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^ 3iiolla an AnBsrain, 


' pO€D)Sf 

^^]| ^ ' Tboás 6 Elann^aile. 
" ' at Ebnndiadh Riaáh Mac Gonmara 
bv Jóho FLemrng, 

Duhlln [18977] 

From the Library 


OrarhírE (SliioUa art ^tnarain, 









Dublin : 








1 ? ^^ -^r 


Introduction .... 
bcACA T)hoincATÓA U«4m (Life of Red Donough) 
Translation of saitie 
eAccfiA ^hiolUA An *.\mA|tÁiii (Adventures of a Luckless 

Fellow) .... 
Metrical Version of sam-j . • . 

Literal Translation • • 

b..\ncnoic éi^ieAnn Ó15' (Fa'r Hills of Holy Ireland) 
Mangan's Translation of same 
Older Version .... 
Ferguson's Translation of Older \"ersion 
GAccpA ShéAmuif gfAe (James Gray's Adventures) 
An c-<itAi^ SeAJAn ó CACAf A15 (Father John Casey) 
Lici|i c«tn SA^Aijtr (Letter to a Priest) 
X)onncA-ó nuAX) 1 "O-CAtAni-An-eifC (Red Donough in 

Newfoundland) ... 

<vot) Ó CeAtlAig (Hugh O' Kelly) 
pAf X)onrcA-ÓA UuAi'ó (Red Donough's Pass) 
Translation of same ... 

uinje T)honncA-ÓA nuAix) (Red Donough's Petition) 
5eu^Án "OonncA-OA n«Ai-ó (Red Donough's Complaint) 
Thadd.í:! Gadelici in Memoriam 
Irish Translation of same by T. ó Flannghaile - 
itjlish Translation of same by Dr. Siaerson - • 








Eed Donough Macnamara, the author of the follow- 
ing Irish poems, was poet enough to interest two of 
our best English-writing poets of this century — James 
Clarence Mangan and Dr. George Sigerson — whilst 
the language in which they were written is classical 
enough to have merited the attention and commenda- 
tion of two of our best Irish scholars, Dr. Standish 
Hayes O'Grady and the late Mr. John Fleming. 
Mangan's translation of Macnamara's Bánchnoic 
Eireann ói/jh — 'The Fair Hills of Holy Ireland' — is 
deservedly well known to Irish readers of to-day, but 
it would be no harm if they were familiar also with 
the still more beautiful original. Dr. Sigerson's 
charming translation of Macnamara's admirable Latin 
epitaph on Theigue Gaeleach O'SuUivan I am happy 
to be able to reproduce here with the translator's 
latest revision. 

Most of the poems have been issued before in one 
form or another. The first collected edition appeared 
in 1853 under the name of 'S. Hayes,' i.e., Dr. [then 
Mr.] S. Hayes O'Grady. It was published by the 
late John O'Daly (who gave us the two fine volumes 
<rf Songs of the Mv.nsfer Bards, first and second series), 
and contained metrical versions of most of the poems. 
That edition, however, is long out of print and is now 
very rare. Some of the poems were republished in the 
Irishman in the years 1881-82 when Mr. David Comyn 
•edited the " Gaelic Department " of that paper. A 
more complete and more accurate edition of Donnchadh 

Ruadh's works appeared in the Second Volume of the 
Gadic Journal (July-Dec, 188t) from the hands of the 
late Mr. Fleming, when he was editor of that periodical 
But Red Donough's poems seemed to me worthy of a 
more accessible and more durable setting than the 
fugitive and easily-forgotten pages of a weekly or 
monthly journal. I knew, too, that the Eachtra Ghwlla 
anAmardin — Donough's longest poem — had often been 
set as a text for Intermediate and University students 
who, however, had a difficulty in getting trustworthy 
copies of the poem. Hence the present edition. 

To the poems I have prefixed Mr. Fleming's interest- 
ing Irish Life of Donnchadh Riuidh, written originally 
for the Irishman in 1881 and 1882. No man of the 
present century knew half so much about Macnamara 
— his life, his works, his wanderings — as John Fleming; 
he was acquainted not only with some of Donough's 
pupils, but also with one of his grandsons, and had 
many of his facts from living witnesses. Most of the 
particulars of the poet's life previously published (by 
Walsh, O'Daly, &c.) were obtained from Mr. Fleming 
— the errors and inaccuracies were not his. The reader 
will be glad to have this complete life of the poet from 
the hands of the man best able to write it ; and I hope 
it will be none the less welcome that the life of an Irish 
poet is here given in Irish, the language best known 
both to the poet and his biographer ; rare as it is, it 
should not seem inappropriate. John Fleming's ex- 
cellent Irish prose is worthy of being made a classic 
in itself. Yet, as this little book is intended chiefly 
for students of our language, I have added an English 

Donnchadh Ruadh wrote in Irish because it was the 
language he knew best, and because in the eighteenth 
century in which he lived Irish was still the language 
best and most widely understood in Munster. From 
many circumstances mentioned in his Hfe, and in his 
own poems, we learn too that Irish was still understood 
and spoken by the gentry of the period, even by many 
of the Anglo-Irish stock, as the Powers, the Walshes, 
Duckets and others, so different from the unmitigated 
snobbishness of a generation or two later. Yet it is 
clear that he had some knowledge of English, and as 
probably at that time some at least of the courses at 
the Irish College at Rome were given in English, he no 
doubt had some acquaintance with English literature, 
but he never felt himself at home in that language, ana 
his few English compositions are much inferior either 
to his Irish or his Latin verses. 

The Eachira GMoUa an Amaráin — the first poem 
given in the following pages — is Macnamara's longest 
and perhaps most ambitious composition. It is a 
narrative poem describing adventures — many of them 
doubtless fictitious — which he tells us he experienced 
in a voyage to America. The general character of the 
poem is light and humorous, with occasional touches 
of the pathetic, the satirical, the patriotic, and some- 
times also the heroic. The Second Part — that in 
which he describes his visit to the unseen world — is 
by far the better executed, and contains several well- 
sustained and powerful passages. It is this Second 
Part which has caused the poem to be spoken of some- 
times as a ' Mock ^neid,' for it contains some imita- 
tions of Vergil and some reminiscences of the Cumsean 

Sibyl, though why it should be called a ' Mock ' any 
thing is not very clear. 

The typical verse in the Eachtra is a line of nine 
syllables — four accented measures or ' feet * with an 
extra unaccented syllable ; the accent coming regularly 
on the even syllables (second, fourth, sixth, eighth) 
This would be called Iambic in English poetry, though 
of course it is not the Latin or Greek Iambic. Each 
line therefore ends in an accented syllable followed 
by h.n unaccented one. The following offers a good 
example : — 

'"Ooóuip I fi t*Sm I ApóLóip I t^^s m'eut» | ^in" — 
The accented penultimate syllable! moreover — a;^ 
seen in the above example — always has a long vowel oi 
diphthong, and in this poem this long vowel sound is é 
or some variety of it, ase^^^eu^^^i, aSj^^ These two 
syllables may form one word as éipe, Sféine, félle, 
or may be two separate words as tné óup, 5-AOt *if ; or 

" -c V occasionally the last two syllables of atrisyllabled word; 

.c ^ as in Ó Cinn | éiT)e. These two words éipe, gféine 

i^ ^ form aiypical assona nce or rhyme . Our native rhyme 
~. Ú — in Irish cgtfiAnpA — demands similarity of vowel 

\« ^ sound, but variety of consonants. English rhyme is 
^'s^ satisfied with identity of vowel sound and identity of 
** consonants, hence English rhyming is monotonous to 
the Irish ear. Now this rhyming of é 7^/?/5 an un- 
accented syllable is continued in the Eachira not for 
two or four or any limited number of lines but throiu/h- 
out its whole length — some 360 lines odd. And this 
recurrence of the one vowel sound would be monotonous 
even in Irish if it were mere ' rhyme,' that is, English 
rhyme; but the apparent monotony is relieved, or 

rather all monotony is prevented by two circumstancea 
(1) the variety of the consonants and (2) the variety 
of the other vowel sounds in each line. 

Again, English poetry is satisfied with, final rhymes, 
but in the GxiCC|VA and many other Irish poems, we 
have ftnal, initia l and medial rh yming. In the follow- 
ing couplet — ^ 

Do cum f Í iÁrh Ai[y ól^f tAg m eu"Ox3L}n 
/Af» t\u5 f Í 'n-^ii\T>e Af tn ÁjtAf péin me." — 

U. 163, 164. 
in each line there are three different accented vowel 
sounds Ú, Á, é — the second (m this case a) is generally 
repeated, so that in these lines the four accented vowel 
sounds are Ú, Á, Á, é. But whilst there is a final asso- 
nance of eti"OAin with péin mé there is also an asso- 
nance of each foot in the first line with the corresponding 
foot in the second — "oo 6uip with Af pug, f Í t.Árh with 
fi n-Án\*o', -Af ótÁn with x^f m'Áp', lAg m'eut)' with 
Af péin. So again with a different series of vowels in — 

" "Oo ttAinpt) An óofóin -oen óóip 'tiA éific 
'S DO teAtip-Ait) 50 •oeo -oe pó^\\ ÍTlhitéfiuf ." 

11. 285, 286. 
And thus with any couplet in the poem. Occasionally 
this profusion of assonance is found to run even through 
a whole quatrain, as in the four opening lines : — 

'"Oo f 1A |1 

-A|t bhu 1A tl 

Á\l Ct 1A f 

pAinn f c eo t 
]\Mt) beo it 
bo|t 01 tin 

•ootn CO m&p fA aji ao ti 
■00b' eo i'-oo ce«n 

e A|i ft 01 giriA ■péin 

to blwif m Ó1 piAf itlAO 



Snuif ! " 
U. 1-4. 

This metre is used by XTIac 5ioltA-meit)j\e, GogAn 
RuAt) Ó SúiiliuGÁin, Se^ijAn ó CuAm^ and many 
others of our poets of the last two or three centuriee, 


especially in their narrative poems. The '* iambics " 
sometimes interchange with trochee8,and less frequently 
glide into amphibrachs, as shall be pointed out later. 

There is nothing like this in English poetry. Wt, 
may be told it would not suit the genius of the English 
language — but this is not a satisfactory explanation, 
for every kind of foreign metre has been naturalised in 
English, and in modem English poetry all the metres 
are foreign, imported — none of the ancient Anglo- 
Saxon metres being used now in their original form. 
It is certain, too, that the metre of the Eachtra is a 
development, apparently not older than the sixteenth 
century, though no doubt sprung from simpler native 
measures. "Why it has not been used in English is 
probably due partly to ignorance of it, partly — so far 
as it is known — to its difficulty. Yet in the hands of 
such poets as Macnamara and Red Owen O'Sullivan 
it seems to have been marvellously easy and natural ; 
and though the manner is sometimes better than the 
matter, the art better than the substance, the wonder 
is that with such an apparently difficult metre, so long 
and, on the whole, so successful a poem as the ©AócjtA 
5iotlA AX\ AmxifiÁin could have been written. 

Even Irish poets translating from Irish into English 
have generally neglected everything but the final 
rhyme. Mangan seems to have been one of the first to 
catch the eíFect of the Irish internal rhymes, as we see 
it in his fine translation of CxMCilin ni U jiltAóÁin — 

" In vain, in vain, we turn to Spain — she heeds us not, 
Yet may we still by strength of will amend our lot ; 
yes, our/oe shall yet lie low, our swords are drawn 
For her our Quetn, our Caitilin ni Uallacháin ! " 

Here each line taken singly well represents the metre 
and style of the original, but in the Irish each couplet 
rhymes or assonates, not only in the final words, but in 
every single measure or foot, and this charm is sacri- 
ficed in such translation as the above. In our own day 
Dr. Douglas Hyde and Mr. Frank Fahy have skilfully 
and happily imitated these Irish interna lrhym^s — with 
the same limitations as in the above lines of Mangan — 
in their English verses, original and translated. 

Michael Hogan, in his Lays and Legends o/Thomond, 
has now and again attempted initial rhymes as well as 
final, and he, I think, is the only poet who has done 
this in English. For instance, in his " Bride of Clan 
Cuilen " — a legend of the Macnamaras, by the bye — 
we find such lines as — 

" Lightly the bride from the altar's returning. 
Brightly the bonfires before her are burning, 
Sweetly the tones of the bagpipes are ringing. 
Fleetly the young virgin dancers are springing. 
Proudly the chiefs round the bridal feast gather^ 
Loudly resound the old halls of her father — " 

And so on for half-a-dozen other couplets, the initial 
words rhyming as well as the finals. Now, this is 
getting near the Irish metre here spoken of, but does 
not quite hit it. Indeed, the only English lines I 
know where the rhyming is carried out to the full in 
the Irish style are Macnamara's own couplet, which, 
in the account of the sea-fight, he puts into the mouth 
of the English-speaking captain — 

" Ounner, give^re, -wq^Vl fight the negroe». 
We'll covyjuer or die, my Irish, heroes ! " — 

IL 309, 310. 

Only it will be seen that he uses Irish corfiA|AX)A 
rather than English rhyme — though * gunner ' and 
' conquer ' do not make a good assonance. 

In my versified translation of the Euchtra the reader 
will find that I have reproduced the metre of the 
original, so far as syllables, accents, and final rhymes 
go, and in this respect, if in no other, it differs from 
Mr. O'Grady's metrical version. I have not attempted 
either internal rhymes or such a tour de form as the 
initial and medial parallel assonances of the original, 
seeing that such a master of versification as Mangan 
found them — at least the latter — hopeless in English. 
If some find my prose translation not always word 
for word, I must tell tliem, once for all, my idea of 
translation — first, I believe that good Irish sliould 
be rendered by good English, so far as an Irishman 
can achieve that result ; and secondly, I believe that 
something should be left to the student — and to the 
teacher. As it is, I have ventured sometimes for the 
student's sake to be more literal than I care for, or than 
good English strictly allows. My excuse here is that 
poetry is generally harder than prose — in the Life of 
Donnclmdh Ruadh I have translated with more freedom. 

As to Red Donough's life and work on the whole — 
to judge them fairly one must remember the times he 
lived in, the state of the country, his lack of opportu- 
nities, his temptations, and other circumstances. Mr. 
Fleming does not spare him, yet I think readers gene- 
rally will agree with me that he is rather a severe critic 
both of Macnamara's life and of his poetry. Though 
an excellent Irish scholar, we are not bound to admit 
that Mr. Fleming was a good critic of poetry. And of 

poor Donough's life — as of that of many another child 
of genius — we may say, that if he has given us any- 
thing that is good or beautiful, we may take that as 
some atonement for his waywardness or his faults — 
not admiring his life, but rather pitying it. So, too, 
if Donough is not always uniformly good in his poetry, 
this can be said of many very great poets, and we 
love or admire their good work, not because of, but 
in spite of what is inferior or unworthy. Though 
printed Irish books were extremely rare in the last 
century, it is quite certain that Macnamara was one 
of the very best Irish scholars then living. O'Reilly 
wrote a large and valuable quarto Irish dictionary, 
yet in Mr. Fleming's opinion, Donnchadh Ruadh 
knew the Irish language far better than O'Reilly, 
and I entirely agree with that opinion. 

I have diligently compared all the printed editions 
of Macnamara's poems, but follow chiefly the texts 
given by Mr. Fleming in the second volume of the 
Gaelic Journal above alluded to. He had the poems 
from a MS. collection, written in 1786 by one Laurence 
Foran, a school-master of the Co. Waterford, who had 
been a pupil of Donnchadh Ruadh's, and this Mr. 
Fleming considered the most trustworthy source. I 
have not heard that any autograph MSS, exist, if there 
are any such I shall be very glad to hear of them. 

I must say here that it was my original intention 
to publish Notes to the EacMra, and a complete Voca- 
bulary to the Life and Poems, but as they could not 
be finished in time, I must leave them for a second 

And now there only remains the pleasant duty of 

thanking the various friends and co-operators who have 

kindly helped me in putting together this edition of the 

Life and Poems of Donnchadh Ruadh MacConmara. 

And in the first place I must thank Mrs. Raher, of 

Ardmore National School, Carna, Co. Galway, elJest 

daughter of the lamented Mr. John Fleming, who gave 

me the fullest permission to use for this work any of 

her father's writings. I have to thank also Father 

Michael Hickey, the distinguished Professor of Irish 

at Maynooth, for much friendly help and information. 

My acknowledgments are due also to Dr. George 

Sigerson, translator of the Second Series of O'Daly't 

Munster Poets, who, amidst his various pressing duties, 

has found time to revise for this work his beautiful 

translation of Macnamara's Epitaph on Tadhg 

Gaedhealach. To my friend Mr. David Comyn, I am 

indebted for many friendly hints and communications. 

And finally, I have to thank Mr. Patrick Stanton of 

Cork, and Mr. Thomas Devine of Youghal, for much 

valuable information about Donnchadh Ruadh and 

localities in Co. Waterford, which I hope to make use 

of in a subsequent edition. 

T. Ó Flannghailk 

tDGACA -O on tic At) A ntiAit^ 
title con-mAtiA. 

te Se^jAti piéimion. 

tluATb 'fAfi s- Crve^c^ 
tAig 1 g-concxje An 
CtilAif 1 O-pOfv-tof AÓ 
«A n-Aci]2e 'o'imci$ 
t^ttAinn. "Oo 6inn 
A túifmi§teoiíMt)e 'oon c-iMgxipcxxcc é, ^5«r 
uime fin pu*Mt\ f^ •<^" oipe^-o pogtAtnA Aguf "oob' 
péi'Dif leif •o'f^jAit in éijMnn An ZAn fin, A-^uf 
'nA ■01^1'D fin "00 cui^exit) ' pon ílóitti é óum cí\íoó 
■00 6u|T xip A foglAim Aguf óum ÓtAX) tDeAnnuigte 
"o f^g-Ait. Atz in Á1C filtCAt) A t)Aile 'n^ f^jAfic 
óum AtvÁn nA X)eAtA "oo ttjiifexit) "oo ■óAOiniú 
t)oóCA, CjvÁi-óce n-A h-é1t^eAnn za\\. éif DeAj^Jn 1)6 

Life of Red Donough Macnamara. 

[Translated by T. ó Flannghaile from the Irish of 

John Fleming.] 

I. DONNCHADH RuADH (or 'Red Donough') was born 
in Cratloe, in the Co. Clare, early in the last century. His 
parents intended him for the priesthood, and therefore 
he received in Ireland as much of his education as was 
possible for him at that time, and after that he was sent 
to Rome to finish his education and to receive Holy 
Orders. But instead of returning home in a few years 
a priest — to break the Bread of Life to the poor, oppressed 
people of Ireland — he was expelled from the college af 

DtMt>4ncAtO, t)c l UMiy^eA-Q Af An ^t^-ofcoiL fAn 
Uflii-h é, ^guf -oo í:p1<^lL f é CAp Aip 50 popctAifje, 
Do Oi f An Am fin fcoil óliróArhAil lAi-one 1 5- 
cóncAe ptiO|\clÁip5e, Ag SliAli 5-CuA, 1 tí-pApÁ- 
if ce Slieif cneÁin, amóe AlV iettejMLi^e i-oip "Óhún- 
SAftJÁin Aguf ChluAin-meAtA, Aguf X)o tfiAtt 
(r^^f^l- "OonnóAt) ^a6 n'DíneAó A n An lonAT) út) in ^ic "oul 
X) A tijA "oútÓAif féin. X)ob' péiT)i|\ guf óuaIaiiJ 
"OonnóAt) f An TlOirh rAfc nA fcoite úx), Oif -oo 
ti5i"oif ojAnAig Af 5AÓ lonAT) in éipinn 50 SliAtJ 
5-C11A A5 poglAim poirh -out -oon ^ThjiAinc, X)on 
SpÁinn n6 'oon 1o^^'R<^)^ t)A feAn-ttat) fAn 
ITlurhAin 50 O ruAin SUad^CTua bApp péite, X>Áp\\ 
léiginn Ajuf DÁpp pili-oeAoCA, Aguf -oubAii^c 
"OonneAt) péin f An "GAóctvA" toeAgÁn bliA-óAn i- 
n-DUMt) An AITIA fo gup t>'é " SLiAtJ geAl 5-CuA 
t\u5 t)UAit) nA péile." 

11. Hi DeA5 mAp 'óeiriiniu$A'ó a|» féite luCc * 

Rome, and he came back (to Ireland) landing at Water- 
/ord. There was at that time a famous Latin school in 
the Co. Waterford, at Slieve Gua, in the parish of Sesknan, 
about half-way between Dungarvan and Clonmel, and 
D enough made direct for that place instead of going to 
his own native district Possibly he had heard in Rome 
of the fame of that school, for youths used to come from 
every part of Ireland to Slieve Gua to study before going 
to France or Spain or Italy. It was a proverb in Munster 
that Slieve Gua took the sway for hospitality, for learn- 
ing, and for poetry, and Donough himself said in his 
Adventures a few years after this that "bright Sheve 
Gua bore the palm for hospitaUty." 
'?. It is no small proof of the hospitality of the inhabi- 

le ceut) t)tiAt)-áin tió triAnfin, Aguf 50 5p4§A"OACii*' 

-i- \2IX^" ^" Aifce ó s^Ml^élJóib ShtéiOe 5-CtJA. fLr^ 
tneAffAf uitfiip ^suf cineut riA n-ósÁn^ó ú"o ajx 
5-clof 5Uf\ éifig i ottLÁin óomófrA if iT)ip lA'D-pem ^^»-^ 
Aguf pejittAit) tiOk 'oúitóe cimóitt ^guf guj^ óuip^*^ 
riA ■OAl^i'oe Afi UÁi|\e ^ t^ rhuincif x\a cíjie. If 
f-Ati fcoit f o mAi\ An 5-ceu'onA 'oo puAij\ cLiajv ah <í^ 
6Ú151-Ó — fASAipc Aguf -oíj^ nO Cfviuf e^fpog — cr^^ 
léijeAnn nó jup óuA'óA'OAf ca|\ le ^f ^5 p ogtAim 

111. If t)AfArhAit óoicóeónn gup rhiigifcif 

fcoile VlittiAm 6 ITIogtvÁin Af a t>fuit cgAó c 

**■ CAijyf f An " Gaócha " Ajuf juf b' in Aon f coiL 

•00 tií fé féin Ajuf "OonnoAt) aj múnAt). xXóc ni 

mAf fin x)o t)í. 5'^^^^^^^''^^ f Ai-ót>ifi t)A ti-eAt) ó 

tants of that district that that school was maintained for 
a hundred years or so, and that those stranger youths 
used to get lodging and free entertainment from the 
fanners of Slieve g-Cua. The number and quality of 
those youths may be imagined when we learn that a 
hurhng match occurred between them and the young men 
of the surrounding country, and the scholars won the 
game from the country people. It was in this school too 
that the clergy of the pro\ince — priests and two or 
:• three bishops — received their education until they went 
[over sea, i.e."] abroad to study theology. 

3. It is a common opinion that the William O'Moran, 
of whom there is mention in the Adventures, was a 
school-master, and that it was in one school he and 
Dcnough were teaching. But such is not the case. A 
ric'.i "armer was O'Moran, and it is probable that it was in 


mogp^^in, Ajuf If i nrheArcA 5ut\ t)' Ap AorógAóc 
'tiA Ci$ "oo óorhnuig "ConnóA-ó Ap -o-ceAoc 50 SIiaO , 
5-CuA t)ó. AcÁ 'oeipftf lup -o'ó 1n^lo$pÁln At)tA^te 
ic^^ 1 neili5 intiAi5e-T)eit5e f An s-cottiAttf ahaoc, Aguf 
^""^^ Af Ati teic of A cionn -oo f CfAiot) a 'oeAf\tn\4tAip 1 
LAiTDin : X)o til riAOi 5-ceoljiAit)e f ad n^peig 
AÓC c4 An T)eAóttiAt) "oioti rÁ'n leic ro." SAn 
•OAfA cuiT) "o " ]^tiilit)eAóc nA tnutfiAn " (l eAtAn A^ 
211) •oei|\ SeAgAn ó "OaLai^ 50 ^tAit) 'nA feilO 
poclóip UÍ DhpiAin in a ivaiO fefCfxioticA 1 tAiT)in: 
"If te VJiltiAm Ó 1T1o$f4in An leAt>Afi fo, t)liAt)Ain 
An UigcAt^nA, 1774." 

lU. "Oo W 6 IDogfáin AOfOA An CAn pn, óip 

éA óeitpe btíA-ónA Af "oÁ-fMóiT) foirhe fin -oo $aG 

CAifceAlAit)e 'oe muincii\ Ctiot)tAi$ ó óóncAe 

tuimnij cfé ShliAti 5-CuA Aguf do fUAip fé 

r^ ^^0 }fcAr oitio e 1 'D-cig ^^^"l^-Í"^ AnnAgAin 1 

"oCig-nA-coille fAn 5-ceAnncAn fin. Da file ó 

his house that Donough lodged on going to Slieve Gua. 
There is a sister of O'Moran's buried in the church-yard 
of Modeligo in the neighbourhood, and on the flagstone 
over her grave her brother wrote in Latin : " There were 
nine Muses in Greece, but the tenth lies beneath this 
stone." In the second volume of the Poetry of 
Munster (page 211) John O'Daly says that he had in 
his possession (a copy of) O'Brien's Irish Dictionary in 
which there was written in Latin : " This book belongs 
to William O'Moran, year of our Lord 1774." 

4. O'Moran was aged at that time, for, four and forty 
years before that a traveller of the name of O'Coffey from 
Co. Limerick passed through Slieve g-Cua and he got a 
night's lodging at the house of Thomas O'Hannigan in 

h-AntiAS^in ^suf i 5-CAiteArh via h-wóce tD'eit^S 
'^ ^2Ís51^^ teijinn i-oit^ é péin Ajuf An • oeo^tAit ). ^gtaf -f^rr 
.\I\t)peiCfin ■0Ó 50 f Aib^ncpirhtigeAó t^ó frojlAtntx^ 
t)ó vo óuit^ fé rior^ wíriot 4n ó ITlojfÁin 50 Ui$- 
nA-tAjxMfe. UtiÁinig ó tllogttÁin A^uf "oo óeAT - 
cnuig f é Ati coirhtijeAó 1 mtDeut^tA, 1 Laiditi, Ajuf 
1 n^Ae-óilis, .Asuf puAit^ f é ctif ce é in ^a6 zeAn^A 
■óíoí) ^sur fó eolAó "oó 'f^^ ti-e^WóiTAit). X)o 
cuife^t) ftJAf cit-rcoile- 'oon X)eoív<M'ó 1 mt)Aile- 
nA-siotCAige, Aguf ó'n C|vÁt pn, cimce^tt nxi 
t)lM-ónA 1730, 50 1825, "00 li)í fcoit tAi-one 
'olÁ_j2éolAt) f Ati s-corhAff AriAóc ; ai\ 'O-cúf a^ 
ó CotttAij, -Aguf Ann fin a'Z ComÁf ó "LonnxXfSÁin 
45«f -AS UomÁf ó C^oitti, • QUMt) 1 n-QiAtt ). ^■^^<-^M^f<. 

W. 1r cmnce gun t)' in ^\on rcoit te ti-ó Cot>- 
CAi^ 'oo t)í "Oonnc Jk"ó UuAt) " ^5 pMjt tuóc' ■ovuncA, v^ 
^^^"tSjju^ó, Aguf ctéifeAó " 1 mt)Aile-nA-5iolc«M5e 1 

Tinnakill in that district. O'Hannigan was a poet, and 
in the course of the evening a learner' irgument arose 
between himself and the stranger, and seeing that his 
\Tsitor was too learned for him, he sent word privately 
for O'Moran to Tigh-na-lagJiaire. O'Moran came and 
questioned the stranger in English, in Latin, and in Irish, 
and found him proficient in each of these languages, and 
too clever for him in the sciences. A school-house was 
set up for the stranger in Baile-na-giolcaighe, and from 
that time — about the year 1730 — to 1825, there was a 
Latin school conducted in the neighbourhood ; at first by 
O'Coffey and then by Thomas O'Lonnargan and by 
Thomas O'Keeffe successively. 

5. It is certain that it was in one school with O'Cofifej 
that Red Donough was 'ministering to poets, seers, and 
clerics ' in Baile-na-giolcaighe in 'bright Slieve Gua' until 

«'StiAtt seAl 5-Cua" nó gup feoit ax) mUÁt pAoi 
■opeuóc 4t)AóCA -oo •oeAtiAtn "oo óAilin t^péijiCAjjí^L 
-oo t>í r^ti 5-ceAnnCAit. "Oob fénoip teif tieit aj 

50 f éirii -óó"— ^5up -oeiixireAt) f é leif An ce^gAfc 
50 ti-upixAm^o A j^ full Le blAife rixi le-annA 
■o'pÁ^AiL 1 5-ci\í6 DA coriiáiHle — ^óc níp léx^Án^ 
rX^-^lUBUl -^ ^"^■'^ triASAit!) lei£? "00 6«ip r1 t^ oTfiina jaA 
Ap ■oeAiAg-tAfAt ) 1 troíon cige riA fcotle m^i-oin 
l^e t)eAtCAine 1 mt)liA"óAin -An c-feAC<^1740, «iguf 
■oo b'éijeAn -oo "Oíionnó^'ó ini jieAt) -do •óé^rvSÍTL 
Aóc ní F4pA "oo óuAit) ré, óip 1 mbe^SÁn ^imfipe 
"Oo^j^erbteAf a tuKjv^fc^\píf 1 5-CA]\iuM5-*\n- 
ÓODAtCA f An 5-corhAi\f AnAóc. 

"Ul. If nóf 1 5-c6ncAe piiopc-ÍÁipse -oo fAjAf- 
CA\t> nA l3-pA|\ÁifceAt) cimóiLt -out 50 ti-Afo-móp 
l-á f?éile tlAoim "OiASlÁin A15 éifce^óc fAoifitnn 
'f -A5 fÁt) AifpeAnn ; Aguf 1 me^fc via 5-ctiAp Ann 

ill-luck drove him to compose some satirical verses about 
a handsome girl [who lived] in the district He might 
make fun of "the priest who used to give him kindly 
instruction" — and he would listen to the instruction 
me«kly, expecting to get a drink of ale at the end of the 
counsel — but the young woman did not excuse his joking ; 
she set a lighted sod of turf to the thatch of the school- 
house on the morning of May-day, the year of the frost, 
1740, and Donough was obliged to make a move [change 
his quarters]. But he did not go far, for in a little while 
he is heard of again at Sleepy Rock in the neighbourhood. 
. 6. It is a custom in the County Waterford for the parish 

F»riests to go to Ardmore on the feast day of St. Declan 
24th July] to hear confessions and to say Mass ; and 


c-f e^cxx T)o tií Ati c-At^ip ComÁr ó ^ríoF^i'ó, ah 
c--<\txMí\ SéAtnuf Céicin, Aguf *xn c-AcAip Sca^ap. 
ó trioifiAiti. X)o f.inne ^n x)ír eile cluióe ^"oaoca 
Af rho'ó eigin 'oe'íi AtAin CotnÁf — if inrheAfCA 
SUf -opeucc Afefiiin nó c^^nq^^o óuiuA"o*íip x>6 ; 
Aguf -oo fitine An c-AtAip ComÁf -oán x>óit)-f e/in 
■00 tof ui§e*.\f m^Af f o : 

mi. " An AitniT» -oiG Séxxmuf Af Se^jAn 05 
^^^ Aicme -oen étéip fin T)o $|tÁ-ó«i$ ceol, 
peAp -oíoti ó ftéit!)ci5 Aw t^ile n^ó ^eipTie 

'S^n ne^ó etle ó'n 5-cé pn n^ mM-o- 

" If mAijAS "oon cé fin t5í táirh leo 
C*MtteArhAin éif ceAóc' t>At) "óÁji- T)6 IUú-Jíi^ 
le f eAftt^f tȎici$, V^ l ej^t-A t\ X)'a feub^t) S'Ai^ 
Ap 5-c-AiteArh ^n péá£Cx^4!)í inÁfX)-rii6fi!" 

amongst the clergy there on one ocAsion shortly after 
the "Year of the Frost" were Father Thomas Griffin, 
Father James Keating, and Father John Ryan. The 
other two played a practical joke in some way on Father 
Thomas — ^probably it was a little song or elegy they 
composed for him ; and Father Thomas composed a poem 
on them beginning thus : — 

7. " Do ye know [this] James and young John 
Some of the clerics that loved music — 
One of them from the mountains near the town that is 
not the highest 
The other from the quay of the sailing-boats ? 

1 5-Cfíó A ■óí\eu6cA 5lAot)^nn Ár\ ple -Ap "Otionn 

" A 6a\ka r\A n-éi^e^r nÁp vcán póf o^T^*^ 
^g^^^ ii^'i? O'ti 5-C^ppAi5 f o Cx^ ot» lin n riAé f Árh neot 
SmxJécuig An óléiii f o let)' teAngAin i t>-pAXO»Ap, 
tló jeAUAim 50 "o-cjiAoo^Af ^n x)Á\m 

tllll. -ADeip ni^c-li^^lD ®'^^ " ^" S'CAttjUMS 
f o ZAoX» tinn A f f Árh neot " aóc if dóiJ gujA b'é 
Ati pocAl n A ó *\f peÁpp Ann fo, mÁf ^riop gup I)' 
V*^ ó t o^lAit)it > lé'.f gn^tAó ceAéc óum cot)aIca Ann 
cujAt) An z-A\nm, Ajuf ní co'dIa'ó fUAnriiAji nÁ 
fÁrh Af gnÁt le "opoins "oen c-jMrhAil fin -oo 

" Alas for him that was near them — 
The loss of his hearing would have been a bless- 
ing to him — 
With the gruffness of their roaring, and their skin burst- 
« ing [with laughter]. 

Enjoying the feast there was at Ardmore ! " 

At the end of his poem, the poet calls upon Donough 
saying : — 

"O friend of the poets who never didst flinch — 
[Who comest] from the Rock beside us, where 
sweet sleep is not usual — 
Chastise these clergy with sharpness in thy tongue 

Or I promise that the bards will be put down by 
them ! " 

8. Another copy says "from the Rock beside us, where 
sweet sleep zs usual," but it is probable that it is the phrase 
"is not" which is best here, if it is true that it was from 
robbers with whom it was customary to come to sleep 
there, the name was given, and it is not soft or sweet sleep 


■C)éi^nArh. "O'^feAjAip "OonncAt) An gtAot) i 
nx)peuóc eile '5a t)]:tJil-An cio'OAt fo 'r\Á^ ítoixM'ó : 

IPC. '"Oonnoxxt) tlti^-ó ccc 1 -o-CAOit) ófónÁin *'^ 
r\A "oire feurhfAi-Dte *Don ÁcAip Com^f ó ^fíO" 

" So f ceut^ottis •PA tjAoi-o A]^ 'oeo|\Áti ^^jz-^-rA^ c 

An c-Aon-pe^p T)ob' pe^NfijiA t)i in éifinn "oe 

A5 cléii\ 'nA f coc-mAjAit) Af món-é oÁip ! 

tÁpni Aguf c^ife <.\5tir coóc^n 

X)éipc fAgurp^xcA A|v A éi otnpÁ n 
5<in |\eut in A^p^^^ 5^" cléitte^ó, 5*^n oAp^lt 

A5 An cé jiinn An iriAgAt) te f\ó-ppÁifc ! 
X. T)o tMUMgeAi!) "OonnóAt) ó t)liAite-nA-5iot- 
CAije 'fAn nit)tiA"OAin 1740, Aguf "oo óu.Mt) fe 50 

that is usual with people of that class. Donough answered 
the call in some verses headed as follows : — 

9. " Red Donough sang of the droning of the fore- 
mentioned pair about Father Thomas Griftin : 

" Here is a story which has brought woe and grief, 
Deep sighing and pain into my heart's core — 
The one man who was best in Erin of [all her] priests, 
A laughing stock and object of derision to some 
clergy ! 

Plague and weakness and hoarseness, 
Begging with a pack on his hump, 
No sixpence in his purse, no clerk, no horse, 

To him who thus scoffed, with great madness !" 

10. Donough was driven from Baile-na-giolcaighe in 
the year 1740, and he went to Waterford on his way to 

t4Í u.Án'-^^^^t,'^^ 

pofC-tAipse Ap A flije 50 UAlArn-Ati-éifc fAn 

L^ mt>li^"6Ain 1745. 1t)ip An tdá tinn fo "oo Cí fe 

mAjt bitníx) CAiTiAlt éi5in/ij5-CAívtvAi5-An-óo'OAlC4 

Aguf 'tiA "óixMt) fin 1 ni b^nCmcAO o Ua\ TTlAC-coilte 

r.-^ tÁim te li-eoÓAtll. "O'lnnip ttiac xí rhic "OAm 

^^Supb' cj}£iiniv:oo_ÓAit ■opotrg; -ppeAttAiC) Ó5A "^'PSJ?/ 

CIA ACA "DO rheAtlpAt) úum eutyi^e leif ITlÁif^ 

ní OjÁtn An CAilín bAjfiiOfcef 'T' "o^ fVAit) fAn 

m-t)A|\úncAóc Aguf óum "OonnoA-uA -oo tuic An 

cjTAnn, Aguf tnAp fin "oo úuAit) fé 50 h-uib tTlAC- 

coilte. I 

X\. X)'eutui$ V(\&\x<e leif Aguf t)o i^ta* 4,eir 1 

í ; a6c if inrfieAfCA nAó pa'oa t»íot)Ap 1 mp un cigi f 

An CAn •00 6uirhni$ X)onnÓAt) Ap imteAóc UAite. 

A^oeif f e f An " ©Aócttá " Agur An cinneAf -pAipge 

"óó 50 mbAt) rhAit teif a " Ceit f ati nit)A|\úncAóc 

Am' neApnugA* 't)if 5*^^^*^^^'^' ^5 r®^<^ ^Oj 

ceAtfAtTiAn, 'fA5 f niAOcu^A-o mo tpeupA." í^^^^j^ 

Newfoundland [" The Land of Fish "] in 1745. Isetween 
these two dates he was, as we see, a while at Sleepy Roclc, 
and after that in the Barony of Imokilly near Youghal. 
A grandson of his told me that lots were drawn by some 
young men to know who should induce Mary Hogan to 
elope with him — the handsomest girl there was in the 
Barony ; and on Donough fell the lot, and then he went 
to Imokilly. 

II. Mary eloped with him and was married to him ; 
but it is probable they were not long house-keeping when 
Donough thought of leaving her. He says in his 
Adventures, when suffering from the sea-sickness, that 
he wished "he was in the Barony growing strong 
amongst his fellow-Gaels, selling his ciaihramhna and 
keepmg his flock in order." 


XII- t)^ h-iAT) AOf Ó5 nA fcoite &n Cjieut), Ate 
cpeuT) Í An óeAújiArhA "oo t)i Aije le f eic ? 1 
nDfeuóc eile "oo finne re A-t^pAx» 1 troiAit) da ti- 
^ Aimfipe fo, -oeif fé 50 mb-freAfvp leif a tieic '" aj 
' "oíoí ?; Ai|\céitMt>e jv\ Ag "out pÁ'n s-coat." ImeAf c 
nA 5-ciAlt eile A5 An OpocAl ceAtpAiiiA, 
ciAtluijeAnn fé nijiAf tieAg coQiUt) no trencher, 
Ajuf t)A rhiAfA beAjA Ajuf moftA -oen A-ótiAp fO 
t)it)eAt) Ag muincip nA h-éifeAnn^ÉU-o so teiC 
bliA-óAin Ó foin, in Áic nA rniAr CfviAt) aca Anoir 
ACA ; Aguf t)A %r\Át ceAnnAi'ote ^^^^^'^ A5 jAbAit 
cimóilt 'OeJ^^icrp niA|i gAC C At^t^A t) eile &^ a 
mbiAnn 10^5. lli 'oó\% 50^ CteAó c "OonnóAt) /;u 
ceAnnAit)eAóc nÁ X)íotiii$eAóc Afv biú fiArii. acc 
gupb' niAfi -oiioiorheAf Ap a flije-beAúA t)o ttvÁó- 
CAnn f é Af An ngnó f o. If "Oóij mAp An gceu-onA 
n^f bpA'DA 50 tJptiAif niÁife ní OjAin aitiaó r\Á^ 

12. The children at his school were his "flock," but what 
was the '■'' ceathramha" he had to sell? In another poem 
he composed long after this time he says, he would prefer 
"to be selling garters to going to the wood." Amongst 
other meanings of the word ceathramha it signifies a small 
wooden dish or " trencher," and it was dishes large and 
small of this material that the people of Ireland used to 
have a hundred and fifty years ago, instead of the earthen- 
ware dishes they have now : and it was usual for petty 
• dealers [pedlars] to go about selling these like every othei 
ware that was in demand. It is improbable that Donough 
ever did any selling or dealing of any sort, and it appears 
that it was only in disparagement of his own mode of Ufe 
he spoke of his business. It is likely too that it was not 
long till Mary Hogan found out that she was no better off 
to be with Donough than to be without him, and probably 

12 J 

tipe^HP T)í "OonnóAt) aicí 'r\Á uAiCe, Aguf ip ■oóig 
^óf 50 TD-cus A muincii\ congnxMii óum An peAjt 
beAg-i-hAiteAf Aó 'oo óujt C4i\ f^ile : a6z in <iic 
•out Anonn if eAt) "oo finne fé pAnriiAin 1 b-popc- 
LAipje guf ÓA^t fé A fvAit) Aige. tlip óuAit) fé 
50 ■oútAi$ 'Ohéife^ió A|\íf 1 TTOiAiTo tiA ti-Aimfii\e 
T fo ; T)o tu5 fé Ati óuit) eile X)'a fAogAti tiDútxMg 

rurí-f PjTAOJtAÓ, 1*01^ ftÓ»tÍClt> Atl CllUm<^|VA1$ xJkgUf ATI 

c-Siuip Aóz 50 TToeAóAit) fé 50 UAlAiii-An-eifC 
UAijt Aitt pe-At) Xf'Á f ArhitA-ó Af geirhfit), Agup 50 
•o-cug fé cuAipc nó t)ó fAn ttpjvAinc, nó 1 funtv^ut^ 
eigin eite "oe rh óiptí n tiA ti-eoppA. e.d-T^'^s-'^^x^xt- 

X111. 1 sCoitt-ttiic-CliomÁifín 'feAt) óímí-o é 
Af 'o-cúf ZA\y éif f é riA h-" eAoCjiA." "Oo f ugAt) 
Afi c-AcAijA ComÁp ó piAtinAttpA f A^Apc pAivÁifce 
ChlUAriA-meAlA f An mUliA'óAni 1756, Agup if Ag 
•out óum A 1iAifCi"ó "00 t»í X)onnóAt) ó Choilt-rhic- 
CtiomÁif ín 50 "o-ci An SpA-o-tJAile ah CAn "oo óUAit> 

her family gave something to send the husband of 
little good across the water ; but instead of going off what 
he did was to stay in Waterford till he had spent all he 
had. He did not go to the Decies' country [ever] again 
after this time : he spent the rest of his life in Powers' 
country between the mountains of the Comeragh and the 
Suir, except that he went once to Ne\vfoundland for two 
summers and a winter, and that he once or twice visited 
France or some other part of the continent of Europe. 

13. It is in Kilmacthomas we first see him after the 
period of his Adventures. Father Thomas Flannery, 
parish priest of Clonmel, was bom in the year 1756, and, 
It was going to his christening that Donough was, from 
Kilmacthomas to Stradbally. when he entered the priest's 

f é if ceAó 1 "ocig An c-f AgAijic a\\ á f Uge. AT)eif 

" tluxvijA tug^-o mo óottiAí^pAin cóip x\f gteuf x>Arr\ 
5íiMi"óinn cui-oexJióCA Af fpópc ó'n nam 50 . 
óéíle."— UC^^ 

Ajuf AZÁ f e fiÁi-óce riAó jiAib in éipinn cui-oe^oCA 
•oot' ^'eÁpp 'r\Á é f An Áic x3i i^xMti -an óóitt rhA&\le 
pÁjAil. "Oo t)i pÁitce ^oirhe ^5 jaó t}4m^f^í|^ 
'^i'*^^órp4i <^5u^ if óum cume^oCA tdo -óéAinxMti ^5 An 
n\\3A^YzeAX) "00 ttMAtt f e 'oon^-SitÁ'oOAile. '0'ó|^- 

•OUIj An f AgAfC, An Z-;A.tAAj\SeA%An Ó CAtA]M1$, 

■d'a rhnAOi-cige, pi onncXlg knnA "oo tAbAij^c 'oó, 
Aóc X)A t»eA5 le 'OonnóAt) fin, Ajtif "o'iAfp fé 
-oeoó eile. 'Out)Ait\c An f ajajac n^ó f aiC f e a 

^Á nReottAt) An c-flise, Aguf X)'itTici$ "OonnéAt) 

XfíAX^ A t VAIO A UniAlt. CtlAimg AH fAJAfU Ann 

house on his way thither. Donough says in his Eachtra: 

*' When my neighbours gave me a fair opportunity 

and means 
I would make fun and sport from one evening to 

another." — 

And it is said there was not in Ireland better company 
than he wherever there was a good reception to be found. 
There was a welcome for him at every wedding and feast, 
and it was to afford amusement at the christening that he 
set out for Stradbally. The priest, Father John Casey, 
ordered his housekeeper to give him a pint of ale, but 
Donough thought Uttle of that, and he asked for another 
draught. The priest said that he could not afford [it was 


mAf An 5-ceut)nA ; xiguf a^ rrtbeit "oon óunoeAÓCA 
Ag 61 xiguf A^ A Oit>ne Af "oo tAinig ce^ocAipe 'k4 
jvÁt) 50 jVAit» t)AfiAiUe An c-f/kgAipc As'^AofcA* 
riA teAtiriA. l,eif pn "Oo finne "OonnÓAt) An x>Án 
■oon .AtAip SeAgAn 6 CAtAfAi$ in a n-oeip fé gut^ 
t)' lA-o An fluAg-fi-oe x>'ot tionn An c-fAgAifC, 
Aguf 'OÁp cof AÓ : 

" If mAips-guipc 1 m-bAitce CViui|\c, if bf on 'pp 

^JU^^ r,cior;'ecc* o^ie^ 4-C> 

XIU. tJpi toll At) An A "q^éi^ ^ An Atn A. jg, f/.n 
mbliA-óAin 1759, -00 t>í X)onn6A'ó A5 " CeAgAfC r\A 
n-65 'fA5 corhAifliugAt) nA 5-cfionnA " in At-nA- 
pcoite Aguf 'fAn j-CAiftei^n-nuAt) cimóeAtt ÓÚ15 
'^^*'^*'*^ rhíle reAnAinn foi|\ ó CnoiU-rhic-ClioniÁifín Ap 
An c-flije 50 poí\clÁif5e, ói|\ if ó'n 4ic-fe "oo 

not in his power] to be giving beer in that way to every 
idler that was going the road, and so Donough set out for 
his destination. The priest arrived there too ; and while 
the company were drinking and amusing themselves there 
came a messenger to say that Father John's barrel had 
burst, and all his ale was running out. Thereupwin 
Donough composed that poem about Father John Casey 
in which he says that it was the fairies had drunk the 
priest's ale, and which begins : 

" 'Tis bitter-woe midst the towns of Core, 'tis grief and 'tis 
misery," &c 

14. Three years after this— in 1759— Donough was 
"teaching the young and advising the old," in Aih-na-, 
scoUe, and in Newcastle, about five miles of land east of 
Kilmacthomas, on the way to Waterford, for it is from 

• See p. 93 lor some verses of t^'\is poem 


tt>5 fé An " pAf " * no ceA-o-CAif nt -oo " UifceAfo 

jvÁn^óA. CÚ15 t)tiAt)AnA eite pop Aguf -pÁjtAtt 
"OonnóA-ó 1 sCoiU-rhic-CtiomÁifín 1 t)-píjHoóUAp r^/k 
TiA ti-Aitrgeif^ A5 fo niAp po fctiíoC f é ^n CAn 
f o óum T)uine^UArAJtin Jtóuinge : " X)on c-f aoi 
uAf^l, ojjvóeAjic, Áifo-óéimeAó, eA'óón, SéAtnuf 
-^^ucAC, onóú cofAncA Aguf ce^nn-comAif ce, Aguf 
'^ror mójx n^ n-UAfAt ti-éi5feAÓ, n-e^tA-oAncA, n- /^ 
éifCAnnAó, Aguf 50 li-Ái|vite, a fe Afft-pogAncAi'o e 
t>ílif féin, eA-óón, "OonnóAt) ITlAcnAmAtvA, Aon 
■o'ói^-o Á\m-otC^iAn "LeAtA THojA tluA^oAC, 1 5- 
Coitt-rhic-UriomÁifín, 1764." If niAf fo tofuijeAf 
AnAtóuinse: /^^^»,^ i^^.e^*-<^^ 

'' -A UAf Alt "011 f UAvpc tjen míf Af AOif'oe 
f^*^^^ O'f tmAt 'OUIC if cú Af uAifte 'f Af AOittne." — 

this place he gave the " Pass " or Right to Travel to 
" Richard Fitzgerald the Dashing,' one of his wandering 
scholars. Another five years and Macnamara is found 
in Kilmacthomas in the very depth of misery. Thus he 
wrote at tliat time to a gentleman in a petition : " To the 
noble, illustrious and exalted gentleman, namely, James 
Ducket, the defending leopard and protecting chief and 
great support of the bard-lo\nng, learned nobles of 
Ireland, and especially of his faithful servant, Donough 
Macnamara, one of the order of chief poets of Mogh 
Nuadhat's half, at Kilmacthomas, 1764." Thus begins 
the Petition : — 

" O dear pleasant chief of the highest race 
As is natural for thee, thou art the noblest and the 
fairest" — 

• See p. 9<> ^ 

Ajup nuAif téigmÍT) 1, CTtniT» ^p jiAnriAií» éijin 
t^^1t) "OonneAt) rA _t-^in xjg a ooriiApfAnAit) ui 
i^^^^feVit Cajv elf mópÁin t>l< \ntTOxMp "oo C^bAipc ■oon "011111 
«AfAt, "DO beip 'OonnóA'ó te cuijfin tdo 50 ~ 
CAt)AppAit) "0101 "oó 'tiA ítiAiteAf le " cuiT)e<\(iCA a\ 
fpójvc" -oo ■óéATiAm -óó Oip A"otMii f éf An g-ce^SSjlt 
"^■o' óoimipce ceitiimpe, a SeAtnuip UAfAii 

^01^-0 j^^ A^ ^^^^ 

'S sup liGpe J5AÓ céim, 5AÓ péim, p 5AÓ buAi^ 

Aóc ctiipi-ó 1 5-céill tlAÓ ctuoC» ^An CUAjlU 

Ap cui-oeAóCA 5^Ae'óil5e tiéAp triAp -oUAlguf 

•Dít) ! " 

XU. "Oo ÓUAi-ó ITlAcConmApA triAp pin 50 t)Aile« 

. Air-]:iiAOici$ ; 'oo puAip pé cotJAift Ann, Ajup ^ 

*'^'*""*'^'"^nACAó Ann é Aip peATi mOtváin "oe t5liAt)AncAift 1 

And when we read it, we see from some of the verses that 
Donough was in dis^^^race with all his neighbours. After^ 
bestowing much flattery on the gentleman, Donough 
gives him to understand that he wll pay him for his kind- 
ness by " making fun and sport for him," for he says in, 
the " Summing-up : " 

" To thy protection I come, O noble, exalted James, 
Seeing that thou hast every grade, every power, eve 

virtue in the country ; 
But make it known I am not a branch without 

And Irish amusement I will give thee in return ! " 

15. Macnamara went to White's-town, he received^ 
help there, and there he remained for many years after. ^ 


iTDMit) Ar\ -AtriA ro. bill "OucAC paL, pAilue^ttiAiL 
m^p DO t)i tnó|AÁn "o'uATflit) riA íi-éipexinri ^n ZAn 
fin. t)A t«óc 5A01I iboguif "oó riA pAOi[\A]t, e^^on, ^ 
C15ex^|AnAI■óe xxn CtiufijiAij rhoifv, CtAjnn-Cli|w^ 
SliléiGe 5-CuA, Aguf uiirhofx «Aifte eile óóncAe 
priopclÁittje. CujAt) Au leigteoip ^Á n-A A^\^e 
5Uf\t)' 1 int)Aile-An-ptiAoici5 T)o óottinuig SéAtnuf 
DucACjgit) 5on5lx3iOit)ceAf "tDAite-nA-tjpAoice-Aó" 
A^\\ fAfi Atouinje. ^cÁ^t)Aite-n-A-t)pA0iceA6 cim- 
óeAlt ÓÚ15 mile foriL^ÁjOeAf ó'n mbAite fo. If 
A 1r\t>A^le-r\A-X)\^A0^zeA6 -oo t)i " "Rif ce^f "o taÁn x>o 
tDf eÁpf "oe ptiAOfAig " 'nA óorhn«i§e, Aguf if Ann 

•00 ÓtlAlt) SéAmUf 5fi:<>? •^IS 1Af|VAlt) aoi-obaoca 

mAf; óípeAf 50 h- A^outnAifT lf 6 An oeut) cuAf Aif c 
fA$tAt\ Af 'OhonnoAt) 1 mt3Aite-An-|?tiAOici5 Ag 
•DeAnA* TDAr/A-CAOince -00 "OorhnAtl ó.CopbÁin Af 
A "o-custAoi " Count Corbet " a^v uAipib — p ÁnAige '^'^^ 
nAó fAit) "Aon Á1C A n-Áifijce Aije nÁ Aon Áic 
'nA fÁfAó Aip." 'Oo ttnc An peAfv f o fÁ'n mbófo 

Ducket was generous and hospitable as many of the 
gentry of Ireland were at that time. He was nearly 
related to the Powers — lords of Curragh-more — the 
MacGraths of SHeve Gua and many others of the gentry 
of Co. Waterford. The reader should take heed that it 
was in White s-town James Ducket lived, though it is 
called Whiter -town in the Petition. Whites'-town is 
about five miles south-east of this place. It is in Whites'- 
town lived " Fair Richard, the best of the Powers," and 
it is thither went James Gray seeking a lodging, as will be 
seen shortly. The first tidings we get of Donough a\ 
White's-town relate to his composing an elegy for Daniel 
O'Corban [or " Corbet "] who used to be called " Count 


1 mt)-Aile.4n-pti4ioici$ -Agur -oo n-i^ptvA* Ap 
DHonnéJit) é óAoine^t). -A5 po ^ "oó no a cpi -oe 
r\A f AtinxMt) CAOince : 

XU1. " A éisre tDhAnb-A, n! peAfAó -oít) cuip mo 

SceuL -oo tug tDArU, tug fcpeA-OAt) r^n murh^in 
^r 5teo, ^u;,fcj^ 

-An ctéipe-Aó C4^lmxi m^pt» g-An tut fÁ'n tJ-pOD ! 
p.\'n G-pó-o 5lx\r, mo gteo-épeAó ! xin c-olUth 

An c-ói5peAf Sip X)omnAtl, cex\nn cog^iit) nA 

|\UA5 — 
pe-Aí^-corhvosuií' Ui^ Seoiffe, pe^p-cofxincA 1 5- 


l:?eA|\ ólCA n^ s-có'pón^ió 'fÁ m-l>|\onnxit) x^tt ^n 

Corbet " sometimes — a wanderer who had " no fixed place 
to live in, and no waste place to trouble about." This 
man fell under the table at White's-town, and Donough 
was asked to keen him. Here are two or three of the 
verses of this caoine [or elegy] : — 

16. "Ye learned of Banva, ye know not the cause of 
my sorrow — 

An event that has brought reproach, and wailing and 
confusion into Munster — 

That has set the clergy and the orders of Rome discours- 
ing vigorously 

The sturdy scholar, now dead, motionless, under the sod 1 


*>n ftUAg mÁ tig c^fi muif if tixJif ah fceui, 
'S gAfi T)'Uii6cAt\ niT) ^s^inn Atz Corbet yé\rh 
íTlo tftJAj-fA ^iíioif riA pif 5An fcÁt, jAn fcéit 
'S ATI f\tiA5*M|\e mex^p, clif ce, ^p tip f An eug ! " 

PCtJU. Af An mDeAjÁn "oe fCAif "DtionnoA-oA 
■oo óoncAmAfvgp -o-ci fo if inrheAfCA "óúinn nÁf 
t) fedp «ei^GetifAiye, Aguf t)A clof -ouinn, Af 
A t)eut féin, 5Uf "ofoo-oortiAffAin é féin Aguf 
muincif Ctioilte-rhic-UtiomÁifín. If m-ctipei'oce 
uime fin, 50 mt)' feÁff teif nA *OAOinit> f^n^ 
mt)Aite l)eA5 ut) a 5-ctAnn pojiuf 50 " tDfieilUn ' 
Ó t)eoU\in " * no 50 " 'P^iCín ó "piAniiAjAin " 
nÁ 50 f coil X)onnóAt)A ; Aguf acá f é fÁróce guf 

Under the green sod ! my utter ruin ! the pleasant chiel 

The young man. Sir Daniel, chief of battle and of routs, 
Kinsman to King George, defender in necessity, 
The spender of crowns, and the giver of them to the crowd 

The crowd who come over the sea will be shocked 
To find we are unsheltered since we lost the kind Corbet — 
My woe it is now, our men (are) without protection, with- 
out a shield, 
When the swift skilled hunter is stretched low, in death !" 

17. From the little of Donough's story we have seen 
thus far, it may be inferred that he was not a man of good 
life, and we have heard from his own mouth that he and 
the people of Kilmacthomas were bad neighbours. We 
may believe therefore that the people of that little town 
would prefer to send their children to " Coxcomb 
O'Boland " or " Tatter O'Flanagan " rather than to 
Donough's school ; and it is said that he informed against 

•See the pAf "OotincA-ÓA nviA«-ó, p. 99. 


4ici$ 'Oonnó<\t> xif__fti\i5_^AjiióJt/é ^u\\ ptiÁpAipe 
Asuf rhÁ1$1fClt^-^C01le neAó eigin ^c^a fo. X)'innir 
•ouine pípinneAó nAvn, no féip a éuitfine, 50 
GpAC^i-ó fé An l)AfvÁnc*\r -Agur ■Ainm ShéAmuif 
DucAC leif. t)tii f coil 1 SLiAt) gCu^, 1 s-CAptvAig- 
Ati-óotDAlc-A, in 5^6 Á1C — ciontiAr mjit\ fin "oo 
t)AcpAit)e 'oo DhpeitUn ó t31ieoLÁin AitneApn* 
tiC|\eAÓ£^Gjoo^A&Aij2£jo]43iOf Ó5 t)úitóe phAOfAo? 
X)o Cí fe in A$Ai-ó An "Olige v'Aon ptiÁp^ipe 
pcoil X)o rhunA-o, aóc níi\ gnÁt^ó te h-Aon -ouine 
X)en ói\eix)ioni 5^^^^"^^ .c^f ifce^ó r\Á ÁmÁt a\^ 
ttiuincifi r\A. fcoile, aóc te "ouine -opoó-Aise-AncAÓ, 
no le -ouine 1 b-peipg mA\\ t)i X^onno^t) ^n z-^m 
po. tlip óeA-oui$teAó -OAon rh^c 5^^*^^^<^ 
peAjVAnn CAlrhAn -do g)?ACAt) p i x\ tteit ^ige, aCc 
xif -A pon pin, -00 r>i "^Ab^^ip ^5 5Aet)e4iUMb 
in 5A6 Áif-o in éipinn, a6c ip mime Da in Ainm 

-OAOineA-Ó n^All-OA -oo glACA-OAOip nA gAftÁlCAip 

one or other of these — swearing that he was a Papist and 
schoolmaster. A trustworthy man told me that, to the 
best of his recollection, he had seen the warrant signed 
with the name of James Ducket. There was a school in 
Slieve Gua, one at Sleepy Rock, one everywhere — how 
therefore could " Coxcomb 0'Bol;u\d " be prevented from 
teaching the youth of Powers' country their letters ! It 
was against the law for any Papist to teach a school ; but 
it was not usual for one of the Protestant faith to intertere 
publicly or privately with the teachers of schools, except for 
an evil-disposed person or one roused to anger as Donoug ii 
was at this time. It was not permissible for a Cathoh 
son to take or hold a farm of land, but yet there wen 
farms held by CathoUcs in every part of Ireland, thougl> 
often it was in the name of Protestants they used to taie 


■Dolt) lAX). t)A"ó óexifc X)«inn «ite pon'oo V^^? 
v\inn Af DA neitit) f o, ^guf tieit c^ftdnA o T) á f éifv. 
XU111. aXcá ^n ní éile fo aic m<\f ah j-ceuDnA. 
Da "DAOine "OfoiC'lDeufACxi mópÁn "oe riiÁijifcivift- 
fcoile n^ 1i-xíkimfijAe úx), ^gtif 50 minic -ool)' 
éiseAn -DO n^ f ^SApcAit) iax) -o'inriijadívsÁX-ó 1 iÁt^ip \ept, 
An pot)uill. A|\ Ar\ lÁirh eite, t)A ní gnÁtAó 
n^ mÁi5ifCfit)e ^5 -De^n^iti r>Án-Át)A6€A X)o tia 

óeAT) x\5 ceAóc-Af x\cx\ f e^f Atti á\\ -póx) x>e tAlAm 
éipeAnn. 1p é ní Af inrheAfCA 1 5-cÁf "OonneA-oA, 
tnÁ tóg fé An t)AfvÁT^CA^f , jufb' ítiaíx ttiAgAt) "00 
finne f é. tlíp "ouine é X)uc-ac cum ic éiftexj^nrj-iA in fjl^fa 
X)0 ■óé^nAfh A^ Aor\ meAó. Xía ti-é ce«inn riA 5- /U^ 
corh^ffAin in 5^0 lomÁin Ajuf cl,«ióe eite "oon 
c-f*MtiAit fin é. t)A h-é Ar\ CAoifeAó Af -peAfAMb 
nv\ cuAite é f*\n m-t)puit)in toi|\ ^AX) péin Aguf 

these farms, and sometimes it was Protestants who 
(actually) took the farms for them. We should all of us 
know these things and be charitable accordingly. 

18. There is this other curious thing besides. Many oi 
the schoolmasters of that time were men of bad character, 
and often the clergy were compelled to reprove them 
publicly before the congregation. On the other hand it 
was not unusual for the schoolmasters to make lampoons 
on the priests, and even to satirize them — whilst neithei 
class had leave to hold a sod of Irish ground. Most 
probably, in the case of Donoiigh, if he took out the 
warrant, it was for a joke he did it. Ducket was not a 
man to persecute anyone. He was the head of the neigh- 
bours in every huriing match and game of the kind. He 

muincip riA CAfiivAi^e rxin mbtiA-oAin 1782. Aóc 
If ni cinnce gup tpéig tTlAcConTn^lvA a ópei'oe^rh 
cimóeAtl An ÁtnA no CuA\t> fé 50 tDAite-^n- 
ptiAOici$. 'Oo puAi|\ cleipeAO ^n ceAmpuilt 1 
5-Coill-rhic-UtiomÁif in t)Áf , Aguf -oo tug cuAfVAf- 
caX, An oleiiteAOAir/Att phonnó^ a ófettjeArh 'fí^ 
'*'^^''*'^^^^^'*^o^Af -OO te ilse xxn t e x;Aoit . ChípmíTj 50 h- 
A^t%eÁf^\\. r\At tipuAip fé Cfei"oeArh nÁ cogu^r eite 
'nA n-Áic AÓC gut^b' Ag po norhAi o pA tu6c a 
ntiAit)-6|\ei-onti -oo t)í fé. cU>n.(U^ 

X\X. AzÁ A pof A5 An c-f Ao$Al n4|\ oeA-ouig 
•olige nA |\ío$a6ca •OAon ptiÁpAine "teiCeA-o 
t)éit-A-óAi|\ce t)'peAtvAnn " -oo X>e\t Aige, Aguf guf 
óuAit) u|\ni6n uAifte nA ti-^peAnn óum ceAmpuilL 
Aip eAglA A mbeAtA "Oo <i^iWg;5J2J;^iv<»J '^^^fc 
nA T)|\oin5e x>o téi$ a n-oú ip-feu nAt) cimóeAlt 
An AmA fo "OO t>i \JatiAm pAop t)tiAiie-ui- 

was the leader of the country people in the conflict 
between them and the people of Carrick in the year 1782. 
But it is certain that Macnamara forsook his religion 
about the time he went to White's-town. The clerk of 
the [Protestant] church at Kilmacthomas died, and the 
salary attached to this clerkship induced Donough to 
fling creed and conscience to the wind. We shall 3ee 
shortly that he found no other creed or conscience in their 
place — that (in fact) he was only fooling the followers of 
the new creed. 

19. It is known to the world that the law of the kingdom 
did not allow a Papist to hold the "breadth of a horn's 
mouth" of land, and that most of the gentry of Ireland 
went to church through fear of losing tlieir livelihood. 
Amongst those who read their recantation about this 
time was William Power of Ballyvoyle, a neighbour oJ 


tDlMoigitt, cotfi-AffA -oo 'Dtionnó^\t:). "Oo Gi ceAm- 
puU f^n c-SpÁX)-t)Aite 'tiA pío|\-corhApfAtiAóc 
fo, xxguf cex\mpult i g-CoiU-rhic-UtiomÁifín — 
Art ce^mputt 'r\A jVAit) "OonneAt) Ag ppiocól^rh — ^n 
^AjA Ati c-fli$e foirhe, -aóc riíp b'Áil te tiatMm 

P^OfA A OfeiTDeAltl "OO -OlUlCAt) op COttlAlf Á 

óorhAffx^t^, x\5Uf uime fin x)o ouip fé -Aifce^f 
■o'Á riiíle "óeug ai|\ pem, xig Cfi^tl 50 XY\AOtA\t 
t)tipó5Áin óum ftÁn -00 óu|\ le cfvei-oioth Ctiu^in 
Af t)tii\05Áin — ATI Cfei-oeAfh t)Á'í\ geitt fé t)0 -t^ 
5AÓ Atc Tie. I^fi m-tjeit "DO f eiftiíf Ar\ ceAtnpuiU 
Cfíoóntiijte 'oo óu^i-ó tJittiAtn 50 bAite-Ati- 
piiAOicig A^ A ftige A t)Aite, te SéAtnuf "Oucac, 
Aguf A\\ 5-CAiteAtTi be^sAin pioirA^^uf t> piofC A -^vu 
t)ó. "OO texJig f é A CeAnn a\\ leAVA-pnne, ^guf 
^o fcuic neut co'oAc a -Aip. "Do ou^it) muincif x^n 
cije AtTiAjio f Ati nsÁifoín xig fiuttAl : 'o'pÁsttxX'Oxif 
^n cox)t-ACAó 'riA f u^n. Ajsur X)opuf am c-f eomjtA- sol's 

Donough's. There was a church in Stradbally in his 
immediate neighbourhood, and a church at Kilmac- 
thomas — that in which Donough was now serving — on the 
way before him, but William Power did not wish to 
renounce his religion in sight of his neighbours, and so 
gave himself a journey of twelve miles, going to Mothel- 
Brogan to bid farewell to the creed of Cuan and Brogan — 
the creed in whose every article he (still) believed. When 
the church service was finished William went into the 
house of James Ducket on his way home, and after 
taking a httle wine and a biscuit, he laid his head on a 
sofa, and fell into a doze. The people of the house went 
out into the garden for a walk ; they left the sleeper in his 
slumber, and the door of the sittingroom in .which Power 


fui-óce in A fVAiO f é, pof CAilce ; Agup a^ ti-pAjxMl 
An •oofiuir iriA^ fin do peAZA gAtiAip bi xMg imte^óc 
cimóe*\ti x^n ci$e, nif X>'á\1 leif j^n x>ut ifce^ió 
^E^T S^^^i^. "o'-A^-A-oAfCAitt Af freAji ^n nuxM*- 
6peix)irh. tDioió^^ fe fo -af /k oodLa*, Aguf 

j^«4^ peuó •<'*" ,^^;^»iii* C|Ait-eA5l4ó of a oottiAip — 
^■oxAjiCA, cnubiT^Sur uile ! 

^(^.^^JCX. A-oeifte^p Ajy t>'\:e^cpty rt«4i$ tjeAiiiAn 
"oluili^n, i mpipe -AinopiofCArfiAit -o'-a jWiit» f^n 
Tlóirh, gup óuif fé comAi[\tA r\A Cf oipe Aip péin ; 
A^uy -OAf n-DOig ni ti-ionsnAt) UiltiAm pjiof 
•oo -oeAnArh Aitnir e Aif. tli n-íongnA'ó póf gop 
I^An fe f^n mbAite on ceAmpull. ZAvnAll r\A 

^^J^*iAiú mr'o'fiAffuiJ An tninifcif -oe cpeu-o yS 

TVá ^ j iAib f é A5 ceAóc 5AÓ "OorhnAó -A5 bpeiC 

bui'óeAóAif Af fon An c-f otuif -oo bponnA-o aiji. 

tD'^eASAIf An pAOfAÓ é AgUf A"OUt)A1fC nAÓ 

|\A6At) fe 6um An ceAmpuitt 5c iH-t)éit)ev\"ó An 

was (lying) open ; and a pet goat that used to go about 
the house, finding the door thus open, was not satisfied 
till he went in and began to butt at the man of the new 
faith. He started out of his sleep, and lo ! the dreaded 
beast was before him — horns, hoofs, and all ! 

20. It is said that when Julian, the apostate Emperor 
«f Rome, saw a host of demons, he put the sign of the 
cross upon himself, and certainly it is no wonder if 
William Power followed his example. A while after this, 
the minister asked him why he was not coming every 
Sunday [to church] to give thanks for the light which had 
been given to him. Power answered him and said that 
he would not go to church till he knew the creed well ; 
that he was at the same time spending his life as a 


óf\é 50 mxMt Aije ; ^óc f ah ^m eeu-oriA 50 fAitt f e 

50 f4it) fé xig ineifceoipevVóc, ^?; C Ab^ipuc^ nA 
mionn^lMguf ^5 cte-AÓCAit) 5AÓ tDuttÁTLce UAifle 
eite x\f\ nóf n^ 5-corhApfAn n5*^l't'Ox^. Sí ctié 
A\\. A^ tfvÁóc fé "opeucc 5<Mi ti^Ml, 5«iti áifo, "do 
f cjiíoí) 'OotinóA'ó tluAt) -oo 1 TTOtAOó-tieuftxíL, ^|\ ^ 
•o-c«5t<\t\ " Ct\é xMtióf íof CAtti^it ■UittiAfn p^of 
t)tiAite-ui-t)A0i5itt." tlí pu x^n -ouAn fu^pxió fo 
00 beit ^í\jri£ptAin. €<:x:,^-it-uwl- 

XXI. Aóc if pu -oAn be^5 eite "oo fcpíoG 
"OonnoAT!) a\\. m-t)eic 'n^ óléií\eA\ó ceAMnpuitt T)0 
óup fíof. UofuigeAnn f e mA|\ f o : 

"Hí peicpe^f mo "ópoin-f a ^5 ctit\ Atluif 50 |VAtfiA\p 
A'5t]|A£At) nÁ a' C|\eAt)At) Aon Am *oen t)tM-óAin." 

V-^ ^t^-í [Ve,] 

Protestant should, drinking, swearing, and practising 
every other noble vice, like his Protestant neighbours. 
The "creed" he spoke of was a worthless, valueless 
composition Red Donough wrote for him in bad Enghsh 
called " The Anti-christian Creed of William Power ot 
Bally-voyle." The wretched verses are not worth 

21. But another little poem written by Donough when 
he became clerk to the Protestant Church, is worth keep- 
ing. It begins thus : — 

" My back shall no longer be seen perspiring profusely 
Grubbing or ploughing at any time of the year." * 

• See p. 107.- 


XPCIl. -A5 lei^e^xt) Ati tvAinn cofAi^ no jVAinn 
eile -dp bit -Don " Ctipé AinópíofCAitiAit " cia 
rtie-Afp-At) so-o-ciucpA-ófVdnn 5<inÁip-o-oenc-f aitiaiI 
po ó'n t)-peAnn t)o f cpiot» " tDÁti-ónoic éipeAnn 
6«$." Aóc -oo Cí eo$,An nuA-ó [ó SúiUiur).áin] 
óotfi neirh-ólifce ceut)nx\ f^n m-t)eunLA, ■a^u]-' 
ni mop Ati xiipT) -DO t)í Ap ó Ce.í\pr)ALliiin cao6 
péin fAti cex3in5Ain fin. ílí pe^f -Duinn cm 'méiT) 
Dtu\t)An "o'frxin "OonnóAt) ^5 -oéAnAm cLéipeAóxMf 
^n ce^mpuili, Adz x>Af\ n-x)ój$, ní péi-oip jup 
StdCdt) xMin é cxjp éip tiA tro-an po "oo t>eit 1 m-beul 
tiA n'OAOineA'ó. 

PCPCIH- "O'frÁg ITlAcConmApA ceAmpull ChoilLe- 
tiiic-UtiomÁipín Aguf ,An c-Ap*sn xi^up x^n píon -Agup 
An freoil út), aóc ní puil Aon óóncAp .-^Kf^rin CÁ 
ti-in nó cionriAp -oo ÓAit pé u j\ffop n aMtÍ^i mpp 
'nA t)iAit) pin. 1p TDóig 5up b' A5 mún^.^•ó pcoite 
Ann po Agup Annpú-o -do t>í pé. X)o ftí pé pAn 

22. In reading the first or any other verse of the " Anti- 
christian Creed," who would think that a worthless verse 
of the kind came from the same pen that wrote " The 
Fair Hills of Holy Ireland " ? But Red Owen [O'Sullivan] 
was equally unskilled in English, and the blind O'Carolan 
had no great acquaintance with that tongue. We do not 
know how many years Donough retained the church clerk- 
ship ; but of course he could not be received after the 
verses had got into tlie mouths of the people. 

23. Macnamara left the [Protestant] Church of Kil- 
macthomas — and the bread, and the wine, and the meat — 
and we have no account of where or how he spent the 
greater part of the time after that. Likely enough it was 
in teaching school here and there. He was a while at 
Ballybrack, about a mile and a half from Kilmacthonias, 


mtD^ite bfexic, cimóeAil míte 50 teit ó Ctioitt- 
rhic UíiomÁif in ZAvnÁlX, éijiti, ói|t if Ann x>o f Cf íot> 
f é "eAóCíVAS^léAmu1f 5t^®» " eAt)ón, f cotÁipe x)ot)í 
<,\5 " íTÁjAil eotuif " uAit). "Oo óUAit) An f cotÁipe 
fo cfÁt-nónA Áifvite A15 iAf|iAi"ó AOi-óeAóCA CAf 
ceojiAinn 50 t)Aite-nA-t)pAOiceAó, xi^uf p^jóeoTó «^-^ 
•oo CAf At) If ceAó é 1 "o-cij -of oó-óAiltije x>o -óiuLc j> 
tnAt) nÁ teAbA x)0 úAtiAif c x)ó 50 n éAÍr^foi n e^nc a- ^ 
"Oo t)í ocfAf Af StieAmuf Aguf ní jnACAO tuóc- 
ocjtAif foit)iT)eAó. "CfpeASAip fé An óAitteAó 
f An tJf oj^Aiji óeuT)nA, xiguf mÁf f íof x>o "OtionnóAt) 
T)o fUjA'OAf Af TnutlAigiG ceAnn a óéile. 1 
c-cmó An óoriiivAic x)0X)' éigcAn "oo SheAmuf " cuj^ 
Ap'nA boinn " A5 ceiteAt) ó jAOlCAit) nA CAittije. 
1f 1 nx)iAit) nA h-Aimppe fo "oo bi-óeAt) fé 1 
t)-poóAif ptieA-o.Mp uí Ctimnénoe fAn mt3AiLe fo 
nA GpAoiceAé — "1 m tDAile-Stieoipre 1 s-corhgAjt 
An c-féimjMjt — 'f An 5-Cilt ó'n c-fuírn 50 ééile." 

for it IS there he wrote the " Adventures of James Gray," 
a poor scholar that he had studying with him. The 
scholar went one evening beyond the mearing [or 
boundary] to Whitestown to seek a lodging ; and at last 
he turned into the house of a surly old dame who re- 
fused to give him food or bed — and refused not very 
graciously. James was hungry, and the hungry are not 
generally patient. He answered the old woman in the 
same tone, and if Donough is to be believed, they seized 
each other by the hair of the head. The end of the struggle 
was that James had to take to his heels in flight from the 
old dame's relations. After this he used to be with Peter 
OKennedy in this Whitestown — " in Georgestown near 
the gentleman — in Kill from one time to another." We 


AcÁ cóncAf 4.\54inn m^f Ati g-ceu-oriA 50 •o-cus^xt) 
fe cu^ipc -Ap t)Uine-UA\fAl, Áipite "oe óineAt) n-A 
m-t)t^ex^tnAó "oo óorhnui$ 1 5C^ppAi5-nx\-Siuife. 
Oit)óe 'OÁ fAit) fé 1 "ocig An t)Ulne-U4^f aiL fo "oo 
ISuAil fé péin xxguf "opons eigineiLe -d'a fxMt) 
Ann A óéile. Af n-A ttiÁpAÓ "oo óúm X)onnó«\t> 
■oÁn Ag 5At)ÁLt A leitfcóíl Pém -AStif <\5 cup 
milleÁin n^ fcléipe ^p tiexV0£r^<^ó?"'A^^5^eu^^- 
rhÁtAt\ — "oo fCAT) An c-ut)A^LL 'nA fCópnAi^, a^ 
"OonnóAt), Ajuf mAf pn "oV^S f' CApc ■oo-rhú6cA 
A\y A clAnn-ttiAicne uiLe. 

PCXIU. At^íf ACÁ Conner 50 nit)i"óeAt) fé ^réin 
'<'^5*^r^^"'^5 5^^*^^''^<^ ^ "o-cig rhuincif e ChAtAr^Mt 
1 ITlótn-rhionÁin leAt fli^e i-oip Ctioill-nnc- 
UíiomÁipn Aguf An ChAppAig. "Oo bí 'OonnóA'ó 
UAip Áifite Ann fo aj fcpíobAt) fCAnmOiVíi, no 
eAóCíVA,nOX)ÁnA'oo f AgApc eigin.Aguf Ap t5-f euóAin 

have an account too that he used to visit a certain gentle- 
man of the Walshes who dwelt at Carrick-on-Suir. One 
evening he was at the house of this gentleman, Donough 
and some others who were there (quarrelled and) struck 
each other. Next day Donough composed a poem excus- 
ing himself, and laying the blame of the disturbance on 
our first mother's fondness for dainties — " the apple stuck 
in her throat," said Donough, " and thus she left an un- 
quenchable thirst on all her sons." 

24. Again we are told that he and Theigue Gaelach used 
to meet at the house of the O' Casey s aXMo/n-mAt'ond/nhalf- 
way between Kilmacthomas and Carrick. Donough was 
here on one occasion writing out a sermon, or story, or 
poem for a priest, and when Theigue saw the writing, he 
remarked, " He will not be able to read this writing — it 


A]\ Art fCfiítiinn *oo UtiA"ó5, A-outtAipc fé: "tlí 
b-ruitit) f é An f Cfítiinn f o "oo teige^t), acá ]m f ó 
ójVáptA ." If t)A|u\rhAit óoicóeAtiti riAó fUMt> aov 
poglcMtn A|\ U1iAt)5 a6c CAifbe-AtiAnn fo 50 fAit), 
Ó111 5An poglAim TiifA b'eot "Oó fcwGinn -do tteic 
cfMptA no 5An A tteic. X)o íi-At>tAaA"ó Ca-oj 
^Ae^oeAlAo 1 mt^Aile-ui-Lditnin at) óeuT) lÁ -oen 
ólK\-ÓAin 1800, Aguf x)0 fcpiot) "OonnoAt) -óó An 
^^'peAJ;^z-tAO^ X)\yeA<^ t^Tone fin "OAfx cofAó — 

"Thuddeus hie situs est, oculos hue fiecte, viator."* 
If f olluf 50 f Aitj A óiAlt Aguf A oeuDtTAit) 50 
íi-iotnlÁn A5 'OonnóA'ó An ZAn no fCfiot) fe An 
VeAi\c-U\oi fin, git) 50 fAit) fe ceut) t)tiA"óAin 
•o'^oif no cimóeALL aji ^n tMif fin. 

XXU. AcAtTT^oiT) -Anoif A5 "Oftji'oim te Cfic 
be^tA Aguf fAogAil "OonnoA-oA tluAit). tDo tu^ 
fe u^riióf nA n-oeié rht)tiA"óAn CAf éif At)l<Mcce 
UlKMt)5 UÍ StiuilliutJÁin 1 tntDoiile vtuíY\hAotAtÁm 1 

is too contracted." It is a common opinion that Theigue 
had no learning, but this shows that he had, for if he were 
iUiterate he would not have known whether the writing 
was contracted or not. Theigue Gaelach was buried in 
Ballylaneen, on New Year's Day in 1800, and Donough 
wrote for him the fine Latin epitaph which begins : — 
" Thaddeus hie situs est, oculos hucflecte, viator P^ 
It is clear that Donough had all his senses and faculties 
when he wrote that epitaph, though his age was nearly a 
hundred at that time. 

25. We are now drawing near the close of the life and 
'iraes of Red Donough. He spent most of the ten years 
following the burial of Theigue O'Sullivan, in Baile-ui- 

* See p. 109. 


b-pAftáif ce DA Citte, aj múnxj-ó ctoinne ShéAmuir 
bhÁin p*\op. "Oo t)i cjMup ós^DAé "oiob fo -aj 
jTOjlAini Ó "Ohonnó.x-ó, gup pófAt) ^n m<^c Da 
í*ine ÁCA cimóeAll tia bliAt)nA 1810. póe 
blix\t).\in 1 rroiAit) am cp.\tx^ fo -o' mnif itiac ^n 

fip fO -Ó^m gUp bAf fppé A ítlÁt^p -DO T)ÍOlAtÍ 

cuAjVAfCAl "OonnoA-oA, 'tlji ijiAit) fo tdo óuAit) 

ITlAcConinAttA a t)Aite ^guf -oo 6otf\nuig fé f^n 

mbotÁti 'n<\ ftAit) Á rhuincip Ajt pe^ixb tiA co-oa 

eile X)'Á fxJojAt — óeitpe bluA-O^riA nó m^f pn. 

If cuiriiin teif -An mtimcit^ "00 te^n pnn 50 t)-cí 

fo 50 fVAit) A5 "OonnoA-o mA|t x\-out>Aipc fé pém — 

Af mbeit "06 A5 t)ul ca|\ fÁile, cuitteAti Aguf 

Cfí pióiT) bliA-óAin foitfi 4in Am f o — " cópi\A •ooirhin 

Á -D-cqiU^inn ^ém Ann " f é pn cópiiA in a tiput- 

$eA-ó fe rti5« fínce Aguf iompiit$te. t)tij An 

cóppA -OAf AÓ f o AÍge Anoif , Ajuf If Ann *oo 6ot)Ail 

fé Aip peAt) An GeAsÁin l)liAt>An t)o rtiAif fe. 

Mhaothaláin in the parish of Kill, teaching the children 
of James Bawn Power. 

There were three youths of them studying under 
Donough, till the eldest was married about the year i8ia 
Twenty years after that date, this man's son told me that 
it was out of his mother's dowry that Donough's salary 
was paid. After this Macnamara went home, and he lived 
in the cottage his family had for the remainder of his life, 
four years or so. Those who have followed us thus far 
remember that Donough possessed — as he himself said 
when going abroad more than sixty years before this 
date — " a deep chest in which I myself could fit " — that 
is, a chest in which he could find room to lie and to turn 
round. This oaken chest he had still, and it is in it he 
used to sleep for the last few years of his life. 


PC;CU1. A"oeip SeAJAfi ó *ÓiX^\% ^ottAit) T)onnÓAÍ'ó 
/15 gxiMit ciméitt A15 ix^f\|váC4r f^n mbliA-oAin 
1810, Aguf guf tiiot fé péin cuit) tjen óíof 
iA|\|UC*Mf . ílít pocAt "oen pí|vinne \a.x\ fiÁvóce^ó^f ''t^í^ 
ro. 1f uxMiTife -oo í?uAif ó "OAlAig A fxMtt "a'pof 
Aije 1 'o-CAOit) 'OtionnóA'óxi Aguf tií t)]:uxMf fé 
^n pof fo «Aim riÁ 6 Aon neAó eile. 1f cinnce, 
if "Dóig liom, guft)' fAD mbtiA'óAin fin [1810] 
•o'^Ás fe t3Aite-«í-intiAotAtÁiti, ^swf x>\í>x\ fé 
^fe jroócMj t^A riiuincife An ^reA-o •00 rhAip f é 'tia 
"oiAi-o pn.^ ^hí fe 5An fiA-oAfC CAtriAtt "oe 
ttiA-óAncAib f ul T)' pÁs f é p^ /^ShéAmuif t)1iÁin, 
Aguf t)o b'éigeAn -oó C|ioixín "oo t)eit Aige iriAp 
lA tAC^ A5 fiu^At^ -Aóc t>í r)A íi-U5"OAip lAi'orie 
Aige " pe ?;lAiTÍ-meAn-iAi t\. t)A VAiT)neoi|tit)e An 

CflUf pAOfAO, AgUf Ó 'OnonnéA'Ó pUAf\A'OAf 

An pojtAim Af\ mbeit 'nA "óAtt t)ó. Acá fé 
At)lAióte 1 ileitis Aat)1^Aite-nuAi'óAÁirh te Coilt- 
riitc-UtiomÁifín, gAn^jiu nAj.eice óf a óionn. 

26. John O'Daly says that Donough was going about 
begging alms in the year 18 10, and that he himself paid 
some of the alms tribute. There is not a word of truth 
in this report. From me O'Daly learned all he knew about 
Red Donough, and he did not learn that from me, nor 
from anyone else. It is certain, I believe, that it was in 
that year he left Baile-ui-Mhaothaláin, and that he 
remained with his family after that till his death. He lost 
his sight a few years before he left James Bawn's, and he 
had to use a crutch as a support in walking. But he knew 
the Latin authors by heart. The three Powers were 
Latinists, and from Donough they had this learning when 
he was blind. He is buried in the church yard of Newtov/n, 
near Kilmacthomas, without even a stone to mark his grave. 


XPCU11. X^6c If fceul 4C-Air le n' Aitpir 50 

bpiMit^ fé t)Áf Aitpigig. "Oob' pe*^^^ "Ofvoio-tieAtA 

Aguf xjfoió-tieuf é rtiAf "oo óoncAtn^f. Agup if 

■001$ nÁf lex\5 fé A S''"" ^ lAtAif fAjAifC 6 

■oibfieAt) Af An 5-colÁifce é. Ap mt>eit -oo 

mt3Aile-uí-1TltiA0tAláin 'oo tÁims fAjAfC Ó5 

guf An t)-pAfÁifce, An c-AtAi|\ Tliigf\Ait)e pAOt, 

-^1 "oeAptitvAtAif AtAf, no 5A0I éigin fo^uf -o'CAfpog 

f Ó oifirnroneAo ptiofClÁipge. " A tteAn-A'-cige,** 

Af "OonnéAt) lÁ Áipite te n-A rhÁigifCfieAf "if 

clof 'OAm gujA peAf; iriAit An c-AtAip Uu$pAit)ej 

x)o bfei-oijA T)Á lAbAffÁ teif, 50 n-éifcpeA-ó fé 

me." "Oo tAtlAif fi leif, Aguf -o'eirc fé é ; Aguf 

At^ peAt) fAOjAil 'OonnóJkt)A ó foin AniAó "oo t>í f 

A5 f ileA-ó nA n"oeo|\ Aitfige. A"out>»Mf\c SéAtnur 

pAOf tiom — An -ouine x)oX) Oige if X)ói$ tioir^ 

•oe óloinn SnéAmuif t)tiÁin 50 5-cluincí "OonnóAt 

A5 5UI AttpAT) f An oit)óe 5AÓ Am ó foin AmAÓ. 

27. But it is a pleasant thing to tell that he died th< 
death of a penitent He was a man of evil life and of evi 
ways as we have seen, and it is probable he never bea 
a knee before a priest since the day he was expelled from 
College. When he was in Baile-ui-Mhaothaláin, then 
came a young priest to the parish, Father Roger Powei 
uncle or some near relation of the [late] Most Revereni 
Bishop of Waterford. " Good woman-of-the-house " sai< 
Donough one day to his hostess, " I hear that Fathe 
'<oger is a kind man ; maybe if you spoke to him, 1« 
./ould hear me." She did speak to him, and the pries 
did hear him, and from that forth, for the rest of his lift 
poor Donough was shedding tears of repentance. I wa 
told by James Power — the youngest I think of the sons d 
James Bawn — that Donough was often heard after tha 
weeping far into the night 


;iCXtl111. "Oot)' fM'í\-pite "OonnóAt) Kua-o VTIac- 
ConmxNfUV jAti Arh|\Af — ■óé^npAt) " tDÁn-ónoic 
éifeAnn óij'" fo 'oo 'óeiitiniugAt), X)Á mhé^neAt) f é 
5<\n Ao-n tuxnn eite "oo f cf iotixit) te n-A f é ; -aóc 
if *^nArh "oo tug fé Atn t)ó péin éutri a '^ÁncA7'Do 
-óéAnAni míTi tió t)lAfD-A ; Aguf mAjr^^]^^i|i>^fin 
'OO t)í "oe "óftoé-titAf r\A 1i-Aimfij\e 50 'o-cugA'DAOif 
,, jciA ptit)e loraAfCA A n-Aife Af ^octAit» f e^óc- 

r^flOltAt), Af p OgA lfT AgUf Af íígí^g-Ap — 51"Ó tlAÓ 

cionticAó "OonnóAt) tluAt) leif riA toóCAit» fo 
óorh móf te cui-o eite "a'pli-oit) riA IHurhAn. 1f 
fceul pof póf 5U|\b' é "OonneAt) "o'f^Ás fíot 
léijinn nA 5^^''^^^5^ ^ 5-cóncAe pho|\c-tÁif5e 
Ajuf t)'fíéi'oit\ f An ceoítáinn, 1 gconcAe Chof CAije 
'f 1 gconcAe Ctiitte-CtiAinnig — pe fin te' jtAt) 'oot) 
frei-oif guft)' ó'n "Ofoing 'OO rhúin fé, ■o'frojtAim 
SéAfnuf ó Scuipit) Aguf UilliAm rriAC tJiltiAim 
Ajuf SeAgAii ó ITlAtjArhnA ; Aguf git) gup cof a- 

28 Red Donough was a true poet beyond all doubt — 
his " Fair Hills of Holy Ireland," would sufficiently prove 
this, if he had never written another verse in all his Ufe : 
but he seldom gave himself time to make his poems 
smooth or sweet ; and besides that, such was the bad 
taste of the period that the poets gave too much of their 
attention to seven-syllabled words, to sound, and to 
jingle — though Red Donough was not so guilty of these 
faults as others of the poets of Munster. It is a fact also 
that it was Donough that left the seed of Gaelic learning 
in the county Waterford, and perhaps on the borders — in 
the counties of Cork and Kilkenny — that is to say, it may 
be from some of those he taught, that James Scurry and 
William Williams and John O'Mahony learned ; and 



ttiAil sup pÁ^ |rili-óe DA ti-Aitnppe [^m a\\ An 
n5<^et>ai5 cult) "oeti 'otioió-rheAf *oo tuitleAX)A|t 
péin te n-A trofoio-tieufAit), if cinnce Af Ati 
CAoit) eile 5ut\ t)' é "DonnoA-o fluAt) Asuf pLnóe 
A óorh-Aimp|\e Af mo x)o óonsAili Ati ceAngA Ap 
rriAptAin f An oócttiAt) Aoif T)eu5. 

t)eAtA "OtionnóA'óA "RuAit) 50 nuige fo- 

though it is probable that the poets of that period left on 
the Irish language some of the reproach they had earned 
for themselves by their evil ways, it is certain on the 
other hand that it was Red Donough, and the poets of his 
time, who did most to keep the language alive in the 
eighteenth century. 

Thus far the Life of Red Donough. 


te 'OonnÓAt) tluAt) tTlAC Conm^it^A. 
AU óeut) noinn. 
In A ti-Aic|iifeAnn ax) file CfUAf a ctnneAtrinA, TnA|i bA 
h-1 corriAinle a\\ A^t cinn fé xyvl 50 SACfAtiA TIua-o, An 
c-ullriiusA-ó ■00 ftitine fé Ajuf a imceAdrc ó ettimn. 

fiAfpxMnn fceot "oom' , 
óoriiApf A A\K ^on fuT), j 

1 m-t)piAt|v<Mt) beoil t)o b' ' 
eol "DO 6eu-OAit>, 

A\^ tDhpiAn t)0|\6irhe a\\ 
flog riA "peinne 

Ap éliAf rhic tóDuip nióip 
Af ITIhAognuif ! 
tlip óó|u\ ■óAtn ce^éc c^p ^peAf "o'-á f^otAp 
'riÁ Ap nuA-OAOcoo tixMnTJAnToeAfc-At) -Anc-f Aog-Ait, 
X)e bpig 50 fK^t)x^f-pA gAnn pÁ JpéiCpe 
'S 5up ^ít 50 p^nn-t^s -opexxm tiA ti-eipe^nn, 
5^11 óíop, 5An óobAip, Aóc fpiotitipAr tjpéige, 
"O'á pnAoi-oeAtti le peAlt, le caiti, le ti-éiteAó. 
t)' é mufiAt) fcoile 'oot)' obAip ■oom' LAetitl» 
'S-A pún 'oon pobul gup b' frotAiii Ati óéipt) pin — 
lluAip tujA-o mo óorhAppxMD cóip ^p jleup -oAm 
5tini'óinn cui-oeAoCA Af ppópc ó'n nóin 50 óéile, 
tlíp epuinnig tné óp n4 pcóp Ap Aon 6op 
Aóc An pcitting -00 $eot)Ainn "o'ól ^o ti-eufCAit)? 

Literally : I could serve [out] a story to my neighbour 
on any subject, In words of mouth that would be known 
to hundreds, About Brian Boru, about the host of the 
Fenians, About the followers of the great MacLobus and 
of Magnus ! [But] it were not juster for me to treat of 
some of their work. Than of events that happened to 
myself (though) the last in the world, For [indeed] I was 
scant of treasure. And the people of Ireland [in general] 
were found weak, dejected. 


By Red Donough Macnamara. 

part the first. 

In which the poet relates the hardness of his lot, 
how he decided to go to America, the preparations 
he made, and his departure from Ireland. 

'D -v^eave a story for my neighbours 
Of deeds of yore, the glorious labours 
Of mighty MacCoolwell-provedin daring, 
Or of Brian Boru, e'er true to Erin ! 

But such old tale were now not meeter 
Than strange events I, luckless creature 
Have lately seen — I, nameless, powerless, 
Though nowise worse than thousands 

Of Erin's race, now plagued and plunder'd. 
Defrauded, bann'd, from lands long 
Long days I spent in dreary teaching 
With never a hope of fortune reaching. 
By kindly neighbours oft invited 
With jest and joke I them delighted — 
On gold or gear I rarely ponder' d, 
But the shilling I earn'd in drink I squander'd ! 

9. Literally : Without income, without help, (having 
nothing) but wealth unreal, ground down by fraud, 
injustice, perjury. It was teaching school was the work 
of my days — and the people know what an empty [poor] 
trade that is — When my neighbours would give me a fair 
opportunity and means, I used to make fun and sport 
from one evening to another, I never gathered gold or store 
anyhow, But the shilling I gained I would guickly spend. 


SArt oi-óóe Atn' tui$e 'guf me Atn' AOtiAf 
tDtiiof f GAt^s f mAoinex3i"ó Af AoiT)e ^n c-r^ojAil fo 
-<\p oAitcArh mo X)eAtA, gAn eApfVAt), s^n euT)x\ó, 
'S50 mO' fre^piVA 50 ^ada tteit CAmAll mAf ttiAoL 

/AS-corhAip riA 5-CApAll no A5 CApcAt) tiA Cfé f eAt- 
Hó oi^tteAn TieAf "oo Jíaca'ó mAí\ óéile, 
tló póf "OÁ fAÓAinn Af CAlAifí riA ti-6ipeAnn 
50 mb'eot "OAm f eAlAX) "oo éAiteAiti Am' óléifreAó, 
5® ivAéAinn pA feol fe freoitne Af\ fei-ocAt) 
50 SACfATiA iluATf) mAf» "061$ 50 mb' péi"oip ! 

Af mo teAt)Ai"ó le CAitneArh Ati fcéil fin, 
tDeipim Af\ t)ACA 'f ní fCA-ot^Ainn Ap Aon óop 
t)tií peipcin mo íiaca 'oon t)|:Aipon Af -pAot)An .tip. 
"Do 6ui|\ mé flÁn tém' óÁifoil!) in AenpeAóc, 
'Sas cuit) níf f^^5t)Áf fUn le poipeigion, 
X)Á 5-CAfpA-ó "OAm ÁptAÓ 'o'pÁgAil in éinmn, 
"Oo fVAóAinn CAit fÁile in Áic nÁt\ tiAOgAt x)Am 
t)íieit Am' fcpóinfe A5 CApfiAinc Ap t)Aile 5AÓ 

tl6 A5 01 t>Ainne 1 "O-cig 1TinA0itfeAÓU\inn ui 
tntiAonAig ! 

17. Literally : At night, lyin^ (down) and I alone, I was 
a while thinking of this world's state, of the spending of 
my life wthout riches or raiment, and that it would be 
far better to be a while as a petty servant [labourer] 
Guiding the horses or shovelling out clay (for) a turn, Or 
ÍO take a handsome young woman for a wife, Or even if I 
should go from Erin's land, That I knew how to spend a 
while as a clerk, That I would go under sail with a breeze 
blowing, To America, if likely it were possible ! 


One night as I in bed lay musing, 
Sad thoughts I had of the world's ill-using, — 
How life to me was joyless, hopeless, 
Unhonour'd my trade, ill-paid, and scopeless — 

'Twere better to delve — my load 'twould lighten. 
And marry a wife, my life 'twould brighten, 
Or should I resolve on Erin leaving, 
A clerkship I'd seek and feel no grieving ! 
Forthwith my mind approved the notion 
To sail for America over the ocean ! 

When morning dawned I leap'd up lightly 
Out of my bed, now hopeful, sprightly, 
I dressed — then grasped my stick with gladness» 
My hat I donned with joyous madness, 
Farewell I bid to my friends ere leaving, 
— To some, I own, with no great grieving — 
For once beyond the ocean landed 
I'd feel no fear of e'er being branded 
As idle wretch whose bitter pain is 

To drink sour milk at Malachy Meany's ! 

27. The morning having come I leaped lightly Out of 
my bed with the pleasure of that thought, I grasp a stick 
and I would not stop on av.y account. My hat was perked 
(up) in the fashion, with an edge on it. I bid farewell to 
my friends together, And to some I said good-bye with 
no great effort. If it happened to me to meet a vessel 
leaving Ireland, I would go over the sea to a place where 
there would be no fear of being an intruder when draw- 
ing up to the house of every churl, or (having) to drink 
milk at Malachy O'Meany's í 


tDío-ó xi fnof A5 AncAtArh 'f 45 m-Aitit) geAl p^otvAo 

"Oo Cu5 ^n pobul 1 tipoó-Aif á óéilé 

Chum mo óotuigte 1 5-co5A"ó nó 1 fpéiptinn — 

Scóf n^é s-CxnUpe^t) fuitn -oe UAetiO, 

Af cóp|VA "ooittim Á x>-coiltpnn péin Ann ; 

"Do t)í fe^óc O-póiT) ut> cifce guf eunlA ^nn 

te ti-xigAi-ó A n-itce óorh minic 'p tJAt) Tfiéin tiom — 

CfóCA ime •00 'oingeA'ó te fAotAp 

Af fpóltA f oiUe t)A tfoime 'nÁ "oéAf i^Ainn, 

t)tií cuitleAt) Af nAoi 5-ctoóA "oe rhin óoipce 

JtAin-ópéitexJfúA Ann 
Tie 'Oí^ío'OAp nÁ toifoe 'f iax) Cf oitce te óéile, 
lÁn An tiAfVAille "oo b'peAfjtA tií in ^fiinn 
"Oe ptváCAOit) "oeAtiSA aiji eAjlA seup-tipuiT)' — 6C 
"Oo tujAf CA5 tcAnnA Ann -oo tAf pA"ó le f emeAt) 
'S "oo óuippeAt) nA mAip5 'nA mbeAtA x)Á mb' fréi-oitx — 
"Oo t»í AgAm jackets óotfi SAfCA te ti-Aen-neAÓ 
Aguf téinceAóA DpeACA 50 bAppAit» mo ttieu|tá, 
teAt)A 'guf clúT)A 1 5-ciurhAif A óéite 
CeAngAitce Af "ófOm mo tpónc te ceu-oAili— 56 

37. Literally : Be it known to the land and the fair 
chiefs of the Powers, The amount of provisions, small 
wares and (other) goods The people brought me, 
gathered together, To support me in war or battle — A 
store that a number of days would not affect, And a deep 
chest in which I myself could fit-— There were seven score 
hens'-eggs, and (eggs) of other fowls in it, to be eaten as 
often as I should like. A crock of butter that was packed 
with exertion. And a piece of bacon that was heavier than 
I could sav — 




Throughout the five great Fifths of Erin 
Let all men know the princely faring 
The people gave me open-handed 
To carry me o'er the sea till landed — 
A store for a month — to me right pleasing ! 
A great deep chest I'd rest at ease in — 
Of eggs seven score it held, no boasting, 
For frying or boiling, poaching, roasting — 
A crock of butter packed full tightly, 
A piece of bacon fine and sightly, 
Nine stone of oaten-meal clean-sifted. 

No joke of a load for him who lifted — 

A barrel there was of the best then growing 

Of red potatoes, Munster's sowing, 

A keg of good ale — all hail who brew so ! 

'Twould liven the dead, if aught could do so — 

The neatest of jackets I had in plenty. 

Of new check shirts I owned full twenty — 

Good bedding the best that Cork afforded 

On the top of my trunk securely corded — 

47. Literally : There was more than nine stone of oaten 
meal clean sifted with the scrapings of the kneading-trough 
all shaken together. A barrelful of the best in Ireland 
Of red potatoes for fear of hard times — I brought a keg 
of ale that would brighten with blowing, And that would 
put life into the dead if that were possible — I had jackets 
as neat as anyone (could wish), Aiid check shirts to the 
tips of my fingers, bed and bedclothes bound (up) together. 
(And) tied on the top of my trunk with cords. 


-i^S^r rc<5íi tn-Af fin Afioif riAé nvéA\y^AX> ! 

50 popc-l-Aijije •oon fZÁ\^ pn céit)iin-fe 
Chorh pAfp^ncxi ie Con^n tia ^éinne, 
5l>AC>(Mm mo lóir-oín, t)ó|\T) bit) xSf fetifCA 
-A bpoo-Aif tiA ti-Osrhn^A X)a óópAi^e in éipinn — 
•Oo t>í fí pÁilceAé p^inneAó, cféite.\ó, 
X)a óAoin, -oeAf , f^\f CA Ati drawer le sIao-óaó í, 
5-^0 r<5pc "o'xx -o-c^sA-o ^ blAife-at) ni feunp-A-ó, 
"D'inneófAt) e^ecivA, \'ZA\^tA 'guf fceul xtuic, 
tlí $i-ACt:A-ó rí pAlA riAÁ t:e<^p5 50 h-eug le^c 
— V^T) ftpAitpe^-ó fí AipsexiT) A^AX) A\\ xion óop! 
'S 1 5-cúpfxi mti-á ní t\\ÁtCA^n\ péin xMp — 
^óc cúif mo $Áipe pÁt a ftnéi-oe. 
"Oo finn' fí mo ólú va m'b'piu tno f^Dt^p 
ChtiipeAt) fí Am' óúl-fx\ pú•o^|^ sle-geAl — 
tDhiot) "oeoó Af tTiAiDin 'j^mé Am le^bA xí'á jleuf 

bonn 50 b-AÚAf 'fí tbeAfuiJ 50 téif tné. 
t)-A tfióf é m'ions-AticAf A foine-AtroAóc péiLe 
Af cpuAf 4 mutme óum pinsmne 'o'éiliotfi, 

57. Literally : There were shoes within it, a wig and a 
beaver, and (other) store hke that, that I will not say now. 

To Waterford on that business I go, as stoutly as Conán 
of the Fenians, I take my lodging, board and feasting, 
At the house of a young woman the fairest in Ireland — 
She was generous, ringleted, accomplished, A gentle, 
neat, handy drawer she was to call, every sort that came 
she would not refuse to taste, She would tell you adven- 
tures, stories and tales — 


í had shoes and wig and brand-new beaver. 
With money go leor — I'm no deceiver ! 
For "VVaterford city I proudly started 
Bold as a Fenian old, high-hearted, 
My lodgings took at an inn most cosy 
Where served a young maid bright and rosy, 
Her ringlets fair, her face still fairer, 
Pleasant she smiled when of liquor the bearer 
To sip she ne'er was loth, invited. 
And many a tale for me recited. 
Offence at jest she ne'er took gravely, 
— At least while I was spending bravely \ 
Of a woman's ways I'll speak no longer — 
Her love for me with time grew stronger, 
I gained her heart, it seemed, completely — 
She'd powder my hair each day so neatly — 
A drink she'd bring before my rising. 

E'en helped to dress me, more surprising ! 
i3ut whilst I found her sweet and civil 
Her mother for meanness beat the devil — 

67. Literally : She would never take offence or be 
angry with you — Whilst she noticed money with you at 
any rate ! Of the way of a woman I do not myself treat, 
But the cause of laughter to me was a reason for her to 
smile — She made my fame, if it were worth my trouble — 
She would put in my hair fair white powder, There was a 
drink in the morning prepared for me whilst still in bed. 
From head to foot she dressed me entirely. Great was 
my surprise at her hospitable civiUty (contrasted with]" 
The stinginess of her mamma in demanding every penny — 


Hi ttiAittreA-o Á m^tAip cAipc t)4 btvAon "OAm 
AÓC óAitpe^^-ó fí Ati cÁitile -o'frÁSjiil sxmi plé 

UAim ! 
X)'frAnAf 'nA 0-pei$il pn fuim -oe lAetit» 
As peite^irti -Af toing -00 fA$A6 Af éipinn — 
t)hí CApcAom Allen, pe^p meAnmnAó -AepeAó 
A5 ce^óu pÁ'n mbAile, 'r níp O-pA-OA sujt pei^e^f 

5leufxMin ofm 50 ti-obAnn le peit^fce 
mé péin Af tno éofCAf Ap ro'^^r ^" AenpeAóc 
Uéi-óiTn "oon piiAfÁif ce Af ge^iptvÁn le CAipfeipe 
As^r «aIa6 f CAt)Án Am' rheA"óAóAn ^t^ tAOt) -oe. 
X)o óuAit) mo óópt^ Af t>6i\T) 50 ti-eurcAi-ó 
t)íií UAifle Ati ^Oipc ^5 01 SAfi Cf AOóAt) xinn, 
ÍTiAirfuigi-o 50 ti-Aibig An lAftjiAim tDeuflA 
Af 'o'peu'OAf A bptieAgAifC 1 UMT)in ai^ eigion. 
tlíf b'p^^^^P 'o^'^ m'Ainm vo úAttAif c "oon óléijteAÓ 
Ar itlAkCnAiTiAfVA óuip cAprriA 'r^" daybook — 
"Dot)' eije^n mo óópt^A feolAt) ^p tAot> "óíom 
'Smé AS "OéAnA-ó ceoit Af rpóifc f^n state- 


77. Her mother would not forgive me a quart or drop, 
But she should get the reckoning without any excuse 
from me. 

I remained in their care for a number of days, waiting 
for a ship that would go from Ireland — Captain Allen, 
a spirited and hearty man, Was coming up to the town, 
and it was not long till I settled with him. I equip myself 
quickly, with hot haste. Myself and my stores trotting off 
together. I go to Passage on a carman's hack, with a 
load of herrings balancing me on the other side. 


Each dram and drop she'd put in the statement, 
And the scc«:e she'd have without abatement ! 

With these I dwelt and in their caring 
Awaiting a vessel would sail from Erin, 
Till Captain Allen, so gallant and gracious, 
Arrived in Waterford's harbour spacious. 

To terms we came, I hurried instanter 
And brought my baggage away in a canter 
On a carman's garran I'd hired that morning — 
A load of fresh herrings as balance not scorn- 
My trunk being stowed quite to my thinking. 
In cabin I found the gentry drinking — 
^* Do you speak English ? " they asked me early, 
And in Latin I managed to tell them fairly. 
The clerk from me my name demanded 
A.nd wrote it down in style bold-handed. 
And now I felt quite free and hearty, 
I soon was happy amusing the party ! 

87. Literally : My trunk went [=was taken] on board 
quickly. The gentry of the port-udne were drinking with- 
out ceasing there, They inquire promptly if I speak English 
and I could answer them in Latin with some trouble. [It 
was necessary for me=] I was obliged to give my name to 
the clerk, and Macnamara he put down across the day- 
book. I had to have my trunk [directed] brought to my 
side whilst I was singiaK and making fun in the state-room. 


ScAOilceAp feolCA a^ nóin 'oo ptioebuf 
"Oo t)i Aeóluf teó A5up Cecip — 
ScinniT) x)e iftpe^t) AtnAt fAti cfeun-itiuip 

5© tTOfUl-OIT) A-tipAT) 1 T)-CeAf tlA gpeltie. 

tlif t)'pAX)A gup goill xxp óloinn fin ITIhAosnuif 
An fTAipge 'óoirhin Aguf f^-oAfC n-A fpéipe — 
tDlií beAtA 5An foinn aj UAtij 6 LAO^Aifre 
'Sn! tilAifpeAt) fe st^éim te Cfeigix) nÁ bpAon -oS 
X)M CAOilce CAOirh Ag CAomeAt) á óéite, 
'Sní t5-|:ui$eA"ó f e pAOifeAtti Ag caoi Ap Aon óof, 
t)tií peAT)Ap ó 'Outi'OA 1 5-cúinne 'nA AonAti 
Af é A5 ufflugAn Ajv fúfA te péi-ótim, 

tDhí ^e^t^l-C O 'OogAip Af "PlAnn -04 "O-CAOfCAt), 

Af CAtAt Af Conn a' plAnncAt) a óéite — 

t)llí CAipt)l\e Af 5®^r^'"0 '^'^r ClObOlX) Af f AOtAf 

Ag CAfAfAins mo plocóiD' in onóip nA fcléipe! 
t)hí SeA$An ó Cfoigtig f An fonoe "o'a tjxAOÓAT!) 
Af cfeAgAit) 'nA $oile aj cuji Aip le 5éij\e — 

"Oo "ÓeAt\t)U1$ "OlAfmUIX) flAf Af pAOttAf Aip 

tlAó mAifpcAt) -A 'o-cttiAn te cpiAti A|\ éipinn ! 

95. Literally : The sails are spread at sunset, j^iolus 
was with them (favoured them) and Thetis, They spring 
at a leap out into the mighty sea, Until they draw far into 
the heat of the sun. [But] it was not long till the deep 
sea and the sight of the sky told upon [affected] those 
sons of Magnus — Theigue O'Leary had his food un- 
divided [untouched], And he could not taste a bit or a 
drop of it with the colic — 

103. Keelty O'Keeffe was lamenting his wife, Nor could 
he find rehcf at all in seeping, Peter O'Dowd was in a 


Our sails were spread, no ship went braver, 
For wind and wave were both in our favour, 
Over the sea our vessel now bounded 
And soon had the isles of Carbery rounded. 
Ere many days we'd passed on ocean, 
These sons of Magnus felt dire commotion — 
There was Theigue O'Leary with food untasted, 
A colic severe his strength had wasted — 
Keelty O'KeeiFe in grief for Shee]a, 
Without relief crying " Murder as meela /" 
Peter O'Dowd from crowd retiring 
On Felim's blanket sank as expiring. 
Of sailing O'Dower felt sick in this one test. 
While Cahal and Conn had a blackthorn con- 
test — 
Carbry and Garrett, my ale-keg hugging, 
Had drawn my bung, and my beer were slugg- 
ing ! 
Poor Shawn O'Trehy, to sickness sad victim — 
His stomach's complaints did sore afflict him — 
Old Dermot he groaned and moaned, despairing 
That third of their number would ever see Erin 

comer alone, Spewing freely over a blanket of Felim's, 
Gerald O'Dower and Flann were getting exhausted, Whilst 
Cahal and Conn were hammering each other. Carbry 
and Garrett and Toby were hard at work, Drawing my 
bung in honour of the revel ! 

III. Literally: Shawn O'Trehy was in the mire q;'ite 
overcome, a gripe in his stomach sorely afflicting him. 
Dermot declared with anguish that a third of thera would 
not Uve to go (back) to Ireland. 


Sin tDAp OAlteA-OAf CAITIAll JO CAOtntlAe 

bpuiuce, t:AT)-cuipfeAó, cfe^fCAptxi, cjvaoóca, 
Af tJiot) x\ti m'^tiAm mA X)á tAife -óAm péin é, 
Since c^pfnA óorh Ain-oeif te ti-Aenne^e. 
"O'frxxnAf Am'ifiA|\c g^n piieAt), jAn fAOtAtti 
triAf béfóeAT» ic^c, 5An peAT), s^n $lAOt) 'nam — 
mo ópeAÓ f^A-OA! nip ifiAs^t) Ida rnein tiotn, 
X)a me An cteAf mApgAi-o no An lApciVAtTi AonAig — _ 
AÓC t)ACAnn An nÁipe cfÁóc Ap eigeApc 
Aifio5 mo flÁince 50 n-oeÁpnAit) me Aifi p at), 
t)A riiinic me "d'a lApfiAit) Ap "OtiiA t)'a mb'^éi-oip, 
Scoipm T) Ap b-pAfVA-o AniAp 50 ti-eijtinn ! 
t)'f eÁfvp liom nÁ 'ti-pACAf T)e rhAitCAr An c-fAOgAit f < 
"D pAgAit sé'jv G-'fAipfins 'f A fAit» 1 -ocAirce A5 

'S nÁ 'n lomtiA* 6|\"óa "oo tOg mAC Aéfon 
tlÁ fOéAp nA ScócAó Af móp-X)liÁilpéA'OA, 130 

'S TDÁ t)-p^gAinn f An imipc An frinne-tieAn "Oeip-ope 
Lé'p CAitteA-o ctAnn óumAfAó tJifnig 'nA "o-cpéine, 
'S nA Af -óeApmAiT) SeoipreiCpiOn-opAf "oe gpéiCpe 
'S é A5 ceiteAt) onAnAttiAit) 50 tlAnOGAp Aip éigion. 

Thus they spent a while, sick, bruised, wearied, beaten 
down, overcome. And be it on my soul, if I were any 
better myself — Stretched across, as wretched as any one. 
I remained like an ox, without a kick, without rest, As a 
sack would be, without a whistle or a cry in me. — 

121. My lasting ruin ! it was not joking I meant, I was 
the laughing stock of the market, or the fool of the fair — 
But shame forbids [me] to treat of the wrong (I endured), 
Till I received my health back in full, 'Twas often I was 
asking God, if it were possible, That a storm might turn 
us back to Ireland 1 


Thus many a day they lay all dreary, 
Batter'd and bruised, depressed and weary. 
Nor was I myself one whit the brighter, 
My troubles internal no way lighter — 
Stretched like an ox I lay without motion 
Speechless, mute, 'twixt sky and ocean ! 
My grief to say it ! no joke I meant it, 
But I was a laughing stock, could not resent it — 
'Tis shame withholds my woes' recounting. 
Till health returned, all perils surmounting, 
Yet often I'd prayed might heaven defend us. 
And back to Ireland quickly send us ! 

For this had given me sweeter pleasure 
Than if I'd gained all Croesus treasure, 

And if I'd gained that fleece all golden 
That poets describe in stories olden. 
And with them the spoils of Reeda's warriors 
From Albin's vales, despite her barriers, 
With all King George forsook in Flanders 
Fleeingr for life to his loved Dutchlanders ! 

I should have preferred that to getting all that I had 
ever seen of this world's wealth though it were abundant, 
and all there was in the treasury of Croesus, to the golden 
fleece that the son of ^Eson took away, To the gains of the 
Scots and the great race of Reeda — 

131. Literally : Even though I should win in the game 
the fair-woman (beauty) Deirdre, Through whom were 
lost the brave sons of Usna in their might — and to all 
the wealth that (King) George left behind him in Flanders, 
When fleeing from tlie enemy, escaping to Hanover. 


A rroeifim no tAtJAfpAinn m<j|\ ttiAtAipc Le 

A|\ tieit fAfi mtJAile no i 5-c-AlA'ó-^ot\c éi5in, 
Afi t)eiC fATi mt)»ijMjncAÓc Am' ne-dpcujAt) iT)if 

a' f eic mo óCACf AtfiAfi, ti6 a^ f m^ocu^At) mo tt^euT)A, 
íló in Aice An c-f ajaijic tugA-ó ceAgAf c 50 f éirh xjAvn, 
Af blAife nA tCAnnA 50 pAitAfing, gAn éiUorii — 14 
tló in fAn 5-Cilt on c-fuim 50 óétle 
Ho A5 bpAfAipeAóc te peAT)A|\ ó Cinnéi"oe 
tlo 1 mt)Aile-Sneoiffe 1 s-cortigAp An c-feirhfip 
HifceAp-o bÁn "oo b' peÁpp -oe phAOt^Aij — 
tlo in fAn 5-C|\eAClAi$ mAp a g-cleAoCAi-o mo $aoIca 
1 meAfc ClAinne-Cuilein tJA ■óeACAip te cjVAOóAt) 
Tló 1 LuimneAÓ nA g-cuipm po|\ SionAinn nA 5-CAOlt)A|ij 
Á1C Afi f luigeAf 50 minic nA ptoncAit) mo t)AOtAin— 
tlo Af ShliAt) seAt 5-CuA fug buAit) nA péile 

A5 flAp tUÓC' -OUAnCA, -OtlUAt), AgUf cléipeAó, 15| 

1 ti-poÓAiíA ui tnticopAin ponn-Áijvo, léigeAncA 
"Do "oeAnpA-o f CAn-'OAn of cionn ólÁip m'eujA — 
CeuT) nn!) V^it^if tiAÓ "o-CASAnn Am' t>eul-fA 
tDeuf -oo óleAÓCAnn tuóc pAT)-ciiitAre in éijion ! ], 

All I (here) say I would have given in exchange grate- 
fully to be at home or in some (safe) port Or to be in 
the Barony, growing strong amongst my fellow Gaels, 
Selling my trenchers or keeping my little flock in control, 
Or beside the priest who used kindly to give me instruc- 
tion, and a taste of the ale, plentifully, without charge — 

141. Or in Old Kill from one time to another, Or 
chatting with Peter O'Kennedy, Or in Georgestown near 
the gentleman. Fair Richard, who was the best of the 
Powers — Or in Cratloe where my kindred dwell. Amongst 



Were all these mine I'd give them gladly 

For safety at home, though faring sadly — 
At home in the Barony — often my shielding— 

Selling small wares, or my ferula wielding, 
Near the good priest, the gentle adviser 
Who ne'er with his gear or his beer was a miser, 
Or away in Old Kill, where at will I could ramble 
With Peter O'Kennedy, ramble or gamble — 
In Georgestown where I once delighted 
Brave Richard Power, nor e'er was slighted — 
Or over in Cratloe, in Clare's own county 
Clan-cullen's home, e'er famed for bounty — 
In Limerick city by the fair barqued Shannon, 
Whose walls still tell of the Dutchman's cannon, 
In bright Slieve Gua, the generous handed 
Where priests and poets my tales demanded — 
Or with William O'Moran for song e'er famous. 
Who'd sing our caoine when death o'ercame us — 
These and a hundred thoughts came o'er me 
As in similar case with men before me. 

Clan-Cullen who were hard to subdue, or in Limerick ot 
the feasts on Shannon of the graceful barques — Where I 
often drank pints to my satisfaction — Or in bright SUeve 
Gua that won the palm for hospitality, ministering to poets, 
seers and clergy — 

151. Literally: Along with O'Moran distinguished for 
song, learned, who would make a poem in the old style 
over my death-bed — A hundred things besides that do 
not come to my lips now, A way that is customary with 
wearied folk in distress. 

An "OAttA notnn. 
In A -o-citÁócAn Ajt Aotbilt riA CAjifiAije tétte -o'Á bjieir 
léi juf At) Á1C te A ftÁi'oceA|i, Elysium, a|\ jac ^AA-OAftc "o'Á 

bpCACAI'Ó Ann, Ajup A^ A CAfAX) A bAltC. 

iSUlt) CAtHAU 50 n-Aitpir'tti 
fCeul X)AOlli 
-Okf CA|\ elf riA f pAipne seAll^im 

tiAó bt^eus fin : 
Aft t^f mo fmAOince 4^f m' 

incinn C|tAOóCA 
Uh^imis An c-fit)tieAn rhionlA, 

A cua6a fCAoiLce fiof 50 peuf léi 
S A SfUAi!) m^f ó<^0|\ ^5 fui-oe^Atfi a fcéirhe — 
Ai|\ piogAif A. pexipfAnn ■OAitin me -Aif éigion 
AoifeeAlt óle^f-Aó nA CAffAije téite ! 
Oo óuiit fí LÁrh Ap ol^ip tA5 m' eu-OAm 
S "OO fug fi 'n-Áip-oe Af m'áfuf féin me— 
"Oo CAf|\Ain5 An fAi^o-tieAn rh^nlA, lei me 
5up fCAT)A"ó tinn lÁirh le bÁinfig féitjcis. 

X)'ArhAfCAf UAItti A nglUAIf eAt) gAOt Af 
SceAÓA AfX A t)f UAÓ leAf CUAf Af f t^OÓ ^tAf , 

"O'poffuigeAf "oen fCAi-o-tieAn t)Áin-ónif, Geuf »m$ 
CiA An fCAófÁn fÁin 'nAp tt'Áil Léi me óup. 

Part the Second. 

155. Listen a while till I tell ye a story, And (now) 
after the danger, I promise it is no invention. In the 
midst of my thoughts, whilst my mind was oppressed, 
There came the fairy woman, gentle, stately — Her tresses 
loose (hanging) down by her to the grass — 

160. And her cheek like the berry, [pronng] proclaim- 
ing her beauty — By the figure of her person, I recognised 


In which the poet treats of Eevell of Crag-lea, and how she 
took him to the place railed Elysium, of the sights he saw there 
and of his return home. 

OW list to my tale with keen 


And a marvel ye'll hear that's 

no invention : 

Whilst I lay thinking, grieved 

and gloomy, 

There came a gentle lady to me — 

Her locks streamed loose to each wind 


Her cheeks were fair, a bright glow showing, 

And soon the figure I saw before me 

I kn>iw was Eevell's — her spell was o'er me ! 

Her palm she placed on my brow still aching 

And raised me gently my hand then taking — 

Away she draws me through airy spaces 

Nor stops till me on a plain she places — 

We enter'd a cave whence a wind was rushing — 

Past heather and hawthorn quickly brushing — 

Trembling I asked her why she had sought me 

What lone land this to which she'd brought me ! 

with some difficulty, Eevell the powerful of Crag-lea ! She 
placed her hand on my damp forehead, and carried me 
aloft away from where I was lying. 

165. Literally : The gentle prophetess drew me with 
her, Till we stopped near a smooth plain — I beheld a 
cave whence a wind was rushing — Thorn bushes (were 
Rowing) on its upper brink and green heather — I inquired 
of the fair-skinned, courtly lady, In what forlorn wilder- 
ness did she intend to place me. 


"Oo tug f Í ffe^st^At) Ait)i$ 50 ti-eupcAi* : 17 
" Y\Á cuipe^-o beAfic a\\ Dit pe<\p5 n4 ppAOó ope ! 
" 11Á "oéAn lons^jncAf -oe neitit> ^n c-f j^o^aiI f o 
" T\Á cpéig mife 50 G-pLlif 'f ni 1)ao$aI t)uic — 
" rtA-óAf c n^ó bpuAip pill UuAt-n1^lurh*^n if téip 50 
' tDhpÁjAip-fe uAim-fe ^f Iuaó -do f^otJkip!" 
tDuxMlimix) 1 ngeibeAl ^ óéile 
SAty UAirii fin fiof ^p foiUfe ^n Ix^e $it, 
50 b-peAC^iTiAf UAinn Atin cuxinc^ xif geuf-rhuip 
Af Acheron fux\f\ -A5 glu^fAóc caoO linn. 18 

Seo At! c-Anxió 'nA tig^tiAnn Ar\ ■opong f o -o'eugjinn 
5^0 ATiAxn 4^f fAiti^Mlc 1 n5e,^Ll X)o TDAopt^p, 
tlA milce ce^nn t)i Ann 50 -oeuixAÓ 
t1 AÓ ti-pAgAt) ■out Anonn CAf AtiAinn te péi-óceAó — 1^^ 
Hi h-ionAnn triAp CuiceAnn ó Virgil f An Aénéit) 
5upt>' te n-uipeAfbA a 5-cuipte Ap An f ao$aI fo 
AÓC flóigce At Ann le pAbAipne a fAOtAp 
A5 ÓI 'f A5 CApGuf 50 ti-fAnAiT) 5An Aon put) 
5An óottAóAn ACA nÁ An LeAt-pinginn -oei-CeAnAO 
"te CAtlAipc -oon óAtAt) munA tisIacaix) iHAp t)éipc í ! 19 

171. She quickly gave a prompt answer: "Let no 
incident frighten or anger thee— wonder not at the things 
of this world — Do not leave me till thou returnest — and 
(there will be) no danger to thee — 

175. "A sight that the men of Thomond have never 
seen, it is clear that thou shalt get from me, and a reward 
for thy labour ! " We strike away, our hands locked to- 
gether, down into the cave by the light of the bright day, 
Till we saw there [from us = ] in the distance shores and 
bitter water, And cold Acheron gliding beside us. This 


At once the woman of wisdom speaking — 
"There's nought to alarm in all we're seeking" 
She said " nor wonder at aught before thee, 
" Stand close by me, no danger's o'er thee 
" A sight to Thomond's race ne'er granted, 
" Thou'lt see, if still thy heart's undaunted !" 
Down through the cave, the daylight leaving 
We hastened together, my breast quick heaving, 
And soon we reached the shores infernal 
Where Acheron flows with wail eternal. 
All men who die must face this river 
And some pass o'er, nor seem to shiver, 
Yet thousands are here, all tearful, wailing 
Their prayer for a passage across unavailing 
Not as the Roman poet pretendeth 
The spirits of men unburied Jove sendeth — 
But the shades of those who revell'd and feasted 
And in this world their wealth e'er wasted, 
Who sported and spent without cessation 
And brought not a penny to pay portation ! 

is the way that all take who die, Every soul and shade 
that is condemned to forfeit [life on this earth]. Thousands 
there were there, all tearful, Who could not get a passage 
across over the river by payment [of their fare]. 

185. Literally: Notjust as happens in Vergil's ^neid — 
That it is for want of burial in this world, — But the hosts 
that spend their earnings in revelry. Drinking and 
carousing till they [remain] are left without anything, 
without an obolus [with them] in their possession, or 
(even) the last halfpenny, To bring to the ferry, unless 
they get it [a halfpenny] as a charity ! 


'Sé óluinim "o'^ p4-ó ^5 tuóc pái-óce /^f teiginr» 
5up t)'é -Duine t)i 1 mbÁt) -Ann CtiÁpon méipf cpe^ó, 
-Aóc -oeipini-re teó guf -oóit) x\f tjfeug pn, 
'S guf cleitipe móp -oe ^óip n^ ti-BipeAnn 
X)o óímíf 1 rexxn-t)^-© -d'a tiom^m 50 f.AOttvA6 — 
■An x)ítpeAt),Aó gAlÁncA, ConÁn nxi "pétnne ! 
l3hí Cfotce^nn -out) póifce A\y a tóin mAf eu-oAó 
'S níf tieAg linn 50 -060 m^ip óotfi^ptA An rhéit) fi" — 
tlí tAtiAppA-o f e SACf AnAó ZA\\CALá'() 5<.\n í\éAl, 5e4.\l 
'S ní t-At)A|\pAt) -OA-D-atii Atz UMT)in nó ^Ae-oilig! 200 

'íluxMn óonnAifíc f é Aoitte^ll t)ínn Af mé A^ce 
"Oo ófoit fe A rfiAoit 'f 1)4 fcíoftti-á|\ a feuÓAm, 
Aou^A^\^z, vr.A\y tA\\'ó 50 pexifgAó, pfiAoó-o^, 
" A ó|\úf CA rh^tluigte, a ó^ile, 'f^í^ rhéiiAlis ! 
"If X)ÁnA tugAifi-re -ouine 1 s-cput ■ó^onnA 205 
" In Áw nAt -o-ciseAnn Aon fciollAt) "oon ópé «j|\ 

t)it — 
" X)Á mD'fnu liom muppAncAóc cumAip no -óéAUAm 
" "Oo |\úf cp^inn tup^ xxf x>o $ioLIa mA|\ ^on te^c!" 
" poll, A ó\i\l&^X)," A\y An rhio6Aii\-tie-An rhx\oi\'óA 
" UÓ5 -oo óutAó -Af sUdc iom-Af\CA |\éit)ci5 — 210 

It is it I hear said by speakers and readers, That the 
man who was in the boat there was weather-beaten 
Charon, But I tell them that that is untrue, And that it 
was a great whacker [sprung] from Ireland's race — 

195. Wliom we saw in theold boat, urging it with effort — 
The gallant (old) recluse, Conán of the Fenians ! He was 
wearing a ewe's black fleece around his loins for clothing. 
And that much was enough for U6 for ever as a sign [to 
identify himj — He would take no Saxon over the ferry 
without a bnght sixpence. Nor would he speak anything 
but Irish or Latin I 


I've heard it said by poets and sagey 
That Charon was ferryman there these ages, 
But I can give them some new information — 
'Twas a slasher renown'd of the Irish Nation 
We saw in the old boat, pulling right lustily, 
Conán the Fenian, calling quite crustily — 
A sheepskin woolly his rear protected 
Sufficient the sign, though ne'er expected — 
For no tongue but Irish or Latin he'd bearingr 
And a Saxon a sixpence should pay for his faring ! 

When Eevell he saw and me beside her, 
He shook his bald pate and wildly eyed her, 
Furious, fierce, like mad bull glaring. 
He cried, " Thou cursed old beldam daring ! 
" How canst bring hither a human creature, 
" Where none e'er saw man's face or feature ? 
" Were't worth my while, I tell thee roundly 
" Thee and thy henchman I'd trounce right 

soundly ! " 
" Gently, O hero," said Eevell mildly, 
" Spare thy rage and threaten not wildly — 

When he saw the sweet-voiced Eevell, and me with her, 
He shook his bald head, and terrible was his look, and 
angry and enraged as a bull, he said : " Thou cursed (old) 
crust, virago, and thief ! 

205. Literally : "Daringly thou bringest one in human 
form Into a place where no atom of clay at all (ever) 
comes — If it were worth my while to exert my power, 
thee and thy gillie along with thee I would trounce !" 
" Gently, O champion," said the amiable and stately 
woman, " cast off thy rage, and take more gentleness — 


'"Oume ^Á buA-óAipc X)o puxiip me i ngeup-bpui-o 

" 'Don óinexj-ó rhóf Af 'o'uAiflit) ei^e^nn ! " 

"Oo pus /\n mAC^rh Afv Mpt^ tno rheuivA 

"Oo tug fe 5^11^ op Á|\-o Af béiceAó 

te puAim A gotA tjo 6tMteAX)4I\ fpeuptA 

•Do óaAtAi"ó An épuinne é 'f óuip ipf eAtin geim Af ! 2H 

Céi"óeAm ca}\ ffut^n 'x'An ^-cu\\ACÁn CAOt -ouft 
Af "OeAtiAm An c-Ait$e4i\i\ s'nuig cnocÁn beAj Aefe, 
50 t^^njAmAf AnAige '|v<Mt> geACAi-óe gAn Aon glAf 
-die A |\Ait> niAifcin A5 slAmAOit jAn CfiAOóAt). 
Hi bpeug -00 Virgil A-oeif in a ttéAffA 
5«ii tí'é feo Cerberus teibeAt) An féi-óceAÓ, 
'Ha óo-otAt) V)^ a\k óeAí\c-lÁí\ An oopAin 'rS-^n pAe fin 
-AÓC f opApnAó pipeÁn 'f é Ag ffVAnn^n 'f a' f éi'oe.\-ó. 

"Oo pug An peA|\ póipneifc -oe póip $il nA n- 
50 -out» Ap A fcofWAO le Fói\pA A geugA, 
'Snip téig "oon rhAtDitA peACAt» nA fCAonAt) 

5tip flteAlTIAf tAlíMf pA eAglA Ajl n-DAOtAin. 

Hip pAnATi tinn 50 bApiiA An ónoic "oon péim fin 
"niAp Af f CA-OAt) linn a' mAócnArii 'f a' f euóAin 

A man in distress I have found, and in bitter bondage, Of 
the great race and of the nobles of Erin ! " Then the 
hero seized me by the tops of my fingers, He gave aloud a 
shout and a roar. With the sound of his voice the heavens 
trembled. The round world heard it, And hell sent forth 
a groan ! 

217. We go over the stream in the narrow, black, 
curragh, And we make a short cut to a little airy hillock, 
Till we reached ways where there were gates without a 
lock, (And) where there lay a mastiit howling unceasingly, 


" This man in distress I found, grief bearing, 
" A man of the noble race of Erin ! " 
Then grasped Conán my hand rejoicing 
Gave forth a roar his rapture voicing, 
The heavens it rent, like thunder it fell, 
Earth's self did shake, and trembled hell ! 

Over the stream we passed together 
And landed beyond with brighter weather — 
A path we reached with a gateway gaping 
Where a mastiff lay, all grim, mis-shapen, 
The same that Vergil describes in his verses, 
That Cerberus savage that man still curses — 
But now he was sleeping, snoring, snorting, 
His foul straw lair not ill assorting. 
At once Conán ran up to seize him, 

His throat he grasped and never did ease him, 
Never allowed him twisting or turning 
Till we were sure of our safety earning. 
And soon we reached a hillock more airy 
Whereon we rested our feet now weary. 

No lie (is) what Vergil says in his verse, That this was 
Cerberus that declined (all) peace-making — Asleep he was 
in the very centre of the pathway, and nothing under him, 
but a litter of vetch-straw, whilst he was snorting and 

225. Literally : The man of might of Erin's bright 
race seized (him) powerfully by the throat by the strength 
of his arms. Nor did he let the dog bend or shrink. Till 
ft'e had run past him in teiTor enough. We did not stay 
till (we reached) the top of the hill in that course, where 



50 CpeACAtDAf UAinn An flUAj Ap 5^6 CAot» t)inn 
-0^5 CAppAing 'mÁ g-cuAij;-© 'f^ fu^s^JT!) a óéile — 
A"out>AifC tinn fufóe 50 n-innfeóó' éipcAÓc 
Okf concur xjípeAÓ bui-óne -Af DeufA. 

""Peuó-fA tÁtX. UAic cbinn Gadelus" 
Ati f é " Aguf tJAnnctvAóc fhot)'Ait riA ti-eipcAnn ! 
" Af peu6-f A rriAf teAriAit) An Aicme ú"o 'nA •o-cpéinpt^ 

't)AinC ^peuttlAÓ Af CAlAttl "OA g-CApCAt) 'f "O A 

5-cao6a"ó — 
" UÁ'n f UA15 Af Afi fAi-oe A5 pip "peApf a Af "péniuf 
" -Af UtiuAtA "Oé tDAtiAnn -da f CAipeA* Af x» a f ceuriAti 
" An t>peici|\-f e "Oonn 'f^ tAnn Af f AOttAf 
" As ceitgeAn ceAnn 1 njAtiAt a óéile ? 
" An t)-f eicif fif gfofóe nA UfAOi *f nA ^r^'S© 
" Hector 'f a 6loit)eArh a' mAOi-oeArri a lAOóAip ? 244 
" An feAn-ouine Anchises cfion le téite, 
" A ttiAC te n-tAoit) 'f^ f inf cAf euóCAó — 
" 'S An oDAif ÚT) A5 "Rómuluf 'f A5 tlémuf 
" 'Cuf ctoóA-neifC A5 cofAinc a féiine! 248 

" A 5-cloif If An 5lóf f o A5 flog nA n-éijeAf 

" -^5 r®^""l ■^ 5-CeOtCA Af f pófC Af pté ACA ? 250 

we stopped to think and look around,. And then we saw 
in the distance a host on each side of us, Drawing around 
and chasing each other — He told us to be seated till he 
should relate to us the meaning, And the true account of 
those peoples and their ways. 

235. " See beyond the sons of Gadelus," said he, " and 

iaiso) the courtly daughters of Erin ! And behold how they 
the Gaels] follow yonder tribe, running with might, Pull- 
mg roots out of the earth to drive them away and to blind 
tliem — The men of Fenius Fearsa are cutting up [?] and 
routing the Divine Tribes of Danainn, scattering and 


And here we saw far off hosts moving, 
Chasing each other their prowess proving — 
Then Conán at length bade us both be seated 
Whilst of those hosts and their ways he treated. 
" The sights thou seest now deeply ponder — 
" Lo, the sons of Gael Glas yonder ! 
" Mark how they chase that host so quickly, 
"They smite them, blind them, strew them 

thickly ! 
" Behold brave Donn his keen blade wielding 
" Cuts down in rows his foes unyielding — 
" And soon the Dananns of god-like genius 
" Are scattered before the clans of Fenius ! 
^ And here thou see'st the Greek host mounting, 
" And Hector of Troy his deeds recounting — 
" The old Anchises bent and hoary 
" And generation famed in story — 
" There Romulus and Remus raising 
" Eternal walls for all men's praising ! 
" Hark the voices tuneful-sounding 
" Of bards rejoicing, mirth-abounding ! 

terrifying them. Dost thou see Donn with his blade keen- 
edged, Flinging heads and legs together ? Seest thou the 
valiant men of Troy and Greece — Hector with his sword, 
boasting of his deeds ? 

245. Literally : " The old man Anchises, feeble and 
hoary, His son by his side, and their famous generation — 
And yonder work (raised) by Romulus and Remus, Setting 
up massive stones to defend their dominion ! 

" Dost thou hear the voice of the host of the bards ? 
Singing their songs, sporting and playing — Horace is 


" Zá Horace Ann a meALLxo a fuitc McBcenas 
" 'S X)'a njexipftA-o fin g^n Uaja ^f bit te géipe — 
" Ovid 'nA fuit)e ^t^ bínnf e péiji gtAif 
" Af nOcA Aige -D'Afcpiot)' 50 pAOit)eA6óumC^efA|t 
"Juvenal 'pA i!)ionn-fAn i-oip a rheu|AxMt) 
" -df TDomblAf mAp -out) ^ige x\f ^eiti-nirh — 
" Ao"ó bufóe TttxiC Cuijtcín Af éipinn 
" /Af é 'p^li-oe^oc 50 5uit-^ínn 1 n5*^e■ó1l15 — 
" A t)-p|Monnf A f utlc 50 ceAnnf^, gUc, *o'a mt)peu54 
" Af ponn A $uit) 50 TD'cAtixifpA-o "ouine on eug leif ! 
"A Gpeicip nA goilt-pip <\5 tuije f e^ió 'n^ n-^onlt 
" 'S 50 mbeipiT) A 5-cinn CAf n^ Cyclops te óéite? 
" Ac^iT) -Annf ÚT) UÓ ! cpúip n^ péinne ! 
"50 ti-AjfoAo, túbAó, lútrhAf, léimneAÓ — 
" Uó, A "piiinn rhic CurhAill, á ólú n-A m-t>éimeAnn 21; 
"X)Á niAippinn-fe ^f cú 'vÁ\\ n-outAig $AOlttiAip 
'"Oo t)éx\t\px\mAoif popcAóc -ootJoóCAit) soóAorhnáió 
"ArcobAií^Ajguf pofCA'ó'oonoltArhAin téi$e4ncA — 
" X)o tAti^npAmAOif A t)Aile 'pip ^n p^ivAife mAC 

" 'Sbéi"ó cobAip le n' a$ai"6 in AtbAin nó meAlUA-o 

me -péin leif ! 

there beguiling his delight, Maecenas — And satirizing 
those (others) with sharpness and without sparing — Oxid 
sitting on a green grassy bank writing a note to Caesar, 
while grieving — 

255. " Juvenal [is there] with his pen between his fingers, 
gall and bitter poison (being) his ink, yellow Hugh Mac 
Curtin from Erin, versifying melodiously in Irish, Their 
delightful prince, gentle, skilful, charming them, The sweet- 
ness of his voice (such) that he could bring one from death 
with it I 


" Horace is there his patron lauding 
" Assailing some and some applauding — 
" There Ovid is seen on bank reclining 
" To Csesar writing, with heart repining — 
" Juvenal wields his pen censorious — 
" For venom and gall to all notorious — 
" And Hugh MacCurtin, bard from Erin, 
" Sweetest of poets that e'er lived therein — 
" Prince of them all, and all spell-holden 
" With songs of the Gael in Gaelic golden ! 

" And note those wondrous men close-banded, 
" Whose heads reach higher than Cyclop clan did — 
" Ah, there thou see'st the Fianna famous 
" In whose great times no foe o'ercame us — 
'• Oh, Finn son of Cool, the great and glorious, 
" Wert thou and I with our troops victorious 
" In Erin again we'd succour the needy, 
" The bards protect — restrain the greedy — 
"We'dbrinijbackhometheo-allantPrince Charlie 
" And friends in brave Albin I'd promise him 
fairly ! 

" Dost thou see those strange men standing apart in 
one body, who carry their heads higher than the Cyclopes 
together ? Ah, there are the troops of the Fenians, Famous, 
active, vigorous, bounding — 

265. Literally : "Ah, Finn, son of Cool, oh glorious one of 
the blows ! If thou and I lived (now) in our native country, 
We would give help and protection to the poor. And assist- 
ance and shelter to the learned ollave — We would bring 
home again the warrior-son of James, and there would be 
help for him in Scotland, or I have been mistaken I 

" m<\í;rniit$-f e túCAf "O' lompui-ó Ati zéA\\mA, 
" Af CAilt)ín 'wA ópúrcA A^ cut)A|\ le méitpe^jf , 
"-An c-Oócrh^Jt) ílAnnjiAi 'fxx ti-AinpíogAn CAOt) Leip 
" CpoéCA te f txitiivM'óit) Af t)|\AnnfVAit)iti t)AOivA — 
" "^At SACf AfiAó ■gAbAnn Ati bxMt fo pleupc^nn 
" An ceAttvA|\ CAtn f o "o'lompui-u ^n óléip ujiinn — 
" lAt) f o cÁ f CAOilce 'f "DO óit)m j^n Aon gt^p 
" tDeAfpAf Ajvir 50 fío$*ióc tntiic "Oé 'fCCAÓ ! 

" Imtig-f e A t)Aile " a^ ^n pAt^Aipe Cf eunrhAp 
" A "ouine f o tAj^nn iHAp teAóCAipe -Af éipinn, 
"Hi pA-oxv t)éit) fioLpA-o mín, c^if StiéAmuif 
'"PÁ óeAnnx^r' ^n fí$ cil '"oibipc g^^^i'-'f^^r» 
" 50 n-éif eóóAit) ptAnnT)A -oe feAn-cfUoóc éiftit^ 
"X)o "oe^npAit!) concAf m^p gcAlt Ap eije^ifc, 
"Xyo bAinpit) xxn éopóin -oen óóip 'n^ éipic 

" 'S -oo teAnpAit) 50 -oeo "oe póip ITIhilépuf ! 
" SeAó<Mn An c-olc -00 toic piol ^aX>a a\\< p^t), 
" "^aX) pAi-oif Af Cf opcATÍ Ay CjAop tTlhic X)e opc, 
" tDÍ t)éit\ceAó, CAft^nAÓ, Af Udp^t) le •o^onnAÓc 
" Ap féim nA t)-pt-AtAp 'DO ^eAttAip mÁp péiT)if ! 

" Behold (there) Luther who changed the age, And 
Calvin crusted, ffothing with fatness — rhe Eighth Henry 
and his queen beside him, hung with chains from male- 
factors' gibbets — 

275. " Each Protestant that passes this spot strikes the 
wicked four who turned the clergy from us, But these who 
are released, and whom thou seest unfettered. Will be 
taken hereafter into the kingdom of God's Son I 

" Go thou home," said the mighty warrior, " O man 
who comest as messenger from Erin — Not long shall the 
refined, gentle race of James be under the power of the 


" See Luther there, and spare thy loathing, 
" And Calvin crusted, with fatness frothing, 
" Henry the Eighth and his queen beside him, 
" All hanging in chains, with nought to hide 

them — 
" Each Protestant passing those gibbets in sad- 
ness — 
" Strikes the vile four with avengeful madness — 
" But those thou see'st unfettered, in freedom, 
" An angel hereafter to heaven shall lead them ! 

" And now return from this fearsome faring 
" And take this message from me to Erin — 
" Not long the Gael, e'er famed for bravery 
" Shall crouch to a foreigner king in slavery, 
" Till a prince of Heber's race most royal, 
" Shall right dear Erin as son most loyal, 
" He'll snatch the crown from the clown doth 

bear it 
" And Erin e'ermore on her brow shall wear it ! 
" Shun all wrong-doing, the ruin of nations, 
" Give time to fasting and pray with patience, 
" Forget not alms to the poor and lowly 
" And at length ye'U gain God's kingdom holy ! 

king who is banishing the Gaels, Till a scion of the old 
stock of Heber shall arise, who will take vengeance for 

285. Literally : " He will take the crown from the 
(foreign) tribe in satisfaction for it [the injustice] And it 
will remain for ever with the race of Milesius ! Avoid 
evil that has injured all Eve's descendants, Take to 
prayer and fasting, and to the Cross of God's Son, Be 
alms-giving, charitable, aflame with humanity, And the 
glory of Heaven thou shalt get if it is possible ! I will go 



"-A5 An xMctne fo Luc-aija no t>\\ú\-t) r\A ii-Aeiie 'iiAm — 
""Oo rtiAjAt) An PjVAtiCAó An norhAn f ad f ao$aL 'oíot» 
" Af CAitpeA-o-fA A X)-c*^tiAl{^c An^tl •oon zaoX> f o ! " 

50 fó pADA fcfnn fé ó'm |tAt)<jpc •oon léim pin 
'S "DO tó5[^it)] AoiOeAlt io5ui|\ téi me — 
Cti^nsAtn^fv Atiiof ^f eoingioll tiAó leift "Oxim 
TTlAp fUAigteAf lit) coinin ^f iSoiltín le fpéice. 
5<^t1 fCAX) om' f múiT) T)0 tiiú|'c<ML me Ann pn 
'S mo tBAXiA púm, mo tfúnc ^f m' eu'OAó. 
If AmtAi-o -DO ttpAitexJkf Cv\pfnA te ipAotAth 
'S An tons A5 CAjipxMiis 50 S^cf x^t^A a\\\ poipéision — 
'Sé C|\Áit) mo opoi^oe nuAip fmAoiniJ me Ann fin 
5^0 5Á"ó xif $At>Af cf it) gufv tAi-obfCAt) bf éige é ! 

CliuAit) t)uine fA 5-ctu\nn 1 n-zeAnncA An 
rruiin-top 30' 

'S "00 óonnAif c f é t^ll An long le f 6i"oeA"ó — 
" Helm-a-lee ! " 'f Xía Uínn ^n fceul liom, 
"X)ut5Aij\c CApcAom Allen 50 fexifg-de fAoGp^ó — 
" Qunner, give jire ! we'll fight the negroes, 
" We'll conqiur or die, my Irish heroes ! 3]li 

away, there is a cry and a call for me, From this tribe of , 
Luther who have bruised the liver within me — The 
Frenchman has slain a world and a power of them. And 
I must bring them over to this side ! " 

295. Very far from my sight he sprung with that bound, 
and the just Eevell brought me away with her — We 
came up in a manner not clear to me, As a rabbit would 
be driven out of his burrow with a hand-spike. Without 
delay from my slumber, I then awoke, And (found) my 
bed under me, my trunk, and my clothes — How I gazed 



" But I must away — my name they're calling, 
' Those sons of Luther my spirits are galling — 
" The French have just sent a world of them 

" And I must convey them over the river ! " 

Away from my sight he leaped then lightly, 
And Eevell the weird my hand grasped tightly, 
Hither we hurried — yet Jiow 'tis wonder — 
And forth I came from the regions under. 
At once I woke from my sleep and found me 
In bed, my clothes and trunk around me — 
I looked across and with some relieving 
Saw the ship still was westward heaving. 
Yet ah, my heart felt deeply wounded 
That all I had seen on a dream was founded ! 

Now up the main-mast climbed a seaman, 
Strange ship he saw bear down like demon, 
" Helm a-lee ! " (to me how pleasing !) 
Cried Captain Allen all fears appeasing — 
" Gunner, give fire ! we'll fight the negroes, 
" We'll conquer or die, my Irish heroes ! 

was across with (some) relief, Whilst the ship was drawing 
powerfiilly to (New) England — What afflicted my heart 
(was) when I reflected then, That every experience I had 
passed through was (but) an illusive dream ! 

305. Literally : A man went up the mast close to the 
maintop and he saw some distance away a ship (coming) 
with the wind — " Helm a-lee ! " — and sweet was the 
message to me — said Captain Allen angrily, sharply, 
'' Gunner give fire ! We'll fight the negroes, We'll conquer 
or die, my Irish heroes ! All hands aloft ! " I leaped up 


' All hands aloft ! " -oo ^peAb me ^m' léine 
'S •oo t)i cutlass Atn' $l<xic ^f p^ioD^p ^ip — 
gutiTiA 'guf piofCAt in lotiA-o A óéile, 
CojVAnn Af cincpexv6 5^6 uile t^ob t)inn — 

00 bioiTixxp bóp-o pe t)óf\t) ^5 peut>«it) 

A5 5At)4it "oe gunnAitut» 1 mull-4i$iri á óéile, 

^15 ^r goppjii'óe x3if builli-óe cpeun^j, 

^TuAim Af geoin ^f gleo Agup CAopt^Mnn, 

S^ptA 5Uf cfoiT) ^f 50I Af t)éice^ó — 

"Oo óuxilxMt) CopcAó 'f níp bposuf -o'^ CéiLe 

puAitn An óogAMx!) fo ^f cop^nn ^n lw^e fin ! 

PiiiSe^-D meA\\. PivAncAó, totn, jIati, sLeupcA 

"Oo óuip f inn 1 tj-ponc 'f 1 f c-AnnpA-ó <\p n-'OAOt^in 

y:Á -o^-fioiT) 5l<\n-5unnA"ó -o'a léijion 5«aó féiLe — 

X)A fOjA Linn Cx\f At) óom s^fCA 'f -oob' fémip 

'Sá long bAt) trie<\f A óum pe^tA t)iot) p^e -óé ! 

"Oo t)í xSp 5-CU1-0 polA 'nA Ioóa Ap An maindeck 
Síof pém' GpotUAó "oo potUAt) mo tAOtJ-f a 

1 5-cf\íoó An óogAit) "DO loiceAt) mé Am' eu'OAn, 
'S A 5-cínn 'f'*^ 5-coppA f A'm (iopAiO 'nA ■D-cp<\op- 


in my shirt, There was a cutlass in my hand and an edge 
on it —Musket and pistol (I used) one after the other, 
Thunder and lightning on every side of us — 

315. We were side by side tearing (away), Firing our 
guns, into each other's decks, Frenzy and woundings (?) 
and heavy blows (were there), Noise and yelling and roar- 
ing, and flashes of fire, Shouting, and fighting, and weeping, 
and howling — Cork heard — though the places were not 
near each other — The roar of that battle, and the thunder 
of that day ! A swift French frigate, sharp-cut, neat, well- 


All hands aloft ! " lie roared, and quickly 
I leaped from my bed, no longer sickly, 
Musket and pistol I plied untiring, 
Thunder and lightning the guns' dread firing— 
A.nd soon we closed, and I saw but dimly 
Each sweeping the deck of his foeman grimly — 
Frenzy and fury and blows resounding. 
Clamour and cries from all surrounding. 
Smiting and fighting and slaying and groaning. 
The roar reach'd Cork — I've heard men owning 
That never before had there been such a rattle 
There known as the thunder of that day's battle' 
A swift French frigate, well-rigg'd and bearing 
Two score bright guns, had given this scaring — 
And being o'ermatch'd in the fight quite fairly 
To trust to our speed was our need now clearly I 
My wounds were deep when the conflict ended 
My forehead was gashed and side sore rended, 
Our blood in pools on the deck was lying, 
Around lay heaps of the dead and dying — 

equipped (it was) that had put us in peril and terror 
enough, Under two score bright guns (which were) dis- 
charged each time. 

325. Literally : It was our choice [i.e. we decided] to 
turn as smartly as was possible, and the ship that was 
worst at running let it be under from it [i.e. let it suffer 
for it]. 

Our blood was in pools on the maindeck, down by my 
breast my side was pierced, At the end of the fighting I 
was wounded in the forehead, Whilst heads and bodies 


" Haul yards, etand by, and hoist the mainaai' ' 
" Haul toAiks and sheets and free the stay -sails/ ' 
1 O-poifóeAtin -DO s^bAt) finn pe lom-óe^itc mo fceui 
tocAt) tTAOi'n hold finn i "o-ceAnnCA 'p i "D-cfieunAf, 
5An tilAifeA-ó nA beAtA 6 ttiAnoin -An-oé AgAinn 
1 tAjAp, in e^fbA, 1 "o-CAire, r ^" eus-cpiiC. 
til ^AX)A n'-pAr\AvnA\^ óorh t^g fin, g^n éife^Cc 
5ufi rheAfAniAfSUf óeAfCTDúinnbeAfC óum eulr ■;'. - 
"Oo tuvAite^m^f ijAfAilte ie^nn^ t)i CAOti linn, 
"D'olAmAf s^ife 'f T>o teAfCui$ 50 ■OAopuAinn — 2 
"Oo finneAm*\f deck Ajuf T^eifeAt) 'do feubA-O, 
'S T)o pugAmAf ct\eif Af ttpeif Aguf caos^it) 
"Oon AicmefinAn'L<\oifi$mAfóAOifi$5AnAOt)Aife, 
'S "oo GAtCAmAf f iof 'f An 5-cuirhpeAó ceuT)nA iat) ! 

"Oo óAfAniAf foif Af lvii$e "oo plioebuf 
1 5-cúffA cotpom 50 popcAiti nA h-éipeAnt: — 
ITlApttAt) floe ■o'a r)-fuipinn fAn fcléip pn 
tli Áifiirhim ctnlle t)o milleAt) t»l cfeuór^\ó. 
"Oo óAilleAmAf cfiuf 1 *o-cúif An lAe $il 

t)Mi geAfpAT) 'gtlf t>|\Ut)At) AJ\ ÓÚ15 flf T)eu5 "OfOO, 3" 

were at my feet in sad heaps — " Haul yards, stand by, 
and hoist the mainsail ! Haul tacks and sheets and free 
the stay-sails ! " (But) at last we were captured (to speak) 
with the bare truth of my story, We were placed down in 
the hold, in restraint, and fasting — 

335. Without a taste of food since the morning of the 
previous day — In weakness, in want, in feebleness [in 
death's form :.e.], ready to die. Not long did we stay -i 
thus weak and powerless, Till we thought we should do 
something towards our escape — We noticed a barrel of 
aie (there was) beside us, We drank a draught, and badly 



• Haul yards, stand by, and hoist the mainsail ! 

Haul tacks and sheets and free the stay-sails 

But at length we were taken, I speak notlightly, 

And down in the hold they thrust us tightly, 

Norfood, nor drink had we touch'd since morning, 

And faint we lay, to our foes a scorning. 

Yet not for long did we lie there grieving 

But looked for means of freedom achieving — 

We noticed a barrel of ale beside us, 

Deep draughts we drank which help'd decide us— 

The hold we then burst, the deck was broken. 

And soon of our power we gave them a token— 

The Frenchmen caught by surprise surrender'd 

And the hold to them in their turn we tender'd ! 

Eastward we turn'd as the night was falling, 

"For Ireland straight!" to the helmsman calling 

Full twenty Frenchmen fell in the fighting. 

Their heaps of wounded quite affrighting — 

We'd lost but three of our crew courageous 

Tho' of bruises and wounds we'd enough to 

enrage us-— 

we wanted it— We (then) broke through the deck and 
burst the stern, and we gained the victory over more than 
fifty of (King) Louis's people (now) hke sheep without 
a shepherd— And we clapped them down m the same 
bonds [in which we had been put] ! 

345. Literally : We turned eastward as the sun was 
sinking -(going) in a straight course to the ports of 
Ireland— Twenty of the (Frenchmen's) crew were killed 
in that fight— I do not count others who were wounded 
and disabled. We lost three men in the beginning of 
that famous day, Whilst fifteen others were cut and 


Chu^it) upóuf in -OAitcin 411 ó;^pc<^olf^ 'f ni leun 

"Oo goiT) re mo ÓAipín 'f nip "oAnAOit) teif mAOl me. 
ílÁnsAmAp x\n ptiAf Áif ce 50 bACA|uÁilce,cpéAt-l<\5 
'S t)o t^ins^f 50 popc-lÁipse ^|\ oofj^niiip-oe 

Uimóe^lt míofA clAoi-óce, CféimCe-A6 
t)1iíof <^m' luige 50^ Léigif ITIac "Oé mé. 
Uigim A OAile 50 c^ApAit) 'rt)A -óéipc tiom 
'S If X)eApti nAÓ St^S^f , nÁ mAjA-o, nÁ tjpeug f in — 
^p toing ^AT) mxMii|:eAt5 ní pAó^jt) mÁ f:eu-o^im 
tHunA jtAÓAinn te fcivACAt) nó ceAngAilce te 

ceu-oAit> ! 3( 

tn^p tiApftA x^|\ 5a6 ní le Cpíof c biot) bui-oeAO^sr — 
A CtiAfA bí Am' 'óíon, -a Hí nÁ cpéig finn — 
A Hi n^ ti pl41te<^f "oo óe^nnuig 50 -OAop pnn, 
ScAoil Áp ngiAf-A ó'n l)-peACA*ó f ^An c-f40$Al fo, 
Cóg-f-A c'^eAfS T)ínn, nejifcui$ ^if fAop pnn, 
Ar póip .i|\ Á\y n-Ar\Am — fin -ajAit» mo fceut-f^! 366 

eAóctvA 5^^o^^^ ^^ AmA|\4in 
50 nuige fo- 

bruised — A shot went into the Captain's boy, nor did it 
grieve me — He had stolen my cap, and was not troubled 
at my being bare-headed. 

353. We reached Passage battered, weak and weary, 
.A.nd I came on alone in a gallop to Waterford. For about 
a month, sick and wounded I was lying, until God's Son 
cured me, I come home (ihen) quickly, and it was a mercy 
to roe, And it is certain that that is no (idle) chattet nor 


The captain's boy was shot — devil mend him — 

My cap he had stolen, ill luck attend him ! 
At Passage at length we arriv'd, all batter'd 
And to Waterford off in a gallop I clatter'd — 

For weeks I lay in my bed sore ailing 

Till my health returned, God's help availing 

I then came home — to me what gladness ! 

And here I swear (ye may call it madness) 

Never again on a ship they'll find me 

Unless by force they should take and bind me ! 

And now let's thank with heart all grateful 
The Lord who led us through scenes so fateful — • 
King of heaven, who boughtst us dearly 
Wash out the sins we know too clearly, 
Phy grace give here, in heaven thy glory — 
And so my good friends, now ends my story ! 

Thus far 
The Adventures of a Luckless Fellow. 

joke, nor lie — Into a ship whilst I live I will never go if I 
can (help it) — Unless I (should) go by being dragged or 
tied with cords ! 

361. To crown all things, to Christ be thanks — O Friend 
(of man) protect me, O King abandon us not — O King of 
Heaven, who hast dearly redeemed us, Loosen our bonds 
of sin in this world, Take off Thy anger from us, 
strengthen and free us. and help our souls — there ye have 
nay story. 

D-dncnoic emeAíin O15 

ponn : UiledCÁn -out) O ! 
An c-At»fiÁti b|ieA3 po riop if ■0015 jup 6'é aoh -oe ti* 
•oAncAit) Af cuifce tj'áji cumd-o te ■OonnÓAT) UuaV), muriA be 
A ceut> T)Án féin. If cof ajtiaiL jujt fCf iot>AX) é nuAif bi ad 
fiLe A,|i ToeotiAiTJeAcc, b'féfoijt f ah bpf Ainc, Áic Af «óig 50 
jiAib f é 'nA comnuije beA^Án oe 5LiAt)AncAib f ut -oo CAf fir a 
bAite. xJiimfnt A cumcA tnA|t fin ixjif 1730 Ajuf 1740. ITÁ 
cent An puinn te FÁ5A1I aj ComÁf ó móffÓA, aj ó "OÁLaij, 
Ajtif A5 An OllAiiiAin pÁ-ojiAtc SeoijeAé. "O'étf An AifCf ijíre 
vo |titine SéAmuf ó tTlongÁin, ní fiACCAnAé a -óéAnArh A|ttf 
50 'oeo ; a6c 'nA ■ótAi'ó fin jió ÁtAinn é, A5Uf 51X) 50 bf uit 
fíjíinne An bunAxtAif Ann, mAp Af feA^iji 'f Af f éixiif , nil fc Ap 
Aon éof com binn nÁ com eALA'ÓAncA leif An Abf Án 5Aet)il5e. 

eiU beAtinAóc ó'm ópoitie 50 cíp n^ 

tD^nónoic éipeAnn ói$ ' ! 

Ctiuni Á triAif ex\nn "oe f íol|VAt) íp 

ApbÁnónoic éipeann óig'' 
An ^ic ú-D 'v^\^ b' «\oit»inn 
bínn $ut eun 
tTI..Aíx fÁttióputc óAoin «\5 c^oinei'.t) 
5Aet)eAl — 
'Sé mo Ó4f A belt mile míLe 1 5-céin 
ó OÁnónoic éifeAfín ói$' ! 

Ó15 : For óije genit. sing. fem. of 05 holy pure — O. Ir. Ó5, uaj. 
Name of this song sometimes written " bAncnoic CiiteAnn O ! " 
as if the last word were the interjection, but this is a mistake I 
the word 05, holy, is a well-known and ancient epithet of our 
country, "eife 05 inif nA nAom" — "Holy Erin, island of 
Saints," is the first line of an ancient Irish poem. Hence the 
substantive 05 or 015 a virgin — tHtiife ói^ = Mary Virgin. 


Air : Uileacán dubh, O ! 
Translated by James (Clarence) Mangak. 

The original of the following song is probably one of the first 

compositions, if not the very first, of Donnchadh Ruadh. It 
appears to have been written abroad, perhaps in France, where 
the poet may have lived a few years before he returned home 
to Ireland. Its date, therefore, will lie between 1730 and 1740. 
The music of the air is given by Moore, O'Daly, and Dr. 
Joyce. After Mangan, the song need never again be trans- 
lated ; yet, though his version is beautiful, and as close to the 
original as a metrical rendering can well be, it is not by any 
means so melodious or so artistic as the Irish song. This 
translation was first published in O'Daly's Songs of the 
Munster Bards in November, 1849, a few months after 
Mangan's death : — 

5j^ AKE a blessing from my heart 
to the land of my birth 
And the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
And to all that survive of 
Eibhear's tribe on earth 
On the fair hills of Erin, oh! 
In that land so delightful the 
wild thrush's lay 
Seems to pour a lament forth for Erin's decay — 
Alas, alas ■ why pine I a thousand miles away 
From the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

VJiteACÁn 'Dub O\ — 0h, the sad lament! But it would be 
better to retain the Irish names of these old airs even in English. 
UileACÁn is no douht as Dr. Joyce says {Irish Music a?id Song, 
Dublin, 1S8S), but another and older form of utA5Ón, a cry, a 
lament ; connected with uiteliu, a wailing, uAitt, a cry, Lai. 
ululare, Engl, wail — all probably phono-mimetic or imitative 
words. Moore calls the air the " Song of Sorrow," and wrote 
to it his lyric beginning Weep on, weep on, your kuur is past. 


tDi-óeAnn X}Á\\\\ bog fUm A\y óAoin-ónoic éit^eAnn 

tDÁnónoic éipe^nn óig' ! 
'Sir peÁpp n-Á'n cíp-pe -oit 5AÓ ftéitie Ann 

tDÁnónoic éife^nn óig ! 
"Oob' Á\yo A coiLlce 'p b^ -óípe^é, féij 
'Sa mbtát mAf AOl Ap riiAoiLinn geuj 
-Ac-á sivát) xigAm' Óf0it)e Am' íncinn péin 

Af tiÁnónoic éif e^nn 61$ ! 

AzÁ SAfjvAt) Uonrh-Ap 1 -ocíp n^ li-étt^eAnn 

t)Ánónoic éipexinn óig' ! 
^f íreAjvA-óoin $poi-óe ni cl^oi-ópeAt) ceuTocA 

At\ t)4nónoic éipe^inn ói$' ! 
Tn'pA-o-cuipf e cponóe ip mo óuimne pceul ! 
^ÁX) Ag g'^'^^^^oic fíop p4 Sfeim, mo leun ! 
'Sa mbAitce x>Á poínn p4 óíof 50 •OAOp ! 

t)Ánónoic éife-Ann ói$ ! 

SíoljiA-ó Ifi Ar etbiji : The race of /r and Eibhear, two of 
the sons of Milidh or Milesius — here meaning the whole Irish 
race ; Eibhear being put as the ancestor of the Southern families, 
and Ir of the Northern. But while Eibhear (or 'Heber') is 
generally reckoned the ancestor of the southern clans, Ir strictly 
was progenitor only of the north-eastern families — chief 
amongst them being the Ui-Eachcuh (' Iveagh ') or Magennises ; 
Eireamhon ('Heremon') the youngest son of Mflidh, bein;^ 
generally regarded as the ancestor of the great families of 
Connacht, Leinster and Meath, as well as of the O'Neills and 
O'Donnells of Ulster. 

"Oit 5AC f léi5e : "oij strictly the absence or want, but frequently 
used for t)io5a the refuse, the worst of anything -oic 3A6 f léit>e 
=:the worst of all mountain wilds, the barest of wilds. 


The soil is rich and soft, the air is mild and bland, 

Of the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
Her barest rock is greener to me than this rude 
land — 
Oh the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
Her vroods are tall and straight, grove rising 

over grove, 
Trees flourish in her glens below, and on her 

heights above — 
Oh, in heart and in soul, I shall ever, ever love 
The fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

A noble tribe moreoverarethenow hapless Gael, 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
A tribe in battle's hour unused to shrink or fail 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
For this is my lament in bitterness out-poured 
To see them slain or scattered by the Saxon sword 
Oh, woe of woes, to see a foreign spoiler horde. 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

■peA|iAcoin for peAji-com pi. of peAftcu, a male hound, a great 
hound — figuratively a hero, like teoniAn, mArJAtriAni, -o^ASAti, 
&c. In feAftA-com the a in the second syllable is euphonic but 
irregular — so also a euphonic vowel is inserted in ^AllA-poic 
pnine-beAn, feAnAcuf-|c,for 5Att-poic, Finn-t)eAn,f BATicuf &a 

tTl'pA-o-rui|ife c|ioi-óe = 3^ long weariness of heart I Some 
times written pÁc-cuipfe, cause of 'weariness ; but though this 
is Irish and similar to at)Cia|1 bpoin, assonance obviously requires 
a short vowel here {cf. jaIIa and bAitce in next lines) ; besides 
fA-o ( = pat)a) enters into several compounds, as fA-o-futAn5 = 
long suffering, pA-o-cofAc, long legged, "jc. Atcuitife, great 
weariness is another word differing from both. 


If pAiffing 'r If "^<5n ^^"^ CfUAoOk riA ti-eifCAnn 

t)Án6noic é^\\eAnr^ Ó15' ! 
A cui-o me^tA 'suf uAóCAit^ ^5 glu/nf e Aóc'n^ ftAo'OA 

Af\ Oánónoic éipe*\nn ói$ ! 
RAC^it) me Af\ cuAit^c no if luxxt mo fAO$At 
"Oon CAtAtfi t>eA35 f UAipc, Af "ouAt -00 5^^c*i^ 
'S 50 mb' f eAft^A tiom nA "ouAif "o'á UAifle^óc é 

t)heit AjA t)Ánónoic éipeAnn ói$' ! 

ScAipeAtin An nai^uoc Ap JeAttiAf Ajuf treuf Ann 

Af t)Ánónoic éií\eAnn ói$ ! 
Af CAgAit) nA ti-utitA curhfiA Af\ ^eugAib 

Ap tiÁnónoic étt^eAnn ói$ ! 
t)iotAí\ Ajuf f AfhA* 'nA sLeAnncAit) ceo 
'SnA ffotA f An c-f Aiti|\At) a' tAOAifC Af nóm — 
Uifce nA Siuipe *\5 t)|\úóc 'nA t^6\^ 

-Ap t)4nónoic éi|\eAnn Ó15 ! 

CjiuACA : Here corn-stacks, the usual meaning. CfUAe is a 
stack or rick of com, hay, turf or the like ; Welsh crug, a heap 
or pile, A. Saxon hrecu, Engl. rick. Mangan does not translate 
the word, but it is clear he understood its meaning. Applied to 
a hill or mountain, as in Chuaó phÁtJttAic, it is figurative 

'nA flAO-OA for 'tiA f lAOX>Ait> : In streams — the only possible 
meaning here, though iK)t given in dictionaries. See Joyce's 
Insh Names of Places, Vol. II., p. 387, for 'Slad,' 'Slade,' the 
name of some streams in the eastern counties. StAO-oAn (also 
written flAJ-oÁn and flAijoeÁn) a running, influenza, cold in 
the head, is an obvious diminutive of flAOt). 'nA flAOt)A (16) 
is often said of longJle:vÍH£^ hair. 


Broad and tall rise the cruachs in the golden 
morning's glow 

On the fair hills of Erin oh ! 
O'er her smooth grass for ever sweet cream and 
honey flow 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
Oh I long, I'm pining again to behold 
The land that belongs to the brave Gael of old — 
Far dearerto my heart than a gift of gems or gold 

Are the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

The dewdrops lie bright mid the grass and 
yellow corn 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
The sweet-scented apples blush redly in the morn 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
The water-cress and sorrel fill the vales below, 
The streamlets are hushed till the evening 

breezes blow, 
While the waves of the Suir,noble river,ever flow 

Near the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

If fAitifing 'f If Ttióf lAt) : In this phrase inóft is to be 
pronounced m u a |t , for better assonance with Cf «aca. It is 
a frequent pronunciation of the word in Munster, and indeed in 
such places as the above, the spelling also might be m « a n- 
C/. Ó and «a, ftoj and ftuAJ, &c. 

50 Tnb'peAjt^A tiom : Notice fCAit^A in two syllables, the 
5ist short — assonating with jiacai-ó and CAtAtii in the lines 
before it. •peAfjiA is probably older than feÁff though the 
latter is now the more usual form. Donnchadh Ruadh uses both 


If pofCAiLce, p^itceAó ^n 4ic fin éipe, 

"bAnonoic eife^nn ói$ ! 
-0k5Uf co|\A"ó tiA fUÁince i mbÁpf riA t)éife 

-<\f tiÁnónoic éifeAnti ói$ ! 
t)A t)inne liom nÁ meufiA AfiteuT)4ib céoil 

Seinm ^guf geimfeAt) a l^iog 'f^ '^*^^ — 
C^itne^tfi tiA spéine ofiiA, AOfOA Af Ó5, 

-A|\ í»<xnónoic éifeAtin Oi$ ! 

f ÁiLceAC : Hospit'ibU, ready with a p Á t t c e or welcomeTi 
John Fleming {Gael, your.. Vol. 11.") gives pAiiteAc — a word I do 
not know, unless it be a mis-spelling of pÁt)Af a6, favourable, 
kindly, friendly, in which word the 1i is generally not pronounced 
in the south. 

CopA-ó nA ftÁitice=the fruit of health, wholesome fruit- 
Mangan's rendering of this phrase (' The very Bread of Life ') 
is an unwarranted exaggeration, and worse. 

CAicneAth nA jféine, "ic. The thought contained in this 
last line — as I take it — is not in construction witli the two pre- 
ceding lines, nor is it meant to be ; it is a wish or prayer fitly 
ending the song, and though it contains no flourish about 
' shields,' is more tender and pathetic than Mangan's rendering 
— for it means literally — 'The glory of the sun (be) on them all^ 
young and old, on the fair hills of Holy Ireland ! " 

An Older Version. 
Though the whole of this song is generally attributed to 
Donnchadh Ruadh, credit should be given to him only for what 
is his due ; for it is clear that like Bums with some of the old 
songs of his time, he only re-'otrote an older anonymous song of 
the same name, and to the same air. Three verses of this older 
composition were given by Hardiman in his Irish Minstrelsy 
(183 1 }, with a metrical translation by John D' Alton. They 
were translated also by Edward Walsh in his Irish Popular 
6i>«^'j (1847) and again by the late Sir Samuel Ferguson; and 
were re-published by Dr. Joyce in his Irish Music and Song 


A fruitful clime is Erin's through valley, meadow, 

And the fair land of Erin, oh ! 
The very "Bread of Life" is in the yellow grain 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 
Far dearer unto me than the tones music yields 
Is the lowing of the kine and the calves in the fields. 
And the sunlight that shone long ago on Gaelic 

On the fair hills of Erin, oh ! 

The following is the older song as given by Hardiman (Irish 
Minstrelsy, Vol. II., pp. 78, 79). From its style and construc- 
tion it does not seem to be much older than Donnchadh Ruadh's, 
certainly not older than the latter half of the seventeenth 
century. Though some of the lines are obviously corrupt, the 
old song has a genuine poetical strain which justifies the attention 
and admiration bestowed on it by so many of our later poets. 
Nor does it at all appear to be a lament, but rather, a joyous and 
generous description of the natural beauties of our country — 
perhaps only a part of the original poem — written to an air which 
was and is doubtless a lament. Donnchadh's song combines 
both characteristics — it is a pathetic lament and a beautiful 

t)Án6tioic éifeAnn óg. 

[Original version.] 

1p iTAiffins Y If p^itceAó An Áic X)0 t»eiC n-éif itir» 

■UileACAn "outj O ! 
triAp A mbi'óeAnn coft^t) n^ ftÁince a mbÁpp n^ 
T)éife xinn 

tlileACÁn -out) O ! 



t)it)exxnn An ttiil Ap An gcjiAnn Ann a njleAnncAib 

'SnA f putAit) If An c-f AriitvA Ann a 5-ciurhAir 5AÓ 


t)n!)eAnn uifje 'nA fpúitt Ann Af TDpúóc um nóin 
Aif t)Ánónoic éipeAnn ó$ I 

If DAÓAttAé, buACAó, •ouAlAch, T)féimneAÓ, 

UileAC^n -out) O ! 
5AÓ f AfAif e A §luAif eAf Ó óUAncAiti nA ti-éi^eAnn 

tliteACÁn -out» O! 
"RAóf A-of A Aip cuAipx) mÁf t)UAn mo f ao$aI tteiiieAf 
5'nui5 CAtAm An c-f UAipcif mAf if -duaI tdo 5*i^c 

■ÓA1I t)eit, 
"Oo t)'f:eÁpf liom nA t>up n-ouAlgAf git) mop te 
mAOi-oeArh tJeit 
Aif OÁnénoic éipeAnn ó$ ! 

If CAiftieAó 'f If mop lAT» cfUAÓAitS nA ti-éipeAnn 

tíileAcÁn nut) O I 
t)i"óeAnn An c-im Af An c-UAÓt)Af aj jlUAifeAÓc 
'nA flAO'OA Ann 

tliteAC^n -outi O! 
tH^eAnn An biotlAf Aip An -Dcoinn Ann Af f ArtiA-u 

t>05 fOt)All 

Af nA CUAÓA A5 tAtiAii\c Ann 16 50 10 
'S An fmóiUn UAfAl if fUAim-tiinne ceol 
Aip t>Ánónoic éifeAnn 6$' 


The following is Ferguson's English version (Lays of the 
Western Gael, 1865), and as Dr. Joyce points out, it will be found 
to be almost word for word : — 

The Fair Hills of Ireland. 
A plenteous place is Ireland for hospitable cheer, 

Uileacán duhh, ! 
Where the wholesome fruit is bursting from the 
yellow barley ear, 

Uileacdn duhh, ! 
There is honey in the trees where her misty 

vales expand, 
And her forest paths in summer are by falling 

waters fann'd, 
There is dew at high noontide there, and springs 
i' th' yellow sand 
On the fair hills of Holy Ireland ! 

Curl'dheisandringletedand plaited to the knee, 

Uileacdn duhh, I 
Each captain who comes sailing across the Irish 

Uileacdn duhh, / 
And I will make my journey, if life and health 

but stand, 
Unto that pleasant country, that fresh and 

fragrant strand. 
And leave your boasted braveries, your wealth 
and high command, 
For the fair hills <9f Holy Ireland ! 


Large and profitable are the stacks upoa the 

Uileacdn dubh, ! 
The butter and the cream do wondrously abound, 

Uileacán duhh, ! 
The cresses on the waters and the sorrels are 

at hand, 
And the cuckoo's calling daily his note of music 

And the bold thrush sings so bravely his song 
i' th' forests grand, 
On the fair hills of Holy Ireland ! 

On comparing Donnchadh Ruadh's with the older song it will 
be seen that the last three stanzas of the former are aubstantially , 
identical with the more ancient anonymous verses, though on thej 
whole more artistically finished. The first three stanzas of| 
Donnchadh's are, however, quite original. The Irish reader will \ 
remember that we have similar older and later versions of nunyj 
of our Irish songs, as oi Eibkltn a rú», Róisin Dubh, the Paisttnk 
Fi«nn, Sea_^han Buidhe, Gráinne Mhaol, the Drai^htanán\ 
Bonn, Slc, Sec 



eACcuA oeAtnuis ^n^e. 

The incident which gave rise to the following humorous tale 
is referred to in the Life of Donnchadh Ruadh. I give the 
poem here rather for its length than for chronological fitness — 
for it belongs to the period 1760- 1770. The contest between 
the Poor Scholar and the Surly Dame arose, it will be remem- 
bered, from the refusal of the latter to give the young man shelter 
for the night ; this led to words and these brought on a furious 
battle in which the old dame's crockery supplied the artillery on 
both sides, till not an article in the house was left whole — the 
battle ending in the poor scholar being put to flight by the old 
woman's relations, upon whom, however, and their descendants 
the scholar left his curse. It is said that James Gray in after 
life became a famous schoolmaster and land surveyor in the Co. 
VVaterford. Much of the humour lies in the absurd misconstruc- 
tion put by the old dame on the poor scholar's English — the 
language in which he first addressed her — and this effect would 
be lost in a translation. The stor>', or one very like it, is pretty 
generally known throughout Ireland. Versions of it have been 
printed before — in 1853, in 1876, and in 1SS2. 

A15 lAff xM"ó téiginn 'riA f cotÁipe 

"Oo f CMlt A X)éAX)A\y '-^A mÁlA. 

Cá 5-c<if^^it)e f An oit)óe 
Chum f ti!-óe 'fce^o A^^ ScoLÁif e 
A6c 1 tnt)Aite-nA-ti)pA0iceA6 
'S é cíocp^ó mA\^ \3A %nÁtAC. 


Oo óuApcuig móiii-tíinpeAll 

'Sní bpjAip UAtA xxoi-óeAéc Ann 
Y\Á rli$e 'fceAÓ ón tipeAptAinn, 

50 n-oeAóAi"ó 50 nuig' ^r-Ái^^^ 
'O'puineA'ó ^pán xif Ain hiApcA 
1 b-poU be^s T)o fÁinig Leif 
'SAtAX) fceAó 'nA "oiAi-o pn. 

" God save you ! " a|\ ^n ScolÁipe 

"OubAifC JfÁinne " "Oo 6onnc]vá6c ! 

"If 5A-0 é, 'r Ap ttiopÁn 

iDhéAfpAinn \iAp -ouic fAn gceAnn -oé! 

"tTlunA mbeiteA ceAnn-T)^nA 
tílAf ACÁit\ 'r^'o' ■í>'Ailcín 
tlí tiucpÁ óum mo tJotÁin 
"OéAn^Mti cofiin Am' gApjvAiúe." 

"Not so" Ap An Scotáife 

"Pray pardon my boldness f" 
" An\{6 óu$AX)" X)0 fAit) 5t\Ámne 
" Hi jVAir» 4if re nÁ poll Aip ! " 

'S Ann fin nuAif "oo óonnAifC fé 

riAó fAit) cuigfin AIC1 Af tDheuflA 
"O'lAfp teAbAit) Af ceine uifpe 
Chorh f oineAnnx)A 'f voX)' j:é\x>\\^ 


"X>Á v-ZA^Ai) r\A cípte 

' Sa muíncip Avn' óoifi4if\-f e 

1 1ne-<^fc a ngAbAtin An Cflige "óíoti 

Híl r^ige A^Atn 'oo-o' fóíic-fxx." 

"Tlí DACAC TTié riÁ geocAXó 

D^p TTDóij ! " Af Ati Scol^ipe 
'S 1 mt)xMte-t)peAC "do óorhnuijim 
'pÁjxMl eoluif om' ttiÁg-Aifcip I ' 

"triÁgAifap r\A buA6A\\X 

Hí -ouAl 50 mbíonn Avn' 6tiit-fe 
Hí tMfin tiom tem' ótuAf^' ^AX) 
X\'a mhuAnA-t) a\k An -oútAig : 

**tlí pulAif 50 mbeit) fuifín 

X)Á 6u|\ fíof 'nu.áif\ t^s^iT) fiAt) 

X>o 5AÓ ne-AÓ coispíóe 

tTlAf tuóc feifpige nó mAite^fA 

"An rhuincif Ag a\k ^nÁtAó 
ScolÁifi-óe Af fxigAifc póf 
"Do ói"óimfe r\At pe^fixtje 
Utiig sfÁinne "oon c-fexig^l "oóitJ. 

i< ' 

Sx)A mX3\A'ó Ar\ oifveAt) pif An -ofeoiUn 
"D'os-ólotnn ^m' pAffA-ó-f-A 
Hí óuippnn 'ouine nÁ "oeofiAit) 
50 "oeo 'fíf óum f coite "óíot> ! " 


" An cé "oeAniTAf " a\\ An Scol^ijte 
" X)é\X) f áf-At) Ó "OhiA Aige 
iDeit) An fAt Ai|\ "oe tÁt-Ai|\ 
'S belt) tiA stvár^ 'se 'riA -oiAit) fin : 

" Hi tip<i$Aip-f e t)ul 1 g-CxMtir 
leif An Aicme $eit) eoluf 
S'"Oom "óóig ní -oeAnfAinn mAUMfic 
xXf "00 óuiT) fCAgAiL nÁ eopn*\n ! 

"CubAifc' Af -oit ope, 

ITlÁf píOf\ pn A $p<^l)A1f e ! 

téi5 -ooT)' ÓU1T) Aignif 

p^s mo fAt)At\c Af fe^óAin mé! 

"Cfveu-o -00 gnit) luóc eotuif 
Af mópcuif VÁ rhéiT) iat) 
Aóc AS CAiteAtti A tOin-feAn 

-Ap lUÓC f ÓltlAip Af f AOtAip ! 

" tDAt) pó tfiAit An sniotfi é 

X)Á bpÁjAinn fCfíot)' 6um nA cúipce 
Ctium tuóc eoluif Af tjpíbeAt) 
"Oo -óítíitic Af An x)ifltAi$!" 

"If luóc eotuif " A\\ An Scol^ife 
" -AcÁ 'curiTOAó "oo tige opc 
As X)éAnAth fcÁt' "oo flioóc tóbuif 
"Oo cógtiAt) Af An AOileAé ! " 


Y\Á í\xMt5 1 scluAif "00 tige-fe ! 

"Oo éíoppxMnn •oo óuaóxx 

'S-oo bUAitpmn pe^t) An óínn tú !*' 

" T)a 5-cíof\p-Á mo tuAÓA 

HíH -ótj-At T)uic 5Uf t)'peÁf\|i-'oe 

A óífce TbuG gfvuAnróA 

If cú An óptJAt)-óAitteAó x>ÁnA\" 

ScinneAnn Ati Cti-Aitte^ó 50 fAnnzAÓ 
te pogA fuinneAttiAit puA'D-Aig 
'St)o f«5 A|\ fre-áf\ riA \,eAt)\\A 
Aif óeAnn ^^uf Aip óttJx^f*^ít). 

X)o feí A\n CtiAiUex3k6 'f^" ScótÁif\e 
A5 clúcÁit -A óéite 
'SnifT ír^5t)A"OAf\ t)fe-áUÁii 
'Sati mt)OtÁn gAn petjO^t) ! 

Hi tv<.Mt) 1 5-CAt 5liAt»ttA 

Ílx\ 1 -oUeAmfA nA mbéime^nn 

X)íf X)A l\A CUAfS^I" 

"Oo coaxIa-ó 1 5Céin viAtA 
t)éiceAó rhóf Af 5Áptx\ 
An c-uAiUeAt) fAn r|\eun-cuicim 
An ctMOoAt) fxin cÁpnxxt) ! 


1 5-CorhfVAC tiA C-AilLige 

"Oo feAfitiuig 50 cuit)-óeAf-Aó 

gup fCfOic fife A óAipín 

Ar criApxxoif A. Opifce. » 

"Help us, Lord!" á\\ An Scol^ife 

" In this battle, or we lose the day ! " 
"m^r Í mo feilp-fe'' a^ 5M'""® 
tUL xieAZAt x\A f úite uippe ! 

" tl6 m^f é AX)eit\ CÚ 

5«r feilp AZÁ ox^m-fA 

mo t»ó péin tieijx optn ! 

^Afi Aon f ple^t) le f colAipe ! " 

" / have lost my ears by the fierce witch, 
I fear much ! " Af au Scol^ipe 
"CÚ tieit te-Af coip no le^r ci-Af\ t)iom 
"Oo fCiAllpAinn -oo ónÁtti'nA ! 

"Ar m4 ÓAit mire m'friAClA 
Hi pMf\T)A me riÁ mÁlA 
|?Aice A\y Dit ni lA^ivAim 
C\A fiAjViMm A I4n "oiot»!" 

"meArAim" Ap At! ScoUipe 

"Íl-Aó rpxAjuapA tú péin teo 
Oip ir "OAingeAn Ati siAeim 'cA 

-AsA-o te^tUlitfi Am' óéiti-re!" 


te n-A tint! fin •oo X)aw cvi.m|\c 

Af -An 5-Cí\tJAt)-óAiUi$ <ii-Atv-t)uit) 

Af X)0 fin 6^5 AflUAf Í 

'Ha cuAitt' Ap á.n Ti5píofAi5. 

"t)íot) t>feAtt" xxp An ScoUlii\e 

"Ap An cé pÁsfAfv Af\ 'oéi'óeAnAiJe !** 
' StDo lom f é 'nA tÁm-fit 
Chorh tdiDip Af x)'feu'o fé. 

'Out)Ait\c An CtiAiUeAó aj cup -puinnitfi 

'tiA tl-iOfCAIT) 'nA tVAlt) CfVAmpA 

" If lonróA feAf bA rhif e 
"Oo óuif eAf-f A t)f eAlt Alp ! " 

"Oo tog fi nA ti-éigrhe Aip 

50 íi-éigneAé Af -oo tiuig fi 
Af T)o ofuinnig a gAotCA 
Ap 5AÓ CAOt) "oi te cúngnArh. 

"Oo t-áinig Annfin tTlÁifín 

'Sa fniAécAOin 'nA ceAnncA 

tDfig-oin Aguf Gitilin 

t)hi neirhneAÓ mAp neAnncA. 

trióf Af in A teAt-L^irh 

t)hi flinneÁn An cufvAinn 

■RCinpA $Ati SiottÁn 

Af cuA$ An óAtJÁifce t)fiit)' Aice. 


tll^ifippe ■<ir tHuipeAnn 

"Oo pitpeAt) te pAt) A\\ bit 
1lu5 fiAT) A\\ An 'ouine boóc 
X)'írÁ5 lomnoóc 'ha -oi^Mt) fin. 

-An c-Og^n t)o te^s fiAt) 

Af "o'pÁs fiA-o 5 An \Atl -Aif 
-Aóc mo fcol^ipe ni tiucf^t) 
50 nuis'mire ■^au MppmA ! 

Ctiug An ScolÁipe a mAllAtz 
"Oo tDiiAite-nA-bp-AoiceAO 
'Sni t)it)eAnn Ann aóc cpofo^it 
-Ap x)poótt>n4 x>Á t)pi$ pn ! 


The occasion of the followhig verses was a christening at 
Stradbaliy in the year 1756, at which the subject of them, 
Father John Casey, parish priest of Kilmacthomas and Strad- 
baliy, was a guest (see Life of Donnchadh Ruadh). They 
contain a little banter on Father John — on his economy in 
regard to his ale, much too rigorous for Donough's liking — 
banter which, no doubt, the parish priest enjoyed as much 
as anyone, all the more as the charge does not appear to 
have been at all well-founded. The verses are said to have 
been composed extempore — in any case they are witty and clever. 

S triAifS 5«irc 1 tnt)Ailce Ctiuifc if t)f\ón 

YT fciof 
An CAtfAipe xx\AC C^t^f Aig Seon 'x\a f uit)e 
5 At! 'oa'oa' 'je AÓC bAttAilte \a. tótn te 

Uá bt^if e tnuis "oo f^5x\i\CAitt "OÁ ngeotj-At) 
AX\ c-fiige ! 


Ar "oo f eoimfin a Stieoinin «i Cti^t^f ai$ 

At)' lóifoín le ■oeofixini nif óAitifeAó fiAtfi 
A"o'fceoi5fiof cé1"o■oopó1t\cín,•oocAr^nx^,'f■oot)M•ó! 

t)ix\t) 50 pAiffing Af teAUAn-ouiT) loin ^^ ctAf^ 
A5 |:é*^fCA Af t)Aite, Ap tiAifce^it) no *i|\ pof^iTi 

A5 CÁÓ, 

SciAn Af cnAgAife, pLe^fC 'nA "ooit) Af cnÁtti — 
A *OtiiA ni $tAcpAt) A ttiAtAifC -oe fpófic 50 bpÁt! 

Tloirh ÓÁÓ gup ct^om •ooóeAtin 'r supctváigcemuis — 
Don phÁpA ní t^tiAppÁ fceAtl, gé nAj;, mÁ tig 
Aóc lÁn ^n pionncA rti^innc.Ms, tte^rtiAis, »15 ! 

ticm Cum SA5AIÍIC. 

["OonnóAt) XYiAC ConmA\\A cecinic] 
The following fragment, kindly sent to me by Father Michael 
P. Hickey, Professor of Irish at Maynooth, is generally attributed 
to Donnchadh Ruadh, and indeed bears every sign of being his. 
It has, I think, never been printed before. It appears to be a 
letter addressed to some priest asking him to tell his congregation 
that he (Donnchadh) was about to open a school in the neighbour- 
hood. We learn from it that Macnamara was at one time in 
ConAmAjiA or ' Connemara ' — or perhaps expecting to be there. 
It is also interesting as an example of the ancient Con<^ctAnn 
StAt^A-D, or ' Chain- verse ' — in which the last word of a stanza 
became the first of the next, and so on to the end — the most 
famous poem of the kind being the péititte AonjufAor Calendar 
ofSt. Aengus, beginning Sen a Ch^ifz mo tAbjtA (' Bless, O 
Christ, my speaking '). 

f AgAlf C -00 ITOtCA-O 1 'DCObAp nA 

riAOi tntDéite ^ 
Aitpif Too-o' pobul ^An -oooA^y 

•oot)' ppirhlei-o-fe 
5up ceAgAfCAó ottArh óum 

fcoile TDo f Í0I Ao'óA tné 
S50 ftp^npAT) 'riA bfrooAip mÁ 

toif tupeAnn Xc pé -oAtn. 

^riAnAoi m-bétce : 'Who wast bathed in the fountain of the 
Nine Muses' — a compliment to the priest's learning. 


Ué fr^-OA 1 sConAmAttá ^ 
T)o "OtionnoA-o tTlxicContnxittA — 
^ui-Cim fin, ní ti-olc ^n óúif 
ITÍAit mo éútisn-Atti i 5-cetiT)-cúif. 

Cúif An \,eAt)A^\\ 'f 50 sttijpAnc^ ^n f cfíotttiige tUAt 
CútTDxif ce-Annui5ce if "LM-oin 50 pífi-t)inn bUAti, 
piu x3i|\ 'o-ceAnsAti if f e-An^ouf f iopjiui-oe, f «Aipc 
Súx) A ge^tDxM-o 'f An ce^s-Afc ce^pc Cfíofcuit)e 

'oorinCA'ó ntixxt) i 'DCAtArh--Aii-éisc 

fo 6 An. 
The following amusing squib is a reminiscence of Macnamara's 
sojourn in Newfoundland — known at that time in Ireland as 
CAlAth-ATi-eifc, 'The Land of Fish.' It appears to have been 
composed and sung by Donough in a public house at St. John's, 
Newfoundland, in the company of some English soldiers and 
sailors, and a few of his own countrymen. The Englishmen 
enjoyed the English Knes mightily, and the Irishmen who under- 
stood both languages, enjoyed the Irish lines much more mightily. 

S I was walking one evening fair 

Af me 50 "Oéi'óeAnAó 1 tnt)Aile- 

StieAgAin ^ 

I met a gang of English blades, 

Af ^AV x>'a 'o-ctvAOóAt) ^5 ne^pc 

A nÁitiAT) : 

^The second stanza is a curious instance of the old seven- 
syllabled Deibhidhe metre. MacCurtin also — and other poets of 
the time — composed in both kinds of verse, though rarely 
mixed them. 

* bAite SheAJAiti = ' John's town,' i.^., St. John's, Newfoundland. 


I boozed and drank both late and early 
With these courageous men of war — 

'S gup t)inne tiom tia S^5r^n*M$ ^5 pit aí]\ (Mjion 
'S 5An -oe JtiAetJil .\nn ^óc pip-OeAg^n. 

I spent my fortune by being freakish 

Drinking, raking, and playing cards — 
gi-ó n-Aó fwiib xMpse^T) ^<3^5Atn nÁ spettpe 

VIA fUT) f-An c-fA05<\l AÓC nit) 5<mi .\if\T) : 
Then I turn'd a jolly tradesman. 

By work and labour I lived abroad — 
-Aóc biot) A^ m' frALlAin^ jup mop -ah h 

'S 5up be^5 x»on c-p^ot^p -oo tuic Lc-m ...aíiii : 

Newfoundland is a fine plantation. 

It will be my station until I die — 
ITI0 ópÁ-ó, 50 mb' \:eÁT[[\i lioin a beit in éipinn 

/A5 "oíol 5Aipcéipi"óe nÁ a^ vul pÁn 5C01LI : 
Here you may find a virtuous lady 

A smiling fair one to please your mind 
xXn pACA pcAigeAnnA Ap meAp^ cpéite 

50 mbeipit) me 'p^^os^^^^ ^eit Ay a pA-óApc ! 

Come drink a health, boys, to Royal George ^ 
Our chief commander, n4p óp-oui^ Cpíopc 

ni-ó 5An Áipx), I.Í., 'a thing without value, unvalued,' prob- 
ably his learning, his scholarship. 

bto-o Afi m' pAtLAins = 'be it on my cloak,' i. ., ' by my cloak,' 
a euphemism for biox) aji m' AtiAm. 

^ Royal George: King George the Second. 


Af bíot) t5uf n-Atouinjexi'oA 6«m ITItiife ITlti^tAf» 
'e péin 'x'A $Áf\-OAi"óe T)o te^sAt) fiof ! 

We'll fear no arms nor war's alarms 

While noble George will be our guide — 

'Sa Chfiofc 50 t>peicit) me au tifiuix) x>'a óÁfvnAt) 
A5 ATI triAC^ f o ^p pÁn iixMtin C^tt f ^n topf Ainc I 

AOt) Ó ceAUAi5. 

This is another piece having reference to Newfoundland. It 
was composed probably about 1758, some short time after 
Donough's return from America. Inquiries having been made 
about Ao-6 Ó CcAttAij ' Hugh O'Kelly ' whom he had known in 
Newfoundland, Donough gave the following account of him : 

1x tnx3ii"oin Anx>é ttí CAin*i"o*im fcéi^ 
-^5 5^15® 5^" óéiU X)'a teAtAtf 
'"Dip tfinÁit) 
50 tDpexiCAit) f e Aot) ó Ce-Alt^ij; 50 

1 "O-JZAlAm-An-éMcc 'riA rr\Ar\^A^^e 
ftn^Mt — 

1^5, mA|\t> yAn stage ^atí ZApA 'nA géig 

Ó t^ftfUMng Art éifc 'fx\n c-fx^tA1nn -oe gnÁt 

Af SAjf^riAo tnéAt n'Á tA\'CAt) A\y a úaoX) 
Ó t)AtAf 50 peu|\ 'f "oot)' AitToeif rriAp pÁg, 

^At) tnAC fo A]» fÁn, í'í., Prince Charles Edward, then at 
exile in France. 



Dob' AitniT) "OAtn péin peAíVA[it>] n^ó é 

"Oo óleAóCAt) Ár\ fclétp 'f"^ ^CJ^•op<^■ó ón 
DppálfC — 
X)o f^óx\-ó 1 t)-plé le SASfx^tiAó vnéAt 

1 *oCAlxjrh ^n éifc V ^5 tj^ile ^áu ctáf : 
"Oo ^lAbpA-ó "oo pleufcp^t) bAtxMf Af plAorc<^ 

X)o otiAppAt) "DO feubpAt) fAtAóA Af cnÁttiA 
le DxxcA, te cloit)eArh, te cleAtAiG, te p'léifv — 

Af 5lAC^im-fe a Aot) ui CheALliii$ *oo pÁ^\z ! 

1Tl^\p frolic Le ti-Ao-ó x)ul ZAmAlt "o'á fAo^Al 

50 UxJitArn ^n éipc -Ag CAiteArh *f ^5 pÁgAil 
tlí CAitne^rh teip Aon pexi|\ mx^5A1■ó nÁ bféige 

t3heit ^5 Aitpip fceul ^ip pAn mbAile x)o 
tfinÁit» — 
1p peAfAttiAil, pAot)í\A6, leAnAbAé, téi'ori')e<\C 

CAtmA x\n t^oó é ^5 cxiitpAins z:a\k f4il, 
xXf bAtitiA xxf cLeipoe^p, e^pfiAt) 'gup eu-oAó 

Af AifgeAtD péit) Atge ^5 c^pA* p^n tipÁL ! 

1p ZApA T)o téit)eAnn in shallop ■oe téim 

Ap riA pLAitip A5 pei-oeAt) peAócrhAin nó tA — 
^p 50 mt)' peAjipA letp ctvAoprhuip, SAiLpíon ^p 


Ap CíVAnriA "o'^ feutJAt) fí4 CAtAfiAins An ^ÁrfxA: 
Ok glACA X)A t\\.eun A\\ Jialyard An mainsail 

Caca Ap ceux) x)Á pctvACAt) 50 cUáp 

Oo ne^pcuis pé ati óéim 1 -oUAlArh An éipc 

Ap AbivAtn 50 lí^ip 50 x>-CA5Ai-ó pé ptán I 


Sé An TTAjtAife fujAo "oo óAítipeAX) nA púinc 

"Do fCAippexXt) Ar\ lionn, 'f "00 IxigpAt) au cIáji, 
Do ótiASp.A'ó f An c-f Ú1I Aon c-S-Agf amao fAttiAjt 

'S'ootiubpxi'óAóottxxitA'oo^'i^^e'óeAtin Atn ^á-óa: 
tDíonn CAjxi Af Cj^ufc^, CAnuA juf cutt^f Aip 

-Af Xjatoa x)o tubp^t) 'iiA -ooiMi x)e gtiÁc — 
Hi óxifpAt) f é A out Le peAjiAiG tiA ITltirhAn 

Hó guf rhAfluij Art ^úza a Coi^a 'f a tÁn\A. 

An cé oAfp^t) to ti-Aot) Oeit ^5 CAppAing -An 

Hó 1 mb^pfiA TiA pléice Af b^pitA 'Oa étvá-ó 
If "DAmAnc-A 'OAO|\ é mÁ úAjAnn 50 ti-éi]Mnn — 

tDe^nnuijit) ua ti-eigpe a ole^f a 'f^ 6Á1I — 
1)0 b'peAtifiA te 5^e"óit é tieic e^coffiA péin 

-A5 f eAf Atti f An f cleip 'f A5 cufi eAglA a|\ óáó — 
Sin AnpAt) on Ae\y 1 T)UAlArii-An-6ifc 

Sin ceAf CAf A\y Ao-ó ó CeAllAij ó'm tÁitfi ! 

p&s •oonnóA'óA ntiAit). 

The pAf or ' Pass ' of Donnchadh Ruadh — in pure Irish 
CBAt) or teijeATi — is a curious production, and though printed 
before, is well worth printing again. It was made for one of 
his pupils UifceAji-o nÁbAc rriACgeAiiAitc (' The Gallant 
Richard FitzGerald ') in 1759, and was supposed to confer the 
right to pass through the country and to claim hospitality at the 
best houses. Though in the form of an English law document — 
it is sometimes spoken of as Donnchadh Ruadh's t)A-pÁncAf or 
* Warrant ' — with its repetitions, synonyms, and technical tennsc 


the Irish in general is very pure, and the piece is therefore 
interesting for its copious and curious vocabulary as well as for 
Its touches of humour and satire. In a merely literal trans- 
lation, the manner must be entirely sacrificed — for the English 
language is not copious enough to give us at once the exact 
meaning and such alliterative, rhythmic, and measured phrases as 
the original abounds with ; but though many of the words will 
be found again in the Vocabulary I append here as the most 
useful to the student a word for word rendering, founded upon 
but not always identical with that given by Mr. John Fleming in 
the Gaelic Journal, Vol. II., pp. 271, 272. 

tl At-TlA-fCOlte 'OM tlf1$ 50 tJpUlt AgUf 
50 "O-CiilTllg AX\ t3|VAf-Alfie DeUl-ÓAOin, A^Uf 

Ail cte.AfAife ctuioe^e, clOt^igte, c«jf, 

CUjVACA, CpOlb-A, CAttTlA, Ctl-At)-f CAOlLCC 

-Ajuf AW ce^ccAife c^pA, cfoi$-luAt, 

fO-pfx3kf, ^5Uf fó-léif — «Agur '^'^ tAnn-Aipe 

tUAt, te^tAn, tikin--Ai5eAncAÓ te n-A 

ttai-oce^n 'Rifce.df'O |iát)AÓ tn^c^eApAilc, 

45 pojlAim cle^f, eAlA'óJ.n, Aguf it- 

óe^px) r\A fcot, Aguf Ag fiot^-fnjipge te 

feAjAC-tieitit» Sléit>e Parnassus, eAt)on, 

1. Wliereas there has come to Aih-na-scoile and is 
[there now] the gentle-voiced talker, and the accomplished, 
famous, clever, [?], heroic, valiant, sturdy, broad-chested, 
performer — and the active, swift-footed, expeditious 
messenger — and the very witty, very ready, very clear 
narrator [?] — and the quick, broad-[shouldered], full- 
spirited swords-man who is called the Gallant Richard 
FitzGerald — learning the exercises, sciences and various 
arts of the schools, and constantly wooing the lovely 
maids ef Mount Parnassus, namely, the nine swtet spirits 


nA Í1A01 ffOe t)inne fuit)e4f i mDpUc\6 x^otA 
Helicon, a^ fíf-ionntA-ó i xi-cobAf tia mt5x.\i\"o 
éijfe éi|\e*MitiAÓAX : Af ha h-Á"ót)ApAit!) pn, 
of-oui^im Aguf pogjiAim "oo 5AÓ c*mUi$ ófúbAiJ, 
OMfAfAriAij ; T)0 5^0 c^Mle épofOA, ÓAf Aomij ; 
"OO 5A6 fcoloig fCxMtrhij, f coit-Geul^ij ; x^guf 
/ "OO 5AÓ tDO-o^vó t)|\ocA6 t>utTOúnAó, Ó CneAna 
CtipuA-D^m 50 íTAitce ChAifil, ^^uf ó tiof-tnóp 
50 li-Oite^n UÍ títipic, ^suf x^f fin 1 teit óoif 
p^ipge no óoif m^igegAn "ooióiott.SAn -oiutCAt), 
g^n CAgxMpc T)0 cA&Aipc -oon f^b^Mf e f eurh-jvAi-oce 

11. ITlAif eA-ó, mxMf e^-ó, tn^f f in : OiADtiijim póf 
óguf -pósiiAim 5An é "o'fr^sMit óoif coca nÁ 
fc^CxA, foip nÁ t^pA, 1 "ocAipfin nÁ 1 5-cúinne^ 
1 t)-polt nÁ 1 l)-póipfe; aóc pof; ó^oin pÁilce 
pleA-óAó ^r Aoitonif, a fo$A fvúmA xiguf a tojA 

who sit on the bank of Helicon's stream, ever bathing 
Irish poets in the fountain of the bards : For these 
reasons I order and command every heavy-hoofed, hoarse- 
grumbling hag ; every cross, complaining vixenish virago ; 
every pinching, poor-mouthed rustic ; and every badger- 
like, blundering churl, from Credan Head to the Plain of 
Cashel, and from Lismore to O'Bric's island and thence 
hither, beside the sea or beside a plain, to show no grudg- 
ing, to give no refusal, to offer no opposition to the hero 
aforesaid, the Gallant Richard FitzGerald. 

2. Well, well, then : I order also and command that he 
be not left beside haycock or haystack, straw-heap or 
threshing-floor, on threshold or in a comer, in a hole or in 
porch : but that the kindest of festive welcomes and best 
of entertainment, choice of room to sleep i" with best of 


"tú-oAig turn conAlZA, cof*\ó fuit)ce aj^v\' éifge 
■no tAbJkipc ■Don pAbAipe peurh-tvÁn;)ce TlifceAifvo 
".41)^6 lHAC^e^tTAilc. 

111. tnAire-At), rriAifeAt), m^f fin : OpT)ui$im 
pOf Agut* pósíiAim 5An gopc nS jApivAi-oe, pe^tJ 
iA peAtvAtin, fti-Ati hA mínleAÓ, mOin n4 niAoAipe 
"oit^, fMp, teAf n^S tuAit, TiAÓ t>pui$it) fe ce^t) a 
pit, A téim, 'f^ tpuflóg cpíx). 

ItJ. tTlAifeA-ó, tTiAifeAt), tTiAp fin : Op-ouiSim 
pór -ASur FÓ5PA1IT» 5An t>jMC TiA l)i\ÁitUn, bAinne 
n^ X)lÁtAó, copn nÁ CAinnín, -oeAf ca-ó nÁ xtfiio-OAp, 
trteAti nÁ péAfCA, speim nÁ cífce, tnus nA pisín 
meACAn nÁ ppÁCA, 5f ut n4 meAtbg, teice n^ Ióca, 
lionn tiA liAt-uifce, tnópnÁn ppÁipin, futiA n4 
fiUn t»eit ACA, tn^r f Aop "OAop é, riAó ttpuijit) f« 
ceAT) A lige, A teAngA Ajuf a' rhAi-oe "do rheAf CAt) 
cpíT) : ní ti-é A t)lAf Aóc a t-áfCÁil, Ati oipeAT) pe 

bedding, first place at table and leave to be the first to rise 
therefrom be given to the hero aforesaid, the Gallant 
Richard FitzGerald. 

3. Well, well, then : I order and command moreover 
that there be neither field nor garden, wood nor farm, 
mountain nor pasture, bog nor meadow, east, west, south 
or north, through which he shall not get leave to run, 
leap and jump. 

4. Well, well, then : I order and command moreover 
that no one shall have coverlet or sheet, sweet milk or 
buttermilk, cup or can, dregs or scrapings, banquet or 
feast, bit or bannock, mug or mether, parsnip or potato, 
curds or whey, stirabout or pease-pudding, ale or gray 
water, can of oatmeal mixture, berry or cherry, whether 
cheap or dear, that he shall not get leave to lick, and to 
stir with his tongue, or his stick : not [merely] to taste, but 


•Duine no -pof fe t>eifc "oo t<\t»Aii\c -ooti jUb^i^e 

tl. íTlAifeA-ó, m^MfexJ-o, rriAf fin : óí\'oui$im 
pOf Aguf póSfVAim 5<\n bjVAió ti-á D-Aifín, cif nÁ 
cóf\\A, cult n^ CxitAoin, texit)^ n^ lóifoín, ne^x» 
nÁ ne^nncog, pott nÁ pfiAó^n, fop nÁ ftiit)ifce, 
AnjtxMf n^ te^riinxioc, pif n^ pón*M|\e, nÁ i-Af\t)Aif 
[ioft^"óAif ?] A^ t)it eite Tio tjeiu ifcig nÁ -Amtiig, 
in Ái[iX) vÁ 1 GpxAn^, fíof r\Á fviAf, foip nÁ fiAf, 
te^f nÁ tuAit, Annf o nÁ xvnnf út), g^n <\ txit)Ai|\c 
■Don pÁttAife i\euttií\^i-óce "Rifce^pt) ii^bAó VOac 

tll. ITIxMf eA-ó, tDAif e^t), mxi|\ f in : OfV"Otii$im póf 
Aguf f ósf^Mm 5An a óufi i 5-cuiT)exi6cA,i 5-comtuA- 
■OAf\,n^ 1 5-coirh|\exinn \\e T)Aoinit) neirh-eot5A6^,nÁ 
pe H-x3iOt>Ai|\it)it> t)ó, n^ |\e Dií^óxMttitD con, nÁ ]\e 
tuóc 5A"ó-Af, nÁ fe tuóc pexx-oj^ite pu^i^e, nÁ \\e 

to [thoroughly] try, and that a man's share or even two 
men's shares be given to the hero aforesaid, the Gallant 
Richard FitzGerald. 

5. Well, well, then : I order and command moreover 
that there be neither malt nor cake, hamper nor chest, 
corner nor chair, bed nor lodging, nest nor nettle, hole 
nor hollow, bunch of hay nor boss of straw, watered milk 
nor new milk, pease nor beans, nor other things of value 
whatsoever, whether inside or outside, on height or on 
slope, below or above, east, west, south or north, here or 
there, that shall not be given to the hero aforesaid, the 
Gallant Richard FitzGerald. 

6. Well, well, then : I order and command moreover 
that he be not placed in the company nor society of, nor 
at one table with, illiterate persons, nor with cowherds, 
nor with those who take care of hounds and dogs, nor 


tu6c éif\$e in ^ip-oe i tnl)ApivA<>Aitl> CfAOb, nÁ f\e 
fCoL-ttiÁi$ifcpit)it) \:ax)a puA^A pAilLi$te^6<\, 
f coit-beutAÓA, 5An tJlAf , gxin tieuf-A, g-an rhútiAt) ; 
iinx\p AC^ xMnmnigte ^gAm x^nnfo i. Cporcóip m^c 
Upom-ton^, 5"^5^" "^ Cao^ait), t)peiLLin 
t)eoLÁin, PvMcin ó ptAnnAS^in, SeA$An ^aUao, 
fei-oeAn-Ao ó ITIaoiI fu^riA, S|iAitTiin ó CuileAnriAín 
no Scigín ó ITlAOil-óAtA, m^p nx^p comAt) ^jup 
nÁf\ ppottiAt) 1 •o-cofAk6 nÁ in ex\|\óAoin léi$inn nÁ 
|:íí\-eoluip 1AX), Aóc Ag f íf\-rhilleAT) Aguf Ag poP" 
rhúóA"ó Au AOfA Ó15 neAtti-lAi-oion^iS, neiífi-t>eu- 


V111. pAOim* lÁirh A^uf pAoiin' fé^l^, ^n -OAfiA 
lÁ póeAT) -oe ttií ITlhApcA, ^n DLM-ú^in -o' Aoif 
Cpíof c, mile, f e^óc g-ceuT) ^50^ n-Aoi mULM-ó-An^ 
•oeu5 A]\ "oóóAX», 

"Oo U. t^. tn'S. f e "O. ITIac ConmAfA. 

with cold whistlers, nor with those who climb to the tops 
of trees, nor with gaunt, cold, negligent, sharp-mouthed, 
schoolmasters, without taste, manners, or education, 
such as those herein mentioned : namely, Christopher 
MacHeavy-bottom, Giddy-head O'Hackett, Coxcomb 
O'Boland, Tatter O'Flanagan, dirty, puffy John O'Mul- 
rooney. Blear-eye O'CulIenan, and Giggler O'Mulcahy, 
Inasmuch as these have not been steeped nor tested in 
the elements or beauties of learning or of true knowledge, 
but are ever spoiling and ever quenching [the minds of J 
the young who [therefore] have neither Latin nor good 

7. Under my hand and seal, the twenty-second day ot 
the month of March, in the year of the age of Christ one 
thousand, seven huqdred and fifty-nine. 

For R. Fitzgerald by D. Macnamara. 

AtCUIll^e "OonTlCA-OA llUAlt) 

(Red Donough's Petition). 
The following poetical petition was written at Kilmacthomas 
m 1764 when Donough was in great distress, and was addressed 
to a gentleman named Ducket who lived at BaiU-an-Fkcwitigh 
or ' White's-town.' Mr. Ducket gave Donough a sympathetic 
hearing, and ever after welcomed him at his house. The 
AoíbeAÍl mentioned here is the fair}--queen of Thomond, and 
the same that appeared to Donough when he was at sea — as 
described in the Second Part of the eAccfA ghiollA An 
AmAjiAm ; áine is the fairy queen of Co. Limerick, and has 
her seat at Cnoc Áine in that county. Donough being a native 
of Thomond it was natural that these two powerful beings should 
interest themselves in his favour, (See Life of Donnchadh 

"Don c-fAoi uAf aI. oif\'óeA|tc,Ái}tT)-ééimeAci. SéAmupX)ucAc, 
oncú cof AncA Ajup ceAnn-cómAipce, Ajuf pof móji ha n-u Af aI 
n-éijfeAc, n-eAlA-DAncA, Ti-ei|teAtinAc ; A5Uf 50 h-Áifiice, a 
feAfbf-osAnrAi-óe -oittf péin, CA-óon, XlonncAX) mACTiAmA|tA, 
Aon n'ó|\-D Áifo-oLlAtTiAn teice moJA Dua-óa-o 1 jCoitl-trnc- 
ChomAipn, 176-t. 

«Af All "Oil, fuAipc, "oon rhip .\f 

of X)UAL 'OUIC, If CÚ Af UAIfLe 

'f Af Aoitrne — 
Inneof AT) fCAif gAn óleAf, jah 

óAím "Ouic, 
Ó'f CÚ TtlAecetiAf éigeAf t\A 
cpice — 
5"r téif 'OAin 1 neulAit) da ti-oit)óe 
CíiugAm 50 "O-cAinis; Áme Af AoitteAtl. 
Ilif t)'ioii5nAt) leo me jati fox) tno finnfeAf 
^Afi feAfAfinAit) tugt)Aó tiÁ cúil 'riA fuixifinn — 


-Aóc b' longnA-o CfUAi-o, s^n ÓUAf n-i •oíon m<^, 
"^An éj^UAió, gATi ófe^ó, 5«in neA"ó t)om' daoi* 
■óeAnAií) ! 
" 6ipi5 AT)' f eAf Atti -Af mAi-oin " Af AoiogaLI 
" Af 'DéAn "00 f CAT) 1 mt)Aite-nA-t)pAOiceAÓ, 
" 5^t) T)0 "óuAn T>on UAfAt aoit)inn 
" Hoóc T)o guxAif Af sfUAim T)o Ó1^01t:)e "ÓO, 
" "Oo geAbAip pofCA-ó, poitin Af T)íon UAit) 
" Cot)Ai|\ -Af coimif ce i 5-coinne tia f Aoi|\e, 
"Af $eAt)Ai|\ 5An AttijvAf ATitnAT) cige uAit) !" 
"Oo lAttAif Áine Áfm x>e t)ínn-$ut — 
" CAt)Ait\-f e t)uit)eA6Af , T)UAif , Af T)íoI T)ó, 

" 5^^ 50 "OÁTIA T)0 "ÓÁnZA T)ftA01'ÓeAÓc' T)0, 

" O'f ^e^f Aó 5U]\ feATióAit) pop tú. 

" tloóc 5AÓ céim t)'a geujAit) 5A01I t)6, - 

" CfAObA coitineAf A mó|\-riiAictie lUtiileAt) ! " 

tinjiT) Aine t)lÁt Af AoitSeAtt 

1 neutcAit) neirhe ^a itneAtt tiA ti-oit)óe. 

t)A tÁrh tno tupAf Atn' -ouine gAti T)Acnne 
t)A teAfc mo óui|\eATí) cia tninic Atn' itiAoi-oeAtii mé, 
^Afi UAifte T)en rhóip-flioóc Arn' tímóioll 
A6c ctAnriA cÁif Af pÁf da ti-oitjoe, 
5An ftiLc TiÁ fpéif 1 téigionn nÁ in íiicleAÓC, 
Aóc sfÁin Af spuAitn 5A6 uAif tjo Ci"óit) mé, 
Aifi eAgtA beA|\c a fleAóCA x>' innpn. 

lí tAt)AppAt) pÓT) T)On ttÓtAp t)Ul-Óe "OATTl, 

Hf t>pÁ$Ainn cÁijATje lÁ nÁ oi-ooe, 

5"!^ óo|\pui$ All piiL oif\t)eAí\c Am' |\íogflAit, 

fuil Goipb-rheAp Ctioi\tnAic Da pí feAl 


■puit AOfTOA tiA t)-pAO|\x^ó fo C40it) linn 

A"o' óoimi|\ce céit)im-f e, a Stie^^muif UAf Ait AOipt), 
*S gup tit)-fe 5^6 céim, ^a6 tAéim, 'f 5AÓ t)UAit) 

AÓC cuitAit) 1 5-céilt riAó C|VAOt) ^^n óuAilte fínn 

^eURAtl t)OtlllCAT:)A nUAlt). 

The following 5eu|iÁn or 'Complaint' dates from 1765 or 
thereabouts, and was written shortly after Donough took the 
clerkship of the Protestant chuich at Kilmacthomas, and had 
made at least an outward profession of that faith. His motives 
for the change are stated frankly enough in these verses, and we 
can well understand that when this and the "Anti-Christian 
Creed " and similar compositions became known to the public 
he did not Hold his new situation or profess his new creed for 
ver\' long — though how long is not very certain. 

1 peicpe-Af mo ■ó|\om-f a 'cttp Altuif 

50 f^itiAip 
A5 5{U\|:a-ó no a' Cf eAb^-o Aon Avn 

•oen ttliA-ó-Ain — 
^tieAtDAT) Aúiui5<.\-ó texiO^if, t)éi- 
•óeA.\T) Atn' StixiCfxinAó ttAtti^f 
Op ACA tiionn cogA 'jtif fogxx 5^6 b^^ó : 
'S 'nA t)poCAit\ Af cuiGé liom fex^f-Atfi *if 
(Hi ZACA tiom t.^^01feAó bui"óe r\Á a "pop) 
-65 CA.\|AfiAin5 Ap Au tápíon ^ac rriAiDin 5AII f uitn — 
SCto heAtA r\A6 mtjionn ^5 5^0^*'^ 50 "oeo ! 


If -outt-AÓ t)oóc An CÁX' "DO -ouine m^p cÁim 

t)tiett ^5cLAOi"óeA-ó50 t)pÁt5AóLÁx\m'AitToeoin, 
'S 50 mb'pe<jpt^ tiom bÁf s^n coiiATne^f c T>'pá$AiL 

H-Á Alluf tem' ón^rii ó'n ttán xJkg póriiAf — 
Ppe-AbpAit) me 1 -o-civÁt, ní fteitieAX) m^p Ac4im 

Af bfif pit) me xMi ^Áif Le SpÁt) "oon peoil, 
'S 1 ■o-cinne*\f ni p utxSip liom minif cip "o'^^gAil 

'Sé t^bAffAit) -o^m tÁnóuit) a\káw m^p lón ! 

If ce^nn^f a6 ceAtin "oo p4óAT)-f a xsnonn 

AscjippAins óum ceAmpmttin AtnAnpharade — 
'S 5Ui\ binne me a' lAtiAifC nÁ'n tli-oiite 6n 

Ay m' uilte 50 ceAnn At\ óeAtin av seat — 
1>il Aon 'ouine tom x>o CApp^fi liom Ann 

triunA noócfAit) A óeAnn "OAm pleAnncpAt) é 
Af ZÁ |MOf Ag An -oomAn nuAij^ glAcpAH mipeAnn 

50 mb' Ain-oeif An ceAnn me "oo ChlAnn nA 
n^^etieAl 1 



The Epitaph on Tadhg Gaedhealach is Donough's last composi- 
tion. Theigue O'Sullivan died at the end of December, 1 799, and 
was buried on New Year's Day, 1800, at Bally laneen. The epitaph 
— in spite of one or two technical faults — proves at once that 
Donough was a poet and no mean Latin scholar, though when 
he wrote it he must have been more than ninety years old. And 
over the writer of it — a far greater poet than Tadhg Gaedhealach 
— there is neither stone nor epitaph ! 

Thaddeus hie situs est, oculos hue flecte viator, 

Illustrem vatem parvula terra tegit ! 
Heu ! jacet exanimis, fatum irrevocabile vicit 

Spiritus e terra ^ sidera summa petit ! 
Quis canetErinidum laudes,quis facta virorumf 

Gadelico extincto, Scotica musa tacet. 
Processit numeris doctis pia carmina cantans 

Evadens victor munera certa tulit. 
Laudando Dominum praeclara poemata fecit 

Et suaves hymnos fervidus ^ ille canet. 
Plangite, Pierides ! vester decessit alumnus, 

Eochades non est cunctaque rura silent, 
Pacem optavit pace igitur versatur in alto, 

Ad superi tendit regna beata Patris. 

The following Irish version by the editor was written some ten 
years ago, and appeared first in No. 23 of the Gaelic Journal 
(1886). I have re-cast a few of the lines. 

StliOf p^OI AX\ ttpÓT» f O CÁ Ua-Oj! Aft AX\ UAlg C<Xt)xMI\ 
xXttlAfC -A tAlfCeAtxMt), 

pile t)A tfióf Af rtixMC clú, be-ds aw áic 'Opuil 
fé 'riA tuige ! 

^ Aliter — atque volans. "^Al. — angelus. 


CpuA$ 50 TToe^oAi-o T)on eug otuinn, ctiu4$ 50 

"O'eicioll A fpiopAt) in Apt) 5 u\piv<Mt» tiAOirh- 
fiogxióc' X)é t)í. 
C^A feinnpe*3if éipe 'n^ ■óMit)-|'ev\n -ouinn, c\a 
§eot)Af s^MfceAt) ^ LAOóf Alt) ? 
|?A|\x\oip, ó'f cf AOÓCA lui$e*\f U^-og, 'noif bionn 
A\\ gceotCA s^n bpig ! 
"O'lmti^ fe 'jAbÁit A X)Án x>o t>\ eolAd ^f <ioit>inn 
te cloifcm 
CtiOAiTi fe ipÁ X)UA^^ú Anonn, pu^ip fe Iúaó 
fAOtAlf Af fiot). 
trihotAt) f é UijeAfMA tiA TToul iriA ■óuatic-aiI) Dpe^g' 
bfioJttiAfA, milfe 
CeotCA f Ó t)inne a\\ neAtti feinnpt) fe fe^fc^j 
gAfl ópíó ! 
'tDhuimit) tiA tnbÁfo, TJeAriAni bfón ! óif xk> óaiLL 
fit) 50 x)eo, "oeo bup ttoaIca, 
Af mbeit -DO CtiA-og in f xxn gcpe, cuifxAt ^noif 
ClAnnA ^•«i^oi*^^^ • 
Sio-óóÁin X)A rhiAn teif -o^ ófoi-óe Aguf pot»óiin 
"DO fUAíf f e in Áifoe 
TlAinis fe flAiteAriinAf "Oé, plAiteAmnAf AtA\\ 
An c-fAoi$il! 

A translation in English hexameters and pentameters was 
made by "Erionnach" (Dr. Sigerson), for O'Daly's edition of 
Ca-05 5<^o^*^' I^ has been revised by him for this work. 
Another English translation has been made by Maj'jr Cavanagh 


(of the United States) — not however directly from the Latin, 
but from my earlier Irish version : 

This is the grave of a Poet. O Wanderer, glance here 
in sorrow : 
Famous he was and beloved, weeds shade him now 
and grey dust. 
Woe ! he is gone, he is conquered by Fate's invincible 
arrow — 
Yet, hath his spirit, from earth, soared to the stars, 
'mid the Just. 
Who sings the glory of Erinn ? Who the heroic achieve- 
Lost is our silver-voiced Tadhg, broken the Harp of 
our Land ! 
Singing his musical numbers he left us, to mourn in 
Victor, in triumph, he fled, bearing his gifts in his hand. 
Often, in praise of the Lord, did his song rise, flow'r-like 
and vernal. 
Sweet now the hymns that he sings, standing mid 
angels above. 
Weep, O ye Muses ! your nursling has gone to the regions 
supernal — 
Dead, our MacEochad is dead ! Silent are woodland 
and grove. 
Peace he desired, while on earth ; peace henceforth awaits 
him eternal. 
Far in the Father's high home, 'mid the fair Kingdom 
of Love.