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Vol. IV. 

Chicago Historical Society's Collection. — Vol. IV. 



Edited and Annotated 

President of the Chicago Historical Society. 

Published at the Charge ok the Jonathan-Burr Fund. 


coMMrnr-K ok puiu.ication 

Edward G. Mason, 
Geor(;e \V. Smith, 
Lkvi Z. Lkitkr. 

hicago PhotoCravure 

^ ,^. (^.^Oi^^^^-''t^<^^^<:y^ ^ 

Aug. 22, 1802. — Sept. 14, 18S6. 





Inscription, --.... 

Preface, ----... 

List of Illustrations, . . _ _ . 

Chicago Historical Society, Officers, November, i88g. 

Past Officers, ..-_.. 
Members, Honorary Life . _ . . 

Life, - - - . . 

Annual, - . . . 

Associate, ..... 

Honorary, . _ . _ 

Corresponding, _ . . . 

Hubbard, Gurdon S., by Hon. Grant Goodrich, - - g 

Arnold, Isaac N., by Hon. E. B. Washburne, - - 27 

Tributes of Hon. Thos. Drummond, Hon. VanH. Higgins, 

and Hon. Wm. F. DeWolf, - _ . . 46 

Skinner, Mark, by E. W. Blatchford, - - - - 54 

Washburne, Elihu B., by Gen. Geo. W. Smith, - - 78 

Tribute of William H. Bradley, - - - - 98 

Carpenter, Philo, by Rev. Henry L. Hammond, - - 102 

Stone, Samuel, by Mrs. W^illiam Barry, _ _ . 130 

Menard, Pierre, Sketch of, by Edward G. Mason, - - 142 

The First Lieut. -Gov. of Illinois, by Hon. H. S. Baker, 149 

Pierre-Menard Papers: Ante-Nuptial Contract between Pierre 

Menard and Miss Therese Godin, June 13, 1792, - 162 

Pierre Menard's Commissions as Major of Militia, - 166 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of the Courts of 

Randolph County, - - - - - -168 

Pierre Menard and John Edgar's Commissions as Asso- 
ciate Judges, Criminal Court, Randolph County, - 168 
Pierre Menard's Commission to take Testimony in Land- 
Office Claims, ------ 171 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, Randolph County, - - - - 171 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut. -Colonel First Reg't 

Randolph Co. Militia, under the Laws of Indiana Terr'y, 172 
Pierre Menard's Commission as Captain of Infantry in 

Louisiana Territory, - - . _ - 173 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut. -Colonel First Reg't 

Randolph Co. Militia, under the Laws of Illinois Terr'y, 175 
Pierre Menard's Commission as Indian Agent, - 176 


PieiTC-Menard Papers: Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard's Com- 
missions to make Indian Treaties, . - - 175 
Record of Marriage of Pierre Menard's Parents, - - 177 
Record of the Baptism of Pierre Menard, - - 178 
Record of the F'irst Marriage of Pierre Menard, - - 178 
Record of the Burial of Pierre Menard, - - 180 
Vasseur. Noel le, by Stephen R. Moore, ... 181 
Lists of Early Illinois Citizens, Introduction by E. G. Mason, 192 
Heads of Families in Kaskaskia in or before 1783, - 198 
Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St. Philips in 1783, 203 
Heads of Families in Cahokia and its Environs in 1783, 204 
Heads of Families at Cahokia, Prairie du Pont, etc., 1783, 206 
Liste des Habitans resident aux Kaskaskias en 1790, 2og 
Capt. Piggot's Company in First Militia Reg't, Apr. 26, 1790, 213 
Roll of Capt. Francois Saucier's Company, August i, 1790, 216 
Roll of Capt. Jean Baptist Dubuque's Company, Aug. i, 1790, 217 
Roll of Capt. Philip Engel's Company, August i, 1790, 219 
Roll of Militia of Kaskaskia, August i, 1790, - - 220 
Roll of Militia of Prairie du Rocher, August i, 1790, 222 
General Return of St. Clair County Militia, August i, 1790, 224 
Petition of Certain Inhabitants of Vincennes, - - 228 
Jones, John Rice, by W. A. Burt Jones, ... 230 
Jones, John Rice; Gen. Augustus; Hon. Myers Fisher; 

Gen. Geo. Wallace; William Powell; Eliza; and Harriet, 260 
Jones, Rice, by W^. A. Burt Jones, .... 271 
Todd, jr., Col. John, Sketch of, by Edward G. Mason, - - 285 
John Todd's Record-Book : Gov. Henry's Instructions to Col. Todd, 289 
List of Commissions, Military and Civil, ... 294 
License for Trade, ..... 296 
Letter to the Court of Kaskaskia, - . . _ 297 
Plan for Borrowing $33-333 '3 of Treasury Notes, both be- 
longing to this State and the United States, - 298 
Copy of the Instructions, etc., on the Borrowing Fund, 299 
Bond of Commissioner, - - . . . ^oo 
Proclamation of, prohibiting New Settlements, - 301 
Warrant for Execution; John Todd to Richard Winston, 302 
John Todd to Nicholas Janis, - . . . 302 
Proclamation of, concerning Continental Money, - - 303 
Order to Hold Court, . - - _ . 204. 
Letter to Spanish Commandant at Ste. Genevieve, - 304 
Proclamations of, concerning Provisions for Troops, - 305-6 
Notice concerning Called-in Currency, ... 307 
Record of Order on Governor of Virginia, - - 307 
Condemnation Proceeding; Court Record, - - - 308 


John Todd's Record-Book : Oath of Allegiance ; Court Record, 309 
Peltry Account, ---.._ ^i^. 

Entries by Col. Todd's Successor, . _ . ^15 

John-Todd Papers : Col. John Todd, jr., to Governor of Virginia, 317 
John Page, Lieut. -Gov., to John Todd, Co. Lieut, etc., 320 

Col. John Todd, jr., to Col. P. Legras, - - - 320 

Col. John Todd, jr., to OHver Pollock, - - _ 321 

Oliver Pollock to John Todd, County Lieut, of 111., acknowl- 
edging receipt of his, by the hands of Mons. Perrault, 323 
Col. John Todd, jr., to Gov. Jefferson, - . . 333 
Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark to Col. John Todd, - - 325 
Lieut. -Col. J. M. P. Legras to Governor of Virginia, - 328 
Thos. Jefferson to the Hon. the Speaker of House of Delegates, 329 
John Dodge, Indian Agent, to Gov. Jefferson, - - 330 
Col. John Todd, jr., to Gov. Jefferson, - - 334-5-41-2-6 
Richard McCarty to John T9dd, Esq., - - - 336 
Richard Winston to Col. John Todd, - . . 338 
Col. John Todd to the Governor of Virginia, - - 343 
Board of Commissioners to Benj. Harrison, Governor of 

Virginia, concerning Col. John. Todd's, jr.. Accounts, etc., 348 
Col. John Montgomery to the Hon. the Board of Commis- 
sioners, for the Settlement of Western Accounts, - 351 
Thomas Jefferson to Col. Todd, . - . . 357 

British Illinois — Philippe de Rocheblave, Sketch by E. G. Mason, 360 

Rocheblave Papers : Sir Guy Carleton to Rocheblave, - 382 

Richard McCarty to Rocheblave, ... 383 

Petition to Carleton concerning Rocheblave, - - 385 

Declaration of Gabriel Cerre, .... 389 

Rocheblave to Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, _ . _ 3gi 

Rocheblave to Lieut. -Gov. Abbott, . _ - 392-3 

Sir Guy Carleton to Lord George Germaine, - - 394 

Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine, ... 395 

Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave, ... 397 

Examination of Henry Butler before Rocheblave, at Ft. Gage, 398 
Rocheblave to Carleton, ... - - 401 

Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine, _ _ - 407 

Rocheblave to Bosseron at St.Vincennes, - - 408 

Rocheblave to Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, ... 409 

Rocheblave to Lieut. -Gov. Abbott, ... 410 

Rocheblave to Thomas Dunn, Treasurer, Quebec, 410-11 

Rocheblave to Carleton, .... - 412-18 

Court of Enquiry at Fort Chartres, 1770, by Hon. John Moses, 420 
Index, ........ 487 


Arnold, Isaac N., from a photo, by Alex. Hesler, in March, 1881, 27 

Carpenter, Philo, _ - . . - , 102 
Hubbard, Gurdon S., from a photo, by C. D. Mosher in 1880, Frontispiece 
Jones, John Rice, from a portrait by Dauberman, in winter of 1823-4, 

owned by his son, Hon. Geo. W. Jones of Iowa, . 230 
Menard, Pierre, from a portrait by Chester Harding, in Chicago 

Historical Society, .---._ 142 

Menard's, Pierre, House, from a photo, by Thomas Smith, in 1884, 152 
Proclamation of Col. John Todd, jr., June 15, 1779, fac-simiie from 

Autograph Letters, Chicago Historical Society, Vol. 72, . 192 

Skinner, Mark, from a photo, by S. M. Fassett, in 1874, - 54 

Stone, Samuel, from a photo., . . . . . 132 

Vasseur, Noel le, ' . . . . . _ 181 

Washburne, E. B. . . - - - - 78 

This Volume is Inscribed to the Memory of 

Jonathan Burr, 

Born at Bridgewater, Mass., March 6, 1794; 

Became a Resident of Chicago in 1848; 

Where he Died, February 4, 1869. 

He was a highly-esteemed citizen, distinguished for his benev- 
olence. By his last will he distributed the bulk of his fortune, 
amounting to more than two hundred thousand dollars, among 
the public institutions of Chicago. To the Chicago Historical 
Society, of which he was an honorary life-member, he bequeathed 
the sum of two thousand dollars in trust to invest the same, and 
to use the annual income thereof at its discretion toward defray- 
ing the expenses of its publications. He expressed the desire 
that the principal sum so bequeathed should be made the foun- 
dation of a perpetual fund, the income of which should be 
expended for this purpose. The cost of printing this volume 
has been provided for by the income of this fund. 



THE present volume is the fourth in order of pubUcation of the 
collection of the Chicago Historical Society. It has been 
tlie intention of the committee in charge, in arranging the material 
at hand, to print first that relating to our own time, then matter of 
earlier date in the present century, and finally that relating to the 
last century. This material also lends itself readily to another 
arrangement; first, of papers immediately concerning Chicago; next, 
of those having more reference to the State of Illinois, and the 
various territorial organizations comprising its area; and lastly, those 
relating to the period of the possession of the Illinois country by 
Great Britain. Other documents of the days of British and of French 
Illinois, which the limits of this volume did not permit to be printed 
now, are reserved for future publication. 

Of the six memoirs of deceased citizens of Chicago included in 
this volume, that of Gurdon S. Hubbard is by Hon. Grant Good- 
rich; that of Hon. Isaac N. Arnold is by Hon. Elihu B. Washburne; 
that of Hon. Mark Skinner is by E. W. Blatchford; that of Hon. E. 
B. Washburne is by Gen. Geo. W. Smith; that of Philo Carpenter, 
Esq., is by Rev. Henry L. Hammond; and that of Samuel Stone, 
Esq., is by Mrs. Wm. Barry. The portraits which accompany them 
are for the most part gifts to the Society from the relatives or friends 
of those thus commemorated. 

The address upon the first lieutenant-governor of Illinois, Pierre 
Menard, is by Hon. H. S. Baker of Alton, 111., by whom it was de- 
livered at the unveiling of the statue of Menard, presented to the 
State of Illinois by Charles Chouteau, Esq., of St. Louis, Mo., and 
standing in the capitol grounds at Springfield, 111. The memoir of 
the pioneer trader, Noel le Vasseur, is by Hon. Stephen R. Moore 
of Kankakee, 111. The biographies of John Rice Jones, the earliest 
and foremost lawyer in the Northwest Territory, and of his family 
are by his grandson, Mr. W. A. Burt Jones of St. Paul, Minn., and 
the portrait is from an original in the possession of his only surviv- 
ing son, Hon. George AV. Jones of Dubuque, la. 


The introduction to the Lists of Early Illinois Citizens, and the 
sketches of Pierre Menard, John Todd, and Philippe de Rocheblave, 
are by Mr. E. G. Mason. The portrait of Pierre Menard, the view 
of his residence at Kaskaskia, and the fac-similes of Col. John 
Todd's proclamation in French and English are from originals in the 
possession of the Chicago Historical Society. 

For several of the letters printed in the John-Todd Papers, we 
are indebted to the invaluable "Calendar of Vigrinia State-Papers," 
published under the authority of that State, and for others hitherto 
unpublished to tlie kindness of Wm. Wirt Henry, Esq., of Rich- 
mond, Va. 

For the remainder of the John-Todd Papers, and for all of the 
Rocheblave Papers, we are under obligation to the "Canadian 
Archives," and the copies of the Haldimand Collection there pre- 
served, and especially to the archivist, Douglas Brymner, Esq. 
His labors in obtaining these copies, his admirable calendar of the 
collection, and his courtesy in making it accessible entitle him to 
the gratitude of all who are interested in our history. 

The remarkable collection by Sir Frederick Haldimand of his 
correspondence and official documents during his service in America, 
and particularly as governor of Canada, from June 30, 1778, until 
the latter part of 1784, comprising two hundred and thirty-two vol- 
umes, was presented by his nephew to the British Museum in 1857. 
Since that time it has been known to a few scholars, but it was not 
until Mr. Brymner's reports on the "Canadian Archives" for 1882 
and subsequent years were published that there was any general re- 
cognition by historical students of the exceeding value of this col- 
lection. It is not too much to say that the light it casts, particularly 
upon the period of the Revolution, necessitates the rewriting of that 
part at least of the history of the Northwest. Selections from this 
collection have been printed by the historical societies of Michigan 
and Wisconsin, and now by that of Chicago. It would be a fitting 
and worthy work for the State of Illinois to undertake the publica- 
tion of this entire collection, which contains the most authentic and, 
to a great degree, the only record of the early days of the Illinois 

Chicago, January i, 1890. 




Elected November 19, 1889. 









EXECUTIVE committee: 

Edward G. Mason, Chairman ex officio. 

Henry J- Willing, Levi Z. Leiter, 1890 

George L. Dun lap, Samuel H. Kerfoot, 1891 

Edward H. Sheldon, Edward E. Ayer, 1892 

Daniel K. Pearsons, George W. Smith. 1893 

trustees of the gilpin fund: 
Edwin H. Sheldon, , Augustus H. Burley, 

Peter L. Yoe, Henry J. Willing, 

Edward G. Mason and Alex. C. McClurg, ex officio. 

List of Officers of the Chicago Historical Society 

As Shown isy its Records: 


Will. H. Brown. 
Wni. H. Krown. 
W,n. H. Kro«n. 
Wni. H. Brown. 
Wm. H. Brown. 
W. I,. Newberry. 
W. I,. Newberry. 
W. I.. Newberry. 


( Wm. B. Ogden. 
\ J. Y. Scamnion. 
( Wm. B. Ogden. 
( J. Y. Scammon. 
\ W. L. Newberry. 
'( Wm. B. Ogden. 
J W. L.Newberry. 
I Wm. B. (Jgden. 
1 W. L. Newberry. 
( Wm. B. Ogden. 
j Wm. B. Ogden. 
( Geo. Manierre. 
j Wm. B. Ogden. 
( Geo. Manierre. 
( Wm. B. Ogden. 
( J. Y. Scammon. 

Sec'.v ami Librarian. 

William Barry. 
.Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
.Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
.Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
.Samuel Stone, Ass't. 
William Barry. 
Samuel Stone, Ass't. 

William Barry. 

Samuel D. Ward. 
Samuel I). Ward. 
Samuel D. Ward. 
Edward I. Tinkham. 
Edward I. Tinkham. 
William Blair. 

Franklin Scammon. 

Franklin Scammon. 
Died Feb. 10, 1864 

W. 1.. Newberry. ■] J/^; f^^^.^Z'. f William Barry. Geo. F. Rumsey. 

W. I,. Newberry. 

W. L. Newberry. -J Y'v' ^ra^nfmn"' I '^"'^°^' H- Armstrong. Thos. H. Armstrong. 
W. L. Newberry. 

( Wm. B. Ogden. 

( J. Y. Scammon. 

(Wm. B. Ogden. \ 

"( J. Y. Scammon. ) 

j Wm. B. Ogden 'I'hos. H. Armstrong. \ 

(J. Y. Scammon. Resigned Sept., 186S. \ 

W. L. Newberry. ( Wm. B. Ogden. ) 

Died Nov. 6, 1868. ( J. Y. Scammon. j 

J. Y. Scammon. j Edwin H. Sheldon. J. W. Hoyt. » 

Resigned Nov., 1870. "( Thomas Hoyne. Wm. Corkran. S 

Edwin H. Sheldon. 

(No Election.) 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Isaac N. .■\niold. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Isaac N. .\rnold. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 
Isaac N. Arnold. 

Isaac N. Arnold. 
Died Apr. 24, 1884 

E. B. Washburne. 
E. B. Washburne. 

E. B. Washburne. 
Died Oct. 22, 1887. 

"( Ezra B. McCagg. 
( Thomas Hoyne. I 
■( Ezra B. McCagg. )' 

iVm. Corkran. 
Belden F. Culver. 

j Geo. F. Rumsey. Belden F. Culver. I 

'/ Robert T. Lincoln. Resigned May 12, '77 j 
(Thomas Hoyne. ^ j. Albert D. Hager 

Robert T. Lincol 
t Thomas Hoyne 
' Hickli: 

Alt)ert D. Hager 

I William rticklmg. ) 

(Thomas Hoyne. 'ah . t^> ti 

■/ William Hilling. (" ^^^'''' ^- ^^S^'' 

( Thomas Hoyne 

"( William Hickling. (' ' 

( Thomas Hoyne. 

( E. B. Washburne. 

( Thomas Hoyne. 

■( E. B. Washburne. 

( E. B. Washburne. 

I John Wentworth. 

( A. C. McClurg. 

'( Geo. W. Smith. 

( Edward G. Mason. 

"( A. C. McCIurg. 

887. Edward G. Ma 

( Edward (;. Mas 
"( A. C. McClurg. 
J A. C. McClurg. 
I Geo. W. Smith. 

.. , J I' Till ' A. C. McClurg. 

Edward G. Mason. -^ ^.^^ ^^ g^j^S 

fj J <-• At, ., i A. C. McClurg. 

Edward (.. Mason. -^ (.^^ ^y_ g^,;^,^^ 

Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
Albert D. Hager. 
John Moses. 
John Moses. 
J- John Moses. 

Robert Reid. 
Edward I. Tinkham 
.Solomon A. Smith. 

Solomon A. Smith. 

Solomon A. Smith. 

Solomon A Smith. 
Died Nov. 5, 1879. 

Byron L. Smith. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Henry H. Nash. 
Gilbert B. Shaw. 





Resident- Members or Life- Members who have contributed 
$500 or more to the Society: 

William Barry, (Rev.) 



Jan. 17, 1885 


Jonathan Burr 

. (res.) 


Feb. 4, 1869 


Mrs. William Hickling 


Thomas Hoyne 

. (life) 


July 27, 1883 


Lezi Z. Leiter 



Flavel Moseley 


Sept. 29, 1865 


Albert A. Munger 



Samuel M. Nickerson 

. (life) 


Daniel K. Pearsons 



Allen Robbins 


Oct. 3, 1864 


Edwin H. Sheldon 



Mark Skinner 

. (life) 


Sept. 16, 1887 


Byron Laflin Smith . 



Samuel Stone 

. (life) 


May 4, 1876 


Henry J. Willing 

(res. ) 




Those contributing 


N A ,M !■: 




Isaac Newton Arnold 


April 24, 1884 


Timothy B. Blackstone 

. 1870 

Eliphalet W. Blatchford . 


Oeorge M. Bogue 

. 1869 

Lucius B. Boomer . 


March 6, 1881 


Chauncey T. Bowen 

. IS69 

James H. Bowen 


May I, 1 88 1 


William Bross 

. 1S65 

Arthur Oilman Burlcy 


William Findlay Coolbaugh 

. 1869 

Nov. 17, 1 87 7 


William M. Derby . 


Hugh Thompson Dickey 

. 1858 

George L. Dunlap . 


J. Alden Ellis . 

. 187I 

David J. Ely . 

. 1865 

Feb. 24, 1877 


Henry Farnum 

■ 1857 

Oct. 4, 1883 


William Whitman Farnum 


<-"harles Benjamin Farwell . 

. 1869 

John Villiers Farwell 


Marcus A. Farwell 

. 1870 

William Henry Ferry 


March 26, 1880 


Marshall Field . 

. 1869 

John Forsyth .... 


Sept. 22, 1885 


Samuel W. Fuller 

. 1868 

Oct. 25, 1873 


Alex. Nathaniel Fullerton 


Sept. 23, 1S80 


Henry Greenebaum 


"Walter Smith Gurnee 


Henry H. Honore 

. 1864 

Thomas Hoyne 

• 1857 

July 27, 1883 


F^gbert L. Jansen 

. 1869 

Samuel Johnston 


Oct. 5, 1886 


Samuel H. Kerfoot 


Nathan B. Kidder . 


June 27, 1S75 


John Harris Kin;^ie 

• 1856 

June 21, 1S65 


Mrs. Jesse Bross Floyd 


Horatio Gates Loomis 


Ezra Butler McCagg 


James II. McVicker 

• 1883 

Arthur B. Meeker . 


Robert E. Moss 


Walter Loomis Newberry 

• IS57 

Nov. 6, 1868 







William Butler Ogden 

. 1856 

Aug. 3, 1877 


Mahlon Dickinson Ogden 


Feb. 13, 1880 


Benjamin V. Page 

. 1864 

William J. Quan . 


Benjamin Wright Raymond 

. 1864 

April 5, 1883 


Joseph Sampson Reed 


Robert Reid 

. 1868 

George Frederick Rumsey 


June 17, 1881 


Joseph Turner Ryerson 

. 1864 

March 9, 1883 


Louis Sapieha 


Charles T. Scammon . 

. 1863 

Aug. 23, 1876 


Franklin Scammon . 


Feb. 10, 1864 


Jonathan Young Scammon . 

• 1856 

Mrs. Maria S. Scammon . 


Mark Skinner 

• 1856 

Sept. 16, 1887 


Alvin Edmond Small 


Dec. 29, 1886 


Perry H. Smith . 

. I87I 

March 29, 1885 


Jesse Spalding 


Daniel Thompson 

. 1864 

Harvey M. Thompson 


John Byce Turner 

. 1869 

Feb. 26, 1 87 1 


John Tyrrell .... 

. I87I 

George C. Walker 

. 1869 

John Wentvvorth 


Oct. 16, 1888 


Calvin T. Wheeler . 

. 1869 

Peter Lynch Yoe 




(Dec, 18S9.) Annual dues, $25 per annum. 

William K. Ackermaii 

George l^verett Adams 

John Mt'^'vej^or Adams 

James M. Adsit . 

Owen F. Aldis 

(Jeorge Armour . 

Philip D. Armour 

Benjamin V. Ayer 

Edward I'^. Ayer 

William T. IJaker 

Alvin C. Hartlett 

Samuel V.. Harrett 

Henry W. Bishop 

John C. Black . 

Edward T. Blair 

Frank M. Blair . 

William Blair 

Rollin P. Blanchard . 

Rufus Blanchard 

James \'anZant Blaney, M.D. 

William H. P>radley 

Mason Brayman 

William Hubbard Brown 

Isaac Howe Burch 

Augustus Harris Burley 

John B. Carson . 

Frank K. Chandler . 

Samuel Blanchard Chase 

Ellis Sylvester Chesbrough 

Augustus Louis Chetlain 

George C. Clarke . 

John M. Clark . 

J. Thorn Clarkson 

Lewis L. Coburn 

Charles Counselman 

Mrs. Caroline Fairfield Corbin 

Burton C. Cook 

Henry Corwith . 

Ambrose Cramer 

John Crerar 

Shelby .M. Cullom . 

879 resigned in 1889 



882 resigned in 1880 

888 resigned in 1889 

879 died June 13, 1881 




withdrawn, 1888 


trans, to Corresponding 


died Dec. 12, 1874 





died June 17, 1867 



died April 9, 1884 







died Aug. 17, 1886 73 

died April 5, 1887 49 


883 resigned in 1888 

883 died Sept. 15, 1888 75 

888 resigned in 1889 

867 died Oct. 19, 1889 63 


Belden Farrand Culver 
Nathan Smith Davis, M.D. 
John DeKoven . 
Oscar C. DeWolf . 
William Elkanah Doggett 
J. Hall Dow . 
John High Dunham . 
James Sears Dunham 
John Villers Farw^ell, Jr. 
Nathaniel K. Fairbank 
C Norman Fay . 
George Harris Fergus 
Henry Field 
John Herbert Foster 
John W. P'oster . 
Allen Curtis Fuller . 
Charles W. FuUerton 
Lyman J. Gage 
John J. Glessner 
Joseph O. Glover 
Edward Goodman 
Daniel Goodwin 
William Cutting Grant 
Samuel C. Griggs 
Charles F. Gunther 
Albert David Hager 
ChalkleyJ. Hambleton 
Charles D. Hamill . 
Amos J. Harding 
John Charles Haines 
Charles M. Henderson 
William G. Hibbard 
William Hickling 
VanHolst Higgins . 
George M. Higginson 
John High, Jr. 
, Harlow N. Higinbotham 
Charles Hitchcock . 
Max Hjortsberg . 
Charles B. Holmes . 
Charles L. Hutchinson 
Edward S. Isham 
Henry P. Isham 
Ralph N. Isham 
Huntington W. Jackson 
Obadiala Jackson 



trans, to Corresponding 

resigned,Nov., 1888 

died April 3, 1876 56 

died May 12, 1886 — 

trans, from Associate 


died May 18, 1874 



died June 29, 1873 








resigned in 1887 




died Sept. 25, 1887 






died July 29, 1888 





trans, from Associate 






died Aug. 25, 1881 




trans, to Corresponding 


died Oct. 19, 1857 




died May 6, 1881 



died May 15, 1880 









died March 13, 1878 



John J. Janes 
William Sage Johnson 
Daniel A. Jones 
Mahlon Ogden Jones 
Francis H. Kales 
Kelson Keith . 
William D. Kerfoot 
Charles P. Kimball . 
William W. Kimball 
Henry W. King 
Kdward Channing Lamed 
Ldward F. Lawrence 
John T. Lester . 
William Lill . 
Robert Todd Lincoln 
Haines H Magee 
George Manierre 
George Manierre, Jr. 
Edward Gay Mason 
Henry Burall Mason 
Koswell B Mason 
Franklin McVeagh . 
Alexander C. McCliirg 
Cyrus Hall McCormick 
Cyrus Hall McCormick, J 
Leander J. McCormick 
Samuel H. McCre.i 
Henry G. Miller 
John Moses 
Charles H. Mulliken 
Henry H. Nash . 
Murry Nelson 
J. J. P. Odell 
William A. Otis 
Potter Palmer 
Abram M. Pence 
Erskine M. Phelps 
Henry H. Porter 
Sartell Prentice . 
George M. Pullman 
Charles Henry Kay, M.I) 
Edward Kendall Rogers 
Julius Rosenthal 
Julian Sidney Rumsty 
Horatio N. Rust 
.Arthur Ryerson 






died March 21, 1882 



died Jan. 11, 1886 





died Nov. 9, 1883 









died Sept. 18, 1884 





died Aug. II, 1875 




died Jan. 16, 1879 



died May 21, 1863 









died May 13, 1884 




resigned in 1889 


resigned in 1887 















died Sept. 24, 1870 



died May 2, 1883 



trans, to Corresponding 


died April 28, 1886 






Homer E. Sargent 

Sidney Sawyer 

Gilbert B. Shaw 

James Washington Sheahan 

Henry M. Sherwood . 

Stephen V. Shipman 

John G. Shortall 

Edward A. Small 

William A. Smallwood 

George W. Smith 

Solomon A. Smith 

Orson Smith . 

Alexander C. Soper 

Franklin F. Spencer 

Albert A. Sprague 

Otho S. A. Sprague 

James Landon Stark . 

Ralph Edward Starkweather, M.l) 

Edward S. Stickney 

Joseph Stockton 

Melville E. Stone 

Woolsey M. Stryker 

Klisha H. Talbott 
John H. Thatcher . 
John Leverett Thompson 

Edward Islay Tinkham 

Lambert Tree 
John A. Tyrrell 

William j\L VanNortwick 

Francis L. Wadsworth 

James M. Walker 
John Richard Walsh 

Samuel Dexter Ward . 

Ezra J. Warner 

J. Esaias Warren 

Elihu Benjamin Washburne 

Hempstead Washburne 

i:iias T. Watkins 

Joseph Dana Webster 

George Henry Wheeler 

Julius White 

Norman Williams 

Sidney Williams 

Simeon B. Williams 

Benjamin M. Wilson . 







died June 17, 1883 


resigned Nov., 1889 





died Jan. 13, 1882 


died Jan. 2, 1867 



died Nov. 25, 1879 








died Feb. 17, 1873 



died March 20, 18S0 


resigned in 1887 





resigned in 1888 


resigned in 1888 


died Jan. 31, 1888 


died Dec. 2, 1873 

1864 died July 8, 1887 

1 663 




died Jan. 23, 1881 

resigned in 1887 

died Oct. 22, 1887 71 

resigned in 1888 

died March 12, 1876 65 

trans, to Associate 


This classification of members has been abolished. 

Mrs. Margaret Maria O'Donohue, John Newell, 

Charles N. Fessenden, Augustine W. Wright, 

fulius White. 

June 27, 1878 


April, 1889 


June 17, 1866 


April 2, 1865 


July 7, 1868 


June 3, 1861 


Jan. 15, 1865 


Feb. ig, 1879 


July 18, 1875 


Aug. 21, 1888 


Sept. 14, 1886 


Mch. 7, 1882 


Sept. 15, 1870 


Oct. 28, 1878 


Apr. 14, 1865 




Samuel Greene Arnold Providence, R.I. 1878 Feb. 13, 1880 59 

George Bancroft Washington, D.C. 1861 

William H. Bissell Belleville, 111. .. 1856 Mch. 18, i860 49 

Henry Williams Blodgett Chicago .. .. 1882 

Sidney Breese --- Carlyle, 111. .. 1878 

John Bright England .. .. i860 

Lewis Cass Detroit .. .. 1861 

Richard Cobden England .. .. i860 

Edward Coles Philadelphia .. 1861 

Isaac Craig Alleghany, Penn. 1882 

Stephen Arnold Douglas Chicago .. .. 1857 

Thomas Drummond Chicago .. .. 1882 

Edward Everett Boston -. .. i860 

Thomas Foley (Bishop) ...Chicago .. .. 1870 

Lady Jane Franklin England ... .. i860 

Samuel Smith Harris (Bishop) . ..Detroit, Mich. .. 1879 

Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard Chicago .. .. 1877 

David King ...Newport, R.I. .. 1878 

Mrs. John H. Kinzie Chicago .. .. 1863 

John George Kohl Bremen, Germany 1856 

Abraham Lincoln Springfield, 111. 186 1 

Pierre Margry Paris, France .. 1879 

Matthew Fontaine Maury Lexington, Va. . . 1861 Feb. i, 1873 67 

Wm. Edward McLaren (Bishop).. Chicago .. .. 1878 

John McMuUen (Bishop) Davenport, la. . . 1879 July 4, 1883 51 

Charles D. Mosher Chicago .. .- 1880 

John Lothrop Motley Dorchester, Mass. 1863 May 29, 1877 63 

Duke of Newcastle ..England .. .. i860 Oct. 18, 1864 53 

Frederick Nolte Paris, France .. 1881 

Richard James Oglesby Klkhart, 111. . . 1864 

William Frederick Poole Chicago .. .. 1877 

Horatio N. Powers Bridgeport, Conn. 1881 

William Hickling Prescott Boston .. .. 1857 Jan. 28, 1859 63 

John Reynolds Belleville, 111. .. 1861 May 8, 1865 77 

Charles Rogers P^ngland .. .. 1880 

James Savage Boston .. .. i860 Mch. 8, 1873 89 

Goldwin Smith Toronto, Ont. .. 1864 

Jared Sparks ...Cambridge, Mass. i860 Mch. 14, 1866 77 

William L. Stone Jersey City, N.J. 1881 

Charles Sumner Boston, Mass. .. 1861 Mch. 11, 1874 63 

Lyman Trumbull Chicago .. .. 1861 

Henry C. VanSchaack Manlius, N.Y. .. 1878 Dec. 16, 1887 85 

James Barr Walker (Rev.) Wheaton, 111. .. 1877 Mch. 6, 1887 82 

Robert Charles Winthrop ..Boston, Mass. .. 1861 

Richard Yates Jacksonville, 111. 1863 Nov, 27, 1873 58 




Alfred T. Andreas Chicago 

Thomas H. Armstrong Chicago 

Henry Asbury.. - Chicago 

Samuel T. Atwater Buffalo, N. Y. . . 

Henry Samuel Haird Green Bay, Wis. 

David Jewett Baker Alton, III. .. .. 

George H. Baker New- York City 

Henry Bannister Evanston, 111. .. 

John Stetson Barry (Rev.) Wakefield, Mass. 

John Russell Bartlett Providence, R.I. 

Edmund Mills Barton Worcester, Mass. 

Oliver L. Buskin Chicago 

Hiram Williams Beckwith Danville, 111. .. 

John H. Beers Chicago 

Rufus Blanchard Chicago 

Daniel Bonbright Evanston, 111. .. 

Benjamin Nicodemus Bond Stanberry, Mo. 

Henry R. Boss Chicago 

Benjamin L. T. Bourland Peoria, 111. 

Jonathan Bowman Kilbourne City, Wis 

C. Davis Bradlee (Rev.) — Boston, Mass. .. 

Wesley Raymond Brink Edwardsville, 111. 

Charles Brooks Medford, Mass. 

Mrs. Harriet C. Brown Chicago 

Orville Hickman Browning Quincy, 111. 

Edmund Bruwaert Chicago .. .. 

John Howard Burnham Bloomington, 111. 

Mrs. Pamelia C. Calhoun Chicago 

Frank Cantelo... Peoria, 111. 

Mrs. Maria G. Carr Chicago 

John Dean Caton Chicago 

Charles C. Chapman Chicago 

Frank M. Chapman Chicago .. .. 

George Churchill Troy, 111 

Samuel Clarke Clarke... Marietta, Ga. .. 

Augustus Hammond Conant (Rev. ) Rockford, 111. . . 

Belden Farrand Culver Chicago .. .. 

Henry B. Dawson Morrisania, N. Y. 

William Frederick DeWolf Chicago .. .. 

Charles H. G. Douglas Chicago .. .. 

Lyman Copeland Draper Madison, Wis. .. 

Henry T. Drowne New- York City 






May 3, 1884 






Aug. 6, 1869 




Apr. IS, 1883 



Dec, 1872 



May 28, 1886 







1 88 1 








July 7, 1872 



Sept. II, 1883 



Aug. 10, 1881 





Aug. 14, 1889 








Aug. 11, 1872 




Feb. 8, 1863 










J. P. Dunn, Jr Indianapolis, Ind 

Reuben T. Durrett Louisville, Ky. .. 

Daniels. Durrie Madison, Wis. .. 

Zebina Eastman Maywood, 111. .. 

Joseph H. Eaton U.-S. Army 

Benjamin Stephenson Edwards Springfield, 111. 

Ninian Wirt Edwards Springfield, 111. 

S. Hopkins Emery Taunton, Mass. 

Bernard Felsenthal Chicago 

Cornelius Conway Felton Cambridge, Mass 

Robert Fergus Chicago 

Peter Force Washington, D. C. 

Jacob Fouke .^ ..Vandalia, 111. 

Asa Bird Gardner New- York City 

Joseph Gillespie - Edwardsville, 111 

Charles Gilpin — Philadelphia, Pa. 

Richard A. Gilpin Lima, Pa. .. 

Albert A. Graham ._ Columbus, O. 

James Duncan Graham Boston, Mass. 

James Gray Grayville, 111. 

Samuel Abbott Green, M.D Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Rose F. Ilager Chicago 

Elijah Middlebrook Haines .Waukegan, 111 

James Hall Cincinnati, O. 

George H. Harlow Chicago 

Robert J. Harmer Chester, 111. 

Charles Harpel Chicago 

Ozias M. Hatch Springfield, 111. 

Samuel Foster Haven Worcester, Mass, 

Joseph Henry Washington, D. C, 

Alexander Hesler Chicago 

John Howard Hicko.x Albany, N.V. 

Richard Hiidreth Massachusetts 

Henry H. Hill Chicago 

George M. Higginson Chicago 

Adolphus Skinner Hubbard San Francisco, Cal 

Edwin Hubbard Bennington, Vt. 

Miss Laura M. Hubbard Chicago 

Charles W. Hunter Alton, 111 

Joseph Hunter (Rev.) London, Eng. .. 

Henry H. Hurlbut Chicago 

William B. Isham New- York City 

Gabriel S. Jones ...i Chester, III. 

Kiler Kent Jones Quincy, 111. 

Dwight H. Kelton Quincy, Mich. .. 

William H. Kimball Concord. N.H. 



1866 June 14, 1883 68 


1857 Feb. 4, 1886 68 

1859 Sept. 2, 1889 80 



1857 Feb. 26, 1862 55 


1857 Jan. 23 



1857 Jan. 7, 1885 

[868 78 




1857 Dec. 28, 1865 66 

1863 Oct. 29, 1865 — 



1865 Apr. 25, 1889 69 

1857 July 5, 1868 75 





1857 Sept. 5, 1881 75 

1857 May 13, 187S 81 



1857 July II, 1865 58 






1856 Mch. 16, i860 76 

1856 May 9, 1861 78 




1877 Aug. 20, 1886 62 




Henry Clay Kinney (Rev.) Chicago .. .. 

Arthur M. Knapp - Boston, Mass. .. 

George S. Knapp Chicago .. .. 

Ebenezer Lane - Chicago . . . . 

Increase A. Lapham Milwaukee, Wis. 

Joseph P. Leavitt - Chicago .. .- 

Benjamin F". Lewis .- - Chicago .. .. 

Washington Leverelt Alton, 111 

Charles E. Lippincott ..Chandlerville, 111. 

Thomas Lippincott (Rev.) Pana, 111. -. .. 

Stephen Harriman Long.. Alton, 111. .. 

Henry Loomis Burlington, Vt. 

Anthony Johnson Ludlam Atlanta, 111. 

George Perkins Marsh Rome, Italy 

Tames McGovern (Rev.) Lockport, 111. .. 

Sterling Young McMasters St. Paul, Minn. 

Eliza Meachem New Haven, Conn 

Peter A. Menard Kaskaskia, 111. 

Frederick Metzger.. Kaskaskia, 111. 

Anson S. Miller.. Wright, Cal. .. 

George Henry Moore ...New- York City 

Edmund B. O'Callahan New- York City 

William Butler Ogden New- York City 

William J. Onahan... ...Chicago .. 

Nathan H. Parker St. Louis, Mo 

Peter Parker ...Washington, D.C. 

Francis Parkman Boston, Mass. . 

Robert Wilson Patterson (Rev.).. Chicago .. . 

John Mason Peck (Rev.) ..Rock Spring, 111 

Stephen D. Peet Clinton, Wis. . 

William H. Perrin Louisville, Ky. . 

Amos Perry Providence, R.I 

J. Watts de Peyster New- York City 

William Pickering Albion, 111. 

George W. Prickett Chicago 

John Russell Bluffdale, 111. . 

William Henry Ryder (Rev. ) Chicago 

Henry R. Schoolcraft Washington, D.C. 

John Wilson Shaffer Salt-Lake City 

John R. Shannon Chester, 111. 

George E. Shipman — Chicago 

John C. Smith Chicago 

Robert Smith Alton, 111. .. 

Miss Ann Elizabeth Stone Chicago 

William II. Swift. New- York City 

Harriet .\. Tenney Lansing, Mich. 



1856 June 72, i860 67 

1856 Sept. 14, 1875 64 
1881 Dec. 23. 1882 — 

1886 Dec. 13, 1889 84. 

.1883 Sept. II, 1887 62. 

x86o Apr. 13, 1869 — 

1859 Sept. 4, 1864 80 



1859 July 23, 1882 81 



1857 May 29, 1880 77 






1856 Mch. 15, 1858 69. 



1865 Apr. 22, 1873 — 

1856 Jan. 21, 1863 — 
1863 Mch. 8, 1888 66. 

1857 Dec. 10, 1864 71 

1866 Oct. 30, 1870 — 

1879 Dec. 13, 1882 56 


1857 Dec. 21, 1867 65 

1880 1888 — 

1857 Apr. 7, 1879 




Reuben G. Thwaites Madison, Wis. .. 1889 

Caleb B. Tillinghast Boston, Mass. .. 1880 

Alpheus Todd Ottawa, Ont. .. 1864 Jan. 22, 18S4 63 

Gustavus Unonius Upsala, Sweden 1857 

George P. Upton ..Chicago .. .. 1866 

Addison VanName .New Haven, Conn. 1886 

Thomas A. M. Ward Philadelphia, Pa. 1877 

Townsend Ward Chicago .. .. 1865 

Hooper Warren Henry Co., 111. 1861 Aug. 25, 1864 74 

James Waterman Sycamore, 111. .. 1881 July 19, 1883 — 

Winslow C. Watson Port Kent, N.Y. 1859 

Albert E. Wells Central City, Neb. 1880 

William Harvey Wells Chicago .. .. 1857 Jan. 21, 1885 73 

Henry Benjamin Whipple Faribault, Minn. 1864 

Samuel Willard Chicago .. .. 1880 

J. Fletcher Williams St. Paul, Minn. 1880 

Charles Lush Wilson .Chicago .. .. 1864 Mch. 9, 1878 60 

James Grant Wilson - New- York City 1880 

John McNeill Wilson Englewood, 111. 1879 Dec. 7, 1883 81 

Robert J. Woodruff Chicago .. .. 1886 

•Chicago Historical Society's Collection. — Vol. IV. 



A Settler of Chicago in 1818. 

By Hon. Grant Goodrich. 

Read before the Chicago Historical Society, November 16, 18 

ject of this memoir, was born in Windsor, Vt., Aug. 
22, 1802, his father, Elizur Hubbard, and mother, Abigail 
Sage, were natives of Connecticut. They had six children, 
four girls and two sons, of whom Gurdon was the eldest. 
His father was a lawyer by profession, but through unfort- 
unate speculations became poor, and could afford his son 
only the advantages of a common-school education, except 
about a year in the higher branches, under the tuition of 
a clergyman. His father, hoping to better his condition, 
removed with his family to Montreal, Canada, in May, 
18 1 5, but on his arrival found the Canadian laws pro- 
hibited him to practise his profession until after a residence 
of five years. Every effort, therefore, became necessary to 
support the family, and young Hubbard here practised his 
first lessons in trade. He borrowed twenty-five cents of a 
friend, and on this capital commenced the purchase of arti- 
cles of food from farmers, coming to market, and selling 
them at a profit, and during the winter, made profits of 
from $80 to $100, mostly contributed to the family treas- 
ury. In April, 18 16, he obtained a situation in a hardware 
store, his board being his only compensation. By his 
faithful attention to his duties he won the confidence of his 
employers and the clerks in the store. He also became 
2 9 


acquainte4 with William Matthews, agent of the American 
Fur-Company at Montreal. 

In the fall of 1817, John Jacob Astor, president of the 
company, ordered Matthews to employ twelve young men 
as clerks, and one hundred Canadian voyagcnrs to report 
to Ramsey Crooks at Mackinac. A clerk in the store, 
eighteen years old and the youngest of all, was the twelfth 
engaged. On learning of his engagement, young Hubbard, 
though not sixteen years old, resolved to obtain a situation 
in the expedition. As was to be expected, his father and 
mother refused their assent; but so persistent was he, they 
finally agreed he might go if he could procure an appoint- 
ment, knowing the number required was full and believing 
it impossible for him to do so. He applied to Matthews 
and pleaded with him so eannestly that he finally agreed 
to take him into the service of the company for five years 
at $120 a year, if he could obtain the consent of his par- 
ents, which he thought unlikely. His parents kept their 
promise, and though his friends pointed out the dangers, 
fatigues, and exposures to which he wpuld be subjected, 
he persevered, and entered into the required agreement, 
thus overcoming what seemed insurmountable obstacles 
by an address, judgment, and persistency indicative of the 
character and success of his maturer years. 

On April 13, 18 18, the expedition embarked from Mont- 
real in open boats, loaded with goods and supplies for 
Mackinac, the capital of the American Fur-Company, from 
which all expeditions were fitted out for the entire North- 
west, to collect and bring back furs to that place, to be 
assorted and prepared for market. The fatiguing labor of 
pushing their boats up the strong current, and dragging 
them over the foaming rapids of the St. Lawrence, and 
then carrying them overland to Lake Simcoe. and thence 
over the portage to the Nottawasaga River, by which 
they reached Lake Huron, can be better imagined than 


described ; but it was accomplished, and they reached 
Mackinac, July 4. The fare of the clerks was tea, sugar, 
hardbread, and salt pork. Young Hubbard endured the 
labors and braved the dangers of the voyage without a 
murmur of complaint, and at Mackinac entered with cheer- 
fulness upon the performance of the duties assigned him, 
in which he was engaged from five in the morning to seven 
in the evening, with one hour's interval for dinner. We 
are prepared to expect from one so young who thus volun- 
tarily left friends, home, and the comforts of civilization, 
with full knowledge of the privations, toils, and certain 
perils inseparable from the life of a fur-trader, something 
of that wonderful courage, judgment, and skill which were 
so conspicuously displayed in his subsequent life. Any 
suspicions that his action was inspired by the spirit of 
youthful romance or the love of wild adventure, is dissi- 
pated by the fact, that in obedience to the promptings of 
filial duty, he at once ordered $80 a year of his salary paid 
to relieve the wants of his family, and continued to do so 
during all the years of his apprenticeship. 

Mr. Hubbard has left an intensely-interesting record of 
his life and adventures of the first two or three years while 
in the employment of the fur-company. I could delight 
you with numerous extracts of most thrilling interest, but 
I must content myself with allusions to a few which best 
serve to illustrate some prominent characteristic of the 
man, or are necessarily connected with the conquest of the 
Northwest from its savagery by the forces of civilization, 
or will enable us to appreciate the quality and discipline 
of the school in which he received his business education. 

The company employed four hundred clerks and two 
thousand voyagcnrs. He was assigned to a brigade — as 
each outfit was called — to trade at Fond du Lac. He 
found a young man anxious to exchange places with him, 
which was done. This young man was frozen to death 


the succeeding winter. Young Hubbard was transferred to 
the brigade of Antoine Deschamps, a man of education and 
experience; they were to operate in northern IlHnois, and 
left Mackinac, Sept. lo, arriving in Chicago, Oct. i, 1818. 
The only dwellings then outside of the garrison enclosure 
were of logs, one occupied by John Kinzie, one by Antoine 
Ouillmette, and one at Bridgeport, then called Hardscrab- 
blc. After resting a few days, they proceeded up the 
south branch of the Chicago River, and through Mud 
Lake into the Desplaines River, and thence into the Illi- 
nois, and down that river to Fort Clark, now Peoria. The 
French settlers at Peoria had been suspected of sympathy 
with the British in the War of 1812-15, and had been 
driven from their homes by the government, causing a 
bitter feeling, which extended to some of the Indians. 
Though Mr. Deschamps had informed them that he had 
brought this young man from Montreal, and he was his 
adopted son, they doubted the truth of his statement, 
insisting he was an American; and a young Indian brave 
sought to provoke a quarrel with him. Deschamps left 
him in the boat in charge of one of the men, and what 
occurred I give in Mr. Hubbard's own language: "The 
Indian, using the man as interpreter, saying I was an 
American, took from his sack, one after another, several 
scalps, and showing them to me, said they were the scalps 
of my people. I was trembling with fear, which he ob- 
served, and drawing from his sash a long-haired scalp, he 
wet it and sprinkled the water in my face. In a moment 
my fear turned to rage, and seizing Mr. Deschamps 
double-barrelled gun which lay in the bottom of the boat, 
took deliberate aim at him and fired; the man left with 
me, seeing my intention, struck up the barrel and saved 
the Indian. Hearing the report of the gun and the con- 
sequent confusion created, Mr. Deschamps and the men 
with him came running back to the boats, and after a short 


consultation, ordered them pushed out and started down 
the stream." 

Few instances can be found in boy or man of more 
daring resistance of intended insult, and which not to have 
resisted would have provoked a grosser repetition. This 
was the first exhibition of that personal bravery and steady 
courage so often exhibited in his eventful life, and which 
commanded the respect of friends and foes. It attracted 
the notice and secured the life-long friendship of that noted 
Indian chief Shau-be-na, and also of Waba, the chief of 
the Indians in the vicinity of the trading-post where he 
was stationed, who called to see the " little American 
brave," and Waba, who had recently lost a son, adopted 
him as his son. Before the hunting-season commenced he 
was permitted to visit his father and brother at St. Louis, 
who were on their way to Arkansas to locate there. He 
says there were then about eight hundred inhabitants in 
St. Louis, composed of French, British, Spaniards, and 
Americans. Cahokia, on the Illinois side of the river, was 
then the larger place, containing about one thousand peo- 
ple. On his return from St. Louis, he went to his trading- 
post on the Illinois opposite the mouth of the Bureau 
River, one mile above the present town of Hennepin; it 
was in charge of Mr. Beebeau, and young Hubbard was 
the bookkeeper. His time was mostly spent in acquiring 
the Indian language and in hunting, at which he became 
expert, being able to travel forty and fifty miles a day. 

In the succeeding spring, the boats from all the stations 
having been collected, they started on their return, and 
passing through Chicago, coasting the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan, arrived at Mackinac about the middle of 
May, 1 8 19. He here learned of the death of his father, 
and feeling it his duty to go to the relief and comfort of 
his mother, tendered his resignation to the company, which 
was refused. His skill in assorting furs doomed him to 


that laborious and responsible position during this and 
subsequent years. 

When the outfits for the succeeding winter were ar- 
ranged, to his surprise and regret he was ordered to take 
charge of an expedition and post about sixty miles up the 
Muskegon River, having for his aid a Frenchman, Jacques 
Dufrain, well acquainted with the Indians of that part of 
Michigan. The appointment to such a position of a youth 
of seventeen with only one year's experience is the most 
emphatic evidence of the high estimation entertained by 
his superiors of his ability, prudence, and fidelity; and, 
though he shrunk from assuming such a responsibility, Mr. 
Crooks refused to reverse his decision, and about the mid- 
dle of October he started for his destination, in company 
with the Illinois brigade. Storms and adverse winds pre- 
vented his reaching the mouth of the Muskegon until Dec. 
1 8, when he found it frozen over. His wonderful endur- 
ance and perilous exposures in protecting his employers' 
interests and preserving the life of his companion in this 
first test of his quality for command, proved him to have 
been a born leader, and justify me in giving some of the 

The ice rendering it impossible to ascend the river, they 
repaired an abandoned trading- house a short distance 
above its mouth. No Indians had been seen, they being 
absent at their hunting-grounds, and communication with 
them was a necessity. Dufrain was dispatched with a 
package of goods, with the two men under his charge, 
to seek the Indians, leaving young Hubbard the solitary 
occupant of their cabin, his only supply of food being a 
little corn and flour brought from Mackinac. At first he 
was able to kill a few rabbits and squirrels, but the fall of 
a deep snow prevented further hunting. Having read of 
how the Indians caught fish through the ice, he prepared 
himself as best he could to practise their device, and after 


repeated failures, succeeded in acquiring the art, and re- 
lieved himself of the danger of starvation. He graphically 
describes his intense yearning after companionship, the 
loneliness and horror of his situation, which, coupled with 
the prospective failure of his first trading adventure and 
the ridicule he feared he would meet on his return to 
Mackinac, drove him nearly to distraction. When the 
thirtieth day had come he resolved to go in search of his 
absent men, but on that day, to his unspeakable joy, they 
arrived with a very rich collection of furs. He resolved to 
start the next day for a camp of Indians, which Dufrain, 
who was well acquainted with the country, thought they 
could reach by night. Young Hubbard being unused to 
walking on snow-shoes, and as traveling in the snow ren- 
dered them necessary, Dufrain protested against his going, 
but the recollection of his former loneliness prevailed, and 
they started with their packs, leaving one man behind. 

The first day was one of intense misery — every few mo- 
ments he tripped and fell, and could only regain his feet 
with the aid of his companions — and when they had trav- 
eled only six miles he was so exhausted they were forced 
to camp. The pain was so severe in his strained muscles, 
he slept but little, and in the morning Dufrain insisted he 
should return, but his indomitable resolution was unsub- 
dued and they started on. He had caught some of the 
motions requisite in traveling with snow-shoes, and though 
suffering intense pain, they made nine miles that day. 
The next day it snowed, and being warm, the snow stuck 
to their shoes, retarding their progress and increasing their 
fatigue, and the third day they camped with nothing to 
•eat. The next day they reached an Indian camp, where 
they were treated to bear meat and corn soup, and though 
his feet and ankles were badly swollen, threatening inflam- 
mation, they were relieved under the treatment of a kind- 
hearted squaw. 


He at once commenced practising with his snow-shoes,, 
and at the end of five days, when they departed, could 
keep up with his companions without weariness. One 
man was sent with a guide to one Indian camp, and 
Dufrain and Hubbard started in a different direction for 
another, which Dufrain thought they could reach in one 
day. The snow was deep and the traveling heavy, and at 
noon it was evident Dufrain had lost his way. They lay 
down at night weary and supperless. The storm con- 
tinued the next day, and though they pressed on, they 
were certain they were lost. The next day Dufrain be- 
came weak and faltering, but about ten o'clock of the 
fourth day the clouds broke and the sun came out, which 
enabled them to direct their course for the river, and 
toward evening they reached the Muskegon, which they 
forded with the icy water up to their waist, and reached a 
deserted Indian camp with their clothes thoroughly frozen 
and shivering with cold. 

Collecting wood for a fire, Dufrain found he had lost 
their flint and steel, and being exhausted, gave up all hope 
and began crossing himself and saying his prayers in prep- 
aration for death. Though this veteran, with years of 
experience in forest life, was ready without further effort 
to lie down and die, the spirit of his young companion 
was unsubdued, and he resolved to continue the fight for 
existence. Procuring hemlock boughs, he made a bed 
upon the snow, and placing on it some mats left by the 
Indians in their camp, he opened both packs and took out 
all the blankets and woolen clothing, and lying down close 
together and piling them over their bodies, they soon 
found the ice began to melt from their clothes and warmth 
was diffused through their chilled frames, and they soon 
sank to sleep, from which they did not wake till morning. 
Though without food for four days, they did not feel 
hungry, but excessive weariness and exiiaustion, and that 


tempted them to lie in their warm bed until death relieved 

The thoughts of his responsibilities and the claims of 
his widowed mother and of his sisters upon him, aroused 
young Hubbard to a renewed effort for life. He arose and 
searched in all directions for a path, which the snow had 
covered all traces of; observing, however, some broken 
twigs and feeling the snow around them, he found the 
path covered by the newly-fallen snow, and following it 
came to a blazed tree, which indicated the direction of 
an Indian camp. Returning, he with difficulty aroused 
Dufrain, and leaving their packs they started, and about 
noon struck a fresh track, which they followed back, 
knowing it would lead to a camp. This good fortune did 
not seem to arouse Dufrain — he was sleepy and inclined 
to stop and, unperceived, fell behind out of sight — his 
companion was tempted to leave him and use his fast 
failing strength in quest of help, but went back and found 
him asleep upon the snow, and every effort to arouse him 
having failed, he dug away the snow around him and 
adding his own blanket to his covering, left him to make a 
final effort for assistance. He says: " I felt no hunger but 
was very weak — the perspiration ran from every pore, and 
at times everything seemed to swim before me with 
momentary darkness. I seemed almost to faint, still I 
moved on, reeling like a drunken man. Coming to new 
tracks and hearing the barking of a dog told me I was 
nearing a lodge and gave me new strength to advance." 

In a few moments he was seated on a bear-skin in a 
solitary Indian hut, in which was a middle-aged Indian 
with a bandaged arm, a squaw, and three or four children. 
After sitting silent for a time, as was the custom, expect- 
ing to be invited to eat, he told the squaw he had not 
eaten for four days and was hungry; she replied they were 
hungry too, that her husband had broken his arm and 


could not liunt; but she took from a sack a little dried 
corn, and boiling it with water, gave him a small quantity. 
He sipped a little, but found it difficult to swallow, at 
which he became frightened, and lay down and fell asleep. 
After some time he was awakened and given more broth, 
which he took with avidity and asked for more, which was 
refused. At short intervals he was awakened and given 
more until revived. 

The Indians knew Dufrain, and he told them of his 
■condition, and the squaw agreed to go with him when the 
moon arose and help bring him in; she prepared all the 
corn they had left to take with them. Their son, a youth, 
had gone out to hunt and returned with a bear cub he had 
killed, and volunteered to go with him to find Dufrain. 
Against the protest of the squaw and her husband, though 
hardly able to walk, he persisted in going, for he knew if 
alive no one but he could induce him to move. Shortly 
after midnight they started and when they found him he 
was apparently lifeless. After great effort he was made 
to speak, but refused to move and dropped off to sleep 
again. It required their united efforts to force him to his 
feet and by short stages get him to the lodge, where they 
arrived about sunrise. By administering a little corn broth 
•at intervals he revived, but his feet and limbs were so 
badly swollen they had to cut the coverings to get them 
off, and the strings of his moccasins had so cut into his 
toes the blood oozed out through the coverings, and worst 
of all, he was severely ruptured. It was a week before he 
could sit up and would evidently be a long time before 
he could endure the journey home. His companion realiz- 
ing this with the aid of the Indian boy constructed a 
sledge on which to carry him if he should elect to go. 
The country to be traveled over to reach the station was 
rough and hilly and much of the way covered with thick 
undergrowth. Though only able to sit up an hour a day, 


he chose to go^ and they laid him upon the sledge and 
aided by the boy reached the station in three days, draw- 
ing him all the way. Dufrain never left their cabin until 
carried to a canoe on their departure for Mackinac, which 
he never reached, having died upon the way. 

If in ancient Greece or Rome a youth of his years had 
exhibited such undaunted courage, such heroic endurance, 
wisdom, and resources in dangers, and such self-sacrifice 
at the eminent peril of his own life to save that of his 
companion, if not deified, his deeds and memory would 
have been perpetuated in bronze and marble and glorified 
in historic song. Yet this is only one of the many kindred 
acts he performed in the seclusion of the dark woods, with 
only the humble trapper and wild Indian as witnesses. 

In the closing year of his apprenticeship he was sent to . 
conduct a trading-station on the Iroquois River in this 
State. He remained in the employment of the American 
Fur-Company as superintendent of all the posts on the 
Iroquois and Kankakee rivers and their tributaries until 
1827, having his headquarters near Danville. During this 
year he was admitted to a share of the profits in the com- 
pany, and in 1828 he bought out the interests of that 
company in Illinois, when he removed to Danville, built 
and run a store until his removal to Chicago in 1834. 

On the breaking out of the Winnebago War in 1827, he 
learned through Shau-be-na that Big Foot, a chief of a 
tribe of Indians located at Geneva Lake, intended to 
engage in hostilities against the whites. The soldiers had 
been removed from Fort Dearborn which left Chicago 
unprotected. Great alarm prevailed and Mr. Hubbard, 
Avho was then at Chicago, in order to meet the threatened 
attack, left there between four and five o'clock in the 
afternoon on horseback and taking what was called the 
Hubbard Trace, reached his Iroquois post at midnight, a 
distance of more than sixty miles, and there changing his 


horse, rode on until stopped by a tree which had fallen 
across the ford of Sugar Creek. At daylight he swam the 
stream and at noon reached the house of Peleg Spencer, 
whom he sent to beat up volunteers to meet at Danville 
the next evening with five days' rations. • At the time 
appointed one hundred men organized, chose a captain, 
and started that night for Chicago, and though it rained 
frequently and hard, on the seventh day he was back with 
his company of relief. I will quote the encomiums given 
him by H. W. Beckwith in his account* of this expedition, 
who says: "I will here say that a better man than Mr. 
Hubbard could not have been sent to our people; he was 
well known to all the settlers. His generosity, his quiet 
and determined courage, and his integrity were so well 
known and appreciated that he had the confidence and 
good-will of everybody, and was a well-recognized leader 
among us pioneers." 

On the breaking out of the Black- Hawk War in 1832, 
he induced Col. Isaac R. Moore, of the Vermilion-County 
militia, to call out his regiment and march at once to the 
scene of hostilities, himself furnishing provisions, ammuni- 
tion, and transportation wagons. Three days after the 
news of the outbreak was received, they departed and on 
reaching Joliet built a stockade fort, and leaving a com- 
pany there, proceeded to the east Dupage, where a similar 
defence was constructed and garrisoned, and the remainder 
marched to near Starved Rock, where they were disbanded 
Mr. Hubbard then joined a company of scouts for sixty 
days, which was disbanded at the end of that time. At 
one time he was an aid to Gov. Duncan, from which he 
derived the title of colonel. 

In 1832, he was elected a member of the legislature for 
Vermilion County, and when it met introduced a bill for 
the construction of the Illinois-and-Michigan canal which 

* "Fergus Historical .Series," No. 10, p. 49. 


passed the house but was defeated in the senate. He 
substituted a bill for a railroad, which was defeated in the 
senate by the casting-vote of the presiding-ofificer of that 
body. He attended every session of the legislature after 
to urge the passage of a bill for the construction of the 
canal until it passed in 1835-6. 

In 1834, he removed his business to Chicago and erected 
the first large brick-building in the place, on the southwest 
corner of South-Water and LaSalle streets. In 1836, he 
sold out his mercantile business and built a warehouse 
fronting on Kinzie street and the river; embarking in the 
forwarding-and-commission business, he became interested 
in a large number of vessels forming the " Eagle Line," 
employed in the carrying-trade between Buffalo and the 
upper lakes. In 1835, he was appointed by Gov. Joseph 
Duncan one of the commissioners of the Illinois-and- 
Michigan Canal, and in the location and construction of 
that great work so eminently promotive of the growth of 
Chicago he was signally active and efficient. At the cele- 
bration of the commencement of the canal, July 4, 1836, he 
was one deputed to excavate the ^rst shovelfuls of earth. 

In this year, as agent of the Aitna. Fire-insurance Com- 
pany of Hartford, Conn., he wrote the first fire-insurance 
policy ever issued in Chicago. He was a director of the 
Chicago branch of the State Bank of Illinois. He was 
one of the incorporators of the old Hydraulic Company 
whose works, northeast corner Lake-st. and Michigan-ave., 
supplied the south and part of the west side of the river 
with water until its works and franchises were purchased 
by the city in 1852. In 1848, he aided in the organization 
of the Board of Trade. In connection with A. T. Spencer 
& Co. he established a line of steamers to Lake Superior, 
employing the Lady Elgin, owned by himself, and several 
other steamers in which he was part owner. As early as 
183 1, he brought to Chicago and slaughtered for the garri- 


son a drove of hogs, and soon after his removal to Chicago 
he engaged in packing beef and pork, which he continued 
on an extensive scale until the destruction of his packing- 
house by fire in 1863; after which he engaged with others 
in the direct importation of tea from China; he also had a 
bonded warehouse more especially for South-American 
products. The great fire of 1871 destroyed his warehouse 
and broke up all these interests and so crippled him that 
he retired from active business. 

There are few of the numerous veins of commerce and 
wealth -producing industries, that draw to this pulsating 
heart of the great West that boundless agricultural and 
mineral wealth which through iron arteries and water-craft 
is distributed to half a world, that have not felt the inspira- 
tion of his genius and been quickened by his enterprise 
and energy. The assertion that in the progress of events, 
one who has reached the ordinary limit of human life in 
this age, has lived longer than the oldest antidiluvian is 
surely verified in the life of Mr. Hubbard. What mar- 
velous transformations he witnessed. When he reached 
Mackinac at scarce sixteen years of age, save in the 
vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, the northern part of Indiana 
and Illinois, all of Wisconsin, and the limitless West that 
lies beyond, except here and there a trading-post, was an 
unbroken wilderness, pathless except by lakes and rivers 
and the narrow trails of the Indian and trapper. 

Sixty-eight years have passed, and what a change; it 
challenges all historic parallel. Before the march of civil- 
ization the wild Indian has disappeared or been driven 
toward the setting sun; the dark forests and prairie gar- 
den-fields where he roved in undisputed dominion, have 
been transformed into harvest-fields, dotted with villages 
and cities, some of them crowded with hundreds of thou- 
sands of inhabitants, where the hum of varied industry is 
never silent and the smoke of forges and factories darkens 



the sky. The canoe and open boat have given place to 
thousand-ton vessels and steamers of twice that burden; 
the narrow trails over which the Indian trotted his pony 
are traversed or crossed by roads of iron, on which iron 
horses rush along with the speed of the wind. This amaz- 
ing change may be more strikingly realized when we 
remember that while within the present limits of Cook 
County there were then only three dwelling-houses of 
white men outside of the garrison enclosure, there now 
dwell more than eight hundred thousand people; and that 
the seat of political power in this great Nation has been 
transferred to the valley of the Mississippi; that it has 
made it possible to scale the heights of the Rocky Moun- 
tains with railroads, and bring the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans into near neighborhood, and bind the East and 
West together with bands of steel. 

History has made immortal the names and achievements 
of men who have subdued or founded states and empires 
by force and sanguinary war. Do not these early pioneers 
who, armed with the arts of peace, bravely met the dangers 
and endured the toils necessary to subjugate the great 
western wilderness for the abodes of peace, with blessings 
of education, enlightened freedom, and the elevating appli- 
ances of civilization, merit equal admiration and gratitude 
as lasting.-* Those who believe that in the world's coming 
history its crowned heroes and benefactors are to be those 
who win the bloodless victories of peace, and by acts of 
self-sacrifice and beneficence scatter widest the blessings 
of Christian civilization, will hold these men, and Gurdon 
S. Hubbard as a prince among them, in highest honor and 

We turn now to the personal, social, and private life of 
Mr. Hubbard. While perfection can be claimed for no 
man, he appears to have borne himself in all the duties 
pertaining to these relations in a manner deserving com- 


mendation and respect. In 1 831, he married Miss Eleanor 
Berry of Oliio, who died a few days after the birth of their 
son, Gurdon S. Hubbard, Jr., born, Chicago, Feb. 22, 1838. 
November 9, 1843, he married Miss Mary Ann Hubbard of 
Chicago, who through the years of his helpless blindness 
attended upon his every want with the constant devotion 
of a true and loving wife. In the discharge of his filial 
and fraternal obligations he set an example of highest 
admiration. As before stated, during his service with the 
fur-company he gave $80 a year of his wages of $120 
toward the maintenance of his mother and dependent 
sisters, and afterward, when his income was increased, 
enlarged their allowance and until his mother died was 
their main support, which was continued to his sisters 
down to his death ; and to provide against all contin- 
gencies, by a deed of trust executed some twenty years 
ago and also by his last will provided for their support 
during life. 

Socially, he was genial, sympathetic, and affable; his 
remarkable life and experiences made him interesting and 
instructive — he was thoroughly careful of the feelings and 
charitable to the faults of others — firm in his convictions 
and principles but never intolerant, he was always the dig- 
nified and courteous gentleman. As a neighbor he was 
kind; and as a friend, faithful and confiding. His heart 
overflowed with sympathy for the poor and unfortunate, 
and his hand was always open for their relief As a hus- 
band, he was carefully tender, loving, and true; as a parent 
affectionate, generous, and indulgent. As a citizen, he 
was patriotic and earnest in the promotion of what he 
believed for the best interests of his country. 

These worthy traits of character are the more remark- 
able when we remember that his youth and early manhood 
were spent away from parental restraints, and amid scenes 
of temptation and influences so adverse to strict morals 


and Christian obligations ; but the rehgious principles 
imbibed from his mother's lips and the schools of those 
■early days seem to have exercised a controlling influence 
over him. I think it due to him I should give the follow- 
ing extracts from letters of Ramsey Crooks, the active 
head of the fur-company, and one from Mr. Stuart, the 
secretary, to his mother. Under date of April, 1820, Mr. 
■Crooks says: " Gurdon has thus far behaved himself in an 
exemplary manner for one of his age." In a letter of 
March, 1826, urging Mrs. Hubbard to visit her son, he 
says: "You will see him at his daily duties, and you will 
see what will gladden the heart of a Christian mother, how 
faithfully he performs his daily duties, how much he is 
loved and respected by his employers and friends." Aug. 
3, 1821, Robert Stuart writes her: " He spends his winters 
with an old gentleman of finished education and correct, 
gentlemanly manners. His account of your son is as flat- 
tering as a fond mother could wish. - * He is strictly 
sober and I believe a great economist; I feel that I state 
the truth when I tell you I think him exempt from the 
vices which too frequently attend youth of his age." These 
commendations speak for themselves. 

In his church associations he was an Episcopalian. He 
was one of those who organized St. James' Episcopal 
Church, the first of that denomination existing in Chicago 
and of which he subsequently became a communicant. 

In January, 1883, he was taken with chills, and in the 
following May lost the sight of his left eye, from which 
time he suffered from blood-poisoning and frequent ab- 
cesses, and from almost constant pains in his eyes and 
neck. In the succeeding April, the eye was removed, and 
though eighty-two years old, without an anesthetic of any 
kind or any one to hold his hands, the steady nerve and 
self-control that so distinguished him in his earlier years 
enabled him simply to lie down and have his eye cut out 


In July, 1885, the sight of his remaining eye was extin- 
guished, leaving him in the horrors of total darkness. 
About one year ago his remaining eye was also removed, 
greatly relieving him from torturing pains. 

Such a calamity and rayless darkness can neither be 
imagined or described. But in him the fruits of the disci- 
pline of suffering were beautifully exhibited in uncom- 
plaining submission to the divine will and patient endur- 
ance of his affliction through all the long night of his 
blindness; in his grateful sense of the sympathy of friends 
and tender thankfulness for the helpful care and attentions 
of his loved ones. It was manifest that while material 
things were excluded from his sight, his nature was more 
fully conformed and assimilated to that of his Divine 
Redeemer by the contemplation of the spiritual and un- 
seen; and on Sept. 14, 1886, at the age of eighty- four 
years, he fell peacefully to sleep, with the full assurance 
he would awaken into supernal light with restored and 
immortal vision. 

It is to be hoped his friends will at no distant day have 
a life of Mr. Hubbard prepared and published. It is not 
only due to his memory, but the truth of history, for the 
history of Chicago and the Northwest can never be fully 
written without it; and if properly prepared it will be 
found more interesting than a romance. 

From a Photo, by Alex. Hesler, March, 

Chicago Photo -Gravure Co. 

Nov. I J, 1813 — April 24, 1884. 


A Settler of Chicago in 1836. 

By Hon. E. B. Washburne. 

ISAAC NEWTON ARNOLD, president of the Chicago 
Historical Society, died at his residence in Chicago, 
April 24, 1884. At the first meeting of the Society after 
his death, May 20, 1884, the following resolution, offered 
by Judge Skinner, was adopted: 

Resolved, That Hon. E. B. Washburne be requested to 
prepare and deliver before this Society, at his conven- 
ience, a Memorial Address, commemorative of the life 
and character of the late Hon. Isaac N. Arnold. 

Before the adjournment, Mr. Washburne, the acting- 
president of the Society, said: 

"I am certain that all the members of the Chicago 
Historical Society, and all others present, will have 
heard with emotion the resolution in respect to our late 
President, first presented by Judge Mark Skinner. 

"The Society has met with a great and almost irre- 
parable loss in the death of Mr. Arnold. Long identified 
with it, giving to it his attention and his services, he has 
done much to elevate its character and increase its use- 
fulness. We can never forget with what courtesy and 
dignity he presided at our meetings. Dying, as it were, 
in the harness, he has left us the recollection of an honest 
man, a cultivated gentleman, a good citizen, and an 
honored public servant. At some time in the future, the 
Society will pay appropriate honors to his memory." 

A regular monthly meeting of the Society was held 
at its rooms, 142 Dearborn Avenue, Tuesday even- 


ing, October 21, 1884. After the disposal of the prelimi- 
nary business, Mr. Washburne delivered the following 

Gentlemen of tiik Chicac:o Historical Society, and 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The Chicago Historical Society has been called upon 
to mourn the death of our esteemed and distinguished 
associate, Hon. Isaac Newton Arnold, its late president. 

On the evening of May 20, 1884, the Society passed 
the following resolution, introduced by our honored 
friend and fellow-member. Judge Skinner, the contempo- 
rary and almost life-long friend of Mr. Arnold: 

Resolved, That in the removal by death of Hon. Isaac 
X. Arnold, the Chicago Historical Society mourns the 
loss of one of its original founders, of one of its most 
active, efficient, and reliable members, and its honored 
and greatly-respected president. During all the active 
years of a long and well-spent life, Mr. Arnold had been 
a citizen of Chicago, contributing by his indefatigable in- 
dustry, his unimpeachable intregrit}-, his patriotism, his 
public spirit, his rare abilities, his great acquirements, 
his spotless moral character, his high social qualifications, 
and his instincts as a thorough gentleman to give lustre 
to the city of his residence and to the generation to 
which he belonged; a successful lawyer that stood in the 
front rank of his profession; a cautious, far-seeing, and 
wise legislator, distinguishing himself in the halls of legis- 
lation. National as well as State; a successful public 
speaker and a writer of great power and wide-spread 
popularity, he has left to the generations that succeed 
him the legacy of a noble example and a good name. 

At the same meeting, another resolution was passed 
requesting me to deliver before the Society a "Memorial 
Address commemorative of the Life and Character of 


Hon. Isaac N. Arnold." It would have been well if that 
could have been confided to some older resident of 
Chicago, and one better able to do justice to the memory 
of Mr. Arnold. I overcome my hesitation, however, 
when I consider the opportunity it gives me of appreciat- 
ing the character of a man to whom I was allied by so 
many ties of friendship and whom I held in highest 
esteem for his private and public virtues, for his ability, 
his statesmanship, and his patriotism. 

At the threshhold of my remarks, I may perhaps be 
pardoned for recalling an incident which took place a 
few months prior to Mr. Arnold's death. About Christ- 
mas time, 1883, he sent me an elegantly-bound copy of 
the "Proceedings of the Royal Historical Society," which 
contained his admirable paper on Mr. Lincoln, and which, 
on the invitation of the Society, he went to London to 
read. In a letter written on December 20, last, I ac- 
knowledged the receipt of the address, and said: 

"I have re-read your paper with renewed interest, 
one of the most complete and most polished productions 
that I now recall to mind. The simple and eloquent 
story of Mr. Lincoln's life awakens in me some of the 
most pleasant as well as some of the saddest memories of 
that remarkable man. You know what answer Queen 
Katherine made to Griffith after his eulogy on Cardinal 
Wolsey. I would say with her, substituting Arnold for 

"After my death, I wish no other herald, 
No speaker of my living actions, 
To keep mine honor from corruption, 
But such an honest chronicler as Griffith." 

In answering my note on December 20, Mr. Arnold 

" How strange, as I write, Lincoln's Shakespeare, given 
me by Mrs. Lincoln and Robert, with his autograph, lies 


before me; the book which so famih"arized him with the 
great poet. You, his friend and co-laborer, quote from 
it. I can only promise in reference to him that I shall 
try to be like Griffith, 'an honest chronicler'. But I 
have this great advantage: Wolsey's character was made 
up of good and evil, and although he was 

' A scholar, and a ripe and good one,' 

yet he had his faults; but of Lincoln, 

'AH the ends he aimed at were his Country's, God's, and 
And so the ' honest chronicler ' has but the simple truth 
to tell. 

"You are younger than I, and in the course of nature 
will survive me. Whoever goes first, the survivor will 
speak some kind words." 

Mr. Arnold has preceded me to that undiscovered 
country from whence no traveler returns. On April 24, 
1884, in peace with himself and all the world, at his resi- 
dence in this city, surrounded by his sorrowing family, he 
died, fearing God. Surviving him, and with a heart 
filled with sadness, it now comes to me in this presence, 
to " speak some kind words " of my friend and our late 

Hon. Isaac N. Arnold was born Nov. 13, 1813, in the 
town of Hartwick, Otsego Co., N. Y. His father was a 
country physician, who while conscientiously attending 
to the demands of his profession added something to his 
limited income by cultivating a small farm in a town 
where all the people were devoted to agriculture. In 
that beautiful county of Otsego, with its picturesque 
scenery, its clear and limpid lakes, and its extensive 
forests, amid a population made up of the best type of 
the American character, Mr. Arnold first saw the light of 
day. It was in that comparative solitude that he drew 


his earliest inspirations and laid the foundations, deep 
and broad, of that future life, distinguished for so much 
honor and illustrated by so many virtues. Thrown upon 
his own resources at an early age, he became the archi- 
tect of his own fortune, and has furnished an example to 
the young men of the present day, who can see in his 
career that the pathway to greatness and usefulness is 
open to all who enter upon it in a spirit of loyal devo- 
tion to the great objects of life. 

Having prepared himself for the study of law, he first 
commenced his studies under Richard Cooper of Coop- 
erstown, N. Y., and afterward continued them in the 
office of Judge E. B. Morehouse of the same place, until 
he was admitted to the bar in 1835, at the age of twenty- 
one years. 

Taking up his residence in Chicago in 1836, his career 
from that time was one of honorable success ; and at the 
time of his death no citizen of Chicago was more widely 
known and more highly respected and esteemed than 
w^as Mr. Arnold. The story of his professional life must 
be told by some one of his associates at the bar who had 
personal knowledge of his ability as a lawyer and of the 
distinction he acquired in the practice of his chosen pro- 

Interested always in questions of great public interest, 
he often stepped outside the limits of his profession to 
make himself heard and his influence felt. When the 
question of the repudiation of the State debt arose, as 
was natural for a man of his stamp, Mr. Arnold revolted 
against the proposition, and gave the influence of his 
high character and great ability to sustain the public 
faith. He made himself known to the people by voice 
and pen in his efforts to sustain the honor of the State 
and to have the people stamp out the dishonorable but 
insidious proposition to repudiate the public debt. 


In the session of the legislature of 1842-3, Mr. Arnold 
rendered a great and inestimable service to the State in 
carrying through that Canal-Bill which laid the founda- 
tion of our State credit and which contributed so much 
to make Illinois what it is to-day, the pride of all its loyal 
sons and the admiration of our country and the world. 
On all questions of good-faith and public morality, Mr. 
Arnold was always on the right side; and for the con- 
spicuous service he rendered the State and the cause of 
honesty, both in public and in private life, in a most criti- 
cal period of our history, his memory deserves to be 
always honored by every citizen of Illinois. 

As we all knew him, Mr. Arnold was a man of great 
independence of character, thought, and action. Making 
up his mind as to what was right, he always acted up to- 
his convictions. He never pandered to low tastes or 
popular prejudices. There was not the slightest tinge of 
the demagogue in all his composition. The quotation 
from Horace, made by Morris Birkbeck for the encourge- 
ment of Gov. Coles during the great slavery-struggle in 
1823-4, when that great and good man was so fiercely 
assailed by all the worst elements in the State for his 
efforts to prevent slavery from defiling the soil of Illinois,, 
might be applied to Mr. Arnold with great force: 

"Justuni et tenacem propositi viruni, 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non vultus instantis tyranni, 
Mente quatit solida." * 

I now approach that portion of Mr. Arnold's life and 
career with which I was most familiar and in which I 
have always had the greatest interest. At the same 
election that Mr. Lincoln was elected president, in i860,. 

* "Neither tlie ardor of citizens ordering base things, nor the face of the 
threatening tyrant, shakes a man just and tenacious of principle from his 
firm intentions." 


Mr. Arnold was elected a representative in the thirty- 
seventh congress from the Chicago district. I had known 
him before as a gentleman and a lawyer, meeting him 
frequently at the sessions of the supreme court at Spring- 
field and Ottawa. That congress met in extra session on 
the Fourth of July, 1861. Its meeting was one of the 
most momentous events ever recorded in the history of 
our country. President Lincoln, great, magnanimous, 
peaceful, patriotic, just, had made every effort consistent 
with his duty and his oath to support the constitution 
and enforce the laws, to bring the rebellious states back 
to their allegiance. The rebels, lawless, defiant, aggres- 
sive, had spurned every proposition that might lead to an 
understanding between the sections. Therefore, it was- 
that at the opening of this congress, Mr. Lincoln's ad- 
ministration was confronted by an open rebellion. Blood 
had been shed and the flames of a civil war had been 
lighted in the country. It was under such circumstances 
Mr. Lincoln had convened congress in e.xtra session. 
The members of the senate and house of representatives 
met under this call for an extra session under a weight of 
responsibility which has rarely rested upon public men. 

At such a crisis men became naturally allied to each 
other. Intelligent, patriotic, courageous, firm of purpose,, 
and of undying loyalty, Mr. Arnold took his seat in that 
celebrated congress and then commenced an intimacy 
and friendship between us, existing unbroken to the day 
of his death. The president and Mr. Arnold had known 
each other long and well. They had been associated as 
lawyers in the trial of causes and had been opposite 
counsel in important litigation. This long association at 
the bar had made them to know one another well, and 
had engendered mutual respect and mutual regard. Mr. 
Lincoln hailed the election to congress of Mr. Arnold 
with pleasure, for in him he saw the faithful friend, the 


wise counsellor, and the loyal and patriotic citizen. And 
hence it was, during all his administration, that he gave 
to him his fullest confidence and extended to him so 
many evidences of the high regard in which he held him. 

Though a new member, the consideration in which Mr. 
Arnold was held by his colleagues was shown by the 
unanimous request made to him that he should pro- 
nounce the eulogy in the house on behalf of Illinois on the 
occasion of the death of Stephen A. Douglas. His ad- 
dress was a glowing and merited tribute to the memory 
of that distinguished man. Trained in the arts of legis- 
lation by his service in the Illinois legislature, conscious 
of his own ability and capacity, Mr. Arnold participated 
at once in the business of the house. On July 29, he 
entered into the discussion of the Internal-Revenue Bill, 
and in a short and apt speech which convinced the house 
of his ability as a debator, and what was to be his useful- 
ness as a legislator. 

The regular session of the thirty- seventh congress 
met on Monday, December 21, 1861. The country had 
then been plunged into all the horrors of a bloody civil 
w^ar, and the loyal people looked forward to the opening 
of this regular session of congress with the most intense 
interest. Mr. Arnold appeared and took his seat. He 
had felt his way somewhat cautiously in the extra session, 
but now he believed himself equal to taking a more 
prominent part in the legislation of the house. He partici- 
pated in the discussion of nearly all the important ques- 
tions which came up for action, and he soon took rank as 
one of the ablest members of the body. 

I was in the house of representatives for sixteen years, 
and during the most important epoch of our country's 
history and at a time when so many of the ablest men 
of the Nation were members of the house of representa- 
tives, and was in a position to estimate and judge of men; 


and I can conscientiously say that I consider that Mr. 
Arnold was one of the ablest, the most useful, and most 
conscientious members with whom I was associated. 
Always at his post in the house and in the committee- 
room, he shunned no labor nor left any duty unperformed. 
He studied all questions and weighed all the arguments, 
pro and coji, on every subject on which he was called 
upon to act. And then in deportment and bearing he 
was what every public man should be, amiable, courteous, 
affable, polite, and always a gentleman, making himself 
esteemed and respected by all who had the good fortune 
to know him. I have sometimes thought that Chicago 
never did full justice to its congressmen in those two cele- 
brated congresses during the war. In the excitement of 
the time and the whirl of events, men were often lost 
sight of Mr. Arnold never dazzled by brilliant speeches, 
made for effect and to gain popular applause and cheap 
glory, but he devoted himself rather to the serious sub- 
jects of legislation with assiduity and intelligence. The 
Congressional Globe, during his term of service, is an en- 
during monument to his great and useful labors, and that 
will remain as long as this Republic shall endure. 

In all matters of local importance before the congress, 
as in all matters in which his constituents were interested, 
either in the departments or in congress, Mr. Arnold was 
especially active and efficient. He gave the Ship-Canal 
Bill a warm support, and his speech on the subject was 
one of the ablest which was made. 

Coming from good old Revolutionary and Rhode-" 
Island stock, born and bred among the freedom-loving 
people of Northern New York, it could hardly have been 
otherwise than that Mr. Arnold should have imbibed the 
strongest feelings of hostility to human slavery. Through 
all his political associations, neither his opinions nor 
actions on that subject ever changed. He always acted 


with the anti-slavery men wherever he found them, and 
when slavery raised the standard of rebellion against the 
government, he took the most radical ground on the 
subject. He voted for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and as early as March, 1862, he in- 
troduced a bill, sweeping in its provisions, to prohibit 
slavery in every place subject to national jurisdiction. 
This bill was stoutly resisted, but Mr. Arnold pressed it 
with ability and persistence, and after some amendments^ 
it became a law, June 19, 1862. He made a speech in 
the house on this bill. May 19, 1862, and from a man of 
his naturally calm and conservative temperament, it was 
not only very able, but very radical and aggressive. He 
denounced slavery as a monster attempting to destroy a 
government which it had so long controlled. He said no 
man who loved his country and the constitution could 
hold any other position toward it than one of hostility^ 
and that every effort should be made to weaken and de- 
stroy it. " Whenever we can give it a constitutional 
blow," he exclaimed, ''let 21s do it'' And it may be said 
to his honor, few men in congress, or out of congress^ 
dealt harder blows at the institution than he did. 

The ablest and most notable speech that Mr. Arnold 
made while a member of congress was that on the bill to 
confiscate rebel property, made May 2, 1862. After 
passing in review the w^ickedness of the rebellion, and the 
inhuman manner in which the rebels had conducted the 
war, and the necessity of prompt and vigorous action, he 
addressed himself to the legal questions involved, in an 
argument of great ability and research, and which chal- 
lenged the attention of the lawyers of the house. He 
was an able lawyer, and legal questions to which he 
gave his attention he treated with conspicuous ability and 
with a felicity of language quite rare in the discussion of 
points of law. 


From the high standing of Mr. Arnold in the house, 
and the advanced position he occupied on the slavery- 
question, it was fitting and proper that he should take the 
initiative in a great measure of legislation with which his 
name will ever be honorably associated, and which was 
the foundation of an enactment of more transcendent 
importance than any which ever adorned the statute- 
book of any nation. 

On February 15, 1864, Mr. Arnold introduced into the 
house of representatives a resolution, which was passed, 
declaring that the constitution should be so amended as 
was the first step ever taken by congress in favor of the 
abolition and prevention of slavery in the country. The 
ball was set in motion — the popular branch of congress 
had made a solemn declaration which sent a throb of joy 
and hope to the heart of every lover of human freedom. 
The senate was then so constituted that the two-thirds' 
majority, necessary to submit a constitutional amend- 
ment, was easily obtainable. The house having led the 
way by passing the declaratory resolution of Mr. Arnold 
in favor of a constitutional amendment, the senate passed 
the resolution April 8, 1864. But it failed to pass the 
house at that session, and it was not until the next ses- 
sion, on February i, 1865, that the two-third majority 
was obtained in the house, and in the homely language 
of Mr. Lincoln, " The job finished^ 

In the debate in the house, Mr. Arnold made a pas- 
sionate appeal for the passage of the joint-resolution. 
Warming up in his remarks, and in a tone of true elo- 
quence, he exclaimed: "In view of the long catalogue 
of wrongs that slavery has inflicted upon the country, I 
demand today of the congress of the United States, the 
death of slavery. We can have no permanent peace 
while slavery lives. It now reels and staggers in its last 


death-struggle. Let us strike the monster this last 
decisive blow. Pass this joint- resolution," he contin- 
ued, "and the thirty-eighth congress will live in history 
as that which consummated the great work of freeing a 
continent from the curse of human bondage. The great 
spectacle of this vote which knocks off the fetters of a 
whole race, will make the scene immortal." And further 
on he continued: "I mean to fight this cause of the 
war — this cause of all the expenditure of blood and 
treasure from which my country is now suffering; this 
institution which has filled our whole land with sorrow, 
desolation, and anguish. I mean to fight it until neither 
on the statute-book nor in the constitution shall there 
be left a single sentence or word which can be construed 
to sustain the stupendous wrong. * * -^ Let us now, 
in the name of liberty, of justice, of God, consummate 
this grand revolution. Let us now make our country 
tJie home of the free^ 

No member of the house of representatives who was 
present when this resolution passed can ever forget that 
scene. Mr. Arnold was full of rejoicing. In a graphic, 
racy, and interesting paper, entitled " Reminiscences of 
Lincoln and of Congress during the Rebellion," read by 
him in July, 1882, before the New-York Geneological 
and Biographical Society, he gave an account, among 
other things, of the passage by congress of the "joint- 
resolution to submit to the states the amendment to the 
constitution abolishing slavery." After seeing the great 
work, so near to his heart, accomplished, he tells of the 
steps he took to obtain certain souvenirs conected with 
the legislation. When the resolution had been engrossed 
he procured an exact duplicate of the original, which was 
to go on file in the department of state, and to that ob- 
tained the signatures of all the members of both houses 
who had voted for it, to be treasured up as a memento of 


the occasion; and with sadness he tells the story of the 
Chicago Fire, which consumed that and so many other 
treasures. Profiting from his inspiration in this regard, I 
followed his example and procured precisely the same 
thing for myself; and looking at the names of all the 
members of both houses, in their own proper handwrit- 
ing, who voted for the resolution, there will be seen the 
name of Isaac N. Arnold, written in his own bold, clear 
hand. Now that he has passed away I never look upon 
it without emotion. 

It is impossible in the limits of this paper to do full 
justice to Mr. Arnold's congressional record. The Con- 
gressional Globe shows with what zeal and ability he en- 
tered into the business of the house, and what light he 
shed on all subjects to which he gave his attention. He 
went to congress to serve the country in its hour of peril 
and not for the objects of an unworthy ambition. His 
colleague and his friend, I know how conscientiously and 
laboriously, how honestly and ably he discharged his 
every duty. To those who knew him it goes without 
saying, that he was thoroughly incorruptible. There 
was never a lobyist or corruptionist bold enough to ap- 
proach him with even the slightest suggestion as to any 
action on his part favoring any object for private gain, 
and not for the public good. Such was his high charac- 
ter, his incorruptible integrity, and his elevated code of 
morals, that no man ever dared to approach him with an 
improper suggestion in respect of his official action. 

Mr. Arnold's congressional career ended with the 
thirty-eighth congress, March 3, 1865. During his 
whole term of service, not only from a sense of duty, but 
from his high personal regard for the president, he had 
given the" administration of Mr. Lincoln a loyal, able, and 
an efficient support. It was a matter of great regret 
and disappointment to that distinguished man, as well as. 


to all of his colleagues, that he did not return to congress. 
He had served his country and his constituents so faith- 
fully and with such marked ability that he had challenged 
the respect and confidence of all familiar with his public 
career. On his return to his home in Chicago, at the ad- 
journment of the long session of congress in July, 1864, 
he was tendered a magnificent reception, and a vote was 
passed, giving to him the thanks of the meeting for the 
able and valuable services he had rendered his country 
and his constituents in congress. While not a candidate 
for re-election in 1864, he entered into the canvass for 
the re-election of Mr. Lincoln with great spirit, and his 
voice was heard in many states urging the people to sus- 
tain him in the great work of suppressing the rebellion. 

After the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, Mr. Arnold 
being then already engaged in writing a " History of 
Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery in the 
United States," he accepted the appointment from Presi- 
dent Johnson of auditor of the treasury for the post-office 
department, as a residence in Washington afforded him 
a more ready access to documents necessary for him to 
have in preparing his work. Subsequently, differing with 
President Johnson in respect of the policy he had 
adopted, he resigned the office which he had received 
at his hands. Returning to his home in Chicago in 1867, 
he completed his " History of Abraham Lincoln and the 
Overthrow^ of Slavery." He brought to the preparation 
of that work the qualities of an able and conscientious 
historian, who wrote very largely from personal knowl- 
edge and personal observation. His long and intimate 
acquaintance with Mr. Lincoln had given him a thorough 
knowledge of his character and his mode of thought and 
action. As a member of that congress for four years 
during the war, and which had accomplished such prodi- 
gies for the country, he was from his own participation 
in it enabled to speak with authority. 


I have recently read again this work and am more im- 
pressed than ever with it as a work of surpassing interest 
and of exceptional historical value. Nowhere else can 
be found a more just appreciation of Mr. Lincoln and a 
more graphic and truthful recital of events then trans- 
piring in congress and on the theatre of military and 
political action throughout the country. Important and 
interesting facts are to be obtained therein which are not 
to be found elsewhere. 

Resuming his law-practice in Chicago in 1872, Mr. 
Arnold continued actively in his profession for two or 
three years, when failing health compelled him to aban- 
don it. From that time till his death, he lived the life of 
a retired gentleman in his pleasant home on the north- 
side, among his books and papers, where, surrounded by 
his interesting and amiable family and congenial friends, 
he dispensed an elegant and gracious hospitality. It was 
then he found leisure to devote himself to favorite literary 
pursuits. With an inclination for historic research, with 
that power of analysis which a long practice at the bar 
had given him, and with a rare felicity of composition, he 
devoted himself to historic themes. 

It was in 1880 that Mr. Arnold brought out his "Life 
of Benedict Arnold — his Patriotism and his Treason," a 
most comely volume of more than four hundred pages. 
The book has been extensively read in the most intelli- 
gent circles. While it provoked a certain measure of 
criticism in some quarters, yet it was generally com- 
mended for the ability, fairness, and independence shown 
by the author. It was perhaps a bold undertaking to 
write the life of a man whose name and memory were so 
loaded down with infamy as were those of Benedict 
Arnold. But the author frankly tells us in his introduc- 
tion what led him to undertake to tell the story of Bene- 
dict Arnold's life, truthfully and impartially. He was 


conscious of the deep and universal prejudice existing- 
against him, and was aware that the American people 
would listen with impatience to his narrative. He had no 
desire to change the indignation and resentment felt 
against him, nor could he either excuse or extenuate his 
guilt. He wished " to make known his patriotic services, 
his sufferings, heroism, and the wrongs which drove him 
to a desperate action and induced one of the most heroic 
men of an heroic age to perpetrate an unpardonable 
crime." Influenced by such considerations, and responsi- 
ble only to himself for his opinions and judgments, Mr. 
Arnold did not hesitate to write the " Life of Benedict 
Arnold." It is the province of history to record facts, to 
pursue investigations, and narrate circumstances without 
regard to the characters of individuals. To sum up, Mr. 
Arnold has given to the world a book of exceptional 
historic value, and for which all the lovers of biography 
and students of the history of our Revolution must be 

It is not the first time that there has been written the 
life of a man who has been set up in the "pillory of 
history." Dr. Robinet never lost anything in the estima- 
tion of the French people by writing the memoirs of 
Danton, nor Ernest Hamel for his history of Robespierre, 
nor Alfred Bougeart by his life the monster Marat. 
Everywhere, Mr. Arnold has added to his reputation 
among literary, thoughtful, and reading men, by his " Life 
of Benedict Arnold." In the somewhat-heated contro- 
versy which arose over the question of Gen. Arnold's 
military services, the historian fully vindicated the posi- 
tions he had taken, for no man was more successful in 
marshalling facts or in presenting deductions from estab- 
lished premises. 

But the great work of Mr. Arnold's life, and upon 
which his reputation as a biographer and historian must 


rest, is his "Life of Abraham Lincoln," now in course 
of publication. His "History of Abraham Lincoln and 
the Overthrow of Slavery," though an able, valuable, 
and interesting work, was never entirely satisfactory to 
the author, so far as it treated Mr. Lincoln. He deter- 
mined, therefore, two years since, to write anew the 
" Life of Abraham Lincoln," in the light of all the new 
material he had gathered. Stimulated by his admiration 
and friendship for that illustrious man, he devoted him- 
self to the preparation of a life of one of the greatest 
men who ever "lived in the tide of time" — a man whose 
name is on all our lips and whose memory is in all our 
hearts — Abraham Lincoln. He entered upon the work 
con amove, and devoted to it all his efforts and all his 
thoughts. The preparation of the work occupied all his 
time and absorbed all his attention. So closely did he 
pursue his labors, and so intently were his thoughts occu- 
pied thereon, that his health, at no time rugged, within 
the last few years, began perceptibly to give way. Still 
he persevered, and still he labored on, till the last chapter 
was finished, and the last finishing touches given. Never 
shall I forget the last interview I had with him only a few 
days before he died, as he lay pallid and emaciated on his 
bed of death. Knowing all the interest I had felt in his 
book, he began to speak of it in feeble and even plaintive 
tones, and closed by saying: "It was only when I had 
completed the last chapter that I collapsed." And so it 
was, strengthened and buoyed up in his purpose to com- 
plete the great work of his life, when the task was finished, 
he laid down to die. The hour of his earthly existence 
had come finally to strike. Neither the prayers of wife 
and children, who did so much to sooth the pangs of his 
parting life, nor all their love, care, and devotion; neither 
the hopes of friends, nor the skill of physicians could stay 
the hand of death. His work was done, and peacefully 


and calmly and in C^hristian resignation he yielded up his 
soul to the God who gave it. 

Mr. Arnold's "Life of Abraham Lincoln," enriched by 
a captivating style, carefully studied and drawn from the 
most reliable sources of information, will become the 
standard life of a man whose name, linked in glory to that 
of Washington, will go down to the end of all the ages. 

Of an active mind, taking an interest in all passing 
events, Mr. Arnold always found some subject to occupy 
his attention and engage his pen. Independent of the 
books he had written and published, he was the author of 
a great number of sketches, papers, biographies, and re- 
views, many of which have been published, and all of them 
are interesting and valuable in a personal and historical 
point of view. Associated for half a century with Illinois, 
and having been long and honorably identified with the 
State, he was always interested in all that appertained to 
our history and our public men. As a member of the 
legal profession, and as a man in public life, he was closely 
allied to many of the lawyers and judges, and to many 
men in official stations in the State, and he was never 
happier than when recounting the reminiscences of his 
earlier professional and political life. 

To everything he undertook, Mr. Arnold brought the 
qualities of a ripe intelligence, great vigor, and a sound 
judgment. When at an age when most men rest, he was 
pursuing to its legitimate honors and rewards the career 
of a man of letters and of a historian. Of the produc- 
tions of Mr. Arnold's busy and gifted pen which have 
been published in pamphlet form, I may mention: 

1. His "Address before the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety" of Nov, 9, 1868, giving a history of the Society, 

2. "Sketch of Col. John H. Kinzie": read before the 
Chicago Historical Society, July 11, 1877. 


3. "Recollections of the Early Chicago and Illinois 
Bar" : a lecture before the Chicago Bar Association, June 
10, 1880. 

4. "Reminiscences of the Illinois Bar Forty Years 
Ago": read before the Bar Association of the State of 
Illinois, at Springfield, Jan. 7, 1881. 

5. A paper on "Abraham Lincoln": read before the 
Royal Historical Societyin London, June 16, 1881. 

6. A Paper on "William B. Ogden": read before the 
Chicago Historical Society, Dec. 20, 188 1, on the presenta- 
tion of a portrait of Mr. Ogden, by Healy, to the Histori- 
cal Society. 

7. "Reminiscences of Lincoln and of Congress dur- 
ing the Rebellion": being the anniversary address, de- 
livered before the New-York Geneological and Biographi- 
cal Society, April 15, 1882. 

8. "Benedict Arnold at Saratoga": reprinted from 
the "United Service." "Reply to John Austin Stevens, 
and new evidence of Mr. Bancroft's error." 

9. A Paper on "James Fenimore Cooper": read in 
1883 before the Chicago Literary Society. 

10. Letter of Isaac N. Arnold to Bishop Clarkson: 
"Was Dr. De Koven legally elected Bishop of Illinois.?" 

11. A Paper read before the Chicago Philosophical 
Society, Dec. 10, 1883, entitled, "The Layman's Faith." 

Mr. Arnold has been one of the founders of the Chi- 
cago Historical Society, and served many years as one of 
its vice-presidents. On Dec. 19, 1876, he was elected 
president, and held the position uninterruptedly until the 
day of his death — a period of about seven and one-half 
years. So long identified with the Society, and giving to 
it his attention and services, he did much to elevate its 
character and add to its usefulness. We can never forget 
the regularity of his attendance upon all the meetings of 
the Society, his watchful care over all its interests, nor the 


dignity and courtesy with which he presided over our 

With an intellectual and finely-chiseled face, of an 
erect and well-formed person, of quiet and gentlemanly 
manners, and courteous carriage and bearing, Mr. Arnold 
was a man who always attracted attention. He was the 
soul of probity and honor. Neither the purity of his pri- 
vate life, nor the integrity of his public conduct was ever 
challenged: but in every position of life he stood before 
the world as an honest man, a cultivated gentleman, a 
good citizen, and a public servant without reproach. 
Those of us who have known him so well in this Society 
and in the daily walks of his life and conversation, will 
always guard for him a profound souvenir of respect and 

Husband, father, friend, neighbor, citizen — his ashes re- 
pose on the shores of that lake where he had passed a 
long and an honored life, and its waves shall forever sing 
his requiem. 

Tribute of Hon. Thomas Drummond. 

Mr. President: — I propose only to make a {q.\n general 
remarks, leaving details to others. 

When Mr. Arnold came to Chicago in 1836, if some one 
had asked what were the qualities which would make him 
one of the principal men who would form and influence 
the elements of the growth of a great city, he would have 
said: that as a professional man, he must be able and true 
to his clients; as a public man, conscientious and faithful 
in the discharge of all trusts committed to his hands; and 
as a citizen, honorable in all the relations which attach to 
that name. Mr. Arnold in his life, from that time, when 
tried in these various positions, proved that he possessed 


all these qualities, and he was thus one of the leading men 
of the city, whose influence was always exerted for good. 

By his talents, and industry, fidelity, and conscious that 
success was with him a necessity — for it is not those who 
have, but those who gain a competence who achieve great 
distinction at the bar — he became one of the most eminent 
lawyers of the city and of the State. No man ever had 
his heart more in his cause, or more fully bent every fac- 
ulty of his mind to succeed. 

As a public man, the sphere of his usefulness was 
greatly enlarged. He, as a member of the legislature and 
as a citizen, made the most strenuous efforts and exhibited 
great ability in his arguments and speeches to maintain 
the honor of the State in its dealings with its creditors. 
As a member of congress, he gave the whole energy of his 
mind and heart to sustain the administration of Lincoln; 
to uphold the rights of man; to destroy slavery; and to 
preserve and consolidate the union of these States. We, 
who were acquainted with him in those trying days, know 
with how much devotion he sought to accomplish these 
great objects. A warm personal friend of Lincoln, he was 
one of his most trusted counsellors and advisers. 

It would be difficult to overrate the value of his services 
which he rendered to his State and the Nation while in 
public life. 

As a man and a citizen, his influence and efforts were 
always exerted in favor of sound moral and good govern- 
ment. When we look back to the condition of affairs that 
existed here nearly fifty years ago, we can appreciate the 
effect produced on professional, social, and political life by 
the character, habits, and conduct of Mr. Arnold, and can 
say, as the influence of a man so conspicuous is all-pervad- 
ing, that the world is better for the life of such a man. 

Is is fitting, therefore, that there should be placed on re- 
cord, and especially in this Society, in which he took so 


deep an interest, and of which he was so long the presid- 
ing officer, an enduring memorial of the estimate which 
has been formed of his life and public services by his con- 
temporaries, in order that those who come after us here 
may know that he, of whom we now speak, was, in our 
judgment, thus of record, an eminent lawyer, a true patriot, 
and an honorable citizen. 

Tribute of Hon. VanH. Higgins. 

Mr. President:— I feel great distrust and diffidence 
in my ability to say what I think ought to be said of the 
honored deceased, whom I had known since his early man- 
hood, now more than forty years, and with whom I had 
been on terms of great intimacy and friendship for more 
than thirty years. I am proud of that intimacy and friend- 
ship. I am proud of his record as a man and as an hon- 
ored citizen of Chicago, and I am grateful for the example 
of his life and character. We owe a tribute of respect to 
the late Isaac N. Arnold, who devoted the best energies of 
his whole life to objects of benevolence and to the advance- 
ment of the cause of human freedom. His patriotism and 
devotion to the cause of the Union and its preservation 
were untiring and ceaseless. In congress and out of con- 
gress, he was ever active and zealous, watchful and con- 
stant. In the beginning of the great struggle for the pre- 
servation of our national existence, Isaac N. Arnold was 
foremost in all that could be done to preserve and perpetu- 
ate this Union. Chicago had no truer patriot, no better 
friend of the enslaved negro, no more sympathizing friend 
of the wretched and suffering everywhere and at all times, 
than Isaac N. Arnold. Although I had known him in all 
the relations of life, socially, politically, and professionally, 
I am here to speak only of his professional life, and of 


Isaac N. Arnold as a lawyer. Other friends more eloquent 
will speak, I am sure, of the usefulness of the life of the 
deceased, of the beauty and loveliness of his general char- 
acter, which, during a long lifetime, so gained and held our 
love and affection. They will speak of him in the domes- 
tic relations of his life, as a trusty friend, a faithful 
husband, a kind father; as a distinguished and honored 
citizen ; as a true gentleman, pure and spotless in all 
things, and in all the relations of life. They will tell of 
his philanthropy. Isaac N. Arnold was from his youth a 
philanthropist. He was the friend of enslaved and wretch- 
ed bondsmen. He consecrated his best energies during 
his whole life to the emancipation of the poor slave, one 
of the noblest objects within the range of human benevo- 
lence. It was in the cause and interest of the poor slave 
that his heart swelled with more tenderness and his purse 
was open more freely than in any other. They will speak 
of his great and untiring efforts in his early manhood in 
originating and organizing the Free-soil party of the 
United States. They will speak of patriotic, unselfish, 
and untiring devotion to the Union cause during our late 
struggle, and of his active, constant, zealous, watchful care 
of the public interests and the public trusts confided to 
him; of his emineirt and useful services throughout a long 
life, and of him as a citizen of whom Chicago has always 
been proud. 

I will not attempt to speak of the honored deceased save 
of him in his professional character as an advocate and as 
a lawyer. Mr. Arnold, in his early life, was not favored by 
fortune. He had not the advantages of a collegiate edu- 
cation. He had only such opportunities as were afforded 
by the country-schools and village academy. These he 
improved to such an extent as to fully prepare him for the 
prominent positions which he afterward occupied during 
his life, and which he filled so creditably to himself and so 


satisfactorily to his friends. At the early age of fifteen 
years, young Arnold found himself thrown upon his own 
resources, and from that time began the struggle of life for 
success and for future usefulness. He was emphatically 
" the artist of his own fortune." From seventeen to 
twenty, he occupied his time in teaching half the year, to 
enable him to pursue his studies the other half. He di- 
vided his time during this period between academic study, 
teaching, and reading law. During this period he entered 
the law-office of Richard Cooper of Cooperstown, N. Y. 
He subsequently became a student in the office of Judge 
E. B. Morehouse. In 1835, when he had scarcely attained 
his majority, he was admitted to the Supreme Court 
of New York. He immediately thereafter formed a 
partnership with Judge Morehouse, which continued until 
his removal to Chicago. In 1837, he formed a partnership 
with Mahlon D. Ogden of this city, which continued for 
several years, building up a large and lucrative business. 
While a member of that firm in 1841, Mr. Arnold, being 
then only twenty-seven years of age, commenced and car- 
ried through to a successful termination, unaided and 
alone, the celebrated case of Bronson vs. Kinzie, which 
was finally determined by the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the winter of 1842. I mention this case 
because of its being a leading case in this country, among 
its celebrated cases, and because of its involving grave con- 
stitutional questions which Mr. Arnold was able to grapple 
with at that youthful period of his life, arguing this case at 
twenty-seven years of age in the highest court in the 
world, and contending against the ablest lawyers in the 
Nation. It demonstrates the learning and capacity, the 
courage and fixedness of purpose of the young lawyer 
more satisfactorily than any words of eulogy. 

Mr. Arnold was more than a powerful and successful 
advocate and trial-lawyer. He was a learned lawyer — a 


jurist, in the just sense of that term. For more than thirty 
years Mr. Arnold stood at the head of the Chicago bar. 
As a iiisi-priiis or trial-lawyer there was scarcely his equal 
in the State; probably it can truthfully be said that he was 
one of the most successful, ingenious, and powerful jury- 
lawyers in the Western country. The records of the vari- 
ous courts. State and Federal, show Mr. Arnold to have 
had an extensive and varied practice. Few lawyers in this 
or any other city have had a greater number of cases be- 
fore the courts that Mr. Arnold, and these cases were gen- 
erally of great importance, and involved the most varied 
learning, and called for the application of the most intri- 
cate and abstruse questions of law. For a time, Mr. Ar- 
nold made a specialty of criminal practice, and such was 
his success for many years that no man defended by him 
was ever convicted. His first important criminal case was 
the trial of a negro named Davit, who was accused of 
murdering his brother. Mr. Arnold being satisfied of his 
innocence, volunteered to defend him, and procured his ac- 
quittal. Among other noted criminal cases in which he 
appeared as counsel, that of Taylor Driscoll, charged with 
the murder of John Campbell, the leader of a band of 
"regulators" in Ogle County, III, is perhaps the most 
noted. He defended many other persons charged with 
murder in this and other counties, and, except in the case 
of Geo. W. Green, in this city, in 1854, who committed 
suicide before the final trial, it is believed he was successful 
in every instance, 

There is no one of the older members of the Chicago 
bar but will accord to Mr. Arnold the credit of having been 
one of the best trial-lawyers that ever belonged to the 
Chicago bar. Mr. Arnold attained in life and in his profes- 
sion all that an honorable and well-ordered ambition could 
hope for. He attained great eminence and distinction in 
his profession and as a citizen. He acquired a competency, 


and his later years found him enjoying the comforts which 
wealth brings. .He was a marked and conspicuous figure 
in the growth and development of our city, and his name 
will long be remembered as one of the originators and 
members and as the president of this Society, and as be- 
ing connected with nearly every enterprise of benevolence, 
culture, refinement, and growth developed in our city since 
he has been among us. 

I may say of him as a lawyer and as a citizen, in the 
language of Edmund Burke: "In all the qualities in which 
personal merit has a place, in culture, in erudition, in genius, 
in honor, in generosity, in humanity, in every sentiment 
and every liberal accomplishment, he was the peer of any 

Hon. Wm. F. DeWolf, then offered the following resolu- 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Chicago Historical 
Society be and are hereby presented to Hon. E. B. Wash- 
burne, Hon. Thomas Drummond, and Hon. VanH. Hig- 
gins for their graceful tributes to the memory of our late 
president, Hon. Isaac Newton Arnold, and also to Hon. 
John Wentworth for his tribute to the memory of our 
late vice-president, Hon. Thomas Hoyne ; and that the 
Committee on Publication of the Society cause these 
tributes to be printed, for the use of the Society, in 
pamphlet form. 

Tribute of Hon. Wm. F. DeWolf. 

In connection with this resolution in respect of Mr. 
Arnold, may I be permitted to say a word expressing my 
love and admiration for our departed friend and president. 
It was my great privilege from the-time I came to Chicago 
to be able to call him my friend. We lived many years 


adjoining neighbors. Our children grew up together, lov- 
ing and beloved, until at last I came to look upon him as 
my best friend outside my own family. I dare not trust 
myself to relate his acts of kindness. You will pardon me 
for thus alluding to what, perhaps, some might think had 
better be sealed within the sacred precincts of individual 
memory. Our doors were open to each other, and we went 
in and out without restraint. In his family, Mr. Arnold 
came up to the highest standard of husband, father, 
and friend. He did "not dull his palm with entertainment 
of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade, but the friends 
he had, and their adoption tried, he grappled to his soul 
with hooks of steel." "He was the son of his own works," 
and those works live after him and will always remain to 
testify to his worth and praise him in the gates. 

By E. W. Blatchford. 

Read before the Chicago Historical Society, December 13, 

MARK SKINNER was born at Manchester, Vermont, 
September 13, 1813. 

His father, Richard Skinner, one of the prominent men 
of New England in his day, was born in 1778 at Litch- 
field, Conn., at whose celebrated law-school he was edu- 
cated, and where he was admitted to the bar in 1800. He 
removed to Manchester in 1802, where, at this early age his 
rare character was recognized, and honors were rapidly con- 
ferred upon him. He was elected State's attorney for 
Bennington County, and judge of probate; was a member 
of the general assembly in 18 15-18; and the last term was 
speaker-of-the-house; was member of congress, and as- 
sistant-judge of the supreme court. He was elected chief- 
justice, but declined; afterward, however, accepting the 
high office, in which he served for five years, when he de- 
clined a reelection. From 1820 to '24, he was governor of 
the State. He was a prominent member of the Congrega- 
tional Church, in Manchester. As a jurist, a statesman, a 
christian gentleman, he left an enduring record. He died 
May 23, 1833. At the same time that Richard Skinner 
held the office of governor, his brother Roger was chief- 
justice in the State of New York. The grandfather of 
Judge Skinner, Gen. Timothy Skinner, was a soldier of 
the Revolution. He and his ancestors for several genera- 
tions, resided in Litchfield, Conn., or in its neighborhood. 

Frances Pierpont, the mother of Judge Skinner, was 

From a Photo, by S. M. Fassett, 1874. 

Chicago Photo -Gravure Co. 

Sef>t. J J, 1813 — Sept. 16, 1887. 


born in New Haven, Conn., in 1782. She was descended 
from a long line of distinguished ancestors — the family be- 
ing traced from Sir Hugh de Pierrepont, of the Castle* of 
Pierrepont, in the south confines of Picardy, A.D. 980. 
His grandson, Sir Robert de Pierrepont, came over from 
France to England, 1066, as a commander of the army of 
William the Conqueror,-f- by whom he was ennobled for his 
conduct at the battle of Hastings. Descended from him 
was John Pierrepont, the first of the name in this country, 
who settled near Boston, in 1640.:!: Mrs. Richard Skinner 
was a woman of rare character — a devoted mother, an 
earnest christian, exercising a commanding influence in 
the community, where her memory is still revered, though 
nearly half a century has elapsed since her beneficent 
life ended. 

In a home, presided over by such parents, united in har- 
monious and consecrated purpose, should we not expect 
the development of a character like that to which we to- 
night pay our tribute of honor and aff"ection.? 

Mark Skinner was the only son who grew up to matur- 
ity, his brothers having d'ied in infancy. He received a 
thorough education. At the age of ten he was placed in 
a school at Bennington, and subsequently in one at Troy, 
New York. His preparation for college was received at 
the Pittsfield Academy, Mass., then under the charge of 

* The place derived its name from a stone bridge, with which Charlemagne 
supplied the place of a ferry. — "The Pierpont Family. Compiled by Edward 
J. Marks, New Haven, 1881." Page i. 

+ From whom he received great estates in the counties of Suffolk and 
Sussex, among which was the Lordship of Hurst Pierrepont, (or planting of 
Pierrepont) — Ibid, page i. 

X Hon. John Pierrepont, born in London, 1619, settled near Boston in 
1640, leaving his father in London. In 1656, he purchased three hundred 
acres, now the site of Roxbury and Dorchester. Died, Dec. 7, 1682, having 
been an influential citizen of Roxbury, and a representative of the general 
court. — Ibid, page 18. 


Prof. Dewey, an eminent teacher of that day. In 1830, 
he entered the sophomore class of Middlebury College, 
Vt., then in the height of its prosperity, under the able 
presidency of Rev. Joshua Bates, D.D., and after Yale and 
Harvard, equal to any of the New- England colleges, a 
statement abundantly verified by the list of distinguished 
graduates, who in the different professions have reflected 
honor upon their alma mater and their native State. 

Inheriting from his father a predilection for the law, im- 
mediately upon his graduation, in 1833, he entered upon 
the study of his profession. Two years were spent at Sara- 
toga Springs, with Judge Ezek Cowan, eminent as a jurist 
and author, and continued his studies in the office of 
Nicholas Hill of Albany, one of the most accomplished 
lawyers of the New- York bar. One acquainted with Mr. 
Hill characterized him to me as "at the front of the bar of 
Albany, and one of the foremost lawyers of the State of 
New York." A third year was spent at the New-Haven 
Law-School, attached to Yale College, under the instruc- 
tion of Judges Daggett and Hitchcock. 

At the completion of his term of study, he was strongly 
urged by Mr. Hill to join him in a co-partnership for the 
practice of law in New- York City; but a friend, who had 
spent a short time at the West and in Chicago, returned 
with such glowing accounts of the wondrous possibilities 
of this new city, with its inducements to young men of 
energy and enterprise, that he was led to change his 
partly-formed plans, and in July, 1836, came to Chicago. 
He was admitted to the bar immediately on his arrival, 
and in the autumn entered upon the active practice of the 
law, associated with George Anson Oliver Beaumont, as 
partner. In 1839-40, during the mayoralty of Alexander 
Loyd, he was elected city attorney, and transacted the 
law business of the city with eminent success. He was 
master-in-chancery for Cook County for many years, but 


his first purely-political- appointment was that of United- 
States district attorney, by President Tyler, to succeed 
Justin Butterfield; the district then embracing the entire 
State. Having held the office and familiarized himself 
with its routine of duties, it was only natural that he 
should desire to retain it, and when Mr. Polk's administra- 
tion came in, he sought a second term, his claim being 
contested by Isaac N. Arnold. The contest between the 
two applicants was a very protracted and animated one — 
so animated, indeed, that a compromise was effected by 
conferring the office upon a third party — but the struggle 
had given Mr. Skinner an impressive view of the descents 
a man must make to obtain the federal patronage, and he 
resolved that this struggle for federal office should be his 

The year 1841 was made memorable to him, in his 
truest life, by his marriage, on May 21, to Elizabeth 
Magill Williams. 

Mr. Skinner was elected a member of the Illinois legis- 
lature in 1846, the session being held from the first Mon- 
day in Dec. (7), 1846, until March i, 1847. In the light 
of subsequent history, we recognize the priceless value of 
the arduous, broad, and enduring work accomplished by 
him during this brief period. "He was made chairman of 
the committee on finance, at that time the most important 
committee in the house. During the time that he occu- 
pied this position, he drew up and procured the passage 
through the house of a bill refunding the State debt — a 
bill which was far-reaching in its influence upon the finan- 
ces of the State. It reduced all the multiplied forms of 
State indebtedness — there being six or eight different 
styles of State bonds — into a convenient and manageable 
shape, ascertained the limit of the debt, and effectually cut 
off the possibility of frauds in issuing new and unauthorized 
issues of bonds. In fact, the bill evoked method and sys- 


tcni out of financial chaos, brought the debt of the State 
into an intelHgible condition, and, correspondingly, placed 
its credit upon a healthy basis. This session was also 
memorable as the one calling the State convention which 
formed the second State constitution. Upon the question 
of apportionment of delegates to this convention, Northern 
and Southern Illinois were arrayed against each other. The 
southern members claimed that the apportionment should 
be made upon the basis of the census of 1840, which 
would have given their section — that is, the counties south 
of Springfield — the majority in the convention; and, vice 
versa, the northern members claimed that it should be 
made upon the basis of the census of 1845, which, in turn, 
would have given the northern counties the majority. As 
the construction of the phraseology of the old constitu- 
tion could be made favorable to either side, the contest 
was naturally a very excited and bitter one. The cham- 
pionship of the northern side of the question in the house, 
by tacit consent, devolved upon Mr. Skinner; and, after a 
long struggle, his energy and excellent management car- 
ried the day. At this session, also, Mr. Skinner's influence 
was felt in the passage of the measure to recommence a 
partial payment of the interest on the State indebtedness. 
Up to that time the interest had been in default for many 
years, with a disposition to repudiate, which had long been 
manifest in some quarters, thereby giving the State credit 
a very unfavorable reputation at the financial centers of 
the country. It was this same question of the State debt 
which gave interest to the sectional contest on the appoint- 
ment of delegates to the State convention, and entailed 
upon this apportionment the most important financial re- 
sults; for, however the southern counties might stand upon 
the question of payment of the debt — and there were 
grave fears as to their attitude — it was very well known 
that the northern counties were unanimously in favor of 


paying the interest in full, and of liquidating the principal 
at maturity, or as soon thereafter as the condition of the 
State finances would admit. 

"In 185 1, Mr. Skinner was elected judge of the Cook- 
County court of common pleas, now the superior court 
of Cook County. He declined a reelection in 1853, on 
account of ill-health. The labors of the bench at that 
time were almost insupportable, especially when one's 
strength was limited. Judge Skinner was the sole judge 
of the court, and practically did the business appertaining 
to the higher courts of the county at that time, the cir- 
cuit court holding but two short terms annually, and the 
recorder's court not yet being in existence. All the 
criminal and nine-tenths of the civil business of the county 
was transacted in this court, and imposed an enormous 
burden of care and responsibility." I make the above 
extract from a writer familiar with those early days. 

Seldom is it that a professional career, so limited in 
time, leaves so profound and lasting an impress as did these 
seventeen years which included his practice at the bar, and 
his occupancy of the bench. During this period, he was. 
associated with a body of men who did honor to the legal 
profession in Chicago. Among them are the familiar 
names of John Dean Caton, James H. Collins, J. Young 
Scammon, Justin Butterfield, Buckner Smith Morris,. 
George Manierre, Ebenezer Peck, Isaac N. Arnold, Richard 
Jones Hamilton, Grant Goodrich, Samuel Lisle Smith, 
Norman Buel Judd, Thomas Hoyne, Edwin Channing 

In the State too. Judge Skinner was brought into con- 
tact with men whose names are known beyond the limits 
of State and Nation, an association brought about by the 
extent of the jurisdiction of both the United-States and 
State judicial circuits. The fifth judicial circuit under the 
"Statutes of Illinois" embraced fifteen counties. The 


United-States circuit and district court — called the Dis- 
trict of Illinois, held their terms at Springfield, the seat of 
government. If I may trust the legal annals of those 
days at hand, with the testimony of men still living, who 
were actors, there was no state west of the Alleghanies 
which possessed a body of men equal to those who prac- 
tised law in the courts of Illinois. There were Thomas 
Drummond, Charles S. Hempstead, Elihu B. Washburne, 
Joseph P. Hoge, Joseph B. Wells, Benjamin Mills, and 
Thompson Campbell of Galena. Of Ouincy: Archibald 
Williams, Chas. B. Lawrence, Orville H. Browning, Nehe- 
miah Bushnell, Isaac N. Morris, and Wm. A. Richardson. 
At the Springfield bar were Stephen Trigg Logan, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, Edward Dickinson Baker, John Todd Stuart, 
Stephen Arnold Douglas, John J Hardin, and Lyman 
Trumbull; and at Peoria: Lincoln B. Knowlton, and On- 
slow Peters, Norman H. Purple, Amos L. Merriman, Julius 
Manning, Thomas Ford, and William L. May. Among 
these. Judge Skinner stood a peer. 

In looking at his legal career, I may say that litigation 
for its own sake, possessed for him no attractions. He 
could only enter the arena and deal vigorous blows when 
convinced that justice was his ally. His thorough educa- 
tion in the principles of law and equity, secured for him, 
under all circumstances, the respect of the bar and the 
bench. He had a stronghold on his clients, through an 
unbending rectitude, a shrewd insight into the cardinal 
principles involved, and also a delicate sense of honor. 
With an unusual quickness of perception he united moder- 
ation in action — a rare combination. 

The same cause which led Judge Skinner to decline re- 
election to the bench, operated to prevent him from resum- 
ing the general practice of his profession. 

During Judge Skinner's residence in Chicago he had 
been frequently consulted by Eastern capitalists in regard 


to investments here both in purchases of real estate and 
loans. His comprehensive knowledge of the law, as ap- 
plied to real estate, and his accurate business habits, emin- 
ently fitted him for the successful management of such 
business. It may be stated, on good authority, that no 
person in this country has invested for non-resident capi- 
talists anything like the amount of money that has passed 
through the hands of Judge Skinner; and in individual in- 
stances, single sums, ranging all the way from $5000 to 
$600,000, have been carefully and judiciously loaned. Spe- 
cially prominent was his long and honorable connection 
with the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company; 
and here, I am permitted to read a Memorial presented to 
the board of directors of this company, on the occasion of 
Judge Skinner's death, and prepared by his warmly-at- 
tached friend, the president, Col. Jacob L. Greene — a docu- 
ment, I am quite sure, wholly unprecedented in the history 
of trust relationship: 

"The directors of this company having learned of the 
death of the Hon. Mark Skinner, who was for more than 
thirty years its financial correspondent, and their own 
trusted, confidential advisor at Chicago, entered upon their 
records this minute, desiring thereby to recall and to mark 
their sense of the peculiar importance and value of his 
services to it in that relation, involving the investment of 
over $27,500,000, the acquistion by unavoidable foreclosure, 
and the subsequent sale of large amounts of real estate, 
and the personal oversight and handling of these great in- 
terests during all the dangerous and trying vicissitudes, 
which fell upon the country at large, and upon his own 
city in particular, during that most eventual period; the 
singular intelligence, foresight, sound judgment, delicacy, 
courage, fidelity, and single heartedness with which he 
treated every question, faced every emergency, and dis- 
charged every duty; his untiring watchfulness of every in- 


terest involved; his equally wise and kindly zeal for the 
welfare of the company's debtors in times of financial dis- 
tress; that unfailing courtesy which made a long associa- 
tion with him a pleasure as well as a high privilege; and 
their deep sense of loss and their sympathy with his be- 
reaved family" — a document impressive even to a stranger, 
but of vastly increased significance to those who know 
from personal acquaintance its absolute truthfulness. 
These duties, so conscientiously performed, and in their 
broadening scope making large demands upon time and 
strength, he was compelled, on account of increased deli- 
cacy of health to resign on June 30, 1886. 

There is another trust of which I would speak, to which 
Judge Skinner gave his best thought, and perhaps no 
other w^ork of his will project itself forward with more 
enduring and potent influence upon our city and country 
— I refer to his work as executor and trustee under the 
will of the late Walter Loomis Newberry. He was, 
during the long years of their residence in this city, Mr. 
Newberry's intimate friend and confidential adviser. He 
drew his will, and how much we are indebted to him for 
the munificent bequest which in the establishment of the 
Newberry Library is now being executed, w^e may never 
know. It was so clearly drawn that its validity has never 
been assailed. A purely collateral question, touching the 
time for the division of the estate, after one of the severest 
contests known in our State courts, was decided against 
the contestants, in favor of the plain intention of the 
testator, as evidenced in the language of the will. In 
the simple and broad provision for the establishment and 
conduct of the library, enabling those upon whom may 
devolve the important trust of its development, to meet 
the varying and unknown exigencies of the future, we see 
his sagacity, and his thoughtful appreciation of this grand 
provision for the interests of literature and sound learning. 


Thus from various sources is briefly sketched the 
distinctively professional and business life of Judge Skin- 
ner. His connection in both spheres were extensive. 
While not entering the field of politics, which at one time 
opened to him, or the attractive field of authorship or 
journalism, for which his thorough historic studies, and 
careful observation of current events, with his masterly 
command of the pen so rarely fitted him, his influence 
was yet more potent and extended than that of the poli- 
tician, or orator, or journalist, in shaping the history of 
this city; and erecting for Chicago and the Northwest a 
standard of life and morals whose influence will be felt as 
the years roll on. 

Of the political views of Judge Skinner, one who knew 
him in the early years of his residence in Chicago, writes: 
"His character and education gave him a leading position 
as a straightforward, reUable member of the democratic 
party, although it can not be said that he has ever been a 
professional politician." 

At a later date, when the conflict which distinctly 
involved the anti-slavery sentiment of the country had 
begun, the following incident indicates Judge Skinner's 
attitude: "In April 1854, a meeting of prominent Chicago 
and State politicians, including democrats and whigs who 
were opposed to the course of Stephen A. Douglas in the 
senate, was held in room 4, Tremont House. There were 
present, Abraham Lincoln, Lyman Trumbull, Mark Skin- 
ner, Orville H. Browning, John T. Stuart, David Davis, 
Norman Buel Judd, J. Young Scammon, Francis C. Sher- 
man, and others equally well known. Those present 
pledged themselves to the support of an anti-Nebraska 
party, and appointed a committee to agitate the subject. 
This led to that fusion of sentiment that revolutionized 
the politics of the entire northern part of the State." 
'Two years after, on Saturday evening. May 31, 1856, 


one of the earliest and most enthusiastic Kansas meetings 
ever gathered in the Northwest, was held in the court- 
house square. Here Norman B. Judd presided, and the 
following resolutions were adopted : 

"'Resolved, That the people of Illinois will aid the free- 
dom of Kansas. 

Resolved, That they will send a colony of five hundred 
actual settlers to that Territory, and provision them for 
one year. 

Resolved, That these settlers will invade no man's 
rights, but will maintain their own. 

Resolved, That we recommend the adoption of a simi- 
lar policy to the people of all the States of the Union, 
ready and willing to aid; and also, a thorough concert 
and cooperation among them, through committees of cor- 
respondence, on this subject. 

Resolved, That an executive committee of seven, vis.: 
J. C. Vaughn, Mark Skinner, George W. Dole, Isaac N. 
Arnold, Norman B. Judd, and Edward I. Tinkham, be 
appointed with full powers to carry into execution these 

A finance committee was also appointed to raise and 
distribute material aid. The resolutions were passed 
amidst the most enthusiastic and prolonged cheering. 

The deep conviction thus wrought into Judge Skinner's 
life prepared him to take the strong position he assumed 
as a member of the republican party when the civil war 
came upon us. During a journey taken with him to 
Washington, in the summer of 1861, after the commence- 
ment of hostilities, in the prosecution of the duties 
devolved upon us in connection with the needs of the 
army, I well remember his emphatic and clear exposition 
of the underlying principles of the great conflict — his 
abhorence of the injustice and unsound philosophy of the 
state -rights views, advocated by the Southern leaders,. 


then widely disseminated in this country and England; 
and the manner in which his acute mind stripped off 
every specious pretense from their plausible reasoning. 
In contrast, he dwelt upon the principles of right enun- 
ciated in the then recent action of congress, and their 
accordance with the truths laid down by the founders of 
our government, of which the constitution was the legiti- 
mate and beneficent outgrowth. All this made upon my 
mind an indelible impression. 

The large demands made upon private means for aid 
in the outset of our war, found in Judge Skinner a gen- 
erous response. And here we naturally turn from a con- 
sideration of his business and professional career to his 
work as a philanthropist. 

I notice first that which Judge Skinner himself consid- 
ered, in many respects, the most valuable work of his life 
— his connection with the United-States Sanitary Com- 
mission. This is not the occasion for the statement of 
the momentous and hurrying events, which made neces- 
sary this service, auxiliary to our military department. 

From a peace basis, which gave employment to a few 
thousand troops, there suddenly sprang into existence 
an army of a hundred thousand men, finally increased to 
a million, utterly uninured to the trying vicissitudes of a 
soldier's life. Bloody battles soon followed, creating 
necessities on the field and in hospitals with which our 
recently-improvised medical bureau was unable to cope. 
Then came the call for aid which found quick response 
among all patriots, especially in the hearts of loyal women 
whose dearest ones were at the front. 

/ On June 9, 1861, the secretary of war issued an order 
appointing certain gentlemen "a commission of enquiry 
and advice in respect of the sanitary interests of the 
United-States forces." Work for the sanitary needs of 
our soldiers was at once undertaken, much was accom- 


plished during the months that followed, and on Oct. 17, 
the organization of the Northwestern Sanitary Commis- 
sion was effected at an enthusiastic public meeting held 
in our city. A committee of seven was chosen, who at 
once organized by the election of ofificers, Judge Skinner 
being the unanimous choice for president. Time forbids 
that I should even outline the steps by which from mod- 
est beginnings, this beneficent work developed into its 
wonderful proportions. In it all, especially in securing 
the large benefactions from city and country, which made 
such success possible, we recognized our indebtedness to 
the influence, the words, the pen of our honored President. 

As an interesting illustration of his conception of the 
duties of the Sanitary Commission, and also of the pru- 
dence and tact which he brought to that most difficult 
and delicate department of work — army and hospital 
inspection — I quote from his letter of instructions to the 
gentlemen who made the first inspection ordered by the 
commission, of our suffering troops in Missouri. 

-;v -;^ # "From Sedalia your route will naturally be, 
as is supposed through Warsaw to Springfield, the head- 
quarters of the army under the command of Maj.-Gen. 
[David] Hunter; with whom and with Dr. [Joseph K.] 
Barnes, we trust you may have such conference, and 
from whom obtain such information and suggestions, and 
also such authority for yourselves, for this Commission, 
and for its authorized agents hereafter to be appointed, 
as may best conduce to the carrying out of the charita- 
ble objects we have in view. 

"Your special attention is called to this branch of your 
instructions, as the future operations of the Commission 
must depend in a great measure for success on the facili- 
ties which the military authorities extend to the Commis- 
sion, in the way of securing prompt and safe transmission 
of stores, safe and proper passage of our agents and 


inspectors, and their respectful treatment by officers of all 
grades, soldiers, and others in the employ of the govern- 

"You will inform yourselves as accurately as possible 
Avhere the places of greatest destitution on the part of 
the sick and suffering soldiers are, what particular points 
will be most proper as locations for our inspectors, what 
articles are most needed for the relief of the sick and the 
wounded, and, generally in what way our Commission 
can render the most efficient aid in the relief of, and pre- 
vention of, suffering by our troops. 

"It is desired that no communications for the public 
press be furnished by you, unless the suggestion should 
come from Gen. Hunter, or other respectable authority. 
It is also requested that in your intercourse with the 
soldiers, criticism of the conduct of officers be avoided. 
Thorough inquiries, however, should be made, as to the 
causes of disease, the kinds of disease, the competency 
of surgeons of all grades, and the care and conduct of 
officers in regard to the health and comfort of the troops 
under their command." 

Among the many irreparable losses resulting from the 
Great Fire, there was perhaps none more serious to his- 
tory, than that of the archives of the Northwestern Sani- 
tary Commission, comprised in several hundred carefully- 
indexed volumes. Here were gathered reports, letters, doc- 
uments, detailing events on the march and in camp, on the 
battlefield and in hospital, in every department from the 
valley of the Mississippi to the ocean, written without fear 
or favor, by the faithful agents of the Commission; and 
here too were copies of the letters of Judge Skinner, 
correspondence, embracing the whole work of the Com- 
mission. These letters, written often under pressure, and 
upon subjects requiring peculiar delicacy of treatment, 
•were models of epistolary style. They were direct, clear, 


forcible, admirable in diction, and on all occasions char- 
acterized by that true courtesy which insured their candid 

Until early in the year 1864, Judge Skinner remained 
at the head of this patriotic work, whose grandeur, like 
mountain ranges, grows more impressive as they recede. 
Impaired health compelled his resignation at this time. 
The blessing of thousands is the reward of such self- 
denying labor. 

Let me here quote a characterization of this work, as 
presented on a recent occasion, by Judge Skinner's pastor: 

"We can not forget — we who love these United States, 
we who bless that Omnipresent wisdom that went forth 
with our armies, that it was this man who represented the 
heroic love of this great Northwest, as the indefatigable 
head of that Sanitary Commission whose heart and hand 
went forth to mother those devoted legions, whose front 
of loyalty held the Thermopylae of civilization." 

In recognition of these patriotic services, the Loyal 
Legion of the United States, in accordance with the pro- 
vision of its charter, elected Hon. Mark Skinner and 
Ezra Butler McCagg, his equally zealous successor in the 
presidency of the Commission, companions of the order. 
By an extended notice and resolutions adopted Oct. 13, 
1887, the State Commandary fittingly testified to his 
character and services. 

I may not forbear to speak of the greatest gift, which 
as a father, he bestowed upon his Country in her hour 
of need. Richard Skinner his only remaining son, who 
had recently, with honor, graduated at Yale, heard the 
call of duty and responded to it. After brief and honor- 
able service he fell in the trenches before Petersburg, 
June 22, 1864. 

So far as I can discover, with every philanthropic 
agency in the history of this city, broad, true, permanent 


in character, do we find Judge Skinner associated either 
officially, or through personal influence, or by financial 

From the first years of his residence in Chicago, he 
was the reliable friend of the common school. His early 
New-England associations naturally produced his high 
estimate of education. In 1842, he was elected one of 
the seven school-inspectors, of whom J. Young Scammon 
and Grant Goodrich still survive. Upon the city schools 
and the conservation of the school -fund he bestowed 
much time and thought. His broad views during those 
formative years of our public-school system were shown 
by his interest in securing cooperation among the friends 
of education throughout the State. This was accom- 
plished by organizing school-conventions, in which the 
Teacher's Institute had its origin, which has continued as 
a valued educational auxiliary to the present time. At 
one of these early school-conventions held at Peoria, 
Oct. 8, 1854, Judge Skinner attended as delegate from 
this city, accompanied by such men as William H. Brown, 
William Jones, Richard J. Hamilton, John H. Kinzie, 
Norman B. Judd, Isaac N. Arnold, J. Young Scammon, 
and others. We turn with gratitude to these men who, 
at a sacrifice of time and money, as well as personal 
convenience, lajd foundations of strength upon which 
after-generations have built. In 1859, the city did itself 
honor, in perpetuating -the services of a faithful citizen, 
in naming one of its most commodious school-buildings 
— erected at the southeast corner of Aberdeen and West 
Jackson streets — The Skinner School. To this school 
his gifts have been frequent, especially to its carefully- 
selected library — the last bill for books, amounting to six 
hundred dollars, being paid by his order, while he was 
upon his sick-bed at Manchester. 

In the earliest effort made for the intellectual and 


social improvement of the young men of this city, Judge 
Skinner took a prominent part. On the evening of Jan. 
lo, 1841, a few gentleman met in the hardware-store of 
Seth T. Otis, to take measures for securing a reading- 
room and library. Judge Skinner drew up a subscription 
paper and all present signed it. This preliminary meet- 
ing was followed by another on the 30th of the same 
month, held in the chamber of the common council, in 
which the organization was completed under the name 
of The Young Men's Association of Chicago, afterward 
changed to The Chicago Library Association — the pre- 
decessor of the present Public Library. There were 
present at this meeting, Walter Loomis Newberry, Hugh 
Thompson Dickey, Peter Page, Walter Smith Gurnee, 
and William Linnaeus Church. Mr. Newberry was elected 
president, Mark Skinner vice-president, and Judge Dickey 
corresponding-secretary. Thus was established the first 
reading-room in the city, at the southwest corner of Lake 
and Clark streets, which was furnished with the principal 
newspapers and periodicals of the day. The nucleus of 
a library was furnished by a selection of books presented 
to the association by Walter L. Newberry, on April 24, 

The Chicago Lyceum had been instituted on Dec. 2, 
1834, of which the late Thomas Hoyne stated: "It was 
the foremost institution in the city when he came here in 
1837." At that time, he says: "Not a man of note, not 
a man in the city of any trade or profession, who had 
any taste for intellectual and social enjoyment, who loved 
books, conversation, and debate, but belonged to the 
Lyceum," of this Lyceum, Judge Skinner was a leading 

Judge Skinner was ever alive to calls for alleviation of 
suffering. The County Hospital was first opened March 
30, 1847, and two years after, on Oct. 29, 1849, was incor- 


porated under the name of The IlHnois General Hospital 
of the Lake, the charter-trustees being Hon. Mark Skin- 
ner, Hon. H. T. Dickey, and Dr. John Evans. Dr. Nathan 
Smith Davis delivered a course of four lectures in the 
city hall for its benefit, and the hospital was opened in 
the old Lake House, with beds for twelve patients on 
Nov. 23, 1852. On Nov. 30, the board of trustees met, 
and adopted a code of by-laws for the government of the 
hospital, and elected Mark Skinner president, Dr. John, 
Evans secretary, Capt. Richard Kellogg Swift treasurer,. 
Dr. Daniel Brainard surgeon, Dr. Nathan S. Davis physi- 
cian, and Dr. John Evans physician to the female wards. 
On the opening of the Mercy Hospital in 1853, this 
general hospital was discontinued. 

The Chicago Home for the Friendless was organized 
in 1858. To this Judge Skinner gave his advice, and 
experience, and was one of its early presidents, in 1860-1. 

The Illinois Charitable Eye-and-Ear Infirmary — an 
institution now known in two continents — was opened in 
May, 1858, in one room, in a small wooden building, at 
60 North-Clark Street, on the northeast corner of Michi- 
gan. Judge Skinner was a member of the first board 
of trustees, of which W. L. Newberry was president. Of 
that board and officers but one now remains — Ezra B. 
McCagg, long its treasurer. 

Judge Skinner was one of the incorporators of The 
Chicago Relief - and- Aid Society, whose charter was 
granted in February, 1857, and in the autumn of the same 
year it was thoroughly organized, a board of manage- 
ment was elected, and the constitution, general rules, and; 
by-laws were adopted. To its early management and 
plans he gave much attention and wise direction. At 
first, voluntary visitors were engaged to examine into the 
wants and worthiness of applicants, but this was soon 
found to be an unreliable method, and paid visitors were 


employed by the society, with a general superintendent, 
and persons in charge of its special relief. The strength 
and wisdom of the management thus adopted, was evi- 
denced by the fact that ten years later, the three other 
organizations of relief work in the city, the Christian 
Union, the Citizen's Relief, and the relief department of 
the Young Men's Christian Association, called a meeting 
for consolidating their work with that of the Chicago 
Relief-and-Aid Society, which was accomplished. Little 
did these founders anticipate the vast work for which 
they were preparing so efficient an organization. 

Judge Skinner took a prominent part in the founding 
of the Chicago Reform School, whose location, many of 
us remember, in the southern part of the city, now Ken- 
wood, and whose influence for good we could ill-afford to 
spare. No institution has since filled its place in our city. 
He was made the first president of the board of direc- 
tors, a position for which he was eminently qualified, and 
which he held for years. To the organization and man- 
agement of this excellent institution he devoted time and 
personal attention without stint. " He visited and inspected 
the reformatory institutions of the Eastern and Middle 
States, and carefully studied the documentary records of 
similar schools in England, France, and Germany. The 
result was a decided conviction that the family system of 
reforming juvenile offenders was infinitely preferable to 
the congregated system in practice in this country. He 
labored zealously to effect this change, and finally suc- 
ceeded in grafting the system upon our own institution. 
The result of Judge Skinner's labors supplementing those 
of the admirable superintendent, Geo. W. Perkins, whom 
he secured, was a school for reform, which was truly 
considered the first of its class in this country." 

Of Judge Skinner's intimate connection with the 
Chicago Historical Society, our records bear constant 



testimony. In its original planning and organization, in 
the growth of its collections and the building erected 
before the fire, and in the restoration since, his wise 
■counsel, his active cooperation, and liberal contributions 
have been recognized. 

At the earliest meeting, heid at the suggestion and 
through the efforts of Rev. William Barry, April 24, 
1856, which resulted in the organization of The Chicago 
Historical Society. William H. Brown was elected 
president, William B. Ogden and J. Young Scammon 
vice-presidents, Samuel Dexter Ward treasurer, Rev. 
William Barry recording-secretary and librarian, and Dr. 
■Charles H. Ray corresponding-secretary. In addition to 
the above, first on the list of members was the name of 
Mark Skinner. Of these first officers and members, I 
believe there now remain with us four — J. Y. Scammon, 
S. D. Ward,. Dr. N. S. Davis, and E. B. McCagg. 

On Feb. 7, 1857, the society was incorporated. Judge 
Skinner being one of the incorporators; and of the names 
here appearing, the same four, I believe, are the only 
ones living. In a copy of the "Constitution and By- 
Laws of the Society, with a List of Officers," issued in 
1856 — Judge Skinner is chairman of the Committee on 
Library and Cabinet, with Mr. McCagg and Rev. Dr. A. 
E. Smallwood associates; and also chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Civil History, with J. Y. Scammon and E. B. 
McCagg associates. In the list of officers for 1858-9, 
Judge Skinner appears on the Committee on Publica- 
tion with Rev. Wm. Barry and Dr. Hosmer A. Johnson 
associates. In the years since then, we have all appre- 
ciated his constant interest in this institution — at the time 
of his death, he was a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee and a trustee of both the Jonathan Burr and 
Lucretia Pond Funds. His estimate of the value of the 
Historical Society was high. We have often heard him 


express in his emphatic way, his clear conception of its 
important function in the community, as the conservator 
of material for the history of our city and country. 

In this connection it is natural to speak of Judge 
Skinner's love of books, and his cultivated, literary taste. 
His library was his chosen retreat. Its richly-laden shelves 
now bear witness to his scholarly taste and historic 
research. Particularly choice is the large collection of 
Americana, for whatever related to early New-England 
history and literature had for him a keen attraction. The 
total loss of his book and art treasures by the great fire,, 
was a subject on which he could not speak unmoved. 
From his own lips I know of the persistency with which 
he clung to his early-formed habit of studious reading,. 
e\-en in the midst of the busy life which pressed upon 
him. Hence the enjoyment derived from this source in 
later years. He experienced the truth of Cicero's words: 
" Hacc sticdia adolcsciitiain aliint, scncctntcvi oblcctantr 

For New England, for its early history, for the develop- 
ment of civil and religious liberty in the mother country, 
for the struggles of the founders on these shores, where 
nature and savage man joined forces to oppose. Judge 
Skinner ever cherished the most profound and reverential 
affection. He was one of the founders of the New- 
England Society of this city, as I learn from the records, 
and nearly forty years since, on Dec. 22, 1848, he deliv- 
ered an address before the society, which at the request 
of a large number of citizens was published. '"A Vindi- 
cation of the Character of the Pilgrim Fathers' was the 
theme, and in close historical study of the subject, in 
clear convincing argument, and eloquence of diction, the 
oration was one of the most remarkable addresses deliv- 
ered in Chicago." 

In this connection should be mentioned the peculiar 
attachment he cherished for his early home — Manchester, 


Vermont — a love so deep and strong that it constituted 
a part of his very hfe — drawing him year by year, as a 
devoted son, with irrestible attraction, from the pressure 
and care of an active life to feel the renewing touch of 
beautiful nature, intensified by the treasured associations 
of childhood and youth. 

One of his last drives, was to the home of relatives, 
a short distance south of the village. It was a brilliant, 
August day. He rested, seated upon the piazza. Behind 
him stretched the Taconic Range, crowned by Mount 
Equinox, its king. Before him lay in incomparable 
beauty the valley of the Battenkill, and the Green- 
Mountain Range beyond. In quiet thought he sat, his 
eye commanding the line of hills for a distance of forty 
miles, from north to south. Then memory awoke, of 
boyhood, manhood, age, and from Mount Anthony on 
the south overlooking the battlefield of Bennington, to 
Mount Tabor, which terminates the field of vision to the 
northward, did he point out each peak, telling its former 
and present name, the historical associations and tradi- 
tions, with memories of men, who had among them lived 
and died — a scene which will to many loving hearts ever 
make consecrate this spot. 

Of Judge Skinner's religious life, I may briefly speak,, 
though in a true and lofty sense, all his life was religious 
in his allegiance to duty. Upon the organization of the 
Second Presbyterian Church in 1842, under the pastorate 
of Rev. Robert Wilson Patterson, D.D., he became a 
regular attendant, and was for several years a trustee. 
He united with the church on profession in May, 1858, 
and in 1866, was chosen a ruling-elder. After the remo- 
val of his residence to the north side, he transferred his 
church relationship to the Fourth Presbyterian Church, 
in which he was an elder at the date of his death, which 
occurred at Manchester, Vermont, on September 16, 1887. 
The struggle was a long and painful one, but met with 


the fortitude and submission of a christian. Into that 
chamber, whence the freed spirit took its heavenward 
fliL,dit, and into the home thus stricken, I may not enter. 

On that September day, under the trees shaded with 
autumnal tints, all that was mortal of Mark Skinner, was 
carried by loving hands from the house in which he was 
born, to the resting-place chosen by himself beside his 
parents and sons. This sacred spot in the guardianship 
of the eternal hills, will ever speak of his loving thought- 
fulness and generous gifts, which make it a consecrated 
memorial. As we turn away, there comes a voice of 
peace and consolation suggested by the sculptured angels 
which guard the gate of entrance: 'T am the resurrection 
and the life, whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall 
never die." 

Thus have I attempted to bring before you, with such 
inadequate portraiture as limited time and material have 
allowed, the varied activity of this earnest, us'eful, and 
consecrated life — a life which, in the formative period of 
our city and country, has touched so many interests, and 
touching has transmuted perishable material to gold. In 
him we see exemplified what each one of us is called upon 
to achieve, character — the noblest product of humanity 
when obedient to the gracious intimations of the divine 
will — character, subtle as the fragrance of the flower, yet 
pervasive as the atmosphere, and more potent than the 
mightiest forces of art or nature. 

■ "The world wants men — true men — 

^V'ho can not be bought or sold: 
Men who will scorn to violate trust — 
Genuine gold. 

The world wants men — pure men — 

Free from the taint of sin: 
Men whose lives are clean without, 

And pure within." 


You who knew Judge Skinner, will recall the character- 
istic traits which combined to make him the man he was 
among us — the delightful companion, the faithful friend 
and counselor, the strong reliance in the hour of exigency, 
the honored example. Yet it was not his conversational 
powers and flashing wit alone, though these he possessed 
preeminently; it was not his fidelity and wisdom alone, 
though in these, few equalled him; it was not insight into 
character and thoughtful consideration for the needs and 
the weaknesses of others, though many can testify to 
these traits; it was not his consistent christian life alone; 
but it was the harmonious blending of all these native 
gifts and acquirements which makes us mourners for his 
absence, as we meet tonight. 

Many and large have been the gifts of New England 
to the West. Her means have builded our railroads, 
tunneled our mountains, spanned our rivers with structures 
which challenge the wonder of the world. Her wealth 
has done more, it has furnished our school-houses and 
academies, it has endowed our colleges and seminaries, 
has given books to our libraries, and builded our churches; 
but greater than all these has been the gift of her sons, 
of men educated in New-England principles, who have 
brought them hither, and on prairie and in city have 
taught them, possibly not by pen or tongue, but by that 
most potent of all influences — the logic of a true life. 
Thus today are Harvard and Yale, Amherst and Middle- 
bury, Dartmouth and Bowdoin, speaking in living words, 
reiterating in the valley of the lakes and the great river, 
on the plains and beside the mountains, and on the 
Pacific Coast, the principles of truth, energy, integrity, 
perseverance, learning, Christianity. Such a gift to our 
young city in days long gone was Mark Skinner, in such 
utterance will he be heard, as time rolls on. 

E L I H U B. \VA S H B U R N E, 

By Gen. GEORGE W. Smith. 

AT a special meeting of the Chicago Historical Society, 
L held at its rooms, Friday evening, December i6, 
1887, its president, Edward G. Mason, spoke as follows: 

This special meeting of the Society has been called, 
that its members may take appropriate action concern- 
ing the death of its late eminent president, Hon. Elihu 
Benjamin Washburne. His prominence in the political 
life of our Country, in its statesmanship, and in its diplo- 
macy, as well as his relations to this Society, make it 
particularly fitting that he should be remembered here. 
To this end, at the request of the Society and of friends 
and relatives of Mr. Washburne, a memorial address has 
been prepared, and will be delivered this evening by Gen. 
George W. Smith, whom I now introduce to you. 

Gen. Smith then delivered the following Address: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The speaker has lately had the privilege to turn over, 
but not the time to examine carefully, the collection of 
manuscript letters addressed to the late ]Mr. Washburne, 
which consists of those that have escaped destruction, 
although but a small portion of those received during his 
lifetime. Those still preserved cover a period of some 
fifty years, embrace letters from his family, constituents, 
senators, congressmen, judges, diplomatic officers, officers 
of the army, and distinguished citizens and officials of 
both hemispheres. They constitute in all a library of 


ninety-eight volumes, and contain much that will be useful 
to a future Macaulay. 

With them rise a vision of the past, the period of 1854, 
1856, and i860; one remembers the men of that time, 
Sumner, Wilson, Hale, CoUamer, Fessenden, Wade, Gid- 
■dings, Seward, Andrew, Chase, and others, who battled for 
free-speech, and Stevens, Toombs, Mason, Slidell, Floyd, 
Butler, and Brooks, with their friends and allies. They 
have long passed away, so long that there remains not a 
vivid remembrance of their personalities and characteristics. 
Their names are in the shadows of the past. Yet he who 
lately died was the companion and associate, or the oppo- 
nent of these men. With them he was a man of might, 
and of them the peer. 

The group of brothers of the Washburne family, sturdy 
champions as they were, of the right, must always be a 
picturesque feature of American history. Descendants 
of John Washburne, first secretary of the Council of Ply- 
mouth, on the paternal, and of Samuel Benjamin, an 
officer in the revolutionary army, who was of Pilgrim 
stock, on the maternal side. Their native town was Liver- 
more, originally in the county of Oxford artd district of 
Maine. Sterile in food, it has not been so in men. Its 
gifts have been, to Maine six governors, to other states 
four, and to the Nation a vice-president — Hannibal Ham- 
lin. In has furnished four senators and many members 
of congress, and lawyers and writers of distinction and 

The father, Israel Washburne, was a merchant and 
ship-builder. He died in Livermore in 1876, at the age of 
ninety-two years, having- lived for nearly eighty years in 
that place. A voluminous reader, with rare conversational 
gifts, he was, as his sons have said upon the monument 
erected to his memory, "a kind father and an honest man." 
The mother, Martha Benjamin, daughter of Samuel, was 


born in 1792. She was a woman of great energy, deci- 
sion, and sweetness. 

At the dedication of the Washburne Memorial Library, 
— -at the homestead now called Norlands — in 1885, Mr. 
Hamlin said: 

"Livermore has truly sent into the world many distin- 
guished men who have made the town historic, but the 
Washburne family have towered above all others in adding 
not only to the fame of Livermore, but to the State and 
county as well. It was a most remarkable family, and 
such another could not be found in the whole history of 
our country. They were all born and reared in the house 
raised by my father, and on the spot now occupied by the 
present elegant mansion. It is a spot of that great and 
marvelous beauty which is a joy forever. 

"The record of the family has no precedent. There 
were seven brothers, one never entered public life, but was- 
always known as a man of strict integrity and superior 
business habits. In the other six brothers, we find mar- 
velous record— two governors of states, four members of 
congress from four different states, one secretary of state 
of the United States, two foreign ministers, two members- 
of state legislature, one major-general in the army, who- 
was also a military governor, and a captain in the navy. 
Indeed could Martha Washburne be proud of her family.. 
But that for which she might feel the highest pride was 
the fact that every son of hers, in whatever position, has- 
discharged all his duties with distinguished ability and 
with an untarnished record, without even a stain on the 
hem of his garments." 

To understand the development of character that made 
the subject of this sketch what he became, it is necessary 
to recall in strict brevity the narrative of the rise of 
slavery in our country, opposition to the demands of 
which grew to be his opportunity and pleasure. 


The so-called compromises of the constitution, by which 
it was provided that representation and direct taxation 
should be in the same ratio, and in estimating them, five 
slaves should be reckoned as three freemen, and that the 
importation of slaves into the states then existing, should 
not be prohibited before 1808, were supported by some of 
the Northern States, and laid the basis for political con- 
trol by the Southern States, even as against what had 
been the general opinion and sentiment concerning the 
institution of slavery. The Missouri Compromise of 182a 
by which, except in the State of Missouri, slavery was 
prohibited north of latitude 36°3o' in territory to be newly 
acquired, proved to be an expedient. Nothing was gained 
by it but present peace. 

The new anti-slavery movement began in 183 1. In 
1835 and 1836, occurred the Vermont, Ohio, New-York,, 
and Illinois riots, and, in those years, as against the right 
of petition, the inviolability of slavery was formally enun- 
ciated and insisted upon in congress. 

On the other hand^ — -"Elsewhere," says one writer, "than 
in congress, events were constantly occurring at that period 
and from that time forward were constantly cumulating to- 
intensify the public excitement and to strengthen the 
North in the final struggle which was at some time inevi- 
table, and it was now evident could not be long delayed. 
Not that such events had not happened before, but that,, 
to the awakened observation, and conscience, * * * such 
events no longer passed by unheeded." 

In 1839, came the demand upon Gov. Seward of New 
York by the governor of Virginia for the rendition of 
three sailors charged with aiding a slave to escape. Gov. 
Seward's reply that the laws of New York did not recog- 
nize property in man, was in advance of the thought and 
in contravention of the action and disposition of most of 
his own party. 


The debates in congress and discussions throughout the 
country upon the fugitive-slave question and the nature of 
slave-trading laws were intensified by threats of secession 
and dissolution. 

The second Seminole war, then in course of prosecution, 
which was waged for the possession of lands of the natives 
of P'lorida, arose out of a desire to reduce the Maroons of 
Florida to slaver)^ and the determination of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia not to have so near their borders an 
asylum for fugitive slaves. 

Had not the efforts of its senators been thwarted, the 
State of Illinois, admitted into the Union in 1818, might, 
notwithstanding the Ordinance of 1787, have been a slave- 
state. Nominally free, the majority of its people were 
of southern sympathies; settled for the most part in its 
central and southern portions, its principal towns were 
upon its rivers; its commerce was with the South and the 
centres of population felt the influence of that section. 

In the year 1840, there were but 3000 miles of railway 
in the United States, and in that year the telegraph was 
initiated by the grant of a patent to the inventor Morse 
for an apparatus for communication over areas by means 
of electricity. 

Elihu B. Washburne came to Illinois at this time. His 
birth in 18 16, had preceded the admission of Maine into 
the Union, so that strictly he can not be called a native 
of that State. 

His life to that time had been that of the boy and man 
of work in his father's store and as a printer that had, 
as instinct and impulse lead him, made available such 
means of study and instruction as were afforded in a rural 
community of Maine. He had attended a course of lect- 
ures upon the law at Cambridge, and came to Illinois to 
practise his profession. Chicago was then comparatively 
unknown and he passed by it and on to Galena by way of 


the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This was the year of the 
Harrison-and-Tyler campaign, in which, the slavery ques- 
tion played no conspicuous part. In it as a whig, Mr. 
Washburne took part. Illinois, however, true to its predi- 
lections, with four or five other states, refused to be moved, 
and adhered to VanBuren and the democratic party. 
This was the election in which the liberty party, as such, 
cast seven thousand votes. 

Mr. Washburne continued to be active in politics and in 
1844 was a supporter of Henry Clay in the convention at 
which he was nominated. 

The scheme for the declaration by Texas of its inde- 
pendence of Mexico, and its subsequent annexation by the 
United States, as a measure for the recovery and preserva- 
tion of power to the South, culminated in 1845, after the 
election of Polk over Clay. Then followed the intrigues by 
which the war with Mexico was precipitated, the acquisition 
of New Mexico and California, the discovery of gold, and 
the admission of California. The Wilmot proviso, moved 
in 1846, was intended to exclude slavery in all territory 
acquired from Mexico, and when -introduced commanded 
almost every northern vote. During this period, the 
bankrupt bill, the tariff, the Oregon boundary, and many 
other questions were subjects of discussion by legisla- 
tures and congress. In 1848, the whigs, disregarding the 
claims of Clay and Webster, who had then fallen into some 
disfavor at the North, nominated Taylor and Fillmore. 

The following letter from the original manuscript, shows 
the friendship, that had, at an early date, sprung up 
between Mr. Washburne and Abraham Lincoln, and which 
never ceased but grew in intensity, until the martyrdom 
of the latter. Written not in the tone of a state-paper, 
nor in the lofty language of diplomatic communication, it 
exhibits the quaintness and shrewdness of Mr. Lincoln: 


"Washington, April 30, 1848. 

Dear Washhurne: — I have this moment received your 
very short note asking me if old Taylor is to be used up 
and who will be the nominee. My hope of Taylor's nomi- 
nation is as high — a little higher — than it was when you 
left. Still the case is by no means out of doubt. Mr. 
Clay's letter has not advanced his interests here. Several 
who were against Taylor, but r\oX. for anybody particularly, 
before or since, are taking ground, some for Scott and 
some for McLean. Who will be nominated, neither I nor 
any one else can tell. Now, let me pray to you in turn. 
My prayer is, that you let nothing discourage or baffle 
you; but that, in spite of every difficulty, you send us a 
good Taylor delegate from your circuit. Make Baker, who 
is now with you, I suppose, help about it. He is a good 
hand to raise a breeze. * ^- -^ 

"Gen. Ashley, in the senate from Arkansas, died yester- 
day. Nothing else new beyond what you see in the 
papers. Yours truly, 

A. Lincoln." 

"Old Taylor" will be recognized as Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
and Baker as the gifted orator, who afterward fell at Ball's 
Bluff. In 1850, the compromises were proposed by Mr. 
Clay, which included the new fugitive-slave law, and pro- 
posed to establish territorial governments, without legisla- 
tion regarding slavery. Their proposal was followed by the 
famous 9th-of-March speech of Mr. Webster in support, 
which excited great indignation, and contrary to the intent 
of its author quickened the anti-slavery movement. In 
1852, Mr. Washburne carried his district for congress by 
286 majority against Thompson Campbell. His energy, 
persistence, boldness, and earnest sympathy with free- 
state thought gave him the victory. 

The death of Taylor and the accession of Fillmore 


occurred, and the election of Pierce was followed by the 
proposal by Douglas, in January, 1854, of a bill for the 
admission of Nebraska, accompanied by a report ques- 
tioning the validity of the Missouri compromise, and 
declaring that the compromise of 1850 left the question 
of slavery to the decision of the people residing in any 
given territory. 

This was the doctrine known as squatter sovereignty. 
Throughout all the discussions of those years Mr. Wash- 
burne was outspoken and pronounced. A politician, he was, 
nevertheless, courageous and bold. In 1856, he was instru- 
mental in bringing Illinois as a State into Republican 
control; in 1858, he continued active, being in close com- 
munication with Mr. Lincoln, at the time of the memor- 
able debates of that year, and in i860 was one of Mr. 
Lincoln's hearty supporters. He was, as his earnest nature 
would naturally lead him to be, in advance of the latter, 
as the following letter indicates: 

"Centralia, Sept. i6, 1858. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, 

Dear Sir: — Yesterday at Jonesborough, Douglas, by way 
of placing you and me on different ground, alleged that 
you were everywhere, pledging yourself unconditionally 
against the admission of any new slave-states. 

"If his allegation be true, burn this without answering 
it. If it be untrue, write me such a letter as I may make 
public with which to contradict him. Yours truly, 

"Address to Springfield. A. LINCOLN." 

Time will not permit to follow closely the events of the 
year i860, but throughout Mr. Washburne was a counsellor 
and advisor, not only of Mr. Lincoln but of many others 
of the then leaders. 

In the fall of that year, Mr. Lincoln's growth of convic- 
tion as well as his determination, in advance of what was 


generally known of them, were shadowed forth in the 

"Springfield, III., Dec. 13, i860. 
Hon. E. B. Wasiiburne, 

My Dear Sir: — ^Your long letter received. Prevent, as 
far as possible, any of our friends from demoralizing them- 
selves and our cause by entertaining propositions for 
compromise of any sort on slavery extension. There is no 
possible compromise upon it, but which puts us under 
again, and leaves also our work to be done over again — 
Whether it be a Mo. line or Eli Thayer's Popr. Sov., it is 
all the same. Let either be done, and immediately filibus- 
tering and extending slavery recommences. On that point 
hold firm, as with a chain of steel. Yours as ever, 

A. Lincoln." 

Passing Mr. Lincoln's journey to Washington and his 
inauguration, the details of which and of Mr, Washburne's 
connection with them will never cease to entertain, we 
come to the outbreak of the civil war and the outward 
manifestation of another friendship, destined to be long 
continued and intimate. 

Writing in 1864, Gen. Winfield Scott said — 

"West Point, N. Y., July 2, 1864. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, 

Mv Dear Sir: — I heard a short time ago that some 
one had informed Lieut.-Gen. Grant that I had spoken 
slightly of him as an officer, and it is probable that your 
frank may enable this letter to reach him. T beg leave 
to say to him through you that I have never uttered an 
unkind word about him. The inquiry has frequently been 
addressed to me. ' Do you know Gen. Grant } ' I have 
answered that he made the campaign of Mexico with me, 
and was considered by me, and I suppose by all his broth- 


ers in commission, a good officer, and one who attained 
special distinction at Molino del Key. Of his more recent 
services, I have uniformly spoken in terms of the highest 
admiration, and added that in my opinion he had richly 
earned his present rank, and hope he may speedily put 
down the rebellion. Very truly yours, 

WiNFiELD Scott." 

Capt. Grant, resigned from the United-States Army, and 
Mr. Washburne were neighbors at Galena. The latter, 
three years or more before the writing of the letter of Gen. 
Scott, believed he saw signs of merit in the former; but it 
is better to let Gen. Grant tell the story. In a letter from 
Cairo, in this State, under date of September 3, 1861, this 
language occurs: "In conclusion, Mr. Washburne, allow 
me to thank you for the part you have taken in giving 
me my present position. I think I see your hand in it and 
admit that I had no personal claim for your kind office in 
the matter. I can assure you, however, my whole heart 
is in the cause which we are fighting for, and I pledge 
that, if equal to the task before me, you shall never have 
cause to regret the course you have taken." 

The victory of Fort Donelson in February, 1862, thrilled 
the heart of the loyal North. It was the bright omen of 
hope after the disasters in Virginia of 1861. Gen. Grant,, 
after that battle, again wrote: 

"Fort Donelson, Tenn., Feb. 21, 1862. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, Washington, D.C., 

Dear Sir: — Since receiving your letter at Fort Henry, 
events have transpired so rapidly that I have scarcely time 
to write a private letter. * ^ That portion of your letter 
which required immediate attention, was replied to as 
soon as your letter was read. I mean that I telegraphed 
Col. C. C. Washburne, Milwaukee, Wis., asking him to 


accept a place on my staff. As he has not yet arrived, I 
fear my dispatch was not received. Will you be kind 
enough to say to him that such a dispatch was sent, and 
that I will be most happy to publish the order the moment 
he arrives, assigning him the position you ask. 

"On the 13th, 14th, and 15th, our volunteers fought a 
battle that would figure well with many of those fought 
in Europe, where large standing-armies are maintained. 

" I feel very grateful to you for having placed me in the 
position to have had the honor of commanding such an 
army, and at such a time. I only trust that I have not 
or will not disappoint you. The effect upon the com- 
munity here is very marked since the battle. Defeat, 
disastrous defeat, is admitted. 

"Yesterday I went to Clarkesville with a small escort, two 
of our generals having preceded me. Our forces now 
occupy that place, and will take possession of a large 
amount of commissary stores, ammunition, and some 
artillery. The road to Nashville is now clear, but whether 
my destination will be there or further west, can not yet 
be told. I want to move early, and no doubt will. 

"I want to call your attention to Gen. C. F. Smith. It 

is a pity that our service should lose so fine a soldier from 

a first command. If major-generals are to be made, a 

better selection could not be made than to appoint Smith. 

Yours truly, U. S. Grant." 

The correspondence was continued and communications 
were frequent. These only will be read : 

On July 25, 1863, after the capture of Vicksburg, 
Senator Henry Wilson had written from Natick, Mass., 
to Mr. Washburne, congratulating him on the success 
of Gen. Grant, and complimenting the fidelity of the 
former to him in time of trial. He suggested that the 
report was out that Gen. Grant, had been invited to take 


command of the Army of the Potomac, and added "I am 
satisfied his success has excited envy and that if an 
opportunity should offer he would be sacrificed." 

This letter Mr. Washburne sent to Gen. Grant, for we 
have that of the latter as follows: 

"ViCKSBURG, Miss., Aug. 30th, 1863. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, 

Dear Sir: — Your letter of the 8th of August, enclosing 
one from Senator Wilson to you, reached here during my 
temporary absence to the northern part of my command, 
hence my apparent delay in answering. I fully appreciate 
all Senator Wilson says. Had it not been for Gen. Hal- 
leck and Dana, I think it altogether likely, I would have 
been ordered to the Potomac. My going could do no 
possible good. They have many able officers, who have 
been brought up with that army and to import a com- 
mander to place over others certainly could produce no 
good. Whilst I would not positively disobe}' an order I 
would have objected most vehemently to taking the 
command or any other, except the one I have. I can do 
more with this army than it would be possible for me 
to do with any other without time to make the same 
acquaintance with others, I have with this. I know that 
the soldiers of the Army of the Tennessee can be relied 
on to the fullest extent. I believe I know the exact 
capacity of every general in my command to command 
troops and just where to place them to get from them the 
best services. This is a matter of no small importance. 

* * * Your letter to Gen. Thomas has been delivered 
to him. I will make an effort to secure a brigadiership 
for Col. Chetlain with the colored troops. Before such a 
position will be open, however, more of these troops will 
have to be raised. This work will progress rapidly. 

The people of the North need not quarrel over the 


institution of slavery, while Vice-President Stephens 
acknowledges the corner-stone of the Confederacy is- 
already knocked out. Slavery is already dead, and can 
not be resurrected. It would take a standing army to- 
maintain slavery in the South if we were to make peace 
today, granting to the South all their former constitutional 
privileges. I never was an Abolitionist, not even what 
could be called anti-slavery, but I try to judge fairly and 
honestly, and it became patent to my mind, early in the 
rebellion, that the North and South could not live at 
peace with each other except as one Nation and that 
without slavery. As anxious as I am to see peace- 
reestablished, I would not, therefore, be willing to see any 
settlement until this question is forever settled. 

Rawlins and Maltby have been appointed brigadier- 
generals. These are richly-deserved promotions. Raw- 
lins, especially, is no ordinary man. The fact is, if he 
had started in this war in the line instead of in the staff,, 
there is every possibility he would be today one of our 
shining lights. As it is, he is better and more favorably 
known than probably any other officer in the army, who 
has filled only staff appointments. Whilst others give 
respectability to the position, Rawlins is in the latter 
class. My kind regard to the citizens of Galena, 

Your sincere friend, U. S. GRANT."" 


"Chattanooga, Tenn., Dec. 2, 1863. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, 

Dear Sir: — * * * Yox the past three weeks I 
have not only been busy but have had company occupy- 
ing my rooms making it impossible for me to write 
anything. Last week was a stirring time with us and a 
magnificent victory was won. I am sorry you could not 
be here. The spectacle was grand beyond anything that 


has been, or is likely to be, on this continent. It is the 
first battlefield I have ever seen where a plan could be 
followed, and from one place the whole field be within our 
view. At the commencement the battle line was fifteen 
miles long-. Hooker, on our right, .soon carried the point 
of Lookout Mountain, and Sherman the north end of 
Missionary Ridge, thus shortening the line by five or six 
miles and bringing the whole within one view. Our troops 
behaved magnificently, and have inflicted on the enemy 
the hardest blow they have received during the war. 

"Your Galena friends with us are all well and wish to 
be remembered. Yours truly, 

U. S. Grant." 

In the following year he had accepted the inevitable, 
had gone to the Potomac, and was fighting the campaign, 
commencing with the Wilderness. He wrote: 

"City Point, Va., Aug. i6, 1864. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, 

Dear Sir: — Your letter asking for autographs to send to 
Mrs. Adams, the wife of our minister to England, was 
duly received. She had also sent to Mr. Dana for the 
same thing and his requisition, he being with me at the 
time, was at once filled. I have directed Col. Bowers to 
send with this a few of the original dispatches telegraphed 
from here. They have all been hastily written and not 
with the expectation of ever being seen afterward, but 
will, I suppose, answer as well as anything else, or as if 
they had been written especially for the purpose of send- 

"We are progressing here slowly. The weather has 
been intolerably warm, so much so that marching troops 
is nearly death. 

"I state to all citizens who visit me that all we want 
now, to insure an early restoration of the Union, is a 


determined unit}' of sentiment North. The rebels have 
now in their ranks their last men. The little boys and 
old men are guarding prisoners, railroad - bridges, and 
forming a good part of their garrisons for intrenched 
positions. A man lost by them can not be replaced. 
They have robbed the cradle and the grave equally to 
get their present force. Besides what they lose in frequent 
skirmishes and battles, they are now losing from desertions 
and other causes at least one regiment per day. With 
this drain upon them the end is visible if we will but be 
true to ourselves. Their only hope now is in a divided 
North. This might give them reinforcements from Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, whilst it would 
weaken us. With the draft quietly enforced, the enemy 
would become despondent and would make but little 

"I have no doubt but the enemy are exceedingly 
anxious to hold out until after the presidential election. 
They have many hopes from its effects. They hope for 
a counter revolution. They hope for the election of the 
peace candidate. In fact, like McCawber, they hope for 
'something to turn up.' 

"Our peace-friends, if they expect peace from separa- 
tion, are much mistaken. It would be but the beginning 
of war with thousands of northern men joining the South 
because of our disgrace allowing separation. 

"To have peace 'on any terms' the South would 
demand the restoration of their slaves already freed. 
They would demand indemnity for losses sustained, and 
they would demand a treaty which would make the 
North slave-hunters for the South. They would demand 
pay or the restoration of every slave escaping to the 
North. Yours truly, jj g. Grant." 

The following also appears in the Washburne collec- 



tion, headed "cypher." It is no doubt the original of a 
dispatch to the president: 

"City Point, Va., July 19, 1864. 
A. Lincoln, President: — 

In my opinion there ought to be an immediate call 
for say 300,000 men, to be put in the field in the shortest 
possible time. The presence of this number of reinforce- 
ments would save the annoyance of raids and would 
enable us to drive the enemy back from his present front, 
particularly from Richmond, without attacking fortifica- 

"TheTenemy now have their last men in the field. 
Every depletion of their army is an irreparable loss. 
Desertions from it are now rapid. With the prospect 
of large [additions to our force their desertions would 
increase. The greater number of men we have the 
shorter and less sanguinary will be the war. 

"I give this entirely as my view, and not in any spirit 
of dictation, always holding myself in readiness to use 
the materials given me to the best advantage I know how. 

U. S. Grant." 

During those days when Grant was in Virginia and 
Sherman was making his way to Atlanta, when upon 
every hillock there was a rifle-pit and behind it an armed 
foe, when every thicket was filled with rebel-guns, when 
movements forward were for days and weeks more like 
the appearance of a siege than movements in the field, 
when time was given to reflect, it was a cause of specula- 
tion whether or not the Union army would at its home 
be sustained or by its own people be compelled to turn 
back, but of the district which Mr. Washburne had con- 
tinued to represent there was never a doubt. Illinois itself 
might fail, but Washburne's district never! The leader, 


the district, and the cause were inseparably blended in 
thousands and tens of thousands of anxious minds. 

Gen. Rawlins of Galena and afterward secretary of war 
was also a friend of Mr. Washburne. 

A few lines from him: 

"Head Qr. Mil. Div. of the Miss., 

Nashville, Tenn., Jan'y. 30, 1864. 
Dear Washburne:— 

On my return from the North, I was pleased to find 
your very welcome and interesting letter of the 30th ?///., 
and I hasten to assure you, your friendship for the gen- 
eral, your devotion to our common country and heroic 
manifestation of interest in the welfare and success of our 
army here, through evil as well as good report, in the dark 
of the Nations's despondency as well as in the light of its 
victories are truly and honestly appreciated, and to you, 
more than any one in congress, the great heart of this 
army warms with gratitude as the true representative and 
bold and uncompromising defender. - - - So give 
yourself no concern in the matter of the Cavalry regiment 
you speak of, for the general fully understands your 
motives, and knows them to be prompted solely by a 
desire for the public service and in friendship to him. 

* ^'^ ■" "I see by the papers the bill creating a 
lieutenant-generalcy is still undisposed of. As far as Gen. 
Grant may be regarded in connection with it, I only say 
that if the conferring of the distinguished honor on him 
would be the taking him out of the field or with a view 
to the superseding of Gen. Halleck, he would not desire 
it, for he feels that if he can be of service to the gov- 
ernment in any place it is in command of the army in 
the field, and there is where he would remain if made a 
lieutenant-general, besides he has great confidence in and 
friendship for the general - in - chief and would, without 


regard to rank, be willing at all times to receive orders 
through him. 

"The advocacy of the Nezv - York , Herald and other 
papers of the general for the presidency, gives him little 
concern; he is unambitious of the honor and will volun- 
tarily put himself in no position nor permit himself to be 
placed in one he can prevent that will in the slightest 
manner embarrass the friends of the government in their 
present grand effort to enforce its rightful authority and 
restore the Union of the states. Of his views in this 
matter I suppose he has fully acquainted you. 

"The presence of Longstreet in East Tennessee is 
much to be regretted. Had Gen. Grant's orders been 
■energetically, and with a broader judgment, executed by 
Gen. Burnside, Longstreet would have been forced to 
have continued his retreat from Knoxville to beyond the 
Tennessee line. The general's official report will show 
the facts and orders and will be satisfactory, I have no 
doubt to the government. Our forces in the Holstpn 
Valley, east of Knoxville, have been compelled by Long- 
street to fall back toward Knoxville. Whether he intends 
to again undertake the capture of that place, or simply 
to extend his forage ground, is not as yet known. In 
either design, he must be foiled. Gen. Grant, Gen. W. F. 
Smith, and myself go forward tomorrow to Chattanooga 
that the general may be enabled to give his personal 
attention to affairs in the direction of Knoxville. 

"Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain your friend, 

Jno. a. Rawlins." 

"To Hon. E. B. Washburne, M.C., Washington, D.C." 

Mr. Washburne remained in congress until 1869, serving 
upon the important committees of appropriation and 
commerce — a recognized leader — not only by virtue of his 
term of service, but by ability. 


In the latter years he is described as large, broad 
shouldered, with light-gray eyes, and iron-gray hair, worn 
long and falling on the neck, plain in attire, without a 

One writer says of him: "The expression of his face 
in repose is rendered almost untranslatable by his intense 
industry, which being of a nervous sort keeps him screwed 
up to a headlong gait all the while. He never listens ta 
hear his brother speak more than a few minutes, being 
brimful of things to do and say, and the lines across his 
forehead deepen and thicken as he scratches away with a 
pen, tears the wrappers off newspapers, whistles for a page,, 
leans over backward to talk quickly, and nervously jumps 
up to object or interject remarks." Another: 

"His voice is full and deep when he wishes it to be so. 
His style of oratory is easy, off-hand and more convincing 
to my mind than that of any other member of the house. 
He is earnest and forcibly decided in his expressions and 
goes into an argument or a debate with the honest enthu- 
siasm and thrilling excitement, characteristic of his section. 
His gestures are wild in the extreme but one soon becomes 
accustomed to them." 

He was the enemy of all schemers and the opponent 
of waste; and as some one has said, he had an inflexible 
contempt for one who sought to live by the blindness 
of the government. 

The period from 1840 to 1869, marked an epoch in the 
history of the United States, more important in what was 
attempted and accomplished, and in its results, than the 
thirty-years' war or the contest of parliament with the 
house of Stuart. Fortunate to have lived in it, more 
fortunate to have had a share in the work, more fortunate 
still to have been a promoter of thought, foremost among 
among great men, a factor in the strife; such was Mr. 
Washburne, and well might he then rest upon laurels 
already won. 


Called in March, 1869, to the office of secretary of state 
by Gen. Grant, then president, he soon after resigned, for 
the sake of rest. He accepted the position of minister to 
France, no doubt thinking it should prove a place of quiet 

But the French - and - German war came, and again 
there was a manifestation of the same regard for human- 
ity, the same heroism, the same persistence and persever- 
ance that had been his on the prairies of Illinois and in 
the halls of congress. 

The story of his conduct prior to and during the siege 
of Paris has been often told and is a household word. 
His recollections lately published are an important and 
most interesting contribution to the annals of that time. 

He is remembered today as the minister who knew and 
dared to do the right. Since Benjamin Franklin, a printer 
also, no minister has drawn to himself so much renown, 
none will be so remembered. This is trqe of a service 
which has included an Everett, a Bancroft, an Adams, a 
March, and, it is not right to omit, a Lowell. 

While in Europe, Mr. Washburne did much for this 
Society using his private purse to purchase what was rare. 
Through his action its collection of French and British 
maps was secured. 

His official life ceased in 1877, after which he was active 
for he could not be otherwise. Making his home at 
Chicago, he wrote, edited, and delivered lectures. It 
would be impracticable to attempt to number or to indi- 
cate the scope of his papers and addresses. The " Life 
of Gov. Coles" and recollections of his ministry, are per- 
haps the most important, although none are without inter- 
est, both in subject and style. At last, he could do no 
more, and we meet tonight, the Society of which he was 
the president, because in his life he was an honor to the 
Nation, to his community, and to ourselves. 


Mr. Washburne was thrifty and prudent. At an early 
day he appreciated the future of lands in the Western 
States and became the purchaser of considerable tracts, 
for which he paid as modest saving would allow. In this 
he laid the basis of a considerable fortune. He was also 
one of the legatees of his brother, Gen. Cadvvallader 
Washburne, who had been a successful man of business. 

His life was long and remarkable. As time grows, and 
to those who shall call him in memory or learn of him 
from annals, he will appear even greater than at this pres- 
ent period. 

One feature of the man, perhaps that in which all others 
blend, will always shine out, and that a quality not 
peculiar to those who are American born but here instinc- 
tively recognized, appreciated and approved, courage — 
■courage of conviction, courage in expression, and courage 
in action. These were not wanting in the president who 
was greater than language can portray him, or in the 
general greater in war than Napoleon because he fought 
not for conquest, or in Washburne. As in life they were 
united, so in death they should not be divided. The 
beautiful park which lies to the north of our city, in which 
now stands the striking statue of Lincoln, and in which 
that of Grant will shortly be placed, will not be complete 
until there also shall be erected a monument to the mem- 
ory of Elihu Benjamin Washburne. 

Tribute of William H. Bradley. 

Mr. President: — I desire to move a vote of thanks 
to Gen. Smith for the admirable memorial paper, to which 
we have listened with so much pleasure; and that he be 
requested to furnish the original, or a copy of the same, 
as a permanent contribution to be preserved among the 
archives of this Society. 


I will also, with your permission, Mr. President, add a 
word of personal thanks to Gen. Smith for his labor of 
love in this behalf His appreciation of the more salient 
points in the character of Mr. Washburne, show a dis- 
crimination which renders his tribute the more valuable. 
An acquaintance more or less intimate with Mr. Wash- 
burne, covering a period of nearly forty-eight years, has 
left an impress on my mind of a character, which stamps 
Mr. Washburne as a great man, and in some respects 
he must, I think, be classed as a genius. 

Mr. Washburne arrived in Galena, where I was then 
residing, April i, 1840, a young man, boyant, full of life 
and energy, and ambitious in his chosen profession of the 
law. He at once settled himself to business, and very 
soon established a reputation for indomitable industry 
and perseverance. He found a bar at Galena which for 
ability, in proportion to its numbers, was probably as able 
as any in the State. Among whom were Charles S. 
Hempstead, subsequently a partner of Mr. Washburne, 
almost the Nestor of the bar in this State, having been 
admitted to practise in the Territory of Missouri in 18 14, 
and also in the Territory of Illinois in the same year. 

There was also John Turney, Joseph P. Hoge, Thomas 
Drummond, Joseph B. Wells, Thompson Campbell, and 
•others, who achieved more or less celebrity at the bar and 
in political life. Of the members of that bar in the spring 
of 1840, two only survive. Hon. Thomas Drummond of 
this City and Hon. Joseph P. Hoge of San Francisco, Cal. 
The population of Galena at that time did not exceed 
two thousand. The mining of lead ore and the furnaces 
for reducing or smelting it in the. adjacent ridges and 
ravines gave employment to a large industrious and thrifty 
population. Galena being the centre of trade for that 
mining region, the port for receipt of supplies and the 
transshipment of the lead, made it a place of remarkable 


business activity. The people there indulged in very 
sanguine hopes of a prosperity and growth, which perhaps 
unfortunately for them, has never been fully realized. 

Mr. Washburne and Charles S. Hempstead soon formed 
a co-partnership for the practice of the law, and together 
built up a large and lucrative practice. The old custom 
of traveling the circuit and with the judge visiting the 
adjoining counties, where the terms of court were held, 
had not ceased in the earlier years of his practice, and to 
Mr. Washburne, as the junior member of the firm, fell the 
duty of visiting the neighboring counties in Wisconsin, and 
also the adjoining counties in the old sixth judicial-circuit 
in this State, and thus enlarging their business and reap- 
ing the fruit, resulting from much hardship and toil. 

Mr. Washburne's professional duties did not hinder or 
deter him from an active participation in political affairs. 
The memorable Harrison campaign of 1840, was exciting 
great and increasing interest through the country, when 
Mr. Washburne arrived in Galena; and he entered heartily 
into the canvass, with so much of zeal and enthusiasm as 
to greatly strengthen the hope and confidence of the 
people — especially in Jo Daviess County — in the ultimate 
success and triumph of the whig party. 

Mr. Washburne was a member of the national conven- 
tion which nominated Henry Clay for the presidency in 
1844. He was an enthusiastic admirer of Mr. Clay, illus- 
trating in his devotion, the power of the magnetic attrac- 
tion, which so strongly bound Mr. Clay's many admirers 
to his personal and political fortunes. 

During the first fifteen years of Mr. Washburne's resi- 
dence in Galena, the commercial and business relations 
and intercourse of its citizens, were close and quite inti- 
mate with St. Louis and New Orleans, and many of its 
business men migrated from the Southern States, and as 
a consequence the pro-slavery feeling and sentiment 


among the people, was decided and strong. Mr. Wash- 
burne, however, for poHtical success or otherwise, never 
pandered in the sh'ghtest degree to that sentiment or 
prejudice. On the contrary, he never failed at all times 
and under all circumstances in unmistakable language, to 
avow his anti-slavery convictions, and to declare freely his 
his utter detestation of both the theory and practice of a 
system which recognized any human being as a chattle or 
property of his fellowman. 

It was not at the bar, neither in the turmoil and excite- 
ment growing out of any local political canvass, that Mr. 
Washburne achieved his greatest distinction. His quarter 
of a century of public service, from 1852 to 1877, gave 
him a field for active and honorable usefulness more to 
his taste, and at the same time in the line of an honorable 
ambition. He had a firmness of character that never 
wavered in devotion to the principal or the policy that 
inspired his action. His habits of self-control and mental 
discipline, largely acquired in his application — the previous 
twelve years — to his professional duties undoubtedly 
helped to qualify him for the successful discharge of the 
more important public duties which subsequently devolved 
on him through the favor of his friends and fellow- 

Throughout the struggle in our country for the preser- 
vation of the Nation's life, his patriotism was all aflame, 
giving occasion for the manifestation of that high-moral 
courage for which he was eminently distinguished. In the 
life of Mr. Washburne, this State has a legacy, which for 
fidelity to duty, for extraordinary and indomitable cour- 
age, in honorable achievements, and in public life will com- 
pare favorably with that left, by the greatest men, who 
have distinguished themselves in the formative period in 
the history of this their adopted commonwealth. 


A vSettler of Chicago in 1832. 

By Rev. Henry L. Hammond. 

Read before the Chicago Historical Society, July 17, 18 

PERSONAL acquaintance of thirty years, official con- 
nection in the Chicago Theological Seminary, sketches 
of his life in the "Leading Men of Chicago," "United- 
States Biographical Dictionary of Eminent and Self-Made 
Men," and in various papers carefully compiled by Mrs. 
W. W. Cheney, "Records of Chicago Presbytery," church- 
records, and conferences with his children and friends, are 
the sources of my information. I have not hesitated to 
appropriate whatever I have found that appeared essential 
to the completeness of this Memorial. Accuracy and 
fulness have been sought rather than originality. 

A good and wise man is a blessing to his generation. 
But he dies and the generation passes away. Apparently 
the blessing dies with him. Not so. The world is better 
for his life. Not Chicago only, but every part of the land 
which Chicago influences is other than it would have been 
but for the work of Philo Carpenter; and that though not 
one word more should ever be written of him, though no 
portrait or bust should show us how he looked, and no 
stone should tell us where he sleeps. Yet a true historical 
sketch of the man will be welcomed by coming genera- 
tions, and this Society would not be faithful to its mission 
if it did not seek to perserve for them such a memorial. 

It is natural to ask first after a man's antecedents, and 
trace his lineage. It is pleasant to note that Philo Car- 



penter came from New England, and from the Berkshire 
Hills of New England; and looking further back, that the 
line runs among the heroes and patriots of the last cen- 
tury. Both his grandfathers were in the army of the 
Revolution. Nathaniel Carpenter resigned a captaincy in 
his majesty's service and raised a company for the Con- 
tinental army, fought through the war and at its close 
was a major in command of West Point. An earlier 
ancestor was William Carpenter, a pilgrim who came from 
Southampton, England to Weymouth, Mass., in 1635, in 
the ship Bevis.* 

In 1787, the family came to western Massachusetts then 
a wilderness, where the subject of this sketch was born in 
the town of Savoy, Feb. 27, 1805, the fifth of eight child- 
ren of Abel Carpenter. One only of the eight is still 
living, Mrs. Emily C. Bridges of Oak Park, 111., who is 
with us this evening. Philo lived on the farm with his 
father till he was of age. He received little money from 
his parents, but did receive those greater gifts, good blood, 
a good constitution, a good common-school education — 
supplemented by a few terms at the academy at South 
Adams — and habits of morality, industry, and economy. 
He made two trips as a commercial traveler as far south 
as Richmond, Va. But having had his thoughts turned 
toward medical studies during his stay at South Adams, 
he went to Troy, New York, and entered the drug-store 
of Amatus Robbins, vyhere, in connection with a clerkship, 
he continued his studies, and at length gained a half- 
interest in the business. He was married there in May, 
1830, to Sarah Forbes Bridges, but she died the following 

It was at Troy that young Carpenter experienced that 

* Rev. Edward Hildreth, son-in-law of Dea. Carpenter writes: "I myself 
found at Plymouth an original appraisal, dated 1664, one of the items being a 
pair of leather breeches, with name of William Carpenter attached. " 


great change which gives permanence to all the natural 
virtues and fixes the character on the bed-rock of Christ- 
ian principle. In March, 1830, he joined the First Presby- 
terian Church, then under the pastoral care of Rev. Dr. 
Nathan S. S. Beman. As the record shows that thirty-six 
other persons joined at the same time, there must have 
been a revival then. Perhaps it was in connection with 
the labors of the brilliant and eloquent young preacher 
from Albany, Rev. Edward N. Kirk, who aided Dr. Beman 
in revival work about that time. Certain it is that not 
long before, that First church had fallen under the mould- 
ing power of the greatest evangelist, preacher, and theolo- 
gian, which perhaps this country ever has known, Charles 
G. Finney, and had become noted for its fervor and 
religious activities. 

Well was it for the man who was to be a pioneer, that 
his Christian life in its very beginnings was stamped with 
the positiveness of such spiritual leaders, who tolerated 
no time-serving, no half-heartedness, no cowardice in the 
convert. Every spiritual child was expected to be a 
soldier from the day of his birth. 

It is not surprising that such a young man should listen 
to the call for missionary labor in the great opening West. 
There was patriotic blood in him, pioneer blood, and new- 
born Christian zeal. The return of a cousin, Isaac Car- 
penter, who liad explored the West, on an Indian-pony, 
from Detroit to St. Louis, and his report of the land to be 
possessed, and especially of the favorable opening at 
Fort Dearborn, was the immediate occasion of young 
Carpenter's decision to come hither. He closed out his 
business early in the summer of 1832, shipped a stock of 
drugs and medicines to Fort Dearborn, took the short 
railroad then built to Schenectady, thence took passage 
on a line-boat on the Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence on the 
small steamer Enterprise, Captain Augustus Walker, to 


Detroit, thence by mud-wagon, called a stage, to Niles, 
Michigan, thence on a lighter belonging to Hiram Wheeler, 
afterward a well-known merchant of Chicago, to St. 
Joseph at the mouth of the river, in company with 
George W. Snow; thence they had expected to sail in a 
schooner to Fort Dearborn, but on account of the report 
of cholera among the troops there, a captain, one Carver, 
refused to sail and had tied up his vessel. They however 
engaged two Indians to tow them around the head of the 
lake in a canoe, with an elm-bark tow-rope. At Calumet, 
one of the Indians was attacked with cholera, but the 
druggist-doctor prescribed for him and they kept on till, 
just fifty-six years ago this evening, they were within sight 
of the fort, at about the present location of the Douglas 
Monument, when the Indians refused to proceed. But 
Samuel Ellis lived there who had come from Berkshire 
County, Mass. They spent the night with him and he 
brought them the next morning in an ox-wagon to the 
fort, on the i8th of July, 1832.* 

There were then here, outside the fort, less than two 
hundred inhabitants, mostly Indians and half-breeds, who 
lived in poor log-houses, built on both sides of the river 
near its mouth. 

The cholera-f- was raging fearfully among the troops, and 
Mr. Carpenter engaged at once in ministries for their 

* Rev. Mr. Hildreth reports this trip a little differently : — "At St. Joseph 
a Frenchman told them of a 'very nice way to go;' they hired the two Ind- 
ians, left St. Joseph Monday, July 16, 1832. First night stayed in a place 
where a vessel had been beached. Tuesday night, reached a deserted house at 
Calumet. Wednesday morning, pushed along and breakfasted with Samuel 
Ellis. After breakfast, Mr. Ellis brought them with their trunks into Chi- 
cago, reaching there about noon, Wednesday, July 18." It is interesting to 
note that the late Gurdon S. Hubbard made twenty-six such canoe voyages 
from Mackinac to Chicago, on the east shore of the lake from 1818 onward, 
in the service of the American Fur-Company. 

t Rev. H. L. Hammond — Dear Sir: Will you permit a stranger to express 
her grateful appreciation of the Memorial of the late Philo Carpenter, re- 


relief. Detectint^ life in one young man, supposed to be 
dead, he saved him from a premature burial. 

With a Methodist brother and an officer of the fort,, 
he held a prayer- meeting the first evening after his 

At the end of the first month, 7'irj.: on August 19, a 
Sunday-school was regularly organized, of which he was 
chosen superintendent. That Sunday-school still lives in 
the First Presbyterian Church of this city, whose pastor is- 
Rev. Dr. John H. Barrows.-f- 

cently read by yourself before the Chicago Historical Society. It was a grat- 
ification to hear a tribute so truthful paid to the memory of one who was so- 
truly a friend of humanity. 

During the dread summers of 1849 and 1850 it was my privilege to be a 
member of his family, and to know how tireless were his efforts in behalf of 
the sick and suffering. Fearless of disease himself, he seemed to lead a 
charmed life among the abject poor, with all their wretched surroundings. It 
was impossible in many cases to obtain a physician's attendance, and here 
Chicago's first druggist did their work as necessity forced it upon him. His 
devoted wife, while greatly fearing for her husband's safety, never sought to 
restrain him in his work of mercy, but with her own hands prepared nourish- 
ment to be used in his daily ministrations among the cholera-stricken to 
whom he was doctor, nurse, and minister. Said the Rev. Dudley Chase, the 
rector of the Church of the Atonement: "I never visit the stranger, the- 
sick, and the poor, but I find that Deacon Carpenter has been there before 
me. He ought to be ordained." It is not strange that such devotion was 
unrecorded, for this man in the quietness of his daily li.'"e shunned the breath 
of praise more than that of pestilence. * *■ * Yours Respectfully, 

Chicaco, July 30, 1888. Sophia T. Griswold. 

* " Inquiring if there was any preaching on Sunday, he was told there was 
preaching neither Sundays nor week-days; and he began public service, July 
22, 1832, reading a sermon in the absence of a minister. This was the begin- 
ning of uninterrupted public worship in Chicago." — Rev. Hildreth. 

t "This school was organized one Sabbath morning in the month of 
August, 1832. The place of meeting was an unfinished building owned by 
Mark Beaubien [a Catholic] now living at Naperville in this State, situated 
east of Michigan Avenue and south of Randolph Street. The following per- 
sons participated in the organization: Luther Childs, Mrs. Seth Johnson, 
Misses Elizabeth and Mary Noble, and myself. Thirteen children were pres- 
ent. The next Sabbath the school met at the house of Mark Noble, where 


When Mr. Carpenter's goods arrived, he opened the 
first drug-store in a log-building on Lake Street near the 
river, where there was a great demand for his drugs, 
especially his quinine. The anticipated opening of the 
Illinois-and-Michigan Canal, a bill for which, introduced 
by the late Gurdon S. Hubbard, passed the Illinois' house 
of representatives in 1833 — though it did not become a 
law till 1835, and the canal was not actually commenced 
till Mr. Hubbard removed one of the first shovelfuls of 
dirt, July 4, 1836 — turned attention to Fort Dearborn, 

the weekly prayer-meeting had been previously established." Both were con- 
tinued with slight interruptions during the fall and winter of 1832-3 in various 
places. An English friend by the name of Osborn helped much in the sing- 
ing, John Wright and John Stephen Wright, his son, came and became 
efficient helpers in the school ; the latter being librarian brought in a silk hand- 
kerchief the few books we had, which were a donation from Capt. Seth John- 
son. The school afterward found a home for awhile in the log-house of the 
venerable Jesse Walker, a Methodist preacher, near the corner of Canal and 
Fulton streets ; and later still over the store of Philip F. W. Peck, southeast 
corner of South- Water and LaSalle streets. There two gentlemen from New 
York, Charles Butler and Arthur Bronson, visited it, and seeing the meagre- 
ness of the library, made a donation of fifty dollars for its increase. This was 
a great encouragement to both teachers and scholars. There Jeremiah Porter 
found it, and soon had an organized church. 

"Another incident in the early history of the school, I will mention. A 
chief of one of the Indian tribes made his appearance in our school and being 
able to converse somewhat freely in English, he listened to the reading of 
Christ's words when he taught us to love one another and even our enemies,, 
and after some remarks on the mission of Christ to this world to save sinners,, 
his voluntary humiliation and death to accomplish so great an object, he pro- 
nounced it 'good' and called repeatedly at my place of business for me to read 
and converse with him on that interesting subject, and expressed a wish that 
he might have a bible, that he might learn to read it himself; but a bible 
could not be found for sale in Chicago at that time, and a few months later I 
purchased one for him in New York and presented it to him. He declined to 
receive it without paying for the same and expressed regret that he had not 
known more of this divine message in his earlier days. He was frequently 
seen in our meetings until his tribe were required to leave this section of country, 
which they had ceded to the government, and enter upon lands designated for 
them in the Far West." — Extracts from an address by Philo Carpenter to the 
First Presbyterian Sunday-school in 1868. 


increased the population rapidly, and Mr. Carpenter's 
business prospered. He soon removed to a larger store 
vacated by George W. Dole, also a log-house, and enlarged 
his stock with other kinds of goods. He bought a lot on 
South-Water Street between Wells and La Salle and there 
built a frame-store, the lumber for which was brought from 
Indiana on a "prairie-schooner" drawn by ten or twelve 

In 1833, he also built a two-story frame-house on La 
Salle Street opposite the court-house square, and having 
been married again in the spring of 1834, to Miss Ann 
Thompson of Saratoga, New York, he made there his 
home. Seven children were the fruit of that marriage, 
only two of whom, Mrs. W. W. Cheney and Mrs. Rev. 
Edward Hildreth, and the children of a third, Mrs. W. W. 
Strong, survive him. 

In 1842, he removed his business to 143 Lake Street; 
the next year he sold out to Dr. John Brinkerhoof; some 
of the fixtures are thought to have remained in use till 
consumed in the great fire of 1871. After the sale, Mr. 
Carpenter confined his business to the care of his real 
estate, which had then become considerable, as he had 
appropriated all his spare funds to its purchase. He had 
sublime faith in the future value of Chicago real estate. 
He early acquired a quarter- section, ten miles up the 
north branch of the river, -j- and another quarter on the 

* " Indiana contributed many customers, and it is noteworthy that in those 
primitive days the Hoosiers never wanted a bill ; they would buy a pair of 
boots, pay for them, carefully pocket the change, set the 'understandings' in 
one corner, then buy perhaps a bolt of sheeting, pay for that in the same way, 
and so on to the end of a list of a dozen or more articles. These were curi- 
ous customers, but they were a peculiar people. One of them came into the 
store one day shaking with fever and ague, which was also a peculiar western 
institution, and announced as he sat down on a candle-box, 'Say, stranger, 
I'm powerful weak.'" — "Leading Men of Chicago," page 8. 

+ Col. Richard J- Hamilton, Capt. Seth Johnson, Lieut. Julius J. Backus 
Kingsbury, and Philo Carpenter bought each a quarter-section of timber-land 


west side, which he afterward subdivided as Carpenter's 
Addition to Chicago. It is that part of the west side 
now bounded by W.-Kinzie Street on the north, Halsted on 
the east, W.-Madison on the south, and a Hne between Ann 
and EHzabeth on the west. He went to Washington and 
secured a patent for this quarter-section signed by Andrew 
Jackson, which his heirs still possess.* Few shared his 
sanguine expectations when he preempted this tract as the 
foundation of his fortune. "It was so far from the village." 
"It would never be wanted except for farm purposes, and 
was too low and marshy even for cultivation." "In the 
spring of the year it was often under water and could be 
crossed only by boat," and "there was little prospect that 
it could ever be plowed except by anchors." Rev. Flavel 
Bascom tells us that when he first came with his wife to 
Illinois and was being carried by Philo Carpenter in a 
two-seated buggy across the mud bottoms of West Chi- 
cago toward the interior, at one place Mr. C. stopped, 
pointed to a marsh and said: "Here I have preempted a 
quarter-section of land which I expect will make me rich 
some day." The young minister and his wife on the back 
seat exchanged significant glances at the visionary antici- 
pations of the good deacon. 

About 1840, Mr. Carpenter removed his residence to 
the west side, built a fine house as it was then thought, in 

from Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, paying him two hundred dollars each, a 
dollar and a quarter per acre. This was the government price. The two lots, 
forty feet, he bought on South-Water Street, cost him seventy-five dollars. 
One lot on La Salle Street, 25x180 feet, he bought of Mark Beaubien for 
twenty-five dollars worth of goods. Beaubien had won this lot in a raffle, 
but he carefully concealed the fact from the Deacon till the bargain was 

* It was probably on that journey to Washington, which occupied three 
weeks, that he set out at the same time with an U.-S. officer who traveled 
on the Sabbath in his haste on public business, but the deacon kept his con- 
science as well as holy time, and tho' he apparently lost three days, he yet 
rode into Washington on the same train with the official. — Rev. Hildreth. 


the middle of one block of his addition, which is bounded 
by W.-Randolph Street on the north, Morgan on the east, 
W.-Washington on the south, and Carpenter on the west. 
There I found him when I came to Chicago in 1856 — one 
of the earliest acquaintances I made here thirty-two years 
ago. I could but admire' the place, for he had tried, as he 
told me, to plant in that block every kind of tree and 
shrub found in this region, and he showed his good taste 
by allowing them all to grow naturally. Not one was 
trained into any fantastic shape, or deformed with shears. 
That was long the most prominent house on the west side. 
It has lately been removed and the entire block offered 
for sale by the heirs. It is greatly to be desired that it 
should be bought by the city for a park — a little breathing 
place of convenient access to the people amid many 
blocks of buildings. It should be improved after his 
plan and called Carpenter Park, as a perpetual memor- 
ial of the good pioneer. And better still, if some tablet 
could tell that this was the resting-place of good men and 
women coming to the West for its salvation from barbar- 
ism, intemperance, and infidelity, who were refreshed by 
the generous hospitalities of Mr. Carpenter and his worthy 
wife, and sent on their way with a hearty God speed. 

And another tablet should tell of it as the hiding-place 
for the colored emigrant from the South, whom this 
officer on the underground railroad piloted by night to 
Canada-bound vessels, as they were seeking that liberty 
which was then denied them under the stars and stripes.* 

There he lived till 1865, when with the hope of benefit- 
ting his wife's health, he removed to Aurora, 111., where 
she died six months afterward ;t and for the last twenty 
years of his life he was alone in his pilgrimage. 

* Two hundred fugitives it is said were thus helped to a land of liberty, and 
it is not known that one of them was ever recaptured. 

+ Only the angels know how much of the usefulness of this good man was 


He returned to the city to spend the last twelve years, 
but not to the historic block. His health was delicate. 
He was unable to undertake new business, but lived 
quietly with his children till Aug. 7, 1886, when he passed 
to his eternal home. 

■wrought by the prayerful influence of his sainted wife, Ann Thompson Car- 
penter. So symmetrical was her character in all the womanly virtues, so 
€xalted her standard of personal piety, that one, who had known her intimately 
for years, hesitates to tell the simple truth lest the words find no credence. 
There was an indescribable charm in the house over which she presided, and the 
wanderer and the wayfarer always found a place and a welcome. In all the 
trials of life, in the sickness and death of three children there was the same 
unmurmuring spirit, the same loving submission to the will of God. In 
perfect sympathy with her husband in every work of reform, she was ever fear- 
ful that his zeal should find some hasty utterance that would wound the feelings 
of another. He was a person of strong convictions, she, of deep sympathies. 
While he denounced sin, her mantle of charity was covering the sinner. It 
is not too much to say, that in her sweet spirit every Christian grace had 
special prominence. 

As one, who in the press of life. 
Had touched the Garment-hem, 

Then pa?sed away, as angels may, 
To wear a diadem; 

As one belov'd, at whose approach, 
The gates wide open spring. 

We dream of thee, thus welcomed home, 
O ! Daughter of the King. 

The dead, departed in the Lord, 

Are blest beyond compare; 
Yea, saith the Spirit, for they rest 

From all their toilsome care. 
While, one by one her works of love 

The angel reapers bring, 
How blessed her reward above, 

This daughter of the King ! 

Yet long and selfishly we mourned 

That Heaven's high behest 
Had quenched the love- light in our midst, 

And lulled her to her rest. 
The breath of song and tenderness — 

The sweetest notes of Spring, 
Recall thy spirit loveliness, 

O! Daughter of the King.— "Paulina." 


I have briefly followed the outline of his life with the 
intention to go back and speak more particularly of his 
characteristics and his labors: ♦ 

I. He was a pioneer of the best things. His coming 
here at that early day, that prayer- meeting the first 
evening, that first organization of a Sunday-school have 
already been mentioned. When Rev. Jeremiah Porter was 
considering the question of accepting a call to labor in 
Fort Dearborn, he was told, "There is one good man there 
who has organized a Sunday-school." He came, found 
the man and the school, and began his labors. Mr. Car- 
penter and a few others, under the guidance of the young 
minister, formed the first church here, the First Presbyter- 
ian, of which he was chosen one of the elders. The date 
of the organization was June 26, 1833. Dea. Carpenter 
wrote and circulated the first temperance pledge, and 
delivered the first temperance address. A meeting had 
been arranged, and a lawyer, Col. Richard J. Hamilton, 
engaged to deliver the address, but at a late day, the 
lawyer declined to speak. Our pioneer hastily prepared 
himself and filled the gap."^ 

He was one of the first officers of the Chicago Bible- 
Society, founded August 18, 1835. 

He early interested himself in the cause of education,, 
earnestly opposing the sale of the school -section in 
Chicago, and pleaded that only alternate blocks should 
be put on the market. Other counsels prevailed, and all 
but four blocks of the tract, bounded north by Madison,, 
east by State, south by 12th, and west by Halsted Streets, 
were sold for less than $40,000 dollars. But few years 

* "He used to laugh about the literary quality of the address, but the 
house was crowded and not a few items of interest have survived." — Hildreth. 

The meeting was held in the log - building of Rev. Jesse Walker. An 
Indian chief was persuaded to practise total abstinence and appeared to be 
a sincere Christian while he remained under Mr. Carpenter's influence. 



elapsed before the 138 blocks sold were worth many 
millions. For ten years he was a member of the board 
of education. His connection did not cease till his 
removal to Aurora in 1865. On his return from Europe 
in 1867, he found one-of the palatial school-houses of the 
west side, at Centre Avenue, corner West -Huron Street, 
named in his honor, the Carpenter School, for which he 
gave $1000 as an endowment for text-books for indigent 

The first "one-horse shay" that made its appearance in 
Chicago in 1834, contained Philo Carpenter and his- 
newly-married wife. The first dray was introduced by 
him; and the first platform-scales, which are now in pos- 
session of Daniel Warne of Batavia, 111., which can weigh 
up to 750 pounds; also the first fire-proof safe. 

He was one. of the original members of the Third Pres- 
byterian Church, formed July i, 1847, ^^^ ^vas one of its 
elders. He was one of the first corporate members of the 
Chicago Eye-and-Ear Infirmary, and one of the founders of 
the Chicago Relief-and-Aid Society. He was the leader in 
the formation of the First Congregational Church in May,. 
185 I. And as that event gave him special prominence in 
that denomination and in the country, the circumstances 
are worth noting. He had long been interested in the anti- 
slavery cause. He was a patron of the Alton Obsei"iiei\ 
Elijah Parish Lovejoy's paper; he helped to establish 
Zebina Eastman's paper, the Western Citizen, here in Chi- 
cago. His activity in behalf of fugitive slaves has beeni 
already mentioned. He was a delegate to the Cincinnati 
convention, held in April, 1850, which resolved: 

"That the friends of pure Christianity ought to separate 
themselves from all slaveholding churches, ecclesiastical 
bodies, and missionary organizations that are not fully 
divorced from the sin of slave-holding; and we who may 
be still in connection with such bodies, pledge ourselves 


that we will, by the aid of Divine grace, conform our 
action in accordance with this resolution, and come out 
from among them, unless such bodies shall speedily sepa- 
rate themselves from all support of or fellowship with 

He was not a man to vote for a resolution in public and 
forget all about it in priv^ate, and as the general assembly 
of the Presbyterian church, which met in Detroit in May 
of that year, failed, in Deacon Carpenter's view, to take 
i^ight action, he led the church to adopt a minute that they 
would not be represented in presbytery, synod, or general 
assembly till right action was taken. This minute* was, of 
course, entirely unpresbyterial and unconstitutional. Ne\^- 
ertheless it was adopted by forty-eight out of sixty-eight 
resident members. The presbytery, after giving them a 
little time to rescind their vote, were compelled to treat the 
majority as seceders, and to recognize the minority as the 
Third Church — an act supposed to be ecclesiastically right, 
although it involved turning the majority of the church 
out of the building they had in great part erected, and to 
which they thought themselves justly entitled.f 

* Minute of the majority of the Third Presbyterian Church in reference to 
fellowship with slave-holders: i. Resolved, That this Church holds that in 
the language of the Scripture, God hath made of one blood all nations of the 
earth. 2. Resolved, That chattel slavery is blasphemous toward God, inhu- 
man and cruel to our fellow-men, and that Christians are especially called on 
to discoutenance it and and have no fellowship with those who participate in 
its abominations. 3. Resolved, That this Church are dissatisfied with the 
present position of our general assembly on the subject of disciplining those 
guilty of holding their fellow-men in bondage; that their last acts at Detroit 
have been construed to represent black or white as suited the different sections 
of the church. 4. Resolved, That this Church, so long as this vascillating 
policy is pursusd, hereby declare their determination to stand aloof from all 
meetings of presbytery, synod, and general assembly, and thus, as they 
believe free, and relieve themselves of all responsibility." 

t "History of the Chicago Presbytery," pps. lo-ii. "At a meeting of the 
presbytery, called to investigate the difficulties in the Third Presbyterian 
Church, May 2, 185 1, it appeared that a majority of that church had voted 


There was, however, an addition to the church which 
the Deacon had himself built for a session-room, which 
had not been turned over to the trustees. He therefore 
gave notice that Divine service would be conducted as 
usual in the session-room.* 

A council was soon called, and the First Congregational 

to stand aloof from all meetings of the presbytery, synod, and general assem- 
bly, so long as the assembly should maintain its then present attitude in 
relation to slavery. A committee appointed to confer with the church found 
that the majority would neither rescind their resolution of withdrawal, nor 
consent to an amicable separation and an equitable division of the property, 
and so reported. Therefore the presbytery appointed a committee. Rev. 
Henry Curtis, D.D., chairman, to consider the whole matter and report. 
The committee in due time reported that in their judgment the action of the 
majority of the church involved secession from the Presbyterian church; and 
that the majority by this action and by refusing to rescind their resolution, 
did hereby disqualify themselves to act as members of the Presbyterian 
church, and recommended that the session, viz: the pastor and those elders 
who did not vote for the resolution aforesaid, be directed immediately to 
inform the majority that if any of them still wished to walk in fellowship with 
this church under the constitution of the Presbyterian church, their wish 
should be granted; and that those who should not express such wish within 
two weeks, be regarded as adhering to their previous action and the session 
be directed to strike their names from the roll of the church. " This report 
was, after full discussion, adopted. 

The records of the presbytery show that there was a proposal to end the 
strife in the Third church by an amicable division of the church and its 
property. But as the difficulties of the majority were not with the minority, 
but with the whole church as represented by the general assembly, no division 
of the Tliird church could meet the case; moreover, as the majority were 
declared to have disqualified themselves to act as members of the Presbyterian 
church, how they could have been received into the presbytery as perhaps a 
Fourth church does not appear. They were also exhorted by presbytery to 
study the things that make for peace," etc. The inspired precept, however, 
*' first pure, then peaceable," restricted such studies. There is no record of 
any proposition to divide the property after the majority decided to become 
congregational in polity. In fact the minority retained it all. 

* While the divided congregation were worshiping, a part in the audience- 
room and a part in the session-room, one family at least was divided, and a 
young man was asked on his return: "Well ! how did you get along in the 
kitchen to-day?" "Very nicely," he replied. "The best things all come 
from the kitchen," 


Church of Chicago was formed, May 22, 185 i. The names 
of Philo Carpenter and Ann Carpenter stand first and 
second on its roll of members. He was elected deacon, 
and retained the office till he removed to Aurora, and after 
his return was made deacon cmcriiiisf^ 

Of two wooden church edifices erected for their accom- 
modation, largely at the expense of Deacon Carpenter, 
one which was occasionally besmeared and called "Car- 
penter's nigger church," was burned to the ground on 
a Sunday night after Rev. Joseph E. Roy, who had just 
come from an Eastern seminary, had preached in it his 
maiden western sermon. Whether the fire was communi- 
cated by a spark from the young man's discourse, or by 
an incendiary, or was purely accidental, does not appear. 
The other on Green Street, near West Washington, was 
soon outgrown — Rev. Geo. W. Perkins was then the pop- 
ular preacher — and a permanent house of rock-faced stone 

* From records of the First Congregational Church, Wednesday evening, 
July 19, 1882. At the prayer-meeting this evening, on motion duly made and 
seconded, the Church by a rising vote unanimously adopted the following: 

Whereas, Our brother Philo Carpenter, has just completed fifty years of resi- 
dence here, during which time all that is now called Chicago has come inio 
existence, and all the history of the city has been made; and 

Whereas, In addition to his public and private life and labors, for which we 
in common with all our fellow-citizens do him honor, we desire to make 
grateful special mention of his relationship to this church : therefore, 

Resolved, That we recognize iu him the Father of this church, not only as 
first member on its records, but the one who above all others is to he regarded 
as its founder and its earliest benefactor and friend. 

Resolved, That we put on record our appreciation of his faithfulness to 
principles of right which led to the formation of this church, and our most 
hearty congratulations that his life has been spared, not only to see the feeble 
church of thirty years ago become the strong body it now is, but also to see 
the Nation adopt the principles he then labored and suffered for, by the put- 
ting away of slavery. 

Resolved, That this church in appreciation of its regard for Deacon Carpen- 
ter and of his long connection with it, does hereby elect him Deacon Emeritus 
for life, and the clerk is hereby instructed to forward to him a copy of this 
action duly attested. (Attest) J. W. Sykes, Clerk.— f. 



was put up on the corner of West-Washington and Green 
streets. Deacon Carpenter advanced most of the money, 
and waited on the society many years for its repayment 
without interest.* 

A httle later he united with Joseph Johnston, Rev. John 
C. Holbrook, and Chas. Goodrich Hammond in starting the 
first denominational paper here, the Congregational Herald. 
In 1855, he was one of the incorporators of the Chicago 
Theological Seminary, and for many years was one of its 
board of directors and chairman of its executive com- 
mittee. He afterward engaged with great zeal in oppos- 
ing secret, oath-bound societies. In early life, before he 
came W^est, his indignation had been aroused by the 
abduction in Western New York, of William Morgan, for 
publishing a little book revealing the secrets of Free- 
masonry. The abducted man was never found or heard of 
after, and was supposed to have been murdered. The 
perpetrators of the crime escaped justice, and public 
sentiment held the Masonic fraternity responsible for their 
escape. Deacon Carpenter suggested the establishment of 
a paper to oppose all such secret societies, and gave the 
money for the publication of the first number of the 
Christian Cynosure, and provided headquarters for the 
movement at a cost of $20,000. He bought for gratuitous 
circulation lOOO copies of Finney's book on Masonry, and 
wrote and distributed tracts of his own on the subject. 
Few of his colaborers in other reforms partook of his 
zeal in this, and the methods of some of the friends of the 
reform he could not approve, yet he continued the war 
undaunted while he lived, and provided in his will for its 
continuance after his death. 

Surely we have here specifications enough to show that 

* A second stone building was erected at the south-west corner of West 
Washington and Ann Streets in 1870; destroyed by fire January 16, 1873, 
rebuilt and is now occupied by the church. 


from first to last he was a grand pioneer of the best 

2. Philo Carpenter was a wise man. With rare sagac- 
ity he foresaw the future of Chicago, discerning the 
great city through the small trading-post; and his con- 
fidence never wavered. He wisely bent his energies to the 
establishment of the most useful institutions for the 
coming city. His sagacious forecast for this trading-post 
is proved by its growth in a little more than half a 
century from two hundred souls to three-quarters of a 
million, and his judgment of the first institution needed 
has been confirmed by the establishment of nearly three 
hundred Sunday-schools in it, and more than four hundred 
in Cook County; our citizens have indorsed the church by 
founding more than four hundred of them of all kinds. 
That First Congregational Church has here some fifty 
junior sisters. The public-school has been approved by 
the creation of nearly one hundred of those temples of 
learning, which are the pride of the city and the Meccas 
of the children. The need of that temperance pledge is 
sadly evinced by our four thousand saloons still foolishly 
patronized; his opinion of slavery became the opinion of 
the Nation a quarter of a century ago. During the war. 
Deacon Carpenter and one of the elders who remained in 
the Third Church were reading together from the bulletin 
at the Tribune office, when the elder, giving him his hand, 
said: "Deacon, you were right and we were wrong." That 
Theological Seminary has sent out more than three hun- 
dred graduates, has more than one hundred regular stu- 
dents, and nine professors and teachers, some of whom 
have obtained a national reputation. Four or five other 
denominations have imitated the Congregationalists in their 
zeal for theological education in this metropolis of the 
West. As for secret societies, though our brother "received 
not the promise," he yet "died in the faith;" and we may 


say "the end is not yet." The Masonic fraternity could 
not do now what it was accused of doing in 1826, without 
being swept from the land by a cyclone of public opinion. 
Who shall say that the good man could, on the whole, 
have more wisely used his time, his strength, and his 

3. Deacon Carpenter was an honest man. The finan- 
cial crash of 1837 found him an indorser on paper of 
unfortunate friends. He made no effort, as is often dgne, 
to evade his responsibilities, but borrowed the money and 
met the claims. When it became necessary to pay what 
he had borrowed, and money could not be procured, he 
spread out a full schedule of all his real estate, and 
allowed two disinterested men to select from any part of 
it what they deemed a fair equivalent for the debt. It is 
astonishing to note how much they selected, evincing, as it 
did, the immense depreciation of western lots and lands 
after 1837, ^'--5 9^0 acres in Fayette County, Illinois, four 
and a half blocks in Carpenter's Addition, half a block in 
the School Section, three lots on Washington Street near 
the Chamber of Commerce, and a house and lot, his 
homestead on LaSalle Street, opposite the court-house — 
property that was soon prized at more than one million 
dollars — to pay a claim of $8600! However excessive he 
may have thought the award, he faithfully carried out the 
agreement. Probably the severest thing he ever said 
about the award was: "I should have thought they 
might have left me my home!" 

My neighbor, the late James Ward, well known in con- 
nection with the public-school buildings, told me: "I 
located in Chicago against the earnest remonstrances of 
my father, who thought it a den of thieves, and could not 
believe there were any honest men here. I bought a lot 
of Philo Carpenter and partly paid for it. My father, hesi- 
tatingly, sent me from the East money to complete the 


payment. I took the amount to Mr. Carpenter. He 
received and counted it, then took out his pencil and 
began to figure. I feared I had made some mistake, and 
asked him if there was not enough. He rephed, 'Yes; 
more than enough, for there is a premium on Eastern 
money.' He computed the sum and passed it back. I 
wrote to my father that there was at least one honest man 
in Chicago." 

A Milwaukee lawyer, who did not know him very well, 
once wrote him that through a defect in the conveyance 
he might recover possession of some property he had sold, 
which had greatly appreciated. He came out of his office 
holding the letter in his hand, with that look of scorn 
which meanness always evoked, and said to his wife: 
"Hear what a shyster lawyer has written to me." "Well, 
you will pay no attention to it, of course.-'" she replied. 
"This," said he, "is my answer: 'Sir, I made that sale in 
good faith, and in good faith it shall stand.' " 

I do not find that Mr. Carpenter ever engaged in any of 
the questionable enterprises and speculations that abound 
here. He did not lend his name to the baseless mining, 
banking, insurance, and other schemes. He did not 
dabble in stocks. He was not in any combinations to 
corner the market and force up the prices of the neces- 
saries of life. He did not operate on the Board of Trade, 
although, as it seems to some of us, a too- lenient public 
sentiment tolerates there what is not thought honest in 
the common walks of life. 

He held a large amount of real estate, on which he put 
his own price — a higher price often than the estimate of 
his fellow-citizens. But this is not strange for one who 
had his remarkable faith in the future of Chicago, and 
who had seen those values arise from nothing. We think 
it not at all extravagant to point to him as an "Israel- 
ite, indeed, without guile." 


4. Philo Carpenter was a benevolent man. Probably no 
object of charity, public or private, which he deemed 
worthy, ever appealed to him in vain. It is impossible to 
estimate the amount of his benefactions. They were a 
steady and ever-increasing stream, from the organization 
of that first Sunday-school in 1832, to the date of his last 
will and testament. No computation is known of the 
amounts he gave to the earlier churches with which he was 
connected, but it is known that he gave to the First Con- 
gregational Church, first and last, more than $50,000. To 
the Chicago Theological Seminary, he had given before 
his death more than $60,000, and in his will made it the 
residuary legatee of his estate, which, it is expected, will 
amount to not less than $50,000 more. To the American 
Home Missionary Society, the American Board, and the 
American Missionary Association he deeded, several years 
ago, each a three-story brick-house on Ann Street, avail- 
able after his death. To the National Christian Associa- 
tion he had given property worth $40,000 or $50,000, and 
his will added $6000 to the objects it represented. Rela- 
tives and friends had been freely aided during his life, 
and were provided for after his death. One-quarter of 
all his real estate was given to benevolent objects in his 
will. As the gross amount was about $400,000, this 
turned $100,000 into the channels of benevolence. 

5. Philo Carpenter was a modest man. He was always 
unassuming. He never put himself forward. When there 
were reproaches to meet and trials to brave, or burdens to 
carry he never was found in the rear; but when there were 
honors to gain he never crowded to the front. While a 
member of the board of education, he declined the presi- 
dency, and could be prevailed upon to accept only the 
vice-presidency. He never was elected to a civil office, 
and never ran for any. 

In the church, though its founder and wealthiest mem- 


ber, he never sought to control, never claimed any superi- 
ority over the poorest of his brethren. I can emphatically 
say that in all my intercourse with him I was never once 
made to feel that I was the poor man and he was the 
millionaire. Where no principle was at stake he was 
deferential to others, polite, courteous — in short the true 
Christian gentleman. 

6. Some of you may be surprised to hear me speak 
next of his great moral strength. 

A quiet, modest man, who pursues the even tenor of his 
way without noise, without bluster, without ostentation,, 
seldom gets credit for his strength. People often forget 
that real power is best evinced by doing one's work easily^ 
calmly, and uniformly. In all questions of reform or 
practical morality, everybody knew where Deacon Carpen- 
ter would be found. Nobody thought of the possibility 
of his yielding to the solicitations of the saloon, the 
fascinations of the private wine-cup, the excitement of the 
race-course, or the gamester's table. One instance of the 
kind would have brought all busy Chicago to a standstill, 
in perfect wonderment at what would occur next. Why 
so.' How did it happen that with all the temptations of 
this great and wicked city, and so many lamentable 
examples of weak yielding to the strong current, Deacon 
Carpenter stood often alone, unmoved as old Mackinac, 
upon which the winds and waves of Lake Michigan come 
three hundred miles from the south and surround it, the 
northeasters from Lake Huron drive their floods into the 
Straits, the northwesters, roaring the three hundred and 
sixty miles down Lake Superior heap their waters high 
about it, but the little rock-rooted island stands as firm as 
when it was first discovered, some three hundred years 

Such examples of moral power are by no means too 
common in this generation. We do well to mark and 


honor them. Doubtless other citizens of Chicago — Gur- 
don S. Hubbard, William B. Ogden, John Wentworth, J. 
Young Scammon, Roswell B Mason, Charles G. Ham- 
mond, and others — did more directly to establish business 
enterprises of various kinds in this city; but in laying the 
moral foundations on which so much of the real prosper- 
ity of a city depends, no man probably equalled Philo 
Carpenter. To do and say the right thing at the right 
time has ever been considered an important element of 
strength. The story is told that when, after a day of hard 
fighting and terrible suffering in the Wilderness, Gen. 
Grant summoned his officers to receive orders for the 
morrow, and all were thinking by what route they should 
retreat, they were astounded to receive the order: "Ad- 
vance all along the line by break of day to-morrow morn- 
ing!" When Gen. Lee heard of it he is said to have 
exclaimed: "The Federal army has at last found a 

Smaller matters can illustrate great principles. When 
Philo Carpenter and his little band met a presbytery to 
whom ecclesiastically they were amenable, and who, 
backed by all the authority of the great general assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church of the United States 
of America, declared them "disqualified to act as mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian church, and no longer to be 
recognized as such," and his friends were wondering how 
they should avert or survive the terrible blow, they must 
have been astounded when he arose and calmly an- 
nounced: "Divine service will be held in the session-room 
next Sunday at the usual hour." It might well have 
been said at that moment, "This little band has a great 
leader." For that simple notice was stronger than the 
whole general assembly. 

7. Yet withal he was a man of peace. Radically as he 
differed from men, and earnestly as he sought reforms, he 


had no personal quarrels. The entire absence of litiga- 
tion during his long life is proof of his pacific disposition. 
He never sued a man, and he was never sued but twice in 
his life. One of them was about a dog, and the plaintiff 
was non-suited. 

Musicians tell us that there must always be some dis- 
cords in their anthems to make the music effective, and in 
theory I am greatly opposed to indiscriminate commenda- 
tion of even the best men; and I frankly confess to you 
that I have sought for the needed discords in this anthem, 
but with less success than usual. 

Sometimes, indeed, Mr. Carpenter was supposed to be 
deficient in business enterprise — especially that he did not 
improve more of his property, and provide himself with a 
greater income. But listen a moment to his own explana- 
tion: "I can't get money enough ahead, besides paying 
my taxes and assessments, to erect many buildings, for as 
soon as anything comes in, somebody wants it for a 
church, for a college, or for a seminary; or some friend 
gets into trouble and wants help in meeting a note, or 
releasing a farm from mortgage; or there comes some 
special appeal for our benevolent societies who are in 
straits, and the money seems imperatively needed else- 
where." In the later years of his life he made more 
improvements, but still left much unimproved property. 

Philo Carpenter was sometimes called "a man of one 
idea," but the record we have rehearsed shows, we think, 
several ideas— as many, indeed, as most men have, and all 
good ones. They might perhaps all be reduced to the 
"one idea" — that grand one of loyalty to the right, loy- 
alty to God and humanity. Oh! that we had many more 
such men with "one idea." He was sometimes called "an 
extreme man." If that means that he was in the front 
rank of progress, at the head of God's marching columns, 
we accept it as true, and no reproach, but a great honor. 


Without such men how could there be any advance in the 
church or the world? Events have proved that he was 
only ahead of his generation. Almost every one of his 
positions, once thought extreme, have been reached and 
occupied by his brethren and his fellow-citizens. 

But the good man was very far from thinking himself 
perfect, and he would be the first to frown upon us if we 
should presume to represent him as without fault. We 
will only quote the closing sentence of the minute adopted 
by the First Congregational Church soon after his decease: 
"Without claiming perfection for our brother, we would 
rejoice in the invaluable legacy to this church of his faith 
and life, and praise our God that by His grace, No. i on 
our rolls, went in and out before a great and wicked city 
for half a century and left a record unstained." 

Deacon Carpenter was a man of commanding presence, 
in stature about six feet high; not being corpulent and 
continuing erect to the end of his life he seemed even 
taller. His normal weight was about one hundred and 
seventy-five pounds. He had a light complexion, dark- 
brown hair, a mild blue eye, a countenance singularly 
benignant, pure, and inspiring confidence. No one could 
see him and not trust him. As he never drank intoxi- 
cants, nor used narcotics, there were no blotches to mar 
his face, which grew more serene and heavenly to the last. 

The afflictions which deprived him of his wife, and re- 
duced his seven children to two, and brought severe ill- 
ness upon him, diminished his strength and made him in 
his last years somewhat averse to society. He did not 
appear much in public, but as long as enough strength 
remained he attended public worship and retained to the 
last his interest in "the dear old First Church," as he lov- 
ingly called it. An affection which the church recipro- 
cated, as we have said by making him Deacon Emeritus. 

The Chicago Congregational Club, the first year of its 


existence, 1883, elected him an honorary member, "in 
recognition," as they said, "of his more than fifty years of 
residence in this city, of his leadership in its early relig- 
ious enterprises, of his faithfulness to the cause of freedom 
when it cost greatly to be faithful, and especially in grate- 
ful recognition not only of his being the first member of 
our First Church, but of his being the father of Congre- 
gationalism in this city."* 

On the fiftieth anniversary of his arrival in Chicago, 
July 18, 1882, a large number of our citizens called at his 
residence to do him honor. His death, August 7, 1886, 
resulted from a severe cold taken some time previously, 
terminating in congestion of the lungs. His body was 
embalmed and the funeral was postponed till August 15, 
awaiting the arrival from California of his daughter, Mrs. 
Rev. Edward Hildreth. 

In the absence of Rev. Dr. Goodwin, the pastor, the 
funeral was conducted by Rev. Dr. Franklin W. Fisk of the 
Chicago Theological Seminary, assisted by Rev.Drs. Flavel 
Bascom, and Joseph E. Roy, and Rev. H. L. Hammond. 
The deacons of the church were pall-bearers, with E. W. 
Blatchford, Carlisle Mason, Judge Wm. W. Farwell, Dr. 
John H. Hollister, and Professors Hugh M. Scott and Jas. 
R. Dewey, honorary pall-bearers. A very large congre- 
gation was in attendance, including especially the old resi- 
dents of Chicago. The services were short, as a further 
memorial service was anticipated after the return of the 

* "The Chicago Congregational Club, March 21, 1883. 

Dea. Philo Carpenter, Dear Sir:— K\. the meeting of the Club last even- 
ing, at the suggestion of the executive committee, the following was adopted : 

Resolved. That in recognition of his more than fifty years of residence in 
this city, of his leadership in its early religious enterprises, of his faithfulness 
to the cause of freedom — when it cost greatly to be faithful, and especially in 
grateful recognition not only of his being the first member of our First 
Church but of his being the father of Congregationalism in this city we do 
hereby elect Dea. Philo Carpenter an honorary member of this Club. 

J. W. Sykes, Secretary. C. G. Hammond, President. 


pastor. They included, however, the reading of a very 
cordial appreciative letter from the First Presbyterian 
Church,* of which Mr. Carpenter, as already told, was 
one of the founders and first elders, and the singing of a 
touching hymn that had been a favorite of Mr. Carpenter, 
of which a manuscript copy was found in his memoran- 
dum book after his death : 

"This is not my place of resting, 
Mine's a city yet to come; 
Onward to it I am hasting, 
On to my eternal home. 

]n it all is light and glory, 

O'er it shines a nightless day, 
Every trace of sin's sad story. 

All the curse hath passed away. 

There the Lamb our Shepherd leads us 

By the stream of life along. 
On the freshest pastures feeds us, 

Turns our sighiug into song. 

Soon we pass this desert dreary. 

Soon we bid farewell to pain. 
Never more are sad or weary, 

Never, never, sin again." 

* "At our meeting in the First Presbyterian Church, last evening, notice of 
Deacon Carpenter's funeral was given. Eulogies were given of his grand 
and noble life, his spotless character as a Christian gentleman, and his great 
benovelence and usefulness as a citizen, through all the trying periods of our 
city's history were acknowledged by all. 

It gives us great pleasure as a church to send a committee to represent us 
at his funeral, and to extend to his family and his friends our sympathy and 
-condolence. The following gentlemen were appointed on the committee : 
O. D. Ranney, James HoUingsworth, B. Chamberlain, H. M. Sherwood, 
H. W. Dudley, and D. W. Irwin. 

The writer has known Deacon Carpenter more than thirty years, and were 
I to select an exemplary man, one whose life and character I could point to 
•with pride, that life would be that of our dear brother Philo Carpenter. " 

Chicago, Aug. ii, 1886. D. W. Irwin. 


The appointed memorial service was held by the pastor 
after his return, early in September. Text, Prov. V., 7, 
"The memory of the just is blessed." His sermon on 
that occasion was extensively reported in the papers. 

The mortal remains of this pioneer,* Sunday-school 
superintendent, church founder, deacon, abolitionist, 
reformer, philanthropist, and Christian brother, sleep in 
Graceland, but his spirit, who can doubt, is with the blessed 
on high. 

Among the bequests of Deacon Carpentcrf was one of 

* Resolutions of Sunday-school Teachers at Farwell Hall, Chicago, Aug. 
8, 1886: — IV/iereas, The officers and teachers of the Saturday noon-meeting, 
held in Farwell Hall, have heard of the death of Deacon Philo Carpenter, at 
the ripe age of 82 years, therefore. 

Resolved, That we place on record our appreciation of his zeal and faithful- 
ness 'in organizing the first Sunday-school in our city in the fall of 1832, of 
which he was the first superintendent. 

Resolved, That we commend the example of his Christian activity and large 
benevolence through a long life as worthy of imitation by the young men of 
our city. 

Resolved, That we extend our sympathies to his bereaved family who have a 
priceless heritage in the memory of his faith in and loyalty to Christ. " 

t "His estate was valued at, personalities $100,000; real estate from $400,- 
000 to $500,000. The personal estate is to be divided between his two 
daughters and the children of a third; the real estate is to be divided into 
four equal parts, three of which are to be given to the heirs, and the fourth, 
after taking out some legacies, among which are $500 each to his old friends, 
Revs. Jeremiah Porter and Flavel Bascom, D.D., is to be devoted to religious 
and educational work as follows: to Oberlin College, $2000; Ripon College, 
$2000; Iowa College, $2000; Berea College, Ky., $5000; Chicago Theologi- 
cal Seminary, $2000; the library of the Chicago Theological Seminary, $iooo- 
New- West Education Commission, $2000; Chicago Historical Society, $1000; 
Chicago City Missionary Soc'y, $2000; American Congregational Union, $2000; 
Illinois Home Missionary Society $1000; Camp-Xelson Academy, Ky., $250; 
Rev. Joseph E. Roy, in trust in opposition to secret societies, $2000; American 
Board of Foreign Missions, $2000; American Missionary Association, $1000; 
American Home Missionary Society, $1000; American Christian Union, $1000; 
to his daughters to be used in opposition to secret societies, $4000; Chicago 
Theological Seminary, to endow an alcove in Hammond Library, $5000; and 
the balance to the Chicago Theological Seminary. " 


$1000 to the Chicago Historical Society, which has beea 
already paid over to the treasurer. The daughters, Mrs. 
Wm. W. Cheney of Chicago, and Mrs. Rev. Edward Hild- 
reth of Los Angeles, California, now have the pleasure of 
personally presenting a bronze bust of their father. The 
cast for this bust was taken after his death by Lorado 
Taft of this city. From it one of marble, made in Paris, 
has been already presented to the Chicago Theological 
Seminary. This of bronze was cast by the American 
Bronze Company of Grand Crossing, Hyde Park, and is 
certainly a creditable work of art that will be recognized 
at once by all who ever knew Deacon Carpenter. If any 
miss the benignity of his expression and the kindness of 
his mild blue eyes, the difficulty of reproducing these 
things in bronze must be remembered. A photograph of 
the old Carpenter homestead will also be an object of 
interest now and hereafter. 

By Mrs. William Barry. 

Read by Belden F. Cilver, before the Chicago Historical Society, Js 

ON May 4, 1876, at the Grand-Pacific Hotel, Chicago, 
passed away from earth one whose life had been a 
succession of noble, disinterested deeds and generous sac- 
rifices, known only to those who had been brought into 
near personal relations with him — Col. Samuel Stone. 
He was born in Chesterfield, Mass., December 6, 1798. 
Left an orphan at the early age of seven years, his pater- 
nal uncle, Samuel Stone of Oxford, Mass., took him 
to his home and became his guardian. For several years 
he attended the Academy at Leicester. When his school 
course terminated, his uncle placed him in a large whole- 
sale store in Boston, where he remained until 18 17 — being 
then nineteen years of age. About this time, he left 
Massachusetts and went to Rochester, N. Y.; his father 
having possessed interests there connected with the orig- 
inal "Holland Purchase." When he became of age he 
took possession of his patrimony, and engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits on his own account. He soon began to 
take a very active interest in the military service of his 
State, and after passing through successive grades, he was 
commissioned by Gov. De Witt Clinton, in 1830, as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of a regiment of riflemen — a position which 
he held until 1834, when, by his own request, he was hon- 
orably discharged. 

The following extracts from "Notes and Incidents of 
Rochester in the Old Time and New, by an Old Citizen," 
will show the estimation in which he was there held: — 



Chicago Photo-Gravure Co, 


Dec. 6, 1798. — May 4, 1876. 


"Sam. Stone was a jolly, good fellow. He now lives in 
Chicago — a very old man. Years ago he was a leading 
merchant in this city. The writer was a long time his 
agent, and knew his general kindness of heart, and that 
many poor. and needy ones had his sympathy and lived 
on his generosity. Though it is many years since, our 
intercourse has been only though correspondence, and Mr. 
Stone is very aged, I send him my most cordial greeting, 
as one of the best of my old friends and most revered. 
May his remnant of life be peaceful and his death, when 
it comes, radiant with hope." 

The writer adds in a foot-note: — 

"Since this was written Samuel Stone has taken his 
place among the silent sleepers of Mt. Hope. Only a few 
weeks ago he died in Chicago, and his faithful daughter 
brought his remains to be deposited among kindred gone 
before, in our beautiful city of the dead." 

His life in Rochester was always full of interest to him. 
Here came to him his greatest joy and his greatest sor- 
row. He married Miss Caroline Alcott, a lady spoken 
of by old citizens there as "one of the beautiful and 
accomplished young ladies of Rochester." She lived but 
few years after their marriage. Of four children born to 
them, two sons died in infancy, two daughters still survive. 
His great bereavements, together with financial disappoint- 
ments and impaired health, led him to give up his con- 
nections there and devote some time to travel and recu- 

About 1843, he went to Detroit. Here he entered act- 
ively into the new life about him, and aided in developing 
some important public interests. He was chosen secretary 
and treasurer of the Board of Internal Improvements, 
which embraced among other public objects what was then 
in their inception, and is now known as The Michigan- 


Central and Michigan-Southern railroads. He filled 
these important and responsible trusts with the energy and 
fidelity which always characterized him. But the labors 
prov^ed too arduous, and his health again gave way, forc- 
ing him to relinquish his post. In 1849, he removed to 
Milwaukee, where he associated himself with the late 
Ezra Cornell in the telegraph enterprise, and invested 
somewhat extensively in telegraph and railroad stocks. 
He assisted in building a telegraph line between Mil- 
waukee and Chicago which, unfortunately, involved its 
projectors in expensive litigation on account of disputes 
about the right of way. His enterprises in Milwaukee 
proving unsuccessful, he abandoned them, and, taking the 
remnant of his fortune, removed to Chicago in 1852. 
Here he continued to live until his decease, with a daugh- 
ter, who had accompanied him with filial devotion, 
through all the vicissitudes of his changeful fortunes. 

Having no special business of his own, and always ear- 
nest and active, he at once devoted himself here, as he 
had done elsewhere, in his energetic but unostentatious 
way to great public objects of interest — chiefly historic, 
scientific, and humane; rendering material aid when it was 
in his power to do so, and, when that failed him, giving 
counsel and personal efibrt. 

After the organization of the Chicago Historical Society, 
in 1856, he was one of the first to visit its rooms, and 
was the bearer of one of the first books presented to its 
library— a valuable and rarely- obtainable work on the 
"Antiquities of Wisconsin," by his brother-in-law. Increase 
A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institute. 

This became an introduction to long and unremitted 
services in various ways for the benefit of the Society and 
in aid of the librarian, to whom he became personally 
attached in a friendship that continued during the remain- 
der of his life. 



In March, 1867, he was elected resident member of the 
Society, to whose various interests he continued to devote 
himself actively and gratuitously. Probably no one bettc 
than he comprehended and appreciated the original plan, 
purpose, and scope of the librarian's operations. He was 
especially helpful in arranging the rapidly-increasing 
material, thus relieving the details of the librarian's labors 
and giving him more time for his special work of collec- 
tion and correspondence. 

In order to facilitate his labors for the Society, and to 
enable him to act in the absence of Mr. Barry, the princi- 
pal secretary and librarian, Col. Stone was appointed, in 
1858, assistant-secretary and librarian, and from that time 
Mr. Barry was enabled to make frequent journeys to 
different parts of the country, when some of the most 
important additions were made to the Society's collections. 

In recognition of the long and devoted service rendered 
by Col. Stone, by a unanimous vote of the Society, March 
15. i859> his name was enrolled among the associate life- 
members, exempting him from all charges and permitting 
him to retain his privileges as a resident active member. 

As he was one of the first to assist in laying the founda- 
tions of the Society, so was he the last to leave the burning 
building with its priceless treasures when the great fire of 
October, 1871, swept them all away. 

The following vivid account of his experience at that 
time was written in a private letter to Mr. Barry, then in 
Europe, dated March 26, 1872: — 

" Between one and two o'clock on the morning of the 
9th of October, 1871, I was aw^akened by a violent ring- 
ing of my house-bell. On jumping out of bed I was 
told that the city was on fire. As soon as possible, I 
dressed and hastened from my house, No. 612 North- 
Clark Street. I went down to Clark-Street bridge, when 
I found that and everything to the eastward enveloped 


in flames. I hastened at once to the historical rooms, 
where I found Mr. Wm. Cochrane, the Hbrarian at that 
time, and who slept there, in the act of receiving trunks, 
boxes, bundles, etc., through the basement-door for 
deposit. Sparks of fire were then flying all about the 
building, and I told Mr. Cochran of the danger of allow- 
ing any more goods to be deposited there, especially such 
as were ignitible. I proceeded at once to take charge of 
the basement-door. Mr. Cochran went out, and as pack- 
ages and bundles were brought, and I was urgently 
pressed to receive them, my sense of the danger and of 
my duty led me stubbornly to refuse to open the door. 
For this I received much abuse. As I could not close 
and lock the door, on account of some object outside 
which prevented, I was obliged to stand and press 
against it. After a few minutes Mr. Cochran called to 
me from the outside, saying that the sidewalk was on fire, 
and the janitor wished to come in to the basement 
hydrant for a pail of water. He was admitted, but I 
have no further recollection about him. 

"The last person who came to the door was a Mrs. 
Stone, who cried to me with a loud voice, begging me to 
take a small box, which I did. At this time voices from 
without called to me that I was in danger. I then 
pitched a heavy trunk against the door to secure it as 
well as I could, and, seeing a window open in the north 
end of the basement, I mounted the upper shelf, on 
which were the newspapers, and lying on my back, I 
closed it with my feet. Here I observed in the rear the 
heavens full of flying sparks, and firebrands falling in 
yard. I hurried at once up one flight of stairs to 
the reception-room, and thence into the upper library- 
room. At this moment a terrible blast of wind, fire, 
and smoke filled the street, and the entire casement of 
the window was in a blaze, hanging like feathers on 


every inch of the window. I immediately hastened 
down to the reception-room to get the record book, and 
the Lincoln proclamation,* which had been deposited 
there for safe-keeping by the Soldiers' Home, to whom it 
belonged. Not finding the record, I attempted to break 
"the frame of the proclamation and take it out. But the 
frame was so stout it was not easily done, and just as I 
was making the attempt, there came another blast of fire 
and smoke, filling the whole heavens, and frightfully dash- 
ing firebrands against the reception-room window. I 
heard at the same time a chinking sound overhead, prob- 
ably from the breaking in of the window or falling of the 
roof. Believing that a minute more in trying to save the 
proclamation would make it too late for my escape, I 
made for the basement- door, stamped out the fire from 
two bundles, pulled away the trunk, and attempted to go 
out, but the suffocating smoke outside prevented. I tore 
open a third smoldering bundle, snatched from it a shawl 
— a camel's hair it was — covered my head, and sprang out 
with as much speed as possible. Glancing around, I could 
see the steps overhead, the sidewalks, front fences, Mr. 
Girard's cottage, and every building south, one mass of 
flames, while firebrands were flying in every direction. 
My only way of escape was by the rear of Mr. Girard's 
cottage. I had no time for the gate, but with a bound 
sprang over the low picket-fence into North-Dearborn 
Street. Just then a blaze of flre struck me with such 
force I felt it to my skin. I dropped my burnt shawl and 

* This, the original copy of the emancipation proclamation, ^with all of 
its interlines and erasions, had been donated by President Lincoln to the 
North-western Fair, for the sanitary commission, held in Chicago, Oct. 26, 
1863. Mrs. Thomas B. Bryan, pi-esident of the Soldiers' Home, purchased 
and presented it to that institution ; and " to create a fund for the erection and 
maintenance of a permanent Home for Sick and Disabled Soldiers," per- 
mitted facsimiles to be taken and sold. At a subsequent meeting of the 
board of managers it was decided to place it in the rooms of the Chicago 
Historical Society. 


ran toward Erie Street, a poor bellowing cow with a 
scorched back following me through North-Dearborn 
Street; another blast of wind and flame and the poor 
cow was out of sight in the dense smoke. Such was the 
force of the blast I purposely dropped down upon my 
hands to prevent being blown over. After this, I 
mounted some high, stone steps on Erie Street, in the rear 
of the historical building, to take a last look of the 
destruction of our fifteen years' labor of valuable gather- 
ings. The entire building, and everything surrounding it, 
was one mass of flames, the fire burning every brick 
apparently, as there was no woodwork on that side of the 
building. It was a painful sight to see it. The heat 
becoming too intense to bear, I was obliged to leave. 
There w^ere no persons near me — every house was aban- 
doned. As I came to the corner of North-Dearborn and 
Erie streets from the historical building, I saw a woman 
running directly east into the fire. I have since been 
told a woman was found there burned to death. At this 
moment a great blast of wind and fire and smoke — the 
blaze being apparently about two or three hundred feet in 
length and about one hundred and fifty feet in height — 
went over me to the right, and passing over two entire 
blocks, poured the full volume into the top of the spire of 
the Church of the Holy Name. In an instant the top was 
in a blaze. There were times when I saw buildings melt 
down in from three to five minutes. Such sights I never 
saw before. Had I known the speed and the heat of the 
coming fire, I could have left my post at the basement- 
door earlier, and could have secured the records and 
proclamation, but it was beyond all my experience. The 
fact of the Mrs. Stone, above-mentioned, calling me by 
name and giving her own name in the hearing of persons 
near her, probably gave rise to the rumor through the 
press that, 'Old Col. Stone and wife perished in the 



*'In regard to others having taken shelter in the build- 
ing, if there they would have been seen by me, unless 
they were hidden in the lecture or wash-room. It is fair 
to presume that I was the last person that left the Histor- 
ical building. I have given all the facts that I can 
remember from the time I entered the building until I 
left. I do not wish to come into any controversy with 
others, nor to have my letter appear sensational to call out 
sympathy, but to be credited, if thought worthy, after 
reading the above statement. 

"Very truly yours, 

"Same. Stone." 

One of the first telegraphic despatches announcing the 
ravages of the fire reported that Col. Stone and wife, Dr. 
Joseph VV. Freer, and others — fifteen in all — had perished 
in the flames of the Historical building. A few days 
later, when he with a party of friends went to visit the 
ruins, then guarded by some of Gen. Sheridan's troops, on 
account of the treasures that had been deposited there 
during the fire, he was asked if he had any interest there 
— if he were looking for anything. "Yes," he replied, 
with his characteristic facetiousness, "I am looking for my 
ghost. They say I was burnt up here." 

After leaving the burning building of the Historical 
Society, instead of returning home he went at once to the 
Eye-and-Ear Infirmary, rescued two of the books of 
record, and assisted many of the blind to escape. He 
then went home, and, in a state of extreme exhaustion 
but great excitement, cried out: "The Historical building 
is gone!" This was his all-absorbing thought. 

Devoted as he was to the success of the Chicago His- 
torical Society, he was scarcely less interested in that of 
the Chicago Academy of Sciences. One can not more 
briefly or pertinently speak of his relation to that institu- 
tion than by quoting from its records the tribute deserv- 


edly rendered to him after his death, which is as follows:^ 
"This Academy is again called to mourn the loss of one 
of its most valuable members in the death of Col. Samuel 
Stone. For several years he has been one of its most lib- 
eral supporters, contributing freely of his money to sustain 
it, and presenting to its collections one of its most costly 
and important fossil specimens. If possible, always pres- 
ent at its meetings, his wise counsels and apt suggestions 
added efficiently to the interest and the progress of this 
institution; therefore, 

''Resolved, That the Academy gratefully recognize the 
services of Col. Stone, and that the secretary be directed 
to spread this tribute to his memory upon the records of 
the Academy." 

After the death of Col. John W. Foster, which occurred 
in 1873, appreciating warmly the services he had rendered 
to the Academy and to science in general, Col. Stone pro- 
posed that his bust should be placed in the museum of 
the Academy; and with his accustomed liberality at once 
subscribed five hundred dollars toward it — the amount 
required being twelve hundred. It will be remembered 
that since Col. Stone's death the bust has been completed 
and unveiled with interesting ceremonies. 

It was through his generosity, also, that the sketch of 
Col. Foster's life, with its accompanying engraving was fur- 
nished to the "United States Biographical Dictionary." 

Col, Stone was a member of the Chicago Astronomical 
Society, and a trustee of the Chicago Charitable Eye-and- 
Ear Infirmary before it became a State institution."" He 

* From the foundation of the Infirmary, in 1858, till 1871, he was the sec- 
retary of the board of trustees. During this period he manifested a warm 
interest in the welfare of the institutiom by his regular attendance at the 
meetings of its officers, by his wise counsels, and by his gifts. He was ever 
interested in the labors of the surgeons, and expresed his sympathies with the 
patients whenever he met them during his private visits to the institution. 


was also an active and generous member of the Illinois 
Humane Society. 

It may not be inappropriate to state, as an illustration 
of his patriotism in advanced years, that in a published 
notice of his life it is related of him that early in the late 
civil war "he went into Camp Douglas, and there assisted 
in organizing and drilling the regiments — a gratuitous 
service, which he rendered with a skill acknowledged as 

Though not a scientist in any specialty, he was warmly 
interested in all scientific researches and discoveries. He 
never feared any conflict between them and the higher 
truths of the spiritual revelation, with which he felt they 
must go hand in hand — as all emanated from the same 
Source. He was, however, particularly fond of experi- 
menting with the microscope and the electric battery, and 
though but an amateur, he pursued his investigations with 
the enthusiasm of an expert. He made the lake water a 
frequent matter of microscopic investigation, as also the 
stagnant deposits in drains and pools, so liable to affect 
unfavorably the city's health. 

Col. Stone was a man of strong characteristics — sharp- 
cut and incisive, thus giving to each trait the appearance 
of a leading feature. But, perhaps, the most marked was 
his wonderful retentive and exact memory. He never for- 
got anything he ever knew, and what he knew he knew in 
such detail that his mind was a volume of unerring records; 
of facts, events, and chronological dates, always open at 
the right page, making him a reliable arbiter of disputed 

His geographical information was of rare extent and 
accuracy. He often seemed to know more about places he 
had never seen, in all parts of the world, than those who 
had visited them, or had been born there. It is related 
of him that on one occasion he was conversing with a Lon- 


doner, to whom he made some statements about the city 
of London, the accuracy of which the former disputed in 
a peremptory manner. The colonel said: "I know I am 
right." "When were you there last.'" asked the English- 
man. "I never was there, but I have read about it, and I 
am positive as to what 1 say." Returning home the Lon- 
doner investigated the matter, and discovered that the 
colonel was correct. Yielding manfully, as Englishmen do 
when they must, he wrote a letter of apology, and sent the 
colonel a beautiful chart of the city as a testimonal of his 
regard for a man who knew more about London, a place 
he had never seen, than one who was born there. 

He was a keen observer of men, and scrutinized char- 
acter with rare penetration. While his soul was full of 
sweet humanity, "with malice toward none and charity for 
all," he hated shams and pretension, and all sorts of crook- 
edness. Too modest to assert his own claims, he was jeal- 
ous of the rights of others, and loved to bring forward and 
aid unrecognized merit. 

Such is a sketch of the outward life and circumstances 
of this good man. One always approaches the inner 
realm with timidity and reverence — especially that of one 
whose sensitive modesty so shielded it even from those 
nearest to him. Standing aloof from creeds and dogmas, he 
sought to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly. 
He visited the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and 
went about doing good with liberal hand. To be doing 
something for the world in which he lived was his delight, 
and the ample fortune he enjo}'ed during the latter part of 
his life enabled him to indulge his benevolent impulses. 

If his name is not emblazoned on the tablets of fame 
— in the houses of widows and orphans, of the desti- 
tute and friendless — the angel has recorded it on the page 
with Ben. Adhem's, as "one who loved his fellow-men." 

And while loving and blessing his fellow-men he sought 



to find out God and His method in the works of creation. 
Born among the inspiring hills of Massachusetts, he early- 
imbibed that love of nature which followed him to the end 
of his earthly career. And whether he regarded the 
heavens and called the stars by name, or viewed the great 
mountains and rivers of the far West, as it was his privi- 
lege to do a few years before his death, or studied the mys- 
teries of a drop of water as revealed by the microscope, he 
sought in all the thought and method of the Creator, and 
pursued his researches with earnestness and enthusiasm. 
For many years before his death he was a great sufferer 
from painful physical infirmity. But this could never 
have been suspected by those who saw his active useful- 
ness — heroic self-forgetfulness and devotion to duty. 

His most striking moral characteristics may be summar- 
ized as unassailable integrity, fidelity in trusts, intense 
humanity, steadfastness in friendship, and absolute unsel- 

He is gone from us. We feel no more the warm, 
friendly grasp of his hand. We hear no more the accents 
of his kindly, cheerful voice; but he has left a record with- 
out spot or blemish, and though dead, he yet speaketh in 
all that he was and all that he did, and the hearts of mul- 
titudes whom he blessed in his life respond in grateful 


PIERRE MENARD was born Oct. 7, 1766, at Saint 
Antoine upon the river Chambly or Richelieu, in the 
Province of Quebec, in Lower Canada. The historians 
of IlHnois who mention him have uniformly described 
him as a native of the City of Quebec, born in 1767^ 
But these statements are shown to be erroneous by the 
register of his baptism, still preserved in the parish 
church of Saint Antoine, which states that in 1766, on 
October 8, was baptized Pierre, born the day before of 
the legitimate marriage of Jean Baptiste Menard, called 
Brindamour, and Marie Francoise Ciree, called St. Michelf 
And the ante-nuptial contract between Pierre Menard 
and Therese Godin, found among his papers? as well a 
the register of their marriage in the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception at Kaskaskia, Ill.f both signed by 
him, alike describe him as a native of Saint Antoine, in 

The village and parish of Saint Antoine are situated 
in the Seignory of Contrecoeur and County of Vercheres, 
thirty-five miles from the City of Montreal, upon the 
north shore of the river Richelieu, and the place is usually 

^ Reynolds' " Pioneer History of Illinois," page 242; Montague's "Directory 
and Historical Sketches of Randolph County," p. 38; "History of Randolph, 
Monroe, and Perry Counties, Illinois," p.' 306; Davidson & Stave's "His- 
tory of Illinois," p. 297. 

^ Parish Register of Saint Antoine de Richelieu, October 8, 1766. 

•'' Original contract in Chicago Historical Society's possession. 

^ Parish Register of Church of Immaculate Conception, Kaskaskia, Illi- 
nois, June 13, 1792. 



known as Saint Antoine de Richelieu^ This river, taking 
its name from the fort at its mouth, called after the 
famous cardinal, was also known as the Sorel, from M. 
de Sorel, who commanded at that fortf and as the Cham- 
bly, from M. de Chambly, who was once in command of 
a fort built at the foot of the rapids on this stream. It 
has also been called the St. Louis and the St. John? 

Pierre Menard's father, Jean Baptiste Menard, called 
B*--' ^an ^r, was the son of Jean Baptiste Menard and 
Ma^ -le Reboulla, who were of the parish of Saint 
Hypolite in the diocese of Alisf This diocese was prob- 
ably that of Alais, in France, founded in 1694, and in the 
Province of Narbonne, in Southern France? There is a 
village of St. Hypolite in this diocese, in the modern 
Department of Gard, which probably was the birth-place 
of Pierre Menard's father, who described himself as a 
native of Languedoc, in France, the ancient name of 
that region.^ The younger Jean Baptiste was born in 
1735, and was in the French service as a soldier in the 
regiment of Guienne. On February 14, 1763, when he 
was twenty-eight years old, he was married at Saint 
Antoine to Marie Fran^oise Ciree, then twenty-two years 
of age, daughter of Jean Baptiste Ciree, called Saint 
Michel, and of Marguerite Bonin of that parish. Of 
this marriage were born five sons, the two elder at Saint 
Antoine, Jean Marie on April 2, 1765, and Pierre on 
October 7, 1766. The three younger sons were born at 
St. Denis de Richelieu ou Chambly, opposite Saint An- 
toine, on the other side of the river Richelieu, to which 
place their parents had removed. Their names and dates 

^ Bouchette's "Topographical Dictionary of Lower Canada," article St. 
Antoine. ^ Charlevoix's "History of New France," (Shea), III, 83. 

2 Bouchette's " Topographical Dictionary, " article Richelieu. 

* Parish Register of Saint Antoine, February 14, 1763. 
^ Letter of John Gilmary Shea, February 2, 1889. 

* Letter of Mrs. Augustine Menard, February 5, 1889. 


of birth were: Hypolite on January 8, 1770, Michel on 
January 11, 1772, and Jean Francois on January 26, 1775? 
The family subsequently resided at Montreal, and at St. 
Philippe, LaTortue, and La Prairie, places in the neigh- 
borhood of that city? Jean Baptiste Menard was in 
several engagements, and is said to have taken part in 
the campaign about Fort DuOuesne. When the Revo- 
lutionary war broke out, he joined the American forces 
and fought under Montgomery at Quebec? 

It was from Montreal that the young Pierre Menard 
went forth to seek his fortune, and found his way to Vin- 
cennes certainly as early as 1788. A letter to him from 
his father, addressed to Mr. Pierre Menard, clerk for Mr. 
Vigo at "Poste Vinsene," is indorsed by him as received 
April 28, 1788; and a letter from his mother, dated at 
Montreal, June 9, 1789, refers to a letter from him of July 
6 of the year before. The mother's letter is addressed 
to Mr. Pierre Menard, called Brindamour, at the house 
of Mr. Vigo at Poste de Vinsenne:* These epistles and 
others from his parents, treasured by him to his death, 
breathe a spirit of the tenderest affection for the absent 
son, and those of his mother, especially, show the writer 
to have been a person of superior intelligence and educa- 
tion. She died at LaPrairie, a village on the south shore 
of the river St. Lawrence, nine miles from Montreal, Sep- 
tember 19, 1807? 

Pierre Menard, while living at Vincennes in 1789, accom- 
panied Francois Vigo across the Alleghany Mountains 
to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where they had an interview 
with President Washington in relation to the defence of 
the Western frontier? He subsequently removed from 

^ Parish Register of Saint Antoine. 

^ Letters from Pierre Menard's parents in Chicago Historical Society's 

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," p. 242; letter of Mrs. Augus- 
tine Menard, Feb. 5, 1889. * Letters ut su/ra. » Ibid. " Ibid. 


Vincennes to Kaskaskia, where he was married, June 
13, 1792, to Miss Therese Godin, then nineteen years^ 
of age, daughter of Michel Godin, called Tourangeau, 
and Therese St. Gemme Beauvais.* The civil contract 
relating to their property matters was entered into the 
same day before Mr. Carbonneaux, the notary-public 
of the County of St. Clair in the Country of the Illinois;, 
and the original document, preserved among his papers, 
is an interesting instance of the late existence of French 
law and custom in this region. The marriage ceremony 
was performed at the church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception at Kaskaskia, by the Rev. Father Saint Pierre. 
Among the witnesses were Gen. John Edgar and his wife 
Rachel Edgar, William St. Clair and his wife Jane St. 
Clair, and William Morrisson, all well-known names in 
the early history of the Illinois Territory. Mrs. Therese 
Godin Menard died in 1804, leaving four children. 

On Sept. 22, 1806, Pierre Menard was married the sec- 
ond time, at Kaskaskia, in the same church, to Angelique 
Saucier, daughter of P"rangois Saucier and Angelique La 
Pensee, and granddaughter of Francois Saucier, once a 
French officer at Fort Chartres, who resigned and settled 
in the Illinois Country. The ceremony was performed 
by Donatien OlHvier, the priest of the parish.-f- Mrs. An- 
gelique Saucier Menard was born at Portage des Sioux, 
March 4, 1783, and died February 12, 1839, leaving six 
children, and was buried in the Menard burial-ground at 
Kaskaskia. :|: 

During his long life in Illinois, Pierre Menard held 
many positions of trust and honor, among which were 
the following: October 5, 1795, he was commissioned a 
major of the first regiment of militia of Randolph County 
by Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory;. 

* Parish Register, Kaskaskia, June 13, 1792. 

+ Parish Register, Kaskaskia, September 22, 1806. 

J Letter of Mrs. Augustine Menard, November 25, 1888. 


August I, 1800, he was again commissioned to the same 
office by John Gibson, acting-governor of the Indiana 
Territory; February 5, 1801, he was appointed one of 
the judges of the court of common pleas of Randolph 
County by William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana 
Territory; September 24, 1802, he and John Edgar were 
associated by the same governor with John Griffin, one 
of the judges of the territorial supreme court, on a com- 
mission of inquiry concerning crimes in the Territory; 
December 14, 1805, he was appointed by the commis- 
sioners of the land-office for the district of Vincennes, a 
commissioner to take depositions and examine witnesses 
Avithin the County of Randolph; December 27, 1805, he 
was again appointed by Gov. Harrison one of the judges 
of the court of common pleas for Randolph County; 
July 12, 1806, Gov. Harrison appointed him lieutenant- 
colonel commandant of the first regiment of militia of 
Randolph County, a position formerly held by John 
Edgar; April i, 1809, Meriwether Lewis, governor of the 
territory of Louisiana, appointed him captain of infantry 
in a detachment of militia on special service; May 6th, 
1809, Nathaniel Pope, secretary of the Illinois Territory 
and acting governor, again appointed him lieutenant- 
colonel of the first regiment of Randolph County militia; 
April 2, 18 1 3, he was made United States sub-agent of 
Indian affiiirs by John Armstrong, secretary of war; and 
•on May 24, 1828, he and Lewis Cass were appointed 
commissioners to make treaties with the Indians of the 
Northwest by John Quincy Adams, president of the 
United States.* Of his territorial and state offices, and 
public services, and of his life and character, an interest- 
ing account will be found in the address of Hon. Henry 
S. Baker, delivered at the unveiling of the statue of Pierre 
Menard at Springfield, 111., and printed herewith. 

Two of Pierre Menard's brothers, Hypolite and Jean 

* Original commissions in possession of the Chicago Historical Society. 


Francois, followed him to Illinois and settled at Kaskas- 
kia. The former was a successful farmer, and the other 
a famous navigator of the Mississippi. Both led useful 
and honored lives, lived to an advanced age, and Doth 
rest near their brother Pierre in the old cemetery at Kas- 
kaskia.* A nephew, also, Michel Menard, having as well 
the family patronymic of Brindamour, who was born at 
LaPrairie, December 5, 1805, made his way to Illinois at 
the age of eighteen. For several years he was employed 
by his uncle Pierre in trading with the Indians. He 
obtained great influence among them, and was elected 
chief of the Shawnees. It is said that he almost suc- 
ceeded in uniting the tribes of the Northwest into one 
great nation, of which he would have been king. In 
1833, Michel went to Texas, was a member of the con- 
vention which declared its independence, and of its con- 
gress. A league of land was granted to him, including 
most of the site of the City of Galveston, which he 
founded, and where he died in 1856. It is related that the 
Indians said of him, as of his uncle Pierre, whom in many 
respects he resembled, "Menard never deceived us."*f- 

Pierre Menard died at the good old age of seventy- 
seven years and eight months, on June 13, 1844, and was 
buried, June 14, 1844, in a vault prepared under his own 
supervision in the graveyard of the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception, at Kaskaskia. And the parish 
burial-record says: "Thither he was accompanied by 
an immense concourse of people."^ 

His children by his first wife were: 

I. Odile Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1793; married 
in 181 1 to Hugh H. Maxwell, a native of Ireland, deceased 
in 1832. She died October 8, 1862. They had twelve 
children, of whom two are Hving. Col. L. Maxwell of 

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., p. 294. 
+ " Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography," IV, 295. 
X Parish Register, Kaskaskia, June 14, 1844. 


New Mexico, known in connection with the "Maxwell 
land-grant," was their son. 

2. Peter Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1797, married 
first Caroline Stillman, in 1830, at Peoria, where she died 
in 1847; and second, Emily Briggs, at Tremont, 111., in 
1850; she is still living with two children. He died in 
Tremont, November 30, 187 1. 

3. Berenice Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1801, mar- 
ried in 18 19 to Frangois C. Chouteau, deceased in 1836. 
She died at Kansas City, Mo., November 19, 1888, at the 
age of eighty-seven years, leaving grandchildren, but no 
children surviving her. 

4. Alzira Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1802; married 
in 1824 to George H. Kennerly; and died at Carondelet,^ 
Mo., in 1885, leaving five children. 

His children by his second wife were: 

1. Frangois P. Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1809, and 
died in January, 1831. 

2. Edmond Menard, born at Kaskaskia, February 8, 
1813, educated at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg,. 
Maryland, and died at Kaskaskia in July, 1884. 

3. Matthew Saucier Menard, born at Kaskaskia, April 
22, 18 17; married at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., to Constance 
Detchemendy; and died September 29, 1832, at St. Louis, 
Mo., leaving no children. 

4. Louis Cyprien Menard, born March 2, 1819; edu- 
cated at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg, Mary- 
land, and admitted to' the bar at St. Louis, Mo., in 1843. 
He was married Oct. 15, 1845, to Augustine Ste. Gemme, 
and died June 2, 1870, leaving his widow and six children. 

5. Amedee Menard, born in 1820, and died in 1844 at 
Peoria, 111. 

6. Sophie A., born November 13, 1822; married, in 
July, 1843, to John D. Radford of St. Louis, deceased in 
1868. She died June 22, 1848, and none of her children 
survive. E. G. M. 

By Hon. Henry S. Baker, of Alton. 

Read before the Illinois State Bar Association, at Springfield, Tuesday, Jan. lo, i8 

FELLOW -CITIZENS: Charles P. Chouteau of St. 
Louis, Mo., having presented to the State of Illinois, a 
statue of Col. Pierre Menard, the first lieutenant-governor 
of our State, we have met here for the purpose of unveiling 
that statue and .of paying a becoming respect to the 
memory of the man whom it is intended to commemorate. 
By a joint-resolution of our legislature in 1885, it grate- 
fully accepted the generous donation, on behalf of the 
State, and directed that the statue be placed in the state- 
house grounds. This being the first historic monument 
placed within those grounds, a greater degree of interest 
might, therefore, be taken in its erection than perhaps 
would otherwise attend it. In connection with the event, 
the duty which I have been called upon to perform, had 
been assigned to the late Elihu B. Washburne of our State. 
His untimely death, however, • not only delayed this cere- 
mony, but disappointed us all in that behalf and deprived 
him of an opportunity of expressing his thoughts upon 
the completion of an event so dear to his heart. 

Why I have been called upon to supply his place, arises, 
I presume, from the fact that I had the good fortune of 
being born and raised in the old town of Kaskaskia, and 
in my boyhood days was personally acquainted with Col. 
Menard and his family, and therefore, if, perhaps, I could 
not perform this duty with equal ability, I could at least 
perform it with equal pleasure. For there is a witchery 


attending the hallowed memories of old Kaskaskia; with 
it, the dreams of romance become realized and the prose 
of life transformed into poetry. It is a legend of the old 
place that, in those days, every man was brave and every 
woman beautiful. 

Kaskaskia is the oldest town in the Mississippi Valley. 
It wasfounded in the year 1700, although visited prior to 
that by Marquette and Joliet in 1673, two hundred and 
fifteen years ago. By the right of discovery, France, dur- 
ing the reign of Louis XIV, acquired title to all our vast 
northwestern territory. At the close of the French-and- 
English War in 1763, all of that territory, with the Cana- 
das included, was ceded to Great Britain. At the time 
of the cession, Vincennes was the centre of authority in 
the Northwest Territory — and so remained until 1809, 
when the Illinois Territory was carved out from it; and 
Kaskaskia made the capital of the new Territory. If but 
little is known, prior to this event, of old Kaskaskia, it 
is to be attributed to the quiet and peaceful virtues of its 
people; for the faults of men, and not their virtues, 
become the records of history. 

In those rudely-refined days, when bravery was a quality 
to be respected and virtue a beauty to be admired^ 
education was not regarded a necessity, much less a luxury. 
During that early period, there were but few schools or 
school-teachers. The priest of the mission was the prin- 
cipal teacher by whom the young were taught the rudest 
fragments of learning and the sublimest articles of faith. 
In connection with this portion of our early history, and 
which is germane to the immediate subject of this address, 
I may say that during that long time, extending over a 
century, as between the Indians, who owned and occupied 
the soil, and the Canadians, who came to make their homes 
among them, there were no troubles; their relations were 
the relations of peace and good - will. Wherever, the 


Canadian made his appearance, the pipe of peace was 
presented as a token of good -faith, and the salutation 
was, "the sun is beautiful. Frenchman! and when you 
come to visit us all our tribes attend you, you shall enter 
in peace into all our cabins." History affords nothing 
more touching than this rude and friendly salutation. The 
first lesson which the French Jesuit sought to impress upon 
the Indian was, that the French King was their father and 
would care for them and protect them. Thus it was that 
the descendants of the proud aristocracy of the days of 
Louis XIV, dwelt in peace and harmony with the wild 
and rude Indian of our American forests. 

To our shame be it said, that the red man of America 
never knew what it was to be cruel and merciless to 
strangers until he came in contact with Spanish pirates 
and British fortune-seekers. 

At the close of our war of the Revolution, the confed- 
erated States of America acquired title to the northwestern 
territory, then claimed by Great Britain under the treaty 
of Paris, 1763. This, of course, did not embrace the Can- 
adas; they still remained a part of the British Empire, 
Four years after the confirmation of the treaty of 1763, 
Pierre Menard was born near Quebec. He was the son of 
Jean B. Menard, an officer in the French-Canadian army; 
so that after all, it would appear that Col. Menard was a 
quasi-Briton, at least, that he was born a British subject. 
When he was some twenty-one years old, he left his home 
and went to Vincennes, then the capital of our entire 
northwestern territory. This was in 1787, the year of the 
adoption of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. Why he sought his home within the jurisdiction 
of our American Government is easily explained: next to 
France, he admired the people who had trampled the lion 
and the unicorn into the dust. While at Vincennes, he 
engaged in dealing in furs and pelts, and acting as an 


agent of our government, in our relations with the Indians. 
After remaining at Vincennes some four years, he went to 
Kaskaskia in 1791, where he continued to reside up to the 
time of his death. In making his home in our American 
RepubHc, as was most natural, he made his home among' 
those akin to him in nationality and religious faith. At 
Kaskaskia, he continued his old business, of trading in 
furs and pelts, and subsequently established one of the 
most extensive trading- houses in all our western terri- 
tories, in connection with Francois Vallc. Their boats 
and barges extended north to the land of the Dakotas 
and south to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Col. Menard had resided, however, only a short time at 
Kaskaskia before the people began to recognize the 
quality of the man, and soon demanded of him duties 
other than dealings in furs and trading with Indians. He 
was a plain and modest man. What he did not know he 
did nofassume to know. From his knowledge of himself 
he believed that he knew more in regard to the quality of 
furs than he did respecting the qualities of legislation — 
but the people who knew him better than he knew himself, 
thought quite differently, and as early as 1795, as appears 
among the records of Randolph County of our State, he 
held the office, in connection with others, of United-States 
justice and member of the court of common pleas, which 
office he continued to hold until 1803, when he was sent as 
a delegate to the territorial legislature, which sat at Vin- 
cennes. In 1809, Illinois was erected into a territory of 
itself, but it was not until 18 12, that it had its own territor- 
ial legislature. That legislature was composed of two 
houses — a council and a house of representatives, the 
former consisting of five and the latter of seven members. 

The territorial government continued from that time 
until the close of the year 18 18, when Illinois was admitted 
as one of the states of our Union. During the entire 


period of our territorial government, Col. Menard was the 
presiding officer of the council; that is, he was the second 
official in our territorial government. This makes a period 
•of twenty-three years, during all of which time in the 
government of our western territories, Col. Menard 
occupied positions among the highest and most honorable 
known to the law. During all that wild and unsettled 
period he proved himself a man without a peer for the 

Up to the admission of Illinois in i8i8, as one of the 
states of our Union, and in the formation of our State 
government, there was no dividing sentiment as to the 
man who should occupy at least the second position in the 
formation of that government; and by universal acclama- 
tion, Col. Menard was declared to , be that man. A 
difficulty, however, seems to have presented itself relative 
to his eligibility. The constitution of i8i8 provided, that 
the governor and lieutenant-governor should each be at 
least thirty years old, and thirty years a citizen of the 
United States. Col. Menard was not naturalized until the 
year i8i6, and therefore was not eligible to the office 
which the voice of the people called upon him to assume. 
The constitutional convention, however, was equal to the 
emergency, and in the schedule to the constitution it was 
provided, that any person thirty years of age, a citizen of 
the United States, who had resided in the State two years 
preceding the election, should be eligible to the office of 
lieutenant-governor. This provision was, of course, 
intended for the benefit of Col. Menard, and in it the 
convention only echoed the voice of our people. Was 
there ever such a tribute paid to a man.? — and that, too, by 
the voice of a free and independent people.' There is no 
precedent in history where the organic law of a free people 
has been changed or modified for the benefit of one not 
seeking the benefit of that modification. If there is any- 


thing wanting to declare and perpetuate the high regard 
in which Col. IMenard was held by those who knew him 
best, this schedule to the constitution of i8i8, will remain 
greater and grander and more enduring as a monument to 
his memory, than the one we are this day unveiling. Col- 
umns, arches, and statues moulder and decay, and the 
memorial and the event are alike forgotten. Legislation 
is a memorial more enduring than either; coming ages can 
read it and ponder over the circumstances which gave it 
birth; it defies the crumbling mould of age and scorns the 
withered finger of time. 

In September, 1818, Col. IMenard was elected lieuten- 
ant-governor of Illinois on the ticket with Gov. Shadrach 
Bond, and in the October following, entered upon the 
duties of his ofiice, which he held with credit to him.self 
and honor to his State until 1822, when he was succeeded 
by Adolphus Frederick Hubbard of Gallatin County. Dur- 
ing the time that Col. Menard held the office of lieutenant- 
governor, a series of laws were adopted for the government 
of our young State, which laws have, to a great extent, 
become the foundation of all subsequent legislation. That 
first and last legislature, held in the old town of Kaskas- 
kia, was in session about two months, and at an expense 
to our state of only a few thousand dollars; it enacted 156 
laws, out of raw material, at an expense that would not 
run a modern legislature over one week. The business of 
our legislature, in the days of Col. IMenard, was to make 
necessary and salutary laws for the government of our 
people and then adjourn. The business of modern legis- 
lation would seem to be the reckless distribution of public 
funds and to see how long the body can remain in session 
without putrefaction. 

During the time that Col. Menard presided over the sen- 
ate of our first legislature, nothing remarkable, outside of 
the ordinary transaction of business, occurred until in 1821, 


when the legislature created the State Bank of Illinois, 
and sought to induce the United States government to 
receive its notes as land-office money. Col. Menard had 
more common-sense than the entire legislature upon that 
subject, and was opposed to the whole scheme. He was 
emphatically a hard-money man, and had no faith in bank- 
note promises. Under our present system of national 
banks, his objection would not lie; for there is a difference 
as wide as the sea, between the wild-cat money of 1821 
and the notes of our present national banks, based upon 
the faith of our national government. The measure, how- 
ever, passed over his protest and became a law. 

Gov. Ford, in his "History of Illinois," relates an anec- 
dote respecting Col. Menard alleged to have occurred in 
the senate chamber upon the passage of the bill. The 
anecdote, to a great extent, must be one of Gov. Ford's 
own making; for no one seems to have been aware of it 
until related by him, and it certainly is not in keepings 
with the character of Col. Menard. He was too dignified 
and polished a gentleman to act unbecomingly while pre- 
siding over the senate. A man who had served in legis- 
lative bodies consecutively for twenty-three years — ten 
years of which as presiding officer over our territorial 
council — would scarcely be the man to perpetrate jokes 
while in the discharge of official business, or act in an 
undignified manner. He was too earnest a man for that. 
The absurdity of the joke is patent on its face; in legis- 
lative bodies bills are passed on a call of the ayes and nays 
and not on a viva-woce vote. This anecdote, no doubt, has 
its origin from a transaction which occurred, some time 
after the adjournment of the legislature, when in a contro- 
versy relative to the policy of the measure, he wound up 
the dispute by offering to bet one hundred dollars that the 
notes of our State Bank would never be received as land- 
office money. Offering to bet in those days was much like 


it is at present — the unanswerable argument, and cut off 
all further debate. The language in which the anecdote is 
told, is equally not in keeping with Col. Menard, as he 
spoke the French and English languages correctly, and 
did not make a mongrel of it. 

With the close of his term of office as lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, in 1822, closed the official life of Col. Menard. For 
twenty-seven years he had been a public servant of our 
people, faithful, honest, industrious, respected, and loved 
by all; and when we reflect that his time, thus devoted, 
was not only detrimental to his personal affairs, but con- 
trary to his tastes and wishes, it is not surprising that, 
when he sought repose in his quiet home, it was one of 
peace and beauty, with the blessing of our people upon 

As a man. Col. Menard was greater than he was a poli- 
tician. He knew nothing of the diplomacy of politics, he 
knew honesty and fair-dealing, and that is what political 
diplomacy seldom comprehends. "To the victor belong 
the spoils," was a lesson which he never learned at the 
chancels of his political faith. He" was not familiar with 
the liquid language of office-seekers. His plain and solid 
thoughts were expressed in plain and solid language. 
The people and the poor understood him, and his wisdom 
and his virtues went with him, hand in hand, down the 
silent river of time. On his retirement from public office 
he devoted his time not less to his own private affairs than 
to the good work of charity among the poor and the 
unfortunate, and if there ever was in Illinois one who did 
more in that direction, his name has not been written. 

Col. Menard was married to his second wife at St. Louis 
in 1806. She was Miss Angelique, daughter of Fran9ois 
Saucier, a lady noted for her generous hospitality and her 
elegant and refined manners. Her charities were the gifts 
of silence; unknown to the world, they were dispensed with 


a loving hand, to the poor and unfortunate. A true French 
lady, she could not forget her France nor the halo which 
shown around its throne. By this wife, Col. Menard was 
the father of five children, three sons and two daughters, all 
of whom are now dead. The last of his surviving children 
was Edmund Menard. His father had taken great pains 
in his education, and he graduated at one of the most 
learned universities. He was a man not only of learning, 
but of refined tastes. Years ago he served a session in 
our legislature, as a member from Randolph County; but 
disgusted, he withdrew from politics, and made a hermit's 
home in the decaying ruins of his father's mansion. Piece 
by piece the roof-tree fell; a few years ago he died, and 
nothing now remains of the old home and its people, 
except the ground upon which it rested, and their silent 

Col. Menard was a man of wonderful public enterprise, 
and the especial friend of schools and education. There 
was no movement in the direction of learning or of public 
morals in which he did not take an earnest interest. A 
true and faithful Catholic, he did not confine morals to the 
dogmas of the church, nor education to its teachings. He 
had a great and enduring faith in the ultimate greatness of 
this country, and a belief that that greatness was to rest 
upon the education and morals of its people; and that 
those qualities were not confined. 

Col. Menard died at his home, opposite Kaskaskia, on 
the eastern bank of the river, in 1844, at the age of 'JJ 
years, and was buried upon the banks of that quiet river 
which flowed near his home. 

Well might it be said of him : 

All private virtue is a public fund; 
As that abounds the State decays or thrives; 
Each should contribute to the general stock, 
And who lends most, is most his country's friend. 


In those early days, before steamboats plied our West- 
ern waters, and when our traffic upon them was carried in 
keelboats and canoes; Kaskaskia, on the western bank of 
the river of that name, a few miles from where it joined 
the Mississippi, afforded one of the safest harbors and 
largest markets in our entire Northwest Territory. 

The honest and simple-minded Canadian had no con- 
ception of boats being propelled by any other power than 
by the wind or by oars. No wonder, then, that when the 
first steamboat undertook to make a trip up the Kaskaskia 
River, the innocent Frenchman thought it was a sawmill. 
The only thing he had ever seen worked by steam was the 
sawmill at St. Vrain, a mile on the river above the resi- 
dence of Col. Menard. An honest-hearted race of brave 
and hardy men; they did not know the difference between 
a steamboat and a sawmill; but one thing they did know 
and fully understand, and that was the difference between 
the noble generosity of poverty and the skimping grudge 
of millions of meanness. They were a people modest in 
their virtues, but heroic in their duties; they would divide 
their last pone with the needy, and yet fight the aggressor 
to the bitter end. In their silent graves, could they but 
hear the roar of our present trade, it is doubtful whether 
they would ever pray for a resurrection. The very river 
upon whose placid waters they paddled their light canoes, 
has become the bed of the wild currents of the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers, and that beautiful and rolling penin- 
sula whereon the old town was located, has become a 
desert island. The history of the world affords no parallel 
to the rapid and absolute desolation of old Kaskaskia. 
Towns and cities have gone down to ruin, but yet have 
left some traces of their former greatness. Not so with 
old Kaskaskia; the very earth upon which she stood has 
become a desert and a desolation. Night and ignorance 
have wrapped themselves around her, and she rests alone 


in the memories of the past. It is scarcely beyond the life 
of those now living, when she was the most important 
place in our Western territories, the centre of trade in Illi- 
nois, the capital of our Territory, the capital of our State, 
and, with a population of about 3000 people, embraced a 
large proportion of the wisdom and learning, wealth, and 
elegance of Illinois. In 1824, more than a quarter of a 
■century before railroads were known, Gen. Lafayette trav- 
eled over 800 miles to pay his respects to the people of 
that old town. No wonder that it has hallowed memories. 
In those halcyon days, she numbered among her people 
those not unknown to fame. There was Gen. John Edgar, 
the friend of Gen. Lafayette, and one of the largest land- 
holders who ever resided in Illinois. There was Shadrach 
Bond, the first governor of our State, with his tall, majes- 
tic bearing, with a countenance severe, but a heart warm 
and generous. There was Pierre Menard, our first 
lieutenant-governor, whose virtues and whose memory we 
are this day seeking to perpetuate by the dedication of 
that statue we unveil. There was Judge Nathaniel Pope, 
our first delegate to congress, while we were yet a Terri- 
tory, and by whose wisdom and perseverance we acquired 
the great city of Chicago. There was Elias Kent Kane, 
among the first and most illustrious of our United States 
senators, and who went down to the grave at his post of 
duty, in the early prime of his manhood. There was 
William Morrison, the rival of Col. Menard in mercantile 
■enterprises and the baronial cultivator of land. There was 
Robert Morrison, the brother of William, who managed 
the transportation of our mails through the then almost 
untrodden forests of our State. There was Sidney Breese, 
not less illustrious as a senator in congress, than as a 
■learned and accomplished jurist, one who during a long 
and laborious life as a justice of our supreme court, threw 
I'ays of light and beauty upon the rasping dogmas of the 


law. There was David Jewett Baker, who, by appoint- 
ment from Gov. Edwards, occupied a seat in the United 
States senate, and who, during a long life devoted to his 
profession, brought to the learning of the law, the wisdom 
of its accuracy. 

There were the St. Vrains, the elder brother of whom, 
for years, acted as the United-States Indian agent for Illi- 
nois, and was so cruelly murdered by his Indian guide 
during the Black-Hawk war. There was Edward Hum- 
phrey and Miles Hotchkiss, the receiver and register of 
the land office for our entire State. There was John A. 
Langlois, the financial agent of the firm of Menard & 
Valle. There was Edward Widen, the polished gentleman 
and enterprising merchant. There was Hugh Maxwell, 
the son-in-law of Col. Menard, an extensive merchant and' 
a planter; the father of Lucien Maxwell, the only man 
who ever yet owned an estate in our government equal to 
the entire New-England States. There was Thomas 
Mather, who never could make his paper money, land- 
office money; and James L. Lamb, and Roberts, and 
Owens, and others who abandoned the doomed old town, 
and removed to Springfield when it was made the capital 
of our State. 

There are hundreds of others, whose names might well 
be named in connection with the early history of Kaskas- 
kia, but must, upon an occasion like this, be foregone. 
They were the pioneers in the early history of our Terri- 
tory and of our State. They were the men, the "Illinoi.s,"' 
who planted the germs of our present greatness, and it 
well becomes us that we should perpetuate their names in 
monuments and statues. The footprints which they have 
left behind them, should not be lost, and the memory of 
their virtues should be preserved. This statue, which we 
unveil is to represent and perpetuate the memory of one 
who did his part like a man and a hero in the fierce 
battles of life. 


As I have heretofore said, by a joint- resolution of our 
legislature, it was directed that this statue should be 
placed upon the grounds surrounding the capitol of our 
State. It is the first to be placed upon these grounds, but 
should not be allowed to be the last. Monuments, and 
statues, and columns, and arches, are the open books of 
civilization; with their neglect and decay, ignorance and 
vandalism supply their places. Here in the beautiful city 
of Springfield, the centre and capital of our State, a 
beginning has been made to perpetuate the memories of 
those who have been true and faithful in the battle of Hfe. 

To Charles P. Chouteau of St. Louis, we are indebted 
for this historical statue. Let us not forget the example 
so nobly set before us; and let us, not from our plenty, but 
from a love for all that is noble and generous, raise 
monuments to the memory of our illustrious dead, so that 
future generations may read in them the wisdom of life 
and the immortality of its virtues. 


From the originals in the possession of the Chicago Historical Society. 

AxTE-NuPTiAL Contract between Pierre Menard 

AND Miss Therese Godin, c.vlled Tour- 

ANGEAU, June 13, 1792: 

(Translated from the French. ) 

BEFORE the Notary Public of the County of St. Clair in 
the country of the Illinois. The undersigned, residing 
in the parish of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady of 
the Kaskaskias, the place of meeting, and. the undersigned 
witnesses were present. In person Mr. Pierre Menard, 
bachelor, having attained his majority, legitimate son of 
Mr. Jean Baptiste Menard, called Rrindamour, and of Dame 
Marie Fran^oise Ciree Saint Michel, his father and mother, 
native of the Parish of Saint Antoine upon the river 
Chambli, Province of the holy diocese of Quebec in 
Canada, a trading merchant living in the said Parish of 
Kaskaskia, agreeing for himself and in his own name for 
one part. 

And Miss Therese Godin, called Tourangeau, daughter 
of the late Mr. Michel Godin, called Tourangeau, and of 
Dame Thesese Ste. Geme Beauvais, her father and mother, 
living in this before-mentioned parish of the Kaskaskias. 
The said Dame Therese Ste. Geme Beauvais agreeing for 
the said Miss Theresa, her daughter, aged nineteen years, 
in her name and with her consent for the second part. 

Which parties, to wit, on the part of the said Mr. Pierre 
Menard, Mr. Francois Janis, Esquire, Captain of a Com- 
pany of Citizen militia of this parish, Messrs. Pierre Bon- 
neau, and Pierre Latulippe his witnesses and friends: 

And on the part of the said Miss Therese Godin Tour- 


angeau, Dame Therese Ste. Geme Beauvais, her mother; 
Charles Danis, her maternal uncle, as having married the 
late Miss Ursule Ste. Geme Beauvais; Nicholas Canada, 
her maternal uncle, as having married Miss Marie Helene 
Ste. Geme Beauvais; Ambroise Dagne, her cousin; Jean 
Baptiste Cailliot Lachanse; all her relatives and friends, 
which parties by the advice and consent of their relatives 
and friends herein named having knowledge of it, have 
agreed to have made between them the agreement and 
articles of marriage as follows, to wit: 

The said Dame Therese Ste. Geme Beauvais promises to 
give and deliver the said Miss Theresa Godin, her daugh- 
ter, with her consent, to the said Mr. Pierre Menard who 
promises to take her for his true and lawful wife and to 
cause to be celebrated and solemnized the marriage in the 
presence of our. holy mother Church Catholic, Apostolic, 
and Roman, the rather that doing so would be what one 
of the parties would require of the other. 

For to be, the said future husband and wife, one and the 
same in all property personal and real increase and acqui- 
sitions, present and future, without being held for the 
debtb, the one for the other, made and incurred before the 
celebration of the said marriage, and if any are found, 
they shall be paid and discharged by him or her who shall 
have made and incurred them and from his own property 
without the other or his goods being at all held for the 

The said future husband and wife take each other with 
their goods and rights actually belonging to each, such as 
have come to them through inheritances or as gifts and 
those that may fall due in the future in whatever sum they 
may amount, and of whatever nature and value they may 
be, and in whatever place they may be found located, 
which shall become wholly in common from the day of the 
marriage ceremony. 


In consideration of which marriage the said future hus- 
band has endowed and does endow the said future wife, 
with a thousand Hvres of fixed dower paid at one time to 
have and to take out of all the property of the said future 
husband without being held to make demand for it in 
court, to be enjoyed by the said future wife and her chil- 
dren, according to the custom of Paris. 

The marriage-settlement provision shall be equal and 
reciprocal to the survivor of them to the amount of five 
hundred livres to be taken by the said survivor in per- 
sonal property from their common stock, or the said sum 
in full in cash at the choice or option of the said survivor. 

It shall be lawful for the said future wife, the said future 
husband happening to be the first to die, herself and her 
children to renounce the present community of goods, and 
of it to retake and hold in renouncing it all she will be 
able to prove she has contributed to it, with her dower and 
marriage settlement provision such as it is hereinbefore 
written free from all the debts of the common stock except 
if .she was bound for any of them, or had been impleaded 
or adjudged to pay any of them, in which case she and her 
children shall be indemnified by the parents of the said 
future husband, and out of his property. 

In consideration of which marriage and for the good 
true aftection which the said future partners feel the one 
for the other, they have made and do make by these pres- 
ents free gift pure and simple and for ever irrevocable, and 
in the most binding form in which a gift can be made to 
the last survivor of them, all and ever their property real 
and personal increase and acquisitions which the first one 
dying shall leave at the day and hour of decease to enjoy 
by the last survivor in full property, and as to whatever 
belongs to that one this present deed of gift is thus made 
for life and upon the understanding that there is no living 
child born or to be born of the said marriage; in which 


case of a child the said deed or gift will be wholly null, it 
being well understood that the property of the patrimonial 
inheritance of the one and the other shall return to their 

And in order to place on record these presents at the 
registry of this district in the aforesaid place at the date 
of these presents, they have constituted their procurator 
the bearer of these presents. For thus it has been agreed 
upon. Promising, etc., undertaking, etc., renouncing, etc. 
Done and decided in the house of the said Dame Therese 
Ste. Geme Beauvais, widow of the late Michel Godin Tou- 
rangeau at the said Kaskaskias, the year one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-two, and the thirteenth day of 
the month of June, in the afternoon; the sixteenth year of 
the Independence of the United States of America, in 
the presence of the relations and of friends of whom 
some have signed with the future husband and wife and 
we the notary have subscribed and the others have made 
their ordinary mark, after reading made according to the 
ordinance. (Two witnesses in the margin are approved.) 
FRAN901S jANis. Pierre Menard. 

Therreuese Godin. 
ve Godin. 

Nicolas x' Canada. Pierre x' Bonneau. 

mark mark 

J. Bte. x' Lachanse. Pierre x' Latulippe. 

mark mark 

his _ 

Ambroise X Dagnet. 


l66 early chicago and illinois. 

Pierre Menard's Commissions as Major of Militia: 

Territory of the United States ) Arthur St. Clair Esquire 
Northwest the R.iver Ohio j Governor and Com- 

mander in Chief of the Territory of the United States 
North West the River Ohio. To Peter Menard Esquire: 

You being appointed Major in the first Regiment of 
Militia of the County of Randolph by Virtue of the Power 
Vested in me I do by these presents Reposing Special 
Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty Courage and good 
Conduct, Commission You Accordingly. You are there- 
fore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a 
Major — in leading— ordering and exercising Said Militia 
in Arms both Inferiour Officers and Soldiers and to keep 
them in Good order and discipline. And they are hereby 
Commanded to Obey you as their Major — and you your- 
selfe to observe and follow Such Orders and Instructions 
as you Shall from time to time receive from me or your 
Superiour Officers. 
P^ ,-, Given under my hand and the Seal of the Said 
•- ^^ -' Territory of the United States this fifth day of 
October in the year of our Lord one thous seven hundred 
and ninety-five and of the Independence of the United 
States the twentieth. Ar. St. Clair. 

[Endorsed:] Before me John Edgar Leut. Colonel Com- 
mandant of the first Regt. of Militia of the County of 
Randolph by Virtue of a Dcdivms Potcstatem to me and 
Lordner Clark directed or either of us Personly appeared 
Peter Menard who being duly Sworn did take the oaths 
prescribed by an Act of the United States entitled an Act 
to regulate the time and maner of administring certain 
Oaths and the Oath of Office. In Witness Whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand at Kaskaskias the 25 day of Octr. 


By John Gibson, Esq'r, Secretary and now acting as Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana 
Territory : 

United States, ) To Peter Menard, Esq'r, of the County 
Indiana Territory. J of Randolph, Greeting: — 

You being Appointed a Major of a Regiment of the 
Mihtia in said County. By Virtue of the power Vested 
in me; I do by these presents, (reposing special Trust and 
Confidence in your Loyalty; Courage and Good Conduct) 
Commission you accordingly; You are therefore carefully 
and diligently to discharge the duty of a Major in leading, 
ordering, and exercising said Regiment in Arms, both 
inferior officers and Soldiers; and to keep them in good 
order and discipline; And they are hereby commanded to 
obey you as their Major. And you are yourself to observe 
and follow such orders and Instructions as you shall from 
time to time receive from me or your Superior Officers: — 

Given under my hand and the seal of said Terri- 
'- ^ tory, the first day of August in the Year of 

our Lord one Thousand Eight hundred and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America, the Twenty- 
fifth. J NO. Gibson. 

[Endorsed:] Peter Menard, Esq'r, Major. 

Before me, John Edgar, Lieut'-Colonel, Commandant of 
the First Regiment of Militia of the County of Randolph, 
by Virtue of a Dedimtis Potestatem to me directed Person- 
ally appeared Peter Menard who, being duly sworn, did 
take the Oath prescribed by an Act of the United States 
entituled an Act to regulate the time & manner of admin- 
istering certain Oaths & the Oath of Office. 

In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 
Tenth day of September in the Year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred. J. Edgar. 


PiERRL Menard's Commission as Judge of the 
Courts of Randolph County: 

William Henry Harrison, Esq., Governor and Commander 
in Chief of Indiana Territory, 

( To Peter Menard, Esquire, of the 
Indiana Territory. | County of Randolph sends Greeting: 

Know you that reposing Especial trust and confidence 
in your abilities, integrity and judgement, I, the said William 
Henry Harrison have appointed, and do by these presents 
appoint and commission you, the said Peter Menard, to 
be one of our Judges of the court of common pleas, in 
and for our said County, hereby giving and granting unto 
you full right and title to have and Execute all and singu- 
lar the powers. Jurisdictions and authorities, and to recieve 
and enjoy all and singular the Emoluments, of a Judge of 
the court of common pleas, of a Judge of the Orphans Court, 
and of a Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the 
peace in and for the county aforesaid agreeably to the 
constitution of the laws of this Territory to have and to 
hold this commission and the office hereby granted to you 
so long as you shall behave yourself well. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Ter- 

*- ^^ -■ ritory at Vincennes.this fifth day of February 

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

one and of the Independence of the United States the 

twenty fifth. By The Governor, J NO. GiBSON, Secretary. 

[Endorsed:] Commission Peter Menard, Esq. 

Pierre Menard and John Edgar's Commissions as 
Associate Judges, Criminal Court, Randolph Co.: 

Indiana ) William Henry Harrison Esquire, Gov- 

Territory j " ernor and Commander in Chief of the 
Indiana Territory, to John Edgar and Peter Menard of 
the County of Randolph Esquires, Greeting: 


-Whereas we assigned the Honble. John Griffin Esqr. one 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Indiana Terri- 
tory, our Justice to enquire by the Oaths of Honest and 
Lawful Men of the County of Randolph, by whom the 
truth of the Matter may be better known, of all Treasons, 
Insurrections and Rebellions, and of all Murders, Felonies, 
Manslaughters, Burglaries, Rapes of Women, unlawfull 
uttering of Words, unlawful assemblies, Misprisions, Con- 
federacies, false allegations, Trespasses, Riots, Routs, Con- 
tempts, falsities. Negligences, Concealements, Maintainces, 
Opressions, deceits and all other Misdeeds, Offences & 
Injuries whatsoever, and by whomsoever and howsoever 
done, had or perpetrated and Committed, and by whom, to 
whom, where, how and in what Manner the same have 
been done, perpetrated or Committed and all and singular 
the premises and every of them for this time to hear 
and determine according to Law, and to cause to be 
brought before him all the prisoners who shall be in the 
Jail of the said County together with all and singular the 
Warrants, attachments, Mittimuses, and other documents, 
touching the said prisoners, and for this time to deliver 
the Jail of the said County of all the prisoners in the said 
Jail, for all and every of the said offences, according to 
Law. And we have associated you the said John Edgar 
and Peter Menard to act in the premises with the said 
John Griffin. Yet so, that if at certain days and places, 
which the same John Griffin shall appoint for this purpose, 
you shall happen to be present, then that he admit you a 
Companion, otherwise the said John Griffin (your presence 
not Being expected) may proceed to act in the premises, 
And therefore we command you and each of you that you 
attend to act with the said John Griffin in form aforesaid 
in the premises For we have Commanded the said John 
Griffin the admit you as a Companion for this purpose as 



rq ]■] Witness: William Henry Harrison Esquire Gov- 
ernor and Commander of the Indiana Territory 
at Vincennes this 24th September 1802 and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the Twenty Seventh. 
By the Governor, y q 

Jno. Gibson, iA.Jc^^c£^ y^^W>T^y^ o >v^ 

Secrety. ■ 

Indiana ) William Henry Harrison Esquire Gov- 

Territory j ernor of the Indiana Territory to the 

Honble. John Griffin Esqr. one of the Judges in and over 
said Territory and John Edgar and Peter Menard Esquires 
of the County of Randolph, Greeting: 

Whereas, we have assigned you the aforesaid John Grif- 
fin our Justice, to Inquire more fully by the Oaths of 
Honest and lawful men of the County of Randolph, by 
whom the Truth of the Matter may be Better known, of 
all treasons, Insurrections and Rebellions, and of all Mur- 
ders, Felonies, Manslaughter, Burglaries, Rapes of Women, 
unlawful Uttering of Words, unlawful Assemblies, Mis- 
prisons, Confederacies, Maintainances, Oppressions, deceits 
and all other Misdeeds and offences and Injuries, whatso- 
ever and by whomsoever, and howsoever done, had, per- 
petrated or Committed and all and Singular the premises 
and every or any of them for this time, to hear and deter- 
mine according to Law. And afterwards associated the 
said John Edgar and Peter Menard with you the aforesaid 
John Griffin in the premises, We Command you, that if 
You all cannot conveniently attend to act in the premises, 
that you or any two of you, who shall happen to be pres- 
ent, of which we will that you the said John Griffin be 
one, proceed to act in the premises according to Law. 

(o |-| Witness William Henry Harrison Esquire Gov- 
ernor of the Indiana Territory at Vincennes this 
Twenty Fourth day of September in the Year of our Lord 


one thousand eight hundred and two and of the Indepen- 
dence of the United States the Twenty Seventh. 

By the Governor, (sd) WiLLM. Henry Harrison. 
Jno. Gibson, Secrety. 

Pierre Menard's Commission to take Testimony 
in Land-Office Claims: 

To Pierre Menard, Esquire 

Reposing full Confidence in your Integrity, we hereby 
appoint you a Commissioner to examine witnesses and 
take Depositions within the County of Randolph, in sup- 
port of Claims entered in the Registers Office of the Dis- 
trict of Vincennes. Given under our Hands this 14th day 
of December 1805. JOHN Badollet 

Nathl. C. Pring 
Conmiissioner of the land office 

for the District of Vincennes. 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of Court 
OF Common Pleas, Randolph County: 

William Henry Harrison, Governor, and Commander in 

Chief of the Indiana Territory, To Pierre Menard, 

Esquire, of the County of Randolph, sends Greeting: — 

Know you, That reposing special trust and confidence in 

your integrity, judgment and abilities, I have appointed, 

and by these presents I do appoint and commission you 

the said Pierre Menard a JUDGE of the Court of Common 

Pleas, in the said County of Randolph, hereby giving and 

granting unto you, as judge of the common pleas, full 

right and title to have and execute all and singular the 

powers, jurisdictions and authorities, and to receive and 

enjoy all and singular the lawful emoluments of a judge 


of the said court of common pleas: to have and to hold 
this commission, and the office hereby granted to you, the 
said Pierre Menard, so long as you shall behave yourself 

^^ ,_, Given under my hand, and the seal of the said 


'- -■ territory, at Vincennes, this Twenty Seventh 

day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand 

eight hundred and Five, of the independence of the United 

States of America the thirtieth. 

This Commission to be in force from and after the ist 
day of January, 1806. 

By the Governor's Command, 

J NO. Gibson, Secrerary. 
[Endorsed:] Peter Menards Commission as Judge of the 
Court of Common pleas. 

Indiana Territory ) Before me, Michael Jones (dul}- 

Randolph County 3 authorized to administer the oaths 
of office to all officers civil & Military of said County, by 
Dedimus potestatem from the Governor of said Territory 
dated the third day of May 1806), personally appeared 
Peter Menard Esquire, and took the oaths of office as 
Judge of the Court of common pleas for said County as 
required by law. 

Given under my hand at Kaskaskia the eighteenth 
day of July 1806. 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel 
First Regiment Randolph County Militia, 


William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in 

Chief of the Indiana Territory, to Pierre Menard, 

Esq'r, Greeting: — 

Reposing special trust and confidence in your fidelity, 

courage and good conduct, I have appointed you a Lieu- 


tenant Colonel Commandant of the first regiment of the 
Militia of the county of Randolph and you are hereby 
appointed accordingly. You are therefore carefully and 
diligently to discharge the duty of a Lieut. Colo. Commandt. 
in leading, ordering and exercising the said regiment in 
arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and to keep them 
in good order and discipline, and they are hereby com- 
manded to obey you as their Lieutenant Colo. Commandt. 
and your are yourself to observe and follow such orders 
and instructions as you shall from time to time receive 
from me or your superior officers. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto caused 

'- ^ the seal of the territory to be affixed, the 

twelfth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand 

eight hundred and six and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the thirty first. 

WiLLM. Henry Harrison. 
By the Governor's command, 

JNO. Gibson, Secretary. 
Indiana Territory, ) ^^ Before me the subscriber (author- 
Randolph County. J ized by Dcdiimis Potcstatem 
from the Governor of said Territory, dated the third day 
of May, 1806, to administer the oaths of office to all offi- 
cers civil and military of said county) personally appeared 
Peter Menard Esquire, and took the oaths of office as 
Colonel of the first Regiment of Militia of Randolph 
County as required by law. Given under my hand at 
Kaskaskia the iSth day of July, 1806. MiCH. JONES. 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Captain of 
Infantry in Louisiana Territory: 
Meriwether Lewis, Governor and Commander in Chief 
of the Territory of Louisiana, to all who shall see 
these presents, Greeting: — 


Know ye, that reposing special trust and confidence 
in the patriotism, valour, fidelity and abitities of Peter 
Menard I have appointed him a Captain of Infantry in a 
Detachmt. of Militia, on special service he is therefore 
carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of Captain 
by doing and performing all manner of things hereunto 
belonging, and I do strickly charge and require all Officers 
and Soldiers, under his command to be obedient to his 
orders as Captain and he is to obey such orders and direc- 
tions from time to time, as he shall receive from me, or his 
superior officers. This commission to continue in force 
during the pleasure of the Governor of the Territory for 
the time being. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have caused the Seal 

[beaij ^^ ^^^ Territory to be hereunto affixed this 

first day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand 

eight hundred and nine and of the independence of the 

United States the thirty third. 

Meriwether Lewis. 

By Frederick Bates, Secretary 

of the Territory of Louisiana. 

[Endorsed:] Territory of Louisiana, Src, Personally 
appeared before me, the subscriber duly authorized to ad- 
minister the several oaths to Office within the Territory 
aforesaid, Peter Menard who took the Oath to Support 
the Constitution of the United States as well as the oath 
faithfully to discharge the duties of a Captain of Militia 
on special service to the best of his abilities, skill, and 
judgment, and in conformity to the within Commission. 

Given under my hand at St. Louis this i8th of May, 

1 809. 

Thos. F. Riddick. 

pierre menard papers. 1/5 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel 

First Regiment Randolph County Militia, 

under the Laws of Illinois Territory: 

Nathaniel Pope, Secretary of the Illinois Territory, and 
exercising as well the Government as Commander in 
Chief of the Militia thereof, To all who shall see 
these Presents, Greeting: — 

Know ye, that reposing special trust and confidence in 
the patriotism, valour, fidelity and abilities of Pierre 
Menard I have appointed him Lieutenant Colonel of ist 
Regiment of Militia of Randolph County he is therefore 
carefully and diligently to, discharge the duty of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel by doing and performing all manner of things 
thereunto belonging, and I do strictly charge and require 
all officers and soldiers under his command to be obedient 
to his orders as Lieutenant Colonel and he is to obey such 
orders and directions from time to time, as he shall receive 
from the Commander in Chief, or his superior officers. 

This commission to continue in force during the pleas- 
ure of the Governor of the territory, for the time being. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto affixed 
rSeall . . 

•- ^ my private seal, there being no seal of office, at 

Kaskaskia, the Sixth day of May, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and nine and of the Indepen- 
dence of the United States, the thirty-third. NAT PoPE. 
[Endorsed:] Lewtenant Colo. P. Menard. 

This day came before me the within named Piere Men- 
ard and took an oath to support the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Kaskaskia May 26th i 

176 early chicago and illinois. 

Pierre Menard's Commission as Indian Agent: 

War Dept., April 2nd, 18 13. 
Pierre Menard Esqr. 

Sir — You are hereby with the approbation of the Presi- 
dent of the United States appointed sub agent of Indian 

In discharging the duties of this appointment you will 
be governed by such instructions as you shall receive from 
this Department or from General William Clark, Agent of 
Indian Affairs at St. Louis, M. Territory. 

Your compensation will be at the rate of Six hundred 
dollars per annum, to commence on the date of your enter- 
ing upon the duties of this appointment. 
P^ ,-| Given at the War Office of the United States,, 
this Second day of April, eighteen hundred 
& thirteen. John Armstrong. 

Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard's Commissions 
to make Indian Treaties: 

John Quincy Adams, President of the United States 

of America, To all who shall see these presents, 

Greeting: — 

Know Ye, That in pursuance of the Act of Congress 

passed on the twenty-fourth day of May, 1828; entitled 

"An act to enable the President of the United States to 

hold a treaty with the Chippewas. Ottawas, Pattawattimas, 

Winnebagoes, Fox and Sacs Nations of Indians," and 

reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Abilities,. 

Prudence and Fidelity of Lewis Cass of the Territory of 

Michigan, and Pierre Menard of the State of Illinois, I 

have nominated and by and with the advice and consent 

of the Senate, do appoint them Commissioners of the 

United States, with full power and authority to hold con- 


ferences and to conclude and sign a treaty or treaties with 
the Chippewas, Ottowas, Pattavvattimas, Winnebagoes^ 
Fox and Sacs Nations of Indians, of and concerning all 
matters interesting to the United States, and the said 
Nations of Indians, transmitting the same to the President 
of the United States of America, for his final ratification 
by and with the consent and advice of the Senate of the 
United States. This commission to continue in force 
during the pleasure of the President of the United States 
for the time being. 

^^ ,^ In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Let- 

r Seall ' 

'- -' ters to be made patent, and the Seal of the 

United States to be hereunto affixed. Given under my 

hand at the City of Washington, the twenty-fourth day of 

May, A.D. 1828; and of the Independence of the United 

States, the fifty-Second. J. Q. Adams. 

By the President, H. Clay, Secretary of State. 

Extracts from the Parish Registers of Saint 
Antoine de Richelieu ou Chambly, Province 
DE Quebec, Comte de Vercheres, Canada: 

Le 14 Fevrier, 1763, J. Bte Menard dit Brindamour soldat 
du regiment de Guienne, age de 28 ans, fils de feu J. Bte 
Menard, et de Madelaine Reboulla ses pere et mere de la 
paroisse de St. Hypolite Diocese d'Alis, epousa Marie 
Fran^oise Ciree, agee de 22 ans, fille de J. B'e Ciree dit 
St. Michel, et de Marguerite Bonin, de cette paroisse. 

The fourteenth of February, 1763, J. Baptiste Menard, 
called Brindamour, soldier of the regiment of Guienne, 
aged 28 years, son of the late J. Baptiste Menard and of 


Madelaine Rcboulla, his father and mother of the parish 
of Saint Hypohte, diocese of Alis, married Marie Fran- 
•^oise Ciree, aged 22 years, daughter of J. Baptiste Ciree, 
called Saint Michel, and of Marguerite Bonin of this 

"L'an mil sept soixante et six le huit d' Octobre par 
Nous pretre soussigne cure de cette paroisse a ete baptise 
Pierre ne d' hier au soir du legitime mariage de Jean Bap- 
tiste Menard dit Brindamour et de Marie Francoise Ciree 
ditte St. Michel. Le perrain a ete Pierre Vandandaigue 
■dit Gadbois, et la marraine Louise Ciree ditte St. Michel 
tante de 1' enfant qui ont declare ne savoir signer. 
J. B. Menard. Gervaise, P'tre." 


The year sev^enteen hundred and sixty-six, the eighth 
of October, by us the undersigned priest, vicar of this 
parish, was baptized Pierre, born yesterday evening of 
the legitimate marriage of Jean Baptiste Menard, called 
Brindamour, and Marie Francoise Ciree, called St. Michel. 
The godfather was Pierre Vandandaigue, called Gadbois, 
and the godmother Louise Ciree, called St. Michel, aunt 
of the infant, who have declared that the)' do not know 
how to write. 

J. B. Menard. Gervaise, Priest. 

Extracts from Parish Registers of the Church 
OF THE Immaculate Conception at Kaskas- 
KiA, Illinois: 


"L'an mil sept cent quatre vingt douze, le treize de 

Juin apres avoir donne dispense de trois bans de mariage 


entre Pierre Menard fils legitime de Jean Menard et 
Fran^oise Cireey, natif de la paroisse de' Saint Antoine 
en Canada, Commer9ant de ce poste, et Therese Gaudin 
Durangeau fille legitime de defunt Michel Gaudin dit 
Durangeau, et Therese Raphael, native de eette paroisse, 
ne s' etant decouvert aucun empechement, j' ai re^u leur 
consentement mutuel, et leur ai donne la Benediction 
nuptiale selon les ceremoines de notre Sainte mere I'Eglise 
Catholique et Romaine, et ce en presence des temoins et 
leurs parents reciproques selon 1' ordonnance apres lecture 
faits. De Saint Pierre, 

Miss, apost. 
Therese Godin, Jn. Edgar, 

Pierre Menard, William St. Clair, 

B. Tardiveau, W. Morrisson, 

DANIS la marque 

Francois Janis, de + Nicholas Canada, 

Jeane St. Clair, Elisabeth Maxwell." 


The year seventeen hundred and ninety-two, the thir- 
teenth of June, after having dispensed with the three 
bans of marriage between Pierre Menard, legitimate son 
of Jean Menard and Francois Ciree, native of the parish 
of Saint Antoine in Canada, trader at this post, and 
Therese Gaudin Durangeau, legitimate daughter of the 
deceased Michel Gaudin, called Durangeau, and Theresa 
Raphael, native of this parish, not having discovered any 
impediment, I have received their mutual consent, and 
have given them the nuptial benediction according to the 
ceremonies of our holy Mother the Catholic and Roman 
Church, and in the presence of the witnesses and their 
respective parents, according to the ordinance after read- 
ing made. 

By Saint Pierre, 

Mission Apostolic. 



"On the fourteenth of June, 1844, I the undersigned 
Buried the remains of Colonel Pierre Menard in his vault 

in the graveyard of this Parish, thither he was 

accompanied by an immense concourse of People. 

"He died yesterday the at ly^, having 

previously received the last sacraments, he was 72 years 
old. J. M. J. St. Cyr, parish Priest." * 

* The blanks in the above entry represent words in the original entry 
which can not now be deciphered. The statement of his age is manifestly 
incorrect, and some one has scratched with a lead pencil the figure " 2 " in 
the original entry and has written " 6 " over the " 2 ", and has also written " 76 " 
in pencil over the " 72 ". This approximates to the truth, but Pierre Menard's 
exact age at the time of his death, as shown by the register of his baptism, 
was seventy-seven years, eight months, and six days. E. G. M. 

Noel je Vasseui-. 


By Stephen R. Moore of Kankakee, Illinois. 

AT a meeting of the Old Settlers' Association of Iro- 
Lx. quois County, held on the ground where Gurdon 
S. Hubbard and Noel le Vasseur, in the service of the 
American Fur-Company, had a stock of merchandise and 
established a trading-post with the Pottawatomie Indians, 
Mr. Hubbard said that he first visited this site in 1822. 
Noel le Vasseur claimed to the writer of this sketch, that 
he came to this place in 1820, and at one of the old 
settlers' meetings, which he attended, I spoke for him 
and made this statement, at his request, and he pointed 
out the ground on the south side of the Iroquois River 
where Mr. Hubbard and himself built the first dry-goods 
store, in the territory tributary to Chicago. 

It will be difficult to reconcile with exactness the dates 
of the pioneer lives of Hubbard and Vasseur in their first 
trading with the Indians in Illinois. I shall briefly give 
the events and times as I gathered them from the lips 
of Mr. Vasseur. It is possible that Hubbard may have 
sent Vasseur to Illinois two years before he went there.* 
In this connection it is well to state that Mr. Vasseur had 
no educational advantages, and could neither read nor 
write, and hence he relied wholly upon memory to fix 

In a log-cabin at Saint Michel d' Yamaska, Canada, on 
Christmas night, 1799, was born the subject of this memoir. 

* Since writing the above, I am positively informed that Mr. Vasseur pre- 
ceded Mr. Hubbard to Illinois two years, and is therefore the pioneer mer- 
chant and trader for this part of the Northwest.— S. R. Moore, Mar. 5, 1889. 


His parents were poor and unlettered. They commemo- 
rated the event by calling the boy Noel, which means 
Christmas. He led a quiet and uneventful life on the 
farm until May, 1817, when he astonished his parents by 
announcing to them that he had entered the service of 
one Rocheblave,* in company with eighty young men, 
who were hired to go into the West to trade with the 
Indians. His parents were startled at this unexpected 
announcement, and sought to dissuade him from going. 
The love of adventure was too strong for the parental 
love and authority, and without a penny in money or a 
change of clothing, in his seventeenth year, he sought his 
fortune in the great and unknown West. 

They left Montreal, May 15, 18 17, and embarked on the 
St. Lawrence, with two years' supplies of food and cloth- 
ing, destined to reach Mackinac. I do not think that 
Vasseur knows the route followed to reach the Straits of 
Mackinac. He was certain they did not come by way of 
Niagara Falls. He said the company made two fatiguing 
portages with their boats and supplies, and, after undergo- 
ing very great hardships they reached Lake Huron and 
again embarked for the Straits.-f- John Jacob Astor had 
established a trading-post and depot of supplies at Macki- 
nac, and when they reached there, in the summer of 18 17, 
Rocheblave sold all his rights to the services of his men 
and his outfit and supplies to the American Fur-Company, 
and Vasseur and his companions passed into the service 
of this powerful association. 

These Canadian voyageurs soon learned that all was not 

* This is the name of the last governor of the Illinois under British 
authority, who was in Canada and in trade after the war of the Revolution, 
and it is possible that this is the same person or his son. — E. G. M. 

t This party doubtless went up the Ottawa River to the Mattawan, by 
this stream and a portage to Lake Nipissing, and thence down French River 
to the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, a route explored by Champlain in 
1615, and often used by the early traders. — E. g. m. 


gold that glittered. The labor was very severe and often- 
times perilous, and the fare coarse and frequently scanty. 
Vasseur's love of adventure was not satisfied; he had met 
an Indian who told him of a beautiful land in the West 
and the greatest river in the world, and he invited Vasseur 
to go with him. Actuated by a spirit of adventure which 
seems almost foolhardy, young Vasseur and a companion, 
left the service of the Fur Company, and in company with 
their Indian friend, in a slight Indian canoe, started "to 
go West." They followed the west shore of Lake Michi- 
gan until it led them into Green Bay. They ascended 
Fox River to where Portage City now stands, made the 
portage, and embarked their little craft on the Wisconsin 
River, on which they floated down to the present site of 
Prairie-du-Chien. The Indians claimed they were the 
first white men who had ever made the voyage over the 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers.* Vasseur said he found the 
Indians exceedingly friendly, and he became a great favor- 
ite with the chief, of the tribe. He taught the Indians 
many useful things in fishing and hunting, and he accom- 
panied them on their annual fall hunt, when they were 
making provision for a winter supply. 

When spring came, he concluded to return to Mackinac. 
Here an unexpected obstacle presented itself. The Indian 
chief refused to let him depart. He claimed to have 
adopted him into his tribe. The outlook was not very 
encouraging to a boy eighteen years old, and many thou- 
and miles away from home, and in a country that he knew 
but little of. Vasseur and his companion had learned 
much of the Indian language, but the Indians had not 
learned their language. While appearing to be willing ta 
remain, they were forming plans to get away, and in the 
French tongue freely discussed the ways and means to 
accomplish it. 

* It is evident that the Indians were deceiving their young white friends^ 
or had never heard of Joliet and Marquette, and their successors. — E. G. M. 


They supplied themselves with some dried venison and 
smoked coon meat, and seizing a favorable opportunity 
they started on foot for Green Bay, following the course 
of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, and after many weary 
days of travel they reached the bay, in an almost starved 
and naked condition. The rivers abounded with fish, and 
they were able to secure enough to keep them from starv- 
ing. Fortunately a temporary camp had been established 
at the mouth of Fox River by the American Fur-Com- 
pany, and in this camp they were given shelter and pro- 
visions, and sent to fur-company headquarters at Mackinac. 
He went to work again for the company, and was em- 
ployed in assorting and packing the furs for shipment 
East. Frequently during this and the succeeding year he 
was sent out to distant posts to trade with the Indians. 
He had learned to talk with the Indians while at Prairie- 
du-Chien, and this knowledge was valuable to the com- 
pany, and gave Vasseur a wider field of operations. With- 
out affirming it as a positive fact, it is my impression that 
he met Gurdon S. Hubbard at Mackinac for the first time 
in the fall of 1818, and this was the beginning of a friend- 
ship very dear and an intimacy lasting as long as they 
lived. Mr. Hubbard did not leave Montreal in the service 
of the fur company until April, 18 18, and reached Macki- 
nac, July 14, which was shortly before the time Vasseur 
had returned from Prairie-du-Chien. 

In 1820, the company determined to establish a trad- 
ing-post in Illinois, with the Pottawatomies, a tribe that 
was reported to be very strong and very successful in 
securing furs. In the winter of 1819 or spring of 1820, 
young Vasseur, under the direction of Gurdon S. Hubbard, 
started around Lake Michigan, bound for the Illinois coun- 
try, with an outfit of provisions and a stock of goods 
suitable to trade with the Indians. He took with him 
sufficient men to man the boats, and they followed the 


west shore of Lake Michigan until they reached Chicago. 
They proceeded up the Chicago River as far as they could 
go, and then made the portage to the Desplaines River, 
and thence down that river to its junction with the Kan- 
kakee. The descent to the Kankakee was easily accom- 
plished. At this point the real hardship of the voyage 
began. The water was high and the current very swift. 
They had engaged an Indian guide before they reached 

The Kankakee River was ascended partly by rowing, 
sometimes by wading along the shore and dragging their 
boats, or getting along-side and pushing them. Frequently 
but a few miles could be made in a day. When they 
reached the Iroquois, the river was narrower and the cur- 
rent less swift, and its ascent was not so difficult. In the 
fall of 1820, they landed on the bank of the Iroquois 
River, at the point where the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, 
St. Louis & Chicago Railroad crosses the river. For 
many years thereafter the place was called Bunkum. It 
is now called Iroquois. As all roads now lead to Chicago, 
then all trails led to this crossing on the Iroquois. 

There was a trail running west and south from this 
point, following the river to Spring Creek, and then up 
the creek and westward toward where Paxton now stands. 
Another trail went north and east, following the sand 
ridges west of Beaver Lake in Indiana, crossing the Kan- 
kakee west of the state line, and on northward to Lake 
Michigan. Another trail led north and west, following 
the Iroquois River to the Kankakee, and along the Kan- 
kakee through Bourbonais' Grove; then to Rock Village, 
the home of Yellow Head, an Indian chief; then to Hick- 
ory Creek, in Will County; and then to the Desplaines 
River, and on to Chicago. Another trail branched off at 
Rock Village, going south and west near to where Ottawa 
is. A trail went almost due south through Danville, and 


then south to southern Illinois. The most important trail 
ran south and east to the Wabash River, where was fought 
the battle of Camp Tippecanoe. This point was in the 
heart of the Pottawatomie country, and was well chosen 
by the fur company, as an advantageous point to establish 
a trading-post. 

At the old settlers' meeting, heretofore referred to, Vas- 
seur pointed out the exact spot on the south bank of the 
river where they built their storehouse, which they com- 
pleted and occupied before the cold weather set in, in the 
fall of 1820. The Indians were very friendly to the white 
men, and a very successful commerce was carried on. The 
furs were assorted and packed, and for ten years or more 
were carried to Chicago by the same route they had come. 
As early as 1823 or 1824, they packed to Chicago on In- 
dian ponies and returned with goods. From whatever time 
Hubbard came to the Iroquois, Vasseur assisted him in 
conducting the American Fur-Company's business in Illi- 
nois. They feared no danger from the Indians. The white 
traders could have been destroyed at any moment, but the 
Indians looked upon the traders as their best friends. 
Vasseur was never threatened by them but once. 

In 1822, he went to Rock Village, on the Kankakee, to 
open a trade with the Indians congregated there. The 
Indians were in receipt of an indemnity from the general 
government, and were supplied with gold and silver. He 
took two men with him, and an outfit of merchandise and 
two kegs of "life water," as it was called by the Indians. 
This was his mistake, and it nearly cost him his life. He 
is not the only person who has made a mistake in the use 
of "life water." The Indians discovered he was supplied 
with it, and refused to trade until they were given some 
of this water. He had concealed the precious stuff in the 
woods. The Indians refused to be comforted. The chief 
approached him and said they had made a vow to the 


Great Spirit, which could not be broken, that they would 
buy nothing until he brought out the kegs. 

Vasseur had to yield. They formed a circle around him 
and praised his great qualities as a good friend, until they 
drank the kegs empty, and all became magnificently drunk 
and fiercely warlike. Yellow Head, their chief, foresaw 
the trouble that was coming, and helped Vasseur and his 
companions pack up their goods and move a dozen miles 
away before they camped for the night. 

So well were the white traders liked, that Hubbard mar- 
ried the daughter of one of the head men, in 1824. Her 
name was Watseka. She was a very beautiful girl, with 
features and form more like the Caucasian than the Indian. 
Hubbard maintained wifely relations with her until he left 
the service of the fur company, and went to Danville to 
live. After Hubbard went away, Vasseur carried on the 
business of Indian trader until the tribe removed West, 
after the treaty of Camp Tippecanoe, in October, 1833. 
Hubbard had an Indian divorce from Watseka when he 
went away. The year following, Vasseur married her, and 
she bore him three children. 

Just what the ceremony of an Indian marriage and the 
process of an Indian divorce was, I am not advised. But 
it was all done in accordance with the customs of the 
Indians, and was entirely satisfactory to their chief men. 
Nor let it be inferred that Watseka held immoral rela- 
tions with these men. She was a true woman, and faith- 
ful to her husband while he remained her husband. And 
she was equally faithful to Vasseur, and he ever spoke 
kindly of her, and when he left her he gave her a large 
fund amounting to several thousand dollars. A better 
civilization would condemn such easy marriage and easy 
divorce, but when I see how easy marriage and divorce are 
made in Illinois, I do not think we have made the same 
progress in this line as we have in commerce and trade 


since the days of Hubbard and Vasseur on the banks of 
the Iroquois River. 

Vasseur says that the Indians told him that formerly 
game was very abundant on these prairies, and that great 
droves of buffaloes made this valley their home. They 
spoke of the Storm Spirit getting very angry at the In- 
dians, and sending a great snowfall and very cold weather, 
and this storm drove the buffaloes away, and they never 
returned. He locates the time of the great storm between 
1770 and 1780. 

Vasseur made several trips to Mackinac, where he per- 
sonally superintended the shipment of furs and the selec- 
tion of goods suitable to the wants of his Indian friends. 
He had learned the Indian language, and, with Hubbard, 
was employed by the United-States commissioners as in- 
terpreters in the negotiations of the treaty of Camp Tip- 
pecanoe, conducted October 20, 1832, and ratified January 
21, 1833. 

By this treaty the United States received a magnificent 
territory, and the Indians were induced to give up the 
finest hunting and fishing ground that ever existed. The 
Kankakee River and its tributaries and creeks abounded 
with the mink, musk-rat, raccoon, otter, and beaver, while 
the deer were as plenty as are now the horned cattle. 
The river was the home of the salmon, black-bass, rock- 
bass, and pickerel. 

The two leading chiefs of the Pottawatomies were Sha- 
bonee and Sha-wa-na-see. They were warm friends of 
Hubbard and Vasseur, and were known to be the friends 
of the white men. In the Black-Hawk war, the Sacs and 
Foxes tried to form an alliance with the Pottawatomies, 
and made two visits to Shabonee and Sha-wa-na-see to 
induce them to join in the war, but it was of no avail. 
There is no doubt that Hubbard and Vasseur had much 
to do in influencing these chiefs. Had they joined Black 


Hawk, it is certain the contest would have been prolonged 
and many lives would have been lost. The secret of their 
great influence over the Indians was the fact that they 
treated them fairly, gave them full value for their furs, and 
under no circumstances would they ever deceive them. 

By the treaty of Camp Tippecanoe, the Indian title was 
extinguished to all that tract of land included within the 
following boundary, vis.: "Beginning at a point on Lake 
Michigan, ten miles south of the mouth of the Chicago 
River; thence in a direct line to a point on the Kankakee 
River, ten miles above its mouth; thence down said river 
and the Illinois River to the mouth of the Fox River, 
being the boundary of a cession made by them in 18 16; 
thence with the southern boundary of the Indian territory 
to the state line between Illinois and Indiana; thence 
north with said line to Lake Michigan; thence with the 
shores of Lake Michigan to the place of beginning." 

For this magnificent domain, this government gave the 
Indians an annuity of $15,000 for the term of twenty 
years, and the further sum of $28,746 was applied to the 
payment of certain claims, and $45,000 in merchandise to 
be paid immediately, and $30,000 in merchandise was to 
be paid them in Chicago in 1833. Inasmuch as the party 
of the first part put its own price on the merchandise, and 
Mr. Indian did not know the true value thereof, the mer- 
chandise does not count for very much in this trade. 

As a recognition of the friendly character of Indians 
during the late war with the Sacs and Foxes, the treaty 
contains this clause: "The said tribe [of Pottawatomies] 
having been faithful allies of the United States during the 
late contest with the Sacs and Foxes, in consideration 
thereof the United States agree to permit them to hunt 
and fish on the lands ceded, as also on the lands of the 
government on Wabash and Sangamon rivers, so long as 
the same shall remain the property of the United States." 


Inasmuch as the poor Indian was sent west of the Mis- 
sissippi River the following year, and there were no bridges 
across the river, and civilization had taken possession of 
the state bordering the river, and it was quite unhealthy 
for an Indian to travel eastward, it is not perceived that 
this clause was of much benefit to the tribe. 

A much more practical clause was placed in the treaty, 
allowing them pay "for horses stolen from them during 
the late war," wherein we find the cheapest horse stolen 
by the United States "during the late war" was $40, and 
the highest was $160, with a general average of about $80. 
Since the United States had obtained the land so cheap, 
they could afford to be liberal in making restitution for 
stolen horses. 

Among the moneys to be paid is an item of $5573 to 
Gurdon S. Hubbard, and to Noel le Vasseur, $1800. Hub- 
bard and Vasseur had rendered the government valuable 
services before and at the time of the Black-Hawk war. 
They learned through Shabonee and Sha-wa-na-see the 
plans of the hostile tribes, and Hubbard, in person, com- 
manded a company of scouts, that went to the relief of 
the settlements in LaSalle, and these payments were made 
to them in compensation for such services, as well, also, 
for acting as interpreters in the negotiation of the treaty. 

Vasseur was appointed the agent of the United States 
to remove the Indians to their reservation at Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. This work was completed in 1836. Many 
of them did not want to leave Illinois, and made many 
objections thereto. Who can blame them .'' They had 
sold their lands for a mess of pottage, and they knew it. 
Vasseur accomplished this difficult uudertaking without 
any acts of violence and to the entire satisfaction of the 
government. In the meantime he had made a purchase 
of some land at Bourbonais Grove, where St. Viateur's 
CollcfTC now stands. 


In 1837, he married Miss Ruth Bull of Danville. She 
died in i860. He had eight children by this marriage, 
four boys and four girls. The oldest, Edward, was a mem- 
ber of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, and died in the service; 
George died in Memphis, in 1871, with yellow fever; Wil- 
liam died while very small; and Alfred died in 1876. The 
girls died after reaching woman's estate, except the young- 
est, Mrs. Dr. Monast, who now lives in Chicago. Father 
Perry, connected with the catholic bishop of Chicago, is 
a grandson. 

In 1 86 1, Vasseur married Miss Elenore Franchere of 
Chicago, who now survives. This remarkable man died 
in 1879, at his home in Bourbonais Grove, in the eightieth 
year of his age. He was a devout adherent to the tenets 
of the catholic church, and lies buried in the church-yard, 
but a few steps from where he made his home in 1837. 

Mr. le Vasseur was a man of strong individuality. Had 
he been an educated man, he would have been an explorer 
of world-wide renown. His love of adventure was a born 
passion. He knew no fear, had unbounded confidence in 
himself, and overcame all obstacles. His success with the 
savage men by whom he was surrounded lay in his integ- 
rity and simplicity. He joined them in their hunts and 
took part in their sports. He was a second William Penn, 
but greater than Penn. 

The friendship of Hubbard and Vasseur was knit to- 
gether by the hardships they had endured, and was as 
lasting as that of Jonathan and David. They died, carrying 
to their graves the stories of many adventures and historical 
facts, which are now forever sealed to us. The true lives 
of these men in Mackinac and in Illinois will read to our 
children more like a romance than a reality. It is due to 
history, it is due to these pioneer lives, that a complete 
biography of Gurdon S. Hubbard and Noel le Vasseur 
shall be written. The writer has only touched upon a few 
points in the remarkable career of the latter. 


SOME thirty years ago. or about the year 1858, VVm. 
H. H. Terrell, afterward the secretary of the Histor- 
ical Society of Indiana, purchased at Vincennes in that 
State, fifteen manuscripts relating to the early history of 
what is now the State of Illinois. From him these papers 
were acquired in 1883 by the Chicago Historical Society^ 
and they proved upon examination to be of decided 
interest and value. They comprise four lists of heads of 
families in Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Prairie du Pont, Prairie 
du Rocher, and St. Philip in the Illinois country in or 
before the year 1783; three general returns or rolls of the 
militia in the counties of Randolph and St. Clair in Illinois 
Territory on August i, 1790, a list of the names of the 
persons returned as entitled to the donation of lOO acres 
of land for militia service in the counties of Randolph 
and St. Clair; five rolls of militia companies at Kaskaskia 
and in the county of St. Clair in the year 1790; a petition 
of certain citizens of Vincennes, formerly of Kaskaskia, 
concerning donation lands, dated October 26, 1797; and 
an original proclamation with a duplicate in French, relat- 
ing to public lands, dated at Kaskaskia, June 15, 1779, 
issued and signed by Col. John Todd, jr., civil governor 
and commandant of the county of Illinois, commonwealth 
of Virginia. 

These documents are important as showing the names 

of many of those residing in Illinois at the close of the 

war of the Revolution, the probable white population of 

that region in the last decade of the last century, and the 






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beginnings of republican government there. They have 
another attraction in that they bear the autograph signa- 
tures of some of the most prominent of the early citizens 
of Illinois, of John Todd, jr., its first governor under the 
authority of Virgirtia, and of the first governor of the 
Northwest Territory, Gen. Arthur St. Clair, in whose chi- 
rography one at least of these papers is written. 

These lists of heads of families and militiamen were 
prepared in order to secure the benefit of certain legisla- 
tion originating with the Continental congress under the 
Articles of Confederation. That body transacted but 
little business in the last year of its feeble existence, but 
among its few acts during that period we find some 
relating to what is now Illinois. The year after its adop- 
tion of the great Ordinance of 1787, this congress had 
before it a memorial of one George Morgan, and his 
associates "respecting a tract of land in the Illinois 
country on the Mississippi." And on June 20, 1788, the 
committee to whom this matter had been referred reported, 
among other things, resolutions that "separate tracts shall 
be reserved for satisfying the claims of the ancient settlers" 
in the Illinois country, that "measures shall be immediately 
taken for confirming in their possessions and titles, the 
French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers on 
these lands, who on or before the year 1783, had professed 
themselves citizens of the United States or any of them"; 
and that three additional reserved tracts shall be laid off 
"adjoining the several villages, Kaskaskies, La Prairie du 
Rochers and Kahokia," * * * "of such extent as shall 
contain 400 acres for each of the families now living at 
either of the villages of Kaskaskies, La Prairie du Roch- 
ers, Kahokia, Fort Chartres, or St. Philips. The additional 
reserved tract adjoining the village of the Kaskaskies .shall 
be for the heads of families in that village; the tract 
adjoining La Prairie du Rochers for the heads of families 


in that village; and the tract adjoining Kahokia for the 
heads of families in that village, as also for those at Ft. 
•Chartres and St. Philips" and "that the governor of the 
western territory be instructed to repair to the French 
settlements on the Mississippi, at and above the Kaskas- 
kies; that he examine the titles and possessions of the 
settlers - - and that he take an account of the several 
heads of families living within the reserved limits." * * 
And congress resolved to agree to this report.* 

On August 28, 1788, the Continental congress again 
■considered the Morgan memorial and resolved to change 
the location of the three additional tracts of land to the 
east side of a certain ridge of rocks instead of the west 
side as provided in the act of June 20,-f- and on August 
29, it was resolved that measures be taken for confirming 
in their possessions and titles the French and Canadian 
inhabitants and other settlers at Post St. Vincents who 
■on or before the year 1783, had settled there and professed 
themselves citizens of the United States or any of them; 
that 400 acres of land be reserved and given to every head 
of a family of the above description, settled at Post St. 
Vincents; and that the governor of the western territory 
cause to be laid out a tract of land, adjoining Post St. 
Vincents, sufficient for completing the above donations. 
And the governor was instructed in the same resolution to 
proceed without delay to the French settlements on the 
Mississippi in order to give dispatch to the several measures 
to be taken according to the acts of June 20 and August 

28, 1788, to report the whole of his proceedings to con- 
gress, and to take Post St. Vincents on his return and pur- 
sue the measures directed to be taken by the act of Aug. 

29, and report his proceedings accordingly. :|: These were 
among the latest proceedings of the congress of the con- 

* Journals of Congress (of the Confederation), XIII. 30-32. 
t lb. p. 90 * lb. pp. 91, 92. 


federation which transacted its final piece of business 
October 10, 1788, and expired November i, of that year 
for the want of a quorum.* Arthur St. Clair, governor of 
the Northwest Territory pursuant to the last-mentioned 
resolution, and also in obedience to the instructions of 
President Washington of October 6, 1789,-f- set out for 
Kaskaskia, and arrived there March 5, lygo.l On March 
7, he issued a proclamation calling on the inhabitants to 
prove claims as provided for in the act of congress of 
June 20, 1788, and he directed measures to be taken to 
confirm the titles of the inhabitants who had professed 
themselves citizens of the United States, and to lay off 
the tracts of land to furnish the 400-acre donations pro- 
vided for in said act. On April 5, the governor visited 
Cahokia for the same purpose, stopping at Fort Chartres 
and Prairie du Rocher by the way, and appointed militia 
and other officers, and embarked at Kaskaskia on his 
return journey on June 11. § 

It appeared from his report and that of Winthrop Sar- 
gent, the secretary of the Northwest Territory, jj that 
further legislation was needed, and on March 3, 1791, 
the congress of the United States passed "an act for 
granting lands to the inhabitants and settlers at Vin- 
cennes and the Illinois country in the territory northwest 
of the Ohio, and for confirming them in their possessions." 
This provided among other things, that 400 acres of land 
should be given to each of those persons who in 1783, 
were heads of families at Vincennes or in the Illinois 
country on the Mississippi, and who had since removed 
from one of said places to the other, and that heads of 

* lb. 126-7. + " St. Clair Papers," II. 125. 

J Governor St. Clair's Report to President Washington of official Proceed- 
ings in the Illinois Country, "St. Clair Papers," II. 164. 
§ lb. pp. 165, 166, 169, 179. 
II Ibid and "American State Papers. Public Lands," I. 5-16. 


families at either of said places in 1783, who afterward 
removed without the Hmits of the territory were notwith- 
standing entitled to the donation of 400 acres of land pro- 
vided by the act of congress of August 29, 1788, and 
also to the lands allotted to them before 1783 according 
to the laws and usages of the government under which 
they had settled. This act also gave 400 acres of land to 
each person who had not obtained any donation of land 
from the United States, and who on August 7, 1790, was 
enrolled in the militia at Vincennes or in the Illinois 
country, and done militia duty. And it once more changed 
the location of the three additional tracts of land set 
aside for donations, and directed them to be laid out as at 
first provided in the act of June 20. 1785.* 

It was to obtain the gifts of 400 acres of land to heads 
of families, and of 100 acres to those enrolled in the 
militia, provided for by one or more of these various acts, 
that the lists before us were compiled. Governor St. Clair 
revisited the Illinois country in the fall of 1795, and, as 
we learn from two of these militia rolls, he was at Caho- 
kia, September 28, and at Kaskaskia, October 4, of that 
year. The list of Capt. James Piggott's company at the 
former place, and of Capt. John Edgar and Capt. Francois 
Janis' companies at the latter place were sworn to before 
him on these dates, respectively. In his report of official 
proceedings in the Illinois country at this time, made to the 
secretary of state in 1796, Gov. St. Clair says — that the 
donations to the heads of families were not yet laid out, 
although ordered in 1790, owing to the lack of a surveyor, 
the poverty of the people who had no means to cultivate 
new lands, and doubt as to the proper party to issue the 
patents. But as to the donations to those enrolled in the 
militia he had no difficulty, and had ordered these to be 
laid out, and enclosed a list of the persons cntitled.f It 

* " U.-S. Statutes at Large," I, 221. t "St. Clair Papers," II, 398, 400. 


is probable that at this time he prepared the list of names 
of the persons returned as entitled to the donation of 100 
acres of land for militia services in the counties of Ran- 
dolph and St. Clair, among the documents in question, 
which is without date or signature, but bears an endorse- 
ment stating it to be the handwriting of Gov. St. Clair. 
All of these documents seem to be originals, doubtless 
once preserved in the archives of the Northwest Territory, 
and then scattered abroad by accident or official careless- 

And three of these papers are in the handwriting of 
John Rice Jones, the earliest and ablest lawyer in the 
Northwest Territory. Those which he wrote are: i. "The 
List of the Heads of Families in Kaskaskia on or before 
the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three and 
who professed themselves citizens of the State of Virginia;" 

2. "List of the Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St. 
Philips who were heads of families therein on or before 
the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three;" 

3. "General Return of the Militia enrolled in the (now) 
County of St. Clair on the first day of August one thou- 
sand seven hundred and ninety." Accompanying these 
three documents, when they came into the possession of 
the Chicago Historical Society, was a memorandum stat- 
ing them to be in the handwriting of John Rice Jones, and 
they have since been submitted to his only surviving son, 
Hon. George W. Jones, formerly United - States senator 
from Iowa, now residing at Dubuque in that State, who 
was born at Vincennes, Indiana, April 12, 1804. He has 
indorsed upon each of the lists last above named, a state- 
ment subscribed by him, that it is the handwriting of his 
deceased father, Hon. John Rice Jones. In this connection 
it seemed appropriate that some memorial should be pre- 
served in this volume, of a man who took so prominent a 
part in the early history of the Illinois country. And at 


the request of the Chicago Historical Society, a portrait 
of John Rice Jones and a sketch of him and his eldest 
son, Rice Jones, have been furnished by his great-grandson, 
W. A. Burt Jones, of St. Paul, Minn., and will be found 
at the close of these Lists of Early Illinois Citizens. 

E. G. M. 

LIST^ of the Heads of Families in Kaskaskia on or 
before the year one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty three, and who had professed themselves Citizens 
of the State of Virginia: 

Nicholas Janis." ^Nicholas LaChance, Senior. 

Antoine Bauvais. Jerome Danis. 

ajean Bap. St. Gem Bauvais. Thereze Godin, widow. ^ 

aVital Bauvais. Jean Baptiste Delisle. 

Catherine Duplasi. widow. Marie Louise Delisle, widow. 

Joseph Baugi. Louis Delisle. 

Marie Louise Bauvais, widow. <zStanislas Levasseur. 

«Marie Louise Charleville,widow ^/Nicholas Levasseur. 

Jean Baptiste Creli. Joseph Doza. 

Jacques Thuillier, Arcange Doza, widow. 

[ci "Removed into foreign parts."] 

[1 This list is written on eight pages of old, laid paper, water -marked 
"J. S. O. G. " It is indorsed "List of the Heads of Families in Kaskaskia 
on or before 1783." The list, note, and affidavit are all in the same hand- 
writing, which is stated in a pencil memorandum to be that of John Rice 
Jones. And this document now bears the further indorsement: "The within 
lists are in the handwriting of my deceased father, Hon. John Rice Jones, who 
died at St. Louis, Missouri, on the ist of Feb'y, 1824, he being at that time 
a justice of the supreme court of the State of Missouri. Dated at Dubuque,. 
Iowa, this 8th day of Feb'y, 1889. Geo. W. Jones."] 

[2 Nicholas Janis was appointed, by Col. John Todd, Jr., captain of the first 
company of the militia of Kaskaskia, May 14, 1779.] 

[* Mother of Pierre Menard's first wife. The same person described in other 
lists as the widow Tourangeau, the latter name being a soubriquet of her 
deceased husband, Michel Godin.] 



Blaize Barutel. 
Jean Baptiste Taumur. 
Joseph Lonval. 
Louis Lonval. 

Louis Brazot. 
Antoine Bienvenu, Senior. 
rtPaul Deruisseau. 
*Timothe Demumbrun.''^ 

Marie Louise LaChapell, widow. Philip Rocheblave.^ 
Magdalen AngeliqueMiot, widow. Pierre LaCoste. 

Francois Derousse St. Pierre. 

Etienne Page. 

Daniel Blouin.^ 

Joseph Marrois. 

Henry Richard. 

Nicholas LaChance, Junior. 

Pierre Richard. 

Joseph Miault. 

Pierre Langlois. 

^zlchabod Camp. 

Michel Danis. 

Antoine Bienvenu, Junior. 

Jacques Mercier. 

Marie Rose Fortin, widow. 

*Alexander Douglas. 

Baptiste Laderoute. 

Guy Jarrad. 

Charles Delisle. 

Marie Racine, widow. 

Alexander Lalande. 

Peter Duniont. 

Joseph Dupuy. 

rtAntoine Morin. 

John Baptiste Gandron. 

Arcange Chenier, widow. 
Antoine Chenier. 
Charles Charleville. 
Francois Charleville. 
Louis Charleville. 
Gabriel Obuchon, Senior. 
Paul Reaume. 
Antoine Antaya, Senior. 
Antoine Antaya, Junior. 
Michel Antaya. 
Anthoine Buyat. 
Louis Buyat. 
Francois Corset. 
Joseph Toulouse. 
Pierre Provot. 
Antoine Cassou. 
Catherine Cassou, widow. 
Amable Gagne'. 
Claude Lemieux. 
Charles Renoue. 
Charles Dany. 

Jacques Conand. 

Raymond Normand Labriere. 

John McEl Duff.4 

[^ A man of ability and much influence among the French inhabitants of 
the Illinois. As their representative, he petitioned the British crown for a 
better form of government.] [* Americans.] 

[* Successor of John Todd, Jun'r, as county lieutenant or governor of Illi- 
nois under Virginia.] [* The last British governor of the Illinois.] 

[* The leader of the party of hunters met at Fort Massac by George Rogers 
Clark on his way to the Illinois, and who gave him the latest news from 


*Henry Smith. 
Archibald McNabb. 
/rThomas Hughes. ^ 
<7james Wiley. 
* Peter Pressley. 
David Pagan. 1 
James Curry. 
James Orr. 
Alexis Beauvais. 
Nicholas Canada. 
Jean Larue. 
Antoine Renaud.- 
^Joseph Bonvouloir. 
^^x^ntoine Arkouet. 
Alexis Laplante. 
Jean Baptiste Janis. 
Jean Baptiste Montreuil. 
Louis permin. 

Marie Gagnon, widow. 

Richard Winston's Widow. 
^Jean Baptiste Lafifont. 
Domitilde Alary, widow. 
<^rJohn Dodge. 1 
Ambroise Glinel. 
Antoine Lavigne. 
Francois Drouard. 
Francois Barrois. 
Louis Pierre Francois Carbon- 
Joseph Page. [neax. 
Mary Rocheblave. 
^zCharles Dulude. 
Ambroise Lavigne. 
Jean Andre. 
Charles Woods. 
Elizabeth Labiche. 
*David Hicks. 

Joseph Libberville. 

*Mathais Barker. 

fliPierre Cure. 

<7 Pierre Cailloux. 

'^Daniel Murray. 

+ Catherine Lasource, widow, 

+ Helen Lasource, widow. 

James Watts. 

Michael Derousse St. Pierre. 

Francoise Tonton.- 

Lardner Clark. 

* William Wykoff. 
James Piggot.^ 
Jacob Grotz. 
*Charles Valle. 
Shadrach Bond.^ 
James Moore. ^ 
James Garretson. 
Benjamin Joseph Byram. 
^Tobias Brashears. 
rt-John Allison. 

^John Williams. 
*John Montgomery.^ 
William Drury. 
*John — McCormick. 
*James Kincaid. 
Charles Gill. 
*^Vindsor Pipps. 
rt'George Camp.^ 
Nicholas Smith. 
*Daniel Flanary, Junior. 

* Elijah — Flanary. 
*Thomas Flanary. 
*Sainuel Handley. 
aLouis Villaret. 
*John Harry. 

[1 One of Clark's soldiers in his expedition to the Illinois.] 
[^] To receive Don[ation at] Vincennes. 



, his son in law. 

Joseph Morensi. 

Francois Charpantier. 

Michel Danis, Senior. 

Andre' Fagot. 

fljAlexander McLosky. 

Joseph Gagne. 

Jean Beaudoin. 

^'Joseph Maisonville. 

*James Morris. 

Joseph Richard. 

Jean Baptiste Tomur, Sen'r. 

^Elijah Nelson. 

Jean Baptiste Perrin. 

*John Clark. 

§Jerome Creli. 

Joseph Tellier. 

+ Marie Anne Taumur. 

II Jodouin, widow. 

-fliWilliam Brocus. 
*Richard Brashears. 
*John Holloway. 
Patrick Kennedy. ^ 

* Trentham. 

*Thomas Bentley.^ 
^Israel Dodge. 
Henry O'Hara. 


*Heaton Wells. 
Catherine Sanba. 
Joseph Chauvin Charleville. 
Jean Baptiste St. Onge. 
tBaptiste Lasource. 
tjacque Lasource. 
Charles LaChapelle. 
Alexander Hilaire. 
^Martin Carney. 
:}:Charles Robin. 

N. B. Those marked with asterisks thus * are Ameri- 
cans and the whole as is now believed now residing in 

[1 Author of a journal of an expedition in the year 1772 from Kaskaskias 
village in the Illinois country to the head-waters of the Illinois River. It is 
printed as an appendix to the third edition of Imlay's " Topographical Descrip- 
tion of the Western Territory of North America," published in London, 1797.] 

[^ A trader at Kaskaskia who incurred the enmity of Rocheblave, and was 
by his orders arrested and sent to Canada, whence he escaped. A voluminous 
correspondence concerning this matter is preserved in the Haldimand papers.] 

[3 One of Clark's soldiers in his expedition to the Illinois.] 

t These persons supposed by Col. [Winthrop] S [argent?] to have died 
before the Country came into the possession of Virginia or the U. States & 
that their widow's names are inserted on the opposite page [200] — a cross 
against their names — they can't all be entitled. 

+ This is the same situation of Bapt. & Jacque Lasource, there is a -t- 
opposite the widow, her name is Marie Ann Taumur, widow. 

[§] To receive Don[ation at] Vincennes. i| Error, in Prairie du Rocher list. 

Larkin Rutherford. ^ 
Elizabeth Raine, widow. 
Pierre Picard. 


the United States. The Heir at law of Charles Valle one 
so marked was brought up at Vincennes and now is and 
for some years past has been at Dickenson Colledge in 
Carlisle in the State of Pennsilvania. None of them have 
claimed their Donation Lands, except an application made 
on Behalf of Mr. Valle's heir at law. 

Territory of the United States north west of the Ohio, 
Randolph County, ss. 

Be it remembered that on the twenty-third day of 
September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven 
before us the Subscribers two of the Justices of the peace 
of the said County personally came Louis Pierre Francois 
Carbonneaux Esquire notary public at Kaskaskia in the 
said County and Jean Baptiste Gendron of the same who 
made oath according to Law and say that they have been 
Settlers and Inhabitants of the village of Kaskaskia afore- 
said for upwards of thirty years last past, and that the 
persons whose names are contained on the left side of the 
foregoing six pages were Settlers and Heads of families 
in Kaskaskia aforesaid on or before the said year one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty three and had pro- 
fessed themselves Citizens of the State of Virginia And 
that those persons whose names are contained on the right 
hand side[*] of each said Page have since removed into for- 
eign parts and have not by themselves or Heirs returned 
into Kaskaskia aforesaid to the Knowledge of these Depo- 
nents on or before the third day of March one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety six. 

Sworn the Day and year | 
above mentioned Before us I Carbonneaux 

Jn. Edgar 
Wm. Morrison The mark of 


Jean Baptiste Gendron 

[* In the foregoing list these are indicated by an a.] 



LIST* of the Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St. 
PhiHps who were heads of famiUes therein on or 
before the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty 
three : 

Catherine Perier, widow. Jacques Lasablonier. 

Louis Lassonde. Charles Laforme. 

Joseph Blay. Marie Labrosse, widow. 

Jean Baptiste Barbau, Senior. t Clement Drury. 

Jean Baptiste Barbau, Junr. 
Joseph Lavoie. 
Gerard Langlois. 
Ayme Comte, Senior. 
Antoine Louvier, Senior. 
Louis Dore. 
Joseph Tangue. 
Margaret Cochon, widow. 

Degagne', widow. 
Jacque Degagne'. 
Elizabeth Cotinault, widow. 
Gabriel Docochi. 
Antoine Domingue. 

Charles Cadron, called St. Pierre. 
Charles Aime'. 
Joseph Degelle. 

Girardot, widow. 
Pierre Chevalier. 
Antoine Louviere, Junior. 
Louis Levasseur D'Espagne. 
Jean Flandre. 
Francois Bousseau, 
Joseph Bellecour. 
Pierre Louviere. 

Jodouin, widow: 
Pierre AUard. 

Jean [Baptiste erased] Dumartin. Antoine Cotinauet. 

Pierre Degagne'. 
Francois Camus. 
John Cochran. 
Francois Thibault. 
Pierre Laroche. 
Jean Baptiste Degagne. 

Jacque Bouteillet. 
Jean Baptiste Damour. 
Joseph Crely. 


Marechal, widow. 
William Drury. 

* This list is written upon tliree pages of a sheet of paper similar to that 
of the last mentioned list, and is wholly in the handwriting of John Rice 
Jones, as appears from the certificate of his son, Hon. Geo. W. Jones, now 
appended thereto. It is indorsed "List of heads of families in Prairie du 
Rocher and St. Phillip on or before 1783." 

t Appointed commandant of Prairie du Rocher and captain of the militia, 
May 17, 1779, by John Todd; and later, elected one of the judges of the 
court of Cahokia by the people. In 1790, he was chief-justice of the court 
for the judicial district of Prairie du Rocher. 


Jean Baptiste Jacqueniin. Catherine Ryan, widow. 

Catherine Tangue, widow. Josiah Ryan. 

William Jean. Henry Golding. 

Josette Dilailite, widow. Charles Renoux. 

Thereze Lajoie, widow. Mary Louise Aubuchon, widow. 

Pierre Gibault.* Jean Baptiste Richard. 

Joseph Tangue, Senior. Jean L'Allemand. 

Nathaniel Hull. Lawrence Kenyon. 

Territory of the United States north west of the Ohio, 
Randolph County, ss. 

Be it remembered that on the twenty fifth Day of 
September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven 
before us the subscribers two of the Justices of the peace 
of the said County personally came Jean Baptiste Barbau 
the elder of Prairie du Rocher Esquire and Jean Baptiste 
Barbau the younger of the same Esquire who made oath 
according to Law that the several persons whose names 
are contained on the two sides of this sheet of paper were 
the heads of families in Prairie du Rocher and St. Philips 
aforesaid on or before the year one thousand seven and 
eighty three. 

Sworn the day and year above ) Barbau. 

mentioned — Before us — J Barbau, fils. 

Jn. Edgar. 

Wm. Morrison. 

Listf of the Heads of Families in Cahokia and its envi- 
rons in the Illinois Country in the year One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Eighty Three, viz: 

* Priest at Kaskaskia from 1768 to 1783, and rendered efficient service to 
George Rogers Clark. 

+ This list is written on a full sheet of crown water-marked paper, imprint 
1794 in water mark, and the letters G. R. nearly cut away. It is indorsed 
"Lists of Heads of Families in St. Clair County." 



Jean Bap: DuBuque. 
F'ran9ois Le Fevre alias Courier, 

Frangois Longval, Senr. 
Louis Gaud. 
Joseph Lambert. 
Charle Ducharme. 
Louis Le Compte. 
Widow Beaulieu. 
Jean Bap: Saucier. 
Francois Saucier. 
Mathieu Saucier. 
Jean Bap: Dumay. 
Alexis Tabeau. 
Joseph Le Page or his Heirs. 
Joseph Cecire. 
Joseph LaPensee. 
Antoine Boyer. 
Joseph La Buxiere. 
Gabriel Barron. 
Jean La Pen see. 
Jean Bap: Barron. 
Pierre La Fleur. 
Widow Rassette. 
Louis Le Brun. 
Fran9ois Trotier, Senr. 
Michel La Grave. 
Jean D'Hay. 
Charle Le Fevre. 
Paul Poupard. 
Jean Bap: Mulote. 
Thomas Brady. 
Marianne Le Boeuf, widow. 
Louis Chatel. 
Clement Allary. 
Joseph Bissonet. 
Louis Gagnion. 

Therese Pancrasse. 

Louis Trotier. 

Louis Pilet. 

Widow Turgeon. 

Widow Wattape. 

Jean Bap: Bergeron. 

Joseph Butteau. 

Jean Marie Dorion. 

Marie, widow of Jos: Allary. 

Antoine Harmand. 

Isabel Bequet, widow. 

Jean Bap: Allary. 

Laurent AmeHn. 

Joseph De'loge alias Poirier. 

Charle La Croix. 

Joseph Beguiere. 

Pierre Martin. 

Frangois Gerome. 

Louis De Longchamps. 

Joseph Pelletier. 

Michel Pelletier alias Antaya. 

Phillip Engel. 

Michel Girardin. 


Joseph Boisverd. 
Phillip Gervais. 
Charle Germain. 
Widow Cabassier. 
Antoine La Course. 
Catherine Chartran. 
Joseph La Couture. 
Widow of George Blin. 
Joseph La Lancete. 
Jean Bap: Mercier. 
Catherine Langlois, widow. 
Frangois Turgeon. 
WiUiam Biggs. 


rierre Gatien. Mary Moony, widow. 

Bartholomew Dumas. Peter Zippe. 

Raphael Gagnie. Pierre DurBois, Senr. 

Mary Crow, widow. Isaac Levy. 

Rene' Locat. Joseph Vaudry. 

Pierre Roy alias Cadien. Jean Marie Le Fevre. 

Rene Bouvet. Antoine Girardin. 

Jean Bap: Perio. Joseph Andrews. 

Mary, widow Mercier. Francois Chevalier. 

Joseph Dutremble. Pierre Guittard. 

Michel La Gaudmiere. Mary, widow Chartran. 

Mary Jeane Loisie, Widow. Charle Butteau, Senr. 

Mary Louise Le May, alias Jean Bap: Boisverd. 

Theophile. Leon Le Page. 

Personally appeared before me, William St. Clair, duly 
authorized by His Excellency the Governor of the Terri- 
tory to take proof of those persons who were Heads of 
Families at Cahokia and its environs in the Illinois Country 
in the year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty 
Three, Jean Bap: Du Buque, Jean Bap: Saucier, Esquires, 
and Charle Ducharme, ancient Inhabitants of Cahokia, 
who severally made Oath that the persons on the foregoing 
List were Heads of Families in the Illinois Country in the 
year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Three. 
In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand at 
Cahokia, this Thirtieth day of September, 1797. 

William St. Clair. 

List* of the Heads of Families at Cahokia, Prairie 
dupont, and the Americane Setlements of the present 
County of St. Clair and who were heads of Families in the 
year 1783 — viz: 

* This list is written on all four pages of a large sheet of old paper, water- 
marked with the crown and "G. R. 1794." It is endorsed "Lists of Heads 
of P^amilies in 1783." 



Jean Baptist Dubuque. 

Jean Baptist Saucier. 

Phillip Engel. 

Antoine Girardin. 

Mathew Saucier. 

Jean Baptiste AUari. 

Charles Germain. 

Phillip Gervais. 

Francois Saucier. 

Franois Lefevre alias Courie. 

Francois Longval, Senr. 

Louis Gaud. 

Joseph Lambert. 

Joseph Poupard alias Dormeur. 

Charles Ducharme. 

Louis LeComte. 

Widow Beaulieu.* 

Felicite Antalliard, Widow of J. 

Bt. Dumas. 
The Heirs of Alexis Tabeaux. 
Charles Cadron alias St. Piere. 
Widow Lapage. 
Joseph Cecire. 

The Heirs of Joseph Lapence. 
The Heirs of Antoine Boyer. 
Joseph Labuxiere. 

Jean De May. 

Charles Lefevre. 

Paul Poupard alias Lafleur. 

Jean Baptiste La croix. 

Thomas Brady. 

Widow of Phillip Leboeuf 

Louis Chatel. 

Clement Allari. 

Heirs of Joseph Bissonet. 

Widow of August Rasset. 

Heirs of Louis Gagnion. 

Heirs of Widow Pancrass, 

maiden name [Pa — r. blotted]. 
Louis Trotier. 
Louis Pillet. 
Jean Baptist Mulote. 
Widow Nickolas Turgeon. 
Heirs of Michel Charli. 
Jean Baptist Bergeron. 
Joseph Butoe, Junr. 
Jean Mari Dorion. 
Widow of Joseph Allari. 
Antoine Harmand alias Sanfacon. 
Heirs of Jean Bapt. Bequet. 
l^awrent Amelin. 
Joseph Poirie alias Desloges. 

Widow of Gabriel Barron [erased]. Charles Lacroix alias Hagc 

Jean Lapence. 

Jean Bapt. Barron. 

Louis Le brun. 

Heirs of Francois Trotier. 

Michel La Grave. 

Joseph Biguiere. 

Piere Martin. 

Francois Gerome alias Lafleur de 

Louis Delong Champ. 
* The Widow Beaulieu was the daughter of a French officer once stationed 
at Fort Chartres, named Chouvin, who settled in the village of St. Phillippe. 
Here his daughter was born in 1742. She was educated at Quebec, and 
returned to Cahokia, to which place her father had removed, where she mar- 
ried M. Beaulieu. She lived a long and useful life, and died at the age of 
■eighty-four in Cahokia. 


Joseph Peletier. Heirs of Joseph Dutremble. 

Michel Pettier ahas Antaya. Michel La Gaudiniere. 
Heirs of Ardoin. Widow of Louis LeMay alias 

Heirs of Joseph Cabassier. Theophile. 

Widow Chartran. Heirs of Michel Girardin. 

Antoine Lacourse. Joseph Vaudiere. 

Joseph LaCouture. Jean Baptist BoisVene. 

Antoine Lamarche. Joseph BoisVene. 

Widow of George Blain. AVidow of James Mooney. 

Joseph La lancet. Shadrach Bond. 

Jean Baptist Mercier. Bartholemew Uumas or his heir. 

Therese Poupard Widow Lang- Widow of James Moore. 

lois. Peter Zippe. 

Raphael Gagnie. James Piggot. 

Widow Crow. Nickolas Smith or his heirs. 

Heirs of Renne Locat. Heirs of Jacob Groots. 

Heirs of Piere Roy alias Cadien. William Biggs. 
Heirs of the Widow of Jean Heirs of Belew. 

Bapt. Chartran. Shadrach Bond [erased]. 

Heirs of Isaac Levi. Elisabeth Raine. 

Renne Bouvet. James Garatson or his heirs. 

Leon Lepage. Giroux. 

Claude Chenier,* proved by the oaths of Brady and Pierre la pope 

to have been living in 1783 and had a numerous 

family, tho' omitted in this list. 

St. Clair County, ss. 

Personaly appeared before me, Jean Bapt. Dubuque and 
Charles Ducharme, Ancient Inhabitats of the Village of 
Cahokia, who being duly sworn do declare that the within 
List to the best of their Knowledge is Just and True and 
the erasures made at their Desire, in Testimony whereof I 
have to this set my hand Seal this 25th Apl, 1796. 

Ch. Ducharme. William St. Clair. 

J. B. Dubuque. 

* This memorandum upon the original list is followed by this unsigned 
statement: "This memorandum is in the handwriting of Governor St. Clair." 


St. Clair County, ss. 

Personaly appeared before me, Jean Bapt. Saucier, 
Mathew Saucier, Jean Bapt. Allary, and Charles Germain, 
ancient Inhabitants of the Village of Prairie du pont in 
the County of St. Clair, who being duly Sworn did declare 
that the within list is Just and true to the best of their 
Knowledge, in Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and Seal at Cahokia, this 25th Apl., 1796. 
Mth. Saucier. J. B. Saucier. William St. Clair. 

I do hereby Certify to have examined the within list 
and find it just to the best of my Knowledge and Remem- 
brance — in Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
at Cahokia, this 25th day of apl, 1796. 


Liste* Des habitans Resident aux Kaskaskias en 1790 — 


Pr. Compagni. 
John Edgar,t Capt'n. ) ^^^^ ^^ ^^^jjj^^_ 
Toimetre antaya. J 
I Antoine LaChapelIe,+ Gargon, Ensign. 

* This list is written on a sheet of narrow, dark-colored paper, and en- 
dorsed "List of the two Companies of Militia at Kaskaskia the first of Augt., 

+ John Edgar was a native of Ireland, and once a British naval officer. 
At the beginning of the Revolutionary war he resided at Detroit, and was 
sent a prisoner to Quebec on account of his sympathy with the colonial cause, 
which his American wife encouraged. Making his escape by the way, he 
joined the troops of the colonies, and in 1784 settled at Kaskaskia. He was 
for many years the wealthiest citizen of Illinois, was elected a member of the 
legislature of the Northwest Territory, and one of the judges of the St. Clair 
circuit court, and held other offices. The county of Edgar is named for him. 

:;: Antoine LaChapelle died in 1804, at Natchez, on his way from New 
Orleans in charge of a consignment to William Morrison. He was a son of 
Basil LaChapelle, who, with his eleven brothers, removed from Canada to- 


Louis Jermain, Chef de fam. 
Nicola Canada,* idem. 
Michel St. Pierre, idem. 
Mad. V ve. Lachapelle, idem. 

2 Lachapelle Bazille. j 

3 Baptiste Lachapelle. I Gar9ons. 

4 Jn Lachapelle. ) 
John Cok, Chef de famille. 

5 Cook, fils, [erased], j 

6 Henry Bienvenu. Gar^on. 

7 Michel Bienvenu. J 
Etienne Page', Chef de famille a militaire. 
Baptiste alary, idem. 

8 Bazil Alary. ] 

9 Jerom St. Pierre. 

10 Philipe St. Pierre. 

11 Alexi Doza. 

12 Fransois Lemieux. 

13 Louis Lemieux. 

14 Louis Jermain, fils, [erased]. 

15 Novel Toulouse. 

16 Pierre Toulouse. 

17 Jn. Longvalle. 

Antoin Provant. j 

Labrierre. '- Chef de famille. 

John Rise Jons.t j 

Bienvenu Perre. j 

Provau Perre. Chef de famille. 

Louis Louvalle. ) 

P. Janis, [erased]. — Transporte en L'autre Part. 

* Nicholas Canada was an uncle of Pierre Menard's first wife, and one of 
the witnesses at their marriage, on behalf of the bride. 

t Properly John Rice Jones, the famous law7er above mentioned, who 
removed from \'incennes to Kaskaskia in 1790, and is borne on the militia 
rolls of both places in that year. 

}■ Gar^on. 


Suite De I'autre Part 
Blaise Barutel. 1 

Glaud Lemieux. | 

aLexi Beauvais. 
fs. Derouse, Dit St. Pierre, 
fs. Tibeaux. 

Pierre Richard. 

1 8 Anbroise Delinel. 

19 fs. Carbonnaux. 
.20 Aantoine Lavigne. 

Chef de famille. 


2nie. Compagni. Savoir: 

21 Fr. Janisse,* Capt'n Des millise, gargon. 
Bpte. Lachanse,t lieutenant, Per de famille. 

22 Jac Gautiaux, Enseigne, Gar9on. 
Baptiste MontureuUe. ] 
Jemi Core. 1 
Antoin Bienvenu, fils. [. Per de famille. 
Michel Uanis. 1 
Jerome Danis. J 

23 Jn. Danis. 

24 Andre Sonn. 

25 Philipe RocheBlave.t 

26 Antoine Bahatte, neveux. j- Tous Garcon. 

27 Baptiste Gendron, fils. 

28 Jn. Quiquette. 

29 Jerome Tibeaux. 
Antoine Bayatte. ] 
Jac Devaignais. 
Jac Moraniy. ) 

* Fran5ois Janis, one of the witnesses at Pierre Menard's first marriage, 
on his behalf. 

t One of the witnesses at the above marriage, on behalf of the bride. 

+ Philipe Rocheblave was the name of the last governor of the Illinois for 
Great Britain, and if this be the same man he must have returned to Kaskas- 
kia after the Revolutionary war. 

Chef de famille. 


Michel Antaya. 

Louis Laderoute. 

Baptiste Laderoute. } Chef de famille. 

Bte. Tomure. I 

Bte. Gendron Perre. ^ 

Transporte cy Contre. 

Suite De Cy Contre. 
Bhertelmi Richard. 1 

Paul Nehaume. | 

Baptiste Degonier. [ Chef de famille. 

Made. we. Tourangaux.* j 
Charl Danis.t J 

30 Vital Ste. Gemme Bauvais.:|: n 

31 Gabriel Aubuchon. / 

52 Jn. Calais, rezidant Sure L'autre rive, t " ^ • 

53 Pierre Menard.§ / 

34 James McNabb. 

35 Alexr. McNabb. 

Alaint. Chef de famil. 

Pierre Cristopher, Garcon, [erased]. 

36 Jacque Laderoute, Idem. 

37 Pier le basque, g3ii(;on. 

* Madame Tourangeau, the widow of Michel Godin, was the mother of 
Pierre Menard's first wife, and at her house in Kaskaskia their marriage 
contract was signed. 

f Charles Danis, an uncle of Pierre Menard's first wife, and one of the 
witnesses at their marriage in her behalf Doubtless a descendant of the 
Charles Danis to whom the first-recorded land-grant at Kaskaskia was made. 
May 10, 1722. 

t Vitol Ste. Geme Beauvais. One of the six sons of Jean Paptiste Ste. 
Geme, called Beauvais, from his native place in France, who settled at Kas- 
kaskia about 1750. He bought the property of the Jesuits there on its sale 
under the decree for the suppression of that order, and became the wealthiest 
citizen of his time in Kaskaskia. Vitol Ste. Geme Beauvais was one of the 
judges of the court of Kaskaskia, elected by the people, under the governor- 
ship of Col. John Todd, Jr., and afterward resided at Ste. Genevieve, Mo. 

§ Afterward the first lieutenant-governor of the State of Illinois. 


Liste Des Personne Etable Depuis 1790. — Savoir: 

Jonatame Hauslay. ) ^, ^ , ^ ., 
AT TVT 11 > Chef de famil. 

Marque Navelle. 

Antoine Navelle. -^ 

Pierre Beguain. ^ Gargon. 


Etienne Parard. ) 

fs. Charleville. 

Jams Dunn. V Chef de famille. 

Mark Tomas. ) 

Wlliatn Morisonne.* n 

Jac Lasabloniare. { r-u c ^ r n 

i ^ > Chef de famille. 

Jan Gomer. i 

Jan Bte. Normand. ^ 

fs. St. Pierre, Chef de famille. 

Michel Lasassese. 

38 Joseph Page, Garson. 

39 Frangois Janis. 

Before me, Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory 
of the United States northwest of the Ohio, personally 
appeared Francois Janis, Captain of a Company in the 
Militia of Kaskaskia and being duly sworn deposeth and 
sayeth that the Persons whose names are inserted in the 
foregoing list, and opposite to which the word (Gar(jon) is 
written, were all borne on the Militia Rolls of the said 
Village, on the first day of August, 1790. In Witness 
whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at Kaskaskia, the 
4th day of October, 1795. Ar. St. Clair. 

A list"|* of Capt. Piggot's Companey in the first regiment 
of militia of the county of St. Clair, the 26 Day of April, 

* William Morrison emigrated from Philadelphia to Kaskaskia about 
1790, and became a leading merchant there. He died and was buried in 
the old graveyard at Kaskaskia in 1837. 

■f This list is written upon a sheet of old foolscap paper, water-marked with 


I James Piggot,^ Captn. 1 2 Do. Junior. 

3 George Atchison, Lent. 13 Edward Todd. 

3 Nathaniel Hull,- Ensn. 14 Leonard Harness. 

4 Benjamin Ogle, Sergnt. 15 George Hendricks. 

5 Shadrik Bond,-^ D.o. Earkin [erased]. 

6 Thomas Todd. 16 Benjaman Rogers. 

7 John Mordock."*^ 17 James Henderson. 

8 Samuel Morris. 18 James Lemmon.''' 

9 Jesse Waddel. 19 Peter Casterlin. 
ro Isaac Enix.^ 20 John Moore. 

John Simpson [erased]. 21 George Biggs. 

II Joseph Ogle — Senior.'^ 22 William Piggot. 

the word ROMAXI upon one page and on the other with the letters T. R. 
It is endorsed "A list of those persons enrolled in the Militia in the Company 
of Captn. Piggott, in .St. Clair County, on the first of Augt., 1790," and in 
another handwriting, "Certified by Gov. St. Clair. " Below is written, appar- 
ently by Capt. Piggot, " List of Piggot's Company for the year 1 790. " 

^ James Piggot was a native of Connecticut, and early in the war of the 
Revolution engaged in privateering. Later he removed to Pennsylvania, and 
commanded a company of troops from that State at the battles of Brandywine 
and Saratoga. He followed Clark to the West, and was for a time in com- 
mand of Fort Jefferson on the Mississippi, a few miles below the junction of 
the Ohio. He had served under Gov. St. Clair, who appointed him judge 
of the St. Clair County court. 

- Nathaniel Hull was born in Massachusetts, and was one of the first 
Americans in the Illinois. He was a noted leader in Indian warfare, and in 
1 793 commanded a party of eight whites who defeated twice their number of 
red men in a desperate conflict at the Big Spring, in what is now Monroe Co. 

^ .Shadrach Bond, .Senior, one of Clark's soldiers, came to the Illinois in 
1 781, was a member of territorial legislatures, judge of court of common pleas 
of St. Clair County, and uncle of Shadrach Bond, first governor of the State 
of Illinois. 

* John Mordoch or Murdoch, a famous Indian fighter, who swore unend- 
ing vengeance on the red men because of his mother's death at their hands. 

'' Probably Isaac Enochs, a Kentuckian, celebrated for his contests with 
the Indians, and as the first convert in Illinois to the Baptist persuasion. 

" Joseph Ogle was one of Nathaniel Hull's party in the Indian fight at 
Big Spring in 1791. 

" James Lemen, a Virginian, soldier of the Revolution, one of Hull's party 
at Big Spring, and a leading Baptist preacher. 


23 Laton White. Th',;mas Marr [erased]. 

24 William Murry.i 39 John Suliphon. 

25 Henerey oharo. 40 George Powers. 

26 John oharro. 4^ William Tobins. 
Jesse Ronn [erased]. 42 Elexander Denis.* 

27 George Wilkison — ^left the William Jones [erased]. 

Country soon after. 43 Isaac brison — -left the Coun- 

28 Clement Drury. try about a year afterwards. 

29 Ralph Drury. 44 George Lunceford.^ 

30 James Scot. 45 John Porter. 
Thomas Bradly [erased.] 46 Charles Gill.- 

31 William Chaffin. 47 Robert Sybold.i 

32 Samuel Worley. 48 John— Jack. 
James Hard [erased]. 49 Michael Huff.^ 

33 Josiah Ryan.- 50 Ebeneazar Sovereigns. 

34 Lawrence Kenon. 51 James brian — left the Coun- 

35 Daniel Shoultz. try. 

36 Daniel Raper.'-^ 52 Isaac West. 

37 David Guice. 53 James Garison. 

38 Peter Zip.^ 

Before me, Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory 
northwest of the Ohio, personally appeared James Piggot, 
Captain of a Company of Militia in the County of St. 
Clair, and being duly sworn, deposeth and sayeth that the 
List of Names above written, is the names of the Persons 
enrolled as Militia, in the Company commanded by him 
on the first day of August, one thousand seven hundred 
and ninety. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand at Cahokia, Septr. 28th, 1795. 

Ar. St. Clair. 

' One of Clark's soldiers. - One of Hull's party as above. 

3 Killed and scalped by the Indians in 1793, on the trail from New Design 
to Kaskaskia. 

* Killed by the Pottawatomie Indians, returning from Cahokia to Chicago 
in 1802, near present town of Edwardsvllle, 111. 

5 Killed by Indians in 1794, on the road between Prairie du Rocher and 
Kaskaskia. Step-father of Maj. John Moredock or Murdoch. 


Roll* of the Company of Militia of the first Regiment 
of the County of St. Clair Commanded by Francois 
Saucier, the first day of August, 1790: 

Francois Saucier, Captn.^ Jean Bt. MuUote. 

Bapt. Saucier, Lieut.- Jean Bte. Bargeron. 

Phillip Gervais, Ensgn. Joseph Buteau. 

Louis Lebrun. . Jean Marie Dorion. 

Piere Lajeunesse. f Antoine Lamarche. 

Bapt. Mercier. f ° ' Phillip Le Boeuf. 

Paul Poupard. / Francois Trotier, Son of Louis. 

Joseph Trotier.3 ^ Corpls. Sons Andrew Bequette. 

Clement Trotier. ( of Louis Pansinneau. 

Francois Trotier. f Francois John Ritchy. 

August Trotier. ^ Trotier. Louis Lamarche. 

Louis Trotier, Junr. Louis Laflame. 

Thomas Brady. "^ Francois Grondine. 

Louis Chattel. Joseph Grondine. 

Clement AUary. Jaque [Bte. erased] MuUote. 

Louis Trotier. Nicholas Turgeon. 

Piere Tecier. Gabriel Marleaux. 

Louis Pilett. Joseph Trotier, Son of Louis. 

* This roll is written on two pages of a single sheet of narrow paper of 
unusual length, bearing the water-mark of a crown and the initials G. R., and 
is endorsed " Roll of Saucier's Company. " 

1 Fran9ois .Saucier was a son of Jean Baptiste Saucier, once a French 
officer at Fort Chartres, who, after the country was ceded to Great Britain in 
1763, established himself at Cahokia. Fran9ois and his brother Matthieu 
Saucier founded the village of Portage des Sioux, in Missouri. Pierre 
Menard's second wife was a daughter of Francois Saucier. 

2 A brother of the foregoing. 

» A Canadian who settled in Cahokia in 1775, and conducted a large 
trading business with New Orleans. 

■* A Pennsylvanian, one of the only two residents of Cahokia at this time 
not of French birth or descent. He led a party of sixteen volunteers in 
1777 to the capture of the British post at St. Joseph, and on his return was 
taken prisoner on the Calumet River by a pursuing force, but escaped and 
returned to Cahokia. Later he was made sheriff of St. Clair County. He 
was commonly called "Mr. Tom." 


Alexis Chartran. Joseph Beland. 

Piere Lize. Constant Loncting. 

Joseph Lachance. Charles Pilet. 

Jean Le Renard. Etienne NicoUe. 

Francois L'Abbe. Julian Nicolle. 

Dennis Valentine. Rene' Tureau. 

Francois Pencrass. Jean Bt. Chartron— alias La 

Jean Bte.Rupalais, alias Gonevile. Becasse. 

Gabriel Langlois. Laurent Jeunbergere. 

Juliene Mercier. Piere Antoine Tabeau. 

Louis Gervais. Isedore La Croix. 

Pascal Letang. William Todd: 

Louis St. Germain. John Hays.* 

Antoine Bellecour. Joseph Vizina. 

Alexis Courtois. Jean Marie Comparet. 

Personally appeared before me, Wm. St. Clair, Lieut. 
Col., Commandant of the first Regiment of the County of 
St. Clair by Virtue of the powers Invested in me by his 
Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Bt. Sau- 
cier, who being duly sworn did Declare that the above is a 
True Roll of the Company of Militia under his command 
in August, 1790, In witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and seal at Cahokia, the 13th day of Apl., 1796. 
William St. Clair.-J- [seal] 

Roll:]: of the Company of Militia of the first Regiment 
of the County of St. Clair Commanded by Jean Baptist 
Dubuque, the first day of August, 1790: 

* John Hays is said by Reynolds to have emigrated from New York to 
Cahokia in 1793. This shows him there at least three years earlier. He was 
sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 181 8, supposed to be the longest 
term of office ever held in Illinois. 

+ A son of James St. Clair, once captain in the Irish brigade in the service 
of France. William St. Clair was the first clerk of the court and recorder of 
St. Clair County. 

:;: This roll is written on two pages of an unusually long sheet of old 




Jean Baptist Uubuque, Captn.i 
Joseph LaPencee, Lieut. 
Mathew Saucier, Ensgn.- 
Francois Xavier 

Joseph Mendoza. [- Sergts. 
Piere LaPerche. 
Michel Beauheux. 
Joseph Manegre. 1 
Antoine Lepage. I 
Bartholomew }■ Corpls. 

Prevost. 1 
Francois Villareyt J 
William Arundel."^ 
Joseph Marie. 
Bazile Laflame. 
Josiah Bleakley. 
Francois Demet. 
Hubert Delorme. 
Joseph Hymen. 
Francois Longvall. 
Hippolite Longvall. 
Francois Campeau. 
Jaque St. Aubin. 
Joseph Demarais. 
Piere St. Aubin. 
Louis Bergeron. 
Loui? Labuxiefe. 

Antoine Labuxiere. 

Joseph Pariesien. 

Michel Pilet. 

Francois Lefevre — alias Courier. 

Joseph Lepage. 

Joseph Chenie. 

Baptist Chenie. 

Dennis LaVertue. 

Louis Gendron. 

Joseph Touchett. 

Louis Rouliard. 

Piere Cleremont. 

August Cleremont. 

Piere Picard. 

Louis Gaud, Junr. 

Louis Relle. 

Jean Beaulieux. 

Bazile Beaulieux. 

Piere Chretien. 

Joseph Goneville. 

Joseph Perie. 

Joseph Laplante. 

Edward Hebert. 

Charles Buteau. 

Jean Baptist Mitot. 

Louis Hermand. 

Pascal Lefevre — alias Courier. 

Piere Durebois, Junr. 

English paper, water-marked with the crown and "G. R. 1794." It is en- 
dorsed " Roll of Dubuque's Company. " 

^ Probably a relative of Julien Dubuque, who lived at Cahokia before he 
established himself on the site of the City of Dubuque, Iowa, which is named 
for him. 

* A son of Jean Baptiste Saucier, above mentioned, who afterward lived 
at Portage des Sioux in Missouri. 

2 The only resident of Cahokia at this time not of French birth or descent, 
except Thomas Brady. 



Etien Cadron. 
Charles Cadron. 
Louis Bourassa. 
Francois Chevalier. 
Jean Munier. 
Jean Baptist Hermand. 
Antoine Hermand, Junr. 
Michel Longvall. 
Henry Birron. 
Gabriel Tellier. 
Glaude Chenie. 
Piere Chartie. 
Louis Gaud, Senn 

Francois Longvall, Senr. 
Charles Ducharme. 
Louis LeCompte. 
Antoine Boyer. 
Jean Baptist Barron. 
Francois Turgeon. 
Joseph Poupard. 
Amable Macon. 
Joseph Archambeau, 
Simon Lepage. 
Louis Coste. 
Piere Pecard [erased]. 
Louis Genvile. 

Personally appeared before me, Wm. St. Clair, Lieut. 
Col., Commandant of the first Regiment of the County of 
St. Clair, by Virtue of the powers Invested in me by his 
Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Bt. Dubu- 
que who being duly sworn did Declare that the above is a 
True Roll of the Compy. of Militia under his Command 
in Augt., 1790. In Witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and Seal at Cahokia, the 13th day of Apl., 1796. 
William St. Clair. [seal] 

Roll* of the Company of Militia of the first Regiment 
of the County of St. Clair Commanded by Phillip Engel, 
the first day of august, 1790: 

Philip Engel, Capt. 
Jean Bapt. AUary, Lieut 
Charles Germain, Ensn. 
Baptist Chartran 
Joseph Lalancet. 
Piere Cabassier. 
Piere Godin. 


Tousaint Chartran. 
Piere Martin. 
Jean Guitare. 
Jean Noel Godin. 
Jean Bapt. Lalande. 
Jaque Letourneau. 
Raphael Daubuchon. 


* This roll is written on two pages of a long sheet of old paper 
marked with the letters T. R., surrounded by scroll work. 


Joseph Lambert. Franois LMay. 

Joseph Desloges, Senr. Joseph BoisVene. 

Joseph Deloges, Junr. Francois Cabassier. 

Jacque Mayiot. Louis Bisson. 

Piere Martin, Junr. William Crow. 
Francois Noize, dit L'abbe. Ignace Grondine. 

Thomas Chartran. Louis Grosle. 

Thomas Winn. Jean Lapence. 

Amant Tellier. Andrew Bequet. 

Jean Bapt. Cabassier. Joseph Pettie. 

Michel Chartier. Lawrent Amelin. 

Franois Renousse. Lawrent Lefevre. 

Joseph LaCouture. Charles LaCroix. 

Antoine LaCourse. Piere Guitar, Senr. 

Charles Cabassier. Piere Guitar, Junr. 

Antoine Cabassier. Michel Antaya. 

Joseph Cabassier. Louis Vadbonccur. 

Charles Gill. Paul Desloges. 
Andrew Marlow. Rock. 

Michel Mitevur. Piere Buteau. 
;Renne Bouvet. 

Personaly appeared before me, Wm. St. Clair, Lieut. 
Col. Commandant of the first Regiment of the County of 
St. Clair, by Virtue of the Powers Invested in me by his 
Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Baptist 
Allary then Lieut., now Capt. of said Company who being 
duly sworn did declare that the within is a just Roll of the 
Company then Commanded by Phillip Engel, in august, 
1790. In Witness Whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
and seal at Cahokia, this 25th day of april, 1796. 

William St. Clair. 

Roll of the Militia of Kaskaskia who were duly enrolled 
on the 1st day of August, 1790, and had done Militia Duty, 
and who have not obtained any Donation from the United 


Bartholomew Tardiveau. 

Francois Janis. 

Antoine LaChapelle. 

Bazile LaChapelle. 

Baptiste LaChapelle. 

Joseph LaChapelle. 

Louis LaChapelle. 

Francois Lemieux. 

Michael St. Pierre. 

Henry Cook. 

John Cook. 

Adam Cook. 

Philip Derousse St.pierre. 

Jerome Derousse St.pierre. 

Joseph Derousse St. Pierre. 

Jean Baptiste Derousse St.Pierre. 

Henry Bienvenu. 

Michel Bienvenu. 

Bazile Alary. 

Jean Baptiste Alary. 

Alexis Doza. 

Nicholas Cassou. 

Louis Lemieux. 

Charles Danis, fils. 

William Morrison. 

John Rice Jones. 

Jean Baptiste Germain. 

Louis Germain. 

Noel Toulouse [erased]. 

Antoine Barutel, called Noel 

Pierre Barutel Toulouse. 
Henry Barutel (Toulouse. 
Francois Barutel Toulouse. 
Jean Baptiste LaChance. 
Jacque Gossiaux. 
Joseph Danis. 

Joseph Anderson. 

Anthoiny Buyat, Junior. 

Augustin Royer. [oute. 

Louis Seguin otherwise Lader- 

Jacque Laderoute. 

Louis Allaire. 

John Baptiste Gendron, Junior. 

Joseph ThuiUier. 

Jerome Thibault. 

Pierre Basque. 

Gabriel Obuchon. 

Pierre Menard. 

Vital Bauvais, Junior. 

Michael Lasource. 

Louis Buyat, Junior. 

Charles Robin, Junior. 

Pedro Christofal. 

Alexis Morris. 

Jean Baptiste Morris. 

Philip Galloher. 

Thomas Callahan. 

Levy Theel. 

Joseph Calais. 

Joseph Lonval. 

David Gray. 

Jean Baptiste Thaumur, Junior. 

Antoine Labriere. 

Hipolite Laforme. 

Jacob Judy. 

Samuel Judy. 

Francis Clark. 

Louis Charleville. 

William Young Whiteside. 

John Knaresborough Simpson. 

Hugh McDonald Chissolm. 

Joseph Fernande. 

Francois Dion. 


Pierre Grenier. Alexander McNabb. 

Francis Montrie. Joseph Tellier [erased]. 

Ignace Lagauterie. Joseph Chevaher. 

James McNabb. Manuel Portugais. 

Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio. — 
Randolph County, sc. 

Be it remembered that on the twenty third Day of 
September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven 
personally came before us the subscribers two of the Jus- 
tices of the peace of the said County, Antoine Peltier, 
called Antaya, of Kaskaskia in the said County, a Capi- 
tain of militia in the said place, who made oath on the 
holy Evangelists of Almighty God that the several persons 
whose names are contained on the two sides of this sheet 
of paper were on the first Day of August one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety enrolled in the militia at Kas- 
kaskia aforesaid and had done militia Duty as such and 
also that the said several persons have not to the Know- 
ledge or Belief of this Deponent obtained a Donation of 
four hundred acres of land from the United States. 
Sworn before us the Day & ) The mark of 

year above mentioned. 3 X 

J. Edgar. Antoine Peltier 

Wm. Morrison. called Antaya. 

Roll of the militia of Prairie du Rocher in the County 
of St. Clair on the first Day of August, one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety who had done Militia Duty: 

Charles Laforme, junior Joseph Lavoye, junior 

Jean Baptiste omier Raphael Drury 

Andre Roy Francois Thibault, junior 

Gabriel Decochy, junior Louis Blay, junior 

Joseph Blay, junior Andre' Barbau 


Jean Baptiste Perin Francois Julien 

Francois Tangue Joseph Ferrier 

Joseph Tangue, junior Joseph Genereu 

Joseph Levasseur Pierre Picard 

Ambroise Levasseur Jean Baptiste Thibault 

Joseph Comte Louis Levasseur 

Pierre Camus Augustin Girard 

Francois Gerard Jean Bapte. Culmaut* 

Etienne Langlois Pierre Comte* 

Jean Baptiste Lajoye Jean Baptiste DuClos 

Pierre Lajoye Charles ChevaUer 

Nicholas Witmer Tousaint Bavarel 

Augustin AUard Simon Toiton 

Antoiue DuClos Charles Thibault 

Ayme Comte, junior Francois Coline 

George Wittmer, junior Jean Gomes 
Nicholas Olivier 

Territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio. 
Randolph County, ss. 

Be it remembered that on the Twenty Second day of 
■October, in the year One Thousand Seven hundred and 
Ninety Seven, personally appeared Jean Bapt. Barbeau, 
Junr. Esquire, Captain of Militia at Prairie du Rocher 
aforesaid, who made oath according to Law that the sev- 
eral persons above and within named were on the first 
day of August, One Thousand Seven hundred and Ninety 
■duly enrolled at Prairie du Rocher aforesaid and had 
done Militia Duty therein, and also that the said Several 
Persons have not received or obtained any Donation of 
Lands from the United States to the knowledge or belief 
of this Deponent. 

Sworn the Day and Year above mentioned, ^ 
before me a Justice of the Peace of the VBarbau, fils. 
said County of Randolph. ) 

J. Edgar. 

* These two are on the Captain's list. 



General Return^ of the militia inrolled in the (now) 
County of St. Clair on the first Day of August one thou- 
sand seven hundred and ninety: 

^Raphael Drury. 

aCapn. James Piggot. 
Lieutt. George Atchison. 
j;*Ensign Nathaniel liull 
Thomas Todd. 
John Moredoch. 
Samuel Morris. 
Jesse Wadle. 
Isaac Enox. [Enoch] 
Joseph Ogle, Senr. 
Joseph Ogle, Junr. 
Benjamin Ogle. 
Edward Todd. 
Leonard Harness. 
George Hendricks. 
Benjamin Rodgers. 
James Henderson. 
James Lemen. 
Peter Casterline. 
John Moore. 
George Biggs. 
William Piggot. 
Laton [Leighton] White. 
William Murray. - 
Henry O'Hara, Junr. 
John O'Hara. 
George Wilkinson. 
jvClement Drury. 

James Scott. 
William Chalfin. 
Samuel Worley. 
*Josiah Ryan. 
^Lawrence Kenyon. 
Daniel Shultz. 
Daniel Raper. 
.ivDavid Guise. 
xPeter Zippe. 
John Sullivan. 
George Powers. 
William Robins. 
Alexander Dennis. 
Isaac Bryson. 
George Luntsford.- 
John Porter. 
tCharles Gill. 
Robert Seybold.- 
John Jack. 
Michael Huff. 
Ebenezer Severns. 
James Bryan. 
Isaac West. 
James Garretson. 
David Wadle. 
George Ware. 
* In Prairie du Rocher list. 

[x] " Received Donation. " 

t On the Donation list. 

[1 This list and accompanying affidavit cover seven pages of old crown water- 
marked paper. The part of the sheet which in a corresponding list contained 
the initals "G. R." has been cut out. The names are all in the handwriting 
of John Rice Jones, and so certified by his son.] 

[••^ One of George Rogers Clark's soldiers on his expedition to the Illinois.} 



Ebenezer Bowen. 

James McRoberts. 

Isaac Chalfin. 

John Worley. 

Thadious Bradley. 

William Jones. 

Christopher Smith. 

Henry McLaughhn. 

AVilliam Grotz. 

Alexander Wadle. 

Levi Piggot. 

Alexander Atcheson. 

Timothy Ballevv. 

William Moore. 

James Head. 

Jesse Raynor. 

Hardy Ware. 

Thomas Mars. 

jvCapn. Jean Baptiste Dubuque. 

.rLieutt. Joseph Lapence. 

.rEnsign Matthew Saucier. 

Francois Lapence. 

Joseph Mendoza. 

Pierre Laperche. 

Michel Beaulieu. 

Joseph Manegre. 

Antoine Lepage. 

Bartholomew Provost. 

Francois Villaret. 

WiUiam Arundel. 

Joseph Marie. 

Bazile Laflamme. 

Josiah Bleakly [erased]. 

Francois Demete. 

Hubert Delorme. 

Joseph Hymen. 

Francois Longval. 

Hippolite Longval. 

Francois Campeau. 

Jacque St. Aubin. 

Joseph Demaret. 

Claude St. Aubin. 

Louis Bergeron. 

Hubert Long Vail. 

Louis Labusiere. 

Antoine Labusiere. 

Joseph Parisien. 

Michel Pilet. 

Francois Lefevre, alias Courie, 

Joseph Lepage. [Junr. 

John Baptiste Chenie. 

Joseph Chenie. 

Dennis Lavertu. 

Louis Gendron. 

Joseph Touchet. 

Louis RouHard. 

Auguste Clermont. 

Pierre Clermont. 

Pierre Picard. 

Louis Gaud, Junior. 

Louis Rohle. 

Jean Beaulieu. 

Pierre Chretion. 

Joseph Goneville. 

Joseph Poirie. 

Joseph Laplante. 

Edward Hebert. 

Charles Buteau, Junr. 

Jean Baptiste Methode. 

Louis Harmand. 

Pascal Lefevre. 

Pierre Dubois, Junior. 

Etienne Cadron. 

Pierre Bourassa. 



Charles Cadron, Junior. 
jtFran^ois Chevalier. 
Jean Munier. 
Jean Baptiste Harmand. 
Antoine Harmand, Junior. 
Michel Longval. 
Henry Biron. 
Gabriel Tellier. 
Claude Chenier. 
Pierre Chartier. 
^Louis Gaud, Senior. 
jrFrancois Longval, Senior. 
A'Charles DuCharme. 
.rLouis LeCompte. 
aAntoine Boyer. 
ajean Baptiste Baron. 
A-Francois Turgeon. 
:^Joseph Poupard. 
Amable Macon. 
Bazile Beaulieu. 
Joseph Archambeau. 
Simon Lepage. 
Louis Coste. 
Louis Goneville. 
Antoine Grandbois. 
Jean Baptiste Fleurant. 
Jean Baptiste Champlain. 
Gabriel Marleaux, Junior. 
Jean Baptiste Marleaux. 
Pierre Roilhe. 
Francois Labuxiere. 
Sanson Canadien. 
Alexis Brisson. 
Louis Beaulieu. 
Pierre Jacques Foubert. 
August Biron. 
Raphael Langlois. 

Louis Clermond. 

Louis Pierre Levy. 

Jacque Lamarche. 

Jean Baptiste Girard St. 

John Lyle. [Jean Pierre. 

xCaptain Francois Saucier. 

.;cLieutt. Jean Baptiste Saucier. 

.a;Ensign Phillip Gervais. 

jcLouis Lebrun. 

Pierre Lajeunesse. 

A-Jean Baptiste Mercier. 

.:vPaul Poupard. 

Joseph Trotier. 

Clement Trotier. 

Auguste Trotier. 

Louis Trotier, Junior. 

.xThomas Brady. 

jfLouis Chatele. 

.^Clement Allary. 

aLouis Trotier, Senior. 

Pierre Texier. 

jvLouis Pilet. 

.^Jean Baptiste Mulotte. 

.xjean Baptiste Bergeron. 

A-Joseph Buteau. 

jrjean Marie Dorion. 

a- Antoine Lamarche. 

Philip Leboeuf. 

Francois Trotier, son of Louis. 

Andre Boquet. 

Louis Panconneaux. 

John Ritchie. 

Louis Lamarche. 

Louis Laflamme. 

Francois Grondine. 

Jacque MuUote. 

Louis Girou.x. 



Jean Baptiste Leblanc. 

Nicholas Turgeon. 

Gabriel Marleaux. 

Joseph Trotier, son of Louis. 

Alexis Chartran. 

Pierre Lize. 

Joseph LaChance. 

Joseph Grondine. 

Jean LeRenard. 

Francois Labbe. 

Dennis Valentin. 

Francois Pancrass. 

Jean Baptiste Rapelais alias 

Gabriel Langlois. [Genville, 

Julien Mercier. 

Louis Gervais. 

Pascal Letang. 

Louis St.Germain. 

Antoine Belcour. 

Alexis Courtois. 

Joseph Beland. 

Constant Longtemp. 

Charles Pilot. 

Etienne NichoUe. 

Julien NichoUe. 

Rene Zureau. 

Jean Bap. Chartran, alias Labou- 

Laurent Jean Berger. [asse. 

Pierre Antoine Tabeau. 

Isidore LaCroix. 

William Todd [erased]. 

John Hays [erased]. 

Joseph Vizina. 

Jean Marie Comparet. 

Jean Marie Bissonet. 

Francois Young. 

Louis Morin. 

Joseph Grenier. 
Hubert Mercier. 
Etienne Pinsonneau. 
Joseph Vaudry, Junr. 

'■ — Alphonso. 

John Brady. «S: 
Antoine Gerardine, Jr. 
aCapn. Philip Engel. 
a-Lieutt. Jean Baptiste AUary, 
.rEnsign Charles Germain. 
Jean Baptiste Chartran. 
^Joseph Lalamet. 
Toussaint Chartran. 
A-Pierre Martin. 
Jean Noel Godin. 
Jean Baptiste Lalande. 
Jacque Letourneau. 
Raphael D'Aubuchon. 
^Joseph Lambert. 
Pierre Godin. 
^Joseph Deloge, Senior. 
Joseph Deloge, Junior. 
Jacque Mayiot. 
Pierre Martin, Junior. 
Francois Lubbe [erased]. 
Thomas Chartran. 
Thomas Winn. 
Amant Tellier. 
Jean Baptiste Cabassier. 
Michel Chartran [erased]. 
Francois Ranousse. 
orjoseph LaCouture. 
jv Antoine LaCource. 
Pierre Cabassier. 
Charles Cabassier. 
Andrew Marlow. 
Michel Metioier. 


-vRene Bouvet. jtLaurent Amelin. 

Francois Lemay. Laurent Lefevre. 

A-Joseph Boisver. Charles LaCroix. 

Francois Cabassier. *Jean Guittar [erased]. 

Joseph Cabassier. Pierre Guittar, Junior. 

Antoine Cabassier. jcMichel Antaya. 

Louis Bisson. Louis Vadboncoeur. 

orWiUiam Crow. Paul Poirier. 

Ignace Grondine. ~ Jean Francois Perrey [erased]. 

Louis Grosle. Jean Baptiste Provost. 

A-Jean Lapense'. Louis Bibeaux. 

Marrain Pancrass. Pierre Locuyer dt St. Sauveur. 

A-Joseph Peltier. Michel Roche. 

^Francois Gerome. Jean Vandet. 

Personally appeared before me William St. Clair Duly 
authorized by his Excellency the Governor to take proof 
of the Claims appertaining to the Militia of the County 
of St. Clair James Piggot Jean Bapt Dubuque Jean Bapt. 
Saucier and Jean Bapt. Allary who severally affirmed that 
the Within is true Rolls of their respective Company of 
Militia in the Month of August one thousand seven hun- 
dred and ninety. In witness whereof I have hereunto set 
my hand at Cahokia this thirteenth day of Septe. one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety seven. 

William St. Clair. 

To the Honorable Winthrop Sargent, Esquire, Secre- 
tary of the Territory of the United States Northwest of 
the Ohio, now vested with all the Powers of the Governor 

The Petition of certain Inhabitants of Vincennes, 
Most respectfully showeth: 
That your Petitioners were heads of P'amilies at Kaskas- 

* On Vincennes list. 


kia in the Illinois Country in 1783, where they are entitled 
to the Donation of the United States of Four hundred 
acres of land each. 

That previous to the year 1791 they removed thence to 
this Place, where they have fixed their Residence. 
They therefore pray that your Honour would be pleased 
to cause to be laid out for them, their respective Dona- 
tion lands adjoining those already laid out for the heads 
of Families at Vincennes, agreeable to an Act of the 
United States, passed the third day of March, One Thou- 
sand Seven hundred and Ninety-one. And Your Peti- 
tioners will ever pray. 

X Jerome Crely. 


1797. X Antoine Renaud. 

pro. Charlote Renaud, 

his heir at 1 




By W. A. Burt Jones of St. Paul, Minnesota. 

* * "A friend to truth, of soul sincere, 
In action faithful, and in honor clear." 

JOHN RICE JONES was born in Malhvyd, a beautiful 
village on the "murmuring Dyfi," in that wildest and 
most picturesque of all Welsh counties, Merionethshire, 
February ii, 1759. He was one of fourteen children and 
the eldest son of John Jones, Esq., a gentleman in good 
circumstances and of highly respectable social standing, 
belonging as he did to an ancient and honorable family 
celebrated in the history and poetry of his native country, 
"fair Wales, the land of song." 

John Rice Jones received a collegiate education at Ox- 
ford, England, and afterward took a regular course in both 
medicine and law. He then established himself in the 
practice of the latter in London, where, in 1753, in St. 
George's Church, Hanover Square, his parents had been 
married, and where a number of relatives and friends 
resided. In a deed dated in 1783, and conveying to him 
certain property in Brecon, Wales, he, then a resident of 
the British metropolis, is described as "John Rice Jones of 
Thanet Place, in the Strand, in the Parish of St. Clement 
Danes, in the County of Middlesex, gentleman," which 
locates him pretty closely in the great city a hundred 
years ago. 

He came to America in February, 1784, and located in 
Philadelphia, where he engaged in the practice of his pro- 



fession, and made the friendly acquaintance of Dr. Benja- 
min Rush, Benjamin FrankUn, Myers Fisher, the eminent 
lawyer, and other distinguished men, to some of whom he 
had letters of introduction. He remained here some two 
years, when, having long heard of the wonderful Far West, 
and evidently having strong confidence in the greatness 
and importance it would assume in the early future, he 
there decided to cast his lines, and accordingly set out on 
the long and tedious journey of over eight hundred miles 
to Louisville, Ky., his objective point, and then the most 
important American settlement west of the Alleghany 
Mountains, the trip to which was fraught with many perils 
and discomforts, yet which, we are told, was in many ways 
extremely interesting and enjoyable in a pleasant season 
of the year. 

It is not known whether he came with his family from 
Philadelphia to Fort Pitt — now the city of Pittsburg, in 
the centre of a vastly- extended civilization, but then an 
isolated and lonely military post on the remote frontier — 
and thence down the Ohio River by boat, or came entirely 
overland by the only other route to the West, which 
crossed the Blue-Ridge Mountains above the head-waters 
of the Potomac, then led down between that range and 
the Alleghanies to old Fort Chissel, and thence via the 
Great Wilderness road, which admitted of only horseback 
and foot travel, through Kentucky by way of Cumberland 
Gap. He reached his destination in safety, however, as, 
after his departure from Philadelphia, we next meet him at 
the Falls of the Ohio, or Louisville, where, in Sept., 1786, 
he joined the army of one thousand men raised and com- 
manded by Gen. George Rogers Clark, under the authority 
of Virginia, for the suppression of the hostile Wabash 
tribes of Indians. Gen. Clark proceeded into their coun- 
try some distance above Vincennes, when it was deemed 
inexpedient — owing to the partial loss of supplies, shipped 


after them via the Ohio, and to the discontent and deser- 
tion of some of the troops — to proceed further, and the 
Httle army, abandoning the expedition, fell back to Vin- 
cennes. Owing to the exposed condition of that post at 
the time, it was considered advisable to establish there a 
military garrison, and the project was determined upon 
and carried into execution at once by a council composed 
of the field-officers of the Wabash expedition, the garri- 
son, it was decided, to consist of three hundred men — two 
hundred and fifty infantry, and a company of artillery 
under Capt. Valentine T. Dalton. Gen. Clark assumed 
the supreme direction of the corps, and levied recruits, 
appointed officers, and impressed provisions for their sup- 
port.* Of this garrison, John Rice Jones was appointed 
commissary-general, in place of John Craig, Jr., who was 
first appointed but did not act.^f- 

At this time, negotiations were pending between the 
United States and the court at Madrid relative to the con- 
cession by Spain of the right to the navigation of the 
Mississippi River by the Americans. This privilege had 
always been vigorously denied the United States by the 
Spanish government, and had become not only a bone of 
diplomatic contention between the two countries, but a 
fruitful cause of ill-feeling between the citizens of the one 
and the subjects of the other living and intermingling on 
the borders of the western possessions of the nations con- 
cerned. The Spaniards there had repeatedly confiscated 
property of and committed other outrages upon Ameri- 
cans, and when an unfounded but readily-credited rumor 
came that congress had conceded everything to Spain, and 
that in consequence the citizens of the Far West would 
thenceforth have to champion their cherished cause alone 
and take care of themselves and their interests generally, 

* Dillon's " History of Indiana." 

t Dunn's " Indiana : A Redemption from Slavery. " 


intense excitement and resentment followed and prompted 
measures of summary retaliation for the depredations com- 
mitted upon them in the past. 

A systematic and vigorous course was adopted at Vin- 
cennes by Gen. Clark, under whose direction the garrison 
troops seized upon all Spanish property at the post and 
the Illinois, very considerable and valuable altogether, and 
turned it over to John Rice Jones, who as commissary- 
general, by regular appointment of Gen. Clark, retained 
a proper portion of the contraband property for garrison 
uses, and disposed of the remainder at auction* for the 
partial indemnification of citizens whose possessions had 
been as unceremoniously appropriated by Spanish pil- 
lagers. John Rice Jones was at this time only twenty- 
seven years of age, and his abilities and character must 
have been very marked to have secured for him in a brief 
period his considerable local prominence and, above all, 
the confidence and esteem, which he undoubtedly possessed, 
of such a man as Gen. Clark, "the Washington of the 
West, whose genius, abilities, and bravery, that elevated 
him above his fellow-men," rendered his friendship an 
honor to any man upon whom it was bestowed. 
'"' John Rice Jones seems to have become thoroughly im- 
bued with the martial spirit of the period and country in 
which he lived. First we find him as a member of Gen. 
Clark's army, recruited at the Falls of the Ohio for service 
against the Indians of the Wabash; next as commissary- 
general of the Vincennes garrison; and after an interval of 
four years — a period in Mr. Jones' military history which the 
writer has no data concerning, but one in which the former 
no doubt continued his connection with the garrison until 
its dissolution in the summer of 1787, and from that time 
with local militia organizations — we accidentally discover 
him, so to speak, as one of "the effective men belonging 

* Dillon's "History of Indiana," and Dunn's "Indiana." 


to Capt. Pierre Gamelin's company at Post Vincennes, 
July 4, 1790."* This company was a militia organization 
designed to serve at home or in the field against the 
Indians, who throughout the spring and summer of 1790 
"continued to wage irregular war against emigrating fami- 
lies and settlers along the borders of the Ohio, from its 
mouth to Pittsburg." 

Their harassing hostilities occasioned Gen. Josiah Har- 
mar's famous but fruitless expedition against them in the 
fall of this year, and called forth, under Maj. John Francis 
Hamtramck, the local militia, including Capt. Gamelin's 
company, at the post, in addition to the regular United- 
States garrison under him, which garrison was established 
in July, 1787, by the then Col. Harmar, to succeed that 
of Gen. Clark's creation. Hamtramck's expedition as 
ordered by Gen. Harmar, who himself operated against 
the Miamis, was directed against the Wabash tribes. Be- 
fore the approach of this command, which is known in 
history as the "Wabash regiment," the Indians, not stay- 
ing to do battle, fled precipitately, deserting several vil- 
lages and their contents, which were destroyed by the 
white troops. Mr. Jones probably took part in other cam- 
paigns against the Indians, but the writer has had access 
to but few manuscript records, official or otherwise, which 
are scattered, and has not chanced to find any published 
work giving further information on the point. 

In accordance with the act of congress of March 3, 1791, 
John Rice Jones received from the United States govern- 
ment a grant of one hundred acres of land, located near 
Vincennes, Northwest Territory, for his services as militia- 
man, as also did three of his brothers-in-law, the Barger 
brothers, as will hereafter appear.f He had before this 
probably acquired considerable real possessions, and in a 

* Law's "Colonial History of Vincennes." 

+ " American .State Papers — Public Lands," Vols. I and VII. 


few years became an extensive land-owner, as the early 
territorial records of both Indiana and Illinois, as well as 
the general government archives, abundantly attest. The 
Ordinance of 1787 imposed the ownership of considerable 
real estate conditional to eligibility to the higher civil 
offices, as it did in a smaller measure to the right to hold 
lesser ones, and even to the right of suffrage. It is likely 
that in those days of scarcity of money, John Rice Jones 
frequently had to take real property, or claims thereto, in 
exchange for legal services, and by that means, as well as 
by purchases outright, accumulated his many thousands 
of acres of land. In 1808, he paid taxes on 16,400 acres 
in Monroe County alone; he and Pierre Menard, Gen. 
John Edgar, Robert and William Morrison, James O'Hara,. 
Richard Lord, and a few others, being heavy owners. 

Unlike most pioneers, he did not engage in promiscuous 
pursuits, as trading with the Indians, hunting and trap- 
ping, cultivating the soil, merchandising, and so forth, but 
devoted himself entirely to the practice of his profession, 
in which he was very able, and to politics, in which he 
was as accomplished as he was influential, and cut an 
important figure. He very soon acquired and always con- 
tinued to enjoy an extensive and lucrative law-practice, 
and this professional success combined with his reputation 
as a classical scholar, as a man of varied and extensive 
learning, of practical knowledge of men and affairs, and 
of great ambition, coupled with a mental activity and an 
energy of character equally remarkable, soon placed him 
among the most prominent men in a country where those 
of his qualifications and qualities were the exception and 
not the rule. As such a character he was found by John 
Gibson, secretary of the newly-formed Indiana Territory, 
on his arrival at Vincennes, in July, 1800. With Mr. Gib- 
son he early formed a close personal and political friend- 
.ship, and similar relations immediately grew up between 


him and Gov. William Henry Harrison, after the arrival 
of the latter, in January, 1801, to assume the administra- 
tion of territorial affairs. 

Gov. Harrison at once recognized his abilities, and in 
the latter part of January or early in February, commis- 
sioned him attorney-general of the Territory, the first civil 
office ever held by Mr. Jones, so far as we are informed. 
We have it on the authority of historians that John Rice 
Jones not only enjoyed the political confidence of Gov. 
Harrison, but that their personal relations were of a very 
intimate nature, and that Mr. Jones exercised a by no 
tneans inconsiderable influence as an adviser of the gov- 
ernor up to the time of their rupture, in 1807-8. He 
■continued attorney-general until the date of his appoint- 
ment as a member of the territorial legislative council, in 
February or March, 1805, and therefore filled the former 
office for a period of exactly four years. 

In December, 1802, there convened at Vincennes the 
famous slavery convention of that year, which, outside of 
the general assembly, was the first public body of a univer- 
sally representative character to formally discuss the deli- 
cate question in all its bearings, and to lay the sentiments 
and wishes of the majority of the people of the entire 
territory before congress. The delegates, twelve in num- 
ber, were chosen by the people in a regular election, held, 
pursuant to proclamation of the governor, simultaneously 
in the several counties, and who, of course, represented the 
predominating sentiment among their respective constitu- 
ents. The members "ranked among the most intelligent 
and public-spirited men of the Territory," and were Gov. 
Harrison, Col. Francis Vigo, Wm. Prince, Luke Decker, 
Pierre Menard, Robert Reynolds, Robert Morrison, Jean 
Frangois Perry, Shadrach Bond, Maj. John Moredock, and, 
it is thought, Davis Floyd and William Biggs. All are 
now historic names, and all were strong pro-slavists except 


the last two, or whoever were the two representatives from 
Clark County. 

Gov. Harrison was president and John Rice Jones secre- 
tary of this convention, which continued in session eight 
days, and on the last day, December 28, agreed on a 
memorial and petition, probably the work of the skilful, 
able, and fluent pen of their secretary, to congress. They 
prayed for the suspension for ten years of the sixth article 
of the Ordinance of 1787, "the Magna Charta of the West," 
which prohibited, but did not prevent, slavery in the ter- 
ritory; and among many things, recommended Gov. Har- 
rison for reappointment and John Rice Jones for chief- 
justice of the territorial court. Only two of the requests 
were granted: that for the payment of a salary to the 
attorney-general — to which office, then held as from the 
first by John Rice Jones, it is presumed fees had been 
attached — and that for the right of preemption to actual 
settlers on public lands. 

John Rice Jones strongly favored the advance of the 
territory to the second grade, or representative form, and 
used his influence toward the accomplishment of that end, 
which was achieved by a majority of one hundred and 
thirty-eight of the freeholders of the territory at the elec- 
tion held September ii, 1804. Members of the house of 
representatives were chosen at the election of January 3 
following, and that body convened at Vincennes on Feb- 
ruary I, and, in accordance with law, nominated for coun- 
cillors ten men whose names were forwarded to President 
Jefferson, for him to select from them those of five men 
to compose the legislative council. The president returned 
five commissions with the spaces for names left blank, with 
instructions to Gov. Harrison to choose out of the ten 
nominees the five best fitted, in the governor's opinion, for 
the responsible offices, rejecting " land-jobbers, dishonest 
men, and those who, though honest, might suffer them- 


selves to be warped by party prejudices." Those selected, 
one for each county, were John Rice Jones, Benjamin 
Chambers, Samuel Gwathmey, John Hay, and Pierre 
Menard, all assuredly able men, whose superiors intellect- 
ually and morally it would have been difficult to find 

John Rice Jones was appointed from Knox County, the 
seat of government of which was also the territorial capi- 
tal, Vincennes, and continued its representative in the 
council until October 26, 1808, when the governor, for 
reasons that appeared to him sufficient, permanently dis- 
solved the general assembly — an act that was premature, 
in that it left no authorized body to organize the first 
legislature of the new Indiana Territory, as contemplated 
by law, and rendered special congressional legislation nec- 
essary in the matter. 

During the second and last session of the second general 
assembly, which was the last held under the old organiza- 
tion, and which second session began on September 26, 
1808, and continued exactly one month, John Rice Jones 
was president of the legislative council, the three preced- 
ing sessions of that body having been presided over by 
Benjamin Chambers. Immediately after the expiration 
of his service as councillor, extending over a period of 
some three years and seven months, John Rice Jones 
removed to Kaskaskia, the seat of government of the 
newly-erected Illinois Territory, whither he had removed 
from V^incennes in 1790 and where he continued to reside 
till about the beginning of 1801, when he returned to 
Vincennes. His son, Rice Jones, had located at Kaskas- 
kia in the practice of law in 1806, and had become very 
prominent politically, having in the election of July, 1808, 
been chosen to represent Randolph County in the lower 
house of the general assembly, which office he continued 
to hold till the dissolution of the legislature in October 


following, as before mentioned. John Rice Jones contin- 
xied to make his home in Kaskaskia, after his removal 
thither in the fall of 1808, till his removal to St. Louis 
some two years later. 

In 1805, a memorial to congress in favor of domestic 
slavery in a modified form and against a division of the 
Territory was introduced into the general assembly, but 
defeated; not on the slavery question, for both houses 
were overwhelmingly pro-slavery, but because a majority 
of the representatives in the lower house were friends of 
division. A petition embodying the slavery part of the 
memorial was afterward signed by a large majority of the 
members of both houses, in a non-representative capacity, 
and duly forwarded to Delegate Benjamin Parke in con- 
gress. Among the signers was John Rice Jones, a consist- 
ent pro-slavist, whose name, it appears, was affixed to 
various memorials and petitions presented to congress at 
different times in favor of the temporary abrogation of 
the much-discussed sixtJi article of the Ordinance of 1787, 
but who, so far as the writer has discovered, was neither 
a fanatic on the subject nor a holder of slaves, though he 
was abundantly able, as a man of wealth, to be an exten- 
sive owner. 

If it was a heinous crime to advocate the legal suspen- 
sion, by act of the supreme legislative body of the Nation, 
of the slavery-debarring provision of the ordinance under 
which the territories came into being, what was it to hold 
and traffic in negro bondsmen, in direct violation of an 
existing law, though that law was questionable 'as in itself 
a violation of three antedating promises and guarantees 
most solemnly made .'' Yet a great majority of the fore- 
most men in the territories of Indiana and Illinois were 
slave-holders — men equally conspicuous for their intelli- 
gence, patriotism, and social respectability, as well as for 
their political prominence. 


Among the leading public men besides John Rice Jones 
who were pronounced pro-slavists, were such characters as 
Gov. Wm. Henry Harrison, Secretary John Gibson, Dele- 
gate, afterward Judge, Benjamin Parke, councillors Benja- 
min Chambers, Pierre Menard, Robert Reynolds, Samuel 
Gwathmey, and John Hay; Col. Francis Vigo, Judge 
Jesse B. Thomas, Hon. Shadrach Bond, Gen. John Edgar, 
Gen. Washington Johnston, Judge John Johnson, and hun- 
dreds of other eminent public characters, extending down 
to the time of and including such men as Gov. Ninian 
Edwards, Judge Nathaniel Pope, Hon. Sidney Breese, 
Secretary-of-State Elias Kent Kane, and, in short, almost 
every man of public note throughout the Indiana and 
Illinois territorial periods, and many for long years after 
the admission of Indiana into the Union. 

Such was the exalted public and private virtues of these 
men that they were then good enough company for any- 
body, whatever his pretensions to moral worth, intellectual 
attainments, or patriotism, to be in, and however such 
company might now be esteemed by a more virtuous age. 
All these men went to their graves honest believers in the 
perfect propriety of slavery, and while the institution as a 
political establishment has since been forever abolished by 
constitutional amendment and swallowed up in an ocean 
of precious blood, shed in part by some of those men's 
descendants, arrayed against one another in the deadly 
strife of fratricidal war, it is alone the province of that 
Judge before whom they have been called, as all others 
must be, to pass judgment upon their "iniquity" as abso- 
lutely conscientious upholders of a principle and practice 
their opponents could not possibly more honestly condemn. 

Amid the discharge of his duties as councillor, his activ- 
ity in politics, his attention to his professional business,, 
always large, and to private affairs, and his domestic con- 
cerns as well, John Rice Jones still found the time to 


revise and prepare for publication — in conjunction with 
Hon. John Johnson, another able lawyer and a member of 
the house — the statutes of the Territory, under the follow- 
ing title: "Laws of the Indiana Territory, comprising those 
Acts formerly in force and as Revised by John Rice Jones 
and John Johnson, and passed (after Amendments) by the 
Legislature; and the Original Acts passed by the First 
Session of the Second General Assembly of the said Ter- 
ritory, begun and held at the Borough of Vincennes on 
the 1 6th day of August, A.D. 1807." This revision had 
been adopted by the general assembly with but trifling 
amendment, "was a careful and thorough one," says Judge 
Howe,* and was long the main substance of the statute 
laws of both Indiana and Illinois. 

In an act passed by the general legislature in 1807, in- 
corporating the Vincennes University, now represented by 
both the Vincennes University at Vincennes and the Indi- 
ana State University at Bloomington, "for the instruction 
of youth in the Latin, Greek, French, and English lan- 
guages, mathematics, natural philosophy, ancient and 
modern history, moral philosophy, logic, rhetoric, and the 
law of nature and nations," John Rice Jones, who had 
been one of its most zealous promoters, as would be 
naturally expected from one of his broad education, was 
named as one of the first board of trustees, which was 
composed of William Henry Harrison, Thomas T. Davis, 
John Gibson, Henry Vanderburgh, Waller Taylor, Benja- 
jamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John Badollet,. 
John Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias 
McNamee, Henry Hurst, Gen. Washington Johnston, Fran- 
cis Vigo, Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel 
Ewing, George Leach, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey, 
and John Johnsonf — "men who had large and liberal ideas 

* Howe's "The Laws and Courts of the Northwest and Indiana Territories. "■ 
i Dillon's "History of Indiana." 


of education, and who reflected the true spirit of the 
framers of the Ordinance of 1787." 

An important piece of business to come before the 
second session of the second general assembly, begun 
September 26, 1808, was the election of a successor to 
Hon. Benjamin Parke, who had resigned as delegate in 
congress to accept a seat on the territorial supreme judici- 
ary bench. Prominent among the prospective candidates 
before the legislature was John Rice Jones, who had been 
solicited by a great many friends and admirers to enter 
the contest. Local politics had become many sided and 
decidedly mixed; there were both pro-slavists and anti- 
slavists who were opposed to division, and also members 
of each of those factions who were in favor of that meas- 
ure; and in this state of aflairs the selection of a delegate 
was sure to be a prolonged fight, though the divisionists' 
success was assured. As an able man and an ardent friend 
of division, John Rice Jones was "the favorite of the peo- 
ple of the Illinois country, but the anti-slavery people 
would not support him because he had long been identi- 
fied with the Harrison party, and was a pronounced pro- 
slavery man."'* 

Among other leading candidates was Speaker-of-the- 
house Jesse B. Thomas, who, though no less an out-and- 
out pro-slavist than divisionist, was finally compromised 
on by the antagonistic elements of his party, and elected ; 
but not before John Rice Jones, who as president of the 
council or as a controller of other men's votes, evidently 
held the balance of power, had, conditional to his support 
of Speaker Thomas, required and extracted from him the 
most solemn pledges of fidelity to his party.-f Remaining 
true to these promises. Delegate Thomas worked for and 
speedily secured the division of the Territory, to the hu- 

* Dunn's "Indiana." 

t Dunn's "Indiana," and Ford's "History of Illinois." 


miliation of the Harrisonians, whose chagrin and rancor 
led at Vincennes to the hanging in effigy of the offending 
delegate. At Kaskaskia the feeling was equally bad, and 
produced among other serious incidents the passing of a 
challenge between Hon. Shadrach Bond, afterward gov- 
ernor of Illinois, and Rice Jones, ex-representative in the 
territorial legislature of Indiana, and a son of ex-councillor 
John Rice Jones, and finally ended in the deplorable assas- 
sination of Rice Jones by a dastardly partisan, who by 
instant flight from the country undoubtedly saved himself 
from summary punishment at the hands of an enraged 

Reference having been made heretofore to the rupture 
between Wm. Henry Harrison and John Rice Jones, and 
several historians deeming it a subject of sufficient interest 
to the public of today to call for more or less extended 
observations on their part, a few words on the subject will 
not be inappropriate in this sketch. One writer, whose 
strong prejudices, if not malicious motives, are evident, 
predicating a theory upon what later and obviously more 
just and careful historians consider imaginary grounds, for 
they declare that there is no documentary evidence as to 
what the real cause of the falling- out was, refers the 
"important event," as a judicious writer-f- terms it, to dis- 
appointment on the part of John Rice Jones, growing out 
of his failure to secure the bestowal of greater patronage 
of Gov. Harrison; and then in the same spirit this amiable 
writer proceeds to say that John Rice Jones made it appear 
that the ostensible reason for his disagreement with and 
consequent opposition to Harrison was a difference of 
opinion as to the expediency of the advance of the Ter- 
ritory to the second grade of government as early as that 
step was consummated. 

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois." 
i Dunn, in his "Indiana." 


This statement is palpably false, inasmuch as all accounts 
agree that John Rice Jones was conspicuous as an active 
and zealous promoter of the second-grade cause; and if 
further refutation of the infamous charges,* direct and 
indirect, of the writer in question were needed, it would be 
only necessary to state the notorious fact that for years 
after the Territory had entered the secondary form of 
government, its executive and the subject of this sketch 
were on terms of close personal and political friendship, as 
reputable historians declare, and as is incontrovertibly 
proven by Gov. Harrison's appointment of John Rice 
Jones to high office in those later years,-|- as also by the 
testimony to their cordial relations up to a date so late as 
1807-8, by other writers on Indiana history who have 
anything to say on the subject.:): 

To the writer of these pages, the most simple, reason- 
able, and natural explanation of the rupture between Gov. 
Harrison and Councillor Jones was the question of the 

* To asperse and misrepresent a living man on the anonymous charges and 
insinuations made against him by a partisan foe during the excitement of a 
heated political period, or by a personal enemy at any time, is bad enough ; 
but to assault the character and violate the memory of a man long dead 
through the mediumship of just such irresponsible and infamous attacks, is 
infinitely worse, is the part of neither an honorable man nor a gentleman, but 
rather that of a vile traducer, and should be far beneath the dignity of anyone 
making pretensions to the claim of being an historian. In reference to such 
slanders, a man's friends may pointedly ask, in the words of Hon. Edward 
Everett, in a speech once delivered by him in the national house of represen- 
tatives, "can any gentleman tell me how long it is since an anonymous mis- 
creant, in the papers, accused Thomas Jefferson of having pillaged thirteen 
hundred dollars, I think it was, from the public chest? Has any gentleman 
forgotten that pathetic complaint of George Washington, that he had been 
assailed in language fit only 'for a pick-pocket — for a common defaulter?'" 
Verily, " Be thou chaste as ice, as pure as snow, 

Thou shalt not escape calumny. " 

t The second grade of government was entered upon September li, 1804, 
and four months later Harrison appointed John Rice Jones a member of the 
council — a favor he would hardly have bestowed upon a political and personal 
enemy. * Dunn, in his "Indiana," page 361, for instance. 


division of the Indiana Territory. This question, as is 
well known, divided the people latterly into violently an- 
tagonistic factions, whose clashing sentiments on this one 
subject caused the severing of personal attachments be- 
tween many individuals whose political opinions on other 
measures were either in perfect harmony or temporarily 
adjustable, but who were uncompromising on this; engen- 
dered wide-spread and all-pervading excitement and par- 
tisan feeling; produced in connection with the indirectly- 
involved slavery question, pro and con, strange combina- 
tions and associations of men and sentiments, and charac- 
terized the campaign preceding an election of two repre- 
sentatives to the general assembly, which chanced to 
become necessary at the time, as the most animated and 
bitter one that ever occurred in the Territory, before or 
afterward, or in that of Illinois. The successful candidates 
for the legislature in the election in question were Rice 
Jones in Randolph County and John Messinger in St. Clair 
County, both of whom were zealous divisionists." 

As has been intimated, the defeat of the Harrisonians 
or anti-divisionists was a crushing disappointment to them, 
for the results of the election placed the balance of legis- 
lative power, by a slight majority, in the hands of the sep- 
arationists, and the loss of the election drove the rabid 
partisans among those who were opposed to division to 
extravagant expressions, actions, and acts, among the last 
the disgraceful proceeding at Vincennes, indicative of their 
despair and fury. John Rice Jones, who then lived at 
Vincennes, the seat of the territorial government, and in 
the county of Knox, the governor's favorite county and 
the stronghold of the Harrisonians, was as a pronounced 
divisionist and a distinguished character, doubly conspicu- 
ous as an object of dislike and abuse on the part of 

* Edwards' "Illinois," p. 30; Address of Welcome by Citizens of Randolph 
County to Gov. Ninian Edwards, June, 1809. 


many of those of opposing sentiments. Under the pccu- 
har circumstances prevaiHng, no two men could be friends 
who openly avowed and publicly advocated conflicting 
views on the burning division question, and therefore John 
Rice Jones necessarily experienced a rupture with Gov. 
Harrison, who was, as is equally a matter of record, a 
radical anti-divisionist, using all his personal and official 
influence to defeat the friends of the Illinois-Territory 
project, as it was to his selfish interest to do. 

From the date of their first acquaintance, early in 
1 801, up to the time that the question of the separation 
from Indiana of the Illinois country and its erection into 
an independent territory assumed importance in the public 
mind and began to be seriously agitated among the peo- 
ple, which was probably early in 1807, John Rice Jones 
and Gov. Harrison were personally and politically inti- 
mate, and they continued to be friends until probably 
about the middle of 1808, when their split upon the rock 
of territorial division became complete, and very naturally 
their relations afterward were not amicable; John Rice 
Jones, as he had the inalienable right to do, opposing, and 
that ably, and not alone but with thousands of his fellow- 
citizens, the policy and plans of the Harrison party, whose 
speedy overthrow in the latter part of 1808 may reasona- 
bly be accepted as a proof of the weakness and injustice 
of their cause. 

John Rice Jones had not only been a personal friend of 
Harrison's, but also an able and valued counsellor of the 
administration, as well as a man of very considerable per- 
sonal influence with the people. Consequently, as a recent 
careful writer* observes, "he was no small loss to the Har- 
rison party. He was at that time a councillor, with more 
than two years to serve; he had a full knowledge of the 
inside workings of past political movements; he had the 

* Dunn, in his " Indiana : A Redemption from Slavery. " 


ability to use his knowledge to the best advantage; and 
he was absolutely tireless in his political work." We thus 
see that he was qualified to make a powerful opponent of 
the Harrisonians, and indeed it is a matter of record that 
he and other leaders of the opposition "goaded their ene- 
mies almost to madness," and also gathered the people in 
such numbers to their support as to defeat the Harrison 
party in the memorable election of July 25, 1808, which 
gained for the victors their coveted object of territorial 
division, on February 3, 1809, by congressional enactment 

From an early day to the time of his removal, in 18 10, 
to Louisiana, afterward Missouri, Territory, John Rice 
Jones enjoyed an extensive and lucrative practice at law, 
his eminent professional ability being universally recog- 
nized and in frequent demand. His practice extended 
from Cahokia to Louisville, embracing besides those places 
Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, Vincennes, Shawneetown, 
and Clarksville, and also trans-Mississippi points, as St. 
Louis and Ste. Genevieve, especially after the cession of 
that country to the United States, in 1803, by France.* 
No writer in speaking of him has failed to pay the highest 
tribute to his jurisprudential learning and ability, all agree- 
ing with one who has declared him "a scientific and pro- 
found jurist, and through life a sound and enlightened 
expounder of the law;" and his contemporary political 
and personal enemies, like his post-mortem defamer, all 
conceded his preeminent talents and legal attainments. 
He was the first English-speaking lawyer in Indiana, and 
the first to practise his profession in Illinois, locating at 
Kaskaskia in 1790, and frequently attending court there 
and at other extreme western points after his return to 
Vincennes, some ten years later, to reside. 

His knowledge of various national laws was remarkably 
extensive, embracing not only a familiarity with American 

* Reynolds, Dillon, Dunn, et al. 


principles and procedure, but also a thorough acquaintance 
with Spanish and French laws, particularly concerning the 
intricate subjects of land-grants and titles in the West; 
while as a consequence of his legal education and practice 
in England and Wales, he had a clear and full understand- 
ing of the principles and rules of law and courts of those 
countries, as references in some of his opinions as a justice 
of the supreme court of Missouri in a measure bear witness.* 
In addition to his legal erudition, he was deeply versed 
in mathematics, "which he preferred to any other science," 
and was also an accomplished linguist, thoroughly grounded 
in Greek and Latin, and perfectly conversant with French 
and Spanish, as well as Welsh — his mother-tongue — and 
English, learned early in life. His knowledge of French 
and Spanish enabled him to transact business with great 
facility with the large portion of the inhabitants of the 
far-western country who understood only those tongues, 
and who did not often find a competent interpreter in their 
dealings with the English-speaking authorities and Ameri- 
cans in general. His intimate and correct knowledge of 
the latter two languages was not only of very great advan- 
tage to him in his law practice and private business affairs, 
but caused his services to be often sought as an expert 
translator of old documents and interpreter in courts for 
non-English speaking people. He was for some time 
official interpreter and translator of the French, by regular 
appointment, to the board of commissioners at Kaskaskia, 
appointed under act of congress of March 26, 1804, for 
the adjustment of land titles and claims in that district.t 
All historians also agree that he was a brilliant speaker, :J: 
and in oral debate and controversy, as also with the pen, 

* See "Missouri Reports," 1820-24. 

t "Annals of Congress," 15th cong., 2d sess.. Vols. I and II; also "United 
States Statutes at Large — Private Laws, 1789-1845." 

* Reynolds, Williams, McDonough, Dunn, et al. 


^'a perfect master of satire and invective." One who knew 
him personally declares that while "his friendships were 
ardent and sincere, his hatred and anger were excessively 
scathing for the moment," and that "when his feelings of 
ire were excited, his words burnt his victims like drops of 
molten lead on the naked skin."* 

In December, 1808, occurred that melancholy event here- 
tofore alluded to, the assassination of Rice Jones, the 
talented son of John Rice Jones, at Kaskaskia. This 
lamentable tragedy, about which we shall have more to 
say in a sketch of its victim, was a terrible blow to his 
father, as may be easily understood, and its associations in 
Illinois were of such a sickening nature as to render a 
continued residence there objectionable. At this time, the 
upper Louisiana Territory, rapidly developing under the 
quickening influence of the United States government, 
but a few years previously extended over it, was attracting 
very considerable attention and emigration from the older 
settled sections eastward; and in the summer of 18 10, in 
response to the earnest recommendation and urgent invi- 
tation of personal friends, Mr. Jones removed thither with 
his family, first locating at Ste. Genevieve, thence in a 
short time going to St. Louis, and after a brief residence 
there, removing to and settling at Mine a Breton, subse- 
quently incorporated as Potosi, and which became the seat 
of Washington County on its organization in 18 13. 

Here he at once became largely interested and system- 
atically engaged in the mining and smelting of lead ore, 
first in company with the celebrated Moses Austin and 
subsequently in connection with his sons. With Mr. Aus- 
tin he erected the first cupola or reverberatory furnace 
ever constructed in the United States,* which was greatly 
superior to the primitive furnace that had been in use in 
the mines since the time they were first opened, about 

* Reynolds' " Pioneer History of Illinois. " 


1765, by Francis Breton, as well as throughout all the 
lead-mining districts in the country. He probably brought 
with him from Wales, in a large part of which mining of 
different kinds was then as now an important industry,^ 
some practical ideas on the subject. 

The learned Henry R. Schoolcraft visited the Potosi 
mines in 18 19, and in an interesting work* published 
shortly afterward, in describing the more important mines 
operated by "persons of intelligence and capital." says: 
"John Rice Jones, Esq., is engaged in penetrating the rock 
in search of ore, with the most flattering prospects, and is 
determined, as he informs me, to sink through the upper 
stratum of limestone and to ascertain the character of the 
succeeding formations. It is highly probable, reasoning 
from geognostic relations, that the lower formations will 
prove metalliferous, yielding both lead and copper, and 
such a discovery would form a new era in the history of 
these mines. The present mode of promiscuous digging 
on the surface would then be abandoned, and people made 
to see and to realize the advantages of the only system 
of mining which can be permanently, uniformly, and suc- 
cessfully pursued, vis.: by penetrating the bowels of the 
earth." The success of the experiments of Mr. Jones and 
Mr. Austin, each then operating independently and being 
the first to so experiment, had the effect of making deep 
mining popular, as predicted by Mr. Schoolcraft, and more- 
over rendered the entire mineral region a profitable field 
for operations for many succeeding years. 

John Rice Jones' intimate and critical knowledge of the 
lead-mines of the district, including their output, state, 
value, characteristics, and the subject of the industry in 
all its aspects and stages, from the crude ore in the mines 
to the commercial article of pig-lead, with the items of 
cost of manufacture, transportation to foreign markets^ 

* "A View of the Lead-Mines of Missouri," etc. ; New York, 1819. 


etc., of the latter, etc., etc., is shown by a lengthy and 
exhaustive report made by him under date of "Mine a 
Burton, 6th Nov., 18 16," to Hon. Frederick Bates, St. Louis, 
recorder of land-titles in Missouri, at the latter's request, 
and which Mr. Bates forwarded bodily to the commissioner 
of the general land-office, Washington, as his own report 
on the subject, which had been called for by the commis- 
sioner; Mr. Bates' report proper being a brief communica- 
tion opening thus: "Sir: — While I was preparing to trans- 
mit to you my own opinions in answer to your inquiries 
of the 3d of July last [1816], I received a letter from John 
Rice Jones, Esq., who is a man of extensive and accurate 
observation, joint claimant with Mr. Austin in the Mine a 
Burton tract, and conversant, as I am told, with all the 
economy of mineral operations. After so minute and 
comprehensive a statement as he has given, nothing re- 
mains for me except a more special reply to your third 
inquiry." This third inquiry related to the "state of the 
land-titles generally," which Mr. Jones forebore to answer, 
"as it would be indecorous for an individual, even were he 
both competent to the task and possessed of the necessary 
information, to attempt to enter into a particular investi- 
gation of any land-titles," as he states in his letter to 
Mr. Bates.* 

John Rice Jones became largely interested in mineral 
lands and other landed property while residing at Mine a 
Burton. By a legal instrument dated at "Mine a Burton, 
District of Ste. Genevieve, Territory of Louisiana, Nov, 8, 
1 8 10," it appears that he and Moses Austin were then 
joint owners of "the Mine a Breton tract" of land, "three 
miles square" (nine square miles, or five thousand seven 
hundred and sixty acres of rich mineral lands), for an 
interest in which and certain lots in the town of Hercula- 
neum they had been offered $150,000, a large sum of 

* "American State Papers — Public Lands," Vol. Ill, pp. 700-3. 


money in those days, and for tlie purpose of engaging in 
the extensive mining and smelting business on which they 
at that time were about to consummate the formation of 
a powerful chartered corporation — the legal document 
named constituting ^n important preliminary step to that 
end. Mr. Jones died leaving a claim before congress for 
a tract of several thousand acres of valuable land in Illi- 
nois, on an appeal from the arbitrary ruling of the Kas- 
kaskia commissioners, which claim was allowed his legal 
representatives so late as 1854. 

John Rice Jones, who soon became distinguished in 
Missouri for his legal acquirements, his intelligence, his 
sound judgment, and his force of character, was, as one of 
the three representatives from Washington County and 
one of the forty-one that composed the body, "a wise and 
efficient member" of the convention that framed the first 
constitution of the State of Missouri. The convention met 
in St. Louis on June 12, 1820, and completed its laboi's 
July 19 following. After its temporary organization, he 
was one of a committee of five appointed "to draft and 
report rules and regulations for the order and government 
•of the convention." He was one of four candidates before 
the convention for its permanent president, and, though 
defeated, he received a complimentary vote for the posi- 
tion. "The constitution was a model of perspicuity and 
statesmanship, and withstood all efforts to supplant or 
materially amend it until the celebrated 'Drake conven- 
tion' of 1865,"" and as Gov. McNair declared in his first 
message to the first general assembly under the new form 
of government, was "a statesmanlike instrument that did 
honor to its framers and to the infant State for which it 
had been framed." 

This first general assembly met in St. Louis in Septem- 
ber, 1820, and among its first and most important duties 

* .Switzler's "History of Missouri." 


was the election of two United -States senators. Hon. 
David Barton, a great and good man, was chosen on the 
first ballot, but the filling of the remaining senatorship 
was not so easily nor in the end unanimously accomplished. 
For that honor there were five aspirants, namely: John 
Rice Jones, Col. Thomas H. Benton, Judge John B. C. 
Lucas, and Messrs. Henry Elliot and Nathaniel Cook. 
John Rice Jones received a handsome vote, as also did 
Messrs. Cook and Elliot; but it becoming evident that the 
contest would inevitably narrow down to a struggle be- 
tween Judge Lucas and Col. Benton, who were mortal 
enemies, the latter having a few years previously slain in 
a duel a gifted son of the former, the other three candi- 
dates withdrew, and according to their sentiments joined 
the Lucas or the Benton party. Though Col. Benton was 
finally chosen over his able and noble adversary, by very 
considerable manoeuvring and by a slim maj'ority of one 
vote, the contest for the prize was prolonged, spirited, 
bitter, and in some of its phases intensely dramatic, and 
forms one of the most remarkable and interesting episodes 
of the kind in the political history of the West. "The 
balloting continued through several days without success, 
and the excitement that prevailed has not been excelled 
by any senatorial election which has since occurred in this 
or any other state," says one historian.* 

Of the two votes that elected Col. Benton, one was that 
of a Frenchman, Hon. Marie P. LeDuc, who had repeatedly 
declared that he would suffer the loss of his right arm 
rather than vote for Col. Benton, and who only changed 
his mind after subjection for a prolonged period to inces- 
sant argument, persuasion, and entreaty by a powerful 
combination of personal and political friends; the other 
vote, that gave the bare majority of one, was cast by Hon- 
Daniel Ralls, who, unable from illness to attend the joint 

* Switzler, in his " History of Missouri. " 


session of the legislature, was finally carried on his death- 
bed, by four large negroes, from his room to the legislative 
hall, both in the same building, and was just able to vote, 
dying a short time after being returned to his chamber.* 

At the same session of the general assembly, John Rice 
Jones was appointed one of the three justices of the 
supreme court of the new State, Mathias McGirk and 
John D. Cook being the other two; and after four years 
of service, alike creditable to himself, the bench, and Mis- 
souri, in this exalted position, he died while in office, 
February i, 1824, at St. Louis, within ten days of the 
completion of his sixty-fifth year, at which age the consti- 
tution excluded persons from the supreme bench, and 
deeply lamented not only by the bench, bar, and general 
public of Missouri, but by a wide circle of personal friends 
throughout the country, among them many prominent 
men of the day. Conspicuous among those whose distin- 
guished friendship he had enjoyed, were Hon. Henry Clay, 
Col. Richard M. Johnson, Hon, Pierre Menard, Hon. David 
Barton, Judge Alex. Buckner, Judges Mathias McGirk and 
John D. Cook — his associates on the supreme bench. Col. 
Henry Dodge, Hon. Edward Bates, Col. Thos. H. Benton, 
Hon. Wm. T. Barry, Judges Jas. Haggins and Jesse Bledsoe, 
Judge James H. Peck, Hon. Henry S. Geyer, Hon. John 
F. Darby, Hon. George F. Strother, Gen. Wm. H. Ashley, 
Hon. John Scott, Judge Nathaniel Pope, Judge Samuel 
McRoberts, Gov. John Reynolds, Hon. Ninian Edwards, 
the distinguished Morrison and Parker families of Kaskas- 
kia and Lexington, respectively, and a great many more, 
whose friendship and esteem would have honored any 
man on earth. -f- 

Having sketched Judge Jones' public career, as well as 

* Dai by's " Personal Recollections. " 

t Letter from ex-U.-S. Senator George Wallace Jones, who personally 
knew all the gentlemen named, and to whom they often spoke of his father. 
Judge John Rice Jones, in terms of respect and admiration. 


our imperfect data would admit, it now remains to briefly 
consider his character and more personal traits, from the 
stand-point of those who knew him well in life, and who, 
therefore, may be considered competent authorities on the 
subject. Perhaps no fuller and more reliable description 
of him is available than that given by ex-Gov. John Reyn- 
olds of Illinois, in his valuable "Pioneer History." The 
author of that work knew Judge Jones personally and also 
was well acquainted with many men who knew him inti- 
mately — Hon. Robert Reynolds, the governor's father, and 
an old pioneer, among them — and as an unquestionably 
honest, truthful man, a close observer of excellent judg- 
ment, an industrious gleaner of facts, and a conscientious, 
careful historian, his statements are entitled to the fullest 
credit. This work of Gov. Reynolds has been largely 
drawn on by all subsequent western historians for bio- 
graphical and other data preserved nowhere else, and his 
descriptions of many prominent men of early days if not 
all that is knowable about them are, at least, the founda- 
tion of all biographies of them. 

This authority states that Judge Jones "possessed a 
strong and active mind, was rather restless, and excessively 
energetic. * * He always employed his time in some 
honorable business, and never permitted himself to be idle 
or engaged in light or frivolous amusements. Like most 
of his countrymen, he possessed strong passions, and at 
times, although he possessed a strong mind, his passions 
swept over his reason like a tornado. When his feelings 
of ire were excited, his words burnt his victims like drops 
of molten lead on the naked skin. He was mild and 
amiable until some injury or insult, as he supposed, was 
offered him, when he burst asunder all restraints and stood 
out the fearless champion of his rights, bidding defiance 
to all opposition. He possessed a great degree of personal 
courage. * * The death of Judge Jones was regretted 


by a wide circle of friends and the public generally. His 
integrity, honor, and honesty were always above doubt or 
suspicion. He was exemplary in his moral habits, and 
lived a temperate and orderly man in all things. * * He 
was perfectly resigned to his fate, and died with that calm 
composure that always attends the exit of the noblest 
work of God, an honest man. * * The person of Judge 
Jones was small, but erect and active. His complexion 
was dark, and his hair and eyes very black. His eye when 
excited was severe and piercing." 

We thus have a graphic moral and character portrayal 
and a life-like physical portrait of Judge Jones that must 
be gratifying to everyone interested in the distinguished 
subject of this sketch. The just eulogistic utterances of 
Gov. Reynolds could not be enhanced by the most ardent 
of friends and admirers, while to the personal description 
nothing is to be added of particular historical interest 
except, perhaps, that Judge Jones was very dignified in 
his manners, refined in his tastes, scrupulously neat in his 
person, and very particular in his dress, a part of which 
was the old-time knee-breeches, so closely associated in the 
modern mind with the antique cue, in which style he 
always wore his hair; and that besides being erect and 
active, as age advanced he developed that style of portli- 
ness that adds so much to the dignity of presence and 

John Rice Jones was twice married. His first wife was 
Eliza, daughter of Richard and Mary Powell, a native 
of London, born May 24, 1759, and married in St. Mary's 
Chapel — Church of England, to which both families be- 
longed — in Brecon, Wales, January 8, 1781. Of this union 
there was the following issue: 

Rice, born at Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales, September 
28, 1781. 

John, born at Brecon, Eeb. 10, 1783, and died in infancy. 


Maria, born at Brecon, March 21, 1784. 

Myers Fisher, born at Vincennes, Northwest Territory, 
U.S.A., March 11, 1787, and died at an early age. 

The mother of these children was an accomplished and 
refined woman of gentle birth, and died at Vincennes, now 
in Indiana, March 1 1, 1787, deeply mourned by her devoted 
husband and children. A biographical sketch of Rice 
Jones, the eldest child by this marriage, follows in this 

Maria, the only daughter, who was at the time of the 
removal of the family to America, in 1784, too delicate, as 
declared by a medical adviser, to bear the fatigue of the 
long ocean voyage, was left with friends in Wales. It was 
the father's intention to return for her when older and 
stronger, but the early location of the family in the remote 
West, and the death there of her mother a short time 
afterward, precluded the execution of this cherished pur- 
pose while she remained a child, and when she was old 
enough to make the journey alone, she had become so 
beloved and loving a member of the most estimable family 
with whom she made her home as to induce her to con- 
tinue a member of that household, though she subse- 
quently paid several protracted visits to her relatives in 
America, between whom and herself there ever subsisted 
the tenderest attachment. In 1834, her half-brother Wil- 
liam Powell Jones, U. S. N., visited her in Wales, subse- 
quently accompanied her on a tour in France, and thence 
conducted her to the United States. Her deep and fer- 
vent piety and genuine Christian spirit, combined with a 
charming sweetness of disposition, great nobility of char- 
acter, and cultivated intellect, secured her many devoted 
and undying friendships wherever she was known. She 
never married, and died among relatives and friends in 
London at an advanced age. 

The second wife of Judge Jones was Mary, eldest 


daughter of George and Margaret Barger, whom he mar- 
ried at Vincennes, Northwest Territory, February 11, 1791, 
four years after the death of his first wife. She was a 
woman of many virtues and of those sterhng quaHties of 
character that were developed in all women subjected to 
the refining and strengthening ordeal of the peculiar vicis- 
situdes and conditions of life and society in the early 
West, whither her father with his wife and a large family 
of children emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled in 
the country northwest of the Ohio at a very early day. 
The Bargers were of German ancestry, whose language 
they all spoke as well as the English and French. It is 
likely that the German was the first learned and for years 
the household language of the family, as the children of 
Mary (Barger) Jones relate that she always, even in age, 
said her prayers, learned at her pious mother's knee in 
-childhood, in that tongue, though she was thoroughly con- 
versant with both English and French, which she com- 
monly spoke. Her father, George Barger, with other 
members of the family, were among those who had their 
claims under French or English grants confirmed by Gov. 
St. Clair of the Northwest Territory, under the resolves of 
congress of June and August, 1788," and later by the 
U.-S. commissioners, appointed for the purpose of adjust- 
ing the old colonial claims; and her brothers Frederick, 
Peter, and George Barger, together with her husband, 
John Rice Jones, were members of Capt. Pierre Game- 
lin's company of militia at Vincennes, in i/QO.-f- and as 
such took part in Col. Hamtramck's campaign against the 
Wabash tribes in the fall of that year;;): and for these, 
if not for other services against the Indians, they each 
received from the general government donations of one 

* "American State Papers— Public Lands," Vol. I, pp. 509-10. 
t Law's "The Colonial History of Vincennes." 

* Dillon's "History of Indiana." 


hundred acres of land, conformably to the act of congress 
■of March 3, 1791, as "militiamen duly enrolled in the 
militia at Vincennes on August i, 1790, and who had done 
militia duty."* 

It is a fact sufficiently curious and interesting to merit 
mention in this connection that no two of the four sisters 
married men of the same nationality or blood — Mary 
marrying a Welshman, John Rice Jones; Christina a Span- 
iard, a Mr. Roderiques; Elizabeth a Frenchman, Baptiste 
La Chapelle, a descendant of that Bazyl La Chapelle who 
settled in Kaskaskia about i/io; and Susan, the youngest, 
an Irishman, William Shannon, a merchant and banker 
and highly- esteemed citizen of Ste. Genevieve, and the 
early friend and patron of the late U.-S. Senator Lewis 
V. Bogy of Missouri. 

Mary (Barger) Jones was rather small and slight in form, 
and had regular features and very black hair and eyes. 
She was of a very gentle nature, and highly regarded by 
all who knew her. She was born in Pennsylvania, May 
17, 1767, and died at Potosi, Missouri, at her home with 
her son, Gen. Augustus Jones, on Jan. 6, 1839, having lived 
to a good old age and survived her husband some fifteen 
years. Following is a list of the children of John Rice 
and Mary (Barger) Jones, with dates and places of birth: 

John Rice, born Jan. 8, 1792, at Kaskaskia, N.-W. Ty. 

Eliza, born Jan. 10, 1794, at Kaskaskia, Northwest Ty. 

Augustus, born Feb. 18, 1796, at Kaskaskia, N.-W. Ty. 

Harriet, born Oct. 16, 1798, at Kaskaskia, Northwest Ty. 

Myers Fisher, born Oct. 19, 1800, at Kaskaskia, Indiana 

George Wallace, born April 12, 1804, at Vincennes, In- 
diana Territory. 

Nancy, born June 17, 1806, at Vincennes, Indiana Ter- 
ritory; died young. 

* "American State Papers — Public Lands," Vols. I and VII. 


William Powell, born May 13, 1810, at Kaskaskia, Illi- 
nois Territory. 

Of the above children, the following are brief biographi- 
cal notices that may not be without interest in this con- 

Gen. John Rice Jones, the eldest son, served under 
Capt. Henry Dodge in the war of 18 12, and removing to 
Texas, then a Mexican state, as early as 1831, became iden- 
tified with its struggles for independence; which gained, he 
became postmaster- general under the three forms of the 
Republic, provisional, ad interim, and constitutional — 
proof enough of his ability and fidelity — in the cabinets 
of as many of its executives, namely, Gov. Henry Smith 
and Presidents David G. Burnet and Mirabeau B. Lamar, 
respectively, and was a personal friend of and fellow- 
patriot with those men and their compeers, Hon. Stephen 
F. Austin, "the father of Texas," and his dearest of friends; 
Gen. Sam. Houston, Col. \Vm. B. Travis, Col. James Bowie, 
Col. David Crockett, Col. Benjamin R. Milam, and the 
many others whose memories are justly dear to the people 
of Texas, and whose names are as "familiar in their 
mouths as household words." Gen. Jones was one of the 
two executors of the will of the heroic Col. Travis, the 
other being ex-Gov. Henry Smith. 

Locating in 183 1 at San Felipe de Austin, he was one 
of the first settlers of that place, which, as Austin, is now 
the capital of the great Lone-Star State, and for years 
was one of its prosperous merchants. He died in Fayette 
County, Tex., on his plantation, "Fairland Farm," in that 
eventful year in which the Republic he loved so well and 
had so long and faithfully served ceased to exist on be- 
coming a state of the American Union — 1845 ; and having 
married a daughter of Maj. James Hawkins in Missouri, 
in 1 8 18, he left a large and respectable family of children 


to cherish the memory and contemplate with just pride 
the record of a devoted father and a noble man. 

Gen. Augustus Jones, the second son, was a private 
soldier in the second war with Great Britain, entering the 
service at the age of sixteen, and belonging, with his elder 
brother, to Capt. Dodge's company. For many years he 
was largely interested in mining, milling, and mercantile 
operations, and became a wealthy slave-owner and landed 
proprietor in Missouri, and later in Texas. He was a per- 
sonal friend of Gen. Jackson, and during both terms of the 
latter as president served as United -States marshal of 
Missouri, during which period his valuable services, involv- 
ing the performance of many daring deeds, evoked the 
formal acknowledgments of congress. He was for years 
major-general of the Missouri state militia; by a small 
majority was defeated on the Calhoun, or anti- Benton, 
democratic ticket for congress in his district, in Missouri, 
in 1844; commanded a company of volunteer cavalry in 
the Mexican war, during which he was for a time military- 
governor of Santa Fe, and in his younger days partici- 
pated, as principal or second, in a number of duels. One 
of these was the fatal affair between Lionel Brown of Potosi, 
of whom Gen. Jones was second, and the noted Col. John 
Smith T.* Mr. Brown was a lawyer and a nephew of the 
famous Col. Aaron Burr, the slayer of Hon. Alexander 
Hamilton. The duel took place on the Illinois shore of 
the Mississippi River, at a point opposite Herculaneum, 
Mo., and resulted in the death of Mr. Brown, who at the 
first fire received a bullet in the centre of his forehead. 
Gen. Jones died in February, 1887, at the age of nearly 

* John Smith T was the odd name of Col. Smith. To distinguish himself 
from the many of the name, and also to indicate that he was from Tennessee, 
he had the " T " affixed to his name as a regular part thereof, by legislative 
enactment, in accordance with the laws of Missouri. He is said to have 
killed thirteen men in duels, and never to have missed his mark. 


ninety-one, at Columbus, Texas, whither he removed in 
185 1. He was a freemason of high rank for nearly seventy 
years. He was thrice married, and left numerous descend- 
ants of great respectability. Among the sons was Augus- 
tus Dodge Jones, an able editorial writer and the talented 
author of the ingenious pamphlet "The True Method of 
Electing the President and Vice-President of the United 
States," which attracted considerable attention some years 
ago. He removed to California in 1850, where he resided 
some twenty years, and held various positions of trust, and 
edited and published a number of newspapers there and 
in Nevada and old Mexico, as also later in Arkansas. For 
some time he was deputy-surveyor of the port of San 
Francisco, and for many years was grand worthy patriarch 
of the order of Good Templars of the State of California. 
He died in St. Louis, Mo., in December, 1885. 

Another son, William Ashley Jones, is well remem- 
bered as an early Iowa and Minnesota journalist and poli- 
tician, and as a principal projector and executive officer 
of the first Minnesota railroad, the Winona and St. Peter 
— an enterprise in which he lost a large fortune. He was 
for years — in the '50's — a deputy U.-S. land-surveyor, as 
such subdividing extensive portions of Minnesota and Wis- 
consin; was one of two U.-S. commissioners appointed in 
1855 by President Pierce to adjudicate the claims of the 
mixed-bloods of the Sioux nation of Indians to the great 
Lake- Pepin reservation, in Minnesota Territory; has held 
a number of honorable elective public offices, and at pres- 
ent is president of the Yankton, Okobojo & Fort Buford 
Railroad Company, a late project which has its head- 
quarters at Pierre, South Dakota. A daughter became the 
wife of Dr. Stephen D. Mullowney, an able physician, a 
lieutenant in the Mexican war, and at the time of his 
death, in 1856, U.-S. consul at Monterey, Mexico. An- 
other daughter married John P. Dunklin, a nephew of Gov. 
Daniel Dunklin of Missouri. 


Hon. Myers Fisher Jones, the third son, named for 
one of his father's distinguished Philadelphia friends, was a 
man of excellent mind and heart, and in the '20's and '30's 
prominently engaged in iron-smelting, milling, stock-deal- 
ing, and farming — with his slaves — in \Vashington County, 
Mo., which county he for a period represented in the state 
legislature. As an enterprising business man and citizen,, 
he was selected as one of the representatives of his county 
in each of the two great internal-improvement conventions 
that met in St. Louis in April, 1835, and June, 1836, re- 
spectively, and which were composed of delegates, many 
in number and conspicuous in character, from every county 
in the State. They were the first important public meet- 
ings to discuss the railroad question in Mi.ssouri, and by 
projecting several lines of railway, " foreshadowed the 
system of roads now existing in the State and inaugurated 
the net-work of intercommunication which at this day 
encompasses the whole State." He was a member of the 
important committee appointed by the last convention "to 
raise means for a complete reconnoissance and survey of 
the routes of the two proposed roads, to secure the ser- 
vices of skilful and competent engineers, and to cause the 
work to be done with as little delay as possible" — duties 
which the committee duly performed. 

Mr. Jones removed to Texas in 1839, where he became 
extensively engaged in farming and stock-raising on an 
eight-thousand-acre tract of land he had purchased, and 
also became locally conspicuous in defending frontier set- 
tlements against the frequent pillaging incursions of Ind- 
ians or Mexicans, or both, he with his company at one 
time being absent from home three months in pursuing 
and punishing a desperate band of raiders, many of whom 
were killed and taken prisoners. He died in Texas in 
1846. Twice married, he left numerous descendants of 
worth and most respectable character. One of his sons^ 


Oscar Peery Jones, served three years in the Mexican 
war, and another, Andrew Thompson Jones, was a young 
officer in the confederate army and twice made a prisoner- 

Gen. George Wallace Jones, the fourth son, named 
for another esteemed friend of his father's, George Wallace, 
son-in-law of Hon. John Gibson, secretary of the Indiana 
Territory, was educated at Transylvania University, Lex- 
ington, Ky., whence he graduated on July 13, 1825. He 
was bred to the bar, but ill-health prevented him from 
practising. He was clerk of the U.-S. district court for 
Ste. Genevieve County in 1826; served as aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Henry Dodge in the Black-Hawk war, in several 
engagements in which he took a prominent part, in one 
having his horse shot from under him; was chosen colonel 
of militia in 1832, and subsequently major-general; also 
as judge of the county court, by appointment of Gov. 
George B. Porter of Michigan, at the unanimous petition 
of the bar. 

In 1835, he was elected delegate to congress from the 
territory of Michigan, and served two years as such, and 
two years as delegate from Wisconsin Territory. In 1839, 
was appointed by President VanBuren as surveyor-general 
of the Northwest; was removed in 1841 for his politics, 
but reappointed by President Polk, and remained in office 
until 1849. In 1848, was elected United-States senator 
from Iowa for six years, and reelected on Dec. 20, 1852, 
for six years more, officiating as chairman of the commit- 
tee on pensions and enrolled bills and on the committee 
on territories. At the conclusion of his last term, he was 
appointed by President Buchanan as minister to New Gra- 
nada, now United States of Colombia, South America. 
Recalled by President Lincoln in 1861, he was on his 
arrival in Washington most kindly received by that great 



man, and feted and feasted by the powers that were, in- 
cluding Secretary-of-state Seward, who subsequently issued 
an order for ex-Minister Jones' arrest after the latter had 
departed for his home at Dubuque, Iowa, and had him 
imprisoned, for reasons never made known, in Fort Lafay- 
ette, where he remained, for sixty -four days, until the 
accession of Secretary Stanton, who caused him to be 
immediately released. 

Gen. Jones was the second of the lamented Hon. Jona- 
than Cilley, M. C. from Maine, in his fatal duel, in 1838, 
"on the Marlboro road to Baltimore from Washington 
City," with Representative William J. Graves from Ken- 
tucky. In an article on "Senate Eras," in TJie Diibiique 
Times some years ago. Gen. M. M. Trumbull, a graphic 
writer, thus refers to the subject of this sketch: 

"Gen. Jones is today the most historic and perhaps the 
most remarkable character in the West. He sat in the 
senate with Clay and Webster and Calhoun, with Silas 
Wright, Benton, Crittenden, and Jefferson Davis, with Sum- 
ner, Seward, Chase, and Douglass. In the early part of 
the century, when Gen. Jackson was president, he sat in 
the house of representatives with Henry A. Wise and 
John Quincy Adams. His district included all of Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota. It now has over 
thirty representatives in congress. He left the senate, not 
because of personal defeat, but because his party had gone 
out of power in Iowa. The intimate and trusted friend of 
Andrew Jackson, the partner of Daniel Webster, he re- 
members Jefferson. On terms of personal acquaintance 
with nearly all of our celebrated warriors and statesmen, 
he numbered among his friends and enemies the mighty 
red kings, Black Hawk, Keokuk, and Poweshiek. A 
drummer-boy in the war of 18 12, Gen. Jones is a young 
man yet. He walks erect without a cane, with a light and 
springy step, and claims none of the indulgence and im- 


munities of old age." The distinguished gentleman is still 
in the possession of full mental and physical vigor at his 
home in Dubuque, and bids fair to enjoy life for many 
years to come. 

Of Gen. George Wallace Jones' sons, George Rice Gra- 
tiot Jones was a captain of artillery in the confederate 
army, and as such taken prisoner at the surrender of Fort 
Henry and sent as the latter to the Union prison on John- 
son's Island, in Lake Erie; another, Charles Scott Dodge 
Jones, also served in the Southern army, as an aide-de- 
camp on the staff of Maj.-Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson, until 
the former's capture in battle as a prisoner-of-war by the 
federals, who confined him in Fort Delaware for many 
months; while the other son, William Augustus Bodley 
Jones, being opposed to secession, early entered and served 
in the Union army. The first two were graduates of the 
W^estern Military Institute at Nashville, Tenn., in which 
Hon. James G. Blaine was at the time a professor, and the 
third named was partially educated there. Prof. Blaine 
was there introduced to Gen. Jones by Hon. Henry Clay, 
in 1850-1, as Mr. Blai-ne some years ago in Washington 
reminded Gen. Jones. 

William Powell Jones, the fifth and youngest son, 
at the date of his untimely death, in July, 1834, from 
cholera, which he took when crossing the Mississippi River 
in a canoe at Dubuque, then in Michigan Territory, and 
died of shortly after reaching the western shore, was a 
passed-midshipman in the United States navy, and very 
shortly would have been commissioned a lieutenant, in 
which capacity he had acted in regular service at sea. 
He had just returned from a prolonged tour on the Conti- 
nent and in England and Wales, for which he had obtained 
leave of absence for a year, and was visiting his relatives in 
the West before again reporting for duty at his post. Of a 


bright mind, high-toned, and very ambitious, as well as of 
most engaging manners, he was a very promising young 
officer, as existing testimonials of his superiors in rank 
declare, and, if spared, in all probability would have in 
time attained an enviable rank and name in the history of 
the naval service of his country. 

Eliza Jones, the eldest daughter of Judge John Rice 
Jones, was married, in Missouri, to Hon. Andrew Scott, 
who was a native of Virginia, where he fitted himself for 
the law. He removed to Missouri at an early day, and 
was elected clerk of the house of representatives of the 
first territorial general assembly, and acted in the same 
capacity for that body at several succeeding sessions. In 
1820, he was appointed, by President Monroe, U.-S. judge 
for Arkansas Territory, and as such officer organized that 
territory at "the Post of Arkansas." He was a man of 
much legal and juridical ability, and of the highest char- 
acter, and throughout a long life a universally-respected 
citizen of Arkansas. 

One of the historical incidents in his life in Arkansas 
was his killing of Gen. Hogan* in a personal rencontre at 
Little Rock, in 1827. Gen. Hogan, who was a large and 
powerful man, while Judge Scott was only of medium 
size, attacked the latter, and knocking him down with 
a tremendous blow of the fist, killed him it was thought 
by the by-standers. Recovering in a moment, however,, 
he sprang to his feet, and drawing the blade of his sword- 
cane, then commonly carried, quickly advanced upon Gen. 
Hogan and drove the long, slender, keen weapon entirely 
through the latter's body. Gen. Hogan received a mortal 
wound, from which he a minute or two later dropped dead 
at his antagonist's feet, but not before he, Hogan, had 
desperately drawn the reeking blade from his body and 

* It is believed by the writer that this was his name. 


with it made a frantic lunge at Judge Scott, which would 
have instantly killed him by piercing him through the 
neck had not the innumerable folds of a fine Italian silk 
cravat, worn by Judge Scott, effectually turned aside the 
deadly weapon from its fatal course. Judge Scott imme- 
diately surrendered himself, and on his trial was acquitted 
by the jury without leaving their box in the court-room. 

Among many descendants of Judge Scott are his chil- 
dren: Hon. John R. Homer Scott of Russellville, Ark., an 
ex-state senator and a captain in the confederate army; 
Mrs. J. Russell Jones, wife of the U.-S. minister to Belgium 
under his warm personal friend, President Grant; and the 
late Mrs. Benjamin Campbell, wife of the ex-U.-S marshal 
for the northern district of Illinois,* both of which latter 
gentlemen reside in Chicago. 

Harriet Jones, the second daughter of Judge Jones, 
was twice married. Her first husband was Thomas Bradyj 
who for many years was a prominent merchant and busi- 
ness man of St. Louis, as a member of the old and wealthy 
firm of McKnight & Brady.f He never held any public 
office; was born in Ireland, March 17, 1781; married to 
Miss Jones in Missouri in 1814; and died near St. Louis, 
October 11, 1821. This union was blessed with five chil- 
dren, one of whom became the wife of Col. George W. 
Campbell, deceased, late of Chicago; one the wife of Dr. 
Jacob Wyeth, a native of Cambridge, Mass.; and another 
the wife of Mr. Ferdinand Rozier of Ste. Genevieve. 

* Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are the parents of Mrs. Gen. O. E. Babcock, 
widow of one of Gen. Grant's staff-officers. 

t The members of this firm were John McKnight and Thomas Brady, and 
are not to be confused with their respective brothers, Thomas McKnight and 
James Brady, who under the style of Brady & McKnight were a later-formed 
firm than the preceding, though latterly contemporaneous with it. Says 
Darby : " The early records of deeds still show the immense amount of real 
estate owned by these firms in St. Louis city and county, and other counties 
of the State. In their day and lime they also did the largest mercantile 
business in the City of St. Louis. " 


Some years after the death of Mr. Brady, his widow- 
became the wife of the celebrated Hon. John Scott of Ste. 
Genevieve, an eminent lawyer and a successful politician, 
who figured prominently in the early history of Missouri 
as territorial councillor, delegate in congress for four 
years, a member of the first State constitutional con- 
vention, and representative in congress from 1822 to 1826. 
He was a native, as was also his brother Judge Andrew 
Scott, of Hanover County, Virginia, and a graduate of 
Princeton College. Says a recent historian:* "John 
Scott, a great lawyer, would have been noticeable any- 
where, with his long white cue of hair hanging grace- 
fully down his shoulders, or else clubbed and tucked up 
with a comb. A man whose conversation would interest 
you even in a fit of the toothache — a suave, courteous, 
peppery gentleman of the old school, who bowed and com- 
plimented and swore, as might be expected from the son • 
of a planter of 'the slashes of Hanover,' who always car- 
ried dirk and pistol on his person, and was always ready 
to give and receive a challenge." He died at Ste. Gene- 
vieve in 1 861. His descendants are numerous and highly 
respectable, among them the wife of Hon. Samuel Mont- 
ford Wilson, the eminent lawyer of California, who for a 
time was influentially recommended for the position of 
secretary of the interior in President Cleveland's cabinet. 

The daughters of Judge Jones were high-spirited women 
of marked intellectuality and character, and, like their 
brothers, were "a credit to the stock from which they 
sprung." In concluding this imperfect memoir, we repro- 
duce the following observations, made by a well-known 
writer,-f- last above quoted, who in speaking of Judge Jones' 

* Scharf, in his " History of St. Louis City and County. " 

t Franc B. Wilkie — " Poliuto"— the talented and versatile author and 

journalist, in a biographical sketch of Gen. George Wallace Jones, in The 

Chicago Times of February 20, 1886. 


children, says: "It is rare in the history of families that 
so many sons have been born who were so even in their 
developments, and of whom each was characterized by a 
high order of ability both from nature and acquirement. 
Each of them rose far above the average level of men, 
and each played a conspicuous part in the drama of life." 



By W. A. Burt Jones of St. Paul, Minnesota. 

* * * "Oft and well 
Remembrance shall his story tell, 
Afifection of his virtues speak, 
With beaming eye and burning cheek." 

RICE JONES, the gifted son and eldest child of John 
Rice Jones, by his first marriage, was born at Brecon, 
Brecknockshire, Wales, Sept. 28, 178 1. In the autumn of 
1784, he accompanied his parents to Philadelphia, whither 
the husband and father had preceded the wife and son in 
the foregoing spring to first satisfy himself as to the advis- 
ability of locating his family in the United States, and a 
few years later removed with the family to Vincennes. 
At an early age he was matriculated at Transylvania 
University, Lexington, Kentucky, the- ah/ia mater of so 
many eminent public men, and in due time graduated 
therefrom in letters and with much distinction. He sub- 
sequently took his degree in the medical department of 
the great University of Pennsylvania; but forming a dis- 
like for the medical profession after a brief practice, he 
abandoned it and entered the celebrated law-school at 
Litchfield, Conn., at that time "the first institution of the 
kind in the United States,"* and which he quitted with 
increased honor after a period of intense application to 

* American reprint of " Chambers' Encyclopaedia. " 


study.* Returning to the West, he opened an office at 
Kaskaskia toward the close of 1806, and began the prac- 
tice of law. 

The career that opened before this extraordinary young 
man, intellectually brilliant, broadly educated, thoroughly 
equipped for his chosen profession and a life of usefulness 
and honor, and filled with the noblest aspirations, was 
indeed most promising, and moreover one that would un- 
doubtedly have been realized in all respects but for his 
unfortunate active engagement in local politics, which then 
and for some four or five years later gave rise, in the west- 
ern counties particularly, to party spirit of an intensely 
rancorous nature, and which raged with an unrestrained 
and almost incredible violence. Bitter partisanship on 
both sides characterized all the prominent politicians, con- 
.spicuous among whom was Rice Jones, who, though still 
very young, had risen by force of talents, zeal, and energy 
to the leadership of his party.* 

It is not absolutely clear just what all the political 
differences between the parties were, but it is sure that the 
Indiana- Illinois territorial division question was a leading 
issue, coupled with the long- prominent slavery question, 
and equally certain that in time a great deal of personal 
jealousy and animosity aggravated, if it did not quite 
supercede, the political feeling. The long-continued ex- 
citement reached its greatest height in and immediately 
succeeding the memorable election of July 25, 1808, in 
Randolph and St. Clair counties, which was recognized as 
a life-and-death struggle between the pro-divisionists and 
their opponents throughout the territory of Indiana, and 
in which, as has been stated in the biographical sketch of 
John Rice Jones, victory perched upon the banner of the 
divisionists or anti-Harrisonians in both counties. In 
Randolph County, Rice Jones was triumphantly elected 

• Reynolds' "I'ioneer History of Illinois." 


representative in the lower house of the general assembly, 
and John Messinger, a member of the State constitutional 
convention of 18 18 and otherwise prominent, was chosen 
to represent St. Clair County in the same body. 

It was a self-evident fact, in view of the then composi- 
tion of the legislature, that the triumph of the Illinois 
party would result in the final overthrow of the Harrison- 
ians, hence the bitter fight and feeling; and this was con- 
summated by the election, at the next session of the 
general assembly, as delegate in congress of Hon. Jesse 
B. Thomas, speaker of the house, afterward president of 
the first State constitutional convention, and a judge of 
the first territorial court of Illinois, who speedily secured 
the separation of Illinois from Indiana Territory and its 
erection into independent autonomy. This fidelity to 
principle, and also to his plighted word and written bond 
— for John Rice Jones, then a councillor, to make assur- 
ance doubly sure, is said to have required both from him 
before agreeing to his election* — brought upon his devoted 
head the execration of the anti-division party throughout 
the Territory, who, while they justly recognized him as 
the final agent in their defeat, very unreasonably and irra- 
tionally charged him, a notoriously avowed and foresworn 
divisionist, with perfidy, and in one community, Vincennes, 
carried their malevolence to such an excess as to hang 
him in effigy. 

At Kaskaskia, the Harrisonians' chagrin and keen dis- 
appointment, both personal and political, at defeat in the 
county election and that of Delegate Thomas, assumed 
the character of deep-seated hate in some whose rage 
could scarcely be contained, and personal conflicts between 
gentlemen on either side were constantly imminent. This 
state of affairs continued to grow from bad to worse, until 
it culminated in the assassination of Rice Jones, a leading 

* Dunn's "Indiana," and Ford's "History of Illinois." 


member of one of the parties, which in a measure satisfied 
the maUgnity of the one side, warned the other as to what 
they might reasonably expect from their unscrupulous 
enemies if the antagonistic conditions between them were 
maintained, and "quieted the party feuds for a time," if 
not practically permanently. 

In order to review all the circumstances immediately 
connected with the killing of Rice Jones, we must turn 
•back to an hour in the past period of the heated political 
•canvass preceding the election named, in which a challenge 
to mortal combat under the rules of the code duello passed 
between Rice Jones and the Hon. Shadrach Bond, an ex- 
representative in the territorial legislature, afterward a 
delegate in congress from Illinois Territory, and the first 
governor of the State of Illinois. Rice Jones accepted 
the challenge, named pistols as the weapons, and at the 
appointed time the principals, with their attendants, Wm. 
Morrison as Jones' second and Dr. James Dunlap as Bond's 
second, and their surgeons, met on an island in the Missis- 
sippi River between Kaskaskia and Ste. Genevieve. 

In those days, pistols and guns were provided with the 
now obsolete hair-trigger, which, as defined by Webster, 
was "so constructed as to discharge a fire-arm by a very 
slight pressure, as by the touch of a hair," and when the 
parties had taken their respective positions and were pre- 
paring to be in readiness for the word "fire," Rice Jones 
inadvertently touched the sensitive trigger of his weapon, 
which instantly exploded. The fact that the bullet from 
the exploded pistol entered the ground a few feet from 
Rice Jones and not in the direction of Mr. Bond, perfectly 
satisfied the latter that the shot was totally accidental, 
and, high-toned gentleman that he was, he so unhesitat- 
ingly declared it when his second, the infamous Dr. James 
Dunlap, exclaimed that the accidental explosion was Jones' 
fire, and that Bond might and should fire at his adversary 


in return. The contemptible proposition was scorned by 
Mr. Bond, and the difficulty between the principals was 
settled on the spot on terms equally honorable to both. 

The difficulty between them had been entirely of a 
political nature, or at least not resultant from a deep- 
seated personal enmity, and therefore was susceptible of 
comparatively easy adjustment; but such was not true 
with regard to the ill-feeling which had long existed be- 
tween Rice Jones and Dr. Dunlap, and which became more 
intense as a result of the latter's unmanly position on the 
subject of the unfortunate accident on the duelling ground. 
There ensued between them a bitter controversy, which 
was taken up by their respective friends, and that extended 
to an angry newspaper contention, in which the scathing 
and acrimonious pen of Rice Jones, particularly as em- 
ployed in the composition of a certain satirical poem, 
drove his adversaries to a pitch of fury closely bordering 
on mania, and evoked from them dire threats of personal 
violence upon the object of their rancor. 

The ill-feeling of older standing, above referred to, had 
its origin in the arbitrary official conduct of Michael Jones* 
and Elijah Backus, land-commissioners at Kaskaskia, to 
which they were appointed in 1804; conduct which was 
deliberately pursued with the purpose to militate, as it did 
greatly, against the interests of not only Rice Jones and 
his father, but many of the people of the district, large 
numbers of whom, as their personal and political enemies 
the commissioners, especially Jones, taking advantage of 
their official position to wreck vengeance upon the objects 
of their dislike, years subsequently "branded w^\\h perjury 
and forgery to an alarming extent — many of the best citi- 
zens in the county being stigmatized with those crimes, 
without cause, and when they had neither means nor man- 
ner of defending themselves"f against the infamous and 

* No relation of Rice Jones. 

+ Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," pp. 297-8. 


unfounded charges. Such men as Michael Jones* and 
Khjah Backus were the friends of Dr. Dunlap and other 
mortal enemies of Rice Jones. 

The arbitrary conduct first referred to was justly strongly 
resented by many, among them John Rice Jones and his 
son Rice, who were not the men to tamely submit to the 
gross impositions of the commissioners or any one else, 
and who in consequence were thereafter made the special 
victims of the official despotism of the commissioners in 
question, so far as it was possible for them to exercise it; 
and the later political popularity and triumph, in July, 
1808, of Rice Jones tended still more to make him the 
particular object of the dislike of his political and per- 
sonal enemies, prominently among whom were the above- 
named Michael Jones and Elijah Backus, who, as is a 
matter of record, deliberately "urged Dr. Dunlap and 
others to persecute Rice Jones in every way imaginable."-f- 
A part of this persecution was a newspaper attack by 
them upon him, who, as has been stated, got the better 
of them in his replies and retorts. Their threats then 
made against his life became, in November, 1808, so 
open and loud, and rumors of the existence of a plot 
to kill him so definite, as to no longer be endured with 
the silence with which they had up to that time been 
treated. John Rice Jones, who had just removed with his 
family from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, accordingly addressed 
the following note to Elijah Backus: 

"Kaskaskia, 25th Nov., 1808. 
"Sir: — I have just heard of your threats of yesterday, 
that if my son did not go out of the country he should in 

* It should be noted that Michael Jones was the Harrisonian candidate for 
delegate to congress, in October, 1808, and that his defeat only tended to 
more greatly incense him against his political opponents and those who were 
so unfortunate as to fall under the ban of his vicious displeasure. 

t MclJonough's "History of Randolph County," p. 105. 


a few days be put out of existence — 'it zvill be done, it 
shall be done' I now inform you that he will remain here, 
and if he should be murdered, either by you or through 
your instigation, I shall know where to apply. I must, 
however, confess that the threats of poltroons can be con- 
sidered in no other light than as those of assassins. 

"Yours, John Rice Jones." 

It is not known what immediate effect this communica- 
tion had upon the conspirators, but it did not prevent them 
from carrying into execution to the letter their diabolical 
plot, for on December 7, following. Rice Jones was shot 
down in cold blood in a public thoroughfare of Kaskaskia, 
by James Dunlap, the cat's-paw of his co-conspirators, 
none of whom had the nerve to assume the responsibility 
of the enactment of the bloody deed they were capable 
of conceiving in the wickedness of their hearts. 

The following particulars of the deplorable event are 
taken from a detailed account of the murder and circum- 
stances attending it, contained in a book found some years 
ago in the old mansion of Judge John Morrison, in Water- 
loo, Monroe County, Illinois, when that structure was being 
demolished to make room for other improvements. Ex- 
tracts from "Judge Morrison's old musty record of the 
killing" were published in The Belleville Neivs-Democrat 
of February 18, 1887, -and are here reproduced. This 
singularly-preserved, detailed, and authentic account, evi- 
dently made not a great while after the assassination, and 
in the place of its occurrence, from oral accounts of eye- 
witnesses of the tragedy, and by a man minutely informed 
on the subject, possesses a great historic value and sheds 
new light upon the sad occurrence. It testifies that: 

"Rice Jones was shot down by Dunlap about six yards 
above the old elm tree. Dunlap came out of E. Backus' 
house about ten minutes before he shot Jones. He (Dunlap) 


was there in company with Backus. John Menard was 
at Dunlap's when he came galloping home from killing 
Jones, and told his wife, in the presence of John Menard, 
that he had 'killed the rascal Jones.' John Clino, living 
with James Gilbreath, and Robert Morrison saw Dunlap 
shoot Jones. McCall was talking at the picket fence of 
James Gilbreath's yard, McCall on the inside and Dunlap 
on the outside of the pickets, when Rice Jones passed out 
of Robert Morrison's yard, going down to J. Edgar's, when, 
after he had passed Dunlap and McCall down the further 
side of the street, Dunlap jumped off his horse and hitched 
his bridle on the pickets where he and McCall were talk- 
ing, and started after Jones, who was walking down the 
street, when he crossed the street up behind him, a dis- 
tance of one yard, and Dunlap told him to stop. Jones 
immediately turned around, and Dunlap said: 'I am going 
to revenge myself,' and instantly fired his pistol, about 
three feet from the body of Jones. The ball entered his 
body on the right side, just below the collar-bone, and 
came out behind, about five inches below the top of his 
shoulder, close by the backbone. William Morrison and 
McCall ran to Jones, and several persons asked him what 
was the matter, and he replied: 'That rascal, Dunlap, has 
shot me.' And Morrison asked him for what reason, and 
Jones answered: 'I don't know;' and said: 'I am gone,' 
and expired in about five minutes. 

"The moment Dunlap shot Jones, he ran back to his 
horse where McCall had stood, jumped on him, and gal- 
loped off as fast as possible to his house, where he told his 
wife, in presence of John Menard, that he had 'shot that 
rascal Jones,' and immediately loaded his pistols and started 
off down the road toward the Point, in company with R. 
Porter, and has never been seen since." 

Here the account goes on to say: 

"It is well known that Backus, Robinson, Gilbreath, 


Finney, Michael Jones, and Langlois were in Cahise's 
holding counsel to kill this man Rice Jones. The day 
Dunlap sent a challenge to William Morrison, Backus, 
Robinson, and Gilbreath were at Dunlap's, with T. Smith 
holding the door fast, while Capt. Bilderback stood at the 
door a long time and could not get in, although his daugh- 
ter was at the point of death. At last Dunlap opened the 
door, and said 'the men were in council for that purpose^ 
intimating the killing of young Jones, and Gilbreath an- 
swered Bilderback and said his daughter would not die 
for one hour. J. Edgar saw these men go down to Dun- 
lap's that day and remain nearly two hours, and from the 
m.ovements of these men back and forward from Dunlap's 
house for some time before that day and on the very day 
Jones was shot, [there was no doubt] that these men were 
accessories to the death of Rice Jones." 

If there were lacking anything to thoroughly convince 
the world that the persons who compassed the death of 
Rice Jones were actuated by the most virulent passions, 
the measure of proof would be filled to overflowing by 
the following blasphemous and altogether unparalleled 
utterances, quoted from the Morrison record, of one of 
them, whose spirit may be presumed to have characterized 
all of the conspirators: "James Finney* said in Folk's 
'that if he met Jesus Christ in the street he would give 
his hand in preference to Dunlap, and if Dunlap went to 
hell he would go to hell also in preference to going to 
heaven; and if Dunlap was to go to heaven, he would get 
a higher seat in heaven than Jesus Christ, and be set at 
the right hand of God for killing Rice Jones.' " 

The friends of Dr. Dunlap farcically pretended to claim 

* This James Finney is presumed to be the one of that name who from 
1795 to 1803 was one of the twelve men who constituted the Randolph 
County court of common pleas, other prominent members of which were 
Justices John Edgar, Pierre Menard, and Robert Reynolds. 


that he did the killing in self-defence, but eye-witnesses 
declared it, as do all historians, a deliberate and cold- 
blooded murder, by the law of both God and man — a fact 
of which Dunlap was perfectly well aware and knew would 
be easily proven, as is evidenced by his immediate aban- 
donment of wife and children and flight to far-off Texas, 
as was subsequently learned, whence he never returned to 
answer for his crime in the temporal courts of Illinois. 
It was no doubt a part of the prearranged plan for Dunlap 
to flee the country, that he could not be brought to trial, 
in which his evidence would have hopelessly implicated 
his companions in crime as immediate accessories to the 
assassination. The case was brought to the attention of 
the grand jury, which, after bringing in an indictment 
against Dunlap for murder, also indicted Michael Jones, 
because "he did, on the 6th day of December, 1808, incite, 
move, aid, and abet, feloneously and with malice afore- 
thought, the said James Dunlap to commit the crime of 

When the case of The United States versus Michael 
Jones was reached on the calendar of the territorial circuit 
court, in September, 1809, Judges Alexander Stuart, Oba- 
diah Jones, and Jesse B. Thomas presiding, the prosecut- 
ing-attorney, B. H. Doyle, presenting an affidavit of Archi- 
bald McKnabb, "an important witness," to the effect that 
he was too sick to attend court, asked for a continuance 
of the trial, which being granted, Michael Jones was ad- 
mitted to bail in the sum of $3000, his sureties being John 
McFerron, Shadrach Bond, jr., Thomas Leavens, Henry 
Leavens, Henry Connor, and Samuel Cochran. The post- 
poned case came up for trial on April 10, 18 10, before a 
jury consisting of Wm. Rector, Paul Harralson, Thomas 
Wideman, Wm. McBride, John Anderson, George Frank- 
lin, David Anderson, John McFerron, Henry Connor, Geo. 
Creath, Jacob Funk, and James Fulton, who brought in a 


verdict of acquittal. As "there were probable grounds for 
preferring the indictment," the court "exonerated the prose- 
cutor — John Rice Jones i* — from paying the costs!"* 

The fact that among the jurors were two of the accused 
man's bondsmen and sympathetic personal friends, and 
other peculiar circumstances of the conduct of the case 
and trial, may not have any significance; but it is fair to 
infer that men who would be so far influenced by "hate 
that sins" and rank envy as to coolly plot the deliberate 
murder of a fellowman, would not scruple to avail them- 
selves of any foul means that could be employed toward 
the acquittal of one on trial for complicity in a crime to 
the committing of which they all contributed and in the 
perpetration of which they gloried — the death of one whose 
brilliancy, virtues, personal popularity with the people, 
and promise of great political and professional success, 
filled his enemies with a jealousy which, with the disap- 
pointment of political defeat and the pruriency of personal 
enmity, simply made the inatter of his removal impera- 
tively necessary to their peace of mind. These are the 
conclusions that force themselves upon the mind when the 
facts and circumstances preceding and attending the mur- 
der are studied in their true relations. 

While it is a matter of historical record that "the whole 
community mourned the death of this fine young man, 
cut off in his prime by an assassin," it is equally certain 
that the finding of the jury was not in accord with the 
popular verdict; for familiar as they must have been, from 
the notoriously open threats and malevolent actions of 
the enemies of the murdered man, with the circumstances 
leading up to the killing, the people knew, however a jury 
might decide, that James Dunlap was guilty of murder in 
the first degree, and that Michael Jones, Elijah Backus, 
James Gilbreath, James Finney, and their worthy confreres 
* McDonough's " History of Randolph County, III. " 


were immediate accessories to the atrocious crime; and as 
such they will go down in history — gloriously to them, in 
their own estimation, be it said, if they died entertaining 
the shocking sentiments heretofore quoted as expressed 
by the blasphemous Finney, one of the immortal band. 

Of the abilities and qualities of Rice Jones, it is here 
and now unnecessary to speak at length, as all writers 
concede his extraordinary capacity, his brilliant talents, 
and his varied mental attainments; while his noble per- 
sonal characteristics were such as to greatly endear him 
to the mass of the people, whose hearts were not of that 
unhappy kind that beat in the breasts of his implacable 
enemies. However preeminent a man may be intellectu- 
ally, if detestable traits and odious conduct distinguish 
him, "the entire community" in which he dwells never 
grieves for him, as did the people of Kaskaskia and the 
county of Randolph for Rice Jones. While they abhorred 
his slayers and their bloody deed, they mourned his death 
and his tragic fate, because 

" His life was noble, and the elements 
So mixed in him, that Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, This was a man." 

Ex-Gov. Reynolds of Illinois, who knew him personally 
and was intimate with many public men and others who 
knew him well, writing so late as 1852, declares that 
"judging from the character he acquired at school and 
from what was known of him at Kaskaskia, it is not 
improbable that his superior was not in the country before 
or after his death. '" "■ He possessed a strong intellect 
and was also endowed with an excessive ambition, together 
with an ardent and impetuous disposition that showed the 
Welsh temperament more than his father," and that, alto- 
gether, "he was a young man of exceedingly great prom- 
ise." Another historian, in conclu'ding a notice of him, 


declares that in his untimely death "the bar of Illinois 
was deprived of one of its most promising members and 
politics of a bright particular star;" and all writers who 
have occasion to speak of him, without exception, express 
similar glowing opinions of him. 

One of his classmates at the Transylvania University, 
who afterward became nationally eminent as a U.-S. sena- 
tor from Kentucky and as vice-president of the United 
States, the learned and brilliant Col. Richard Mentor John- 
son, often spoke of him to Gen. Geo. Wallace Jones, who sat 
with Johnson in the national senate and was a half-brother 
of Rice Jones, and declared him, the latter, one of the most 
gifted men he had ever known. Such having been the 
case, who can help but think that had he not fallen a 
victim to the deadly hatred of assassins he would have 
become one of the most distinguished sons of his adopted 
State, and left a name that she would have proudly cher- 
ished forever among those of the illustrious men who have 
made her history so glorious. Yet she will not forget him 
whose able and zealous advocacy of her claims to recogni-^ 
tion as a territory was largely instrumental in defeating 
the machinations of her enemies and speedily placing her 
on the way to early adm.ission and that proud place among 
the sisterhood of states which she soon achieved, has ever 
maintained, and will continue to grace.* 

* The address of welcome of the citizens of Randolph County to Gov. 
Ninian Edwards on his arrival in Kaskaskia in June, 1809, opens thus: "Pre- 
suming that you may be in some degree unacquainted with the feelings and 
sentiments of the citizens at this important crisis, we can not forbear to 
express our hopes that you will take into consideration that the majority, 
whose incessant exertions effectuated a division of the territory, have a claim 
on your excellency for the calumnies, indignities, and other enormities which 
those who opposed that measure never ceased to heap upon the friends and 
advocates of the present system of our government. In announcing these 
truths, while we deplore that the gentleman [Jesse B. Thomas] who was 
elected to congress and ultimately succeeded in obtaining justice for us, was 
hung in effigy at Vincennes, by the opposers of the division, and that one 


Still he died neither unwept nor unsung, and chroniclers 
of early Illinois history will continue to pay that just 
tribute to his talents, his character, and his patriotic ser- 
vices first contained in the writings of that impartial histo- 
rian and nobleman, the late ex-Gov. John Reynolds. Well 
may each one who has honorably figured in the history 
of his country, his state, or his community, 

"Wish no other herald, 
No other speaker of his living actions, 
To keep his honor from corruption, 
Than such an honest chronicler." 

To this day, the spot near "the old elm tree," where 
Rice Jones fell mortally wounded and a moment afterward 
expired, on that memorable December day, full four score 
years ago, is pointed out to visitors by the people of Kas- 
kaskia, where 

" The soft memory of his virtues yet 
Lingers, like twilight hues when the bright sun is set." 

of the warmest friends and ablest advocates of the measure [Rice Jones] was 
assassinated at Kaskaskia, in consequence of their machinations, we derive 
great consolation from a firm belief that your excellency will gratify the virtu- 
ous majority, to whose patriotic exertions the citizens are indebted for the 
government of their choice, and your excellency your high station, with that 
honorable indemnity which is in your gift, and which would be considered by 
them as a remuneration for all those indignities, and a pledge of their future 
support to your administration." — Edwards' "History of Illinois," pp. 29-30. 

Note to be read after second paragraph on page 239 : 
.Since writing the above, the author has learned from a relial)le source that 
John Rice Jones owned slaves at \'incennes, Kaskaskia, Ste. C^enevieve, and 
Potosi, or during the entire period dating from shortly after his coming to the 
Northwest Territory, in 1786, if not before, to the time of his death, in 
Missouri, in 1824. All of his children were likewise slave-owners. 


JOHN TODD, the first civil governor under the laws 
of Virginia of the region of which the State of Illi- 
nois is a part, was born in Montgomery County, Pennsyl- 
vania, on March 27, 1750. He was a son of David Todd 
and Hannah Owen, and was early left an orphan. He 
and his brother Levi came under the care of their uncle, 
Rev. John Todd, in distinction from whom the subject of 
this sketch was known as John Todd, Junior. He received 
his early education at the classical academy of this uncle, 
in Louisa County, Virginia. This county adjoined that 
of Hanover, where Patrick Henry spent his early life. Mr. 
Henry was elected to the house of burgesses, by Louisa 
County, and he afterward removed there. In its courts 
he practised law, and it is probable that he thus became 
acquainted with John Todd in his youth, and his early 
impressions of him may have had something to do with 
his after-selection of Todd for the important position of 
county-lieutenant of Illinois. 

Todd studied law with Gen. Andrew Lewis, and prac- 
tised his profession for a short time in the counties of 
Botetourt and Bedford, in Virginia. He served as aid to 
Gen. Lewis at the battle of Point Pleasant and in the 
campaign of 1774 against the Scioto towns. In the fol- 
lowing year he removed to Kentucky, and joined in the 
establishment of St. Asaph Station. He was one of those 
who met at Boonesboro' on May 23, 1775, "under the great 
elm tree near the fort," to establish the proprietary govern- 
ment of the so-called colony of Transylvania, comprising 
more than half of the present State of Kentucky; and 


was a leading member of its assembly, the first legislative 
body organized west of the Alleghanies. He established 
himself at Todd's Station, near Lexington, Kentucky, in 
1776, and in December of that year, with nine others, went 
through the wilderness to bring the powder which Virginia 
had granted for the defence of the frontier, from Limestone 
Creek to the Kentucky forts. His party was defeated on 
Christmas day by the Lidians at the Blue Licks, and he 
narrowly escaped death near the very place at which he 
was destined to fall a few years later. 

In the spring of 1777, he and Richard Calloway were 
chosen the first burgesses from Kentucky to the general 
assembly of Virginia, and made the perilous journey to 
Williamsburg to perform their public duties. He rendered 
efficient aid in bringing about the expedition of George 
Rogers Clark to the Illinois, in 1778, and was with that 
famous soldier at the capture of Kaskaskia and of Vin- 
cennes. This has been doubted, but the fact is estab- 
lished by family papers that Todd accompanied Clark in 
this campaign, and there is a tradition that he was the 
first man to enter the fort at Kaskaskia when it was taken 
from the British. 

In October, 1778, the general assembly of. Virginia 
passed "an act for establishing the County of Illinois, and 
for the more effectual protection and defence thereof" It 
provides that all the citizens of Virginia settled on the 
western side of the Ohio shall be included in a distinct 
county, to be called Illinois County. This practically 
included the whole region afterward known as the North- 
west Territory. Of this county, the governor of the State 
was authorized to appoint a county-lieutenant or comman- 
dant, who could appoint and commission deputy comman- 
dants, militia officers, and commissaries, and pardon all 
offences except murder and treason. 

On December 12, 1778, Patrick Henry, as governor of 


Virginia, by virtue of the aforesaid act, appointed John 
Todd county-Heutenant or commandant of the County of 
lUinois. He repaired to his new post in the following 
spring, arriving at Kaskaskia in May, 1779. He was ex- 
ceedingly busy with the duties of his government during 
the greater part of that year, and evidently found his 
position distasteful, for in a letter to the governor of Vir- 
ginia, dated Kaskaskias, August 18, 1779, he asked per- 
mission to attend the session of the legislature in the 
following spring, and "get a discharge from an office which 
an unwholesome air, a distance from my connexions, a 
language not familiar to me, and an impossibility of pro- 
curing many of the conveniences of life suitable, all tend 
to render uncomfortable." 

Col. Todd, ho.wever, does not appear to have been granted 
this permission, or to have availed himself of it, and during 
the few remaining years of his short life, although he seems 
not to have been in Illinois after 1779, his correspondence 
shows that he was earnestly attentive to its interests. In 
1780, he was elected a delegate from the County of Ken- 
tucky to the legislature of Virginia, and was married while 
attending its session of that year, to Miss Jane Hawkins. 
In the summer of 1781, Gov. Thomas Jefferson appointed 
Todd colonel of Fayette County, Kentucky; and in May, 
1782, he was made one of the trustees of Lexington, in 
that State, by act of Virginia. In the summer of that 
year, as senior colonel, he commanded the little force of 
one hundred and eighty men who went in pursuit of the 
Indians retreating from Simon Girty's famous raid on the 
settlements south of the Ohio, and on August 19, 1782, 
he died heroically at the disastrous battle of the Blue 
Licks. His only child, Mary Owen Todd, was married 
first to a Mr. Russell, and afterward became the second 
wife of Robert Wickliffe of Lexington, Kentucky, and 
died childless. 


The original record-book kept by Col. Todd during his 
residence in the County of Illinois has been preserved to 
our time by the merest chance. In November, 1879, ^ 
a visitor at Kaskaskia learned that the old documents 
formerly kept there had been removed to the neighboring 
town of Chester, when it became the county-seat of Ran- 
dolph County, Illinois. Upon inquiry at the latter place, 
he was informed that several chests of these papers had 
stood for years in the hall of the court-house, until the 
greater part of their contents had been lost or destroyed. 
A small box had been filled with those that remained a 
few years before, and placed in one of the rooms of the 
building. These also had disappeared, and it was finally 
ascertained that they had been distributed among the 
different offices to be used as kindling, and all had been 
burned except one old book, which was found in a recep- 
tacle for fuel in the county-clerk's apartment. And this 
upon examination proved to be Col. John Todd's Record- 
Book, which subsequently, by vote of the commissioners 
of Randolph County, was deposited with the Chicago His- 
torical Society for safe-keeping. Its contents are of suffi- 
cient interest and value, in connection with the early 
history of Illinois, to justify its publication in full in this 
volume. And in connection with it, such letters of Col. 
John Todd and those associated with him as could be 
found in the Canadian and Virginian archives are also 
published herein.* E. G. M. 

* Authorities: — Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," second edition; 
John Mason Bro\vn's "Address at the Centennial Commemoration of the 
Battle of the Blue Licks"; and letters from John Mason Brown and William 
Wirt Henry. 


[Written on the inside of the front cover of the book:] 
Kaskaskias in the IHnois 29th april 1782. Eighty and 
touce. This day 10 oClock A:M Je vas Taken out of my 
house by Isreal Dodge on an order Given by Jno. Dodge 
in despite of the Civil authoroty Disregardled the Laws 
and on ther MaUtious acusation of Jas. WiUiams and 
nicheul pevante as may appear by their deposition Je vas 
Confined By Tyranick miHtary force without making any 
Legal aplication to the Civil Magistrates 30th the attorney 
for the State La Buiniere presented a petition to the 
Court against Richard Winston State prisonner in their 
Custody the Contents of which he (the attorney for the 
State) ought to heave Communicated to me or my attor- 
ney if any J had.-f 

[Gov. Patrick Henry to John Todd, pages 1-6:] 

W^'burg, Dec'i" 1 2th, 1778. 
To John Todd, Esqr 

By virtue of the act of Gen^ Assembly which estab- 

* This book contains thirty-nine pages of lox 15, laid, ledger-ruled paper, 
with water-marked " crown ", enclosed in paste-board covers. 

+ This memorandum has no connection with the other contents of the 
Record-Book, and was apparently inscribed by accident on its cover. Richard 
Winston, by whom it was written, was living in the Illinois Country as early 
as July, 1773. He was appointed by John Todd captain and commandant at 
Kaskaskia, May 14, 1779; was also sheriff-in-chief of that district, elected by 
the people, and was left in command at Kaskaskia by Todd, during his absence 
in June, 1779. In January, 1781, Winston was still commandant at Kaskas- 
kia. This memorandum contains the only information we have concerning 
the revolution in his affairs which made him a State prisoner in 1782. — E. g. si. 


lishcs the County of Ilinoies, you arc appointed County 
Liut. or Commandt there, and for the genrall tennour 
of your Conduct I refur you to the law. 

The Grand Objects which are disclosed to the View of 
3'our countrymen will prove Benificial or otherwise accord- 
ing to the Vallue and Abilities of those who are called to 
Direct the affairs of that remote Country. The present 
crisis rendered so favourable by the Good Disposition of 
the French and Indians may be Improv'd to Great pur- 
poses, but if unhapily it Should be lost, a returne of the 
Same attachments to us may never happen. Considering, 
therefore, that earley Prejudices are so hard to weare Out, 
3'-ou will Take Care to Cultivate and concilate the affec- 
tions of the French and Indians. 

Altho Great reliance is placed on your prudence in 
managing the people you are to reside amoung, yet con- 
sider'g you as unacquainted in some Degree with their 
Genius, usages, and maners, as well as the Geography of 
the Cuntry, I recommend it to you to consult and advise 
with the most inteligable and upright persons who may 
fall in N'our wa\'. 

You are to give perticklar Attention to Colo Clark and 
his Corps, to whome the State has Great Obligations. 
You are to cooperate with him on any military under- 
taking when necessary, and to Give the military every Aid 
which the circumstance of the people will admit of. the 
Inhabitints of the Ilinoiss must not expect setled peace 
and safety while theire and Our enimyes have footing at 
Detroit and can Intercept or Stop the Trade of the Mis- 
sissippi. If the English have not the Strength or or 
Courage to come to warr against us Themselves, there 
practice has been and Will be to hire the savages to com- 
mit murders and depredations. Ilinoiss must expect to 
pay in these a large price for her freedom unless the 
luiglish can be J^xpellcd from Detroit, the means of 


Effecting this will not perhaps be found in your or Colo 
Clark's power, but the French inhabiting the neighbour- 
hood of that place, it is prosumed, may be brought to 
see it Done with indiferrence or perhaps Joyne in the 
Enterprize with pleasure, this is but conjecture, when 
you are on the Spot you and Colo Clark may Discover 
its fallacey or reallity if the former appeares. defence 
only is to be the Object, if the latter or a good prospect 
of it, I hope the Frenchmen & Indians at your Disposial 
will shew a Zeal for the affaire eaquel to the Benefits to 
be Derived from Establishing Liberty and permanent 

One Great Good expected from Holding the Ilinoiss is 
to overaw^ the Indians from warring on our Settlers on 
this side the Ohio, a close attention to the Disposition, 
carector, and movments of the Hostile Tribes is therefore 
nessary for you the forces and militia at Ilinoiss by be- 
ing placed on the back of them may inflict timly Chase- 
tizement on these enemies, whose Towns are an easy 
prey in absince of their Warriors. 

You perceive by these hints that something in the mili- 
tary line may be Expected from you so farr as the Occa- 
sion calls for the assistance of the people composing the 
militia it will be necessory to cooperate with the Troops 
sent from here, and I know of no better Genl Direction 
to Give than this, that you Consider yourself at the head 
of the Civill department, and as Such having the Comm^ 
of the militia, who are not to be under the Comm^ of the 
military untill ordred out by the Civil Authority, and to 
Act in conjunction with them. 

You are on all Accatons to inculcate on the people the 
Value of liberty and the Differrence between the State 
of free Citizens of this Comonwelth and that Slavery to 
which the Ilinoiss was Destined. A free & equal repre- 
sentation may be Expected by them in a little Time, to- 


gethcr with all the improvrn's in Jurisprudence and police 
which the Other parts of the State enjoy. 

It is necessary for the Hapiness, increase, and prosperity 
of that Cuntrey that the Greaveances that obstruct these 
blessings be known in order to their removall, let it there- 
fore be your Care to obtain information on that subject, 
that proper plans may be formed for the Generall Utillity. 
Let it be your Constant Attention to see that the inhabi- 
tints have Justice administred to them for any Injury 
reed from the Troops, the omission of this may be fatall. 
Colo Clark has Instructions on this Head, and will, I 
Doubt not, exert himself to curb all licentious practises 
of the Soldiery, which if unrestrained would produce the 
most banefull effects. 

You will also Discountinence & punish every attempt 
to Violate the property of the Indians, perticularly in 
their lands. Our enemys have alarmed them much on 
that score, but I hope from your prudence and Justice 
that no grounds of CompU Avill be administred on this 

You will embrace every opertunity to manifest the high 
reguard and frendly sentiments of this Commonwelth 
towards all the Subjects of his Catholic Majesty, for 
whose safity, prosperity, and advantage you will give 
every possible advantage. You will make a Tender of 
the Frendship and Services of yr people to the Spanish 
Commandant neare Kaskaskia, and Cultivate the Strictest 
Connection with him and his people. I deliver you you 
a letter which you will hand to him in person.* 

The Ditaile of your Duty in the civil Department I 
need not give you, its best Direction will be found in 

* At this time the whole region west of the Mississippi was under the 
dominion of Spain, and "the Spanish commandant neare Kaskaskia" was 
stationed at Ste. Genevieve, in what is now Missouri, a few miles southwest 
of Kaskaskia, and on the other side of the Mississippi River. The position 
at this date was occupied by Monsieur Cartabonne.— E. g. m. 


yr innate love of Justice and Zeal, to be intencively use- 
full to your fellow- men. A general Direction to act 
according to the best of y Judgment in cases where 
these Instructions are Silent and the laws have not Other- 
wise Directed is given to you from the necessity of the 
Case, for yr Great Distance from Govermt will not per- 
mit you to wait for Orders in many Cases of Great 

in your negociations with the Indians confine the stip- 
ulan as much as possible to the single object of obtaining 
peace from them. Touch not the subject of land or 
bounderies till pertickr Orders are rec^; where necessity 
requ^s it, presents may be made, but be as frugall in that 
matter as possible and let them know that Goods at pres- 
ent is Scarce with us, but we expect soon to Trade freely 
with all the world, and they shall not want when we can 
get them. 

The matters given you in Charge are Singular in their 
Nature and Weighty in their Consequences to the people 
imediately concerned and to the whole State, they require 
the fullest exertion of y Abillitys & Unwearied Dili- 

from matters of Genrall Consearn you must Turn 
Occasionally to Others of less Consequence. Mr. Rose- 
blave's* wife and Family must not Suffer for want of that 
property of which they were bereft by Our Troops; it 
is to be Restored to them if possible, if this cannot be 
Done the Publick must Support them. 

I think it proper for you to send me an Express once 
in three months with a Genl Acco^ of affaires with you 
& any perticklars you wish to communicate. 

It is in contemplation to appoint an agent to mannage 

* Rocheblave, the last British commandant at Kaskaskia, who surrendered 
the post to George Rogers Clark and was sent a prisoner to Virginia. His 
wife and family remained at Kaskaskia. — e. g. m. 



Trade on Publick Accounts to Supply Ilinoiss and the 
Indians with Goods; if such an appointment takes place^ 
you will give it every posible aid. The people with you 
should not intermit their endeavours to procure Supplys 
on the expectation of this, and you may act accordingly. 

P. Henry.* 

[List of Commissions, Military and Civil, pp. 6-10:] 

Made out the Military Commissions for the District of 
Kaskaskia, dated May 14th, 1779. 

Commandant, as Capt. 
first Co. Capt. 

1 Leut. 

2 Lieut. 
2nd Capt. 

1 Lout. 

2 Leut. 


Richd Winston 
Nicholas Janis 
Baptistc Charlevill 
Charles Charleville 
Michael Godin 
Joseph Duplassy 
Nicholas le Chance 
Charles Dance 
Batiste Janis 

17th May sent a Com. of Command^ of Prairie du 
Rocher & Capt. of the Militia in the District of Kaskas- 
kia to J. 11 Barbeau. 

The District of Kohokia. 

Francois Trotter 



Capt. I 


Capt. 2 



P. Marthen 






Comns Dated 14th 
May, 1779; 3rd year 
of the Comnwth. 

* This is believed to be the genuine signature of Patrick Henry, it being 
apparently identical with other autographs known to be his. — i:. o. M. 


Gabriel Cerre 


Joseph Duplasy 


Jaques Lesource 


Nicholas Janis 


J. B. Barbeau 6 


Charles Charleville 


List of the Court of Kaskaskia as Elected by the People: 

Nicholas Le Chance 

8 Antoine Duchasfourt de Louvieres 

9 Girradot 

Carboneau Clerk. Richd Winston Sheriff. 

Court of Kohokias: 

1 Touranjeau (Godin) 

2 Francois Trottier 

3 Chas. Gratiot 

4 Girradin 

5 ■ ■ B. Saucier 

6 Mr. Beaulieu 

7 P. Marthin 

Francois Saucier Clerk. J. B. Le Croix Sheriff. 

The Court of St. Vincennes: 

1 P. Legras 

2 Francois Bosseron 

3 Perrot 

4 Cardinal (refused to serve) 

5 Guery La Tulippe 

6 P. Gamelin 

7 Edeline 

8 Degenest j" Legrand Clerk. 

9 Barron i Sheriff. 

Militia Officers of St. Vincennes: 

P. Legras L. Col. 

F. Bosseron Major. 


Latulippc I Capt. v 

Edcline 2 ' r t 

M. Brouilet 3 ) rank not T ' ^ ' 

4 J settled ) 

P. Gamelin 

2 Goden 

3 Godin 


2 Joseph Rougas / 

3 Richerville (erased) 

4 Richerville 

Liste de La Cour des Kaskaskias En 1787. Le 25 
Juiliet, savoir: 

1 Antoine Beauvais 

2 Corsette n 

3 St. Geme .. 

4 Lachance n 

5 Vital Bauvais 

6 Louis Brazeau 

License for Trade: [page 11] 

To all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting. 
Know ye, that whereas Rich^ McCarty, Gentleman, hath 
produced a Recommendation from the Court of District 
of Kohokia certifying his patriotism, Integrity, & Knowl- 
edge in Trade & Merchandizing, 

These are therefore to license & permit the said R. Mc. 
to traffick & Merchandize with all the liege Subjects & 
Friends of the United States of America of what Nation 
soever they be, & to erect Factories & Stores at any 
convenient place or places he shall think proper within 
the Commonwealth aforesaid. Provided that by virtue 


hereof no pretence shall be made to trespass upon the 
Effects or property of Individuals. Given under my hand 
& seal at Kaskaskia, the 5th June, 1779, in the 3rd year 
of the Commonwealth.* 

Letter to the Court of Kaskaskia: [page 12] 

nth June, 1779. 

Gentlemen: — The only method America has to support 
the present just War is by her Credit. That Credit at 
present is her Bills emitted from the different Treasuries 
by which she engages to pay the Bearer at a certain time 
Gold & Silver in Exchange. There is no friend to Ameri- 
can Independance who has any Judgment but soon ex- 
pects to see it equal -to Gold & Silver. Some disaffected 
persons & designing Speculators discredit it through 
Enemity or Interest; the ignorant multitude have not 
Sagacity enough to examine into this matter, & merely 
from its uncommon Quantity & in proportion to it arises 
the Complaint of its want of Credit. 

This has for some years been the Case near the Seat 
of War; the disorder has spread at last as far as the 
Ilinois & calls loudly for a Remedy. In the interior 

* Richard McCarty was a resident of Cahokia while it was under British 
control, and in February, 1777, wrote an humble letter to the commandant, 
Rocheblave, apparently to defend himself against even the suspicion of dis- 
loyalty. But when Clark levied the force to march from Kaskaskia against 
the British post at Vincennes, McCarty led a company of volunteers, who 
were nearly all of French descent, from Cahokia to join that expedition, and 
rendered good service. In August, 1779, he was appointed commandant at 
Cahokia under the authority of Virginia, and in November, 1780, Todd, 
writing to Gov, Jefferson, says : " McCarty, a captain in the Illinois Regiment 
who has long since rendered himself disagreeable by endeavoring to enforce 
Military law upon the Civil Department at Kohos. " He appears to have had 
a tract of land at Cahokia, and is one of those named in the report made in 
1809, by the commissioners appointed by congress, as a claimant under 
"Ancient Grants" in the district of Kaskaskia. — E. g. m. 


Counties this Remedy is a heavy Tax, now operating 
from which an indulgent government has exempted us 
one only remedy remains which is lodged within my 
power that is by recieving on behalf of Government 
such sums as the people shall be induced to lend upon a 
sure fund & thereby decreasing the Quantity the mode 
of doing this is already planned & shall be always open 
to your Inspection & Examination with the proceed- 
ings, & I must request your Concurrence & Assistance. 
I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, &c. 

Plan for Borrowing 33,333 K Dollars of Treas- 
ury Notes, hoth belonging to this State & 
THE United States: [pages 14-5] 

Whereas, owing to no other reason than the prodigious 
quantity of Treasury notes now in Circulation, the valine 
of almost every Comody has risen to most enormeous 
Prices, the Preserving the Credit of the Said bills by 
Reduceing the Quantity requires Some immediate rem- 
edy, it is therefore Declaried: 

1 That 21,000 acres of Land belonging to This Com- 
monwelth shall be laid of as Soon as may be. Bounded 
thus: Beginning on the bank of the Missisippe, In the 
District of Kohokia, at Rich^ McCartey's Cornor, thence 
runing up the said river 3500 poles, when reduced to a 
Straight line, from the Extremities of which at right 
Angles with the former on the Virginia side 2 lines of 
equal Length shall run so far, that with another line para- 
lel with the Course of the River, the Plat Shall containe 
the Quantity afouresaid. 

2 That the said 21,000 (except one thousand to be 
Hereafter laid off by Government for a Town in the most 
Convenient part Thereof with In and Out Lotts) shall be 
a fund for the purpose afoursaid. 


Provided that every adventurer be Subject to all Laws 
& regulations in Cultivating & Setling to which Settlers 
in the County of Ilinoiss shall hereafter be Subjected. 

3rd That the lender of money take a certificate from 
the Comissioners, for that Purpose appointed, for the sum 
but not being less than 100 Dollars, for which he, his 
heirs, Exei', Adm^ or assigns Shall be entitled to Demand 
within 2 years a Title to his propotion of the land in the 
Said Fund or the Sum originally advanced, in Gold or 
Silver with 5 p ct. Interest p anum at the Option of the 

Provied first that no assignment of such certifycate 
shall be made or Conveyance but in open Court by Deed 
to be recorded. 

(2) That a Deduction shall be made for all money here- 
after discovered to be Counterfeited. 

4 That all persons may have reasonable Inducements 
to lend, the lender shall have assurance that no greater 
Sum shall be received than 33,333>^ Dollars on said 
Fund, That Government shall Comply with the above 
Engagements, & this Plan be Recorded in the Recorder's 
Office of Kaskaskie. j^^^ ^^^^ 

French Translation: [The three following lines are erased.} 
Plan Pour Emprunter la somme de trente trois mil trois. 
cent trente trois & un tiere piastres monoiss du tresoier 
de cet Etat ainsi que des Etats unies. 

Copy of the Instructions, &c., on the Borrowing 
Fund: [page 15] 
Sir: — You are hereby appointed a Commissionor for 
Borrowing money upon the Kohoskia Fund. Inclosed is 
a Coppy of the Plan, the Design you'll Observe is to 
abridge the Quantity in Circulation — the money paid in 


you will preserve untill you Shall be Caled upon for it. 
Let every man's Money be kept apart with his nam and 
Quantity Indorsid thereon, keep a book to Register the 
No., the Person's names, the Quantity of Money, the date 
your Receipt, thus: 

Kohoskia Fund (No. i). 
I do certify that I have received of the 

Sum of Dollars, which intiles the said 

to a propotionable quantity of land in the Kohoskia Fund 
or Gold & Silver, according to the Plan Recordid in the 
Recorder's Office of Kaskaskia. Witness my Hand 
this Day of 1779. H^ Crutcher, Comr. 

[Bond of Commissioner, page 16:] 
Know all men by these presence that we, Henry 
Crutcher, George Slaughter & John Roberts, are held 
and firmly bound Unto Jno Todd, Esqr, Commander in 
Chief of the County of IHnois, in the Sum of Thirty three 
Thousand three hundred & thirty three Dollars & one 
third to be paid to the said John Todd or his successors, 
to which payment, will & truly to be maid, we do bind 
Ourselves & each of each of Our heirs, executors, firml)- 
by These Presence. Sealed & Datid this 14th Day of 
June, in the year 1779. 

The Condition of the above Obligation is such if the 

above named Henry Crutcher, Commissioner for the 

Fund for borrowing certaine Sums of Continentall & 

State Currency, shall at all Times when Required pay 

and Account for all Sums so received, and in all things 

Comport himself agreable to Such Rules and Regulations 

as Shall be Adopted for prosecuting the same, then the 

Above Obligation to be Void, Otherwise In full force. 

Test: HV CRUTCHER. (Seal) 

RicHi> Harrison. Geo. Slaughter. (Seal) 

RiCHi> Winston. John Roberts. (Seal) 


Proclamation: [page 17] 

Ilinois, to wit: Whereas from the Furiilety & beauti- 
ful! Situation of the Lands bordering upon the Missisippy, 
Ohio, IHnois, & Wabash rivers, the Taking up the usual 
quantity heretofore allowed for a Setlement by the Gov- 
ernmnt of Virginia, would injure both the Strength & 
Commerce of this Country in Future, 

I do therefore issue this Proclamation strictly enjoining 
all persons whatsoever from making any New Settlements 
upon the Flat lands of the said Rivers or within one 
league of said lands, unless In manor and form of Settle- 
mt as heretofore made by the French Inhabitints untill 
Further Orders given hereon. 

And in order that all the Claims to Lands within the 
Said Country may be fully known & some method pro- 
vided for perpetuating by records the just Claimes, every 
Inhabit^ is required, as soon as conveniently may be, to 
lay before the persons in each District appointed for that 
purpose a Memmedo of his or her Land, with Coppys of 
all theire Vouchers & where vouchers have never been 
given or are lost, such Depositions & Certify as will best 
Tend to Support there Claims. Such memdo to mention 
the Quantity of land, to whome Origonally granted, or 
by whome Settled, and when; deducing the Title thro 
the Various Occupants to the Present possessor. The 
number of- Adventurers who will Soon Over run This 
Country renders the above method necessesary, as well 
to Assertain the Vacant Land as to Guard against Tres- 
passes, which will probably be Committed upon Land 
not of Record. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at Kaskaskia, the 14th 
day of June, 1779. 

John Todd. 


Warrant for Execution: [erased, page i8] 

Ilinois, to wit: To Richard Winston, Esq., Sheriff in Chief 
of the District of Kaskaskia: 
Negro Manuel, a Slave, in your Custody, is condemned 
by the Court of Kaskaskia, after having made honorable 
Fine at the Door of the Church, to be chained to a post 
at the water side & there to be burnt alive, & his ashes 
scattered, as appears to me by Record. This Sentence 
you are hereby required to put in Execution on tuesday 
next, at 9 o'Clock in the morning; and this shall be your 
Warrant. Given under my hand & seal at Kaskaskia, 
the 13th day of June, in the third year of the Common- 

[John Todd to Richard Winston, page 18:] 

Sir: — During my absence the Command will devolve 
upon you as Commander of Kaskaskia — if Colo Clark 
should want anything m.ore for his Expodition, consult 
the members of the Court upon the best mode of pro- 
ceeding, if the people will not Spare wilingly, if in there 
power, you must press it, valueing valluing the Propert}- 
by Two men upon Oath — let the Millitary have no pre- 
test for forcing property. When you Order it, & the 
people will not find it. then it will be Time for them to 
Interfere — by all means keep up a Good Understanding 
with Colo Clark and the Officers — if this is not the Case 
you will be Unhapy. I am, sir, yr Hble Scrvt, 

John Todd, 

To Rich^l Winston, Esqr. June 15, 1779. 

[John Todd to Nicholas Janis, page 19:] 
To Capt. Nicholas Janis: — You are hereby required 


to call upon a partey of your Militia to guard Morace, a 
Slave condemed to execution, up to the Town of Kohos. 
put them under an Officer they shall be intitled pay, 
Rashtions, & Refreshment dureing the Time they shall 
be upon Duty, to be certifyed hereafter by you. 
I am, sir, your Hble Servant, 

JnO Todd, 15th June, 1779. 

I recommend 4 or 5 from your Compy & as many from 
Capt. Placey's, and consult Mr. Lacroix about the Time 
necessary. J. T. 

[Proclamation, pages 19, 20:] 

Ilinoiss, to wit: Whereas the emissions of Continentall 
money Dated the 20th May, 1777, and Apl nth, 1778, 
were required to be paid into some Continental Treasury 
by the first of June, which was a day imposible with the 
People of Ilinoiss, 

I do therefore notifye all persons who have money of 
the said emissions, that unless they shall as soon as posi- 
ble Comply with the said Resolution of Congress and 
Produce Vouchers of such there imposibility, the mony 
must Sink in there Hands; the Vouchers must be certi- 
fyed by myself or some Deputy Commandant of this 
County and have Reference to the Bundle of mony num- 
bred and seald. • 

Signd by order of the Commandant in Chief, at Kas- 
kaskia, July 27th, 1779. JOHN TODD. 

Coppy, HV Crutcher, Secy. 

D'autant que la Monnoye Ameriquaine en datte du 20 
May, 1777, et celle du 11 Avril, 1778, ont ete requises pour 
etre remises a Quelque tresorier du Continent au premier 
des Juin, dernier chose impossible pour les gens des Ilinois. 


Le present est pour avertir toutes personnes qui ont 
des cartes des susdits quantiemes de se conformer au sus- 
ditte Resolution du Congres et produire des certificats de 
la ditte impossibilite, si non I'argent sera perdu pour eux. 
Les certificats serons signe de moy ou de quelque Depute 
Commandant de cette Comtee ayant toujours recours aux 
liesses de Monnoye numerotee et cachettee. 

Signe par ordre du Commandant en chef, July 27, 1779. 

[Order to hold Court, page 21:] 

To Gabriel Cerre, &c.. Esq^s, Judges of the Court for 
the District of Kaskaskia: 

You are Hereby Authorized & required to Hold and 
Constitute a Court on Satterday, the 21st of July, at the 
Usiall place of Holding Court, Avithin yi^ District, any 
adjournment to the Contrary notwithstanting. 

Provided that no Suitor or partey be compeled to an- 
sware any prosess upon said Day unless properly sumoned 
by the Clark & Shirriff. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at Kaskaskia, July 31st, 
1779. John Todd. 

[Letter to Spanish Commandant at Ste. 
Genevieve, page 21 :] 

Aux Kaskaskas, 9 d'Aout, 1779. 
Monsieur Cartabonne, Comdt St. Genevieve: 

II sera a ['advantage de chaque Gouvernment que tout 
voitures en commerce partant des Illinois, seront oblige a 
livrer leur effets ou Carguaisons dans le Ports de Sa 
Majeste Catholique qui sont situe enbas de ce Poste, et 
qui les Proprictaires donne leurs obligations cautione dans 
les Offices respcctives, avant quils auront permission pour 


leurs depart, I'advantage d'un tel arangement avec le Gour- 
vernment Espagnole et trop clair pour en demander des 
explanations, en sort que tout commerce de notre Bord 
se jetterai parmis nos Amis. L'advantage a I'Etat de 
Virginie sera que nos Enmis de Natchez et Manchac 
seront deprive de tout provisions decendons de notre Posts. 

Je soit d'avoir votre reponse a cet convention par le 
Porteur si ca sera possible. Comme de quasi sert til que 
je contraindre nos Inhabitants, quand les Garrisons des 
Anglais peuve etre fournis dans leurs besoins par vos 

Jai aucune nouvelles a vous communique hors que le le 
Colonel Clark n'a pas encore parti du Post Vincennes. 

Si en cas quelques Ennemis vous interrompe et que nos 
forces peuve vous rendu Service, Je suis ordonne depart 
du Gouverneur de la Virginie de vous envoyer des Secours. 
Jai I'honneur d'etre tout parfait. 

[Proclamation, page 22:] 

The Inhabitants of Kaskaskia are for the last time 
invited to contract with the persons appointed for pro- 
vision, especially Flower, for the Troops who will shortly 
be here. I hope they'll use properly the Indulgeance of 
a mild Government. If I shall be obliged to give the 
military permission to press, it will be a disadvantage, 
and what ought more to influence Freemen it will be a 
dishonor to the people. 

Published by order of the Commit in chief at Kaskas- 
kia, I ith Augt, 1779. 

Sent to Mons"" Leyba a Letter to the Same Effect & 
reed an Answer. 


[FuKM OF Draft on Governor of Virginia, p. 23:] 
To his Excellency the Governor of Virginia: 

Please to pay to C D or Order the sum of Dollars 

which is due to him from the State of Virginia for sun- 
dries furnished the Militia & Indians, as appears by 
Vouchers to me rendered. 

Given under my hand at Kaskaskia, the nth August, 

Mr. J. B. Z. LaCroix, Dol. 78, Augt 11, 1779. 

[Proclamation, pages 23-4:] 

Illinois, to wit: Whereas the Demands of the State 
require that a Stock of Provision be immediately laid for 
the use of the Troops of the Common-Wealth, and that 
an Embargo be laid upon such Provision for a limited 

I do therefore issue this Proclamation stritely enjoining 
all Inhabitants and others in the County of Illinois from 
exporting either by Land or Water any Provisions what- 
soever for the space of Sixty days, unless I shall have 
assurance before that time that a sufficient Stock is laid 
up for the Troops or sufficient Security is given to the 
Contractors for its delivery whenever required. 

The Offender herein shall be subjected to Imprison- 
ment for One Month and more over forfeit the value of 
such exported Provision. 

Given under my hand and seal at Kaskaskias, 22nd 
August, 1779. 

Les Demandes de L'Etat rcquerant qu'une quantite de 
Provisions soyent immediatement serree pour L'usage des 
des Troupes de la Republique, Et qu'un Embargo soit mis 
sur toutes Provisions pour un Tcms limite. 


En consequence de quay Je public cette proclamation 
pour defendre strictement a tous les Habitants et autres 
dans les Compte des Illinois, d'Exporter par Terre ou par 
Eau, aucunne Espece de Provisions que ce Soit. a com- 
mencer immediatement et durer I'Espace de Soixante 
Jours, amoin qu'une quantite suffisant pour les Troupes ne 
soit remise, ou que Surete soit donne aux Contracteurs 
pour la delivree des dittes Provisions a leur demande. 

Touttes Personnes qui Contreviendront a la presente 
Proclamation, seront Sujits a Un mois d'Emprisonment, et 
a la Confiscation des Provisions qu'ils auront exporte ou 
la Valeur. 

Donne sous ma Main et Sceau aux Kaskaskias, le 22 
d'Aout, 1779. 

[Notice concerning Called-in Currency, p. 24:] 
Illinois, to wit: 

The publick are notified that after tomorrow no more 
Certificates will be Granted at Kaskaskia to Persons pro- 
ducing the called in Emmissions. 

Published by Order, Augt. 22nd, 1779. 

Le public est Notifie qua'pres demain, il ne sera plus 
donne de Certificat aux Kaskaskia, aux Personnes qui pro- 
duirent des Argents des dattes lappeller. 

Public par Ordre, Le 22 d'Aout, 1779. 

[Record of Order on Governor of Virginia, p. 25:] 

October 7th, 1779. Order given pat. Mc Crosky on the 
Govt- for 140 Dollars, dated at Kas^ 7th Oct. 1779 (No. 2) 
(140), by certificate from Mr. Helm. 


[Condemnation Proceeding, pages 25, 26:] 

Advertised by notifying at the Door of the Church of 
Kaskaskia the Half a lot above the Church, Joing Picard 
on the East & Langlois on the West, that unless some 
person should appear & support their Claim to the said 
Lot within three Days it should be condemned to the Use 
of the Commonwealth. S^l notification was dated 4th 
Oct., 1779. 

Ilinois, to wit: Whereas after publickly calling upon 
any peron or persons to shew & make appear any Claim 
which they might have to a certain Lot of Land contain- 
ing one half acre be the same more or less lying in the 
Town of Kaskaskia near the Church, adjoining Mons. 
Picard on the East & Mons. Langlois on the West, & after 
delaying & waiting the appointed time & no person yet 
appearing to claim the same against the Commonwealth 
of Virginia, I do declare & adjudge the said Lot to belong 
to the said commonwealth, & that all persons whatsoever 
be thenceforth debarred & precluded forever from any 
Claim thereto. Given under my Hand at Kaskaskia the 
13th day of October in the fourth year of the Common- 
wealth, Annog Domani 1779. J no Todd, Jr. 

Copy of a Grant to Col. Montgomery. [Page 26.] 
Remainder of the page containing the Grant torn out.] 

[Court Record, page 27:] 

La Cour a etc ouverte le cinq juin Mil sept cent quatre- 
vingt sept. Et La renvoyd au cinq du mois juiliet prochain 
au Kaskaskias, le 5 juin, 1787. 

Henry Smith, 


[Oath of Allegiance, page 28:] 
I do swear on the Holy evangelists of almighty god 
that I Renounce all Fidelity to george the third, King of 
Great Brittan, his Heirs and Sucessors, and that I will 
bear true allegiance to the united States of America, as 
free and Independant, as declared by Congress, and that I 
will not do, nor cause to be done, any matter or thing that 
may be injurious or Prejudicial to the independce of said 
states; and that I will make Known to some one Justice 
of the Peace for the united States all Treasonous, all 
Treatorous, conspiracies, which may come to my Knowl- 
edge to be formed against said united States or any one 
of them. So help me God. 

Sworn at Kaskaskias, 10 July, 1782. James Moore. 

[Court Record, pages 29-36:] 

La cour ce tien le 25 e juiliet, 1787, a neuf heure Du 

La cour est envoye au ventdeux du mois d'aous au Kas- 
kaskias, le 25 e juiliet, 1787. 

Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

ViTALE Bauvais. La Chanse. L. Brazaux. 

La cour est ouverte ajourdhui vingt sept de Septem- 
bre mil sept cent quatre vingt et sept. 

Present, M«"- Antoine Beauvais, president et St. geme 
Beauvais, et Vital Beauvais et francois Corset et Louis 
J. S. G. Bauvais. Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. 

Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. 

La cour est renvoye au quinze du mois Octobre au Kas., 
le 27 7bre, 1787. 
ViTALE Bauvais. Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. 
I. S. G. Bauvais. L. Brazaux. 


Aujourd'hui quinzicmc jour du mois octobre mil sept 
cent quatre vingt sept. La cour tenant a neuf heurs du- 
niatin. La cour est renvoye a deux heurs apre midi ajourd 
hui. La Chanse. Vitale Bauvais. 

Fr. Corset. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

La cour est ouvert a 1 heur dits deux heures apremidi. 
La cour est renvoye le quinze dumois Novembre, prochain 
au Kaskaskias, le quinzieme Octobre Mil sept cent quatre 
viniTt sept (la cour tenante). 

La Chanse. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

Fr. Corset. Vitale Bauvais. 

Aujourd'hui vingt cinquieme Octobre mil sept cent 
quatre vingt sept. La cour par extra hordinaire a la de- 
mande, de Mr. demunbrunt, et fran^ois Carbonaux, defend- 
eur. Antoine Bauvais, prezidan. 

Vitale Bauvais. Fr. Corset. L. Brazaux. 
J. S. G. Bauvais. La Chanse. 

La cour est ouverte cejourd'hui quinzieme jour dumois 
Novembre Mil sept cent quatrevingt sept. La cour est 
renvoye a un heure apremidi. 15 gbre. 

Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. La Chanse. 
Vitale Bauvais. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

La cour est ouverte a un heure apremidi ajourdui. La 
cour est renvoye demain pour un affaires le i6e gbre 1787. 
Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. Vitale Bauvais. 
J. S. G. Bauvais. La Chanse. 

La cour est ouverte a neuf heure dumatin le seize Novem- 
bre Mil sept cent quatrevingt sept. Et renvoye a mercredi 
le 2ie Qbre 1787. ANTOINE Bauvais, prezidan. 

Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

La cour ajumee jus qua Samedi le vingt (luatrieme jour 


du moi Novemble, Mil sept cent quatre vingt et sept. Est 
ouverte adeux lieurs apremidi le jour et ans susdit. 

Antoine Bauvais, prezidan. 
JSGB ViTALE Bauvais. Fr. Corset. L. Brazaux. 

La cour est renvoye au vingt Decembre prochain au 
Kaskaskias le 24e Qbre 1787. 

Antoine Bauvais, p:z. J. S. G. Bauvais. 

L. Brazaux. Fr. Corset. Vitale Bauvais. 

La cour est ouverte par Extrat ordinere ala demande 
de Mr. hugt hunard, le 26e Qbre, L'an 1787. 

L. Brazaux. Fr. Corset. 

Antoine Bauvais. Vitale Bauvais. 
N. 7, apartenant a M. hugt hunard. 
N. 4, apartenant a La Cour. 

La cour est ouverte par extra ordinaire le onzieme De- 
cembre pour repandre ala presentation De M. hugt hunard. 
L'an 1787. Antoine Bauvais, p z 

Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. Fr. Corset. 

La cour est ouvert ajourdhui vingt Decembre l'an -mil 
sept cent quatrevingt sept, aneuf heurs dumatin. 

Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. 

Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. 

La cour est renvoye au vint huit de mois. La cour tenant 
ajourd'hui 20 xbre 1787. Antoine Bauvais. 

Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. Fr. Corset. 

La cour en renvoye au cinq de Janvier prochain au 15 
Janvier prochain au Kas le 28 xbre 1787, par le president. 
Antoine Bauvais, prezidan. 

L'an mil sept cent quatrevingt et huit, le quinzieme jour 


dumois dc Janvier, a neuf heurs Dumatin, La Cour est 
ouverte; La Cour a termine que chacque jure qui viendrai 
de la prairi-du roche auront chacquun vingt cinq livre; 
avons renvoye la cour adeux heur apremidi, ajour dhui 
et pour cause dans le village dix livre. 


Antoine Bauvais. Fr. Corset. 

La cour est ouverte adeux heur a pres midi au Kas. ce 
15 Janvier, 1788. 

1 M. George Atchison, Foreman 

2 — James Lomon 



1 1 

John Edgar & Taitt 
Pit, agt 

Thomas Green, Deft 

De faux de Compa- 

Also a Jury wherein 
Daniel McEl Duff, Pit 

Thomas Green, Deft 

— George Bigges 

— Thomas Bigges 

— Michael Huff 

— Francis Clerk 

— Wm. Bayly 

— Joseph Worley 

— Joseph Ogle 

— Samuel Stevenson 

— John Clark 

— James Orr 
La cour a termine qui chacque jure qui viendront de 

Labelle fontaine, en cettc qualite qui I'auront chacun 
La somme dc quarantc cinq livre chacun, au Kas le 15 
Janvier, 1788. La somme a chacque jure de quarant cinq- 
livre au Kas Icjours et ans, aprouve si moi jur charge de 
quarante cinqlivre. Antqine Bauvais, p nt 

Est comparu par nos ordres Monsieur Jean Edgar, ala 
rcquition de M. jean Duff, pour declarer cequil a'tendu 
dire par M. jean Dodge, a dit amondet lui, Edgar a mepar- 
lent amoi memc. Cinq jours apres mon arive, en cette 
ville des Cas. 

Je suis capable de vous instruit des caratcr des gens de 


ce peyees. Monsieur Enri Smith il a la une bonne habita- 
tion, M. Smits, est un grand viUin coquin, M. Dodge ma dit 
quil ete capable de le faire venire sure un peau d'an pour 
le faire fouette. Consernant des Marchandisse roti au fort 
gefersonne;* M. Dodge lui a dit que M. Smith soutenoit 
ce le contraire jusqua ceque M. Dodge, lui a fait voir. Ces 
fautes alors M. Dodge laquitte. M. Dodge, a dit bon pour 
rester amis avec les gens la, par ceque Leurs argent est 
aussi bonne Comme celle d'un autres Et le dit jur6 a per- 
site a sa declaration que c'etait la verite a la cour tenant ce 
25 juiliet, 1787, et assigne, Jno. Edgar, 

Antoine Bauvais, Magistra. 

Vu Les deposition des opinions de jures qui ont termine 
L'affaire entre M. Tomas Green defendeur et Daniel 
Duff plentif. Lesquelle sont reconnu que M. green et 
Comptable, pour les dommages de M. Daniel Miche Duff 
la somme de vingt piastre, avec les frais qui enver re- 
sulte de la dite affaire au Kaskaskias, le quinze Janvier, 
mil sept cent quatre-vingt huit, et suivant L'ordonnance. 

ANTOINE Bauvais, p. nt. 

La Cour est renvoye au quinz de fevrie mil sept cent 
quatre-vingt huit. FR. CORSET, 

ViTALE Bauvais. L. Brazaux. 

ANTOINE Bauvais. 

La Cour est ouverte le quinzieme fevrie 1788. A neuf 
heure Du matin, Messire antoine Beauvais president, et St. 
gene Bauvais et Vital Beauvais, Louis Brazaux, et frangois 
Corsette, tous magistrat, ANTOINE Bauvais. 

ViTALE Bauvais. L. Brazaux. 

St. G. Bauvais. fr. corset. 

* Fort Jefferson was established in 1780 by Virginia, upon the recommen- 
dation of Clark and Todd, at the Iron Banks on the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi, just below the junction of the Ohio. It was evacuated June 8, 1781. 

2 I — E. G. M. 


La Cour est renvoye jusqu'a qu'il soite fait une assem- 
bleee par Le public; Au Kaskias, le 15*^ fevrie et que La 
Cour soit Complette de son magistrat, et qu'il soit con- 
voque par M. Barbau, Lt. de Courte, de jour et ans, 


Dr. Peltry Account, [pages 37, 38.] 

To Government for my Drafts in favor of Monsieur 
Beaurgarde for 30000 Dollars value thereof received 
as pr his Acct. dated St. Louis, 14th Sept. 1 779, Vizt : 
Peltrys gr. to the amount of ;^2iooo 

Paper Currency Dlls. loooo 

Per Contra. Cr. 

By m/a for Sundries 4 charges /^349 10 — 
By Colo. John Montgomery paid as 

p his order 297 10 — 

By the Garrison at Kaskaskias furnished 
for them p Order Colonel Montgomery, Vizt: 

2 Hhds Taffia ^ 340;^; 
150 lb Sugar (o 35s 
75 lb Coffee 35s 
7 Bear Skins i£ 

262 10 
131 5 

Charges Vizt: 
2 Bags £7 
Cart hire 2 
Taffia & Bread to 
the Soldiers 6 


II06 15 — 

By the Garrison at Cahokias purchased for and de- 
livered Capt. McCarty as receipt, Vizt: 

JOHN TODD'S record-book. 315 

1 Hhd Taffia ;^340 
100 lb Gunpowder @ 6£ 600 
300 lb Lead @ los 154 

75 lb Sugar 35 131 5 

30 lb Coffee 35 52 10 

Charges Vizt: 

2 Bags £-] 

Cart hire 2 9 1286 15 — 

By assumd to Capt. Janis 200 lb for Moses Henry. 
Oct. 24th By Francois Charleville 400 lb Pr Col. Montg. Ord 
— 25 By Baptiste Charleville 150 Pr Col. Montg. 

Charles Charleville 1290 P"" Col. Montg. a/c 

3040 10 — 

[Entries by Col. Todd's Successor, page 39:] 
February 1782. 
Arrived a Small Tribe of the Wabash Indians Implor- 
ing the paternal Succour of their Father the Bostonians 
heaving their Patent from Major Linctot, in Consequence 
I did on Behalf of the Commonwealth give them Six 
Bushells Indian Corn, Fifty pounds of Bread, four Pounds 
of Gun Powder, Ten Pounds of Ball, and One Gallon of 
Taffia from Carbonneaux. 

March 22d. Came here Deputy's from the Delawares, 
Shawanoe, and Cherokee nations of Indians, Begging that 
the americans wold Grant them Pease as likewise the 
French and Spanish and after hearing their Talk, Smoaking 
the pipe of peace and friendship with them, and from 
their Conduct while here as well as many marks they gave 
us of their Sincerety I could not avoid Giving them On 
Behalf of the Americans the Following articles, Viz,, 
10 Bushells Indian Corn, 


lOO lb. Mour, and lOO lb. Bisquit, 
6 lb. Tobaco, one Gallon Tafia, 
5 lb. wanipam and canoe — which cost me 20 Dollars. 

[In pencil.] "The above [was written] by Thimothe 
Demunbrunt Lt. Comd. par interim, &c." 

[Written on the inside of back cover of book:] 
Memo. 1779- 

14 June, M. Kemp, D. to i '/ yds. Blue Cloth for a Cape 
for Isaac. 

Mrs. to 2 lbs. Cotton from Mad. Bent- 

ley's Store, 14th June. 

M. Smith, Hugh, To a Bill for 12 Dollars in pel- 
try, drawn upon Mr. Gratiot. 

Nota bene. C ^ous, Thimothe 

J Demunbrunt, Lt. Comd't. 
( Par interim, &;c., &c., &c. 


Col. John Todd, Jr. to Governor of Virginia.* 

From " Canadian Archives " — " Haldimand Papers " — Series B, 
Vol. 1 84- 1, page 124. 

Kaskaskias, 1 8th Augt., 1779. 

May it please your Excellency: — By Letters which I had 
the honour of writing to you by Col, Slaughter, dated 
early in July, I gave your Excellency a full account of the 
situations of this country, since which nothing important 
has happened here. Col. Clark, I suppose, is by this time 
at the Falls of Ohio, and as the Expedition aginst Detroit 
is declined he will probably wait upon you in person. 
Col. Rogers has arrived from Orleans & will be the Bearer 
hereof or send it by the earliest opportunity: I am uneasy 
in knowing that the accounts he will render concerning the 
quantity as well as the bad condition of the goods cannot 
be satisfactory. Who is to blame in it .-' The Batteau 
Masters who brought it up t The person in whose care it 
was left at St. Louis or the conductor of our stores or all 
of them, I cannot determine. The taking & disposing of 
them was (perhaps necessarily) planned, & in part exe- 
cuted, before my arrival. The conductor's powers & in- 
structions were in no part derived from me, nor was he 
answerable to me for any malfeasance in office. Col. Clark 
will, I doubt not, satisfy you in this matter. 

I wish the opprotunity by Col. Rogers were safer: I 

* The original of this letter is among the "Haldimand Papers," and was 
intercepted on its way from Kaskaskia to Williamsburg by some one in the 
service of Great Britain, and carried to Canada. — E. G. M. 


have 15 or 20 thousand dollars to send down on public 
account. I have required that all the money of the called 
in emissions be sealed up, & stopped from circulating, of 
which I expect we have in the Country 20 or 30 thousand 
dollars more. I have recommended that the People wait 
some future opportunity more safe for sending it down. 
The Resolve of Congress bears hard upon Illinois, where 
the risque is so great. If Congress have not yet made 
provision for the reception of the Money, I hope your 
P2xcellency will apply to Congress. I shall be cautious 
that none of the called-in Emissions be brought into this 
Country or certified which may come from any part of the 
States where the owners had an opportunity of exchang- 
ing it. 

The visiting the dififerent Districts of my charge has so 
engaged me that I have not had time to prepare answers 
to the Queries delivered me by some Gentlen. of your 
Honble. Board. As to Indian Grants it may be necessary 
immediately to inform you, that they are almost number- 
less, only four of them are very considerable, the smallest 
of which will be near a 1,000,000 acres, and the whole 
between 7 & 8 millions of acres. The grantees all reside 
in Philadelphia, London, Pennsylvania, & Virginia, & are 
between 40 & 50, merchants chiefly. How far it may be 
proper to make such contracts binding upon the Indians, 
I cannot say. I submit it to your Excellency whether it is 
not necessary to prevent Indian Grants by other methods 
than making void the purchase. I mean by fines, and at 
the same time to prevent under-fines, &c. the making any 
settlements within the charter Bounds of this State, except 
under certain Permissions & Regulations: This I appre- 
hend to be necessary immediately, as some Land jobbers 
from the South side of Ohio have been making improve- 
ments (as they call them) upon the purchas'd Lands on 
this side the River, and are beyond the reach of punish- 


ment from me — with the arrival of New adventurers this 
summer, the same spirit of Land jobbing begins to breathe 

I expected to have been prepared to present to your 
Excellency some amendments upon the form of Govern- 
ment for Illinois, but the present will be attended with no 
great inconveniences till the Spring Session, when I beg 
your permission to attend and get a Discharge from an 
Office, which an unwholesome air, a distance from my con- 
nexions, a Language not familiar to me, and an impossi- 
bility of procuring many of the conveniences of Life suit- 
able; all tend to render uncomfortable. 

As to military affairs. Col: Clark will offer your Excel- 
lency observations on that Head, which I wish to defer, 
being more his province. 

Perhaps an additional Agent for supplying the Indians 
with goods may be necessary. Mr. Lindsay's Commission 
was for no more than 10,000 Dollars, which he will soon 
dispose of to the Indians & our soldiers, who, I suppose 
will expect their Clothing from him. 

I have given a Letter of Recommendation as an Agent 
to a Gentleman lately from New Orleans, who set off with 
Col. Rogers, Mons. Perrault. 

If an expedition should be ordered against the Natchez, 
there cannot be any great dependence placed on the Illi- 
nois furnishing more than 100,000 lbs. of Flour, and sup- 
porting the Troops now here, and scarcely any Beef 

I have not heard from Williamsburg since January. 
I am, with greatest respect, &c., 

John Todd, Jr. 
His Excellency the Governor of Virginia. 

[Endorsed:] Copy of a letter from Jno. Todd, Jr., to the 
Governor of Virginia, dated Kaskaskias, i8th Augt, 1779. 


John Pacie Lieut: Govr, to John Todd, Co Lieut: 
&c Illinois Co. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, 326. 

Williamsburg, August i6, 1779. 

Sir: — Your several Letters of the ist & 2nd ultimo, by 
Col: Slaughter, this day were handed to me in the Gover- 
nors absence — I laid them before the Board, who were 
pleased with their contents & exprefsed their approbation 
of your Conduct & of your plan for supporting the Credit 
of the paper money, but this must be submitted to the 
consideration of the Afsembly, who alone can determine 
on, or give Efficacy to that measure. " * " 

It is to be wished that more Troops had been sent into 
the Illinois at first, however so much has been done by 
the few there, as to redound greatly to their Credit & that 
of their gallant Commander — We hope that the favourable 
Disposition of the Canadians, & our late succefses to the 
Northward & Southward will pave the way for Colo. 
Clarke to Detroit & make the acquisition of it easy — and 
that the Battalion which we are now raising to be marched 
into your Country will enable him to surmount any ob- 
stacle which way be thrown into his way. 

The Board approve of your erecting the small Fort you 
propose & giving the Command to Col: Slaughter — Being 
in haste I can only add that I am, 

yr: mo: obt humble Servannt. 

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Col. P. Legras. 

From the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va. 

Kaskaskia, 23d Augst, 1779. 
5zV.-— You'ill please to require immediately that both 
the called in Emmissions of Continental Money to be 
sealed up & stopped from Circulating, & give the person 


owing them a certificate, no matter whether in French or 
Engh'sh. The Certificate will be necessary for this reason, 
because after the first June it was lost to the owner by 
order of Congress, if it was not paid into some Continental 
office. The Congress, I expect, have made provision for 
Ilinois on account of the Impossibility of transmitting it 
down by the ist of June. It is therefore necessary that 
Ilinois money be prevented from mixing with any other, 
less the whole be rejected on that account. I inclose you 
a copy of the certificates granted by me, with the adver- 
tisement. It would be best to affix a day after which you 
will seal and certify no more. Let the whole be done with 
one seal, the better to prevent confusion. I cannot have 
the pleasure to see St. Vincenne by the time proposed. 
Col. Clark's Departure will occasion me to stay longer than 
I intended. Write me the news by every opportunity, and 
in cases of Importance send me an Express. 

I am, sir, your mo. obed. & humble servant, 

JNO. Todd, Jr. 

Col. P. Legras, or officer commanding the Villlage of 
St. Vincenne (per favor of Capt. Gamelin). 

I have prohibited by proclamation the exportation of 
provision from this country for a certain time, which you 
will endeavour to put in execution with you. J. TODD, Jr. 

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Oliver Pollock. 

From the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va. 

Sir: — Accompanying this are letters to Gov. Galvez and 
yourself from the Virginia Board of Trade, to be sent by 
the way of Kaskaskias. A late packet from Govt, to my- 
self have been miscarried, or I could inform you with more 
certainty whether Some Bank is not established in Europe 


to give credit to your Draughts made on behalf of this 
State. There is, or will be certainly, perhaps in Bordeaux. 
I wish, as I before informed you, for a list of all the Bills 
drawn upon you, with notes of those ans'd and protested. 
I could wish you had been better informed of the authority 
and Rank of some of the United States officers, as well as 
our own. I fear numbers unauthorized have drawn for 
private purposes. Colo. Clark's & Roger's Bills were drawn 
from the necessity of their situation, and will undoubtedly 
be approved. Any other Bills are voidable, tho' perhaps 
not yet void. The purpose for which they were drawn 
may assist you in judging therein. But observe no per- 
sons whatever in the Western Department either is or ever 
has been authorised by the Govt, of Virginia to draw upon 
any person but the Govr. or Treasurer. 

The State will shortly need another supply of goods for 
the Troops in this quarter. The private authority given 
Mr. Lindsay last year, with the letter to yourself and my 
wants, are neither out of date, and you will still oblige me 
by observing their contents. I hope shortly to hear that 
the Missisipi harbours no nations the Enemy to the com- 
merce & Rights of America. Whether Britain be humbled 
by the arms of a powerful monarch or our Infant States, 
my Joy will be equal. Govr. Galvez' literary and military 
Character are much talk'd of in Virginia, amongst whom 
he is held in highest Estimation. I beg you would present 
him with profer of my services and thanks for the assist- 
ance he has render'd to a people who do not fail to repay 
him in Gratitude. (A copy.) John M'Dowell, Sec'y. 

Mr. Pollock, Feb. 9th, 1780. 

[Endorsed:] The above letter was found among Col. 
Todd's papers, without signature, but endorsed to Oliver 
Pollock, l^Lsq., and appears to be Col. Todd's handwriting. 


john-todd papers. 323 

Oliver Pollock to John Todd, County Lieut: 
OF Illinois, acknowledging receipt of his, 



From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, 347. 

New Orleans, May 4, 1780. 

By this he had received a bill on France for ^65.814^8 
for his advances made to Virginia, but is unable to nego- 
tiate it at that place, on account of the great scarcity of 
specie, which would continue until a supply be gotten from 
Havana. This gives him great concern, because it pre- 
vents his using the bills of Gen: Clarke and other officers, 
and therefore from procuring the supplies of Clothing so 
much needed by them. 

Gov: Galvez had captured Mobile, and is besiging Pen- 
sacola, — had been created a Field Marshall — fhould he be 
successful at Pensacola, and return to New Orleans, he 
should exert him to make use of him — 

By Post Script of the 26th he regrets to say — Gov: 
Galvez has returned to New Orleans: not hav'g been sup- 
ported in time by the expected fleet from Havana, had 
abondoned the Seige of Pensacola — He has made applica- 
tion to Galvez for pecuniary affistance but without success, 
as that officer required all his funds for his own purposes 
— had managed however, to negotiate Clarkes & Mont- 
gomerys' bills, and earnestly begs, that those officers will 
be as frugal as poffible with the purchases made. 

Col. John Todd, Jnr., to Gov. Jefferson. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 358. 

1780, June 2, Richmond. 
May it please your Excellency: — On consulting with Col. 
Clark, we found it impracticable to maintain so many posts 


in the Illinois with so few men, & concluded it better to 
draw them all to one post. The Land at the Junction of 
the Ohio & Mississippi was judged best suited for the 
purpose as it would command the Trade of an extensive 
Country on both sides of each River, & might serve as a 
check to any Incroachments from our present Allies, the 
Spaniards, whose growing power might justly put us upon 
our guard & whose fondness for engrossing Territory might 
otherwise urge them higher up the River upon our side 
than we would wish. The Expenses in erecting this new 
post & victualing the men would have been obstacles in- 
surmountable without a settlement contiguous to the Gar- 
rison to support it, where adventurers would assist the 
Soldiers in the heavy work of Building their fortifications. 
I therefore granted to a certain number of famiHes four 
hundred acres to each Family, at a price to be settled by 
the General Assembly, with Commissions for Civil & Mili- 
tary Officers & the necessary Instructions. Copies of the 
principal of which I herewith send you. The other being 
agreable to the printed forms heretofore delivered me by 
the Governor & Council. 

Lest the withdrawing our Troops from St. Vincenne 
might raise suspicions among the Citizens, to our dis- 
advantage, I have sent to Major Bosseron, the then Dis- 
trict Commandant, blank Commissions, with powers to 
raise one Company & put them in possession of the Gar- 
rison, with assurance that pay and rations sh'd be allowed 
them by the Governmnt. 

When Col. Clark left the Falls, his Officers & Men to 
the amount of perhaps 120 were all well cloathed except 
in the article of Linens. 

Mr. Isaac Bowman, with 7 or 8 men & one family, set 
off from Kaskaskia the 15th nov: last in a Batteau, at- 
tended by another Batteau with 12 men & 3 or 4 families 
in it, bound to the falls of Ohio. I judged it safer to send 


to the Falls many articles belonging to the Common- 
wealth, by Bowman, than to bring them myself by land. 
Bowman's Batteau fell into the hands of the Chicksaw 
Indians, & the other arrived in March or April at the 
French Lick on Cumberland, with the account that Bow- 
man and all the men except one Riddle were killed and 

I inclose your Excellency a List of such articles as 
belonged to the State, as well as I can make out from my 
detached memorandums. My Books and many necessary 
papers being also lost. 

Many necessary Articles of Intelligence yet remain un- 
mentioned. I will enjoy no Leisure until I shall have 
fully acquainted your Excellency with the Situation of 
the Illinois. 

I have the Honor to be, with the greatest respect, 

Yr. Excellency's most obt. & humble servant. 

Genl: Geo: Rogers Clark to Colo John Todd. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, 338. 

Louisville, March, 1780. 
Dr Colo: — By the Acts from Every Post in the Illinois 
so nearly corresponding, I make no doubt of the English 
Regaining the Interest of many Tribes of Indians, and 
their designs agst the Illinois (Perhaps on Gov: Hamiltons' 
plan), and without some speedy check may prove fatal to 
Kentucky and the Total lofs of the Westrn Country on 
the Mifsifsippi. I am not clear but the Spaniards would 
fondly suffer their Settlements in the Illinois to fall with 
ours for the Sake of having the opertunity of Retaking 
Both. I doubt they are too fond (of) Territory to think 
of Restoring it again. Although there is but few British 
Troops on the Lakes, defitiency is full Replaced by the 


Immcnce quantity of goods they have, the Effects of 
which among the Savages you well know, not being apre- 
hensive of a visit, I make no doubt of their having planed 
some Expedition of Importance against our Posts, which 
if they gain, may be attended with greater consequences 
than I have Hinted at, they have greater opertunities of 
knowing our cituation, than we have of theirs, which you 
know they could not deprive us of you well know the 
difificulties we have laboured under with our Joint Efiferts 
to maintain our Ground, and support our Interest among 
the Savages in that Dept. and the Reasons why, which is 
now greater than Ever, as the bad Crops and the severity 
of the Winter hath Rendered it Impofsible for the Towns 
in the Illinois to make any further supplies until next Har- 
vest, the Troops being Intituled to a Discharge in a few 
weeks. Except those that have Reinlisted when Joined by 
Capt: Rogers, when armed will not amount to more than 
one hundred and fifty, which is too few under our present 
circumstances to think of Deffending the diferent post we 
now occupy. Letters from his Excellency, and a promifs- 
ing act from our Recruiting Officers may perhaps soon 
alter our apparent Circumstances, but as yet Receiving 
no advice from Either, already meeting with many disap- 
pointments in my Expectations much to the disadvantage 
of the Dept, a few weaks Hesitation may be productive of 
long future disadvantage. I think it best to act as though 
we had no Expectation of being afsisted Either with men 
or provitions. Your Councell not only necefsary, but 
which you know I prize, is what I want 

If we ware Tolerably formadable at any one post that 
we could subsist at, it might have a great and good Effect. 

As I Hinted, to lay afside all Expection of a Reinforce- 
ment, I see but the one probable method of maintang 
our Authority in the Illinois, which is this, by Amediately 
Evacuating our present posts, and let our whole force 


Center at or near the Mouth of Ohio, which will be too 
Contemnable to answer the good effect proposed, without 
we fall upon some method to draw of a Considerable 
Reinforcement from Kentuck of Militia. Families would 
be of the greatest service, as they are always followed by 
two or three times their numbers of young men. they 
would with their store of provitions be able to Victual 
great part of our Troops in proportion to their number, 
which if only one Hundred, by the Ensuing fall would 
be able to Victual a Ridgment, besides Establishing a 
post that his Excellency is very Anctious for (the Reason 
I imagine we are boat Acqd with) and the Interests of 
all the Western Countrey call for. One Hundrd Families, 
their followers, the Troops we have already Ingaged, 
those whose time of service is or shortly will Expire, 
that would Remain at the place, when Join'd, would be 
considerable, the Report of which by the time it Reach 
our Enemies would be augmented perhaps to Trible our 
numbers, as such Intelligence is always agravated by the 
Indians, and I don't doubt but that it would put a stop 
for some time to their proceedings, as I know it would 
greatly Confuse the Indians they are like to win from us, 
as our temporary force, with the French Militia, probably 
counting the Spaniards, would be too Considerable for 
them to temper with, our only chance at present to save 
that Countrey is by Incouraging the Families, but I am 
sensible nothing but land will do it. I should be exceed- 
ing Cautious in doing any thing that would displease 
government, but their present Interest, in many Respects 
obvious to us boath, call so loud for it, that I think Sir, 
that you might even Venture to give a Deed for Forty or 
Fifty Thousand Acres of Land at said place, at the price 
that government may demand for it. it Interfears with 
no Claim of our friendly Indians, the greatest Barriour to 
the Inhabitants of the Illinois against the Southern Ind- 


ians, Security of the Geiil: Commerce and perhaps the 
saving of the Countrey to the State, and probably in a 
few months enable us to act again on the oftensiv^e. 

I should be against suffering Families to settle promisl}- 
in any part of the Illinois at present, but the Establish- 
ment of the said post is so necefsary, and as it Cannot 
be Compleeat without the Families, I think it your Duty 
to give the aforesaid Incouragement and such Instructions 
as would confine the people for some time to a Fort, be- 
fore you could consnlt Government it might be too late. 
Sustenance for some time will be procured with difficulty, 
but I cannot think of the consequences of losing poff- 
effion of the Countrey without a more determined Reso- 
lution to Risque every point Rather than suffer it (for 
they the English, cannot execute any matter of very great 
importance among the Savages without it. I know }-our 
concern to be Eaqual to mine, if you Concur with mc 
in sentiment, let me know Amediately, or such Amend- 
ment as you might think more advantageous. 

I am Sir, with Real Esteem, Your ver}- Humble Ser\-t. 

LiFA'T. Col. J. M. P. LeGras to Govenor of Vir- 

'IVanslalion from the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va. 

Williamsburg, May 22nd, 1780. 
Sir: — The integrity with which your honorable assem- 
bly dispenses justice to the faithful subjects of the States 
emboldens me to represent to you the wrong impression 
you will receive from the papers with which Mr. Simon 
Nathan is charged in case your goodness orders payment. 
The inhabitants of St.Vincennes & the country of the 
Illinois ignorant of the act of Congress have sold their 
harvests to the army of Col. Roger Clark and have re- 


ceived in payment piastres of the Continent, upon the 
footing and for the value of the Spanish piastres. Persons 
in authority (by your orders) have circulated them as such 
and have assured us authentically that there would be 
nothing lost. They have even passed counterfeits. In 
the position of magistrate of this district, my duty and 
benevolence prompt me to beg you to take pity upon a 
people who by this loss find themselves reduced to the 
most urgent necessities. In addition to this there has 
been published at St. Vincennes an order by command of 
Col. Jean Todd to oblige the residents to receive this 
money as Spanish piastres and many have been impris- 
oned for having refused. Some time later the before 
mentioned Col. John Todd required me, as it appears 
from his letter, to stop the circulation in view of the 
quantity of counterfeit orders that many are circulating 
which I have done, to avoid confusion without lessening 
(or preventing) the value of the good. Earnestly hoping 
that the States will pay this money according to the 
denomination. I have the honor of being very respect- 
fully, Sir, Your very humble and very obedient servant, 

J. M. P. Legras, Lt. Col. 

Thos: Jefferson to the Hon: the Speaker of 
THE House of Delegates — 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, 360. 

In Council, June 14th, 1780. 
Sir:— In a Letter which I had the Honor of addrefs- 
ing you on the meeting of the present General Afsembly, 
I informed you of the necefsities which had led the 
Executive to withdraw our Western troops to the Ohio — 
Since the date of this letter, I have received the inclosed 
of the Second instant from Coll: Todd, communicating 
the measures he had adopted in conjunction with Colo: 


Clarke to procure such a Settlement contiguous to the 
Post which shall be taken as may not only strengthen the 
garrison occasionally, but be able to raise provisions for 
them, as the confirmation of these measures is beyond 
the powers of the Executive, it is my duty to refer them 
to the General Afsembly. it may be proper to observe 
that the grant of Lands to Colo. Todd was made on a 
supposition that the post would be taken on the North 
side of the Ohio, whereas I think it more probable it will 
be on the north side in the Lands lying between the 
Tanessee, Ohio, Mifisiffippi and Carolina boundary. These 
lands belong to the Chickasaw Indians, who from intelli- 
gence which we think may be relied on, have entered into 
a war with us. 

The expenditures of the Illinois have been deemed 
from some exprefsions in the act establishing that 
county not subject to the examination of the board of 
Auditors as the Auditing these accounts is very foreign 
to the ordinary office of the Council of State, would 
employ much of that time and attention which at present 
is called to objects of more general importance, and as 
their powers would not enable them to take into consid- 
eration the justice and expediency of indemnifying Col. 
Todd for his lofses and services, as desired in the enclosed 
Letter from Him, of the thirteenth instant, they beg 
leave to submit the whole to the consideration of the 
General Assembly — I have the honor to be with great 
respect & esteem. Sir, Your most obedient, & most hum- 
ble servant. 

John Dodge, Indian Agent, to Gov. Jefeerson: 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 367. 

August 1st, 1780, Fort Jefferson. 
Sir: — I think it my indispensable duty to lay before 
you a true state of our situation in this Country since my 


arrival, which probably may throw some lights on the 
various reports which may reach you through channels 
not so well acquainted with its real wants as I am. 

On my arrival at the Falls of the Ohio, Col. John Todd 
gave me instructions to proceed to Kaskaskies, in order to 
take charge of the goods when arrived, which were pur- 
chased by M. Lindsay for this department, with farther 
orders to divide them into two parcels, one of which for 
the troops, and the other to be disposed of to our friendly 
indian allies: considering it better to sell them on reason- 
able [terms] than dispose of them in gifts; Horses and 
ammunition being articles much wanted for the Troops, I 
contracted for and received a quantity of lead and some 
horses before the arrival of the goods, and having discre- 
tionary-powers, was constrained to accept of orders drawn 
on me for provisions which could not otherwise be obtained. 
Since the goods came into my hands, the troops and In- 
habitants at this place not having received the expected 
supplies from Government, and being well assured that 
without some timely relief the post and settlement must 
be evacuated, I was also constrained at divers times to 
issue quantities of the goods intended to be disposed of 
to our Indian Allies, in order to furnish them with the 
means of subsistence. 

The few troops that are now here are too inconsiderable 
to guard themselves: nor are the inhabitants much better, 
notwithstanding they remain in great spirits in expectation 
of relief from government, -and have with great bravery 
defeated a very large party of Savages who made a regular 
attack on the village, at daybreak on the morning of the 
17th ult. 

Col. Clark has divided his few men in the best manner 
possible so as to preserve the Country, the apprehension 
of a large body of the enemy in motion from detroit tow- 
ards the falls of Ohio, has called him there with what men 


he could well spare from this Country, before he had well 
breathed after the fatigues of an expedition up the Missis- 
sippi — and Col. Crockett not arriving with either men or 
provisions, as was expected, has really involved both the 
troops and settlers in much distress, and greatly damped 
the spirits of industry in the latter, which till lately was 
so conspicuous. I see no other alternative, from the pres- 
ent appearance of our affairs, but that the few goods I 
have left, after supplying the troops, must all go for the 
purchase of provisions to keep this settlement from break- 
ing up: and how I shall ever support my credit, or acquit 
myself of the obligations I have bound myself under, to 
those of whom I have made purchases for the troops be- 
fore the arrival of the Goods, I know not. Our Credit is 
become so weak among the French inhabitants, our own, 
and the Spaniards upon the opposite side of the Missis- 
sippi, that one dollar's w^orth of provision or other supplies 
cannot be had from them without prompt payment, were 
it to save the whole Country; by which you will perceive 
that without a constant and full supply of goods in this 
quarter to answer the exigencies of Government, nothing 
can ever be well affected but in a very contracted manner. 
I observe that the distance the settlers, who come in 
general to this Country, have to travel, impoverishes them 
in a great degree. They come at the expense of their all, 
in full hopes and expectations of being assisted by Govern- 
ment. Were these hopes cherished and supplies of neces- 
saries of all kinds furnished 'them in the manner of the 
neighboring Spaniards, to be paid in produce, such as 
might answer for the troops or for exportation, many good 
consequences would be attendant, emigrants, on such 
encouragement, would flock to us in numbers, instead of 
submitting to the Spanish Yoke; the principal part of their 
new settlements would join us; all those from the Natchez 
in particular only wait the encouraging invitation to re- 


move themselves and their property to our settlement, 
preferring the mildness of our laws to the rigours of the 
Spanish, which they detest, notwithstanding their great 
offers. Such encouragement would be a spur to industry 
which would never die. The troops would, in a little time, 
be solely furnished in provisions by our settlers, and in 
process of time, a valuable trade might be opened with 
the overplus. 

These hints I beg leave to offer to your own better 
judgement, conscious that if they are worthy of notice you 
will direct their proper uses. 

I have got a party of the friendly savages of the Kas- 
kaskie tribe to hunt and scout for us; they are of singular 
service, as the provisions in store are totally exhausted, 
and indeed their hunting, tho' it may afford an useful, yet 
it is a very precarious supply. 

As to the general disposition of these Indians in alliance 
with us, it appears at present to be very peaceable; but as 
poverty is always subject to temptation, I fear their good 
intentions may be seduced by those who have it more in 
their power to supply their wants, being well convinced of 
the necessity of having proper supplies for them, which 
will not only keep them in our interest, but even afford us 
a very beneficial traffic. 

The bearer of this travels to the Falls of Ohio, thro' the 
wood. I am uncertain what the fate of my letter will be, 
as I know he has a dangerous and tedious journey before 
him; however, by the next opportunity I shall do myself 
the honor of writing to your Excellency a few more of my 
observations, begging leave once more to remark the neces- 
sity of keeping at all times full supplies of goods in this 
remote quarter, in order to forward the service of Govern- 
ment, encourage the settlement of the frontiers, supply our 
troops with necessaries, provisions, &c., and finally open a 
very profitable and extensive trade in little time. 


Forgive the freedom of my remarks, which you will 
please to do me the honor to correct. 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's 

most obedient and most humble servant, &c., &c. 

Col. John Todd, Jnr., to Gov. Jefferson: 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 393. 

Nov. 30th, 1780, Lexington, Ky. 

May it please your Excellency: — We have been for some 
time past & are still dreading an Invasion from the neigh- 
boring Northern Indians. Intelligence by the way of St. 
Vincent informs us that late in Oct. a great number of 
Indians & English were at the late-destroyed Shawnese 
Towns waiting at the rise of the water to make a Descent 
either against the Falls or this place. I have ordered upon 
Duty part of the militia of this County (Fayette) at three 
of the most exposed forts, and are purchasing up a quan- 
tity of Corn. The people seem fond at present to sell to 
the Country, & Corn will be almost the only article which 
Government may expect from this Quarter. I expect to 
procure between one & two Thousand Bushels by giving 
Certificates to be settled by the Auditors, or agreed upon 
by the Commissary, for 40 or 50 £ pr. Barrell, or 2/6 hard 
money. I hope I have not acted amiss in this Respect, 
altho' I -have no Instructions. As the Assembly at last 
session recommended the plan, laid by the several County 
Lieutenants & there is a Certainty of a vigorous attack 
next Spring, I conclude that a delay for Orders is unnec- 
essary. The Indians are annoying us every Week in 
small parties. Two small detachments of militia are now 
in pursuit of some who stole Horses two nights ago from 
McConnells' Station. 

A Cargoe of Goods, I have heard is arrived at Fort 


Jefiferson, for the use of the State, said to be consigned 
by Mr. Pollock to myself as Co Lieutenant of Illinois. I 
propose writing to Capt. Dodge to store them up until 
further orders from [your] Excellency as soon as I shall 
have an opportunity & the Report shall be authenticated. 

I hope to be excused in expressing my Desires that 
Your Excellency may have in contemplation an Early 
Expedition next Spring against our Savage neighbors. 
I will venture to assure you, that any Orders which may 
tend to that purpose will be executed with the greatest 
alacrity by Officers & Men. Capt: Quirk, I hear is on 
the the way with 30 or 40 men & I can hear nothing from 
Col: Crockett. 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest Respect Your 
Excellencys' most obedt & humble Servant, &c., &c. 

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Gov. Jefferson. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 460. 

January 24th, 1781, LEXINGTON, Ky. 
May it please your Excellency: — -I reed, the enclosed 
letters a few days ago; as they contain some matters of 
Consequence, I transmit them just as I receive them. 
They are written with a freedom which spare no charac- 
ter, ifc may with additional Letters which I expect you 
have rec'd, threw light upon our situation in Illinois. 
Winston is Commandt. at Kaskaskia. McCarty a Captain 
in the Illinois Regt, who has long since rendered himself 
disagreeable by endeavoring to enforce Military Law upon 
the Civil Department at Kohos. The peltry mentioned 
by Winston as purloined or embezzled by Montgomery, 
was committed to their joint care by me in Nov: 1779, & 
from the Circumstance of Col: Montgomery's taking up 
with an infamous Girl, leaving his wife & flying down 


the River, I am inclined to believe the worst that can be 
said of him, being so far out of the Road of Business I 
cannot do the State that Justice I wish by sending down 
his case immediately to the Spanish Commandants in the 

A late Letter informed your Excellency of my Design 
of laying some Beef »Sc Corn in store for the Expedition 
planned last year. I expect to get 30 or 40 thousand 
Weight of Beef k two or three thousand Bushels of Corn 
on Better Terms then will be got anywhere in this Country. 

A Prisoner, Martin Wistill taken spring was a year, at 
Wheeling by the Shawanese, tow weeks ago left his party 
being 7 Shawanese, about half a mile from Bryants Fort 
as they were stealing Horses. He says the Shawanese 
have built 4 Block Houses at Logan's Town 12 miles 
beyond the Pickaway: that they are much distressed for 
want of provisions and are keen for making an attack 
next Spring, upon the Kentucky settlements — that Black- 
fish & Logan are dead, kc. I am uneasy lest Crockett 
should not arrive timeously at Licking, k many of our 
settlers seem desirous to fly immiediately to the South 
side of Kentucky lest he should not. * * * 

I have the Honor to be with Greatest Respect Your 
Excellency's Most Obedient »l*c humb servt. 

Rich'd McCarty "To John Todd, Esq." 

Prom "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 379. 
Enclosure in John Todd's letter, Jan. 24, 1781, to Gov. Jefferson. 

October 14th, 1780, Cascaskia. 
Sir: — When shall I begin to appolagize for the Differ- 
ent light and Oppinion, I saw and had of You when hear 
last Year, and now, the Spirit of a free subject that you 
inculcated thro' your better knowledge of things was hid 


to me. In short, Honour requires of me to render You 
the Justice you desarve, and at the same time to inform 
you the reason of my altering my notions of things. I 
then thought the Troops hear would be duly supported 
by the State, and the Legal expense for them paid to the 
people Justly. I had thought the Duty of an Officer who 
had any Command was to see Justice done his Soldiers, 
and that they had their Rights without wronging his 
Country. I then thought it was also his Duty to foresee 
and use all manner of economic in Laying up Provisions 
for these Soldiers, to carry on any Opperation that his 
supperiours should judge expedient to order him on, 
without any regard to private interests whatever, but for 
the Good of the State he served. I then never Immagined 
that an Agent would be sent hear to Trade in connection 
with a Private Person to Purchase the Certificates from 
the people at such rates which must appear scandulous 
c^ Dishonorable to the State. 

To the contrary of all which I am now convinced by 
occular Demonstration: in short we are become the Hated 
Beasts of a whole people by Pressing horses, Boats kc kc. 
Killing cattle, *^c kc, for which no valuable consideration 
is given: even many not a certificate, which is hear looked 
on as next to nothing. 

I have sent Col: Clarke, in an Extract from my Journal, 
the proceedings as far as I know, of one Col: De la 
Balme,* and his raising a Party to go against Detriot, Not 
being a Commander I cannot say whether he has proper 
authority so to do or not. 

* Augustin Moltin de la Balme, a Frencli cavalry officer of the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, offered his services to the colonies at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, and came to this country in 1776, bearing the highest testimonials 
and recommendations from Silas Deane and Benjamin Franklin, at Paris. 
He was appointed inspector-general of cavalry in the Continental army with 
the rank of colonel. In 1780, he came to the West to lead an expedition 
against Detroit, it being thought that his influence with the French in the 


The people have sent by him memorials to Congress or 
the French envoy at Philadelphia setting forth all the 
evils we have done. I think Government should be in- 
formed of this, as the people are now entirely allinated 
Agst us: he has told Indians, french Troops will be hear 
in the Spring. I have no right to find fault, or Blame 
my Supperiours, yet I have a right to see plain, and wish 
for the Credit of the State, that Government had eyes to 
see hear as Plaine as I do. 

I am Sir, with Esteem ^: consideration Your most obt 
A: hble servt *S:c ^:c. 

Rich'd Winston to Col. John Todd. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers, " Vol. I, page 380. 

Kaskaskias, October 24th, 1780. 

Dear Sir: — Yours by Mr. Lindsay was the last I had 
the Honour of receiving, since which no favourable oper- 
tunity has offered wherewith you could Expect to hear 
from me, untill Mr. William Gelaspies' departure, by whom 
I wrote you as fully as I could concerning this Country, 
and in Particular all that regarded your Department: all 
which I must think you have foreseen before you went off, 
the disagreeableness of which every thinking man would 
avoid, and of which I now send you a Duplicate, Together 
with some additions since that time. 

That State of Illinois is far from being in so easy a Way 
as might have been expected from the declarations of the 

Illinois would enable him to readily enlist a sufficient force. He obtained 
recruits at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Vincennes, to the number of one hun- 
dred or more, and had also a band of Indian warriors. With these he 
attacked and destroyed the post of Kekionga, on the Maumee River; but 
while encamped on the river Aboite, his party was surprised at night by the 
Miamis and utterly routed. La Balme was slain, and his papers, which were 
<|uite voluminous, were carried by. the Indians to the British commander at 
I>etroit, and are now among the Haldimand papers in the British Museum. 

E, G. M, 


Genl: Assembly, or had their Officers a Little occonom}' — 
Concerning which the majistrates did remonstrate, which 
Remonstrance was Treated as Insolence and Imperti- 
nence, for having dared to remonstrate against their 
ruinous proceedings I wish all may be looked into: in the 
hopes of which, all is on Record. 

As to the Peltries which you left with Colonel Mont- 
gomery and me, they were taken out of my hands, and I 
am left Behind hand for fifteen Packs — how I will or may 
be Indemnified I know not — Colonel Montgomery says 
that his estate is Sufficient to pay a great deal more I 
wish it may be so) I was by force obliged to give up, as I 
could not content with Bayonetts for a thing that is not 
my own. 

I refer you to Mr. Lindsay, concerning the Goods pur- 
chased by him at New Orleans, they are now in the 
Pessession of him and the Illustrious Captain Dodge. I 
wish Government may gett a satisfactory acct. of them, 
yet I doubt it — this part of the world is too far from 
Government to call people to acct before it is too late — 
there is great Strides Taken for to make money at any 
rate — as to our Civil Department 'tis but in an Indiferent 
way ever since the Military has refused their prison, for 
which we offered to pay very handsomely and since which 
They Stretch greatly to bring the Country under the 
Military rod and throw of the Civil Authority. So fond they 
are to be medling with what is not within their Power. 
There is strange things carried on in this place — Colonel 
Montgomery is gone from here, with Brooks and Familt 
(thank God) — Capt: Brashears if Married to Brookes' 
Daughter, consequently has quit the service and gone with 
the rest: Col: Montgomery, on the day before his Depart- 
ure did Endeavor to settle the Peltrie fund with — In 
which he failed, and Besides the Drafts b}' him drawn on 
me, and by me Accepted to the amount of Fifteen packs, 


he has fallen short Eleven Packs, and what the rest has 
been Expended in, is to be looked into by Higher Powers 

— there is no accts — receipts only for so many Packs, 
without saying for why or for what — Such is the proceed- 
ings of Col: Montgomery, who left this 19th inst. and 
Carried with him Large Quantities of Provisions, Boats 
deeply loaden, besides Plve Black Slaves, for all which 
the Publick fund has suffered. Since the arrival of this 
Captain Bentley, there has been nothing Butt discord and 
disunion in the place — he has left no stone unturned to 
I^^xtinguish the Laws of the State, and to revive the 
Heathen Law, being well accustomed to Bribes and P^nter- 
tainments. Government ought to regulate the Trade as 
there are many abuses Committed under Military sanction 

— there Passed this way a Frenchman, called himself 
Colonell de la Balme,* he says, in the American Service — 
I look upon him to be a Mai Content, must disgusted at 
the Virginians, yet I must say he done some good— he 
pacified the Lidians. he was received by the Inhabitants 
Just as the Hebrews would receive the Masiah — was con- 
ducted from the Post here, by a large Detacht of the In- 
habitants as well as different Tribes of Indians — he went 
from here against Detroit Being well assured that the 
Indians were on his Side — Gott at this Plase and the 
Kahos about fifty Volunteers — and are to randezvous at 
Ouia. Capt: Duplasi from here, went along with him to 
Lay before the French Embasador all the Greivance this 
Country labours under by the Virginians, which is to be 
strongly backed by Monsieur de la Balme — tis the general 
Opinion, that he will take Baubin the Great Partizan at 
Miamis, and from thence to Fort Pitt — this is all that I 
can say, only that he passed about one Month here, with- 
out seeing Col: Montgomery, nor did Montgomery see 

• See note on page 337. 


It Being so long a time Since we had any news from 
you, we Conclude therefrom that Government has given 
us up to do for Ourselves the Best we can, until such time 
as it pleases Some other State or Power to take us under 
their Protection — a few lines from you would give some 
of us great satisfaction, yett the Generality of the People 
are of Opinion that this Country will be given up to 
France — Be that as it will, a Line from you, will add much 
to the happiness of. 

Dear Sir, Your Most Humble and Obedt Servant &c &c. 

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Gov. Jefferson. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. I, page 481. 

Lexington, Ky., February ist, 1781. 

3Iay it please your Excellency: — Accounts from all Quar- 
ters lead us to expect vigorous measures from our Enemies 
the next Campaign. I have just received Duplicates of 
Letters sent from our Officers of Illinois to others at 
Louisville, which informs that the Spanish & American 
Ilinois Settlements are preparing defensively for heavy 
attacks. The original Letters I hear are sent. 

On conferring with Col: Bowman's & Trigg, We con- 
cluded it expedient to send 150 men to Garrison the Mouth 
of Licking, until Crockett shall arrive, which we shall 
expect weekly. We apprehended the expence wd be 
less to governinent that to wait until the Enemy arrive at 
our settlements, ^: better Conduce to the security of the 

[Sends recommenditions for Certain Officers — asks for 
some Blank Commissions, and assures him no abuses shall 
follow. There are vacancies for other officers, whose rela- 
tive ranks are not yet settled.] 

342 early chicago and illinois. 

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Gov. Jefferson. 

From "Calender of \'irginia State Papers," \'ol. II, page 44. 

Lexington, Kv., April 15th, 1781. 

May it please your Excellency: — Your letter of 24 Dec: 
as also that of the 19th Jany: last inclosing sundry papers 
came safely to hand a few days ago. By the last Accounts 
I can procure from Jefferson and Lincoln, the Militia of 
the whole three Counties at present amount to about 1050 
— Fayette 156 — Lincolon 606 — Jefferson 300 — I have just 
made a Draft of 78 from this county for Col: Clark, eV: if 
the other Counties draft proportionally your demand will 
be fully satisfied. 

I hear nothing as yet of Col: Clark, but I conceive I 
have just cause of expostulating with him on acunt of this 
County, its true state being probably unknown to your 
Exeellency when the Draft was required to be propor- 
tioned to the militia — Exposed at every Fort, »^ weak- 
ened by daily removals of its Strength to the South Side 
of Kentucky, we are scarcely able to keep our Forts. 
Should Colo: Clark take his Rout by the Shawnese 
Nation, all cause of complaint must cease, as the Enemy 
will thereby be drawn off from our Forts. 

Being unable just now to spare Labourers ^: Guards at 
a distance from our Forts, for making Canoes. I have sent 
Mr. Lindsay to Lincoln for Assistance, which I make no 
doubt of procuring. I fear I shall meet with some diffi- 
culties in conveying the Stores at Lexington »!s: Bryants 
to the Canoes, for want of Horses, ours being nearly all 
taken by the Indians >lv: Col: Bowman does not prove so 
friendly as I think he ought to be in gi\'ing me necessary 

Our circumstances have received so material a change 
within twelve months that a draft of 18 Militia for the 
Continental Army w'd be singularly oppressive upon Fay- 


ette or Jefferson. Happy sh'cl we be ^t readily would we 
spare them, if our situation were but as the Legislature 
expected. There is scare one fort in the county but once 
a month seems upon the eve of breaking for want of men 
to defend it. Such residents as had most property and 
Horses to remove their effects, have retreated to Lincoln. 
One half of the remainder are unable to Remove. We 
have no tax Commissioner in the County & almost noth- 
ing to tax. All which circumstances plead I hope in 
Excuse sufficiently for the militia at present. Whenever 
our circumstances will admit of it, the people will, I'm 
satisfied enlist voluntarily in the Continental Army, from 
a genius they possess for war, as well as the greatness of 
the Bounty. * "'•' 

I inclose you a letter from Mr. Pollock — I still receive 
complaints from the Illinois, that department suffers I 
fear thro' the Avarice & Prodagality of our Officers: they 
all vent complaints against each other — I believe our 
French friends have the justest grounds of dissatisfaction. 

I have the Honor to be, with the greatest Respect Your 
Excellency's most obedient and very humble Servant. 

Col. J(jhn Todd, Jr. to the Governor of Virginia. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," Vol. II, page 562. 

Lexington, Ky., October 21st, 1781. 
May it please your Excellency: — I expect you will, long 
before this reaches you, have an acct, of our proceedings 
in this Country, by Letters from Genl: Clarke sent by 
Major Crittenden. After so much assistance given to our 
Country by Government to enable us to act either offen- 
sively or defensively: after so much money expended up 
on the Western Frontiers, I feel desirous and anxious to 
remove any censures that our little Country may possible 


labour under in the opinion of your Excellency »Sc the 
world. I do not pretend to know, to whom the failure in 
the intended Expedition is owing, but the officers & men 
of these counties have persevered in rendering all possible 

By letters from your Excellenc}''s predecessor we were 
led to expect an early expedition. 500 men with canoes 
kc were required from these Counties to be at the Falls 
by March last. The men required were drafted *^' set 
apart for the Expedition & the canoes chiefly made, 
during the course of the spring & summer the Drafts nec- 
essarily decreased. At a meeting of the Field Officers at 
Louisville summoned on Genl: Clarke's arrival the, begin- 
ning of September, we found the strength of the three 
Counties to amount to only 760 men. We offered the 
General two thirds of them, if he chose to go an Expedi- 
tion, but rather advised him to proceed in garrisoning the 
Ohio upwards, agreeably to a recommendation of the 
Assembly, or at least to attempt nothing more than a 
small Expedition up the Miami, it was our opinion, if 
but one Garrison sd. be built, it sh'd be at the mouth of 
Kentucky as the most valuable post. If there sh'd be 
afterwards troops to spare, another sh'd be at the mouth 
of Licking opposite the big Miami, at Lawrence's Creek 
or Limestone Run: but we seemed unanimous that the 
mouth of Kentucky, in a war with the Western & Lake 
Indians, was a post of the utmost consequence. The 
sentiinents of Genl: Clarke were different from ours in 
this Respect. He imagined the Falls to be a Post of the 
first Importance, being as he always expressed it, the Key 
of the Country. 

As I wish to see military service always properly hus- 
banded, I beg leave to offer a few reasons to your excel- 
lency, to show that keeping our principal post at the Falls 
is injudiciously wasting of our strength. 


1st. The situation of the mouth of Kentucky is more 
in the road of the enemy in their war Excursions to any 
part of this Country, than any part of the Ohio below 
that place, a few Settlements in Jefferson County only 

2ndly. The River Kentucky wd. afford a ready and 
cheap transportation of provisions which so abound in 
the upper Settlements, whereas if the main army staid at 
the Falls, an out-post at the Mouth of Kentucky wd. 
always kept close in Garrison, & being in continual terror 
could afford no protection towards transporting the pro- 
visions & rather be a trap for the exposed watermen. 

3dly. The Mouth of Kentucky must be much health- 
ier than the Falls, being free from the stagnated pools 
which overspread the flat lands near the Falls & which 
€veryyear kill or incpaacitate for service great numbers of 
our soldiers. 

To say that the Falls is the Key to this Country, seems 
to me unintelligible. It is a strong Rapid, which may in 
an age of commerce, be a considerable obstruction to the 
navigator, but as we have no trade, we neither need, nor 
have any keys to Trade. If it be understood in a Military 
sense, I think it a mistaken appellation, as the Enemy can 
& do pass with as little molestation just above the Falls 
& just below the Falls, as they could on any other part of 
the River. 

On parting with Genl: Clarke we expected to furnish 
assistance in building the Garrison at the Mouth of Ken- 
tucky from the Militia, but expected it to be built princi- 
pally by the Regulars & wholly garrisoned by them, 
since which a Requisition has come to Colo: Logan and 
myself to furnish Tools and build the Garrison and after- 
wards defend it by men drawn from the Body of our mili- 
tia until he sh'd have Leisure to relieve them, which we 
are satisfied wd. not happen in any short time. 


On consulting with Col: Logan we concluded to defer 
building the Garrison, because we had no intrenching 
Tools, no professed Engineers, no money & we conceived 
it to belong to men who draw constant pay to garrison it. 
The result of our consultation we sent to the General, 
with a promise to lay the matter before your Excellency 
or the General Assembly. If the State had no troops on 
pay, we should have no cause to remonstrate, but when 
they have troops, and those Troops kept in the more 
interior & secure posts: when so much has already been 
expended: to augment the Expence by putting the militia 
on duty at a place distant from 60 to 120 miles from home, 
we conceive to be impolitick & contrary to the opinion of 
your Excellency, to whom we submit the matter. 

A Recommendation for Justices will be handed your 
Excellency by our delegates also for several militia officers. 
If it is not inconsistent with the practice, I would wish 
for a few Blank Commissions to be sent to the Court. 
Owing to so great a distance from the Seat of Govern- 
ment, officers loose generally half a year in the date of 
their commissions. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest Respect — 
Your Excellency's most ob't & very h'ble Serv't. 

*Col(j: John Todd to Gov: Jefferson. 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers," VoL HI, 130. 

Lexington, Fayette Co., Ky., April 15th, 1782. 
May it please your Excellency: — The Inhabitants of 
Fayette County have been so harrassed this spring by the 

* Accompanying this letter is a well-drawn plan of the Fort, and account 
current of cost of building— with description thereof as follows : " Laid down 
from a Scale of 20 feet to the Inch— 80 feet in the clear— walls 7 feet thick 
of Rammed Dirt, inclosed with good Timbers 9 feet high only, from 4 feet 
upwards 5 feet thick— The Top of the Wall is neatly picketed 6 feet High, 
proof against Small Arms— Ditch 8 feet wide and between 4 & 5 feet deep. 


Indians, that I was for some time apprehensive that the 
whole country w'd be evacuated, as Panicks of that Kind 
have proved very catching, and the fate of the neighbor- 
ing garrisons at Licking last year was fresh in their 
minds — The only plan I could devise to prevent it & 
sufficiently secure the provisions laid up at Bryants & this 
place, was to build a new Fort upon a very advantageous 
situation at this place & make it proof against Swivels 
& small Artillery, which so terrify our people. I laid off 
the Fort, upon the simplest plan of a Quadrangle & 
divided the work equally among four of the most push- 
ing men, with a Bastion to each authorizing them to 
employ workers from this & the neighboring Stations & 
assuring them of their pay myself On the Faith of such 
assurances considerable sums of money have been lent 
& advanced to the workmen, so that the Avork in about 
20 Days has been nearly completed in a workmanlike 
manner. The Gate is nearly finished & the magazine 
contracted for. The whole Expence amounts to £11,- 
341. lOs, as will appear by the account herewith Sent. It 
is in vain for me to assure your Excellency that Diligence 
and Economy has been used in this Business, as the Work 
so abundantly proves it. I believe four times the expence 
never before made for the Publick a work equal to this. 
An Emulation among the overseers, & Rewards in Liquor 
to the men proved powerful Incentives to Industry. 
Being a charge of an uncommon nature, I thought proper 
to present it to your Excellency & the Council, being 
better Judges of the Necessity & Expediency of the Work 
than the Anditors, who are probably unacquainted with 
the Circumstances of this Country. By either of the 
Delegates your Excellency may have an opportunity of 
transmitting the money — I have the Honor to be, with 
the greatest respect, your Excellency's mo: obedient & 
humble Servant. 


Board of Commissioners to Benjamin Harrison, 

Governor of Virginia, concerning Col. John 

Todd Junior's accounts, etc. 

From the oritjinal in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va. 

Jefferson County, Feb. 17th, 1783. 
Sir: — The l-5oard of Commissrs. wrote the 230! of De- 
cember in return to your Excellency's favours of Octobr. 
1 6th, & Novn. 4th. In compliance with your orders, we 
have diligently searched all the papers in our possession 
that would throw light on the nature of the Bills in Mr. 
Pollock's hands, yet remain much in the dark, as Colo. 
Todd's books & accounts are suposed by the Executor to 
be some where in the Interior parts of Virginia, and he 
can only lay before us some detached papers, amongst 
which we find a letter from the Exective, dated in Coun- 
cil Williamsburg, August 20, 1779. In which the Honble. 
the Lt. Governor, acknowledges the receipt of several 
letters from Colo. Todd by Colo. Slaughter of the ist & 2d 
of July, 1779, which were laid before the council who were 
pleased with the contents, and approved Colo. Todd's con- 
duct and plan for supporting the credit of the paper money, 
but that it must be submitted to the assembly who alone 
can give it efficacy. That the eight draughts Colo. Todd 
mentions have not been presented, but shall be duly 
attended to, as the gentlemen to whom they are payable 
are highly desirous of the grateful attention of the Gov- 
ernment. The Board likewise found a Peltry account 
amongst Colo. Todd's papers, by which it appears we 
purchased a quantity of Peltry from Mr. Beauregard some 
time in the fall of the year 1779, amounting to i;2 1,000, 
for which it is probable he drew bills to the amount. The 
peltry by this account seems to be paid to sundry per- 
sons. Colo. Montgomery's certificate & information to 
the board, likewise accompanies this. On the whole as 


no bills of Colo. Todd's drawing have appeared before us, 
nor are mentioned in the list transmitted to us, we imagine 
the bills in Mr. Nathan's possession may probably be for 
the above purchase, but as we are not favoured either with 
the amount or date of these bills, and no direct light can 
be got here, we cannot be positive. On the supposition 
that the bills were given at that time and on that account, 
the Commissioners have to observe that 210 packs of 
Peltry cost the state 2 livres per lb, and that at the time the 
purchase was made — Peltry and silver were nearly on a par, 
as it appears. Colo. Todd is said to have given a high 
price for the Peltry, allowing three livres per lb., which is 
50 p. ct. higher than it generally is, shews the purchase 
was made with depreciated paper money, at a little more 
than five & a half for one, if the Bills in question were 
drawn on the above accounts the Commissers. think they 
should be taken up at the above discount, but the Board 
wish to refer your Excellency to Colo. Todd's letters of 
the I & 2d July, 1779, which we suppose lodged in the 
Council chamber, to elucidate the affair, as we can not 
meet with copies of them. 

The Board have finished Capt. George's draughts on 
Mr. Pollock in favour of Capt. Barbour, but not thinking 
it prudent to trust the papers relative thereto by this con- 
veyance, they hope your Excellency will dispence with 
the principles, they went on till they have an opportunity 
of laying the papers before the executive. As no invoices 
were produced either by Capt. George or Capt. Barbour, 
the Board affixed the prices to the cargo delivered at Fort 
Jefferson from the best lights they could get, at seven 
thousand five hundred & Eighty eight Dollars, one liver ^ 
as the prime cost at New Orleans, on which the Board 
allowed two hundred & twenty five p. Ct. advance for the 
cargo delivered at Fort Jefferson, amounting in the whole 
to Twenty four thousand six hundred and sixty one 


dollars four livers, Six sous, I^ght deniers including all 
expenses. We have not yet closed Genl. Clark's accounts 
as we find them so connected with the other accounts, 
both the Quarter Master's and Commissary's as well as 
the ofiicers, that we could not finish them before we had 
a general view of the whole, we will be able to settle his 
in ten days. To examine all the Accounts minutely will 
take up a great deal of time, perhaps more than the 
Executive can imagine, as double receipts have always 
been taken for sums paid, the vouchers require to be 
listed alphabetically to prevent double entries. None of 
Mr. Pollock's bills he presented for payment have ap- 
peared before the board, but one, of Jan'y ist, 1781, for 
five thousand dollars which appears to be for part of the 
same cargo Capt. George purchased from Capt. Barbour 
and was a second bill, and is considered as part of 24661, 
Syi allowed as above. 

By depositions it appears these Bills drawn by Wm. 
Lynn, in 1778, were for goods purchased by Lynn on his 
own acct. at Kaskaskias & Mesuri, and ought not to be 
charged to the state. It likewise appears that Robt. 
Elliot's draughts and the invoices of goods shiped on 
Acct. and at the risk of the United States, but charged to 
the state of Virginia by Mr. Pollock was in consequence 
of the cargo being lost in the Mississippi, and some of 
the articles that were saved from the wreck being made 
use of by the troops in the Illinoise. Inventories of the 
whole cargo and what was saved & applied to the use of 
the troops are copying, but as we have not fully examined 
the affair we defer giving our opinion in it. The Board 
informed your Excellency in theirs of ye Dec. 23, that an 
I'Lxpress was sent to Kaskaskias to which they had a re- 
turn last evening, informing them they might expect some 
of their principle inhabitants would wait on them with the 
unsettled accounts, &c., in a short time. Mr. Carbonaux 


who will present this, is one of the inhabitants of Kaskas- 
kias and comes to get some private affairs settled but we 
suppose him principally a deputy to represent the confu- 
sion that country is in, which if not settled by this state, 
we aprehend he will proceed to Congress. None of the 
post mentioned in Your Excellencys favour of the i6th 
of Octr. are yet erected. The general we expect will lay 
before you his reasons for defering that business, an ad- 
dress from the civil and Military officers of Fayette praying 
us to report our opinion to Government accompanies this. 
We think could a fort be erected at or near the mouth 
of Limestone it would tend greatly to encourage the 
settling of that country, and that it should be garrisoned 
by a company of regulars aided by the Militia, & fur- 
nished with Flower from the neighborhood of Pitsburg. 
When we get a little more through the business we will 
inform your Excellence by express of our proceedings 
with such remarks on these bills which have been, pre- 
sented for payment and are not laid before us as may be 
necessary for the Executive to have, before we can return 
our whole proceedings. We are with great respect your 
Excellencys. Most obed't Humble Servts. 

To His Exellence WiLLM. Fleming, 

The Hon. Benjamin Harrison, Esq., T. Marshall, 

Govr. of Virginia. CALEB Wallace. 

Col. John Montgomery to the Hon. the Board 

OF Commissioners, for the settlement 

OF Western Accounts.* 

From "Calendar of Virginia State Papers, " Vol. Ill, page 441. 

February 22d, 1783, NEW HOLLAND. 
Gcntlevicn: — As I am sensible that many reports pre- 

* As the letters of Col. Todd of Jan. 24, 1781, and of Richard Winston 
of Oct. 24, 1780, enclosed therein, both printed above, reflect severely upon 


judicial to my character hath been spread by persons of 
an Evil disposition, and perhaps their character not known, 
may of course make some impression on you; and as my 
accts, are now on the carpit, I take the liberty of address- 
ing this short narrative to you, the Contents Being an un- 
deniable truth, I am in hopes will have the desired effect 
and disperse any suspitions you may have, originated by 
these Characters alluded to. In 1777, being ordered with 
my Company from Wholstons to the Kentucky Country 
for its defence, I remained there until the year following, 
when Col: Clark arrived at the falls of the Ohio with a 
body of Troops on his way to the Illinois. I Joined him, 
and on the presumption of our being Suckcessful, it was 
thought prudent to Establish a small Post at that place 
for the conveniency of a communication between the 
Illinois and Kentuckey Countries, after which we set out 
on our intended enterprise, and met with all the suckcess 
we could wish for, principally owing to the secrecy of our 
movements, after remaining in that country untill circum- 
stances appearantly permited our Return, I came of with 
the volunteers, having Instructions from Col: now Genl. 
Clark, to wait on his Excellency the Governor as soon as 
possiable with Letters and verbal messages, when I re- 
ceived Instructions to raise three hundred men and Join 
Genl. Clark as soon as possiable. raising the greatest part 
of the Troops, I proceeded down the tennisse river, after 
destroying the lower Cherokee Towns in concert with Col: 
Shelby's division. I proceeded on my rout and arrived 

Col. Montgomery, it seems but just to print also this letter containing his 
defence. John Montgomery, an Irishman, joined Col. Clark at the Falls of 
the Ohio, and accompanied him on his expedition to the Illinois. He com- 
manded the garrison of the fort at Kaskaskia after its surrender by the British, 
and .\ug. 5, 1779, as lieutenant-colonel of the Illinois battalion, was assigned 
to the military command of the Illinois by George Rogers Clark, colonel of 
the Illinois battalion and commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces in the 
western department. — e. c. m. 


at Kaskaskia the 29th of May, 1779. an Expedition 
being already planed, or rather a manouver to prevent the 
Enemy's taking the Field and Distressing the Frontiers, I 
was ordered to conduct the Troops by water to St. Vin- 
cent on the Wabash, Genl: Clark crossing by Land to 
to that post with a small escort, the appearance of a 
design of atacking the Enemy on the Lakes being kept 
up untill the aprentions of all danger of their attempting 
anything Capital that Season Vanished, a Garrison was 
ordered to be left at St. Vincenne. The body of the 
batalion marched back to the Mississippi to Garrison the 
Towns Kaskaskia and Kohas. Genl. Clark finding the 
Public interest required that he should reside at the Falls 
of the Ohio until provision should be made for the Insue- 
ing Campaign, I was ordered to take command of the 
Troops in the Illinois; make often reports of the State of 
the Department to Genl. Clark, and to be carefuU to have 
Expences of government as moderate as possible: draw- 
ing bills of exchange on him or the Treasury of Virginia 
for the payment of the Expences of the Troops, studying 
the general Interest of the State and Tranquility of the 
Inhabitants of the Different posts leting all kind of opres- 
sions be the last shift: this is the Substance of orders I 
received. L set out for Kaskaskia the 14th of August, 
and disposed of my Troops according to order, drawing 
Bills on the Treasurer for the suport of the Troops, after 
some time the Inhabitants refused to Take Bills drawn 
any other way than on Mr. Pollock of New Orleans or 
the Treasurer addressed to both which I was necessitated 
to do or suffer my troops to perish, not dareing, from the 
nature of my Instructions to Impress provisions, if to be got 
by any other mains on moderate Terms. What might have 
been Genl: Clark's views for giving Such orders I can't acct. 
for any other way than that of his views of future oppera- 
tions being such that he suposed it to be our interest to 


keep the Inhabitants attached to us by Every means in 
our power, knowing the influence they had over the minds 
of a great number of Savage Tribes. My Troops suffered, 
as the credit of the State fell: no payment being made 
for the Bills that was Drawn, and never haveing any goods, 
or other property in my possession to have purchased pro- 
visions, which was generally in Specie notes, which the 
vouchers to my accts. will best show. Bills I gave cash, 
for the recruiting Service was Depreciated. it required 
all the Industry we could possiable make use of to support 
ourselves, by hunting &c. in the Spring 1780, we were 
threatened with an Invasion. Genl. Clark being informed 
of it Hurreyed his departure with a small body of Troops 
to the Falls of the mouth of the Ohio, when he receiving 
other expresses from the Spanish Comm'dts and myself, 
luckily joined me at Cohos, time enough to save the coun- 
try from Impending ruin, as the Enimy appeared in great 
force within twenty four hours after his arrival, finding 
that they were likely to be disapointed in their Design, 
they retired after doing some mischief on the Span'h 
Shore, which would have prevented, if unfortunately the 
the high wind had not prevented the signals being heard, 
in a few days a number of prisoners and Disarters left the 
Enimy Confirming a report that a body of near thousand 
English and Indian Troops ware on their march to the 
Kentucky Country with a Train of artillery, and the 
Genl: knowing the Situation of that Country appeared to 
be alarmed and resolved to attempt to Get there previous 
to their arrival, at the same time he Thought it necessary 
that they Enimy was retreating up the Illinois River, 
should be pursued so as to atact their Towns about the 
time the might have been disbanded, distress them, con- 
vince them that we would retaliate and perhaps prevent 
their joining the British Emisarys again, previous to my 
knowledge of the above Resolution I had informed Genl: 


Clarke of my Desire of Leave of absence for some time, 
in order to return to my family, it was then he informed 
me of his resolution; and that the Publick Interest would 
not permit of my request being Granted, that I must take 
command of the Expedition to Rock River, while he 
would attempt to interrupt the army marching to Ken- 
tuckey, and if they got them before him Except the 
weakened the country too much he would raise an army 
and atempt to play them the same Game in the Miami 
country, as he hoped I would go towards Miskelemacknor, 
and if we Should be Tolerable sucksessfull and the busi- 
ness properly arranged, I might absent myself for four or 
five months in the fall or winter, after Given me Instruc- 
tions he left Kohos the forth of June with a small Escort 
for the mouth of the Ohio on his rout to Kentuckey. I 
immediately proceeded to the Business I was order'd and 
march'd three hundred and fifty men to the Lake open on 
the Illinois River, and from thence to the Rock river, 
Destroying the Towns and crops proposed, the Enimy not 
Dareing to fight me as the had so lately Been Disbanded 
and they could not raise a sufficient force, after return- 
ing, takeing every method in my power to regulate busi- 
ness, ] was resolved to return home, but after Deliberating 
some time, was convinced that the Risque by land was 
Great without a Guard, which our circumstances would 
not admit off, and that I could posabl}^ as soon or sooner 
return by Water than land, what might also induce me 
in a great measure to Take my rout by Orleans, was the 
probability of Recovering some deserters from the Span- 
ish Governor, and put a stop to that pernicious practice, 
which I in a great measure effected as that Gentlemen 
appeared willing to comply with any proposition in his 
power to promote our interest, finding that a passage to 
Virginia was not expected in a short time, I resolved to 
Return Emediately, and according to my resolution set 


out on the fifteenth of March and returned to my Com- 
mand the first day of May, 1781. the want of provisions 
obh'ged us to Evacuate Fort Jefferson the Eight of June 
& the Genl interest required my attention at the falls of 
the Ohio, when I arrived the second of July a few days 
before Genl: Clark, on my return from New Orleans, I 
was alarmed to find by some letters for Genl: Clark seting- 
forth many allagations and Instructions in consequence to 
the Comd's of Fort Jefferson. I was Emediately con- 
vinced that some malicious person in my absence had 
made reports much to my prejudice asserting that I had 
made large purchases pretendedly for the State and appro- 
priated them to my use, which is a palpable falsity, as it 
is well known that I never attempted anything that could 
give the least suspicion of such practices, of course these 
reports have originated from false Malitious persons so 
Common in the Western Country and so apt to be credited 
by persons that ought, and would despise them, could the 
know their charactar. You are sensible how fond some 
perticular classes of people are, of spreading reports pre- 
judicial to others, a low charactor, in the Eastern part of 
the state, he fits himself out, come to the fronteers, sup- 
poses on his rout, that although of an Inferior Class in 
his own neighborhood will be at least Equal to the first in 
the Country he is a going to push himself into Company 
and perhaps Gets kicked out, and Emediately makes a 
point of Exclaiming, not only for sake of Revenge, but is 
in hopes that strangers will view him as a man of conse- 
quence, but Sirs, you are too well acquainted with the 
world to make it necessary for me to say anything more 
on the Subject of such Characters. I flatter myself that 
you will at least find, that too great credit have been paid 
to party reports, and that officers zealous in the interest 
of their Country, that have sacrifised their all for it, have 
suffered by those very men, who not having virtue enough 


to step forth in its Defence, have maid their fortunes under 
the banner of those officers they wish to Destroy, no 
person but those that have been witnesses can have a just 
idea of the adress and Fatigues that it hath required to 
suport this Department that have been the Salvation of 
all our frontiers, and saved much blood and Treasure, 
always Labouring under every Kind of Difficualty, the 
the want of men, money and provision, and haveing not 
only to Counteract, the designs of a Powerful savage 
Tribe, incouraged by British Emissaries and others Equally 
Dangerous to the State. A duty I owe myself and Coun- 
try require that I should give you every information in my 
power which will always give me pleasure, whenever you 
call on me. 

I am Gent, with every sentiment of respect Your very 
Obedient Servant. 

Thom.^s Jefferson to Colonel Todd.-- 

From "Canadian Archives," Series 2, Vol. 17, p. 125. 

Williamsburg, March 19th, 1780. 

Sir: — Your Letter from the falls of Ohio, of Dec. 23d, 
came safely to hand. You mention therein that you have 
not in a twelvemonth received any Letters from hence, I 
know not what were written before the ist of June last, 
but since that time I have written several to you. 

The Expences attending the support of our Troops in 
the Illinois has obliged us to call them all to the south 
side of the Ohio, where our paper money is current. 

* The originals of this letter and one of the same date written by Thomas 
Jefferson to George Rogers Clark were intercepted on their way to the West, 
and sent to Major de Peyster, the British commandant at Detroit. He for- 
warded them to Gen. Haldimand at Quebec, who acknowledged their receipt 
July 6, 1780 and forwarded them to the Home Government. — "Canadian Ar- 
chives, Haldimand Collection. " — E. g. m. 


Hard money is not to be got here, and we find the diffi- 
culty of sending commodities to New Orleans, very great. 
The Draughts from yourself and Colonel Clarke on Pol- 
lock, those presented us by Le Gras and Lintot, others 
for about 50,000 Dollars presented by a Mr. Nathan from 
the Havannah, who took them up at New Orleans, being 
all claimed in hard money or commodities at the hard 
money price, have rendered us bankrupt there — for we 
have no means of paying them. 

Mr. Brusegard's bill for 30,000 dollars will be on a foot- 
ing with these. We \vill accept it. Promise payment, and 

make it, as soon as we shall be able. We have 

no bank in France, or any other Foreign Place. There 
being an absolute necessity of obtaining from New Orle- 
ans supplies of clothing and military stores for Colonel 
Clarke's men, we shall endeavour that our Board of Trade 
shall sdnd commodities there for that purpose. But to 
prevent the injury and disgrace of protested bills, we think 
that in future all bills must be drawn by them, in which 
case they will take care to make previous provision, for 
their payment. 

I am therefore to desire you hereafter to notify to us 
your wants, which shall be provided for as far as we are 
able, by bills from the Board of Trade, sent to you or to 
New Orleans. 

Provisions and all other articles, which our Country 
affords, will be sent on the south side of the Ohio. 

I must beg the favor of you to send me a list of all the 
bills you have at any time drawn on us, specifying where 
they are drawn in dollars, whether silver or paper dollars 
were intended, and if paper, at what rate of depreciation 
they were estimated; the known price of commodities in 
hard money or peltry will serve you as a standard to fix 
the rate of depreciation. 

We cheerfully e.xert ourselves to pay our debts, as far 


as they are just, but we are afraid of imposition, for which 
the rapid progress of depreciation has furnished easy 
means — yourself alone & Colonel Clarke can guard us 
against this by timely and full information in what man- 
ner your several draughts ought in justice to be paid. 

I am sorry you think of resigning your office in the 
Illinois, the withdrawing our troops from thence will ren- 
der the presence of a person of established authority 
more essential than ever. 

Your complaints concerning your allowance we think 
too well grounded and will lay them before the Assembly 
in May, who we doubt not will remove them, the other 
objections, I am in hopes you can get over. 

It would give us much concern should any necessity 
oblige you to leave that Country at all, and more especi- 
ally so early as you speak of. I am Sir, with great esteem 
your most humble servant. [Signed,] Thos. JefferSON. 

To Colonel ToDD. 

[Endorsed:] Copy of a Letter from Mr. Jefferson to 
Col. Todd, dated at Williamsburg, March 19th, 1780. 

In Govr. Haldimand's No. 57. 


Phillippe Frax<;ois de Rastel, Chevalier de Rocheiu.ave. 

A CERTAIN interest attaches to the name of Roche- 
blave as that of the last British commandant of the 
region known a centur)' or more ago as "the lUinois." 
His ofificial position and his relations to that region during 
the revolutionary period, upon which his correspondence, 
preserved in the Canadian archives, sheds much light, seem 
to render a brief sketch of his life an appropriate intro- 
duction to a selection from that correspondence. 

Philippe PVancois de Rastel, Chevalier de Rocheblave, 
was born in the village of Savournon in the old province 
of Dauphine, now in the department of the High Alps, 
in the southeast of France.* His father, the seigniorial 
lord of Savournon, was Jean Joseph de Rastel, Chevalier 
Marquis de Rocheblave.* The son entered the army 
as an officer in the French service and was placed upon 
the half-pay list in I748.f A desire for active employ- 
ment and for an opportunity to better his financial con- 
dition, it is probable, brought him to Canada in that 
year.ij: He acquired experience in Indian warfare, and 
was one of the officers who served under the brilliant 
partisan Charles de Langlade in I755,§ when he led his 
bands of western savages from the country about Lake 
Michigan to the rendezvous at Fort Duquesne. In the 

• Marriage Register, 1763. -Kaskaskia Parish Records, 
t Rocheblave to Germaine, Feb. 28, 1778.— "Canadian Archives." 
t Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 7, 1781.— Haldimand MSS., British 
Museum. § " Wisconsin Historical Society's CoUect'ns," III, 213; VII, 132. 


memorable defeat of Braddock which foUovvedj due more 
to Langlade than to any other man,* Rocheblave dis- 
tinguished himself and won the praises of his chief. 

One incident of that famous campaign, however, does not 
reflect credit upon the subject of this sketch. After the 
remnant of Braddock's force had fled, the French and 
Indians were busily engaged rifling the bodies of the dead 
which lay thick along the banks of the Monongahela. A 
young man of Langlade's party, of much enterprise and 
promise named La Choisie, discovered the body of a 
richly-dressed English officer, and Rocheblave, almost at 
the same moment, claimed that he had found it. La 
Choisie managed first to seize the well-filled purse, of the 
contents of which Rocheblave stoutly demanded a share, 
and they parted in no friendly way. The next morning, 
La Choisie was found assassinated, and the purse of gold 
was missing. While there was no direct evidence of Roche- 
blave's guilt, he was strongly suspected of the crime, and 
its shadow rested upon his name thenceforth.-j* 

It is stated that Rocheblave continued to serve in Lan- 
glade's command during most of his subsequent campaigns 
in the old French war.:|: And he appears to have seen 
other service as well. In August, 1756, the governor- 
general of Canada — Vaudreuil — writing to one of the 
French ministers, says, that Sieur de Rocheblave with 
another cadet, a corporal, a militiaman, and twenty Shaw- 
nee Indians knocked at the gate of a small fort, three 
leagues beyond Fort Cumberland, where there remained 
some families and thirty militia. He killed four English- 
men whom the Indians scalped, wounded three, who 
dragged themselves into the fort, and took three prison- 
ers.§ And in the following year, Vaudreuil writes to the 

* "Wisconsin Historical Society's Collections," VII, 132, 133. 

t Ibid, III, 215; VII, 132. : Ibid, III, 213. 

§ "New-York Colonial Documents," X, 435. 


home government that Rocheblave had returned with a 
prisoner taken on the banks of "the Potovvmak," three 
days' march from Fort Cumberland.* During these years, 
Rocheblave seems to have been one of the garrison of 
Fort Duquesne. 

Two years later, he was for a time one of the lieutenants 
of another "famous French partisan," as he is described 
by Sir William Johnson, Sieur Marin, who like Langlade 
was associated with the early history of what is now Wis- 
consin. In June, 1759, Marin led a party of about three 
hundred Delaware and Shawnee Indians, with the assist- 
ance of Rocheblave and three Canadians, from Fort Niag- 
ara "to insult Fort Pitt," as they said. This fortification, 
then recently erected by Gen. Stanwix upon the ruins of 
Fort Duquesne, was found to be in a poor condition for 
defence. It might easily have been captured, had more 
Frenchman taken part in the expedition, the Indians being 
of little use in an attack upon a fortified place. But there 
was no time to send for reinforcements, as the command- 
ant at Fort Niagara suddenly summoned his outlying 
parties to aid him against the British army under Gen. 
Prideaux and Sir William Johnson which was advancing 
to the investment of his position. Marin's command re- 
turned with all speed, joining on the way large reinforce- 
ments moving to the relief of Fort Niagara. In the battle 
fought under its walls, Marin shared in the French defeat 
and was one of the prisoners on that occasion.-(- Roche- 
blave had been left with one hundred and fifty men to 
guard the canoes and bateaux at an island above the Niag- 
ara portage. When the fate of the day was decided, the 
Frenchmen who escaped from the field retired to this 
place and the whole party proceeded to Detroit.:]: The 

* "New- York Colonial Documents," X, 581. 

+ "Wisconsin Historical Society's Collections," V, iiS. 

t "New-York Colonial Documents," \, 992. 



war practically ended with the defeat of Montcalm in 
1759, and for a few years thereafter we can not definitely 
trace Rocheblave. 

In 1762, there was in Louisiana an officer of the name 
among the officials of the French crovernment, and in later 
times one of the streets in New Orleans was named from 
this person.* On a map of the Mississippi, made about 
this period, is marked on the left bank of that river just 
below the English Turn, not far from New Orleans, "Hab- 
itation du Chevalier de Rocheblalie; ancieni^ Le Fort."-f* 
After 1762, this officer disappears from the Louisiana 
records, and it is possible that he is identical with the 
Illinois Rocheblave, who, in 1763, was placed upon the 
half-pay list of the French army:|: in recognition, it is pre- 
sumed, of his efficient services in the old French war. 

He probably came to Kaskaskia in the same year and 
established himself as a trader in that place. Here on 
April ir, 1763, in the old parish church, he was united in 
marriage to Michel Marie Dufresne, daughter of Jacques 
Michel Dufresne, officer of militia of that parish. The 
original entry with the signature of the parties, the wit- 
nesses, and the priest is still preserved in the marriage 
record at Kaskaskia. And, probably, because Rocheblave 
was still an officer in the French service, it is recited that 
written permission for the marriage had been given by 
Monsieur Neyon de Villiers, major commandant at the 
Illinois. De Villiers was one of seven famous brothers, six 
of whom laid down their lives in the service of the French 
king, and his graceful autograph appears at the foot of the 
record. § 

When the Illinois country was surrendered by France 

* Letter of Charles Gayarre, Dec. 24, 188S. 

-t E. Mease's notes on maps in Pitman's " European Settlements. " 

J Rocheblave to Germaine. — "Canadian Archives." 

§ Marriage Register, 1763. — Kaskaskia Parish Records. 


to Groat Britain in the fall of 1765, Roclieblave, as his 
opponents say, abandoned his property there, and pre- 
ferred the Spanish government to the British, taking the 
oath of allegiance thereto." At all events, he was in 
command at Sainte Genevieve on the Spanish side of the 
Mississippi in 1766, and engaged in certain legal proceed- 
ings there.i* In the following year, he was still Spanish 
commandant at the same place and was most tenacious of 
the rights of his catholic majesty even in ecclesiastical 
matters. When the good Father Meurin appeared at 
Sainte Genevieve, acting under the Roman catholic bishop 
of Quebec, Rocheblave declared "I know no English bish- 
op here, and in a post where I command I wish no eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction recognized except that of the arch- 
bishop of St. Domingo." He at once made a decree pro- 
scribing Father Meurin, and orders were issued for his 
arrest as a state criminal for recognizing a jurisdiction not 
admitted by Spain. A friend warned him of his danger, 
and he left Sainte Genevieve and crossed the river into 
British territory.:]: 

In 1770, Rocheblave became engaged in an altercation 
with Lieut.-Col. John Wilkins, then commanding for Great 
Britain in the Illinois country with headquarters at Fort 
Chartres. The strife between the two commandants waxed 
hot, and attracted the attention of Gen. Thomas Gage at 
New York, and of Don Alexandro O'Reilly at New 
Orleans, the commanders-in-chief in North America for 
Great Britain and Spain respectively. Rocheblave for- 
warded his correspondence with Wilkins, and a letter of 
complaint to his chief, the governor and captain-general 
for his catholic majesty of the province of Louisiana. He 
sent all the papers, together with a conciliatory letter and 

• Petition to Carlcton, April 10, 1777.— Haldimand Paper?, "Canadian 
Archives." + St. Louis City-Records. 

* Shea's " Life and limes of Archbishop Carroll," p. 120. 


a copy of his orders to the commanders of the several 
posts within his government intended to prevent the re- 
currence of such troubles, to the commander of the forces 
of his Britannic majesty in his American colonies. Gen. 
Gage replied in the same spirit, and, while he said it was 
not possible from the letters of Rocheblave and Wilkins 
to discover the merits of their controversy, he agreed with 
Don Alexandre in the expediency of putting a stop to 
these little disputes in the beginning to avoid their in- 
creasing to animosities. And in courtly phrase, he ex- 
pressed his ambition to follow Don Alexandre's example 
and to obey his commands on all occasions,* the humor 
of which, under all the circumstances, Don O'Reilly's 
Irish blood must have enabled him to enjoy. It does not 
appear what the precise difficulty was, but it is evident 
that Rocheblave was as prompt to oppose the British, in 
behalf of Spain, in things temporal, as in things spiritual. 

By what process this foe of Great Britain, who as a 
Frenchman had fought against her troops, and as a Span- 
iard had quarreled with her officials, was transformed into 
a subject of George the Third is a mystery. Nor is it 
known when the marvellous change took place. It was 
alleged against him that he never took the oath of allegi- 
ance and supremacy required of those who held office 
under the British crown.f However this may have been, 
Rocheblave returned to Kaskaskia some time between 
1770 and 1776, and posed as a British subject. 

Lieut.-Col. John Wilkins was followed in the command 
of the Illinois by Capt. Hugh Lord, who had at Kaskas- 
kia two companies of regulars and a few artillery-men. 
Maj.-Gen. Haldimand, who succeeded Gage in command 
at New York in June, 1773, was rather in favor of keep- 
ing these troops in the Illinois country. But Gen. Gage, 

* Gage to O'Reilly, May 16, 1770.— Haldimand Papers. 
+ Petition to Carleton. — Supra. 


who resumed command on his arrival at Boston in May, 
1774, feared, as the troubles with the colonies began to 
increase, that the detachment might be cut off and was 
inclined to order it eastward. Various circumstances pre- 
vented the accomplishment of this design until Sir Guy 
Carlton, the commander-in-chief in Canada, in whose 
jurisdiction the Illinois country was included, determined 
to carry it out. And after the disasters to the royal arms 
in 1775, when the soldiers of the colonies invaded Canada, 
he issued the necessary orders.* 

In the spring of 1776, Capt. Lord and his men departed 
to join the British forces by the way of Detroit and the 
lakes.-f- He) was instructed to entrust the administration 
of affairs to such person as he judged proper. He selected 
Rocheblave as his successor, and it is a proof of his con- 
fidence in him that he left his own family in Rocheblave's 
charge, and four years thereafter they were still with 
Madame Rocheblave.:]: Carleton wrote Hamilton, the 
British lieutenant-governor at Detroit, that the troops were 
withdrawn from the Illinois to avoid unnecessary expense, 
and that a salary of i^200 per year had been granted 
Rocheblave to have an eye to the king's interests in those 
parts, and to advise the government of whatever might be 
carrying on there against them, and that his appointment 
was deemed to have commenced May i, I776.§ And he 
wrote Lord George Germaine, the secretary of war, that 
he had employed Rocheblave to have an eye on the pro- 
ceedings of the Spaniards and the management of the 
Indians on that side; that his abilities and knowledge of 
that part of the country recommended him as a fit per- 
son ; and that he thought such a one necessary since the 
post which had been held upon the Mississippi had been 

* Rocheblave to Ceimaine, Jan. 22, 1778.— "Canadian Archives." 
t Carleton to Hugh Lord, July 19, 1776.— Haldimand Papers. 

* Madame de Rocheblave to Haldimand.— Haldimand MSS. 
§ Carleton to Hamilton, Sept. 15, 1777.— //;/(/. 


withdrawn.* Rocheblave naturally magnified his office, 
and considered that Capt. Lord had appointed him judge 
and commander of a vast country, and had in efifect in- 
structed him to continue to bestow upon the savages the 
presents ordinarily given in order to avoid alienating them, 
and that it was also committed to him to break up the 
designs and evil intentions of the Spaniards to say nothing 
of the rebellious colonists. He so informed the home 
government nearly two years after his appointment.-f* But 
however backward he was in advising his superiors of the 
extent of his authority, he lost no time in impressing it 
upon the people of the Illinois country. The French in- 
habitants were speedily taught to address him as comman- 
dant of all the British part of the Illinois, and with the 
most humble respect and submission, as did the residents 
of Peoria.^ The British inhabitants were less docile, and 
complained by petition to Carleton, that Rocheblave 
trampled upon their liberties, "despised Englishmen and 
English laws," acted both as counsel and judge, traded 
with the savages against his own edicts, and was partial to 
the French. § If one-half of their allegations were true, 
he certainly carried matters with a high hand and played 
the part of a despot. 

Still it is but fair to Rocheblave to say, that however 
unjust to the people, he seems to have been faithful to the 
government. And notwithstanding his previous, frequent 
changes of allegiance, he served the British crown during 
his stay at the Illinois with a zeal and persistence which 
obtained from his superior officers a quasi-recognition of 
his right to the positions he claimed. Even Sir Guy Carle- 
ton who so carefully limited his authority at the outset, a 

* Carleton to Germaine, Aug. 13, 1777. — "Canadian Archives." 
+ Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778. — Supra. 
X Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave. — Supra. 
§ Petition to Carleton. — Supra. 


few months later promised him an order authorizing him 
to call out the militia, which practically made him com- 
mandant,* and apparently paid no attention to the com- 
plaints against him. The home government made no 
objection to his assuming the title he coveted, and Haldi- 
mand, who succeeded Carleton as governor of Canada,. 
June 30, 1778, and with whom Rocheblave carried on an 
extensive correspondence after the capture of Fort Gage, 
always treated him as the former commandant at the 
Illinois, and in fact paid him his salary as such officer 
until some time in I783,'f* and also his expenses in that 
office.-f- Certainly he was untiring in his efforts to obtain 
information concerning the schemes of the Spaniards and 
colonists, and nothing pleased him better than to hold a 
solemn examination in the audience room of Fort Gage at 
Kaskaskia, usually at five o'clock in the morning, of some 
trader returning from a winter visit to a tribe with which 
the Spaniards at St. Louis had been tampering, or some 
refugee from the colonies bringing cheering but delusive 
tales of their probable return to their allegiance; and to 
send off an express with the depositions of such witnesses 
duly signed, sealed, witnessed and verified upon oath, to 
Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton at Detroit, or Sir Guy Carleton at 
Montreal. He was really, as he himself says, left in charge 
of a great province without troops, without money, and 
without resources. :|: And he accomplished much with very 
little means. His services were especially valuable in 
regard to the Indians among whom his military experience 
and long association with them as a French partisan gave 
him influence, and he kept the tribes in his neighborhood 
quiet, and the routes of the Ohio and Mississippi open for 
a considerable time by his personal cftbrts alone. 

* Carleton to Kocheblave, Oct. 28, 1776. — Haldimand Papers. 

+ Haldimand Papers. 

^ Kocheblave to Germaine, Feb. 28, 1778. — Supra. 


In fact, he decidedly preferred this kind of occupation; 
and this feeling, together with the lack of harmony be- 
tween himself and the British traders at Kaskaskia, in- 
duced him to earnestly entreat that an English lieutenant- 
governor might be sent to take his place, and he be de- 
tailed to take charge of Indian affairs.* He was equally 
anxious that at least a few troops should be sent to pro- 
tect the country, the importance of which he seemed to 
realize far more than any one else in the British service, 
except perhaps Gen. Haldimand who, had he succeeded 
Carleton in time, would probably have granted this re- 
quest. For after Clark's successful expedition, Haldimand 
expressed the opinion that had the two companies of regu- 
lars which he left at the Illinois when he commanded in 
New York, been left there they would have assured posses- 
sion of the country and prevented subsequent conse- 
quences.-f Rocheblave insisted, but to deaf ears, that the 
Illinois country if better known, would be one of the 
richest colonies which his majesty possessed, and that it 
would soon become the centre of communication between 
the colonists and the Spaniards by the way of the Beau- 
tiful River.:}: Carleton wrote Hamilton that it would be 
impracticable to send any troops to Rocheblave§ and none 
were ever sent him. 

But it was the financial rock upon which he split. Not- 
withstanding Carleton's strict limitation of his allowances 
to ;^200 a year and the cost of his expenses, || Rocheblave 
could not reconcile this petty sum with the dignity of his 
office, and came to grief accordingly. His expenditures 
may not have been altogether upon government account, 

* Rocheblave to Hamilton, May 8, 1777.— "Canadian Archives." 
+ Haldimand to de Bude (?), June 17, 1779.— Haldimand Papers. 
■!; Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778. — Sie/ra. 
§ Carleton to HamiUon, May 16, lyjj.—Su/ira. 
\ Ibid, Sept. 15, 1777. — Supra. 


but doubtless in part they were, and his surprise and grief 
at the non-payment of his modest drafts for twelve and 
thirteen hundred pounds are almost pathetic, albeit some- 
what humorous. Carleton had notified him in May, 1777, 
that he must not incur any further expense, but could draw 
for his salary only which was all that Hamilton was author- 
ized to accept, but he paid no attention to this.* Then 
finding that he could extract nothing from Hamilton or 
Carleton, he addresses himself directly to Lord George 
Germaine at Whitehall, and assures him that his expendi- 
tures have always savored more of the niggardliness of a 
private individual than what could have been expected 
from a great power like Great Britain; that he did receive 
orders to incur no more expense upon government account, 
but the absolute necessity of his work had obliged him to 
continue it on his own account, expecting of course to be 
reimburscd.-f- This producing no effect, he applies again 
to Sir Guy Carleton, who is told that it grieves Roche- 
blave to the heart to speak on the subject of finance, but 
he is persuaded that the goodness of Carleton's heart will 
not permit him to refuse the payment of Rocheblave's 
rejected drafts, and that he has strongly felt that the honor 
of the nation would not permit his fanaticism of zeal to 
be costly to him, nor that he should become the sport of 
his neighbors and savages. And while he confesses that 
he has persuaded the commandant at Vincennes to carry 
part of Rocheblave's expenditures in his account, he says 
he forced himself to this kind of deceit which the crisis 
alone could justify and that it troubles him all the more 
because it is foreign to his character.;]: 

The government was obdurate, but with undiminished 
cheerfulness and energy, he continued to raise the warn- 

* Carleton to Hamilton, May i6, 1777. — Haldimand Papers, 
t kocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778. — Supra. 
X Kocheblave to Carleton, Feb. 18, 1778. — Supra. 


ing voice of one crying in the wilderness against the early 
expeditions of the colonists along the Ohio and the Mis- 
sisippi to New Orleans to obtain supplies from the Span- 
iards, and the danger which these threatened to the Illinois 
posts. The daring young continental captain, James 
Willing, descended the Ohio from Fort Pitt, with an 
armed vessel and forty soldiers, captured fur-traders going 
to deal with the Indians under British permits, officers of 
militia with Rocheblave's own pass, took bateaux and 
cargoes in British waters, and nearly caught Rocheblave 
himself as he returned from a visit to Lieut.-Gov. Abbott 
at Vincennes. Willing went on his way to attack the 
British settlements on the lower Mississippi; and Roche- 
blave duly reported every account and rumor concerning 
him, giving them the darkest possible coloring, and again 
and again begged for the troops which such expeditions 
proved to be essential to the preservation of the Western 

It was all in vain, his requests for soldiers were un- 
heeded, his accounts for expenditures more or less in the 
public service were disallowed, and his drafts on the gov- 
ernment representatives whether at Detroit or in Canada, 
went to protest. But his busy pen was still at work, and 
when the eventful July 4, 1778, arrived, he was correspond- 
ing as briskly as ever. He was true to his financial record 
to the last, for he made one more draft, and that for over 
$1200 and on the government treasurer at Quebec ;f 
calmly oblivious of the repeated injunctions of his superior 
officers that he should draw on Detroit only, and for no 
more than his annual salary. He accompanied this bill 
of exchange with a letter to the treasurer praying that it 

* Rocheblave to Abbott, June 20, 1778. Rocheblave to Carleton, July 
4, 1778. — Haldimand Papers. 

+ Rocheblave to Thomas Dunn, treasurer, Quebec, Bill of Exchange, July 
4, \^^%.—Ibid. 


might be honored, and mentioning that the uncertainty in 
which he was as to whether his preceding draft had been 
paid, had occasioned him an increase of expense. And 
he frankly stated that the doings of the Spaniards with 
the Americans required that he should do even more than 
before, presumably in the financial line, if his services were 
to be of any use to the country. These, however, he 
offered freely.* And on the same day, the very last of 
his command at the Illinois, he dispatched a long com- 
munication to Sir Guy Carleton, containing the latest 
news of the rebel marauders along the Mississippi, earn- 
estly soliciting the immediate sending of a body of troops 
to the Illinois, and asserting that all his alarms were about 
to be realized and that they were upon the eve of seeing 
there a numerous band of brigands. And he pathetically 
implored the governor to order the treasurer to pay his 
latest draft, he being overcome with demands. And ap- 
parently having exhausted all other arguments, he begged 
for assistance as the father of a family in pecuniary diffi- 

Before the next sunrise, George Rogers Clark and his 
men were in possession of the old Jesuit mansion which 
did duty for a fort at Kaskaskia, and the hapless Roche- 
blave was a prisoner of war. The band of brigands had 
arrived, not those under the command of James Willing 
whose coming he had for some time predicted and dreaded, 
but another force under another leader whose approach he 
does not seem to have suspected. According to the pop- 
ular account, Rocheblave was captured in his bed.:!: Clark 
only says that with one division of his little army he 
broke into the fort and secured the governor, Mr. Roche- 
blave.§ It has been also stated that the wife of the gov- 

• Rocheblave to Thos. Dunn, July 4, 1778.— Ilaldimand Papers, 
t Rocheblave to Carleton, July 4, 1778.— //'/<?'. 

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., p. 95. 
§ "Clark's Campaign in the Illinois," p. 31. 


ernor concealed the public papers in her husband's charge, 
and that, as Gov. Reynolds puts it, "the gentlemanly bear- 
ing of Col. Clark made him respect female prerogative, 
and the lady secured the papers in that adroit manner 
peculiar to female sagacity."" One of Clark's lieutenants, 
however, Capt. Bowman, wrote to a friend shortly after 
the capture, that they had all of Rocheblave's instructions 
from the several governors at Detroit, Quebec, etc., to do 
various things, for which he received a salary of i^200 a 
year.-f It is evident, therefore, that a part of Rocheblave's 
correspondence and at any rate some of the letters from 
Carleton on the subject of his annual compensation fell 
into Clark's hands. 

Rocheblave's letter to Carleton, announcing the arrival 
of Clark and his men, is a pathetic epistle. It was written 
August 3, 1778, or nearly a month after his capture, when 
he appears to have still been a prisoner at Fort Gage. He 
tells what he would have done had he been supported or 
could aid have reached him from Vincennes, begs that his 
last draft may be paid, asks help for his family and Capt. 
Lord's, and urges his own exchange. He says his prison 
is worse than anything in Algiers, and that he is to depart 
the next day "for the congress," although quite ill. 

Clark sent those of his men whom he could not persuade 
to reenlist to carry letters to Gov. Patrick Henry at Will- 
iamsburg and with them went Rocheblave across the 
Alleghanies in custody.j In this detachment was Levi 
Todd, brother of John Todd the first governor of the 
Illinois county under Virginia.§ In the following spring, 
Rocheblave was joined by his former correspondent Lieut.- 
Gov. Hamilton of Detroit, whom, after the capture of 

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., p. 95. 

+ Bowman to Hite, July 30, 1778.— Almon's " Remembrancer," 1779, p. 82. 

+ "Clark's Campaign in the Illinois," p. 37. 

g Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., p. 143 "• 


Vinccnnes, Clark also sent to Williamsburg as a prisoner. 
Hamilton was closely confined and placed in irons for his 
cruel treatment of captives and his connection with Indian 
outrages. Rocheblave appears to have had the freedom 
of the town on parole.* While here, according to his own 
account, it was proposed to him to return to the Illinois to- 
govern that country in the name of congress with the 
titles of governor, superintendent of the Indians and 
colonel, and that all he had lost there should be made 
good to him. And he represents that when he resolutely 
withstood these flattering temptations, the governor and 
council of Virginia asked the French Marquis de Vau- 
dreuil, commander of a ship of seventy-four guns which 
was lying in Virginia waters, to transport him to France 
or the West Indies as a traitor to his native country. The 
marquis sent an officer ashore whom Rocheblave went to 
meet with the county lieutenant, but no parole to return 
to the town was exacted of him. The officer threatened 
to send him to France or the islands but Rocheblave says 
he told him that the king of France having abandoned 
him after the last peace, he had become a British subject 
and that the king could exercise no jurisdiction over him. 
And that the council, seeing that the French officer had 
not succeeded sent him a parole to sign, which he evaded 
by pretending to be sick, and made his escape.* Thomas 
Jefferson gives a different account, for in writing to Gen. 
Washington from Richmond in September, 1778, he said 
Licut.-Gov. Rocheblave had broken his parole and gone 
to New York, and that the authorities of V^irginia would 
shortly trouble the conmiandcr-in-chief to demand the 
return of the lieutenant-governor as soon as they could 
forward the necessary papers.-f- 

* Madame de Rocheblave to Haldimand; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 
y, 1780. — Haldimand I'apers. Jefferson'? 'Writings," I, 258. 
t JefTerson's "Writings," supra. 


However this may have been, Rocheblave arrived in 
New York in July, 17S0, in company with Schiefifelin, heu- 
tenant of Detroit volunteers, who had been taken prisoner 
with Hamilton, and had also made his escape. In October 
of that year, Rocheblave wrote Haldimand at length, 
setting forth his desire to raise some volunteers to chase 
the rebels from the region of the Mississippi, the Ohio 
and the Wabash, forwarding all the bad news concerning 
the colonists he could hear or im^ine, modestly calling 
attention to the fact that his letters to Carleton would 
show that he had predicted all that had happened in the 
West, months before its occurrence, and entreating some 
aid for his own family and that of Maj. Hugh Lord, 
whom he said the brigands had deprived of the last morsel 
of bread.* With characteristic assurance, he followed 
this some ten days later with a plan for carrying on the 
war, entering into minute details.-f- In December, 1780, 
he wrote again from New York to Haldimand, asking 
that his pay might be sent to his wife, and, faithful to his 
charge, he asks for aid also for Hugh Lord's family.:[: 

Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton was exchanged March 4, 178 1, 
and wrote to Haldimand three days later to inform him 
of that fact, and incidentally mentioned that Rocheblave 
was still in New York waiting for a convoy to Ouebec.§ 
This he seems to have obtained in the fall of that year,i| 
as we find him at Quebec on Oct. 7, 1781, addressing a 
memorial to Haldimand on the advantage of occupying 
the Illinois country, and merely mentioning that Lieut.- 
Gov. Hamilton, to whose judgment it was proposed to 
refer the project, was aware of the superior knowledge 

* Rocheblave to Haldimand. — Haldimand Papers. 
+ Rocheblave's Plan, Oct. 20, 1780.— //w/. 
1; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Dec. 12, ijSo.—Jdid. 
§ Hamilton to Haldimand, May 7, 1 781. —//'/</. 
il Haldimand to Hamilton, Oct. 23, i-jSi.—Ih'd. 


of Rochcblave to whose department such a question 
belonged.* In February, 1782, he applied for a passport 
to Detroit and a recommendation in his favor, and for 
leave to send an express to his \vife,*f- and in March, his 
importunity obtained from the government a warrant for 
disbursements as commandant at the lUinois.^ Notwith- 
standing this however, he again recalled his services to 
the much enduring Haldimand, suggested that his warn- 
ings, which might have saved Cornwallis, had only been 
laughed at, and proposing to secure the Illinois country, 
and with the aid of Germans and Acadians from Virginia 
and Maryland, to arrange the neutrality of Kentucky and 
the Indians at a trifling expense. But, if this compre- 
hensive proposition was not entertained, he asked for a 
passport and a circular letter to the commanders of the 
posts, where he might desire to trade, and last, not least, 
for the reimbursement of his losses.§ Haldimand evi- 
dently thought the most economical plan,- and the one 
promising the most respite for himself, was to permit this 
persistent individual to engage in trade. And he accord- 
ingly gave him letters to Maj. de Peyster at Mackinac, 
who was informed that Rocheblave had been continued 
on pay and was to be employed as found useful, and that 
he had been allowed to take up a small cargo of goods 
which was not to pay freight on the lakes, jj But before 
he set out on this expedition, Rocheblave sent from Que- 
bec, Aug. 31, 1782, another petition praying for the pay- 
ment of his salary and the expenditures incurred during 
his long captivity,*! and his salary as commandant was 
granted him.** The peace which Haldimand thus secured 

* Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 7, 1 781.— Haldimand MSS. 

t Ihid, Feb. 17, 1782. § Jhid, March 22, 1782.— Haldimand Papers. 

* Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, March, I'j'iz.—Ibui. 
Haldimand to Peyster, April 28, 1782. — Ibid. 

•■ Rocheblave to Haldimand, August 31, 1782. — Ibid. 

** Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, October, 1782. — Ibid. 


for himself was not of long duration, for Rocheblave 
seems to have been unable to resist the temptation while 
at Mackinac of engaging in his former pastime of making 
drafts on government account. And Haldimand was 
obliged to write him with some sternness, regretting that 
Rocheblave had been interested in bills drawn from 
Mackinac, contrary to orders, as they must be allowed to 
go to protest.* 

Perhaps because of the unfortunate outcome of this 
attempt to resume business, Rocheblave soon after de- 
parted for the Illinois, and doubtless revisited his old 
home at Kaskaskia in the winter of 1782-3. Maj. de 
Peyster, then commanding at Detroit, advised Haldimand 
of this, and asked what was to be done if Rocheblave 
returned or drew for back pay.i" Haldimand replied 
that Rocheblave had been drawing money for salary from 
Quebec, and his pay was to be continued from there, | 
and in March, 1783, another warrant to Philip Roche- 
blave for his salary as commandant at the Illinois was 
duly issued.§ And in the same month, Rocheblave, who 
had returned to Quebec, confidently submitted to Haldi- 
mand a plan for uniting and strengthening the parts of 
America left in British possession taking in all the terri- 
tory formerly owned by France, including the Mississippi, 
New Orleans, etc.|| He took the opportunity, however, 
to request a settlement of his claims for losses and expen- 
ditures during captivity ;1F and also addressed Haldi- 
mand's secretary, Capt. Mathews on the subject.** 

Rocheblave apparently had regained the favor of Hal- 
dimand, who cheerfully granted him a pass for two bat- 

* Haldimand to Rocheblave, Nov. 2, 1782. — Haldimand Papers, 
t Peyster to Haldimand, Jan. 7, 1783. — llnd. 
X Haldimand to Peyster, March 12, 1783. — Ibid. 
§ Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, March, 1783. — Ibid. 
\\ Rocheblave to Haldimand, Mch. 11, 1783. '^ Ibid, Apr. 7, 1783.— //;/</, 
** Rocheblave to Mathews, Apr, 7, 1783. — Ibid. 


teaux for another trading expedition, but declined to dis- 
criminate in his behalf in the Mackinac business.* This 
favor was gratefully acknowledged to the secretary by 
the recipient who announced his intention to try to go to 
the point which he was at before the unhappy afifair at 
Mackinac, which he promised to long remember, and well 
observed that for a man of his age not to go forward was 
to go back, and with unwonted consideration, said he 
would refrain from fatiguing Haldimand with a letter.-f- 
Within a fortnight, however, he sent him. a plan for settling 
the upper country with loyalists, Germans, and Acadians, 
so as to secure the territory on the Mississippi to the 
British.:]: Haldimand had to promise to do all in his 
power to support Rocheblave's endeavors to recover his 
losses ;§ and in the fall of 1783, rumors reached Canada 
that an act of parliament had been passed to indemnify 
the loyalists for their sacrifices. Rocheblave promptly 
sent in his claims again, and was hardly satisfied with the 
decision to wait until the act officially reached Quebec. 
He wished his demands established immediately because 
he said he had to go from Quebec and "find Madame 
Rocheblave and the rest of the family at Chikagou," and 
settle all affairs in the upper country before possession 
was given to the Americans. jj He seems to have remained 
at Quebec during the following year, as, in January, 1784, 
he besought the government to give him a situation; in 
March, he asked for a passport and circular letter to the 
different posts and for an advance of cloth and powder 
and a grant of lands on the river Rideau; and in April, 
sent in a formal memorial designating the one-thousand- 
acrc tract of land of which he would like a grant to hold 

• Mathews to Rocheblave, April 10, 1783. — Haldimand Papers, 
t Rocheblave to Mathews, April 17, 1783. — Ibid. 
X Rocheblave to Haldimand, April 28, 1783. — Ibid. 
§ Mathews to Rocheblave, Oct. 22, 1783. — Ibid. 
il Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov. 6, 1783. — Ibid. 


under the crown.* Haldimand sent him a letter of rec- 
ommendation to enable him to forward his goods to the 
upper country, but he still applied for assistance; his wife 
reinforced him with an impressive letter stating their 
distressed condition owing to the refusal to pay her hus- 
band the money laid out for the government of the Illinois 
and praying for justice; and Rocheblave begged for per- 
mission to at least acquire some land from the Indians, 
until finally Haldimand succumbed and ordered the laying 
out of one thousand acres of land for Philip Rocheblave 
on the Grand Isle near Cataraqui or other part in that 
neighborhood which was ungranted.-f- 

The year 1785, found Rocheblave still at Quebec, 
whence he wrote Haldimand at London complaining that 
after all his services, he had received no indemnity for 
losses such as had been granted to every refugee loyalist, 
that he had even been deprived of rations, and that 
this had a bad effect on the Canadians, j It would seem 
seem that about this time, Rocheblave began to turn 
his attention to increasing disaffection among the sub- 
jects of Great Britain in Canada. More than one of Hal- 
dimand's correspondents informed him concerning the 
treasonable expressions and doubtful conduct of the once 
loyal commandant at the Illinois.§ Secretary Math- 
ews wrote to Rocheblave's predecessor, the now Major 
Lord, desiring information concerning his successor's 
conduct at the Illinois, as his behavior since Haldimand's. 
departure had been such as to justify suspicion of his. 
ostensible character, he having been very active in stirr- 
ing up discontent among the Canadians. || And in the 

* Rocheblave to Haldimand, Jan. 3, Mch. 7, Apr. 12, 1784.— Hald. Papers. 

+ Haldimand to Rocheblave, Mch. 26; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 16; 
Marie de Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov.; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov. 
2; Haldimand to Holland, Nov. 4, 1784. — Ibid. 

X Rocheblave to Haldiman, Jan. 21, 1785. — Ibid. 

§ Rouband to Haldimand, Mch. 20; Baby to Haldimand, June 4, 1785. 

11 Mathews to Maj. Lord, Aug. 25, 1785.— /<^/^. 


fall of 1786, Matliews wrote from Quebec to Haldimand 
in London revealing, what he called, the odious character 
of Rocheblave, and commenting sarcastically upon his 
assurance.* With this faint praise, the name of Roche- 
blave disappears from the British archives. 

Among the papers of Pierre Menard in the possession 
of the Chicago Historical Society is a copy of a docu- 
ment executed at Kaskaskia, July 29, iSoi, certified to be 
correct by Ph. Rocheblave.^f And in a report of com- 
missioners on land claims in the district of Kaskaskia, 
dated Dec. 31, 1809, Philip Rocheblave is stated to be the 
then present claimant of a tract of land, which claim was 
rejected by the commissioners.:); It is uncertain, how- 
ever, whether the person mentioned in this document and 
in this report is the former commandant or a son of the 
same name. Of Rocheblave's family very little is known. 
His wife, from her letters to Gen. Haldimand, seems to 
have been a woman of force and education. Patrick 
Henry gave express instructions to John Todd, and to 
George Rogers Clark that she should be well treated, and 
her property restored or that she should be recompensed 
therefor.^ Augustin Grignon says he knew two of 
Rocheblave's nephews, Pierre and Noel de Rocheblave, 
both engaged in the Indian trade, and that Pierre became 
first a clerk and then a member of the Northwestern Fur- 
Company. j| He is said to have been one of the most 
important personages in this company, and to have had a 
seat in the old legislative assembly at Quebec.*^ 

No other noteworthy mention of the name of Roche- 
blave has been found in the annals of the West. He was 

* Mathews to Haldimand, .Sept. 7, Nov. 9, 1786.— Haldimand Papers, 
t Chicago Historical Society's Autograph Letters, Vol. 61, p. 399. 

* "American State Papers; Public Lands," II, 130. 

§ Henry to Todd.— John Todd's Record-Pook, Chicago Historical Society. 
Henry to Clark. — "Calendar of Virginia State- Papers. " 

I "Wisconsin Historical Society's Collections," III, 215. ^ Ibid, VII, 133. 


not an altogether admirable character, and his feat of 
changing allegiance three and perhaps four times within a 
space of twenty years redounds more to his versatility 
than his consistency. But his eventful and curious life 
has a romantic interest of its own, and illustrates vividly 
the transitions through which the Western country passed 
during the revolutionary period. And his name marks 
an epoch, and will always have a kind of prominence as 
that of the last official representative of monarchical 
institutions upon the soil of Illinois. E. G. M. 


Sir Guv Carleton to Rocheblave. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, B. 39, p. 242. 

Crowx Point, 28th October, 1776. 

Sir: — I have just received your letter of September 
14th, with the interesting intelligence which you therein 
communicate to me. I can but approve the zeal which 
you show for the interests of the King of whom you have 
become a subject, and to whom, by the proof you have 
just given, as well as by the favorable report which has 
been made to me concerning you, I do not doubt that you 
will render good service. I hope by your skill to find 
the means of defeating the designs of the rebels, of which 
you inform me. I submit to you whether you should not 
make every possible effort to engage the savages of the 
Beautiful River to aid you. 

I will send you as soon as possible the necessary order 
to authorize you to call out the militia; in the meantime 
to recompense the trouble which you may have in the 
performance of your duty, you can draw bills of exchange 
upon the Treasurer of the Province, Mr. Dunn, at Quebec, 
for the amount of your expenses in the work of which 
you have charge, to the amount of two hundred pounds 
sterling per year, beginning from the day of the departure 
of Captain Lord" from your post, until further order. 

* Hugh Lord attained the rank of captain in the British army, Dec. 25, 
1762, was assigned Feb 5, 1770, to the iSth Royal regiment of Ireland, and 
was ranking captain in 1776. — R. G. Thwaites examination of British- 
Army Lists. He commanded a detachment of soldiers stationed at Kaskas- 
kia, while Lieut. -Col. John Wilkins of the same regiment was commandant 


We have taken, burned and destroyed the greater part 
of the rebel fleet upon Lake Champlain, three sail only, 
out of the fifteen which they had, having escaped. The 
Rebels upon this event, set fire to all the houses and all 
the ships at this place, and fell back hastily upon Fort 
Carillon, but the bad weather which is coming on, pre- 
vents us from pursuing them this year, and we shall be 
soon obliged to re-take the route to Canada for our winter 


Richard McCarty to Rocheblave. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, b. 122, p. 6. 

Second letter, important business. 

Sir: — I have the honor to wish you good day, and to 
present my respects to Madame de Rocheblave, and court- 
esies to Mademoiselle Pazet and friendship to all the 
family, to which I would render any service in my power 
here; I wish to make use of you to do this. 

I was ill at the departure of Mr. Charleville, and so I 
was not able to appear to present my defence. Mr. Levy 
has been himself to the house of Mr. Cecil to tell him 
that our society was separated and dispersed at the time 

at the Illinois. Wilkins' term of office ended March 30, 1772, and he was 
temporarily succeeded by acting-Maj. Robert Hamilton of the same regi- 
ment who had been stationed at Fort Pitt. On June 11, 1772, Hamilton 
was relieved by Capt. Lord, who remained in command of the Illinois, 
having two companies from his own regiment and three men from the 
Royal artillery under his charge there, until May i, 1776, when he and his 
men were recalled to Canada. — Haldimand Papers. In 1779, he was 
major of the 75th foot, or Prince of Wales' Own, with commission dated 
May 30, 1778, and in 1783, was a major on half-pay. Dec. 25, 1802, he was 
appointed major with full pay in the 7th Royal regiment, garrison battalion, 
and in 1807, was a major commanding the garrison of the Island of Jersey 
and the last mention of him in the army lists is in 1829, which probably v.-as 
the year of his decease. — R. G. Thwaite, supra. E. G. M. 


of the circular, but in time and place I will furnish my 
reply to the petition presented to you. 

I write you a letter concerning the news which without 
doubt you have heard spoken of. It appears that some 
one has given aid to the other shore. The news began to 
be forgotten, and was hardly spoken of, when the two 
Englishmen arrived at St. Louis. They disappeared as 
they came without the knowledge of any one. 

I have sent a mortgage which will be presented to you 
by Mr. Kennedy to be registered according to the custom 
and law here which I imagine will settle all proceedings 
against me on this subject. 

I sent to fetch an Englishman who was said to be at 
Misere* a man very expert in the building of mills. I 
pray you to have the goodness to give every assistance in 
your power, so that we can have this as soon as possible. 

There have been, they say, two Frenchman killed near 
St. Joseph while coming from Detroit, and by the Potta- 
watamies. Also Mr. Chartranc had a finger cut off" by the 
Renards. Four traders have abondoned their house, and 
all their effects in the country along the river of the Illinois. 

By the report of Boison which they have had at St. 
Louis during the winter, both the Pottawatomies and the 
Renards say that they wish St. Joseph ravaged and de- 
stroyed. There is nothing but war on every side. Do 
me the honor to give me the news which you have Sir, 
with all the respect and esteem possible, your very humble 
and very obedient servant. Richard Mc CARTY.f 

Kahos, 6 fevr., 1777. 

[Endorsed :] Letter from Richard McCarty to M. Roche- 
blave, dated Kahos, 6 Fevr., 1777. 

* a nickname for Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. 

t Richard McCarty— see note, page 297, jM/;-rt— wrote from .St. Ursule at 
the Illinois, which seems to have been another name for Cahokia, on June 7, 
1778, to a correspondent at Mackinac, sending the latest information to Maj. 


Petition to Carleton concerning Rocheblave. 

From "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, Series B., Vol. 185, i, p. 2. 
Illinois, sst. To His Excellency General Carlton, Gover- 
nor of the Province at Canada, etc., etc., etc., residing- 
at Quebec. 
The petition of Daniel Murray* Agent for the contrac- 
tors, Patrick Kennedyf* and Thomas Bentley, all of the 

de Peyster and expressing the pious hope that God would soon send the 
wished-for news of a union with England and her colonies. Put in April of 
the following year, he wrote to his wife at Montreal that he had become a 
captain in the Illinois battalion and aide-de-canif of the commander-in-chief 
of the department of the West. And on July 12, 1781, Maj. de Peyster, then 
British commandant at Detroit, wrote to Gen. Powell that the Wea Indians 
had entered heartily into their cause, and had lately attacked a party of rebels 
and Indians, under Capt. Richard McCarty, near the Wabash, and had killed 
McCarty with some of his people. Maj. de Peyster added that he had all of 
McCarty's papers, but they gave no information other than that McCarty and 
all the inhabitants of the Illinois were heartily tired of the Virginians. — 
McCarty to Askin, McCarty to Mrs. McCarty, Maj. de Peyster to Powell; 
" Canadian Archives. " — e. c. m. 

* Daniel Murray and his brother William, of London, England, were 
traders residing in the Illinois country before the Revolution. Wm. Murray 
negotiated, in 1773 and 1775, extensive purchases of lands from the Indians 
upon which were based the persistent claims of the Illinois and Wabash 
companies to a large | art of the present states of Illinois and Indiana, finally 
rejected by congress in the early part of the present century. Wm. Murray 
was a member of both companies, and Daniel of the Wabash company; and 
the contractors, for whom he was agent, were those contracting with the British 
government to furnish provisions to the Western posts. Wm. Murray left 
the Illinois in 1776, and Daniel remained in charge of his brother's affairs. 
When Clark arrived, Daniel Murray took service under him as quartermaster 
and commissary, and supplied large quantities of provisions and merchandise 
to Clark and to Montgomery. When the Virginia troops were withdrawn, 
Murray was obliged to leave the country, descended the Mississippi to 
New Orleans, and was captured by the British on his sea voyage to Virginia 
and taken to New York as a prisoner. In December, 1781, he addressed a 
memorial to the Virginia delegates in congress at Philadelphia, praying them 
to save him and his brother from ruin by prevailing on their State to pay the 
bills of exchange drawn in their favor by Col. Montgomery for supplies fur- 
nished. — E. G. M. 

+ Patrick Kennedy was a trader doing business at Kaskaskia under British 


Village of Kaskaskias in the County of the aforesaid 
Merchants, humbly showeth, 

That since Captain Hugh Lord's departure from this 
•country and Mr. De Rocheblave's being vested with the 
Government, We your humble petitioners and His Maj- 
esty's most faithful subjects, find to our most bitter grief 
our liberties trampled upon & common justice in almost 
all cases refused to us, that on our presuming to remon- 
strate against such injustice the said Mr. De Rocheblave 
will not listen to us, informing us that such are the laws 
of France which he orders us to follow telling us he 
knows no other, refusing the English laws proclaimed 
here by Colonel John Wilkins and hitherto followed by 
his successors to the command, that we being the only 
English merchants or inhabitants in this place we take 
the liberty to represent to you our unhappy situation, 
and lay our grievances before you, hoping from you a 
speedy and immediate Redresse for without such 'twill 
be impossible for an Englishman to remain in this Coun- 
try as the said Mr. De Rocheblave is daily imposing upon 
us by refusing the appointment of our suits & denying 
us the justice which by Law & Equity we have a right to 
•demand at his hands both for the security of our property 
as well as our persons, neither of which we look upon to 
be safe under his Government, as Englishmen & English 
Laws to our great mortification are despised by the pub- 
lic in general & appear to be so by the said Mr. De 

rule, and at one time was in partnership there with Richard Winston. In 
July, 1773, he undertook an expedition with several coureurs de bois from 
Kaskaskia to the headwaters of the Illinois River in search of a copper mine. 
He explored the stream to an island, about fifteen miles below the juncture of 
the Kankakee, finding coal-mines and salt-ponds but no trace of the metal 
he sought for. His journal of this trip gives an interesting account, and one 
of the earliest in print of the country he passed through. He was one of the 
claimants under acts of congress giving four hundred acres of land in the 
district of Kaskaskia to heads of families who had cultivated land in Illinois 
prior to and including the year 1788. — E. G. M. 


Rocheblave in particular. That with such inhabitants as 
we happen to have any controversy respecting accounts 
or Demands unavoidable in business he acts in the first 
place as council for such against us and afterwards as a 
judge — He one day decides a matter in our favor and 
immediately issues out a sentence in favor of the oppo- 
site party — That contrary to our wise constitution and to 
the great detriment of the merchant, he acts in the capac- 
ity of a trader, buying and selling goods both wholesale 
and retail and has been known to make proposals for the 
purchasing of a cargo (last summer) to a very consider- 
able amount, which he would have effected had his Credit 
been equivalent thereto. 

Public advertisements with respect to property he 
•orders in a most arbritary manner to be torn down which 
he has been known to do twice in one day. Protest and 
appeal from his sentence he pays no regard to, seizing 
notwithstanding of such for the payment agreeable to 
his sentence refusing undeniable security. 

He forbid the trading of liquor to savages under the 
severe Penalty of two thousand dollars and those very 
savages notwithstanding such orders being constantly 
drunk when in the village, upon an enquiry made accused 
him even to his face of being the person that intoxicated 
them with Rum or Tafifia which they said he barter'd to 
them for Beaver, Otters, etc. 

Such is his partiality in favor of the French that upon 
approach of savages coming to war against their enemies 
last spring he sent out a party of men under French 
colours to know the design of their coming. That such 
partiality is not to be woudered at when we consider that 
the said Mr. De Rocheblave on this country being taken 
possession of by the English abandoned his property here 
and preferred the Spanish government to ours taking the 
oath of allegiance thereto. 


That 'tis not within the cognizance of any person in 
the country so far as we can learn that the said Mr. De 
Rocheblave has ever been quahfied by taking the oath of 
allegiance and supremacy previously necessary towards 
the holding of such an office. 

That abstracted from all manner of prejudice whatever, 
we do not look upon the said Mr. De Rocheblave from 
his behaviour at all times and partiality against us on all 
occasions to be by any means an Englishman's friend 
having endeavoured to throw aspersions upon the char- 
acter of some of us without the least foundation (and 
merely thereby intending to veil his own iniquitous prac- 
tices) openl}' countenancing known Villians against us 
and even encouraging the savages to rob our boats, whose 
sole motive was trading amongst them in their winter 
grounds. That Mr. Murray, one of your humble petition- 
ers, acting here as agent for the contractors applied to Mr. 
De Rocheblave to oblige Mr. Viviat a merchant in this 
place {who had obtained a certificate from Captain Lord) 
iri the said Murray's name on his the said Captain Lord's 
leaving this implying that he had already bought provi- 
sions sufficient for the subsistence of two companies of 
soldiers twelve months, to lodge the same according to 
the said certificate which he hitherto has refused to do 
and notwithstanding it was farther enforced in conse- 
quence of a Lieutenant governor's coming to Post Vin- 
cennes who might have occasion for the same yet the 
same application was of no effect. 

We humbly hope that your Excellency will be kind 
enough to compassionate our situation and grant us such 
redress and that in the most speedy manner possible as 
British subjects have a right to expect at the hands of an 
English governor and your petitioners as in duty bound 
will ever pray. T. Bentley." 

Dated at Kaskaskias, loth April, 1777. 

* Thomas Bentley was a London merchant having trading-stations in West 

british illinois— rocheblave papers. 389 
Declaration of Gabriel Cerre. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series II, Vol. 14, p. 59. 

The year 1777, the 29th of April, at five o'clock in the 
morning, there appeared before us, Commandant at the 
Illinois, the undersigned, in the audience room of this fort, 
Sr. Gabriel Cerre, a merchant of this country whom we 
had summoned, for the purpose of declaring to us in legal 
form what he had learned, yesterday evening upon his 
arrival. And after having received from Sr. Carbonau, 
clerk, and from Sieur Maisonville, a merchant of Detroit, 
both here present, the oath to hold and keep secret what 
in the declaration we are about to receive, presently from 
the before mentioned Sr. Gabriel Cerre, who after legally 
taking the oath to tell us the truth as well as to keep 
Florida and the Illinois country. He seems to have been the only one of the 
parties to this petition -who dared to sign it, and Rocheblave's vengeance soon 
fell upon him. In May, 1777, Bentley left Kaskaskia with Rocheblave's 
■ passport on a bussiness-trip to Canada. At Mackinac, in July of the same 
year, he was arrested by Major de Peyster by order of Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, 
upon the accusation of Rocheblave, that Bentley had given aid to the rebels 
the year before. He was sent to Detroit and thence to Montreal, where he 
remained a prisoner without a hearing for more than two years, in spite of his 
frequent protestations of innocence, demands for a trial, and the intercession 
of powerful friends in England. During this period his property in the West 
and South was practically confiscated. At length, in November, 1779, he 
made his escape and crossed the frontier by the help of an Indian guide, and 
found his way to Virginia. Here he played the role of a martyr for the colo- 
nial cause, and at Williamsburg called on Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, who had 
imprisoned him and was now himself a prisoner, and offered his services. 
The following year Bentley was at Post Vincennes and wrote thence to Major 
de Peyster and to General Haldimand, asserting his loyalty to Great Britain, 
suggesting methods for the reconquest of the Illinois and giving information 
concerning the plans of Col. La Balme. Yet in 1781, he appeared at Rich- 
mond, Virginia, and presented a claim for compensation, because he had sac- 
rificed his fortunes to support the credit of that state in the Illinois country. 
His letters to the British and to the American authorities preserved in the 
Canadian and Mrginian archives, and but recently brought to light, are curi- 
ously inconsistent, and show quite clearly that he deserved his ill-fortune. 
Still he managed to persuade George Rogers Clark that he was a faithful 
friend of liberty, and later established a claim to land at Kaskaskia as a loyal 
citizen of Virginia. — E. G. M. 


secret that which he is about to impart to us, has declared 
and spoken that which now follows: 

That having been among the peorias on the River of 
the Illinois the above named stated that last winter, hav- 
ing been wintering with the Kickapoos and Mascoutens at 
a place called the bad land, there arrived there two sav- 
ages, Kickapoos, and that these went to a person called 
"fair weather" likewise chief of the said savages of the 
Village of the Raven on the River of the Illinois, to en- 
gage him to send hither those young men in response to. 
my invitation. To which messengers the before mentioned 
"fair weather" replied that he would not stir, that he had 
been the winter before at St. Louis to the Spaniards to 
drink there and see his father, the Spaniard, who had 
before promised him a medal, a chief's coat, a hat, etc., 
that the commandant showed him all these articles, but 
told him he would not give them to him, until the com- 
mander sent word, that he thought the time of the arrival 
of the message from the sea would be about the time of 
grass, adding that he would not tell him the contents 
because it was yet a secret known only to him; that the 
inhabitants of St. Louis (.') were ignorant of it, but that 
as .soon as their father had awakened from his sleepiness 
he would make known to them, and would be prompt 
with his word, and would give him then what he had 
promised, advising them not to mix themselves with the 
troubles of the bostonians with the english. The Sr. Cerre 
told us that he knew nothing more, that the declaration 
contained the truth, and he had nothing to change, add, 
or take away, and signed with us and our clerk and the 
Sieur Maisonvil. 

Done in duplicate at Fort Gage the year and day above 
written. Signed, Cerre, Maisonville, Rocheblavc, Com- 
mandant, and Carbonneau, Clerk. 

[Endorsed:] In Sir Guy Carleton's (No. 32) of nth 
August, 1777. 



Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, p. 56. 

Signed, Rocheblave, Fort Gage, the 8th of May, 1777. 

I beg Mr. Abbott to come hither where his presence 
will dispose of many things, and where he can give orders 
for the common safety of the two departments. If he 
comes here, I shall try to induce him to take charge of 
everything as did Mr. Lord. His presence is more neces- 
sary here than at St. Vincent. If I succeed, and if I can 
be of assistance to him, I will willingly remain with him, 
if not, I shall see if I can be of use elsewhere. 

I was in command formerly in these parts for three 
years; and had not during that time to decide more than 
one process a week. At present with fifty men in all, I 
have during this term put three or four persons in prison, 
and that was as little as I could do. At present one is 
obliged every day to imprison young men who demand 
that if the English law is favorable to them it should be 
followed; on another occasion the same people will the 
very next day demand the old French laws which have 
always been followed. If I were not a little crazed 
already, I believe they would cause me to become entirely 
so. If S. C. should judge it proper to employ me on the 
River of the Illinois where there are only a few Canadians 
who do not litigate because they own nothing, this river 
would need some one to watch the savages who so far will 
not permit the native English to penetrate there, which is 
an injury to commerce. I think no one can be envious of 
my lot, and besides I myself am become a savage from 
constant association with them. I forgot to call your 
attention to the fact that as soon as I learned of the death 
of Bartalon, I gave letters of administration as successor 
to Mr. Cerre, an honest merchant, in order that having 
liquidated here the said succession, he could take the total 


amount to Michilimackinac, or to Montreal according to 
circumstances. The greater part of the proceeds were 
under way, when I had the honor of receiving your letter. 
He had accompanied it himself well in advance to the 
Illinois River fearing the savages who have killed two men 
there. He has returned, and is about to remove the rest. 
I have ordered him to deliver it all to Mr. De Peyster to 
whom advices will be given. Mr. La Mothe can make 
application for it to him. What I can not do in a large 
way, I will do in a small way for the remainder of this 
succession, your wishes being commands for me. 

To day, the eleventh, my letter not having gone on 
account of the raising of the waters and the continual 
rain, I have opened it to say that the same propositions 
have been made to the Saukies and the Foxes on their 
return from war here upon the Illinois as to the Kickapoos. 
This afternoon those sent out in advance of the convoy 
have seen nothing. We have news that it had not been 
seen as far as eight days travel and more than sixty 
leagues from here. This causes us anxiety. 

[Endorsed:] Copy of a letter from Monsieur Roche- 
blave to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton. 

In Sir Guy Carleton's (No. 32) of nth August, 1777. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, p. 64. 

Signed, RocHEBLAVE. Fort Gage, the first of June, 1777. 
Sir: — The boats have at last arrived from New Orleans 
where they were delayed by the loss of the powder taken 
away from the colonists to the amount of eleven thousand 
pounds. Thus has been reduced this much vaunted arma- 
ment. It is true that the old governor according to report 
loaded a boat intended for the colonists. But the ships of 


his majesty got possession of it. All appearances are for 
a foreign war in the near future. 

I have here a party of Delawares, and a collection of 
Kickapoos, Mascoutens and Pottawatomies from the River 
of the Illinois. As these three last named nations. always 
make war upon the subjects of Great Britain (the Span- 
iards having persuaded them so to do) and it being neces- 
sary to reassure you as regards that quarter, I have con- 
trived to draw them hither and after some difficulty, all 
has been well arranged. The war chief of the first men- 
tioned will go to see you. This tribe appears to me to be 
attached to our interests. They promise to prevent the 
passage of the colonists in case of any attempt on their 
part upon the territory. The cannons you ask for will 
leave to morrow. If I can be of use to you, you • can 
always rely upon me. I have always the honor of insist- 
ing upon the advantage of your presence here, for you 
would then know better your weakness and your resources. 

Had circumstances permitted I should already have 
paid you a visit. They are expecting in the town sixty 
merchant boats. The French half pay officers who have 
remained here should be replaced, being in a battalion 
from which the Spaniards are seeking to recruit their 
garrison. If the Delawares wish to be of use to you, they 
and the Kickapoos are the most desirable. 

I have the honor to be with the highest consideration, 
Sir, etc. 

[Endorsed:] In Sir Guy Carleton's (No. 32) of nth 
August, 1777. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, page 69. 
52>; —Yesterday evening there arrived a cargo from 
New Orleans, the owners of which report that the Span- 


iards have taken possession of twenty-two English ships 
in this river, that these had made an attack upon them at 
sea. They have affirmed this so strongly and in such 
detail that there can be no doubt of its truth. Thus from 
whatever cause it may have arisen, reprisals or otherwise, 
hostilities have begun, and it remains only to decide how 
we shall come through with it. Shall we make the first 
move, or shall we permit it to be made. In the first case 
the advantage will be for us, in the second it will be for 
our neighbors. If we should get the start of them, we 
should not see them again very soon; if they should get 
the start of us, they would stir up much work for us even 
to the very gates of Canada. 

If you wish us to anticipate them, you would do well 
to send about thirty young men here, and inform me in 
advance of their coming. I beg you to pay thirty piastres 
to the express. I am in too much haste to write more at 
present. I have the honor, &c.. 


Fort Gage, the First July, 1777. 

[Endorsed:] Copy of a letter from Mr. Rocheblave, 
commandant, by appointment of Sir Guy Carleton, at 
Fort Gage, to Lt.-Gov. Abbot, dated Fort Gage, first of 
July, 1777. 

In Sir Guy Carleton's (No. 3^) of 13th Aug., 1777 (2). 

Sir Guy Carleton to Lord George Germaine. 

l-rom "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, p. 66. 

(No. 33.) Quebec, the 13th August, 1777. 

Jlfy Lord:— -I have just received a letter from Lieuten- 
ant Governor Abbott enclosing Intelligence which he 
received from Monsieur Rochcblave and which, together 
with Mr. Abbott's letter I transmit to your Lordship. 


Mr. Rocheblave is a Canadian gentleman, formerly in 
the French Service, whom I have employed to have an 
eye on the proceedings of the Spaniards, and the man- 
agement of the Indians on that side. His abilities and 
knowledge of that part of the country recommended 
him to me as a fit person; and I thought such a one nec- 
essary, since the Post which had been held upon the 
Mississi-ppi has been withdrawn. 

I likewise enclose you two letters I have received by 
the same conveyance from Lieutenant Governor Hamil- 
ton, from whom I have received at the same time a very 
voluminous packet; as it contained nothing very material 
and he is in direct correspondence with your Lordship, I 
do not think it advisible to detain the Boat Captain Pear- 
son sends in hopes of overtaking the ship which sailed 
yesterday with another dispatch from me. I am, with all 
respect My Lord your Lordships most obedient humble 
servt. Guy Carleton. 

Lord George Germaine. 

[Endorsed:] Quebec, 13th August, 1777. 

Sir Guy Carleton. (No. 33.) (2 Inclosures.) 


Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 15, page 193. 
My Lord: — It is nearly two years since the troubles 
hich agitate disastrously North America obliged his 
Excellency, Sir Guy Carleton, to request Captain Hugh 
Lord, who commanded at the Illinois, to leave there with 
his garrison in order to be nearer the center and to aid in 
gathering together all his forces, which as a skillful leader 
he considered to be too distant. Mr. Lord had orders to 
leave the administration of affairs to such person as he 
judged proper. 


If there could have been found a more zealous officer 
who had given many proofs of his capability and of his 
patriotism, in all probability he would have been given the 
preference. The commands which he left me in appoint- 
ing me judge and commander in a vast country were in 
effect to continue to bestow upon the savages in these 
trying circumstances the presents ordinarily given in order 
to avoid alienating them. 

I have felt, my Lord, how important it was, during the 
crisis which has forced the mother country to the most 
strenuous efforts, to carry the greatest moderation into 
every expenditure. Mine has alwaj's savored more of the 
niggardliness of a private individual than what should 
have been expected from a great power such as Great 

It has been necessary for me to break up the designs 
and evil intentions of our neighbors, the Spaniards, and to 
dissipate the injurious impression they have sought to give 
the savages against the present government, in seeking to 
renew the small degree of inclination they have had for 
the old, and to give from time to time something to the 
vast tribes who inhabit our boundless forests. 

I do not know, my Lord, what terms to make use of in 
having the honor of expressing to you the greatness of 
my surprise at learning that my expenditure for thirteen 
months which was in the neighborhood of twelve hundred 
Hvres sterling has not been allowed. His excellency, Mr. 
Carleton, in a letter of May last has checked me in every 
way. Having received his letter and proving to him in 
July the absolute necessity of continuing my work, I have 
said that I would suspend matters out of respect to his 
orders, but am continuing in my own name, subject to the 
condition of receiving a prompt reply. Thus far I am 
still waiting. It is by management of this kind my Lord, 
that Mr. Abbott, lieutenant governor at St. Vincennes, sees 


himself today forced to abandon his government, to avoid 
being a victim of too precipitate a plan of action; and 
that he runs the risk of having the doors shut upon him 
for a long time to come by the Indians who have been 
tampered with by our neighbors. Through him I am 
deprived of needed aid. In vain should any one continue 
to decry a country which if better known would be per- 
haps one of the richest colonies which his Majesty pos- 
.seses. The efforts made by our jealous neighbors to expel 
us confirm this assertion. The fear of wearying you my 
Lord prevents me from writing at greater length, and I 
close by imploring you to redress my wrongs, and to take 
into consideration the state of this country, and to per- 
mit me to assure you of the respectful consideration with 
which I have the honor to be my Lord, your very humble 
and very obedient servant. RoCHEBLAVE. 

Fort Gage of Illinois, the 22nd of January, 1778- 
[Endorsed:] At Fort Gage of Illinois, Jan. 22nd, 1778, 
M. Rocheblave. 

Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives." 

Sir:— We the undersigned have the honor to assure 
you of our most humble respect and submission. All 
present have been witness to the arrival of your letter 
addressed to F. Maillet and of your word to be carried by 
him to the Mascoutin Chiefs. We certify that the said 
Maillet has shown great zealousness in this matter. Find- 
ing some difficulties and some coolness on the part of the 
savages, owing to the persuasion of the Spanish comman- 
der at St. Louis this Spring, he felt obliged to add to your 
word some further inducement in order to conquer their 
prejudices and objections which they brought forward, 
and has joined to this pressing reasons and urgent solici- 


tations which he made to them in our prssence to over- 
come their irresokition. In honor of which, Sir, to assure 
you that we are with respect and fideUty your very hum- 
ble and obedient servants. 
JYTE Truteau, Joseph Venault, 

Louis Chatellerault, 
Lateau Hay, Louis Jauntetot, Eustache Lambert, 
Joseph Verinat, Amarle Val, Bapte. Casterique. 

Witness, at the Pees, the 26th January. {?) LlOXNAls. 

To Monsieur Rocheblave, 

Commandant of all the English part of the Illinois. 

[Endorsed:] French letter that came enclosed by Mr. 
Rocheblave to Mr. Hamilton and transmitted by him to 
General Carleton in his letter of the 6th August, 1778, 
marked Detroit No. 7. 



Translation from the "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, Y. 122, p. 21. 

Today the 15th of Feb. 1778, at eight o'clock in the 
morning there appeared in the audience chamber of this 
fort upon your order a man named Henry Butler, of Irish 
origin, having resided for six years in the province of 
Pennsylvania, to whom after administering the legal oath 
to speak the truth, we have put to him the following ques- 
tions. Inquiry firstly, how and when he came to this 

In reply, he states that he arrived several days ago 
having seen himself threatened, as had been the case be- 
fore, with being obliged to take arms in favor of the 
rebels. He left Fort Pitt three months ago in company 
with three others. He had embarked with a Mr. Morin. 


whom he had met with while hunting upon the beautiful 

He was asked what was going on at that time at the 
Fort and in the surrounding provinces. 

He replied, that he had heard it said that the troops of 
the king were spread through the villages in the neighbor- 
hood of the said Fort and that their general was at a place 
called the White Horse. 

He was asked if he had heard that Philadelphia had 
been taken and how.? 

He answered, that the people of Philadelphia had re- 
moved everything which barred the river and had given 
free entrance to the ships of his majesty. 

He was asked if there had been any affair between the 
troops of the King and the rebel army.? 

He made answer, that he had heard it said that there 
had been a battle upon a small river called Schuylskill 
and that the rebels had lost. 

He was asked where Congress was.? 

In reply, he stated that Congress was at Lancaster at 
the time he left, but that since it had retired to Carlisle. 

He was asked as to whether he had any knowledge of 
an armament being prepared for this country. 

He replied, that he had heard nothing of it before leav- 

He was asked if he knew George Morgan and where he 


He replied, that he knew him, that Morgan had gone 
to Philadelphia in search of money to pay for the provi- 
sions of the troops of which he was the purveyor, and that 
he had not returned. 

He was asked if he had any further information to give.? 

He replied, that he had heard it said, that this engage- 
ment would take place this spring, that the people inclined 
for the party of the King and were only kept back by the 


oath which had been exacted from every family to the 
contrary, and added that they had conducted the prison- 
ers taken from the royalist army to a place called Win- 

He furnished his statement declaring that it contained 
only the truth, and not knowing how to sign his name he 
signed thro' his clerk and the witnesses here below. 


Henry x Butler. 


ROCHEBLAVE, Commandant. 
Patt Kennedy, Charles Gogis, Carbonneau, Clerk. 

And today the i6th of the said month, continuing the 
same interrogatory which business had obliged us to inter- 
rupt. The same Butler after having again taken oath was 
asked v.'hat was the force of the garrison and the name of 
the commandant.' 

He replied, that the Brigadier Gen. Hand, formerly 
doctor to the eighteenth Regiment, commanded there and 
that there were in the neighborhood of one hundred men 
in the garrison, the greater part of them deserters from 
the troops of His Majesty there. The thing has not been 
clearly explained, they are deserters from the colonies. 

He was asked if there was a great number of barges or 
bateaux prepared .-" 

He replied, that there were in the neighborhood of 
ninety barges or bateaux already made ready and that 
they were employed daily in constructing others. There 
would have been a larger number but that a storm had 
destroyed seventeen of them. 

He was asked if he was acquainted with a person called 
W. Liny.-* He replied, no. 

He was asked what pay they received.' 

He answered, that he had received nothing during the 
three months that he had been at Fort Pitt. 


He was asked what the people thought of this on this 
side of the Apalachians? 

He rephed, that they had kept quiet until they should 
have constructed the barges, and that then it was thought 
that they were for the escape of the chiefs and of con- 
gress, and that the people had planned to arrest them if 
they sought to escape in that direction. 

The reading of the declaration having been made to 
him, he declared that it contained the truth, and that he 
had nothing to change, augment, or diminish therein, and 
has made his mark not knowing how to sign his name, the 
year and day as below given. 


Henry x Butler. 


Patt Kennedy, James Morin, Carbonneau. 
Witness. Witness. Clerk. 

[Endorsed:] Examination of Henry Butler at Post 
Vincennes before Mons. Rocheblave. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, B. 122, p. 12. 

Sir: — I have the honor of informing your excellency 
that, at the close of last month, I went to St. Vincennes 
to confer there with Lieut. Gov. Abbott upon the affairs 
of this region. I urged him not to leave, or at least to 
withdraw here and assume command. I was not success- 
ful in this attempt. I took for my return route the way of 
the Wabash and the beautiful river, ascending the Mis- 
sissippi, and arriving at this Fort. My intention was to 
learn the disposition of the Indians, particularly of the 
Delawares. M. Abbott and I have been informed that 
they have entered into engagements contrary to the inter- 
ests of the crown, and I wished to dissipate the impressions 


to our disadvantage which our neighbors seek to inculcate 
dail)'. I learned upon my arrival at the beautiful river, 
the fifth of the present month, that two days ago a vessel 
had passed coming from Fort Pitt, which had taken two 
brothers who under the passport of Mr. Abbott had gone 
to trade with the Indians. I learned the next day that 
they had also taken M. Le Chance, officer of Militia at 
this place who left before me, going under my passport to 
journey to St. Vincennes. They took with the latter his 
childred, his effects and his negroes. They took likewise 
one of the two brothers of the first capture, with fifty 
packages of skins which they had, after making them 
understand that they should only put the blame on their 
passport and that they wished to take Mr. Hamilton, 
Abbott, and myself. We discovered that, by their lan- 
guage, they were seeking to inspire a spirit of independence 
among the people. The ship is large, pointed and with 
quarter netting having, according to some of the engages, 
two cannon, and four, according to others, who say that 
two are masked, and forty soldiers, commanded by an 
officer from Philadelphia named Willing, who has three 
others under his orders. It is loaded with provisions. 
Congress has written by this occasion to the Spanish 
Governor at New Orleans, and the Commandant of that 
nation in this region has received a letter of the contents 
of which nothing has transpired. 

As I had good reason to fear they would proceed only 
as far as the Illinois, I decided to abandon the project of 
visiting the Indians at the adjoining rivers, and by travel- 
ing day and night to arrive before them. I met at the 
entrance of the Mississippi the recruits of the two captives, 
whom they had landed stripped of everything, after hav- 
ing required of them that they would not take arms 
against their pretended states. I learned that they under- 
iitood (if one could put faith in what some soldiers said to 


some engages of their acquaintance) that their aim is to 
possess themselves, with the aid of their supporters and 
others of their sort, of Natchez and Manchac, and to force 
to take arms in their favor several thousands of those 
located at the foot of the Mississippi, and to return with 
munitions of war. 

If such is their plan, I think that in any event, they 
must prepare a way of retreat for the chiefs of this fatal 
revolt, who, taking refuge in a country covered with 
immense forests, surrounded by numberless rivers, and 
assisted by our neighbors, could not be dispossessed of it 
without a severe blow, and without causing immense 
expense in view of the local difficulties. 

I would be all the more tempted to attribute this pro- 
ject to them, since after the battle of Long Island, the 
capture of New York, and subsequent events, when finally 
things were at their worst for them, they caused to be 
constructed a quantity of barges at Fort Pitt, and the 
project was proposed to the Spaniards, according to what 
a reliable person from their side has told me, and was 
only abandoned when they had taken heart again after the 
surprise of Trenton. Thus we can see the Congress keep- 
ing alive here the leaven of the rebellion. Your excel- 
lency knows better than anyone how important it is, for 
the interests of Great Britain, that they should not have 
immediate relations with a jealous power, and one which 
exists in a region where it can in safety foment the trou- 
bles in the colonies, subdued or to be subdued. 

Four months ago, after the arrival of the boats from 
New Orleans, the Spaniards sent off by night three men 
to carry letters to Fort Pitt. They spread the story that 
they were going to hunt o the Beautiful River. Although 
I did not credit the report, I have only recently been 
assured of the fact by two savages who met them. 

I regret exceedingly. Monsieur, that the state of affairs 


does not permit you to maintain here some troops, by 
means of which, and the inhabitants could give aid to 
them, they could cut off all foreign relations, make the 
passage of the Beautiful River at least dangerous, and 
could plant themselves on the hills at the foot of the 
Mississippi, and compel our neighbors to ccntribute only 
their good wishes to the continuation of our troubles. If 
zeal and activity alone could procure us these advantages, 
as my honor is concerned, your excellency might remain 
without anxiety. Although stripped of everything, I 
would not cease to put forth every effort and would only 
desist from it, when there was no more hope. I place 
before you the declaration of a deserter from the colonies. 
He as well as others has asked that they might enjoy the 
benefits offered to those who leave the rebel army. I 
implore your excellency to give me directions upon this 
subject, as well as upon the deeding of lands which num- 
bers of the refugees from the colonies are soliciting, con- 
jointly with the inhabitants of the Spanish prairie. I have 
likewise sent you a journal of last year which sets forth the 
doings of the Spanish with the Indians of our shore to 
our prejudice, and a notice by which anyone on their side 
can warn me of any evil designs of the rebels towards me. 

I must inform you that the roof of the house of the 
fort which is of shingles is entirely rotten being made 
twenty five years ago and that it rains in everywhere 
altho' I am continually patching it up. If there is much 
longer delay in putting on a new roof, a house which has 
cost more than forty thousand piastres to the Jesuits will 
be lost. 

It grieves me to the heart, sir, to speak with you on the 
subject of finance. My expenditure for the first thirteen 
months of my government, has reached about one thou- 
sand pounds sterling, for which deduction should be made 
for the sum Mr. Hamilton was willing to pay. I have 


taken the liberty of drawing upon your excellency in favor 
of Messrs. Unirat & Eirre, according to the account which 
I have had the honor of addressing to you. I have the un- 
happiness of learning that these same drafts, of which one 
is in the hands of Mr. Maisonville at Detroit and the other 
is held by Mr. de Seve at Montreal, have not been paid, 
which renders all business nearly impossible and costs the 
more. If you were fully persuaded, sir, of the necessity 
of such expense and of the dispositions of our neighbors, 
if you were well informed that under the old government 
T have not had the wit to make a fortune, that at present 
I have not even the time to think of it, you would see 
that with resources so small for a country so large, I have 
been able to make redoubled efforts against our neighbors 
harboring bands of adventurers coming from the colonies, 
and have kept alive a sort of government in a region where 
jealousy and scheming have sought to introduce anarchy 
and confusion. I am persuaded that the goodness and the 
justice of your heart will not permit you to hesitate to order 
the payment which has not already been made. Your order 
to suspend all expenses which reached me July last, did 
not surprise me, having in some sort solicited it, by a letter 
in which I had the honor of pointing out that in a time 
where the State was required to make violent effort it was 
wise to forbid them here. But scarcely had I written thus, 
deceived by an insidious tranquility, when two well founded 
alarms came to disabuse me. Out of respect for your orders 
I ought in reply to point out to your excellency that from 
this day I have discontinued those for account of the 
King, and, judging them indispensable, have continued 
my own. I have strongly felt that the honor of the nation 
would not permit you sir to make costly a fanaticism of 
zeal so little proportioned to my means, and that you 
would need more of me than to see me the sport of our 
neighbors and of the savages. 


I have on every occasion urged that I might be replaced 
by some other person better accredited, and, this being 
settled in my favor, I will go so far to-day as to even say 
that the good of the service requires this. A native born 
Englishman would experience fewer annoyances on the 
part of those who have this advantage, although those 
who are here are little worthy to be so styled. They whom 
I have had business with of that faction, and who have 
often wasted the attention due to other matters have given 
me too much vexation, besides one has need of a clear 
head here, and my niind is daily impaired and weakened 
by a thousand details, each one more disagreeable than 
the other, being obliged to be the fac totiim of everything. 

I have the honor to be with the most respectful consid- 
eration your excellency's very humble and obedient ser- 

p. S. I have forgotten to inform you that in July last 
seeing myself without resources and threatened with a 
war which they told me on every side would not long be 
delayed, and almost positive that your excellency would 
not pay I begged Mr. Abbott to add to his account four 
hundred and four piastres that I had given in merchandise 
to the Indians of his government before his arrival, which 
he did. Meanwhile this same charge is carried into the 
accounts of the first thirteen months. I ought to reim- 
burse it. if you have paid it, or to carry it in a deduction 
upon the current account if you admit it. I have forced 
myself to this kind of deceit, which the crisis alone could 
justify, to furnish me either the funds or time, and it 
troubles me all the more because it is foreign to my char- 
acter. Fort Gage le i8 Fr. 1778. 

[Endorsed:] Mr. Rocheblave, 8th Feb. jZ. 


Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series i, Vol. 15, p. 196. 

Fort Gage of Illinois, 28th February, 1778. 

My Lord: — The unfortunate situation in which his 
Excellency, Mr. Carleton, found himself at the end of the 
year 1775, at the time of the invasion of the province of 
Quebec by the Colonists, obliged him to recall the garri- 
son of this Country in order to fall back upon Detroit and 
Niagara. This general judged wisely that under the cir- 
cumstances it were better not to have the few troops 
belonging to him widely dispersed, when in consolidating 
them lay his only chance of accomplishing anything. In 
consequence of his orders, Captain Hugh Lord, who had 
governed this country with general satisfaction evacuated 
it, leaving me in charge without troops, without money, 
without resources. This evacuation which the then crisis 
rendered necessary, and could alone justify, should have 
been remedied when the face of affairs had changed. But 
I think there is but little known in regard to this country. 
It will soon become the center of communication between 
the Colonists and the Spaniards by means of the Missis- 
sippi and the beautiful river, which offers them connection 
with the Gulf of Mexico and New Orleans. I have in 
vain set forth the danger of this, but have been powerless 
to prevent it from lack of means. I take the liberty my 
Lord of representing to you that the only means of saving 
this country and to guard against the numberless impedi- 
ments to communication, is the immediate residence here 
of a lieutenant governor and troops. This statement of 
mine should be believed all the more since their coming 
would eclipse me. I wish that the nation could know that 
this is one of the best possessions, and that some en- 
couragement could be given it. 

Not having the honor of being known to you, my Lord, 


I will not venture to take the liberty of expressing myself 
at greater length. I refer you in regard to the account to 
be rendered you, to Mr. Abbott, lieutenant governor at 
St.Vincennes, whom to our great regret threatening cir- 
cumstances have obliged to go to meet the troops at 
Detroit. I will confine myself to asking your favor for an 
old soldier on half pay in Europe in 1748 and in America 
in 1763. 

Having from fortune only a wife and children, I beg of 
you that they may be given the pension of the command- 
ants at the Posts. I have the honor to be with respectful 
consideration, My Lord, your very humble and obedient 
servant. ROCHEBLAVE. 

[Endorsed:] Fort Gage of the Illinois, Feb. 28th, 1778, 
Mr. de Rocheblave, R. 13th Sept. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, Vol. 122, p. 35. 

[Detroit, April 25, 1778.] 
By a deserter arrived from Fort Pitt, we have learned 
that the people of Philadelphia having shaken off the 
yoke of Congress, have raised the chain which prevented 
the ships of the King from passing, and have by so doing 
returned to their allegiance to his majesty. Congress had 
fled precipitately toward the mountains, after the com- 
plete rout of its army, that the people sigh ardently for 
peace in order to escape from the most frightful misery. 
The chiefs of the revolt are saving their effects by the 
route to Fort Pitt. 

A boat descending from the said Fort, has taken the 
Srs. Becquet and their packages. Mr. La Chance has sub- 
mitted to the same fate with his brandy. Although the 
colonists have never had the ill will of this country, this is 


a certain proof that they would spare them Httle, if they 
came there in force. Certain rumors which are abroad as 
to the bad disposition of the savages, make me desire to 
speak with the Chiefs of the Loups. I beg of you if you 
if you are at the Post to induce them to come and see me. 

(The above extract of a letter from Mr. de Rocheblave dated F'eb'ry 28, 
1778, was communicated by Lieut. -Gov. Abbott to Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, 
and by him sent to Gen. Carleton — under date of April 25, 1778, from 

Rocheblave to Lieut.- Gov. Hamilton. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, Vol. 122, p. 33. 
After Midnight, March 17th, 1778. 

Sir: — At supper time there entered this evening a 
delaware war chief who reported that five or six hundred 
rebels are making a fort on the riv^er of the Chaouanons 
which is eighteen leagues above the mouth of the beauti- 
ful river. This being true we are upon the eve of great 
events in this country. 

He said that his people had killed four of them and had 
lost a chief. I am more and more convinced that this 
Country is to become their retreat and that we need 
troops here. The Sieur des Groselliers the present mes- 
senger is about to go in search of merchandise for Mr. 
Cerre. As we are in extreme need of everything, I beg 
you to facilitate his progress in every way. If the rebels 
secure possession, I will warn you in time to stop his 
return. I have the honor to be, sir, your very humble and 
obedient servant. ROCHEBLAVE. 

To the Hon. Henry Hamilton, Esquire, Lieut, gov. of 
Detroit and dependencies thereto. 

[Endorsed:] From Mr. Rocheblave to Lieut. Govr. 
Hamilton of 17 March, 1778. 


Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, Vol, 122, p. 89. 

Fort Gage, 20th June, 1778. 

Sir: — The news which the boats arriving yesterday 
bring us are confined to the acts of brigandage done on 
the lower Mississippi by the party of Mr. WilHng which 
has pillaged indiscriminately to the extent of their power 
the English subjects, after having once left them in peace, 
and received their oath of neutrality. 

Conduct so odious, so worthy of an Arab has already 
begun to receive a part of the return it merits, a detach- 
ment of this corps having been surprised to the number of 
sixteen at Manchac, where a party from Pensacola killed 
four of their men and carried off a dozen. As they hast- 
ened to richer prey, they left the Natchez without pillag- 
ing them but they afterward sent a detachment of thirty- 
two men in a boat with six pieces of cannon to make this 
expedition. But the people of the Natchez becoming 
wise by the fate of the others, attacked them and having 
killed seven, have taken the rest as well as the boat and 
cannon, and have managed to prevent them from coming 
up the river, being five hundred under arms with the 
savages, having made up their minds not to permit them 
to take all of their goods. I hope alwaj's to have the 
honor of seeing you, having reasons which should engage 
you to come without delay. I have the honor to be with 
sincere attachment, Sir, your very humble and very obedi- 
ent servant. Rocheblave. 


Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, B. 122, p. loi. 

Fort Gage of the Illinois, the 4th July, 1778. 

Sir: — I have drawn today upon you in favor of Mr. 

Dejean for twelve hundred and sixty two pounds and a 



half sterling for to pay the expense since the twenty 
fouth May of last year until today. I have the honor of 
giving you advice by the present, praying that you will 
honor it. The uncertainty in which I am as to whether 
my draft of last year has been paid, has occasioned me an 
increase of expense by the high prices and the state of 
dependence in which I have been kept. 

And meanwhile the information concerning the doings 
of our neighbors the Spaniards with the Americans require 
that I should do even more than before, if my services are 
to be of any use to this Country. 

I offer them freely. I have the honor to be with the 
most entire consideration, etc. RoCHEBLAVE. 

[Endorsed:] 1778, Letter from Monsieur Rocheblave, 
Commandant at Fort Gage, Dated 4th July. 

Rocheblave to Thomas Dunn, Treasurer, Quebec. 

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, B. 122, p. 102. 

Fort Gage, 4th July, 1778. 
Bill of Exchange, ;^i26i. 10 sterling. 

By this bill of exchange, it will please you to pay, the 
second and third of the same date and tenure being un- 
paid, to Mr. Dejean or order the sum of twelve hundred 
and sixty two and one half pounds sterling to liquidate 
the expense incurred in this country since the 24th of May 
of last year up to this day, according to the advice of 
your very humble and very obedient servant. 

Rocheblave, Commandant at the Illinois. 

To Mr. Dunn, Treasurer General of the Province of 
Quebec, at Quebec. 

[Endorsed:] A copy of a bill of exchange drawn by 
M. Rocheblave on Mr. Dunn, for $1262. 10 sterling, Fort 
Gage, the 4th July, 1778. 


Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, 13. 122, p. 91. 

Sir: — I have had from time to time the honor of in- 
forming your Excellency of the journey of Mr. Willing, a 
native of Philadelphia, a would be captain for Congress, 
who left Fort Pitt last winter, directing his way, at the 
beginning of February, towards the lower part of the 
Mississippi, having under his orders in a bateaux four 
officers and about forty soldiers. By bateaux arriving from 
New Orleans we learn that he put himself at the head of 
three hundred rogues, after having perpetrated every kind 
of brigandage in the English establishments, pillaging to 
the extent of more than a million and a half of piastres in 
negroes, indigo, silver and skins, without counting a pro- 
digious quantity of merchandise of all sorts, and munitions 
of war. He has destroyed English Arkansas, which is no 
longer anything but a desert, and of which the greater 
part of the inhabitants have joined the troop. He con- 
ducted the remainder to Spanish Arkansas, and there, 
having found a kind of portrait of His Britannic Majesty 
they carried it along on the end of a pole, and then with 
a gun fired a number of shots at it, without the comman- 
dant offering any opposition to this indecency. They went 
from there to the largest English establishment at Natchez, 
a hundred leagues distant from Arkansas, and an equal 
•distance from New Orleans, but it not being very rich they 
attacked it in the night and carried off several persons to 
serve them as hostages. They hastened from there to 
gain the habitations of the merchants. These required 
two of them to sign a promise of neutrality, and to give 
their word of honor to leave them in peace, but, after 
gathering together a band of rascals of all nationalities, 
they began to pillage and ravage with a fury more worthy 
of the savages who surround us than of a civilized nation. 
And, as if the names of briorands was not enough for 


them, they have wished to add that of perjurers, in refus- 
ing to give their share of the pillage to the ruffians who 
joined them only upon the promise to do so. In leaving 
Manchac for New Orleans they left behind a dozen men 
to gather the animals together. A detachment coming 
from Pensacola by the lakes and the river D'Iberville, 
which is an offshoot of the Mississippi seventy miles from 
its mouth, killed three of them and led the rest captives 
to their garrison. Willing came in search of the animals 
and caused the houses to be set on fire. I forgot to say 
that upon their arrival at Manchac they surprised and 
boarded a frigate of eighteen cannon. Odious as may be 
their doings, the preservation of this country is due to 
their course of rapine and perjury. Mobile and perhaps 
Pensacola would perhaps have succumbed, if more desirous 
of conquest than of booty they had used more moderation. 
The partisans of the government, although to a great 
degree already disposed to take arms in their favor, would 
have been forced to do so by a band of adventurers, but 
that some seeing the devastations, and others the broken 
faith in depriving them of their share of the spoils, thought 
only of getting away secretly to Natchez. Willing, who 
was ignorant of this and who was counting on his adher- 
ents, sent after the pillagers two officers with thirty sold- 
iers in a vessel carrying six pieces of cannon. The 
inhabitants of Natchez, embarking to the number of six 
hundred, killed seven of their number, among whom were 
some officers, and have captured the rest. Willing used 
money by the handful to recruit soldiers at New Orleans. 
Such is as far as the present time, sir, the state of this 
expedition, the progress of which as your excellency may 
judge, may be attributed only to the conformity of senti- 
ment of the great part of the people of this country with 
the other Americans, which might have been kept undei: 
control by a few troops joined by those well disposed. 


These would have overawed our neighbors, whose fraudu- 
lent neutrality has been more fatal to us than a war, which 
would have permitted us to have put them out of the 
account before they had strengthened themselves. 

You will remember sir, that I have had the honor of 
pointing out to your excellency that there were arms and 
habiliments for more than a thousand men in the maga- 
zines of the King of Spain at New Orleans. Upon the 
arrival of Willing, there were taken away three or four 
thou.sand pieces of blue and white cloth, which under 
frivolous pretexts have been sold to the priests, while the 
merchants have not been able to procure any. More than 
two thousand pieces and a great quantity of powder have 
already been sold there, for the service of the colonies. 
Their agent will come down one of these days to load 
two vessels. It is hoped, by the means of the French and 
the Spanish, in case the Natchez stand firm, to take over 
three hundred pounds of powder destined down below for 
them, as well as the products of their robberies. 

Three bateaux have lately passed on the beautiful river, 
going from Fort Pitt loaded with provisions to New 
Orleans, with four hundred men. I have hastened off a 
party to get the start of them if possible, and to forewarn 
the Natchez. They say these bateaux will be constantly 
followed by others, so that this fall the beautiful river will 
be covered with bateaux carrying provisions, which they 
dare not confide to the sea, if your excellency does not 
see to this promptly. 

The new Spanish Commandant has orders to construct 
four forts at the Illinois, where they expect a battalion 
this fall. They will form two in the City, The old officers, 
on half pay from France have places there, and the ships 
have gone to Vera Cruz in search of soldiers. Discourage- 
ment is extreme here among the inhabitants, from the 
practices of our neighbors and some of the native English, 


much less patriots than the so called subjects, if these 
were backed up. But I repeat with regret that with troops 
the ground might have been held. Without this, nothing 
can be hoped from them, so greatly have they been made 
to fear. The Spanish have announced, to induce them to 
come to them, that they will give the means of subsistence 
during three years, ground, one pair of oxen, and the 
necessary implements for cultivating the soil. So far they 
have not been able to gain over any one, which is no small 
proof of the preference they feel for this government. But 
it is to be feared that the crisis they have now reached will 
cause this to disappear. If the government would run 
the risk of losing three or four hundred pounds sterling, 
which it would cost to export the harvest of the inhabi- 
tants of New Orleans who could be reimbursed by the 
sale, we should have the pleasure of seeing rise and fall, 
perhaps for ever, the Spanish battalion which can not 
subsist without provisions from this shore, their harvest 
having failed. It would be neither possible nor reason- 
able to prevent the inhabitants from selling to them un- 
less the failure could be proved to them. They could not 
draw these from the towns, except at immense expense 
and with invincible obstacles during winter, which would 
make them promptly renounce all projects of establish- 
ment. If I do regret not being rich, it is upon an occa- 
sion which furnishes us the means of avenging ourselves, 
without exposure and without consequences, upon a 
thousand enemies, and for acts of hostility to which I 
have to be all the more sensible, as, allowing something 
to circumstances, I have been prompt to do that which 
could injure them. 

The crew of the two bateaux which brought the new 
commandant have settled themselves in the habitations of 
the iLnglish, deserted by all that had escaped or been 
despised by the Americans. The proprietors have carried 


their complaints to New Orleans. I await a reply to 
those I have brought here. I await with the greatest 
impatience the orders of your excellency, or rather I beg 
of you to give them to some other person a native 
Englishman, in order to escape the too common jealous- 
ies of some, who having merely the name, and whose 
affections are all for the Americans, are seeking to thwart 
all my efforts, intriguing with our neighbors and poison- 
ing with the venom of their hearts the purest intentions. 
I assure you, sir, that, if I had the advantage of being 
born English, I should have retained but few of those 
who are here who seem to me to be the shame and dis- 
grace of the nation. Let no one accuse me of prejudice. 
Every honest man has always his rights and I have 
certain ones exempt from national prejudice. 

A native Englishman would not have done for them 
what I have done, and for the same reason would have 
controlled them better. Reckless spirits for the most 
part, they thought that the government owed them every- 
thing and that they owed nothing to the government. 
They raise a cry for liberty in all that concerns them, 
while their minds and hearts are full of schemes of oppres- 
sion for all that does not pertain to themselves. Will 
your excellency deign to pardon the expressions coming 
from a heart shattered with grief which only fall upon 
the unworthy members of a race I have always admired 
and respected, and to whom I may say I have been 
assured of the esteem of all others, and of the generous 
and enlightened nations who might have been in their 
place. I beg you to see, sir, only an excess of zeal in the 
urgent solicitations I have the honor to make to you ta 
send at once a body of troops here, to prevent the impor- 
tation of an immense quantity of all sorts of aid for the 
colonies. All the alarms I have sought to give will be 
only too well realized. We are upon the eve of seeing 


here a numerous band of brigands who will establish a 
chain of communication which will not be easy to break, 
once formed. If by the schemes of the Spanish the 
Natchez are conquered, there will be established an armed 
force in this country. You have no time to lose to pre- 
vent this misfortune. If militia can be counted for any- 
thing at present, a person of discretion with troops would 
attract more adherents than would be believed. Inclina- 
tion is, in spite of abandonment and distress, still for the 
government, but it is more than time to revive their 
drooping courage or all will be lost here. 

The Indians are in general well enough disposed, but 
it is difficult to control them with so small a force, besides 
without numbers one can not inspire respect. All that 
can be done is to destroy the impressions that our neigh- 
bors and emissaries of the colonies seek to instil. I am 
struggling against this all I can, in order to gain time and 
keep the door open. 

My expenses since the twenty fourth of May of last 
year to the present time amounts to thirteen hundred and 
fifty seven pounds sterling, of which I have drawn upon 
Mons. Abbott for four hundred and four and a half, as set 
forth in the expenses of the first thirteen months, to be 
deducted if the account has been paid of which I am 
ignorant as yet. I draw upon Mr. Dunn for this sum, 
and implore your excellency to order this payment, being 
overcome with demands. 

With a letter of credit upon some merchant accredited 
for a limited sum upon the merchants here, a saving 
might be made upon the expenses, and one would not be 
placed in a shameful and injurious dependence, but would 
be master of his undertakings. I will send the account 
by the first opportunity being too much occupied today. 
I entreat your excellency, if I can be of no more use here, 
when you replace me to grant some assistance to a father 


of a family in pecuniary difficulties. I recommend myself 
to you and assure you of the respectful considertion with 
which I have the honor to be, sir, your very humble and 
obedient servant. RocHEBLAVE. 

Fort Gage, the 4th of July, 1778. 

[Endorsed:] 1778, from Mr. Rocheblave, commanding 
at the Illinois of the 4th of July. Rec'd at Montreal, 
Canada, Enclosed in Lt. Govr. Hamilton's letter of the 
6th Aufjust, marked Detroit No. 7. 

Rocheblave to Carleton. 

Translated from "Canadian Archives," Series B. 97, i, p. i. 

Sir: — I steal a moment from my guards in order to 
have the honor of informing your excellency that the 
night of the fifth or sixth of July last three hundred 
rebels under the orders of Mr. Gierke [.'], the self-styled 
Colonel, arrived here where they have made me prisoner. 

The majority of the inhabitants knowing the manoeu- 
vres which had occurred in the lower part of the Missis- 
sippi were resolved to defend themselves, but the dealings 
of our neighbors, the Spaniards and the abuse of the 
treacherous English, especially those named Daniel Mur- 
ray, Richard Winston and John Hanson, prevented them 
from doing it. There remained to me for a resource Mr. 
Le Gros who prepared himself with forty men to come 
and join me from Fort Vincennes, where he is captain of 
militia, but the rebels having landed on the beautiful 
river, si.xty leagues from here, crossed the neck of land 
which separates that river from this place, and prevented 
that. I regret so much the more that he did not arrive, 
as a number of men on seeing me supported would have 
joined themselves to us, and we would have been able to 
hold the balance of affairs in opposition to those who 
were destitute and in extremities. 


Uselessly for two years past, I have been representing 
the necessity of cutting off the communication between 
the beautiful river and the Mississippi, carried on with the 
Spaniards. It is open, and I hope that there does not 
result more inconvenience than I have predicted. I beg 
your excellency to pay the expenses for which I have 
drawn upon Mr. Dunn. I entreat you to have pity upon 
the family of Captain Hugh Lord left wnth mine without 
resource, their effects and mine having been for the most 
part seized and sold. I leave here a wife and seven chil- 
dren deprived of the first necessities of life. They sa)' 
that I depart to morrow for the Congress. I recommend 
myself to you to be exchanged. I say nothing to you 
of my prison, which there is nothing like in Algiers. I 
have lost between Mr. Lord and myself in slaves, animals, 
goods and utensils, nine thousand piastres. I hope that 
your excellency will have regard to our families, and will 
cause them to receive some aid by the way of Mr. De 
Feire, merchant at Montreal, who could give his orders to 
Mr. Cerre, merchant here. I have neither a good pen 
nor any other paper. Your excellency will excuse a 
prisoner who writes upon his knees. Sick as he is, the 
time has come when he must depart from the country. 
I have the honor to be with the most respectful consider- 
ation your excellency's very humble and obedient servant, 


Fort Gage, the third of April, [August.^] 1778."" 

* The date of this letter, as copied from the "Canadian Archives," appears 
to be April 3, 1 778, but this is a palpable error, as Rocheblave refers in it to 
his capture which took place in July, 1778. It probably was written August 
3, 1778, as he speaks of being made prisoner in "July last," and also mentions 
his probable departure the next day " for the Congress, " that is to Virginia, 
and we know that he was sent to Williamsburg not long after his capture. It 
will be noticed that he says he was taken prisoner the night of the fifth or 
sixth of July, while all other accounts represent this as occurring on the night 
of the fourth of that month. — E. (i. M. 

By John Moses, 

Secretary Chicago Historical Society. 

THE "Illinois country," although ceded by the French 
to Great Britain two years previously, in consequence 
of the armed opposition of its native proprietors, was not 
reduced to actual possession, until the surrender of Fort 
Chartres, its capital, "with its barracks, magazines, and 
artillery," on October lO, 1765. 

It was not considered "sound policy" by the British 
government to encourage, nor even permit, British settle- 
ments within this newly-acquired territory. It was feared 
that they would not only weaken and retard the growth of 
the older communities on the Atlantic, which they desired 
to foster, but that the inhabitants would eventually become,, 
as stated by the governor of Georgia, "a separate and in- 
dependent people who would set up for themselves."* 

The country was to be held under a military govern- 
ment, and the French inhabitants, less than two thousand 
in number, who elected to remain in the country were to 
be protected in their religion, and treated kindly, receiv- 
ing the same rights and privileges as native-born subjects 
of the king. Trade was to be encouraged, and the most 
friendly relations maintained with the Indians. 

Thomas Sterling, then a gallant young captain in the 
Forty-second Highlanders — the celebrated "Black-Watch" 
regiment — who subsequently fought his way up to a major- 
generalship and a baronetcy, to whom Fort Chartres was 
surrendered, remained in command but a short time, and 

• " Report of Briiish Board of Trade," 27. 


was succeeded by Maj. Robert Farmer in Dec, 1765, by 
Col. Edward Cole, in 1766-8, and he by Col. John Reed. 
The latter was relieved at his own request, and was fol- 
lowed Sept. 5, 1768, by "John Wilkins, Esquire, lieuten- 
ant-colonel of his majesty's Eighteenth or Royal regiment 
of Ireland, and commandant throughout the Illinois 
country," as he described himself 

Upon learning that the country, where they had lived 
so long and thrived, had changed owners, a large portion 
of the French removed to the west side of the Mississippi. 
Those who remained became difficult subjects to govern. 
They regarded their new rulers as their hereditary ene- 
mies, and admired neither their laws, manners and cus- 
toms, nor their regulations concerning trade. 

A few British families and soldiers from the fort oc- 
cupied some of the farms which had been abandoned by 
the French or sold for a nominal sum. The principal 
trading of the country, it appears, was in the hands of what 
was called "The Company," a firm composed of Boyn- 
ton, Wharton and Morgan. It dealt in cattle and pro- 
duce, and had stores at Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres. 

The French and Indians in their free-and-easy methods 
of dealing with each other had their disagreements, but 
these were easily settled in comparison with the more 
serious disputes which grew out of the trade with their 
new neighbors. 

As a remedy for the evils of a strictly military adminis- 
tration. Col. Wilkins, pursuant to orders from Gen. Gage, 
Nov. 21, 1768, granted commissions of the peace to seven 
of his subjects, English and French, who together were to 
"form a court of judicature to determine all causes of 
debt," but without the intervention of a jury. George 
Morgan, manager of "the company," who was very un- 
popular with the French on account of his supposed hos- 
tile interests, was made the president of the court. 


The commandant was inclined to favor his appointee^ 
the French petitioned and remonstrated against him, 
and a small rebellion broke out in opposition to the 
newly-established judicial tribunal." It suited neither the 
British, who preferred the finding of a jury and objected 
to the rulings of a French magistrate; nor the French 
who had no respect for the verdict of a jury and a strong 
proclivity against British justices-of-the-peace. 

Courts of enquiry, as they were called — ordered by the 
commandant, being more in consonance with military rule,, 
appear to have been adopted as a mode of settling civil 
disputes in place of the unsatisfactory magistrates' court. 

One of these, of which we have only a meagre account, 
was ordered Jan. 13, 1769, to adjust accumulating and 
aggravating disputes between George Morgan and certain 
complaining French citizens. The proceedings, lasting 
until Jan. 20, were rancorously exciting and the result not 
satisfactory to either party." 

Another one of these courts of enquiry was ordered by 
the commandant upon the complaint of one Richard 
Bacon to settle certain matters of "personal abuse" from, 
and violations of contract by, the same George Morgan, 
before mentioned. The complete record of this proceed- 
ing has been preserved among the archives of the State 
Historical Society of Wisconsin, which, through the cour- 
tesy of R. G. Thwaites, corresponding-secretary, we are 
permitted to have the pleasure of laying before our readers. 

The court convened, Sept. 24, 1770. Among its mem- 
bers was the noted Thomas Hutchins, then an ensign in 
the king's service, subsecjuently the geographer— surveyor- 
general, of the United States; and among the witnesses 
were Patrick Kennedy, who wrote the "Journal of a Tour 
up the Illinois River in 1775," and a Mr. Winston, who, it 
is fair to infer, was the Richard Winston who figured at 
Kaskaskia as commandant in 1779. 

* The Historical Magazine, 1864, VIII, 262, 270. 


The record, beginning with the original contract between 
the parties, affords an inside view of the condition of affairs 
in Illinois. at this time, as interesting as it is amusing: 

"Articles of Agreement made and Concluded & Agreed . 
upon this 2 1 St day of march in the year of our Lord one 
thousand Seven hundred & Sixty Eight, by and between 
George Morgan, for himself, & John Boynton & Saml- 
Wharton of the City of Philadelphia, Merch: of the one 
part, & Richard Bacon late of Providence in New Eng- 
land now Residing in the Illinois of the other Part wit- 

"That whereas the said Boynton, Wharton, & Morgan, 
and Richd- Bacon have Agreed to Enter into a Copartner- 
ship, to & jointly to form a Settlement & Improve a plan- 
tation in the Illinois Country to raise Stock, Indian Corn, 
Tobacco, Wheat, & other Articles for the Joint benefit of 
them the said Boynton Wharton & Morgan & Rich^^- 

"For the better Carrying the design into Execution the 
said Boynton Wharton & Morgan do Covenant Grant & 
Agree on their parts as follows Viz 

"ist. That they will furnish a certain plantation which 
they purchas'd Situate in the Grand Prairie on the road 
between Fort Chartres & Kaskaskias, to be by them and 
the Said Rich"^!- Bacon Improv'd for the purposes aforesaid, 
and that tlie said Rich^l- Bacon shall have full Liberty to 
make all such Improvements thereon as they may now & 
hereafter agree upon, particularly to Cut & make use of 
all Trees & Timber thereunto belonging, as he may think 
proper for the joint Interest of the said Boynton Wharton 
& Morgan & him the said Richard Bacon. 

"2dly. That the said Boynton Wharton & Morgan will 
furnish every neces.sary in their power, for the better Car- 
rying on the Said improvement &c; at the joint risque 
& Expence of them the said Boynton Wharton & Morgan 


& Richard Bacon & that they will wait for the payment 
thereof from the Stock, grain, Tobacco &c; to be rais'd 
from said Plantation. 

"^dly. That they will advance all Monies which may be 
necessary for the wages of Men to assist in working on the 
Said Plantation at the joint Risque & Expence aforesaid. 

"4thly. That they will Stock the said plantation with as 
many breeding Sows, Cows, and with Cattle Horses &c; 
as they may esteem necessary or be required thereto by 
the said Richard Bacon if to be procurd or in their power, 
at the joint Risque & Expence of them the said Bojmton 
Wharton & Morgan & the said Richard Bacon & that they 
will wait at least twelve months for the payment thereof, 
or if necessary 'till they Can be paid on the Stock &c; 
rais'd on the said Plantation. 

" jst. And The said Rich^- Bacon on his part doth hereby 
Covenant, Grant, bargain & agree as follows Viz. 

"That he will at the same Time without any fee or 
reward other than what may arise from the Improvements 
of Raising Hogs, Cattle, Tobacco, Grain and other prod- 
uce for the joint benefit of the said Boynton, Wharton, & 
Morgan, & Richard Bacon, & that he will Employ and 
Oversee all such persons, as may be necessary for Carry- 
ing on the Improvements &c; aforesaid, at the joint Ris- 
que & Expence of the said Boynton Wharton & Morgan 
& the said Richard Bacon. 

'<2dly. That he will build one Log House on the afore- 
.said plantation & that he will fence in at least fifty acres 
thereof at the joint Cost of the said Boynton Wharton & 
Morgan & Richard Bacon as aforesaid, for the more Con- 
venient raising of Cattle, Hogs, Grain, Tobacco &c &c; 

"3dly. That out of the first produce from the said plan- 
tation, that the said Boynton Wharton & Morgan shall be 
repaid all the monies they may advance for the Improve- 
ments and Plxpences of the aforesaid Plantation. 



"^thly. That he will build proper Stables, Sheds, Pens 
&c; for the better keeping the Cattle Hogs &c; for the 
reception of the produce of the said plantation at the 
joint risque & Expence as aforesaid. 

"It is allso further mutually Covenanted, Bargain'd & 
Agreed, that all the benefits & Profits and Advantages 
that shall or may arise from raising of Stock, Tobacco, 
Grain, & other produce shall be equally Divided between 
the said Parties. 

"That is, that the said Boynton, Wharton, & Morgan, 
shall have, be entitled to, & Enjoy one half part thereofif, 
& that the said Rich^- Bacon shall have, be entitled to & 
Enjoy the one other half part thereof 

"And that this Copartnership shall Continue & last for 
Seven Years from the date hereof unless the aforesaid 
Richtl- Bacon shall Choose to decline the same at the 
Expiration of One year from the date hereof 

"And that all the Improvements made on the said plan- 
tation shall be & remain at the Expiration of the said 
Term of years to them the said Boynton, Wharton & Mor- 
gan, without any payment or allowance whatsoever. 

"Likewise that the said Boynton, Wharton & Morgan 
shall have & Enjoy full Liberty without any payment 
thereof, to place on the said Plantation, any number of 
Cattle, & Horses, which they may purchase on their own 
accounts & which the said Rich^- Bacon may not incline 
to become Concern'd in, & the said Richd. Bacon Engages 
& promises, to take the same Care of them, as the Stock 
which he may be interested in. 

" Sign'd Boynton, Wharton, & Morgan. 

"Seal'd & Delivered in the presence of J. Rumsey. 

"Sign'd JOSH RiGBY."* 

■ * Endorsed: "Copy of the Articles of Agreement Between B.[oynton] 
W.[harton], & Richard Bacon. No. 4." 



"Proceeding's of a Court of Enquiry on a Complaint 
Exhibited by M>- Richard Bacon against Geo: Morgan 
Esqr- for Personal Abuse, and not Complying Strictly to 
the Tenour of his Agreement with him Concerning the 
Improvement of a Earm or Plantation, Situated about Six 
Miles from P"ort Chartres on the Road from thence to 
Kaskaskia. By Order of Lieut- Colonel John Wilkins, 
Commandant at Eort Chartres & the Country of the 
Illinois &c; &c; this 24th. Septemr- 1770: 

"President, Lieu'- Lewis Wynne. Members: Lieut- 
Alex""- Fowler, Ensign Thos- Hutchins, P^nsign W'm- Rich- 
ardson, Ensign W'"- Conally. 

"The Court Order'd Mr- Bacon before them, who deliv- 
er'd the follow'g Annex'd Papers, which the Judge Advo- 
cate Read Publickly in Court, all Parties being present. 

" Articles of Agreement, between Messrs. Boynton, 
Wharton, & Morgan, & Mr- Richard Bacon, Annex'd to 
the Minutes; as also M^- Bacon's Memorial to Cob- Wil- 
kins, & his Paper to the Court Representing a State of his 

"Question proposed by ye Court to Mr. Bacon: — 'As 
you seem M""- Bacon to think that Mr- Morgan has Settled 
Mr- Elliott on Land you thought belonged to the Planta- 
tion, you had agreed with Mr. Morgan to Improve, ac- 
cording to the Annex'd Articles, The Court would be 
glad to know the Boundaries of Said Plantation, also 
that you wou'd point out to them the many Grievances & 
Injuries you so heavily Complain of Receiving from Mr- 

"Bacon. — T Cannot point out the Boundaries of the 
whole, but I Can point out the Boundaries of that part 
of the Plantation now in Dispute.' 

" Court. — ' How Came it that Mr. Morgan pointed out the 
Boundaries of one side of the Plantation, without point- 
ing out the Boundaries of je whole.'' 


"Answ. Bacon. — 'Mr. Morgan told me that he did not 
know the Boundaries of the other Parts of the Plantation.' 

"Court. — 'When the Agreement was made with Mes^s. 
Boynton, Wharton, & Morgan, & you, Concerning the 
Improvement of said Plantation, that is to Say, when 
you first Enter'd into Articles of Agreement with them, 
did you then know, or understand, that Mr- Morgan had 
any other Lands than the Lands Alluded to in the 
Articles of Agreement.'' 

"Ansr. Bacon. — 'All that I know of this matter is, that 
Mr- Morgan told me, that he had fourteen Acres of Land 
in Front, which land extends in length from the Roches 
leading to Kaskaskia, to the Banks of the Mississippi 
opposite thereto: But that about Six or Eight months 
afterwards, Mr- Morgan told me that he had Purchased 
Eight Acres in Front, more, which I understood Join'd 
the first purchased Plantation on the East side.' 

"Question proposed by Mr. Morgan: — 'From whom Mr. 
Bacon did you Imagine I had purchas'd the last Plot of 

"Ansr. Bacon. — 'I dont know. I never heard from whom.' 

"Court. — 'Did you know Mr- Bacon that Mr- Morgan 
had any other Plantation, or Lands whatever, in the 
Country of the Illinois, at the Time you Enter'd inta 
Articles with him.''' 

"Bacon. — 'I know of none except the Fourteen Acres 
already mentioned.' 

"Court. — 'If you dont know the Boundaries of your 
Plantation, how came you to Imagine that Mr- Elliott 
has Encroach'd upon you.'' 

"Bacon. — 'I know the Boundaries on the side next to 

"Question Mr. Morgan. — 'In what manner Mr. Bacon do 
you apprehend Mr- Elliott hath Encroahed upon you.'' 

"Bacon. — 'Mr- Elliott has Settled on a Place, which I 


had Clear'd & made some Improvements upon, whereon 
is a Spring which I Hkewise had Cleared & made Con- 
venient for the watering of my Cattle, & hath also taken 
Possession of a Shed or House which I had Built.' 

"Court. — 'Was this House or Shed just now mentioned, 
built, before Mr- Morgan left the Illinois Country in the 
beginning of July 1769, or had you his Leave in writing 
or otherwise, to Build Said House or Shed.?' 

"Bacon. 'The House or Shed was not Built when Mr. 

Morgan left the Illinois Country in 1769, nor had I his 
leave in writing for Building of it. But I understood from 
what Mr. Morgan has frequently Said on talking of the 
Improvements of the Plantation now in Dispute that I 
mio-ht make Improvements & Build on the Land which 
Mr- Morgan hath now settled Mr- Elliott upon.' 

"Mr- Morgan. — 'Is Mr- Elliott Settled between the Face 
of the Roches & the Banks of the Mississippi.?' 

"Mr- Bacon. — 'No. he is not. He is Settled on the Back 
part of the Roches.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Did you Mr- Bacon make any use of the 
Shade or House which Mr- Elliott now Occupies.?' 

"Mr. Bacon.— 'No, I did not at the Time Mr. Elliott took 
Possession of it.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Did not I tell you Mr- Bacon, when I 
Settled you upon my Plantation that I was not Certain, 
whether the Plantation wou'd extend to the Eastern 
Roche or not.'' 

"Mr- Bacon. — 'You did say that you was not Certain 
whether Your Plantation wou'd Extent from one Roche 
to the other or not; but that if it did not extend so far, 
you intended soon to Purchase the Adjoining Lands, & 
wou'd give me leave, in Consequence of Said Purchase, to 
make what Improvcmts- I thought might be necessary or 
advantageous to him Mr- Morgan & myself 

"Mr- Morgan. — 'Hath Mr- Elliott made any Improve- 


ments on the West Side of the Roches in the Grand 

"Mr. Bacon.— 'No, he has not' 

"M»'. Bacon being desir'd by the Court to proceed to 
prove the Charge of Personal Abuse — he said as follows : 

'Upon going, to Kaskaskia to Settle Accounts with Mr- 
Morgan, & upon getting there Mr. Morgan Ask'd me if I 
had got the Staves Ready that he had been talking to me 
about some time before. On my telling him I had not, 
Mr. Morgan Demanded my Reason. I told him that I 
Came to know how my Accounts Stood, before I cou'd do 
anything more to his Plantation. Upon which Mr. Mor- 
gan Call'd me a Damn'd Rascal & a Scoundral, & added 
that I had Deceiv'd him.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Have you Mr. Bacon any Evidence to 
prove that you Desir'd a Settlement with me at the Time 
you have alluded to.?' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'I have no Evidence Present. But one 
Lowdon a Servant of Mr- Morgan's was Present when Mr. 
Morgan & I had the Dispute, and I think he must have 
heard what Pass'd.' 

"Mr. Morgan Addressing himself to the Court Said — 
'On finding that Mr. Bacon had repeatedly Said, that a 
Certain Gentlemen had told him, (Mr- Bacon) that Mr- 
Morgan only intended to make a Slave of him; had 
brought down Mr. Elliott from Ft. Pitt for the same pur- 
poses; & that neither of them wou'd ever get a Farthing 
for their Services; & that he (Mr. Morgan) on finding that 
Mr. Bacon had Repeated this in many places, did then say 
to him, that whoever that Gentleman was who told him 
so, he was A Rascal & a Scoundrel, & beg'd of Mr. Bacon 
to tell him so.' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Did you not Mr. Morgan send for Mr- 
Elliott & Consult with him about taking the whole of my 
Stock into his hands, & told him at the same time what 


an advantageous matter it wou'd be to him? And also, 
did you not desire M>- Elliott to find out if Possible what 
Sum I wou'd take to leave the Plantation?' 

"Ml- Morgan. — 'I did propose to M»". Elliott to purchase 
M>- Bacon's Stock, finding him intirely Discontented & 
Cou'd not Divine for what? and I also added to Mr- 
Elliott, that I wou'd advance the money for the purchase 
if him (Mr- Elliott) & Mr. Bacon cou'd agree.' 

"Mr- Morgan to Mr- Bacon. — 'Did you not hear me give 
particular Orders for you to be Supply'd with a Copy of 
your accounts before I left the Illinois Country in 1769?' 

"Mr- Bacon. — 'I heard you tell Mr- Brown to Supply me 
with the Copys of my Accounts, but Mr- Brown never sent 
them [to] me.' 

"Mr- Morgan. — 'Did I not Settle Accounts with you at 
the Plantation in May or June 1769, & in Presence of Mr- 
Brown after every Article you objected to in the Account?' 

" Mr- Bacon. — ' Mr- Morgan Did respecting the Fort 
Chartres Accots: only. I do not remember that the Kas- 
kaskia Accots. was Examined at that Time. And I think 
it was only my Private Accot: that was Examined.' 

Upon this Mr- Morgan laid his Books before the Court. 
By Said Books it appear'd that a great many Articles had 
been Alter'd both in his Publick &: private Accounts. The 
Court gave Mr- Bacon by the request of Mr- Morgan a 
Copy of every Article in his Accounts to which he had 
made the least kind of o'ojection, & desir'd him to make 
what alteration he thought proper — with this Remark — T 
am determined not to differ with you Mr. Bacon, altho you 
have used many unbecoming means in order to force me 
to it.' 

"The Court after Examining the whole of the Accounts 
between Mr- Morgan & Mr- Bacon, in which it Appear'd 
that Mr. Morgan had granted every Indulgence, k, even 
had Indulged Mr- Bacon with making many of the Charges 


himself, thought proper to adjourn till to morrow morning 
Nine of the Clock, in Order to give Mr- Bacon & his 
Friends Sufficient time to Recollect themselves. The 
Court being Determin'd to Examine into the Source of 
Every matter Exhibited by either Party." 

"September the 25th. 1770. The Court agreeable to 
adjournment met this morning at nine of the Clock. When 
Mr- Bacon Produc'd the Annex'd Paper, which was Read 
in Court by the Judge Advocate, all Parties Present, [:] 

"Representations" by Mr. Bacon. 

"Gentlemen of the Court, in order to save you much 
Trouble, & that nothing may be Omitted I may think of 
Consequence to my Case, I have transmitted my thoughts 
again to paper. What I Set forth in my Petition respect- 
ing Mr- Elliott is that he was Settled to my Prejudice, that 
is, his Vicinity & the Encouragement given to him by Mr- 
Morgan is of great disservice to me, and Absolutely Con- 
tradictory to the intent Purport & honest meaning of the 
4th Article of our Agreement, whereby he is oblig'd to buy 
all Stock requir'd by me & in every respect to do his 
utmost to promote the Interest of said Plantation. Where- 
as on the Contrary he has Settled a man just under my 
Nose & made it his Business to deprive me of my Cus- 
tomers to serve him. 

"It is plain & Evident to any Impartial person, that it 
was impossible for me to make anything without Every 
Effort of Mr- Morgan, or I Shou'd never have agreed to 
Cede the Improvements and Everything at the Expiration 
of the Term. With respect to the land — there is no Spot 
or quantity mention'd in the Articles. It was Equal to me 
where, how much or how little if Sufficient for my present 
purpose, & it is not to be Suppos'd that I wou'd go and 
improve upon another man's land if I knew it; the land 
mention'd in the Articles is said to be in the Grand Prairie, 


whereas my Improvements are for the greatest part not in 
the Prairie, Chiefly on the west side thereof & butt upon 
the Roches, where it is not to be suppos'd I wou'd have 
Settled had I not been told by Mr. Morgan : he at the same 
time gave me leave to build upon either one side of the 
Roches or the other which wou'd have taken in near Twenty 
Acres of Land, I still think M^- Winston highly necessary 
to be Call'd upon relative to what I said yesterday, & do 
with Submission ask it as a favor of this honble Court, that 
I may be allow'd to Call upon such Evidences as may be 
necessary to Corroborate what ever I have Asserted. 

"Mr. Morgan might Assert with some small degree of 
Truth, I will allow, that he wou'd give up his Share of 
the plantation for what it Cost him, meaning I Suppose 
agreeable to the Acco's: Stated between him & me. But 
the Gentlemen of the Court will please to Consider that 
he has already made his money by furnishing & Stocking 
said Farm, & might think himself well off if he got good 
^^ immediate payment for his part thereof. At present 
however that is not so Easily Reconcl'd either, Because 
Mr- Elliott declar'd to me that Mr. Morgan had told him 
we had Clear'd 9000 Livres the first year. If so, the de- 
crease of Expence and Increase of Stock & additional 
Improvements must Certainly Add greatly to the annual 

"To Convince you Gentlemen that tho I was immedi- 
ately dissatisfied with the Settlement of Mr. Elliott, and 
that I am not so difficult to please, I told Mr. Morgan at 
the Commencement of this Affair that I wou'd much 
rather quit the plantation k Settle Another piece of Ground 
than remain there: upon which he ask'd me what I wou'd 
do with my Cattle k. Stock; I told him I wou'd leave 'em 
with Mr. Elliott, and wou'd Accept of what he thought 
proper to allow me for my Industry. The answer he made 
was, that would not do, k desir'd me to walk to Mr- 
Elliott's & desire him to leave that place. 


"These Assertions of mine Gentlemen I think of weight 
to me tfc it is the place of Mr- Morgan to disprove them or 
they must hold Good. 

"Among other things I have to mention, from among the 
Cattle which came from Post S'- Vincent, he took four or 
five of the Cows & kept them all Summer, after which he 
return'd them to me in a very poor Condition, & he fre- 
quently sends for Cattle for his own use, & orders in favor 
of other people at what price he thinks proper, & pur- 
chases in the same manner without ever Consulting with 
me at all upon the Subject. 

"He has at present a Negro belonging to the plantation 
at his own house at Kaskaskias which he detains; but 
what is most Notorious that he is now in possession of an 
Ox Charg'd to the plantation last year among the 26 head 
of Cattle which I receiv'd from Post S^- Vincent which as 
yet he has made no mention of to me. Now if this is true 
what wou'd such a Clandestine detention amount to in any 
other man, & a poor one too. 

"I Came to the Knowledge of this matter by means of 
Mr- Elliott who Inform'd me, upon asking, if such an ox 
as that was amongst the number come from the Post, told 
me that by the discription it was the same, & that M""- 
Morgan ofifer'd him all the Cattle but that & one more 
which he intended to kill, at the same Time he told Mr- 
Elliott that if he attempted to take that Ox to the Plan- 
tation he wou'd run away from him; upon this Mr- Elliott 
ask'd him if the Ox had ever been there before, in answer 
to which Mr. Morgan replied that he had not, for that in 
Attempting to drive him there he ran away; besides this,. 
Gentlemen, I have seen the Ox myself, & am Certain of its 
being the same. 

"Mr. Morgan, Gentleman, has too or three times men- 
tion'd yt he knew I was advis'd, by which he wou'd Seem 
to intimate that I was insensible of my own Injury, & that 


sonic officious medling & Malignant person had urg'd me 
to these Steps. Wherefore in Common Justice to the 
Suspected I do hereby declare, that I was from my feel- 
ings as a man & a consciousness of the ill treatment I met 
vvitli resolv'd & did Communicate my Sentiments to Mr- 
Morgan unadvis'd in any respect whatsoever;. Nay the 
Personal abuse alluded to in my Petition was given me 
before I Communicated any Particular Circumstances 
relative thereto, & till then did not think matters wou'd 
have become so Serious. 

"I shall in the Course of the proceedings answer any 
further questions the Court may think proper to ask me & 
Explain whatever may not appear Clear or Satisfactory. 
(Sign'd) Richard Bacon."* 

"Mr- Bacon also presented to the Court a Copy of the 
Articles he, (M""- Bacon,) had made objections to, and 
which was furnish'd him by the Court the preceding day 
by particular desire of Mr- Morgan, without having made 
any Alteration whatever therein, but Submitted the 
Charges to the Determination of the Court. The Court, 
after weighing, & maturely Considering every Charge, 
after allowing M""- Bacon every Indulgence Possible De- 
ducted the Sum of Two Hundred & Seventy Livres which 
Sum Ml"- Morgan readily agreed to give M^- Bacon Credt- 
for, & gave him Credit for said Sum accordingly in his 
Books, before the Court. M^- Morgan addressing himself 
to the Court, said he was much concern'd, that Mi- Bacon 
had not pointed out those Charges before, as he wou'd 
willingly have made Deductions wherever AP- Bacon 
thought himself Aggriev'd, or overcharg'd, and observ'd 
that most of the Charges which Mr- Bacon objected to 
were made in his Absence, which Observation Appeared 
manifestly authentick by Mr- Morgan's Books. 

* Endorsed: "The Copy of Representation of matters deliver'd to the 
Court by Mr. Bacon the 25th Septr: 1770. No. 2." 


" Mr- Bacon desir'd that Mr- Croghan shou'd be Examin'd, 
with respect to the Overcharge of Two Horses, Two Oxen, 
& one cart & Geers, which Mr- Morgan had Charg'd him 
{Mr. Bacon) Eighteen Hundred Livres for. 

"Mr- Croghan, being ask'd by Mr- Bacon whether La 
Source did not offer him a pair of Horses & a Cart & 
Gears for one Thousand Livres — Answered — 'La Source 
did offer me a pair of Horses and a Cart & Geers for one 
Thousand Livres, and at the same Time hinted that he 
wou'd be glad to get a Negro for said Horses &c, & pay 
the difference.' 

"Another Article that Mr- Bacon objected to, was a 
Charge of Three Thousand & Eighty Livres, Charg'd by 
Mr- Morgan for Twenty Six Head of Cattle, Brought, & 
Deliver'd him at the Plantation from Post St- Vincent. 

"The Court desir'd Mr- Winston (Looking upon him as 
a Judge of those Matters) to give his opinion regarding 
the prices Mr. Morgan had Char'd Mr- Bacon for said 
Cattle. Mr. Winston, after Examining the particular prices 
Charged by Mr- Morgan for the Twenty Six head of Cat- 
tle Complain'd of by Mr- Bacon said, that, he thought at 
the Time they were bought by Mr- Morgan, the Charges 
were very moderate. Viz. at one hundred & Twenty Li- 
vres pr. head for Cows, & One hundred & Fifty Livres for 
Bullocks, three years Old and upwards; which was [what] 
Mr. Morgan had Charg'd Mr- Bacon, as appear'd by Mr- 
Morgan's Books. Mr. Winston observ'd to the Court, that 
he Spoke from Experience, having often bought Cattle at 
Post St- Vincent, & knew the Risque and trouble of get- 
ting them drove to the Illinois: — and adds, — ^T have my- 
self paid One hundred & fifty Livres pr- head in Specie, at 
Post St.Vincent for a drove of Twenty two Oxen, many 
of 'em not above Three years old, and two only that was 
full grown Bullocks,' and Notwithstanding the Expence of 
driving them from thence to the Illinois, they afforded him 
A Reasonable profit. 


"Question proposed by Mr- Bacon toM"-. Morgan:— 'You 
'ir be so kind Mr. Winston to relate to the Court what 
pass'd between Mr. Morgan & me at the plantation, in the 
latter end of May 1769, when talking about the improve- 
ments of said Plantation?' 

"Mr. Winston. — 'All that I remember is, that Mr. 
Bacon was proposing to Mr. Morgan, of breaking up, or 
Plowing a Piece of land, to the Eastward of the Land 
already occupied — Mr- Morgan Reply'd, that he thought it 
was too late in the Season — that he had no objection to 
the proposal, & recommended him to proceed.' Mr- Win- 
ston adds, that Mr- Bacon at the same time was talking to 
Mr. Morgan about fixing a Trough at the Spring where 
Mr. Elliott is now Settled, in order that he may have a 
Constant Supply of water for his Cattle, to which Mr- 
Morgan gave his Assent, & observ'd, that it wou'd keep 
his Cattle from Rambling into the woods for want of water 
— Mr. Winston also observes, that he understood Mr. 
Bacon had leave, to occupy any Land Contiguous to the 
Plantation, either upon the Hill, or in the Meadow. 

"Mr. Bacon objected against a Charge of Thirty Seven 
Livres, Ten Sols which Mr- Morgan had Charg'd him for 
Five Sickles. 

"Upon referring to the Books of Mr. Morgan the Court 
found the Charge was made in his Absence by Mr. Tanley 
— Tanley being sent for, Said, he never Charg'd Mr. Bacon 
otherwise, than at the Common Rates & Customs of the 
Country — the Court was then Clear'd. 

"And after having well Consider'd this matter, Unani- 
mously Agreed to allow the Charge of, Thirty seven Li- 
vres, Ten Sols for the five Sickles as it appear'd in Mr- 
Morgan's Books. The Court Admitted all Parties. 

"Mr. Bacon, then Objected to a Charge made by Mr- 
Morgan, of One Hundred & Sixty Livres for Two Hoggs, 
Bought from One, Goho, & Sent to Mr- Bacon's Plantation. 


Mr- Bacon Observing that he is Positive he never Receiv'd 
said Two Hoggs nor does he know anything of them. 

"Mr- Morgan beg'd Leave to refer to his Books, & M^- 
Brown being Call'd upon who Keeps Mr- Morgan's Books, 
{& in whose hand writing this Charge was made) Says, 
that he Cou'd Almost Swear to the Varacity & Correct- 
ness of Mr- Morgan's Books, & also says that he is well 
Convinc'd M""- Bacon wou'd not have been Charg'd with 
the Two Hoggs in question, had he not receiv'd them. As 
the Entries in the different Books was Extreamly Clear, 
& without any kind of Erasement the Court Admitted the 
Charge without Deduction. M""- Bacon, by a Paper De- 
liver'd to the Court this morning (which is herewith 
Annex'd) Complains of M""- Morgan Detaining at Kaskas- 
kia a Negroe man that belong'd to the Plantation. Mn 
Morgan, Addressing himself to the Court Says that the 
Negroe man alluded to by M""- Bacon, had run away from 
him (Mf- Bacon) several times & Said it was owing to the 
Barbarous treatment he had at Different times Receiv'd 
from Mr- Bacon, & had Declar'd to him (Mr. Morgan) that 
he wou'd never live with Mr- Bacon. Mr- Mogan proceeds, 
& Says, that in the month of June 1769, said Negroe ran 
away, and Stayd Some days — Upon being found, and an 
attempt being made to Secure him. He Stabbed himself 
in Two places, and Declar'd Again that he wou'd Sooner 
kill himself than go back to Bacon. But he wou'd live 
with any other Person, & Shou'd be glad to be Sold to any 
of the French people. He However was Seiz'd upon, bound 
<fe Brought to Fort Chartres, where Doctor Thomason, at- 
tended him, and made A Cure of his wounds. He was 
then prevailed upon to go back to live with Mr- Bacon & 
Continued with him till near Christmas when he again ran 
away from the Plantation, & was found in the Month of 
June or July last, by the Kaskaskia Indians, who was out 
upon a Praire a Hunting about one hundred Miles from 


the Village of Kaskaskia. Said Negroe was then almost 
Dead; had no arms with him of any kind, but a knife e% 
that a bad one. Upon his being brought to me by the 
Aforesaid Indians, he appear'd to have a Complaint in his 
throat which threatened his life. The Indians told me 
they Imagin'd it must have proceeded from his Eating a 
number of Rattle Snakes, the Small bones of which hav- 
ing Stuck in his throat, & being altogether Expos'd to the 
Inclemency of the Weather, I was therefore under the 
necessity of taking particular Care of him, with regard tcv 
Diet as well as C loathing by which means I have almost 
restor'd to his wonted health. But notwithstanding this 
he Still Declares, that he'll Destroy himself shou'd he be 
sent back to the Plantation. — And Also Says — that the 
Indians that brought said Negroe to me, Demanded of me 
Four hundred Dollars. But since that time they have 
consented to take one hundred & Fifty Dollars, which Sum 
they now have of mine in their hands & do retain it on 
that acct- I therefore intend that said Negroe shall be 
sold at Publick Vendue for the benefit of the Plantation — 
this Mr- Bacon Agreed to. The Court adjourns till to 
morrow morning Nine of the Clock when all Parties with 
their Evidences will Attend." 

"Wednesday September 26^^^ i/Jo. The Court Pursu- 
ant to adjournment met this morning at Nine of the 
Clock, but cou'd not proceed to business, as M""- Morgan & 
P^vidences did not appear, therefore Adjourn'd till to mor- 
row morning at Nine of the Clock, being Thursday the 
27'liof September." 

"Thursday September the 27th 1770. The Court met 
this morning at nine of the Clock pursuant to adjournmt- 
Mr- Bacon deliverd a written paper to the Court which is 
herewith annex'd & which the Judge Advocate Read 
Publickly in Court, all Parties being Present, [as follows:] 

british illinois — court of enquiry. 439 

"Representations" by Mr. Bacon. 

"Gentlemen — With all defference and respect I must once 
more Entreat your forgiveness in observing that the point- 
ing out the Bounds of M""- Morgan's purchase of Seven 
Acres can have nothing to do with the nature of my Com- 
plaint. In the first place, there is no bounds mention'd in 
the Articles, and Mr- Morgan never pointed out this place 
to me before; had he told me to have Cultivated that Spot 
at first I shou'd Certainly have done it & not have thrown 
away my time k. labour upon a place which at that Time 
at least did not belong to him. Notwithstanding this I 
again declare that he told me to built k Improve where I 

"With respect to the General Charges of the Slave 
either of Fort Chartres or Kaskaskias I dont urge that as 
a matter of Consequence, tho Mr- Morgan is a great gainer 
thereby, I allude to Some Particular & Extraordinary 
ones, purchases made by that Gentleman. 

" Mr- Tanley no doubt Charg'd me as he did other 
people & had a view naturally to the Interest of his 
Employers, he himslf cou'd reap no benefit thereby, In 
Short may it please this Honourable Court I have said & 
deliver'd in writing all that I have at present to Say upon 
the Subject, which you will no doubt take into your Con- 
sideration k Submit the Same to your Impartial Judg- 
ment. Concluding with this declaration that I shall Come 
To no Compromise with M^- Morgan, who tho he pretends 
to Say he will yet make things Satisfactory, has as I have 
observ'd before put me off from time to time & abus'd me 
for Demands So Just and reasonable. 

"With respect to the Indians owing Mr- Morgan Money 
I see no Reason why my property Shou'd Suffer in Secur- 
ing it. 

"One Frederick Dunfield a Butcher came from Mr- 
Morgan's to the plantation to kill some Oxen for me, & 


told me that he had kill'd some Cattle for Mr. Morgan. I 
ask'd him where he got them, he told me from Beauvais, I 
ask'd him what Sort of Cattle they were, he told me that 
one was a very large Ox that had a piece of wood on his 
horns, & that the others was a Black Cow, & a black and 
white Cow, — About four or five months after I went Down 
to Settle with M""- Morgan & in the Credit of his accot- 
I did not See the Above Cattle Enter'd, & then Immedi- 
ately told him that he had not given me Credit for all the 
Cattle he had kil'd; he ask'd me what Cattle they were; 
I told him some of them he bought of Beauvais, he told 
me he had never kil'd one of them, I desird him to let Mr 
Brown go with me to M^- Beauvais & perhaps they might 
know Something about them, which he did & they told 
him Mr. Morgan had kill'd the Ox with the wood on his 
horn, & as to the Cow or any more they knew nothing 
About; We went back to M""- Morgan & told him what 
they had told us, upon that M""- Morgan gav^e Credit for 
the Ox, & the Cow was Set down Stray'd. 

"I am Gentlemen with many unfeign'd thanks for the 
trouble you have had in this Affair, with the utmost 
respect. Your most Oblig'd & most Obedt- hum^e Servant. 

Sign'd RichU- Bacon."* 

"In a Paper Deliver'd to the Court by Mr- Bacon the 
25thSeptemr. He there Complains of An Ox, which Mr- 
Morgan had Detain'd from him in the following words — 
'but what is most notorious is that he is now in Posses- 
sion of An Ox Charg'd to the plantation last Year Among 
the Twenty Six head of Cattle which I receiv'd from Post 
St- Vincent, which as yet he has made no mention of to 
me, now if this is true, what woud Such a Clandestine 
Detention, Amount to in Any Other Man — and a Poor 
one too." 

* "The Copy of Representation of Matters Deliver'd to the Court the 27th 
September 1770. (Sign'd) Richard Bacon, No. 3." 



"Question propos'd by the Court to M''- Bacon: — 'Did 
You M«- Bacon point out the Ox Complain'd of? or Did 
you ever Demand him of M""- Morgan?' 

"Mr- Bacon.-^'No, — I never did.' 

"Court. — 'Did you Mr- Bacon ever hear that M^. Mor- 
gan used means or endeavour'd to use Means to Conceal 
this Ox from you?' 

"M''- Bacon. — 'By no other way, than by what Mr- Elli- 
ott told me. ' 

"Court. — 'M^'- Elliott please relate to the Court, what 
3^ou know. Concerning the Ox Alluded to by Mr- Bacon, 
& which is now in Possession of Mr- Morgan?' 

"Mr- Elliott. — 'I went down by Mr- Morgans request to 
Kaskaskia to Look at some Cattle which Mr- Morgan pro- 
pos'd Selling to me. Among the Cattle there was one 
which Mr- [Morgan] Excepted, as he said he Imagin'd he 
wou'd run away, as he had already made his Escape twice 
from [those] he had Appointed to drive him. Some little 
Time after I came home to my plantation, Mr. Bacon came 
there & Describ'd a Number of Cattle which he had lost, 
and amongst them One, very much like the Ox above ex- 
cepted by Mr- Morgan, I told Mr- Bacon, that it was very 
probable, that this might be the Ox, Especially as Mr. 
Morgan excepted Selling of him. I also heard, but not from 
Mr. Morgan, that Mr. Morgan intended to kill Said Ox.' 

"Court to Mr- Bacon. — 'Did you Mr- Bacon, in Conse- 
quence of the Information given you by Mr- Elliott, go down 
to Kaskaskia to Inquire After this Ox of Mr- Morgan?' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'I went down to see if it was the Same Ox 
but did not Inquire after him.' 

"Court. — 'Where was the Ox when you saw him?' 

"Ml". Bacon. — 'He was in the Yard with the rest of the 

"Court. — 'Where do you apprehend, Mr- Bacon, the Ox 
was when you first went to look after him?' 


"Mr- Bacon. — 'I don't know.' 

"Court. — 'What time of the day was it, when you first 
went to look After the Ox.^' 

"M*"- Bacon. — *It was about an hour and a half or two 
hours before Sun Set.' 

"Court. — 'When you knew the Ox to be yours, M"". 
Bacon, why did you not demand him of Mr- Morgan.^' 

"Mr- Bacon. — 'The Reason I did not demand him, was, 
that I had found Colonel Wilkins had ordered a Court of 
Inquiry to Sit to Settle matters between M^- Morgan & 

"Mr. Morgan Address'd himself to the Court & Said, 
that when Ensign Hutchins ct; Ens. Richardson was at my 
house, at Kaskaskia, whither or not they think I took 
pains to Conceal that Ox; on the Contrary, if he was not 
always with the rest of the Cattle; and as he was a very 
Fat Ox, if all of us were not making remarks upon him.^ 

"Ensign Hutchins, & Ens: Richardson, said — that they 
saw that Ox in Common with the others & that they were 
making Remarks with Mr- Morgan on his Fatness: — and 
Ens: Hutchins adds that he understood him to be a Run 
away, he (Ens: Hutchins) advis'd Mr- Morgan to kill him, 
as he was in such high Condition. On which Mr- Morgan 
said he wou'd. Ens. Richardson observ'd that Mr- Morgan 
told him, he had made a Calculation, to find, if he cou'd 
be dispos'd of at Kaskaskia & Sent his Brother in Law 
Mr- Boynton to sound the Inclination of the French People 
— but as they were not dispos'd to Buy, was under the 
necessity of letting him Run." 

Mr- Morgan observ'd to the Court, that on Mr- Bacon 
Delivering the Annex'd paper to the Court, wherein he 
Complains heavily of him (Mr- Morgan) Detaining the Ox 
in Question, he went down to Kaskaskia to Inquire into 
the Truth of it, he being entirely Ignorant of the matter, 
it being the first time that ever Mr- Bacon mention'd the 


matter to him. Upon Inquiring of a French Man who 
brought him from Post S^- Vincent, He found that the Ox 
had been dehver'd to Mr- Bacon at the Plantation; Mr- 
Morgan proceeds & Says — 'I therefore intend to Sell him 
for the most I can get, or take him on my own Account 
& give the Plantation Credit for the Value.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Mr- Brown. — 'Did Mr- Brown never tell 
Mr- Morgan, that I had lost Cattle, & that they were 
Stray'd to Post S^- Vincent.^' 

"Mr- Brown. — 'I told Mr- Morgan, that Mr- Bacon had 
lost Seven or Eight Cattle, out of the Twenty Six head of 
Cattle he had receiv'd from Post S^- Vincent & Several 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Whether you Mr. Brown did not tell me, 
that this very Ox in Question had Stray'd to Post St. Vin- 
cent. '' 

"Mr. Brown. — 'I do not remember [that] I did. I did 
not particularize any Ox.' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'What is the reason, Mr. Morgan, on your 
Receiving the last drove of Cattle from Post St. Vincent 
you did not acquaint me of it particularly, when you knew 
you had receiv'd all the Cattle but four that were Missing.'' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'I Knew that you Mr. Bacon cou'd be 
no Stranger to their Arrival, as it was Notorious, thro the 
Country, Also I had Seen Mr. Bacon Viewing of the 
Cattle on Saturday the 22d Instant, which was the first 
time I had Seen Mr. Bacon after their Arrival.' 
• "Mr. Bacon to Mr. Elliott. — 'Did I not tell you Mr. 
Elliott, that I had lost Several Cattle, & that I heard one 
of them had Stray'd to Post St. Vincent .-'' 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'Yes, you did tell me so.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Anto. Renaue. — 'How many head of 
Cattle was it, that Mr. Morgan Order'd you to bring from 
Post St. Vincent, the last time you went there.'' 

"Anto: Renaue. — 'I had orders from Mr. Morgan, to 


bring all the Cattle I cou'd find of His. I found Ten 
which I brought & heard that four had died.' 

"Bacon. — 'Did you understand that Fourteen Cattle 
was all that Mr. Morgan had at Post St. Vincent.'' 

"Anto: Renaue. — 'I understood from the people that 
deliver'd them to me that Mr. Morgan had no more than 
fourteen head of Cattle at Post St. Vincent. One of the 
Ten above mention'd was Drown'd in Crossing the Kas- 
kaskia River.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Mr. Morgan. — 'Did you Mr. Morgan 
never hear, or receive any Account of the Two Cows 
Charg'd to the plantation, which you bought from Madam 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'I Dont Recollect I ever did, but it shall 
be Enquir'd into & Justice done.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Antoine LaSourse. — 'What Value do you 
put on the two Oxen, Two Horses, & one Cart & Gears; 
at the time that Mr. Morgan made the Exchange with you 
for a Negroe.^' 

"Monsr. LaSourse. — 'I fix'd no particular Value on the 
Two Oxen, Two Horses, & Cart & Gears. But Excang'd 
them with Mr. Morgan for a Negroe, which negroe I had 
my Choice of from four or five, or more.' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Did you Monsr. LaSourse look upon the 
I^egroe you Receiv'd from Mr. Morgan, to be a Sound 
]^egroe, & in health, & worth Eighteen hundred Livres.^' 

"Monsr. LaSourse. — 'I had him Examin'd by Monsr. 
Bluen. I look'd upon him as a Sound good Negroe, and 
well worth Eighteen hundred Livres, as Negroes Com- 
anonly Sold at that time for Two Thousand Livres.' 

"Mr. Morgan to LaSourse. — 'Please relate to the Court 
Monsr. LaSourse, how this Negroe turn'd out, and how 
you are now pleas'd with him.'' 

"Monsr. La Sourse. — 'I never wou'd desire a better 
Negroe than he has turn'd out to be, and am now Ex- 


treamly well pleas'd with the bargain I made with Mr. 

"Mr. Bacon to Monsr. La Sourse. — 'What Age was the 
Cattle, and what did you value them at, that Mr. Morgan 
got from you for the Negroe.^' 

"Monsr. La Sourse. — 'I Cannot put A Value upon them 
at this Time as I put no value upon them at the Time I 
agreed with Mr. Morgan. I Exchang'd them for a Negroe 
with Mr. Morgan which he likewise set no Value Upon. 
The Cattle was between three & four years old.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Mons. La Sourse. — -'Did you not Monsr. 
La Sourse pay Mr. Morgan some difference regarding the 
Exchange you made with him for the Negroe.?' 

"Monsr. La Sourse. — 'No. Nothing at all. But on the 
Contrary Mr. Morgan gave me One Hundred & Fifteen 
Livres & a Side of Tanned Leather Value Thirty Livres.* 

"This appears to be a very just ifc Lnpartial Account of 
the matter, as appears by Mr. Morgan's Books, also by a 
Bill of Sale & Receipt which is as follows: 

"'I Certify that I have Bought & Receiv'd of Monsr. 
Antoine La Sourse Two Oxen, Two Horses with a Cart 
& Gears, for which I have paid and deliverd to him one 
Male Negroe & one hundred & Fifteen Livres on account. 
30th April 1768. Geo. Morgan.' 

"By a Paper deliver'd to the Court this morning which 
is herewith Annex'd, & which was Publickly Read by the 
Judge Advocate, All Parties being present; Mr. Bacon 
there Says — 'Mr. Morgan, who, tho he pretends to say, he 
will yet make things Satisfactory, has as I have observ'd 
before, put me off from time to time and Abus'd me for 
Demands so Just and Reasonable.' Three letters being 
produc'd in Court by Mr. Bacon, Wrote to him by Mr. 
Morgan. Said Letters by the request of Mr. Bacon were 
Publickly read in Court by the Judge Advocate. It ap- 
pear'd to the Court that they abounded with the most 


wholesome tks Good advice to Mr. Bacon; and Clearly 
indicated that Mr. Morgan wish'd to Settle the Plantation 
Accots. with him as soon as Possible. 

"Mr. Morgan inform'd the Court that Mr. Elliott was 
present when he Impress'd a Settlement of Accounts with 
Mr. Bacon, & desir'd that Mr. Elliott wou'd relate to the 
Court what he heard pass between them — Mr. Morgan 
& Mr. Bacon. 

"Mr. Elliott Says, that he was at Mr. Bacon's one Even- 
ing with Mr. Morgan, about three weeks or a month after 
he arriv'd in this Country. He heard Mr. Morgan and Mr. 
Bacon talking about the Cattle they had lost, & that Mr. 
Morgan Said to Mr. Bacon, that he shou'd not be Easy, 
before he knew how the Accounts of the Plantation stood. 
Mr. Elliott adds, that he told Mr. Bacon, that he heard 
Mr. Morgan Say, that if any of the Articles in the Accounts 
between Mr. Bacon & him were overcharg'd, he shoud be 
very happy to rectify them, and make every allowance to 
Mr. Bacon that was reasonable. The Court adjourns on 
Acct. of Ens. Conolly being taken Sick, till nine oclock to 
morrow morning." 

"Friday the 20th September 1770. The Court met 
agreeable to adjournment & on account of some of the 
Members being Sick, The Court is adjourn'd till Monday 
next the ist of October, when they will meet at nine of 
the Clock." 

"Monday the ist of October 1770. The Court met this 
day pursuant to adjournment at 9 of the Clock. Mr. 
liacon Obscrv'd to the Court that in Consequence of a 
Letter he had receiv'd from Mr. Morgan, desiring him 
(Mr. Bacon) to send Mr. Morgan, an Exact State of the 
Stock, utensils of Husbandry &c; on the plantation: — 
That he (Mr. Bacon) on Receiving said Letter did send an 
Inventory of every thing on the plantation about Six 
Weeks ago; and that he went sometime afterwards on 


purpose to obtain a Settlem't with Mr. Morgan, but coud 
not accomplish it. 

"Mr. Morgan says in answer to what Mr. Bacon hath 
above asserted, That Mr. Bacon did come down to Kas- 
kaskia, but he never Asked or Demanded A Settlement 
with him. 

"Mr. Bacon to Mr. Elliott. — 'Did not you understand 
that when you and I went down to Kaskaskia, about three 
weeks or a month ago, that I went on purpose to Settle 
Accots. with Mr. Morgan.?' 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'I heard you Say so. But at the Same 
time I understood from Mr. Morgan, that you ask'd nor 
demanded no Settlement with him.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Did you Mr. Elliott hear Mr. Bacon 
request to Settle Accots. with me?' 

"Mr. Elliott.— 'I did not.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Did I not Mr. Bacon on or about the 
I2th of September last ask you whether or not you had 
brought your Books or accounts in order to have a Settle- 

"Mr. Bacon.— 'You did, the day after I lodged my 
Complaint with Colo. Wilkins, I at the same time told you 
that I did not think it worth my while to bring the accounts 
down, having used me so ill Some time before.' 

"Mr. Bacon to Mr. Elliott. — ^'Do you not think it is of 
great prejudice to me, that you are Settled so near me.?' 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'I Dont think that I can be of the least 
prejudice to you unless the land I am Settled upon belongs 
to your Plantation. — if this is the Case I must be of great 
prejudice to you.' 

"Bacon to Elliott. — 'Did you not hear Mr. Morgan ask 
me where his land terminated towards the East, in the 
Grand Prairie.?' 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'I heard Mr. Morgan ask Mr. Bacon where 
the bounds of the land was, but whither Mr. Morgan said 


our Lands, or his Lands, I cannot Recollect. Mr. Bacon 
pointed to a bunch of Trees, which stands in the Grand 
Prairie, and said that was the place which you (meaning 
Mr. Morgan) told me was the Boundaries on that quarter 
sometime before.' 

"Mr. Morgan Observes to the Court that the Bunch of 
Trees which Mr. Bacon alludes to, is the Estern Boundary 
of his Second Purchase. 

"Mr. Morgan produc'd to the Court a Recorded Deed 
Dated the lOth of March 1760, for the plantation on which 
he Settled Mr. Bacon; by which it appears that said plan- 
tation contains no more than Seven Square Acres in 

"Mr. Bacon being ask'd by the Court, whether he had 
any more questions to propose, or any more Evidences to 
Examine — Answd: he had not. 

"Mr. Morgan to Mr. Elliott.— 'Did I not express my 
Surprise at Mr. Bacon, for Building his Barn where he 
has, during my Absence, the first time you & I went to 
the Plantation, after our Arrival in the Illinois.'' 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'You did, and also said, that Mr. Bacon 
must put a Value upon the Improvements, as that was the 
Land you intended to Settle me upon.' 

"Mr. Morgan Desires that the Court will allow Mr. Elli- 
ott to relate, what Mr. Bacon told him relative to what a 
Certain Gentleman told Mr. Bacon about Mr. Morgan 
bringing him (Mr. Elliott) to this Country on purpose to 
Enslave him, as well as he had already done Mr. Bacon; 
«^ if said, Certain Gentleman had not declar'd, that neither 
he [Mr. Bacon] nor Mr. Elliott wou'd ever get a Six pence 
for their Labour; and also what Proposals you receiv'd 
from said Certain Gentleman, by Mr. Bacon. 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'Sometime after I came to this Country, 
I happen'd to Call upon Mr. Bacon. Walking with him in 
the Garden Mr. Bacon told me that Mr. Rumsey had been 


with him sometime before, & told him that he wou'd not 
make so much of the Plantation as he might Imagine — 
that when his accounts came to be Settled, that he wou'd 
have but a very Small Balance to receive &c; Mr. Bacon 
told me that Mr. Rumsey had Enquir'd of him on what 
Terms I was Settled on the Lands I now Occupy. Mr. 
Bacon told him he did not know, Mr. Rumsey answd. that 
Mr. Morgan's Intention was only to get Some Work out 
of me, and that was all I need to Expect. Mr. Bacon at 
the same time Seem'd to think, that what Mr. Rumsey 
might have said, might be merely out of Pique or resent- 
ment to Mr. Morgan, as he was Informd they had, had 
some Difference sometime before.' 

'"Mr. Bacon & I had a good deal of discourse concerning 
this matter, & mutually agreed not to pay attention to 
Such reports, till we had some more substantial proofs of 
Mr. Morgan's Designs against us: Mr. Elliott also Says that 
about two weeks ago Mr. Bacon Came to him, with a 
Verbal message from Colonel Wilkins — telling him that 
Colo.^Wilkins desir'd I woud leave the Plantation Immedi- 
ately, Mr. Morgan having no right to Settle me thereon. 
I had not an Oportunity of waiting immediately on Colo- 
nel Wilkins. Mr. Bacon Came to me too days after, & 
told me that he had come with a Second Verbal message 
from Colo. Wilkins & that the Colonel desir'd him to tell 
me, that he had done me the honour to warn me A Second 
time, to leave the Plantation; and that if I did not remove 
Instantly, he (the Colonel) wou'd send a party of Soldiers 
& take what property I had from me. Mr. Bacon likewise 
told me, that he had Seen an Order in writing from Colo- 
nel Wilkins in the Possession of Mr. Rumsey to turn me 
off said Plantation. Mr. Bacon also told me a few days 
before that he had seen a permission in writing that Colo. 
Wilkins had given to Mr. Rumsey, Sign'd by the Colo's, 
own hand, giving him full possession of the Lands I am 


now Settled upon — And that this permission extended to 
A Run about half a mile East from where I am Settled, 
to another Run, on the west of where Mr. Bacon lives, on 
the Land towards the Back of the Roches. I asked Mr. 
Bacon if he was Certain of this. He answerd me — that 
he was Very Certain, for he had the permission in his hand 
[writing] & that he read it.' 

'"Mr. Bacon likewise acquainted me that Mr. Rumseyhad 
asked of him, if ever he had told me, that he (Mr. Rum- 
sey) was in possession of Such an Order or Permission. 
Mr. Bacon told Mr. Rumsey that he had not Spoke to me 
About it. Mr. Rumsey then told Mr. Bacon that he might 
tell me, that he (Mr. Rumsey) had such an Order, or Per- 
mission in his possession. Mr. Rumsey at the same time it 
seems Express'd his Concern for my being put to So much 
Inconvenience & Distress, & said that he wou'd do me the 
favour to Apply to Colonel Wilkins for any Tract of Land 
that was not already possessed; and that as I had Come 
into the Country, on purpose to Settle, that he wou'd fur- 
nish me with money, or any Necessarys that I requir'd till 
Such Time as I cou'd Conveniently pay him.' 

"Mr. Morgan to Mr. Elliott. — 'Was this proposal made 
by Mr. Rumsey, thro the Channel of Mr. Bacon, Since Mr. 
Bacon Lodged the Camplaint Against me with Colonel 

"Mr. Elliott. — 'Yes — I understood that Mr. Bacon had 
Lodged a Complaint against you with Colonel Wilkins.' 

"Mr. Bacon, Observ'd to the Court, that after he had 
deliver'd the Colonel's Letter to Mr. Morgan at Kaskaskia, 
In Returning from hence he met Mr. Elliott, after having 
some Conversation together Concerning Colo. Wilkins's 
turning him off the Plantation &c; He told Mr. Elliott, 
that Mr. Rumsey had a Plantation, and that he des'rd to 
say that Mr. Rumsey would Settle him upon it; or if he 
Avou'd apply to Colonel Wilkins he made no doubt that 


Colo. Wilkins wou'd. Mr. Bacon denys that he ever told 
Mr. Elliott that he Saw an Order from Colonel Wilkins 
giving Mr. Rumsey Possession of said Land; But that 
Mr. Rumsey told him he had an order from Colo. Wilkins 
to take Possession of the Lands Mr. Elliott is now Settled 

"Mr. Morgan Observes to the Court, that as Mr. Bacon, 
has given it under his hand, that he will come to no Com- 
promise with him, and has also verbally declar'd, that if he 
•did not obtain the Satisfaction he wish'd for, from this 
Court, he wou'd make the most he cou'd by the Plantation, 
& leave everything in 'such a Huggermugger way, that 
He (Mr. Morgan) wou'd never be able to make anything 
by it. He therefore humbly presumes to hope, that this 
Court will Oblige Mr. Bacon to find some kind of Secur- 
ity for the true Performance of his Agreement with him, 
as pr. Annex'd Articles of Agreement. 

"Mr. Bacon Denies saying that he wou'd leave the plan- 
tation in the bad way represented above, or in any other 

"Mr. Morgan Desires that Ens: Hutchins will relate to 
the Court, what he heard Mr. Bacon Say, when he (Mr. 
Morgan) propos'd to him, to Appoint Two Gentlemen to 
Settle their Affairs, and that he, (Mr. Morgan) wou'd go 
to any place Mr. Bacon wou'd Appoint, and take his 
Books along with him. 

"Mr. Hutchins Liforms the Court that he heard Mr. 
Bacon Say that he wou'd leave it to no other Person but 
Colonel Wilkins. Mr. Morgan said it was very well, tz 
that he wou'd Refer to the Articles of Agreement which 
was very Clear. Upon which Mr. Bacon reply'd — 'Is that 
the way you intend to Come Over me.'' Upon which Mr. 
Morgan, said, that he Imagin'd, the Phrase had its Deriva- 
tion from New England being both uncommon & ungen- 


"Mr. Morgan Observes to the Court, that as Mr. Bacon 
has denied Some things which he has related to the Court 
particularly with respect to his leaving the plantation,, 
liop'd the Court wou'd allow Mr. Elliott to point out 
wiiere he has Erred. 

"Mr. Elliott declares that as him and Mr. Bacon were 
riding together, that Mr. Bacon did then Say, that he 
wou'd make what he Cou'd by the plantation & leave 
every thing in a Huggermugger Way. Mr. Morgan being 
on his Defence, says that he went to the Plantation with 
Mr. Windsor Brown and Mr. Patrick Kennedy (they both 
speaking French) to get the French People, from whom he 
purchas'd the Lands, to point out the Boundaries of said 
Lands. Monsr. Louviere from whose father I purchas'd 
the Tract of Land on which M. Bacon is now Settled, and 
for which Land I have produc'd Monsr. Louveire's Deed 
Dated the loth March 1768 pointed the Boundaries out to 
us. It begins at the point of A Roche, where hath been 
a Lime Kiln — a few Perches from the west side of a 
Run of water, that you Cross in Entering the Grand Prairie 
going From Fort Chartres to Kaskaskia. Mons. Louveire 
Pointed, and said, it was from thence towards the East 
Roche Six or Seven Acres in Front, and that the same 
Extended from those Roches Southward to the Mississippi. 
He then went to Shew us how far the Seven Acres did 
Extend, and took us to a lane or Passage, which Mr. Bacon 
had left between Two Corn Fields, & said that there, or 
thereabout, was the Boundary which his Father had Shewn 
to him. Monsr. Boutelet also went with us, and informed 
us that the land which he sold to me, {agreeable to the 
Deed which I have already Shown to the Court, Dated 
the 15th March 1769,) began where Monsr. Louveire's 
Land Ended, at a run Eastward Six Acres in Front, & 
Shew'd us a white Elm Tree as his Eastern Boundary. 

"Mr. Brown, being Call'd upon by the Court, perfectly 


Corroborates with Mr. Morgan, in every thing he has 
asserted respecting the Boundaries of The Plantation. 

"Mr. Morgan, proceeds and Says, that he then got Mr. 
James EUiott and Mr. Patrick Kennedy to measure the 
Distance from the first mention'd Lime Kiln to the lane 
pointed out by Monsr. Louveire, as the Boundaries of the 
Plantation purchas'd from his Father. Those Gentlemen 
Inform'd me, that the Distance was exactly Ninety Six 
Perches; and from thence to the white Elm Tree, pointed 
out by Monsr. Boutelet, as the Eastern Boundary of the 
Plantation Purchas'd from him was Fifty Eight Perches; 
within this last Boundary about Thirty two Perches East 
of the Lane Mr. Bacon has built his Barn. 

"Mr. Elliott, as one of the People that measur'd the 
Land, Declar'd that every thing that Mr. Morgan had 
related to the Court with regard to the measurement was 
Strictly true. The Court adjourns till to morrow at 9 of 
the Clock when all Parties will Attend." 

"Tuesday 2d October 1770. The Court met this morn- 
ing at nine of the Clock in the morning Pursuant to 

"Mr. Morgan, Produc'd to the Court the Accounts of 
the Plantation, Some of the Articles of which Mr. Bacon 
& him had mutually Agreed upon; others Mr. Bacon not 
being fully Satisfied about, Mr. Morgan thereupon Deliv- 
er'd the Accounts to Mr. Bacon, & gave him three months 
or what time he pleas'd to make his objections, & said that 
Notwithstanding it is left to the Court to Settle our 
matters, yet if any thing shou'd escape the Notice of the 
Court, it shou'd be hereafter rectify'd to Mr. Bacon's Satis- 

"Mr. Bacon Objected to the Articles of Rum, Sugar & 
Tea, being Charg'd to his Private Account, he thinking 
those Articles shou'd be Charg'd to his Publick or Planta- 
tion account. 


"Mr. Morgan says he never promis'd Mr. Bacon any 
Allowance of Rum, neither does it appear by the Articles 
of Agreement that Mr. Bacon is entitled to any Allow- 
ance. But Mr. Morgan Says if Mr. Bacon has given any 
of the Rum expended at the Plantation for the use of 
Carrying on the plantation business, he with Cheerfulness 
will Allow it. 

"The Court is of Opinion that Tea, Sugar, & Coffee, 
shall be Charg'd to Mr. Bacon's private account, and that 
such part of the Rum as appears to be Expended for the 
benefit of the Plantation, shall be Charg'd to that account. 

"Mr. Morgan, after having Examined what Evidences 
he thought necessary, Deliver'd to the Court his Defence 
in writing which was Publickly Read by the Judge Advo- 
cate, & which is herewith Annex'd. 

Sign'd Alexr'. Fowler, Lieut: 
Acting Deputy Judge Advocate."^ 

"In Consequence of an order from Colonel John Wil- 
kins directing us to enquire into the afifair of Mr. Richard 
Bacon, and George Morgan Esqr. the Court accordingly 
proceeded to Enquire into the many different Charges 
Exhibited by Mr. Bacon against Mr. Morgan; and after 
hearing every matter of Charge, Set forth by the Com- 
plainant, as well as Examining the Witnesses he Call'd 
upon to Support his Charges; and hearing what Mr. Mor- 
gan (the Defendant) had to offer in his Defense; and hav- 
ing well weigh'd and maturely Consider'd the Same, do- 
think, tfe are unanimously of Opinion, that Mr. Bacon's 
Grievances seems to be altogether Ideal; that his Charges 
in General are of a Litigious & Captious Birth, and are by 
no means Supported; and that his Allegations, are alto- 
gether Scandalous, Groundless & malicious; and do there- 
fore most honourably Acquit Mr. Morgan of all & every 
part thereof. 


"And he is hereby most honourably Acquitted Accord- 

'"^ly- [ Lewis Wynne, Lt. Presdt: 

"[Sign'd] Alex: Fowler, j Alexr. Fowler, Lt. \ 

Lt. I other Royal Irish Reg't: <{ Thos. Hutchins, Ensn: (Mem- 
Acting Deputy Judge | Wm. Richardson, Ensn : I bers. 
Advocate Signd [ Wm. Conolly, Ensn:" * ) 

The court, evidently from the beginning, ruled in favor 
of the defendant, Morgan, but the complainant, did not 
relinquish all hope of at least a partial redress of his 
grievances until on October 2, when the conclusion was 
reached and published which pronounced his complaint 
"altogether ideal." This was too much, and he forthwith 
filed his petition with the commandant for a rehearing. 
Whether it grew out of the present controversy or other 
disturbing causes, the former friendly relations existing 
between Colonel Wilkins and George Morgan were now 
undoubtedly strained. However this may have been, a new 
hearing was accorded Bacon and the court of enquiry was 
reconvened for a revision of its judgment — the colonel cal- 
ling attention in their order to points in the evidence in 
the complainant's favor which had not received, in his judg- 
ment, their due weight or had been overlooked by the 
court. The comments by the colonel, and the answers 
thereto, make very refreshing reading: 

Copy of Application for a New Hearing. 

"To John Wilkins Esqr., Lieut. Colo, of His Majesty's 
1 8th or Royal Regiment of Ireland Governour & Com- 
mandant of the Illinois & its Dependancies: 

"The Remonstrance of Richd. Bacon Inhabitant, Hum- 
bly Sheweth, That Im^:ressd with the deepest sense of 
Gratitude & respect, for your kind acquiesance in Granting 

* Endorsed: — "Minutes & Sentence of a Court of Enquiry on Geo: 
Morgan Esqr. & Richard Bacon, Commencing the 24th September 1770 & 
Ending 4th October following. P'ort Chartres in the Country of the Illinois."' 


him an Examination into the Griev-ances pointed out in 
his Petition of Septr. 1770 against Mr. Morgan; he is 
Encourag'd to address }'ou by the same means with re- 
spect to the proceedings of the Court Order'd & the Sur- 
prize with which he is Struck at the nature of the Sen- 
tence or Opinion. What I have said, pointed out, & which 
by the proceedings DeHver'd, Sir (a perusal of which you 
have at my request Granted), are not disprov'd, must in my 
poor Opinion, render an unanimous acquital of all & every 
part of that Gentleman's Conduct, Surprising; abstracted 
from the other part, wherein notwithstanding I have abso- 
lutely deny'd myself to have been advis'd, the Letigious 
& Captious Birth of my Complaints, alluding to a third 
person, areCall'd malicious, Groundless, & Ideal. For which 
reason, as I am Conscious to myself, I Can yet prove many 
of my Assertions (tho not already done to the Satisfaction 
of my Judges). I Humbly beg leave to appeal to your Judg- 
mt: from the said Sentence or Opinion; & that this may 
not appear an unreasonable demand, I hope the following 
reasons will render such request no more than just & 
equitable, & what I am bound to do in order to Exculpate 
myself from the reflections Cast upon-my Character, as well 
as to do Justice to a third person who has been Vilely 
tho indirectly traduced by Mr. Morgan during the whole 
Course of the Procedure. In the first place, why this 
Shooting in the Dark at a person entirely unconcern'd with 
the matters in question. Should be admitted I must own I 
am not Capable of resolving. However there is such a 
Stress thro the whole part thereof upon this adviser of 
mine that I Cannot help observing, It is very little to the 
purpose whether I had or had not an adviser, or on the 
other whether it was Mr. Rumsey or any other person, all 
I Contend for is this, that I am now, was & ever shall be 
Sensible of the Injuries I have Suffer'd & do for myself 
most religiously declare what must be evident from the 


Nature of my Complaints, that they Cou'd proceed from 
no other Person but myself 

"The Second remark which I most humbly Submit to 
your better Judgment is that pursuant to the very Tenour, 
Style & Nature of my aforesaid Petition is, that instead 
of Sticking to the Charge therein represented, Mr. Morgan 
has Enter'd into matters entirely foreign to the purpose, & 
by a useless Display of a multiplicity of Books & papers 
has occasion'd a Letigious Enquiry into matters that by 
no means set aside the facts I have exhibited which was a 
Breach of our Articles of Agreement, and was not attended 
to (nor does the same appear but where they Lean'd to 
Mr. Morgan's favour, allso the personal abuse which Can 
be prov'd to this moment tho he avoids the latter only by 
an insidious Expression against a third person at my Ex- 
pence) by Changing the mode of Expression against the 
Still Certain Gentleman whom he is ready to make oath 
of, never hinted to him any thing of the kind. 

"The breach of Articles is I think Still Clear & demon- 
strative, therefore I most humbly Entreat you Sir to Ex- 
amine the Same, & Judge whether or not by the Articles 
& the Charges (as yet unprov'd) which I deliver'd in, if I 
am not Injur'd by the Settlement of Mr. Elliott as well as 
the Encouragement given to him in Opposition to me, — 
who by the Tenour & meaning of the Same Cannot but 
be Injur'd by the Encroachment Support & Vicinity of 

"Is it not the business of the person Accus'd Sir to dis- 
prove the allegations Exhibited against him by Something 
more than mere Declaration (even frequently faultring) and 
is it not necessary that some Evidences at least shou'd 
entirely disprove particular Charges laid against him.^ 

"The Article of the Ox & Cow bought of Monsr. Beau- 
vais which he kil'd & did not Credit the plantation for at 
that time, and my remark allso for the Cows taken for his 


own use will Certainly render all my Charges not merely 
Ideal — neither do I see any thing therein which can merit 
alltogether the Opinion of a malicious & Groundless 

"I had indeed many other things to relate but was so 
often reprov'd & told that every thing was going against 
me; that in absolute despair of doing myself Justice I 
forbore. In short I was prejudic'd disheartened & was 
resolv'd to give up all hopes when I waited upon you & 
acquaint'd your honour with the Terms in which I was 
address'd. Submission & Respect Govern'd me in all my 
Actions, But I found that to Exhibit Severe Charges (tho 
Facts) against so powerful an antagonist was Construed in 
another light. 

"Fourthly, In allusion to the latter part, I must now 
beg leave to mention the Affair of the Ox — said by me 
to be a notorious & present detention; with my remarks 
thereon which gave so much offence that I was told even 
by one of the Judges, was a matter if not prov'd that 
merited the Consequences of a Civil Law Suite, upon which 
I made my bow, and do with the same Submission (fc res- 
pect Appeal to your Judgement whether or not that matter 
is Clearly disprov'd. Look I beseech you, Sir, to the Evi- 
dence in favor of Mr. Morgan, his Answer — How Vague 
& Inconclusive. 

"The Evidence of Mr. Brown is particularly worthy 
your Impartial Observations in many respect, his positive 
declaration respecting the Entries more so, that Gentle- 
man as I observ'd to you with Mr. McFee were openly in 
the most derisive manner exulting in every little piece of 
wit, which appear'd to them, so Extreamly Severe & 
pointed, & Exasperated me frequently in such a manner 
that I was much Confus'd upon the Occasion. 

"I forgot to mention that La Sourse the Frenchman 
Call'd upon by Mr. Morgan as an Evidence respecting the 


Negro given for the Cart Oxen & horses, after he left the 
Court told Mr. Kennedy that the Negro was Sick & among 
the remains of the Cargo, & Mr. Elliott himself, tho ad- 
mitted as an Evidence notwithstanding a party Concern'd, 
declar'd to me before the same person that he could not 
but acknowledge he was a prejudice to me in his being 
Settled on that Land for many reasons which he gave at 
the same time, & Concluded by Saying that I Cou'd not 
blame him for it. This last Gentleman's Evidence Respect- 
ing a message he declar'd I deliver'd him from Mr. Rum- 
sey is in every Part false. Infamous & Groundless, that 
Gentleman never having mention'd a thing of the kind, but 
what is that to the purpose, had it even been true it Cou'd 
have no kind of Effect with respect to my Complaint of 
Mr. Morgan; the papers I deliver'd to the Court plainly 
Shew that I want nothing but what is reasonable. 

"Fifthly, with respect to the Local Situation of this 
Plantation or the other, what Can it avail.? I have Culti- 
vated the land Shewn to me, Mr. Morgan acknowledges I 
have been Industrious & have done my Duty untill Lat- 
terly & I lay no Claim to any land whatsoever. By my 
Articles of Agreement I Cede all right & Title thereto 
in Consideration of promis'd matters not Complied with. 
I ask no more than to be quit with him, & rely'd on the 
Judgment of the Court for what they shou'd Esteem with 
your Approbation Equivalent for my Labours. Mr. Mor- 
gan falls into Invectives reflects upon my Poverty (which 
I Imagine Cannot Effect the honesty of any man) and tho 
he declares I have wrote him many Insolent Letters, de- 
sir'd by me to be produc'd to ye Court, Answers — that he 
had made a very dirty use of them, at the Same time 
takes notice of a new English Expression, by no means 
so becoming in my opinion. In his defence which is the 
last matter I shall touch upon, he begins. Continues, & 
ends with Scurrility upon a Certain Gentleman, mentions 


a matter of some Garden Seeds, Surveying of different 
Lots, & Concludes, by taking it for Granted that he is en- 
tirely acquitted; that I act only from the Spleen & malice 
of another, »fc every body seems Surpriz'd that I shou'd 
not make it up, Condemn the only man who look'd upon 
me, and become the basest of mankind by a Step, that 
must render me unworthy of your Protection. 

"Therefore most Humbly entreat you to give me a 
Hearing yourself, or by some other means prevent my 
Ruin. And your Petitioner as in Duty bound will P2ver 
pray. (Signd) RiCHD. BACON. 

"I Forgot to mention a number of Cattle Charg'd to 
the plantation which was never Deliver'd, which was never 
taken notice of. Mr. Morgan Slept allso every night in 
the room of one of the Gentlemen of the Court."* 

Order for a Rehearing. 

"Fort Chartres, i6th October, 1776. 
"Gentlemen of the Court of Enquiry — Whereas an 
appeal from the Opinion of A late Court of Enquiry 
Order'd to Examine into some Charges preferr'd Against 
Geo: Morgan Esqr. by Richard Bacon, has been deliver'd 
to me by the latter Setting Forth the reasons for such a 
demand, which reasons in my Opinion are neither frivelous 
nor malicious but of a very Clear & equitable nature, I am 
therefore Extreamly Sorry to find it absolutely necessary 
to Order a Revisal of the said proceedings &, that they 
abide by the Charges E.Khibited; instead of which it is 
obvious that Mr. Morgan by a useless display of a number 
-of Books and papers has not only taken up the Time of 
the Court by an unnecessary enquiry into matters foreign 
from the purpose, but by that means allso Eluded in a 
great measure the Facts Exhibited. It does not appear 

* Endorsed: — "Richard Bacon's Appeal, No. 6." 


even by the proceedings that Mr. Morgan has Clearly 
disprov'd many things laid to his Charge, and the whole 
Tenour of his Style is nothing but a piece of Scurrility 
and invective against a third Person. 

"The Indecency of Mr. Brown & Mr. McFee was not 
unnotic'd, neither has it pass unobserv'd by Mr. Bacon. 
Even the appearance of a partial Indulgence shou'd be 
avoided, then Mr. Bacon wou'd have less Cause to Com- 

"As the man Justly Observes what Signifies the local 
Situation of the plantation, he cultivated the Land Shewn 
him. Claims none as his property, but Conceiving an Evi- 
dent Breach of Articles in the Settlement & Encourage- 
ment of another man just under his Nose, he applys for 
Justice and Submits his Case to the Court promising to 
abide by any Sum they with my approbation shou'd think 
equivalent for his Labour, adding thereto only the abuse 
which he said he receiv'd from Mr. Morgan both of which 
Circumstances Clearly appear. 

"The appeal will be read by the President or Deputy 
Judge Advocate & Return'd to me with all the Original 
Papers refer'd to in said proceedings, and Exact Copies of 
the Deeds and Titles therein mention'd. I shall hereunto 
Annex'd Show you my Observations on each Page of the 
Courts proceedings only, and must request and order that 
you give me your answers thereto, opposite to the observa- 
tions on each Page. 

"I am Sorry the Court had so much Trouble in this 
Affair and that a Revisal of the proceedings will add 
thereto, I must recommend it to them to be particularly 
Attentive to Each Charge, and my Observations on the 
proceedings allready given in. 

"I Did not intend to have Examin'd further into this 
Dispute, than what Appear'd in the proceedings of the 
Court from the 24th Septem'r to the 4th October 1770, 


But have Since, perus'd the papers DcHver'd to the Court 
by Mr, Bacon, marked No. i. 2. & 3, & which in my Opin- 
ion are absolutely necessary to be attended to, more min- 
utely than they seem to have been; I have allso perus'd 
the Articles of Agreement at least a Copy thereofif; & by 
which it appears A Copartnership; a,nd in the 4th Article 
of said Agreement Mr. Bacon was to be furnis'd what he 
requested as necessary to forward their mutual Interest for 
Seven Years. Was it not then Equitable that Bacon shou'd 
have been Consulted in the Sums laid out.^ Otherwise at 
the Closing of Accounts, one party might be great Gain- 
ers, and the other little the better after seven years Ser- 
vice; It is my Duty to Give my Opinion on those matters 
& yours to weigh every Circumstance, that your Opinion & 
Judgement may Determine the affair to the Satisfaction 
of both parties at least that there may be no Cause of 
further Complaint. I am Gentlemen Your most Obedient 
& Humble Servant. 

"To Lt: Wynne Presidt: (Signd) JNO. WiLKlNS, 

& the Members of a Court of Enquiry. Lt. Colonel." 

Observations- by Colonel Wilkins. — "(Page i) I have 
to observe from the ist to the 3d Page of the proceedings, 
that Bacon in answer to Mr. Morgan declares that Elliott 
has Settled on a place which Bacon had Clear'd & improv'd 
([p.] 2) that and a Spring &c., &c., and taken from him a 
Shade [shed] built by Bacon. Was Bacon to Consult Mr. 
Morgan about Building said Shade or ([page] 3) making 
Improvements; if so, why [should] not Mr. Morgan take 
Bacon's Opinion in the vast Sums laid out; their obliga- 
tions in the Agreement Seem mutual.? 

Court's Answer. — "It appears to the Court, that the 
only Improvements made by Bacon, on the land on which 

* These observations of Col. Wilkins are written on one-half of the page 
and the answers by the court on the other. 


Mr. Elliott has lately Settled, was an old Shade, for which 
Mr. Morgan offers to pay him, which offer the Court look 
upon as a Great Indulgence, as Mr. Bacon ought to have 
Consulted Mr. Morgan (to whom the land belong'd) before 
he built that Shade, as a Coursory Leave to improve was 
by no means a Sufficient Title, for him to go build a Shade. 
The Court think that Mr. Morgan might with propriety 
purchase Cattle, without Consulting Bacon, as Mr. Mor- 
gan advanc'd the money, was more in the way of making 
Cheap purchases, which as a Party Concern'd it is to be 
Suppos'd he wou'd do. It also appears by the last article 
of their Agreement that there was no Compulsion upon 
Bacon to take Cattle, he did not approve of Their obliga- 
tions are so far mutual that they are both to Act for the 
Advantage of the Plantation. The part of the Company is 
to advance all monies & to purchase, what may be neces- 
sary. That of Bacon's to labour, Oversee, Negroes &c., &c.; 
in Short to do every thing necessary for the benefit of the 
Farm. If there was any Benefit (which Mr. Bacon wou'd 
insinuate) to arise in purchasing Cattle; which cou'd only 
proceed from his purchasing with merchandize. The Court 
are of Opinion it ought to belong to Mr. Morgan & Co., as 
some Equivalent for ye Interest of the large Sums of money 
they have laid out, without having any Security on the 
part of Bacon. 

Col. W.— "(Page 4.) The Court Seem to have had 
Enough of That Charge. 

Ans. — "It appears by the minutes of the Proceedings 
that the Court (as Colonel Wilkins very justly observes) was 
fully Satisfied of this Charge, as well as the Generality of 
Bacon's Charges, as appears very obvious by refering to 
their Opinion, the 4th Octr. Inst: 

Col. W. — Page "5. And begins on the Personal Abuse 
in which Page Mr. Morgan is pleas'd to Address the Court 
& Concludes with bad Language of a Certain Gentleman 
not Named. 


Ans. — "As the Charge in the 5 fo:, is not at all Sup- 
ported by Mr. Bacon, it was Impossible for the Court to pro- 
nounce Mr. Morgan Culpable, and if any man Cou'd be so 
base as to accuse another falsely, he Certainly ought to be 
told of it, in Language Suitable to his Deserts. 

Col. W. — Page "(6). The Court are amus'd with Mr. 
Morgan's Books & then Adjourn'd in order to give Mr. 
Bacon & his friends time to recollect themselves. 

Ans. — "The Court did inspect Mr. Morgan's Books, as 
they thought it highly necessary, in order to assist them in 
making a proper Enquiry. They then adjourn'd as a great 
indulgence to Mr. Bacon, as they thought both himself and 
Friends had need of recollection, they having that day 
made a very poor hand of their Prosecution. The Court 
allways find Amusement in doing Justice. 

Col. W.— Page "(7.) The Court meet & Credit Mr. 
Bacon for an overcharge of 270 Livres. Mr. Morgan again 
Addresses the Court to Show that those Charges was made 
in his Absence; why [was] not the person Call'd on who 
made those Charges.^ 

Ans. — "The Court after inspecting the accounts (which 
the Lt. Colonel is pleas'd to call an amusement) between 
Mr. Morgan & Company & Mr. Bacon, which amounted to 
upwards of 60,000 Livres, they found the Articles objected 
to by Bacon, did not amount to more than 270 Livres, 
which Sum Mr. Morgan did Credit Bacon with, sooner 
than take up the time of the Court in proving the Charges 
to be just. It appear'd plainly, the Charges were made in 
Mr. Morgan's absence & the hand writing of the person 
who made them so well known, that the Court thought 
his presence needless; & that it would be a restraint upon 
him to be in Company of one, with whom he was at Vari- 

Col. W.— Page "(8.) Of Horses, Cart, &c; and 26 head of 
Cattle bought by Mr. Morgan, without consulting Mr. 


Bacon, who was to be charg'd for those Articles as Ob- 
serv'd on in Page i to 3? 

Ans. — "Fully Answer'd in first observation — Mr. Bacon 
was not under the necessity of having any Concern with 
more Cattle, than was perfectly agreeable to himself — 
moreover, the Cattle that Bacon Complains of being Over- 
charg'd in, is allow'd by Mr. Winston & the Court, to be 
altogether Equitable & Reasonable — See p. 8 of the Pro- 

Col. W. — Page "(9.) Mr. Winston declares that Bacon 
had Mr.jMorgan's Permission to improve the Spring & Land 
Contiguous to the plantation. In this page the Court Credit 
Mr. Bacon for an overcharge of 37 Livres 10 Sols. 

Ans. — "Allowing Mr. Morgan did give leave to Bacon, 
to improve the Spring, & the Land, Contiguous to the plan- 
tation. The Court are of opinion Mr. Morgan had it in his 
power, to recall that Permission, when he found Mr. Ba- 
con's behaviour, no longer merited such indulgence. Lt. 
Colo. Wilkins has Certainly made a mistake in his obser- 
vations on the last part of fo: 9 relative to a credit of 37 
Livres 10 Sols as will appear by referring to fo: 9 & 10 of 
ye Proceedings. 

Col. W. — Page "(10.) Mr. Brown I must confess has 
Carried his Fedility to Mr. Morgan a great length, I must 
however Observe thereon that his Oath Shall never be 
esteem'd A Sufficient voucher, for an Entry without proof 
of the delivery of any thing. 

Ans. — "The Court think Mr. Brown has Acted with the 
Fidelity becoming every honest man, and as a Merchant's 
Book keeper's oath, all Over the world is Esteem'd a Suffi- 
cient voucher for the Books, it of Course must have the due 
weight with us. 

Col. W. — Page "(11.) Of an address to the Court by 
Mr. Morgan concerning a negroe man, the affair Settled to 
Mr. Morgan's Content, but can it be reasonable that Bacon 


or any other Person shou'd be answerable to Mr. Morgan 
for Charges he Chuses to make for what he says is given to 
Indians without the approbation of the party concern'd; 
but what has this long Story to do with Mr. Bacon's Com- 
plaint, was not the Negroe Equally Mr. Bacon's property.? 
Query, was he detain'd or not.^ 

Ans. — "It does not appear to the Court that Mr. Mor- 
gan, has charg'd Bacon any thing for Paying Indians for the 
Negroe, But are of Opinion, that in Case Mr. Morgan shou'd 
be under the necessity of paying 150 Dollars or any part 
thereof, that Mr. Bacon shou'd be Charg'd with his propor- 
tion of it. They think the long Story was very necessary 
to be attended to, in order to throw a proper light on Mr. 
Bacon's Complaint. The Negroe was not detain'd as it 
appears Clearly he refus'd to Return to Bacon, and de- 
clar'd shou'd there be any attempt made to force him, he 
was resolved to destroy himself As to his being sold, that 
affair was Settled to their mutual Content, as appears by 
the nth Line of fo: 12 of the Proceedings. 

Col.W. — Pages"(i2, 13, 14, i5,& 16.) Is taken up with the 
remarkable Ox in dispute, it would seem Strange that Mr. 
Morgan or his people shou'd go such Lengths, as to Con- 
fine & intended to kill the Ox if they did not know some 
history thereof I had some talk with Lt. Chapman when 
at Kaskaskias of this remarkable fine Ox, and must desire 
that a Strict Enquiry may be made thereinto. 

Ans. — "The Ox may be remarkable, but the Dispute is 
undoubtedly so. Strange as it may appear, we cannot think 
that Mr. Morgan Clandestinely detain'd the Ox, as is 
maliciously & Injuriously Alledg'd by Bacon, on the Con- 
trary it appears by the very Evidence of Bonthorn, who 
Mr. Bacon Call'd on as an Evidence to Support his cause, 
that Mr. Morgan never so much as Disputed the remark- 
able ox with Bacon. Perhaps as Lt. Chapman knows 
Something of this Ox; it might have been necessary for 
the Court to have asked him a few questions. 


Col.W. — Page "(16.) Two Cows are Demanded from Mr. 
Morgan who promised to do Justice. — See observation on 
Page I to 3 efe page 8. 

Ans. — "Mr. Morgan in presence of the Court, Promis'd 
that he wou'd Enquire after the Cows mention'd & do Jus- 
tice; & they are of opinion, that nothing but his attention 
& time, being taken up, in attending this Court wou'd have 
prevented him from Performing his promise — See our 
answer to Observation on fo: i to 3 & fo: 8. 

Col.W. — Page "(17.) As the Company and Bacon was in 
a mutual Agreement, how cou'd Mr. Morgan with propriety 
ascertain the price of the 2 Oxen, 2 Horses Cart & Gears, 
or the price of the Negroe (which did not belong to the 
Plantation) without taking Bacon's Opinion thereon.'' 

Ans. — "]t appears to the Court by the 4th Article of the 
Agreement, that the Company have reserv'd to themselves 
the power of purchasing what Cattle they shou'd Esteem 
necessary, without consulting Bacon, it not being men- 
tion'd in any part of the Articles that Bacon is to be 
consulted. They also think that Mr. Morgan was a very 
proper [person] to value the Negroe, as he had at that 
time a Parcel for Sale, & it appears to us that good ones 
Sold for 1800 to 2000 Livres — they refer to fo: 17. 

Col. W.— Pages "(18 & 19.) Mr. Bacon still demands the 
accots: to be Settled, Mr. Morgan's Letters produc'd Show 
fair Promises; but why not the accounts Settled.^ I dont 
find by the proceedings that Bacon hath any Books to 
amuse the Court, did not Bacon go to Kaskaskia for that 
purpose, & doth not Mr. Elliott Declare that him and Mr. 
Morgan had some Talk on that head, tho' nothing was 
done to Stop this disagreeable Enquiry, till Steps were 
taken to bring it to a hearing .? 

Ans. — "We have to the best of our Judgment Settled 
Mr. Morgan's Accounts & it is our Opinion that the Sum of 
27629 Livres and Six Derniers is Justly due from the Plan- 


tation to Boynton Wharton & Morgan, and the Sum of 
1 59 1 Livres 4 Sol & Eight Derniers is justly due from 
Bacon on his private Account to the Aforesaid Boynton 
Wharton & Morgan, Agreeable to the Accounts Stated & 
Certified by us, which sums we do conceive ought to be 
immediately paid, To the said Boynton, Wharton, & Mor- 
gan. It is true Bacon had no Books to amuse the Court; 
But he had Abundance of disagreeable matter to trouble 
them with and his Impertinent Libells (which we Suppose 
he Terms addresses) Cannot be read by any man (that has 
the least degree of care for his character) without Indigna- 
tion; and the adviser & abbettor trifling man, we cannot but 
Esteem in a disagreeable light, & must hold in the utmost 
Contempt. We think every thing was done by Mr. Mor- 
gan to Stop this affair — But it was not to be Stop'd — and 
it Still remains a Doubt where it may Stop. 

Col. W. — Page "(20.) Mr. Bacon questions Mr. Elliott- 
whether the latter being Settled is not a prejudice to the 
former. Mr. Winston in the 9th Page declares that Mr. 
Morgan gave Bacon Permission to Settle & improve the 
lands contiguous to Him & it wou'd seem so or why 
[should] Mr. Morgan pay Bacon for a Barn unjustly built .^ 

Ans. — "The chief points, as they appear to the Court, 
are whether Mr. Elliott is Settled, or has incroached on lands 
belonging to Bacon's plantation. It appears by Bonthorn's 
Evidence that he has done Neither, if so Mr. Elliott Can- 
not be any farther a Prejudice to Bacon than one farmer 
vvoud be to another, on Acct. of being Situated near him. 
They Refer to their answers to the Observations on fo: 9. 
They look upon Mr. Morgan's offering to pay Bacon as an 
Indulgence, they fear hee'l hardly merit. See fo: 7 & 8 of 
the Revisal. 

Col. W.— Pages "(21 & 22.) Mr. Morgan Introduces thro 
a third person (Mr. Elliott) what a Certain Gentn: Shou'd 
Say, why not.' Mr. Rumsey call'd on by the Court to 


answer for himself thro' the whole proceedings as a princi- 
pal concern'd. And why am I brought on the Carpet as 
having sent messages to Mr. Elliott & giving Permission 
to Settle &c., tfec; Mr. Elliott might have Acquainted the 
Court with the answers I gave him when he Spoke to me 
on that head lately, but this I shall take more cognizance 
-of in due time. 

Ans. — "Mr. Elliott did mention to the Court a Con- 
versation he had with Mr. Bacon, in which Mr. Bacon in- 
troduc'd A Dialogue between him and Mr. Rumsey which 
they by no means think redounds to the credit of the 
latter. The Court in charity declin'd calling on Mr. Rum- 
sey (tho' they clearly perceiv'd him to be the principal 
Manager of ye Puppet) But resolv'd, to let him go on 
working in the Dark, as they fear not many of that 
Gent'ns actions, wou'd not bear being brought to light. As 
Lt. Colonel Wilkins's Name was not disrespectfully men- 
tion'd, but only introduc'd in Relating matters of Fact, 
The Court are not conscious of any impropriety in permit- 
ting it. 

Col. W. — Page "(23.) Mr. Elliott Seems to have been a 
busey man in this hearsay Enquiry, & it wou'd Seem time 
Enough for Mr. Morgan to bring in the Huggermugger 
proceedings when they commence, which in All probability 
never wou'd have been the case if Mr. Elliott had not 
made Encroachments on his Improvements: 

Ans. — "In answer to the Observation on fo: 23. The 
Court are Sorry to differ in Sentiment from Lt. Colonel 
Wilkins, they are far from thinking that Mr. Elliott Acted 
otherwise than as an honest man. The Enquiry on the 
part of Bacon, may be justly term'd an hearsay, as he has 
not brought One Single Evidence able to Support his 
Allegations, he brought one Bonthorn (O Rediculous) to 
relate a Story to the Court which he had from Bacon him- 
self, this may Justly be deem'd hearsay. The Court are 


of Opinion the Huggermugger Proceedings have long Since 
commcnc'd. It does by no means appear to the Court 
that EHiott has incroach'd on Bacon. 

Col. W. — Page "(24.) Mr. Morgan Enters on his Defence 
with Assertaining his property or lands in Dispute, But when 
Mr, Winston was desir'd by the Court to take some French- 
man's Opinion on like occasion, I return'd for answer, that 
the Deeds only Shou'd carry Weight in that affair & hoped 
the Court would be of same Opinion. 

Ans. — "By desire of the Court, Mr. Morgan did prove 
his Titles, to the Lands which he had purchased in the Grand 
Prairie, which they Look'd upon to be well authenticated, 
as they were Sign'd by the register as being properly re- 
corded. The Attention the Court paid the Deeds has 
confirm'd them in their Opinion, which they are determin'd 
to abide by. 

Col. W. — Page "(25.) Mr. Brown Corroborates perfectly 
with Mr. Morgan in every thing he has asserted Respecting 
the Boundaries of the Plantation, & Messrs. Elliott, Kenedy^ 
& Louverie have measur'd & Settled the Boundaries & 
Distance &c; without my Seeing any Title thereto. 

Ans. — "It Appear'd to the Court, that Brown, Elliott, and 
Kennedy did measure the lands for Mr. Morgan, & they 
are all clear and Exact in their Accounts of the Limits. 
The Court are of Opinion the Records of which Lt. Colo- 
nel Wilkins, is in Possession, w^ou'd if Examin'd, Suffi- 
ciently Shew the Titles, Notwithstanding Lt. Colo. Wil- 
kins was pleas'd to assert in Court, That Records were no 
proofs, & that he shou'd Pay no Attention to them. 

Col. W. — "N. B. No notice is taken in the proceed- 
ings of Mr. Bacon's Assertion respecting Mr. Morgan's 
Declaration to Elliott, Viz. — That they had made Nine 
thousand Livres by the Plantation the first Year. Bacon's 
Observations thereon are worthy the Notice of the Court, 
by which means they will be better able to Judge of Mr. 
Bacon's Deserts. (Sign'd) JOHN WiLKlNS. 


Ans. — "From the Large Sums Expended by Mr. Mor- 
gan for the Benefit of Mr. Bacon & the Company there 
ought to have arose very handsome Profits, unless Great 
missmanagement Occasion'd the contrary. The Court had 
a Sufficient Opportunity during the Course of their pro- 
ceedings to Judge of Bacon's Deserts. 

"The Court Possitively Assert that neither Mr. Brown or 
Mr. McFee, acted in any indecent manner whatever dur- 
ing their Sitting. They are Sorry to Observe Lt. Colonel 
Wilkins has paid more attention to Low Tattle than to 
Assurances of his Officers in this matter.. 

f Lewis Wynne, Lt. President. 
I Alex. Fowler, Lt: \ >S 

Sign'd.: ^ Thos:Hutchins, 60th Regt: ( ^ 
I Wm. Richardson, Ensign. T | 
[ Wm. Conolly, Ensign." '^ j ^ 

"Bacon's Impertinent Address." 

"To the Honourable Court of Enquiry. Gentlemen — 
I have nothing further to Say more than what I have all- 
ready mention'd in the pagers given in & the appeal to 
which I refer, I therein think it Clearly explain'd, that the 
Settlement of Mr. Elliott or any Person must consequently 
prove injurious to my plantation, render all my Endea- 
vours abortive, & finally enslave me by a continuance 
thereon. Have I not mention'd Cattle taken from me to be 
deliver'd Mr. Elliott.^ Mr. Morgan depriving me of my 
Customers.? Is not the Settlement of another person divid- 
ing his powers to Serve me? And is it natural to imagine 
that I can proceed with the Same Industry after depriving 
me of that which was the only means of Inducing me to 
Subscribe to Such Severe Terms. Viz. — all his assistance. 
The land mention'd in the Articles I never cultivated, my 

* Endorsed : — " To Colo. Wilkins's Observations on a Court of Enquiry 
&c &c; No. 6." 


present Improvements are upon the King's Lands upon the 
Hills. Mr. Elliott Settled there also, & not upon any pur- 
chase as represented, the high lands never having been 
Grant'd to any Person. If Mr. Morgan lays any Stress 
upon the plantation mention'd in the articles (wherein no 
Boundaries are discrib'd) why did he desire me to cultivate 
the high lands. ^ or lay out so much money thereon. Surely 
if I am not to enjoy what I have Improv'd at least for my 
Seven Years, it cannot be Expected that I am to pay any 
proportion of the immense Sums laid out thereon? without 
my ever being Even consulted. Therefore, I humbly flatter 
myself, you cannot think me liable for any Sums Mr. Mor- 
gan shall think proper to charge, without my permission, 
being a joint partner I declare that I will abide by no 
charges or Bargains allready or hereafter to be made with- 
out my knowledge & consent. I mean by this the Immense 
Sums allready said to be Expended, which 1 hope no 
Court of honour & Justice will make me Subject to, tho I 
have been and was this day in the utmost despair, The 
Honble. Commdt: in this Country has given me a dawn of 
hope by the Expressions he made use of this day, in de- 
claring he wou'd be the friend & Supporter of Every hon- 
est man in Opposition to all oppressors, tho the Sufferer 
be even a Negroe himself Although I understood the 
present Court have only to give their opinion respecting 
the matter in Debate, I humbly flatter myself it will be Such 
as will put my Course in Such a light as to be of Service 
& feel my Injuries tho' I cant Express them, for the 
Reasons Set forth this day by Mr. Kennedy, &c; 

"P. S. I must once more appeal to the papers I have all- 
ready given in, as I do not clearly understand many of 
ye questions put to me. 

"I am with Respect, Gentlemen, Your most humble 
Servt. (Sign'd) RiciiD. BACON. 

"Fort Chartres, loth Octr: 1770." 


"We do hereby certify that the above is a malicious 

Insolent Libel. 

f Lewis Wynne, Lt. 
I Alexr. Fowler, Lt. 
Sign'd: 1 Thos. Hutchins, Ens: 60th Reg. 
I Wm. Richardson, Ensn: 
[ Wm. Conolly, Ens :"* 

Rehearing Proceedings. 

"By an Order Issued by Lieutenant Colonel John Wil- 
kins — The Court met this 17th of October nine of the 
clock in the morning, to revise their proceedings and Sen- 
tence given in favour of Mr. Morgan, on a matter of Diff- 
erence between said Morgan & Richard Bacon; as also to 
answer such remarks and Observations as Colo. Wilkins 
had made on said proceedings. 

"The Court being Assembled, all Parties were admitted. 
The Judge Advocate then Read Mr. Bacon's Remonstrance 
to Colonel Wilkins for a Revisal of the Proceedings; also 
a letter from Colo. Wilkins to the Court, with his Opinion, 
and Observations on the proceedings, & Sentence Annex'd. 

"Question propos'd by the Court to Mr. Bacon. — 'As 
you complain of a Breach of the Articles of Agreement 
{in your Remonstrance) between you and Mr. Morgan, 
you'll be so kind as to point out to the Court wherein con- 
sists said Breach of Articles.^' 

"Mr. Bacon. — T look upon the Land Mr. Elliott is 
Settled upon as belonging to the Plantation, I agreed with 
Boynton, Wharton, & Morgan to Improve, as Mr. Morgan 
gave me leave to Improve it.' 

"Court to Mr. Bacon. — 'Did Mr. Morgan agree with you 
or is it mention'd in your Articles of Agreement with him, 
that he, Mr. Morgan, was not at Liberty to Settle any 
Person he pleas'd upon any Lands he might in future pur- 

* Endorsed: — "Richd. Bacon's fourth Impertinent Address to the Court, 
Dated Ft. Chavtres, 1 8th October, 1770. No. 8." 



chase after your Agreement with him the 2ist March 1768?'" 

"Bacon. — 'I never understood from Mr. Morgan, that he 
had any Intention to Settle any other person near the 
plantation he had Settled me upon.' 

"Court. — 'Do you look upon the Land now Occupied by 
Mr. Elliott, to be the Lands or part of the Lands alluded 
to in your Articles of Agreement with Mr. Morgan .'' 

"Bacon. — 'I looked upon it as part of the Plantation,, 
because Mr. Morgan desir'd me to Improve it.' 

"Court. — 'Was it immediately after your Agreement 
with Mr. Morgan, that he gave you Liberty to Improve 
the Lands now Occupied by Mr. Elliott.^' 

"Bacon. — 'No; it was not immediately — -it was some 
time After.' 

"William Bonthorn a witness of Mr. Bacon's being call'd 
upon; did not appear. ]\Ir. Bacon being ask'd by the 
Court, what this Bonthorn was to prove. Answer'd, that 
he had often heard him Say, that the Plantation was four- 
teen Acres in Front extending in Length from the Roches 
to the Mississippi. 

"Mr. Bacon complains in his Remonstrance to Colonel 
Wilkins, of being often Reprov'd by the Court, and told 
that every thing was going against him, and that in abso- 
lute Despair of doing himself Justice he forbore mention- 
ing many things he cou'd have done. Being ask'd by the 
Court in what manner he was Reprov'd. He Says, the 
Court told him that they were very Sorry to observe, that 
they looked upon him once, as a very Industrious, Sober, 
honest man, but they thought him now a very troublesome 
Litigious Fellow, 'and that if I did not bring Evidence to 
prove what I had Asserted against Mr. Morgan more 
clearly than what I had Done, I must turn out a Scoundrel 
at last: and also that if I did not Support the charge of 
the Ox brought against Mr. Morgan, that Mr. Morgan 
cou'd bring an Action against me at common Law.' Mrs. 


Casey being call'd upon by Mr. Bacon with respect to Mr. 
Brown (a clerk of Mr. Morgan's) telling Mr. Bacon, that 
one of his cattle had Stray'd to Post St. Vincent, and 
being ask'd by the Court what She knew of this matter. 
Says — that She heard Mr. Brown & Mr. Bacon talking 
about Twenty Six head of cattle, that were brought from 
Post St. Vincent to the Plantation; and that Mr. Brown 
told Mr. Bacon that one of them had Stray'd back to Post 
St. Vincent. 

"Mr. Bacon having none of his Evidences present the 
Court was oblig'd to Adjourn till to morrow morning Nine 
of the Clock, when all parties were Order'd to give Atten- 

"Thursday, i8th October, 1770. The Court met this 
morning at Nine of the Clock pursuant to Adjournment. 

"William Bonthorn came before the Court as an Evi- 
dence in favour of Mr. Bacon. Being desir'd by the Court 
to Relate what he knew of the matter in Debate between 
Mr. Morgan & Mr. Bacon Says — that he heard Mr. Bacon 
Say, that he intended to fence in a piece of Ground, which 
he imagin'd wou'd extend his Plantation Fourteen Acres 
in Front. He adds that he has heard Mr. Bacon Say, that 
Mr. Morgan has purchas'd more lands & that he under- 
stood that Mr. Bacon was to improve the last purchase as 
well as the First. 

"Mr. Bacon desires Bonthorn to relate to the Court, 
what he knows concerning the Improvements he had made 
where Mr. Elliott is now Settled. 

"Bonthorn. — 'Some time before I went to Mr. Bacon's 
to live which was in Septr: 1768 Mr. Bacon had clear'd a 
Small piece of Land, and intended he said to make a 
Field there. I know of no other Improvements, but a 
Small House that was built by Agreement for one Camp- 
bell, who Imagin'd was to Settle there. We cut some Tim- 
ber off Said land, for building A Barn and other Uses.' 


"Court to Mr. Bacon. — 'Mr. Bacon you have Set forth 
in your Petition that you was told every thing was going 
against you — be kind Enough to relate to the Court from 
whom you had this Information.'' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Mr. Fowler told me so.' 

"Mr. Patrick Kennedy was call'd upon by Mr. Bacon to 
relate to the Court what passed on the 27th September 
last between the Judge Advocate, Court & ^Ir. Bacon; 
Deliver'd to the Court the Annex'd Paper which was Read 
Publickly by the Judge Advocate, all Parties Present.[:] 

Patrick Kennedy's Evidence. 

"Gentlemen: — On the 27th Day of Septemr I was 
Call'd upon by Mr. Morgan to attend a Court of Enquiry 
held at Fort Chartres & during my Stay there happened 
the following words between the Judge Advocate & Mr. 

"1st. Judge Advocate. — 'Mr. Bacon you see that all these 
witnesses you got this day is all Against you, so I beg 
you will desist from asking them any more questions.' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Gentlemen, I think the Evidences are as 
much in my favour as in Mr. Morgan's as they make the 
Sum one hundred & fifty Livres more than was mention'd.' 

"Court. — 'You have no Right to think about it at all. 

"2d. J. Advocate. — 'Mr. Bacon I must needs tell you, 
you have bad Advisers that may lead you into Scrapes, 
that you wont readily get out of, (I Suppose you will tell 
that to Mr. Rumsey to go along with the rest, you have told 
him) for my part I dont Care what you tell him, (fc you 
may tell him I said So.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'I have been a Good friend to you Mr. 
liacon & does Still intend it notwithstanding what has 

"3d. J. Advocate.— 'You see Mr. Bacon what I\Ir. Mor- 


gan Says that he will Still be your friend tho you have 
brought things to Such a head.' 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'I disregard any Services yt Mr. Morgan 
may do for me, as I Dont Intend to have any thing to do 
with him for the future.' 

"4th. J. Advocate. — 'You are A very impertinent fel- 
low I must needs toll you, Mr. Bacon, that is no answer to 
give here, your Character heretofore, was very good in the 
Eyes of Every one but now we find that you will Appear 
a Troublesome, wrangling Sort of a fellow, and if you 
dont bring better proofs to Support what you have Alleged 
against Mr. Morgan I am afraid you will turn out the 
Scoundrel & Rascal at last; you have got above your busi- 
ness, like a great many others when they Come to this 

"Mr. Bacon. — 'Gentlemen I am very Sorry that I should 
Say any thing to Disoblige the Court, & Humbly beg 

"The above is an Impartial Acct. to the best of my 
knowledge 6^ remembrance. I am Gentlemen Your Hum- 
ble Servant. ^Signd) Patt. Kennedy." 

"Mr. Fowler's Remarks on Mr. Kennedy's Evidence: — 
The first Charge (if it can be Call'd by that Appelation) I 
partly allow Except the Diction which I absolutely deny. 
This was as Mr. Kennedy Says on the 27th September, & 
he might have added, when Monsr. La Source, who was 
called upon by Mr. Bacon to Support Some charges against 
Mr. Morgan, was giving his Evidence — see Page 17 of the 
proceedings. Whether or not it was my business as Judge 
Advocate to desire Bacon to desist from calling Evidence 
that was hurtful to his cause, I leave to the Decission of 
Colo. Wilkins and every other man of Probity, Impartial- 
ity & Common sense. To Mr. Kennedy's Second Charge, 
there was also some such Discourse happened, tho far from 


being Verbatim. As it was Evident that Mr. Bacon cou'd 
not write the papers deHver'd to the Court, it was natural 
to think, & without doubt, he had advisers: And as I had 
a Letter from Mr. Rumsey the preceding Evening, hinting 
to me, not to be premature in giving my Opinion of a man 
I had yet Httle knowledge of & who wish'd me well, I was 
Convinc'd that Mr. Bacon had Commenc'd Tatler — & an 
Infamous, lying, Slandering Tatler, too. I answer'd Mr. 
Rumsey's Letter to his Satisfaction. I therefore on telling 
& advising him to desist, said that whoever was his advo- 
cate in this matter, I thought him a very bad one: that if 
it was Mr. Rumsey, Bacon (as he had Commenc'd Carry- 
ing Extraordinary Intelligence) might if his memory cou'd 
retain it. Communicate what I said to Mr. Rumsey; for 
what I had Said, or wou'd Say, in that Court, I wou'd Say, 
if ]\Ir. Rumey and all the world was present. 

"As to the fourth Charge, from an answer Bacon gave 
to Mr. Morgan I did Say that I thought he was a very 
Impertinent fellow & added that I was Sorry for it as I 
had even heard Mr. Morgan Speak of him with a Warmth, 
which he little deserved from what he had now said. 

"In the Course of the proceedings & from the Style & 
nature of the papers Deliver'd to the Court from time to 
time he has fix'd an Opinion with me which only an 
Oposite Behaviour of Mr. Bacon can Eradicate. 

Alex. Fowler, Lt. in the 
"Fort ChaRTRES, i8th or Royal Irish Regiment of Foot, 

19th October 1770. & acting Dep'y Judge Advocate."* 

"Mr. Bacon desires Bonthorn to relate to the Court 
what he knows of him (Mr. Bacon) receiving two Hogs 
from one Gotio, for which Mr. Morgan has charg'd him 
one hundred & Sixty Livres. 

* "Mr. Patrick Kennedy's Evidence— what pass'd in Court 27 Septemr 
last, with Mr. Fowler's remarks theron. No. 7." 


"Bonthorn.— 'I Remember Mr. Bacon bring^ing one Sow 
from Kaskaskia, when I was with him in the latter end of 
Year 1768, but I Remember of no more.' 

"Mr. Bacon "Still insisting that he did not receive the 
two Hoggs from Gotio for which Mr. Morgan had charg'd 
him one hundred & Sixty Livres — adding that he was 
willing to make [an oath] that he never Receiv'd them. 

"Mr. Morgan to Bonthorn. — 'Is the Land which you 
have mention'd to the Court in your former Evidence to 
be Plow'd or Improv'd by Mr. Bacon; is it, in the Grand 
Prairie, or on the back of the Roches.^' 

"Bonthorn. — 'It is Situated on the Grand Prairie.' 

"Court. — 'Has Elliott made Encroachments thereon.?' 

"Bonthorn. — 'I dont think he has.' 

"Mr. Morgan to Bonthorn. — 'Has Mr. Elliott En- 
croach'd on the Plantation Assign'd to Mr. Bacon in any 

"Bonthorn. — 'I know of no Encroachments except Mr. 
Elliott's calfs getting among his corn may be Esteem'd 
one: — and I dont remember that there was any Fences to 
keep them out.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Was the House Built by Mr. Bacon 
Occupied; or did Mr. Bacon make any use of it when Mr. 
Elliott took possession.?' 

"Bonthorn. — 'No; It was not.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Had Mr. Bacon ever plow'd the Land 
he talks of Improving, or had he ever Fenced it in.?' 

"Bonthorn. — 'No.' 

"Mr. Morgan. — 'Was the House built by Mr. Bacon of 
any use or advantage to the Plantation.?' 

"Bonthorn. — 'I suppose Mr. Bacon intended it to be of 
use, but I dont think it was of any.' 

"Mr. Bacon desires that Mr. Patrick Kennedy will re- 
late to the Court, what he has heard Mr. Elliott Say with 
Respect of his being Settled where he is. 


"Mr. Kennedy Says he has heard Mr. ElHott Say in 
common discourse, that he thought he was prejudicial to 
Mr. Bacon, by being Settled where he was. and observ'd, 
that by having the use of the Spring & cutting the Tim- 
ber that Mr. Bacon formerly had the use of, must be of 
great disadvantage to him. 

"Mr. Morgan to Mr. Kennedy. — 'Did Mr. Elliott say he 
was Illegally or unjustly a disadvantage to Mr. Bacon.''' 

"Mr. Kennedy. — 'No. He did not, He said it was of 
no kind of Consequence to him for that Mr. Morgan was 
to find him a Plantation.' 

"Mr. Morgan to Bonthorn. — 'You'll relate to the Court 
what you know, and what pass'd between Mr. Bacon and 
yourself regarding the remarkable Fat Ox at Kaskaskia 
now in Question.'' 

"Bonthorn. — 'One day after Breakfast at Mr. Elliott's, 
Mr. Bacon was talking to Mr. Elliott about the Ox. They 
call'd to me — and Mr. Bacon Ask'd me if I remember'd 
Such an Ox, mentioning the colour. I said I remember'd 
the Ox, as he was pretty remarkable. I told Mr. Elliott 
& Mr. Brown what Age I thought he was of; and Mr, 
Elliott at the same time said that by the Discription I had 
given of him he Suppos'd it was the same Ox. Some 
days after this Mr. Bacon went down to Kaskaskia to see 
the Ox; and he desir'd me to go down afterward, & take 
some Potatoes to Mr. Morgan, and make myself certain if 
this was the Ox: I asked of Mr. Bacon what I shou'd Say 
to Mr. Morgan, when I went down concerning the Ox: Mr. 
Bacon told me by no means to Speak of the Ox to Mr. 
Morgan, as I wou'd See him in the Yard Amongst the 
other cattle — after I had taken a look at the Ox, I told 
Mr. Bacon that I cou'd not be positive, whether it was the 
same Ox or not, as his colour had chang'd ; altho from his 
Shape & Appearance I thought it was the Ox, Yet I cou'd 
not venture to make Oath that it was.' Bonthorn Adds, 


that he heard Mr. Bacon Say, that Mr. Morgan did not 
dispute, but it was the Ox, and [the one] that he (Mr. 
Bacon) wanted. 

"From a complaint Mr. Bacon preferr'd against Ens: 
Hutchins in his Remonstrance to Colonel Wilkins, for 
allowing Mr. Morgan to Sleep in his Appartment. Ensign 
Hutchins thought it was necessary to Acquaint the Court 
with Respect to the charge Relative to Mr. Morgan Sleep- 
ing in the Room of one of the members of the Court. 
That During his Acquaintance with Mr. Morgan (which 
he said was for some years) He has had dealings with him 
to a very considerable Amount, as well on account of the 
crown, as his own private Account, and always had found 
his Behaviour like that of an Honest man and a Gentle- 
man. He therefore Asked Mr. Morgan to Sleep in his 
Room, as it wou'd be more convenient to him during the 
Setting of the Court than going every Evening to the 
Village, particularly as the beds in his house were Occupied 
by Sick persons; and not Imagining it cou'd be the least 
Reflection on the Court or himself, as he had first Ask'd, 
& obtained Colonel Wilkin's Permission for Mr. Morgan to 
Sleep in the Fort. Ens: Hutchins further adds, that he 
cannot help Expressing his Surprise at Colo. Wilkins 
allowing of a complaint of this nature to be Exhibited, as 
he very well know Mr. Morgan Sleeping in the Fort, was 
by his (Colo. Wilkins's) Own Permission which was ask'd 
in writing every Evening during Mr. Morgan's Stay in the 
Fort. This Mr. Hutchins can prove, as well as Colonel 
Wilkins' Permission by his Servant, who carried his written 
requests & brought the Colonel's answers to them. 

"The Court desir'd Mr. Bacon to Inform, if he had any 
more questions to ask the Evidences present or if. He 
had any more Evidences to Examine before the Court. 
He answer'd, he had not. 

"Mr. Bacon Deliver'd this Evening to the Judge Advo- 


cate (after the Court was Adjourn'd) the Annex'd Paper, 
which was Read by him to the members of the Court, and 
was deem'd by them a trifling Insulting Libel, upon the 
conduct of the Court, & of no kind of use, in Settling the 
matter of difference between Mr. Morgan & Mr. Bacon. 

"Mr. Morgan Deliver'd to the Court, a certificate sign'd 
by Mr. James Elliott, and Witness'd by Mr. Thomas Mc 
Fee, which Runs as follows: 

'"I Do hereby Certify that Mr. Bacon has at Sundry 
Times, said, that he never woud have made the complaints, 
he has against Mr. Morgan, had it not been his knowing 
that Mr. Morgan was not upon good Terms with Colonel 
Wilkins & with Mr. Rumsey, and that he, Mr. Rumsey, 
had Influence Enough over Colo. Wilkins to make him 
•his Friend in said Dispute: and Likewise that Mr. Rum- 
sey had promis'd to Support him therein, & carry him 
through it. Witness my hand this i6th October 1770. 

" 'In the presence of ^Sign'd) James ELLIOTT.' 

Thos. McFee.'" 

"This Certificate the Judge Advocate [read] Publickly 
in Court: after which the Court was clear'd, when they 
proceeded to answer the Remarks and Observations made 
by Colo. Wilkins; to Deliberate on what had pass'd in 
Court between Colonel Wilkins & Mr. Morgan; and Finally 
•.to give their Opinion on the whole of the proceedings & 
Revisal all of which is Faithfully Transcrib'd by 

(Sign'd) Alexr. Fowler, Lt. in the 
1 8th or Royal Irish Regimt: 
Acting Dep'y Judge Advocate. 

"N. B. A mode of Agreement concerning A Tract of 
Land Granted by Colonel Wilkins (if approv'd of by the 
General) To Mr. Galloway, Mr. Boynton, Mr. Wharton, 
Mr. Morgan & Mr. Rumsey, with one Sixth Reserv'd for 
Colonel Wilkins, was Read by the Judge Advocate. 


"A Breach of the Articles of Agreement, being the 
only matter in Our Opinion, Bacon shoud have attended 
to, yet this was Artfully Avoided: and when Mr. Morgan 
was desiring & Impressing Mr. Bacon to prove His allega- 
tions with respect to A Breach in the Articles of Agree- 
ment, Colo: Wilkins being present repremanded him; and 
told him that he disturb'd the Court; and also said in open 
Court, that he was Convinced Mr. Morgan was Guilty of a 
Breach of Articles; and that the Court had no Right to 
give Sentence, only to give their Opinion. 

"The Court thinks that they were Interrupted in their 
proceedings by Colonel Wilkins being present; and also 
thinks that Colonel Wilkins from what he said looks upon 
the Gentlemen that constitute this Court in so Cypherical 
& Indifferent a sense, as to be Incapable of giving an 
honest Impartial Opinion. This the Gentlemen of the 
Court are sorry to observe, and it is with the utmost con- 
'Cern they mention it. But from Colonel Wilkins allowing 
of an Appeal, thro the Channel of Himself; couch'd in a 
collection of words foreign to the Dispute; Replete with 
bitter Ill-timed Invective; with Impertinent & Groundless 
Reflections, and with A Variety of False, Scandalous, & 
Imaginary Assertions, they cou'd not with Safety, & Jus- 
tice to themselves. Pass it Over altogether Unnotic'd. 

"What they have done, has been done Cooly & Deliber- 
ately; is the Dictates of honest, upright Hearts, Supported 
by clear & uninterrupted Imaginations; Free, & unfetter'd, 
by malice, Envy, Prejudice or Partiality, we have here- 
unto Annex'd our Opinions. Conscious of this (tho much 
concern'd for Differing so widely in Opinion from Colonel 
Wilkins) we have Subscrib'd our Names, without Trembling 
with Guilt, as Bacon wou'd Intimate, or without Shaking 
for the consequences." 

"The Court in Consequence of Colonel Wilkin's Orders 
of the 1 6th of this Instant met to revise their Proceedings, 


and Sentence pass'd the 4th of this Instant on a matter of 
Difference between Geo: Morgan Esqr. & Mr. Richard 
Bacon, as also to answer such Remarks, and Observations, 
as Colonel Wilkins had made on said proceedings, And 
after having carefully Revis'd said proceedings, & Exam- 
in'd what other Witnesses Mr. Bacon Call'd upon to Sup- 
port his charges, as well as Read and Heedfully meditated 
on his Remonstrance, and his paper deliver'd to the Judge 
Advocate the i8th Instant; are unanimously & Firmly of 
Opinion, that his Remonstrance, as well as paper of the 
18th, are Infamous, Impertinent Libels, on the Proceed- 
ings of the Court; And that neither they, nor the wit- 
nesses he has call'd upon, has in any Degree whatever, 
Prov'd, that Mr. Morgan has oppress'd Mr. Bacon, & 
therefore we must beg leave to Refer Lieut. Colonel Wil- 
kins to the Sentence or Opinion given by us the 4th of 
October, which is Annex'd to the Proceedings, and which 
we must out of regard for our own Honour, as well as 
Justice to the parties concern'd Religiously Abide by. 

"And we do hereby Refer Lt. Colo. Wilkins To said 
Sentence or Opinion Accordingly. 

(Sign'd) A. Fowler, Lt. in i8th or 
Royal Irish Regt: of Foot, Acting D'y Judge Advocate. 

f Lewis Wynne, Lt. & Presdt. 
1 Alex.r. Fowler, Lt. \ ^ 

Sign'd: -j Thos. Hutchins, Ens. 60th Regt: | ^ 
I WiM. Richardson, Ensn: C S 

[Wm. Conolly, Ensn:"* j S 

The court certainly came out ahead in the matter of the 
rehearing. It not only reaffirmed its former judgment and 
reiterated in additionally strong language its former opinion 
of the defendant, but insinuated as positively as it could, 

* Endorsed: — "Minutes on the Revisal of a Court of Enquiry on a 
Matter of Difference between Geo: Morgan Esqr: & Mr. Richard Bacon, 
Commencing the i6th & Ending the 20th October 1770." 


within courteous bounds, its opinion of the commandant. 

It was doubtless out of this and other like proceedings, 
and his disposition to make grants of land to favored pur- 
chasers, reserving an interest for his own benefit, that there 
grew up a very bad state of feehng in the Ilhnois country 
between the commandant and the different classes of citi- 
zens, which increasing in factional bitterness finally resulted 
in bringing charges against Col. Wilkins for mal-adminis- 
tion, especially in charging the government with sums ex- 
pended for his private account. He invited an investiga- 
tion and tendered his resignation in September, 1771, but 
was not superseded in his command until the following 
spring, when he left for New York and sailed for London 
in July, 1772.* 

We have no account of the result of the investigation, 
nor of the colonel's subsequent career, except that it is 
stated that he died or left the army at the close of the 
year 1775, his name not thereafter appearing on the army- 

* Brymner's "Calendar of Canadian Archives, report of 1S84," pages 54 
and 56. 

+ "Colonial History of New York," VIII, 185. 


Early Chicago and Illinois. 


Abbe, Fran9ois Noize, dit 1', St. Clair- 
Co. militia, 1790, 207, 217, 220, 227. 

Abbott, Lieut. -Gov. Edward, at Vin- 
cennes, 371, 391, 401. 

Aberdeen Street, Chicago, 69. 

Aboite River, 3380. 

Abolition of slavery, I. N. Arnold in- 
troduced motion for the, 36-7. 

Abolitionist, Gen. Grant not an, 90. 

Acadians, Rocheblave's plan for set- 
tling on the Mississippi, 378. 

Adams, John Quincy, minister to Eng- 
land, 97; president, 146, 176, 177. 

Adams, Mrs. John Q., 91. 

yEtna Fire-insurance Co. of Hartford, 
Conn., 21. 

Aime, Charles, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Alaint, , head of lamily, Kaskas- 

kia, 1790, 212. 

Albany, N.Y., 56. 

Alcott, Caroline, wife of Samuel Stone, 


Allaire, Louis, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

AUard, Augustin, Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 223. 

Allary (Alary, Alari), Baptist e, 210. 

AUary, Bazil, Kaskaskia militia, 210,221 

Allary, Clement, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205, 207; St. Clair -Co. 
militia, 1790, 216, 226. 

Allary, Domitilde, widow, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 200. 

Allary (Alary), IJeut. Jean Bap., head 
of family, Cahokia, 1783, 205, 207; 
Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 221, 227. 

Allary, Marie, wid. of Joseph, head of 
family, Cahokia, 1783, 205, 207. 

Alleghany Mountains, 144, 231, 2S6. 

Allemand, Jean 1', head of fam., Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Allison, John, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 200. 

Almon's "Remembrancer," 373 n. 

Alphonso, , St.Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 227. 

Alps, France, 360. 

Alton Observer, E. P. Lovejoy's, 1 13. 

Amelin, Laurent, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205, 207; St. Clair -Co. 
militia, 1790, 220, 228. 

Amer. Board of Foreign Miss., 121, 128' 

American Bronze Co. of Grand Cross- 
ing, Chicago, cast bust of Philo Car- 
penter, 129. 

American Christian Union, 128. 

American Congregational Union, 128. 

American Fur-Co., 10, 10, 181, 182,. 
183, 184, 186, 230. 

Amer. Home Miss'n'y Soc'y, 121, 129. 

American Missionary Assoc'n, 121, 128. 

"American .State Papers," 195 n, 234, 
251 n, 258 n, 259 n, 380 n. 

Amherst College, 77. 

Anderson, David, juror in Rice- Jones 
murder case, 280. 

Anderson, John, juror in Rice-Jones 
murder case, 280. 

Anderson, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Andre, Jean, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 200. 

Andrews, Joseph, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 206. 

Andrew, John A., senator, 79. 

"Annals of Congress," 248 n. 

Antalliard, Felicite, wid. J. B. Dumas, 
head of fam., St. Clair Co., 1783, 207 

Antaya, Antoine, jr., head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 

Antaya, Antoine, sr., head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 222. 

Antaya, Michel, dit Pelletier, head of 
family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199; 1790, 
212; St. Clair-Co. militia, 205, 208, 
220, 228. 

Antaya, Toimetre, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 209. 

Anti-Nebraska party, started at Tre- 
mont House, Chicago, Apr., 1854, 63. 

Anti-slavery movements begin in 1831, 

Apalachians, 401. 

"Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Biogra- 
phy," 147. 




Archambeau, Joseph, St. Clair-County 
militia, 1796, 219, 226. 

Ardouin, , head of family, Caho- 

kia, 1783, 205. 

Aitloin, heirs of, in St. Clair County, 
1783, 208. 

Arkansas Territory, 267. 

Arkouet, Antoine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Armstrong, John, sec'yof war, 146, 176. 

Army of the Tennessee, 89. 

"Arnold, Benedict, Life of," his patri- 
otism and his treason, by Isaac N. 
Arnold, 41, 45. 

Arnold, Isaac Newton, address on, by 
E. B. Washburne, 27-46; reads paper 
on Abraham Lincoln before Royal 
Historical Society, 29; born in Hart- 
wick, Otsego Co., N.Y., 30; studied 
law under R. Cooper and E. B. More- 
house, 31, 50; removed to Chicago, 
31; elected representative to 37th 
congress, 33 ; friend of Abraham 
Lincoln, 33; pronounced eulogy on 
S. A. Douglas, 34; introduced reso- 
lution on abolition of slavery in U. S., 
37; wrote Reminiscences of Lincoln 
and of Congress during the Rebel- 
lion, 39; auditor of treasury, 40; re- 
sumed law practice in 1872, 41 ; wrote 
" Life of Benedict Ai'nold, " 41 ; wrote 
" Life of Abraham Lincoln," 44; list 
of his writings, 44; president Chicago 
Historical Society, 45; tribute from 
Hon. T. Drummond, 47; tribute from 
Hon. VanH. Higgins,48; in partner- 
ship with M. D. Ogden, 50; with E. 
B. Morehouse, 50; mention, 57, 59, 69 

Arundel, William, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Ashley, Gen. Wm. H., senator from 
Arkansas, 84, 254. 

Askin, John, letter to, 385 n. 

Astor, John Jacob, 10, 182. 

Atchison, Lieut. George, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 214, 224. 

Atlanta, Ga., 93. 

Atlantic Ocean, 23. 

Aubuchon, Gabriel, residing at Kaskas- 
kia, 1790, 212. 

Aubuchon, Mary Louise, head of fam- 
ily, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Aubuchon, Raphael d', St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 227. 

Aurora, 111., 1 10. 

Austin, Moses, with J. R. Jones erected 
first cupola furnace in U. S., 249. 

Austin, Texas, San Felipe de, 260. 

Austin, Hon. Stephen F., 260. 

Babcock, Mrs. O. E., 268 n. 

Backus, Elijah, of Kaskaskia, 276, 279, 

Bacon, Richard, of Kaskaskia, pro- 
ceedings in court of enquiry, 423, 424, 
425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 
434. 435, 436, 437. 43^, 439, 44°, 
441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 
448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 
455, 460, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 
467, 468, 469, 472, 473, 474, 475, 
476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 484- 

Badollet, John, commissioner of land- 
ofhce at Vincennes, 171, 241. 

Bahatte, Antoine, at Kaskaskia, 1790, 

Baker, Col. Edward Dickinson, law- 
yer of Springfield, 60; killed at Ball's 
Bluff, 84. 

Baker, David Jewett, of Kaskaskia, 
senator, 160. 

Baker, Henry S., of Alton, ]iaper by, on 
Pierre Menard, read at Springfield, 
before Illinois State-Bar Association, 

Ballew (Bellow), Timothy, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 201, 208, 225. 

Balme, Col. Augustin Moltin de la, 
337, 337 n, 338 n, 340, 389. 

Ball's Bluff, battle of, mention, 84. 

Bancroft, George, new evidence of his 
error (concerning Benedict Arnold), 
45; reference, 97. 

Bar Association of State of Illinois, 45. 

"Bar of Illinois Forty Years Ago," 
paper by I. N. Arnold, 45. 

" Bar, Early Chicago and Illinois," 
record of, by I. N. Arnold, 45. 

Barbau (Barbeau), Andre, Prairie du 
Rocher militia, 1790, 222. 

Barbau, Jean Baptiste, jr., head of fam- 
ily, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Barbau, Jean Baptiste, sr., head of fam- 
ily, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203; 
Court of Kaskaskia, 295. 

Barbour, Capt. Philip, 349. 

Barger, Christina, of Vincennes, mar- 
ried Roderiques, 259. 

Barger, Elizabeth, 259. 

Barger, Frederick, 234, 258. 

Barger, George, 258. 

Barger, George, jr., 258. 

Barger, Margaret, 258. 

Barger, Mary, second wife of John 
Rice Jones, 257, 258. 

Barger, Peter, 258. 

Barger, Susan, 259. 



Barker, Mathias, head of family, Kas- 

kaskia, 1783, 200. 
Barnes, Dr. Joseph K., 66. 
Baron, Jean Baptiste, St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 226. 
Barrois, Francois, head of family, Kas- 

kaskia, 1783, 200. 
Barron, -, Court of St. Vincennes, 


Barron, Gabriel, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205. 

Barron, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 
Cahokia, 1783, 205, 207; St. Clair- 
Co. militia, 1790, 219. 

Barrows, Rev. Dr. John H., of First 
Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 106. 

Barry, Mrs. Wm. , memoir of Samuel 
Stone by, 130. 

Barry, Rev. Wm., first recording secre- 
tary and librarian Chicago Historical 
Society, 73, 133. 

Barry, lion. Wm. T., 254. 

Bartalon, , death of, 391. 

Barton, Hon. David, 253, 254. 

Barutel, Antoine, called Toulouse, 
Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 221. 

Barutel (Bautel), Blaise, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 211. 

Bascom, Rev. Flavel, 109, 126. 

Basque, Pierre, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Bates, Hon. Edw^ard, 254. 

Bates, Frederick, secretary of Territory 
of Louisiana, 174, 251. 

Bates, Rev. Joshua, D. D., president of 
Middlebury College, Vermont, 56. 

Battenkiil, Valley of, Vt., 75. 

Baugi, Joseph, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 198. 

Bauvais, Alexis, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200, 211. 

Bauvais, Antoine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 198; Court of Kaskas- 
kia, 296, 309, 312, 313, 440. 

Bauvais (Beauvais), Jean Baptiste St. 
Geme, head of family, Kaskaskia, 
1783, 198, 212 n; Court of Kaskas- 
kia, 1787, 296, 309. 

Bauvais, Marie Helene Ste. Geme, wife 
of Nicholas Canada, 163. 

Bauvais, Marie Louise, widow, head of 
family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 

Bauvais, ; , of Kaskaskia, 440, 457. 

Bauvais, Therese St. Gemme, resident 
of Kaskaskia, 145; reference, 163, 

Bauvais, Ursule Ste. Geme, 163. 

Bauvais, Vital, jr., Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 


Bauvais, Vitol Ste. Geme, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 198, 212, 2i2n, 
296, 309, 312. 

Bavarel, Tousaint, Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 223. 

Bayatte, Antoine, 211. 

Bayly, William, of Kaskaskia, 312. 

Beaubien, Mark, in Chicago in 1832, 
106 n, 109 n. 

Beaudoin, Jean, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201. 

Beaulieu, Bazile, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 226. 

Beaulieu (Beaulicux), Jean, St. Clair- 
County militia, 1790, 218, 225, 294, 


Beaulieu, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 226. 

Beaulieu, Michel, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Beaulieu, Widow, head of family, Ca- 
hokia, 17S3, 205, 207. 

Beaumont, George Anson Oliver, part- 
ner of Mark Skinner, 56. 

Beauregard, Louis Tousaint, merchant 
of New Orleans, 358. 

Beaver Lake, Indiana, 185. 

Beckwith, Hiram Williams, author of 
an account of Winnebago war, 20. 

Bedford County, Va., 285. 

Beebeau, Antoine ?, trader with Ameri- 
can Fur-Company, 13. 

Beguain, Pierre, Kaskaskia, 1 790, 213. 

Beguiere, Joseph, head of family, Ca- 
hokia, 1783, 205, 207. 

Beland, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 217, 227. 

Bellecour, Antoine, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 217, 227. 

Bellecour, Joseph, head of family, 
Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Belleville N'en.vs- Democrat, 277. 

Bellow, Timothy, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201, 208, 225. 

Beman, Rev. Dr. Nathan S. S., of First 
Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 104. 

Bennington County, Conn., 54, 55, 75. 

Benjamin, Martha, mother of E. B. 
Washburne, 79. 

Benjamin, Samuel, ancestor of E. B. 
Washburne, 79. 

Bentley, Thomas, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201, 340, 385, 388. 

Bentley, Madame , store-keeper, 

Kaskaskia, 316. 

Benton, Col. Thos. Hart, senator from 
Missouri, 253, 254, 265. 

Bequet, Andrew, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 216, 220. 



Bequet, Isabel, head of family, Caho- 

kia, 1783, 205. 
Bequet, Jean Baptiste, heirs of, in St. 

Clair County, 1783, 207. 
Berea College, Kentucky, 128 n. 
Berger, Laurent Jean, St. Clair - Co. 

militia, 1790, 227. 
Bergeron, Jean Baptiste, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 205, 207, 216, 226. 
Bergeron, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 218, 225. 
Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts, 103. 
Berry, Eleanor, of Ohio, first wife of 

Gurdon S. Hubbard, 24. 
Bhertelmi, Richard, Kaskaskia, 1790, 

Bibeaux, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 228. 
Bienvenu, Antoine, jr., head of family, 

Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 
Bienvenu, Antoine, sr., head of family, 

Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 21 1. 
Bienvenu, Henry, Kaskaskia militia, 

1790, 210, 221. 
Bienvenu, Michel, Kaskaskia militia, 

1790, 210, 221. 
Bienvenu, Pierre, Kaskaskia, 1783, 210. 
Big Foot, Indian chief, 19. 
Big Spring, Monroe Co., 111., 214 n. 
Biggs (Bigges), George, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 214, 224, 312. 
Biggs, Thomas, 312. 
Biggs, William, head of family, Caho- 

kia, 1783, 205, 208, 236. 
Bilderback, Capt. , of Kaskaskia, 

Birkbeck, Morris, 32. 
Biron, August, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 226. 
Biron, Henry, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 219, 226. 
Bisson, Louis, St. Clair - Co. militia, 

1790, 228. 
Bissonet, Jean Marie, St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 227. 
Bissonet, Joseph, head of family, Ca- 

hokia, 1783, 205; heirs of, in St. Clair 

County, 1783, 207. 
Blackfish, Indian chief, death of, 336. 
Black Hawk, Indian chief, 265. 
Black-Hawk war, 1832, 20, 160, 188, 

190, 264. 
Blain (Blin), George, widow of, head 

of family, Cahokia, 1783, 205, 208. 
Blaine, Hon. James G. , 266. 
Blatchford, E. W. , memoir of Mark 

Skinner by, 54, 126. 
Blay, Joseph, jr., Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 222. 

Blay, Joseph, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Blay, Louis, jr., Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 222. 

Bleakley, Josiah, St. Clair-Co. militia,. 
1790, 218, 225. 

Bledsoe, Judge Jesse, 254. 

Blouin, Daniel, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Blue Licks, battle of, 287. 

Blue-Ridge Mountains, 231. 

Board of (Virginia) Comm'rs to Benj. 
Harrison, governor of Virginia, con- 
cerning Col. John Todd's, jr., ac- 
counts, etc., 348. 

Board of Internal Improvements, 131. 

Board of Trade, Chicago, Gurdon S. 
Hubbard one of the incorporators of, 
in 1852, 21. 

Bogy, Lewis V., U.-S. senator, 259. 

Boison, , 384. 

Boisverd, Jean Baptiste, head of family,. 
St. Clair, 1783, 206, 208. 

Boisverd, Joseph, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205, 208, 220, 228. 

Bond of commiss'rs, to Col. Todd, 300. 

Bond, Shadrach, jr., gov. of Illinois, 
154, 159, 200, 208, 214, 2i4n, 236,, 
274, 280. 

Bonin, Marguerite, Pierre Menard's 
mother, 143, 177, 178. 

Bonneau, Pierre, 162, 165. 

Bonthorn, William, witness at Court of 
Enquiry, 468, 469, 474, 475, 478, 
479, 480. 

Bonvouloir, Joseph, head of family,, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200. 

Boonesboro, Ky., 285. 

Boquet, Andre, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 226. 

Bosseron, Maj. Fran9ois, St. Vincennes 
militia officer, 295, 324. 

Boston, Mass., 130, 366. 

Bostonians, 315. 

Botetourt County, Va., 285. 

Bouchette's "Topographical Dictionary 
of Lower Canada," 143 n. 

Bougeart, Alfred, life of Marat by, 42. 

Bourassa, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 219. 

Bourassa, Pierre, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 225. 

Bourbonais' Grove, 185, 190, 191. 

Bousseau, Fran9ois, head of family, 
Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Bouteillet. Jacque, head of fam., Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203, 452, 453. 

Bouvet, Rene, head of family, Cahokia, 
1783, 206, 208, 220, 228. 


Bowdoin College, 77. 

Bowen, Ebenezer, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 225. 
Bowers, Col. Theodore S., 91. 
Bowie, Col. James, 260. 
Bowman, Isaac, 324, 325. 
Bowman, Col. Joseph, 341, 342, 373. 
Boyer, Antoine, head of family, Caho- 

kia, 1783, 205, 219, 226; heirs of, in 

St. Clair County, 1783, 207. 
Boynton, John, of Boynton, Wharton 

& Morgan, 422, 423, 442, 484. 
Boynton (John), Wharton (Samuel) & 

Morgan (George), merchants, 421, 

424, 425, 426, 468, 473; articles of 

agreement between Samuel Bacon 

and, 423. 
Braddock, Gen. Edward, 361. 
Bradley, Thadious, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 225. 
Bradley, Wm. H., tribute of, to E. B. 

Washburne, 98. 
Brady, John, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 227. 
Brady, Thomas, Kaskaskia, 1783, 205, 

207, 216, 218 n, 226, 268 n, 269. 
Brady, Thos., of McKnight & B., 268. 
Brandywine, battle of, 214 n. 
Brashears, Richard, head of family, 

Kaskaskia, 1783, 201. 
Brashears, Tobias, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200, 339. 
Brainard, Dr. Daniel, surgeon of first 

Cook-County Hospital, 71. 
Brazot (Brazeau), Louis, head of family, 

Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 296, 309, 312. 
Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales, 271. 
Breese, Hon. Sidney, 159, 240. 
Breton, Francis, first mined lead in 

Missouri, 250. 
Brian, James, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 215. 
Bridgeport, near Chicago, formerly 

Hardscrabble, 12. 
Bridges, Mrs. Emily C, sister of Philo 

Carpenter, 103. 
Bridges, Sarah Forbes, wife of Philo 

Carpenter, 103. 
Brigandage in the Mississippi, 410. 
Briggs, Emily, second wife of Pierre 

Menard, jr., 148. 
Brinckerhoff, Dr. John, of Chicago, 108. 
Brindamour, see Michel Menard, 142, 

Brisson, Alexis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 226. 
Brison (Brisson), Isaac, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 215. 
British Army-Lists, 382 n. 

British Board of Trade, 420. 

British commandant, 357 n. 

British Illinois, Philipe de Rocheblave, 

sketch of, by E. G. Mason, 360. 
British in Illinois, 286, 352 n, 360. 
British Museum, 338 n, 360 n. 
British use of Indians in war, 290. 
Brocus, William, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201. 

Brouilet, M. , militia officer, St. Vin- 

cennes, 296. 

Brookes', , daughter, wife of Capt. 

Brashears, 339. 
Brooks, Preston S., 79. 
Bronson, Arthur, of New York, 107 n. 
Bronson vs. Kinzie, case carried through 

by I. N. Arnold, 50. 
Brown's, John Mason, "Address at the 
Centennial Commemoration of the 
Battle of the Blue Licks," 288 n. 
Brown, Windsor, witness before Court 
of Enquiry, 443, 452, 458, 461, 465, 
470, 475, 480. 
Brown, William Hubbard, first presi- 
dent of Chicago Historical Society, 
69, 73- 
Browning, Orville H., supported anti- 
Nebraska party, 60, 63. 
Brymner's " Calendar of Canadian Ar- 
chives," 485 n. 
Brusegard, see Beauregard. 
Bryan, James, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 224. 
Bryan, Mrs. Thomas Butler, president 

of Soldiers' Home, 135 n. 
Bryson, Isaac, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 224. 
Buchanan, President James, 264. 
Buckner, Judge Alexander, 254. 
Buffalo, N.Y., 104. 
Bull, Ruth, of Danville, 111., first wife 

of Noel le Vasseur, 191. 
Bullitt, William, 241. 
Bunkum, now Iroquois, 185. 
Bureau River, 13. 

Burke, Edmund, quotation from, 52. 
Burnet, David G. , president of Repub- 
lic of Texas, 260. 
Burnside, Gen. Ambrose Everett, 95. 
Burr, Col. Aaron, 261. 
Burr fund, Jonathan, 75. 
Bushnell, Nehemiah, lawyer of Quincy, 

111., 60. 
Buteau, Charles, jr., St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 225. 
Butteau (Buteau), Charles, sr. , head of 

family, Cahokia, 1783, 206, 218. 
Buteau (Butteau), Joseph, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 205, 216, 226. 



Buteau (Butoe), Joseph, jr., head of 
family, St. Clair, 1783, 207. 

Buteau, Piere, St. Clair-County militia, 
1790, 220. 

Butler, Andrew Pickens, senator, 79. 

Butler, Charles, of New York, 107 n. 

Butler, Henry, e.xamination of, before 
Rocheblave at Fort Gage, 398, 401. 

Butterfield, Justin, U.-S. district attor- 
ney, 57, 59- 

Buyat, Anthoine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Buyat, Anthoine, jr., Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Buyat, Louis, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 199. 

Buyat, Louis, jr., Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Byram, Benjamin Joseph, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 200. 

Cabassier, Antoine, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 220, 228. 

Cabassier, Charles, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 220, 227. 

■Cabassier, Fran9ois, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 220, 228. 

•Cabassier, Jean Bapt., St. Clair-County 
militia, 1790, 220, 227. 

Cabassier, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 220, 228; heirs of, in St. Clair 
County, 1783, 208. 

Cabassier, Pierre, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 227. 

Cabassier, , widow, head of family, 

Cahokia, 1783, 205. 

Cadron, Charles, called St. Pierre, head 
of family, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 

203, 207, 219. 

Cadron, Charles, jr., St. Clair-County 
militia, 1790, 226. 

Cadron, Ltienne, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 219, 225. 

Cahise, , of Kaskaskia, 279. 

Cahokia (Kahokia, Kohos), 111., 13, 
192, 193, 194, 195, 2i5n, 2i6n, 2i7n, 
218 n, 219, 229 n, 247, 296, 297 n, 
29S, 302, 303, 335, 338 n, 384 n; and 
environs, heads of families at, 1783, 

204, 206; civil officers of, 1779, 295. 
Cailloux, Pierre, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Cairo, 111., 87. 

Calais, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

212, 221. 
Caldwell, Billy, Indian chief, 109. 
Calhoun, John Caldwell, senator, 265. 

California, 83, 126, 129, 269. 

Callahan, Thomas, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Calloway, Richard, of Kentucky, 286. 

Calumet River, 105, 216 n. 

Cambridge, Mass., 286. 

Campbell, Mrs. Benjamin, 268 n. 

Campbell, Col. Geo. ^V., of Chicago, 

Campbell, John, said to have been mur- 
dered by Taylor Driscoll, 51. 

Campbell, Thompson, member of the 
Galena bar, 60, 84, 99. 

Camp Douglas, Chicago, 139. 

Camp, George, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Camp, Ichabod, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Camp-Nelson Academy, Ky., 128 n. 

Camp Tippecanoe, battle of, 186; treaty 
of, 187, 189. 

Campeau, Fran9ois, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 218, 225. 

Camus, Francois, head of fam., Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Camus, Pierre, Prairie du Rocher mili- 
tia, 1790, 223. 

Canada, Nicholas, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 163, 165, 179, 200, 210. 

Canada, 360, 361, 371. 

"Canadian Archives," 357, 357 n, 360, 
360 n, 363, 363 n, 364 n, 366 n, 367 n, 
3690, 383. 385, 385". 389, 389 n, 
39i> 392, 393> 394, 395' 397, 398, 
401, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 
418, 419 n. 

Canadians in Illinois, 193, 362, 379, 

391, 395- , , , . 

Canadian voyaqeurs, employed by the 

American Fur-Company, 10. 
Canadien, Sanson, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 226. 
Canal-bill, lUinois-and-Michigan, I. N. 

Arnold carried through legislature, 32 
Canal Street, Chicago, 107 n. 
Carbonneaux, Louis Pierre Francois, 

notary public of St. Clair County, 145, 

165, 200, 202, 211, 295, 350, 389, 

400, 401. 
Cardinal , "refused to serve," in 

Court of St. Yinccnnes, 295. 
Carleton, Sir Guy, British commander 

in Canada, 365 n, 366, 367, 368, 369, 

370, 372, 373, 385, 390, 392, 393. 

394, 395, 396, 398, 402, 410, 412; 

petitions to, 364 n, 365 n, 367 n, 383. 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 144, 202. 
Carney, Martin, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201. 



Carolina boundary, 330. 

Carondelet, Mo., 148. 

Carpenter, Abel, father of Philo, 103. 

Carpenter, Ann, 116. 

Carpenter, Isaac, cousin of Philo, 104. 

Carpenter, Nathaniel, grandfather of 
Philo, 103. 

Carpenter, Philo, tribute to, by Rev. 
Henry L. Hammond, 102-29; born 
in Savoy, Mass., 1805; studied medi- 
cine, married in 1830, 103; joined 
Presbyterian church; started for Chi- 
cago, 1832, 104; organized the first 
prayer-meeting and Sunday-school in 
Chicago, 106; second marriage, 108; 
removed to Aurora, i lo; death of, in 
1886, III, 126; religious labors, 1 12; 
assists in founding many charitable 
societies and churches, 113, 115, 116; 
opposes secret societies, especially 
masonry, 117, 118; list of donations 
to religious bodie.'j, 121; deacon, 129. 

Carpenter School, Chicago, 113. 

Carpenter, William, of Southampton, 
England, 103. 

Carpenter's Addition to Chicago, 109, 

Cartabonne, Don Silvio Francisco de, 
Spanish governor of Ste. Genevieve, 
Mo., 292 n, 304. 

Carver, Capt. , 105. 

Cascaskia, see Kaskaskia. 

Cass, Gen. Lewis, commissioner to 
make Indian treaties, 146, 176. 

Casson, Antoine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Casson, Catherine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Casson, Nicholas, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Casterique, Baptiste, of Peoria, in 1778, 

398- . 
Casterline, Peter, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 214, 224. 
Cataraqui, on Grand Isle, 379. 
Caton, John Dean, lawyer of Chicago, 


Cecil, , of Kahos, 383. 

Cecire, Joseph, head of family, Caho- 

kia, 1783, 205, 207. 
Cerre, Gabriel, of Court of Kaskaskia, 

295, 304, 391,419; declaration of, 389. 
Chalfin, Isaac, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 225. 
Chalfin, William, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 215, 224. 
Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 119. 
Chamberlin, Benj., of Chicago, 127 n. 
"Chambers' Encyclopaedia," 271 n. 

Chambers, Benjamin, president of leg- 
islative assembly of Indiana Terri- 
tory, 238, 240. 

Chambly, M. de, 143. 

Champlain, Jean Baptiste, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 226. 

Champlain, Samuel de, explorer, 182 n. 

Chance, la, Court of Kaskaskia, 

1787, 296, 309, 402, 408. 

Chance, Jean Bapt. Cailliot la, St. Clair- 
Co. militia, 1790, 163, 165, 211, 221. 

Chance, Joseph la, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 217. 

Chance, Nicholas la, jr., head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 

Chance, Nicholas la, sr., head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 198, 294, 295, 

Chapman, Lieut. , 466. 

Charleville, Baptiste, first lieutenant, 
District of Kaskaskia, 294, 383. 

Charleville, Charles, second lieutenant. 
District of Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 294, 

295, 315- 

Charleville, Charles, jr., Kaskaskia 
militia, 1790, 213. 

Charleville, Fran9ois, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 315. 

Charleville, Joseph Chauvin, head of 
family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 20I. 

Charleville, Louis, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 199, 221. 

Charleville, Marie Louise, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 

Charlevoix's "History of New France," 
143 n. 

Charli, Michel, head of family, heirs of, 
in St. Clair County, 1783, 207. 

Charpantier, Fran9ois, head of family, 
kaskaskia, 1783, 201. 

Chartier, Michel, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 220. 

Chartier, Piere, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 219. 

Chartier, Pierre, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 226. 

Chartran, Alexis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 217, 227, 384. 

Chartran, Catherine, head of family, 
Cahokia, 1783, 205, 208. 

Chartran, Jean Bt., St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 217, 227. 

Chartran, Jean Bapt., heirs of wid. of, 
in St. Clair Co., 1783, 208. 

Chartran, Mary, widow, head of fam- 
ily, Cahokia, 1783, 206, 208. 

Chartran, Michel, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 227. 

Chartran, Thomas, St. Clair-Cp. mili- 
tia, 1790, 220, 227. 



Chartran, Toussaint, St. Clair -County 
militia, 1790, 219, 227 

Chase, Rev. Dudley, of Church of the 
Atonement, Chicago, 106 n. 

Chase, Salmon P., senator, 79, 265. 

Chatele, Louis, St. Clair -Co. militia, 
1790, 205, 207, 216, 226. 

Chatellerault, Louis, Peoria, 1778, 398. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., 90, 95. 

Cheney, Mrs. William \V., author of 
"Records of Chicago Presbytery," 
102, 108. 

Chenie, John Baptiste, St. Clair-County 
militia, 1790, 218, 225. 

Chenie, Joseph, St. Clair -Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Chenier, Antoine, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Chenier, Arcange, widow, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 

Chenier, Claude, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 208, 219, 226. 

Chester, 111., 288. 

Chesterfield, Mass., 130. 

Chetlain, Gen. Augustus Louis, of Chi- 
cago, 89. 

Chevalier, Charles, Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 223. 

Chevalier, Fran9ois, head of family, 
Cahokia, 1783, 206, 226. 

Chevalier, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 222. 

Chevalier, Pierre, head of fam. , Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Chicago, description of, in 181 8, 12; 
mention, 13, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 
3i> 33> 35> 40, 41, 46, 48, 61, 63, 69, 
97, 102, 123, 126; description of the 
great fire by S. Stone, 133; first dry- 
goods store, 181; mention, 185, 186, 
189, 191, 215 n, 268, 378. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences, 137. 

Chicago Astronomical Society, 138. 

Chicago-Bar Association, 45. 

Chicago Bible-Society, 1 12. 

Chicago City-Missionary Society, 128. 

Chicago Congregational Club, 125. 

Chicago Eye-and-Ear Infirm'y, 1 13, 137 

Chicago Historical Society, history of, 
by i. N. Arnold, 44; burning of first 
building, 132; mention, 9, 27, 28, 45, 
72, 78, 106 n, 128, 129, 152, 197, 
288, 300, 380 n. 

Chicago Home for the Friendless, 71. 

"Chicago, Leading Men of," 102. 

Chicago Library Association, 70. 

Chicago Literary Society, 45. 

Chicago Lyceum, instituted Dec. 2, 
1834, 70. 

Chicago Philosophical Society, 45. 
"Chicago Presbytery, Records of," by 

Mrs. W. W. Cheney, 102, Ii4n. 
Chicago Public Library, 70. 
Chicago Reform School, 72. 
Chicago Relief-and-Aid Society, 71, 72, 


Chicago River, 12, 185, 189. 

Chicago Times, 269 n. 

Chicago Young Men's Association 
(library), 70. 

Chicago Theological Seminary, 102, 
117, 126, 128, 129. 

Chickasaw Indians, 325, 330. 

Childs, Luther, member of first Sunday- 
school in Chicago, August, 1832, 
106 n. 

Chippewa Indians, 176, 177. 

Chissolm, Hugh McDonald, Kaskaskia 
militia, 1790, 221. 

Chouteau, Charles P., of St. Louis, pre- 
sents statue of Pierre Menard to State 
of Illinois, 149, 161. 

Chouteau, Francois C, St. Louis, 148. 

Chretien, Pierre, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Christian Cynosure, 117. 

Christian Union (relief society), 72. 

Christofal, Pedro, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 212, 221. 

Church of the Holy Name, Chicago, 136 

Church of the Immaculate Conception, 
Kaskaskia, 142, 145, 147. 

Church, Wm. Linnaeus, at first meeting 
to promote a public library in Chi- 
cago, 70. 

Cilley, Hon. Jonathan, M. C. from 
Maine, 265. 

Cincinnati convention, 1850, 1 13. 

Cincinnati, - Indianapolis, - St. Louis - & - 
Chicago Railroad, 185. 

Ciree, Jean Baptiste, called St. Michel, 
.143, 177, 178. 

Ciree, Louise, 178. 

Ciree, Marie Francoise, called Saint 
Michel, mother of Pierre Menard, 
142, 143, 177, 178, 179. 

Citizen's Relief, Chicago, 72. 

City Point, Ya., 91. 

" Clark's Campaign in the Illinois," ref- 
erence, 373 n. 

Clark, Francis, Kaskaskia militia, 1 790, 
221, 312. 

Clark, Col. George Rogers, of Yirginia, 
I99n, 201, 204n, 2i4n, 231, 286, 
290, 291, 292, 293 n, 305, 317, 320, 
321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 328, 330, 
33i> 337. 342, 344, 345. 35°. 352 n, 
353. 357", 358. 372, 38911. 



Clark, John, head of family, Kaskas- 

kia, 1783, 201, 312. 
Clark, Lardner, head of family, Kas- 

kaskia, 1783, 200. 
Clark-Street bridge, Chicago, 133. 
Clark, Gen. William, agent of Indian 

affairs at St. Louis, Mo., 176. 
Clarkesville, Tenn., 88, 247. 
Clark son. Bishop, letter to, from I. N 

Arnold, 45. 
Clay, Henry, senator, mention, 83, 84, 

100, 177, 254, 265, 266. 
Clermond, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 226. 
Clermont, Auguste, St. Clair-Co. mi 

tia, 1790, 218, 225. 
Clermont, Pierre, St. Clair-Co. militia. 

1790, 218, 225. 
Clino, John, witness in Rice -Jones' 

murder case, 278. 
Clinton, Cov. UeWitt, of New York, 

Cochon, Margaret, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Cochran, John, head of family, Prairie 

du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Cochran, Samuel, of Kaskaskia, 280. 
Cochrane, William, librarian Chicago 

Historical Society, 134. 
Cole, Col. Edward, British comman- 
dant at Fort Chartres, 421. 
Coles, Gov. Edward, mention, 32; life 

of, by E. B. Washburne, 97. 
Coline, Fran9ois, Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 223. 
CoUamer, Jacob, senator, 79. 
Collins, James H., lawyer, Chicago, 59. 
" Colonial History of New York, " 484. 
Columbus, Texas, 262. 
Commissions, Pierre Menard's, 100, 

108, 168, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176. 
Comparet, Jean Marie, St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 217, 227. 
Comte, Ayme, jr., Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 223. 
Comte, Ayme, sr., head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Comte, Joseph, Prairie du Rocher mili- 
tia, 1790, 223. 
Comte, Pierre, Prairie du Rocher mili- 
tia, 1790, 223. 
Condemnation Proceeding, Court Rec- 
ord, 308. 
Confiscation of rebel property, speech 

on, by I. N. Arnold, 36. 
Congregational Church, First, Chicago, 

113, 116. 
Congregational Herald, 1 1 7. 
Congressional Globe, 39. 

Connecticut, 9, 2140. 

Connecticut Alutual Life Insurance Co., 
Mark Skinner adviser of, their trib- 
ute to his memory, 61. 

Connolly, Ensign William, member of 
Court of Enquiry, 426, 446, 455, 471, 

473, 484- 
Connor, Henry, 280. 
Conrad, Jacque, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 
Constitutional Convention, 153. 
Continental Congress, 193, 194. 
Continental Treasury, 303. 
Contract, Ante-Nuptial, between Pierre 

Menard and Therese Godin, 162. 
Cook, Adam, Kaskaskia militia, 1 790, 

Cook City, 111., 23, 56, 59, 118. 
Cook, Henry, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Cook, John, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

210, "221. 
Cook, Judge John D. , justice of supreme 

court, Missouri, 254. 
Cook, Nathaniel, candidate for senate 

from Missouri, 253. 
Cooper, James Fenimore, paper on, by 

I. N. Arnold, 45. 
Cooper, Richard, Cooperstown, N. Y. , 

I. N. Arnold law student of, 31, 50. 
Copy of the Instructions, etc., on the 

Borrowing Fund of Kohoskia, 299. 
Core, Jemi, 211. 
Cornell, Ezra, interested in Chicago and 

Milwaukee Telegraph Co., 132. 
Cornwallis, Lord Charles, 376. 
Corset, Fran9ois, 199, 309, 310, 311, 

312, 313, 314. 
Coste, Louis, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 219, 226. 
Cotinault, Antoine, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Cotinault, Elizabeth, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, 190. 
County Hospital, first, Chicago, opened 

March 30, 1847, 70. 
Courtois, Alexis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 217, 227. 
Cowan, Judge Ezek, of Saratoga 

Springs, 56. 
Craig, John, jr. , appointed commissary- 
general by Col. G. R. Clark, 232. 
Creath, George, juror in Rice -Jones 

murder case, 280. 
Creli, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 

Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 
Creli, Jerome, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 201, 229. 



Crely, Joseph, head of family, Prairie 

du Kocher, 1783, 203. 
Crittenden, John J., senator, 265. 
Crittenden, Maj. John, Kentucky, 343. 
Crockett, Col. David, of Texas, 260. 
Crockett, Col. Joseph, 332, 335, 336, 341 
Croghan, , witness in Court of 

Enquiry, 435. 
Crooks, Ramsey, agent of American 

Fur-Co. at Mackinac, 14, 25, 60. 
Crow, Mary, head of family, Cahokia, 

1783, 206, 208. 
Crow, William, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 220, 228. 
Crown Point, N.Y., 382. 
Crutcher, Henry, commissioner of Ko- 

hoskia fund, 300, 303. 
Culmaut, Jean Bapt., Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1 790, 223. 
Cumberland Gap, 231. 
Cumberland River, 325. 
Cure, Pierre, head of family, Kaskas- 

kia, 1783, 200. 
Currency, notice concerning called-in, 

Currency of Northwestern Terr'y, 307. 
Curry, James, head of family, Kaskas- 

kia, 1783, 200. 
Curtis, Rev. Henry, D.D., of Chicago 

Presbytery, 115 n. 

Daggett, Judge David, of New-Haven 
Law-School, 56. 

Dagne, Ambroise, 163, 165. 

Dakota Territory, 152. 

Damour, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 
Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Dalton, Capt. Valentine T., 232. 

Dana, Charles A., 89, 91. 

Danis (Dany), Charles, second lieuten- 
ant, St. Clair-Co. militia, 1779, 163, 
179) 199) 212, 212 n, 294. 

Danis, Jerome, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 198. 

Danis, Jean, Kaskaskia, 1790, 211. 

Danis, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Danis, Michel, sr. , head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199, 201, 211. 

Danton, George Jaques, 42. 

Danville, 111., 19, 20, 185, 187. 

Darby's, William, "Personal Recollec- 
tions," 254 n, 268 n. 

Dartmouth College, 77. 

Dauphine, France, 360. 

Davidson (Alex. ) & Stuve's (Bernard) 
"History of Illinois," 142 n. 

Davis, David, supported anti-Nebraska 
party, 63. 

Davis, Jefferson, 265. 

Davis, Dr. Nathan Smith, physician 
first County Hospital, 71, 73. 

Davis, Thomas T. , one of first trustees 
of Vincennes University, 241. 

Davit, a negro, defended by Isaac N. 
Arnold, 51. 

Deane, Silas, 337 n. 

De9elle, Joseph, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Decker, Luke, member of slavery con- 
vention at Vincennes, 1802, 236. 

Docochi, Gabriel, head of fam., Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203, 222. 

Degagne, Jacques, head of fam., Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Degagne, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 
Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Degagne, Pierre, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Degagne, , widow, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Degenest, , Court of St. Vincennes, 


Degonier, Baptiste, at Kaskaskia, 1 790, 

Dejean, Philip, [a justice-of-the-peace] 
of Detroit, 410, 411. 

"DeKoven, was Dr., legally elected 
Bishop of Illinois?" paper by I. N. 
Arnold, 45. 

Delaware Indians, 362, 401. 

Deline, L. E., member of the Court of 
St. Vincennes, 1796, 295; second cap- 
tain, St. Vincennes militia, 1796, 296. 

Delinel, Ambroise, at Kaskaskia, 1790, 

Delisle, Charles, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Delisle, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 

Delisle, Louis, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 198. 

Delisle, Marie Louise, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 

Deloge, Joseph, alias Poirier, head of 
family, Cahokia, 1783, 205, 220, 227. 

Delorme, Hubert, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Demarais, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Demete, Fran9ois, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Demumbrunt, Timothe, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 310, 316. 

Dennis, Alexander, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 215, 224. 



Derouse, dit St. Pierre, Francois, at 
Kaskaskia, 1790, 199, 211. 

Derousse, Jean Baptiste, Kaskaskia 
militia, 1790, 221. 

Derousse, Jerome, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Derousse, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Derousse, Philip, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Deruisseau, Paul, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Deschamps, Antoine, trader with the 
American Fur-Co., 12. 

Desloges, Joseph Poirie, sr., dit, St. 
Clair-Co. militia, 1790, 220, 225, 227. 

Desloges, Paul Poirie, dit, St. Clair- 
County militia, 1790, 220, 228. 

Desplaines River, 111., 12, 185. 

Detchemendy, Constance, 148. 

Detroit, Mich., 22, 104, 114, 290, 337, 
337", 338 n> 340, 357", 362, 385 n. 

Devaignais, Jac, Kaskaskia, 1790, 211. 

Dewey, Prof. Chester, of Pittsfield 
Academy, Mass., 56. 

Dewey, James K.. of Chicago, 126. 

DeWolf, Hon. Wm. Frederick, offers 
resolution on death of I. N. Arnold, 
52; tribute of, to I. N. Arnold, 53. 

Dickenson College, Carlisle, Pa., 202. 

Dickey, Hugh Thompson, at first meet- 
ing to promote a public library in 
Chicago, 70, 71. 

Dilailite, Josette, head of family, Prai- 
rie du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Dillon's (John) "History of Indiana," 
233 n, 241, 247 n. 

Dion, Fran5ois, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Dodge, Col. Henry, 254. 

Dodge, Israel, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 201, 289. 

Dodge, Capt. John, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200, 210, 289, 312; 
Indian agent, 330, 335, 339. 

Dole, George W., of Chicago, 64, 108. 

Domingue, Antoine, head of family, 
Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Donation Lands, 202, 222, 223, 224. 

Dorchester, Mass., 55 n. 

Dore, Louis, head of family, Prairie du 
Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Dorion, Jean Marie, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 205, 206, 216, 226. 

Douberman, John J., of St. Louis, pupil 
of Chester Harding, paints portrait 
of John Rice Jones, 230. 

Douglas, Alexander, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 

Douglas, Stephen A., senator, 34, 60,, 
63, 85, 199, 265. 

Doyle, Benj. H., prosecuting-attomey 
at Kaskaskia, 280. 

Doza, Alexis, Kaskaskia militia, 1790,, 
210, 221. 

Doza, Arcange, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 198. 

Doza, Joseph, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 198. 

Driscoll, Taylor, charged with murder 
of John Campbell in Ogle County^ 
Illinois, defended by Isaac N. Arn- 
old, 51. 

Drouard, Francois, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Drummond, Judge Thomas, member of 
Galena bar, 46, 52, 60, 99. 

Drury, Clement, St. Clair-Co. militia,. 
1790, 203, 215, 224. 

Drury, Raphael (Ralph), St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 215, 222, 224. 

Drury, Wm., head of family, Prairie- 
du Rocher, 1783, 201, 203. 

Dubois, Pierre, sr. , head of family,, 
Cahokia, 1783, 206. 

Dubois, Pierre, jr., St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 225. 

Dubuque, Iowa, 197, 218 n, 265, 266. 

Dubuque, Jean Baptiste, head of fam- 
ily, St. Clair County, 1783, 205, 207^ 
208, 218, 225. 

Dubuque, Julien, founder of Dubuque, 
Iowa, 218 n. 

Ducharme, Charles, head of family, 
St. Clair Co., 1783, 205, 207, 208, 
219, 226. 

Duchasfourt de Louvieres, Antoine, 
member of Court of Kaskaskia, 295. 

DuClos, Antoine, Prairie du Rocher- 
militia, 1790, 223. 

DuClos, Jean Bapt., Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 223. 

Dudley, H. W. , of Chicago, 127 n. 

Dufif, Daniel McEl, Kaskaskia, 1788, 
312, 313. 

Duff, John McEl, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199, 312. 

Dufrain, Jacques, trader with American 
Fur-Co., 14, 16, 17; death of, 19. 

Dufresne, Jacques Michel, of Kaskas- 
kia, 1763, 363. 

Dufresne, Michel Marie, wife of Philip- 
de Rocheblave, 363. 

Dulude, Charles, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Dumartin, Jean Baptiste, head of fam- 
ily, St. Philips or Prairie du Rocher,. 
on or before 1783, 203. 



Dumas, Bartholomew, head of family, 

Cahokia, 1783, 206, 208. 
Dumay, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 

Cahokia, 1783, 205. 
Dumont, Peter, head of family, Kas- 

kaskia, 1783, 199. 
Dunfield, Frederick, of Kaskaskia, 439. 
Duncan, Gov. Joseph, appoints G. S. 

Hubbard canal com'missioner, 20, 21. 
Dunklin, John P., married a daughter 

of Gen. AugTJStus Jones, 262. 
Dunlap, Dr. James, tried for murder 

of Rice Jones, 274, 275, 276, 277, 

279, 280, 281. 
Dunn's (J. P. ) " Indiana, " a redemption 

from slavery, 233 n, 243 n, 244 n, 

246 n, 247 n, 248 n, 273 n. 
Dunn,Jas., Kaskaskiamilitia, 1790, 213. 
Dunn, Thomas, treasurer -general of 

Province of Quebec, 371 n, 372 n, 

410, 411. 
Dupage, 111., 20. 
Duplasi, Catherine, widow, head of 

family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 198. 
Duplasy, Joseph, Court of Kaskaskia, 

294, 295> 340. 
Dupuy, Joseph, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 
Durebois, Pierre, jr., .St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 218. 
Dutremble, Joseph, head of family, 

Cahokia, 1783, 206; heirs of, in St. 

Clair Co., 1783, 208. 

"Eagle Line" of vessels between Buf- 
falo and the upper lakes, 21. 

East Tennessee, 95. 

Eastman, Zebina, editor of the ll'esteru 
Citizen, 1 13. 

Edeline, see Deline. 

Edgar, Gen. John, merchant of Kas- 
kaskia, 145, 159, 161, 167, 169, 170, 
179, 196, 202n, 209, 235, 245 n, 2780, 
279. 312, 313- 

Edgar, Rachel, wife of John Edgar, 145 

Edwards, Gov. Ninian, 160, 240, 245 n, 
254, 283 n. 

Edwardsville, III., 215 n. 

E. G. M., see E. G. Mason. 

Elliott, Henry, candidate for senate 
from Missouri, 253. 

Elliott, James, farmer at Kaskaskia, 
427, 428, 429, 430, 432, 433, 436, 
441, 443, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 
45i> 452, 453' 457> 459. 467, 468, 
469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 479, 
480, 482. 

Elliot, Robert, claim against State of 

Virginia, 350, 420. 
Ellis, Samuel, of Berkshire Co., Mass., 

Engel, Capt. Philip, St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 205, 207, 227. 
England, views on confederacy held in, 

65, 72. 
English Turn, Mississippi River, 303. 
Enterprise, Steamer, 104. 
Enochs (Enix), Isaac, St. Clair-County 

militia, 1790, 214, 2l4n, 224. 
Erie Canal, New York, 114. 
Espagne, Louis Levasseur d', head of 

family, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 
Evans, Dr. John, physician in female 

wards, first Cook-Co. Hospital, 71. 
Everett, Hon. Edward, 97, 244 n. 
Ewing, Nathaniel, one of first trustees 

of Vincennes University, 241. 

Fagot, Andre, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 201. 

Falls of the Ohio, 231, 317, 324, 331, 
333. 352 n, 353. 

Farmer, Maj. Robert, British comman- 
dant at Fort Chartres, 1765, 421. 

Farwell, Judge Wm. W., Chicago, 126. 

Fayette County, III., 119. 

Fayette Co., Ky., 287, 342, 346, 351. 

Federal army, 123. 

"Fergus' Historical Series,"No. 10, 2on 

Feire, de, merchant of Montreal, 


Fernande, Joseph, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Ferrier, Joseph, Prairie du Rocher mili- 
tia, 1790, 223. 

Fessenden, Wm. Pitt, of Maine, 79. 

Fillmore, President Millard, 83, 84. 

Finney's book on Masonry, 117. 

Finney, Charles G., evangelist, 104. 

Finney, James, adherent of Dr. James 
Dunlap, 279, 281, 282. 

First Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 106 

Fisher, Myers, lawyer of Philadelphia, 


Fisk, Rev. Franklin W., of Chicago 
Theological Seminary, 126. 

Flanary, Daniel, jr., head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200. 

Flanary, Elijah, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Flanary, Thomas, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Flandre, Jean, head of family, Prairie 
dn Rocher, 1783, 203. 



Fleming, Wm., one of commissioners 

of Jefferson County, 351. 
Fleurant, Jean Baptiste, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 226. 
Florida, 82. 

Floyd, Davis, member of slavery con- 
vention at Vincennes, 1802, 236. 
Floyd, John B., senator, 79. 

Folk, , of Kaskaskia, 279. 

Fond du Lac, Wis., 11. 

Ford, Gov. Thomas, lawyer of Peoria, 

60; "History of Illinois," 155, 273 n. 
Fort Carillon, 383. 
Fort Chartres, 145, 193, 194, 195, 2i6n, 

364, 420, 426, 439, 452, 478. 
Fort Chartres, Court of Enquiry at, 

1770, by Hon. John Moses, 420. 
Fort Chissel, 231. 
Fort Clark, now Peoria, 12. 
Fort Cumberland, 362. 
Fort Dearborn, 19, 87, 104, 105, 107, 

Fort Delaware, 266. 
Fort Duquesne, 360, 362. 
Fort Gage, 390, 391, 392, 394, 397, 

398, 406, 407, 410, 411, 419. 
Fort Henry, 266. 
Fort Jefferson, 2i4n, 313 n, 330, 334, 

349. 356. 
Fort Niagara, 362. 
Fort Pitt, 231, 340, 362, 371, 383 n, 

400, 429. 
Fortin, Marie Rose, widow, head of 

family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199. 
Foster, Col. John W., his bust placed 

in Academy of Sciences on proposi- 
tion of Col. S. Stone, 138. 
Foubert, Pierre Jacques, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 226. 
Fowler, Lieut. Alexander, member of 

Court of Enquiry, 426, 453, 454, 471, 

476, 477, 47^, 482, 489- 
Fox Indians, 176, 177. 
Fox River, III., 189. 
Fox River, Wis., 183, 184. 
Franchere, Elenore, 19 1. 
Franco-German war, E. B. Washburne 

in Paris during, 97. 
France, 72, 97, 150, 291, 374. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 97, 231, 337 n. 
Franklin, George, juror in Rice-Jones 

murder case, 280. 
Freer, Dr. Joseph W., of Chicago, 137. 
Free-soil party, I. N. Arnold assisted 

in organizing, 49. 
French Lick on Cumberland, 325. 
French River, Canada, i82n. 
French in Illinois, 193, 290, 291, 301, 


French militia of Kaskaskia, 327. 

French settlers in Peoria, 12. 

Fulton, James, juror in Rice-Jones mur- 
der case, 280. 

Funk, Jacob, juror in Rice-Jones mur- 
der case, 280. 

Gage, Gen. Thos., British commander 
at New York, 364, 365. 

Gagne, Amable, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 199. 

Gagne, Joseph, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 201. 

Gagnie, Raphael, head of family, St. 
Clair Co., 1783, 206, 208. 

Gagnion, Louis, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205. 

Gagnion, Louis, heirs of, St. Clair Co., 
1783, 207. _ 

Gagnon, Marie, widow, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200. 

Galena, 111., 82, 87, 90, 91, 94, 99, 100. 

Gallatin County, 111., 154. 

Gallaher, Philip, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Galloway, , interested in land-grant 

with Boynton, Wharton & Morgan, 

Galveston, Texas, 147. 

Galvez, Don Bernardo, Spanish gov- 
ernor at New Orleans, 321, 322; cap- 
tures Mobile, 323. 

Gamelin, Capt. Pierre, St. Vincennes 
militia, 234, 296, 321 ; member of the 
Court of St. Vincennes, 295. 

Gaud, Louis, jr., St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Gaud, Louis, sr., St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 205, 207, 219, 226. 

Gard, Department of, France, 143. 

Garrison (Garretson, Garatson), James. 
St. Clair-Co. militia, 1790, 200, 208, 
215, 224. 

Gautiaux, Ensign Jacques, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 211. 

Gatien, Pierre, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 206. 

Gayarre, Charles, letters of, 363 n. 

Gelaspie, William, 338. 

Gandron (Gendron), John Bapt'e, head 
of family, Kaskaskia, 1783, 199, 202. 

Gendron, John Baptiste, jr., Kaskaskia 
militia, 1790, 211, 221. 

Gendron, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Genereu, Joseph, Prairie du Rocher 
militia, 1790, 223. 



Geneva Lake, Wisconsin, 19. 
Genvile, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 219. 
George, Capt. Robert, 349. 
Georgia, 82. 

Georgian Bay, British America, 182 n. 
Gerard, Fran9ois, Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 223. 
Germain, Ensign Charles, St. Clair-Co. 

militia, 1790, 205, 207, 227. 
Germain, Jean Baptiste, Kaskaskia 

militia, 1790, 221. 
Germain (Germin), Louis, Kaskaskia 

militia, 1790, 200, 210, 221. 
Germaine, Lord George, 366 n, 367 n, 

368 n, 369 n, 394, 395, 407. 
Germans, plan for settling, on Missis- 
sippi, 378. 
Germany, reformatory system of, exam- 
ined by Mark Skinner, 72. 
Gerome, Fran9ois, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 205, 207, 228. 
Gervais, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 

1790, 217, 227. 
Gervais, Ensign Phillip, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 205, 207, 216, 226. 

Gervaise, , priest, of St. Antoine 

de Richelieu, Canada, 178. 
Geyer, Hon. Henry S., 254. 
Gibault, Pierre, head of family, Prairie 

du Rocher, 1783, 204. 
Gibson, John, secretary of Indiana Ter- 
ritory, 146, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 
173, 235, 240, 241, 264. 
Giddings, Joshua R., senator, 79. 
Gilbreath, James, Kaskaskia, 278, 281. 
Gill, Charles, St. Clair-County militia, 

1790, 200, 215, 220, 224. 
Girard, Augustin, Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 223. 
Girardin (Gerardine), Antoine, jr., St. 

Clair-County militia, 1790, 227. 
Girardin, Antoine, head of family, Ca- 
hokia, 1783, 206, 207, 209; member 
of Court of Kohokias, 295. 
Girardin, Michel, head of family, Caho- 
kia, 1783, 205; heirs of, in St. Clair 
County, 1783, 208. 

Girardot, , widow, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 203. 

Giroux, , head of family, St. Clair 

County, 1783, 208. 
Giroux, Louis, St. Clair-County militia, 
1790, 226. 

Girradin, Lieut. , District of Ko- 

hokia, 294. 
Girty, Simon, 287. 

Glinel, Ambroise, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Goden, Lieut. , St.Vincennes mili- 
tia, 296. 

Godin, Jean Noel, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 227. 

Godin, Pierre, St. Clair-County militia, 
1790, 227. 

Godin, Therese, wife of Pierre Menard, 
142, 145, 162, 165, 179, 198. 

Godin, ditTouranjeau, Michel, member 
of Court of Kohokia, 145, 212, 294, 


Gogis, Charles, 400. 

Golding, Henry, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Gomes, Jean, Prairie du Rocher mili- 
tia, 1790, 213, 223. 

Goneville, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 218, 225. 

Goneville, Louis, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 226. 

Goodrich, Hon. Grant, sketch of G. S. 
Hubbard by, 9-26; lawyer of Chi- 
cago, 59, 69. 

Goodwin, Rev. Edward P. , pastor First 
Congregational Church, Chicago, 126 

Gossiaux, Jacque, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 221. 

Gotio, , Kaskaskia, 436, 478, 479. 

Grandbois, Antoine, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 226. 

Grand Crossing, Chicago, 129. 

Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, 130. 

Grant, Gen. Ulysses Simpson, mention, 
86, 89, 90, 95, 97, 123, 268; letters 
of, to E. B. Washburne, 87, 88, 91, 
92, 93. 

Gratiot, Charles, member of Court of 
Kohokia, 295, 316. 

Graves, William J., representative, of 
Kentucky, 265. 

Gray, David, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Great Britain, 317 n, 364, 389 n. 

Great Wilderness Road, 231. 

Green Bay, Wisconsin, 121, 183. 

Green, Thos., of Kaskaskia, 312, 313. 

Green, Geo. W., successfully defended 
by I. N. Arnold, 51. 

Greene, Col. Jacob L. , president Conn. 
Mutual Life Ins. Co., 61. 

Green-Mountain Range, 75. 

Green Street, Chicago, 116. _ 

Green, Thomas, of Kaskaskia, 312. 

Grenier, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 227. 

Grenier, Pierre, Kaskaskia militia, 
1790, 222. 

Griffin, Hon. John, judge of supreme 
court, Indiana Terr'y, 146, 169, 170. 



'Grignon, Augustin, for sketch see Wis- 
consin Historical Society's Collec- 
tions, 380. 
II Griswold, Sophia T., letter of, 106 n. 

Grondine, Fran9ois, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 216, 226. 

Grondine, Ignace, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 220, 228. 

Grondine, Joseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 202, 216. 

Groots (Grotz), Jacob, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200; heirs of, in 
St. Clair County, 1783, 208. 

Groots, William, St. Clair-CoanLy mili- 
tia, 1790, 225. 

Grosle, Louis, St. Clair-County militia, 
1790, 220, 228. 

Gulf of Mexico, 152. 

Guise (Guice), David, St. Clair-County 
militia, 1790, 215, 224. 

Guitar, Pierre, sr. , St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 206, 220. 

Guitar, Pierre, jr., St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 220, 228. 

Gurnee, Walte*- Smith, at first meeting 
to promote a public library in Chi- 
cago, 70. 

Gwathmey, Samuel, of Illinois, 238, 240 


Haggins, Judge James, 254. 
Haldimand, Maj.-Gen. Frederick, Brit- 
ish governor-general at New York, 

1773. 357", 365, 369, 375, 377. 379, 
380, 389; letters to de Bude, 369 n; 
to Hamilton, 375n; to Holland, 379n; 
to Pey.ster, 376 n, 377 n; to Roche- 
blave, 377 n, 379 n. 

Haldimand Papers, 201, 317 n, 338 n, 
357", 36on, 364n, 368n, 369 n, 374n, 
376 n, 378 n, 379 n, 383 n. 

Hale, John P., senator, 79. 

Halleck, Gen. Henry Wager, 89. 

Hamel, Ernest, " History of Robes- 
pierre" by, 42. 

Hamilton, Hon. Alexander, 261. 

Hamilton, Col. Richard Jones, lawyer 
of Chicago, 59, 69, 108 n, 112. 

Hamilton, Lieut. -Gov. Henry, of De- 
troit, made prisoner by Geo. Rogers 
Clark, 325, 368, 373, 375, 409; letter 
to Haldimand, 375 n. 

Hamilton, Maj. Robert, British com- 
mandant at Fort Chartres, 383 n, 
389 n. 

Hammand, Antoine, head of family, 
St. Clair County, 1783, 207. 

Hamlin, Vice-President Hannibal, 79. 

Hammond, Charles G., of Chicago, 
with Philo Carpenter and others 
started the Congregational Htvald, 
.117, 123, 126 n. 

Hammond, Rev. Henry L., tribute to 
Philo Carpenter by, 102, 105 n, 128. 

Hamtramck, Maj. John Francis, com- 
mander of " Wabash regiment, " 234. 

Hand, Brig. -Gen. Edward, 400. • 

Handley, Samuel, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Hanover County, Virginia, 269, 285. 

Hanson, John, of Kaskaskia, 418. 

Hardin, Col. John J., lawyer of Spring- 
field, 60. 

Hardscrabble, now Bridgeport, Chi- 
cago, 12. 

Harmar, Gen. Josiah, expedition 
against Miamis, 1787, 234. 

Harmand, alias Sansfacon, Antoine, St. 
Clair-County militia, 1790, 205, 207, 
218, 226. 

Harmand (Hermand), Jean Baptiste, 
St. Clair-Co. militia, 1790, 218, 226. 

Harmand (Hermand), Louis, St. Clair- 
Co. militia, 1790, 218, 225. 

Harness, Leonard, St. Clair-Co. mili,- 
tia, 1790, 214, 224. 

Harralson, Paul, juror in Rice -Jones 
murder case, 280. 

Harrison, Benjamin, governor of Vir- 
ginia, 348, 351. 

Harrison campaign of 1840, 82, 100. 

Harrison, Richard, witness to commis- 
sioner's bond, 300. 

Harrison, William Henry, governor of 
Indiana Territory, 146, 168, 170, 171, 
172, 173, 236, 240. 

Harrisonians, oppose division of Indi- 
ana Teriitory, 243, 272, 273, 276 n. 

Harry, John, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 200. 

Hartwick, Otsego Co., N.Y., birth- 
place of I. N. Arnold, 30. 

Harvard College, Mass., 56, 77. 

Hauslay, Jonatame, Kaskaskia militia, 
before 1795, 213. 

Havana, Cuba, specie shipped from, to 
Illinois, 323. 

Hawkins, Jane, wife of Col. John 
Todd, 287. 

Hay, Lateau, of Peoria, 1778, 398. 

Hays, John, sheriff of St. Clair Co., 
1798-1816, 205, 207, 217, 227, 238, 

Head, James, St. Clair-County militia, 
1790, 225. 

Healy, George P. A., portrait of Wm. 
B. Ogden by, 45. 



Hebert, Edward, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 218, 225. 

Helm, Capt. Leonard, 307. 

Hempstead, Chas. S., lawyer of Galena, 
60, 99, 100. 

Henderson, James, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 214, 224. 

Hendricks, George, St. Clair-Co. mili- 
tia, 1790, 214, 224. 

Hennepin, 111., 13. 

Henry, Patrick, governor of Virginia, 
285, 286, 289, 294, 373; instructions 
to Col. Todd, 289, 380 n. 

Henry, Moses, 315. 

Henry, William Wirt, 2S8 n. 

Herculaneum, Mo., 251, 261. 

Hickory Creek, III, 185. 

Hicks, David, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 200. 

Higgins, Hon. VanH., tribute of, to 
Isaac N. Arnold, 4S-52. 

Hilaire, Alexander, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 201. 

Hildreth, Mrs. Rev. Edward, daughter 
of Philo Carpenter, 108, 126, 129. 

Hildreth, Rev. Edward, son-in-law of 
P. Carpenter, 1030, io5n, io6n, 126. 

Hill, Nicholas, lawyer of Albany, 
N.Y., 56. 

Hitchcock, Judge Samuel J., of New- 
Haven Law-School, 56. 

Hite, Isaac, letter to, from Capt. Bow- 
man, cited, 373 n. 

Hogan. Gen. — — , of Little Rock, 
Ark., killed by Hon. Andrew Scott, 
1827, 267. 

Hoge, Joseph P., lawyer of Galena, 
60, 99. 

Holbrook, Rev. John C, of Chicago, 

Holland Purchase, tract of land near 
Rochester, N.Y., 130. 

Hollingsworth, James, Chicago, 127 n. 

Holloway, John, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 201. 

Holston Valley, Tennessee, 95. 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph, at Lookout 
Mountain, 91. 

Hotchkiss, Miles, registrar of land- 
office of Illinois, 160. 

Houston, Gen. Sam, of Texas, 260. 

Howe's "The Laws and Courts of the 
Northwest and Indiana Territories, " 
241 n. 

Hoyne, Hon. Thomas, vice-president 
Chicago Historical Society, lawyer 
of Chicago, 52, 59, 70. 

Hubbard, Adolphus Frederick, of Gal- 
latin County, 111., 154. 

Hubbard, Elizur, father of Gurdon S. 
Hubbard, 9. 

Hubbard, Gurdon Saltonstall, memoir 
of, by Hon. Grant Goodrich, 9-26; 
born in iSo2; entered business in 
Montreal in 1815; clerk in hardware 
store. 1S16, 9; employed by Ameri- 
can Fur-Company, 1817; embarks for 
Mackinac, 10 ; assigned to trade at 
Fond du Lac, ii; arrival in Chicago, 
1818; adventure with the Indians at 
Peoria, 12; adopted by Waba; re- 
turns to Mackinac, 13; sent to Mus- 
kegon River, 14; lost in the woods, 
15; becomes superintendent on Iro- 
quois River in 1827, 19; buys inter- 
est of American Fur-Co. in Illinois, 
and removes to Danville; activity in 
Winnebago war, 19; opens store in 
Chicago, 1S34, 19; aid to Gov. Dun- 
can in Black-Hawk war; enters the 
legislature, 20; a commissioner of the 
Illinois-and-Michigan Canal; writes 
first fire-insurance policy in Chicago, 
21; a pork packer; importer of tea;, 
warehouse destroyed by fire, 22 ; mar- 
ried in 1831; second marriage, 1843, 
24; one of organizers of St. James' 
Church, 25; died Sept. 14, 1886, 26; 
mention, 105, 105 n, 107, 123, 181, 
184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191. 

Hubbard, Gurdon .S., jr., born in Chi- 
cago, Feb. 22, 1838, 24. 

Hubbard, Mary Ann, of Chicago, sec- 
ond wife of G. S. Hubbard, 24. 

Hubbard Trace, a road from Chicago 
to Danville, 19. 

Huff, Michael, St. Clair-County militia, 
215, 224, 312. 

Hughes, Thomas, head of family, Kas- 
kaskia, 1783, 200. 

Hull, Ensign Nathaniel, St. Clair-Co. 
militia, 1790, 204, 214, 224. 

Humphrey, Edward, receiver of land- 
office of Illinois, 160. 

Hunter, Maj.-Gen. David, 66, 67. 

Hurst, Henry, one of trustees of Vin- 
cennes University, 241. 

Hurst Pierrepont, Lordship of, 55 n. 

Hutchins, Ensign Thomas, afterward 
surveyor-general of the U. S. ; mem- 
ber of Court of Enquiry, 422, 426, 
442, 455, 471, 473, 481, 484. 

Hyde Park. Chicago, 129. 

Hydraulic Company, Chicago, Gurdon 
.S. Hubbard one of the incorporators 
of, 21. 

Hymen, Toseph, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 2'i8, 225. 



Illinois, bar of, 188, 190, 191, 283. 

Illinois battalion, 352 n, 3S5 n. 

Illinois Charitable Eye-and-Ear Infirm- 
ary, 71. 

Illinois cavalry, the Twelfth, 191. 

Illinois citizens, lists of early, 192, 198- 

Illinois Country, grants of land to set- 
tlers in, 195, 196; expedition of Geo. 
Rogers Clark to, 286, 287, 290, 291 ; 
scarcity of currency in, 318, 319, 324; 
English designs against, 325, 328, 
335> 343, 352, 357> 360; surrendered 
by France to Great Britain, 1765, 
364; John Todd its first governor 
under Virginia, 373; mention, 145, 
19^, 214 n, 288, 289 n, 300, 306,365, 
367, 369, 372, 376, 377, 379, 383 n, 

385 n, 386 n, 389 n, 392, 395. 
Illinois General Hospital of the Lake, 

Illinois Home Missionary Society, 128. 
Illinois Humane Society, 139. 
Illinois, laws of, 241. 
Illinois legislature, 57. 
Illinois, list of commissions in, military 

and civil, 294. 
Illinois -and -Michigan Canal, 20, 21, 

35, 107- 

Illinois, the people of, in favor of free- 
dom of Kansas, 64. 

Illinois regiment at Kohos, 335. 

lUinois River, 12, 189, 301, 354, 355, 

386 n. 

Illinois separation from Indiana, strug- 
gle for, 272, 273. 

Illinois, State of, 22; riots in, 81; its 
senators in 1840 favor slavery, 82; 
goes democratic in presidential elec- 
tion, 1842, 83; republican in 1856, 
85; admitted to statehood in 181 8, 
152; Kaskaskia centre of trade in, 
1824, 159; 192, 338; Shadrach Bond 
first governor of, 274; 338, 385 n. 

Illinois Territoi'y, 274. 

Imlay's " Topographical Description of 
the Western Territory of America, " 
201 n. 

Indiana, Historical Society of, 192. 

Indiana State University at Blooming- 
ton, 241. 

Indiana Territory, 22, 146, 235; laws 
of, 241; 272, 273. 

Indiana, State of, 385 n. 

Indian allies, 331. 

Indian grants, difficulty of validating; 
size of, 318. 

Indians, assist Hubbaid and Dufrain, 
18; trading with, 152, 184; defeat 
John Todd at Blue Licks, Ky., 286, 
287; Illinois an outpost against, 291;. 
John Todd's instructions respecting 
treatment of, 292; their assistance 
sought by the British and Americans, 
325; recruited by Col. de la Balme, 
338 n; capture Todd's horses, 342; 
344, 361; sell land to Daniel and 
William Murray, 385 n, 389 n, 401. 
See also under separate tribes. 

Indian chief in Sunday-school at Chi- 
cago, 107. 

Indian title extinguished by treaty of 
Camp Tippecanoe, details, 189. 

Indian warfare, 2i4n, 215 n. 

Ireland, 209 n, 268. 

Iron banks on east side of Mississippi,, 
below junction with Ohio, site of 
Fort Jefferson, 313 n. 

Iroquois country, 186. 

Iroquois River, 19, 185, 186, 188. 

Irwin, David W., of Chicago, 127 n. 

Jack, John, St. Clair-Co. militia, 1790, 
215, 224. 

Jackson, President Andrew, 109, 265. 

Jacquemin, Jean Baptiste, head of fam- 
ily, Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Janis, Jean Baptiste, head of family, 
Kaskaskia, 1783, 200; ensign, Dis- 
trict of Kaskaskia, 1779, 294. 

Janis, Capt. Fran5ois, 162, 165, 179, 
196, 211, 211 n, 213, 221, 315. 

Janis, Capt. Nicholas, 198, 294, 295, 302. 

Jarrad, Guy, head of family, Kaskas- 
kia, 1783, 199. 

Jauntetot, Louis, of Peoria, 1778, 398. 

Jean, William, head of family, Prairie 
du Rocher, 1783, 204. 

Jefferson County, Ky., militia of, 342, 
345, 348- 

Jefferson, Thomas, governor of Vir- 
ginia, 244 n, 287, 323, 329, 330, 343, 
357, 359, 374; to Col. Todd, 357; 
to the Hon. the Speaker of House 
of Delegates, 329; " Writings, "374n. 

Jesuits, held property in Kaskaskia, 
212 n. 

Jeunbergere, Laurent, St. Clair-County 
militia, 1790, 217. 

Jo Daviess County, 111., 100. 

Jodouin, , widow, head of family, 

Prairie du Rocher, 1783, 201, 203. 

Johnson, Pres. Andrew, appoints I. N. 
Arnold auditor of the treasury, 40. 



Johnson, Maj.-Gen. Bushrod R., 266. 

Johnson, Dr. Hosmer A., member of 
Chicago Historical Society, 73. 

Johnson, James, one of first trustees of 
\'incennes University, 241. 

Johnson, Judge John, 240, 241. 

Johnson, Col. Rich'd Mentor, 254, 283. 

Johnson, Capt. Seth, of Chicago, io8n. 

Johnson, Mrs. Seth, 106 n. 

Johnson, Sir William, at Fort Niagara, 

Johnston, Joseph, of Congregational 
Herald, 117. 

Johnston, Gen. Washington, 240, 241. 

Joliet, 111., stockade fort built at, in 
Black-Hawk war, 20. 

Joliet, Louis, discoverer, 150, 183 n. 

Tones, Gen. Augustus, second son of 
John Rice Jones, 1796-1887, 259, 261 

Jones, Augustus Dodge, son of Gen. 
Augustus Jones, publicist of reputa- 
tion, died in 1885, author of "True 
Method of Electing the President and 
Nice-President of the U. S.," 262. 

Jones, Chas. Scott Dodge, son of Gen. 
G. W. Jones, 266. 

Jones, Eliza, daughter of John Rice 
Jones, married Hon. Andrew Scott, 
259, 267. 

Jones, Geo. Rice Gratiot, son of Gen. 
G. W. Jones, 266. 

Jones, Gen. Geo. Wallace, son of John 
Rice Jones, minister to Guatemala, 
259, 264; sketch of his life, 265; men- 
tion, 197, 203 n, 254 n, 269 n, 283. 

Jones, Harriet, dau. of John Rice Jones; 
first husband, Thomas Brady of .St. 
Louis; second husband, Hon. John 
Scott, Ste. Genevieve, Mo., 259, 268. 

Jones, John, son of John Rice Jones, 

Jones, Judge John Rice, head of fam- 
ily, Kaskaskia, 1790, 203 n, 210; 
Kaskaskia militia, 22 1; paper by W. 
A. Burt Jones, 230-70; born in Mall- 
wyd, Wales, Feb. 11, 1759, 230; 
practised law in London; came to 
America, 1784, 230; joined Geo. R. 
Clark's expedition, 231 ; commissary- 
general, 232; took part in Gen. Har- 
mar's expedition, 234; large land- 
owner, 235; attorney-general of the 
Territory in 1801, 236; pro-slavery 
sentiments, 236; settled at Kaskas- 
kia, 238; compiled laws of Indiana 
Territory, 241 ; promoted Vincennes 
University, 241; rupture with W. H. 
Harrison on division of Indiana T y, 
243; removed to St. Louis in 1810; 

good linguist, 248; engaged in lead 
industry, 249; one of framers of Mis- 
souri constitution, 252; justice of the 
supreme court. Mo., 254; his charac- 
ter, by Gov. Reynolds, 255; married, 
'759) 256; second marriage, 258; 
mention, 197, 254 n, 271,' 272, 273, 
276, 281, 284 n. 

Jones, Gen. John Rice, son of John 
Rice Jones, born Jan. 8, 1792; one 
of first settlers in Texas; died, 1845, 
259, 260. 

Jones, Mrs. J. Russell, 268. 

Jones, Maria, daughter of John Rice 
Jones, 257. 

Jones, Michael, attorney, of Kaskaskia, 
administers oaths of office to Pierre 
Menard, 172, 173; indicted for abet- 
ting the murder of Rice Jones, 275; 
candidate for congress in 1808, 276 n; 
admitted to bail, 280; acquitted, 281. 

Jones, Hon. Myers Fisher, son of Gen. 
Augustus Jones, engaged in industrial 
pursuits, 257, 263. 

Jones, Judge Obadiah, 280. 

Jones, Oscar Peery, son of Myers 
Fisher Jones, 264. 

Jones, Peter, one of first trustees of 
Vincennes University, 241. 

Jones, Rice, son of John Kice Jones, 
238; assassination of, 249; mention, 
256; memoir by W. A. Burt Jones, 
271-84; born at Brecon, Wales, 1781; 
studied law at Litchfield, Conn., 271; 
practised at Kaskaskia, 1806; pro- 
slavist, 272; representative for Ran- 
dolph County to the legislature, 273; 
fought duel with Wm. Morrison, 274; 
assassinated by Dr. James Dunlap, 
277; his abilities, 282. 

Jones, William, St. Clair-Co. militia, 
1790, 215, 225. 

Jones, William, at school convention 
at Peoria, 1854, 69. 

Jones, William Augustus Bodley, son 
of Gen. Geo. Wallace Jones, 266. 

Jones, W. A. Burt, of St. Paul, Minn., 
sketch of John Rice Jones by, 230; 
sketch of life of Rice Jones by, 271. 

Jones, William Ashley, son of Gen. 
Augustus Jones, publicist and sur- 
veyor; died in 1856, 262. 

Jones, William Powell, U. S. N., son 
of John Rice Jones, 257, 260, 266. 

Jonesborough, 111., 85. 

Journal of Congress (of the Confedera- 
tion), 194 n. 

Judd, Norman Buel, on first committee 
of anti- Nebraska party, 63, 64, 69. 



Judy, Jacob, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Judy, Samuel, Kaskaskia militia, 1790, 

Julien, Fran9ois, Prairie du Rocher 

militia, 1790, 223. 

Kahos, see Cahokia. 

Kahokia, see Cahokia. 

Kane, Elias Kent, senator, 159; secre- 
tary of state, 240. 

Kankakee River, 19, 185, 188, 189, 386n 

Kansas, meetings respecting freedom 
in, 64. 

Kansas City, Mo., 148. 

Kaskaskia (Cascaskia, Kaskaskias, Kas- 
kaskies). 111., par