?>** / M^^H """ K^W^^^^"*K* V^AHPVKri i r f 4^vt^' : - j/^" '9 x/ IS 3, re 33c. ^^ By Hon. JOIIX II * EX y / EARLY CHICAGO: A LECTURE, DELIVERED BEFORE THE SUNDAY LECTURE SOCIETY, AT McCORMICK HALL, ON SUNDAY AFTERNOON, APRIL n, 1875, " WITH SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES." BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH, LATE EDITOR, PUBLISHER AND PROPRIETOR OF THE "CHICAC DEMOCRAT," THE FIRST CORPORATION NEWSPAPER : MEMBER OF CONGRESS FOR THE CHICAGO DISTRICT FOR TWELVE YEARS ; TWO TERMS MAYOJ AND A SETTLER OF 1836. DEACCESSIONED BY HICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY PRINTED COLLECTIONS The likeness of Hon. John Wentworth, which we present <in this Number, was engraved from the portrait painted by George P. A. Healey, Esq., in 1857, for the City Hall. That for No. Seven of our Series, entitled "Early Chicago" was engraved from a photograph, by Fassett, representing him as leaving his country residence, at Summit, to take the cars for Chicago. F. ,. - * * LU4- EARLY CHICAGO. Ax the first organization of the Sunday Lecture Society, it was resolved to have three lectures upon the History of Chicago, with a view of exciting among our people a spirit of historical research which would result in recovering lost documents, and placing upon record the experience of our early settlers. The first was to be delivered by Col. Gur- don S. Hubbard, who was here in 1818. The second, by Hon. William B. Ogden, our first Mayor. The third, by myself, who published the first corporation newspaper, and was its first Congressman. But Col. Hubbard's ill-health required that he should try the climate of Florida. Mr. Ogden, at the age of 70, concluded he would get married. Not having been afflicted like either of these gentlemen, the Committee desired that I should take the place of the other two, and, in a single lecture, bring the history of Chicago, from its first inhabitant, down to the day when my original lecture"' was to have commenced, leaving that for the next winter's course; thus writing a history of Chicago with myself and my times left out. No "present nor future historian can do this, unless he does as I shall do to- day, stop shortly there. He might go a little period beyond my arrival, but the first steam fire enginet would bring him up. As it is, I shall have too many facts for any dis- play of fancy; too much prose for poetry; too many nouns for adjectives; and, in many instances, the main route will * The Lecture referred to was delivered at McCormick's Hall, May 7, 1876, and has already been published in pamphlet form; and it should be read in connection with this. t Mayor Wentworth, during his first term, in 1857, introduced the first steam fire engine into the City. It was called "Long John." During his second term, 1861, he introduced two more, and called them "Liberty" and "Economy," in honor of a favorite watchword of his. 4 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. be so circuitous that I shall have to "cut across the prairie's" to reach my destination in season. I shall under- take to do, this afternoon, what I never undertook before : to withdraw my eyes from the audience, and confine them to my manuscript. Already do I fear this embarrassment so greatly that I am half inclined to do as they do with long bills, in the Legislature, read my lecture by its title, and then step to the front, and give you a talk. In which event you will regret that you did not bring your lunch with you. [See Supplement.] If I should undertake to write the history of Chicago, I should close my first chapter with the massacre, August 15, 1812. But who can tell me where I should begin it? Justice to the subject, I am confident, would compel me to begin so far back that not to allude to the discovery of the continent, or, at least, to that of the mouth of the Mis- sissippi, would subject me to the charge of treating the memory of Christopher Columbus or Fernando De Soto with great disrespect. Henry Brown, of this city, who wrote, in 1844, a very good History of Illinois, asked a friend what he thought of it. His reply was, " I see you are a disbeliever in the Scriptural account of the creation of the world." "Why so?" asked Judge Brown. "Be- cause," was the reply, " in your extremely early beginning, you make no mention of Adam." Yet, had he lived to have written a second volume, his seemingly dry statement of the result of his explorations into the unwritten traditions of the past would elicit from every student of history the warmest encomiums. Supposing George Bancroft had died after he had written his first volume, what would the reader have known about the United States? But Bancroft still lives, and he is still writing. * And every new volume he publishes makes the first one the more highly appreciated. You cannot write history backwards. As the surveyors say, " You must begin at the section corner." Those best acquainted with Indian antiquities, give to Chicago a far- reaching past. As there were Indians before the discovery of the continent, there must have been conspicuous and central points for councils, and Chicago was undoubtedly one of them. The name, or its spelling, or its pronounciation, may have been different. But the Indians were not troubled with dictionaries or spelling-books. There were no spell- BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 5 ing-schools among them. No book agent ever annoyed their Boards of Education. John Quincy Adams, whose seat was near mine in Congress, seeing me write " Chicago," said: "That's the way everybody spells it now; but, under my Administration, no two Government officers writing from there ever spelled it the same way." He repeated over a long list of the various ways in which it was formerly spelled. Then he said: "I see you have not settled upon your pronunciation yet, as members of your own delegation pronounce it, differently," as we then did. Prior to the time of the commencement of the Govern- ment works upon our harbor, the River turned southward, near the Michigan Central depot, and ran parallel with Michigan avenue, full half a mile, leaving quite a large tract of land at the east of it; and the entrance to the harbor was from the south. This point of land was cut through in 1833, and the River straightened to its present position. After this, land formed very rapidly upon the north side, and washed away as rapidly upon the south side of. the piers. East of Michigan avenue, there was a large tract of land, upon which there were houses, ornamental trees, and bushes, and the grounds were highly cultivated. Gradually the houses were undermined, and had to be re- moved. Eventually, the avenue itself began to give way; and, in a storm, the spray would reach the doors of the houses upon the other side. Whilst this tract of land was being washed away, skeletons, isolated bones, stones, and metals of curious formation, and not indigenous to this region, probably once used as personal ornaments or im- plements of war, were found upon the beach. Sometimes, after a storm, portions of a skeleton would project from the banks, and wait for the next storm to entirely remove it. A few Indians did not follow their tribes when they left, and more would occasionally visit here. They were con- sulted as to when the ground was used for burial purposes, and when such ornaments were worn, or such implements used in battle. But they had not even traditions upon the matter. They were as much at a loss as to their origin as our citizens were; and their traditions ran far back of the first visit of the early French explorers. The first written account of the North -West bears the date of 1654, when two French fur-traders left Canada, returned two years after, and gave such a glowing descrip- 6 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. tion of this region as excited a general disposition to ex- plore it. They were on Lake Superior, and went among the Sioux, but there is no account that they came as far south as Chicago. Yet there may have been white men here even before that time. It is claimed, that there was a missionary station at Mackinaw, about 1607. The place thereof is still known as Point Ignace. It was there that the remains of Father James Marquette were taken, about 1720, from the banks of Marquette River, over in Michi- gan; where he died May 18, 1675, within a few days of 200 years ago. About the time of the establishment of this station at Mackinaw, there was one established at Sand- wich, Canada, opposite Detroit. It was not characteristic of the early French explorers to go so far and then stop. A new continent had been discovered, and France wanted all of it that she could get. She sent her vessels up the St. Lawrence River, to Anticosti Island, in 1634, and to the site of Montreal the next year, before the most of the Puritans and Pilgrims, who settled New England, were born. The voyagers took along missionaries with theai; quite as much because they were the best educated men of the times, and devotees of govermental extension, as for religious purposes. But the French made all their explo- rations in the name of the Lord. Gen. Lewis Cass, how- ever, whilst Minister to France, in gratification of an anti- quarian taste, examined the papers relating to the early French settlement in America, and he found that the re- ports of these explorers were directed to His Majesty, the King, instead of to His Holiness, the Pope. But, in those days, the State and the Church were one, and the King, as well as the Pope, could do no wrong. But things have changed since. It is the Pope only, now, that can do no wrong. There is certainly one wrong, however, that the Pope used to do, that he cannot do now. He cannot save a King when the people want his head. And even his political power yields to the troops of Garibaldi, in Italy, and the mandates of Bismark, in Germany. If the French were at Mackinaw and Sandwich, about 1607, they must have been at Chicago within a few years afterward, and have established a missionary or military station here, and have passed on and established other such stations; ap- pearing to the Indians as angels of mercy, but taking pos- session of the country for France. They needed no sol- BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 7 diers, as the early French missionaries gained such an in- fluence over the Indians that, as subsequent history proves, every Indian was a French soldier. Quebec was founded in 1608, and Canada made a royal province of France in 1663. In 1700, there were thirty-five of these missionary stations or quasi -military posts located all the way from Frontenac (now Kingston), on Lake Ontario, via Detroit, Mackinaw, Green Bay, Chicago, Peoria, St. Louis, etc., to New Orleans. About the same time, there was another route by land via Fort Wayne to Chicago. Their route out of Chicago was down the north fork of the South Branch through Mud Lake, then called le petit Jac, to the Desplaines River, and generally in the same little boats with which they had passed over the lakes of the east. This route, partially interrupted by the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, has been recently restored to the condition it occupied for so many hundred years, and the waters of Lake Michigan and of the Desplaines River again mingle, after a few years of unnatural separation. Napoleon used to say, that he always found the Lord on the side where there was the most artillery. But here were .a few traders, hunters, voyagers, explorers, and missionaries who, without any artillery, extended the French Empire over a larger tract of country than Napoleon would have acquired with all his artillery if he had conquered Russia. Beginning with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, her terri- tory north of us extended to the Pacific Ocean; and west of the Mississippi River, it embraced all territory to New Orleans. When we bought Louisiana, in 1803, of Napoleon for $15,000,000, it embraced Minnesota and Iowa. And why was it that Chicago did not belong to France? Where is the chapter of international law that allowed Gen. George Rogers Clark (who had never been here) to annex us to old Virginia, when the French had had a post here nearly 100 years before? History describes Father James Mar- quette, who came to Montreal from France, as the first European who ever set his foot upon Chicago soil. He was at the Falls of St. Mary in 1668. In 1669, he was at LaPointe, on Lake Superior. In 1671, he was at Macinaw. But, as early as 1660, a mission was established on the south side of the western extremity of Lake Superior, at a place called Che-go-ime-gon. In 1671, French influence REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. had become so extensive that they assembled, at what is now Sault de Ste. Marie, a council of Indians representing all the various tribes, and they accomplished the object of their council by making them all allies of France. His transactions were published in Paris in 1681; and, if the object of his mission had not been quite as much govern- mental as religious, this importance would not have been attached to them. He acted upon the Napoleonic idea that, in a war with Great Britain, the Lord would be upon the side that had the most tomahawks and scalping-knives. Marquette was undoubtedly the first white man who tarried any length of time in Chicago. He was undoubtedly our first clergyman. The church, however, in which he preached was spared the necessity of extinguishment in the Chicago fire. Without mentioning Chicago, however, history tells us that Father Claude Allouez was at LaPointe, on Lake Superior, as early as 1665, and that in 1668, he had a council upon an island in Lake Superior, at which 3000 Pottawatomies were present, and these, be it remembered, were our Chicago Indians. He organized a mission at Green Bay, in 1669; where, it is claimed, that Sieur Jean Nicollet was, about 1639. Unless he had previously been among their tribe, or had French agents there, how were they to understand his French or he their Pottawatomie language? In 1673, Father Joliet joined Marquette, and went upon an exploring tour to the Mississippi. Joliet went back to Quebec, to announce the result of his explo- rations. On his way, at Frontenac (now Kingston), he told his story to Robert C. LaSalle, who saw, to use a modern expression, " millions in it," and wanted to " put his money where it would do the most good." He hastened to France and secured the good-will of Louis XIV., by proposing a union of the Canadas with the Mississippi Valley, and a line of military posts from the lakes to the Mississippi; and having cajoled the King into giving him a monopoly of the fur trade in the west, the real object of his mission, he hurried back. But he first secured the services of an ex- perienced Italian navigator named Henry de Tonti, with whom he arrived at Quebec, in 1678. He was soon after joined by Father Louis Hennepin. He built the first sail vessel that ever was upon the lakes, and named it the Griffin. He went immediately into commerce, with Henne- pin as chaplain and Tonti as chief superintendent. Tonti BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 9 passed the most of the winter of 1682 at Starved Rock, near what is now Utica, LaSalle Co., in Illinois, waiting for LaSalle and Hennepin to join him. During that year 1682 the French explored the Mississippi to the sea. Tonti made reports to the Governor -General of Canada, who transmitted copies to Paris. Thus, whilst Marquette was our first clergyman, LaSalle was our first member of the Board of Trade, -the first of that large number of men who make such* slow progress toward the Kingdom of Heaven that they let the camel beat them in getting through the eye of a needle. Hence it is very proper that the street upon which our Board of Trade stands should be named for him. And how much of historical associa- tion is there connected with the location of our Board of Trade Block, fronting west upon a street named in honor of the man first engaged in western commerce, north upon of a street named in honor of the father of our country, east upon a street named for Gen. George Rogers Clark, who conquered this region from the British and the Indians, and south upon one named for the father of the Constitu- tion of his country. What four better emblems for a suc- cessful Board of Trade man? The enterprise of LaSalle, the moderation of Washington, the endurance of Clark, and the judgment of Madison! From this period to 1795, when General Anthony Wayne made the first land trade in Chicago, it passes almost out of history; and, owing to the tedium of this portion of my lecture, I suppose you, anxi- ous for events nearer your time, are glad of it. Yet I must say that never was so much territory ac- quired in so short a time, and at so little expense, as the French acquired in America. But where is that French territory now? Napoleon the Great sold to us in 1803, for $15,000,000, what Great Britain had not conquered from France. And Napoleon the Little abandoned Mexico with- out the force to protect Maxmilian, the Emperor, that he himself sent there, from assassination. Indeed, it may be asked, in view of recent events, if France has any power anywhere. I allude not so much to the humiliation at- tendant upon the recent German invasion as to the still greater one of allowing its communes to destroy the monu- ments to its glorious dead ; as if not satisfied with the destitution of present glory, it would extinguish every me- mento of the glory of its past. It was characteristic of the IO REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. French, whilst acquiring the right to all the Indian country they could, to make the Indians do all the fighting against other people who took land only for immediate wants. For, whilst this same Frontenac, Governor -General of Canada, was sending out his peaceful emissaries in the West, he was sending out emissaries of an entirely different character in the East. Fields were desolated and buildings conflagrated, and there was scarce a hearthstone in New England that was not stained with the blood of women and children. And there is not a New Englander within the sound of my voice who cannot repeat some wrongs inflicted upon his ancestors, by Indians, stimulated by Frontenac's rewards for captives and scalps. And, as death was preferred to captivity, the scalps were the most numerous. These bar- barities could not be justified by wars between France and Great Britain; nor by any desire of the New Englanders to extend their territory beyond immediate wants. For the New Englanders came here with no particular love of their mother country, and the French could easily have made friends of them. They fled to America from- religious intol- erance. Their settlements were compact, and they were making no efforts to extend them. The French were hav- ing the territorial extensions all their own way. The Pil- grims and Puritans, busy in persecuting Quakers, hanging witches, and punishing each other for violations of the Sab- bath, had not got above tide-water when the French were regaling themselves with the white-fish and trout of Lake Superior, and getting themselves rich with the fur traffic. But the French were determined to drive the English lan- guage from the Continent, and had sought the alliance of the "Indians for this purpose. They knew that wherever the British went they went to stay. They knew that John Bull had a foot of immense size, and that it was one of his characteristics, when he once got it down, never to take it up ; and she could have proved by any Irishman then, as well as now, such was the case when he once got his foot upon a nation's neck. Britain emancipates her blacks, but her whites never. Little did the French then think that the very colonies that they were using the Indians to per- .secute were to be the only power that ever did make John Bull take his foot from an inch of territory anywhere. But you ask. what has all this to do with Chicago, our present city, and why I do not talk of modern times, tak- BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. II ing in the Great Fire.* A Boston editor says he will give $500 to any Chicago man, woman, or child who can talk ten minutes without mentioning the Great Fire. How long have I been talking? To these impatient ones I will say, " look at your city seal !" There you see an Indian with his bow and quiver, facing an approaching vessel under full sail. Above them both is a cradle containing an infant. I was present at the first consultation about the city seal, and the idea was that when barbarism gave way to civiliza- tion, when the savages retreated before commerce, the infant in the cradle was to wake up. I shall wake him up in due time wake him amidst massacres, floods, and conflagra- tions wake him amidst land speculations, Presidential conventions, divorce cases, reformed churches, and decapi- tated Bishops. Meanwhile, "Hush, my babe, lie still and slumber!" I want to inform you how near we came to being a French city. Indeed, some people contend that the Ger- mans mistook it for one, and captured it about the time they did Paris. We were essentially French until the erec- tion of the fort in 1804 brought the English language here. As late as 1836, when I came here, the more intelligent of the Pottawatomies spoke the French language quite as well as the less intelligent inhabitants of Montreal and Quebec now do. Those best posted in Indian antiquities claim that the Pottawatomie, or Chicago Indians, were but an offshoot from the numerous and powerful tribe of Illinois Indians for whom our State was named, also a French- speaking people. Thus, after several years of progress, we have only got back to the starting point, once being Illinois Indians, and now Illinois citizens ; once ruled by Indian sachems, and now by sachems of another color, and some of our tax-payers think that financially our present sachems do not differ materially from the former ones. There were many full-blood Indians who had been reared in French families; and, to keep them from returning to their tribes, when they arrived at maturity, they were told that they were descendants of French noble families who had been put to death in some of the various revolutions. A Rev. Eleazer Williams, a prominent Protestant clergyman, who had been a long while in the Indian missionary service, it will be remembered, in his latter days came to the conclu- * The fire of October 8th and gth, 1871. 12 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. elusion that he was the legitimate son of the guillotined Louis XVI., and he made so good a showing that the Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillippe, came out to see him, while on a visit to the United States. A Rev. Mr. Hanson wrote him up in Putnams Magazine, as the real Louis XVII. But king stock took a fall about those days, and he did not go to Paris to urge his pretensions. It was a standing joke, in early times, when one could not trace his parentage, to say, "Oh, call him a descendant of the Royal family of France !" One of these pretenders to descent from the nobility of France had been told that the secret of his origin was locked up in the breast of an aged Indian Chief who visited this city. With a few friends, he sought out the Chief, and asked him if he could tell him about his French ancestry. The reply was: "Your father Indian, mother squaw, good French! My squaw got nine papoose, all French." Thus ended the French nobility in Chicago. When the last war between Great Britain and France broke out on the American Continent, the French had ex- tended their power up the Ohio River, as far as Fort Du Quesne, now Pittsburg, and were contemplating a line of militia-posts from that place to Lake Ontario. Had they succeeded in this, and held their power on this continent, Chicago would certainly have been a French city; and, in all probability, the Paris of America ; with the General Assembly here, composed of delegates from Halifax, Que- bec, Montreal, St. Louis, New Orleans, and the Pacific cities. When the French defeated the British forces at Fort Du Quesne, and left their Commander-in-Chief, Gen. Braddock, dead upon the battle-field, they thought they had inflicted a fatal blow upon British power in America, but they inflicted a greater one when they left alive upon the same battle-field the juvenile George Washington, des- tined so soon to lead to glory the colonists, spurred to bat- tle by the eloquence of John Adams in Faneuil Hall, and of Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses of Virginia. After the treaty of peace between Great Britain and France, in 1763, by which the Canadas were ceded to Great Britain, our relations to the two countries were en- tirely reversed. Whatever prejudices existed against the French, for their course in the past, were entirely obliter- ated when Gen. Lafayette came to our relief, during our BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 13 revolutionary struggle. From that hour to this, there has never been an unkind feeling between the two nations, save from what Napoleon the Little wanted to do (but had not the courage to do it) during the recent war of the slave power against our Union. And, although the French used every effort to reconcile the Indians to the Americans, they continued our inveterate enemies, and would have massa- cred Gen. Lafayette with the same ferocity as Gen. Wash- ington. And, notwithstanding the halls of Parliament once echoed with the indignation of British statesmen, and re- peated protests were made to the French Government against Indian barbarities, the British saw things in a differ- ent light, and stimulated the Indians to even more hellish cruelties than the French. Even after the American Inde- pendence was secured, the Indians did not cease their depredations. Like the Irishman, in the fight, they were for hitting a head wherever they could find one. And they kept Gen. Anthony Wayne very busy until he drove them to a treaty at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795. Now, ladies and gentlemen, I begin to get there. Now, look in the cradle ! The baby begins to nestle ! But don't take him out ! For Great Britain is to fire the Indian demons once more. An awful massacre is in the distance. By that treaty, the Indians ceded to the United States: "One piece of land, six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicajo River, empty- ing into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood." This was an old French fort, probably built over 100 years before, by the earliest French explor- ers. This was the first transaction, on record, in Chicago real estate. But Gen. Wayne spelled Chicago with a "j." The baby's name in 1795, was "jo." He had not got the "go" then. It was Chica jo. I have already told you how Chicago escaped from the jurisdiction of the Indians, of the French, and the British. Now I must tell to you of another escape. I mean from the Southern Confederacy. For Virginia claimed us under the conquest of Gen. George Rogers Clark, whose expedi- tion she herself had fitted out, and the expenses thereof had never been refunded to her. In 1778, her Legislature created the county of Illinois, embracing all of our present State. Our address then was Chicago, Va. And, but for the Ordinance of 1787, which ceded the Northwestern Ter- ritory to the United States, we might have been breeding 14 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. slaves up to the time of Lincoln's Proclamation, and the white laborers, who have done so much for the develop- ment of our city, been entirely excluded. As it was, we were only compelled to catch the slaves that others bred, 'whilst following .the old Indian trail to Canada and freedom. But we made still another escape. You remember, some years ago, that there were some politicians who were riding a horse with a head upon both ends, called "Squatter Sovereignty." Gen. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, claimed to have discovered the original horse in the Presidential woods. This horse did as much to precipitate our late War of the Rebellion as all other things put together; as its doctrine was that whoever got possession of a Territory first had it. The original battle-ground was Kansas, where .the friends of white labor and black labor struggled for supremacy. Gen. Cass was, of course, riding his horse, as fast as he could gallop, both ways, with the cry of " Squatter Sovereignty forever." Our first settler was a negro from San Domingo, who drove his stakes about 1779, just across the river on the North Side, named Jean Baptist Point au Sable, at what was afterwards known as the old Kinzie place, a few rods east from where we now are. He did his best to ingratiate himself into the affections of the Indians, with the idea of becoming a chief, and then sending back for more of his countrymen, and planting a San Domingo colony here. After living here a few years, and meeting with poor suc- cess, in becoming chief, he removed to Peoria, then known as Fort Clark, where he died. Had Au Sable succeeded in his designs and the doctrine of squatter sovereignty pre- vailed, how different would have been our condition? We, white folks, would then have been compelled to ask for a Civil-Rights bill to protect us whilst patronizing a negro saloon or a negro theatre. In 1800, Illinois was organized into a Territory with Indiana, under the name of Indiana Territory, with Gen. William Henry Harrison as Governor, and our seat of gov- ernment was Vincennes, Ind., and then we were all Hoo- siers. Our address then was Chicago, Ind. But Chicago acquired no importance until 1804, when a fort was erected here, named after Gen. Henry Dearborn, a conspicuous officer of the American Revolution, and afterwards Secre- tary of War. B^ HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 15 And with the troops came John Kinzie, father of the late esteemed John H. and Robert A. Kinzie, whose children still reside here. Mr. Kinzie was born in Quebec, in 1763, and settled upon the premises of the original squatter sovereign, Au Sable, and owned them until he died in Fort Dearborn, Jan. 6, 1828,* and his son John H. Kinzie lived upon them until his death, a few years ago. His house was the first erected in Chicago, and it was standing long after Chicago became a city. In 1809, we ceased to be Hoo- siers, and became Suckers by the organization of Illinois Territory, with Ninian Edwards as Governor, and with the seat of Government at Kaskaskia. At the time of the mas- sacre, in 1812, Chicago contained not to exceed a half- dozen families, outside of the fort; and, if there are living to-day any descendants of those inside or outside of the fort at that time, besides the descendants of Mr. Kinzie, I knowfj^ it not. Perhaps I should except a sister of the Indian chief q. / LaFramboise, who was living in Mr. Kinzie's family, and ^ who afterwards married John Baptiste Beaubien, who was living at Mackinaw at the time it was taken, and whose descendants are quite numerous in this vicinity. In 1818, Illinois was admitted into the Union, and there- by we made another very remarkable escape, that from being Wisconsin Badgers. For, by the terms of the Ordi- nance of 1787, three States were to be framed south of a line drawn due east and west from the most southerly bend of Lake Michigan, and two north of it. When Michigan applied for admission into the Union, she claimed that, under the terms of the Ordinance, she was entitled to To- ledo, in Ohio, and Michigan City, in Indiana. It will be remembered, that Michigan sent out troops to seize and hold Toledo; but Ohio was prepared to give them so warm a reception that history only records the number of water- melon-patches that were attacked. When Wisconsin was- preparing to apply for admission into the Union, she prof- ited by the mistakes of Michigan, and came not with blun- derbusses but with sweetmeats. Her newspapers called attention to the fact that, from the southernmost bend of Lake Michigan, as fixed by the Ordinance, our boundary had been extended to the latitude of 42 degrees 30 minutes. Her citizens sent men of talents all through the disputed tract, public meetings were called, and not only was justice pleaded, but the advantages were thoroughly discussed. 1 6 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. Many settlements were unanimous, and others were divided in favor of being united with Wisconsin. The disputed tract had two Congressmen, the Hon. Joseph P. Hoge, of Galena, now an eminent lawyer in SanFrancisco, and myself. And Wisconsin, offered to make us the first two Senators, and also offered to give the disputed tract the first Gover- nor. It was proposed to enact a law submitting the bind- ing force of the Ordinance of 1787 to the Supreme Court of the United States. Our Chicago people were much divided upon the question, and I really believe serious con- sequences would have grown out of it but for the embar- rassments that would be caused by having the Illinois and Michigan Canal owned by two States. As an original question, all the five States being out of the Union, there is no doubt but Congress would have enforced the provi- sions of the Ordinance, and Illinois been cut off from the lakes, and her Legislature saved from the annoyance of Chicago lobbyists. But might made right. Wisconsin be- ing out of the Union, she could only come into it with boundaries prescribed by a majority of the States in it, and I lost the honor of being a Wisconsin United States Sena- tor. But I am trespassing upon what should constitute a second chapter in Chicago's history, embracing the period from the massacre to its incorporation as a city. It was upon the 7th of August, 1812, that a messenger arrived from General Hull, then at Detroit, whose division embraced Chicago and Mackinaw, as well as Detroit, an- nouncing that war had been declared against Great Britain on the i Qth of June, that Mackinaw had been taken by the British on the lyth of July, and ordering the commandant, Capt. Heald, to distribute the United States property to the Indians in the neighborhood, abandon the fort, and report to Fort Wayne, in Indiana, with his company of about seventy-five men. Mark the difficulty of communi- cating news in those days ! War declared June igth, not known in Chicago till August 7th. Mackinaw taken July 1 7th, and not known until August 7th. But we got beauti- fully even with Great Britain for her surprise of our fort at Mackinaw, before the war ended. For, when the British and American Commissioners met at Ghent, in 1814, to make a treaty of peace, Britain stopped sending troops to Gen. Packenham, at New Orleans. The treaty of peace was signed Dec. i4th, 1814, and Gen. Jackson squared the BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 17 accounts for Mackinaw upon the day we celebrate, the 8th of January thereafter. The British had not received the news of peace, nor had our soldiers in the fort at Mackinaw received the news of the declaration of war. Henry Clay Avas one of the Commissioners, and I shall never forget, in my early days in Congress, his expressions of regret that the news of peace could not have reached this country earlier, as the battle of New Orleans made a great man of Andrew Jackson, defeated the re-election of John Quincy Adams, put down the United States Bank, brought the Democrats into power, and perhaps, if he were alive now, he would say, caused the Rebellion. The surprise at Mack- inaw, in 1812, proved a very important warning to the people along the coast of the Western Lakes. For, as towns began to multiply, the inhabitants saw, in case of war, how quickly any of the British lake vessels could be supplied with guns adequate to their destruction. During the controversy upon the Oregon question, under President Polk's administration, when war was considered imminent, men were constantly devising plans for our lake defences, .and all urged strengthening the fortifications at Mackinaw, as there would be no hope for our Lake Michigan towns, if the British should capture it again, or manage to get a war vessel this side of it, even if we still held possession of it. Mayor Augustus Garrett, of this city, called a meeting of our prominent citizens, for consultation, and, to show my constituents that I was fully alive to their interests, I made a speech in Congress, so animated that the New York Herald got up a caricature, representing the British Lion, and myself behind it, with a club in my hands, entitled " Long John, of Illinois, chasing the British Lion." I re- member that Jefferson Davis, who was a member of Con- gress from Mississippi, alarmed me very much, by asserting that there was no way in which Chicago could be defended, and that our shipping could not be got beyond the reach of the enemies' guns. The Ogden-Wentworth Ditch, up the South Branch, had not then been constructed. He also said that such was the case with all our Lake Michigan towns, save Calumet, now called South Chicago, and that was the only harbor he would vote to improve under a military necessity. This alarmed me the more, as there had always been an influential party at Chicago who contended that our city ought to have been, and would eventually be, 2 1 8 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. there. Jefferson Davis was recognized as good authority on this point, as soon after leaving West Point, he assisted in the survey of the Upper Lakes, and in the construction of Fort Winnebago, in Wisconsin, and is still remembered in the W T est by many of its early settlers. A Wisconsin lady, who attended many parties with him, when he was a young lieutenant, recently described him to me as very retiring and meditative, and always seemed to be contriving something, or thinking of something outside of the company, and when the rebellion broke out, she remembered this trait and now has no doubt but that he was plotting treason. And, by the way, she suggested that she knows a lady in Wisconsin who might have been Mrs. Davis, and would have been but for her father's constantly telling her that an army offi- cer was just like a sailor, and had a lover in every port. Whilst we were thus alarmed about the safety of our towns, the Canadians were equally alarmed about theirs. This led to a treaty, which provided that but one armed- vessel should be kept by either country on the upper lakes, and that vessel should carry but one gun. Hence our war steamer, Michigan ! She has one gun ! And there is a Canadian vessel that has one also. Now, when either nation takes another gun on board, then comes war, under the treaty. But this treaty effectually allayed the excite- ment which Western men had created upon the subject of a ship canal connecting the lakes with the rivers. Commo- dore Maury, of our navy, and more recently of the rebel navy, was one of the many very able writers and speakers in our behalf. He treated the subject of Western naval defenses so ably that his articles were copied all over the country,, and he thus took the matter out of the hands of Western men entirely. He elevated the ship canal above all local or commercial considerations, and placed it upon the grounds of a great national necessity. But, the war fever against Great Britain having died away, and the people having had time for reflection, our fear that, in any future war, Great Britain could send war vessels through the Welland Canal, is at once dispelled by the reflection that, if we had a ship canal, long before war vessels could^ be .sent frora^^jgj^ Orleans, up the Mississippi, through ft to Chicago, Canada would be taken, and the Welland Canal would be ours. And there is a general feeling among the people of the United States, that a country of the resources of Canada, BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 19 that is so destitute of patriotic spirit, in this enlightened age, when Republics are the order of the day, as to be the only spot on the American Continent, owing sole allegiance to a foreign monarchy, could not do us much harm in war. There is not a people on earth of the intelligence and wealth of the Canadians, who bear their yoke so easily; and there is no hope of our ever making enough out of their warlike spirit to scare our Government into making an ap- propriation for a ship canal, so much needed for commer- cial purposes. History tells us that, had the commandant of the fort at Chicago done either of two things, the massacre of 1812 could have been avoided. He could have abandoned it instantaneously after receiving his order, and reached Fort Wayne by a forced march, or he could have remained and defended it. But the most friendly relations had always existed between the occupants of the fort and the Indians, and the commandant of the fort was ordered, when he left, to distribute the surplus property in the fort to them. They had passed in arid out, at their pleasure, ever since its con- struction, and could have surprised it at any time. The surprise of Gen. Harrison, at Tippecanoe, the fall before, and the final defeat of the Indians there, had seemingly had no bad effect upon those around Chicago. But the com- mandant here was a circumlocutionist, and believed in red tape. He took from the 7th to the i5th of August to march his troops 'out of the fort, accompanied by the few inhabitants of the place who had sought his protection, to the most sudden and barbarous of deaths. Until within a few years, there were high sandhills on the lake shore, about a mile and a half from the fort, near the Illinois Central round-house, from behind which the Indians rushed upon their hellish work, sparing neither age nor sex. The facts are too familiar to you to need a minute descrip- tion here. The news of the declaration of war was sent from Detroit to Fort Wayne, the nearest military post to Chicago, at the same time that it was sent to Chicago, and Cant. William ^HM Wells, a^sMgliafof the wifeT of the commandant at Chicago, at once collected a few friendly Indians, and started to render assistance to th,e Chicago troops in reach- ing Fort Wayne. He arrived just in time to share the fate of the men whom he came to assist. But he fought so 20 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. heroically, and destroyed so many of the fiends before he fell, that many of them began to think he had a charmed life, and their wrath was so great against him that, ere he was cold in death, they cut out his heart, and distributed it in pieces among the relatives of the Indians who had fallen by his hand. When our city was laid out, one of its princi- pal streets was named in honor of him. The savages killed him, and worse than savages removed his name from the street. For inefficient city officers allowed gamblers to settle therein, and with them came the disciples of Poti- phar's wife, and that crowd of moral and social outcasts which gamblers instinctively draw around themselves, wherever they go. And when, at last, more efficient offi- cers exterminated them, the property-holders thought they would wipe out the disgrace which official incompetency or degeneracy had inflicted upon them, by erasing from the street the name of one who so heroically gave up his life on the ever-memorable i5th day of August, 1812. And the same infamous crowd were recently about to inflict a similar disgrace upon the street named in honor of Gen. George Rogers Clark, when one of our Judges, knowing his duty, dare do it, and gave them to understand that there were laws in this city, and gamblers must obey them, as well as the poor, hungry, and half-clad Communes. There was once just such a crowd, confiscating property in a certain sandy location, upon this, the North Side, not far from here.* But there was a way found to save the value of property, without changing the names of streets. What- ever else may be said of our city, never let it be said again that men in high official position had so gilded the worst of all vices, gambling, that the names of streets had to be changed, to save property from that depreciation and dis- grace which all history and all Chicago experience tells us never fails to attend its existence. The Indians must have received the news of the war and the fall of Mackinaw before the fort was evacuated. In those days, every Indian was a British telegraph. For, even after the French ceded the Canadas to the British, the * This alludes to the summary destruction, by the Police, under the administration of Mayor Wentworth, in 1857, of a large number of wooden shanties, erected near the beach of the Lake, on the North Side, without authority of law, and occupied by criminal classes. BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 21 latter were in the habit of assembling the Chiefs of all the Indian tribes once a year, at Maiden, Canada, nearly oppo- site Detroit, and distributing valuable presents among them. And as early as the war of 1812, there were well-marked Indian trails from every part of the Indian country, via Detroit, to Maiden. The British could trust every Indian, and send a message anywhere with him. The Americans could not trust any message with an Indian, and if they undertook to send a white man through the Indian country, he was made to suffer the most distressing death. At any rate, the Indians knew that the soldiers were to abandon the fort, and they volunteered to escort them a certain dis- tance on their march to Fort Wayne. Thirsting for more blood, our Indians hastened to Fort Wayne; and joining the Indians in that vicinity, they attacked it, August 25th, in hopes of another massacre. But it held out until relieved by Gen. Harrison's command, Sept. 1 6th. The Indians there learned, if they did not know it before, that Gen. Hull had surrendered his army at , . Detroit, which he did without firing a gun, on the very day $* /"V" G the massacre at Chicago ; and there lives at Chicago now 1 a gentlemen, Mark Beaubien, who was present, and wit- nessed the indignation of our soldiers, as they stepped into the boats that were to convey them across the Detroit River to the British headquarters. They looked upon it more as a betrayal than a surrender. Our Indians then hurried on to unite with the British army, and had a chance to slake their thirst for blood at the terrible massacre at River Raisin, baser and more cowardly than that at Chicago, because the Americans had sur- rendered to the British army, which was in honor bound to protect them. John Kinzie, who had fled with his family from Chicago to Detroit, was sezied by the order of the British General, Henry A. Proctor, and imprisoned in Fort Maiden as a spy; and there in that fort was all that was left of Chicago, the balance dead, or supposed to be. It has been the for- tune of our soldiers, from the days of the Revolution down to and including those of our Rebellion, to meet with sad reverses at first. But they have ever grown strong under such reverses, and they just begin to fight successfully as the war terminates. Our sole Chicago citizen remained a prisoner until the ever-memorable words of Commodore 22 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. Perry, uttered on the 29th of September, 1813, reached the fort: "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." Now hurrah for Chicago ! She had Fort Maiden all to herself. She held the key to the position. No vessel could pass up the Detroit River, except under her guns. The British had fled from the fort where Mr. Kinzie was, leaving him the sole occupant. Gen. Harrison retook Detroit, as it had been surrendered, without firing a gun. Perry had swept the lake, and our forces, in the presence of Chicago's sole citizen, running up the stars and stripes, held Fort Maiden. The day of jubilee had come. When the British retreated up the Thames, our Indians went with them, under Tecumseh, who had a commission as Brigadier-General; and our army had no idea of letting them effect a union ' with the troops that were fighting Gen. Brown's command in the regions below. They were followed, Tecumseh fell, and our Indians never recovered from its effects. In vain did Black Hawk, in 1832, try to unite the various Indian tribes in one common cause, against the United States. They knew they had no Tecumseh, and left Black Hawk to fight alone. After the death of Tecumseh, it came to light that, in 1809, he had planned the entire destruction of the people of Chicago, inside and outside the^fart; but some unforeseen circumstance prevented it, just as it was upon the point of execution. When Col. Richard M. Johnson was a candidate for Vice-President, upon the same ticket as Mr. Van Buren for President, his opponents disputed that he was the man who killed Tecumseh. Knowing that Shabonee,- one of the Chiefs of the Pottawatomies, and who was with Tecumseh when he fell, resided in this vicinity, I sought an interview, but was told in advance that the only way I could interest him was to make inquiries about Tecumseh, for whom he, in common with all others of our Western Indians, had the utmost adoration to the end of his life. Shabonee marked upon the ground the position of the British and the Indians when met by the pursuing Americans, Gen. Proctor in the command of the one, and Tecumseh of the other. Then he described the British as ignominiously fleeing, and leaving the Indians to take care of themselves. He said the In- dians had been betrayed by every party they had assisted. The French first agreed to protect their hunting grounds for them, but had made them over to the English, who, in BY HON. JOHN WEXTWORTH. 23 turn, had promised to protect their hunting grounds, and then were keeping the most of their troops to fight Napo- leon. The battle of the Thames was on the 5th of October, 1813, and the allied armies entered France in December following, and sent Napoleon to Elba shortly after. He said Tecumseh had become disgusted; and, if he could have gotton out of the war, he never would have allowed his tribes to fight the Americans again. Shabonee said the British were flying and the Americans were charging when Col. Johnson, wounded, fell from his horse. You ought to have seen old Shabonee, at this part of his narra- tion. No professed tragedian can do him justice. An Indian talks much more with his countenance than the white man. Up to this time, his countenance bore marks of gloom, doubt, despair. He knelt down and defined Col. Johnson's position. Then he ran back some distance, turned, seized a club, and with the countenance of a fiend incarnate, he gave Tecumseh's last rallying yell, and, brand- ishing his club like an Indian tomahawk in one hand, and his knife in the other, as if to take a scalp, he rushed to- wards the spot where Col. Johnson was supposed to be suffering from his wounds ; but, suddenly placing his hand upon his side, as if shot, he fell, and imitated the dying Tecumseh. His description of Col. Johnson's dress and horse was very minute, and when I told it to Col. Johnson, at Washington, he said he could have given no better des- cription himself. Shabonee proved a good citizen, as did the many Indian Chiefs who passed the remainder of their days in this vicinity ; all saying that we had conquered the French and British, and nothing could hinder our ultimate possession of all their forests ; and all bearing witness that the great Tecumseh would have settled down in peace among the white folks, as they themselves were doing, could he have been spared, cursing both French and British for treachery and ingratitude. *Shabonee was the last of our Indian Chiefs to die. He expired in the town o Norman, on his farm of twenty acres, July lyth, 1859, aged eighty-four, near Morris, Grundy County, in this State, leav- ing a son, now living in Kansas, where also lives a grand- son, who is one of the principal Chiefs of what was once the powerful tribe of Pottawatomies. From the massacre of 1812 to 1816, nothing has ever been known of our infant. He slept on. . The stars of the -/" * d. ^o^M 24 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. East may have shone upon him ; but there were no shep- herds to be guided to his manger no Pharaoh's daughter to nourish him in his seclusion. When the troops came here in that year, to reconstruct the fort, they found every- thing exactly as the massacre had left it. The bones of the slain had never been disturbed, and the first work of the soldiers was to collect and bury them. That same year, a treaty was made at St. Louis, securing a strip of land, twen- ty miles wide, from Ottawa to Chicago. Thus early was the importance of the canal appreciated. Illinois Territory became a State in 1818, and Gov. Bond, in his inaugural of that year and his valedictory in 1822, called attention to the subject ; and his successor, Gov. Coles, repeated his rec- ommendation. In 1 8 1 8, when our esteemed fellow-citizen, Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard, came to Chicago, there were but two families outside of the fort, those of John Kinzie and Antoine Oilmette (for whom the town of Wilmette, in Cook Co., is named, where he passed the most of his days, leav- ing several descendants). In 1821, the first steamer ever upon the lakes, "Walk in the Water," made her first trip to Green Bay, but there was no business to take her to Chicago. Col. Hubbard came from Montreal, all the way by water, in an open row-boat, called by the French, " bat- teaux," coming via Toronto, Lake Simcoe, and Georgian Bay. Gen. John McNeil, one of the heroes at the battle of Lundy's Lane, Canada, in 1814, was stationed here soon after the reconstruction of the fort, and he claimed that one of his daughters was the first person ever born in the fort. A few years ago, I met her upon Michigan Avenue, and she said she had been trying to find the place upon which she was born, claiming the honor of being the first person ever born in the fort. As she was unmarried, I disliked to ask her when it was. There are several persons now living in Chicago, who claim the distinction of being the first white person, now living, born here. Alexander Beaubien,. son of the late John B. Beaubien, now present, was born here, January 28th, 1822. There are ladies who claim a prior birth, but they decline particular dates. Yet some of the deceased children of John Kinzie and Col. William Whistler, who built the Fort, in 1 804, were born before any of them."* * Ellen M. Kinzie, who married (i) Dr. Alexander Wolcott, of this city, and (2) George C. Bates, of Detroit, Mich., born in 1805, has no BY HON. JOHN AVENT WORTH. 25 In 1821, General Lewis Cass came here in a birch-bark canoe, and made a treaty with the Indians, which secured the right to build a road, from Chicago to both Fort Wayne and Detroit. Our Indians were so peaceably disposed, after the fall of Tecumseh, that, from 1823, the Government made a mere matter of convenience of our fort, often withdrawing the troops entirely, until the great Black Hawk scare, in 1832. In 1823, the late Archibald Clybourn, a Justice of the Peace, early after the organization of Cook Co., whose widow and children now reside in our city, came here, from Virginia ; and it was then that Prof. William H. Keating, of the University of Pennsylvania, visited here, and thus wrote : " Their log or bark houses are low, filthy, and disgusting, displaying not the least trace of comfort." Up to 1828, only one sail vessel made trips to Chicago, and that to bring supplies to the fort. The American Fur Company had done all its business in row-boats, better known in those days as Mackinaw boats. Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard made a trip, around the lakes, from Detroit, in a sail vessel, that year. Although the canal land grant was made in 1827, the law under which it was commenced did not pass until the winter of 1835-6. Our nearest land-office was in Southern Illinois, at Palestine, Crawford County, until 1834, when one was established at Danville, Vermillion County, a little further north. There was none at Chicago until 1835, when our present fellow-citizen, Col. Edmund D. Taylor, was ap- pointed receiver. In 1830, there were only fifteen dwelling- houses, only three of which remained in 1857, and less than 100 inhabitants; and the principal settlement here was at the forks of the Chicago River, then called " Wolf Point/' where there was a tavern, school-house, and meeting-house, where Jesse Walker, a Methodist missionary, residing at Plainfield, Will County, occasionally preached. There still stands, at the northeast corner of Lake and Canal Streets, a building known for many years as the " Green Tree Hotel," erected in 1831, probably the oldest building in Chicago. But there was still another small tavern, on the competitor for being the first white child born in Chicago. And her sister, Maria H. Kinzie, now the wife of General David Hunter, of the U. S. Army, born in 1807, is the oldest white person living who was born in Chicago. 26 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. North Side, near the Forks, where Gen. Scott stopped, when he came with the troops, in 1832, kept by Elijah Wentworth, Sr. And there was another small tavern, kept, in 1831, by Mark Beaubien, called the "Sauganash," on the southeast corner of Lake and Market Streets, known as the Wigwam lot, where Abraham Lincoln was nominated for President. On the block north, at the corner of Frank- lin and Water Streets, the Post-office was located, when I came to Chicago. Mr. Beaubien also kept a ferry at Lake Street, beyond which, on the South Branch, there was neither bridge nor ferry. It was at this hotel, kept by the late Aid. John Murphy, whose family still resides here, whose widow is present upon the platform, that I took my first meal, upon my arrival in this city. In 1830, the steam- boat, Henry Clay, made trips to Green Bay, from Detroit, solely in the fur-trade interest. There was no trade to take her to Chicago. At that period, and for some time thereafter, the South Side was one entire marsh, with several creeks running into the river. There was a small bridge on Water Street, over a stream which drained a slough, near State Street, and there was often good duck shooting north of Madison Street, some time after I came here. In 1836, the forwarding houses were all upon the North Side. Black Hawk, Chief of the united tribe of Sacs and Fox Indians, was born about 1767, near the mouth of the Rock River, and there were his headquarters, until he made a treaty, ceding his lands to the United States, and agreeing to go to Iowa. He went there, and settlers went upon his lands, and had began to cultivate them, when he repudiated his treaty, returned to Illinois, and commenced massacring them. Before the United States could take up the matter, the Governor called for troops, and most of the prominent politicians volunteered their services, and raised more or less soldiers, to go under their own particular leadership. Black Hawk was chased up into Wisconsin, captured, and sent to Washington, to see Gen. Jackson. Jack Falstaff never slew as many men in buckram as each and every one of these Illinois politicians did. Squads would often go out from camp, and hasten back with accounts of their miracu- lous escapes from large bodies of Indians, when there were none in the vicinity. An alarm was given, one night, when one of the most distinguished men in the State mounted his horse, without unhitching him, and gave him a spur, BY HON. JOHN WEXTWORTH. 27 when, mistaking the stump to which he was tied for an Indian taking hold of the reins, he immediately exclaimed : " I surrender, Mr. Indian !" An alarm was given that a large body of Indians was approaching the Kankakee set- tlements : volunteers turned out, and found them to be nothing but sand-hill cranes. If an Indian was found dead on the prairie anywhere, several would exclaim: "That's the one I killed." Mr. Lincoln had an inexhaustable sup- ply of stories based upon his experience in this war, but he never claimed that his services there made him President. He made more, in his Presidential campaign, out of the Tails he had split, than out of the Indian scalps he had taken. Gen. Scott arrived here with regular troops, to take the conduct of the war out of the hands of the State authorities, /O July^ 1832, in the steamer " Sheldon Thompson," Capt. A. Walker, the first steamboat trip ever made to Chicago. But his stay here was so delayed by the Asiatic cholera, in its worst form, that he reached Rock Island, on the Missis- sippi, late in August, and about the time that the war Avas closed, by the capture of its leader, in Wisconsin. Peace was made with the Indians in September of that year. The cholera was so fatal, that thirty bodies were thrown overboard, between here and Mackinaw, and about 100 died at Chicago. The deaths were so sudden, and the burial so instantaneous thereafter, that the victims, in their last agonies, feared that they would be buried alive, if it could be called a burial ; for they were thrown into a pit, at the northwest corner of !Lake Street and Wabash Avenue. I have heard Gen. Scott describe this as the most affecting scene of his life. Gen. Humphrey Marshall, a member of Congress from Kentucky, who was then here as a Second Lieutenant, gave me a description of the scene, and thought, thickly settled as our city then was, he could find the place where he assisted in depositing the remains of the victims, many being thrown into the pit in a few hours after they had assisted in depositing their comrades there. The peo- ple all through the Fox and Rock River Valleys had fled to Fort Dearborn, for protection against the Indians; but they soon fled back, having a greater dread of the cholera than of the Indians. The Black Hawk war, although barren of importance in a military point of view, was of incalculable advantage in bringing to notice the fertile country in the 28 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. Fox, Rock, and Mississippi River Valleys, and expediting their settlement. Chicago grew rapidly, under a develop- ment of the agricultural resources of the West. From a city importing breadstuff's, she soon became one exporting them. Aug. 4, 1 830, Chicago was laid out into lots, by the Canal Commissioners, and they were sold for from $10 to $60 each. In the winter of 1832-3, Col. Hubbard was a mem- ber of the Illinois Legislature, and he introduced the first Railroad bill ever introduced into that body. It passed the House and was lost in the Senate, by the casting vote of Lieut.-Gov. Casey. Congress had given the power to- make either a railroad or a canal. On November 26th, 1833, the first newspaper, the Chicago Democrat, was estab- lished. Up to the time of the fire, I had a complete file of it, for over a quarter of a century, which I am trying to replace, and will be very thankful to any who will send me a single copy, or even a fractional copy of it. In the winter of 1835-6, the canal bill was passed, and on the evening of the 1 5th of January, 1836, our citizens assembled in mass- meeting, and voted that twelve guns be fired for each man that voted for the bill, and that the newspapers (there were then two weeklies) be requested to publish their names in large capitals, and the names of those who voted against the bill in the smallest kind of italic letters. On the 4th of July, 1836, every man, woman, and child in the city, whose health would permit, went down to where the canal was to be commenced, then called Canalport, and celebrated the removal of the first shovelful of dirt by the Canal Commissioners, of which Board, Col. G. S. Hubbard was one, and he made a speech. Col. Edmund D. Taylor, and Walter Kimball, late City Comptroller, both now living in this city, were Marshals on the occasion. The late Dr. William B. Egan delivered the oration. Near the place was a living spring of water. They chopped up the lemons of several full boxes, and threw them into the spring,* to make lemonade for the temperance people. Then they spoiled the lemonade, by emptying into it a whole barrel of whisky, which so penetrated the fountain-head of the spring, that * Several old settlers claim that this throwing whisky and lemons into a spring also took place at the time that John Baptiste Beaubien was elected Colonel of the Militia, at the house of Barney H. Laughton, on the O'Plain River, where Riverside now is. BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 29 Bridgeport people feel the effects of it to this day ! All of you who ever heard the late Dr. William B. Egan, the most eloquent of the many eloquent Irish orators Chicago has ever had, will remember how fond he was of quoting Pope's poetry. Some of his auditors had quietly stolen away, and (as they had supposed) unobserved by him, to slake their thirst at this spring, when he brought down the crowd, by pointing his finger at them, and exclaiming : " Drink deep, or taste not that Pierian spring, It's shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, But drinking largely sobers you again. " On the 25th of October, 1836, I arrived in this city, just in time to assist in waking up the baby, and getting it out of the cradle. Time was when I knew every man, woman, and child in the city, and they all knew me. I do not know but what the latter is true now. Hitherto, I have spoken from tradition, from history, and from what living persons have told me. From this time I can speak of events passing under my personal observation, and in most of which I have participated as much as any living man. I arrived here in time to see the troops take their final depar- ture from the fort. But it was not taken down until about 1855, when the Marine Hospital was erected near its site. I was here when the first white man was hung in Chicago, on the open prairie, a short distance south of the Court House. I was upon the jury that convicted him. An editor abused me, whilst upon the jury, and the Court sentenced him for contempt. Wilbur F. Storey is not the first martyr. His name is William Stuart, and he now lives in Binghamton, N. Y. Our Judge E. S. Williams is not the first judicial tyrant. His name was John Pearson,* and he now lives at Danville, 111. Charles H. Reed is not the first persecutor of the press. His name is Alonzo Huntington, and he lives in Chicago now. Thus, we have been repeating history. Tnat is all. There is nothing that you have now, that we did not have years and years ago, except divorce cases ; but we had but one Judge then, and only two terms of court in a year, and if families quarreled, they had time to cool off, make peace, and perhaps have another christening, before the next term of court. It was on Monday evening, the 23d of January, 1837, * Hon. John Pearson, Judge of the Circuit in which Chicago was located in 1837, died at Danville, 111., May 3Oth, 1875. 30 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. that a meeting was called in the Saloon Building, southeast corner of Lake and Clark Streets, for consultation upon a City Charter. It was called by the order of the last Board of Trustees of the Town of Chicago, of which body, Eli B. Williams, now a resident of this city, was President. The Chicago American of January 2ist, 1837, says: "The interests of our town require a charter; the constant example of our Eastern cities will justify us in altering it at every session, until it meets the wants of a large commercial town." However much we may have neglected other privileges under our charter, we certainly have availed ourselves of that of " altering it at every session," until it has become, like the old lady's stocking, " darned so much that none of the original remains." The word saloon, in those days, had a different meaning from what it does now. It would seem strange now to announce that a court or meeting would be held, or a lecture delivered in a saloon building. When first opened,, it was the largest and most beautiful hall this side of Buffalo. It was there that Stephen A. Douglas made his first speech in Chicago. It was there that the first joint political discus- sion was ever had in Northern Illinois, that between him, in 1838, and his competitor for Congress, John T. Stuart,, now living at Springfield, 'in this State. At that meeting it was that one of our citizens launched into the future, and predicted that the child was already born who would live to see a population of over 50,000 here. This prediction seemed so preposterous at the time, that several persons at once exclaimed "Town lots !" "Town lots !" as if he had lots to sell, and was trying to sell them by humbugging the people as to the town's future greatness. I think I made about as wild a prophecy in 1843, when I, as member of Congress, using the prospects of our city as a reason for increased harbor appropriations, said: "In 1832, the neces- sities of the Government, during the Black Hawk War, com- pelled the first steamboat to make a trip to what is now the great granary of the West the Garden City, "urbs in horto" where I have the honor to reside a city not set on a hill, yet it will never be hid a city this moment holding out greater inducements for investments in real estate than any in this broad country a city that will one day alone have a member on this floor, and this more than one person now alive will live to see." BY HON. JOHN WENTWORTH. 31 I not only lived to see this prediction verified, in 1865,, but I, who made the prediction, was there myself to fulfil it. And the man who occupied the same seat with me when I made it, was President of the United States when I fulfilled it Andrew Johnson. Chicago has had her one Represen- tative in Congress. She now has her three. Upon another occasion, at the same session, I soared again into the realms of prophecy, as to the future character of our people. It will be remembered that, at that time,, our State, our county, our city, and our people, were in the very midst of bankruptcy. I have not time here to minutely describe our terrible situation financially. But we were upon the eve of sending Commissioners to London, to mortgage our canal, to raise the means to complete it, when the Washington Globe made a furious onslaught upon any such attempt, taking the ground that repudiation was dis- graceful enough, but poverty and misfortune might excuse that ; but for Illinois to sell herself for British gold was infamous. The British Ambassador sent his private Secre- tary to me, saying that the British steamer would leave New York in forty-eight hours, and would take that article with it; and, unless the same steamer took over some decided expression with reference to the feelings of our people upon the subject of repudiation, our Commissioners might as well remain at home. Although the youngest member of our Illinois delegation (indeed, I was the youngest member of Congress), I sailed in as follows : " Illinois will never repudiate a mill of her public debt, but will struggle on as well as she can, under her mountain- load of misfortunes. We are poor, but, thank God, we are honest. Incorruptible, we suspect no man with British gold coming to buy us, until the overt act. The young men of Illinois expect, in their day, to see her out of debt ; and they are all bent on paying interest, to some extent immedi- ately, and that extent depends much' -very much on the action of this Congress; and I may say the same of Indiana, Michigan, and other Western indebted States. In these views, I believe all my colleagues, and all our respective constituents, and all the West, concur. We have a pride in having our State solvent once more, and paying every cent of her liabilities, without any legal quibbles, or dishonorable compromises. And a glorious consummation will that be for us all. For one, when it arrives, I would say, with the good 32 REMINISCENCES OF EARLY CHICAGO. man of old, " Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." Sir, I would celebrate the day of such an event like a jubilee. Ay, sir, next after the birthday of our Savior and the day on which American independence was declared. I would worship the day that redeems Illinois from bankruptcy and debt, the day of her credit restored, and her honor regained." The British gold came. You know the result. My eyes saw the "salvation." But, unlike old Simeon, I was not ready then to "depart in peace." At that time, the northern half of Illinois had but two members of Congress, the Hon. Joseph P. Hoge, of Galena, and myself. And the district that I alone then represented now has nearly half the members of this State, in Congress, and full half its population, and more than half its wealth. We finally agreed upon all the provisions of a City Charter, and the Board of Town Trustees sent a messenger by the stage coach with it to Vandalia, about 75 miles below Springfield, where our legislature was in session. It was soon enacted into a law, and we held an election under its provisions May 2d, 1837.* Thus our infant's time had come. We took it from its cradle, and placed it in the arms of William B. Ogden, our first Mayor, and earth's remotest bounds have contributed to its wealth, and won- dered at its growth. [See Supplement.] * For Names of Voters, see FERGUS' Directory for 1839. SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES. SEPTEMBER IST, 1876. THE FERGUS PRINTING COMPANY published my second lecture, delivered Sunday afternoon, May 7th, 1876, as No. Seven of their series of Historical Pamphlets, entitled " Early Chicago." This led to a demand for the repub- lication of my first lecture, delivered Sunday afternoon, April nth, 1875. Since the publication of the second lecture, I have been furnished with additional documents, which I publish for the benefit of the future historian of Chicago. If we except the Indians, half-br6eds, the Canadian-French fur traders, discharged soldiers, and officers of the Garrison, Chicago, prior to the organization of Cook County, may properly have been called a Virginia Settlement. The Supplemental Notes to the second lecture should be read before these notes can be appreciated. VIRGINIANS. There were Jonas Clybourn and his two sons Archi- bald and Henley; John K. Clarke; David McKee, now living near Aurora, 111. ; Rev. Jesse Walker; Benjamin Hall, now living at Wheaton, 111.; David Hall; Samuel Miller; John Miller; Jacob Miller; Archibald Caldwell, now living at Kershena, Shawanaw Co., Wis. ; and perhaps others, all from Virginia. From Benjamin Hall, now living at Wheaton, DuPage Co., Ill, the following facts, touching Chicago's early Vir- ginia settlers, have been gathered : 34 SUPPLEMENTAL. 4 He was born in Pearisburgh, Giles Co., Virginia, son of 4 Charles and grandson of David Hall; left there in 1831; stopped in Michigan until the spring of 1832, when he came to Chicago and engaged in the tanning and currying busi- ness with John and Samuel Miller, who had come from Vir- ginia before, him. He sought protection with the other settlers in the Fort, after the news of Black Hawk's depre- dations, until Gen. Scott arrived with the troops. He was a resident of Chicago until the autumn of 1834. The father of John and Samuel Miller left Pearisburgh at a early day, and settled in Ohio. Their cousin, Jacob Mi who was also a cousin of Mr. Hall, left Virginia with him, in 1831. He went to California and died; but his family is residing in Lake Co., IlU^Heniarjjiecl a widow J^ww^ in Virginia, wkh^wo chjUro^^t^^Iarmon ttanirt now living inyLak^^^aJSSMt leT miku nut "inf Waukegan ; and Aramosa^KcuTtg^Avnb married George N. Powell, who kept hotel, at Holstein, Cook Co., about 1836, and now lives ^tofiw with her second husband, 7? Stfc&r\fi^. "g^^p^g^ There was a Thomas Clybourn, who marriedaaaughter of William Kinzie, who came to Chicago with Jacob Miller,, but he left when the Black Hawk war broke out. Benja- min Hall married (i) Sarah Bane, of Montgomery Co., Va., and his oldest son, Edward B. Hall, was born at Chicago', August 20, 1832; and he married (2) the widow of the late Stephen Brown, and sister of Judge John D. Caton. Archi- bald Clybourn's father was cousin to Mr. Hall's father. Archibald Caldwell, the tavern-keeper, had left Chicago be- fore Mr. Hall came here. Caldwell had brothers, but none of them came to Chicago. David Hall, cousin to Benja^ min Hall, and half-brother to James Kinzie, was in Chicago several years before Benjamin, and was clerk for the Ameri- can Fur Company under Col. John B. Beaubien some time. He died at Elkhart, Ind., and his son, J. R. Hall, now lives at Howard City, Kanzas. There were taken by the Indians, about the time of the American Revolution, from the vicinity of Pearisburgh, Giles Co., Va., two girls, aged about 8 and 10 years, named Margaret and Elizabeth McKinzie. Their relatives were all murdered, except their father, who had heard nothing of his daughters until near 25 years afterwards, when they were found at or near Detroit. Margaret, the eldest, was then the wife of John Kinzie, and had William Kinzie;, SUPPLEMENTAL. 35 James Kinzie, of Chicago; and Elizabeth Kinzie, married Sam'l Miller. After separating from Mr. Kinzie, she married Benjamin Hall, of Giles Co., Va., son of David, and uncle of Benjamin, of Wheaton, 111. ; and had David Hall and Sarah Hall. Elizabeth McKenzie, the youngest, married 'a Scotchman by the name of Clarke, and had John K. Clarke, and Eliz- abeth Clarke, who married William Ahert, and settled at Laporte, Ind. After separating from Mr. Clarke, she mar- ried Jonas Clybourn, of Giles Co., Va., and had Archibald Clybourn and Henley Clybourn. Jonas Clybourn died at Westville, Ind., July 24, 1842. His son Archibald, born in Giles Co., Va., August 28, 1802, died at Chicago, Aug. 23, 1872. It was about 1800, when these two ladies were found by their father, who induced them to return to Virginia with him, and take their children with them. And, as all our Virginia settlers were in someway related, except thejGov : eminent' blacksmith, David McKee, it is probable that tm's Virginia settlement owes its origin to the fact, that James Kinzie and Elizabeth Kinzie came here to see their father, who performed the marriage ceremony, as Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, between Elizabeth Kinzie and Samuel Miller, July 29, 1826. She died in 1832, leaving children, whom her husband took to his father, at Laporte, Ind. ; and he married a second wife, and died at Michigan City. John Miller, his brother, died at Galesburg, Illinois, leaving children. William Kinzie, the oldest child of John and Margaret (McKenzie) Kinzie, married in Giles Co., Va., and moved to Elkhart, Ind. ; lived upon land belonging to his half- brother, David Hall, and died there, leaving descendants. When James Kinzie and John K. Clarke arrived at maturity, they left Virginia in search of their fathers, and, after a short absence, they returned to Virginia. When they came back, Clarke's mother, who had married Jonas Cly- bourn, came with her husband and family ; and, also, James Kinzie's sister, Elizabeth, who married Samuel Miller. James Kinzie's mother never saw her first husband after separation, as she and her second husband, Benjamin Hall, remained in Virginia. ' 36 SUPPLEMENTAL. NEW ENGLANDERS. The earliest New Englander here, who has descendants now living, was Stephen J. Scott, a voter of 1830, who arrived at Chicago, August 26, 1826, in the schooner Shel- don, Capt. Sherwood. His wife was Hadassah Trask, and they came from Connecticut. He died on board a ship, on his way from California, Sept., 1852, and was buried on the Peninsula. His wife died at Naperville, III. Sept., 1859. He lived at Gross Point, now Evanston, 111., at first. At the time of the election of John B. Beaubien to the office of Colonel, at the tavern of Barney H. Lawton, at what is now Riverside, on the DesPlaines River, it was kept by Stephen J. Scott. Besides one dying young, they had five children : Wealthy Scott married, January 23, 1827, David McKee. They had a son, Stephen J. Scott McKee, born September 1 8, 1830. Permelia Scott married, July 21, 1829, John K. Clarke, and lives, a widow, at Deerfield, Take Co., 111. She had Hadassah Clarke, married Walter Milieu. Deborah Scott married (i), in Maryland, Munson Wat- kins, and (2) July 21, 1829, Joseph Bauskey. No descend- ants living. Willis Scott married (i), November, 1830, Lovisa B. Caldwell, who came from Virginia. He married (2) Sarah Barney, and had Alice Lovisa, married to Arthur Warrington. Mr. Scott lives in Chicago. Williard Scott married, July 21, 1829, Caroline Hawley: both, with their descendants, now living at Naperville, 111. They had, besides two who died young, (1) Thaddeus, born August 7, 1830, and died 1866, leaving William H., born December 3, 1858. (2) Williard, Jr., born October 9, 1835. (3) Alvin, born May 28, 1838. The next New Englander who voted here, prior to the organization of Cook Co., who left descendants, was our first lawyer, Russell E. Heacock, born at Litchfield, Conn., in 1781. He reached here, from Buffalo, New York, in a sail vessel, July 4, 1827, and has left numerous descendants. ""*>- cr" ir tf ~i - REV. JESSE WALKER. It is claimed that Rev. Jesse Walker, who voted here in 1830, was the first white settler in that portion of old Cook Co. now known as Will Co., settling about 1826, at Walker's Grove, now Plainfield. He was born in Buckingham Co., Virginia, June 9,^1766. He was a Methodist clergyman, and, as a missionary, had charge of the northern portion of the State. He passed much of his later life in Chicago, and finally settled on a farm near the old village of Cazenovia, on the O'Plain River, in Leyden township, where he died, October 4, 1835. His remains were taken to Plainfield. One of his daughters married her cousin, the late Hon. James Walker, of Plainfield, and another the late David Everett, near the old village of Cazenovia, in Leyden town- ship, in this county, on the O'Plain River. Rev. Jesse Walker had a brother, David, who was the father of a large family, at Ottawa, 111. ; and had another brother, who died in Tennessee, leaving sons Alfred, John, and James. The latter was the Capt. James Walker, of Plainfield, who mar- ried the daughter of Rev. Jesse. OUILMETTE, NOW WILMETTE. Antoine Ouilmette, who was taxed here in 1825, and was here at the time of the massacre of 1812, was a Frenchman ; but his wife was a Pottawatomie, some say half French. He lived upon his reservation, where now is the village named for him, on the Milwaukee Railroad, a few miles above Evanston, in this County. He moved to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he and his wife died. He had an adopted daughter, Arkash Sambli, who married, August 3, 1830, John Mann, who, in early times, kept a ferry at Calumet. His daughter Elizabeth married, May n, 1830, Michael Welch (Chicago's first Irishman), and had Mary Ann Welch; and, after his death, she married Lucius R. Darling, now living at Silver Lake, Shawn ee Co., Kansas, to which place also went Ouilmette's other children, nearly all now living, viz. : Mitchell (died childless), Lewis, Josette (married John Deroshee, and mentioned by Mrs. Kinzie, in her " Waubun "), Francis, Sophia, and Joseph. 38 SUPPLEMENTAL. BILLY CALDWELL AND SHABONEE. William Hickling, of this City, has exhibited to me the original of the following document, proving that Billy Cald- well, our Justice of the Peace in 1826, was an officer in the British service, after the treaty of peace ; and that he styled himself Captain of the Indian Department, in 1816, at Amherstburg, [Fort Maiden.] Mr. Hickling resided in Chicago, before its incorporation, but resided many years thereafter at Ottawa, and was a partner of George E. Wal- Icer, nephew of Rev. Jesse. Whilst at Ottawa, the Indian Chief, Shabonee, often visited him and remained with him overnight. Not long before his death, he gave him the document, asserting that he had always worn it upon his person. The manuscript proves that Caldwell was a man of education, as we all knew he was of intelligence. He was educated by the Jesuits, at Detroit, and, at the time of his death, he was Head Chief of the combined nation of Pottawatomies, Ottawas, and Chippewas. He married a sister of the Pottawatomie Chief, Yellow Head, and had an only child, a swj, who died young. On the authority of Shabonee, Mr. Hickling denies the commonly received idea, that Caldwell was a son of Tecumseh's sister. He confirms the report that he was the son of an Irish officer in the British service, but he insists that his mother was a Potta- watomie, and hence he became Chief of the Pottawatomies. Tecumseh was a Shawnee, and, he contends, had but one sister, Tecumapeance, older than himself, whose husband, Wasegoboah, was killed at the battle of the Thames. She survived him some time, but died in Ohio. Shabonee (or Chamblee, in French) was an Ottawa Indian, and a chief, born on the Ohio River. The certifi- cate was undoubtably given him to assist him with the British Government. At the commencement of the battle of the Thames, or of Moravian Town (as Caldwell calls it), the Indian Chiefs Tecumseh (Shawnee) (spelled Tecumthe by many), Caldwell (Pottawatomie), Shabonee (Ottawa), and Black Hawk (Sac), were, as Mr. Hickling learned from Shabonee, sitting upon a log, in consultation. The paper on which this document was written was a half sheet of old-fashioned English foolscap paper, plainly watermarked " C. & S., 1813," and is as follows: SUPPLEMENTAL. 39 " This is to certify, that the bearer of this name, Cham- "blee, was a faithful companion to me, during the late war with the United States. The bearer joined the late cele- brated warrior, Tecumthe, of the Shawnee nation, in the year 1807, on the Wabash River, and remained with the above warrior from the commencement of the hostilities with the United States until our defeat at Moravian Town, on the Thames, October 5, 1813. I also have been witness to his intrepidity and courageous warfare on many occa- sions, and he showed a great deal of humanity to those unfortunate sons of Mars who fell into his hands. AMHURSTBURG, August i, 1816. B. CALDWELL, CAPTAIN, I. D. FIRST TAVERN LICENSE FOR CHICAGO. County Commissioners' Court, Peoria Co., December 8, 1829. Present: Francis Thomas, George Sharp, and Isaac Egman. Ordered: That a License be granted to Archibald Cald- well, to keep a tavern at Chicago, and that he pay a tax of eight dollars, and be allowed the following rates, and give a bond with security for one hundred dollars. Each half-pint of wine, rum, or brandy 25 cts. pint ii M it ii 37/4 half-pint gin 18^ pint ,. 31^ gill of whisky 6^ half-pint n 12/^2 pint i' 18^ breakfast, dinner, or supper. 25 night's lodging 12^ Keeping horse over night on grain and hay. . 25 The same as above, 24 hours 37 /^ Horse feed 12^ Archibald Caldwell was born April 30, 1806, in Pearis- burgh, Giles Co., Va., which place he left May 10, 1827, with his wife, who was sister to Benjamin Hall, of Wheaton, DuPage Co., 111., from whom he separated, and she became the wife of Cole Weeks, a discharged soldier, who was a voter here in 1826. Mr. Caldwell arrived in Chicago, July 40 SUPPLEMENTAL. i, 1827. Willis Scott married his sister, Lovisa Caldwell,. for his first wife. She come to Chicago with her cousin, Archibald Clybourn, all the way on horseback, he having been back to Virginia on a visit, and she made her home with him until married. William Ahert, who married Elizabeth Clark, half-sister to Clybourn, came with them to Laporte, Ind., and settled there. Mr. Caldwell, in 1831, moved to Green Bay, and, in 1834, piloted the schooner Jefferson from that place to Chicago, where he remained until 1835, an d then returned to Green Bay again. He re-married, and now lives as Kenosha, Shawanaw Co., Wis., and has ten chirdren living in the vicinity. He was cousin to Archibald Clybourn, his mother being a sister to Jonas Clybourn. He writes that he and James Kinzie built the house together, and he sold his interest to Kinzie, after living in it about one year. Whilst in Virginia, and before coming to Chicago, he only knew Jonas Clybourn and family, James Kinzie, and John K. Clarke, of those who settled in Chicago. The tavern was a double log-house, on the west side of the North Branch, a few rods up from the main branch. He had a sign, with a wolf painted upon it, but it had no name. The nearest house to his was Alexander Robinson's [Ghe-che-pin-gua's]; and, besides this, James Kinzie's store was the only building at the forks of the river on the West Side at that time. He claims that his father came from South Carolina, and was maternal cousin to the late Hon. John Caldwell Calhoun, and that the recent Senator Caldwell, of Kansas, was of the same family. He was an Indian trader for many years, but he is now a farmer. Mr. Caldwell remembers Dr. Alexander Wolcott and Samuel Miller as living on the North Side. On the South Side, were Col. John Beaubien and Russell E. Heacock. In 1828, some soldiers came up from St. Louis and occupied the Fort. On the West Side, about 3 miles up the South Branch, were living David Laughton, Barney H. Laughton, and Cole Weeks. On the West Side, about 3 miles up the North Branch, were living Jonas Clybourn, Archibald Clybourn, and John K. Clarke. ' SUPPLEMENTAL. 41 OTHER TAVERNS IN CHICAGO AND VICINITY. June 8, 1830, Alexander Robinson [Che-che-pin-gua] and Mark Beaubien were licensed to keep tavern, upon same conditions as Archibald Caldwell. Beaubien's was at the Sauganash Hotel, corner of Lake and Market Streets. Robinson's tavern was on the West Side, near Caldwell's. Samuel Miller afterwards had a tavern on north side of river, and east side of North Branch, near the Forks. December 7, 1830, Russell E. Heacock was licensed to keep tavern at his house, about five miles from Chicago, at the same rate as the others. He was our first lawyer. He died and was buried at his homestead, about one mile below the Summit, on the Archer Road, in 1849, leaving several children. His tavern was up the South Branch, at a place then known as Heacock's Point. He was Justice of the Peace, in 1833. His tavern was on South Side, on South Branch of Chicago River, near the Rolling Mills, at a place better known, in those days, as Hardscrabble. JUSTICES OF THE PEACE UNDER FULTON CO. Amherst C. Ransom,* June 17, 1823. John Kinzie, December 2, 1823. * This is the first Collector for Chicago, alluded to in my second lecture as Rousser. He was taxed as of Peoria, in 1825. He is said to have been a banker in Ohio, before he came to Illinois, and is re- ported to have gone from Peoria to Gratiot's Grove, Wis. , then to the lead regions, near Galena, thence to Chicago, and thence to Arkansas, where he died. He is said to have had brothers-in-law, Elisha or Josiah Fish or Fisk and Edmund Weed, taxed in Peoria Co., in 1825. Weed afterwards lived at Racine, Wis. JUSTICES OF THE PEACE UNDER PEORIA CO. Billy Caldwell, [Sauganash], April 18, 1826. James Walker, [lived at Plainfield], April 18, 1826. Alexander Wolcott, [Indian Agent], December 26, 1827. John B. Beaubien, [General], December 26, 1827. John S. C. Hogan, [Post-Master], October 9, 1830. Stephen Forbes, [First Sheriff], December 13, 1830. 42 SUPPLEMENTAL. FIXING THE PLACE OF CHICAGO ELECTION. FIRST CONSTABLE. Peoria County Court, September 6, 1825. Ordered : That the first precinct contain all that part of the County east of the mouth of the DuPage River, where it empties its waters into the Aux Plaines River, and that the elections be held at the Agency House, or Cob- Aveb's Hall. [Mrs. Kinzie, in her " Waubun," speaks of "Cobweb Castle" as a nick-name for the Indian Agency House, southwest corner of Wolcott (now State) and North Water Streets, on North Side.] At the same time, Ordered: That Archibald Clybourn be appointed Constable in and for the County of Peoria, and that the Clerk of this County take his official bond. CHICAGO'S VALUATION IN 1823. Fulton County Court, June 3, 1823. Ordered: That the Assessor levy a tax on all personal property (household furniture excepted), and on all town lots, of 50 cents upon the $100. June 7, 1825. Ordered: That there be paid out of the County Treasury, to Abner Eads, the sum of $11.42, in State paper, being the amount deducted from his account, for tax col- lected at Chicago. This shows that the valuation at Chicago, in 1823, was $2284. This probably explains the order of April 27, 1824: "That Abner Eads be relieved from paying the money tax collected at Chicago by Ransom" [Amherst C. Ransom]. CHICAGO BILLS AUDITED AT PEORIA. June 1830. Archibald Caldwell, $5.50 for ironing a turnpike scraper. This is the first official account of our road improvements. Dec. 7, 1830. Henley Clybourn, $16, for one day's services as Clerk' of Election, and bringing the returns from Chicago. He was brother to Archibald Clybourn. FIRST TRUSTEES OF THE SCHOOL SECTION. Dec. 8, 1829, Archibald Clybourn, Samuel Millar, and John B. Beau- .bien were appointed Trustees Sec. 16, T. 38 N., Range 14, E. 3d P.M. SUPPLEMENTAL. 43 NUMBER OF VOTES AT THE FIRST ELECTION AFTER THE ORGANIZATION OF COOK COUNTY, HELD AUGUST, 1832. This was the year of the Black Hawk war, and also the year that the cholera was first in Chicago. FOR REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS. Joseph Duncan (of Jacksonville) 94 Jonathan H. Pugh M 19 Archibald Clybourn i 1 14 FOR STATE SENATOR. James M. Strode (of Galena) 81 James W. Stevensen (of Galena) 26 J. M. Gay 4 1 1 1 FOR REPRESENTATIVE. Benjamin Mills (of Galena) 1 10 i jo (Ly + ((jifitAA&^T^R SHERIFF. StepYienJForbes . jy. 106 James ifinzie 2 108 FOR CORONER. Elijah Wentworth, Jr 104 104 VOTERS AUGUST 4, 1834. This shows an increase of over 400 voters in two years. FOR GOVERNOR. William Kinney (of Belleville) - - 201 Robert K. McLaughlin (of Vandalia) i o Joseph Duncan (of Jacksonville) 309 James Adams (of Springfield) 8 528 FOR LIEUT. -GOVERNOR. James Evans 190 Alexander M. Jenkins 190 William B. Archer (one of our first Canal Commissioners, and for whom Archer Avenue was named) 105 L. M. Thompkins 1486 At this time, Cook County embraced what is now Will, DuPage, McHenry, and Lake Counties. 44 SUPPLEMENTAL. FIRST FERRY. June 2, 1829. Ordered: That Archibald Clybourn and Samuel Miller be authorized to keep a ferry across the Chicago River, at the lower forks, near Wolf's Point, crossing the river below the Northeast Branch, and to land on either side of both branches, to suit the convenience of persons wishing to cross. And that said Clybourn and Miller pay a tax of two dollars, and execute a bond with security for one hundred dollars. The rates for ferriage to be one-half the sum that John L. Bogardus gets at his ferry, at Peoria. Ordered: That the following rates be, and they are hereby allowed to be charged and received by the different ferries, by their respective owners, in this County, to wit : For each foot passenger 6% cts. n man and horse 12^ M it Dearborn sulkey chair, with springs 50 n ii one-horse wagon 25 ir it four-wheeled carriage, drawn by two oxen or horses 37^ " ii cart with two oxen 37 /^ " M head of neat cattle or mules 10 n ii hog, sheep, or goat 3 n ii hundredweight of goods, wares, and merchandize, each bushel of grain or other article sold by the bushel 6^ n And all other articles in equal and just proportion. FIRST FERRY AT CALUMET, NOW SOUTH CHICAGO. County Commissioners' Court of Peoria Co., June Term, 1830. Ordered: That William See [Rev.] be allowed to keep a ferry across the " Callimink " [now South Chicago], at the head of Lake Michigan, pay a tax of two dollars, and charge the following rates : Each foot passenger . $ 12}^ n man and horse 25 ii wagon or cart drawn by two horses or oxen 75 n four-horse wagon r oo M one-horse carriage or wagon 37/4 Passed on 7th day of June, 1830. SUPPLEMENTAL. 45 \ This Rev. Wm. See was a Methodist clergyman, and, according to the Peoria records, the first clergyman of any kind to perform the mar- riage ceremony at Chicago. He removed to Racine, Wis., where he died. Our James Kinzie, who also died there, married a daughter of his for his first wife. Mrs. Kinzie speaks of Mr. See, in her " Wau- bun." James Kinzie's second wife was Virginia, daughter of Isaiah Hale, of Virginia. WAS CHICAGO EVER A PORTION OF VERMILLION CO.? Erroneous statements, like the following, have found their way not only into newspapers, but also into books: "The property of Chicago was taxed, in 1827, by the County of Vermillion, in this State, in whose limits it then stood, at a trifle above $3, and Sheriff Reed paid it from his own pocket, rather than make the trip from Danville to collect it." Now, the County of Vermillion was created by act of the Legislature, January 18, 1826. Sec. i of the act denned the boundaries as follows: "Beginning on the State line between Illinois and Indiana, at the northeast corner of Edgar County, thence west with the line dividing townships number sixteen and seventeen, to the southwest comer of township seventeen, north of range ten, east of the third principal meridian, thence north to the northwest corner of township twenty-two north, thence east to the State line, thence south with the State line to the place of beginning." Sec. 7 of the same act provides further, as follows: "That all that tract of country lying east of range six, east of the third principal meridian, west and north of Vermillion Co., as far north as the Illinois and Kankakee Rivers, be, and the same is hereby attached to said Vermillion Co., for all county purposes." At the first election in Vermillion Co., held March 6, 1826, William Reed had 57 votes, and Moses B. Vance 23 votes, for Sheriff. This Sheriff Reed may have supposed that he had jurisdiction in Cook Co., but may never have attempted to exercise it, for the reason stated. The act forming Peoria Co. was approved January 13, 1825, and Chicago was assessed for that year in Peoria Co. No other assessment for Chicago, in Peoria Co. nor in Vermillion Co., can be found; but all the marriage licenses were taken out at Peoria, our Judges of Election appointed there, and election returns made there, until the organiza- tion of Cook Co.; and the records of Vermillion Co. show no attempt at jurisdiction over Cook Co. 46 SUPPLEMENTAL. OTHER MARRIAGES RECORDED IN PEORIA. By John Kinzie, Jan. 2, 1827, Peter LeClair [Peresh Leclerc?] to Margaretta Peehequetarouri or (the writing may be) Perheguetaroui. By Jesse Walker, a regular minister of Methodist Episcopal Church, May 3, 1828, Vetal Vermit, at the house of David Walker, to Cornelia Walker. This marriage was at Ottawa, 111., and the parties never lived in Chicago. Vermit was a ferryman at Ottawa, and his widow now lives at Thornton, Cook Co., 111. By John B. Beaubien, Nov. 5, 1828, Joseph Pothier and Victoria Maranda. By Isaac Scarret, a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, July 21, 1829, John K. Clarke to Permelia, daughter of Stephen J. Scott, at the same time and place with her brother Williard Scott. By Isaac Scarrett, missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at Holderman's Grove [now Newark, Kendall Co.], July 21, 1829, Wil- liard Scott to Caroline, daughter of Pierce Hawley. Mr. Hawley was. originally from Vermont. He and his brother, Aaron, were taxed in Fox River [Precinct No. 2, of Peoria Co.], in 1825. By Rev. Wm. See, Nov. i, 1830, Willis Scott and Lovisa B. Cald- well. She was sister to Archibald Caldwell, our first tavern-keeper ;. an emigrant from Virginia. GEN. SCOTT REPORTS HIS ARRIVAL AT CHICAGO TO GOV. REYNOLDS. (From the Louisville Advertiser, of July 2j, 1832.) The following is the latest o'fficial intelligence from Chicago. We are indebted to a commercial friend for it : HEADQUARTERS N. W. ARMY, Chicago, July 75, 1832. SIR : To prevent or correct the exaggerations of rumor in respect to the existence of cholera at this place, I address myself to your Ex- cellency. Four steamers were engaged at Buffalo, to transport United- States troops and supplies to Chicago. In the headmost of these boats, the Sheldon Thompson, I, with my Staff and four companies, a part of Col. Eustis' command, arrived here on the night of the loth inst. On the 8th, all on board were in high health and spirits, but the next morning, six cases of undoubted cholera presented themselves. The disease rapidly spread itself for the next three days. About one hun- dred and twenty persons have been affected. Under a late Act of Con- gress, six companies of rangers are to be raised, and marched to this- place. Gen. [Henry] Dodge, of Michigan,* [Senator,] [then embrac- ing Dodgeville, Wis.] is appointed Major of the battalion, and I have seen the names of the Captains, but I do not know where to address them. I am afraid that the report from this place, in respect to cholera, may seriously retard the raising of, this force. I wish, therefore, that your Excellency would give publicity to the measures I have adopted to prevent the spread of this disease, and of my determination not to- allow any junction or communication between uninfected and infected troops. The war is not at an end, and may not be brought to a close for some time. The rangers may reach the theatre of operations in * Michigan then embraced what is now Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Major Dodge, better known as Gen. Dodge, was afterwards Governor of Wisconsin, and was U.S. Senator. He was father of Hon. Augustus C. Dodge, Burlington, Iowa. SUPPLEMENTAL. 47 time to give the final blow. As they approach this place, I shall take care of their health and general wants. I write in great haste, and may not have time to cause my letter to be copied. It will be put in some post-office to be forthwith forwarded. I have the honor to be, your Excellency's most obedient servant-, WINFIELD SCOTT. His EXCELLENCY Gov. JOHN REYNOLDS. WHO BUILT THE FIRST DRAWBRIDGE AND THE FIRST VESSEL AT CHICAGO? NELSON R. NORTON, of Alden, Freeborn Co., Minnesota, under date of August 25, 1876, writes as follows: I came to Chicago Nov. 16, 1833. Soon after I arrived, I com- menced cutting the lumber for a drawbridge, on the land adjoining Michigan Avenue, afterwards owned by Hiram Pearsons. In March, 1834, I commenced building it, and I think it was completed by the first of June. The first Steam- Boat that passed through it was the old Michigan, with a double engine, commanded by Capt. C-Blake, and owned by Oliver Newberry, of Detroit. *"~ Credit me with building the first vessel at Chicago. I built the sloop Clarissa, in the spring of 1835. This was the first sail vessel launched on the west side of Lake Michigan, if not the first on the lake. The first freight taken down the Lakes was in 1834, being a lot of hides, from cattle that had been slaughtered for the Government troops. I was born at Hampton, Washington Co., N.Y., on Nov. 8, 1807. The bridge had an opening of 60 feet, with a double draw. I think,, the length was 300 feet. This is the best of my recollection. The width was 16 feet. It was located at Dearborn Street. I cannot state the cost of the bridge. I removed from Chicago in the spring of 1839. The militia of Cook County was organized in 1834, by the election of John B. Beau- bien as Colonel, at the tavern owned by Barney H. Lawton, near Lyons, on the DesPlaines River [now Riverside; then kept by Stephen J. Scott]. Respectfully yours, NELSON R. NORTON. PEORIA COUNTY ASSESSMENT FOR 1825. PERSONAL PROPERTY. REAL ESTATE WAS NOT TAXABLE. Whilst Chicago was a part of Peoria Co., it was divided into four precincts or voting-places. The first included all territory north of the confluence of the DuPage and DesPlaines Rivers, and was called Chi- cago. Directly south of it was the second precinct, called Fox River ; south of which was the third precinct, called Peoria ; embracing all the settlements noted in the following list, except Chicago and Fox River. Then there was a fourth precinct, embracing all the territory west of the other three, known as Fever River, with a voting-place at or near what is now Galena. The following list does not contain the names of any person in the latter precinct. There were' fourteen tax-payers in Chicago, and six in Fox River ; which included the present sites of Morris, Ottawa, LaSalle, Peru, etc. John Dixon, then Clerk of the County Commissioners' Court of Peoria Co,, was born Oct. 9, 1784, at Rye, Westchester Co., N. Y., died at Dixon, Lee Co., 111., July 6, 1876. SUPPLEMENTAL. NAME AND RESIDENCE. A very, Elias P., LaSalle Prairie, $ 200 oo NAME AND RESIDENCE. Hamlin, John, Peoria, $ 400 oo Alscombe, Antoine, Trading House, 50 oo Holland, William, Peoria, 800 oo Allen, Archibald, Peoria, 150 oo Hy4e, E. & N., Peoria, 700 oo Beaubien, John B., Chicago, 1000 oo Hawley, Aaron, Fox River, 200 oo Beauchamp, Sr., Noah, Peoria, 20000 Hawley, Pierce, Fox River, 300 oo Beauchamp, Jr., Noah, Peoria, 100 oo Harlin, Joshua, Farm Creek, 150 oo Barker, John, Peoria, 400 oo Harlin, George, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo Bourbonne, Francis, Trading House, 200 oo Hallock, Lewis, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo Blanchard, William, Ten Mile, 15000 Hunter, Jacob M., Peoria, 5000 Bethard, Elza, Ten Mile, 275 oo Ish, George, Farm Creek, 250 oo Bratton, Reuben, Ten Mile, 135 oo Kinzie, John, Chicago, 500 oo Banks, Thomas, Ten Mile, 50 oo Love, Charles, Peoria, 150 oo Baresford, Robert, Fox River, 50 oo Love, George, near Little Detroit, 350 oo Brierly, Thomas, near Little Detroit, 160 oo Langworthy, Augustus, Peoria, 200 oo Bogardus, John L., Peoria, 50000 Latham, J,, Peoria, 300 oo Bryant, Joseph, Peoria, 300 oo Latham, Philip, Peoria, zoc oo Beabor, Louis, Trading House, 700 oo Like, Daniel, Peoria, 50 oo Bourbonne, Jr., Frs., Trading House, 100 oo LaFramboise, Joseph, Chicago, 50 oo Brown, Cornelius, Peoria, 150 oo LaFramboise, C., Chicago, 100 oo Barker, Andrew, Farm Creek, 100 oo Latta, James, Illinois Prairie, 20000 Clybourn, Jonas, Chicago, 625 oo Montgomery, Hugh, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo Clarke, John K., Chicago, 250 oo McNaughton, Alex., Mackinaw Point, 150 oo Crafts, John, Chicago, 5000 oo Moffatt, Alva, Peoria, 60 oo Carroll, Stephen, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo Moffatt, Aquilla, Peoria, 40 oo Cline, George, Illinois Prairie, 70 oo Mather, David, Ten Mile, 20000 Cline, John, Illinois Prairie, 264 oo McCormick, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 50 oo Cromwell, Nathan, Illinois Prairie, 300 oo McKee, David, Chicago, 100 oo Curry, Hiram M., Ten Mile, 22500 McLaree, Jesse, Peoria, 25 oo Cooper, Abner, near Little Detroit, 120 oo Neeley, Henry, Peoria, 150 oo Crocker, Austin, Farm Creek, 200 oo Ogee, Joseph, Illinois Prairie, 200 oo Camlin, Thomas, Farm Creek, 300 oo Perkins, Isaac, Illinois Prairie, 400 oo Clermont, Jerry, Chicago, . 100 oo Phillips. John and William, Ten Mile, 400 oo Coutra, Louis, Chicago, 50 oo Patterson, John, Prince's Grove, 20 oo Countraman, Fred, Fox River. 50 oo Prince, Daniel, Prince's Grove, 200 oo Dougherty, Allen S. , Mackinaw Point, 100 oo Porter, Martin, Peoria, 100 oo Dillon, Walter, Mackinaw Point, 250 oo Piche, Peter, Chicago, 100 oo Dillon, Nathan, Mackinaw Point, 400 oo Redman, Eli, Mackinaw Point, 35 oo Dillon, Absalom, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo Redman, Henry, Mackinaw Point, 35 oo Dillon, Thomas, Mackinaw Point, 300 oo Ridgeway, John, LaSalle Prairie, 100 oo Dillon, Jesse, Mackinaw Point, 727 oo Robinson, Alexander, Chicago, 200 oo Dillon, John, Mackinaw Point, 93 oo Ransom, Amherst C. , Peoria, 100 oo Davis, William, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo Ramsay, John L., Fox River, 20000 Dixon, John, Peoria, 350 oo Sommers, Jt>hn, Illinois Prairie, 300 oo DuMont, Peter, Little Detroit, 50 oo Scott, Peter, Mackinaw Point, 50 oo Donahoue, Major, Ten Mile, 200 oo Smith, Joseph, Farm Creek, 550 oo Egman, Jesse, Illinois Prairie, 100 oo Sharp, George, Peoria, 608 oo Eads, William, Peoria, 350 oo Stephenson, John, Ten Mile, 40 oo Eads, Abner, Peoria, 800 oo Stout, Ephriam, Sr. & Jr., 111. Prairie, 500 oo Ellis, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 25 oo Walker, Jesse, Fox River, 50 oo Clark, William, Illinois Prairie, 250 oo Thorp, Jonathan, Illinois Prairie, 100 oo Field, Gilbert, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo Turner, Ezekiel, Illinois Prairie, 150 oo French, Stephen, Farm Creek, 200 oo Van Scoyk, Joseph, Peoria, ;fo oo Fulton, Samuel, Peoria, 300 oo Walker, Hugh, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo Fulton, James, Farm Creek, 12 50 Wolcott, Alexander, Chicago, 572 oo Fulton, Josiah, Farm Creek, 150 oo Wilmette, Antoine, Chicago, 400 oo Fulton, Seth, Ten Mile, 100 oo Weed, Edmond, Ten Mile, 174 oo Fish, Elisha, Farm Creek, 2od oo Wilson, Seth, Illinois Prairie, 200 oo Funk, Jacob, Farm Creek, 500 oo Wilson, Jacob, Ten Mile, 30000 Funk, Isaac, Peoria, 200 oo Woodrow, Samuel, Illinois Prairie, 15000 Griffin, John, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo Woodrow, Hugh, Illinois Prairie, 250 oo Gilbert, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 25 oo Waters, Isaac, Peoria, TOO oo Harrison, Jesse, Peoria, 50 oo Total, $30,455 50 Smith, William. I called on him for the amount of personal property. He refused to render the same. As near as I can ascertain, it amounts to $150. I, John L. Bogardus, do hereby certify that the above is the assessment for the year 1825. JOHN L. BOGARDUS, Assessor. To John Dixon, Esq., Clerk of County Commissioners' Court. P.S. Amount received for tavern license, $20. INDEX TO EARLY CHICAGO:" -First Lecture, (No. 8 of Fergus' Historical Series.) BY HON. JOHN WE NT WORTH, LL. D., Delivered Sunday, April II, 1875. [This Index was prepared by Mr. Wentsvorth, August, 1881.] A. Adams, James, 43. Adams, John, 12. Adams, John Q., 5, 17. Ahert, William, 35, 40. Allen, Archibald, 48. Allouez, Claude, 8. Alscomb, E. Antoine, 48. Archer, William B., 43. AuSable, Jean Baptiste Point, 14, 15. Avery, Elias P., 48. B. Bancroft, George, 4. Bane, Sarah, 34. Banks, Thomas, 48. Barney, Sarah, 36. Baresford, Robert, 48. Barker, Andrew, 48. Barker, John, 48. Bates, George C., 24. Bauskey, Joseph, 36. Beabor, Louis, 48. Beaubien, Alexander, 24. Beaubien, John Baptiste, 15, 24, 28, 34, 36, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 48. Beaubien, Mark, 21, 26, 41. Beauchamp, Noah, sr., 48. Beauchamp, Noah, jr., 48. Bethard, Elza, 48. Bismark, Prince, 6. Black Hawk (Indian chief), 22, 25, 26, 27, 30, 34, 38, 43. Blake, Capl. Chelsey, 47. Blanchard, William, 48. Bogardus, John L., 44, 48. Bonaparte, Napoleon, 7, 9, 23. Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon, 9, 13, 23- Bond, Shadrack, 24. Bourbonne, Francis, sr., 48. Bourbonne, Francis, jr., 48. Braddock, Gen. , 12. Bratton, Reuben, 48. Brierly, Thomas, 48. Brown, Cornelius, 48. Brown, Henry, 4. Brown, Gen. Jacob, 22. Brown, Stephen, 34. Bryant, Joseph, 48. Bull, John, 10. C. Caldwell, Archibald, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41, 42, 46. Caldwell, Billy (Sauganash, Indian chief), 38, 39, 41. Caldwell, Lovisa B., 36, 40, 46. Caldwell, Alexander, 40. Caldwell, Susan, (only child), 38. Calhoun, John C., 40. Camlin, Thomas, 48. Carroll, Stephen, 48. Casey, Zadoc, 28. Cass, Lewis, 6, 14, 25. Caton, John Dean, 34. 50 Chamblee (Shabonee, Indian chief), 22, 23, 38, 39. Che-che-pin-qua (Alexander Robin- son, Indian chief), 40, 41, 48. Clarissa (sloop), 47. Clark, , 35. Clark, Elizabeth, 35, 40. Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 7, 9, 13, 20. Clark, Hadassah, 36. Clark, John K., 33, 35, 36, 40, 46, 48. Clark, William, 48. Clay, Henry, 17. Clermont, Jerry, 48. Cline, George, 48. Cline, John, 48. Clybourn, Archibald, 25, 33, 34, 35, 40, 42, 43, 44. Clybourn, Henly, 33, 35, 42. Clybourn, Jonas, 33, 35, 40, 48. Clybourn, Thomas, 34. Coles, Edward, 24. Columbus, Christopher, 4. Cooper, Abner, 48. Countraman, Frederick, 48. Coutra, Louis, 48. Crafts, John, 48. Crocker, Austin, 48. Cromwell, Nathan, 48. Curry, Hiram M., 48. EARLY CHICAGO. Aramosa, 34. ( 34- g, Lucius R., 37. Davis, Jefferson, 17, 18. Davis, William, 48. Dearborn, Henry, 14. Dejoinville, Prince, 12. Deroshee, John, 37. DeSoto, Fernando, 4. Dillon, Absalom, 48. Dillon, Jesse, 48. Dillon, John, 48. Dillon, Nathan, 48. Dillon, Thomas, 48. Dillon, Walter, 48. Dixon, John, 47, 48. Dodge, Henry, 46. Dodge, Augustus C., 46. Donahoue, Major, 48. Dougherty, Allen S., 48. Douglas, Stephen A., 30. DuMont, Peter, 48. Duncan, Joseph, 43. E. Eads, Abner, 42, 48. Eads, William, 48. Economy (fire-engine), 3. Edwards, Ninian, 15. Egan, William B., 28, 29. Egman, Isaac, 39. Egman, Jesse, 48. Ellis, Levi, 48. Eustis, Col. Abraham, 46. Evans, James, 43. Everett, David, 37. F. Fassett, Samuel M., 2. Fergus, Robert, 2, 32. F. [Fergus], 2. Fergus Printing Company, 33 Field, Gilbert, 48. Fish, Elisha, 41, 48. Fish, Josiah, 41. Fisk, Elisha. 41. Fisk,toiatfUi y v*" V Forbes,^fepherf, 41-43. ^ Frontenac, Gen. Louis DeBuade, 10. Fulton, James, 48. Fulton, Josiah, 48. Fulton, Samuel, 48. Fulton, Seth, 48. Funk, Isaac, 48. Funk, Jacob, 48. G. Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 6. Garrett, Augustus, 17. Gay, J. M., 43. Gilbert, Levi, 48. Griffin, John, 48. Griffin (schooner), 8. H. Hale, Isaiah, 45. Hale, Virginia, 45. Hall, Benjamin, 33, 34, 35, 39. Hall, Charles, 34. Hall, David, ST., 34, 35. INDEX. 41. Hall, David, jr., 33, 34. Hall, Edward B., 34. Hall, J. R., 34- Hallock, Lewis, 48. Hamlin, John, 48. Hanson, Rev. , 12. Harlin, George, 48. Harlin, Joshua, Harrison, Jesse, 48. Harrison, William H., 14, 19, 21, 22. Hawley, Aaron, 46, 48. Hawley, Caroline, 36, 46. Hawley, Pierce, 46, 48. Heacock, Russell E., 36, 40, Heald, Nathan, 16. Healey, Geo. P. A. , 2. Henry Clay (steamer), 26. Hennepin, Louis, 8, 9. Henry, Patrick, 12. Hickling, William, 38. Hoge, Joseph P., 16, 32. Hogan, John S. C., 41. Holland, William, 48. Hubbard, Gurdon S., 3, 24, Hull, William, 16,21. Hunter, Gen. David, 25. Hunter, Jacob M., 48. . Huntington, Alonzo, 29. Hyde, E. & N. (firm), 48. 25, 28. Ish, George, 48. I. J- Jackson, Andrew, 16, 17, 26. Jefferson, Thomas, 40. Jenkins, Alexander M., 43. Johnson, Andrew, 31. Johnson, Richard M., 22, 23. Joliet, Rev. Louis, 8. Joinville, Prince df, 12. K. Keating, William H., 25. Kimball, Walter, 28. Kinney, William, 43. Kinzie, Ellen Marion, 24. Kinzie, Elizabeth, 35. Kinzie, James, 34, 35, 40, 43, 45. Kinzie, John, 15, 21, 22, 24, 34, 35, 41, 46, 48. Kinzie, John H., 15. Kinzie, Juliette A., 37, 42. Kinzie, Maria H., 25. Kinzie, Robert A., 15. Kinzie, W r illram, 34, 35. L. Lafayette, Marquis de, 12, 13. Lafromboise, Claude, 48. Lafromboise, Joseph, 15, 48. Lafromboise, Josette, 15. Langworthy, Augustus, 48. LaSalle, Robert C., 8, 9. Latham, J., 48. Latham, Philip, 48. Latta, James, 48. Laughton, Barney H., 28, 36, 40, 47. Laughton, David, 40. LeClerc, Peresh, 46. LeClair, Peter, 46. Liberty (fire-engine), 3. Like, Daniel, 48. Lincoln, Abraham, 14, 26, 27. Long John (fire-engine), 3. Louis XIV, 8. Louis XVI, 12. Louis XVII, 12. Love, Charles, 48. Love, George, 48. M. Madison, James, 9. Mann, John, 37. Maranda, Victoria, 46. Marquette, James, 6, 7, 8, 9. Marshall, Humphrey, 27. Mather, D%vid, 48. Maury, W^., 1 8. Maximillian, Emperor, 9. McCormick, Levi, 48. McKee, David, 33, 35, 36, 48. McKee, Stephen J. S., 36. McKinzie, Elizabeth, 34, 35. McKinzie, Margaret, 34, 35. McLaree, Jesse, 48. McLaughlin, Robert K., 43. McNaughton, Alexander, 48. McNeil, John, 24. Michigan (steamboat), 47. Millen, Walter, 36. Miller, Jacob, 33, 34. Miller, John, 33, 34, 35. Miller, Samuel, 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 42, 44. Mills, Benjamin, 43. EARLY CHICAGO. Moffatt, Alva, 48. Moffatt, Aquilla, 48, Montgomery, Hugh, 48. Murphy, John, 26. N. Neeley, Henry, 48. Xewberry, Oliver, 47. Xicollet, Sieur Jean, 8. Norton, Nelson R., 47. O. Ogden, William B., 3, 32. Ogee, Joseph, 48. Ouilmette (Wilmette), Antoine, 24, 37f 48. P. Pakenham, Gen. E., 16. Patterson, John, 48. Pearsons, Hiram, 47. Pearson, John, 29. Pee-he-que-ta-rou-ri, Margaretta, 46, Perkins, Isaac, 48. Perry, Commodore Oliver H., 22. Phillippe, Louis, 12. Phillips, John, 48. Phillips, William, 48. Piche, Peter, 48. Polk, James K., 17. Porter, Martin, 48. Pothier, Joseph, 46. Powell, George N., 34. Prince, Daniel, 48. Proctor, Gen. Henry A., 21. Pugh, Jonathan H., 43. Putnam's Magazine, 12. . Ramsay, John L., 48. Ransom (or Rousser), Amherst C., 41, .42, 48. Redman, Eli, 48. Redman, Henry, 48. Reed Charles H., 29. Reed, William, 45. Reynolds, John, 46. Ridgeway, John, 48. Robinson, Alexander (Che-che-pin- qua, Indian chief), 40, 41, 48. Rousser (or Ransom), A. C., 48. S. Sambli, Arkash, 37. Sauganash (Billy Caldwell, Indian chief), 38, 39, 41. Scarrett, JRev. Isaac, 46. Scott, Alice Lovisa, 36. Scott, Alvin, 36. Scott, Deborah, 36. Scott, Peter, 48. Scott, Permelia, 36, 46. Scott, Stephen J., 36, 46-47. Scott, Thaddeus, 36. Scott, Wealthy, 36. Scott, Williard, 36-46. Scott, Williard, jr., 36. Scott, Willis, 36, 40, 46. Scott, William H., 36. Scott, Gen. Winfield, 26, 27, 34, 46, 47- See, Rev. William, 44, 45, 46. Shabonee (Chamblee, Indian chief), 22, 23, 38, 39. Sharp, George, 39, 48. Sheldon (schooner), 36. Sheldon Thompson (steamboat), 27, 46. Sherwood, Capt.- , 36. Smith, Joseph, 48. Smith, William, 48. Sommers, John, 48. Stevensen, James W., 43. Stephenson, John, 48. Stewart, William, 29. Storey, Wilbur F. , 29. Stout, Ephriam, 48. Strode, James M., 43. Stuart, John T., 30. T. Taylor, Edmund D., 25, 28. Tecumapeance, sister to Tecumseh, 38. Tecumseh (Indian chief), 22, 23, 25, 38, 39- Thomas, Francis, 39. Thompkins, L. M., 43. Thorp, Jonathan, 48. Tonti, Henry de, 8, 9. Trask, Hadassah, 36. Turner, Ezekiel, 48. V. YanBuren, Martin, 22. INDEX. 53 Vance, Moses, B., 45. VanScoyk, Joseph, 48. Vermit, Vital, 46. W. Walker, Alfred, 37. Walker, Capt. A., 27. Walker, Cornelia, 46. Walker, David, 37, 46. Walker, George E., 38. Walker, Hugh, 48. Walker, Capt. James, 37-41. Walker, James, 37. Walker, Jesse, 25, 33, 37, 38, 46, 48. Walker, John, 37. Walk-in-the- Water (steamboat), 24. Warrington, Arthur, 36. Wasegoboah (Indian chief), 38. Washington, George, 9, 12, 13. Waters, Isaac, 48. Watkins, Munson, 36. Wayne, Anthony, 9, 13. Weed, Edmond, 41, 48. Weeks, Cole, 39, 40. Welch, Michael, 37. Welch, Mary Ann, 37. Wells, William, 19. Wentworth, Elijah, sr., 26. Wentworth, Elijah, jr., 43. Wentworth, John, 2, 3, 17, 20. Whistler, William, 24. Williams, Eleazer, n. Williams, Eli B., 30. Williams, Erastus $., 29. Wilmette (Ouilmette), Antoine, 24 37, 48. Wilmette, Elizabeth, 37. Wilmette, Francis, 37. Wilmette, Joseph, 37. Wilmette, Josette, 37. Wilmette, Louis, 37. Wilmette, Mitchell, 37. Wilmette, Sophia, 37. Wilson, Jacob, 48. Wilson, Seth, 48. Wolcott, Alexander, 24, 40, 41, 48 Woodrow, Hugh, 48. Woodrow, Samuel, 48. Y. Vellow Head (Indian chief), 38. FERGUS' POPULAR PUBLICATIONS, i. ANNALS OF CHICAGO: a Lect- ure delivered before the Chicago Lyceum, Jan. 21, 1840. By JosKi'H N. RAI.KSTIKR, Kso., Republi^hed from the original edition of 1840, with an Introduction, written by the author in 1876; and, also, a Review of the Lecture, pub- lished in the Chicago Tribune in 1872. Price, 2; cents. 2. FERGUS' DIRECTORYOFTHE CITY OF CHICAGO, 1839; with Cily and County Officers, Churches, Public Buildings, Hotels, etc.; also, list of Sheriffs of Cook County and Mayors of the City since their or- gani/.ation ; together with Poll-List of the First City Flection, (Tuesday, May 2d, 1837); and, also, List of Purchasers of Lots in Fort Dear- born Addition, the No. of the Lots and the Prices Paid (1839). Compiled by RUKKRT Fi:u<;rs. Price, 50 cents. 3. THE LAST OF THE ILLINOIS, AND A SK.FTCH OF TIIK POTTAWA- TOM I KS : Read before the Chicago Historical Society, December 1 3th, 1870; also, ORIGIN OF THE PRAIRIES: Read before the Ottawa Academy of Natural Sciences. 1 )e- cember 3Oth, 1869. By Hon. JOHN DKAN CATON, LI..D., late Chief-Justice of Illinois. Price, 25 cents. 4. AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THK KAKLY MOYKMKXT IN ILLI- NOIS KOR THK LKGALI/ATION OF SLAYKRY: Read at the Annual Meeting of the Chicago Historical Society, December 5, 1864. By Hon. WM. 11. BROWN, Kx- Presi- dent of the Society. Price, 25 cents. 5. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHE OF SOMK OF TIIK FAK1.Y SFTTLE1 OF TIIK CITY OF CHICAGO. Part contains Sketches of Hon. S. Lisle Smith, Gt Davis, Dr. Philip Maxwell, John J. Brow Richard L. Wilson, Col. Lewis C. KerchiV Uriah P. Harris, Henry 1!. Clarke, and She) Samuel J. Lowe. P>y \\'M. 11. BKSHNEI Price, 25 cents. 6. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHE Ml SOMK OF TIIK KAKLY SKTTLKF OF THF CITY OF CHICAGO. Part 1 contains Sketches of Win. II. Brown, KM|., W. Raymond, Ksq., J. V. Scammon, Ks< ('has. \Valker, Ksq., Thomas Church, Ks Price, 25 cents. 7. EARLY CHICAGO: A Lecture d livered in the Sunday Course, at McConnicl Hall, May 7th, 1876.' By HON. JOHN WKX WORTH. With portrait. Price, 35 cents. 8. EARLY CHICAGO: A Lecture d livered in the Sunday Course, at McConnicl Hall, April n, 1875. With additional mattt never before published. P>y Hon. JOHN WKN WORTH. Price, 35 cents. 9. PRESENT AND FUTURJ PROSPECTS OF CHICAGO: An Addl delivered before the Chicago Lyceum, Jan. 2 1846. By HENRY BROWN, Kso. , Author "History of Illinois." RISE AND PROGRESS OF CHICAGO An Address delivered before the Centenni Library Association, March 21, 1876. I JAMKS A. MARSHALL, Kso. CHICAGO IN 1836: "STRANGK KARL DAYS." By HARRIET MARTINEAU, auth( of "Society in America." Price, 25 cents. Sent by Mail on receipt of price, by the Publishers, Fergus Printing Co., 244-8 Illinois Street, Chicago : F "