(U>rj, of w]ii<:h «c can Uero only «lc«4c^ tb« oatlino. It 
mtf !;« uid ii> <K>iiir«i of foiir «uco«wiv« periods, omU nmf1cc<l 
by ■ new imO pttculUr :i|)pl[t:^im nt tlu indincci iiM*tl>od — hy 
A gnrnd <li&«ovory irb03o rv^dnctton to pr«iaticc coKaitutcvJ it 
a tnir inrrtiiukn of Iho intollrct 

Ttic lir:^ of tlicac itvjtt. and that whic^ moet doguljr re* 
temhKu & eEmpk* [)rout?i« uf nature, in tanywj^ 

ll i(^ imi>orlAit| t>> (iintingujj^li Mvccn IftrtfCDJ^ce and 
•poocli. J^n^fiiajp^ \% tit* prodtjot of thought. Speech ii 
viil^ the [ittHJv iu which Luigu^go praMmtfi Jteetf hi innn, who 
b^iptmi to pmMW Uio cr^nn^ Thidi rotiil<*r it poeniblc^ Had 
Htf lH4.'k«4i l]tvtc orxaiib. lid wcjnlU itlill h»rc paucvftetl 4 Un- 
giuge. 11ml Ihu liuiu^u raco Uwu aa iiUvut u» &ti? ntJ tho 
forma of Ufo below tho aniphibians, tbero would ^:\l\ bavc 
<fiifltf*fll fv modtf itf mtnri^iimniumi^lioti. In fact^ aloTig with 
•pccc^ than! u fonnd to exiM — wulrly iliilriiHHl tfirocij^liout 
the Jm> tkvdo|wd i»ui:>i-lkv lud i«nding eurue of iu bniauW 
np (hroufch tlw moro dcx'cbpod onoe — onoihcT ntJil panllol 
f6nn of int^irfximn)iirti<A:ji>n, known m ffMftvr^giffmigt, 
whkih, for miuiy of tliv puqnjtu* of Ihew peo|ilf«, poMW W 
Mlmila^ui over l}io inotboil uf cumuiumiMTi^ti W fioimdi^ 

In oec Kttfc, tlie fiwilt^ of oajZ ^^JV mtul bo rc^^rdwl 
u a 1>liV^n] d4?\'elopm«nt, ntin: A3<Ag with it thi-rt} litti) to 
be dcvoUiped a plij«lnO orpan, the lujni. Riil, in lhi> fiiiit 
.piMv, Ih^ offcui flxista in lowtr animds and Hue morplio- 
l^i^eicnl allrmlion whioh it uiMluTffOCe En tfao ptiMfCL- {n^m the 
Ape in [nan u Twy fcli^rbt A» flhown in • previous chnpWr 
(vol. ip p. 43SV Ibu powCT of flrlicnlsTo ■pocoh hw chiHIy heon 
a^^ttlnd br tb« OKfT^'I^o of thv rational fftcuhj. Idlotn &nf 
oftc« tibab^ to iprak, akhonffh poisenlng nil tbe organs of 
tither mva. Tlu'v Uok Ihe ^iqfwo of intellitcttwl power uww- 
tavy CO IcMm Cotpoik. TWh is donbtlew, iho trat^ r«i*oo why 
ftntmnb in g«>iMra] hAvc no butter &i«aiii of iakrcoitimimica- 

0Oll»Q}f ICAVIO n\-«5'i;ecu. 


tJoD. Vocd wQude tlney do, iachwd, >q jnwiy tuioc atter, 
ud Uicpacgc^crdlj'luiTOftdcfiQUo tlKiajch vei^'nimplc mcoii' 
Ifig. To odl Ui«ir inaUis to do«Dd to aIuid, lo r^ry fn^iu 

Ivy, Tha uloiuitm of Uiit vocUwlKTr, Iq w great a Ui^rvo 
llut [iMitc viUiiii licarin^ oui bo nubde BU<|imiDUHl with oms 
mmUmKa tJK)«|;Klaf conalitnit^ an i:nnKai<4fi advfmoo, and, al- 
tbOTtj^h itot gi>fior!OfLU)' diftKnft from tho JuIvattAft alixttdv 
tnodff, b |inutit«ll^ a new dovv£opoi«rjt> «Dd inarlo an cfiocii 
in urolutiutt* To acquin tliu |K>«vr and inamorato a 
tcfiiAtio InngiUfi^ honxrref rudo at first, concliintoa aa 
involnag lii« appUoaiic>n of Uia (nditv^C ineihod. Fortli^ 
diroet itietbod k <i>iiiii-vUd villi Ww iodEnxt by [nipcrc^t-, 
til# pndatknit and i» ikK an abrupt «lop fonraid, ii>d«|M»iJ- 
VBt of A&tccodont atopi. To invent a langua^u niqtiUiKt a 
oeriaiB dextve of ingi^nidly, wIiEcIl mny be ref^arded at ilie 
rfpDpleat and ta*»t tjpioal forrti in whioh ibo inl«l)vehul 
£acuHjF oifttiifoMta itwJf- TUu U BOt tlw kw trau if wi 
admit, m m undoubtedly luu^, tbtt Iaii|;:iiajE« w>* tlio rwiili 
of alov d«velo(Hii«n1- [f Uie lorm inivnfi&n ooutd only bo 
applied to ditcoToriva mi^donljr tiiado, wiib nolliing whi«di 
pnecoded mid augpMteJ tbum, iben would lltviv bv ii'> w 
f»f en^ « term. For aU inTcndona, even tbi:^ made in 
adrajicnd iviriolinB, prorf^ npon 4>tamirtation, to rwt npou a 
IuHjP aftri«a of ant««odont »t*jm grrndttail/ Intdmi; Dp to tljom, 
Tlt9 popuUr vnvr n^{)«ctiiif; lbs ubniptnvH 4^f iux'ciitioju i* 
p«rat]dedi vnifa nigard lo lan^iai^ hy (be rarioufi inyllia of 
ear)jr nmtn rmpM^lag ibc nrtj^'n of tf«<v^h, ih^ onfiiiuiin of 
tcmgiMa, oto. Laagiuftti, liaon^^b of vMnc in a lew ulttuly 
dafiiaii *entv< la ua muvb an art aa arcbitvctunK It haa Uvn 
ibo pnTduct of llMMght, aagadty, ii^nuitj. 1i ^^rew up 
frum corlior Mlepa in tb^f lame numn^r tbat modern aria liavo 
f(n>wn up. Tlitt prevEilcDoe of onomatopaTiia in ffirly Un- 
guaf-w pointa to one of tbe mo^ important noiunl 
itpcnt wb£dt H nata. From Ibc tut; of a found lo rvpnwectl 
i iMu^ witb wkicb die coond it dirofrtly ofinnectcd, to tbn 



uoo <if rouuJjt iritbout nich luUnrsI cuonocUofi, h x step 
ctaXHy adupbjd, iwrlu^A, but u«veH]>ele» roqnlrin^ the «c- 
vTtam f>f ft crrtAin dffgm« of iM«1l«citm] utinuti^ Mitd th^ 
ivcogfution of abvtnbcH tvUtiimai, 

TIjo proAiJng ouot) foraome nMaittof Stttereanmiui&Atloo 
8itffld«<ntlj ao'Miiitfr for the dev«lopRi«iU of b]igi^;«. With 
th« adrAn<vof brain-fiia«» anil bram^tmctnrfr, ^tm gfcw up 
i^w ai]^ Ihoughtft. TbiMO dotivandoti «xpn«cioii, oiid thi« 
ddianO oonBiEiDled ■ butr mA of dednA Tbo tt&me in&u* 
ITIKM whMk CMtod thoM Miirf[f«Ircii furnished the intxi]ij 
wlio*c crt^TPkAo <)cviM><3 the mriTift for thc^ir uHftriii(<tioii. 
Tbou^Jt wa» nyl (vjiKtnt ■imjflj io ttttt^lv f<jr tjjtjirvsBitia, 
U applied the tndlract methc^. Unable lo think in eq^ a 
mmnior » ti^ oivrtvt^j ibc nntnr^ of ibT ihongbt rlirK-tly F.f> 
otLoT minil*, il ilci-]»r<l mi.^nn« hy wbicb it* cfiftrarter ttijild 
be nanifaitcd lliruuj£b (be pbvbruuL ufgauti of ibe b<Hij^ in 
snch A «a^ a« 10 nfef^t tbe fctisM of otbcrs. and b« connttod 
Ibrmigli ThPM* fo nihrriK* n^indn. Tidng«agi%tlKn>f<irir, vhcthrf 
convmting of viMhitt or nwlibt^ Aymbob, it «0ienlul1j in tbe 
uuluiv of u dtviv^ — BH art. 

Wo &IV noxt lol]ii|wmKWhorbngn>g90iii1)Q nt^fli^tod 
m n piQgmnrc art, in«unir<il hr tbo iitmndiird of our dcfinf- 

To an«w«T thj« qu«Ht)on, «« need onlj con^tdcT it* rwontinl 
luilarc m ebovo fH fortli. Prcgrai cowoMin^ in iho uicrvwo 
of tbe entn (oul of ntjoirm^^t, vbieb !q mm is ahofuvtbor 
tboTVirallof Mtlvfjriri^fWviir^, it iwvt foflowtbal. If IjiAjinwff* 
reoUj vooecvdji in tbo object for vtbicib it vu designed, uid 
■opfdiot In uijr eitiefaelorv ilvi^ree llie d^itifind of tbw^ht 
for «xpn>ftfon, and of tbc* noo for ft meanA of inton:«>iiinninJ- 
«|iMi, it mnj4 Kprvr^, t/i tbo ivvtcnt of tJint nanoriw, tbo ulti- 
nMte em], and tnke r«iik u a ]]TO^T«Miv'.' art. 'flint auoh ifl 
tbe CW0, none will |innbaiblv fiiul rowon to '|Du«CitMi. 

Tbc ncM gmt invL-ottoa bolon^n^ to tbw olnM vetut 
lonHkn lanffua^^ wbich came to rappkiDketit gostcra nnd 
«n] Ui^ffDage. Tbie Invenlioo nast be regarded m h con- 



ttQitti{i:-n of tlio eerin of tfepa vfalch man h^A hc^n to fake 
tow^n] M^mnf; ■ mod« of IfttertommTirtK^lioti inlli hb 
feUnv-mtn,of which fp^*axTm >iul oml Ungoi^ wore Uw pri- 
iiMifj mulU. Iliaft &r Itv ouolJ tsoavvv hb tlioiigtit^ vith 
▼arloQft dcfreee of etteo and occnrae; to tUu«>; jirtHTnt at 
within ihc Fotttifl of hiii foicr it tha timti thfnr were uftefvd. 
Itut he ecuJil doC Iw vxpcoti.*d to re«t for ov«t Miuficd wHh 
t1ii> alooe, TJie ilailY uvuuHtUve of wu* and tlio cbMo, and 
€Tcfi of Iho more fdoiplo operationa going on Id prdcitiTQ 
MOCzHy, wtiaM ftDj^^oiit tbc luc of rrnrk» m^do upon con- 
ventail objed» lh»l ttltoidd be inCvttij^KIv to othwii.* Krvm 
tl>we "wiv d«\oUi[wd the ftr^i ludti fonm vf wriltcu oom- 
mmiealioii. Tbo c«r)k«t of i}tc«e foraia cooiisted of pjcrorial 
PfpiMtntntioo^ to whitJi iiKi^cfyl^ fnmpio i(lr>ngnm«L It 
Msam* ntpoat rM^unjiblo that mcdi »bu«UI \utni liml taken Mich 
BymboUo TOfiToeeckEutMjiu of nwl ohjvvt« uk tboir iDOawt of 
eflEW«^ng tbcir Hc^a, and, ^ fnr aA thcac carlv ant^niti^a 
haro Ttii bocD diiciovcrnl oJid il^vipbcivd, tlmv vcni to hmf 
out this prciWuption, witii a fvw ippdrciit rxci:)itif>n<, vrliich 
ma; be tixplabied bj wp|K>«Iu^ Lho«»> records whero tlw^ 
ocdir, to haw lieeo nade in a MHDovrliat adraiMcd ftta|^ of 
xhti arL Tilt* j)nm]t]iro writiiig c<md/tcd ]Bf]gelj of in»^p- 
tkott vpoa lli« Bivuutiuffrtfl of dtceaaed kine^ The«« l^m- 
bnoed Itttle nore tlia^t names, tiilctfyaBd dales. At length 
in Egfpi it lioi-in to apptar upon t)to woUa ol tcinplc«t Of^ 
obeltaki, nnd upon thn fac« of pyramid*^ The iinow-hoad 
wntinfi cif iho Aj^yriaiv wiv rcry dtlTviYikt in iU ohuaot«fw, 
but andogotia in ice deilgn. At koigth hooka hc^au to bo 

*rS0lcfri«hie<ni<aakbri<kfviii«db7iiimn} wv* uf hh lualnf ulU. 
maittn iff dfMBl pnf«f. ud ll li pnbthh iWl ud** Jt^'onlilA ^ublliJffM 
njr d Ah* cjilvnt lalfjbl iVrrky biU wnfrtlpg ti%li>T- Uul Ih've wnna 
»p<«hal«iif ttal«ir«' Aitt vtil «vw do ■> vsv, ta unuvpiB** «f ihaad^ 
f ntiX^ vUrfa ffMfoii A]Mfl<1| pfrfinfoJ pd— ■■ oiff (hm, j>^ lb* ir«|rr«i«| 
ln>lvuf lo Uacuffv, u b all othtr ferm* vf oihttn^ of tbi ijHi^i lint f*^ 
faniaJ ia wtUi* np dl nmt «;*miL jLOm«M b hen lnAoii «nlr ^ ^^ 
pHoHim} iliv r-r <lr>*Vvpnn«, irtikli hM n-vW4 h iW p o *iM la« nf Iha 


prEOaRCSB—pniyARY UEAva 

mwlo of the pftpvmi* taul fillcH wif li lnci^g)jq>li(«. In ChiiiA, 
lii'll;i, Aril} Pbtfetiidn, tiioi, buok^ I^naJI/ carnv into use wrilieii 
Willi dilTervrit t'li&nciVMf, but mmilv Ajinbotic, aa^I ixtfiUiiiiu^ 
tlj» iiriiiiordiiJ concupli^n of U»o Uuiiuii mitid, gvnonUi^ in 
thd QAitarD of cMnii)goniL-* or tbcogoiii<^ acd ofttfrvmrd of 
nnttortd hvtATii*. rlirunidee* aad Wfietf of Uw. Sjnnhok at 
f«U|^L ^^vv viiy f>r b^.iiiic Abn^Iged jiid rodnccd to arbilrftr^ 
uhuicten ami pliouotios cotirliliiting dpbibcb of true titcni! 
cbofActim, or lettoiL 

It would not coTTi|>ort vith lh« rharacwr or the Mopa 
of thU «keloh to Inwe all ttte mfnia^rr gndAtion*. iniproive* 
maat^ ami ivflncmonU uLioh tLm now niwl«vf <!oaT^a^ 
thoujfht nndcrwont during lU Inf&noy; and, Indeed, ibere 
vwD tliMi A'i trunv (liKtlf»i.-t (^«f>|i!te, «wih liftdup^ n langaflgo 

t0te]t| dbtin^ fmn jiU ll^ n>t, lluit it wnnki Ix- I1mIm» 

to ■dtinipt no anoljrsis of a bii^ory i^f tluun. SulQoe ;1 to 
aajF tfia£ ah a1p1iAbi.'t w4A tbt- rviult In etch COfiC* nod {U 
irtvenlion or ii:ln>iiictriin, uhefher ftbrnpC or, M it doiihc- 
]0ie alwaj» w»«, of grwlual developmoDt^ mn^ be wid to 
form tbo mcoikI gnsxt em in Uie progroea of Intetoommiinl- 
OUjon^ Ktttiawripltt at leoglb bnoune AbnmUnt^ %nd nn t^- 
tinJj new inapetiu wa* ihere^jr given lo bama« DiourIjL 

Thn«, Ibo mutnA of cumnimiicitnii^- H^OA to ottion wbon 
prwuL ijr tij liioc at :i dintAiKror or v:* future ji^cnentlona, 
had bf^m provMed. and At tbiA mjiifp prognM reetod for 
TitAnj eofittimA. Wat in Europe, ^Cora dirk poHod of ro- 
lijpon* intoI«nnc<f atid tbo eoDibined influ^'oen of bnrbuHflU 
and cceb»»tica1 imcrfcnmco ipIiU the lif«T«lura irblc^ hud 
accnmuldtj^d dtirioL- Grfrinn anrl fEoitian piirilTJt*tion, in thp 
^oMr*<^ nf irbli'K tUv BcLooU of (ibilovopbv bad beon mp- 
prv4ied, ibtf books eonilemoed. aud the b'lvnnea defttmj'cd, 
%bt at length daWDod la tW rdlfrtocM w^rM^and a n«w 
BouoB of mental atiiriij am in. Tbe ftutrtnurr ikitnK^SMi 
of tlie nkannaenpt litoratarv of Die p^C eMablWiod tbvcnn- 
vicrtioii lldl ftOtiMthftifc looTv iKimnnvot wv noei<».iry, nltilu 
Um laberioue twk of trtndcriptioQt whidi Lad coufintfd lomi^ 




lo tbe vnlUtj few. nuaMl a Jeuund fur ft uorv anivLT- 

tacdlam for the tnui*fcr ot kDo«)od|!c- 

Tlie InM Af tbo four great mrrntioD', tliAt of printing, 
|ipl]^ til'* denand. With the aidrtincc it reoeiviMi irwa 
Uiib firimt, tftiff^tETO bocuiM cIotLetJ vriili new poven. By 
farnuluii^ fAc:liU<3i for britigin^ iKnir Ulciu^ boforo tko put)- 
Ik, U iD^pljmt imm lo irHte v«»7 mneh nwn tiun ib«y 
othfirwiAP wonU) Iiavi> Hoim*; b/ jalAviiif^ boolu in dui liMiiiiii 
ot a isT gnulvT iiumlj«r of pursojift, U arouMd Um tolooli 
of u i^fvjpoitlusial nutiilicr into ociioo, iftd tlieeo in tlicir 
tarn kiudleJ ni>w firv* of tJiought, ntnl iwjikcDod tlw world 
tc ft *cnu of ili« ijiipuniMie «f oikiiii^ ialiJlAgvciou tmiwr- 
SclhtK)!* tguD cane IdIo being, knowled^ bc^pui t4> 
ifiud and «^»£cm±H<<xl, odncjitifio In (t» imo mom 
fiiM tinw brgAii lo be K-^njj^Ja and confcrrrd. The 
vrcffka Ijmt Item vnttcSf loileaid of bcviij£ aUuvvJ tv iJi;r>' 
uJu ^iihont bi>i>c of n«tomloii> ^r^t^ moltipU«^ ftod mM- 
ti'Trd broodradit eroT^-vbero. In^mcfiH! litmnm nccmmi* 
Ifltcd, QtiivcrntiM •pTVig dtp, tiad linaJlj llie pflbdcation of 
jwrkKliultf and uf ouinf^)pr( phivd Ike* fM^titiw of 1d- 
foomsUoB vhhiD t)ie n^ch of all who comUI rotd. And 
thiMi Uy tbo lid of nrt, n-liich bv preceding it and i*vo1riiig 
fiM the alpliab«t and nftonnirO Cliv priiatiuff*pra». tbo igencj 
uf ltt4Tniture w utuiblcd to mtalu ita prevfttt efllcianoy- 

1t Menu nn rnioccttaATj lafJc to profo tJuu ibo form of 
«irilualion ^hkh wrllfeii lat)jt:iufi;«t liw prtx)t)ni!<l hM 001^ 
iHbntod lit Uiti «ab«lsDlial boMfit uid tbe tnie prngr#n of 
ttua. Tho ftdrftitt^cA wbEdi M hat uiford«i.l l»m in tbu vin- 
irln diroriirm nf mmulng bla fodlltiM of iotcrooinmuiwi- 
licm Imvc aknw idddd bnim^fiBclT ia h\i Anjo^mcnt, For* 
wbHe vpecvb confitMxl that inlt^rrounc lo iIk* acmt ^nd Atfra; 
bUivs hare rxtfiiuUd it indediill^lv both in tin»o uxl m 

An eqiul If not grgtber adTiota^ itiU la IliU whirh 
ini the incrwtfd ficilittM tliev Imvo provided for 
lug tko maeinbrancv uf isrvau tint havv oooomd, 



tmd deeds iLat hftre S^mi rl^ne, TJi^rc i«, perlupa, nntliinir 

oiiij a itociiU point of vic^f a» Ji trov ahiJ fjilUifuL r«eurd of 
ttio pwti FoFf witli riich tt rer^nl, ur ItulArj, it H not only 
poF^l^lo for rrailota to comjct, ftvold, and prevent tbtir ornM*, 
hut in hH xhoy netukWy do io to an «ilortt «]iich H w dJlti- 
euU fnllj to bppnwiutu, oikm w n mikfvniy of ciuiy ihcy do 
it Dncanndoudljr. IiiiIcihI. llit* wucit of u bi^lcl^y w one of 
lli« efafef CADMe of tbc long frtn^ation <*f r\Aiioii0 tliat hare 
00 lltfroriirrr hemuHA lo rh«m the pvt in m blnnk vtthnnt 
|in:cc-pt or wxriiiu^- It [« lru«, ll^tjjr hnva Iniditioiitt, but it 
BQftf t>e well donbccd wliotbcr llic«i nre of uii^ b«npl1t, OT^n 
if thfry nrc not m direct injury, to nidi nationi- For le^ailt 
And tniditEDiM almv* l>cooino maffniiiDd u tlit^y ^^nvw o1d| and 
ihut ouiue to be tkot only uwUu^ hoi oft«n vxtromdjr mit- 
ohiGToaf m |wptitiutiri^ tlio vwy vrwrv -ahirh a trng buftory 
iroald dlupcL Qrvnt miro bcoomo ftm 1i«roce, ik:en gods; 
erenU are extjtKen^ moro and tiiore ilH tkey bMone 
wond^n and iiundon, ar»d all truth U irv«fktiially lost ; wliiU 
Ihcto U ]oft in its pUou only n bii;^ indw of groti^^nv fim> 
ciiM and abflurd M]|>effititJona, ^'Li^4i fL'Uer tbc mind and en 
^ve tli« body. ConMdc>ring ail thu^ tticrcfo^ tii« vntno of 
writt4;-ii ruooH* CdD not ^ oicr^^timBLixl, looked at from the 
pcj«nt <if vIvTW of their iuflouuiv on huiuiu) progrew. 

A^n, tlt««turo ba£ cit^rtod afltrong ptfogrMoive iuAa- 
fliMft in the jumsinnor ir him rrndr^od lo Wh lunjpiigc nnd 
art. Ijuigniffe h tuxv9**rt\y rude and iuj|>erfv^'t until It 
bwvinM uapililu of Iwliiff wri(l^-n* Before tlii*, it dor* nut 
admit of cciltiviiion. Tlicrc cad bo i>o moocti in attompli"^' 
lo n^nce it to nk*; and, vithont ntlcA, it u tianh and 
iiicujnlile of rvdu^intnl. But, wboit wntten* it Improvca 
ni^dly, and foon betxtiBoa oapcUilo of csprceiiug Lbt* nii^vvt 
■liBdca of tJionght and omocjon. Thn*, men are^ on it u'trv, 
admittrd into on« another*'* liabtta of thooglit, and no longer 
oUigod to IdMp «ritJitii tlienwolTM »how higbfrr Ncniinumta 
wbich ail re&o^ ndnda «xp«ri<uiec. Uomoves', tUie otter- 

QiFLUBNoc or urcBArrKB. 


Eof Sdeu bi^Ma daw and b%^ ootetAiul ihoa oaM' 
th« fiiuirr f««1ni^ 
Utonutim bu nkto uiiidcd art^ lu it W b««ii ii«en 

gnduoll.v olvvAtcd md ^rfi^ictvU. Kot only did tluj. Uko 
piMw* m (ViitieqiKiiM of ibu Improved Urtee wlikli iQca thufl 
lOjQJfwl, bul alKi bv ibe opiwrtaoitiw v)ii<'h lif^ratnre 
ikffor^l for Ir^iitiDg nud imtmciicin in tikc dcpAitmcnt of 
ihn lini) arU ofpeculljr, uid abu of ttiti uvsflU vm%^ Arl 
wa£ tkna rcduwd u> written mice* wb^ch could be a| 
hj ail, And iha* tirwzght U> ft Kigh jiUtr nf pc.-fcciioa, 

itut a11 thwQ ooaj«dur&tiotiB, tbotigli « df;bt^ in tbomicli 
arc perlmpa of t«M couevqaciMe tlisn tliu pleidMrcM of tbo 
mbid. Ilio cnjoyimni vblcti rwalts from btdbcliuJ wUvitj 
fu ftronMd Ity Wxenrj pnrwniu. &(im<^ degree of intcrchtftgfr 
of tbou^hu wm nvatvd by onl UD|[iinf^*. Men could tc- 
qQihat Uicir couiradi^ Uii;<r frlenda, and tlieir own f*ittllk 
with the thou^ltA wbi«^ wcro itMnponuiljr it^ttmg tliroogl 
thecr mindft. lint ihr iidc«mnntii wnalhdhod. Thujr could 
•veo «oarvjr lUfttructkio, Uut oriljr U> IlicM |ire«««iL Some oi 
the pwteii Dftoralldte aod pliilo^jpUe^ m CLnat auid Socntce^ 
lunv pfomnlgstcd tbdr doctrincn in thl? wny ; bat, ni 
inmc difteipt« hwA rrdv^d thctn to writing, tlicv ooliIeI ii< 
liav« tveun |>n?«irv«d uiidmigi.Hl uad uiuduk<*nui^ for a 
le gfiiwntioD. Kt«ii in Ihu t^o ratoB m^iuiooed, tl 
gTviro doiito a« to Ibo amthfTnlicily of nuitj of tin 
fecordcd QtlenneaL fitil), to un nble tod«T, tbrui^ th| 
mcdimn of Irttors to ci^minaiie with tlio iniiHlect8 of 
■1^, to cvinporv tLu tniods of ibv prcKtit witli tliow of vi^ 
given period. Uy tbc aid of Ictlm, one mind cnn ooDTcy 
tbctFUeCion lo tbi>iiHuidB of Mum ftt Inilffiiiit^ d^tADrxit, 
and for llioiimndft of y«v« aflifr tbo ^rritctr'f dcaili. Tliiw, 
ft ttv are i'tijibl«d to fanufli itiforuutiou to tUo wbolu 
vorid, ud DoihUtg i« uc«dcd but t •ooeMafnl pkn of diH^ 
Msnitutioii to iiukc it pM^'ble for ovfit^ adiill p?TAr>n to 
poimi a l^Dowlndgc of crcry importuit tnitli wbicU b 


rKo<»GC^.-nt!UAAr urjiys. 

lcni>wn to OUT other ptrnioo. Nothing gjvc« » blf^ % de> 
grvR of picfljmrn, or pinvure ot h^ riccp nod intc^wa n:U- 
jov, ju ibt? 4e4uiBttiun aoij o>i)»c*iuud po»uuLoti of koowi- 
ti}ffh As, i>f the five recogitliud seaMe, ibo eu" uid e>e oro 
tho two vliinh nffcird tlw K^crt ftnd pnrftfC plca^nre, eo 
iho brain tuti-d l^i* n-^dnksl ih ad or^i^D of ttatao of An order 
■tiU lii^ljur, Hid c;ipabl« of sflon^jng Ih^ liiglii^t quulit^ uf 
cnjojmeDU An^! il h obwrrnblc, as priovici^ the liumo- 
gcitcilj^ of all tlic focultiue, thut thin orgnn, l\w hniUy flc-.rivcA 
ill plrfUHirff from pre«i«oly the Mme oundkioiix hm do t1i£ 
4>t^en^ vU.. iu own rxcn-lto. Aoqniring; Ict)i>wl«*(lgo U the 
umo Ibtng to Uut bnuu ibkt Hwi:i^ ii to ibu vvv, Iwaring 
to tlno fiu-} or UAin^ lo the ti>Dj^o. Tlie brutu b uIao 
4H|ua]1y cnpftMc of ploiMnt or tinpjcnwnt prnieatJons, accord* 
ing tn ilx- iiAiarc of tlic object prixlncin^ ihtm. Tho pJcAB- 
urw lliiu iknred differ from Uiotto difrived Irjm the tmor- 
cl« of th« loffCt eenaes in tlic e^mo metier as iho k[t«*r 
differ from oon Hootbrr, in iho niklitionfi) nvpi^irt of ticir^x 
iDoru cxcinpl froro injury to othcm. Tho lower aniniaJ 
MBMM ■» oftcu uxurcMKl oud vnjoj«d it the «xjwDito of tbv 
bippCiwn of otbore; tluue of tIrQ eye and c&r &ro Iom anb- 
j«ct to thin r«Attiotion ; vbilo it i» difficult lo concifivo of an 
ittUooe v1)«m an ex«rd«« of the mind, the Juaniing of a 
fiot orfltnttfi, cu) of Jt«c1f dodnwt from ihu biq)|Hiu«i u{ luj^' 
other bt-infE- Tlio pl«Li(iin?A of tho nilnd aro, iherofore, fn 
iTt re^(4a tb« liifflieivt pl«Mum wlikb wo am prrrnitli^^^ fo 
OtpericiKie. Aa Uiow pWaurai ard crc<jit«d by the acH^iiuii- 
tJoin of linowlodgr, ami finnc- it ia Ibec^peckl offioa of Ul^ 
VTmtnrti to fadtitotr and uTuicntali^ tIkAt acJ^olsitlork* it fol- 
loD^that it » lUrooKlf lhi» nn(^)inn\ tbat nun doriy^ hifi 
pnrwt Dttjoymtoit, irniting, tliQWrforr, thww dirvct «treaiDNi 
HiiL iImko coQicquomia] ocmw widvb eo coplooilf fli^w fnjm 
knoirkvff^ ibua otoincd, ire havo, u tho ftmlt of rho 
ojE^nry of written knjni'ff^ a raal outtmiI floirio^ in tho 
dtrecCioA of buuian progrew, Ih tlie t«chn*cil sccoptation of 



Drieflj to rrf^ipitaht^ we liAXt aMii Chjit in the grttsfcj 
ttrt U iui<rconiTiiuiiiiatiutt> ot whidi uchajftl* buuadty Ui^ 
udi a prwelDg sewl^ Umto h^y« b««u Dud» > wHve ol dk-j 
oovcriiM in tlio dmiuhi of nranl Uw, Hva tp plkttion (4 
wiich cntHko tboin tA tlie DtinM of inveniMOL A« u tl» 
ams with vv«ai iW moA moileni iDrontioitfi Uiougb periap 
to ft lomBwIiftt gnaatqr oxtont, tk^m aororal tavaidoa* 
in the BAtura of ^piulittl growUifl, vIumd prooeM it u ii 
iilile to mcfi except bjlhoejwof Uio tRi^natlDB,bHt wltfMi 

i>f liiilor^, and mufc a eomvpoitdiay munnwoh «f ' 
crv 10 l1i« progroaB of ihU impartuit an. TfiOie ena ftnt 
itlFidtt into two, ihff «»rM nf tmwrtttMi wid the «n nf vHliea 
UngQafcc; lint R^rb of theae uifadiridaa, aad wr hjiTc for. 
Iba hiUorr uf laagvtt^ Um four muK or lev iudcpeot 
i&d nooofiire parioda, vie,, tbow raapoettveij of 
langaagA, on) tui^rna^, wntt«fi laagnagt^ ajid pnnt«d Ua-J 

Eacb ul thaw baa bee<i ttie naiuti ol as ewiiicnMaing; 
dogTW of bnia-povor, of tbo objootiro depattmcnt of tbo 
mimi, tbv inlell(«t, of that apedd applioatian pf Uiaa famhj 
called iiig«Duilj, orgoiiiui^froa) whiob all tbe utbcr ml«i-. 
lactnal inanifMtaliociA w dcrivod. 

Thv iDucntlTC to tbo cicrtiao of thk Realty h«a bacn 
donrci. Tbo nault of tbo nctictntt ItuFcatiatm 
to aaliafj ibow dedrat. Tbvj bav« tbcrvf^jn? bttrn 
[iTognail¥o i& tlw tacbokaJ now of Uw tens. Tor, if vu 
add to thif >cH<ii, aa wa an; rvrtatnlj nttitiHl Ut tU\ Uic 
nodofn nrta uf iclff^mpby aad f4rlt[>bonj, the uioaiw of inti 
comnkimintbi; idoa* (<«4weo3 nion and mmi tbio^^^lmt tbo 
wt-rfd &rOt to alJ tiUvata and pnrpoecB. oouipJato^ 

W« Iiav^ Bujct loooiialdpr tbv mknm-r In wkicb tWda^ 
wliom miifitfilion k aiUiiMid Uiroo^h a boU«r aoppl/ 
the itMau of •ntKktcooci, liaro inflncnccd lli« pT Dgi w i «[ 

PBDr]l£C^,^PK]yAKY UK.\\a 

t]io Lunijui ractt. la » porioiiM dmptor (toU i, p^ 4^)^ th!a 
general Bubjcct won trMtod iomiiwlutt in detail, but fr^ m% 
taitirt\j di«tiDCt |>DiiLt of view. Tlio aatuni^ of eIio Sot^nl 
Forvtv waa then nnder conndcntion, B&d, dthiyaglL wluJ 
Wtf^ tlietti ilunuiiilii*l«l ILq "prwemtjro fum»^ n~«ro 
idiowD to bo ideniioal vith ibe deBiree above rnvntlon^d, 
Atill, tbti obje4?t wa» then nmpl^ U> MtnhliAh th<T «3ni<t«nr« of 
anuh forvo and to pro-to llieir ideiitilj, in point of uniform- 
Ixy, rvliaU^noCfS o^^ buvot-ptibilHv to Mitrxititiv iiudy utiil 
infeJtigvnt control, with aU utbuf aelatowlwlgvd nAtund 
forcce ; irlillff i«e hjtve hr^t^ to do onl^ with t1i£ odniJ prod- 
qeA of llie^ fijrvw nricr tticv h^w been au^jecU*d 1« the 
giiHluicu gf ibi; iiitc4luct. Di the formor ««•«, Itn total prod- 
uct, both pro^raaafre ari<l nonprpgrowiffp, ww er>E)«(]crrv(l ; 
in li»o prea^Mil ftif/^ only s umall portiAO of thai prvxlncr, tlio 
portion to vblcb tlio iadiroct m^bixl liu hfien ajiplied, £a 
taken mto acci>nnt. Wu wcrw ibyn aludjing llieeo propel- 
ling ii:tfliienfvft Ibmrut^lvca ; wo are now ttadying the dbvetivo 
it3riiirnj:i>i vfiicb in rariona tinwo and mnnn^rs ba« efiabled 
tbcti) to •At^co'l whore otherwuv tboy moflt bavo fftik*d. It 
i> in tbia that prognw recilly conKijfta, Tlic iotnn^ itiem- 
0«lrM arc blind. Intl^11i^'Dce alone cnn Ij^rlit tbeir paUu 
IVhhont it> bfrwovor intGiMo inajr Le tlidr d^^roo, tboj nmt 
ptrpotuftlly da>b ai^invt intmoTable barncn wbicb iwtrfrt 
th«ir marvb. M«Klp1loatioa mnjtl befonftfanvly cb«r1cpf1 bj 
prcmaturo dwtmrdnn, Uij^nition mtvt br wnwJtvJ bj tlw 
annibil^tion of the emigrant or 1W infant colony. E*ntwii.t- 
enL'v, ai j>ru^i<lvd by nnnldciL natare, b UmEu^d, and life 
mii»t be limited to COTTvapond. The fcrra? t^vi do4 1v« e:<tin- 
gaiabcd ; iho dc4dr«9 miut e<>niiiiu«< to pr«M for utiflfactit^ ; 
hrti, In tbe abacnc« of any aHifo-Jaf »f>unw of anjiply, u^uilU 
t)nli<>n mn>l bo «|H.HH)ily mu;b<K] :uid progrOM mual ouaCu 

The trtvAfiR tlirou^h wbkh ihi§ fltali^T ooodition hm been 
dtitorbulf and a dynamte itetn prraeT-riM) by the bnmATi nct\ 
ift t)»i' »p.»ftpy uriikcli in ^nerally ki»«m ** pmtiio^il^^r ^uf'fttl^ 
ari. En ord«r to dutiii^Ub'il ffwu tb^t wbi<b b MJinowbat 

posirrox op thr n^E arts. 


Art," kt iw c«n ii wprntiiet orf; uid Uw other imafiwitiv*^ 
Qtcfvatit^ art 

ft u BomcwbAt tnnfoTtatuto, |wr1ia[)t^ thii tiro d«iwr^ 
tncnu of mcntkl jKTtiritir, mt rcmotdjr conncict«d |i«jr^ultif» 
lodljr Mkd aodvlugiciiUjr, »buul4 luvu rceuivod tliu huio Dame. 
Altboogb ire aro hero redtv little «x>iic«aiK>d whli tbo latteTf 
JM, En onler to tM aomon'hat to the symmetry of llitf geo- 
«ml troitiiiciit i>f Iti^ kuNjci % w woU m to poini out, ouco 
fur aU, tlie cbivi ilifiiuciioufl bctvrvijti tJji;m, for wlucb a mora 
tppTDpriito pl&c« ma; not b« fomxd. a fev vorda witli n^:»nl 
to tlio tnMT pfuition ^f the. fino nrtjt mny U> joititiod- 

U U otivi'iUA tlial mvpiilirc art nuCn primariJ^ upon tho 
pt«MTiatiT« fofooft of «X'ioljr. It i» diivctvd idujwt vxcli^ 
u^j (o ibo mtisbctioti of iho onilna^ WAOt« of nartkiiiid, 
whldi, 10 wo Jttw, nie aJl niore 4>r lew complrb^lj rcdadl 
to llie dfriuaud* of mturv for tlio tbree primu m 
food, C'lu4hiiig, uid dullvr. 

It \o low oltrioufli, but hy no m<«nit pardj fancjfsl, or 
maintained foir the lovo of thoory am) ajatoin, tiat iinagiiia' 
tiva art r»U firinkarll/ ii)>oa Uie iMlicr ^rinulpal (XH^rdlaalo 
brandi of tbo social forooa, vb^ tic raproducHTo forcot. 
Whpo vr« co«isiii«r to liow lai;ge a degTM all iilrai of beavlj 
aiv w«ociiito<l villi tlw sentlniccit of Iovb, and Jww doeelj all 
fonna of lovo aro rclft!*?d to aoxval Inro, and thifi in tam to 
tli« ■rraat in4tini^tf tki* at firvt pnrlmpa anmcwhat itartlii^ 
propouLion tiuT m<xit witli !i tjuuiitiL'il ac<<'ei>uiiiov, f hIIv to 
ftpfircdialo wtiat(<r<'r dtyroo of traih it ma^ pi>«oM« lowDvor, 
lK« pn^fint hlf^hlr doHratWo ftnd rthcrcaUwHl cliantctcr of 
i1ka0 ■wntinif-ni* eu mhibilfft by tbn d/rirf of moakind tnn4 
bo t#rn|xinn1y T'Qt onl nf thit mind, and a iovqUI imai^e 
fomivd rjf Uio tme character of llioea aentlmenc£ In otide- 
▼fJopad n««. aiwl a1»A in thri Inirnr amnubt nnr^^ vo mm 
the parvittal intiinot tluappv&Hnif rnon* or Vsm in the lunlo 
and ooftfinrn^ itaolf to tb& loothor, in wbom it u an ao- 


PB06n£Sa-^r&IttART uj^a^^ 

knowlcdfc*^ ftitjnnct of t1i« mstoaI mUm. FOkl And fn- 
Ivniu] afl*?>c-lioii Also ilioppean, Ati<l tliv c>ul>- fiirvi uf Ivtv 
reii^tiniiig u lliat of mx. TLv uiiIt^oiAl jfivfervace iuT tiw 
Dudo Lu All U umdoubltHliy in grc^t port dtio to the vngno 

but Btill iiiltiien^Hl chnnii wrhtoh l»tiutja of «cx add tn tho 
paniuct. Nur lb it to lower o*tr wtimntv of wt frwillj lo 
Admit this, ftn<i to mainuiu ihjrt all c >>ai « of Innooent emo^ 

(too iro «qUK!l5 pUH!. 

t^tpliin-, 1li« 6|(lojt of t]i« «rti^ illoiitnitcfi t1ii>i trath 
meet fon-ibiy, auid i« duwty followud bj- puiniiii^, wlii(^ 
VM urtgiiuiJly qoiUiind prindpslly to tlie ckllwiAtion of tlio 
biamu fi^-m^ AraUltcctarG, whic4i nnhAi tbo invntitiie 
willi tlic imiginffltivfi, forina ui exi^ption, And, in ita i^arlittt 
H ir«Jl M in ilB high««t Ajijilicalioii, is mortr intiiiijilvlv <xn* 
Dovtwl witJi tbu rvUgiousfetuthiJonL MmJcbuirtivirr, Oiongli 
■ hilt devvlopiu^ini, bcAi* n clt^ r relation Uk tKn romantic in 
human nat«r«. Of [>'>c4t7, U ruA; be mid tLikt \i hu luiMh 
olowr aAnlUw witli die ilvp;Lrtuit*iit ^f urt l)iitt htut tbo means 
of Intercom EuunioftiloD lor iU object nnd lilonttiini for 0119 
of llA bolduat ael'ii«TenimlJs tfian it W with Ili« prbciii»l Art« 
propvr, wbicb wo w iio*r cou«iduricij|r^ Pootry ia to Un< 
gnn^ wliAt the tvmiuDnif flu« artu arv to tbo osM-'ful acU ; vot 
ita fnndAnipnt^ aieiflinieiii to tho f^ntimonG^dpritvJ from 
tbv dovtlo|iuici]t ot tbo n?|ir<Htnctive ^-<l«ii ii pkiiiljr aIiowb 
b Oi«< Aldioai luiiroraju ooniiiootion of poetfj with ramaii«e, 

TTwrrc b nothing dynunloiJ in lie iofitMnoe oC tfie fiiw 
arta, Snjoyablt^ in ihdnvMflnM, nnd lbun<fi>i« courow of Lnp 
pin«M, tbuLrlnAiionco i« con^nM to tlio iinniodialo|jTVMut, 
tmd ii iiKmpablp of conlribuliiix «f>> jmrmrtnont Hid [o soi^lal 
prr^rmVL Tboir aludj- belong entipplj^ to the dtTRirlHitiir i.f 
Borial rfatipft. and tlib briof doIliv of tbcm h tnorvlj intcjndod 
to lix llioir lni« portion ami «xliibit tbuir iH^tivo cbumctor. 

Aa vu n>marlc«d at tho outlet, boniao art Imt advanced 
fmlwopcnrrvlliTt«-^lieoi>o inlbc'dSrwiii-mof socaring Iwt* 
tar mt^uiA of inltfoot&ninnkalion, ibio otlifir in tho duvctioii 




of acmiria^ bolter mmu of «ubiUeiiCG./^he At»L of Unwi 
^JrlifoiMi miue bit T«g«rdod *^ ombrncin^ tbo ronpoinw i>f tbe 
dcTnlopJog mt«IlH-i to tho rUainiulN of Ibe ausd ; tbc mooclH, 
■t ib rvi{rui:Bp4 to Ui« dciitfUi-Ji» vf tbe bodj^. Id tvMidnjE n 
oouTvnleni MbJirigion of tlib huer braueii of buinsD ^ru it 
ApfHiu^ ibcu, wMk iu profcreat hoi ivcaenled a •t>*iL<r«vt^t 
ttiii/onu aioveuxmt wittwut tbe MWaJ ■brafit frt«|jLi vlucb 
are M 03iwplc«Mf Iq Uw otbvr bvmadi, itifi tlwjv b^ been, 
in Ibu bktory of iboM mcu* wbidi dok' vucu]>j' ihv mmt ul- 
vtUDCod |w«iitLon, no etioinvio«i> wcclcntlon witiitu tbe luC 
thrm <>eu4urtOH u «tiiDpjtr«J wilb tho AAm^ prHir<il a1 adj- pr^ 
rioDt tiiue— faf ^ruAlur urtri tlia» tlui wliidi took plan in 
Um pmgrcv of lotf^jrn nndor ibo tCiinulua of tbo t-pocb mjOC' 
b;* ut of p.rintiitf(. TIim wiMmi iticol1in|r oui of tbe i^trvAin, 
wbicb iiAil prerioudj ui>defl|rono only tbo auniul itjctwnt 
doc to \\t, niiuMn>a& tribntaHos oaailaf^ ia st irrvgular blcr- 
vilfl HmJ with nuTiikg rolnmoA. has boott m npiil aikI m 
Twc «« 16 «iMi«liiat4^ AD bttforvLi] if doC ft Itj^kcU ttulxUrinua 
of tbo mtirv vubjiyrt, Ie^ (,*uaft;, it u tmo, U mil fir tOAOflk, 
%xA u fouixl alxiioul w}ii>lly bi ibo applS<Alion, dikce tbc JxM* 
illu of thi> ■eri-utcMi'Ji c^^omr^-, of v!ttt i« knowQ a Uiq Svt* 
onttfl<? Mcrbod to tbu (tftvel4f}i<ncDt of biveDtivo art. 

Tbi» fftcK^nfrociU cm 04i tbe tbrotbold wHb ibr mnolwlit- 
onMoiUn.l i|J-A;ir!i,Htf|iiort*aQ of tbe tvUlionof »c>anc« to«rt 
It Li IbU faot, Uh*, tbol bv tent tli« dttef Mipport to lb« Hew, 
wbkJi nuy bo Mid laltorlj- to provul, tb«t irt prot«dw wl- 
*moo J and in % tenm\ «vdw tbU id nnqiKxtionnb)/ tnyt Tba 
tbc pnarftlciiee of Uu« jJc4 u viuwiiilAblv wrttmpMiled 1>j a 
tnin of vrrviHioiu Md, v« imj add, |Mvnicuiu< biplletflofia, 
II serroa to bi>cp dins tlw origimllj fibe coDcvpdmn of tbe 
fiimnin^ of tbt.* word nui^WiW. If crnf]Kc[»n] main**^«ibc! 
tbii ii wbiU ift QiniDininod»4be mctJ*o.l K tri*l, iiop«ndbi;[ on 
f*iliif« to dcti^ct ftrror and on rrpeM^d uiiJi to di*oo w trutb, 
then la fadotiiT^ »Honi?v. ^tid Mpcciully mH Ai>o«Mfiil expcr- 
iiDonlAtioM, pDrtly ciuptrioxl Fyf iJiE* !« ibo spcriil diano- 
torittic of thp tMi^r — tb.it it dupvodtf npoo mefoMive truk of 



ooe h/i>ot1ic«ifi After anotlicr mUl tlio (me eolurioD ia at lut 
rcAchMl. TjM iw liefltr i>n thm fctiTijtxt the vSrrwi of otir of thit 
iU)o*t and ibCAt ttiLCf-eMrful i- x peri luvu ten* (iiat ctrlonw tuu 
lirodQoed, w1jo»o riglji to B|Huk at v^tAffSrti upon h do oqo 
will qKQcdon. Only a ahort time jirevioii* to his (kaih (No- 
rarbv a*, I877j. I'rofHBor Jok^jiIi Uuiirv. in liin hriuuaJ 
■ddnw u ()rv«id^t vf iltu Pliilcwphlcnl Sodc^ of Wiub- 
faigtou,* Uiu» dcKntjed tlw tnio ttialiod of experimental 

"Hie firet Htcf) in die !&▼«»( tgittiuu Uto rapf»duu« tLe 
|ihe[LomttQOD ; Uw nvxi, it to fiwin in iJio mind a provugonnl 
livpotlimif w to lis caiiav, nud in Ui* *Jiojrt> ftf ibiii wu an* 
gOTomoH by imaJiTg^. F<>r ^xaniple, if it a|tpMn to nwom- 
bb vomp of ibn phrnonirni of irloctHoitr, wi^ tuwirmf that it 
ui prwJuwd by vlvi^tridly ; rm ucic vtidtavor to aflcvrtiuu by 
vbai kiK*wfi ucilon of clct^f ricity such an vSjM could pottlbly 
bd pruducMl ; for tlih pnr|k>np w^ mvful nri byporh™n, or 
imc^nd hmae peculiar u^lioa of ckvtnrity ml^t^ieiit lu pi\^ 
tlnco iho nfl<??t mqucfition; wotliou >aiy toouTM-lvi^ if tbifi 
he tmfj it vill b^i-ally follow ibat a tpoeilic result wfll fal- 
low if we mnk^ a crrimu rxprnmrnL Tbo txjxTriraont is 
doTtvd HiMltHod,bat no iwailJi^oreMill iaobtainfrl. InorOpr 
CoUiia iiD^tive mult, the log^l deilucTh'nh TMiwt huvu bcvn 
In trror, or tlio (-rpfiriment most harv bi^cti dufviiUvf or iliv 
hy|>olWif^ itj*elf firprtficona. 

'■ Wo oxAoiino «urb of Ib^ two form*»r alnp*, nnd lindil^ 
nothing amw In ibum, we oondodo thut tbu b>[xii]ie«b was 
not trx« : another hypotli<»]« ia then bv^niei), anotbvr d»- 
diirrion irifiTrr'i, nnd anmhcr c^^ptrimcnt miwlr; *till no rt- 
Milt i» obtaiiw^l. At tKi* ttaKO ''^ "btr m»i*nrrh, tli« lneap«1- 
cnr«<1 investigator Sa prwiy to Rbduidon tbo purvuit ; not ao 
h^ w»n> boa •noMMfvlly attcinpled to peuetnto iho ■wrvU of 
ra1un\ IT^tktomcl by fulur«v be cban^w bom time tu 

■ &H '^ItanMla" of ih* mtMj, ml H p. tei. bi An dMifca «)*or^ tba 
vanb i>iM fiMM*4B Ou p^Mon bcr* «%M «n haUdml, i£e luLin b«tna 
FW4H* Bwt'« aV ^ ^ '^^ ^^■^^ 



At qnCttloo M to llwit irnth 1\v mcuu of cxjwricuciil, until 
at luQgth tuOiira, u if irr4Hcd l>y hb »olidl4U{>ii*,gniatft tiito 
A Ti«<«' iivl fWflitify: rf«all,'^ 

KiuuL ibw IticUl vj^poiitiooi oC iho «ncDUtic mi?4lin'l of ex- 
perinifiailDtkili, it iuuhL Inj di^aj' tu «U lh:.t vro luvo not jct 
ro«rbMl ft 4ta{^ it wbii^h ii*A o&ly rvpi*at«l IrfaJ bat Mtutl 
gutwt'Worlc Unat ik#f^m>arr tn AJio^-^wfal iniMtlgalioa. In 
Uw cniiU'iry occopUtioii of the ttmu^ thU i« tl:« vvry weBOM 
gf cTi^piriH^rn. 

WliAi, iliM, In k t1^ difitEBgulf^M -Kbnce from emplri- 

It Dia«t Uf coiifnui--*] (faHt llie oiiljr miportint cliJim-tvr 
btfie vrli&ck tlio f&nuor |McttOdM«, >t>d vlucli b abvont from 
the lAicofp la ibo ipiftliiy Af being i^v^^mdrKx Sdeooe fa in*> 
iliodiml MDpqrirMn. Blridly iiprakin^« tHctioPi ilI Qitcty cnn 
knowi., ut ■imply kuvwMg«. Uuro dvfirijt«lj% U u kn^vl- 
_«4s^ of tho DMtoriAla and kws of oatnrc. In fliif wjdir 
it miiftt pTMNxlo ftrt. Art u norcr tbo pcmiU <if Uuid 
inc— <if AlN*il)1^t1tv It ffl nlmjs, tiowcTo- rimplc iu ffvno, 
lu nvult of tlwugbl, of ft r«k*<igi]i1kin of tbo nftturv tiid r«- 
EUbleciOKA of tfttiEii »D(] vfTcct, of tlio i-xrf«vo of tlir invcnt- 
Etc fofnltr m ukibx v<^<»c adnnTa^ howftrer •ligkt, ot tbo 
Butural f-^rvy^ Krcn ilie l«u4 of bdf^ effort*, fludi aa llio 
M^DcHooi of ft v<'l)4jiftp«l elab frotn the broken 9tKkt of ft 
J«ii^c» or the pW<tug of ft^^ klrmdv preiarvd upo<i ■ for- 
M fins nqiUfW ft flq^ffQ of bniiBt-powur «upvHor to lliBt po«- 
iMMMl hy any irlM imfiu*L Ali iJne moro tflacntiAl lucfnl 
■rift W«ro r[^ttHl lofif; firior to tb^ dawn of modern Brirnce^ 
and vaob uf 4be«e loott bat'v< Uim prooodf^ by a i-^r^ 
pfliowU of itrictly fwrtcniiUc Ibotight, uwompftniod by n^ 
truti of hrpolb«MM, which wen fthaiKloimd wfafiu 
Ttil, Mw oaco beinf: aQbatiliit^d, until sticiooea ttva 
aUjuDod, Tbu niQtbod baii alvniya bwD U»e ftftiM Aft oov, tlw 
Ity tmploycd 1I10 mtHr, thg R»u)t tho j«jii<i- Thft ml 
&1 tbftt tboD evorj thing -vm pftrtial and fngmoit 



trv; no wliolv ficM of knuulodgv lt«<l bvcu luadlvrvd; tlio 
jtrkla vGri? jJl exirandy ipocdaUced, aod direel«d to ilu tnp- 
^1^ of immtsliAUs pTMFangwnnCfL VUn|>4i')rJna »ftjr bo cullod 
ininitive idffncR. The law* comprehended ftm only iho looro 
obTiuui ftail >uptirflcla1 uiivft. Vfixh liiv de«fier bidd«fi bu'« 
no prog:rofl£ could ai Sr«t bi? uiadOf and kIJ aU#in|)>iH to gQ 
bolciw tiio uLirfjioR of th[n|;> mrattcd in fikilant. 1{eii(>c, tJia 
uu were Tud<- ; hnt, fc^rtunat^lj, ihoie mde MJtiA were «iffi> 

Thoy cono^ui] not locrvly lu tlio ftbilitjr (u muiitifjUTtun tlio 
Miplunoe* ooouivftt^ to iacrtOBO their mcoiu of gcbbStf «co«, 
Wt in « higiiev ^*gtt^ in tito Ahill iicqnir»d br llif^fr nw^ n^d 
in ihf9 jMrnait oF »»c-h oifan^ oftoti wbnliy wilhcint nrtiticiAl 
teiplunicuv. men OLiiuimft ia KOiinii^ tadi •(>t^iEiit)iJe[ib 
wd dlafKHJtSoiia of occiirrotioea known to bo xtiguliLr wiu im 
iinportai^it qnAliiy of pnmitiv-o art, and tlifa, cumbjticd with 
Lhttox in «9^:ftliri^ fiivorj.1^ combin^tiutts of crmiin-^tuiu*t-ft, 
rpjpp4ein>jnl«d by tbil of devya}^ ihv iiiipWmenu ij(*CL'atmr7 
to aelie iho grcaloat idvaatA^ of 0(^017 ihlug thoa. «a It 
LWCTC, driviyinl within i«4«li, proroH fnafBrTiMit to mnltiplj 
nBunj )iJD<ln?i foM lUe noraul Mi[>ply uf nuturv. 
I Ftom v«ry owly perfod^ tlii» luctliod in m% wra «d^]>t^ 
ftftU tiicocflifiiliy dinxlffd agiin«t all tbt^ il^pjirlinpnU of mittor 
t.ii'1 fon^ Aft All mibttiAtojici'^ «f l«4ut all aliindDtAtion, muU 
bo durirvd primArilj fran) the veg^txhU kin^o^n, vtlber 
^dirtclly Off nw^llaUly thrv^up^h the n»inul» bumnn inp^nnity 
pttw ilinK<ted toward morgiuiifT m»tf«T %nA Ili« i>hyM(^ iarcw 
chlofly In ibo «raition of imoh artifii^ial applUn^vw M w«co 
fnnnd iwPMurj U> p«ifforni llic rwjcirvd vcmoo in tbo oc* 
pmic kmj^QtiH, 

Tho gf«4t diversity now known to oxiet anMti^ tlie vart- 
on« Iciv noe« of turn Mill inKit^iiinfj ^^rtain pnrt« of the 
gtolw baa fcrmtly iJukeii fitttb in xlw obrunoluf-icul ordur in 
wliick BftHj vrilcTB oisunird that man had sncooi^voly doa^ht 
hi* ^alMfiftti-noe, via., tJio vxnitoiKo of tho hunting, pafitoral^ 
umI agricalmml itege^ Tbu tbo Unnting, and p^rtijcukrly 



die fiihing ttogo, ha^ bt^m « wry oarlv <»« wHL maor nHH», 
tJiviv esn bo no «lou1)(. bui t)ic«v U nui^im, Ifoili In tbu fiicCv 
or oUii)«ynpbjr uihI iei fuir Oud q i7t iooi from Uki dmruccer of 
Lbo6c a&ituAl^ frQTQ vbicii bavlog^ tcoobw thitt nuiii unM 
have ili^ircmhxl, to >npfiiiav thnt a |>Arr1]r fii^eCwifln at^c 
oujr ]uv« Uwn lb« Oii« during wlikl) iLc tnnidliou to mnQ- 
bood wv «fiiN-tvd juhI ibo iitCaijcT ol iJa« o^wly ovulrtfil r^oj 
WM ^EpDCiU* It&t diK uEi not be ftup|>oeeii to iavoW an u- 
qnninianco wfib af-rURiltttru in >nr profwr ivnnc^ thnu^)i 
di^Mibtiea* ^kill, ingtmmtv, Jtixt t rrt^H&in ainonDtol vtiiicUl 
Ub'.kriiiiijfl b«vo iLuppleuivnl(>d tbo tj>vu[ftiiv-iptia jirodudiucu 
of iiotTtrc It i* cvrtdlnlj^ attiinl to untmo that baroim «1ej1I, 
vt, in<l mnnbft wvtv «lt»c(c<d u> t1>« killii^ mihI ^iptnrin^, 
fn I'ArVMM ymyf^ of iliffirrettt kiii<b» uf tnlmAk And Mi, ttpoa 
wikh to tiib(i«t,l>ofoivitiiMdlrvctedtoa^TirallBr«<rrtotlio 
i&oinuMic4iion of anunakf AVc ccatccIjt find chhrr pifi'>T!il 
or fif^oullural tnhi-i ftmoajc tmi.* iara^^i^ althaunl] tlit iriti> 
rwr of Africm mveiu to funiiiji BociLe Mwp4jo4ii» to Ibb slutiv- 
mont, T1i««e mod^ of lif« snr iwiallj smomlwl vitb die 
K>ciHl Mate iHitch m call borlMtfum, or irilh iho civiliA:d 

Tito chronologkol ordor of Uie f ItrvnlupiDODt of UiCM ftrti^ 
liawpTirr, iminA*niM na len Imto tliaa tb&lr spedal cliaraGCcr «a 
ftjtU to brnnan fv^?^^^ thif» r^lniirr tymtlity kw) fjnutticr nf 
bruii-|K>v«r ntjuired lo produo*' t1i«<ii, Cl4vl_v tho eham 

liffm lp< »aBdh M aahvea dv % 4ttir, tt*i hkJkt««^1 ■<> ^-oft" htie^na la 
tM bifMcy m\m ftp? en Inio vc'' <IIib»J'4 '•J?ftfH irnMrt-tioiB.' fjw» 
|fcv--itiirti Jn4,"n4 I, fi lU: kk^lnbmH nrti. nihM, Sup^d, W. 1H, 
laXlL 1^ I've. 0*rw MipHi «tt«f««c««f *'rTKi4nir." Ui tU '■DtHacft* 
B)nUxU«." «-r XprvHiybcr. 1»T« <wl. lit. ft S7»X 

f BailRdJi Ur*»BAiiivw«ilb*futllialBRiacltt4Au«<cu«kvkl- 
&■• i1i»Brtay>i itilwli $9t putvkl ptpeat^ Mlviihi«v»liTif: iIh thmimm 

At bHnnia; icr7 pHfi.l 1« fnhx Ak^ M f4iw4 to tW acriin r. 

timtt'n. nD*t Kav^ ikv *a (ftrtrll? frwa tV liiidK;; ^IH- I^K-^o -, J^L 
tl,a.«Ili.9HiBUliior««ttia: alio - AdiicMatt 4w X-gf R 1^ »^ t^t^t 



it tiio mode uf ^ab^lfitf^iicv vtlik-ti requiraf xh^ Itmt dlq>Uj 
of genia«. Cauiiiug, in IcnrnJng ih*z butiniA aikI liibtbi of 
^titc, luiil III dt-'TuiiiK varioui< doaroft atid amhiijJi(K for It* 
apUirv, utWft, of nonm?, ho ^^xMrin^ lo a lii|^ ^<C^ wliJk 
tniQ ingenuity i» »llu<l ft^rtli m tliU f.t[igc iii lh« iutviUivti 

^ot Tuiou* iflruui>one b/ wbicU more ^ifft-climlly Ui tficure it« 
Tbow qn&lilloB, E^)iarppno<t hy tbocoii8l4jit8pDrof vftiit, i[iu»t 
hflre wmnght ft rapid dcTfilopmnnt nf tho families required 
to L>L* put lo j»urt'icL\ And, na it i* tbc nmc f^icullicn wbicli 

' &n> lulleil £ttto oxvrL'W Ed all furtud of iutit!ciul (ruI]t^Ivul1c4^ 
t1w^*niuaof tm Erii^Adon ijiav heiva liecn fonflbulciwcMi m 
the inrcntor of tiiB tmw in^l amiiir. 

1» tbn taming of wild anirnAK :inil ihuir redn**tmn lo 
mai/« itfrvit:^ jn Turiout wnjv, a iMjoicwlMLt dilfcrciit H-t of 
facultiM v/oA exemlmd. A br^T dic^rrtv of furttijHu wm 
iVipiirod. The Hnccc*fHl effort* verjcstAj mtdc lo Improvo 
tlje hiTcdit of AnitnftlA rrcjuiml rnntidornblA rotipction, %]- 
tbouf^U tL br^ fuxt of tlw progrvM tlitu tnttdo wm daulrtloi 
dti« lo iuxtModU 

) llat, of all tlio pHmiHvo modteof »iib»if^tcnr«> i>inl of 
p^outture i^idlcil fo«lh tbc Krc«t««t immmt of ini^-Urt^tLul 

^ «ffort« uid (ii;uiunU<]U the ipo*C funwi|{b^ Uimv tLtj iutJirvol 
mi^hod fntipt bo cioloaiTely applied, and tbo ditdplino of 
voitjng Uk oniiro ceatoTi fmr the ivwni-dii of Inltor linxl ft m^t 
wlioliMomtf influpOiTo upon Uio dcrclopiufnl of mind and 
c^jsmrltT. A hrfcov oiunber of ukiittilts toii, w<tiv rvqmrod 
for tLin cloM of lalior tlmn for either of ihn prc<i:duj(;> wbk-H 
ilimulital tiic iuroulivo po*'^ns and ]<hI iUo vtij lo ibo 
oxt>^iieioii of IW pnctitwl arts to aJI tlio d^^pirtinmTA nf lifr. 
The power to nniliiplj in tinmbuni »«d eipAnd in Wii 
trrriiorr, whi<Ji tht cxtrthe of a wpeHor intcIU-et ^vv lo 

^tn, bW Gonlribalod gnMll/ to MimnUtr f>ie progroH (if art 

'For, in hia wandoringff, bo mist »oon fii>d hiniA^^if expowd 
to rlimalOT rjnitft dilTur«Qt from tlist of Ii» tiatiire abodo. 

^Ho TTti^ luvo ibcllcr from wind and rionn and from ox- 

itnmo cold. It ia mfj to too hov gnu a abupeoor of tho 



tioQ to nich Ticlwtwk* mnflt b«. In :b-r«r rotiQ- 
]H>]HiUlf<ni U now iltfPftOiif ibe lalunl [mjtvctitrjj 

10 ecbT. - ' '^^ Rpcnditig n wint^rr in uimr Lirg« fnrott rcmntir 
Iram ■ -iorj, Adtiiitlin^ lh.it ihyre be *ft abundnul 

feupply vf fi>u<J, tu liuK 1urp< an extetit i^oold k fcw Deo«6Mry 
todofwod for <>Dmf"n np^n artiSoiAl ni^nnsvf vlidtorf T(» 
MCDn} mc}t niartA niiul E-tvc ettrt primitive sum euuolk cloao 

Tli« laronlion of clotinng, too, afforded a grtat ntiiniilTO 
to art, unco dglbing mntt bu maun&mured; tod, allliough 
Bt ftnt it etm$^u^ of Ui« iltiiiB a1 aabmlit or tbo Icavoe of 
trMi^ aUJt, as men advaiMed farther from t[i« (H|uator Rod 
impdri>vod in ikill, ii gtwJualljr lod to tho nuniif&cliiro of 
«IiH1i, tlian vhi<:li no one oonimoJUty fumulwf a gralvr 
lUQtit of dcillod and narrfsl labor, or a hSg^W cr moro wtb' 
lartlal gntifi^atiMi when applM to tu vanonn iiwn. In 
tlic luiciant world tlw (ootn wid tbo diitnfF wvro tlw »p«cb] 
eoiblenw tif indailiT', a fact wlileti liiow^ buw uiipuKimc im 
tft the munCoccwQ of docli mmi b4r« bMo. The liooae} 
mm 0ICB Tfffj poorlj conatnwt4«d, Dad mtn/ batioiw «Ten 
In t«aipenlQ UtHndcff dwifll in tonU. dotliing man iTkndc i 
tBbfllitnte for boMJce, It in <ml; in eompanlinly rwi-nt 
tlmoA tltat tlio carpenter hta bM» placed oq ao «)qnal footing 
witJt tbe wearflr 

It (« amasTiTij; to o^nteonplato 41i« iDeageraovi of tbu nnl 
pliy4cal comforU whicb mtv en}ojvd during all Uk^ w^iitu- 
rioi rloim tf» i)tr of^mmeiioomont of the modem cpoch^-tbo 
amaQoxtonL to whinh iron wa* vmplcijyvi, tlkn aljacitrcof j^Imi 
for admittiDf;; lifcki ioto Ixiujca, of paper for tlie tnuuactaon 
of UnnnoOT, of ne^ly aH liinda of nttcfaliwr7, eta The 
^flmoM between tbn modnm and andont dviKntion tn 
this mspoct ia fari^^aifr th&n thit vhii^h «cftan1«« the latter 
fniTii Uk mont pHmiliv# Mato _v»t d&HM>vored Ainoitg mva^zt*, 
lli^ two ffpoflljit vlipuld, ibtn^forv, bo con4diTrvl BrparalL-ly. 
Tbe mudvn v[xich miut hv tv^artled aa bxvin|- buen obiofl/ 


cna^M bT tlic [v-loption ftf lh*t ATtic^ntio molhod of dc^ng 
wicJi tuvU ftnd pUvnomena vbit-h ui diMitigiiifiuxi u «dui>oe, 

art, A oo&fittcrauon of modcra ui, ibt^efcre, bvolraa a 
jiBVNtw of moditm pj^tmre. Tbi; dilT<!T<vn^ l>fTt«rrcn tn»a'4 
r«vly «m(>iH<!jkl a]>jttki:9itioTi4 of iiar.uraLl Uws and Lib i^reitcxit 
Rnalyiic^ <ni*^ in noi ko nflicaJIv gniat u mlglii al firat 
fipjKW. Fi^r tliuu Lu oiily knttw utwurrcd otfccXA — ibil [£, 
pU'notiipria— ami pbi^nuuicna w all he knawit now. Still, 
Uw kuomrtiH}^ iitiiAirii>4) bv iTAreful And Uiorougli tnreitig** 
lion nnd ox^NTniiiout liik« Ic^l liim inCoaro luw.h deepvr, mofft 
minuto, anil sioru di^fiiiitv <x>EiipTvlit'Utfiu<u of Naliuv ami licr 
kwA. that it M«nifi lo be a nrtir and dUiiuct deptrlmvDt ol 
bumnn imowli^gc- It w noi, ilicn, *o muclt tbe i>pooni^ of 
a QUIT cLuitt)L-l w tLc vukiting iumJ dvupouijig of tluf utd 
one It Lt nut Ml niach iho iKt that Tnon tlu^ri lH.gau to dia- 
coTor trJtb aa that tbey ihon loarned d nov ahd Huecotefol 
priciooi4 for Jia dbcovoi?, ft i« not iwoiucb tbc quality of 
lira tmUi evolved ■» tbc i^uniitity wtiidi tlwy hav« tljn» hwa 
cnabtvfi to vvtiLvc. 

It 'm difficult ti^ fix a p«Kod for the f«mn«neemcnt ol 
tboih ora, Tbrro biirc bocn Jiearchon aittr Iruth from llje 
varlievi a^vv. and vvorj ooe wIki IIikIh a tmtk » a vdcntiflu 
dlworeror. From the ttm<« of TLaU« and rvthafrona, tbora 
bav« bocD many pbilniti>phon> who doli^hlM in tite invM>- 
gatioo of nnture. In Ibo liol^b of mntbom^ltc^, avinmomy, 
wid tuttinil history, coniadumlilv progruf^ wa> inad« hviom 
thft jye of Bumw, NowK>n, Oa1it«i), or Humbolilt. ^jribof^ 
rasy Euclid, Arcliinaede^ mii^^ otw a wi-k* field In 1li« do- 
main of Tiiathujnatii.^, Thiil», l]ipfian.-liiia, aud rtolemy 
went far In atflruoinny, whilg Amtotio and rUnj httre l>h 
exfyntsWe trcittwe on lutunl hk^orj, Towiml tb<> flnw of 
th«: Tnidflk t^iXT^, not only wae cooindenhle iolvmt h^fiiD 
manifihtud in tlivno duparlmvoti of aci^noai Irat tho two 
aiatcr »ci«acvof phyvii» and i;hocniflry hepm toba (iftvd 
o«C ol tbe diaff of deuoiilani aod aldicxnj. StfU, In dl ibii, 





ftHijnijit «M inkdti by nay of tbflM wn'tvi^ ^> kj-rive At 
inatK bv bvwtig^ticu. Tboj ftB^uDwd trullu, euiI vritb 
tliev pft>cvodixl to claborue odier irudu. Tlioie aAumi 
tnirltf wCfVf onA t» tbl? liopoUr roiixl imirrnvLlJj or gfuwr- 
«lly rao^gnit^, or ta«K ^ a caumal Uvicrviiliou of thin^ lut- 
nnllj ittggOTtmL I'^/r tbofigb, £d tbe phtloeopliv of TlLok^ 
uir! otbcns BB inilu^ivc niclIuHl irtm porsnc^, yet tho fftdi 
Arrival at hy ihk iodufliuti bafl i>cTe-r hem fiit to a jt^Tcta^ 
tcM b^ €U«J« i&i|>o(Ttion or cUlpomle eAptriuivnl, It wni,' 
lli«fl«fum, ctvn iofi.'fior to thputo oclier sjTHltfiitfi uhk^li did uol 
prcicnd to cfct oiat with 4d^ purtMntlif tmUi*, but BtArtcd 
from ibffbnwiloftgonpraliliff, and ikfliioMlftllftp^cil&c trntliA 
b/ t Ktrirt ooavM of mu^Tting xiium lliMe> Awl for ihe oh- 
Tioiw rcaion tliat nodt ^i»eni]itu-»i w^nm wATtin^^ %n niorv 
lilcdy lo btf Iruo tluii Uic^ purtlctilar pr[jf>uiLio&« when onljr 
UMinMid. Hic fundamental rrror, tlKrrcf^rv, baid alvnija 
boon tliot of MKimic^ aqj thing at alt, and ibo world wu a 
roiy long tiiou tu il^vcvxi^hly fretiiii; iliwlf from tLv urrv)'. 
It wu tbb iba.i Bacuci * «oDgbt lo fit«dic«l«<. Ho diMumnxl 
tliat X&liire iKiMoeefrd a rut siofvhoua of trullis crerj one erf 
nbJcii va« of |pttt pnctkal hm Fo Enu, and lx« aw, diotv- 
or«r, wint fi?v b>J aeon before bim, tkkt man nm do iDore; 
bIiIa lo toll ibe QDOtODti t^f tb^l itoivbottWt b>- guki^ at In 
eiterior, lluui ho conU idl iboie of a worvbouM of good* bj 
a aiiiitW p m g u p. Hi.' mw ihit it was Dcoeuarj lo kois tUia 
1c<iVf to tlioiovfvlcl»JDbef«of Kfttnrr-^FiJiiagaxuM,aiidtogom 
anil ciamiw tlio ankloB vhicb «bo liad ibi» boon cionng dp 
uid pfiM^rvii^ dnrln^ ftH time; to bondle tbc^m, «ap<iee dimn 
to tho Irjfbl. rt'^firate tliooe tlut were mi]i«d, teM tbrir t^aall 
ti(«,and Bit^enairL tUvirvoiibiitution uA llwirralQ^ Ctmjvi 
tnre uwjU! no lon^r^ anairer. KolbJn^ could iffoj^rHj b^oM 
fuinod M truth tli^t bid not hfm pmrifd^not by Iqpoal ejl 
Icfpuna founded ■>« iiuimcd tralh* a> prvmiw*, 

cs^anUnalion ' 





■ for * fUi^Hnl aF IWcm'i lUhu u tW tUb af " rMimlcr of fLo liiiJaT«< 



mcDt, Abft rapmi«d taotiul umI ocular UcU* woaU mloDQ iof- 
fic« if< i»:nhli*h » foci ao n« lo JEuiifj ito «inp1ojrnent i« m 
firvatiw. It wu vcfjr bouji £muih1 U^At iMwidu-v initlu^ tlnis 
obUttM?d wcra uf a luttinj calt-uUlvd to iiuUiii puq Mnotliof 
md 1o«l I/) iinporijuit pnkctiv:il n^ulla, Fhjoa ibw pointy 
Uictn^ vro may mori coDttoUmttjr date llio acicntifli' om. Tlila 

U««tJod to givtf u» iiiLputUd to «civno(^ It WW more !□ Iho nnt- 
hr) of on nrt than of a mcnK. It mu to Mnencu «lin( j>riikt- 
Gd^ WBi Co lit^ntirrv — a meiiM of ndfUiciiig il- ^cn hjivc to 
jGArn hov, Urforu iIlojt caa d> iny lliLng- Tbcj luvc to dt-vimj 
tliu wiMoi Iwfvny tlicy can ftvcoai]]3uJ] uut git<4l ulijuut.i Aiid, 
vlieii uaoU OMBUiA «K prupmtLHl, diu world is nlwayi nmdj 

10 Bflopt tbom. 1 ftM dispowd to i^sc^Mif^rarii tlic men of pr«- 
Rcitfrnlifit^ jigp% frotn the chnrp^ of fdlcnr«, nnA^i^'OM*, takk 
falw digiitty, wbicli h»vo h^va iomIo ■gtuiat IIm<uj, Wuuo 
tliey dtd not long More employ the laborious motbod of 
inrMti^ion und riHcAnA nnw ndmittci) to lio » m^craMu-jr, 
beuit^ oonriDoud tbnt thej did not &dopt tlitj plAn bocauM 
it <lril [iu4 Knxur to llwiu. Tbt-f did Dol <rnEipii:hcnii lU 
imporKuioaorilAiioooedtjr. Tbey UnewnothiD^of it. Somo 
of the anrirntji did pnmiie h for jvim^ diilUkn*. but tlieAr 0u<^ 
OCfeom did not apptvciale the importance of c<( in I inning it. 
It rtiqnrred >p£« of fnilBrv in all utbur mHbod», an»i tlic con- 
■eqtiowxa vf tluu ttiliiro^ ftt longtii to opca tin eyuv cvlti of 

1^ ViMflt. 

1 will not ftlt«[upt to Orbil tUc rc^t* Ili4l followMl xhn 
intnxiQcUoii of tho adunttflo mettMl. l^e*€ tlun tW-d cen* 
turiw fatT« dapml, And w« see rnoZi nn ndfincc* in te'wntya 
» cvnld not havu liccn dminwd of even by Bftran himwU. 

11 \b true, oUmtt inJIncncM iudeppi>d^t tk thi" bflm mwi* 
aplred lo ftfomplidi tbis tveiilt. Of coano, if it bad not 
Won fof the iDT«nllo«i of prtntu;, conipintlroly Utilo conld 
haro been doDu; ud viji efon lli^ nmccootpwiif^ b>- « 
aoiind pni>dpl4T U) pn>oCi'd npon, would liAve bM likvly to 

re sciKsnric a- 

t£no wlikb diOARterurtl tlio liti-*ntiire of Groeoe &11H Rovim^ 
10 ««U M tliat uf <b<> miildle agoo. 

Bui, cMiiljtned u tlimv tiro mdiumcQi ^erv, tli«jr w»i 
cmtncn^ljr mitod to tbo in>rfc vbieb vu tli«n »o grc&ilj'' 
n«i1«l, rix., tli« reoq^ioLtJon ol tbr civitiiii^ fi>nm of 
Ui« MTuHd. No doubl, tbu woHJ WR« np« for Uiit BGiQii] 
ivform^ wIji;Ji wixiM havo vcmxi roiuo wiUiunt lUooa, fof 
C9iilciupt>niry vltli Lim in tbo htft Hilf of UiD nxtoailh 
tfvfil&ry w<T ^tirl K gultxy &f gn^t nnriKe, Indndlng iLoae of 
Kowlon, G&lil^ MhuUx, uj»l l>c-K--ijreiL TEi« mvmic««iiC] 
cvuttjn- iiKTfiwvd tbo tmmbvr tbiVJ^U nut tlw iMaiooikoa 
Ibe corpd of sdcoiiflc irorkoiSt «nil prepuvd ibe wht for 
tliat of tbe ci^tc«citb, dnrii^ vidcb die (i^oniifi<* metht 
her^mti fn)lj pifaiHiifcpd a« thct ntosl |Hjt?ii1 a^rtcf of 

It win thus b« penMivo'L thoc art* howmor vicvwl, 
^ciplj tli« ipplicfltioa of nrii.-wv^ WluU ^ o*f1cd 
clioin b l1i« ippll^atlofi of supei^cial tratbj, nwo^nt&>d In 
ft Urmm, uiw/vteiitatEe wojr, Co itnmviJaiUt >imI ftpcdal Qoodi, 
wbilc ifiivnfv propor, coniflcn^ iHUt raf^rantso to vt* 
ddaiQ tliL< «ppIiaitionto tbemoragvnendvtMdof nutibfnd, 
bodi prWDt 4Bil fnliiTo, of tlic dtjt^t unl inorv ;^nei 
tnttbi of lliA pliTtienl world vbich TooflC lidPc br^m nnknowi 
to llie dDforlcUt, uhI nspoeting whiuh, if Uo puucvanl nnj^ 
Um M bIL 1)0 poflKOwd erronecnia one#, oft«n coMtiylnf; 

Ibovi tofMf juflt lL«?TOT«rBOOf wlint 1I10J |knOTiMob«, 

Terjr iv^ fullj rc^Hxte to vbii exieet motkrti drilu 
letjr Ovpoode upon praGT!io«U«ir Inveallvo,v1,or1tovr ifaor 
)l; irtlflcbl crtrlliutkiD iK The «rroiM>ns hAta ythlth 
m «xtfimT<Jj fin^nib of tlw t«k?«ilU] tnfpnoritjr of th« 
utiSciol to Uiu [utunl bj^ alreoJj bcoa antljiDil anil «^j 
}XM^ (vol. I, |h 71 ; Tul. ii, p, 04), TliU U tLo propvr 
to jipproMAto moru fully the trac ccopc of ut in rivilitoikiQ. 
Tbe wiooji tibjc^tii vliii^b prfsrJit iboiiBvlvi^ Ut tJia 
In t1i« («4irM iff tbo «v|wnei>ce of each JnitiniiiH] 


pro(;ri:sr~i*»iuaby wi:a?jr 

ma^" be aepantHtl into two gununil fr^Lip*. auoonliii^ lo 
wlietli^r thtry fOKti 10 h»ve aaaaiBod iboir prannt form b^ 
Mituni or by utiilcuL proooMOi. Wlwn wu look at a tnoiiQt- 
£in, vo al o:)ciA rofcr It to the UrM of t1ie«o cIsa^ uid wlicn 
vtlooAt nt A hoii«e, ufY u rraHi'l v mf cr it tot)i« i«cuTiiL Tlil» 
ituAiactioEi uv prvwrvc ailvir we liH*v Ittrnvil tlut t)jciv wik« 
ttfme wh«n tho moamain di<i not «xi»t mwell aa ft tfmo 
wTton tlic boiiieo did not cxtKt. >'. ^,. tohen ire li&ve leftHted 
to rejoin) l>orh M tlitf< mitit of chang<:4 vliirh tiJiT^ tftkcn 
pjftoe in tbo mjtt«rtaU of wltiutj Uivy orv cumpo«v<!< And wtt 
vhould itjco^nifl; tliH distinction no l(**s phinlv iTioQgh wo 
WOPO to ni^rd all luiEaml forniR w iho pmdnpts of doftign, 
fl« well OS a!I iinjficiftl fonor The former^ wq say, ire 
ffntiet^^ tli9 lalii^r. viJ7'j>r'vir/iirvi- flic fomxTT nrc citlicir 
thu nmlto ol wlf-vxiidait Mitivitiuv 111 ihv mntur cntupjuitij^ 
Clicm. or tJiey ana ihe prodvota of dctSgn fnd^pendeiit of tiio 
TiiTiT>An mind. TTie l*«*r sr© certainly the prodnru of bn* 

Sut, botwcon thn^c two obfioiulj' dbtiiict condiiiuuH^ iWre 
U b tliin!, i>T intonnf<d]At«>T ^^^^ ^^ objocia. A houRc, a ma- 
chintz, or n irstoh, appear* t*^ Iw wholly Iho protiH*^ of Inimnn 
dviifii and labor, wtiilc a blado of gni« or A wild bnffalo ia 
■• cluaHr a nntiaml product. Bui \u a htwl of bald wlieat 
ipkd hi a lboroi)^^1>tt)d Durlmtii oow we hhj ihe coinbiiwd 
rMii1t« of natiini lava and of Itnman oJcnlaiioi:. Tutt if 
W9 lifolc mora dowl^ nt ihc«c ■■bjt^eU which twm to b» 
wlinllf nrtificirti, wo i^hall find tliat none of them w alMO- 
ItttfTj w>, A mill ia onlv an a^cmbln^ of maturiul objt'L:lis 
»^- JiiijuHit^rl ibat th*y mav bff ■« in motlou hy Iho applica- 
tion of Mmv nattiraJ fare* — it mar be, (1*0 powor ni horw**, nf 
watvr. Of of sloam. In anv osho, mun haa only adupli-d ma* 
fl^J forma to notnnil foroc^ ao tbat, topKlier. rtr^uti^ wll) 
Follow wliioh are adraiilaf^oiin to 1dm. All marhmrv om- 
t)odjOi this principle while a honao or anv Jiach object baa 
avImTlar nv^tire c^««t, and pOM^velv DluattaKe tli« aanoo 


Tkrvtng tbo nmii^r from thb «UiuJ-poinc, tlumsforOr wo 
Ruv «c>rTftCltf rc^M tluJ forro of hnmAn a^uc^ wliif^ hia 
■ecomplultal th« f[n»l iiDproremcQtft (from thi^ puinC of 
V)uw vf liutiAD mIv^uiu^) tL;it bAT» b««Tt ciFvoti'd in aa> 
muj vcgulablu Bui adiuuI foruiA, m ■ nuiplo cjitvnuuu Ui 
or^CABic ohjecu of iho power wbtdi man Jua ^epcased o^er 
in(jr}[in>C otijeol4, in »0 ju^jm^ting \ho ntvtunttnztcem th*t iho 
iMliml foroM to whicli tJiey nrc vuUjtct will liTin^r &1>onGu 
mtolU througli Uicm advuiiU^ww Uf liiin. Thin eUuii&at«ft 
tbcap|iar«nt rhlnl ofaas an<l rc«toiT« iho origimU cktsificM 
tion ; ctitn^c], however, in thU : tL\X titc w-vdled arttficliF 
objiiciA iir? oaljr portUily »», tfaflt only l]i« adjuttinenta «lt« 
trtifidal, irluiti tli« raialu wft>u^lit bv m«uit o£ such Mljoit- 
iDcnts an u mnc^Ji tiie Immcdbto i<uci«v<^Qut>ec of luUanI 
forcm w it iKr MTtion of i voliuai). 

H, iiijw. wv cr>frtctEi|4itv iIm«^ iwo f^lMws of objodi^ from 
AbOUiuvrlol tiu>rv practkcul point of tivw, kg oUcn« tLat 
wbtt wo cdl dniimtictn u dix almoM cxcdtuiTd^ to Ibo 
itM^murd pmpnrtko of tbe aitUlcial twcr tlic natTira] olijectA 
m (^mUct witli toaii. Aji ft rulti-^oo<> howct-on witLiMit ex- 
CvpUoo*— tbU pn^Kton li ft moAaiuv of dTilucattoa 

(.HvilijEAtt.^iL, Ibvn, mny ho tfrtlnoJ w Hie trtil^tiii] ^djott-^ 
mcbl of natqm) olijocCa in «i>ch « mtQiker tli^L Uie naiurald 
fturcw viU lli»?T«b/ pnxJeoe nvuttv ailTaiitigWMU to rauij 
AlthoiigU hnnwi 4*tagn god agicney arc iiio*t ftpparcnt in 
Ibo doimiii uf inur^ink xi\m^ and [>)iy«irAl fi>R>Q, wlnrrchy 
to f^rvftt progruM W heen mndo in the inftioril coQfIiti4>nii 
hj vhich aocitij M now ialtaeiic«d, rtJU, it mftj wuU bv 
duobtvil wlivihcr meb n^oncrj W not done c^n more to 
adfiutcv ttoduty in opcnriiij^ upon Uie more foblilc M^uik 
obJ<ct« ftod tIiaI And pfljrobic fonyfC Fur it mnrt h^ r^mem* 
iMTcd thftt t^rncidturti, biTtk^nltJirv* xod lJt« bi^^ini; and 
doiaatlioHtiuQ of viimftlvi whether for Mi-rki? or for food, 
ftJl rwA vpon ibia form of nrt. fp^ whftti^T^ rliM of 
ohjertA man hfti pot bit inJIkrinJ «birap. bf^ Km at onrv fiI<N 
Tatod ftud caukublod Jt and tmuformtfd it iato ft wrraDt umI 



hciwfndor of (bo nwc. In a cerlun «cDt>c be luw tTO«t«d 
birrwlf ftfid Dcclelj kn this objective maiui^fr. and exerHMxl a 
limited wTitrol OTer the rrioml, inlc^It^Ptiuil, »n*l Kicial foroes. 
Bal, a« tliut QooitroL vkq ofjiy be HicM^cufuL in ]>ro|Hiriit>n a9 
hi:i know1c4%e of ibu auCuruU* R&tl furcw dcult with U cocn- 
p]«^«-. Ilia OQOoew in thia dinectiCHi hu tbiu far been •%)!(] 
and \i\h ffLilixrM otioioKni*. 

Ci viliuti^jD^iK eaNnitUII)r irtificul, and b; wlialvvor igiHlcy 
wc tntky MipfKMe ot1i«r vbjcde cmtod ur dordopcd, vo iod 
IIiaS vcr^ few of tlirm are adap4M to nifta^a pir^xwa uhtj] 
he «o »dft|vt> tlMtii bj !iM ovD thoujjrht and Ubor ifiit, at 
wv hiv« MCfl (Bif7»ytJ, p> 17^), iJiun* are itut wanting tliota 
vlio d^ny ibv pawpr of ni:4tedsLl clrlllcBlloD to mait men 
bfifpicr. Tbey affert tbat, T»r»t wit l^rtiin ding all tbf*o new 
and ttrtivcnient arranax-'mpTiiis tbrH? Ripantic and cocnplTcntcd 
•pplUiicw, tbi^e novul and in^uioub ui^cbankiuii, tlua lt|^U 
n1ii<- r^mmnoicjition and aimt^t ligbttilng oonrcTaniw : not- 
virb^anrlin^ ibc mdre ronml c^f hiinj^ nrrvmift <-x)>Crnr« 
which ivi«ncc 14 «iul)]iiif; <ifl to ItdA and linrnring u« thronjilk 
— nolwttbrtandiu|c aW thk, tliej ot^m tliat man ww bajiirler 
before bo bar) tbcec things i^n^ would be bappicr if ho oould 
rafnm to bin former calm, nnnifHrd, «nd imrDnrftntiiMial 
Mat«; tliat Micb thiufji ontv flrv bU bmir; and wear Otil bt* 
iVKlom. Tlicy adioil tlinl it St n fliic! thiug (u ti«it a friend 
a tJioiifland ml]«9 away and rvtnm in a wovli or a fort- 
nigbt, to reed^TO wrnmnitirtifinri* froni ali*pnt ont* *Tcn bc- 
jond the ocean in a moment of iimo,1o niak« the totir of t\ie 
wnrld in a iiii^lo monlh. All llrie tliey offree \s vwy won- 
derful, wnr druinbV: biit fllill thcy My w« Flionld bo jtMt 
as well off wJth'>«t it, rtbonld lire jort an liMig, feel joflt aa 
well, and wtjof life all tli^f lamc in otJiw nApeet*^ and be 
fiporvd ft ibonaaiid exdtoinenta and disnpixiiidLiM'iiU. In 
Aboil, cbejr consider eonlontoient the object io be tou^;!!!, 
and jnftlj ohwrm that it i* beat obtahi«d bj a qidol, unttno- 
tioiia] mode of Ytle (*tfpnt^ j^ 1T^, not^), 

X1i9 antwer to all %hU coiuuriv in (vrnuiff the argument 

dVaiZATION lMJ£EA8efi UAF?l5Eaa 

its ki^ioaJ ooqgIiibIoei. Contentment is ock? Uiing; b«pJ 
pflMW qiiito dikotiicr. The fonner raultt from tTic vinH 
nf dsirc ; tbd kUur frtim itA gndficilioft. The one uiMStl 
from Ua9 AtMCtiiw cf puo ; lb« cthvr from tliv protcnra of 
platfnra. CoatadktnwiM U. Uierofore* nt>^tivo; bcipphiMij 

Ko on« vdold go «o far ju to roHlnUun thai it i» b«a«r to 
Im vUlionl f<HTlin^ tlsin to etptirim<.« igrtvabJu fvdhig. No 
ODo <l«nMi tint llii« clvjliulion oagviidttn great intcutfftj ol 
feeling. Il iniul, UicrvfoTti, be sliown tbit nton? of tl u dis- 
AftrtiMhlifi tii^tn dRrrMlilu ; thit lliere Ia nuine pniii tiuui ptcai^ 
in«, before il can be dinrg«<1 nith dfrintctiE^g fn>ni tbe lta|> 
pnvtt vf tiiuiiiind. tiofJi trmy law twvD tiiu cba.mi:ti>r of 
AHno of tlie faliw eiviliatlotu of the pMt vLcu jM>])rLUr Jgno- j 
ivtieo ttid tupontitioo w«rQ omiblncd irlUt k^jtaL &ni] aicoM 
dotal aupromncj, kimI workod the flfipnMoti ■nd d^'c«lioil 
of ibu tiiukv to f^vUf J thu pUttVurM aad vnyncu^ of the fow^j 
But Dtwh Is uol tLe nalura of the civttiullon whtdk dolcnodl 
Impiroi. On tl]« contiwy, h in wholly in iho 4ifncdnn of 
nlicTuift tV^e bunltiiM of meo, of mbititiiiinjc medmnkal for 
nawuiar forest ol iiiiiliipl>in|e cotiTMiieoera, c^oApenlng anil 
imprnriag eoramoilitiv, ^id tliiu of be^zvHing mil gntif;^ 
ing ilounw. It tcnib alio to enkr]gc the TJuiri*, el^rvntc tbQ| 
tboof^ta, lib«nilii« t)ke aefUimcnla, and «;itend unii«taH| 
diuity &iid fntemal fu^ln^ 

Not qq1>' cin tco Appc^ to tltOM ^nenl beU rot! eoad^^j 
cntbmjt, bnt wo f^n, u* a <»itoid«rablc exttfit^ euppoft thoflQ 
l]^ AtatitfliciL II Iiak ofl«n be«n d«^>ORitnt«d tliat iLc octn^ 
canuJtiga wWh racnlt from lliv introdnetioQ of ndliriy oo>i 
TajMBot nod tmrel arc mwli lni> llian tbuav tbit fonnvilf^ 
ait«ndcd the luo of aH^cuolioe for a given numWr of )j«t^ 
aonafltxt A gir^in difcnnno- It Utmu, mora pooploare Injured j 
ftod klllvil no^» tlian tJbvn, but it u bcv»n«e nwDj tiirm ai< 
roanv tnroi Dio oulv ]>ocnt to bo oitabliftli««l i** wbctbir 
Id fouig a curtain iliManEiv a penon i* inovt likdy to liKMr 
dttger hy the one uor tbe otbcr oonr^anoo. And Uie Flatu- 



ties fihoir diAl ID tha milroftd-cAr my one It far safer for 11m 

It luw ivcccitly boon kIiowu froui rdablo ikU, tfant tbvra 
are tun ubiiD««tt c»f dying on tli« I't'jage a«irOBi the AtlmtJo 
in a snllin^-vca^MrL to oner in b jiU:Aiiuihip.t Tbij> itrfr-ni to 
(l]n':»*c onlv, AHd iIom Dot iiicludo tht rmk* of BLipwrcck, 
whkJi, ouimidurui^ tLu f^rv«ti-c t«»gih uf «uyag« and llw 
gmmlt-r fruUty of uiliug-v««««l&, would probnblj' aA \cmX dcm- 
blf^ ihc diLTigcr, U liAA l>u^ proTuci aluci that diu incrcoAb of 
knovrlcdf^ r«<proting ^^*^ ^'^''^ ^^ lienlEli, of pliyf^li^Ky^ aiid 
of veniibiioo, ttincv Uio M'k'iititJc opoob U^[«ii, W bucU 
gmU; diniiDi'jhwJ ^o arnvuut uf divcttM uuuEig uuea And 
lafinucd the &vvn^ length of homaii Hfo.) 

* Ut. CTtul^f f rutoLa Aduuft Jr,. in hU work flotflUd ^' Nina on iLiUroad 
JlKiilnu"(|t. fllj. 'AjA- "Durin;; tlif fmiT j^nan Iffft^'^^U will hit nwvtih 
bcT«4 ft ilaj^la pi*«nf^r«df *«> kUk-J « the fiflFOkii of tfiiHcbuietu fa 
r<AJViW«<* of ftn ftot^ikfil to ittili:ii b^^ hf^ ti« oun Ar<rir«4M«4, ia ba Aar "ri- 
irriH]1«4, TlivirvnuB muntwor |rtnuii« iiuitifiUy liijirnl, uoi raiiiJ]<H duriufl 
l^eat >Tftr« ivv alKml Etc; jH dutms Uli- iitv ]f'i4. c-ii:4mltiiE tli «#« «f 
BHn ^ikjurt. nf vljirik do lAiiaEit "ft* iiikv!* no liu lh«n Afij-tlirfv |vnBVitf 
CUAD 10 IbalF dmlftj tD Bmido fRuzi Ulllqjt d4H«-«iiJrt. anci thiftf^TrfB mcvo 
from fnlflnc o\A of •tudim: Kytii mnv ttalijnl «r* iK^iLh fn 1*79 tlinvu Is 
lb*jr«fer lf;i, ttttnioDn ^tn MI1«d b^ Uiac ruD O'cr [rj tumi in Ihc >ln«U. 
DviDClhr BrpTWir^ l^l-'fS, (hva nn mofo |p:twiii murJuEvil iu llir vlty 
of B«t«i il«iu CT>u l(Hi dM' llvp. H piHcnrxFT ihrcujfli i]i« nc* II^pm* of 4II 
At r«1ln>< &.fTKifU|»» te thfl whole Staifl of Hjuutltuvii- dj.rtr;:: iW rJno 
jMn lKli-";ni fciihfliijt In (Inrulnp Tftnwmn tecluAcd twth ihc R*pa*» 
Vbl tl» Wttlli.inL »:i«Mianfc tbc funn*f oJ which rwili^ in ih^ dralh <if 
ivntf olnf Md Ifac liUcr mF ivpntT-fwr iMrMni." 

t Hm - SlantlilT IUiK« »r Ibo Vollcd etUM Btn^^ vt Bulwth-^'' Sn Ifl^ 
OrffliM] Birn? r Jq^f 16. |«fA), p. H. 

p(A)l>b*J In tfifl " l-tfU] Anniifcl TtijN.rt 4 ilir VA<u.'hii^TT> ni.trl of Hi-nl'L " 
ft4litli«a4allv«nlb^ Ifr. SiUvfri l^thtm "fhrfit lb*(^ of t#TOT] WpIIds Ww%# 
■ttl i1|.[ri(t> b R^sltoil, ub u C-i^T'IoDh EI7. Ainjiur*. .ml .-ihrrt, w^itn 

fak. bevn r*diif«J fniv Ie«t m Iwwilt ptt «A" (FrrtiB ft pap*r hj Ov. 
A*Akv a Whil^ IVstJPTit uf rorvnrfilifnfir, PwdbBlMwlhtt -■jLibrricM 
J^jWk UotlUi AwdtU^ffi " Id i*:4,) jIt Iht -|^iiaHl*nntl rvnf^na?*," h«U 
[n t^niilnD In l«n. BIr. Thomflj UohEt, .LsMut finrpvai b» Wv*Ifnm«l-T 1fi>A 
ftl*!, «*Hr««l Ikai «fi ■& Hwi^r das biir of ibff nuhtr gf oavpaiknlt tivUBA 



In muskiu^ to o^icprelit^ftiil iho t«tl extent of ttiu Amulio* 
ntivc cficxn of AJTtifidal civiliatiotir *. ^.| of tfac'driiizadoa 
dw. to tiic ATtj^ tbc pmbt^n In olwred hjr vhat loaj t>o ili?- 
tiiMniluiC«d /ci/mf omW«Anrfi<>n. Thu DiAjr t>« ui«nf iip^*ifii> 
■ll^v ikifiDeil tt prograu wLicli (lo« Dot become pwT«p(lble 
in <!oa<i:i|iioiKio of moTeiDciitH whicb it has alone rcndrrrid 
poiidbl«. The efffiH of thia Iakt ia to lOcttMe llie TifiAfii^ 
of pTogrew ftt iho 03ipenf« of itA^^i^rnv. Even thin deliui- 
tit>n, liowvvttr, i^nirttt illuMmioQ. 'lli» qamtiiAlii^ prog- 
rt«» luii toltus pliuN: in two iliroeli<»iM : timl, tovAn) ii^cnaiidag 
(lie Dumber of iii^Lridtnb ; Ami, Bccoed, towftrd in«r«niig 
liie local iroa occupied. 

Tbu fut diKt increued eB^^ty, vbJch {nrolrw ciio fnn^ 
ml 4|Qality of mind thM D&iierileA oil art, wia llitt folo 

w uf lu&n'* altility to brcolc over the b«imei« of llic oq< 
TiroaiRitdU wLioli ri»tiict kU uUier aiiimai» tu ji vuvuinicHbod 
hiibilat, and pmrout thotr mnltii>li«fLclDn bejrond 4 «eruEn 
dcpM of dcDfJIj- lixr^l ittt vmth iifiodr*, Im« hvtm fnaLitfd 
DIKAp on niimertiiui oocuiooa (vol I, Cbftpl«F« 71 and VII\ 
» otm of Ui« famlmineutil UnUw of ftntUrD|H>)oKj and BocM- 
ogj. Tbia tmtli alao OIoitraDM w\xh gttat okarwMi tho 
prai^^'pln Jihor^ fnrtnoklMl- NotwitKAftttdin^ tbn ioi^n^a^ 
man&« tkviMd bv hiuiini mgtkeiij fur obUioiu^ food, llio 
bnipm ■puoio* foaml itmU bo bcttvr off tbui tbv rvcuaiiilnK 
animals. Tbo mcone of flibcAitono? uifflcially CKOtcd wore 
ap|4i«d to llifT iticrmM of pnpulHiton littbcErto Unpoiaibli 
and vuDi Alii) tUtrtd atuij indivjdutU in ibe fare a^ U^tc 
Dttt iu tbo fljkiniul slmlo tbo iDortalit^ «» f&rgraitcr, uncc^ 
wlifltt tbo luprodnctivo forc« woio ■Dcboebed, «nd tbo tamo 
nnmbfv went bom ju doit, tb« Motton of tJio ^rironmcnt 
vu ^nfficaont pvrfcctlj lo «i^nnihnit4^ the dnath* tod hirihK 
In tbo fi«w d)iia<nio oooditlon duo U> tbo oJLcrcaD of a Krokler 
btslti'pnwer, tbetfi i» a o^dBdent of {ftavue. Ef Uto ia- 

■4ef 3l ia« km of hmMhua^M»nv,<hli«Tlk '*V^ kO 4*^, ftUwlvn, 
«d vHikUoa (-' 1^^Ur frdwe Vnlklj,- «vA. all, f. VIOL 


rtK>QBESS.^rRI3lAhY sre^vKft 

oreoaed meautt of Mbdistetice could Iutc bocoi whoHj oppliod 
to a QambcV of cmTiron^ nffidcat ootj lo kttp tlie popok* 
tktn ubiti^JiiaiT, tha Hfirxt mi2«t luvc bHrn to render time 
oompttrafivQijr uoiafvrUblcc Jtot tiil* nail progrunvo vScct, 
In const?<|iu'iic« uf tbe lucfoaee of |M>]f>ulitioai wlikh it aIodo 
itmdom jMWKtblc, U irbolljr kMt to Ticw^ uul maj appTOprf* 
>t«lv be aUl«(l Utcut 

A^D, A U^ Ainotiat of poCcntial prognnt It locked 
np in DiignUoD, U&aBd«8ed to noiiua in uac tiput utid 
Ciaj<\v iho auqduB which intclTig^nt Iftbor and (Jtill oom)icl 
n&lore to yipy, mtrh Larc* t'Tcr bcca ftbxndoninjf rhrir 
tnotIi<4r4i?ttli^meniA| am! pn«]nng out into nartr and uiitri^jil 
fiuld«, ThiH ti«£i nut bwQ iicrmnpliAbvd without ^ojit, mh\ 
tiiii ocwt li^ lo bo 'j«!ucied fmcn tlie «am total of tiijoTiuuiil 
ivlildi llic Htnmc effort wonlil ]ia7« j^elded it VfhoWy appliccj 
to that object. 

TlwMj two poworful nontntixin^ inflmooM tmre ucom- 
ptnicil btEmaD i^victy from it« ut^^lu to the pnaent dn^, and 
■re JIB foreibtf felt in the most adrAticcd eommntiitiuA jm 
tbej were In lin-* pnmon)i>i1 ntir-lciiii of Kodctj. TUv. hif^hXy 
offoctiro t^iliml Eipiilivjc^m of >ui«K<u uui) iiivviitivo art »ro 
ottl/ made tlio nKUina of more rapidly and thoroughly poi>- 
pling thc} 4ttrth. Tlie ^real A4vanoa» tnotle Tiy liierun* ani 
eilso4tion>i] iffpnc^iM m orcraJftTighed by fri^li nddtliona trt 
tlio illilinrBto claMM of tbo popubtion. lite rral pto^rrfii of 
tli9 world.. wbicb ir iniTTK^Mc, iv bcrinj; perpctu^Uy diluti^l bj 
qiuuilitativi? inrn-mi'iib; Ii«ring tbo appanuit con^lition of 
Mdctr uui^liJiitfmL Aa tbe world is rtow eonfftitH!t-l, St ns 
quirvi eoutHnt renewalBof tit? progn'^iirc impulawtoimin- 
tnin tbo rtfttionnry cmnditloo. Lot Mjiont-y fr»r a moment 
vKlidmw itA d»ily nH^nfonwmenta, let popiilnr cdQcuiiou Iw 
n^lnxisi for ft fin^lrr yonr, and tb^t <>ninplif«tnd niM^biDcry of 
driliuttou nttxi oomo to >i »top and locial diqc«r»er^t'y wt lu.*^ 


Uie AOvUl AyftUtik b auft/andi.'tl. ICoocw^ eflorti >t crvorjr 
tooraoBt, and thy «oiwtftnt onMUva vi wiw pru|ivUiu^ iif^vii' 
d<w, ara a\} that Mi^dJu It. 

li u Crorii lliU pr>mt (»f rmw, liowe%'Gr, that tbe rad iB^i 
ilnoBue vf tlio four grvot pru^[i«ttiiv» ageocUa — laBgusgo^ 
TiUri^t^n^T art, tuid Mi««i«e— om bwt b^ aj>procut4>d, wd dis 
filUry of tlu? ffuporiority ol the lulanil lo thu ulJliciai vm 
iwBt twilj^ be exposM. The iriilidmuol of tbow loftueooui^ 
evQG iK»w, would U> f<>lk>ircd hy tho rapif) dvindlinjf ol tLo 
hvmao ncc to a few tp^rdv doQi«»n« of tiiQ cnrth, vid ibui 
OontTAiGtioii witbiii ««TUin nstrictcd tcrrilorul bc«ad«i 
aucli w llnUt Uie wIoih fkxuuM of tJic glober. 


The inl1ncr>et« whtcU liflvi) ih^B fu- )>M^n ooiuid^nHl liaro 
bevTi the vlisrf firojp'OMvc ooc4 frotn tlui liutoricftl point of 
THfw^ TIky liuti- ovt onlj' cobtribattfd to MVia) progrew in 
tliia limited uod only profwr ii(.vw in wl/tfU Ui8t i«nu b 
hofo waod* Ivnt tUcy Lave ouiBtitiOod tlic acTitc ntid pnfjtive 
djMfnic forcOtf ftA diMin^SAhed from crrtain puHirc Mtd 
iieg>EU« liidiMno» about to be oowudered, wfauJu hi 
Httilf viowod, lur« ntlwr f^mielicd iho <oa^\t\om to 
iVM tlua cu3^ dirwt impalM inlunvnt in tbomielrefl. 

This (liMimrtlon 1» a T^r^- importutt OMi, not ottij tf mtt- 
iDf 10 corrfH wide popaUr uMOBOiTptidtn, bat w ftffi>nlio| 
•onto aiK^lofEj- f'T aocJi nniiconc«ptloDiu ud rapplybif; 
ground for mcondliAtion cf AppMvfittj op[«wnp vi^'VK 

TIm ii>o«I 0(Hnptt1iefi»lvc oonccfitioii under vihkh nl) 
indnctioc* of Uw nogilive. or |Hrot«clive, cW cnu hv 
hniP9d wonU lio that of fociotj Itsolf. Bot, as we bure eoim 
tn ■ pr^loofl chaptrr, mtmciy fan wrcly bo rcj^rdod M 

W !■!<■«• autnllf rvMMnx ibr Ajfft «f fwllApt tncn dwIsR 
f«« «r ft* fttRWxJbc T<ai« b«n lb« wJiuincUil cIbwm mdofJ H 
rfWcuh Frii ibf ^4^7 ef prepvn U n^tU ooMnl nd If^fliiflilldii aIW Gb* f«> 

pQXxluct of Ul6 iudirv<rt tuHb^Ml. It ia nih^ UiClt«ult 
titt two facte iImI (li«nj via& at U]« tlmv vf ibi <:nutiuii au 
creOM of Af^UFilv duo to bn^in dovelopmoiiC, nnd thnl, 
Vk A ntfxvn«nr iNMiK(|ui:nm Clierv foUovrcd an inc^r^^atR of 
individiLil*, wlio, nolwiik^tAbdiiif^ l>vwur(iLl iiiii-vociAl tcti> 

pnUor^ m^ciatioo wMch n^i^fMonu tlto Inftlal Hocial ata^ 
{vol. i, p. -1S6^ wm utflcaiwntj acdmipanbi], eron from 
iU iiiocjitiun, br a train vf jtiduc.'Qt-c« i>f vjiriuu* kiudt, ukI 
aiTit^ng ibiTin ih<»o wlilcJi ha\t* alruuij^- bouD ptubvd in rcvwv 
M inliet^iul^ pri^nmvc n^nciea. In ad<litiuii ti> tiien 
there v^n.^ ilfio deveIop«l 4t tlint pcri'>d 11j«oIIi«t tvoim- 
purtant buiDHD iiiMituliuutt &!^4uly nivrivd to nrliur ui tha 
|irvN!nc cbajiUr, viz., Govorument and Ridfi^oii, tiio ftrvi of 
which onro*» rlcjiTl_v witlun th« ckeft of pnssfTC, nogarivo, or 
pmlrciivo ittfltuiu<ciif and u^liich, iti iU widcut ncopc, epm- 
vnd* to nvurlr idl ^f ihvatt^ thai iTiv trvatiiient of lliai 
■u will* for oiir pn«4>nt purpo^ be suthcicndy complolo If 
vre •d^nalrly i)T#niHi Ulc origin ptid notnn: uf government 

A* tvgani* It^fi^un. Ibo aomewbat Anomalom posiiion 
M'tijcli it occupHM V. itb refcffonco to buuuu progiVM wUL rfr 
qnlro fgr it n ^pcc]Bi tn^atmont H 

Hie dUtinctloa wIiiuL wet bavv dmim bdwouQ tfCKuvty 

aiid p>venjrn(^t will, xipon do»cr liMpeotioB. bo porwivod 

tif W rbi- fiind4iiu'nlAl om: ao otu^n nxmfrtng Itntw^cn the 

naluntl and the ariiddHh Sodolir fa ibe rwult of blind «ir> 

^niRii^anpoa tioL ^i all duo to dv^tgn* or inttnikm f H i« kixio- 

lam^oniL Govcronient, aa wo clmll hw, b m product uf 

fptQiim, and t^uifMl tJio appltcoiioQ of tlio tndirool, <ir Kn* 

▼pntire^ pmovvi. Tbe time di?vol«d to tbia prvlimi^iAiy nx- 

planfttiea wHI be tiiu^ moro than rvgnined id the avoidance 

Kf ftll tboM «abt)1tl» nlmnt tbc or^gfn of *odc:Ej and it« re- 

Bitlon to ^vcrtimirnt, whirls ATRKO ofU^ f bod almCMC uSd 



imiTfTP«]ty, brongbt iiiio dl tr»li8» on gorfimttMDt &nd ili*- 

MUMOClfl of itA ])finrij>|i4L 

In eciiwidttririg iliis nubject of humw ^vcriiiuvDt> ic will 
uot do to Imu »%ljt of tin piiinftry «>l>jtKn In viuw, tic^ that 
of Mtvrtunia^ iu li<iw fox :t hatt proved a t«nelit tu miin- 
Bikd. L0I Qfl^ Ibaivfoiv, f^'t a clear idt^, nl tlio otiUi^t, of 
wbtt it ooQMFti m. For th« pr^soM, it will bv MrluaJ, btvl 
ttot UMorvtiralr gvrorameDt wUkh must be ctdiakkrcd. W« 
BIO pot D^w inqiiiriug wlidt it uliduM br, nor wli«t fa lum- 
ur; bi M^Qitifnte m. thi<oreticaUv pt^^fwT goreniinvnc lot nr« 
only Mkbirk^ SUtorii.'Jkllv uliiit li-^ivi* bi«i;n lliv pjvurnjiwnU u( 
tha worl't, ami whut thv^ (<tiJl irv. For oiilTeucli ao in- 
qniry nmU Knbacrro our prnKaU paquNC The very iuin« 
of Iba jiutitntMiD k N>rnfFt1iijif( of ^n inili*x to it« diuaclcr. 
It ii A e^THlem for ^ov^min^^ u /-, far oixfurritig obt<dkllc« to 
(*v Liir«; iiii|>]j-iii}p, pf coiinw, n dlviiiqlUiniioa oti the 
of tSr pivf roLHt 10 comply with tlioM bws. Iu n^ci^ 
tlWff Mitrfluiy, i* Irt pwT^-nt.fPrtnin inf^iitdnalfl fpr»m 
lodng cfrrtAin of tlieir thoiiglibi to MCtioQi frocn curj^tng 
^oat •otuv of thair natiinl iiDpitLms or, £11 uliort^ from gimtify^ 
big mdi of tliefr dofroe aa arc oppoeed to the pffson-atton 
of fod*] or^or. Hot tho gnitlirAtii^n of dnnv« i» what alone 
Litntwi picamrc, tliu nmuturmplcd vxpcricDoo of «hidi i« 
tlmt coimliUiti* buppuicHf, Tbvrvforoy tbu wliolo eiTvri of 
goTemimrnf, u oxertwl Id tlile 4irwlloii, le in tlik wnie op- 
to Imman Viappincw^ ami (wRvrqiKiiAljri vm> ibrtu? im 
ivfil to ofUvt it, WQiaid be oppowd to ftoclal pro;frcw. 
ThcM re«mrki| hovtevcr. oui bi> oiiljr understood in tlie tr^iuas 
irlwa ve compare Ibo aodal ffatt^ under tboia 
lBt« of gorernm^it, wHb 4 ttiio of pnnMTm] lurtnm. 
Ba^OjT notliiii^ of tbe tiKr oj a n d oapacilin for vujojFimrDt » 
iriliwd nadonn, it h rridcnT ttint man in a ASppoaed unra- 
iniD«d Male, in nUich rhim? of liUovn ntv liAve tlio powtf 
toikpHvo bimuf anj ploumvvbkb ho may #«ck and W 
to tooure, vimM bo far bappicr than in a condilioai 
it-rr linlf ^f lit lintm* wLtcli might Qtbervfes be gratified 


l>BOCiKKfiS.-J'aiMART MEA58. 

uoforbuldva thai gmti&^tlijn hy <Uc bnv of pjvonmoHt, 
NotluTig Ola mender uu}^ ono more ibjeetly mUcnUe than to 
htt denied by otbon, who hft|>poQ to pMww th« power, ili« 
gntiftcfttton of > dc«ire othcrvri>o within hi* nach ; and, whcrtt 
thi* citvndK Cr> 5 ut'I>o1v ptxfplo. il Ikjooidui uul only a uitjwt 
ffitwoB buniL'Q, bul, if long condnaedp doetrov^ the dt)»irc6 
thmuwUen, «>td with lbi<in tic entire ritfxlrlj tnd pmgn^K- 
mr« cliA'ftct<^r of tin; iiilioiLt under itA vot^. ]l in Uih Irutli 
wliioh M. Otiixvt* pcwvivvl wLto lie atlKhiiieO the uihuU 
of the peoptu of Eho [nodimvol ng^v for iiAumiit^ the uionn^- 
tin life to the lonjEtt^cAof pwemmoutal rffiinunid mider 
wbicij all clii; peoplt? of tlut epoch hjtd hf*yrt held. 

But u il Qol nocoMdrjr thai Bii»n *boLiLJ thiM bo govemcd t 

not th<i ^ili^iTOPPfl uf whioh tli<Ty axv doprit^wl niu^x ini]y 
'M <^in\\ipt with t!tc ^appim^iA of o(heni or evrn uf ihciii- 
selT^sl aiid» b not tho evil done by goT«rniacQt toucIi wore 
ihAn fi^'erbftlanoed bj (lie good which- ft »eenroa lo Boelet^ 
at hirgc f T1io«D <|iic«tioiu will be in a maimer dlapoocd at 
at a *nh«f^iKmt ilAge (^ thU in^fuiry. 

Il u not, hoirever, wlioltj c&ndid lo oii^iiire Uie ftino- 
tiow of govontinont, ot«d ba it lit tod hw heon, to tb« ringle 
object of governing, or n«tralnin^. Practicnilv m vni\ m 
Al^tmrlly, f^vemmoit hM other objetft*. amon^ which &ro 
tk\c ^jtf'ctwt And tho (i4¥iimji^«/fiHt of the poop^r. And 
H ii nvunlly in the nhme of the Srnl of ihew* objcf^lA tlint 
il* fT^vaming^ or rcvtralntng. pon-rr i* «--i<Trci>«d, Fur. when 
cloNljr MTDtintmyl, the mew ^oTt^rrtirK'Ut uf mwi for it* own 
iokft u not .1 b^iinvilv objvct it njl, «nd very few, if any, 
authoritiei luve cvor dared to avow tt tt» ^nph. Thoorrt- 
ieallv, thorofufiv and Ml^Ibl^. thero hjtra nerer h^n hnt 
three cibjiien of ^vemment, of whieh govonjing lt«-[f wjw 
not OOP. ThcT*i* ihive objet-l« arv iho ^n'-^-^rf/^w nnd a^Cfm^- 
modtiiioH, JT^foru mijationod, and the ow^iartUiot^ or ini* 
prOTvmvnt, of sooletj, 

Tbo protection of ftoelcty wfaMi govefnmont ofEon i» 

• » IQMin A> k cMktka fiB PuM*," td. t ^ 401 



suitkoi, iod itoul>tkf« tlu) tmc onoh, tluil, if taai 
i^lioin gov^nuDCOt, lliey wotiUl itijnrc ^^ite Auotber 
iBoi« ibifi ahv gnrttRkcncfit wonM injiiro t]i^n\. Sinc«i llie 
^v of aocieijr ""liicb w odIj a con«€c|Qci>Dv gf tlivj^i^u- 

ticm for ifidivtdiULb a^tinct ilMnwshrM. On iIl« oqo lunJ, 
full of Mtron^ and irrtvuHhlc dodrc*, nit niminp a1 tho 0119 
livtrrivl ubj«rt, tbeir own ntwfw^on, otdi indivMtuI 
Ilk own pluttufv, aud, on Uio otW^ i^omnl ami 
of tho conMqaenoM of iheir vcik t]i« oiMuben of 
primordtd fodctj wor« poffpcfuftlly nvp-nllowin^ up Uie 
kirpq'iMMf uid wclfm vf oim ■Ji<rtli«r. TIm nicv uul d«1i- 
fftle relaUfmB tlial moit itooQMariljr exitt bolwocD m mnij 
it) fiticfa doM kkci) prozimitj U) oeo ftuothcr iv^t« 
f[r»t(«t care nnd drcmdapoction on lh«t pari of tho movl 
inUgliti^ucd, tbv mart tliuitglitfu), and ttw tuot Ktutrdwl ol 
leo, to p»f«ni Jarriii^ coi^rta and roal [njuctiee. Wliol, 
inwt haro been t]i«t condition of Iboie peioploa In tbe 
Hifaney uf aocivty, wbvD tbc«c rvljition* cxiM«d virrj much an 
DOW, bWMUO tlw (Auao of tlirri]— VJ2,. ddnit} ^f (<u[iiUatkin 
— pxwtfd, afid jH tbo rational r&^nhv wna Mtnitlctot/ uib- 
ovdiiiattv^ tlur paMim fiem and nnoorbed, an>l rvt^'Artl for 
oUicm vrliolly ohMnt t It U deer tbftt all rigbtc mart Imw 
iMwn dltn-^canM, and crimo find abna» mwc havo jinvulud 
erciy'Wbtre HlKme (tov^-mmwil did not >irt*TfcnJ. But f^v- 
fiTTtiDont wtt BOTcr iiranting. Tbo mu*t bafkwnrd noffft 
rUAUallr po«ei* notne By*totn of aulboril? lo pronmt Ummo 
ilal i»ow<]Uviirv«u* VTo will pTMtfwly fnqtiw fnto thu 
ifrer* of i(* or'jn'nation- Al jir»*Hl it nw^i nnlj^ bo aald 
tliat U hat Alwnr* htvn in Die tinmoof protopiion, of delivery 
from thMe MfiAi^tt. and ftf fe<nir;lj (o lli^ pcfvon* and prop- 
taty of Indivnliial*, thnt goirvrnmonl ha* ftppAlvd for top- 

• Vp. 4im«* mm^ ai ia«M AilMr 'I'tftt kf^Uftk Uh l^^^rat 
tDtitillatu, ^ WHd-T«4Ulii^ Raihiufi, riwpavffi, fTiBiif^u ■# Vrtnil, 
Xfi|ia-iMi>a, ud Itw JitifvMB MhJ Luki Of^U *i U4 cfptr 5fen»ik 
l"rrioaj4« gt SodaliVT;' f4l. I, p^ ATI), 

rR0GH£S8.-ritIMAKY VEA^S. 

porL And tliU prutcctioEi b fttUl ut*i)d«d evcti fa Uio uort 
cnljglitoDcd countries. Men Larc not j^ct grown roiDtrlH- 
gfiitt, M cniiHT^I their pnu]ons "f ""^ g^nrdcd IhHr o^nduot 
flD^irlj^iv in ifce worM. aa not to rwqiiire « protectorate lo he 
esiahVi^iiid ovt^r lliem for Ujq preurvatlgn of i^UfL^. 

T[im pbam of the »ii1>joct viU Iw more Hpcicmll}' roo- 
indorcd fnrtiiiT i:ti, mdJ we maij^ ihcpefofie, now piua to tlio 
b«i»nd tmlf^iiHttil^ ubJFCi of |^Vf>rTLtn«nt &ltuii«d tu^ vIa-^ tbo 
ecf^t^i<>"iid<itit»% of Hi>t^icrty> TIio theory qf lliin <tag^^ ii>, that 
Kidotj form* itjvlf iiitc* fe A>rt of corpumtJon and cmplojro 
Mj^cnte TO tmiiMCtH \\i butiinpffi* A Int;;^ ntiriibf^r of pecip1« 
having in^nr tnti^rcfitA common Co tbum nit niiift greatly fM 
dlitato llic wufk of vuounn^ tbow mtwrwtK br pluoin^ tho 
maiuif^iiKVLt i>f lUotr olfuln in tJio luuiiU of ln;ctwurthy 
Rpmte. Tilt 8imo principlo ftnd no orlicr npplin^ horc fls 
applitfi« to pnvnto cj^nipuniM nnd corporatioiiA flgifcrc^tr, for 
imy purpoM wiutvivr. Thui n tL« most vjinplc and IvKiti- 
liul« q^hore of goT^ninkoiiT, tliaogli one ver^r little tL<iu^ht 
oft anJ n^iilly ^oi^ in di«cuMion» of tJio «phora of gov- 

Ab nr^'unk liti? iliird vbJH-1, vue^ tbe improveinont of m>- 
ciotj, tlkOEJ^h diflkiih in many isaAOa to ecpant« frofi) tho 
Mseond, «til1, in «a f^r JikdoftrljappfAn^it bN^Utihrrto nearly 
or quite l^ntl^^lJf fnitwl of il» object. Wlutevor m*y be \\\e 
futuro of gov^rDfucnt as ui active progn^«^ ^geat. It c»r- 
fiiinly liSK ni^t pr^^hvod snch in tlitt pMT< Moro protocLioo, 
hiJwuvRT 4Mu-nlUI t(i pragrrM, ia m ilndf « nef^tir^ UdtnencA. 
Govenmwnt mwy luvu foniotimcv prortd n petron of thfl 
utStiad it cimmaciUdjfoNicrad oiul ctioonrsged tljo aov- 
onil profrrcMivo inflwnnn* bcn^tofore ooD^d^rtd, tnd thnu 
performed grwt aerYice for cintiution.for «hirh due credit 
»houl(! bo pvon, bnt tbi« no men ooiutitatwv it n pro^^rv^*- 
Iyc Ofrt-noy Uiaii tbo ondovmcnt of fidontffto n»Lun.^fi mokw 
the dooor « wipnrific !n»c*ripi|i>r, Tho ncpomn^ndntivr func- 
tion nf pivrmm*!!!! apfirt^wlKa mm-h mow *dft»lj lo llio 
amcljoiuUrv tLin dov« tbi< pro1«etiro faoctioa. It u diS* 



,Id drvir UiO line liciirocii ACcocDtniHUtiion ftai) iraprrivo- 
it m nun/ of t)io i>revnt op«»tii>Da of tha uuM n<i< 
rftiic«H ^rcratn^tiu (voL i, p, 01). T]u« tabjoct will be 
iliientfN^ in ttw ftT^itvb wbvu guvfrunivin vol! bo Mirvujvd 
fnoi a tbeorotidil poial of viow, and viih rufenmoe to it6 
ptHAUiltf? futnrifi. At pn»fiit the hitconc^ utAnd-pmnt on1j 
daim* wtt tltutttion, nod from tbi» tiATid-polotf ut Je*st if wo 
ex«»p4 wnnu uf ilio Jmi^M d9r«topiD«uU of gwu^iuLLvut, Uid 
tmljr aiiMli>onUiTo ctftg» liu out /d bovo roacboii, 

In immu&oo of the hiftonnl m«l]u>d, ftnd w^th le« r^ 
gnrtl lo tbt me««ljf logifl&l dAcufteotiMi of itA fiiifirtiniks M 
Odt iiiiinire. next, EMTaiQwbat mvo^ partK^alul/ iolo tbe (wigiiij 
orgvD««U, i^f ^vtevnmoiitv 

It tnnsl bo cutifvMMxl tliat upon thu proUom Uwra la 
notbing to bear vhidi t» cotiliud to tlio iv\iDe of direct proof. 
Tbe MrtiLiI ABtMe^ent* both of ^vernmont and of tot^vij 
9JV Umi in »^o$ of anwritton hutnun bifCor^, aiul ovitig lo 
Uio DNtorv gf Uiu imrtitutiuD tLvK on) no nsli» Jcft pointing 
to ft unlutioiQ. Iii place of ibo^ hovever, wt Iiapq exUti&g 
Mv^o raoos of mon wbojw AociAl ftUXjm rtqin-munt WMriy dl 
tlw KUgv ibroDgb whidi Iiuiiun govcmmunt liu poivodt 
anil t]i« inftiniicio u i.-vruuilv a lafc ui»! tliut tlio aiMortom 
of Ui6 prcwiu ftdvuicod moos dSd not f^rtAtlj differ In ioah 
gancrftl rrfporU fn>fn i^niaiii^ low moo*. The proof tfiat 
•neb U tbc cam Iul« iu row^it liiDc* beoome ic stronfr *LvA 
iht Uvr vf i'Tijlutlofl Eo bunoii sorit^cj Is now accepted ■« lli« 
bttls of iMdcra ftotlin^logj, nhilc thi« in t^m rat* finnt^ 
spon biolngy, wbidi pnolomjT' tbr Acnoa and oottDOCt* in ono 
ijRtMii ftil tbu foniu of uiinial lifo.* 

Tlw origin of (^t^ninwrit mnv b« considofvd fnxn tvo 
(fiijto cUAfTfvtit |K«int«of mw, wbscb maj bo dittinpdabttl 
m the bitionail and the plilloMpliicaL From tbe Uatotloal 



pcict of view it U ihc exact iweOk Hat hftVA Mrtmll^ 
pUw in U*e course of lluf pvoooM of tlio dot-tJopuw^t <if 
tiuti1xiti<M ivlikcli sltc »o<igtit. tVocn Uid pliiloAOj'liirjl puiub] 
of riow it lA tlia ruuMMa Qadortjixig cndi tftvp mjuI thm goiH 
cnJ rtffft^AO^ of the whole pfoooas wIiScIi %ro eapociUljr >twl-j 
M- Of oonw^ ibc philoMipluouI Mtudv wi>ukl be e>j^ if 1I14] 
hittoriciil fiwu wen?ohtHiT]al>li%« lli«M wouM fnrnittli oJl lliui 
uewlf 111 d«u ; iHJlfrvm iliv ii^ureof ibecAeeiiiictiprv-hiKUirj^ 
dflta arc, f^r tho tntMt pan> unait^dnabto. Goventmont bu 
doobtlcw on^oatod A uumbcr of Limw uiiif^n^ iiKUikiriilj but 
alwBja iar boclc, u«ar die o«i|^ of ■ocicty ibvlf. A (cw ex- 
uiiiig iHbw ir* mjipowd to be wLoUjr wtilKiut gi;TenmieaC« 
bot tbcM arc ftldo hUowu Mttroelj^ Vo ^mmmi m MCt^ty. TheT 
origin of gorrmincD^ like tliM of my otli«r •|*<»i1ftiieoui 
patQm! prodnct, u liUigaago or art, mu^C bftve bevn ft |iroc<ai 
too gnuiud to Admit of din^ obecrvation. Owing to thicj 
doutlk of fRctii the ftliLe«t nrriien lt*re f|n>oiilflted i»[kjq thuii 
qiiortton. Mr. Bagnliot my^ tint ** it ift almost beyond iin-) 
fkginntiion liow Tn«i« m we Imow mtii, ooiild hj tnj foiI^ 
of proceu hstve ipiiivd ihin Att^p m ^arUbaiion-" ' Comli^ 
tboqgitt lh«t t)ie flni j^ort^mmmtA mwt IttTO been Ci8eotlaJlj| 
foilftAry.f .TTe vtyni '^Lee qnilil^ paretneirt miliuiiro«^| 
d^aboni liifrizveetle<yiitn{*e. pliH t«rdUprfidoi>coet U noM 
y dvrictnient haUtii(>l)cmf^l danit lee exiM^itloiu de ch«nsj 
on do fcnerre, Ik Iwwe fmm^lUto iTufM* Mivorit^ lu^iTtft, uJ 
mom* tetnpf>nirr " { <^pm*nil(ir>n(j fmni 4t^tvniuve fMtin 
Mr. Spencer Hrriv«e at moric imponaiit conclntioaB : ''Tlial 
li«ed(M ohirtctr^ wlioTly iii)^;<rwemed« ere In^Homit, and 
BCpnntA ttcfoire th**v nrrjiiitv eonsidonihfr ffltp* ; bot alMtfz 
witJi nwioteniiKc ot an »i»'jre(jafce ApprcorJiiii^ to or exoeod-. 
Inir e hsodred, we ordiijATfly find a e^mple or oorap'mntl 
nilitif; ef^tMvjT-iTffff or ffwjr m#n <'hirriiii/r and rxoroJBinjj I 
■Btkorilvllut b nttaraJ, rnipCTTtdtiral. or both, Thla b tUo 

• *niTrio uid Fviis^," M^ t8it< m> 


firvl Mdal di^orvQtuUon*" * Id anotlMr pitoe lie ffvnlu uf 
" tJbo rolioonl thoorjr, iEidu>ctivoljr b«tfod, thfti a OMq of polit* 
tfid uibardioMiou fcrvlujilly beouiiD wuUIwImmI t1iroagl» ex- 
perWMe of t)ie increMOfl Mli>ifaolJoru» tt«riv^ tin<ler jL" f 

Tbu o<il;r opinJoii* iriieli la^v evttf Uwu expPWJod opOD 
lb* i|(M«U<m of Uie orif^b of povorntncaU have been mich as 
tbo 4boT^ from th6 pUllosapHnl point of view, rItliM- bAMd 
upon common rixpcricnn? and httniAn |ti->1kttoA) Ijiatonr, or 
irpDU on «cqi»i[]Ui>cie.T mijirv ur Ivh imjiurfuGt, witli thu coo- 
dJtkn oC eifflUag WT^;«d. Xl U from Usum bkiho points mf 
Tiuw tliAt w» tnnist aIm hem apjW>?erfa this dlfflonlt |>ru1>l«uu 

HaTiftg lurlml it a rtHo«ud conci^ttion of vha^t kiciil 
a If^ini; uun vn^ bcsfure an^ wvktj «-Ait(o(l — ItuU k, b«fi 
Uw HWQtid condiLioo of eoolety, pi^loiianuait &]Jate>l— w« 
Am bonoroblo lo tmdcnund how amotj^ 4nd govc-mmofkc 
■boulO luiT9 oorne abo«it Tho formor, w Iwfom r«niuki 
wa« tbeiMenmn- n»u]t uf tbv awuinuUtioo of tu<ljvid«u]«.' 
It wv not for O10 pri>te:(ioii of uxdiri^iulft, b« il i» ffo 
fivqscDCiT fltated, tbpt «oci«<5 wa> originallr funrtod. Tbui 
pffotoctfon b dio vtwt ppi»iiic« of |fov«ramebl, Horv at lb« 
Torj throilioM of Uio Mbjoot we liod x tnovt rttH) errvir lo 
hoTfl fTiTpt into aD tlio d^mdoM, iod bred confusion in 
popakr ld«w of gororainoM uid aoc^i^ty. 

6ool<4v hu MvtkUiS lO tlo with {>roCMtioD. It U 4inip|jr' 
tbo lemipiHon* onndUiua of Ui» liDman noo, «ndnnl wjih 
tilefrnatiml ptwioitt and Affovtkm. AiuJ U i* iiol inn 
tfipv ahiiM tfiac f^eitirn«iit hu tprattj^. It ^ the prodi 
of tliOfW drctLtm<1«]ivctfi, combined with « third, wlikli la tlm 
Imaiodkte muk of tbew, tIx.* Ibo ovil wliMi ni^^MMrflj t^, 
nh»d fhHfl t1i« cdctMOAoe of neh ■ bdnie 'o *»oh rclattoui. 
n<>n> it Ift tTiat nijm, cT<>n rrynirilrd a^ aD inlradt mwt Uav^ 
ttifiorvd matvrUllj from oOicc icreK^riooi sninuU. A Iicnl 
of pbwp mliebt Mnljr livi» in lite uhnotf aocniriljr from dtffi-^ 
cnltioi ainon^ ihtfimttlveiL Thdr oitlj du^er i« from wiih- 



ibej" no QHtnn] mem* of Attfteking ooe uoUicr, but, ei vo i 
Ihuj luu^i V rii4iijr i;rt|^oiiB ui[m«b lave, i\ve^ voul<J Lav 
&o bidaccmcAt lo do «fX E^m Uioni^ tlicj hftd «troDg 
MOm, U}py (in^ not a^t^h u oodM «^er be ditvoled tf^ 
UiOM of tiitir un u jtpMKv. ll likftT be worth ropvittng (to 
I, pp. 453^ 4^) in tbi» cviintitctiuQ lh«t tbcac ftuiuul* whuji 
live whollj on Huh and aro viimhI u-llh etroog oAedsItI 
iv«>poiui, V (lie boo aid oiliom of the «tt kind, ci^Mp ftd 
oonit Md bawka, ar« not groguioiu. Tlua rcuon for tlib tt 
tJiat »Qcli 1 modo of 1if« would RBult In lUrif uvd t-xtliwtioa 
For «-li«Q liVD^^rir or eni^od die; vooEd .iiia^lc one iDoUin^ 
di0lif;h thffir HAtoral AfFocEioiw prorcoi thctti fmnj tftM 
tli^r ift»U« oir tliMr otrn yoiint-. Now, Ah!ioii|;}i imn 
Do4 mik altog«Ul«r JU & iuniivvri<, ititd ukL<.tii^h 111- dOtift 

by natTirG povov way voij fonDidalI<t wcnfh -n» of «aack, jre^ 
hr p<i«»M« JQNt ioeli ft natTiro m U bcM caktilatttd to n^nJ 
lier A f(tL->£iTt<>t]« exUtonee imponible unlees eoiuitor^'t«d bj^ 
•ooie o]7puHiii); iiiHacnoOi lli« fr»ntA Hro varied prop*Nrlloa^ 
nhlj to his facnllic*, tnftLin^ ^T^tt ftlkm^i^riQ for tlic poffao^ 
tion whidi ihoio )invi> uihiuiivnI hr clvilintioiL. Hii pjuvionv 
«ni fitron^,&nd hciglilmrd bj itnsfpiution, tbo natiml resQlll 
of ft vuporit^r int«llcot lib oiFectioiw, u towd tboce 
wbum liQ !■ iitUeUcd, tro propoftionod to bt» pttiiotiA. A 
lutlv, cliongh not utumlly «n o^tgrtttAvt lioinjr u towa 
iSrther nniTimK hniitill pMMMw ihe fonn, aVatnre, An<i MtppT 
MMol limb Id i.-iiJiblo bim to battlo fcr^>cu>iuly witli tbosd 
of hU own flpeotes; oveii wkliooi ariitidiLl wt-uponB^ Sued 
b^'inj^ bift nAtiira, if w^e noir enppoeo hioi without rcflfion, d7»J 
tinf^inldn^ bi^rc Atrcfnllj Wwccn miMii imti mvrf. jtbilit/ 
to rNwon, mppoto tW lie do not reuoii nur n-llc«i upun bia 
condn^rt. Iff, wluit in tlio Mino thin^, nppoto Uiat bi£ (mpal* 
Uvo ilwnjTfl overbflliLnco hu ntiouil doibv, ud inflticnco n]|| 
]H«acb^wer±nn;ftdliy«cchowboompatiblo miut b&T« b«fri| 
hii natane viUi the i;xi»t«9icc* of n prAcvmhlo f-t*ttf of »oHel 
For If 009 deiired an oUJoot wbM wu ia tbo po»muoo 





r, nothing but pUtPical injibifiiy «aulil prrrcDt him 
itvm oifUiijing H, at nrJifU^ver oxpoube to tliv olW; auJ 
tbiu tb(r wlioli^ bodoo of pvopvrty h fabr«rt«cl. The 0lTX>iig 
imU imkiknit wu«ihl c>uip«J Ibu vruak U* mttv Umui, nod U^o 
wont foRiu of filavery wunkL exlM. Tko gradfluatlon oj the 
ficTniil pfefvifm woalt] nol onlv, jut ii hu dotio in npileof 
j^uvvmnivnl. Work the ■ubj«cliun of tliv fvuinlc bcx, but it 
would vujfvvkiJcr bUtcr ^tuO iiJi«rii)JJiiLbl« coodictv bvtit-«iTU 
rivtk of ilio xnah box. And thla would o&ly bo a bogin- 
biiijf of tlie <)tiAmb, bttllc*, wid ahiiMw tlijit mails from the 
lutun? of tiling*. ^ItcikJ toctotj At it^ oH^n, in tLc abwace 
of uiy vjsUuD pf pnjtoGtUiit. Th* onlj (jDQftioa itiU tfl 
wlicdwr Kiub WU0 Uio hmI conditioa of hamttii aatorc it tho 
tlnw of tlie focmnt&oci of «odeiy. Xhero oeesiM do doubt 
thtt it WHA littU or no bvtb^r tli,m hm portnirod. Tn foct, 
man}' Ava^ imm ar; very liiUo 4Wvu thn »U:idArd now, 
ft&d w« aIw 000 miUtiplii^ Imutio^ii iu clvilixv^i couDtrlo^ to 
coefirm ihia view. If, dicreforc, thU 10 a fair tbocmcflt of 
the iviaditino at tltn humftn nuw at name cpnob of lbs cnr(«r, 
ood U nicb ift lU nattir^ dift^otor unrefined by derelop- 
Biont Of dvilixatioD, to are oocnpellod to xvjoct tin do«tnii« 
of Arutotlc^ to prcvtUcnt CTorr-wlinn.^ that man k> nalnndly 
ft gittgvioiia anlmil, or, ki it U l^a object&oiubl/ Mated, t}iAt 
matt i» ntitn^fitiit/ a wctt] Iwinfc.** CiriUc^ man k nndnobt- 
cdly a «ocial bang, but this qtulity La* bvcu Ujc rwult of 
a loptr and oovore ttxpurlcaoe by whivhagroat ch^Qge hoi 
boMiprodimd In hlfl conatltntioa. Ktvt only an, but he la 
nttarly incAp&blfr of ^ocia! fTxiilfTitro in & nitivc k-'^o, unlceo 
proteetvd in hit life, hui liberty* ani tuA ptoi«rty by >n nrti- 
ftoial «y»iem of |^v«reraiGQt,t 

W,pbaM> I>vw« iW UtcflncJ 14 bJoK l>r'&>«or«k af Htt,'nLi pp. 
TW vwku urftMikl imtflrf b ibtn h4n Uh fm^idvJ Irj ««vml 

dflb PB0G1t£S&-riUMART VEANa 

At lirvt •t^lil, odniitiibg nil tbu cun^iitiom iloscnbDd, It 
woold Boem probable th&t ftooEelj*,- througli lu membc-rR. 
Uio«o wlio bftd oxpedonood the bftrd^l]« and Kbtu» iAlik}i 
vro 4-iippott* to attend «ocictj whthi iinpratecte^f, mnM b^vo 

t)i9 liBodd of AoiDQ fow to avpn ilio colamlcJos «cinpUlDod of, 
|>n?«crva pvflcCr Mil Jiociirc ju«ti«ieL Tbw wonM ho ihti tint 
CKplinatiou IIiaI Vp'OuM oorur to the* miurt, adcI El i«, ntlwiUn- 
H^JIy. tl»o proi^ailing optCLiifr}. h u frvui boui*^ t»ucL i-Ji^ ^ 
tbo ori|(iii uf gpveriunont tliut bofl bMin d^votl th« tlioof^ 
ftf a '*eodaI compact"* and tho implied "eonUttct^^ into 
whirli wriUrfH Arc Hn font! fif fAj'tufi* that eMth ni«mW of »o< 
Gidv W i^nlmNl; volmttaHljr connecting lo giro ufi > c«r- 
luiu iiutiilji^ uf hilt liffliUi to Ilio ttuto aiid paj luto U« lrvR»- 
1117 a ocrUiiL sum for iha bcQcdt of otheiti^ aiu) for lib oim 
protoction. Hut it i« worthy of AcnouA inqnirv vh^th^r tlko 
vtry foundilion gf tbi* lii^^triiic be DOt fain, and tlie doo* 
tnua lUeU uiiBound. To fi>nii a railonal Iilwi of how a f^v* 
cmment nilj^bt liave been con«iltiit^ nndor tbo circQm- 
filAnci^ wa Tl3V0 lii^n ^jppnnnf:, it u rimsmmtj to uAiKfdcr 
naay liiin^ That wwjii prcbflbly bo a Twy un*)ife con- 
clualou mhWh bIiohM be bawd on a aklonlation of what Wfiald 
Ik> MIeoIj t'> rr^lt w«nr^ nn adTODoo^l »oi^t^ to t>«^ for anj 
cauac, dcprivd of gnToninientv Tct, if 00^ a ooao vcro 
•nppoaed murfrlj for tlie purpo» of aMwdne na in ■nlvinif 
Um f«d pi^^blem. wooJd fhe tlivorj !■ qavation be likt^lj to 
Iw inrtAlnorl! If %T\y oiill>;blencd Bl»t«, ««, ea^, England, 
Fnirifto, or the Umto<l SUtM, alionM hp enddonlv bwefl <rf 
all ^vi47ninoDt« nod fur tb^ ifm^ Inpw into a atato of Btriflt 
anafvlijr, i^ it to hv iiup(>o«od tUit (lie fonniUibn of * goTwn- 
mont uodcr tlioM drenntftanoca would bo tlue to tho actloa 

J^HPtr** - FbH Priui|iK" r 01L, tDi "Pmd|)laol Fl7«hOlO0," VQk. tf, p. 
HI, pelIM^ 1*1; JIuA IV, pp. a, ate Cbmlf, " niltaMpMv rMltiir«>" roL 


of tlie people bideoed by tlio inconTCDicncc* vbu^ th^ 
wart «nffnriiiguicoii*«qDcjir!<iotf UMsabtmacBof goTenuuentfl 
It eerUmlj wuulU t>oL If noUiiu^vwo doM for a grMlj 
Uttgik of ilia«t llu« Actkin mi^lit, U b trav^ vrvotiullr Uj 
ukcoi ; but vbo aappcMoa for li auuneiit that each irould 
btt Uia pmrrtieal •tele <A tlbo cue I Oa Uio contnry, hoip 
qviokljr a jcvrvniiuiftil woald bo formed bjr a few mdivid* 
nab kftvln^ luttiWDOO ia ihv itatv, uud wJioMt utleroats tviv, 
b«t idigliU/ epmpronuKd hy tLu wjiot uf gQwranioai, «b<F 
VMoM be tbe IaM to sutTor fn>m n tfato of aaarclij-, lint itIkvo 
diktf moitivo in •ooltiog itji oubUtJnDQiU would be die hve 
4if fwwvrl 

Tbo p«oplo never wek a ^venuii^iU ; gOTanunent ab 
«>jra origiMlot iUolf. Tbo bkcory of oatigna ia nol witlt- 
oot illatfiatbiia i>f tlm pfcdae peJMt, and ncTer dkl it jtt 
wau that a pvupdo twic Uiu iiutUturv Btepa f^r tbu funa^ 
tloD of a pivornment wltli a dew lo protooting tbocDEalnq^ 
from tbi; vviU wbinh hau\ coinc upon tlicfn from tbn want od 
a|pvemioeiiL On the ryioirary, tlie ^ttiy of a-Tording ancU 
pr«t«cdiNi baialways bewJi i^tiirilj and gntititoiuljr aMUuefl 
oft«ii ahainvftiUy uaurpod, by iDdiviJuftJi fllifmliig to ba 
pqhlia ljf«ii>fi«to» and palriobs but w^aikt chwt iiwtm vaal 
loT» of faauft ^i&d pover. Himv JiittoriicaJ Jaeta njro of tbd 
ntmoat viloo, id&to ihu^ fiiruUi lli« key |q the ml qwvtuur 
bora uoJcr evtiaiJcntiou: Trhnt waa fhct nuiAnrr in whJr-h 
garcmint-iit waa origJiuUjr iiutitiit^ f Ilomaii mtun bdun 
in tba iiuiii ibo Mma tKrn aa now, U ia pcobabto tJot (dQiltar 
roKJu wunkl folkfw fiviu almilar circnmaUneca. Yet tbfi 
draanetaiiott w«rv not wboUj th« loine^ That ffonenl tthJ 
Irillgii&e* axiKtog the people vhicb it h promned wonlft now 
fMlnea tbcm to annuel tc««Uiur aivl «vtMblitb a jcot^raowiH 
for (Sefr i>tfn firv^ix't^Q ff iio one tlKKild tako it opoii him 
to tlo il for tiioin, w» iotirvljr wuctlnir at tbo ^x^^n of tod-r 
flCy, fo that it fa poaMblo that, £f it b^il be«a lefr for iVm In 
Bkako a |ri>vemnieikt to defond tboaurirea fr^m tl>r criU oL 
wwrrUj, ibaj would ii«ver hhx^ bad any at alL Eacb indH 


PftOOR£8&'rK]U.\ftY MKANH. 

tiduaJ would Imvc Ut^fimikHl luintvlf Aud hi« tQthobfiSt of 
Ub HbUk/^ the weak woald havo aucnuubud u> tho vtroD^, 
Wftr And fttrtfo would Iuiyc d?f>tn>yiyl groai nunibvA, and 
thu« tho r«e -DrduM hivu kv|)t itwif thiimod out juid wgm- 
gal^d M u to pivvirnt tiM ^Jiutvuop fjf vuc'ivirt timl ^f L-oiirM> 
of gi»roTninuiU. ^otna Mvn^ trlbw fnmUli a near appivxt- 
in>t]4)n to tfiu *latD of thing*, and itii «f:uinl rrAlii^timi innjr 
bd tliUft wndfly (>0(iMivMl. fiidewl, there la no dftoniiin- 
ing liow long ttiJA Uatv o( ^uurdiy uid »pAnil^ luuy bnvu 
in ^et ojd«tod bofoiv tlio ^<iw«t/*m of a goTcrnrnQnt. Car^ 
tain it l£ ihar the exfiiteni-i^ of ffiiTc-mnient iniurt have bwn 
iNwral iritTi tW. of fnxivljr Id the pro^tv^r Mn»B,i^noo tlioAd 
canneii wliic-h would pwTcnt tho osUbEiidimuikt of the on^ 
would oLio provcuU tlw powdtiTUtj' (<f Uw otiicr,* Oovcm- 
dent nnifitf ihetvforu, bo TV^^rdol m ttn invontion uf Ui« 
hunaD mind, tLe roAnlt of an cxtr.iordiruLrf oxrrcW of tho 
rLtloniJ, or tIdnkJrrg, faculty- A* mdj, it uonid not hnva 
boon iho simnltanDOUtf <io»copiio« of a wbolo coiuuiuuity or 
of *nj Iwgfi numhcT of ]M>op9<*. It miiiA liavo boon Ow eno- 
nntxoQ of a >jq|(1i* bnin or of i few con^^rtJng Tnind*, tJi* 
Bpwiltd QSGfTulBi^ of a |]ftr1i<!ulAr kind u( cimriiuff, or mjfadty, 
vhcnbf mtftin indiridtuU, int«iit on Hccuriri}; tho gralifloa- 
Hon of the fipeoi&l panloaa known u iHo li^ve ^f powict, do- 
vi»edapUn,or»ch«ine,of irownmont Tim pnwion of nmbi- 
don Lm for iU olijurt famo or power, aod ttio pUn inuAl )ut« 
OMielMc^ in flpMJoti'Jx eljumin^ ta [1i« r^l objuci l>io pro- 
tection of tbo injured and tlie puniHilimcnt of tho injnrin^ 
This, m tbo «ifEtdly of the fvuij-li-^ra of ^rfrnmAnt forcMw, 
w<>nW Mrnri^ them adliercou and cvjnltnn ihrnz antbority. 

'n>r* ilicoTT of tho ot^n of |>ovcraTi:ent fa bitHib' f"'*- 
ihor1f-ii<H)f *ml vontd \i^ PTtrtmrfj rrndc nnd iiijulo-iuato 
linlv*'! it wer« n>oofrniwd Ib^ gonrmnicul li** l>r<.n ftl l1i« 
aamii timu tbo ro«nU of dorulopriovnl aiid aktiuI growth liko 
all tbfi otbiT Mdal aponHoe* 

Oovenimont lu« bv<ti at onon i; prvttivtor of all tlie true 

• pi,A,ft--fiiimntirtrr'1in-'-T-'T r '" 




olriUiiDg igemciw umI a iMimcr to di«ir nonnxl iIvvc1d|^ 
DHMtY^ iMricdi^ Uben^ h bM reduced Um unooot of 
pmfbH ujoyment, tnd jomI^ ttmiod tbo title io ftwHy Ap- 
phW to it of A " ttoeoftatf^ tsieW* li hm thrajA ioamkd tto 
ownpnmi^vidail tlie wirld^ATtni to it* wont Tlct^im, )ia*o 
joiii«d in iLo claonw; and vvt it Imm nahj proved a »ootir]go 
whicli nil nioa from the oorlleet a^ hdiro bcca diHi-bg: Ut 
«Mape- TJbo gmtor pvt of tho wat§ of vhkh hi»lor^ givoft 
M auj acooQiit bovo Ixwq ft»«mpto to imat tbc cttcrxmcb- 
louDb of i;uv«H'uiuvT(t, Mixl a Ui^ propurtioti ot Uiu troubim 
•odvQr fau lad barv boon Q&iwod bj efhru on the pvt of 
tiw people tfl get rid of th^ only jj^oTMrnmont thnj pcMmMod. 
Tbe liBtOTj of ihitt rcvolotion*, tba civil vmni, the int««tiri0 
•trtfov, Um MUOHJuitioqi, «ad nyaincrtft whicli fill tb« umali 
id tlw woiM, nt only tbo ropvdtkm of tbv uiio dovpcnrto and 
unwoaryiEi^ effort lo throw off tbo odious joke of aelMm^ 
poM>il Md tirranni^ gov«romeiit. Nfrvrr vim ihcin )^ a 
<3ue vkore 4 people climoivd for ■ i^vemnwot, yvi lli« <nat» 
vo iiinuiDvniLile m wUcli tboj bftvo vhmonrd for iu j«ibov^ 
aU GoTvrDiDODift alw&j? In&dLDto ifaoowolrM, tbu/ nom 
wikif to be bivttttitnl. Thcv ftlw«ya emimttt from the f«v 
•^okiniE power» oovcr &Dm tho mu&j- teelfing pro1««ck>Q. 
It hM dwsya heen ■ Mrngglo b«tw9Mn tbv Gvw gowming to 
icuvvra iDore, and tbo muiy ^vomod to bo govuraud ]«ml 
Gorcmaicflt bM been, m it wore, A yoVe upon tho nookfi of 
tbe ponpK wbo Ittvo peqw^u^llj •ovighl to throw it off or 
dnw tli««ii4plnH from under it- W bit wo caII ivrogrewtn 
goTvremcnt, cbo Mxmring of bmnao UbwtiOT, tbo ntablith- 
mGQt of bwaan rigbln— all tbooenre only to uuij diffwiiit 
D^xpnvlom for tho ftct that tbe diffenvt peoples bftr* eno- 
(V<od«d, jn h jfnwier or km i^frvc, in ^nffting rid of die bnr^ 
dun of ^rvrnmeckt. For tboj oonld not mcwv tboir tib«r- 
tk« 1i4d tbej not hc<in pnTionily taken ^in tboen ; tbvTD 
wedd bo no nood to «ublkb tlirir n^hu if tbcr bnd not 
U«n once wiUibc^d nr jcofi^nlincyl. Ami \hof€ aro tlw ncU 
tktt gorrBmmoiit i» |R-q?ebui]l> commitling. Sclf-oCiiMtituCod 



>• U al«ray*> !«, uiil fFAni«d in tlio IntcrtffU of thoM who goV' 
«m, it U bot DSttttnl that icurb ahoitliJ be lti« cm& II vould 
1h3 lodiMd Btntogv If It wvtq alwayt to ituiir intorwt t^ pro- 
mote tbe hflppaacw of ilio goriMned. U Is ttupoBublo tli&t 
it Uioutd not TC17 oft«fi b« de^nblo lo do MCs which mtvt 
gnMitIv t>(iprc«« thorn* Kor iio«d we aon^lj Cf^iuarc Boeh 
Mt0i dnoo It h for 1I19 govomod to prvrcut tUom, It ii 
only hatnui nAturo acting itself ont. it u not cl^u Jaja*- 
tific of act* done bj (^otenment tba j>TCvont4 thtur pcr- 
fbnnsDve, It U aIwajs tlw Uci thnt AOini< i^iTvi^tuAl TutriiE^, 
dlhor of forco or of iiil«rv*t, l);ui been iiit«rpose<L ^(Mj\<L'iy 
anjof Ihc pn>f:reAi Uiat liae boon maid^ in govoru^hnt ia 
jrtlnbntnbltf to 1I10 ioomfled Nmae of jutfiec^ in the govcnv- 
Ing qIum. Aluioftt If not qnita til of it in dnc to tbc imuA- 
moe irbicb hK como from tiia poopU, Tlutf reutrtuuw b» 
■IvayK boon in proportirtn to tlifi iatoUEgOnoo of cfao gorMvod 
cliiiw'w, and Its t«iMten«j ih oonttnntljr In Hie dimrtjoin of pop- 
ular »)ir«»eRUtioiD. TliQ offoct of this ir tJ^ iluft tli« mntU 
WHW from that of foreu U» that of int«ra*t> t1i« iwrtmicv of 
loroe bcan^ dnvt dsng^noua and nnoertainf wbilc that of in- 
tJ)mt is «;ifo mod rff^Ur. Th« 1eA«t «a[Jif{;iiU*n<sd notiofu nrc 
aAvmyi inbj«ct todiffcroni formi of antucnury or tteapotlam 
wlildt aro etefj now and tiiiMi, nccordin^ «e Ili«^ uv mor^ 
or l««e opprofl^Tie, orcrthrown muSil rto1i?nt n^rolntiomi and 
blooiUhod. Thfi cno«t onljgblened, on tlid otbur bond, bav« 
i«pc«entmtiro gorornmenta vliiob nuke It a niacn>rof pure 
Belf-lutorwl ffir tin: li^loton to bo jnHt. It is tHo groAt 
cntli which Ihesa peoplua Iutc at hat loarrtnl, tb&t no depoBd* 
nnnA <^ftn ho plfteod npoa tbe «t7J/*M^n£ff of nilcrs but all 
ibiii}^ mujit bo bawid upon Ibo observed vorklnga of tb&lawa 
of liuuiau Datun>. one of tiko moftt ab«ao1ttto of iHtir.b En tbat 
DO onp trill jnrrifio a fi;reat«r fop a U^ttr jcain, where aen- 
tlmpnt onir rimf^fitntot tbc motiTo^ 

Wo s«e, UiOQ, wbal f^v^mmunt pncticoik U: fanda- 
iDimtrilly a n«cc*idt7', and T«t «xer«itiii^ a powiTfu] inflDi-am 
la dinct hnitiKt^ to bnmnn pv^^grcM. Tl i« that h^ which 



Alone AiM^iMj esB exln, and r«c ft i* aa lll^diptod to U» «nd 
llut it sniAgiMiifM titftmrl of j>ninH4iD|; lU tntjiroTcinovL 
IiK9]Mitbo frutu ilH utinv of uukin^ wcioij luy 1i«U«tf, It 
tK> opfM)ftuuitjr to maktt it tf^no. 

Lc-t hj now mm if wo <ui find k mftonaJItf for dl iboM 
ixce. Wben ve bjm >dulttod tku Docoidt j of gin-iTin- 
FbmdIi «o Iibvo, of conisOf eMabltslwd ila utility. TIm i*TiLi 
wliicli it oo^ifindcTm an> aII cztrauoou*, tliey du aot betoii^ tt> 
guvi^niTtH-Dl firvi|VT ; yu% u tli*y are wholly (liw t<> ii, thoy 
ftrv iU'loJ tilt crU* of government, a&it |»n>peTly. Bnt, wnrc 
)v«mimiiU rci^rietail lo its l«fpdmai(^ splii^re, no criU wuutd 
ic. Il^tic^^ vhAt we c4iU tlie ^viU of pvtvniijwot w. 
kr til, only tlio cvik of fiW govomtiMiit, or mwgoTcni- 
Tbey «ro ibc Ulumiihoff of tlio •T«tom, tlic rMh ol 
imeett m iTi'.'V am uid bave been, doC of goi^rarfi«nl 
H dkoDld bp. Wo maat ot>ndiid«, tbor«for«, that exutit^ 
iTcniin«nt» am doftctlTcari^if to^woibcFuld inqiifrwhU 
>a)(l bo a prrforit govi^mment The snAvrer fcjut atrMdjr 

hinlvd nt. 

A tjno ^vesniQcnl ahouM be In inoel re»p«c£fl tlie predve 
ofipMJt** of nc-^rifi^ com. In tbo fir»t plACc, it ihovM ori^- 
ikato in n nunner direeUy t1j6 rfrV'^nri of tlint in wliidi nil 
LYc oTi|patlod. All i^renirDenta tliw far faAv« been il«- 
i»ort, ruul atat>1»bed by. uid fn lb* intomt of, tbwe tlc«tr- 
t<> inwetn. A tmo government wi>nld be diuwiuicHl, 
crejrUHl. and p«l b force hy, nml for ilio benefit of, iboao 
dnaring to Iw gcwonnjiK hi the »epjTid i>Liee, m reg;ardn tho 
Ufcht in which t^io p>vcmin^ cIajk Aud llw cliiH governed 
rv^ud guv&mment, th(> pnM.mt fCete of thlng?« Annld he 
vienly re\i!rHe>l. ^Htervu, now, tive peopTv look np to tlie 
ptremfncAt oj^ n mi«t«ri nnd brer ^^ It to vouc^mfo t^Mna lib- 
vrfy and ri^tn m a nmtirr of fjirorT mnrl tbt^ ycorvrament 
loofai ili^iWTi n|>o4i th« f>0Oii4fi jia if a "* ftibjeriJi/* ind d^nine 
M4Er|ietitiou,or,gnu:iin^th«ro reluctantly, laya tliem tbere^ 

b^ Uldcrft pfifptiiuAl J^bt of gratLludo ; iu a true gQiwnm^iit 
tho poopio vijuki rti^rU the oltic«ri& of ^Tcmincnt u ibelr 
rcnumonted jjubtui den-Auto, and n^^ttirv of ihcm Uuit tboj 
faillifullj- perfofin tbe Mrvkie for which Uit>' wvrw vmplo^wl 
sLud in thu lajiiiuor in wliicb thoj' wcire directed ; umi i\t&y 
in tttni woulil not full to<!omp]}', qg pdin of rctnoTol, Again, 
tlie ■fringe and in(»mprd)eti«ibl« d»Ui]o<.< which now a-po- 
nU» the goTirmTncni from ihd peoplo wonld be cnHralj ro- 
moTod hjr a true nyniom of govommmt;. As govemmvQbi mtq 
now i<ourititi]tvd, tbvro id no other rtlntion rwognused Uun 
IhM (jf nntboritj' on the one hnnJ nnij anhjeciioD on i1i<i 
otbbr. Thi? people. At icntit the givftt majuritj of tlictn, mib- 
mil (o Ihe Uirdou of Hurvicw uud Uxjttiou wLidi uorvm- 
uwnt IinpL«ei| not 3B a duty, not a« & ^uul/rro ^wj^ but sUn- 
pl^ n« a R o ew ihy . Thejr ftn> not coii£.n]ic<lf not «tTCQ ny 
qnotfcf) — tbcj NTR timply cooTDod. Tbt^y compJj', trithout 
Uio IWMt Uleii of «var rowtTtD^ a Muru. Thvy conoiiiur it 
i& prooiBely thoMino %h^ aa if roqoirod hj forco tg givo <^ 
tlidr imlu&incc and vnrning* to u mrongcr who pr4uu«^ tlic 
powLT to exnct it^ And ^rernaieat enconra^fM thb Mod* 
ni«ni, and In^U tlii'iii In aII z^otpeoCt at tliougb tbi« w«ni ihe 
ODly nlaiion KiUiftlng boU-fron ihom. !u n inw nysiem of 
f^romrnait all ihw would lie rcr(T*c<L Th<^ pi^o|ik^ liarin^ 
cr^&trd tliMr)^vi<rnni«ait fur (heir own oonri'iii^ire, would 
underattnd what WM II19 rvuJ jvlattiuu m whivh the^rttood 
to it, aad the gtivcrnnicnt wonid niidijr^tand thh; mUtioo 
hUfK It wo4ihl he an iiktimiu^ rvUlioii uf Irtuucdinlc fntciv 
t<t» Dot that of a furpi^ power. 8oci«tjr would he the 
»oaroe of aalhoHtj. aud th<f ifovivm^iuDl iU >gciit ; hut thia 
rd(ilioii,bdlie a true one, ooaUl Dover bv attvudvd with thi^e 
inl«tnniuab1ii ^nftm^hi fnr lli«i maFtivy whirli now chafWttor- 
be the oppodtio and fnl-w rvhitioiu If Elir fNV»pli) paid 
rooiie]r, it woald be into their own treasury, )ccpt hj Lheir 
ovn «thoAonafcfTDt«, who wonld nntdanror dcvire to fl^vpropH- 
ate it orbrrv W ihnn ts biatTDCtcd. Tf a vhj- mual he wugvd 
(ud under iwH^ a goT«milMi>t th^ would he a rcty rare 



il), it vonki 1« tbo propir'* omi nr, and IMI cbQ vw of 
wnbitiouft mien; lud it vouki L>« cbeerfnllj fought. And 
tb^ut tt n-oLttd be Uiroiigbont^ tho firevDt sjrjdnii bi'iiif; «u|^ 
plMat«<l hy vat! vtiiirtAy diiTvnfvit, Kml id mv«t rffpfCta tho 
Tvrj&ulitlicsiBof lit fountlcd on thiOprti>dp]«tl&t Uw}>co|4d 
ftMiro to \Hi fE^crtTiul, whidi u iJUdnecrkfdl^ opposed to thM 
upon wbidi hU ej[uitii:i)7 goi^emmente nrc h^UjA, vik., tJw fftct 
tLjit cttrtein p«»i>iu tlvii/u to gowm- 

TIm Omofy of ^vomtixuLt » rvry fcfiaplu. W1l«v« nunj 
IndlvMuiils tkra sntmtM in iiflrrow. locaJ co^inpaf^, ttiOM Mti 
vhich t«nd to uliifj tlie de»in4 of one nttivl in oinnj COMI 
prodaoo paio to oUii^re. Tlw uhdividQiJ tbu9 fujnrod r«A«nl» 
tha inJQr>-f md nmAict u (bo romlv Wlioiv «ftcli indtTidofti 
im In hk 0^1 Md<% II radiictiA (Iself t^ a qnurfiuQ vf murt 
foroc, iLtid tliU U Alt rffn^iLiol hjif to the cxtMcuce of eoolety. 
Rat fiun reaMinft, 4nd pcrmire« Ihtt juitiod ifi not idwA^t vritli 
Uwtrtnxig. Iltfuoa tJbero arSae* A demuid foralribunA] for 
tho dechtion of OMn flccovdii:tg to reawn. Kvory dmniDd 
hdnf^ sfler it n wpplv- In thiacum tli« »np]>1r eamu lao 
■noiit3T)d frofo iliti wruivc i^oHi^r. If tiiibitioii ctnikl linrt 
bc«ii kept down, tocitftjr would, perhftjie, hftv« ultimately 
tr^tvd a fcoTummcnt, oitd ih^i government vhic^ aodctj 
tttMvhe*i wocld hftve bwn thu true ihvoroticd on* d^ 
Mriljed nboTft. 

But tUi« i» tbq primary quIJtj of gov^-mmeoi vbieli b 
iifc«B»4f7 for the vxUtenco of «odotj, vi«^ pmcodkic. If 
tlii* «*» no longer Tftqntr^, if muikmrl were nmwn #0 wiao 
ai Lo be aide to }ivc m p«u« m »ooi«1_v, ad wju uixw povubU 
witAouS H>rivtj, tftiU tLoro would bo n««d, ool of gorem- 
Rwnt. but of f^rfanizaiMtL Bodotjr would nood agenta to 
InnMct il» cointiion biuEnfM, and Uii« » vhit T baro callod 
the i«4?oaidif7 fnoction of govcrniMTnt, or ftc«omuM>datloti. 
Tills t«o, i* all that will iiii« ikjr Iw kft of gOT«m>vi«fkt. It 
lA ti>wiid iblfl tlua all Datioi» bave bocD M^adily drifting. 
Tbj! otSfT fratoro of ^vomment mart noc«aarily be odioQ«, 
luiwctur lEidispAiialde. aod llio MOiM of tbia odiooincai, a^ 


gntvtL'd hy tlic pcqK-tiul nzrnriHitfoitf of the mllng clMr, li 
vrhii acoouu7« for Uio inocaiant woffamvhidi ftodet^ b«ft 
aIvhvh hern vnpng 3gnED«t gi>vernni«in, 

Unt, wt«Uvcr bo t>io objuoU of ^ovcmmiHil, it i» cloftr 
lliat iKiiii hikttf uootWr jtifit uri^lliau Um «cv9 (doC tUo 
**«iitaont," which U rorrvly HflgnUro tiul pcrmUr^ but ilia 
poBitiFc, i)«djircd will) of itocMrtj. A olon of indivHliiab 

wdetj'. U ia not tvan ftn nxLtouncv, U id ati i>!igirc4ir. It 
mily iiKruufct ihc nnnibor of nilcrs wi<i thcrrWy tncroiMa 
tli^ tMtrdcrtft of ttifi p^oplo. ^tathcr cao it be caJM Hodatj 
whvn, wbirrt dliAincI raow i^eFupj the »a» torrilofy, oq« 
noe 4jxc]u<]cw Jill cjth(jn(,orwbQn nny tdcootcIwi feeidiid^. 
It ie ucrt iJio will of &Ofn^ whbJi gruvnw whni ihft intiiriil- 
nfllft &f one Mx an preventLHl fi\im IIil* rxjimaion of thinr 
vUl. Thi* )■ only n nilc of «oi> And, Although logioally th^ 
nuMt ndicul d«ft<Gl, lliin amIntrcAy x* tbr forui of |ft>vmi- 
moul wUch tlio world has always had to ottijims w&n In 
Iho^o fiftHons wliich Wvo OAllcd thcniAolrct dmnrv^raciof?, 
wb<^r<* not only ooc half of icAcirty w j^THnde.!^ bnl an cntirt 
cLiHc lAJiU nU Ltd pcv-idiuritii^^ ll wuuld bo fiij- brUur W«ra 
eveiy scoood indiHdo&l c^chdcd wlltiont ro^rd to AOlt 
rin^yi then tbor« would hn «u|Qihbniim. 

TborG GevtDfl to bo bot <m(T othrr qttr»ti(>n of fmporUnro 
to bo disc^it^ in thk bavty review of lUo prinolpltt irf fx^ov* 
eminrnt, and that iis Wbftt are the praqtocts thai ibo biunftn 
mcfr b erer to be ftd of lb» otMroiiB fandii'-n of giiirem- 

Thl^ ^Cfldon, of ootiifiOt ftdmitB of n^ definite tfolnllon. 
It imvt Tomthi a m«n> tnallor of cfmnil/ition^ It i% indeed, 
AMlntHlnvd thai Dion, bciii|r imporfe*;!, miut always have 
g^>vrrnri&fTnt if bo i« to hkre w^vir, Pcrliape thfa ie th^ 
l>f<Tvrul5njr npinSnci of thotc wlio h>vi? tbon^ht on ibc mibjoct. 
And. tnkin/^ p>T«rnment in Ha iiK«t mmpr^hMiinTc wnte, u 
lor>*r^ly niulrritnod in rooiioon langtm^, tliirt view b on* 
donbtodiy currvct Bnt I bavo Ao«d tbst the notion of 

^irv oovEGunigNTs abb odious. 


gprwnnwm k oompound, ai>d ca^ahlo of boing Mptnted 

hto !>■?«« niil— 1, ibe nslnint; 3, tiie pro1«etimi; juid, 3, 
ibo ftCcomaoodAlMo uf tbu [>wple. To tbuw n>uifl Iw ulUi^d 
a foonb, tho direct tmprovonwnt or naioliorjtfon of ao<!ii.^ty, 
Tlif% Hflvevcr^ ifl & Iiaik^^j of gorvrnmr^t vhifh hctnn^ U>^ 
Uie ait vhea it shdl 1iat« readied i1« *de«tili« ■'Uffc. tod 
wilt r«coivo 9pKk} ftUamtion fiullt«r <fii. 

Tbv EinC twx> of t]io«e funetione of gaT-f^mmcut, Hue 10- 
■timlliiD^ antl the proCAiTtii)^ <|tmIHi9. nm Aimlof^j; in Otfir 
nftbin^ Inddfd, lliiiy mi)/ dirler iu Uw Uegree to uUidb tlie 
ttfitboritj of govvniiD«iiU is oirricd. Tliotorm ** pn><c<!t*uii*' 
:in{)|jc»encrcttch!ncnt on Uic ptit of Murw upon ^origbti 
uf uihcn, and lynviulA in tJic mccracfMl itvtralflt of that en- 
rroftr^fn^ml, «f> thjit tone mwt bo rertnJQea) in oMer ttint 
otlK-rv nmv bff pnite4«d> W«rp it imiTormUy inic Uint llig 
|)firty n^tnuoocl vru tn the wrong, nnd tlic pirlv i^iYrtccted 
wn» protcclfid onlj in lljat to wbio^ lie lifld a ri^t, tnch a 
govrmmimi would hti at tmit jwAMcr^Xe, Hoi tvett nn mich 
tt logtfKmtiun ^rvramotit would be odiotUL It wooM not 
he o*ilom to tboie pn>i«c1cd : tit4ther U a dc«pcUMn odlovs 
to tbowwbom it favorp; bnt it would bo odiou« to tbo«o 
wbom H ivwtniDcd, for it vaqM thw&H tboir icHomea And 
obMriMTt Uio KnttiGcalion of Ibt-ir dewrcA, uid in so far de- 
e tlwni of llhetif and bappiiMM. If llw fvo\^ wom fo 
u to m«h« it nttyMary to rmtmin bntf their ncia, '^M^li <^ 
govemniciit, tboogb it dU\ ill ibiiif^ \u fXKt MVordatMe 
v'iib afjttulule jiMtioct, would ne^-vHlwJow bo dc«fiij«(! bj a 
luajtin'rf of tbofic over wbom U oxdreiMsd > controL TLii«. 
even on tb^ brpo1)lf]«i^ wc can tcaflilj leo how- t people 
jnf^bi utmfft^ to throw off n nallj Jurt f;r>Temaicnt. Il Is 
Ti>-1 rl^'bt and foflfoc tbit noeQ h%ve »1waj» bcm M«1dag noil 
atnif-^ling to Ritaln, It U Mwiy; frvvdom Cu do » Uivir 
d«ttra firompt tbcan, and to be tbcir own judges of tba 
ri.rhlftibwMi a&d jiwtt»«» of tboir nctionta* Wbrlhrr an aot 
ba r^t or wrong hoM tun oioo^ia t j oonntdioi] with iIm iInIto 


?Rooitcs&— phuaby meaxi?. 

to perfomi it, owl In Mm cu^ tiie obetroctiou to tbftt pcv^ 
foniuttco vrlU be oqoAlly rc9cntiHl inU equftll^- raittif<i, Tliis 
ptfffetdon of A pntrc^ionafT, tbcreffln, mQBl d^pMd upon 
both tli« nil^ra And ib^ people, 4iul will Ik ni«isiued by tbo 
dtgm <if com^pua^kuc^ wtiiub «tuC« Urtween llic-ir dnirev 
uul nbootiiUs Ju9lici>— wluuli is tQ titro mvtteunKl b/ the d«- 
groo of Lntetligenco. 


TkU ijUffitlOD of tUo trau oaiurv of libortv ■ of the Uigl»- 
osl iTni)onAnoc,mnd :lcn3tmU atotncvlukt oloMrcxuuiluaUoo. 

Bj liljvrij tA ndt, of confWT, tomhI IJborljr of Toliiiott 
(ffo), (. pj\. h'h, ^07), but liberty of n^-tion. Thft allrj^^tl Hb* 
crty of inAH to will wbutovcr he may will to will, ia uiiv of 
n>turt*'ji pisut dvIiutiui^M, wid only wuriliy of 6eri(>u& rvfaU- 
tion b«AOM th«i praftic&l ofTcot of a boUcf in it U to (i^^pHvo 
[0^31 of llieir ivaI liberty, iui<l it} ftuhjcct thio nuivo to the 
doiilirruti-L'd of tlw fow. 

The liboH_v to aett hovevor, I0 qnlto uioChi^r thing. To 
»ecnre Jl irt tU highest do^^nx? bA« ever bcco iJie drcAm of 
tbc nobliitt mincU and tlie ^rlTort of the grealMt p«opl«i» 
Wlthonl ki^owiiig ^hj, %U mt^n nt lUl UoMut bjirv regarded it 
as Uw gnuhtc*! of nil vafiiily bionings to be frcCj and tli«re 
ii DO offott too horeule&a to bo put forth, no daxtpxr loo im* 
ml&ont to bo incnrrod^uid no daoHtioe too horoict4> bo mndo^ 
in ordor to {ircnorrc it. In fiict, ]ih&ij Uu id niauy ohmm 
boon pnifvmjii to Ufn. }^uch n (ttrpondontt motive oaQ not 
iturclj' cxie^t u'ltliont h p(Takt jiriTiciplft to rf«t npon, Ihoogh 
fev df^ dmp onouj^h to fii>0 it. 

WhM« Ukoo, U tbls pnitciple \ Wbiil U it ihitt amk^ lil^ 
*rly v> Hur^^ f It U ti»uil1jr itignnM ne a so^letit jvtitL«^, 
lion of nlmoel inv a^rt thiit it U tbno for (he Axki^ of liWiy. 
It U todil/ ttndrriLiood bjr &11 mnnliEind lliLtt Kbcrtj ii a ^ntH- 
cfeDt motive And operatiog okum for tho pcrforamice of any 
actioB. It I* u if it wen* oue of thorn original OAiMOft of 
wfakih m foOMtiaiw liwr, whlok han no pirior motifv b«- 



K-iUf but <ppernttf Hh ultiiiato bw« vlihin tbeinMltti. 
Yot £udi i« tic4 tW c»«. Uku ftU otW bttium moHTw tlie 
1()T« of tibortir itf capable of ajial>-ib, uud tmnsbb to oUior 
utiik*r1jrltij^ j>dikot[>Lc« Oo baci^ mib me to Uio pricaary 
priat^iplr frorn which wc «ct out at the oonuac^icctnvnt of 
Chu la*t diujiCcj', vu^ HnA umu iu uuoiuivii vrhh «l) otliur liv- 
ing oiwtimBintiiJtivUjdkunfi[aiii and weAu^fMSiMh Tlii* 
bborAiiM^tboforDi<Trc«iHi»mi»or^, whilotbcbtMrTMtttta iu 
ItappinvflK. For tiii> inctinttioQ to *e(Uc plemro it datinff, uid 
iu (^mUttnLjuii aloue vu<iaa>a la Mcnriiv tbe pluuwif «wgbt, 
wbleli cooctttutes hHppiiicH. But ilie gmtlfiottian of dmra 
inToWo»^>i it«c]f— Ml met ; [t ftmtlM^ m tiPtiftg m tbe d-AiTV 
prompU. Tbiu, all huppiniui v dcrivod fmoi icti&g >4 one 
datruB to ac4* Tu bv I^ppv, tliu.'tjfort^ man mmA Iwtv tfao 
powor to act OS ihej doilrvs Th^ powet U Hburtjr. It Wtn 
al t1i« v«ry viub of erwUiMV. WiUiovt It ctijojrm«nt i« bit- 
poi^ltk, Slid vritbuDt MJ<^in«Dt Ufo i» int4l«fil»)u. Romovv 
libcstj ami yon remove tbc vvrr i>tgi>ct of oKidlGaoe, Witfiiu 
tHa sacted MtA fs lio4if)d up all tbu mui boldftdctr od oanb, 
liU own (ivdirldoal Lap|>infiw« Tfo «oinilot\ tluiQ» tint he ia 
BO joalgiM of 9Tvrf [nfrin^voioDt of hiit lihoriy ; no wondor 
tlkftt W !* vvcti Kody III by ilowa hi« tlfo mtbi^ tlion allow 
{t to be taken away. Rut it in the main object of f^rern- 
rtMnt,aa«e1iavw«wn,v1i«tJierEb kav^Mwltjrof a mimlntng 
or a profecting power, U> dcpriro of libccrty ; fo* tlw ili>crtj- 
(o do vnrng id M Raercd » tho liberty t^ do rlgbl, and a« 
lii^hW priwd and *t«nwooitjr rftfuadoJ. Liberty does not 
oonwt in llie pnnrcr to do ri^t, or tbe privil^go to act mb- 
joet to fvrtain liinilnFiAn* wid wttUn wrttin fwiriclion*, 
T1tL» maj ^lo llie deftiiftfaQ of moni at^on, or lawful oou- 
dnel, boi i1 In not tlio definition of librrlv. Lilwrtj i« tbe 
poirer to ai:t in olitdloiKc 1o d<viiv. Atidf at nmn nevoroao 
t>o pprfoetly Kappv nntil bo w prrfcctty frr*, hn ran newr be 
•o nnltl Ixkcan abulub llie rvrifwrtivif nnd protoccfre attri- 
bntn cif irnvtfriuiwnl- Croiernn»wil Id iia mo«t frm-J^'MiiiMitiil 
twtkiM b tbv iiMCinHin foe of liberty; it b, tburvfurv, JQ 



AofATftbATrier lolmm«t1i^ppCi>MA. In <bc ^ef^ee of lib 
crty vojojreJ tlio mo« »oomiB now to be in cliu mtddlv uf 
IfHAt cjrcle. It bvgiut iU cAr»r and pei^p* pixnwii it f 
a{^ tn ft oocidltiim of cotji|jlelo liburtv **— Uic liliorly of r 
wiki bciut. 7Ug fnedoin of ihe Kun or ilie oaglo Iwlon 
to m«i amid tho forcMtn of liis tr^pionl home. Uw dovi 
w«iT« UuiiletL, but^ »uu1] u tlivjr woror tltvj" wuro grftlifUtlaj 
ThiB is porfwt QTi<ilUativ6 faap|^uoM> At length lib BQp^ 
ri(>r int^ilJcoi enabled bim to oreroomo the msn^ external 
obftaclce wUicb ii|wrale to nttrid otbcr ipeoi«« Ui ihvlr rx^ 
ifltittg nomlx-n xm] local i^roUi. Uid multiplication hud t^rrr 
turiul expaoftioo ^UKUi^d. At i oortnin puint tlwni buga^ 
to bo InUTDdd obstAcJee to Iii^ fiirtbor InfrrvAW, so&ti<iH 
him in f].l\ directions bejrond t1>« dttniain awigDcd bim b, 
lutnrr. At a c^Ttnin dmsjtjgtog:inou4 e^mXtfmsc bvcMiDA 
mtgloiiblu frpin tliv ccuiAlct* of iivrw \>nt*lo\i giuUvd :g| 
iifti«ficr{<m by a high tirjercc of ^^^M^fy vihwh ciTiXltulljj 
«bedcc^ ItiA lncr«4M aail nn&etilvd liberty by perpcm^ i^sirl 
No ODO knows liow lon^ tEie equilibrium wm thn* kept npj 
BDcl tlio fOLcm of bjrtbs ovarc>oiDu by luti^^niceiuo bUu^HilcrJ 
OBrtalo It b tkLt afiOTii-r or later liLtnian eagadty fo«&d a 
pUlijU n^nirdy fri'm tTi(« honxint of Anarrliy in \hft mrmi 
tion of Roivniiucnt, llio piiinnry function of irbtcb wja, aJ 
W9 nw, to n^^tiiD, and to prcix^iU cmc ludlvidual from de* 
pricing tuioih^r of Uia Ubcr^ ; Id tie porformaiico of wbi ' 
fnnrtion it har. itself nio«c«>d«d in d«priviii^ both of rou 
of tbtiir liberty. Tliut it Inn n>bbcd mau of h^M bla 
doin to pTcrcint him from pr^bVtng hirua^lf of n.§ gr«at n 
tion al a f&r frrvoter McHftod lly idEhHniding hi* libedJ 
It hn foster^ hia growth and fmAblrd bim to \wc\i\e ev 
contiooBt vid «very xonc- ii lu» nlw rt^direJ intellrrtn, 
pfOgrew jMxuiblc, and this ho* acUuIlj gone oq, till lo^; 
bo lindn lilm^lf almost Of^In in algfal of hb priMiuc liUny,j 
Tbo porodiAft lio ]c«t tbrongb hi* «iid<>m, ht ii tiov ftbovt 

*Dv«t>. *J<-flul or B«iavdbt^* ctft, ». Wi H pww r ,"firiM»tai 



Ui wudciii. Tf^ nimplo but pHuailirg lUta 
tk t"*yT| r 1 for u cDii^ptu:^ hnl vulij^iXuQod ditoh M 
he WM OQDo truly Ittppy itx a fttAU» of ftnambj, en lie will 
ft^a )« )iftp?\r wboD Ite ihalt agftln nttiiti u> ■ ftMe of an* 
hfvhy. lifll tlici di0«renco will be <bnt ibi; former wm tha 
unci^imoD* mnrcliy of tgnonxioa, wlulc tlio Utter will be 
ihfi conndiMui anarahy of JDtolUgenoc. 



pcKcnoKB or goveb:*' 

Tfr Mtum to Hit tffl^tim u lo vhj goTcmmcDte ato noo- 
trJI; odiocu. Vftr b*v9 ftMfi thAt thu k priinnrilj bno&nfto 
goi-oniiiKrntc am fotitiiliKi on tiiv |>nDc*i{>lo of pixtliibJCioa, 
wbicli, lK>WL<x-t'r proptrly or n|^tfullv. iiupltvid IIm illmiuu* 
tioti of httnittB liburty. If, throu^ incrowiJ intciligvncOf 
fC0V4>riini«cil ulull rv^ ti^m to ^^inpKijr llie iiMlfrert tnetliotl 
it! Uva vf the dirv<-t, -vhkh U tbe bafti« of aU proJubiloij 
lo'/Ubiiioii, ind to appYjr tlt« Cftculty of |£«nliw, or in^inilj, 
to the worldog out of a ^jBtein of aiimttive itfidat^t), a 
gmit dfpi«t of pcotortiTA nnil eri^n rmtrWHrc powor osin 
dotibtlcB* tto CKorivd witboul n^iodng tbu uinj loUl of lib- 
Gnt llib uu(vt£od vriU b« eonodccud > litUc UUv. 
^{) rnntf cling a Utile lonj^r to fi;oT«niincat vidi oaljr iu 
prtM^nt «tttihut«iiv 

C^DBiUurtnx thu cngnnon* inflijaKM wlikh opomW (O 
render iJie holiknd of pou-or iadillcrent to Uw jiwtioo of Uio 
CUM ivrcr whJrti tliOf MVt «AtI«d «poil to ctenrisc thRt pou-^r, 
U U tiot loo mncb to any ihui their <)rdHintii are no moiir ^pl 
to bo fcuniM 00 jiattioa thau vrcra tUv ungiiial dcoira* uf Uui 
IMrtM r««4niiwd ; aod tluu tbe difficulty w at leut doubted 
wlicn wo ky mirtc our hypotbcme, anronling lo wl<ich aTt 
goTomiMiital n^nlnt iffa» cuBiinicd to !« juHt, ami IaIcc tlio 
Itnpearfnslloii of llie prol»dora£v into Uio woount* If, for 
tnnunplij, gowmmcnc KlioqJd rondor itMlf cdkms to one lliird 
of tbi3 j>ooptn wheo ibt dccwiooit arc &II jiiAt, it would rea* 
dir UaoU otllt-uii to two tbirvU of tJiocn if luif of itt dorUoos 


-rRrMAKV urMfi 

veen nnjt»t, bccA&#o tlien oiwt luUf of tho f^ft#» of ■tWm 
IhmlrHtnn mig;ht hftn? been left lA a<djwl tbenudrcwL 
would trat bu undcTKUHicI tu impl^ ihflt ihk would be mailw 
iDKtic^Ily trwbf but on); tliat it *«rvc* lo point out tJw tn^n 
iior in vhioJi any nitcenpt to i^otrol tlic poopb mtut rendcn 
tho cnnlrolJitig power oUionh, and tbb in n doR^'tw? propoo^ 
tloimJ to tliu jiUftuw* i^f Ui9 Act« Ifoih of (L« govuniing va 
of lUtf ^Tcni«Hj. 

h hn£ nlrco'lj' been rcniarkcd that tliii contK)l » nlm 
frlaitticd to be i*a:<?r«»i-d for t}ie f>rot«yiion of llie peo]4e. 
for ^ it r«;tlJj la 60 OJi«rdwd, II St k k^tfmatu fouctiuu v 
gorommuiC, nnd comoc bgicnllj^ irithin thd moftnlng ol ibd 
term ^*']>rot4M4ion," u oiio of tbc oociponcnC clrnnent* of tbt 
^cnerfil Eiotiun of p>vi?nimftil irbkli v«are «l present niti^ 
Ejlin^ ifot atl out>itilc of, or bcvorii I^jj*, uhi-tber dtt!m«(l 
or oven 4K)ug:1it io bo brougbt wiibin it or not, bolon^ to tli6 
Other <iompc)iii?Dtf to the olomefit of orlntrwy rctnuiiL 

It 11 tliiv hitriUute ihaJt ift «veTj*wliore inott abuiidAot uid 
inojit appATCut in nil Ibv ^vi-fu(i>vuU wlik-L m^ii liuv^tvbi 
lisbod, I ncod not mcBiIoii thoee offoru which havo boca 
and vo coiulanlt/ b«1&g mado triUi n tv«I intention An th« 
put of govvminont to MOurc tbo right* of tJio ]wopt(<, bnC 
wlitt^ fall from ignonn^ or nndito I3Qa] to aocompliflli Unq 
end, altboiiKh llut thero aro maitj »iacih Is attested » tfaonsna 
tinuK hy hht/>ry, and thooe tet» of power «lbi«ii w«m rxor- 
Cu^ tod appilatij^r*! in one contor)' ir» donouncvd if tboj 
«ui iii'^t be n^piLtrod in the next 1 neod onlj^ vpukk of MDch 
tt dome quite outside of bdj dofinition of prc-teoiion, und 
rvm\i ftoMyirotn thi: dtnirv, cuuplvd wilh ibeopporfuuilj-,' 
to ttrcngtbvD nnd >ggTftnr3i£«i tho govornlii^'cltM. TImto ia 
slwtjTB A pretext for all ituc\^ tkcU, and ibc pcoplo arc cuO^ 
raMlotolx-licvctJiat it 1« for th«4r iDrefvMt to obo j ibi'm;7« 
th«7 aro all pimr nAZiTpitionn, nnd wrve aa Illiitf ntiooi* uf th 
toodenciw of icovvrfJinunial r^^srunt Von> pvtifiilar ox* 
iOiplM of tliwd aclJ^ rv<|oinH], tbej- ftre oriTrj'wboro to 
band, Tho exi^ctco of rtandin^ armfoa in crerj ed 



of tbo globo la peris^ liie moai &mtlLir oti<u The allcgctl 
noooMtj of lUnifijig annic« iMntHj bM no MUir Uk«lfl iloa 
tbo tl^oiTV of certain pcnooit ti> proUct thcnuH^vc* in die 
righl to note Vfvv orriaiu lnw!U of uv^wtrjr tutd txriala poo- 
plea, Tliuiiiho jtunftouiouof var. It cmniiily ^nol for 
tbc iBtcmtt fit Ibn pixofilo to havo their fiHd* Uld muto^ 
liH;ir bOMM bUHinl, tbeii- i&OMit of mbcvtviici- tiiki;n awav, 
ibeir rubdrw anil frioudi Wiot down, and ihmr i>wo lives 
Mcnfipod. Tlio6e tbin^ fiCiDding aloiw, ae tiie laimoJUto 
mini ineviuhio inridtuilji nf wnr, cab itot ocrtiu'nlv be iirgod 
M cootHbutinff to tilt brnjifiionw of auj pcopW. Awt ret 
tbi« is tb^Iuiolj all ibey rvv^^t in ratarn for ira^nt- it 
Tbc nicdm&ic of Eb^lADd can certainly derive BO utfefaotioa 
from tba fWntmolion of x Fr«:ni^inaji> rini^rd ftnit Kix im- 
pov«4r|aliiiM!nl aad rttin. Il u not tbe bii]>pim»» of tlic iiutuat 
Ibxt vmr toiuia to pivn>ut«. No ooe will eUbo Uiai Kuropo 
- JL A, tbo people of Karopc— taken of a wholo, arc better off 
iil^ a loiif; *rar, wbitb o«!j offcra in L-Mbanp- fop ibo blowl 
tlttt W Ixvn iili«0, uiid tite iiittuvtrv that hu bwu mubed 
oot, an ah^ntlou lu luiuo tli^it partieular of tb^ boundarios 
of tlii* potiticBl diriido«ia. And if it be nrgcid tbnt otjc peo- 
ple il ciicnpcllcd to go to inr to prcrcnt fiKrri^ powett from 
d«Mln>>int; tU (^ivmment and 4Mlabli«biii|; u »orw on* 0T«r 
tbom, tfalA obI^ iblftfi tb^ qTioetion ^n tile invjilod to tbe 
lartflor, and it hua now onj^ to bo Jukf^d, What udvnntogu ut 
it to a pcoptr to pxteiul Ib^ir goTtrnmeiit by war ov«r otber 
naiivii* onKilliD^ to ocajupl ilt Tliot, by cBrrying it back, 
the objeotJoo proTce to bo wholly iuugioary, aa far a« rv^^ud* 
tltrr volfan> of iIm people, and rsw onlj be scHomly nlficd 
bjr kif^ and ntlciv. ^ 

Tbiv c^-mc«it of lE^TOfnroettt^ ^^ wbolly QmM?cic«Mr>' 
and prfrjatliirUI to tli^ intcnfitd of iho people, k ihv oqu 
whii^b littj mf)t4 nc«>j to rid tbcuMrlvca of, and tbfl one Huay 
v-m undoiibcedly iint vluko off. Prc^iwlj bow 7ong it will 
bo bvfen an^ one people «111 liave fully fiQococdod bi ofconi- 
plMdoit tbi« oibJccC oaa 501^ of oooveor ^ pfvdicted- That 


PltOGKE!^— TRCM^T tfEATfft. 

tuKin IiJk« tha* fur tUmu k> viui bv Wclj Klllrniit<(U Suoee«« In 
thK iliroctkiii mi»t licpecd «i>tlr«l^ opcm iho iiiUtHi^noo of 
tbu |NH>]^. In them n1tiinnU<l/ lio« bU power. Thw Ais«r^ 
tkip, it ia Uvc, t* trite, but, ofteo w H ii rn^de and rvpeoto^i, 
rety fow nwUio iU full muiru:^^. It iu«uw tbie : If ftU tbo 
people dt»<ii0 whtt eoorvo of accioti wv fur tlwur b«rt iutoroetSv 
tli^jr «n>i]td eertftiEtl^ parvoc t1ia£ cotine. It ut not for thtdr 
bwl intenaui^ 1o impport the nfnrrpjuiotu of \\m ^mmin^ 
cUn; thvrvfun; ihwe luarjx&lioita would utA hv ftupport««]. 
No iisur|>atiOQ oould poasibty bu pmctlcod unloec e-tipportod 
hj tlw fotv^ c»f *wmft portinn of llie people* C-iwu*rj[]PHtIy, 
if no portion of tlic pctiplv utn? t^iorvit vf their uirii m> 
toroit^T tltvre could bu no uMirp&liou. An army k no luMl 
R portion at a poople tL:in Ii^ a eliorld^d /v:]>fiAf. Yol II La Atv 
miet ilmofit alKi^b^ th.-u f^iuhlif dr-dp.irji to cArry out tlic4r 
MbeuMfi of idf-a^gnuidUcuicot. AttU nut uufre<jueattv tl]« 
fMivoeHi^tfolBW performs ik«nnieonou. So Ioi^m people 
fn tbe eapadty of »oldI«rfl or dvlt officers ataud lij ^d n^ 
bold bj fon^f^ ihp icfA nf cnnning nilon. d«v*ted to incrcMM 
thvir powf-T i>r Ibcir rvrcriius ■( tbo vxpMieo of Xlxe inanM 
wlio iitoludu tbwe muo ^oLdicra and offic«r9. ■«> long will 
tboro be mnrpnlton, opfronion, and var. TbU it dmplT a 
Uw of linTiun natnrrv M,nd un not be pEvvoDled by nicindu- 
in^r- It I* uDpbilu«^p^ix^ to Mttnbate it to the witkodn<«e 
of ral«n. TliU uiHbod of vhupcrAtkm and don uncial ion 
U« boon long tried, ^nd haa irbolljr fftilod. Wem tbv plac«» 
of tbo ccmnrcd nnd ibe cen«iLT«r rovonwd, tho vefio wooM 
h; ouullcrvd, UuiniLu nattinj it uniform. Like raiimM pnv 
duoo lik« cffecta !u Bocial a« in plkviie^l jth^nutmtnt. If, 
thf^Ti^ we can not bknie tbo opitrMflor, #ball we bt&Tne tb« 
Oppn^edl Certninlj not. To blamu !a ludoMi^ A|zu&»t 
tblft ijKd and ainaitilkblc law of nalnro cbci« tnntf be ttt 
op tbo artiftdal barrier of unS^foval hnow1odg«. Th(^ U^ 
«il1 not AMMT to fTxii^ but the drcuniktancd* wonM tbett 
be C'huiK^d. If tbe iorliiurNkn i« not i^uiovud. tlio po^ur 
U Uk«a awaj, and the prvblwi la lolrod ; for, bovovtr 

rujwmnATi ruscnoKa 


gTMt tLe Owirr-, it caa not bo gnliti«d witbout Uie power 
to gnilifjr il. If M kiu; mum >o uppromivfi ilocruv, oiid clio 
mbj<«t» ivfiuo to tittcj ic, a»d Uio suklSem rafuM to cnfonsc 
it, wM iMcomM of tj'raanjl Its "* ooc«|ntloD^B gvn«." 
AdO ff ilU tliuK know il W In ooDtinrj to tfavir 4»wn inteiw^ 
ihut Lhi'j' vrill tliuA iu.-t b «fl canain tf tlat tb& king vHD neAk 
Ait intemtf elnoo it i« gorfimcfd bj the fwue kw. Thero 
is }}»n ft fwoApcrt, mmI a coim]mmiin^Ij' neit/ prrwpMt, of 
cKjuinttoig from hmoan ijCorcriuiNut tlii* vbttKuit of ro- 
Atninli and of plunging it from tbe niture *jt fftn^^mmtnit 
which U now pomiftsm into tlmt of b proCccwratCp p«t« and 

LK im E»uw MM luuw tlii* M>vocid vlvmant Je to bo «lii&i- 
nateil. Tiiu eondilton of »ocitfljr U nut mch m to nuod tbo 
onirol of K f^TtiDmcnt, but It i» »>rulnl; BDcb u to T«» 
qoirolJwfap«m«icnof a pvotcctonlo. TIivtv \b nvQOtmirj 
om tilt gMw in vhidi thorv um not found (4mo penonewhio 
hire not /«< Bvfldcotl^ caoerged from btrtiMMn to i«oil«r 
jtutm to didr fcHovn in aXi ^wboi, and to rcfnia from injure 
ing OtuMurbo l:i)>ixTt^ to crcfltt ttivtr p«tb. It u for tba»o anfl 
for thaa odIjt iLot a procoGtorato (s n^nln>d : it cut bo di»^ 
pt-nMxl witb at kooai oa kucfa cbinu?(vf« <««ae to oxiM in »o- 
?i«ty. Tl» q«M(»0D, tbereforo, of bow long Uw wortd wU! 
ne&il a protcctorato Is tbo »mo with tlutt of how long thero 
will bo flani^roita ptfvMW iDaodetj. Theoommon notion 
that thiit mivt alirjiYB bo hoauao man la ImpeKeot* b aittoa- 
nUisaatl willu>apfioarnponaell^bt<«3camlnatlon. ItMimmm 
that A pcnon, benuue be ia nort jiertt^t to all thlnKa^ mutt 
P« g WifcH(jr bo lijilile lo cunimit criinv; that is. evrrj one 
iDoit be tbu# liaUi>. Yut Lov- filao k thii| con^der^ in the 
lj;^t of facu 1 Js there then no om^ who k not lUbJe to eom- 

«riTm*t Oan yom nut joiir ^^^ nbnot yon *rid fix them 
no fftnglo trMlit-kluH] who W er^r ooums ithhiij To«r 
lukowI«iil^ (ir obwrvDUuu, whom yon do not bcaliolo to pro- 
n-'ttj^of* mtirvtv ImrmlMi j On iht: <'0btrtt7', vbo ran not 
mA't't ^mivtriM?^ fr.tT^ «nioo^hu iiptghboTa,aieqiuintaDeei,a&d 


friutiiin, whgim lio doot no; rcgivrd m in tho Unst dangunnia 
to Boclotyl Om he not cnumcnito nuiiv wlio, though pa«- 
ieMln^ foibles and imperfectioaa in domtnon with aII mfto* 
kind, mi^ht ycrt be iniM«d among tlicir f«11owt witiiuat Uw 
)uu«( rvk gf prupurtv, tife, pr lUuU I Luc tv ix>cno ouorctr 
boDic. Dees iitG reader himself eatevtala uijr Apprehciu«m 
t]»t socioty wonM bo likdj 1o ftiiff«t from rioleiire at Iiib 
baQd«,cvirn if thormrcrr^ not t penal afltQt9nor«ii««oouUvv 
oflicL-T tit ihns luuj T l>ixv Ittf nut fv«l thai il W aol for bitn 
that lil tboM law wcnj frunod t And wblle be mar «i1]!ofcl/ 
GonfoH JiiniMfilf im|)cr£uct, "wil) he .vlnttc HiAf, 1-i<> rhi^n^friro 
iwofh U> bo pnt nQder ivatrainl (u i>rcvi:!til hiiD fri>tu Jiaiirb- 
iog tbo peM* oo^ TJoUtiug iLtf ri^u uf aook-tj*! Yet lam 
be aasomG tbat bo coneiinitt^ a Eolltorv osocptlon \n bid on- 
tiiD cnmmnriity t I'robabljr not. U b n^f tnir- thni nil mofi 
arc duA^roiui ; tbnt dl ncod to bo fon^blj n^^traiiicO tc pns 
veiii tbuinfroiaiujuriii^o]ie»t<»tl»3r« It ie oiil_v u vi^rj' unaU 
part that oocAooti the necca^itf for poniJ \av* Tbo other 
part mmt loleraui it r\* lew grioroii* tban fbr flnngf^n which 
iU sberacio iroald in^^lvc. Yet tliu U llic lw«uited libvrtj 
vhic^ tK> many ^at wrictijv bavcr cxtoUud, I]l*»r1y regulated 
«t)il Umited bj law. Some bavo ^ren «ald tbat thm i» nil 
tlkal llbarly nuuiii-f Such liberty mcvn that the irnioc«tit 
anuX Buffer for tbo ^ilty ; tbftt Iwobvac q, part uf *o^uty U 
dcpr&vi>d, tbo r««il lami Lave ooeroiu aitd odioud bw ea- 
aei-^d. which, thongb mtAe for ihair pi^tcction. tako nwmj 
half tLeir Ubua1i« und d*«irojr m«ch of their Imppinffia. 

• F»^ tiieMif>f3 iLiir bwa tD*Jt » ittawAM thp proportSao ^ Ifaa popn- 

of ttl» tmJ riiiTt rvKDltf t«o mroriltfl »n lb* 9u»e of fcfltan*. ud fm^ fv 
foan4 piMMiKl th ihd " IV^ Atniijil R^[>Dr4 of ifac Uorcui at SiMiiUa «bI 
(M^IT of ti*»uifc," ?»(:» 4«, fto««UD« to »Mcb Ih-n* »lirt» h lUl ft»l« 

ef <l» nurnw makvt lh« fnHnvtrtn iiaps-Uvc Hjuiuirmii npan «»« >««lWltf J 
" Pn Itib hdaO t^nita t4 wu por^iat^on «I1 mit Hmfcinl l«n an MArih" 

tuxomvjiT£ iT^cno!fs. 


law# uv Q«coc«r^t ^^^ h*KMa^ mui b irop^^et, but 

Tbo qacaUoiu reniAiB, Wliat prc-portJon of cociutj' U Uuu 
dcpr«Tcd f How litg» ft ptft of Mcii-*iy nuod no Uvr to n>- 
itn-iu t2iutu Cruai iDJonug uitlivnT Tliu dLffora in difFerent 
[ftQiiuitrititf. ±n^ in di^oretii p&fte of tbo «inii counlrr* '^'o^ 
fng the cirilicf^fl world in itn m.»eml4ft Uio two daote ire 
perhApA «qtiAlljr diridoil, TiLkin^ \ht atMt cnllgbteued 
purEit uf il, tbe 4bi]|p*roitd ciem«Eit w rrdor4xl to a mull 
Notion, Not to qwflk of «nLiKhtctiDiJ Engluid, culinfod 
Ounujtnj, nnd wacntitlc Pmiice, Hwrt aru douUkv toviu 
ftiid <wuritJM, And pt^rliapA wbule cicira, in tho UnHod 8Ule0, 
«Ti<9« oaly Oinc msii in a iitiiidrwd conld br induncd to con- 
niit ftcrimva^nrt bu fvllowuun. Ervry onv'n rfflectson 
iud recolleedoo vUL vevifj ilii« oundti^ioa. Aud it ie oiilv 
for the mko of thwc few llmc til must boftr the bunloiM of 
IptToniinvdit How cad thntc (ccdii of diHBfrnxion Iw re> 
tuuvnJ Srmu llic bvdy po]iiIc f In ihv **mv iuauhvt Lbtl tbo 
tshm now liaimkH har^ booti reudurvd #0. la Uie ttmc 
W^ iLu yi>3 and I limro bt^cn liftc*! out of MVi^;ciy nod 
bariitnAm into friviliE&tion nnd cDlijcliIfnti^frnL TIk-jt mn«t 
limply be civiluod. Titejr ^xn n*j yrvnn than wv vo. '* All 
mm uv cn^fttvl oriqAl/" I donbi v]>ctlior even Jofforwn 
fell the full im|K»rt of U^ut tmth. '- Ho buiUlcd hoUor thun 
10 kni^w." Tho l&mnio* of our priaonfl are bot Um victims 

aiktowvd drciimjiUn4^e«. Tho itmrdcm bis bat acCod 
ODi hi» oduc^iun. Would yoa cksui^ liu uoodud, duuigo 
bU uliiJ^Ktion. 

Wlxm 0ttD )tu «iin^(N»!<^ in «litn:natinf; from gowim- 
Binil iU two elpinfiitA, cootrol &ud p«tt««rCioQ, v)i4t will 
bo Irfl t Tliftl flf acr^niiomlAlion. Aitd iuu»t tlu^ too, be 
floslly viutooiivd ftnjr bjr ilio giooi fan of intciligcncot 
No. It iiKiA nnuln. It mn iuit«r W diffptnand witb. The 
10 in thm t^oMi it b^v^mo nun i« imperfert. H^ {» noi- 
klbi<|Dito<ift,omniHdc<it,nor omDipotnit: lionm bo qimhI* 

[it« (o tnuuACt biuuDUft in locftlitiu* wLurv bo cau not bu i 



0119 «un li^ alToril lli^^ liin^- t(j ai^^nunt hiiotdf ; miul to p^t- 
form iliiltoK bv muuiA uf urgmiifniba whidi iDdivkltuiLt, act- 
ing intlppenvlvatl^, tog1<1 not po»e(B ihe Btrengtb to pttr* 
form. In thort, tocavty nmd« »id nnbt dirajs bftfv «b 
Ol^guuKod ogtmc? to rvprcMot iu 

Ttiin orgnniutiou. Iicrirorcf, iroulii, in an sdvamyid Mato 
ot «oetetjr, rapmiuDL Ax-iotjr In het m wdl u 1q nAine. I1 
wovld b^ III* fi«nrAnt of Rooictj iMtad vS iu duhIct, ji« i« 
DOW t^io cwc nrvn wit^ tbof« govprvnunto wUcli c«ll iLan* 
idvoft reprfsACDUiiive. ft vraiUd, moreorer, fcpivsent the 
vboto of «i>^iptjr snd nnt n cIam, or to tli^ «MliiHioii of mty 
otMi ; tiritt ii, •Tory rndttlt (komon wanld have ft v(nc« in UiJo 
iulruciioii <if ibt agoitU ; atttl tliougli, u it vookl fvojn mint 
olirny* tte ihc cur, Tianj of tltA m«aum idc^ud wonld bo 
objertiofijible to »oine> mH] [t nippoae* a MaI« of gvttenl 
Miligbtuament wlitclt would bo inconipatiblo with t?JO po«- 
•niilltjF of ^ny diftturbftnco uf tho public tranijiiinitj from 
CUMS of thi« mtnre. 

(^^vcmiitvnt^ lu nt pfoicnt rotwtitntodT nmy be conipArei 
to (rrizthi Ur]^< atoclc coaipauivi. lavtad of bcdt^ muuif-^] 
in ih(! intrrvffM of tlw fnookhol'kn. they MKtnuiM^ irt Ote 
intcrmhi of thi^ i^i?i?rii. Tn riork oofnpATiic« thii ii apt to b« 
1h« 0JU9 in proportiuti to 1W nnmbarr ^f f^octlioldctv utd tlio 
tooillooH of vQcb 000*0 intcrtvt. TItnis m lut mfnimiro com* 
pojty In vhlrh CMb |M>l]£y-1iolder i« m a aeiiM a 4t<>r If holder, 
lbM« gtoir^nllv know and can nothing abi^nl the trav in 
wLkJi tbu ooti\\iMny b nujingod, m loof; u It u kept aomid, 
and. if tlie>" felt an inicrM, they ironld have no power to 
inflnoiMC it» poUry. Gnrvrnment teaccbaHock cmmpAnj 
Trith niilliniuof nt^klioldcm wboM individnal mtere«ta are 
rtry <roRllr <ir at kttatt mnt *o reifardvO br IbviTi ; bi>n(« oppor- 
liiiitiv to mann^ tb» oompioj id tho loicrrofit^ of tlic din.-ct- 
orv ia alm<«t unUmitod. Tho«c vhn imagiTio (hat rqxrvtfont- 
otivr f(nv(Tfntn«»ta form an M»]>Mon t^ thia law, ^mply 
Utn^inUc tho «ki#c with which »1ockholdon an di^ooiTiyL 



lIuq Tot \\m lucofiuiMMiatkuq ol tociotjr, diuk bo la 

dlmciion of leqvaintJng every member of ftocteijr mora 

iljr with ihrr iptx^Al ttthiff of th^ hmtiliilior), and 

IhwM far wo btv* ^onmdorM ^Tfirameat mch m it acCv- 
ftUj u. and uicb m hntorj- Hhwa it tc h&ve beien iu nU ih? 
pB0t luiown to i». It bn a1w>v« poiMiVOil thn three ili«tia<£ 
MtrilmtM of n^trnitit, protection, and MyommodAlioa ; do 
B0«cfinDDiil boin^ jto mdo at wliolly to b-*iU tlio bat, or to 
perfect m lo Imie irlioll^r dujicTiiiiH witli t\m firfit, wlii!« tho 
ptmnd Im oror conatUutod botli tbo opolo^ for, uid tba 
roMon iTHrv '>f, the inMUuTEon ItAclf. 

In thm cipciHcr gi>T«r&RienC Of>cn]>*o» » pocoKAr ftttitndo 
lovtrd ibe truo progn»o of mjuikbid, cijniniMilng to H iial_t 
iodlreHtf m % couoorrer of the raalljr jatignedTt clentetiia 
ni Mci«CTf while at the mmt time reading directly sihI 
powcrfiilly agiiiwt it in roelnuning homan liWrtj an6 in 
K> fjir dinintfJiuig liuman happtavM^ Vot theie oppMbig 
Inftoonoea are ioctpAhle of 60Da|MrlMftf vlxh a liew to lucor- 
tamie^ tlje reRill&nt, unro tbcy are, »» It wi^m, of diffim>Dt 
dcDomiiutiona. An rndirw^ inflnotsra* cjm i»ot be- A>ii]|iuvd 
«ith a direct 0119, noil tbu cjilurc uf tbo fbrroor him Wu mvb 
Id ibis o>w that there h no other etandud by which it» im- 
pofflaDee «mi bo relallTiely MoertaJnod. Tliif much at kxt 
miu4 1)0 ttid for it ttiftt, in iui r\Vtf of proU.<ctor, icoTemmnit 
baa been iiidlf|>«DMblt to pnt^re^, r. ^.^ tboeglt It hm aot 
booD a procnoter. It lias cc rtnlrtlv l^ran a mr ^114 nm of it- 

Wr have »Min thit in the irulitoii/tn m it now exkfta, and 
haAexWlod in tbo pa*t« do dirvolk |rr>.t|,-TOMt*e«ienkent e«n 
be found* Aa was shown at ibe outeet, tlie j>opiiUp view (o 
the coQirary b wholly «vpi>naona. The ivportance o£ the 
lOf&eM aucnitbtir i^owiinD**)! ^ prroaily ovocvnliDatod. 

lEtlttd efeitta, nillJlaiy din^AMmUj and the acrriDe* aDd 



iKiicvoen^tB of gmt 0100, wliich tnsjat nji tbo balk of wItAt 
» cflllod bnmflD biMonr, am rvolljr of tUUfi ^ODftcqiUincc, and 
in mccct ca£«A mif^lu aa Wf^ll Iiatq beoo ihe f^>pcdto of what 
Ihsy woiv* Tlio idoft wbicli mnny «ntcriun, Ituit b&t for joU 
?ik)l little triuriipl^ji iin hvm hai^pt^ued to wuor, ttic nxicld 
wodIiI tmvo bcvii ji Lkiik fifl i>:iirciiijv piwrile. Kt«a [f it 
be irue tliat iho Katl*^ ^f Tonrs dcridt^rl th«i<jai7«tioii whrtli*r 
MoliiLmoiiNiutwin or Vhmtiamiy wiu to bt? the pfevailing 
rvli^Ltti of EiirvjH.% uvvvrtlK^nB, it watv » t^uoitlon of minor 
ioiport;inoe wliloli nay thit battlo wqa decided. Tbo pcoplo 
of KHfftfH*. wonld h.ivf* br«*n tlii? mqic people, -whotlif^ tbcjr 
wvmbipvd in a inosqoc or 10 a cutbedral, veb«tbvrib«7 fol* 
lowrd H crvticeiit or » vivm. A fwr of llie naines and dal«« 
of Kijropcnn hirttoiy would hnro bvt;Ticliu^vc),t]ie imogintry 
linj-** wliich liortDi! tbo prcniMit poliUcul dkbloiw iDi^Ut fa*ro 
occi]pi«d dUTer^t poutioiia ou tbe niap, Mttd olber minor 
differenoM would bAie been aeon thrcnigbout Utc rv«l of £u- 
ropcV hLjtof7 ; but whether nioro or tcM troo progrcsfl iroald 
h^rc mniltel in a prohlc-'m whii^b no nne will «!rrr bn aUh to 
«otre- Tbe \Uiw «k jII cvme wbvn not ouljr tliii event, but all 
tliir |>olrtk<iU ov(iEit^ *if modarm liKtorj, indndiuff tbo«Q of tbo 
immediaio pr^iciitf upon wbich mo^ mcQ tbliik all future 
progren Ea to depend, will be looked npou hk wo now look 
upon llir politicft) ercntjiof increat Gn?*ee ia Uie tiimi of 
I>cnKMtbctLi«. Uaroaa progT^fls dv^jx^od^ upon deeper )aw«, 
Em<l wonld rtol ha.\v been um^tod hod thoro nevor lived a 
WdU&gton or a Wu^hingtoa In fuct, moat biatonc crcnta 
raprtaent th« multant of oppcHtini; forotn iii Mocivtjr, oftm 
n(!iuly ei^tully bKlaneod, n> tliat th« triumpb of the OppgcitO 
p^nj' would, In mort cacos bare given about tho aud de- 
gn» of aatin^tion a» did tbo actual t^rtn^ and it iei j:eu«nUy 
impriMible to 4&j- whif^b woidd bav* been ui>ou ibc wltolo 
bcrt for tbo race, Tb««e iKtIhicul evuDt* m iutniVLtcly ro- 
blod lo g;uven]ini-nt inaj bo apily compared to (lie moteoro- 
logleal piioTtou^eua wbSeh aro con«tantlj tokm^ jdaoe upon 
tiieanrfncGof the oftith, AreMof low baronwtor iro goiu 



ciutiiU art fomaad, ttArnu folio* oti6 ^notlMr 
LU And i^^nliDonli iriiid* rt^ $tt tiinc*, lonkadoci* obmI «-j 
cIohm dcvHtatL^ tlic Ijmci ; tltvtt ^m ^iwirk, nnd aqq«I)Uic 
gkddaw all bonik Tbi± olenraute Imtq Uie appoaruout? of 
being Ht w^ dming tltc grMtcr p«n of tho tfmcv wiih Hoc- 
iDAlin^ ttttxr^ai^ tomvtimt* au orto Mt and nometjine* on 
tbovtlier. Vet a n4iwp«<.'(ivv vit'w bIkjuv Uiul tbv c-jj 
Cjpoodlq; Boaume of difforml v^ire do »o: iiuiceriall/ diifeTf 
Bfid ibc «uto of tlic vorlil, ftietfiorolcigicfllljf cooiiElcrccl, b 
the Mmc now tbokl it wu n fpnturj or U:n fvnturitt 
Tli« iiMAt >iiili-iil Btontj Iidii lidd uv iullupucv iu aLtlvHug 
gotwnl idontitjr of ili tfowoos uid all ywn- If. in fuel, 
Biodeni wicnoti Kctnn to toftdt^ tbcrv in going on a nlow 
imperco|iti1>k) cbuige of climato upon the «Artb, tlik u ni 
iluD lo tbu cjionct^ uf viail^e muU^ufologLCttl pbfUoEDi 
but to VA^ ooamlcd pn>oe«QCv either nfetn>nomi«&J or 
tntt, Tfrrkiftg McnUr cbangM in the former, and prodncfn^ 
wccoNoti of glacul vpocho in oim or bolb hum^iberefli, and 
pvriipfl >liiftipj[ tlie pr«ponderAnc« of land fnoia ooo hemi- 
^er« to ihu othor 

If ve MO cocnpdki« the &i«ieon>IogimT phonomnu of cli- 
maio to iho ^;otwtiniMitftl pbcnoomui of aoeulj, to wt- mi 
cMtuporo tiw iuflncikee of tJieM eottdifal ptocea«» U> tlmt 
the vereral prof^reasivc i^ndoa oooatdefed in die c&rij port 
of this cl^|it«r 

AMixioRAnvK nnrmoy of oorxicnrarr. 

From mIujI ftorrmnimi we -vill now pM> to poinbli 
gOTi*mr:i<rnt, WLJIe conaidi-riD^ Uio v^ooenmodfltive «leuii 
of piTommvot, it W» raoiub^ ibeit in mipo dirvcfioiu lliu 
futiclloii doMi; aprprocohcA Ukt amdiortitive. Tli&t it 
■over aotnallj rvMiTivd it f^n not be Atfirtnt^d. Bnl it 
Mfoly b* i»ld tliAt If govemmcfit Iiu over dirertlj impravi 
llw condltioQ of iH)c!iTljr, or ffivim it a prvgnMrt impfiWv, it 
Ittui bran from AlrietlT empCncvl mnt!v«A, Government 
oerer rooqgmscd tbo exWteiKc of ftockl forces <^ ^^t* ^i 


tho objed of fit'icnlific »lud>% witb « view i« njitcmitiolljr 
i:(>ntnjllin^ Anil dJrwcUit^ fii«iD. 

TLunj u« now in v^dotj two opposing ctMntf of poHtfra] 
oeonotnEiEA, bot!i of w)i)di profc« xa r«prrA«^nt the nntnlif n 
molbod in ^ov«ninL«ui, n^ltliOT of wljlch, liovr^rtr, at ail 

ei^^ili^ilion — vlt., tHmu^li inrc-ntiooi. NpithcT hove ertr 
mode ibo taat TOmparinon of logi&lAlioD iHfU nieflLUiioil in- 
viention. Both fciil to l'H>k upon IpgibtnTion m ad ui^ rc«t- 
io^, MVe nU Otb«r utH. niton iidoiii^, und cApablo of m mudi 
lugher di*v&lopmoiit wb*;a ht8vd upon u ^niteiiMlit? nivpuuDt- 
uico with HAtTintJ phcnomcTta and Um thaa wli^n 1>u«d 
Tipoo t iii3p«friicUI arqtiAintftrkr^ «Uh Ji fovApcviAl omw^iii 
other foTTTiA of &rt arc Uftpmljlu of liiglivrdcr?lopiiKiRt wliva 
liftWil on n'hulliodlc!:!! eci^nc^ tlian when ha^il on uji {£kcollei^ 
cut empirioijm. AtkI yr-T bf^th nrrvf^ntc- ti> tliriiK^^rcft tbd 
title iicJt-nlifio. Thi*, of coonw, m nalurAl cnoiiKb. 

lU«pt-dubility huiU(lia'iku)LaffvK Whi-m^eraMrtJutig 
lioooim* ntifvot-Lipblc, II U cerlaio to hav« lu nniiie ap^^ropj^ 
a(ed, Tliia i* jwrlicuUrly tjic rape M tijc prmocit time with 
■cicnw. There U nothing noKT h> rmp^ctftbl^, and ht^nce it 
hu botvcue Uiv ^inliiois to (ull every tUicg bjr ihM iiairnv. Zq 
view of ihU tondunf^^ If would bo dairablo to bare a dcfinl- 
tioD of fdVn<it\ It voeld bo imporfauil to huro flomo di^ito 
ttttfajvbkb true «cicn(« could be diBtingtEiAli^J f rom pFVudo- 

PcrtiBp« tlie m^t MCoeiflfQl allctnpt thuK far tnodc to 
<*4t4ibli«h MKh ■ t«itinu that of M. Aii^^e Comto. Ho 
nilUltt«iDod that tJie po^cr of pr^nii^n h llie »irnbiltft bj 
wliirh vcloiice ifi to bo umfonnlr liuliriguJ^Lod from inere 
^ti^iti&n * CO ilie OEH) band, and from the fiK-n> ocuiiuiuktioJi 
of ilftU fm tbo fiihf>r, TKiA gMif^nliution i« oolj fi]ip:htly 
evlfliireil br Hijm^ tiiat ndtnoc ii dtKlingniAhed by nwking 
koowliMlifB a inoaua to Mine eod Instead of an «nd in itaelf, 
Tfait is uniloabtodljp tho trtn rlow, and U lu«u> uotbing of 



Su vtrftjr b^««ue fu ApplLntfinti rM mdj ««e«p« am^ all 
tJi« cliHrUtHaMcn and ililc-tUnti^Hni thai now fj^a bj tiM name 
of adcitety ^^ pnms li^ "|xhi mooh of tlie «|>emli«m, 
dinijVKO pre^'ikntf wliloh Iua UitHy Mtt iiwK up la oun- 
atttuiing uf<nu« par aeooUfnot (vol. i, p, 2Z^ 

Aidod; thocc 4iliUctiHl to**fcl«n1in^ (bo llr^r?^* fvf >c>* 
to Icud rofpocUfjUit^ to tlielr work, thotild ^rohaiAy h^ 
inUonod 4mt the eQ-i»tJed monl^CMuov vritvre. 'Drair 
works amally iiwlicat« tbat dm autlion Iihvq ao jiut oootvp' 
tioa of what M?i«noe or tli^r KifintJIle noUiod ^ N«xt after 
then tlw "* «>crut4ci«Qvv " vnUin and worion tf« doubUeM 
iDOM deulj open to ibto diargo* Tliii «bv« u pcq>cii:tan7 
VtTrnnp itV<^iil tli^ onntiim ol tnw aodal Adencc^ without 
cvc-r furlv nntiirin^ iti territory'. Tlw |mkO«edfnp;> of Uin 
•ooftl •duQw BMKicbiCidiu «kiw UiaI i)>«ir Ixhttn %n cou- 
fined to tlio moet dorivadry aitil aapoHicul ivcalb of tho 
Otwimtinn* »f Mdal lawK, torh m qnoMiou ol ttnatuv, pri* 
nl« dnrit/, booaea Tur operaiitiQi, «ltferiMayiHU7 «efaeiiM«, c(c. 
Tk«M belong Ut «oonoci>lc«, |>oUoo re^il&lioii, ck.. nQ<] 'lo 
not <I«M»To to bo calM »ocuil tcktwoL Tboy >re Jiii|K>rtjint 
p»cl£icnl mftttifra of aiiniiotitnUioii, no ilmihi, Unt tbrj iro 
not M-itftkcc. 

Anotbtrr meuk of a roal ecteuM Iv tliot it innat cnibrmoc 
tl>D two Mbigci, ihti jNftfv ui<l X\k ^ppiie^ All esiflrliifr mU 
ami poMOM tJMW. Ii &» tlE« prjrt^l Mrviw tfi4l mesoe 
lias don* vhlda r^nd^n 1E oo )uf(lily roiptwUUJu, but thla Tm 
oiil^ bron poMbJu iu tlio applied et^K^. Tba object of pun: 
■rianee ia to />rac/fW. -- Voir p^ur p^^mir" Ktyt^'M.OGnit^ 
finl tbe objoct <jf |»revidian in Applkvtiroi,* Tlic pnro and 
ftpplied tiagM of a science uv bolli rqiiallv OMntiaL With- 
oat tii« pore vtajiv all &tt«iDpU at Appll«atioD ronu be wliollj 
Mi nukdon. On tbe otbor linnd, pnfo aeJoiMo aknu t»n«t 
RDufin fur fTV«r ttii!h«> 

Tt ia ft nnurbibb fact tbtt Wb of tliea« A)>E>art<i»^/ «)f' 
It prapoihioQa ieem to b« widdj l^ored. On tba 


1'H0a»Efl8^P1t|UA]{Y UKMta. 

fine bacd. ire And a prov!il<*iii belief rvfipecdng some of £li« 
l«M^ ivimgik-ic ncJenonif that their thipf or nnXj ralii^ conmu 
in AninqiimDluMairith rJlci^pun^p^^tcipk«atlJfu:CJ; wliile, 
oo tLe otlier Jiaxi4, we fiaJ irjtli nnpecl lo Oie mv>t eumplcjt 
eclencas ^uch &« iueraJ& aod ^ociolcigy, 31 coEutaot o^i>rt lo 
appiv prir^ciplj'* for tli« «rtAJ>lt*hi>ii^nt i>r wbicli 110 dtita hnvo 
jcl !>ccu poIIocUhI, ThU i* all verjr jjaraduxical, iiuaiDoeti 
Nb U u prevDwlj^ lliv revenw of ihftt wLieh wuulU iiulurall^' W 
looJccd for. Wlml U neoiteclt thovfoiv, t^swtm to bo— in tbe 
iomir •eioncm, more attf uttun lo Utc ipplied Htoge; in tb# 
tii:r «detic-n, inure alt^uttun lo the )[mre Bt*f^, 
It w» dooblltfi^ lbj» anc>umlj~ wliich prompcvd KkOi to 
tho Will ptx>po«itivti U> cs1al>lu»1] a tcwioo of pttf4 
morai*.* TLU jfropootiioit ]tB* not bMn reftpondcid to, liow* 
ever^ end w« ^-en not Iw A»id lo hav* any tnortl sdeooe J*t>t 
But HgnJriiil the «»ptfrliaiBl trvAtinvnt of thg eodal plienomena 
thcr^ Inii born a Krong rcflctton, and the priiiHpW of piiT« 
soc^olog} Lave botti in n threat meMiire formuUtfd* Liko 
all TCMlioflia. howettrr, tliie oiio baa cairii^d it« adTocat^un too 
hx. In tboir iatcAAe sonto of llic kt-k of djkia and of Inwa, 
thej liavc fiifB:ottoo ibftt tboiet vbmi aceurod. ar« proi^'Hy 
b^it llw mvana to tliv tifuiK vnd whie^ tbeir opp^aeulA ero 
vaJftly eorlciofr to nttnin WTthnnt ihrm. And itiTWwi> bavo 
tbo UDfpilAr Apoetaclo pnvonted in IIk* fiHd of mk-m1 M-ienco 
of on© clatt appljiiiji urrt>ti«*o^* pfiooiplw in iipioram* of 
true ypw. whtTo liufatinfc ll"»t Ibw b All of wdtl selcnoo ; and 
another HjUMrollecttiiff data and formnlariog lawn wliilit djs 
Harini; that thi« coDstJtntiv tht> only tru9 motliod of »oeI- 
cJogy. Tl^e one dw« infj^tn ibal thrm onii bo no pure aodal 
«QittK9t tho otber tba4 iKmt on )m? iuj apjdied &oc\a} et:Tcnci»t 
In one Hfna* natnni eeonomio ]aw«4nn not bn fymfrotluil, 

■ - KrlUk i1h Mivrri Vmiunfl,'* ft. MT*, &l!t 

UDi|Vfahria«iRi]]rfbn *-iii li'Tf< J0*l]pib>d, In p^Ming sol ilvrir Tor ibo 
Dm Umt iliu mnnli^ m pqmlArlj uailctfiooO; cflail< «if mtft ndca fcir WU 
ti« fe 4l>«a»d «VttdHI«B. llii'-AbnihiU&ihLdi'*artilKrTipii4cdiJlbebaill 
of ihrpgxvadcoeaL 

SCl£311]f 10 L&aiauTiov. 


i. «., ih^j Aui not 1)0 arbitrtrilf «fMl6d or deBtroyttl ; tbatr 
tdIejI itAtun» ctn ttot be chan^eivd. In tli9t9 l«qNKll,w 
hi «U oth«n, tbey ve iikutkol with tito phnicaJ, w m«i?lUii 
k»l, Uv« whli vUioL Uvetjtorft liavti to UcuL Bot m uurtlicr 
nsifo die former lu wll a« the btt^r c&n be cocitnJM. «\ «, 
tbnj AUi be ftnkLed bjr mniu of ulitidxl i^ericw iDto cbau- 
mla wlif<:Ji iIkpjt wi^uld oul olbonrM take, ud madu to 
otpwil tboMiwIvoB upon otliorobj«e«8 thu ibow vpoa vlilcli 
tbej Vp'oiilJ natnrallf cxpencl lhcnh«clvc«; lb«j nuj bo di*' 
IbutviLordiridisl tutu any namberof partft^ftml Ibwdfniiii- 
Kx] ill tij«r iht^RHtj- or prwjtkall; dtfctfujtHl ; uj- tbv> itmy 
bs uoiMlciiKcd or iiitoasili&d lo any roquired degree. la 
«hi4>rt, wl^aMver dbpocttiODft nwj be made of othn- nAtnml 
fcnwa bj min uid mvdcr 1k« influenoe i>f intellvietnal inni^bt, 
ma; in lilc^mftUDorboiiMd^ vJT Ibv tiodal f uwttii. Tbvrvfwrij, 
if ^vonuncnt oould bo in iho ha«d« of locul adontiits la- 
ittittJ of fodftl napiricbtf, it un^t he deratifd to tbn m&k 
of >iti ftp|>IJed K^uboe, or tbe nmple appUcation of tbo oelepp 
Citic priucijJc* i>f si^iaT I'boiionicnji. 

Ainfcivntilic inrcwtigutor, tlic IvgiiJiitor vrotiM tbvu *ot 
for binudf tbo taak of d^i^inf? nKonfi to render barmlctu 
tboMt forcna ttam tocn lo b« workiTjj; f>Ti) reaullB, and to vtOf 
dttT ufloftil tbo«is now niniiiiif; to vAote, ftot ocil^r vould ibe 
pf\w;oi p^>bibitivc k^btioQ, vrliicb Mwka to aoooinplt^ lb 
imda br ihi? dtrvy^, uf barat<^ motbod, b«? M|ddl}' eoppla&Uid 
hj ntinctn'^ le^^Latoa «<o<npli«hii^ it« pnrpoM* by tlic 
Sadiroct, or iiiMlediml, nictb^^I, Add ibtaa fnlltlHrts tho pro- 
triTtivr frin[-ti4i(i;L nf gnvpmoicrit at a iarlng of ^nonuou* Um 
ttirooj^b tliL* friL'tioa of opfKHiltkiA, bat tbe accotumudatEro 
funrtiuo wimld DOW bf In condition to adraikoo toward die 
pMitlon of i iral^ aiiMlkiniiivc one. Society, poaaaHOd 
for tlio fim time of a cocu|>lct<45 integnttod coai«noiutio», 
emldatlaM pn)0««d lomapmit aflddof indcpcodcrit ope» 
tloa f^/r tlw BjBl*Tni*iio r«dUa1ino of \u o«m intcrvata, in cbi^ 
miMi ntanoi>r t!at an inte)li|^uL aod Icvt-n^i^^lil**! indivvhuil 
|niwi«i Id* lifo-porpooa. Not obI; would pfvtcction and 



toromtnodfttiooi bo fccurwl wiihoat Icun of Ubcrtr and at tl 
Irvuft ^>o«HiblET coftt to KKncty, but dirvetly pro^tvulv« m 
urea wotild be adoptect looking to the orfEAni ration of humid 
fuppiDiva- Fiillj roaliiifig lh? cliJu^Ktei' uui mc^r ol ^P^'l 

irould not simply f oRtor and protMit ihe^s bui would lacreii 
AftH intrniof T thctn nnd tJicir inftftrr>*«, No longr-r donbdr 
Ibat jirogrcflt upon tlic vrhote iniut be in proportion to tl 
ih^Tvo And uuitentiUty of intvl]ig«iitfv, no vQort or «xpen 
would bo spared to impart to tfvexjF ci'tixcQ itn oqiiAl «n 
ailc<iiiAtn Amonat oif turfnl knowkdgG. 

Drioflf U> foriDViate tlie nodtfriyin^* prlncipK* of Uiie 
enation, wo tiu^ add in concltivioti tfiat, iiridly vpcokitig, 
htflncnpf! nil be progrodwiro wliScb ia not in SlAclf a t 
AH, EttMin^ j^ovL^nirii^nt, tboiigb artifioUl, w notirnrlf 
Art. It oiLTi not, UiCT^Tforv* buoowc a progroHivc iiutituti 
until tlioro Arv iinpr<««vd upou jt tlio norlui which dk>lia|;nii 
A imu arc. TliC arta an* tiot merely wjmwrvAtiTie* but 
tivit- Tiipy nnt onlj pTv#*rvr, hnt prodoce. Tb^y do d 
j«tivo maitvTt where ihvy ^nd them, but ourry thom 
li]gh«r Conden Ati ve loati IuUoha, « adt am pctuiil govcmnjo 
lilcv the [listnfbuictt of ibo Atntoipbcn^ or the ildc« of 
OMATi, ftftor bAring gone Ibmngb a rrde of cliAUgvA, ret 
lo tlie ftAmo (jordrliori* aw before tliov Iwgap, In crrativ^ i 
stiUiUoiis HPcb a» »ro tbe hiventivu iu1», tlio rhythm U 
odvAiiHiig one. IJjr however Uttlo, the flood €xo#«i]it iho eb 
And •Mwtj move*. Tli^y *rt; dyn;iioic»l^ &i>{ FtAliuI fo 

3[oreoTer, whaleviT i« not piv^rwajvu iuu«L ba rv 
Bivc Tbore it no Aut^h thing w ibsotuto nnL ConwrtiAti 
imlftulioti^ froii) thoir vvry naturv, irnpow rvtiuinU lipoid 
pm^PMi. Connn-nitfon Jmpli«ft limitAlic^a, Tlie foroibl 
Gurtifn^ of tho CMtrifi^l tendeticicfl of progrcwiro inatitt 
tion* in*o!v» grwu lo» Ibroaifb friciiiiu, sud thiit Icv^ ho 
ovor ncix-iBRArv ii> the L^xutonoe of Aucb inftttutloiu, U^ OOfl 
iidvr«d lu ICsedf, ab eA|>on*o to progmt. 



If wo look Mok rtvrr %hn hUlnry ^f IiagnAgc, IrU-mturo, 
nn, DDil *c>ence, wu peireJM- il^at tboj liavi* «acli be«n bnUci- 
itig frvm liiw ou'-fvL Giftiur« l^iiginjigv, wnl lan^- la^, writ* 
ecu bn^agei printed liagno^ ulc^nii>h:c uiJ ti;kpbgDio 
oommimifiitiAn— 'iheAff are llw rounUA ot tbo icretl loildfTr 
«rhWi the Art of iuteroominuiiicsttoD Iim ^reoUhS, uitl npoo 
wlikrJi »ocr«ty li&« Hfomilud. 

Fn>iii Um hoTtiblv fuuuditiuDtf wiiL which {iivtutiTc iit 
bfgBQ liavc tru«n elio wJons modee of «couriii|^ (wd ii 

the peu4onJ, Uftc o^icuUumJ *tu^u» fu]Ii>WL'd one another,' 
euppitimcntcU hv Ui<? uutn^iunAljr muUIpUtfil mediiuih»l mp- 
ptiucQS dcvlacd for the cbboration of the prc*dDcCs of to- 

l^'or govvniitictit ihvrc qkbU no vudi rveord. Whca wc 
WM C i n Wr tliut k 10 datlgnned to oonMrvi^ v!«toT<ar Eotereit 
•ctdMjr ra&y potwM, H Mi^nift not tAO much to «ftjr that tho 
nuvt adra.tio'd ^vommcata of tbr woHil iro lo* pcrfocdj 
AtUplul to thvir bi^ljr cv«iiplKatvd fmiclioTiu Uion on Ihtt: 
kwt itdr^ncvd jcuTtfromcntn to lltv dinplii'iiy oC U»f jutertelt 
iMmMrril l<i thoir o}i4rflA Gi>veramefj7, tlM^refoivt, w hot on)/ 
hdding Micii;!^ back* tx)t cii il»«lf ^^in^ Wkward* 

fl tlwrufore boootim tlra iDtcrol nnO c£iu duty of ^>ciot/, 
ihrovlag 4iff the yoke of jfmvmmtmt in tliio odiOTtd dvri^ <>{ 
thU tU-ci>n«^T«d trrm, to fdt«b|kh n trtilj prcfCKWJve i^ncy 
which Jilifl}) wA crnly be > prodact of Mt, hot thtXi ifwlf ho 
in aH. Thk iiH^ttntinft* like nil tnM ftrtf, mtut hv lifti«4i 
tipon tho roM^^iiioo of tliu irdity and rolbhlenceB of thi 
lutMnJ forr«« ^kth whirh il U to eKpecimfmt, rnul wh™r 
tt ii to CLlilijC«- Tlif«o for^** arv itic KX'ijd forces at drAoMl 
In k prvvitAM chapter (roL 1, p. 473). Tbo ft:>vH«e whi«Ji 
tmU of tlL«m fa 80<*io1>^^. Tlie ait whfch oon^ts In their 
■|i|ilicatkiii mik/ Mill, f<->r vinl of ft h«^fC«r torm, U> rjtiird 
HOTCfiuMuit. Hut Iba |imiMt vmpiricftl, uiti^prngtmaiivi 
iMlttttion, mbcalluil thv art of fEowrnmcfit, mi»t hv trail 
^Ptnod tnte a cantjal acadomj of «Kibi Bclenoe, irhicb 



nin<;RK=Jfl.-.PRniARY itcans. 

rtAAit [n iint nmc reladoD to tbc onurol of m«n fn wliidi 
|M>ljt«linic tnatitate ^lotidfi to tfao control of nitcmx 

There 5# one otlior iipMicj' vfatvc Influcnco Itae 
powerfiillj fnU fn humnn Hvili^tioii, l>iil vho^ r;hanic 
from tltu pciiot of vicvr ot tbiv duipU^, U «o excepticnuJ 
BJioimlouA tliat ft Llui been found iiii|KHiil>lu tOitiUvducv 
Id tho regular cqutk of Uic diActisrioii. j 

1u lmpuniuici>, lumuTcr, drmaiuU for h a »n«D(Ttt1iaL i*iu«l 
In] tni'*lmMj^ whifh it miwf K^^ive in llii# pUcp, ftwl wtii 
luiut br »ui]icwhiLt ja tbv iiaturo of an epitodc^ or iDdgiwD 
eul duuuwiun* 

This Influc<iioo will bo ln»i recfJ^jTirBOtl nndcr t!ic 
wh»t rapic »nd rxc*edingly anibi^ion» name of I^/itjitrnl 

Bcfopc a vt>rt\ c«a be ttid, bowi^vcr, re»pc<-Upig Hw tm^ 
pMilioii of rclipon among the vnriouK tTil!iionn?fl whio-b hn 
Affiled huuian progratAr ^^^ r^cncu %iid uniTii^^dty whi 
ftUachoA lo tito Urm n^ti^L, v. Ixr lui powihTi^, Yw rtmovi^ n 
& dvliuilion lio foiind vliiuh AhnlT ]^3c wiih u>inv precvioa t 
|NUlicTular tlurigof wLiub bi prciiiuatcid wbulcv^u'Eliall be 

Lei (u l^^n *Itb a brief cikiiTi)crai)on of mme of tbfl 
delinitioQs nUkcb vAnotifi mullion hAT9 ^T«ii to tho voH 
'■ rcii({ioiu'' 1 

loiiiuuael Kurit evidcuily n>|^hlvd r^lt^on m baling fo|| 
1t« so(« bftrii tbe id«3 of Immortnlity, onri be lixm itA plnrij 
in pbilo«D)>by >ii iIm follomn); cKjiracti-rLitio Uiigua^c^ 
" McU|ibjrvicit hMfortbc pnj|wr objtot of tto iovcftllgiitioC 
obljr tluve Idcu — God, Freedom, and fnimorinlitj^ »u iJial 
ibc MCOfid 4ymAC|vHoTi oomhiTicil with tbc tint *ball lut^d » I 
neoouvir eoriclnnion to tbc tlilrd. • . - Tho ai>rI«nilRri^i 
of it would iviako tb«o]og;y, morals, and, tbronjRji a combi 
tion of Uilb thoWt rr/f^UM*, that u, tlio lugiitvl tktjvcl of o 
fctbteiiiQc^ depcndoDt. iiJelj upon tho ep6Htbuive povor 
the rouofi ftod cpon nothing «fac.'' * 

PEFunnoNd of reliqion. 


A wull-known modern Englltli vHtcr. th« Hev, T. W, 
Fuvlo> [n aa arlicJu lu the ** Coiitofnj^offsrjr JCvviow/' IST2, oti 
*'8dcoci> uui ImmuirulitjV' *)tl>otic Kcmiu^ h> bo bC4|aunt- 
ed vitli Kint « vlc^t, ^.tmr oGat^ldntMc dbmaslon, ooidm t6 
Ui« coecltuJon tbal for a\\ pr^oUcil jnirpouv ^iviigiork M 
sjrn<nijiiwiM widi ituiuortalily/' u»di^», ** If, furariy nuOB, 
nunkind dow^ lU au/ lime, ^caoe to b«llev« u> \u own Lm* 
iDorteUtv, tlico retigton vill oko biro coMcd to oxiht u a 
port lif the roturi^^iiiiiK^iwt <)f hamuiity.** 

Mr. j'jiwanl B. Tylur, probablj tbe forvmuel Qthuo^rn- 
plier of the j^gOM deeper inlo tlie i^uwliom »iul, wLQe 
odmiuiiij; tlio imp^Mibilitj' of fixing apoa uiy one term or 
•xpTMuon ttbicJi «l6(|u«li*l7 rvpmtenu the ndAeiitial nUn- 
iMtM of all re%>*'*>^ iieverilii?1e4»i ventiir«tt to ^re wlmt bo 
■ccitoljdeBOfaInaio«a''BLlmmit(Dd0fimtioii,** wIiicL bdiiiiply 
** tfao boUcf in Spjriuijil Boin^/' * Tim vkw bu ukWm 
ia m DittMcrlT fnaimvr tn liie tttvtia drnptj^re i>a " Aninilfioi 
vf hk tiK«t «l>lv nad uJuiInUu tr«fttiee on " rnnntivc Cul- 

tiir John LaHbodc, who Im^ Jiltio ^rcn tile nbjcct mvoh 
cotuideretiurn fn>m tbe etJinof;;nipbical (whSch m tbo only 
trvljr Micotiflc) jjuint of riott', luu Mide^vorvd to oo^rdtuttv 
tbo focte poJDtii^ to ilw gvobM ami oaiuro of rellj|;^ii 00 a 
Uoimn buticiitiDtfi. He mys that ihrfr cMttinl/ tro rmc<* ao 
low in Incollectntl derolopii»«ait u to poaMw nothtog tl 
em bodi^niSoii with the nimo r^lIgiuiL "* If," ■ai}T* hi*, ** 
iiiorujiPi]M«t[ouoIft«r,aiidtJ^« rwrogiiitJoa thfttUki^roaroprob' 
old J otburbeiiigs more powerfid tb^D imQ,areMifik*knt ulai 
lo ronMitut« h rrligi<>i>, ihoo wt> mwt, T l1ii«k,admU Uiat 
lifpoo w gmcnJ to tikc humio rxcc.'* But lie projierly ftiM» 
tlul, "if thu <ttTliiiitii« bv i^loptod, wocui 110 loo^r 
roiiglon u pefralkr to man. We most adndt ihiu ihn fr«1ii 
of ft dttg or ft horw towardji iu mjM«T ia of tlie mmt cb*nc- 
Ur ; mimI thu Imjiug of a dc^ lo ibc moon i« n mwjh ui 
yonJilp Bfl Mcoe cereiDOiliM whiuli Euro been to <k4cril 



hy m\c\cr%,^' ^ II« ilitokA that Di« ooDoerjifioo of a deitjr o^ 

religion, aod, rcjucUn^ ih^ iticA* of IJ9 UfocM) uuj Uiv dftM 
firtfion of Coroto nni) otUon bu^d 00 the imturv of 
objort womliipod, which ME oui with IfldchifliB tnd H 
through CMbuL-iaiXi to poljtturiAtn Jmd monothoUni, he o*Ui 
lisboe t D0V OBO, of wiutfh tlic grocletf am tut fuUuwi : 

L vlM^rji, by vehkh h« om^», a» tlie prvperetyaio 
of llie wurd rYr^nirvfi, simpljr M QbtcncG of thooIogjTf iritl 
If theotog; ift ibc footUitieiitaJ ide«, nnut be cc^tiivalc&t to 
Ab«i'nck,' of oil raliyioD. 

2. **/Wn:Amd»/ ibosoigo In wliiofa miui Aoppoeeehe 
foPM the t>CBtj to comply with bU iloeirvc^' 

a. *- jVfj^f^uwriAt/*, or Tb^tfin M'7^ in tthioli njitnnil oW 
joctJK ttwi, l^kttt, ttonefs uiiiitttit, de.. are frk>nLhifvd.*' 

4. '*SIAamAiirjn«, In which the rapedor dc^tW ■» 
moro powprful thnu nwn, ftiirl of ^ dilf^^r^t nfltttrs;. Th 
phov of abwfo u far av^j, itocvivil))^- oaly to SbAiflAVi." 

0. Idotatiyt whidi ho cnal;iH oqvivtilunt to unthro 
iDorphiira; m whWi thr^fnrl* moro rnmrlj PR«fnhl(? mnn 
but fcrfl more powerful. They arc bUW n i^irt vi lulure iii' 
not «vi*3ton»t and are worshiped throu;:h hnugw ur Idole. 

fi, Tli^i^ui, i. #„ ** Doity Ifl ffgardf?*! ae i]>c niathor noH not 
mcrcJjr ft pairt of tiBtntv-," 

7. J'^Uinn j0r»eti vfUA morally, a «tage *' in vhich cno 

8tr John T.nbhock, tltorcforo, orldcntlf pWe« tiM IdM 
B l^od U^fore the idoi of n «pirit in bin view of tho 
htt«T« of fvll^ion. 

Aluiig»hto of tbi« effort of Sir Joh» Lul>bock to dfttcdf, 
rvtigioM acooHinp to « na^nl ^T-^tcm sliould ho plvod 
timfkr rffon by Mjjor J. W. Powdl, Director of tbn nrnd 
St*t« Bnraaiu of EihnoloKy. aitd alio ol II10 Gx^mpla 
Sitmij, 4 o«M)fi3l etndeat of Amctkaa ethnolo^, mjlho 
and philohi^. 



Aoconluig it} Mnjor Powoir^ bj^Amu, m QftfoIrM la Ub 
m Vioo^FrveiUciit of ibo Aroeriou) A«MCutkiB for 

Adraiccflunt of Sdeoce^ M itA anaui) niAMiiifc i^t Sor** 
t«iga Springs in Wii* invtl»i>|yi,M fvmi^ Uw firtl greil Jivi* 
■Um of pluloA-jpliv, Uiu ftdcuciliu dtTturniin^mi^i of phcnoiuoaa 
ooAfltUuilbg tbu Acc^xid, Thin my thoKt^p^c divliiiin Iulji foitr 
mi^irnwivn «ihI nu'iiral (■>«£», wliirh he ileiKKiiinilM rtdpccl' 

Ami, 4, /Vy<^4«<AfMin. 

Xhi^ cliuiScazloQf U irill be pm^, lilco that of f^ir Jr>hit 
|,aMinok, w Iwttrl cbMI; djh^q th« imlurv of tbv theuluj^ bv 
wlitrJi it ii do4iunitiMl. Id l>90»tolLolsaif » \U D«mQ <l«- 
iioto, all Ihiop wliaUoevcr mrc not onlv aninutod but dci- 
fod. Thk ac«g(*, Uiercforf, iiuy l>o mM ti «(iiV>nint tU tJie 
OllfCrg, bitt in jn.4t iLaI confup^cd mid uDdilf«v«otUfed way 
Hiat ovolatioo *hi>Wfi to ditrwteruo (he initUI ^tv|w in tfivr:; 
procctt, ham the LoriKigeiicxiiii to t)m butvroj^Dcuitt. Not 
only w* '*«rocks aivd sIod(«,'^ Inwa, Iftkoe^ monniaiiiiy imd 
Hvi^r* irorvLtpM suiil himod inio godA, tmf «o tm Aim m- 
naik^ tUn^ tori, » tw at they nn be oti«eived of by >ticb 
poufdvQ. tlM biTUble powra of Dstarv ; iLie elsfre tlim ov«^ 
Injiplnj^ iho Aocond And ihini ^tegcn, tnd only mining tSn 
foDiib fnivn tb« iaahilit^' of Umi baiBk^i Tnin<i, in tbU pvHod 
of kfl <lovekipn«citt to gvup i1i»tniet nioiiUlj muraJ, vuj tfociol 

£n tb« ftVsowl tAn^j or Kodtbdmn, iSMrn tod brvta trc 
chMod to^hifT upotk a perfect wjiaUity »nd worfdiip«d M 
anfmatod dcltl«& *'Atl the pUoiMim^a uf ntture »tv the 
dofnji* of ilviw inifiid gOiU: all the fv^U of lutsn, hll tho 
pbrnomt^tia of the Icnown iinlrcrrv, ftll tlio UiBUtatkiM of 
bvmjitiU;^ liauVh lo the philo-**p!LOTm of this etiagt^ trc ac- 
Domtod for In tho mytbologic huiury of tlinie loJknorphJ': 
gndL" Thr pro<v« of dllTcrpiiiUtlon fmm hocactotbclNm ti> 
jeoAtboIsDi ha* f^Millod fn A/^^^rrpitiTijr rnkUy kninutod bo- 
En^ horn tbo mm formerly rvgvrtlfl) nt Animilod, uid Kmit- 



in^ th« t4?mlf!iiffj ut womliip to tbiadcflulio clua. TKif, ugatil 
ia in the normal dinKtioQ of fi^ohitioiip m exhibited in 0^13 
otJior dcfMrtnwntof lutnrr. 

In pb^ttULciuji. Lkv Uiird »Ug«, *' tho aitimjj god* eur« do 
tlironed, and tho jhwota auil ptwooaianM of nntiiro nro por 
ionifvnd und dntli<Ml. The goib u« iCrtctI; aQtlin^tomurpblo^ 
bavini; ^^ form, m well aa the uifintal, moffti, and wcial 
fttlnl>iiieft. of jiXfiL TUufl ve have a god of thr nun. a g-id of 
thu moom > god of tljo Air, il gwl of Jawu, uid a deiij' of 

In rhu At.ij^. bf<7ond (lie elovAtion oi th^ duu of objW 
coutiTUipktod, tlKint U liitlu clifttige izxcvpt tbe coaTi-rFiioQ 
tlw Mun^ul foriuji lod ntU'ibulu* iuto bauian, ilut* aa iai 
>0&i^tiGigm nioQ and aniniuld wcra confoattdorl nndor II10 ten 
ildinito con^ption of unimjiti^d l>^ingl^ it fi>]lf>nv lluL tfao 
paMU^^e from xuOtlieifcin t^^ pli^ttbvUm reoll; oonviBt^d in ihQ 
■liu^le diffvrtatiation of the ooiueptloii of bainaaitj-, oi tba 
higltor fomi of animation, frocn that of animattOQ in gcsonL 
Hofv, A^'o, ^ffxi \tnvti truf. and trpjnal nrolntinn. 

1q pfljrcho4beiaiii« the fonrlh :iiid Ulait sUgeof mjtfao' 
l£igtc pJii]ciM>|ih7, "aient»l, moral, atud cjooIuL eharac44tfist£ai 
■n> pvnMniflcd and ddfiofl. Thus wo hftre a ^^ of war, ■ 
god of lovfl, a ;p>d of revetr^-, a ^fod of plei^tj, aikI lik« fwrv 
•oni^M vho prwide ortr tlio iii»ti(;jtioiu and oocupatkiiv ol 
loankiiul. . . . PsjrcboUioIsni, by tlie proeeotcc of incntnt 
integrulJoiit doi-tiiopn in onn dinwtion Into monollicisin, and 
Is tbe other into pa&tliciKtn.'^ 

The tftiMitioTi froui pbyMthoinn U>|Nr[-lKit1wljini, ifaore' 
tvn.; a Aimpl^.tho «oIeclion, or Bogro^atloii, from the eonflttod 
nuUou of auiuintion in gf«n<^1, nsid from t}»c more dollolt« 
but fUll confwod noticm of lutmaQ anim^ion, of ihc atilll 
mora definite and higbor notion of nttlonal a[uruuljt;n ti«oli| 
m IwJong* ftoljf lo tho pboooaionnof mind, Tho pro<;roeGoC| 
evQlatiua i«, (horttfbre, to low normal hcrv thnn in the thrcd 
preeediig atopc ' 

Uajor Poweil'a ajteva ia, therefore, ao( onlv tuiotif 




{e4 1^ 1* ^ oompletfl confonnitj with nil that Is known of 
lb« Uwt of evolotion. Had k nM Ihwq i*Ubiwai«»() bjr a ««lt- 
knowii pruiic*! etitDOgn|iber in tlw rer; wigwama of \\\e 
mtnff»t vliMTv bo hm liM4tic*i Jong to thdr liruplo i>torm of 
JcgoiMlu^ coenogmi^, it might lurfi t>«ca uocrvdiiod lo tbc 
fonflo bnJB ol A dmel evolittltHit^, 

lib U^rmiDologjr, bowcTer, ia not nHctlj- contwUml tx 
kjgiol UuvugkouL Tbu goltJcn tlirvxl llimt ntn tli/^ngh 
tlitt tpltmt Olid bind* ;t Uito « whole is doc tbo ulijvct of vor- 
rfi£p Id fiNlf, but tbo Aitnbut4« of iliRt object HoctttotKe- 
im, ID iU Td^u nmpUcity, ui tbe vonbip of life : not tb* 
bi<jlu^V itlA cf life, bat that uf the »avim[u, to wlioin Su 
cbancicriftio qoalltv b^ wlttnlary mcthn, TI1I3 eoooeptSoa 
K» twtcr bc«f) to well cxpnmed o« b; Ur> Tjrior fn ]iva 
jndidoujtiT 4^ba«cn t«nit "Anitniim." Ajtain, in jroatb^iMO, 
tbe r^ objoci is noi wild b<-a»ti», but tbo oov developed and 
tbsrpi; diSccniDtiiitod oonooprion vf lifo u it u fimnifi«U>d in 
uutnntrd nfttiin^ in<^]n<1mg hnnun lifn not jrt diifurentlaCcd. 
The tcna xo6th«Mm* bon^vvr, may be waAe to d«not« lltu 
eonaftcioo by iiapjwuiiif it lu rwob back to llw prinurr 
eOUAO of iu flm Ctf>TQpoilODt, f«>oc. olfiM 

But pb^thofam cfl& not bo tbnn nwonoiird, and in(3«M>cl 
tliowonhipof DfttttnJ objooto \k Ic^cmlly conndered, oul^ 
■n Inci'lvEit uf tbe mo^Ioa. Tbc mxl (^n|Ee Ims oomfntvd 
in cbe 'MorcntiAtfon of the antbropomorplilo oat of the pre- 
viow juViioorplik* 'Hli«v^ Tbftlofifal and CAniii'itcnt aimo 
for lhi« Btagir woitild ttivivfore bave hvco Ant^r^ypd^finn, 

It U not untn be tvaoboa ibe fovrlh Pla|pj, pejchotJieiun, 
that Maj^r Poiroll toncl)oi& tbc Irj-mto of bla mtcm fn tho 
inatiL-r of tortninolaji^. Hot bnro pinuiiatfm^ ^lonld bare 
adnMablied bim locboeoe ft tcni) llku l1u< ixvo^dfrift ofie«, 
wliidt abould exprota tbe oonareCo vbjeot of w^>^4lip vid not 
ita attribiAc. A* it i« noc tbcv ni«ntal fjnalilio* vbiob ue 
tllrwflljr womhipi^ in tliia «tit|to, but gorla cndoired irith 
tbem, pMrl^pa tlw «Ini]ile t^nn /A-hrni would bo a« apftropTv 
fttt*, froen that pdol of m«, afi eoiUd bo found. 



A «onipl«t«lf Ic^oal l«rm!nolDg)r of TkTLijor Povdr* «rji- 
toro, bsMd oa tbo eonovptio:) of mylliolo^y. or primitive r&- 
lifi*i<:tn, ftdaptiM^aotof ovolntion, xrouLd, Micompjirod uiUibu, 
»1aiid m folli?WB: 

■>,. Jti7fi(MtfTb. ..,,... ,., JMbii^lliH*in,iirialJnopiJiiQui7ihi«m, 
4,,. ^fcliuUiuib, _,-,._.-Fi7clioc&tlim> 

Tn ATOul Ticolo^ixin, imlew tli« f mpcrtuice of mftkiog tti« 
[iiiuj« of isuh •UfftT iliiitliicdjF coiiv«y this tljvolrjigica) coiuwp- 
tlou in iu com^ift^n u cvoudurod prbnnrv, the term* 
Aulmisni ami Aikihro}H)iui>rplLidin may \te auUitHaicd for 
the mora bgirni hut rJin» far imu»e<l tcmii AnJmotbeuin 
and Antlirupottiviiiin. 

LvC U4 ucAl ouutiilvr tliu vivvt of Mr. Herbort Sp«&- 

To ^o ihU it will bo n«(fe>wLi7 to looV at iwligioit frocu 
twc qiilic dilfcrcmt pi^nt* ^f rivw, nbich wo bijl^' liiBliuguuli 
ta iTiu tlicorulioid and ilw itutiiuL Froio tlw tbvorvtical pf^lot 
of Ttevr, (ti the opiikioa of tkte anthor^ ^* rdigi{>D under aU ita 
forma la dJatinguuibed from orrry thm|f cl^c in ihv^ that iti 
SQbjsot^ii&ttor ifi that which paww the Bphriv of DxiH-nt-ucv,*** 
In other wonK reli^ou U baatid upQU the id«e of ihi^ ''vn- 
knownbW* It tunia ont, a« Intowlod^ in^rcttfCK, ilmt mnoh 
that had funtierlir bovu KTippoiNHl nnknowubk-, and tliivvfore 
irlthla Eh<^ aphoro of rdi^un, bocuiui^ kuuivtt, sod paewa Into 
the fiphcro of Jkiii^ce ; but. however far ihw priMMw [nay ex- 
tpfni, there will erer PMiiain a flchi whirJi »idcnw oaft not rO' 
claim, l>ut which muAt n1wny« belong to nlijpoD. Th» field, 
wbicJi tbo httw of Ihoutrht de<.-lHr« to bo nwMwrily the do- 
main of the nnknowubio. h tlw tvfftoii of the AUoIqIv and 
fn^ndiiiomsl of the iMj6Uij>bj'4]<'laii^ And nlEgion miiM 
tfaonfocv dtiiualalj n#t npoti vbat the Latltrr bare dUtia- 



ffiUM from [t^icnomunA by tl>o unm of ifowoMiu^ vlikb 
ooficeptidQ ajv|>«arft fortbor to b« ^nivaltmi aIso to tW of 

Tlil^ nppcftn to mo lo W Ur» Sptncw's Uw of Uio Uioo- 
rHicol n^itnrc ol mligloii in t)io fttjcEincl- 

Wiib ivfcaud to th« u^lttal tiAtnre of rcHf^km, m «iem- 
pllfted in iliv vhHohs nwtf of miok, Mr Sp^mci^r jmctm^i more 
miriy vith Mr. Tytor tlum with Sir Juiu Lul>Wk. In- 
deed, liu ^'ghotf tbb(/ry'* dlff«n liuk Co itc«lf frt>m tJio 
"flntmi^m " i»f Tjlor. Mr. SpcofHir, howcrirr, h&A idcu of 
hi«ovii n«peo4mg lUe origin of tliu belief in Apintiul bt^in^ 
wliicb Arc ^rv ceittrluiriiii^. Ho coimidun jiii4M»Urru'0cvliip 
w the iMtfvd of ail tTie }iE^W forms of wonhip, uid this lo 
mw out of iTie bcliof in tlio porMtlttnoo of the spirit of dad 
ancMont With Mr TyUtr^ 1k» tr»o« tho bviicf in vpiritnftl 
binii^ to tbu DuCiocv u4vJy unlvrlaiMKi b^ MvvgM raipeetiog 
ft double aclft m^goetod by each fwmUI&r plienonxmt u ahad- 
OV1S «rlioc», frdnrti*in*,dnpJiin»,*wonwi,*TpiTrp*y, ai^pl^j, 
ote^ He iir^n forx^ifjly n^iimt ihc nituntl diivct oHi^in of 
fttir fif ilie JitfGiiito tinna of rvh'^um bcllpf, »nd iDAJntaiiv 
thai iJk\v bflve all arifiCfl fnwi wtcCfilortt-oraljip in indircrt 
waTN — tivf fflttic^, pUnt, Anim-a1, «tar, or InuL^oarv deity buy- 
ing in all caA-a reprvauDtod, monr or ](«« imuivdktdyt ibe 
tribal aoaestor wlwao naino niid uttriljutM It bean. If tbw 
vtvw l»v oon^, gOTomnwnt m\tti \a all om* ba^ aot«lnfLs] 
Hftigion. »iHt bi! adilncv* manr r.Wfv tn anpport of tbo rlow 
llial, trbvfO tto fonn of btwtUliip ^tximb, bqI even faticbimi is 
fttBhd. Tbo folJovbiff pttA^ from tbu '* Dafa "f Elbliv" * 
plrci a Trnr tomplc^ rondo^KsH rif^r *>f Mr, Spcncw'ti a^ 
|;ttniCTil: ''Aa iWt aa the |>bMt'tbt>oTjr Utfvtmna oMnhlidirv) 
aod drtlnik*, ihno gntyfn up itvicftltpr kiud of cbock o«i the 
imtuoliatfl uttffwtion of lligr ^ioiirtt^ — a chnk ooiMlIluteO b/ 
lilt«B of tbe cviU wbldi gboata m^v inllioc if i>ffctMlo<1 ; and 
vboR polittoal bowlahip fceu a^iM, and tliB i^boata of dfud 
■htebfthoif^ of m cnor» po««rfial and more rolentka Uma 


PB0G&£S3.^rRJH\RY HES^^ 

ftbtpd tli« foriQ of ratrftiui diviinguittJied utdigknii." 

Mr, Joba FiAc biw, in hi* "Uiwwn Wgrld,"* ^ren 
MNntwhat t]f>rel ikfiuitJ^>u uf tliu religious M»timcnt, wbic 
be estpreMffl in iLom word*: '*A11 fluiniab ie«k for fulla 
of Ufo; bat in dritixcd nun thw cniTJik|^ hiw ucc^uiivd 
oiDTuI vi^uiftcniLW, luitj tuu> bvoouc a Hpiritujil impiriLtkin 
a&d lliift etnotloiiEiJ (ciulcnoj^, more or Iom atrong in tLo Uu 
Hiftn nuc, wc call rvlif^ou^ fMllii|?. or reJ^on/* 

Dr. AlrcAiHlcr Wmrhoi), in bl» WCtrii on tttft '' Ii«cOQ 
cUklion uf Si'iLiicv antj i£digioo,''t uuamnnitn Uiv foUow 
in^ oIt*mcTLt^ whlcSi ho ibliUw to bo oomronn to all rcligloM 

1, A Snpro.nic B^g, ft&tkor of aH lliin^, 

S. A Rovdftticoi of tti« SnprMne Being, cither tUn>iigl 
OAtiirft) j>liejiom«im or uiapirtU tn«>iL 

3. A eypl^na of wonLJp. 

■I. Pnjer, the noivorMd erj of humnriLtj' in ilinlnDAft. 

(.Ad uka of A ftitun; uxi^Tcocv. 

€. An ideuof uiuraL n^jioiitfibiJiljr. 

7. A a>^<Ti]i of fmt^ro rcvnide and pTnils1im6nt& 

(L A pntrtthfjod rlotbin] iritK ilivino antliarit^. 

" Tlicfto fact*," lie tm/ft, " I find to be Uic conttauta in IL 
Tnrying fdllM of jtJftnkiod. I witl ftJd lluit tvo other i. 
rcreftl tlioimotvce in jno4 of the fvligtoui ^ywoat of 
world — bodi llie grrAT^r ami tbfilcaiL TliC*eftf«: 1. A 
lief in tha ofllcni^y of vicuriuiuMpifttiofi. ^ An eipoctado 
of IV Rodeanor,** Ic Is unnecveury to mv of tLin onum 
tion tW it id «&nf1n«d to tbp 1i%W &nd dtrrintivo fornw 
rv*ltf(iun, nnd in of vrry ]ittTf> M*iiiiaDfv in Ihe tffoft lo amw 
aX tlio ^Hienlial oomlitiotui ot n!ligi<>u tt«e1f. ^^ 

])t. Doeau iloftous rt%ioa u a "Loving obo<liouco tgj 
God^ commindhi^iilA" Bisihofk Butter fimntjdiked that orcai 
wh»l « «ll«d "mtnml Mt^fton ^ ww oriffinAllj a rvvt-lniir- 
Hliidoaof it wttafMlief in odo God* tJkeCro«toflr and Mo 
Governor of tlw w^rld, a&d in ■ futorv attLto of monl 

•PiC« na- 




bBtlon. Irapl/in^ of cource, the litei of inumriallXj. Tlciri 
of IhU ctiv«, Tntjifig in lU dcgttvs of Rupi^rlipC-.ialilv, tnay ha 
found IlAiIiu^' duv& ti> tJio TAodom rdi^ouA ivTivalJiit'M iiJ» 
of "gotliiig r<Jigii»n," vhich iiieAna filing «\dt«d iboot 
nrli^fjn, wkI noks tloog wtUi tbo M4f-«n>iight " octucy " gf 
tlio furago. 

In i4iirTo_Tin|i; tho vholo field which wo faavo f^ono over jq 
BMftii of 1 ildjnirino fif rrfi^on, vo mnj, I thinks i^lnH^ ijis' 
Co^cT thnw iuadffig c4uaivtitHf M fainlumrnloJ in thoir naturo^ 
vbicfa, ID tlio opiniua of (lie tuoat oompotoat ftutborilkt, vie 
trilli ono aaMlK^r for itio ^Ti4 place anaoing llio tmo markn of 
ft Td^iov^ tf^Ate of tltc htimftn mind. Ono of tii«w b tlio 
idnof iairiiorulitjr; amrfli^r, Uieiilot of ivpiriuiulvxiitvuoo; 
utd another, tbo Itl«m of a <t^L 

A o1o*rr Amninjr of fo/th of tbocc^ howcvff , revMb. i «^m- 
MfWHi in tboir ch]iractcri«H«, and pointii to « oommon oon- 
c«|itk>D ffVEn wliidi M uv ijvjitdbiv. For«ou Uiu oiielinntl, 
Uie G(ka of Immoridh/ i» a rmtionAf d^doccion from t)w Idea 
of spirit Of tbn ihrvc, tlii» u Uio id«ft vKJch has boCD lout 
nnivcm&l. Afodifi«d ^ as to atf^nif j doiplj a fstnre riale of 
apiritiol «jiiHt«RCv tibuie duralioii Ia not doUnuiued or (aim 
iBto ■ocmtnt, tliw bdiof cno bo tfn««d niucli fortbor tliaa can 
tlift higtwr idmof Bulimitod ctnralioa. Still htrthcr tham 
of )ta mtioiul iBftfr«iic«e until it boconiM ri^ducod to tUe lim* 
plo notion of a oontinnod evi«t«c>ov m ffitnt aft«ar tlio bodjr 
liif boon abaadooud, tlitu twliof k fouad to pntrAtl almost 
nnhrcfMlljr ftrooof: tlie 1i>vrer noea of men, Bot^ in all tbu«e 
|[mdation« of tlio Mii*f> tho pi^«ti>nt [inrl ih tli^ nntirin of a 
flpiriitinl fttblMiPO- Tlio bmitch of the prixuicirc ccmcoption 
of retigioB vlncb enlmii:ai«» m ibo <k«tHiio of iiuii*ort4lity 
mijr iliecflfofo be n^puiied a^ the eM^f^liw bnoobf the Indi- 
ridul looking oonatantlj inward upon hii own Miim juid 

If wo stiftiyEO in a flliiuUr nannov tLe third fondft- 
mtnul vIotMOt namod'-llint of dct^ — wo abaJl poncJTo 
tW tbk lilccwLto rcfiRWDta u) advaoeed M«^ of tliou£|hL 


ppooRES8^ri!iiuiiY *ffi.iys. 

Ft>r, vltetber ddtj b« coiic«iT«d m one or eoMny^ ihf Mm 
coplion iziT«lv«0 the iMitiuvi of «plntiu] exuti?noe. AW/v^ 
in miormxwmr tjnritns, nnliu^in macrocfr'no dfuw^* Th^ 
effort nuutc bj maaj wrJbMV to diow thnt ft vu^uo forrn ofl 
luecuTvbj Aoiountin^ toririual nionotM^m porvadfd all i^ 

ujcamuliUionsi <>f fiiot from tlw pluk«v]ibRH (»f Uiu lou'wt 
tHbcB of men.t Tho viiig« u fp»^t>«Dt1jr found in vtiioh 
VOimptloin of deirj ifl redncod to tbo tnmginod 
«xi«tcnoo of imnQDiWfd inrijihlo gliM^ miJifjrnaiit tad Ito^ 
iiilpiMiil. tbut fill Ifio Hir aud sU «paoe^ a^D/d itsvaai tbe abodes 
of all djc living.} Tttaa, iho fonecp^oo of doitj, like thai 
of immortnlil^v* u tro^xd bacJe to the ijmpler Idoft of if^rit* 
But liinrv [»piritiiEil exvtcacc m pivdi<:aiiM of tLo noh-ego^ aa 
tW tJieulugir uny be propc^rly raf^rdcjd m iho o^^kfHtf 
btfvic^lk of a primoTiliAl roligloiia tnink. TbU tmalc^ tlio pof- 
out und i*McmfUI part af all rrli]B;iniii, i> Umreforv the notEon 
oC ^ir^ittiol fxi^^iK^ thf- t'ltn of an litvidiblo and Inintt- 
U-rtAl boUk^, ondovrod vrttli thoiiglit, fvello^t &nd looouio-' 
live powum. Wc miuit, thcfvfoiv, civdit Mr. Tylor with 
InvSngf lo faSd "mftiiiuam dcflnltifin/' n^nlly rviached thn 

• Dr, RwT Vflv, t* <iiiMff4 br far WllliHB ^tfhaa taUi ■ Utt^fevAa^i 

Arlnw," vti^nr Ti vnuM bi'tf K'QQ aval ■pproprluo, ud vbm Ua 
ttt lk<t !<](■ b nf irn trpMit^, 

f lUul 1^1 : * DiUt »li-n irlr b«l cltw VOlkcn davrii Ihf* IftiiMt 

MAairiiA Rcvordncf ulUrlkfwr Que dM grtnelMD Vinuote B>"0>iTi hiL", 

ThM 4 ivaOeiu^) ia dMjTjr pinapilblv »iidd| f«lcTif«lD and fetjnliflfrfv 
pvopbifa Miinbt ibMrdiUtf tato • Uetv«bT.«kJ n«atti*Ur lo iMc^tt* 
Utfr mkf tjmtin h\ta ■ nuifntlidadE mr^ (art* BbunUBilj pm** (Tylop, 
"rtlnihiT* Ciilntn," Bijnon. I«t4,n].||. ppi «**. txU. £«\ ^&. d «^l h« 
lUi valf lUaUntcA, in Uu nm coudliu^t* nwrnrr, the titr^llloD IViom 
tf^riEl*m u Inift tlndatfu 


bottom of iho qnnction, nxl ikfTowl rvltgiun in ill t|ja1 is 

Dal bdnj^** 

iibvii^ Uiai; in a muitiw? tnevgrad tho qiottftoci, WLal \a 
rulil^u t tbure reuuiiiH tliu nlunor <piCT^iiMi, Wdj dn mm 
belicrroUiflptrittial twinge t TliiBf^neMion tiu bix>r, flwiren'Tl 
ID three wajth. One at tli^MCt jUMWiMm ii, that thU hrlirf Km 
bM-n ^apemalunljjr tiii)»lAutcd in ibvouodof man. Atiotlicr 
fef tbol Um pb«oom«aia of lutuiv, a[>riiigiiig from hiviitiMu 
mtroo* of power. hsiv« M nun, after ttw amJog}^ of liia 
cvwn iiiod«« of manifcvting powctT to wame uiviviUlo nnd 
faniitrtwial bel&ga, to oUi«r mtpcc«i Ukv htnudf, ut thu 
GMHi ol Bscatal pbcoofacauL A Oiird aivmr uiarilNw tbu 
bcliirf in tmtnnuriit! splrilat or gbota, h> Oerlncliona of the 
pHniitive mind IahhI on the oxp«rt«ikctf4 of mtiiiv or qn\Xe 
tri^ indivMlmJ of dtvmiui, «rpitvpfijr, maniii, Imnou, utv^ 
MOplod vidi thA djutv o1)cerTatioii tij all of atidi fDjHtt'riooi 
plienonMrn u refteetion i[i mi^jr^ *bad<iwn cwt bj Um mo 

Tbi^ £m of tU«M anncvtB, ov tho EJapcfnatanl cxplaBb- 
tioo of t)M OxiMcnc^ of nvjigion. Kring oiitiwlo of Uio do- 
msta of vcicno* and plulutu|Thy, ntHxl not bo treftU4 her^. 
It maj, lnywcrtT, he rvmarkcd (bat lUle tUeorf la nnully 
^Tfitvi b^ tluM vlioic Mo% of T«IIf:£oQ iiiTolvofl the dkdnct 
hvh&l Mb In bnmortalltjr and In a fnTljr dorolopnd Ood. 
Dot, ai aJt^»d; alwwii, auvli a d«vck>|>ud bdicf in far from 
oafvcnal, a fact wlikli al but dcitotiM a oeHoos Qaw in Uib 
UmAa of roiionfiifr. 

Of tbo two MfffHTo/ llhOoriM, ihp €rrt iu]i>od,or antbropo. 
tiicoT7 fumkhc* tlio utiji^iro, tbu aoeoi>d,<ir |«y- 

lopoU, ibcory ihc vnbji^ctLvi! c:tp]iLt3atloii of tiic ^jtI^xii 
Liid seiMili fif tbe rtftijiiowi aAiilitiwiiL Tbat Htlier ia ibio- 
Ivtoly falw, it VHrntd lodeod be ratb U> Mvrt. TliatbolU 
aiv tn a Urgjt df^rw Injfl, k altnflfnd^r rtn .!iiibl»i. Taken 
tosctlutr, tbwu two |iriiieij>l«a nudoul rui^j aa kU* 



qititc iT?t|>Untuii>n of thin fnndjtmMiial inct, so prominent t 

TIlu Mily rvamlu'iug pivbtrm i« with niguU to th# 
tpcciivc (-hirv^ irhicU «lio<ild be allotted to cac^ of ill 
ii>flnrTiOLii in Oic prrtdoctin:! (>f the mmlL BclL Icsd t 
iuqutn^r to tlie c<>uo]uiu{ju tli^t fvli){ion and pliiloitop)^; ha 
a tiotiuuoD root Aa M:ijor PoiAroU has w«ll uxpnaifld i 
■^ tliu iti«litict i>r coaujIg inlorro^adon foltowg hflrd apOD 
hiotiiitl of wlf pruwrvRtiuD." Tiic obj^tirr lh«>>nr k ce 
Uutlj, 111 ■> fur cut it bciJt iii fact coDclticud to Ihc nsaiilt, 
product i.'S iiwDtdJ ^ITvrt, of Utouyhtv It b a phUutvpliy i 
h«c)f. Bnt )io> too, u tliv; fiiUjoctirft tlicoiy an tntdlo(?im 
dnitirtion, though ^nrtjiinly nf a Inw iflevjitcd had lr4*i|ig 
nillvd eliAra<^pr, ThU i^ualiljr oC grvalcr nniplicitj. hotr 
en^r, 8o hv Irom dieeouragUig Eta aecepUiiti&, in wliun [vup 
Cffly Ticwrrd, in icr^crtf n pciint in its fnror. The itixtcgod 
argument irhicli liaa l»pt'n brou^lil forward <*n tliw iido of 
Ibo ijUMtJoii U found io tli« favt, ho forictblv urged bjj 
Ur. Sponccr, thnl the n^iar phvnom^ma of nalnro imv 
Ap^-o&r to amnKi tlic wondrr of tht eu^afEO^ and tliui it woul 
*c«m impod»ihk f»r ii aysf^rrrL nf phikraophj to hai^ »prnn 
up Wtnl apu:i ai> Hltfiiipt on Ihn pari ol pHmLtif* man 
vxplflitt moll phonomcna. HevitM numinxiuM caMMtDilla 
tntion of ibb foct, aiid concludee that *'dlnot and Indi 
rect OTid^cc thiu nnito To lihow us th^t in rho pHmitivd 
limn Oien> dow not cxUt that ftpntitnmt which Kat4ir«l 
Wfimhip prv^Tippio^oa. And long hvtutv uiwU} etxilutiud 
iDilinlea it, th© «rlJi and iTio heart'iie havo bwn p^oplf- 
\>T »«ptnu«iiral Uinga, dcnvcJ from Ihc gho«ta, vhid 
reallr draw* out his hop9» wd feat*. w>*l prorapl hb offiei 
iDga and pmycrM.^* 

EfariDg thu* moght to attain both to a de6nitjno and 
ipmcaia of rvligtou— tnvin;; ciidoiiyof«id not only to pcint o 
whftt religioii nally nod fimdamimt&lli- k l>iit aW how 





am to futft — it retnA^rtft to fix tti poftHjon En Ui6 hkUtfj of 

At thi^ouUMK, we naycorUinly »Ajr of ii, evco witli tiKiiv 
^My fhtn crniditof cxijttiii|i;i|:i>\unui;vut, Uiit wliUe it 
U a pnidutl of intellMlval effort, «ii<i thcrcfoTo artificii], ftiU 
It U ui nv propor wnw itmlf an tat. Tlu« tJono wuald at 
CDOC mJegMo tt to dio ekm uf luit uiiniuoalljr pr^)^n«sire 
flgcndco. VriiAtATGr btmefiu It confers ii[Kin tbe raoe« Uief^ 
fore, it mnftt ©ilher confo* ^wttly— *- 1, by iJio mpplicftlion 
tff Uw d[i«^ tiMtl*ud of forv4 or |xrvi4iti>Qt ^^ ^ot I? ^«Jtt 
of dio itidirDct iDotboil of iurvution kud 4l«vie»— or «lw it 
mnjtt <1o thin in rlrtnc of tUt oone^rvAtivo tcndonom in pro- 
b^^Ciitfc xoil pnMcn-in;^ tite frutts of n>il progrrM. To undoi^ 
i^Biiti tUiii jicufn>itt».Hi twttar, lot n« cosviihr fur 4 noramit 
«|Mn vhftt fandviMmUl ufeiiwnb, (ubjvdiveaod objwtive, 
religion t* bftwMl. WhftlL'r^r nkay bo tb(? opiinow cnteitAinod 
by tnliimtod men n;«ptfulioK tlx iiiIilh: uf sfiiritu&l belngi as 
eottcctvo'] of by tho dei vloped Iniullcct^ all vill no doubt 
admit thai tho coaieeptkHli of primltlvo man and tbn«e of 
evblini? nv^gt^ Ml ^m» qniwtinnn, were And coittinue to be 
grv*ij falao aiid nrrociiMnu. No odo beliorn tbat ibe air 
flwann« n-ltli vapory pfaanlooaa, or tlial tpocAoi t^dtke inMrd 
tlie foonUin^ grortw, and bl^irajs of modem or of aava^ 
eoaniri^K. Ttie Mtyr^ nylpltf, and uTulimc*, tlie btrw and p^ 
natai^ad wdl 4b alt tbe bigber aplntiial U!lEtjca,ia wbioh^ea 
Uie VMliiinfd iir^k bellevvd, luirc lionn fnrcpt away, until 
loany Aindcnta of tircck and Roman liu-ratnrr liiul it dftti- 
rait to tocmcivc that tbaac wun? peupln rvJIv Mirvvd in 
ibvrr uwii jviijtiuUf AT^d it t^nin« nDcfa faow «4 Uio saeriAoo 
of ^ooratea to tUeir ivUgioua fanuticiaiu to amkcm in then a 
aonio of tb« rcalicy of polyiKeiam aa a rcliguiD. Bnt jiu^t » 
tbe hdievt^n In God now rvji-H Jiapil^-r ainl Zko*, in llia 
aiaio matiiwr did lUo b«3»QVLm in Jnpiurr and Zcma ilttun nt- 
jact tbo far older Jeliovab. Habduttmcd nude war iip-Mi 
Aiiatie idolatry in the taxm? mann^ a^ 1)i(* modem Cbrifr 
lian miaaiooaij oaakua var upoa Fiji ami Zulu coaeoptioiH- 



£iic}t religion rfgnnls fttl oth<?r4 m wIjoII/ fAlnft. Even tbv 
diiS«r0iit ftv«t« of CliriirU^Qm rcgnrd ull oUic-r tcou u eni' 
bnu'Jn^ ftiiiiJEiEnuntkl orrutK. Tbv fcwt, un alrvuily rcinnrked 
{tupra, p. ItiS), Hiandln^' filonc, cuuM lead titu ditiiriu^nnrfc'l 
ob«erver to no ot^icr (^nnclnnoT] ihjiti thnr all rpIJ^toii« ai^ 
biued U|i<in H fuTiduutEiitbl orror. Li^t u» itn^uirv in how far 
thin ('oiidutfiuii required t^uidid^uiLiuu fruui tau^ueouB uoi 

Turing lip, fiiHt, the fluT)j(sctive ri**w rif thf* ^iuhih 
Ugiim, are the j'lvniises w^iiiid fitjru wliieh the wivog^i aiij 
primftLVti man h^gicull^ <]«duT.r« \Jii*i oiialeiiceiif Aj>tHtua] bo- | 
Inge! Doo« tJjo rcdocriim of a man's faco in a pool ra&Uj 
imliMtfi thnl fho man powe^ns twii fAr*/''*, a borlily and a 
ftpjrituul fiiGoV Dovs tbe ^udoiv whic:h he ciuU, or th« oclio 
of hift \-i>ion, rcnlly prnve that he hnsan immnt^^rial iWUlc? 
\y<KA » drr^ani or a trnnc^e, in which an alihi in pE\)i'L-f] lo (ht; 
mind uf the Egrtoraot but rHlional ^nviig?, really <JeiiJ<mpLmt^H 
that hip othpf self ciiflta ftiid huE boon waniluriug altout, while 
all ])ift fritiide dcfUro that hU proper &olf hae remained JO-J 
tfiQ Rtmo fila^o 1 Is tKeru any fallacy by whlub, qu thiH viqw^I^^ 
tbo fuiidiLirimUil cj^Ticf-pTion of roIij^oD ha£ bi^]n arrEvod &t1 
All will, of oourtt', afJniEC that the prcnilBoe are utterly fale*^ 
in all tJiwc <*iifica. If, tbeu, the very rorit of tlic Ircc conftiwt 
wholly of error, id it not icaeonaWo to suppose tlmt tho ' 
brftnf<}kcii and the fruit will partnke f-f fhf* fcimc nahin? I Rut, 
to continue the fi^^nrf, iJoniw nuy iwli, Hilvp thoro not been i 
choice:' litid vnluable grafts aildi^d whid; rc^Jefni tho primitive ' 
bad sloekl To anewtr tbii* quretion, lot hb fir^l fglluw out 
this fflibjectii'c or peycholopif^al brinifh whicli Icftdft to ilie 
bneli^f ill i [II mortality, iind aubapqaently let ii» follow out aIao 
tho objoctjve or ibeolo^ncal broncb which Icad« to belit^f ^i^ 
dvity. ^1 

From tbo Idoa M a dc^tibh* Tnanifr^tlojT ita exiatonoe In 
rflflrrtrd imaj^™, bIijuIowr, <*cbo<i», dreains, and ffwni-irfc»» lo 
that *A ncontitmcd i-Ki»ten<;?c, waA but n^Iep, aiirl^iuo <pn<:k]y 
tfikvii, Thu link by whidi Ibwu tw;j uutiona are ;x)unvctvd 



b doub. For wW U dcoih Imt An TiwIrfliiEtclj proli 
tnutce, in wlikH tb« spirit finaDj iil-ui(l(>r^ft iIm bodj^ «i 
Urvljr, iierer to remrri u> it I TL<* nerval prvvklciKv oJ itioU 
fuAvrn] ntw M iuilicatv cbo bciki tliul lite «ptHls of ibo dcfti 
ctilt rvvt and lln^pn" around tlu rvmuitm of tlkc bodj, uid 
«puc irlicre it m cniontbod^ »hav« bow reodity nnd Dnivor^ 
lallv this litrl^ ]nf^cw of r^t foci null qei Ijals Uvci pvrfonDod 
hy primitive ru'oi. Quiokly fvlkiiring iipoit tLla, t(M>t liu 
l^ovn u|> and widtjiy ^pr^ over tho uacivilixcd worid Oic 
dnctrUio of a vcHtAblo f«mnc fife, imitOlj coiuciTod lu nmi^ 
liir ti> titU, Kud mit ^n«nilljf thoc^lit of n of iiHle£Eiit« di 
niion, Ibe miod iiv4 j\st ir^wpiug lo AbKtntL't n con(?G<pUc»n, 
th« forma of ibis belief di«ro \t oixeu 1<mm\ thi? niv 
kjrlng Idet of tocffii^m, TM« fmnre abodtr of ipint* 
ii^ tnorvovor, iiNully <onerirod u Miporior to, tboiigli In 
nfeort > i»pi> c to mnabltiif^, tbu uxUlcnt uutu hi tliv inorv diKj 
ireIop«d njpMiw, ibie «3)odo Ifi fnrtlier dlffen?ntiaUKU utd tbtfl 
»|ifHbi itv cluaitr«d Ml oni^ pHnripl^ oar nnoTji^ And M?nr to 
ilUTiTTiit n^jooa. fli* Utoft ilcrclaf>cnent in thtu diroctii 
Ifl tlte dirleloii into vi aboJ« of him fur llitj (ro^ uid 
iibntlo nf tomffot for lJi« bdul— KlyEJWQ and TartamB, Hceven 
and QdL 

Tbo pM*i^ fri>rn tlie vI^a of a continocd futiirv ciuA-' 
Mco to tiiat 1^ ati unlimited futurv exvivoo^ tbuoj^i appor- 
«titlj in «Mj and nAtnnl imil\ Iiob in point of faH provi 
tolowand difHoult, A» tlw irkdlwr ro^ to the capaHljr 
gtwpitig the oono^tjon of in11nit« dtintion, liiM«4d of rvaton- 
inft *X oiK« to Immonality, it tmtded In a large p*rt of tbo 
wiwld lo rcMon ftway the idua of nnj fmum exbtOQW at oJl 
(>n no otber viow U it ptiMiblo t^ rxpUtn the ab«Mico of an^ 
trvB iloctnnc of ininxirulit^v in t!w xreat Hebww. Chai 
K)orpikfit and Bnddbt»4ln natioriv of Aeda, ae well a« arm 
U)* aiwlMil Grcoka md lloman^ It 1iit«on1v btM^n in tie 
latvr vtjv:^ '-f a ft*w of thnr n-liipOina tliat Ifm d<idriiv« 
at li-n;-th pt^THKl a foot-boW. Tlie leadrinp* of Socr^li*, 
Ml fwih in tlio ''PIvafdo" of I'Ulo, pnrpww! Ihftt coraei^ 



lh<^n tbo most onll^Ll«iiL^d — ^f tho worlO fur ihoM of Chri-it, 
fdtir r.iMitiiHoA lotiir; hm nnl/ halt a ccntiny prinr to tbo Ut- 
ti^r tlfllc wu 1]ud (.!Wro nrguing for imitii^rEaUty sin if Jt were 
a litiw »K[1 u .JH<:t'rpti<d 'JLH.-trSnv, »iid Cuti> lli« younger w^rcli' 
ing ID tho '* i'biv^lo " for n juetilication of «uJrifl<L 

Without diEH^u^lng lierx; the dTect of tliu bdiuf upon 
htim-tti proj{iV!9L.< MirJ liutnAH Impi'lneas, ive wlQ stnpljr A^k 
^IiviLi^r -Any a']\lii\innt\ [r]\x>f liR>< l^^cn brouglit forwanl dar- 
ingthoprogrvwof ihodevclojmwritof tLt Iclivf mafipirttml- 1 
^xiittn^ie whic^ plnrc* it upon any firmer f>a«iflfiAftn obj^rtiw 
rcAlity tlmn timt fiinii»l)b4l t>/ Kli;i<1o«iLaniJ rlreama. C1«ari^ 
there hfui not, aud tli]» Jd uot only adniitUid bj tlio mo«t oRii- 
uijut tlic-oTcij^imiA of the prt^i^iit a^ bat tlicKc iiiviitt tlui it 
ifi botb ueoluaB and ^vjckcul to «rrk for prooCa, and that Im- 
mnrtAliry mnjst be accopled tt^u faith flR a *iiiv^rnntuinl rcv*H 
lation to man. 

lt4Ttumtn^ onco moro M tho pritnlrivo bt-lipf in EpiHmal 
being* OA tlu) ront nf nil mli^oTia, wn will nrtt Inqnim ii)h:iu 
what bash of rvality it rv^U wlicn rvgvrdixl w «ii objective 
dcdiictitm froin the uihiTWiBo ineiplicablo plionomonn rif 
iiatnnj. It t)n^ wind really iin TminatorUI aplrKt Are tho 
eiin, moon, and sFar^ actual dciHcAt It^ thv rflinbow a f^od- 
doaa, or a hridpn coTinoeting eurtli and lioaven, or was ii 
plA^'M Stj thy hnivens hy dehy as a rviTc^ant between bim 
and nmn? Are intiloore "^-xcremonl* of dirhr littk utar- 
p^dw" ? * or fa an (^Wp^i^. (be Tii^nll of tbo dcfi>ca1ioii of tbo 
divino orb of thy I f Vot-s tho plant ffrow. llie tido ebb and 
How, tbc rain ddw^iid, or the lighlnfng fln^lu In nbodi<<»co to 
ifplrlTual power* ahovc and ontaid« f4 nature, harinR dUtjnrt 
perftonallriivi f 

AH tUr*r pbenotnvna ute ni>w entiefaetr^rily explained on 
■trirtly TiAtnral prjuoJpW Amon^ prrtpb* aivjnjiintivl with 
•OiMwc, mII audi *uprniflrnral bi*in^ h(iTe bncn diKpi-n*cd 

I T\t\t. Vijof Ptfwi^ii iuloriM QDfl. i* It nijth ot one of the Fuitk i-bp* 
tribe* In ibp ph;?dblLdiilc Bbi^^ 



Aod to b&vc alnya Ikwu fftlaci V««, othvr b^b^uiul bciiig* 
Arerctuncd who nro rcjiiiroi) to cxpLtin t^in^h FMidDi) pho 
VooiMia nm iKicflctt lutf not ^ct grajipcd oiid vabjccled to Ijin. 
M'iibiu Ui« liii4urio penutl, tbu territory oucc bdocigiiig to 
the god«v wli«li liu bevQ cucilo«4tid and reekuucd lijr ndi^iMx^ 
i-i»bnun« tho cAlirc fiol^U of MtroncHaj, |»Ly»ic«, cWoitlrj, 
Ai>d goolog]'* TIimI of bktloj^jF ha jkiit f:urlj' patMil out of 
ifavological mprvuucf, vrhtlo Ui>3W of aonJ and Dodal ph^ 
nomeiift ud at iho proAont time Uio b4itJ4>^Toaikd t>ctv«fn 
•electee ftod reiiKioPk. And m>w Hr. Spvacvr otiom forw«t>l 
mad prochiimB iktui Uio Uttrr most coiiliiiu« toretrott iiid 
»iintnd«r itn cnapirc, undl dm line i« raclicd wbich «c«8 lU)- 
ft(itn1<; boBiidft Co ftU pcubil^ Iktmuui 4X)aipre1ien«ci4i. Tim 
be i« jJc^aed tv call a reooocOiitioD 1 It oerl&iuty itflunit thi 
onlr iiidicatMm t^nl the work of KienliSc invjuuD « ill e^'er 
lind a limit; uid nit^ taram wiih a nctoffioiu oDom; un bet- 
ter tjittii antLilLiklioo (voK i, p. I5ti *). 

We uw lIihi liie talijediiv branch of tcllpon wafi jolaed 
to error at ite truuk. aud dul 00:10 bill erron grew vut of it 
or were ingraft^l tip.>ii Er. Wc now »co th^t ibo obji^tit^o 
linjidi, joined to tLo i«unQ trunk, bu oitlj lf««o modilicd bj 
gnuiniilly duiiidliug away iu it« aecetiC uniil. ici llw nioot 
k^cftl mlnd^ h hea Tirtu&Uy dlfiappeenxL AooonUog to 

rtiula Um Ml. Ol*di««it rvploTrd ft«r [n»Htr (>» vuh (orpu» 1 aattujj 
MttTt W lit. GMMh*! ad Jiv** wiTilir flpi«twiii In li. and ihfini hllw 


raooaEss,-[>R[MARr uuirs. 

Spenoof, it mtiit cvcntoollf bo rcdiMifd to a men iDotA|iJijr 
lAiT frntitT, wbioli can e^rtAuiljr makcIjt bo recogouMl 
■jiiiituAl being. I 

Looking haxk nt/m DV«r the vrhoh &M, therfs rmuind m 
St^cvhy in KoogniKing tlie trne podtion of r«lig1(m u J 
«ocu1 IHrtor U wu ritiiplj * nervMily of Hie «oiulit»o«i d 
Ibin;^ lliAt it feUoitJd faaro como idIq 0xb1«ii« ba it hi» duufl 
TLte [4ac-4ng of i mtioiiul bcm^ iu n irorM eiicb as Uili I 
eamiiiiitCA tUc nil tdiilident LWplMnatbn of tlii; <lcvck>|imfTi] 
of ft r«1^»oiiJi Aenfjflaent And raltj^diM niKlitiTtion&. TIm^ fu 
wjtt puiiit«d oAt vrrtb «otno cftT* in Iti^ IxTBOd>L<''ni^> (voL 
pL 4&>. lliat tlio iibuiiomona of. i\w nntvoovu jirawaL t4> th 
nntAiagbt mitid b tnozo of fuoonipn^uiutihlu dau for qicoi 
littsoo. Tlw Inici rnlnre ^f plicr^v^MMiia oan odIj be knoic 
ttftor dgv of prnfonn<l «rii7iit]f]i> tlioughl and labor Uoti 
ov«r, it in uiii)epiubl« ihaX tbu up]:iunTtit iv gviLvnll/ wboll 
dfiffcffODt from tJio ival. nh^, in a raat ntimber ot caws^ It | 
pr«?L«e)j Hie r«iTeT*r. Honrrtthi'* iiniikBtTisclvd retioD^ fji« 
nitj', iii»tmd of bdog ejaploycil in ftc^t^irin^ knowlrdgvi, ij 
miicii uf iU tinio «uiploy«d lu luftnufiuturing cnvr. T 
fooM of error, loglcailjr readied through tho tegltlniate ox 
ewe of ih<» dcvflopmg^ re4«inii <if primnirdiAl iiuin frmn ill t 
nututv ]irc«ctit«tO tbv rxpurk-ucL- of bin facuUits, cci»tk 
id cwrj inboand rtatiou, tlie vnrpvi lU rvli^uii, Rcliip 
OW06 Olo po«iiibiIUj of \x$ e%\^tt?iicii to tbe pondox^ of 
Dn»— In tlio cliirf trf wbirb attirntbn bju alrcmdy bciKi i 
cUll/ wllccl (vol. i, p. 47) — to tbe iuconlrovtrlibic f*ct 1 
in Ili« niitnro of tliioj^ & ritfonul being zau^U &» a dlrrcA an 
(uvitftblii MinafM^acticc of his ntionalitr, be M biUf ibd 
Dictt ritft] erroni, f^r wHii'b br inn*t farther ht*. dn^ivnl iiilj 
oborinhin^ ihp moil intQiiM f^tf^iriJ, uutil, by tlie slow mftrcB 
of solid kiK>i4ltfdp> and UiQultimato adoption of Hio wicntifid 
nMliod "f fnbf>rioiw rMcuch kimI cnidtl twtfw truth ftt ImI 
eaicfK«« ftnd the Honda of error r&ni*b. j 

TbiA mty lie than! )^«u)n Vr> Ifflm, ult Ua tbnnUfAi one 
to inoiiiGitVt but to tbi* cotnplvnon it mxutt ovtiDtjaily 


Tm^T 1-1*!^ ^ f*^ r^ni for optfmlmibore^tnitwttli&voAtreidjp 
■euu (fwy/rti, p. 44} thai tliU h fftr from being ftn ofitimifttic 
woirM. Tbovo who Atv cApablv of vrboJly divc^ng tLvti^ 
nclvui of ibu0B optlmioia coDueptloitt oui we tint it in ju«l 
u ftnt4«edMit]f probable tbit tbo vorld uid man ahooM be 
iLnn iiitiami<,mii>aAlj^ jiitJQtk^, n% that Hity t^^nM he vHhetr 
(noraorW hk Tbtf viily qualifiofttion aUioiutvlf rvquir^ 
b tbat whfdi tbo Uw ^f a^ ln|>tAtiQii erorj-wbon roqnirM, rla., 
Uuu tbe winl of com^potKlcnco fball iwt t)o «o great m 
vboIU' to }it«roilt tli« tAotiriiiari<?6 of llie orgaDbm. Aim! 
benr it niji>^ bu ptoperly renittrkivi Ihil it u i>ot at &JI mi- 
probftUo tJiat id»u,v bcipjoiu btiiauL now mtj bsvo Acluoltjr 
penthiKl aj il><} outlet of fbi^ir Qv«er fn a>nwqwcH»of tlie 
•doptiuM (rf rrron of mi i'iIa] a nMiin> to iholf existCBkcftM to 
rtador ic no longer poMblo. Of «onrwr, like oihcr tfvuilioa- 
fbrau^ aadi fmu ocmlil Iimvv do tn«o of tlwir huilory, anil 
tburefon* «« qui only reuon mil i3ieir pcutMlIty, To {Uu^ 
iMv, b(wev«r, bow Meb might h«vi.> boen tliB cm^ w« neeil 
onl^ bo rvmindrd of tlic gr«at provalennf of opiiiolatry.* 
Tlw DnIoiiM prutgctiim i^ lunoiiMiiif vorpeots caHMs tbem 
10 muliipJ^ ripMly, and u oo&dilion ni^iy he «4^)jr Jmi^wMl 
in vbirb iIiIji oiij^Iit n^^ah in the Dcluit dortrotTtion of tb« 
race pcfiUlvDily ciingi»j|r to tbi» o«prlc«* Ittdiu UlnvlmCM 
tUid la tbu fact (bftt iccordtii^ Co ofllcLil retnniB oreor twectj* 
five tboDHud pCfwcu dii- annmUj of msk^ice^ uid tb^ 
nriti^ oAckl* mutti witb fmiwtiAJ rcfuuoco In tlidr 
atl4;nipCA to rid the cc^intry of tbv«e droadfal pctfd.f 

Sdll mvms daojcviraQ* fo<v mi^r aa Mfjly boooBi# objoctft 
of votmhip ftiMl religiOQA ^jmliAniiiip ui srukM. 6npfko<« s 
tr^ intulMting the Iroplot to btcomc ihmhwhI of ibo bdief 
tint tbe tigur uiiibodl<« tbe ^bo«1 of Flfi iimdirerTCRHl Aiwoi' 
mf cbief, now m poworfal goH. jtnd ibnl therefore ibe tijiCT 
miMt Ik bubl nCKd Jind Mfer bamwd in Ibo tewt partkuliir, 


uuiJur pjiiii afld 4r«ad id ctukMiMriuoiit duv U tbe lionde of 
Mid ■ccHAitnl gocL Tlitico mim lulglil »U/ ll^c anlelojMa and 
tli« 1>iilIalo, ftud tliu» roducc tlie amount uf iho tlgcr'a tuUiiml 
prvj, And git« it cAUMt to turn nyan nnxx a« a miliMTltiUj, but 
l])€ry ought iKivcr iojurv m luir gf tLu iigvr iuAU lla^ut 
tM<Ai A tilde uf ibiDgtt, lliu ti^r irould ttoou coitio lo ni^ni^ 
man a^ id ca^j and dofciuvlcw V^lfy ^*^ w^uld AptorriAt^callj 
liKint him niv4 fivoniTUtllj cxurrniinntvi Mm, 

Krn>uuoL;« bcix-fs uf triuuv viUiur kiuUji laigtit. owtitjr lc««I 
to tli« ^innJiJj' or k^^'^ 4<iUtiotkai of raceo Jf mun. Sup- 
pose n tribe to be Mixed, for en^ cftUAo, «ith tlio idoft tk^l a 
divipR ooniEnand bdd Omu giT«4i io d<«lrojf all tii« feiiultf 
mfjuiU t>uni jiftcra cvftziiii tby. &tiflt a ootiuu i» not moro 
absurd tliatj rousjr ttat luve uctulljr t>u(}ii caiturtaiiied. TIm 
id«a Lliit all ^' btrieli<9 *' n»BM b« diAtrurul wuu^l ho na Udai 
to iLo intelkrctu^ Lif<f of BocMTtj« oould il \i& por«iM«utIf wirv 
nod outf II* would llio ono inrojNacod, to ite phj-u^aU life For 
A '^W-jvdc" in Hiinplv A doubter of tKc truth uf tU^^c fnliw 
ooQoeptiora in the wDrld. 4iid be donbt* bdn^uAo be pu*ioiie« 
u mpurior Ruwnin^ poweTfUid ttHfrvfuro a-prei«iU« i Ui^bttr 
Inudtectval dowJopTEU'iia. Yet tbb idon ht& Gxtcnslvolj |»o> 
Tfttlnl in tlir^ vnn^inrd nf huniAnity vJllim xhti hud five era* 
twiek, and tbouiiA&di of tlic bnebtcftl lifflits of Uj« irorld 
lttv« boou tliiu uiii[j;;uidjud, Cbuld it luii-v br«ii oiiTureedf 
thoro coqM hAV^ beon no fiueli iwnkcolnf^ a» boA tdkeii phcc 
linco ihjit rfVH-h^r^A rn of f^ionot Tim tlMtfn la tlxv gfMt 
ediptc of tho learning of tlio ■nci«tiU nnd^r tJiU^ttOM IV- 
li;,'ii>ti» TiidudieOi tho doffing of tbo sdiooTp Ibroiighost tiko 
Roman Eiiii*!™-. and iHo dcrirarUoii of llie works of IJla^ 
Aluro Atfd ftjf, in^lndinfE the Al«ita&drian 1ibr»rv. Hii^ bi^ 
tor^ ol ttvnffr cu»to(ii> i« mpplpaiPtitod bj tbat of cuItnnMl 
fwo|»lo« in <loittoa>tntln(; Ui»t program Is b^ no muuu n 
atttbJc QoiiditinD, and b«s frt^notillj been tbreelened rllli a 
toiaJ odtpM bj the rftie of *oma «rToneou« vid £at«l belief 
inMimpttiblf^ with ItAcoiiliiioAn^e. 

To tnort wind* tUfi propofUioii Uiai ratlgion and adenon 


tre fntiiUnidfitAUy idiMrticfll will pftwnt ■ pftrador* Vet 
«u«li b uui]u«tio>u4bljr Kixv i»k. For, if MMmoe cojikuIv tn h 
ndoiia] dtfoit lo expbicL pli>eBoiDCfiif dib iB oeruinlj the 
ApidftmaiUl eliAmctcr of mli^OD. PWiomoM sinaply fur- 
mh ibo jircmiHv, und from thoM prctnUoi dift Active 1jnin 
ili^tw^ lU «ottoluaoaj«. Tb»o ouneluioiHu m tjrjblttlliioil 
into Mvah whUJi atq uitlicr true or nnomcu If truer ^^ 
fiirQudi tilt dau for tJu? »(*ie7iril^r clalwrEUioei of h ccnnttktgj. 
It iuitni«, lhi7 fumiiili llie imteriilA of & tfacoloKj. While^ 
l>OHvvL>r, rvli^tuo? Wlieftt luvv no duniouvlnble curT««|K>ud- 
ODOD with Iho objoctivo rcdUj-, It i£ not tra« iLat every error 
IN mccMUil^ in tlie ii:ittin< of n n-tig[mu Irfiltof, Thk mnit 
pvmsm A fp«Qttl qaalitj- dnwu from tbu pvcalixrumUire of 
Ibe c«iii>L'^ioii of apiHttitl b«ii^. It mxiu bv vf » tAfiw^o- 
dentiJ ohimctor, wlilcU ij: ti»t (ieugnMod hf tbo term ^A^^tfr- 
Aofu/^. Xo oilier i-rTon than lltcM! wliicli mrolvo a belivf 
in the AapemiMAJ poaKM the fimduiUBiU] ckvact«H«iiM of 

It la, tbcrafoTO, opoB tbb li&c that (he two ^vtcnu of 
fic]tUininjt phf^nomrmi divide, Tlie relipooi explanitioii I* 
tbo wpcmriunti, \hv fcicuUfip explnnaCMm Ib the latitnd. In 
»]] ifptf iJiure hiv^ beeii tome pi>«iioinePtt for wliiiih only a 
AVpemitiml cxpUi^tion bad bLMrn offered, vihlh in AJI da- 
Eionn »1 >ll ftdTaAccd in ^tihuiv nuTiy pbenoDMiM hhTe ht*^ 
«i)4flii>od iicvoinliD^ u> ht>i\i iiMrlLod* bjr dffleraDt nriiidft. It 
liMthowerN-, U-vn (Iw uuifonu umk of intellccttial pfovrnm 
ihat Uie Bitpenutiml dtould coii>t<iirl,v give wav to thu iiat- 
mm] mrtliod, and it hM hren on tbid &dvAfioIiig linn tb«t thd 
WMrfkrv of n^liffion atid iwem* Km b«ti conitajutlr v^a^d. 
Tbe attooov of lUe Utier mait bv ucnbvd ti^ ihe apfitiealioii 
of wlmt v«T liAvo dotioniinatod tbe tmdir^ nuiAod, 'Xlud 
wMpom of ntiijfion liave Ihwr tf>«ffdoo ami oxbortAloii ; 
tbnw) of vcicTiou h*iT« l*:Tn hltill Mid Mrategj. 

Tlic d«volopln£ latdluct wua i^t lUr ouUet pfaeed face lo 
fwv with two eUim% of pWiomcDA, not iDd««d gOBOHAllr 
dktrticlt bet vboie eilrvBicB pnMOt nytt diiTcreaoot iu nun/ 


DOfUona wliicb Uo upon tbu mtrfmx of nature. ii)d ivhiub 
wtm fortuimtcly of tbe grwta}! iRkinocUAtt) pnctlcal impor- 
taocd lo tliQ phjw'cal Lif« of ifai^ race. The othrr ol&j«k f m- 
braced &U tli^ U«i?jt«r cMioic&l pliectofuena^ vi vtut impcirljuicv 
t<^ M ^Icvolopcd niou, but wJcli wliJob pHuiiiive uun n^vlljr 
Ticcfl have hud little to do. 

TliQ ]f>irer uiiiiiiib ■]<» n^t npp^nr to hnrn imj tHonghtN 
vhaWvef thoni llils oJm> of □Htunil «vcuu, ultliuUf;!! Uicjj 
muiifcfit eoiwidcntbTo ncc^uAmtauce with tito otbur dan 
vkioh materiallj improveri tlicir ability lo proTJdv iheir own 
wb^lOBCV. Bui to tb« uuiEiali'u^'tod mti^llt<rt ot prinittivo 
man do itl«;l[n(!lion In poJm of unpurtaiwe wm mooguiji^ 
bctwciooi thci« two ciftwni of phcnoiaooA, and It iiiunvdiM«ljp 
\tQffit} to manufm.'turv In^lk-fA (ram both cladAM&lik^ Tb6 
impOMibtliij rif coniprolieiidiikg tliutv of tho di^'opvr nitd more 
rtKitiivlitc cIm bd tt unci> to thu vbption of lUI tbo errors 
altvtidutit npon thif funiiamentaUj crroncou* mpcmAtnril 
exptAnatinb, and ^v^ rW to tvlf^on aa &n inwpLmbU dis 
jUfrnl In xhif fiiUjro culii^ru ftikd pivgrieM of tJto rw.'o. It w 
im[>i>fftfit»!c ihnt ibv primitivu tnjul «)ion1d malo a oorn>tf 
BOloT'IoD of tho problcTiia pRdento-} bv imcb phfmoRK^i^a^ii 
n^f.c.tfd in»go, a ^jidnw, «n ecbo, a dmmi. a iwpoq, a fit, 
or itiuith fcopcrTonifijf xjpon a conuitoie *tale. Tbtve pl»o- 
noiiieo* bavtf mAj bocu iK>rTn<ttf folvod vlibfii tbo eolcntidc 
poriod bjr a wldo acqudnt^aoc witb tbc lawn of opckn, of 
pbjniologj. ftud of pA^bolog^ as ■ produ«-r of brain^ad'on ; 
and IhvreNtill rctndn ntanr loifapluDiHi m^tvriM mTohod 
ia tlie]iijEli«rnuiQlfo«tutlcT)ftor*oiiujof ibem. K^tboroonld 
^ nvigo over give carreti ex)^&Q^ioD& of the pbdMneoa 
preAOQtcd bj <^tmui1 itatapft in g^eval, ivch m itonMi 
tlinn<?nr And li^lEun||e» tliQ minbow^ lliv ann^ra borvtlii, 
c<![iiwa, coRlut^ fiMrtoofv, flt<^ Tc4 midi pbdoodictifl, appeu- 
ing to bim to po»ft« no n^gaUn'tj. bnl al war« taklog Urn 
bj aiirpriA^ mu^ Ilivo formed tlte imbj^ct nf int^rLi^ intrr^t 
uid vigorous Uiongbt, port«nduig, a« Uicv alMn^ ■c^rixxl to 



Uim tj> ^o, Mvac gmt dmger. £pttklag of eomeo, Himi' 
U>ldt in»rly rcnat^ *'It h u imWent Aiinbnto of tl^ 
Iranian niiiul lo expvri«nco fvA/*, and ncd hoptt or jov^ *t tUti 
ivppotof ilut wbich buucx|iDc:t4fduadcixUi^nliiiu^< "* iytA* 
I, |i. 4iM, turlt). It «n«Uiiftck»of pbrooracittdiiu^}' whicb 
■t flnt fotmed IIm bww for ibo tmlief in objri'tiv-^t ffiiriEtinl 
betn|[&— 'I. *^, of tlitfi^og^ — Mief vboUj t^^t of EuniiuQ^ vlUi 
roaliiv, flnil DtfocMoHlj m tn conKxiiicneG of tlio invoaiprv- 

Ad UtvUrcl doTrlop^, Uwugbt bcouiu! lUfcctuiJ a1*o to 
th« inoro npilar pltcooiDCia of externa] noCiin^ tacit u tho 
Twti^ ind »etlli»g of tlio Nui^ tbe lu^Mflif^uiB'Df the wuoiw 
(In leiniwrato btltvdn). ibe tldea of Uw mb, Hut cbaugod of 
the DMoo. Ui9 migrvtion of titrdit «c. Bni, m Une conwt 
Inttrpreintioii of ,tbcac chuigc* n^trn! tbc long a&d clifH- 
cult devotoftment inO pi^rftction of lbe»ric:)Ois of nstnm- 
omjr, pli^ktcki, »oOAu|^. vie., U w-ja u* uujxjteiblv fur tbviix tu 
lie eorrvetl; EnUrpfcted tlicti tt for tbo mtm irro^Ur ^hb- 
DOODena to W fto interpivtM at au cArlicr fitjige "f develop- 
lueni. The doolH* w^i<:'Tl the altiwnoi^ i>f the u^ritinK'iil of 
vondcr &i ngalar pbvaonivtiii La ruiivd witli j^^gnnl to iha 
ftllegvd inti»nM rontempbtliac nf tnch plimomi^a 1>v priTiii> 
tiro miB, may ]ieriiai« b« p^rlLEtllr rpex>uciFcd ^lUi nacii 
fftctv wi bid>(^«te that mvh {ntenw Doiri^iuplalton mmi bare 
taken )>]Myv If wo admit, 00 wc nndonbic^ly fihould, that ibiA 
pftDflivo MuTi^ tcclitht only fn a vrryfrw, nn Hwfiqtially rvMon- 
Mtf uvutnplii^oi llibt ainon^ ibe lowevl un^ev, m amoiiig t^ 
most advADcod ncee, tlie«« eat^t imrncoie dlifereooia in boih 
the qvuititv and tlio i^nalftj of tbe intcncetnal foitw in dif^ 
fervct tm!uiditji1ii ; aitd that, m tbo one <w« u In Uie otiier, 
it ik ilie giauta of mitid wbo Uupwo bvlivfs Qpon the btok- 
ward nuiues. 

BoTUT«r thU may bo, ve f nd all tb«ie deqior |>b«<koni- 
Mtt «x|»b{cicd by llio aivaij^, and mlvarv oiToi»io«i»3y oji> 
plaiiK«U »l>oii tbe tfu|>eniaiani1 tbiMjry, w'Woh prodt^itca tbQ 



Ktutt^nco of fpintnal Wi^a und begob lli« religious «giiU- 

At Uitt MUM! limo Uut Uiii uujb t^f unvr iitaocuinultUug 
Ju dio fiti[>Qi«Iblc attempt Vj u.ipkhi Uie undcrljinfi; pbenoni- 

lltti^ ]g^vu» ti^ ocrtxiii uf tlig «ujM;rlicitl clflttf of wUcb tiua 
hiw A pn^tL^ u^TL-tl tu taku Iu]]:i<jdktc advanta^ Wliiltf 
tJicnr nu5 n^on^ Uki^UhiJOd thai & mrfaivi foct fJionld be f4Uelj 
inttrfti-uUHl tfiui lliAt &dcv-jv]^iu^ f^rt iliould bo njrrocllj 
intuifiivt^tl, ^r^ tunny of tbo foniber reeeit'^ triM eiplaiift' 
tji>Tiis nnd tbo kwn dcUimining tlicm wcro tarmvl to homan 
jidiTUiM^f^ Ttit *ufH--H«r iorco of > blow dndl with » «trck 
ovifT a Uow lik^al^ viUi Ili<» uakcd &i wu esulj w^u bjr inan^ 
lliotigh i»o wiM cmimal wihiM probLibly uJco ndvuniago of It^ 
crcn if |}hj;^]t.^l]y mlnpUnl to lia §o. Tbc^rlcaving power of 
an nlf^ iM)], tlu< a^iii in <titUns <A tt nuMik, llie ihorMMd 
forcti giveu to * dwl hy tlie elutidt) of a bouk\ (ho puw«r 
of n coftcare voMOl to comtuln liquids, tlio c!T<xt of in »iii- 
Iii*1*A «i:in to pmrcpl tjio bodjr. ami mnn/ olhor dmpLc pru»< 

vutiM'Jvrublv bvjoiid ihv C4|idi4--ilj uf tb*; lo««sr HhiiuMLb. ;4nil 
thorvfora conBtimtiog fto fncboat<] micoco nod od, mijrkod 
tho inffcn^^y r-f truo pn-i^rrrj* m ibr liQiimn rue*. The CAond 
of tbU iiioveiii«Mtl, frvkin ibU early bi^tioiiL^ to tbc point at* 
taiDvd ki the pn-bviit H'u-uCffic tiutionj of thu worM, liu ^ 
ready becci la^iity ^i^'lcbod Xw Uiovariy ]>aitof tiw prcvonl 
rhAptf-r, ntifl thiA rrr'^rrviYixi to itdi lailU] »Ia^ ha* oqJj bfifn 
lu coiiflcijucnw of tbo prime imporlaac^ i^f ]iotn[iu|c (ml tlw 
prv^EW rvUlitiUif of Milcfiev jtiij ivUgioQ down to Uwtr point 
of dlt'^uxcuce nt ibi^ davni of inicJli^Qnce^ 

If B uiinfiictory defUittion of rdipu^j him bt^en givcii,aiid 
if iu ^^i-»j- )ia« bm ecmvtJy duein-ilwd iu tli^ Zoning t«- 
TIla/kl^ oothtng \t> hdt %o lie done bnl t^^ nitfu^r tlie ijuaitkiii, 
y^XoA la ike poiidoii of telljtlcm thai ddUved, cocu>iden>d Id 
ooniwelioo wMi tlio prc^nM of Uio liaanan rtco I 

RELrGro:^ x^ x social paotor. % 

K«tiirn]l/ h iridic bo «oppOMd tbftt notkio^ good toM 
cow out «if anmix«il cmn, bntf u a nttttor of feet, all no« 
tnd ponfilc* lavi> erur r«^H«d tbvr mligioTi aJi the ttitvt 
Tflltiablij of all tJivir iiHtiUitiocii. Y«l Ui» 4]>pliefl *.*n\y ui 
lyirb pr«ple^>i ovn nil^oD, and ia mtvt the «fttiinatv uJ utio 
piH>plu of Ihe roli^on of another. At tbo ri^k of rap^iltkiti, 
kt na iNring W«r»ni an llltwTj^iioci of tbb. iriiaL iiuportiuic 
qaalifinUon, If a ooDT«nttoD of aD the relif^uiu oh di^ 
^obe wore to be oalled. wdi aect ttein^ n^piv»^fkto4l bf ono 
dolif>ai«^ and the quoMioii wctv tt> W vutcU u|Jou in tbu c»«« 
of «ach relijpno Aupiraidj. In ibifi n&ligiun tniu } or, la tliia 
r«ligioit btfovfiuiai tu maitf tbe rtmlt would mcvitably b« 
thai onljroQanfflrmatJTovotGirould bo ca*t in eauboMv^auO 
that vfiokl bo tKo voio of the dclf^iiUo of tbo putknkr n»- 
ligion «pDQ irliidi the vote «ra« taken; &nd, if tbo adioo of 
tbta epuvMlioo wiih regard lo lb»* ftwubtiilj of pfwvrviii^ 
ornbolifibiii^rvli^oiutiwald b« condoslvo, k would bo fonml 
thai all tlie rotigloiw of Um world voutd 1x^ nvrrwhelinjikgly 
volad dovn and abolielMd| and tfali bj the aoibu of aruic^ 
rpUjf iom»te aloii«t 

But it may wdt be ailiod irhothor tb£i tiaw nf t)i<* <vitt 
i« a fair ono, ajid wb^lhor ibe adberMrta of an^ ox-vd aiv nut 
botlir JDdj|t« of itA ciTo«48 than ibuM ontaldu of JtH inftuento. 
It obvMNvlj bccocnoa ttocmmj, thenrfnn^, Ii> looli to tlw in- 
trimk mcriU uf tbo 4{iu«tioo, and thh from a (liMntotvfllr.i 
ffand'point ontrido of tJie i&Hnmm of iFI wtiffioiM. T\vt 
fonndtf of t>io fetrat«*t of rol^on* hn mid Ibat^tbv tr«« 
h known by iu fniii " • and dsce hk Uay nu bi-ttcr cHtiuiim 
of luorit liMfi bevn pru|)0i«r1. In «M^in^ to apply tbb U^, 
it ii hoped thai iho adknnt of no partirolar m)^r«oD wi]\ 
lamptkB chat tbo [UvUratJona ar« cwpwialty dtnwtwl lowanJ 
bl« own anj mnrv tlun toward any otber fahb, or with any 
odiiT object Ibaa to purtmj m tlic mnft ni^runilA mnnTt^T 
puvible iho Ic^'dmatr lo^cwikco of t1i« fMnttiaJ attriboti^ of 
nllgtoik B» inidi, tlw «uiatnptkin bving coiulaotly bomo ia 



mind ilifrl In tbi> praoodln^dlMiUMJoiii wq h»vty amvod m n trod 
<U-6(iitkon fkf thntin which rrligioa fnijiJiLtnciitjill^r toiuimtJi. 

T^otvtth^tJuifliEig Ihc ani4Toe4Mt danbu wtlJi whleh Um 
Ofsenliulty urruuiMU* oljLinuU'rof thi? pivp'nitioriH of nil t9- 
HfiCtoiB bcKof ^m>nrid Uio convuptiun uf bumiUciiil nmilu 
Hn flou'irig from Hur}i m^urrCB, we uQl dr»t Imqufm wbetlur, 
h* }; mulCi-r >jf fHtrl. Hhy BQeh ruuilu atv tfiforvOTftl^ 111 the 
ojtcTiiliouA of l\\h titijKjrUot huiUiiD agnwj. 

AhiIc from Uio rocci^ltion of Mr. Sptmcc^G **«anl of 
triilU in tbin^ oJTonpon*," whinh w« rbf*rfTi11jf «>nr«!c to 
rvli^oa 111 iht ncuiie ixi wJucl; ho vCCem it^ it u il lir^'itiiuatQ 
iQ<|utr^' vrlmthcT tLcrc ho not ccrtein cont^rvtc >n<l tnn^b1« 
wajrs in wLich rtUgloQ coQdDO«« to tJie vlvutiU^ of ilio 
itiitivitiDh] viiJ of itocirljir. The mott nalonil oictbod of ju- 
nvJit^- jtt th« t'hjmcK^r uf such a<]«'nnUg«ouaeirecu U i^^ Iimt 
tbe clalme of rcltgioni^ra llicni»olT«A, In <»nsfdoring thMC^ 
it wil), vf course, W iivcvaMrv lo «xohid9 tliat vliii^h f^oy 
rogui] (U mo«t imjH^ruiit. vit., thv uvunaod bonrfiu which 
rvimlt from the propitiAfioTi of fpiritnal bcin^ or Mty ; oV 
j«ctlrc ftiHiwcrA tfl >p<vutl n'<)q(^»t^ or pr^wra ; an*i wp^^jiUjr 
Ui4t im^iriajf of 4 UmIiIk- ruluru itlstv of v-jkbIvoc^ uritj th« 
AvofdaiMw of a >tati^ rrf prrpelnni pimiohniont. ThoM bo- 
lii^fn, Althonj^fa admitted bv tli«r Lo1<1rr« to hr «SftIlr devoi4 
of pbT»J«I firoof, nod t»j re*l ub<jljjr on w)ut tbej cjOI 
'^fHitb,*' uremiflunont to ncoutit in iScmf«1vt:a for (he In* 
1«nw aft4chm«iu of a i^i^jili* for ft* n'ligioiL And, Inaunndi 
iw ihp mi:iil«i of pTripiti^tiou JilTw in hII ivIijfJoiWt ■* '^^i 'b© 
nanicw of the gods «d4 tbo natnrt of the futuro trials llua 
«]» cipliiDf in Ml rr;tTrd]r Ktffcf.ictofj mitnnet llie lio^tily 
rf OTflry nllf^on ti^wan! every other, ll aleo shows th«t it 
fa not for th^lr hetteflta lo man hi lib prvemt Aorinl and eoo- 
noinf^ reUlSoiui that ToHgionia nr^ rfiKTfly pr>]r«?d. 

Amonp «anifpe«, reliffion is c-Jiicfly prised m a meatu of 
av^rtln;; ^ftt ealnmiilfp, oonivlvcd wt oon^fAnll'v impciiidlnpTi 
from hcetllo spirit*, gWt«, and clomona^'and in tiu4rljr aH 

• Ubtnik, "Of^lD itf OHniMhn,* p. ISfli 




rvligkitii tbe belief in couligDwit cpintml beinga U *« tMtvch 
a {ATI of tJie (.TMKJ H» tl;u Mivf m bvuigD^iit <idw, Ja tlw 
«pc«H« of puLjtbcuAJu faicrsrchj coturtiuttiii^ Cbn'fltirkitj, 
then b mlnKled boafaktt £U mjrBEArioiu^TriDiiy"^ well- 
nurlcM ditHliAro, donbUoM In pert dorir^ from ihv givnt 
I'wfiJnA doftliiiiih. vliik JdobaintiicKliitiiiBi U probiUjr <liO 
nfi4re«t nppriMich yvt nuwiu to a pvin viiMioi1iri*i[]. 

No one will probalil; cUim that tho ivli^ioui of AVigei^ 
m « mle, iuvolvhig an tlit^j do thv* parpetwU appr^beiuidl 
of JQiugimrr evib, At)d rmiuiriui; iMmnllnw huiy nurifici'St 
arv ot AflT RiHterrnl arlviiikCAfp.' lo itioM nKv«. whilt^ the evOa 
of iiMMt bftrijariio cn>ed« aiv «o api^aniit ib«t tbvir neritor if 
thoy bflvo Mift an ijbMorad to all bat «ndi aft poceeA mi 
ifiHtnsto ATi^nainiJintv vixh tbcir dotaJled vorklng*. Tbo 
qiiMlion of the htatt^tM ol rffli^on to llie temporal intcrndii 
of uun ai, tLvfvforv, Darruwvd duwet to tliQ muetadvaiK^ 

Th« adfaemila of lliftfe rruinlmn thit ivll^on it of tho 
liigbM Irapnrtaiicc : I, hi K^udin^ n |M>vrrM auicC£oB to 
TErttM &iid mormlitj ; % m liFoctling lli« big)i«M»l nuju^lion 
to aII wbo biiUcT« fn ifiuuondll^ ; 3» iti ckvatlug chArBct«r 
hy tW cimtcvnplation of tb<» prrf*^t MmJ in tba perwm of 
tJio dehj and in tboao of tltc mat of tlic hiunndrr of nlptt^ 
or gf*^f >o(l* ^T * ocrtaia Mbj«ctivo {mprov«auQiit wliidi U 
aapjpoiwd to foUov from tbo bibllnal Mtftudo of bQmlllai(<iti^ 
Conf«uMw, and pT«7«r. Thfto am probahlv mbrr c^lainvt, 
b«t ftii «iLiniitit^cooQ»UI<nrtioiiof tbouibjwt in of ooiirw 
pRdmlod hy ilio aoopo of tbU vorV. A glaiK« «t oacb vf 
diMO fouralloKix) teiTlporal bowrBta of rtlEpoQ vill imply 
fnlfill our prttwitt pnrpoi^ 

Ifofora ]>ro(M.-tMliiig to do thi^ il u proper to pT«m£ftO tbat 
Uw limUiii); of tbo ^uc«lJoii to tbo Ukv dorJTvd pdigkiru 
peall/ tiilE<« h ocrt of ibo fiold Ic^Etinuidy flwi^iied to ildt 
dhcwnMi, since the bendlriil inAuvncoft etnlmed do not aiij 
of ibctn«pr[»K frviualfribulM w1iiobaroc««onlial toroligioOt 
bot fram now onto «bicb bavv bmti ingraficil apom it btvr 


FKUaKKB&^^-ranLiBT U£A!(& 

fore, mtllv eonfliduriQ^ tlie quoElion wJifitlior intelll^itcu Iim 
aot »o ff^r dfliit«(1 pure rvligicm, m it wciti, cft to rctideo' It 
lianalcKfT even hcmclidAl, uid in tlii,^ c;uc it ii to intol- 
lipjruu (lut Lill tbv im-riUXuuiid tl»>uld prvpvrly Lru crvUiU<J. 

)lr, Tvlor rery appc^itoly sax*- '^Tqfoiew cfaoftntoravui 
tuny *eom alviling, yet ifao evidence *tcm» to jnsiifv it, tIieiI 
tbe r«I«4ion of inonJitj- ia M^on u i>ne Oiat culj bc^loagt 
in iu» ndimtuU, or noL >t ^Il^to mdimonUr^ dvilOitUtru. 
The ooaipaHBon of eavago and «iviiiwJ r«lipc3f» hrii^ into 
riow, by tlie dtUt ff dco]v1yiii^ rCMuibUuor iu tlidr pbilofo- 
phy, A dccplyiuK cuntnwt in tfacir pnwtical action od liumnu 
Itfo. So £u aa wva^ n?li;;io(i tyxti otaud a» ropTOwnUc^ QBt^ 
unl roUf^lon, the popular iica thM tlio moral ^vomnettlof 
tlic ttnivoftA i*iui pjvmtinl tcnrt of iLtttiral rrJI^n utmpljp 
lilU to lUv gttmttiL t4ar»j{c Atiinwm u ttlinmt dcr^^Ui uf 
Uut otJiical eU.-mi.*>il vihlch to tlte edaoatod modvm miod b 
thio very inAinepriiig of pi^lical religion. Not, lu I have 
Mtd, tftnt mnr«1itv ia .ifviit Imm thr life of tho loirnr ncea, 
Wiilurtil a cuUo uf uomU, tli^ very cx't^ewx of the rudest 
tribea wuulJ be irapMeiMo; Hud, liidccii, the moral nUtid- 
ai^ ol oven *ava^ nei» aPD to no lunall extent w*-il iWfiited 
and praLrf^orthy. But tbe«e ethical lavntitaad an theirown 
ITiHicd of tndilion and puljliu opitiioD, oompantivclj irtdc- 
pendontof tli«f niiLmiBlicWMi^ffl and ritcA vKldi exf^ beatde 
them. Tlie luir«f animiim is not inimoml. ii i« uo-nor^l-^' * 

AicaiTi, ritli ru^Tiird to immotfLdiiy. tlic same antlwr 
Mbuwa t ti»t il doee uul bclonf; to tlic lovrcr fonna of mWgr 
loUf but it A ooniperativoly recent cvtf-n«fon of tTir rttrW idoa 
of a ftiturc Ufti. Neither wa# aiiy aneli dc^irct^ of pcr^Hinn 
At fir>t aAOtilHH} lo aptritnal beings a&d |;ud« m Io ivudt*r ibe 
conteioptalion ef thuar L-liarartcT m any dcgrco eL^ratlng, 
a« Uie Fiji ci>a* ^^ WoToaMlaJcr," ''Adnh^ror," " Drun- 
eater/' ind tlw Greek god -Tlio Blood^Uiner" U«ei 

• -TEtJutilva Ciilhrtw- (Londoi^ imi Ki. U. p. sat. 

Tll£ "ilOR^U. SA>"CTI05/ 

netitlj ftttMi; wlktifl prayer aiuohj; primitit<> tHI)M ift 
directed to lb« averting of Um bnUl Uov» wLJch tbeir goOa 
arv mppovnl nble uxl Ukelj to iiillict withmtt UW cuhb 
tliaa pcruuAl oprioe. 

Without drawing thceo lii¥» too doAoly, howfiVf^, t« wOt 

looi: At tlio '* toani unctioii '^ of irli^cion- f ti «o Car tt 

m actiud];^ Uvlomd hj rvligiotu twtittJH [rum tbe cool* 
tUMOoti of tminond iicti which they wuld otbvrwiM htve 
DOiumiU«0. Uiii mtiA ttruinjj be tvc down t«) the credit of 
•uch bdic?^ That audi fe «rer ihu cui^^ howcTcr, ii otticr, 
MMTtod or d«t&iod, than |iroi'«d or dbpttiTcd. Tbvns auci 
to bo on mcuki of t«diig radi a ^Mdoa, no tftoglblo dcv 
which It i!«ii b« approMihed. Aa all diiltB^ pdopAea po^ 

ftooic form of nlij-ton wbidi ia profcdpcd hj iho 
"map, K oomparUon of tho monik of different pooplw cct- 
tks PothiDfPf nnlti« It bo tbo d<^groo to which the oioral «ni- 
tinMEiita Iiaro developed with or without the aid of rvlif^ 
iim, ViS^ivni IndiridBala in tbo aaiDo oomutrf profota dj 
fcnmt crasK but a com^rifon of tbdr monJK oitbor ahoi 
no fivod dIffcrcnRO, or one which mar bo attributed to other 

The eoadiiion whh^ perUa|», apprctichea Dcaid to a 
l^ft^mttft mikdo lo iho aettlemmt of this quoition, ii that Ui 
which i lid iv ill Ilia b of tho aame raco and genanl ohanctoi 
lloa aru aome of tbom rdtg^ooa and othere not tvligtom.^ 
Omt* arc ahnndant \vi die i»oM »r1vAwvd oonntrica of indi- 
TtdnaJa who d£«av<kw idheroneo to»nyd«edorn>I»p[kin what* 
OT^r. A oonpariAon of ll» munJ> uf iiuch peraona ought to^ 
allow, on the thooiy andcr cnTninatloii, a lat]>o doficiciieji 
Such, lir.wrccr, ^Trtalfdj- Ifl not Ih* ca*c 8oA poraona 
■raallr, iIkii^i not always, well infnmiod. Tlio greater pari" 
of tfioQi Atv found amon^ tbo devuCiw* of tbu exact icien<».* 
T«t thvno ia no oioro caemptafy daaa of cStlxcai In 

•I>r.rrt«alirittrtMiteib«ltocia4 tfl lh« ptdlovffalnl jvntm Mvl 
Ua r Np«iv iite« Mooihl^-' t<i. T, ^ ia<K 



PROGIte^-PKEUAltT 3I£A2(6, 

Any ^fiWiii i^f rvli|;i4>u, jund 00 diFluictioii oertamljr e&n bo 

mm-Higiucu wi<mli^o in^pirvr. On the otlicr batxl, tboBgb 
tliifl mAj iMt lof^iodljr provB uir thing, it ia a fju^t tbat crimi- 
imIi lUid tlie d^ngoroiu obnvo of aoolet v m fp»ii(.*nU v bo- 
liOTvn la llu |ir\M uiling r>itli of the oouciiry vhicb tlie^ In- 
and wUen bTV}u^ht to the MiffoUl thnj ftlmoit iunmblj 
ifeu the MAO, and expert abMliiflun fi^r tWir iubde«d«L 
Cues of conTCTiiotk from tbo non-nligfoui to tbo r»Ug> 
loui; Atotc 4jf mJiid would 1)q valMbW oridviJOQ on tbu poUu 
vcre thcj ftD^leniljr freqooni t4) admit of i^ BjvUunatic ex< 
ftminAuoQ of thft montl cJanctor of Uio Imlividnikb Vfor^ 
ftnd aSUtr conTcnion ; bat nch eatn arc tcry mrc Whftt 
pm» in Obrktiaii c<iinniiii]Itia« f<jr '^cohtctvhmi ** cm* '^ en^ 
bncto^ religlou/* !a a vc«7 dliferefit tbtn^ ntd eotiBiMa afab* 
pljr ia &D open ftvowaJ of a be)f«f iilwDj« tMillj bnt ti<im lb« 
te finnly ontoriaiDt-d. Smelt cv«s thctvforc, whidi uvquil« 
CPtniwio, Tva\]y jirvvtt notfatiig; uid it u uuiritnally foumlp 
u roigbt bave been exp«ct«d « priert^ Kbat tbo all«|^ 
••rfiango" ijjt0 at Ica«< wOfkod DO lLppTt»dAb1ft »llPt»lioh m 
cEuiructcr or condttd, vu for a* tlicir iKoval offuci u cq«u 
c«nied. Tbe oppocii« to tbo com of fj^enulmi coDVL'rdoo, 
flm detcril^cd, u mndi moro frcquoDt, vk.^ where bdicfccs 
bfioooie converted Inlci ncrn-hclirvcru, Tn ttwtX^ soArljr all daq* 
beticTcva bave oocc been t>v1iuvciii \9Mpr*u p- ^J^* CbildrCQ 
alwajB WUere wbii Js coiueiioqI^v liiculoatJMl >t LooiOi ai 
ftcboolf in tfimptny wlib otlicn*. and wbcr^^r tlicy maj bo» 
No bvlwf M too kbxnrd to l>c tbni accepted. Il is thereforid 
(inljaftvr indopoodgnt ruivctUin bw btf«a bronjcbt lo bfiar 
upon a macs of irrtrioiul^ aoc'ittuiilaIt<d evld^uco timt tbo 
iuitial rtmc of belief can be auppjoitod 1>> a lal^r Htatc of 
do«bt or noQ^beticf. T^ in no ffneh ca«e ma it be urgwl 
tiiftt ib« tnuudtJon b» btwn atti-ti^lt^l with md^ figiw of moral 
degowfai^. If xny dlfferDOoe i« pcr\:9ptn>lo. it >« morv tikclj 



10 be in tbe cl«rai1on of mont pHftolp-Io, as Totting npoo i&- 
tHmie ntbrr than ftnibi^ritndiro juiMTt]f>iijL 

Wft tnr obligrti, thfinpfon*, for intHt of way m«wit of pro- 
eurini; vTidt^Doe, U> ObuiW tbi* vfcum u uowUbliflbed, 
tboB|^ tLo nnifldfifa/Ttorr indmftt>ofi» abovo poim^xl QUt juv, 
in m fftr at thry nr« Lidniittrft, qaiu^ dtjitiMtljr iig«ln«t ICa vft* 
iMtilj. It it a quu»t*uo upou wbidi men are vffr^ pmiM to 
err, tFmt w Uiey lau^De tfco^ would ooontDit cnme btit 
fctr r«niuii goTemmoniat rcitminte i'tpr'h P- ^'^^)* "^ ^y 
thiulc thry vonM 4I0 wnm^ Inil for roltgiow reetrtlote, when 
in fact Ui<*7 ttouM du jwA tlio Ame m now if ivit}irr 4>xiM«d. 
Tlie tnotil Msctbn ib in twUty iLitt, l>olb in dmo uuj in 
Authority, simI it hM llwreforo liectt liulicd to rultjcioii wt & 
inouAnf tanymg tho Intti^ tliniugli, and not tliQ rartOflO. 
It U nonU MiMtiozi wbkli yives Afitliorttj lo ndigiotu 
dognkfl, and not rallgloua «uii;ttoB vhi't^h givc» antbuoiiy 
to monJ prii^ple. h i* momliij whieli luui uit-od rdi^oo, 

ofu<D cJtotfbvre puju(«l vai^ tlm «piu«uL i» the rerono of 

Xcjitf wc will consider t)in ulv&ntagc* claimed to accrue 
fJuiMigh Uio AoUc« of % hviiti in irnmortAKty. Sinco liappi- 
nM i« ttio tnto otijoct ^f Uf8,«VM7 p3e»iire ntutft W llifown 
into C]ii» ii!aL«foriufullrAlbtf,ftnd,if tbb bopodu ImmImiwii 
CO aflonl 4 suuroe vf pl^vurVf it rooft not bo iif<gleQt«d. 
ThoM wl»o pxpori«tioo it, m wdl u moel otbon, b^licrc tlut 
thU icntiiQcnr, U a tntf ptovijm, utd *nr^f t^vttj ow> nin»t 
hts alluwcii to Ih^ tliv jml;(« of hht vwn «tiil«> of milML 
iVyclvjlo^jilly, Iiowcvcr. tUFe pJcasiinble »etitijcocit bvVongs 
to ibc " fuDl «cri<%," vt Icing, not ohj(«tiro, or rci), but mb^ 
j<rtlr* and fActtlloilA. Rot thiMv m a Atill drqMT ni*»a* 
ing iuToKk^l in thu, Aa pn*iic>uilj diuu-ii («w/>ni, p. 14d>, 
th«nj ti (ftrictly no lino nf d^m&rkatioa bMwocn ploMon 
and pain. Hop^ i* a cocnprtand irntimrnt oompoaed of «i- 
jitfi^tAUnfi and df«iro. Uoro capc<ctati<rn. in \Ut-it conpiidi>rrd, 
IB on iivliffproot cato of mind- Tbo doiiro belonging to I^opo 

raoaasss^pRrwARY yKAsa 

UitherQfon:,tticoiil^cORtpononttliAttic9d t«b«r»ulE*D Into 
DCi»un(. Uut u'o hhvv iMtvn (but ilottru 4.*ututlluUu thv ImaLh 
of jiAin, u^<] u ia fad u.11 then? iBt«avcLtbl cu jiuiii, t*icvpt 
tiic di^^rao. When "hojw dcf«rt«d mnlictli tho bcort ri<^k,'* 
tlitt point hfc* Uxin tvacI^h! whcrj iu puiuftit chftr»ctffr !iai he- 
OOtDO evident t<j uuubL'iuu^t'u. In vjl-m gf ihui, iKir dirtiuS- 
tiot) of prDgrtfa would not cmbraco ifao mippoK<l hAppEoMa 
i^crivorl from liope. Tnio prqgrou coiiM«t« in the incroua 
of it!ivih\ eDJojmwuiF, nut of fnuii^riujy enjoyment TIiom 
tflMf« only pl««0nro consuU in bopO) or autu-ijiAlloii, realJj 
hiro iJo enjoyment. Thoy tnbtnl:e h fomi of pdti for A 
ptoamv. Tlie aacelic who <^M*fLGWA and dispism aII ma! 
plfiLiiuro, And iniA^nuA ho is enjuyitii^ liis vicEorj oTi«r natures, 
ijgniHitv dooeircd, H<t u nNiIJy onjoyiu^ uothJuif. Sueli 
ponKjQfi nro to that extoct iDSancv aiid wo flro (xrrtabiljr jiMtl- 
lli^d in n-fimng to occtrpt l}in tivti'mony of An inmn<^ p4*r«oiit 
«vim un iLvqucfrtloQ t>f hUown plctuiirv or iniu. Bbbop 
itutlor^ii celvbnted qnoatloo, *' Wlty tnl^'Lt not krge bodies of 
mc^ an4 vhok coiDmunltlcA, b<r ufsod witb Bt» of inmni^ 
kt wrl] B* indivij-luaUf'^ wti^ hy nn modeui nil ^bimcrirnl n« 
many think. Uuf, if wo gmnt. an a luatl^ of word* only, 
tbat Ihii M!nt3fflCiit v^ a true onjoymcmlf It la, Afti^r aII, onAf 
tbe Antiri^atEoin of tt roftt &n<l nalanl ploaran wlito^ il U h^ 
Ti^v^ will l>e actOttUy «iijoj«J in llie fnttir^ life ; and thf< 
oiqwctwi pleBAore la not in tli«?r ]v*»t dlffenrnt from tlut 
irliieJi Id rvTJcrte^ in iMa life. Thr icnMitioni tliat tlw nia- 
Qborot prtrtendA to dc*piiu> tn tli« on-^A lie lu^pM to oTpcTv 
once, tmly io iL» intuuifloJ fomi. 1I« ii^mipty dJMiti«ftod 
bDcaneo he cin not get ploAftur? enough herv. And 1>«Jiev«i 
t!uU liy A cfTtain conrw of Action ho can get more horo^ 
After. ThAt they Am tl?« ume mvt ff>lloir f n>m tli« Iav 
thAt tmAAP'ution turt nat tranwcnd oxpt-rVnoc, except in tbo 
^<!gT«e And in the nitxleof coniblnioioo of vfF«cU Atresdjr 

With re^ird to the rml inflnerro of the divine of \m- 
moriAlhy npon dWIuAtion, both Cocnio Aud Tjlor dctfbro 


that It ia popnl&Hj xery maeh tixu^gonicA^^ Hm UUMj 
k(xw«T«r^ iiMltilj^ ia the fi>Uoirmg rvtfvctiow, vtudi mMj^ 
^rlu|», be tRkM u> ctnlKjdy m mMob imtb ■• Um 
QiiDd ii capable ol &lUuiii^ to npoD tUi diBcnlt ptoUam : 

"Tbo b«Aioib f mora vctrfbotioo lia* bcea inikcda 
erfoL enf^ino iti nhftpang ilie lif« of natiow. Piyrt-rfal 
fpr (cuod anil ctiI, it La* bvea tnadit tEi« eervaniHkf-all-i 
of tnaDjr faittid. Prkbtbooda Juro nwd it niucrapali 
for their pn>fonloiial ciidi^ to gain wealth aod pvmm It 
tbfTir own tart^, to atop inielloctud and aueiil pn^rew b<jvi 
tbo bomvn of ihmr c9omjvnt.vd ajvtOM. Oa t^ 
of tbo river of death a bond of priiwcs hat Hood for ngct 
bar th« paaaiigo apdnM all pwM- «Q«h who can not 
liidr ci^mandft for ceremonibi a&d foftuvlaa aDd feea. 
i* the diHE tido of the pictnra. On the hngbt sklc, aa 
sttul^ thn muni rtonilardft of the bigber nationB, and aeo 
tbn hopw and fuan ot tbc Kfu tu ttftne havo boon brooglil 
€nirjno iIjimf tctgeJao^ it u pkin tlut throo|:b nxMt wkl«1j 
diSvring mligkma tbo doctrine of futnrv judgment haa becfli' 
made to further goodnoa Aud cJicok irk-kodacHt ac«oviling 
lo i]i« Abiftirifc nk^ by vMch mm haT<e divided right from 

Tbo aJIogod oIvvatMQ of chandec whkb ranlu 
the eont««apUtUkn at a deitj (Xinodrird ui he perf«M la qnll 
powihlfi, nDtwithMaiidinff tho ncccuaHlj afithfopotnofphio- 
dvaetur uf all penonal dcrticA^ TlieaQ dcttiea are tbo 
<mcium of Una mort vivanm-d tDiuda of ev^t^ pv^pIfH ^^^d 
thspftfoK alwaja ndect the Utgboa meoul and nwral 
bntaa of artrj tfitL A* meh thoj hooome itaadird& loi 
wUob the low airaU of aocktj will gnduallj rite in 
portjon as thcT took to MMinilate thefr obftract«r to that 
th4srddtj. Hiia h ui bflneneo difflenit to meaanra, aud 
may b« paaaed orer witbont farther rrnuHc. 

f £«e.aL(Li^iCHl«TlX*«L4ltP>VF, 




it nuv well be dwbted wli«tlwr tbe ipuit «)ikb pn/«r 
pKH^iioM is cakaJatod to tdramc* or vtonto tko noo. Ii 
Jb Jfiooubcont vltli thai indopciidetfiec and or^^BAlit; of 
mind whioh ftcoompdtoj' alt prq|t:naiiT« nwroncDta. It» 
elltfi't in deterni^ tin luiderUliitkg of snob bbon m Imvo 
moei odvoocod mcioty ^U ]>rvobtly W eoutidensd, olun^ 
with otfaor fluti progranlTc t4:tii)eiK!)w of reli^on in g«DunL 
Upon tbfl vbole, thtfcfon?, «l* mnu ttwchide thait thero 
£* uo duvAktt Ui wliteh tli« bvlief is fprntual b«dog« luu 
adraiK^od tho tcmpotvl iatocwtc of minkind, Kcd tint thtmy 
fom nif^h he1i<-f, if it u of uij ftdraiUdfjo to tliA rw*, nmrt 
be Ao in rirliu of f^iai irti(«li it la to btiEig in A fninre slate 
of «JtUtviic»— a fieM of diMruAttOa vhicli, of rminv, Uw out- 
•ida of tbo ptovU&o of this work and of all lowntiJiie iartts- 
l^gitiiko. h fnrtbftr itfipcam that the real adrantagw which 
aacfu to tlovf from «>cn« of the modefn forim of soch halief 
ai« imlly doo to i]i0 jhetion of oUior and qnito d»iiiicl a^Mt- 
dc« which bavo boon ra adroitlr afflliawd apoti It aa to ckaia 
tlm impnuonn iKsE tli^y hnvi^ grown niai of it, la tho caae 
of Ttionlttj, Wis h»vt' wea bow far thia impraBion b from 
bving tnio. TIm alRh'alion haa btHMi Mvwmplidiod nt a p«<o^ 
twtlon to tj^ti^mA (if Isdij^f whi^h wo»M otUerwiia luTe 
loat tbcir birld upon mankind. In th^^ Xovm n^fft* of dv^vai- 
citfii«ni, whes inti>lltg«iieo waa at ita mininiBni and eivdulitj 
at iU maximnrnf r«TiK><>TK howoTor imtiotti], «oDld and did 
i^tjmd alone; but oh iatiflUgunou Inercowd nod crodntity di' 
mlnlflied, it hi^an to foel d^ nood of a ftupporl^ wkMi tbo 
priwthood, alwajn tha ino*t iwrntp prirtinn nf thfieoRinuinitjr, 
bnt vhuMiatorcitia tJici]kuotoiuuiu<:of tbc ^CoAw ^tuo ffroatljr 
ovi'rruJvd anjr prt>rDpt]ng* of tbclr butli-r Judfcmcait to act 
otbcrwtM), BQcooodcd in coma tm et i ng bjr attachlnf^ «ibi«Al 
prindpl^a and doftrinea to tbo notion of a fntnrv ittata of 
•liflcfioc, and ffi^Uirvtiiig a sjrateni of fultire rwardji and 
pnniiJiniciio. liMtoad, tboreforv. of consIdeHnie wbot ino- 
ralhy owee to relJglon, it maj jet boooiiM a qnttdon how far 

utunl monli^ bat hwa lovrerml hj «aQh RO iBBoobtkB 
with $ttponiautnkl belief. 

In lUc^ voAtiJ^r, l»uwl of coitt^idenr^ the i^lcvntiikg cFcct 
«f Uio voBtvfu]>Uticn o{ tliv 4Uribur«« of a pcfrwii^J uiUuv- 
poniorpiik dcitj, it u a fur tpooulat^<ni bow init^ iugbor 
tbu haiuAit mind voulU barv ri^ jd it« t£Fun» to vooijitdiend 
the iM^iEirml imjvf^rw, had no eoch ospkniCiiaa u & efilrilml 
being Of A pcrvotuJ god dvct «iigge«tod ibkclf. 

o-f mligifKi, our doxi tmJc i» ti> gUjice tt llio oppoille ekaa, 
tbd uiti*pTogTCB]Tc mtfoefkGM. 

Wlnt«v<r ni^ be Ute t>«e«flt0 wbidi MiptiniaturJ boliofit 
ItavQ oimfvnid and vtt tocoofiir itpon man in a futurvctate 
of cxku-'Dcc, Um^v Iuto bM only conferral nooc upon him fn 
Um pnttcnl hUt«, but hivA df-mon^tralilj impisdcd hi* u|>- 
ward couriN) timHi|tUoal hiB viilUv carter. Hio product ul 
liifl rwoo, UA hctB|? the nCwnal d«dD<Ttioiifi of the norruo] 
mind, iNit fbm«n from |vrtmiAo« Dco«aariljr hiao in eonae- 
queoce of Hm |jiTj>«i{:il iTikpouihililj of hi« c^mrcctlv inl«fL 
porvtliii^ iDOit of thu s:rikiim; phuooaicua tbal uatanj llirtivh 
upon hU nttcntkin, mich Miefa c^mBtituUft dioliiotl^ baman 
diaractcTiriir. never ooMmng, ao far aa obMrvatioo can de- 
tomdiket evuQ In tJitJr crodeat fonnfit aii>0Qg llt« nt'^t dorul- 
opod nnd Bioat Mgadona of tho lower antaali.^ From thia 
point rhf rirrw it U Avtivin^lT intrnvtiRjK tn noU lo wliac us- 
t«ni ihe ratitnal fa^Cj of man, itui«Ad of aervteg him m- a 
eonpiai to point onl Me nfe oosrw. Itw. in fjict, giddod lib 
haploaa bark npon iKiooIa nm! nvkEf nnrl into atoraia and 
whiHpwik It imitid be amnain^, irei« It noC ao mvUndiolj', 
Ut obafrrre how manv uDwb«, abrard, and awi^a) f nrta rt^ 
aon itM)lf load* mnn lo porforns, vrlddi do oUw anfanl upon 
IIm g1ot«c c^mld tm Imjnccd to perf*>nr). ' 

■n»r*tq.*'DMMMW lta^"nlUp Itf. 



U we BOck for a eb^ term wbleb eliaU noet oamp1er<^1y 
ccnbcxlj^ tbifl idoa ftud Kpiv^^rnt ihia dAsa ci hxtmrn meltons, 
we ihiiil find it m the wonl Avpertiition, itzil the cwiitijj<)i] 
«00»pUt>ot) of Uib Ufjrd fvquintt ia W knwwbit e:Kp»rided 
ill tjvtUst to ruJeo it cover tho wholo groutid. Tbo notbo 
t]uLt " ffliftentitlcii U aajtlung tbat I do not Ulierc,'^ mcjii 
gire wav to tl>e deAnttJoTif ** Wi<^ in ihv flnp^-mtriiral " lo 
wliicl) lh« t«rai addt tlio notion of cof^fnC'fu^t A'olifth or io- 
junou« ntftfk. Altliou^li tU vnpontiti^iijt ma^ not bu oUn- 
ou»l7 c^nnvcccil witb tbe belief tn apiritaal beinga, ^ci thfi 
M JVi neirljr tho nniri^nol riilft that \t tn^y bo roganl^ M 
wiUiout «xoeptioiL ]l taxHrX alto bv rcmcmbcnad tbU, jiut «« 
eacJi r«Iigiou cbiuiA iluU it jb tU« only Irtiu otw, eo It al>o d«- 
clu« DTor)r otlwr > niero e^pontidon* This applied ovmi to 
■tighdjr Tarjring iwiIn;, » thc^ Prou^tuit And Catholic Mrtt of 
C&rii^nity; fur ewry ono kuouit bow, itliortlj nA^ tb« 
ECofonufttioii bad gained co-ntJv) of E^tigl^nO, the landed ee- 
Mtot of the Ronum Cliiir<^ vtm; cxproph«lcd by acts of 
Pflrliwn«it, whinh rccittid that iJiey wem held "for Miper. 
»Utioiu IBM*." 

A niporMltloiifl act J0 oDe that do animal eror ^niniits, 
Tbo acta of a»;EQak an tntcnady prnctiejil, and arv eijuaUj 
freo from affootatlon and fmm enpenriitjdrr. Tli«y are never 
jgaUtj of utj oncb normiiM sa nien oft«ii r<*3LH«n thomaoIrM 
into. SupcfvUtloin ii therefor? a atnctly human diev«lop* 
Hunt, and roLiUj t*onif(Uutt4 one of tho ntod» tliat ra&ran 
bftd tanp:)it ni&iilcind for MM^sHnft fntnro bcinoflts or ftv(*rting 
foturo ovik, devvloj-injir *iido br vlicIc with that mCional fore* 
i^i^ht which huB boon tbi> <?hi<ff aid lo hnmun pro^sni*- ; tbo 
di]Iiffcacobotwecrkn)|H:rat«ltonP0dccleutJdopravi»Inn txiitg, 
tLil tbft one waa oonatnicted of faSao, tDd the other of tn» 

It «uuld of c<Auae bv iinpOMble^ in the brief kjiacg tkat 
le kft MK to pau hi roHcw tbo wt tnav of nfpvrwtitioiia of 
mjLiikindi or to attempt anv ajntcmntk- ennmoTatioii of the 
lirincip^ claean fnto w)iioh th^jr nAtamUy falL It miut aof- 

supBBsrrnoR. S89 

9cc to mvitiiw a few topical cwvit, dmIi of wludi will doubu 
l<i«a m^«rt to the Madvr A nrntllrude of Undnxl oiwe> 4itd 
A^rvfi to keep in lib mlnil tfa« gaaeral dtroction whidi the 
prvMOit diAcviMion juont to pxirtnc. 

Pn>|j<ilil> tlitf giwtur pMTi vi all niperatitioiu tMkmg lo 
wL&t mHj tpo cjillcd ibe indifforont oIbb, «- «.* Uw cIojh wbuvu 
t&fliiMiCft apcrn thn wvlfom and progren «l ti;o r&ce caci DOl 
be Mid to be Htbor i[ijiirioiu or benefidaJ, At Icut dinwtlj ; 
althougli Mich MiefB f9D Ku^xlf be ccnccivcd to »i*t vitb- 
out aBftivg a loworing itiilnord<M) uf a gQiwnd cdianoCcropdQ 
tliOM irbD mtortaio diem. Sncb bdifloiWDt nperatitlonfl are 
foond in a thonnuid nlMtird ciuvtom^ tibv^ And cenmonini 
iiiiongUu3iiiicivilitodnu!G4<^Eiuu. TJmw liaimUM cutoiuA 
p«H bj ioMDalUe gndatiuu iulo iiMtvtnd moK pfunful and 
itijunou« onvi. Thus wo find tiut among tbu CIiutoju, vliua 
llie bead of tbe family dicd^ " tba duighumt widoir, and rtur- 
Had «ntenw««oo1>liif^ to hav^«aelion« joint froiD tlioficg<:T 
out off ; MDd thht warn ntj>aitvd for oTvt^r tvlalion of tbo Uko 
dutracter wIhi divd : tbe primirj aiuputatkni bolog fmm the 
littju finger^; and Uw Uandana axpfOfi* grief i>o the death 
of a rvlative t>jr loainjc " two Jointa of tbe lUtle fingcta, or 
jHiinHimfa tho ^ihvr lin^««s." * Bach migQum^ emtonm 
arv ikiciiLtf coniDoctvd with tbo deatli of tforao one whoas 
spirit i^uifw ib^w Mcriftoea. In certain tribes bmul orgi<a 
take pUee on tbe occaifon of. a death, tbo d<aeriptjo«u el 
which tfe frigilJul to iwki. Mr. Thxwia dcwmbva one tbaA 
be «aw aooifl *A tbe feiluroa of, when in New Zealand, and 
altbongh km ibockJog than naa&j otbora rclnird, it h, from 

■ Ita greater avtbeotidtj, a Talaahle example. Tic mjh : "- Tbe 
duaghUrr of a oblef, wIm wa« tfill a b^thim, had dM th«r« 
AtD dajv before. ... Tbe n-lative* of Uio funlly bad torn 
the fleib of their arm*, bodies aiid fcew* ao tlut th^ w«re 
■ mrrorv<l with dotted Ui>cd ; an<l the old women Inokad meet 
H fhhy. diagiuticig objoMa. Oti Uw foUowing daj jome of 
^^B offlnn Tiaiied thai phM and foond (ha woman etiU 




iwntliig «i4 cuUtog tLeiJtnlvef^" * UnjJQr aiiuilu-DtrcujQ- 
ftuMi* it U nbtud thftt ^ >iPOttg tli* tiudiha oi Urn P»oifle 
Stotoi, tJiQ Tuinieli, ur iuflpdud laodiuuiiHiisii, ' ipnngs on 
the dist penc»a lu) moote, bko0 out ukd &iralloira oim or mora 
uiuiutlifitU of tlio nan*ii lining flesh vb«r«Tijr be can lix bia 
lcclii>i tbvn ruibu* Ui Moudicr and uiotlior/ *" f Siwsb bni 
uUik«, bovorer, are aukiii^ Uw loftti ev^iu of ilie Mcri&t^ 
wlikrii uTagGs make 00 Aooodftt of ihotfilHtsof Uio ikportcd. 
jVd Mr. Tylor point«dlf rviQix-hn, } '* Hiea do DVt «top tfboit 
at UiQ pvniittMou ihttx dtiftlh nikawv tibc w>ul to & hee lad 
AClJvo cxUicnuo, but tltOf quite logioJlj' |>roewid to nmu 
DBluiv bj' >diiyEfig men in ottlvr to bbrnttv tlii>ir modU for 
gljOTtlj tuw.*' TIm* uuntioo <if alav4ii, »aburObuite v^-vn, 
«kI wivc^ on tbo dc^tJj of & chief or ^ag* U a coaitim tliat 
prrriiiLi in a dtocVing manner luiionj^ xntny fii>w living iribiM 
of f«vug«. ^XiiDvmv tcU« u» coDotdriubg ili» lAdi^iiB of 
Yen Fitz, iKaI *whRii n lord wha dy;n^, tlicv immodiatclj' 
ktllnl M imiTij ftUvofi Afi hv. bm), llut tlior tntght proeedo liJm 
K&d pn>j«r9 tlio bmine for tlidr mMt«r.* ** ' ^' Bjr Uio Mexi* 
ttHU MbcT niimb<ir<if TictiinA wau pn>poKliOEwd to the gmnd- 
car of iho fniii>rAl, *nd am&nntM *om*<lnoM, as Mvenl bb- 
tufiflTK aiHmi, to two hundred * : vid iu I'oro, wUon to Ypc& 
d!«d, 'bm attrndftnU imd fevorittj O0D0ubtiK«, ainouirting 
ftMnotlniM, it i» loJd, to a tbr^iRVid, wrtv ImnioTatcd oa hl» 
tomb.' Tbo inteofclly of Iho'faiib promplii^ tnth mrtomi 
we >lu1t tlio bettor ooncojvo on finding pnnjf Ikit tbc vieiifn* 
A« (>f(cii iHllin^r^ *nd ^^nwifflifllly nnxionB, lo die. Amoiig 
tlie Otuntnb. in old lim#H. som^ fattlifnl folloi<*ir» 'Mcriflecd 
tlif^nwlTMat Cbc-irraToof «cb]4^.* (Itrril-iAfoMpitbAtiidMil 
Yn<rJi\ wive* ' vftlnnt^OTod tn l>t kilWd, nml lb*"ir imiiiber wm 
oficii such that (ho offlccre w^ro obliged to iTiC-^i-rx', Kiyiug 
that enotigb bad fi^c' at prr4>rnt/ ... In Africi it U tbo 

AAoemcsd At lUXERAiA 


■UDQ. Amookg tbo VonlMUtt, M the tnacnd of a ^noi mtn, 
not only arc £Utc« *Uii), bnt ^ nun; of lii* fnottth ftwallow 
poifton,' feiul tfc cnloiabfid vitb lum. FormcrU in Ciingo. 
* nrlitfn tbf kinjc ^^ t^Tiriod, a dutf u jouiig amiiU Ivaptid m^o 
Uw |5Tar« . , . and were Lmfuxl nJivo to fl«rino hiin \ti tht 
Oibur irorld< Tlicae tuafcb irero tliAn m eager for Uiis Mr- 
rice t<> ibrir <hv^nwi(l pdote Uial, in Btrivti^ «fho »hoiiM be 
firatf i\tcy kiUc<i o«ii^ uiotlter.* And id DbIioukj, ' iuaicdi- 
«l«ly ibu king diw, Iw* wi^w begin to dcdtroj all hk fornl- 
tore and tUngAof vntuc^Mv«Q a« thc^rAnn; art) to ninnlpr 
000 another. On one oecukm ttm Uimdnd aod oigbi;<Uvo 
of Ibo wonKm vrur« tbot killt^ bufuro die utiv kin^ coold 

■^SoiQu Kb&udft Viicro tbn gi>^ 14U fhti inmnik bring 
lulled ft>r him ; tfr« TaUitiuu iLuingbl Ujuir gvdk fvd uci tbe 
■piriuof tJie <ku<l, and tlwrefore |itOTi<itHl ^uai witb eucti 
ap^rita by ffyNHis-^ni n]n>^1»K^rin^ , • . The Tongww made 
o^cringa of ohililrcu to tUf'tr goiU, wlw wore <!«ifird ctiefs. 
. , . AmoE^ tUc M^j^na addiLioaal alavea w^re aUtn od 
tbie Mih d^ alt«r Ui^ burial, on tbe twoQttotli, co tlio for* 
Ijctb, on tbo ftiitliotlif and on tbt- dgbticth daja. . . , Homnii 
n^il^aa tbsft rv^p^t^NJ to pro|>]ttato tli^ gK<«t« of llie doad, 
evidfottjr jKiaa witbi^ul brtok inW tJiO pvriodic buman eaM- 
fiooe Uiat Iwvo eornmonty bi«n clomonU of primiUvo relig- 
icymj"\ ■'Of aach riton in tbe Paci^^ UUmlSf tbonwelldd- 
wwinlr prnpovfril tfccotinti rtctth na from ibc Krt^j<» gTOOp, 
TUl iaU'l^, a uialu pufi of Uw ceremony of a grwl nwn'a 
ftncnl WM tbc Ainifitfling of vivoa, fricod*. oad alavea, for 
f1i« di«fin<n pnrjtfvr of attc^dinji; htm into tbo vorid of 
qijrita Oniimrily ibo fini vErtim wa* the wife of tbu di^ 
cowod, and tnorv tluio one if U bad aavctml, md t1>«^Jr oar^M*, 
dOod M fofa fcoMtfJoched vhh paw frin^ giidlti*. wlUi 
biwU drmv^d at)d oniamiuitcd, and Tcnnllloii and tttrmnrfo 
powikr KpffwJ tio llicnr fuM* ftnd bAaftm*, "nm hid by ilie 
ddo of the dv^ warrior, AMocialw and iafetiot^ aiUndaau 



for bocUlio^ ch« ^v^* Wlien lU MtrtilLi, die ptido of &o- 
icotomoy wflg lost 4t Mfl, WTentof^ of bifr wivc^ vcro killod, 
and »fUrr tbd noir* of Uio mmbntri: of tfao Nimvmi people, 
la 1939, tti^btj' woim-u v-vrv -Imigl^ Lt> mvouipuij' the 
vpirlts of ihuir moitlcnxl hirebnadf, , . . The C«nb« would 
■iky on tho dtntA mtMcr'tt gnv« any of hU sUvu tlicy oonld 
hv lijuidKon, Anuin^ tb« nAtir^r pei^lM riaen locMudilww 
;lM/ Illicit j^mI«h uf *ocul And polilical life, tb<«« pmcUoM 
vero ncfi aupprceccd but Qii^^nuudj m tlio glitutlj Kftcri- 
fifw of mirnon, «lav«0, and wivt^^ who deputed to coDiinno 
t]i«]r duteous oflioM «t Uw fiinontl of ihir chief Ar m'>iuticli in 
OcntiJt) Amorica ftnd Mexico, in IkrgoU imd Pora,'** 

• -rilVlCln Culnt«" (LoodoK nJl\ rol I, p^ ll£, «)&. 

|,*4 1l abniiU Sv lupjujatfJ iIaI lIu en of •uriflmB b uff, uid tlX Maaj tt 
kbout tfiVBD iiCEVlIrd (Lir, t apiKari dc folLovrUtiE i^ccnin fiMB lb? '' ZC«v Tfifk 
Ti'1biiw."af April 1\ l^h^, imitKnidng aa *«tnl*MEli tecURBil tii muDlli* 

oEfDOFt ivn&cvJ «f Uftiiili'n; far U>c rtHDmuuti uf (hs klof^ bidlh. ^Mf% 
bki()cO ■!]« r— ui^i ^ l>mr<l/ u i^rw^guBlj •ut«l^4ai1vr [liv lioirw* of Ibt fllj 
wallh The ilovl irv doci* 1o «pp«u« thif trl] tpt^U," 

CotaiuoulBi; Ob Ibid KCbfmiDeH iho " Uoiird Suiv BemoiDiiC* April H^ 
I^i\ M}ft: "TliR jmvridM of rrwra Ltiiblpf^ ]HfWD^ Idc^iuUd^ iub. bof", "IV 
mm. ftlrli, pritfU, wi tma^MTi^ m Xtn^lALfer* f<ir tht tntonlkiM of th« ddf 
Tbflb**'i bnlih^ \\ in ontmgv nrl ft blui cju il>r d^tlluUan of Ihv luTiriwnib 
e«DiqiT. nbl njffb n *h<ilaiiilD iau*«cfv ^owrfti Ln lAc ■«■! roDnW ta& lA*^ 
CVMll'Jr R^iofii of Afdm, then mitbl L* in tacwe 4ll«p^ fnr THn-Jntfrffnrrv 
n (Iku |an of ft'ttlM4 ff^venMAti^ bui » fiqIi frticn c*o b« ^?u In iliU 
laiUaofb Bunuh b «K bi ihfl ini>p0runi Imc^iAiBt ailhtUf KtA HAodft- 

vUrh rWhiA CBtUOlj rufif^imditn KLir<i;icu nA Ju\tih p4«ppf, 'Hi* hUoUoB 
«f 4Ui piC*o io oBer viuli a ^gri1tl« rite lo HEipdH kla ^* nu litAVQ to Am 
coomIi, mul fcv li&d aiaattmiiia. bad xbrd upm bl* vabjMC* ami Uwf ««v« 

owT ihcv BfTAllvf fclTw^liTV mtJk no aiNvipi* to lu^ ihi* itholfttW iliimbiiar, 
uvl KSa tittt *u p«rnilc[«d la bv? tAw k«u fanndnJ t1f£git irate fbd 

iffiOTBCcnos or pROPEfcrr- 


rbe "Tiete ami »y*teii»lie dtMtmctiua of pro|iorty it fu- 

kUf lisuugU Uw slKfoldbg tloin Ui9 deitructiuQ of lifo, tm 

>Wb1j. in fact) bouB «toii ft more torflbio ctII lo DKiukim}. 

JDoaif; tbow di^Jod nvogcn, % tew wrrtobcd livv« mich 

nre tbm MCtilmd count fur licek, viU ilijtbtlj i«nd ui 

Ifminkb po^Utiou, aIwmjv too gnat fgr ibo inoauts of mb< 

ico> Tbe lliiug miHt to In^ liwirdd !b a oomforUbU liv* 

fortboMwbo trirnvc, ind wlutCTCr dtftn>7M propcrtj 

ittnkefl A direct h)oir jU the liftppiii^ju of rJio Hvir^g (vol- i, p. 

Itl3)u ^lorrijver, tJiv Mngiiiiiurj prjwiicca hU)tv dutvnbed, 

lOQgb oomniou to many peof>]i«. are buliuixid lo be liEiirUM! 

of tbo ik*lh of diiufs kitig^ vid liigb dignitjiHe*, 

«nd to pK^iiQ only tn a miU form, if At all, oni occuiomt utf 

dfrkth uooBg cMniiioo men. Xot »o tbe dettructioo of prop- 

rtlv. Anj one wljo hut inr prop<fTtj- u liigk enon^Ii to Ijato 

tt all dcvtrojod At hiA donib, Mid ihU ms; in ftomQ c«m bATu 

ActoftUj prond fAtal to tbo cxintoiico of corbin Uibcii. 

"Witb lliodtiwl PAtA^ouUtvtwIvft'alltbdr properly '; 
vltbl1iQN0£U;,*AUthomovAhlcpn^>cil7'; witbtboOniuut 
pcopKMlMdilAf trr«urMtrbirlMb«7pe«MM!dmlife/ . . . 
The body of the ]at« Qimwd of Mnjb^nwAT ' wtw Bwiilbcd ui 
biuidnKl ^U( bmbaa. tn (be fold* of which tif«ntj goU 
100^ on^lmtidred ^Ed chAiM, rlnfct, broocbet* 1>rae«lotiL, 
And cAhct jVweliy, togetbcr witli lire boiMlrod gold opuia. 

KCiul irllli eUbAHII of homt itwf* *il] eCBtt di* tOQalry, OdnjU 
u b}l0c«aM bftT* b«B B*4rt<<dT U U VMM. * f^vKaf ravKunAUfr f*** 

Uib««UbAT«bfWifTM «• ■ndii^Mii IbU llw pnva pf Ehmrld *«aU 
Iddlkfaa iH^nillilA to nA A ffnrdmM oIeM. 

^h Ml eaM CM DitloA mt^mj^mMhw.bi or^ttfttl^Q of ««o4Mc^ 

■1 iwpi f iAMJ by EB M ifcW^i la Hiiniah ii« n a tMHu* iwyovlkU fv 
4it% tnffi^, fhrli im1t»l» Ktma «iv lo* ffnn u ovLr^t lo lyi« ildi 


PBOGRBSB.-^raniAHr uc-vxa 

«r«re rolled/ Bj the Mt^hmU, oil the thing* ' uxscauij for 
a pcr«oii wIiHm fiving ;&» pUeeiJ in h Uuuh; tmilt oi-«r tlie 
gnvu.' Awl UurUxt ai^ Uial, ia Old CakW, a bonw Ib 
built OD tli0 bivwU to i^nlain tho docoMd'* pmpnrtj, *to- 
^ihof vith ft bod, that the gboM maj not aleep nptMi th« 
Aoor.^ Tc tDcH jui extent it tbrii proviaioD ttxc thv fi>tur« 
Uf« vl the <J«ceA«v<J uuricO, lui, in nu&jr coAOtf, to eiiuQ gnMt 
evU on the varrivorA, Concondag wkho Gold Cooat trib«i, 
B»c1»m caji, ' A fnncral is unuJly ftlMohttf^ niln to \ poor 
fAinilv/ Low ttHoi tfaftt tbu n^ftks, besUoa tU d#co««>d't 
profieKv, ■ bnty vlUi LJiii Ktmotimo* Urgv nvu *jt ino»«j 
AiiU C'Uio- t&]ubJi»; Eo tliftt a blber, who has boea anfortq^ 
nnte in tbu J«ith at many of Ids famtl}*, is frw^nf^ntiy ro- 
dureil to pijvi»rly.* And naong flom«i oitinct tncietieA of 
AmL'ricn, Luthiug Uut tbc dccvMKil** Luid^ wbivh ilwy mto 
itnallc to put iato hb gnve, renmlncd for hk widow ind 
rfiilcfmn,"* *^0n th^dvAth of a Todn^ * hiP «tilire hfird * ol 
o.icn wjw KkcHliccd ; tbu implicstiott binn^ tliAt bb wEdow 
Hud uldtdrcci faid to ntEer grad waot. Wbirn, ol th« Chip- 
pQwsy:nut, ir«» ATV told ili:kt 'zM artfclo id rpu«d bv tbcsv wi* 
buppj men wbeu x tuMr reUtivc i^w*— wbtm wc lc«in tbU 
uoong tbo BttgoSn a rhiufi wUlow* brnir dl th<ar >torQ* of 
food &t hh funml ; we can tM>t but mfcr lick of food ns a 
remit And "o wa find ft. Baacrofi UlU i» ib»t ' iIm In* 
(Ua&t of tb« Hotky MountaIi» bnm with the docouod all his 
«&ett, and even tbt^v ^<f liEs ncjirnd reUtii^et. so thai it not 
in»fr«q»ntl7 hapf-cn? tbat a fnniiljr b fvdaocd to ibiolato 
MUrrMiou'; nnd« of th« B«ffO« above naincd, CuUU layv, 
' Tbc fRTTiily nf ihe ikvca*wl, wlin aro nunud b* thie act of 
tot^pcrr^tltlon [biimhiK liU pwpcrtj], aro wipported iJirongb 
the next Ujutwi bj ih<j inlml^taiib of the villtgti,"'f In 
th« «AAc of nirirLanJiH th« McHfico of pri>pc/tj iB ou a 
»?«]€ proporiioiiatv to ^vir rank. " IIcr« atv iIio dolaiU of 
n account publitbed Id 1$49, of lh« funeral of tho latA 

DEsTftwrros or PKOPEmr, 


«l Cof4iiD-C1iEiM : * WboB tho coq»e «f Tbi«n Tri vu 
dopOMMl in tho mffifi, durnn wtim aha dupcmtud in it nuuij 
lltinp for tSc «*o of Uio OeoL-wiHi in ibo other uroH4, 
»udj MB luB cruwD, lurb&UB, i;kitbe» of nil dcKrtp|ion*> gold, 
ellT«r, and other pn<oii>D» Aiticluis rk» uid o(hur provUiotUL' 
M^ji w«n; net oiit Di^r iti« eoAn, otiil tUsn w&aafnmcd 
ptora ol tlauuak witli woulei« rlankctonit the aIhmIo of Ofiik of 
th« eovila of tlie defaDot. Jn tbo Wmb, bh tiidoced udifiee of 
ino, Um cbiUlo« wivo- <jt tliu flvcKiuc^l wvn> to hv pcryvlr 
\]\j dtvt «p to KUAnl (be fcpuldiro. ■ &nd prepare dnil^v tho 
fuoj ftiiij uAbvr tlJ»;-v o( whi'^li thi^ Ihink t\vr ^ttrwcd hm 
iwwi tn <li« oihtfr life.' At I!mj tinic of (ho ikpontof tbo 
4rdBn id A cATcm Hdiiod tlio tomb buUdiirj*, tbcn» ir«ro buiut 
tiiTOo irrcftt pil'^ ^ lM«t», atafi:«6T <^^ evGF^ Uting UB^d in tbo 
fiincral 'Jtnd, i«of^rer,of all t=»c nhjnclA which \ai\ bwin in 
□mr bj Um kiag during lu« Uffrtiiug, of cbo«iciwti, mtM^icnl 
tObCrunieiiUi, iaits hox*s*j jntwob, inat», fllleUf ^wria^o, ^e.. 
Ac, and tiWnri^TT ■ hone n&d ad eleplinut of trivyd tnd pMie- 
brttrd, fkmio moiului after tho fiinf^ral, sit two diffieroftt 
i'nii^L, ttMitv wor« coci*tru«t<!d, iii k forwt nwr a pigodft, two 
iiia;^uidoeiit pttUoei of vrood, wttb rfdi fumiuhiiig^r in &U 
ihin^nMinilnr to th<^ pftUoo whFe}i llio defdnct mortAr^h htd 
iTtliobitod. tUdi palAO« wt» compofled of twvutv rHinu, wid 
Uie nuott «oru|mUtud lUeotion w^ ^vcn in ordi't lW nothCii]^ 
ml^t b« AUi'uitiii;; n cno i iii ry for n pftlftof^ ftDil tliMA pftUeo» 
wore bamrd viih grOAt pomp, ami it at thn* that innrnnue 
ri<^iea hAt« liccn jtirort to the A«meB froru ibv Tooluih belief 
liiat it nonld titfvv tUv dead in tbo other world/ ** * 

To iboeo niodoa of dmmyinf; propftrtv t)^n>u^ ntpflntfi- 
loiu t^elieft, MbottM lio Added ibe iniineMi* trMKiinu tW An 
ipendvl ID tbe cn^ion of coitly toiaU Ami fwputohrofl for 
doAd elikeftftiid Vtn^y. '^Tlmt irbidi iMrfj Sptmbli trnvgl. 
w» tdl u abont the Penirbna, utMvont Gm^fc tranlrn tell 
00 aboot Um) KIjrjpiUnfL. Cier^ ^prvMeA htt Adodniibmuat 
lo ioo bow Ifttba tbo Coth* camd for ha*ifi|; largo and hand- 



Aom« liouaM tor lli« living while tliejr bratowieJ to Riucli 
CUV on tlie UhtjUm wLorn iLq dvad v^jnt ialonvd ; asd «jau- 
Uf ly DIudonus pv'iag a ruuioii for tbu idukuikw vf tlw EgJ'p 
tEuia^ diroWiigar ^ ooLtrp>Mod irkli tlie BpJcod<ir of their 
toiBb«,«ftj*, 'Thcvcali thcli/)nfi««of tbr>liTii^inn^b(V%ii»o 
ihnf tUj- it) Uicin Lnt a little wIiIIq; but tho wimldim of 
the doml llio}- Qoll LTGrlnAiiig hftUutumA.* "^ * Tli« {tyn- 
midd iJ Bg/pt Are gcncnlljr mppo«e<i 10 hav« been eroocd 
a« gtgamic tomh* fordeoeoMd itn^m; a»d Herodoliuf givcA 
im ncci^nnt of tho ttngrmoiM cu«t of matirruj, tftljor, and tJctio 
llmt tbvir coUBlriiotion cailoiLHl QpoD tLc pt<ipleof Egypt. 
Th^i tt'inplc, iLA Mr. Spcnotr fJi^ws, luuif(n>m out of the lomb, 
iwii llfcivforc >ll th^ cohII V mo0i]ii«», c^lieilnkl^, uid ciiorcbM 
of hWs >gi^ wbatcvcr opinion* uinj Ihi bdd u to tlidr teIo* 
to the ruue, miMt be t»Qod to thU corljr Bitpontitiou. 

In ooQ^Mering soldjr tlio cCFect whjr^h m]|>eTMiliuzis «xcrt 
nponlho prc^nw«of tlio bamiin iMcc^cortflh) of UtolonobTl- 
oiu ft»d striking iinuticu* and tvudoneics conic^ on doMr 
exandutlon. iu uutwcdgU olhor znon; mantfeit uid »l fint 
ftppnrcntl/ more injiirioutt ones. Just m tbo ticslniction of 
p^fwrlv h^ Ikvd fliiown to bo ft feftlljr wone «iril than tbo 
dwlracllon of ]if«, 90 thtj more gox^Llo hut p«ni»t«Dt oppoit- 
tion vhicli all funiui vf rvKgiun havo oSefod tc tlio pro^rvoi 
of eoiuniMtt oven In lt& lafantilo> VHTBtcniDti^ or ompirieal 
^tM*\ W roAlTj (Mmtrilintrd moro tn rotLrrl tlic prr^grvM of 
cinlTXAtion ilmn hnre ill thcvi bloodjr <niCiificG4of lifo and 
wniatuo dustructiuos vl wvctllhup 

Let lis oocL«idor this liifln«i3og aDdcr two goQond hoaii«, 
itft nciT»tive and lb" porilive luq^vCK. 

Thv urilv iMuincr in wbioli the tcntpoml condition of th^ 
hnniui Rtcc Laf nadrr^mu luiy ftiuvUontiou bw bc-vu hj ibi 
active nnr! n]ficc««fiil di**rU lo modlfjr tho efiTEmomenc. In 
doinic thU tho phjralcal focvo* «ud iabiC«Do«ft, the niAtoHal 
obj^U umJ lh«ir qnaiitiw, wb^Uief aotmate or inafiliaatc, 
]»vc hIooq b«<o opontod vpon. Proj^TQaSilQ fMt«ocnuist< tn 

•'Piteirtetf&MlDldcr."*«t.b,MK. in, pp. tM-iia 

omsmosr to sasNOL 


tU&i uo <eS[ofU ut ouctttui np«nMntnl bfiovMo* oui bv an v 

poMtbJHtj ooDtribotD lo tUft fMiiJL Evtii grmndttg tin ml- 

itv of th« ftUeged mpenuliml bonigi, tKaj uv ooMt the loii 

wboUj o«tAil« Unr dvimun of rU amterul ilunfc* vnlk wUich 

alofiQ Mcul analUiimtiao luu to do. Tet vbOe from ih^ 

n&tUTG of tfa« «iO fndi otfbm c«i brin^ do smnI to ni4Q ia 

thh life, it b «lfiu- tW tb«7 ID4J rank in hu injury in tiro 

dulincC wftj*, Uj w1ttt«ir«r unouut tlie tuier)i:>«i ijf MW 

w vxpoiiiJod in cttorU to inBooiK^ s«pentaiunJ boln^ faj 

BO mn^li vtll tbcj Im wilJuJnwn fmtn tbi? Ir^duiate work 

of ui^lioniing htfl temponl oobditiuvi- Tliib in tbi* ilninkcl 

conntitnlo* what ir« vbvU call itao DOgtili^fT o^p06itk>D wliicb 

tlu3 bctiof in ipiriliul K-ia^ makoe to hiiinan pr«:^;n9ffi» Tlitf 

po^tlr^ Op|M>»tt<in wlikh roligtoa nHvn to tnio, or jkuentiAC) 

program i« w«\\ knoa>^T aad fH>tiMat« tn often hoaliUty to ilia 

ulvBDovmoat uf lchowle<)gi» vbidi Uinntirn^ to cxfthtn >v«y 

tbo neeamtj hr •apcmtniml povren and tboi to Kap ibe 

footidatlotia of religion flwlf. Tli^n E«, bowcT«r, a icadoiMjr 

on thn paH of tbo ti^;alire form of opfKi^dtion to paiw into 

Ihv p-viiiro, V will bo wen froco a fov ilksiratraii* wtiicli 

will ouw bu ^vti) imdur cadi bend. 

Perbapa ibe pur«At a»d at t1i« Btroo time tbo laHileBl 

fnrm iri ncfaiCw oppij-^itii-it may be neo In ih« ««bMioo of 

ihc pTi^!bood\ vrhKh an» tbo nc o oimiy eoiKomfUota of all 

rcl^imw at ftll flovctopei. If tbvrv wure tio otbijr elT«ot» tlie 

witli'Inwal of to UnC a proportion of tbo poopir froin tbo 

prodiK-(Iv« aria, %nd Ibu nopoavit/ for tbcir mipport by tbo 

rvt of tbo ooTomiEoitT, oonrtitotw, in tbe leoift uxirvfno c«aaa, 

a bcarr ta^ npoa the mental and moioiilar foraoa of ffOoMy, 

TIiQ ^ct upon wkfffi v. fbinto lart >o mncb alroM, tboc 

tboae prioMbAoda, imm tlio vrrj Irimro wbkb lb«ir poiltion 

afFunla, bate in mmy oa^a «onio lo laad tbe tntonuottiil 

moTomiOt i4 tbiiKr aieo and tamtttry, tbongb |m>b«b]; f allj 

offiOt bjr tbo obwiQ of power wbieb tbia iaoi|aalllj ttS intcJli- 

pnooBKsa-rAtMAitY urassk 

£«DC9 liaa CDubleU lL«m to eierde^v i> not n^ ipplloablfi 
hcrct Hdcc in ao fjiT » ibojr ana cultiviiifig Loiicn, or A07 of 
tlicT gmil prngmvjv^ ana, thrjr nn; ooi t^titt^ tn tfi^ir foivr- 
dot^ but ia « tcivotifie cftp«oity, ntid it b tiut inpdividmkU 
bill aciioELfl wbicli WQ must a«ck to clflfi^ify. StiU^ a« u^ w«ll 
knoMTi^ the u^ndcncf W cvirr bpco to roabliAli ft (^m^Ic of 
pmvLy ** Bpiritiml ^' advi*eni» not in tlie «en*e in whicb C<Tmt« 
lifted (W word, vi£., inidl^eUutf^ bnt whow irMo rivty it 
iboald bo to look aftur tlio rebLiionfl of niuikimi to HAnimoU 
ftplriinaj bobgSk Aa miieii, ^ t^ m due lUu is codootu^, 
thdr coergifv Arc wholly vA^trrf, ^f> ah* alf>o ibnoo of the 
Iwtv Pipen<lo(l m purrly ^lcTori*^nll^ or pn^|>]titttftnr «x«avijBCM. 

TUb wlUidnvAJ of liiuiuii] vuvrgjv^l 4lLculiou frxim tlte 
tljirtg« of tliif lifo and ftxiui; tlftem upon flupmnundaoo utd 
jtapcnuUnnL) conooptland t« AtUmdcd with eeooitdaij caii«o- 
c|tiPD[7C« which arc Ut more iiupnrtLn^ th«n t]t« actual lam 
tliuB ooouBODtfd to tompora) interoitK, It brio^ aUvout a coin* 
pleto divoroo of mui from tuuvre. 

Aa It la only by operatlnf^ dJroctly D[>nii the mntcrihl tml- 
TfTse tbbt any bi^iiHii^tJil oh^n^crK can *vot he wronj^ht in nun"* 
ftocuii voiidiliou, \\ ift ip|Xir«ul bi.<w ifnizit mint Ik- ibv Injury 
vrhicli snciifldii^orcomueloocaelon. Enmms, ''ifaobrai&sof 
tlWT Refonimttun.'* tnily juid ; ^" Thcm^h onr mnrt^tl *-jt*. 1ift7« 
failed to ]>eDQtrAt4> tli« 'Icptlm of h«Ar«^, we bn^c Ko^^v^ded 
in k»inf( loght of our own earth/* lo tbiu Ioud); ^iffbt of 
iwrtb tbtr uivn of tlmt :mi] prvoidiag (MQlariefi bad abut o^t 
&11 bopu of fufiliLT Qiik^.Tiiil ndranwinttit, uid h«d, in tltfi 
mofll iroporiAnt o)einenta of aooial eikt^otv, acttiiUj been 
dcvgrnomdo^ for mom than a Ibonamd jm&t%, Dving tbi« 
JuD(c pvr:od Ljf the wor^dV roou^it hUCorr, roK^m lioftd aa* 
proroo away otc-t the hij^ho«t typ« of bnmanHj, aftd, with % 
f^rmt fiMt tH^iind Tt^ bnrM and foigotl«n, all aocial md fn* 
tdtectnal pn>gn3M «-na ic a atalo of ooicploto «iivp«Moii.* 

nitof fdac*. fnn ihe Uiln!k>(lut nfWiiili mEiirirA, iltr fnlloirin; i«««2« 

vsoATrvs opposmon. 


It la f afo to aAnn iiiat,ooiiJd*i)elifi^uto of thlD^cootimu, 
r^pH At^ttt^nuj would ^ivvntniijlv *^ in, .ind ci\-ilttt^ nco 
woatd ptuH bcick into bturW Um. Wd im.^i llK-rvfui^ l'ou* 
Cwuplutc Uu« w vuc vf tbu jHJMJbtv v\v> it) irbkcli rurc* uvi^ 
liar« bn>n|^t about ibclr owa ««tiMtioii aI jw «4Hj jipnod 
In their CitT?«r, 

Oti9 Qt til tsarlw^i rwalu Qf tUi» iU(o of iniiul &fter it 
liw booutise ckruote in tocivt^ \* ft oompl^lo in4lifl<TroD{» to 
buuml pbaiioicion whea pitMiitM. KngnMatd in tlionghu 
of iinAlbRT v<irM, nnr) of bfrinp bf-ycmd the nugi; uf bodilv 
Qxpvrivncc^ mvu »<m)Ci comv to nunifut no coiic«m for aiij' 
of the tliltij^ of this mortal «xi*tenou. Cudur fiidi a Moti- 
moni unnporal sffain niurt lacgnbli and mtt^-rial pm gw s 
CMjtc Morv^r^TT, i)ii« ftt^t^r of imU£f«[T«noe furtUer durdopa 
into 0D« of ooutvmpl 4ud msmi for all vanhlj rarToimdlDigiL 
A^oc'tiplHii h Uie rMulu lite ia dnpiiBotl luid dontli (ymrt«d* 
The iWui^ ircqt a1 binlis and lao^ at fuiii>nlK AbJ^IUii 
of ttio Si^ hod titv dwllc-n in tbv bi:« ftAit aud uii^ wbvii 
onoof itieir ntiELiberdkti; tbi? If«ddli1r( balnt oiU "^ IJa food 
with loatMng fnxn t>i(^ nlmrvlKiirl tW hoctrrieA a& tlxougb 
ft liei<1 ii>odicin<^, wTa|>]>Tn^ 1i)in»e]f In ^i'o<-lijcL«« front Uw 
<^iLc1oi7, or patdng on hii dltfl^red n>be ai iLoogli ft wore 
A ban^li^ tA<«ir<>T n wr^ wlton^Tivilfin^ fonrwanj is lo d«atli 
ff>f dcfivcrauop frorn tlw mmrry of lifffs MhiMe draaniivAt liopa 
ia tful aflor an lOcotMKiviblo Bfrw uf tuotnviire uaivtcocoa 
Iw uHj find ia Qttor dlMdodoo and iiot-b«<^g a rehgo even 

nlalh* BO f«biaM4lii|>7, Mhuf pnl*Ur bfalj nf*™™" "^ >^' vdncH <h*t 
hid iIh* bM M iS ]ttfrt«S, win ^ ■T^mffMA AfMr rnnUiTniBE tht <|>««& 
lBddaw«rTAifeavi(4,ft. l»>)abo« a« m4ipBof ba^Im kninubn lend tn 
mimmiamt ha 1mm ibr m, ^ ivji: Ttrtie lib* Dell UilrtRa vr r«irtnti 
«M«ri«. bull tunqa «f Mink u4 iiUnU *iyn u Utt OirwUil «c llotr 
ttMttka Am ■«* nlium * w ah^ in ihfK I7 ■ r^im itf Hil* pn-wl Dor- 

ei«U»Mp«llaOHaf kb«« dmnJ f not «ba wifiit* Mm to liif* )m «l>oM 
lbr«alr«iHlidikni«f iW |«ri»l it Hml ittoet.* C* '"^'W^itf^'' *^ 


from Ucjrcn,'' * " Tlio monMtio foduia eluMb ev«fy apeP- 
lurv i>f Ui» niuTvu' wll yu hi* fvioni frtiio Tuijni^t ^nyvn^ 
tor iaar ihsti lliv m^'IriiTi^'ulL''H vvti^ mi^Iil. iiitnuJo upon hb 
clcvouona, or the momioig wind rl^k hLin with tiv fraf^tico 
fljid the grv<^tit]^ c>f titc hilt forvAt*, nnd ijiTiirt hi« itim<] to 
csutlitv iliiii]^ ftvm Lhiugfe iijjinm&I,"t 'flu mi^nkii of iIh; 
order of FoftlUaiu *' kiic-tc on tlTcflotrduHngilieirrcfLijtiitiw, 
and M»o of ihcm were in tb« liabitof drinlrtn^oiit of ^Ua, 
Tboy nb»:iiiQ«d fnmi cgp, lUb, hatter, iiikI evm Mit, »ikd 
ttKiliutMl i]>vuifl«ltc« w jiolUgv Jiiwlc of hcrbit t>ai1iM] lb vtMtrrt 
and brosd no ooatw and blaak tbat hoMlo refaaed ti> v&i of Et-*' 
Aj a rc«nlt of ili» nnmniij foortoon nionk» di<yl in h iiin^lQ 
vi«>ek4 PucaJ n^fimrd to look M a laiuUcApc^ onil v^iUd 
tbe iMler put of hi» brilUaui lifu unid dw Mpurttici uf Tort 
Boys].* RAdn^tbQ^7oalFr4TachpootVMlilruiiatie%rol>bcii 
tlio wtfirTd of liiJi tdcnt^ fct an CAflj Ji^ by huryii\g tlieni in 

From avooliciam h b but ^ flUori and uatur&l etop to wlf- 
tortoio, and thlfi praolio^ bu prev&Uod «j[tMi6ivcily «mofig 
mMay fvligioiM aM^, rAprriJilly tbo motp virnnivd. Indian 
fiikirii '^Hvniig fur bourv Irom liooka dnwu throȣ}i the 
raii«c1cis of thvir baoLe, or Jot Ihaar naiU ^rrow ibroiigb Ihn 
pftUiM of tlwir din<ilicd barttk, or ^ill ovc^r nnd over bun- 
drrdft of mdoi to viut a khrinc.'* fiulhrniiDe patientlj ki 
the ttcaa hrte bim, vyitiit. " W« bIuII barf hearts to reward 
xt» for Mir mJUainfr^ but these poor ereatum bavo ootliiiig 
but tbc enJoTiD^nt of the prMimt life/* ^ Speaking of llio 

• - Prbtldn OulCflW " (London IfcTlJ. ml, U, pp. M^ «. 

f gaoled Inm Cirte lluUM hf Dr. FdU U OvnU, " IN>piiliT fU«it* 

t - Whw*j flf PnuK fc«»- pf.-* Ti-V, li»K nl I. ^ *», niHt 

* He bmM lo htro ^tm bhnkll *niirflT*P •**"?«*•' *a^ prwtieBt of 

Strdl^. ftvditud vSib ihvp pvInU, vhlcfa bo foncd Inu hU floA *bHi«Hr Ih 
I Rocti'v " HiilaLrB Aa priafifVU 4«rtviwi* »iB(«K~ font H p^ tl 

P06mV£ a£FUSlTIO.V. 


FbK«Dabtt> Dr. Corpontar <fty«: ** Tbcae FlofeOuita irait 
aWut in bAudi with bamwra, wid attn mmai^ «urr7in^ 
•omugM ; aixJ tbcn 4t * giveu «igiul evnj one would «trip 
off i\\m npptrr garuioQl (oivo, woiuQ&t ftnd cbildrea jtiin«l 
rhi:«e bdjtili), and ]>rocood to Aofp tbunseJvtu v^ wvcpdy 
todasd^orto ^j(ead> other; . . . modicn MTtuiUriiootirgoil 
tlicir now*buni IsfuUfl before thov vore bnfituBiMl, beUerifiK 
tliat In 00 doing ih^y wbt\s making >n ofieriiig tooopuble to 
God-" • It k rcjtOTied upon ralUU^^ aotiwritj Uut tba pnw- 
dce of •ci>:iT:fCLCL;{ iitill prmiJod ft tav jroon i^ at Bomcf 
lu ft fow ooii&tri«6 tJiU t«lf<liudwmcnt u cirried to a faUl 
Ttoilt, M in Indift, wb«n imtil iw^ntl^ th« pmctico of me- 
rifeing tbeoMelvM under tka oar of JoiQEonttut 4Ull pm- 
vaUod, •kmff wfib Uuil of oMlng infjuiu iuto the 0«Qg«a, 
fiiai Riaici«nt liu draadj bo«n wd to Utnatrato wbat b 
munat by thu Dogatjre oppofilioii of nljgion to «ctcooc, tho 
Iftuttt of whidt an ftniiliar. 

Tlie flimpleM fonn of direei oppoiUion which tfac rolje- 
lona aandcniijit ofI«tv Co tb« cxtonsion of knowkdge, tad that 
irliiali <»o«titnt«« tbo tnuitttloD from tbo nogatEvo to the poel- 
tlvi? fomi« modSIA in tlw iMPtt dldnelinntion jind tvpn^vinn 
which Ix h>ici<ally «rtgeiid«i» to uijr attvoi|)'*. luviiiy in view 
tbo altor«ti<>» of tlio sloUi of tbioga which mlunJI^ eAifit«. 
Tlib indiivnoe k dufcribud vith cliftttctcrutk dosrncM i&d 
force bj OiMOte in ibo following pv""f:» of thi* " i^hiloKh 
phio Po«itive"t' ^Sni^ant la loxiqac, borbuv tnak rii^-o^ 
reoMt, <U« pcnptn »m6r^ loute loterventiOB actUe do 
rboouDe pinr tttiAiorer 4 ion profit r6(ianoBU0 g^n£nlo do 
b nanu«p dolt oertftinenkont fomtUncT nne fforte d1n{oH- 
QQi ail^mtat An fCOQrerwtmoBt providvnLich Tl n*oit pacdon- 
l»nt, QB cffot, qu'ttiM prApond^nuioo Dop &UoIu« ch» Tcapfit 
ndlgtcnx tend Ek^cosMtrvowAt, oa die n>6inOf & oigoiirdir 

« t«MPt 0* *-^t4Nd« Dgfu-lottC ittfnJ M JIudkMr*. 14T1 

f acv ■ tnl« «Ht tif iA* Bf*. Dr C. H, ftuter, colUM " laarr &«a«,* pL 


tTaLK^*ll CL*l«.Tul tl.M4I. 


dW «tupi(iit i/]>UcuiAmv, ouuiuiu vu pout Us t^rifiur cii bml 
d'ooofldgne dMsirofr It mutt bo oottiutttljr bomo in mind 
tlut all progrvAi oodALHU in tli£ ftrbUrvy ^llcrmtioti, bj ba- 
uiau offodA iiD*I d^vtoM* of tb« noraul coume ui iitttnra, «o 
tbUcitiUf&iion is wbuU V JLU utitickl product. Jlut if ifao 
lutiml courvc of tbii^ it ilvt ronlt uf tbu voJttQUr^ ftctaon 
of ajHritiuJ b«to^ ctotHu^ orald be luoru miionjj, on thin 
fUHumptiuR. ih^n ihe condition that ov^ir^ 4rtlt5ciul prxidact 
is (bo jifwlt of 9Ucc<;Mful ftUvci^pU on tliu part of inui to 
tfawiLrt tbc win of tbo godjL - Hii* ftcffltiEiiunt, m Oiintc *d- 
nit»t «ren wkile etnviiij^ to dfifend the pHattbixid, r«^tjr 1im 
nftde iCirJf fi4l, and tliii^ in proportiou to ibe iiiLviudlj of 
reU|{toctt bvlkC, oti tb«i oiio baiid, Aud of tlw logknJ powew 
of tW raind, cm the other. RcfiAon uid crodiiJitj, twaAll; 
pitied on« M^niiiut tltc otbcr, an bora foand in cloco illiftnoo 
vu tbe udv ^f vnvr a^iut dvlludtiou. Wbaturer progroM 
^m, in halt ntada in tlio eArlJor bUi^ wben belief wu moot 
intf luKy wu dne to ibo fcehl«n«n of tlw reuoRf vhich fallod 
lo dadiMo tbb tD<«t obvlooA ooadouon ; vbile lb* pn^firoM 
Rtido M lilcr BU£e«, wlien rweoit bad boon ftivngthvcuO, 
«M doe lo a d«Hino in tho tntmiM^ of tbo bnlicf, trhAA 
^amtimii&A. lL-s preinfecH upoii which tJi9 nwoeiofr praoeeds. 
The Aftfiift in wbidi progrwe U titont conpl«<«dy snorted b 
thai whir.S pmofdcA tho An of doiil^i, bat enecoods ihv FnQ 
doTolopoicnt of lU ntJoziBl ilu^ulfv. f^i3(^b a rt«|^ may Im 
GOiwidRnd M havtn|j> MtnAlly exidK-d afivf lli^ ^Ifcrtiaie of tlio 
int«lby*ta3l (*poob of Gt^k and Ronun pbiloMpbj and be- 
for* tlie ^pncii of AkqiFinHin innngnrate'l by tjic ProMtiint 
RofornuUton and contplictcd br tbo adoption of lh« Roit^ntilifi 
iDvUiod* It wa« dnriuf; tUi« jK^iod tliat Iho logitimate inflo* 
enco of an b^mott and immoTabla bctiof in tbc f^damonlAl 
eonce^taof tbe^logj And rvli^on. oonpled irith a traln^rl antl 
inbenlod njwUry of tbo tliuorj aiid uw of k^o and mmn, 
f^ncf.'iH.-dvd ntoat oomplctdjr in bairingtbo war of tbe Amelio* 



NMlotuJljr Guoiigb, (w, vo fi&d Uiat tlik i>pen oppothion 
made hiteU mort tU*cinctl>- nuviiifcst aoar i\us bcginninj^ \M 
near Uic cloco of thw pcKod. li iuuai i^r^t mlHtiMf fto<i nrirr- 
vholMi tJu» lightiKif jjiticjiiitj', wliirli VM Dot Bccompluhoil 
wicium ft lirujifr^: vi^It wlrau AkopticUm nwred lis bead 
twgjTv cMturw ialor, Uji^o r^fiiiltad tLii> ftcoond gri&d ttra^ 
glu. Dnriikg tlie Lon^ interval whioU MpaAt«d thc^ two 
tftni^fglfSNO qvkit UjtJie ATnotbcrod forua <if pro^rv« lba( 
aratN^'lj ft Diitrtnur from it U Iiliu-iI tiux>agli hwlory- ICe- 
ligii:*o ^-iKii iQibLLltd in full pumcr tliruu^liout EurojHh Wut- 
crn Aidn, and Xorlbcm Africa, iu 8vsloiiiAtic u^rf^re n|koin 
tlui prostrMK of thic part bcgno. Th« fcbooU of pliiluMopltj, 
art, Aod iic*eiK<e ven: domd; thu t4BcbDni vi a}\ bruichcc 
wiore forliiddoa to iinpcui Ui«^r knovledgc The worb of 
an wtjro broken «p 9B pagui idob, <»r tnmtfonncd Joio 
C^jriJluii ajuibuAi, UoJuumiwdi&kiii ctaoA to oipplirmoflil 
Llit< Wink of diriiUjiiiitjr. Tbtt AkMixImu UniTcrvitjr (for 
oKh U rodljr m0> vu IntJbitcd; iu leacbcrB were k&I- 
tored or pat to doMth ; itn Mtmoomioft] juid athn iidpmttfic 
Appftntiiri vra» dortrojrd; iu libruj, ooDtAiiuojt Kvm bun* 
di^ tbuuuud voluoiv* of aoeumuJalud UlanUirv, wu wkod 
and bumod. " A mob of fanttic dirietiana, lod on l)}* the 
Arrbbuiliop Tlitskftbilnf^ atftroMd ind dratrojod tbn Ir-&ip1ii 
(of J«pitcr ScTBpU, <vll«d ihv 8vnL|K»o<i* wher« uuxct of the 
Itovlct mnra kcpt\ i^igeUvr^ tt u iiiost likvlj, wicb the graat^r 
pan of Iu Vitffnrf tnm^roF, in Sffl i.i^ It wiw it thk 
tinte tlttt t1i4t ili^motMiB of ibo libni^* waa begun, and not 
al tlie Uktrt^ of A^omidria bv Ul« Arihuna under tUa Oa- 
Ikpb Ofaar, la fUS A- k" * it vu bj (be ajittoiiiitio car* 
ryiug oot of roch motMtroa aa tbcao UiAt Um b4 foe1>le 
fUdntr of tbo uirifmt lij|:ht Vtt flaAltf axUagoidiad, a&d 
tbu ^-oinplete roiircsiutfT of tbo rvligioiw OTcr tbo jKicnti&i 
ag«ncbtt of aodctjr «aa wtablkhod. 

^t, tlimigb thm Auao vm q&uubedT Una embure ftflJ 



niK^d^red, uid vrlim At liAt llu^ could \k rnioihcred no 
longfir, BTi<i biirvt out nfrcnli in theiiiiddle of the fift^frntli 
OQBtnry, tbc irrvpitv^dble cODAict vw rrf>«ir«d, t1u« timiA 
vith fu" i^T^cer wannth iha.ti ever before. TUo riof^of Uie 
Pmtj.^sULnt Rcformat!ou, of die Holy Iit^ttitHion, of Uie riro 
nn.J fn.ll of WTlcUfJ*^^ of <!"« perftPcTrtlon of CofwnncuA »nd 
Gdiico, of tli« luaHjnJoin i^f Ilmno &iul SorroCui, and of tbv 
bitter imd ej'flteiuatJc wirf^irv ijp>n wicmcc and maurrial 
civfltaitbr, M nlrua'ly a trilo tlieuie, and lU tmo dttniclcr 
donbtleu fiiil« to nwf^lve diio approrUtion from tlifl fra* 
qiftanoy with whi^^b it U pfv«cnt*d to the mind> Tt would, 
tlioivforo. bv ft wholljr ftu^^riluoiiB tukk (u lUetupt buiv to 
puA tlik chtpt«T of bumftn UUtQiy In rerJew. Havlo^ oilTod 
il Qp and flx«<d It In II^ appropriate nicho Id tlio f^em] 
»ebero«i, it uill bo wHicivnt to rcf«r tbo render for fnrtfa^r 
dvUtU to tlw U'taory vf Btiropu (iuriug tliura puriudic 

III Ibe forCfpin}; |>'W4 ^^^ reader will dovbtkn bare aU 
readv «evu ainplis ]itttif[t:alio(i for tl^e mtrodiMttioD and flomo- 
whu pxtendod tmatmcmt qf the roligions TtiHiioooo in co- 
eirtv. It ia not alofic liManiHT ihrr popiilnr briirf nvprrtitij; 
Ha r^litloiM to lituniiTi progrosa b wboDj- «rT<mcoia tlut this 
bocaine oMontiaJ. Than aro piwLletd rtMMua, arudng out 
of tliu gvDuml ayitoiii of tbooght thU h la bcra iOTi^Ut ca 
doTdt^, which mado tbU oonrno a logical rutfxmlty. The 
natQr^l and the niperaaUiral agenetc* bavv oeio and ibo 
nms origin, Mok ono and the aaioo objeet, amt fallow dia- 
tbot but oordixmtD linca. To omft one of th^e would 1>e 
to preaeat a iw^^idL'tl juid nQhalnnord wjixcm, niuiljr CTi«r- 

All votantuy IiQRiark vfforia are noc««nri1f directed to 
tke DKHllflcatioo of ib« oxiatlnj^ <nndit£oD of ihifign In the 
inlon^t of man. Tn th^ pHmordial gT^pinf? of the bamaa 
reaaon, two wid«k diff^rvnl mothodi uf altainla^ tfaw end 
wiete. a* we bavo iKowii, adopted and oarriod iwC, neitbt r of 
wluoh hni jr*i hwtt ccxnjdutolj ivnoaneod hj an; wbolc noo 



Oneof tlieve vmtbuijfi umed to^nb^ol for uito^ 
bcrnedt t]i<» fiiutpler u^d moira Atipertidnl plicuomcftu whioh, 
fn>m thear »ini|»li<^rt.}' and snpnrtii-Ulitjr, irare oirljr btitix to 
bo gonrmod bj iuvtrinblc Uws_ TbeuUwr »iiiw) to con- 
trol, for the nmu {)arpoMi, tbe deeper uid m<ir« occvlt pl^^ 
&om«]ui wtitoh, from Uidr dc|ilh and olioeuriljf vera IoIma-uiI 
to 1w produced hj the TohinUrr acitou of mjaieriiMU Bptrii- 
qlL buing^ luviii^ miuda uid Milb libo thoto of mca^ TI>o 
pvnftmcUfO whlcJi WHS bilill npoti tin lir«t of tbcav fouii* 
tir^HA WHA diAt of tci«ncif And iiivuotivc ut, «oiu(ilutlitg 
ilia iiMit<im! ciriliutiofi of llio vorld. The fluperetnicCuro 
i^'Li<jli »■*• built uyuu llie Mcond of tbofo foondftUoo* wai 
tiio n^gioua edtlkic^ Tiiu lint, botog fouuded upon a b«* 
li«f in lurmon; witJi t1i« roil *tet« of thingfl la ibe mUTorae, 
lYVuK^ in iLi* ihttlloctiiAl olcTfttion and phj*icol tniproTo- 
tiivitt of mujkind ; tlie Mcondf bcinj; fouotled on a Iwlicf <iuc 
of hftrmonj witb tbv raJ vUto of tUng« iu tbe nuiverse. 
vxctUhI n<i <ilL'vaiIti;? or amcJioniting inflaunou Dpon tbo 
earthir lift) of man, biil Uaidcd in tUvlf to IcnTe Ufm i«bo 
«u in Utia r»ptct- Tbo ^Ga«iflicC>'^ boirevfr, &rosQ fn>m 
<lu' simple jimi nwaomij dfCQXWttDct Uial, «ith llieAdvaDce- 
mi'iit of iiil«tll^ikOe brought about tbroo^h Uic opontion of 
the flnt uietbod, tbe deeper and more oh«fure pbeitomunk 
alrOftdjr daliacd tj religion wttv ouo utter mnotXwsr recog- 
nteod M oomliig vitltin tbo douuttiun of fixvd Uw> lad 
i^mnd aIm hy HcaefiM. lUli^on 1i«d ucihing to gain ind 
vv^rj tbitijf to 1o«e ; uid it Km. in fif-t, be«i eotncantlj hA- 
in^ fron tbe tint, uid mnat continue tu luoe to tb« b*l. It 
Iui» tbv bccQ ft tnc " warfaiv of Bckiwe,*" * idcaoc b^ving 

Uli Ibft* vibM w ntf «nMM« hMm tvlvtea 014 •ciwtt, M iViiUnni tu 
A* mlUpM IMI* at UBtorf wd fUtiKfnipbf^. Ul U Hvultvd, m va Invs 

fifcw to nmi fbrv^ vHh InpHlul vvb m itfi Mbjvcf. ■>4 •bUh 
pnMplidF>vJdwrClwfa»a.IVnsFomwh**l"llMM*dtvlftD an ▼&« 



&11 nlong be««i on itie offvoujre. lU uuirvh, tLou|;li bltiroAtc* 
It irTti»«tiblu, ww iMverlk«l«8i jMrpotuuily iwmumI bv (lie 
u^n(!i<» of MpcrTuiLar;Ll boliu/, rtsdtliJg iu ft oouliimoufe and 

The red prOf^nM cif the world Ima tiotf u ir« Iift\-D imi, 
Iwon alon|r one«lirf«C ftn<t conttmoiitt tin*^ Whflo treatinj^ 
of the inoilo of dwrlrtpincnt in Inolcjtr, in <^lj«pt*t VI {v^A, 
I, p. 4^5). u~<f JAW litat ii uuuBitcW in an tnvirtiJar uitd >i]']jv- 
ontl)r fortniums Hanatloii of alt«mtiilg ndviuicefi juuj lialtA. 
nc>i>i> of the ff>rmrr cvirr ptfltt^wliii^^ In pfrriurk tht' uimo g«T>- 
enU din^ion ab tbc une prtccdtnjjf it^ aad tUu hUi^r ponivt' 
IngnntiJ tkereUaU WH4)ttvelQp«4»oiui»iivwpniicipIewbtcli 
aliocld eer^ro ae a new poiiit of doparlurc for ilip auct^ot'din^ir 
«4vROCfL Thin pTorrwi wffcAforapnrcil to tTjo'Llo«',Utiorofl,»ii<^. 
iiregular ftpprvoi^ of k bc^ie^nfr onnj towini a frarrwrtcd 
foTtrt^ iliu ^uiTAUft* belTrj; usually ex vcutL-U npidljr and 
hy indirect K^r ti^ok morcncrtEs. If v-o look bftck over tho 
hiNtarj of hnitinn prngmvi, wv bSaII «i?« thnt it !i^ hacn ao- 
(TomplitliLnl in aiomuwliar ffiinibr tu inner, CondndMififC, llr»t> 
UiAl brirK*-li wtkiuli Ltt ci>r]a#t«d in the d«v«?o|Hn9nt i^f tho 
power of Eatercfiitnttiuniciidon, wu iic« thnt ca«h ile]> litii bcM 
the remilt of a tiew discATeffr whirli m^j he retarded tu in 
0110 wrniw fortuitous And without whkTi iIkt tevel prvTio4i«1y 
roftcbed ml^t not h*rt bfvoi quilti.^ for in tiidt-fimto peaiod, 
or ^Inrfa mi^ht, for fttifht wo ud mw, fmro been nuflo tgti 
earlier thnn it ftrtnoll^ itm. The Gr*rfcft mi^ht u well hftre 
h4d tbe plnutLD|^p^o■l as to bar* h^d it* inwntiort post- 
poned fur two thoiamnd years Aff^ thtr liFcnturv of Qrvoc« 
hikd re^M^hod lt« icnlth; or wo mn^ «»ily eofioeivu of the 
total fiulnrc to rc^linr thnt mTeriticiQ for uiother il;o«wnl 
yaart fnxri the date of the ftutiuJ «vent. Along tbc mtber 
liDC.of nuteHst progre^ thla in oven raoro obviomdy true, and 

ln«*N^§tti«*Bate«M ■bMfdf»»*uTMMliMille««hAitni7h«Mimtbna 

("Fopokf 0tt«iiM HOPlUr." *«L ■tft*' 


itaBiib out In ktoaI clMni««a tovard the U»t e*d oi iLe tine, 

prictT bo tuid vt och <jf thi; ^rvot u^wdiiuitkiiig diwxi* 
mad InvcBtlonfi of ihc prcaeot age, or of pr«ccdlii|* 8g03» 
it tA lo tliew ihnt niAtrf iaI pfDgrtM i« riiifiAf dn/K Bocltiiy^ 
Xhvtcton, like orK^niJiiHi life in f^eneral, Lu r«uli«i ti« pi 
not pocfdon hy «xecatii^ u It were, o wHce of 6iiciMN«f( 
ik moToincnt*, cftdi ucompluthcd with mpiditj', and vcpiu 

We 8l«o uw tli^ lire retv] projj^reAi oC tlie noe hiid been 
vvry DiDch groitvr tlun nppcuET u[*jti a compiHpoti of two 
dut-iot e]>octi«, in vunACfiuvDC'o of tbc fact thtt t luge dure 
of tbc rtil uiwltenlioii has ulnrajfi been noulnliacd bjr im* 
modinte »h*oq>ci»n in the incTRuvid nvtnbcr of indinduab 
whoteeiivteboeit U»i rvixhrrvd pu«ubl«. TbU fict poitiU 
to Uke i[i^porC--iiie^^ of %\\ ii»e*]H vbiob tend to prevtait ibb 
recall. Et^ttj- tliingwblcli l^mdc to poorcrt tlii* Ulnnt pro^ 
r«ae into u-tive progroM will he in tliie dirattion of the true 
eoeial developioent ftttd ajnelicHration of niankiiML 

If lonvtr fbaU orOTAwakQ to coi»cioiiMn«s» jtml 
ibc line object tit couii!ion to eoiuiiot in the nttmnmcnt 
kftppfoflM, and tbe tnte meaning of proKreea m thnt wbich 
candocc* to tbai gimI, thn (Viittfol of i)ie Kiclal forote by tbe 
u<l of Ntlniidit« K'xi'^tiou u'ilt gradiullj faoooch oS the 
rhyitins In lb adi jipdng eamot, and give living ferM to aQ 
trtilj pcogmrive mcemirtR. 


SIitiirT "I ifiB ^Jll ^"1 i'k nkiritl ■mLiiiLnfil— ^liU|iiitait* nril(j|i^Twiiii4*b 
Mfii b( ihc mofLl ««dr Id motfociiil^ tftd ovWMDdlOc MUftln ■QCtfOB*— 
Ifirr— A^[ir— AmldUDu— AmiDB— lnvqlih« Mtloitf J wriitnj; nonl 

tkllrcru^ii^inLCuiiw— Oclitwitit* w:1[ih» fowvaJnc mml '^4*111^— tf«^ 
Hn? 'tf Oiv oaBKicoe^TTifijo And Ttoc^-KdfHwUUUrf— Crlm^-Xomil 
dvlfVoTBilt^ uttoav— CtipTMiarufel, or «ltral a1c« dcHbtnllrv ftiP(lf>af^-Pifr> 

tnlntoft otvr haIur — Siun^slu iA ilic ifpfilluAlAQ «[ ihciad^rt^i Brihod 
lit fiiritr^ui>— ICumiin^ kvmtAug Iviif, ■ml iliilnjf**bu1tvliliul mwX vcial 

I» iJic two piW-Mlin^ p>>BptrTft wc linr** Mvn — 
1. That Xnuf utilJcy coiuUU iu Uic locnMic of Lomui 
happiotiw, whl<!ji £a Uiv ulLiuuite end of tX\ voluniary dfort ; 


9, TliAi udol progrfM, kocIi jw it hw 1««n ikfiiiNl and 
d4»mbod,«vinMti(u1« tbo tinmeiU«k< And dirMt nieum to thftt 
nltlnLBte cud, 

E^intra tbe lucrewe of tiflppinme npon m Ui^ kmIo na not 
bo Mcurcd dtrrrlfy. It boeomca hcccmwtj to inquire !iow U 
mn b« •ofmrct) iitdlr^llv. Pn^^Tw biiii^ «ii inim«dktO 
oi««ii> Id Uiot md, and the ooly fmm«diAto mnnfi, lb« qiiw«- 
tioo fa rvdi>oe>d to 4 ojnndcvmtton of tho i&»n« to pK^^roM. 



It U door tW lo % gooeral va^ ihU ronat ocnftlst En eome 
form of ni4itut. H ihi^ n]tiiont« rnd ojmiM bn dir^^^ ne- 
curvd, >E would rv<]iura tr> U; dgDc br itiunm of «>?n« kim] 
l>f ACtioii. In llul Ci8r, tbv civllixin^ uiQuiriit?u» mI looiutj 
Diiighl bu luft oat uf tlig »cooi:ni, &ad ihlsfJiw of arlioo 
bfioeaitry to work an locn^avi of hAppaMM witliimt tbnir aUI 
wvinM itim oMuititiiEv tUv toimiMJKite imwut ui4c«d of llie 
m.'TODiUtj nivotitt. it i« ooiumi>ntj' Mtp|>oe«d llut bomui 
liji|>|jiiiiuM GUI Iw iooTvtm^iJ in tliir; <lin7ot «raj' by oeruta 
forma of flotlon, Tbo cithit^l coilo rcslji on thU MfotnpCinD, 
Within nivrviv limiu tlio aA^tirtiptiuik i» Inie. Men oui tsoG 
00)7 Iw tnu^bl to do right bifl to dn goi>d, and boUi jUbticv 
and I'tiiliuiUjropv *t\\A in tJus wurlJ. BtiC progita^of tin* 
kind u einpirica], wujttteaaac«i:| mpcvficial, nod uiMUbleL It 
mu«t «7Tvtr pnxwd fmin th« iame baM of opevationn. It 
iTt»j nialci; dt^pLT iorxNid* ix\ voino directioQi tiid at lomv 
(Imae iIiad otben, but can oaljr go as far u xc can nncb, 
Tmo prc^n«i is ever odr^iK^ng, or, tf eompcUcd at tunca to 
m^il, it ^nllicTB ftrrr^Ii and a^in movi* forirard, Uvrtng 
4-vc^nr tJun^ boliind it, Aji wl< lian* a««n Jo tbe laftt chapter, 
tbu ami^ant i^f pio^-rwu acluail^ rvaluod, inciudlrig wbat vaa 
iJUiEngiii4i(Hl oA Uicnt p^grr^fi bM Itoc'Ii coovtoiitlj mcaa* 
ixr\fl bj thif nuuxih of mjitenal civilixaiion due lo tbe arta 
aiid ■ciouoai., Uoral Kjvtvnnt bavc ooutribul^ uoUiing to 
til la nwilt 

Since man has been npoti the eafth bo h(w nooorapliibud 
mtnj thtogii, llo liM oT<rr bcvn acliiy^ 1>otJi phj«icalljr and 
mvDUl]y,arL j thorOMlt^of hiiiai.'livitiu*anjc>er^'»h4riv ¥ki- 
bk. He haa put in opermtioa c«<:b of the ^«t a|;m<dui 
entim«ratcd iii the 1m( chapter, atl nf vhi^h liave 1>eea the 
reaaU of ouH fonn vr anuUMT of Iniraan ni^tion^ A^ we iaw, 
nuM of ihe«e prored prograadm, oiben pr«servatlv« of 
l ip opwa, acii othrrK non-prc^rcaidre or anll-pro^r»«lve. It 
ii «Tideiit> iborefore, that a ^rgb pvt of the aciivitj of tlw 
n«v ba« boeo Icat In aoii-prodncUve cfilerprkev. 

In Um fint plioo, oulj* thoto actioiu whiuh LaTv *pning 



fn;)ro the iulcUvot htro provvtl pmgroffiire; and, «6cot)(llj^ 
milj tliat rbM of [uctjlluctuallj directed idjcmii whkli were 
the ronilU of a oorroct itktorpntattoa of ptkOiiomniM, »n^ 
oonK>fitr'l in kittio a|ip{ieftlion of f^artrilj j>eTt«ived priQ- 
cipJi» <ff nAlur« 1o hmnAD ii«v<lf, luvc so proved. TliU 
UiEiiU tW rai^ of pp:>grwi«iv0 actlvitltie homcwdy, &»i] 
mggc«ti« th<r pnruri>uunt JiiipOTtnncc of a t1ii>r<nij(l] luid fim- 
rfqmi'nUl ncqiuintflaeiT villi th^ nntur« of all oUmv* of 

ProgTvw fa uu nrltfieial phrnommoB, i. t., it K the n«Qlt 
entirrf^ of humnii ArT.iutifA truth which in not in tlio Inut 
ftffcctMJ hj tlift fiPt llmt thu» fjkr lb»-ra liftji bwri lfttl« or no 
aoiij«ioiu OeKijfit od thv part of man to improw tlio nee at 
lorgie^ Tbut n&ult }iiu h<«n t^ n ^nAulcmhlo extent m-^ri- 
plidlie^j &iid h liaA b(>m Hroorn|ilnhfHl 1>v the uno pcrticiiJnr 
dft« of feetixnu ahoxe ntnied. It i« Oujrefore of iJie utmoat 
impottftnoo iliat tlic ttatnro of rh!^ pArticuInr cln»i of pnj^roft- 
rivp Aclloins dhonW bft pftrfnrtly HTnii'niiti^**! ami ^-Iriirly <)tfc 
tinguifficd fri>m nil ot^dane*. An inv«*tLf^tioii of thia 
t^uevlton fn»m tlii* jmIiiI of riew will tfaervfora bo swn to 1» 
a TOTf cild^^nni thing from a trcalipw on montU or ftn in^uifj 
{nto tIio natnre uiH rlf^mrnt* of tho wiaDa ethifv] HMktf, na 
tlie titiD of thi« cluptcr nii^^lLt !i.iid tome to intkifMle^ Still, 
aineo uctkitit Uivin^ iiu Hlilcal chancier ci>rHtlln1o an im- 
portant and cxUmslvo c]a»,« nimowlint iJctAilvl inrvoj; of 
thi?iii will lw» fiew«MTT in ilB proper plapp, Tht fiint r^iti- 
^te, liowever. must bo to -vcrk <ntt a alricUj U^cal clkMifi««- 
tJon of hnmaa a^ion«. 

Tliht w hv nr) mrtjn* wi nntHtd fl«M, and the mort wlicnt 
dutiiictlom have l^^rig bc*n «<*tl«l lipyflod tllo po»cr of any 
future wrltor to dbtuJ^ lliem. Tim diwf i>hjeot of th^ piT#- 
cut attempt wdl tbiTt^oro bo Icta lo ^ d«per or to r\-i*Jj 
furlHf-r than otht^nt have Oon«r, iKan 10 «rect a n^rtem vith 
lilt «a|Mii41 object of I^Hn^n^ the fkld of b^maii aHlon 
Coropk'ts^lj^ witltin Ib^- p»rTii*n' of tht* paH>«tlar work, TIi« 
■tractme maj contain anbstAntialljf the aaiao inateriala^ Irat 



will be built nlivr n «oiiiewliat difif«t«iit ilj\t^, to u)^ it U> n 

tilts ottlj new fcftCuru coctncctcf) iritb it vill |>ortkft|w be 
tbc novel pnftst of vkw frum v.h\A H pn>oeed«. lu idl at- 
tempi* tBerv<^<.>for« mnAv Fo i^l4j«-ify hunan Jkotfoi>», <]i« di*- 
tinotiT4t «im ti» boeii ti^ arn?e *t ■ bvtUir gnuf (>f lli«jr mJi- 
icaI (jofttilicft. Howorer far iiwrt)«mnl or oulwuxl tlior mnjr 
liiire rvadwd Bfiortonna forbott«ri]in«Trftiion nnd compati- 
Acm, the c\M »ltnb(it« Konght hu alwAvn b<H?n the moral 
In the pTfwnl attempt, on tiic coiilninr, tlio iqEIuciico f^f lli« 
fc^jlin^ wliioli id t)i<3 ohorauetoriHltc of nigral aotiuo*, i« moro- 
hr EWOf[Btt«d u na obeerrdd p)ivnontf^on, TolLTtblo onTv m 
«:i aid to tKo fnli ooinprtlwwioii of thv mtloetK^ uf tliv 
jndgmmtt. KxL-unionK tiudc ovvr thv Udib of phjeici, pliv»- 
lotogj, uid tlliic*, will bavu iu now »oMy to itlnntiiau^ tJio 
pHDitnount problem of iriXtWocmaX vtIioil When tJie Ime 
niUuvof Uio B^oeul ronw,H <Minad b Chapter VII, it 
ftdcqa«tc1r gnvpcd, tbo plijrncftl, pli\^tagiGml, tntl ethiod 
prohlcen* uv alrcndj ftoli^f. Tlic jinljr pmblom remaiTiing 
U tbe Uitell#i^uKl pToU«m. The fomivr foc-Mu l^oir wbolly 
UtlogouB to «ll the otbor BtUmI forvce which inti]lli)-«n(w 
bu hiniod ify huTOKn »dvnDtMf(e« it mtut n<-it be HcHouily 
mqainad Iiow thooo, too, m« to b« tnniiMJ to hnman advu- 
ingo. Sijijv Hit' forrc5 nm ^irnnn^nfviiift. tlic failT3r« thus 
far lr> tnut thein all dike mwt ho due to tonw dcfttX or p^ 
edlfarity in the {nt^Tleetual fnnutl.r. 

Fhy^ti^jil xnfon, pli7blolof*{<<fil aulSon. tmtl cthScal oflloQ 
■TO 6x0(1 by invariable lawn. They are Ttke the alr^ the 
water, the dertrie and tna0:netie rurranta, i>r iho tliermie, 
lumieouK afid aetlnk iprriL-iu*, llvforv iit'tEllTpfrora, they arc 
p«^Te; tbeydo the l>Li]<][ri;-of the iiitellert Pkdnjr ^ 
Btliral fomea opon ihi^ f-MUlnf^ ^rs cnomtofr U> the otW> 
wW m«aflin|[lMi worpfn, ''Mr^ml Metxe." And u we iii- 
TMtlicate all oUicr dwietit I'f fcinwa with a view to r»x;roinBi|f 
Ihcm, *o mnA t]u« cIko b^ Invntifniti^l inih that tmtw. Ti 
thia now dodef Manifcatly not. There b foniethlng bek- 



ing in ilie g^idin^ force. ^Vluu the dvtm:t h, b not o1«ftr 
ovvu i(r fliuiv whv ;iiictitt oU tbe rmt. It U thu guidiDg 
fore^ tlier^forv, tliat moet rv<|UEit« ntwJj-. TU« uutsn of 
intclIi^TfU^ti wiili rofcrcncc tc- i\w vktIaI forfcfl iioedi lo bo 
iii<|tiirv<j into. ThfcdAscof iLctiooMito whi-,--li attfrntioniUMMild 
be »p&niLll^ Jirocli.-<i ib llie tntultucluaJ das*. Il will Uivns 
Irjrsi bo ilio primary aim of the prcKiU effort al ducifyiu^ 
sctiont tA bring tlib dui proniinontlj iclo tbc foragnniAd. 

Ci-AMirDCATioN or AonoK#. 
The tiro primary dL'pArtmnnU into whif'h Af'HfmjKrf «11 

Are tboM) of rolitntary uid int^unfury uctiuritk Inv^^luii- 
tMvy actioi^A^ UK i* oliNir, oooottm ii» boro ror7 liului Uioagh 
nodimg llmt nt all alFecU living bcnn^ can bii vLtfilly if^ 
dotmI ttith<»ui uiftmng tlie tymtnvtry of tii« sTsM^m. It vill 
not be nec^ftaa'j to go fiirtbor with tlJs cliwi IliiUi to notv 
tbo primary futHljTiooii of tbvni into ctmtpttl4ory anil oiriff- 

TJie priTHtiry wbdivUion of TolnntAry nictionih i* mto 
in^fuUiw ftQ<J ddiiFfiraiir^ Tint fonocr cormjKaid to vlial 
Uw phjviologjjitd doM an ^mKrl-metor, and the laUer to 
what tb^y oIjw «^ Mifv>-mi)()r a(4lccifi, 

hWo t'/AicftUg iMi^ftr^nt aotJuntan^l wkhm/ action*, Indif- 
Ivrvfai tnpuUCTV afftiDnM Ar« «nch a» ex^rt no laAitvoccp (ij>on 
I3ie fev!{Dg» of »«ititiil boinpi> lithor of (he flg*vnt bimftelf 
or ntlicn. TLcy arc not of •ufficienl importance lo dtf-man*! 
A cktfcr analjraia hen. 

By iiwfaJ tmpQlaii-f- n^iioiw are mCAirt actlonB hadnR a 
nioral qi^ity. r. f.. t-itrtittg an inAucnec upon (wnliuiU bo- 
ingn, and prodocing plvomra or pain tliber lo llit ^^ni or 
is ijlh^ra. Tn Pitljirr ©•«*, not only llio fl«t but tbo eflW ia 
intended. Thiji oIam may be siilhdiviiicd on a nambcr of 
lodepvidBot jinoeiplca, un) ia manj of tta aapccu it mw 

CLisftincATiox or Acrioxa. 


pantll«l vilL Uw oom«pondi]i^ group of dvtibcratiru tctjona 
ncrxi to bo rocifiilum]. 

D«Jibrmtit^ or ktoth motor, Mtlon* alio ^1 Into tLo two 
primjin' oiLi0-£« nnologoiM to Oioao of impakive actkiM, tU., 

Monl duUbvntivsicitJonft KQ will dividie tnto Uio two 
diMJoet gr^iio^ dcpooditif; d]>oii wlie^ier the Doriii*! and 
iiMQr&l r«latiuBof eqnalit/ i« iWMgBtstd orwhrihrr *m%\- 
miriiU giiat witicli lran«ooiid the rooognitkHi of tbi« rcUtion. 
Ai'tioiw bo^onging to ibc fvnuvr i^roup luv diwwod eilljur hi 
jiiHt or V nnjiut ; tUo>o tii-loik^ng lo ilw ]&tt«r, oa boofAoeiil 

Tbu Don-morjil dutiWMtro Actio:* L^ve no direct toflti- 
caco iip<m th« foutiii^ of Mnitiunt bviu^ ai^d do tiot JWoe»- 
nly )iuvif AOj fuithGr etf,wt jn any dirootioo tbflti tho tnon) 
ijunttftuTice of tJie life of tko individiud. ISsI onit in^ 
pOftAOt group of lltvEQ bu fov iu DonoAl and Kn^timjitg 
reoult iiw irapruvviticia of t^d tampoml c«Utg of ike ugont, 
thongh in ao Indirect vaj, whiofi diBtinguialie^ it Aharptj 
froTti thd Dinnd rlaw of Actiun^ Thift efl^irt it produced by 
<Tcrtjui> dupo«Jtioa» u'hicb >ctioiu of tlii« dias inabc willi ITio 
[]j&tur«l objuvU upou wliio!) tbo^ An» cxctie^, wbcrobj^ tho 
qUBlilii>f of lliNO objwt^s ibo f.>r«rt Mating upon tlirm, «nd 
tbo rvbktiooA vhicb tlio/ «ro ibtiH lutilu ijr Kiu^nm tu onv an- 
other aod to tb* agODt, oMMpiro In fiooario^ ndr&nlaf^ to 
lliti :tp?n% rvodering him more iy)nifi^HabIc and hfrttcribl^ 
to prodtioo ■ fvrpliu *b*)vo hi* immndiat^ ir.intiL We irAj 
therofgm dii'klc ihn group inli> tbe tvru >ab-|(n>upBi of filaltu, 
or nuu-prugrmhu, and dynamic, or prn^frovive^ notiocia. 

Id tho abovo eondio akeuh of tlir prinriixil divuiionit and 
•nhdiviiirfQrt of bnnun aftioo*, «Kh oi whiL-'b vi11 Iw c<tn* 
aidfrcd morxf in dirtail pmmtJy, tlic leaat mipiprlanl «biai^ 
have bovu fimt d^»)io«ac4 of and th« mofrt important olafii 
pUcod a£ iba end, wbtn^ nndor tbr iniY-amitancrM, it remTc* 
grmtar enpktfu, beoaoae tU nflatioTia t^i ibc oUi«r daiace, 



«□<] dii^reforc Its Imo clnnctor^ riiui tbue 1>o bettor iiiid«r^ 
ttAod. In Ltthcr ward% far tliU pTt^limhivj' mirvej of tlio 
fulJ^ It wu deemed b«i«t Ci> prtMced AiulytlcaU^, 

lu luUTUOiiv wiUi lljb iiftrl of iho^Doml i>l4n, tbe fo-llow- 
Jng Llingm&inLiitv rvprwcutJLtkrti af thu tabjWt u iJdvd, bjr 
tliA mid of w]ilc)i tJi« tariew ocMirdlimb? and Aubordfute 
groQpd muy be parcel vod fit it gUoca : 

















I fadlfFimiiL 

( OlllBfln<AllT«h 



OTTOLrrrjiitT Mmckva, 

To Ay that nn ftet 1» Tolantat^ k tiwrolj t4i *aj tlmt it i« 
dobo Ld confoRiiilj vHth thc^ i/tfimv of tbe tif^L The roiuk 
thro tiffllty repment* tStnpty the forao of llie dMirvA ^>rh 
eoiMtitntv tlio motii'Q pow«ir pcjiul&rlj t«Tiiio*i tbo irilL Thb 
wJ a etB HvB HcJd of nm\ly itivolmtmc^ Mtioix to tvtj iuutuw 
HoiHit lad ranukda it eUdlj to t1i« defMutfacBt of blolo^. 



Tt m trau thkt BUcluloBc/ wlititt ]ii« ukea do wicoaiit 
of AittociuitTa Mtioo, enmocrattt, io ftd<liUoxi to coordoo, 
twooilferrw«« m wtikUpM li« •UCm it, ''Uw will docR not 
join ill tlu ■ct.'' TbuH aro, llm, wheva tluire b a clcfcet 
of imJvrvtubdii:^; smI, cccond, iiciii doo^ bv ch&noo or I^o> 
ruir^ This Uk c««e en1ini<fm two <^ln«wA of Motion* orarly 
u dutinct Aft the fir«t, wUiUj Jik ravlJiy sll ihcau tiircKs imu^ Iw 
reduowl U> uuc Fur wbilo, on tbo ooo haoJ, an act doiie 
by dMQW I& Kiillj^ due lo ignorance of ftomc of the condl- 
tioMf 0O» on tho olbor, i^onnoo, ia >n fjix m the act in c^ii**- 
tioii 11 ooDc^TTied, cojutttoUai ft ikf««t of tliv uudtmUiidipy. 
But, as Ui« uudvnEjiiHlliiji gitiw« foobbr rolativoly co ilio no- 
tion, it Approooh^ in tliAt dt^^reo tbc antntuAtiV <?nm)itiom 

£ty B cootinnntiotn of tbu j4;radatioD, tin? miloomtic KctinQft 
of liring ttrg^nimaM ii|ipn»<Ji iko&r»r Jtod ovinn- lo u>«?n-ly 
pibytml morouivntk Tb<j iDi>tioii» of tlw p«ni^4tii fif iitor' 
gonlo niitu;r vrtiuld Mom to he alcuotft «4 mttdi ontttli^ to lie 
CaJM ftcttoiw. The healing t>f ah Hninmir* hoftrt i# no inorid 
ftn action of tbftt aoimal than tlio pulmitoiu of a bj-dnatio 
nun ajo MtUnu of that niuf^blpe, Tbu virctiUtion of tfie 
blood and olber dnida ol iW bodj^ 1b bO mor^' 4it t^ of tbo 
bodj tlun tbo circulation nf thr tap ai»d jnicm of a plant la 
an ad of the plasl. T\m cinac wliidi pndaou tho ooo ia as 
pirplv pliTnra] m llint wliioh jiroducuA tlii> otlicr, ud la 
^IeWcuh^ tlirrv U rto prindple that eibibhaaDj power of a 
higher order tb&rj that vliirh g»ii>v^ n upon^ or a lump of 
»iLjt;ar lo t&ko up w«tcr,and luiao it aftaiiut the forM of K^r- 
itotioa, tt ]> moro oomplicatod in tho foraint cvua* and it 
£a not aMrooiplivbKl on procEuctj tho uttac prtnciplr, fant it li 
no liitchvr priiK'ip]«s do kw pcmly phy»ioaL 

Tbo iDvclunihiii of tho aoiinal body ]iivolTt« &d prinoip^ 
Dnt blrrody known to nUurat phOoMphj. Moit of U» laws 
hhvvi bfrco applied to aone of thovtffidal nMr(iin<« in me 
by ntan. lu goiwral afraagomMit dJSvni viiry Utxle in ]bdn* 
ciplu from tliat of tiio tfMHi-«iigiii& It uaiiiaciLiiM ki*pt 

• <■ 

bodh k, f, 11. 



10 Ofxntbn hj l1i<} htrnt gv^cnUc^^t \fy fuel aopplloil from 
externa] f*^urv^«^ ft t«j)rorid<^ villi fnraftoe, bcUturB, focd- 
pipeA, fiiroe-pnnipA, wtM^ ^ncl irxhnni^-piixs. mp<v, jonm>l«, 
iobricaiing (J'H m wvtl'4muigvii tnl-^^up*, mi) all iIm: other tp- 
plun^wH for Ibu pvrfvrrnariOL' uf &tl Lt« functii>D& ll ietn aa 
the flt«an>-er^'-tno nrtp whfift Th^" ttcftm in up juid il»c ocH^ka 
ftro tvmcd, And it ficauM u docn that mAi^lnne vbm the inp- 
plv ohhur oJ fuel or i>f c^^nslilueui iiiatrH&l in eibnuktcd, 
Tbu niotliniA uf eUv one arv m much suid do fBtitm eiiiitled lo 
1» oUI«d flc(k>rL« ihftn rh<Kc nf tli<? otbur. 

But tliftrv BJv i^crtMii artininl moTrrn>«iiU w1>irh aiv partljr 
YOlnntflry and partly mV'ilunun\ 'the winking of the <ty« 
U An oMinpltf. It ouEj hi! prvruriloU fur u tfine, hmi not for 
a luu^ limo. Tbo will neetrtfl to htre limlc^ jarMiolioa 
over St. The ranM la^ tmc of iho nctifiiv of the roi^ toto ry 
oi^D*. With regfttd to thtwo Ivt, howvtTT, tt >■ poftribla, 
j» iKmie c»M at Icvut, tliot « dtruuj; «doK cif will may Iw 
fuIUcjont t<> fnak« lUem c«A0O Hltogothtv. In all llioM cMses 
the nAinr^l fnnctiom arc puHomiod uncooKbu^. Tho 
WfU i»n*nly iM^wiinMl tuiiunpend thoM faDctii^n?^ tempciwrnr- 
Thfin* are, on the otliur hand, aoin» oww in vhiVh iW Till 
miiHt bu j(tn>iig;ly oxumilnd to prodnco aetSf>n. Thtia, hioig 
poraoDS Lave a^qolpod (ho power by pf^ntifttMit m^iTM) of 
rlio will ta movo th» inTijH*!^ of tfao mt. thoiigli mo«t pcr*ot» 
con not a(x|iiire thk (Kjwvr. 

lit tht- hiwtr oBMul* K mteli la^r tinmb^ of tbetr 
&ft£oiM aro amofimioi Of ooaaaiRiml, thiin in muti, $n that it 
woold <w m that Setweon th« vioipWt n^tx ACtton &nd thtf 
biftli^ i*^ <>' intoUigvnca then flxifda no abaohil^ IJiw o{ 
demarlcatjim. For ox»inp1a^ idj annry nNiBifw jatt tKroe 
DOwMioiia— ^o externa) and mig intCTntl— ti> make it ain^TT 
vta^a Wftatn ninAiint of Uj^ht,a <wrtaii> ankonni of noW in Ili« 
nxM), and a cvrUin di*gnw of hong«r- Tii« fi^rtainty of ite 
ria^flU? und«r llneM* ootKlir^PH n nt grt^ ae thai of an »^nc 
niovii^ whvn thfi required aiiMnat of #tAun la tatrtic^ on. 
On A full aUmiacJi iMrthiiig cad make it otc^rnnote^ Rot 

AnoMAtic Acnos& 


MilipoietlMMcoiHlAiul ibird<«nditioD«proMiit,dsid tliookgij 
cUrkvotfd b; ^ T«iL Unveil it, aikI tLo nuic^iintT ^UaU, Or, 
0pp[>oee ftU bat tJi9 ivcoiiil oochlhiuu fuppUudr asd hi ibti 
room b« p«ffoctly qnut. Tbfin kt mom u4i6 h«^ to apnk, 
or hMch Om jhaiio— 4w>7 Ii goes Ulu t einging bjrdK^vcn- 
HuiM. Tli««t ft«i»i-ToliUituy niotii>i» fartl>cr tcad to proro 
tiia£ ibo powsr «bJefa tin will lav o^vr {{m wiuu* mgiiojut 
ttt tho bxl/ b of ftU pwdble dogtiw, from iliat «hkii vo 
tn dwiLjra ADtltelj dncomdoiiB of «xefdftui& to that irhicb 
raeulU f ro<B rniftOm deiibenticm. 

Bot if tim bu ibtf u«v<, miO die iKM»lkMl itivoJuuUf^ 
udooa tfo parolj' pbjwali dotw U iwt «fgtte « wiU-powur is 
dk* T«f^tftbto nnd the cbomkal t * To uuiwur lliu qiMattJou, 
W9 mnst tint dcti;r[nin« definitely wliAt we ara to QodontatHi 
by tt wifl-}H>uTV. AViint tA thn will T It lun iklriaifilj boon 
ahown (tuL i« pp. 3!^i-40i) tlut uiil U ooibiuf; tuon tbia 
(lc«i» ; ilmt t4i iktftTO k lo vUU, Bod lo vl^ h t^ will 

Ih l{]«rct, tbeo, DO line wbtth dirtdeA tho vofuniKrj from 
tb« autonwtio MJou vf aiiiiuild I If tbore ia mcii ft line* it 
mntf bo wbctv oOMclotwiNe tint #pp«an. It wotikl bo, of 
Q]cio««dii^1y diffimlt u>fitth«t Kvko, baCt onc« tixed, 
to Mliufy the qivwtion (voi. i, pp, 3G4, SSG^ Sinoo, 
buvwwr, tb» dittcnUy CUB only oifet in ihora c«n» whiph 
lie r]we lo Oai l£ii«, aod *iiKw Hivsv will b<» coinpanitiTvly 
fow, very lilllo einbtmMiniMkt will crcr arise £n t^itd^avodnf- 
to fticvrtuo ou H-bitfb idde of tbiii line a partimbir num of 
action li*«. H«ic«, wc may arlopt it act a ei>n\-cn[nit mlo 
tbat an action i^ vol&QUrr if tbc mdotr U cont&utat of ita 
p€>rfornuiiC4i, jrod itiToluntirj if be i> twcoiuauHni of it. U&t 
rliii nt\e dott not, of oamno, ipply to avCe oonukted by tva- 
lon of vxk-nial oonpnliioti. Of tboMs wa will now ipvak. 

A man may be compelM to p«vfonu an act in eeranl' 

Fint, be may be ffTrded Co do it by Mwie mo^'inp-. inant- 
mato tAjoat. In tbii fttae, be »i aimpJy to bo tvfpirdod aa 


as louiliiute hody lilmecdfi He doM not i)o the t«t Atiy 
uiore Uinn if bo lurl been «ucli An oHjcc^t ioKtoiui of a iuul 

t^uoondlv, lie uuij bo vvixcJ b^ tlic o»e wbv ciompfilfl 
liini, iutd ttbo UM« hie limlie ioaUviJ of lil» ova u> occom- 
jilbh the ACS. In thifl caM?, tho put}' oxeniiBlDg ibe ooni|>4LU 
•ion It th^ rcAL i^nt, Aiud the dct ii hu act Aiid !• a vi>JuQ- 
Iaij oiie. Tlus pifly ouu]|H]Uwi in uu uiorv ad ngv&t tlun ui 
tliefi»t o»e. 

Tliircll^, lio majr bo oompollod bj foroe to do an Art wiili 
lib own hhinU i>r membnv. He majr b« forced U> waIIc 
Uj JAtl, ur lo lubor, or to ugD bi» lUBie, TIun k Ibo tiiwt 
luniAl &ihft. An avi fi> porforiuocl la, In oopomoii paTlAnec, ilo- 
nominutud inroluiitAry. It indndoA til\ inTolitntnrj scrri- 
ti3di% artA donu under duitvAf He 

It U uniieci*«Bir7 to uiAke u fuurtL cLuf, vuiiaibliu]; of 
acts mored by tlircuhi« of vU>l^(» or coercion, ance, GtHctljr 
aptiokin^ ftU aueU aoU ue of tida Joai daaa. the forv^ 
thoiigb Ap|died, ia not die morlnK p^wer. If ir wiTe, It 
wL^uld fAU under tlxe aeooud etm. It la on|y the framHa- 
ing froui tlio pr^*apc<^t of Wiig fonHnJ. and tljpnsl>y mAdu to 
■nffcr pain, that iortns tJui n^al luotivi^ fiv tlio artjfja. A 
man v^hii W boing vaoorled to jail n not atitolnt^^ly <^iii- 
pcDrd to iralk; it Ja tho vxprva or implii^d tljrt^t that 
if ho doca not iralk be will be dragi^'d, lliAt luduow hini 
to ynXk. TUia diatinction may. tharDforej be dropjwS, anj 
all tl:ia eli« of acuona cowidowl togrthi^r. It ww re* 
njATk«l that in otdtnarr tan^na^ flct- of thi* ula* an* culled 
kvolnaUrv. But in *hiotiwt« they »« not «>, iJvery act 
that a peK»>n peTformi invwlvt* a dioico ; that i«, ovcry 
tlsic he ondcrtnlfoa to act, Ibenj Am pwartitr*] to hk jttdg- 
ment ntote ihan aimply fJiAt oao eonree : of It'n ho aooa many 
oonnttf thai he might pnnme, fre<iuenll^ rcvotaI whidi li»*v 
olaiwl «i»a1 eluiuiM. If ho I« oatiixig, thcrv maybe many 
Idoda of food, all oqnally goo^t ^^i^ ^u ^V takes ono kind at 
onoc Of GOUfao, in moit coaeSf tho pfvferaoco i« <^iar and 
diittoct. Bnt in orery <uae ihoro ia an alienmiivo. U it ia 



IU> oUiffT, tli&t of doing or noi doing miuC altm^B rvmun, uid 
oa jkct of ouuMion b u much im not m oho of oomniiMioa. 
Kow, lo inak« the spplioatlon of this to the caae of couipul- 
•or^r a^ioo ll«t ntntinnrd, vfn »or at onnA tKftt crvrj racU 
■ct ii Mthjiig taurotJuui mo nJtcmjitiiro iK'twvcti doin^ Ui« 
Mt roquired or Buffering the conboqiiviioet of refmitj^ to do 
tt- A nun need not id^ hU luuno, dthough he mav bo oor- 
tsin that iinlcw he do jo be will ho kliot. The action k to^ 
Qsbiry. Two cotirvta li« before him. He diooicbthe oos 
or tJie other. Thig ooofon&fi to the troo dotiomoD of « vol- 
xtut^ry Mtion, one in whMt tl^cro uais cxckm of tlio irilL 
T]i« tirpt two f>f tliA cftjw autflvl abore at?, therefofv, invot- 

Wo seo, iborefore, to liovr lorrow a cpaQ tlio eQbjoct of 
tnvolii&tvy AotJDCk* cuav bo rvdoiMKl. Tlio nailed invohm- 
tftfj oetkiiui of the apiniil r.yalvin uv nicre phjac^l utotiowL 
The dn4o»e ttiitodof fowit^e huuiAn wHioiiB ivduoe» Uue 
inTolvatwy •goot to a looro Iximp of it»ttor; in tlio vooond 
GMe, thu immediolL* agent U no Vtf» rirtmUljr iiuoltnate, tud 
iht ipenon coinpollinj^ irt thd n!<d nfj^frnt &nd a vdfintarjr one; 
vhiit ill* princifttl cfj» of viioiu popaUil^ knoim w invol- 
Uular> are in rvttlity vvluuUrj. 

Before poffilni; to roliinivy fletlonft, it inij be veU to 
iwfor to lh« trnkdAni^T, poiitf#id out by other autl»r«. and 
afaiAdj liiftCTUBed fn>in iti poijr^Jiolo^cU mdo in & prvvEona 
chap<er (vol. I, pp. l^ ]S$), o» ll«e part of votimUry to p«i 
into antoiaatio acuoiM. As just remarked, the qwdal Abt- 
net^rhtfloof rolnnury aetii^nii in tb«? aoromfttn^n^ rtato of 
eonkpieie confrbouanMa on the part of ibeagcnt^ 'Ehh iaonly 
to ftiy Uiat the motor diiohai]g« vhich rwolta In Uioir pro- 
ductUin proepodi from tlitt rapnmM rwrvom oontsr, or bnJa 
(aeiiaorium). to whiefi nil Hw mihArdiniUe nerrov* riiocb eon* 
Dg to pnkdDoa tt have been nferred* The Iraaution 
rom the tompUAoij rolatitary to the more ai>d mom auto- 
tsaatie eooii*ta aimpl^- in tlio more and more pranouneed &il- 
twe of dM0e oontributiog abacka to rauh the aaprame eeQlefft 



aecompiuued by tha ffnUor aail graatcr |iro|Kictiim m vbioh 
■ubof^Uiato gviglU oocu« to fiqiply Uie pboo o( lUti imn- 
dpal guiglion ia ouiwtituiitig motor ocntor^ for Uh Jla- 
dittj^ Anil just u vo i^revionf^lj mw (vol. i, |>. AHj Uiat 
tlwaie vubordiiuitt ceidcn nttlljr cviwlituto LiMl<*p^JeLit K*c;r* 
¥0Jn of Moimdon vlUi H oooB^OBraeiii ui xitmti own, «o dt^ 
tinct fmm the Anpr«Bi« ^oeeioointfe t!)at tlio lattcc am not 
«fTnp«t1iix(? with mtlfo^tijcit npmmcul Ur tfie fonxicr, «d 
WW DOW perceive tLat in likv ulaziuv* (Lo ouWrdiiiAttf c««it«««^ 
vrhm not intugraxi**! tvtlk U^f dilrf oualWf ooiutilui« iwle- 
fctuU'.nt MonrcuA of uiioa for vhkh tho wbolu Dr^toauim m 
not ro«|ioiuib]e. 

TOLtxrutr Acnoxs, 

Wc vriU noct proceed to tbq eowiilomiov of volunUiy 

h vrill bu iwewaarjr U' bciEki by joqvijijig Aomewluit niore 
oIomIj Into Uio ortgin of su^i dctio«ia.tho pfo-«tUuint ooodi- 
tionn itnd p»iryhii< firuliion, anil tho mctuiM bjr nliidi tlicttu 
openito in (ffdrtr lf> pro^ltioe tbcm. For MtioiiA, like all odl«r 
vlIi-vtK an? ^jWu^y/, t, f^ Uiuy Ar9 «iik««di T\my are not 
vpuulnn^iii^ or indutM;u<lotit of oxUtnml imAiwiicvii, u nwn/ 
eoem to auppoBQ. 

It w A mv-k of intclligonc^ tosfvk hk cr«ij poMnile wi^ 
to iSii^iMT the fiU!t that ftpftioit Hown from nntoocdenl caw«f^ 
uid tbs QiiLop oC CorUiie Uukllj Mjrk, ^* Toll 00, in any 
gfreo droumstaticcat vlut thoeo circuimtanona will 1«uil mc to 
ilo^ jind I will imi^drtAke to do mniuthiTig dllTcrent " (" Ni&^ 
loejith Csniui-T," Majob, 19&0), appatnmtlv forgvitdng liut 
hi« n^olvQ iroulij thi^n wMitiitfi it mrM importonc ^ citrum* 
Atanen*'; not nn uumpRrAblcow boircvAT, for it would not 
preTCTtt him fr\>Tn ruccuiii^n frieod from ileAth orirn ftt the 
litk of rcriljit)^ 0000 oei«'> prodictioa u to vlat ho would 
do nntkr tLe drvuiMUncoiL 

A prevflUttit mode of coficcalliiff iJw dopcadonoe of %o- 
tioa» npoa oonditlotii m Men in tlio ruied fontM of ft »a» 



h^ia^f ulo|itcd, which cowiite siinpl^ In ddsg diift^ vhidi 
wouJd IM>C tutnnUjr be expected mder die drcHintfABOei 
— ihv uiu4t«v vf ccipjcralmefttf at pr^iJouuiiaficanHftl eia'uiu- 

TboTB arc ft)l dc^roci nf o»<j»tridl;r, from thu ikUcAto irt of 
uqirue in litentan.^ kni>wtL a&^ori^nAlitjr" 1<j ibe coftms 
ftud iilJtfiuivu uddiljr ui tlw tJovo. The iuteniri'di&ie fomiA, 
Ilovovct, WQthomoft cpmiDon^fttid maAifoft llicm»ivuE in 
nriow njn. Tlio nuinuroQ» arbi ai»I ulTcfrtAtioiii of life ak 
tttMAa n|> caf Oi«»« btniiuings After indivifliiAlirj w^nch ip pufv 
poited to dibiiDgntth buutkD fn>m aiiiuial actioo, ftiid tu d^io- 
onAinMllio ftrtiitnr7 friHMinm cif tlu- witt, btjt m aJl cmhm 
thft tnio nnUYL'donrtf iu^ inEi^njal iLiirl ooEL-4Jtutv wluit may be 

a&4 A rpgidftF Inin <if i&vu|VftUo uitccodoDti ooDcwti tbem 
vi^ tli6 pbyaaml o«|^bin of the tgenl Id a ludform and 
MOCMar^ ira^f io lb»t thrj mi bo tnw<1, shidiMl, ami ox- 
pUlOMl. A mriTMirj part of tbe dcHIuitiub of tbit cbua of 
aodonA ut, of c*^iirw* tbat Ibcv muit ia<\ilv« Uiv vtcffQiM ol 
thu iri]L Afl alitfld; nmarkod, and aa iD4>ro fullv ibov-n in 
Cbaplvr V (vo). i. p. 3M), tbo will in aimplj a fnrm of dourv ; 
bull ill aUditioD to wbat hm liceti paid nwpecUi^c it« we tiow 
find Uiat, boiforc wc r»ii pmcoed vitli tbo prvwtii d^ouawm 
in tn tntclli^nt fiHJLni.% n ahall i>eod to dovotu iooiQ 
fnriker c^^ti^idcratfioti to tlik wi^iiHaI baut of vdit&ur^ 

Th<j pbwiomma of wiad nil w« primaHJf oo wnatMiHr 
that pKipcrtj inherent only in Borvc-inalttr, by wliioU St 
aoifnirca a «oiwc4oua ratccpcibilttj Ut exUankl impnadonf, 
(roL i, pp 384). Tbvy wr pHmuUir divfeiUf< inm two dama*, 
agrecablo and din^rwiblcu Tbe former ouwututv pli;«*uni, 
the bih^r pain. &*rMifv« niaircr alwati n«ka tho loit and 
tilling tU criW. TliH #£jitc of haa^ vrbirli tliit» inclinea to 
Mirk plcanru aiMl Blmn pain w donoouiutvil de«ip& A iIaIm 
h tborv^ore a i&ara liic^inaUoa to ciptnMice agrv«»1)kor 


«6t4|>9 diHigrvnible wtvtXionf {nv/v-a, |k 49V Bui, whOo 
notliing but tlii* buro Mi^ of bdn^f enut^no roault bacecMu- 
pIbHoiL TliEd 0Uto of mmd vrlU not of [ttcif Meure tbo ob- 
ject (ImipoiI ; it vicitlicrr .ilfoMji p]«jwui« nor reli«-v«3i pain. 
]|«^cH^, iUk<J 4)f ncoe^ljf tbcre u alwnv* utt^ttdiiif;. fti»d iu> 
Tolrud ID, tha etaU of mind % teDdcuoy ti> «r^ TLo two ^re 
iiiMpimblcs A diMiro <viti nnl ciifI wiUioat on iDeliutton 
fto to tc-t M ta ftocitrc thi* gntifloUJon of tbut ^eiim. Yel £c 
b chur Unit tlio iwt uid tlw dnb^ Arv Dot the Mm«^ nnoe 
idinK dehirtid are uot followed by ictioaF. itut tbcj- aro lo 
intiinaleljr ilcpcudont tbat no net dmii bu porfonticd wbiub 
docAiMt spring from n d««in.\ Tills ia llie dcfimtion of i 
TobmUry ai.-tioii : an action tlut dpHii^ from ibc? will, L «., 
SroM tlio <Ji.*Jiw. Tins » tlu> oulv kind of iwtion that prop- 
erljr brlnn^(ti>jicnfdtivo tn-iDgit. Wd ary^ wbtt >i dofu rcUliou 
tb«y «iif>UiD to the iiiBrm^iii4liEn>c dLim^t^rinlle of »aoh bo- 
big« — tboir Mn»ICiv« orgnnktik. AL'ttoot uf any olbor kind 
ar» scvvolv moiM iLun munn jilijvical n^otjoiij^ Voluntary 
ftctiooa. tItfTvforc, ore naWy tbc only Mtione vitli wlilob we 
luve any thlri^ to do. Tltey nol only embrace the entire 
field of oibio* or morally but thut of aouial jvrofcraM alfo. 

Bii^u]uli}woarok<itiiriugimothonanii<o of tbo buaiit of 
artione— Ihc doiirr«— and loarniu^ (hat thrj- kre those frfrttw 
of mind tW involro % taDdpocj on tli4< pari of tho indUid- 
nal eaperieTicinfE them to ad in «acb a mauuer ua will natiafy 
thoin and oau*e lh<;iti to cuwi to oxiet, wo may profiuibly 
goaMop fniih«rtbd inqalrc bUo their oH^n. I'rimnrily, 
an we mw (vol. t, p. 400)^ thny ari»e from rh^ contact of ox* 
tcnial objMila with the ^eLiitivi; or^ani«iu. ft U endi objee&i 
iW prodvca tl>e avi^daiioiut. upuri thu quality of whiob tho 
doifim dofKTitd; honce, oxtornol objccia tiLiy be Jtakt to bo 
tbeori^narhj^caiiAc of dc«mt. Thi^ inUlity of voch obj^cta 
impiinfting upon iUp- Otganiian fH>iuEitiit«4 iu adaptlng^^nvl' 
ixrrmiienc> tu Uiu ooi»jd«ntion of which rahjcec Chapter 
VIH tTM diwAj d^rotvd, and any anempC to go further 
bnuk for ili« vmrnm of aotiou wouJd Involve na In the qn«a- 



orinog cmt vf ouoitiocit whidi won dfecnsod in clmt 

It] UiA ]oiii*<?r fuirin* of life, ard Id a prtpomlcrtitmg oil^'tit 
in mm ^Uct, ukca in hat vuUrt-ty, tbv wliolo procxw wnuvU 
En motor dUdiu;^ gvnvmtod in %ht AcnaoHnin frotii Ibc 
Tuioiw MQMtfon* ptwiaci'd Uv t\tt. |m?icnp« of Uie objvctA of 
daUne tA ili« orgaiu of smw. Thw nagv dl tlw w>jr fn>iR 
i«r« reflex actions to tlw flonvewluU Ky*£ca]atic dlort^ of 
intliviilud^ Id nXinty tlic prirnnry wanU of lif^ U* ilnfeod 
tbeiJlMJroi Uld o6i<|inng fmrnafWAnlt, aitd tven to imijiiiM 
|if«p«H7. The utk^-tion of all tbo Knraol >fip<Ttitc« and 
njitni^I insiitktrU belongs to tUb c^ftw, and even Uio kcU \icr- 
foniMMl in otodicncc to the higher d«rivaliT«ap])erit«4abd 
tfcnntionM, Mirh m atiirice, loiv, ct*., miwt be w> referrwl, 
Buf^ |0vobojii}fi«jllj, vudj nctictift nrc primary, and cicmiaato 
dirvctiv fivim ibu punphcnil aud not from the oervbrml Matt 
of ion«at*on. Yt^ all d«ln«f or volltloMt do not ^ri&g Im- 
modiatvly from mdi oiloma? ivjtitad- Tlicn? vt a brg« (ind, 
in fact, at fafM tll9 prawral lubjcct U ooncrcTOwt, tb« ino«L 
lmpoTiant)clii8 wbMi proceeds bidir«cll y, or msduldy, from 
t]i« iQll(]«tkce of MmmndiD^ drmmflUtnoe* upon llic pcN 
e^£f« facblllw. Tho intennnlifttfl ttn^ wbtn)i K-parattt 

^tbo prinniy vonMtion train iW voUtkin is au bteTlcHosl 

Tn s pTtTVioti* chiaptn- (vol. 1, pp. 3^1, 8dfl) h wa» ^lown 
that aivwuipairntig ei'cn' iKJiuoitfoaT and ffmiiing an fnwfi- 
mbU p«1 of Itp ihofV u n convUtii>> jvmyrfwn, rf^MJVor- 
ing ti> thn mind n atnu^^iton of tlio ^ualitirt of tbe t>I>j(wU 
ivoilndfw ^^ >cti«Atiort. Tfir^ ft>DKt*oit and ibo pomptioQ 
sw iFodifonotu. TliC ofw mav rwmh in an insnwduue deiiin 
tiibur to repeat tbn ox]>vR«iie« or to avoid a repetitioa /ti \U 
And this dvdn, if rtn>ng eoongli to overcome >11 oppos- 
Iftjj di>«Jre«i. win calininatoim ■ertfTwponilltifj aotloD. TI»o 
otbor convoja 1» lb« mind a ronrcptioo of (lir objnrt vbirh 
pfoducH llic scEiBatlonu Tble ofli»TOptioii » llion rtad/ 

!ta be oorapirDd with odtor concqitiutt* nlreudr tn the mind* 



sod tliiK conipaHitMU mxy rc«iilt in » juJ^^ieiit of the Entcl- 
luTtfOr Aitopiuiuu. Oi'iiiiunfl Arogi^cnlly legitimate c&tuuA 
of dealltf. Tkoy are not produc«d hy dadtCA, Imt t bcT ili^iv- 
m^ri% pnotlitoc <lc*draL Tlilit i» criifntit from 1J10 ututv vf 
ft dwiru n* dufiovd, vix„ an incliaAliooi to gxpniKviicc plf^nra 
auilfttoid paiu. Il iu&k»»iiodJf£Qrvaoe through whit faculty 
tbat inclioKiloa com«, or whctlior it oomM dirMtlf <n- iodH 
Toctly from Ui« oti^elI »nrc47 of cipent-nra, ibe whims. It 
may romc dirvctljr frviii tU^ Lstullect — froin tho vortica] lajr- 
c». Id Uio Qiw of dcdltvb ivnilUng frmii opiuMi^ il iI^h* vu 
cofiiA. By oompArlng on« cottoApljoii witU otbcrn, xht irnml 
c<mc\iid» iliAi > t«p«titio<i of a «»ruin «xp«rlvitoe wuuld 
Kotirv gr«»tvr plcuua- tluui pniii. or &vi>jd inoro pslti iban 
it miuIO MtOuAiuu. Thifl i» a judguwiil, and tbo indim* 
lltfn ^nuncoinly Ariw« to ttracut« It Tlii* incUnalMia I» 
U irtuich « dniim m if i£ aroM; luunMlkAtoty from tnt lupv- 
rictioo of tins «uiiiM». Lik« ill otUer dounK, li i» nocoto* 
pft&i«d wltli OD ^tlon. proviUtti it bo ftron^ tluti a^poiAMig 

Thtm wi* itc^ lh4t ibcre an two fonrrai from which our 
dwfiM *ifnitiS^ Aud,lb» alJ actiiJiis arv iW rv*uU ■>( du»in^ 
tfaore nro ttfo dlctturt dawM of actioEiE depending on tbo 
BMilou fKHQ which they eriuoato; the cow frum jM>iMuiio4i^ 
Uio odicrfrom optnionii; llioon^f from thofrobjivtir^ htanch, 
OF dcpojtinettt, of tho mind, the otlicr from the objcodrc; 
tho OHO frum iho iNuuuLilitBWt the otbur frum tLts iatcUooL 
TliiB fa thti phitoMphy of the popiUar chia^Scaibn of hnntaa 
VttiL The fini f Iaw aro ciootionri], or iin|MilfDrr; thowcond, 
imtioiul, or dclibtmtivu. Ant!, tf auy di-<itiurtioii cotiltl be 
mido Uitwwis tliL' d^virtb wid Llio w ill. hrrv U wtwrv tbi; llao 
shoiUd he dnwn, UofortaoAtGly, h^irevor, populiu Inn* 
ftOAfre doM iMtflippArt ihU clftHifipAtli-'n, tho t4*rm ''wiU'* 
ti(<iiij; itoaitflimi» ftpplW Lo IIjo raliijiiftl re»Ji;lU>u* of tbe 
mind, but <|ntto v frwiuvtitly to ite Imtioiia) linpuliu* 

Nov, it b but Mtnnl Uut Uio dceirwfthich emtiubi 
from Iheee two Kiuivtf r«ft{N!ct£ug tbo Mme tLin^ »hoiild 



««il«t1tiH)A mnflict Id imcif tkcy do Tory fnqoeaU/ ooi>- 
BJet. Aiul hen U the on^tin of (11 those lnt«raal lacutoJ 
bottlw of wliiuli iIjv iw^jrJft of Ui*n\ interior hnitnrj Are 
m roll 4fr anj Uiow i>f h» cxlvriw lintory of lU« bftUlM of 

Thr Mpcoal SmpcffUntv and inlcrcAof thU rabjoctTill 
wunal, ami pvrha|i* dtotfiick, m illikilnilion. U- c a> ftnp- 
pMe & fMnili4r owe A nnui W »o(|uipcd > fuiidtmw for «|niv 
Emoiu Imiqot. To }m fmioXu ftad whiok mrrv^Ds fj^ivBi, i U «f- 
fe<^ it tjttvoable m tTir ^xlrcmft. AVo will icpngiiie a gloM of 
kia fftTonto boTcn^to b«f>lM!cd bcf-wR him, Thelft|uor{B 
ft mfttorUI objoct wbidi, U bedriEtls it, uiU smtv i» contact, 
fint, vitb biji gitftatAVj ncrtva and aft«rw&nl viOi bU bniii 
ftftd g^nenl iiyntom tbroof^ tho «9tmbtiom of tbc tilixid, and 
wiU prtdooo iu oikoitiary normAl and to btm vdl-kbown 
Dftoota. To him tbcm «ITucta omiditute a bigfalj ploawnOilt 
MiMrinoc ttbich TC|)f«t«d previo« lilte«Kpvfj^cwviiabl« 
bim T^ridl/ to anHctpal«, A pnwrrfnl indinaliiMi Kcnee 
iHsM to ntisow tbn cjporidicc. If Ibcrc wrrv uo iiMrlina- 
liQiu anUgonmnir lb«i oov, it vuoM cvHiuiiljr bu iminodi- 
fttety followed by ibfi act of drinking' the liquor. The incli* 
OttiOQ to \J 9t i c n n thiA ncc t* camplja d^wv, AiiBiinb, bt^ir* 
iWff it bntoug* to Ibc Gnt of tbo tiro jfrvnt ct^> e *> B&d \b 
prtipurfr- railed >n ii>tpiib;iTc dwbr. It b|wliig» li&medlMlj 
ftvu) the 0eiM(«, No iDielityrLUA] ini^u«noe i&wrvMUM. Tho 
0nler k dlrrH : firM, th* objaet ; «omnd, tbn MCMtion ; tblid, 

doHra; fovrUi, tbe octioii. 

Bqc «o^puie anotbor uliuoeot lo b« lairodiMwd. Ilia 
nun lioa bad ancb oip«HottiMa bofom^ He hn pfcrioualj ht* 
l^tgid bin pLtmion and rnjoyMl the [jlfaimrc of jta patifi(» 
Bttt bv Uu» obttcrrvd tbat vwry tae\t indmlf-enoe bu 
foUovred by ft rcftdioB ; tbiu «T«ry loch oitcve of pleaa- 

bfts bMm followed by at) cqvkletoraa of p(Utt: thftt wlutQ 
^^di*r tb* iofittnEwe of tba dnuiitbt be ftlw^jH p^rfunm aota 
vfaicb UiUkrt hvaiiliftliou awl iiiortiKofttJoti U|xift Lini ftft«r 

«ImI baa paawd oH; ftnd bo baa oottcioikd tbat, om tbit 



wJsolc, tliv poiu b greater dum tlie pleasuro^ ftit(3 ho i« inr&rift- 
t\y till' Itiovr. 

TLciBQ facts amoQ&t limply to &n >Tii])]ilictttt'jD of tliu 
kooiFltrdgi! he pcivrMcil rM(ic«tiii|c tlic 4|Ujiliti4» of tlic liquor. 
It itf nvOQiMr/tu IaJcv tbvm all ihio tJi« aooiunl in onitir 
Ui oomplote biB mental cc»iwr^ioii of tti9 objoct It liju 
tliD property of ufTnrdLn^ him jilouiiirOf liul it hd« 1I0O tba 
proprrtT of ftlTcrrding liini i>^D; nnd th^ lutt^r, tliougU ft 
cocuva luHt^ ia gr«iAt«r th«B tho former. A knovlcd^ of 
both th«»0 qmtili«iiotjiu;1itiiU-i bU cpncoption of the obj«ot 
vl:ii*h tcmpU another bxporicncv, arid has iknvuM^<l a power- 
ful impulHive d^n» to p<^onn the ant whiL-b will Accord it. 
Tbf« conctrption is oomplei, bpcnnw i1j« object lia» tit'odb- 
tinet M;t» of (^uaIiIicii, bat it in tlic coiicoption not of a qnsU 
itjr bnt of the ubjuct !tulf of oil it« qimlltica. Wo nuv itU- 
tingiii>}i it «» ft& Mm, >. 11., ft complex cuncoplioh. 

Iv'uw, by 4 cotuparooD of conceptktixt, or id»m, iv« obtain 
JtKlf>mGnt«, or opJQbtu. Tho n>an h» this iJca> hifl Idea of 
tb«liqTH>r. HeiTnmwfintdjcotiipntttfltwithotlieridcflj^ IT0 
oompAiyd it with btm hcalib, with ht< relntjoiu to ht« fftmilj 
Kod to wcicty. A jiiUgmvtit Miirjilv dvti]4r«f lb« couccfitjovi 
to agree or la dtrnfirtc, Jn thia tuae, ibo jod^if^t decUrcA 
thiit thr o}>jrrrit f oiDpAre^ di«agrt^ ; putting hi* beat interv^ts 
on onr ode nrjd tho oiTect of IndoIgViiiCO on tho oUicet, hh 
jod^invut mi^ ihni tlnrj do not ngra9> Thw jad^mtfnt in uti 
iipmioti, Alioplnlovibcf:i-'taad«0lnvorn>1ition. Siniworory 
dri^rrif toobt^n p1«Mikroor toavojd puD.und V m of opin- 
ion tliat tc dnnk ilte liquor id qn«e1iofi would caiwo mora 
pull thnii |>Ic40nn!f the only dmrr thftt contd fprin^ from 
fliEch an opinion would bn I0 n-frainfmrn 4rinkiiijc. The act, 
thcrrforr, that would t>wu}t Iritm cocb a dMfr« wonTd be that 
of Vi rt(niuUig. If thii worv alrooigvr thnii ibodemira to 
drinlc, he would uot drink, Tbo tksirc in ifiift cvo aprinjca 
from ibcmtcllocr — from Eheotij«rtiv^hnini4i,ord0|HiTtm^t, 
of tho mind- It iji fndirMt, The n^hr order tn thia cmo 
ia thb: 6rtt, aeiteation; aacond, |i«rcnption ; thinj, ooncwp- 

TttE VILL AND 3I0KAI. £E>'Tt3C£yT. 


tkili; foonb, judgment, or opininn; fifth, deore ; iLclliftiC- 
fion, But we Me tliMt Uiv m^on in Ui>* Oftw. If It taW pbc*» 
vUl bo pK-^iaeLy Uie r^viene of what tl would be in ibt^ pnv 
v{on» t^tac, TIm inapalAiT« actiim vouUl be to dfiuk, Uie 
ddibctfmto ftction would Iw 10 refnufi* 

Here, Uvei^ in * cguflict of d«ur«t, Tbfl mib dtMirc* to 
diink uid ho doMrae to rofrain. Hut, ihoiiKh botU the di»* 
MTt% mAj CixivE, till; act* which tJiL-tr gntif!rfitian reqniroe aio 
inc^i-iinpLtibl^. To ^rnttfr br>th ih a ])by-*icu1 iTit|wiFlNlitjr. 
Eiltit^r ibv ooo or thir other muM jle^d ; ont^ or the other 
tnimt triumph. U tlwrv »ny p?aural Inwhjr which thv n> 
ptit tun bA |in)diet«d! That one whwb haaroasoD on its 
ude ii by no mMi» dvtja rirtoriooK It doM not oi^rumljF 
dupond opon tho right or juitUw of tho cmc. In our exam- 
plr. we hui-v *itp|JciiKN] thu nintrx bait tnturevU to Iw on tho 
ijdc of lUi? nit*(toftl iWlre. Iiidocd, this 1b nsnoll/ tho cwo^ 
though bj no meanA k1w»7«. It ift very pcMtihlti for imptitNA 
tmd JntiiitiotM to be Mfvr than the mMt ddihente judgment 
Siich eoftOtt inij bo cxc«p1ioiiiil, but ^ach oxwpUoiiH uv hj 
Dfk m»nA r^re. Il Is prorerblal that (ho fcmak miiid, lUi' 
»i»ustr>uH»d afl it m, in TJie prMrni Atnto of toeicty, t»> roatcoi 
olufioty* pA«M to correct coaclouoau in muiy owi» irhfav 
the logical miiul of oiaj) mi«B» tho truth aftor tho moat ow 

ccowidenilon." Afrd cvrry hoHj- known bow, oa M&oy 

kE poUHcol awl jodidd <|tirtitif>Da, ihtt t\&vr dcttll Bfld 
oanful todknicaJilj of kftiUtUKa anil jiid^M do violence to 
tmth a&d juMicl-, nhilo Um pubUo mind han aoon tho jtiitloe 
,ol tho ewe from tho flnt, mnd ndTcra aore dusppoEnlnMat at 

maoLiwr in which tmth haa been amothorcd under tho 
forniH of kiin^ Auil uf hw. 

Still, >d L& tho c:ue i?uppo4«d, truth i« uoallj on tho aido 
of dellberackia whcci in confiict with impobe. But U dooa 
not by any mc«n* foilow fhat tUl ai<l* will triumph on 
which truth or inteiwt KMidoa, If thU h^l l)eci^ tho fw^ 


AMd^lUoivblBtt." ikAMmH'^CMtr ^tttf.t^L) 


jionoK^-aEoraDAKT uea>'s. 

IbiM nibj^HTL would not Lavq MtUiticil tlut ikyroo of impoc^ 

\Vhi% Ihcn. b our ^ido m to the roccit of eocb fiouflictB f 
It (lepfiniiK ttAAv ttpfiti tbn nJ&tivd jttnejtg^ ai tlx! du»iru. 
Tb& viron^ic^ dtnir^ inu«t [>r«i«il. Tlw action 'oJ:<i«ra the 
etron^l iudiuuitoa. Tbe roan yie4<la lo Uiif jJio>t powier- 
fnl IntliMiKiK. It lA not tbc Jv-tft ubo figbu the Urik tnd clo- 
<Ti(i<H ihn kano. It ia tlie forvc* willittt him. It is not tbo 
iotrodoctioix of a thtnl force of hh iwn b^ which be ftetlUt 
tlie ^ontfwonj, lie b looraly tbo bBltlo-grnLinii, Tlii» r^ 
floll doc4 not ilcpcncl upon nij tbin^ hu tuhj <]<h Wluit«vcr 
lio dottt it th« fvMiH of tbo oooitet HU iinf>ulBM and opin* 
lOfii buifi depvud upon drouiritCancof, Hence bb «c1j4 miwl 
dko di>|)aai] iijion circnmMaricra. If binftiiiuiJil itutm^v bav^ 
booD ollowcil a Ui^wf rrin, if Jbc haji hnd no eOnvitEUb, bv will 
probiblr ,Tic!lil to impule: but, if Ii6 b» bocD tminod in 
wd>ucilfli>f ditcipliue iind intellectaal in»tmrtioii, if biiiviaon 
nncl jmlgmt^i bav« b««n oahirmtod, if lii> opinions aro deft- 
nitt- and Hrm, lie vciU nmi jmpnkc aimI defer to bu* better 

TI'o ilr^ngtb of opinion* dvtsmiliift tb« Htrwifrth of tbo 
volitiun* ui wbieb th«»y give Hen. and tbc arrmjE^ of tfaou 
rolitioiM dcfcfminoa ib« pn^baLiiUtii^ of rhe act* which th«j^ 
innto. Thf impin]»ivi- dnmv Lir« in sin eqral d«grcv d»- 
ptEndont upon al) ihoAO cirvuniiftxiia:* which rlHotninv tWib- 
i^nitivQ vni^ WbSdiov4tr connc tl»c Imtiviilnul AdopU, iw 
fna/ diop«iicl them wlH hi* a r^non for it. Tltst wmtfm ii a 
nft(-4«wry tiTTi>« an imnit«li«te movinif mnv. It in not bi« 
will ; it i« Miind hi» vill and coiitrak it, nnd tbronjE^fi Et tbv 
ift(*tiou, Tbu only tor* of what tbo nron^rcM incllnnilon \a, la 
tboaetttwlf. To nar that any tmt^ cvfr itctA in n mjuini^r 
nmtmry to tlio ■tiongnt iooliBUiou, i> feqamlent to Mjrittg 
tbHi a hxljr tMy *orottim«o move hi ■ dinwtion cotiusTf to 
tbo twniuut of all tbo ftucc* mctbtg itptm It Ellitos Is th« 
•Cion(>o of pjdiolo^iQt uMioktnk*. 

Tbo division of aclioma into aodi M sprii^ from tbo mV 



jectLvo Imndi i>f the mbil, frctm tbe siuuIUBt£itt;, Mitl aiidi 
iw qirifig /n>m tl>e ohjoctirc bmichf or tbo iiit<:Jl«H — into 
imi^nlAiirc, or ^iDoCiOQal, iad dtrlibcnUiYr, or mtioiul — b nie 
ibttt i* ^nvU^rMtJ aA irell t>^ fad ija hy iljwnr. 

Lot i]« oAAtiiintf «w:h of tiiWfl dacieo of MJoua fur a mo- 
monc, wUh a riuv to dbooveriiig, ■« fv m poceibk, trherdn 

Tli« $r%t i» the ittliinl, or noruttJ, t^pe uf mUoei; not 
Uul ltd otbcrdu* » i»t in iwrfoct biuviooy with iut«n] 
law, tiuL biuiply tbtl, lu tlw rcgskr onior of niLnlAl dovclop- 
mcal, llio fitvt Mmod would be also ciirobologicAllv fint, 
ftiftd, w it vcn>, oHgii^fl] ; lli^ wcood being d^rU^ilve. 

Ai^ Wo Inicv UMM Uidb fnrtu tliedviltKod to thonv^ge 
«% find bb ImpuJcee conti^Uog moiv uitl moronc- 

ivcJ^ U\e U(tioik& If «« «0Qk1 €vny our mindd bfldc to 
a time tthnti ho ooenpied tW pUcft of a wiM >nini^» we 
ml^t lianirUio liiui wkuUj' divoitud uf ntioiial ilwinw. Lol 
any on« tratdi the wtd of aqj' Aulm-kl, wi'i'j (>r domctirtki 
XVh»l o~4niti>U llwro I Ohwrrc, for einrjiplo, lJi« hoiMe-dog. 
Nnw bi; ticH IrtiIj^ stretched Mit ni»d«r tlw kildtfti tUff^ 
T\u! fiiv bvoutnuH waruKT, iiid lie gobi up, jrnvoHt linrtdtcit 
tlicQ lebiinljr watka a fev Mepn farther off, ud tf/^it )te 
divwn, StMld«Aljr iQMCbi^r da^ wttlboat bcirlu briikl^. Ho 
jumpn up, pricki up bn can, ukd niM for tbo door. If 
opvdii lio dirt* out, mid purli:!])* punooi tbu otbur aninud, oir 
pcrbqn be AtiacltA a pig or a cow la tlte tfnet Id ft mo- 
to«at be quiKly n^tnnut In bvt fi^m«f pcwitiim. AH tbU k 
«co«dmgl,v miiipk ftud fmiiilijir to«v«rj body. Tvt tlicrv 
k iutoIvihI iji tliow t«iii|)l« utd OAtiinl acu a profoand 
pbDoMpbjr. Erer; odo of ihoni wis prodoood bjr t motiro. 
Kikob ftefHimtQ aot of ibn fuiicnul w>ui the nmilt nf adoiin, b& 
iodiitttion, ui inter prompting to prrforn) It. 

Xi'W, vc on not Mpci»to tbo sda of a dog gencrioally 
from tliuM vbl<^ mm perfonsu Wo «ui icc no dimlnct 
pfiiiciidfl in tliA acU of a child. Tlivjr aro mtr^ed bj tbo 
auDc apootaneoOi moT6rii«ii1a— oftAO. Iitdwd, di«plaj-iitg 


xcnos^sEcoisDARy m:xsiL 

even iffl* infcTHgcnoe. Hi^ art« wbt<-h an aninul perform* 
Wt9 porfiKiuod ID ube<1iiMico to iU t^iU sa duii^^i u tliiMO tkf 4 
nnui. Tbv will c^itilroU tliu tttftt<Hi but U do^B aol oontrol 
!ttclf, Vol Tkj ou« over lalku about Uio freo-wlU o£ « dog. 
The ftdvnoAtrjL of the fr«e-will tlo^frinr i^lniil iW AiitniAU 
liive no »ucb frMdotn. TUey *wk to dnw «vrae lino li«- 
lw«fia (btiu and men to cbid iv«r>vct. Bui vherv k tb« Uoc 
between nti aTiirnnl and a o.liild J or botwoen s ohUd and a 
nuui T All \ha nf ticini nf AnimaUyl Ihtjh^ nm »ubjnrt to thtt 
Muio Uir^ ThtTj all Uikti pUrv iu obL<>i[7ii«c tu ic«irt», or 
will, tlio p]iv»ioii AlFcirtiou, or »c&t«i wLicii inctiEL^^ ibon ta 
ici. Tl]« nii!jr duitinotitui hnvin^ ftojr f<iuii(lat)Qn ia tliftt 
abovi^ m&de, aad in !>oth thi?«« rtiwvn tbn <lfnrri, inftiDntioa, 
or ttrf!l ]"• the controlling iiillu^uce. Ic control* ih« action » 
lU iiiicn^ixtc aiftte?«l«tiE, Liil Iu own exlbieiu^e Ovpenili aot 
on ilM-lt bnt on dcAtiitc i«ohn^ or cin^umMAiKicK. If the 
vUl i^onld oontrol itcelf, tJiuv would be a pbenoinoiOQ wrili- 
uut a Muw, Hod butb men huU auiui&U imuld bv Rodi. 

Ucdcv wliiuU of ^e*a b«adfl, tfaeo, do tbe acu of animals 
sfftiid) CTIiMrty, i^ndor the fint dnivs or tmptaUivc acitlnriA. 
TliU 11 the FTi^'alAt dJKtiuciion lhAto.tijtl« bAtw^n tlie Jida 
of Aiiiiiialaand Itun^of ui^ii. Theactoof auantui«l aro aII 
impuhivo, whiUi lliom r>f n lonn nn only p^rt of thuat m. 
To man alon« belong* tliU B&ooud clmai, or dellberstlve ftfl1&. 
Vlien an anlmjil novttf it Id Uie direct raenlt of a ptMcnt 
pbjKiral dourQ, A fooUnfi^. It fe.-^U liho moring^ and cocwv- 
qnoEiElr U ntovw. lint wUon a ixian actn, it uaj bti dtiior 
tiiSft Mme prcMnt incliimtion, or It ma; bo In obedmee co a 
dMir^ begOtt«<i of an int^Uffnnl jndgmrnl, acting ind<3- 
peodoiklljr of , or m oppoiJtioD to, thi» immr^dioio |>h}^i^ 

If UiU wore pGeitlvdj wichont vxceptlon, it might form 
apivttjGicarliooof dom!ir1c;itionhAt«i?cnnu4i >od th« brutLS 
Iiideed, U b tb« lino which otbk^l writers buvn klwija b^«ft 
B|i«ki(tg to dniT. wichout ^v«r b««af[ Me divtlncllj to dvtin* 
JL Tliey Mg^ tb%t laaii u a Env nonl agent- But thia con* 


r^jt a very t^AMnei M«a. They u^ lbi4 ha &■ «*pttbl« of 
iliscvmiik^ ttitt ui^nU <|uililjf of actioio. Thii U little b«U<r. 
TIlv)' mjt iluit he liaif u frw kiU, Tlik ito bftve mqd to bo 
iithte In ilio mm& inieiid«d. Tbojr ae; tbu he kixrtvd ibc 
di1f<^r«fico betwMii ri^ht anil wrong. Thi* (kpM]d« cpa« 
hi» ictiowlixlge of Ibo effecC of hU actzon^ vul U mK trac, in 
IjU ]>TWOKit eUte, «i>j oftvDur ibtn li m £Uie (vu/t^ |n 141). 
And tbi« ie ibc looec niRnnrr in whidi tboj h«rc oIvtavb 
hocTi rtr*inin^ •! ihin pritrciple nitlioiit rwii^lifng it, oftf'a 
«4('nficio|c tniili ia Ibeiri^tfortM, TLe difflculr^ villi tbem 
biW4 W<i] LwofirtJ: fiivt^ a failurv to bew tlieir speuuUtioiu 
nfton tt firm fonudalion in phjsSoLl Mience; ftiult toeond, a 
prMoncdvwl notion lliat iliere at^toAtlv eibta a futiflanicfital 
(litTftfrtx:^ bolvofin men and AniinHlji in revpoot to their acta. 

Now tibo tnitb ih Ihat, tliijugli fi?r all onlliury purpoeefi 
lliu flidiuetiou uboru dronn li a oorrocl ono, itill it tnxui he 
lakon whli n!ftAin qnaJiflca1t<>nfl. Betwreh an oMinafj inati 
and as nnlnunr bmic, it will rardy fail to hold good. Hot 
tJwrv arc ihnx ouca vbvrv man, in a gimural fvtiie, ap- 
proaclicH and, I tbloU, i«(uiilly roeeta tbd plaiM ol tlie bniM 
ctcatioti, AA faraabinacUaniOMH^rnwl: 1, In cbildbood ; S, 
in idi()cr; aixL ^ ff^ €%tnrme Mtra^rerr, 

Afi n*;nr^ i^liiMLoud, tbt- odIj dilliuulty ui in lixing Xh9 
>pe al wbich Uta relioml f^cultj be^na to be mert^tttL 
TliL) diffbn in di0onMi£ individnnl^ nnd, of conreo, no arbJ- 
trarv rale oui be eotabliribed. Bnl Uii^r nrrmnlr mnrt ht^ a 
period, Howe limo in ibe lifu of evury child, wLou it can out 

funn a dclibvRLlivu set. If It w at iw ochor tiino. it taml 

itiimodiaidj afUfr birtb. For, from ibe nttwv of uieh 
Art*, it miMt have lSn4 fomMMl a judgment, and a jodgmeni 
arUi-s fn>n] iIm* nompiriiodi of two ^oiKVptioai^ Uut at Ui!s 
pc-nud ibo ebild can bavo nn concefitaoiii^ Irnvjo^ hod to ui- 
pcri^nee froni wliich to recrlvo tbom- flenco ii mn litre 
no jadgmont, and mnvi^ii'^otly no dt^ilwralirf* action i*i poo- 
indc. But in putnl of fart it tlucft ool oiako ive ot anj 
Jud^niMit till a vonwvbat Jatvr pwiod. Tlio act* of ut m- 



font Ato ill of Uio iiBpnUiro biiid. They «priDg frum [>r^- 
ccE )ihyii]c:il wiiuU uul iDclitiAtkirv. ffifiiitii ict u UiojfMl 
jiruitipiod tu iiut At oficb mumvQU TIiuv crjr mid IsQglit ptfty 
»nf) alc<:^, jmi t^ their boilily dcni^n^A Jirlw. Ii i« not imu- 
ntly until tbojattaiti tbno^of tnoor thrRcTrantlmc ihcy to 
MnjF vittfut Ji«ed the ilictiawuf rvcuvu vr judj^ixjut. VS'itb 
revpoct to Uieir ictions^ Uiey are fii cvvry wb^ on & pt/ vrliU 
tSi; diiimu! pitntioT), (licir movciaonts being vholl^ ioiiml- 
hirc, or hC Ita^ lut hiu'.^li ao M are thoM of tome ftniluJiL 
Tbtf M H>of n^cflMkjr, and dovb cot in tEi« l«uC dvcni,-t frcni 
iLe dignii; of humnti action. 

Bothfiig ni6r« nor Icm tliati beinf^ liaring tho form and 
tfatnrr of men, bat ffitJi onlj Ihe mind* of HhiiiijU* (»nL i, 
pp. 41^, 4^)^ I rcf^rr to ciw of nuuimi idicvj, uid not to 
tho=« uli-ru df-'iiK'nUiioti luiB be«n canned hy diBMM or acen 
ilcnt, for in tbew J*t!i?r it i* moti^ ortrrc''ti;f upoAting de- 
nngumuDt, u condition to whicb b*^li uniTTuli: vid men Jiro 
Bnl)j(?(^t, Jlat (WQiceuLUiI idiucy m ufteu iimply l^k of iiitvl- 
leer, ft nd itoi pr<>i:<ci-1j patbuIoj^Eitil- TIlq j)r>vt!r to forra 
JQ<^;nK'nlA fiv-^d drtw roncEiuaoDA dot* Tii>t txiilI. Tho oJ^gui 
of Ili« mind ib l«ftft ptfrfeet tb>i» in cwv* of fonnd niiudA. li 
vo, wliffrviii do tli^y differ from tire InfeHor animals I T1i« 
idttit fvtiU H wvll «e tlio brnto. Ho poeeMns ilII tli<^ fcneoa. 
Ho haa the ttinc dc«n«s ■fipfrtibm, puciif-nii, Hn hu aIao ■ 
pcrfoct Dvrvona and mnionlar iiysCtnii^ Tu bim, as in all 
Otber livlog beings, a dware, or Inclination, u «nooeod«d bj 
nn kfiion. I!c ttat^ in tbcr mmi; mannc? m uiy nun nr an- 
fmaJf onU. li^c the Inttcr, nil bin arr* nxe tli<) rftmll of 
prAWiit pbvBi^l inolinAtlfMu-^mpulHive, ni>*«r dellbcnHre, 
A^iuii, there h no fixed line of domulution bolw««n idiooj 
and Miitiy tny more than Utttm b tKTtvrnn duklliood and 
mitnrit^. Wo all Vrov tbai men wb? are d«nMfl saiw 
have vafyinf; intcllpctnnl pnvront. To m^ thjtt aXi men 
an cqnal in bitvUt^t would hv t<> d^rtiy the fnou odv^j 0^^ 
pnaented Mon u& Wc know, too, that tbun are do- 



grec« of iiJiocj. Kvtry one hw» kcd onrnplot of thtt 
kiuJ. Tlitffid an* tlH>?e «liu «ec<u to liavu ec«rcvly nny nnad 
at all, who for wint fimpljr of 0ii0Bci«iit ktiowledj^^ con not 
fci:<I atid ilniw llu^nwilvf^ Tltenfr m Olh«re wh*> hare » 
vltv 1ittk< niurv aeuKC. wUc- oui do Uioi« tbiu^ but Uivo not 
fnttfliect «tioiigh lo apply the priiidp1«« of knf[UU|c^ to nr^ 
tlcaljito xpcocb, tlio4igh Umj hihTo perfect 04^d& Tho noxt 
gmdi^ and t]i« oob vliicb ii mort commonljr mi^ vith, bi 
wlx-ro lb4* idiot ckd liilk uul coinprvheod, and in trnuij 
v/xjn nuke luinivlf UMjfiiJ. A Ml ljiglj<ir gr^e of MJota 
exbtv, eupflble of eutobg mE» inOaitriaJ puniiit^, ctrning 
their own lUelftkood, and often booomin^- nkJIIed lo aotao 
pAfticul4f Irwlc. And tbon tlicni bour balf-vitt«d pereoik, 
who loajr bave k^inicd to rvwl mid irHu-> potiiifi* luvo kt- 
taiuvd flouko profivlcQuj in ucJuL-r lii^licr intdloctnol pixreuiu, 
hilt MCfltt lo hii«c^ no uImii, gnliu^ or UcX for ap|>}7ing 
Ottm or geltJDg on throagb th# worlds— elcnrly n<?M Opnv^«i« 
tUj tliougii tio4 idkttic^ From lUi* it if but ft vtvp tu iLo 
of Inferior mind wlom we meet erery d«j> Tb«Be la- 
UhtaU ajv compJetolj lilJod np bjr c^ma whom thio porKm 
nuj rxhiljtt Home ibtlitj m i c«rt«hi tmK^c ilire^tioa, but it 
toUII| lU'fli-fuot iu imiijr vr pi*rlii|B silJ utiivn ; or by odiec 
conditions vxrying ;a one Wfty or onotbef from tlxo procbe 
dL<-^rfM^ dttfiTibi^L Tbrre i« probably no itudfl^ nf tnurlltf^tijd 
fA|uwily, fn>Tii thnt uf « tot*! vaiit of ]iiil^[m«iit lo tbe m<M 
tovcntig liDiniuk iulullectr tbtt bn8 nol iU ourat raprMt^tiiiro 
in ikfl biuoita rwo. ll vt only n grndoiioii In Uio qiulity and 
fpu&itty of brain power, If^ tbco, thtrt be men of malnra 
a^wd poiMMin^ all die knovMgo of «bir}i thry«m csp*- 
b1i-\ and yot Incapftblo of performing ddib^rativct or rational, 
aobs mid GODfiBod m Mriotly w bratua »ro lo Um perforu»- 
fifioo of Inipoliire uia, iro peroelTio that our rule. tho«gb In 
lbi> mAio trac, hM nnollicf vcrry important ^ocooptKin. 

Tbe tiufd vxccptiuu W o mucb broader epplkatloit 
Fnr not only are thcrv tltoueiiHLi of linuan bednga nov in* 
fanbiting tbb globo iriio oibcict Lu movt nvpoole tiko tlio 



bratoE, and act only aa pfornpt^d lijr tholr Immediate Im* 
pulw«, l>iit vlio kIiaII ^v how nunjr oiillionft mor* bkTe tibn* 
lived in the VB*t, unduteriuinabk^ pnsbitftono x^ whwji liftVV 
MWb iLu reun CKetLHl ami canM upwurd tliruu;;!] imkuoum 

[| bu bocu iWnily n.']|i&rk4Ht Uiut^ att wo IrHc^ man back 
Cfouu Givtlizskliuu tu ULtbanaerit wu SimI ihe d^Tlit^onLtiTo cb«r- 
nctt^r of liu acU duappc&Hng in p«t>portii>ii aji au jvi^e. 
^Vl' arriro al ^ongbli at & poiut wkero it U no lungvr ilu^ 
fKi-r«r%bl«L Wu HiiO tb« Mriie Uir CTo^-wbcnr raproduobi^ 
il»«li aa vr« TVi^tl ibe bittor^' of ivkunn ^ndgiooait and mson 
biTv wvr b«M iiml;iiig slow but iti<»d_v c«icruboliii>vnto upon 
tbodom&inof pouioit and impiiltfc. Bui, irh«ii ve rcacbtho 
lowtM sta^ of m^apsrjf wc find tbom vboHj^ wtiiclx^, ftnd 
i^B tbo Mta of merL aro on i\m a&mtf common footing with 
tbuK of nfiuiLalH. It ik td)o to tulle of tbu luonl c|uLitr of 
the A«Uooa of mmo nva^^— aa well talk of tho monl qiml* 
ity of ihom of a wolf or an livvna t 

^iQH loi^ for tJio MCoptionK vbicb exuH among biiman 
liclnpt to tbu rule timl tbt^r acts oiv partly' iiiipultive aod 
parti T rational. 

Tiitrro tt alA<\ T ihrnVi tm important devktlon feom tbo 
otbcr brancb of tbc gcaioi^l «tato(iiost iiiado aboT9* viK., tliat 
tlie iM;tii of auiutftltf mn alto^tlior impuliivo^ Tbo «tati;tiii:itt 
ie only ooDTcnlcntly ac^nralo. AnimalH a>rt4Ltnlj exeffim 
jivlgnifTiii in ntATiy ^k^cAi and oltMi reaion also. In 1bf» fear 
that, tif Aotiiv c(>atf Uhioii of tonnSf aoDio of tlio attributes of 
bttmaniiT nii^lit bu eonfcrrcd opon tlio bruto, mon hava 
agreed to nm a dl&ront word lo exprnsB iJie aaine itualii v in 
the lattor. Tbft int^Hi^ffnc^ of a biunan bfrtng is onir Vbe 
«(ij^i?ef5rof an anittial. But, if vo wen; wilting to caU tbinga 
\fj tliair Hgbt uam«a, wo ahomld diaeoror to orerr uncb act 
of mgacUj a roil cairrciM of intolloct, ettlwr in tbo form of 
j(idi{fn««it, or TUMMi, or botb {vol. i, p. A>3>, It i« imntcoa- 
tnuy to oninnerato iuMano^n in illii«trtttio» vf Ilii> Imtli; 
wusk iartinoM tn of oveij-daj ooeuTronoev ^<l woHti oa 



TtattrnJ bvtofy aboood ia vdUeEeifiteil and wdl-ttutlientj' 
c&tvd vjiamplo*. 

Taking tLv tvo exoepliotia togvtlMfr^ phdRg tlie )o««H 
typcof TiiUkbf Uio«iiluof Uio l)iglM«t t^pcof thol)rDt«,aiid 
wc idianld find Ui^m 1o ovcftaji ■ grcAt diMoacc, ottil per- 
imp* «bDk uatfioiife vf Imiaan Iteiu^ can be fiMind wbovo 
acte wobU •QU'cvlj' bru" n f&vtinbb compftriit>B villi ibote 
of coruia »poeic* of tninialf in rc«]icct to tlio i^ouiticy of tl^ 
miaiud element whldi uiihU Co proaipc tJiem. Tlx^jcfan^ 
if vi> niAkoi A cocnpiel^t'iwiivo: kiiTVrj of the whnlo 6cld of ac^ 
tioTt, uv 4ltall b« oocupulltfd to takv in iLe vniin: &iiiai>tifd 
world, anil wu rliall find that tli«fv i» one uiiir«ru] and hu^ 
niouiouj} lav pervading h. 

It ift l)ic r^i^UHir i^f llw lftir» of ^Qmao Jtrtion iW fn^ 
nidio* tii0 koptt of aoi-iotof^r, Oue *A tlw priT^dpMl Immcbn 
of actdal «clvn«« vrtU be tliat now popiilarlj da«igii«l«d by 
The piiivc *' boniAn Mturc,** i. e^ a Logical clawUUutiQAi of 
tlk« motiTcjt of bntn&ii afliooa, witb a Tfew to rvfetrln^ aD 
Uio tnutt pfDOiiwfiil auliona wbiuh auai pvrfomi to their 
■l^mpriato btttdtu Thi« sdcaou b dnad/ In iCe etnpiH^ 
0ln^ and oooAid«rable aenrvj in iia aj^Ucation baa bcco 
aoqainid. All the deatittga ^ man vith man arc ba«cd 
on cvrtAin intuitive prodicciuoa of how nivo vrill act under 
given drctimarantM. Stfll, El Ia only tn ceriaJB of tbo moro 
fffrnpleaikd anpcrflolal hinitta f»otko« that any anoMMa in 
ttiU diroclioB haa bnrn aiuiiUMl. 1'or «]| ilw doepfr and 
men iovoh-vd tmitivua> ao ifrtial ii Uiv failnra to pcaivtiBto 
them tkit njpsleinaiit? deeept^n (toI. i. pp. ^U, I^TS) ia o^d* 
KEnnTl; prtelie»d tn all daftmi 4vf aodoiy. A kden observer 
of hurniin motivea liada hinudf eon«lihOtl; surprised to aee 
bi>w dbtiuBv the avcra^ mind ia in aUowing ilaeU to b« f¥- 
pBtfldlj^ dicpod bj" That on|;bt to be tranvpanoit fraodaiuid 
dij^bca. Tn fai^ moct hnman failmrrv aro rvMy dot to tf^ 
nanntm o£ tJi« lawn of liitnun natutv, and it ift pnuumahle 
tlttt sn Mcderatioa of poctal pro^EV^aa will follow thg r«dai>- 
tion of thtfw lavta Ut a taagfhie hIoooo fiiisQar to tbat wbkk 


kllvuileJ Ifau redui!ti4)a ^f pJ)j'«iAl pbeuoinuus to Uwt Hiul 
cdendfii^ prindplec M a il&gle exaukplc, It may be h\^ 
dovn J18 one of the inor» fimdfluicnta] law« of bnniAn noiurft 
Uut, wlierc « Afronj; nAtnnU j^ipptjte exi*t^ ^ttcmpU to Kip* 
pn^M it* tliuuj^f] tlitrv tiiiLy t>v >iJvrtM»f ul rti tv fvir indiTKliiat 
ouoe, wUl fftU wh^Ei applloit Ut 4 lu^ unnilur of <%m*; or, 
tbongU i;ne«««fn1 fOT mlrort periods >lx^jr will fjiil fo lung 
periodi. Thiu, while tittiv aj« no donU mAAj perfwlhr 

ol eadi lar^ daceea for long perio^b ran nut be nmfutaliMd. 
In nicnrrnt, thr priin>r ta n*i*i n n^Tnml in4<lin,ilK>n in cto^p- 
lumaJ, itmpuiititifc it* UUoi^tKTJvy, ojid ^ill a}wayf^ liu fuutid 
to h&ve abtufulo Uuiiti butli iii iluntioD of time And uimibtxr 
of sttdimpts to effect It. 

Hm claee of f^ivion niotod-, or inipubii\'0, artbu# waa «Did 
hi one fltnao to bt? tlio more n.itnra!. Tboy arc tbo original 
innvcrnfTitA nf nil nnimatf^cl brin|*«« and t» mich thcj muHt hh 
u low order of actiuu*. But Kllltouf^h tliov follon' tiiiii>odt* 
at«I| Eiixin llio phj«)tv] tit«ie tb^t prvdocw ihuRi, arid liooco 
f>bo7 thA lowDr proa^ptiit)C« of appctlti^ and ponton, yet in 
m»n thoy often r*t to nn el^vate^! plnne, and fippur b |i&* 
vpoivD to thv mo*t ^^fln1Ml einofIofi« And llio niti*t de)i«qtte 
aeodncffiU;. So true b tbit^ tbat tbo vorld )ui« bovt M to 
aaalfpi evem s hi|:ber ploeo to tho«o offUi which hto ^Aid to 
Mpriitj^ from the " hmrt " Iban to tlweo whkh enufotfi from 
Uie brnto. 

Yet ilib i« n f;re^ miiibk«. I^v^n tho«e lufly » ivvU ■« 
thow refined modvos tbu proropdnjci *>f wutlment^ of 'ove^ 
of c^notioi), w rr^M-fMrnt&tim of ihnt pr^^t fainilv vhidi 
are ei>oxt««i*irfr witb the irxint^nr^ of animfiifNl brinjdi. 
Tlivj arc of tbi* pniORry onlrr. T>kv luui^eit aniitiait have 
ibem In Mine form Of Other, aad net in obedience to limn. 

Thift Is not, however^ lo der<igat« from the tnw ralu« of 
tbo omotkinal iml iJie ientimaatal in bamftii ittturc. On 

DirtTLSivE Acrrovs. 


iIm coMnrr. wIicd oootroUod b; xhc hl^er power of the Jo- 
t«lleotin1, Uifij 9Bm to throir ■ charm axvr tiOf^Hy &iid ^vcr 
life, wiUiout vhicli Wh tronM brcpmc ifitoIi^rsUe, The 
dnngvr nevw W bcvii thut of »u^ipn»iia^ aU roipcct for 
die fvfititnefiul, hut nihcr of prsDi^riblDg Aomo foni:^ of It 
while eJtatliDj; otlwrrb. Tli^^ nnpcrGt-in) ;iiid unphlk^Mpluc 
hnvv U^ii led U> fuppoie Uuit cbu bi^ot luorulJij (KiiihiKed 
in oo&tUmtning ccatoin nanlfeeUlloiiA vt huuuui feuling 
wJic-h U bu i^caAL^d them lo defiorainAto fn^G, and in colti^ 
vAliii^ At)d eituUiog otheri Banging from ihrr «anifi Kmreee, 
uiU tliftreforv no mora vni^tli^l to tliii nivk of prvfurcuec. 

Tlio clituf wutuiumtH tW have £u3e[v<l ^m thb peltef 
haro been lovo as bolufeen tfao fioa:c«, aogcr, taihition^ or 
l(>vi< of iwamt and avuin?i, or love nf gniii. Bo far 1hu» tlik 
jfcoen carried, Ih^ U ianftcn (liBimih lo tifid vronb ccvivey* 
ng Ibcee Idoa^ wUeli do uot Iinplv in Uwiwelvea eome diigd 
fbf critniil^it^. Of coutw, the reuoa of thk liofi in tbe fact 
tliaf thor luppon tobotbvi impuUoA which are motC Ikhle to 
bu tEidal|ted to cicfintt, and wliicii. wht-n to lodQ^^ed, reeolt 
m iLo ^raatwt lujurj^ to thueo uiifjiTondily alFcHiul. NeecMa- 
rily Bftdo acreag &nd rooklfM hy t!te panunoant rtqitiremeiits 
1^ pikjaied evvteoM-, and tltronxii llie DurnuJ i^vrelion of 
nn law of natara] e«)(*«tion, Uitve fOQEtmenU have nmdenKl 
UvameolToa eo obnoxlona co the milder farma of oonduei, 
kfom^Dg out of higher ata«i of enltore, thai, in Ita wnrfaro 
hpon thdr itirhu]«nt tc(idenct««, wdetj haa ioocned to La«o 
pghl nf tl^r rwil anil cnnti«l imrpoM awl inWriuor a^id baa 
itnbihod ibu noiion« tM\t If not ardwe^. thai thoj atv to be 
|)at down. But tJiti ncituin, viiiU fislljr n* ilwun!, ihoii^ 
^^hajift nm tfjuito m Hdii-utoiu, u Sir I'vti:r LwHe'a propoaal 
Bo** put down Huidde." Iiaa, iu vuttiequeiMe of ita aLaoniid 
^WA, nsfult^il iti the pntdorHon of s train of dangerona eo^ 
caal 9TlU which a mtionjil view might havA prevmted. 

All phibuophic mEnd» r«<ro^ure fn iho arxtnl appi'tito 
vnd in tbu important dcrivativo »criliuwiiU nf wtiicK it fortiii 
thq itnuMHiiite btM, aiido from Uk»u uwmtiil reiulla In e^ 



c«riug t]i« euuuuiunce of tLe n»ee3LiKt rv>uBtiiutiu^ \he buucl 
of tlio itmUy z^ltttiott, « nfi«cting Kiid rvfioliig i&floeDce, 
whii-li, if not 11110117 progTCAiH'o, u obriotuilj cloTtttittg to 

Tlic nuvvl and at finC «0Di«wbAt startling vivw, bvI /vrtii 

cgotftlic MUtlmeiUa on eoiin«et«d vrilh tlw mitrilivc ftmo- 
tboM and tlie Ai>tie^1« for food, AllruUie KlvtJniccit* uo 
oovneciUd witb the npiXHJncti^^ fnutiiotu And Ui« aexual 
iip}jvl]l«« iiridt muDjr l^M|im]M4>oa« in bblogy boTvouJ tbon 
proe«kt«ril hj Liui. The rtry Maorioo flJ3<l pnnmrr an of iba 
MpittlucttrA |imrr«A in aU org&nfuna, «}jfft]iur aniiiul, Vege- 
tal, or ptotui, cnimiiitJi in a *acntico. Wliellictr hi the uDion 
of Uiu i^wmia toxoid wilb lW <»Ofipliri^ >a ciyptogviu, of ibii 
poUuD-tube witii the LMutiiyonal reiurle in i^ffmcfpUius or of 
llie apvrmaloioun vrtlH Ifae ovuid In uiimaU of wbatoitr 
gr«de> tli«ni dwaj^ n9sii]ts & ^oiripKro ^acritit^v i>f U»tb of 
t!^ componnut orguiutna wbicb ]o»< all iDdividuiLl id<3ittt^-, 
and am lilcn<!rd and ratrgnl in a tliinl And dlMiuot new 
Iwinff, IIk' o^pHug^t n^^lwr 'ip (^»^ wi^fS ^^ '"*<* *ifh 
fiUcQi pbuuomvua as ar« prewaUHl by the '^nutw:'^ <]f tbo 
Otro&ri/t, which, graduntljr abwrlMyi a* nulrimctit for ibu 
mtm of jroui^ tW^frsrrjVj^ witTifn b^r — aa il wtt^, dotoni^ by 
t1t«it-*-be«oinM At lentil Tvdiuied to a more in«Ein1)rBiNHM 
MC, wbfdj the ofEspnng at tli^ proper tim<; Ifurvt Uiroii|ch and 
abaDdon aa rp1i«fiicnv esen^ irom tlii^r exuvTu*< HigUor 
forma of the utnic principTo att eihibttod in the apbidcfi, tlio 
Vtivorml nlturnatiiig f^ncnttoua of ftliicli hmv oai'b b*^ Mid to 
liTO floMy for tbe fncMWcOin^ gm-, a> well a» \>y bivi and anli*, 
in wltirh tbc gn^l majorilv aio iDadtr uvulnd a« to fi?x in or^ 
dor. V it veer^, 10 nttnw llw now p^rrr.ktion. In atill higher 
forim nf anitnil lifo wc *«a th« rcinciant of tbia profonixHy 
klirri'uttc jirindpk- ^nrvivji^ in the funu of a p<^wrfnl iiMtui^- 
ttal, and aomoiimoa peicmal, inailsoi wbiob ootninaaa ftnoi^ 

f IhwfcH * AnUmifDC*^" a 111. 



,iD muL Id ftddldon lo ihU peroneal olirabm tUem <uiUi« 

ibta a Klron^ mxttti ftltrouitn, which n.kitjfcMs lUelf Sa tba 

lifipoiilioin OR tbc part of molcK to proCwC liie fcrnftlM id i1i« 

fuRii^iiof of Uieir Buitonud futjctiocu nud ut &U otlia 

LDHC Tkis eenilmeni, well ntriEe^l In many aninMU,*^ ^<^ 

:tAiii|ite, in dO|^ 1)«ciMnr< k urtyng and TiJanblr inflnrnri^ In 

'ibe btuiimi nboe, ani i« kiiowii audcr tltc nunc oJ ^Ah^Iry. 

A faJJa«<y nujTt bowQTvr, I Uii&k, -W dutected in ibe 

iDraliacion of Profo»or Le CobUl Tlik Iks In ibc fall> 

ire vhii^ thu vif^w nuihr< ro recn^tr/! the prinuiy dutiQi^ 

li e^-i!ry-wbi-ro iiiBitlvd upon in this woric, twlvevn Uie 

>jimtU of Dftturo fti^J tli^ 4bj«ot« of Itie org^iaiain. AU Ui««6 

idluxicoMl fi»m»«>f AlutikttJc flctioD »rc nnconiieiow uid 

lEcnif And biv« li«vo tbo nwatl of thi- lava of wledion, 

thiM K-oriiti;^: oul the ctiii* of nature— Ibe riLu&lenaw^, cim- 

tinuaiicc, and iinpjiov«iwait of lifif. Ktbl»^ ob tbo t^iDlinrj, 

vIvotlitfT Dormat (oonfliwd to tbo nocSon of vqiuilltj <ir jn» 

9) flr ni[in-norTnal (oiKtirmleil lo sDpcrorDf^l0C7 afIi, b*- 

"iK^rf^ or ijiaIo6<'oci1), nuU wlioltjr upon th^ fnrlin^ upon 

tho coiuBcsoUH rvooH^nlliun of tbi^ cji)i4dl v of Utcmbjvrt at 

woli w tlio object for L^xpcrkncinjif pleieitra jmtl ptfai* uid 

tbotvfonr |^v« out ol that bnt>cb of biology «nd of codol- 

whidi UkM xQOQiil of ibo ob]«cca of tbc of^uikHn and 

of buiuui 1jvji);pc (vckL 1, |i. &r]0). 

TIaI tbv i^rvi*aUiiig Mucimtot of wolMy on tbe qoofctloci 
of tlir p^intv of Uio ftctloDft wbich «prii^ from km ia cmbc* 
tiAllr fkJitf and injvnoat, ift nruknt frooi imny otl>or indfoa- 
tiutu than ibuw &b^mJj nuttctHL Tbu Alvndj ivfiiMl of t!u> 
>nUr |>uIh) to bral [n unfaon witb moral pncupt rvj)cctiujr 
it inajr be f-^infc*) among tbc tnottt id^ificuit of tbcM Indi- 
«Hv 111 r«rt, it in T^rr nirioiu, und iii|Qf[«ata ibe denaonliiEnji^ 
hktiMTv cf 1o<i rijEid iiw>»] itaodanlifr to obavrr^ to bow 
It na ntGQt ll^e moral or>de U n]>ti«ld in word and rio- 
hi Rftinn, Mftny pi>fsrpn^^ wbffn thfl qnctfttona of iMa 
ftriae for dWittuoo, Kill d«f«;od the Mdo of dogmabam, 
al tW auDQ Unte arc M licvt in «3mip«tb; wltJi lb« 



poAj of *lcci>tu'<ii«ii (fuprstf p^ ISi). Tfao ml poj>oUntj- of 
ihU riAt, wiuen it fiuid* aa opporuuiitj to expr«ab lUdf 
lliroiigb eliUiiieU lliat ar» deemod rmpc^iablr, And wheti 
ll« true liAtuni i« Likvlj to rvoioiu cooevaleU, i« v«U f^botni 
b^ the manner in nrliiub wvrka cf fictt<;a kxv demanij^d, mid 
tbe AUge ift Biippojl4»d. Tho^o ngv^cic* ai^ tJic nntunL 
dofenclerB of tlic nlcTpticid *idc of ihu qiiwtjan, wliicb oon* 
vitlulo* almwt tbc'iroQlj mioaioti aEtd ntr~4rm tf^CrA. Tliey 
UHUallj aim to deinootlrato iJ«a.o«»«ntisJ jjuritj oS uicb met^t 
dictntci) by the pcxhoI vmutJons ^ tko ctliini cuiom docUro 
iinfnir^^- A roiuiii«« or & dnma which ^iculrl fiLil to md* 
i&iuiiter »oi(ie *uoU rcbokv to i))0 accepted t^nol;* of ortho- 
dox monLlttj vf<;»uliJ bu ndjuil|(vd htino, miid would proro 
m SnauuiBl fiitluro. Evoty uoo ki^ows wiib what aridity tbb 
duftof criricd Ut^rmKirc if^dcv^mrcd h^ lli«publ!r, aiid (ts 
itnunnm rqstcApnt&tion in ippUiidcd^ In Awt, m nrmntlrod 
in a prcvioEid eluiptTrr [fntprn^ y. :f4). tWrv 9%}mIm lbnMt]fboQt 
*odel>\ Aod pcrb^f^ )LlwAjr> has oxietod, Qut otiLy vith ro- 
Rpoct to tbc cb» of bcU hero rpccialtjr oontonpUtod^ bnt 
with re«pcct 1o many oilier ctuAe«« a ilecp^cfitoJ rtibvlUoQ 
flgiiMt tJiiM-b that cliuRiH to c&U iUi^i j/Ar v^Ecttlrnce, uvond 
or ri>r'Et— u it went, a vaguv ifciitdoUifiMtM, which tbe >Tcngo 
Inttlteei can not fcinnuI&U>, of tho ailitrRtrT, ffictiTioiiA ^hju- 
ACtfT of tbo Tn<ira1 and ^iK'ial codoi, tfanoj;;b ibc «ftJdo«jr 
form of wliicb ro«j bo dlmljr «ooq Ibo bulf-iintyNitciouu rvoog- 
tUtWu thai huuivi wlivu » tbv pnidDct of fiio<l Uw« for 
wltloh there 19 no ptofota} respon^billiv, tUt tliero U no 
hbAolqtc good or bad, bot that rbp«^ qoalili«H aro tolftlive lo 
tboboovfit or injury dooc to bcirtgr- AUM^pUblo toploiMiro 
iLod pauu, ttuil ihut tliu Arbitmry m\ctt uf cocJoly. bwoJ OQ 
iho nqfation of thow lintbs, ^ far abort of tb«[r cxttftva- 
gOEit elainiH in pp^tfcliHp the (^f^Tidnol ^f mt^n. 

(V>Tuiri<TTing, i'\ftt, iht' Kit Li [iM! lit of anger. It a dear that 
Um k not by any ni^imng a tuelm or wholly injimonv onu, 
u wonu to bo popularly »uppo««<d. It hm boon nnuV ;fre^ 
piouotloD from hvkw iuip<^tion. It op«nic* ■» a chock 


' 341 

opoQ hh lather pwttjocifi. In B uTifcft ttaJtt it w dl thtt •»▼«« 
hiui frocu tlvBimviion, «ih], » be Woooive uxjn dvlUivd, it 
beoooiM tfloipvrad wtib ivnon, *ih1 M«)n)« U19 more ^gtd- 
fiod form of indiffnatian for vtxmgs «i2enxl, often mrcttJaig 
arnl rv<lT«»rit^ tlicriK Tltcns t» fM mor« nluUrv emotion 
Ut» thstt of mtioitftl ttigor or ** r^tcou* tDdignatioQ '' /oc « 
jttCt inil anfficicoit cuoMr. 

AnibitJou, wbcQ not inoniiittte, {a alio a Ahitar; aeiiti- 
m«^L What Cfta be better eaknl-itcrl lo d^mi^ the t^bamch 
tcr iJon ft itroiifc d<Abv to be bighlj- nrecmisl t Aim! tbi^ro 
ATV ftTvr tittw iutSued, if ftuift vrbum the liwjn la to bo 
llionfiht irtbervriM tban wcU of. Ercc U«rMtruiat j>nib«)ily 
fui^M lliflt pMCeritT vonld mo aomothing daring, or ia bvmv 
imjr firorable or good, in hii nuh net of baming tlia l«in- 
y\ti. A dctire if hv llK-u^}jt w4-il tjt iuBpifW «u dlort to win 
ttiAt good opimon, and ofion rMulla in grot pood- Uenctr, 
it b trwe, bctb in wlut i« gi^od nnd iinble, and in jnil^rLjE" <if 
vliut otht^n will iWni ao^ yet it U nre tbat ■vlf-cvtccin and 
ambitiou faU tv prtHluod aomo bontfidat rvuiltB- 

Vo liltli* dream at fint rtmv of tbfl vaA boBofiia fliat 
i»omio to >odvty from tlial ''lore of monoj'' w^irli a bi|;h 
auUionlj ba* rallod "tbo roo* of all oriL" Wilboiil tbat 
•eottmcDt, riTilifaiioo wnold h&ru {tccn n poor tlimg indeed. 
Tl h ibo apur of tl] 'tn*\mtry and <«inm«roQ. WitboQt the 
acr^miiUtlon of wmIiU, tbere ooiild hav^ b(<en no toiMm for 
iiilcllvctujil pnnait^ do toai for farr^iii^ on Ur^* bofin^w 
prujeeta, aisd tkjtj littlo indnoDmcnt 10 inwnifuu or iIEhcot- 
oiT. A deairo can on1^ bo fcrallflM by tbo piwv^ton of tbo 
objoM iMnd. Civiliiation Is to oxdnnvdj axtifidal that 
aauly all objccta of baman dvaire vmu bu obtj^aed for 
iBOfloy. fletMO utooe^ cocuttlutoi the grant spur to tlio «t< 
kbction of dndn (vol f, p. 4M). 

It U 'Ja- aryvflk^ltfin ^ o^rMi irbieb cumdMnna iHme 
lulural Jini^nlaM. "HiCHe wbo eniploj It alvm^a fail to mo 
mnjr tiling pwit Id dul In «bi<^ tb«ro ia fnand %uy qtiI, hd4 
are uarODtliiioDnllj baatab to anj tiling wbicii o«q bo oanM 



10 tfX^tf^ Ifittofld ai fl^rlcifif; Ut rttAnin jAMion, &ii-d to di* 
Iv^J ariilitliifU into n(«fiil diauiielp, (v nuke avthve & meaes 
or*4>inulaiiii^' tndotrjTt «iitl lo limit jut^rAnd in<ligiiRlioi 
to tliHr pr<r|x.T fu:ioticin]i of proEL-ctioA nnd MdrprcieiTft* 
tion, t)i«v underbike IV^ irTipowiblo lA^k of ilci^njt liunuD 
ftfttniv bj elintmMting tl)UHf attnbaU4. Ttk<r fkilor* ivliu^h 
liw all^uLvd tliit i>i>]icy liw not, bcwtrvcr, prov«aitod tltcmp- 
pOAnncG of R truiD i^ unoufl vodal erils wluch htro mfaoa 
M ft direct rveult i>f a falae moni Aontlfntflit. 

Impiililvcytir NouHgri iEir>tijr, ncttorL* wTiich pcnm^ monl 
qUAlItj-. /. «.f vhldi b any dirt^t vftT produce pTofidore or 
ptin, cither to othcnt or to wif, mftj be d&wvd^ ft8 fhtvwn fn 

iHe Ublr. in two ffn>tip*, Ibc normul unci tlie nipm-OormAT, 

TJiiif jiTipjrtiitit didtiuftiuiL, Cvr tJie tin^t tiiiii.' dmxvM b^ Ur. 
8pc«irar In kk ** Data of KiIiIca,'* ** ie explained br Lin: In die 
foDoTJn^ Injigitn^: **'V]if*-rnf l}» onr prvmy nchirrrrtid* 
in Vftip* Ibnt do or do not tiudiilj mttrfirru wilii the purvuiu 
of w>dii by ut]iL*r»— Artioiis wliicli, bectvw of lUift diffL-rtriiWt 
Wft oftll reeppctWiT nnjiibl or jusl* TJiwo forming tb^ clbpt 
grovp wit fif n kind wbirh inflHm« thi- Miitm *^f oihtrn with* 
out direolly inturfcriti(f wilh Uie r?l4ili4iiii b«tire«ii tbeir la- 
boi^ and tiro reeufu^ In one vmy or xUe otliur — tirtioD« nrhicrli 
«o ipcaJc of UN bonijAcont or mAlpKi:pnt.'^ Tbg firrt jurt of 
tlili explrinatioQ i« <|iiiti} dear, ainru jtraticc, vbirli norcl^ 
ItitoIvm tbe Dotiup of eqaity or rqiinlity, mi^t eoiufiBt In 
ew^b adaafl do not bterf^frv vSlb th«nianiiifr in wbic^ otbni 
pnnoc their onds, and mjiWlr*-, itt oppoaifc^ mnrt ctatnut in 
nni^li pTvjrtdirinl intprfofPTKv ; utd ilii* i* wby h*? lofriaUlf 
p]a<.<«A unjtuft *rtionii firtt jo reprfBontinjc (be poftitit^ proo- 
OHt. Tba woond (fronp wenie <o ni« not bo l»p|^Ijr dafaod. 
It b tme tlmt acr* fulHrig trader ih'm group linro notlili^ 
to 4o wilh tbe ** pnrHultit " (if tbofw ft^<«tcd by th<^m- The/ 
nro not ndnciblo to the condltloii of InlOTf«raikof« and fion- 
ii)terfvnMjei» vitb Uio act* of otiicn. Both tbo fDbdirwioiia 


CLASftES OF tKPOiarvE Acnose. 


<ii UiU jcrtMij> are pMitiTAj to itf M the ^gtax ift oofio«rn*dr 
huh «ra dM^iud U> AfTert oUior* «irber to tbvcr ftdvunlage 
or dJMKtwiUfiK Til* tvfTO iltniiftii, linl imihJ bv CoiutLv 
hflji i»rer bc«a given ili» faB neauin^ tuiil «^o|>o of wlikU 
U Li If^f^ltj' npabbc It bHmiLI pmf^Hy W oxtcekWiI to 
iht di^Mon of nuldiccnt w b-cII iu of hciw^ti^vnt Arlif^iuk to 
lL<} butcr of wliiobtt hu liiUnvrtu brvti vidu^UvLy rtvItMrlMJ. 
It liapliuA ft voIuqUij fcffon on ilie part of llio J^tic to af- 
fixri the cotidiiion of othcn iriiliMTit iho Booompanjitig ni>- 
lion tJitt tlii! cc^nditirm of kH it thvrthy h> be nffeeiMl. In 
pgEnl of fjii;t, afxl of Dwtttity, toiiw vffevl u|fi>n Mif miifrt 
pr<Hhic«d. otbarwfiMj Utoni oottU ba no moCirD lo tctloQ, 
ul cntuM^iKmtlynojwtioo; hat th« cftict i« a pnrvl/ moml^ 
mibjcctive, or aj'inpiClietii- on«f aod in iMt involvMl in, fir 
rvthor i* pvrpoMly kepi out i>f» tlio notioo conT4*yc<d hf Um 
teroi ^ sItntMiL." Ainlftll tbiKwotiJil boMtrm vf tlivinddl- 
«8Dt V of ibe beooilcfnt i^fattneler of tbo ooaooption, irere 
fodi on applinlion nf tli<t woni allovftbJc. 

If, now, nt go bMik Eo (U^' other ftroup d«fli|tTtat«<l ae 
''norm*),*' «tid «i«jitio« it fn^n tJie Mmo point of vleVi it 
will hv irttrtt^vitd thAt'tbo artt^ falling under it stand TCiy 
cIl'U-Ij over agftSnal iIhm* of thn crrrmd gmcip tn thruv im* 
portont partionbivw For if^ in tbe Utter ^up. thv intvroit 
of tbo ngL-nt U oxpr«B»ly^ oicTwled, pu, iii iLo fonner, th« 
iaU-Tvmt hv^attm tbo oKiof oontideration. It b notor a*' 
Mmed ibftt ft ponon will do an imju.tt aft nnlcM be le to bo 
tbcrchj prrbrnjitlr bi^n^Btod. Interf«c«noo wiiTi tho^por- 
MiCm of diilt " Ltj otbor* i» n«Tor gntnEtomi, but U ftttemptod 
In oil vtuiii booMmo ni^b pumiitc are cnncwivud to be in tome 
wftjr oppoecd to like pnmita bj the potMii interfering. Tbo 
ohjnol in pAindnjo; ont ibM p^MiliAnty m to fiiow ihjit, jnirt !U 
the ftotiozu of tliL- iKtxfnd gronp may be gonerraally ebswd 
M aJtruluk^ in tbo oalnfKCHJ scoim of aftDetinfr otbcn uiib- 
ont ftfliMtiog eelf, ao iboM of tbe firM (^ronp mat iddt 1^ 
Mm* or pnater proprtelir bo ^iwricnllj ehunod aa of^IaU«^ 
i. A.t sfFrcting others only for tlio «ftko of flff«eiiii^ mif- 


Acrnoy.-s£COXD.iiEv ueas's. 

i^ ci^utitutv « duH, liLffff iu il^'lf and imporUnt, bnt ftboat 
vliiob littlv* ti«^ b« tmid inorv than to iudwdt^ iU tj«e 
diamcux 1(1 ditf «iuirx^ nnirTinl kiiigiJ{>TE] it ialJJad&Mof 
actiun whidi perforina Uic m^tni^^iJ fuiicticto* of lifo. In m far 
ai cheve eadi xr« cot twurvi bv aurotnatfc ttoiiuo. In fact, 
tbo nntocintic dJiw «La(k« off bj in)|f«roopiitlti degrvw huo 
tliu oouivbai. Tlii» cljtw uf ActimiA k, tWrvforg^ t^f murv jin- 
portaiicD lo liiologj lluui to eociologj. In inaD,mcb «AJonfl» 
in Arilclition Ut iht^ idiiiplr apt* whu-Ji he. ]>crfarTTUi w ftn uiimA] 
oipwinjn mjuinnj^ tu t><^ cvii»Uutljr ktipptivi witli the oeevik 
MfJW of phvuvaJ lifij^ cfiibracQ ft br^ proportion erf ibo 
rv^nlar uid cii»taiOArjf opcmti^fDa wliicb he ^0<;« tbrongh 
«ltli HA & sodul bt'big. Hid djiil^r piintaiCi Ai\d Ijitjor, a1- 
thori^h a ^cnvAtivcclAM of aotio4«*vi.Tjurk1ike tlio«e prompt 
od bv bnito iiwtinctv, and &idLoii^Ii «Fipuii<j(id wi ■xni^riil ob- 
jEjeto, often in Uio pruductiou uf ^ucJi ubjtic&lA, oiu ucvortBe- 
l«w eht<T4j f^Ttm^d by a cJiw of Smpolnw, and not b^ 
original ideatkirLal atfttei. TM* dan of impnleet^ dmved 
£rocn th* constant ivpotitk^a of acts or^oallj prompted hj 
^oUf and tttvrcri>rv iit RrM dclibcndTC, tliou^ aiill coo- 
detfn^ in r<cinM-t'>nfi dfaclmrf^a from the »irtscM[ ooDtcTf &!]<) 
^crefore not aatoniAiic, uv no lon^r (j^mcnted in tbo ocr^ 
bnd turfBCCtt, urid ttjcrufmru bun- ci<H*«d tv Iw idcu-uiutor 
Tbey mct»t UiL^refoTV be aeiiaon m;itor, Uioa|f}] imi prumpt^d 
b^ (mj of tbcr ^trcin^ emoilonA. The actions thcniBcIrK^ii flto 
popnlnrlv dntinminfttod Arr^i^, or hnbitnjiJ artioriA; urid it js 
iitif*orliuit to poiol out the w.viiciinic uiTut-t t»f llua IraiiBitioEi 
from tbo ideiitioDal to tbo bnbltual ia humnn nctione. Tbfl 
fotf T"n<TrTc-forccof rrferrini^ft pcivpption totb«iK:nRorium 
{« ifDiii|xtriiivcly mcAll, but tb« pn^n^M of ideoliofi ia pb.vai* 
o}flg;ically Tcry v&pv<ui*v. TLb werv (^ne wbo works witli 
bi» bniin, i^r hm oWrroU Uio ciTi^t of hmin work in d1]m% 
veil knova ; bcddoa^ It ii a qii(»<Jofi u-b1«h )iw t«pm«dtf 
boen made tbo mibjcet of «:3Ljeftil oipdnmcBti And alvray^ 
witb the aaow remit. 



At tho ri^ of mow digr^ffiion, tt nuiy be liera MUed thftt 
tLfl bcaricftt deaiMuida upon tbc brain-force ut thoac in whidi 
iho ptrtiuultty chM vf iJeai kmi^I tv bv ^^DcnUtl w iv 
pi^gnuit to tbe fnidl«eiiul oooMluiiivu of ibuindl^Miua^ wlio 
iMisLO produpcc tbctn. Tbifi fA<Tt hik« been forqitcotl/ ob- 
■crv«d tod r«<n.ir^vd. The ex|>Upation wbicli I u^uld offer 
uf k tt, ibkt in »ui:b f«n tb«r« k^ in tvuliiv ih <:uut]ic> m lit* 
proems of ifiuftd^:!, «U tbu iltcoip** of tlk<» trUJ, i. f.^ tbe pro^ 
Tftittnf; duirvv gcnofmlljr proinptod hj practical oanudcamUoiid 
of iiecoMlcy, dutj, el&p ^^ ^ & 1a<V7^ «xlffil uiUffonEiwd 
b/ opfiovmg hmdoDciiiA of tbn brmin to produce difforvut 
»dcw. Tlll^ Mcitual uflnU u tbontfoiv onl; a fv^Aon/of tliMS 
oppodog t«ELdeiicf<!B. To acoovnplUb 4iiy iitufced romlta 
und^ffncb circmnfttcioci^ it i« tbonfore Bcoeaauy llial tbo 
bmin rmllj perform > moeh lvg«r uiunml of vork, ^11 of 
wbidi L'twtji Qi^cuUr Uj 11m bnun-ti^vni unl ii«nrv-fot<Dv. A 
eiiuikr oxpUaiiion applk^ io''bntu-woTryf*'wbicli b kEioini 
lo mo^r out tlic mind witli j^reAt rtpidiijr. It conmt« in an 
■ItgmpC to force idcalioii ■fcaiiifl nomuU aata^iibjEig 1oud< 
mGic», or vliu to ooujpul tbu ocrubral proouson to opvrUo 
iHAiMt ihaii tbey iuturall> tend to do. 

In tttbitcul A<tlofi, Iho AOonoRiv rntmiidii in npuing llin 
con\-uluiiu<i» tkU part wb&tvv«r m die p^oecM^ icbicb u ui 
mjinonse wvUig to tlio vliole fij«i«Eio. TJuAtooiiutuH! degm' 
datioa ol acdon tn^y bo Btill fiutLer foDiinucd until IwbdtMl 
■cCiod* nrr wmTr-rtrd intn atttnmtti^, of vehuh in tnm ibore 
afV tt niMij degTMM ic ttera «Ai«t guigUoaie ccE*<«rs. ending 
witb «iraplo rdOvz aQtioo, ta^ wiib encli step of wbkOi pn>- 
cc«i ilicrv ^)oo» a dimitiation of tho tmotuit of ncrroui dnUi 

DtxtBcnAnri, <» itwtvwnnc, Acnoon. 

A« we bare Alrcndj M>cni ddilMTntivc, or idro-motdr, AO* 
dOMAredUlbKuiflM froin jrnpalmvruor*c4uori'motor,onn 
hj tJin f*ct lltot in tLeni tb« ci/nshnl liuinbpl«ero»i or bruB 
r, inntt tako pul Id ibo proctw of wplulizotion 

\e ACnoK.~8EC0irDART 3IUX9L 

liic«« luriD[«pluLrci.T or ccrcbful lobc«, luvo hwn grsditollv d^- 
vdopixl ui t})(j ttiiiinil luoj^tioro tfttk^w jnam Uit is lbu*G Uic 
principal iocroaao of br^a-iMue Booina to b&w beru diM'uced 
10 tbe oKjecl of faminliing b wot for thf? nrrrr* of *|ieckl 
Miiwi; NvvgrtlicJuH^ nouuab ccruiulv Oo pow u M Inio cvrv- 
bnl lobc^ ncid ihcw muit Imve Wu iieTvlojj«d iUrouf;:li n«o 
vid iw1«otion, froi» uhi^ili It tvcnilil bo clear, vcro U not 
otiiftnnBe pn>vixl, lli^it thej di> ot^robfltc >nd» in a ttrint 
vonoQ, tbinL. Whc-eit buwvvor. «-« it^muiiibvr iW tlitr lii)(li- 
ctft wtbr^tpuida with tbo dauiro of luan pv«««i pnl/ half m 
iiiiicli brain if tbc minimnm lunmint of tlic ntional hmnui 
being {voL i, p^ 43**), it I>«r(iiut4 npp*f*cit tliai tbe extent of 
Ili0 Irutf idtalioii putaiblp iii HuimMlb 1*, ta cotnparvi] wtlb 
nMn, e:if reincly eioalE --to 8fLiiUl cliht. niMi nuj bv pnivtJAllj 
n^rdcl a> Uvo ontv living ibln^ thnl ran rc«I1f waMH. 

Tbo pnoccMi of idiifttion, «i carriod on in the oorticd 
bjreTvin ouiniiiBBioatiou vitb twoh otbt-r hy uMAiiaof lonifi- 
tndbial and imnsrene fibers, ilio^Anuv and corpus ^o^Ic^utii, 
nnd with thi; fcnn^riiini at thn t^alami ojfti4*i aad tbc^wry^wi 
fyTmitf, W b«cn (kivdlMs! in ji prAvioDH di^pt^r (vol. t. pp. 
37^ 880), and need iml be T^in>f tnkrgvd upon. Wv ^tv 
tnon; uF]MNiallv conoomud nt pn^^t with tbo ivwlu of ibo 
prot*>;bi riA nmnif(Mtv(l in iI»t fiiuil motor duK-barjft and a^ 
Ooo)p<vnj/ing nmACuhr Hr^ivilia^ irhidi aro tito IpgiLiiiuito 
on^U of id«« wbon formed. 

A» in inijinlnvQ, or tf^itfort-moTor^ m^tioru^ iv> in dpTibrro* 
livi*, ornbo-mot<ir,ftictiiMi^«)ni«Ar^<^1i*idntts|ro>iiri<ct Mii^ 
endoweil wJtb f»liTip, aiul ptrticularl^ liuinnn bvings, in 
wajTi tliat ooeHAoti p)«uuro or ^wiii. whiTo ntbors do not po^- 
worn tbU <|ilATity. This dk(hielii>n b fuiidanL^nlal, imuicnTit-Jt 
«tt It ia upon the firat of tbc«« oI^mm tl>4t t1]« ethical cod« 
of ftori«^ nvCH, vhile tb<^ vcrond dnM ha« notbin^ irbsiU 
evw to do with vtliie*. It !« tbcr^oro property excluded 
from all works oo i^ihio; with wtii^h, of ^ourae, no one can 
find anj fautl. T> (rit^cran mond-vi'^rkc'e irrftenn ItiifaiMA 
tliej ful to (nakt; tlwir tr^tiaet 4mbnoe tbal dart of ncticmi 




vhkli nxe dev^ijil of luornl <|ii4liljf iroiild onljr bo lo ounb- 
fUa beoitiAO thoy do not vritc of aomcUih^ elee bvpides mor- 
ak Wbilc thifi woaM nf oonrvc be tbt^tinl, thtro covcrilic- 
loMi «xut« i^ood cna>c U> fomp-Uin, not to §ay wontter. thu 
uol oaiy luurtl-emtBoe writvns. tiul vrrttvni and tlimk^ni in 
geeonl, hftVQ fftihxl Iq n^gmjiG the grett diff off aott-moml 
ftL'tioQ* and itn tro<! rdfttion* to dvlliution— Ittvr fAtkil 16 
re4<ogiiiEe tW moral acboiuarv enenlially iioi^prDfpw«lr«^ 
whil^ progTvaMvo tictioiw tro ii«c«H«riljr Doa-iikoraL 

MMthuut, buKcvcTt iuitit'i|Hiting tint jmrt uf t1i9 di«tu*- 
iioo, let 110 af>ir ut«nd for a time to tli« OftpoAiFiv daan of 
dolUH>nitiTf> «u<tion«, nz.> tbcn^ vhich ure «^ lo po««ea« ft 
KOonJ qnalitj. 

JMAeraiir^, or Hrvt-Mvior^ Adicnt jfomtimnf Marat 
Qw»tStjf,—}t bu alra^jr haajh ■Uoim tluu moat of rhe coo- 
flicl* of thti Tnind, in which thrr vilL ia npftoMd to Mt 
and conaeitfacti to be «oiij»uU«cI, ^mkit of c^ACt yther^ two 
dedreei 0D« vi^ng froia xhv «<triotioofi aitd tbo olhor from 
iticKMon, jd inoompitiblc with cnch otbcr, tro «tnigglmg 
forlbi> multrj" ; »n<l, a1t1iniij|>b (m deceptive are tKfvefompli- 
»ted p«jr<liotoy(ieAl Uwb) it alwajrft teem* » if tkv aiiod bad 
v-oiTie pcwur to dmde «u<th oonlwta, BercTtbebeB, tli« tqhuK 
don BotJiuig Dion! tliAO dctormiDO whidi ww Mtnalljr tho 
tflrongerniotin* fT>rrA. 

It i« oiilj w)i^ an i«1ion asannM ihk mora] qualttj, »^ «,, 
a quaUtf a« to tllo ngent, lOijctiiig lus allvgifd pnjmgatiro gf 
elioico, that tlic kl<ii of rci(poiuibiIt1j uiMt, and ibvu tlit* act 
i# aaid to be moral or immoriil acocirdbig aA it k righl or 
wrong (^i/w, p. 141;. i*nd<(ftng tlie agcoi fcaWiy or in- 
Doc■^Dt, jnmbhiblu or nsn&nlablo, tu tbir eauv m^y be, Tor 
tHa |nirpu*o it b |cenera% auppo^ tliat tli«r« oxbta a iao- 
nUy in [nao li_ir vbirb ho [» umbered capable of dtMCRiiDg 
wKftl ia rifffit imd diMitiguiKbrnx il from what ia wri>T]jt. So 
liro*! a MaKnmTat uf ib(< ou^- hm^ liowevur, boen fo«iKt to 
cmid]«C witli tho approTt>d dUtlMtloii Utwoou Hght and 
VTon^ on tlio one har.il, and ^itl ami iniioceiicuf uo the oUior. 



I'of, if tliAl ficuUy nbaoJntcly orublu n pcnaoa to dUlLi^^ruuili 
rigbi from wrong, ho ouut be guiltj' if ma «l'1 cvwrnittv^i by 
]ijui U vrniDg; alnce ho moEt be awaro th*i It b ao. TJuh 
BttTTOW ffi^w bu long prVTjJIrfl, and bHI] prpTAilft, In all 
<iuo» of criniiiuUon aod n^aiinauoaT J^ >^ 1^^« cUiof fiUlju}^ 
tlittt kcopft them div«. Tlio jihtt^upUj of il i* Mroulhing 
lik« tbia; One pmon hflfl cjummittod an act wblc-h aiiotber 
Tt^pinb u wrong. The Mttit wn* <lono, » all art* arp, in obo- 
diuci;'o :o iUx inulitiulion, foimdcMl Ujwu tbv view whu^ Ui« 
agent look of the catw, L «., ujion liitf vpinum*. Bat In Uw 
Of liklon of the otfifir psirty it vr^ wrong, aad thDrefore h« 
oen^nivji the »gcn1, fi>r ho can not concdro hoir there BhonU 
b«ai()' diiFererjce of ojionion »boitt nliil ia wKftig. Dectaw 
b<t Ihmk* an ad »roiig;li9«uppoM» tiuit flT«37 bod^ oIm mniE 
tc nrgar<) it; that u, ho nigard* chu human contfdcaico a* aa 
Infillibli^ mfmitor on aJl matten of rEgljt and ittoiijc- 

Fmui lUi§ vjvvk' cf tliQ mihjcol, it i» eaaj to a«« hov tbe 
jdtn of i^ilt inl^kt have origui^ilwL If cvur^ one who doctt 
wh&t unj uQc oLw tliiuka wroo^ Sa Ja cadi OBe hiiniclf a 
iTn>ng^o«dr, then ey^n the moH ^snromc notfoiw uf dqirar* 
i\j Aiv- EDOre tban resized. Fof ovcrjrone think* he coit- 
•taotlj feVCB vniug pvrpvloLtod. If all arv right in thia, i. #^ 
If con^ionco *« an unvrrbg gatdo, tlion la evcr^ one coat- 
nittting willful wrong*, and guiltji at omj ctt^p of hni life. 
Ilo who beli«vrt thv to hf^ ao^ aitunOlj- oynaidm all Bian- 
kind tolalLjr depraMid and d^Mtirvii)^ of |inni«hni«lit. 

Ba1| in iJie Aivt platco* wo find that cudi ooo ojiumpta 
hinvwif fn^in Uio mlo that ho A|>p1ica to olhcra. Any o<i« 
may, for tlw uLa of a^nmcrit wh«<n hjird prvM^, admit 
that be i» liihiu Eo do wrvng. liut nv>'«r will he ndioit tliaL 
be fa la the wrrva^ with referance to thu |mrtJenlar ea«» In 
4|uai»tuiD, and^ aji aJl oAma aiv Kprcial at the thi>e the^ Bro 
uodot ooQAidtnltnn, thia It the* tamo thing ha lo t^lolm gen- 
eral moral Infallibility. Wu mw^ Iberrfoire, thd thu taino 
role w|j!\*h, wlicn tibjuiTtivvlj apidied, criiuLuate» uU, wbeu 
Mbjociively applit^ ei<ml|»toa oU. 

NATtnes OF ruB coK«nK5(& 



Again, Lf MBBdcooo vera BO lofjiltlbte goldo, snd i\\ mim 
ttwn,<rH oli^cd it, not ociljr voaUt atl be inn-Mtnif but all rcu 
*TOiilrl be HgSt The fiiM itf tlir-fbR cvn^lmioius howcr«rr tme 
it may h*^ wouM not be accvptvd, wfiik Uio •eontd w nuiiS* 
fwilv uuirvc-. Tbe tntli ibit eouK» <^Qt of ^1 Uteee oiMi- 
fnAed ih^rl^ &niJ ifcords w^tb all ihc fM^ ift, thnc Uic con 
ftHo&oo i« ont^ a judgtncnt of the iMrlWt uf>on Ifie ri;;!itiiwA 
ftoil wrongnqu of jictUiiiB> tmd itu*:!! juiJ^'iiJvutA «.rv M6 miK^i 
Bwcv llflljlo tluii uliior ju<lgiiw7it« to bo vmjQvotu «* itie 
nbject ]iidgv<l \n m&m ilifliriiU to undorBUiwl. But a Judg- 
mciii maiJt bfKyiinw Aimply an opinion, ao that^ vhcn ooic 
tlilaks an act irroti)^ Ulii jtnoUic^r tbinfc* rigbt, h u onljr a 
qnoiUoa of opiTiujii. It %f owr ^t:cb ijiiwlionv (hit murt of 
ihe emnination ami rvcnniiiuitiim u indul^^^tj in. Tbore b a 
Tvtnjirkiblo Analogy h<t€ iKrtwwift tbe lii*ioiy nf monln oM 
tb*t of nTli(P'>ii' Qcioitioii* of conaeii-ncc-, lilci- i)ii»liotmof 
faHli. ntr tiivrpkr ipi»tfcfi» of opimoo, aiid in Wli il^o nivU^od 
has alu-ay^ bc«n to blomc. A0, liowovor, ^ib nro IntvUcct- 
mil i>j>craCiout, And^ ]ik« al! (tihcr inaltcn of opinifui, dcfkcod 
upon tb# data fuminLfMl to tlk« miiul, the only poMiM^ rem* 
viljr U in iinif^mg tb« ilata. 

But H w itttd tliMt, in pcdfit of fa«^ iht eoiucioiifie do«B 
form m immtdiatii and 4pparentlj ■pcntaziMMift decision m 
to the ignAlily of ftn action tliv fTHinii.*nt it h prvia^tcd Co tliv 
faculty. If • |i«rMitMrobfromaDoUier.or tvli«afal«ubuod. 
«uniuM-ntiif <l<Jti» uol IttHicato to pmnovBoo tlio act vrtong. If 
be befriondeAnotlior, or porfortua an imaeUth acL, MnAdcncc 
ifutonlljr decJftTM tlili right, and acr^rr crr<i in iiu<-1i decUona. 
Tttb ia fVTj ttw,;vt it admit* of a very liEiipLu cxpUutkriu 
Tbtt odIv inii> touroo of tL« inunJ idua k npvricuco. In 
otbor vonK thk kind of tdefl fonne no ezooptiofi to tlio itnf- 
Tcnal prinniptc tbat idMa nnt tbr rottilt of «xporicnc«. In 
•Tor^ claM of plieiMDv«flia Uuiru aro gradca of comptvtoi«i- 
tiilily. Tbor» are thofv whlvh rouJUy appvar to Oio uitod, 
and tkorc aro t]ioM whidi it only imifM witb nii ciflorL 
SciiBO uperfmcea arc mo fnxjucni and coumon ibal ^cry 



hody Is KqiumioJ u-Hh tWir prupvr mtvrjirvUlioE] u «pon tt 
oM rnough to furru idtdtf. OUicts «re ao »ra duit grvut uid 
|irolD(^;«iJ Idlror i« rt^qnlKd to aQd<ff«tA&d tMr algDlflcaiico* 

Tbtf |ib4.nonian« of grftviUtion fbrm mei trxnniplc of th« 
fine dasf. t^vurv pvnoa koovm tbxt ui Applu irUl fill to tin 
ground «i mion tiB ho knova bow (o oonmoDirftte vi Idea; 
AXid jet t)th 14 no iiLtnstion- Flo hm ihx^ m> mxay i^xamplc* 
of Et lltiht he judges iiuUntljf. If baJf tlic object* hv -trhidt 
wo «ro iHtirn>at><loJ requitvU lo tw nvtnuwU l^ ptvi^ut llmr 
n«in^ from th« ground, »d tli«7 iroold if the relatlre denaUjr 
of tijo ^r tn nij)cr rthjoftn worn JUi grrot on tluLt of wnUr, 
than, Iwftu^ jwlgiuf- ju io wlicUiur 4ii objvct "vould mo or 
iiD, oi*o wouJi iiwJ to kEM>« MwietUii^ mWui the ob^cwU 
If I [lold up uny obj^^t aiitl vk i child wlioChcr U vill fall 
if I let it g(r. Im will probabl/nftj yi--»,nnd id RlinONt ill aUQt 
wUI judge oornwilj, Yel ereti m thb lie tiiAj ^rr* For 
■appobv ibu (}tij«vt to Ijo a gas baJlooa, wblcli Iw Ilu iiiBT«r 
■cortp As I hold ii in mj hmdt be will dcctdo that U wiD fall 
ju«t Ma Burvlj a» ff it «rei« an apple. T(4 it will nm. Tint, tf 
1 pluoe oik vbjvct In a trouf-b of vater midway beiw^v^-n the 
lop of the wntrr ^nd the b*>troTn, md a>^ if ii wpt ftink or 
ri«6^ ft will rvqiiire »oiiie kiiowWf^ of tJie object to answer. 
Viwn * i^itn tx lucrum, unacquainted with it* would oftrni €IT. 
it would rvquiro cxperionrc. An app-k wonl^l ftwim, wbilo 
a moriftto would t^nlc. If tiicn ormtional bcinjpi inhaWt^d the 
aKu, grmviiAttcin would not W Umt iiiDk|jJe Aud uel^known 
Uw IbaL it w to nit who hoppeo to oocupy a mrar TEJodinm. 

Aa aa example of lliat elun of pby«i>jil rmlba wbioh are 
difflcnlt to e^jmpKlkend, ve ma^ infttnTicw tbo«L« of Aiixiona, 
or thor* liw* which ^v«m the rattw of vnmuon nf two 
Tariable ijnuulitirs nuu tif which i« ft fani:1inn of tlie o1b«r. 
No 0410 cfin anawer the 4|ii«tum m what ratio tlifl inen>Bi«it 
to Ebo wlid contonta of a c«be will Tury with n i^ifvn mt« of 
satiation of a Mc^ wHbout no4 only r.'JIection hul nuf^b cml- 
euUlion. Otlivr trulbn uv difficulty from tbu ^<at tntvrvml 
batwoen llw oorturrviictf of tlio pheoiMQCiUL 6ueb Is tbe 



jhililHin of imnjr xtTOHQoiiuat tmibi, AV«j uv in potHncdoo 
of tnillj« Uyi^aj yihich wa conkl not know liad Dot the ad* 
deatt obMrvwd and rMonlod die pli«nomcM two tlion«m4 
^oan ago. No OM wnlil jiidRi\ icEuictveljr, of the nlv of 
the preiHwinti of th^ oiUkDOie*. Tlib Jma n.s|iunHl a Umg 
tvrivB uf <ibiMrvHtiu9ift. 

Tlienj ATV At] drgrooi of comprelicwdbftitj in ptijvicAl trutfai^ 
Tl ihr.y inn«t oU be fint Icunvd hy 'expvrivttw. }io IruiL 
iialuiut^ly Juuiwu (''n/nr, p^ &13> JJotmJ irath U irfeB- 
tkal with physical miib la tlib nv|ME^t. The crTr>r of mnral- 
ktf uil of the watM At lor^^ bw Wn^ tfmt tln-v bxvu tulten 
tho comiBoa aiuI vlnious oum ttiAt ov«ry oii« k^riM aa fau 
dow livo kw iW grttvit>lMin >■ k/ou a> old orod^i U> iktAk 
At uJ], Aud bcOitiM ill men agree Alxfut iboio and n^m^ntM! 
ibc tnitU fn«tant]j awI Appnrrorly without mpnul ^urt, 
tlsej hAVQ coii^udod that Uicra tutut «xj«t au uitcniiig fso- 
illtjr of lti4 inij>«l fi>r <)iio«rtijnj- ti^Ux ftJiil wnjof;. It wotdd 
bviA !<^cal, becWH} jil] men judge indunilv and wkltoiit 
n^floction UiAl A bwly Till full to tho groondf t^ flrdutn thn 
CPQoliMioii tbHt imm |ivMCM«a > EAcnltf ivluob >■ iiifAUi1)lo 
for tbo dinH^niiivciit of all phj'tiCAl Intthft, To ll<^ to vual, 
to kill, to hefricnil one Atiothf^r, to food the Ijhhj^, dotU« 
t!i« iinkt'ti. Anil lioiM« Uiv dCAtitnUy-lbew atc b«t the A BO 
of mond fpii<i»ro. Evarj boi^j bnowv which of thews ato 
H0it iikl «l]krh arc vratig. Bot tlilbboot tlw vholo of 
nmrnl iv^nm^. It in t<^ II '>d1t whit the ruslimi^t^ of Aiitli- 
motw «n» to natJtctuatie* ; And thcrt m tnjdiio;* more drfi* 
tnlt In tlie whole fteld of niMhinsuUtat lli*n ie to be met wilh 
in tbo 6ehl of monk ; no ]woh1ein mot^ tMmv or knotty, 
na qnetfina loore t^oniplwatMl or profo-nnd.* EtfairM rcAlly 
ii A a^ivoe, the MriiMiiw of one lotpurlAnt clku at fanmno ao* 
tfo^^and k ean not b«nooonFfu%'lodic-l oniil it h treeted 
M eneh. Tn the gnwt doinilti of hamno actloa, ihon ara 
mulLiUide* of qttMtioiw wbL^h ibe eonviMu-o «eui not de- 
• ipAiHr, » Dtt« ij KOiks" pp. a«d, Bsr, tsa. 



nm riE'jm] ^uvMiuiifr about wlifcli ibe wiwfit aad tot of men 
iliffur — t^uifttions vhicti m» not to Iw wttlvd b; tbt» «Gt vi 
nnf fiumhjr. Sucli i]tjfMmiu reqiiiro rtiiiljf tuid ofton, liko 
mnthrm.iT.icjJ c)Tio*tLCTiK, c\*Ht- c&lc-al atton ; oo-, like qtU)dl>uM 
tu jJi^t-sivH, rt.'pL<4tvi vx]H-riijier]tL or, liko tb<MC of ofitrotiomj, 
obaiecratioiifl at long inCorvnli?. Kvury jHirMon W iduI wiili 
bach mor*! qiH^tiona in hin own cAjJcriorK^e, TLc btituUoa 
pCAMitt la Iii« tflrufoclee vfti\\ Itfi^ Hml the world Is liablo 
to b« wcifivDCcd, In hU hotMM cfiFortM lo do riglit, irith 
Minu iDoml dilooimiL !4upiJfi»c a tt^ij^ lAburvr, uitb a lai^ 
faniltj to niaiuralri, to be out of cLiiploymcDt and Id a neody 
C4>Tkdi(ion. f uppoM an nnwohby [vtliiimn to offcf bim re- 
lid on pondition tbttt he Tote and work for lki» elrvalioa to 
cofn9 reapoueible trust. Tb« qiKtttioQ bora u, ^To wbicb 
do I otfo tb(» ^^TcnTcr' datj' — to tbu comuuiiitv, ur tu isTMsLf 
id fnmiljT'' TbU iiML-*itii>n in alcarlj debatable. The 
ifHlitt would tetl Ijim ^iit liid diitiT to tfic fltalo wMft |iarfr 
mount, or tliat to aid a XmI man to powar wna wrr^i^ in i/td 
ofr«friW, and that il ww hU ODnJH;ioucu that told Ijim «o. 
Kutniv, on iIjo other band, a^ loudlr prorlaima tl» f>jip«ilo 
rfnty— nrlf.pTPArrt-Ation. Th*» lalier prompting i« not in Uiia 
CUV a tn^-rv impuW, otid iii, morDovor* hrgolj 4dlnU«tic. Bj 
varjinf- tlw ^.'sim; hu u tu rn«kt- t};c A&Q*fl flolidtudo wboUj 
for iho nfvty of others both motivra may bp <tf«iiMHvrd na 
altniktic; and, by further in»difj-ui|c fb« Lypollieau, case* 
miffbt be eonoeived in wbicb no ca«iJtfit (s>ij]d divide on 
wlucb fSdo Goiw^eooe woiibl bo found. 

Lcl IIS take nnotber oaee— one of tbe ccmtnoDeat tbat 
modrm !M>fii-ty pr<wQffk — a iromnn rtdu^ to a atato (A 
deatitution. Xotvitbvtanditiif ibc tboory of tntnttiy tbot 
•very woman bni a malo ^vipporler and protector, tills oot 
lias Wther. All areiiuce of utwfnloew arc cbMod to hw. 
She a#ka for work, it ie r«fnaod ; for diantj, it it lienied. 
fitafration and deetb ntaro brr in ibe fiio^, wbile abondance 
and luinfj sarroimd bor oq all vdc«. Ung aveouo alotra 



remain! op«n ti> bur. Two slIemAttvc coitm.'* nre before 
hcf to pvriib,orti>"£iii.'' A^^iiitft the laiter ^lie loav \iM 
out long. Nftture. dfjiuiidLtig cho pr^xorv;ition of L':iiex9iic^ 
wr«i4ll<?t with iMlnaUinn, dcrnjuidmg olH^itmro to Uit? monl 
ftnd ocnvtEiT^Q^ todtn. If tlic former piviail, and tliO 
woDJin I'xdungu Ler clriite for tHrr llf«, «octel,v, which be' 
foTo lind tiinwj hprr from itn <1o^rA,noir promptly lUli itH 
voirff »n^ prftooann^ her i frimiiu]. 

Mori cft*^ of ttiis clads are d«<rTd«<l Mroor^iiig to n^Utuid 
law. TLq EnMiiictiTo loro of lifi^ pror^iU ov«ir tli9 oo(3ef) 
an<l Xnmr& OMcrtB her ttopemirity ti> otliicatioQ. T«t tlwrc 
■r« «n*M of lU« ofiporiu* clftM, and Fn all oMt tli«ro li a 
tCruggle. Tt;e true Hliial qTi^lioii^i mvo]r«<J In each t4nig* 
glw OD oaty be auAuirrud !:■/ AM appeal to iIm; facU, Stioh 
i|iMfftIon« ore Dot to bif aruvTurvl by rvftirvoco to tirij' arb^ 
tnuymoral miM or Bh*tru«t prmd|>IaM of etlii^^ They are 
pfi>]><^Jy H^icntifLc <jiiv4li(>ri«, whoK^ Hcf^tion ^ti^pcTid* npon 
ill tbv dxctidifUutouii gf uvcli ivirticakr c&h;- Thwe cirvum- 
itAiMM niiDit bo knoim, lAd the ptveiu effect of both ihe 
promplMl Artadedu^ from th«m tKrforan&j'one UqiuUftod 
to tffty, Ttib iti right, or tliat Is wrong. OrtncnJ mltm will 
snUIoe only ^ti tlje sitopWt cmco. 

Ta ilTnf^tnitr frnoi oth«rr ^Mk It is 4 icfrn^nl rule ihat 
water freusHia at 33* Falir. But the raw nio*t b(r sfmple; 
irhm it beoomea compWx. iLv luw fall*. The witUjr mimt ba 
WUer aod nothing «te— pun) o:irf^ and hydro^'n. Tliv 
air mn>t b<i of a ei-rtoin cCnwitT kiv\ pttrify. OlhenriH^ 
calenUiiow baaed upon it will derlalo from the law. Tt i^ a 
e«ncnl law that cvkaial l>odie> move in cHipMn. But thia 
in Iroo only tu theory, Iq &«<, nu planet or a«tt*lht« movea 
In A p^cct ellVpdo. The motion U oompWic. Thcr not 
tittW inHnenrr oiw anntiicrr cauang wide pertarhationaf but 
Lh«ir riwai) path la but rvlaHT^ to >D tfiimmt^ irtattonaty 
point whicrb if thrir oomnion ronier of gravity. JJat, io fact, 
that i^fni \» ttsdf movinf:, lfo4 allowing for eueli hiflii- 
ODCca, the moon's orbU with rcfcrenco to the cnrtb i« an 



oIlipKf bot with Inference to jq ftbwliito iJoe Uifovgli apue 
it U ;i carva of iDcaleuUUtc inr^UHtj^. (^ it j« ft gcniml 

tilteuipt to dvdwe iinir«rtal lawi from tlieee rulw wosU lead 
u»»A fiu MtmjTBji votilil ihiMiAiudipli^in ifrnl Jill iWlinAfonly 
bixlicA tiKive in txat^ cI]4i»«_-t>. Tii*3 uxceptiotm arc (o& coin* 
uciL Tb« ctnrttHkHtuici-q &re too iiit^ved. SIinU SivUir 

mil jirwciTo good Pir« MaJt^kbio fn>m the honndt of (be 
lav! Shall lie In tiira mv^ u [xur vrnrtUott bnt innocent 
wr«u-li (roui tto ^lli'}'* bv nutklhg kuown bi« Identity, auij 
ikwtrvjiu^ hi« tiBcf ubivM i! Tiiwo oitr tnio M«vf cmh^e^nn- 
e^ Thay reqiifre arvmeiMng mon than xmaa '^dlaJceiits* 
{or ibcif proper eoIuTion. 

But th« qnr^tion of the 'ooiwdeoco retitnw. Admit ihti 
it i* tiii|N;rfiK!l ; udniit iLtt It k lablo t<J etr IUcd oibcr hn- 
mnn fft<Tutt*tia. Tlib ^ocs riot prorc lliur il i* tiot iinir«ffuL 
Do nof ail lurn form ^<rtmtf judgment upon eveij inoril 
nction, wbctlirr ttut judAtiK^^ coircict or inconrectl li 
tlitira uvt ;i pri:K*ipIv iff ri^cl^t pl^uitvd in vvl-tj loiiid, ibongk 
It toa; ofu-n err in lie applicai^n 1 

Ta thU, tiU-*^ A nc^ive nnikwi^ mokt bi^ giTfrn. In point 
of taeU tto OEM tvtr lir«d who never hwUti^O in ilic ikdiioo 
of iL uioni ijUwtioR. TuUv one LfkU of uiir uctH ivquin; imd 
receive delibcrutioii before wo are efttlelied that tbcy an 
right, U-i my nothing of the chnriAt^ for tlint d»^iiTon, nftc^ 
ull^lo bv vrn>rii-im. Ic k only in ibf? onlirivjr c1uie«i>f mtIb 
that i\m de<;i»ion U iDeUutAnoous* itnd tlit.-n it k oailj beeeflse 
it i» not tlte flret occftnon of thi? c!«j^ The e&mo doddon 
bu bc^n xnadr. a thaainutil linim Woru. The judgment U 
all rnadi! up. wHtlen out^ and itereoty|x*d in the Tiiiad, tto tliat 
it dow not tnokn aji inftaotanoous dwualoD at &U; it onlv 
applsee a U«d»!oa lon^ idsoe made. Wb^n IconuxJ, it uiak^ 
aw of ihr#o inoral lriitlj« in jiuc the f<aiii« mAium' ca ft dioei 
of nulbcmatical tmthn. A nun dof« not 1i«<iila£e lo decide 
a ^Lbobood wrong or a kiodnoe right, for tbe aaine fwott 



tliat lie dott ftoi bDeltaie to oaU two nn6 tvo foor, or t^D 
tiin<« bM A hundrvd, Fn both cau» he biu to find imt tbn 
troth linit It niiki^ iny tliflenrnoc hovr ftiai[>)o b tmili id, 
jiur ill wlul iJ('{Ariui«fltt it » foiinil. tt mnrt b« IcariKnJ t«- 
fijfv U can bo kpowii ; xi:d a11 t!j4«c npi-'urvntlj MpubUnnoitt 
intnitiocift of r^it Btnl wron^? an |iml(«|jr uutogow to the 
Appaiwitl}' i4pockFjUki>oi)i a]>plic«tioik» vlricb mvn mtJco of tho 
IdqI ii|i| i;T«l ioit ' tiibici 

L«t m naxi «ou/ddcr Ui« nketntng of the wordA rit^M a&i 
iTtctf, j^ui'if and j'vntMviKit, in connnHMkO vish rHif>i»v/,/»uMi4A- 
m<Htt nod r«^pon«t^i^jr— ■!! of vUicb beloug to a cotnnuiik 

TInito bju been downed to be "llio doing of rigbt, at 
obedieiU'^ to moM^Vnar." T Inkr tliia Juflnitiofi fniui Pr. 
IVijUotra ** Uuml ticicuoi?/' a kljuid^nl t^ct-boj):. I do not 
k»ow bow ibu 1W0 bmjicb» of tlmt d«llntc«uci wore mtv&d«d, 
wbcclicr an *Tn<»Djii»OD« or Altcmftiivc, tboogk tbo former 
■eonu marrt in luirrannj- ukb tlio f^nlrxL Bnt, m "thn 
doing of rigbl,'* jwd ^<ib<xtIcocc; to cotacuairv,'* »k two 
dletincs tfab^ ao toiudi eo that tb<>r &re ofTun iiiconip^'Ui% 
U vrlirjv ooa«d«nco pronnpU a pcnoD to <lo wKit » in rtalltjr 
WfVtt^, A e*A^ tlot ofteo occurv. the rieJiiiiifua in tlint Mmne 
■tnJliAw Iti«ir If ukt-n in ibu Alt«nutlTDf It niAVi** tbe 
word virftt^ an nnbigiwiu t«riii, fomcifmcft moflnr»^ on« 
ibio^ luid ftomctiiMi lootbcr. For, if a pnr^n ittimding to 
do witinf; ».)i<iuM mbbikc tbn cflwl of bis net, uid iv«l1r do 
Hp:lit, tbe »ct would, :ki.<voriJiu^ iij M^ d(.tfli3fiii>ii, be a vlrti* 
Mu uoe. Or if, mtoiidinf; to do H^ht^ bo *.hoM^ tbroi^ 
defeclive judgment, f«&l1jr do wroi^, tbat net would, bf tW 
Mmo dHinillcMi, bIaq Iv a vhiDOiift on«. Of, mt tzr m tliv 
ilcb'nirion goc«^ «flbvr of {[umb we^ jtdgiA ooiHlftot« rtc^ 
BcOf of courw, tbw nutbor w.>ul<l not ecocpt otir definition of 
Hffht f^wpret, pp, 110, m), wbirh ie tb«i ulflitAriiLn »nd n/* 
tbn amrp1*<l ono. tli« titiu-r btit% u w» fc}ii>wn, im^cwntlde 
■nd roily cncftninglcM. The tunns t-ir^M^ iml ri<* tin dW 


of mch A loo«fc nature tLatf *a popotarlj emplofod, thc^y 4o 
fiol ftdniii of tvchiiic^^l dcfinjiioTii. Th*^ in^jr^ Itoirvvor^ be 
nuulv u»vful wunli liv (;uitfitittig tlteiu lAcb to vonic Qtn; 

It iM rrnc fhftt tlic pcrfnnnjinrf' of falnuty nnd bonrfirinl 
ACtm williout rg-fvrvncc to Ibc motivt^ v often tcfine<J virtil- 
ODH, au<l tbo perfunuuut'^ uf lujurli>u£ and pt-ruivioua aetit, 
for wbntcTffr rrsaon, i>^ culled vicu. It h inie. :Okj^ that llio 
fyiTAOn who do»i irh^t hc^ hdicvcji to be right in <-JLllnl a virtit- 
OUB pcrvon, >nd oiic who i« tbou);bt to (ki whHt Iw belierttt 
to bt* wrong k caiHed n vicbua one <tliotigb ihi* laiier aJJoo- 
tiTp fa* rarclr applied to pcrsonfl), eo ihnt in popiilnr hn^Rf^ 
thp tcrmj" li^rni to hnvc diffr-M^nt mr^ningK iin?orHin|c w ihcy 
(m; UMxl of Actions or of pvivotu, approaching tynonymy 
with riffftS md vT<mg in ibu first eftw^ a»d witb tntEKViKV 
and yui'/j in the nrc^ond. The lalttrr is mu^h ncaivr the litN} 
iiik^niiiii^', but the Iciv wc bi&vu to do with nicb tndeflnito 
terme the bolter, cBpeoially wbc-n dcfiDlEe one* crq be fonnd 
l6 ftxpwm evwT phwc of the Mibject> 

I1i« tirniiH fitiH und irinocvwo^ aJ^ ■tufficttfUlIj' deHnlte, 
Iwt aitfoHinintctj tlier are not i<x?Let oppn>ite«f the Utt£r 
bring onlj- & prhtdw of Uio forincr. Tbv Grd ^xprtsjeft % 
d«i)iihv qualitjr, bat tlio »ccond ontjr tbc abBc!iU!i> and not th6 
dpptvSte of tltat qnnlitT. T^>t)i nm tubjc^tk^?, uiil oom- 
0pond With tV* objtrtivv riuulitif* hliim&blcncw and landft- 
blenen; or tiie fi1n)Ujrvr Urrniit puniithablirifHi ujnd rewirdabl^- 
nf*^ AIT of thwo Idoi* aw fm^iwnlihi fron* i^iat of n^npon- 
ailnlitj. To »bow bow thi* mbiivt Km Iwon trr*ti**I, Irl Dl 
onev more refer to the author wh<iw dufitiltion of virtvio wia' 
qnot^ kboro, 

E^lik-ntlyin Pcucbof tHctrtrtlt,hcukflth»qii>etU>on: "la 
tJio hnpnUo of *^Tw/*r«i«\ In a moralljr irnperfi'^i beinie, tho 
limit of monl ohllmtton T** Atid he proct-^NU m amw^^r it 
tlitu; "Tbia will, T iin|)p<w>, dfrpond upon Ihr follonrtug 
rymsidemttoDA : I, IBi Vnovltwrirc of tJic rvhtion* in wl»ich 
lie tUDd». If be know not tW rebticow in wbtch he iUwfe 




,ti> oilienf uid /iaw not tA§ rrutma t^ hwv^^ eA^rn, bo h 

Tt, and ^^ny not imprt^v^ dL^M rriAtni, li« iji^uiltj, ^. HU 
witl dcpciMj oo iht faum of tlilb iiiif>rrf<>,.-i]uD of JjIa 
4Hm*c>vnc«. Were UiU inipcrfoctlou of ci>iwdvu&i uot tlie 
rmalt of liig oim act, Le would he guilttcaflu ]!ut, Itt Jtid m 
fir a» it ):< tI;R rVMtit of ftU oiC^ Cftnduct^ W If) n«pon*i1.iIi>, 
Aiid, inumncli u iniperfvc-lion of coukicdoc or (liniiouliooi 

pjoni capecvt/ qui rvBult fivuj oolliiDg Uul vuluuturjr 

it^reffloQ, I mppoAi bu mist bo fmarei^blo for llie 
*lio!« amouQt of Unit iaipt^ectmn--^ 

The Abort dlati<»Q miijr pn^babljr bu takvn u a fair ttni' 
pie of tlic viewi gf ibe ^tt^\ of tbeolc^^lco-moral «nt«ni. 

AcconJtiig to thU do'-trinc, t1ie^«/{^ft^'of an adJon do- 
pendj^ flml, npfm tbc IcDOTrliMlg^; whi'li lite ngrnt linM of tlin 
rtUlioAt ID iHiwh be stsmle to tliove aiTi^tcd ijjr t!i« ■citon; 
in otber wovtb, liU guLIc depends upon wLvllier \w knovt 
ithat it will injure otbcrv^ L «., ul^clbcr he knowft it to bo 
■vrron^. Srii for tbia in all y^Tj irnll, with lhi« ov^^r^igbt, chbt 
aa for V his ffuiU i* cuciceru«d it miMt in al] rcwmi bo ilio 
imv if be LhUuvmI it vroog, tboii^ il wvrc not, u if liu 

lifted it wTor^ and it wcrv wrong. So that, to have been 
insisl«nl, he nboul.l buve n«ed Utc word MiVvv, ru//MK, or 
MinJt, in UkO jtlaoc of " know.** 11« tli«n goea on to vy that 
if hu doM not knoWf and hat lad no nmna of kivowtng, that 
th« aiot id whMi^, bi" U innocent, wHwdi Lt ccndnljr rodoa- 
«bie. Koithor h tlxrro uuy pirtit^^olhr objei^LoB 1o th<? lki>xt 
point, tlol, if bo Uoo know, bt? u* guiltv, A» fur a^ tho idea 
if guilt at all b ttdi&hilblo, ihia rotjn bu Inw, urt»u if br tmly 
«iid ^rroMottdj tlktw^ the net to b« imwg. Bu: wbat 
aball wt wj of Ibo profkofttion that, if be do Dot know tJic act 
to bu wTooff- yc\ Ifl^auvu ba bud had the nM^nA of Icamiogf 
tbiflL whldi for anj roai'^n tir hm) i>ot improved, liv i« l» b« 
Md g<"'<7' ^^ >^ l^*^ ]tUn?. it u In direct coiiinidi<!4ioin 
of tbo Hrvt priudpic of moinU [i<*1d bj the aamc writer,* 



thtt "the <|iulitv tie* in the Sntentioo." For, ff Ke did Mt 
koow iLe vri U> be wruiiff^ no ma1t«r why, he oerturttj «cii1d 
Doi tuUrad to do wr^iitg in of^miuiltiiig it. ^G-iliing could bo 
clvoror thun thh^ In llio i'Vc<»ii(l plncv, it aM«u« Uku prvjod^ 
inf; a CLv i^iin^ a peraon, to Ic^i Mtn XhM ho u aocodI^ ro- 
tp(>Q«n>le i*JT ibxl wlikh ht^ knc-ff hdter tlun to dos bat diO 
for llut which tic u-oahl luvo knowD IwUcr ttuui U> i^o if luj 
b/t«l latfPit i)]rj*pAiEif to liuil ovit, Boiiks, tbo doethoe k 
oomiilrCAlvil^ vi^iie, Lind ind«flrLit«, Importtnt ipmttfoiMof 
the n»l iniric9i1« cbAm^ter 4fO ococMwrilj inrotr^d mil, 

(]U(i any imc be <Ai<l t^:} Iuivl^ sucIj luean?, aficr all the qiia1Ld> 
ntJ6D4 h&ve bran ■flamed, if h« in fa<'t doc» not know it 9 
For amoTi|f thfv>^ qnaHtiraiioTiii in mobitlrd tW of diiinotin^ 
liou to iiivcvligttCu. Add if only i-vrUiu ^^lULlUkatJoju an 
oUovabK wtiSdi aro tbujt Wh»t d«t«rrlnff inflncnecA are to 
be iwnntrd nnd whar on--* ivjnrti^d ? Sii|>prAp ib^ incftDs of 
lirmwinjf wrv ui a bov^k, but tbv j)cr]u;ii lis^ oot learned to 
read tKN>1c«. lie itiav lmt« bwl an opporlnttily to t«Qni to 
runfl, but for (r-nw rcitBon 1ia£ cIlomh t^ dcrfifr al! bl« limii 
to E40Tiii't>[]ii|; uI*T. Pfrrbflpn tic ww poor, wid ha* U'^n com- 
pcllM to bibor AOM to Wve neglcdod faw education- (lo 
maj ban livm no titnat^d ttinl hy inakin^ t* eertuin mcrifice 
be tnl^ have leom^l to read, but cb(i»c nat to do »i\ Or, 
snppQAO he could roarl, but imctrad of rv^in^^ that iMHircUr 
book, be ha* cbo«oti t<] rrad xwiic otFicr, und liiim, during the 
meant, jut bft4 not acqijalDtc*d ti3ui«elf nitti llie facl« n-hicb 
would hare f^vcm«d bl» conduct. Or, ffopp^ttc eome one 
with n'liotn bfi irw dnilv (Bi»r>dftiM. pos*«»rd tlio infomiA- 
ti(»iT, bur tin hrtd norer tbooj^bt or bwh IS* Iv uirnkQ the nwca- 
•arjr bu]uirie«. Or erim aupi'ote be bad hco& told tbie Initb 
or t^oil read It In eomc book, but Wl, from anj caitdt, con- 
utittitkioal or otlwir, failod lo p^v» it crvdetiw, or failed to 
findersUiiditfOrbarl ibimmderrtood tltOMmdenlAudii^and 
bfli^^Tfufc it, bull aflcfwanl, fmm ooolTMlTotoiy reports or 
from bi« ouu rviloctiona, vitlid»TB bla belief. In wbicdi of 


t\] tlittfte caM«, or of ah tnHnil* nQciber of otben luviu^ 
iivt97 d«gTTO afi4 thmlo of ooaooetlon whh liie iot, jtit aU 
lunfflciuDt to nojthi tEt comminiioni » he lo be h<M tano- 
c«fil, and in which gnILt; t Where ii the line to be dnwn I 

Bot m «ril| pA«L on to Iho aMond doctrijie* tJut uf i«> 
i])oii4iUUtv fiir ifi-^- iiD^wrrixTticin of cousciaooB. It vMl Sv 
ceen thai Pr, Wajbii4 uuk<« ft clutui 6w««p of hU own pr^^ 
\'irvij« <}itflifK4tion, nnd <WUrefi ittillj' thai aU Q3«fi art rilUIj' 
of nil wrOB^ ACl« oomDiittod in contfoqnvnco of fo-trMnii; nn 
\R\\Krhdt vofMclauev- Hiii rvRwni forlhfii im, tbftt nil diEni- 
nutloD of moTft] capufHv old n^ult from Df^thing but vnltttt- 
tKVjT tmv^n»(i«>n. T&Jin, of couree, 11ow« frotii ibc aMamp- 
tion tJiBl th« fodilcd moril fvmtt u origin«lly jJ«vfovt £a 
orvrj bunuu ImIi^. 

As w<^ bfttt^ alivxij eonsideri<d iKU iDoril mmc, wid txy^n 
ihlo to tte iMlhio)^ In ft e?T«ept a& iotWI^ctual jttdtKimia 
rvipflvting Hgitt aod wrong, it will omIjt bo nocawnry to 
itmuk hcrt thnr there iis rimrly no retunn why a ponon 
told nnt AA wrll bn hM n^T"^'^^''' '<^^ ^^^^ imperfection 
bifl rtA«oa vT bia mvniorj is for tbol of liii coaaci^noe^ 

It » aeoreolj umevBUj to ndd tliat tlic ulililviaa pL£- 
lij fwccpA Bwnv ol! thiji wortlilcM aunuMry. OoikuM- 
Itly hdd, it nfJMtB the ikMion of mora] reiponilMlity, and 
idT0cs1«s |}|« adjutlmvnl of tlw dmmiatauww bj wliloh 
mo-a are mrrcmnded in toob t roi&Mfr ba to chum tbe pvr- 
funfinnra of Hgbt actiona raibcr limn iJm piuiitlimcnt of 
wrotif; aaa wbirh can oot be undone. Tf wroai^ ha» lji?«in 
dono, there tniul have hvL-n a «iim in tbo natoro of tbiogt. 
The gMivrvl caUFo of wrong ^Kim of Uic deIibt-nMivoul»aia 
Iprnonuico, Of ito ag^vnted form, error, and tlte con^vpood- 
ii^ ^itpnil r^nftfly for ibis will bo cociridorcd in Chapttra 

Tbtf rxpifHEiiecit of dctcrrinp from inmiontl roridtiot bv 
thruu of futoru ptint^bmcQt has faliod, vt proToil bj the 
ndmiMion nf iho«« who ^opt iKftt metliod tlikt tht* i^Dcnd 
coon^itjr of Umt world docA doc unprore, Tlila, U la tno^ 



•ci^TK^ r1rM>« not gnnt, bnt MCnbes t)ie ti3a1 in)proT«R»iit 
Uut bw takvn pkcc ti>oiUire]^ ff iiFvroQt c«lKOi^ (fN/riii p, 5(>j) ; 
jct iL ik«a mitiiiUin tlitt tbu theory uf jium«Ji envoi, usil of 
revardfi a,\m, exerts a tnoro or leu dcmomUzdn^ iiiflitL^ici^, 
iKuiCR ihtf r!r<i M Aolion i« tlicrrbj^ nhiftrd fmin tLai of doiiig 
ri^lit luid tkvoiditig wroQji; to tbjit <if obtititiifig rcwird aikd 
esoupiiig ^miiuLriitfot, which are b^ oo mtsHm iOcnti«:il ivib. 
Tho chief HToogs omui&tc from tlio Lead and col from Uio 
henrt, anil thr twlc of making lut^n do whAi thry thint ti 
rl|^l is & f^r VeaA iinp^irlAnt one than that of vTuhlini; \li,vm 
to 000 whwtvin tliD right livf^ Titu mirvet nion) guidi\ iJicre' 
fD^^, i»a inowloif^* of tbu nUtioufi wliicL each lEkJividntl 
BoMafna to lila feUoira, to fiocl;Tt>, and tu tl]« w<irld in gm* 

It foI3oir4 fn^m vHint lui^ b99n said that ivlut &ra mllod 
inonl cmltaro and iDoml oiiucation am iiuttttm »f minor 
connim. TJiu ri'il nionil «(lti«aiint> id iiiielleolobl educfttiuo, 
lLv ^uc^on of ill for mutton (M'n/>^ p, &dS}. 

Tlie Bvord nf «idocation k Cwood^od; it k» moldt Uj« 
mind and eoottitutUtu, ou tlm ouv bund, u to render tlie ni> 
iJonal dftflrM mpmno over the impttlelve, and^ on the olh^r 
IiKDd, it ttfiKhoft what tight orttuuU in. It i< rdiiCAtiori 
tliftt foiiu* i^iiriiontt ; ihi»« Iw^^t >ol>li<mB, aud tliMv m luni 
JBiplfe ftoliojis; fio thai if tl;« edne»tion bo foond tho ac^ona 
will hr mnnd. All mtm do^ u a grnrml rnlo, whit tboj 
conittW for ihf. bnl. In a italA of natiin- tli«j w gov- 
enuHl iiiJiiiilj h_v iinpuW. Th«y «r« »o Kovt-rtied. in a ftrvat 
OMWUrCf OTUQ in civilijroil lifi^. J!»t vurii acU kto ixinfincd 
lolh^grttifirjitzonof the !iuinedUt« domnndA cjf the bod^. 
Thf^T ftrr an iniiifiTiificanl «-Iaas. Mo»t aciiunA wlii-c-li ;;rNtlj 
nfTtvt th« liAi>{>4u««4 of oihcn belong fo tbc rational eUm. 
In i\Kso all mcti cocviiU tlw in^Mtwt good. TIk^ oftvn fail 
to attain tluii end booausG ^ort-dghtod. ElZiIcnl qowtlobfi 
tivn fi^fT dilBpiiU for thi^m. Bnt thry nn*<^iilitled to tha*<^r«lit 
of wwkinji ih^ object, K%'eti if tlicy tw]c their own iDlcrrAt 
at tbo «xp«o«» of that of othcns it b bv>jauae, iu Uivlr udDtk 




ami Willi iWir lunv^ umkiytatkiliftg, thcj uDom Uic mIrrvtiU 
of all tho -Ti^M U) Iw kWttUowvd up in Utcir i>u'u- It u niill 
IbegmucAt good » tUvjr nudureuud it. Tlie two jiriuury 
i|ii««tion4^ thL.'r«fi>r<*. »rp; L Wliiit will l^ tlw> Hf«4 of A 
l^wctac-lf 4n<l, ^^ liowiholt it t>i^ miul^ apjKirentf ThcMt 
problvni* jiropurljr bv^ung lo Ujv olLui' fpfsivnl »ub<liv«ij<in uf 
i]eUI>CAlJvi> atrtiona. whore iht^ wlU be <H>nsi(Ierei3. 

lUtumirife to tho ffibjoct of rmpoiunhilit)-, wg finij iha% 

Utllo ti»mjua» to hv nAid. The |>Hn4^ipW inrolml nujr 

t?<l up iu tt few t^ritvTjc^A. Thure » no siioli thiug 

of guilr. Kvury 0<^i1wrslivo set u ju*t>lkHi lU xiiat 

time commttUMl. AU Hnp^iOA.^ i^ilt o»ex bv acooiiDt«d for 

pn <nia or otber of Um tUrvc* ful1<.iwiii^ prinriplo* : 

1, Uvn Uiirik oCbon ^iU; bccAivc they do wbjit cA<y 
(Uli) tlkiiik wrong. 

S. Ui^n think tboniJielreB giiiltj' of ifi^ which th^j^ ■^^I'rw 
icarc/ lOv tu baf« be«kn wrong, 

S. Hvn tniMakfl fmr of punifiliriiiFnl for reiitono of coo- 

Tbo tirst of thr»o oUmm S« bj fu- the brjrntt Krvlj 
fill that ii pronounofti wrooi;; b ao n^nkil ui&ply beauuo 
tbe poiij ju<i|riii? diflifm in o|Knion frvio the pftrty {>crfoRil' 
log the ikr^t. Tlio pruUibUtlj of tbu act lH:ii^ ri'^t u 111 tho 
long ran o<itiAl to that of Its belo^ wroiifr, and the ogrjil in 
ea^h raao fnllj jn«tilt<?i Kin vomfitrt All tlnl k reqnirod In 
flodi casca u dtnplj to know on «bicli udu tbo ng^ti lioi. 

Th« MWiMid ^ak b by no mcnm iv«. Bttnomc at cotb- 
fni; mfyte tlian a dbagrfteabl* ataio nt mind aH«lnjt out of 
tho mbarqnc&t dMCOMfiD^ of tho injnrionii vS«ct of an act, 
eooplod witli llio mWtakou itnpreniou that it «ouIil h%V9 
Wo prvvirntod. If the at-t wae a ddfljcnOi! one, the party 
ffimply for^c# the drcont'taiioci anrronndtn^ it, and the 
«tat« of mfnd eiij^iog at the tinifiof )t« comniuioti. lie 
etwa now ao plaiidy liial it via wmvg, that hu Mppoaua ho 

_ ma^t hare known thai at IJ^ titna^ whim to rtality he the* 

I took the i^MMito view. 



1 du oot uv lliat nn ono oTcr don what bo b«UvTV4 to Imi 
ng. Tlu» irottkl b? too broj/i. It nc^U to W t^iulitiod, 
the i|iiiiliiIc&£Etm rv<|(iWJ is lo rv^tfict il (o coisa of rv- 
f^no/ aclIonA. If ft pcnoa «ver doniiltB 4ii «cc whldi lio 
binuelf boli^vo* ftt ilui rime to 1>q vn^ng, it is bcenaw hf» 
^pulHA uv slivngvr- tUjm hit rcwwti, n&il oiiftTido H. 'Xho 
j»:t b (if the JtHpiilHiTe dfl«a^ while tbc oppofttto i«t of ro- 
fntiTtiiT^ fft of the mtional cIjim. Bat tbfl ititpulw £a atronf^ 
ihau (be roiiwiii ftrid it miut trimnpL. To rt^rct ««ch tti Act 
(t to ^ C17 for »iii|]uil luitk.'^ To bbuio inioV ncK vr uiothur 
formii^ actfiona U the buFght of folly. Ft la f«r bdtcf tA 
set ftboni tW work of Atrmgttienitig tho niiional powors «o 
that thi^y mft^ htid tbc» pa>tiion« in check in fatoro. 

Ittit^whrrv thu jwt irc^iiimiUiAJ b ft livlibcntito ict a*woU 
as tlui^ uct of Ttffmiiiiftg from Uh oMnmiiAioti, !rt micb t fwe, 
tho role hold* i^ood that a p^j^n Dcvi«r perfomw it if &t the 
tlrjio \i*i beli^vee It to be nrong. I am awara tJiat this will 
be gcncmlly qocAtioMKL Bat it » bocacnc of Iho difllcaltjr 
in dgrcrin^ ahnot what roiwlitutrji n tvntie tii vronjif^lciing. 
F**v,' will adiuit Ibal, ii'!iv*pe oric perton d<Jibvm«-1r cheaCtf 
»fiolii4»r out of niom^t, lie btIioTe» be ie duJng H|;hl- Il la 
true ibcil \ic. knnwii ho b; not ilnlng rvhaX the moral c^^lo pro- 
noiinet^it rij-h<^ But it vill aIvavh 1m> found tlitt he Iu0 aoffl« 
ffpemi rruAfin for »j?lf-jnN|iflcAtiob. The rfiry Ue± iImI U ia 
for h» Dwn interctt n (dilQcictit to niako it r^ht to him. 
For with liim the gnutoiC good to hinsaclf b the pamtaoant 
motive- He is not eapabloof wei|i;litn(i: propcvljr Oic^ argn- 
mtnta which ur^ him to doaiat. Any roaion whieh fAVora 
MsLf hdfi a t^afoM power, and fi&ds a jiiHtili<^i<>n iu the k-iut 
eonaidcnlion. !To tlicrcforc yatt na miicii hulit^roi it for tbo 
heu aa though tbt^ artton w^n in rvaliiy a praWwoi^y one. 
Ijet floy one nho diipolfa titU tn hb onlwl ite^k to ns»ll ai>t« 
of hiH own, and bo will probably liavc no dijBiritky, if <nndid 
la bb purpoae. In nM<o11fleli«K many that bo hu himwtf per> 
formrd whi^^i ho kn<^w wefo oontrary to the j^rvml mUn of 
aocioty, and vhicb ho knew accMity vociM vomlcEmo if thoj 

EniiCAi aLi;sioNa 


woramtdo pnUi^vyo* be thought thorn righr ftt tho tiiiio,u(J 
periiM|w *tiU thinks ko— «cto ttuU lie Lad hi* om privjiti- 
rMMiB* for bctievinff ri^cht^ aniJ for which lie itx\)y jii«titi«ij 
Linjuelf against ftll liie w()«ld. Now, hocaoH bu tia|ifi«ii« h> 
chjLng\j lib mind ■ftimnnl, chb (loot &ot in Uid hiut ahor tho 
ouF. Kor do(d it aJi«r tht cue bwnun he forKCCA whftL UEa 
■tutu vf ujiiiij waft, or ituki lo ii:>Hi« what tboiO privato in- 
i^ric^r vuD«<l«ntioiu were thiit docidotj tJio m^L It i*; ih/t 
fuH^ tJmt, ill inch coieit, mca fccDcrallj ito foil to reproducs 
eiftclljr all iniernfl] and ostcm:U drvamniuiecs Ifaftt infln- 
vtwod Ili«fli lo porfonn bh aoHon > liirh tlicy afterward think 
thi*^^ Mu 1o fattviT IwvQ wroiijc, Uiut ^ivM riMf to all cauMi ol 
regret aod reoioRC, exoepc th<ee whero the M was die rtsult 
of a siomoatarr impulM of ImpMikmod doidnv a* before de- 
•cHhcd. And tJiU k all thiwe u of remorae. In «ilhL<r GUitt 
it ii au|^c«0|>lucaL and u ^nj\3VT uadenlandimir of ica p^- 
ditjlo^ca] ori^ and nolnrc will go far to ditnitiMb ita m* 
fln(Kne«f and mn}' evcJitniklly ^fliminutv U altofceihtf, 

Tlie third cane. rix„ where ui^n Tui^talcA f«arof punJak* 
inoiit for coofciencv, [Lrivm in the fcjUuwin^ nunncr : Thcjr 
Bijttuke ilxt fMrwln*:b thof onttTUiia of U\v |H;tialtieii erf 
|NMitjre lav for ihe cona|ninrtif>nK of cnnacH-oue. Tliey have 
bouD ^Qoatod to n»puet and ohcy tliib Uw, and harv^ avon 
been taojrlit timt the objci4 of Ik w is to ** cmnitiand what 
iH Hi^itand jiruldhil what iswrfing."* Tliiiirav«rvuc« tot 
Uvr hat heoB tUoronjetily kixitik^l Into their eonetitMtkmi 
by fi Bf riw of gonaraticni d edo^^ion in a ptnumbkr dlrac- 
tiim, nntil ibcirpriTal* jodgmoniandnwirtal indcpendcaue 
hnvv ntAAy dbappMnxl, and tbejr h»v« alauM douw t«J bc- 
li«Tc that what th^t "■' powem tluU be " hxvv erdalmxl a» bw 
jtiani \,9 rijcht at all oveata. Thoy ihftr^fon* lo roreiwiee 
hiinion la«' tluL, though tliv^ inroluotarilj ditohev (la arbi- 
trary rMjnIrvtneiita whef« thcj- conflict with their ji>i%ni«nt 
and IntnltiT^ nm^f of dotr, jtit wh» bro«ght to trial befura 
fte angnvt tribiinalm Ibelr Ii4«editaxj? re«p«i for Uw often 



reinnta, ai>d tbcf xni vfody to confiM Ibuma^rat ^Qty for 
wbflt tlio^v bod deemed obedieriou to tbu dictut4t» of tliciri 

Tliv iiBit jcy of tbu lif«, oliAnct«r, ccanlacl, and vxociUion 
of I^/ Jartv Grvy nffiiink a liia- iUtttimtion of lJii* pirint* 
HUtuij anjniu bi-r of ftU j^uilt, luid plftoa licr Among dio 
faDOceol Tictivu of potilical wid iv^ifeioaa pMiiMuKon; jvl, 
ftruige tou^tf^Hc cmfputc* her guitt nn the icafroTd, and 
■ic^nowlcdgw ttuil dcMtlt ia lUo lewt pvnally tliBL iJie oti){)it 
to cx|ii>cC froiii an Injured autc. YcC uo one Enp|KK«« thac 
pbrr dfvm^i-rl hcrwlf i^iiHy at ihe time of conmiittii^ tiic arta 
foir vvlticb lici' lifv iru tlt^muQiivd, 

A» ti form of i^ilt, rrfW dn^ vee a sv|Mnit« cou^idc*^ 
lion. I coold not ^isonn k with that doUit which its impor- 
Unec liemnndft witTiont ev^viCiliiig the limitaof iho pruicnt 
chajjtcr but will rentcro a verjr f«w tvifiarka of a fiiitd^ 
iMataJ chftntct«ir, fi>r tbo piupow of ahowing how lljc ticwa 
ftlrcftdj- exprtff^. <m ihc wbjcct of bumou ftccioriA uj)jiljr to 
thU piiiifTtilar claMu 

An HCliuii tM>^ome« rriniWI wbonc'i^r it rviea to iW Im* 
|H>rtano9 of a iiuUk: injuiy* Thie \mtorv of cnmhiul law 
i^own uti timt the bMndarj-lino wpatatin^ tlio Poeial fnim 
the civil <^do has advnciood with the deKT«« of dnlixacion, 
§4}Mft to bring manj afta fflrmerlv h<»loii^ing to ^e domnin 
of t]>a fonner under tliat of the Jaltor. Tli<> lime liaa boeo 
'WiiJiia tfao hdtlortG perioJ wbi'n nations only pQulahed atcU 
Crimea na tToafonr nheDloo, And ciihor attompM npon ihi? lifo ^J 
of tb« Htate, Thejr did not re«c^ii» ninnlrr ancl robbery ^H 
a* LTtQiv^ affaiiwl tlw iilata, and tbL'Jvfon.- Mi ihent lo bu n^ 
drvctovd b; the injured pvtiee, TLi; ^n?8eut Ui«>jr^ of criml- 
aal law ia that all acin ticno mi noted erimoi; ans in llic nntisPD 
»f atucha ttpon the etato^urxiD the ut^aX onkr CHnbca be- 
ing nctioM arii^of conrw. diviKiljle iiUo tbo ivogrwt elaw w , 
irapul^ro and delibvntiv«i. Tboj trlao out of donm bawd 
vpou eUher a ph>'«ioal or a menUl atate. Hcii^ thcdr u1>jv<M 
ii klw^ Iho nttafactioD of dfsii«. TIk^/ tbereforo dilfor, 

oOicf [onionl »eU onl^ in tbo ^t^cwa of ilicir ori! eU 
focta, aniJ In th«dr tangibilitj', qroiimliiUlj of beioj^ puiiMhtri 
or pt«Tcnt«rd, 'Uko kU other ueu, oHin«e are Uie nonenu^ 
conMv|iicfi(*o« of tli4J pfertkniAr draomKUtUM that pv^aoo 
tlicni. Tbv tbeory and prijciicA, th«rcfor^ uf panudunetit for 
critDQ are vnMMind- Bat, U nuy be avktid, wliul Jiall t>o 
ilr>iic:f ^hatl ve penult orinti to p> unp^aifilMxl kiuI to 
ftfmriib f Dom not the grcuCcr port pf McieCy ftgrvo « to 
ffliat coMtitut«* crime io moM oaiea, aikd §1ulL it not bo 
allowifd to imkc nuiauret to proveut JtT Ortushr, But 
pruvoititw and pufil«hmcDt ore iJiffijnjDt thingik 

(All tOTirtd jnmt« naw iignw tW the prevonTiOQ of crime 
titnaUi be t)t« »ul« objvot of cninSnaJ pramdingia. Tlw moA 
off(i<:titv meant of juxUfupliHUing titifr object voaUl bo nolf- 
pnitoctiiii; UiTft In tlio iiat«t« of vqaaUxitig ri^htu, but uJt^ 
mntely ihi* mi^hl Ifo fttiTiplornentod or <it«i *b'Jlv tftipor- 
»ocled by affraciifv cn«u»m (vol i, p- ^>. Tbi? Ktipremn 
jireveotiT^ cif criuiv if, of DOvrMf, pcDnnl iotelligoiMv, wliicbf 
iw irill 1k^ dhoirn In Cliapccr XIV, o«n oidj be nvbutviI by 
DOTOo «nob BTRt^^m of fti^rrMOg knnwledgo ftA ta ekeidi^J in 
tliat cbipKir. Utrt, oven if «icti n *y*lem *prej»(iopt«!, tiicrc 
\ro\i\i} be 4 lon^- irniiKitivri pt-rioil tiortng vhicb cniac would 
nfiiiins to btr dieckcd. This fionld bo accompUilicd by pro- 
i^trtire Tff^tioQft^bttmnniv uul pM1r«opKiml In dioraflcr, 
but riifidly mf<)rordi^ 

Tlic mod*? of protcctinjc MCicty &ood not differ- vvty 
proMlj from tlut oov pnfritr^ed. Tlvf^i^Ht^onld, hovretert 
ho VPTT ditftrr-itt. CoAfiitoment i« protuMj thn molt hIh- 
lAry mvnna of |ift;renting crunL\ bcit it ALL>u)d aim only to 
prercfut luiam crim*\ and not to tnlUet ptiBiaIirm*nt for pa«t 
<-rinio. Tli4^ fonnor i^f t\w^ objeirt8 If already vlminbly v^ 
cuiu^pHftlicn by rrAtrioting the n^t^odcr to locditiCA wbera ho 
QUI r»oCdowlnt bUinipvrftvtnaUireprevnpt^lihiilodo. But, 
lu now irtn]>]orud in watt filorcs it ^■'^^1'= t" ^"f^Tirv ibit BnVil< 
frrtUy pareiwrnnt ohjixTi, vu^ tlio rcformfttion of Uie cHiittnnl. 
!f\tt treatnent of rrimlnak OQ|^t to bo made w moch n 


ACn0?r.-.5B00KDAKT UEATfa. 

ificn^ 4« iho [roin^i'Ut of dlnaitt;. Critmni ane tho rliimMwi 
of #Oi.ielT. Thf>7 Are, horOTer, mfmtaJ in chviUterT aoil a 
placo of c(>Qfitioincttt foo- cnn^inaLt tJioiilil W Hrrangod wilL 
FpwJft] rufuTcmw lo tbu pAtholugi^^ UtntxiM^iic of ihch'dbor- 
licred miniis. «. «.. ftdftpt^d io effect thoir refonii. Ndihcr 
»lii>ald ttic h(x1j of Iho rrimfnal bo negl«rteii, niueh )e«« 
ibu«c«l, Huec tlie FTt^nj «a»di c&n only prujwrly oxid in O0»*- 
jvrw ^wjkJi But, HB criuu9 is nsuHlljr duu lo vKlxr ignorviOD 
or prror^. ^.feJihcTtollie want of ^oetli gvoicml ta^nuntaneo 
widitbfliirUtioRfvrliii'hlhR criminal puiibinii to ROcicfjr Mid to 
the vuHd Jil l4r)[c aifi woufd, if umloretood, liiru rvndurvd tla 
corniitiwton LiupowiUe, or tlbs ui Talfto idcM nupuotlng Ibofo 
relniiQctf— 11 wottldBMm tba£nohI|*licrpurpcrM!ooii1d be sob- 
•tanml \vj irii|»niVintntTit llmti 1o muko it i4 TncoLDn of suppl^- 
iftg the CTiEuiiial Willi informAtioa nvptx^lin^ fli*rh rohUont^ 
ftfid of UldabufiiBg Ilk mind of tUo fuUv iiu|iroiBJoii« cuter- 
tdited witb n^i^ud to tlirnii In otiicr word*,, tbc umc ngoii* 
cam mt^lit b« cmployrwl in tho m-nmJ nifornutic^a of ittdind- 
luta A* bftTc availed to K-c-urv whatever monX rcfonuatigat 
lioii Idko^i vlac'e b 0>d«tj' at }tapi (infra, p, 607), 

TliCMilKfiTbioniiof iW^Luuof dclil>rnlive jwtiorui po^ 
[ijfiViNrL^ a Tiivnil qiulity »JV Ihtr ktunv utt ihuoe of Uid eun^ 
^ODdipi^ «L»M of linj>iikiv0 acdoii^ Iliev nuy W BoniuJ or 
e^jido {jn** or unjust), <^ ihtjj mty br dipm-unrmfd « lU- 
trnivlic f!«-"i*ficpnt or malplictril). Nearly ill llint wn* Aaid 
rcFpoctiitg tbie duAfiuatiou ol >tctJoui» wben conkidtfrit^ tba 
nirtifvlrr rLiM will Apply ^nidly to ibe moffv oomplt^T claM, 
and hcmI noE !« n>pMt«d. Very Httlo nc^d be Aud in addi- 
tton M ;i]]}i1irjib1u only to dcUhrrMivc aciiooui, pince tbo 
grwl<fr piri of ihnl wlkic!li mri^it bvrv W intiiMlttO^d ii4h al- 
ready tiocn fnorc oonvcni^^tly embraced Ut tbo fontgolfi^ db- 
cnnnv^n of tho nntiiro of dftlibrmtiw afdioo* in gnunuL 

ItcUtivfT H) UitJ finrt cbuH, tlio Tiev«ttaty >boT« ref*-iT»d to 
for ihv DiaintoiKirtw of an eqtialilj in IIm powor wbLfh Mfth 
indJrJdiBl can va«n in aociety cunsUtahn tlie moat inijjortani 

CGOisnc Acriosa 


oOMdenUkn in lli« entire dotn^n of jn«tira %rt6 h«. A 
JveigBlliou of iLe fuiulHnivtitiJ U» of Iiamdn luturv tlx 
Ogoutio dittn«l«T uf bnuuu ■otiutn — furui*lie» tW vuly nal 
ar^*iu«it ia fftiyir of denioeivcj'. It aIiowb why [e h ihAi id 
iriMten of h*i^1 right* or politiral inftii^Micr, RiTrtK>m*it<1)iy 
Uuit, "«vi^ybody to count for on«, ooliodj fur more iTjan 
oiiOp" «)iouhl «pp1v. TUi^re Ia no doiilil dial tomo ponoiis «n> 
more Importflot to society ibati others tjot, bowcvvr groQt 
tlmt ilifFfrrrofv-maybf^iii Al^oatinfuftffuotin^hvmaoriglilB 
^^awltcHv ot jditice aod iiijnaticv— the poirorof one«boald 
not be Jn Uie h^i greti^r Uian ilud of mother. Tbo govvm- 
mmU of llw world urv iJl bwed itpou thu Tirtixal if not 
^ivc»^ priiKTipl^ Ibal tf«r1ftin permiu sboHld hArc more 

;)it« lUin orben b«c»iiM lliey Arc iuo«v iiitpnrtjutt to mciHy. 
Usn of nnk luidoobtwlly tliiiik, tlioitub tbey uiny bavtf tb« 
modiyty ficror to hj, tb«t tbtj are more iup^jruat titan p«^ 
Aofiji of luw birtli^ ftnd thry lTtf«r flijit th«y ottght to bare mon 
pciwor. To moil pcnorai tliii rUim would probd^ly be re> 
gu^lod fe« nuomblu. Uvo of t&MMltb r«4KiD in ft «icuihr 
naniKrftikd many tkiuk tbvi/ poaStkn soond. Uvii of lenrii- 
lii^ do tlie MtitP, ftnd, if tbo Infcrcnco b tnio in any cue. It 
o«ilAJii)y flionld be in thcin. Bttt, wbiki miik ind wt^ib 
invimubly du briux iat^rvewd |Kiwer, Wrrifug mvly doce ». 
Not, mill. weiUtb, lounf ng, or &ny otbertmesapodonty 
on^t to cT<*rt, fti>d miut exerts on indnrinfip cnrroiqNjndin^ 
1<i it* dcfcTiTc, btit from the etbicel point of vi«w \'. ifaoaM 
exert DO UiduvDn; wbaiuvur id tbu domain uf bniuAR ti^Ul 
The teut jiiflucoce exortod in tliit tivid buyottd ituoMrioiLl 
etrecLgtb tcfid* to iscreaM tbe edvaoteieee of iJie poeaceaor 
/or purmitnjt Kappiotftt ti tbo capenie of tboee sol thiw 
prirltegix), corTMpundioifly dlmini^inj^ tfae adTanUffCfl of 
tile Utter (or pnnaui^ boppiDcM. It u out r»ok, or vrvftUh, 
or ItfMmirijt tbii Abncty escbu for, but hap|^iioe«^ to which 
eJI otiMrr things ur <^nly the mrjiiu. Contridnnnfr the great 

fprmdomxicc of th*»c uol |iouc«npg tbuw f^iitA, it ifl •▼!- 
tbat tbo happincm of tho iuimo* b tbu grtftt nod to 


bo Km^ht, ftTid not tint of a for who po«M«s veftlUi, power, 
orgvnliia." Hit would coDtribotc to tW cndr»ocicly6bonld 
ti<it hoiTtalc Ut Moiilee thuM fttir. But, aa h tiuuiifiMJ/ 
would Dot^ it ran cetuiiilj dvnjr them lb<f |>i>wi^r to oooi* 
matolijo wvlfarv of tbc niac^ i»iu tlio priTikged tuuiroifiv 
of auiiioritv by a mvni luwdfuL To t]liuilni:<> in luiw groU 
dupropattion i1i«m- nuni^rioallj £Ti«i^iflcvuit flaMM b«re 
boon wiimatw?, il will only be nccnwuj to r^iiiftidor die p«rt 
wbicii Uxvy buvc pUvud in liU^ndnrc and bUtory. I'ho ad- 
vanuo fn>m laormrctlu^ui ^f doniijvnu.^ bu tdnwlr uaumkI 
ibo l*itfrtric woraUip of rulirig bonscjt to be appro|>rijtt«lj 
pbarDOtfrnxc<l- But in literature niJin'WonJjip ^riU pivTAJb, 
QQiimH> or InU^l, a iiluiw ik<viiiv(i aurtiiy of meotioii. Mu» 
djovriiv, wliit^li must aIwui^ einbtMW the gr«u iurw, Is »js- 
tcmniicflllv i^orct). ^Vbilo 01x17 ctitii^u done to malbObnll- 
itnt ttiir^ marc brilti^ht, no ftttnnpt m mjido CO imptxiVQ llio 
lauiumacly grt^tvr number of Iciwr li^liu. It will Ifif & loni( 
tim«l*eforv tbi* woriil will rfM^f^gmxe tla* faudai^KmiAl IrutU 
tbrt it ni not t^ apofhrfwin* A *ew eTc<»|>tioiiaI iut^^IleiHA, but 
to rander tbo ^n»it prolecariat coDnforlAbK that true oJvLU- 
ntioo idionM aim^f 

To iJiff ipronp of »iTpm-nnrmflU ^^ altrnvtic, nftiona would 
properly U.'1oit){ m dMCuauon of Ibc c^Uiinft of d uintvr^otvd 
Ai'tinriH Tbki^ object Iuib* boueter, btwu |>3iH[kll;' Aocom- 
plialivd in i previous port of tbis cbnptor, nw\ tlio irholo mh- 
jeot huA \wtMi $0 aUj- ijvntcil bv iff. FTt^rWrt fipenctr. bn bb 
^'DjiCa of Ktbloa^"} |]iAt iiulbin^, il wuiiM wfin, reinairw to 

Tlio c^iiitic ban* nf •Jtroixm iii tbo jnvul mot^t pArnJox. 
Alt amioQA emanate from ff«lin^ of nuhc kind, and thoid 
mmiEAil tgrwf if) barjtiK plMmire for tboirrnd. In thm 
ulUnutv anilnu, t]iorvfot>T, jj) a^trions npn'n^ trom tbo wuao 
iimUv«. TbtT real liiMiDnlion 1>vtvoen e^cfitm and tltrvbam 



bo toolccd for at & htet nUi^ in Clio ftofdopoittit of 
motivei^ In ah lli« loiiror >i>d coniinoo«r taotlvM, ilie feol- 
ings coiutitiitiikg ihom aro wlut may bo oillvU (implo, or 
lUiw^ Tiio pWnMirv «bicb im to tlow froai M^liou bogiiM 
fti^d CTdn «'ith »<<lt But « olaaft of feeling Jiw been dovol- 
OT>o(l b; »riiil jirngnw which arc m<»rc <ximf tii^tM, imd maj 
be e»Iiod in<lijwCv TUr.y arv ^llwtively ilenomiiul^ " avm- 
patli^.** Theto feelingJi uoLj' anw vh«n Cbo direct fvolin^ 
of Qtbcn an afliKtcd. I'lun m ot1icr« |»v<ju>ec« jkuq b ^If- 
T\uA pdn 1i ft real fculiof^ altbrtu^rb tH^kin;:infc lo tb« " faint 
■eriM,'* h 14 piirrlr iiiihjcH^circ, t. «., due to iiorvous diMlgM 
•et up in thv bwijr without llio <:ii»doirtRry moHtig caow of 
BonaattoPb |>n>^uwd hy contact with obji^dn at ihc puripJicfj. 
The iiMTi^ <aiiE« Ui «ympfttl]> b a co]fni(ti>n, or mI«!bl Tbe 
OonkvJ larcr* b«r«, jw in tniuty <whor auakigies, |)«rfoau tlM 
offiou of cxlcnaal Dcn'vf^ DiMiiurgua propagated to ijrrtam 
paru of Uie body produce a aluinar «fleci whea ^aerated In 
tlio bmin $/h wfap5 geineretixi at tlie octKsmllkfi oar on tbo *ar- 
fiuw of thg body. Vw^chn^opctl acieiioo, bwed on tbo atsdj 
-if thv tfraia kikI nerrau* ij^vm (" i->llio«phTDio1ci|;j- *')^ will 
UouMltm throw mwk luun.^ Ug^ii ii|vjq lh« prvcW UAtare of 
fijritfkiihvaaa p»5«bo1c^«Iaiid pSpblogicol pbcnomcnon, 
bat itn ffciicr*! oluinictcr in a« her© do«frit>eJ. It ift oertainlj 
A faul Ihit Ihu rvvo^iiiuv of aofcnng iu utliviv i« Mll«Gd«dt 
to ditTcrent -Jegraea in dtff«i«nt IndJiidttaU, aod in wrj dove 
pn>iK3rtioQ ttt the grade of pbvidod atiil nouta] urfpmualioiit 
Witb a mnvapoiiding painful HDwtinn. It U upon thia 
unqiM^iionable truth that the c^oi^cic qoalitj^ of ao-cilltid 
aJtmUii^ acl)oii« rcM- 

h fCtiin» to U a <*har»cteriaUc of tlie buBtou mind U> 
eudt.Ukc ^fitimcnih ]>e1an^nj? to tho falot pcrica at tliocac- 
jumt^ of tho«o 1j«lonfpn^ to tho «'ivid «4rii?^ Tim U doubt* 
iuM beoaiwc It u pvrmrcd tlutt vudi *viitimvDta iii<_<raiM in 
power wilJi tJie arlvanceiucrjt of tlie raoo and iho <fcvolop- 
m«nl of Oio *iHDd. Tl»cy U-Ild^ nrly iu a ro ry limitod ili* 
gmt to 1)w animaj ncai, aad aaragca arc for the moat p*ri 



dftToid Crf ihtm, whil« tJiejr ju« Ktronjs^vat in th^ bigWt tjpc* 
ol miftbocnl^ Ilt^t]<«, it ik quite mlundly lufcriwl ttuil tbej 

din>ct 8cnri of tho mM hrrJCA. Iti the Uml clia|itcr, 

thi* totiiloni^ ft-jA |M>inlpd o«t wUb wppfirt lo audi ttcnii- 
tiimU an biipiT AiiiJ uiUdpaliau Uu/^^tfi ^ ^^]' The gonvirl 
hw govifniLug iLac ca£<^ is a|ip!icub1u to njrtiipotliv. li »cam« 
alitinst to be fargi>t1«i), lU'twilluduiuling tbc otytnologjr of 
till? natii^, t)ln,^ ^tj^pnihT is a rnilinj^ at ftU, >D(i inmy will 
»2«ct, Willi a Avnlifiitml iklin to iniH^imtiim, the pnopmition 
Ibftt UnivviJvnt urul pliiluuihrupic w-tiuu« «v pnnuplnJi 
Kko ochoi-B, Ifj tbe mollw of dlmluiabitig duagnoftbld fcol- 
ui^ OKpfT:W^ hy IhoM: vhn perform them — oi dlmlitUhing 
the foTOtf of hviiipEitJi^r trKirh b beoominx uiibeunble.* Yet 
mch ic uaduutfivdl}' iha BcioMiitic explication. It l«, m fact, 
tb» only ono poeeilife, cinco tijo popiilnr i^cA thai »ixJi mcU 
^Tv purfnrmcd vHihoiit any prrH>n,il inlcruAt 00 UliO pftft of 
llip nj^dl ii ?c|i|ivairul t<i fftjing i\i%i tboy 3^ra p#ffi>nood 

withuul Kttj niulii'v— elfvtrtii nithuut a muAO. Tbia viev, 
liowitvort ibould by no nwiiiF^ HoirKt from ^c monl Aupt^ri- 
oHij of 01U-J1 «Rlitinit, for rip^intifl w-tiuiu tnay dificr, in tbi« 
TOftpftf'l, in all eon^TAble (ltf{rv««^ 

WliAt ir«K *A\d of tlw wndmeulB of bo^ and aatidpatfoD 
will »pplv L-qnaUy w«1l to tlmt of BTibpAthj, or aHmUiQ— -ihM 
tlioy ore loi;itiBiau ftnd aafo onljr withirt o^rUin limits h«t- 
roTid whirh Th<7 b«coinfr. In a oeHun acb*, deTMl^meBb^ 
trr %i luMt ft [iwrbid ^Ddition of ilie mlud, cftrofoUy to be 

fftt^df ilitupU^DA. Aii^li iipi-fiont will Dtrior In T* liAi'fij tio^i^i Irt iho mEihit 
firf tDffrfidff, iiitilKiic lo frAiipM IL Ttwy »p«cl tbrfr »"r«d n pnlN lor 

■ilriN tV orfr nmnc dnl fWi> ifwii «ir filDMiirv. "HiLji k> HaN4taH« fvrTtf^ 
M fhf ih^ ll mn tibt b* dmbUil Hm nMoritiiiT* bnnisl)! npn uLfnt ta 
■InjriL iIhj kivi pnniilUnl |q mjnlatfr Era *(4«itih^ iillik ft coiftla MVTVl ^flf, 
ta <rEitL-h iWt nf o>ur«o iroa}J vat t«Qjr4. "Ric rr&l tHL Ibvt •c<**ioi»4 in 
tn Ibfl UbkvfTDl Uttt fiiAtiM nnilmtfri i« vCiiMmv wub pwplf fniiB lb* 



itXtrv^ <?lm«k-, atiil ««t«te produced, t>r v^luiiUKIy dwvU- 
htg upon ac«ii«» of »(i(Fi>r]tig, in wliidi cvuijintliv Un.-utimt 
vtrongfT i}an nxd jkuiit mkI nnJun life b tiunloti. Neiciier 
la thvtt any dlitxrt rolaisofi bolvoun tnu inli:JI«ct(uJ »p6ri* 
oritj And tluT ftipnritv for iijnnp«tl>y, Oo tbo oonmty, it m 
found tbal tlw wutft *yinpfttb«C*iT ptfivoiiit sn> tbow of ntlior 
inferior rvwocilng powen ; and wmimd, wbo are ouoIiamnII/ 
lees ntloiulb^ic, irr, lu; jl mlo, monj s^palbetlft than mcoL 
Unr^ of thU imy he diM to cdncniton Atifordng ili« tiver- 
atraincKl poutiun iLat adtrriWo nP& to far vujwrior to vgoutie 
WDdn]«rut« %ha Um lattaroBgbt lo be DK^Ie^tvd. True latd- 
1o«tttal iiiipcrinHt;i- pirfcHrot ibn faJl^icy in thU, and «i}pprMaes 
tlid trndfii^^ to tliR nmlac tmrtnrr of thti «rin|utliit% «1ikf« 
inedioi^rilT Uvea iip to the AUvc vtand&nL Tin? apjioreut 
ftnlitt»u»ij^ bftw«t>n ihv ntioual and tb» ayiJipatb^lic u Id ibEa 
WAV hrought fihoui an wn find it in f<wictjr. 

W> havi- in this vitrd tytHpJtJ^y a (erm reprMcnting tb« 
ftltrnlftk HDlinwDls w sobjodive fwling** No convpund- 
inff t^rai e*i*r^ for tlii?< f^oMc »pTitlmc«tfc^^ThiC word 4u4» 
^iT^y. 4?m]]d it hft adoptwl in Ittia ieoae, wonM doiibtb«a b« 
fi«ibd umfuL Hotter Kilt 1o ftknvfi^ tTio altmUtii* oot^w)^ 
tloxi, uid Id moiK nalnral cvintnuit vritb aulopaibv. t}ri>r« 
nig^t in like manrter b« aabatitiricd for trmpAibj tbcf alljad 
rxpn^^fTi a^tropat/ty^ wbicL, lo a wrlalra oxt^t, would cyjme 
lo Lbv uid of tJto irtTDtigvr term pbilnnibrvp)'. 

B4>fArr pttwlnjf frtilln^lv from Ibln laM and prindpal ("laaa 
of ttricUv oioml iclimis h m^y hv Totnurktid ing^ncnl ihtX 
libetr importaiKv. n>iuti4)t-r>:^ uh tlio atibjvct of iiwtraotioo 
ud % part of ^uit^&on. boa httn va»ily ovtirmdxmtmA. 
Oornndrrrd in Itfv4f, th^iTO can, of tf'mnu', >io no jpniator nlfr 
aiWrrrifttjn ttiaQ ibot of itpH^t conduct amfin^ nwn, but ito 
tnilj- ntltmal tboorj of vim npKclit ^mdurl oowlata In }vm 
cTrr tKtai prnpowd. vblle tbc HCtcmpt« tlial Mtc boun nmk 
to difomt nrbilraij monl nilr* Iihti^ fail^i^ nntin.^Ij' to Beonm 



inj Empn>vout«ul m natunl monk. Whalurcr improro- 
mont hid tolcija pl&oe bu been diM To tbo prognM of kmttml- 
C4)^ and to intclbetiuJ dordo|Mnc«)t. This bccoiDO« pcr- 
feoilj mCfllt^hle wbcQ it u nwognifcd tlut vhftt hft«btcii 
won^tiped iw the eouMuea<w i» adiujily ui inUfUvcluAl net— 
AD tci at Ihu jnd^noQt; atid it boeoDice clear tbjit vhat is 
n^ded in ordtT to iiupn>vo lianuui conduct iji ^impl^ to 
BtfMetlion titifl ffti-ultv, 

Th4 n««cwly for hhjt code of eLliicAl ni1«A wliaJ^ver Gi 
aU>> tf?«ii lo vxi«t cadj ill tlic itnagiimiiati, sIdoo, wbUu nctipw 
inii^l cc^nfonn ro dtdnitc lav* whSoh nuijr iad ^bivuiil h^ cnm- 
falljr ntur^ind nrtd iJioirongh]; vitider«loodr tham ]av«> or rnlve, 
Are mcTvljr tlie oml)oiiimonU of otbtciU fact*^ &nd tlicrrforc 
aelf-ettforE-iii);- Any tiuEEiun riilv ntmlc in (ippu<>tiou to UuM 
)aw« in M mcu|iab]G of €nfoK?oitiont as tbc pope'b bull tgnlnrt 
the a>mtTt, wliJk huinAn mtc* in hnrmonjr with thnm do not 
in i\*v tmAt f&^JIfuUr or Afflict Ihcir oornioJ t^ralion. - Hot 
but ilk:U i}je purv ^e»oe of condoQl baa It* cojravpcmdiag 
ajiplivri 4ag^ but BB ft icionoo i\tH imut couint ui loniirtlLing 
uinrt" iluui t)jn «iapmo&l tbmponticvi iLutt far pracikcd in 
tbe fiuU of morsd patboloiyr. TJiO bui* of tbo rr*! Acionce 
urd art of bumnti acrluu i^tilt reitialufl (o be conaidcnxL 

It f^Vtotild nl^n Iw rc?rimrkod, a» ft i^liMiog tbtjiif:bL npOQ 
t!iiit i^'n^Tml brmn^h of onr aobjc^, lliftt tlic iTwrd Cf>do vblch 
wo bavv couditutcii a& inteurd part of oar mcIaI dcrolop- 
monl.artd )8 (VxFoiiiLil lo \l. Much ■ctitimvoUliiv i# itidulf^ 
in "pHth rc-^ot to ihc mtcDtiiil nobilhy of m>jral euiHlud« 
and lliD x^ionil lonor of tbi« i« to f^vc the «XDdit for nnh 
in>n<lui^t rtiliitrly {0 tbe tiidttidunl, ThU I* » Yirrjr n*nwr 
and toiaUken view- HUlIcaI ]trinciplw arc a growili uf tlie 
pocid] Bjdlcm. The mc«i(>cr» of *t.^L<ty are Hi4>rBll;r bound 
b^ ih^iD, not hj an Ml«al bodrl. but \»y ptvirive ronilfwnt. 
Tlitj prfrvHtlin^f idea Is, tlj^ Utjr ont^ iiiight cooidnct hiniMlf 
iniiiKiniUy if he pruforrod, ftnd that pure principle ii all tiial 
ITTOVLvren tJio aiftjorfly of TnooUind fruTii i\v\xi^ m. Siich 
idcu IcgilJruilvly fcdlow from the frc^-nill doiTtrliio fttid 



otli^ kindroil cfronlhal [k^^biIc iJu rnonl tcttcbing wbicb 
we ftU fmivA. Tbe trmh is, ihjit m«fi ajr« conipcjIM to cod- 
duel LlwitiieJrw an^tnliri^ ti tli« r*tabli«bocl ttuidnnlji of 
propriU/. 'ilibi U tlic oundition upuu wbidi K^dt-ty Uu 
bo<m C7uiblcd to dfivclop- Th« few irbo uitemj^ to break 
over t)k«0 KilriolloQfl qaicklj come Ia ^cf. Tbpjr ilrop 
into tbo crinunitl cbMCi^aiid tiiul ihcir way into tlw pciu- 
touturw*; or iLuj an ■Uitipc'd u i»tiaotiniiiM«s fui^iui, 

ovniennf rulnirc, nod find for brief pciriud* iIlv fiteoiwof 
oontiDDinir their li^ntioo* course on tlw cxpan<iin£ bocdnn 
ol civilmiioa Uvrv \hcy at\s known m **fvcighs'' nnd 
** d««pend>oas'* *o*l flonHdi until conipdkxl to toocmnb lo 
tbo ntmiiury joMNx: of "vi^kneo commiueo^'* which are 
nerdjr ih^* n»d« jcovdUna t4 pwr^ kw lo simIi coiamani- 
llM. For Ihwn i» rmtif no hard-And-f»t Knc vrbtoh mn be 
dmwti belvrcvfi rmumalky ntid Uic lew buiinjUB furma ol 
ImnonlStj. Bat vun il^oleul doTjttioii from tbe ptttb of 
roctilndc i^ in d^v^lofUNl son*] «Mil«n, a ftigod for octm- 
CBMiJi the witbdmwjil of otfe«n>, hyrtrniadi; nvoetlAncv, uid 
tX] iIe« ijtiurr fomit of puDuJunvnl wliirh render life into}* 
cniblo, and domonfltrato the cocnpLitlj iyimpi]1«or7 cbar»o- 
tor of tbr rihical oo<)r. It i& ■ code wbtob cnfovoM iteoUt 
uid theivforo fwimrca no pnntiiood and no mtniMU And 
atrangeljr aum^b, bun.% wboro alocuj laiMd^ fairr h aoand 
doatnn^, wo find the Zs^ftvs ybirv »rhoo] rallini; ]otidl> for 

Jt Eb only by tht* aid of tbM oomprebeotjve view of ethlni 
or tbo K^n<9 iA conduct, tliat we <^kn dnly appredate Ibe 
lifUnro «i>d value of djaamic actiiw, or aociil djnamka — ihm 
aelcnco cf Ancial pr<^fnMi. 

<^Mfcty.^Mr.Spei>c«rrcpifd» **00Ddiirt*' an i-mbmcti^ ili« 
WHO territory wUA 1flb#re oorvred hj Txiluot^ Mtiuo^ «id 
aaiulU* it under tU ibm h«a<k "good," *'b«l," and ''in- 
diffnoQt," Good ami bad oopdvot are of connic eommaftoh 



m« wirli «hi4 snt hero dftwotl hm ictHin^ poMMvang a nH>r&l 
qnali^jr. To inplum whar be iu«an« \ty i^iSttvti ft^dwt^ 
boMVii: "A hrgc paH of on3{rL«rv condwrt \» mM^tr^aX. 
ShtU 1 wdlk to tiie wiitur<f»lt i^^Oav f or tUtali I iviiit>]€ Along 
tho iOA'Sliort> ? Ui^nj UicenJa oro ctliipoillj^ indilTiMv-iit. If 
I go h> the WAter^fjllr i^iull f ji^ otct llw mtMr or Ijike tlic 
pKtIi llirutigh iLu vuoj f JIvra the imaiiB tre «4titAllj in* 
iliiTt-rvnl- Aoil frvnn iiour to hocr bk«1 of Uio liingv W9 
do nrv not to Ixi ju^tgcil A! clUtcr good or bxl in rwpffcC of 
their cndd of mtiAiw." Willi lliMe uid a fev more hHef 
ooiiiii>oiila h« fkiKiiiuM Ujo MbiecC of indiffi.-r«it1 ^ndnct. 

Cotwdcring ibu pmnt of viow fmm a-hicli llio '^Dtte 
of Etlti<^'' pr(K.iN*d»^ whfdi, DOtiritli^UiitHiij; ilie rc^-oludoii 
rhkH h^A fHiindif dnini ffiat tfiit n-ork U to pr^^idut^t.^ in ikn 
mtirv tvtti^jij of mi>tu1s ii« '}■«? j^hjiiH of vk-i* from nLich all 
provioua troi^cs on oUii« Larv proooodcd, ibj« pasitn^ notio« 
of miTilTrrrnt i^tinnt wiu nil thitt wiji i!4rmaj>'3n1 or nH^iiir^. 

t^Voiu till* \>oitti of \'wvs fiom wUcb ihb uhapier \*r^ 
cocdt, tt ift nol until thw gnmp b rotclMMl that UtQ proper 
■nbjVrt of thr rhftprxT i^to lir «"! to Kavi* bi^i-n ftiffrrod 
Lipon. For, although iti tbc nyitlvmutic^ Irvcitmojil of vftob of 
the otlic^ rlnfKcn of netionn. nrid p/irtir^iUrl/ of tbc cLuh but 
eon«ldvt<ed, mnch inf>m d|mo(r h&s bc^ii ooftipr*! tban is l^ft 
fir rt*<jtjineij for the n/^vquntc jippnvijilii>Ti of ibe prt**Til one, 
Mill this Lafl been mibor Ui the p&iurv of a prepftraxion for 
ihp prmarlrt whirh follow, than nn MH'mpi to ttfut tlio nub- 
j«Tt of ctliiM in a *v*tpm*tic waj. Hcforp il wjw ^lOMibte 
IfitclUjfiblv 1o trait tbc clwK of >i*tIoiiB dvroicl of diroct 
monl attrl1>tttoi* ft vm neceuuj to dlfferotinntJ? tT»-fn cilnirly 
from thow po«iW«Blng fh^ AltHbutcA «]ui'b« tu ihc prownt 
•tato of moml ivinikoo^ rpqoircd »omfi nonflidt-miioti of tlih 
UltordAM from thta unu^cualoiii^ bUn<1-{)oiDt. 

Th« (?lw« of iiuai-mi>mt uoUoriiL, nn »^oua in tlio IfthJo, 
fnlb iMo ttro f^np^ tlie first of wbli^b vc faatie «o1tcd eutic, 
nnd thr w-ntirt dvn;uni^- Artlon« bf?-tociging to the ttoticnl 
group bite no ieoAfticy to cliiuign tito cibtinp stfiluA of 



MlMj. Thej xmy be furtbvr ^Miriflod ioto two dlviS' 
Iohb, DII9 of wlibdi 0Di1mo» soi^li at^u u th»c r.f gocnifE: to 
tbo irMci*-f»lJ or ihe MA«id«— actiOfiA not otity trtliiciillv but 
jn «II oCluir raip««iU indHlorvnt. Th« odivr diriwiuii vL-tbrai<oa 
s UrgQ clibB of (uuful ii«i> toiutiDg to pnawrvc (ho #jttiting 
socU sUlUA. Wku wa£ ankl of tW duuiof iDi|ml*Ive tu> 
tiOHK vliicb AT« ifrroid of moi^ qmlitjr ttttiy\ witlioiit ijnall* 
^<ation, b« traiivli;rn>(i tolIiiftdivuHon of dtlt^tj^livuncCiotiA, 
"Hh.' gwat iprwvr«>ilve agi^ucin wf wovic*/, tbu UhiIv ]>iinmit 
of i^LibiUtoitoti, of ploiwurvi of wcnlli. frto., fdl vlditD ttib 
ik-diLllfioo- NotwitluioiKlfng thrir tmporunnr, ftnrh Actionii 
l«*ve lli^ world wli««9 tlicy ficJ it» ur if, bj' virtoc of accriunn* 
laLtoiw, t}i97 >ikl to II19 Bovijil ttHKiurVf it ii) not t" tivtiif but 
to Mjui« la)|]nJTt^d method or in^niotK poicdplc, acoording 
to wliicL ibe^ oj«rji(«*, ilmilf itie nwalt of % diffrrvnt kinit 
of nctic4i, ih«t tliii) iiK<T<uAe I)ii« be^n rvi>d«v«d p^«tblt^ TIm 
itEifre jciarDvvroan at > oiachincr pvrivmiB oiiIif^ a »tAticcl wrv- 
ict», oJtbt^i^li, br virCiK' of tbt; iiuu^liSms bo imy bo able to 
accompll'b a. bxiadrcd-foUl more of tUo auDC grtulc Ukd kind 
of work than if roqiiin^ to do tt br 1inn<l. Ti i« tboc to Iii« 
«c-tloQ tbhl lb« incruiMii U> boattnlfarcd, lint (o tbtU of bim 
who <1i^notftrtd tbc kw* of uutnrc hj wlu<^ tJio mocbhie 
op«nilo^ &iif1 doviH^l the Appantii8 to ntClin- (Hom bwft. 

Vc« wu liml tbat, evifb m ibJn cijmpftrtlivol^ vnlinportatvt 
^ronp of ribkiUy £ndifli^rvnt Aclioiii^ iTumcn^o Uborv Arp 
ptrfonnt'ii. nnd vftft nviilcjt acconiplioktH], vrliti'U Iiwrenee In 
propoctioTi *A Ibf* f«n<:1Jon* ^-f wcial lifo l»ccomi> cxt^iniiod 
and divmJt^iMl. Coratv m;iinUnK^ th*t tbt buman intcJlM^ 
wu no ranjtitut«d l)i&l it niu^l alwa^-» bo tniu tbtl tbo grent 
hulk of mankind votjM he ciMifiii^^l lo labore of tMs purcl/ 
iRiniftvriiil kind. Ho dwlingnHbod tlie two clAff#« of 
workcm a» "ucUvt" aiid " ipetnUlivo," laul «Tiii»rk« tbit 
■'prc^qno tonB Ice liommce wm, pftr lour iintaro, ^-miiiMniiiunt 
tmpropftH Jin trar^il intrllivtnpl, ti to:]&( psr^tfttivllcnwni A 
■DCDcUvit^iiut^ncUc; u:i »rfi< ijuu Tiut ►pAmUtif , d*- pin* 
la pint indwpvBWb^ do p«vt A'-n^ oonvviuikilcrorfil pro<LiiU 



tfttQloM muntrnn dirJC cux que i5*aprA« nnu pqiwuilc in- 
pnUinrt ht-thftf^Wf Miw mam eatrDtaiu« par de» peodmsu 

be asked wji«tli^ long tncl gwiUmooq* tjabitiuuuai lomj not 
COClMid the '^ iqiooDktivc " fftmhjr t4» thu gnaur poll of mjiB' 

Tlio dutlnotlou Wwuen mmduct and miction is iiot raO' 
dtrcd romp)flfT hv (tkf cxc]u&i<m from t^ic former of tn«ro 
•" piirp*>*ftlr»*,^' or iiirolunUry, iiclionj*. In fiUl^atf olrouij 
kLuvtii, xUvtv thoM j>n^Hy W «xc1uiled &E10 from li»j cIuk* 
of aotloiu proper, do long ae thoxk'v coucvjvvd u pcrformod 
fajrcon»cinQS bcinps Ltivolsntuy octfuiu bdng; onlj^ HkliiUnl 
to thftt nanw in tlio «pdh> tii wliieli It U applied to in&nitn»te 

Appljorl to utliliMliy intlifTorvnt actfottf, tnii« ^hcn it i« jk> np- 
pli(^, it w much in tljo Mnto irtetaphi>ncal ^TaJ' in which h ift 

to iriininutU' •jlijtii.'l)*, Tltf tTifigrilfictnt tliiiaiuri uf t'tlilii^Jl)' 

i&diiTcrroiit actions from -^hlch Mr, Spocccr dnwB HIb Illiis- 
trationa w *iIk>ui liio --inly nnti to whidi Ul« it-rm "cotnlnct " 
MTi Iht ap]>!i^- Tor tho mii**h Ihr^or Aiiil mon* imporlJini 
grQUj> ol Ma-tictllj coiucrvnlivo ictinas •ut'ii a Vif« of tho 
word in iiut MliuiiBiiUD ; ncitlicr ^itl it itpply with ntiy pivr- 
pricij l<j dynamic ftctioua. Yr.i r}^^ pv^ftr prt of nil InimFin 
action i« ooncentnii^ npon tbotwogrmtcrndtof imlntafning 
thorfolUf^ upland of pnxlnrinju; a cLiJiQgv for tlitt botWr~of 
prutcwing B'xrkl orUiT, ^t of L-fTtv-ling mxsiaI |iTOgraftw 

The great objoct of aotifm iiUtdt* aomclhtnf^ Condact 
only Aim* to /Ji'i>id d^in^ — rithtr \e* av/iid mtcrf«»Hng wifh 
tbo " purtuil^ of ends '' by vtbcn^ or to (irvrciit oEbrm fri;m 
pnnuinjf eiicli en<fi^, or to do 9on>e Wn«ilt for anolher. vlitri^- 
by \vc ifi pmrcnli-Hl from doinj; ibu m^tKf^^ty art* for p^tndcr- 
Jof ail FcjaivHWDt, or to do Uitii an injury wbrn-by he \» pre- 

to tlui «ltaat, irmn [iTmsitig Us batuml •ndt. lA 
is ail tlivongfa s oegNtive pruoiJuilEij;?, inUiHrmifc at uvcry 
point vith tbe ooroal conne of aciiuo. CoD^uct ie i 70*0^ 
aii«tf of >cti ro w to prDTirnt or to noouion rcknt^ictn in ni>iv 
iridd MiJuiu. TUv cotapJicBU.-tl cmiditkin o£ mtdety luu nm- 
dcrod it DMM0W7 Uttt au entity <Aa» of sctlona ibottld 
exut vlioM flole ftbjoct la to deal with sikI] ixindi«t«. Tho 
aim 4rf good, or mord, cooiliicl i> v> to bond tbo courmj 
of uonnAl adioa n» to hvcod kU amtUct Vp-itb tbv Tumtittl 
adjoa of otJien. Tlie dia of bad, ox iruuioruJ, c-onduci b ao 
ti> f^ocr ona'e ci>iirec u n> produoo jnre ind ct->[li«ion» \n iha 
DorvniJ punnilA of «<id« by olbcru, 'nir pntliulogicti iiUto 
^^uf Mudctj Ui wlikh hII iDoml cudRdt^naluxiB urv diroctod i« 
^H^ oODttqiMniM of iUEb comj>lt<au^ netvroHc of Uiuiuui pur- 
^nln, whicti, in t|i« iialiin> of tLini-i^ muei frM^ucolIy rl&idi, 
Tfio ** pan moRil» " of Kjint und th^ "Abvoloco ctbic*** of 
SpciMir cto iwvor bo iMy rcalUod, aail tan oiity bo ap- 
pffocbnaldj rtaJizcd ihrongli a <»mpleliO tff^^wuMl/ott ^ hv- 
man oeti^m. The wboUr oiM>rjEuiiM!<l, indqiemdent, aod 
sporadic ctianctvr of hmtiAn punuiU—uf tli<» ijonnal aottona 
of nim— •tUtoprcMriu timofis tb^fatiseof tbocoottaDtooO' 
fliot of inlnrtfO in lAriorj, and m tbat whiob aiuio* a iDoral 
inalilr to I'jtiit. ^dorml condoot, llioiigli nacofrafT to prvvoat 
wono eviU L) In ibtolf a mHoqk otiL Ertrnr di>f«rtiiro froEn 
the diroetioQ of tlic prop^llini; forcv of ni) action U nude 11 
the acptriM of tlio rmitlu wsMni\yMie6 (vol. f, p, 3!)). The 
^OTtaXioiw nocoMjj to bo mado from tho nomul line of 
mlioa In ord«r to arold ooaflicA widi \\at bit«rttt4 of ndieit 
toll bnvilT o^iinM mccoH Iti Mdiievf n^ Uio ^Ueriabod alnu 

Voral ooodixt, uutfftd of bHpg, » iwiaIIjt mproMCibfd, 

rt Ell a Hffbt Udo, U in n«Jily roodnrt in a vorr imgn- 

Um. Tho paifi of rertUufh » n mi^vkeil i^aUi, nhd tbo 

dirtaSM loit m foUo^n^t M eountd hvavil) ajtalnft IIm pn>f{- 

rm> of tbo world, yvt Ion 1i<«Fily tlun aroold lh« Jan am) rri(- 

vbich % EnUiirf to folkw it wonld loorlulily prtxlncv. 





The rcfnAi-liJibIn turt To bo note^] U, tlut it is this clua of 
tiomou M:tioi^ niiniii^ siuipiv Xq AvoiiJ mcfi cooiflicU of int^i^ 
uat, iougmdoaut u it it in o^mpuritoii witb tin luiiu mmiot 
of laurn&u aeUoD, tlut hu bocn tli« AtbJccC of nit the etlu<«l 
toAcKinf; and ethical vriltiii; wtjlch hflr* flixHlnl \h^ woHd 
irwu tbc carliut bJAork jivriod*. i^rocvt-diii^ liowovvr, m^ 
lb£il {;ivat dtUwl muvtimuut hnn, ujxiu llii3 ilinwt m^liud, j|« 
•OOOeBi ba6 been onlv ujaiponu7 utd looal, and no ime monu' 
mcfit of ibi r«nt1tit »iati>, from tlic iiiinimit of vrUhh, v fmtii 
■ nf*ir VHiiLL^-^^und, a fmb muvc<ij.ioiit caii bi* iwiiuiKiiiiasl, 
4;nriciiod iritJi lh<< jicoumubu-d v^ptfnvn<W8 of tho pa^t At 
tLio laic dar wc atiJl Hnd (rnrrelvofi at the foal of tlic ladder, 
&t)d mii^t ^'K}^i if a< ^L| wb(in> (^onfiicmfi and Koiti br^UL 

DjnariiLMl actions arv duitlng;ulftJied from ftUtlo«I s^fonft 
in protooJJE^^ acuording to tbe indlrvct, or iutolluclu&l, 
tnediod of connttoa instead of tbv direct, or pljrj&icsL metliod. 
AH utioTiB connst in cffoiia to aicain dc^irod <}nd«. Tn all, 
th« end i» pwdout io 1b« mind before th^ action b Jiltcinp<«d. 
In itnli<!:il actions tliQ idotcidcdU of the a^tit uc madtf in 
vUnigbt llnuo toward Ibo vnd> In dyniujiiual auIIoiis tbcjr ana 
not 80 made, but mn^ pn>cccd in anj oilier direction- In 
Atatftal ftctjooa tbe unA Lt aon;^Ut mmtdiaiA^, Kothin^ 
fnteri'finfa belu^ea liiea^-'t and Uio «nd, b<1wee« cJie agirai 
and Ibe object. In dyrmmintl acUoni end* ore Nought vuji- 
aU^y. Tbcru intcrviviCb Wtweon tfaeftottoQ and t^ «fid a 
third Bomcthing ivliioh \i cf^lW a rnivna. 

All aolioitt, ^vlietL«r *tftticAl or dynMnie, conaifli b «t^ 
tain tvliinui^ maecnltir movoinuuU PXL*cuUnl ly x\w t^gtmi m 
rc«pon]<« to motnr duwliorj^ from the fiuproioo nervous cen- 
ter. In »t£tir?At artionA (vbicb rnny bn cithur ideo-moUir or 
KeBtoi'i' motor), UiMo tnuaoolar movctnentu proceed, m alrcfld^ 
nmttrkMlf io tba ttirvotion of aii iruutediato «nd in vicv. To 
^naoikttj aotioDS, ifaofc tnnecuUr movttiiwDta arv direvte-i 
tovard other ctUjr^tit in %vch a maoQoraa to make tbow Ut- 
ter aerrft a^ mc^iiAuinJ uMa in wyraring remote aimI prrbapa 
iaviaibia endt. Thc*« intormediatc object*, oorxitiluLinj; ibfi 

DvsAMro Acnoya 


IQ.tlMCniifM tod, aji> at bmd, tnd mftjr bo adjiutod 
l^dblnAfl nkAmft to oim uiollwr and b> Cli& ngtnt ftud 
tha obJiHTi Auu^Ut. TUcM objwU poahsbh vHiSmia pn>|)tfti«« 
pecratiirlo th^qiiwlvcfi. Tbn^ueal^o rclAtciJ inepMlalvftfa 
Ut otiicr objccu bj vhtcb tbfij ore mrroundcd, ftnd to tluy vft- 
Hoan nttuRil forvuB luuilfwt vrtfrjr-wb^ti^, wbvtLvr phyucal, 
viral. pycbicaJ, or sockL AU objocu oo llie enrfnoe of tko 
v^irt)i« th »ti^ ftappoi^ to OMudtf of multilixliM ai molecules 
wM(^h ore movifij; jiiTionj; tb«m«»lrM, aiK] tbou^i known to be 
unilvrgoitig Mou)ftrcli«iigMi a&d drttiaed lo JUalfeiC, au[>i>i,T 

|4>r Uur, wluj]l;r difTcroBt form* wttbovt fanmao ^?ency, may 
nevurthL-lcM, ao f at bb mim'a dnilj^ doaliiifpii wiUi ttt«m are 
coDoeraeJ, b« rcf;ardc4 a< m a aCate of rvpoae >.*r iaurtui. 
Tba f<irc«aof grantatioTi nndclt^micoJ r^-«crion Utw^ rvUuc«d 
tbamtoartiLtiotif ci^uJIibriiLm. Tbuogli diUvriuj^ iiimicowljr 
In propertl^ in fonti. etfc, coDelaUj&c.v, «t£., tbcj are moat 
ol tli«in in 40 f^r lanp'bic iIjaI tbrj nil<^w ikcir ntlatJona to 
t« duuigc*ii at llw lju)ii> of tnaa. In •bort, thuy ncitber ea- 
|v biiTi, nor roiU lumt uor rvfiusv to b« auUtivtdud, modi- 
1 in form* or tremponod in apaoo. B^foro tbo actire 
rta of nun the materia)* of natmic aro vhoH v paivaro-. Thii 
itioo vliic^ tli«y baTv nHfunltjr aaaumed it the »taUcal 
one. Tim fm fotfOM of nuiun.^ have almdjr played opon 
tJiom In antoncdcot djnAtnic rtftttv until ihty bare at EaEt 
been rednoed to Ibeir pneont autOh Tliia ia tho onr^ in which 
tW3rareA|uy«of pRMtiidsg tho leaat e0«cta Mpi)0 ^Drroiiiiif* 
ing <>b)*ct&* VihiH tbvEr mallor haa boon Inla^Cvd thoir 
motuA hia bcoo ditBijtafiHl, untit thi* murtt-T and ff>rc!C of ibti 
nnirirrao— al lean, of lJio pari of it vrbich lutn opcnpiG*— 
havr*, AH it ToiVf bc*coan» arp^ntt^d or divorood, and exut and 
manifest tbcta«e1r««indapiindcutl^ — vHch uthoi|iparont,and, 
•0 faf aa huiiuii action la ^oiwemod, the pmrtknl ooodition. 
Noir, il wonKd bo rMiMoablo lo mppwo ilial, almx natn- 
nl i>bjis*t« linvL* lieen ^onaiantljr borne down nniil dicjr hmvn 
hvvtt broa;^it to aunnM (be i^nmUjit Oeicnw tj{ »ubUitjr 
of which tliej art i:a|iablv in tho exEating ooodllJoa cif Uie 





nttlrciw, Ukj ntt^mipt to diftuKi tlut mniflitioci wnuld n^ 
nmtR Uiem more or Um from (Saf abiSTc slito uid nrnitiT 
tbviu lL«a invrt and U^u» iii^iJlvrvut tu cLu uilSovu^^* uf Utv 
free forces btiil pJ(i7>iig apon thorn. Sueb is in foot, tbo 
MM", and It 14 an !tultiipuUbt« tmUi tfa&t tlie grCAt nMilU 
adif^ied by tnAn lu <i^<r^tin|^ upon ll^e niAterial objects <if 
tlie Vitrtfa Law coiisistod in mnovii^g Uiosd obj«cU from ilit 
stilt fddt or uiatoruL <l«atli in ivhich ho has fuond thum> v)<l 
to pliuucg tJiom tint tbu Aurroniidin^ influenccfl vbkli bul 
eooAij^ivdtbena tvl1iU«U1« cam a^iizj oeE iipcbangc« In tbem 
Atid, u It wvrVf reniiiiiinttj lUifiu, In ftujcmtltic pbraM^ it ii 
hy (bu trjuwfcr of uutciiJ objects from tliu Oi^kti] 1o ttio 
dyDAiuEcal oUU^^ from A eotiditEon, of molar oqnIUbrium 1o 
ono nf niolftr iuiivitv, thjtt Imman dvillutlon Ti» be«fi en- 
nblixl to originate and lo advance. 

But t]J» la H irork wliidt uii:ru vitiil or »(wiii] fonHH would 
novcr know how to nndcrtako- It U only imder lW giiid- 
taicn of tbr intflli^tiid farulty tbnt Uie fint Mr^p in thm 
direc-tioncanltctalECD. Tlio mt^iu n<^ci:«iory to be vuiplujcd 
dlfl«r »4l> uip-ld«lj' fruiu tlio undA fbut iELtc1lv*>tul foffeaigbt mn 
ttli^no tnFKiiv i>icir adoption oven In ihc »lrnp1c«t Cfl»e«. THo 
flrtA nMtljr nnpitrHJ Artj #0 wholly nnlikn tlioiN? vhicb would 
bo n>|inreJ if ttie viij Wf^rv diruully Huu|;hl, iLiit a l^lgldy 
d«vclop(<<) nitioQ^ fftcnliy I0 dtjmaml^vj [n all bi*iiif>* that iro 
eR|mbIe of pcrf^rmln^ them. When a bring, cmiowcd with 
daaiKs to bo pulmSwl^ in mvfo ncqiiaintcd wtlb ibo flxifll4iic« 
of A dfwnbto object. It w> iinm«dittvl>' prompt*^ to moT»,<ir 
to pnt fonJi efforte, in tho d!;«<vtion of tliAt objoci. To mch 
a btrinfr, nn^tbor, ^mug the mne ohjj^i^^ thnt ilioald tarn 
&my fn>:o it jwd eommenoe onOui^ adjiistinenCB in other 
objocti lying about, would, to use thu lan^j^ of fnhic, np- 
pMT »tn!<n^1y ittnpid. If would be ui vnnatHrnl acfttiM, 
«'. A. it would he ui iTrf{jMi/ ono. If im^<¥nful id winirii^ 
the end, Qnit1:iinal>tiT by diwot cfiort, It woiiM be an frXTTfrino 
of tmo art, and v-oold inrolvc an hcioiintnrtor with the prin* 
oipki of troo tchi^iKt, 





The TMt uid IncttkuUtiltf ftdvautagv* vUcL tbu iiKUruct 
mediod iHwettew t>rer the dJti^ct aiedMxJ, >a vol] aa ibo hxA 
that bjr it doQQ W all hnman prc^roie wlift»var bem 
a^ihiOTed, hiv« !>«■& iiuiried upon, t^nd tbu rcMoiw tbtrefor 
ufgrd, in numcTOUf pUcM umI wajr* id tbo prvrioo* nhajfien 
of tliB wurk (rol. t, pp. 476, :>5J ; vi>l. u, ppu W, 13i\ 160). 
Thia gnKiDd need not, ibcr«fon^ bo ^uio goiHt orur. Tbo 
pronenr aim >kw Ixwn to point oiit t1i« »jst«intti« pi:*itUi>ti in 
n ]<i;pi74l cUtoiticftiion of hiinun M?tioiw, M-hit^h thiii form of 
puivuiug^ ead» ualumlly owupnat. ll uumtilutui llic ktivou> 
tlvo pTDooaB bj whldi natural tovcm «ra turood to lionvui 

The ie\^cnil dtfnvnU vrbtdi wcrv tbowii in the Ivt dup- 
(or to nijilto up Lquiaji prvgnaM lim^f all bnoi iM-giiii hwI 
ulinrnxl by dTitamicnl n/^tionfu Tho grant aaoocKiTd ftrtc 
'bl<^ bi*« reiiden>d primible ibu ttyjiiam of int^rcoouDinij- 
eatioo f^v/int, |k l^i^) vbtcb aow «iUt«, m w«n «a tbe r&rM 
pnctiml ii»v«nt]T« nrt* b^ vbic-k tbo ni^lom] oooditioD of 
wooi^jr W bcva porfc<4ecl (^wpnt, pu 189)* li4vo oil tv«ull«d 
from tbe raoo^kioo hj tbe JizimaD inEi:lIuf*t of (bo iuief- 
tiiodiato tteps i w«wa ry to be tiklcen in cirdfir indinirilj to 
foctirv lb«8o gmt omb vrbk^i pwiontod Ihc-iMolrw 8» rvmotii 
object* btiT<)iMl lliu rcacli of direct effort. The^ irfiro all 
n«!-onipll»h«d b/ tlie aid of moa&ft tittle If at all rtaeoibHng 
tbo on^ ■v>ufc1it. 

It \* t1ii» cliaA>ctcri>tic of mniiV rc«Mli al*o tb«t bM givOQ 
biin tbat doailnioD irbitdi l»tf iiXL^rviMB oi^r tlfu infotlor brato 
orvotioo. It h nos ibe f-:rni or "* f nu^ " of tn^n, nnr any 
ivtinol impUottHl in aninutU^ wbieb ouMca tbo Utter to nep 
ogxiLeo in lb« furinvr n uuuftrr. If aniaaU foar mun, 6oc 
tr^nui biiD, Of obey liim. It iti only aft«r tbey b^vo kumod 
what hn ifL, %fter they liAvti found out bj «TicpcrJcncv that bo 
p m ipo ^ ta llut faculty by vhicb he f^nn drttmr Ihrm at » dit> 
Un(*e, and two ciTCumreiil ibi-oi in all tbrir attumpU to evado 
bim. The hnnier well knows wbovi bo faa« naebod a ragimi 
wboro iiAU hoi not bocn. Tbe gntnn in nudi looalltiea b no 



more flfrdid of him tlian of my other cffAtnre of tli6 

ttul of lu= r«jidi- Tlw lure ur Uj« grooMi wot ia Lini 
only a Iftrigc anitiuLlj a rtnui^ crvfitiaro, ksd tokca ouljr duo 
MLiiio moMUWt 1o Dccapo u it woulil wer« 1i« a gonllH or an 
onu^-uutung, tltbiiugli fruin ihvt^ ji would in rcalti^' bv 
]>crfiM.-tljr ftifo ao long ik out <ff ihcir n^cb. It mi^l be 
fn^blrucd At ibe Doroltj of 1bc^ig]lt, but ■« mticb fn the 
one cnjH? an in the other. It titiltr 'trttima ibftt ha liaA poir«f 
to de»Truj it at tlw dkuiuw of fifl^ or a bondred janfa. 
IICDoer aa t1i« bitntev tornu It. tlic giiiou ii tamo; But lot 
BiEUi inva:ip tbn di>m»in of ihtva aniinal^ ; let lilm aotde Kpoo 
it, And dftpple the country with tui honws and field*; let 
him, te ht- mi .iJiiibiy doc«, hunt tUa gnuic for a ft*^ ^vm, 
imd it will 0OOQ leani liia poirer It will ibon foar biin u 
much at & hiindrad yanls aa it formrrlj did wbr^n vitliin bb 
m«lt Bt'^y IxhIj wilb Ibv fivktt (^x|M!ricucv in nvw coou* 
trios W aeou ima h«rt abuudauit^ iUiMlrat^L And It proTOa 
tbnt (bo iiQimal world onlj know« tho dorninion of mAii aFler 
It ha* Immed It; that tlm dnmininn i* not a «npornatiira1 
c^rm, but a n«l power 

Tbo ai^^iuiiout dntwn frwii llie oboilicnco of ilom<ffttc ani- 
linUU«miltt« Apt tban that dr^wn from the fttr of wild 
ontA, wliem neod In proof of the dnctrir^o of niaiiV Kn|H!ni»l- 
tiral doiiiinlan. K<ir Kliej ire oolj donicHli^' Immwum of tiun, 
and in nwi>fH^ to him. Tliod<iTii«etioau]Tnal hutf alu-mbcwii 
DDdfr tiic itiJinediaXo potrer of man, and Lcnco, of all ml- 
molfy It IcTiowjt bf#t tbo m«aC of that pnwvir. It onlr uir- 
titiA its mOQjC'iit^'^ *^f ^*^^ doTniniun fiiilbvrf bcHrMUHe it utidtfr* 
ntand^ it t>«ttvr Iiititiud ot tei^iag to ttoapo tr^yai Wiv ^m^ 
toftvcdd Jnjary athieliindfi, k liu Iftanvd, in a tnt^k olic^ 
il\en<-a to hiB dosnuidji, a new atid df(T(^r«ii method <»l 
PDC^Qrin^ the wrtie object. In aII cxftm^ t;if doitiinton I* dii« 
fo luft pownr and that p->wer n aoi|nin^ tbr>n]eb tbo mipo- 
rloriljr of hi* innTd. *hieh it*.i>lf i« oulv rtvyif-(iiu*d by tlio 
bruio wb(rn ii hiu Iwen loadi; to fod and rtalko it. So true 



Afi luQcb wkUkt tbo donufiton of thf> anwmls u tbo Anlniftla 
ore of tlic nieii. 

Bttt tkot only dd mui'ti ilyiiiuDie octaou giv« him domtn- 
ioii ov«r lite ftuiEnd kingiJocu ; iU^y ftl«v citwd tliMt Uointu* 
ion dvvr ftJl tbo tw4 uf natan. Tlioy cooititQio tho pro^roe- 
iive ekincut of hb nAtTtro. Ko profcnMa am over n«nlt 
from BMioil a.clioiifi. If a man e liiiiigi7, lie foe1« an hn* 
pnice to eat, nnd, if anjr food u within bii n^i, Imi «Ui it, 
and tbiB pnMrv«i bin lifn* But tliu ft otJj prwunulirQ 
and not prc^nKdvio sctioQi ILo nc^or fook ui impDlte to 
•ow, tJ)ftl he niajr oat nil mnotUa Inter. Tliat ii a dfilihcm- 
tivo set. 

Avarioe ■pun mun gn to atna« vvillli, Imt prognm liua 
not in thn »nr)ulaJtion biii in ibtt Judifibos aitpropriation ud 
application uf wtalib. Tn^f-r^M it nothing moro than taking 
tdviuitofi^o ttt nolnrc, ami turaiti^ it into uwlu) frbftoniflft, «> 
H to malfo it «iih«-ri'0 iho parpdM of tncteaaini; bumm liap- 
pine*. To do i\ih ii-<]ulr4, flr*!, a kuo«rlc>lx« "f nature^ 
i &t comet vit^wv rcpiHWtinf; It ; and. ftooowl, sudi actloD a* 
ttHl render choc^ itwtilta iMiceeMry, t. f^ tbo f^ipQcatJon tn 
pnctioc of tbal knoirledge. Rut, of conno, all «iieb acta 
mnst be uf the drnainlcal dav. 

TIjw. vhUo ImpulaiTo and all ataticil oiAloiu aro tbo mora 
vnivcreal and natnr^lf afvd vhEle tlicj iocvr tbe candfl of 
natttrat vti/ity, vie., piVArmtinn of hntnan Itfe, nitional 
dj^uaniio action* aiv artiO[!Uil, auc) wrvu tlic Krvot «nd of in* 
divi^uai rUility. vtt., iiicroao of luppfDCM (mipra, p. 18S)» 
Aa aTiorr rrrujirkHrT, it wm ilieAn M^nn^ wbi^h gk^tf. mm hia 
dooiinUin n*>t ooljoTcr Ibo aninul a-fiffM but otct all natnrtf, 
Tliat domil^i^)!) wlwij ctpnfi«d over tlw aiiiinril klnicdoni not 
Onlj protect bhn tem bocomJng a pfi*j to viM boak^t^, Lni It 
inalkra ncorlj dlt aoimala mlia^rv^ hii inttrmu In onr vaj or 
anodivr, Eitbvrtu fwxt, ur in jivMfnj; milk, or in fornUb- 
ina nkUi^or fyr,»ir ifon-, ora>tou6iof dntn^bt ttnd nf har- 
den, or in aonw <ilbvr oioful ni«niu>fi bo oompeb tbo inferior 



oiv^tion to inini»l«r t« bi> wonu. Uc dovn this in tiio 
Uwlow wij UiAt tbtf buperiuT »n!i»fc1* ilu«l wiUi llw bifcHor 

In cscrtUbf; ht^ doiuiTiion otat ihc vi^Ubtc Icii^gdom, 
he mii1ri|ili(« >t« i>n>JiK-tiveQ««A by culIirAiiug tin; pljmU 
with whicb uatute sboQi>d»i, ftud frooa whkJif direcUjr or 
itiiHnx*Uy, ^11 aouud lifv miut liurirc hs cnM^aitois. Ho 
thus sot Oq]/ prGv«DC8 tlio liofttniccioa of hi* upcnir^ hj 

oc^ipj tv^TuUEi H'iicrc fi>r a wIi<»]q moaod IW vc|^-t4il>(fii cut 
tiubtmt iu I'OMeijiiunao of tlw cold. He &1io torw the fonvCa 
into iaci ftud Icmbcr to protoot lum from tlic inctemcncj of 
mioh iinn.itnAl imi] otWnrin; uniuhalMtablv diniAlM^ 

Over tbe iiiiucfm) kingduni mao e3t«rdwi s nill wiiler 
and nio»€ mruid jttrij«iii«ion- To attempt na cniimtrration 
of the manjr utk^ji in wliioh )ic rtthicriA it 1o a«efTifai«M, 
ivoald be ua^ju-raaUhly lo vxpuud lie rtilijec^- WUoo uo 
ooudder to wlut luuft be baa put t]i« mii^U nivtiil iruti, uo 
nif^ form * fiunt toimption nf u'hul fi \at-i ilclil thU » for 
tlia dominion of Tr^Mn. !!« Iuia aW ti)ni«<1 uJI the odi^ 
metaUinto hia wrviw; Intnl. cupi^r. *iiic ellvvr. goH p)*^ 
auiD — «U tuv ill daily ujBC in a thi>ui4ijitd o^iivcttieul uid vieEnl 
wftjm. 6ot loOf iJl thn r««t of thu impoHuit elomMilAry aub- 
ftt4iik0>v uxv in torn* jj^rcAtcr or twe dcf-rw, PcrvirciMc lo bJm, 
There ATO, boadus tii&d v cHJuihiufttioaift whti^b hv hju micrcvdwl 
III tivUtiu;; uf th<^^ o!-?ni(:<tit«, cnulb^ nu mKnr dtotind fiitb* 
fttAri(x>s vAch bnvin^ iHtdnrt ^ctl \-»x^\laT pro^wrlios. 

In tbw vnimivnlioi]. loo, i\\\ liri> pnut ngrodc*, lutiuftl 
forot*, And t»«cli»uintl priiicipU« dlicovcrcd ftftd |«>t to ntta'i 
aorvke, niim bo ctnbni<<«d. Tlni power <^ 4tanin » bort » 
profergr of that g«t wlibli, *1i«n c»n4ncd by hiuuan device 
And cooductcd into ibe rj-lind^ of tlio tUom-cBgEDO, \» 
iuad« lo propid mwhinory. The utilixatioo of eloctnriljr ao- 
rordinj^ to ibo oubc je('U«tiu1 principle c»ii^litMloA otw of tbo 
frnim)«rit of bnouB aahi^vomonts. All t!io priodplea of 
iiUKli»tik4«ed of pli>«iea lUDfit b« bicluded In UUfi olafis of 



fkf them tu tbi^ iwqudop of his baing. 

W« MM in lhi# brief tkot^h whjii t dMQinioQ mnn rx«^ 
CUM UTor all dvpo/uncnu of iuUrt«, and v« muj Mfdr <:oo- 
dudo ibai Uo hi*i not jot n:io1ie>i tbv [uuliuuiu Uuiit of lik 
po^or iti iTiU f!irw*tioQ. Bui ibat p^woris wholly duo to bib 
iaUUct^'lu^l foctiltj, vthwh luw gtiidLnl hU ftCto to deviuu^ in^ 
dIrM Euvaim of iie»>ujpli*)di^ «imJ« oth^rviae Qn4tU{iiftU>eL 
Siie^ rAtloDAJ. or inventive, AVtKwa atoMitot^ the ehj»« whicb 
w^ hnr€ l4>m]rtH dynnink^ Sonne idot of tbo lUpotlatiCO i>f 
Uuit «Uu of nctiuni uay tJiw bu fonntd. 

Tlio fr>}i|»^nt iTInsfofU vbkih baro been made in tLb 
work tji wUxi Im^^ ht^t^n cflllcil tha indirccL metWl of poaatuin 
{mprv, p, ft3>, ffbtcli ooderli<» nEl di*tiDctivctjr pnigTCMive, 
or djiiuulo, AOtiuQDt h^ve lliQ» Sax bttoa ^cfeunJ ud fur U]« 
raoftt port an&MNxnp&nicd bj *f>eciti« aacftmplM illiffiimtJng iu 
opttrUloiL Tbo ptinciplj^ iEjvJf v top aiinpZ«i (o rv>quifv tht* 
1a ordtT to mtlcu it uudumUn^ 1, uid tbu aim h^s heatx ntJier 
lo uofunw the iTii|>ortaiiiw uf iu nsoc^ition m the coraer- 
•Ujin of Dvnnnii** Sucidogf. EKample* tbovinj? th^ |w*t.Ti« 
tuititr in wtiitli tbU pritKnplc opvr^Im in «il IIm ^r^ftt fl«ldt 
r«<r K'Kicb iIm bitittvo iutdloct 1m« bono vw^ m Cttdljr 
farnMaod, and, vith q vkw to grrator finmpk!tciMw in tlid 
InutinBat of tlm rnibjef^i^ ft fe h«re propMnJ to cnumtfnto & 
few tjrpicd ca«e« of tJm cIam Uktrn frorD tbo tji«ti^ry ol iho 
progrcM of VJwU of tbo tf^^J^t B^fono* tif tlio bivmidijr. Tbo 
■iwdai liiii of each tUattAtion viU l>ti to dbow, flnt, tbat aa 
itiiiglkt into ttitfi ]aw4 of nature hj live hamu intollffcl lu« 
b«eo Ji twooMOT)' KnK'OMlmt to biiccms ; aod, fitcond, tbat the 
«e1ii p^rfumiod in i^^ufing tha dttlnd oud bav« eanvuted 
is nfoo ipwial Bxtifleiftt modiftotion irrooftbt Sa ooiiAJn ob- 
jottH diACtnct fro<n th9 «cid, nod coortituiing the nicati« ol its 

It w3l be Ci:»Dv«a>ent to follow ib« Omil^ui oUMifics- 
tion,uid t4>|>cooood from tbe idoto geourml oad '^^^JviUvu*' 

ac:tkis.-«eoondary uuxa 

to tbo iDor« epooial and complex. It will, of coimo, bo ob- 
Htrvod tknx all tlie nMi1t» fttuiiiw-O by tbo loJiToet doUumI 
ftTu in (lie (lircctiou of ajvplyin;? Eb<' irttdis oompralionded b> 
tbo cudM d^iivd b> BkAiikiud, oithor to Iho mora conTvaieni 
%Qd mpiil Hoqiitfilion of uawr trutbft,<ir, rnvn gvnunill^, to 
Hui «Qpp1j^ 4il ibo mot^rla] mata of »doif- 

Beponiii^ wftZi m«lhoizwtic«, wc find iluit ^iKniukiM of 
buuibirr itid f^i^LiniUj w«ro nmong the c:4r1i»t Ut pn^nt fi^r 
£oJu1i<»ii, and ihu pmclicul nwd vf putuv uioaiu of otittiii^ :uid 
iolfio}; ilmm f^rly booomc a pnmuount conalderatioa. Ilio 
ftr«l rtliiAbk* 8;ipIk**tion of tbe iudinct <n«1bud took j>\m^ in 
tbo inicniioii of «})(k'iits of noUtfon. TboHJ woxo of two 
kind*, orilbmutMAl xiid goomctfical. Tbo xystoin of KntluQOt^ 
iftil ootnEitnj udnpr.c^d hv thfi (irrrk*, Ihr nw*t bKlliaiitJj intcT' 
Icctuft) niOc uf Aniitjmtv, bap^'Oi.^ lo In: v«iry dufiuf , and, id- 
tbougb u bv'tter oir^ j« tiow known to Iiavo l>ouri invenu^d hy 
tbn Pjftbagn rc^au*, it wn* npr«r brought into j^ncticd itM. 
TIlU mar, bu\vov«T, b^vo reiJlj pn>vud « gun lu drienceT 
eluco It wa^ doubikfla In a grvflt degree Uuo lauk^jnacj of 
their ojM^m of namotabi that droro tbo Greok» to imcli 
kliji[ths in the cUbnmtioci of a Ajittcm of geometrical nota* 

Tlio HoniJin«, tbe ttQ\i mc*ft tii^blj^ cuttnnd pcopio of 
autlqnity, ^loptoc! n mcUiod of T^oiatlon only ono di^;n>o 
better ibdn tW of the Omrk* It* mfcrioHty to tiio odo 
DOW in UM*. and kuuu-a aa tliv Aral^c, u w«)1 iiiidcntood by 
«»vcry rchool-boy, "but may be better realiccd by actenipliiif^ 
to perform a bng itinlliplimlion by rlic niv of tlu^ Roman 
nnmpntft. Tf^t otcq >n tb<wo ayvlttm* tberv bad bc«n *omo 
iuvontiori, and tine Hk^k'toii of Ibo truu ftyrtuin vrmt ovtlisod. 
Tbedcvimni nictbod of oonniiDj^ lavliifi; been inendlcftbly 
foilcrtod upon uU Dation« by tbt^ ju>fidimt of ibe trn digitu 
{imffr<iij p. ftii), tliMO mdvr mutbudft uf writing nmubpm w«ro 
dadifncd to •implify routCorv by lutlgninij; to a «riM of elur^ 
U-'ten T^ltioft tcort'MLU[{ in a UnifuM ratio. In tbo R'>ninn 
»yttam, loo^ kb arMataiaU *' vialuo of portion" wm rooo^ 



niiviJ^A niunbvT being tnlitnctod if plflcod bcfgre, a&d ftdd«il 
If piftevd ftfl«r aftotbcr. TbU nmj ircry pmhahly biLT«^ hv^tn 
tbo firM vtop in atl nounTri^ toward a ^oiiVL-nient n-vTom of 
notJilion. The other and morv important ^U[i cotui^tod in 
Uiv aduptiuu of wtint mav bo <^lu(i n jwaiUtrMO/ " vt]MQ oi 
.p(«tioiL'' Tho nwiu etriw of deeoctndii^ Ynln<«, M C Y I, 
HilhiilMy« (tn\v onft tantt of rarh t«»m. The prvWvm wat l« 
PKprevi &njr Diunljcr vf rucIi unita. To do Ma^ oiliur immer- 
alb »t^re plii'?«M over or tji^dt^r, ur in fi-cn; of ilu«Cf lo dooolo 
Itow Qi;inT tLmee e^vch one woa takim, fu fi>rlBHc^u( of tJt«in, 
Uuu: MCXl. Tk!« exprcA^o«i wonld IIie'd T\^d S4'r9. 

SfinpW a*> iLo »lvp uppcarg of ncgfocting the original I3nit4 
vi(l kuittg tbcir ooH^fflcwuU ttand iD tbtar plaus, wfiu-Ji 
-poflition alone wotilJ HuiBfrienElj tBdIcafo iJ^Er vAhn b tli« 
KTiM, ii proTvvd 000 alow to 1^ uVm. OrUin it it^ bow- 
ever, that in InOiu, Balr^r'tonia, AmbJa, Puna, Cljitin, 3^*1 
Jajiob, mii^mn of uot&tii^Q, emboJjlDg tLb slmp^o but iin- 
t|K)rUut pTiticipl«iy were in hk:* dnriTig th* ^tdcn tmt of 
M Vid RoDio, wbci^ it Vi!\* nnknowT]. nati il e> i.ti infer*' 

[ng spocmUttoii to couleuipblu to wliat k'n^^hd an ao- 
<|nAint»no(} wUb il iiiiKht Ljiv« carried thc«o nalionK aikd par- 
ticdUrljr ilio Ofwk*, Lnd thny pr«**ind it^io r«rt may b« 
tho eouaoqnencw of i tingle ^^nppy idoa. 

Tli« adoption of a convenlcut ejiiiuai of ootatloD Ins leoQ 
followed bj a train of tiirjillv rvmnrkabk* InrenHons in th* 
4tliibofatton of uivtbuJ* uf anlhin^^cnl Hilution. Hio H^ 
Okll^ ** ralvw of Hrit}j|ii«4lo ** hari? aQ bee» tb« roMlM of mii^ 
«v<wivc improvements mcIi involritig Ujc applipatiwi of tliv 
iitdinwl roiTihMl. inBoniTit^i tli^l no ago wodM tliink it |>f}?aj- 
blu to do biuiii^BA by tJie inotliod^ cmpl^pd in due )>rewdlQf[ 
iice^f Alp^bra, wlikeli gvnvrslicca aritbntctic, la tKroD^V^tit 
an inrvntion. Geonwtryi anil «pccEallj IrlgoiwrnoOj, tlinw- 
bg to wbal lUM tho Important propcrtica df nnoiT co«ti»v 

• RuviIvUih •K-»*i,' IM. 4 a BT. IM. lU^ WR 


etc., enn L<« put, iDVuUt» tlio iqwoUt^ m&lLud Id « IJ^ tl^ 
grcc. 'J'bc Invention ol kgrintbnifi ooMtituK* one of ifao 
|i»rc«t drx;iniplni of the Impp; nppIirAtion of tlic indirect 
PiucbocI wlijcb anj of the «ci«iic«« &ffonl, wluli* the w»ll-woni 
hi^turv of die iiiveatioD of tiw caknLuM can ii«vor b« xoq 
oftm rcjiJ .V ilhiRtrmtiiig thu MToniiLiiig acumf;n lA whicli 
the hnmui intellect la <ap*blA* To all tlii« m%y be added 
the ptrliapa Milt morv brilliaut acKirvrRiont of Sir W, ItowAn 
U^nillEort la tLa duoovory of tlic Uw of cjuaCvmioiui* hy 
itltirh motion find dir<>c[ioii luivif boeu br^iu^t uadur tLo 
ilominkin of uuLtJi^iiulii!^^ ^ number and 8paic« li&<l bvcQ 

*hv grvatur part of nil tbltt uuinenM work of inBtliemii* 
SuveuCiou ha» htstn v-eonipliJted Iv a. f«w indiridaftlfl 
«])<> have ohnncoc] to pD#cs& that pArt]<:r»1nr ^natil^- of miwi 
vbich v±ti follow a Vmg trmm of «>n*r^ncnre» flowing froni 
thu UBU uf «ji|itupriiLtiD iiii»£i« thrvu^'b iu tliu uUiumtL* end, 
wbicb b never loet from vle^. In mathomadav ae In all 
other MJcnccFf ibc applicnliott of the indincct nunhod ik pri- 
tnariljr an tTitcllLH:tii]J oii^tvtm^, l>ot here motr th-in rUcwhow 
lllti boftJ pvrfurru* Ihu chi^f jiirt vf tlw work. The onljr 
niii«cabi' aoliTitim called for ari^ tboeo n>qalred b vrlclnf^ 
down tlie rtwilcii of tV* niindV (IWovrric*. The ohjVt* to 
bo manipulalcd Atc biinply Uit* ]iti.irAl And immencn] rJiarMv 
taie &BTOJv«d, and aro uwd raur« for ihe ake ol nfdiog thv 
mocQOT^ And cccariag puUidtA' than of An fwwmtiAl part of 
thfr liiltor. Both th«i rMuU And ibi^ niHljod an* puK'l^ idcftt, 
but ibctr practical ntilitj onlj oome^ with their appllcarCoD 
to ooneretv tmti. 

Vamng over A^ronomj, whnHi uppUcAtion lo nurigation 
aiTordB nutni?rnt]» i]tD«tnttonB of ihe pfiociplf- nntlcr Minud- 

Of llib xrval dWrt* rfj nuiilr r(|)rpi«4 Ut >fluuiiiaiii bi lAa MlDvlag 
II ''bw o^Hflplm dL> (lAiijiTiiqui ittTrr«i- jtf&i p'u f|iiA MflUaAU ^ur 

VfllOUcrit AinirmAdn en (fill**] rkuoirQH imtln d# li anpll«L fwul*' 
di> r^nK>fwiqiPorncknbii,tpLlrqnv LvtbntuTi fDnDA«;«l<|Ki <wnticriv 

iKciH <>Eiqlia U vi*' b*!^ pcu^ i k^eUcF»prtt hiiiMg lo (pnl Jamifi 



(K)uj«e inc«t ubtmciTdT to Tjie fvrvgr»unOi It \a KtltUiu 
tLifl field ibut uf^ ooinprvbviHkxl Um grader number of oil 
tb« m«diiinkii1 inrectEoii*. Wo can, of coarM^ t-icc octljr & 
ftw lT|>K*al caBM. 

Id lanjl<:^v, Uie ncnpl^t cjuea «n9 vuch nuchLQOi ak rim 
br tbi- iHJvor uf migliU. Tlieae (Uuatme in tbu loovt com> 
plo% ttaj Uw tratb, Aatcd ii fon' fagc« ^ftch, rbil ioTOTiioa 
^iiftiMB JO diBtiiTbaQ|- iliis f^ij/iitirju of ^qiiitjbriiim lu wbtdi 
hU nult«3r U found. Tbi^ «iiFort «xp<*nd«xi in wiiiditig i^ ^lock 
^nvorta llio pototilial «nvr^' «f (lie woigIit« iiiio ooluoj 
; aimI Ibu furueof j^rjtattoD, m oi|utUbmtlDg tbtt 
Npi*rfotiii#AT«J<tAbleMTTicc t<> niftn. All ajtjtUofllLuiu 
of wiFcr HJk ft povirr for (Inving m^hinnry involvo tbj« pnn* 
cipk--. ]q Ibv " uvvtvhot " wbuci tbv )H>wr owirU* viui]^^ In 
tL« vLL'if^tit uf thv wub-f ooikcUQtl/ lU it pari of ihu 1>uvkc-U. 
Not t« i|Mnk of lb* iDtchincr^ tuA go*nn^ tbo Idoa that 
imui Rdruilngb aiia;bl be ^nvd by tbo coitiilru<liun of a 
uid tbo ftOMimiiUf ion of a Jieod of iraUr En ft fiome or 
pcntfofk, WW ft Bbrviw<l fl«Ttw OD ibe part of manlEiiid. Tflt 
this h among tba MmplHi of llw coMrivftiion of civiliation, 
ftuU it w1^1J■Di^ll psnlltlod br tb« nctloa of bcftvcn. 

If vo Bcck illiuUatioo* in tbc^ dcpftitmODI of opl|c% the 
inTrmtJon of tht^ Wnn Is perli^pA M oitoe the pDr«M «ivnpl0: 
ci iBgeiiuiiv, and Ihe ntotf tnaportAat pni«i)C4l diwortrj to 
be foui>d. If ^]mtA hid nut yvt bttrii dWownMl, ur^bl^U of 
tni^btlKvo boon found, ftiid tbo ftrt «xiu)d tbon hftvo 
LJftiMj in nbapiQg thtvii^ ao ft* to fiiv>diH« the dcrind effbd. 
Bui bow mold il be known that the «onvoxo«onvei fonn 
roold niftfrnEfy objeete »« tbroo^b Et I iUny ndi iiir«Q- 
is iram donbUen raMlied Id pftn tbrop^ ftcddout, but 
Hioa bfi koon inUHMtVftl vkEoo to pfrmoivri Uia ini*nn- 
vran ol mcb aocidesU* mad to follow tlvem up wltli 
ivnls. Kot only tbo prindplo of tbo mkrwoopc vm- 
■ifig th^ of ihc cjc-|;l««« Hpft^wlo, ot<v, but tbftl of Uie 
vendillAfiAndaud ftwn thatof iheknalDeMenL 



U inM in (lie ilireclion of iho ramUe atid tli9 minnw ttiAl tlie 
Lt»L i^MuniQw iiul crrixtr prvTxUod io tbe wurid, utd it u 
te feiiH tLdt hint lau^bt iia wbfll w« kxkow of botli. I ritjod 
not dwell on iM tnuiv wclllciiown prxTtical nrnv, hut mAjr 
hftXftrd Uir rvrnfLrtc iLaI upon :U a* a meuifl of locaJiziDj; ibo 

for lis iDEHinN of inhjibitii^ ifio ^lobo. 

('hiTmurtr^ itf fuU of iltutftnitlouci nudcr ihiti Itcod. T M'fll 
m^nticjn onlj one compAntJrolv iinimjiortpiiil noc, ncrWdni^ 
itbccauw it ti))0W4 better thftn somo othcT« upon wlist iiai|>1t» 
^tioTM lltci must reourkiiUu tilTeetit nu^ dcpvcf^ Tbo cue 
that of ihc Bsn^oD bnmcr. A dmpte porforarion in tho 
ubo ooftvojrin^ i^c gw to the btimcr converts &r j&trnadf 
htminonji Imt tito<li.M-tttl_r 1u.'At[Dg flatnrr into 4n inteviwlj hcu4* 
ipg but mudtnitL'K Ioqiiduu* uuu, diminutiQjf nJI vmolEO, 
Thla tnvetitloQ cortiJiil}' iras rb@ rvFolt of puro aflontilte diy 
ludioQ from <h*^ knnwti |>ropcrti«* of the gm %nd tht Armc«* 
'pboro* It M nn vxiuiipic i*«pi-vuHf wlftplod to aliixv vb«t 
immooAo oCfcieU it imy Iw poMbW to pruiluev mih very 
tnorlonilc bliOT whm chc Uire of nntnro and the cotietlto-^ 
tion iii mutlm- am *T»TJ*tn*tii*4nv known iVol. 5, pp, ^4^ 88), 

In pumn^c from pbysit^ ad<1 di^inisti^ to biolugr, a ndi* 
\ftii diiTereucQ presents ittdf in tlw maaftor in 'A'liicL hntuuL 
igetiuity ftcconiplicho* bonofi<aiil undt. Soi&i; uiiglit, per- 
luipa, nuppoM biolofEj to be whoTljr outelde tbo donmln of 
iDvecttion- Sti^ wb«n w* nowmT-rr in irlinF. triTf^nlion «0«o»<- 
tlallj eoiwlstsi it vill booQcno cImt tluc mch in nrA (Z19 oaw. 
Invention, e« m often AtnMdj^ nnnrkcd, con«iil« bi dio 
Mnplojrment of imlirafrt iqmim for llie Atttlnnif nt of remote 
enfik It must follovr, 1h«rofor«i, iitttl one onl^ «took'br«e^ 
■nd tbo improv<rn»fdit of c>crnk and fniitp, but ■gricnlt- 
nrc in lU (wmnA/^ an; illnUnUioiw of Invenllon in tlic do- 
nuln of biolc^. Cin>»t i^ hu boon tint firof^ivM thiu f&r in 
thoie cMcntU] uijik tliey baro, in tbe mtin, Inxa pnnn3t»d 
ipcrioftllj. WbM Keiitl* ma^ b«eanae UteiniUe ttbcn «v*. 
i^aev fthall bo ippUod Io tbaox, provldod «U ib« 

EX-UtPLES fS THE (JOMIT-EX daftS0B9. 5^11 

msUrijO* on titt globe be Dot flrvt conmnicd by ibo wi;c|c of 
thv *}hl •jMvta, can not be nitly |irod[i-ted. Tlie «pi>licat]oit 
of tbe tndjroct nictlwd in btolo^ do» qo( fntnAjntHfouU/ 
dfflcr frooi ittt applHatloo in phymo* or nulliemttliu. Ttio 
iiam&liftte fmuonUr olTnrU put fortb mm not lUivclwl lo tho 
id. WhftlifT in mitiiLg ibo tlncvt ikiilmate. In pknting tli^ 
iil» cf tbu cbuifoft f»od-pl&n^ or in rarofnlly pmpoHng the 
•oil wad ilMlrOflnp ao^tioiu wocdiH. tho jiivoctfi rwitlto fn^Rs ■ 
ntJonal foiw^ltT, ami coitti^ts in tUu emplo^iuunt of miilnM^t 
BiMaft wboUj ililfpt^iK in llwonsBilrt* fnxn the end K-tij;ht» 
If It isii »ol be «Ul«d iiLTvniioii, il cftc b« Ailed wri, aiuI ftrt 
cvcrywhen) re«ls on miCMw i^npru^ p. 198)« 

It TiMiuiina to OMuMcr tlio appliciUtoii of tbc bdJA^ 
mrttioil in thd doo^n of looiok^. Tboj for 1 luive dwolt 
i>[)Iy »|H>Ti Tbt? TociblQ rcvnIU tbftt har^ atnwdj h^n artudljr 
nohivvod. K thuio biro buen mnaU id liie inorv poHitlvo 
iiinCRc^i>« and wkallj em^^rloal Id biology, one would be jusli' 
tM In concluding tluit in ihc nnboin vkiiifv of tcfioifigj 
thvy mist be ni7. Yc€ Mm ooocbi^ion u too hatty. Tbvfftt 
IK A ccrlttin poiut ol vibv fn>TD n bu-h many vf iba opvn^ 
tii'iis of goTcrnmont may bo n^anlod h, la a ftcaw, cm* 
bofljing tbn pmgrvMivi? pnoripliv fViiwdcdng lh%t tta «i>d 
b tbu prvserTtttion of tbo eoriiil order, govenimcnt^ baro 
oortainlj dvvued moani to tbtt cod, Tlicy btrc nlvrayjt pro- 
f«stod to bo wokjag t1i« «dvnK«iiMQt of llu? mkIo.) tsiax<'^ ind 
bAv (^ A<Iopl«d mway nicftnrw dcMgnod lo hcotvi Ib^t adhI , but, 
not pOiWUBaj]; «ven ui empiriod iDtaiiJonQfthv^oiDplM liwi 
of Aockity, audi niettitiw bare uetuUlj- pmfod fnilun^^ Yet 
tbo mfdU moat bo <yfnncd«<d to f^omtnccit, vrhentvttr It bu 
fbAsDmud fniuniMid affn^og all tb« maenboni of aoMlj, of 
bavin^ |i>>rfoniiDd tbein in a more «atiafiicioiy nuunMr tlian 
thoy had giivvioaily boon performed under tbe operation of 
tbo iixallcd natunl law of Mippty and dfnoaitd; and, ao 
itaAod \o tlko t&tn>dnctEon (rol. I, p. 6'S), ail iu fBi»ctioi» admit 
of bni^ ao re^irdisl. Tbero U tt*A one of tlioni Ibat aitf 
not b« coocetvt^ of aa deltffpted to primto cnlerpriao. Tb« 


Acriox^BKOoxDAuy UEAKa 

p«iiUluikonl of c/fjiw, whkh we ftre in dio bfllH of ragtnliiig 
ui on««kf tlie mnil viulljr f»caluJ to govrmowTntol (tfOUvt, 
hftji PctM^iry bemi oo 4rkf(at«ii vritfiiii Uw historic period. 

A few i'^4"ijik>« of Uitt adu|fLiou of uiihiuurvv ity ^vem- 
mcnt inrolving tbo applSeOioa of Uic indiroot iiM^Jiod mi 
OQihodf ing the prindple of Atlrtdit'o L<?gtHlalioii wen in- 
troduQvd ia ■& MJrIy part of tb« «ork (vol. i, p. 6^). uU, 
taAl»<r wilfi A view lo ft^mni^tr/ lliui boUftr iiliutnliOD, 
ftnotbor lypml vxomplo n uUdotl hcru ; 

To pi^Tcni tmporieni irom umXirralmng tbcir jpaod« oci 
vliicb ad i\*torrm dutW vcn iiupoMd. tli« ciutouu odtcnv 
WVQ Authon-wd by Articlv IV of tbo wIobraUKl "Oobdeo 
TnAtT** (Juntnn- ^ 1S6C»>, if nut Nilidiod witli tlio viJm« 
dM^Ared, to rt-lftiii Hic j-uod^ b> pacing iha d«elattd vilao 
p1«» live i-er ct-Dk TU- vflcvt of lliu clirvwi) |ir^vUi<ia n^jr 
bo imdil^ Bwit^ 

Bnt upon the wholff it imait he coDfcvod that [irngriarfTn. 
or djnvDic, ACtioo an tlio part of vorietjr mt a utiit liclangk for 
Uio moBi pan to tbc fiitcurvof bociaI adeuce. If it «ver 
tak«« plir«, tburv uv t«9 ^etienJ vla^eA of indJroot Rieaiu, 
(kne f^r boilli of vbicb it otiMt iif«ioA^rilv adopt. (>nc of 
tliMfl may be eftU«d t1t« liialogicftl, the othor the Aodolojfpea], 

Tho biclogHol 1BMlnp^ vt tbc nftme imjAk*, camktM In 
^c fJmple prieniuin of tlio pMM-iit Applimtlon of the \n- 
dinwt method in biolo^ tc^ hnmnji E>aii|fit, ronnddred m 
litrjuf^ mfpniim*^ cip^lc, like nil o:Lor Urht^ viiEiJtiiaau^ of 
physloJ fniprovMiiont hj artlflciftl eeliv?tioti. T!L:it mnn m 
thmi rapeiliV- of iaiprvvvi^mrnt, thf-n i1i>pk not Mut ibc IcMt 
tnce of A d^iniht ; uid, if anv uK-tbod rotrld be ftop^MMd MK 
O*pt*blo to the iBAJority. tt» A'lo]4ai>Ti vovld bnvc t. irrcAtcr 
T^ iQt«rt«t foe iho future of tl»o Hnnun n/oc tliAn tliai of 
aIJ tbo iaeacB <boiU whif4i viaiIooa g^ to waf. BqI Along 
vrilh tlio (indevc^opod f<in«cioi»nr9t of ibo noekH fiTguimm 
po« A fHirrMpondinff dUrriptrd for Ihff rraaole fithire. It i* 
oaljr a few Itigbiy uodowcd rotud> ibit pOMe«« 9rj rmlljr 


groftt oonocTQ tor tko eonditJon of tlm world at ft Imo «Ii«ai 
tbtij Icnov tltej can iiot b« id iL IJTiOl |(ov«rmncntft the 
nntUiK^t *'apri4 rwu^ i^ t/^u^'" ijt noc opij provnbial but 
BiuTcrMJ. It i> %'uii, tlwfvffjw, to GXpvci tijit tbo biologiGd 
iDMDfl wiQ bo «lopi«<l before tlie doctolo^ioaL 

Ttic «r,<ici*og1cfll mcftn« i« co-oxtcMivc vitli the pfffaclpk 
vhifh I have iiv«if^4t«d bj tlw nttms "attnutire lG§;ii]^ 
tiorin'" It it III tliifc tliat lie* tbe ottlj raijucul fiutb ui Ibo 
HjtjTOiacli of a cosbI «ci«iitil^ nrv Tlw prowDt is tbe era of 
n^^ti-riEJ iicioncc, tha ruult of tLu kpplintion of iIm indirect 
method to Enatliemalin, afttronomj, phjrBkif «li«d:nUtfT, and 
>logy (frxdwiva of man), TIm «n of aoohl ackuce, if it 
IT coowi) iriU Ajiply llu< tiivthod to tU>o pfauKWioiia pni- 
fibTitdd bjr tbe eoetjd fomes, and tlie a<!opliou of tbo aodo- 
logicd axATift tbrovgli 4Uncdrc ktglft?jLttoD nuj lead to the 
luloption of tho bsologi^sl mcan« tbroagli ttirpicalcar«L 

TUoeo who coDtribnto to human profijcaa maj be dlridod 
tnto two daasM : tbote wbo jK^'tr, fti»1 ilvose who ktu>ti> Aawi 
Dynamic, otr pvogromrc, actiofia tn^y tikcwiu hn elaxd aa. 
If tbofo wIiicbioMiK ju tbu4rqptMi^Hnof kiiuwlud|[e;aQd, 2, 
tbooe whF«4i rash in tbo ffpfHoation of k&owlod^ acquired. 
ThiK m th« fnndanimitl dirtinctim between «ei«iice and art. 

It MkiDiitimua bappma tlial an indiTiUaA) wbo kaovn^aUo 
kim^VH haw; In rvalitf, tbow wbo know jiow muit alao 
kDow, bat thc^ knowlodgo u gftco to a ^roat irxtcnt mtni- 
iWff. 1'Srj- ran not gin on aeconni of it. TK^ art la en* 
piric-al. Wlipro ibex poeww ajatemalie knowMgei it i» not 
{renerally original, Tbej havo ittaalJ/ aoijiunU it aeoonul- 
haruK aiKl nca obtaintKl it by tbo etmly of uture. Tlioee 
\v\ii^ really lci>ow an lho$e who bare found cul by origtiial 
PMoarcK, Tboae wbo know htw aw tboce alonr who d^ 
Prn^-rriv, oft tbc ono huid, i^ only bcxiu^t about by J^nf^ 
On the ocbcr luml, it U fxjtiallj dcpeadeot upon knowitkf. 
Hnt, >ffain. fo oHer to do, nwn mut ihiow Atftk 

There liui urvrr b(*on lack of a«ckn ; b«l, ejcecpt m oon* 


ACTioy.-SBCOTiiiAftr iieak& 

Imllnl by the nthcr two cuiHlttfoDfl, It mu»t fall Dltd«r SOQIO 
of tbv fatatic^ diifiiiioD*^!;! pTYNlnt?^- no |>rngti(>fliivr, c^*C<. 
T\ve Iruo pro^necuie action moa proceed not only from a 
knowtodgo of tAir*ffii bat of wi^j. Tliv pnjgTnaivc hgvnt 
miurt luidontUDd botli Uio naiare of tljo objods vhkh donsti- 
lute llie iaterirb^diate mtann to ibc rmwte vDib Hwght, and 
bow lUoy iBtHt b« adjtutvd in order. tUrou|tf] t1i«ni, to t«ciir« 
tliovD diili^ SdcQco aikI i^rt, wbicK It in ibe tcndviu-j/ to 
dirorcc, aboiOd bo tntmi intinutclT nnilod. So fwr a* |io«- 
Aiblc iWj Alionld civii^kit tn Ibn fEuriu iiidivIdiuL It dlionld 
booouic better uikIptvIixhI Ihat, for any pntctirai piirpow 
eiiob ae UjntlA to affv^i tlic uiaai^ of imokind. vcwncv tuup- 
plied u vrc-rtblc^. It niav aiuOsu grdat lUiadfif but h <ua 
not ebiratri ^n^at popnInrionA, 

The Iwo oliuMCA of prvgrcvHivc acliont, tbo*c wbiob r««u1t 
in tlm nt.'tjui^tioiiand Elicitrj xvbicb rtu&uU In tlk« appJicnliiHi 
of kouulcdgo, arc c'jda)!/ imporiantt ftnri, aJtbough they 
mtiM alvrajH iiUnJ in thi> or<lcr of ffc^qQCncct, it ftbrniU he lh« 
sito to oonibintr tbt^in m far an poMiblc. V«rr little of wittt 
pawM for educAtioQ teada ev^ to moko m(!a Vqow. It 
rfjoulJ Und (o make them hitI only know, bul know bow. 
U ^nM a]^ !J^»!h tbtftn to do. The bum&n mind tboald 
be iiiMnid«(l in Uie art of uta. intY7*fion. TJw irfvv^ilive 
faculty, (Tjo only jirof^nmve fAoulty of ibe biIimI, flhotild be 
ajftvinaticslly developed, witb a viov in angmentbig tbe 
proportion of progmatirfi, or dynamic, artiona. 

I>vnA^)tic aotiuDH nmy bu i;nb(livfd«d into two grmipf. no- 
uordiii^' an ibry arc |>erformod by indivulnal* or »mnl! corpo- 
mtf-^im, or by fiiirioiy at lar|^. TIiiia far, tiwirly all dyDAmte 
ftcUMtff h&vfl bcliiTt^ to t]i« fint of ibv^ gr^upa- Tlw 
inv«ntir<f fsrtilij n.Hjrjin« a eoTtain iJo^tdo of indopocdenco 
in Ita eierxTWc, The union tvofi of a few mirxtU npon tbo 
zn€iaA to tlm HUmmftnt of a rocnol« end fr^qn^cly rwmltA 
in a d^*rfiO of coafodon mpomptitible vUh the adoption of 
any rational acb#nic TIio tiutid loutt punnio n tnin of eon* 

mHViDn^AL AN'n h^icial. dvnauic Acnosa 995 

MHIuenciM from the (occptLon to UiQooncrlitelotKif iLo prooeBs> 
ail*] iti\a rvtpirM con^plrti imljitinn *n<! fiwdom froiD hit<-T^ 
nitxlirro irjih the ickw of oili^nc DdilHrrMiff bcNitc* rnrcJy 
UiJici HUJ' tucuMirvd mhicb iuvijlw thv i|/pJiciilioii of tJiC 
iiiJireet tnetbod. If indiviJo&l aionibvn^ yrht> liavo wi>r4ccd 
\U M-hrmfw oiit 1>v thirmfdn^ pn>pa«o thtm in mi(*1i Itod- 
, ^ic confufioQ oC tlitoorduii mimla, ciMpled witli iht) 
uniol |ir«|x>ii4l«i&iic« of loforkir ooee, aIiimwI always O^tokU 
Flit^ir A'ioptlon. i^uch bodkifti iniKullcJ ifelEberatlvv, al!6ni 
thiT ir<ni£ iiu^pcri^-i^ ukuna poMJl>Jn at tmrhing the maxi' 
mum u-iadoni of tbi-ir iudiridcul iDvmbvtx A ndical cluago 
bbouM be biaagiiriited bi Uio etllt^^ rodlirxl ol Ic^uImIoil 
My rh<: pnvcttt «5«evm, nol orcn id avorai^ CftpivBakin of tbo 
itiUlli^ncv of tbo IhhJj b obtunoblc. The mtiforai product 
of fttiob dvMT«Ta!ioM4 falU far Uulow tUI> kvtt^v, if It can be 
B^iid to ri w U) A Icvfil wUb iIm luEuimDm intcllool in the 
lkk>dy. Tn:iT M^tvatloit oui Tti»Tor b« rMcbod until all [ttr- 
dKiiulii|i JA MA uiJ^ add Mdh m^mlicr !■ riubtcd to wofk 
ou^ ^-vrj probl<rjn on vlnHly >otv(itjfic |irifiL-]pWt« ind hj 
Micntitif^ inctliod** aod u&lil Uiv ^ui tf^Ul of tmlli nctaaUj 
ol^taiiMHi lA fnnbodlnt b llie enaftmi^bL Tlie n^l work csn 
n4jt K* duve tii open Ea«ion. Tliu <<orifuiiioii of mwIi immud* 
Iftttw U faUl to all mcnul appllcailoci. Then need be 06 
op«n RMKioiM. TI10 labor and tlioii^hr jdumld b* porfomvd 
in privnt* «^<*ltwon, tlic rtfaralt* mf'liod bv otiicre sliould in 
diii my bv cuhnly iH>ai|)an-<d by mick friUi iIkhv ruudiud bj 
biinwlf, ai>d a general and v->1uiilarv a«|uii^«(%nor by al ka^t a 
mftjon'ty m rbit wfiiHi rr.altj'nHkf>->miii wjlli ibt^ Irtith in cadi 
ettia alioiild \>v dvlitier^Uly vmboflivd M Ihiv, The naUiiv of 
polHioal bpdiea riioutd b« luadv to <«mronii aa nearly » poa- 
vlth tbnt of Bcdontlfto l>odi«; ihoogh Uton U tlifa im- 
t ditTf^rmrv, tlutt ivii*nt)&f brbdiiv m«rt for tb« puq>o«a 
of proniiil)c&tiii|c iha Inttb priraU'ly woripd out, witfte tHo 
aim of polliktti bodlea u not to promnliEale tmtK. but to 
adopt mvnnin*. Tim ItUcr object b renlly ii<ithinjr rbo 
Uuuu to dcriae m«ftjia or ioTcoi nctbodi. Tbo treth nf^n 


wbi^^ tliitt outkiii u bib»cd tniwt h&vc bom pfcrFoasl^v Tea^tM 
uiid liefiDiEclj^ «otlled> But thb is i E^tinmte purt of kgliJa* 
tion. It b not onougli to njr ihxX the Ivfi^lator'* vduchiiuo 
fumwlic* till* knowl^go, aud Iio hw <m\y \q pnl U in forec. 
TbUcsD u<jI bo tmu tvcn in t1iM>ry. Each &w m^Miire 
moAt l&TolvonewpHl)d|il@« wlilolv from Ibeaatureof tbingt, 
odiu^tioQ or any kind of proviiMM |)r«r|iarali(ju uau out likvg 
fnmubvd. In tliu iri, w in nil otljgr vU^ and !ti the ynj^ 
Ucol purmito of life in ^lu-rul, ttbcatjon at htxi <xn oa\f 
pn)^i&re men to begin the fttndal inT««tigntion required for 
tb«f pnLcti«9 of tb«r profmloiu^ Ervry tilvp tJiruii|^ tlmr 
Cftroor tnii«t bo aftund hj 4p«^ vtudy of llw pHadploa to 
be npplij^d in oHcr to mccood, 

TI]c 1c^l4nti]rv ttitwt, ibcrcfurpj «M before muntiiti»i3, bo 
«omptrvd to Ihv u urbibvp uf (U- iuveoior, TI10 buUc i^( tbd 
work M all tltikc« to bo do(i9 con«i6t« in iuvoftlgition* Tho 
TTivm tnacxmcnt of t/iWfi tniint in It^f dcmuicl ootjr a nmol] 
|>ropurtion of Ibo tin^ft of eracritiftc 1ci;i«1»li>i« ; altluingli, 
^'bvEi fvovgllitud SB fomdMitig in tbr applicatjon of natural 
prlodplce for tfaoAttaiiuiivnt of mnutu vudit wbldi wunM not 
work ilicmwK-itf out. It rvquEres more bibur and pulna lluui 
tbe cnidf hrtUa/uImhut wbic^ now ^ by tbe nftme of Iaw. 
The ctndj of nattuo, «nd particDlarly of Emraati ofttun.\ with 
reforcncG to <fudt ftuogUt, tniut uoni^Utoto tbuir |irlt)ci|>ttl 

TJic fundamentAl distinction 1)etwnm wdivtdnMi juid «>- 
cial dynamic HCtioi» lioa in the duM* of forew witb vrliloh 
tll^ eadi nrniaJly deal. IiidUiduid dynniiuo actions aro com- 
manly dinvtod toirtnl tl^ control of tli<Me forctt wkFcU pn^ 
vail in i\w t\om&in of tbe 1ovor or lew eompler Kiaieoi, 
whilo eociol dyDainio actions mnM lje to a great dqcree con* 
ilncd to thtrcnnlml of the; nodal fonwa aWe* Emaitatjn^ 
frotn the ccntEr of «ocial confldonmeM, tboj can only vilb 
propriety bo diriK-te«l to tbe adjn^iuoot of the n}bation« b«- 
twoun tbe social unit*, wiUi n vivw In tbv prcvenlioD of c>^al 
»vQ and tho prodneiioD of «odal ^ood. 

&O0IAL dykauic Acnox. 


It »eern8 noodlu»B apj:i to remark tlut ir^rj fev of Uie 
aclii thus fjv pvrfvruivd t>> Uie iruvul or^iUm io iU eupramn 
cor|H)nto caiMcil^ bare Moogod to tbv tljonuiio cIjm. In* 
tdlcclnaltj fonnidcnxl, tockl dtlTc:n»cifttiiOii Ltf nlwfl^ beoa 
fftf b a<KaiiCfl of podol iniegntioo. Aa !■ ibe tohtr tjvtoni, 
the oDtljing tn«mb«n--ibe pl»n«4»— bftio y^iiy oxoouclnd 
tli0 c«ntnl maa — the »an— in tlio ]»<^ji:«d which iUwy huTO 
m^de ti^vanl tbo iluwptaina of tfarir iuliercBt motioD uid tho 
in1f.^ntio«i t>t tLcir ooiutitu^ut malCer, », in Mdol/, whlb 
indjvtdujd meo W(f, »t <Ufl«raRt Uiihw cuid laTMyuig du- 
j;r«es arrkod at fcill oouciownov both uf tbenudrw And 
Ot the onircne, the •odd mu«, the fliprfano ptjy^hlc center 
of tkt) •uck) uqFMikni, «UU eviwisb of a cbAo« of nniiilTcivci- 
e}«iiieDU in th« cni^ bouogonooiM vUlt^ tk> grv4t U 
is Uck uf intcgnLiioQ in the tocnl afiuoj«i«n«w tbu sooiely 
ft vholQ fl iCiU brok«a np Into a largo nnmbcr of m<trc or 
l«w remote vtd iukrpondeot acib-vcidctiui, jotn^^l togt^thr-r 
mo<Q or IcA fuoUr hy lie« wliich differ iu lUvuKth, fruui 
thoM of luk|Uig6 oikI natiotjol ^luacteiifitkv in polttjcslly 
d^pondonl etatASy to thotw of coturaeroe^ ntnv or 1c«r irr^ign- 
]*r, Wv«»n indo-«|)<tni«d people* »poftking in difFen:t)t 
ton^io*. WhuQ we spetk of v>civt>\ tborefore, wi» luuftl, for 
1^1 prvital punr^i^nT ooftftao Lh« eon«cpc£oD toKHnedn^ 
ftntonomie lution or «t«to, or^ at the widoflC, to tHoMi fc*tr Imi^ 
ing utioaia wboAe cominorQiA) reAftlioua havo to a eoneidei^ 
id>le extcnl comcntud their miterial inturvcAii and ni^fled 
tbcrir bil)ll4 of llKXigfal and mode^ of life. 13at, oven in tliia 
Utt4ir Kkcial nnity, it voqU bo idio to talk of any eofi«ootAted 
•oei*] aeiioa, «nue iw iair bind* the wvenl atttCBomJca eora- 
po^n^ It exoti[rt ut iiiternalioiwl vode drawn op by irrvvpoD- 
Hblo jtiriittt ^^ otAy TolontaHly aM0D(«d Xq by ««cb, bnC 
bable bo violation by any. Only vhexe aeinol le^ibhUion b 
OondiKited oan tbora be aaid to exitt a cosnpkto ■oc^l or^n- 
bm. Wherew any aiMh ooinplote w<nai o^^nktn exisU, it 
ia pQ««Jbh: to oonodT'O of tne adcntiSe IcgUation, To a 
thnited extent, the indiK^i rnetlkod hu already been appliod 



by DilSoui In fomo cascb, It ti&£ bcon applied to ibo injarj 
Iff K>tia] ioUuxttte, for want of ft euffictcnil^ eonipreii*>b-iv« 
gni^ of tfociftl priuciplei, aa, ■-. g., vrhcrt hcttvjr diiticJt luv«r 
bcou unpowod utwu uvtrvuiliuB uf <H>iumpn life, willi n viow 
to i&craaH) tbo roToQUo ouilj' wrlhasl iueurriu^ tlic odluni of 
dlfeHpro ntia Uxadati npon «iilirr prtiperty or incontM, tlw 
only jujtt looJw of tviuiJ^ rgveiiuc Iti ollior ctkSM, il bu 
b«]ii AppUud to Uic lul iulvuiiiu|^ gf iho vtotv, vltJiov^ 
from oi\\y a dim and i>aitia1]y hittt peroeptlon of tbo ao<M 
prihHplm inrolvad, m vUere protofttivn diuitt Iwro bom 
imputed n|>MU coiumoiJitiw oljtaJftnbJo wkhui U;c coimlry, 
ibu rval mutivLT bviu^ hv^arvr, b> fftvoraooie mtlucotial doi* 
of produuen; Vi-rv ntfuly nr ittver h&vo mi^ dntfic* been 
impoKed for ihe tmv poon'^mic rvAwn thai it i«sir4itL*uf 
lmlK>r to tmihj>ort coLttnitxiili^ gnut duUacc« vhicli van bo 
utiUiiKHl wifbtmt «aoli trontiiurtatioii. 8011J0 idcft of tbc un^ 
ori^nfziAd And i^iAotic condllkin of ihc wi'^rld^M r-ommcivf^ ao 
Wisilv o*j(i!iuf!nbJe by in^trniiTf lf^i«Ulion, can k* fi>riKivd 
by i^loncML^ Al tbo Ji^julJEi^ ^rtiutoi of trwic of kny largv It^ 
tioii, tA France or ICi^^'Uitd, ouU notiu^ Lo bo« fc^^^t ■■> vx- 
IttHI lli« AAiuo (:'Otiinii>]icu« an> botli imporicd 4ih1 <<:c|>ort«d. 
Tiic fTV«^rjicLo ftvhtviu tcndfi dii^c«l1y to foster tliin wiettcful 
proeuM, a.Eid ^et njuai p«nona tliiiik lliat fivvtrsde u tJiie 
wt«fiUfic, or liberal, u o]>pow(l to protoctioti. m tlio otuplH- 
mlf or nirroir, vi«v of tlici ;«o!ioinic qtkCi=tioiift inrolvcJ, 
Bovne evi^n go vo f^r na to hold iIihc fA^i more ^vmm^trM 
Ma 4«<^, M tJuougb \i tiicTVA^ ibo w«iglit or valiM of & 
«ommodity 10 transport aud <*xolkJuig« it. 

Bill c)iiB in onT/ our of t}io qiictttiacift wUivU Eiocioty ii con- 
fltarjity nilcfl Gpoo to coiudder, and th^iv i* fr^areo)/ ono 
pnibl^m in tiju uriiirv d^miitu of p<jliiira-ccunoiiiic» to wbidt 
lb© priTjriplot here kM down might 001 be ippli\HL 

Finnlly, ih(^ fandnnirnul prol^tnTu of eiociiU djiuuidca b lo 
ihow Uuw li.->-bb!un^ may U.- Iiftcid up t-> iTi^ pn«ttIon from 
wbich tli^y vill of nodVMtjt nnd a<f n Rknttor of onrnOt l^gi*- 
latc aooiirdiug tQ Uio vdenttfic nielliod- Tbu dMUdKOOof 



Ili» problem Monga to ft fnlore diftptor {ii^fi% p^ Ml), &nd 
iiv«J DoC be imtidpatctl hi;r« fonbur UiOq to point to the irre- 
ftbdblo ttfotliouey ol gix-vniiiiciiU U»w&rd iW fiopuUr ivprv- 
MQtatiTO clian«t«r, Ln wbkt the Legiabturo cad at bott l>ut 
nrprewiii tbe i»tcL1%<a)co of convUtncociM. It b» dicrcforc, 
u]-jri tbufw IftTtcr, iipoo tbe p«>p1« tbemndTOi, tbjit tbv indii- 
onoca miurt bo bivngLtl i<^ lew vhicb u« to tnnafona tbo 
ehUTMlor of k^ldUtani& 

The problem iea difficult Bud coniiilmUcd oucl Wliilo 
i<^iiktor« » A cIttM kt^ fir buljffi<1 lL« feir progrcailve bull- 
viduaU bv vrhoM dyoHuiio acl^<?iui Kicial prugroM b focur^d, 
it ji abi> ln)G thu, u a general mle, tbujr an> Kuneirlut In 
ftdvAikoe of (be Arrrngn <v-iutitaunt, Aomciioutt couBidcrabljr 
».^. Tiiu u Kwo in tiiany <)i]iihi-Aci«ntiflo enievpriMa Uiftt 
thoy quivUj cvultiiiu.', whic^li tbrir coivlitnfrolJK cnald tbnjF 
know of tbom* vould |»n>in|itl^ oocdotuu. The qiwiiiau, 
tberoforCi AiiMV.ttbfitbur tbo loglshton mi^ not And OKftni^ 
■i a work of ftopor«f«galioD, Co place thttir roiifitiliirDbi upon 
tbu ]ii|;bwav to a cottdUton of intrlli^Tici* whivb, wlien At- 
tained, «;il ill luru work out tbc priitlvcn of lu^Lugunliiki; a 
ndcnHfie IrgiiJituro a&d ft^juom of sdeniidc legislauoa. 


mztrr iauun» to rnoomvivt AcnaXf cm Tmmxt proxwats 
WXv or coaiJiox. 

Tb* p«Tt]hola^ of Unt— ComctQOB ol DpIrUvnt— TUf ftnLoa Ihu bajnn^ of 
i>pblDal«>dMlmbatf«odlnll«ir— TbtqtporiMUfA iM It b HvtrtMiig 
u W a^rpKlufiik^^DliraTVbCV* uf cpLaluo mutlf^ iuuiucomij-^qbjw». 
Ire kuilcn to iIib ufcf^uact of Iruib — !?4itlmiriii of opIrLlm in Iba 1^ 
AvIi|d«I— Amlil^jUj iiiil titjIckjilvAnlliuntaf e}ui iHrta *b«lttf **— Bvlkb 
Md flplnwu* itcpnl OL ihi: c^cnc prcicftlcd. rtflViUcJ* uf fc« IcfUinej 
— T^Mi nf KrUJnij— Nu<ji« nf iivtb— VaUMdoii— GHdnol of «^k 
In b lodfltj aiib>n lutUr uf opinlmB— OrigRb of opfldaai ftiltti 
Ml4a^ W> oocKC oii[Qiaa»'lMTifI|«l lavOM of CfVoN^ISabiccilt* Id- 
Jiiimcf AuiffJiBttl tiiflti*i m ■ IVnt^naial Ififfmnoi* Qpinrj- ■llnhi' 
piliti«J from quaUtir fif opinLonA, tJt UtCM*^Objrcllv« taftDmCD — Tbnc7 
of Di^iV^4<f^^pJnUtiiii imtl Ucaalh* r<Matl oT Upnlnmik ufJ vlll «^ 
NapHd 10 liMD In iBpntaiic*— Aniariitl d«E*mlulkD «f nrMmi - 
BlfalOftl aad d^ttuulo o^doJow — B^Jtlal atMom^Omttii/jti d Aonli 
^Ui nlj^leo— Tha Hnbrr* dnlnitiiiv 1v hmr f>f mortl «a4 Id how fkr 
Ml](le>a»-^T1i« idnaf nlfuiUfv «u&Hdacd tfuodcrfjinfl Ibcrthiod iffr 
too— Jtwpe rtf (bo bl«iii)iaj90-*Rfl1iUlL(j of lU JiDlffiimL— 4^ohp oI iW 
iviibjlti7 af «ibL»l oftlEuoiw— Vurinf patron aT tniuml dbecmmtDt— 
OnfoEmJiiifj' rellgiui «j{L uimJit^^^'Wiifijuijkllnij vubIoiii villi mmmlHT^* 

DjnaiioJc opinJotv*— Ostfaofiffkal Idn*— Llolofic*! Idau— AathiopokgloU 
M m ft Htoltpgial Ideu— Cb&DliMoa. 

Iji Uio preceding rbipUr wo bavonon tliaC foc4jJ |>r(ig- 
IMB) doAned m u^niu of bomun bftppjacja, in cUieAjr l»rouf[l]t 

origiEi«to<l \>y cor*h»tion uid iic>t by tcnution- Tbo txto^ 
ual imprcitHionii frvni wb^^h tliL* mind obUin* tbu dala f<'r 
audi corobntion haTC boon prerlowly mndC} and Un qiUkli- 

F9Y0U0L0GT OP n>£A& 


flu of tiie objfcctt iMldBg tbeni are ngbtared ia tbQ bnia- 
wnhtuw>t, Bnin action cUMnlc« th« nutcrul thiu w- 
qi]irt»d, util norlifft cocieffptiODi of wider reUtUiDi (toJ. i, 
pp. 401-405). Uiflcratt miDdB am difl«r««t relftUob» unomf 
like objodK, %ad qiMstloDf wfav; Tlw daU «rD t^^libo- 
bt«(l, addfriooal <bta ire »OBght ftad combined vith prc- 
^(PtM dftCA, ftnd ftt lenRtfa wttled convk-lli^iia are mkc^ked* 
'hVM injLj diiter duiiiivlri<!iLUj upOD llic tomt! {{iiuktiim, bat^ 
whi.^]icr tniu or fulae, the; beeome Uie moCivw to tctloB. 
*)i«7 pve rtto to d<«in« wbloh coiwtitnio the will, and 
lotor di«chjirgE« uko p]iu» in obedimoe to tkt^e dcdrtfL 
All Uk! uwHt iujportuit baiiuit «clioua pruue«d troat Uili 
loroe, From tho cUniflcotion msdo In tlio lM cbaptor, it 
Finlt bo toco that tlicro tro two imporluit gronpi of dublior* 
fttiTe, or id«o-niotor, Mtioniti Tix.»<rlh]«l Eu^oamuid drnunio 
■lOtioD*. Upon tbi; fint mU Uiu Buvinl <^nJvr, upuD th^ ««>- 
ood d«pCD(U Boi^iftJ pro^r«fl«« bat vfthout tbo tint tlw Mcond 
woolil b« impOtfCble. Both th4^J« imporuot fidd» of Mtlon 
domloalad nbiolutolr bj the opwioiM thftt p^^v&il The 
imm tbtt ki9»M nila tbc wortd luiuplj mwiu thit opbiioiu 
dbtermine nctkiit. In b f:«Dcral schm}. wh*t muo do depend* 
upon t*i© »iew» ibej wiiertJiin • 

Tlie Taloe of honota Miiou wiU dudlj depend upon two 
qwliticf redding in human opiniucu : 
1. On ibeir comctacui, 
fl. On tbs iTopori^nco of Ibeir CDbjed^motter. 
Lai Qt ooi»MJ«T o»ch of ttuwo <^nAlitio> tepnAtdj. 

CoKKKTXEM Off Omntoc*. 

Whife it k porfcoUj tmi; tliAt fn>«doni from doabt to Aa 
^•nd of lU iaquirr by Uio hidividuul.t tbi» k not tb« end 
Ihe iodil wctf«rQ (of vxm thn ludividunl wolfxiw) 

• -<7WM l^ipril ^ c«'n« <■ ll^Mnt qui ^ft Vtlan ■■ ptfa«* Un pl« 

OProiOK.— TUnriART MEA!fS. 

of tbe ^ibof locktj ]k« in iho cMtfliHing opinioi» Held 
hj ita memhcrtf uid thtit tbc Diiiti«uio4i of b«iiof U Uia 
gn«t cud to bv drivuo fur,* U oid/ i btU-iralli, asd might 
rocik ia far wores conecqaenocft onen ibm th<ue iliat &w 
from um nnargfm\itnd ntntit of fmblic opinion, CrroiMOUi 
opi&ioiu can bj no ponibalitjr In* attended with A vnrplu oi 
advaiib^ lu all aDVoled by tbv nseulUal uctSoti. For Ha 
Opinion to have vnluo il nauA Iiavg & fouodatloQ In fftcti 
TliA <|nAliiJ(« liMnr^d lo o^^ve muAt in rralit/ j^trw. Tt»« 
n-lfitirjiib t1joit>*lil (u flul^BJAt itmkt in fan?! ftnUvt; oUicrvu^ 
action jiToot'oUing f roui mcL eappotMid «^;Teeme<itB and n^ 
tio4ifl wiU cuEiMiLnEJjr bcVajr tlM bck of covTwpoiidvQCOi Aikd 
anofca and pitfalb will iwin avait tbr dnliidi^d agr-nt. 

Tlie gr«st ^faidtratum U not unity of opinion but cor- 
roclDOMof opinion. It m true ibat tbv Uucr impUaa tbo 
f(irm4?r, hnt tt in nnfortmiatclj not tmc ibot llio fonncr itn- 
l^irs thr- Ultirr. In making cottvcL upinioriB nnirvnal^vo 
tnabe all ofrinmni on t]i«i aamo floliject identicftl ; bat ihe tat- 
ter n»iih \s not nn ^nd, it U m^ntlj an i&cidont. Tlw und 
b to rcndccr ofiiuiona true, audf thui Hc«iired, tliA eonvcqucnoed 
may ■aft'ly be k-ft to take *^^n of theniwlTiML Tbo A<rltl^ 
uieni of opinion, whctbrr in tlie indiTidiinl or in th« coed- 
tnnnilj, mn^ bv tlio end of uu^ttiry, and ihz only rcittK that 
cm Mitiffy tho EiitellciuLuul dumaod ; but Uui^ of iuvlf, mlcM 
the Mltlt'inent bo in hamintiy with objoetiro rcdJH/, am 
OOTor «it>>fv th* phyaicnl <lciaiLnd^ It U of Bmall conufy 
ijoencT (bat ibo dvmandif of logi^v in tbtf ftvr minda tb^t 
tbinl:, bo *n]>pl]ed, fo Iodj* as ttie domanda of vti^ \n all 
wTro ftH^, flrp fitted. 80 ffljr ulbu Utt«r Aft} roiK«r»od, that 
condilronof uicntal instability and mental pmriencj enned 
dovU.or iikt»ptlciHin,Eitfarbettvr tlian aviate of a^tlcd belief 
In ibat which Is noc trao. Uot, otoii if iho Ktilptncct anl 
auQm]lAt]r>Ti of %\} opiniovm wcott llw vtid, tHo only true roode 
olAtiAining it would b« tfaroi^-li ibtir ttoiHAtMlD. FoTjeo 



loB£ m Uie eeiUed mkL uiunrrml omvictiou nfoiJuu«d out of 
bimumjr wUh rcolUy. tlio Intellect wutdd wirihiiuj to ralc^ 
occftnflnal ^limpottf i^f tliU faot, Wkd a ocMididon of inelEibil- 
ttf wotiM inoviubl/ rntnlt- MoroaTcr. ao SneiofaibJu U tU« 
k)|pc of outHtiotL, tb»t in oucU a Male this bdc of oorre- 
iponikiioc butuHTtjn iboQghU aor) thing*, b«tw>mt or^uiscn 
i.nd enr|roan«mif wocM pcrpntnAtl)- enuil gviIa upoa wwtdjr,, 
athl fi^iru} iniinkiiid to ftxujMVl that there vaA ftofoe fnndo- 
mu&Ul fliKT in the i^rial aj&t«Q). Kol only wonH iW 
deepeul ihitiken of nich > voctvtj pvnctntc tijo iltu**oo, nod 
<iv^ At the rblc of nurtjrdocti, ut W frv^uvtitljr Iwppeaed, 
proclaim the truth, but lh« gi«il "Mmmon wiifto** of tb& 
witbotit Usinjs M» to percHrn the tmtb, ^ronld f«<4 a 
cooHiounivH of tittf itni^ttt^toi: of cmr, and be vver 
ftaJj to Mfxind, in Iho way at<^t fatal to aooial i>nUir, ab/ 
movecnont in the dlrectiot) of a rerolutlDn in tboQvtoia of 
motml aod social i^rvmni^itt 

£i|ull^ niifoDiMlc^l iii Hk oppoole view, intended Bd ftii 
fttuvcr to tlic *choo] of uiildcn, xhtti there is aoEnethJog to 
b« duMdi'd in tbe idea oi a oocnplcie hAtmonjr of o|^Blom 
t^iat diAuPUiicw of optniPU exerU a vbolosoino ioHuencc D|>aii 
itslbctnal and oocial prograai,«nd that aoitj of viouv up^m 
d Jcf topics of anjr nffi voold Teaolt In nMmtal eta^DAiton 
id Aodal degeneraoj. 
Tlie ffltUrjr 1m^ liw it) tho implied aNiiimption thaf tho 
opinioi^i hold bjr bo^ portictf coutnln gvrinv ot buCh tnitb 
ud error— an awnmptloit cootraQ' to tli« bypotbtti^. ThoNi 
th\T^ aitr indeed tnitt when the «pIUo(1 opinioiw of a pei> 
pk- irv oitty partiailj Iran or mainlj faUe, la ha* be«n iIm 
ill liiuiuu birtory, but tliey arv wIioKjr inappltcaUle lo 
Mppocft^d oafo in wbleh thcao setllfd opimona tro wLoQ; 
TliA idna tittt dlvtuaion and dntpate about roattcm In 
)^ui-nl CEMutittito a itioan* of prO|nvu ia Ui« ^nme form of 
>d«a, yf^vloatlj ftoUd (roJ. I, p. Tt>>, tlmt inUmw [Artl- 
ip hi riMttcni of vtftt« i» a moaiM of ornvin^ at political 
truth* Both Iho gnnunl and ibi- apoctal nwa uicrt^y conUl- 



tiii»«xamp]e3 of iho etQI more oomprehiaDdvo ^jOiiienUzixtlon, 
ftteo before forti^iilttnd (vol. i, p. <S ; vol. ii, p. J^ that tbfl 
gcficUc^ or cy>iiiwi]nial, mode of i]4.'rflopEDcnt i» nftcejM>rilj 
jUteudvd with tfTjuniioua frietiOQ mu\ perputiul rlij^lLui, cmu> 
iligtb«lu» of ill liat a. omvil pi:^n;cDta^ i>£ the groae amount 
of ftk\ progfou gajii4^. 

But it rnftf iMnid tbftt the Mitleaieat of opinion in oon> 
ploto hannony with trurh iriuflt be dk^inined a* tn im|>Oft>i- 
bjlilv ; thftt »iidi iv Ukc ouuntituiiou uf Uie haiu&n mind that 
a11i:Annotb« madeloMo tmtb from tboeftmo p<uiU of Ticw* 
«id diffnri'nocit of Apitiion Tmwt nrcila ttji'tti. Practiv^lv, 
till* Diaj' b-i true, but Dot tl^ovrvticallv. it ntay bo dut, a« A 
mitter of fftct, Ui«re will alvruy* bu ourtnln ]>tx>b1omfl nwot- 
tltfdi ni^'I tilM>nl wlio^ aolntion different tuloib, tbouglt pn^ 
bap* of rijutl nMIity^ irjll Uold <ippi:i«ite viewa. But it it, 
norurtlicluw, truu tliat e^rtaio olbor pn>bI<(iD& may beoonno 
mUimI, uul m> KcCtltHi tlmt thcj cnn aover ngiun be niucUlod. 

JhUnj eticlt havtf alrcodv, lo a1) prcooat appmnmon, 
mu*bed tbit «tatt^ of ^oiiiplMo cqiiilibratii>n. It k exiw^d- 
in^Iy di'ubtful whoUier 1b« lrutb« of ibti rnLtlUpliuatLon ubiv 
or of RacJul'it ihf^r&mH will crcr bo ^iifttcrhcii m their f|aict 
ftlunkb^rw- So H ifl n4tb aU thjit ire caII tb<> twifiuK of niiklh- 
cniJLlio«retir. i»)»lHOlJiielbnt«ven ia iiuttb«4ikslici thure havo 
bivn much ditoaauon ai>4 <)iiTi;rvoec of opinion ; nad tbw b 
i^tl ibo <<BAo witb tbo liigbor und more abetnae problcnw 
■laik ilbcu.'tMd in mriliGinAtinJ joiim&lf^EiB,r,jr., tbo^qneitloQ 
of **fcjjaeeof four dimerj won*." But wc need not confino 
ourwWce lo rmUhorantins wblcb in not naX\y a Mdcncv, bat 
only iho t<4t of all tlic Kienoea {v*A. E, p. li^). Wo maj find 
abundant example* of afittled opiQi<m» amoog -portly pbo- 
fiomcnil tci^coai and raapMtJnf^ proUemi m to which tbero 
vera Ioq^ Mupp<.i«cd to bo two aidtt, eatrli of whJuh waa aUjr 
and b{it«Hj defended. AMranomVt poHiJipa, famifiboe the 
boAt^nnwn iUitAfntion*. Tlttt hcli<iot^inc tbaory waa long 
th<r btittle-fic-lcl of opinions «rfln bjr aMnMiomtn thflnuelTta. 
linioa r«flp««tin^ it bu oow b«coQM m fnr aettlod tbht 

ttABMosTT or onsion, 

it Qio «(liic4lC(l ptracm, not crtn lo ord^n^ who boncftlj 
queiAioue it; and a mixlvrn mork^* clauuiiij> wenoitilj to 
okfllltfi^ iu tmlb, irw tEmpljr sii objvct of goMtral HdlcnUi 
ThcTft fai littlo more chance for ibo tnitli wlikli Gdileo re- 
cantcil before ft f^^e ctvnuuXorj of Itrarocd prvIatM oror to 
l)e agftin ivrioiul)' qtiesliooed than ciicre t» lli;at :i "iU torite 
diiMt be <ScDicd Uint a n^il line joiQing two pviuta if iho 
ihonctft ilJBfattoe bctvccn thcin. 

GecJof^. loo, nov ooneists of a bodj ef esiaUlilked faeUL 
The moct impt^ruiit of then ju« twt ;«4 proved by actual 
oxjwriuoott, auiJ ftrei, Iruoi Ihvir nitttiv, incafmble of such 
proof. Tct thav ere no Iod^^ qneetloned. OpinSoo, which 
oner- ran higli nwipfcting ihoin, u now «omplrUly M nal. 
There mniiins no one to giiiiwaj the ju«rrtion tlijit etrotified 
d\]|xniU fvuuij upuu bi};k mumitMiji* itvrv uudu it tbc bottooi 
of the F«i, wh^ro (hoj wt-To fomtcd. No one anj longer li&i' 
pntceth«t t}ii2 f(ri«nit fr»rmd In nsoh poutJoouiwcrc onee Imng 
erefttoreainbabitingUieaea. Acid,w)ilie noonecao Mj^with 
an; degree of deflnltenew hcrw long >^ thcee foislla llvedt 
pwcelf a cultivfttcd man eui be found who hoaoOtj doubu 
that it mnet hare been. In meet ceicj^ reij miich more than 
tbe loDj^Ulned tii (bon«and jt^tt. Upon mcb problema, if 
C»piriioii u not jet univctful, it k to cotnpJetelj HlUed among 
all who at oil oompnihend tlm conditionM of llie protili^ma 
that its eomplele uilAealloi] must reeidt from & gcucrml dif- 
fn«Ton of an acrjn^Linunc^ mib tiionc eondiUona. 

We mi^ht go in like miiiiu^r tbrouf;li all ibe eatabliftli^d 
•doiicca: phj-^ut, «iUi lu Uw of gravilMtton; cbomi«try, 
vith Its laws of propoHioitt and oIocUtc afliniti»; blol^^, 

-ith Ua IftT of d^tcHitniunn thmngb inl«TTbr««din^— el) now 

»ttled, tbeugb onoo dUpoEvd. 
U fa Ime thftt iti thceu adeDoea there are atUl BOtu« opem 
qtiM^ofu— qneitloDfl whMi am now wbcft thMO were for* 
neri^^^in proceei of eqnilib?«tion, Boch are tbe kebaW 

•"tlMw«UcilAiimefleircuBiD*l ■B'cipM«4," Br "CbattoeflcMfr- 
lMtt 1tafe« (f>]. Ln^^, 1M« (»> 



bjpothom^ the uniiuUtotj theorv of light, the tntfimtkufh^em 
of TiTf^jiiic Hpc-irB, itnd thn j^i«-r»l Uw fvf il^vu-V>pinent, or 
oTolution, ici nil the dvpiriiiivniA of iIm uiiit«rB«^ Tlivav 
pufsmtioii* &re ctot jet io f&r EtfCtled but Uiat aiuijr abl» 
mlndi open}/ rojoct them ntill. Yet each one of thti hjpntb' 
mu TtMnci] H>oni« to embodj n tmlb, aimI to be rapdij np* 
proftchiag ibu coiiip1vtvl> equilibnt«d «tatgaL Bui ftt tJi« 
botinduko of every flcionr.ir itiors ir* dwpntvd ^ii«rtioiii» of 
IftcKasfnig fkigrccf of tl^mUfutoctt, wino of a'bieh U9 do*- 
tined to crj>iQlli»f into Ai^ttM f rotlis, A^nd othen to b«! jrield- 

Co»um)pl&tin^ thoM Mttlod pro|)witiocif in vduncu widch 
hflvc tovnu^U bbOD nn.-acttlori^ m tlii:^- anjr one who will main^ 
(UD thil their M>ti?^ienf Kjta tended lo p«i>dit«« intrllfv^iiAl 
■l^gD&tion or tociftJ d<Tgmora«jrf Bo not kt\ ratW fi><?l llict 
GD^ c«tt)o>noDt ol opinion va» mn OMcntid proiv<)niffti> tg 
fimlier dUoowiy of irntit, and i}ie tdvoaoomctit of both Sn- 
lrfJ<Hniit and mrial prognw* ! In rhnn.*, ifi^n, & c«TtAm Ifind 
of op«ikion« th«t it h better to 3mvc open than to lnv^ Mtlllod 
ill Immiony with tnirli, vrblli? «itd] k wA tbo gimi with tbis 
kind i.-f op!niu:)e i Tbo fnllac'v ib too obriouH to pntmio for* 
thcr. The fteUlrmeot of opiniort t* ironri» liivt doubt OT djft- 
putt\ ualfsa it can bt- ttvttlcd upcn tho bs«a of confonn*t/ 
Willi ubjifrtjru rc'iOilv. If it vau bv to wttlod, no niitlor whit 
tbo FtibJQCt of opinion bv, it ie of the utniotf Imponuoo tliat 
it flnmc to alMalnto n«t 

It U i remarkable bat an obnoim fact that nio«t mchul 
difteivnc«« of oj^iiloii am wholly uniictfcnaij. The dau for 
Um9 compleli^ wtitcmoni of opnUon an exi&nt. Incorraot 
op^nionii irf hnUl thmogh )ifo, indBMian^ vtion Agnitut tbo 
tntornta of prof^re^ vrh^n the means of rxi^ban^ng thcan 
for <v~>rTo<1 opinions hjit^ t^iintod for jeon, or peHiape for 
conturioL Thia la not the fnuh nf the mdividnal, Tt k» tho 
defect of l)ie Mkctal orKanixntlon, which wonid be the chief 
gAiDcrin prvT«-niing it. The gutter ^mrt ot theqsottion* 
«boQt vhich antagonialkc viwa ara oiitwtaised o^^ht moi to 



he c^-ftpfthlc at aiitiiift Anymore tli^n dt^paFf^s ooqKI arim oT«r 
tli«f imUM Iralb* of gtraoMtiy. Tlw Iom vliich «ocic1)' vnt. 
l^Ins through Jb fulm to <Jiffu«u tb« iIkI:& x-ltmllj dab> 
r&trcl, rjftcD at gmt cKpowe of t&mo and ufTvrt, U beyond 
ctlcufitioD. OpEiiJon« tra onlj «Mtlorl ni gni^t cxpcnte of In- 

putc« eoit (ociotj Iicavil^ la ib uimt [iD|M>rta£»l uuminudtlj. 

Trath 1im a twofold objwt Id c^MJai ccodouiIcs— tbo one 
dtntioiT. tlie otHnr djTiAm]c«l. ft fim fiimifhcK tbo moflM 
to U;o hiimvdbi* iftcrvaM of tudividiuJ gmtilirAHoi], itdiicr- 
mgto th&t ostoot tJio nltltnato v4id of buins- i^fJt 't kIvo 
foriOA & Ituk for the ckboretion of new truth, and ihu bo- 
romtfl « progTttttre tn<*na to tlie AiUitiinrtit of ihr md in 
higher d«gr«4t. Dnl, m> long lu tlior* h dilforvnoo of opiD- 
iou, truth cui not bu vAid to bo rcwbvd. E^un tf ono of tba 
parttca lo the i1itftiM«im linvij Aftniilly naidt«d U, ltd ntiMt- 
ilril rniidlti<in preolnde* frattioHL Kot until it isftb«i^ut«1j 
Qx<-*\ ii^y-'ii*] thQ rvtnotwt apprsJiecidoD of fonbor dfatnfb- 
mvt C4UI it fuirij begin to jricM ltd nottiraJ benefitA. 

I4 Iheivfoto btw^coM tbe highut duly of R>Ai>1ttf>d and 
«on>tj- In too to It, wttb the Ivfeit powbJe del>j*, tliat dl 
<lui.'«Eio:i« vnimbU of noQij>:«1e settlement bo lEnmodintclj pnt 
In the viy of Aicb ttvttlcrmcnt. Let tliMre ht no ckoiul* for 
imy onr (o drhftio a question «lii^h ha* at any lime or pbe«^ 
or in »ny manner, b«eti oflce dduiitiwljr an^wcrnl. 

In the prene^t «Ul« of society, a <ain11 How of o^lvnnrrd 
nifnd* ftlnipl/ look on and ■mile- »t the m*-I wrRo of bitter 
polemic Uttt mgroMM th<^ frn<at mjuv. To tlwuj lhi*< trulU 
hi^ h*rn tong p«lcnt, ar»d mav baru bi<ootnc tri(*w Power- 
lr«A P/j exI^Tcd it to ih^i fwrt of the world, thoy are templed lo 
rvgini the '* fonnnon herrl " u ihcy wonU rv^nl a droro ol 
eaitlu on their waj to ibe 4iitjilitor-honM. 

CmM nJI m^lvAbte qiie>tioii8 be pnt completely at reel 
tliroaglMut the whole world. th« rcmh irould he to »hift tho 
energy, i>oir wa^«d in dtaniwin^ ihent, to lh« new field of 
probb'ioi norer yet dftfiiiiColj Mlved. It wofUd do modi 


more. Aft irc: jnfrt fuw, t\w chief object oi tnilh Ift to nflonJ 
A better brui« for ArriTing at other Imtfa. No< thxt truUi b 
mil villi ill itwflf, Uut Uin>u|clt luiprovod laiMtja ttw urid i> ta- 
cnrcd ia a vamly Aciceknited rallo. It Jfl thereforo noiTflnijr 
to work fnr tmtK jl* nn r^d, *t\iicet liie real 04id mmt comu 
through the lEivau*, Evurjr Ojnuioii now dupotud, tiut for 
vboee coi]i|>lv<io BeUl«inoi>t ttwditu «ii»t, would, wbva ibiu 
nnfrenallj 4ioci4o<], beooioo * now iratb, to be ^mplo^cd in 
tlio M^^tlftmrtit nf ihtlll ntidooiiU^I cjnr^ttoii* lUid the c«UbH«h- 
mcDt of ft<iditi[j:iiil truths Could iWa provVM be thus *r»- 
li^iiiaiioallr oonthiiiedt Aud ev«[y qoeetioii of opuiioa b^ dift- 
poccd of on tho (ido of rcAl fust u toon to, tbn tUbL for its 
BoluttOD were kid before thd world, t]ie mAreh of oarrect 
(d«e« mudt become eitre^n^ly ra]>id «a cowparvd with llieir 
prcaont prxt^Ke*^ If mch a condition of pcofwrt wcuJ o^aa- 
untion be deemed imprikctioiblc th» dooi not in the Iceit 
]<Mt& the necfontj of milciii^ thf! AtroDgeflt ponihle efloH in 
tli« direction of it* rMjfcutioii, tluco the roiolu raHEt be pro- 
poHionnl to tlie dvgnio of aiKxow. 

Oiu! great barrier to the AttuDiiicnt of correct upiuiom 
liM {n th« undue prepoikderflnee of Babjcctire iaHiumicim^ 
Tmth oati <)Dk bo gnapod hj the ititclloct^ It cen not bo 
dtiteroiioefi by tL« feeliiigM. Wluucvisr \U 1lubjvv^Ulhttl;^, tt 
mUBt over be n^gardod u objective. Tho progress of cor- 
rect opitilon i* in groat part menfinrod hv xU: prop^-rtioti 
whiVh till* objective mode of lookin;^ At lU prf)bl«ivi bt'ara 
to tJie Kubjvctive mode. TUia truth in uryatAllUcd in tlui 
proixrb, t'5o ^roncrally imu, that ** tbc wifL i* futhcr to the 
tbonght '" ; or, w Ikrvin pntji it, ^ Qtuid fnaxmU homo twvA 
fHt i<i jpGiiuM ^r«^it,^ • In neelitr, the wifJi fthonhl iierer 
liftTo ibe r^iiteteu coubvctiou uitlt llie thooght. )^'old cnlca- 
Uttoe u the on|f roJlftble giiido> A triply bcoluiy (loto vf 
puhlir. Of ininm cnn ncrer he rcfirJiod until it licromu inpoe- 
aible to dvlcnuine the persouil Uu of % flp^akcr wtien ox- 
preetiiig hu opinKm on qneilioBt of ^ct. So ffpttii^)/ ia 


RUKJKCmVK H.UtmiU&i TO TKUni. 40V 

dih Uio OAM DOW tbftt aaj' oou wbo jdumlJ tliu* objectirdy 
(^iprvw liimtdf wobU not tooclve duo cuedlt for It u >n 
opio^, bal voald bo at onco affinrmxl to <Ufliro the cwnlt 
prcididoJ. TljiA iliaposHiuii to impute Um wlah lo th6 
tbuugbl, tliOEigli prvT&lent in iiiind» of aU ehMOt, Momt 
peoulitrty [nhor^Dt m tUv fomalc miml. A nun of kotjum 
ttntimcnte U lUbk to biro t!i« coofidoQOO of biS f^molo 
ffi«iid« rndelj tUaken If lie T^ntun^ to fl»cUf» hi« bdivf, 
tipO«liOW«T«rMlrufi}j:«v;iionce, that Any tiling uiU Uke pltoe 
wfaidi iroald bo oontnrjr to tJigvv wuttnwiitjK. I Uavu fr^ 
qtieaiL^ »ti>;t[ipced, Id Mcb (uw^ to esplAln timt il waa apon 
th* crMono© and cijiilrarf lo nijr d<^trn* lliat I itrndnvH the 
iJocMi^i], but, wbili) thU cxninH) bn* p^nur^v prvvi^-il taiube^ 
ti^rv to tlie DJdto oiidtI, 1 Imvu ocivr fvU tlmt it wu apipcv* 
clac«d bj tlifi f emtio [niud, 4 Ungorlo^E doubt appccring to 
remain njt to tlw itUiliilitj of mj ATntinwnta aail pnylUtf^onjL 

Tbo groat pirvvalcooii of tb» MibjoetiTc ricw of objectiro 
isij^U <%n abo })v wry dcarlr *i*vu in tbe do£iiuUSo ««ftzuittv 
with wbidi portlauia prt>diot tlio stiecem of tbclr party upon 
tiotli iiid'4 i>f ibr name ofihtfvt, wh*>lljf rvgudlivs of thir real 

diiiMiiit t][h>o vbich tbe rvault tni^t di^jw^ii. Tbia tend' 

■y iituv, it ia Iraai and donbtlvtA doo^ apptriir trt«ter than 
it k, in ooiiwqacn<« of Ibc poli^ of not 4dmiiilng iloabt» 
f v«A «bct« ibi^jr 4Mk<t, tbfoojth fuar of ofTivtinK tlii> actual 
romtlt ; j«t among tb« ^rcat maw tlivir oonvictLon* are boooal, 
and rvvt nix^'U iiitio cbo liun tlieb- elmpte profeniaeoa. Tba 
tiunis tnilb bol<l4 in all ilopartmc^ttd of *ada] life. Tbfi r»] 
ovideim la obIjt fnridonUlT wbile tbo daU« fa pamznoimt E& 
tbo fonnatioTi of opinioo. 

It mny w«ll bv bktv! of ivbat ub« itucb u(ii[i>f)cu ant 
Tbo dwirod h no more Likely to occur iban lite iuid<dred« 
Ojjtniom bucd on dcaifca oro tbcroforo about a« likely (o bo 
falad aa tinp^ Hnnmi jndftment, tnrtoad of heini; an add^ 
tional ^idvftce of trulb, adds uutbin;; to tbti uthvr eilortial 
ertflvuci*. Strao^ aa tbb propovlion may vn^ro, il k only 
ODv livw of UiQ mon g«fi0nd |irop(MJtioa| oitabUsbed tlifough- 


K onv ii< 


opmioK— TctmART uuiEa 

out liunnft liietor^, tlui^ tb« a oIveRAlit^ uf a b«II«f is no 0^ 
dcnce of Fk tnitli.* CtteHj groiiii<llc« belkf* ImFo clvu^ to 
nttitldDil fn>tii tfie raancutf pericnkf to fc« r«}ecled vitbio 
tlie prvMtit cvnturv, srt'l * aUong AHpJcion eiwcs tlul other 
eqcinj ftlm onw Mill ability to bv tlirni^ii off pvriiapi t«a- 
tnrtOR hcniHL 

TTit romody ior tBU ^q>loTable mndftloTi of thmga mart 
como, if lU ».\i, frvoi tti« gndnftl oxtMUion of lli» «£iirt, or 
MdeQUIiei mecliod 10 «n erv deportmcoi of bnmaii tLouglit 
tiid o|union. PoLiiim, Inw, hnFinci*, iibonili, tad even nlig- 
WL, iniM fi!I tindnr thk jv^imr^ and every qBc«Hoit, front 
tliO miCoa«> vf au oulvrpritu to tlri; liopv of alTatit^u, moot bo 
nudo to y\M to tlw logic of iaot^ ovIdoDO^ and stsiiititt. 
OpiniAHA rcATli^ upon any othfr buls uv wotm tb«a worth- 
lei*, aikI to ctinif to Ihom b fnicidftL 

Tlic t»n»itior] from tfao onruCtlud to Hk Mttlcd rtnto of 
opiTiioD ia not ibrvpt, t>ut roprceoiitd a BcH-ea of modlflearioiia. 
ll lufij b« looked a^ fr»m tbo p>int«f Ti«w botb of tho in- 
dividual uid of Kidftty. 

In t?jv (Ttte ol tbu luiltvldual, levunl of llie dtuj-ea Info 
roraivod distinct nainea, b«t different hitj^agca differ la «e- 
Itvting thv*f^ Mlient points on tbo fcvlc- Knne crin{ilov« n# lite 
gvnerie term tbo clumpy but oxprauiro wiml J^rae^a^rMtamy 
and My« thjit ihU 1i4a tUrw d^E^ev. tvpn»vntod bjr the tiitva 
(vraiR, Jf/Viwvt. Glavheitj and iruMfi. Tbe fint i»*y bo 
tntE»Ut4^l pivjtvmption : tbr Moond, ^Mtf^ and tho tbml, 
hin>u^r^f^ (cyrtiutitjV Tbt- fiml, bo »ys in both wibjoetivrfy 
and ohjixttt'dy itULiQieivul to iati»fy tb« coii»«to«tn:i«>s ; tbo 
Mvood IV »ubj«^ro1y AtSldont, bnt not objectively ; tbo lust 
U botli U]Kji-«tiroly and objoi^tivply irT)ffiHmt-+ What Pw^ 
fcMor Pfinw ap««ki of i» ibp -^MtU-moot of opinion" ja 
iitnpir liw aeooiid of tboie otagmi. Ic £1^ ibdivod, labjviti^y 

•TyW. "Pri.].iir-pC,!i,.rv;"Toflilc«,lfiTl, kM,^ 11 




it^ hat ntiJM-tivpiT it U iitfuffidont Tliiu fjir, tfco 
world HwriiB to liavc bovn MlisHed lo mt WJtli ihit cufajcctiTu 

With n^rd lo tli« oiHier aEafen of ftpioioD, Kint u- 
ftrrti tli^ii the tm^ xsmi m I<» vhoilM^r rt u a t»«ro piij>iML>i>nn 
or a B«Ul«<l «od ictiuo k tt^o utijjw ; for one niay Imt mlS- 
uitjtitJy ^rtauuUeil ti> wagvr a ductic «Ueu Iw wijuld fitid bia 
faith giving wn^ if ubcd to wngcr t«t 

[ft tbc tun of ih« word **bolipf ^' xHntr. mmdh let b« a 
■Dvtili.' ftiflervsicv bHweva ttieorr and jiractim Mtn^, yov 
\i!i[*v correotl^r, Jnslel that **beUvi iuplKvA evMeDc^, And ii 
fmindoil npon it,''^ ^pniKirr wj* lW "iho wotii Arftc^, 
IiAvin^ two ndk^ll/ opf»(w«l mpftnififr*, adtiiita uf bHcg 
iniMiittrpiXfttd' It U tisbiluallj H[T|ilied to dictA of cufi* 
ecloTuoe^ forwbieh oo proof mi be tthlgae^i boUk tboM 
whicl] aro «i>piovnbl« becftuso ihfj ur^erVie iX\ proof uid 
tliojic vthkh ttro onprorable bc^rvnar of the ftb«r»f«^ ut eti* 
dv[j(M> — UiUi iIkhv «ljii-b arv ti>o«l wrtiLin and (liv«« wbidi 
&re iiKtft vnoenaln-'' He furth<*rr?mkrk« dut *' tni^it *rt 1l»- 
)i]c t'l i^mfvnnd thcthin^ tbov trnly bcUcrowith ibv thiugi 
they l>cli«Tc they bdicT^. Very ponanonly ifl PhflMophj.aa 
ill TbeoJugy, tbvrv ia h furii>jil ac^vptaDM of a pn>po«itioti 
wIrlioQt any ml ecocjiumcv of it— witbout any proper n^njh 
ti'TttiLtion of tiiAivrbifb ittMcrtu Tbo propoiitkn b^rinf^ 
had itii tn-o ttnnA id^ntiflod tn il^oogbt v Vnown tcrtnis 
and bavini; had tbo r^Utton jt imthm icUmtificil ma a kooirn 
relation, it u ofton uipposacHl tbat ihs tp«cifle t*rfii« Imro 
bemi bmn^ht K>g«tliftr before ooBKkmaMM in tliv tpvdGcd 
r»UtioD, ami Miv\v*\ ; wben. in fict, Uioy do not ftdmit of 
beirj^ brou)^t togvtikcr bofor» caamiommtm fin iW nAMtim 
%% lit, «nd CRD not thovforv bo beliervd in t^fmyfrr inw 
^ CAif tKt>rd.'\ t Or. Cart>cnt«r ako nyti : ' Tbore u^ 'iiu)> 
titiidc* «bo do iMt foel mlfnt npon to iaqniro for ibfot' 
iokw, bat mjofidor tbenudren jluliticd nol only in Mv«fi& 



\it^ & bodf of doctrino vLiiJi thc^ rvirmnl u vii ibi; wliulc 
txaiefidtl, but in rLHS>EiJiu4!ttfliji^' it lu Uw aoccputioo of 
ic!ii^ f>iich fwntOEifti cATi not Ue truly ?il id Xobciiw4%6Ci 
pnjposil'oiUf tbe «Ti<J9nee of wlilcb tbcj* bjire ncv^r 
'•niiliocli and llic vvrr lui^tge of irJdub (frmmed a» Ui« «j> 
prowion of idoa* thut bive loDg abcc pt to cd «way) tlkcj do 
cot undentifid." * 

TLit view It. filill mori^ •vccrping, ind nAirowit dovni tlpo 
fluid uf k-grliujjitc U^Livf until it is uv^rly iduJititaJ witii cl»t 
of boovlcdgo. If all Uiia bo tra^ iheo^ not oul> fd our 
catrrimplv dWociivc in iho a1i«cncc of a t<Tnn fo 

:ptiM ■ ccriif<»»tdl/ vtoy prcval<:i]t izumlmJ tftiilVf Uot llib 
wvnl Mirf fe iude«^ grosJ v uiJwutvd. lo fact, vo uoivvrul 
Id its n»o ic tlil^ aJlogod improper scnre lliai, If it ie evi»' po^ 
iibin f cir cn^EiJfn lo Nuicfion nnv thing in Ungnn^ it mn«t Im 
buld to liAVc mnctiutied tiiu lueuiing of the vroni ** bclvef." 
Al all OTiiuU} wbt;ll;ur Uierv uxEat aii^ word to eifiraft it or 
not, tbo icmtiir port of all linnan Idea^ convolved ns cdi- 
bodjFioit tmtli btTtt be-longed to thi»«>ni^ olijrrliriQftl>lo rljtfw, 
Tliia Im evpeejullj' tnio, oa «>« thovn in n prvrioo* c}ii|>tcr 
(vv/TTu, p, SfiO), during tlio earlier Ntogc* of dt-vvIopmeiiL 
Onlv thi.' miict mperlieaal and obvidUA Iratlis vere por^'vivod 
and uliliunL, uLJla tbo ^re^ii UhIv of llxouglit (wiwuttrd of 
tbs^o 8o-o»]]ed "p»cuJ ii.k'Ui"— tdtia^ wbicl^ not(>nty dtscUnxl 
rclntionn tlint did not in fan rxlnt, but relatione ubuee 
tcrmd MoU! uf^t bo hrc»nphl together in ootubciouuhw. If 

w*>\- uvr* not bvliufMt Ibcj- wcrv wrluiiilj impurUDt n^eiital 
EoB which QL'liljer pfl^voholof^ nor aoclolc^can nif'/Ai to 
%non?. It ia otilv in nw^nt timWt nndcr the All-dionpng 

LfltiMir« of M?iccLti]!c mntbodA, that tho ixindiiioiu inttirifid 

ipoD aa litfliuf par tvfoeUmoe, hu vomv iu pnjiail to anj 
wido oxtvot. 

The tnkntiiinn from trTiAt ia p^dlartj aiSit^ belief ta 
irWt ia tt^lLNiL^llj Ao ciUUhI b mitiv importaut thin tliat 
whicli carrica the mind from ooo vtago to aojr otlMrr of tlie 

« "Mcaul EVrMo^." ^ 407. 


If^tiEDBio ficiiee. For thorn httor wo Imt^ alroof^jr t«nn« 
foiAngh. 1 1 wi4ikl tlK^rofom be better ta Hunmiler th<» wonL 
" bclivrf " pQtirely to the d^sij^iution of ihia dk^Um«t« tfale. 
Till! wuni " iutlif" it H true, is iu)ii]« U) «intinofl Ibk geii«tmL 
tlold of nMntal openUi<jn, bat il« pfwiicd upplMAtJon doAfty 
itDlitA it for tikbi^ tbo pliL» now filled bjr "bclEef.'* If, 
tiicrufuiv, W ven* Allowed (o dUtiogiiuti a beli^ friKti &a 
upiulou bj «Xtfi»])tici|; lira Uttor fium th« »«oe«dltv of reat- 
in^ upon any orldcncOi Mfi tlic former clDarlj^ mucCi liowevcv 
inwlc-qQiitc thM tvidfffio) may be, wit alifmUl Iuito nt lowt 
OUQ trvbcliuil dirniufi of tbi» ccofuMrdh obttmnf and cod- 
fused mbjwt. Tht^rv certainly exlu ld fnct tli9 tiro gvr> 
eraJ ^IwMft, roftl idea* and fnbc idcaft. By vhMhjvcr oamo 
t\»*j niny be called, Uie Utt^-r m ftur«1y c:dB( m tbe fonnor. 
Nt^ilber are tbey radic^Uy diMimil8r w any other rMpeot 
tUan that of tlidr pfljchologicil naluro. Jn tbdf diicf diar^ 
nctcrijtir, from tlio sociological point of rwvfj vu., tbuir 
tcndt^ncry la prodiiM Miticai, Ihey ak fdectkal with fenidDO 
u|iiiiiouii. Ilii^ fact roiid«rni it imporiant ih«t, in itadFruia 
to bring about tlm gvtiural ntUauHRnt of opinioti, >oduty 
fJionld lirf4 «podn]ly auu towiavGrt all pie«d-id«u Into itue 
i^tM. Tbt-n^ i» DO fnor« inaidtons danger than tbit of mia- 
tuLing aeitled Mivf of tli« ilkglliinite daa^ for the attain- 
ment of Irxjtb ilwtf, TliU blue bcrii tbc grval Callacj of all 
agc«. Dugmatio faitli. finoly fixed in Cmi«xindeEktal propo- 
AJru'iEiA. Lm almya been to a greater or Ion exifoit mafoimdcd 
iriib pi^viiivu tnatb, when in reality ilMiy atand at tbo vvif^ 
antipodes of vo^tviQfMnam. 

TliiA Iwrrier (moo leaped, and the Uaos all foiriy vwUfig 
upon |«|(ittmat0 evii]<rnci>, no RiJitt«r bov iiuiclr4|iuai^ iho 
mtml pRMeii natiindly from the feebier Co tlie firmer iiUten 
of nptoion villi wt *Ahvr aid or jMiuenee iluui ilvjtK of in- 
CTMidBg eridflDoc^ No4bifig can provont ootnplote eoiiTf«- 
Utn \mt the ahamwR of ttich evidenoey and iriili meh crl- 
ilenca oo Mbjoctive pf»w«r can rtalat >ta normal effect. Tho 
retidt b as «rUia w tliat a body vJU move «ben iflect«>t by 



a fortw 0tn>nger (baa Ua iueHiau AU kppan^t oxceptiuni* 
^AmjAy prvv« tlitt in euch cum liid «nrfalfiiioe lia^ not iu f»et 
bcco racDtrod. 

Tliaa tmtli W ft atitl irider ftppU<mtion thus tl)o oMi boro 
iKiUd. It U luajEommattfljr (lie o»e tluU tha mdcnoe, id 
onkr to bo ofifDotiv» in wttiing opinioii, need ttM be either 
Icgitimnto or i)aai]ik't4L Ojiituon majr bo srttled at vnTWicc 
witli tmtb bj l)ie dm]^ &h«i»iC4f of cppixin^ eridfrnoc. It 
i» A w>uig ui^ leHi triw tliaii triiv tkU "»u; van; mnj 1m 
nudo to hcUove adj ihJog.'' ** Thu mere uttennce of % 
prnpontion, wen: l>inrr nlw^lntelj noothpr 4>ti^riK^T would 
prudttcc eoioplottf vuhjutjtUr conTictiMi upon mxty oiiDtl. It 
uokj hv dUBeuH to »uppu«c «uiJi » ouw, but tbo ■wue inilli ii 
proved in icnuniFT&blo exunpUia wbere edtmliona] infld- 
WkOM unrraniKlmg tho jrnnii|c itrri ftU on om; ndA of propoai- 
tioiu wbicL tro widely divivuttsi frvm werj-wben; bcvimd 
iht vphen of tUa lii^DVt^e«. W'v ofioii woDiler bow ]eani«d 
And wiio men in past ages could have nccoptcd the abrard 
iWtritHM whi/ii wo know tlim- lU^ Mw«pc^ tt waa bMAitas 
th«j noeivoii no evi(tono» «|punat th«dn. A «hi]d of pctr. 
cotage no PoaUef how akoptkal or talented, wbicb *Jtoiild b« 
brmj^ ""P'^? aavngnE, would at firrt ncocpt tlicir rvljgiou 
Mid cu>tf>tM. It! anperior intclk-ct niighi raiu« donbta to 
am<* in Ut«r lifu wlieitr none vKutcid HmoPf{ aTiy of ihe Tnbo, 
Imt Uits u ould bo tbo raiult o( a grvAier tuK!«ptib4Uty to tho 
^j^poring cvitSmrc urtnAllj prfwntod hy the ctrtmimttuma of 
«Tf>ii mii^ a Wifi. 'Hio avowed pi>lioj of i}i« Roiiljui Catholle 
Cbnrcb rcrt» upyn lU» principle iJjivwdlv porcoiTcd by tt« 
Ittdoni. To nwl;c nnj oor, no uiattcr what bU wilccwIeiiU, 
a ■■ I^r^od Catholio.'' <id1y rtM]iriT«i the rfiopLc <ixcIupiou vtf aU 
oTidonofr oppuiHM] tcr CatliulkiJiiin. and lielida thnit finnljr 

• Tiytor, • mmlOre Ouknrv " JHotfco, Ult), toL I, p- IM t *H*«w, " P^- 
efcol*p--eLt(i.«Sli Pnfrtv?cin*,.Wai.rim Jtiafibaldt(-'K9M«<k" 
M Ir, H. Ut) ftsdi tnvT^ ■MlnrMn Ut tif RnpiihllEV fa-Ud iTM iSi^ odor 

[Ii ii«LMilKr 1irl^!«. &ium> QUk! lii* mM Ks uJ DO ona bv ODUtrihliClt^ Kj 



fixed In tbe otHjr wInuatioD nn known to b» dUBoult in di*- 
turlj Afurnmkrd in tbu mnjurit^ of mfnda. Suetk optnioofi. It 
in tnii>. %r^ oaly auUjootiivLjr 8ttf&oi»t tod fcv tbe nuiet 
jmrt |w«wlivb«lie£^ b«t> au far «b tlie iDdlvJdnl tt «onoeni«d, 
tboy nu7 bo a* noJuiliibk &« tho moit ocruin irnllt* 

[ft ilieni, tlieii, nmf rdUblo totf of coriituikr U ihore 

anj mark b^ vklth ^lo cotTMtDoM of > propcaitioo laui b« 

itkowol Mr Bpoacvr nji« lli^t there is, tijCj *<t^ iiwoiw 

iivul>iltty uf its n«gKlioo " * Tor *uch tralbt m wQl tdoiit 

tJjQ appUoatfon of dib loai U k uuiUiabCmily miffictoivl. 
Bnt ifain u A oainptmiircly uiull dsM — the truUid of ^n 
lo^ic. tram a pfKtical poitit of tEcw thrvc 4re of far l«aB 
iiapurtuico thiu tluve pbonoEUCOftl truUu witli viiioli ail 
L&vfT to do* 

TIm: flutin^tion botwvMi trvi^ vtd /od^f tlion^ lo^d> 
ftUf louiiivHt, b tpo eUitfo for our prewiU |t«q)Ofto« Wo 
DMSt dad with hka* uf aU kUidft, and vluit wo wmu la 
aomo moano of knovini^ whMheFwo an cntortanuDg co^ 
ivot vkrwa or cirraiMinai viowa rrMp«i?IJi^ nnj aiibjoct what* 
rvur. " Trulb," wmyt Ur. tjvpvalor, *- umt be dofiiMsd to b« 
ail uppTt-UriiAii'ii cf tbu rdatloua uf tla»^ as t1i«y nctaalljr 
eii:'! '* ; t awl Mr. gponocr IdoMoLf romarks Uiot " vhat iro 
coll tnitit, jHii^iiiiji oa to niiiecoMfDl action and tho eonaaqaonl 
luaLiub-paiMt! uf Ufot a* »uuply llio ftcmimbe oamipoiuluiiOD 
of aobjveUre la oUJecdvo relitioiw; wbllo arror. lauding to 
faQnro aoxl tlwrafora towaida doath, ia tlie abaonco of inoU 
accurate onrTpapoodoocsa.^' * Thii b pracrwlj wb>t wo hcni 
moan bj truth, >oiI yut how powvrkiM hu ki^ual Ivat, ia 
daioat aay caao dial might bo aappooud, to fnmkb an a«n^ 
&neo of iot^b troth 1 

Lot OS, than, inf^uiro aomcwlAt more dooolf tnto tbo nal- 
utv ol Lruth. T\\n ioqiairy v old, aiid the icround liaa boon 
rvpvalodJy tnversod hj k^kd minda, but h b ncootoirj to 
iet itown tho nwnU tioro bcforo paaalng to ui3ier dolda^ 



TrvtA conjiMd m (At rwo^iticm of idtrUU*/ mttder iw^ 

lu >Thut ib ciUud an iileotieaJ propgcitioD tlie Bubject tod 
pn^jcat<f arc the «aaie : A ■ A. Hut la moM tnut pfop^- 
tioBA tiib form 1a cliuigiid whlbt Iho mtbrtancQ reoalBflk Un- 
ion ultiinitci/ rvdtidblie to the identic^] fbrai, tfa«7 Af« not 
iniu. If wu Mf A M A-)- S -h 1 -^ 3* vv tiiuplj- complicBto 
tbo pivdicQto ft little nHtlunit allvHo^ the tnitfa id tbe pwpo- 
^tJiML Ewj algebnic e-justion ia to Idcntla] propoahioii^ 
Aiui XMtnc* tbc identical i'orm irh«n tbc opvnttJon* tDdi* 
atcd u« parTormed. In tnwt prt>|)«<itions hovirvrr, tlis 
tcniu UMd in i>no <ii6aib««- u>3 ontilco thou n^^d iu tbo utiier. 
The/ ftn <A ditf^rant oxlftni, bot the tinib of th« profKMtSoci 
aIvbjv cotiuKtu in tbo i<!cnCit/ qf ■ |Kiri nf botb, or of thp 
wlioli! of unv uitli a purt of tbu utb<j- ±^J^uUAnt^u identity 
of piurt» but Dot of «hol<«. Tbo mont iin[>artiint pmporitions 
aivllioavinwhtdilbd idvBtiljrltonljrHrtaltribi.Tt«^orrvUtJon. 

Tlio ditcoTorr of tratbi u dkdn^IaUod from tbn divmr- 
«n7 of &fris, oofkflifrtB eolely In ibe d^eedon of % known nttri- 
bnto, or rrlntJort, in nntwnnUy diiwmiUr fornw or nbJMliL 
Tbc morv dii«iiiiit«r tlic circumrtaooc* conccftUug it, tbo 
gnrntertbe pcueltatlon tvqubvd todet«ot II- Tb« Ll^cet 
fn^rm of meriul operation 1b tbil of yf-n^tyJUiUrott, Ilore tbo 
mind pcrr«:iT«4 (he nme qttHlity In ni&ii^ objodH, And forma 
of tbom ft groap. It than of otbor obj«ctH fonni olbcr 
groBpa. Finally, It pvrmr<9 a qnalitj in eor«tul vbolo 
grovpa, and Ml«ctA ont all hMch grioiipB to form a bi^hor and 
tncn general gronp^ Tbo vidor tlio |?«nc9r«lixatton tbo 
/«iutrr ibo common cbmotur, aiicl tho k<viTCT thi' mtvQucI* 
uul povvm HMMMsury to doted it. Tbo dtiKOvoT^r (f faHe 
fum!aho9 tho data for ibe efCMtirioB of knowledge. Th<: dif- 
cover/ of rmtU, i, *., of tbi? rc-!;ilion« Amont( factA^oonotUnten 
Ui« «xtetuIon of knowlvd^ lUalf^f 

•CL GffbAllH. ^Lutfnc (3c« CtlflUK" Ik. 1* du^v, nwOO«lt Xk^ 
udrr adn, -1y:fL^'- iq1. K p, 1(1; 0. A Uim^ TKMlptw of C^rrtiui*'* 
<■- rMiInu of UU ttti Ski] *\ dttp. V. 

1 ir^Nclj, £«L«iL 

Tlrrovs v« qum of inku1c«n Uecitlt^. The miitt^ wisely 
supput«k» it p«iiralTm tlio «u»« (|uslit^' under diffcvvnt ■■- 
pacts. Thtt qittltlj' tifcM for tl» niDo u unulbur. 

Bat tbu qiiwtlon ilill remaina; How dull tmtli be iti« 
tbj^Uberl from errorf How that mbjccllrflv mffirif^nt 
opinioDi h% known from objoctirpk iidlficicffit OM*F Th^ 
U»t iii ouior nouHxl iLui applMti. It o^iwiAi lh wr(fiaiti0n^ 

Ko bellaf fe to be for a momeot tnulM wlileb oaD not bo 
objuctiv^j verified. AU ofiinioiw miut nmuln in thofrub- 
jecLivi'ly BudBcient tU^ of mttlenKait until (voved. The 
v«ritinl al<iii« ib (be knovu, 

VmHcsdon i« of twoldndi: l^t^tbe bmma; ^bjrtlia 
rciiJion. Wbcra poMible, iMttkiiig lav uitliorilatire *lioii1d bo 
n^cJved ibjiD repoftlcd and \mcd acnftntl t»ta, Jt in upon 
kuuk tliat the iiu].vrtur ctrl^utr uf inufct aeivntitlc t/utb f«at«. 
But an alniocc, and in some ck» qnilOt «qun1 4<igrt?v of ccr- 
taintj ttokj be n»oho(l lhToii|(U mtiotud vcHftnalioii : Dot tbe 
morediAirenuceaof tho naavtiinj^ fuM^II; from aubjeeCiTis 
data, biit a nl&oiuJ oompaHMw of lU taupbty AMtrtainod 
and terificd data, and a k^timtlo dodacttuo tl»uMn>iR. 
Wbilo vo hjirc nn povfrr to pcivcavo tbroD^ anj acwo tlie 
nJtrn-tDBcTofCopio iiiotuB tbai fill tbe air. tbp cvpffrimoMta of 
PaitCQr Aiid TjndAll a^^rd Boortaint^ of their «mi*tQt:j<v and 
or}^nic dtaractor fw^roiKl only to that whldi *otito MnaU pro- 
dsce. Wljtk- w« were not prenent when the npliuTala took 
pl»C9 wbi.^ raifvd ikw Mrala of tlie Alpa to Ihrir pruont po- 
wtioTi, fatioiiftJ ik-dnoiiona from a tboawnd f>ct» conr<'rj(« m 
inwrfllibl/ to tlio tboory of thdr auLvoaHiw oHgln tUt It 
miwt bo rvgiardcd aa a veri^cd Iratb. 

Tbii latter uiample U tbe typv of the cbam? tcr of tbn 
nv>*< Ettiportant problvcna of vnene* and of tife^ Tlw piocov 
bv wb&ch opinion baa become Mttled r«Kpv<t£ii|; It Ea nooo 
otiitfT tlun the tnJiiWfn- prooMs^ Indnctirr rc»Knim|; la 
liltJe oUo lh4u the uumdatlve v-frilintinn of tSe ffivea prop- 
eahiOQ* EacAi now fart in ita anpport w ailditionAl proof of 
itatmih. Oii» ftca dearijr opposed graailjr dirturba tho lend. 



eni^ towonl objcctJTO wflkacno^ of <!vitleiiiQo. Bot^ wbure 
no negative tvvAtaiCja appnr«, a ceriun aawoDt of pooltiro 
«v»do»ce UDOfinCft to pr<M>f. Siioli proof on never bocoiue 
ablclate onleeft all Uw fmU bmting tipoa tlw tlicory uv 
ImowD, fl <««o vliich nervr ooeiin with niiipCGt to unj <|IUQ** 
IJOQ broftd enough to be trorth diAcnwiD^. But In inuij 
camA tlw up]irv«cb lo abbuloto ikmooetnidigii becomw Mym^ 

Sctoiiifio lEiMiHo(lgc<lil!Gr« frum t^cM>-CftUuU knovlod^ 
«f ethtnmofi life dikdjr in being verified knowledge^ The 
t(rtkdei>cy f>h<iiilil, tli«rvforv, e,\tt»l to «xtcftd tbc vic-Jilific 
in«lliorl to otliL-r <l«putinvQU of thoa^lit and K;tioii- Thw u 
lite QtHj niG^od of briD^ng obout itw iotiloncait of opinjon. 

The totdcioeni of opinion in BCtdcty. to tim Btmo OKtont 
UiAt it w ftetfJij<l in tht% mdlrMiu), Wy minimi An rqiul flin* 
tribulioit of lL« data uj^od irliicb ufiitiwn mb. The >lAto oF 
4bj«i^Te MifficHmoy it a ant« of stdbU equilibrium ; tliHt uf 
8u1ijviMiv« vulBeioiiQj » A Utktv of Li^itnblo eqallibriom. 
Tbprvforo, nono of ^hxna v&vHa lo ^xelude oppo«iiijr DvidcDco 
need bo nuule wbidi uia ncT^cwAi^ in the latter euA. The 
1i^itirnAt« eridence m»j dwi^ bo tntiited, wbep fnll^ pre- 
•«nt<id, to ovomile Uio lUugitinatfi ovidcmev- Errur h nowr 
dju^^rvuB wbon tmUi i« loft free to combftt it, Tlie n^ 
fifforia re<[cilivd to benmdc urctovArd tltt^dlfhinirinof known 
tr«th, ThU proi^Mtt wri] not go oa of tiKilf. It u a Itqo 
driluiti^ prionm, And mun }}e uil^daJly foetennl and coo- 
duofed. BuC the nvult i» ccruin to n>f*7 ft tkotuod-fold 
any rofit cnUiied upon mri^Hy. 

It in imporlAnt Ut |>oi]il onl tli&l indiviJual TtfriBoaiioQ tA 
ftll praprMUioufl, espeoUlly oJ iocJi aa aOuiil o£ wdmuJ t«^ 
Bi^d not be nctnaltj imdc ))y iIL A stAtoiMnt of ^«i ooca 
ooinplcteJjr T«Hfi«d need not be Tai(i«d ^ieeond time. Il 
mar Ihnn t>c mMv incnWt^ at a known tnitb- All bnl t^O 
one iiiilividujii vbo avtudi/ T«rilied it will Mcept it u iO^ 



BtAntly ]«h open. Tho momont M$ pririlo^ h dootod, 
doabu i>f tli« cv>inp1cto objcctiv-o ■ufficicocj' of tbn prApod< 
tton ftTc liab^ to kriac. Liki^ ibc depositor «hoy briuiii^ that 
hli banker wm uumuuimJ, <ltiiiu>ded liu dv^Hjiil, tiul, vlwu il 
voa protuptlj- tetKlenf*! Mm, declJAod H, l^fing llim if tlio 
hfttik 1]*d it )x! dKd nr^i wnot il, tiw! himun laiTid dcciandft 
pruvf of evvrj prvponCion, tlm m«ui« of vcnfjriog wbicb ara 
cut i>!r or ilunM, wLile it *o:«pCii huj- pivpuiitiuii «« alalilo 
tralh »o long aa acch mcoiift ai* wJtliiD iba reach of olL 
Strirtly iqicflltini^ a propiwtiovi ran i»nt 1m Mud to ha tliair* 
ou^'il?^ VL-riltcil nu\i\ mum tbou out; pftuoa hu ptit it to Ui« 
UhIk Tbo ospuHjiwcitPtioo, in ftdditkui to being vftrivd to 
the ntmcst pcadliilitj in aiethod, mnM flko be nricd ha lo 
tlie«*xporim«^t«T, k«t lli» |*Fwm*I f^tiAlion iintUlc tliA re* 
#u!t. Bnt, wh^i <m(W Htli&ictvfily >«ttk<d, U> tli« dc^r^^ lliAt 
aiiy (Awlid iiititi] uiufit «oiiQ«do ia ibvohito tmtU w mkid m 
fnily jMypiaintwl witb tbo pnxr«« of ptt»of, its originEi] rc-tn- 
Tvflrti^tlJoo by otHifni ^romrtitntai t cWr ««t<i u>d r3C[)«ik9C fo 
Iko vttof^ot of KOcicty, It lieeoniui^ tlicnfore, oiw of Lbe 
ctnur dutici of lodct^ fti in urguiiuNl bodr lo tako tlwupliV 
fnl memrM fur ibe pwvmtion of thin k^ vrbirH L> iMir 
one i4 th9 iiicvi wrfous Ibii it raftcru. It U nnt ciioO)^i to 
Mitlo opinion, Tho nnhAiit Inrlii miut ho to proct4*nM<d 
u to prevent gnnpc cw My ra-YvritiaUloQ, «i»d to put sn end tQ 
ftU dimciiftncia of tite almdy known. 

W<f Witt iiMi Mvider 1)i« Mklijcct-maittfTr of opanions. 
OpCniftti iiillbCEw« iHionft in proportion to tbcdr importiiKe. 
Tlio BnU of « grwt iiivi ire dnc to the f^mliwM of falft 
thongbtA. The uillofl of a pnpp:r< tbe plftv of children, uid 
tbn tndin|>AtTti tbftt mnVp np tbo lift* of pcopio of f(>ob1o Id-' 
l«liifv4 <jr boai|tbtLst cofidiliuoi^ nprv^ent in oa'^ t^wc tbo 
eli»ncter of th<» IdcMum fn>in vhWh tbcr pruoowL Tbo 
bot to bo ^iwi-klty nuriMl u that, from tbo unto d«gre« of 



bleHeotuil «u«t^-, c-nlinl v diffvfoot motor rotults will floir, 
accoflxting to the iiftiuro of cbo i<lea8 eaienaiQCud, Odo cIam 
cif idcfltwiU ph^idaco imntcr&l condact and TalocliMa, f ndif* 
f«nMii, or «£Attcul jicd<fnH, when another olw» of idow will 
geaeratv Qxeuipluy uiunil oi>iiduct uti<] vuluatlu d^vnunir or 
pnjgTOMvo ttciion^ From ibo ooo ^t of idc«A tliftc wiU 
n^«a1t A iiftf if not injonouft, al teoiit mnloM to JHVitftj', wliile 
from the other tlkcm wOl re&vik a lifb of perfect taami rocti- 
tu<Ji^ ftni3, U rnay tio, of ^'ttl ^tOMtlSie advSDtNgv lo tlw pai»' 
eut and fiiinnj of monkJod. 

The »iiml war tA nrnr4! nt a dear «»T]»jidon of Uir Mih- 
jfrt-iiralter of opiuii^ua, (.'uuTud^jr^d aa afleHing acliu&r *> l^i^t 
toi>M|iiir»intotb«ir»h»cal)al cbar*ct«r, au<I thla icK^utry oiDat, 
in turn, bu ititiudacvd by a coauaiKtrDtioa of th«ir ori^ti and 

onDUf ov onxioxft. 

Opdoione uo the rault of dretimstanw^ ani! arv to bo ro- 
gnnli^ aa nmon^ the ouAi^ of oxIatOTioo which follow ISjukI 
and clr«liiiit« iniocodeiiu, ttw\ di^nd wholly upon theio, 
Tho idgtt that moQ ]>o«toM niiy power bj^ which thej can 
chan^ or dotcnniiM ihdr i>phuoiu ifl whuUr liwonaicteat 
vltTi rraMin and vith foct. Vol, M ihi^ idea liu long anrl 
widrljr prcvajlrdj and ttill pn^railis It may Th! wrJ) to noiinft 
it bridly. Tbc idea biw coiqv iuto |>tofnfi:i«!i3oe ^irSj 
thnmgh rdJjfioud coutrovcidea, and front the pecDlau- nainro 
of rall^^onab^llefe. 

Tfao importance of rodoHnft optitioiitf of l^Es natnrfi to & 
idnglo t4andard« of which the? aJ)i<<nui1a of oarh form of nAi^ 
foft biTo otfitinifil to coD£tituiti tJi«ius«lvM lu noh caM tb* 
Jvdgffi^ haa f^T«in riao to many hmtrd diH-«aioiu luid moirb 
arUlr»ry cHi^rriw '>f power. Bnt, in what*-ver elaotbe ptfticift 
to tii«ttti HErifw Idvif dilfiM-tHl with uuo ikiK^tber, thvy bare ill 
boon af-rofNl upon this: tbut, if tbu nppononta only woxildt 
thi^ mi^ht oonfonn to thrtr ojiiDioiiA, Tt ie olov that to 
ywJd tltli \^im would he to find the contest At loatt, it 

ORir.iN OF OPiKioxn. 

voulij rett^cor lit fnrtlier protrwtion altforJ axi*\ Hdiouluaa. 
For «tni to o^mtond wAvutd bo to Acck the MywmplidiBWiit of 
vhftt Wl bt-vo alreadjadniittv*! Ati impuMibiiilj. 

It is^ liowovur, more du&rilaUu uhd, pQri]t|»i moro nwon- 
able to nppwo U^nt tbtvugliout those fsootctte no one took 
thi4 ifl^Q. So thorouglity wu lliv do^riiio of ninn*^ frn> 
Oi>m to wtU «i>d to beliuw iiulwddi.'^ iu t1i« i:oitiAlilutm]i aivI 
tl)D >c»tii»CDt« of tho sgOf 'li't °<> ^'^ mppoMd ic vw aoj 
tiling elio ttian piin) obtftinocj wlijtfli pnnjiiUxl otlicr» frofn 
WlicriRfc preeitdf tJuit whidi liO boUeved. h ir«t oti tkii 
«iippoiattuii tb*t iti^n procoedcfl, &tid, «!»ii lliie «ippo*od 
fitubbornne» fK*uld ni>t bu vrcmmu bjr tfitfoi^ or bjr 
thn^t<s tho^ atUmI pcrfM-U; oonMilMit with thdr own do^ 
trincB Trben Uic/ tfru^il to otatcdsim it by force. Thcj- pn> 
owdod agtiafci oplniooi prociwlj w tli«y votiM i^ut ao- 
Uorre, In ^k4, thoj rvgKnied tiivoi u* nimptjractv of llw 
n-IlL Tlwjr nercr stopped to roflvct tbat tl;c£r argameot ap- 
pli«il u veil to OM p*rt7 ftA to the other. Thdr pnri^ lod 
niL loo bif fa for tliiiw Thcjr aevor Lliou^ht of trying to Oo 
tbutiwrlrv* tliAt wlucb Ibttj ioiuvtcO Uicir up|>OMciit« co«(d 
do. Iniftefnc & Ronum Cttbollo ««liK phlloooplUiiiift with 
himwlf whdbrr hti oocild, 1^ ka act of bk iHTI, AM»pt tlco 
iturcnw oi Martin Lntber ! An4 j^ nothing wu moco 
otwHj eitablUboti In bfe mind than tbit tboM bcnstks dooU 
mtura to tbo dootrinoe of tbo Di^reiul CSmrvb tho mooMAt 
tbojr iboold will to do so. fio cLfar vu tbi* optDioa tliiiA 
tbeK tfwe I MnHug ddcmiittiiou to »ot open it ai>d oouapd 
thoin to do 00. 

If It i« Impoirible for * vntn 1o ohftiigo his opinkHU, il 
muKt ftlM> be impttiiiilitn for oi>r prrKon to comprl tDotbfrr to 
d4> ao. For in tliis 0B««« u in tbe uthor, tbe poitj aubjcdod 
to tbo oompiilBon voald luvo to prodww the oliuf^ upon 
blnueif. Ttic onJjr dlilumicc iborv coald bo wnald bo hi iho 
moiiiv wliicb Infliftoaeed biai. In tbo Ant «wk^ il miffbt be 
Vkj tiMlWo aX mU< In tlw cooond. U Kinrt bo tmir of pds. 
And, if be na not do It bjr M ict of bb will, it mikv* do 



iliff^itfiwd irhy ho wtlk it. It k the will jiut as mncli, 
vbelW the motire bn fi^r or intcmtt. 

Nor U *t oiilj Uj a j^rivri rv4Miiiiks ibiait w^ anive ti tUia 
<«viduuQn. IlkaljwxlviUfcviifinnwJbT^iill harniUi luttor^. 
It U pi^ctHlj nfo to m^ Uiat tlicn never w m imrcofsfnl 
atl«?mpl to forco opinioc- Ercrr raiort to thb onime luia 
pTv^ed in utier fjuhire* Tbeiv Imi-i^ ^^wd, bwa omm 
wtiorv fov of paburdettli Im» indooed ptrtleB t^confcn 
ftoch ■ forciMc <y)aTfTr»OB. Bitt th6 cooloMioii nonir ex- 
t«iMl^ bvyond tbc hft^ llioro karo tko bvMi ovm «h«ro 
fcv wliole gwentigiiif tho ozprovoo of etrtein opini«7iw bu 
been fordbl^ enppraeedf white eeiitnry opJnSoita wok io be 
hcAnl cvrrprhorCj until |}i«m^ onfTrohilitt^l wntimralft b6- 
cvnc thf* <>^ly f dnoilion of tliU D«w genpntion, iwi ih^iv, of 
conncu Ih.4il-vvJ tticm l>c«nnjBQ nnoppovorr In thU war pub* 
He b.-ndment tnny l^y^mn p^roladnDiDed hy forc«. mnt) often 
liHK 1>ci*n« tliou;^}] gvnernlTj frjr t>ii.' wonv. But IkiH i* qvlta 
anotlii?^ llnnf from forcing a mitii to «lidnga liif opiniooa, 
II h &u ^ paHf »y«U^ of cdticaiUoti, ftod, (nttuad of <ij9- 
provlrif^ the prMtrnt propoeltlou, fiirufsho*, on Hio oontiwj, 
Mie of tHn mo*t ifirinHbla pmnfn r^f thfl fnio on irliit^b tt 
rent*. vi£,, tiiat opitti^^m nrv ttic rusolt of circninBlanoei^ It 
muBt notf liowerer^ be Uforrod (bat, bt^owe opioiom 119 
■ndqmiiioikt of vclilioDfi, the^ nrv tlK-rvforu fiiod or vn- 
rhtng««bl<f. On tlio rontnry, t1i4rj uv <T?c«codhi^jr ^enflitire 
And cobject to chtn^ But ibv fDfliiencQi tbal offprt the«o 
ofa»nf[«£ nntsi b« Icpitimat*^ Tbe povor of tU« will U not 
ono of tlioM Iqgitiinato inftuonccA. Tlio will liiu no juriMllo- 
tion oTpr Ihr JMdEm'Tjt* nf the mtvllcd. Tliere b no better 
f1IuatT«t>0D of c laiftl Eixdueircv^ llttn f^tt f^H nffoirih. If u» 
6])m)oQ oideta, It mtut hare bowi pnxJuvc); U mnit luf« 
A ocrtaln dctinitr »iu«. The etiMO crcAtcd tbe opteloa. 
Tbo opinion wliicb ipmi^ from tbe i^nM ilcp«nflA vpoo it 
tm] it noflftmo I by It. Now. It b p«Tf«cclj pUIn that In 
orAm to oiForl Ifmt opinkin 500 ntiwt tflrct ibe «airae whkli 
■opponi it. Tbe ofdnkin an not 1w iffe«ted in anj otbor 



muiihpr If jou vrifrL to d^tiMUali a biifliltni^r ^oti mint opcp- 
tie npon tlifi bnil'lji^ it«df and dmlror ib fctnndatioiifi. N(» 
ttuuiiiji of Uliur UuIowi-hI opou wDuduN' buUdk^; on tbo op* 
j^^jtti ei'k of iLti dtraft u-ai bftT« tli9 dl|:lii««4 «i£wL Opin- 
Jnn« rt«t ii|hOTi f'iiii>dMioii«. Thv^ ettnil hy tli« Mnw povor 
l>r vrhicS th<'y w#*u cnHitcd. But it m hipp«*nB tlint (he wiU 
i» nut UulC puwvr. Ho uttv v^W ur«ilc<l aa oj^inioa 1>j vti\U 
power. Tbo will U no noro tUo truo «*iu« of bclUfe ifaan It 
n of dtnttto. It wu onco rappoetodr aikI bj minv ti in Mill 
ttippowed. Tint the wind itnd vrMtliirr niAy b« OunrrdlWI t>jr 
the vrlll, Forlliewill k but tfae d«rije,tli« v{»li, of an indi- 
vidnAl, and « fprvotft irirfi h aH tbat t-oMKiituiw « pr«;«r. 
Fc>oplo hftvo nlwnjE-H unppllcfltoil thi* cU-mL'ntj, Tktaiiv 4 pniu 
prarer >HU gMM up for nun fn time of desrlli. Hirt (tvltj 
nuuiof «ci«aic«kQo«« ibat t^in doc« nnA df|>»Qd upob Uukuaq 
pfA^n«, iMt a|ioti the etato of tbo Atmoffpltom^ tbo wimli »nd 
nKHRtnro, Atid other rcnl oMiitw, involring tb« efifcda of tlie 
nihi^ltn^ of mat«rul ffibstaMie* — gMM ar>d VApf^n^ TtiMO 
<r4xi bo InmtFguod and «iplaiii«d. Uv tbo aid of > kixml- 
odgv of mdi fM^s wo IDS}' jrvt ocquiro noiiuc ooulnJ dvut tlio 
eliini^ntit diiil avrr ^lims^to. If thb i* over dnooy tt will be in 
llii* WAf. But i>o (^«rcuu cif will, uilem fipiMod l>j' invenliTo 
tlK'ii^bt, Bod fotlowed hy opproprkto d^mmio ociiovi, cnn 
over mducnoo the w»lW, 

Hie TT«Mw » tbr Kuoe ah that in tbo owe of opdntoM 
vfcm ft w foti^t to ififlMn<« tbem hy tbo will. Tlkon) ti 
Ho nv^wrf rfiati<ft\ betwovn iho two. Tbej uro md<*pctid0Bl, 
eoHirOinto i\^XK Tbtrj («di h^ve a oaow, it w iniew Tli^ 
depend apon *o:itothinf;» Ai>d Uiat doprflidraco it wmj ^ wj' , 
ah*otiitAf >ikd reol. Hitl one U T^<~it tb^ ciuiM of ibe otlicr. 
Tlio woatbrr » no m<irQ the ttvnlt of Uvq wiib tban tbe wkli 
k of tliv tf«»lbcr. The opinioii u no moro tbe muoe of llio 
doiire than the tloilre k of xhc opinf^Mi. Not f'nly lo.. Iint^ 
vblle wUJio* ran ovoato ooith^^r uvuIltt nor opmiofit. ItoiU 
wMtber aivtl opiniooa ixaj ooOtftttDto legitiaiato cau»o« for 
in wofaoa^ 


0ron0»,-TER7lART MEASi*. 

Tl]« (xi\hcj we are no* ccntidtfing ui t^ non ftniut pro 
OtfiMiJ, vid in the chU^ support <if every form of •upvoU- 
dott.* A tulttre to u«iiga Hv^ n?al caubv fur « fact, i« IImi 
anignFng w * otUBO of that wbkU ic not « aom. 

WD niAjr Kov" reUim uiil inquire ■« to the true catuc of 
linman optaUiiw. 

Tbeiv ifc a necotsftry dironoJogicil onlvr m wbich aIJ tlie 
pbooomcnn of tnmil take pl&oo. Tlie &n4 cfta bu no othor 
tluui nenutirjn, TTib, Afl v« bftT« »cod. rttfnlta from flic eon- 
tnct of o^t^ml tpbjorU wiih th^ F^nMfL All tho moHee, 
fornw, and vKncttcn uf vodi coatucU ooiwtittitc tlw cirunm- 
stnofMM irUiub arv tbe immodibto tnd omujIuI wum of dl 

Now, M WR uUa bit in tnar iiLqniriM into tbr tutnrc of 
mifif), «tu«licai litt two aspect*, or jiIimm: a AubjcetU-o a»d 
an obj^Ive, Tlte tiivt L^ c«nmioo ]>roppr — conMuoue exp^ 
Hence, or fo-ctiii^. Fullmvlng np ibat t>niiicli of the biIihI 
vhifb procitfoJii from tbia primary qtulilj of MrnAtiozi. we 
find that Ibprv* tvftult immi^ijttelj from it ileftin^ emotion, 
&nij wUL 

Tbe otliur nftpcvtf or obvonc sido of Ncnwtion, iA pewp- 
trnn. It d«-termin«e^ bj l]l4^ localiljr, direction, ind ititfrMtj 
of Uie oontftot, tfie lutiiro of the oi)j«ct producing It, and 
thm oc^ioM (ha objV<ct itaiplf, ila ijnalil:o< &nU cbmiotin*. 
Tbo t^nutlion and tli£) qurUitj pruducm^ it iin; corrviliitire. 
A particular kind of ro«i«tAnco produf^* a pjuti^^Ur I'ffcct. 
Wo onlj Itnow thf* former bY flic Utirr Tho mbjtfcltTo 
AenaaliuQ is aW ia« t<jipv<fi«ii{.v, Uiv otbi^r in Oudncod, or in- 
forrod. It, bof^mc* a toattor of judgment. If t3icr« are 
•eTeml tfutittntionH whicb arc alike, vrt infer that it iR tlio 
ftftme 4|UAlitj wbtdi prodnei^] tlieni all. Ttiia u perceptiOQ, 
or nppreboTiHon. Following ijp ibi* brariob of |i«ydiic phfr 
noittv:i&, it k*a<Ia a« U> trnu intelkHitiuU opvi^tions. 

Porooptioiw fonn tbo baaia of munttl jn(l^:mc^ta, mn4 
tliofo confltUnto idcw ud opiniotiR. Il^noe the primary 

• Sk IkcBn, " Kuruin OipiiuB," lib ; ^k d«L 



Cftnfioof «vev^opiiktGDi«t]M«xp«rioiicoolUiotopm. That 
Ctptf-jicnni cionaialH oi the drciiiEt^tAnca bjr vhtch th« uidi- 
Tidual b anrronaded, iiid wlucb vo Jnc J a mn ily sppMlin^ to 
bift MiitM, giving turn d«v p«ff«eptioM, rpvcaliitg to liioi tho 
rjirfcd (jaalitks cjtktiii^ in objvctv, 4ud Uiuji ikvelupiug Uu 
intelk-ccuul Cftc«hi«B. CfrcwnsUiMwt aro tWroforo «a mucli 
tijo (»iiM of Ofiinion m thojare <]f mnQtiUiiM, rivent, or 
stonnfi, uuj ilio opinwru obvj Uw* u dctiiiite A&d tiuccftk«jrjr 
Xivjm wliicli MmIi pljvtuc^ ubjtK-'U vbvv. W«n thwe ldw» 
well Dudeniood, ti;^r roniJU conM be odcnlated wich w 
mn^li accoraAT m con the lootioriB of Uia iM&wnljr bodiraL. 
All tW ia required i« ti> know what drcutmtaoon wtli pro- 
duce ft cvruUi opiuL'ii, aud jr»u Juvo ojilj^ to cfttte tliwo dt- 
catKUtaaeiw to bo euro of tfao opiaion. 

Wo lUllo dreuD how BlMKJBtdj wc vn tito oi^t&rcH of 
drtuinilAQee^ Bad lo wlial oiteot uoir v«iy UKm^lnn oro 
oralod bj tLoRi. TIm civiluttd woM of UmU^^ aarrouiMlvd 
bjr comfottB and li]KuricJ> &nd rMpln^ iho ben«fit« of an id- 
nnord i4ii1r of Art, M^iirni^Cf uid lileraliire, forI« procid of itn 
oojiditioQ aihI iU ftUiK'norilj ov«r AiKtii^ivLltMxl nod barb^ 
peQ|rla? ; 79I liow few lutT« c vor rvflvotvd, how fvw ktKtw 
it ow« this pre-«min^cn whollj to drt^iRiftAncvi—ro 
mdncfKHf of covnprchciHiivr Irnrs of oatQiv oontroUitijr 
tHo uriiolu docii^D u( uriTftiLJxvd [tt^lur, ibo pboouiuvn^ uf 
mind, ibe verj fi^nii imd eL^racier of the bodj', uid Uio 
qnnntit^ nnd <nift1*t7 of the brain 1 "Who trrcr rtopi to «io> 
flddiH'f w)im rr«dmji; iJie biitorf of bu nco in the primrril 
Agco i>f Donkiod, Vp-hvo wonikfrinic owr the »tnai)ce Umm, 
Hbmini cw4<>iaF« &iid £iJ«e opinlonfi w|ikb wero ibeii eiiiet^ 
tdnod, ibjLi. if hr bad Uvod Iben and titers ho would have 
blnvwlf bocn i>r»» of tboAc^ fltrarkjfp bdtifrA, wonM ltivo«jiarcd 
Utoit f<4|kn>k Uii'ir etn«i>. tfii^rr suptirytiticKM, a» irvll ■■ tbeir 
halnu and rnMoniH T Vd wo aft not doohi llttt nurh Ia tJifl 
fad, Tbo inaii of iniinkiDd havo lut liniA, difip«itinTi. or 
ftblUtT to ciamiiio ibttir ojKiiloife*. Tlic^ iro liitc diililrvti. 
Their loadcm mrv pftf«ntf Lv Umiid Im ftll inaltoE* uf opiiuoo. 




Tlvey BMum? to ttlt tbtrm wlut i« troe^ And thor cah ooly 
bfiliero* If iho loAcfii-rH otd Uietnwlvoe^ ignriranl, to inacti 
llll^ vono for Imtli, bnc if mflko» no difffrronce vUh lli« to- 
cc|>tAn«A of opnioiuL Tbvy »rc formed id tlio mciw number, 
wbutber (ftUe ov tnio. 

3foa idofi^ BTO d^Tod through tlio MriAei of sedti^ 
h«tring, nnd fi^lin^ bnt Ihcm i« ft gn^t diff«*n-Dfw fit th« 
qQAlitjf or rpltttire «irrrcttiai*, fif Ihoopinfons formod hy llift 
aiU uf iLi^w llirvv wiia»- TIjimi; uU'^nltMt bj tUv ii&iim? v( 
toiiah 3iro tlkO nioet reliable ^Vborc a tUing {a ooliuilly fvlt, 
nxwpt in nwai fif morbid illnhfiMi, h i* kuw \<-> pitftt. Wa 
mAjr otiJt err iHlli rv^cmni to iU nature, but leu vtica thtn 
iaodwrcuo*. Wb^reduul^Uwitt. Uielut n?>ort indvajs 
t4> iliU f!vni«. Wo know lion tliut tlio object In qncftfon 
f!i3CifttA, The AetiBC f^f *rg;)]t come^i mvcmd in the n^luljililj of 
ilA ApprelitmtSoTM. TLat ubicfa u-c *m we cut proltr gen* 
orally depend ujvon. Stitl, as (t mnj he at a graax dfetauc^, 
or tnav r^tand in a peculi^ ^tuaiir>n, f t le hA ccrtnm than if 
it iPftre Afittiftlly f*JL Bnl I^p ^5drf fj»*r of nn reliability 
Ariunj{ fro^ii Ihie bvcuo m whc^rv o|nniouf are fonned fn>ui 
writlQn iHDi^njjgv* If iliU wriler etatce an error, and tl>o 
itndvT bclirvco il, he W ncr^nired a faW opini<w. U ia 
Vfrnallr, though not alvtaya, tlie opinTon alFv> r>{ 111^ imtor, 
but il \tnji UioB be<Tii cominQF>tcal«d 1o ftftotlier- Rut eviMi 
in tliM r»pmt the tenlimonT of Ibo t>}V \% more rcIlaUo 
than lliAt of Iho c^r. For tb^t vbich uny one talMd the 
tmnblt) and cxrc to roduco to wnting i% gcrwrellj mote co^ 
ivoU Tbtf wrjicr Lwitfttvu inMi^KliTdyr before be frame* a 
eenlence, to aee wlietbor U really doM oxprunt hk id«u, or 
the truth. 

Bnl the acntm wWh i* reapevuSble for the giratcr part 
of all the tnvor in tliv world le the nenwe of benriTtg, Krcn 
vith raganj to tlie tmtDre of »oond«, n« indicitin^ the Houtco 
from vbifh they eomo, thia senao fa Terj unreliable. It Is ft 
difltouh tiling lo {*•]} tbe dlrix-tion of a aoiind, and etHI moro 
difficdt to ja<^ what it ie tbjit baa prodnccd tbo tonnd. 


Still, if ttit w^rc ibc onlj waj- in wbtdi heikriiij; cn^n- 
dorcU i^jiinioii*, U»ey woulJ b« coiupftnititdj ©oiwset The 
chlof miM]i>, liowe\'«r, Id whk-Ii U doe* tliu u tlbrcmgh tJbo 

iuinof orti Ui^vugc. Thu btbctfouicooif tfaulmnieiMC 
ijoHty cl ill our opiniovu, wbcihcr tree or U\£t. It ii on 
c wintc* i>l mund asd throngli itio medium of jpoccb tlut 
ootiic tlie ftret bJoBAof overy gini*«exkti:fioe. Wliilc Uw mind 
>e u-nder and pUntic, thcrt poor £dIo tlio «&» a Uicrafiand 
t>4o»gbt« RDd id«u, wbicli it «ag»rlj dHnkv En and mtikM ils 
own. Aud tm ht«r yetra tho grcftt confuted Iram of |iablie 
86nt!meot Ifi wnftffd to tbo tj'uipuium tod btalon iaW Uio 
bnvn. Itnmor h $\»a pcrpi^tajilly mikltig UsvM h(»rd. It is 
tbud tlmr ir^TliviM cocne down, tli^t mvcitnn, lni« or AiUc, 
tro {wrpvtuAU'J* ilftt dl kind* of tbooghU wl opintooi tro 
denred, ind tbv tuind cni[]ini«d» M it ««ru> wiUi cusifused 
fu>tioEi« ol &V4fi7 thiiif^< The mt i» tlia grMt «nCpq^ ^if 
id«w, 1 do i>o( Mj of knowMgft. For, » I Imvo »jd. it U 
tbrougli tlik gUmhikI UiAt ino»t errors ure mtrodoc^. Ve 
boar too maeb to bo oxpuctvd to outlyjro il hIL Uoil mon 
do not AtAp to qiKfltjan tbc probibltity or r«a«oubloQen 
of any tbiii^ tli«y tnt toM. In a majority of cim4 it U h** 
liovod or diMbalMTcd, tooordhig to ibo tonroe &om wbiob 
It oOTTH*. If llioy odccw Ibo ohuw:tcr of tbe pcrtuo «oq- 
^X'^^ ^U >K^ matter for what reoMo, tlicy will gcncnUy 
icofrpt It M tru^ wjtbovl (^Ottlknillg l(f> m«^nM. 

A^B, OK already rnikarkorl, «i«b W ibu cotiitliintiori of tH« 
biiniun mind tliut, wbvrv^-t-r a fact i* stated, and Bfxbiit^ it 
aet off a^n«t it» It will V bcliorcd. Thi^ U tbn faodo- 
nwtntal praxriple of l^gal teitiinonj. Pcrliape tI ii woU tkat 
U b to. Dot ibo miod avldocn makeA an effort of ica own to 
•at wbotbvr tbere aitsU aoy audi oflHt, oitbor itatrittic or 

Tbb la oJttfO rtry nnfmlutintf* for i»titb- For fr^irtidy, 
by a little redeoli<»o, il mi^it be dii>oov^rod thai a »ijl/*rotnt 
Il annwimblo ; or, by a IvHl* lnriiiti|pit)(>n, il mlf^bt be 
foood to bo foW. And tboa mor ucauaiilttw. Our baada 




12S onHioEV-^rtiKitAftv ukxh^ 

OTo full of orrcrns jMJured inU» cmrow aaJ vvc«)T«>d OQ tl 
fftitli uf tbc ultvrOTf or bc<<uuac] not i-outmdictod, or« mAX^v, 
tim«, on & iniih wbkrh in whdiy blind anti UTWUpport^d. ^H 

and confujwi ti/^stlicr, truth onj onvr aro eton?d avajr 
in ritu niiiid, to hv caUM out. wlit-nirvcr ocoudtirt ta\*€*^ 
for the formntion of reaolu^oiiA and tL& f^veramont of ju> 


^i^rt^h<i /vjliiewiei?.~Wv luivu wcti that oplniofka are 
tlifi TVKult of oircurti^fantiw, but iIt^^o nro nni cotitinrrl f^ ib*7 

immedifit^ toTitJiot of cul^^niaJ obje^-to iij.hju ibu khms tliiu 
&r considered. True, witliout wirb vunbd lbt*rv couM Ui 
nc idcsv^ Their exiatunce {irliiioril^ <lvj)un4i» upvrn Ibi'fl c«n* 
tau^t. But the nalnre ttud quulitj nf tlinwi idtnn, or opinionA, 
are in Rr^at part dnE^nniupii and controlled by 'jtbor said 
e&coiidarv hillueucee. Tb^ d&poml uiuch upon ibe conHtiin- 
tioD of tbi< mind wLiob apprebendBt and not altojj^ibcr upon 
Ifie objijcta apprrbeniliyl. Tbia tfi a very ohrinns niid a v&rjr 
important dlHtiuclion. Wc have Uf^in hvr^. lu in jill tiK^uUl 
opCTttUona, the jiuUjudivtJ Iti cuUinjuLion xvJLh lltj ubj^otivu. 
I1i« ideft win depend not only upon iho external object, bnt 
aWi upon pwriilioriHfa of mind. It ia irrll known IhAt dilTer- 
imi luUidn will at'quirc dilleivnt opiiui^ii* under Uw Mine cir*- 
cmnetaxicoe. True, it ia Joipo^blo to make tbe ejEternal cir 
CTinii^tim(!0!» In nU roepLHitb the fiamo- Still, Uioy mny bu jio 
D£!dir1y identical that, vcrc tboro no other faotore, botli niinda 
wnnld di^inrai tbftTvftam the Mme tH>nHmiion. But we find 
tiiat iM btioli caiwi w^ bAv« uft^n brtii niititakvTi ; tbdt, tu ciiiwa 
where no one could dtrtvi?! lLl- k-uat dtiferencM? in the* i.<ir<)mri- 
atnnoM, not only differeDt hnt oppofito npiiiiona bnv^ l»evQ 
formed in different mindu- We difionrfrr, Oi'^mfoiv, tbflt bcrre 
ia Kn element wbii^h we inu^t not ignore ; tijat opiiiiuUH, «o 
fars« tlieir natiirQ and quality uro eonwnicd, jm: ju mueli 
wibjpct to intomal n? to pxtcimal (nflnf-nr^oa. to *iibjeolive a« to 
obje(?t]vc imprcaflona. This dcpendu mjit-tt a VArifty of wn- 
atder«Uoii& : firet, upon tJko <MUBtitiition of thu Ky^tem, upon 


tfao etAte ot phyBi<?al heulcJif iipnp tbe decree *>i esDHilivQuvee 
c'f du? uen^^ vjn\ ^iistv, upvri tho Uo^uv i4 trrgnnuatioD of 
Uie Uiiinl fld a whulo^ npoo tbo aoUt ^^^"^ imliouftUty, rU\ ; in 
Uu seconr) plaoe, it in titni? r/i tlios« subtik* iii11ueuw[i wbidi 
irere prtpftrinK tlie W4y for tlio Qxutjng poculiftntiea of con- 
MItntion, long U^fure Uur iudivldiial had ui ojcifitcncc- In a 
wonl, the cia-umetAncofl whfoh give riBo tti an iipinion «m of 
Iwo Irind*— nntonftcal anil jwwl-iifital. TLo fonner, tJiOQi^fa 
Cif inuf^li lersfi imporUTit^e mid whollj^ ^ibjiKti vOp Arv tlove1^ 
t1iel(«a nortemry to b« tiikun into the tK^eotuit. T}iu klter 
arc most indooDtkl, nnd may be fiubilividod, as has been tmd, 
into lliMC tthidi are objective, and ^ir-pend upon the ntind 
M Tiioldud by pr^^viouA cdin^ition, nud thoee wliich are ob- 
jeclivti, ftad ooo^ihI ui Uiu i<uiiUol ol iho (^xturnd world with 

Wkb Tegard io tbi? tnie iuflucnee of aute-iuildl cirtuiu- 
BtnnttfuJ, thcns m»y I>o tlitFiTviicea of opi[»iun. It Is & diffl- 
cxili maCLir to dty^tik in how for id&m oud diou^hlf arc duo 
to bereditnrj inflnctif^B, but all admit tbiit, to a f;rvjit» or 
le**t rnt<nit, thcj are dependent upon tlie*© c^lom'^h k {a 
well ktiown to tlju TJtcdical profi.'SBion and to nlniin^ ovgry 
buJy thai tho t'biinwtcri9li<s of our pAtfiit-'al »y«lom*, thoir 
form, ftiw, ftTid proportions, Iheip diECHM^ dcformiTtf^, aud 
con^titiitionul p^'OulIaritiM, w in » i-rvut d«n;n.i; heri^'ditury, 
ijid itro derivwl not only directly from pnrcnW, bat frona 
remote anoeainra. Tb**^ cbnrapli^Hrtid! nuty difinpp'jir on* 
tirdy for sevemt gi^narntioiidf arid a^hi rodppear (nfAvidm}, 
or Ibey may he tra^-ed back tlirouglj every »t&g«^ or degreop 
a long linoagu. Al! are faraJliar with ihis fnrt, nnd nearly 
cry p^nwin rAiriea in hiri own conMitution trvidoiu-o«of it 
whicih hft cnn not i^ore. If the mtnd in bnt b property of 
tfao pb^ntL-nl ayaterii, i( ^b^.■t1ltJ fulli>\t tlial it tuif Uiunt dt>rive 

cliaimcfHoritdre ruid pocuJiarltiw from onto □aul circnmptanc^cii. 
But fortiinati^ly wr are not confinnrl to a priori fij&uttdB. 
Tbe pfa^nomertA of mind (mdinp 1o ear.tbhab thia view on 
Karcdy U«a patent tban tho«« obwrrable in ihe body. 

on?n<rtP-— TwmAitT means. 

ATV fnll of «rror^ poitnxJ into oiir cak ami iweircd oo tilt 
fahh of tlw QUonrr, or Uhuumt n^t i-<u:iEn(li(!Usd, w, muy 
tUD9, Ml a fiutb wblub b wUollv blttiil «u<l \UMi|fporte(l. 

Bocb » tlnr preiemt cixndilion of h«mflik opinioiM. 3CEa- 
gl«d tfd uoufuKcO tvigfithejr, truth And «VTOr are Aor»d awvjr 
in tho mictl. to Iw cnltcd out, wlicnurvr occodoo «ri«M^ 
for ihu formatkiQ <if rc^otulioiu aiul tiw gOT«re>£iefit of «y 

Stf^fi^iv€ .^v^Mou,— Wo bftTo MMi tbtt opiiuoiw mfo 
tUo nrriill of <TtrctitimLiLiu!«t, bul tbuiv uro mrt votifi&oiJ to tbo 
immedlaiv ocnUut of eitomal £>bjoota upon tiio »Qtt« tbtia 
ftr coB«i<1(?roi, Tmtn, without micli contJM^ tliore <mtiU be 
jm idcBi. 'nioir cxiittcnoc pntnari]5 dcpc^ndii ttpon tbii von- 
tAcL But tlw tiktam niul qudily of \ln»c ><l«d», or opinion*, 
ana in groat iwtt d«lcni;ilii«d and c-w1n>ll<-d by other and 
•eco&dir/ inflni^Dcva. Tboj dcprm} louob upon tluf^ rMutilii< 
tioD oi tlw uiind wbidi apprvbon^lis nixd not ■Hofcu-rlivr upon 
tbc objects npprcbcndcKU Tbu ia k very obviuDm and a vary 
impnrtjuit <1»tinciioTi. Vfc h&ve itgdn Iienv u b all montd 
opentioiuk. tbv Kibjeclivo" in roniv'^Un wilb ibti 4>>iji>otiv«, 
Thu idea will d^gionil ikiI on)/ ujiou tbo citeniaJ object, hat 
«lMiDpon pccKulioritiL-cof mind. It uiipdl kmim UiJtt differ* 
int nakuiA irill noqtrirv AiUt^rtml opinions under tbo eune rir- 
crniwtftnorii. tVar^ it i« impombln to nioke tho eiti^maj ci^^ 
cuTiiidiiLEKfnt ill all ro«pecU the aanii?. Still, iTi^ najr he ao 
n«aHy id«ntloal tbnt, were thero oo otL<fr fnctorv, l>odi miiida 
vouLd dedooe tbvrvfrum tbo aame ovueluHioii. Dcit we jlod 
tJnt In aneb cii«» wo have ofo^n bocn tnintAkoii ; tbiit, in <uuoi 
wbeni iU) on« i^oqjlrl d^t^?ct lh« huwt riilfr-n^Tiin* in tho <QrrTuni- 
■taneGSt fiot only difToteot but oppovitu opmiaiu b^fo boaQ 
/unnud in dilTerenl mindf^ Wo db<v>voT, tbttreforc* ibat hem 
18 ui olf^mcnl «b>^h wo miut not l^ore; that fypfinlooa, ao 
jfflT u> thcTT Datnnf and qualilj aro conc<med, aro M m«oh 
fulijoet to iiitvmal aatoextMinl inflticfiDoa,totnbjuctiv<ea»b> 
cibjodive Inapreanon*. Thtt depciida tipon a rnriuty of oon- 
aideffmiicdM : flnt, npon tij« conatitntion of tKe ajatom, opoD 




of tbc ncrvctf »nA t«nM«» upon tho d<fgtiQft of cirgHBUjUinn of 
tbo [iiiniJ a« ft wliolo, upon tbo apx, tbeiulioi»lity, c4e.; in 
£b0 ac«oii<l pinco, it u dtiu to tbuw nibtUe iudovuvvt wliiuli 
prp.jiarin^ iba way fcr the cxitUnif pecaharicW (rf con- 
tiitk>D, loD^ Worv ilu imlWIflnji) tijul an minUrDcr. lif & 
H'onJ^ Ui« dmniataiKW wlinfi ^tc nm to lui oji^clioii w vf 
two kiniU— nnte-iuital and p<xt riLiud- Tbi< funuiir. tiiL>u]>li 
of miKili ItfM iinporLan«e and wholly aibjoctivo, uro uor^r- 
tlwIeM becMMr^ to hti takfrn into tl]« t^^Aurtt^ Thn litter 
ftre mr«t mlluontUI, nod inay be vubdirided, u liu bevD t&tdr 
into llioM wSidi w «ubjectiv«^ aod depend upon tbo mind 
Qj tnoldeil by prvvioQE cda^tion. and ihoMf whMi in; ob- 
jeciii'ti, and cou^l in tb«f 4^nfM*t ol the rxlrmal wrwM with 

With rcg^ totlietrric iofltjuM^ of anto-utal circiim- 
tftniuy-js ^■''^ i^^y ^ difforco«« of opinion. It l< « dttt- 
cult uatttrr to decide tn how far idcM tn<l tbonf^litj^ ^ro duo 
1o h^rvdilAf^ inilovoLMs, but all udtuit thjit, to it grcitor or 
lo» »tu:tt^ tbi.7 w 'Jv|>e£fd<-Dt ufion tlww «»«•««. U ii 
well kn&wn to the medicsl profcMfron nnd to nliDcat t:\cTy 
body tlul Il)4t chmctoritfics of ^>ar p^yticai vyMtnu, iLdr 
ftiRit, sizc,uid pru}>orttijiw, tbdr diffOMw, dofuraiEliw^uid 
oonatihrtioiu) p«Tiilutriti««. n^ in a ffnot d^groo boradiUi^, 
tnd an deHved not only dirrctly from pvcrntft, bol from 
remote a&o«t4;ra. Tbtee chamcfl«riAi« mjij diApptJir en- 
tiroiy for Mv«r»l gaD0ntioal^ nnd affun nxipptv (alavkm)^ 
or ihoy may be tncc^ Imek tbrou^ every etago, or dt^ree^ 
of a long Une«g«, AH are ftmilinr with thi* btct, ai^l miirij 
fv^ij person oarriee In bis own cociMitotion cvkle^w* of it 
whteh bo can doi Ignom If tlio mlnil in Imt a pn>|Mcty of 
the jAirneitI *.y*Utm, It thonhl follow that H too moat derrre 
o]iMrart«rutice and p«>CQliaritMa f kam intivuital rirmmtfaorA. 
Bat foHuuateiy wo an not oootiiwxl to o /"rinW gronnda. 
TIjc pbt-nomcna of mind t<.-ndiQfc ^o «ilablltb thia tiov ire 
aoateel/ Uaaptttent than ibooa obeerrablo in tlie body. 



VTe wiU ntfxt cocmdor ibe otbcr branch cf *abj«ctivt ib- 
flueiicis wLldi tvfid U> luuM atiii modifv Ituniu ojiJaiOTJA, 
vl&^ tliotftj imphuied lu U»> coQ^ituttoD of tie taxud after 

Wlu^ a pcrww find* bim«elf in i]ic potaiiAAiovi of ah opao- 
iiMi uu mij Mtbji^*^ tiu a)«j bo tvrv iUilI H in uot ultogelUvr 
OWJBg to tlio moro 4ppG4d wbk'h tb<» objeott of ifaat opmion 
tiftTft made to hi^ Kmc^ k «pill alway* :d «omc mcA^rc be 
dofi to tlie ccnditioiii of the wrue« tlwnnAvtvpA, A«£de from 
t]i« pevuL'ju- blib wliit^li Llie iieiiMi», liie inhid} and tlie wbolo 
COQstituiiiin may havo recGivoU froiQ flJtt^-natal inAoooccSi 
difi.'O &IV alikO manj dUtingaiiihing qiuliticft wbieb Iwro 
beoQ aoqaired aifiiM turtlu Tli«e <]ualitJe* a^ of tvo kiud» : 
fir*t,tho««*ffoclkrtg th«^ceW|Or rri/x^ri^of tbo mind; and, 
Kccvud, ihutc niToctitig iU Ttwdt qf a^rrfhtndin^. Tiva 
flret tilue^ eliuply J<.'t4<rni[iiu wbetbor on opbloa dnll exUl, 
wWther it can be eneortiined, ivh-^b^r \hf. mmd ii napftbte 
of rvcifivitig it, Wi? Qf xliU dajr hold tbonHand* of opinkMia 
wUicti tltu aripitiiiU J]J not nwl wbiuL ulbtT rBot* do nut 
hold, einiply bocaoso wo poB^^a tUc intcUccioaJ ccipacftj to 
cotnptY-bmd tbvn). For the lam* nMon Mmo mvm bftve 
id<» tliat otbum uo^cr get n glimp»c of^ fur wniit miIoIjt of 
tbe powor of appreliuadlDi; tliecri. Whtrrv ibt; circuuutiiaoiv 
arc tbv iiamo the objcota of lb« oooccptioiu am consUiitJv 
■ppealinf; to thi^ fcniM'ji nf hvA'U, but tho firnt claw rvo^ivo 
wbil« Uie Mcorid do nut, i^witig to incapecitj. lint, bj tbo 
IncHpacIt; here inentloaed, I do not wish to Imply % d«- 
flcioncT of inlcllwt, I bolforp, on the contmry, timt fltiaoat 
every pcmDi; ii Aompctcnt to comprolkr-Ml the oiost impor- 
tant tntllw of D&tim) (jV^ci, p. &70]k TJic incaioeity b in tbe 
chanuHvr ^rcQ to tbe nUnd bj edocallon or want of oducft- 
Uon. Tbcee tliooglits cwd not enter, not bccaoNi there la 
DO room ttff tJiom, but 1jcoail«o there ia no ji&to bf wb»eb 
tbcj r*n bo adintltod Tlio aveuutt* arv all d^^vd. Olhi?r 
Ii»a ie[i|H>rtutit Difttt«r, of loQ the inerost robbish, lablookioji^ 
op the g&ivwajniH Tbe ecnac*, liko gat« Itocpcn, wiU nol 

SCWECTtVi: iyPLrEW3KS-P0«r-»ATAL 431 

linltn to tJiein; tb«j %r^ Dei!Upi«d bj other thtRfpi; ihty 
din of otbor appliuuite dnjwnfl ilio voice «f >'atun:, and Uke; 

Tbe fcreU atragKte «l^i<?1i tlu ImmAn fvc, in axnmon 
wiUi ovfry oib«r apttds*, Juu bud (o make for iU exlBtt^aiw, 
W tcc!p< dgnni wvry extmiMMu iaSnonctb Tbo etrifu for 
food, dothlDg^ And ^Uer lua *w&)knr«d dp dl otlier «aii* 
ndcntioiu. Han^ eonatuit wArikm sf^iHt Ui« efiemifa, 
dnwn down upon liioi by li» own cror, baa srcr etood JA 
biit wajr wbenevur bo bia M»|>irvJ Iv Uk^ npwuO fur ua 
in^piniion. So long ■« mvi regarded Uie sun tut a |;re«l 
fir*^od, iritli power uid viti <«> di^iroy Ul «1ki fulod to 
do him JunDigu, tbcre waa no bopc of bui puttii^ to in- 
vtviij^tti tlw nduro uud coiiiBttiuliuii of that wnlwiial bvd^. 
Tbu i>roiid thongbts «bicb now fill ha whett we conUrnt' 
pkic if wcr^ ilH^rt^foni doovvl him, nnd tUiM of cring- 
ing terror ti^k (bcir ptu«- Sv ioug u bo b ootnpdInJ to 
ti>U frum momtu^ titl nigbt to obtain uifflciunt tocatuid 
to wear, bo ai[] ni>t itiftfi lu ponder orer drap And weif^ity 
tbcmtti nf iiri<'nci? i>r ptiil-«^phT, jnnth Ima «ain 1i« Ibid time 
to roftd, "tady^ aiid inrntifpUc, wiicrvby iloiw bis tUlAd «U| 
be aiffRkumNL So lon^ «» bvmoii dlitcntkin b confined to 
niAtlitfnaAlca Aiid tbo ■*deul Unp^bgCBt** it cad not be 
_ tp6ctod thia uij tmWy impoH«iil tJkOD|ebt« or taiy willed 
r/iD*ictbOru on vitt! Mibjcctii vill hv iJorvd up m tbv miinl. 
The Boind 1ft aa «Lb«olmdT iiic«pdGitau*d iu tins w«jr fortfutvi^ 
tAJniDg broad or ONtfnl tdoM ai If tl wcm inoompciimt to 
»>nipn4icM thccQ, ftltboneb it nuij have prorcd ttmAt cnpa> 
bic of hoJringtlie mout difli<Milt problemtorof tiufteritig tUv 
taoft abcinuo pbikMofibkd latrKvcaoL 

TLij Hr*i rIom of infloeikocit tbcrvfrtrc. dctennihca tbo 
^nejn/i'^.uil werv^of tlie ideaa,or tboaj^liU, wliirb a pcn»n 
wiU OQioriain, SihMi iafliwneM will uuw«r tbe qatnciuii 
wUtbirr bv Vnowt ntty tbtn^ about cbr fobjvct of • Ibon^it, 
Thk will d«p«ud ttpuu tbo auionut utd diRn^icr ol tb« 



infltfiKAion or rxpArtrnro he hstA tfmrt^. If lie luubtlVB 
aUov«d to grow up wiUtctui uiy iiutnKtion, mac! <xit>i|>oUoil 
Lo Ubur u HXNi a* uJ<l iriii^ugli lo do uu, uu mitti:r Iigw briglil 
mny bo hk gcnlik^ or hov gn?<it liU Ul^u^ lie will iMiUrlAm 
nitnti but onihuiTj idcoa^ If he nMseivc * Iboroogfi aiwI lilv 
eral «(lucatiub, tljou^li hU taU-ntA be uodi>imt«, be will \m in 
pCUMV^on of enUf^ged vit^^n, %u<\ uill bold ialdlli^t njno* 
on iDftuj' Fubj«et« o( iiuportuoocL 
I Tlie »6eoD(l cIbm of mental qiulitfi^ mipltntorl bv tdooft- 
tf6u Aftd o]Tp0ri«inoo, And vhicli dvtvmitnui (liu ^uiMlihf of 
cjiinionf b>^ i^vctiitg tho tiiode ^ a|jpndheiisio]it is not loM 
importADt than tlut juHt coiwidcred- Rot Wtt flnppoM 
lo cidM two tuliida, clifl«H*t:iiI/ ronjitiintAl in IbiK mrpivt, 
>QiTD«T3ded hj the taiuft exl^^ranl obj>cU, »ud irifla^ntvd by 
tbe Bams circniai^tAnciw. Two of li^oM object* 4p[nttl to tLo 
AOTij^ofi of tiotti UiovQ pcnNHUi precUolv jJik^ yd, in mumo- 
qii«ii(% of tbtte diJI«i«Qc«B of eunfll.itulioTi in the t«vi inEodA, 
ja cbv fleOMS of tke Iwo penon«, oro <lcclftrc« ih<mi to Dgree^ 
tho otber docIaiM Iboiu to diiKgnw. Tlicy aiv igualitioi 
which both nre rqnnUj i^ifoiblt; of upjiirbcudin^, bivt ooo 
vifrwci th^rn from on^Fitiind-|>otri1, and the «'tf^erfn>rnftnotlicr. 
It ijt«vld<<iit that vilhtrr one or both miut 1)o vrong. A«on« 
ricw* thom, two tJ?rn]S ngtw* 4"d Hie n.<«ulliii^ pro|>wiliuay 
cxpnwing ld» jud^nonl, U ftffinmiiT^ Afl the otbcr views 
theiA, IhtT iame t«nm dittafi^rec, nnd hiA jndgiaent io nngntivo. 
Of coun@, there luiut bo Komo miftaki^ in the prociMi on th« 
|>«rt of one or both. Bnt it u duu to dvfi-(^t> lu tlie mind or 
in the orgviM of towe. Tbe qullticd in qnurtiou, n« por- 
oetved tn the two objovr*, nrr ftngntjcrd by boEii niindd^ IliA 
differanee of vfilnion ariw* only i3^>on the f^Mii^m of Uieir 
Identity, U it oiw quality mledri^ in botb objorts, or ar« 
there Iwo dbtinet qudkl<fif Th«^« arv quofttow for tlie 
intfiltoct The an«wcT d^ f^^Dds not ii|>dn ibc irtiib of th« 
matter itM-lf, but upon the manorrr £d which it apprtfus to the 
iidmL If t»o1h mind* wt-r* pyrfoot, of cni^r^r- tii^rr co^ld \m 
but one ofdiiJoji, and tlut in lioxciony witb tlie tiwtb. It 



Ihcrvfore re*o1rf» ilnelf, ift&r all, into a 4)iiOTtioih tji eapidtf 
uf l]i« miixL Ikt IIm mMiU] iiHapacity vlilch cuuwfotto 
or l)Oth tn fi>fin ft wrong o]>tnMB raipecting qudlitii* wtuch 
thcjortMltj TiATC flppivbezided Esi ATCfjdlflBraiitlhiiif from 
t(i«t iucapaciljr wlikrTi renden tliem IncapAl^^e of dutoctinj; 
th« qu&litj at all, apd tl>«r«f«rei, of roarm% Imping oo opj&bn 
about It, aff tn tliu liuit c«m cdUtfiilured* Thv prawnt ouo 
dcpcMwh np«in thi* 'jualll/ of the rnfml aa warring ii> form a 
jitilKUiL-nl upuii tiling known ^ und nnt iijh-iti l^ poir<<T of 
llie mliHl tu aciuirv m kiiowltdgi; of itio tbiogt trpoo wliiclt 
tn form mi^h jiul^TncTit. 

TK-n^ t<M% miirli ilepen<^a npon the ediicattoB and ft^ 
viixm eJtpvrieiK* ss tvnding to moM lAiil faaluon tho mind 
ibidf> K ccrtniD rotim of oiliicatiion id chUillwoiJ, orjiilici- 
hihI on to minlKHnl, {fretteuiioi; mm fhJe oalj of a ^iiorml 
Sdui o>TiniaiitIj u> tbo mind and cotnplctrljr «hiinJng Mil ^o 
other, will cHTtK all qartfi^wi relating at a]] to that idfu to b« 
ftofwwixl nnifortiilv in oov way, Tbv pdIimI W h tiai tlial 
waj. It la m Mifofted tl^ ft ta incnpablo of givtng tnj 
wtif;bt 1o llio othtt view of tho pmiwiiioD. It w not bo^ 
canac tlie inldtocl U itwif wMk or imbfdlr, iiviih«r » it 
bc-OiUM tlw ujbject bus iivvei- bwa pF«fiOiit«d to the niJDd, 
Ii io »^ldv Iti ooDWqBCMWOf tbe prcnliar <|nalitT which lb« 
niiiKi bju mcfdriMl from c^ivflliotti wbieb intfapafTitnl«B it to 
take IQOM (ban oDr viuw of tli« matter in qacvtlon. 

Tlio etteat of tbe bAuHiCtt of cditmiion, or t^r' urnnt of 
U.maffwtlii^bwnA& opliiiotu^ia not gnnenkllvj tbink, Mlj 
Aj^pnyjabcd. Tbe want of aoaDdedMcatiori it alw^ri aan^ 
up l>y a nuaa of unimportant and ofteo Injnrifnii bdittfj. 
'X\i<a miiHl will poaMM about tho aamo ik«mb<?r of ldoa&. 
I^QOMtieai d^tonnlnoA thtlr (lq>tb* tbcir Tnln^ anrl IhMr c^n 
nctn«iK Svrronnded, aa tbe rt«dcr probably Ik bj all tb* 
inloenoDa of civtliaitloii, acMutoBied to bcvinff bitc^UiKeol 
conrorflftlinn. to railing a fnrintjr of bnoka and r«rrpnt hte^- 
Btnrt, ind b-- 'ty impitnrTtM m bn mii^il lltr fr>unila- 

thru fir tt til -! I of kfwwleaige, it will be difflt^uJl for 



lum to itnopno (ho «bjt!Ct pvrrrtj of idc«A into whtcli Um 
grt^a mh£a of tliu Luidau nktv aiv fruuk. 

Lcl him snppow for t inoin<?nt oao CjcrQrc>e of bis infonnft- 
tion Ut hftvo bt^n alwAyH withbi^ld — iht. in nf rrjKlitkg. Scrp- 
po«e he could tcoC noO, did not know one L-ttcr £rotu Ui* 
oUmt. Ilovr much wonM he knowH ^Vhia woiild ibow be 
the ^baraolorof bi* thon^iiur Jlow innrh i>f hi» firwcnt 
knowli'it^ li&d b**pn ilmvod uhhiu* ilirwilly or indinrcUjr 
fnom v«&[lingV Tor it u rol »mp]jr wbAt be hu hbi^elf 
rvad. If b«i biul itcvor rvtul oar i\ihig, tJirvo fourths of ibo 
!dua» (Icoivuii from other ikjuiwci w^uld biTu buen to, bim 
uii>nrfrl1fgib[i*y8nd ho would Dcv«r have coinpf«bcnd«d ttrnn, 
Ileni^ vitb rr«pret to all t)^t« h» mind vo&id hnvv botrn a 
totftl bluik. And Uicre; ire tboiuuidc imoa^ i» iu ihi* oo&< 
dition. But tborv are tbLjuumde ii>on, vis^ kiv^ noea, ia 
L ftr lower condition. 

Again, jtptyiol ^IncjiticR powerfully aifGCU thcoonilita* 
tion 4i( liiu Uitud* r^advHu^ it inia|Kiblo vt cutdrtttiuiug uer- 
talo opmion*'. Afialreadriviii&rked, the maw of our ittCfl 
n^ver Atop tc qnoMion what thej are taught to be 1ro& 
They ree«lvo it u^tt Ibo autliorit^ of tlio leader, uilliout 
preetn&b^ that lio eould be in error. Artd It okakee no 
difierence how impT«ib«bl(^ <v unrvftunubln a doctrint^ maj 
bo. Id tbia rt»p(«l the Initnaa rncc prcaeista a tmtjr ttoo- 
derftil f^pcMtado. Wc tuid mun boltoving uvL*/]r thing;. Tha 
moM imtlonal, controdictcvf, and abMird propf^itiona are 
belleredi in the i!j«atc«t <!noeHl^,bj wbulu n*liona« It dom 
notfioeiu p«f«tbl^*if t^n*^ vctv to trvtbo experiment, to eanj 
thu matter furthiT limn it haa ai^iuaUj* irooo. 

There are ecrti^n fienenl h«1i«tfa, nWj^ns Innftntion^ and 
priTii-jplr* whifih h*vr an t^ximnWr wMpn, And inllnencn tuI 
tniillitudn of |wopl«, i^xtt'iiditij; over gTvftt anM* of tafriWiy 
and loot; |>eriuds vi tJm^ fUEag ibe mcotai oonstitutiom and 
luting it a iK^rni^nrtit anil powrrfn] hia^ m a parlicnUr «li- 
rwTtion,m a* to rrndtTii proof j^iniit nil coTitmrj iaHn^cicee. 
TLtoftc vait aecnUr opfnfow are no more Ukd^ to bf tno 



tiijm tbe minor iiolioiu 1o which I liave rDferted. It b ft 

it tnUxakit to Mi|>fMM« ihuX a cnttoiu, nnpri or inttitntioii 
ft UA^fdl oDc hrrtiaic U hu come down from remote igo«, 
or thit a iiuxini fir jvopovitioa b Crue becaosc vbole mtioitf; 
evtn like mor^l dvniMd,liaviifroiittiineimrueiiiodalMV«ptQd 
it. "O ru^i £o<«f fieJnvAiHif ^a^i^ if b iiuxim whidi h>>lofy 


It Ia not trao th^r, if tlie <:iifltom vfiTo detrterian*, or iHe 
inKxito tiiiMHiDil, ibo eipenoirce of w manj^ poople for lo 
minjr ngis vrould Iiavo duico^rcd it. TbU rvMoouxg ooght 
to bo good, bui imfortuiittlvljr it b not. 

Tliert trd fti»«dor ooctflkLoniliotis b«ed on die cooetitn- 
tion of tlie hntn«ii mitid whicli in ino»t cwn no4 oul; dcvtroj 
mi Rf«no tbu ubtinf naKiniu^^ In poittl uf fkc^^thv vont 
^eortooMi tlie inual p«r«IofouH UiHiitntiout ud tJi« fftlvcst 
TttAxInM APe tlw oU^c«c and tho moit onivcrAl, ani] tln?^ con- 
tinue; ti^ bun the jufl|cnl<^^t And dcnuigo the iatdkot of aU 
within the racii vf thL-Jr iutluvu^e. 

Xlitu niu<^ for iLoAO cabjf>crtiro poO-nAtal influeiME* 
_wMeh pi«df4«r«ii&n tJMi ^oatitr nf tn op*nioa nnd«^j^voii 
•JLtenul circanKtanoa, Ami (h» compleiM the coiiiidvntioo 
of nihjoctiv4!» or ci>iii»LiliitM)ttA)f ccindilionn 9h Affoctbg bumui 

O^ftftitv InfiHtnoe^ — Tt khuuha to oon^iik<r H^ ohjoet- 
iro raoditMHM, or dn;:izDiU»ce«, tlul ia, the intlDetiM ol (ho 
.■etna] euuUtrl vf tW WDa» wtlh cil^mAl ohjtctn or tbcir 
.qn^tiee. RlBlnff fron tachnioJ ddiI vuc4 into gennnil nnd 
fhipulnr Un^of^, ire Riny di^noiuFnAtd tblfl InflneiicOi taleti 
in ill \\w boAfinp^ buukan npencDOO. Tba thcanr of ihn 
ArEitkiJ foruntlon of optnioa* 1^ ibo method ol uj<eltt«>o« 
La» already Uto flmtoil ('v/>ra, p. 423], awt vre Uve out; to 
iglAflictf At tli4t gmutAl vStd* 

Tbo iiiteUe««, «*Dr A^fin And bnjij, i* mniJantly comptu^ 
io^ t]i« tmprattJoQ* nndconcv^omvhk-hil r<«i;ir(« throng 
Hilt («»««. AMUminjif thAt tkc A«ii«e «to «uiB(.*lvt^tl>' reiiii«d 
|o penMATfl t^ «oatHt of Uitto nstwiud ot(}ccU^ and «Wo lint 


0]>tyiOK^Ti:KTtABY UKXHf^ 

iW tTiitid If; olFoctcd With ccrtnio pov«tv and diipoiidoai hf 
w[tif<lii upon cocnpui«iD, it forma ft oartain jwlgiiHiiit n^ 
'•peoti»jt th«m, «re tuv« ill clie MMiitiab to miko npiUk 
^KjMrictioo, In tbiw coinpiKD^ tli» conovptkHM nomcttUriJjr 
fcinnvd bi tlw niind, a inm of jixl^ientM, aflirisutrrc or nmg* 
tttivv, arc Aofi^il t<> «bt. Eacb mv^ jivdgment «w>tiliii« 
in ir» tarn h n^w c!iriii«<nt of Tiiciit^l iiciion in iTve 4liji;ht]^ 
dif^n^nl forri) of r^ti^j'-i nation, Ui^ rtwU of wliich U klway* 
uriotlior juilgtiKTUt in llic fvnn d ft o^^imtiisiiiit fruu the itiny 
i-ecdin^, ami iltifl muy dgain bo efmilftrly cviployeil, and k> on. 
Tljoftv jndgiT»rntft» fmm wbaiov^r MvrcQ dorivod. JU«-oar 
oprnjODB, Tlicj Diiiy li(T truQ or falw, Msooinlmg to citlivr, 
fflrfft, Ibo rvliAbtlily of (bo veiuvett and tbu mind In tbo le- 
epectlro prtKo^ees of JLidj^inji; tfao object by tbo BensrtJon, 
and tlio BgrmtH^rrR ftr iMmgrt^mi^nl wlirri* Iwrt obj**T» aro 
comp^rud; or, Bccoad, Ihe cTcin^wi md f urcibl«n<lH <jf tba 
ooutact. For, It dio aan^&t be tvo Uiuii for Uiu cApen^noe^ 
. ILc latlCT will be defective, or. )f thff mind be too dull lo 
maVe a jnat <viim|VtHnon, the- jiidifmrnt will Ik* rrroArtmu. 
And, on tbi* othvr Wiiif, if tlio vxpvriori<^ he oocifuscd ami 
Tientralixod bv a mjLte of 43011 ttjinporury contacts, ita effect 
will 1>c M> fnr loAt FVR to n?hdfrr it imrrlinblr, or, if tt 1^ 
Utu fi?ebl<T iiufli<*ienlly to iinprrvi tbo hltvo of mtnu^ thd 
coQceplion wiD tw eumMj)uudiirK^> itak, fleetiiiig, and nn- 

BiDrc, nov, it if tlic cbicrf n^qiiiidic of nn opinion tbtt It 
b» o^rrec't, it it imporUnt, id Mvkinj^ to nvote one, ibal xhfv^ 
pmiO][i]f» «bould bo aridenbx.'d. y^xi ait«r tbo mtaMiidi- 
in^ of Ihat koon and rofirtod naKr of tho wuaca and tbr mind 
DcoL-nury to rvndo' fbu ntwl dtlicnlc n>r/.acte and iufliwiiccft 
eof^tjsablir, and diHtihctly avaiblde to tb« Boiwl in fomlii|; 
jad^TTK^bi, which ia tb« fin>viooe ol eaHy ffdoraiJon ancl 
mvntaF dbt'ipTino, it m nxirt nvcontfy to bring ilw prupi^r 
InfliiGiK'e !d a difitinct and nninW«d condlifon aod vitb suffl- 
ctcnt for«o to boar upon Oio seni^ to b« affcrtcd. An opin- 
ion faucd opon mch mateariali can not fail Uf be If no ami 

sfAKCPAcruBE or ortKiov. 


VngBc, uu«cttUxl ootiou* uv about m btd whca 
mm a« acioid envn.* Tbej oao not reeolt In tivututfl 

A^am, a jnd^icut tatt^ he importAiit of anim|>ott«Tit, 
ftocunliug lit Ur vj(p«Tie]ic«» upofi vliick it U fvuudvij &m 
mftdo b^ rajiulile or bj wortbU«i oiaM» WLaum^f tw iIm 
vfljiio of tKo <Mttfnd tnlliintoc, it will Aflnrt tlic uritM: «r«o>il- 
Lug to it« /orc«, ami, in tlio ftWnw oi qjuJuJ imprxjauun, tba 
iut«]l«ct wiEL b«ixe Apon w<»rUil«M 4Mio«i And vill |:v uq work 
lof tbciP up f&to o>iicQpliDCie, jiulgtnMils, &nd o^iidiuloDfl— 
will nunnfj^rtniv ihon^biT iden*, i>p«nion« nnt of ibom'— 
tfiuti^b wbun ct>inplH«0 Uio^ uv not of tlfitf kiiut voJwL 
[Vrt}jtmiH>r«. not goljr vill tbo miod wotk up eucb iiMtwrfBl 
into opjnwnt, bat iboM opmion*, Jikc ftU otLcn^ will brp-ct 
dftiirrii, and tluxtt deitinai will prorcpl i«4i(»u, fo tliAt a uliolo 
life nE4v bv detoM to iiMl«tt fTivuliiiu aod (hJUs.f Tlivm 
«xiiC9 in tfodaty ui iUuAtnllon of Uiia tnitli, wlikh ift imi dvor 
md BRivomUjr ob««rrAtik ibot 1 tiiay be panlonod for m1- 
dnciug it ri k c^Um mnarkod iJint women tns, m 4 ntUt, 
more frtTolou* and triflin|c tban men. [toin^ tiio irnlh, it 
may ju^ wnll bti f|K>kcii, itnd iJtc czploiuition iriQ prorie a «iii1ll- 
civt^t TtnJiffttion «f ibo box; for it will be fooind tlial ll^Ir 
idea* VQ 4tx«(4l5 u nQcU Imt imporljuil thtn thowof miTn 
w tlicir pxpeHtriMCfl btd Ken wufnl. WIvon tbg onlj olijpcto 
Willi wlijfrh iromno comos m eotitact aro tboio of tli€ kttdieu, 
tlio aarvATj, tbe dmwinf:-rocm, and tli« wardrobe, bnw 4ba1l 
ibv b« ejcped«d to haw bnwl idcat of tif<^ the wodd, and 

■ "dda* ivHi|:ll nrlid u crmt ^mcm «a ««dlUiaBi'* 0'Bh"«a Chp- 

Il4 rJvHMtfw af lUr liltB t««ll M Hflu4* llw tElEfll uf fatfAM^ lad iht 

iMi ll lMw l f m— 'W to gjfcfc Uf <w biU gt rttA. nflTMMVa Vlbtvoa 
■D aril ■■filial u Ik? \tn. , . - TW bvH» »M k — niliJy anl*^ akj 
«01 mV* ib««lH] tfrfihv IM lu knittWdpi Oa f«bl«r M Of TVMilaV 
«! >wa« «nri ili» tnUvt Am fplitt «f ■jn^aWika" <nrti»<rWi, * JDkmj U 

-OMalM «■ flK" rwuk |Jni» p. Uj> 


OPiyiON.-TtRTlARY 1if..\m. 

mjilv. Sliv Klu w«it Hud liuudlod culinvy vtcuHU* c-hinji, 
and tJUerwjre, anil dhu baa au JdoA of Uie<m. In tiiv atievace 
oif ot.hcr idouv, *ho will think Abavt tUrm. tolfc ftbont ihom, 
li4YC bor whole mind nhnnrbwl with them^ The mind nintt 
act) lidd tliu IB uU llu* tniUvriul it Iumi tu od ujxjil II » the 
eamo of drees ; hor piml i# engrosMrd io dniis, EiDci> ft k bor 
muct importnnt o1>jc-<<t of u^pcricntK^ If joq wi4i tn mako 
1i«r forukti it, jan munt ^ive 1i^ BomethErifc i-Ia4 1o thirik of. 
G\vis mxnao an inlerwt in gr«&1 bubje«t»> and sli^ wit] kk>ii 
jibim^Jnn #ma11 oni^c. ]f ^hif knovftfi tnurh nliotit ih<? great 
mtfo (if liiHforv or of hiT owti age iiA *Hc chfti nbout btr 
ti{^1^hbr>if^ »]ie would ee&M* 1o talk about tlio Intter ind Ulk 
flboiir tbo former. TmicIi lior ^iCJO'ioCh pliilo*opJiv, law, |ti>I»- 
tirw, tuul jiya will dp riiiicb to piit uii vnd to pwiij>, tUitdfir, 
wid fmiliionwoTHhip. 

1U[iRtntVin« ol tlnft VmA raiglil he rnnltipIS^ Appb^ 
th.9 vame pH^r^iplit to c^mu limit Iiv. Th^tr Tirfgidtb imil dcptll 
of U\wM will cum>]K>nd to llivir i<.\periem<cjt. IWlio onv 
wblcb in jtbiit fiiii fmm nil ^mmiinicafTon with iho ootsldft 
w<»rlii, awft^ from rftjlmarlB or tJ^l^^grapb-liiWfli d«fknv»d of 
^hooU. mannfadoritw, and othur Jiv« c[itcrpriM»-^th« motn- 
b(ii» of it w'fll Iw fotiud to havu correapndtitxiv Erirtroio* 
Bcribod idwa. Thdr totni wiD appear lo ihem tlio wliolo 
world- They will br iw mn(7h intoit^«b^ in the ronrtnioiion 
of a foot'brtd^ fl« ino«.t of lut arc in tbal of a trnaaoodoti- 
nuTiUl riilr^Jad, They will W a3 ppofoumjly tnovvd by tiw 
nffaira of a horoTi/rb a* otbCT pcoplp arc by thoftc of n nation.* 
Thej can t>iiiiV only about thav xhtngn of wbii^b tbcjr know 
•gnaotbtng. Hul lh«y haro only tlic fiuiitciit cODcwption that 
ft nation oxbt^, nml pcrbapa mar have n«ver Imnl of Ili« 
Old ■\Vorl(l, T have ecwi commnnitiw In tlic Vnito<l Slotai 
in about tbn condili^jn. In fad, thron^hotit the Sooth* 

• "Te Ihlnk ih* ni»lk cAVkk of juar bouriC 



approvimmctl very aio^ly lo ibk oooditioQ. llicir Stot* 
wft* thp bi|:tteftt p&wer tlKt^ cotilil to mado to nxxigDlpu. Aiwi 
rn;iny i?( ibtftii woaiM <1r>iitilkML hare bcco viUli^ U> flglit fgr 
it m for iti^ir ^^juiiltj if told lb»l > foroign powfTWM \ikt\f 
In fnviilo it. It wuB my eupvHcnw, on Ofio occmod diintig 
Ihjit atmjtf^^t 1'^ '''I ^"^^^ *^^ * MKnmunlt}' iiot ft iiun^Jtvd 
Diilui from Ui« national rnpifftl, vhoso <«nditinn v» m bi>' 
til^-liM ibnt Uicn; wm but ooo p«wtt Among Un^mTAn^l tliAt 
A foan^ woidiHt ^^" oonld t«ll the vntau of n. binlE-iwt«, 
And tlkcii r tlioug]]^ liow pnrpotfcnMA it v-ui to Imagiiie «uc^ 
t>«Ii>^ Apftbic of mmmittirif; traiSOD nguinf* ft govcniment 
nliout vbieli tliov kui^ leta» tiMn »<nDc childnrti ai live vein 
of aK« t But tbwfl ftiv Mgn^od cww la tbe niidrf of ir g^^ 
ftnUj fnl«Ulgri:rt pMiplc. Tli« nuio prioclpfo imy be nppliod 
to nniioiu amt ww. Th« SKIIoolff of ibo upper Nilr dilTcir 
iaimAMirablf frvio lliij tmUglkt4^(lcd mtiona of £iimpe ft&d 
Atncrlca, but not tnor^ thau tboir cia'uuifrtani.*c» ditfer If 
W0 could m^or- tlvffir roadltSona iti «ii*erj^ rmpt^ rtvtnod, 
«« might bi> Mire tl\aX their UoM, thoiifi>tiU^ ATid chanden 
wonld bo abw rervrwd. Tlie Europeftn ha» Uie adnmlagt 
of okillfed cahnro and vdarctko, of high qtinlltioft fahiritod 
from hb an**vtitir^ nf Uio irrittrn httcorr of hii ru*« «nd 
mce* fur tbottftod* ci yvan. of ooromniikaljafi aod 

itvnHmno «^th all Ui* urarld, of «ckiicOh art, and Ifteivliarie, 
of Ubrarlgi^ iioiv«|Bp«n» nngadiiefi. Do ia sntronndcd bjr 
fofiTu a p«rt fif ihr p»t and ih* pdMenL Tlio lofthmt 
and ihv ^aum tnith« are nncomcioudy poitiriaic into 
Ua mind, In fact, he u Ute product of ihe oomUitod ele- 

iQDta and uillncBoaa of a broad aod adruiced drilisttioK. 
8hi1nok, on the oantnirj. ia eonfkntd to tbn aar^e wilda 
of inlcfJor A/noa- Hii hijiin»ffO >■ bw)r «apaUtf of ex> 
[lug tlw ooatvoat dwires ; l!t«ntiirB U iiiiluiowti, as U all 
iboUc coram BnicnUon. His hirtor^ b confined to hk 
and la ft ixMro Iradition, enlaf^ng aod cTmpnmtfoj; 

Ho a tnytli aa it roo«dc0 into tbo gusL Ho Iiaa mo Art, noi 

OPnnoy^T£RTIilftY HEjU;8l 

emn tW nf f nmuhing cTolKinj^ f<ir tii« body, luul todfvd bo 
dov* Ti<H iicrO it. CltuiBti^. BuiL, ^};«^44tiu4i, ail the comlitiot^ 

GsporioiftDe. All bie idcns be/ond hie imniclinio phj'AJod 
w^ntn vm men? (xinjift'lunnA or flap^ROitioiu. In & woni, ItiA 
idow nnd opiiiii>nB cutnupviKl uUoJuitdv villi ki* cxperMiKa«, 

AdU this k Uie iulWiiblij rultt. In f&oT, It V4i> uot bo 
crUi«fwbi\ hinec it U ih&e lattor upon vhidi all iiIvra aiu 
bM6d, ftnd wiiluiiit wbic^ ao itiMii mnld t^\M. lloaoo, the 
i>n1j- jHMiiblti wuy to enlarge tliv ep^vrv t>! niou't tfaongbU 
u lo fcfvo a hi^^^r, ^^^^ ttj^iiJ, Hud Lii-jn» valoalk d>M of 
cxporiencc* njmti him. In other word^, tJw drvUfTwtanoea 
wInVh aro ia pHhin^c lii--^ u]>inu>ii« mujit be rjircifiillT Ml^'t^t 
%iLH<!d« and dkUltxl b> tbuwc wlio Jifv iiit«nyt«<i in fiarinij 
him tJuU^rt^iii eorraot and useful oplulona. And this eui bo 
dono. It 18 aifikts Idon thftt men's opintonaooriie by clia&cd 
and «t rvixluiu* XJjejr com« wliun tlivj ajv oauwd^ ind Ui^ 
fjo JQ«t vbal thoj are made lo be Tiicj ob^ a law like 
flll Dtlior nAluni] pbonomena, asd llini: law may bo known, 
Tbo Uv/y of the mind tnjiy JE»t oa v^-II bo rcdi]rr<l to « i^j. 
euw and |fi<( iulu ptwtlcLii luw au lb« laua of (>Uv-uiu;itiL« or 
of lijJrwInika. 

ThlHAphyni^ 1)a» l«0){ Immtii rcffaTdad at a aort of idle 
putimn, a bmrjch vf b^wcuUtivv* pUUuvopJiv. daTiaed for tb« 
bouAt of iht loTonk of U» ttl»tTii«o and tho ideal «-h«ci tliojr 
bftT^ tunkrnp' (taefiO to employ ibeir riiffld*nTrf>nt»ftrpprtiftp» 
M a ineaiH i>f nwntal diw[pJln« for thu nimiccd vtmlenL 
And indeed it baa veil mctiicd zhia poi*iiinn amoag llio 
v&n<)aA bran«lioa of e<4ni^tzon. It Iiaa, iu fact, boon ^at It 
hw Iwcn i^allod. ^^fl buridl« of tliL*uTi«H." Bnt pAjnebn3nfic7» 
wbkb i« tlio motl^im nttme of meUpUjdfw, rtuifiad m a tme 
^oivncie, and Icr the «me pmrpoM diaC other nBUceee are 
fitiidi<>rK VIE., wirJi a v\tw te ila appluntion in wajv that wjQ 
adruico hnman u-«lf«rew n>»y be t^i^hled aathe baAfinpon 
wliicb »wf*>1ocT i"usl ifDDW(lJat«1y w»U ^iho*?, wbcn properly 
sodcntoad, it rvruls to man tho oouno lu nuuA piinQ9 Ui 




to by fhe foiiiid>£ioti in jut aad ofikipid mIcm tor 
botb morU votiduoi an^ jrmgitMivo aclion. tTMftil idew 
uii<l o^Dioat, lihc all olber OMful thiiif^w mniiE b^ to s great 
exUciii^ ardii Ul; llwy tnntt Im manv/^^uiW bt-forv Ibcf 
wiU loee tbcir prtwnl clionctoriilMM of uoai^tlttblo ^' mw 

£tbical AMD Drvtvtc Ormov*. 
To tile two principiil cbmc« of dctib0ratlT«, or ideo-aiotor, 
actioDflf tUi, cUiIolI hciIoiu noA dyntmic ijrtioitA, oomsponil 
two ^i-orml oliAW« of iiiuu md ofiioioiu. Tbne mouUl 
bLtUs uudcf lie, aud an Uio Inaoit^iftlt) cuilAl AQtuceduiit* i>f« 
tlio bodily AcU. ll tlii;n:ffitv dop« po rioloMo to bn^ago 
to appl.i^ line aaine ttkmet to t)ift nutlivc^ v to lli« acHom 
itwntAcltcc Uon raiertfeia «tJuicttl acftliiDonU gv monl Idev. 
TI»ey «b» bold prvgnMivi^ viewi, EUikd optoloDa «sum 
oUiIcal a;.-Uuiis and dynamk opmion« raaM dynamio accioM. 
In tho ayniJk^iii^ cnutmi-nt here made of tbo vubjcfl, it wa> 
necMMry to oomitlvc Ibu clirooolofckBily blvr (>roci;w> flnil, 
but UiQ LogtisL] ilvpandvnco ainl dvfinlte onler ramain undM' 
tarbod, Wi? baT« iww to look mom rJowly into ibn oob«- 
live vlfi!cU of ofHDiona, ami art left tto oboice bot to Mudy 
Ukem in tb«v tvi> Uodiog anpouU, tbe utb&oal mul tlie djr- 

Etbii^ ApEtitonfl eoitobe ol intelleetail Jndg^tnenla r^ 
ifiMCing tbe tilTecItt of artioii* upon Uia 1)«|if>iii«ni of iv-Jf or 
ofborv, Tlwy ^rv orlglnaJIj in tbv natai^ of prvdicCtoBo. 
Til* i*ttixl tnnal foltnw tbo act. Bill 'm a hit^ jitoportkin of 
tlie oaaua tbf* |>brnninifiioii baa ooeurred ao often ind Its ctfoct 
pror«4 ao nnifurm that lawa Iiato hM«i foraiiiUtod baaod 
npun ibia unifom aea^Dencft. Tliear Uwm, lakvn togulbvr, 
oontftmtc tbD mnra] oocfe i»f h^fit ly. In M far, tbo proma 
bsflfricily nH«inilfli< oav^ B»l it in fnsad that ibo pbflDoo- 
«na Uuia capal>1e of oertuti |)4vdj<4ion km very mdncted. 
TWy do not oxtvod lieyottil tbo OMat lintple oa i w i AttooipCa 



to gcucniuw monl law* Iiav« onulV carried them far Ifoyond 
tbo ounUitMU qI rttlubilitj or tiniwiulitv. TIm btn^at 
mooevfnl gDiwnilintioa yvi mulv ii pn^blr thni of Cfarifltt 
lliAt mcfi Hlumld do lo othen « thcj- WMild wijib in liave 
oUier) Ju to tWrn, whbc^ ra aiinplj sn im|iro<fraimt npua 
tlie Coufutrlan nik, Uu^hl aU« bj' IfilMt And probaLlj bj 
(^miliot, of vlmm CltnOi took Icmodi in Bcbrcrv jihi]<i«0" 
jthVj the former of wUani OMUicfiilAd tho nmo Uw in tJto 
ncKMivr forrii(vi>l (, p. lO)- 

EUuob] U«>, for pocalur maMdw rosiduig in t|j«ir eioep- 
lional application, Iiuti; gcouvmllj been bid liovn In 'Jic ttO' 
])cnlii^« tnftttrai] of tlio indicacire form. Tbc i»rlj^ alt4.'inpt, 
rvfurrnl to in ft provioiM ohftptor {if^prc^ p. Sr^T), to afflliHte 
morel* lo rv-ljgionr '^^i ^^^ ^'^ objwt of kodiox vn^bt 
to lliB \aXi^t, fauffid •Uiical iorwtigaiurd lo jirMuut (Im itaolu 
of their rcfttorchoA m the form of rommiuiik of mptarUtr b^ 
ioipi^pnd thin pTw?tir« buoantinned eT«ii down to tJbt^ fihioi) 
wrKiiip»<jf iiKxlvra tiiiK«. ThJiilo^ftlic farm of ]>uUictt- 
tioD^ vfbjil«T«r may litvo bvon il» £aptiriontj< In foftner ngw, 
doiiibtlrA trivlit jLt iho |im>rnt Itmo Co rcnidor cibinaJ ntibjcctt 
npngntui to llbcnl minda; and luonlfioioTHw vrrittm wrwid 
do » gtwU tterrico to Ili« cavsc of murulitj if thvv huqUI n> 
vive the entire code, aii^l prevent it in tho form of alniplo 
propo«hioiu^ upportdd h^ ibc real pron^ of thoir objocttvo 

In tho eonftJHon rcfrrrcd to ^ r«lagioiu «Uh ethlce. it ii 
not to bi» vocid^jrvd nt th»i the lino botwoen moral doctrino 
aad rvli^ioiiB d^i^^ma ehould f«U Ut lie drewn, kdiI that. 
Re religioua inAiitiiiionit cAiStii^, And the mW enforvln^ 
tliem bc4am4T ^c][m}ly elinunttrcd fn>n) tbe inur^ code. c«r* 
tain of tho )e4Ut objuctioiuible one* Hhould clin^ to it, uid 
bot to a ^renter or leaa extent* oonfoiin(k<l wilh tmljr monl 
roliM. A nMnArkal>le eicemplifir^on of thi« teodonej la to 
be fotiDil in tbe*^«aUod ''Tun CVrnimandmcfita," orllubi^w 
deeaJogoe. Thete tc^i jojcnvtiomt am comtnonlj Mtppoeod 
to onbody all tho fuiidameatal moral preoeptA. Tbe/ are 

cosprsios OF MoiiAia wit« RKi-ioroM. 4*3 

thoit^it of from ifioir monl nuLcr tliaa frusn Ui«tr Jtill^ms 
fuifvf^, aikI to vioUt^ A&jT of lt]«cn As regtrdod m covninitting 
11 iru>nil «tn, Bnl, if w« exioninQ tliom clnpr-Jr, t(t> vhill ««« 
UuLi iiuly n\x of tbcm poMW nty tMcni cbmcUr &i all— > 
nd oiKT of Umvc, the tvatb, eioepl in bo far u Jt udreJ; r«- 
it^ntea tb« MabsUnoe of the MTc^ih and oi^UitiA ft ^rufum 
/uifunty b«inft diroetod againA a menrftl i4*to bwtead of m 
fonn of ftction. The fxni tunr un pum-J^ rvligiuu*, uid iiJi- 
hlu to be dllTcnQl In <|]Jlert-Dt peJigionfi. Monlitv o.jUiiit/ 
huM ndi]iiag to do wilh m<iT>otlici»n or Idolatry, wiiirb arc 
tb« Biilijcclji of the 1ir«t iyei>. Tlie tlurd fortii<b ihe min tue 
of ^0 11U110 of tlio pmKulsr deiLjr wonUpvd by itie U*^ 
hrow» ; ublto ibe fourth enfomce tbo ofavrvuico 1^ Uic Uc- 
braw Sflbb&lh, a ccrcniKinjr of thAt notioo 4I0110. The fifth 
«nj»^inii ftlifl] piHy, *hich i» the priimrv ]ir3ftri|ilft of Cofifo- 
ctiuiMu. Right Mild prvper wiihin e^rljun limttn, il w c«r^ 
t&ialy carried to daiMging «ocmmc« id Cbini, and probdijij 
in mjuxy odi^r roDiilriraL 

TIk? HppatmKoe of tbui prvccpt m io itmrr sntlioritatlve 
rnr^ml uodii« Iu« dotilrtkit* duab rnudi to render tlie popnkr 
uiiJi p'tAmlin^ of ilu n?oif>r\>oa] rvbtlotu of panntt >iid obD* 
Arvn n-TifiMod and flJoicKiil CThiMmn km mniUj hmaght 
into fbo world tliroogli an act porformad pnit-ly for tiio 
gntilbiilI'Mi of n vr^Mt.tl diflfrr o<n the part ol the p«raatlr 
and wilboot anj tbiKif^ht whatcror of tKo oonaeqimoai. 
nnd4>r unrli circQmMaiieea the chtid co«ld bA ntidf^r no 

tlbte oU^ation to tbo puvntn for any vvppowd mtr\' 
TUo diiM k pn»toi*tcd« DiioriKf^cd, and oared for b^ 
thtf patvnti tbroiigli tb« oparatfon of aAOtlior aligbtl; moro 
dflrivtiirp inaliact, but not w> dcrivtiiro but that it U 
fi^iind ID nKirlT an rrrtobnrtoa and manj mrortvbnUea- 
If tbo perfomiafico of toA tkcia rebuilt* a BMrittee^ tbb 
1» moro than oAf«C by tin* pk-afun? of gnilfviti^ thia Id- 
atinct JfoW9r«r livable lli« life of a man mar be, be 
aan in no way ht undur any apouial obbfcatao^ to Uioaa who, 
in obodia«c« lo hlbd n^ttural foroM, havo boaa iiDpoUmi to 


brin^ him ictto ibu woHd aniJ prottorrc Iilm to tlii* offs. of 
e^f-tlependcoco. A 0:111 f^axer Incem^Mencj \b olxca fwutd 
in tMtftk vthrra thn*^ who U-liovv^ nKM #trongly in tht debt 
of Glial gni:itoik- to iMramtN JioLd at the Ame time tbit lifi? 
brings gt^tvr eril tbui ||;ood. If aucb vera Uie c«a«^ vn^ 
might ¥ro wc0p tt hinlis titd langh M fsnomb. It QtkdonU- 
t^y it the CAM tA ft jTt^ftt cxteiLt, fur t^xtrj miicirk demon' 
4Trat«», in rlij» inusl condiuiTe rnADDer, th^t tli^ lif^of lii« 
«oicido WW a ^Tievi^uA burtleii ; ai^d by no me«itt lUJ witoae 
Ure« nra tqnftllj utxmiMuslojy irould rouiwri cut & romcdir 
for tbp nrr^ of «v]L and bkliinoo tJidr fl^^^nnt of ^owl 
«nd ill wiiK ttifiidunt ^canicy to percwrc ilut tlicv wvra 
IfirSDg st a lovb.. The hum of tbote of wltom tlii* ui trn* 
live on fram tuAibct^ till u^eluomu dtttli aiTord« Uietu tlio 
noodod Rlici. 

Th« ftiTCDunt of \mJF€nU with thoir cbili^nti w iht^rriora 
quite decidedlj a^niliiat tlic fvnuer ui tlw aromip* tsmt^ nud 
tbore 10 no doubt tliAt. Itod iha hjunodon of tilbJ ob^dkoce 
bocn n;rcr«c>d antil converted into an i&janciioo of pirvntjil 
e&n? And rii?cr>;fnit]An of the Hgbte of cbildren, tha eflvcl upon 
»i^iuCT v»jui>] liavy bevii fiir nio» tilaUr;. 

The rvmiining four coniinuidmtaitfi an UEncd at aomo 
of t>Lc irfinit A^i'uil rtiIa, pntt)<^ibH; the Nxth, iri^th, tatd 
ninth. The leventh forbi^W an olbnw a^aal tbeeonven* 
ttooal vode, and (vuda to mainl^iii a form of niairiago ooin- 
Dion to rno<t rnc«s bnt hy no moans to nlL In manv, aduU 
tt^ry t< n\-> erin^r^ imi! imlei^ no impOMibility, on ucoduni (rf 
a dttTcrtx-iKyr uf cuHtutn relatiu^; lo the Autd^l rrl8liona*-a fNCl 
w-hsoi; fllioWB tt^.it rJ)^ orLnie ]« not intrifiaic, 

Thtira nrc^ thurofonj. is^lly onlf tliree* of tW "T«n 
Conirundiucnta" wIitoJi hnv* a necotmry nvoraJ chuTaeror, 
in th^ aniiAO of bcnng univ^rsntl^ tppliojihle lo all men, 
vdiatevcv tbvir reli£rii>n or aoolal <Tiiiiti>niH, Tliu afforda a 

*In rcdurfnu Ibtv lo Xn (ViUtbcVp uH 9(M0}. <A)rM pmIIv dv#IM 
Ann OQ tht b*4i <]f rvE]£)wti upI mfTi\ hw Awt b do vrirlum LIai lir lUd 

BM rccvd tt« nlitfiou aaaminaai^ « to Aft tAs^M a»gi«* n>*f«l ftlvi. 




fiur UliMtnrtuM nl tbo ciuvi with vIjig}! pore ctliioi eiulj be 
coofouiiOod HiEli UiiQi^ tkjii Luire no ralitioii to ediioft. 

GaAantiilly uioml iualimucita cLnJ <ialj iriUi ibu Dutiun of 
iVk^t-'irifi^, In the aUf^ prior to tlw fution of looraU with 

fd^oo, AA «r«ll Itf io tbo «UgC to CiMuT-^ irlltfi thiA fiuioQ 

atiaU bave diM]^>Mrod> i'^hU and jW^f mmi hta npa6e4 i« 
intf'tty'EiVf^Mihli^ tcrnifl, Die formula for all oottmi moral 

ju tkitcuiuiifc Uit fonniib, tlier« an two rjinatitji t^ hs 
«o(ieiJered< Tiio iinl U tlw wofiu or rango of Um ajTantJi^ 
Tlio «DDon4 ia the FvliuhQity of th« JQiigiiiuaL W« viU 
gknoQ at bofh. 

Soo/w vf tAg Admmta^4-^ldr»*^ or opinion^ <lifT«Tr from 
■Otkiiu in biTiii^ a ff»<W fi«J(J. Tlw ntiud ni4x vQtvrUin 
propotfHicaM which it k Lmpoottblc for the IniUtidual to wtfi' 
ynri :dU> action. Krcy thinking mfnd€iitcrt;iin?idc««otHjut 
tliu acU of otbera which t*^ r^ bo miide the k4ji of tolf. 
Without anaoting tbum, wv jJl Hjito war viwra u to what 
will hr- tbo cflccta of acta amcdrod aa pvrfomnyl hy otbvn, 
whether th«^y are rip^ht or wrong. Whilo 0V917 ona^ o«D 
wi inuat rVHi ultiiaHivly upon an «guii4ic boni^ thooghta nujr 
bo uid cro ntbtinrly f»r mom altrvifrtlo. The ailr4Db^^Q veai- 
ilderwl hr thu performer of an %ct miiJti bo egoiatio, howevar 
aJtniifttk U majr aUo h». But ihc cnonl philo«o|ib<T ma^ 
remove tbe ^pimtiot or ««bji>ctivi\ »ilvuit«f;u fn>(u fib oon- 
l4iiDpluiiD0 ontinJv. miit I<N>k upn aotiona in the abatrad. 
with ivfL-mi^^ 10 tly-ir toial ftctmnti^ to all f«rlEng llvdr 
oUvcftL In llitnldt^; abo«t momli, all pewotiA <io thia Co a 
mono or Imi tiMchad mteot. 

Now, with tnawiod mentat ilovclofMnaailt tbf Mtor gru^" 
nally approacbf* thn •tanil'fKnnt of thn thralccr. to th£ 
liiwortypit«of menu) or|.-niiEeatIoD«lhocgoE*Cio,oraQbjectiiro, 
ajdvantagp of vi Art U abovl ilia only now thit bu snj 
wv&glit In (ictcnuiiiiii^ It. Ad^Qtagc bi idf ontvoifsfa* ail- 
nau^ to othun, howa%w dIaprqmtioDaJ they nay nal^^ 



bei Id UigbtiT tvpM, obj«ctlT#t or afinut4»Ct AdnoUgo U 
tab«n into Ibo iccciuil akKig wltli Kutijuctivu, or cgooaic, «d- 

taifn d^i:reo« of sabjocdvo advuitn^ and pr^wnt *(7tloii. To 
tbe higbotf mental type*, the Rltnxictii? rinc d<imin«U« Umi 

face In Winging Bdvantftgo to oUiei«> Groat men act « coal- 
ition men think. 

It )■ in lh\a yniy thai philoMiplurrA hftre Emved Ml thm 
idm of th(i '' grvatot good." It in tiur objouUvo vieii »1oqv^ 
Td ibe k^oe: iTpe> tlie groatoit goixi la pleomro to edf* to- 
^ftidlfM of ot]ll^nl. Til the highmt tjrpe, it » th(» grttMciC 
good tu Uly iiioJuJb^c Etelf. li^tiTEucHltAtc tjpcM Kit moro Uko 
ibtf low«v. but Ihiok iiiorv likts tiit* hii^Liur tyix». 

To die lowe^ dar«|i;«Sj tbo idco of rlf^hi fa >imp]y the Edfla 
of p^Txm*! &f:1vAii1ajj^ Wlut^r^r altrai^ia exEtfU beloniga to 
tho iiuiilnotive kln^i t)QT€tlop<^ by natural edoctioa for tfas 
pnccf vation of ihc ncc. 

Arton^ Imrhqnniu, Mbirni Mo«a nf tho nrtrmiJ <4m> KtUt 
to K timito'l iTXtf^iit. Tluj notioti of jjstioo i« porocptibki, 
dbeocioccUMl totiicwiiat from thut of pcnsonnl gdo. Tbu 
nigfi of tk^ advADUf^ ihoDght of an following artloft ex- 
tendi beyoml mvre olTs[iriufi', au'I IhLck in oUivr relativea, 
ut^ por^ap4 intimaCti frioutl^. In h^lf dvilited ei>dctk«k ob- 
Jc'Ctlrc jiiKtict* tt Ik wtlMovclopM ncntinirnt, Atid may hare 
reofrfved the sanrtion of law*. Tlie ran^ of tijo notion of 
aiji^nlAge flowing fr.'tji ivHioii^ ia (filviuJed toenibnee ail 
tho fiwmbcm of the tr!t*o or nalloitality. 

In f?tv]l:MMl t■o^ict)M, not onlj ia jt^^tic^ roAaocd to a aj^ 
tMn and ftortgfit to h& admioiMorvd hy t)ift atatO — J. /-. bj 
aocicty itwlf— «iid the idea of advvilage gained tiiiotigh ae- 
tUtti «xtttu(l«ii todl men, bat tboaupni-nonnal,orimporerog- 
Atory, conception of df^ntcHfiU^d boncvolcBOC baa been 4^ 
Tclfipnl t3irong!i the growth of tKt^ HjinpathlMf taking t^ 
pfauv to aome extent of tbo roAMr figoiam of tho ''viriil 



tltiUj tlion^b iloabtlun doc to clio ooriwnHa*] deTekkfiineQt of 
tX\ the {M^cliic Fttoul^os ifl cLk-fl/ hroiif^t shoiil l1ihjVK:1i 
tlml oi llio intHlt^t nnd of inti^illf^'Dt'e att^ndioig ieiU-IUs^UiaI 
growtb. Ain^ig uiviluvd nciw, tbo gnuiuu diUvrenciM exiKt 
btftwotw uuliTiUuftlB BDi] coiBBiiuutMs b« «Uo Uftirt^ii rutt 
thuniMjrcc. in tlic nm^ or bnatdUi of ibcir cfbicul ctmccp- 
tioiUf. Tlj« tfupnk-VMncuil Atnrcption t» oimfi&ed lo tbu niopt 
int«Uifcnt «iid miMt UUmllj^ cnligbtooed cl»we. Onlj 
whsrotborv wlL48 an actiiv UUfmiure oOMtAOlly apftotlhig 
to t]ic higher Mniiirn«n<fl doM aii^ di«in1«rt^ftled »ympfttbj 
for nunkittl in liw ftljttlnu't prvvAi], AjuoBy the lowur 
tj-pt« gf dvitiMxl cotiiiniinitH-cs Ii niakc8 mo dlffercDoo bow 
iikADj peiaoiiB degrade ibcnuclrM aikL ilirow ihcJr lives avty 
bv indnlg^Bf^ (a «li>oliolic fttiniulamv, no pnlJio moretncnu 
liAving the prcTvntion of thW e^il id vievr vill bu m-c uu 
fcrfit An 4p|xiroTLt); complvto in^iflvitmn wiU pfvvail oo 
x\x<i BubJMt. 1i«t in tlie higher l^pe^ of eivilixed coaanmnl- 
lie* thli fact maktA & pTofound EicpreirioB vpon tbf pnlillo 
mJudf uiil QT|fuiiuiioii« are fonutd spon a hrg9 ania to 
tie^Uifn tliA myvftid aod pnitctft tbo jvung frntit tooipUtbu. 
Thin inftikonfv froqnentl; m&kfiB Itedf eo eir»7)gljr fcU afi to 
control [u^Utkin and to erKmtn iJi^ rtuir4mi?nt nf lawmdtv 

loil to Booooiplittli tbe earn* vnd. Sncb lave, bu^vvcr, 
meet etbote. are neoolljr haeed upoo tbo probEbitorj pnn- 
ripUi, And am tat t\i4t mert pert inopcntiveL 

The aame tmlh ie m^iifMf wilh regard lo nest Other 
la of cbaritj. Cfiarital>lo iiHtihrtiofu ere <^kftj coaflned 
to tbo most adrjuu^ eirtlinliona. In eocw «ocietii^ t}ioy 
sre camivl to oxtraQu«« eoil mendiraney trA pkuperisio an 
fo«lered and iMrrvciaJ bj IIima. Tliu « duo to tlio adnnoe 
of iho tjjinpithiet at a gmt«r nle tbui that et «hidi tho 
Jwtpuait ni)ruice«i, umI maj geDonlljr bo Inwcd to llw an* 
^M emphMk in^B to tbo do«4Tln<f of olmi^Ttiig Mttihr a 
rli^iow ffuiction, tfl^-K-bjr it realty bfcomoi Ut egoiftic ecn- 



Sudi Alrrn&iUc »mimciit« n* »ora«dnicA ^lag up in ul- 
voDcwl tuonil «oo3rlic« aiwI dnmi^r for flM aIwIiUoo of tanvti 

ol uvil to belplow bwD^ >])p«ar to bv aiDong tbi» punwt and 
oiffil dieSTi1«n3»t«cl InipnlMu cf lianua laturv. Soeb hir^ 
boou iLn enufeid^ jij^inbt tlio AlavMnde And tW i^oil 
iiarviiy in tcvatirsL It li omly within a few c^titri» tiuU 
•vrli i^'iUiriieutS OAU b« MJd to fcMvo bttd tn cxiMtocea ia tbtt 
woriil. 'nioj^ iii>w ouly mbt in die br«aj^ of a wcDp«ni- 
tivelr few, but il IA nmukal»k liow rnncti powor thciM few 
li&ve beviL ubiu t'j vrivM Tbii f^et i« prolx^TiIr doc to lb« 
MOiM of (^btLTiii? in tijci<« wlio ikHf ftt \ti!AT\ indilTiirvtst to chv 
pfnportei reform or even oppotod to It^ vbidi fouflMlhem 
t<> A0i]uie6ci> and let it ^ bj default. Tbo famiiAB mlikd ittt- 
orAllv fthrmli» fn>ii) tlic open nAvitcjtey of % ptlpible «riL 
Onlj vtrotig JriiciutA iu JU cantiuiuuKic arc KifHcwnt to pn>< 
dooe Hifih advo(Nki?j, 

The iftonnhl A^ndiii^n of tho givat man of mui1tiitfl« eren 
in the mo>>it onlightcttcd vtitpn, i» one of cnnipTvto Itidlffcr- 
eaec ia i]ve MiiFvnojc* of kll brvoii*! tlio ctrcb of tlioir own 
imniisiiaiti eipcdeuoc In moral prr^mm, i1tiiA«t lUk mn^h 
u in mntorinl progfrw, it h a r^tUnrly insif^uiBimiit ntinil>cr 
of ii^iudtt Uut muit bo credited wilb tlie ftocomj^iAhmtfivL of 

TbT]« wo liavQ two distinct Typf» af nitnd— tbr ngobtiCf 
Vfbioh rrwy l)ii fTallrt3 the MatFcd, and the dtmistK-, wliicll 
limy be v»lWd tlo d^rtiiuiiic. Tbe «f:ot£tie. or eUttcal, Ijpo 
of Dklod looks At thiiif-a 110 tli<^ ftrc, und biw no tlionf^ of 
improvfo^ th^itn. It is eattafled with the t^Mns oonditioo 
of th* world iinJ of poci^ly. It f^U no dt^irv i» cU'vitw tho 
low te tho loTcl of the hvjTKor to sdvMM th« Isttor MQl 
lugbur. SSlri-ng Mvnijmthlo* nmy, indited. **o-w£int in ioeb 
mhtdflf but thvy nre impi^lftlve onlj, aim! ext^iwt fif> faither 
thui llie i^oucreie n*? which m^jr happen to appeal to tb»ti» 
At tbd mom^ni, Tiiev are, moreover, itrstionnJ and vnpri-' 
dOM, uid cAlled out mora by rcUUvn, or Imaglnaiy, iLhu 

score or tob advastaok. 


_hy BbfM)Iiila^ or ivftl, jralTuring, «• vbera iDsdlDttoiv ftr» ««- 
tAE>li*Ij«J for tlie [nlTp(lH^ o^ ii»in1«itttiig tb« rcspeotabiUtj 
(»f UiiM« vf}ii> kuive onoo bom wndthv. P«rM)nia wlio wmld 
Ivo lugu iiuii* U> each object* would |p<^ DOChing lo 
lu<»b: Uio txul.v huliyeut. Tbbdaes of mind* oo no; b« 
&n>uwj oa ^ij cnorsl qomUin, vmA, wtiilo porlupi frad/ 
gUnvg diiM^ wcnUd IMM all Icgulftttoo t«ndiH|r to ttmder 
AliiM-giving muwcMmy. Tlten* la bvra really \Hi\e or no 
tnic itMml ouDtinKnl, and «ppc»b to poraonM i&lvtwl vy 
tlic nnlj on«s tb>*t w Afle^rA. 

Tbw dvuEunio ijyi oJ Biurf, on Uio otli«r himl, »e* in 
^cr^ tldQg 8 poteodaJ fnipcrtority to ils prawnl cunOiliou. 
If drnuuiiU tlie efevitiori c>f tbt- Luw^ not by almA^rlng^ hit 
bv odtiaUioQ «wl cnfra&chiKirnentf until no 4tUi1Jrvotkin4 #biU 
cvittt i<xc«pt UiuW uf JKPtual fitttit^ Mpourity to do and to be, 
aikil in nk&ny n^sit a^ntOB naoimi fvfomui fur tbu fulum 
uirl ilif^ nuny vh^ra no ilin^^f gtlo to adf ii to follovr. 

Monl k1«Q» inoiMwe in ctfo^veoeM 10 pmportioin i* Uu^y 
a|>(»ro^ the inlallectua] »uto^ tYom mura pfajiinl iMiiicu 
to hl^ cBioitoiiJil mnpatbir*, ind from tbuK Iv e»UI Intvl* 
IfirtLiil j[i.i^ni<*ntJi Qpon manl <|uetfiuvi^ tUe «dr*iK!iD Is bj ft 
diiliirviital tcriiM. Tbk is OMoifett in bc<h «Iaw^ oI Hliml 


With tht^ ^tpan^lon of Moim, moni adiont pus fnMn ft 
•pM^inl lo & i£f^««ml rlnrftTtiir. GiTorrml actioo ii more im- 
jiorlJtnt ili«n vfweipl nctiott. T1i« huer b aJwnjv Altrnilcrl 
i^hb ft too ^rual mienaicy of enxjlional filing, hdiJ vaIj ftinu 
at <^^Hftlti obtnmiro «ftlicnt fr«tnn« of thn ovU in qiwfttlon. 
Tb«i fnmi«r i* dctibArntf . abd vtrikM fit tbo toAC of ibo oHl, 
dwtruyiujr It oatiftk. Alltm|if*< to fufiiro^ JH*ii>v by ivrfr- 
don ftnd Biiiicul are o«ily jieirtiflUy cocotwfo! 4ml not pvnnn* 
wrMljr iiKrrMfiil. Tlwt milniiniitntioin of jiftatltw viV. oorer 
he tboTO^fh nixt cotnplM^ until it \§ lutde *i*?f-n^iilaiiMT. 
Tikbcu nut (■« ni«<)m]iliiJi«d by nvj^iro liiu Bnil f>t-na1 
■tBititM. knuy |irriiS|«boftocoinj4Ub«id by uivmitiv«legift- 


OFINIDS.~Ti:RTlAnT llCA!f3, 

CLitidMeriEif^ ii«3tt, tll'^ Hnpn'Ttormal, or nlimifdo, thm of 
moral ACitliiike^ita, wu may ittill tuotv dcorlj pcrcxarc tliift truth. 
Promucuons und imo/]puuitf<J cluuitir h Uie luut cfl«ctivi3 
mvfi^s ot nli^yiag hntaan ^afTcrmj-. All tliinldiig minds 800 
ih&tf m h accUod public «eniimcTi% tbc hfilinf m tlj» dutj i* 
one of tli<» gfVEit hitrricrii to tlie oliject it ^iiiv ti>(«care.«* 
well lu to fttill aiore iiEijwrtAnt vbjectii* Small clnrilabltt 
iwUeiiKu, ^'LLk vftt-a bvcidiuUl to tiio rotapioatc, tra jl; bc«l 
only tompomry lilloWatioT^a, aod hftvci ooljr Uie MirfMO of 
ihff i^TiU whiph rpiulp/ thrm r\cw*mry. PhiTanthropv irhich 
AimA uiHply t'j inilig«tc uctu&l «uSi^Lng, ejutrilratca ouJ^ 
•Ugbtl^ U> ihaC (jdO. Before it rvallj- bvouuitb viTodJTOi, St 
nu^ take tijc more ^-noral form of Jtumantlttrianiem* 
ChAritj' miiAt ^onnijHt in Aoinfitliinif broftdf-r llinn thi! meru 
titiifvii]^ <jf biiiif^ vluniachi, wLicii viU imlj rviuAiJl MUb^ 
fiiy! u fuw houre. UuniuuilAriiiidm sJdie at tLo ivorgsidni' 
tlon of Bool^y, ^ ihat aJI frhflU pMMffioqnnl Advuntft^ for 
f^iningft livdjb(K>dacd oontribntinjclotliewrlfAn^of Mcit'tj- 
Thc trruvt pbiliatLn-^p;^ i» tUxt ttbivb »vc* aii<| di'clurM tbftt it 
lb «Qaoly that ill th<} priucipiil lober t^litiij ii£ ntt^iiiWrft &tv ud- 
Mii|>lojwK and. biborinf^ for the good af •'jciotjr a» a wliolu^ 
it u>enn» lo lb« gronlc^t dcjcrre the good ot \%& needy menft* 
boTK WlioriL-vw thi« vootiiui^tiL Jiall gv"*ral*y pn*T»iI, naoft 
of (bo wonA widat qoeGCions will (^Hicklv M^ltv IIiciiimIvow 

Udit^Uity ^t/i4 Jwf^^i.- Wo wil] now coufii<kr llie 
K«^ond vjiri^Liit in tlifl ;i:enen] moml formula, vIe,, the K»li»- 
biJiljr of tliQjuOi^vut. 

yomliiy TViio ulcirimUrl^ upon iutdlcii^tonl cupftcily and 
ger<>ral inMIii^Jiev'- For, m wft mw [fl*//»ra. p. 340)* ooH' 
Hcicnec IK far from %n uncrHoic >c(iid<.' lo rifrht conducl, nod 
ui>iidaul wiU dvp«nd, in ihti rij^btBen of it» mBliji, upoti tJic 
KmndtioH of tho views whioh tn«i bold upon moral <jiiv^ii^>u« 
fn gcncmL If cvm-v art wme nxbt which nnj- oiw UdicvtfJ 
to be rii^lil, tbe problunt tronld bo rompamtivrlj »imI^lt^ If 
aJI ineT) a^^Tv^^SLiad all Agon hkd agreed, mpoctiiif whit <v>n- 
»tiuitu« tbo r^bt, wo tiu^t aalclj inftor thjil tb« monl judg- 


of iiankinil wui vnrth liitlcnii^ ti>. Bctt mcji u for 
t«iiig t1i« Guew No< onljr do moo of tbe bmm «pvok 

inl 0119 agQ rvvvfiNW llio Jccuu^u *t( ujodicr, and uvvr^ ymtt 
teed tlie overthrow of monl Idcv whkli bad been cbcrfebed 
Jrwa iuimvmoml atiliqiiiij. A» Dr, OHrp«iit«r poEnlcdljr 
itkty " Tli<vo wlio AH-' nbk (o Jook bock wtlli tntvll^it 
retrospect arer iho polUletl hblory of tlie Uat bftlf^uainr^, 
aixfl vrho witfij^K ihr now general pcrvvJoo of xXw puUu* 
nijixl !>T Irush* which it ociwpU m wtf-^'TuVnt, and bj iiMKnt 
iniH*i|Tletf tthi«li it rc^;vilif as bo^ood dupute, can m^am^y 

lUo to tliomacUffi Uie fA«l tbAt iritbin tli«ar own rccolkc- 
titiD tlio f<ar1cM tAwrtOTvof IImbc tnithti and pKnd]>lni vr*tn 

iffwi at ■> vtfiouuKM or rvvikd «c dt-atruLlivei." * 

Tbere uv uianj^ <uiiitt4u for th«w vinalioiu la cUucd 
opinioQf lint the groatsr pan of tliom maj bo arranf^ nndar 
tbi^ ;^nvnl buadi, vrbich wo will il«<ignalc an foltowv: 

1. Vaijin); power tu diHotm nii^ml quotitjr in mHkul 

S. Coofmiofi of religion wiib noralU^, 

Z* Confndon of ni^nm n-jth niomJicy. 

Jf&nti Duffrnm^nt.— The fint of tb«w baa mlreadT bc^ 

icbed apoD wbun i|N>akui^ of tLo aoope of advantagi) 
DunouivoJ as Sowing from ictioiL In ibw «aM, tbv diangc 
occurs for tlie moat put in ono direction, and ntiutidttos 
what i* called tU pn^^reM of morvl pnuoijilu. 

In adnnofd jiocic4ie* at die pneenl day, Omt baatu at 
nonl ouivduct ia tbu hnaaan mx in jscficral. 6<3irv«1/ anj 
ONt If «l»d wliccbcr an artion, wbicb wm conMiliTrvd wrong 
wb^n oomndUfvl af-ktrui otto man or daw of nwit, nouM bo 
fffflit, ff<ri-M ptmiu», if eornmiiitf^ agwntt anotbcr nan or 
eiui of mui), woDid imw give anj bttt a nqeativtt anfwcr. 
But tbia hdB not alwnj^ boon to, and h to now onljr in civil* 
bed rafyia. W« ncinl uol ^ tocL to WbatOM apsa to vm 
Ihia fuUj exontplltittJ. fn anclc^l <fnr(M>, tbe nioat collnrod 
ulion of anti(|uitv, L|ic4<v waa ono oode of monk for tbe 




Grtiek ti>d anotbor for all other iuUjodb. "Tho Klftngerf 
tW dim, th<9 riuliivifd rupdrOf tl>c Wlxirian of t^io noo- 
Uollpnio world, wcro wtt huoiAi:i follnw* ta tbo Groolc; M 
niwt. Uwir wviv Wj Lumui crv»LiuvB uf tUEUO lUUcmat 
rurioLjt buving ihat umiliUcJCf iimI approaclilug eom«twliat 
10 ihal rrlfttioo, but finite cxcliidi^ fmm hin a^gnitinii nf 
fcJIownIiip bf all Utt» li^iLiU uf \iiia ftft^iin/uid Li« lUougliU 
Accofdiiig lu liiu |ivn:tptio[if they wns clv-irlj |>nj|wr Mib- 
Jectaol predatory wu^aro iL»d piracy; ho could kill tii«m^ 
pliindri- ihttm, rti'liv<i ibcin, witii no mom i\>roiknnftion i>f 
cojvciruco tliaa the iiUKlvrn liunter iwU tu c^>UiriDg or 
ktUiui; ilw game^aaiuub of tUe foruiL AEid I'lJt Uie «uao 
00MCK4ICO wae acdog in dio Greek that Miis iti mtn to-dtjr ; 
bol only nilb nion^ nftrrowneM o4 nii^ in U10 p«n>vp4kai» 
upon wLkh il acOf^/' * 

Tli^ Hebrew lation a1f*> hail two «^ftdr« of morala wlitoh 
diTido (>if with trcmclkuil ktncs kt mftnjr point* ht tlirar r^ 
cordcil jawc nod liistoiy, " To lUr ^vejini tmd aim to tUo 
Orri?k'* wiK Gv«!ii m ilint lato d^v rt^rdvd w B krp.^ do- 
fKirtiiiv fmm iwftptfti p^in<^iplel^ and Ohriftt^ roeo|[[iildo«i 
of GvtUilv* cuubiiLiiU'ft uuv of hu» Icodii^ offe^n^ Tli« 
B^cm of Alnvery whi^h prevailed umon>* line litracliufi doolt 

Yory iliff.Hr^rjlU- willi llio Hrbrew mid l1i« rVnliU ftkvi^. 
Kf»r tW IftHen iLt^rt! Ana im^*_vv«rof jtrUiK-e,** »* f^r the fo*^ 
nii-r. A cjirofal filody of tho early bi^tory of ^vaty natioa 
Bhown that Ihm ^huvctcriftw of a dual montlUy hni t»0(-Q 
conimoD to thoin all at aae period, ind \im only hix-n re- 
moved by the pro g r c ei of inielli|^'noe trnd inixturv witfa 

Wiilt' iliin ^«tnn of trih»l dHtinrtkin no tou^ ciiit« 
nntont^- HvilEcpd r«ru«, a l«lic of il biiTvina lt» tlie mark«d 
Wtfnniity of toi<i:h[ i^^iiKliikin, aud tbe diff«nnc« of ii«al- 
uient Mnrettpondnit: to it. Unny pavonB of fine MCuSbflltlei 
tovard tlioeeof llidrown tank prfsent a Hiperrition^ and 
bm]llf«0i bMrin;; tr^wnnl tlioivi of ah tnff>rior jnnV- TtiU 

« J. X, LMkni, u ■- rn^w sucotv Mhuli/ * (I tcr^. tvL ii, p. aafli 

UORAL niECER>'3C£jnr. 


U raltt»tod in Knn^^ ao tliAl odo of tbo moat obti- 
ouA milk* of m fordgncr in Anicncu h tbds dualltv in Iik 
cbjinwlvr ud condout MWOfOina: to thv mtk of llw penoa 
»diln*<d ; Bnil in Uik oo«iDir>-, whtri^ Aoek! iiic«|iiftlitin4 an 
Tcrj fliKtiiAliiig uid di!pra»d on wiltlk orfccedili-nUl jKivlion, 
Ihfl AltoinpU of forc<gnenpn>|wrly to dbtributo lJi«ir two 
tvU of actions ofi4ii bmchine j^ry aimirfng. 

Id iftmonil, k m%^ bo wd of ihJA fn'oop nf varying prin* 
<*ipfu« Omt ihu AilvuuM! eAfxi«d bin proporlioo to clio Bbil' 
Ity comxtljr to UMMura tl» Mlvinugo to flow frotii iko 
^i^L-D djB» of actvpii, aOiI ilif^rvforc moraLi prmgivM in nttison 
with t)i4> pragT«A» of intf^Elifcnve. Wli«n» emcntnliy im* 
raord pndioT* aro mictiocwd hy ibe f^oile of u yetjip^, moIi 
w miutlcr, Ij^ing, tti^ft, vobb^ry, vtr>/ It ie cltto to h coni- 
pTvto fftilarc im the part of ntdi a nro to ntoituro tlu^ goc^ 
and «vl1 In condni^ u fab& and p«rvMM or a dwmrfed and 
>tt]Ttt^ moral porcvfttloD and m«ntiJ condilioti. It nia;f be 
drpcodcd npoti tlinl, wTioo a puopio fuirijr rcalini tbftt Um;jf 
PK oppofling tbrfr own fiiti-r«tca, a rvvolvlioci, not onAjot 
Ihouf^t hnt of artion, will tako placo. The prof-rtA ofJ 
morij priucipleB in micitly ei>iirii>t4 of a rftvm ol focb rotoJ 
hUofui brongbt al>:itii ihix'iigli thiM mnu^. 

CdnJutifM ^ FMf^u>n tPtlA Jforalihf.—^T^ie *flwa in 
w1iH-b rol^oti ban booo confound*^ wilb niornlJljoonKitUtc 
bjr far tbu oiovt nBiuvruiv data of vAnanta in otbira. Tbo 
gnat nnmb^rbf difTeivnl rellgio^^ having diJIorriit frJm^ 
Hl««, ind c«r«mMti««t rcnikn^ tbia ncorsevj. The inoal 
porrly mond a^-M^na, mch «« tiwe of Poofiidua and Memo, 
conUtm mn4 that la nSl^ktm onljr. Tlie miied inonl aiul 
fttligiotiA codu tha baro come d<iwn to ua from viriona 
naiiona hkttj pfodacfd gmt confmCoD in mon'a nodocia of 

Wc linVQ already two tbat tbo IIc1ire« di'ubi^o ron- 
Ca1t\« few panly nftglmji tnjqnt?tioiia And o»Ij tbnw pvuvLy 
Dionil onfiL If wo ««re to ozaialne ibo entire codo of ao- 



ooptvd momtft pnvailiii^ in civiliied AKntnnnitMM, we ibould 
probftblj; find aaiujllt^f |)coporl)ott of the non'Cticiilia] mixvd 
wiiL the ea^ntioJ, ^'Of the wrvntv tlirvo clittpcvn coorti- 
tniing ihf; ral« of St. Bencdl(-t, nine concern the norai tnd 
^ui^nl <liilitM ol the brcith«T«, while tbirtcm ciMieem llio 
rdigious onlinuow. AniJ Ik>w the j«Im of criminftlitjr «t- 
tju-Iipd to tliEn^nl of orJitiooc^ is proreU bj tlw foQowio^ 
pOMi^ f mm t1i<^ rutc of SL ColumbeDU : ' A jtau^a penanoo 
fur liirn who to«ee a rortw^t^JOfd «>i««; fix momthji for him 
who miffvrv it tc» Iw catrii bj' mite*; twt^nly datv fur hiin 
who Jcta it turn rvd; torly daj^ for blia who ci>u tempi uh 
onely flingn h int^i wat^r; twentj days for him who brin^ 
it Tip tlimiigh wrftknr^ of leiontach ; but, if tUnvngli illnfM, 
ti>rL days, iic uho ucjjWt* hii Amoi to the Ben«dicit«, 
whofepcakK v^hiMi outiu;;. who furf^t« lo m»ko tJi« rlgn of 
Cho croM on liU spoon, or on a Innf^m lighted hj a younger 
brolhtfT, IK in rwpirc wx or twelve AtripuA'' " * No doubt 
tliMu fi^rbiJUvu tfculji were then rvginj«d u bif^ly ininwr*!- 
It hoa beun thtf MtiDt* fii olht*r ]>ai'l£ of tho worhl. Aoioofr 
tbc ^ndwidi-lAlniitiiirTi, *')f nny ooio made a ciofAe on 1ab«- 
daj, ... ho mant dic^.'' In Pern, *^the mott DOfalife an 
«u neglect in the b«rvi(x- of thtr bivtfiu." With tbit Nictt* 
nt^DTtfi, it vne to bnjak a foedvaJ. The Hindoos, vrho vrould 
not vc^rtiplo to toll Iim, would die Moner tlun eat the floeh of 
e^rtain an inula coudcnined b_v the mcrrd booke. The Kory 
of Uie boiiilcide nbo «ioufe«eed to kOltuip ii fdhfw-mao for hit 
diuncr, eon^iKting of bmd and i&eat. und who ate the bread 
bat ihreiw lite meat awajr becavc it wa» Friday, whr^icr 
true in fact or not, h not an OT«rdra«-a iliurtntion of tho 
confniiion tiint cAifiCa Id «ociely re»pwliii(- Hgbt and wron([. 
But in thi> v\am^ att in Ihu ono prcvi</ufly coiwidorod, all tma 
moral progrcBa f^nabu in the i^Uminntion of non-r^ctttial 
ilo(?lri»Mf attd tho grrater and frrtMltr reoogcition of the 
vuJue of thoae whoae pnwt3c9o » followed bf poMlivv ad* 


*l^na», ^Cvwnoadil laMUMkut" p. II, gau. 



Om^/W* '<m {^ Civtam teitA More^Uy. Civtom hu been 
idi&oM HA iHJtfmt in dirtortinj^ ronrepttoru of duty u hv re» 
figion. Oflr^ntimriL iljc lwi> Jirn in<*xlrtCAblj blefuM- Tb« 
mQ«t nurLuii t^uvs uo<Ier tiiii Iicod rvljUc to U>c condicioQ of 
the wjrae. Auoott^ Uie lltndoo^ tlio uiAitiaf^ of Mlult fo- 
milM la rog»dod u bi^l^ iitimural, ^nd k h m(d that iu<v 
DOgUDjf V cnfonxd bj' ChnOianiljr, ii tfic diicf oUtacIo to 
Ui« b|wvm1 of tiiat 6iitli among lli^ni, u tbvj ivgxnJ it w an 
JBiinof^ iQoiJo of imsUitg womim. C^Co, ■ nibble ilomoo, 
yielded bu vrif« to % friuoil. Soovtoi mw noUilng vran^ In 
tlie profltitutiuQ of AripaaljL In line BalcAfie I4os \ bridt 
wa« Ibo comuLOR propvrtj' of all tbo gvaife befon* alw omU 
tc (bu irife of uau. Ajnuog tlic NsQilowfifldQat tlw wnviHn 
who could toko to ber buaoia fr>rtT itolwan n^rtiora of a 
nlgfal vta n^rdnl alniMlirith ?«iM»ntion, jinil bod bor pidc 
for ft btufatDd.* Among tbe Tongan«, acconlinf;; to PkllM, 
'' ioirriugc« VTBfv t<;mutial>lc nt tbo vill of ibo bmb&ndf uttl^ 
excepttHj^ IB niBrricd ^romrn, ehiMtrtr w»» not n^ganlcd m 
avirii]e.''t It b& r«iKuirkaLlt' fiL<H tbjit Iixwt condact bo- 
tv«ei> tbv i«xni, wbtcb In cunirontilj- rvyunlvd m Ukt wonit 
form of Immonlttr, soemfi to bavo no bfinCDoo vbuai'cr 
tipOA tbo CMMtituI moral coRf^irion of tho^vi raent aioong 
whom it prvtuk % Tbu^ of tlie ncK I»t mvntion«d, it » 
■iM: '*Tft ve A/e tmld tbfLt^ o«i tlj« whole, Tbi« li^tfcm, 
Altfaoaji^b op|>o«p>1 to our fM<liHfc<i, *hnd not thfr ItttM ap 
pMrancc of any ftad cfFoct. TIjo wocnen wcrv t«od«r, kind 
motbvr^. aoil Oie diiltlrvn were well Pirc^ for/ H-ztl* Mxea 
apfH'areii to be ront^Ated afid bn[>pj in ihetr relntio^a to 
eacb othfT, and, * aa to dODic«tic quarreb, tlior were aotdom 

Tbere are, of coontr, manj otbor illnrtnljofu of thia ibIb- 
Inking of eoMoni for duty b«Udee tboae ooooeoCed wllb th4t 

im). pp. lift. >l« 



M:::ut nIatioMv but thac btv iiot oaly tlio awrt ibwmJhDt 
lot aho Uw tiiwt iDti>ft«llngf Aiovti Uiey gito the drilucd 
world & bint thil tLu gn:«Ur part of ttt eodo of monU b noi 
JBtriBitfi Inic faeiit&fHB«» aud tlutt tnoti^ of ihfi fartii'Mirn ttU 
ire ntaiff/ni^B&ite oaIj snd not m^j/d m «< (rol. i, pp. l^S 

Witluvt going oa to ciiiunumtc other iiu-UkncctvDdcrtliia 
liead, ii may eulfioe to poiot imjc tltat, in gvnunOi grcU «oo* 
fiMiion <rxu£A twiwccn tiir^ moral an^ tli9 coATviilioiul code. 
Tlw (luafEmaUo wpmIioq wliicli romo* over & poj-xiii wircti 
cviificioitfl of LAvtng riolated u neiUt of wwbJ uti^nctte, Oiougli 
MnrwlT Ic:^ ruiiini! r*^ ibo WTi^lbililfM, ajvpotn^ In tliie mmt 
riitri^TiirT CAMW, t<i Im! pJainljr nnd i^cricftUy «li*fiiicl fmm 
|]iat whioli lie «\p&neiKe* wh^i cniucio'ns of biving vio- 
laU«l a rule of ^hi^eu Yet bv-t^^^vt^u ihtria then exbde a cvr^ 
tain grmbi ion until the rlUtin^i'nn ni \nhX (SifUppcoi*. Tbo 
oiktjr t«t in Hiifrli cad« U to doti^naiiic if poibrible whctlicr ii^ 
jur^ lia^ rvdJlv bevri doftu to i^ny onei l tci»t irliivL ib uuialljr 
very iJifHc'Lih of ajiplicalio^. 

Tliu ^ii^'oiilioiul ccnle, like t}tu itioral ootlc^ imittB for sd 
4>bjtitt, aiir] tJii« can be no other ilian lliu good of bocIhj In 
bfiti) efjc*. Jl i« manifeftily for tlic goofi of M«Efiy tliat 
tlilngia lie cl^tiu in a j>n>pcr iimuiiL-r, axiiO Uiia oxu oolj b« ao- 
coinpluhod hy ^i^ tbe ordor in wfalcfj ihe^ are to he 
cbn<t lie who vjoUtw ihie order Tf.A\]^ injtirc* the inter- 
Cdbt of *orirlr. Thin, at le»»t., b the th™rv of the roiivcn- 
tiotuil cixk% and Nurvm to »bovh how it ajrj>ixiMrh<^ in ita 
fundanicoUal foatimK, the moial code. Hot in point uf fK4 
^11* grmtct part of the cnMomx flT»d f^ttiliionx of tlu^ world 
not onlj do not inbiNnTC the stoai of sivit-ljj but ttud vcfy 
vjMitiljr iu ih« ci>ntniry direction. TIiBt honeier, t« dw* lo 
monV dofocTlivo jad^nwnt ami gefwrol imporfocrtion vi mind 
aiid HiAractrr. To nift tii« wheat from th« ^liaJ! In tUla maai 
of crnde fnalerfa] is the n-ork of lite fvicio1ofi[i*t. To diA- 
tingTinb iIki iiiirini4c fi-oto iIlo eAlrin«tc, thitt ^Si^h rralhr 
bringH advatiCugn from that iffblcli briugs uo advujitaisv or 





liriofta dlndvftato^, it on* of th« liring problvnu ttt Ina 

Thf! forcgoinf iLtialnui of elhicn) oidntoiu m%j Mppmr 
inufv ojUcoded tbui iU liiipuruuu«i doiiiBikd«T bat th« tmuijr 
mlaooncepdoiu aad trrorc m which tlio Mibjt«l b iamjlvfld 
rcn<lrrMl hih^immuj a fulkr u«fttmeait Uioq irould liftro otbar- 

nnnun cffurtt are ftlwAj^ 4Aerto<l with a riew to m- 
coiiii>lkb aome Had r«gvid«d ju in ftomr va^ lu^vuiiaj^u*. 
WJjvR liucU oiri^rt* 3ir<r clttlibcrjlivc, Ibcy o^buv ^Utoi uf mlviii 
whiob npnMGiLt tbu uU««u1agu tu Ute mdiviJuftl in sdvuio*. 
ThcM aIaUs of mittit Aiv of viiHoiu dcgrc«e of comjiluxicy, 
hat may geiKmlly be rwoUod into umplie pn|io«ltion^ 
tttW ^ovFiii^ frgim otbtr |)ro^K:«itJima («ORdDaloM from 
premiMv) ur KUivdiog oloDe^ ajijMuwiLly diicoQiiMtod from 
diiipler eliilM, biit really ibo reouh of a muldtadc of apookl 
oanc«ptkim of «bicU h in impcmiblo to take AtvmtQt m\m- 
nUfly. Ajvauiiiig the cudi of couAtioa to be wbat tbcv ara 
jrappoaed to bv, tU-, ndvjiiiUgQoaiv ^^ ^"Bt do«kiemtum ut 
Ufa la to bo ponnttlod to act in the manfivr pronipieil bjr the 
ctatcs of iniiMl. This bnoich of tbo Hibjeeit vw oaoodcTod 
in tl>u pm^Dcdibg cb«pl«r. Wv baro now to dual with tbo 
itai«aof miod tbtuiuelrw* It k wAoriom that In a gt«at 
Binaber, porlia|>« tn a majority of oiMftt the cod ia m dJaalf 
pcToeimd, or »a i^roaily mi(b»inc«irod, (hat action, whrre freo, 
tiriop uo advjuiUx<-\ ur urou brtu|^ dkadviuitage (nr/vd, pp. 
1>1, IK). Or, if tho efid bts ooimdy penwlved, tho nnn- 
ner of trying to Kcmrt it piytTW wh(4ly tindTbctttal, awl 
no ramit a rvAchod, If, tlwrrfnne, 1ib«^r to od >i of ao 
rst iiuportackuu wheci *■> luony aec« are fmitlmt ur injuriuiiH, 
bov iBSoh xaaro iiDporta&i Jaiut bo tbo po««Bikiik of anch 
■lalM af mind m wiJI rtndcr tUo atm of ai^liiw ocnaiDf and 
aotion nnain of ■!« aim 7 Tbo failiirut ailMidant npon bn- 
offcirt w dnu lo tho Wk of oorn*fK>adonco b<<w oua 



thou^Iitji ftcil tiiin^o^*' The oiUblUhaiatit o£ mcb eorro- 
vpuudviio4< mufat tlK'i^furo pr«c^ Um wubluhAeut of eom- 
pkie Iibcii7 to act, if Dm lilghm adviiuue* ii *o be ewunsd. 
Not onlj tsiut ofiiiuoQK tit; convct hi thi* aciuc, bnt nidi 
mmi «Dtt;rtaiiJ iW Hf^t Icind of opiOMiu ict order Co acbivm 
Uiio Bu>.<i:et«. Kv«iy ua&ud h comlaiilJy iLinkiuf^ hUtut avdo- 
tliing. The niilHctiti of uiinrU in uiilliom of nioi h&vo aadi 
milUoiwof Uiuughto in flier counr^ of ji lifp^nKL Utit lliw 
v»< 1DAB» of id«M ta for tlie tiio*t part wortlilciw. not bon»o 
it u not Tigorou8t but b^cauM it Ib iioi or^^mtntd, nut coo- 
ccfitmtcd. WLvro k ift not cmt of itarmon/ will) nil objcMAr 
ir« rvAliiy, it it out of the bm; of utili^, uluxitin^ ftwmy 
after mme glilterbfc ttUiiel* or tyni^ /tUvv*, foUovmff KiruD 
frask of fiiiicy» riduig (oiuo ^itui bobbjt or wrmppeiJ up in 
soitM vAin (IfJnfJOD.t The <tT\\y ophdonA vlikLh &ro of an/ 
vstne to tli« vor)<i arc tliou wliicli pmrnoite ita prc^rm 
CQtbor dinxitly or bj^ prwerving 4)rd«r w tbv gtiuiUui of 
prograuL Tbo Uit«f arc t^e ethM opldlona freod from tli« 
droM of Aapfrrnni^rkn and convcittion,ft&(l rccognii^i^g ontj 
pOftiUve utility, Tli(< f<>rtii»-r nrc rlyrumi? opimoTW l^op- 
orly io uUimI, with wbicii wc luvc uuw more cMpuvniijr to 

Drnunio Idew *« itfC W i ril y tlirrrtixl toward, an^ (?oi>- 
^onod Willi, tliv plieoODWDia and kwv of nataro. Aa already 
froqQontty romiriod, mitiiatioo, in tro f ar » raal b umi>- 
t&altjr artificial; it roniwtK in ttie oontml and dlreotion of 
natural forcw into channelaof bnman adraila^. U tvrU 
upon idoaff botb tiue and practxal, of llxf rvlatkou «x>»ti<ig 
amon^ natand objoct* and cbo chtAdAr i>f aatunl la«^ 
It iHU, thiMY^f on*, bif nonnmiettt t« elaaaify thcee Idiw in tJ» 
tamo rnaii»«r as wa would E*laMify th« ik-ifTr<vAk and to «(i> 
aider thuiu ia 00QiwctIc4i wiUi iho f^nccfuuvi? groU diraimia 
of tho fvicnliiio biomrcby. Wu wil! tbua pftw lapidly ixt 
mriew the f ollovinft cLaasc« of idMs : 

• e^if. ■ i*Qj i-nonw.' p«nn^' »4). t5. p. Ma, 

f a a rrfra, ia " r^ttf tkicn Smililj " ^ISTH^ nA lO, P, 



1. Ooamr^osiMJ ideoe. 

S. AnthropoAogiul Idcttt* 
4. iJueii/lugkaJ id«aa. 

Wli4tovcr ma; b« tlio future (rf hmoiD civitUitton, ft 
rnuiil be «>itfcaMd that thiw far pro^TWi, coiiflldei«d tt«OBK 
alBling b ciihor RclaAl gr po4«iitiiJ hwraMe In tfao mvoiiK vt 
(mjojinjc hf«, luui bean cliidl^ m^it«ria]. Uiui i« "<>f Um 
rttHli vnrtlij," Uv inliaUu ii mal^ruJ pluket, b bound U* it 
by a pliyeioal law, Milrtint* on iii*t«mJ objwTt>^ I'xIiJling lapon 
it, unit h hinMnlf nn iiiU^gral nnd porcly miUonnl |iart of jL 
IIbi intinutA rcktiiWA vitb nutter mtkc it t4 tlie iitmod 
ifnportAD^ tittt he hnow all aboat m«lt«T. At ^n?ry toni 
)i9 9D0o««tore kl in on^ f'>rin or imoOi<r, tnd cxpvncDcv lua 
aHowh tWt micb noatiMM ii cither bcmrftdul or lujutiouaw- 
avfling C£> Mifi vieyen be ^oUtftaiK of bis i^billonfi to tt, nail 
of thW wfai^rh tlwTvanousfonnsof it tniXiuiT tnowf uiotber. 
It b rcwrrod for tlm noxl cluptor to ^oDvidcr il* b«i* trf 
bk i>pjni'>iift; tbe iwcovhy tliat the/ be both »UDd Aftd 
pn^fcal d what bfrre rerpitm ppeeial frmpbariik 

hjr«t« fn oiMcr U> livo in tlir moat •dvant^voui waj, 
LiiU vi«wii of thu uuiicriul umvttvo murt pravsi], 8o loag 
tu&n'a iMUoeptEoiu of tlw vmivi-nv irc erroiwottt, li» wfll 
prmiao a wwjwtnl if oot a ilovnitAnl i<oano. If tlicj* are loo 
narrow, and ho lH>ti«vca tbat all ertttin^ thln^ an> with&ft 
tiie rui^ uf liU Tuiion, bU ooniKhn^ Till bo corrc^pondli^T 
narrovod. If liu bclioTCfl tbo world of vbort duration, both 
in tbo paat and in tbo future, this too wUl dwarf aJl bU midor- 
tajcing^ Mid maVo an end of pro^rr<wA. If be rcgarda nature 
aa coming of a innltUndc of animKt^Ml pow«rm iinpendlBS 
OTor him. ho will vtfUn all hU rnorgwa in fM^iijp to propttt- 
at« lime ponrank ff bo do«nB tbeoo Qvil, terrar will iWior^ 
alU« him and inalro life a burden. If b« MncMTM tlie nnt- 
wtva ro b* watcbod orar hj^ b«n*fi>e«nt powvra, ItA vfll be 



apt to nogQ nil tnttiotirc effort to thoui, nod njla|i»o Inlo a 
coodUion of complete At^tntioiw It b difflcull to nj wlikh 
txetU Ili« gT«aier doraor&ISxing And &iiii'pn>g