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Full text of "Early Chicago : a lecture delivered before the Sunday lecture society ... April 11, 1875, "with supplemental notes""

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By Hon. JOIIX II * EX 














The likeness of Hon. John Wentworth, which we present 
<in this Number, was engraved from the portrait painted by 
George P. A. Healey, Esq., in 1857, for the City Hall. 
That for No. Seven of our Series, entitled "Early Chicago" 
was engraved from a photograph, by Fassett, representing 
him as leaving his country residence, at Summit, to take 
the cars for Chicago. F. 

,. - * * 



Ax the first organization of the Sunday Lecture Society, 
it was resolved to have three lectures upon the History of 
Chicago, with a view of exciting among our people a spirit 
of historical research which would result in recovering lost 
documents, and placing upon record the experience of our 
early settlers. The first was to be delivered by Col. Gur- 
don S. Hubbard, who was here in 1818. The second, by 
Hon. William B. Ogden, our first Mayor. The third, by 
myself, who published the first corporation newspaper, and 
was its first Congressman. But Col. Hubbard's ill-health 
required that he should try the climate of Florida. Mr. 
Ogden, at the age of 70, concluded he would get married. 
Not having been afflicted like either of these gentlemen, 
the Committee desired that I should take the place of the 
other two, and, in a single lecture, bring the history of 
Chicago, from its first inhabitant, down to the day when 
my original lecture"' was to have commenced, leaving that 
for the next winter's course; thus writing a history of 
Chicago with myself and my times left out. No "present nor 
future historian can do this, unless he does as I shall do to- 
day, stop shortly there. He might go a little period beyond 
my arrival, but the first steam fire enginet would bring 
him up. As it is, I shall have too many facts for any dis- 
play of fancy; too much prose for poetry; too many nouns 
for adjectives; and, in many instances, the main route will 

* The Lecture referred to was delivered at McCormick's Hall, May 
7, 1876, and has already been published in pamphlet form; and it 
should be read in connection with this. 

t Mayor Wentworth, during his first term, in 1857, introduced the 
first steam fire engine into the City. It was called "Long John." 
During his second term, 1861, he introduced two more, and called 
them "Liberty" and "Economy," in honor of a favorite watchword 
of his. 


be so circuitous that I shall have to "cut across the 
prairie's" to reach my destination in season. I shall under- 
take to do, this afternoon, what I never undertook before : 
to withdraw my eyes from the audience, and confine them 
to my manuscript. Already do I fear this embarrassment 
so greatly that I am half inclined to do as they do with 
long bills, in the Legislature, read my lecture by its title, 
and then step to the front, and give you a talk. In which 
event you will regret that you did not bring your lunch 
with you. [See Supplement.] 

If I should undertake to write the history of Chicago, 
I should close my first chapter with the massacre, August 
15, 1812. But who can tell me where I should begin it? 
Justice to the subject, I am confident, would compel me 
to begin so far back that not to allude to the discovery of 
the continent, or, at least, to that of the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi, would subject me to the charge of treating the 
memory of Christopher Columbus or Fernando De Soto 
with great disrespect. Henry Brown, of this city, who 
wrote, in 1844, a very good History of Illinois, asked a 
friend what he thought of it. His reply was, " I see you 
are a disbeliever in the Scriptural account of the creation 
of the world." "Why so?" asked Judge Brown. "Be- 
cause," was the reply, " in your extremely early beginning, 
you make no mention of Adam." Yet, had he lived to 
have written a second volume, his seemingly dry statement 
of the result of his explorations into the unwritten traditions 
of the past would elicit from every student of history the 
warmest encomiums. Supposing George Bancroft had died 
after he had written his first volume, what would the reader 
have known about the United States? But Bancroft still 
lives, and he is still writing. * And every new volume he 
publishes makes the first one the more highly appreciated. 

You cannot write history backwards. As the surveyors 
say, " You must begin at the section corner." Those best 
acquainted with Indian antiquities, give to Chicago a far- 
reaching past. As there were Indians before the discovery 
of the continent, there must have been conspicuous and 
central points for councils, and Chicago was undoubtedly 
one of them. 

The name, or its spelling, or its pronounciation, may 
have been different. But the Indians were not troubled 
with dictionaries or spelling-books. There were no spell- 


ing-schools among them. No book agent ever annoyed 
their Boards of Education. John Quincy Adams, whose 
seat was near mine in Congress, seeing me write " Chicago," 
said: "That's the way everybody spells it now; but, under 
my Administration, no two Government officers writing 
from there ever spelled it the same way." He repeated 
over a long list of the various ways in which it was formerly 
spelled. Then he said: "I see you have not settled upon 
your pronunciation yet, as members of your own delegation 
pronounce it, differently," as we then did. 

Prior to the time of the commencement of the Govern- 
ment works upon our harbor, the River turned southward, 
near the Michigan Central depot, and ran parallel with 
Michigan avenue, full half a mile, leaving quite a large 
tract of land at the east of it; and the entrance to the 
harbor was from the south. This point of land was cut 
through in 1833, and the River straightened to its present 
position. After this, land formed very rapidly upon the 
north side, and washed away as rapidly upon the south side 
of. the piers. East of Michigan avenue, there was a large 
tract of land, upon which there were houses, ornamental 
trees, and bushes, and the grounds were highly cultivated. 
Gradually the houses were undermined, and had to be re- 
moved. Eventually, the avenue itself began to give way; 
and, in a storm, the spray would reach the doors of the 
houses upon the other side. Whilst this tract of land was 
being washed away, skeletons, isolated bones, stones, and 
metals of curious formation, and not indigenous to this 
region, probably once used as personal ornaments or im- 
plements of war, were found upon the beach. Sometimes, 
after a storm, portions of a skeleton would project from the 
banks, and wait for the next storm to entirely remove it. 
A few Indians did not follow their tribes when they left, 
and more would occasionally visit here. They were con- 
sulted as to when the ground was used for burial purposes, 
and when such ornaments were worn, or such implements 
used in battle. But they had not even traditions upon the 
matter. They were as much at a loss as to their origin as 
our citizens were; and their traditions ran far back of the 
first visit of the early French explorers. 

The first written account of the North -West bears the 
date of 1654, when two French fur-traders left Canada, 
returned two years after, and gave such a glowing descrip- 


tion of this region as excited a general disposition to ex- 
plore it. They were on Lake Superior, and went among 
the Sioux, but there is no account that they came as far 
south as Chicago. Yet there may have been white men 
here even before that time. It is claimed, that there was 
a missionary station at Mackinaw, about 1607. The place 
thereof is still known as Point Ignace. It was there that 
the remains of Father James Marquette were taken, about 
1720, from the banks of Marquette River, over in Michi- 
gan; where he died May 18, 1675, within a few days of 200 
years ago. About the time of the establishment of this 
station at Mackinaw, there was one established at Sand- 
wich, Canada, opposite Detroit. It was not characteristic 
of the early French explorers to go so far and then stop. 
A new continent had been discovered, and France wanted 
all of it that she could get. She sent her vessels up the St. 
Lawrence River, to Anticosti Island, in 1634, and to the 
site of Montreal the next year, before the most of the 
Puritans and Pilgrims, who settled New England, were 
born. The voyagers took along missionaries with theai; 
quite as much because they were the best educated men 
of the times, and devotees of govermental extension, as for 
religious purposes. But the French made all their explo- 
rations in the name of the Lord. Gen. Lewis Cass, how- 
ever, whilst Minister to France, in gratification of an anti- 
quarian taste, examined the papers relating to the early 
French settlement in America, and he found that the re- 
ports of these explorers were directed to His Majesty, the 
King, instead of to His Holiness, the Pope. But, in those 
days, the State and the Church were one, and the King, as 
well as the Pope, could do no wrong. But things have 
changed since. It is the Pope only, now, that can do no 
wrong. There is certainly one wrong, however, that the 
Pope used to do, that he cannot do now. He cannot save 
a King when the people want his head. And even his 
political power yields to the troops of Garibaldi, in Italy, 
and the mandates of Bismark, in Germany. If the French 
were at Mackinaw and Sandwich, about 1607, they must 
have been at Chicago within a few years afterward, and 
have established a missionary or military station here, and 
have passed on and established other such stations; ap- 
pearing to the Indians as angels of mercy, but taking pos- 
session of the country for France. They needed no sol- 


diers, as the early French missionaries gained such an in- 
fluence over the Indians that, as subsequent history proves, 
every Indian was a French soldier. Quebec was founded 
in 1608, and Canada made a royal province of France in 

In 1700, there were thirty-five of these missionary stations 
or quasi -military posts located all the way from Frontenac 
(now Kingston), on Lake Ontario, via Detroit, Mackinaw, 
Green Bay, Chicago, Peoria, St. Louis, etc., to New Orleans. 
About the same time, there was another route by land via 
Fort Wayne to Chicago. 

Their route out of Chicago was down the north fork of 
the South Branch through Mud Lake, then called le petit 
Jac, to the Desplaines River, and generally in the same little 
boats with which they had passed over the lakes of the east. 
This route, partially interrupted by the construction of the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal, has been recently restored to 
the condition it occupied for so many hundred years, and 
the waters of Lake Michigan and of the Desplaines River 
again mingle, after a few years of unnatural separation. 

Napoleon used to say, that he always found the Lord on 
the side where there was the most artillery. But here were 
.a few traders, hunters, voyagers, explorers, and missionaries 
who, without any artillery, extended the French Empire 
over a larger tract of country than Napoleon would have 
acquired with all his artillery if he had conquered Russia. 
Beginning with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, her terri- 
tory north of us extended to the Pacific Ocean; and west 
of the Mississippi River, it embraced all territory to New 
Orleans. When we bought Louisiana, in 1803, of Napoleon 
for $15,000,000, it embraced Minnesota and Iowa. And 
why was it that Chicago did not belong to France? Where 
is the chapter of international law that allowed Gen. George 
Rogers Clark (who had never been here) to annex us to 
old Virginia, when the French had had a post here nearly 
100 years before? History describes Father James Mar- 
quette, who came to Montreal from France, as the first 
European who ever set his foot upon Chicago soil. He 
was at the Falls of St. Mary in 1668. In 1669, he was at 
LaPointe, on Lake Superior. In 1671, he was at Macinaw. 
But, as early as 1660, a mission was established on the 
south side of the western extremity of Lake Superior, at a 
place called Che-go-ime-gon. In 1671, French influence 


had become so extensive that they assembled, at what is 
now Sault de Ste. Marie, a council of Indians representing 
all the various tribes, and they accomplished the object of 
their council by making them all allies of France. His 
transactions were published in Paris in 1681; and, if the 
object of his mission had not been quite as much govern- 
mental as religious, this importance would not have been 
attached to them. He acted upon the Napoleonic idea 
that, in a war with Great Britain, the Lord would be upon 
the side that had the most tomahawks and scalping-knives. 
Marquette was undoubtedly the first white man who tarried 
any length of time in Chicago. He was undoubtedly our 
first clergyman. The church, however, in which he preached 
was spared the necessity of extinguishment in the Chicago 
fire. Without mentioning Chicago, however, history tells 
us that Father Claude Allouez was at LaPointe, on Lake 
Superior, as early as 1665, and that in 1668, he had a 
council upon an island in Lake Superior, at which 3000 
Pottawatomies were present, and these, be it remembered, 
were our Chicago Indians. He organized a mission at 
Green Bay, in 1669; where, it is claimed, that Sieur Jean 
Nicollet was, about 1639. Unless he had previously been 
among their tribe, or had French agents there, how were 
they to understand his French or he their Pottawatomie 
language? In 1673, Father Joliet joined Marquette, and 
went upon an exploring tour to the Mississippi. Joliet 
went back to Quebec, to announce the result of his explo- 
rations. On his way, at Frontenac (now Kingston), he told 
his story to Robert C. LaSalle, who saw, to use a modern 
expression, " millions in it," and wanted to " put his money 
where it would do the most good." He hastened to France 
and secured the good-will of Louis XIV., by proposing a 
union of the Canadas with the Mississippi Valley, and a 
line of military posts from the lakes to the Mississippi; and 
having cajoled the King into giving him a monopoly of the 
fur trade in the west, the real object of his mission, he 
hurried back. But he first secured the services of an ex- 
perienced Italian navigator named Henry de Tonti, with 
whom he arrived at Quebec, in 1678. He was soon after 
joined by Father Louis Hennepin. He built the first sail 
vessel that ever was upon the lakes, and named it the 
Griffin. He went immediately into commerce, with Henne- 
pin as chaplain and Tonti as chief superintendent. Tonti 


passed the most of the winter of 1682 at Starved Rock, 
near what is now Utica, LaSalle Co., in Illinois, waiting for 
LaSalle and Hennepin to join him. During that year 1682 
the French explored the Mississippi to the sea. Tonti 
made reports to the Governor -General of Canada, who 
transmitted copies to Paris. Thus, whilst Marquette was 
our first clergyman, LaSalle was our first member of the 
Board of Trade, -the first of that large number of men 
who make such* slow progress toward the Kingdom of 
Heaven that they let the camel beat them in getting 
through the eye of a needle. Hence it is very proper that 
the street upon which our Board of Trade stands should 
be named for him. And how much of historical associa- 
tion is there connected with the location of our Board of 
Trade Block, fronting west upon a street named in honor 
of the man first engaged in western commerce, north upon 
of a street named in honor of the father of our country, 
east upon a street named for Gen. George Rogers Clark, 
who conquered this region from the British and the Indians, 
and south upon one named for the father of the Constitu- 
tion of his country. What four better emblems for a suc- 
cessful Board of Trade man? The enterprise of LaSalle, 
the moderation of Washington, the endurance of Clark, 
and the judgment of Madison! From this period to 1795, 
when General Anthony Wayne made the first land trade in 
Chicago, it passes almost out of history; and, owing to the 
tedium of this portion of my lecture, I suppose you, anxi- 
ous for events nearer your time, are glad of it. 

Yet I must say that never was so much territory ac- 
quired in so short a time, and at so little expense, as the 
French acquired in America. But where is that French 
territory now? Napoleon the Great sold to us in 1803, for 
$15,000,000, what Great Britain had not conquered from 
France. And Napoleon the Little abandoned Mexico with- 
out the force to protect Maxmilian, the Emperor, that he 
himself sent there, from assassination. Indeed, it may be 
asked, in view of recent events, if France has any power 
anywhere. I allude not so much to the humiliation at- 
tendant upon the recent German invasion as to the still 
greater one of allowing its communes to destroy the monu- 
ments to its glorious dead ; as if not satisfied with the 
destitution of present glory, it would extinguish every me- 
mento of the glory of its past. It was characteristic of the 


French, whilst acquiring the right to all the Indian country 
they could, to make the Indians do all the fighting against 
other people who took land only for immediate wants. For, 
whilst this same Frontenac, Governor -General of Canada, 
was sending out his peaceful emissaries in the West, he was 
sending out emissaries of an entirely different character in 
the East. Fields were desolated and buildings conflagrated, 
and there was scarce a hearthstone in New England that 
was not stained with the blood of women and children. 
And there is not a New Englander within the sound of my 
voice who cannot repeat some wrongs inflicted upon his 
ancestors, by Indians, stimulated by Frontenac's rewards 
for captives and scalps. And, as death was preferred to 
captivity, the scalps were the most numerous. These bar- 
barities could not be justified by wars between France and 
Great Britain; nor by any desire of the New Englanders to 
extend their territory beyond immediate wants. For the 
New Englanders came here with no particular love of their 
mother country, and the French could easily have made 
friends of them. They fled to America from- religious intol- 
erance. Their settlements were compact, and they were 
making no efforts to extend them. The French were hav- 
ing the territorial extensions all their own way. The Pil- 
grims and Puritans, busy in persecuting Quakers, hanging 
witches, and punishing each other for violations of the Sab- 
bath, had not got above tide-water when the French were 
regaling themselves with the white-fish and trout of Lake 
Superior, and getting themselves rich with the fur traffic. 
But the French were determined to drive the English lan- 
guage from the Continent, and had sought the alliance of 
the "Indians for this purpose. They knew that wherever 
the British went they went to stay. They knew that John 
Bull had a foot of immense size, and that it was one of his 
characteristics, when he once got it down, never to take it 
up ; and she could have proved by any Irishman then, as 
well as now, such was the case when he once got his foot 
upon a nation's neck. Britain emancipates her blacks, but 
her whites never. Little did the French then think that 
the very colonies that they were using the Indians to per- 
.secute were to be the only power that ever did make John 
Bull take his foot from an inch of territory anywhere. 

But you ask. what has all this to do with Chicago, our 
present city, and why I do not talk of modern times, tak- 


ing in the Great Fire.* A Boston editor says he will give 
$500 to any Chicago man, woman, or child who can talk 
ten minutes without mentioning the Great Fire. How long 
have I been talking? To these impatient ones I will say, 
" look at your city seal !" There you see an Indian with 
his bow and quiver, facing an approaching vessel under 
full sail. Above them both is a cradle containing an infant. 
I was present at the first consultation about the city seal, 
and the idea was that when barbarism gave way to civiliza- 
tion, when the savages retreated before commerce, the infant 
in the cradle was to wake up. I shall wake him up in due 
time wake him amidst massacres, floods, and conflagra- 
tions wake him amidst land speculations, Presidential 
conventions, divorce cases, reformed churches, and decapi- 
tated Bishops. Meanwhile, "Hush, my babe, lie still and 

I want to inform you how near we came to being a 
French city. Indeed, some people contend that the Ger- 
mans mistook it for one, and captured it about the time 
they did Paris. We were essentially French until the erec- 
tion of the fort in 1804 brought the English language here. 
As late as 1836, when I came here, the more intelligent of 
the Pottawatomies spoke the French language quite as well 
as the less intelligent inhabitants of Montreal and Quebec 
now do. Those best posted in Indian antiquities claim 
that the Pottawatomie, or Chicago Indians, were but an 
offshoot from the numerous and powerful tribe of Illinois 
Indians for whom our State was named, also a French- 
speaking people. Thus, after several years of progress, we 
have only got back to the starting point, once being Illinois 
Indians, and now Illinois citizens ; once ruled by Indian 
sachems, and now by sachems of another color, and some 
of our tax-payers think that financially our present sachems 
do not differ materially from the former ones. There were 
many full-blood Indians who had been reared in French 
families; and, to keep them from returning to their tribes, 
when they arrived at maturity, they were told that they 
were descendants of French noble families who had been 
put to death in some of the various revolutions. A Rev. 
Eleazer Williams, a prominent Protestant clergyman, who 
had been a long while in the Indian missionary service, it 
will be remembered, in his latter days came to the conclu- 

* The fire of October 8th and gth, 1871. 


elusion that he was the legitimate son of the guillotined 
Louis XVI., and he made so good a showing that the 
Prince de Joinville, son of King Louis Phillippe, came out 
to see him, while on a visit to the United States. A Rev. 
Mr. Hanson wrote him up in Putnams Magazine, as the 
real Louis XVII. But king stock took a fall about those 
days, and he did not go to Paris to urge his pretensions. 
It was a standing joke, in early times, when one could not 
trace his parentage, to say, "Oh, call him a descendant of 
the Royal family of France !" One of these pretenders to 
descent from the nobility of France had been told that the 
secret of his origin was locked up in the breast of an aged 
Indian Chief who visited this city. With a few friends, he 
sought out the Chief, and asked him if he could tell him 
about his French ancestry. The reply was: "Your father 
Indian, mother squaw, good French! My squaw got nine 
papoose, all French." Thus ended the French nobility in 

When the last war between Great Britain and France 
broke out on the American Continent, the French had ex- 
tended their power up the Ohio River, as far as Fort Du 
Quesne, now Pittsburg, and were contemplating a line of 
militia-posts from that place to Lake Ontario. Had they 
succeeded in this, and held their power on this continent, 
Chicago would certainly have been a French city; and, in 
all probability, the Paris of America ; with the General 
Assembly here, composed of delegates from Halifax, Que- 
bec, Montreal, St. Louis, New Orleans, and the Pacific 
cities. When the French defeated the British forces at 
Fort Du Quesne, and left their Commander-in-Chief, Gen. 
Braddock, dead upon the battle-field, they thought they 
had inflicted a fatal blow upon British power in America, 
but they inflicted a greater one when they left alive upon 
the same battle-field the juvenile George Washington, des- 
tined so soon to lead to glory the colonists, spurred to bat- 
tle by the eloquence of John Adams in Faneuil Hall, and 
of Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses of Virginia. 

After the treaty of peace between Great Britain and 
France, in 1763, by which the Canadas were ceded to 
Great Britain, our relations to the two countries were en- 
tirely reversed. Whatever prejudices existed against the 
French, for their course in the past, were entirely obliter- 
ated when Gen. Lafayette came to our relief, during our 


revolutionary struggle. From that hour to this, there has 
never been an unkind feeling between the two nations, save 
from what Napoleon the Little wanted to do (but had not 
the courage to do it) during the recent war of the slave 
power against our Union. And, although the French used 
every effort to reconcile the Indians to the Americans, they 
continued our inveterate enemies, and would have massa- 
cred Gen. Lafayette with the same ferocity as Gen. Wash- 
ington. And, notwithstanding the halls of Parliament once 
echoed with the indignation of British statesmen, and re- 
peated protests were made to the French Government 
against Indian barbarities, the British saw things in a differ- 
ent light, and stimulated the Indians to even more hellish 
cruelties than the French. Even after the American Inde- 
pendence was secured, the Indians did not cease their 
depredations. Like the Irishman, in the fight, they were 
for hitting a head wherever they could find one. And they 
kept Gen. Anthony Wayne very busy until he drove them 
to a treaty at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795. Now, ladies and 
gentlemen, I begin to get there. Now, look in the cradle ! 
The baby begins to nestle ! But don't take him out ! For 
Great Britain is to fire the Indian demons once more. An 
awful massacre is in the distance. By that treaty, the 
Indians ceded to the United States: "One piece of land, 
six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicajo River, empty- 
ing into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort 
formerly stood." This was an old French fort, probably 
built over 100 years before, by the earliest French explor- 
ers. This was the first transaction, on record, in Chicago 
real estate. But Gen. Wayne spelled Chicago with a "j." 
The baby's name in 1795, was "jo." He had not got the 
"go" then. It was Chica jo. 

I have already told you how Chicago escaped from the 
jurisdiction of the Indians, of the French, and the British. 
Now I must tell to you of another escape. I mean from 
the Southern Confederacy. For Virginia claimed us under 
the conquest of Gen. George Rogers Clark, whose expedi- 
tion she herself had fitted out, and the expenses thereof 
had never been refunded to her. In 1778, her Legislature 
created the county of Illinois, embracing all of our present 
State. Our address then was Chicago, Va. And, but for 
the Ordinance of 1787, which ceded the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory to the United States, we might have been breeding 


slaves up to the time of Lincoln's Proclamation, and the 
white laborers, who have done so much for the develop- 
ment of our city, been entirely excluded. As it was, we 
were only compelled to catch the slaves that others bred, 
'whilst following .the old Indian trail to Canada and freedom. 

But we made still another escape. You remember, some 
years ago, that there were some politicians who were riding 
a horse with a head upon both ends, called "Squatter 
Sovereignty." Gen. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, claimed to 
have discovered the original horse in the Presidential 
woods. This horse did as much to precipitate our late 
War of the Rebellion as all other things put together; as 
its doctrine was that whoever got possession of a Territory 
first had it. The original battle-ground was Kansas, where 
.the friends of white labor and black labor struggled for 
supremacy. Gen. Cass was, of course, riding his horse, as 
fast as he could gallop, both ways, with the cry of " Squatter 
Sovereignty forever." 

Our first settler was a negro from San Domingo, who 
drove his stakes about 1779, just across the river on the 
North Side, named Jean Baptist Point au Sable, at what 
was afterwards known as the old Kinzie place, a few rods 
east from where we now are. He did his best to ingratiate 
himself into the affections of the Indians, with the idea of 
becoming a chief, and then sending back for more of his 
countrymen, and planting a San Domingo colony here. 
After living here a few years, and meeting with poor suc- 
cess, in becoming chief, he removed to Peoria, then known 
as Fort Clark, where he died. Had Au Sable succeeded 
in his designs and the doctrine of squatter sovereignty pre- 
vailed, how different would have been our condition? We, 
white folks, would then have been compelled to ask for a 
Civil-Rights bill to protect us whilst patronizing a negro 
saloon or a negro theatre. 

In 1800, Illinois was organized into a Territory with 
Indiana, under the name of Indiana Territory, with Gen. 
William Henry Harrison as Governor, and our seat of gov- 
ernment was Vincennes, Ind., and then we were all Hoo- 
siers. Our address then was Chicago, Ind. But Chicago 
acquired no importance until 1804, when a fort was erected 
here, named after Gen. Henry Dearborn, a conspicuous 
officer of the American Revolution, and afterwards Secre- 
tary of War. 


And with the troops came John Kinzie, father of the late 
esteemed John H. and Robert A. Kinzie, whose children 
still reside here. Mr. Kinzie was born in Quebec, in 1763, 
and settled upon the premises of the original squatter 
sovereign, Au Sable, and owned them until he died in Fort 
Dearborn, Jan. 6, 1828,* and his son John H. Kinzie lived 
upon them until his death, a few years ago. His house was 
the first erected in Chicago, and it was standing long after 
Chicago became a city. In 1809, we ceased to be Hoo- 
siers, and became Suckers by the organization of Illinois 
Territory, with Ninian Edwards as Governor, and with the 
seat of Government at Kaskaskia. At the time of the mas- 
sacre, in 1812, Chicago contained not to exceed a half- 
dozen families, outside of the fort; and, if there are living 
to-day any descendants of those inside or outside of the fort 
at that time, besides the descendants of Mr. Kinzie, I knowfj^ 
it not. Perhaps I should except a sister of the Indian chief q. / 
LaFramboise, who was living in Mr. Kinzie's family, and ^ 
who afterwards married John Baptiste Beaubien, who was 
living at Mackinaw at the time it was taken, and whose 
descendants are quite numerous in this vicinity. 

In 1818, Illinois was admitted into the Union, and there- 
by we made another very remarkable escape, that from 
being Wisconsin Badgers. For, by the terms of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, three States were to be framed south of a 
line drawn due east and west from the most southerly bend 
of Lake Michigan, and two north of it. When Michigan 
applied for admission into the Union, she claimed that, 
under the terms of the Ordinance, she was entitled to To- 
ledo, in Ohio, and Michigan City, in Indiana. It will be 
remembered, that Michigan sent out troops to seize and 
hold Toledo; but Ohio was prepared to give them so warm 
a reception that history only records the number of water- 
melon-patches that were attacked. When Wisconsin was- 
preparing to apply for admission into the Union, she prof- 
ited by the mistakes of Michigan, and came not with blun- 
derbusses but with sweetmeats. Her newspapers called 
attention to the fact that, from the southernmost bend of 
Lake Michigan, as fixed by the Ordinance, our boundary 
had been extended to the latitude of 42 degrees 30 minutes. 
Her citizens sent men of talents all through the disputed 
tract, public meetings were called, and not only was justice 
pleaded, but the advantages were thoroughly discussed. 


Many settlements were unanimous, and others were divided 
in favor of being united with Wisconsin. The disputed 
tract had two Congressmen, the Hon. Joseph P. Hoge, of 
Galena, now an eminent lawyer in SanFrancisco, and myself. 
And Wisconsin, offered to make us the first two Senators, 
and also offered to give the disputed tract the first Gover- 
nor. It was proposed to enact a law submitting the bind- 
ing force of the Ordinance of 1787 to the Supreme Court 
of the United States. Our Chicago people were much 
divided upon the question, and I really believe serious con- 
sequences would have grown out of it but for the embar- 
rassments that would be caused by having the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal owned by two States. As an original 
question, all the five States being out of the Union, there 
is no doubt but Congress would have enforced the provi- 
sions of the Ordinance, and Illinois been cut off from the 
lakes, and her Legislature saved from the annoyance of 
Chicago lobbyists. But might made right. Wisconsin be- 
ing out of the Union, she could only come into it with 
boundaries prescribed by a majority of the States in it, and 
I lost the honor of being a Wisconsin United States Sena- 
tor. But I am trespassing upon what should constitute a 
second chapter in Chicago's history, embracing the period 
from the massacre to its incorporation as a city. 

It was upon the 7th of August, 1812, that a messenger 
arrived from General Hull, then at Detroit, whose division 
embraced Chicago and Mackinaw, as well as Detroit, an- 
nouncing that war had been declared against Great Britain 
on the i Qth of June, that Mackinaw had been taken by the 
British on the lyth of July, and ordering the commandant, 
Capt. Heald, to distribute the United States property to 
the Indians in the neighborhood, abandon the fort, and 
report to Fort Wayne, in Indiana, with his company of 
about seventy-five men. Mark the difficulty of communi- 
cating news in those days ! War declared June igth, not 
known in Chicago till August 7th. Mackinaw taken July 
1 7th, and not known until August 7th. But we got beauti- 
fully even with Great Britain for her surprise of our fort at 
Mackinaw, before the war ended. For, when the British 
and American Commissioners met at Ghent, in 1814, to 
make a treaty of peace, Britain stopped sending troops to 
Gen. Packenham, at New Orleans. The treaty of peace 
was signed Dec. i4th, 1814, and Gen. Jackson squared the 


accounts for Mackinaw upon the day we celebrate, the 8th 
of January thereafter. The British had not received the 
news of peace, nor had our soldiers in the fort at Mackinaw 
received the news of the declaration of war. Henry Clay 
Avas one of the Commissioners, and I shall never forget, 
in my early days in Congress, his expressions of regret that 
the news of peace could not have reached this country 
earlier, as the battle of New Orleans made a great man of 
Andrew Jackson, defeated the re-election of John Quincy 
Adams, put down the United States Bank, brought the 
Democrats into power, and perhaps, if he were alive now, 
he would say, caused the Rebellion. The surprise at Mack- 
inaw, in 1812, proved a very important warning to the 
people along the coast of the Western Lakes. For, as 
towns began to multiply, the inhabitants saw, in case of 
war, how quickly any of the British lake vessels could be 
supplied with guns adequate to their destruction. During 
the controversy upon the Oregon question, under President 
Polk's administration, when war was considered imminent, 
men were constantly devising plans for our lake defences, 
.and all urged strengthening the fortifications at Mackinaw, 
as there would be no hope for our Lake Michigan towns, if 
the British should capture it again, or manage to get a war 
vessel this side of it, even if we still held possession of it. 
Mayor Augustus Garrett, of this city, called a meeting of 
our prominent citizens, for consultation, and, to show my 
constituents that I was fully alive to their interests, I made 
a speech in Congress, so animated that the New York 
Herald got up a caricature, representing the British Lion, 
and myself behind it, with a club in my hands, entitled 
" Long John, of Illinois, chasing the British Lion." I re- 
member that Jefferson Davis, who was a member of Con- 
gress from Mississippi, alarmed me very much, by asserting 
that there was no way in which Chicago could be defended, 
and that our shipping could not be got beyond the reach of 
the enemies' guns. The Ogden-Wentworth Ditch, up the 
South Branch, had not then been constructed. He also 
said that such was the case with all our Lake Michigan 
towns, save Calumet, now called South Chicago, and 
that was the only harbor he would vote to improve under a 
military necessity. This alarmed me the more, as there had 
always been an influential party at Chicago who contended 
that our city ought to have been, and would eventually be, 


there. Jefferson Davis was recognized as good authority on 
this point, as soon after leaving West Point, he assisted in 
the survey of the Upper Lakes, and in the construction of 
Fort Winnebago, in Wisconsin, and is still remembered in 
the W T est by many of its early settlers. A Wisconsin lady, 
who attended many parties with him, when he was a young 
lieutenant, recently described him to me as very retiring and 
meditative, and always seemed to be contriving something, 
or thinking of something outside of the company, and when 
the rebellion broke out, she remembered this trait and now 
has no doubt but that he was plotting treason. And, by 
the way, she suggested that she knows a lady in Wisconsin 
who might have been Mrs. Davis, and would have been 
but for her father's constantly telling her that an army offi- 
cer was just like a sailor, and had a lover in every port. 

Whilst we were thus alarmed about the safety of our 
towns, the Canadians were equally alarmed about theirs. 
This led to a treaty, which provided that but one armed- 
vessel should be kept by either country on the upper lakes, 
and that vessel should carry but one gun. Hence our war 
steamer, Michigan ! She has one gun ! And there is a 
Canadian vessel that has one also. Now, when either 
nation takes another gun on board, then comes war, under 
the treaty. But this treaty effectually allayed the excite- 
ment which Western men had created upon the subject of a 
ship canal connecting the lakes with the rivers. Commo- 
dore Maury, of our navy, and more recently of the rebel 
navy, was one of the many very able writers and speakers in 
our behalf. He treated the subject of Western naval defenses 
so ably that his articles were copied all over the country,, 
and he thus took the matter out of the hands of Western 
men entirely. He elevated the ship canal above all local or 
commercial considerations, and placed it upon the grounds 
of a great national necessity. But, the war fever against 
Great Britain having died away, and the people having had 
time for reflection, our fear that, in any future war, Great 
Britain could send war vessels through the Welland Canal, 
is at once dispelled by the reflection that, if we had a ship 
canal, long before war vessels could^ be .sent frora^^jgj^ 
Orleans, up the Mississippi, through ft to Chicago, Canada 
would be taken, and the Welland Canal would be ours. 
And there is a general feeling among the people of the 
United States, that a country of the resources of Canada, 


that is so destitute of patriotic spirit, in this enlightened 
age, when Republics are the order of the day, as to be the 
only spot on the American Continent, owing sole allegiance 
to a foreign monarchy, could not do us much harm in war. 
There is not a people on earth of the intelligence and 
wealth of the Canadians, who bear their yoke so easily; and 
there is no hope of our ever making enough out of their 
warlike spirit to scare our Government into making an ap- 
propriation for a ship canal, so much needed for commer- 
cial purposes. 

History tells us that, had the commandant of the fort at 
Chicago done either of two things, the massacre of 1812 
could have been avoided. He could have abandoned it 
instantaneously after receiving his order, and reached Fort 
Wayne by a forced march, or he could have remained and 
defended it. But the most friendly relations had always 
existed between the occupants of the fort and the Indians, 
and the commandant of the fort was ordered, when he left, 
to distribute the surplus property in the fort to them. They 
had passed in arid out, at their pleasure, ever since its con- 
struction, and could have surprised it at any time. The 
surprise of Gen. Harrison, at Tippecanoe, the fall before, 
and the final defeat of the Indians there, had seemingly had 
no bad effect upon those around Chicago. But the com- 
mandant here was a circumlocutionist, and believed in red 
tape. He took from the 7th to the i5th of August to 
march his troops 'out of the fort, accompanied by the few 
inhabitants of the place who had sought his protection, to 
the most sudden and barbarous of deaths. Until within a 
few years, there were high sandhills on the lake shore, 
about a mile and a half from the fort, near the Illinois 
Central round-house, from behind which the Indians rushed 
upon their hellish work, sparing neither age nor sex. The 
facts are too familiar to you to need a minute descrip- 
tion here. 

The news of the declaration of war was sent from Detroit 
to Fort Wayne, the nearest military post to Chicago, at the 
same time that it was sent to Chicago, and Cant. William 
^HM Wells, a^sMgliafof the wifeT of the commandant at 
Chicago, at once collected a few friendly Indians, and 
started to render assistance to th,e Chicago troops in reach- 
ing Fort Wayne. He arrived just in time to share the fate 
of the men whom he came to assist. But he fought so 


heroically, and destroyed so many of the fiends before he 
fell, that many of them began to think he had a charmed 
life, and their wrath was so great against him that, ere he 
was cold in death, they cut out his heart, and distributed it 
in pieces among the relatives of the Indians who had fallen 
by his hand. When our city was laid out, one of its princi- 
pal streets was named in honor of him. The savages killed 
him, and worse than savages removed his name from the 
street. For inefficient city officers allowed gamblers to 
settle therein, and with them came the disciples of Poti- 
phar's wife, and that crowd of moral and social outcasts 
which gamblers instinctively draw around themselves, 
wherever they go. And when, at last, more efficient offi- 
cers exterminated them, the property-holders thought they 
would wipe out the disgrace which official incompetency or 
degeneracy had inflicted upon them, by erasing from the 
street the name of one who so heroically gave up his life on 
the ever-memorable i5th day of August, 1812. And the 
same infamous crowd were recently about to inflict a 
similar disgrace upon the street named in honor of Gen. 
George Rogers Clark, when one of our Judges, knowing his 
duty, dare do it, and gave them to understand that there 
were laws in this city, and gamblers must obey them, as 
well as the poor, hungry, and half-clad Communes. There 
was once just such a crowd, confiscating property in a 
certain sandy location, upon this, the North Side, not far 
from here.* But there was a way found to save the value 
of property, without changing the names of streets. What- 
ever else may be said of our city, never let it be said again 
that men in high official position had so gilded the worst of 
all vices, gambling, that the names of streets had to be 
changed, to save property from that depreciation and dis- 
grace which all history and all Chicago experience tells us 
never fails to attend its existence. 

The Indians must have received the news of the war and 
the fall of Mackinaw before the fort was evacuated. In 
those days, every Indian was a British telegraph. For, 
even after the French ceded the Canadas to the British, the 

* This alludes to the summary destruction, by the Police, under the 
administration of Mayor Wentworth, in 1857, of a large number of 
wooden shanties, erected near the beach of the Lake, on the North 
Side, without authority of law, and occupied by criminal classes. 


latter were in the habit of assembling the Chiefs of all the 
Indian tribes once a year, at Maiden, Canada, nearly oppo- 
site Detroit, and distributing valuable presents among them. 
And as early as the war of 1812, there were well-marked 
Indian trails from every part of the Indian country, via 
Detroit, to Maiden. The British could trust every Indian, 
and send a message anywhere with him. The Americans 
could not trust any message with an Indian, and if they 
undertook to send a white man through the Indian country, 
he was made to suffer the most distressing death. At any 
rate, the Indians knew that the soldiers were to abandon 
the fort, and they volunteered to escort them a certain dis- 
tance on their march to Fort Wayne. 

Thirsting for more blood, our Indians hastened to Fort 
Wayne; and joining the Indians in that vicinity, they 
attacked it, August 25th, in hopes of another massacre. 
But it held out until relieved by Gen. Harrison's command, 
Sept. 1 6th. The Indians there learned, if they did not 
know it before, that Gen. Hull had surrendered his army at , . 
Detroit, which he did without firing a gun, on the very day $* /"V" 
G the massacre at Chicago ; and there lives at Chicago now 1 
a gentlemen, Mark Beaubien, who was present, and wit- 
nessed the indignation of our soldiers, as they stepped into 
the boats that were to convey them across the Detroit River 
to the British headquarters. They looked upon it more as 
a betrayal than a surrender. 

Our Indians then hurried on to unite with the British 
army, and had a chance to slake their thirst for blood at the 
terrible massacre at River Raisin, baser and more cowardly 
than that at Chicago, because the Americans had sur- 
rendered to the British army, which was in honor bound to 
protect them. 

John Kinzie, who had fled with his family from Chicago 
to Detroit, was sezied by the order of the British General, 
Henry A. Proctor, and imprisoned in Fort Maiden as a 
spy; and there in that fort was all that was left of Chicago, 
the balance dead, or supposed to be. It has been the for- 
tune of our soldiers, from the days of the Revolution down 
to and including those of our Rebellion, to meet with sad 
reverses at first. But they have ever grown strong under 
such reverses, and they just begin to fight successfully as 
the war terminates. Our sole Chicago citizen remained a 
prisoner until the ever-memorable words of Commodore 


Perry, uttered on the 29th of September, 1813, reached the 
fort: "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." Now 
hurrah for Chicago ! She had Fort Maiden all to herself. 
She held the key to the position. No vessel could pass up 
the Detroit River, except under her guns. The British had 
fled from the fort where Mr. Kinzie was, leaving him the 
sole occupant. Gen. Harrison retook Detroit, as it had 
been surrendered, without firing a gun. Perry had swept 
the lake, and our forces, in the presence of Chicago's sole 
citizen, running up the stars and stripes, held Fort Maiden. 
The day of jubilee had come. When the British retreated 
up the Thames, our Indians went with them, under 
Tecumseh, who had a commission as Brigadier-General; 
and our army had no idea of letting them effect a union 
' with the troops that were fighting Gen. Brown's command 
in the regions below. They were followed, Tecumseh fell, 
and our Indians never recovered from its effects. In vain 
did Black Hawk, in 1832, try to unite the various Indian 
tribes in one common cause, against the United States. 
They knew they had no Tecumseh, and left Black Hawk to 
fight alone. After the death of Tecumseh, it came to light 
that, in 1809, he had planned the entire destruction of the 
people of Chicago, inside and outside the^fart; but some 
unforeseen circumstance prevented it, just as it was upon 
the point of execution. 

When Col. Richard M. Johnson was a candidate for 
Vice-President, upon the same ticket as Mr. Van Buren for 
President, his opponents disputed that he was the man who 
killed Tecumseh. Knowing that Shabonee,- one of the 
Chiefs of the Pottawatomies, and who was with Tecumseh 
when he fell, resided in this vicinity, I sought an interview, 
but was told in advance that the only way I could interest 
him was to make inquiries about Tecumseh, for whom he, 
in common with all others of our Western Indians, had the 
utmost adoration to the end of his life. Shabonee marked 
upon the ground the position of the British and the Indians 
when met by the pursuing Americans, Gen. Proctor in the 
command of the one, and Tecumseh of the other. Then he 
described the British as ignominiously fleeing, and leaving 
the Indians to take care of themselves. He said the In- 
dians had been betrayed by every party they had assisted. 
The French first agreed to protect their hunting grounds 
for them, but had made them over to the English, who, in 


turn, had promised to protect their hunting grounds, and 
then were keeping the most of their troops to fight Napo- 
leon. The battle of the Thames was on the 5th of October, 
1813, and the allied armies entered France in December 
following, and sent Napoleon to Elba shortly after. He 
said Tecumseh had become disgusted; and, if he could 
have gotton out of the war, he never would have allowed 
his tribes to fight the Americans again. Shabonee said 
the British were flying and the Americans were charging 
when Col. Johnson, wounded, fell from his horse. You 
ought to have seen old Shabonee, at this part of his narra- 
tion. No professed tragedian can do him justice. An 
Indian talks much more with his countenance than the 
white man. Up to this time, his countenance bore marks 
of gloom, doubt, despair. He knelt down and defined Col. 
Johnson's position. Then he ran back some distance, 
turned, seized a club, and with the countenance of a fiend 
incarnate, he gave Tecumseh's last rallying yell, and, brand- 
ishing his club like an Indian tomahawk in one hand, and 
his knife in the other, as if to take a scalp, he rushed to- 
wards the spot where Col. Johnson was supposed to be 
suffering from his wounds ; but, suddenly placing his hand 
upon his side, as if shot, he fell, and imitated the dying 
Tecumseh. His description of Col. Johnson's dress and 
horse was very minute, and when I told it to Col. Johnson, 
at Washington, he said he could have given no better des- 
cription himself. Shabonee proved a good citizen, as did 
the many Indian Chiefs who passed the remainder of their 
days in this vicinity ; all saying that we had conquered the 
French and British, and nothing could hinder our ultimate 
possession of all their forests ; and all bearing witness that 
the great Tecumseh would have settled down in peace 
among the white folks, as they themselves were doing, could 
he have been spared, cursing both French and British for 
treachery and ingratitude. *Shabonee was the last of our 
Indian Chiefs to die. He expired in the town o 
Norman, on his farm of twenty acres, July lyth, 1859, aged 
eighty-four, near Morris, Grundy County, in this State, leav- 
ing a son, now living in Kansas, where also lives a grand- 
son, who is one of the principal Chiefs of what was once 
the powerful tribe of Pottawatomies. 

From the massacre of 1812 to 1816, nothing has ever 
been known of our infant. He slept on. . The stars of the 

-/" * 
d. ^o^M 


East may have shone upon him ; but there were no shep- 
herds to be guided to his manger no Pharaoh's daughter 
to nourish him in his seclusion. When the troops came 
here in that year, to reconstruct the fort, they found every- 
thing exactly as the massacre had left it. The bones of the 
slain had never been disturbed, and the first work of the 
soldiers was to collect and bury them. That same year, a 
treaty was made at St. Louis, securing a strip of land, twen- 
ty miles wide, from Ottawa to Chicago. Thus early was 
the importance of the canal appreciated. Illinois Territory 
became a State in 1818, and Gov. Bond, in his inaugural of 
that year and his valedictory in 1822, called attention to the 
subject ; and his successor, Gov. Coles, repeated his rec- 
ommendation. In 1 8 1 8, when our esteemed fellow-citizen, 
Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard, came to Chicago, there were but 
two families outside of the fort, those of John Kinzie and 
Antoine Oilmette (for whom the town of Wilmette, in Cook 
Co., is named, where he passed the most of his days, leav- 
ing several descendants). In 1821, the first steamer ever 
upon the lakes, "Walk in the Water," made her first trip to 
Green Bay, but there was no business to take her to 
Chicago. Col. Hubbard came from Montreal, all the way 
by water, in an open row-boat, called by the French, " bat- 
teaux," coming via Toronto, Lake Simcoe, and Georgian 
Bay. Gen. John McNeil, one of the heroes at the battle of 
Lundy's Lane, Canada, in 1814, was stationed here soon 
after the reconstruction of the fort, and he claimed that one 
of his daughters was the first person ever born in the fort. 
A few years ago, I met her upon Michigan Avenue, and 
she said she had been trying to find the place upon which 
she was born, claiming the honor of being the first person 
ever born in the fort. As she was unmarried, I disliked to 
ask her when it was. There are several persons now living 
in Chicago, who claim the distinction of being the first 
white person, now living, born here. Alexander Beaubien,. 
son of the late John B. Beaubien, now present, was born 
here, January 28th, 1822. There are ladies who claim a 
prior birth, but they decline particular dates. Yet some of 
the deceased children of John Kinzie and Col. William 
Whistler, who built the Fort, in 1 804, were born before any 
of them."* 

* Ellen M. Kinzie, who married (i) Dr. Alexander Wolcott, of this 
city, and (2) George C. Bates, of Detroit, Mich., born in 1805, has no 


In 1821, General Lewis Cass came here in a birch-bark 
canoe, and made a treaty with the Indians, which secured the 
right to build a road, from Chicago to both Fort Wayne and 
Detroit. Our Indians were so peaceably disposed, after the 
fall of Tecumseh, that, from 1823, the Government made a 
mere matter of convenience of our fort, often withdrawing 
the troops entirely, until the great Black Hawk scare, in 

In 1823, the late Archibald Clybourn, a Justice of the 
Peace, early after the organization of Cook Co., whose 
widow and children now reside in our city, came here, from 
Virginia ; and it was then that Prof. William H. Keating, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, visited here, and thus wrote : 
" Their log or bark houses are low, filthy, and disgusting, 
displaying not the least trace of comfort." Up to 1828, 
only one sail vessel made trips to Chicago, and that to bring 
supplies to the fort. The American Fur Company had done 
all its business in row-boats, better known in those days 
as Mackinaw boats. Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard made a trip, 
around the lakes, from Detroit, in a sail vessel, that year. 
Although the canal land grant was made in 1827, the law 
under which it was commenced did not pass until the winter 
of 1835-6. Our nearest land-office was in Southern Illinois, 
at Palestine, Crawford County, until 1834, when one was 
established at Danville, Vermillion County, a little further 
north. There was none at Chicago until 1835, when our 
present fellow-citizen, Col. Edmund D. Taylor, was ap- 
pointed receiver. In 1830, there were only fifteen dwelling- 
houses, only three of which remained in 1857, and less than 
100 inhabitants; and the principal settlement here was at 
the forks of the Chicago River, then called " Wolf Point/' 
where there was a tavern, school-house, and meeting-house, 
where Jesse Walker, a Methodist missionary, residing at 
Plainfield, Will County, occasionally preached. There still 
stands, at the northeast corner of Lake and Canal Streets, 
a building known for many years as the " Green Tree 
Hotel," erected in 1831, probably the oldest building in 
Chicago. But there was still another small tavern, on the 

competitor for being the first white child born in Chicago. And her 
sister, Maria H. Kinzie, now the wife of General David Hunter, of the 
U. S. Army, born in 1807, is the oldest white person living who was 
born in Chicago. 


North Side, near the Forks, where Gen. Scott stopped, 
when he came with the troops, in 1832, kept by Elijah 
Wentworth, Sr. And there was another small tavern, kept, 
in 1831, by Mark Beaubien, called the "Sauganash," on 
the southeast corner of Lake and Market Streets, known as 
the Wigwam lot, where Abraham Lincoln was nominated 
for President. On the block north, at the corner of Frank- 
lin and Water Streets, the Post-office was located, when I 
came to Chicago. Mr. Beaubien also kept a ferry at Lake 
Street, beyond which, on the South Branch, there was 
neither bridge nor ferry. It was at this hotel, kept by the 
late Aid. John Murphy, whose family still resides here, 
whose widow is present upon the platform, that I took my 
first meal, upon my arrival in this city. In 1830, the steam- 
boat, Henry Clay, made trips to Green Bay, from Detroit, 
solely in the fur-trade interest. There was no trade to take 
her to Chicago. At that period, and for some time thereafter, 
the South Side was one entire marsh, with several creeks 
running into the river. There was a small bridge on Water 
Street, over a stream which drained a slough, near State 
Street, and there was often good duck shooting north of 
Madison Street, some time after I came here. In 1836, 
the forwarding houses were all upon the North Side. 

Black Hawk, Chief of the united tribe of Sacs and Fox 
Indians, was born about 1767, near the mouth of the Rock 
River, and there were his headquarters, until he made a 
treaty, ceding his lands to the United States, and agreeing 
to go to Iowa. He went there, and settlers went upon his 
lands, and had began to cultivate them, when he repudiated 
his treaty, returned to Illinois, and commenced massacring 
them. Before the United States could take up the matter, 
the Governor called for troops, and most of the prominent 
politicians volunteered their services, and raised more or 
less soldiers, to go under their own particular leadership. 
Black Hawk was chased up into Wisconsin, captured, and 
sent to Washington, to see Gen. Jackson. Jack Falstaff 
never slew as many men in buckram as each and every one 
of these Illinois politicians did. Squads would often go out 
from camp, and hasten back with accounts of their miracu- 
lous escapes from large bodies of Indians, when there were 
none in the vicinity. An alarm was given, one night, when 
one of the most distinguished men in the State mounted 
his horse, without unhitching him, and gave him a spur, 


when, mistaking the stump to which he was tied for an 
Indian taking hold of the reins, he immediately exclaimed : 
" I surrender, Mr. Indian !" An alarm was given that a 
large body of Indians was approaching the Kankakee set- 
tlements : volunteers turned out, and found them to be 
nothing but sand-hill cranes. If an Indian was found dead 
on the prairie anywhere, several would exclaim: "That's 
the one I killed." Mr. Lincoln had an inexhaustable sup- 
ply of stories based upon his experience in this war, but he 
never claimed that his services there made him President. 
He made more, in his Presidential campaign, out of the 
Tails he had split, than out of the Indian scalps he had 

Gen. Scott arrived here with regular troops, to take the 
conduct of the war out of the hands of the State authorities, 
/O July^ 1832, in the steamer " Sheldon Thompson," Capt. 
A. Walker, the first steamboat trip ever made to Chicago. 
But his stay here was so delayed by the Asiatic cholera, in 
its worst form, that he reached Rock Island, on the Missis- 
sippi, late in August, and about the time that the war 
Avas closed, by the capture of its leader, in Wisconsin. 
Peace was made with the Indians in September of that 
year. The cholera was so fatal, that thirty bodies were 
thrown overboard, between here and Mackinaw, and about 
100 died at Chicago. The deaths were so sudden, and the 
burial so instantaneous thereafter, that the victims, in their 
last agonies, feared that they would be buried alive, if it 
could be called a burial ; for they were thrown into a pit, 
at the northwest corner of !Lake Street and Wabash Avenue. 
I have heard Gen. Scott describe this as the most affecting 
scene of his life. Gen. Humphrey Marshall, a member of 
Congress from Kentucky, who was then here as a Second 
Lieutenant, gave me a description of the scene, and thought, 
thickly settled as our city then was, he could find the place 
where he assisted in depositing the remains of the victims, 
many being thrown into the pit in a few hours after they 
had assisted in depositing their comrades there. The peo- 
ple all through the Fox and Rock River Valleys had fled to 
Fort Dearborn, for protection against the Indians; but they 
soon fled back, having a greater dread of the cholera than 
of the Indians. The Black Hawk war, although barren of 
importance in a military point of view, was of incalculable 
advantage in bringing to notice the fertile country in the 


Fox, Rock, and Mississippi River Valleys, and expediting 
their settlement. Chicago grew rapidly, under a develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources of the West. From a city 
importing breadstuff's, she soon became one exporting them. 

Aug. 4, 1 830, Chicago was laid out into lots, by the Canal 
Commissioners, and they were sold for from $10 to $60 
each. In the winter of 1832-3, Col. Hubbard was a mem- 
ber of the Illinois Legislature, and he introduced the first 
Railroad bill ever introduced into that body. It passed 
the House and was lost in the Senate, by the casting vote 
of Lieut.-Gov. Casey. Congress had given the power to- 
make either a railroad or a canal. On November 26th, 
1833, the first newspaper, the Chicago Democrat, was estab- 
lished. Up to the time of the fire, I had a complete file of 
it, for over a quarter of a century, which I am trying to 
replace, and will be very thankful to any who will send me 
a single copy, or even a fractional copy of it. In the winter 
of 1835-6, the canal bill was passed, and on the evening of 
the 1 5th of January, 1836, our citizens assembled in mass- 
meeting, and voted that twelve guns be fired for each man 
that voted for the bill, and that the newspapers (there were 
then two weeklies) be requested to publish their names in 
large capitals, and the names of those who voted against 
the bill in the smallest kind of italic letters. 

On the 4th of July, 1836, every man, woman, and child 
in the city, whose health would permit, went down to where 
the canal was to be commenced, then called Canalport, and 
celebrated the removal of the first shovelful of dirt by the 
Canal Commissioners, of which Board, Col. G. S. Hubbard 
was one, and he made a speech. Col. Edmund D. Taylor, 
and Walter Kimball, late City Comptroller, both now living 
in this city, were Marshals on the occasion. The late Dr. 
William B. Egan delivered the oration. Near the place was 
a living spring of water. They chopped up the lemons of 
several full boxes, and threw them into the spring,* to make 
lemonade for the temperance people. Then they spoiled 
the lemonade, by emptying into it a whole barrel of whisky, 
which so penetrated the fountain-head of the spring, that 

* Several old settlers claim that this throwing whisky and lemons 
into a spring also took place at the time that John Baptiste Beaubien 
was elected Colonel of the Militia, at the house of Barney H. Laughton, 
on the O'Plain River, where Riverside now is. 


Bridgeport people feel the effects of it to this day ! All of 
you who ever heard the late Dr. William B. Egan, the most 
eloquent of the many eloquent Irish orators Chicago has 
ever had, will remember how fond he was of quoting Pope's 
poetry. Some of his auditors had quietly stolen away, and 
(as they had supposed) unobserved by him, to slake their 
thirst at this spring, when he brought down the crowd, by 
pointing his finger at them, and exclaiming : 

" Drink deep, or taste not that Pierian spring, 
It's shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
But drinking largely sobers you again. " 

On the 25th of October, 1836, I arrived in this city, just 
in time to assist in waking up the baby, and getting it out 
of the cradle. Time was when I knew every man, woman, 
and child in the city, and they all knew me. I do not 
know but what the latter is true now. Hitherto, I have 
spoken from tradition, from history, and from what living 
persons have told me. From this time I can speak of events 
passing under my personal observation, and in most of 
which I have participated as much as any living man. I 
arrived here in time to see the troops take their final depar- 
ture from the fort. But it was not taken down until about 
1855, when the Marine Hospital was erected near its site. I 
was here when the first white man was hung in Chicago, on 
the open prairie, a short distance south of the Court House. 
I was upon the jury that convicted him. An editor abused 
me, whilst upon the jury, and the Court sentenced him for 
contempt. Wilbur F. Storey is not the first martyr. His 
name is William Stuart, and he now lives in Binghamton, 
N. Y. Our Judge E. S. Williams is not the first judicial 
tyrant. His name was John Pearson,* and he now lives at 
Danville, 111. Charles H. Reed is not the first persecutor 
of the press. His name is Alonzo Huntington, and he lives 
in Chicago now. Thus, we have been repeating history. 
Tnat is all. There is nothing that you have now, that we 
did not have years and years ago, except divorce cases ; 
but we had but one Judge then, and only two terms of 
court in a year, and if families quarreled, they had time to 
cool off, make peace, and perhaps have another christening, 
before the next term of court. 

It was on Monday evening, the 23d of January, 1837, 

* Hon. John Pearson, Judge of the Circuit in which Chicago was 
located in 1837, died at Danville, 111., May 3Oth, 1875. 


that a meeting was called in the Saloon Building, southeast 
corner of Lake and Clark Streets, for consultation upon a 
City Charter. It was called by the order of the last Board 
of Trustees of the Town of Chicago, of which body, Eli B. 
Williams, now a resident of this city, was President. 

The Chicago American of January 2ist, 1837, says: "The 
interests of our town require a charter; the constant example 
of our Eastern cities will justify us in altering it at every 
session, until it meets the wants of a large commercial town." 
However much we may have neglected other privileges 
under our charter, we certainly have availed ourselves of 
that of " altering it at every session," until it has become, 
like the old lady's stocking, " darned so much that none of 
the original remains." 

The word saloon, in those days, had a different meaning 
from what it does now. It would seem strange now to 
announce that a court or meeting would be held, or a 
lecture delivered in a saloon building. When first opened,, 
it was the largest and most beautiful hall this side of Buffalo. 
It was there that Stephen A. Douglas made his first speech 
in Chicago. It was there that the first joint political discus- 
sion was ever had in Northern Illinois, that between him, in 
1838, and his competitor for Congress, John T. Stuart,, 
now living at Springfield, 'in this State. At that meeting it 
was that one of our citizens launched into the future, and 
predicted that the child was already born who would live 
to see a population of over 50,000 here. This prediction 
seemed so preposterous at the time, that several persons at 
once exclaimed "Town lots !" "Town lots !" as if he had 
lots to sell, and was trying to sell them by humbugging the 
people as to the town's future greatness. I think I made 
about as wild a prophecy in 1843, when I, as member of 
Congress, using the prospects of our city as a reason for 
increased harbor appropriations, said: "In 1832, the neces- 
sities of the Government, during the Black Hawk War, com- 
pelled the first steamboat to make a trip to what is now the 
great granary of the West the Garden City, "urbs in horto" 
where I have the honor to reside a city not set on a hill, 
yet it will never be hid a city this moment holding out 
greater inducements for investments in real estate than any 
in this broad country a city that will one day alone have 
a member on this floor, and this more than one person now 
alive will live to see." 


I not only lived to see this prediction verified, in 1865,, 
but I, who made the prediction, was there myself to fulfil it. 
And the man who occupied the same seat with me when I 
made it, was President of the United States when I fulfilled 
it Andrew Johnson. Chicago has had her one Represen- 
tative in Congress. She now has her three. 

Upon another occasion, at the same session, I soared 
again into the realms of prophecy, as to the future character 
of our people. It will be remembered that, at that time,, 
our State, our county, our city, and our people, were in the 
very midst of bankruptcy. I have not time here to minutely 
describe our terrible situation financially. But we were 
upon the eve of sending Commissioners to London, to 
mortgage our canal, to raise the means to complete it, when 
the Washington Globe made a furious onslaught upon any 
such attempt, taking the ground that repudiation was dis- 
graceful enough, but poverty and misfortune might excuse 
that ; but for Illinois to sell herself for British gold was 
infamous. The British Ambassador sent his private Secre- 
tary to me, saying that the British steamer would leave New 
York in forty-eight hours, and would take that article with 
it; and, unless the same steamer took over some decided 
expression with reference to the feelings of our people upon 
the subject of repudiation, our Commissioners might as well 
remain at home. Although the youngest member of our 
Illinois delegation (indeed, I was the youngest member of 
Congress), I sailed in as follows : 

" Illinois will never repudiate a mill of her public debt, 
but will struggle on as well as she can, under her mountain- 
load of misfortunes. We are poor, but, thank God, we are 
honest. Incorruptible, we suspect no man with British 
gold coming to buy us, until the overt act. The young men 
of Illinois expect, in their day, to see her out of debt ; and 
they are all bent on paying interest, to some extent immedi- 
ately, and that extent depends much' -very much on the 
action of this Congress; and I may say the same of Indiana, 
Michigan, and other Western indebted States. In these 
views, I believe all my colleagues, and all our respective 
constituents, and all the West, concur. We have a pride in 
having our State solvent once more, and paying every cent 
of her liabilities, without any legal quibbles, or dishonorable 
compromises. And a glorious consummation will that be for 
us all. For one, when it arrives, I would say, with the good 


man of old, " Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in 
peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." Sir, I would 
celebrate the day of such an event like a jubilee. Ay, sir, 
next after the birthday of our Savior and the day on which 
American independence was declared. I would worship 
the day that redeems Illinois from bankruptcy and debt, 
the day of her credit restored, and her honor regained." 

The British gold came. You know the result. My eyes 
saw the "salvation." But, unlike old Simeon, I was not 
ready then to "depart in peace." 

At that time, the northern half of Illinois had but two 
members of Congress, the Hon. Joseph P. Hoge, of Galena, 
and myself. And the district that I alone then represented 
now has nearly half the members of this State, in Congress, 
and full half its population, and more than half its wealth. 

We finally agreed upon all the provisions of a City 
Charter, and the Board of Town Trustees sent a messenger 
by the stage coach with it to Vandalia, about 75 miles 
below Springfield, where our legislature was in session. It 
was soon enacted into a law, and we held an election under 
its provisions May 2d, 1837.* Thus our infant's time had 
come. We took it from its cradle, and placed it in the 
arms of William B. Ogden, our first Mayor, and earth's 
remotest bounds have contributed to its wealth, and won- 
dered at its growth. [See Supplement.] 

* For Names of Voters, see FERGUS' Directory for 1839. 



THE FERGUS PRINTING COMPANY published my second 
lecture, delivered Sunday afternoon, May 7th, 1876, as No. 
Seven of their series of Historical Pamphlets, entitled 
" Early Chicago." This led to a demand for the repub- 
lication of my first lecture, delivered Sunday afternoon, 
April nth, 1875. 

Since the publication of the second lecture, I have been 
furnished with additional documents, which I publish for 
the benefit of the future historian of Chicago. If we except 
the Indians, half-br6eds, the Canadian-French fur traders, 
discharged soldiers, and officers of the Garrison, Chicago, 
prior to the organization of Cook County, may properly 
have been called a Virginia Settlement. The Supplemental 
Notes to the second lecture should be read before these 
notes can be appreciated. 


There were Jonas Clybourn and his two sons Archi- 
bald and Henley; John K. Clarke; David McKee, now 
living near Aurora, 111. ; Rev. Jesse Walker; Benjamin Hall, 
now living at Wheaton, 111.; David Hall; Samuel Miller; 
John Miller; Jacob Miller; Archibald Caldwell, now living 
at Kershena, Shawanaw Co., Wis. ; and perhaps others, all 
from Virginia. 

From Benjamin Hall, now living at Wheaton, DuPage 
Co., Ill, the following facts, touching Chicago's early Vir- 
ginia settlers, have been gathered : 



4 He was born in Pearisburgh, Giles Co., Virginia, son of 

4 Charles and grandson of David Hall; left there in 1831; 

stopped in Michigan until the spring of 1832, when he came 
to Chicago and engaged in the tanning and currying busi- 
ness with John and Samuel Miller, who had come from Vir- 
ginia before, him. He sought protection with the other 
settlers in the Fort, after the news of Black Hawk's depre- 
dations, until Gen. Scott arrived with the troops. He was 
a resident of Chicago until the autumn of 1834. The 
father of John and Samuel Miller left Pearisburgh at a 
early day, and settled in Ohio. Their cousin, Jacob Mi 
who was also a cousin of Mr. Hall, left Virginia with him, 
in 1831. He went to California and died; but his family 
is residing in Lake Co., IlU^Heniarjjiecl a widow J^ww^ 
in Virginia, wkh^wo chjUro^^t^^Iarmon ttanirt now 

living inyLak^^^aJSSMt leT miku nut "inf Waukegan ; and 

Aramosa^KcuTtg^Avnb married George N. Powell, who kept 
hotel, at Holstein, Cook Co., about 1836, and now lives 
^tofiw with her second husband, 7? Stfc&r\fi^. "g^^p^g^ 
There was a Thomas Clybourn, who marriedaaaughter 
of William Kinzie, who came to Chicago with Jacob Miller,, 
but he left when the Black Hawk war broke out. Benja- 
min Hall married (i) Sarah Bane, of Montgomery Co., Va., 
and his oldest son, Edward B. Hall, was born at Chicago', 
August 20, 1832; and he married (2) the widow of the late 
Stephen Brown, and sister of Judge John D. Caton. Archi- 
bald Clybourn's father was cousin to Mr. Hall's father. 
Archibald Caldwell, the tavern-keeper, had left Chicago be- 
fore Mr. Hall came here. Caldwell had brothers, but none 
of them came to Chicago. David Hall, cousin to Benja^ 
min Hall, and half-brother to James Kinzie, was in Chicago 
several years before Benjamin, and was clerk for the Ameri- 
can Fur Company under Col. John B. Beaubien some time. 
He died at Elkhart, Ind., and his son, J. R. Hall, now lives 
at Howard City, Kanzas. 

There were taken by the Indians, about the time of the 
American Revolution, from the vicinity of Pearisburgh, 
Giles Co., Va., two girls, aged about 8 and 10 years, named 
Margaret and Elizabeth McKinzie. Their relatives were 
all murdered, except their father, who had heard nothing 
of his daughters until near 25 years afterwards, when they 
were found at or near Detroit. Margaret, the eldest, was 
then the wife of John Kinzie, and had William Kinzie;, 


James Kinzie, of Chicago; and Elizabeth Kinzie, married 
Sam'l Miller. After separating from Mr. Kinzie, she married 
Benjamin Hall, of Giles Co., Va., son of David, and uncle 
of Benjamin, of Wheaton, 111. ; and had David Hall and 
Sarah Hall. 

Elizabeth McKenzie, the youngest, married 'a Scotchman 
by the name of Clarke, and had John K. Clarke, and Eliz- 
abeth Clarke, who married William Ahert, and settled at 
Laporte, Ind. After separating from Mr. Clarke, she mar- 
ried Jonas Clybourn, of Giles Co., Va., and had Archibald 
Clybourn and Henley Clybourn. Jonas Clybourn died at 
Westville, Ind., July 24, 1842. His son Archibald, born 
in Giles Co., Va., August 28, 1802, died at Chicago, Aug. 
23, 1872. 

It was about 1800, when these two ladies were found by 
their father, who induced them to return to Virginia with 
him, and take their children with them. And, as all our 
Virginia settlers were in someway related, except thejGov : 
eminent' blacksmith, David McKee, it is probable that tm's 
Virginia settlement owes its origin to the fact, that James 
Kinzie and Elizabeth Kinzie came here to see their father, 
who performed the marriage ceremony, as Justice of the 
Peace for Peoria County, between Elizabeth Kinzie and 
Samuel Miller, July 29, 1826. She died in 1832, leaving 
children, whom her husband took to his father, at Laporte, 
Ind. ; and he married a second wife, and died at Michigan 
City. John Miller, his brother, died at Galesburg, Illinois, 
leaving children. 

William Kinzie, the oldest child of John and Margaret 
(McKenzie) Kinzie, married in Giles Co., Va., and moved 
to Elkhart, Ind. ; lived upon land belonging to his half- 
brother, David Hall, and died there, leaving descendants. 

When James Kinzie and John K. Clarke arrived at 
maturity, they left Virginia in search of their fathers, and, 
after a short absence, they returned to Virginia. When they 
came back, Clarke's mother, who had married Jonas Cly- 
bourn, came with her husband and family ; and, also, 
James Kinzie's sister, Elizabeth, who married Samuel 

James Kinzie's mother never saw her first husband after 
separation, as she and her second husband, Benjamin Hall, 
remained in Virginia. 




The earliest New Englander here, who has descendants 
now living, was Stephen J. Scott, a voter of 1830, who 
arrived at Chicago, August 26, 1826, in the schooner Shel- 
don, Capt. Sherwood. His wife was Hadassah Trask, and 
they came from Connecticut. He died on board a ship, 
on his way from California, Sept., 1852, and was buried on 
the Peninsula. His wife died at Naperville, III. Sept., 
1859. He lived at Gross Point, now Evanston, 111., at first. 
At the time of the election of John B. Beaubien to the 
office of Colonel, at the tavern of Barney H. Lawton, at 
what is now Riverside, on the DesPlaines River, it was 
kept by Stephen J. Scott. 

Besides one dying young, they had five children : 

Wealthy Scott married, January 23, 1827, David McKee. 
They had a son, Stephen J. Scott McKee, born September 
1 8, 1830. 

Permelia Scott married, July 21, 1829, John K. Clarke, 
and lives, a widow, at Deerfield, Take Co., 111. She had 
Hadassah Clarke, married Walter Milieu. 

Deborah Scott married (i), in Maryland, Munson Wat- 
kins, and (2) July 21, 1829, Joseph Bauskey. No descend- 
ants living. 

Willis Scott married (i), November, 1830, Lovisa B. 
Caldwell, who came from Virginia. He married (2) Sarah 
Barney, and had Alice Lovisa, married to Arthur Warrington. 
Mr. Scott lives in Chicago. 

Williard Scott married, July 21, 1829, Caroline Hawley: 
both, with their descendants, now living at Naperville, 111. 
They had, besides two who died young, 

(1) Thaddeus, born August 7, 1830, and died 1866, 
leaving William H., born December 3, 1858. 

(2) Williard, Jr., born October 9, 1835. 

(3) Alvin, born May 28, 1838. 

The next New Englander who voted here, prior to the 
organization of Cook Co., who left descendants, was our 
first lawyer, Russell E. Heacock, born at Litchfield, Conn., 
in 1781. He reached here, from Buffalo, New York, in a 
sail vessel, July 4, 1827, and has left numerous descendants. 

""*>- cr" ir tf ~i - 


It is claimed that Rev. Jesse Walker, who voted here in 
1830, was the first white settler in that portion of old Cook 
Co. now known as Will Co., settling about 1826, at Walker's 
Grove, now Plainfield. He was born in Buckingham Co., 
Virginia, June 9,^1766. He was a Methodist clergyman, 
and, as a missionary, had charge of the northern portion of 
the State. He passed much of his later life in Chicago, and 
finally settled on a farm near the old village of Cazenovia, 
on the O'Plain River, in Leyden township, where he died, 
October 4, 1835. His remains were taken to Plainfield. 
One of his daughters married her cousin, the late Hon. 
James Walker, of Plainfield, and another the late David 
Everett, near the old village of Cazenovia, in Leyden town- 
ship, in this county, on the O'Plain River. Rev. Jesse 
Walker had a brother, David, who was the father of a large 
family, at Ottawa, 111. ; and had another brother, who died 
in Tennessee, leaving sons Alfred, John, and James. The 
latter was the Capt. James Walker, of Plainfield, who mar- 
ried the daughter of Rev. Jesse. 


Antoine Ouilmette, who was taxed here in 1825, and was 
here at the time of the massacre of 1812, was a Frenchman ; 
but his wife was a Pottawatomie, some say half French. 
He lived upon his reservation, where now is the village 
named for him, on the Milwaukee Railroad, a few miles 
above Evanston, in this County. He moved to Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, where he and his wife died. He had an 
adopted daughter, Arkash Sambli, who married, August 3, 
1830, John Mann, who, in early times, kept a ferry at 
Calumet. His daughter Elizabeth married, May n, 1830, 
Michael Welch (Chicago's first Irishman), and had Mary 
Ann Welch; and, after his death, she married Lucius R. 
Darling, now living at Silver Lake, Shawn ee Co., Kansas, to 
which place also went Ouilmette's other children, nearly 
all now living, viz. : Mitchell (died childless), Lewis, Josette 
(married John Deroshee, and mentioned by Mrs. Kinzie, 
in her " Waubun "), Francis, Sophia, and Joseph. 



William Hickling, of this City, has exhibited to me the 
original of the following document, proving that Billy Cald- 
well, our Justice of the Peace in 1826, was an officer in the 
British service, after the treaty of peace ; and that he styled 
himself Captain of the Indian Department, in 1816, at 
Amherstburg, [Fort Maiden.] Mr. Hickling resided in 
Chicago, before its incorporation, but resided many years 
thereafter at Ottawa, and was a partner of George E. Wal- 
Icer, nephew of Rev. Jesse. Whilst at Ottawa, the Indian 
Chief, Shabonee, often visited him and remained with him 
overnight. Not long before his death, he gave him the 
document, asserting that he had always worn it upon his 
person. The manuscript proves that Caldwell was a man 
of education, as we all knew he was of intelligence. He 
was educated by the Jesuits, at Detroit, and, at the time of 
his death, he was Head Chief of the combined nation of 
Pottawatomies, Ottawas, and Chippewas. He married a 
sister of the Pottawatomie Chief, Yellow Head, and had an 
only child, a swj, who died young. On the authority of 
Shabonee, Mr. Hickling denies the commonly received idea, 
that Caldwell was a son of Tecumseh's sister. He confirms 
the report that he was the son of an Irish officer in the 
British service, but he insists that his mother was a Potta- 
watomie, and hence he became Chief of the Pottawatomies. 
Tecumseh was a Shawnee, and, he contends, had but one 
sister, Tecumapeance, older than himself, whose husband, 
Wasegoboah, was killed at the battle of the Thames. She 
survived him some time, but died in Ohio. 

Shabonee (or Chamblee, in French) was an Ottawa 
Indian, and a chief, born on the Ohio River. The certifi- 
cate was undoubtably given him to assist him with the 
British Government. At the commencement of the battle 
of the Thames, or of Moravian Town (as Caldwell calls it), 
the Indian Chiefs Tecumseh (Shawnee) (spelled Tecumthe 
by many), Caldwell (Pottawatomie), Shabonee (Ottawa), 
and Black Hawk (Sac), were, as Mr. Hickling learned from 
Shabonee, sitting upon a log, in consultation. 

The paper on which this document was written was a 
half sheet of old-fashioned English foolscap paper, plainly 
watermarked " C. & S., 1813," and is as follows: 


" This is to certify, that the bearer of this name, Cham- 
"blee, was a faithful companion to me, during the late war 
with the United States. The bearer joined the late cele- 
brated warrior, Tecumthe, of the Shawnee nation, in the 
year 1807, on the Wabash River, and remained with the 
above warrior from the commencement of the hostilities 
with the United States until our defeat at Moravian Town, 
on the Thames, October 5, 1813. I also have been witness 
to his intrepidity and courageous warfare on many occa- 
sions, and he showed a great deal of humanity to those 
unfortunate sons of Mars who fell into his hands. 

AMHURSTBURG, August i, 1816. 



County Commissioners' Court, Peoria Co., December 8, 
1829. Present: Francis Thomas, George Sharp, and Isaac 

Ordered: That a License be granted to Archibald Cald- 
well, to keep a tavern at Chicago, and that he pay a tax of 
eight dollars, and be allowed the following rates, and give 
a bond with security for one hundred dollars. 

Each half-pint of wine, rum, or brandy 25 cts. 

pint ii M it ii 37/4 

half-pint gin 18^ 

pint ,. 31^ 

gill of whisky 6^ 

half-pint n 12/^2 

pint i' 18^ 

breakfast, dinner, or supper. 25 

night's lodging 12^ 

Keeping horse over night on grain and hay. . 25 

The same as above, 24 hours 37 /^ 

Horse feed 12^ 

Archibald Caldwell was born April 30, 1806, in Pearis- 
burgh, Giles Co., Va., which place he left May 10, 1827, 
with his wife, who was sister to Benjamin Hall, of Wheaton, 
DuPage Co., 111., from whom he separated, and she became 
the wife of Cole Weeks, a discharged soldier, who was a 
voter here in 1826. Mr. Caldwell arrived in Chicago, July 


i, 1827. Willis Scott married his sister, Lovisa Caldwell,. 
for his first wife. She come to Chicago with her cousin, 
Archibald Clybourn, all the way on horseback, he having 
been back to Virginia on a visit, and she made her home 
with him until married. William Ahert, who married 
Elizabeth Clark, half-sister to Clybourn, came with them to 
Laporte, Ind., and settled there. Mr. Caldwell, in 1831, 
moved to Green Bay, and, in 1834, piloted the schooner 
Jefferson from that place to Chicago, where he remained 
until 1835, an d then returned to Green Bay again. He 
re-married, and now lives as Kenosha, Shawanaw Co., Wis., 
and has ten chirdren living in the vicinity. He was cousin 
to Archibald Clybourn, his mother being a sister to Jonas 
Clybourn. He writes that he and James Kinzie built the 
house together, and he sold his interest to Kinzie, after 
living in it about one year. Whilst in Virginia, and before 
coming to Chicago, he only knew Jonas Clybourn and 
family, James Kinzie, and John K. Clarke, of those who 
settled in Chicago. The tavern was a double log-house, 
on the west side of the North Branch, a few rods up from 
the main branch. He had a sign, with a wolf painted upon 
it, but it had no name. The nearest house to his was 
Alexander Robinson's [Ghe-che-pin-gua's]; and, besides 
this, James Kinzie's store was the only building at the 
forks of the river on the West Side at that time. He claims 
that his father came from South Carolina, and was maternal 
cousin to the late Hon. John Caldwell Calhoun, and that 
the recent Senator Caldwell, of Kansas, was of the same 
family. He was an Indian trader for many years, but he 
is now a farmer. Mr. Caldwell remembers Dr. Alexander 
Wolcott and Samuel Miller as living on the North Side. 

On the South Side, were Col. John Beaubien and Russell 
E. Heacock. In 1828, some soldiers came up from St. 
Louis and occupied the Fort. 

On the West Side, about 3 miles up the South Branch, 
were living David Laughton, Barney H. Laughton, and 
Cole Weeks. 

On the West Side, about 3 miles up the North Branch, 
were living Jonas Clybourn, Archibald Clybourn, and John 
K. Clarke. ' 



June 8, 1830, Alexander Robinson [Che-che-pin-gua] 
and Mark Beaubien were licensed to keep tavern, upon 
same conditions as Archibald Caldwell. Beaubien's was at 
the Sauganash Hotel, corner of Lake and Market Streets. 
Robinson's tavern was on the West Side, near Caldwell's. 
Samuel Miller afterwards had a tavern on north side of 
river, and east side of North Branch, near the Forks. 

December 7, 1830, Russell E. Heacock was licensed to 
keep tavern at his house, about five miles from Chicago, at 
the same rate as the others. He was our first lawyer. He 
died and was buried at his homestead, about one mile below 
the Summit, on the Archer Road, in 1849, leaving several 
children. His tavern was up the South Branch, at a place 
then known as Heacock's Point. He was Justice of the 
Peace, in 1833. His tavern was on South Side, on South 
Branch of Chicago River, near the Rolling Mills, at a place 
better known, in those days, as Hardscrabble. 


Amherst C. Ransom,* June 17, 1823. 
John Kinzie, December 2, 1823. 

* This is the first Collector for Chicago, alluded to in my second 
lecture as Rousser. He was taxed as of Peoria, in 1825. He is said 
to have been a banker in Ohio, before he came to Illinois, and is re- 
ported to have gone from Peoria to Gratiot's Grove, Wis. , then to the 
lead regions, near Galena, thence to Chicago, and thence to Arkansas, 
where he died. He is said to have had brothers-in-law, Elisha or 
Josiah Fish or Fisk and Edmund Weed, taxed in Peoria Co., in 1825. 
Weed afterwards lived at Racine, Wis. 


Billy Caldwell, [Sauganash], April 18, 1826. 
James Walker, [lived at Plainfield], April 18, 1826. 
Alexander Wolcott, [Indian Agent], December 26, 1827. 
John B. Beaubien, [General], December 26, 1827. 
John S. C. Hogan, [Post-Master], October 9, 1830. 
Stephen Forbes, [First Sheriff], December 13, 1830. 




Peoria County Court, September 6, 1825. 

Ordered : That the first precinct contain all that part 
of the County east of the mouth of the DuPage River, 
where it empties its waters into the Aux Plaines River, and 
that the elections be held at the Agency House, or Cob- 
Aveb's Hall. [Mrs. Kinzie, in her " Waubun," speaks of 
"Cobweb Castle" as a nick-name for the Indian Agency 
House, southwest corner of Wolcott (now State) and North 
Water Streets, on North Side.] 

At the same time, Ordered: 

That Archibald Clybourn be appointed Constable 
in and for the County of Peoria, and that the Clerk of this 
County take his official bond. 

Fulton County Court, June 3, 1823. 

Ordered: That the Assessor levy a tax on all personal 
property (household furniture excepted), and on all town 
lots, of 50 cents upon the $100. 
June 7, 1825. 

Ordered: That there be paid out of the County 
Treasury, to Abner Eads, the sum of $11.42, in State paper, 
being the amount deducted from his account, for tax col- 
lected at Chicago. 

This shows that the valuation at Chicago, in 1823, was 
$2284. This probably explains the order of April 27, 1824: 
"That Abner Eads be relieved from paying the money tax 
collected at Chicago by Ransom" [Amherst C. Ransom]. 

June 1830. Archibald Caldwell, $5.50 for ironing a 
turnpike scraper. This is the first official account of our 
road improvements. Dec. 7, 1830. Henley Clybourn, $16, 
for one day's services as Clerk' of Election, and bringing the 
returns from Chicago. He was brother to Archibald 

Dec. 8, 1829, Archibald Clybourn, Samuel Millar, and John B. Beau- 
.bien were appointed Trustees Sec. 16, T. 38 N., Range 14, E. 3d P.M. 



This was the year of the Black Hawk war, and also the 
year that the cholera was first in Chicago. 


Joseph Duncan (of Jacksonville) 94 

Jonathan H. Pugh M 19 

Archibald Clybourn i 1 14 


James M. Strode (of Galena) 81 

James W. Stevensen (of Galena) 26 

J. M. Gay 4 1 1 1 

Benjamin Mills (of Galena) 1 10 i jo 

(Ly + ((jifitAA&^T^R SHERIFF. 

StepYienJForbes . jy. 106 

James ifinzie 2 108 

Elijah Wentworth, Jr 104 104 


This shows an increase of over 400 voters in two years. 

William Kinney (of Belleville) - - 201 

Robert K. McLaughlin (of Vandalia) i o 

Joseph Duncan (of Jacksonville) 309 

James Adams (of Springfield) 8 528 

James Evans 190 

Alexander M. Jenkins 190 

William B. Archer (one of our first Canal 
Commissioners, and for whom Archer 

Avenue was named) 105 

L. M. Thompkins 1486 

At this time, Cook County embraced what is now Will, 
DuPage, McHenry, and Lake Counties. 



June 2, 1829. 

Ordered: That Archibald Clybourn and Samuel 
Miller be authorized to keep a ferry across the Chicago 
River, at the lower forks, near Wolf's Point, crossing the 
river below the Northeast Branch, and to land on either 
side of both branches, to suit the convenience of persons 
wishing to cross. And that said Clybourn and Miller pay 
a tax of two dollars, and execute a bond with security for 
one hundred dollars. The rates for ferriage to be one-half 
the sum that John L. Bogardus gets at his ferry, at Peoria. 

Ordered: That the following rates be, and they are 
hereby allowed to be charged and received by the different 
ferries, by their respective owners, in this County, to wit : 

For each foot passenger 6% cts. 

n man and horse 12^ M 

it Dearborn sulkey chair, with springs 50 n 

ii one-horse wagon 25 ir 

it four-wheeled carriage, drawn by two 

oxen or horses 37^ " 

ii cart with two oxen 37 /^ " 

M head of neat cattle or mules 10 n 

ii hog, sheep, or goat 3 n 

ii hundredweight of goods, wares, and 
merchandize, each bushel of grain 

or other article sold by the bushel 6^ n 
And all other articles in equal and just proportion. 

County Commissioners' Court of Peoria Co., June Term, 

Ordered: That William See [Rev.] be allowed to 
keep a ferry across the " Callimink " [now South Chicago], 
at the head of Lake Michigan, pay a tax of two dollars, and 
charge the following rates : 

Each foot passenger . $ 12}^ 

n man and horse 25 

ii wagon or cart drawn by two horses or 

oxen 75 

n four-horse wagon r oo 

M one-horse carriage or wagon 37/4 

Passed on 7th day of June, 1830. 



This Rev. Wm. See was a Methodist clergyman, and, according to 
the Peoria records, the first clergyman of any kind to perform the mar- 
riage ceremony at Chicago. He removed to Racine, Wis., where he 
died. Our James Kinzie, who also died there, married a daughter of 
his for his first wife. Mrs. Kinzie speaks of Mr. See, in her " Wau- 
bun." James Kinzie's second wife was Virginia, daughter of Isaiah 
Hale, of Virginia. 


Erroneous statements, like the following, have found their 
way not only into newspapers, but also into books: 

"The property of Chicago was taxed, in 1827, by the 
County of Vermillion, in this State, in whose limits it then 
stood, at a trifle above $3, and Sheriff Reed paid it from his 
own pocket, rather than make the trip from Danville to 
collect it." 

Now, the County of Vermillion was created by act of the 
Legislature, January 18, 1826. Sec. i of the act denned 
the boundaries as follows: "Beginning on the State line 
between Illinois and Indiana, at the northeast corner of 
Edgar County, thence west with the line dividing townships 
number sixteen and seventeen, to the southwest comer of 
township seventeen, north of range ten, east of the third 
principal meridian, thence north to the northwest corner 
of township twenty-two north, thence east to the State line, 
thence south with the State line to the place of beginning." 

Sec. 7 of the same act provides further, as follows: "That 
all that tract of country lying east of range six, east of the 
third principal meridian, west and north of Vermillion Co., 
as far north as the Illinois and Kankakee Rivers, be, and the 
same is hereby attached to said Vermillion Co., for all county 

At the first election in Vermillion Co., held March 6, 
1826, William Reed had 57 votes, and Moses B. Vance 
23 votes, for Sheriff. This Sheriff Reed may have supposed 
that he had jurisdiction in Cook Co., but may never have 
attempted to exercise it, for the reason stated. 

The act forming Peoria Co. was approved January 13, 
1825, and Chicago was assessed for that year in Peoria Co. 
No other assessment for Chicago, in Peoria Co. nor in 
Vermillion Co., can be found; but all the marriage licenses 
were taken out at Peoria, our Judges of Election appointed 
there, and election returns made there, until the organiza- 
tion of Cook Co.; and the records of Vermillion Co. show 
no attempt at jurisdiction over Cook Co. 



By John Kinzie, Jan. 2, 1827, Peter LeClair [Peresh Leclerc?] to 
Margaretta Peehequetarouri or (the writing may be) Perheguetaroui. 

By Jesse Walker, a regular minister of Methodist Episcopal Church, 
May 3, 1828, Vetal Vermit, at the house of David Walker, to Cornelia 
Walker. This marriage was at Ottawa, 111., and the parties never 
lived in Chicago. Vermit was a ferryman at Ottawa, and his widow 
now lives at Thornton, Cook Co., 111. 

By John B. Beaubien, Nov. 5, 1828, Joseph Pothier and Victoria 

By Isaac Scarret, a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
July 21, 1829, John K. Clarke to Permelia, daughter of Stephen J. 
Scott, at the same time and place with her brother Williard Scott. 

By Isaac Scarrett, missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Holderman's Grove [now Newark, Kendall Co.], July 21, 1829, Wil- 
liard Scott to Caroline, daughter of Pierce Hawley. Mr. Hawley was. 
originally from Vermont. He and his brother, Aaron, were taxed in 
Fox River [Precinct No. 2, of Peoria Co.], in 1825. 

By Rev. Wm. See, Nov. i, 1830, Willis Scott and Lovisa B. Cald- 
well. She was sister to Archibald Caldwell, our first tavern-keeper ;. 
an emigrant from Virginia. 



(From the Louisville Advertiser, of July 2j, 1832.) 
The following is the latest o'fficial intelligence from Chicago. We are 

indebted to a commercial friend for it : 

HEADQUARTERS N. W. ARMY, Chicago, July 75, 1832. 

SIR : To prevent or correct the exaggerations of rumor in respect 
to the existence of cholera at this place, I address myself to your Ex- 
cellency. Four steamers were engaged at Buffalo, to transport United- 
States troops and supplies to Chicago. In the headmost of these boats, 
the Sheldon Thompson, I, with my Staff and four companies, a part of 
Col. Eustis' command, arrived here on the night of the loth inst. On 
the 8th, all on board were in high health and spirits, but the next 
morning, six cases of undoubted cholera presented themselves. The 
disease rapidly spread itself for the next three days. About one hun- 
dred and twenty persons have been affected. Under a late Act of Con- 
gress, six companies of rangers are to be raised, and marched to this- 
place. Gen. [Henry] Dodge, of Michigan,* [Senator,] [then embrac- 
ing Dodgeville, Wis.] is appointed Major of the battalion, and I have 
seen the names of the Captains, but I do not know where to address 
them. I am afraid that the report from this place, in respect to cholera, 
may seriously retard the raising of, this force. I wish, therefore, that 
your Excellency would give publicity to the measures I have adopted 
to prevent the spread of this disease, and of my determination not to- 
allow any junction or communication between uninfected and infected 
troops. The war is not at an end, and may not be brought to a close 
for some time. The rangers may reach the theatre of operations in 

* Michigan then embraced what is now Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Major 
Dodge, better known as Gen. Dodge, was afterwards Governor of Wisconsin, and 
was U.S. Senator. He was father of Hon. Augustus C. Dodge, Burlington, Iowa. 


time to give the final blow. As they approach this place, I shall take 
care of their health and general wants. 

I write in great haste, and may not have time to cause my letter to 
be copied. It will be put in some post-office to be forthwith forwarded. 

I have the honor to be, your Excellency's most obedient servant-, 




NELSON R. NORTON, of Alden, Freeborn Co., Minnesota, under 
date of August 25, 1876, writes as follows: 

I came to Chicago Nov. 16, 1833. Soon after I arrived, I com- 
menced cutting the lumber for a drawbridge, on the land adjoining 
Michigan Avenue, afterwards owned by Hiram Pearsons. In March, 
1834, I commenced building it, and I think it was completed by the 
first of June. The first Steam- Boat that passed through it was the old 
Michigan, with a double engine, commanded by Capt. C-Blake, and 
owned by Oliver Newberry, of Detroit. *"~ 

Credit me with building the first vessel at Chicago. I built the 
sloop Clarissa, in the spring of 1835. This was the first sail vessel 
launched on the west side of Lake Michigan, if not the first on the lake. 

The first freight taken down the Lakes was in 1834, being a lot of 
hides, from cattle that had been slaughtered for the Government troops. 

I was born at Hampton, Washington Co., N.Y., on Nov. 8, 1807. 

The bridge had an opening of 60 feet, with a double draw. I think,, 
the length was 300 feet. This is the best of my recollection. The 
width was 16 feet. It was located at Dearborn Street. I cannot state 
the cost of the bridge. 

I removed from Chicago in the spring of 1839. The militia of 
Cook County was organized in 1834, by the election of John B. Beau- 
bien as Colonel, at the tavern owned by Barney H. Lawton, near 
Lyons, on the DesPlaines River [now Riverside; then kept by Stephen 
J. Scott]. Respectfully yours, NELSON R. NORTON. 



Whilst Chicago was a part of Peoria Co., it was divided into four 
precincts or voting-places. The first included all territory north of the 
confluence of the DuPage and DesPlaines Rivers, and was called Chi- 
cago. Directly south of it was the second precinct, called Fox River ; 
south of which was the third precinct, called Peoria ; embracing all the 
settlements noted in the following list, except Chicago and Fox River. 
Then there was a fourth precinct, embracing all the territory west of 
the other three, known as Fever River, with a voting-place at or near 
what is now Galena. The following list does not contain the names of 
any person in the latter precinct. There were' fourteen tax-payers in 
Chicago, and six in Fox River ; which included the present sites of 
Morris, Ottawa, LaSalle, Peru, etc. John Dixon, then Clerk of the 
County Commissioners' Court of Peoria Co,, was born Oct. 9, 1784, at 
Rye, Westchester Co., N. Y., died at Dixon, Lee Co., 111., July 6, 1876. 



A very, Elias P., LaSalle Prairie, $ 200 oo 


Hamlin, John, Peoria, $ 400 oo 

Alscombe, Antoine, Trading House, 50 oo 

Holland, William, Peoria, 800 oo 

Allen, Archibald, Peoria, 150 oo 

Hy4e, E. & N., Peoria, 700 oo 

Beaubien, John B., Chicago, 1000 oo 

Hawley, Aaron, Fox River, 200 oo 

Beauchamp, Sr., Noah, Peoria, 20000 

Hawley, Pierce, Fox River, 300 oo 

Beauchamp, Jr., Noah, Peoria, 100 oo 

Harlin, Joshua, Farm Creek, 150 oo 

Barker, John, Peoria, 400 oo 

Harlin, George, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo 

Bourbonne, Francis, Trading House, 200 oo 

Hallock, Lewis, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo 

Blanchard, William, Ten Mile, 15000 

Hunter, Jacob M., Peoria, 5000 

Bethard, Elza, Ten Mile, 275 oo 

Ish, George, Farm Creek, 250 oo 

Bratton, Reuben, Ten Mile, 135 oo 

Kinzie, John, Chicago, 500 oo 

Banks, Thomas, Ten Mile, 50 oo 

Love, Charles, Peoria, 150 oo 

Baresford, Robert, Fox River, 50 oo 

Love, George, near Little Detroit, 350 oo 

Brierly, Thomas, near Little Detroit, 160 oo 

Langworthy, Augustus, Peoria, 200 oo 

Bogardus, John L., Peoria, 50000 

Latham, J,, Peoria, 300 oo 

Bryant, Joseph, Peoria, 300 oo 

Latham, Philip, Peoria, zoc oo 

Beabor, Louis, Trading House, 700 oo 

Like, Daniel, Peoria, 50 oo 

Bourbonne, Jr., Frs., Trading House, 100 oo 

LaFramboise, Joseph, Chicago, 50 oo 

Brown, Cornelius, Peoria, 150 oo 

LaFramboise, C., Chicago, 100 oo 

Barker, Andrew, Farm Creek, 100 oo 

Latta, James, Illinois Prairie, 20000 

Clybourn, Jonas, Chicago, 625 oo 

Montgomery, Hugh, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo 

Clarke, John K., Chicago, 250 oo 

McNaughton, Alex., Mackinaw Point, 150 oo 

Crafts, John, Chicago, 5000 oo 

Moffatt, Alva, Peoria, 60 oo 

Carroll, Stephen, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo 

Moffatt, Aquilla, Peoria, 40 oo 

Cline, George, Illinois Prairie, 70 oo 

Mather, David, Ten Mile, 20000 

Cline, John, Illinois Prairie, 264 oo 

McCormick, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 50 oo 

Cromwell, Nathan, Illinois Prairie, 300 oo 

McKee, David, Chicago, 100 oo 

Curry, Hiram M., Ten Mile, 22500 

McLaree, Jesse, Peoria, 25 oo 

Cooper, Abner, near Little Detroit, 120 oo 

Neeley, Henry, Peoria, 150 oo 

Crocker, Austin, Farm Creek, 200 oo 

Ogee, Joseph, Illinois Prairie, 200 oo 

Camlin, Thomas, Farm Creek, 300 oo 

Perkins, Isaac, Illinois Prairie, 400 oo 

Clermont, Jerry, Chicago, . 100 oo 

Phillips. John and William, Ten Mile, 400 oo 

Coutra, Louis, Chicago, 50 oo 

Patterson, John, Prince's Grove, 20 oo 

Countraman, Fred, Fox River. 50 oo 

Prince, Daniel, Prince's Grove, 200 oo 

Dougherty, Allen S. , Mackinaw Point, 100 oo 

Porter, Martin, Peoria, 100 oo 

Dillon, Walter, Mackinaw Point, 250 oo 

Piche, Peter, Chicago, 100 oo 

Dillon, Nathan, Mackinaw Point, 400 oo 

Redman, Eli, Mackinaw Point, 35 oo 

Dillon, Absalom, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo 

Redman, Henry, Mackinaw Point, 35 oo 

Dillon, Thomas, Mackinaw Point, 300 oo 

Ridgeway, John, LaSalle Prairie, 100 oo 

Dillon, Jesse, Mackinaw Point, 727 oo 

Robinson, Alexander, Chicago, 200 oo 

Dillon, John, Mackinaw Point, 93 oo 

Ransom, Amherst C. , Peoria, 100 oo 

Davis, William, Mackinaw Point, 200 oo 

Ramsay, John L., Fox River, 20000 

Dixon, John, Peoria, 350 oo 

Sommers, Jt>hn, Illinois Prairie, 300 oo 

DuMont, Peter, Little Detroit, 50 oo 

Scott, Peter, Mackinaw Point, 50 oo 

Donahoue, Major, Ten Mile, 200 oo 

Smith, Joseph, Farm Creek, 550 oo 

Egman, Jesse, Illinois Prairie, 100 oo 

Sharp, George, Peoria, 608 oo 

Eads, William, Peoria, 350 oo 

Stephenson, John, Ten Mile, 40 oo 

Eads, Abner, Peoria, 800 oo 

Stout, Ephriam, Sr. & Jr., 111. Prairie, 500 oo 

Ellis, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 25 oo 

Walker, Jesse, Fox River, 50 oo 

Clark, William, Illinois Prairie, 250 oo 

Thorp, Jonathan, Illinois Prairie, 100 oo 

Field, Gilbert, LaSalle Prairie, 150 oo 

Turner, Ezekiel, Illinois Prairie, 150 oo 

French, Stephen, Farm Creek, 200 oo 

Van Scoyk, Joseph, Peoria, ;fo oo 

Fulton, Samuel, Peoria, 300 oo 

Walker, Hugh, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo 

Fulton, James, Farm Creek, 12 50 

Wolcott, Alexander, Chicago, 572 oo 

Fulton, Josiah, Farm Creek, 150 oo 

Wilmette, Antoine, Chicago, 400 oo 

Fulton, Seth, Ten Mile, 100 oo 

Weed, Edmond, Ten Mile, 174 oo 

Fish, Elisha, Farm Creek, 2od oo 

Wilson, Seth, Illinois Prairie, 200 oo 

Funk, Jacob, Farm Creek, 500 oo 

Wilson, Jacob, Ten Mile, 30000 

Funk, Isaac, Peoria, 200 oo 

Woodrow, Samuel, Illinois Prairie, 15000 

Griffin, John, LaSalle Prairie, 50 oo 

Woodrow, Hugh, Illinois Prairie, 250 oo 

Gilbert, Levi, Illinois Prairie, 25 oo 

Waters, Isaac, Peoria, TOO oo 

Harrison, Jesse, Peoria, 50 oo 

Total, $30,455 50 

Smith, William. I called on him for the amount of personal property. He refused to 
render the same. As near as I can ascertain, it amounts to $150. 

I, John L. Bogardus, do hereby certify that the above is the assessment for the year 
1825. JOHN L. BOGARDUS, Assessor. 

To John Dixon, Esq., Clerk of County Commissioners' Court. 

P.S. Amount received for tavern license, $20. 



EARLY CHICAGO:" -First Lecture, 

(No. 8 of Fergus' Historical Series.) 


Delivered Sunday, April II, 1875. 
[This Index was prepared by Mr. Wentsvorth, August, 1881.] 


Adams, James, 43. 

Adams, John, 12. 

Adams, John Q., 5, 17. 

Ahert, William, 35, 40. 

Allen, Archibald, 48. 

Allouez, Claude, 8. 

Alscomb, E. Antoine, 48. 

Archer, William B., 43. 

AuSable, Jean Baptiste Point, 14, 15. 

Avery, Elias P., 48. 


Bancroft, George, 4. 

Bane, Sarah, 34. 

Banks, Thomas, 48. 

Barney, Sarah, 36. 

Baresford, Robert, 48. 

Barker, Andrew, 48. 

Barker, John, 48. 

Bates, George C., 24. 

Bauskey, Joseph, 36. 

Beabor, Louis, 48. 

Beaubien, Alexander, 24. 

Beaubien, John Baptiste, 15, 24, 28, 

34, 36, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 48. 
Beaubien, Mark, 21, 26, 41. 
Beauchamp, Noah, sr., 48. 
Beauchamp, Noah, jr., 48. 
Bethard, Elza, 48. 
Bismark, Prince, 6. 
Black Hawk (Indian chief), 22, 25, 

26, 27, 30, 34, 38, 43. 

Blake, Capl. Chelsey, 47. 
Blanchard, William, 48. 
Bogardus, John L., 44, 48. 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 7, 9, 23. 
Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon, 9, 13, 


Bond, Shadrack, 24. 
Bourbonne, Francis, sr., 48. 
Bourbonne, Francis, jr., 48. 
Braddock, Gen. , 12. 
Bratton, Reuben, 48. 
Brierly, Thomas, 48. 
Brown, Cornelius, 48. 
Brown, Henry, 4. 
Brown, Gen. Jacob, 22. 
Brown, Stephen, 34. 
Bryant, Joseph, 48. 
Bull, John, 10. 


Caldwell, Archibald, 33, 34, 39, 40, 

41, 42, 46. 
Caldwell, Billy (Sauganash, Indian 

chief), 38, 39, 41. 
Caldwell, Lovisa B., 36, 40, 46. 
Caldwell, Alexander, 40. 
Caldwell, Susan, (only child), 38. 
Calhoun, John C., 40. 
Camlin, Thomas, 48. 
Carroll, Stephen, 48. 
Casey, Zadoc, 28. 
Cass, Lewis, 6, 14, 25. 
Caton, John Dean, 34. 


Chamblee (Shabonee, Indian chief), 
22, 23, 38, 39. 

Che-che-pin-qua (Alexander Robin- 
son, Indian chief), 40, 41, 48. 

Clarissa (sloop), 47. 

Clark, , 35. 

Clark, Elizabeth, 35, 40. 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 7, 9, 13, 

Clark, Hadassah, 36. 

Clark, John K., 33, 35, 36, 40, 46, 

Clark, William, 48. 

Clay, Henry, 17. 

Clermont, Jerry, 48. 

Cline, George, 48. 

Cline, John, 48. 

Clybourn, Archibald, 25, 33, 34, 35, 
40, 42, 43, 44. 

Clybourn, Henly, 33, 35, 42. 

Clybourn, Jonas, 33, 35, 40, 48. 

Clybourn, Thomas, 34. 

Coles, Edward, 24. 

Columbus, Christopher, 4. 

Cooper, Abner, 48. 

Countraman, Frederick, 48. 

Coutra, Louis, 48. 

Crafts, John, 48. 

Crocker, Austin, 48. 

Cromwell, Nathan, 48. 

Curry, Hiram M., 48. 


Aramosa, 34. ( 


g, Lucius R., 37. 
Davis, Jefferson, 17, 18. 
Davis, William, 48. 
Dearborn, Henry, 14. 
Dejoinville, Prince, 12. 
Deroshee, John, 37. 
DeSoto, Fernando, 4. 
Dillon, Absalom, 48. 
Dillon, Jesse, 48. 
Dillon, John, 48. 
Dillon, Nathan, 48. 
Dillon, Thomas, 48. 
Dillon, Walter, 48. 
Dixon, John, 47, 48. 
Dodge, Henry, 46. 
Dodge, Augustus C., 46. 
Donahoue, Major, 48. 
Dougherty, Allen S., 48. 

Douglas, Stephen A., 30. 
DuMont, Peter, 48. 
Duncan, Joseph, 43. 


Eads, Abner, 42, 48. 
Eads, William, 48. 
Economy (fire-engine), 3. 
Edwards, Ninian, 15. 
Egan, William B., 28, 29. 
Egman, Isaac, 39. 
Egman, Jesse, 48. 
Ellis, Levi, 48. 
Eustis, Col. Abraham, 46. 
Evans, James, 43. 
Everett, David, 37. 


Fassett, Samuel M., 2. 

Fergus, Robert, 2, 32. 

F. [Fergus], 2. 

Fergus Printing Company, 33 

Field, Gilbert, 48. 

Fish, Elisha, 41, 48. 

Fish, Josiah, 41. 

Fisk, Elisha. 41. 

Fisk,toiatfUi y v*" V 

Forbes,^fepherf, 41-43. ^ 

Frontenac, Gen. Louis DeBuade, 10. 

Fulton, James, 48. 

Fulton, Josiah, 48. 

Fulton, Samuel, 48. 

Fulton, Seth, 48. 

Funk, Isaac, 48. 

Funk, Jacob, 48. 


Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 6. 
Garrett, Augustus, 17. 
Gay, J. M., 43. 
Gilbert, Levi, 48. 
Griffin, John, 48. 
Griffin (schooner), 8. 


Hale, Isaiah, 45. 

Hale, Virginia, 45. 

Hall, Benjamin, 33, 34, 35, 39. 

Hall, Charles, 34. 

Hall, David, ST., 34, 35. 



Hall, David, jr., 33, 34. 
Hall, Edward B., 34. 
Hall, J. R., 34- 
Hallock, Lewis, 48. 
Hamlin, John, 48. 
Hanson, Rev. , 12. 
Harlin, George, 48. 
Harlin, Joshua, 
Harrison, Jesse, 48. 
Harrison, William H., 14, 19, 21, 22. 
Hawley, Aaron, 46, 48. 
Hawley, Caroline, 36, 46. 
Hawley, Pierce, 46, 48. 
Heacock, Russell E., 36, 40, 
Heald, Nathan, 16. 
Healey, Geo. P. A. , 2. 
Henry Clay (steamer), 26. 
Hennepin, Louis, 8, 9. 
Henry, Patrick, 12. 
Hickling, William, 38. 
Hoge, Joseph P., 16, 32. 
Hogan, John S. C., 41. 
Holland, William, 48. 
Hubbard, Gurdon S., 3, 24, 
Hull, William, 16,21. 
Hunter, Gen. David, 25. 
Hunter, Jacob M., 48. 
. Huntington, Alonzo, 29. 
Hyde, E. & N. (firm), 48. 

25, 28. 

Ish, George, 48. 



Jackson, Andrew, 16, 17, 26. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 40. 
Jenkins, Alexander M., 43. 
Johnson, Andrew, 31. 
Johnson, Richard M., 22, 23. 
Joliet, Rev. Louis, 8. 
Joinville, Prince df, 12. 


Keating, William H., 25. 

Kimball, Walter, 28. 

Kinney, William, 43. 

Kinzie, Ellen Marion, 24. 

Kinzie, Elizabeth, 35. 

Kinzie, James, 34, 35, 40, 43, 45. 

Kinzie, John, 15, 21, 22, 24, 34, 35, 

41, 46, 48. 
Kinzie, John H., 15. 
Kinzie, Juliette A., 37, 42. 

Kinzie, Maria H., 25. 
Kinzie, Robert A., 15. 
Kinzie, W r illram, 34, 35. 


Lafayette, Marquis de, 12, 13. 

Lafromboise, Claude, 48. 

Lafromboise, Joseph, 15, 48. 

Lafromboise, Josette, 15. 

Langworthy, Augustus, 48. 

LaSalle, Robert C., 8, 9. 

Latham, J., 48. 

Latham, Philip, 48. 

Latta, James, 48. 

Laughton, Barney H., 28, 36, 40, 47. 

Laughton, David, 40. 

LeClerc, Peresh, 46. 

LeClair, Peter, 46. 

Liberty (fire-engine), 3. 

Like, Daniel, 48. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 14, 26, 27. 

Long John (fire-engine), 3. 

Louis XIV, 8. 

Louis XVI, 12. 

Louis XVII, 12. 

Love, Charles, 48. 

Love, George, 48. 


Madison, James, 9. 

Mann, John, 37. 

Maranda, Victoria, 46. 

Marquette, James, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Marshall, Humphrey, 27. 

Mather, D%vid, 48. 

Maury, W^., 1 8. 

Maximillian, Emperor, 9. 

McCormick, Levi, 48. 

McKee, David, 33, 35, 36, 48. 

McKee, Stephen J. S., 36. 

McKinzie, Elizabeth, 34, 35. 

McKinzie, Margaret, 34, 35. 

McLaree, Jesse, 48. 

McLaughlin, Robert K., 43. 

McNaughton, Alexander, 48. 

McNeil, John, 24. 

Michigan (steamboat), 47. 

Millen, Walter, 36. 

Miller, Jacob, 33, 34. 

Miller, John, 33, 34, 35. 

Miller, Samuel, 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 

42, 44. 
Mills, Benjamin, 43. 


Moffatt, Alva, 48. 
Moffatt, Aquilla, 48, 
Montgomery, Hugh, 48. 
Murphy, John, 26. 


Neeley, Henry, 48. 
Xewberry, Oliver, 47. 
Xicollet, Sieur Jean, 8. 
Norton, Nelson R., 47. 


Ogden, William B., 3, 32. 
Ogee, Joseph, 48. 

Ouilmette (Wilmette), Antoine, 24, 
37f 48. 


Pakenham, Gen. E., 16. 

Patterson, John, 48. 

Pearsons, Hiram, 47. 

Pearson, John, 29. 

Pee-he-que-ta-rou-ri, Margaretta, 46, 

Perkins, Isaac, 48. 

Perry, Commodore Oliver H., 22. 

Phillippe, Louis, 12. 

Phillips, John, 48. 

Phillips, William, 48. 

Piche, Peter, 48. 

Polk, James K., 17. 

Porter, Martin, 48. 

Pothier, Joseph, 46. 

Powell, George N., 34. 

Prince, Daniel, 48. 

Proctor, Gen. Henry A., 21. 

Pugh, Jonathan H., 43. 

Putnam's Magazine, 12. 


Ramsay, John L., 48. 

Ransom (or Rousser), Amherst C., 

41, .42, 48. 
Redman, Eli, 48. 
Redman, Henry, 48. 
Reed Charles H., 29. 
Reed, William, 45. 
Reynolds, John, 46. 
Ridgeway, John, 48. 
Robinson, Alexander (Che-che-pin- 

qua, Indian chief), 40, 41, 48. 
Rousser (or Ransom), A. C., 48. 


Sambli, Arkash, 37. 

Sauganash (Billy Caldwell, Indian 

chief), 38, 39, 41. 
Scarrett, JRev. Isaac, 46. 
Scott, Alice Lovisa, 36. 
Scott, Alvin, 36. 
Scott, Deborah, 36. 
Scott, Peter, 48. 
Scott, Permelia, 36, 46. 
Scott, Stephen J., 36, 46-47. 
Scott, Thaddeus, 36. 
Scott, Wealthy, 36. 
Scott, Williard, 36-46. 
Scott, Williard, jr., 36. 
Scott, Willis, 36, 40, 46. 
Scott, William H., 36. 
Scott, Gen. Winfield, 26, 27, 34, 46, 


See, Rev. William, 44, 45, 46. 
Shabonee (Chamblee, Indian chief), 

22, 23, 38, 39. 
Sharp, George, 39, 48. 
Sheldon (schooner), 36. 
Sheldon Thompson (steamboat), 27, 


Sherwood, Capt.- , 36. 

Smith, Joseph, 48. 
Smith, William, 48. 
Sommers, John, 48. 
Stevensen, James W., 43. 
Stephenson, John, 48. 
Stewart, William, 29. 
Storey, Wilbur F. , 29. 
Stout, Ephriam, 48. 
Strode, James M., 43. 
Stuart, John T., 30. 


Taylor, Edmund D., 25, 28. 
Tecumapeance, sister to Tecumseh, 

Tecumseh (Indian chief), 22, 23, 25, 

38, 39- 

Thomas, Francis, 39. 
Thompkins, L. M., 43. 
Thorp, Jonathan, 48. 
Tonti, Henry de, 8, 9. 
Trask, Hadassah, 36. 
Turner, Ezekiel, 48. 


YanBuren, Martin, 22. 



Vance, Moses, B., 45. 
VanScoyk, Joseph, 48. 
Vermit, Vital, 46. 


Walker, Alfred, 37. 

Walker, Capt. A., 27. 

Walker, Cornelia, 46. 

Walker, David, 37, 46. 

Walker, George E., 38. 

Walker, Hugh, 48. 

Walker, Capt. James, 37-41. 

Walker, James, 37. 

Walker, Jesse, 25, 33, 37, 38, 46, 48. 

Walker, John, 37. 

Walk-in-the- Water (steamboat), 24. 

Warrington, Arthur, 36. 

Wasegoboah (Indian chief), 38. 

Washington, George, 9, 12, 13. 

Waters, Isaac, 48. 

Watkins, Munson, 36. 

Wayne, Anthony, 9, 13. 

Weed, Edmond, 41, 48. 

Weeks, Cole, 39, 40. 

Welch, Michael, 37. 

Welch, Mary Ann, 37. 

Wells, William, 19. 
Wentworth, Elijah, sr., 26. 
Wentworth, Elijah, jr., 43. 
Wentworth, John, 2, 3, 17, 20. 
Whistler, William, 24. 
Williams, Eleazer, n. 
Williams, Eli B., 30. 
Williams, Erastus $., 29. 
Wilmette (Ouilmette), Antoine, 24 

37, 48. 

Wilmette, Elizabeth, 37. 
Wilmette, Francis, 37. 
Wilmette, Joseph, 37. 
Wilmette, Josette, 37. 
Wilmette, Louis, 37. 
Wilmette, Mitchell, 37. 
Wilmette, Sophia, 37. 
Wilson, Jacob, 48. 
Wilson, Seth, 48. 

Wolcott, Alexander, 24, 40, 41, 48 
Woodrow, Hugh, 48. 
Woodrow, Samuel, 48. 


Vellow Head (Indian chief), 38. 





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