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Full text of "Early concert-life in America (1731-1800)"

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EARLY 
CONCERT-LIFE IN AMERICA 

(1731-1800) 



0. GL SONNECK 




LEIPZIG 

BREITKOPF & HARTEL 
1907 



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200 
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664288 



TO MY WIFE 



PREFACE. 



WITH this book I attempt to lay the historical foundations of one im- 
portant side of our country's musical life. Intended as a source-book, it 
is addressed to those seriously interested in musical history and it is cast in a 
form peculiar to source-books, which necessarily resemble mosaics and 
mosaics are not to everybody's taste. While I have taken pains to leave 
as little dust as possible on these pages, I fear that they lack that literary 
brilliancy which makes, at first reading, even a poor book attractive. Those 
sterner critics who will take issue with me on that score I beg to remember 
how very difficult a task it is to turn a virgin- forest into a garden. 

On the other hand, as this work is addressed to the student more than 
to the amateur, his familiarity with the history of music in Europe was 
taken for granted. Therefore European conditions were discussed only 
where I disagreed with current doctrines, where a European background 
was necessary for the proper historical perspective, or, where danger-signals 
might be helpful. References to early opera in America were kept as brief 
as possible because I hope to complete a comprehensive essay on this sub- 
ject before long. For the same reason, other topics, bearing indirectly on 
our early concert life, were kept in the- background. Similarly, biogra- 
phical and bibliographical data were included in so far only as they seemed 
called for or affected the biographical notes given in the index to my 
Bibliography of Early Secular American Music. 

In order to preserve as much of the eighteenth century flavor as possible, 
names have been spelled as they appeared in my sources and only, when it 
would have been cruel to let the reader wrestle with the printer's devil, 
have I adopted the form now commonly used. Probably it will also prevent 
confusion if I remark that, as a rule and for obvious reasons, not the earliest 
announcements but those nearest to the date fixed for the concert have 
been quoted. 

The data on concerts given in our country until 1750 have been published 
in form of a separate article in the New Music Review, 1906. 

Washington, D. C., May 6, 1906. 

O. G. Sonneck. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
INTRODUCTION 1 

CHARLESTON AND THE SOUTH 10 

Charleston S. C.: 17321765 The St. Coecilia Society 17661775 
17811800; Annapolis, Md.; Baltimore, Md.; Williamsburg, Va., Fredericks- 
burg, Va., Petersburg, Va., Norfolk, Va., Richmond, Va., Alexandria, Va., 
Savannah, Ga., New Orleans, La. 

PHILADELPHIA 65 

1757 1776: Francis Hopkinson, James Bremner and Giovanni Gualdo's 
concerts ; The War of the Revolution ; (John Bentley's) City Concert 17831788, 
1792 1793; How the history of music in America should not be written; 
Duplessis' subscription concerts; The Amateur concert 1786 1791; Amateurs 
and Professional Concert, 1794; Mrs. Grattan's Ladies Concert, 17961798; 
Summer concerts 17861800; Andrew Adgate, the Uranian Academy, its 
Uranian Concerts, and other choral concerts; Benefit concerts 1783 1800; 
'Lectures, moral and entertaining' and other Theatre - concerts ; Bethlehem, Pa. 

NEW YORK 158 

1733 1760: The first subscription concerts; Ranelagh Garden concerts 
and other open-air entertainments; Benefit concerts 1762 1775; Herman 
Zedtwitz, William Tuckey, the pioneer of choral concerts and the first American 
performance of the Messiah; The War of the Revolution; William Brown's 
New York Subscription Concerts, 17851786, 17881792; the Subscription 
Concert of Hewitt etc. 17921793 ; The City Concert and the Old City Concert, 
17931798; Musical Societies; Summer concerts, 17931800; Benefit concerts 
17861800; New Jersey; Albany. 

BOSTON AND NEW ENGLAND 250 

17311761; Subscription concerts 17611775; "Public" concerts at 
Concert Hall, 17631773; Benefit concerts 17671775; Josiah Flagg; James 
Juhan; W. S. Morgan; William Selby, Bostons' princeps musices; The Musical 
Society of Boston, 17861789; Subscription concerts, 17901793; Benefit 
concerts 1779 1800; General remarks on music in New England; Salem, Mass. ; 
Newport, R. I. ; Providence, R. I. and other cities of the North ; Hartford, Conn. 

CONCLUSION 324 

INDEX.. 



INTRODUCTION. 



JOHN BANISTER is generally credited with having given the first public 
concert to which admission was gained by way of payment. After 
losing his place at the English court, he hired "over against the George 
Tavern in White Friars", London, a room with "a large raised box for the 
musitians, whose modesty required curtains", as Roger North puts it in 
his Memoirs, and advertised the first of his daily public afternoon- concerts 
for Dec. 30, 1672 *). But it has always appeared rather incredible to me 
that the democratic idea of public concerts should have taken concrete 
form at so late a date. In view of the fact that about forty years only had 
elapsed since the discovery of opera when public opera was introduced at 
Venice in 1637, this sceptical attitude towards tradition will be pardoned 
if it is further remembered that concerts, in one form or the other, certainly 
antedated the birth of opera and became indispensible to the happiness 
of music-lovers during the seventeenth century. 

Mr. Louis C. Elson is the possessor of the constitution, list of members, 
etc. in a latin manuscript volume pertaining to a musical club which existed, 
as the entries prove, at least from 1560 to 1588 presumably at Amsterdam, 
the members frequently joining with distinguished visitors in consort 2 ). 
That this was not the earliest musical society on record, the term implying 
performances of music, in other words, concerts, goes without saying as 
in Bologna and Milan such existed under the venerable name of Accademia 
as early as 1482 and 1484 and rapidly increased there and elsewhere until 
in the seventeenth century some Italian cities possessed three or four 3 ). 
In France, as Brenet pointed out in her admirable book on 'Les Concerts 
en France sous 1'ancien regime', the poet Jean Antoine de Baif and the 
musician Joachim Thibaut de Courville founded not later than 1567 the 
Academic de Baif, receiving therefore lettres patentes in 1570 and though 
mixed literary-musical entertainments were offered to the members, yet 



1) See Davey's History of English Music. 

2) Described in the Musician, 1904, p. 464 though Mr. Elson did not take cognizance 
of the great importance of his find for the history of musical societies. 

3) Grove, New ed., article Academia. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 1 



we may see in this academy the cradle of concerts at Paris. Nor did the 
provincial towns remain in the rear of the movement for very long as such 
academies, though their financial and material side escaped even the scru- 
tinizing eye of Brenet, were frequent throughout France about 1625 and 
in Mersenne's time (1588 1648) assemblies de concerts evidently were a 
common occurrence. 

In the German speaking countries such musical societies seem to have 
been of somewhat later origin, though the Cantorey Gesellschaften and 
their antipodes, the convivial gatherings at which the rollicking Quod- 
libets were sung, did much to pave the way for the Collegia Musica, the 
term originally being merely the latin for "eine musikalische Zusammen- 
kunft" (Walther) and not implying an academic flavor. In Switzerland 
the first Collegium Musicum with weekly meetings has been traced by Nef 
to Zurich and to the year 1613, others soon following in other Swiss towns. 
A few years later, in 1616, Prague saw a similar club spring into existence; 
Philip Spitta has entertainingly written of the Musikalische Societat of 
1617 at Miihlhausen, and so on until Germany, like France, was well sup- 
plied with musical societies whose members to their own and their guests' 
delight played and sang the music of their times, as becomes sensible ama- 
teurs, without pretensions to virtuosity, this probably being true even of 
the famous Collegium Musicum founded by Mathias Weckmann and "zween 
vornehme Liebhaber der Musik" at Hamburg in 1660 *). 

In England the movement appears to have set in not later than 1600, 
otherwise Dekker's line in 'A Knights Coniuring' of 1607 

"To this consort roome resort none but the children of Phoebus (poets and 
musitions)" 

would be incomprehensible. A few decades later, Pepys mentions in his 
diary a concert at 'The Mitre' in 1659 60 with no hint that concerts were 
still a novelty (Davey). This impression is strengthened by Koger North 
who describes the weekly meetings held in a tavern near St. Paul's 

, , Where there was a chamber organ that one Phillips played upon, and some 
shop keepers and foremen [apparently forming a musical club!] came weekly to 
sing in concert, and to hear and enjoy ale and tobacco, and after some time the 
company grew strong." 



1) Not 1668 as generally stated. See Max Seiffert's 'Mathias Weckmann und das 
Collegium Musicum in Hamburg' (Sbde. d. IMG. 19001901, p. 76127). This Colle- 
gium Musicum of 1660 is said to have been the first founded in Germany, but I am 
confident that others will be found to antedate it, once an exhaustive history of musical 
societies in Germany is attempted. Thus, for instance, Alfred Heuss recently drew 
attention to a remark in Mattheson's Ehrenpforte which would lead to infer that Jodocus 
Willichius founded one at Frankfurt a. d. Oder towards the end of the sixteenth century 
and it is also well known that such literary clubs as Harsdorfer's Hirten und Blumen 
Orden an der Pegnitz (1642) in Niirnberg resembled the Academic de Baif in the com- 
bination of literary and musical interests. 



Finally Anthony Wood who was at Oxford University in 1651 has left 
us a vivid account of the practice of chamber music for viols at Oxford 
where he went to a weekly meeting of musicians, amateurs and professionals, 
combining into a band of over sixten performers. 

Of this weekly music meeting, Hawkins remarked in his History of 
Music, after enumerating the names of the "Noblemen", "Drs" (Doctors), 
"Masters" and "Strangers" who constituted it in 1665 that it 

. . . was the first subscription concert of which any account is to be met with: 
indeed it seems to have been the only association of the sort in the kingdom ; the reason 
of this might be, that the pretenders to the love of music were not then so numerous 
as they have been of late years. A concert was formerly a serious entertainment, 
at which such only as had a real and genuine affection for music assembled . . . 

Selected at random as these notes are, they suffice to prove that the idea 
of musical cooperation had gained root in Europe before the period with 
which this book occupies itself. Now the concerts given by the musical 
clubs whether they cultivated vocal or instrumental music or both, were 
public only in so far as the members chose to extend admission by way 
of invitation, the guests, as for instance in Switzerland, appreciating the 
courtesy with substantial souvenirs. Still less public were, of course, the 
concerts given by kings, princes and noblemen at their courts and palaces 
to the aristocratic world, but rumors of the splendour of Cromwell's 
State Concerts, for instance, or of the daily concerts and spectacles 
at Versailles must have spread into the masses and our innate desire for 
forbidden fruit certainly helped to drive a democratic wedge into the 
absolute exclusiveness of the music -loving aristocracy and the relative 
exclusiveness of the bourgeoisie as maintained in their musical clubs. The 
general public had to be content with the glowing accounts of domestics, 
musicians and privileged friends except on such fairly frequent and regular 
occasions when by. order of the sovereign or the city-fathers the court-mu- 
sicians, Stadtpfeifer and Ratsmusikanten would exhibit their skill in public. 
Thus entertainments partaking of the character of public concerts were 
not altogether missing in the daily life of a people, more passionately de- 
voted to home-music of the best kind and on terms of closer social intimacy 
with the musicians than is now unfortunately the case 2 ). 



1) See Naylor Shakespeare and music, 1896, p. 12. 

2) By the way, those who, a few years ago, hailed the socalled Verleger-Concerte 
at Leipzig as a novelty, will perhaps hear with regret that even this happy idea was 
anticipated in the sixteenth century. Says N. Yonge in the dedication of his collection 
'Musica transalpina', 1588 to Gilbert Lord Talbot: 

"... a great number of Gentlemen and Merchants of good accompt (as well of 
this realme as of foreign nations) have taken in good part such entertainments of 
pleasure as my poor abilitie was able to afford them both by the exercise of Musicke 
daily used in my house, and by furnishing them with Bookes of that kind yearly sent 
me out of Italy and other places." 

1* 



However, public concerts proper in all probability claim an humbler 
origin. Had the gentleman or merchant of Shakespeare's time listened to 
or made others listen at the barbershop to the "stringed noise" of the lute 
or viol, to use Milton's words, until his turn came to busy the deft hand and 
gossiping tongue of the tonsorial artist, and did he then proceed for a bumper 
of ale to the taverns or "Musik Houses" of which there were many in the 
time of Charles II, as Hawkins says, he was almost sure to find there one 
or several ambulant musicians, the socalled "Waits", who, for a consideration, 
would strike up his favorite Pavana, Saltarello, Air or Jig. And if we 
remember that by far the majority of public concerts were still held at 
taverns at the end of the eighteenth century, it will not be considered a 
fantastic idea, I hope, to trace the sources of our public concert-life to the 
taverns and their fiddling parasites. From the custom to collect the fee 
after the concert from everybody present to an arrangement by which such 
thirsty souls, who desired to enjoy music in privacy, agreed to pay an equal 
share, in other words an embryonic form of obligatory admission-fee was 
but a short and logical step. Nor can I make myself believe that the idea 
of payment on a still more dignified and solid business basis, with its obliga- 
tions, rights and advantages to both the performer and the audience, whether 
congregating in taverns or in the homes of music lovers, was either foreign 
to that age or remained so until John Banister's time. Indeed there are 
signs that it did not. If Mathias Weckmann's Collegium Musicum was 
"offentlich, sowohl fur fremde als einheimische Liebhaber ausgestattet" 
it is plausible that the fifty instrumentalists and singers forming the club 
and performing weekly in the refectory of the Dom charged admission in 
order to defray expenses and if Jacques de Gouy describes the concerts 
spirituels held before 1650 at the house of Pierre de Chabanceau de la Barre 
as the first given at Paris, though they were not, Brenet was justified in 
arguing that de Gouy's statement would be acceptable only if he meant 
concerts publics et pay ants. 

Should after all, John Banister's innovation have consisted merely in this 
that he was the first to planfully make public concerts a regular and more 
dignified feature in the musical life of the city? Again it is Hawkins who 
allows us to draw this inference. To be sure, he seems over-anxious to credit 
Thomas Britton with the introduction of public concerts simply because 
the assistants and patrons of the small-coal man belonged to the upper 
classes (and Burney, of course, when copying his in many respects histo- 
rically more important rival, was altogether too much of a historian for 
aristocrats to question the wisdom of such a course) yet Hawkins though 
reluctantly enough, felt obliged to write (v. 5, p. 1): 

In the interim it is proposed to speak of those musical performances with which 



the people in general were entertained at places of public resort, distinguishing between 
such as were calculated for the recreation of the vulgar and those which for their ele- 
gance come under the denomination of concerts. The first of these were no other than 
the musical entertainments given to their people in Music Houses, already spoken 
of, the performers in which consisted of fiddlers and others, hired by the master of the 
house, such as in the night season were wont to parade the city and suburbs under 
the denomination of the Waits. The music of these men could scarcely be called a con- 
cert, for this obvious reason, that it had no variety of parts, nor commixture of different 
instruments: Half a dozen of fiddlers would scrape Sellenger's Round, or John come 
kiss me, or Old Simon the King with divisions, till themselves and their audience were 
tired, after which as many players on the hautboy would in the most harsh and dis- 
cordant tones grate forth Green Sleeves, Yellow Stockings, Gillian of Craydon, or some 
such common dance-tune, and the people thought it fine music. 

But a concert, properly so called, was a sober recreation ; persons were drawn to 
it, not by an affectation of admiring what they could not taste, but by a genuine 
pleasure which they took in the entertainment. For the gratification of such the 
masters of music exerted their utmost endeavours and some of the greatest eminence 
among them were not above entertaining the public with musical performances, either 
at their own houses, or in more commodious, receiving for their own use the money 
paid on admission. And to these performances the lovers of music were invited by 
advertisement in the London Gazette . . . 

And then follows not only John Banister's advertisement of his concert 
on December 30, 1672 but also the announcements of his concerts in subse- 
quent years and many others until 1698. Yet Hawkins sought to brush 
John Banister aside in favor of Thomas Britton! Whatever his reasons for 
this strange contradiction might have been, Banister's example was followed 
in 1678 by Britton, whose famous concerts in Clerkenwell lasted until 1714. 
Another concert room, independent of ale and tobacco, was opened about 
1680 in Villiers Street at the York Buildings. If Mr. Davey says that the 
entertainments there became very fashionable he is probably mistaken as 
Roger North, evidently alluding to the same undertaking, asserts that the 
music masters finding that "money could be got that way" had the room 
built in Villiers Street but that their socalled Music Meeting failed for lack of 
proper management. It is also Roger North who says that about the time 
of Banister's venture a society of gentlemen of good esteem met "often for 
consort". Their room becoming crowded they took one in a tavern in 
Fleetstreet but, and this remark is interesting, disbanded when the taverner 
made a "pecuniary consort of it". However the tide was not to be stemmed 
and public concerts soon became a permanent, prominent and ever growing 
branch of concert-life in London with those of the Academy of Ancient Music 
(1710), the Castle Society (1724), and Mrs. Cornely's subscription concerts 
(1765), conducted by Abel and Bach, as principal stepping stones, quite 
apart from the benefit concerts given by Gluck, Quantz, and innumerable 
other virtuosos. 

On the continent, the concert-life continued to center in the activity 
of the Collegia Musica, Academies and other more or less private organi- 



sations. Brenet tells us that about 1700 it had become quite customary for 
music teachers to give musicales at their homes "pour s'attirer pratique" 
and that in 1724 the monthly musicales, given since about 1720 by Crozat, 
the richest man in Paris, were combined with the 'Concert Italien' of 
Mad. de Prie on the subscription basis, the sixty members wittily being 
dubbed gli Academici paganti, but it remained for Philidor to introduce 
periodical concerts, in appearance and principle really public. This he 
did with his 'Concert Spirituel' of 1725, but it should be remembered that 
these concerts took place at the Academic Royale de Musique only on days 
of great religious festivals when operatic performances were prohibited and 
that they originally were subject to other curious strictures. 

By this time Liibeck had enjoyed her unique 'Abendmusiken' on the 
five Sundays before Christmas for more than fifty years. Founded by Buxte- 
hude in 1673 and blessed with the fruits of his genius these 'Abendmusiken', 
though perhaps not in theory, practically were public sacred concerts with 
admission fee. Later on, Telemann founded in 1713 the 'wochentliches 
grosses Concert im Frauenstein' at Frankfort o/M., continued in 1723 by 
the 'Winter Concert' which formed the back bone of Frankfort's organized 
concert-life until the end of the century 1 ). It was also Telemann who after 
his removal to Hamburg introduced similar subscription concerts about 
1720 first in the Drillhaus and since 1722 at his home, performing princi- 
pally his own vocal music of larger compass. Though Telemann retained 
for both his ventures the title of Collegium Musicum, the entertainments were 
really more public than private 2 ). This was certainly the case with the 
weekly 'Musikalische Concerte' at Leipzig, the one under Joh. Seb. Bach 
and the other under Joh. Gottlieb Gorner, the performers being recruited 
to a large extent amongst the students, for Mizler in his Neu-eroffnete Musi- 
kalische Bibliothek, 1739 says (I, 63) plainly enough: 

"Die beiden offentlichen Musikalischen Concerten, oder Zusammenkiinfte, so hier 
wochentlich gehalten werden, sind noch in bestandigem Flor." 

In Berlin and Vienna the democratic idea of public concerts was naturally 
slower in assuming permanent shape than in such cities as Frankfort, Ham- 
burg or Leipzig and thus we notice that in Berlin the 'Akademie', the 'As- 
semblee', Agricola's Concert, and especially the 'Musikiibende Gesellschaft' 
still retained about 1750 an air of exclusiveness and that their concerts were 
decidedly more private than public in character 3 ). If furthermore Hanslick 



1) Israel, Frankfurter Concert-Chroriik von 17131780. 

2) Sittard, Geschichte des Musik- u. Concertwesens in Hamburg. On the other 
hand the famous culinary-concerts given by Count Eckgh at Hamburg in 1700 1701 
at which Reinh. Reiser conducted himself "mehr als ein Cavallier, denn als einMusikus" 
were private. (See Mattheson.) 

3) See Marpurg, Hist.-Krit. Beytrage, 1754/5, Entwurf einer ausfuhrlichen Nach- 
richt von der "Musikiibenden Gesellschaft zu Berlin". 



failed to trace public concerts at Vienna before 1740 1 ), this failure cer- 
tainly is significant enough, though, or rather because, Hanslick's statement 
is not correct. He overlooked Mattheson's ironical entry in the 'Musika- 
lische Patriot' (p. 26) : 

"Meiner Correspondenten einer . . . meldete mir vor einiger Zeit aus Wien, dass 
daselbst ein gewisser netter Clavier Spieler, etc. ein Concert gehalten, wobey sich 
die Liebhaber so haufig eingestellet batten, dass, nach geschlossener Rechnung, just 
lQi/2 gute Groschen von dem Maestro eingebusset worden; anstatt, dass er vermuthet 
haette, einen guten Beutel voller Gulden da von zu streichen." 

Consequently public concerts of ihejbenefit type were actually given 
at Vienna at least as early as 1728 but they seem to have been sporadic. 
Nor does it appear from the pages containing the quotation that the fate 
of this particular maestro was exceptional in German cities. Indeed men 
like Mattheson seem to have cultivated a grudge against the virtuosos 
especially the Italian, who were rapidly forcing and not always in a, 
manner legitimate or artistic a new element into the musical life of their 
time. To have foreseen that the musical life of Europe was irrisistibly 
gliding into democratic channels by sheer force of the underlying current 
in general sociological conditions and by the equally strong trend towards 
disintegration in the evolution of musical forms and their vehicles of per- 
formance, in short the steadily crystallizing distinction between orchestral 
and chamber music with all the consequences, to have clearly foreseen this 
could not reasonably be expected of Mattheson and his contemporaries. 
However, without going too far into evolutional theories, this much appears 
from all contemporary and historical accounts to be certain: the public 
concert-life of German cities remained in an undeveloped condition for 
decades after John Banister's innovation had borne plentiful fruit in 
London. This fact is of great importance and carries with it obvious 
inferences if we wish to assume a proper and impartial attitude towards the 
early history of concert-life in the British Colonies of North America. 

When reading the histories of music in America we almost gain tne 
impression that the emigrants of the seventeenth century detested not so 
much the religious, political or economic atmosphere of Europe as the 
musical and we feel overawed by the constellation of mysterious motives 
prompting Providence to send to our shores out of all the millions who 
inhabited Europe just those few thousand beings who had no music in their 
souls. Now, the Puritans, the Pilgrims, the Irish, the Dutch, the Germans, 
the Swedes, the Cavaliers of Maryland and Virginia and the Huguenots 
of the South may have been zelots, adventurers, beggars, spendthrifts, 
fugitives from justice, convicts, but barbarians they certainly were not. 



1) Hanslick, Gescbichte des Concertwesens in Wien, 



Until some historian displays the courage, the skill and the patience to 
unearth and collect the data pertaining to our musical life before 1700 all 
ponderous meditations on the subject will remain guesswork. Possibly, 
ev6n probably, music was at an extremely low ebb, but this would neither 
prove that the early settlers were hopelessly unmusical nor that they lacked 
interest in the art of 'sweet conchord'. It was simply a matter of opportunity, 
for what inducements had a handful of people, spread over so vast an area, 
struggling for an existence, surrounded by virgin-forests, fighting the Red- 
man, and quarelling amongst themselves to offer to musicians? We may 
rest assured that even Geoffrey Stafford, "lute and fiddle maker" by trade 
and ruffian by instinct, would have preferred more lucrative climes and 
gracefully declined the patronage of musical Governor Fletcher had he not 
been deported in 1691 to Massachusetts by order of this Majesty King 
William along with a batch of two hundred other Anglo-Saxon convicts 1 ). 
In fact, as Mr. Elson pointed out 2 ), the 'Observations made by the Curious 
in New England', printed at London in 1673, inform us that "in Boston 
there are no musicians by trade". Of the dilettanti nothing is said, but 
that such existed in the Colonies, we know well enough from Sewall's diary 
and as the early settlers were not unlike other human beings in having 
voices, we may take it for granted that they used them not only in church, 
but at home, in the fields, in the taverns, exactly as they would have done 
in Europe and for the same kind of music as far as their memory or their 
supply of music books carried them. That the latter, generally speaking, 
can not have been very large, goes without saying, for the emigrants of 
those days, even the well-to-do, had but vessels like the Mayflower a 
wonderful box of Pandora though she must have been at their disposal 
for the storage of household goods that were absolutely necessary. This 
would also explain why so seldom musical instruments are mentioned in 
the inventories of those days. They were to be found, however, in the 
homes of the wealthy merchants of the North and in the homes of the still 
more pleasure seeking aristocratic planters of the South. Indeed, there 
can be little doubt that the nearest approach to a musical atmosphere in 
feeble imitation of European conditions was to be found in the South rather 
than in the North. Still, we might call the period until about 1720 the 
primitive period in our musical history without fear of being convicted of 
hasty conclusions. 

After 1720 we notice a steadily growing number of musicians who sought 



1) See the amusing account of Geoffrey Stafford in Spillane's History of the Ame- 
rican pianoforte, p. 14. 

2) See his book on 'the National Music of America', p. 46. 



their fortunes in the Colonies 1 ), an increasing desire for organs, flutes, 
guitars, violins, harpsichords, the establishment of "singing schools", an 
improvement in church music, the signs of a budding music trade from 
ruled music paper to sonatas and concertos, the advent of music engravers, 
publishers and manufacturers of instruments, the tentative efforts to give 
English opera a home in America, the introduction of public concerts, in 
short the beginnings of what may properly be termed the formative period 
in our musical history, running from 1720 until about 1800. If I further 
maintain that during this period secular music developed more rapidly 
than sacred and soon became the more important of the two, a comparison 
between the history of our early sacred music, with which we have been 
fairly well acquainted, and this history of our early concert life together 
with opera, the other main branch of secular music will substantiate 
my theory contrary to popular axiom though it may be. 



1) In this connection a glimpse into Boston of "ye olden Time" may afford 
entertainment. Mr. Thomas Brattle, a wealthy Puritan and a man of artistic in- 
stincts, bequeathed in 1713 an imported organ to Brattle Square Church. It was 
promptly rejected for religious reasons and was then presented, in accordance with 
the will, to King's Chapel, the vestry procuring in a Mr. Price, the first organist 
as "the sober person to play skilfully thereon with a loud noise" as Mr. Brattle put 
it. The second organist was Mr. Edward Enstone, imported from England in 1714 
at a salary of s 30 yet" with dancing, music etc" it was thought it would answer 
(See Hist, of King's Chapel). Accordingly he filed on Feb. 21, 1714 a "petition for 
liberty of keeping a school as a Master of Music and a Dancing Master 'but it was 
disallowed by ye Sel. men." Not withstanding this refusal Mr. Enstone opened 
his school and the Select Men felt so chagrined by his impertinence that they 
promptly instructed in the following year the town-clerk to present "a complaint 
to Session." This the town-clerk probably did but evidently Mr. Enstone and not 
"ye Sel. men" carried the day for in 1716 Mr. Enstone inserted in the Boston News 
Letter on April 16 23 this instructive advertisement, a veritable historical docu- 
ment. "This is to give notice that there is lately sent over from London, a choice 
Collection of Musickal Instruments, consisting of Flageolets, Flutes, Haut-Boys, Bass- 
Viols, Violins, Bows, Strings, Reads for Haut-Boys, Books of Instructions for all 
these Instruments, Books of ruled Paper. To be Sold at the Dancing School of 
Mr. Enstone in Sudbury Street near the Orange Tree, Boston. 

NOTE. Any person may have all Instruments of Musick mended, or Virgenalls 
and Spinnets Strung and Tuned at a reasonable Rate, and likewise may be 
taught to Play on any of these Instruments above mention'd; dancing taught 
by a true and easier method than has been heretofore." 

Mr. Enstone still appears to have resided at Boston in 1720 advertising him- 
self as dancing master and keeper of a boarding house "where young Ladies may 
be accommodated with Boarding, and taught all sorts of Needle Work with Musick 
and Dancing, etc." 



CHARLESTON 1 ) AND THE SOUTH. 



WHEN and where the first public concert took place in what are to-day 
the United States of North America would be difficult and useless to 
answer. Difficult, because the earliest concert recorded in our newspapers, 
diaries, documents, etc. by no means would imply it to have been the first; 
useless because the history of our concert life as concert-life could not reaso- 
nably be deducted from a stray concert without noticeable traces. Still, 
there is a good deal of fascination in unearthing first events and it must be 
admitted that chronology, too, imposes certain duties on the historian. 

The earliest allusion to a public concert in our country of which I am 
aware dates back to 1731 but it would not surprise me to see still earlier 
references brought to light, now hidden in some neglected source of in- 
formation. If theatrical performances, however primitive, seem to have 
been given at New York as early as 1702 including such of the 'Fool's 
Opera' - - we are indebted to the autobiography of the adventurer and 
comedian Anthony Aston for the statement and if between 1702 and 
1730 other performances have been traced 2 ), then we might hesitate in dat- 
ing the first concert in our country as late as 1731. 

Though this concert was advertised in the Weekly News Letter of Boston 
and though, therefore, Boston seems to have the right of precedence, I pre- 
fer to trace the earliest concerts given at Charleston, S. C., be it only to em- 
phasize the fact that New England's share in the development of our early 
musical life has been unfairly and unduly overestimated to the disadvantage 
of the Middle Colonies and the South. 

A few months only separate the concert given on Dec. 1731 at Boston 



1) Population: 179016359; 180020473 inhabitants. With one or two excep- 
tions all similar data on the population of the cities appearing in this book have been 
gleaned from the statistics on "Comparative population of thirty- two of the largest 
cities in the United States", as printed in the Seventh Census, 1850. It might also 
serve a useful purpose to remark here that Mr. B. Franklin Dexter has estimated the 
entire population in the American colonies at only 400 000 inhabitants in 1714, 
1 200 000 in 1750, 2780000 in 1780 and 4 000 000 in 1790. 

2) More about Mr. Daly's and Mr. McKee's discoveries will be said in a volume 
on 'Early opera in the United States'. 



11 

and the earliest to my knowledge earliest concert at Charleston, for 
we read in the South Carolina Gazette, Saturday April 815, 1732 1 ): 

"On Wednesday next will be a Consort 2 ) of Musick at the Council Chamber, for 
the Benefit of Mr. Salter." 

It will be seen presently that the good citizens of Charleston encouraged 
Mr. John Salter sufficiently to give further concerts during the following 
seasons. In the meantime concert second and third took place during the 
summer of 1732 and the respective advertisements contain a few additional 
details. We read in the same newspaper on June 24 July 1 : 

"For the Benefit of Henry Campbell the 6th of this Month, at the Council Cham- 
ber, will be performed a Consort of Vocal and Instrumental Musick: To begin at 
7 o' Clock. 

N. B. Country Dances for Diversion of the Ladies^)." 

and on Saturday, Sept. 2330: 

"At the Council Chamber, on Friday the 6th of October next, will be a Consort 
of Vocal and Instrumental Musick. Tickets to be had at Mrs. Cook's and at Mrs. Sau- 
reau's House at 40 s. each. 

N. B. To begin precisely at Six o'clock." 

It is a pity that we are not informed of what the "Vocal and Instru- 
mental Musick" consisted but this absence of detail by no means permits 
us to infer that the program was not worth mentioning for it should be 
remembered that in Europe, too, the custom prevailed to observe silence 
in the advertisements as to the program 4 ). Then as now it was considered 



1) T. Witmarch began to publish the S. C. Gaz. in Jan. 1732. As previous to 
this month concerts could not very well have been advertised in Charleston, it is very 
possible that concerts were given there before 1732. The inference is plain. 

2) For the history of the obsolete term consort see James A. H. Murray's 'New 
English dictionary on historical principles, 1893'. From the partial similarity of mea- 
ning with the French concert and the Italian concerto it is clear how instead of this un- 
familiar word the English word consort, meaning originally a number of people con- 
sorting together, was substituted in musical terminology for 1) several instruments 
or voices playing or singing together (Fleming, 1587) 2) singing or playing in harmony 
(Marlowe 1586) 3) "a company of Musitions together" (Bullokar, 1616) 4) a musical 
entertainment (Evelyn's Diary, 1617: "Sir Joseph . . . gave us ... a handsome supper, 
and after supper a consort of music"). Not until well into the 18th century did the 
current form concert take the place of consort. For instance, Grassineau still defines 
in 1740 "Concerto, or Concert, popularly a consort, ..." and also W. Tansur in his 
'New Musical Grammar', 1746 says: "Concert-Consort: A piece of musick in parts." 

3) During the following years Henry Campbell appears in newspaper advertise- 
ments mainly as dancing master. He gave a number of balls at the Theatre in Queen- 
street. From the fact that in Dec. 1750 a "Sarah Campbell, Dancing Mistress" inserted 
an advertisement it may be inferred that Henry Campbell had died in the meantime. 

4) It should also be kept in mind that printed programs did not become custo- - 
mary outside of France, England and America until towards the end of the eighteenth 
century. Sittard traced such in Hamburg as far back as 1729, but Hamburg, in this 
and other respects, presents an exception to the rule (perhaps on account of vicinity 
to London) and we need but read what Hanslick had to say on printed programs in 
Vienna to find the above remarks corroborated. To further illustrate the point, I 
quote the following anecdote from Marpurg's 'Legende einiger Musikheiligen', 1786: 

"Ein Liebhaber der Musik, der in Paris und London gewesen war, und die dortigen 



12 

sufficient to draw attention to the place of performance, name of the virtuoso 
or society, prices of tickets, date and hour of performance and the ticket 
agents. It might also be opportune to remark here that "Country dances 
for Diversion of the Ladies" after the concert were not a Colonial invention. 
Indeed it would have been a suicidal plan to thus insure a better atten- 
dance had not the same custom prevailed in Europe, for Colonial society 
would hardly have submitted to any innovation not sanctioned by London 
society. 

In the absence of proof to the contrary we may argue that the Colonials 
were treated, in imitation of concerts given at London, to more or less skill- 
ful renditions of Corelli, Vivaldi, Purcell, Abaco, Handel, Geminiani and 
such other masters whose fame was firmly established in Europe and per- 
haps what Mattheson said in his Ehrenpforte of the programs played at the 
concerts of the Musikalische Akademie of Prague was true also of our earliest 
concerts : 

"Der Anfang wurde mit einer Ouverture gemacht, hiefauf wurden auch Concerte 
gespielt, und auch wechselweise darunter gesungen, oder Solo gehoret. Den Schluss 
aber machte eine starke Symphonic." 

But to return to Mr. John Salter! For Wednesday, Oct. 25, 1732 he 
advertised for his benefit a concert in the South Carolina Gazette in the 
usual form with "a Ball after the Consort" and this concert is of some 
historical importance as it probably was the first to which our newspapers 
paid attention. Under the local news the Gazette printed on Sat. Oct. 21 28 : 

"Charlestown, Oct. 28. 

On Wednesday Night there was a Concert for the Benefit of Mr. Salter, at which 
was a fine Appearance of good Company. A Ball was afterwards opened by the Lord 
Forester and Miss Hill." 

May be it is mortifying to us musicians that this first musical criticism 
should have been a bit of society-news with special allusion to the beau of 
the town, Lord Forester, but did the New York papers of our own times 
subject us to less mortification when the first performance of Wagner's 
Parsifal at New York brought their society-editors into greater-prominence 
than the musical? 

This benefit concert at the Council Chamber of Mr. Saltar, as the Ga- 
zette sometimes called him, was followed by others, in 1733 on Feb. 26 
and April 2, in 1735 on Jan. 23; in 1737 on March 8; in 1738 on Jan. 17. l ) 



musikalischen Einrichtungen kennete, kam in eine Stadt Deutschlands, wo ein ansehn- 
liches Concert war. Weil er glaubte, dass es allhier eben so wie dort seyn wurde, so 
fragte er beym Eingang im Concert den Herrn Director, ob er nicht so gefallig seyn 
wofite ihm den gedruckten Anschlag der aufzufiihrenden Tonstiicke zu communicieren. 
'Mein Herr, antwortete der Herr Director, ich weiss zur Zeit noch nicht, was wir heute 
machen werden, noch wer sich solo wird horen lassen." 

1) See the corresponding numbers of the South Carolina Gazette. 



13 

when I lost track of this musician whose wife, by the way kept a boarding 
school for Young Ladies where John taught music. Other benefit "con- 
sorts of Vocal and Instrumental Musick" were given during these years 
for Mrs. Cook, the ticket-agent, in 1733 on Feb. 26, when "none but English 
and Scotch songs" were to he sung", in other words the first song recital in 
our country, and in 1737 on June 14 1 ) for "the Widow and Children of the 
late Mr. Cook". This concert took place at the Play House in Queenstreet 
as did on Nov. 22 of the same year a benefit concert for a musician of quite 
an illustrious name. This and the naive tenor of the announcement, in 
the South Carolina Gazette, Oct. 29 Nov. 5 will warrant a quotation: 

"At the new theatre in Queenstreet on Tuesday the 22d instant being St. Cecilia's 
Day, will be performed a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Musick, for the Benefit 
of Mr. Theodore Pachelbel, beginning precisely at 6 o' Clock in the Evening. 

Tickets to be had at the House of the said Mr. Pachelbel, or at Mr. Shepheard's 
Vintner. 

N. B. As this is the first time the said Mr. Pachelbel has attempted anything 
of this kind in a publick Manner in this Province, he thinks proper to give Notice that 
there will be sung a Cantata suitable to the Occasion." 

Of Pachelbel's career nothing is known except that in February 1733, 
according to the church records of Trinity Church, Newport, R. I. "the 
Wardens procured the Services of Mr. Charles Theodore Parchelbel, of 
Boston (who was the first organist to assist in setting up the organ" pre- 
sented by Bishop Berkeley 2 ). From Newport he drifted in 1736 to New 
York and hence to Charleston. 

Students of our early musical life will have surmised the reason for 
grouping the benefit-concerts together. The words "for the benefit" were 
usually added in the advertisements to distinguish such concerts from those 
given by amateurs with the assistance of professional musicians for their 
own amusement, in short, serial subscription concerts. Now, a number 
of concerts were advertised in the South Carolina Gazette that evidently 
were not intended for the benefit of any particular musician, the form of 
the advertisements being essentially the same as for the concert on Oct. 6, 
1732. By way of general analogy, therefore, it might be argued that the 
first effort to establish a series of concerts at more or less regular intervals 
in Charleston, is to be dated 1732. This supposition certainly is streng- 
thened by the following N. B.s to concert advertisements published on 
Jan. 20 and June 30, 1733: 

"N. B. This will be the last Consort" 
and 

"N. B. This is the first time on the Subscription." 



1) S. C. Gaz. May 2128, 1737. 

2) See Brooks, Olden Time Music, p. 52. 



14 

Hence it would seem as if the concert season opened in the summer 
and lasted until Spring! As far as I found them in the Gazette the dates 
were these: 1732, Oct. 6th, Dec. 5th (postponed from Nov. 21st "on account 
of the Council's sitting"); 1733, Feb. 5th, JuliGth 1 ); 1734, Feb. 19, March 19, 
May 14, Dec. 17th; 1735, Dec. 19. 

For the following years until 1751 I have found no concerts announced 
except the benefit concerts for John Salter and Charles Theodore Pachelbel. 
This may be explained in different ways. Either it was not considered 
necessary to advertise concerts or none took place. The latter is the more 
plausible explanation. Why the interest in the concerts, at which John 
Salter probably was in prominence, died out, would be impossible to answer. 
Possibly the theatrical performances, including ballad operas, at the Court 
Room during 1735 and beginning with 1736 at the New theatre in Queen- 
street absorbed the interest of Charleston. Also the numerous balls held 
by the dancing masters Henry Holt, Henry Campbell and others may have 
been responsible for the fact. Indeed these dancing assemblies seem to 
have been the only notable public entertainments at Charleston from about 
1740 to 1750. Nor did conditions change materially during the next ten 
years. Strange to say, though the number of musicians who settled at 
Charleston was steadily increasing during this decade, I have been able 
to unearth three concerts only, though this, of course, by no means implies 
that others were not given. 

A Mr. Uhl advertised a concert for his benefit at Mr. Gordon's Great 
Room in Broadstreet for Nov. 29, 1751 and Frederick Grunzweig who 
came to Charleston in 1754 announced one for Jan. 30, 1755 but it "was 
put off on account of the bad Weather, 'till Thursday the 13th instant, 
Feb." Finally the Gazette announced on Oct. 11, 1760 that: 

"at the house of Mr. John Gordon in Broad-Street on Wednesday the 29 of October 
(Instant) will be performed, 

A Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music. To conclude with a Ball. Tickets, 
at Five Shillings Sterling each to be had of Mr. Wallace at his Lodgings in Church 
Street or at Mr. John Gordon's in Broadstreet. 

N. B. As the Gentlemen who are the best Performers, both in Town and Country, 
are so obliging as to assist Mr. Wallace on this Occasion, he makes no Doubt, but 
that it will be in his Power to give the greatest Satisfaction to those Ladies and Gent- 
lemen who shall honor him with their Presence. 

The Concert to begin precisely at Seven o'Clock in the Evening." 

For some reason, however, Mr. Wallace could not give the satisfaction 
promised until Nov. 4th. 

1) Others would probably have been advertised but unfortunately the file of 
the South Carolina Gazette as published by T. Whitmarch (in possession of the Char- 
leston Library Society) stops with no. 86, Sept. 1st. L. Timothee's continuation began 
on Feb. 2, 1734 with No. I! 



15 

As Benjamin Yarnold who resided at Charleston as organist of St. Phi- 
lip's from 1753 to 1764 and as Peter Valton of London succeeded him in the 
same year, Yarnold becoming organist of St. Mary's, it is possible that both 
these able musicians gave concerts but I failed to trace them. The next 
reference to a public concert after 1760 I found in the South Carolina Ga- 
zette for Sept. 7 14, 1765 when Mr. Thomas Pike who had arrived in Char- 
leston in November of the previous year as dancing, fencing and music 
master inserted this amusing advertisement: 

"On Wednesday the 25th instant, September, the Orange Garden, in Trade Street, 
will be opened for the Night only, when a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Musick 
will be performed by Gentlemen of the place, for the entertainment of all lovers of 
harmony. Concerto on the French Horn and Bassoon by Mr. Pike. 

A subscription is opened for the same, as none but subscribers will be admitted; 
nor will any be taken at the door. The subscription is two dollars for three tickets, 
to admit two ladies and a gentleman. Subscriptions are taken in and tickets delivered 
by Thomas Pike, at the same place. 

N. B. It is hoped no persons will be so indiscreet as to attempt climbing over the 
fences to the annoyance of the subscribers, as I give this public notice that I will pros- 
ecute any person so offending, to the utmost rigour of the law. 

Thomas Pike." 

A number of "unforeseen accidents" obliged Mr. Pike to twice postpone 
his concert which "for the better accomodation of the subscribers [was] 
moved from the Orange Garden to the Theatre in Queenstreet" on Oct. 16th 1 ). 
From the program it would appear that Mr. Pike was assisted by other 
soloists and an orchestra. 

PROGRAM. 

ACT I. 

French Horn Concerto 
2d Concerto of Stanley 
Solo on the Violincello 
5th Concerto of Stanley 
Bassoon Concerto 
Song 
Ouverture in Scipio 2 ). 

ACT II. 

French Horn Concerto 
Concerto on the Harpsichord 
Trio 

Bassoon Concerto 
Song 
French Horn Concerto of Hasse. 



1) South Carolina Gazette, Sept. 28 Okt. 5, 1766. In August Mr. Pike adver- 
tised his desire to instruct ladies and gentlemen "very expeditiously on moderate terms 
in Orchesography (on the art of dancing by characters and demonstrative figures"). 

2) Probably from Haendel's opera. 



16 

A few weeks later, on Nov. 13th "Peter Valton's Concert" took place 
at the theatre under similar conditions and we are told in the Gazette of 
Oct. 19 Oct. 31 that "besides a variety of Concertos, Overtures, Solos etc. 
[there would be] two Songs, sung by Miss Wainwright and two by Miss 
Hallam who never appeared in public. Likewise a concerto on the 
Harpsichord 1 )." 

Strange to say, just when the scarcity of musical data in the South 
Carolina Gazette could induce us to believe that music was at a very low 
ebb at Charleston, the contrary is true for in those years a society was 
founded which has existed for well-nigh 150 years though its musical cha- 
racter has changed into that of an exclusive assembly of Charleston's first 
families with hardly any serious musical ambitions. The very name proves 
that when the society was founded in 1762 the object was to organize 
the music lovers of the city into a serious musical club. I am alluding to 
the St. Ccecilia Society to which, and not to the Stoughton Musical Society 
of 1786, therefore belongs the honor of being our oldest musical society. For- 
tunately a copy of the printed "Rules" has been preserved and though 
they are dated 1773 we may take it for granted that they had been in 
force since the foundation of the society. They follow here as copied from 
the reprint in the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 
1900, v.I, p. 223 2272): 

"RULES of the St. Ccecilia Society: Agreed upon and finally confirmed, November 
22d, 1773. 

I. 

The Society shall be called the St. Ccecilia Society and consist of one hundred 
and twenty members. 

II. 

There shall be annually four General Meetings of the Society, namely, on St. 
Ccecilia' s Day, which shall be the Anniversary of the Society, and on the third Thursday 
in February, May and August, on which General Meetings the Members of the Society 
shall dine together. 

On the anniversary, the Society shall break up at Five, and on the other General 
Meetings at Six o'clock in the afternoon; at which hours, the Steward shall call for 
and settle the bill. Every member shall be charged twenty shillings currency towards 
defraying the expence of the dinner; and in case of any deficiency, the same shall be 
paid by the members present at the said meetings. 

III. 

The Society, on their anniversary, shall elect, by ballot, a President, Vice Presi- 
dent, Treasurer and Steward, and eleven other members, residents in Charlestown, who, 



1) Evidently the people of Charleston were broad minded enough to allow their 
organist to cooperate in concert with members of a very worldly profession, for both 
ladies were actresses. 

2) The title of the excessively rare pamphlet (12. 11 p; preserved at the South 
Carolina Historical Society, Charleston) reads: "Rules of the St. Ccecilia [!] Society 
Charleston, Printed for the Society by Robert Wells 1774." 



17 

with the fore-named officers, shall be constituted Managers for the current year. And 
in case any member, a resident in Charlestown, shall, upon his election, refuse to serve 
as officer or Manager of the Society, such person so refusing, if an officer, shall pay 
a fine of ten pounds currency; and the Society shall proceed to an other election in 
his or their room. 

IV. 

On the first Thursday in every month, there shall be a meeting of the managers, 
at six o'clock in the evening, from the first of October to the first of April; and at 
seven o'clock, from the first of April to'the first of October. 

In case of the death, resignation, or removal from Charlestown, of any of the ma- 
nagers, the remaining managers are empowered to supply the vacancy. 

But in case of the death, resignation or removal from Charlestown, of any of the 
officers, the managers shall call an extraordinary meeting of the Society, giving at 
fortnight's notice thereof in all the weekly gazettes: And, on every other emergency, 
the same power is vested in them. 

V. 

The managers are empowered to fix the number and times of the Concerts; the 
anniversary only excepted, on the evening of which, a concert shall always be per- 
formed; also, to regulate every other matter relating thereto, as well as every other 
business of the Society, during the recess of the Society. 

VI. 

On every anniversary, each member shall pay, into the hands of the treasurer, 
for the use of the Society, the sum of twenty-five pounds currency. 

Upon notice from the treasurer in writing, of his arrears due to the society, whether 
these arrears be for his annual subscription, his dinner expences, or any other fine 
incurred by him in the Society, any person neglecting or refusing to discharge the 
same, at the next general meeting of the Society, he shall no longer be deemed a member. 

VII. 

Any person desirous of becoming a member of the St. Coecilia Society, shall signify 
the same by a letter, directed to the President of the society ; and whenever a vacancy 
happens in the society, the members present, at their next general meeting, have power 
to elect, or reject, the candidate offering himself; which election, or rejection, shall 
be by ballot only ; and the assent of two-thirds of the members present shall be necessary 
for the admission of such candidate. And every person, on his election, shall subscribe 
to rules of the Society, and pay to the treasurer, for the use of the Society, thirty-five 
pounds currency. 

VIII. 

Every member is allowed to introduce to the concert as many ladies as he thinks 
proper, who are to be admitted by tickets, signed by a member, and expressing the 
name of the lady to whom each ticket is presented. 

No other person is to be admitted, except strangers, and they only by tickets, 
from a manager, signed and directed as before specified. 

No boys are to be, on any account, admitted. 

IX. 

The treasurer shall immediately, upon his election into office, take charge of all 
the ready monies, bonds, securities, and other effects, belonging to the Society; and 
give bond to the president and vice-president to be accountable to them, or to the 
order of the president and managers, for the same, fire and other inevitable accidents 
excepted. 

He is not, on any account, to pay, or lend at interest, any of the Society's monies 
Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 2 



18 

but by order of the Society, or the order of the president, together with the approbation 
of the managers. 

At all meetings of the Society, not less than twenty-one members, and at all the 
meetings of the managers, not less than five members shall be a Quorum to transact 
business. 

All matters, canvassed at any of those meetings, shall be determined by a majo- 
rity of votes, the election of members only excepted, which, according to Rule VII, 
is to be determined by, at least, two thirds of the Society present at their general mee- 
tings. 

The President, or in his absence, the vice-president, or, in case of the absence 
of both of them, a person chosen as chairman by the members present, shall keep the 
order and decorum of the Society. 

Every member, speaking of business, shall adress himself immediately to the 
Chair. 

XI. 

At every general meeting, the Society shall proceed to business at eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon; and in case the president, vice-president, or treasurer, do not attend 
at the said hour, they shall each pay a fine, to the Society, of thirty-two shillings and 
six-pence currency; and every other member, residing in Charlestown, who does not 
attend at the said hour, shall pay a fine of ten shillings currency; unless the Society, 
to whose judgment all fines are to be referred, shall, at their next general meeting, 
see sufficient cause to remit the same. 

None of the foregoing rules shall be altered, or any new ones enacted, until they 
have been proposed and agreed upon, at two general meetings of the Society." 

Thus encircled with rules and regulations the St. Ccecilia Society formed 
until the end of the 18th and far into the 19th century the center of Char- 
leston's musical life as far as it found expression in concerts. The number 
of concerts every year seems to have varied, as the concert-seasons opened 
and closed at irregular dates, but as a long as a season lasted the concerts 
took place fort-nightly and one of the by-laws called for a yearly concert 
on St. Coacilia's Day, Nov. 22. The orchestra was formed partly of gent- 
lemen-performers and partly of professional musicians, the latter being 
engaged by the season. We have ground to believe that the managers 
spared no expense in securing musicians capable of performing the best 
music of the period and as evidence of the enterprising spirit governing 
the society in those years I submit an interesting advertisement which the 
society sent as far as New York, Philadelphia and Boston for insertion! 
We read for instance in the Boston Evening Post, June 17, 1771: 

"Charlestown, South Carolina, April llth, 1771. 

The St. Coecilia Society give notice that they will engage with, and give suitable 
encouragement to musicians properly qualified to perform at their Concert, provided 
they apply on or before the first day of October next. The performers they are in 
want of are, a first and second violin, two hautboys and a bassoon, whom they are 
willing to agree with for one, two or three years. 

John Gordon, President 
Thomas Ln. Smith, Vice President." 



Under the circumstances it is not surprising that Charleston soon became 
attractive to musicians and consequently the number of benefit concerts, 
as defined, rapidly increased during the next decades. 

The following pages deal only with these as concerts given by the St. Cos- 
cilia Society go without saying 1 ). But an exception to the rule must be 
made here. When the South Carolina Magazine reprinted the rules of the 
St. Coscilia Society, it was claimed in a foot-note that "so far as has been 
discovered, the first mention of the St. Cecilia Society in print was made 
in the South Carolina Gazette for December 3rd 1772." This is not correct 
as the same paper published on Oct. 6 13, 1766 the following: 

"The St. Ccecilia Concert will be open'd to the subscribers on Tuesday evening 
next, at 6 o'clock, at the house of Mr. Robert Dillon ; before which time the subscribers 
are desired to send to the treasurer for their tickets of admittance, who is empowered 
to receive the subscription money. 

By order of the President 

Isaac Motte, Treasurer." 

In the following year Anthony Labbe, a musician who still figures in 
the Charleston directory for 1797, advertised a concert for Jan. 29. Shortly 
afterwards a species of entertainments was introduced at Charleston during 
the summer months which shows how eagerly the Colonials were on the 
quivive of the latest London fashion. 

I mean the 'Ridotto al fresco' opened in 1732 by Jonathan Tyers at 
the 'New Spring Gardens' in London, better known as 'Vauxhall Gardens'. 
To this freshair resort fashionable folk would flock during the summer 
evenings and listen to open-air concerts while partaking of refreshments. 
The entertainments became so popular that from 1736 on they were given 
every evening 2 ). The fact that in 1745 Dr. Arne was engaged as composer 
illustrates how the managers sought to maintain a high musical standard. 
But gradually the entertainments turned into a sort of vaudeville with 
fireworks, etc. though concerts remained a feature. After having sunk lower 
and lower in character they were discontinued in 1859. Says Mr. W. H. 
Hadow in Grove's Dictionary: 

"Vauxhall Gardens had a longer existence than any public gardens in England 
and assisted in maintaining a taste for music as a source of rational enjoyment, al- 
though they did little or nothing towards promoting its advancement." 

1) It would also be rather difficult to say much about them as they generally 
were not mentioned in the papers. (The same by the way, is true also of concerts given 
by musical societies in Europe during the 18th century.) It is to be hoped that some 
day some member of this exclusive and uncommunicative society will take the public 
and the historians into his confidence and give us the history of the St. Ccecilia Society. 
Unfortunately, as I was informed through the friendly exertions of Miss Charlotte 
St. John Elliott, early records, minutes or reports of the society do not seem to exist. 

2) As early as 1661 Evelyn speaks in his diary of "the New Spring Garden at 
Lambeth a pretty contrived plantation" as a place of public amusement, but the musical 
entertainments remained very primitive for decades. 

2* 



20 

The same author claims that the New Spring Gardens were opened for 
the first time under the name of 'Vauxhall Gardens' in 1786. This may 
be, but the popular name must have been 'Vauxhall Gardens' for many 
years previous, otherwise the entertainments, first imported from Italy, 
would not have enjoyed an international reputation under exactly this 
name. For instance, in Frankfort o. M. "eine Art von Vauxhall" was intro- 
duced during the Herbstmesse of 1771 x ) and at the Hague Ernst Sieber's 
'Nieuw Vaux Hall op de Scheveningsche Weg' existed as early as 1749 2 ). 

At Charleston, Vauxhall concerts were introduced in 1767 by the enter- 
prising Messrs. Bohrer, Morgan & Comp. The advertisements may tell 
the origin of the Charleston Vauxhall and incidentally remind us of the 
fact that only gradually have audiences been educated to keep silent during 
concerts. In those days quite the contrary was customary and Burney, for 
instance, demonstrated the impression made by the Haendel Commemora- 
tion of 1784 by remarking that stillness reigned whereas 

"The best operas and concerts are accompanied with a buzz and murmur of con- 
versation, equal to that of a tumultous crowd." 

We read in the South Carolina Gazette, June 115, 1767: 

"By particular desire of Gentlemen and Ladies. The managers of the New Vaux- 
hall Concert, instead of having them three times, will perform only once a week, on 
every Thursday; to begin precisely at seven o'clock in the evening. 

Tickets to be had at Mrs. Barkhouse's, Mr. Holliday's and Mr. Tuke's tavern, 
and at the Bar, at fifteen shillings each. 

Tea and coffee is not included in the price of the ticket. 

Bohrer, Morgan &, Comp." 
and on July 6 13: 

"Advertisement Extraordinary. 

On Thursday the 23d inst. will be exhibited at New Vauxhall A Concert of Vocal 
and Instrumental Music. To begin at eight o'clock in the evening, at a dollar a ticket, 
which may be had at the bar. 

Between the parts of the concert, four or five pieces will be exhibited by a person 
who is confident very few in town ever saw, or can equal, his performances. 

After which there will be a pantomime entertainment, then a ball. 

Tea and coffee is included in the expence, till the person above mentioned begins. 

This will positively be the only time of his performing, unless by the particular 
desire of a genteel company. 

He finds himself obliged to request that silence may be observed during his per- 
formance." 

Unless Messrs. Bohrer, Morgan & Comp. found it unnecessary to con- 
stantly draw public attention to their establishment it would seem that 
the undertaking enjoyed but a short existence, as no further reference to 



1) Israel, op. cit. 

2) Scheuleer's article on 'Haagsche somer concerten in de achtiende eeuw' (T. 
d. V. v. N. N. M., 1904). 



21 

the New Vauxhall concerts is to be found in the South Carolina Gazette. 
All the concerts advertised during the next years- were given, with one 
exception, by Peter Valton 1 ), but as in 1772 an 'Orphaeus Society' existed 
in Charleston 2 ) it is probable that Charlestonians had occasion to enjoy 
other concerts besides these and those of the St. Ccecilia Society. 

Though not stated, the fact that "tickets [were] to be had of Peter Valton" 
clearly indicates that the concert announced to take place at Mr. Robert 
Dillon's on March 24, 1768 was for his benefit. He further advertised a 
subscription concert for April 5, 1769 and "concerts of vocal and instru- 
mental music ... at Mr. Pike's Assembly Room" for April 22, 1772 and 
Feb. 2, 1773. At the latter the first violin was played by "Mr. [Thomas] 
Hartley lately arrived" from Boston and "among other select pieces" was 
to be performed "a concerto on the harpsichord, by a lady, a pupil of Mr. 
Valton's". Now, as then, the best method of advertising one 's ability as 
a teacher! 

In the meantime, on Nov. 27, 1772 3 ) a concert had taken place the 
announcement of which finely illustrates by- gone methods of advertising: 

"CONCERT, by Desire. 

On Friday the 27th of November instant, at Pike's New Assembly Room, will 
be performed a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

The vocal part by a gentleman, who does it merely to oblige on this occasion. 

The whole sum that may be raised on this occasion, to be laid out for a covered 
way and elegant portico next the street ; thereby to enable ladies and gentlemen always 
to go to the new suite of rooms, without being incommodated by the weather. 

N. B. As the expence to complete the same amounts to a considerable sum, 
it is hoped the ladies and gentlemen will not think a guinea for two tickets an extra 
demand." 

In 1773 a few entertainments were given at Charleston which belong 
to the history of American vaudeville as well as to the history of our con- 
cert life. In January of this year, the "celebrated" Mr. Saunders came 
to town who appears to have been a formidable forerunner of our present-day 
magicians. It evidently occurred to a Mr. Humphreys, when he contem- 
plated giving a concert, that the engagement of Mr. Saunders would be 
to his own advantage and he consequently inserted in the South Carolina 
Gazette of March 22, 1773 this announcement which presumably thrilled 
all connoisseurs of leger de main: 



1) Peter Valton, besides being the organist of St. Philip's, dealt in "good and 
handsome new spinets" and other musical merchandise. He also, on Oct. 10, 1768 
advertised "Proposals for printing by subscription Six Sonatas for the harpsichord 
or organ; with an accompaniment for a violin . . . opera prima". Whether or not 
these sonatas left the press, I have been unable to ascertain. 

2) That this was a musical society, appears from an advertisement signed "Wil- 
liam Packrow, First musician" in the S. C. Gaz. April 9, 1772. 

3) S. C. Gaz. Nov. 19, 1772. 



22 

"For the benefit of Mr. Humphreys on Wednesday the 31st of March instant 
the celebrated Mr. Saunders will, for that night only, exhibit his highest dexterity and 
grand deception, which have never yet been exhibited in this province, in Mr. Stotherd's 
Long Room behind the Beef Market. Among a number of other surprising perfor- 
mances, Mr. Saunders will let any number of ladies or gentlemen think of as many 
cards as they please, and the same will be found in a roasted leg of mutton, hot from 
the fire, which will be placed on the table . . . 

After Act I an air to the French horn, by Mr. Humphreys. 

After Act II Mr. Stotherd will play the French horn and guitar in concert. 

After Act III a Song by Mr. Humphreys. 

After Act IV a Song by Mr. Stotherd. 

The whole to conclude with a duette by Mr. Humphreys and Mr. Stotherd, to the 
guitar. 

The doors to be opened at six o'clock, and the performance will begin at seven. 

No person to be admitted without a ticket, which may be had at the place of per- 
formance, and at the Coffee House. Table seats one dollar each, and others twenty 
shillings. 

N. B. Mr. Saunders, after the performance, will teach the spectators several 
amazing tricks on cards, etc. gratis. 

%* Mr. Humphres will esteem it a particular favour of those ladies and gentle- 
men, who intend to favour him with their company, to apply some time before his 
benefit night, in order that he may have seats made proper for their reception." 

A similar performance followed on April 29, during which Mr. Saunders 
had several new tricks up his sleeves. Mr. Stotherd announced as his 
share in this joint benefit: 

"After Act I 

Mr. Stotherd will sing the Dust last a favourite cantata, accompanied with 

the guitar. 
Act the 2d 

He will play the French horn and guitar in concert. 
After the 3d 

A song by Mr. Humphreys. 
After the 4th 

The Lark Shrill Notes, accompanied with the guitar by Mr. Stotherd. 

The whole to conclude with a Hunting song called Away to the fields by 
Mr. Stotherd. 

But back to more legitimate concerts! In the South Carolina Gazette. 
March 28, 1774: 

"Mr. FRANCESCHINI having the permission of the Honourable the President, 
the Vice President, and members of the St. Ccecilia Society, and the assistance of the 
gentlemen performers, begs leave to acquaint the public, that on Tuesday the 12th 
day of April, at the New Theatre in Church Street will be performed a Grand Concert 
of Vocal and Instrumental Music for his benefit. 

A solo and a concert on the violin by Mr. Franceschini, on the viol d'amour, 
Sonata on the harpsichord, etc. etc. 

Tickets ... at one dollar each. 

N. B. After the concert proper music will be provided for dancing." 

A few months later, a musician arrived at Charleston who subsequently 
became prominent in the musical life of New York and Boston, then calling 



_ 23 

himself, in distinction from his son, P. A. Van Hagen, sen. But in 1774 
he advertised himself as "P. A. Van Hagen, jun., organist and director of 
the City's Concert in Rotterdam". The logical inference would be that 
there must have been active in Europe, presumably in Holland, a Van Hagen, 
sen., so that the Van Hagen family would be one of those in whom the 
musical profession was inherited from father to son, of which the Bach 
family furnishes the most famous example. 

The correctness of the inference may easily be proven. The 'Journal 
zur Kunstgeschichte und zur allgemeinen Litteratur' contains in the second 
part an 'Entwurf eines Verzeichnisses der besten jetzt lebenden Tonkiinstler 
in Europa' 1 ). Under organists the entry is to be found (1776): 

"Rotterdam. Herr von Hagen aus Hamburg, ein Schiller des grossenGeminiani". 

This was probably the Peter Albrecht von Hagen who in 1740 appeared 
at Hamburg as violin virtuoso 2 ). It is clear that he cannot have been 
identical with our P. A. Van Hagen, jun. The missing link is furnished 
by Burney who, in his famous book on the 'Present State of music in Ger- 
many, the Netherlands . . .', 1773 wrote under Rotterdam: 

"M. Van Hagen, a German, who is the principal organist here, is likewise an ex- 
cellent performer on the violin, of which he convinced me by playing one of his own 
solos. He was a scholar of Geminiani, and he not only plays, but writes very much in 
the style of that great master of harmony. 

His daughter has a fine voice, and sings with much taste and expression. His 
the has been under Mr. Honaiir [sic] at Paris." 

It was evidently this son, a pupil of the composer and violinist Leonzi 
Honauer, who emigrated to Charleston where he proposed teaching organ, 
harpsichord, pianoforte, violin, violoncello, viola besides "The manner of 
composition to any that are inclined to be instructed therein". It is also 
characteristic of "Monsieur" Van Hagen that he did not insert his card 
before he had shown his abilities in a "Grand Concert of Vocal and Instru- 
mental Music", announced in the South Carolina Gazette, Oct. 24, 1774 
for Oct. 27th at Mr. Valk's Long Room for his own and the benefit of Signora 
Castella, possibly the professional name of Miss Van Hagen. This concert, 
too, was to be given "by permission of the St. Ccecilia Society", which 
can mean nothing more than that it enjoyed the patronage and assistance 
of the musical forces of the society for it is hardly credible that the St. Cce- 
cilia possessed the power to veto concerts. Of the program we hear nothing 
and the only particulars in the advertisement were these : 

"The vocal parts by Signora Castella, who will also perform several airs on the 
Harmonica or Musical Glasses 3 ). 

1) From J. W. Enschede's article 'Nederlandsche musici in 1776' C. T. d. V. v. 
N. N. M. 1904, p. 292294. 

2) Sittard, op. cit. 

3) Franklin's Armonica, just then very popular both in Europe and America. 



24 

The instrumental parts by Monsieur Van Hagen, Mr. Abercrombyi), Mr. France- 
schini, and others." 

This was the last benefit concert advertised before the War of the Re- 
volution and during the war to my knowledge only three concerts took place, 
announced no longer in the South Carolina Gazette but a glimpse into 
political history in the Royal Gazette! The first was given by Signor 
Franceschini on March 14, 1781 and the second anonymously on Oct. 8th 
of the same year when there was to be "a concerto solo upon the harpsichord, 
by a lady, and solo upon the violin, etc. and a ball". As tickets were to 
be purchased also at Mr. Abercromby's possibly he was connected with the 
affair. The third concert, on May 24, 1782, was again for the benefit of 
Mr. Franceschini. He requested the 

"honour of such of the ladies company as used to frequent the assemblies". He ad- 
mitted "the gentlemen of the navy, army and the most respectable part of the town 
at half a guinea each." 

After the war the St. Coeciha Society again began to flourish and matters 
musical at Charleston gradually resumed their former appearance. Yet 
a marked difference is noticeable. Before the war concerts had almost ex- 
clusively been given by itinerant or resident musicians. Now they found 
unwelcome competitors in the members of the theatrical companies, in a 
similar manner as the members of the Mingotti troupe for a while had pa- 
ralized the chances of non-operatic musicians at Hamburg. 

Thus the first concert after the war was given by an artist who, before 
our struggle for independence, had repeatedly won the hearts of the Co- 
lonials with her fine voice and method of singing and now was destined 
to soon enthuse the American public with her interpretative powers in the 
repertory of ballad-opera: Maria Storer, from 1787 on better known as 
Mrs. Henry. She had gone with Douglass' American Company to Jamaica 
when the first signs of war clouds appeared on the political horizon and 
she did not return until after the war. Then, when the comedians flocked 
back to the United States, she seems to have joined those who in the spring 
of 1785 opened a short season at the theatre in the City Exchange at Char- 
leston, and she remained here until her appearance at New York in 1786 2 ). 
Her benefit concert was advertised in the South Carolina Gazette, May 9 
for May 17th but of the program and the assistant performers nothing is 
said. However, the concert did not take place for some reason or the other. 
This becomes evident from an advertisement of a concert 



1) Mr. Abercromby combined the "profession of musick and dancing" and in 
1775 "entered into partnership with Mr. Sodi, who, for many years, had the sole con- 
duct of the dances at the Italian Opera in London". 

2) These data will be of interest to readers of Seilhamer's 'History of the American 
Theatre'. 



25 

"at the City Tavern ... for the benefit of Miss Storer" for Oct. 12, 1785 when she 
assured the public that "every exertion will be used to render the concert worthy 
attention" and remarked that tickets of the 17th of May ult. will be admitted on 
the above nights" [sic]. 

If this concert was postponed, an irregularity of quite are unusual nature 
happened to a concert with ball which had been announced for Oct. 27, 
1785. It was pre-poned to Oct. 26th. 

For the following year quite a few concerts are recorded but they were 
mostly theatrical performances under the disguise of concerts, the disguise 
being adopted to steer clear of the strong current against the theatre shortly 
after the war. The method adopted was this that "between the acts" or 
more correctly between the musical numbers such plays as the 'Spanish 
Friar', altered by Garrick from Dryden's tragi-comedy were performed. 
The "characters" were generally "expressed in the bills for the day" so that 
for all practical purposes the written or unwritten law was obeyed and at 
the same time theatre-goers were fully informed of histrionic details. 

In this connection these sham-concerts are of particular importance. 
They show that Charleston now possessed a building well adapted for enter- 
tainments of every description as they were given in "Harmony Hall at 
Louisburgh without the city". A description, printed in the New York 
Independent Journal, August 5, 1786 reads: 

"We hear from Charleston, S. C. that a principal merchant of that city and a Mr. 
Godwin, comedian, have leased a lot of land for five years and have erected a buil- 
ding, called Harmony Hall, for the purpose of music meetings, dancing and theatrical 
amusements. It is situated in a spacious garden in the suburbs, of the city. The boxes 
are 22 in number, with a key to each box. The pit is very large and the theatrum and 
orchestra elegant and commodious. It was opened with a grand concert gratis 
for the satisfaction of the principal inhabitants, who wished to see it previous to 
the first night's exhibition. The above building hast cost 500 . . ." 

Before the opening of Harmony Hall where Godwin's company performed 
until the spring of 1787, Joseph Lafar, a musician who seems to have estab- 
lished the first regular music shop at Charleston in 1786, gave a concert 
with ball for his benefit at the City Tavern on Feb. 14, 1786. Circumstantial 
evidence also points to him as the moving spirit of an interesting concert 
enterprise thus advertised in the Charleston Morning Post, Nov. 13, 1786: 
"By Subscription. 

A CONCERT AND ASSEMBLY. Every fortnight, to be held at Mr. Broeske's 
Long Room, No. 68, on the Bay. The first concert to be on Monday the 19th of No- 
vember. 

Subscriptions taken in at Mr. Lafar's only, two doors from the corner of Church- 
street, in Traddstreet, when a place for the Concert and Assembly may be seen." 

This first concert was postponed to Nov. 27. Though no more is said 
about' the enterprise in the papers, it is hardly probable that the first concert 
remained the last. If not, then those music-lovers who frequented both 



26 

these concerts and those of the St. Ccecilia Society certainly were treated 
to enough good music to satisfy the most thirsty melomaniacs. 

For the years 1787 and 1788 I have been unable to trace concerts (in- 
dependent of the St. Ccecilia Society!) and for the year 1789 only two enter- 
tainments deserving the name. On March 31, 1789 the South Carolina 
Gazette advertised: 

"On Thursday evening, the second of April, at the Great Room; Traddstreet, 
(late William's Coffee House) will be performed, A CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental 
Music. In part of which will be recited, a musical dialogue between Thomas and Sally, 
Dorcas and Squire. To begin at seven o'clock. 

In order to prevent the place of performance from being crowded, a calculation 
has been made of the number which it will properly contain, and a proportionate 
number of tickets struck off, without one of which no person whatever can be admitted. 

Tickets at three shillings each, to be had at Markland and M' Iver's Printing Office, 
no. 47 Bay, and at the place of performance." 

The advertisement of the other concert is even more curious as it will 
strongly drive the point home to all familiar with Israel's Frankfurter Con- 
cert-Chronik how much our concert-life, though, of course, inferior in qua- 
lity, had in common in outward appearance with that of Europe. The 
advertisement, in the South Carolina Gazette, April 28, 1789, runs: 
"This Evening ... A DIVERTISSEMENT; Selections: 

II Penseroso Jane Shore. Alicia. 

Songs, Water parted from the Sea, Anna's urn. Selections. L' Allegro 
Archer, Boniface, Foigard, Scrub, Sullen, Mrs. Sullen, Dorinda, and Cherry. 
Songs: Come live with me and be my love; Which is the man?; Lud! don't 
keep teazing me so." 

When Mr. Godwin in May 1787 "in consequence of a late act of legis- 
lature" saw himself compelled to "relinquish theatrical representations" he 
made the best of his embarrassing situation by delivering lectures at Har- 
mony Hall 1 ), besides teaching there music, fencing and dancing: But in 
1790 he could not resist the temptation of again testing the limitations of 
the legislative act. Accordingly he advertised in the City Gazette, Jan. 7th : 

"On Saturday evening [Jan. 9th] at the Lecture Room, late Harmony Hall, will 
be a Concert between the parts will be rehearsed (gratis) the musical piece of Thomas 
and Sally. To which will be added, a pantomime, called Columbia, or, Harlequin 
Shipwreck'd. 

Maria's Evening Song to the Virgin, Miss Wall." 

The idea of "rehearsing (gratis)" a ballad opera was certainly very in- 
genious and reminds us of the tricks adopted by the friends of the German 
naturalistic drama early in the nineties of the last century in order to avoid 
a conflict with the censor. Shortly afterwards, on Jan. 23, 1790, another 



1) Charleston Morning Post, May 31, 1787; Feb. 22, 1787. Late in 1794 Harmony 
Hall changed its name into City Theatre. 

2) City Gazette, June 10, 1791. 



27 

concert was given but again concert-music appears not to have been the 
real attraction for it was announced that "during the parts . . . the famous 
Saxon [would] have the honor to give a representation of a dance upon 
wire". 

Of the few concerts of 1791 three had this in common that they were 
given for charity. The first took place on March 17 under the direction 
of the St. Cecilia Society "for the benefit of a numerous family in distress" 
and the second for the benefit of "Mr. Lafar, lately returned to this city" 
on June 16th. May be the concert on March 17 was also given for his benefit 
as after assuring the public "that the endeavors of the performers will be 
exercised in selecting those pieces best calculated to please the audience" 
Mr. Lafar remarked 1 ): 

Mr. Lafar, after a series of misfortunes, has been advised by some of his friends, 
to attempt this method to alleviate the distress of his family: it is the more pleasing 
to him, as it will afford an opportunity to a generous public to display those sentiments 
of philanthropy, for which they have always been conspicuous . . ," 2 ) 

The third concert was to enable the commissioner of the orphanhouse 
who had already collected 800 1. for the purpose, to lay the foundation of 
the building. The price of admission was ten shillings and the concert 
was to be held at the City Hall on Oct. 20, under the auspices of the Ama- 
teur Society 3 ), to which I have found no further allusion. A fourth concert 
may or may not have been given for charity, but this is of little interest 
compared with the source where the reference appears. George Washing- 
ton was just then on his Southern trip and it is in his diary that we find 
under date of May 1791 this characteristic entry: 

"... went to a Concert at the Exchange at wch. there were at least 400 ladies the 
number & appearance of wch. exceeded anything of the kind I had ever seen." 

Though the files of the City Gazette are complete for 1792 I failed to 
find references to concerts in this year, for the daily performances on the 
musical glasses together with Mr. Saunders' "exhibition of equilibrium" 
at M' Crady's assembly room can hardly be termed concerts. Then, from 
1793 on to the end of the century, Charleston enjoyed a surprisingly vigorous 
musical life. During these years English opera flourished splendidly and 
from 1794 on until about 1796 French and Italian operas were introduced 
by a company of French comedians who had managed to escape the ter- 
rorists in St. Domingo. So it came that side by side with operas by Arne, 



1) City Gazette, June 10, 1791. 

2) Mr. Lafar seems to have met with sufficient encouragement to remain at Char- 
leston for it appears from the papers that he opened a dancing assembly in 1791, trans- 
lated French and English "grammatically and orthographically", copied music and 
reopened his music shop. He died at Charleston in 1797. 

3) City Gazette, Oct. 11, 1791. 



28 

Atwood, Shield and others such by Rousseau, Gretry, Cimarosa, Paisiello 
were heard at Charleston. This influx of French musicians exercised an 
influence also upon the concert-life. Not alone did the singing members 
of the companies generally participate in the concerts but the French mu- 
sicians together with those residing at Charleston and those who belonged 
to the orchestra in the English companies formed a phalanx sufficiently 
large and capable to render the "full pieces" of the current European con- 
cert repertory. Thus the revolutions in France and St. Domingo contri- 
buted to laying the foundation of our cosmopolitan musical life with all 
its advantages and drawbacks. It will be seen that Stamitz, Gossec, Haydn, 
Gyrowetz, Pleyel, Gretry, and other European celebrities, including Mozart 
and Gluck 1 ) figured on the programs, and these programs together with 
those submitted in subsequent chapters will perhaps induce our program 
annotators who delight in dating first performances in our country of Haydn, 
Gluck and Mozart as late as 1850 and later, to be more cautious in the 
future. 

It might be said that the concerts were only few in number but it should 
not be forgotten that there is a difference between concerts traced and con- 
certs actually given. Moreover, it should constantly be kept in mind that 
the St. Cecilia Society 2 ) with its concerts formed the real backbone of Char- 
leston's concert life and that in 1794 another musical society, the Harmonic 
Society, appeared on the plan. The concerts of these societies were public 
only to a certain degree. Therefore they were not advertised, yet they were 
concerts and consequently the entertainments announced in the papers were 
additional to the regular subscription concerts of these societies. However, 
not the number of the benefit concerts is of importance but their general 
character. 

The first concert of 1793 was given by the "professors and amateurs" 
on Feb. 19 for the benefit of the Orphan House, Mr. Williams "politely" 
offering them his assembly room and services free of all expenses "in order 
to promote so laudable an institution" 3 ). Here is the 

PLAN OF THE CONCERT. 

ACT 1st. 

Grand Overture of Haydn 

Quartette of Pleyel 

A song by Mr. Courtney 

Duetto, violin and clarinet, of Michel 

Sinfonie concertante of .. . Davaux 



1 ) It should be remembered -that Mozart figured none too prominently on concert 
programs before 1800 even at Vienna! 

2) From 1790 on this form of the name prevailed. 

3) City Gazette, Feb. 12 and 16, 1793. 



29 . 

ACT 2d. 

Concerto grosso of Corelli 

A French song, accompanied with guitar and violin 

Concert, violin .. .. Giornovichi 

Concerto, grand pianoforte, Hoffmeister 

To conclude with a favorite 

Sinfonie of the celebrated Pleyel." 

This was followed on Dec. 17 at Williams' Coffee House by a concert 
for the benefit of "Messieurs Petit, Le Roy, Foucard and Villars, musicians, 
instructed by the most eminent professors in their line in Europe" 1 ). The 
"Distribution" reads: 

Grand Overture, music of Heyden 

Clarinet Concerto, Mr. Foucard. 

Quartetto (by Pleyel) Messrs Petit, Poition, Villars and Le Roy 

A Song, by Mr. West, jun. 

Violin Concerto and Marlborough, with the variations, by Mr. 

Duport, aged 13 years. 
Overture of Carvane, music of Gretrie. 

SECOND PART. 

Grand Overture, music of Gretrie. 

Clarinet quartette, by an amateur 

A Concertant symphony for two violins and tenor, by Messrs. 

Le Roy, Poition and Villars 
A Song by Mr. West, jun. 
Violin concerto, by Mr. Petit 

The concert will conclude with the Overture of Henry IVth. 2 ) 

The most important concert of 1794 was the one held on March 6th 
under the patronage of the St. Cecilia Society at West & Bignall's Theatre 
"for the benefit of the distressed inhabitants of St. Domingo now in this 
city" with the following rather miscellaneous program 3 ): 

ACT 1st. 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song, Mr. Chambers 

Quartett Violin Pleyel 

Song, Mr. Clifford 

Overture Gretrie 

ACT 2d. 

Grand Overture (la Chasse) Gossec 

Song, Mr. West 

Sonata Pianoforte, Rondo by Mrs. Sully 

Duett, Mr. Chambers & Mrs. Chambers. 



1) City Gazette, Dec. 12 and 14, 1793. 

2) Probably the one by Martini. 

3) City Gazette, March 6, 1794. 



30 

ACT 3d. 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Song, Mr. Chambers 

Concerto Violin, by Mr. Petit Viotti 

Glee, Mr. Chambers, Mrs. Chambers, and Mr. West. 

AFTER THE CONCERT 
A Double Allemande and Reel, by Mr. M. Sully, Mrs. Chambers 

and Miss Sully. 
A Grand Ballet, by Mons. Francesquy, Mons. Dainville, Mons. 

Val and Madame Val. 
The whole to conclude with Manly Feats of Activity by Mr. 

M. Sully. 

Boxes to be taken as usual. Tickets at 5 s each . . . None but 
the managers admitted on the stage." 

Also a concert may be noted which Mr. Clifford, a member of West and 
Bignall's company, advertised early in July. It seems that his benefit at 
the theatre was not a "good benefit" on account of the inclemency of the 
weather and Mr. Clifford who was terribly in debt proposed having a concert 

"wherein he hopes for their patronage [of the ladies and gentlemen of Charleston] 
that he may act like a man of principle and honor to those whom he may owe any 
thing to, being desirous not to leave Charleston with a dishonourable name!" 

Whether the concert, so oddily advertised, took place I did not ascertain. 

For the year 1795 the data are somewhat more numerous and interesting. 
The first was a "grand concert" given by Mr. Jacobus Pick on March 26th 
at William's Concert Room with this program 1 ): 

ACT 1st. 

Overture, composed by Girovetz 

Song, by Mrs. Pick 

Quartette Pleyel 

Concerto on the Clarinet, composed and performed by .. .. Mr. Dubois 2 ) 

Song, by Mr. J. West 

Rondo Pleyel 

ACT 2d. 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Song, by Mrs. Pick 

Concerto on the Violin, by Master Duport La Motte 

Song, by Mr. J. West 

Sonate on the Pianoforte, by Mr. Eckhard Dussek 

Duetto, by Mr. and Mrs. Pick 

Pot Pourris on the Harmonia, by Mrs. Pick 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Though a program like this did not consume much more than two 
hours, as the symphonies of Haydn and his contemporaries are very much 



1) City Gazette, March 26, 1795. 

2) The advertisement reads "Mrs. Dubois", evidently a mistake. 



31 

shorter than those of Beethoven, not to mention Bruckner or Mahler, yet 
it is well known that our forefathers possessed wonderful endurance. (Beet- 
hoven's concerts at Vienna!) Furthermore it is claimed that the custom 
prevailed to advertise a whole symphony though frequently only one or 
two movements were really played. It is also interesting to note that the 
time had not yet come when a rigorous distinction was generally made 
between orchestral and chamber-music programs. This observation applies 
even more strongly to the program as inserted by Mr. J. West for his benefit 
concert at Williams' Assembly Room on April 16 l ): 

ACT 1st. 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Song, Mrs. Pick 

Quartette Daveaux 

Song, J. West 

Sonata, grand pianoforte, Mrs. Sully 

Song, Mad. Placide 

Rondo Pleyel 

ACT 2d. 

Sinfonia Guenin 

Song, J. West 

Concerto Clarinetto, Mr. Dubois 

Song, Mrs. Pick 

Sonata, grand pianoforte, Mrs. Sully 

Duetto, Mrs. Placide and J. West 

Grand Sinfonie Pleyel 

After the concert the music will attend as usual to accommodate any parties who 
wish to dance. 

In the meantime, on April 9th in the City Gazette, "Citizen" Cornet 
announced that he had 

"established in the house in Broadstreet, near Kingstreet, in which the baths 
were formerly kept, a Vaux Hall, after the Parisian manner, in which there will be 
dancing on every Saturday . . . the orchestra will attend at American or French socie- 
ties if required ..." 

but evidently the establishment was not opened until late in October, for 
we read in the City Gazette, Oct. 22: 

"Citizen Cornet has the honour to inform the public that the opening of Vaux 
Hall will be on Saturday next, the 24th instant, at 7 o'clock in the evening, at No. 44, 
Broadstreet, near King Street. There will be an excellent Orchestra of French Music 
a supper and refreshments. The price is two dollars for each gentleman, accompanied 
or not by ladies." 

The Vaux Hall was closed on Oct. 31st on account of additions Citizen 
Cornet was making. They consisted in decorations by the "Citizen" Audin. 
But Citizen Cornet had not merely imbued the American spirit of enterprise. 



1) City Gazette, April 15, 1795. 



32 

He still possessed the obliging qualities of his race. Thus he notified the 
public in December that 

"when the night is unfavourable carriages will be sent to the ladies who might 
be prevented thereby from honouring the Hall with their presence" 1 ). 

Probably Mr. Le Roy did not belong to Cornet's "orchestra of French 
music" for otherwise he would have held his benefit concert at Vaux Hall 
instead of at Williams' coffee-house on Dec. 17th 2 ). Be this, as it may, 
Mr. Le Roy "flattered himself with a hope that the judicious choice of the 
pieces [would] induce the ladies and gentlemen of this city to honour him 
with their presence". 

ACT 1st. 

Symphonic Hayden 

Song, by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto on the basse, by Mr. Le Roy Pleyel 

Duett, by Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Bergman 

La Chasse StamitzS) 

ACT 2d. 

Symfonie Pleyel 

Concerto, Pianoforte, Mr. De Villers .. Kotzeluch 
French song, by Mr. Pownall 

Concerto Violin, by Petit Jernovick 

A Favorite solo, by Mrs. Pownall 

Overture, the Battle of Ivry Martini 

N. B. Between the acts, Mr. Le Roy will per- 
form several pieces on the Spanish guitar . . . 

Silence is requested during the performance." 

If this remarkable program allows us to form an adequate opinion of 
the musical taste of Charleston, those of the following year will afford an 
opportunity for offering a few useful historical remarks in a different direc- 
tion. Mr. Le Roy had styled his concert and, historically speaking, justly 
so a "grand concert". So did Messrs. Petit and Villars, when they an- 
nounced for their benefit at the City Theatre on March 21st 4 ) the following: 

"SELECTION. 
ACT 1st. 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Concerto, on the Clarinet, by Mr. Foucard Michel 

Sonata, Piano Forte, by Mr. Devillers Pleyel 

A Favorite song, by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto on the Violin, by Mr. Daguetty Yarnovick 

Sinfonie concertante Pleyel 



1) Cornet added to this advertisement (City Gazette, Dec. 12, 1795) that "he 
continues to repair and tune musical instruments and he has no objection to go to 
the country on this service when he may be required". No doubt but that his services 
were frequently required for these were still the days of the capricious harpsichord. 

2) City Gazette, Dec. 16, 1795. 

3) As a rule , unfortunately no distinction was made between Johann and Karl 
Stamitz. The 'La Chasse' symphony was by the latter. 

4) Originally announced for March 3d. 



33 

ACT 2d. 

Overture in Samson Handel 

Concerto on the Hautboy, by Mr. Graupner 1 ) Fischer 

A French song, by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto on the Pianoforte, by Mr. Devillers Bertoni 

A Favorite song, by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto on the Violin, with the favorite rondo of Maryborough, by 

Mr. Petit Viotti 

Grand Overture in Henry IV Martini 

N. B. The Piano Forte will be played on by Mr. Devillers, and not, 
as it has been announced by a mistake, by Mr. Villars, for whose benefit is 
the Concert. 

Silence is requested during the performance of the several pieces. 

The Concert to begin at 7 o'clock precisely. Seats in the boxes will be 
taken previously as usual: Tickets to be had at the Office of the City Trea- 
surer, at 6 s. each." 

Quite different in character was the concert advertised in the following 
manner in the City Gazette March 21, 1796: 

SACRED MUSIC. 

Mrs. Pownall respectfully acquaints the public that agreeable to her engagement 
with Mr. Solle, previous to her coming to Charleston, she is entitled to his theatre, on 
Thursday the 24th instant. Religious subjects being best adapted to Passion Week, 
she has for that evening prepared a Grand Concert Spirituals, or Spiritual concert, con- 
sisting chiefly of overtures, songs and duets, selected from the most celebrated of Han- 
del's oratorios: the Messiah, Judas Maccabeus, Esther, etc. etc. arranged as follows: 

ACT 1st. 
Overture to the Messiah, with recitative 'Comfort ye my people, 

every valley shall be exalted', by Mrs. Pownall 
Martini's Grand Overture to Henry the IVth. 
Song from the Messiah, 'He was despised', to conclude with 

'But Thou did'st not leave his soul in hell', by Mrs. Pownall. 
Duet, from Judas Maccabeus, 'From this dread scene, these adverse 
powers', by Mrs. Pownall and Miss C. Wrighten 

Overture in Sampson Handel 

ACT 2d. 

Overture, Occasional Oratorio Handel 

Song from 'L' Allegro il Pensorosi' [ !], 'Sweet bird', by Mrs. Pownall 

accompanied on the violin by Mons. Petit 
Concerto Pianoforte, by Mr. De Villers 
Song from the Messiah 'Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Si on' by 

Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Clarinet, by Mons. Foucard 
Song from the Messiah, 'He shall feed his flock like a shepherd', by 

Mrs. Pownall 

Duet from Judas Maccabeus 'O lovely peace with plenty crown'd', 
by Mrs. Pownall and Miss Wrighten. 

Overture to Esther Handel 

N. B. Silence is requested during the performance of the several pieces. 
The concert to begin at 7 o'clock precisely. Doors will be open at six. Tickets 
... at 5s each." 



1) As Gottlieb Graupner became more prominent at Boston, more will be said of 
his career in a subsequent chapter. At Charleston Graupner was a member of the 
City theatre orchestra. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 3 



34 

On March 24th the City Gazette informed the public that a "synopsis 
of the concert . . . with the words of the anthems, songs etc." was for sale 
at the Columbian Herald Printing Office and that this synopsis would be 
necessary for every lady and gentleman as no bills were to be distributed 
in the house, thereby implying that the distribution of bills had been custo- 
mary at previous concerts. Evidently Mrs. Pownall's 1 ) idea, unusual for 
Charleston, of giving a Spiritual Concert met with public approbation as 
she gave" some additional sacred music and oratorio . . . and several serious 
readings by [the actor] Mr. Chalmers" on March 26th 2 ). 

Still more important was a concert to which, by the way, perhaps for 
the first time in our country the title 'Musical Festival' was applied. The 
fact that Gluck's overture to Iphigenie en Aulide and Haydn's only Stabat 
Mater, composed probably in 1773 and over which Hasse grew so enthusiastic 
and Reichardt later on so critical, were performed and also the fact that 
the announcement contains some very interesting particulars as to the 
orchestral forces employed, certainly warrant a reprint of the advertisements 
relating to the occasion as they appeared in the City Gazette, April 18 and 
July 2. 

"GRAND MUSICAL FESTIVAL. 

For the benefit of Mr. Poiteaux, who informs the public that on or about the first 
of June next, will be performed at the Charleston Theatre, the celebrated Stabat Mater 
of Doctor Haydn, with a few selected pieces of instrumental music, as shall be more 
fully expressed in the bills of the concert. 

The solos, duettes and chorusses and instrumental parts to be filled up by the 
most eminent professors and amateurs in town, who have all offered their assistance 
for this singular occasion. Besides the vocal parts, the orchestra shall be composed 
as follows: one organ, twelve violins, three basses, 5 tenors, six oboes, flutes and clari- 
nets, two horns, one bassoon, and two pair kettle drums, in all 30 3 ). 



1) This great actress and singer was known in England as Mrs. Wrighten, of whom 
English critics said that she could not be equalled as Lucy in the Beggar's opera and 
Mr. Seilhamer claims that she was surpassed as a singer by Mrs. Billington and Mrs. 
Oldmixon only. She was also famous as Vauxhall singer. Mrs. Pownall came to America 
in 1792 as member of Hallam and Henry's company. 

2) I wish to call the attention of readers not familiar with the historical vicissi- 
tudes of Oratorio to the fact that also in Europe it had become customary to apply 
the term to entertainments in which either an entire oratorio was performed or mis- 
cellaneous selections from such and that it was also quite customary to perform con- 
certs, etc. between the acts or numbers. Compare, for instance, Hanslick's book on 
concerts in Vienna. 

3) The modern, but as all sensible lovers of art hope, soon antiquated craze for 
enormous halls, enormous orchestras, enormous music, makes even those who should 
know better, too often forget that entirely different conditions prevailed during the 
eighteenth century. Indeed, the usual performances of 18th century music, the early 
Haydn included, are but caricatures with several dozen string instruments drowning 
the desperate struggles of two oboes, two flutes etc. for a hearing and the backbone 
of the whole, the harpischord, being cheerfully cut out of the body orchestral in favor 
of artificial trimming and stuffing for the further display of the string quartet. Yet 
it would be so easy to infuse style into these renditions if only the conductors would 
cast a glance into Quantz, Ph. Em. Bach and other writers or study the orchestra 



35 

The above hymn has met with great applause at the public and private concerts 
in London and as Mr. Poiteaux will spare no trouble, time or expences in getting it 
up, no doubt but the greatest success will attend the execution of it. 

The Hymn and a translation of it shall also be published in future bills." 

In addition to this we read in the City Gazette, July 2, 1796 further 
details : 

Grand Overture (with a full orchestra of upwards of thirty performers) by Gluck 
in Iphigenie. 

Chorus Mrs. Pownall, Miss M. Wrighten, Miss C. Wrighten, Messrs. Douvillier, 

Bergman, Erimbert, Harris, J. West etc. 
Solo Mrs. Pownall 
Chorus as before 
Solo Mrs. Pownall 
Solo Mr. J. H. Harris 
Solo Mr. Bergman 
Chorus As before 
Violin concerto of Jarnowick Mr. Poitiaux 



statistics as laid down in Marpurg's 'Historisch-kritische Beitrage', 1754 1757. There 
we find that the orchestra consisted at the court of Gotha of 15 instrumentalists, of 
Prince Henry of Prussia of 11, of Prince Carl of 17, of the Bishop of Breslau of 17, of 
Count Branicki of 19, of Rudolstadt of 27, of Anhalt of 16, of Salzburg of 32, of Berlin 
of 36 only! According to Laborde the opera orchestra at Paris numbered 47 persons 
in 1713 and 64 in 1778 but this was proverbially an enormous orchestra and it should 
not be overlooked that "tous les instruments comme tymbales, trombones, tambourins 
se remplissent par quelques' uns des 64 musiciens". According to Durey de Noinville 
not more than 36 instrumentalists were employed in the orchestra of the world-famous 
Concert Spirituel in 1751 ! The nearest approach to our modern orchestra (in balance 
rather than in size) was to be found at Mannheim. There the celebrated 'Churfurstlich 
Pfalzische Capell- und Kammermusik' consisted in 1756 (see Marpug) of 10 first, 10 
second violinists, 2 flutists, 2 oboists, 4 'cellists, 2 double bass players, 2 bassoonists, 

4 viola players, 4 horns, 2 organists, "annoch zwolf Trompeter und zwey Pauken". 

To illustrate the expansive tendency I quote from Mizler's Musikalische Bibliothek, 
1754 and Kunzen und Reichardt's Studien, 1793 the following specifications of the 
court-orchestra at Berlin. 1754: 12 violinists, 4 flutists, 3 oboists, 3 viola players, 

5 'cellists, 1 lutenist [!], 3 "Clavierspieler und Compositeurs", 3 bassoonists, 2 "violons", 
1791: 2 Capellmeister, 2 Concertmeister, 2 Clavecinisten, 1 harpist, 27 violinists, 

6 viola players, 9 'cellists, 5 double-bass players, 4 flutists, 5 oboists, 3 clarinetists, 
5 hornists, 5 bassoonists, 1 Serpante, 2 trumpeters, 4 trombonists, 1 kettle-drum player. 

But the orchestras at Berlin and Paris were by no means typical. We know, for 
instance, that even in Beethoven's time, in 1784, the kurkoellnische Orchestra at Bonn 
numbered only 22 musicians and Koch says (under Besetzung) in his Musikalisches 
Lexikon, as late as 1802: "Man nimmt gemeiniglich an, dass z. E. mit acht Violinen, 
zwey Violen, zwey Violoncello, und zwey Contraviolone verbunden werden, wenn die 
Stimmen verhaltnissmassig besetzt seyn sollen", i. e. in proper proportion to the 
usual reed and brass instruments. If this was the average orchestra at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, Rousseau, under Concert, defines the minimum generally 
accepted about 1768 as follows: "On ne se sert gueres du mot de Concert que pour une 
assembles d'au moins sept ou huit musiciens, et, pour une musique a plusieurs 
parties". 

i Without pretending to have gone into this matter very deeply, I hope to have 
made it clear that orchestras like that employed at Charleston on the above mentioned 
occasion were quite respectable in size even if measured by European standards and 
this footnote will serve as a danger signal for all those who, because of unfamiliarity 
with the subject, are apt to believe themselves transported into ridiculously primitive 
conditions because our early American orchestras numbered only from ten to fifty 
performers! 

3* 



36 

Duetto Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Douvilier 

Solo Mr. West 

Chorus As before 

Solo Mr. Erimbert 

Solo Mrs. Pownall 

Grand chorus As before 

Martini's Grand Overture, with full orchestra, in Henry the IVth. 

Mr. Poitiaux informs the public that every exertion has been made use of on his 
part, and by those Gentlemen who assist him, to render this night's entertainment 
one of the grandest ever known here ; the piece having already been two months in 
rehearsal, promises great success in the execution. 

Tickets for the boxes, pit or gallery five shillings each, to be had at Mr. Young's 
bookstore, at Mr. Bradford's music store and other usual places. 

The Stabat, with a translation in English verse, by the Rev. Doctor Gallaher, 
of Charleston, will be given with the tickets. 

The Concert will begin precisely at eight o'clock and finish a quarter after ten. 
The greatest silence is requested during the performance. 

Leader of the concert, Mr. Petit. 

Organist, Mr. Devillers. 

On August 1st, Mrs. Pownall was again advertised to sing at Williams's 
Long Room on August 4th for the last time in America, but on the morning 
of the concert she printed a card in the newspapers 

"that from an unforeseen and unnatural change which has taken place in her family 
she is rendered totally incapable of appearing this evening; she, therefore, declines 
giving the entertainment at Williams's and requests those persons who have bought 
tickets to return them to her at Mr. Rogers' s in Broadstreet and receive their money. 

The unforeseen and unnatural event in Mrs. Pownall's family was the 
elopement of her daughter Caroline Wrighten with Alexander Placide, the 
pantomimist. The effect of the elopement upon Mrs. Pownall, says Mr. 
Seilhamer, was completely to prostrate her, the shock proving so severe 
that she died on the llth of August, only eight days afterward, it was said, 
of a broken heart. Although this distinguished actress had made her London 
debut under the name of Mrs. Wrighten as early as 1770, she was, according 
to the obituary notices in the Charleston papers, only in her fortieth year 
at the time of her death. 

The only benefit concert of the year 1797 I traced, was given on March 9th 
at Williams's Long Room for the benefit of Mrs. Lafar, "the widow and 
children of the late Mr. Joseph Lafar, musician" 1 ) who had died in dis- 
tressed circumstances. On this occasion Messrs. Petit, Foucard, Daguitty, 
Brunette, Villars, Devillers, Legat, Eckhard etc. as "instrumental principal 
performers" and Mrs. Placide and Mr. J. West as vocal, generously assisted 
in rendering the following program, interesting because a symphony by 
Mozart appears thereon though we are not told which of the thirty- four (?) 



1) City Gazette, March 6, 1797. 



37 

written by the master, then still considered somewhat of a musical anar- 
chist, was played. 

PLAN OF THE CONCERTi). 

ACT 1st. 

Overture in Iphigenie Gluck 

Song, Mrs. Placide 

Concerto, Mr. Devillers Krumpholtz 

Duet, Mr. West and Mrs. Placide 

Rondo Pleyel 

ACT 2d. 

Grand Simfonie Mozart 

Song, Mr. West 

Concerto Violin, Mr. Petit Jarnovick 

Song, Mr. West 

Simfonie Massonneau. 

In the City Gazette, Oct. 10, 1798 Mr. Edgar, like most of the persons 
who gave concerts in those years, a member of the Charleston Theatre 
company, announced for the same evening: 

A CONCERT of Vocal & Instrumental Music, intermixed with Readings and 
Recitations. 

PART I. 
Will be recited a piece, called The Prodigal ... by Mr. Waldron 

PAKT II. 
A Variety of Singing, with the friendly aid of some gentlemen of this city. 

PABT III. 

Extracts from the late celebrated Oration of the Honourable H. W. Dessaus- 
sure, Esq. 

PART IV. 
An Occasional epilogue, by Mr. Edgar. 

PART V. 

Will be recited . . . Scenes . . . from Mr. Murphy's Farce of Three Weeks after 
marriage. 

Shortly afterwards, on Nov. 8, 1798 was advertised for the same evening 
for the benefit of Mrs. Grattan at Williams's Long Room a concert, which 
really was a concert. The program reads: 

ACT 1st. 

Sinfonia Haydn 

Clarinet Concerto, by Mr. Foucard Michel 

Bravura song Sacchini 

Solo Pianoforte (Mrs. Grattan) Clementi 



1) City Gazette, March 8, 1797. 



38 

ACT 2d. 

Overture Vanhal 

Quartette, by Mr. Daguetti, 1 ) .. Pleyel 

French song, accompanied on the harp by Mrs. Grattan .. Milico 
Violoncello concerto, by Mr. Dumarque, lately arrived from 

Philadelphia Dumarque 

Hail Columbia Taylor 2 ) 

On March 5th 1799 3 ) the violoncellist Demarque, alias Dumarque gave 
a concert "composed of some of the first musicians of this city". . . "at Wil- 
liams' s Coffee House, in the room occupied generally by the St. Ccecilia 
Society" with a program on which the "local" composers seem to have 
figured prominently: 

ACT I. 

Sinfonia Gerowitz 

La Bataille de Trenton M. De Villers 

Song (the Soldier tir'd etc.), Mrs. Grattan. 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Foucard 

Eondo Pleyel 

ACT II. 

Sinfonia Haydn 

Concerto Violin, Mr. Petit 

Concerto Pianoforte, Mr. De Villiers 

Concerto Violoncello, Mr. Demarque 

To conclude with the celebrated song of Hail Columbia, by 

Mrs. Grattan. 

After which the ball will commence. The concert to begin precisely at 
7 o'clock . . . 

"Weather permitting" Mr. Labatut, a clarinetist, announced for his 
benefit on Dec. 14, 1799 the following program: 

PABT I. 

Grand simphonia Haydn 

Quartette, Flute Pleyel 

Song, by Mrs. Placide 

Duetto, Pianoforte by Mr. Eckhard & Son Pleyel 

Concerto de clarinet Vanderhagen 

Finale Haydn 

PART II. 

Grand overture Gyrowetz 

Sonata, Pianoforte by Mr. Eckhard .. Cramer 
Song, by Mrs. Placide 

Simphonia concertante Daveaux 

Quartette, Clarinet, by Mr. Labatut. 

Grand Simphonia .. .. Cimarosa 



1) He evidently was the primarius. His name waa spelled in many different 
ways. 

2) Of course, this does not mean that Mr. Taylor was the composer of Hail Columbia 
but that be sang it, the audience possibly joining in the chorus. 

3) City Gazette, March 4, 1799. 



39 

In the same year a third attempt was made to establish a Vaux-Hall 
at Charleston. This time by the popular ballet-dancer Mons. Placide who 
inserted in the City Gazette, June 19 : 

VAUX HALL GARDENS, corner of Broad and Friend Streets. 

Mr. Placide ... in consequence of the advice of his friends . . . has established 
that extensive garden now in his possession as a Vaux Hall ; where every kind of accom- 
modation and refreshment will be given to those who wish to spend an agreeable 
evening. 

The airy and healthful situation of the Garden; a Military Band, composed of 
musicians, masters in their profession; elegant illumination in the many avenues and 
arbours, the low price of admittance, and the particular attention that will be paid 
to the visitors are considerations which induce him to think that he will be highly 
compensated by a generous public, for all the very great expences he has incurred by 
establishing this novelty in the summer amusements of the citizens of Charleston. 

N. B. The Vaux Hall will open on Monday evening next and continue for the 
summer season two evenings in a week, viz, Monday and Thursday . . . The band will 
play from eight to half past ten. Tickets of admittance, half a dollar . . . 

Though on the opening night "strawberry ice-cream for this night 
only" was to be had, the "concourse" of visitors was so great that not 
enough benches and other accommodations were to be found. In later ad- 
vertisements the public was informed that no "persons of color" would 
be admitted and no absence checks would be given to those who might 
wish to retire before the Vaux-Hall was over. This last rule was modified 
in the second season in so far as "to prevent confusion gentlemen are re- 
quested, when they wish to go out, to leave something with the doorkeeper" ! 
Such restrictions, however, did not interfere with the popularity of the 
resort and encouraged by public support Placide went to the expense of 
engaging the opera-singer Mr. Chambers, just returned from Europe, as 
star. Other vocalists were Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, Miss Sully, a pupil of 
Mr. Chambers, and Mrs. Placide. Occasionally fire-works were added and 
as "cold supper [was] prepared at a minute's warning, with additional 
refreshment" it goes without saying that Placide's Vaux-Hall became a 
very popular resort. The programs were announced regularly but it will 
be sufficient to quote the one for the opening night, June 23, 1799 as it is 
typical. 

"At half past eight o'clock 'Lovely Man' Mrs. Marshall 

At nine o'clock 'Loose were her tresses seen' Mrs. Marshall 

At half past nine o'clock 'Listen to the voice of love' Mrs. Placide 

At ten o'clock 'Ah, why confine the tuneful bird' Mrs. Marshall 

At half past ten o'clock Trio 'Sigh no more, ladies' Mr. and Mrs. Marshal 

and Mrs. Placide. 
The music to begin at 8 o'clock. 

On special occasions Mr. Placide outdid himself to satisfy his guests. 
For instance on July 8, 1799 "a painting, representing the Independence 
of America, or the Fourth of July, painted by Mr. Belzous" was to be raffled 



40 

and a feature of his Vauxhall, reminding us slightly of Bayreuth, was this 
that "a bell [would] ring five minutes previous to each of the songs". That 
Mr. Placide, in print at least had become a very patriotic American 
will be seen from a poetical effusion which he inserted in the City Gazette, 
July 3, 1799 in anticipation of good business on the glorious Fourth: 

ODE TO VAUX HALL. 
Ye Belles and Beaux, who take delight 
In pastimes gay to spend the night, 
To Vaux Hall Garden each repair 
Were music soft and debonnaire, 
With pleasing rapture fires the mind, 
And dying murmurs to the wind; 
Where the jet d'eau delights the eye, 
Throwing its water to the sky; 
While Haill Columbia*, from the band 
Proclaims a free and happy land. 

Apparently our poet monopolized the musical interests of Charleston 
for I found no concerts given in 1800 outside of Vaux-Hall except one and 
by a very curious coincidence it will be seen that both the first and the last 
concerts given at Charleston during the period here treated were for the 
benefit of two musicians bearing the same name: Salter. As the second 
Mr. Salter called himself in a concert advertisement in the Virginia Herald, 
Fredericksburg, Va., May 9, 1800 "organist, late from England" he pro- 
bably was not a descendant of the Mr. John Salter to whom Charleston 
owed so much during the thirties. The second Mr. Salter appears to have 
been organist at New Haven, Conn, about 1798. He then drifted gradually 
to the South, giving concerts for instance at Trenton and Brunswick in 
1798. At Charleston he then inserted the following pathetic announcement 
in the City Gazette, March 1, 1800: 

To the humane and friendly. 

Mr. Salter respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen of this city that he has 
lately been afflicted with the loss of sight, which incapacitates him from following 
his profession as a teacher of music ; and he is obliged to solicit the attention and favours 
of a generous and humane public, to enable him to support a wife and three young 
children. 

With the assistance of the performers of the St. Cecilia Society, on Thursday next, 
the 4th of March, at the Concert Room in the Coffee House, he will give a Concert of 
Vocal and Instrumental Music hi which he and his daughter will take a part. 

Tickets, at one dollar. 

These pages on early concerts at Charleston will have proved how in- 
dispensible a careful study of our old newspapers is if a half-way compre- 
hensive insight into the history of early music in America is desired. Un- 
fortunately the files of these old newspapers are very incomplete, but what 
is a still greater obstacle to individual research consists in this that they 



41 

are so exasperatingly scattered through the different libraries of the East. 
In compiling data for a history of early music in America, one is almost 
compelled to check the scattered files as if the work was intended rather 
for a history of early American newspapers. I was able to submit some 
interesting information on concerts at Charleston because of the ex 
cellent condition of the Charlestonian papers as on file at the Charleston 
Library Society, but this file is exceptionally perfect. As soon as other 
Southern cities, prominent in those days, as Annapolis, Md. and Williams- 
burg, Va. are approached the obstacle mentioned is very depressing. The 
people of Maryland and Virginia were never inclined to be ascetic. They 
enjoyed the pleasures of life, they freely patronized dancing assemblies 1 ) 
and theatrical performances, they loved music and yet concerts are not 
easily traced. In fact, I found only one advertised in the Maryland Gazette 
of Annapolis before 1760 and this was not given at Annapolis but at a place 
now insignificant, at Upper Marlborough. The "grand concert of music" 
was advertised on June 14 for June 28, 1753. 

The perusal of the rather imperfect Maryland Gazette of Annapolis for 
the years 1760 1800, as on file at the Maryland Historical Society, the 
Library of Congress and Harvard University, does not yield much better 
results. But as several musicians may be traced at Annapolis and as several 
theatrical companies occasionally performed there with George Washington 
in the audience, the inference is reasonable that the few concerts traced 
by me were not the only ones given. 

In Oct. 1774 George James L'Argeau, a specialist on the Musical Glasses, 
announced that he would perform on this instrument daily between the 
hours of 3 and 6 for half a dollar each. We also learn that he had opened 
a dancing and fencing school, a frequent combination in the formative 
period of our early musical life. Not until the year 1790 did I run across 
any entertainments, properly to be termed concerts. Then a Mrs. Sewell 
advertised on Dec. 16 for the same evening "her musical entertainment 
and ball ... at the ball-room" but not even the price of admission is men- 
tioned. Two years later Raynpr Taylor appeared at Annapolis. Being a 
musician of recognized attainments, as will be seen in subsequent chapters, 
he certainly felt out of place in these primitive musical surroundings. He 
had been appointed organist of St. Anne's in Oct. 1792 but from an ad- 
vertisement that appeared in the Maryland Gazette, April 11, 1793 it would 



1) In his 'Travels through the Middle Settlements of North America in 1759/60 ...' 
(1775) Burnaby, when describing the ladies of Virginia goes so far as to say that "they 
are immoderately fond of dancing . . . Towards the close of the evening, when the com- 
pany are pretty well tired with country dances, it is usual to dance jiggs, a practice 
originally borrowed, I am informed, from the negroes . . ." 



42 

seem that those gentlemen who induced him to accept the position had 
preferred not "to pay the half year's subscription" due on his salary. Evi- 
dently the employment of a collector availed little. Under the circum- 
stances, Raynor Taylor decided to leave Annapolis end of May, not without 
thanking publicly those families who had employed him as music teacher 
and requesting his debtors to make application for payment. During his 
short career at Annapolis he gave two entertainments or "Extravaganzas" 
of the Olio species, for which he was famous both in England and in America. 
The program of the first may follow here as announced in the Maryland 
Gazette Jan. 24, 1793, that of the second performance on Feb. 28 with 
his "burletta never performed, called The Old Woman of Eighty-Three" 
as piece de resistance being very similar in character: 

TAYLOR'S MUSICAL PERFORMANCE at the Assembly Room, Annapolis 
on Tuesday next the 28th of January will be performed an Entertainment in three 
parts. 

PART I. 
A Selection of Comic and pastoral songs. Consisting of 'Gay Strephon', a 

comic song, by Miss Huntley. 

The 'Scornful lady; or I wonder at you', by Mr. Taylor. 
'Amintor, or the Arcadian Shepherdess,' a pastoral, by Miss Huntley. 
'Jockey and Moggy t , a comic song, by Mr. Taylor. 

The 'Happy Shepherd and shepherdess', a pastoral duet, by Mr. Taylor and 
Miss. Huntley. 

PART II. 

A Dramatic proverb (performed in London with great applause) being a 
burletta, in one act, called 

The GRAY MARE'S THE BEST HORSE. 
Consisting of 'A Breakfast scene a month after marriage', a duet by Mr. Taylor 

and Miss Huntley. 

The 'Mock wife in a violent passion' by Miss Huntley. 
'A Father's advice to his son in law', 'Giles the countryman's grief for the 

loss of a scolding wife', the 'Happy Miller', by Mr. Taylor. 
'Dame Pliant's obedience to her husband', by Miss Huntley. 
The 'Obedient wife, determined to have her own way', a duet. 
'New married couple reconciled', a duet. 
Finale, 'All parties happy', a duet. 

PART III. 

A Mock Italian opera, called CAPOCCHIO AND DORINNA, dressed in character. 
Signor Capocchio, an Italian singer and director of the opera, by Mr. Taylor. 
Signora Dorinna, an Italian actress, by Miss Huntley. 

Consisting of recitative, airs and duets. 

Capocchio's application to Dorinna to engage her as a singer. 

Capocchio requests Signora Dorinna to sing, her affectation there upon, and 
his admiration of her performance, a duet. 

Cappocchio's 'Declaration of love to Dorinna', a song, by Mr. Taylor. 

'A Description of an opera audience', a bravura song, by Miss Huntley. 

Her very modest and reasonable demands for her performance, and Cappoc- 
chio's ready compliance. 



43 

Her engagement settled, a duet. 

Each part to be preceded by a piece on the Grand Pianoforte, by Mr. Taylor. 
The whole of the music original and composed by Mr. Taylor. 
Tickets one dollar each . . . 

Young ladies and gentlemen, under twelve years of age, may be accommodated 
with tickets at half a dollar each. To begin at seven o'clock. 

Besides Taylor's extravaganzas may be mentioned "a new species of 
entertainments" with which the actors Chalmers and Williamson "pre- 
sented" the ladies and gentlemen of Annapolis in December 1797 at the 
Bail-Room. They were called 

''The TABLET, or, just in time, consisting of readings, recitations and songs". 
The only item of interest about these affairs is that "particular cafe will be paid to 
keep the room warm". 

Baltimore, though founded not very much later than Annapolis 1 ), soon 
became the more important of the two cities. Her natural growth naturally 
carried with it a speedy development of musical life but not until after the 
War of the Revolution did this become noticeable. Then opera, concert- 
life, music trades and so forth began to flourish in proportion to the general 
prosperity of the city and for a while it looked as if Baltimore was destined 
to ultimately rival older cities like Philadelphia or Boston in musical matters. 

Though sporadic concerts may have preceded it, one given in 1784 was 
the first to attract my attention. William Brown, the flutist of Philadelphia 
fame, announced the entertainment for his benefit in the Maryland Journal 
for Jan. 30th not without remarking that his "superior talents on the Ger- 
man flute gained much applause in Europe and this country" 2 ). This 
concert consisted of vocal and instrumental music whereas for June 15, 
1786 a concert of instrumental music only was to take place at Mr. Grant's. 
This was followed on September 28th by a concert of vocal and instru- 
mental music with a ball at Mr. Page's Concert Room when a musician 
made his bow to the music lovers of Baltimore whose name is connected 
with the musical origin of 'Hail Columbia'. The fact that the concert for 
the benefit of Philip Phile, the violinist, took place at a place termed a 
Concert Room would lead us to infer that concerts were not uncommon 
in Baltimore, though now traced with difficulty. This supposition is strength- 
ened by the announcement in the Maryland Journal Nov. 9, 1787 that. 

"This evening, at the request of a number of gentlemen, promoters of the Balti- 
more dancing assemblies and concerts for the season, will be a concert at Mrs. Starck's 
new building." 



1) First settled in 1662 Baltimore became a town in 1730. In 1752 B. had 200 
inhabitants, in 17756000, in 179013500 and in 180026500. 

2) During these years George James L'Argeau who settled at Baltimore about 
1780 gave daily performances on the Musical glasses as he had done previously at 
Annapolis. 



44 

Finally, by turning to the files of the Maryland Gazette of 1786 the 
necessary evidence is gained, for the following advertisement on April 14, 
proves that subscription concerts were founded in 1786: 

CONCERT. 

It is proposed to establish a Musical Concert, by subscripton for three months 
certain or any time longer the subscribers may chuse, to be held at Mr. William Page's 
large room in Gaystreet, which room is extremely adapted for the purpose. There 
are already provided, several well-toned instruments and suitable music, with eight 
capital performers. As every attention will be observed to conduct the performance 
in the most elegant and approved manner it is hoped that the proposal will meet with 
the approbation and encouragement of those ladies and gentlemen who are friends 
of the polite arts. Subscription papers with the Rules of the Society are lodged in 
the hands of several gentlemen at Mr. Page's in Gaystreet, and Mr. Murphy's bookstore 
in Market Street*). 

Whether these concerts were connected or not with subscription concerts 
evidently given in 1788 or early in 1789 by a Mr. Boyer would be difficult 
to ascertain. At any rate, on Friday April 3, 1789 through the medium of 
the Maryland Journal: 

"The public are respectfully informed that there will be a concert performed on 
Thursday next, at Mr. John Starck's tavern. Those ladies and gentlemen who have 
heretofore honoured Mr. Boyer with their subscriptions, are in a particular manner requested 
to attend the same." 

This concert was postponed "for a short time" and on April 14, Mr. 
Boyer announced that his next would be given "at Mr. Daniel Grant's 
Fountain Inn." A third (?) was advertised by Mr. Boyer on May 22 to 
take place "at Mr. John Starck's Indian Queen". 

In November of the same year Ishmail Spicer opened his 'Singing school 
in the Court House . . . for the improvement of church musick", or rather 
psalmody as his proposals were printed under this heading. Less than 
half a year afterwards, Mr. Spicer considered the progress made by his 
pupils sufficient to exhibit them in a concert of sacred music at the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church "on the first Monday in May". As the adver- 
tisement appeared in the Maryland Journal, Friday, April 16, 1790 the 
date of performance was May 3. The money arising from the sale of tickets 
was to be left in the hands of Mr. James Calhoun "to be appropriated to 
such charitable and useful purposes as shall be approved of by ... a com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose". 

A few weeks later the musical public of Baltimore had occasion to enjoy 
a concert of quite a different character as will be seen from the program, 
thus advertised in the Maryland Journal, May 25: 



1) William Murphy, it seems, was the first to circulate music in Baltimore. Ad- 
vertisements to that effect appeared in 1785. 



45 

A GRAND CONCERT Vocal and Instrumental will be performed at Mr. Starck's 
rooms, at the sign of the Indian Queen in Market Street, on Friday evening, next the 
28th instant, by a company of French musicians, lately arrived in this town. It will 
begin precisely at eight o'clock. 

FlBST ACT. 

1st. A Grand symphonia, in full orchestra. 

2d. An opera song, by M. de Lisle, with its accompaniments. 

3d. The Overture of the Two Grenadiers, a modern opera. 

4th An Opera song, by Mrs. de Lisle. 

5th Concerto de Faudo [Fodor?] by Mr. Emanuel. 

SECOND ACT. 

6th A Grand symphonia, in full orchestra. 
7th A Favorite song, from the celebrated opera, Richard Cceur 

de Lion [by Gretry] by M. de Lisle. 
8th An other favorite opera song, by Mrs. de Lisle. 
9th A Duet for two voices, by M. and Mrs. de Lisle. 
10th Solos on the violin, by M. Emanuel. 

Tickets may be had at the bar of the Indian Queen at one dollar each. No Person 
will be admitted without a ticket. 

The performers in this concert take the liberty to intreat the protection and counte- 
nance of the ladies and gentlemen of this town. They have been induced to'come to 
America by the deserved reputation which the inhabitants bear abroad of possessing 
a taste for the polite arts, and especially the music 1 ). They therefore assure the public, 
that every possible exertion shall be made by them to gratify it ; in the accomplishment 
of which, they shall deem their arrival in this part of the American empire, one the 
happiest events of their lives. 

The same, exceedingly polite and flattering musicians reappeared in 
a similar concert on June 4, the program comprising among other numbers 
a "new quatuor" and songs from Gre try's opera Zemire and Azor. They 
then treated on June 12th the public of Baltimore to a performance of 
Pergolese's Serva Padrona under the title of "The Mistress and Maid. The 
music by the celebrated Italian Pere Golaise", the compositor evidently 



1) This compliment was very flimsy. I believe to be familiar with most of the 
autobiographies, diaries, accounts of travels referring incidentally to music in America 
and certainly this "deserved reputation" could not very well be founded on such au- 
thors, as f. i. 'The American traveller', Anburey, De Beau jour, Boyle, de Crevecoeur, 
A. M. C. M., Davis, Kalm, Fontaine, Dunton, De Pontbigand, La Rochefoucauld- 
Liancourt, Smyth, Thomas, v. Billow, Wiederhold, Burnaby, etc. On the contrary, 
these authors, if they mentioned music at all, had nothing favorable to say about their 
impressions. A few quotations will show what even friendly inclined foreigners had 
to say on the subject. Isaac Weld, for instance, wrote in his 'Travels through the 
States of North America', 1799: ". . . Their knowledge of music, indeed, is at a very 
low ebb". Johann David Schoepf in his 'Reise', Erlangen, 1788 maintained amongst 
other things that "die Musik war vor diesem letzten Kriege noch ganz in ihrer Kind- 
heit . . . Wahrend des Kriegs und nach demselben aber, hat, durch die von den verschie- 
denen Truppen zuriickgebliebenen Musikkundigen, sich der Geschmack weiter ver- 
breitet und man hat nunmehro in den grossten Stadten Conzerte . . . [In Charleston] 
soil Geschmack an Musik, Mahlerei und schonen Wissenschaften iiberhaupt, schon 
lange her dort allgemeiner sein"! Perrin M. Du Lac in his 'Voyage' Paris 1805 delivers 
himself of this nonsense: "Les talens d'agrement, la musique, la peinture et la danse 



46 

endeavouring to put the unfamiliar name of the great Italian maestro into 
intelligible French! 

Merely mentioning William Miller's concert and ball at Grant's Assembly 
Room on April 6, 1791 two concerts are on record, amongst the first given 
in our country by musical prodigies. In the Maryland Journal June 17, 
Mr. De Duport announced that: 

"Master Louis De Duport's benefit night will be on Thursday the 30th instant, 
who will, by particular desire, play a solo concerto of Stamitz on the violin and several 
favorite airs with variations. The ball will be conducted by Mr. De Duport, which 
his son Master Louis, will open with the Shepherd's character dance in dresses, and 
music adapted to each." . t 

Evidently Master Louis filled the house for "by particular desire" he 
had another benefit at the Indian Queen on July llth the program being 
in part: 

1. A Duetto, composed by Mr. Breval, and performed by Master De Duport. 

2. Solo concerto, composed by Mr. Jarnowick, and performed by Master 
De Duport. 

Character Dances, composed by Mr. De Duport. 

1. Le Sauvage in parliament. 

2. Harlequin, an entertainment. 

These dances will be performed with dresses suitable to each and the Sauvage 
pantomime will be redered more natural from the appearance of a forest. 

The ball will be opened by eight young ladies who are to dance two Double minuets, 
and afterwards a Double cotillion will be performed by sixteen." 

In the same year Alexander Reinagle 1 ), the excellent harpsichordist, 
conductor and composer inserted the following proposals in the Maryland 
Journal, July 29 for a 



y seroient encore ignores, si quelques Frangois n'en eussent, depuis quelques annees, 
apporte le gout avec eux". The English Gentleman who translated the Marquis de 
Chastellux 'Travels in North America' took occasion to add to a few friendly lines in 
a footnote: "It is very certain that any person educated in Europe, and accustomed 
to the luxury of music and the fine arts, and to their enjoyment in the two capitals 
of France and England, must find a great void in these particulars in America. This 
the translator experienced during his residence in that country . . ." In Brissot de 
Warville's Nouveau voyage, 1788 the most characteristic passage is this: "Music, 
which their teachers formerly proscribed as a diabolic art, begins to make part of their 
education" and the best the Prince de Broglie had to say h that "some of them [the 
women in Boston] are pretty good musicians, and play agreeably on several instruments". 
These quotations will suffice to show what foreign travelers really thought of music 
in America. The trouble with all these accounts, however, is that their authors either 
visited our country during the war, when music naturally was at a standstill, or did 
not take the difference in size and population between our cities and London or Paris 
into consideration. In short they were good observers but poor historians. Still it 
would afford some entertaining reading, if I were to collect all these accounts into a se- 
parate essay. 

1) Alexander Reinagle, was born in 1756 in Portsmouth, England and died in 
Baltimore, Sept. 21, 1809 leaving a melodramatic oratorio based on Milton's Paradise 
Lost unfinished. R., a pupil of Raynor Taylor, developed an astonishing activity 
as pianist, composer and manager. Perhaps his greatest importance lies in the history 
of opera. 



47 

SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Mtisic (Under the di- 
rection of Mr. Reinagle) the vocal parts by Mrs. Gee. 

Conditions. 

1. That there shall be two concerts, the first to be held on Thursday the llth of 
August, and the next on the Thursday following at Mr. Starck's Long Room. 

2. That every subscriber pay three dollars at the time of subscribing. 

3. That every subscriber will receive six tickets which will admit himself and 
two ladies to each of the concerts. 

4. None but subscribers to be admitted. 
After each concert there will be a ball . . . 

The program of the first concert escaped me. That of the second, on 
August 18, was printed in the Maryland Journal August 16 and was worthy 
of an artist like Reinagle. 

PLAN OF THE CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture of Ditters 

Hunting song "Thro woodlands and Forests' .. Mrs. Gee 

Sonata, Pianoforte Mr. Reinagle *- 

Quartetto of Boccherini Mr. Emanuel 

Song 'As the Snow' Mrs. Gee 

Overture of Bach*) 

ACT II. 

Overture Guglielmi 

Ode to Delia Mrs. Gee 

Sonate, Pianoforte Mr. Reinagle . 

Concerto, Violin Mr. Emanuel 

Two part song Mr. Reinagle and Mrs. Gee 

Finale Pleyel. 

A third concert, though probably not on the subscription, was offered 
under Reinagle's direction "the vocal parts by Mrs. Morris", the popular 
actress and ballad opera singer, on Oct. 18th. About a year later, Raynor 
Taylor arrived at Baltimore from London and calling himself "music pro- 
fessor, organist and teacher of music in general" announced his intention 
on Oct. 2, 1792: 

"to perform a musical entertainment on a new plan, the whole of which will be 
entirely original, and his own composition. In the course of it many songs will be 
sung by his pupil, Miss Huntley, late of the theatre Royal, Covent Garden, a young 
lady, whose performance has been highly approved both in London and America." 

The concert was then advertised for Oct. 17th. Mr. Taylor, in the course 
of this olio, was to play, as at Annapolis, "several pieces on the portable 
Grand Pianoforte "besides joining Miss Huntley in two sketches, " An 
Interlude, called 'The Ambitious Countryman' " and "A whimsical per- 
formance called the 'Flight of Fancy' ". Raynor Taylor's vis comica which 
had been a drawing card for Sadler's Wells, must have immediately found 



1) Of course, the 'London' Bach. 



48 

favor with the people among whom he had cast his lot for he offered three 
further entertainments of the kind. The programs were different on each 
occasion. Miss Huntley was to sing "many favourite songs, in the serious, 
comic and pastoral style" and for the third concert "some gentlemen, per- 
formers on violins, etc. etc." kindly offered their assistance. 

In 1793 a Mr. and Mrs. Vermonnet settled at Baltimore, opening a 
"Seminary for young ladies". Mr. Vermonnet apparently was not only 
a dancing but also a music master by profession for he advertised a concert 
at his house in Harrison Street for March 8, postponed from March 5th. 
That this was intended as one of a series we are allowed to infer from the 
N. B. to the announcement : 

"N. B. If Mr. Vermonnet meets with encouragement from the public, be proposes 
giving a ball once a month, after the concerts." 

Maybe Mr. Vermonnet like other Frenchmen whom the French Revolu- 
tion drove to the United States became a professional musician only by 
force of circumstances. At any rate he did not hesitate to take part in a 
concert held on July 22, 1793 under the direction of Messrs. G. Kalkbrenner 
and W. Miller at the Exchange, for the benefit "of our .distressed brethren, 
the French". As the price of admission was the usual, one dollar, probably 
the appeal of the managers to the "usual liberty and charity" of the ladies 
and gentlemen of Baltimore drew a large audience to a concert "solely 
intended for the benefit of the sons and daughters of distress". 

However, the concert was postponed to July 24th for on July 23d in 
the Maryland Journal the managers inserted this attractive announcement : 

A CONCERT TO-MORROW EVENING. 

The public may be assured that the greatest efforts are making to render this 
entertainment grand, beyond any thing of the kind ever exhibited in Baltimore. In 
particular we beg leave to mention, having engaged Miss Buron, who has been singer 
to the Queen of France, and was obliged to leave that happy situation and fly to the 
West Indies, in the late disturbances in France and now once more is obliged to seek 
an asylum in these United States, being driven in a most distressed situation from Cape 
Fran9ois. She now offers her cordial assistance to aid the benevolent design together 
with a number of respectable gentlemen amateurs, who will render this concert pleasing 
and universally satisfactory . . . 

Young Misses to be admitted gratis." 

A few weeks later, on August 14th, Miss Buron appeared in a concert 
for her own benefit at Grant's New Assembly Room. Mr. Richard Curson 
and Mr. Buchanan managed the affair and "several gentlemen . . . pro- 
mised to exert their vocal abilities at the concert". In the course of the 
entertainment Miss Buron had 

"The pleasure of returning thanks to the liberal inhabitants of Baltimore, for 
their distinguished patronage, in an English song, composed and adapted for the oc- 



49 

Again the amateur-musicians came to the rescue of some unfortunate 
refugees on Nov. 25 at Starck's Long Room with a concert for the benefit of 
a Mr. James Vogel, "lately arrived from St. Domingo; Mr. and Mrs. De- 
marque; and Mr. Beranger from Europe". The program reads: 

FIRST PART 

Overture Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Demarque 

Concerto on the violoncello Mr. Demarque 

Quatuor on the clarionet Mr. Beranger 

Sonata of Pleyel on the piano Mr. Vogel 

French song, accompanied on the lute Mr. Beranger 

End of the first part a Medley overture, arranged by Mr. Reinagle. 

SECOND PART. 

Symphony of Haydn 

Song Mrs. Demarque 

Concerto on the clarionet Mr. Beranger 

Overture d'Iphigenie 1 ) en Aulide, in quatuor for the 

piano, by Pleyel Mr. Vogel 

Solo on the violoncello, composed by Mr. Demarque Mr. Demarque 
Overture of Pleyel, by a gentleman. 

French song, accompanied on the lute Mr. Beranger 

To conclude with a Grand Medley, arranged by .. Mr. Reinagle. 

For the year 1794 I have been able to trace only one concert. It took 
place at Grant's Assembly Room on Nov. 27th after the New Theatre had 
closed its doors for the season. It was given for the benefit of a member 
of the company, Mrs. Demarque, wife of the violoncellist. The following 
program was rendered with Mr. Vogel as conductor: 

FIRST PART. 

1st. A grand Symphony of Pleyel, in full band. 
2d. A grand Arietta, sung by a French lady. 
3d. The Overture de Iphigenie, upon two forte piano, by Mr. Vogel and a 

young lady about 8 years old. 
4th A quartetto of Pleye], by an amateur. 
5th A Concerto on the Violincelle [ !] by Mr. De Marque. 
6th A Duetto between a Forte Piano and harp, by Mr. Vogel and an amateur. 

SECOND PART. 

1st. Symphony concertante of Pleyel, by two amateurs. 
2d. A Concerto of Pleyel, on the Forte Piano, by Mr. Vogel. 
3d. A grand Arietta, sung by a French lady. 
4th A Sonata on the harp, by a French amateur. 
5th A grand Overture of Haydn, for two forte pianos, by Mr. Vogel and a 

young lady about 8 years old. 

6th The Battle of Prague 2 ), on the Forte Piano, by Mr. Vogel. 
7th To conclude with a grand Overture of the Melomanie 3 ). 



1) Probably by Gluck. 

2) Kotzwara. 

3) Opera (1781) by Stanislaus Champein (17531830). 
Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 



50 

The time was now approaching when public opinion in America was 
equally divided for and against the terrorists of the French Revolution, 
until in 1798 an extreme antipathy against things French swept over our 
country owing to political friction. In 1795, however, public pity for the 
French refugees was still very strong and such pathetic appeals as for in- 
stance a Mrs. D'Hemard made when she advertised for Feb. 27th 

"a small concert on the harp only, wherein she will execute several pieces of music 
and particular beautiful songs, with their variations." 

were bound to soften the hearts and loosen the purse strings of a public 
accustomed to seeing in the newspapers side by side with English adver- 
tisements such in French. The lady found herself, as she said, forced to 
give a concert 

"by the unhappy circumstances common to all the unfortunate French, to have 
recurse for the means of her sustenance to a talent which, in happier times, would 
have served only to embellish her education". 

Because Mrs. D'Hemard was an amateur it does not follow that under 
normal political conditions her concert would have been an imposition, for 
we know from Burney and other sources that often the aristocratic ama- 
teurs of those days could hold their own against professional virtuosos and 
if Mrs. D'Hemard flattered herself in the Federal Gazette: 

"to obtain the suffrages of the public, by the superiority of her talent over those 
who have performed on the same instrument in this country". 

this was in all probability true, as harpists were then none too numerous 
in the United States. 

As far as the musical life of our country was concerned, the French Re- 
volution proved a blessing as besides the exiled amateurs a considerable 
number of able professionals settled in our country. They broadened, as will 
have been noticed, our musical horizon by acquainting Americans with 
many French works in a distinctively French interpretation. In the North, 
to be sure, the French element did not leave very visible traces but in Balti- 
more and in the South it almost predominated for several years. Appa- 
rently the intrusion of the French did not cause much professional jealousy 
for, as a rule, English, German and Italian musicians peacefully worked side 
by side, and perhaps more so than to-day when our musical life has lost 
little if anything of its cosmopolitan character. 

On July 14th, 1795 Louis Boullay, a violinist, who had just arrived 
at Baltimore gave a "grand" concert of vocal and instrumental music "the 
instrumental parts to be performed by Messrs. Boullay, Demarque, Daugel 
and Shetky etc.", these gentlemen evidently being the soloists. On July 
15th 1 ) Mr. Vogel, with the assistance of the "Musicians from the New Theatre, 



1) Federal Intelligencer, July 14, 1795. 



51 

Philadelphia" gave also a "grand" concert, at Mr. Starck's with this 
program : 

ACT FIRST. 

Grand Symphony Haydn 

Sonata Piano Forte, with Scotch airs introduced Mr. Vogel 

Grand Arietta de L'Amant Jaloux 1 ), by a lady just arrived 

in town. 
Concerto Violoncello, composed and to be performed by .. Mr. Demarque 

Imprisonment of the rulers of France Mr. Vogel 

Quartette of Pleyel, by Messrs. Boullay, Daugel, Demarque 
and an amateur. 

ACT SECOND. 

Grand Symphony Pleyel 

Sonata on the harp, an amateur. 

Grand Ariette de L'Amant Statue 2), by a French lady. 

Concerto of Jarnovic for the violin Mr. Boullay 

Siege of Valenciennes Mr. Vogel 

Full Piece .. Haydn 

On Dec. 4th, Mr. Marshall and Mrs. Warrell gave a conc3rt with ball at 
Mr. Bryden's Fountain Inn. Both were members of Wignell and Reinagle's 
company which played a summer-season at Baltimore in 1795. To the 
some company belonged the by far more famous Mrs. Oldmixon and Miss 
Broadhurst who announced a joint benefit concert for Dec. 9th. Originally 
the concert was to consist of both vocal and instrumental music but on 
the day of performance the ladies issued through the medium of the Mary- 
land Journal the statement: 

"That several persons of the band which they had engaged being obliged to leave 
Baltimore, some gentlemen have offered to accompany their vocal exertions, which 
as far as possible they will strive to render a compensation for the instrumental music, 
to be given. 

CONCERT. 

PART 1st. 

Duet, 'Time has thinn'd my flowing hair', Miss Broadhurst and Mrs. Oldmixon. 
Song, 'Tis not wealth', Miss Broadhurst. 
Quartett. 

Song Me ne scai quoi', Mrs. Oldmixon. 
Duet 'Sweet content' (Dr. Arnold) Miss Broadhurst and Mrs. Oldmixon. 

PABT 2d. 

Duet 'Turn fair Clara', Miss Broadhurst and Mrs. Oldmixon. 
Song (by desire) 'Amidst illusions' Miss Broadhurst. 
Sonata, Piano Forte, Mr. Vogel. 

Song 'Sweet Echo', echoed by Miss Broadhurst, Mrs. Oldmixon. 
Duet (by desire) 'The Way worn traveler', Miss Broadhurst and Mrs. Old- 
mixon. 
%* Two gentlemen have undertaken to regulate the ball. 



1) Gretry. 

2) Dalayrac. 



4* 



52 

On July 7, 1796 a concert was advertised in the Federal Gazette by an 
Italian musician in a manner to inspire suspicion rather than confidence 
in his abilities: 

TO THE LOVERS OF MUSIC. 

Signer Trisobio, an Italian professor of vocal music, who had the honor to be em- 
ployed three years in the Royal Chapel by the queen of Portugal and who last winter 
sung in London before all the royal family, being now in this town, where he is to stay 
but for a few days, is determined to give a concert of vocal and instrumental music 
on Saturday next 9th inst. Therefore he respectfully informs all the ladies and gentle- 
men of Baltimore that he will execute several serious and comical Italian songs, com- 
posed by himself, and other pieces, of the most celebrated Italian authors. He will 
likewise sing some serious and comical French and English songs. 

Between the songs, selected pieces of instrumental music will be executed by the 
best performers of this town. Mr. Vogel will execute on the forte piano a concerto 
of the famous Dussex [ !], and one of his scholars, only seven years old, will play a sonata 
with two forte pianos. 

Signor Trisobio hopes he will receive here the same approbation he met with in 
several European cities, and he will experience the effects of that goodness which 
characterizes the Americans. 

The concert will be given at Mr. Bry den's Fountain Inn . . . 

Soon after Signor Filippo went to Charleston, S. C. He then moved to 
Philadelphia, advertised his 'Scuola del canto', struggled hard to make a 
living as singing teacher and died in extreme poverty at Philadelphia in 1798. 

The program of the next concert which I was able to trace at Baltimore 
and which took place at the Old Theatre near the Wind Mill on July 13, 
1796 was almost exclusively French in character 

1st PART. 

A Grand Overture of Haydn. 
De la coquette volage, song, Miss Tiesseire [ !]. 
The Siege of Gibraltar, on the piano, with accompaniments 

of violin & horn Mr. S. Marc 

Simphonie concertante of Viotti, Mrs. Yanda and Cha- 

teaudun. 

The Grand song of Renaud 1'art 1 ) Miss Teiseire [!]. 
Quatuor, on the French horn, M. Chailleau. 
Sot potpourri, with variations, composed by M. Chateaudun. 

2d. PART. 
Grand Overture of L'aleyrac 2 ). 

A Comic song Mr. S. Marc 

Grand sonata of Pleyel, on the piano Mr. Vogel 

Vole a nos voix, song Miss Tieissierf!] 

The little duo of French tunes, for two horns Mr. Chailleau and 

L'Arnaud 

La Canzonetta Miss Teisseire [ !] 

To conclude with the President's March with the full band. 



1) Renaud d'Ast, opera by Dalayrac. 

2) Of course Nicolas d'Alayrac (Dalayrac) 17531809 is meant. 



53 

In June 1796, J. H. Schmidt "formerly organist to the cathedral of 
Schiedam in Holland" arrived in town from Charleston as teacher of music 
"on the various keyed instruments and the refined art of singing and ac- 
companying songs". His ambition was to show his "abilities, politeness 
and patience, which are so necessary for a good teacher" and to "produce 
patent pianos superior to any in this place". Unfortunately just then 
Charleston was visited by a conflagration and Mr. Schmidt's superior patent 
pianos were mostly destroyed before they could be shipped to Baltimore. 
To alleviate his misfortunes Mr. Schmidt decided to test the "well known 
generosity of the inhabitants of Baltimore" by a concert on August 11 at 
Bryden's Fountain Inn where "he engaged the upper long room which is 
very airy and pleasant". After having received promise of assistance of 
some of the gentlemen musicians of the New Theatre and others, Mr. Schmidt 
advertised the program of the first act "The exact arrangement of the 
whole [to] be given in Thursday's papers". On Monday Aug. 8th the first 
act of the concert, which was postponed to Aug. 16th, consisted of a 

Grand simphony from Giernowycke [ !]. 

Song from Handel's Messiah on two new piano fortes of Hanston. 

A Duo by Messrs. Schmidt and S. Marc. 

Concerto on the violoncello. 

Simphony of Pleyel. 

The last concert in 1796 that came to my notice took place at Gray's 
Gardens, a fashionable summer resort, on Sept. 12th. Though the program 
of this "grand medley concert" as printed in the Federal Gazette, promised 
a plentiful musical menu, the N. B.'s in the advertisements will probably 
attract as much attention as the names of Haydn, Bach, Wanhal, Pleyel, 
Kotzeluch, Rosetti, played "by the performers and band of the New 
theatre". 

PART THE FIRST. 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'And all for my pretty Brunette' Mr. Barley, jun. 

Symphony Pleyel 

Song 'I can't for I'm in haste' Mrs. Warrell 

Overture Bach 

Song 'Oh, none can love like an Irish man' .. .. Mr. Marshall 

Symphony Vanhall 

Song 'The General Lover' Mr. Barley 

Concerto on the clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

Comic song 'Courtship and matrimony' Mr. Bates 

Overture Kozluck 

A Favorite Scotch ballad Mrs. Marshall 

The President's March. 



54 

PART THE SECOND. 
Irish song 'Oh dear, what can the matter be' .. Mr. Marshall 

Symphony Rosette 

A Hunting song .. Mr. Darley 

Neighbor Sly Mr. Bates 

Song 'Absence thou foe to love' Mrs. Warrell 

Glee 'How merrily we live' Mr. Marshall, Mr. Darley 

and Mrs. Warrell 
Catch the cries of Durham. 
The Marseilles Hymn. 
Leader of the band, Mr. Gillingham 1 . 

The Gardens to open at five o'clock and the performance to com- 
mence precisely at 6. 

A handsome collation will be provided. Admittance half a dollar. 

N. B. To prevent inconvenience and imposition, Mr. Gray requests 
the public to take notice that all waiters who are employed by him, in the 
service of that evening will wear numbers, to distinguish them. 

Ladies and gentlemen desirous of obtaining particular rooms, boxes or 
situations in the gardens are requested to send their servants in time to 
ascertain them. 

A number of constables will attend to preserve order. 

Taking the fact that I have been unable to trace any as a criterion 2 ), 
not many concerts were held during 1797 and also the remaining years of 
the century show a decided stagnation in the concert life of Baltimore though 
on the other hand the well supplied music stores of Joseph Carr and R. Shaw 
did much to acquaint the music lovers of the city with the current repertory. 
The first concert mentioned during 1798 brought the harpist Mrs. D'Hemard 
before the public with her daughter as star- attraction. 

"Little Marianne, aged 6 years, who lately returned from Philadelphia, where 
she has given a Concert which excited the admiration of her hearers, so much so that 
she was looked upon as a phenomenon". 

had occasion to show her "astonishing musical powers" at Bryden's Foun- 
tain Inn on May 4th in this following program: 

1. Overture of Blaise and Babet 3 ) on the pianoforte, by Miss Marianne 

2. A Sonata followed by a Medley on the harp, by .. .. Mrs. D'Hemard 

3. The Battle of Prague 4 ) and the Cottage maid, executed 

and sung, accompanied by the piano, by Miss Marianne 

4. A Duo of the harp and piano, by .. Mrs. D'Hemard and Miss Marianne 



1) George Gillingham, who had played in the orchestra at the Haendel Comme- 
moration of 1784 was from all accounts a very able violinist. His career as leader 
extended far into the nineteenth century. A picture representing him in this capacity 
at the Park theatre, New York in 1827 is preserved at the New York Historical Society. 

2) Messrs. Chalmers and Williamson presented their 'Tablet, or Just in time, rea- 
dings, recitatives and songs' with which we are already familiar, in December. Besides 
songs these entertainments contained sonatas and overtures played on the pianoforte 
by Mr. Carr, jun. 

3) Dezede. 

4) Kotzwara's insipid piece enjoyed an unrivalled popularity until about 1850. 
It was cast aside in favor of 'the Maiden's Prayer'. 



55 

5. The variations on the harp. 

6. An English and French air song, accompanied by the 

piano, by Miss Marianne 

7. A great Sonata of Pleyel on the piano, followed by 'the 

Little Sailor Boy, sung and accompanied on the piano, 

by Miss Marianne 

8. By the same, several entertaining variations of Pleyel 

and Haydn. 
The concert will terminate by a ball. 

A "whimsical entertainment" called "Fashionable variety with a Touch 
at the times consisting of various descriptions, recitations, comic songs etc." 
evidently on the order of a revue which the actor Mr. Bates gave on 
May 8th may be mentioned in this connection as it helped to spread the 
popularity of 

"a new patriotic song, called Hail Columbia, accompanied with the President's 
March, as now singing with unbounded applause at the theatre, Philadelphia." 

A few weeks later, on June 20th, Mrs. Oldmixon, not being booked for a 
performance at the theatre, gave a concert with readings at Bryden's Foun- 
tain Inn assisted by her collegue Mr. Harwood and Mr. Menel of the theatre 
orchestra. The character of the entertainment may be inferred from the 
program of a similar "grand concert of vocal and instrumental music in 
three acts interspersed with readings and recitations, serious and comic" 
as it took place "by authority" at the New Theatre on June 26th: 

ACT i. 
An occasional Address. 

Overture Hayden 

Song Mr. Marshall 

Recitation 'The Water Bottle, or a Cure for a scold', 

a comic tale Mr. Bernard 

Song Mrs. Warell 

Concerto on the violin Mr. Gillingham 

ACT ii. 

Glee 'How merrily we live that soldiers be'.. .. Mr. Marshall, Mr. Gilling- 
ham, Mrs. Stuart, Mr. 
Shaw, Mrs. Marshall 
and Mrs. Warrell 

Comic Reading "The story of Johnny Gilpin' .. .. Mr. Harwood 

Grand symphony 

Favorite Scot's ballad 'Auld Robin Gray' .. .. Mrs. Marshall 

Concerto on the violoncello Mr. Menel 

Comic catch 'the Cries of Durham' 

ACT in. 

Introductory symphony 
Serious Reading 'A Monody on the death of the late 

favorite and much lamented performer, by .. Mr. Wignell. 



56 

Glee 'Wind gentle ever-green' 

Comic song 'this life 

is like a country dance' Mr. Bernard 

Catch. 'New patriotic Roundelay' and chorus .. Mr. Marshall, Mr. Hardinge 

Mr. Fox etc. 

This was a limited concert as, in order to prevent inconveniences from 
the heat, the number of tickets was limited "on which account no person 
can be admitted without a ticket", a restriction easily explained if it be 
remembered that during the eighteenth century influential and popular 
gentlemen had access to the stage very much like Caucasian visitors have 
to-day to the Chinese Theatres in San Francisco. Though the Federal 
Gazette had advertised this grand concert "for one night only", apparently 
the demand for tickets was so great and the limited audience so well pleased 
that a "positively last night", entirely varied from the first, was given on 
June 28th under the title of "a grand musical selection". Dibdin's most 
popular songs were the feature and by desire a duet of Giornovichi 
on the violin and violoncello was performed by Mr. Gillingham and Mr. 
Menel. 

As a 'Musical Society' existed at Baltimore in 1799, advertisements to 
the effect appearing in the papers, it may be surmised that it gave concerts, 
but, to my knowledge, they were not announced publicly. I found only 
two concerts advertised in the Federal Gazette for this year. The first, on 
the order cf these of 1798, tcck place at the New Theatre on Jan. 22d for 
the benefit of the band. Though the program contained nothing of unusual 
interest, it is characteristic enough to follow here as a matter of historical 
record : 

ACT IST. 

Grand overture Haydn 

Song Mr. Marshall 

Trio (Wranizky) Mr. Hupfeldt 

Song Daugel and Shetky 

Sonata, Grand Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Song Mrs. Marshall 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

ACT 2c. 

Song Mr. Fox. 

Quintette (Pleyel) Messrs. Gillingham, Hupfeldt, 

Daugel, Brooke, and Shetky 

Song Mrs. Warrell 

Rondo, Clarinet (Michel) Mr. Wolfe 

Reading 'Monsieur Tonson' Mr. Harwood 

Concerto, Violin Mr. Gillingham 

Full piece (Gerowetz) 

The other concert was held at Bryden's Fountain Inn on April 26th for 
the benefit of Messrs. Dubois and Wolfe who presented these selections: 



57 

FIRST PART. 

Overture to Henry to IVth or Bataille d'lvry .. Gretry 1 ) 

Medley Trio, for a clarinet, violin, and lute .. .. Messrs. Wplfe, Daugel 

and Dubois. 
Sinfonia concertante for two clarinets, Messrs. Dubois 

and Wolfe Pleyel 

Rondo and March, to Henry IVth Gretry 

SECOND PART. 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Quintetto (principal part by Mr. Hupfield) Pleyel 

Medley, familiar airs on the Piano Forte Mr. Vogel 

Concerto, Clarinet, Mr. Dubois Michel 

Merely mentioning the open air concerts in 1800 of the rival "gardens" 
of M. De Loubert and Mr. Mang, the latter known as Chats worth Gardens 2 ), 
this chapter on concerts in the South may be brought to an end with a 
few necessarily brief references to concerts outside of Charleston, Annapolis 
and Baltimore. 

Whereas in the other Colonies, New England excepted, high-]iie was 
centralized in one city, Virginia could boast of several towns of almost 
equal importance and equal social attractions: Williamsburg, Richmond, 
Fredericksburg, Alexandria, to which may be added Norfolk and Peters- 
burg. To these small but gay places the planters, with or without their 
ladies, would go to transact business, to attend the races, to frequent the 
theatres and dancing assemblies, in short to bring some variety into their 
by no means dull life on the plantations. Williamsburg seems to have 
been the center of attraction until after the war when the state house was 
removed to Richmond. This change in general conditions had its effect 
also on the musical life of Williamsburg, primitive though it was. Whereas 
concerts are not easily traced after the war, a few are on record for previous 
years. George Washington, for instance, entered in his ledger for April 2, 
1765: 

"By my Exps to hear the Armonica 3. 9". 

and under April 10, 1767 "Ticket for the Concert" 3 ). I have been unable 
to ascertain by whom these concerts were given. Perhaps by Francis Al- 
berti whom we shall meet again in the next chapter and who, as he sold 
the tickets, seems to have been connected with a concert of instrumental 



1) Sic, though the opera was by Martini. 

2) As Mr. De Loubert had succeeded in procuring "the band of instrumental music, 
under the direction of Mr. Wormrath" previously engaged for Chatsworth Gardens 
Mr. Mang found himself obliged to advertise in the Federal Gazette June 4th that 
"any person capable of furnishing and leading a band, is invited to make an engage- 
ment for himself and other performers". 

3) See Paul Leicester Ford's monograph on 'Washington and the Theatre' (Dun- 
lap Soc. Publ. 1899). 



58 

music, given on May 19, 1769 at Hanovertown near Williamsburg at Mr. 
Tinsley's. The concert was to "consist of various instruments, by gentlemen 
of note, for their own amusement". It was requested in the Virginia Ga- 
zette, May 11 "by the ladies that the company may be governed by 
a becoming silence and decorum". A ball, "if agreeable to the company", 
the if being quite superfluous, was to follow. 

The earliest allusion to concerts at Fredericksburg I have found is con- 
tained in a card in the Virginia Gazette, Richmond, Jan. 10, 1784. It was 
directed "to all lovers of music, vocal and instrumental, in Virginia or else- 
where" by the Harmonic Society of the town of Fredericksburg. This 
society apparently gave concerts at the Concert Room in the Market House 
on "the third Wednesday evening in each month" and was "peculiarly 
intended for benevolent purposes". Tickets for those who were neither 
members nor performers cost one dollar each and "the music of the evening 
always [consisted] of three acts, which affords a grand entertainment of 
four hours" ! The society earnestly required the attendance of all gentlemen 
in the country who were performers on instruments, or who had valuable 
collections of music. 

Though presumably occasional concerts were given in the meantime, 
I found none advertised until May 6, 1790 when the Virginia Herald inserted 
the following characteristic advertisement: 

A Concert, Vocal and Instrumental (For the benefit of Mr. Kullin) to be held at 
Mr. Brownslow's brick building, formerly the stage office, in Fredericksburg, on Monday, 
the 10th of May, 1790. When will be performed, some of the best pieces of the most 
famous composers, in the execution of which several gentlemen of this place have 
offered their kind assistance. 

Mr. Kullin will perform on the harpsichord, as also on a Piano Forte organized, 
just arrived in this town, which, by its excellence, far surpasses any key'd instrument 
ever seen here. Mr. Victor will also perform a solo on said instrument with accom- 
panyment for the violin. Some of the new compositions for two performers on one 
harpsichord, will, in the course of the evening, be executed by Mr. Kullin and Mr. 
Victor, i) 

In the following year on Oct. 12th a concert with ball was held at Mrs. 
Hackley's under the direction of Mr. Emanuel. As the pieces to be per- 
formed were to be expressed in the bills, we are at a loss to ascertain the 
program unless it is preserved among the papers of some old Virginian fa- 
mily. On Nov. 4, 1797 a prodigy, already known to us, "proposed" for the 
same evening a concert at Mrs. Gatewood's Concert Room with the assistance 
of several gentlemen of Fredericksburg: poor little "Miss" Marianne D'He- 
mard, "only five years old, 8 months from Paris". Just on a visit to this 



1) John Victor, teacher on the harpsichord,) pianoforte, spinet and guitar, tuner 
and repairer moved from Port Royal to Fredericksburg in April 1789. 



59 

place from a triumphal tournee to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Alexandria and 
Richmond she showed her precocious talents 

"in the Battle of Prague Nicolai's Favorite Sonata opera 3d Several pieces by 
Pleyel Overture de Iphigenie, par Mr. Edelman, with a number of other pieces which 
have been the play things of the last six months of her life." 

But Marianne was not the only child whose musical talents in those 
days were forced to alleviate the distressed circumstances of her parents. 
We remember the children of Mr. Salter playing for the benefit of their 
half blind father at Charleston and the same "musical family" endeavoured to 
entertain the" humane and friendly" of Fredericksburg with a "pleasing, 
innocent and scientific species of amusement" on May 10th, 1800. 

Of concerts given at Petersburg I have been able to trace only the one 
for the benefit of Mrs. Sully and Mrs. Pick, advertised in the Virginia Ga- 
zette and Petersburg Intelligencer for June 25, 1795. As these musicians 
were not assisted by an orchestra their program necessarily partook of the 
character of the average benefit recital to which we have nowadays be- 
come accustomed. 

PART 1. 

A Grand Sonata of Pleyel's on the Piano Forte, accompanied on the violin 
By Mrs. Sully and Mr. Pick. 

A Favourite Song 'Whither my love' By Mrs. Pick 

A Favourite Scotch Reel, with variations By Mrs. Sully. 

The Favourite Duett of 'the Way worn traveller' By Mr. and Mrs. Pick. 

A Grand Sonata of Steibelt's, to conclude with the favorite Air of 'The Rose Tree' 
with variations By Mrs. Sully. 

The Marseilles Hymn, in English By Mrs. Pick. 

PART 2. 
A Grand Sonata of dementi's on the Piano Forte, accompanied on the violin 

By Mrs. Sully and Mr. Pick. 
A French Song By Mr. Pick. 
The Favourite Air of Lira Lira, with variations, from the Surrender of Calais 1 ), 

By Mrs. Sully. 

An Italian Duet, sung by Mrs. Sully and Mr. Pick 
The Favourite Air of Moggy Lauder, with variations on the Piano Forte By 

Mrs. Sully. 

The Hunting Song of Tally Ho! By Mr. Pick. 
Sonata on the Italian Harmonica, with several known airs. 
To begin precisely at 7 o'clock. Tickets at 6 s. each . . . 

It is safe to say that, whenever and wherever during the last quarter 
of the eighteenth century concerts of any importance were given in the 
small towns they generally were due to the enterprise of the musical 
members of theatrical companies just then performing at these places. 
This is also true of the several concerts held at Norfolk, Va. in 1796 and 



1) Arnold. 



60 

1797. The programs may follow here as advertised in the American Ga- 
zette and in the Norfolk Herald. For October 7th, 1796 Messrs. Decker 
and Graupner announced a benefit concert to "their friends in Norfolk and 
Portsmouth" with these selections: 

PART i. 

A Grand Overture Stamitz 

A Favorite Song 'The Poor little Negro' by Mr. Prigmore. 

A Sonata on the Pianoforte, by Mr. Letuz. 

Sweet Nightingale, by Mrs. Graupner, accompanied by Mr. Graupner 

on the hautboy 

A Violin Duet (Pleyel) by Messrs. Decker and Graupner 
Finale Le Due 

PART n. 

Concerto on the hautboy, by Mr. Graupner. 
Bright Chanticler, a favorite Hunting Song, by Mr. Prigmore. 
A French Song, by Mons. Douvillier. 

(By desire) Fisher's Rondo with variations on the hautboy, by Mr. Graupner. 
A Favorite Song by Mrs. Graupner. 

What is Love? a favorite Duet, by Mrs. Graupner and Mr. Prigmore 
The Concert to conclude with the Federal Overture *). 

To which will be added a Musical Entertainment, in two acts, called The Wedding 
Ring (not performed here these four years) . . . 

On April 13, 1797 was performed at the Theatre 

" . . .a selection of Sacred Music from the oratorio of the Messiah, etc. Composed 
by G. H. [!] Handel, under the direction of Mr. Shaw. 

VOCAL PERFORMERS. 
Mr. Bartlett Mr. Shaw Mr. Robbins Mrs. Decker Mrs. Shaw. 

INSTRUMENTAL PERFORMERS. 

Mr. Decker Mr. Duval Davezuc Mr. D. Mard Mr. Shaw Mr. Robbins 
and Mr. Letuz. 

Two days later a "Divine Concert of vocal and instrumental music" 
was held at the Town Hall at which "the best performers in Norfolk" were 
to assist. The advertisement continues: 

Several Sacred Hymns, Psalms, Songs, Trios and Quartets, will be sung by the 
French ladies and gentlemen who performed at the last concert. 

A variety of fine pieces of music from the best composers will be played on the 
Forte Piano, Harp, Flute, Hautboy and Violin. 

The Stabat from the music of the celebrated Italian composer Jacchiny 2 ) will be 
sung in latin by three or four voices. To conclude with the Sacred Glee of 6 Filii, 6 
Filiae; & Hallelugha [!] on the harp, bass and violin, sung in latin by four voices. 

Owing to the inclemency of weather, this concert which seems to have 
been given in competition with the one of April 13th, was put off until 



1) A very popular piece composed by Benjamin Carr of Philadelphia. 

2) Evidently misprint for Sacchini. 



61 

April 20th. On April 17th, the Norfolk Herald printed the full program, 
certainly an odd one. 

FIRST PART. 

Overture. Gearnovicks Concertante. 

Stabat, etc., a latin anthem. Music of the celebrated Sacchiny, by three voices. 

French Air and Duet, music of the same. 

Pot-pourri of Marshal, on the Forte Piano. 

Sacred French Hymn, music by le Moine, by three voices. 

Quartetto on the German flute, or hautboy. 

French Air, music of Sacchini 

Quartett of voices. Music of the same. 

SECOND PART. 

Overture from La Rosiere, music of Gretry 

'The Nightingale in the Grove', a favorite French song, music of the same. 

The Battle of Prague on the Forte Piano. 

Duet of Voices, music of Gretry. 

French Air. Music of Piccini 

Concerto on the violin, by Mr. Duval 

French Song, accompanied by the harp. 

To conclude with the Sacred Glee of 6 Filii, 6 Filiae, & Hallelugah. 

Of the concerts given at Richmond 1 ), a few, beginning with the year 
1795, came to my notice. The first, a so called "grand" concert and ball 
was held on July 2d at the Eagle Tavern by Mrs. Sully & Mrs. Pick of the 
theatrical company just then performing there and who apparently formed 
a sort of travelling team in this year. The program as announced in the 
Richmond and Manchester Advertiser was the same as performed at Peters- 
burg on June 25th. On Feb. 17, 1797 the Virginia Argus printed proposals 
for a concert by subscription under the direction of R. Shaw, of the orchestra 
belonging to Wignell & Reinagle's company. Shaw, who shortly afterwards 
opened a music store at Baltimore seems to have been opposed to idleness 
for wherever the fortunes of the company carried him, he filled his leisure 
hours with music lessons. He also fully understood the advantages of 
advance-notices as he took occasion to remark in his proposals that 

the greater part of the performers being at present in Petersburg, such persons 
as are desirous of promoting the concert, are requested to subscribe previous to Thurs- 
day evening the 23d inst. at which time the concert will be advertised, if a sufficient 
number of subscriptions are received to defray the expences if not, the money will 
be returned to those who may have subscribed. 

Sufficient subscriptions having been received, R. Shaw gave the concert 
on March 1st at the Eagle Tavern with a program remarkable for the 
unusually careful distinction between performers and composers: 



1) Population: 17903761; 18005737 inhabitants. 



62 

PAKT i. 
Overture 

Song 'Primroses deck the bank's green side, by Mr. Bartlett Linley 

Sonata on the Grand Piano Forte, by Mr. Frobel .. .. Pleyel 

Song, 'Amidst the illusions', by Mrs. Shaw Shield 

Concerto, German flute, by Mr. Shaw Devienne 

Song, 'Twins of Latona', by Mr. Robins Shield 

PABT n. 

Song, 'Love sounds an alarm', by Mr. Bartlett Handel 

Quartetto, oboe, violin, viola & bass Back 

Song 'Loose were her tresses' by Mrs. Shaw Giordani 

Glee, 'Sigh no more ladies', by Messrs. Bartlett, Robins, Shaw, and Mrs. Shaw. 
Symphony Finale. 

Between the first and second parts, the facetious history of John Gilpin will 
be recited by Mr. Green. 

Then on April 26, 1800 we again run across unfortunate Mr. Salter and 
his still more unfortunate children. The program, as printed in the Virginia 
Federalist, April 26th does not contribute anything to our knowledge of 
what was played in the United States of the 18th century and may be dis- 
missed with the remark that the children played sonatas, airs, variations 
and so forth and sang songs in "character", for instance Master Salter one 
"in the character of an American sailor". 

Concerts were also given at Alexandria, in those years, which practically 
means Washington 1 ). One, advertised for April 30, 1793 "for the benefit 
of an unfortunate emigrant" was postponed to May 1st and again to May 4th. 
It must have been a very primitive affair to judge from a na'ive passus in 
the advertisement in the Columbian Mirror, May 1st: 

"By this unexpected delay, however, a considerable acquisition will be made 
to the music the addition of a Thorough Bass upon the harpsichord, which will 
be performed by a lady, will render the entertainment much more pleasing and satis- 
factory, than anything of the kind heretofore experienced in this town." 

Another quaint glimpse into by -gone times when the enjoyment of con- 
certs was not facilitated for Alexandrians by street cars, is afforded by a 
notice in the Columbian Mirror on the day of performance : 

"For the convenience of the ladies who mean to attend the concert this evening, 
a carriage is provided for their conveyance, going and returning; applications to be 
made to Mr. Jesse Simms the Concert will not begin until the carriage is unemployed." 

On June 27, 1795, at Mr. Abert's Room, postponed from June 25th, 
Mrs. D'Hemard entertained Alexandria on the pedal harp with sonatas, 
concertos, favorite airs with variations and songs accompanied by the harp. 
This concert enables us to form the acquaintance of a gentleman who appa- 
rently was considered a musical authority in Alexandria: Elisha C. Dick. 
Over his signature appeared this remarkable testimonial in the Columbian 
Mirror of June 23d: 



1) The population of Washington in 1800 was 3210 inhabitants. 



63 

"I have heard Mrs. D'Hemard perform upon the harp, and presuming my 
testimony may, in some degree, contribute to promote the object of this lady, on 
the present occasion, I can venture to predict that the expectations of those who shall 
attend her performance will not be disappointed. Mrs." D'Hemard's judgement, 
taste and execution upon the pedal harp are not, in my opinion, to be surpassed by 
any one." 

It seems that others concurred in this opinion for Mrs. D'Hemard saw 
herself obliged to repeat her performance, "the last time of playing" taking 
place on July 7th. 

On July 16th, Mrs. Sully and Mrs. Pick appeared in a concert the pro- 
gram of which was the same as in their entertainment at Richmond on 
July 2d and at Petersburg on June 25th, the fourth number only in both 
acts being changed to a song by Giordani, respectively the popular song 
'Cottage Maid'. In the following year, on May 10th, a concert of vocal and 
instrumental music at the Presbyterian Church was advertised under the 
heading Sacred Harmony. The pieces were selected from Haendel, Ad- 
dison, Madan, Alcock, Reed, Billings and others. As the psalmodist Alexan- 
der Rhea was connected with the church, presumably he gave the concert. 
In 1797, on Oct. 14th, Mrs. D'Hemard reappeared with her daughter "five 
years old". The program contained Marianne's repertory as executed in 
other towns which certainly was astonishing enough no matter how childish 
the performance must have been. 

Merely mentioning a song recital interspersed with recitations offered 
to the public of Alexandria by Mrs. Oldmixon on June "28, 1798 I conclude 
the chapter on concerts in the South with three references which prove, 
at least, that Savannah, Ga. was not without concerts in the eighteenth 
century. Because only three concerts were traced by me, it should not be 
inferred that the musical life of Savannah was less developed than that of 
other Southern cities. The explanation of this scarcity of data is easy. 
The file of the Georgia Gazette at the Massachusetts Historical Society 
fully covers the years (April) 1763 to (May) 1770 but the last thirty years 
of the century are represented by a few stray numbers only at Harvard 
University and I was not able to extend my historical expedition as far 
South as Savannah, where a perusal of fuller files certainly would enable 
the student to prove that Savannah was just as musical as her rival cities 
of equal size: 5166 inhabitants in 1800. 

Presumably the first advertisement of a concert at Savannah occurred 
in the Georgia Gazette, May 21, 1766 in the following form: 

"For the benefit of Mr. John Stevens, junior, on Wednesday the 4th June next, 
being his Majesty's birthday, will be performed, at Mr. Lyon's Long Room in 
Savannah. 

A Concert of Musik. After the concert musick will be provided for a ball 
Tea, Caffee, cards, etc. etc. 



64 

Thirty years later, on Sept. 15, 1796 a "grand" concert was given at 
the Filature. This was preceded by a concert on August 19, 1796 at the 
Assembly Room thus politely advertised in the Georgia Gazette Aug. 18th: 

J. West's highest respects wait on the ladies and gentlemen of Savannah ' and 
its environs and humbly sollicits their patronage on this occasion and assures them 
nothing shall be wanting on his part to render this evening's entertainment worthy 
their attention. 

ACT I. 

Symphonic Bach 

Song Mr. J. West 

Song Mr. Sully 

Song Mr. Nelson 

Hornpipe Master Duport 

Song Mr. J. West 

Song Mr. J. West 

La Fille a Simonette, composed (with variations) by Mr. 
Daguetty for two violins and bassoon, by Messrs. Daguetty, 
Duport and Brunette. 

ACT II. 

The Anacreontic Song, consisting of songs, catches and glees 

Anacreontic Song Mr. J. West 

Duetto, 'Time has not thinn'd my flowing hair' 

Glee 'Drink to me only with thine eyes' 

Catch 'Poor Thomas Day' 

Duetto 'With my jug in one hand' 

Duetto 'From night till morn' 

Song, Mr. Sully, America, Commerce and Freedom 

ACT III. 
Symphonie 

Song Mr. Nelson 

Concerto on the -violin Master Duport 

Song Mr. J. West 

French Dance Master Duport 

Song Mr. J. West 

Glee Mr. Nelson, Mr. West and Mrs. West. 

Grand Symphonie. 

Probably data on early concerts at so musical a city like New Orleans 
would be welcome but I have been unable to ascertain such. Still, as Grace 
King says in her book on New Orleans (1895) that in 1791 among the first 
refugees from St. Dorringo came a company of French comedians who hired 
a hall and gave regular performances for twenty years including opera and 
ballet, it goes without saying that concerts were not missing. Should a 
half-way complete file of Le Moniteur de la Louisianne, founded in 1794, 
be discovered, it would be easy enough to trace the beginnings of a concert 
life at New Orleans. However, too much should not be expected, as the 
city contained in 1800 only 8000 inhabitants, negroes included! 



PHILADELPHIA 1 ). 



/^OTTLIEB MITTELBERGER in his 'Reise nach Pennsylvanien im 
\J Jahre 1750 und Ruckreise nach Teutschland im Jahr 1754' (Stutt- 
gart, 1756) says on p. 104: 

Zu Zeiten fiihren einige Engellander in Privat Hausern ein Concert auf dem Spinnet 
oder Klavicymbel auf. 

Public concerts he does not mention, nor have I been able to trace such 
at Philadelphia before 1757 though the files of the American Weekly Mer- 
cury, the Pennsylvania Gazette and later weeklies are fairly complete from 
1719 on. Granted that the Philadelphians, and especially the Quakers, 
were more inclined to reject worldly amusements than the Southerners 
and even the Puritans of New England, yet they were human and an 
atmosphere of refinement and culture pervaded Philadelphia . The fact, 
therefore, that in Charleston, New York and Boston concerts can be traced 
long before 1757 renders the introduction of concerts at Philadelphia at so 
late a date doubtful, not to say, incredible. 

However, on Jan. 20, 1757 the Pennsylvania Gazette notified the pu- 
blic that 

"By particular Desire 

On Tuesday next, the 25th instant, at the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley will be 
performed a Concert of Music, under the direction of Mr. John Palma ; to begin exactly 
at six o'clock. 

Tickets to be had at the London Coffee House, at one Dollar each ; and no person 
to be admitted without a ticket." 

A second concert was announced for March 25th in the Pennsylvania 
Journal, March 24th. Though the Journal did not mention the musician 
for whose benefit the concert was given, we are able to trace him in a source 
which will appeal to all good Americans : George Washington's ledger. The 
father of our country made this entry in 1757: 
"March 17th. By Mr. Palmas Tickets 52 S 6." 

This was presumably the first, though by no means the last, concert 
attended by George Washington! 

1) Population: 173112000; 179042520; 180069403 inhabitants. 
Son neck, Early Concert Life. 5 



66 

By contrasting musical events at Philadelphia before 1750 and after, 
I believe to have proved in my monograph on Francis Hopldnson 1 ) that 
the musical life of Philadelphia suddenly began to develop with surprising 
speed. Music began to play a prominent part at Commencement and an 
Orpheus Club, evidently a musical society, is said to have existed as early 
as 1759. Music was cultivated more and more in the homes of the people, 
church music improved visibly, and English opera found a firm footing 
at Philadelphia through the medium of the (Old) American Company of 
Comedians. But, for some reason or the other, the concert life did not 
progress so rapidly. May be the musical gatherings at the homes of John 
Penn, Dr. Kuhn or Francis Hopkinson absorbed the interest of the amateurs. 
At any rate, public or half-public concerts remained comparatively few 
before the war, if we are allowed to trust the newspaper announcements. 
For instance, between 1757 and 1764 I have not found a single one adver- 
tised. Then, however, Francis Hopkinson and James Bremner and a few 
years later Giovanni Gualdo improved conditions energetically with the 
assistance of such amateurs as just mentioned and those musicians who had 
settled at Philadelphia. 

When the subscriptions for the organ at St. Peter's Church had proved 
insufficient "for compleating the design" a concert was advertised for this 
purpose under the direction of James Bremner 2 ). It was to take place at 
the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley on Feb. 21, 1764 and was the first concert 
I came across after the one given by John Palma in 1757 on whom George 
Washington spent the considerable amount of 52 Sh. 6. In the following 
year, on April 10th, Bremner arranged and conducted an entertainment 
which speaks well for his abilities and the standard of taste prevailing at 
Philadelphia. 



1) 'Francis Hopkinson and James Lyon. Two Studies in Early American Music', 
Washington, D. C., 1905. In this work I have fully described the concert life at Phila- 
delphia from 1760 to 1770 and therefore see myself compelled to indulge in self-quo- 
tation. 

2) James Bremner, a relative of Robert Bremner, the Scotch music publisher, 
composer and editor, came to Philadelphia in 1763. In December of this year he opened 
a "music school . . at Mr. Glover Hunt's near the Coffee House in Market Street" 
where he taught "young ladies . . . the harpsichord, or guitar" and "young gentlemen 
. . . the violin, German flute, harpsichord, or guitar". Bremner possibly became or- 
ganist at St. Peter's in 1763 but all we know for certain is that he held a similar posi- 
tion at Christ Church in 1767 .and that he is spoken of in the vestry minutes in Dec. 
1770 as "the late organist". After an absence of several years he is again spoken of 
(in the diary of James Allen) as organist of Christ Church in 1774. He died near or 
at Philadelphia "on the banks of the Schuylkill" in Sept. 1780. The most prominent 
of his pupils seems to have been Francis Hopkinson who possessed several composi- 
tions of his teacher. Those still extant are a 'Trumpet air' a 'Lesson', a 'Msrch', 'Lady 
Coventry's minuet with variations', all for the harpsichord. He was also the author 
of 'Instructions for the sticcado pastorale, with a collection of airs', London, n. d. 
(Mentioned by Fetis). 



67 

The tenor of the advertisement is so interesting as to deserve to be 
copied in full. It appeared thus in the Pa. Gaz. on April 4, 1765: 

College of Philadelphia, April 4, 1765. 

For the Benefit of the Boys and Girls Charity School. 

On Wednesday Evening next there will be a Performance of Solemn Music, vocal 
and instrumental, in the College Hall, under the Direction of Mr. BREMNER. The vocal 
Parts, chiefly by young Gentlemen educated in this Seminary, and the Words suited 
to the Place and Occasion, being paraphrased from the Prophets, and other Places 
of Scripture, upon the Plan of the musical performances in Cathedral's, etc. for public 
charities in England. 

The Chorus and other sublime Passages of the Music will be accompanied by the 
Organ, and the Intervals filled up with a few Orations by some of the Students. 

It is hoped that the Merit of the Performance as well as the Nature of the Charity, 
by which several Hundreds of destitute Youths for more than 15 years past, have at 
a great Expense received the Benefits of Education, and been rendered useful to the 
Community, will entitle this Design to a general Countenance. 

The Hall will be properly illuminated and the Music so disposed, that the Galleries 
and the Body of the House will be equally advantageous for hearing. The Performance 
will begin precisely at Six o'Clock, and there will be no Admittance but by Ticket, 
and through the great South Door, which will be opened at Five. Any Persons desiring 
a printed Copy of the Words to be sung, may have the same gratis, on Delivery of their 
Tickets at the Door, and Care will be taken that the greatest Order be preserved. 

Tickets, at one Dollar each, to be had of Mr. Kinnersly, Mr. Bremner, and Mr. 
Bradford, or by sending to any of the Trustees or Masters. 

On April 18 the Pa. Gaz. reported that: 

The whole was conducted with great Order and Decorum, to the Satisfaction of a 
polite and numerous Audience. Thirty Pounds was raised for the Benefit of the Charity 
Schools belonging to the said College. 

The Persons who so desired received a printed copy of 
THE PLAN OF A PERFORMANCE OF SOLEMN MUSICK; 

to be in the Hall of the College of Philadelphia, on Wednesday Evening April 
10th, 1765, for the Benefit of the Charity School. 

ORATION. 

ACT I. 

Overture, Stamitz. 

Air. Prov. iii. from ver. 13 to 17, and iv, 8 
Richer far is Wisdom's Store, 
Than from Mines of Gold can flow; 
Brighter is her heavenly Lore, 
Than the Ruby's proudest Glow. 
Thrice happy he, whose youthful Mind 
Seeks in her Courts his joyful find! 

II 

Her right Hand gives length of Days, 
Honour in her Left she bears; 
Pleasure waits on all her Ways 
Peace in all her paths appears. 
Around their Brows, who her embrace, 
Her Hand a Wreathe divine shall place. 
Sixth Concerto, Geminiani. 



ORATION. 

ACT II. 

Solo, on the Violin 
Overture, Earl of Kelly 
Air. Isaiah Iv. 1. 2. John vii. 12 
Parted from celestial Truth, 
Science is but empty show; 
Come to God in early youth; 
Where the living Fountains flow! 

Come and drink the waters free; 
Why in fruitless Searches toil? 
Wisdom's ever-blooming Tree 
Loves to Spread in Virtue's Soil. 

Second Overture, Martini 

ORATION. 

ACT III. 

Overture in Artaxerxes; Arne. 

Sonata on the Harpsichord. 
Chorus Ps. XLVI. from ver. 1 to 5. 
God is King! from Day to Day, 
Let each tongue his Praise resound; 
To each Land his Fame convey, 
Tell it to the Heathen round 

II. 

Tell them; from those Gods to fly, 

By their erring Lips ador'd. 

He who made yon radiant Sky, 

Thron'd in Glory, is the Lord. 

Hallelujah\ Let us sing: 

God made the Skies; is King! 1 ) 

In the meantime, an effort had been made to introduce subscription 
concerts at Philadelphia. On January 12, 1764 the Pa. Gaz. printed the 
following advertisement : 

Philadelphia, January 12, 1764. 

On Thursday, the 19th instant, at the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley, will be 
performed a Concert of Musick, to be continued every Thursday, till the 24th of May, 
following. 

No more than 70 Subscribers will be admitted, and each, on paying Three Pounds 
for the Season, to have one Lady's Ticket, to be disposed of every Concert Night, as 
he thinks proper. Subscriptions are taken in at Messrs. Rivington and Brown's 
Store, and by Mr. Bremner, at Mr. Glover Hunt's, in Market street, near the London 
Coffee House. 

N. B. The Concert to begin precisely at 6 o'clock. 

Unless James Bremner arranged these fortnightly subscription concerts 
the supposition is not unreasonable that Francis Hopkinson was the moving 



1) Copied from a copy at the Library Co. of Philadelphia. 



69 

spirit of the enterprise. I base this on a letter which he wrote to his mother 
from Dublin on July 12, 1766. He said therein, when mentioning that he 
met a Mr. Flanagan: "he used to come sometimes to my concerts". At 
any rate it is safe to say that Hopkinson was connected with the Subscription 
Concert, if not as founder or manager at least as subscriber and performer. 
It seems to have met with the favor of the subscribers, for a second 
season was thus advertised in the Pa. Journal on Nov. 1, 1764: 

SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT, at the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley, begins on Thurs- 
day the 8th day of November next and to continue every other Thursday 'till the 14th 
of March following. 

Each subscriber on paying Three Pounds to be intituled to two Ladies tickets 
for the season. Subscriptions are taken in at Messrs. Rivington and Brown's bookstore . . . 

The Concert to begin precisely at Six o'Clock in the Evening. 

The subscription concerts seem not to have been continued during the 
winter of 1765, at least I have found no information to that effect. 

Unfortunately it became customary to advertise the date only of re- 
gular subscription concerts and not their programs, a habit which is easily 
explained. They were not absolutely public entertainments but accessible 
only, as a rule, to the subscribers, and therefore it was hardly necessary 
to publish the programs in the newspapers. Programs, in the majority 
of instances, as stated, are traceable only in the papers if a public concert 
was arranged for the benefit of individual professional musicians. 

For these reasons we shall never know exactly unless the programs 
are extant in some collection of early play bills and the like what works 
were performed and who performed them at these concerts. If the programs 
were arranged by Francis Hopkinson, his fine library would furnish a clue 
to the character of the compositions played and we might argue that the 
subscribers had ample opportunity to become familiar with a "variety of 
the most celebrated pieces now in taste", as Stephen Forrage expressed 
himself when advertising a concert for Dec. 31, 1764 "for the benefit of 
Mr. Forrage and others, assistant performers at the Subscription Concert". 
On this occasion, by the way, Forrage appeared as one of the earliest vir- 
tuosos on Franklin's "famous Armonica, or Musical Glasses, so much ad- 
mired for their great Sweetness and Delicacy of its tone". 

The "Subscription Concerts" of which Francis Hopkinson seems to 
have been the manager probably were not interspersed with choral music, 
but would best be classified, to use a modern term, as soirees of chamber- 
music. The works which called for the largest number of performers cer- 
tainly were the Concert! Grossi, concertos for several solo-instruments 
with orchestra-accompaniment. To play these, not more than a dozen 
musicians were required, and this number could easily have been recruited 



70 

amongst the gentlemen-amateurs and professionalmusicians of Philadelphia. 
Extracting the names and their specialty from the newspaper advertisements 
we might form the following idea of the orchestra: 

Francis Hopkinson would preside at the harpsichord. The strings 
would be represented by James Bremner, Stephen Forrage, John Schneider, 
Governor John Penn 1 ) and two or three other amateurs. When occasion 
called for it, John Schneider would play the French horn, Ernst Barnard, 
George D'Eissenburg or, if he still resided at Philadelphia, John Stadler 
the German flute; and that oboists were to be had in the Quaker City was 
shown in my monograph on Francis Hopkinson. 

Amusingly primitive as all this may seem to readers not historically 
trained, it was a beginning, and the seventy subscribers certainly enjoyed 
the music as much if not more than hundreds and thousands of those who 
fill a modern concert-hall and listen attentively to music much of which, 
though now considered immortal, will be forgotten as have been forgotten 
the compositions by such gifted men as Valentini, Corelli, Pugnani, Stanley, 
Geminiani, etc., played by Hopkinson, his friends and the "Assistant Per- 
formers". 

/( That Francis Hopkinson's part in laying the foundations of a concert 
life at Philadelphia has not been exaggerated may be inferred from the 
fact that during the two years of his sojourn in England and though James 
Bremner was residing at Philadelphia, no concerts are to be traced there, 
that is to say in 1766 and 1767. Indeed the concert life continued to be 
at a very low ebb until late in 1769 when we again notice an upwards ten- 
dency, due mostly to 

"John Gualdo, Wine Merchant from Italy, but late from London . . . [who] opened 
a store in Walnut Street, between Second and Front Streets ... in August 1767." 

To judge by the papers, this Gualdo, who reminds us of Viotti in his 
double capacity of musician and wine merchant, was quite a character. 
He "adapted and composed music for every kind of instrument"; sold 
instruments; kept a servant boy, who, at a moment's notice, copied any 
desired fashionable piece of music, and taught ladies and gentlemen how 
to play on the violin, German flute, guitar and mandolin, etc. In October 
1769 Gualdo intended "to sett off for Europe ... to transact some particu- 
lar and advantageous business for himself and other gentlemen of this 
town". He therefore begged "the favour of every person indebted to him, 
to make a speedy payment and in so doing, they will enable him to discharge 
his own debts before he leaves America, for which part of the world every free 



1) John Penn, Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania, friend of Francis Hopkinson, 
and amateur musician, was born in London 1729 and died in Bucks County, Pa., in 
1795. 



71 

man in his right senses, should have an everlasting regard, for reasons before 
now quoted by gentlemen more learned than the subscriber". For reasons 
best known to himself and his debtors, Gualdo preferred not to set off to 
Europe, as will be seen. 

The first concert given by John, or more correctly, as he was an Italian, 
Giovanni Gualdo, was announced in the Pa. Journal Nov. 9, 1769, in the 
following manner: 

At the Assembly Room, on next Thursday, (being the sixteenth of November) 
will be performed a Grand Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Mustek; with Solos played 
on different instruments: the concert to be directed by Mr. Gualdo, after the Italian 
method 1 ). 

1) Apparently this method was a novelty for Philadelphia but exactly what 
Gualdo meant by "directed after the Italian method", I am not prepared to say. Emil 
Vogel's remarkable essay, 'Zur Geschichte des Taktschlagens' (Peters Jahrbuch, 1898) 
is commonly considered the best contribution to the history of conducting, but shortly 
after its publication Mr. Walter Unger, a friend of mine and pupil of Adolf Sandberger, 
selected for his doctor thesis the same subject because he noticed that Vogel's pioneer 
essay did not cover the ground fully and I remember having copied at Mr. Unger's 
request certain passages from books in the library of the Liceo Musicale of Bologna 
which he claimed would shed new light on the matter. However, as Mr. Unger's thesis 
does not seem to have been finished or published we have to depend on Emil Vogel 
as the best authority. The crucial point in the history of conducting appears to be the 
problem of the baton. The chironomy of the middle ages knew conducting by gestures 
only but audible conducting either by hitting the music stand with the right hand or 
with a paper roll is traceable as early as the tenth century. This latter method gradually 
became universal for church music and vocal music in general. A baton (longer than 
the ordinary paper roll) was occasionally used for larger bodies of performers as for 
instance at a banquet given by Cardinal Graf Helfenstein in 1564 with 50 vocalists 
and 80 instrumentalists when the conductor held a "gulden Stecken in der Hand". 
Operas were conducted differently, in Italy from the cembalo with gestures and 
in France by beating time on the floor with a massive stick (in Lulli's time) and later 
on by marking time with the violin bow, this prerogative of the leader becoming cus- 
tomary for all orchestral music in France, England and Germany during the second 
half of the eighteenth century. In Germany, Vogel asserts, a paper roll was used during 
the first half of the eighteenth century not only for vocal but also for orchestral music. 
All these methods were more or less audible and not until about 1800 did the energetic 
appeals for continuous, inaudible conducting bear fruit. The modern baton, says 
Vogel, was first introduced in Germany in 1801 by Landgraf Ludwig von Hessen in 
Darmstadt who then began to conduct with baton and music stand with score before 
him. This method gained foot every where else very much later, 1812 in Vienna, 1817 
in Dresden and in Leipzig not until 1835. 

All this seems plausible enough and yet, after having hunted for references to 
conducting in olden times, I cannot suppress, the opinion and I found myself in accord 
with W. H. Henderson that several points call for further investigation. It is cer- 
tainly not the place here to discuss the matter fully and I therefore merely submit two 
references which go to show that Vogel's theory of the vicissitudes of the baton are 
not wholly correct. In Johann Beerens 'Musicalische Discurse', 1719 we find this 
"Von dem modo oder Art und Manier zu tactieren". 

"An etlichen Orten haben die Organisten ein holtzern Gestelle und in dem- 
selben einen holtzernen Arm diesen treten sie mit dem Fuss auf und nieder dabey 
ich mich dann fast krank lachen miissen. Andere tappen mit dem Fuss wider den 
Boden, dass er pufft . . . Andere tactiren mit dem Kopfe . . . Andere nehmen zu- 
sammengerolltes Papier in die Fauste und vergleichen sich also mit denen Kriegs 
Generalen . . . Etliche fuhren den Tact mit einer, etliche mit beyden Handen . . . 
Andere gebrauchen sich eines langen Steckens oder Stragels, ohne Zweifel vermittelst 
desselben die unachtsamen Jungen auf den Schadel zu schmeissen." 



72 

Tickets at a Dollar a piece to be had of the Waiter at the London Coffee House, 
and at Mr. Gualdo's in Front-street, near the Bank-meeting. To begin exactly at half 
an hour after Six o'clock. 

N. B. Hand Bills will be printed mentioning what pieces shall be performed in the 
two acts. The evening to be ended with a ball (if agreeable to the Company) without 
further Expense. 

As the Pa. Journal printed the program on the day of performance 
we are not a great loss if none of the printed hand-bills are extant: 

ACT I. 

Overture composed by the Earl of Kelly. 

'Vain is beauty, gaudy flower,' by Miss Hallam. 

Trio composed by Mr. Gualdo, first violin by Master Billy Crumpto. 

'The Spinning Wheel,' by Miss Storer. 

A German flute Concert, with Solos, composed by Mr. Gualdo. 

A new Symphony after the present taste, composed by Mr. Gualdo. 



From Nef's 'Collegia Musica', I quote the following passus in the anonymous 
satire 'Die Reise nach dem Konzerte' Basel 1755: 

"Aber es war . . . einer mit einem diinnen Stecklein welcher damit in der Luft 

ob sich und nid sich schlug und still machte." 

Consequently the baton was known both in Germany and Switzerland before 
1800. In England 'beating time' cannot have been abolished altogether about 1780, for 
otherwise the anecdote in the Musical Memoirs of Par ke (who assisted) would be without 
a point. He narrates that when Dr. Hayes of Oxford and Dr. Miller of Doncaster came 
to town to give their gratuitous assistance as conductors by beating time at the Handel 
Commemoration of 1784 they were "set down" by Cramer, the leader, who gave the 
signal for the beginning by tapping the bow. This was quite in keeping with what 
Jackson says in his 'Present state of music in London', 1791: 

"Instrumental music . . [is] carried to so great a perfection in London, by 

the consummate skill of the performers, that any attempt to beat the time would 

be justly considered as entirely needless." 

But what I miss particularly in Vogel's essay in order to explain Gualdo's remarks, 
is a clear reference to the method of "directing" orchestras outside of the theatre in 
Italy about 1750 and later, and in England, which would mean also in America, about 
1750 and earlier. If what Mattheson says in his Critica Musica, 1722, applies also 
to the next decades, namely: "In den Italienischen Orchestern wird kein Tact geschla- 
gen", then we may argue that the custom of leading an orchestra originated in Italy 
and spread from there about 1750 to other countries where the function of conducting 
the orchestra lay either in the hands of the cembalist or of a real conductor. It is further 
more inconceivable to me that the use of a baton in orchestral music should have sud- 
denly sprung into existence about 1800 and the authors quoted seem to contradict 
any such theory. Perhaps after an exhaustive treatment of this per se very irrevelant 
problem the solution will suggest itself that a baton rather than the unwieldy paper 
roll was used by the cembalist and remained in use in orchestral music until tempo- 
rarily superseded by the violin bow of the leader. With the growth of the orchestras 
and with the gradual and absolute abolishment of the cembalo the conductor natu- 
rally stepped on the raised platform, baton in hand, from beginning to end of the 
piece, with the score in front of him. 

Finally, to gain an idea of just how the conducting was done by the cembalist, 
we need but watch the pianist in the modern vaudeville-orchestras (undoubtedly the 
direct, though perhaps illegitimate descendants of the 18th century orchestra), especially 
in Italy, where he will first mark time with the baton and often enough with the hideous 
noise of yore, then lay it aside for a while, then take it up again at a change of tempo 
or for some other reason, and so on throughout the performance, but using merely 
his hand for the necessary gestures only when he finds it inconvenient to pick up the 
baton. 



73 

ACT II. 

A new Violin concerto with solos, composed by Mr. Gualdo. 

A Song by Mr. Wools. 

A Sonata upon the Harpsichord, by Mr. Curtz. 

Solo upon the Clarinet, by Mr. Hoffmann, junior. 

A Song by Miss Hallam. 

Solo upon the Mandolino, by Mr. Gualdo. 1 ) 

Overture, composed by the Earl of Kelly. 

Truly a program worth noticing, especially as it shows Gualdo in his 
capacity as composer. His works not being extant, we have no right to 
express an opinion concerning their merits. At any rate, Gualdo himself 
seems to have been very much in favor of his music if he ventured to devote 
an entire evening more or less to his own works; and I doubt not that this 
concert of November 16, 1769, was the first "composers'-concert" given in 
our country. 

The affair was clearly for Gualdo's own benefit, since the Subscrip- 
tion Concerts did not begin until November 30. On this day we read in the 
Pa. Gaz.: 

To THE PHILO MUSICAL LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 

This evening will be performed the first Concert by Subscription, at Mr. Daven- 
port's in Third Street. The Vocal Music by Messieurs Handel, Arne, Giardini, Jackson, 
Stanley and others. The Instrumental Music by Messieurs Geminiani, Barbella, Cam- 
pioni, Zanetti, Pellegrino, Abel, Bach, Gualdo, the Earl of Kelly and others. 

Tickets for one Night, at f ve shillings a Piece to be had of the Waiter of the London 
Coffee House, and at Mr. Davenport's. No admittance will be given without the Tickets, 
nor Money received at the Concert room. To begin at Six o'Clock. 

N. B. In the best Part of the Boom Chairs will be placed for the Ladies and Ben- 
ches for the Gentlemen. 

Gualdo is moving here in exceptionably good company. If all the Sub- 
scription Concerts were of the same standard then we moderns are not 
justified in haughtily smiling down on Gualdo and his assistant performers, 
for a glimpse into musical dictionaries will show that most of the composers 
named were by no means mediocrities. But what counts more than this, 
they were contemporaries of Gualdo, Hopkinson, and Penn, and just as 
modern in those days as are now Brahms, Wagner, Tschaikowsky, Richard 
Strauss, Debussy. Consequently the ready appreciation of foreign novelties 
by the American public is an inheritance of Colonial times and not the 
result of German immigration during the nineteenth century 2 ). 

1) Gualdo seems to have had a predilection for this instrument. The Library 
of Congress, for instance, possesses some manuscript trios of his in this curious combi- 
nation: 'Six easy evening entertainments for two mandolins or two violins with a 
thorough bass for the harpsichord or violoncello'. The British Museum possesses in 
print his op. 2, 'Six Senates for 2 German flutes with a thorough bass' on which he is 
called Giov. Gualdo da Vandero. 

2) The Bach mentioned was not Johann Sebastian but his son Johann Christian, 



74 

The next concert under Gualdo's direction which I was able to trace 
is instructive, as its program discloses the fact that none of the orchestral 
instruments employed in Europe for concert purposes were missing at 
Philadelphia, not even the Clarinet, at that time by far less common than 
to-day. 

We read in the Pa. Chronicle, Oct. 18, 1770: 

To the Public. 

By particular desire, on Friday, (being the 12th October) a concert of music will 
be directed by Mr. Gualdo, in which the following pieces will be performed in two acts. 

ACT I. 

Overture with Violins, German Flutes, French Horns, etc. 
Concerto with Solos for two German Flutes Quartette 
Trio Solo upon the Clarinet Symphony 
Solo upon the Violin. 

ACT II. 
Overture Concerto upon the German Flute Solo upon the Harpsichord Quartette 

Solo upon the Mandolin Symphony. 

N. B. Tickets at a Dollar a Piece, to be had at Mr. Gualdo's in Norris Alley, and 
at the Waiter of the London Coffee House. To begin at half an Hour after six in the 
Evening. 

In the Pa. Journal November 8, 1770, a similar concert was advertised 
"two days after Christmas", with the remark that 

at the request of several Gentlemen and Ladies, Mr. Gualdo, after the Concert, 
will have the room put in order for a Ball, likewise there will be a genteel Refreshment 
laid out in the upper room for those Ladies and Gentlemen who shall chuse to Dance, 
or remain to see the Ball. For the Ball he has composed six new minuets, with proper 
cadence for dancing, and he flatters himself will be favourably received. 

Tickets at Ten Shillings a piece . . . 

N. B. If any Gentleman or Lady should chuse to go away after the concert, the 
Porter will return Half a Crown to each Person. 

I doubt very much whether many persons took advantage of this N. B. } 
for from all we know of the Colonial dames and cavaliers they would rather 
have missed the German flute concertos and symphonies than Gualdo's 
"six new minuets with proper cadence for dancing". 

One month later, on Jan. 24, 1771, Gualdo advertised another con- 
cert, to take place on Feb. 8. This was probably the last concert which 
he conducted for his benefit. He announced on Aug. 22d his intention 
to direct a "Concert of Music at the Assembly Koom", on the eighteenth 
of October "the day after the races" but cruel Nemesis interfered. By the 
seventeenth of this month 

Sigr. Gualdo lies in Chains in one of the Cells of the Pennsylva. Hospital, 



1735 1783 who settled in England, which fact procured him the name of the "Lon- 
don" or "English Bach". Once celebrated, his works are now underrated. 



75 

as Francis Hopkinson wrote in a letter to John Penn and melancholi - 
cally he added: 

poor Butho *) was kill'd a few Weeks ago by a Fall -from his House. Except 
Forage and myself I don't know a single Votary the Goddess hath in this large city. 

The contradiction, with all due respect for contemporary evidence, is appa- 
rent. Could Sigr. Gualdo announce a concert for the eighteenth of October, 
unless there were sufficient votaries of the Goddess to play and sing at her 
altar? At any rate, hardly had John Penn received his friend's lines when 
the Pa. Gaz. on Nov. 28th, 1771, printed the following advertisement which 
certainly goes to show that the outlook was not quite so gloomy as the 
Father of American Composers would have us believe. 

By Permission and Particular Desire. 

For the benefit of Mr. John M'Lean (Instructor of the German Flute) will be per- 
formed at the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley, CONCERT OF Music (Vocal and Instru- 
mental) to begin precisely at Six o'Clock in the Evening on Thursday the fifth of De- 
cember. 

The Concert will consist of two Acts, commencing and ending with favourite Over- 
tures, performed by a full Band of Music, with Trumpets, Kettle Drums, and every 
Instrument that can be introduced with Propriety. The Performance will be inter- 
spersed with the most pleasing and select Pieces, composed by approved Authors; 
a Solo will be played on the German Flute by John M'Lean; and the whole will con- 
clude with an Overture composed (for the Occasion) by Philip Roth, Master of the 
Band belonging to his Majesty's Royal Regiment of North British Fusileers. 

Several Gentlemen, who wish to encourage and reward Merit, have suggested 
this public Amusement, and have designed to honour with their Protection the Person 
for whose Benefit it is intended ; one Instance of their condescending goodness, he will 
ever gratefully acknowledge, in consenting, it should be Known, they have been pleased 
to offer their Assistance in the Performance, which every possible Means will be used 
to render agreeable and entertaining to the Company, for whose further Satisfaction, 
it is also proposed, that after the Concert there shall be a Ball ; on this account the 
Music will begin early, and as soon as the 2d. Act is finished the usual Arrangement 
will be made for dancing. 

N. B. The Tickets for the Concert may be had at the different Printing Offices 
in this city, at the Bar of the Coffee House and at Messieurs Duff and Jacob's Taverns 
in Second and Third Streets. Price Is 6. 

In July and August of the following year, Philadelphians had occasion 
to enjoy a series of 'Lectures on Heads' with singing and other entertain- 
ments, the sixth of which was given on Aug. 18th for the benefit of the 
hospital. A few days later, on August 24th, a concert was given by a Mr. 
Smith who sang a selection of the last and "most approved" songs at Vaux- 
hall and Ranelagh, as f. i. 'Rule Britannia', 'As late' I wander'd o'er the 
plains', 'Sweet Willy', '0 ! Young Jockey', 'Infancy, the cruel tyrant', 'The 
Echoing horn', 'Adieu, thou lovely youth', 'Come, come my dear girl', 'God 



1) In his reply (Cavendish Square June 26, 1772) John Penn wrote sympathetic- 
ally: "I am very sorry for the fate of poor Butho. I believe he was an honest fellow 
though he often occasioned much discord in our small concerts". Poor Butho! 



76 

save the King'. This popular program, strange to say, was rendered at 
the State House and to make things more attractive 

"The State House [was to be] grandly illuminated, and the performance [con- 
cluded] with a superb and elegant firework under the direction of Mr. Dumont who 
has had the honour to perform in London and divers places of this continent, with great 
satisfaction . . . 

To prevent confusion, it is humbly hoped, no one will take it amiss their not 
being admitted without a ticket which may be had for the Concert and Fireworks, 
at seven shillings and six pence, and the Fireworks only two shillings and six pence 
each, at the bar of the London Coffee House." 

Gradually the political problems that were to lead to the Declaration 
of Independence began to absorb all public interest. It is therefore not 
surprising that very few musicians only cared to give concerts, the expenses 
of which possibly would not have left anything for their benefit. In fact, 
not until several ladies and gentlemen desired Signor Sodi "to shew his 
talents as master" do we run across another concert. It was thus ad- 
vertised in the Pennsylvania Journal, June 15, 1774: 

GRAND CONCERT & BALL, at the Assembly Room in Lodge Alley, on Friday 
the 17th of June, 1774, for the benefit of Signior Sodi, first dancing master of the Opera 
in Paris and London, in which Mr. Vidal who has been a musician of the Chambers 
of the King of Portugal will play on divers instruments of music. 1 ) 

FIRST ACT. 

1. A Symphony. 2. Mr. Vidal will play a Sonetta on the Guitare Italian, with 
the violin. 3. A Symphony. 4. Mr. Vidal will play a duetto on the mandolino, accom- 
panied with the violin. 5. First Act will finish with a march composed by Mr. Vidal. 

SECOND ACT. 

1. A Symphony. 2. Mr. Vidal will play a capriccio on the guitar. 3. A Symphony. 
4. Mr. Vidal will play a solo on the psaltery, and a minuet imitating the echo. 5. Se- 
cond act will end with another march composed by Mr. Vidal. 

After the concert, Signior Sodi will dance a louvre and a minuet with Miss Sodi; 
then a new Philadelphia cotillion composed by Signior Sodi. Miss Sodi will also dance 
a rigadoon and minuet with Mr. Hulett [of New Jork]. A new cotillion; then the 
allemande by Miss Sodi and Mr. Hulett; also Signior Sodi will danse a jigg, after- 
wards Mr. Hulett will dance a hornpipe and to finish with a ball for the company. 

Signior Sodi added his intention to open a dancing school and Mr. Vidal 
acquainted the public that he wished to dispose of "a parcel of fine trinkets 
and jewels in the newest fashion, with a variety of diamond rings, and a 
great quantity of instrumental strings". 

In view of such advertisements there can be little doubt of a temporary 
retrograde movement in Philadelphia's musical life during the years pre- 
ceding the war. This observation is further borne out by an advertisement 
which "Mr. Victor, musician to her late Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, 



1) Possibly he was identical with the guitarist B. Vidal mentioned by Fetis and 
Eitner. 



,- 77 

and Organist at St. George's London" inserted in the Pennsylvania Packet, 
Oct. 17, 1774. After acquainting "the musical gentry in general" that he 
gave instructions on the harpsichord, forte piano, violin, German flute, etc. 
and especially" in the thorough bass both in theory and practice", Mr. H. B. 
Victor 1 ) took occasion to remark that he 

"intended to give a concert, and to perform on his new musical instruments, but 
is obliged to postpone it for want of able hands; the one he calls Tromba doppio con 
tympana, on which he plays the first and second trumpet and a pair of annexed kettle 
drums with the feet, all at once ; the other is called Cymbaline d'amour, which resembles 
the musical glasses played by harpsichord keys, never subject to come out of tune, 
both of his own invention." 

How far away is this from the legitimate concerts given by Bremner, 
Hopkinson and Gualdo in the sixties! Still, such freakish entertainments 
have their raison d'etre , and if, as Brenet tells us, Marie Leczinska, wife of 
Louis XV, and her courtiers enjoyed the charlataneries of Jacque Loeillet 
immensely who, like the amazingly clever and exceedingly artistic Leo- 
poldo Fregoli of our own time, would act and sing the parts of an entire 
opera cast with lightning changes of costume and appearance, then the 
Colonials really cannot be censured if they applauded Victor's antics on 
the Tromba doppio con tympana. 

Soon afterwards our struggle for independence began. Our people con- 
tinued to enjoy and cultivate music in the privacy of their homes, so far as 
the vicissitudes of war allowed it and more than one captive Hessian officer, 
as we know from diaries, ingratiated himself by lending a musical hand. 
But music in public ceased to flourish. 

Many "gentlemen performers" were on the field of honor and those 
who were not would hardly have dared in such times to spend their money 
on opera or concerts. In the first place, the women, often more patriotic 
and more sensible than the men, would have objected and in the second 
place they then would not have had the excuse of over-taxation when ex- 
pecting George Washington to vanquish a formidable foe with an ill-clad, 
ill-fed and ill-trained army. Even if Congress had not recommended in 
October, 1778 that the several States pass laws to prevent theatrical enter- 
tainments "and such other diversions as are productive of idleness" 2 ), 
I doubt whether the people themselves would have encouraged concerts, 
though a sufficient number of musicians remained in Philadelphia to have 
performed at public concerts if such had been desired. For instance, in 1779 
"Brother Proctor's band of music" assisted in the "celebration of St. John, 



1) From an other newspaper advertisement we learn that H. B. Victor was a 
German who emigrated to London in 1759. He remained at Philadelphia at least 
until 1778. 

2) Louis C. Madeira, Annals of music in Philadelphia, 1896, p. 33. 



78 

the Evangelist's Day by the Society of Free and Accepted Masons" and 
in the following year, during Commencement at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, also a band of musicians figured prominently. But this was to- 
wards the end of the war and, on the whole, it may safely be said that our 
public music consisted in those years of that of the fife and drum and of 
such songs as 'Yankee Doodle', 'God save the thirteen states', Billing's 
forceful hymn 'Chester' and Hopkinson's satirical ballad 'Battle of the 
Kegs' sung to the tune of 'Annie Laurie'. 

Of course, while Lord Howe's victorious army held Philadelphia, the 
city resounded of songs of quite a different nature and Philadelphia became 
a kind of petite Paris. Said Captain Johann Heinrichs of the Hessian Jager 
Corps in his letter-book under date of Philad. January 18, 1778: 

". . . . Assemblies, concerts, comedies, clubs, and the like make us forget there is 
any war, save that is it a capital joke 1 )." 

and beautiful, gossip-loving Miss Rebecca Franks enthusiastically wrote in 
a letter (Sept. 1777) to her friend Mrs. Paca: 

"Oh! how I wich Mr. P. would let you come in for a week or two. I know you 
are as fond of a gay-life as myself. You'd have an opportunity of raking as much as 
you choose, either at Plays, Ball, Concerts or Assemblies. I've been but three eve- 
nings alone since we moved to town ..." 

This gay-life of the British and Tories of Philadelphia reached its climax 
in the splendours of Major Andre's 'Mischianza' in 1778. Immediately after- 
wards they found to their sorrow that the war was not a capital joke. Hur- 
riedly they evacuated Philadelphia and had Miss Rebecca not followed the 
flag of her choice, she would now have been alone most of her evenings, 
for life at Philadelphia would have been very monotous indeed for a young 
lady of her temperament. The only entertainment of any pretensions, 
which the Americans would have offered her, once Philadelphia again came 
into our possession, was Francis Hopkinson's patriotic 'oratorial entertain- 
ment 'Temple of Minerva', performed in semi-operatic style at an "elegant 
concert" which Lucerne, the minister of France, gave on Dec. 11, 1781 in 
honor of Generals Washington, Greene, "and a very polite circle of gent- 
lemen and ladies". 

On such rare state occasions only did the end of the war bring any enter- 
tainments resembling concerts, but immediately after the war the concert- 
life of Philadelphia seemed to awaken as from a lethargic stupor. The 
first event of importance was the establishment in 1783 of the fortnightly 
'City Concert' and John Bentley, afterwards leader in the orchestra of 
the Old American Company, who founded them deserves to be considered 



1) In 'Extracts' from his letter-books. 1778 1780. as translated by Julius F. 
Sachse in the Pa. Mag. of Hist, v. XXII. 



79 

one of the most important figures in the musical history of Phila- 
delphia. 

As the second concert was to be on November llth, the first must have 
taken place late in October. The subscriptions were limited for want of 
room as will be seen from the advertisement of the second concert in the 
Pennsylvania Packet, November 6th: 

CITY CONCERT. 

The subscribers will please to take notice that the next concert will be on Tuesday 
the llth instant, at the Lodge Room. As a number of gentlemen expressed a desire 
of subscription, whose subscriptions Mr. Bentley could not receive till he had ascertained 
the number the room would hold: he now informs them that the subscription is open 
for 25 more subscribers, after which it will be finally closed. Tickets for non-sub- 
scribers may be had at 10 s each .... 

The dates of the other concerts fell on Nov. 25, Dec. 9, Dec. 23, 1783; 
Jan. 6, Jan. 28, Feb. 17, March 2, March 16, April 2, 1784 (the last), in all 
eleven. The programs do not seem to have been printed in the newspapers, 
not even the soloists being mentioned except when Signora Mazzanti, whom 
Boston had already heard before the war, was announced as the vocal soloist 
for the fifth. However, it goes without saying that John Bentley engaged 
the best musicians to be had in the city and that he performed music in 
keeping with the refined taste of such men as Francis Hopkinson and 
Thomas Jefferson. 

If Bentley, as he expressed himself, had been hampered during the first 
season by "the peculiar circumstances of the time" he seems to have over- 
come the difficulties when announcing the second series in this instructive 
advertisement in the Pennsylvania Packet, Sept. 9, 1784: 

CITY CONCERT. 

Mr. Bentley once more submits his proposals to the public, for a Subscription 
Concert, to be continued during the six winter months. Having considerably enlarged 
his plan, in compliance with the general wish, and having obtained a reinforcement 
of vocal as well as instrumental performers, he flatters himself that he shall be able 
to furnish a more elegant and perfect entertainment than it was possible (from the 
peculiar circumstances of the time) to procure during the last winter. The liberal 
indulgence which was then shewn to a first attempt, obstructed by many difficulties, 
the rising taste for music, and its improved state in Philadelphia, are objects that 
must constantly excite Mr. Bentley's attention to whatever can increase the public 
satisfaction, or entitle him to a continuance of their favour and applause. 

Proposals. 

1st. That there shall be a Concert once in two weeks commencing in October: 
each concert to conclude at half past nine in the evening, after which rooms will be 
opened to Dancing and Cards. 

2d. That every subscriber shall be entitled to tickets for two ladies, besides his 
own admittance. 

3d. That each Subscriber pay two guineas and a half. 

4th. That officers of the army and strangers (only) shall be admitted on paying 
10 s. each. 



80 

The room, last season, having been found cold, proper care will be taken to prevent 
it this season, by placing stoves in different parts, in which the first will be placed in 
the early part of the day. 

The first concert of the series was given on Nov. 2d and the City Concert 
then proceeded regularly until April 26th except that by the desire of the 
majority of subscribers the first December concert was deferred until the 
twenty-first "being in the same week with the Assembly", the one announced 
for Feb. 1st to Feb. 4th "on account of the inclemency of the weather" 
and the one for March 1st to March 3d in order not to conflict with" the 
laudable undertaking for the benefit of the poor at the theatre". Un- 
fortunately we are again at a loss to know John Bentley's repertory. We 
learn only that in the first concert "some favourite catches and glees" were 
introduced and in the concert on Feb. 4, 1785 "several favourite airs, by 
an amateur and a young lady (being her first appearance in public)" also 
that on March 17th was performed "a grand medley in which [was] intro- 
duced the favourite song of Alieen Aroon with some other favourite airs 
and Auld Robin Gray". This medley was repeated on April 16th, the con- 
cert concluding with a "glee and chorus from the opera of the Castle of 
Andalusia" by Samuel Arnold. 

{During the winter of 1785/86 the City Concert was discontinued, pro- 
bably owing to a three-cornered quarrel between Henri Capron 1 ), William 
Brown and John Bentley, the leading musicians of the enterprise but when 
Alexander Reinagle arrived at Philadelphia in 1786, he immediately, by 
virtue of his superior talent and individuality, assumed control of the 
musical affairs of the city. Evidently he brought about a reconciliation 
between Capron and Brown Bentley had gone to New York for on Oc- 
tober 18th the Pennsylvania Journal printed the proposals to the effect 
that twelve fortnightly concerts should be given commencing on Oct. 19th. 
The conditions as to admission were somewhat similar to those of Bentley, 
the subscription being fixed at two guineas instead of two and a half and 
the admission of strangers to one dollar each. The proposals were signed 
by H. Capron, A. Reinagle, W. Brown and A. Juhan who assured the public 
of their "greatest endeavours ... to render every performance agreeable and 
satisfactory to the lovers of music", that "a new orchestra is erected and 
the greatest care will be taken to make the room agreeable". The first 
concert was announced for October 19th at the City Tavern and at last 
we are in position to form an opinion, and a very favorable opinion it will 



1) He probably was identical with the "able violinist one and of the best pupils of 
Gavinies" who, according to Fetis, performed at the Concert Spirituel in 1768. Fetis 
and Eitner mention several of his published works. Of these the Library of Congress 
possesses 'Six sonates a violon seule et baese', op. 1. 



81 

be, of the music performed at these concerts as the programs were regularly 
announced in the papers. The "Plans" follow here with their respec- 
tive dates. 

FIRST CONCERT, OCT. 19, 1786. 

ACT I. 

Favorite Symphonie Vanhall 

Song, Mr. Capron Gretrey 

Sonata, Piano Forte Haydn and Reinagle 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Windling 

A Favorite Rondo 

Solo Violoncello Tilliere 

ACT III. 

Concerto Violin Cramer 

New Symphony Haydn 

Miscellaneous Concerto 
Glee 

SECOND CONCERT, NOV. 1st. 

ACT I. 

Overture Toeschi 

Song, Mr. Reinagle from the Duenna 1 ) 

Concerto Flute Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Fiorillo 

Symphony Lachnith 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

ACT III. 

Concerto 2d Corelli 

Duett, Violin and Violoncello Breval 

By particular desire, the Miscellaneous Concerto. 

THIRD CONCERT, NOV. 16th. 

ACT I. 

Overture Vanhall 

Duett, Violin and Violoncello Breval 

Concerto Corelli 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Pesch 

Symphonie Stamitz 

Sonata Piano Forte and Violin .. .. Reinagle 

ACT III. 

Quartett Kammel 

Concerto Flute Eichner 

Symphony Haydn 



1) Opera by Linley. 
Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 



82 

FOURTH CONCERT, NOV. 30th. 
ACT I. 

Overture (with flute obligate) Haydn 

Song, Mr. Reinagle Baily 

Solo, Violin Juhan 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Symphony Andrie 

Solo Violoncello with familiar airs Capron 

ACT III. 

Double concerto, Flute and violin Davaux 

Favorite Rondo Martini 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

Symphony 

FIFTH CONCERT, DEC. 14th. 
ACT I. 

Overture Van Hall 

Song Reinagle 

Solo, Violoncello Tillier 

ACT II. 
The favorite Overture of Rosina *) 

Concerto Flute Mezger 

Sonata Piano Forte Mozart 

ACT III. 

Symphonia Haydn 

Song 

Concerto Violin Fiorillo 

SIXTH CONCERT, DEC. 28th. 
ACT I. 

Overture Lord Kelly 

Song Reinagle 

Solo Violin Heimberger 

ACT II. 

Overture Lachnith 

Sonata Piano Forte Haydn 

Song (by request) Du Poids de la Vienesse 

ACT III. 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Overture of Rosina 

Concerto Flute Fialla 

SEVENTH CONCERT, JAN. 11, 1787. 
ACT I. 

Overture Ld. Kelly 

Song Gretry 

Quartette flute Schmitbaws 

[Schmittbauerj 



1) Shield. 



83 ^ 

ACT II. 

Overture Vanhall 

Concerto Violin ... Borghi 

Quartette Davaux 

ACT III. 

Sonata Piano Forte Prati 

Solo violoncello by Lesire 
Overture of Rosina. 1 ) 

EIGHTH CONCERT, JAN. 25th. 

ACT I. 

Overture Bachr^ 

Song (newly composed) Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Trickier 

ACT II. 

Overture Haydn 

Sonata (English guitar and song) Capron 

Quartett Kammel 

ACT III. 

Concerto Flute Stamitz 

Sonata Piano Forte Haydn 

Sonata Violin Heimberger 

Finale .. .. Vanhall 

NINTH CONCERT, FEB. 8th. 

ACT I. 
Grand Overture (performed at the Musical Fund, London) Haydn 

Song Reinagle 

Sonata, Guitar Capron 

ACT II. 

Overture Bach 

Solo Violin Juhan 

Duetto Piano Forte and Violin Reinagle 

ACT III. 

Duetto Violoncello and Violin Capron 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Overture to the opera Rose et Colas 2 ) 

TENTH CONCERT, FEB. 23d. 

ACT I. 

The Grand Overture Haydn 

Song Reinagle 

Concerto Violin Borghi 

ACT II. 

Sonata, Piano Forte Reinagle 

New Solo, Flute Brown 

Overture . Bach 



1) Shield. 

2) Monsigny. 

6* 



ACT III. 

Solo Violoncello Tilliere 

Favorite Quartett .. .. : Kammell 

Overture Toeschi 

ELEVENTH CONCERT, MARCH 8th. 

ACT I. 

Symphonic Rosette 

Song Reinagle 

Concerto Violin Giornovichi 

ACT II. 

Concerto Piano Forte Bach 

Duet Violin and Violoncello Vachon 

Overture Vanhall 

ACT III. 

Overture Stamitz 

Rondo Flute Vanhall 

Overture of the Poor Soldier Shield 

TWELFTH AND LAST CONCERT, MARCH 22d. 

ACT I. 

The Grand Overture Haydn 

Song Giordani 

Quartett (Violoncello obligato) Daveaux 

ACT II. 
Overture of Artaxerxes *) 

Concerto Violin Giornovichi 

Sonata Guittar (by request) Capron 

ACT III. 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Concerto Piano Forte Schroeter 

Overture Haydn 

This fortnightly City Concert at the City Tavern was continued during 
the next winter under the management of Brown and Reinagle with this 
difference that the concerts were no longer supplemented by balls, at least 
not officially. But by far more significant is the fact that tickets were now 
for sale at 7 s. 6 d. for the individual concerts, this evidently meaning that 
they were now entirely public. The "Plans" of the concerts, which like 
most others usually began at seven o'clock, were these. 

FIRST CONCERT, NOV. 22, 1787. 

ACT I. 

Grand Symphony .. ^ Haydn 

Song Sarti 

Concerto Violoncello Trickier 

1) Arne. 



85 

ACT II. 

Sonata Pianoforte Reinagle 

Song by Mrs. Hyde 

Concerto Flute K. Prussia [King of Prussia !] 

ACT III. 

Solo Violin Vanhall 

Song (The Soldier tir'd of war's alarms) Mrs. Hyde 

Finale Gossec 

SECOND CONCERT, DECEMBER 6th. 

Act I. 

Overture Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Hyde 

Concerto and Flute Daveaux 

ACT II. 

Sonata Piano Forte Prati 

Solo Violoncello Handel 

Quartette Stamitz 

ACT III. 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Song (Tally Ho) Mrs. Hyde 

Finale Guglielmi 

THIRD CONCERT, DEC. 20th. 

ACT I. 

Symphonic 15th Stamitz 

Song 

Quartett Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Trio, Piano Forte, Violin and Violoncello .. .. .. .. Haydn 

Solo Violoncello Schetky 

Overture Abel, Opera 14. 

ACT III. 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Solo Violin Reinagle 

Overture, Rosina Shield 

FOURTH CONCERT, JAN. 3, 1788. 

ACT I. 

Overture first Stamitz 

Song 

Concerto Flute Brown 

ACT II. 

Trio, Piano Forte, Flute und Violoncello Schroeter 

Song Gretry 

Concerto .. Corelli 

ACT III. 

Overture Abel 

Solo Violoncello Schetky 

Symphony Bach 



FIFTH CONCERT, JAN. 17th. 

ACT I. 

The Grand Symphony Haydn 

Song Sarti 

Concerto Violoncello Brown 

ACT II. 

Sonata Piano Forte Schroeter 

Song 

Double Concerto Flute and Violin Daveaux 

ACT III. 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Solo Violin Reinagle 

Symphony Gossec 

SIXTH CONCERT, JAN. 31th. 

Overture Stamitz 

Song 

Sonata Guitar Capron 

ACT II. 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

Song Gretry 

Concerto Flute Brown 

ACT III. 

Concerto Stanley 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Overture Stamitz 

SEVENTH CONCERT, FEB. 14th. 

ACT I. 

Overture .. .. Gossec 

Song 

Quartett Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello .. Capron 

Overture .. .. Andree 

ACT III. 

Concerto Stanley 

Rondo Flute of Fisher and Brown 

Symphonic Lachnitt 

EIGHTH CONCERT, FEB. 28th. 

ACT I. 

Overture 1st Stamitz 

Song Gretry 

Quartett Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Sonata Piano Forte of Garth and Rondo Brown 

Solo Violoncello Schetky 

Favorite Symphonic Vanhall 



87 

ACT III. 

Concerto Stanley 

Quartett Flute 

Symphonic 2d .. Stamitz 

NINTH CONCERT, MARCH 13th. 
ACT I. 

Overture Abel 

Song 

Quartett Violoncello Davaux 

ACT II. 
Overture .. .. Abel 

Song 
Concerto Flute 

ACT III. 

Concerto Piano Forte Schroeter 

Miscellaneous Concerto. 

Apparently the City Concert was then discontinued as no further re- 
ference to it is made until the attempted revival in 1792 when on Oct. 31st, 
Bache's General Advertiser printed the following: 

CITY CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music under the direction of Messrs. 
Reinagle, Moller & Capron. The principal vocal part by Mrs. Hodgkinson. The public 
are respectfully informed the first concert will be held on Saturday the 18th day of 
November at Oeller's Hotel in Chestnutstreet. The directors flatter themselves that 
from the engagements they have made with the several performers of eminence, and 
the arrangements of the music, the concerts will meet with the approbation of the 
public. 

Subscriptions are received by Mr. Oellers at his hotel . . . 

It is a curious fact that, whenever an artistic undertaking does not 
find root, some sympathetic enthusiast will step forward and in a lengthy 
dissertation on the powers and beneficial influence of art gently urge the 
public to save such a meritorious enterprise from its doom. Generally the 
public reads the appeal with pleasure, feels ashamed for a day or two and 
then relapses into its dolce far niente. In the case of the City Concert one 
of the subscribers after the third concert either could no longer resist the 
temptation to expound his views on music in general and on concerts in 
particular or he felt dissatisfied with the support given an enterprise in which 
he was interested being a subscriber. As a curious specimen of eighteenth 
century phraseology and esthetics his entreaties as published in the Federal 
Gazette, Dec. 24, 1792 will not fail to arouse some interest in this connection. 
If the City Concert was not continued in the winter of 1793 this was probably 
less due to public indifference than to the after-effects of the terrible yellow 
fever epidemic which raged at Philadelphia during the year 1793 : 

ON THE CITY CONCERTS. 

Of all the amusements offered to the public there are none that surpass in value 
those now under consideration whether reference be had to present pleasure, or to 



88 

future profit whatever improvement can be expected from the sight of polished 
and agreeable companies, or from the comtemplation of beautiful and interesting ob- 
jects, combined with melody of sound or whatever good effects can be produced 
on the temper of familiar and domestic life; from the lenient and assuasive balm of 
music and harmony, are here to be perfectly enjoyed, without crowds, without late- 
hours, or many other inconveniences frequently experienced at public places. To 
be pleased at a concert, you have only to sit down and to hear. 1 ) 

One bench supports you and one joy unites there is no struggle for precedency, 
or for place, nor any necessity of pre-engaging a box or a partner ; you are not mar- 
ti ailed out in regular files for a dance, nor enjoined a strict order of figure or succession. 
The mind vacant admits of deep and copious draughts of pure and intellectual plea- 
sure, calculated justly to allay and to soften the ruggedness incident, even, to the neces- 
sary pursuits and avocations of life. 

In such situations, the musick should be smooth and affecting, the songs artless 
and rural, borrowed chiefly from scenes of country life; so the rich man may feel a 
species of delight in transporting himself a moment from the splendours that usually 
surround him, to scenes of tranquil and unambitious ease ; and the poor man consoles 
himself to think that some of the most flattering views of life are to be drawn from 
the situation of those who, like himself, are treading only the humbler walks of life. 

It is said that in England Royalty is sometimes pleased to retire from the palace 
and the throne to the humbler amusements of the cottage in order to enjoy alternately 
the highest pleasures permitted to mankind, to be found perhaps in either case, tho' 
chiefly in the latter. 

Just eulogiumns are due to Messrs. Reinagle, Moller and Capron, for the public 
spirit and the shining talents with which they have distinguished the arrangements 
of their concerts, but it is a great accession to the pleasure that other performers thrown 
on the hospitality of the country by the distresses of a neighbouring island, are also 
encouraged and supported and are making an amusement move frequent that before 
returned but too seldom. 

From such circumstances may be expected a gradual improvement in the national 
taste and a greater fondness for one of the most delectable pleasures permitted to 
mortality while it is hoped none will be offended at the preference given to this 
entertainment since it is certain no other stands in equal need of public commendation 
and favour to support and continue it. 

A Subscriber. 

The eight programs which show a somewhat stronger leaning towards 
chamber music than those of the preceding series were these. 

FIRST CONCERT, DEC. 1, 1792 (postponed from Nov. 18th). 
ACT I. 

Grand Overture of Haydn, called la Reine de France 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartetto composed by Mr. Gehot 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

(Composed by the celebrated Duport) 
Sinfonia .. Bach 



1) A sound bit of advice which the public unfortunately will never learn to heed. 
The public in its wild desire to know "how to listen to music" usually forgets "to 
sit down and hear"! 



ACT II. 

Quartette Mssrs. Reinagle, 

Gehot, Moller and Capron. 

Song .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Moller i) 

Double Concerto, Clarinet and Bassoon Messrs. Wolf and 

Youngblut 
Overture Reinagle 

The concert will begin exactly at 7 o'clock ; tickets for admission 
of strangers 7 s 6 each to be had of Mr. Oellers at his Hotel. 

SECOND CONCERT, DEC. 15th. 

ACT I. 

Overture Mr. Moller 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartetto Flute .. Mr. Young 

Concerto Bassoon Mr. Youngblut 

ACT II. 

Overture Bach 

Concerto Violin Gehot 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello 

Finale Haydn 

Between the first and second act the favourite glee of 'Sigh no more 
ladies' will be performed by Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson, etc. 

THIRD CONCERT, DEC. 29th. 
ACT I. 

Grand Overture of Haydn, called La Reine de France 

Quartetto of Pleyel Messrs. Gehot 2), Rei- 
nagle, Moller and 
Capron 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto, Violoncello Mr. Capron 

ACT II. 

Overture, expressive of the four different nations, viz. 
French, English, Italian and German. 

Duetti, arranged for the Piano Forte and Clarinet by 

Mr. Moller Miss Moller and 

Mr. Wolf. 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale .. . Roeser 



1) Our John Christopher Moller probably was identical with the "Moeller, J. 
."of whose works several are mentioned by Eitner. 

2) -The printer insisted on calling him Jehot, but his name was Jean Gehot. 



90 

FOURTH CONCERT, JAN. 12, 1793. 
ACT I. 

Grand overture Stamitz 

Quartette on the French Horn Pelissier l ) 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto German Flute Mr. Young 

Sinfonia Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Overture Vanhall 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolff 

Sonata Grand Piano Forte MissMoller 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Finale Stamitz 

FIFTH CONCERT, JAN. 26. 
ACT I. 

Grand Overture Kozeluch 

Song Miss Moller 

Quartette Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Sinfonia Abel 

ACT II. 

Overture Stamitz 

Song Mr. Capron 

Sonata Piano Forte Miss Moller 

Quartette Young Mr. Young 

Finale Haydn 

SIXTH CONCERT, FEB. 9th. 
ACT I. 

Overture Martini 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Quartette (Pleyel) Messrs. Reinagle, Gehot, Moller and Capron 

Concerto Bassoon Youngblut 

Song Mr. Chambers 

ACT II. 

Overture Mr. Ditters 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Finale Stamitz 

SEVENTH CONCERT, MARCH 2d. 
ACT I. 

Overture 1st Cambini 

Quartette German Flute Mr. Young 

Song Mr. Capron 

Concerto Bassoon Mr. Youngblut 

Sinfonia Stamitz 



1) More will be said about Victor Pelissier in the chapter on New York. Possibly 
identical with the Pelissier of whom the Cons. Nat. at Paris possesses 'Amusements 
varies avec accomp. de musette'. 



91 

ACT II. 

Overture 2d Cambini 

Duetto Miss Moller & Mr. 

Capron 

Quartette Messrs. Reinagle, Capron 

Sonata Piano Forte Gehot and Moller 

Solo, Violoncello Mr. Moller 

Solo, Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Finale Haydn 

EIGHTH AND LAST CONCERT, for the benefit of Miss Moller, 
March 31st, postponed from March 16th. 
ACT I. 

Overture Boccherini 

Concerto Flute Mr. Young 

Quartette Pleyel 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Sinfonia Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Overture Abel 

Miscellaneous Quartett Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

Finale Abel i) 

In view of programs like these, I believe, the customary good natured 
or ill-natured smile worn by historians when stumbling accidentally across 
an isolated eighteenth century program in our country will have to be can- 
celled once for ever. Though several of the composers who figured on these 
programs have since passed into (perhaps unmerited) oblivion, they were 
prominent masters in those days and names like Haydn, Gretry, Bach and 
Mozart are still household names in every musical community. If the 
arrangement of the 'Plans' seems a trifle checkered at times to us moderns 
who fail to find the same or worse faults in the programs of our own time, 
we should not forget that the City Concerts ran on strictly European lines 
and contained no oddities which could not easily be duplicated by quoting 
European programs. Further more if, for instance, Mr. Maderia writes 2 ): 

"Besides the real music, there is always a plentiful display of 'overtures' and 'con- 
certos' by the local geniuses. Among the Juhans, Reinagles, and Brown, there is scant 
room for a Haydn" 

this opinion falls little short of being absurd. Then as now soloists 
were in demand and the only difference lies in this that we now pay, or 
presume to pay, as much attention to the composer of a concerto as to the 



1) Presumably Reinagle followed the custom of playing the first movement of a 
symphony as 'Overture', which was in keeping with the form of a first symphony mo- 
vement and the last as 'Finale', as the last movements were generally so called unless 
bearing the title of Rondo. Of course, this should not be construed to mean that no 
real Overtures were performed! 

2) Annals of music in Philadelphia, p. 37. 



92 

virtuoso performing it. In those days the performer of a concerto usually 
was his own composer. Hence a distinction between the two usually could 
not be made. But even when performing a concerto by some other com- 
poser-virtuoso it was not considered necessary to mention the composer 
because concertos were admittedly looked upon more or less as vehicles for 
the exhibition of skill and nothing better. This remark applies to Capron 
Brown, Gehot and other virtuosos, who, however, while guilty of the offense 
of composing, as are ninety nine out of a hundred musicians, succumbed 
to the temptation very much less oftener than Mr. Madeira seems to infer. 
If therefore "Concerto Flute Brown" not necessarily means and probably 
does not mean that Brown played a concerto of his, then such arguments 
as those proffered by Mr. Madeira must be severely rebuked in the interest 
of fair and accurate historical criticism. 

But supposing for the sake of argument that the local geniuses like the 
Juhans, Reinagles and Browns did freely intersperse the programs with 
their own compositions, does it therefore really follow that their concertos 
and overtures were void of merit? Did Mr. Madeira study them or did he 
ever see a copy of them? In view of the fact that only the most indifferent 
and unimportant compositions of these men have been preserved in Ame- 
rica, such historical slaughter is not only hasty, but unfair and woefully 
unscientific. Even if their best works were less than mediocre, the fact 
(consult for instance Hanslick's book on concerts at Vienna) would still 
have to be taken into consideration that concert-givers everywhere in 
Europe habitually filled an entire evening with their own compositions 
which, only too eften, were still more mediocre than their skill in perform- 
ing them. Indeed, the American public was decidedly less often subjected 
to such cruelty than that of Europe. Finally, a glance at the programs 
of the City Concerts will show that only one "local genius" figured pro- 
minently on them: Alexander Reinagle. But as a few of his sonatas, pre- 
served at the Library of Congress 1 ) in autograph, prove him to have pos- 
sessed unquestionable taste and talent as a composer, it is difficult to under- 
stand why he should not have acquainted the subscribers to the City Concert 
with his works even if, as was often enough the case, a symphony by Haydn 
figured on the same program. If with such arguments, which betray the 
incapability of projecting one's-self into changing (and unchanged) con- 
ditions the sine qua non of the historian if with such arguments facts 
and data are to be grouped and cemented into a historical structure, then 
we may just as well frown on the musical life of our own time and close 



1) It may serve a purpose to remark that the Library of Congress also now possesses 
works by Capron and Gehot, printed in Europe and Rondos by Brown printed in 
America. 



93 

the book of history with a cynical smile. Rather than to fight such wind- 
mills, the harmless question may be asked of those historians who delight 
in anachronistic arguments, how many American cities of fifty thousand 
inhabitants there are to-day with orchestral subscription concerts such as 
Philadelphia and other smaller cities enjoyed more than a century ago? 

The query would be still more pointed, if an enterprise for which a Mr. 
Duplessis who kept an "English school for young gentlemen only" in Market 
Street was responsible, had been favored with success. The little I have 
been able to find concerning his enterprise is this. On Feb. 22, 1786 there appe- 
ared in the Freeman's Journal an advertisement to the effect that there was 

"to be let for Balls, Concerts etc. a convenient and completely ornamented Hall, 
45 feet long, 21 feet wide, and 13 feet high from the floor to the ceiling, communi- 
cating to Market Street and Church alley." 

This hall was rented by Mr. Duplessis who on June 9th, in the Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, under the heading 'Vocal and Instrumental Music' informed 
his friends and the public in general that he proposed opening in his new 
room in Church Alley: 

A CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music, such as Sonatas, Symphonies, 
select and favorite songs, etc. etc. The price of subscription tickets will be six dollars; 
and each ticket shall admit one gentleman and a lady to fourteen concerts the first 
of which will be on Saturday Evening, the 17th instant, precisely at 8 o'clock, and con- 
tinue every Saturday until the 16th day of September Tickets at 3 s 9 for a single 

person each day . . . 

How many of these fourteen concerts were given is difficult to say. In 
fact it is possible to read between the lines of an advertisement on June 22d 
that Mr. Duplessis found himself obliged to abandon the enterprise. He 
notified the public that the Concert of "harmonial music" intended for 
June 17th was unavoidably postponed to June 24th and that it would be 
continued agreeably to former advertisements "provided there be a suf- 
ficient number of subscribers to defray the expenses". 

If this and the more successful City Concert was a professional under- 
taking, Philadelphia also temporarily possessed entertainments continued 
on the older plan of amateur concerts. Whether the "New Concert" which 
began by subscription at the Lodge Room in Lodge Alley on Dec. 2, 17 S3 1 ) 
independently of the City Concert but to which I found no further reference 
belonged to that class is not quite clear. However, an 'Amateur Concert' 
existed at Philadelphia during the season of 1786/87. The concerts took 
place at "Henry Epple's house [a tavern] in Racestreet" but beyond such 
notices as for instance that "the eighth conce'rt is postponed on account 
of Mr. Wm. Brown's benefit" to Feb. 16, 1787 2 ) the newspapers had very 



1) Pennsylvania Packet, Dec. 2, 1783. 

2) Pa. Packet, Feb. 15, 1787. 



94 

little to say about the enterprise, a fact quite in keeping with the character 
of the 'Amateur Concert'. On Oct. 17, 1787 the subscribers were requested 
to meet on the 19th "in order to chuse managers and a treasurer for the 
ensuing winter". The first concert of this season of 1787/88 took place 
on Oct. 30th and as the announcement was headed' Musical Club' it might 
be inferred that the Amateur Concert thrived under the auspices of a musical 
society by that name. It was continued also during the next season when 
ten concerts were given from Oct. 1788 to March 1789. By the fact that 
occasionally prominent professionals advertised their benefit concerts under 
the heading of 'Amateur Concert', another pendant to European customs 
is furnished where virtuosos would perform gratis at the 'Amateur Concerts', 
'Liebhaber Konzerte' or whatever their name was in the different countries. 
Having thus levied a time honored tribute from the virtuoso, the organi- 
sation would then condescend to assist him in a benefit concert given under 
its auspices. The underlying idea was that subscribers to the organization 
would reward courtesy with courtesy but only too often did the virtuoso 
see himself disappointed in his expectation of reciprocity. A concert with 
ball on this plan was given between the sixth and seventh 'Amateur Concert' 
by Philip Phile on Jan. 29, 1789. The program as printed in the Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, Jan. 26th will show that it resembled the programs as had 
been played at the City Concert, to which probably the Amateur Concert 
became the successor in public favor during those years: 

FIRST ACT. 

Grand Overture Vanhall 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

A Song 

Concerto Violino Phile 

Rondo Flauto solo 

SECOND ACT. 

Grand Overture Haydn 

A Song 

Concerto Clarinetto Wolf 

Solo Violino Phile 

Grand Overture Martini 

The Amateur Concerts were continued until the season of 1790/91 when 
they seem to have met with the fate of everything human. A few years 
later, in the spring of 1794, an effort was made to combine both the pro- 
fessional and Amateur Concert. We read in Dunlop's American Daily 
Advertiser in March: 

"By Subscription. AN AMATEURS AND PROFESSIONAL CONCERT. Under 
the direction of Messrs. Reinagle, Gillingham, Menel and Carr, at Mr. Oeller's Hotel, 
Chestnutstreet, for six weeks, to be held weekly. 

For the 2d, 4th, 6th concert each subscriber will be entitled to two tickets, for 
the admission of ladies, and on the last concert night will be given a ball. Subscriptions 



95 

at five dollars, will be received at Carr & Co.'s Musical Repository, No. 122 Market- 
street, and at Mr. Oeller's Hotel. 

Visitors can only be admitted by the introduction of a subscriber, for whom tickets 
may be had on the day of performance at the Musical Repository. 

N. B. The Concerts will commence in the course of a fortnight. 

However, the first concert was not held until April 8th. Of the programs 
of the series I found the following: 

FIRST CONCERT, APRIL 8th, 1794. 
ACT THE FIRST. 

Overture Haydn 

Glee 'Adieu to the village delights' Baildon 

Quartette Pleyel 

Song Carr 'Sembianze amabili' Bianchi 

Concerto Violino Mr. Gillingham 

ACT THE SECOND. 

Song, Mr. C!arr 'Primroses deck' Linley 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Menel 

Glee 'Come live with me' Webbe 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

Full piece Haydn 

SECOND CONCERT, APRIL 15th. 

ACT THE FIRST. 

Overture Haydn 

Glee 'Awake Eolian lyre' Dandby 

Quartetto Pleyel 

Song Mr. Carr 'The ling'ring pangs' Horace [Storace] 

Concerto Oboe Mr. Shaw 

ACT THE SECOND. 

Overture to Otho Handel 

Glee 'When Arthur first' Calcott 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. De Marque 

Song, Mr. Carr, 'Dear gentle Kate' Hook 

Overture for wind instruments Panutge 

Full piece Haydn 

THIRD CONCERT, APRIL 22d. 

ACT THE FIRST. 

New Overture Pleyel 

Glee 'Here in cool grot' Mornington 

Concertante by Messrs. Gillingham, Stuart, Shaw and 

Menel Pleyel 

Song Mr. Carr 'Mansion of peace' Webb 

Concerto Violin Mr. Gillingham 

ACT THE SECOND. 

Concerto flute Mr. Young 

Song Mr. Carr 'Come, come thou Goddess' .. Handel 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

" .. Glee 'Sigh no more, ladies' Stevens 

Full piece Haydn 



96 

Subscriptions at four dollars for the remaining nights. 
FOURTH CONCERT, APRIL 29th. 

ACT THE FIRST. 

Overture Stamitz 

Glee 

Duet for violin and violoncello by Mr. Gillingham 

and Menel Jarnovick 

Song, Mr. Carr 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Menel 

ACT THE SECOND. 

New Overture Haydn 

Cantata Mr. Carr Webbe 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

Glee Mornington 

Full piece Haydn 

This was the first and last season of the Amateurs and Professional 
Concert and with one exception also the last attempt at a series of sub- 
scription concerts during the century. With this exception is linked the 
name of a lady- musician, known to us from her career in the South and 
who also was identified with the foundation of a 'Linen & Muslin Ware- 
house' at Philadelphia in 1797. As Mrs. Grattan informed the public that 
"the second Ladies Concert" was to be held on Jan. 3, 1797 at Mr. Oellers' 
Hotel, obviously the first took place in December 1796. Of the first season 
of the 'Ladies Concert' hardly anything is known beyond what is contained 
in the announcement of the second concert in the Philadelphia Gazette, 
Jan. 3, 1797: 

MRS. GRATTAN respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen of the city that 
the second Ladies Concert will be on Thursday next, the 3d of January, at Mr. Oellers 
Hotel. 

ACT 1st. 

Grand Sinfonie Haydn 

'Holy Lord', Mrs. Grattan Handel 

Concerto Violin Gillingham 

Trio & chorus, Siege of Belgrade Storace 

ACT 2d. 

Concerto in B, Mrs. Grattan Dussek 

'Ah, non sai', Mrs. Grattan Sarti 

Quartett Pleyel 

Grand Chorus, Pirates Storace 

The Concert will begin at half past six, and at half past eight the music will attend 
for the ball. 

Mrs. Grattan begs leave to inform the ladies and gentlemen that the subscription 
book is at her house, No. 39 North Sixth Street, for the reception of those names who 
wish to honor her with their demands. 

A subscription for eight nights, sixteen dollars, including a gentleman & lady's 
ticket, both transferable. Half subscription 8 dollars, including one ticket. Single 
ticket, two dollars. 

Mrs. Grattan takes the liberty of requesting the subscribers to send for their 



97 

tickets any day after Thursday the 15th December, at" No. 39, North South Street. 
Single tickets to be had the day of the concert only, at the Bar of Mr. Oellers's 
Hotel. 

Mrs. Grattan ventured on a second but more modest season in Dec. 1797. 
Probably because concerts alone did not pay, she announced her intention 
in Porcupine's Gazette, Nov. 29th of having "four concerts and balls during 
the winter". Subscribers' tickets were not transferable. Single tickets 
were to cost two dollars and season tickets six dollars. The concerts again 
began at half past six and 

"the band to attend for the ball at eight. The expence of which Mrs. Grattan 
engages to discharge. The Concerts will begin as soon as the band arrives from New 
York". 

This probably means that Mrs. Grattan was not on friendly terms with 
Messrs. Wignell and Reinagle and preferred to engage instead of their theatre 
orchestra that of their rivals, the Old American Company of Comedians. 

Mrs. Grattan found herself obliged to devote her energies almost exclu- 
sively to chamber and vocal music. In fact on Dec. 16, 1797 she 

"respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen of the city that her first concert 
of Vocal Music" will be held on December 21st at Mr. Richardet's, the caterer. 

The program reads: 

ACT I. 

Quartette Pleyel 

Song 'Angels everbright' Handel 

Glee (Messrs. Carr, Darley, jun. and Hill) "The Mariners' 
Song, Mr. Carr, "The Primroses' 

Duett, Mrs. Grattan and Mr. Carr Paisiello 

Scotch glee. Mrs. Grattan, Messrs. Carr, Darley and Hill. 

ACT II. 

Concerto, Piano Forte, (by a young lady) Viotti 

Song, Mrs. Grattan Sacchini 

Glee, Messrs. Carr, Darley, jun., and Hill Jackson 

Duet, Mrs. Grattan and Mr. Carr, 'Time has not thin'd' 

Song, Mr. Darley, jun. 

Quartette, Mrs. Grattan, Messrs. Carr, Darley and Hill. 

Apparently the condition that subscribers' tickets should not be trans- 
ferable not meeting with public approval, Mrs. Grattan made a compromise 
by stipulating that 

"any subscriber on paying his subscription, will have a right to demand tickets 
for the unmarried part of his family, which tickets will admit them every night during 
the season." 

In the announcement of her second concert, Jan. 2, 1798, our first lady 
manager incidentally took occasion to solicit the support and patronage 
of a generous public by remarking that "necessity obliges her to make this 
effort for the maintenance of her infant family". The program announced 
reads: 

So n neck. Early Concert Life. 7 



98 

ACT 1st. 

Sinfonia Pleyel 

Song, Mrs. Grattan, words from Shakespeare. Music 

by a lady. 
Quartette. Messieurs Gillingham, Hupfield, Daugel and 

Menel with a solo for Mr. Gillingham Haydn 

Song, Mrs. Grattan Cimarosa 

Concerto, Piano Forte by a young lady Krumpholtz 

ACT lid. 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolf 

Song, Mrs. Grattan Sacchini 

Sinfonia Pichl 

After which the band attended for the ball. This feature appealed to 
the charitable instincts of the public by far more than the concert and 
Mrs. Grattan after finding already in December "that the plan of her Concert 
is misconceived" and informing the public "that it is the same as the City 
Assembly" was sensible enough to strike colors on Jan. 25, 1798 and "respect- 
fully informs the ladies and gentlemen of the city that agreeable to the wish 
of Mrs. Grattan's subscribers, on Tuesday next [Jan. 30] she gives "a ball 
with refreshments, instead of a Concert at Mr. Richardet's . . .". 

Still, she cannot have submitted to the dancing enthusiasts altogether 
for on Feb. 28th the American Daily Advertiser, probably very much to 
Mrs. Grattan's benefit, announced that 

"The President and his family honor the Ladies Concert with their presence this 
evening." 

* If it be asked why towards the end of the century subscription-concerts 
seem to have lost their hold on the public, several explanations may be 
advanced. In the first place, Wignell and Reinagle, when opening their 
New Theatre in 1793, gave predominance to opera. This departure must 
have absorbed a good deal of the musical interest of Philadelphia and it is 
a common observation that in smaller cities where opera becomes the feature 
of the musical life an organized concert-life suffers in proportion. Then the 
virtuosos found it more to their advantage to give benefit concerts inde- 
pendently of the traditional mutual-insurance policy and the more numerous 
the occasional concerts became the less necessity there was for a series of 
subscription concerts. Finally, concert-goers need a season of rest. They 
will frequent concerts in winter time if they are allowed to recuperate from 
the strain on their music nerves in the summer. But, if they are led into 
the temptation of dissipating musically during the summer al fresco, they 
are apt to take their vacation in winter. This was the case at Philadelphia 
where summer-concerts became a feature during the last decade of the 
eighteenth century. 

The first to attempt something of the kind appears to have been Mr. 



Vincent M. Pelosi, proprietor of the Pennsylvania Coffee House, who in 
May 1786 announced 

that by the desire of several gentlemen, he has proposed for the summer-season 
to open a Concert of Harmonial Music, which will consist of the following instru- 
ments, viz. 

Two clarinets 
Two French horns 
Two bassoons 
One flute i) 

To begin the first Thursday of June and to continue every Thursday following, 
till the last Thursday of September. The orchestra will open at eight o'clock in the 
evening, and continue open until eleven, which shall play different and various airs, 
chosen from the most celebrated authors. 

A few years later, in 178J), George and Robert Gray, proprietors of the 
popular "Gray's Gardens" in the suburbs of Philadelphia, followed suit. 
They gave weekly concerts from May to October. Thursday was concert- 
day and the concerts began at four o'clock and concluded "precisely" at 
nine. "A handsome stage wagon mounted on steel springs with two good 
horses" ran twice a day between the city and the ferry for the accommodation 
of passengers. On the last night of the season, October 14th, the band was 
"considerably" increased and the "vocal part" was executed by a Mr. Wolfe 
but the clou of the evening's entertainment consisted in the illumination 
of "the fall of water at the mill . . . more splendidly than upon any former 
occasion the music playing opposite to the fall" in the "Federal 
Temple". 

Messrs. Gray publicly returned their sincere acknowledgments for the 
encouragement they had met with in "an undertaking, so new in America", 
at least as they thought, and they promised to improve the entertainment 
the next season. This second season began on May 8, 1790 with the 
illumination of the "transparent painting of the illustrious President of the 
United States, executed by Mr. Wright". On the fourth of July, the enter- 
tainment, as soon became customary, partook of a patriotic character with 
odes, songs and duets" in honour of the glorious event". That the managers 
well understood how to cater to the^ curious may be seen from the fact 
that they engaged for Sept. 2d "The son of Mr. D. Duport, not ten years 
of age, who has performed before the Royal Family in France" and who 
was to play two violin solos. On the whole, the music offered at these 
open-air concerts was of a rather high standard. For instance, the program 
for Oct. 16th, 1790 reads: 



1) Again I must refer to Hanslick and others if the wrong idea is entertained that 
this band was ridiculously small. 

7* 



100 

PART I. 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Symphonic Stamitz 

Grand Overture Schmitt 

A Song Wolff 

Violin Concert Schultz 

Symphonic Lachnit 

PART II. 

Overture Martini 

Flute Concert Phile 

Song Wolff 

Clarinet Concert A. Wolff 

Symphonic Abel 

Harmony music Phile 

In view of such, programs it is not surprising that Messrs. Gray's efforts 
were appreciated by music lovers and at least one had the courage of con- 
viction to express himself accordingly in the Pennsylvania Packet. He had 
this to say "On the Gardens of the Messrs. Gray" : 

Being well persuaded that great numbers of our fellow citizens acknowledge with 
great esteem the merits of the Messrs. Gray, by procuring them in their delightful 
gardens, a gratification which all the luxuries of a wealthy city could not bestow; and 
being myself an enthusiastic admirer of the heartfelt charms of nature I step for- 
ward to declare our sentiments on this subject. 

In every situation of life amusements are necessary to recreate our minds and 
bodies after toil and anxious cares . . . Genuine music is also a very commendable 
recreation, for it expresses and animates the sublime and pathetic affections of the 
mind. Its powers are so great, as in a high degree to influence the national character. 
This has been the opinion of great legislators. From my own observations on different 
nations and on divers classes, in the same country, I can affirm that popular songs 
and favourite tunes are good indications of the people's character. 

. . . Those who have not yet this season visited the gardens of Messrs. Gray, will 
be pleased with some account of the late improvements. Several trees, shrubs and 
flowers have been added to the grounds. A beautiful orchestra is built over the door 
of the main building; from which the sweet notes of music flow with ease through 
the waving groves, and over the placid meanders of Schuylkill. The band is com- 
posed of 9 or 10 instruments. The vocal part is made up of two male and as many 
female voices, which perform well a variety of sentimental songs. On the front of 
this orchestra is a painting of Handel, the celebrated musician, done by Mr. Witman, 
a young artist and native of Reading ..." 

For how many summers these concerts were continued I do not know, 
but I am under the impression that music ceased to be a noteworthy feature 
at Gray's Gardens in 1793. 

That a demand was in the air for summer- concerts about 1790 is borne 
out by the fact that a few weeks after Messrs. Gray had added music to the 
attractions of their resort, George Esterley, proprietor of 'Harrowgate', 
advertised under the catch-line "Vauxhall Harrowgate" similar weekly 
concerts with illuminations, etc. They were to begin on Saturday, August 29, 
1789, "the vocal parts by a lady from Europe who has performed in all the 



101 

operas in the theatres Royal of Dublin and Edinburgh". Though Mr. 
Esterley considered 

"the rural situation and many natural beauties of Harrow-gate ... so well known" 
that he deemed a particular description unnecessary, yet he thought 
it worth while to remark that 

"it is decorated with Summer houses, arbors, seats, etc. and a large new house, 
consisting of a number of rooms for large and small parties. The Mineral springs, 
shower and plunging baths are in best order. A good and plentiful table with liquors 
of the best quality; tea, coffee, fruit, etc.. . furnished on the shortest notice . . ." 

The lady engaged for the "vocal parts" was Mrs. Rankin but if her 
fame was great, her duties at Harrowgate were light. At least, if she was 
not supposed to giye innumerable encores in addition to the one solitary 
song in every "part" of the concert as announced in the programs, f. i. on 
Sept. 19th, 'Blythe Sandy', 'Had I a heart for falsehood train'd', 'The 
lark's shrill notes', and 'Tally Ho'. The orchestral and concerted numbers 
at Harrowgate consisted of such works as overtures by Abel, "full pieces" 
by Fischer and others, concertos and 'Martini's march'. 

The concerts at Harrowgate continued regularly every season, at least 
until 1796 for on Aug. 3, 1796, Claypole's Daily Advertiser printed a poetical 
effusion "On Harrowgate. Written by Miss C. P. a young lady of sixteen 
before she left the Garden", of which a few lines may follow here as a warning 
to other young ladies of sixteen: 

"Nature and art combine, with graceful ease, 
To elevate the mind, and please the eye; 
There shrubs, and flowers, and interwoven trees, 
And streams are seen, which murmur gently by. 
The shady walks and artificial aisles, 
And music whisp'ring thro' the verdant leaves, 
The heart of every painful care beguiles, 
And peace, and pleasure every object breathes." 

A few weeks later, on Sept. 30th, Messrs. Bates and Darley of the New 
Theatre informed the public that they had leased "the manor house and 
grounds of Bush Hill (The property of William Hamilton Esq.)" and pur- 
posed opening them by subscription in the following spring "for the general 
accommodation and amusement of the public under the name of Pennsyl- 
vania Gardens and Hotel" with concerts during the summer months "after 
the manner of the public gardens of Paris, Vauxhall, London etc." The 
resort was actually opened on June 16, 1797 under the name of Bush Hill 
or Pennsylvania Tea Gardens, but an unlucky star seems to have hovered 
over the enterprise as already in December 1797 the partnership between 
William Bates and William Darley was dissolved by mutual consent. May 
be the fear of a second yellow fever epidemic was partly responsible for the 
failure but as long as the concerts lasted they certainly must have been 



102 

quite enjoyable to judge from the "cast" as published in Porcupine's Gazette, 
June 15, 1797: 

"Vocal performers Messrs. Darley, sen. ; Darley jun. ; Bates, and Miss 

Broadhurst. 
Instrumental Messrs. Hopefield [Hupfield] Wolfe, Mucke, Homann, Brooke, 

Shetky, Petit, Oznabluth [!], Morel, De Clary, etc. 
Organist, Mr. B. Carr." 

Possibly it was Benjamin Carr's organ playing at these concerts which 
induced John Mearns of the 'Centre House Tavern and Gardens' to add 
in 1799 "to the entertainment which his house afforded ... at a very great 
expense ... a Grand organ of the first power and tone, which [was to] be 
played every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday evening during the summer". 
It was John Mearns' ambition to produce his organ to an admiring assembly 
on the Fourth of July, but he was disappointed "in getting his organ fixed" 
and instead engaged "a complete band of Martial Music", which was 
decidedly more in keeping with what his forerunners in the business used 
to offer on Independence Day. In the following year Mr. Mearns further 
imitated them by making concerts a regular feature at the Centre House 
Gardens but the programs, as those of the first decade of the nineteenth 
century generally, were rather "popular" in character. The program for 
the Fourth of July, 1800 with which these remarks on summer -concerts 
at Philadelphia may be closed, will illustrate this convincingly: 

ACT I 

A Grand March. 

Overture Graff 

Song 'Louisa' Mrs. M'Donald 

Favourite Air with variations Pleyel 

St. Bride's Bells Mr. Hedderly 

ACT II 

^Duetto (Clarinets) Pleyel 

Song 'Two bunches a Penny, Primroses' M. Donald 

Grand Symphony Buck [Bach?] 

President's March (Musical Bells) Hedderly 

Song 'The Caledonian Laddie' Mrs. M'Donald 

To conclude with a variety of pleasing airs and occasional songs. In the course 
of the evening will be exhibited a representation of General Washington. 

It will have been noticed that the concerts so far described were predomi- 
nantly devoted to instrumental music and that vocal music was represented 
only by some airs, popular songs, duets, glees or the like. The reason for 
this is not far to seek. Concerts of choral music require trained choruses 
but of these Philadelphia could not boast until a few years after the war. 
Of course, there were the socalled singing schools of olden times which 
provided the churches of the city with a nucleus of ladies and gentlemen 
fairly well grounded in church music, but from congregational and choir 



103 

singing, that is to say, from the usual psalms, hymns and anthems to can- 
tatas, oratorios and secular choral works of larger compass is a wide step 
and this step was impossible in America without choral societies. Now and 
then men like William Tuckey of New York sought to overcome the ob- 
stacles to the cultivation of choral music but their efforts were frustrated 
by general conditions which allowed choral music outside of the churches 
and their appendices the singing schools, to be cultivated only timidly. 
That this situation was not to the taste of the more ambitious singing 
teachers and choir masters goes without saying but few only possessed, 
in addition to the ambition and possibly the talent of doing things, the 
less common faculty to analize conditions, to organize, and to know just 
how to do things. 

Among these very few men Andrew Adgate, whose career at Phila- 
delphia came to an untimely end during the yellow fever epidemic of 1793, 
certainly held a very conspicuous position as P. U. A., President of the 
Uranian Academy, as he proudly added to his name on title pages of his 
publications. Adgate saw, and the historian must agree with him, that 
for the time being the cultivation of choral music in general at Philadelphia 
would closely have to be associated with a planful cultivation of church 
music. Hence he founded early in 1784 by subscription 'The Institution 
for the Encouragement of Church Music', also called in the newspapers 
'Institution for promoting the knowledge of psalmody'. Properly a de- 
tailed history of this institution belongs to the history of church music and 
to the history of musical instruction in our country, but as "public singings" 
formed a feature of the institution its career must also be outlined in a 
history of our early concert-life. 

As stated, Andrew Adgate founded his instituti3n in 1784. From the 
beginning it "survived on public bounty", a rather bold and optimistic 
point of departure, it must be confessed. When on April 1, 1785 "the trustees 
of the Institution for promoting the knowledge of psalmody, having per- 
ceived great inconveniences arising from an indiscriminate assemblage of 
persons at the public singings" directed that admission tickets be prepared 
for the subscribers, the affairs of the institution must have looked to out- 
siders either very flourishing or very confused. Those who suspected the 
latter were nearer the truth as on June 1st the trustees agreed to declare 
the institution dissolved, the funds being exhausted. But Andrew Adgate's 
resources evidently were not yet exhausted for on the very same day he 
drew a wider "Plan of Mr. Adgate's Institution for diffusing more generally 
the knowledge of Vocal Music" by establishing a Free School to this effect. 
The plan met with the approval of several influential people and in the 
Pennsylvania Gazette, Oct. 19th, signed Oct. 1st but headed "Philadelphia, 



104 

June 1, 1785" Adgate published his bold plan, of which the third para- 
graph is perhaps the most important in this connection: 

PLAN of Mr. Adgate's Institution for diffusing more generally the knowledge 
of Vocal Music. 

I. That persons of every denomination desirous of acquiring the knowledge of 
Vocal Music, on application to Mr. Adgate, and agreeing to observe the regulations 
of the institution shall be admitted without discrimination, and taught gratis."* 

II. That in order to carry into effect this liberal design, subscriptions at eight 
dollars be received and such other methods adopted as the board of trustees, here after 
to be named, may devise. 

III. That in compliment to the contributors of eight dollars, or more, the pupils 
of this institution unite in giving twelve vocal concerts between the present time and 
the first of June, 1786. 

IV. That subscribers of eight dollars be entitled to three tickets, which shall admit 
one gentleman and two ladies, and subscribers of double the sum, to double the number 
of tickets. 

V. That as soon as a competent number of subscribers shall have entered their 
names, a meeting of the subscribers shall be called, in order to choose three persons 
as trustees, who shall to the best of their judgment appropriate the monies which 
have been or may be subscribed, and make such further regulations for the better 
government of the above-mentioned institution as to them may seem necessary. 

Oct. 1, 1785. 

It is hereby made known, that as the above recited Plan has met with great en- 
couragement that the subscribers thereto have elected trustees, and that under 
their patronage Mr. Adgate has commenced his instructions, at the University, to a 
respectable number of pupils. 

It is the object of the subscribers to establish a Free School for the spreading 
the knowledge of Vocal Music; the trustees therefore invite every person who wishes 
to be possessed of this knowledge to apply to Mr. Adgate at Mr. Conelly's in Second 
Street, a little way North of Chestnutstreet, that his name may 'be entered as one 
of the school, and his instructions commence, for which there will not be required of 
him even the smallest compensation. 

The more there are who make this application, and the sooner they make it, the 
more acceptable will it be to the trustees and teacher." 

The institution soon, in fact already in 1785, became known as the 
'Uranian Society' and as such it figured until reorganized in 1787 when 
the name 'Uranian Academy of Philadelphia' was adopted. In some re- 
spects the new plan as published in the Pennsylvania Mercury, March 30, 
1787 is very much wider than the first and in others narrower. For instance, 
whereas it provides for the instruction of three hundred pupils free of ex- 
pense in three different schools, the number of public concerts was reduced 
to "at least" one annual concert the proceeds of which were to be turned 
into an accumulating fund. The management lays in the hands of 12 trustees 
and "at least" twenty patrons, among whom we notice such prominent 
men as Benjamin Rush and Francis Hopkinson. Even at the beginning 
of the twentieth century the plan of the Uranian Academy will afford 
interesting reading as it embodies ideas which only gradually have been 
universally accepted and probably the document is the earliest on record 



105 

in our country wherein the necessity and advantage of making music "form 
a part in every system of education" is clearly pointed out: 

PLAN OF THE URANIAN ACADEMY proposed to be established at Phila- 
delphia, for the purpose of improving Church Music; and intended to be opened 
on the third Wednesday of September, 1787. 

Solemn music appears to have been used, from remote ages, in the worship of 
Deity. It was early introduced into Christian societies; and, in most churches, it 
still composes a part of divine worship. That such music may have its full effect, 
it should be regularly and decently performed. But 'tis an art which, like every other, 
demands time and pains to acquire ; and of which, very few can obtain even a tolerable 
knowledge without the aid of a teacher. Nevertheless, for the most part, people 
have satisfied themselves with learning so much of it as they could catch in the 
very act of performance in the churches. 

It would seem that music should either be banished from places of worship, or 
performed in such a manner as to engage our attention and animate us in the cele- 
brating the praises of the Deity. To improve church music effectually, and render it 
generally useful and agreeable, it seems necessary that it should form a part in every 
system of education; for children can no more sing than read correctly, without 
being taught. In conformity, therefore, to these ideas, it is proposed 

I. That an institution, for the express purpose of teaching church music, be 
established at which three hundred pupils may, and, if so many apply for admission, 
shall be taught annually free of every expense. 

II. That the name of this institution be, the Uranian Academy of Philadelphia. 

III. That no applicant be refused admission into their academy on account of 
his religion or country; it is open and equally free to every denomination. 

IV. That, for the convenience of the scholars, three places of instruction be esta- 
blished, namely, one in some central part of the city, one near to or in the Northern 
Liberties, and one near to or in the district of Southwark. 

V. That, in order to give durable efficacy to the institution an accumulating 
fund be formed, on which no draught shall be made, until the annual income thereof 
be equal to the whole expense of annually instructing three hundred scholars, being 
the complement proposed in the first article. 

VI. That to commence the formation of this fund, a grand concert be performed 
some time in the present spring ; and afterwards for the purpose of increasing the fund 
that at least one such concert be performed in every succeeding year. 

VII. That, with the same view, subscriptions be received from those who are 
disposed to encourage the establishment of this institution ; and, that every subscriber 
of eight dollars, or more, be entitled to a vote at the election of trustees and patrons. 

VIII. That, to give permanency to the good effects expected from this institution 
and that the funds thereof may have greater security in their management, the trustees 
shall apply to the legislature for an act of incorporation. 

IX. That the academy be managed by 12 trustees who, for the 1st year, may 
assume the trust; but afterwards be annually elected by the subscribers. 

X. That besides the trustees, there be, at least, twenty patrons of the institution, 
to be elected in like manner as the trustees, and to act with them as visitors, at the 
quarterly examinations of the scholars, and as managers at the annual concerts; and 
in general, to countenance and support the design. 

XI. That the principal of the academy and his assistants be appointed and their 
salaries fixed by the trustees. 

Having attentively weighed the reasons for establishing an institution for the 
purpose of improving church music, we are of opinion that it will be a beneficial in- 
fluence on society and gradually effect an important and most agreeable change in that 
part of public worship. 

Actuated, therefore, by a conviction of its utility, we give it our fullest appro- 



106 

bation, and cheerfully undertake the trust and patronage of the institution during its 
minority, and to act as managers, in its behalf, at the first proposed Uranian Concert. 
The concert will be performed on Thursday the 12th of April, at the Reformed 
German Church, in Race-street; a more particular account of which will be communi- 
cated to the public previous to the day. It has been estimated that the church will 
conveniently accommodate twelve hundred persons, exclusive of the performers ; that 
number of tickets therefore will be struck off, and no more. Checks for the tickets, at 
7 s 6 d each may now be had of Mr. Young, at the South west corner of Second and Church - 
streets, and of all the managers. A few days before the performance, the checks must 
be returned upon which the tickets will be delivered in exchange for them. 

MANAGERS. 

Patrons. Robert Blackwell, Casparus Weiberg, James Sproat, John Ewing, 
Samuel Magaw, Elhanan Winchester, Joseph Pilmore, Robert Molyneaux, Benjamin 
Rush, John Meder, Francis Hopkinson, Isaac Snowden, Geo. Duffield, John From- 
berger, John Baker, Thomas Ustick, William Young, William Sheaff, Joseph Turner, 
Charles Pettit, Abraham Collings, John Bayard, John Wood, Jacob L. Swyler. 

Trustees. Azariah Horton, John Andrews, Henry Helmuth, Joseph Ker, J. Swan- 
wick, Samuel Duffield, Nathaniel Falconer, Samuel Miles, Jacob Baker, Gerardus 
Clarkson, William W. Smith, Alexander Fullerton. 

If the Uranian Academy did not flourish after 1787 as expected by the 
managers, certainly sensible theories like those embodied in their plan were 
not responsible for the partial failure. Probably many citizens in addition 
to the patrons and trustees were willing to subscribe to Adgate's reforma- 
tory ideas but Philadelphia was not yet ripe for their application on the 
bold and broad lines suggested. A further obstacle to a lasting success pos- 
sibly was encountered in the proverbial professional jealousy among musi- 
cians. In this case the stumbling block was Alexander Juhan and it will 
be seen that he and others, for reasons professional and personal, simply 
refused to play under Adgate whose abilities were confined, as he said, 
"to the humble province of Solfa teaching". Gradually Andrew Adgate 
saw his energies reduced to their natural limits, that is to say, to the ma- 
nagement and training of an efficient church choir. 

As far as the concert life of Philadelphia is concerned, his Institution 
deserves lasting credit for he introduced choral concerts in Philadelphia 
and the fact that about the time of his death and for several years after- 
wards choral music was cultivated very timidly only, makes his enterprise 
all the more conspicuous. 

His concerts were given in the hall of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Until June, 1785 they went by the name of 'Mr. Adgate's vocal music', 
then as 'Mr. Adgate's Vocal Concerts' and in 1787 they were styled 'Uranian 
Concerts', thus conforming to the official name of the institution. How 
many were given until June 1785 we do not know, but as on April 5, 1785 
"several anthems and pieces of music [were to] be sung which have not been 
performed at any of the former public exhibitions" a certain regularity 
might be inferred. Beginning with April 5th, they were to be on the first 



107 

Tuesday evening of every month. Owing to the exhaustion of the funds, 
as announced by the trustees, this series came to an end on Wednesday, 
June 1, 1785. The programs were not printed in the newspapers and the 
only pertinent information is to be gleaned from the announcement of the 
concert on May 3d: 

"After a number of pieces (among which will be a Te Deum and several, not here- 
tofore performed): the exhibition will close with the celebrated anthem from sundry 
scriptures." 

In accordance with Adgate's Plan of June 1st, published on Oct. 19th, 
the new series of twelve "vocal" concerts began on that evening and was 
carried through successfully, the last being held on June 7, 1786. At the 
"opening exhibition" were performed as pieces de resistance Billings' "The 
Rose of Sharon, which is an American composition in a style peculiar to 
itself: and the celebrated anthem from sundry Scriptures 'Arise, arise, 
for the light is come and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee, etc.' " 
If, with the exception of the program of the twelfth concert, none were 
printed in the papers this was due probably to the progressive idea, un- 
common in the United States and still more so in Europe, of delivering a 
"syllabus" with the tickets 1 ). To further accommodate strangers and 
"persons differently circumstanced"; subscriptions were received either 
for the whole course or a single evening and if it rained or snowed the con- 
certs were "put off till the next fair evening". The program of the twelfth 
and last concert was thus announced in the Pennsylvania Evening Herald, 
June 3, 1786. 

MB. ADGATE'S LAST CONCERT, consisting of vocal and instrumental music, 
will be performed at the University, on Wednesday evening the 7th of June, beginning 
at 8 o'clock. The pieces will, principally, be those exhibited at the late Orand Concert. 

ORDER 
PART I 

1. An Anthem from the 118th Psalm 

2. Easter 

3. The Voice of Time 

4. An Anthem from the 150th Psalm 

5. An Anthem from the 122d Psalm 

PAKT II 

1. Instrumental only. 

2. Washington 

3. The Rose of Sharon 

4. Jehovah reigns from the 97th Psalm 

5. Sundry Scriptures: 'Arise, shine, for my Light is 
come', etc. (Greatly celebrated) 



1) A system still prevailing in the United States and so strikingly different from 
that of Germany where generally the concert-goers are supposed to pay for the program. 



108 - 

For some reason, however, this program was changed to the following 1 ) : 

1. Martini's celebrated Overture 

2. An Anthem from the 18th Psalm 

3. An Anthem from the 97th Psalm 

4. A Violin Concerto by Mr. Juhan 

5. An Anthem from the 150th Psalm 

6. An Anthem from the 122d Psalm 

7. The Rose of Sharon 

8. A Flute Concerto by Mr. Brown 

9. Hallelujah Chorus. 

This was practically the same program as performed at the "Grand 
Concert" on May 4th. Properly this musical festival, as we may call it, 
belongs to the occasional benefit concerts, not yet considered, but as it was 
given under the auspices of the Uranian Society, a detailed narrative follows 
here in order to show what the society was capable of doing under Andrew 
Adgate energetic leadership. 

On April 20, 1786 the Pennsylvania Packet drew public attention to 
the forthcoming event for which "the lovers of music, without distinction 
have generously volunteered in this service". Then on April 27th and on 
May 1st full particulars were published which, I believe, should be re- 
printed here in view of the singular historical importance of this truly 
"grand" concert: 

A GRAND CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC for the benefit of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital, Philadelphia Dispensary, and the Poor, for whom there has, hitherto, been 
no regular provision made will be performed at the Reformed German Church in 
Race Street, on Thursday, the 4th of May. The doors will be opened at half an hour 
after nine o'clock in the morning, but not sooner, and the music will begin, precisely 
at eleven o'clock, after which no person can be admitted. 

ORDER AND WORDS OF THE MUSIC 
I. Martini's Overture. 
II. An Anthem from the 150th Psalm 

"Let the shrill trumpet's war like voice 
Make rocks and hills rebound ..." 

III. An Anthem from the 18th Psalm by the Rev. James Lyon. 

"The Lord descended from above ..." 

IV. Flute Concerto by Mr. Brown 
V. The Voice of Time 

'Hark! hark! Times hastes away' . . . 
VI. An Anthem from the 97th Psalm, by Mr. Tuckey 
'Jehovah reigns, let all the earth 
In his just government rejoice . . .' 
VII. A Violin Concerto by Mr. Juhan 
VIII. An Anthem from the 122d Psalm by A. Williams. 

'I was glad, when they said unto me . . .' 
IX. An Anthem, from the 2d of Solomon's Song, by Mr. Billings. 

'I am the Rose of Sharon, and the lily of the vallies . . .' 



1) Pa. Journal, June 7, 1786. 



109 

X. Hallelujah Chorus from the Messiah, Handel 

'Hallelujah (often repeated) For the God omnipotent reigneth, 
Hallelujah, etc . . .' 

Tickets at five shillings each are to be had of Mr. Young,' at the Southwest corner 
of Second and Chestnutstreets, and of all the managers. To prevent confusion, care 
has been taken that the number of tickets struck off, should not exceed the number 
of persons who, by estimation, can be accommodated at the place proposed. Correspon- 
dent to this idea, all who apply for tickets will have a right to be supplied, 'till the 
whole number prepared is exhausted, after which it will be out of the power of the 
managers to furnish more. And upon the same principle, on the morning of the exhibi- 
tion, the persons supplied with tickets,. as they successively offer themselves, will be 
introduced to their seats. Indeed it is the desire, and will be the endeavour, of the 
managers, to have the whole of this business conducted with that decency and dignity, 
which its nature and design seem to require. 

To administer some relief to him whose hope is like a shadow, to raise up him 
who is bowed down with sorrow, and to shew that the fine Arts may and ought to sub- 
serve the purposes of humanity are, we believe, the views with which the performers 
have voluntarily, offered their service on this occasion. Under a full conviction of 
their motives being such, and as the highest proof of our approbation, we have, chear- 
fully, complied with their request and agreed to act as 

MANAGERS. 

For the Hospital Trustees of the Musical Institution 

Reynold Keen George Nelson 

Nathaniel Falconer Azariah Horton 

William Hall Joseph Kerr 

For the Dispensary From the Trustees of the University 

William White Francis Hopkinson 

Henry Hill Of the Reformed German Church 

Samuel Miles Casper Wynberg. 

Historically speaking, this concert belonged to the most ambitious 
artistic events which our country had witnessed during its relatively short 
musical life. It is one of the few concerts that attracted the attention of 
historians, but blinded by prejudice or being hampered in their judgment 
by the rather na'ive impression as if such undertakings were possible without 
a logical evolution of conditions, they have referred to it as they would to 
a solitary palmtree in a desert. Such a standpoint is, of course, just as 
untenable as would be the notion that such "feasts of harmony" with a 
chorus of 230 and an orchestra of 50 were daily occurrences in the musical 
life of by-gone generations. The public of Philadelphia, though accustomed 
to noteworthy musical entertainments, was fully aware <rf the unusual 
scope of Andrew Adgate's festival and quite in keeping with this attitude 
was the attention which it found in the channels of public opinion. The 
professional music critic, to be sure, had not yet made his appearance and 
in our newspapers as in those of Europe, concerts were treated rather in- 
differently by the editors. On this special occasion, however, the editor 
of the Pennsylvania Packet was so deeply impressed with the boldness, 
magnitude and success of the charitable enterprise that, contrary to all 



110 

traditions, he reviewed the concert at length and with a minuteness fore- 
shadowing the future of musical criticism. The report not only reveals the 
deep impression made by the concert but incidentally throws light upon 
its history and therefore must be considered a noteworthy historical do- 
cument. It was thus published in the Pennsylvania Packet and this is 
also an interesting side-light on the methods of journalism of yore not 
immediately after the concert but on May 30th: 

"Philadelphia, May 30. 

On Thursday, the 4th of May, at the Reformed German Church, in Race Street, 
was performed a Grand Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music, in the presence of 
a numerous and polite audience. The whole Band consisted of 230 vocal and 50 instru- 
mental performers; 1 ) which, we are fully justified in pronouncing, was the most com- 
plete, both with respect to number and accuracy of execution, ever, on any occasion, 
combined in this city, and, perhaps, throughout America. 

The first idea of this concert was suggested to the trustees of the Musical Insti- 
tution by the Commemoration of Handel in London and the Sacred Concert in Boston. 
It was planned in January last, and a series of preparatory measures pursued till its 
accomplishment. The morning, which had been previously announced in the public 
papers for this exhibition, having arrived, the doors of the church were opened punctu- 
ally at the time proposed, the audience were successively conducted to their scats, 
and the performers took their several stations, the whole of which was done without 
noise or the least apparent confusion. At 11 o'clock the doors were shut, and, after 
a dead silence of about 5 minutes, this feast of harmony began with Martini's famous 
overture, which was performed with such a propriety of expression that, could the 
author himself have been present, he would not have thought his composition dis- 
graced, or, the ideas he intended to convey, misunderstood. 

Then followed a succession of celebrated anthems, which were performed with 
a precision and effort sufficient to enforce powers of harmony on the most untutored 
ears. Between the anthems the force of the band was interrupted and contrasted by 



1) A chorus of two hundred and thirty voices was enormous for a city of Phila- 
delphia's size considering the fact that a chorus of about 275 voices only was employed 
during the Haendel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey May 26-29; June 3 and 5, 
1784. It is also interesting to note that the proportion between orchestra and chorus 
at Philadelphia was about the same as is nowadays inflicted on us at Haendel festivals 
whereas in London in 1784 about 250 instrumentalists (among them of musicians 
who subsequently left their mark on music in America, Gillingham, Reinagle, Gehot, 
Pick, Phillips, Mallet, R. Shaw) sat in the orchestra according to the list given in Bur- 
ney's account. Originally and this would have been the other extreme an orchestra 
of 400 performers had been planned as "it was determined to employ every species 
of instrument that was capable of producing grand effects in a great orchestra and spacious 
building". With naive pride Burney added that only one general rehearsal for each 
day's performance was held "an indisputable proof of the high state of cultivation 
to which practical music is at present arrived in this country". 

This and all similar Handel Commemorations may safely be put down as monstro- 
sities and we need but read the diplomatic letter of Count Benincasa hi which he com- 
municated to Burney some requested statistics on the monstre -performances in the 
conservatories of Venice, to see that not every lover of music was overly impressed 
by the bigness of the affair. Finally it is interesting to compare the forces orchestral 
and vocal massed in honor of Haendel at London with those who performed the Messiah 
in the Domkirche Berlin, May 19, 1786. On this occasion, as we know from Hiller's 
'Nachricht' the orchestra mustered besides the conductors 78 violins, 19 violas, 12 
oboes, 12 flutes, 8 horns, 6 trumpets, 4 bassoons and two pairs of kettledrums, in all 
141 performers, against a chorus of a trifle more than 100 voices. 



Ill 

two solo concertos. The first by Mr. Brown whose power over the German flute has 
astonished Americans, and would give additional grace to any royal band in Europe; 
the second which was a violin concerto, by Mr. Juhan, who not only displayed the most 
promising talents, but a taste and execution which did him -present honor and gave 
acknowledged satisfaction. 

The whole concluded with the exertions of the full band in the performance of that 
most sublime of all musical compositions, the grand chorus in the Messiah, by the 
celebrated Handel, to these words 'Hallelujah! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth', etc. 

To the skill and attention of Mr. Adgate, in training and instructing the voices, 
and of Mr. Juhan, in arranging and leading the instruments, may be attributed that 
forcible and uniform effect so manifestly produced throughout the exhibition. The general, 
and, for any thing known to the contrary, unanimous approbation of the audience, 
concided that this rational and exalted entertainment interested, and, as it were, 
swallowed up the attention of both hearers and performers and had, therefore, its full 
effect on the feelings of both. 

The decorum and method observed in conducting the whole harmonized with the 
precision and order necessary to the perfection of a musical performance. No interrup- 
tion from within, no disturbance from without, prevented the full enjoyment of this 
Grand Concert. The measures which had been judiciously planned, and which were 
so punctually executed by those who had undertaken that duty, effectually prevented 
every disagreeable circumstance, which otherwise, by creating inconvenience and 
uneasiness, might have occurred to mar the entertainment. 

Nearly one thousand tickets were sold; at two thirds of a dollar each, and the 
nett proceeds, after deducting for necessary expenses, have been delivered to the mana- 
gers of the Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia Dispensary and Overseers of the Poor, 
to be applied by them for the use of said institutions and unprovided poor. 

The managers and overseers of these charitable establishments (who were not 
concerned in conducting the concert) as well wishers to humanity, return their sincere 
thanks to every person who had any share in this act of benevolence ; to the trustees 
of the Musical Institution, who laid the foundations of this benefaction, and esta- 
blished so uniform a system, as carried on the face of it a full conviction of the practica- 
bility of what was intended; to Mr. Adgate and Mr. Juhan, whose abilities enabled 
them to foresee and provide against every difficulty, and to move this complicated 
machinery, as though it had been one entire piece, either in solemn and majestic dignity, 
or quick and animating measure, so as to produce in the result, such ideas of admira- 
tion and sublimity as nothing but itself could excite; to the ladies and gentlemen 
in general, who, as performers, volunteered in this service, arising, thereby, superior 
to all local prejudices, and showing how easy it is to distinguish between an action 
that is truly commendable and the contrary ; to the pupils of the Musical Institution 
who have given such an incontestable proof of their proficiency in this pleasing art ; 
to the managers of the concert, who have shown, by example, how easy it is to conduct 
an exhibition of this kind with perfect order and decency; and particularly Reformed 
German Congregation, who with such prompt chearfulness and perfect unanimity, 
lent their church in the Cause of Humanity. 

If we were to trust this silvertongued report, nothing occurred to throw 
a discordant note into the arrangement and management of this Grand 
Concert, but there never yet was a musical festival without friction and 
Philadelphia's May Festival of 1786 offers no exception to the rule. Mu- 
sicians will quarrel and it is a seven day's wonder if two musicians called 
upon to co-operate and share alike in the honors do not afterwards give vent 
to fits of professional jealousy. In this instance, the culprits were the very 
men to whom the Pennsylvania Packet attributed the artistic success of 



112 

the concert, but it must be said in fairness to Andrew Adgate that Alexander 
Juhan was the aggressor. 

In accordance with the "Plan", the promoters of the Uranian Academy 
made the necessary preparations for their first proposed Uranian Concert, 
and fixed the date for April 12, 1787. Probably because it became known that 
he was not willing to co-operate, Alexander Juhan took occasion to send 
to the Pennsylvania Packet on April 5th a letter stating his reasons and 
in which he left no doubt of as to his professional contempt for Adgate. 
Said he: 

As every man who depends upon the public patronage is responsible to the public 
for his conduct, and cannot, in any degree, oppose their wishes and pleasure, without 
essentially counteracting his own interests, the subscriber thinks it his duty to state 
the reasons that have induced him to decline any part in the concert, intended to be 
performed at the Reformed Church, in Race -street, the 12th instant. 

The applause of some who perhaps have more regarded his desire to please than 
his power and the encouragement of others, who, thinking they discerned some talents, 
meant to excite a professional emulation, have certainly sofar elevated the subscriber 
in his own opinion that he rates himself superior to the instruction of a person, who, 
with little knowledge in the theory, is confined in the practice of music to the humble 
province of Solfa. The subscriber candidly acknowledges therefore, that one reason for 
his declining to attend at the approaching concert, arises because the direction of the 
performance is confided to a gentleman whose abilities, however great in most respects, 
he deems very inadequate to a task, upon the execution of which, not only the com- 
bined force and harmony of the band, but likewise the skill and reputation of every 
individual must considerably depend. 

Another, and a very forcible reason for the subscriber's conduct upon this occasion, 
is the neglect of consulting the principal performers as to the pieces of music, and the 
arrangement of the band. Those who are in the habit of public performance will select 
such pieces as (either for their intrinsic merit or the superior dexterity with which 
they can be executed) are most calculated to communicate pleasure and to command 
applause. It would surely therefore have improved the general effect of the enter- 
tainment, and could not have been considered as a very extraordinary indulgence, 
had those who were best able to determine upon the respective powers of the perfor- 
mers, been invited to select the music and to suggest what could be attempted with the 
greatest probability of success. 

There were other motives of a more personal nature that operated with the sub- 
scriber. In consequence of his attention to the rehearsals of the last grand concert 
in May 1786, he had unavoidably suspended his attention to his scholars, which exposed 
him to some reproach and to a considerable pecuniary loss; and in consequence of 
his exertions on the day of public performance, he was attacked by a violent fever, 
which confined him for several weeks to his bed. 

Upon the whole, the subscriber hopes that as he could not consistently with his 
reputation, his interest or his health, engage in the concert under the direction of Mr. 
Adgate, the public will determine that he has most wantonly sacrificed to those con- 
siderations, the honor of contributing to their entertainment, but will still regard him 

M their Most grateful and 

Most devoted servant 

Juhan. 

Had this ill-timed and ill-mannered attack, so characteristic of a vir- 
tuoso and illustrating the struggle in those days for supremacy between the 



113 

conductor and leader, contained the whole truth, it might have had a detri- 
mental effect upon the concert, but Adgate immediately replied in a dignified 
tone and by referring to witnesses of a certain conversation with Juhan, 
he probably turned the tables against his opponent. He had this to say 
from his standpoint on April 7th in the Packet: 

Mess'rs Dunlap & Claypoole, 

Before the Plan of the Uranian Academy was drawn and before one step was taken 
toward carrying the intended concert into effect, three months ago, at least, I men- 
tioned to Mr. Juhan that I had it in view to establish an institution, at which the poor 
might be instructed in church music, free of expense; and, as the first measure to be 
taken toward accomplishing this, to have a concert performed, similar to that of the 
4th of May last. I introduced the subject that I might have the opportunity of con- 
sulting him thereon and engaging him as a principal in carrying the concert into effect. 
His answer to my proposition, as offered to him in general, was immediate and in- 
equivocal! "We have agreed not to play any more for the poor." This peremptory 
declaration, at the very introduction of the business, foreclosed effectually all consul- 
tation. I believed Mr. Juhan, and, in consequence, took my measures, independently 
of him, as well as I was able. Several persons were present when this conversation 
happened and recollect that the answer was as here related. I have taken notice of 
Mr. Juhan's publication, merely to state this fact, relative to consultation, just as it 
occurred: he had an undoubted right to be the sole judge of what would contribute 
most essentially to his interest and health. 

Andrew Adgate. 

In the meantime, on May 30th, the Pennsylvania Mercury had printed 
in full the Plan of the Uranian Academy, signed by all the managers and 
trustees and it is delightful to see how seriously these gentlemen took a task 
which to-day would cause the managers of a similar festival little worry. 
Perhaps Adgate and the many prominent gentlemen whom he had interested 
in his project also considered it proper to imitate the managerial details 
of the Handel Commemoration of 1784 as closely as circumstances would 
permit. At any rate they set forth rules and regulations enough to overawe 
any audience as to their managerial problems. To us their methods may 
seem amusing but they are also instructive as they show how things were 
done in those days and that they were done very much in the same manner 
as to-day, even if with business-methods a trifle more complicated. 

Some instructions were contained in the 'Plan of the Uranian Academy'. 
On April 9th, the Pennsylvania Packet further announced that with each 
ticket would go 

"a Syllabus, containing the order and words of the pieces to be performed . . . 
the tickets which remain, after satisfying the checks may likewise be had of Mr. Young 
and of all the managers." 

Finally on April llth, in the Pennsylvania Herald: 

"for the information of those who propose to attend it, the following particulars 
are made known: 

Sonncck, Early Concert Life. 8 



114 

I. That the church has four doors : two, fronting Race Street : and two, opposite 
to them, on the south side of the church. 

II. That the Easternmost door on Race Street (or that nearest to Third Street) 
is for the admission of performers only; and that the three other doors of the church 
are for the admission of the audience. 

III. That no persons of any age whatever, can be admitted without a ticket. 

IV. That the tickets, presented at each door, will be received by two managers, 
appointed for that purpose, and the persons who present them, conducted to their 
seats agreeably to their own choice. 

V. That no tickets will be sold or money received at the door. 

VI. That the doors will be opened, precisely at half after 9 o'clock in the mor- 
ning; and shut, precisely at 11 o'clock: immediately after which the entertainment 
will begin." 

Though these six paragraphes permit of some speculation, especially 
whether the door remained shut or not to late-comers, whether all persons 
were conducted by the volunteer ushers to their seats really agreeably to 
their own choice, and so forth, the audience, once seated with syllabus in 
hand, probably was good-natured enough to forget personal grievances 
when at 11 o'clock on April 12, 1787 the Eev. Dr. Andrews, President of 
the Uranian Academy, arose to open the First Uranian Concert with a 
prayer. Then followed a program, interesting in several ways. Though 
copies of the printed syllabus are still preserved, one for instance at the 
Library of Congress, it is only fair to reprint it here from the Pennsylvania 
Packet, April 9th, in appreciation of the great services rendered by the 
press to the promoters of the concert. 

SYLLABUS 

AUTHORS 

I. Martini's celebrated Overture 

II. Jehovah reigns: an anthem from 97th Psalm Tuckey 

III. Te Deum laudamua Arnold 

IV. Violin Concerto By Mr. Phile of New York 

V. I heard a great Voice : an Anthem fromRev. XIV Billings 

VI. Vital Spark: an Anthem on Mr. Pope's ode 

'The dying Christian to his soul' .. .. Billings 

VII. Overture in Artaxerxes Arne 

VIII. Friendship thou charmer of the mind: From 

Watt's Lyric Poems Lyon 

IX. The Rose of Sharon: an Anthem from 2d of 

Canticles Billings 

X. Flute Concerto BytheChevalierDuPonceau 

XI. Sundry Scriptures : an Anthem on the Nativity 

of Christ Williams 

XII. The Hallelujah chorus: on the extent and du- 
ration of Christ's Government (from the 
Messiah) .. Handel 

At first glance this program may seem not only drawn-out but too mis- 
cellaneous, on the order of the so called "oratorio", but quite apart from the 



115 

fact that many European programs of the time, for instance those of the 
Handel Commemoration, and far into the nineteenth century showed a 
similar tutti frutti tendency and that it is therefore -uncritical to sneer at 
this particular program as has been done, it possesses one very strong feature 
of redemption and indeed the one which has been ridiculed. Nobody, in 
his right senses, will claim that William Billings and James Lyon were 
masters or even composers with a satisfactory knowledge of musical grammar 
(though for many of their errors the engravers are to be held responsible 
and not they), but they represented native art and native art will never 
develop, mature and flourish unless encouraged as a matter of principle. 
To-day, it often seems a matter of principle with conductors to push American 
music into the background on the not always convincing presumption that 
it amounts to nothing if compared with (frequently questionable) European 
importations. It is a lamentable fact that our representative composers, 
granting that of late years a sudden change to the better is noticeable, do 
not meet with the same encouragement as in the eighteenth century though 
they have ceased to be crude amateurs and possess, if nothing else, a tech- 
nical skill equal to that of their European competitors. 

Whereas, in its mixture of American and European elements, the program 
of 1787 presents nothing unusual for that period, the fact that the syllabus 
was followed for the benefit of the public by a curious kind of "Remarks" 
was perhaps unprecedented. When the idea gained root to add to programs 
for the benefit of audiences commentaries descriptive of the works to be 
played has not been settled but, as was said, the "Remarks" following the 
syllabus for the First Uranian Concert on April 12, 1787, appear to be the 
earliest example of annotated programs in America. In an embryonic 
form, of course, for the naive commentary, as quoted below, is as far from 
the concise notes of a Henry Edward Krehbiel as from the encyclopaedic, 
sharp-witted annotations of Philip Hale, though, on the other hand, it is 
just as acceptable as the over-technical descriptions to which the modern 
music-lover frequently is exposed. The Packet treated its readers to "Re- 
marks" on all the numbers presented but whereas, for instance, James 
Lyon's Hymn to Friendship was deemed worthy only of a few general hints 
like "A cheerful air", "Very plaintive", "Lively" this amusing yet serious 
tribute of respect was payed to 

The HALLELUJAH CHORUS from the Messiah. By Handel. 
(Introduced by three bars of Instrumental Music) 

Remarks 
Hallelujah: (Repeated often) 

For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth: [Here the voices unite] 
Hallelujah: (several times) 

For the Lord God, etc. [By the Counter, Tenor and Bass] 

8* 



116 

Hallelujah: (several times) 

For the Lord God, etc. [1st, by the treble; 2d by the tenor 

and bass, and then by the counter 
and tenor, whilst the other parts, 
through the whole of this passage, are 
repeating Hall, in every variety. 

The kingdom of this world, is become 

the kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ [Chorus] 

And he shall reign for ever, etc. [A beautiful fugue] 

King of king, and Lord of lords: [By the Treble and Counter in long 

notes; whilst the tenor and Bass 
repeat 'for ever and ever, Hal.' in 
quick notes with intervals] 

King of king, and Lord of lords : [Two or three times in very low notes ; 

by the Treble: whilst the Counter, 
Tenor and Bass are repeating, 'for 
ever and ever, Hal.' often, in quick 
notes, with intervals: The effect 
is wonderful. 

And he shall reign for ever and ever (often) 

King of King, and Lord of lords: [Several times: the harmony very 

full] 

And he shall reign, for ever and ever, Hal. [often: the last Hal. very slow] 

Nowadays we expect to read an instructive and fairly unbiased review 
even of the heaviest program within twenty-four hours after the perfor- 
mance. In olden times journalism moved more slowly and it made little 
difference to the public when they received the news as long as they received 
it in somewhat stilted and grandiloquent language. To this rule the Penn- 
sylvania Packet offered no exception. Not until April 23 was the First 
Uranian Concert reviewed and then in such a manner as happens now only 
if the sporting-editor of a provincial paper is suddenly detailed to turn a 
few handsome but non-committal sentences on a concert at which he felt 
utterly out of place. This "will strike every considerate mind with peculiar 
force" when reading what the Packet had to report on said April 23d: 

Philadelphia, April 23. 

On Thursday the 12th instant, was performed at the German Reformed Church 
in Race street, the Uranian Concert. It was opened with an excellent prayer, well 
suited to the occasion, by the Rev. Dr. Andrews. The pieces being chiefly Sacred 
Music, and the object of the whole being 'the founding of an institution for improving 
such music throughout all the churches 'the propriety of consecrating the design in 
this manner, will strike every considerate mind with peculiar force. 

The Entertainment began precisely at 11 o'clock in the forenoon, and continued 
about two hours. The audience and performers, together, consisted of 650 persons, 
who will ever be considered as the original Benefactors and Founders of the Uranian 
Academy. 

To go thro' the comparative excellence of the pieces and merits of the performers 
is certainly unnecessary ; for if the general opinion of those who were present on the 
occasion, may be relied on, the whole of the performance taken together, was more 



117 

complete and perfect in its execution, and the effect more decidedly pleasing than 
anything of the kind, ever exhibited in this city." 

To have entertained only 650 "benefactors" minus the performers, 
instead of 1200, as evidently anticipated, must have been disappointing 
to the managers of the Uranian Academy. However, they were not dis- 
heartened as they advertised their second Uranian Concert, presumably a 
repetition of the first, for April 31st, but beyond the fact that it was post- 
poned to May 7th 1 ), that it was to take place at the University Hall at 
precisely eight o'clock, all references to the concert escaped me. 

The next annual concert for the benefit of the Uranian Academy was 
given on April 30, 1788 2 ). The advertisement, though not mentioning the 
program, is of some interest as it shows the beginning of a managerial 
detail which, in a modified form, became a universal custom. The innova- 
tion consisted in this that "red tickets", at a quarter of a dollar each "ad- 
mitted the bearer" to the east wing of the gallery in the hall, opposite the 
performers, and the "black" at one eighth of a dollar to the lower part of 
the house. Of real historical importance is the fact that, according to this 
advertisement, Andrew Adgate's Plan was actually carried out, at least 
to a certain extent, as "the Uranian Academy was opened in Lodge Alley" 
on April 2, 1787. The twelve trustees and twenty-four patrons, in order to 
stimulate public interest, solemnly announced that they "on this and on 
future occasions, [would] countenance the young performers, by attending 
their exhibitions in procession". 

Did some future occasion present itself to the thirty-six gentlemen for 
fulfilment of their pledge? I have been unable to ascertain this as the 
name of the 'Uranian Academy' disappears from the papers; the adver- 
tisement excepted in which Adgate notified the public that he had copy- 
righted in 1790 in the District of Pennsylvania his 'Rudiments of Music', 
styling himself on the title-page P. U. A. t evidently, President Uranian 
Academy. However, the institution continued to exist for a number of 
years. We know this from Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia 
where it is claimed in a comprehensive but not always reliable chapter on 
'Musicians and Musical Societies' that the "Uranian Society . . . continued 
its meetings until after 1800", at the 'Uranian Rooms', corner of third 
and Market Streets. In the same voluminous work a "hall of the Uranian 
Society, South Fourth Street" is mentioned for the year 1805. Consequently 
the Uranian Academy or Uranian Society, whatever the name finally might 
have been, remained active for more than a decade after Adgate's death 



1) Pa. Packet, May 3, 1787. 

2) Pa. Journal, April 30, 1788. 



118 

but presumably it had more or less narrowed down to its natural field of 
activity, the training of one or more particular choirs. Indeed it will be 
seen presently how "Mr. Adgate's Choir" assisted at a concert in 1790. 

Without doubt Andrew Adgate, whose ambitious career came to an end 
in 1793 during the yellow fever epidemic, was an acknowledged leader in 
the movement for vocal music and especially in 1788 his services were re- 
peatedly required. For instance, the Independent Gazetteer, on August 5, 
1788 in a report of the Commencement Exercises at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, July 39th expressed the university's great obligations to Mr. Adgate 
for conducting the "sublime musical selections vocal and instrumental", 
"to the gentlemen who assisted him, but particularly to the young ladies". 

Adgate was also in charge of the music at a curious entertainment ad- 
vertised in the Pennsylvania Journal, April 2, 1788 in the following manner: 

On Saturday, the 5th of April, in the Hall of the University, Mr. Ely's school 
will have a public exhibition, consisting of Vocal Music. Introductory address. A variety 
of declamatory pieces and dialogues. The Messiah, a sacred poem, to be spoken by 
twenty boys, in white robes, who will all speak in unison. The whole will be interspersed 
with vocal music, suitable to the occasion, and close with the favorite anthem, the Rose 
of Sharon. 

The Music in the gallery will be under the direction of Mr. Adgate. Ladies and 
gentlemen, who will be so kind as to favor this infant exhibition with their notice, 
may procure a syllabus (containing the order in which the pieces are to be delivered) 
of Mr. Ely, in Fifth street, the fifth door above Cherry alley, between Arch and Race 
streets. The exercises will begin at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

N. B. The syllabus shown at the door, will admit the bearer without which, ad- 
mittance cannot consistently be granted. 1 ) 

The "Rose of Sharon' was, of course, by Billings whose predominating 
influence was just beginning to wane, at least, outside of the church. This 
is easily understood. About 1790 the influx of skilled European musicians, 
destined to revolutionize our musical life mainly to Its advantage but in 
certain respects also to its disadvantage, widened into an ever broadening 
stream. That such men as Reinagle, Hewitt, Carr, Taylor who brought 
with them an intimate knowledge of the best music of their age, did not 
take friendly to the crudities of Billings and our other early church com- 
posers goes without saying and as they now began to shape the destinies 
of our concert-life naturally a change in the vocal numbers on the programs 
soon made itself felt. This change is dimly perceptible in a program as 
announced in the Pennsylvania Packet, July 14, 1790: 



1) Mr. John Ely's school probably was a private school, but in the next year (see 
Pa. Packet, Oct. 31) he advertised under the head of 'Psalmody' that he had opened 
a 'Singing School in the Schoolhouse adjoining to Archstreet church, which he "pro- 
posed to continue four evenings in the week until the first of May". The school was 
"intended solely for the improvement of church music" and "such tunes only" were 
to be taught as were "most approved by the different churches" in the city. 



119 

For a Benevolent Purpose. 

A Grand CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC, is intended to be performed at the 
Coffee House in Fourth Street this evening; the 14th of July 1790. To begin presisely 
at Seven o'clock. 

PAKT I. 

1. Grand Overture 

2. Solo Comfort ye, comfort ye, my people, etc. from the Messiah By Mrs. 

Henry. 

3. Chorus Te Deum etc. from Arnold By Mr. Adgate's choir. 

4. Solo Anthem O Lord! whose mercies numberless, etc. By Mr. Blagrove. 

5. Solemn Concerto 

6. Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion, etc. from the Messiah By Mrs. Henry. 

7. Chorus I was glad, etc. from Williams By Mr. Adgate's choir. 

PART II. 

1. Overture 

2. Solo Pious orgies, pious Airs By Mr. Blagrove. 

3. Chorus Arise, shine etc., from Williams Mr. Adgate's choir. 

4. Solo Anthem Acquaint thyself with God, etc. from Dr. Green By Mr. 

Blagrove. 

5. Solemn Concerto. 

6. Solo I know that my Redeemer liveth, etc. from the Messiah By Mrs. Henry. 

7. Grand Hallelujah chorus, from the Messiah By Mr. Adgate's choir. 
Tickets for admission to be had at Mr. William Prichard's book-store, in Market 

Street One Dollar each. 

Strange to say, though announced as late as the day of performance to 
take place at the Coffee House, the concert really was given in the hall of 
Pennsylvania University. It would be interesting to know the method 
used to acquaint the subscribers of this change in time enough to avoid 
confusion, disturbance and disruffled temper. 

If we may trust the criticism as it appeared on July 15th in the Federal 
Gazette, the concert must have been so superlatively wonderful that the 
"souls soared upon the wings of melody to its kindred skies". It is clear 
that such fascinating sentences never could have been penned by a profes- 
sional critic, bred to stern economy of space and praise, and indeed it was 
not, unless the Pennsylvania Packet which printed literally the same en- 
thusiastic rhapsody enjoyed a joint-ownership of this anonymous critical 
genius with the Federal Gazette. More likely, and quite in keeping with 
the habit depending upon a 'Brutus', 'Flavius', 'Censor' among their readers 
for political editorials, the papers simply published a report offered by 
some prominent music lover among their subscribers. For the benefit of 
such critics who will welcome an opportunity for replenishing their outworn 
vocabulary, the criticism of our anonymous who well might have signed 
himself 'Caecilius', 'Stentor' or 'Philomusicus' follows here in full: 

GRAND CONCERT OF SACRED MUSIC. Performed yesterday evening in the 
College Hall. 

In vain might we attempt to express the pleasing emotions which we experienced 
on this delightful occasion. The most glowing language would but debate the subject. 



120 

The refined feelings of a large and respectable audience can alone do justice to the 
merits of the performers. Never were the charms of vocal and instrumental music 
more happily united. The soul, attuned to harmony, forgot for a moment its earthly 
fetters, and soared upon the wings of melody to its kindred skies. The "heaven struck" 
imagination was transported far beyond the limits of mortality, by the Grand Overture 
with which the oratorio commenced: nor was it suffered to flag during the evening; 
on the contrary, it received fresh inspiration from every succeeding part of the per- 
formance, and winged its way to regions still more exalted till the sublime Hallelujah 
Chorus closed the enchantment. 

Were we acquainted with any language which could paint the transports of the 
music enraptured soul, how grateful would be the task to convey to others an adequate 
idea of the delightful sensations which thrilled through every bosom, and smiled serene 
on every countenance! How happy should we be to descend to particulars, and to 
pay a due tribute of applause to those, whose musical skill and benevolent dispositions 
contributed to furnish such an exquisite feast. 

Never in our opinion, were the vocal powers of Mrs. Henry displayed to better 
advantage. That lady has long attracted the admirations and esteem of the public. 
Her fascinating voice has long afforded delight to the friends of music and the drama. 
She has now given a pleasing proof of her excellence in Sacred Music. She has also 
evinced a generous disposition by coming forward on this humane occasion. Such 
nobleness of sentiment, such benevolence of mind, must endear her still further to 
the discerning and grateful citizens of Philadelphia. 

Of Mr. Blagrove what shall we say? How express the delightful sensations which 
his beautiful anthems excited in every breast? How describe the judicious exertions 
of his excellent voice? We dare not attempt it. 

Too much praise cannot be given to M. Adgate and his choir for their exertions 
on this occasion. The whole of their part was well performed; the Hallelujah Chorus 
in particular was truly sublime. 

The band consisted of about 20 private gentlemen to whose musical skill we were 
indebted for much of the magnificence and grandeur of the entertainment. We 
cannot conclude without paying a compliment to the judicious taste and benevolence 
of our citizens who countenanced this delightful undertaking, from the noblest of mo- 
tives, a benevolent regard towards merit in distress. 

Hardly had the waves of raptures passed through our amateur- critic's 
breast when an 'Oratorio of Sacred Music' given at the College Hall for 
the benefit of 'Holy Trinity Church' at 7 o'clock P. M. September 22, 1790 
might have tempted him to express the same pleasing emotions which he 
experienced on July 14th. The program was of the usual "oratorio" order 
and together with the cosmopolitan character of the performers will be 
noticed the fact that Adgate had found a rival in the person of 
Mr. Heim: 

PART I 

1. Grand Overture 

2. Chorus: 'Worthy is the lamb' ... by Mr. Heim's Choir. 

3. Solo on the Clarinett. By Mr. Wolff 

4. Solo 'As pants the heart for cooling streams' by a young lady. 

5. A Sonata on the Piano Forte. By Mr. Reinagle. 

6. A Solo 'O Deus, ego amo te' By Madame de L'Isle 

7. Chorus 'O thou to whom all creatures bow'. The Solos by a young lady, 

with a Hallelujah Chorus: By Mr. Heim's choir. 



121 

Part II 

1. Overture 

2. Chorus 'So angels sing'. By Mr. Heim's choir. 

3. Solemn Concerto. 

4. Solo 'Jesu dulcis memoria". By Madame de 1'Isle. 

5. A Concerto: By Mons. Emanuel. 

6. Te Deum, including two solos, the first by Mons. de 1'Isle, the other by Ma- 

dame de 1'Isle. 

This concert was followed on November 2d x ), by a "Vocal Concert at 
the Hall of the College" at which instead of charging admission "a collection 
[was] received after the concert for defraying the contingent expenses" and 
then the Pennsylvania Packet announced on November 16th the first of 
a series of six subscription -''''oratorios'''! It was again intended for the 
benefit of the Holy Trinity Church and took place on November 19th at 
the College Hall. The program reads: 

PART I 

1. Grand Overture 

2. Chorus 'Glory to God in the highest' By Mr. Heim's Choir. 

3. Solo on the clarinet By Mr. Wolff 

4. Solo, 'To God the mighty Lord' By a young lady. 

5. A Quartette Violino. 

6. Solo, 'Comfort ye my people' By a young lady. 

7. Chorus 'Grateful notes and numbers bring' the solo by a young lady and 

chorus by Mr. Heim's choir. 

PABT II 

1. Overture 

2. Chorus, 'Lift up your hands' By Mr. Heim's choir. 

3. A Sonata on the Forte Piano By Miss Moller, not ten years of age. 

4. Duetto 'Gott is mein Lied' By a young lady and gentleman. 

5. Solo, Violoncello By an Amateur. 

9. Chorus, 'Let all the lands with shouts of joy'. Solo by a young lady, and the 
chorus by Mr. Heim's choir, with a grand Hallelujah Chorus. 

Subscription for six concerts, will be received by Mr. James Oellers, at two dollars, 
for which every subscriber shall receive six tickets of admission. 

Tickets of admission to be had at Mr. James Oellers, Front street. Price one half 
dollar each, to nonsubscribers. 

Unfortunately the dates and programs of the subsequent concerts have 
escaped me, for it does not seem plausible that the "vocal and instrumental 
music" following the afternoon service on the "Anniversary of the opening 
of the Holy Trinity Church", November 28, 1790 formed part of the series 2 ). 

With these subscription concerts the promising movement for choral 
concerts came to a sudden end. Though I made it a point to copy from 
the newspaper every reference to music, I found no choral concerts ad- 
vertised during the last decade of the eighteenth century. Possibly such 



I) 1 Pa. Packet, Nov. 2, 1790. 
2) Pa. Packet, Nov. 27, 1790. 



122 

were announced 1 ) and merely escaped my attention, yet they must have 
been exceedingly few. It would seem therefore, that the anthems, sacred 
cantatas and the like were again, and perhaps justly, relegated to the "Sing- 
ing Schools" and the church whence they had barely emerged into a more 
public light. Perhaps, also, we have to seek the historical explanation for 
the strange combination of devotional and concert- elements in the American 
church music of to-day in this source. A hundred years may work a multi- 
tude of stilistic changes but it takes more than a century to break traditional 
habits. On the other hand, the reasons for the sudden collapse of the mo- 
vement for choral concerts are not far to seek. The virtuoso had commenced 
to assert his charms and where it is a question between a bravoura-aria 
and a chorus, the public rarely hesitates to side with the virtuoso. Only 
in countries or cities with a well-balanced, mature concert-life or where 
opera does not reign supreme will this observation be found to lack truth. 
About 1790 the musical life of Philadelphia was neither well-balanced nor 
beyond formative conditions, and in addition to this opera, English opera, 
of course, with a slight ingredient of French and Italian operas, was steadily 
gaining in power. Indeed to such an extent that the entire concert-life 
lay more or less in the hands of singers and instrumentalists, connected with 
Wignell and Keinagle's 'New Theatre', founded in 1793. With a man like 
Zelter at the helm it might have been possible to form and keep alive a choral 
society in spite of all natural obstacles and thereby lay solid foundations 
for a general interest in choral music at a comparatively early period, but 
this task was quite beyond the powers of an Andrew Adgate, however ener- 
getic he was, and hence the fascinations of virtuosity and opera of necessity 
were allowed to retard for many years the growth of an organized cultivation 
of choral music without which the musical life of no community can be 
said to be well-balanced. That a faint conception of all this was dormant 
in some persons may be taken for granted and possibly when Silas Dins- 
moor in the announcement of the opening of his Singing School 2 ) scorned 
those who "chuse to pay their devotions in the Temple of Comus rather 
than in the House of God", he also voiced the sentiments of those who 
regretted the incoming tide of opera not so much on moral grounds but in 
the interest of choral music 3 ). 



1) For instance, Jacob Hilzheimer narrates in his diary that George Washington 
"with his lady" was present at a concert in the Lutheran Church on January 8, 1791. 
Possibly the concert was announced in one of the papers not examined by me. 

2) Dunlap's Daily American Advertiser, Dec. 18, 1793. 

3) If Scharf and Westcott in their History of Philadelphia 1884, v. 3, p. 2291, 
in writing of musical societies at Philadelphia claim that "the oldest was the Harmonic 
Society, which existed some time previous to the present century and continued to 
the year 1802 or 1803" they contradict themselves flatly as they say in the same 



123 

In addition to all the concerts so far unearthed, the end of the Revolu- 
tionary War saw an immediate revival of the 'Benefit' concerts, that is to 
say, concerts given at the risk and for the benefit of particular musicians. 
Who the first was to appeal to the public is, of course, very immaterial but 
as a matter of record it may be remarked that unless it was his "last" concert, 
of which the flutist William Brown spoke in October 1783, it probably was 
James Juhan, the self-styled inventor of the "Great North American Forte 
Piano" who had lately come to Philadelphia 1 ). He presented a "variety 
of new and modern pieces of music, executed on various instruments" at 
a concert of vocal and instrumental music at the French Academy in Lodge 
Alley on August 6, 1783. 

Then William Brown, who "having been prevailed on by several gent- 
lemen to continue his stay in Philadelphia and being inclined to gratify 
them" offered in the Pennsylvania Packet, October 14, 1783 proposals for 
two subscription- concerts under his direction at the City Tavern on Oc- 
tober 16th and 28th. The details of the announcement are curious enough 
to be quoted in full. Especially the idea of issuing tickets of different 
color deserves attention as it shows the beginning of a managerial detail 
in our country soon imitated by the Uranian Academy and since generally 
adopted : 

"One subscription paper will be left at the said tavern, and another sent about 
the city, to either of which gentlemen may subscribe to, as conveniency or inclination 
may lead. The price to subscribers will be as in his last, viz. half a guinea to each 
person for the two concerts, who are to be furnished with red tickets so as to answer 
for both evenings. 

Tickets for admittance to nonsubscribers will be signed in black, the price of which 
to be one dollar and a half for each concert. To render the entertainment more agreeable, 
Mr. Brown proposes that exclusive of the overtures, solos, lessons etc. there be some 
harmony music, the performance of which at his last concert having given such general 
satisfaction. He further proposes to perform some well-known and approved Scotch 
airs, etc. with variations. 

In 1784 William Brown was the first to go before the public with a benefit 
concert at the Lodge Room. It was announced for Feb. 5th but was post- 
poned to February 19th 3 ). Of the program nothing is said except that 
he proposed "(for that night only) to play several favorite airs with varia- 
tions" an attraction imported from Europe where it was the vogue. Shortly 



work in v. 2, p. 1088: "About 1802 the Harmonic Society was founded ... for the study 
of sacred music. A clergyman, the Rev. Andrew Law was chiefly concerned in pro- 
moting the organisation . . . this association aspired to concert and usually give at least 
one in each year . . . This association was in existence as late as 1817". The Rev. An- 
drew Law is, of course, identical with Andrew Law, the psalmodist, whose erratic career 
would be well worth a monograph. 

1) Pa. Journal, June 25. 1783. 

2) Pa. Gazette, July 31, 1783. 

3) Pa. Packet, Jan. 24, Feb. 12, 1784. 



124 

afterwards, William Brown must have gone to Charleston for on July 3d, 
having "lately arrived from Charleston" he announced in the Pennsylvania 
Packet a concert for July 9th to be followed by a ball. Tickets, at 10 s 
each, were "to admit a gentlemen and lady", a custom so eloquently centering 
in European advertisements around the chapeau whose place, at least in 
our country, is now taken by the matronly chaperon. Mr. Brown must 
have played the German flute to the delight of the gentlemen of 
Philadelphia to whose worldly attainments a proficiency on this instru- 
ment was considered just as essential as in medieval times for kings 
and noblemen a proficiency on the harp, or during the Renaissance the 
ability to sing a part prima vista, evidently so, for he felt sure enough 
of an additional 'benefit' on September 16th. He also played a "double 
concerto for the violin and flute" at a concert given under similar conditions 
on March 23, 1784 J ) at the Lodge Room for the benefit of Philip Phile, 
whose fame rests nowadays on his problematic authorship of the 'Presi- 
dent's March' which was to give life in 1798 to Joseph Hopkinson's, 'Hail 
Columbia'. Finally a concert, of course with ball, was given on April 6th 2 ) 
"for the benefit of Mr. Juhan", leaving it open to doubt whether it was 
James or "Alexander Juhan, junior, Master of Music" who in December 
1783 had lately arrived in Philadelphia 3 ). The program consisted "of the 
most favourite music, and particularly a concerto on the flute, by a gentleman, 
a scholar of Mr. Brown". 

In 1785, Mr. Brown, who seems to have been of a somewhat wandering 
disposition, was again the first on the plan. "Intending for Europe early 
in the spring" he thanked the citizens of Philadelphia "for every counte- 
nance and civility heretofore shown him" and "being solicited and encouraged 
by some of his particular friends" he announced his intention to have "one" 
concert before his departure. He "appointed" Feb. 8th as the date of this 
his "last" concert at the Lodge Room, which, in keeping with the proverbial, 
latent meaning of farewell affairs, by no means was to be his last appearance 4 ). 
However, Mr. Brown, of whose benefit concerts Henri Capron soon was 
to remark that they invariably "opened a scene of considerable profit' 
assured 

"the generous public that nothing will be wanting on his part to render the evening's 
entertainment as agreeable as may be wished having, as well to give a greater variety, 
as to please those who are not fond of overture music, selected and composed some 
pantomime music, which will consist of a variety of Scottish and other airs ; with varia- 



1) Pa. Packet, March 18, 1784. 

2) Pa. Packet, April 1, 1784. 

3) Pa. Packet, Dec. 23, 1783. 

4) Pa. Packet, Feb. 2, 1785. 



125 

tions, etc. interspersed in a pleasing style ; and to close the whole with the celebrated 
symphony of Martini, commonly called the Battle of Debarrie." 

This compromise shows Mr. Brown to have possessed keen business 
instincts and those among our American musicians who enjoy the reputa- 
tion of being business men first, second and third and then artists, may 
look to him as their legitimate forerunner. Indeed, Mr. Brown was accused 
by Mr. Capron to have gone so far as to recommend an application for pay- 
ment at private concerts, an attitude nowadays considered perfectly proper 
but in those days entirely unprofessional. But what was this quarrel 
between Brown and Capron, a worthy pendant to that between Juhan 
and Adgate? The answer may be found in an open letter addressed to the 
public by Capron in self-defense against certain malicious insinuations in 
the Pennsylvania Journal, Feb. 12, 1785. Though long, it unrolls such a 
delightful Kulturbild as to prove interesting reading : 

TO THE PUBLIC 

Mr. Capron being informed that the motives maliciously assigned for his absenting 
himself from Mr. Brown's benefit concert, may operate to his prejudice; and being 
solicitous on all occasions to evince the highest respect for the public, he begs leave 
to observe that he would chearfully have contributed his abilities to the entertainment 
of the evening, had Mr. Brown condescended to make the request. 

Whatever insinuations, therefore, may have been introduced upon this occasion, 
Mr. Capron cannot but ascribe to the same spirit, which induced Mr. Brown to recom- 
mend an application for payment at private concerts (a conduct which he did not 
himself adopt, though he professed the introduction) that so he might create an interest 
with the public, by drawing an invidious comparison, and placeing men for whom he 
avowed friendship and esteem, in an unmerited and disadvantageous light. In truth, 
Mr. Capron has acquitted himself of every obligation to Mr. Brown, and from the circum- 
stances of that gentleman's conduct, he could never be again induced to enter into an 
intercourse of favours; but in order to the gratification of the public. The sincerity 
of his disposition in this respect, whatever may be Mr. Brown's superiority in abilities, 
he is confident cannot be surpassed; and surely it is sufficient triumph (without the 
aid of any dishonourable artifice) that every concert for the benefit of that Gentleman, 
opens a scene of considerable profit, while the only opportunity which the public has 
had to assist Mr. Capron, scarcely supplied the means to defray his expenses. 

Upon the whole, Mr. Capron confides in the general candour, that considering his 
situation as a stranger, as one, who, without deriving any pecuniary advantage, 
has punctually contributed to the winter's amusement, and as a performer desirous of, 
and indeed needing the patronage of the public, it will not be imputed to him as an 
offence that either through the pride or subtility of Mr. Brown's conduct, he was de- 
prived of the honour of attending at that Gentleman's concert. 

Though proverbially the devil is never quite so black as painted, Mr. 
Brown really seems to have had a malicious tongue and apparently did not 
enjoy an enviable reputation among his fellow-musicians. Not enough with 
Capron's attack, immediately below John Bentley, the manager of the City 
Concert, addressed a card, as such effusions were called, to Mr. Brown leaving 
nothing to be desired in candid condemnation of his character. This gentle- 
man's unsavory character hardly interests posterity, whereas a reprint of 



126 

Bentley's card seems warranted for the valuable information it conveys 
on the conduct of concerts and the professional etiquette of those days: 

MB. BROWN. 

Sir, 

As the public prejudice, however excited, is of importance to one who depends 
upon public favour, I deem it a duty I owe to myself, as well as to those whose generous 
patronage has supported me in my professional pursuits, to counteract the insidious 
attack you have made upon my character and interest; and by stating a few questions 
relative to our connection in general, but particularly respecting my conduct at your 
benefit concert, I trust it will fully appear that I have not only acquitted myself with 
liberality to you, but likewise with the respect and gratitude which I have ever felt 
for the public. 

And first, Sir, allow me to enquire, whether, at any time, you desired my assistance 
at your concert ; nay, whether by refusing the loan of the harpsichord usually lent, you 
did not give me room to suppose it was neither wished nor expected? 

That you raised an opinion in the public that I occasioned the absence of two 
performers, is certain ; but as the truth is contrary to that opinion, I must request you 
to declare the grounds upon which so indivious an insinuation was founded ? The gentle- 
men alluded to, for reasons which I had no right to control, objected to any further 
correspondence with Mr. Brown, upon the footing of favour. They had already ac- 
quitted themselves of their obligation to perform for his benefit, and as they are volunteers 
at the City Concert, surely it would have been indelicate in me to have persuaded them 
to any unprofitable trouble ; or upon the idea of their living in my house, to have intruded 
(contrary to their private feelings and disposition) any services you might require. 

The situation of these gentlemen, as boarding and logding with me without any 
charge or expence, might perhaps have induced you to think that any wish of mine 
upon the occasion would have prevailed with them: But here let me recall to your 
remembrance your own conduct upon our first acquaintance. Did you not live free 
of every expence in my house for the whole of the last winter, and some months after 
the concerts were closed? Did this induce you to perform without a premium or even 
to consult my interest upon occasions which did not interfere with your own ? No, Sir. 
You were supported at my cost; your demand of three pounds for every night's per- 
formance was paid ; and not withstanding this conduct on my part, you were ungrate- 
ful enough to traduce me in private, and to attempt my ruin with a most respectable 
character, whose friendship I had essentially experienced. Upon this case, I may 
safely trust to the candor of the public for my satisfaction; and to your own feelings 
(if you are not insensible to shame) for your punishment. 

(A true copy) John Bentley 

To. Mr. Brown, at Mr. Dietrich's, 
Tobacconist, in Thirdstreet. 

To give this sublime outburst of incignation a ridiculous sequel, shortly 
afterwards, on March 15th in the Pennsylvania Journal, Mr. Capron to 
use his own words a stranger in the country, ignorant of its language 
and known but to few of its inhabitants, confiding in the hospitality of the 
public disposition for that encouragement which he could not desire from 
the assiduity of private friendship, or the advantages of popular reputation, 
presented his respects to the public and solicited their attendance on March 29 
at a concert of vocal and instrumental music to include a variety of familiar 
airs, Scotch and English and a collection of Pantomime music never yet 



127 

performed in Philadelphia. To render the entertainment complete he in- 
tended to collect every assistance that might be necessary including the 
diabolus in musica William Brown! And thereby hangs another tale, for 
on March 23d Mr. Capron respectfully informed the public that "on ac- 
count of Mr. Brown's departure to Baltimore" he found himself obliged to 
defer his concert until April 12th. Poor Capron! For reasons unknown, 
not only was his benefit further postponed to April 19th but this evening 
turned out "so unfavourable that even his best friends could not attend 
the performance". In this calamity the ladies present "whose interest 
however extensive" did "not affect him more than the honor of their pa- 
tronage" came to his rescue. They generously desired that another concert 
should be announced and Capron with the sincerest sentiments of gratitude 
fixed the date of this extra-benefit for May 3d when, posterity hopes, neither 
the absence of William Brown, nor the inclemency of the weather interfered 
with Capron' s prospects. After that his star was steadily ascending and 
as far as Mr. Brown is concerned the fact that Francis Hopkinson accepted 
in 1787 the dedication of his 'Three Rondos' would permit the inference 
that the gentlemen of the world were more interested in his musicianship 
than in his character as exposed by Capron and Bentley. 

The first benefit concert of 1786 was given on January 10th at the City 
Tavern by Mr. Juhan, either James or Alexander, and it was to consist 
"of the most favorite music" 1 ). At the same place, for a dollar a ticket, 
which was fast becoming the usual piice of admission, the troublesome 
William Brown entertained his clientele end of February with a concert for 
which, as he said, he "spared no pains, as well with respect to himself as 
to such other performers, so as to render the entertainment agreeable" 2 ). 
This was followed by a concert for the benefit of either James or Alexander 
Juhan at Mr. Duplessis's New Room in Church Alley on April 25th 3 ). The 
program consisted of the following "most favorite music": 

FIRST PART. 

Simphonie Stamitz 

Double Concerto Flute & Violin Davaux 

Quartette Cambini 

Concerto Forte piano Smith 

SECOND PART. 

Symphonia Vanhal 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Duetto Fortepiano Smith 

Concerto Violin Borghi 



1) Pa. Packet, Jan. 4, 1786. 

2) Pa. Packet, Feb. 22, 1786. 

3) Pa. Packet, April 22, 1786. 



128 

Shortly afterwards, on May llth, postponed from May 9th, William 
Brown again assembled his friends at the City Tavern to listen to a concert 
of ^instrumental music" consisting of such select compositions as he flattered 
himself, would not fail to please those who might honor him with their 
company 1 ). The next concert, on Sept. 21st at the City Tavern seems to 
have been for the benefit of Henri Capron "lately returned from Char- 
leston". Assisted by some of the ablest masters, as he remarked in the 
flowery announcement 2 ), apparently composed with care and love by one 
of his English speaking friends, he rendered the following pieces. 

PART FIRST 
Overture to the Deserter 3 ) 

Song Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Simphonia 

Concerto Violin Mr. Julian 

PART SECOND 
Overture to La Belle Arsiene 4 ) 

Sonata Pianoforte Mr. Reinagle 

Simphonia 

Concerto Flute Mr. Brown 

A Glee 

If this program had a decidedly French flavor, that of Alexander Reinagle's 
benefit concert at the City Tavern on Oct. 12th 5 ) brought Haydn to the 
foreground, now irreverently often dubbed Papa Haydn but whose music 
in by-gone days when Stamitz and Abel still held the field must have 
sounded quite revolutionary and radical: 

ACT I 

Overture of Haydn 

Song .. Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

ACT II 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Flute Mr. Brown 

Concerto of Corelli 

ACT III 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violin Mr. Juhan 

Overture of Haydn 

Trio and Glee 



1) Pa. Packet, May 8 and 9, 1786. 

2) Pa. Journal, Sept. 10, 1786. 

3) Probably by Dibdin. 

4) Monsigny. 

5) Pa. Journal, Oct. 7, 1786. 



129 

If Reinagle on this and other occasions more than probably was respon- 
sible for the pieces standing opposite his name, it is not quite clear, as was 
previously remarked, whether his comrades played concertos of their own. 
All of them may be traced as composers and it is therefore at least possible 
that they treated the audience to their own music, which may or may 
not have been of value. On the other hand, the custom prevailing to 
bestow a generous silence on the composers of works destined to show off 
the dexterity of virtuosos, it is also at least possible that they played 
concertos not their own. The fact that the program reads "Concerto of 
Corelli" need cause no apprehension in accepting this theory, for this 
evidently was a concerto grosso. In all likelihood the occasions when our 
early soloists would and would not appear as interpreters of their own works 
were about equally divided. 

If the program of William Brown's benefit concert on February 13, 
1787 l ) had not been an exception to the rule of not clearly indicating the 
composers of concertos, sonatas etc. it would go far to prove that Brown, 
Capron, Juhan and others were in the habit of performing their own works. 
It reads: 

ACT I 

New Overture, La Chasse Stamitz 

Song Reinagle 

Concerto Flute Brown 

ACT II 

Sonata Piano Forte (La Chasse) Campioni 

Canzonett Jackson 

Concerto Violin Daveaux 

ACT III 

Duetto Violin and Violoncello Cambini 

Rondo Flute Brown 

Miscellaneous Concerto. 

Overture Rosina 2 ), by particular desire. 

Possibly the printed programs, if such were issued, gave fuller details 
as to this interesting and for the bibliography of American music important 
point, but it stands to reason that the programs were generally printed in 
the newspapers in lieu of separate programs. Indeed, in countries where 
the custom still prevails to charge a fee for programs, many economical 
persons may still be seen at concerts with programs clipped from the 
newspapers. 

When announcing his benefit concerts Henri Capron never failed to 
address the public in terms of the most abject and polite gratitude but when 
he respectfully solicited the attendance of his friends on March 6th at the 



1) Pa. Packet. February 12, 1787. 

2) Shield. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. . 9 



130 

City Tavern he went a step farther in a direction which shows that though 
he did not possess the savoir faire of his antagonist William Brown, he at 
least knew how to advertise. Though these pages do not deal with a history 
of musical instruction in our country, yet the appendix to Capron's program 
is so quaint that a quotation may serve to alleviate the monotony of this 
chronological narrative. Certainly the idea of demonstrating his abilities 
as guitarist ad oculos of those who might have been attracted by his terms 
was quite clever: 

PLAN OF THE CONCERT 

ACT I 

Symphonic Stamitz 

Song Beinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

ACT II 

Grand Symphonie Vanhall 

Concerto Violin Cramer 

Sonata Guittare Capron 

Overture, Rose et Colasi) 

ACT III 

Concerto Flute Fiolla 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

Overture Stamitz. 

Mr. Capron respectfully informs the public that he instructs ladies and gentlemen 
in the art of singing and of playing on the Spanish and English guitars, recording the 
most approved method of the first masters in Europe. 

His terms are one guinea for eight lessons, and one guinea entrance the entrance 
to be dispensed with if the person applying to him has received previous instructions 
from another master. At two lessons per week he engages to perfect any person, possess- 
ing a tolerable ear, in the space of six months. 

The guitar, from the late improvement which it has received, being so portable 
and so easily kept in order, is now considered not only as a desirable but as a fashionable 
instrument . . . 

Two of the remaining concerts of the year 1787 were both given for the 
benefit of Mr. Juhan which again would leave the puzzle open whether it 
was James or Alexander unless the argument seems more plausible that 
only one Juhan still resided at Philadelphia as otherwise the announcements 
would have made some distinction between the two. In that case, the 
chances are in favor of the younger Juhan, Alexander, easily traced in sub- 
sequent years whereas James disappears from the musical horizon. The 
concerts were to be given at the City Tavern on May 29th and April 10th 2 ), 
dates following each other so closely that the suspicion of identity is allayed 
only by characteristic differences in the programs. The "plan" of the first 
concert is of actual importance because it shows the introduction in our 



1) Monsigny. 

2) Pa. Packet, May 23 and April 4, 1787. 



131 

country of the comparatively new idea of pianoforte music a quatre 
mains: 

ACT I 

A new Overture Reinagle 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Song Sarti 

Overture Haydn 

ACT II 

Sonata Piano Forte of Haydn Mr. Juhan & Mr. Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Solo Violin Juhan 

The Grand Overture Martini 

Tickets at 7 * 6 each to be had at the City Tavern, and of Mr. Juhan', at Mr. 
Capron's in Morris Alley. 

It may be taken for granted that Mr. Juhan and his associates on this 
occasion exerted themselves to the best of their abilities as no less an il- 
lustrious person than George Washington sat among their audience. We 
know this from Washington's diary; an entry appearing there on May 29th 
to the effect that he "accompanied Mrs. Morris to the benefit concert of a 
Mr. Juhan". The program of Juhan's second concert reads: 

ACT 1st. 

Grand Overture Martini 

Song Reinagle 

Solo Violin (newly composed) Juhan 

ACT 2d. 
Overture to the Deserter 1 ) 

Concerto Flute Brown 

Sonata Piano Forte Reinagle 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

ACT 3d. 

Concerto Violin Cramer 

Sonata Guittar Capron 

(By desire) the Overture to Rosina*) 

Three weeks later, on June 12th, Alexander Reinagle had a benefit 3 ). 
Presumably he was above the petty professional jealousies of musicians not 
quite his equals. Still it must have been gratifying to him that George 
Washington attended his concert 4 ), as he had that of Juhan. If, as we 
have reasons to believe, he gave harpsichord lessons to Nelly Custis, Wa- 
shington's adopted daughter, it was only natural that the "General" should 
thus show his appreciation of her teacher who appears to have had something 



1) Either Dibdin or Monsigny. 

2) Shield. 

3) Pa. Packet, June 4, 1787. 

4) See Washington's diary. 

9* 



132 

in common with Washington in dignified behaviour and appearance. The 
program offered certainly was very "modern" and if Reinagle played 
one of his sonatas now preserved in autograph at the Library of Congress, 
George Washington, providing he was more musical than he claimed to be, 
cannot have failed to observe that Reinagle was not only a good teacher 
but also a composer of merit: 

ACT I 

Overture Bach 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Song Sarti 

Act II 

Overture Andre 

Concerto Violin Fiorillo 

Concerto Flute Brown 

ACT III 

Overture (La Buona Figliuola) Piccini 

Sonata Pianoforte Reinagle 

A new Overture (in which is introduced a Scotch 

Strathspey) Reinagle 

All these benefit concerts, as well as the only two I have traced for 1788 
and 1789 began at 7 o'clock P. M. which seems to have come to be considered 
the desirable hour for entertainments in those days and a passing remark 
might well be made here that it still was customary, as in Europe, to have 
tickets for sale at the residence of the musician to be benefited, at taverns 
and bookstores. The programs of these two concerts, though I doubt them 
to have been the only ones given, show an inclination towards the music 
of the altogether too prolific composer Wanhal. The first was announced for 
the benefit of Mr. Rehine, a singer, for Nov. 25, 1788 but was postponed 
on account of the inclement weather to November 28th 1 ) when Mr. Rehine 
did little more than fill in the intermissions between the instrumental num- 
bers unless he expected to give encores, then less frequent and less vulgarly 
insisted upon than nowadays: 

ACT I 

Overture by Mr. Stamitz 

Song 'The Lover's petition Mr. Rehine 

Solo Violino Mr. Phile 

Song 'No t'was neither shape nor feature' .. .. Mr. Harper 

Quartet Mr. Daveaux 

Song 'O gentle maid' Mr. Rehine 

Sinfonia . Mr. Stamitz 



1) Independent Gazetteer, Nov. 15 and 16, 1788. 



133 

ACT H 

Sinfonia Mr. Vanhall 

Song, 'Mary's Dream' Mr.. Rehine 

Concert Clarinetto Mr. Wolf 

Hunting Song Mr. Harper 

Quartet Mr. Kammel 

Song 'Ma chere amie' Mr. Rehine 

Sinfonia Mr. Kammel 

The concert of 1789 took place on April 16th (postponed from the four- 
teenth on account of one of the principal performers being sick), for the 
benefit of the violinist Mr. Schultz at Henry Epple's, the fashionable trai- 
teur 1 ). The program to which Mr. Rehine contributed the "vocal parts" 
was advertised in this rather flimsy style: 

ACT I 

Overture of Artaxerxes 2 ) 

Song Rehine 

Sonata Pianoforte 
Violino Concerto 

ACT II 

Symphonia, from Hall Mr. Rehine 

Song 

Quartette 
Flute Concert 
Symphonia from Hall 

Of course, this mysterious "from Hall" was a misprint rather than an 
anglicized form of Van Hall and in a subsequent advertisement Mr. Schultz 
hastened to rectify the mistake. 

Merely mentioning Philip Phile's concert on March 18, 1790 and that 
of Mr. Schultz on April 8th I hasten to a few concerts strikingly different 
in their programs from previous entertainments. So far the musical life of 
Philadelphia was distinctly English in character but now the French element 
made itself more and more felt. It goes without saying that this shifting 
of appearances was due to the French Revolution which drove a surprising 
number of refugees to our country and especially to the Middle and Southern 
states. The first sign of the new era came when "a company of French 
musicians lately arrived" announced their intention to give a "Grand con- 
cert of vocal and instrumental music" on July 29th 3 ) at the City Tavern 
with this decidedly French program: 



1) Pa. Packet, April 11 and 14, 1789. 

2) Arne. 

3) Pa. Packet, July 27, 1790. 



134 

FIRST ACT. 

1. A Grand Symphonia, in full orchestra. 

2. Mr. De Lisle 1 ) will sing an arietta in counter tenor, from Ariane 2 ), from the 
Grand Opera, at Paris. 

3. Mrs. De Lisle will sing an arietta with several variations (de bravoure) from 
the fair Arsene 'Est-il un sort plus glorieux'. 

4. A Concerto of St. George, by Mr. Emanuel. 

5. A Grand Symphonia in full orchestra. 

SECOND ACT. 

6. Mr. De Lisle will sing the arietta 'Le roy passoit' from the Deserter, music 
of Monciny [!]. 

7. Mrs. De Lisle will sing an arietta with several variations (de bravoure) from 
the Infant of Zamora 3 ). 

8. Mr. Emanuel will play several airs and that of Marlborough, [ !] with variations. 

9. Mr. and Mrs. De Lisle will sing the song of the False Magie in two parts, music 
of Gretry. 

10. The concert will end with a grand symphonia in full orchestra. 
%* Mr. Reinagle and the members of the Amateur's Concert, will assist in the 
above. 

If the performers declared that they "had been induced to come to 
America by the deserved reputation which the inhabitants bear abroad of 
possessing a taste for the polite arts, and especially for music" and that 
they deemed "their arrival in this part of the American empire, one of the 
happiest events of their lives", we know that this flattering ruse was rather 
thin and cannot have deceived readers familiar with the reports of French 
travelers who certainly did not contribute much to this musical reputation, 
supposedly a stronger inducement for emigration than the sequels of July 14th, 
1789. Be this, as it may, the company apparently derived some benefit 
from their first concert as they gave two more on Sept. 3d, postponed from 
August 30th 4 ) and September 29th. For the second concert, this program 
was selected: 

ACT THE FIRST 

1. A Grand Symphony 

2. The Ariet of Lord Atkinson in Azemia 5 ) 'Ciel! 0! Ciel, quand ta rigueur': 
Sung by Mr. De 1'Isle. 

3. A Concerto of Fodor: by Mr. Emanuel. 

4. The favourite Air 'La fauvette avec ses petits' in Zemira and Azor 6 ), sung 
by Mad. De Lisle. 

5. A Concerto: Symphony of Davaux, on the violin; by Mr. Emanuel and a son 
of Mr. D. Duport (a youth not yet ten years old). 

6. The Ariet 'Sans chiens & sans boulette' from Rose et Colas, sung by Mr. De Lisle. 

7. Gluck's Ouverture of Iphigenie en Aulide. 



1) Also spelled Delisle, de 1'Isle, the latter form probably being correct. 

2) Probably by Edelmann, 1782. 

3) Paisiello-Framery, 1789. 

4) Pa. Packet, August 28 and Sept. 3, 1790. 

5) Dalayrac. 

6) Gretry. 



135 

ACT THE SECOND 

1. A full chorus Symphony. 

2. The famous Air of Richard Coeur de Lion 1 ); 

O! Richard, 0! mon Roi 

L'univers t'abandonne! 

Sur la terre il n'est done que moi 

Qui s'interesse a ta personne, etc. 

Sung by Mr. De Lisle. (This celebrated air being played occasionally at a 
convivial meeting of the Body Guards of his Most Christian Majesty, worked 
so much upon their feelings as made them trample under foot their National 
Cockades, and nearly occasioned a counter revolution in France.) 

3. A Concerto of De la Motte, by M. D. Duport, junior. 

4. The Italian air, 'Vole a nos bois': Sung by Mad. De Lisle. 

5. Several favorite tunes with variations will be performed by Mr. Emanuel and 
Mr. D. Duport junior. 

6. Mr. and Mrs. De 1'Isle will sing a duet. 

7. The Overture of the French opera, Les Deux Tuteurs 2 ). 

The program of their third and last concert, held at the home of the 
dancing-master Sicard in Church Alley, reads: 

ACT I 

1. The Overture to a French opera called Les Deux Tuteurs. 

2. An Arietta of Zemire and Azor 'Le malheur me rend intrepide', to be sung 
by Mrs. Delisle. 

3. A Concert on the Clarionet. 

4. An Arietta from a French opera 'L'Amant jaloux'?). By Mrs. Delisle. 

5. A new Concerto of Jarnovic by Mr. Emanuel. 

6. A grand Symphony in full orchestra. 

ACT II 

7. Overture of Iphigenie, a grand French opera 4 ). 

8. An Arietta from a French opera (Le Silvain) 'Je sais braver le coup du sort'. 
By Mr. Delisle. 

9. An Arietta from La Fausse Magie 5 ) 'Comme au eclair' by Mr. Delisle. 

10. Several airs with variations, and Marlborough. By Mr. Emanuel. 

11. A Duo from Le Silvani, Gretry' s music. By Mrs. and Mr. Delisle. 

12. A grand Symphony in full orchestra. 

Undoubtedly the music-lovers of Philadelphia profited by the perfor- 
mances of these and other Frenchmen but it must also be said that the 
programs with their operatic selections established a vicious precedent and 
only the good taste of men like Reinagle, who reigned supreme in matters 
musical, could stem temporarily the tide towards concerts that really were 
opera-anthologies in concert garb, a hybrid form of entertainment still 



1) Gretry. 

2) Dalayrac. 

3) Gretry. 

4) Probably Gluck. 

5) Gretry. It will have been noticed with what care the company selected ariettes 
reminding the audience nolens volens of their misfortunes. 



136 

more or less in vogue in our own times, so boastful otherwise of esthetic en- 
lightment. Furthermore the last decade of the eighteenth century with its 
influx of voluntary or involuntary adventurers brought into our musical 
life a sensational element of which it previously had been relatively free. 
Among other things, that esthetic abortion, the precocious child with 
all due respect for a genius like Mozart who was a prodigy, something totally 
different! was beginning to haunt the concert rooms and surely if, in 
accordance with European customs, Mr. D. Duport advertised his son "not 
10 years of age, who has performed before the Royal Family in France" 
there were esthetic undercurrents at work which must have made men 
like Francis Hopkinson sigh for Colonial Times. "Not ten years of age" 
however, seems to have been the proper age of these socalled prodigies for 
this was also the drawing card for Miss Lucy Moller's concert on Dec. 3, 
1790 1 ) at which she played "a concerto on the grand pianoforte as also 
the [!] Sonata of the famous Haydn" and, being a wonder-child, she, of 
course, had performed in London "with the greatest applause and exceeded 
any child of her age". Under these circumstances it is probable that she 
derived a greater benefit from her concert than did a masterly musician 
like Alexander Reinagle from his on Dec. 29th 2 ) of which, unfortunately 
I do not possess the program. 

Though in all likelihood benefit concerts were given in 1791, I was not 
in a position to trace them. In 1792, Mrs. Kenna, who belonged to the 
theatrical company just then performing in the section of Philadelphia 
called Northern Liberties, held a concert of vocal and instrumental music 
at Oeller's Assembly Room on May 8th 3 ). The program was of prodigious 
length and curiously interspersed with recitations: 

The entertainment to open with an 

Overture Smith 

After which Mrs. Kenna will give 

A Dissertation on Hearts. Part First The Heart of a 
Honest Soldier The Heart of a captain The Heart of a 
miser A sound and upright heart. 

Symphony Stamitz 

Sonata Pianoforte Miss Moller 

Part Second The Heart of a milliner and the Heart of a 

amiable woman. 

Symphony Abell 

Song 'Sweet Passion of Love' Mrs. Kenna 

Overture Van Hall 

After which Mrs. Kenna will make a comparative view, 
showing the difference of Queen Elizabeth's Days and the Modes 
and Fashions of the Present Times. 



1) Pa. Packet, Dec. 1, 1790. 

2) Pa. Packet, Dec. 29. 1790. 

3) Federal Gazette, May 8, 1792. 



137 

Symphony Kammel 

Song 'Water parted, etc.' Mrs. Kenna 

Symphony Abell 

Cherokee Chief's Death Song Mrs. Kenna 

Symphony Stamitz 

To conclude with 

Satan's Address to the Sun, from Milton's Paradise Lost, by 
Mrs. Kenna (which she had the honor of delivering before the 
Literati of Trinity College, Dublin) 
Finale Haydn 

A fortnight later, on May 29th 1 ), Joseph Cezar, "a pupil of the celebrated 
Signor Viotti and first violin of the theatre in Cape Fra^ois" gave a concert 
at the College Hall of "the most applauded musical pieces in Europe". 
Instead of mentioning their titles he continued by saying: 

"Many amateurs of the first eminence being so kind as to honor him with their 
patronage, will perform and amongst the great variety of pieces, which shall be per- 
formed, the following are presented to the notice of the public. 

By Mr. Cassignard, amateur, several pieces of his composition on the guitar. 
By Mr. Pelissier, first French horn of the theatre in Cape Fra^ois, a qua- 
tuor of his composition. 

By an amateur, a sonata on the harp. 

The whole to be concluded by a grand simphony. 

This concert, interesting because of the first appearance of such a skilful 
musician as Victor Pelissier at Philadelphia, must have been somewhat of 
a success, for Joseph Cezar "with a view of showing his gratitude etc. and 
to give them and the public an additional proof of his anxiety to deserve 
their encouragement", gave with the assistance of "many amateurs and 
eminent professors of music" a second concert "at Mr. O'Ellers Hotel" 
even German names may be made to look Irish on June 16th 2 ) with 
this program: 

Overture 

A grand Symphony in full chorus 
ACT I 

1. Pleyel's Quatuor. By an amateur, Messrs. Relein, Pelissier and Jos. Cezar. 

2. Concerto of Signior Mestrino on the violin, by an amateur. 

3. A Sonata and Marlborough's variations on the harp, by Mons. Salomon who 
taught to play on that instrument in Paris. 

4. A Song with music on the guitar. By Monsieur Cassignard, Professor of guitar. 

ACT II 

1. Fodor's Sonata with various tunes, By Jos. Cezar. 

2. A Solo on the Clarinet, By Mr. Wolf. 

3. An Arietta and a new Marlborough's song with music on the harp. By Mr. 
Relein. 

4. A concerto Symphony of Viotti. By an amateur and Jos. Cezar; and the whole 
to conclude with a simphony of Heyden [!] in full chorus. 

1) Federal Gazette, May 29, 1792. 

2) Federal Gazette, June 15, 1792. 



138 

Next we notice a "grand" concert on Nov. 8th 1 ) at Henry Epple's, evi- 
dently for the benefit of Mrs. Hodgkinson, with this program : 

The vocal parts by Mrs. Hodgkinson. Leader of the band, Mr. Gehot, who will 
lead at the City Concert. 

ACT I 

Grand Overture Bichl 

Quartette Pleyl 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Pianoforte Moller 

Quartette Clarinet Wolf 

Sinfonia Bach 

ACT II 
Overture of the Deserter 2 ) 

Concerto Violin Gehot 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Finale Vanhal 

The last concert of 1792 was "the French Concert" advertised for 
Dec. 22d 3 ) but as Mrs. Pownall and Mrs. Chambers, two of the soloists, 
were on duty at the theatre on that evening the French musicians saw 
themselves obliged to postpone it to Dec. 24th when it would positively 
take place "as on that evening there will be no performance at the theatre". 
An illustration as to what extent the concert-life of Philadelphia had become 
dependent on opera and opera stars! 

The benefit season of 1793 opened at Oeller's Hotel on Jan. 5th on behalf 
of the French musicians "the vocal part by Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Chambers". 
The "plan" certainly was varied enough to suit all tastes: 

ACT I. 

Grand Symphonia. 

Sonata on the harp, by Mr. Salomon 

Song, Mrs. Pownall, accompanied on the harp by Mr. Salomon 
Concerto on the violin, by Mr. Boullay 
Sonata on the Pianoforte, accompanied by the violin, Messrs. Guenin and 

Petit 

Song (Handel) by Mr. Chambers 
Quartette, with variations, Messrs. Petit, Boullay, Pilisie [Pelissier] and 

a Gentleman 

ACT II. 

Overture from the grand opera of Chimene 4 ) 
Solo on the French horn, Mr. Pelisie 

Song (by particular desire) 'The lark's shrill notes', Mrs. Pownall 
Concerto on the violin, Mr. Petit. 
A Medley on the Pianoforte, Mr. Guenin 
Duet, by Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Chambers 
To conclude with a Grand Chaconne, composed by the celebrated Floquets. 



1) Federal Gazette, Nov. 5, 1792. - 2) Probably Monsigny. 

3) Federal Gazette, Dec. 22, 1792. 4) Sacchini. 



139 

Only a few days later, on Jan. 15th 1 ) Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Chambers 
gave their own joint benefit. They had selected as program in 

ACT I 

Grand Overture. 
Quartette (Petit) with variations for the clarinet Mr. Foucard 

Song (in French) Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto for the Violin Mr. Boullay 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Grand Chacone (composed by L'Breton) 

Duet Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Chambers. 

ACT II 
Grand Symphonia 

Song (3d time by particular desire) Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto for the Violin Mr. Petit 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Sonata (Pianoforte, accompanied on the violin) Messrs. Guenin and Petit 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Grand Chaconne (composed by Floquet). 
Duet Mess. Pownall and Mr. Chambers. 

During the evening, though not mentioned, Mrs. Pownall must have 
delivered an "Address in behalf of the French musicians" for it was ad- 
vertised in Dunlap's American Daily Advertiser on March 26th as 

"This day published and sold at E. Story's office in Fourthstreet . . . printed on 
writing paper and new type, containing 30 pages (price 15 d) .... delivered on her 
Benefit Concert Night, at Oeller's Hotel to a very crowded audience ... To which 
are added, Pastoral songs, written by herself at an early period of life . . ." 

This address certainly would prove not only pathetic but interesting 
reading, but unfortunately no copy has come to my notice. 

For Jan. 19th two concerts were announced, one for Mrs. Hodgkinson, 
the other again for the French musicians, but John Hodgkinson 
hearing of "ungenerous" insinuations that he had selected this evening 
"with an intent to throw the French gentlemen out of their usual routine", 
protested and assured the public that he had engaged the hall at Oeller's 
without knowing of the French concert, had selected Saturday evening 
because Saturday was the best suited for concerts etc. and, as was quite 
true, not being in immediate necessity as were the French exiles, he wound 
up by saying that his wife's concert would be postponed to Jan. 21th 2 ). 
The French musicians, thus having the field to themselves, entertained 
the public with a program largely identical with the one of their first concert. 
Two main numbers, however, were new, Gretry's overture to 'La Caravane 



1) Federal Gazette, Jan. 11, 1793. 

2) Dunlap's Daily American Advertiser, Jan. 17, 1793. 



140 

du Caire' and an "overture from Glide, opera of Iphigenia" whatever this 
might stand for 1 ). 

If the printer's devil took such liberties with, as we suspect, master 
Gluck's Iphigenie en Aulide, he displayed still more originality in trans- 
forming the title of an Italian song sung by Mrs. Hodgkinson at her song 
recital on Jan. 21th, announced so as to leave no doubt of the unimportance of 
instrumental numbers when stars like Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson made their 
bow to the public: 

SONGS 

(By desire) Primroses deck the banks green side 

(Bravura) Cease gay seducers 

(By desire) Kate of Aberdeen 

(Italian) I now te mer, bel idol mio 

In the course of the evening Mr. Hodgkinson will read Collin's Ode on the passions, 
the Three warnings, and Foote's celebrated Prologue on the Impossibility of pleasing 
everybody. 

John Hodgkinson also deviated from traditional methods by having the 
tickets for sale at his lodgings only, with the exclusion of the different inns, 
book and music -stores. 

Whether benefit concerts were given during the fall of 1793 I do not know 
and I therefore hasten to a species of entertainments which Raynor Taylor 
introduced in Philadelphia on Jan. 18, 1794 2 ) after having, as we know, 
toured the South with them. On said evening was performed: 

AN ODE TO THE NEW YEAR] 

With a variety of other pieces, consisting of songs, duets and trios, pastoral, serious 
and comic, entirely original, by Miss Huntley, and other young ladies and Mr. Taylor, 
by whom the whole of the music is composed who will accompany the songs on the 
grand pianoforte and perform some extempore pieces on that instrument. 

Finding, as he said on Jan. 28th, that several families, who intended to 
be present, were prevented by indisposition and other circumstances, Raynor 
Taylor the date is not mentioned gave 

another performance with the assistance of Miss Huntley and an other young lady, 
called an Olio which will be similar in its nature, but different with respect to the parti- 
cular pieces, those comprehending the first two parts being entirely new, and, among 
others, will consist of the following subjects: The Poor female ballad singer, a pathetic 
song ; Hunting song ; Algerine captive ; Sailor's song ; Ding Dong Bell, or the Honeymoon 
expired, being the courtship and wedding of Ralph and Fan ; Character of smart Dolly, 
a laughing song; Rustic courtship, or the unsuccessful love of poor Thomas, a crying 
song with duet, trio etc. and for the 3d part, by desire, will be repeated, the Ode 
to the New Year. Each part will be preceded by a piece on the Grand Pianoforte. 



1) Dunlap's Daily Am. Adv. Jan. 17, 1793. Merely to throw sidelights, it may 
be recorded that the French gentlemen in anticipation of a modern custom, requested 
"such ladies and gentlemen as might be pleased to have music performed at their houses, 
to enquire for them". It is pretty safe to say that the prizes paid now and then even 
by "Bob" Morrison were in about in the same proportion as his millions to those of a 
Rockefeller. 2) Dunlap's Daily Am. Advertiser, Jan. 11, 1794. 



141 

The only other benefit concert I came across for 1794 was given on 
Nov. 29th. It was remarkable in two directions. First for a really inter- 
esting program and then for the pitiful manner -of announcement. Truly 
the horrors of the black insurrection in St. Domingo are brought home to 
us when we read that the concert was to take place 

for the benefit of a person who has fallen from the most independent affluent 
situation (if the annual receipt of 20 000 1. may be called so) to the most abject state 
of distress, in consequence of the massacre at Fort Dauphin, in the island of St. Domingo. 

Conscious of the humanity of the citizens of America, he feels it unnecessary to 
rouse their sensibility by a more minute detail of his former and present situation, 
particularly as they are well known to several respectable characters in their city. 
He will only remark that a few years-nay, months since, it would have been difficult 
to persuade him that he should be reduced to the necessity of making this application 
to the humanity of a generous public, or that he should have recourse to that art which, 
in his earlier days, had been taught him merely as an accomplishment, in order to 
procure the necessaries of life for himself and family. He can assure the lovers of music 
that they will be amply gratified, as the selection has been carefully made, and will 
be executed with judgment. 

PLAN OF THE CONCERT. 
ACT I 

1. Overture, representing the Battle of Ivry, in grand orchestra 1 ) 

2. Concerto on the Clarinet, by Mr. Henri 

3. An English Air, by Mrs. Pownall 

4. Concerto on the Violin, composed by Signior Viotti, by Monsieur Collet 

5. Concerto on the Harp, by a lady 

6. Overture, composed by Pleyel, in grand orchestra 

ACT II 

1. Ouverture, composed by Haydn 

2. A Quartette, composed by Pleyel, by Monsieur Collet 

3. Two airs in harmony, by eight wind-instruments 

4. A French Ariette, by Mrs. Pownall 

5. A Concerto on the Pianoforte by Krumpholtz, by Monsieur Gerin 

6. Overture of the opera of Samatico Burlato 2 ) in grand orchestra 

On Jan. 20, 1795 3 ) a Mr. Mechtler gave a concert for his benefit in the 
announcement of which we find as second number "a concerto de riots for the 
violin", whatever this might mean. Here is the whole program containing 
not less than three concertos, two symphonies and a "great" overture: 

ACT I 

A great Overture d' Haydn 

A Concerto de riots for the violin, by Mr. Collet 
A Concerto of Kozeluch for the Pianoforte by Mr. Mechtler 
A Symphony of Pleyel 



1) Martini. 

2) Fanatico Burlato by Cimarosa. 

3) American Daily Adv. Jan. 16, 1795. 



142 

ACT II 

A Symphony of Mr. 

A Concerto, arranged and executed by Mr. Demarque 
Petits airs variees for the harp 
A Full piece. 

Following this, Messrs. Guenin and Menel had a benefit at Oeller's 
Hotel on March 3d 1 ) the "vocal parts" by the famous Mrs. Oldmixon over 
whom, many years later, Parker grew so enthusiastic. Again the program 
is noticeable for the predominance of concertos: 

ACT I 

A Grand Symphony 

A Symphony concertante for two clarinets, by Messrs. Beranger and Lullier 
A Concerto on the Violoncello, by Mr. Menel 
A Concerto on the Pianoforte, by Mr. Guenin 
A Song by Mrs. Oldmixon 

ACT II 

A Grand Symphony 

A Concerto on the Violin, by Mr. Gillingham 
A Favourite Song, by Mrs. Oldmixon 
A Medley on the Pianoforte, by Mr. Guenin 
A Full piece. 

A few weeks later, on April 7th 2 ), Mr. Collet presented for his benefit 
this rather formidable program: 

ACT I 

Symphony of Haydn 

Quartette of Pleyel, by Messrs. Gillingham, Collet, Thibaut and Menel. 

Concerto of Signer Fodor, on the violin, by Mr. Collet 

Concerto on the Fortepiano, by Mr. Guenin 

Overture of the Two Guardians 

ACT II 

Overture du Barbier de Seville del Signior Paisiello 
Concerto on the Violoncello, by Mr. Menel 
Symphony of Krumpholz on the harp, by Mr. Mechtler 
Duette of Jarnowick for the violoncello, by Messrs. Collet and Menel 
A Full Piece 

All these concerts of vocal and instrumental music were of a rather 
miscellaneous character and John Christopher Moller frankly acknowledged 
this tendency by calling the "grand" concert to be held at Oeller's Hotel 
on May 5th (postponed from April 14th) 3 ) a "miscellaneous" concert. Now, 
Moller was a specialist on the Armonica, then no longer quite so fashionable 
as twenty years previous and he readily seized the opportunity to "intro- 
duce that instrument ... of which the late Dr. Franklin was the inventor" 
and, said Mr. Moller 



1) Daily American Adv., March 3, 1795. 

2) Philadelphia Gazette, April 1, 1795. 

3) Philadelphia Gazette, April 3 and May 1, 1795. 



143 

"This instrument since so much improved in Europe by the first artists 1 ) is, 
in point of tone and sweet harmony, second to none and in performance of modulation 
from which it derives its name, not excelled by any other." 

This the audience had an occasion to judge for themselves as Moller intro- 
duced it on the program not only as a solo but also as an ensemble instrument. 

ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Song, arranged for the Harmonica by Moller 

Quintette Pleyel 

Concerto Violin Gillingham 

Full Piece Pleyel 

ACT II 

Overture Pleyel 

Quartetto, Harmonica, 2 tenors, and violoncello by Moller 

Concerto Violoncello Manell [Menel] 

Fantasia Pianoforte Moller 

Finale Haydn 

This miscellaneous concert was followed on July 2d 2 ) by the still more 
"miscellaneous entertainment" for the benefit of Mrs. Oldmixon. It was 
to consist of 

"Readings by Messrs. Chalmers and Harwood, Songs, Duets, Catches and Glees, 
by Mrs. Oldmixon, Miss Broadhurst, Mrs. Darley, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Shaw, Mr. Gillingham, 
Mr. Darley, Mr. Darley, jun. etc. 

A Concerto on the Violoncello by Mr. Menel 

Other interesting music. Leader of the band, Mr. Gillingham". 

Apparently this sort of entertainment at which almost all the principal 
members of Wignell and Reinagle's New Theatre company assisted, pleased 
the public as several other similar affairs rapidly followed, for instance on 
July 20th and July 22d by Mr. Bates 

"by way of an evening lounge, a species of entertainment . . . called Fashionable 
Variety, or, a Touch at the Times ..." 

If this fashionable variety was not intended as a concert, the "mis- 
cellaneous entertainment of readings and music" for the benefit of Miss 
Broadhurst on July 8 3 ) had at least the appearance of a glee-concert: 

Part. I. Overture Pleyel Glee 'Come all noble souls' (Dr. Roger's) Miss Broad- 
hurst, Mrs. Oldmixon, Mr. Darley, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Gillingham and Mr. Shaw 
Duet 'The Way worn traveller', Miss Broadhurst, and Mrs. Oldmixon 'Recitation, 
Mr. Moreton. Catch 'Mr. Spanker', accompanied on the violin by Mr. Gillingham, 
Miss Broadhurst Catch 'The Cries of Durham', by desire, Mr. Darley, Mr. Marshall, 
Mr. Shaw, Mr. Gillingham, and Mr. Darley, jun. Full piece, Haydn. Leader of the 
band, Mr. Gillingham. Conductor, Mr. Reinagle. 



1) Rollig, Klein, Wagner, etc., and in America by Francis Hopkinson. 

2) American Daily Adv. June 30, 1795. 

3) American Daily Adv., July 8, 1795. 



144 

The program of the last concert of 1795, for the benefit of Mr. Gautier, 
at Oeller's Hotel on Dec. 1st 1 ) is in so far noticeable, as pains were taken 
to distinguish in the concerto-numbers the composers from the performers: 

1st ACT. 

The famous Overture of Demophon 2 ) 

Jarnovick's concerto on the violin, performed by Mr. Collet 
A Sonata of Pleyel, on the Pianoforte, by .. Mrs. Sully 
An Allegretto of Paisiello 

A Concerto of the Clarinet, composed and exe- 
cuted by Mr. Gautier 

2d ACT. 
. The Overture of Rose et Colas 3 ) 

A Concerto of Vanhall, performed on the Piano- 
forte by Mrs. Sully 

A Song by Madame Larne 

Concert on the Clarinet, composed by Mr. Lefevre 
and executed by Mr. Gautier 

The first benefit concert in 1796 was also the most important, at least 
historically. It was to be for Raynor Taylor's benefit who also conducted, 
that is to say, presided at the harpsichord and "held" the "vocal parts" 
with Miss Huntley at Oeller's Hotel on April 21 4 ). A "band of the most 
eminent instrumental performers" had been engaged, presumably sup- 
plemented, as was customary, in the string group by amateurs. Now the 
importance of the announcement of this particular concert lies in the fact 
that it gave the composition of the band as follows : 

First violin and leader of the band Mr. Gilhngham 

Principal violoncellos Mr. Menel 

Double bass Mr. Demarque 

Principal hautboy Mr. Shaw 

Tenor Mr. Berenger 

Bassoon and trumpet Mr. Priest 

Horns Messrs. Grey and Homman 

Violins Messrs. Dongel 5 ), Bouchony, 

Stewart and Shetky. 

This was the concertino, the ripieno, of course, not being mentioned. 
Consequently the band was the full band of the times, clarinets missing, 
though to be had, simply because the program did not necessarily call for 
them. That Mr. Priest held both the principal bassoon and trumpet parts, 
may seem odd, but if he was supposed to do so, it must have been possible 
and this exchange of instruments was not at all unusual in those days. 



1) American Daily Adv., Nov. 30, 1795. 

2) Cherubini. 

3) Monsigny. 

4) Philadelphia Gazette, April 9 and 18, 1796. ) Daugel. 



145 

Therefore the band contained thirteen "eminent" performers as principals 
to which the seconds should be added and also a number of amateurs for 
the ripieno strings and possibly for the flutes it such were needed. With 
this orchestra, dwarfish if compared with modern monstre orchestras but 
not dwarfish if compared with the average orchestra of that age, Kaynor 
Taylor executed a program consisting half of Haendelian music and half of 
his own: 

PABT I 
Overture. 
Duet 'Fair Aurora', Artaxerxes Miss Huntley and R. Taylor Arne 

Song 'To-morrow' Taylor 

Overture, Samson Handel 

Trumpet song, Miss Huntley (Trumpet by Mr. Priest) Taylor 

Concerto Hautboy Mr. Shaw 

Duet 'O lovely Peace' Miss Huntley and R. Taylor Handel 

March, Judas Maccabaus' Handel 

PART II 
New Overture. 

Song 'Amyntor', Miss Huntley Taylor 

Concerto Violin, Mr. Gillingham 

Song 'I wonder at you', Taylor ,, 

Divertimento ,, 

Cantata "The Nightingale', Miss Huntley, Bird accompaniment 

on the flageolet by Mr. Shaw , 

Finale, 'Spring', or 'Mirth and Innocent festivity', Miss Huntley 

and R. Taylor 

It is to be regretted that we possess no contemporary report of the im- 
pression made by Taylor's compositions on a public conversant with the 
"modern" repertory of that period. The more so, as these more pretentious 
works of his are lost and only a few insignificant songs remain which really 
do not permit of gauging his talents as a composer. It is also a fact that 
exceedingly few other American concert-programs mention his name and 
perhaps the neglect of his works was the reason why Raynor Taylor risked 
a concert consisting mainly of his own works. 

The next concert, at least as far as I found it a reservatio mentalis 
which the reader is requested to constantly keep in mind was a concert, 
of course a grand concert, of vocal and instrumental music for the benefit 
of Mrs. Sully and Mr. Gaultier at Oeller's Hotel on April 26th 1 ) with this 
rather miscellaneous program: 

1st ACT 
A celebrated Overture of Demophon 2 ) 

'The Soldier tired' by Mrs. Oldmixon 
A Sonata of Pleyel, on the Pianoforte, by Mrs. Sully 

'Auld Robin Gray', by Mr. Marshall, composed by Mr. Reeve. 



1) Philadelphia Gazette, April 25, 1796. 

2) Probably either Cherubini or Vogel. 

Son neck, Early Concert Life. 10 



146 

A favorite Scotch air, with variations on the pianoforte, by Mrs. Sully 

'The Galley slave', by Mrs. Marshall 
A Concerto on the Clarinet, composed by Mr. Gaultier and performed by himself. 

2d ACT. 
A grand Overture of Iphigenie in Aulide 1 ) 

'Amid a thousand sighing silvains', by Mrs. Marshall Hook. 
A Concerto of Harman on the pianoforte, Mr. Sully 
A Song, composed by Giordani, by Mrs. Oldmixon 

'Tis beauty commands me', by Mr. Marshall 

A Concerto on the clarinet, composed by Mr. Lefevre, and performed by Mr. 
Gaultier. 

Then on July 5th 2 ), Mr. Louis Boullay "hoped for the patronage" of 
his friends and "all amateurs of music". As a special attraction he offered 
"the whole orchestra of the New Theatre and several of the lovers of music", 
which bears out what was said of the band for Raynor Taylor's benefit. 
Boullay presented in 

ACT I 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Song Miss Solomon 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolf 

Sea Song by Shield Mr. Marshall 

Quintette of Ponto [Punto] executed by Mr. 
Rosier, accompanied by Mr. Boullay, Mr. 
Beranger, Mr. Homen and Mr. De Marque 
Grand Symphony Haydn 

ACT II 

Symphonie .. .. Haydn 

New Song with accompaniments on the clarinet, 

Mr. Wolf Mrs. Marshall 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Boullay 

New Song Mrs. Warrell 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. De Marque 

Bravoura Song, with variations on the violin 

composed by Mr. Boullay Mr. Barley 

A humorous vocal parody on Shakespeare's 

Seven ages, Mr. Bates 

To conclude with a grand finale Gluck. 

To avoid confusion, it may be remarked that this appears to have been 
his final program, Punto's quintet having being substituted for the comic 
song 'John loves Jean and Jean loves John' as announced in previous 
advertisements. 

The remaining years of the century brought a very noticeable decrease 
in the number of benefit concerts for the reasons mentioned. This is par- 
ticularly true of the year 1797. We notice towards the end of the year a series 



1) Probably Gluck. 

2) Philadelphia Gazette, June 15, 1796. 



- 147 - 

of readings and recitations, called 'the Tablet, or Just in time', given with 
the assistance of Benjamin Carr, who played overtures, sonatas and pot- 
pourris, by Messrs. Chalmers and Williamson who sang such songs as ' Jacky 
and the Cow', 'The tar of all weathers' and 'Nancy, or the Sailor's journal' 
but of legitimate concerts very few only seem to have taken place. At 
any rate, I found only the one given oh Jan. 9th 1 ) at Oeller's Hotel for 
the benefit of Mr. Guenin with this rather indifferent program, the first 
and last number excepted: 

ACT THE 1st. 

A grand Overture, composed by Haydn 

A Song, by Mrs. Warrell 

A Symphony concertante, by Mr. Gillingham and Mr. Menel 

A Song by Mrs. Warrell 

A Concerto on the piano, by Mr. Guenin. 

ACT THE 2d. 

A concerto on the violoncello, by Mr. Menel 
A Medley on the piano, by Mr. Guenin 
A Concerto on the Violin, by Mr. Gillingham 
A Song by Mrs. Warrell 
And the celebrated Overture of Iphigenie 2 ). 

By March, 1798 little Susanne D'Hemard having, as we know, "been the 
admiration of the principal cities on the continent" where "her execution of 
the most difficult pieces of music, for judgment, taste and decision" were 
considered "uncommon" arrived in Philadelphia and immediately her 
mother or who ever managed her concerts, announced a benefit for this 
young lady "aged 6 years" for March 19th 3 ) at Oeller's Great Room: 

ACT I 

1. A Symphony, accompanied by a grand or- 
chestra of Heyden 

2. Overture of Blaise et Babie [ !] 4 ) on the piano by Miss D'Hemard 

3. Lucy, a ballad Mrs. Grattan 

4. Concerto on the Clarinet Mr. Dubois 

5. Favorite Sonata of Nicholais [!] on the piano Miss D'Hemard 

6. Ah! Nonai (Tachini) [!] Mrs. Grattan 

ACT II 

1. Overture with a grand orchestra Pleyel 

2. Ballad by Heyden Mrs. Grattan 

3. Battle of Prague on the piano Miss D'Hemard 

4. The Trios of Rousseau, executed by Messrs. 
Yanda, Collet and Boucheny 

5. Pantiro (Tachini) Mrs. Grattan 



1) Philadelphia Gazette, Jan. 9, 1797. 

2) Probably Gluck. 

3) Porcupine's Gazette, March 12, 1798. 

4) Blaise et Babette, opera by Dezede. 



148 

6. Several Airs, with variations by Pleyel on the 
the piano, and several other favorite airs in 

French and English Miss D'Hemard 

7. The Concert will be concluded with several 
much admired airs on the French horn and 

clarinet by Messrs. Cohot [Collet] and Dubois. 

It is interesting to note that about the very year when 'Hail Columbia' 
was written and when the estrangement between the United States and 
France had reached so acute a stage that George Washington offered to 
emerge from Mount Vernon and again become the first in war as he had 
been in times of peace, almost all the benefit concerts were given by French 
emigrants. May-be they could rely only on the support of music-lovers 
among the Anti-Federalists and probably they did not reep such harvests 
as five or six years previous when the French refugees were received with 
open arms, still, it is remarkable that they could dare appeal to a public 
which partly had learned to hate the very sight of a Frenchman. That 
this same public entertained less passionate sentiments against artists, a 
cosmopolitan folk after all, is very plausible since these concerts were given 
with orchestras and necessarily entailed expenses not easily covered by 
thin audiences. Just when' the excitement ran highest, Mr. Dubois offered 
a benefit concert, on April 24th 1 ) and presumably the fact did jar on the 
sentiments of those narrow-minded people who love to carry politics 
into art. 

ACT I 

Symphony Haydn 

Symphonic concertante for two clarinets Pleyel Messrs. Dubois and Beranger 

Song 'While successful proves the gale' Mr. Marshall 

Concerto Violoncello Duport Mr. Menel 

Song 'Fragrant chaplete' [!] Salieri Mrs. Marshall 

ACT II 

Overture to Alexis and Justine Gretry 

Concerto Pianoforte Pleyel Mr. Guenin 

Song "This beauty commands me, my heart 

must obey' Mr. Marshall 

Concerto Clarinet Michel .. Mr. Dubois 

Song 'Amidst the illusions' Shield Mrs. Marshall 

To conclude with Kotzwara's 'Battle of Prague', 

arranged for a full band by Schetky 

Strikingly different in character was the program of the very popular 
singer Miss Broadhurst on her benefit night at Oeller's Hotel, December llth: 



1) Porcupine's Gazette, April 21, 1798. 

2) Porcupine's Gazette, Dec. 1, 1798. 



149 

ACT I 

Overture 

Song 'Ellen arise' Miss Broadhurst 

Quartette 

Song Mr. Barley 

Duet Violin and clarinet Messrs. Collet et Dubois 

Italian [song] i non piange [!] Miss Broadhurst 

PABT II 
Overture 
Song "The new somebody", composed by B. Carr Miss Broadhurst 

Sonata, Pianoforte Mr. B. Carr 

Song Mr. Barley 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Bubois 

New song "The Flower girl' Miss Broadhurst 

Glee, three voices, 'Sigh no more ladies'. 

For 1799 I traced only three benefit concerts but all three show the 
strange fascination which in those days Kotzwara's insipid 'Battle of Prague' 
in the orchestral arrangement by Schetky must have exercised upon the 
public, a popularity, however, shared temporarily by Chateaudieu's Medley 
overture with the President's March (a reminder of 'Hail Columbia') as 
ingredient. The three programs though they did not enlarge the repertory 
may follow as a matter of record. 

Mr. Dubois offered on February 26, 1799 J ) at Oeller's Hotel in 

1st PABT 

Overture of Iphigenie Gluck 

Song Mr. Marshall 

Concerto Flute, Bevienne Mr. Beclang 

Song Mrs. Marshall 

Concerto Violin Mr. Gillingham 

2d Part 

Medley Overture, with variations, in which is 
introduced the favourite air of the Presi- 
dent's March Mr. Chateaudieu 

Grand ariette from L'Amant Statue 2 ), arranged 
for two clarinets, two French horns and two 
bassoons. The principal part executed by Mr. Bubois 

Concerto Pianoforte Mr. Guenin 

Song .. - Mrs. Marshall 

Concerto Clarinet, Michel Mr. Bubois 

To conclude with the Battle of Prague arranged 

for a full band by Shetky 

The music will be conducted by Mr. Gillingham. After the Concert a Grand Ball. 

Then came Mr. Louis Boullay on March 25th 3 ) with his "Grand concert 
vocal & instrumental" and it is very doubtful whether any other paper 



1) Bache's Aurora, February 19, 1799. 

2) Balayrac. 

3 Bache's Aurora, March 2, 12, 15, 1799. The concert was postponed from March 
12 to March 16 and then to March 25 "on account of the performance at the theatre". 



150 

except Bache's Aurora would have dared to insert, as was done, Boullay's 
original announcement in French 1 ), though party feelings for and against 
France no longer ran as high as in 1798. Mr. Boullay "a 1'honneur de prevenir 
les amateurs de musique que son concert est fixe pour le 12 Mars prochain", 
we read but, as if to off set any indignant criticism, immediately below the 
appeal is translated into English and the program, too, is given in English ! 

Overture 

A Song 'The Galley slave', by a young lady six 

years old 2 ) 
Duett, by Messrs. Boullay and Dubois .. .. Michel 

Concerto (violin) by Mr. Boullay Giarnowick 

Medley overture, in which is introduced the 

favorite air of the President's March .. .. Mr. Chateaudun 3 ) 

Song, by Miss Corry Storace 

Variations on the violin Mr. Boullay 

Ariette 

Concerto Clarinet, Mr. Dubois Michel 

Full piece, Battle of Prague Schetky 

It will have been noticed that during the last years of the eighteenth 
century gradually more care was taken to distinguish the composers from 
the performers. "The band, late of the New Theatre", however, when 
announcing a benefit at Oeller's Hotel for April llth 4 ) somewhat relapsed 
into the former habit of not making the distinction, a habit so unmindful 
of historians and bibliographers: 

FIRST PART 

Overture to Henry IV 5 ) 
Symphony concertante for two clarinets 

Messrs. Dubois and Wolfe Pleyel 

Canzonet 'My mother bids me', accompanied by 

Mr. Guenin on the Pianoforte Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Violin Giarnowick Mr. Collet 

SECOND PABT. 

Medley Overture Mr. Chateaudun 

Concerto Pianoforte Mr. Guenin 

Song 'Spirit of the Blest', accompanied on the 

Clarinet by Mr. Wolfe Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Dubois 

To conclude with the Battle of Prague. Arranged 

for a full band by Schetky 

. . . The ball to commence immediately after the concert. 



1) About 1790 it was quite customary, especially in Maryland, to insert advertise- 
ments in French. 

2) If this was Miss D'Hemard, the young lady began surprisingly early to hide 
her age. 

3) The name is spelled in different ways, and it is difficult to ascertain the correct 
spelling. I incline to Chateaudieu. 

4) Bache's Aurora, April 9, 1799. 

5) Martini. 



151 

The nineteenth century possibly was ushered in by Miss Broadhurst's 
benefit concert at the City Tavern on April 3, 1800 *) with a bewildering 
array of vocal talent. The program was in keeping, being perhaps the 
most miscellaneous ever offered to the public of Philadelphia: 

PART FIRST. 

Overture Haydn 

Glee, 3 voices, 'Ask why a blush' .. .. Taylor 

Duet 'How sweet is the morning' (Carr) .. .. Mr. Carr and Miss Broadhurst 

Song 'When war begins' (Shield) Mr. Darley 

Recitation 'Mrs. Thrale's three warnings'.. Mr. Bernard 

Song 'Primroses deck' (Linley) Mr. Warrel' 

Concerto Violin Mr. Gillingham 

Song 'Let me wander etc. or let the merry 

bells' Miss Broadhurst 

Chorus 'And you and old come forth to play' Handel 

PART SECOND 

Overture, Circe and Ulisses Taylor 

Song' Pity then my tortured heart' (Giordani) Miss Oldmixon 

Duet 'Together let us range' (Dr. Boyce) Mr. Taylor and Miss Broadhurst 

Pvecitation. A dramatic vision of the court 

of Thespia Mr. Bernard 

Song 'The spirits of the blest' (Carr) .. .. Miss Broadhurst 

Sonata Pianoforte Mr. Reinagle 

Comic song 'I wonder at you' (Taylor) .. Mr. Taylor 

Comic glee 'Wives and husbands' Hook. 

Finally may be mentioned Mrs. M'Donald's benefit at the 'Centre House 
Gardens' on August llth 2 ). The program arouses interest merely for the 
fact that it allowed an ample display of "martial music", that is to say of 
so called band music which gradually and owing to general conditions grew 
on the average American as no other instrumental combination could and 
the stimulating, educational influence of which should not be underestimated 
in a future comprehensive history of music in America: 

PART I. 

Overture by Pleyel 

Duet 'How sweet in the Woodlands', 

Mrs. M'Donald and Mr. Devis (for that night only) 
Martial music by the band 

Song 'Be quiet, for I'm in haste' Mrs. M'Donald 

Overture Bache [!] 

Song 'Lash'd to the helm' Mr. Devis 

Overture .. .. Arne 



1) General Advertiser, March 31, 1800. 

2) General Advertiser, Aug. 11, 1800. 



152 

PABT II. 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Two bunches a penny, primroses .. Mrs. M'Donald 
Martial music, by the band 

Song 'Saturday night at sea' Mr. Devis 

Comic song (for that night only) .. .. Mr. Rowson 

Martial music by the band 

Duet 'Rise, Cynthia rise' Mrs. M'Donald and Mr. Devis. 

To complete the record of concerts given at Philadelphia before the 
nineteenth century we must retrace our steps to the years immediately 
following the war when the concert life of the Quaker City seemed full of 
promises subsequently not quite fulfilled. It was the period when theatrical 
performances were under ban of law. Pennsylvania, by adopting a recom- 
mendation of Congress in 1778, had probited them altogether and this law 
remained in force until 1789 when, thanks to the energetic propaganda of 
the Dramatic Association founded in January 1789, it was repealed 1 ). 

To pass such a narrow-minded law is easy enough but to enforce it is quite 
a different matter, especially if distasteful to a powerful minority. Con- 
sequently when Mr. Henry and Mr. Hallam, first separate and then in 
partnership, attempted a revival of the American Company of Comedians 
after the war, they found a strong support in this minority who feared 
no ruin of public morals from the theatre. Of course, the managers could 
not openly oppose the law but this law, like all laws, had its loop-holes 
and hence they found no difficulty in evading it. It was merely a matter 
of disguise and to the frequenters of the theatre it made precious little 
difference whether plays were announced as 'Lectures, moral and entertaining', 
'Lectures being . . . entertainments of representation and harmony', as 
'Spectaculum vitae' or what not as long as the legislators were duped. How 
the managers gradually felt their way until they boldly came out with 
regular theatrical performances under the most ludicrous disguises concerns 
us in this volume in so far only as their efforts contributed to the develop- 
ment of a concert life at Philadelphia. 

From the beginning of this amusing crusade against the Philistines the 
'Lectures', etc. "were properly diversified with music, scenery, and other 
decorations" 2 ), and from this to the use of such an innocent looking title 
as 'Concerts' was but a short step. That music has charms to soothe the 
savage breast even of lawmakers, Messrs. Hallam and Henry experienced 
when their performances of operas as operas did not worry the watchful 
eye of the authorities and they, as wise men, preferred to call their theatre 



1) For further particulars see the second volume of George O. Seilhamer's monu- 
mental History of the American Theatre, 1896. 

2) Pa. Packet, April 10, 1784. 



153 

located in the South wark, an Opera House. Thus it came to pass that the 
popular plays of the time were given at an Opera House incidental to con- 
certs. One example will suffice to illustrate how ingeniously and amusingly 
the trick was turned. For instance, we find in the Pennsylvania Journal, 
June 21, 1788 this announcement: 

OPERA HOUSE, SOUTHWARK. 

On Monday the 23d of June, will be presented a Concert, between the parts of 
which will be delivered (gratis). A Comic Lecture in five parts, on the disadvantage 
of Improper Education exemplified in the History of Tony Lulmkin. 

It seems that some persons interpreted the gratis very much to their own 
advantage for the managers on September 17 took occasion to remark that 

"the . . . lectures will be delivered (gratis) paying only for admission 
to a Concert". 

That these concerts were merely sham-concerts goes without saying 
and it is even doubtful whether more pieces were played than when music 
was merely used to lessen the ennui of the audience between the acts. The 
whole arrangement simply resolved itself into this that the "Zwischenakts- 
musik", so absurdly dear to Americans, was promoted to the official raison 
d'etre of the entertainments with the plays ostensibly as incidental, generous 
supplements. As a rule, this undoubtedly was true, but occasionally the 
music appears to have assumed the scope of a real concert. Again one 
program will be sufficient to illustrate the point. On January 13th, the 
Pennsylvania Packet announced for the same evening. 

A CONCERT OF MUSIC. 

Vocal and instrumental: Between the several parts of the concert will be delivered, 
Lectures, Moral and entertaining 

FIRST ACT 

Symphony Kammel 

Rondeau Mr. Phile 

Prologue and Lectures 

SECOND ACT. 

Song Mr. Wools 

Lecture 

Song Mr. Harper 

Overture .. Ditters 

Fisher's minuet, Clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

The whole to conclude with a grand 
pantomimical finale in two acts, called 
Robinson Crusoe. 

It may be doubted if these sham-concerts contributed perceptibly to 
the development of Philadelphia's concert life. This certainly was not the 
object of the managers who, as soon as the repeal of the anti- theatre law 
became effective, immediately threw off the disguise and discontinued the 
practice of giving concerts at the theatre. It never seems to have entered 



154 

their mind that this practice might be made profitable in imitation of the 
custom then and still prevailing in European countries. In fact, not until 
1793 were concerts again given at a theatre and then merely as a matter of 
expedience and necessity, though, of course, no longer in evasion of 
pedantic laws. 

Differences had arisen in 1791 between Hallam and Henry, the managers 
of the Old American Company and Thomas Wignell. This actor then inter- 
ested moneyed people in plans for a 'New Theatre' to be built in Chestnut- 
street with the result that a stock company was formed with "Wignell and 
Alexander Reinagle as artistic managers. The erection of the house pro- 
ceeded rapidly. It was "allowed by judges to be, in elegance and con- 
venience equal to most and superior to many in Europe" and it was "com- 
puted that it would, with perfect convenience, hold 2000 people, or about 
600 pounds" 1 ). Naturally, expectations ran high and the stockholders, 
as stockholders will do, became impatient especially after they had received 
in January, 1793 2 ) an opportunity to see the not quite completed interior 
modelled after the theatre Royal at Bath. Presumably because these 
gentlemen were so anxious to see their investments bring substantial returns 
at the earliest possible date, Alexander Reinagle decided to open the New 
Theatre with a series of three public concerts with the band and such mem- 
bers of the company as were already available. These concerts took place 
on February 2, 4 and 7, 1793. The programs of the first and last will show 
them to have been somewhat on the order of what we call to-day popular 
concerts, though the contemporary announcements styled them "grand". 
The Plan of the Concert on February 2d was this: 3 ) 

ACT I 

New Overture Mr. Reinagle 

Song 'On by the spur of valeur' .. .. Mr. Chambers 

Concerto Violin Mr. Boullay 

Song 'Kiss me now or never' Mrs. Morris] 

Quartette des petits airs Messrs. Petit, Boullay, Mallet 

and Ge.hot 

Song 'Poor Tom Bowling' Mr. Harper 

Sonata Piano Mr. Reinagle 

Glee 'Sigh no more ladies' Messrs. Chambers, Harper 

and Reinagle. 

ACT II 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Italian Song Mr. Mallet 

Sonata, Pianoforte Mr. Guenin 

Song 'My Poll and my partner Joe' Mr. Harper 

1) Federal Gazette, Jan. 29, 1793. 

2) Federal Gazette, Jan. 28, 1793. 

3) Dunlap's Daily American Advertiser, Jan. 2 and 7, 1793 and Federal Gazette, 
Feb. 2, 1793. 



155 

Sonata, Harp Mr. Salomon 

Song, 'A Smile from the girl of 

my heart' Mr. Chambers 

Sinfonia concertante Messrs. Petit and Boullay 

ACT III 

Sinfonia Stamitz 

Song 'Blythe Collin' Mrs. Morris 

Concerto Violin Mr. Petit 

Song 'Cottage Boy' Mr. Chambers 

Glee 'How merrily we live' .-. Messrs. Chambers, Harper and 

Reinagle 

Between the first and second act, a Dance, in the character of Harlequin, by Master 
Duport. To conclude with a Grand Dance, called 'La Noble, or Henry the Fourth, 
by Master Duport. 

The doors to be opened at 6, and the performance to begin precisely at 7 o'clock. 
Places to be taken and tickets to be had at the theatre every day from 10 till 5 o'clock . 
Boxes 7 s 6. Pit 5 s. 7Va- Gallery 3 s 9. 

For Februar 7th the program read: 

ACT I. 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Song Mr. Chambers 

Concerto Violin Master Duport 

Duetto, for two voices Mrs. Morris and Mr. Reinagle 

Hunting song 'While over the 

mountain's brow' Mr. Harper 

Sonata Pianoforte Mr. Reinagle 

Glee'Lightly tread, 'tis hallow'd 

ground' Messrs. Chambers, Harper and 

Reinagle. 
ACT II. 

Quartetto (Pleyel) Messrs. Petit, Boullay, Mallet 

and Gehot 

Duetto, 'From Morn till night' Messrs. Chambers and Reinagle 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Foucard 

Song 'Poor Tom Bowling' .. .. Mr. Harper, Chambers and Reinagle 

ACT III. 

Overture Mr. Reinagle 

Song 'Wives and sweet hearts' .. Mr. Harper 

Concerto Violin Mr. Petit 

Song "The Traveller benighted' Mrs. Morris 

Finale Stamitz 

It would have been surprising, had the opening of the New Theatre 
passed without receiving attention from the press and Mr. Seilhamer was 
mistaken if he claimed this to have been the case. As a matter of fact, 
the Federal Gazette printed on Feb. 4, 1793 a detailed description of the 
theatre and then added this rather primitive criticism of the concert: 

Last Saturday evening it was first opened to the public with a grand Concert of 
vocal and instrumental music and notwithstanding the inclemency of the evening, 
a large number of citizens appeared in every part of the house the boxes exhibited 
a blaze of beauty the pit was a display of respectable jugdes and the gallery was 



156 

filled with orderly, well disposed citizens whose decency of behaviour deserves the 



Mr. Reinagle introduced the evening's entertainment with a charming overture 
on the harpsichord 1 ) after which Mr. Chambers' 'On by the spur of valeur', 'Sigh 
no more ladies' and 'the Cottage boy etc.' gave great satisfaction. Messrs. Boulay, 
Mallet and Guenin's performances on the violin were exquisite and Mr. Saloman's 
Sonata on the harp gave infinite pleasure. But of all others that part of the enter- 
tainment, wherein Mrs. Morris' abilities in 'Kiss me now or never' and Master Duport's 
dancing came in, seemed to afford the most attractingly delightful sensations. Indeed 
upon the whole, this theatre may be esteemed a place of the most rational amusement 
that have ever been exhibited to the attention and protection of the public in these 
United States. 

After these concerts the theatre remained closed until re-opened on Fe- 
bruary 17, 1794 with a performance of Shield's opera 'Castle of Andalusia' 
and Mrs. Cowley's comedy 'Who's the dupe'. 

The musical life of Pennsylvania outside of Philadelphia was exceedingly 
primitive and remained so, far into the nineteenth century. To be sure, 
in the Swedish and German settlements church music made part of the 
service and these settlers, as a matter of course, brought their nursery songs, 
folk songs, fiddles, German flutes etc. with them, in short musical instincts 
and interests, but all this did not go far towards creating a musical life 
and a few stray concerts, as for instance that "held in the Swedish Church 
on Darbyroad, six miles from the city" on Oct. 9, 1788 2 ) consisting of vocal 
and instrumental music "with an oration on Civic Liberty" or the three 
concerts given during the summer of 1794 by a "small but select" band with 
the singers Darley and Miss Broadhurst as soloists at Lancaster, are not of 
much account 3 ). It would particularly be out of place in tracing secular 
music to examine that exotic musical weed reared by Conrad Beissel and 
his associate mystics at the Ephrata cloister. It was a curiosity at its best 
and exercised no influence on the development of music in Pennsylvania. 

Only in one settlement outside of Philadelphia flourished anything like 
a musical life and there the love of music was so deeply rooted as to make 
the town in course of time the center of the American Bach cult. When 
founding Bethlehem in 1741 the Moravian Brethren brought with them 



1) Of course, Reinagle conducted this overture from the harpsichord, a procedure 
which our amateur-critic seems to have considered a solo. 

2) Federal Gazette, Oct. 7, 1788. 

3) See 'Travels in the United States of America, commencing in the year 1793, 
and ending in 1797 ... by William Priest, musician late of the theatres Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Boston', London ,1802. (This scarce book, by the way, deals with a 
general description of America and contains next to nothing of interest to the musical 
historian.) Perhaps I have underestimated the musical importance of Lancaster in 
those days, for it is a fact that a music dealer by the name of Hutter had a sufficient 
demand for German music to enter into business relations with Breitkopf & Haertel 
of Leipzig as early as 1799 or 1800. Thus the famous firm invaded America more 
than a century ago as a perusal of their archives, courteously undertaken at my request, 
proved to their and my surprise. 



157 

from Germany a natural love of music and this love has ever since remained 
an inheritance jealously guarded by both sexes. The settlement soon be- 
came famous for its musical athmosphere. Franklin, Washington, Samuel 
Adams and other prominent men of Colonial Times when visiting Bethlehem 
were deeply impressed by this musical athmosphere and their diaries and 
letters vividly testify to this impression. But whereas in Philadelphia, 
Charleston, New York and Boston the musical life was mainly an offspring 
from English conditions, the German influence predominated in this and 
other Moravian settlements. Furthermore, while the fame of Bethlehem's 
music soon spread, her musical life never exercised a noteworthy influence 
beyond her own bounderies. Within however, music brought joy and con- 
tentment to young and old, music dwelled in the houses, in the church and 
in the fields among the toilers, in short was essential to the daily life of 
these sturdy people. This cannot be doubted if one reads Rufus A. Grider's 
'Historical Notes on music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. From 1741 to 
1871' (Philadelphia, 1873). Unfortunately this valuable book, possibly for 
lack of authentic documents and traditions, rapidly passes over the more 
secular aspect of the musical life of Bethlehem during the eighteenth century. 
However, we are told that shortly after the foundation, and before 1750, 
a Collegium Musicum was formed which existed for many years. Though 
the members of the Collegium assisted in the weekly serenades ending oddily 
enough in the graveyard with the improvised singing of hymn-tunes, it goes 
without saying that the club, if it deserved its name at all, cultivated secular 
music at least as much as sacred and if the orchestral parts to works by 
Alberti and others as preserved in the library of the Philharmonic Society 
originally belonged to the Collegium Musicum we need no further corrobora- 
tion of this opinion. The very name would imply, by way of analogy with 
conditions in Germany, informal gatherings of the active and associate 
members of the club at regular intervals when they would form or deepen 
acquaintance with orchestral, concerted or solo chamber music. In short, 
amateur-concerts without pretensions as to perfect rendition but covering 
a wide range of the best music of the age 1 ). 

1) It would be interesting to know if the orchestra at Bethlehem was composed 
of both sexes as at Herrnhut, where, as Busby says in his 'Concert room and orchestra 
anecdotes', 1825, in the band of 40 or 50 persons the ladies played the violin, violon- 
cello, flute and other instruments as well as the men, from whom, however, they sat 
strictly separated! 



NEW YORK '). 



In tracing the beginning of a concert-life in New York, the historian is com- 
pelled to again call attention to the scarcity of sources and hence to 
the limited reliability of his statements. Though William Bradford's New 
York Gazette appeared in 1725, the first eight years of this paper are prac- 
tically of no assistance to us as only very few numbers have been preserved. 
We would rather miss a few numbers after Zenger's New York Weekly 
Journal appeared in November 1733 than be helpless for the years 
1725 to 1733 for, even if no consorts were given before 1725 the non- 
existence (for all practical purposes) of the Gazette during those years 
would leave it open to doubt whether the first concert announced in 
the existing files was really the first. This concert took place in 1736 
unless earlier advertisements escaped my attention, a sin of omission for 
which no person who has handled our old newspapers, will condemn me too 
severely. Still, the concert announced in 1736 cannot have been the first 
as becomes apparent from a poem printed among the local news of the 
Gazette, December 2431, 1733: 

Written at a Concert of Music where there was a great Number of Ladies. 
Music has Power to melt the Soul: 
By Beauty Nature's sway'd 
Each can the Universe controul 
Without the other's Aid: 
But here together both appear 
And Force united try 
Music inchants the listning Ear 
And Beauty charms the Eye. 
What cruelty these Powers to join! 
These transports who can beat! 
Oh! Let the Sound be less divine 
Or look, ye Nymphs, less fair. [!] 

The name of the musician for whose benefit the concert of 1736 was 
advertised is familiar to the reader: Charles Theodore Pachelbel who by 
the year 1737 drifted as far South as Charleston. He advertised in the 



1) Population: 17318628; 177321876; 179033131; 180060489 inhabitants 



159 i- 

New York Gazette, Jan. 613, 1736 and in the Weekly Journal on "Mon- 
day", Jan. 12th: 

On Wednesday the 21. of January Instant there will be a-Consort of Musick, Vocal 
and Instrumental for the Benefit of Mr. Pachelbell, the Harpsichord Part performed 
by himself. The Songs, Violins and German Flutes by private Hands. 

The Consort will begin precisely at 6 o'clock in the House of Robert Todd, Vintner. 
Tickets to be had at the Coffee House and at Mr. Tood's at 4 Shillings. 

He used almost literally the same form of advertisement in the Weekly 
Journal, March 8, 1736 for a concert on the following day. Either Mr. 
Pachelbel believed in mental economy or he found himself obliged to post- 
pone the January concert. 

Strange to say, there occurs a gap of about eight years between these 
two concerts and the next. This may be explained in three different ways. 
Either others escaped me, or none were given, or they were given but the 
newspapers had not yet come to be considered an equally effective adver- 
tising medium as the street-crier or the house-to-house distribution of ir- 
resistible broadsides. At any rate, 1 did not trace a further concert until 
the New York Weekly Post Boy announced on Dec. 31, 1744 a concert of 
vocal and instrumental music for the benefit of Mr. John Rice, the organist 
of Trinity Church 1 ), on Wednesday, Jan. 2, 1745 at Robert Todd's house. 
Tickets at five shillings each were to be had at both coffee-houses evidently 
New York was fast becoming a metropolis and the concert was to begin 
at the rather unusual hour of five o'clock. Of the program nothing is said. 

Then came another long gap of five years, when a Mr. Quin gave a concert 
on Oct. 19, 1749 2 ), at the Court Room of the City Hall. Again several 
years elapsed without any of the musicians who permanently or temporarily 
settled at New York appearing to have risked a benefit. Then Charles 
Love, the harpsichordist in Hallam's theatrical company which came to 
New York in 1753 and whose wife was prominent as ballad opera singer in 
the same company, advertised a concert during the summer. The entertain- 
ment, however, did not take place until the following January as appears 
from an advertisement in the New York Mercury 1754: 

For the benefit of Mr. Charles Love, at the New Exchange Ball Room, on Thursday 
the 24th instant, will be a Concert of vocal and instrumental Musick. To which will be 
added several select pieces on the hautboy, by Mr. Love. After the concert will be 
a Ball. Tickets at 5 s each, to be head of Mr. Love ; at the King's Arms ; and at Parker's 
and Gaine's printing office. Tickets given out last summer by Mr. Love, will be taken 



1) In Mr. Morgan Dix' 'History of the Parish of Trinity Church', 18981906 
we read that on Nov. 6, 1744 it was "voted to pay Colonel Moore the five guineas ad- 
vanced to Mr. John Rice to come over here as organist, also to pay the passage of the 
said John Rice from London to this place". Subsequently, in 1753, John Rice appears 
as organist of Trinity Church in Boston. 

2) It was advertised in the Weekly Post Boy, Oct. 2, 1749 for Oct. 12th, but was 
postponed. 



160 

that night. Mr. Love hopes that gentlemen and ladies will favour him with their good 
company. 

The next to appear on the New York concert stage was a musician of 
unquestionable ability and who during the next twenty years did much 
to raise the standard of church music in New York: William Tuckey. As 
the inscription on his tombstone in the burial grounds of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia reads 1 ): 

"To the memory of. Mr. William Tuckey who was born in Sommersetshire in 
England and died September 14th, 1781 in the 73d year of his age." 

it follows that Tuckey was born about 1708. That he held the position of 
Vicar Choral in the cathedral of Bristol and the clerkship of a parish in the 
same city before he came to New York appears from the first adver- 
tisement referring to Tuckey in the New York papers. It is so characte- 
ristic that I cannot refrain from quoting it as printed in the New York 
Mercury, March 11, 1754: 

f~ WILLIAM TUCKEY, Singing Master, desires to inform all lovers of Psalmody^ 
that in order to encourage and amend the singing in publick congregations in this I 
city, all persons may be taught by him on very reasonable terms. As a great expecta^ 

i tion of encouragement in this way, was the only motive which induced him to leave 
the cathedral of Bristol, where of he was for several years a vicar choral, and clerk 
of a parish also in the said city, places of considerable profit and on an establishment 
both for life; and not meeting with the encouragment he expected, is resolved to 
teach here no longer than one year more, which may be depended on: And as there 
is no person in this country duly qualified in the musical way, who has made a practice 
of teaching but himself, not only in church musick, in all its branches, viz. Services, 
Anthems, Chaunts, Responses and Psalms, according to the English, Dutch, French 
or Italian method ; but also in the knowledge of a thorough base, and composing musick 
in parts both vocal and instrumental; management of musick for concerts, etc. he 
humbly hopes, through this information, to meet with better encouragement, or at least 
to establish the singing of parochialJPsjyLms_fln_a_better and perfecter foundation than it 
hath been for some time past. He will undertake to~cornpose~6r "seTEo musicFany ]piece 
on any subject, divine or moral, either in prose or verse, and adapt the musick according 
to the sense of the subject, for either a single voice, two, three, four or more voices, and 
for any sort of instruments, with or without a thorough base, for the organ, harpsichord, 
or spinnet, on application to him, and a moderate satisfaction. Specimens of his com- 
posing may be seen at any time, by any gentlemen or ladies, who desire it, and under- 
stand musick, he having several pieces for three, four or more voices, accompanied 
with almost all sorts of instruments, and his own composition. 

The exact date of William Tuckey's arrival at New York is unknown 
but as on Jan. 31, 1753 it was 

"ordered that William Tuckey (who is appointed by the Rector to officiate as 
Clerk jointly withMr.Eldridge till further order) be allowed the annual salary of twenty- 
five pounds from the first of this month" 2 ). 



1) Edwart L. Clark, Record of the inscriptions on the tablets and gravestones 
in the burial grounds of Christ Church, Philadelphia, 1864, p. 34. 

2) See Dix, op. cit., I, p. 154 etc. 



161 

it may be surmised that he arrived during January 1753, provision also 
having been made by the vestry for the transportation of his wife and children 
who were to follow him. 

Though Trinity Church possessed an organ and though church music 
had been cultivated for some time past in the parish, the conditions were 
primitive, principally owing to the absence of a really well trained choir. 
Now a Charity School had been founded in 1739 in close connection with 
Trinity Church and Tuckey was quick to see his opportunity. He evidently 
soon after his arrival impressed the vestry with the necessity of teaching 
the charity- children vocal music if the standard of music in the church was 
effectively to be raised. Accordingly it was voted on March 16, 1753 that 
he was to have the use of the Charity School room and also of the vestry 
room two nights of the week "for the teaching of his singing scholars". 
The wisdom of this decision soon became apparent and Mr. Dix, the historian 
of Trinity Church, asserts that Tuckey's conscientious and experienced 
efforts gradually gave to the church a choir of which the parish felt proud 
and which became noted even outside of New York. The statement is all 
the more interesting as in 1756 Tuckey was summarily discharged from 
the office of parish clerk in consequence of his "refusal to officiate in time 
of Divine Service". However, if thereafter his name disappears from the 
vestry minutes, he continued to act as musical instructor in the service of 
the parish. Mr. Dix merely admits this as a possibility but on the basis 
of subsequent events we must agree with Mr. Krehbiel who maintains that 
"his connection with the music of the church and its chapels lasted much 
longer than 1756" *). 

These few remarks may serve as an introduction to his announcement 
in the New York Weekly Post Boy, December 15, 1755 of a benefit concert 
in conjunction with William Cobham, musician and dealer in "bear skins, 
spotted ermin, white and yellow flannels . . ," 2 ). 

For the benefit of Messrs. Cobham and Tuckey, at the New Exchange on Monday 
the 29 instant; will be a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental musick. Among a variety 
of select pieces, both vocal and instrumental, will be performed, the celebrated dialogue 
between Damon and Chloe, compos'd by Mr. Arne. A two part Song, in Praise of a 
Soldier, by the late famous Mr. Henry Purcell. An Ode on Masonry never perform'd 
in this country, nor ever in England but once in publick. And a Solo on the German 
flute, by Mr. Cobham. 

Tickets to be had of Mr. Cobham, in Hanover Square; of Mr. Tuckey near Mr. 



1) Henry Edward Krehbiel in an article on "Music in Trinity Church", N. J. 
Tribune, July 26, 1903. This article, based on material furnished by Dr. H. H. Messiter, 
who spent a long time in preparing a history of music in Trinity Church, is one of a 
splendid series of articles on 'Early church music in New York', N. Y. Tribune (Sundays) 
Middle of June to middle of October, 1903. 

2) N. Y. Mercury, Oct. 23, 1758. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 11 



162 

Willet's, at the New York Arms ; and at the King's Arms ; and at the new Printing 
Office in Beaver Street at 5 s each. 

To begin precisely at six o'clock. After the concert there will be a Ball for the 
ladies. 

The same announcement appeared in the New York Mercury, De- 
cember 8th, but in program form and with this additional notice: 

As it is conjectured that there will be a very full house, the managers of the con- 
cert humbly request the ladies and gentlemen who are pleased to favour them with 
their company that they would be pleased to apply for their tickets in time that the 
company may be as agreeable to them as possible. 

Unquestionably the Ode on Masonry was a composition by William 
Tuckey and unless it suffered too severely in the neighborhood of Arne and 
Purcell, it may be conjectured that it, too, pleased the audience immensely. 

In the following year the concert-goers of New York were called upon 
to listen to good music "for the benefit of a poor widow". We read in the 
New York Mercury, March 8, 1756: 

On Thursday the 18th instant, will be open'd at the City Hall in the City of New 
York, a New Organ, made by Gilfert Ash, where will be performed, a Concert of Vocal 
and Instrumental Musick. In which, among a variety of other selected pieces, will 
be introduced a song, in praise of musick, particularly of an organ ; and another favourite 
song, called 'The Sword that's drawn in Virtue's cause, both compos'd by Mr. Handel. 
An Organ Concerto, compos'd by Sigr. Giovanni Adolfo Hasse. 

It's hoped, lovers of harmony and charitable designs, will freely promote this 
undertaking; thereby making their recreations the means of purchasing blessings to 
themselves, and administring comfort to the afflicted heart, and relief to the distressed. 
Tickets at five shilling each, to be had at Mr. Cobham's . . . and at Mr. Ash's, 
joining Mr. Willet's in Wallstreet; who continues the business of organ building by 
whom gentlemen and ladies may be furnished with that noble instrument, in a con- 
venient time after it is bespoke. 

This appeal to the lovers of harmony and charitable designs was made 
stronger by bringing the heart softening influence of very bad poetry 
into action. On March 15th the Post Boy with the ever obliging courtesy 
of the newspaper editor published the following communication: 

Sir, 

Please give the following lines a place in to-morrow's paper, to oblige Yours, A 
Friend. 

Sure Music's powerful Charms can never plead! 
The cause of Poverty and not succeed, 
While that to snatch the Friendless from Despair, 
To glad the Widow, and relieve her Care, 
To guard the Orphan, and its Intrest save, 
Are Actions just, commendable and brave: 
Then may each feeling Heart, whom Affl'ence bless 
Its Labours crown (next Thursday) with Success. 

Musicus. 

Sure, music's powerful charms, the cause of poverty, a new organ by a 
fellow citizen and an organ concerto by the famous 'caro Sassone' were at- 
tractions enough to crown the labours of the musici with success on that 
memorable Thursday. 



163 

Unless the concerts enumerated were really only sporadic efforts, the 
very silence of the papers should, to repeat it, make us suspicious and I, 
for one, am inclined to doubt that the papers recorded all the concerts given. 
If actually during the years 1750 to 1754 no concerts took place, this may 
possibly be explained by the fact that just then several serious attempts 
were made by the companies of Thomas Kean, Robert Upton and William 
Hallam successively to interest New York in theatrical performances. As 
they included favorite ballad operas like the Beggar's Opera and the Devil 
to Play, possibly the interest in opera temporarily absorbed that in concerts, 
a phenomenon not unprecedented in the annals of music. The same ex- 
planation may hold for the short theatrical season of 1758 1759 but it does 
not carry much weight for the years 1755 to 1758 or 1759 to 1760. If, after 
all, only a few stray concerts were given in public at New York during those 
years, New Yorkers may find consolation in the fact that even in larger 
and more musical European cities with incomparably greater musical op- 
portunities, public concerts were none too numerous. 

After the concert of March 18, 1756, probably the first given at New York 
for charity, the newspapers again fail to offer clues until 1760 when we hear 
of the first subscription -concert. The advertisement, in the New York 
Gazette, Jan. 14, 1760, reads: 

This is to give notice that the Subscription Concert will be opened on Thursday 
next, the 15th instant, at Mr. Willet's Assembly Room, in the Broad Way. 

N. B. Those gentlemen that intend to subscribe to the said concert, are desired 
to send their names to Messrs. Dienval 1 ) and Hulett 2 ) who will wait on them with 
tickets, for the season. 

It is to be regretted that the newspapers contain no further reference to 
this enterprise. I even failed to ascertain whether it was continued during 
the following year. If so, then the following characteristic announcement 
of a "publick and weekly concert of musick" in the New York Gazette, 
May 24, 1762 would prove that this was the third season. The fact that 
the concerts of 1762 were managed by Messrs. Leonard 3 ) and Dienval need 
cause no apprehension as during the following seasons Mr. Hulett again 
appears to have been at the helm. The announcement reads : 

This is to give notice to all gentlemen and ladies, lovers and encouragers of musick, 
that on Thursday next being the 27th instant, will be opened by Messrs. Leonard and 



1) Alexander V. Dienval probably was first mentioned in New York papers in 
1759 when he gave "notice that the violin and German flute are taught in the space 
of two or three months each" (Ben Akiba!). In November 1759 he, W. C. Hulett and 
the watchmaker-musician Procter opened a kind of music school where these instru- 
ments and the harpsichord were taught daily "from twelve till eight in the Evening". 

2) William C. Hulett, actor, dancing and music master came to America in 1752 
as violin player in Hallam's American Company. 

3) Jacob Leonard is first mentioned at New York in December 1755 as dancing- 
master. 

11* 



164 

Dienval, Musick Masters of this City at Mr. Burner's Room, near the Battery A publick 
and weekly Concert of Musick, where any ladies and gentlemen will be admitted, at 
four shillings a ticket, which are to be had at the house of Mr. V. Dienval at the Upper 
End of Broadstreet near the Old City Hall and opposite the Watch House ; where-Ee 
continues to teach the violin, German Flute, hautboy, French horn, bass violin, tenor 
violin, etc. in the newest and best method . . . 

The "concert for the season" was again "opened at Crawley's new Room" 
in November 1762 and after the first night (a Tuesday) was to be continued 
on every Thursday evening succeeding the Dancing Assembly 1 ). Possibly 
the year 1763 also had its concert for the season. Certainly subscription 
concerts were given during the winter 1764 1765 as in a card "to the sub- 
scribers to the musical concert the managers and gentlemen performers 
considering that the sale of tickets may be attended with very disagreeable 
consequences, have therefore proposed the following regulations. That each 
subscriber be occasionally supplied by the managers to be given by them 
only to gentlemen strangers". This regulation was, of course, directed 
against the indiscriminate sale of tickets to undesirable characters and the 
managers desired in this way to prevent disgraceful acts of rowdyism as on 
a certain occasion in those years at the theatre when eggs were thrown from 
the gallery into the pit and on the stage. Such indecent behaviour was ex- 
ceptional but it was a common occurence the world over to disturb public 
entertainments by what the Italians wittily call "la musica dei palchi", the 
chatter and laughter of the box holders and indeed of the whole audience. 
Enough anecdotes are current to illustrate the point and it took con- 
siderable time to break this time honored, vicious habit. Amongst those 
who by their protests contributed towards that end was an A.B. who com- 
municated a vigorous card to the New York Post Boy on December 27, 
1764, apparently with the consent of the managers and gentlemen per-' 
formers. The rather long but very entertaining document reads: 
To the Printer. 

Sir, you will oblige a great number of your friends and constant readers, if you 
will be kind enough to insert the enclosed in your next Thursday's paper. 

Yours A. B. 

It is a very just observation that a gentleman is to be known by his politeness 
this qualification, wherever it is to be found, convinces us that it's possessor has seen 
the world and has had his manners formed by a good education. The polite man 
is always received with pleasure, while the contrary character, tho' under every advan- 
tage of a gay appearance, never fail to strike with the disagreeable emotions of con- 
tempt and disgust. 

I am led into this short reflection by a circumstance, I can scarcely think of without 
indignation. What I mean is the strange behaviour at the Concert, of a certain set of 
males and females to whom, out of mere complaisance to their appearance, I will give 
the soft appellation of gentlemen and ladies. I am a dear lover of muisc and can't bear 
to be disturbed in my enjoyment of an entertainment so polite and agreeable. How 



1) N. Y. Mercury, November 8, 1762. 



165 

great then is my disappointment and vexation, when instead of a modest and becoming 
silence nothing is heard during the whole performance, but laughing and talking very 
loud, squawling, overturning the benches, etc. Behaviour more suited to a broglio 
than a musical entertainment. 

What is meant by so ill timed an interruption I know not; for tho' it may 
be true that to Kick up a riot, is a liberal amusement, and particularly adapted to some 
ladies, as it serves to attract the eyes of the other sex I am notwithstanding, pretty 
certain there might be a more proper place than the concert room found out for that 
purpose, for I cannot conceive that either the audience, or the gentlemen performers 
an under any obligations to bear those impertinencies and I have an authority to 
assure those offenders against decency that if they don't resolve to behave better 
for the future ; the managers and performers will be forced, either to leave all the per- 
formance or be reduced to the disagreeable necessity of insisting on their absenting 
themselves from a place where they do nothing but give offence ; or if all this will not 
cure the complaint, there are some thoughts of hiring the adjacent room for the con- 
venience of such whose conduct will not bear the eye of the public. 

It is presumed what I have wrote will not be taken amiss by the persons hinted 
at it is not their persons but their follies which are become obnoxious. While we 
are entering into laudable schemes for our improvement in the acts of oeconomy in private 
life, a hint for the better regulation of our conduct in public, cannot be unacceptable. 
It may at least tend to guard us from those improprieties, which very deservedly expose 
us to the ridicule of every sensible stranger. This is the only end proposed by 

X. Y. Z. 

References to the subscription concerts of 1765, though such were pro- 
bably given, escaped me and of those during the winter of 1766 nothing was 
said except that they began after several postponements on Dec. 18 at 
Mr. Burn's Assembly Room and that "a subscription book was opened at 
Mr. Hulett's, dancing master, who will wait on any gentleman, on notice 
given" 1 ). Equally meagre are the allusions to the season of 1767. The 
New York Journal merely mentioned on Feb. 12, 1767 that the concerts 
would begin on that day and continue during the season exactly at half 
past six o'clock. Finally on Nov. 26, 1767, in the New York Post Boy, Mr. 
Hulett acquainted his friends that there would be no public concert that 
winter and that instead music would "be in waiting for those gentlemen 
and ladies that chuse country dances after the concert". Thus the enter- 
prise died a natural death and not until December 10, 1773 was the Sub- 
scription Concert revived at Mr. Hull's Assembly Room. For Dec. 4th 
"in order that the whole may be conducted to the satisfaction of every 
subscriber" a meeting was called "to adjust the necessary matters" with 
a rehearsal to follow. It was then decided to give the first concert on Friday, 
October 10th and afterwards fortnightly on Thursdays 2 ). As the subscrip- 
tions were to be taken in at Hulett's we may surmise that he managed the 
entertainment. "By desire" the concert of January 4, 1774 was to be fol- 
lowed "for that night only" by a ball and it is pretty certain that on this 



1) N. Y. Journal, Nov. 20; Dec, 4, Dec. 18, 1766. 

2) N. D. Journal, Dec. 2 and 16; N. Y. Gazetteer, Dec. 9, 1773. 



166 

occasion the steps Mr. Hulett taught and which William Dunlap when writing 
his History of the American Theatre many years afterwards still remembered, 
were very much in evidence. It is also pleasant to record as a glimpse into 
by -gone times that the concert of February 17th was deferred until the 
following Monday "on account of a public breakfast, given by the gentlemen 
who compose the Society of the Friendly Brothers". As the subscription 
concert began at half past six in the evening, this breakfast must have 
been a rather lengthy affair if it could interfere with the concert, or shall 
we be indiscreet enough to suspect that the gentlemen performers who 
attended the breakfast might not have been, after their convivial per- 
formance, quite in a condition to tune their fiddles and read the music? 

After that the concerts seem to have continued regularly until the se- 
cond April concert was postponed from April 24th to April 28th; "that 
night allowed to be a public concert for the use of Signiora Mazzanti, Mr. 
Zedwitz and Mr. Hulett" 1 ). The announcement then reads and a quota- 
tion is necessary because it refers to the existence of a musical society in 
New York at so early a date: 

"On which evening the Gentlemen of the Harmonic Society have been pleased to 
promise their assistance and Signiora Mazzanti will sing several English and Italian 
songs. After the concert proper music will be ready to wait upon such ladies and gentle- 
men, as may chose to dance. Tickets at a dollar each, to be had of Mr. Rivington 
and Hulett. 

The subscribers will please to observe that to make amends for these interruptions 
in the regular succession of the Subscription Concert, there will be after the above 
advertised night, a concert weekly on Thursdays evenings." 

The idea of giving open-air concerts during the summer gained root at 
New York relatively early. The initiative belonged to a gentleman of the 
euphonious but common name John Jones. As he himself gave the history 
and a description of his enterprise, it is only fair to Mr. Jones to let him 
have the floor. On June 3, 1765 he announced in the New York Mercury: 

At the request of several gentlemen and ladies John Jones begs leave thus to ac- 
quaint the public in general that Renelagh [!] Garden 2 ) will be open'd on Thursday 
next (during the summer season) with a Concert of Musick, (if the weather will permit) 
and to begin precisely at six in the evening and will continue till nine ; the whole to be 
conducted by Messrs. Leonard and Hullett. After the concert a small firework will 
be play'd off, which will continue 'till ten: the whole to be managed with the utmost 
regularity. As it is the first attempt of the kind ever known in those parts, he there- 
fore hopes it will merit the applause of the gentlemen and ladies who will please to 
favour him with their company. 

Tickets for admittance to be had on Thursday next, Price 2 S 6 each. 

N. B. Breakfasting from six in the morning 'till ten . . . Notice will be given in 
this paper every week, of the continuance of this concert, and of the particulars. 



1) N. D. Journal, April 14, 1774. 

2) The famous Ranelagh (House and) Gardens of London were opened in 1742 
and ceased to exist in 1803. The performances there were somewhat of the same cha- 
racter as at Vauxhall Gardens. 



167 

These summer concerts lasted four years and then on March 6, 1769 
Anthony Rutgers, Jun. advertised in the New York Mercury that there 
were "to be let the house and about 18 acres of ground belonging to the 
subscriber, known by the name of Ranelagh Gardens". Why the under- 
taking, which seems to have been well supported by the public, collapsed 
it difficult to tell. Perhaps "the indisposition of Mr. Jones", on account 
of which the concert of vocal and instrumental music on July 28, 1768 was 
deferred, had resulted in his death. However, as long as they lasted, these 
Ranelagh Garden concerts with fireworks contributed much to the enjoy- 
ment of the New Yorkers who, as Mr. Jones proudly claimed, judged his 
place "without exception to be far the most rural retreat near the city", 
"notwithstanding the artful insinuations of some ill-minded people to the 
contrary" 1 ). As if his feelings were wounded, Mr. Jones in this announce- 
ment enumerated as special attractions and his enumeration would have 
pleased even a past master in the art of enumeration as Peter Cornelius' 
immortal barber Abul Hassan Ali Ebe Becar: 

"drawing rooms neatly fitted up; the very best of wine and other liquors, mead, 
filabubs, etc. with gammon, tongues, alamode beef, tarts, cakes, etc. and on notice 
given, dinners or other large entertainments, elegantly provided as usual : strict regula- 
rity at all times observed, and every accommodation studied to render this undertaking 
highly agreeable and satisfactory, in grateful return for the many favours conferred 
on the publick's obedient and very humble servant 

John Jones." 

As Mr. John Jones fully believed in the advantages of advertising we 
may gain a fairly correct idea of the Ranelagh Garden Concert. The en- 
trance fee was 2 s. but "during the scarcity of cash" in 1766 he decided at 
the request of his friends that the tickets should pass at the bar for one 
shilling, which were accounted for as so much cash paid for anything the 
possessor was pleased to call for 2 ). The concerts usually began at 8 o'clock 
in the evening but occasionally at seven and in 1768 Mr. Jones saw his 
way clear to hold them twice a week 3 ). He made it a rule that on a "bad" 
evening the entertainment would be postponed to the following 4 ). That 
music really was, at least in theory, the main feature is emphasized by the 
fact that the "genteel" fireworks were displayed between the "acts" of 
the concert and not vice versa. Unfortunately no full program seems to 
have been announced but we know that a "complete band of music" was 
engaged 5 ). The solo-numbers consisted of pieces played by Mr. Leonard 
and others and the "vocal parts", a phrase of the day with which we have 



1) N. Y. Mercury, June 30, 1766 and Aug. 26 1765. 

2) N. Y. Gazette, Sept. 1, 1766. 

3) N. Y. Mercury, Sept. 2, 1765, June 30, 1766. 

4) N. Y. Gazette, July 20, 1766. 

5) N. Y. Mercury, June 30, 1766. 



168 

become familiar, were held by a Mr. Jackson in 1765, by "a young lady 
who never performed in public before" in 1767 and after the return of the 
American Company in the following and last season by such popular actor- 
singers as Mr. Wools and Miss Wainwright who occasionally joined in duets 
as for instance on June 11, 1768. Only once is the title of a particular piece 
mentioned, when on July 4, 1768 Miss Wainwright was to sing by "par- 
ticular desire" 'Thro the wood laddie'. 

It is not surprising that Mr. John Jones' undertaking, launched under 
the alluring name of Ranelagh Gardens, met with competition. In 1766 
Mr. Edward Bardin, proprietor of the "King's Arms Garden in the Broad- 
way" then, of course, still in the "Fields", as New York's outskirts were 
called, endeavoured to wrest laurels from him. This gentleman "open'd" 
a concert of music, three times a week. He flattered himself "that this 
innocent amusement can scarce give offence to any person whatsoever, as 
every possible precaution will be used to prevent disorder and irregularity" 1 ). 
But notwithstanding Mr. Bardin's appreciation of "the countenance already 
shewn him in this undertaking, a sufficient testimony of a general satisfact- 
tion" 2 ) no reference to a continuation of these concerts appears during the 
following years and in March 1769 he announced, with a request to debtors 
and creditors alike to settle their bills, that his tavern was to be Iet 3 ).\ 

In the same year, in June, Mr. Samuel Francis announced that>the 
"Vaux Hall Gardens" had been "newly fitted up" with "a very good Long 
Room, convenient for a ball or turtle entertainment . . . contiguous to the 
Garden" 4 ) and that a concert of music vocal and instrumental would be 
offered to his guests twice a week. He also remarked that the gardens would 
have been opened earlier in the spring but on account of the theatre! The 
first concert was given on June 30th and if the instrumental "parts" were 
in keeping with the vocal "held" by Mr. Wools and Miss Hallam, it is to 
be regretted that Mr. Francis did not meet with sufficient encouragement to 
continue these concerts during the following years, if we allowed to infer this 
from the absence of advertisements. On the opening night 5 ) were to be sung in 

ACT I. 

By particular desire 'Black Sloven', by Mr. Wools 
'Ye Men of Gaza' (from Handel) by Miss Hallam. 

ACT II. 

'Blest as the immortel gods is he', by Mr. Wools 
'Fair Aurora' (Duet from Artaxerxes) 6 ) by Mr. Wools and Miss Hallam. 



1) N. Y. Post Boy, June 26, 1766. 

2) N. V. Mercury, July 21, 1766. 

3) N. Y. Journal, March 13, 1769. 

4) N. Y. Journal, June 8, 1769. 

5) N. Y. Journal, June 29, 1769. 

6) Arne. 



169 

The introduction of subscription concerts, of course, immediately increased 
the number of benefit concerts, especially of those given for the benefit of 
musicians connected with the management of the subscription concerts. 
The first to thus expect a substantial appreciation of his labors was Mr. 
Leonard who announced a concert in June 1762 x ) and then a "concert of 
musick vocal and instrumental" at the Assembly Room for Feb. 15, 1763. 
It was to begin at 6 o'clock and to conclude "with an Ode on the Restaura- 
tion of Peace, set to musick by Mr. Leadbetter; solo part to be sung by 
Mr. Jackson, with proper choruses" 2 ). Mr. Leonard had further benefits 
on Jan. 10 and December 13, 1764 3 ) and possibly also later. He disappears 
from the papers with a concert advertised for April 14, 1767 4 ). 

Benefit concerts were also given for Mr. Thomas Harrison on March 22, 
1763 and April 12, 1764 5 ), the latter at the New Assembly Room when 
there were to be introduced 

"several new songs, and one cantata; and by particular desire, to conclude with the 
song and grand chorus Rule Britannia, etc., accompanied with drums and clarinets" ! 

As was the case with Mr. Leonard, Thomas Harrison disappears for 
a few years until he again announced benefit concerts for Nov. 16, 1769 
and Dez. 11, 1770 with "a ball for the ladies" .) 



1) N. Y. Gazette, June 7, 1762. 

2) N Y. Gazette, Feb. 7, 1763. 

3) N. Y. Mercury, Jan. 2, 1764; N. Y. Gazette, Dec. 3, 1764. 

4) N. Y. Mercury, April 6, 1767 (postponed from March 10th). 

5) N. Y. Gazette, Feb. 28, 1763 and N. Y. Weekly Post Boy, April 12, 1764. If 
Mr. Krehbiel in his article on music in Trinity Church claims that Thomas Harrison 
had been brought over from England as organist as early as 1744 he evidently confused 
Thomas Harrison with John Bice. The probabilities are that Harrison became organist 
after Rice's removal to Boston in 1753. At any rate, he is positively mentioned as or- 
ganist of Trinity Church in the N. Y. Gazette, February 1, 1762 in an advertisement 
where he also appears as dealer in all kinds of musical instruments. He seems to have 
been succeeded by James Leadbetter who was chosen organist for one year with the 
stipulation that he was to assist in tuning the new organ, on April 5, 1764. (Compare 
Dix). For this new organ already in 1761 500 pounds had been voted but it was not 
purchased (in England) until 1763 when (comp. N. Y. Gazette, Jan. 3, 1763) the old 
organ "consisting of 26 stops, 10 in the grand organ, 10 in the choir organ, and 6 in the 
swell, three sets of keys; with a frontispiece of gilt pipes and otherwise neatly adorned" 
was offered for sale. It was built 1739 1740 by Johann Gottlob Klemm (b. 1690 
in Dresden, came to Philadelphia in 1736, moved to New York 1745, joined the United 
Brethren at Bethlehem, Pa. in 1757, died there 1762) and was the first organ installed 
in Trinity Church. That there was at least some talk of erecting an American built 
organ as early as 1703 appears from the vestry entry of "ye 4th of August, 1703" as 
printed in Baird's Early Records of Trinity Church', Hist. Mag. 3d series, 1872, p. 10: 

"Order that ye Rever. Mr. Vesey, Rector, Coll. Wenham . . . confer with & 
discourse Mr. Henry Neering, Organ Maker about making & erecting an organ in Tri- 
nity Church in N. York and if they shall think meet to agree with him on as easy terms 
as possible". 

Nothing however, appears to have been done in the matter, as Trinity Church 
was still in need of "a sett of organs" in 1709 and as the first organ mentioned in New 
York we might consider the one given by Governor Burnet, Dec. 28, 1727 to the Cor- 
poration of the Dutch Church. (Dix.) 

6) N. Y. Mercury, Nov. 6, 1769 and Dec. 3, 1770. 



170 

Then we notice a "publick concert" on April 3, 1764 J ) for the benefit 
of Mr. A. Van Dienval, at the conclusion of which was to be sung "a grand 
chorus song, accompanied with drums, trumpets, or clariants", presumably 
Rule Britannia. Another musician, prominently connected with the Sub- 
scription Concert and long a resident of New York, appeared relatively late 
on the plan with benefit concerts. Mr. Hulett is meant, who gave his first 
on March 5, 1765 2 ). The announcement of his second, on Oct. 5, 1765 3 ) 
contained this meagre allusion to the program: 

"The first violin to be performed by a gentleman lately arrived. A Solo on the 
Violin by the same Hand, the other instrumental parts by gentlemen of the town." 

Nor is anything said of his concert on March 31, 1767 4 ) except the date 
and the usual information as to tickets, etc. With reference to his "only 
concert this season at Mr. Burn's Room" on Dec. 3, 1767 5 ) he at least ven- 
tured the information that it was to be "in two acts. The vocal parts by 
Mr. Wools and Miss Hallam". He also thought it worth his while to mention 
that at his concert on March 23, 1770 6 ) a Mr. Stotherd was to perform by 
particular desire "several pieces on the French horn" and he became un- 
usually communicative when he remarked in the announcement of his 
benefit concert at Hull's Assembly Room, April 27, 1773 7 ) that 

"the Concert [was] to be conducted and the first violin performed' by Mr. Zedtwitz 
(A capital performer from London). The other instrumental parts, by the gentlemen 
of the Harmonic Society. 

In act the first, a duet, by Mr. Zedtwitz and Mr. Hulett. In act the second 
a solo by Mr. Zedtwitz." 

Both gentlemen named by Mr. Hulett had their own benefit concerts, 
Mr. Stotherd on February 9, 1770 8 ) and Mr. Zedtwitz on May 11, 1773 9 ). 
In Mr. Stotherd's concert at Mr. Burn's Room the instrumental parts were 
performed by "several gentlemen who [were] pleased to patronize the con- 
cert and they must have been able amateurs to carry out this remarkable/ 
program: 

ACT 1st. 

1st Overture of Bach, Opera prima] 

3d Concerto of Avison, Opera quarta 

A Hunting song Black Sloven 

A French Horn Concerto, by Mr. Stotherd 

4th Concerto of Stanley 



1) N. Y. Mercury, March 26, 1764. 

2) N. Y. Gazette, Feb. 25, 1765. 

3) N. Y. Mercury, Oct. 14, 1765. 

4) N. Y. Journal, March 12, 1767. 

5) N. Y. Post Boy, Dec. 3, 1767. 

6) N. Y. Journal, March 15, 1770. 

7) N. Y. Mercury, April 19, 1773. 

8) N. Y. Journal, Feb. 1, 1770. 

9) N. Y. Mercury, May 10, 1773. 



171 

Duet on the French Horn 
8th Periodical Overture 1 ) 

ACT 2d. 

Overture of Saul 2 ) 
Select pieces for four French Horns 
2d Concerto of Humphries 
A Hunting Song 

A French Horn Concerto, by Mr. Stotherd 
3d Concerto of Corelli 
Overture of Atalanta 2 ) 
After the Concert, there will be a ball . . . 

If the announcement of the Subscription Concert on April 28, 1774, 
with exception of a program presented on May 17th by a Mr. Gaze, contains 
the last reference to the Harmonic Society I was able to find, that of Mr. 
Zedtwitz in the New York Mercury, May 10, 1773 contained the first. The 
concert, at Mr. Hull's Assembly Room, was to be conducted and the first 
violin perform'd by himself, the other instrumental parts by the gentlemen 
of said Harmonic Society. Only a few numbers of the program were men- 
tioned: in act the first, a Solo by Mr. Zedtwitz, by particular desire 'Vain 
is beauty's gaudy flower' and 'The Soldier tir'd' by Miss Hallam; in act 
the second, singing by Miss Storer, and a duet with Mr. Hulett's son, "ten 
years old", who thus probably holds the distinction of having been the first 
prodigy to appear on American soil. 

But who was this musician of a name so suggestive of Prussian aristocracy? 
May be it would be more charitable to leave the question unanswered but 
the opportunity is too tempting to briefly trace the checkered career of 
this gentleman to whom nobody will allow this title after hearing of his 
ignominious end. 

? Hermann Zedtwitz expressed his intention to settle in New York in 
April 1773 and proposed "to teach a certain number of gentlemen the violin, 
in the present taste, having been a pupil of several of the most eminent 
masters now in London and Germany". This intention he carried out and 
his name also repeatedly appeared in connection with concerts, but ap- 
parently the musical profession was not lucrative enough and with the 
year 1775 he appears in the newspapers 3 ) as the proprietor of "the Chimney 
office" first in Little Queen Street and then in Nassau and Fairstreet", 
extending his business into a primitive sort of Trust. Then came the war 
and therewith ended the career of Mr. Zedtwitz. The facts are briefly these 4 ). 



1) So called from the collection of 'Periodical Overtures' in 8 parts by the most 
fashionable composers of the day, issued monthly by Rob. Bremner. 

2) Haendel. 

3) N. Y. Journal, March 16, 1775 etc. 

4) Compare N. Y. State Archives; Pennsylvania Archives; Force's American 
Archives; Pennsylvania Staatsbote, 1776; Washington's Writings, etc. In a letter 



172 

When the rupture between the Colonies and the Motherland became 
inevitable, (von) Zedtwitz who claimed to have seen military service under 
Frederick the Great, was appointed major and commissioned as lieutenant- 
colonel in the First New York regiment on March 8, 1776. He took part 
in General Montgomery's famous attack on Quebec as "a brave officer" 
but "was so disabled by a rupture occasioned by a fall from a precipice" 
that he became unfit for active duty. It was then suggested to put him in 
command of the forts on the North River near New York. Fortunately 
enough for the Americans the appointment had not yet become effective 
when a letter of Zedtwitz, written to Governor Tryon (British) was inter- 
cepted smacking of the worst kind of treason. He admitted having written 
the letter but, as he asserted, merely to fool Tryon and to recover certain 
sums due him for services rendered the British Crown in Germany. Naive 
as this explanation was, the court was divided in its opinion as to Zedtwitz' 
guilt and maybe the valuable service rendered by him in influencing the 
Hessians to desert their colors had something to do with their clemency. 
He was cashiered, however, removed to Philadelphia and confined to the 
State prison. Somehow he managed in May 1779 to make his escape from 
Reading and was on his way to New York when he was taken up near 
Morristown, N. J. "dressed in Woman's clothes" 1 ). It is pretty safe to 
say that this escapade ended most unpleasantly for our Hermann von Zedt- 
witz, music teacher, chimney sweep, lieutnant-colonel and traitor. 

Mr. von Zedtwitz' career has carried us a few years beyond the period 
under discussion. In retracing our steps it might be well to first dispose 
of such entertainments as were only in part concerts. For instance, on 
July 15, 1767 2 ) Mr. Douglas, actor and theatrical manager, delivered George 
Alexander Stevens' once so popular 'Lecture on Heads' in three parts. By 
particular desire, Mr. Wools who lived to be the Nestor of the American 
stage, was to sing at the end of the first part 'Thou like the Glorious sun' 
after the second 'Water parted from the sea', both airs from Arne's opera 
Artaxerxes and after the lecture the cantata 'Cymon and Iphigenia'. Si- 
milar entertainments were repeatedly given either like this at Burn's As- 
sembly Room or "by permission" of the authorities at the theatre in John 

preserved in copy at the N. Y. Public Library and dated August 20, 1778 the Hessian 
lieutenant Henckelmann has this to say about "von Settwitz. Er war vor der Re- 
bellion Schornsteinfeger in New York, verliess seinen Posten, ging nach Philadelphia, 
recommandierte sich bei dem Hr. Perm durch Clavierspielen und Singen, dass dieser 
ihn zum Mitglied im Congress vorschlug, worin er aufgenommen wurde und noch 
eine Rolle spielt". As a matter of fact, of course, Zedtwitz never was a member of 
the Continental Congress but the letter 'may serve as an illustration of the absurd 
form gossip and rumors will take and how sceptical one should be in using letters for 
historical argument. 

1) Virginia Gazette, Williamsburg, June 5, 1779. 

2) N, Y. Gazette, July 6, 1767. 



173 

Street. In 1769 these lectures on heads, hearts, etc. were presented to the 
public under the more pretentious than appropriate heading of 'Attic Even- 
ing Entertainment' with "extracts from various authors read, and some of 
the most celebrated songs" sung. For instance the latter comprised on 
July 21 1 ): 

'A way to the fields' (a hunting song) by Mr. Hudgson. 

A Song set by Dr. Henry Purcell, by Mr. Warwell 

'The Linnets', by Mr. Hudgson. 

A Martial Song, in character, by Mr. Warwell 

A Two part song, by Mr. Warwell and Mr. Hudgson. 

In the meantime the official antipathy against theatrical performances 
had abated and thereafter the actors only rarely found time or opportunity 
to deliver such lectures outside of the theatre. The idea was revived a few 
years later by a Mr. Hoar who, end of August and in Sept. 1772, delivered 
a "Syllabus in three parts with a concert of vocal and instrumental musick" 2 ) 
and in 1773 utilized his "copy of Mr. George Alexander Stevens's new Lectures 
(with characteristic heads and dresses) as they are now delivered in London 
by that celebrated genius". Mr. Hoar was assisted between the acts by 
a "young lady" who sang a number of songs "with proper accompaniments" 3 ). 

It remains to trace a few concerts proper not hitherto mentioned. In~ 
1767, on April 23 4 ), "the Royal American Band of Musick", presumably 
a regimental band stationed at New York, gave for its own benefit a 
concert of vocal and instrumental music, of which nothing else is said. 
On June 13, 1769 5 ) the actress and singer Mrs. Harman, assisted by her 
colleagues Miss Hallam, Miss M. Storer, Mr. Wools and Miss Wainwright 
had a benefit concert. This probably was one of a series of benefit con- 
certs of which "a vocal entertainment at Mr. Burn's Long Room" on 
July 14, 1769 "by permission of His Excellency the Governor" was "the 
last night". From the fact that it was announced for nobody's special 
benefit, it may be surmised that it was a joint-benefit for the singers, who 
all belonged to Douglas' American Company, as mentioned on the program : 

ACT 1st. 

A Pastoral, by Mr. Warwell 

'Come rouse brother Sportsman' (a hunting song) by Mr. Hudgson 
'Bright author of my present flame', by Mr. Warwell. 

ACT 2d. 

'May Eve ; or Kate of Aberdeen', by Mr. Hudgson 
A Song in the Anacreontic taste, by Mr. Warwell 
The Jest, set by Mr. Michael Arme, by Mr. Hudgson. 

1) N. Y. Journal, July 20, 1769. 

2) N. Y. Journal, Aug. 27; Sept. 3, 1772. 

3) N. Y. Journal, Feb. 4, 1773. 

4) N. Y. Gazette, April 13, 1767. 

5) N. Y. Post Boy, June 5, 1769. 



174 

ACT 3d. 

A Cantata, by Mr. Warwell 
A Song, by Mr. Hudgson 
A Duett, by Mr. Warwell and Mr. Hudgson. 

Then came a concert on January 24, 1771 *) at Mr. Bol ton's Tavern for 
the benefit of John Me Lane, "five major of the 29th regiment" 2 ) and sub- 
sequently, as we have seen, instructor of the German flute at Philadelphia. 
As special attractions Mr. Me Lane mentioned "a solo on the German flute" 
and after the concert "several pieces of music performed by the fifers and 
drummers of the said regiment". 

Possibly it was also Mr. Me Lane who took the second flute in a "duet 
on 2 flutes" which the flutist George Webster announced as the principal 
feature of his concert, scheduled for March 13th at Mr. Bolton's tavern, 
postponed from March 5, 1771 3 .) The concert, adorned by other select 
pieces, was to conclude with the march in Haendel's Judas Maccabaeus 
"accompanied with a side drum". Shortly afterwards, on April 17th 3 ) 
"by particular desire of several ladies of distinction" a concert of vocal and 
instrumental music was held for the benefit of a "respectable but distressed 
family of orphans" and said ladies expressed their hope "that so charitable 
a design [would] meet the countenance of every person of sensibility and 
benevolence". 

So far, New Yorkers had not yet caught a glimpse of French and Italian 
virtuosos with exception of Signiora Mazzanti. A splendid opportunity 
came in May 1774 though it must be confessed that the programs smacked 
somewhat of the sensational. Certainly the announcement of Mr. Gaze's 
concert with "orchestry's" pieces etc. leaves nothing to be desired in 
quaintness 4 ) : 

MUSIC. On Tuesday Evening the 17th instant will be performed at Mr. Hull's 
Tavern, for the use of Mr. Caze, an extraordinary instrumental and vocal Concert in 
two acts, consisting of different solos, upon various instruments, unknown in this 
country, to be executed by the gentlemen of the Harmonic Society, who have been 
pleased to promise their assistance. 



1) N. Y. Mercury, Jan. 7, 1771. 

2) N. Y. Mercury, Jan. 14, 1771. 

3) N. Y. Journal Feb. 14, N. Y. Mercury, March 4, 1771. George Webster is 
still to be traced at New York in 1785 as teacher of the flute. During the war, though 
he still gave music lessons, he drifted mainly into the liquor, grocery and shoe business 
at the sign of the Three Cannisters. For instance, in the Royal Gazette, Nov. 4, 1778 
he announced inter alia that he would supply "Sergeants, of the army with any quan- 
tity of strong military shoes, likewise hard and soft shoe-brushes for the use of their 
men" and "gentlemen and ladies who are fond of preserved fruits in brandy . . . with 
peaches, pears, plumbs and green gages". It is extremely doubtful whether Washing- 
ton's army was equally provided with all the delicacies "in and out of season" nor 
could many of our soldiers boast of "strong military shoes". 

4) N. Y. Mercury, May 9, 1774. 



175 

1st ACT. 

A grand Orchestry's Symphony 

A French Ariette will be sung accompanied with the guitar and violin. 
Mr. Gaze will play his own composed music, on the violin with Mr. Zedtwitz. 
A Concert on the Flute 
A Sonada on the Spanish Guitar 
The first Act to end with a March. 

lid ACT. 

A Grand Orchestry's Symphonic 

A French Ariette accompany'd with the Mandolin and Violin 
A Solo on the Violin 
A Duo on Mandoline and Violin 

A Sonada of the Salterio; and d'Exaudet's Minuet with echos. 
The Concert to finish with a March of the grand Orchestry. 
After the Concert there will be a ball . . . 

Not less quaint is the announcement 1 ) of the joint benefit concert of 
the two maestri Nicholas Biferi and Pietro Sodi, the latter, it will be re- 
membered from the chapter on Charleston, claiming to have had for many 
years the sole conduct of the dances at the Italian opera in London 2 ): 

At Mr. Hull's Assembly Room, will be performed a great Concert extraordinary, 
the 26th of this month, for the benefit of Mr. Biferi and Mr. Sodi, the said concert will 
be divided into two acts, each act composed of four pieces. 

Mr. Biferi, master of music from Naples, will perform on the harpsichord a piece 
of music of his composition with the orchestra v ditto in the second act will perform a 
solo accompanied with the violin. 

There will follow a ball, in which Mr. Sodi will dance the louvre, and the minuet 
with Miss Sodi, a young lady nine years of age; and Miss Sodi will dance a rigadoon 
with young Mr. Hulett. 

Mr. Biferi again endeavoured to interest the public on March 23, 1775 3 ) 
when he had a "concert and ball under the patronage of the Hon. Stephen 
Payne Gal way, Esq. "at Mr. Hull's Tavern. This was followed by the last 
concert before the war" a publick concert for the benefit of a Band of Musick" 
at Mr. Hull's Assembly Room on April 27th 4 ). 



1) N. Y. Mercury, May 16, 1774. 

2) Mr. Biferi and Mr. Sodi were two of the "three gentlemen lately [in April] arrived 
from London" who proposed in the N. Y. Gazetteer, May 5, 1774 to open "A new Aca- 
demy for teaching musick, dancing and the Italian and French languages". The third 
was Joseph Corani, to whose lot it would have fallen to teach the languages, had the 
proposals met with success. Evidently they did not, for we met Sodi at Charleston in the 
following year and Nicholas Biferi subsequently advertised his paedagogic talents in- 
dependently of the beautiful cooperative scheme. He taught "vocal music, the harp- 
sichord, to play pieces of music and an easy method to learn the composition which 
he printed for the public at Paris ; he composes all sorts of music, vocal and instrumental". 
Was this Nicolas Biferi from Naples possibly identical with the Biferi (Bifferi), Fran- 
cesco, fils, who was born about 1739 at Naples, who lived at Paris about 1767 and who 
published there in 1770 his 'Traite de la musique dans lequel on traite du chant, de 1'ac- 
compagnement, de la composition et de la fuge'? (Compare Eitner.) 

3) N. Y. Mercury, Feb. 27, 1775. 

4) N. Y. Mercury, April 17, 1775. 



176 

For certain reasons the name of one musician, and probably the best 
New York could boast in those days, has not yet been referred to in the 
record of concerts after 1760: William Tuckey. He had threatened to leave 
the city unless he met with better encouragement but either because his 
threat had the desired effect or because he did not see his way clear to 
more appreciative climes, Tuckey remained in New York and labored faith- 
fully in the interest of the Charity School connected with Trinity Church. 
This part of his activity does not interest us here whereas his efforts to 
establish what we perhaps would call to-day, an Oratorio Society, or at any 
rate, his efforts to systematically bring church music before the general 
public deserves not only attention but lasting credit. 

To ascertain the full extent of this pioneer-propaganda is no longer 
possible but Tuckey's rather minute announcements on several occasions 
afford a fairly good view of what he tried to accomplish and in part did 
accomplish. The announcements are so interesting and instructive in them- 
selves that it will be better to use, as far as possible, Tuckey's own words 
than to paraphrase them and rob them of their delightful quaintness. 

It will be remembered that already in 1754 he urged an "improvement" 
and "amendment" of "the singing in public congregations" in New York 
and it goes without saying that his energies remained bent in this direction. 
Then, in 1762, his appeal took a more concrete form in this advertisement 
in the New York Weekly Post Boy, September 4, 1762: 

TO ALL LOVERS OP DIVINE HARMONY. 

Whereas it is a custom in Protestant congregations in Europe, on times of rejoicing, 
as well on annual as particular days of thanksgiving, to sing the Te Deum therefore 
by particular desire a subscription is open'd for the encouragement of so laudable a 
practice in this city. Proposals as follows: Every lady, gentleman etc., to subscribe 
whatever they please, for which subscription money William Tuckey, has obligated 
himself to teach a sufficient number of persons, to perform the Te Deum, either with 
or without organ, or other instruments; a"nd that it shall be as good a piece of music 
as any of the common Te Deums sung in any cathedral church in England. Performers 
to pay nothing for instruction (unless it be their pleasure) but it is expected that they 
will (as they are to be inhabitants of the city) be kind enough to join the choir on any 
particular occasion ; especially at the opening of the new organ, which is expected soon. 

Public subscriptions are taken in by Mr. Gaine, Mr. Weymann, and the printer 
of this paper, which moneys are to be left in the persons hands who receive it, 
'till there is a rehearsal of the piece before the subscribers, of which rehearsal they 
shall have notice. 

Mr. Tuckey desires all persons from lads of ten years old etc., as well as other 
persons of good repute, that has good voices and are willing to join the company, 
to be speedy in their application, and give in their names to Mr. Hildreth, Clerk 
of Trinity Church, or Mr. Silby, Clerk of St. George's Chappel; as he will begin 
immediately to instruct the performers and receive all qualify'd till there are 50 
voices in the chorus. 



Some response certainly must have been made to this call, but I found 
no further allusion to the enterprise until 1766 when the New York Mer- 
cury on October 6, 1766 printed the following news which prove Mr. Tuckey 
to have launched in the meantime at least one "Rehearsal of Church Musick", 
alias concert. The announcement reads: 

We are inform'd that Mr. Tuckey's Rehearsal of Church Mustek, (which has given 
such general satisfaction to the people of all ranks in this city, at the performance) 
will very shortly by particular desire of a number of ladies and gentlemen (who are his 
friends) be again rehearsed for his benefit, with a considerable addition: whereof notice 
will be given in the weekly papers 

This Concert will consist of nothing but church musick ; in which will be introduced, 
a new Te Deum, Jubilate, Cantata Domini; and Deni [!] Misereatur, accompany'd with 
a sufficient number of proper instruments. Mr. Tuckey would take it as a great favour 
of any gentleman, who sing or play any instrument, to lend him their kind assistance 
in the performance, and give him timely notice, that there may be a sufficient number 
of parts wrote out." 

The date was fixed for October 28th 1 ) and the price of tickets at four shil- 
lings each to be had at Tuckey's home. It is also interesting to note that 
the concert was net held in a church but at Mr. Burn's New Room. To 
the pieces mentioned in the preliminary announcement was added 

an Anthem (in which there is an obligate part for a harp, as there is also in the 
Cantate Domino) with several other pieces of Church Musick, intermixed with other 
instrumental performances in order to ease the voices: the whole to conclude with a 
Martial Psalm, viz. the 46th, Tate and Brady's version, accompanied with all the in- 
struments, and a pair of drums. 

N. B. There will be more than forty voices and instruments in the chorus. 

Whether the adjective "new" applied only to the Te Deum or to all the 
pieces does not appear but it is highly probable that at least the Te Deum 
was Tuckey's own composition 2 ). 



1) N. Y. Gazette, Oct. 20, 1766. 

2) Students of American psalmody will have met with Tuckey's compositions 
as contained in psalm-tune collections. Probably the first composition of his published 
in America was 'An Anthem taken out of the 97th Psalm', embodied anonymously 
in James Lyon's 'Urania', 1761 and subsequently popular as 'Liverpool'. We also 
know from the Boston Evening Post, Dec. 15, 1760 that a Thanksgiving Anthem of 
his was performed in December, 1760 in Trinity Church, New York. Consequently 
his compositions became fairly well known, notwithstanding the fact that he failed 
in his efforts to publish certain of his works by subscription. For want of better op- 
portunity and in order to be of service to the historians of American church music, 
I quote the respective advertisements here. On March 11, 1771 appeared in the N. Y. 
Mercury the following. 

Proposals for publishing (by subscription) Two select pieces of Church music. 

1st. An Hymn (by way of an anthem) consisting of Solos, Duets, one Trio and 
Chorus; together with a Psalm Tune, adapted for any charitable church collection, 
and first design'd for the benefit of the Free School belonging to Trinity Church in 
New York, to be perform'd in the churches at the annual collection; the school being 
chiefly supported by charity ; the words of the hymn by a gentleman of Kings' College. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 12 



178 

It may be taken for granted that when on Oct. 30, 1766 the "new Epis- 
copal Chapel, called St. Paul's and esteemed one of the most elegant edifices 
on the Continent was opened" it was William Tuckey who with "a suitable 
band of music vocal and instrumental" introduced "several pieces of church 
music" the "judicious execution" of which "contributed much to heighten 
the solemnity" as the New York Mercury expressed it on November 3d. 
It appears that the introduction of a band, whatever its constitution might 
have been, was due to the expressed desire of Sir Henry Moore, a desire 
granted 



2d. A performance adapted for a funeral, consisting of three Dirges, (or chorus) 
the words part of the burial service; together with an Anthem and a Psalm Tune suit- 
able on the solemnity of a funeral or interment of any person of note, etc. The whole 
never yet perform'd being very lately set to music by William Tuckey, for some years 
a professor of the theory and practice of vocal music, Vicar Choral of the Cathedral 
Church of Bristol and Clerk of the Parish of St. Mary Port in said city, now resident 
in New York. 

The subscribers to pay two shillings at the time of subscribing and two shillings 
more on the delivery of the work (New York currency) which is to be neatly engrav'd 
on copper plates, and work'd off on the best paper: and when ready to be deliver'd; 
notice will be inserted in the New York, Philadelphia and Boston papers: the subscribers 
to be at the expence of sending their subsrciptions and for their books to New York 
either to Hugh Gaine or the proprietor, William Tuckey. 

N. B. No more will be work'd off than what are subscribed for, so that none will 
be sold by any bookseller, but those who subscribe who will be entitled to the usual 
discount. 

Though the following proposals were anonymous the fact that a number of the 
pieces were identical with those performed at Tuckey 's concert of October 28, 1766 
renders it certain that he was the composer, a supposition further strengthened by 
the tenor of the advertisement in the N. Y. Journal, July 1, 1773: 

Church Music. Ready for engraving, and to be published by subscription, the 
following select pieces, consisting of a complete set of church service, viz. A Te Deum 
laudamus ; Jubilate Deo; Benedicite opera Domini; Cantate Domino and Deus misereatur; 
a burial service and an anthem for any grand funeral; a complete and well adapted 
anthem to be sung at the time of any charitable contribution ; a grand chorus, 'Hosanna 
to the Son of David, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord', etc. proper to 
be sung at any meeting; or convention of the clergy, of any denomination; as also 
an Anthem 133d Psalm, for a grand meeting of Free and Accepted Masons' ; the whole 
to be published in score, which will contain to the best calculation sixty folio pages, 
to be engraved and worked off in the neatest manner and on the best paper, the work 
will receive the greatest dispatch as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers offer 
who are requested to be as speedy as possible to deliver in their names and places of 
abode. The piece to subscribers will be one dollar and a half; one half to be paid at 
the time of subscribing and the other half of the delivery of the book. 

Subscriptions are taken in by Messrs. Gaine, Rivington and Holt, printers in New 
York . . . [and others from Rhode Island down to Charleston, S. C. !] All the subscription 
money is to be sent and deposited in the hands of Messrs. Rivington, Holt and Gaine, 
or either of these gentlemen in New York, who will take care that no money shall 
be paid to the compiler, till they have inspected the manuscript and seen it dispatched 
to the engraver; and in case a sufficient number of subscribers should not offer they 
will return the subscription money they have received. 

N. B. There never was any complete set of church service made public, nor can 
any be procured but by friendship and a great expence; neither is any burial service 
of the kind to be purchased, unless it be that in Dr. Croft's anthems, which is sold 
for two guineas. 



179 

"on the condition that the band should only join in such part of the service as 
was usual and customary in like cases, and that no other pieces of music should be 
allowed but such only as were adapted to the service of the church on such solemn 
' occasions". 1 ) 

Suitable band of music! This recalls to our minds the plan Joh. Seb. 
Bach submitted to the city fathers of Leipzig (Spitta, II, p. 74). He therein 
demanded as minimum 23 first, 2 3 second violins, 2first, 2 second violas, 
2 violoncelli, 1 double bass, 23 oboes, 1 2 bassoons, 3 trumpets, 1 kettle- 
drum, that is to say, in addition to organ and harpsichord not more than 
22 instrumentalists as against a chorus of 12 to 16 (trained!) singers. These 
specifications are instructive. That they really were considered about 
normal we know from Mattheson who says in his 'Vollkommener Kapell- 
meister' that for choir and orchestra together "bevor ab in grossen[ !] Stadt- 
kirchen" 30 persons are approximately needed. Finally, Joh. Samuel Petri, 
in his 'Anleitung zur praktischen Musik', 1767 recommends: 

". . . . Man mochte nach der Menge der Instrumentalisten die Stimmen etwa so 
besetzen wenn eine espece von Concert herauskommen sollte : Ein sehr schwacher Chor. . . 
[7 8 instrumentalists] . . . Ein etwas starkerer . . . [10 12] Ein vollstandigerer . . . 
[21 to 24]" 

specifying 2 flutes or oboes, 2 horns or clarinets and kettledrums. Con- 
sequently William Tuckey did not have much difficulty in finding at New- 
York in 1766 a really suitable band, at least for "a somewhat fuller chorus" ! 

Confining himself thus to church music, William Tuckey appears to 
have laboured until 1769 when he again ventured to give a benefit concert 
on April 21st 2 ). Of the program nothing is said except that the vocal parts 
were held by Miss Wain wright, Miss Hallam, Miss Maria Storer and Mr. Wools, 
with a ball after the concert. Choirmaster, actors and dancing, surely a 
curious combination but one which speaks well for the tolerance of by- 
gone days! 

One other feature of the program was announced in the papers that 
should not pass unnoticed. If, as Mr. Cummings claims in his monograph 
on 'God save the king' the first recorded public performance of the British 
national hymn took place at London on Sept. 30, 1745 in Carey's arrange- 
ment as a trio with chorus refrain, there is every reason to believe that 
the hymn made its first appearance on an American program on the evening 
of Tuckey's benefit, April 21, 1769 for "by particular desire the concert [was] 
to end with God save the king". This concert was followed not quite a 
year later by one which deservedly aroused the interest of our historians. 
Said F. L. Hitter 3 ): 



1) Krehbiel, quoting loc. cit. the records of the parish. 

2) N. Y. Mercury, April 12 and N. Y. Journal, April 20, 1769. 

3) Music in America, New ed. 1895, p. 135. 

12* 



180 

"on the 9th of January, 1770, Handel's 'Messiah' was performed in Trinity Church, 
repeated on the 3d of October the following year and again in April 1772". 

Mr. Ritter did not mention his authorities and therefore other writers 
who copied this statement, so important for the history of oratorio in America, 
were justified in hesitating to accept it. The more so, as the statement hap- 
pens to be incorrect and misleading. Though the first performance was 
originally announced for Jan. 9, 1770 1 ), it was subsequently postponed to 
Jan. 16th 2 ). In the second place, the concert was given, not in Trinity 
Church, but at Mr. Burn's Room. Furthermore, the statement reads as if 
the entire oratorio was performed whereas only the overture and sixteen 
numbers were given. Finally, I have not come across the announcement 
of performances in 1771 and 1772. This, however, may have been my fault, 
and until the dates given are removed as impossible, Ritter's reference will 
have to stand. 

Before submitting the full announcement, one other observation. Haen- 
del's 'Messiah', first performed at Dublin in 1742 and at London in 1743, 
soon conquered Great Britain but was slow to force its way into popularity 
on the continent. Indeed, Sittard in his book on concerts in Hamburg 
claimed that the first performance of the 'Messiah' in Germany was given 
at Hamburg under Michael Arne 3 ) on April 15, 1772. The inference is plain 
enough: William Tuckey introduced the 'Messiah' to the citizens of New York 
one year before its first performance in Germany ! To be sure, Tuckey gave 
only seventeen of the fifty-seven numbers, but is it absolutely certain that 
Haendel performed his masterwork in its entirety at Dublin? And did it 
not soon become customary to perform only more or less comprehensive 
extracts from the gigantic score as the limits of human endurance required 
merciless cuts? At any rate, Sittard's statement that beyond doubt the 
ichole oratorio was performed at Hamburg and not only a selection is rather 
bold in view of the fact that the announcement contains nothing to uphold 
this contention and on the other hand mentions that the famous oratorio 
was to be followed by the Coronation Anthem ! Be this as it may, the honor 
of having introduced the 'Messiah' to the American public belongs to Wil- 
liam Tuckey and this alone would entitle him to lasting fame in the history 
of our musical life. 

Unfortunately all we know of this pioneer-performance is contained in 
the following characteristic though meagre announcement in the New York 
Journal, January 4, 1770: 



1) N. Y. Mercury, Dec. 25, 1769. 

2) N. Y. Journal, Jan. 11, 1770 and N. Y. Journal, Jan. 4, 1770. 

3) Sittard says Thomas Augustine Arne, but it was Michael. 



181 

CONCERT OF CHURCH MUSIC. 

Will be performed at Mr. Burns's Room, on Tuesday the 9th of January, 1770 
for the benefit of Mr. Tuckey. 

First Part. Some select instrumental pieces, chosen by the gentlemen who are 
performers: Particularly a Concerto on the French Horn by a gentleman 
juxt arrived from Dublin 1 ). 

Second Part. A Sacred Oratorio on the prophecies concerning Christ and his coming ; 
being an extract from the late Mr. Handel's grand oratorio, called the Messiah, 
consisting of the overture, and sixteen other pieces, viz. air, recitatives, and 
choruses. Never performed in America. 

The words of the oratorio will be delivered gratis (to the ladies and gentlemen) 
who are pleased to patronize and encourage this Concert, or may be purchased of Mr. 
Tuckey, or by others for six Pence. 

As it is impossible that a performance of this sort can be carried on without the 
kind assistance of gentlemen, who are lovers of music and performers on instruments; 
Mr. Tuckey will always gratefully acknowledge the favour of the gentlemen who assist 
him. 

Tickets to be had of Mr. Tuckey at eight shillings each. To begin precisely at 
6 o'clock. 

To this may be added from his advertisement of postponement to Ja- 
nuary 16th that he had succeeded in engaging "a considerable number of 
ladies and gentlemen". How considerable this number was is a matter of 
conjecture but it is reasonably certain that it cannot have fallen much 
below the twenty-three singers and thirty-three instrumentalists as em- 
ployed in the performance of the Messiah (the last at which Haendel was 
present) for the benefit of the Foundling Hospital, London, May 3, 1759. 

As was said above, I have been unable to verify Hitter's dates for the 
two repetitions of the concert. Possibly he had October 3, 1770 instead of 
1771 in mind when a sermon was preached in Trinity Church by the Rev. 
Dr. Auchmuty for the benefit of the 'Corporation for the Relief of the widows 
and children of clergymen in the Communion of the Church of England in 
America' and when incidentally were performed "several pieces of Church 
music by the most eminent composers; among others, part of the celebrated 
Mr. Handel's oratorio of the Messiah" 2 ). However, as also Mr. Dix in his 
history of Trinity Church asserts that the Messiah was repeated there on 
October 3, 1771 "when no less than 28 clergymen were present" I leave 
it to others to wrestle with the apparent contradiction between contemporary 
announcement and historical statement. 

William Tuckey's subsequent career in singularly elusive. He advertised 
no concerts and no further mention of his name is made in the papers. Pos- 
sibly he remained at New York until the beginning of the war. Where 
he resided afterwards, is equally a mystery and only one fact stands forth: 
his death at Philadelphia in 1781. 



1) Probably Mr. Stotherd. 

2) N. Y. Mercury, Sept. 24, 1770. 



182 

During the war the musical life of New York did not come to a standstill 
as in other cities. The reasons are not far to seek. Lord Howe captured 
the city in Sept. 1776 and it remained in the hands of the British until the 
evacuation in November 1783. New York speedily assumed the appearance 
of a garrison city not overly troubled by the opposing army and naturally 
the officers and society-folk belonging to the tory party felt a desire to 
feel as comfortable as possible. This desire was not checked by the great 
fire of 1776 which broke out in a down-town brothel and laid 500 houses, 
including Trinity Church, about one Third of New York then a place 
of some odd twenty thousand inhabitants in ashes. The absence of many 
of the gaiety-loving Whig families who had fled, was hardly felt as the tory 
ladies and such as "followed the drum" to use Dunlap's veiled but plain 
words vied with each other to let the English and Hessian officers and other 
gentlemen, loyal to the king, forget the ennui of their daily and by no means 
arduous routine. 

Under the circumstances, and as there always has been a good deal of 
amateur talent in the British army, it is not at all surprising that the gentlemen 
of the army and navy, assisted by their tory-friends, formed themselves 
into a theatrical company, of which at least the repertory was as good as 
that of their professional predecessors. The performances continued 
until shortly before the evacuation and the presence of regimental bands 
materially aided towards a satisfactory rendition of the current English 
operas and musical farces. Indeed, Dunlap asserts that the orchestra, formed 
of the bands, was better than that attached to Douglas' company. Dunlap 
mentions as further places of amusement the ball-room of the City Tavern 
and "the Mall, the walk in front of the ruins of Trinity Church, the resort 
of beaux and belles during the summer evenings, promenading in thoughtless 
gaiety or with measured steps to the music of the military bands placed by 
the officers amid the graves of the church yard". 

Strange to say, he does not mention concerts, though such seem to 
have occupied the minds of the gentlemen as much as theatrical performances. 

At first these concerts were merely tentative as for instance a concert 
on January 24, 1778 1 ) but towards the end of the same year 2 ) 

"some gentlemen being desirous of having Musical Parties this winter, have entered 
into a subscription of two guineas each for to have a Concert twice a week and to com- 
mence as soon as there are twelve subscribers that are performers. 

As soon as the subscription is filled, Mr. Rivington [the printer] will call a meeting 
of the subscribers to settle in what manner the monies arising from said subscription 
shall be appropriated." 

Though I found no further reference to these Musical Parties, little doubt 



1) Royal Gazette, Jan. 24, 1778. 

2) Royal Gazette, Nov. 25, 1778. 



183 

can be entertained that the gentlemen succeeded in finding the twelve per- 
former-subscribers. At any rate, these subscription-concerts, though now 
weekly, flourished from 1781 to 1783. Not only was the public informed 
in April 1781 !) that "there [would] be neither play nor concert during this 
week" but we have a still better clue in the New York Mercury of April 16, 
1781: 

Public Concert. The subscribers to the Concert at Roubalet's are desired to take 
notice that it will recommence to-morrow evening and in future be continued every 
Tuesday." 

In 1782 the first 'Subscription-Concert' began on January 19th "pre- 
cisely at seven and finished at ten o'clock" and was to be continued on 
every Wednesday 2 ). The season closed with the eighteenth concert on 
(Thursday) May 16th 3 ). As curious details of management may be men- 
tioned the request that the subscribers should write the names of the street 
and number of their house on the back of their tickets, as otherwise it would 
be impossible to return them with propriety 4 ) and the announcement that 
gentlemen, who were non-subscribers and not residents in town, would be 
furnished with extra-tickets for admission at the door of the concert room 
at a dollar each. The subscription was to be continued during the following 
year under these conditions 5 ): 

1. The subscribers to consist of officers of the navy and army and the gentlemen 
of the city. 

2. Each subscriber to pay one guinea on the delivery of one ticket for the season 
on which he will please to insert his name, street, and number of the house. 

3. Each subscriber to have the privilege of introducing two ladies and one gentle- 
man, provided such gentleman is not resident in the city. 

The first concert will be at Roubalet's on Saturday the 30th instant, to commence 
precisely at, 7 o'clock, and will be continued weekly of the same day. 

Officers of the Navy and Army who may not have been applied to by the mana- 
gers, will receive tickets at Roubalet's at one guinea each, and will please to leave 
their names etc. at the bar." 

That the concerts actually took place may be proven by several ad- 
vertisements in the Royal Gazette in January and February, 1783. If these 
concerts were not ideal in rendition, they were at least abreast of the times 
in spirit. If proof be required, we need but turn to the program of a concert, 
given by the gentlemen of the army and navy, as were all these public enter- 
tainments, to alleviate the misfortunes of persons, affiliated in one form or 
the other with the British cause. The interesting announcement, in the 
Royal Gazette, April 27, 1782, reads: 



1) N. Y. Mercury, April 9, 1781. 

2) Royal Gazette, Jan. 16, 1782. 

3) Royal Gazette, May 8, 1782. 

4) Royal Gazette, Jan. 23, 1782. 

5) Royal Gazette, Nov. 27, 1782, signed Nov. 22d. 



184 

THEATRE. 
(By Permission) 

This evening will be performed, a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Musick, 
for the benefit of two distressed Refugee Families; 

It is hoped the humanity of the respectable public will, on this laudable occasion, 
be particularly shewn, as they may depend upon every pains being taken to render the 
evening's amusement agreeable. 

ACT I 

Sinfonie of Toeschi 

Quartette of Davaux for violins 

Song by Mrs. Hyde 'Soldiers tir'd of Wars alarms'. 

Violino Solo Concerto of Borchny 

Quintetto of C. Bach for Flauto. 
Sinfonie of Stamitz. 

ACT II 

Sinfonie of Haydn 
Quartette of Kammell, for violino 
Song by Mrs. Hyde, "The lark's shrill notes' 
Hoboy Solo Concerto of C. Fisher 
Quartette of Vanhall, for Flauto 
Sinfonie of Haydn 

ACT III 

Sinfonie of Bach 

Quartette of Davaux, for violino 

Song by Mrs. Hyde 'If 'tis joy to wound a lover' 

Clarinetto Solo Concerto of Mahoy 

Quartette of Toeschi, for Flauto 
Sinfonie of Mardino [Martini?] 

Tickets to be had of the different printers, at Mr. Strachan's Coffee House, and 
Mr. James M'Ewer's No. 242 Queenstreet. Boxes 8 s. Pit 8 s. Gallery 4 s. 

The subscription concerts evidently fully satisfied the desire of the sons 
of Mars to have Musical Parties as independent benefit and other concerts 
were but seldom announced. Among them one deserves attention given 
on Sept. 10, 1780 1 ) at John Mackenzie's 'White Conduit House', apparently 
an open air entertainment and more particularly the "Concerto Spirituale 
of three acts" given at the theatre on March 25, 1780 in evident (miniature) 
imitation of the Concert Spirituel of Paris. We are told that 

each act will consist of an Overture. Song. Solo. Song. Trio. Song. Sym\ 
phony. The whole to conclude with the Grand Chorus of the Messiah. The orchestra) 
to 'be on the stage, which will be properly decorated on this occasion." 

Finally Signior Franceschini, whose ability on the violin Charlestonians 
had an opportunity to enjoy from 1774 to 1782 had "by permission" a benefit 
on June 9, 1783 2 ) and he was succeeded by William Brown, subsequently- 
so prominent at Philadelphia, at whose benefit on August 8, 1783 3 ) "Signior 
Franceschini was to play the first violin". Unless Brown was "honoured 



1) Royal Gazette, Sept. 9, 1780. 

2) Royal Gazette, May 31, 1783. 

3) Royal Gazette, Aug. 6, 1783. 



185 

with a sufficient audience" at his proposed "second" concert at Roubalet's 
on August 15th 1 ) his concert at August 8, 1783 may be said to have been 
the last given at New York under the British regime. 

William Brown was also the first to appear before the concert-going 
public of New York after the war. He must have been not only a trouble- 
some character, to judge from his quarrels with Bentley andCapron at Phila- 
delphia, but also of a rather restless disposition. Hardly had he given his 
concerts of 1783 at New York when he went to Philadelphia, a journey 
then by no means very comfortable. Thence he proceeded to Baltimore 
where he is to be traced early in 1784. We further know from the chapter 
on concerts in Philadelphia that he ventured in the same year as far South 
as Charleston and back again to Philadelphia where he seems to have remained 
until fall of 1785 when he reappears at New York as the founder of the 
New York Subscription Concert. End of October 2 ), the number of sub- 
scribers being "compleated", he requested the gentlemen to meet at Cape's 
Tavern to "fix on some regulations" relative to the enterprise. Beyond 
this and the announcement 3 ) that the managers of the 'Gentlemen's Concert' 
found it agreeable that the "company should have tea and coffee served 
up to them in the tea rooms, in the interval betwixt the conclusion of the 
concert and the commencement of the dancing" we hear nothing concerning 
the entertainments except and this is really the most important item 
that, as Mr. Brown was permitted to note in the announcement, New York 
Daily Advertiser, March 14, 1786 of a benefit concert 

"the managers of the Gentlemen's Concert [were] perfectly satisfied with the 
attention and assiduity of Mr. Brown in the conducting of the musical department 
during the season." 

This testimonial, however, did not induce Mr. Brown to remain at New ' 
York and as there seems to have been no other musician of sufficient energy 
to take his place, the enterprise collapsed. Indeed, New York just then 
appears to have been, may be for political reasons, a rather uninviting place 
for musicians. Even an unquestionably able artist like Alexander Reinagle, 

esmber of the Society of Musicians in London", found it to his advantage \ 
eave New York after a brief sojourn. v ' 

He, like William Brown, found the Quaker City more hospitable and his 
return to New York in Sept. 1788 was due primarily to his connection with 
the Old American Company of comedians. With the return of this company 
things musical, too, received a fresh impetus at New York. The first fruit 
of Reinagle's energetic and experienced leadership was the revival of the 



1) Royal Gazette, Aug. 6, 1783. 

2) N. Y. Packet, Oct. 24, 1785. 

3) N. Y. Daily Advertiser, Jan. 10, 1786. 



186 

'New York Subscription Concert' under his direction "the vocal parts by 
Mrs. Henry and Mr. Capron. The instrumental by Messrs. Reinagle, Capron, 
Bradford etc." The enterprise was planned on a modest scale as only three 
concerts were held at the City Tavern, on Sept. 15, Sept. 29 and October 13, 
1788 1 ) with the following "plans". 

FIRST CONCERT 
ACT I 

Overture Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Bradford 

ACT II 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Overture of Abel 

ACT III 

Solo Violin Mr. Reinagle 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Overture of Stamitz 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

ACT II 

Sonata and Trio of Haydn and Schroter .. .. Mr. Reinagle 

Song Mr. Capron 

Quartette, Flute, of Bach 

ACT III 

Trio of Boccherini Messrs. Reinagle, 

Bradford and Capron 

Song [Mrs.] Henry 

Overture of Reinagle 

THIRD CONCERT 
ACT I 

Overture of Gossec 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 

ACT II 

Concerto Pianoforte of Schroter Mr. Reinagle 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Quartetto, Flute Vanhall 

ACT III 
Miscellaneous Quartett 

Song Mrs. Henry 

Overture of . Stamitz 



1) Daily Advertiser, Sept. 13, Sept. 27, Oct. 11, 1788. 



187 

In the following year, 1789, again only three concerts were offered "under 
the direction of Messrs. Reinagle and Capron" on Sept. 22, postponed from 
Sept. 15, Oct. 6 and Oct. 3Qth under the heading of "New York Subscription 
Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music" 1 ). The programs read: 

FIRST CONCERT 

ACT 1st. 

Overture of Giordan! 

Song by Mrs. Sewell 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Overture of Guglielmi 

ACT 2d. 

Overture of Stamitz 

Song by Mrs. Sewell 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Overture of Gossec 

After the first act will be performed a Chorus, to the words that were sung, as 
Gen. Washington passed the bridge at Trenton the Music now composed by Mr. 
Reinagle. 2 ) 

SECOND CONCERT. 

ACT 1st. 

Overture of J. Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Sewell 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 



1) Daily Advertiser, Sept. 15, Oct. 2, Oct. 20, 1789. 

2) This chorus, to the words "Welcome, mighty chief! once more" was published in 
December 1789 unter the title of 

Chorus sung before Gen. Washington as he passed under the triumphal arch 
raised on the bridge at Trenton April 21st 1789. Set to music and dedicated by 
permission to Mrs. Washington by A. Reinagle . . Philadelphia. Printed for the 
author ..." 

In my Bibliography of Early Secular American Music, p. 25 I contend that Rei- 
nagles' piece was not sung on April 21st on the bridge at Trenton. The main reasons 
for this startling contention are these: 1) The concert announcement distinctly says 
"The music now composed by Mr. Reinagle". 2) The Sonata, as the original chorus 
was referred to in all the contemporaneous newspaper accounts was sung "by a number 
of young girls" unaccompanied whereas Reinagle's (rather indifferent) piece is engraved 
for "2 voice, 1 voice, 3 voice" with pianoforte accompanied apparently reduced from 
an orchestral score. Now, Reinagle's chorus is not identical with the President's March 
which in 1798 furnished the musical basis for Joseph Hopkinson's 'Hail Columbia'. 
Consequently, if Reinagle's chorus was not sung on April 21, 1789 on the bridge at Tren- 
ton, some other musician must have furnished the music for the patriotic musical 
address of welcome, which so impressed George Washington. According to certain 
traditions, this musician was Philip Phile and it is also claimed, (without knowledge 
of Reinagle's chorus etc.!) that the words were sung to the tune of the President's 
March of which either Phile or Philip Roth is said to have been the composer. In 
fact, Phile's authorship of the President's March hangs on a satisfactory solution of 
the problem whether the President's March was sung on the bridge or not. Those in- 
terested in this puzzle are referred to my 'Critical Notes on the origin of Hail Columbia' 
(Sammelbande d. IMG. 1901 2) where I mention musical reason for my opinion that 
the President's March was not sung on said occasion. 



188 

ACT 2d. 

Chorus*) 

Overture of Vanhall 

Song Mrs. Sewell 

Duett, Piano Forte and Violin of Mozart 

Overture .. .. Ditters 

THIRD CONCERT. 
ACT 1st. 

Overture Carlo Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Sewell 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Quartett Clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

Song Mrs. Sewell 

ACT 2d. 

The 6th Periodical Overture of J. Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Sewell 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Symphonia Gossec 

The same number of concerts, at Corre's Hotel, was adhered to during 
the next three years. In the meantime, Reinagle had again moved to Phila- 
delphia and it fell to Capron's lot to "open" the subscriptions. In this he 
was assisted during the winter of 1790 1791 by a Mr. Kullin. The first 
concert was to be on Jan. 3, 1791 and the others were to follow in fortnightly 
intervals 2 ), but on Jan. 3d Capron found himself obliged by the "combina- 
tion of many circumstances" to change the dates to Jan. 10th, Jan. 24th 
and Feb. 7th. Beyond this and the notice on Dec. 31st, 1790 that a "Mr. 
Luby will also perform on the Spanish guitar and sing" I have found no 
reference to the concerts in the Daily Advertiser except the usull details 
of management, f. i. that strangers could be admitted for ten shillings for 
each concert if introduced by a subscriber. 

The series of 1792 also began rather late, on February 28th and was 
continued on March 13th and 20th 3 ). Henri Capron divided the responsi- 
bilities and the profits between himself, Mr. Van Hagen, sen., who needs 
no further introduction to the reader, and George Edward Saliment, "pro- 
fessor of music lately arrived", teacher of singing in English and French, 
of the guitar and German flute on which he styled himself a master 4 ). These 
three gentlemen submitted on Feb. 7th in the Daily Advertiser the following 
conditions of subscription: 

I. A subscriber paying five dollars will receive a ticket which will admit to the 
three concerts, a gentleman, a lady, and two misses or masters, under fourteen years 
of age. 



1) Apparently the same as sung at the first concert. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 21, 1790. t 

3) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 25, March 13 and March 20, 1792. 

4) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 18, 1791. Saliment remained true to New York but 
disappears from the directories after 1800. 



189 

II. A single subscriber paying three dollars, will receive a ticket which will admit 
a gentleman or lady to the three concerts. 

III. A ticket to admit a gentleman or lady, to a single concert, ten shillings. 

IV. A ticket to admit a gentleman and lady to a single concert two dollars. 

V. The subscription money to be paid on delivery of the tickets. 
After each Concert a Ball. 

The conditions being satisfactory to the public, the concerts were 
held on the dates mentioned with these offerings: 

FIRST CONCERT. 
ACT I 

Symphony of Pleyel 

Piano Forte Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Hay 

Violin Concerto P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 

Violoncello Concerto Mr. Capron 

ACT II. 

Symphony of .. ..- Pleyel 

Flute Concerto Mr. Saliment 

Song Mrs. Hay 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Symphony of Pleyel 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I 

Overture of Henry IV by Martini 

Piano Forte Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Hay 

Violin Concerto P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 

Flute Concerto Mr. Saliment 

ACT 2d. 

Interlude of Henry IV by Martini 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Song Mrs. Hay 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

THIRD CONCERT. 

ACT I 
Overture 

Song Mr. Capron 

Forte Piano Sonata, by Pleyel .. .. Mr. Van Hagen 
Tenor Concerto P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 

ACT II 

Overture of the Deserter [Dibdin or Monsigny] 

Flute Concert Mr. Saliment 

Song Mr. Capron 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Overture of Rose and Colas [Monsigny] 

Shortly afterwards Henry Capron took up his residence at Philadelphia 
and the Subscription-Concerts were continued at Corre's Hotel under the 



190 

management of G. E. Saliment, who soon seems to have dropped out, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Van Hagen, lately from Amsterdam who was to perform 
"concertos, sonatas and accompanyments on the pianoforte" as we are in- 
formed in the proposals on Sept. 27, 1792 in the Daily Advertiser. The 
managers had also succeeded in engaging the "vocal powers" of the famous 
Mrs. Mechtler, "lately from England". As far as the solo numbers of the 
programs are concerned, they resulted more or less in an exhibition of the 
abilities of the Van Hagen family with a plentiful display of PleyePs music. 
Here are the three programs of the three concerts on Oct. 15, Oct. 29 and 
Nov. 12, 1792 1): 

FIRST CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Grand Overture of Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

Violin Concerto P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 

Flute Concerto Mr. Saliment 

ACT II. 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

Sinfonia Finale of Pleyel 

Several gentlemen, amateurs, of the St. Cecilia Society in this city, have obligingly 
consented to honor the performance with their assistance. 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture of Pichel 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Flute Concerto Mr. Saliment 

Simphonie Concertante, of C. Stamitz 

ACT II. 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

Simphonie Finale of Pleyel 

THIRD CONCERT. 
FIRST PART. 

Grand Overture of Lackwith [!] 

Violin Concerto P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

SECOND PART. 

Flute Concert .. .. Mr. Saliment 

Song Mrs. Mechtler 

Violin Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Rondo of Pleyel 



1) Daily Advertiser, Oct. 10, Oct. 23, Nov. 3, 1792. 



191 

If the Van Hagens, contrary to tradition, gave their Subscription-Con- 
certs in the fall of 1792 instead of in the winter, their reasons must have 
been weighty. Presumably they had heard that Messrs. James Hewitt, 
Jean Gehot, B. Bergmann and William Young contemplated an encroach- 
ment upon their monopoly and they hastened to reap a harvest before these 
formidable competitors became active who called themselves in the papers 
"professors of music from the opera house Hanoversquare and Professional 
Concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, etc. London" and who pro- 
mised to make their enterprise "entertaining and instructive by intro- 
ducing every novel performance that Europe has produced" 1 ). In this the 
Van Hagens succeeded. Though the four gentlemen advertised the first 
of a series of concerts "by subscription for twelve nights" for Oct. 4, 1792 2 ) 
they found themselves on the very day of performance compelled to post- 
pone the entertainment which certainly would have been entertaining and 
instructive with this program 3 ): 

ACT I. 

Overture Rossetti 

Quartette Wraniski [!] 

Concerto Flute, Mr. Young C. G. Gloesch 

Concertante for violin, flute, tenor, and violoncello Pleyel 

Concerto Violoncello, Mr. Phillips Phillips 

ACT II. 

Sinfonia Ditters 

Concerto Violin, Mr. Hewitt C. Stamitz 

Quartette Flute Schmittbauer 

Grand Overture Pleyel 

More than likely the ambitious gentlemen had not studied their ground 
carefully enough. Twelve concerts were decidecly too many for New York, 
at least under the conditions proposed, namely that the subscriptions were 
to be 

"for ladies, one guinea and a half each for gentlemen, two guineas each for 
a lady and gentleman, three guineas each Non subscribers, one dollar* each." 

The enterprising quartet, or rather trio as William Young 4 ) dropped 
out, soon saw the discrepancy between their proposals and the willingless 



1) The best known of the forr was Jean Gehot. According to Fetis he was born 
about 1756 in Belgium, travelled in Germany and France after 1780 and lived in Lon- 
don in 1784, but he must have been there as early as 1781 as Pohl ('Mozart u. Haydn 
in London', p. 370) traced him in London in that year as violin virtuoso. Eitner men- 
tions numerous compositions by Gehot, 36 quartets, trios etc. and several theoretical 
works. The identity of this Gehot with the "American" Gehot appears from John 
R. Parker's Musical Reminiscences in the 'Euterpiad', 1822. Paiker also states that 
Gehot died in obscurity and indigent circumstances. Of his compositions, composed 
in America, only very few, and they insignificant, are to be traced. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Sept, 25, 1792. 

3) Daily Advertiser, Oct. 4, 1792. 

4) According to Dunlap he was sentenced to death in 1797 for having killed -in 
a desperate mood the constable who came to arrest him for contracted debts. 



192 

of the New Yorkers, accustomed to a more meagre musical diet, to sub- 
scribe so much money for so many concerts. To be sure, they stated on 
November 3d that their reason for postponing their subscription concerts was 
to obtain the celebrated singers, Mrs. Pownall (late Mrs. Wrighten) and Mrs. Hodgkin- 
son, both recently from England, and as they were determined to engage the first singers 
in America have spared no expence nor trouble (by separate journeys to Philadelphia, 
etc. etc.) to gratify the amateurs of music. 

However, the fact that they further announced that the first concert 
would be held "as soon as the subscription [was] adequate to the expence" 
and that, when this finally happened, they limited themselves to six concerts 
instead of twelve clearly indicates other reasons besides the one published. 
Nor did they, as will be seen, adhere to the oiiginal plan of introducing 
"catches and glees by many other eminent singers from London", meaning, 
of course, the singing members of the Old American Company. 

Not before the middle of January, 1793 did Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, 
and Phillips he too from London meet with sufficient encouragement 
to launch their enterprise. The first concert took place at Corre's Hotel on 
January 23, 1793, the second on February 21st, and so forth on March 2d, 
March 16th, March 25th and April 6th 1 ). A peculiar detail of management 
was this that subscriptions were kept open until the end of the series with 
gradually decreasing prices. But more important is the fact that works by 
Wanhal and Haydn were played from manuscript and that the latter's 
'Passion of our Saviour' perhaps had its first performance in America on 
March 25, 1793. This 'Passion' was none other than the 'Seven Words' 
composed in 1785 for the cathedral of Cadiz, and shortly afterwards performed 
at London under the title of 'Passione Instrumentale' : 

FIRST CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture Haydn 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Quartetto Girowetz 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Phillips 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song .. .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Finale 2 ) 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture Haydn 

Song Mrs. Pownall 



1) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, March 13, March 23, March 28, 1793. To 
avoid confusion it might be well to state that several postponements and changes of 
program were made. Only the final the dates and programs have been entered here. 

2) The balls following the concerts were conducted by Mr. Phillips. 



193 

Trio Schmidt 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Phillips 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Duetto, Violin and Viola Messrs. Hewitt and [?] 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Overture Ditters 

By particular desire 

Song, 'The Primrose Girl' Mrs. Pownall 

THIRD CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Sinfonia Vanhall, M. S. 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartette Pleyel 

Song .. Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto, Violoncello .. .. ' .. .. Mr. Phillips 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Overture Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale Haydn 

FOURTH CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

New Overture Haydn, M. S. 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Quartetto Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Phillips 

ACT II. 

Celebrated concertante, Violin, viola, clarinetto, 

and violoncello Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Sinfonia Rosetti 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale, Battle Overture Hewitt 1 ) 

FIFTH CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture, La Chasse Haydn 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartetto Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Phillips. 



1) This naively programmatic piece was first played on Sept. 26, 1792. The 'pro- 
gram' will be given under benefit -concerts. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 13 



194 

ACT II. 

The Passion of our Saviour, expressed in instrumental parts, 
composed by Haydn. 

Part 1. Introduction 

2. Father [for]give them, they know not what they do. 

3. To day thou shalt be with me in Paradise 

4. Woman behold thy son 

5. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me 

6. I thirst 

7. It is finished 

8. Into thy hands I command my spirit. 
To conclude with the representation of an Earthquake. 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sinfonia Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Pownal 

Finale Haydn 

SIXTH CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture Van Hall 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartetto Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Phillips 

ACT 2 d. 

Concertante Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Overture Stamitz 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Full piece Haydn 1 ) 

In the following year the rival organisations again appeared on the plan 
with a slight interchange of forces. Under the direction of Messrs. Capron, 
Hewitt and Saliment with Hulett as conductor of the balls, a series of three 
'City Concerts' was given at the City Tavern on Dec. 27, 1793, Jan. 9 and 



1) For reasons not mentioned this concert was "removed" from Corre's Hotel 
to the City Tavern. The date was originally fixed for April 6, with this program, de- 
voted entirely to Corelli and Haendel, and certainly more interesting than the one per- 
formed 

ACT I. 

Overture, Sampson Haendel 

Song' Come ever smiling liberty' from the Oratorium of Judas 

Maccabaeus Mr. Pownall 

1st Concerto Corelli 

Duetto '0 lovely peace with plenty crown'd' Mrs. Hodgkinson and 

Mrs. Pownall 
Overture. Ariadne Haendel 

ACT II. 

Overture, Jephta Haendel 

Song 'I know that my Redeemer liveth', from the 'Messiah' Mrs. Pownall 

2d Concerto Corelli 

Recit. and song 'Comfort ye my people', from the Messiah Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Overture, Occasional Haendel 



195 

Jan. 23, 1794 l ). Mr. and Mrs. Van Hagen and Mr. Phillips, in charge of 
the Terpsichorean features, in turn and evidently jealous of their ante- 
cedents, opened both in French and English a subscription for three 'Old 
City Concerts', held at Corre's Hotel on Jan. 7, Jan. 21 and Feb. 4, 1794 2 ). 
The City Concerts were predominantly instrumental in character, the only 
singer engaged being Mrs. Pownall, assisted occasionally in French duets 
by Mr. Capron. On the other hand, in the Old City Concerts vocal and 
instrumental music were more evenly distributed. Against Mrs. Pownall 
were pitched Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson and Mr. Prigmore, also the precocious 
talents of Master Van Hagen being featured. A slight difference appears 
further in the arrangement of the programs. In the Old City Concerts the 
virtuoso element clearly reigned supreme and no definite place seems to 
have governed the selection of the orchestral numbers, whereas the pillar, 
as Theodore Thomas would >have said, in the programs offered by Capron 
clearly was formed by Haydn, whose name appears not once on the pro- 
grams of the Old City Concerts. Otherwise the concerts had much in common 
and the similarity between the conditions of subscription was probably 
more an outcome of business considerations than of a competition for public 
favor. The terms at the .City Concerts, for instance, were these. Each 
subscriber paid 5 dollars which entitled him to a ticket to admit himself 
and two ladies. A "single" subscriber paid 3 dollars and a non-subscriber 
10 shillings for each concert. The price of admission for a young lady or 
gentleman under 14 years of age was 5 shillings, a condition somewhat 
recalling to our mind the to Americans, at least, odd custom prevailing 
in German where "Kinder und Militar zahlen die Halfte". The programs 
read: 

CITY CONCERTS. 

FIRST CONCERT. 

ACT I. 

Overture .. .. Haydn 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Rausch 

Song .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Flute .. .. Mr. Saliment 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violoncello Capron 

Song r. .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Solo, French Horn Mr. Pelissier 

French Duet for 2 voices Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Capron 

Finale Pleyel 



1) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 26, 1793; Jan. 7, and 20, 1794. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 3, 15 and 30, 1794. 

13* 



196 

SECOND CONCERT. 

ACT I. 

Sinfonie Vanhall, M. S. 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Quartette, Pleyel Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, Du Champ 

and Capron 
Duett for 2 voices 'How sweet is the 

breath of morn' Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Capron 

Sonata Piano forte Madame de Seze. 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song, accompanied on the PianoForte Madame De Seze 

Duett, Violin and Violoncello .. .. Messrs. Hewitt and Capron 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Finale .. .. Haydn 

THIRD CONCERT. 

ACT I. 

Overture, La Reine Haydn 

Song, accompanied on the Piano Forts Madame de Seze. 

Quartette Messrs. Saliment, Hewitt, Du Camp 

and Capron 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

ACT II. 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Rausch 

Song,-accompanied on the Pedal Harp Madame De Seze 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Finale, La Chasse Haydn 



OLD CITY CONCERTS. 
FIRST CONCERT. 

ACT I. 

Overture Pleyel 

Song 'Mansion of peace' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Tenor Master Van Hagen 

Song 'Answer to the Mansion of peace' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto, grand Piano Forte .. .. Mrs. Van Hagen 

Duett 'How sweet in the woodlands' Messrs. Hodgkinson and Prigmore 

ACT II. 

Concerto Clarinett Mr. Wolf 

Song 'Blue ey'd Patty' .. ' Mr. Prigmore 

Solo, French horn Mr. Pellesier 

Bravoura, 'Cease gay seducers' .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sonata on the Forte Piano for four hands Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Duett 'Could you to battle march 

away' Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 



197 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture Stamitz 

Hunting Song Mr. Prigmore 

Concerto Tenor Master Van Hagen 

Bravura 'The bleak wind whistles' .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 
Sonata, Piano* Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II. 

Overture, Henry 4th Martini 

Song 'Poor Richard' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song, accompanied by the clarinet, 

'Sympathetic echo' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Pianoforte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Comic Duett Mr. & Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale Da Zaides.i) 

THIRD CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Overture by Plyel 

Trio 'Incitement to virtue' Mr. & Mrs. Hodgkinson & Mr. Prigmore 

Concerto Violin Master Van Hagen 

Song 'Humanity' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Sonata on the Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II. 
Entre Acte of Henry the Fourth 

Song 'Generous wine' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song 'Remembrance' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto on the Piano Forte .. .. Mrs. Van Hagen 
(By desire) Comic Duett 'The jealous 

man, etc.' Mr. & Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale, the Deserter Gretry [!] 

During the same year, the rival managers must have come to an under- 
standing and a junction of their forces was effected, for when the concert- 
season opened, the Daily Advertiser on Dec. 12, and 18, 1794, possibly 
much to the surprise of its readers, announced that Mr. and Mrs. Van Hagen, 
Messrs. Hewitt and Saliment Capron had again left for Philadelphia 
would co-operate in a series of three concerts at the New Assembly Room 
in William Street "upon a much larger scale than heretofore", the vocal 
parts to be held by Mrs. Hodgkinson, Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Benjamin Carr. 
Wherein this larger scale consisted is difficult to see but perhaps some plau- 
sible explanation was deemed necessary in view of the fact that the sub- 
scription-price was raised from 5 to 6 dollars for two ladies and a gentleman, 
from 3 to 4 1 / 2 dollars for one lady and a gentleman, etc. Of course, 
this advance in the price of subscription was due primarily to the fact that 



1) Dezede, 1740-92. 



198 

otherwise a co-operation would have been to the disadvantage of the ma- 
nagers rather than to their advantage. Finally, it is noteworthy that the 
series was not entitled Old City Concerts, but City Concerts. They were 
held on Feb. 21, March 5 and March 19, 1795 with these programs 1 ): 

FIRST CONCERT 
ACT I. 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Ballad Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song Mr. Carr 

A Concerto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II. 

Overture Girovetz 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartette Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, Van 

Hagen, jun., Rosendall 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Full Piece Haydn 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Storm Overture Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mr. Carr 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Duet, for violin and viola Messrs. Hewitt and 

Van Hagen, jun. 

Song Mr. Carr 

Finale Pichl 

THIRD CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Grand Symphony Pichl 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartetto Messrs. Van Hagen jun , Van 

Hagen, sen., Bergman and 
Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Pianoforte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song Mr. Carr 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale Pleyel 



1) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 18, March 2, March 17, 1795. 



199 

This co-operation appears not to have been to the taste of Hewitt and 
Saliment. They withdrew and left the field to Mr. and Mrs. Van Hagen 
who went into partnership with Frederick Rausch, music teacher and dealer 
in instruments, and John Christopher Moller, late of Philadelphia. At first, 
on Dec. 4, 1795 in the American Minerva, they announced under the sug- 
gestive heading of Old City Concert a series of four concerts but contented 
themselves a few weeks later, on Dec. 26th, with a subscription for three. 
The concerts were held at the New Assembly Room on Jan. 12, Jan. 21 and 
Feb. 2, 1796 with Miss Broadhurst as attraction in the "vocal parts" 1 ). 

FIRST CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Sinfonia Gyrovetz 

Concerto Flute, by a gentleman lately from 
Europe 

Song 'Amidst the allusions' Miss Broadhurst 

Duetto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen and Mr. Rausch 

Concertante Mr. V. Hagen and Van Hagen, jun. 

ACT II. 

Sinfonia Pichl 

Concerto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Song 'How can I forget the fond hour' .. Miss. Broadhurst 

Concert Mr. V. Hagen 

Finale Haydn 

SECOND CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Sinfonia Pleval 

Song, 'Court one not to scenes of pleasure .. Miss Broadhurst 

Fantasie with a rondo Mr. Rausch 

Song Bravoura Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

ACT II. 

Sinfonia Pichl 

Song 'Twas within a mile of Edinburg town' Miss Broadhurst 

Duetto Piano Forte and Tenor Messrs. Moller, Van Hagen 

Finale Haydn 

THIRD CONCERT. 
ACT I. 

Grand Overture Wranitzky 

Song 'Kind Zephyr wast my passing sighs' .. Miss Broadhurst 

Sonata on the harp Mr. Relain 

Song 'Tho, by the tempest' Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

ACT II. 

Overture, Henry 4th Martini 

Song 'O Nancy wilt thou fly with me' .. .. Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Violin Mr. Vanhagen 

Finale Pleyel 



1) American Minerva, Jan. 7, Jan. 18, Jan. 28, 1796. 



200 

So far it had been Philadelphia that robbed New York of some of her 
best musicians but now Boston was beginning to act as a magnet. Thus 
New York lost in 1796 the useful and energetic services of the Van Hagens. 
Logically the continuation of the Old City Concerts fell upon Mr. Holler's 
shoulders but unfortunately I am unable to submit data of consequence 
beyond the mere fact that he actually did continue the concerts. Presumably 
the programs and other data referring to the three Old City Concerts of 1797 
for which Moller "by advice of his friends" opened a subscription in the 
Minerva on Dec. 27, 1796 are hidden in one or the other of the daily papers, 
but they escaped me. Or, possibly, he fared not better than did Messrs. 
Hewitt, Rausch and Saliment who intended to revive the City Concerts 
under the name of the City Subscription Concert in competition with Moller's 
series 1 ) but not finding the subscription adequate to the expense saw their 
way clear for one concert only. Though this "annual" concert of Feb. 7, 
1797 2 ) properly belongs to the benefit-concerts, its program may be inserted 
here as it also represents the last sign of life of the City Concerts started 
by Hewitt and his associates in 1793. 

ACT I. 

Overture , Haydn 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Pianoforte Mr. Rausch 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Glee 'Come live with me and be my love' 

Battle of Prague, arranged for a full orchestra by Hewitt 

ACT II. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Glee 'Adieu to the village delights' 

Finale Pichl 

Nor did the Old City Concert last much longer. On Feb. 12, 1798 Mr. 
Moller advertised in the Daily Advertiser subscription- concerts in which 
would be introduced parts of the 'Messiah' but it does not appear that he 
was successful in continuing the concerts beyond the first. In fact, on the 
same day, while giving the plan of the first concert, he was not in a position 
to announce the exact date it was to be advertised "in due time". As 
the same advertisement was still running as late as March 14th it may be 
inferred that the concert did not take place at all. At any rate, a series of 
concerts was not given. The program of the first and last concert reads: 



1) Minerva, Dec. 24, 1796. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 30, 1797. 



201 

PART I. 

Overture Pleyel 

Song Miss Moller 

Concertante Messrs. Nicolas and 

Averdile 

Song Miss Broadhurst 

Duett, grand Piano Forte Miss Moller and Mr. Geib 

Full piece Hayden 

PART II. 

* New Overture J. C. Moller 

Song 'Comfort ye my people' Miss Broadhurst 

Concertante Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song 'I know that my Redeemer liveth' Miss Moller 

Chorus (and the Glory) [!] The principal parts by Messieurs 
Piercon, Shiptons and Lee, and by MissBroadhurst and Miss 
Moller. 

After this no subscription-concerts are mentioned during the last years 
of the century. However, if undoubtedly the interest in such enterprises 
had been waning, it should not be surmised that New York was without 
concerts in addition to the usual benefit entertainments. As far as private 
enterprises of a sustained character are concerned, it will be seen that the 
center of the concert-season in New York, too, had merely shifted from the 
winter to the summer and besides this it must be taken into consideration 
that the activity of the several musical societies, though very little is known 
of them, naturally and as was also the case in smaller European cities, 
seriously interfered with subscription concerts as undertaken independently 
by individual musicians. 

The Harmonic Society of pre -revolutionary times seems to have died 
a natural death when the war-clouds began to hover over New York. 
It was to my knowledge the only musical society founded in the city 
before the war but Mr. F. L. Ritter, while not mentioning the Harmonic 
Society, refers to an Apollo Society of which he says (on p. 135 of his History) 
that it seems to have been the foremost among those musical societies . . . 
established in New York about the middle of the last century. A very 
interesting statement, but unfortunately Ritter forgot to mention his 
source and therefore we feel justified in treating his statement with scep- 
ticism ! However, after the war, soon another attempt was made to unite the 
music lovers into a society and this attempt was followed by others with 
various fortunes. 

On Nov. 9, 1786 the Daily Advertiser announced that "the Society for 
promoting vocal music [would] meet at 6 o'clock this evening at Mr. Hulett's 1 ) 



1) This was John Hamilton Hulett, dancing master, son and successor to old 
Hulett who had died in 1785. John H. Hulett is still to be traced in the New York 
Directory of 1805, but he does not appear in that of 1810. 



202 

School Room in Little Queen Street, agreeable to adjournment". Conse- 
quently this meeting was not called to found the society. It therefore re- 
mains open to further investigation whether or not the society was founded 
prior to 1786 and it is also a matter of further research to ascertain what 
became of it. 

One year later, the same paper on Dec. 27, 1787 addressed "all lovers 
of music" with proposals of "several musical amateurs, to establish a musical 
society, both vocal and instrumental" and a meeting at which "to consider 
and adopt some fundamental rules", was called at the Charity Schoolroom 
in John Street first for Dec. 29th and then for Jan. 5, 1788 when "per- 
formers only [were] requested to attend". The meeting evidently led to 
something tangible for on Feb. 6th, in the Daily Advertiser, John Wood, 
Secretary by order of the moderator, called a special meeting of the members 
of the "Musical Society of the City of New York". 

Concerning the first year of the society's activity the newspapers observe 
silence and not until June 1789 do we hear of the object of the society. Then, 
on June 12th in the Daily Gazette, a concert of sacred music was advertised 
for June 18th at the Lutheran Church "by a few lovers of music having 
formed themselves into a Society for the purpose of promoting that noble 
art", i. e. sacred music. The proceeds were to cover the payment of an 
organ already purchased by way of individual contributions and to otherwise 
forward the designs of the society. That these 'few lovers of music" con- 
stituted the members of the Musical Society becomes apparent from the 
advertisement in the Daily Gazette of June 13th when it was said that on 
June 18th the "Musical Society of the City of New York together with the 
assistance of a Band of instrumental musicians" would perform the follow- 
ing pieces: 

1. Overture by Vanhall 

2. Anthem, from Psalm 150 by .. Arnold 

3. Jonah, an oratorio by Felsted 1 ) 

4. Symphony by Kammell 

5. Anthem, from Psalm 80, by .. Woodward 

6. Violin Concerto by Phile 

7. Anthem, from 1. Cor. 15, by .. Keefe 

8. Simphony Finale. 

This is the only program of the society I have been able to discover and 
the few remaining data on the Musical Society of the City of New York 
were gleaned from the New York directories. Thus it would appear that 
George Gilfert, musician and subsequently of some prominence as music 
dealer, was the "director", scil. president, in 1789, followed in 1791 by Isaac 
Van Vleek, notary public and from 1792 to 1794 by Henry Will, pewterer. 



1) More about this rather obscure oratorio under Boston. 



203 

The society, which had its meeting place in John Street, is not mentioned 
in the directory of 1795 nor later and therefore apparently had ceased to exist. 

In the meantime a society had been founded which, though not under 
its original name, lived far into the nineteenth century 1 ). It was the St. Ce- 
cilia Society, "instituted", as we learn from the New York directory of 
1795, "in 1791, with a view to cultivate the science of music, and a good 
taste in its education [execution?]. The concerts [were] held weekly, on 
Saturday evenings; the principal professors of music [in the city being] 
members and performers at these concerts". The officers originally in charge 
(see N. Y. Directory, 1792) were David Mitchelson as president, Lewis Ogden 
as treasurer, and Isaac Van Vleek as secretary. Mr. Mitchelson held his 
office for four years, when succeeded by Mr. Lewis Ogden. The last year 
of the society's independent existence, 1799, then saw Mr. Joseph Fitch at 
the helm, Frederick Rausch, the musician, being vice-president. 

If this society clearly cultivated instrumental music, the very name of 
another points to an activity in the realms of church music. When the 
'Uranian Society' was founded and when it went out of existence is doubtful. 
The first reference to it is found in the Daily Advertiser, March 7, 1793 
when a special meeting was to be held on the same evening at the City Hall 
and the last may be gleaned from the directory of 1798 under the heading 
'Uranian Musical Society', with Mr. Joseph Kimball as president and a sur- 
prisingly long list of well-to-do and prominent citizens as members. In the 
directory of 1797 it is expressly stated that "this society was instituted for 
improvement in sacred vocal music. Elect the first Wednesday in January, 
and meet every Wednesday". 

1) Mr. Hitter had this to say (on p. 135): 

"In 1791 a St. Cecilia Society was established but it lasted only a few years; the 
cultivation of instrumental music was its aim. Mr. S. Johnson tells me that, about 
1838, a gentleman, Mr. Ming, who belonged to it, told him that the St. Cecilia Society 
failed because the public did not appreciate classical music. When a small band of 
seven or eight musicians one night attempted to play in the theatre a portion of a Haydn 
symphony, the "gods" in the gallery cried out "Stop that noise; give us 'Bonypart 
crossing the Rhine', 'Washington's March', or 'Yankee Doodle'." On the following 
night, when the musicians repeated the "offense" by again attempting to play Haydn, 
they were greeted with "cat calls", rotten eggs, and bouquets of a variety of vege- 
tables". 

This anecdote is amusing, but it is an anecdote and should not be taken seriously. 
It is very characteristic of Hitter's attitude towards early music in America that he 
mentions this occurrence in the same breath with the activity of the St. Cecilia Society 
though it did not happen at its concerts and without asking himself whether such 
things did not happen elsewhere besides in America and whether it really happened 
"because the public did not appreciate classical music". As a matter of fact, he might 
have gleaned from Dunlap that the public, responsible for said incident, consisted 
of two drunken ship-captains! 

It may also be opportune to remark here that nothing goes to show that the 'Eu- 
terpean Society', still flourishing (?) when in 1842 the New York Philharmonic Society 
was founded and looking back on a career of several decades was founded before 1800. 
If, as Mr. Hitter says on p. 223, about 1840 "this society was considered as perhaps 



204 

Merely mentioning a 'Polyhymnian Society' which must have existed 
in 1799 1 ) and possibly was founded in 1798 as in April 1799 at the "first 
quarterly meeting " "new" officers were to be elected, I submit the few 
data I found concerning the Columbian Anacreontic Society. The name 
implies an imitation, and as the model-society was dissolved in 1786, even 
a revival on American soil of the Anacreontic Society of London. The latter 
had been established by several noblemen and wealthy amateurs towards 
the close of the 18th century and its fortnightly concerts were held at the 
Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand. The concerts, in which the leading 
members of the musical profession took part as honorary members, were 
followed by a supper, after which the president or his deputy sang the con- 
stitutional song 'To Anacreon in Heaven' (which later on was to furnish 
us Americans the musical substratum of both 'Adams and Liberty' and 
'The Star Spangled Banner'). This apostrophe was succeeded by songs in 
every style and especially by catches and glees sung by the most eminent 
vocalists of the day (Grove). That these songs sung after supper in a 
society for men only were unfit for the ears of the Duchess of Devonshire 
is not surprising. Still the indignation and disgust of this lady, then leader 
of the haut-ton who, as Parke in his anecdotic Memoirs narrates, was foolish 
enough to clandestinely attend one of the meetings, was so annoying to the 
members that the society soon afterwards, in 1786, declared itself dissolved. 

In New York, to be sure, there were no noble men but there were wealthy 
amateurs enough of a convivial bend of mind, who had no objections against 
a broad joke, if they could swallow it with a bumper of Madeira, who liked 
music in general, and whom the spirit easily would move to sing out drinking 



the oldest musical society in the United States" and "was regarded as the lineal des- 
cendant of the old Apollo", at least the last part of his statement should be encircled 
with question-marks. Had the compiler of the city directories for 1800 continued the 
practice of enumerating the musical societies, it would be easy enough to ascertain 
the year of foundation of the Euterpean Society, but unfortunately he did not. 

Now, Mr. Thomas Goodwin, whose 'Sketches and impressions' from his 'after 
dinner-talk' R. Osgood Mason published in 1887 had this to say: "The Euterpean, 
an amateur orchestra, was already an old organisation half a century ago. It had 
been well managed, and owned a small library and several valuable instruments . . . 
I have a program of its forty-eighth anniversary concert, given January 21, 1847, which 
would carry its organisation back to the last century". This means that the society 
was founded either on Jan. 21, 1799 or on Jan. 21, 1800. I am inclined to accept the 
latter possibility, for these reasons. While the fact that the Euterpean Society is not 
mentioned in the papers of 1799 and 1800, not even meetings being called through 
the medium of the press, as was customary, may not carry much weight, the other 
fact, that in the account of the procession in memory of George Washington on Dec. 31, 
1799 both the Philharmonic and the Columbian Anacreontic Society are mentioned 
but not the Euterpean, makes me suspicious! The more so, as the Euterpean Society 
is not even enumerated among the musical societies in the directory of 1799, issued 
after January, 1799! For these reasons, I doubt very much that the Euterpean Society 
was founded before January 21, 1800. 

1) Daily Advertiser, April 4, 1799. 



205 

songs like 'To Anacreon in Heaven' or catches and glees in Anglo-Saxon 
fashion. It needed but a "jolly, good fellow" with recollections of the happy 
days of the Anacreontic Society in dear, old London to mould his kindred 
into a society and him they found in John Hodgkinson, a disciple of Bacchus 
and irrisistible as actor and singer, whom Dunlap called "the soul of our 
musical societies". At any rate, it is not a violent supposition to consider 
Hodgkinson the moving spirit in the foundation of the Columbian Ana- 
creontic Society in 1795 in view of the fact that he was the president during 
the first four years of the club's existence 1 ) with this formidable array of 
convivial talent to assist him in the furtherment of Anacreontic ideals: 

John C. Shaw, first Vice-President 

Aquila Giles, second Vice-President 

John Bleecker, Secretary 

John Ferrers, Treasurer 

William Richardson, William H. Robinson, Henry 

Livingston, James Maitland, James Cuyler, John 

K. Beckman, Harmonics. 
George Pollock, B. Winthrop, Joseph Stansbury, 

Edward Moore, Richard Morris, A. Giles and James 

Hewitt, standing Committee. 

That the society was founded in 1795, at any rate not later, becomes 
apparent from a concert program announced by Messrs. Hewitt and Saliment 
in the Daily Advertiser, June 6, 1795. As last number figures: 

"Cottin's Odes on the Passions, to be spoken by Mr. Hodgkinson. With music 
representative of each passion, as performed at the Anacreontic Society, composed 
by J. Hewitt," 

in all probability the earliest example of melodramatic music composed in 
America. Beyond this and personal data on the board of managers, very 
little information is to be gleaned from contemporary sources, but that the 
society flourished for a number of years, is certain. Possibly some day 
the constitution, and by-laws, the original as well as the revised and 
amended laws and regulations "of March 1800 2 ) will turn up and also 
a goodly collection of programs which would enable us to trace what 
music and when it was performed at the regular concerts, usually given 
at the Tontine Coffee House following the business meetings. In the absence 
of such documents the supposition may not be amiss that the Columbian 
Anacreontic Society gave quite a stimulus to the musical life of New York, 
particularly towards the cultivation of glees and kindred music. One feature, 
and in this the New York society seems to have differed from its model, 
clearly stands forth from the many business- advertisements of the society: 
the annual 'Ladies Concert' towards spring. Nor were the regular concerts 



1) N. Y. Directories, 1797 and 1798. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Nov. 4, 1800. 



206 

given behind closed doors, so to speak, for it appears to have been the pri- 
vilege of the members to share the entertainments in company of the visitors. 
Thus managed, the society could not possibly arouse the suspicions of Le 
Donne Curiose and gentlemen of the stamp of the Duchess of Devonshire 
and at least during the first years of its existence the Columbian Anacreontic 
Society enjoyed an excellent reputation. Otherwise the gentlemen in charge 
of the procession in memory of George Washington on Dec. 31, 1799 would 
hardly have dared to accord the Columbian Anacreontic Society a prominent 
place in the procession together with the Philharmonic Society, the only 
other musical society then existing in New York. The event must have 
been regarded as a climax in the society's career for the members went about 
the selection and arrangement of the music to be performed in celebration 
of the obsequies of General Washington with much care 1 ). It was unani- 
mously resolved to meet at the Green Room of the theatre one hour previously 
to the moving of the general procession; the secretary was directed to 
shroud the badges of the society (an Irish harp) with black; the members 
were instructed to wear a knot of black love ribbon attached to the centre 
of the rose to which the line was pendant and finally the latter two resolutions 
remained in full force during the meeting of the society for the remainder 
of the season 2 ). Thus attired the Columbian Anacreontic Society certainly 
did not cut a poor figure in the procession of which and of the subsequent 
sacred concert the Daily Advertiser printed in form of a broadside the fol- 
lowing account on Jan. 3, 1800 as furnished by the committee on arrangements : 

On the 31st of December 1799, the day appointed by the citizens of New York 
to pay the most solemn funeral honors to the Memory of their beloved Chief and Fellow 
Citizen General George Washington .... the Citizens in their military and civil habili- 
ments, with the foreigners of \arious nations all eager to join in the testimonies of 
veneration for the Great Deceased, having assembled in their appointed order, the pro- 
cession moved under the guidance of signals, to the mournful sounds of minute guns 
and muffled bells, in the following order: 

Officer and eight dragoons. 

Sixth Regiment, in platoon, by the left, with arms and colours reversed drums 
and fifes in mournmg . . . [followed Cavalry, Major. Gen. Hamilton and suite, St. 
Stephen's Society and Tammany Society, Masonic lodges, commercial companies, college 
professors, consuls etc.] 

Music. 

Anacreontic and Philharmonic Societies in complete mourning the grand officers 
bearing wands, decorated with crape the members wearing their badges with crape 
and bows of love ribbon. 



1) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 27, 1799. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 30, 1799. As an early illustration of the amusing pride 
we Americans take in club-badges may serve the following. On May 17, 1798 such 
members of the Columbian Anacreontic Society who "chuse" to attend the theatre 
on May 21st in "compliment to their president" John Hodgkinson who had his benefit, 
were informed in the N. Y. Gazette that seats would be reserved for them in the "Shake- 
speare Box" and that they "will wear their badges". 



207 

[Then came the clergy, the bier etc. etc. The procession moved to St. Paul's Church.] 
The following are the words of sacred music performed on the 31st ult. at St. Paul's 
Church by the Anacreontic and Philharmonic Societies. 

Solo. 

Sons of Columbia, now lament 
Your spear is broke, your bow's unbent 
Your glory's fled 
Amongst the dead 
Your Hero lies 
Ever, forever clos'd his eyes. 

Chorus. 

Columbians weep! weep still in louder moan 
Your Hero, Patriot, Friend and Father's gone. 

Dead March. 
Then Recitative Solo 
Female voices 
General Chorus 
Conclusion 

SECOND PART 

Elegy 

How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
By all their Country's wishes blest? 
By Fairy hands, their knell is rung 
By Forms unseen, their dirge is sung 

Recitative Solo 

Song 

Grand Chorus 
The Lord God omnipotent reigneth, etc .... 

Still less is known of the artistic activity of the 'Harmonical Society', 
instituted as the directory of 1797 stated, "on March 17, 1796 for the purpose 
of cultivating the knowledge of vocal and instrumental music". From the 
directory of the preceding year it is to be learned that the society met on 
Tuesdays and that the management originally lay in the hands of John 
Richardson, President, John S. Hunn, Secretary and John B. Cozine, Trea- 
surer, three gentlemen who with a slight exchange of office controlled the 
destinies of the society for the first three years. As in 1798 a second se- 
cretary became necessary, it may be surmised that the business of the Har- 
monical Society had grown considerably. The place of meeting seems to 
have varied, Little's Tavern, the City Hall, Gaultier's Assembly Room, 
De la Croix', Broadway and Vaux Hall, Broadway being mentioned. Un- 
fortunately neither the number of concerts nor the programs are mentioned 
in the papers and we hear only that the "instrumental harmony" began 
usually at 7 o'clock. Finally, on Dec. 3, 1799, through the columns of the 
Daily Advertiser, a punctual attendance of the members of the Harmonical 
Society on Dec. 5th at their Concert Room in Broadway was requested on 



208 

business of great importance. The result of this meeting was a junction of 
the St. Cecilia Society of 1791 and the Harmonical Society, thus announced 
in the Daily Advertiser Dec. 9, 1799: 

Philharmonic Society 

The Members of the St. Cecilia and Harmonical Societies, are informed that a 
junction of these two has been formed under the name of the Philharmonic Society. 

The first annual concert of the Philharmonic Society was held at the 
Tontine Hotel in Broadway on Dec. 23, 1800 "with a variety of vocal and 
instrumental music by the most celebrated performers in the city" 1 ); but 
the new society had made its first public appearance, as we know, on that 
memorable day of Dec. 31, 1799. How long the society lasted, I am not 
prepared to prove but it would not surprise me to learn that the several 
attempts at a Philharmonic Society during the first decades of the nine- 
teenth century, of which we read in histories, all refer to the career of the 
same one Philharmonic Society founded in 1799 and growing out of the 
St. Cecilia of 1791 and the Harmonical Society of 1796. 

It was intimated above that towards the close of the century the centre 
of the concert-season shifted from the winter to the summer, as far as con- 
certs are concerned that were independent of musical societies. This pe- 
culiar but not unprecedented development was principally due to the esta- 
blishment of Joseph Delacroix' Vaux Hall Gardens and Joseph Corre's Co- 
lumbia Gardens and Mount Vernon Gardens. It will also be seen that the 
repertory there was by no means inferior to that of the subscription concerts 
the place of which these summer-concerts took chronologically and ab- 
solutely. 

The probabilities are that New York possessed "rural felicities" before 
1796 like Mrs. Armory's Vaux Hall in Great George Street where, with a 
Mr. Miller's tight rope dancing as main attraction, on June 25, 1793 a con- 
cert of 

"the most favourite overtures and pieces from the compositions of Fisher and 
Handel" was given, "the orchestra being placed in the middle of a large tree" in order 
to render the prospect of the garden "beautifully illuminated in the Chinese stile with 
upwards of 500 glass lamps." 2 ) 

However, to have made good orchestral and vocal music a regular feature 
belongs to the initiative of Joseph Delacroix, the caterer, unrivalled for his 
delicious ice-cream, then not so common as now. 

As a fore-taste of what he contemplated doing he gave at his elegantly 
illuminated "Salloon", the Ice House Garden, no. 112 Broadway on the 



1) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 23, 1800. 

2) Daily Advertiser, June 24, 1793. 



209 

evening of Sept. 15, 1794 with James Hewitt as leader of the band a "grand 
concert of vocal & instrumental music" with this high-toned program 1 ): 

ACT I. 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'The Wish' Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Rausch 

Song 'Bravoure' Miss Broadhurst 

Symphony Pleyel 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Mr. Bingley 

Song 'Keep your distance' Miss Broadhurst 

Quartetto Violin Mr. Hewitt, etc. 

Song 'When the mind is in tune' Miss Broadhurst 

Finale Stamitz 

Then, end of May 1797, he informed the public that he had elegantly 
decorated his gardens from now on called Vaux Hall Gardens in "a 
new taste" and provided accommodations for fifteen of the best musicians 
who with the beginning of June would give a vocal and instrumental concert 
three times a week, on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday evenings. The 
price of admittance was four shillings with a deduction to holders of season 
tickets 2 ). To the keen disappointment of his guests Delacroix saw himself 
obliged to take down the decorations of his garden on the night fixed for 
the opening, June 13th and to postpone the entertainment to June 15th, 
but thereafter things moved smoothly and in case of rain the concerts were 
performed in the "great room". Of course, July 4th was a gala-night and 
on such occasions everything was done to "call to mind the American heroes". 
If did not require much to attain this, for now as then a "transparent likeness" 
of George Washington would arouse the liveliest enthusiasm of the company 
and once 'Hail Columbia' had been given to our nation this song, of course, 
would achieve the same result. The first season was not without accidents. 
For instance, in July the band was obliged to leave New York in order to 
fill a theatrical engagement at Boston, but Mr. Delacroix was not to be dis- 
couraged. He postponed the concerts for a week in order to recruit another 
band and when he continued his entertainments he had added vocal per- 
formers to his forces and was bold enough to give concerts every evening 3 ). 

In the following year Joseph Delacroix rented for a term of several years 
"the house and garden of the late alderman Bayard, near Bunker's Hill" 4 ). 
He again called the premises 'Vaux Hall Gardens' and continued his summer- 
concerts, first three, later on four, a week shutting his place end of July for 



1) Minerva, Sept. 13, 1796. 

2) Daily Advertiser, May 22, 1797. 

3) Daily Advertiser, July 12, 1797. 

4) Daily Advertiser, May 5, 1798. 



Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 14 



210 

several weeks. During this year he lowered the price of admission to 2 shillings 
and generously entitled for this sum the bearer "to a glass of ice cream punch". 
In 1799 he added fire-works "made by the celebrated Mr. Ambrose" to the 
attractions which consisted, besides the usual refreshments, illuminations etc., 
of the band, first under Hewitt and then under Everdell, and of the vocal 
exhibitions of (mainly) Mrs. Oldmixon, Miss E. Westray and Mr. Jefferson 1 ). 
It also affords a curious glimpse into by-gone times if Delacroix briefly an- 
nounces "No lanthorn no exhibition" or remarks "the large barn in front 
of Broadway will be open for the accommodation of carriages. The horses 
can be securely tied". But New Yorkers ever have been fickle in patronizing 
such enterprises and so it came to pass that on July 18th 2 ) the "Vauxhall 
Garden [was] to let or for sale, for the term of six years". Whilst they lasted, 
the concerts at Delacroix' Vauxhall contributed decidedly to the musical life 
of New York and a few programs may follow to prove this. 

JUNE, 10, 1797 
ACT I. 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'I never loved any dear Mary but you' .. Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonie La Chasse Stamitz 

Song 'Three sweethearts I boast' Miss Moller, Messrs. Tyler and 

Lee 

Full piece Vanhall 

ACT II. 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song 'Hunting cantata of Diana' Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song 'tho'by the tempest' Miss Moller 

Glee 'Adieu to the village delight' Miss Moller, and Messrs. Tyler 

and Lee 

Finale Kozeluch 

JUNE 17, 1797 
ACT I. 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Lucy, or Selima's companion' Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonia .. .. Vanhall 

Song 'No more I'll heave the tender fish' .. Miss Moller 

Catch 'How great is the pleasure' .. .. .. Miss Moller, Messrs. Tyler and 

Lee 

Concertant Pleyel Messrs. Hewitt, Saliment, 

Moller and Sammo 
ACT II. 

Overture Pleyel 

Song 'Diana and Hebe' Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonia .. . Kozeluch 



1) Daily Advertiser, May 14 and July 17, 1799. 

2) N. Y. Gazette. 



211 

Song 'No that will never do' Miss Moller 

Glee 'How merrily we live' Miss Moller, Messrs. Tyler 

and Lee 

Full piece Stamitz 

The concert to begin precisely at 8 o'clock and the whole season. 

JUNE 23, 1797 
ACT I. 

Overture Poloniska 

Song 'Sweet lass of Richmond hill' Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonie Vanhall 

Song 'The Female cryer' Miss Moller 

Concertante f , Pleyel 

ACT II. 

Overture Wranisky 

Song 'Old Towler' .. Mr. Tyler 

Quartetto, Pleyel Messrs. Hewitt, etc. 

Song 'How can I forget' Miss Moller 

Glee 'Hark the hollow hills resounding' .. .. Miss Moller, Messrs. Tyler 

and Lee 

Finale Schmittbauer 

JUNE 26, 1797 
ACT I 

Overture Toeschi 

Song 'The sweet little girl that I love' .. .. Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonie Kozeluch 

Song 'The poor little gipsy' Mrs. Seymour 

Entre act Martini 

Song 'How can I forget' Miss Moller 

Full piece Haydn 

ACT II 

Overture Dibble 

Song 'Lovely Nan' Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

Favourite Hunting Song Mrs. Seymour 

Serenata Davaux 

Song 'How d'ye do' Miss Moller 

Finale Kreutzer [R. Kreutzer] 

JUNE 28, 1797 
ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Fa la la' Mrs. Seymour 

Quartetto Pleyel 

Song 'And hear her sigh adieu' .. Mr. Tyler 

Duett 'One short moment' Miss Moller and M. Tyler 

Allegro Treller 

Song 'Tis in vain' Miss Moller 

Finale Vanhall 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Toeschi 

Song 'As t'other day' Mr. Tyler 

U* 



212 

Overture Pichl 

Song 'The Tobacco box' Mrs. Seymour 

Presto Leffler 

Song 'No that will never do' Miss Moller 

Glee 'How merrily we live' Miss Moller, Mr. Tyler etc. 

Finale Toeschi 

JULY 4, 1797 
ACT I 

Grand Overture Haydn 

Song 'Little Sally' Miss Moller 

Quartette for the French horn, violin, tenor 

and basso Messrs. Dupuis, Hewitt, Gilfert 

and Deseze. 

Song 'Three sweethearts I boast' Miss Moller 

Glee 'Lightly tread this hollowground' .. .. 
Battle Overture, in commemoration of the 

4th July Hewitt 

ACT II 

Concerto Flute Saliment 

Song 'Tantivy, bark forward' Miss Moller 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

Glee 'Here in cold Grot' 

Finale Pleyel 

JULY 6, 1797 
ACT I 

Overture Paderchi 

Song 'The Wish' Miss Moller 

Quintetto, Hewitt, Saliment, etc Pleyel 

Song 'How d'ye do' Miss Moller 

Sinfonie .. Vanhall 

Glee 'Hark the lark' Miss Moller, etc. 

Presto Stamitz 

ACT II 

L'Allegro Perdoni 

Song 'Tho'by the tempest' Miss Moller 

Rondo 'A pretty little plow boy ', Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

Glee 'Hail social pleasure' ..' Miss Moller, etc. 

Finale , .. Pleyel 

JULY 8, 1797 
ACT I 

Overture Wiska [?] 

Song 'Ruby Aurora' Miss Moller 

Quintetto, French horn Mr. Dupuis 

Song 'Winsome Kate' Miss Moller 

Sinfonie Bach 

ACT II 

Concertante, Violin Hewitt 

Song 'From the Eliza' Miss Moller 

Overture Canabichi [!] 

Song 'No that will never do' Miss Moller 

Finale Mustcropo [!] 



213 

Somewhat different in character was the music offered at B. Isherwood's 
Ranelagh Garden, near the Battery and "known by the varigated lamps 
over the door" 1 ). Though announced as nightly- concerts of vocal and 
instrumental music, the very form of the announcement shows that the 
instrumental music was of minor importance. It was furnished by "Messrs. 
Everdell, Seymour, Nicoli etc." 2 ). Nor was the vocal music of a high grade, 
but perhaps New York wanted just then a plentiful supply of popular songs. 
Mr. Isherwood certainly supplied this demand as long as Ranelagh Garden 
interested the city, that it to say, during the summers of 1798 and 1799. 
The following three programs may serve to illustrate the point and show- 
to a degree what were then considered catchy, sweet, popular songs. 

JUNE 28, 1798 

Father, mother and Luke Mr. Jefferson 

Hoot awa ye loon Mrs. Seymour 

The Waving willow Miss Broadhurst 

Duet of Hey dance to the fiddle and tabor .. Mrs. Seymour 

and Mr. Jefferson 

The First of my amours Williamson 

The Kiss Seymour 

John Bull was a bumpkin born Jefferson 

The Female cryer 

Hymen's evening post Williamson 

July 4, 1798 

Ye sons of dull sloth Mrs. Seymour 

Knowing Joe, or Plowman turned actor .. Mr. Jefferson 

How can I forget the fond hour Miss Broadhurst 

In honour of the day, the Boston Patriotic 

Song, Adams and Liberty Mr. Williamson 

Where is the harm of that Mrs. Seymour 

Dickey Gossip Mr. Jefferson 

Duett Hey dance to the fiddle and tabor .. Mrs. Seymour and Mr. Jefferson 

Bonny Charley Miss Broadhurst 

The New York Federal song 'Washington and 

the Constitution' Mr. Williamson 

The little farthing rush-light Mr. Jefferson 

And, 'Hail Columbia 1 Mr. Williamson 

JUNE 1, 1799. 

Act 1st. Songs 'Alone by the light of the moon', Mr. Perkins 'Sweet Nan 
of Hampton Green', Mrs. M'Donald 'The Highland laddie', Mrs. Old- 
mixcn 'Nong Tong Paw', Mr. Jefferson 'On the lake of Killarney', 
Mrs. Seymour 'From scenes of love', Mr. Perkins 'The Wedding day', 
Mrs. M'Donald 'The Soldier tir'd of war's alarms', Mrs. Oldmixon 
'The Waiter', Mr. Jefferson The Sailor boy, Mrs. Seymour. 



1) Daily Advertiser, July 3, 1798. 

2) N. Y. Gazette, May 30, 1799. 



214 

Neither Mr. Delacroix nor Mr. Isherwood were destined to monopolize 
the interest taken by New Yorkers in summer-concerts. Absorbing the 
good points in the enterprises of both, Joseph Corre, proprietor of Corre's 
Hotel, "compleated" 'Columbia Garden', adjoining his house and facing the 
Battery in May 1798 and forthwith engaged a "grand" band which was 
to play three times a week 1 ). Corre catered from the beginning, possibly 
warned by the experience of his rivals, to the better class of citizens and 
politely informed the public of his intention "to keep good order and strict 
rules" in the hope that "no person [would] attempt to be admitted that 
would not be agreeable and conduct themselves accordingly". He had gone 
to the expense of installing an organ in his place, played every evening by 
J. Chr. Moller 2 ), and being a man of ideas he did not content himself with 
an orchestra. For weeks at a time "Mr. Henry and the band of wind in- 
struments" would take its place 3 ) and this was also the case on evenings 
devoted mainly to popular or patriotic songs as for instance on July 4, 
1798. Who conducted the orchestra during 1798 and 1800 does not appear 
but in 1799 George, Everdell seems to have been the conductor 4 ). Further- 
more, it will be seen that Joseph Corre freely placed his garden at the dis- 
posal of such artists engaged by him who wished to give benefit concerts 
and this certainly went far to increase his popularity both with them and 
their friends. 

These concerts at Columbia Garden lasted at least until July 1800 5 ). In 
the meantime, Joseph Corre had "created" the 'Mount Vernon Garden' in . 
Leonardstreet, two blocks above the hospital. It was opened on a similar I 
plan as his Columbia Garden on May 22, 1800 with James Hewitt as leader I 
of the band and the programs certainly left nothing to be desired. But 
Corre was not satisfied with concerts only. Early in July 6 ) he turned the 
Mount Vernon Garden into a summer-theatre and gave theatricals with 
several of the principal performers of the regular winter- company three 
times a week. These performances were discontinued early in August and 
when they were taken up again it was on "an improved plan". Not only 
was there presented "a select dramatic piece of two, and sometimes three 
acts, each night" as /. i. the Purse, The Romp, The Adopted Child, The 
Highland Reel, but also regularly a "grand concert" under James Hewitt. 
For both the theatrical and concert numbers Corre had engaged at a consi- 
derable expense Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson, Mr. and Mrs. Hogg, Mr. Fox, 



1) N. Y. Gazette, May 14, 1798. 

2) Daily Advertiser, June 13, 1798. 

3) Daily Advertiser, July 9, 1799. 

4) N. Y. Gazette, July 26, 1799. 

5) Daily Advertiser, July 10, 1800. 

6) Daily Advertiser, July 8, 1800. 



215 

Mr. Hallam jun., Mr. M'Donald, Mr. Lee, Mr. Jefferson, Miss Westray, Miss 
Brett, Miss Harding and others 1 ), who, of course, in accordance with thea- 
trical traditions, each came in for a benefit-night. In this manner the 
performances flourished until September 19th, "positively the last night". 
It really seems to have been the last night as already on August 29th 2 ), 
Joseph Corre "intending to retire from public business" advertised his 
"Mount Vernon Theatrical Garden" as for sale. Corre must have considered 
the purchase of his property quite an investment, for, said he: 

In the course of two or three years it will be the handsomest spot on the con- 
tinent for the above purpose, the street when regulated will raise the Garden from 
12 to 20 feet above the level of the street, all around which will form a proper Mount, 
with a fine circulation of air which will make the performance very agreeable to the 
audience. The main street is now paving to the very corner of the street which will 
render the walk much easier; there is a well of water as good as any in the city. To 
give any further information about the garden and building is needless as the public 
are well acquainted with the place by this time. 

It is only fair to Mr. Corre to add here, as was done in the case of Mr. 
Delacroix, a number of programs to illustrate what debt of gratitude the 
music lovers of New York owed him: 

COLUMBIA GARDEN. 

JUNE 13, 1798 
ACT I 

Sinfonie Kozeluch 

Glee 'Adieu to the village delights' Messrs. Tyler,Shapter and Lee 

Duet, Violin and alto Messrs. Berault and Hewitt 

Song "The Cottagers daughter' Mr. Tyler 

Allegro Haydn 

Song 'The Highland laddie' Mrs. Oldmixon 

Overture Pleyel 

ACT II 

Concerto Organ Moller 

Glee Tare the well, thou native vale' .. .. Mrs.- Oldmixon, Tyler, Shapter 

and Lee 

Song 'The Soldier tir'd' Mrs. Oldmixon 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song 'The Green Mountain farmer' Mr. Tyler 

Catch 'Give the sweet delight of love' .. .. Messrs. Tyler, Shapter, Lee 

Full piece Wranitzky 

JULY 3, 1798 
PART I 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'The Silver moon' Miss E. Westray 

Song 'Life's a country dance' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Song 'Ere I fly to meet my love' Miss Brett 

Song 'Come Kiss me' Mrs. Hodgkinson 



1) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 11, 1800. 

2) Daily Advertiser. 



216 



PART II 



Song 'The Capture or Sea fight' 

Song 'For chase' 

Song 'Down the bourn,' etc 

Song 



Mrs. Hodgkinson 
Miss Brett 
Mrs. Hodgkinson 
Mr. Tyler 
Song 'Young Sandy once a wooing came' .. Miss E. Westray 



JULY 4, 1798 

PART I 

Song 'Adams and Liberty' 

Song 'As sure as a gun' 

Song 'The Bird when summers charm no more' 

Song 

Song 'Jane of Aberdeen" 

Duo 'Time has not thinn'd my flowing hair' 



Mr. Hodgkinson 

Miss E. Westray 

Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Mr. Tyler 

Miss Brett 

Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 



PABT II 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'The Silver moon' Miss E. Westray 

Song 'Tantivy' ; .. Miss Brett 

Song 'Je ne vois, entend pas, monsieur' .. .. Mr. Hodgkinson 

Ladies' new patriotic song 'Washington's March' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

JULY 6, 1798 

PART I 

Song 'Adams and Liberty', by desire .. .. Mr. Hodgkinson 

Song 'In my pleasant native plains' Miss Brett 

Song Miss E. Westray 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Come buy of poor Kate' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Song 'I die for no shepherd, not I' The Young lady 1 ) 

PART II 

Song Miss E. Westray 

Song 'Je ne vois, entend pas, monsieur' by desire Mr. Hodgkinson 

Song 'Fox chase' Miss Brett 

Song '0 dearly I love somebody' The Young lady 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Prithee fool be quiet' Mrs. Hodgkinson 



JULY 7, 1798 

PART I 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Bonny of Aberdeen' Miss Brett 

Song Miss Westray 

Song 'The Heiress' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Song 'Jack Junck' Mr. Hodgkinson 



1) The announcement to the day in the Daily Advertiser was headed: "For the 
benefit of the distrest widow and daughter of a late American officer, and a brother 
mason, on which occasion a young lady (the daughter alluded to above) will make 
her first and only appearance in public". 



217 

PART II 

Song Miss Westray 

Song 'Brighton Sly' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Song 'I fly to meet my love" Miss .Brett 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Drop a tear and bid adieu' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

JUNE 11, 1799 
ACT I 

Sinfonia Kozeluch- 

Glee 'Fair Flora decks' Messrs. Tyler, Chapter & Lee 

Quartetto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song 'When the sails catch the breeze' .. .. Mr. Tyler 

Minuetto Hayden 

Song 'The tuneful lark' Miss E. Westray 

Glee 'How shall we mortals spend our hours' Messrs. Tyler, Shapter and Lee 

Song 'The Female cryer' Mrs. Oldmixon 

Full piece Pleyel 

ACT II 

Concerto Organ Mr. Moller 

Song 'Let fame sound the trumpet' Mr. Tyler 

Quartett Flu to Mr. Saliment 

Song Miss E. Westray 

Catch, 'Poor Thomas Day' Messrs. Tyler, Shapter & Lee 

Song 'Ah! how hapless is the maid' .. .. Mrs. Oldmixon 

Finale Ditters 

JUNE 24, 1799 
ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Catch Messrs. Tyler, Shapter and Lee 

Andante Stamitz 

Song 'Bright chantilleur' Mr. Tyler 

Trio, Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song 'Fair Rosaline' Miss E. Westray 

Glee Messrs. Tyler, Shapter and Lee 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

ACT II 

Overture Cambini 

Song 'Sweet Myra of the Vale' Mr. Tyler 

Minuetto Haydn 

Song Miss E. Westray 

Catch 'Poor Thomas Day' Messrs. Tyler, Shapter & Lee 

Finale Sterckel 

JULY 1, 1799 
ACT I 

Overture Kozeluch 

Glee 'Adieu to the sailor's delights' Messrs. Shapter, Tyler and Lee 

Allegro Cambini 

Song 'Primroses deck' Mr. Tyler 

Concertante Stamitz 

Song 'The Primrose girl' Mrs. Seymour 

Sinfonie Pleyel 



218 

ACT II 

Full piece Hoffmeister 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Andante Wranitzky 

Song 'Ower of Glandower' Mrs. Seymour 

Catch 'Eie, nay John' Messrs. Tyler, Shapter and Lee 

Finale Haydn 

JULY 9, 1799 
ACT I 

Song 'You tell me, dear girl' Mr. Tyler 

Song, Mrs. Seymour, 'The poor little gipsy' 
Song, Mr. Bates 'John loves Jane, and Jane 
loves John' 

ACT II 

Song, Mr. Tyler, 'The Soldier's adieu' 
Song, Mrs. Seymour 'What can a lassie do' 
Song, Mr. Bates 'Jack at the windlass' 
To conclude with 'Adams and Liberty' 

N. B. The subscriber begs leave to inform the ladies and gentlemen that he 
engaged Mr. Henry and the Band of wind instruments to play every evening. 

JULY 16, 1799 
ACT I 

Cottage on the Moor Mr. Tyler 

Cheering Rosary Mrs. Seymour 

The Pleasures of London Mr. Bates 

ACT II 

Diana Mr. Tyler 

Edinburgh town Mrs. Seymour 

A Tar for all weathers Mr. Bates 

JULY 25, 1729 

ACT I 
Overture of the Frescatana 1 ), executed by the wind instruments 

Song 'the Negro boy' Mr. Tyler 

Minuet of Pleyel and Andante by Haydn 

Song 'May I never be married' Mrs. Seymour 

ACT II 
Overture of Peter the Greats) 

Song 'Old Towler' Mr. Tyler 

Minuet .. Haydn 

Song 'Hope thou balmy comfort shed' .. ... Mrs. Seymour 

Duetto 'The Tobacco box' Mr. Tyler and Mrs. Seymour 

JULY 4, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Hayden 

Song 'Tally ho' Miss Brett 



1) Either Guglielmi, Paesiello or Cimarosa. 

2) Probably Gretry. 



219 

Andante Kreutzer 

Song 'Hail Columbia' Mr. Fox 

Minuetto Stamitz 

Song 'The Singing girl' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Kozeluch 

Song 'To the memory of Washington' .. .. Mr. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Pleyel 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Sterckel 

Song 'Adams and Liberty' Mr. Fox 

Andante Hayden 

Song 'Dearest youth' Miss Brett 

Minuetto Van Hall 

Song 'The moment Aurora' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Cornell [!] 

Song 'Prithee fool be quiet' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Hayden 



MOUNT VERNONT GARDEN. 

MAY 22, 1800 

ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Song "The Cottager's daughter' Mr. Tyler 

Allegro Pleyel 

Song 'The Caledonian laddie' Mrs. Seymour 

Naval duett Messrs. Hodgkinson and Tyler 

Andante Kozeluch 

Song 'Come Kiss me, said he' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sinfonie Dussek 

ACT II 

Overture Stamitz 

Song 'The Sailor boy' Mrs. Seymour 

Duett 'How sweet is the breath of morn' .. Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Presto Wranitzky 

Song 'the Beaux of the year 1800' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sinfonie Abel 

Song 'Away to the chase' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Hayden 

MAY 29, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Hayden 

Song 'Diana', a hunting cantata Mr. Tyler 

Andante Stamitz 

Song 'The Father of Nancy' .. , Mrs. Seymour 

Allegro Kozeluch 

Song 'Nong, tong, paw' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Sterckel 

Song 'The Waving willow' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sinfonie Gyrowetz 



220 

ACT 2 d. 

Overture Wranitzky 

Song 'The Bonny bold soldier, Young Willy 

for me' Mrs. Seymour 

Polonaise dementi 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Andante .. .. Hayden 

Song 'Little thinks the soldiers wife' .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Borghi 

Song 'Life's a country dance' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Hayden 

JUNE 3, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Kreutzer 

Song 'Fragrant chaplets' Mrs. Seymour 

Allegro Kotzeluch 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Andante Stamitz 

Song Miss Brett 

Sinfonie Hayden 

ACT II 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Little Sally' Mrs. Seymour 

Minuetto Sterckel 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Andante Pichl 

Song Miss Brett 

Full piece Pleyel 

JUNE 5, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Hayden 

Song 'Tom Tackle' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Andante Pichl 

Song 'The Shepherds boy' Miss Brett 

Trio for Violin and Violoncello Messrs. Hewitt, Saino and Miniere 

Song 'Cheering Rosary' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Minuette Kozeluch 

Song 'Death stole my lad away' Mrs. Seymour 

Allegro Sterckel 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Hunting song Miss Brett 

Andante Wranitzky 

Song 'Group of lovers' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Kozeluch 

Song 'The Little gipsy' Mrs. Seymour 

Allegro Dusik [Dussek] 

Song 'Sweet echo', accompanied on the flute 

by Mr. Hodgkinson Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Hayden 



221 

JUNE 13, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Hayden 

Song 'The Pipe upon the mountain' Miss Brett 

Andante Pleyel 

Song 'Sailor's journal' Air. Hodgkinson 

Minuette Wranitzky 

Song 'Crazy Jane' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Carlo Stamitz 

ACT II 

Sinfonia Clementi 

Song 'The Fox chase' Miss Brett 

Andante Dussick 

Song 'Life's a country dance' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Presto Hoffmeister 

Song 'Prithee fool be quiet' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Pull piece Hayden 

JUNE 16, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Pleyel 

Song 'When Ruddy Aurora' Miss Brett 

Andante Pichl 

Song 'The Man and his wife' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Stamitz 

Song 'Down the Bourne' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale Haydn 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Sterckel 

Song 'Ellen or the Primrose girl' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Andante Monchausen [!] 

Song 'William and Mary' Miss Brett 

Minuetto Kreutzer 

Duett 'To thee each joy possessing' Mr. & Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Filtz 

JUNE 19, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Stamitz 

Song 'Love for love' Miss Brett 

Andante Bottelswiller 

Song "The Soldiers adieu' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Sterckel 

Song "The Lake of Killarney' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Pleyel 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Song 'n vain I deck the lonely grave' .. .. Miss Brett 

Andante Von Duelman 

Song 'The London Buck' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Clementi 

Song 'I attempt from love's sickness to fly .. Mr. Hodgkinson 

Finale . Dussick 



222 

JUNE 21, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture .. .. Haydn 

Song 'The Little waist' Miss Brett 

Andante Stamitz 

Song 'The Wounded hussar' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Porrelli [Correlli] 

Song 'The Merry maids a Maying go' .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Kozeluch 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song 'Tally ho' Miss Brett 

Andante Stamitz 

Song "The Groupe of lovers' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Bach 

Song 'My love's on shore' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Haydn 

JUNE 27, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Hayden 

Song 'When the men a courting came' .. .. Miss Bett 

Andante Wranisky 

Song 'The Wounded hussar' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Minschini 

Song 'He's aye a kissing me' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Stamitz 

Song Mr. Fox 

Overture Kozeluch 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song 'Tuneful lark' Miss Brett 

Andante Van Hall 

Song 'The Group of lovers' .. .. Mr. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Puzzlestopper [!] 

Song "The Masquerade' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Eickner 

Song Mr. Fox 

Full piece Pleyel 

JULY 7, 1800 
ACT I 

Overture Kozeluch 

Song Miss Brett 

Andante Stamitz 

Song 'What is a woman like' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Allegro dementi 

Song 'The Joy of the chase' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale Pleyel 



223 



ACT II 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Song 'How charming the camp' Miss Brett 

Andante Wranizki 

Song, The celebrated 'Laughing Song', by desire Mr. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Cambini 

Song 'The Wedding day' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Full piece Haydn 

AUG. 11, 1800 

The musical piece in 2 acts, of the Purse, or the American 
Tars' Return . . . 

Grand Concert interspersed with recitations 

1. An Adress on the impossibility of pleasing everybody, exempli- 
fied in the fable of the Old Man, the Boy and the Ass by Jefferson 

2. Echo song 'How d'ye do' Mrs. Hodgkinson, 

echoed by Miss Brett 

3. Address to the memory of Columbus .. Miss Harding 

4. Song 'The Last shilling' Mr. Hodgkinson 

5. Address 'Belles have at ye all' Miss Westray 

6. Song 'The Twins of Latona' Mr. Fox 

7. Rondeau by the orchestra Plyell 

8. Song 'A Sailor loved a lass' Miss Brett 

9. Song "The London sportsman' Mr. Jefferson 

AUG. 13, 1800 

1. Sinfonie Haydn 

2. Song 'The tuneful lark' Miss Brett 

3. Allegro Pleyel 

4. Song Mr. Fox 

5. Recitation Pindar's Razor grinder .. Mr. Jefferson 

6. Song 'Bonny Jem of Aberdeen' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

7. Song 'Henry's Cottage maid' Miss Harding 

8. Address 'On False pride' with a few lines 

to the memory of Howard Mrs. Hogg 

9. Song 'Father and mother and Sukey' .. .. Mr. Hodgkinson 
[This program was preceded by a comedy] 

AUG. 15, 1800 

1. Periodical Overture Haydn 

2. Song 'Sanely's [?] tale of love' Miss Brett 

3. Recitation On false pride Mrs. Hoog 

4. Song 'Ellen arise' Mr. Hodgkinson 

5. Recitation Belles have at ye all Miss Westray 

6. Song 'The Learned pig' Mr. Jefferson 

7. Minuetto Pleyel 

8. Ballad 'My poor dog Tray' Mr. Fox 

9. Duett 'Sweet is the breath of morn' .. .. Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 
[This program was followed by Dibdin's 'The Romp'] 

With their revenues from teaching, selling, copying music, with several 
societies and theatrical companies to engage them for their orchestras and 
with the salaries accruing from a participation in subscription- concerts, the 



224 

half hundred musicians, to be traced towards 1800 at New York, were able 
to eke out a living, and very few only were skillful or enterprising enough 
to risk benefit-concerts. That these few reaped anything like a harvest may 
also be doubted for concerts have always and everywhere been a precarious 
matter and presumably, if such statistics were available, the money lost 
by musicians with the pardonable ambition to appear for their benefit before 
the public would more than equal the money made. On the whole, it may 
be said that concerts are nowadays managed on a sounder business-basis, 
though often not on a sound ethical basis, whereas in the eighteenth century 
the benefit concerts savored of charity. By dint of having given his services 
cheaply or gratis to the musical societies, a musician would speculate on the 
good- will and gratitude of their members but we need not go as far as Vienna 
and her Tonkiinstler Sozietat to know that such societies frequently would 
not feel under the slightest obligation to the generous virtuoso. In New York 
probably the attitude of the music lovers became somewhat similar once 
the idea of musical societies had gained ground but this did not deter the 
"celebrated performers" and with their benefit -concerts they added 
perceptibly to the musical life of the city. 

Possibly the first benefit concert after the war was given by William 
Brown on March 16, 1786 at the Assembly Room "consisting of one act, 
in which [were] performed sundry select pieces of musick and a harmonical 
piece taken from Ladies' favourite tunes with variations" 1 ). That Brown 
had engaged an orchestra for the occasion becomes evident from the fact 
that after the concert 

"the orchestra [was to] be removed in order that the ladies and gentlemen may 
not be incommodated in their dancing". 

As the ball was under the direction of the managers of the "Gentleman's 
Concert", presumably they also furnished their orchestra. Indeed Brown, 
clever business man as he was, practically gave the concert under their pro- 
tectorate and seeing their perfect satisfaction with his attention and assiduity 
as conductor of the subscription concerts, gained their permission to further 
the sale of tickets by adding to his announcement a "recommendatory 
testimonial of their approbation". 

Somewhere in his history, F. L. Ritter reflecting upon summer enter- 
tainments remarks that in those days the summers at New York cannot 
have been as hot as nowadays and if I am not mistaken this remark, evi- 
dently written with a sigh, is meteorilogically correct. Still, those musicians 
and concert-goers who assembled on July 20, 1786 to perform in and listen 
to Alexander Reinagle's "Grand concert" at the Assembly Room in Broad- 



1) Daily Advertiser, March 14, 1786. 



225 

way, certainly not an airy place, must have possessed a wonderful endurance 
if they survived this program, so peculiarly printed in the New York Packet, 
July 13: 

ACT FIRST 

Overture Haydn 

Song Miss Storer 

Sonata, Piano Forte Mr. Reinagle 

Song Ditto 

Concerto Violin Mr. Phile 

Song Miss Storer 

ACT SECUOND 

Overture Haydn 

Song Miss Storer 

Duetto, Violin and Violoncello Messrs. Phile and Reinagle 

Duetto Miss Storer and 

Mr. Reinagle 
Miscellaneous Quartet 

Laughing Song Mr. Reinagle 

Overture Haydn 

ACT FIRST 
Song from the oratorio of the Messiah 

Recit. 'Comfort ye my people, saith your God .... 

Aria 'Every valley shall be exalted .... 
Song From the oratorio of Samson 

'Return O God of Hosts, behold thy servant in distress' . . . 
Song From the Oratorio of the Messiah 

'I know that my Redeemer liveth' . . . 

ACT SECOND 
Song From the opera of La Bona Figliuola (Piccini) 

'Furia di Donna irata in mio soccorso invoco' . . . 
Duetto 'O lovely peace, with plenty crown' d' . . . 
Song 'Now the time for mirth and glee 

Laugh, and love, and sing with me; 
Cupid is my theme of story. 
'Tis his god-ships' fame and glory; 
All must yield unto his law: 

Ha! ha! ha.' ha! ha! ha! ha!' 

The first part was confessedly, though with a rather wide stretch of 
imagination, in imitation of "Handel's Sacred Music, as performed in West- 
minster Abbey". Reinagle further took pains to acquaint the public that 
Miss Maria Storer had sung the principal parts in Haendel's oratorios at the 
musical festivals in Bath, Salisbury etc. 

During the year 1787, to my knowledge, no benefit-concerts were given. 
Then, on June 6, 1788, the Daily Advertiser informed the public that on 
June llth would be performed at the German Church in Nassau Street for 
the relief of the German Reformed Church in the city of Albany the following 
"Divine Music": 

Sonneck, .Early Concert Life. 15 



226 

1. Grand Overture by Martini 

2. Anthem from the 34th Psalm 

3. Jonah, an oratorio, composed by S. Felsted 

4. Sinfonia 

5. Anthem from Sundry scriptures 

6. Sinfonia finale. 

To prevent disorder, care was taken by the managers headed by the 
Rev. Dr. Kunze that only such a number of tickets were sold as to accom- 
modate the auditory with seats and printed bills, containing "particulars" 
i. e. programs, were given with the tickets, a common-sense custom to which 
we Americans fortunately still adhere. 

The only other benefit concert of the year was ventured upon by Henry 
Capron who just then expressed his desire to settle in New York as teacher 
of singing, pianoforte, violin and guitar 1 ). The admission to his concert, 
announced for Oct. 23d 2 ), was strictly limited to advance-subscribers, a 
clause very seldom attached to announcements of benefit concerts. Capron 
presented this "plan" at the City Tavern: 

ACT I 

Grand Overture Stamitz 

Song 

Concerto Violoncello .. .. Mr. Capron 

ACT II 

Sonata, Piano Forte .. .. Mr. Reinagle 
Song 
Quartet, Flute 

ACT III 

Solo, Violin Reinagle 

Song 

Overture Haydn 

In the following year, so memorable in our country's history, a Mrs. 
Sewell solicited the kind patronage of the public for a concert to be held 
on Oct. 31st 3 ) but no further details were mentioned. Her methods evi- 
dently differed widely from those of Mr. P. A. Van Hagen who not only 
inserted the full program of his benefit at the City Assembly, Dec. 1, 1789 4 ) 
but also remarked that he sold all sorts of instruments and that he would 
teach at "6 dollars a month (or 12 lessons) and one pound entrance" any 
of the following instruments : violin, harpsichord, tenor, violoncello, German 
flute, hautboy, clarinet, bassoon and singing. A versatility which would 
have made a German Stadtpfeifer blush with envy! And to all these ac- 
complishments Mr. Van Hagen seems to have added on said occasion an 
exhibition of the latent musicability of iron nails! 



1) Daily Advertiser, Nov. 5, 1788. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Oct. 23, 1788. 

3) Daily Advertiser, Oct. 28, 1789. 

4) Daily Advertiser, Nov. 20, 1789. 



227 

ACT I 

Symphony of Pleyel 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Mr. Van Hagen, junior 

(eight years of age) 

Quartette of Pleyel 

Concerto on the Tenor Mr. Van Hagen 

Concerto on the Piano Forte Mr. Van Hagen, jun. 

ACT II 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Trio, Piano Forte 

Song Duet Messrs. Frobel and Van Hagen 

Solo upon iron nails, called Violin Harmonika (never performed) 
Symphony De Chasse, Finale C. Stamitz 

In the following year 1790, a troupe of Frenchmen, presumably political 
refugees, invaded New York and gave the city a first taste of French operas in 
French, the tender root out of which, with all due respect for the arguments 
occasionally advanced in favor of the system, the polyglot understanding 
powers of the New Yorkers in opera gradually grew within a century into a 
monstrous cactus. The troupe was headed by Mr. St. Aivre, singer and 
dancing master, we may argue, more from necessity than inclination. The 
operatic performances were preceded on Sept. 10th 1 ) by a concert at the 
City Tavern for which the assistance of the Van Hagens, Henri Capron and 
John Christopher Moller had been gained. This rather miscellaneous pro- 
gram was presented: 

ACT I 

1. The Overture from the Deserter 2 ) 

2. Song 'Alas! I sigh' by Mr. St. Aivre 

3. Solo Violoncello, by Mr. Capron 

4. Song 'To the sounds of the drums' by Mr. Gammas 

5. Trio 'Sweet hope', by Madame and M. St. Aivre and M. Gammas 

6. Symphony 

7. Quartette, by M. Van Hagen and son 

8. Cantus from 'The Fair Arsenia' 3 ) by Madame and M. St. Aivre and M. Gammas. 

ACT II 

1. The Overture, from the Fair Arsenia 

2. Song 'I dare to meet the strokes of fate', by M. Gammas 

3. Sonata on the Harpsichord, by Mr. Moller 

4. Duetto 'In the bosom of a father', by M. and Madame St. Aivre 

5. Concerto Violoncello, by M. Van Hagen, sen. 

6. Trio from 'Felix'*), by M. and Madame St. Aivre and M. Cammas 

7. Duett 'Yes! I must go to-morrow morn' by M. St. Aivre and M. Cammas 

8. The Overture of Henry IV or the Battle of Ivry5) 
After the Concert will be a grand Ball. 

1) Daily Advertiser, Sept. 4, 1790. 

2) Monsigny. 

3) Monsigny. 

4) Monsigny. 

5) Martini. 

15* 



228 

On the program for Dec. 1, 1789 young Van Hagen's age had been given 
as eight years. This his father either had forgotten or, as it sometimes 
happens to fathers of prodigies, he really did not remember the exact age 
of his precocious son when he announced in a style, not unworthy of Leo- 
pold Mozart, to subscribers and non- subscribers a benefit concert for "P. A. 
Van Hagen, jun. only nine years of age" for Feb. 21, 1791 with the following 
somewhat vague "order of the music": 

ACT I 

Symphony, just received from Europe per the Eliza, Capt. Armour [!] 

Concert on the Harpsichord, of Giordani, by Mr. Van Hagen, jun. 

Song of Felix 2 ); by Mr. Gammas 

Concert on the Violin, by Mr. Van Hagen, jun. 

Symphonic Concertante, of Davau, by Mr. Van Hagen and Son 

Song Duet of Gretry, by M. and Mrs. St. Aivre 

Concert on the Harpsichord, by Mr. Van Hagen 

Concert on the Violin, by do. 

ACT II 

A new Symphony, never before performed 
Song of Felix, by Mr. St. Aivre 
Concerto on the Tenor, by Mr. Van Hagen, jun. 
Song, in the English language, by Mr. St. Aivre 
Air on the Violin, by Mr. Van Hagen 
Favorite Overture de Blaise et Babet 3 ) 

A few days preceding this concert, on Feb. 12th, Mr. Kullin, pianist, 
acquainted the public of his intention to give a benefit concert with the 
asisstance of Mr. Capron andMrs.Haye, "lately from Paris. . . whose voice he 
had every reason to hope [would] be considered as a great acquisition to his 
concert". And as his subscription had already been honored with a number 
of the most respectable names he had further reason to flatter himself 
he said with such success as would enable him to procure a first rate 
violin performer from Philadelphia or elsewhere 4 ). In this he was disap- 
pointed for when he finally fixed the date of the concert for March 7th 5 ) 
the name of no violin performer from Philadelphia or elsewhere appeared 
on the program. As a kind of substitute, however, Mr. Kullin hastened 
to remark that he would "perform on a Grand Concert Pianoforte, entirely 
of a new invention and just finished by Messrs. Dodds and Glaus, of this 
city', certainly one of the very first instances of the custom to advertise 
the piano used: 



1) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 15, 1791. 

2) Monsigny. 

3) Dezede. 

4) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 25, 1791. 

5) Daily Advertiser, March 4, 1791. 



229 

ACT I 

Symphony Pleyel 

Song, by Mrs. Haye 

Sonata for the Forte Piano, with accompaniments for 

the violin, by Messrs. Kullin and Van Hagen .. Sacchini 

Quartetto Plyel 

A Four hand piece on the Piano Forte, by Messrs. 

Kullin and Van Hagen ( 

Solo for the Violoncello, by Mr. Capron 
Symphony 

ACT II 
Symphony 
Duo for the Tenor and violin, by Mr. Van Hagen 

and Son 

Air with variations for the Pianoforte and violoncello 
A Song by Mrs. Haye 

Concerto for the Violin, by Mr. Van Hagen 
Concerto for the Pianoforte, by Mr. Kullin 

Finally, on June 27, 1791 J ) Mr. and Mrs. Solomon, "vocal performers 
from the Southward, having performed the Summer's Evening Brush in 
South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia and Boston" gave a similar entertainment 
at the City Assembly Room 

"consisting of recent and fashionable songs and duetts, interspersed with the 
recitation of several pieces, prosaic and in verse, from the most celebrated authors 
and the songs connected with them." 

By March 30, 1792 P. A. Van Hagen, jun. had become "ten years of 
age" and he respectfully informed the public through the Daily Advertiser 
that he had opened the subscription for his benefit this season on April 17th 
and on the day of performance he added to the program "with the assistance 
of Mr. Capron and Mr. Saliment". The "order of the concert" another 
of those circumscriptive terms instead of which the simple word program 
had not yet made its appearance whereas the term "act" for part has now 
been relegated to vaudeville reads: 

ACT I 

Overture by Pichl, performed at the crowning of the 

Emperor Leopold lid. 
Concert on the Harpsichord 

Concert on the violin, by P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 
Song, by do. 
Rondo Pleyel 

ACT II 

Concerto on the Tenor, by P. A. Van Hagen, jun. 
Song, ditto. 
Concerto on the Violin, by Mr. P. A. Van Hagen 

Overture of the Two Savoyards 2 ) 



1) Daily Advertiser, June 27, 1791. 

2) Dalayrac. 



230 

A few months later, as will be remembered, New York's musical life 
received a stimulus by the arrival of "Messrs. Hewitt, Gehot, Bergman, 
Young and Phillips, professors of music from the Opera house, Hanover- 
square and Professional Concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, etc. 
London" 1 ). We can well imagine how the curiosity of the concert-goers 
was aroused by the program of their first concert on American soil, a pro- 
gram which seems to have thrown the first dangerous bomb of program music 
into our musical life. Possibly James Hewitt never witnessed a battle 
ample excuse for putting one into an overture but Jean Gehot had just 
ended his voyage from England to America ample reason for recording 
it in a sort of musical diary and if he possessed at all the trick for writing 
suggestive, imitative, programmatic, symbolical music, his overture in 
twelve movements must have been an entertaining bit of autobiography. 
That it met with public approval is certain. Not so much because such 
self-evident music generally pleases tut because it otherwise would not have 
been repeated at the subscription concerts. Another innovation was this 
that the Messrs. Hewitt, etc. faithfully inserted in their program the "com- 
poser's names". They "humbly hoped to experience the kind patronage of 
the ladies and gentlemen, and public in general" on Sept. 21, 1792 at Corre's 
Hotel with this really interesting program 2 ): 

ACT I 

Composers' names 

Overture Haydn 

Quartette Pleyel 

Symphony C. Stamitz 

Concerto Violoncello, Mr. Philips Philips 

Overture in 9 movements, expressive of a battle, etc. .. Hewitt 

No. 1. Introduction. 

2. Grand march; the army in motion 

3. The Charge for the attack 

4. A National Air 

5. The Attack commences in which the confusion 
of an engagement is heard 

6. The Enemy surrender 

7. The Grief of those who are made prisoners 

8. The Conqueror's quickmarch 

9. The Finale. 

ACT II 

Concerto Violin, Mr. Hewitt Hewitt 

Flute Quartetto, Mr. Young C. Stamitz 

Overture, in 12 movements, expressive of a voyage from Gehot. 

England to America 

No. 1. Introduction 



1) Daily Advertiser, Sept. 20, 1792. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Sept, 20, 1792. 



231 

2. Meeting of the adventurers, consultation and 
their determination on departure 

3. March from London to Gravesend 

4. Affectionate separation from their friends 

5. Going on board, and pleasure at recollecting 
the encouragement they hope to meet with in a 
land where merit is sure to gain reward 

6. Preparation for sailing, carpenter's hammer- 
ing, crowing of the cock, weighing anchor etc. 

7. A Storm 

8. A Calm 

9. Dance on deck by the passengers 

10. Universal joy on seeing land 

11. Thanksgiving for safe arrival 

12. Finale 

The Concert to begin at half past seven. After which will be a Ball, conducted 
by Mr. Philips, who for several seasons conducted the Pantheon and City Balls, and 
will, on that evening, introduce some new English dances, which, if the ladies and gentle- 
men request, will be performed by the concert band. 

Almost entirely a Van Hagen family affair was the last benefit concert, 
of 1792, on Dec. 2cU) as the pieces de resistance lay in the hands and throats 
of Mr. Van Hagen, Master Van Hagen, Miss Van Hagen "about 13 years old" 
and Mrs. Van Hagen: 

FIRST PART 

Overture of Pleyel 

Violin Concerto P. A. van Hagen, jun. 

Song Duetto by Miss and Master Van Hagen 

Flute Concerto Mr. Saliment 

Forte Piano Sonata Mrs. Van Hagen 

SECOND PART 

Tenor Concerto Mr. Van Hagen 

Song Trio by Mrs., Miss and Master Van Hagen 

Forte Piano Concerto Mrs. Van Hagen 

Finale of Pleyel 

Of the Van Hagen family, Mrs. Van Hagen in a way was the most inter- 
esting member and it is perhaps worth while to quote here what she had 
to say in her behalf in the Daily Advertiser, Nov. 8, 1792 : 

Mrs. Van Hagen, lately from Amsterdam respectfully informs the ladies of this 
city that she intends to teach the theory and practice of music on the harpsichord 
and Piano Forte with thoroughbass, if desired ; also, the principles of vocal music and 
singing according to the most approved method and the present taste in Europe. 

As she has been for several years organist in the churches at Namur, Middleburg, 
Vlissingen and Bergen op den zoom, she also teaches on that instrument, as well church 
music, as lessons, sonatas, concertos, etc. 

Mrs. Van Hagen hopes from her theoretic knowledge and successful experience 
in the science of music, to be as fortunate in the progress of her pupils in this city, as 
she has been in some of the first families in Holland. 



1) Daily Advertiser, Nov. 3, 1792. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 13, 1793. 



232 

As motives of delicacy may induce parents to commit the tuition of young ladies 
in this branch of education to one of their own sex, and the female voice from its being 
in unison, is better adapted to teach them singing than that of the other sex, which 
is an octave below, she flatters herself that she shall be indulged with their approbation 
and the protection of a respectable public. 

The following year, 1793, brought a Mrs. Armory the distinction of 
having introduced in our country on Jan. 23 "between the hours of 6 and 
8 o'clock", "in the Fields" the "Harmonia Celesta, this excellent and ad- 
mired instrument blended in sound between the grandeur of the organ and 
the ravishing softness of the heart thrilling lute". Though not strictly a 
concert, the presentation of Select Extracts from the most eminent authors 
recited by particular request by Mrs. Melmoth "from the Theatres Royal of 
London and Dublin" on April 9th at the City Assembly Room 1 ) call for 
attention here as Mrs. Melmoth in order to enhance the entertainment pro- 
cured a band of music under James Hewitt for the opening and closing 
members of each part of the program. This program undoubtedly would 
be attractive even to-day if her part was taken by an actress of her calibre 
and though Hewitt's band probably locked the finish of our modern orchestras 
it was still in touch with the true tradition of rendering eighteenth century 
music, nowadays lost to all except very few conductors : 

PART THE FIRST 
Overture Haydn 

Exordium 

Antony's Soliloquy over the body of Caesar .. .. Shakespeare 

Celadon and Amelia Thomson 

Scene from the tragedy of Macbeth Shakespeare 

Quartette Girovets 

PART THE SECOND 

Sinfonie Stamitz 

Satan's Soliloquy to the Sun Milton 

Eve's dream ibid. 

The Story of Maria Sterne 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

PART THE THIRD 

Sinfonie Vanhall 

Scene from Julius Caesar, in which 

Cassius excites Brutus to oppose Shakespeare 

Caesar's power Mr. Barbauld 

Pity, an allegory 

Collin's Ode to the Passions 

The other benefit concerts of the year, as far as I found them, were all 
crowded into the month of June. On the eleventh 2 ), Mrs. Pownall appeared 



1) Daily Advertiser, March 26, 1773. 

2) Daily Advertiser, June 8, 1793. 



233 

at the City Theatre both as singer and composer with this miscellaneous 
program : 

ACT 1st 

New Overture .. Vanhall 

Song 'Sweet Echo' accompanied on the flute by Mr. 

Saliment Mrs. Pownall 

Quartette Flute, Messrs. Saliment, Hewitt, etc Hoffmeister 

Song 'Whither my love' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Glee 'Hark the lark at Heaven's gate sings' .. .. Mrs. Pownall 
Mr. West, Mr. Prigmore, Mr. Robins, and Mrs. 

Hodgkinson. 
Catch 'They say there is Echo here', as performed 

with great applause in Vauxhall Gardens, London, Mrs. Hodgkinson, 
Mrs. West, Mr. Prigmore, Mr. Robins, 
and echoed by Mrs. Pownall 

ACT 2d. 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song (by desire) 'Tally ho' Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song 'Soldier tir'd' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

New Overture Haydn 

Glee 'Adieu to the village delights' Mrs. Pownall 

Mr. Prigmore, Mr. West and Mr. Robins 
To conclude with the comic dialogue of Jamie and 

Susan Mrs. Pownall and 

Mr. Prigmore. 

To reciprocate, Mrs. Pownall assisted with readings and songs at the 
benefit concert of Hewitt and Saliment on June 18th at the City Tavern. 
The announcement in the Daily Advertiser of June 14th was headed "last 
concert this season" but, of course, it did not properly belong to Hewitt 
and Saliment's series of subscription concerts. The second act of the concert 
was opened with Hewitt's Battle Overture and the entertainment began 
at half past seven, an hour gradually gaining in favor over seven o'clock: 

ACT I 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quartette Flute Mezger 

New Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

The act will conclude with a recitation from the 

tragedy of Zara, by Mrs. Pownall 

ACT 2. 
Battle Overture, in which will be introduced the Duke 

of Yorks' celebrated march Hewitt 

Song, Mrs. Hodgkinson, last time this season 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Hunting song, last time this season Mrs. Pownall 

Finale Haydn 



234 

After which Mrs. Pownall will read the story of Old Edwards taken from the Man 
of Feelings in which will be introduced a song taken from the 
poem of Lavinia, and composed by her. 

Finally, Mrs. Hodgkinson was to give an entertainment on June 17th at 
the City Tavern which consisted mainly of select readings and songs. The 
only instrumental numbers announced were a violin concerto played by 
Mr. Van Hagen and a concerto played on the "grand Piano Forte" by a Mr. 
Smith. However, Mrs. Hodgkinson's personal attendance was rendered im- 
possible by her safe delivery of a daughter on June 16th and therefore Mr. 
Hodgkinson saw himself under the necessity of substituting for the two 
songs advertised to be sung by his wife his own new song of "Bow Wow" 
and a favorite one by Dibdin, "never sung here" called 'None so pretty' 
which he hoped the emergency of the occasion would render acceptable. 
In this he certainly was not disappointed and it would be interesting to 
know how much of the applause usually showered on him on this occasion 
went to John Hodgkinson, Papa instead of to John Hodgkinson, the vocalist. 

The year 1794 was ushered in by two benefits for Madame De Seze on 
Jan. 14th and Jan. 28th 1 ). As might be expected the programs are decidedly 
French in character and the second is rendered especially interesting because 
it gave to New Yorkers an occasion to form an acquaintance with the style 
of Mehul. 

Unless previous operatic ventures or other private affairs had plunged 
Mr. and Mrs. De Seze into debt, if may be surmised that the concerts were 
financially disastrous as Mr. Hauterive, the French consul, saw himself 
obliged to sell at auction on Feb. llth their trunks and instruments 2 ). This 
step poor De Seze considered unwarranted and he hoped that "no good 
feeling man" would bid on his things. The programs of the two concerts 

read: 

JAN. 14, 1794 
ACT I 

Symphony Hayden 

Song Madame De Seze 

Sonata Piano Forte, accompanied by Messrs. 
Hewitt and De Seze [!] 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Pleyel's celebrated Concertante for violins, 

tenor, clarinett and violoncello, by Messrs. Hewitt, Du Camp, Woolfe 

and Capron 
ACT II 

Sonata Harp Mad. De Seze 

Song accompanied on the harp Mad. De Seze 

Trio for the flute Mr. Saliment 

Song, accompanied on the Piano Forte .. .. Mad. Deseze 



1) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 13 and Jan. 28, 1794. 

2) American Minerva, Feb. 10, 1794. 



235 

Quartette Cambini Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, 

Du Camp and Capron 

Favorite Airs on the harp Mad. De Seze 

Finale Rossetti 

JAN. 28, 1794 
ACT I 

Simphony Haydn 

Song, on the Piano Forte, 'Dieu ! Mad. De Seze 

Ce n'est pas pour moi, etc.' 

Concerto on the Piano Forte Mad. de Seze 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Concertante Hewitt, Saliment, Capron, etc. 

ACT II 

Sonata on the Harp Mad. De Seze 

Song of the opera of Atys 1 ), on the harp .. Mad. De Seze 

Quartett of Pleyel, by Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, 

Du Camp and Capron 
The most celebrated song in the beautiful 

French opera of Euphrosine 2 ), beginning 

with these words 'Quand le guerrier vole 

au combat' on the Piano Forte by .. .. Mad. de Seze 
The pretty French potpourri, on the harp, with 

many favorite airs Mad. De Seze 

Finale Haydn 

These two concerts were followed in rapid succession by several others. 
First by Mrs. Pownall's benefit at the City Tavern on Feb. 6th 3 ) with this 
program : 

ACT 1 st. 
Duett, 'Fair Aurora' from the opera of Arta- 

xerxes*) Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Bergman 

Quartette, Messrs. Hewitt, Bergmann, Ducamp 

and Capron Pleyel 

Song 'On the rapid whirl wind's wing' .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Horn Mr. Pelipier [Pelissier] 

Song, accompanied on the harp Madame Desone [Deseze ?] 

Concerto on the grand Piano Forte Mr. Rausche 

Song the Lovely lad of the lowlands Mrs. Pownall 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

ACT II 

Concerto, Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song 'Love thou teazing pleasing pain' .. .. Mrs. Pownall 
Quartetto, Flute Messrs. Saliment, Hewitt, Du- 
camp and Capron 

Song 'Tally Ho' Mrs. Pownall 

Duett Messrs. Hewitt and Capron 

'Ma Chere amie', harmonized for three voices Mrs. Pownall, Mr. Capron and 

Bergmann 
Full piece 

1) Piccinni. 

2) Euphrosine et Corradin by Mehul. 

3) Daily Advertiser, Jan. 31, 1794. 

4) Arne. 



236 

Then Henri Capron presented this program on Feb. 26th 1 ). 
ACT 1 st. 

Grand Overture 'La Reine' by Mr. Haydn 

Song by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Song, accompanied with the Piano Forte .. Mad. De Seze 

Concerto on the Flute Mr. Saliment 

ACT II 

Concerto on the Piano Forte Mrs. De Seze 

A Hunting song by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song on the harp Mad. De Seze 

A Duet sung by Mad. De Seze and Mr. Capron Gretri 

Finale Mr. Haydn. 

This concert had been preceded on Feb. 20th by Mrs. Hodgkinson's 
"concert and ball" 2 ) with the "kind" assistance of Mrs. Melmoth, an ad- 
jective then probably more than now implying a bona fide act of unselfish 
professional courtesy: 

ACT 1st. 

Grand Overture by .. Stamitz 

Song (by desire) 'Sweet Echo' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Master Van Hagen 

Song 'The Hardy sailor' Mrs. Melmoth 

Quintette, Mr. and Master Van Hagen, 

Mr. Du Camp, etc. 

Duett 'Adieu Poor Jack' Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sonata, Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT 2d. 

Song 'Sweet lillies of the valley' .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song 'Disdainful you fly me' Mrs. Melmoth 

Concerto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Song 'Amid a thousand sighing swains' Mrs. Hodgkinson 
Duett 'Time has not thinn'd my flowing 

hair' Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Finale De Zaides [Dezede] 

Hewitt's Battle Overture was again in prominence at the benefit concert 

of his partner in the Subscription Concerts venture, Mr. Saliment, on 
March llth at the City Tavern 3 ): 

ACT 1st. 

Battle Overture, Composed by Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Sonata Piano Forte Madame De Seze 

Solo Violin Mr. Hewitt 

1) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 15, 1794. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 13, 1794. As a rule "and ball" was not longer added 
in the announcements but the instances were exceedingly few in those days when con- 
certs were not followed by balls, usually conducted in New York by Mr. Hulett. 

3) Daily Advertiser, March 3, 1794. 



237 

ACT II 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Duett for 2 voices (by particular desire) 

'Time has not thinned my flowing hair' Mrs. Pownall and Mr. Bergmann 

Solo Violoncello Mr. Capron 

Song, accompanied on the harp .. .. Mad. De Seze 

Finale Haydn 

The announcements of all these concerts were simple in style but when 
P. A. Van Hagen, junior again was to appear on the concert stage at Corre's 
Hotel on March 25th before subscribers only including "a Miss or Master 
under 14 years" at 5 shillings, he or rather his father indulged in this amusing 
advance notice in the Daily Advertiser, March 4th: 

To render this entertainment as pleasing as possible, a selection will be made 
of new music and such as has received the repeated applause of the present refined 
taste in Europe, in addition to Mr. Mrs. and Master Van Hagen's best exertions to 
please, the brilliant vocal powers of Mrs. Hodgkinson are promised; Mrs. Melmoth 
has also obligingly consented to give two favourite songs, her mellifluous voice, correct 
style and pleasing taste in singing, which at a late public concert surprised the audience 
with delight, want no commendation to those who were present. 

His program it must be admitted that our prodigy modestly kept 
in the background reads 1 ): 

ACT I 

Overture Henry 4th and Entre Act .. Martini 

Song of Nina Mrs. Melmoth 

Concerto on the Violin Master Van Hagen 

Song 'Sweet lillies of the valley' .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Sonata Grand Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II 

Overture of Pleyel 

Song 'The Highland laddie' Mrs. Melmoth 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Van Hagen 

Song 'Sympathetic Echo', accompanied 

by the Clarinet Mr. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Grand Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Duett 'Cher object', Miss and Master Van Hagen 

Concerto (by particular desire) on the 
Carillion, or Musical Glasses. Com- 
posed by Mr. Van Hagen 

Finale by Ditto 

If James Hewitt's program of Sept., 1792 furnished ample proof of 
his sympathies with programmatic music, the concert he gave on April 1, 
1794 2 ) a rather ominous day strengthens this impression. In his 
'Voyage from England to America' he had paid but slight attention to the 
disagreeable qualities of Oceanos. This gap he now filled in with his 'New 
Overture, to conclude with the representation of a storm at sea'. The other 

1) Daily Advertiser, March 21, 1794. 

2) Daily Advertiser, March 21, 1794. 



238 

programmatic pillar of the program was the finale, Haydn's "celebrated 
Earthquake", from the "Seven Words' : 

ACT I 

New Overture, to conclude with the re- 
presentation of a storm at sea, com- 
posed by Mr. J. Hewitt 

Song, (by particular desire) 'Poll of Ply- 
mouth' Mrs. Pownall 

Quartetto, for 2 violins, tenor and base[ !] by Messrs. Hewitt, Bergman, 

Pellier and Capron 

Song, accompanied on the harp, Madame De Seze 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

A Glee and a catch, by Mrs. Pownall, Messrs. Bergmann, King and Robins. 

ACT II 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Wolfe 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Sonata Piano Forte Madame De Seze 

A Glee and catch, by Mrs. Pownall, Messrs. Bergman, 

King and Robins 

Finale, the celebrated Earth quarke .. .. Haydn 

In the meantime Mr. De Seze had opened a French school for young 
ladies from ten to sixteen years of age and correspondingly a French school 
for young gentlemen. Also Madame De Seze appears to have renounced 
temporarily the laurels of the concert stage for she gave a "last" concert 
on April 8th 1 ) at the City Tavern with this program: 

ACT I 

Symphony Haydn 

Song on the harp Mad. De Seze 

Concerto on the Piano Forte Mad. De Seze 

Song Mrs. Pownall 

Quartetto on the flute Mr.Saliment, Hewitt, Capron etc. 

ACT II 

Sonata on the harp, accompanied by .. .. Messrs. Hewitt and De Seze 
An English song on the harp 'A Lovely 

rose', composed by Mr. Capron and Mad. De Seze 

The celebrated song 'Comme un', of the 

French opera, called 'Eclair, la fausse 

magie' 2 ) on the Piano Forte -.. .. Mad. De Seze 

Concerto on the violin Mr. Hewitt 

French Duet for two voices 'Dans le sein 

d'un pere' Mad. De Seze and Mr. Capron 

After wich Mad. De Seze will sing an English song, to thank the 

public of their kindness, this song is on the tune, 'Ah ! no, no, 

no' accompanied on the Piano Forte. 
Finale . . Havdn 



1) Daily Advertiser, April 2, 1794. 

2) Gretry. 



239 

With Mrs. Pownall's selection of the Belvedere House for her benefit 
concert on Sept. 4th, previous to her departure to Philadelphia, we possibly 
have the first instance of benefit concerts given in the open, for though the 
entertainment was to be held in the ball room in case of inclement weather, 
the plan was to permit, if possible, the company to hear the music on the 
bowling green where an "occasional orchestra" had been erected "on the 
balcony, in the manner of Vauxhall gardens" 1 ). Also the program was clearly 
modelled after those heard at Vauxhall in London with its happy blending 
of popular and heavy classic music: 

ACT I 

Overture by Haydn 

Irish song 'Pat of Killarney' by .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Sinfonia Pleyel 

Song 'Advice to the ladies of America' 

composed and to be sung by .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Sinfonie Hoffmeister 

Rondeau 'My bonny Joe is gone to sea', by Mrs. Pownall 

Quatuor, Pleyel Messrs. Hewitt and De Pellier 

ACT II 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

'A Soldier for me' by Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Horn Mons. Pelissier 

A Cantata called 'The Happy rencontre, 

or, Second thoughts are best' by .. Mrs. Pownall 

Sinfonie Abel 

'Tally ho' by Mrs. Pownall 

Full piece. 

Mrs. Pownall's al fresco benefit was not to remain the last of its kind. 
Indeed, as soon as about 1798 the center of gravity had shifted from the 
winter to the summer, it was only logical that the prominent musicians 
would frequently prefer the summer to the winter for their benefits, the 
more so as this was the dead season in the activity of the musical societies 
which latter may reasonably be held responsible for the decreasing certainly 
not in creasing number of benefit concerts given in those years during 
the winter. On the whole it might be said that in this direction the concert 
life of New York came to a standstill instead of progressing lustily. For 
instance, the year 1795 cannot have seen many more than the three benefit 
concerts I traced in the Daily Advertiser. The first was given by Mrs. 
Van Hagen at the New Assembly Room on April 16th 1 ) at which Benjamin 
Carr, so much better known as composer, organist, publisher, appeared as 
vocalist: 



1) Daily Advertiser, Sept. 3, 1794. 



240 

ACT I 

Grand Symphony Pleyel 

Song Mr. Can- 
Sonata Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto on the Tenor Mr. Van Hagen 

ACT II 

Concerto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

Song Mr. Carr 

Concerto Violin Mr. Van Hagen, jun. 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Overture, Blaise et Babette .. , Dezaldes [Dezede] 

The two other concerts were given by the Dioscures Hewitt and Saliment 
and it is the program of the first, on June llth, which furnished the clue 
to the year of foundation of the Columbian Anacreontic Society and alstr\ 
/gave occasion to suspect James Hewitt guilty of the first piece of inelo- \ 
I dramatic music written in America, (now called 'Song recitations'), with \ 
1 his setting to Collin's Ode on the -passions. The other concert, their "annuaj^y 
\cpncert and ball", on December 29th, presented but the usual juxtaposition 
of orchestral and chamber-music, then, however, from the entirely different 
number of instruments employed in considerably smaller localities for more 
intime music, vastly less objectionable than it would be or is to-day. Here 
are the programs: 

JUNE 11, 1795 
ACT I 

Overture . . . The Battle of Prague, adap- 
ted for a full band, by J. C. Schecky [Schetky] 

Song Mr. Carr 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song Mr. Hodgkinson 

Glee 'Hark the lark' Mr. Cook 

Concerto Piano Forte Mrs. Van Hagen 

ACT II 

Double Concerto for Flute and Violin .. .. Messrs. Saliment and Hewitt 

Song Mrs. Melmoth, who has 

kindly offered for that night to sing 
the song from the opera Artaxerxes 
[Arne] 'Disdainful you fly me'. 

Concerto Violin Mr. Hewitt 

Song Mr. Can- 
Glee 'Hope' Mr. Hewitt 

Collin's Ode on the Passions, to be spoken by Mr. Hodgkinson. With 
music representative of each passion, as performed at the Ana- 
creontic Society, composed by J. Hewitt. 



241 

DEC. 29, 1795 
ACT I 

Symphony Pleyel . 

Song Mr. Carr 

Quartette Flute Messrs. Bailment, Hewitt, etc. 

French Ariette, accompanied on the Piano 
Forte, by a lady who has kindly offered 
her assistance for that night only 
Overture Van Hall 

ACT II 

Concertante for Violin and flute Messrs. Hewitt and Saliment 

Song Mrs. Melmoth 

Sonata Piano Forte Mr. Carr 

French Ariette, accompanied on the harp, 

by a lady. 
Finale Haydn 

For the year 1796 I have traced only two benefit concerts and for 1797 
none. I trust that local historians will be more fortunate in completing the 
record though I doubt that the historical aspect will be changed very much. 
The program of the benefit for the very popular operatic star Miss Broad- 
hurst on Nov. 15th 1 ) at the Assembly Room was this, leaving it open to con- 
jecture whether the Battle Overture performed was that by James Hewitt: 

ACT I 

Sinfonie Pleyel 

Song "The Waving willow' Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Piano Forte Mr. Moller 

Song "The Cottage of the grove' .. .. Mr. Tyler 

Concertante for flute and violin .. .. Messrs. Saliment and Hewitt 

Bravoura Song Miss Broadhurst 

ACT II. 

Battle Overture 

Song 'O come, sweet Mary, come to me', Mr. Tyler, Miss Broadhurst[ !] 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song "The Cheering rosary' Miss Broadhurst 

Glee Miss Broadhurst, Messrs. Tyler, 

Johnson and Lee 

Finale Haydn 

On Dec. 6th 2 ) Mr. Moller, the manager of the Old City Concert, offered 
at the same place for his benefit in 

ACT I 

Overture Pleyel 

Song Miss Broadhurst 

Concerto Violin Mr. Nicolai 

Song Miss Broadhurst 

Duetto Grand Piano Forte . . Mr. and Mrs. Moller 



1) Minerva, Nov. 11, 1796. 

2) Minerva, Nov. 30 and Dec. 2, 1796. It was first announced for Dec. 8th but 
the date was changed to Dec. 6th "on account of the City Assembly". 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life' 16 



242 

ACT II 

Concerto Piano Forte Miss Moller 

Duett Miss Broadhurst and Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

Bravoura Song Miss Broadhurst 

Finale Pleyel 

The first benefit concert of 1798 those of 1797 must have escaped 
me was given by Filippo Trisobio on Jan. 12th. The announcement was 
characteristic of this gentleman who died, as we know, in the same year at 
Philadelphia. Said he in the Daily Advertiser, January 8th : 

A GRAND CONCERT. 

Signor Trisobio, from Italy, professor of vocal music, established in Philadelphia, 
being a passenger in this city for a few days, has the honor to announce to the public, 
a Concert for Friday Evening the 12th inst. Also, that he has engaged Miss Broadhurst, 
with whom he will sing some Italian duettos of the first composition. He will sing in 
English, French and Italian. The band will be directed by Mr. Collet at the Tontine 
City Tavern 

Signor Trisobio hopes to experience the same generous indulgence as he has re- 
ceived in several cities of this continent. 

A numerous collection of Italian songs of the best composers may be had of 
Signor Trisobio, price three dollars. 

The concert given on July 24, 1798 at the New City Tavern, Broadway 
by Mr. Lee 1 ) withMessrs. Tyler, Jefferson, Miss Broadhurst, Mrs. Seymour, etc. 
as principal vocalists, "accompanyments by Messrs. Hewitt, Everdell, etc." 
was to conclude with "Hail Columbia, by Mr. Tyler and full chorus". 
This is also the only item worth recording of Mr. Lee's benefit concert at 
Columbia Garden on July 28th 2 ). What a hold Joseph Hopkinson's hastily 
written lines, set to the 'President's March' the memory of his father's 
'Temple of Minerva' and other patriotic songs haunting his mind was 
speedily gaining on the public may be inferred from the fact that also Mr. 
Adde's "grand" benefit at Columbia Garden on Sept. 4th 3 ) concluded with 
this our first really national hymn: 

ACT 1st. 

Sinfonia Hyden 

Song Mrs. Seymour 

Concerto on the Horn Mr. Libeschisky 

Song Mrs. Seymour 

Sinfonia Gerowetz 

ACT 2d. 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Nicholas 

Song Mrs. Seymour 

Sinfonia Hayden 



1) Daily Advertiser, July 23, 1798. 

2) Daily Advertiser, July 28, 1798. 

3) New York Gazette, Aug. 31, 1798. 



243 

Concerto on the Clarinet Mr. Henry 

The whole to be concluded with Hail Columbia, by Mrs. Seymour 
*** Tickets at 4 s, to be had of Mr. Gilfert, Broadway, will 
entitle the bearer to a glass of Ice cream or punch. 

In the meantime, owing to Joseph Corre's half diplomatic, half generous 
willingness to supply his garden, not less than five benefit concerts had been 
given at Columbia Garden and to these must be added one for the benefit 
of Mr. Jefferson at Ranelagh Garden on Aug. 6th 1 ). Certainly a corrobora- 
tion of the theory advanced above with reference to the open-air benefit 
concerts ! 

First Miss Broadhurst and Mr. Tyler, who seems to have been a special 
favorite with the public as singer of patriotic songs, gave their joint benefit 
on Aug. 1st. Their program contained songs only, at least, songs only were 
announced in the Daily Advertiser, July 31st. but it goes without saying 
that the band and the virtuosos brought some variety into the entertain- 
ment : 

PART 1st. 

Song 'The Negro boy' Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Where's the harm of that' Mrs. Seymour 

A favorite Comic Song Mr. Jefferson 

Song 'Sweet echo' Miss Broadhurst 

The mock Italian trio 'Ting, tang, ta' .. .. Mr. Tyler, Mrs. 

Seymour and Miss Broadhurst 
PART II 
Song 'Comely Ned, that child at sea' .. .. Mr. Tyler 

Song 'The Cherry girl' Mrs. Seymour 

A favourite Comic Song Mr. Jefferson 

Song 'Jemmy of the glen' Miss Broadhurst 

Song 'Adams and Liberty' Mr. Tyler 

Then came on August 7th and again on Aug. 28th the band-master and 
clarinetist Henry and the horn virtuoso Libeschesky with joint benefits, 
mainly of instrumental music 2 ) as the "arrangement of the music" shows: 

PART I 

Overture Henry 4th Martini 

Song 'Too happy when Edward was kind' .. Miss Broadhurst 

Solo, French horn Mr. Libeschesky 

Song 'Tom Truelove's kneel' Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

Allegro Pleyel 

PART II. 

Overture Demophon Vogel 

Song 'Comely Ned that died at sea' .. .. Mr. Tyler 

Concerto French Horn Mr. Libeschesky 

Song 'Jemmy on the glen' Miss Broadhurst 

Finale . Havdn 



1) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 4, 1798. 

2) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 6 and Aug. 27, 1798. 

16* 



244 

AUGUST 28, 1798 
PAKT I 

Grand Sinfonia PaulWraswsky[Wranitzky] 

Song Mrs. Seymour 

Duet, Clarinet and French horn Messrs. Henry and 

Libeschesky 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

PART II 

Sinfonia Gerowet [Girowetz] 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Concerto French Horn, first time Mr. Libischisky 

Song Mrs. Seymour 

Finale Pleyel 

The same two gentlemen were engaged by desire of several ladies and 
gentlemen by a Mr. De La Mausse for his benefit concert with full orchestra, 
August 14, 1798 1 ) and finally Messrs. Pelissier and Hoffmann announced 
that they would have their concert on Sept. 1st 2 ). Particulars were to be 
expressed in the bills of the day but, unless they meant by bills programs 
distributed at the concert, one would look in vain for these particulars in the 
Daily Advertiser of Sept. 1st. Of Victor Pelissier, by the way, Dunlap 
drew this pen picture in his History of the American Theatre (p. 207): 

He was a short old gentleman, and so near-sighted as to be nearly blind. Always 
cheerful, and his thoughts as fully occupied by notes as any banker or broker in 
Wall Street. 

Though not strictly a benefit concert, unless we choose to be facetious, 
a "grand" concert may be mentioned here which was given on Nov. 26th 
at the "Pantheon, formerly New-Circus ... in commemoration of the eva- 
cuation of New York by the English" 3 ). Strange to say no patriotic songs 
appear on the program, only such ditties as 'The Country club' being men- 
tioned. With its songs, a quartet, three symphonies and two overtures 
besides the one to Arne's Artaxerxes and a "grand overture, double orchestra" 
by the London Bach the program is one of the longest on record: 

ACT I 

Grand Overture, double orchestra Back 

Song 'The Sailor Boy' Mrs. Seymour 

Song 'The Country Club' .. .. Mr. Jefferson 

Sinfonie March 

Song 'Let same sound the trumpet' Mr. Tyler 

Song 'Hope the balmy comfort send' .. .. Mrs. Seymour 
Overture 

Glee Mrs. Seymour, Messrs- 
Tyler and Lee 
Grand Sinfonie with kettle drums 



1) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 13, 1798. 

2) Daily Advertiser, August 28, 1798. 

3) Daily Advertiser, Nov. 26, 1798. 



245 

ACT II 
Overture 

Song 'The Kiss' .. Mrs. Seymour 

Song 'Mong, long, paw' Mr. Jefferson 

Quartetto Mr. Everdell, Samo, 

Nichola, Abel 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Sinfonie 

Glee Mrs. Seymour, Messrs. 

Tyler and Lee 

[Overture to] Artaxerxes with kettle drums. 
Afterwards a Ball, to be continued till two o'clock in the morning. 

Merely mentioning Mr. Mitchell's "Music-Balls" at the Assembly Room 
in 1799 *), Miss White's benefit concert on June 27, 1799 2 ), that of a Mr. 
Perkins at Ranelagh Garden on July 9, 1799 3 ) and Mr. Myler's cruelty 
not to animals but to his own flesh and blood in presenting "to the lovers 
of harmony" on Nov. 15, 1799 at Lovett's Hotel his musical children, these 
"phenomena of musical abilities" being "a boy not seven years old" and 
"his sister, an infant just turned of four years" I submit a program which 
possibly has more interest for the historian of fire-works in our country 
than of music. 

Joseph Delacroix informed the public through the New York Gazette 
of July 26, 1799 that on the same evening would be executed at Vaux Hall 
Garden : 

AN ELEGANT & BRILLIANT FIRE WORK. 

Never displayed before on this Continent with A Grand-Concert Vocal and 
Instrumental. The music conducted by Mr. Everdell and the singing by Mr. Barett 
and Mr. Jefferson. 

ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Meg of Wapping' Mr. Jefferson 

Song 'Independent we will be' Mr. Barett 

Song 'The Village Recruit' Mr. Jefferson 

ACT II 

1. The Arms of the United States in coloured fire-works, with a 
horizontal sun 

2. A Royal balloon with stars 

3. A Brilliant wheel 

4. Two Roman candles 

5. A Horizontal wheel, with stars and report 

6. A fixed Roman pyramid with an illuminated pedestal 

7. A large Vestual wheel, forming a full body of coloured fire 

8. Two Roman candles 

9. Two Cohorn balloons with report 
10. A large Chinese fire wheel 



1) N. Y. Gazette, April 25, 1799. 

2) Daily Advertiser, June 24, 1799. 

3) Daily Advertiser, July 9, 1799. 



246 

ACT III 

1. Song 'To arms Columbia' Mr. Barrett 

2. Song 'The Country club' Mr. Jefferson 

3. Song 'Adams and Liberty' Mr. Barrett 

ACT IV 
[Fireworks] 

The programs of the few benefit concerts given in 1800 may also follow 
here. On Feb. 27th at Lovett's Hotel 1 ) Messrs. Hewitt, Saliment, Henry 
and C. H. Gilfert offered this really good program: 

ACT I 

Overture, Lodoiska, composed by Kreutzer 

Song Mr. Hodgkinson 

Concerto, Pianoforte Mr. C. H. Gilfert 

lately from Europe 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Duet, Flute and Tenor Messrs. Saliment, 

and Hewitt, composed by J. Hewitt 
Overture, Demophon, composed by Vogel 

ACT II 

Concerto Clarinet Mr. Henry 

Song Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Concerto Flute Mr. Saliment 

Song Mr. Hodgkinson 

Overture d'Ephigene [sic] composed by .. .. Gluck 

This was followed on March llth 2 ) by Mr. Weldon's concert and ball 
at the Tontine City Hotel with the following "order of the music": 

ACT I 

Sinfonie 

Song, Mrs. Grattan 'Soldier tir'd' 

Grand Duet for two performers on one Piano 

Forte, Messrs. Moller and Weldon 

Violin Quartet, Messrs. Berault, Noel, Abel and Minere 
Song, Mrs. Grattan, Italian bravura 
Kondeau, Pleyel 

ACT 2d. 

Concerto Piano Forte, Mr. Weldon 
Song, Mrs. Hodgkinscn 
Concerto Clarinet, Mr. Berno 
Song, Mrs. Hodgkinson 
Overture, Lodoiska, Kreutzer. 

Then came, the program not being mentioned, a benefit for Mrs. Grattan, 
the lady manager of Philadelphia fame, on April 22d 3 ) and on August 27th 4 ) 
a concert given by a Miss White at Vaux Hall Garden with these selections : 



1) Daily Advertiser, Feb. 21, 1800. 

2) Daily Advertiser, March. 8, 1800. 

3) Daily Advertiser, April 21, 1800. 

4) Daily Advertiser, Aug. 26, 1800. 



247 

ACT I 

Overture Pleyel 

Song 'No, not yet' Miss White 

Andante Arogart [Mozart?] 

Song The Unfortunate sailor' Mr. Fox 

Minuetto Kotzeluch 

Song 'Come kiss me, said she' Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Allegro Sterckel 

Song 'Henry lov'd his Emma well' Miss Brett 

Finale Stamitz 

ACT II 

Sinfonie Haydn 

Song 'The Black cockade' Miss White 

Allegro Pleyel 

Song 'The Wounded hussar' Mr. Fox 

Overture Cambini 

Song 'Gray Jane', (by particular desire) .. .. Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Minuetto Wraniski 

Song 'When Sandy told his tale of love' .. .. Miss Brett 

Full piece Stamitz 

Finally, after several years of seclusion in her boarding school, Madame 
De Seze again ventured before the public in a concert at J. Adams junr.'s 
Hotel on Dec. 9th 1 ) with the following rather indifferent program, mono- 
polized by Pleyel: 

ACT I 

Symphony Pleyel 

Song Madame Deseze 

Concerto on the Piano Forte do. 

Quintet Messrs. Henry, Deseze, etc. 

Song Madame Deseze 

Rondo Pleyel 

ACT II 
Concerto on the Violin, by an amateur 

Song, accompanied on the harp, Madame Deseze 

Concertante on the Harp and flute do. etc. [!] 

The much admired Song 'C'est pour toi que je 

les arrange', accompanied by the harp .. do. 
Finale Pleyel 

The chapter on concerts at New York, taking New York as a musical 
center, could be closed here as the vicinity of New York was practically a 
musical wilderness. True, in Princeton there had been a musical awakening 
about 1760 owing to James Lyon's activity while at college, and to the 
North, West, East and South of New York singing-schools, psalmodists, 
organs and organists and what Printz would have called Bierfidler were 
not missing. Also a few music teachers would venture outside of New York ; 
theatricals including ballad-operas were given on a very modest scale, and 



1) Daily Advertiser, Dec. 5, 1800. 



248 

now and then some local publisher would issue a psalm-tune collection, but 
all this is hardly worth mentioning here. As to concerts, they were so few 
that it is mere luck if one stumbles across them in the papers. However, 
in order to be of service to local historians, a few references may follow here 
to such concerts I accidentally found in my wearisome wanderings through 
New Jersey papers and those published at Albany, the Athens of the Dutch, 
and Poughkeepsie. 

Shortly before New Jersey was to resound from the military bands of 
the Hessians the most famous in Germany Mr. Hoar, whom we met 
in New York, strolled to Princeton. He was to have a concert at Mr. White- 
head's Long Koom on August 22, 1774 *) and hoped for the patronage of 
the ladies and gentlemen of the neighborhood as he had not only engaged 
the best local performers but was to have from New York the assistance 
of two gentlemen and a young lady. The concert was to be divided in three 
parts, with four songs in each and the whole was to conclude with a ball 
"conducted on the same plan, as at Bath, Turnb ridge, Scarborough and all 
the polite assemblies in London or any other part of Great Britain". Among 
the vocal music, consisting of a select and "well chosen number of songs, 
cantatas, and duets" were the following: 

The Highborn Queen 

Say little foolish fluttering thing 

Were I a shepherd's maid 

Cleone, a cantata 

The British fair 

May Day, a Cantata 

The Gaudy Tulip 

The Lass with one eye 

Sweet Willy O 

The English Padlock 

The Sheep in her clusters 

A new favourite Hunting song. 

By permission of the magistrate, Mrs. M'Donald announced a "grand" 
concert for July 31, 1799 at the Court House, Newark, N. J. in the Cen- 
tinel of Freedom, July 23. Also by permission, the half-blind Mr. Salter, 
on his drift to Charleston, S. C., gave a musical entertainment at the City 
Hotel in Trenton, N. J. on Dec. 18, 1798 (State Gazette, same day) to which 
admittance could be gained for the ridiculously low sum of 25 cents 
children half price" and the same unfortunate musician announced in 
the Guardian, or, New Brunswick Advertiser, Dec. 11, 1798 that "they" 
would give a concert of vocal and instrumental music with "speaking and 
elegant dancing" between the parts on the same evening at Mr. Sutton's. 



1) New York Journal, August 11, 1774 under date of Princetown, N. Y. 6th Au- 
gust, 1774. 



249 

In Albany 1 ), J. H. Schmidt, "esteemed of the best performers" on the 
piano-forte, appeared before a public, proverbially close-fisted, at Mr. Angus' 
Assembly Room on April 18, 1797 (Albany Gazette, April 17) with the 
following program which leaves it open to doubt whether he was surrounded 
by a miniature orchestra or whether Mr. Schmidt and this would be 
historically interesting played piano-forte arrangements of the orchestral 
pieces mentioned as becomes at least plausible from the words in the ad- 
vertisement: "several musical pieces on the pianoforte": 

ACT I 

Overture '. Vanhal 

Grand Concerto on the 

Pianoforte, with accompaniments, by .. Mr. Schmidt 
Trio for two violins and bass 

'Be never jealous' a favorite duet for two voices 
The celebrated Sonata of Dr. Haydn, for two 

performers on one piano-forte, by Messrs. Schmidt and Weisbecher 

ACT II 

Symphonia Stamitz 

The 'Heaving of the lead' a favorite song 

by Mr. Schmidt 

A Duett concertante, for two violins 
The Battle of Prague, on the Forte-piano, by 

Mr. Schmidt 
Overture Haydn 



1) Population: 17903498; 18005289 inhabitants. 



BOSTON AND NEW ENGLAND. 



^THOUGH heretofore the early musical life of Boston has aroused the 
JL interest of historians to the neglect of other musical centers, this partiality 
has led to some substantial results, clearing as it did the historical under- 
growth. Still, it will be seen that the works of Hood, Bitter, Brooks, Perkins 
and Dwight and more recently Mr. Elson's sympathetic History of American 
Music have by no means fully covered the ground as far as the concert-life 
of Boston and New England in general is concerned. Now, with a greater 
mass of data at our disposal, we shall no longer hesitate to call Boston a 
musical city even in the eighteenth century. Had she not been, Boston, 
with a population 1 ) much smaller than that of New York would hardly 
have succeeded in suddenly gaining within a few decades a position' in the 
musical life of our country similar to that of Munich versus Berlin in Ger- 
many. 

The musical advertisements in the early Boston papers 2 ) bear substan- 
tial evidence to the fact that during the first decades of the eighteenth 
century sacred music predominated in Massachusetts, but, it must be in- 
sisted upon, not to such an extent as most historians would make us believe. 
One of the strongest points against the prevalent theory is this that public 
concerts were given at Boston at quite an early date. 

The first concert recorded in our Colonial papers was advertised in the 
Boston Weekly News Letter, Dec. 16 23, 1731 but this does not necessarily 
imply that it was the first given! Also a bare possibility remains that 
concerts might have been advertised in such earlier numbers of this weekly, 



1) Population: 172210567; 1765 15520 ; 179018038; 180024937 inhabitants. 

2) The first real newspaper, the 'Boston News Letter' was founded as early as 
1704! 



251 

founded in 1704, as seein to be lost forever. However, undoubtedly Boston's 
concert-life dates back to at least 1731 and everything considered this 
is quite early. The announcement in the Weekly News Letter reads 
thus: 

On Thursday the 30th of this instant December, there will be performed a Concert 
of Music on sundry Instruments at Mr. Pelham's great Room, being the House of 
the late Doctor Noyes near the Sun Tavern. 

Tickets to be delivered at the place of performance at Five shillings each. The 
Concert to begin exactly at Six o'clock, and no Tickets will be delivered after Five 
the day of performance. 

N. B. There will be no admittance after Six. 

This first concert was followed on Nov. 23 and Dec. 28, 1732 by two 
"Consorts of Musick performed of sundry instruments" 1 ). Both were held 
"at the Concert Room in Wing's Lane near the Town Dock", from which 
announcement we may infer that Boston possessed some kind of a concert 
hall as early as 1732. Shortly afterwards, on Jan. 29, 1733, the same paper 
informed the public of a further concert to be given on Feb. 1, 1733. The 
advertisement is interesting as it contains the earliest reference to the dura- 
tion of the entertainment. It was "to begin at Six o'clock and end at Nine". 
This concert, however, was postponed to February 15th. The next I came 
across was advertised in the Boston News Letter for March 11, 1736 and 
from the fact that the concert was to begin "at half an Hour after Six and 
end at Nine", it might be inferred that then as now two hours and a half 
had come to be considered the limit of human endurance. 

Besides leaving us in the dark concerning the music played, the 
newspapers never allude to the musician or musicians who thus in- 
troduced concerts at Boston. The only clue is the notice that the first 
concert was to take place "at Mr. Pelham's great Room". Now, this Pelham 
was identical with Peter Pelham, the engraver, dancing master, manager 
of the subscription assembly (in Puritan Boston!), boarding-school-keeper, 
instructor in "writing, arithmetic, reading, painting upon glass", and dealer 
in the "best Virginia Tobacco" 2 ). A man of such versatility may also have 
been proficient enough as a musician to give concerts. This hypothesis is 
strengthened by the fact that he appreciated the difficulties of the musical 
art sufficiently to put his son for nine long years "under the Tuition of an 
Accomplished Professor of the Art of Musick". Then, after his return to 
Boston in 1743, "Mr. Peter Pelham, jun." advertised his readiness to give 



1) New England Weekly Journal, Nov. 13 and Dec. 15, 1732. 

2) News Letter, Feb. 22, 1728; Boston Gazette, Jan. 1, Jan. 16, May 8, 1733; 
Boston Evening Post, Jan. 16, Sept. 1744; Sept. 12, 1748. 



252 

lessons on the harpsichord and in the "Rudiments of Psalmody, Hymns, 
Anthems, etc." 1 ). 

That young Pelham's training easily made him the foremost musician 
of Boston is more than likely, but, strange to say, I have not found 
his name mentioned again in the Boston papers. Perhaps he moved soon 
afterwards to Virginia, where he is to be traced later on. He certainly does 
not appear in connection with a concert given more than a year after his 
return and erroneousy claimed to have been Boston's first concert. It 
was thus advertised in the Boston Gazette on Nov. 27, 1744: 

This is to inform the Public, that by the Permission of the Select Men, a Concert 
of Mustek for the Benefit of the Poor of the Town, is to be perform'd at Faneuil Hall 2 ) 
on Thursday the Sixth of December, which will begin at half an Hour after Five in 
the Evening. Tickets may be had at the House of Mr. Stephen D(e) Blois in Queen- 
street at Ten Shillings each. As the Money raised will be put into the Hands of the 
Select Men, those who are so charitably disposed as to give any thing extraordinary 
may depend upon its being apply'd to the laudable Purpose aforesaid. 

N. B. No person will be admitted without a ticket. 

In the meantime music had definitely entered into the public life of the 
Bostonians and the fact that concerts were now beginning to be considered 
a proper tribute of respect to the king, proves pretty conclusively, in my 
opinion, that the New England Puritans were human, after all, on six days 
of the week and not so frightfully bigoted, ascetic and narrow-minded as 
they usually are pictured and that they did not consider music, to use Hullah's 
words, a stolen pleasure, a popular legend so brillantly scouted by Davey 
in his History of English music. 

It naturally suggested itself to pay some attention to the Boston Select- 
men minutes as reprinted in the Boston Town Records and the result was 
quite gratifying. For instance, it is recorded of the meeting of Oct. 10, 
1744 that: 

"Mr. William Sheaf with a number of Gentlemen desire the Liberty of Faneuil 
Hall to-morrow in the Afternoon being the King's Coronation Day in Order to Cele- 
brate the Day with a Concert of Musick. 

Voted that the Liberty be granted they making good all Damages & that it be 
no President for the future." 

However, the President had been established and the select men very 
soon were called upon to wrestle with it. Accordingly they granted in their 
meeting of Oct. 24, 1744 



1) Boston Evening Post, May 30, 1743. According to William H. Whitmore in 
'The Early Printers and Engravers of New England' (Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. 186667) 
he was baptised at St. Paul's Co vent Garden, London, Dec. 17, 1721. 

2) This venerable landmark of Boston, a combination of market and assembly 
building, was built in 1742 by Peter Faneuil as a gift to the city. 



253 

"Liberty ... to Mr. William Sheafe & a Number of Gentlemen for a Concert of 
Musick in Faneuil Hall on Tuesday next, it being the Majesty's Birth Day, the Gentle- 
men proposing the Benefit arising by the Tickets at Ten Shillings Old Tenor to be 
for the Benefit of the Poor of the Town to be disposed of at Discretion of the Select 
Men." 

For some reason or the other the proposed concert did not take place 
for we read in the minutes of the meeting on Nov. 21, 1744 

"Mr. William Sheafe & a Number of Gentlemen desire the Use of Faneuil Hall 
for a Concert of Musick in the room of that which was to have been performed on His 
Majesty's Birth Day, & as the Days are very short, that they might have it in the Evening 
to break up at nine o' Clock, the Benefit arising by the Tickets to be for the Use of the 
Poor of the Town as the Select men shall direct." 

Liberty is granted to them accordingly." 

The poor of the town had every reason to congratulate themselves on 
the musical enthusiasm of Mr. William Sheafe and a number of gentlemen 
for it was reported in the meeting of Dec. 12, 1744 that 

"the Selectmen received of Mr. Stephen Deblois two hundred & five pounds five 
shillings old Tenor being collected by a Concert of Musick in Faneuil Hall for the Use 
of the Poor of the Town." 

Presumably the selectmen gave their consent to similar requests during 
the next years but no reference to such appears in the printed minutes until 
May 4, 1747 when 

Mr. Thomas Hancock applied to the Selectmen in the name of his Excellency 
Governor Knowles (with his Complements [!] to them to be there) Desiring he might 
have the use of Faneuil Hall, one Evening this week for a Concert of Musick which was 
unanimously consented to by the Select Men 1 ). 

Several years elapsed before a public concert was advertised in the 
papers. It was to take place on Jan. 9, 1755 2 ) at the Concert Hall in Queen- 



1) It is necessary to call attention here to the fact that Mr. A. B. Brown in his 
book on Faneuil Hall (p. 89) in referring to this request quotes that Mr. Thomas Han- 
cock applied for the use of the hall "one evening in each week, fora concert of music". 
On the basis of this quotation I claimed in my article on 'Early Concerts in America' 
(New Music Review, June, 1906) that Boston possessed weekly amateur concerts as 
early as 1747. Later on I ran across the official version and as the contradiction bet- 
ween the two versions was apparent Mr. Edward Burlingame Hill of Boston kindly 
consented to consult the original minutes. Mr. Brown's version unfortunately is in- 
correct. 

2) Weekly News Letter, Jan. 2, 1755. See also Elson, who, by the way, states 
that Concert Hall was built in 1756, obviously a slip of the pen. When Concert Hall 
was built, is unknown. It existed already in 1754, though not called by that name 
in a deed of Sept. 1754 by which Gilbert and Lewis Deblois, brasiers, conveyed it to 
Stephen Deblois for 2000 pounds. In 1769 the latter sold it to William Turner for 
1000 pounds. The hall later on passed into the hands of the Amory family and stood 
until 1869 when it was torn down to make way for the widening of Hanover Street. 
(See Drake's History and antiquities of Boston, 1856 and his Old Landmarks of Boston.) 
The Amory family cannot have purchased the hall from Turner before Sept. 1787 when 
the Mass. Centinel, advertised it for sale. Turner, however, kept a dancing school 
at Concert Hall for years afterwards. 



254 

street. We are not told for whose benefit the entertainment was held, but 
it might have been John Rice who came to Boston from New York as 
music teacher and organist of Trinity Church during fall of 1753 1 ). At any 
rate his name is positively connected with a concert advertised in the Evening 
Post, March 31, 1755 for April 10th, as it was to be given "for the benefit 
of John Rice". 

If this advertisement was the first to clearly identify a particular musician 
with these early concerts, one that appeared in the Evening Post, Jan. 31, 
1757 for the first time dimly alludes to the program: 

For the benefit of Mr. Dipper, at Concert Hall, on Thursday next, the third of 
February, will be perform'd, a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Musick to consist 
of Select Pieces by the best Masters. 

Tickets to be had at the Crown and Comb the corner of Queenstreet, and at the 
Golden Eagle in Dock Square, at half a Dollar each. To begin at Six o'clock. 

Again it was Mr. Thomas Dipper who gave concerts on March 30, 1758 
(deferred from March 14th); Jan. 4, 1759, Jan. 10, 1760, February 3, 1761 
(postponed from Jan. 20th) 2 ) but beyond the usual information as to the 
price of tickets etc. we are not acquainted with further details, except that 
these concerts, too, consisted of "Select pieces by the best masters", a form 
of advertisement which remained traditional in Boston for many years. 
The only additional hint is contained in the announcement of the concert 
on Feb. 3, 1761 when "many" of the pieces were to be "accompany'd by 
two French horns" and the whole program was divided "into three acts". 

This was the last concert announced under Thomas Dipper's name but 
not the last in which he took part as may be inferred from the fact that 
tickets for concerts on Nov. 6 and Nov. 12, 1761 were to be had of the 
printers and of Mr. Dipper, at half a dollar each 3 ). Possibly Thomas Dipper, 
who had been imported from London as organist of King's Chapel in 1756, 
still held this position part of 1762 but that no concerts or other musical 
events at Boston can be linked with his name after 1762 becomes apparent 
from a notice in the Evening Post, June 6, 1763: 

"We hear from Jamaica, that Mr. Thomas Dipper, late organist of King's Chapel 
in this town, died there a few months ago." 

Possibly the concert of Feb. 3, 1761 was the first of a series as the ori- 
ginal announcement for Jan. 20th was headed "Mr. Dipper's Public Concert 
will begin on Tuesday the 20th instant." This possibility leads to some rather 
puzzling problems. In the first place, the term "public" concert is so un- 



1) Boston Evening Post, Nov. 19, 1753. 

2) Evening Post, March 13 and 27, 1758; Jan. 1, 1759; News Letter, Jan. 10, 
1760; Evening Post, Jan. 12, and Feb. 2, 1761. 

3) Boston Evening Post, Oct. 26 and Nov. 22, 1761. Possibly the concert on 
Nov. 12th was merely postponed from Nov. 6th. 



255 

usual in Colonial Times as to invite the suspicion that in contradistinction 
to this and other serial public concerts announced for no particular musi- 
cian's benefit, there also existed at Boston private concerts, as a rule not 
accessible to non-subscribers. Now the latter species does not necessarily 
imply that an organized society of "gentlemen-performers" existed at 
Boston, but, if they met at more or less regular intervals, of necessity some 
kind of organisation must have bound them together. Furthermore, should 
it appear that one or the other of the prominent musicians not only gave 
benefit concerts but managed serial subscription concerts, the query naturally 
would arise whether the latter ran parallel to the collegium musicum, if we 
may call it so, or were identical with it. Before attempting an answer, if 
an answer is possible, perhaps it will be best to gather in chronological 
order the few data that throw light on the puzzle. 
Said the News Letter on April 29, 1762: 

"The members of the Concert, usually performed [!] at Concert Hall, are hereby 
notified that the same is deferred to the end of the Summer months. And it is desired 
that in the meantime each member would settle his respective arreage with Stephen 
Deblois, with whom the several accounts are lodged for that purpose." 

Usually performed at Concert Hall ! This certainly does not read as if the 
anonymous organisation of which Mr. Stephan Deblois seems to have been 
the treasurer, was founded recently and who knows but that these musical ga- 
therings had their spiritual father in William Sheafe and his friends or at 
least sprang into life simultaneously or soon after the erection of Concert 
Hall? Or, maybe Thomas Dipper had a hand in the organisation and if 
the concerts were accessible to non-subscribers, then he possibly alluded 
to the concerts at Concert Hall and not to an independent undertaking 
when announcing in Feb. 1761 "Mr. Dipper's public concert". 

Next we read in the Massachusetts Gazette, Oct. 2, 1766 that a Concert 
of Musick was to begin on Oct. 7th and "to be continued every Tuesday 
evening for eight months" at Concert Hall. Gentlemen inclining to become 
members were directed to Mr. Stephen Deblois for further information. 
Then, on Jan. 12, 1769, the same paper speaks of 'the private concert' 
which was to begin on Wednesday evening the 25th. However, from the 
Boston Evening Post of Feb. 2d we know that the opening night was 
postponed to Feb. 10th and that the concerts thereafter continued every 
other Wednesday until May 31st. 1 ) Hence .the name of "Wednesday Night 
Concert". That it was not strictly private appears from the same announce- 
ment as non-subscribers were admitted on paying half a dollar each. During 
1770 Tuesday again seems to have been the night of meeting, at least the 



1) Boston Evening Post, May 29, 1769. 



256 

last concert for the season was announced for Tuesday, July 17, 1770 1 ). 
It was to begin at the unusually late hour of eight o'clock. 

During the winter of 1770 1771 at least two series of subscription 
concerts were given, one under the direction of William Turner and the 
other under Thomas Hartley. Mr. Turner seems to have been not less 
prominent as musician than as dancing and fencing master. In fact, 
he first appeared on the plan in the latter capacity by becoming in 1765 
successor to his father Ephraim who had taught dancing and fencing at 
Boston for many years and who died after a lingering illness in October 
1765 2 ). William Turner presumably was also active on the concert stage 
during those years but I failed to find his name mentioned in connection 
with concerts until December 7, 1770 when his concert was to open by sub- 
scription 3 ). That this was not merely a benefit concert but really consti- 
tuted the first in a series appears between the lines of the account of his 
troubles with Mr. Morgan, the violinist, published in the Boston Gazette, 
April 26, 1773. How long William Turner continued the enterprise is not 
certain. Mr. Seilhamer when speaking of Burgoyne's Thespians in Boston 
(1775 1776) mentions a concert given by Turner. This may or may not 
have been a benefit concert but it is also to be gleaned from his exposure 
of Mr. Morgan that this gentlemen threatened in April 1773, if not employed 
by Turner, to "lead Mr. Propert's concert" against him. Consequently 
William Turner was still busy with subscription concerts early in 1773. He 
then seems to have gone to London from where he returned during the 
summer of 1774 continuing to teach, "the polite arts of dancing and fencing 
in the newest and most approved method, at Concert Hall" 4 ) and with 
these accomplishments more than with music he appears to have made 
his living in after-years. 

Simultaneously with Turner, Thomas Hartley seems to have been con- 
nected with subscription concerts during the winter of 1770 1771 as he, 
in the Boston Evening Post of March 11, 1771, begged leave to 

"acquaint "his subscribers, that to avoid the Assembly and Passion Week, his two 
remaining concerts will be held on Wednesday the 20th instant, and on Wednesday 
the 10th of April." 

Evidently John Rowe referred to one of these subscriptions concerts 
with this entry in his diary on Jan. 3, 1771 

"Spent the evening at Concert Hall, where there was a concert performed by 
Hartly, Morgan and others; after the concert a dance. The Commodore and all the 



1) Boston Evening Post, July 16, 1770. 

2) Massachusetts Gazette, June 13, 1765 and Boston Evening Post, Oct. 21, 
1765. 

3) Boston Evening Post, Dec. 3, 1770. 

4) Boston Evening Post, June 6, 1774. 



257 

captains of the navy here was there and Colo. Dalrymple and fifty or sixty gentlemen 
and the same number of ladies present." 

The next reference, or rather references to serial concerts appear in the 
papers for 1773. On January 7th, Mr. David Propert, organist of Trinity 
Church, acquainted the gentlemen subscribers and the rest of his friends 
through the Massachusetts Gazette that "he is in expectation soon of a 
Capital performer; and then he will open the concert for the winter season". 
This preliminary notice was supplemented in the Boston Evening Post by 
the following quaint announcement: 

Mr. Propert acquaints the Gentlemen Subscribers that he intends to open the Concert 
at the British Coffee House in Kingstreet on Wednesday the 3d day of February. Wishes 
he could have had a larger room, which by the next season he hopes to accomplish, 
this being the best he can accommodate them at present. The performer he expected 
is come, and he is also favour'd with the band of the 64th: the little boys under his 
care will in a short time be able to sing out of Mr. Handel's oratorios, as they have a 
very distinguishing ear and power of voice: He returns thanks to those gentlemen 
who are lovers of the art and have favor'd him with their support, and assures them 
(as difficult as it may be) he will persevere to exert his abilities to give them all the 
satisfaction in his power. 

Every night will be performed select pieces upon the harpsichord with accom- 
paniment compos'd by the most celebrated masters of Italy and London; to begin at 
half after six. 

N. B. As the season is so far advanced the subscription is a guinea for three months. 

From John Howe's diary it appears that at least three concerts of the 
series took place on March 3, 17, 31, 1773 with "good music" before "a 
very genteel company". 

We already know that Mr. Propert had a rival in William Turner and 
consequently musical Boston again enjoyed at least two series of subscription 
concerts during part of the year 1773. This interesting fact is corroborated 
by a glance into the Boston Evening Post of April 19th and in fairness to 
William Turner his announcement also follows in full: 

Mr. Turner respectfully begs leave to acquaint his subscribers that his last concert 
for this season will be on Tuesday evening the 27th current, at which time will be per- 
formed a variety of music received from London by Capt. Scott, which never has been 
performed in this place compos'd by the most eminent masters in Europe. 

Mr. Turner also takes this public opportunity of returning his most grateful thanks 
to his friends and subscribers for their support of his Concert during the past season, 
and begs leave at the same time to acquaint them that he expects in June next an 
elegant organ, made by the celebrated Mr. John Snitzler, and as he is determined to 
spare no pains or expence to give satisfaction he hopes to merit a continuation of their 
favors for next season, tho' many attempts have been made to injure him. 

He also thinks it an act of justice to inform the public and his friends that he is 
not interested in Mr. Propert's Concert, advertised for Thursday 22d, as has been 
reported. 

The rivalry between the two musicians ended with a victory for David 
Propert as the latter on Nov. 4, 1773 in the Massachusetts Gazette ac- 
quainted the gentlemen subscribers to his Concert that it would be opened 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 17 



258 

at Concert Hall on Wednesday Nov. 10th and continue on that day once 
a fortnight. However, Turner soon was to have his revenge and we may 
imagine his satisfaction when he read in the Boston Evening Post of Oct. 3, 
1774 the following melancholical lines: 

Mr. Propert begs leave to acquaint the gentlemen subscribers to the Concert that 
he could not succeed in a number sufficient to defray the expences and finds the town 
in general not composed enough to enjoy or encourage any diversions at this un- 
happy time of publick calamity and distress, therefore he has dropt all thought of 
a concert for the present. 

And yet a few more subscription concerts must have taken place before 
the war turned the interests of the gentlemen subscribers into less peaceful 
channels than the enjoyment of overtures, concertos and symphonies! 
Foreshadowing the end, "the managers of the concert" gave public notice 
in the Massachusetts Gazette Jan. 26, 1775 that the next meeting of the 
gentlemen subscribers was adjourned to the first Thursday in March 

"in order to settle with the performers for the time past and to raise an ad- 
ditional subscription to the stock in hand, to enable them to carry it on for two months 
longer. 

That these concerts were conducted not by David Propert but by W. S. 
Morgan is also pretty certain as otherwise it would not have rested with 
the managers to appoint Feb. 2d for a "grand" concert of vocal and instru- 
mental music for Mr. Morgan's benefit 1 ). On the other hand it is not quite 
clear whether the managers raised enough additional stock to carry on the 
concerts during March and April and if Morgan, regardless of the signs of 
approaching war, on April 3d announced "his first evening's entertainment" 
in the Boston Evening Post the form of his announcement almost leads 
us to infer that the contemplated series was an enterprise of his own: 

Mr. Morgan requests leave to acquaint his subscribers and the public in general 
that his first evening's entertainment will be on Tuesday the 1 1th instant ; when will 
be performed a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music ; between the parts of which 
will be delivered (gratis) several comic Lectures an various subjects. 

Tickets at three shillings sterling each to be had at the British Coffee House, and 
of Mr. Morgan at his chamber near the Mill bridge, where such gentlemen as chuse to 
subscribe may be inform'd of the proposals. 

These are the scattered data on the basis of which an answer may be 
ventured to the queries suggested above. Personally I am inclined to be- 
lieve that at the very least from 1761 on, without any or with temporary 
interruptions only, a sort of musical society existed at Boston until 1775 
and that independently a few prominent musicians managed subscription 
concerts. At any rate, semi-public subscription- concerts flourished and it 
is a pity that we know so very little of the repertory, studied and 
played by the gentlemen-performers with the assistance and under the 



1) Boston Evening Post, Jan. 30, 1775. 



259 

guidance of the best available professional musicians, such as Dipper, 
Hartley, Turner, Propert and Morgan. 

Having ventured one conjecture with reference to these subscription- 
concerts another may follow here before terra firma is again touched with 
the benefit concerts given by the musicians just mentioned and Messrs. 
Flagg, Juhan, Selby, Asby, McLean, Stieglitz and Stamper. 

It is this. Beginning with 1763 a number of "public" concerts may 
be traced apparently belonging tb no series nor announced for the benefit 
of any particular musician. But somebody must have been responsible 
for them, and the question arises, who gave them? As they generally were 
held at Concert Hall, the idea would not seem far-fetched that Concert- 
Hall was erected by the Deblois as a business-proposition just for that 
purpose. In other words, those concerts might have been given by the pro- 
prietor or lessee of Concert Hall for the benefit of Concert Hall. Another 
explanation is equally plausible. How, if they were public appearances of 
the gentlemen-performers who thus found it convenient and easier to defray 
the current expenses of their "private" concert? Whatever explanation is 
accepted the fact remains that public concerts were given which belonged 
neither to any series nor were announced for the benefit of any particular 
musician. The announcements were generally clad in the formula "con- 
sisting of the most agreeable compositions from the best authors" but other- 
wise they throw little light on these somewhat mysterious entertainments. 
The dates, together with such bits of information as might prove interesting, 
were these: May 31, 1763 postponed from May 26th; Nov. 9, 1764; Oct. 24, 
1765; Dec. 5, 1768; Jan. 13, 1769; June 20, 1770; Dec. 24, 1773 1 ). The 
concert of 1763 "opened" the latest acquisition of Concert Hall, "a delicate 
and melodious new orga'n, made by the first hand and lately imported from 
London in Capt Burges", and declared to have been "perhaps the finest 
instrument in America". An item of interest connected with the concert 
on Nov. 9, 1764 is this, that tickets were also to be had at Mr. Billings' s 
shop near the Post-office, and possibly we have in this the earliest musical 
reference in the papers to William Billings, tanner, psalmodist and composer 
whose music was to exercise such a strange fascination over our people for 
thirty long years. The announcements of the other concerts are indifferent, 
that of June 20, 1770 excepted. It shows that the Concert really was an 
opera performance in disguise as the advertisement reads: 

"A vocal entertainment of three acts. The songs (which are numerous) are taken 
from a new celebrated opera, call'd, Lionel and Clarissa". 

Following this clue, it is then easily ascertained that in 1770 several 



1) Boston Evening Post, May 16 and 30, 1763, Nov. 5, 1764, Oct. 7, 1765, June 18, 
1770, Dec. 20, 1773; Boston Chronicle, Nov. 21-28, 1768, Jan. 2-9, 1769. 



260 

others besides this opera by Dibdin were given in concert-form. Perhaps 
Mr. Joan, of whom more later on, was responsible for these entertainments. 
At any rate, John Howe, not sufficiently weighed down by his wide business 
interests to neglect his entertaining diary recently published, entered under 
March 23, 1770: 

"In the evening I went to the Concert Hall to hear Mr. Joan read the Beggar's 
Opera & sing the songs. He read but indifferently, but sung in taste. There were 
upwards one hundred people there." 

Turning to benefit concerts, given either at the virtuoso's own risk or 
with the assistance and under the auspices of the gentlemen performers on 
the principle of do itt des, (which is not always clear) it would seem that 
Thomas Hartley's benefit concert of Jan. 15, 1767 *) at Concert Hall was 
the first given at Boston after Thomas Dipper's departure to Jamaica. Of 
course, the program consisted "of select pieces by the most eminent masters" 
which leaves a rather wide margin to our reconstructive imagination. When 
announcing his "grand" concert on April 28, 1769 2 ) Mr. Hartley even re- 
frained from giving this meagre formula but he remarked that "the vocal 
parts" would be held by a "gentleman from London" whose identity, how- 
ever, is not disclosed. Finally, of his last benefit concert to be traced in the 
papers, f. i. in the Boston Evening Post, Jan. 1, 1770, we know nothing ex- 
cept the date. It was to be held on Jan. 5, 1770 postponed from Dec. 29, 
1769. In 1771 we found him connected with subscription concerts but 
after that he cannot have resided much longer at Boston since we found 
him playing first violin at a concert in Charleston, S. C. in January 1773. 
His subsequent career is unknown to me. 

In the meantime the doors of Concert Hall had been opened to the public 
on March 16, 1769 for the benefit "of the fife-major of the 29th regiment". 
The concert certainly took place, for John Rowe, the Boston captain of 
industry, entered in his diary under March 16, 1769 

". . . . Spent the evening at the Fife-Major's concert at Concert-Hall there was 
a genteel Company & the best Musick I have heard performed there." 

Tickets at the then usual price of half a dollar were to be purchased 
at the London Bookstore, by the printers of the Boston Chronicle which 
announced the concert on March 9 13th and at Mr. M'Lean's, watch- 
maker in Kingstreet. It will be remembered that a fife- major by the name 
of John M'Lean gave a concert at New York in 1771. In case the 29th 
regiment was a militia regiment, it is possible that the anonymous fife- 
major of the 29th regiment, Mr. M'Lean the watchmaker and the fife- 
major M'Lean were identical. If this correlation .should prove to be 



1) Boston Evening Post, Jan. 12, 1767. 

2) Boston Chronicle, April 3 and April 27, 1769. 



261 

impossible, then this particular concert might be linked with the name of a 
musician who in the Boston Evening Post, Oct. 11, 1713 claimed to have 
been "the first founder and having at great expense of time, trouble, etc. 
instructed a band of music to perform before the regiment of militia in 
this town". This energetic musician was Josiah Flagg, born possibly about 
Nov. 5, 1738 l ) and best known as Boston's authority in psalmody before 
William Billings appeared on the plan. 

In 1764 Josiah Flagg had published his 'Collection of the best Psalm 
tunes . . . approv'd of by the best masters in Boston. New England'. The 
book was engraved, on paper made in the Colonies, by Paul Revere. This 
coincidence is deeply regretted by those who collect early American psalm 
tune collections for their value from the standpoint of musical history and 
not from that of the history of engraving. Admitting that Paul Revere 
did his work well, though he might have given credit to Henry Dawkins 
whose title page to Lyon's 'Urania' he to put it mildly and as was his habit 
deftly borrowed, Flagg's collection would not bring to-day the exorbitant price 
of 52 dollars, had it not in after-years fallen to Paul Revere's lot to become 
famous, under circumstances not wholly clear, as the man of the 'Mid-night 
ride'. Be this as it may, Josiah Flagg compiled a useful collection and met 
with sufficient encouragement to publish in 1766 'A collection of all Tan- 
sur's and a number of other anthems' 2 ). But psalmody did not satisfy 
ambitious Josiah Flagg and he soon ventured into the spheres of secular 
music of which tendency traces may even be found in his collection of 1764. 
To found and drill at great expense and trouble a militia band, is still con- 
sidered a creditable undertaking, but Flagg did more than this. He gave 
quite acceptable concerts and merits the particular sympathy and admiration 
of the historian because he occasionally condescended to mention his pro- 
grams. This, however, was not the case with the first concert actually 
announced for his benefit which took place after a postponement of date 
on June 29, 1769 at Concert Hall 3 ). Still, Josiah Flagg merits some applause 
for having at least remarked that the "vocal part [was] to be performed 
by four voices, and to conclude with the British Grenadiers". As this public 
concert was the "last" this season, logically it must have been preceded 
by others and it would be interesting to know whether it belonged to a 
series of subscription concerts or whether Josiah Flagg had friends and 
admirers enough to risk more than one benefit concert during that year. 
His next benefit concert, on June 7, 1770 4 ) was adorned by "a duet to 

1) In the Records of the Church in Brattle Square, Boston, 1902 appears on p. 161 
in the "List of Persons baptized" "Josiah Flag. November 5, 1738". 

2) See my book on Francis Hopkinson and James Lyon, 1905. 

3) Boston Chronicle, June 26/29, 1769. 

4) Massachusetts Gazette, June 7, 1770. 



262 

be sung by a gentleman who lately read and sung in Concert Hall 1 ) and 
Mr. Flagg". 

All this reads harmless enough so far, but that Josiah Flagg really 
was conversant with the best music of the time and possessed ambitions 
and taste far beyond that of the average psalmodist if he really 
was an exception is strikingly illustrated by the following programs. 
For May 17, 1771 2 ) he solicited the patronage of the public with this really 
remarkable selection of "vocal and instrumental musick accompanied by 
French horns, hautboys, etc. by the band of the 64th Regiment". 

ACT I. Overture Ptolomy Handel 

Song 'From the East breaks the morn' 

Concerto 1st Stanley 

Symphony 3d Bach 

ACT II. Overture 1st Schwindl 

Duet to 'Turn fair Clora' 

Organ concerto 

Periodical Symphony Stamitz 

ACT III. Overture 1st Abel 

Duetto 'When Phoebus the tops of the hills' 

Solo Violin 

A new Hunting Song, set to music by .. .. Mr. Morgan 

Periodical Symphony Pasquale Ricci 

Nor did he lower his standard when less than half a year later, on Oct. 4th, 
he gave another benefit concert at Concert Hall. That it was not custo- 
mary to appeal to the public twice within half a year, or rather that it was 
customary to defer benefit concerts to the end of the season would appear 
from a N. B. in the announcement in the Massachusetts Gazette, Oct. 3d 
where Flagg emphatically denied that "his being thus early with his concert 
is not with intention to interfere with any other person". As a side-light 
on advertising methods of the time it may also be observed that the an- 
nouncements in the papers differed. Whereas he gave to the Massachusetts 
Gazette the news that his concert would be 

"conducted (and a solo on the violin) by Mr. Morgan, organist of Newport" 
and that in the concert would be 

"introduced several of the airs, dueto's and chorus's in Acis and Galathea, com- 
posed by Mr. Handel. And in act the 2d a Concerto on the organ, by a gentleman 
lately arrived from London" 

the Massachusetts Spy, Oct. 3, 1771 was intrusted with the publication of 
the full program: 

1) Either Joan or Douglas, who both gave operatic readings in 1770. 

2) Boston Evening Post, May 13, 1771. 



263 

ACT I. Overture and the first chorus in Acis and Galathea, (by 
ten voices) 'O the pleasure of the plains, etc. 

Sixth Concerto of Stanley 

Solo on the violin by Mr. Morgan 

Song 'Love sounds the alarms, etc.' 

Fourth Periodical Symphony 
ACT II. Overture in Pastor Fido 

Duetto 'He comes, etc.' 

Organ Concerto by Mr. Selby 

First Concerto by Mr. Humphrys 

Duetto and Chorus in Acis and Galatea 
'Happy we etc.' 

Overture by Ld. Kelly 

His admiration for Haendel found further expression in a concert at 
which Josiah Flagg possibly made his final bow to the public of Boston. 
It was then that he reminded them of their obligations to him for having 
founded and drilled the first regular militia band of Boston. He made his 
appeal to the public purse still stronger by notifying his friends that he was 
"about to leave the Province soon" and hoped that they would "enable 
him to do it in an independant manner" 1 ). Thus the "Grand Concert of 
vocal and instrumental music to be led by Mr. Morgan" and for which he 
had obtained leave "of the gentlemen selectmen" for the use of Faneuil 
Hall on Oct. 28, 1773 partook of the character of a testimonial concert for 
Josiah Flagg with this program: 

THE FIRST PART. 
An Overture 
Song 

An Overture in the Shepherd's Lottery 2 ) 
Song 

Harpsichord Concerto 
A Chorus in the Messiah 

THE SECOND PART 
Coronation Anthem 
Solo Violin, 'The Hero comes' 
Overture 
Liberty Song 3 ) 
There will be upwards of 50 performers. 

Whether or not Josiah Flagg left Boston, I do not know but the pro- 
babilities are that he did, for otherwise an ambitious and energetic man 
like Flagg would have been heard from subsequently. Any further data on 
his career would be welcomed as Boston was not too generously favored 
with pioneers like Josiah Flagg in those days. That his services were kept 
in good remembrance long after his death would appear from the accounts 



1) Boston Evening Post, Oct. 18, 1773. 

2) W. Boyce. 

3) Words by John Dickinson to 'Heart of oak'. 



264 

of a concert given on Jan. 31, 1795 by the flutist Mr. Stone for the relief 
of the widow Flagg. This concert netted the handsome sum of one hundred 
and two dollars. That this was Josiah Flagg's widow I infer from the fact 
that she was the mother of the dentist and "vile miscreant son" Josiah 
Flagg, junr. But of this concert more will be said later on. 

It is peculiar how suddendly and mysteriously many of our early musi- 
cians appear on the horizon and disappear again leaving either no clue 
whatever to their antecedents or allowing the inquisitive biographer only 
momentary glimpses into the different periods of their life or again leaving 
no traces behind them, once they have proved fairly interesting subjects 
of investigation. In the majority of cases this fragmentary condition of 
their biographies will cause no heart burning but when we have to deal with 
men like Josiah Flagg, William Tuckey and others we certainly sigh for 
more data. Though by no means as important a figure as these two mu- 
sicians, James Juhan furnishes a further typical example of such a meteoric 
career. Indeed in his case, conjecture has to furnish more or less broken 
links in the biographical chain, fragmentary at its best. 

On Oct. 20, 1768 the Boston Weekly News Letter contained an adver- 
tisement to the effect that a James Joan taught the French language, in- 
strumental music, dancing and the minuet privately to ladies and gentlemen 
in the commodious and large building opposite "Dr. Coopers Meeting". 
So far this advertisement reads like so many others but Joan added that 
he also made and sold neat violin bows, thereby becoming entitled to a pos- 
- sible serious consideration in a history of violin making in America. The 
suspicion is correct, for we read in the Boston Chronicle, July 31, 1769 that 
he indead made and sold "below the Sterling price violins, screw-bows, and 
cases, equal in goodness to the best imported". It is the same old cry of 
protest against the fictitious and yet not fictitious supremacy of the Cre- 
ponese instruments! However, what truth Joan's assertion might have 
contained, he conceived and probably it was the first experiment of the 
'kind in our country the idea of allowing the unbiased public to decide 
upon the superiority, inferiority or equal value of his instruments. On 
March 1, 1770 x ) our ambitious Frenchman gave a benefit concert at Concert 
Hall, where he had taken up his abode in the meantime as teacher of the 
violin, German flute and bass-viol. At this concert "all the violins that 
[were to] be used [had] been manufactured here by the said Juan" 2 }. To the 
historian this bit of information is of decidedly more interest than the notice 
that the program contained "two grand choruses for four voices, the words 



1) Boston Evening Post, Feb. 19, 1770. 

2) To save others the trouble of fruitless reference, I remark that no violin maker 
by the name of Joan, Juan or Juhan appears in v. Liittgendorff. 



265 

will adapted to the times [and] two other excellent songs". But we are 
glad to hear this and also that James Joan in September of said year 1 ) 
still carried on "the manufacture of violins, bass-viols etc. in the greatest 
perfection from two to ten guineas price". Possibly Mr. Joan repeated 
his experiment when he gave a "grand" concert, Mr. David Propert performing 
some select pieces on the fortepiano and guitar between the acts at Concert 
Hall on March 21, 1771 2 ), but this is not recorded. 

It will have been noticed that the name of our would be Stradivari 
is given in two different forms : James Joan and Juan. Now no musician of 
either name appears again in the Boston papers but we read under date 
of Sept. 12, 1771 in the South Carolina Gazette of Charleston: 

James Juhan, lately arrived in this province . . . proposes teaching violin, German 
flute and guittar, he likewise proposes tuning harpsichords, spinets etc. by the year, 
quarter or otherwise, and repairs . . ah 1 sorts of musical instruments . . . has to sell 
a few excellent violins 

and in a like capacity we still find James Juhan at Charleston in April 1772 3 ). 
Therefore the conjecture might not be considered unreasonable that James 
Joan or Juan who displayed his violins in a concert at Boston and the James 
Juhan of Charleston, S. C. are identical. What became of this James Juhan 
until he reappears in 1783 at Philadelphia, "lately arrived . . . with his 
family" as music teacher and manufacturer of the "Great North American 
Fortepiano" 4 ) is again a puzzle. Possibly he died at Philadelphia but cer- 
tainly he left his mark on the city's musical life through his son, for we do 
not hesitate in believing that James was the father of Alexander Juhan, 
junior who from 1783 on played such a prominent part in the musical 
affairs of the Quaker City. 

Merely mentioning a concert of vocal and instrumental music at Concert 
Hall on April 20, 1770 5 ) for the benefit of a Mr. Asby who at the end of the 
entertainment was to appear "in the character of a clown" in the cantata 
'Cymon and Siphigenia', our attention turns for a while to the "capital 
performer" whom David Propert had been so anxiously awaiting. W. S. 
Morgan, shortly after his arrival in Boston on Nov. 1770 hastened to notify 
the public that he was a "pupil of Signior Giardini", that he purposed "in- 
structing ladies and gentlemen on the harpsichord, violin etc. on the easiest 
terms and by the mostapprov'd methods" and that he was to be spoke with 
at his Academy Room from the hours of nine in the morning to one o'clock. 



1) Massachusetts Gazette, Sept. 6, 1770. 

2) Massachusetts Gazette, March 7, 1771. 

3) South Carolina Gazette, April 16, 1772. 

4) Pennsylvania Gazette, June 25, 1783. Spillane, Ford, Brooks and others by 
some strange error give the name as Julian. 

5) Mass. Gaz. March 29 and April 19, 1770. 

6) Massachusetts Gaz. Nov. 8 and Nov. 22, 1770. 



266 

But Mr. Morgan's path in the Colonies was not to be strewn with roses 
and for this he had nobody to blame but himself. Mr. W. S. Morgan seems 
to have been somewhat of an adventurer, spendthrift, drunkard and all- 
around rascal. In a letter addressed to the "impartial" public in self defense 
to certain actions of his, in the Boston Gazette, April 26, 1773, William 
Turner not only draws a vivid picture of Morgan's character but incidentally 
becomes his biographer. Said he: 

As my conduct towards Mr. Morgan has been much censur'd, I beg leave to offer a 
number of real facts, which I am thoroughly convinc'd will alter the opinion of every 
prejudic'd person and point out them that I'm the only injur'd man. 

On Mr. Morgan's first arrival here, Mr. W. F. W. a gentleman belonging to the 
navy apply'd to me and ask'd me to employ said Morgan, on which I told him, if he 
was capable to play either first or second fiddle in the Concert I would do it. Accor- 
dingly, Mr. W. F. W. desir'd him to call on me and convince me of his capacity, 
which was done. After which I inform'd Mr. W. F. W. he'd answer my purpose and that 
he should be employ'd as soon as the Concert open'd and should receive a benefit concert 
for Assistance." 

Soon after, says Turner, he received a note from Morgan that he was 
in the hands of the sheriff not having paid his board bill. Turner paid the 
sum in order to keep Morgan out of prison. Not only this, he takes him 
to his home, introduces him to his friends and supports him "with board 
and money" "upwards of six months", in consequence of which Morgan 
promised utmost friendship. 

". . . . he then having an opportunity of doing something for himself, by going to 
Newport, desir'd a letter of recommendation . . . which was readily granted, the con- 
tents of which got him into business that brought him in at the rate of 150 Sterling 
per annum, but he being imprudent lost his business and friends and was obliged to 
quit Newport . . . 

A week later Turner received a letter from Rochester asking him to help 
him (Morgan) out of troubles, which he did. By this time it had become 
impossible to interest his friends in Morgan. Finally they sent him to Ports- 
mouth and 

"he again got into good business and might have continued so till this day, if he 
had behav'd like a gentleman but being oblig'd to quit that place, he once more return'd 
here, and call'd at my house in the evening and told me, if I did not employ him he 
should lead Mr. Propert's Concert against me ; I having company, and finding him not 
in a capacity to talk with, desir'd he would let me know where he lodg'd, and I'd call 
and talk with him in the morning. This he declined and went off leaving me in the 
dark. This happen'd on Friday Evening and I never heard anything of him 'till I 
read Monday's paper and found he'd come to assist Mr. Propert against me although 
he had repeatedly declar'd he never wou'd perform against me on account of my great 
friendship towards him. 

But to come to the point, this said Morgan being indebted to me ever since 
the year 1770 and I finding him to be ungrateful, requested my just due, and 
desir'd he would settle with me and pay the balance or at least give security 
for it." 

Of course, Morgan makes all sorts of promises but Turner does not re- 
ceive a penny, whereupon he sends an officer with a writ. 



267 

"Now I appeal to all unprejudiced persons if this was impolite behaviour to a 
man that has acted so ungrateful a part. Further, so far from my being desirous of 
hindering the company that attented at Mr. Propert's concert on the 22d instant of 
Mr. Morgan's performance, I desir'd the officer M. Otis," if he cou'd not get bail, 
to discharge him, and I'd pay cost, as I despis'd an ill natur'd action . . ." 

In every other walk of life Mr. Morgan would have been ostracized after 
this exposure, so easily to be verified by inquiries at Newport and the other 
scenes of his escapades, but he was an artist and in an artist usually such 
conduct is gladly condoned as long as he pleases as a capital performer. 
This W. S. Morgan undoubtedly was in the eyes of the public and musicians 
of Boston during the few years of his intermittent residence there. After 
having proved his abilities as violinist in Turner's first subscription concert 
of 1770 1771, Morgan saw his way clear to give on Feb. 8, 1771 his first 
benefit concert 1 ) at Concert Hall with a band. This was followed by a 
second benefit assisted by the band of the 64th Regiment on May 10th 2 ). 
After his disastrous expedition to Newport, Rochester and Portsmouth he 
returned to Boston early in April 1773 and immediately announced a "grand" 
concert, he himself to play the violin and D. Propert the harpsichord, for 
April 22d. The first act was to conclude "with the celebrated Highland 
Laddie concerto never performed here. And by particular desire [was to] 
be sung, the favorite song of Mongo, out of the Padlock", by Dibdin 3 ). 
The entertainment was postponed to April 26th as on April 22d, owing to 
what Messrs. Morgan and Propert probably considered an "ill natur'd 
action" on Turner's part, Mr. Morgan had made the forced acquaintance 
of Mr. Otis, officer of the law. He again appeared before the public in a 
benefit concert on March 10, 1774 4 ) and then went into a kind of partnership 
with a Mr. Stieglitz, a "capital performer on the German flute" who had 
arrived from London in December 1773 and had introduced himself to the 
Bostonians with a "grand" benefit concert on Dec. 28th 5 ). Having received 
assurance of the patronage and assistance of the Musical Gentlemen Messrs. 
Morgan and Stieglitz combined their fortunes with the assistance of the 
band of the 64th Regiment on April 20, 1774 at Concert Hall 6 ). At the 
end of the concert Morgan appeared in a new capacity, as orchestral com- 
poser and unless his Military Symphony suffered in the neighborhood of 
Stamitz and Arne, it cannot have been half so worthless as its author. But 
Mr. Morgan's sins shall be forgiven, as he was generous enough to insert 
the full program: 

1) Mass. Gaz. Fob. 8, 1771. The concert was postponed from Jan. 25th by 
particular desire. 

2) Mass. Gaz. May 9, 1771. 

3) Mass. Gaz. April 8, 16, 26, 1773. 

4) Mass. Gaz. Feb. 10, March 10, 1774. 

5) Boston Evening Post, Dec. 27, 1773. 

6) Boston Evening Post, April 4, 1774. 



268 

ACT I 

Overture Stamitz, 1st 

Concerto German flute 
Song 'My dear Mistress' 
Harpsichord Concerto by Mr. Selby 
Symphony Artaxerxes 1 ) 

ACT 2d. 

Overture Stamitz 4th 

Hunting Song .. 
Solo, German Flute 
Song 'Oh! my Delia' 
Solo Violin 

To conclude with a grand Military Simphony accompanied by kettle drums, etc. 
compos'd by Mr. Morgan. 

Tickets at half a dollar each . . . 

N. B. Copies of the songs to be delivered out (gratis) with the tickets. To begin at 
seven o'clock precisely. 

Emboldened by their success and at the particular request of a number 
of gentlemen Messrs. Morgan and Stieglitz of course, again with the 
assistance of the band of the 64th Regiment gave a second joint-benefit 
at Concert Hall on May 18th 2 ) with a different but not less interesting 
program: 

ACT I 

Overture Guglielmi 1st 

Concerto Brabant 

Song 'All in the downs' 
Harpsichord Concerto, Mr. Selby 
Simphony G. Flute, accompanied with 
kettledrums [!] 

ACT 2d. 

Overture Gossec 33d 

Song 

Solo G. Flute 

Song 'Soldier tir'd of war's alarms', from 
the opera of Artaxerxes, accompanied 
with the kettledrums, etc. 
Solo Violin 

To conclude with a grand Simphony by Lord Kelly, accompanied by kettle- 
drums, etc. 

Then the two ambitious gentlemen separated their fortunes again 
though continuing to exchange professional courtesies. Thus Mr. Stieglitz 
with the promised assistance of the Gentlemen Performers gave a benefit 
concert on Feb. 21, 1775 3 ) and Mr. Morgan one on Sept. 8, 1774 4 ). Though 
the program is not mentioned the meagre announcement is of great historical 



1) Arne. 

2) Boston Evening Post, May 9, 1774. 

3) Massachusetts Gazette, Feb. 9, 1775. 

4) Boston Evening Post, Sept. 5, 1774. Postponed from Sept. 5th. 



269 

importance as it proves that the full orchestra of the period, including cla- 
rinets was employed and from the tenor of the advertisement it must be 
inferred that on this occasion the orchestra was of unusual size. The announ- 
cement reads in part: 

First violin, Mr. Morgan. German flute, Mr. Stieglitz. Harpsichord, Mr. Selby. 
Accompanied with clarinets, hautboys, bassoons, French horns, trumpets, kettle- 
drums, etc. etc. 

N. B. The Gentlemen Performers of the Army, Navy and of the Town, have pro- 
mis'd Mr. Morgan their assistance in [this] Concert ; likewise some of the best performers 
from the several bands of music of the line. 

With exception of the benefit concert tendered him by the managers of 
the Gentlemen-performers' concert on Feb. 2, 1775 1 ) and of his attempted 
revival of the subscription concerts in April of 1774, this concert on Feb. 2, 
1775 was the last in which W. S. Morgan seems to have appeared before 
the public of Boston and I do not know what became of him after 1775. 

During the last years of his career at Boston, W. S. Morgan sided, as 
was seen, with David Propert against Mr. Turner. This musician "pro- 
fessor of musick" moved from New York where he taught music and "gave 
out plans for organs, from 35 1. to 500 1." to Boston late in 1770 2 ). He di- 
vided his energy between teaching half a dozen instruments and selling 
"a variety of [imported] new musick and musical instruments", but devoted 
himself in after-years almost exclusively to dealing in instruments. In 1771 
David Propert became organist of Trinity Church and in that capacity he 
announced benefit concerts at Concert Hall for Oct. 15, 1771 when he had 
"a good company upwards of 200" (J. Rowe) and Oct. 13, 1772 3 ) before he 
assumed charge of the subscription concerts mentioned. 

We further know that on Sept. 22, 1773 in celebration of the King's 
Coronation a "grand concert of musick" was given at Concert Hall 4 ), and 
that on Oct 24, 1774 on the anniversary of the King's birth there was a 
"grand" concert at Faneuil Hall" in honor of royalty" 5 ). Finally, from the 
Massachusetts Gazette, Dec. 29, 1774 it would appear that a concert, pre- 
viously announced for Dec. 12th for the benefit of a Mrs. Stamper who was 
in distressed circumstances, was postponed to that day. It was to be "com- 
pos'd of the greatest variety of instruments ... in town". 

While William Turner and David Propert who occasionally played at 
John Howe's home and whom the genial merchant called a "fine hand" 
were fighting for supremacy in matters musical, a musician was gradually 



1) Boston Evening Post, Jan. 30, 1775. 

2) N. Y. Mercury, Sept. 17, 1770; Mass. Gaz. Dec. 27, 1770. Propert reappeared 
again at Boston in 1789. 

3) Mass. Gaz. Sept. 26, 1771 and Boston Evening Post, Sept. 28, 1772. 

4) See Brooks, p. 157. 

6) See Abram English Brown's 'Faneuil Hall', 1900, p. 89. 



270^ 

forging to the front to whom more than to Gottlieb Graupner or any other 
musician the glory is due of having indirectly laid the foundation for the 
Handel and Haydn Society, indeed the glory of having prepared the musical 
future of Boston more than any other musician before or after him. This 
musician was William Selby and if in the 'History of the Handel and Haydn 
Society not even' his name is mentioned, I can only repeat what I have said 
in my Bibliography of Early Secular American Music: 

The rapid progress of music at Boston was largely prepared by him and 
it is unfair not to mention William Selby among the musical pioneers of 
Boston. 

As the name implies, William Selby was an Englishman and we probably 
have to recognize in him the organist of St. Sepulchre's in London who at 
the anniversary of the Charity School in 1767 accompanied on the organ 
the anthem composed by Kiley and sung by the Charity Children. Had 
Selby remained for any length of time in London, certainly his name would 
appear in other sources (accessible to me) besides in Pohl's 'Mozart and 
Haydn in London', v. II, p. 212. This, as far as I can see, is not the case. 
However, one fact stands forth: in Josiah Flagg's concert of Oct. 4, 1771 
a concerto on the organ was performed by a "gentleman lately arrived from 
London" and this gentleman undoubtedly was William Selby, whose talents 
as harpsichord player and organist were soon recognized by those who gave 
concerts at Boston. 

It would be interesting to know if William Selby left London because 
he had received a call as organist by the vestry of King's Chapel, (after 
the war temporarily called Stone Chapel) a position which he must have 
held in 1772 as a benefit concert was given in Oct. 1772 by "Mr. Selby, 
organist at the King's Chapel". Either late in 1773 or early in January 
1774 he became organist of Trinity Church at Newport, B. I. as appears 
from an advertisement in the Mercury, Jan. 24, 1774 where he also announced 
his intention of opening a dancing school! Whether this combination of 
occupations displeased Newport or whether Newport displeased Selby, he 
cannot have remained organist of Trinity Church far into September, as 
Sept. 16, 1774 a benefit concert was announced by "Mr. Knoetschel, orga- 
nist of Trinity Church". But Selby still held the position in August as 
he then announced a concert for his own benefit 1 ). He subsequently 
returned to Boston and again became organist of King's Chapel as the 
church records remark under date of Easter Monday, 1777: 

A public collection for his benefit was ordered. It amounted to 2. 13 
only but 20 additional were voted out of the church stock 2 ). He fared 

1) See Brooks, Olden Time Music, p. 63. 

2) Foote's Annals of King's Chapel, II, p. 309. 



271 

much better in the following year, for John Rowe entered in his diary under 
Nov. 8, 1778: 

"Mr. Selby had a collection this afternoon it amounted L 97. very handsome." 

Still, Selby at one time during the war evidently saw himself obliged to 
look for other revenues besides those accruing to him as organist and music 
teacher, as in 1780 he is mentioned as selling at his shop near Broomfi eld's 
Lane "Port, Teneriffe, Malaga Wines, Tea, Brown and Loaf sugar, logwood, 
English soap, etc." 1 ). However, with the year 1782 he stepped out of the 
liquor and grocery business and lived again the musical life. Possibly from 
1779 to 1782 owing to the condition of the church, Selby was not organist 
at the Stone Chapel but in Oct. 1782 he is again mentioned as such in the 
papers. He held the position until succeeded by P. A. Van Hagen in 1799. 
He died early in December 1798 for we read under the death news in the 
Columbian Centinel Dec, 12, 1798 : "In this town, Mr. William Selby, Aet. 59". 
Consequently he was born in 1738 2 ). 

In addition to his activity as harpsichordist, organist, music teacher and 
above all as manager of concerts, William Selby strived for the laurels of 
a composer and compiler and in this respect, too, he should not be under- 
estimated. Possibly one or the other of the concertos which he played at 
concerts were the fruit of his activity as composer and that he really did 
compose an organ concerto will appear a few lines below. But not until 
1782 do we possess tangible proof of his ambitions as composer. It was in 
this year that he proposed to "the friends of music and the fine arts" to 
publish by subscription, in monthly installments his 'New Minstrel' which 
was in fact to be a collection of "original" compositions. I have given in 
my Bibliography the full text of these proposals, remarkable not only for 

1) Continental Journal, Jan. 13, 1780. 

2) These statements contradict Foote's Annals of King's Chapel where we read 
(v. II, p. 403) that William Selby was organist from 1782 to 1804 at a salary of L. 66. 
13 s. 4 d. being succeeded by Mrs. Elizabeth Van Hagen, 180418 10. It is also stated 
that his immediate succeesors were not able to efface the memories of his superior abi- 
lities. This I was willing to believe but the year 1804 aroused my suspicions. Indeed it 
could not be correct. In the first place, P. A. Van Hagen, junr. is positively mentioned 
as "organist of the Stone Chapel" when advertising in the Columbian Centinel, Jan. 4, 
1800 the publication of his 'Funeral Dirge on the death of George Washington ! Further- 
more "Selby, William, musician Tremontstreet" figures in the Boston Directory of 
1796, as "organist, Tremontstreet" in that of 1798, but no longer in that of 1800 nor 
1803. In the one for 1800, however, we find "Selby, Sarah, Tremontstreet" and the 
supposition will not be considered violent that she was his widow. (The only item con- 
flicting is this that in the Boston marriage records of 1792 his bride's name is given 
as Susannah (Parker) but the address, hi my mind, carries more circumstantial evidence 
than the difference in the Christian name). Finally Mrs. Van Hagen is not mentioned 
as organist in the directories before 1805 whereas we find "Von Hagen, P. A. jun. or- 
ganist" in that of 1803. If therefore his mother became organist in 1804 he seems to 
have held the position from 1799 to 1803. As my request Mr. Edward Burlingame 
Hill of Boston took the matter up and he succeeded in finding Selby's death notice 
in the Columbian Centinel as quoted. 



272 

the boldness of the plan, but also for the proud spirit and strong love of his 
art and for the confidence Selby had in the musical future of his adopted 
country. I also stated there that his appeals do not seem to have fallen 
on willing ears. Still, Bostonians must have held him in some esteem as 
a composer. Otherwise the Massachusetts Magazine would hardly have 
offered to its subscribers in 1789 and 1790 such songs of his as 'The Lovely 
lass', 'The Ode for the New Year', 1789, the 'Ode on Musick', 'The Rural 
retreat', partly reprinted in after-years in the American Musical Miscel- 
lany, 1798. 

In the meantime, as will be seen, his 'Ode in honour of General Wa- 
shington', his anthems '0 be joyful in the Lord', 'Jubilate Deo', 'Now unto 
the King eternal' were performed in public as also 'An Ode to Independence' 
at the Stone Chapel in celebration of the llth anniversary of American 
Independence on July 7, 1787 1 ). We also know that two anthems by William 
Selby 

"one taken from the 100th Psalm for four voices (that was performed at the 
Stone Chapel on the 30th of April [1782], the other taken from the 17th Psalm, for 
three voices, composed in an easy and familiar style, and adapted for the use of 
Singing Societies" 

were published in Aug. 1782 2 ). By glancing over the psalm tune collections 
etc. of the last two decades of the eighteenth century, it will further be ob- 
served that the compilers occasionally embodied some of Selby's works, 
which goes far enough to prove that he had become favorably known as 
composer. However, Selby himself thought well enough of his efforts to 
again approach the music lovers in 1790 and 1791 with proposals for publish- 
ing, if not all, at least a considerable number of his compositions on a similar 
plan as the 'New Minstrel', of 1782. This time he selected the fetching 
title 'Apollo, and the Muse's musical compositions'. 
The work was to comprise: 

"Anthems in four parts, with symphonies for the organ Voluntaries or fuges 
for the organ or harpsichord. Sonatas or lessons for the harpsichord or pianoforte 
Songs set for the voice and harpsichord or pianoforte, also, transposed for the German 
flute and guitar A piece with variations for the harpsichord or pianoforte, in con- 
cert with the violin and guittar A concerto for the organ or harpsichord with instru- 
mental parts A Sonata for two violins and violoncellos." 

A veritable catalogue of William Selby's works up to 1790, but again it 
is not clear whether 'Apollo' left the press. Parts perhaps, for I am now 
inclined to believe that an engraved torso of pieces buried in a volume 



1) Massachusetts Centinel, Boston, July 7, 1787. The ode beginning 'All Hail! 
Sublime she moves along' was said to have been "inimitably" performed. The solo 
parts by Mr. Deverell, a watchmaker by trade, and the chorus by a select company 
of singers at the end of the service. 

2) Boston Gazette, Aug. 26, 1782. 



273 

of tracts at the Massachusetts Historical Society and in which appear (first) 
a 'Lesson', a song called 'Silvia', an 'Ode as performed at the Stone Chapel, 
Boston [1789] before the President of the United States of America', 'In 
Acis and Galatea', and a 'Fuge or voluntary' made part of this edition of 
William Selby's collected works. 

That a man of such ambitions would leave his mark on the musical si- 
tuation at Boston, was natural, but, as was stated above, William Selby, 
at least as far as the concert-life is concerned, did not become the leading 
musical personality of Boston until after the war. Of course, he came in for a 
share of the benefit concerts during the last years preceding the war and 
his programs were by no means inferior to those already mentioned. For 
instance, that of his concert postponed to Oct. 26, 1772 x ), the anniversary 
of George III accession to the throne, in order not to "do anything to the 
injury of Mr. Propert", who had likewise announced a benefit, will be read 
with interest by those who perhaps desire to contribute to the so-called 
Renaissance -movement with a typical eighteenth century program. 
Mr. Selby "organist at the King's Chapel" presented the following selection 
at Concert Hall: 

ACT FIRST 

1st. Periodical sinphonia .. Bach 

Song 

2d. Correlli's Concerto's [!] 

Song 

4th. Periodical Sinphonia .. Filtz 

2d Act. 

1st. Abel's 7th opera 
Song 

Harpsichord 

20th Periodical Sinphonia .. Piccini 
Handel's Grand Coronation Anthem in 
22 parts. 

. . . N. B. The above concert will be assisted by the band of his Majesty's 64 th 
Regiment and the concerto designed for the harpsichord will be performed on an organ. 

If this program was mainly instrumental, Selby's benefit concert on 
Sept. 22, 1773 2 ), the anniversary of the Kings coronation, partook more 
of the character of a choral concert in honor of Haendel. With the same 
band under W. S. Morgan as leader and violin soloist, Selby, presumably 
with the choir of King's Chapel, rendered this program at Concert Hall: 



1) Boston Evening Post, Oct. 5 and Oct. 12, 1772. 

2) Boston Evening Post, Sept. 19, 1773. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 18 



274 

FIRST ACT. 

Overture Mr. Handel 

Song, Duet and Chorus 
Organ Concerto 
Song 

Hallelujah, Grand chorus in Mr. Handel's 
oratorio of the Messiah 

SECOND ACT 
Sinphonia 
Glee in three parts, composed in the 

year 1600 

Solo Violin Mr. Morgan 

Handel's Grand Coronation Anthem 

in 22 parts. 

*** Tickets at half a dollar each . . . 

To begin at 7 o'clock precisely, and no money will be taken at the door. 
Mr. Selby having been at great pains and expence to have his concert performed 
elegantly, humbly hopes to be patronized by his friends and the public. 

Not until 1782 does Selby's name again positively appear in connection 
with concerts and thereafter he seems to have bent his energies less on good 
orchestral than on choral concerts. Therein lies his claim to be called an 
indirect founder of the Handel and Haydn Society. With this statement 
it is not intended to underestimate the pioneer work -done since about 1720 
by the 'singing schools', and the several choirs of Boston which undoubtedly 
profited by the efforts of the singing schools to prepare young and old for 
a better understanding and a better rendition of the hymns, psalms and 
anthems used in the churches. That also in both the singing schools and 
church choirs excerpts from Haendel's works were studied with enthusiasm 
may be taken for granted but neither Billings nor his rival psalmodists seem 
to have possessed the necessary energy to bend opportunities towards a more 
systematic and artistic study of sacred cantatas not only but of oratorios. 
In this respect William Selby was destined to fulfill a mission and to give 
the musical life of Boston a stimulus in the right direction. 

The concert alluded to, a veritable musical landmark of Boston, was 
to jbe conducted by William Selby for the benefit of the poor of Boston in 
the afternoon of April 23, 1782 at the Stone Chapel, but was postponed 
on account of the weather to the last day in April 1 ). Tickets were to cost 
four shillings, the doors were to be opened at three and the performance 
to begin at 4 o'clock and "books of the performance" were printed and 
sold at the Chapel. Not having been fortunate enough to discover one of 
these printed books, of necessity, I must restrict myself to a quotation of 
the program as announced in the press of this 



1) Boston Gazette, April 15, 1782; Boston Evening Post, April 27, 1782. 



275 

Musica Spiritualis, or Sacred Music being a Collection of Airs, Duetts and Choruses, 
selected from the oritories [!] of Mr. Stanly, Mr. Smith and the late celebrated Mr. 
Handel; together with a favourite Dirge, set to music by Thomas Augustus Arne, 
Doctor in Music. Also, a Concert on the organ, by Mr. Selby. 

But Mr. Selby's ambitions ran still higher. We may trust that though 
he had become an American, the news of the gigantic Handel Commemoration 
at Westminster Abbey in 1784 filled his soul with pride and that it awakened 
a desire in him, if possible and as far as possible, to unite the musical forces 
of Boston in a concert which would assume the proportions of a festival 
and would show his fellow-citizen what could be done even in a small city 
like Boston. This opportunity was soon to come. The revolting conditions 
of our prisons in those days is a matter of history. But be it said in honor 
of the more humane part of the young nation, the number of those who 
not only deprecated the conditions but sought to relieve the misery of the 
poor, unfortunate prisoners was steadily increasing. After very careful 
preparations the Musical Society of Boston, presumably founded in 1785 
and of which William Selby undoubtedly was the musical guide, resolved 
to contribute its share in the movement.. Then on Jan. 2, 1786 the Massa- 
chusetts Gazette printed the following long but historically very important 
announcement 1 ). 

We hear that the Musical Society in this town agreed, on the 20th of last month, 
to perform a Concert of sacred Musick, vocal and instrumental, at the Chapel Church, 
on Tuesday, the 10th day of this present month of January, for the benefit and relief 
of the poor prisoners confined in the jail in this town, and that the Mustek, and Morning 
Service of the Church, are then to be performed as follows, viz. 

As soon as the Church doors are shut, precisely at 11 o'clock in the forenoon of 
that day. 

I. That the Overture in the sacred Oratorio, called the Occasional Oratorio, com- 
posed by the late celebrated Mr. Handel, be performed by all the musical, instrumental 
band. 

II. That the first, famous and justly celebrated Recitative, in the Oratorio of 
the Messiah, composed by the inspired Handel, be sung, accompanied by the first 
and second violin, the tenor and bass instruments. The words, 'Comfort ye, comfort 
ye my people' . . . 

III. That the first Song in the same most sacred Oratorio, to be sung, accom- 
panied by the proper instruments. The words, 'Every valley shall be exalted' . . . 

IV. The Morning Service of the Church is then to begin; and after the Lord's 
Prayer, and the four versicles following, then the Doxology, or Glory to God, 'Now 
unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible', etc. as set to musick by Mr. Selby, is to be 
performed by all the voices, accompanied by the organ only. 

V. That the Anthem from the 95th Psalm, in the usual Morning Service of the 
Church, 'O come let us sing unto the Lord', etc. be sung or said. 

VI. That the 41st, 112th, and 146th be read as the proper Psalms for the day; 
after each of which, the same Doxology, as set to musick by Mr. Selby, be performed 
by all the voices, accompanied by the organ and all the instruments. 

VII. That the 4th Concerto of Amizon, musica de capella, opa. 7 be performed 
by the organ and all the instruments, as and for the Voluntary. 



1) Copied from Brooks, Olden Time Music, p. 90 94. 

18" 



276 

VIII. That the first lesson for the day, taken from the 4th chapter of Tobit, 
from the 3d to the end of the llth verse, with the 16th verse of the same chapter, 
be read. 

IX. Then that the Te Deum ... be chanted. 

X. Than that the second lesson for the day, taken from the 25th chapter of Matthew, 
from the 31st to the end of verse the 40th, be read. 

XI. Then the Jubilate Deo, or, 'O be joyful in the Lord, all ye lands', is to be sung, 
as and for an Anthem, by the voices, accompanied by all the instruments. 

XII. That the Apostles' Creed be read. 

XIII. Immediately after that Creed, the song from the oratorio of the Messiah 
'The trumpet shall sound' ... is to be sung, accompanied by the trumpet etc. 

XIV. Then the Versicles after the Creed, with the first Collect for the day are 
to be read. And after the same. 

XV. The song from the Oratorio of Sampson is to be sung . . . the words . . . 'Let 
the bright Cherubims' . . . 

XVI. Then the second and third Collects, the Prayer for Congress, and the Prayer 
for all sorts and conditions of men, be read. 

XVII. Then the second Organ Concerto of Mr. Handel is to be performed. 

XVIII. Then the general Thanksgiving and the concluding prayers are to be read. 

XIX. Mr. Selby will then play a Solo, Piano, on the organ; during which the 
sentences in the Offertory will be read, the boxes at the same time being carried about 
to receive the contributions and donations of the charitable and humane. 

XX. Then 'the Prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church militant here on 
earth' is to be read, and the Morning Service of the church is to end with the usual 
concluding prayers and blessing. 

XXI. Lastly, the musical band will perform a favourite overture by Mr. Bach. 
N. B. Tickets for this Charity, at three shillings each, as we are informed, will 

be offered for sale in every part of the town. 

We are further informed that all the ministers of all the several religious societies 
and persuasions in this form, with Joseph Henderson, Esq. the High-Sheriff of the 
County, Samuel Breck, Esq. and Thomas Dawes, Esq. Members of the town, Joseph 
Barrel!, Esq. Doctor Charles Jarvis and Samuel Henshaw, Esq. are chosen, by the 
Musical Society, to be a committee, for the purpose of appropriating all monies, to be 
raised by the sale of the tickets, and which may accrue from the donations and con- 
tributions of the charitable and humane towards the support of this charity. 

The first appropriation of the money, for the affording necessary cloathing, firing 
and provisions to the most necessitious prisoners for debt. 

We hope none will be backward in bestowing, according to their ability, for this 
truly benevolent purpose. 

It is almost commonplace to remark that such a liturgical-musical festival 
like this cannot very well have been carried out in primitive musical sur- 
roundings and to further insist, after all that has been said in this book, 
that the musical life in our principal cities was far beyond the primitive 
stage would be an insult to the reader. Still, this particular 'Musica spiri- 
tualis' far surpassed what Americans were used to and this impression soon 
found its echo outside of Boston. Referring to the dates of receipt of several 
communications from correspondents, the Pennsylvania Herald printed on 
January 28, 1786 what we may call a fairly appropriate criticism of the 
Boston festival and perhaps other reports had a very stimulating effect, as 
we remember, on the Selby of Philadelphia: Andrew Adgate. The Penn- 



277 

sylvania Heralds published its correspondence, headed "Boston, January 12" 
as follows: 

(19) On Tuesday last was performed at the chapel in this town, a concert of vocal 
and instrumental music, for the benefit of the unfortunate and distressed prisoners 
now lying in the jail of this county. The church prayers which were read by the 
rev. Mr. Freeman, were agreeably and judiciously intermix'd with the music, in such a 
manner as to give relief alternately to the reader and performers, and prevent the ear 
of the auditor from being fatigued. The whole was conducted with the greatest order 
and decorum, saving a theatrical clap at the conclusion, which can only be imputed 
to the pitch of enthusiasm to which the excellent overture of Mr. Bach wound up the 
enraptured auditors. 

The vocal and instrumental parts were executed in a manner that reflects the highest 
honour on the musical abilities of the gentlemen who composed the band. The church 
was thronged with all classes of people, and we were particularly happy in seeing so 
many of the softer sex present on the occasion; whom we cannot suppose otherwise 
influenced than by the mild affections of humanity. 

To soften the calamities of our fellow creatures, and pour gladness in the heart 
of the wretched; to clothe the naked, and set the prisoner free, are duties; which our 
feeling as men, and our religion as Christians, require us to fulfil . . . 

(20) A correspondent remarks that the doxology composed by Mr. Selby, gave 
great satisfaction on Tuesday last at the Chapel church, and was only excelled by 
his anthem, in which he has not disgraced the inspired, royal author of the 100 psalm. 

(21) Mr. Selby's execution on the organ appeared masterly throughout the whole 
performance, but more particularly so in the second organ concerto of Handel. 

(22) The first recitative and the first song in the Messiah were sung as to have 
done no discredit to any capital singer at the theatre in Covent Garden; but the song 
of 'Let the bright cherubims in burning row, etc.' in the opinion of several who had 
heard the oratorio of Sampson at Covent Gardenhouse, was sung, as least as well, in 
the Chapel Church, on Tuesday by our townsman, as they had ever before heard." 

If proof be needed that William Selby really was the moving spirit of 
the Musical Society and therefore of this concert, it is furnished in the NB 
of the announcement of his benefit concert on April 27, 1786 1 ) at Concert 
Hall when 

"among other select pieces and songs [were to be] performed, An Ode in honour 
of General Washington, composed by Mr. William Selby likewise, the favourite catch 
of 'Hark the bonny Christ bell' . . . 

N. B. The above mentioned concert is to be performed in consequence of a resolve 
of the Musical Society, and the money arising from the sale of the tickets to be present :d 
to Mr. Selby, for his singular services rendered the society. 

Just as Andrew Adgate and the Uranian Academy were encouraged by 
the success of their first to give a second "grand" concert, so were William 
Selby and the Musical Society. Hardly a year had elapsed since the benefit 
for those, unfortunate enough to be entombed in a New England county 
jail, when the managers announced evidently the fame of the Concert 
Spirituel had travelled far for Jan. 16, 1787 with the assistance of a 
"band hired by them" 2 ) a 'Spiritual Concert for the benefit of those who 



1) Boston Gazette, April 17, 1786. 

2) Massachusetts Centinel, Jan. 10, 1787. 



278 

have known better days'. The full program was thus published in the 
Boston Gazette, Jan. 15th: 

Charitable Concert. The following we are assured, will be the order of the several 
musical performances, and of the service of the Chapel Church at the performance 
of the Concert of Sacred Musick, to-morrow. 

1. The 20th periodical overture, la Buona Figliuola, composed by Piccini, (the 
last presto to be omited, instead of which will be introduced a celebrated march adapted 
to the occasion. 

2. Then the first, famous and justly celebrated Recitative in the oratorio of the 
Messiah composed by the inspired Handel, to be sung by Mr. Ray, accompanied by 
the first and second violin, the tenor and bass instruments. The words 'Comfort 
ye, comfort ye my people' . . . 

3. Then the first song, in the same most sacred oratorio, is to be sung, accom- 
panied by the proper instruments. The words: 'Every valley shall be exalted' . . . 

4. The Morning Service of the church is then to begin and after the Lord's 
Prayer, and the four versicles following, then the Doxology, or Glory to God 'Now 
unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible', etc. as set to musick by Mr. Selby, is to 
be performed by all the voices, accompanied by the organ only. 

5. The Psalms adopted for the occasion, are then to be read; after each of which 
the same doxology, as set to musick by Mr. Selby, is to performed by all the voices, 
accompanied by the organ and all the instruments. 

6. A violin Concerto is then to be performed as and for the voluntary. 

7. Then the first lesson for the day is to be read. 

8. Then the Te Deum, or, 'We praise thee, o Lord' is to be chanted. 

9. Then the 2d lesson for the day will be read. 

10. Then the Jubilate Deo, or '0 be joyful in the Lord' ... as set to musick by 
Mr. Selby is to be sung as and for an anthem, by the voices, accompanied by all the 
instruments. 

11. Then the Apostle's Creed will be read. 

12. Then a Solo from the Sacred oratorio of Jonah 1 ), will be sung by Mr. Deverell, 
accompanied by the organ, and all the instruments, etc. The words 'Out of the deep, 
O God, I cry' . . . [two stanzas] 

13. Then the versicles after the Creed with the first Collect of the Day, are to 
be read. And after the same. 

14. Then from the Oratorio of Sampson is to be sung these words 'Let the bright 
cherubims in burning row' . . . 

15. Immediately after which will be performed the Chorus* from Handel's Messiah 
'Hallelujah, the Lord God omnipotent reigneth' . . . 

16. Then the second and third collects, and the prayer for all sort and condition 
of men will be read. 

17. Then an Organ Concert to be performed by Mr. Selby. 

18. Then the general thanksgiving and the concluding prayers are to be read. 

19. Lastly, the musical band will perform a favourite Overture, composed by 
Carlo Differ. 

* At the performance of this Divine Chorus, called by way of eminence the Thunder 
Chorus, it is usual for the whole audience to rise from their seats, and be upon their 
feet the whole time of the Chorus, in testimony of the humble adoration of the Supreme 
Governor of the Universe, our great and universal Parent, and in honor of our blessed 
Redeemer. 

This time we need not look to Philadelphia papers for a full description 
and contemporary report of the impression made by these festivals on the 



1) S. Felsted. 



279 

public. All historical curiosity is satisfied by the report as printed in the 
Boston Gazette of Jan. 22d x ) and it is exceedingly interesting to contrast 
the succes d'eslime of Selby as composer and the somewhat reserved opinion 
of the merits of Dittersdorf's favourite overture with the enraptured ex- 
stasies of the critic over "Handel! Handel! Handel!" and especially his 
"Thunder Chorus": 

Boston, January 22. 

Last Tuesday was performed, at the Chapel Church in this town, the Spiritual 
Concert for the benefit of those among us who have known better days. The Musick 
began at half an hour after 11 o'clock, with the Overture in the opera of La Buona 
Figliuola ... in the march adopted on the occasion instead of the presto movements 
of Piccini, the drums had a very pleasing effect. The overpowering pathos of Handel 
in the first recitative of his Messiah, was excellently sung, and forcibly felt by every 
musical ear present, Mr. Selby's Doxology . . . filled every ear with pleasure. 

The prayers of the church were most agreeably intermixed with the musical per- 
formances, and alternately relieved the gentlemen of the Musical Society and the auditory. 
Mr. Arnold's Te Deum was inimitably sung, and Mr. Rea's distinct, sweet over-powering 
countertenor voice, was eminently distinguishing in this part of the performance, as 
in all others in which he bore a share: this Te Deum, we are assured, is infinitely more 
musical and effecting than the common, sing song, half-squalling, half-reading Te 
Deum usually performed in the cathedrals of England. 

The Jubilate Deo, or C. Psalm, set to musick by Mr. Selby, gave universal satis- 
faction, the choruses in which are worth of admiration. The Song from the oratorio 
of Jonah, sung by Mr. Deverell, was beautifully affecting but Handel! Handel! Handel/ 
The song from his oratorio of Sampson 'Let the bright Cherubim, etc.' sung by our 
townsman, Mr. Rea, could not be excelled by anything but the Hallelujah Chorus in 
the Messiah, in which there appears perfect illumination tne surprise and astonish- 
ment of the audience, at the performance of this divine Chorus, cannot well be described, 
especially at those parts where the drums so unexpectedly thundered in and joined 
in the glorious Hallelujahs to the 'King of Kings and Lord of Lords, etc.' Great delicacy 
was shewn in directing this vast effort of genius, to follow the inimitable song in Sampson 
'Let the bright Cherubim, etc.' and this we are told we owe to Mr. Selby. In the organ 
concerto this gentleman shewed great delicacy and execution. The last overture, 
composed by Ditter, was forcibly and well executed. The horns produced in this an 
excellent effect. 

We have only to lament that the very short notice of this well executed and bene- 
volent entertainment and the present distressed situation of the town, with some other 
concurring circumstances, prevented the church from being crouded, as was the case 
last year. 

As it may be of interest to compare our modern ways of managing 
monstre- affairs and such this charitable concert was for the Boston of 
those days with the methods of yore, the instructions "to the public" 
as printed in the Boston Gazette, also on Jan. 15th, may follow here: 

The Public are hereby notified that the Concert of Sacred Musick to be performed 
on the morrow at the Chapel Church, will begin precisely at half an hour after eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon, that one half of the South door will be opened at ten o'clock 
(when the first bell will ring) for the reception of the audience; that no one will, or 
can, be admitted without a ticket, that no change will be given to those who may delay 



1) Literally the same appeared in the Massachusetts Centinel, Jan. 17, 1787. 



280 

purchasing tickets until they come to the church ; that precisely at half an hour after 
eleven o'clock the doors will be shut and fastened, when the bell will cease tolling ; that 
the pews no 1 and 2 at the upper end of the middle aisle, opposite to the reading desk 
and pulpit, are reserved for the reverend the ministers of the town of all denominations, 
and into which it is earnestly requested no other persons will attempt to sit. 

Tickets for the charity, at 3 s. each, are sold at the Post Office; by Mr. Burke, 
at Concert-Hall ; at Messieurs Green and Cleverley's Newbury Street and by Mr. Deverell 
watchmaker, next door south of the Treasury, Marlboro-Street. 

N. B. As the order of the musick and of the service of the church on this laudable 
occasion is published in this paper, we advise our customers to take the papers with 
them to the church, as a proper assistant. 

On January 29th the Musical Society notified the public through the 
Boston Gazette that it had appointed a committee consisting of gentlemen 
of the clergy to distribute the monies collected by the sale of tickets, amounting 
to $ 162 after deduction of all expenses. As this sum must have seemed 
surprisingly small to all concerned, they also enumerated the concurring 
circumstances which had prevented the church from being crowded as 
in 1786: 

The shortness of the notice given of the performance. The scarcity of money 
The military expedition and the call on the inhabitants for raising and equipping their 
men with General Sheppard against ca. 2000 insurgents under Capt. Shays in the vici- 
nity of Springfield . . . 

Of course, such concerts represented only the extraordinary events in 
the career of both the Musical Society and William Selby. Their normal 
activity restricted itself to the usual musical meetings and subscription 
concerts. It would appear from a request addressed in Sept. 1787 1 ) 
to "those gentlemen who are desirous that the concert should be 
carried on through the ensuing season upon the same terms it was 
last winter" that the Musical Society first instituted such regular 
entertainments in 1786. Unless proof is furnished to the contrary it 
may be taken for granted that William Selby was the conductor o the 
society during this and the season of 1787/1788. In that case it is plausible 
enough that the members of the Musical Society turned out in full force 
to show their appreciation on the night of Selby's benefit concert at Concert 
Hall, Sept. 10, 1787 2 ). Had he not been the regularly appointed conductor 
the subscribers to the Musical Society would hardly have been desired to 
take notice in the Massachusetts Centinel, January 16, 1788 that their 
next concert was postponed to Feb. 7th, as the hall on Thursday, 
January 24th was to be appropriated to the benefit of Mr. Selby, when 
there would be a "public" concert with this program: 



1) Massachusetts Gazette, Sept. 15, 1787. 

2) Mass. Centenel, Sept. 8, 1787. 



281 

FIBST ACT. 
Overture 

A Double piece on the harpsichord 
Song 
Full piece 

SECOND ACT. 

The Country Courtship, a musical entertainment. The characters, Dorus, Alexis 
and Pastora. 

The season lasted at least into March as the concert scheduled for March 6th 
was postponed to March 13th, many of the performers being out of town 1 ). 
For the season of 1788 1789 the Musical Society agreed on six public 
performances at Concert-Hall for a limited number of subscribers 2 ). Those 
of the preceding year who desired to subscribe for these six concerts were 
requested to send in their names so that the gentlemen wha stood proposed 
as new members could be admitted, should there be any vacancies. Strangers 
could be admitted if introduced by a subscriber. Then, on Nov. 22d, the 
public was notified that the first concert of the series would be held on 
Nov. 28th 3 ). A continuance of these concerts under the auspices of the 
Musical Society is doubtful, not only because such were not advertised in 
1790 but also because it is at least possible that the Musical Society had 
ceased to exist. Something to this effect may be inferred between the lines 
of an advertisement in Massachusetts Gazette, March 14, 1789 when the 
subscribers were notified that the amount of their subscriptions was abso- 
lutely necessary to the defraying the expense of another concert! 

On the other hand, there is evidence that in 1787 the Musical Society 
no longer monopolized opportunities for lending their voices for charity as 
on Sept. 22, 1787 the Massachusetts Centinel notified the public that the 
proceeds from a Concert of Sacred Musick on October 4th would be appro- 
priated to assist rebuilding the Meeting House in Hollis Street, destroyed 
by fire 

"agreeably to the generous intentions of the Musical Societies in this town who 
have projected this concert". 

The program is remarkable in so far as William Billings' name appeared 
twice, whereas previously his music hardly ever was performed in public 
concerts. The program reads: 

ACT I 

10th Periodical Overture Filtz 

Anthem 'Except the Lord build the House' .. Billings 

Anthem 'O be joyful in the Lord' Selby 

Organ Concerto 



1) Mass. Centinel, March 4, 1788. 

2) Mass. Centinel, Oct. 22, 1788. 

3) Massachusetts Centinel, Nov. 22, 1788. 



282 

ACT II 

Anthem 'O Lord God of Israel' Williams 

Song from the oratorio of Sampson 

Anthem 'And I saw a mightly angel' Billings 

Handel's grand Hallelujah Chorus from the sacred 
oratorio, Messiah, accompanied with kettledrums. 

William Selby not being mentioned as conductor of this co-operative 
effort of the several musical societies of Boston, the contention that he was 
in charge of the performance is, of course, a conjecture by way of elimination. 
However, he certainly conducted a Concert of "Sacred Musick Vocal and 
Instrumental" which the proprietors of Christ Church gave there on May 21, 
1788 1 ) in the afternoon as it is distinctly said "under the direction of Mr. 
William Selby" and with the generous assistance of the Musical Society. 

By order of the vestry, Amos Windship and John Stoddard informed the 
public that the proceeds would be appropriated to lessen the expenses that 
had arisen from the repairs of the church and particularly of the organ 
and to secure also "the tower, which, if not very soon done, will be insuffi- 
cient to support the bells it contains". The program reads: 

FIRST PART 
Symphony 

Song . . . 'In Paradise lost', sung by Mr. Brewer 
Piece for Clarinetts and horn 

Anthem, composed by Doctor Green, sung by Mr. Deverell 
Full piece 

SECOND PART 

Organ concerto, performed by Mr. Selby 
Song in the Messiah, sung by Mr. Rea 
Violin Concerto 

Song in Sampson, sung by Mr. Deverell 
Symphony. 

Whether any of the musical societies assisted, is not mentioned. Pre- 
sumably not, as the only choral number on the program could very well 
be rendered by a church choir, such as Christ Church possessed. 

It was different when, end of 1789, George Washington came to Boston 
during his famous inaugural tour through the States. Everybody vied 
with everybody to show the illustrious general in what unbounded love 
he was universally held and all party-strife and party-bickerings were dropped 
to receive him and to entertain him with outbursts of gratitude and ad- 
miration. A triumphal arch had been erected. Through this he was escorted 
in a magnificent procession, in which a band was not missing, to the Senate 
Chamber. Thence the President passed through the Representatives' 
Chamber to a Colonnade, erected for the occasion in the West-end of the 



1) Massachusetts Gazette, May 20, 1788. 



283 

State House and composed of six large columns, fifteen feet high, and a 
ballustrade hung in front with Persian carpets on which were wrought 
thirteen roles, symbolising the thirteen States. As. soon as the President 
entered the Colonnade, he was saluted by three huzzas from the citizens 
and by an Ode 1 ) sung by a select choir of singers, with Mr. Rea at their head, 
in the Triumphal Arch, adjacent to the Colonnade. After the ode was sung, 
the procession passed the President and proceeded into Courtstreet, where 
the whole were dismissed. 

But these were merely the preliminaries to the festivities and though 
perhaps originally no special musical entertainment adorned the plans in 
honor of George Washington, it so happened that a few days later an op- 
portunity arose to show him what Bostonians could do in the way of music. 
On Oct. 14th the Massachusetts printed the following: 

FOR PUBLICK ORNAMENT. 
An Oratorio, or, Concert of Sacred Musick. 

On Wednesday next, will be performed at the Stone Chapel in this town, an Ora- 
torio, or, Concert of Sacred Musick, to assist in finishing the Colonnade or Portico 
of said chapel, agreeably to the original design. 

PART THE FIRST 

1. Full anthem composed by Mr. Selby 

2. The favourite air in the Messiah, (composed by the celebrated Handel) 
'Comfort ye my people' by Mr. Rea 

3. Organ Concerto by Mr. Selby 

4. The favourite air in the oratorio of Samson (composed by the cele- 
brated Handel) 'Let the bright Seraphim' by Mr. Rea 

5. Full anthem, composed by Mr. Selby 

PART THE SECOND 

The oratorio of Jonah, complete, the solos by Messrs. Rea, Ray, Brewer 
and Dr. Rogerson. The chorusses by the Independent Musical Society; 
the instrumental parts by a Society of Gentlemen with the band of his 
Most Christian Majesty's Fleet. 

As the above oratorio has been highly applauded by the best judges, and has 
never been performed in America 2 ); and as the first performers of this country will 
be joined by the excellent band of this Most Christian Majesty's squadron, the Publick 
will have every reason to expect a more finished and delightful Performance than ever 
was exhibited in the United States. 



1) Under 'Castalian Fount', the Massachusetts Centinel in which this account 
appeared, Oct. 28, 1789, printed on the same day the words of this 'Ode to Columbia's 
Favourite Son'. The first stanza runs: 

Great Washington the Hero's come 
Each heart exulting hears the sound 
Thousands to their Deliverer throng, 
And shout him welcome around. 
Now in full chorus join the song, 
And shout aloud great Washington! 
The President had to submit to seven stanzas of this awful stuff! 

2) This was not correct, as "Jonah, an oratorio, composed by S. Felsted" was 
performed at New York on June 11, 1788. 



284 

The musick to begin at half past 2 o'clock. Tickets at half a dollar each, may be 
had at Dr. Winship's, Union Street at B. Guild's Book Store, and at the Post Office 
in Cornhill, and at J. Templeman's, W. Burley's and R. Russel's Offices in State Street. 

This somewhat boastful announcement may be pardoned in view of 
the fact that it probably was the first time in Boston's musical history 
that a musical society ventured on the rendition of a complete oratorio, 
even if it was only 'Jonah, an oratorio, disposed for voices and harps', 
by the obscure Samuel Felsted 1 ) who seems to have been better known 
in America than in England. Probably we are near the truth in sur- 
mising that again William Selby was the moving spirit and conductor of 
the concert. However, on Oct. 21st, the day of performance the public 
was notified that the concert was postponed for a few days and the sup- 
position is plausible enough that the managers postponed the affair in order 
to turn the benefit for the portico of Stone Chapel into a "publick ornament" 
in honor of George Washington, just then in their midst. This is, indeed 
certain, for on Oct. 27th one of the papers announced that the oratorio 
would be performed in presence of the President of the United States and 
that the concert would begin with a congratulatory Ode 2 ) to the President 
instead of Selby's full anthem. The words of this ode, written by a Mr. 
Brown of Boston, were printed in the Massachusetts Gazette on Oct. 31st 3 ). 
George Washington was indeed to be congratulated if the composer, possibly 
Selby, did riot inflict such wounds on him as did Mr. Brown with this fearful 
patriotic poetry: 

RECITATIVE 

Behold the man! whom virtues raise 

The highest of the patriot throng! 

To him the Muse her hommage pays, 

And tunes the gratulary song. 

AIR. 

Illustrious Visitant! Design'd 
By the Heavn's invincible decree 
T'enoble and exalt the mind 
And teach the nation to be free! 
[Follow five more stanzas] 

Now it is well known how heartily George Washington disliked such 
apostrophes and a sigh of relief must have escaped him if this "gratulary 
song" was not launched on his ears, for the indispositon of several of the first 



1) Printed under this title in 1775 at London. A copy is in the British Museum. 
(Eitner.) Of Felsted's life very little seems to be known and how obscure a musician 
he was or at least has become, is evident from the fact that his name is not even men- 
tioned by Brown and Stratton. 

2) See Brooks, p. 97. 

3) Words and music were subsequently published together. A copy of the ode 
is at the Mass. Hist. Soc. (See my Bibliography.) 



285 

performers interfered with the well-meaning plans of the managers and 
again the concert had to be postponed. However, as the President "honoured 
the Stone Chapel with his presence to hear the concert of sacred musick" 
on Oct. 27th several pieces were performed which merited and received 
applause 1 ). At last, after the Massachusetts Centinel had contributed to 
the mishaps by announcing a wrong date, the Oratorio was given on Decem- 
ber 2d with the original program, an original poem delivered by Mr. Whit- 
well and a brilliant illumination of the chapel 2 ). It would be interesting to 
know the public opinion on said occasion as recorded by some gentleman- 
critic, but though the papers printed the full text of Felsted's Jonah, they 
did not, to my knowledge, adorn their columns with an elaborate and up- 
lifting resume of the public impressions. 

After this concert, no musical society is mentioned by name in connection 
with further concerts, choral or instrumental, for about ten years, though 
occasionally references to several musical societies may be found in the 
papers 3 ). Therefore undoubtedly such existed in Boston during the last 
decade of the eighteenth century but it seems that they, for some reason 
or the other, no longer played a prominent part in public. Certainly the 
subscription concerts to be traced in 1790 and later were independent enter- 
prises as not once a connection appears between them and those mysterious 
concerts. Nor is it clear who was responsible for these concerts themselves, 
about which exceedingly little is to be gleaned from the papers. For instance, 
all the information I am able to submit for the season of 1790 1791 consists 
in this that "the subscribers to the concerts" were notified on March 12th 
in the Massachusetts Centinel that the sixth and last concert would be on 
March 17th. Then on Oct. 19, 1791 the "members of the subscription 
concerts" were requested to meet at Concert Hall on October 21st upon 
particular business and by tracing such notices we find that again six concerts 
were given during the winter of 1791 1792, the last on April 12th. The 
supposition that William Selby must have been connected with these concerts 
in some capacity is logical enough and the conjecture that he was the manager 



1) Massachusetts Continel, Oct. 28, 1789. 

2) Massachusetts Centinel, Dec. 2, 1789. 

3) In Perkins and Dwight's History of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society 
it is claimed (on p. 29) that the Independent Musical Society was founded in 1786 
and that it took part in commemorating the death of Washington (Dec. 14, 1799) on 
his first succeeding birthday. The sources of both dates are not mentioned and really 
nothing goes to show their accuracy. The date of foundation might be correct if the 
Musical Society and the Independent Musical Society were identical, which is obviously 
improbable. That the Independent Musical Society I believe it had long ceased 
to exist took part during the 'Sepulchral Service' on Feb. 22, 1800 with Oliver Hoi- 
den's music is also very improbable as the minute report of Feb. 26th in the Columbian 
Centinel mentions the "ablest choir of vocal masters we ever recollect to have heard", 
but no Independent or any other musical society. 



286 

and conductor is corroborated by a notice to the subscribers in the Massa- 
chusetts Centinel, March 17th headed: Mr. Selby's Concert and under the 
same heading a continuance of these concerts was announced in the Colum- 
bian Centinel, Sept. 29, 1792. The first was to be on Oct. 18th 1 ) "the musick 
to begin precisely at 6 and end at 8 o'clock when the room [would] be 
cleared for country dances". Presumably the series contained less than 
six concerts for otherwise the subscribers would hardly have been informed 
on January 30, 1793 2 ) that a subscription paper was open at Mr. Vila's for 
four additional concerts upon the same plan as hitherto conducted and 
that if one hundred subscribers appeared the first concert would be on Fe- 
bruary 7th. The entertainments of this series were to begin at 7 o'clock, 
the country dances at nine and to end at 1 o'clock ! These data are meagre 
enough, not once an allusion being made to the programs, a fact proving 
convincingly the private character of the concerts, but at least they leave 
no doubt as to the existence of subscription concerts during these years 
whereas for the remaining years of the century subscription concerts may 
be considered hypothetical in absence of even such meagre data in the 
papers. 

Quite in keeping with these doubts, based, of course, only on the files 
I had occasion to examine, is the fact that from 1793 on, William Selby's 
name gradually disappears from the papers. Now and then he would assist 
in benefits given by other musicians but these occasions became fewer and 
fewer and to my knowledge the last benefit concert given for Selby himself 
in conjunction with Jacobus Pick took place at Concert Hall on June 20, 
1793 with the following program 3 ): 

The Overture of Henry IVth>) 

A French Song by Mr. Mallet 

A Clarinet Concerto by M. Foucard 

A French Song by Madame Douvillier 

A Violin Concerto, by Mr. Boullay 

An Italian Duetto, by Messrs. Pick and Mallet 

A Flute Concerto, by Mr. Stone 

La Chasse, composed by Hoffmeister 

A Piano Forte Sonata, by Mr. Selby 

A French Trio, by Madame Douvillier, Messrs. Pick and Mallet 

A Duetto on the Harmonica, by Messrs. Pick and Petit 

A Symphony, composed by Pichell 

William Selby's career has carried us far beyond the Revolutionary War, 
but in the case of Boston it would have been historically unwarranted, though 
convenient, to break off the narrative before the battle of Lexington and 



1) Columbian Centine], Oct. 13, 1792. 

2) ibidem. 

3) Columbian Centinel, June 15, 1793. 

4) Martini. 



287 

to resume it after Lord Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown because, of all 
our principal cities, Boston, a few months excepted, remained undisturbed by 
the movements and counter-movements of the opposing armies. That the 
war interfered at first with the development of Boston's musical life, goes 
without saying but already in 1779 we notice signs of a revival of the interest 
in music other than in Billings' forceful battle hymn 'Chester' and that the 
moving spirit of this revival, at the very least from 1782 until 1793, was 
William Selby I believe to have made an historical fact. Indeed, though 
and also because his name is not mentioned with reference to the several 
concerts from 1779 to 1782 there remains at least the possibility of his con- 
nection even with these entertainments. Consequently, as William Selby 
was prominent for years before the war, Boston's musical history during 
the last thirty years of the eighteenth century may be said to have centered 
in the personality of this interesting and ambitious musician. 

The first concert given during the war, was characteristic of the peaceful 
conditions prevailing at Boston. It was announced for July 5, 1779 1 ) in 
celebration of the Independence of America with an 'Ode, suitable to the 
occasion', as principal number. It affords a curious glimpse into by-gone 
times if we hear that the attendance of gentlemen performers at the rehearsal 
of July 3d would be esteemed a favor. However, "the severity of the season 
made it necessary to make large additions in the (Concert) Hall for the ac- 
commodation of so large a company" as was expected and hence the managers, 
with apologies to the public, saw themselves obliged to postpone the patriotic 
concert to July 9th. Presumably other concerts were given between 1779 
and 1782 but not until the latter year did I run across advertisements to 
that effect. Then not less than four were given, one on February 21st 2 ), 
another on March 7th 3 ) "by particular desire", the third on March 21st 4 ) 
with "Three English songs in the first act", (these three at Concert Hall) 
and the fourth in Trinity Church on October 3d 5 ) for the benefit of the 
poor in the Boston Alms-House. The overseers apologized for appealing 
to the "well known humanity" of their fellow citizens and flattered them- 
selves that a repetition of the offence would in future be removed by a more 
punctual and competent supply to the treasury. But the most important 
item is contained in the rather awkward announcement of the program, 
proving, as it does, that Boston then possessed a musical society deriving 
its name from that medieval genius and terrible inventor of the Guidonian 
hand: Aretinian Society. The concert was plainly one of 

1) Continental Journal, July 1, 1779. 

2) Boston Evening Post, Feb. 16, 1782. 

3) ditto, March 2, 1782. 

4) Boston Gazette, March 18, 1782. 

5) Boston Gazette, Sept. 23, 1782. 



288 

Sacred Music being a collection from Williams, Stephenson, Billings and others 
Also an interlude on the organ between each vocal piece, by Mr. Bellsted. 
The Vocal music will be performed by the Aretinian Society. 

The concerts advertised between 1782 and 1790, all being connected with 
William Selby's career, have already been recorded except one, with which 
he probably had nothing to do. It was given on Oct. 9, 1788 1 ) at the request 
of a number of respectable characters for the benefit of Mrs. Smith who 
together with her husband, "both lately from the Southward" had enter- 
tained during the month of September fashionable Boston with dramatic 
and lyric recitations interspersed with songs, so-called 'Moral Lectures'. As 
Mr. and Mrs. Smith's connections called them to Europe, they hoped for the 
patronage of a generous public when presenting the following "vocal parts" : 

1. An Ode on his Excellency Gen. Washington 

2. The song, 'Dauphin of France'. 

3. The air, 'Lads of the Village' 

4. Advice to the Fair 

5. Bright Phoebus, an admired Hunting song 

6. A New Sea song 

7. The admired song of 'The Gipsies' 

8. Major Andre's Farewell 

9. The admired song of 'Tallio' [!] 

10. The Ballad dialogue 

11. Lark's shrill notes. 

On Sept. 16, 1790 2 ) a benefit concert was given at Concert Hall for 
Mr. Oliver Barron, "one of the unhappy men who were cast away on Grand 
Manan, by which accident he had the misfortune to freeze to such a degree 
as to be under the necessity of having them cut off which has rendered him 
unable to support himself". Neither of this nor of a concert given on Dec. 21, 
1790 3 ) at Stone Chapel is any reference made to the program but the latter 
was intended for the benefit of no less a man than William Billings. He 
was just then at the zenith of his career. His 'New England Psalm Singer' 
of 1770 and his 'Singing Master's Assistant' of 1778 and later collections 
of his hymns and psalm-tunes had attracted not for their musical grammar, 
which was conspicuously absent, but for the undeniable spark of something 



1) Massachusetts Centinel, Oct. 8, 1788. The following "criticism" of one of Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith's Moral Lectures will surely prove amusing reading. On Sept. 12th 
the Mass. Gaz. had this to say: 

"At Concert Hall last Wednesday evening, was performed by Mr. and Mrs. Smith, 
lately from the Southward, before a large collection of gentlemen, and a few ladies, 
some of them of the first fashion, and in gorgeous attire, a variety of scenes, selected 
from the most celebrated plays, both tragick and comick, intermixed with well chosen 
prologues and epilogues; the whole enriched by a variety of airs, duets, etc. . . . The 
audience were highly entertained, and the hall shook with their plaudits. The songs 
were sung in a stile which discovered, as well as an harmonious voice, a delicacy of 
taste, which Apollo himself might envy . . ." 

2) Columbian Centinel, Sept. 8, 1790. 

3) Columbian Centinel, Dec. 15, 1790. 



289 

kin to originality and individuality attention to his name wherever 
psalms were sung in the Northern and Middle States and hardly a single 
psalm-tune collection by other American psalmodists of that period is to 
be found in which Billings' Muse does not prominently figure. In short, his 
name and fame resounded in the remotest church choir and so-called singing 
schools and without doubt he was the most popular composer in his days. 
Yet Billings, and this will cause surprise, was in rather reduced circumstances, 
for a correspondent in the Columbian Centinel Dec. 8, 1790 expressed his 
satisfaction 

"in hearing that a number of benevolent characters are determined to bring for- 
ward a Concert of Sacred Musick for the benefit of Mr. William Billings of this town 
whose distress is real, and whose merit in that science, is generally acknowledged" 

and the announcement of the concert closed with these significant remarks: 

"The pieces to be performed will consist of a great and, it is expected, a pleasant 
variety, and whilst the charitable will rejoice in this opportunity to exercise their bene- 
volence, the amateurs of musick, will no doubt be abundantly gratified. 

The heart that feels for other's woes, 
Shall find each selfish sorrow less, 
That breast which happiness bestov/s 
Reflected happiness shall bless. 

For the honor of Boston we hope that a sufficient number of tickets 
at 2 shillings each were sold to be of substantial benefit to Gov. Samuel 
Adams' proud but poor friend. Still, if we remember that Billings, born 
at Boston Oct. 7, 1744 had still to live almost ten years until he died on 
Sept. 29, 1800, we cannot but regret that the last years of this remarkable 
man should have been spent in poverty. Remarkable not only for his 
musical naivite, enthusiasm, latent talent and amateurish utterances, but 
also in appearance. If Billings, "somewhat deformed, blind of one eye, one 
leg shorter than the other, one arm somewhat withered ; and . . . given to the 
habit of continually taking snuff" 1 ) attended the testimonial concert, we 
may feel sure that Bostonians looked with pity and sympathy on this 
tanner-musician. 

To dwell on the "concerts of vocal musick of the most fashionable songs 
and duets" as given repeatedly by Mr. and Mrs. Solomon, "vocal performers 
from the Southward", at Concert Hall in the summer of 1791 is unnecessary 
as they belonged to the category of Moral Lectures, Spectaculum Vitae, etc. 
The fashionable songs and duets and the name of concert were merely ve- 
hicles to force drama and opera on the public in a form against which the 
blue-laws of 1750 were powerless. To the same category belonged the 



1) See Ritter, Music in America, 1895, p. 60. In spite of his sneers at 
amateurish utterances, Ritter's description of Billings and his ambitions will give 
every impartial raeder the impression that this Yankee was a very forceful character. 
Sonneck, Early Concert Life 19 



290 

"grand concert" under the direction of Alexander Reinagle on Oct. 9, 1792 l ) 
after which was to be given "a musical entertainment called the Poor Soldier 
delivered" by such well-known actors as Harper, Morris and Mrs. Solomon. 
Finally the antediluvian law against theatres was repealed and at last 
Bostonians were at liberty to enjoy drama and opera. This change had its 
effects also on the concert-life of Boston and it requires only a very super- 
ficial knowledge of the history of drama at Boston to notice these effects 
in many of the programs, submitted in the following pages, as from now 
on until the end of the century the vocalists and members of the orchestras 
of the several theatrical companies that invaded Boston, came in for a large, 
if not the largest, share of the concerts given. 

Faint signs of the new era already appear in the program as offered by 
Mons. Jacobus Pick for his benefit at Concert Hall on Nov. 27, 1792 2 ): 

A Grand Symphony, composed by Haydn 
Song, by a lady 

A Sonata on the Piano Forte, by a young lady 
A Flute Concerto, by a Gentleman amateur 
A Song, by Mons. Pick 
A Grand Symphony, composed by Pleyel 
The Song of Bellisarius, by Mr. Powell 
A Grand Overture 
A Grand Symphony, by Fils 
Song, by a lady 

A Hautboy Concerto, by Mr. Stone 

A Quintette, composed by Pleyel, and performed by the Gentle- 
men amateurs of Boston 

Several pieces on the Harmonica, by Mons. Pick, 
A Grand Overture. 

The Subscription to be one dollar each subscriber to be entitled to one lady's 
ticket. 

Theatrical influences are still more unmistakable in the program as an- 
nounced for the benefit of Messrs. Petit, Boullay, Mallet, Foucard and 
Madame Douvillier at Concert Hall on May 15, 1793 3 ) 

FIRST PART. 

A Grand Overture of Henry Fourth 4 ) 
An Italian Song by Mr. Mallet 

Clarinette concerto Mr. Foucard 

An English Song , Mr. Powell 



1) Columbian Centinel, Oct. 6, 1792. 

2) Columbian Centinel, Nov. 21, 1792. From the same paper, Feb. 23, 1793 when 
Mons. Pick expressed his desire to teach "the principles of vocal music by note" and 
nearly all orchestral instruments, we learn that he had "made the science of music 
his study at the Academy of Bruxelles". 

3) Columbian Centinel, May 11, 1793. This concert had originally been an- 
nounced for March 27th but was postponed. 

4) Martini. 



291 

Violin Concerto, with four known tunes .. .. Mr. Boullay 

A French Song Mad. Douvillier 

A Grand Symphony 

An Italian Duet Messrs. Pick and Mallet 

SECOND PART. 
Grand Overture, Music of Mr. Gretry 

Song, by Mr. Pick 

Quartette, by Messrs. Petit, Boullay, Foucard and Mallet 1 ) 

An English Song Mr. Harper 

Violin Concerto Mr. Petit 

With one, more curious than notable, exception all the other concerts 
of 1793 were given by the same gentlemen in form of benefits. Monsieur 
Petit had his on May 30th 2 ), Monsieur Louis Boullay his on June 13th 3 ) and 
again on November 14th (postponed from Oct. 31st) 4 ), Monsieur Mallet on 
Nov. 29th 5 ), Monsieur Jacobus Pick again on Dec. 12th 6 ) and likewise Louis 
Boullay on Dec. 26th 7 ). As this was announced as the last, the concerts 
formed practically a series of benefit concerts at Concert-Hall by subscription 
with programs strikingly differing from those of former years in combination, 
taste and tendency. Clearly a wedge was being driven into the standards 
of Colonial Times and the era of cosmopolitanism was fast dawning even 
in Boston. The "Distribution" was this: 

MAY 30, 1793 

FIRST PART. 
Grand Overture, musick of Haydn 

An Italian Song Mr. Mallet 

Clarinet Concerto Mr. Foucard 

An Italian Song Mr. Pick 

Quartette (by Pleyel) Messrs. Petit, Boullay, 

Foucard and Le Roy 



1) Of Francis Mallet, who was destined to play a prominent part in Boston's 
musical life General Oliver says in his 'First Centenary of the North Church Salem' 
(see Brooks, p. 167): 

"Monsieur Mallet was a French gentleman of much respectability who came to 
this country with Lafayette and served in the army of the Revolution to the end of the 
war. He then settled in Boston as a teacher of music, declining to receive any pension. 
He was among the earliest publishers of music in Boston, the friend and business partner 
of the celebrated Dr. G. K. Jackson and predecessor of Graupner, the famous double 
bass player, whose music store was hi Franklin Street." 

To this may be added that Mallet in 1798 is mentioned as organist to the "Rev. 
Mr. Kirkland's congregation". It is also clear that the biographical note in my Biblio- 
graphy is a trifle incorrect as Mallet settled in Boston at least as early as 1793. Still 
I doubt that he came to Boston immediately after the war. It is more probable that 
he came to the United States as a refugee from Hispaniola. 

2) Columbian Centinel, May 25, 1793. 

3) Col. Cent. June 12, 1793. 

4) ibidem, Oct. 30, Nov. 13, 1793. 

5) ibidem, Nov. 20th. 

6) ibidem; Dec. 7, 1793. 

7) ibidem, Dec. 25, 1793. 

19* 



292 

A French Song Mad. Douvillier 

Violin Concerto Mr. Boullay 

An English Song Mr. Powell 

A Sonate and a Song with accompaniment of guitar Mr. Le Roy 

An Overture Musick of Gretry 

SECOND PART 

A Concertant Symphony for two violins and a tenor Messrs. Petit, 

Boullay and Le Roy 

An English Song Mad. Placide 

La Bataille de Prague 1 ), upon the pianoforte and 

and English Romance Mr. Mallet 

An English Song Mr. Harper 

A Violin Concerto Mr. Petit 

A French Trio Madame Douvillier 

Messrs. Pick and Mallet 

End of the Concert, the Overture of Henry the IVth*) 
Mr. Petit will neglect nothing for the execution of the music. 

JUNE 13, 1793 
FIRST PART 

Grand Overture, D'Iphigenia M. Gluck 

An Italian Song Mr. Mallet 

Clarinette Quartetto with variations . M. Foucard 

French Song Mad. Douvillier 

Sonata [on the] Pianoforte Mr. Mallet 

English Song ..- Mr. Powell 

Violin Concerto Mr. Boullay 

An English Song Mrs. Mechtler 

SECOND PART 
Grand Simphonia 

An Italian Song M. Pick 

Concertant Simphonia Messrs. Petit, Boullay, and 

Le Roy (Amateur) 

An English Song Mad. Placide 

Violin Concerto M. Petit 

An English Song Mr. Harper 

A Grand Overture 

NOV. 14, 1793 

1st ACT 

Grand Overture 
French Song 

A Quartett, by Messrs. Boullay, Pick, Mallet and an amateur 
Song, by Mr. Pick 
Violin Concerto by Mr. Boullay 
A Grand Symphony 



1) Kotzwara. 

2) Martini. 



293 - 

2d ACT 

Grand Overture 
Flute concerto, by Mr. Stone 
Duet on the Fiddle and baas, by Mr. Boullay 
Fortepiano sonata, by Messrs. Selby and Boullay 
Several airs with variations, Mr. Boullay 
A Duet Song, by Messrs. Pick and Mallet 
A Finale 

NOV. 29, 1793 

1st ACT. 

Grand Symphony, composed by the celebrated Haydn 
Italian Song, by M. Mallet 
Quartette of Airs, with variations, by an amateur, Messrs. Boullay, 

Pick & Mallet 
A Duet on clarinets 
French Song, by Mr. Pick 
Quartette on the Fortepiano, 

composed by Pleyel, by M. Mallet & amateurs 
Overture of Henry IVth.i) 

2d ACT. 

Grand Symphony, of Pleyel 
Flute Quartette 

Violin Concerto, by M. Boullay 

Overture of Iphigenia 2 ) on the Forte-Piano and an English Air, by M. Mallet 
Quartette of Pleyel, Concertante by three amateurs and M. Mallet 
Italian Duet, sung by Messrs. Pick and Mallet 
Finale, of Hoffmeister, with a hunting Air on the horn, by M. Pick 

DEC. 12, 1793 

1st PART 

A grand Symphony composed by Pichel 
A French Song, by Mr. Mallet 
Hautboy Concerto, by Mr. Stone 
An Italian Song, by Mr. Pick (with an Hautboy accompaniment) 

2d PART 

A grand Overture 
A French Song with the accompaniment of the Spanish guitar and violin. 

by two amateurs 

A Violin Concerto, by Mr. Boullay 

A Clarinet Concerto, by Mr. Granger, Boullay. Mallet and Pick 
The Overture of Henry IVtha) 
A French Duetto, by Mr. Pick and Mallet 

A Sonata on the Harmonica with several known airs, by Mr. Pick 
A Grand Symphony, composed by Pleyel 

DEC. 26, 1793 

1st ACT 

Grand Symphony 
An Italian Song, by M. Pick 
Quartett, by M. Boullay and amateurs 



1) Martini. 

2) Gluck. 

3) Martini. 



294 

Song, by M. Mallet 

Flute Duetto, by an amateur and a professor 

Violin Concerto, by Mr. Boullay 

A grand Overture of Iphigenia, composed by Gluck 

2d ACT. 

Grand Overture, composed by Aiden [Haydn!] 
French Song, by M. Mallet 
Varied airs, by M. Boullay 

French Song, accompanied with a guitar, by an amateur 
A Violin Concerto, by M. Boullay 

To these concerts must be added the joint benefit of Messrs. Boullay, 
Pick and Mallet on Oct. 22d J ) and a concert of sacred music, held at the 
Universal Meeting House, for the benefit of Master Peter Dolliver, organist 
of that church, on July 4, 1793 2 ). The date speaks for itself and the manner 
in which Master Dolliver's impresario announced this patriotic concert will 
afford a few moments of amusing reading : 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

At the Universal Meeting House, to-morrow, July 4, precisely at 6 o'clock in the 
morning. A wish, not to intrude on the various services of this justly celebrated Day, 
prompted to the above early hour, when those persons who please to attend, may 
have an opportunity of being gratified, without immediately interfering with the 
serious business, or the innocent pleasure of the day. 

A celebrated band of singers, eminently distinguished for their accurate know- 
ledge in the science of vocal harmony, having generously offered their assistance, on the 
present occasion, a much admired Ode to Independence [by William Selby] will open 
the performance. A momentary pause at the 120th line of the poem, will be succeeded 
by an Ode to Freedom, generally supposed to have been composed by Delia Crusca, and 
allowed to be unrivalled in the compass of language. A second momentary rest will 
be made at the 234th line, and afford room for the introduction of 'Columbia, Columbia, 
to glory arise' written by the animated and animating Dr. Dwight. At the conclusion 
of the 360th line, an original Anthem, of the high Hallelujah metre, and never before 
published, will be sung, accompanied by instruments. 

Concluding Anthem, composed for Thursday Morning, July 4, 1793 
Hail! The first the greatest blessing 
God hath giv'n to Man below 

Surprisingly few concerts were given during the year 1794. We cannot 
be far from the truth if we see in this the direct or indirect influence of 
Boston's first regular theatrical season at the new Federal Street Theatre 
under the management of Charles Stuart Powell after the repeal of the anti- 
drama law and this influence on the concert-life is only too noticeable during 
the remaining years of the century. The company played from Feb. 3 to 
July 4 and during these five months not a single concert has come to my 
notice. Nor were such given during the latter part of the year, the company 



1) Columbian Centinel, Oct. 19, 1793. 

2) Col. Cent. July 3, 1793. The concert was postponed from June 25th. 



295 

resuming its unsuccessful career in Boston middle of September. Only 
during the summer- months, concerts seem to have been given. Probably 
more would have been announced had not Boston just then been visited 
by a conflagration which naturally enough temporarily stifled the slumbering 
enthusiasm of the afflicted city for concerts and other public entertainments. 
For July 10, 1794 1 ) a Mr. Nelson, member of Powell's company, adver- 
tised a concert plainly in imitation of Vauxhall entertainments though it 
took place at Concert-Hall. He and Messrs. Bartlett and Collins sang such 
popular songs as 'Sweet Poll of Plymouth', 'When Phoebus the tops of the 
hills does adorn', 'The Heaving of the lead', 'Poor Jack', 'Alone by the 
light of the moon' and the trio of 'Poor Thomas Day'. Of a different character 
was the program offered by Mrs. Pownall on July 22 2 ) for her benefit at 
the theatre, which the trustees, not with out being subjected to narrow-minded 
censure, had generously put at her disposal. The program, in which Mrs. 
Pownall, as on other occasions elsewhere, appeared as composer, reads: 

ACT I 

Overture Haydn 

Song 'Advice to the ladies of Boston, composed and to 

be sung, by Mrs. Pownall 

Roxelane Haydn 

Song 'A Soldier for me' Mrs. Pownall 

Sonata, on the Piano Forte Mr. Selby 

ACT II 

Concerto on the Violin M. Boullay 

A Cantata called 'The Happy rencontre, or Second 

thoughts are best', composed and sung by Mrs. Pownall 

Symphony Pleyel 

Song 'Sweet echo', by Mrs. Pownall 

Accompanied on the flute, Mr. Stone 

ACT III 

Concerto on the Flute Mr. Stone 

Air with Variations Mr. Boullay 

Song 'Tally Ho', in the character of Diana, huntress 

of the woods Mrs. Pownall 

Grand Symphony Hoffmeister 

Mrs. Pownall had headed her announcement "for one night only" but 
she met with such a liberal patronage that she resolved to engage the theatre, 
by particular desire of many ladies and gentlemen who attended the first, 
for a "second and last" concert on August 1st 3 ). She had selected this 
pleasing program: 



1) Columbian Centinel, July 9, 1794. 

2) Columbian Centinel, July 19, 1794. 

3) Columbian Centinel, July 30, 1794. 



296 

ACT 1st. 
Overture 

An Irish ballad 'Killarney is a charming place' .. Mrs. Pownall 
Symphony 

Washington, a song written by Mrs. Pownall 
Full piece 
'Pauvre Jacques', French rondeau, Mrs. Pownall 

ACT 2d. 

'The Lark's shrill notes', composed by Carter .. .. Mrs. Pownall 

Piece [Full piece?] Stamitz 

'Jemmy of the Glen', written and composed by .. Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Boullay 

'A Soldier for me' (by desire) Mrs. Pownall 

ACT 3d. 

'Sweeth Poll of Plymouth' Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Stone 

'The Primroses' Mrs. Pownall 

Symphony 

'The Nabob', a cantata Mrs. Pownall 

Full piece 

An Occasional Address, written by Mrs. Pownall 1 ) 

In the meantime, on July 31st, the city was visited by the conflagration 
mentioned and Mrs. Pownall's concert could not take place. The date 
was changed to August 3 2 ) and whatever opinions the more puritanical 
Bostonians held of the morals of plays and players, they cannot have failed 
to read with a blush and perhaps with doubts as to these very opinions, 
Mrs. Pownall's announcement: 

To afford some alleviation to these accumulated distresses, Mrs. Pownall has 
postponed her intention of a concert for her own emolument, as advertised in Wednes- 
day's Centinel, and will appropriate the receipts of the evening to the relief and accom- 
modation of those whom the merciless ravages of the most destructive of elements 
have reduced to the necessity of throwing themselves for redress into the arms of their 
fellow citizens. 

With regret Mrs. Pownall commented after the concert on the "thinness" 
of the house netting only 200 dollars "and attributed this disappointing 
result of her generosity "to the heat of the weather and the recent calamity" 3 ). 
It was a fair indication of what she might expect from her own benefit 
concert, but an opportunity for this did not arise, fortunately enough for 
her. Mrs. Pownall inserted on the same day, on which she made the finan- 
cial results of her charity public, this amiable and polite card: 

Mrs. Pownall presents her best respects to the citizens of Boston, and regrets an 
engagement that deprives her of the happiness of a longer visit; but while she laments 
the necessity of relinquishing the concert she had postponed, she flatters herself with 
the pleasing anticipation of a second tour to this delightful part of America. 



1) This address made part of the first act after the postponement. 

2) Columbian Centinel, Aug. 2, 1794. 

3) Columbian Centinel, August 9, 1794. 



' 297 

If only 200 dollars were netted for the victims of the conflagration, it 
may well be doubted if Mrs. Jacobus Pick covered expenses when she, re- 
gardless of the depression caused by the fire, announced a benefit concert 
at Concert Hall for August 28 l ) at one dollar a ticket with the following 
pieces and possibly she even found herself obliged to desist from giving it: 

1st PART. 

A grand Symphony by Pepichell [Pichl] 

Song by Mrs. Pick 

Flute quartette by An amateur etc. 

Song by Mr. Pick 

Overture to the Deserter 2 ) 

Song by Mrs. Pick 

Chace [La Chasse] by Stamitz, the horn part by Mr. Pick 

2d PART. 
Overture of Blase Babet 3 ) 

Italian Duetto, by Messrs. Pick and Mallet 

A Violin Concerto by Mr. Boullay 

Song by Mrs. Pick 

Overture 

Duetto by Mr. and Mrs. Pick 

Several airs on the Harmonica by Mr. Pick 

The Battle of Ivri*) 

The first concert of the year 1795 brought into prominence "a deserving 
youth" who 

"Tho 'he mourns a prison'd sense 
Has music in his soul" 5 ) 

This youth was none other than the blind Dr. John L. Berkenhead who 
in 1796 became organist of Trinity Church, Newport R. I. and continued 
in that position for eight years 6 ). For his benefit was performed at the 
Universal Meeting House a concert of sacred music on January 6, 1795. 
The program was thus announced: 

To commence with a Symphony on the organ, accompanied with other instru- 
ments. 



1) Columbian Centinel, Aug. 23, 1794. 

2) Dibdin or Monsigny. 

3) DezMe. 

4) Martini. 

5) Columbian Centinel, Jan. 3, 1795. 

6) Brooks, p. 56 where an amusing anecdote is told of Berkenhead. On his way 
to church he would indulge at his friend John Frazer, the schoolmaster's house, in a drop 
of old Scotch rye. After one of these visits, he managed to play a wrong tune. The 
clerk called out from the desk "Mr. Birkenhead you are playing a wrong tune", where 
upon blind John L. pulled the curtain apart and called the clerk a liar. The vestry, 
greatly shocked by this reply, in their further employment of the doctor, who knew 
a good thing even if he could not see it, put in a proviso "during good behaviour and 
punctual attendance". 



298 

Dedicatory anthem will follow 
Next a prayer 

Then select pieces, collected from approved authors, with an Ode. composed for 
the occasion, and an Exordium corresponding therewith, concluding with Handel's 
celebrated Hallelujah chorus* 

Bills of the pieces will be put into the pews. Floor tickets, 25 s. Gallery tickets, 
1 s 6 

This was followed by the concert mentioned previously in connection 
with Josiah Flagg's career. It seems that his widow was in very distressed 
circumstances, owing in part to some serious misunderstanding with her 
son, the surgeon-dentist Dr. Josiah Flagg, junr. Hearing of this, the flutist 
Stone conceived the idea of enlisting public sympathy in her behalf by 
means of a concert on January 31 at Concert Hall. In this he met with 
the approval of a gentleman who signed himself C. P., evidently Charles 
Powell, the theatrical manager, and who assisted in making the appeal 
urgent by requesting the editor of the Columbian Centinel to insert a long 
poem, dated, Boston, January 29, 1795 in which the hero, or rather the 
villain, was Mrs. Flagg's "miscreant son". The editor, of course, hastened 
to comply with the request and the poem was printed on January 31. The 
poet, leaving to an "abler pen" the task to "expose his crimes" 

.... To drag forth his Gothic deeds to open day 
Shew how to every sense of feeling lost 
He could the misery of his parents boast" 

appealed to his fellow- citizens to 

Stretch forth, ye wealthy souls, the liberal hand, 
And join to stimulate the Ingenious Band 
The glorious theme propos'd by Stone espouse, 
And ling'ring want to cheery hopes arouse." 

We certainly do not feel grateful to Mr. C. P. for his wretched poetry but 
we are under obligations to him for naming in a footnote the "ingenious 
band". It was 'The Society of the Sons of Apollo', evidently a musical 
society, of which, however, nothing further is known to me. This ingenious 
band, together with members of Powell's theatrical company, and John 
L. Berkenhead performed the following lengthy and rather miscellaneous 
program 1 ): 

PART 1st. 

Symphony Haydn 

Flute Concerto Mr. Stone 

Song 'Blow, blow, thou winter's wind' .. .. Mr. Bartlett 

Quartette on the Clarinet f^-- 

Glee 'Here's a health to all good lasses' .. .. Messrs. Jones, Collins and 

& Hipworth 
The Demolition of the Bastile on the harpsi- 
chord or Piano Forte, by Mr. Berkenhead 



1) Columbian Centinel, Jan. 28, 1795. 



299 

PABT 2d. 
Grand Overture 

Song 'Adieu, adieu, my only life' Mr. Jones 

Violin Concerto Mr, Mallet 

Song 'Washington's Counsel' Mr. Clifford 

Glee 'Three flutes' 

Duet 'The Stag thro' the forest' Messrs. Bartlett and Collins 

PAKT 3d. 
Full piece 

Duet on the Clarinet Messrs. Stone and Granger 

Song 'Dear Nancy I've sailed the world all 

around* Mr. Clifford 

Grand Lesson by Hook Mr. Berkenhead 

Song 'Come thou Goddess fair and free' .. .. Mr. Bartlett 
Grand Finale. 

The proceeds amounted to one hundred and two dollars which the 
Columbian Centinel on February 4 said 

"considered the disadvantages unavoidably attending the business, must be con- 
sidered as handsome. The thanks of the friends of humanity are due to Mr. Stone, 
and the gentlemen who assisted in the Concert, for their effort to relieve a suffering 
and deserving family. The assembly was brilliant and the performance highly satis- 
factory." 

The widow Elizabeth Flagg and daughters, however, waited until middle 
of April with the expression of their gratitude, at the same time informing 
the public and their friends that they "carried on the business of riveting 
and mending China and glass, and needle work of all kinds". 

On the same day, April 15th, Mr. Berkenhead announced a second 
benefit concert to be held at the assembly room of the New Theatre on April 23 
and subsequently the Columbian Centinel printed the program in which 
again his 'Demolition of the Bastile' appeared: 

PABT I 

Grand Symphony Haydn 

Song 'Ploughman turned Sailor," Mr. Bartlett, 

accompanied by the grand Piano Forte by Dr. Berkenhead 

Flute Concerto Mr. Stone 

Glee 'Here's a health to all good lasses' .. .. Messrs. Jones, Collins 

and Hipworth 

Sonata on the grand Piano Forte, composed by 
Dr. Arnold, and performed by Miss Doliver, 
a young lady of 9 years of age. 
Song 'Old Tom Day' 

Carelia Song Dr. Berkenhead 

Song 'From night until morn' Messrs. Collins and 

Hipworth 
PART II 
Demolition of the Bastile, on the Grand Piano 

Forte Dr. Berkenhead 

Song 'Cottage Maid' Miss Doliver 



300 

Overture of Henri IVtb>) 

Song 'Learned pig' Mr. Jones 

Lesson on the Piano Forte Dr. Berkenhead 

Violin Concerto Mr. Mallet 

Song 'For England when with sorrowing gale' Mr. Bartlett 

Overture by Vanhall Dr. Berkenhaed 

Song 'Wedding day' Mrs. Hellyer 

PART III. 
Grand Symphony 

Song 'Flowing can' Mr. Jones 

Clarinet Concerto Mr. Granger 

Song 'Hush every breeze' Mrs. Hellyer 

Grand Lesson on the Piano Forte Dr. Berkenhead 

Song 'Maria' Mrs. Hellyer 

Grand Lesson Dr. Berkenhead 

Song "Bonny Will' Mrs. Hellyer 

Finale. 

This concert was followed on June 18 2 ) by a joint benefit for Messrs. 
Mallett and Jones at Concert Hall but though they had both repeatedly 
stepped forward in charitable entertainments and notwithstanding their 
exertions during the season they were considerable losers on the occasion, 
as a correspondent to the Columbian Centinel indignantly remarked- on 
June 24. The few lovers of music, however, who attended were highly 
pleased with the performance of the program, again adorned by the 'De- 
molition of the Bastille': 

PART I 

Grand Overture by the celebrated Gretry 
Favourite Air, by Mr. Bartlett 

Duetto on the German flute Mr. Stone and amateur . 

Song 'Bachelor's Hall with accompaniments'.. Mr. Hipworth 

Hautboy Concerto Mr. Stone 

Song 'Hush every breeze' Mrs. Hellyer 

Demolition of the Bastille Mr. Berkenhead 

Catch 'How great in the pleasure' Messrs. Hipworth, Jones 

and Collins 
PART II 
Full Piece 

Song Mr. Collins 

Violin Concerto Amateur 

Song "The Ploughboy's escape' Mr. Jones 

Duetto on the Clarinet Messrs. Stone and Granger 

A few select Airs, by Amateur of this town 

Grand Concerto on the Piano Forte .. .. Mr. Berkenhead 

Song Mrs. Hellyer 

Glee in the Mountaineers 8 ), etc Messrs. Collins, Bartlett 

and Mallet. 



1) Martini. 

2) Columbian Centinel, June 17, 1795. 

3) Arnold. 






301 

In the meantime Powell's company had failed and Colonel Royal Tyler, 
the author of 'The Contrast', who had been master of ceremonies, assumed 
the management of the theatre. He re-engaged part of Powell's company and 
succeeded in securing part of Hallam and Henry's Old American Company 
and with this strong combination he re-opened the theatre on November 2. 
Thus it happened that Mrs. Pownall's "pleasing anticipation of a second 
tour to this delightful part of America" came true. Well knowing that her 
duties at the theatre would be too arduous for a division of energy between 
opera and concert, she hastened to hold a benefit before the theatre opened. 
It was given on October 7. at the theatre and evidently was very successful 
for Mrs. Pownall felt sufficiently encouraged to add two other benefit con- 
certs in surprisingly rapid succession as her "third and last night" was 
announced already for October 13 x ). In the first, Bostonians received a 
glimpse of a prodigy much younger than Miss Dolliver, it being Felix Pow- 
nall's first attempt in public, which we may well believe as this young 
gentleman was only four years of age. The "selections" contained as further 
pillar an americanised version of Kotzwara's 'Battle of Prague' which, we 
are told, still raged on both sides of the Atlantic as late as 1850: 

ACT I 

Song (by desire) 'Soldier for me' Mrs. Pownall 

Concerto Violin Mr. Bergmann 

Duett 'The Way worn travellers' from the 

Mountaineers, by the Misses Wrightens 2 ) 

Solo Flute Mr. Stone 

Song 'Little Felix is your name', by Felix 

Pownall, a child only four years of age, 

being his first attempt in public. 

ACT II 

'Sweet echo', by Mrs. Pownall, accompanied 
on the flute by Mr. Stone 

Battle of Prague (on the pianoforte, with accom- 
pany men ts) consisting of a Slow march. 

2. Words of command, first signal Cannon. 

3. Bugle horn for the cavalry and second 
signal cannon. 

4. The trumpet call. 5. The General attack. 
6. The Attack with swords. 7. The Light dra- 
gons advancing. 8. Trumpets of recall. 9. 
Cries of the wounded. 10. Trumpet of vic- 
tory. 11. President's march. 12. Turkish 

music. 13. Finale Miss M. A. Wrighten 

Song 'My Henry swore at his parting'. 
Words by a gentleman of New York and 

music by Mrs. Pownall 



1) Columbian Centinel, Oct. 3, 7, 13, 179o. 

2) Arnold. Daughters of Mrs. Pownall. 



302 

Quartette Mr. Bergman, St. Amand, 

Pick and Mallet 

Trio 'Magic lantern' Misses Wrightens and 

Mrs. Pownall 

Bravoura Song 'On the rapid whirlwind' by Mrs. Pownall 

Decidedly better than the concerts of this year were the few of 1796. 
Dr. Berkenhead presented this program at Bowen's Hall, head of the Mall, 
on February 25 l ) and it will be noticed that he figured not less than three 
times as composer, his 'Demolition' in the mean while having become the 
'Abolition' : 

ACT I 

Grand Symphony Haydn 

Lesson on the Grand Piano Forte Mr. Dolliver 

Song by the celebrated Mrs. Arnold 

Lesson (composed by Clementi) on the Grand 

Piano Forte by Dr. Berkenhead 
Song (composed by Dr. Berkenhead) .. .. Miss Maxwell 

Lesson Miss Dolliver 

Song Miss Dolliver 

Solo on the flute Mr. Stone 

Billet doux, by Miss Maxwell and Miss Dolliver, 
accompanied on the grand Piano Forte, by 
Dr. Berkenhead. 

ACT II 
Grand Overture 

Song Miss Maxwell 

The Abolition of the Bastile, on the Grand 

Piano Forte Dr. Berkenhead 

Song Miss Dolliver 

Pleyel's Concertante Miss Maxwell 

Song Mrs. Arnold 

Song, composed by Dr. Berkenhead Miss Maxwell 

Lesson Dr. Berkenhead 

Grand Overture 

Historically more interesting than this was the program offered on 
March 24 2 ) at Bowen's Columbian Museum by Mr. Nugent who, being a 
dancing master, waited until after the concert to show his talents in horn- 
pipes and pas seuls: 

1. A Grand Overture by the whole orchestra 

2. A Clarinet Duet, by Messrs. Anderson and Granger 

3. The Overture Chimine 3 ) by wind instruments 

4. A Quartette, by Messrs. Leaumont, Schaffer, Pick and Feckner 

5. A Grand Chasse, composed by Stamitz. 

The Concert will be followed by a ball, to be conducted by Mr. Nugent, in the 
course of which several hornpipes by Mr. Nugents' scholars and a pas seul by Mr. Nugent. 



1) Columbian Centinel, Feb. 20, 1796. 

2) Columbian Centinel, March 16, 1796. 

3) Sacchini. 



303 

Different in character and mainly made up of sacred music by American 
composers was the concert given for the benefit of Peter Dolliver, junr. 
at the Universal Meeting House, where he was organist, on March 31 J ): 

Voluntary by Dr. Berkenhead 

Holden's Dedicatory Anthem, accompanied by 

the organ and other instruments 
Occasional Ode by Ladies 
Billings's Easter Anthem 
Ode, by Miss Amelia Dolliver 
Cooper's Anthem 
Solo by Miss Dolliver 

"Ye Sons of Men" by Reeves 

Solo, by a lady 

Voluntary, by Mr. Dolliver 

A Hymn-Music by Dr. Berkenhead 

The whole to conclude with the celebrated 

Hallelujah Chorus by Handel 

Not for his own benefit but for a benevolent purpose Mr. Stone announced 
a concert for May 23 2 ) at Bowen's Museum. His program showed a return 
to more legitimate symphony -concert programs than Bostonians had 
been accustomed to for some time past. It contained in 

ACT I 

Grand Overture to Henry the 4th, with the 
entractsS). 

Song 'Fair Rosalie' Mrs. Arnold 

Flute Concerto Mr. Stone 

Solo on the grand Piano Forte, composed by . . Dr. Berkenhead 

Violin Quartette by Pleyel 

Song 'By moon light on the green' Mrs. Arnold 

A favorite Symphony by Hayden 

ACT II 

A Grand Chasse, composed by C. Stamitz 

A Clarinet Duetto by Michel 

A new Hunting Song Mrs. Arnold 

Hautboy Concerto Mr. Stone 

Symphony on the grand Piano Forte, by de- 
menti Dr. Berkenhead 

Violin Quartette by Franzill [!] 

The whole to conclude with a particular Full Piece. 

The announcement of Mrs. Arnold's concert at Theatre Hall, June 1st 4 ) 
is important as this lady, a popular actress and singer, did not forget to 
mention the names of the most eminent instrumentalists in the theatre 
orchestra who had offered her their assistance. Thus we are enabled to 
prove contrary to contemporary reminiscences that the orchestras of those 



1) Columbian Centinel, March 26, 1796. 

2) Columbian Centinel, May 21, 1796. 

3) Martini. 

4) Columbian Centinel, June 1, 1796. 



304 



days contained more than "half a dozen musicians". On this particular 
occasion the orchestra contained at least fourteen principal performers, 
the etc. etc. standing, of course, for the less prominent members, whereby 
the exact size is left to our more or less friendly imagination: 

Vocal performers, Mrs. & Miss Arnold 

Instrumental performers, Messrs. Shaffer, Mallet, Stone, La Barre, Granger, 

Anderson, Bonnemort, Sweeny, Vakner [Feckner ?], Austin, Muck, 

L'Epouse, Calligan, etc. etc. 
Leader of the band, Mr. Leaumont 
Grand Piano Forte, D. Berkenhead 

ACT 1st. 

Grand Overture 

Song, by particular desire, 'Ellen, or the Rich- 
mond Primrose Girl', accompanied on the 
flute, by Mr. Stone Mrs. Arnold 

Solo on the grand Piano Forte Dr. Berkenhead 

Song 'The Market Lass' Miss Arnold 

Solo on a new instrument, called Spiccato, in- 
vented and played by Mr. Shaffer 

Manuscript Song 'The Cottage Gate', words by 
B. B. Sheridan, Esq. and music by the 
celebrated Haydn, accompanied on the 
grand Piano Forte by Dr. Berkenhead .. Mrs. Arnold 

Solo on Flute Mr. Stone 

Manuscript Hunting Song, with full band .. Mrs. Arnold 

ACT 2d. 

Grand Symphony 

Manuscript Song 'Collin and Nancy' 

Quartette, in which the favorite Air of the 
Plough Boy' with variations will be intro- 
duced by 

Song 'Henry's Cottage Maid' 

Duet, Clarinet 

New Song, sung last year at Vauxhall Garden, 
London, with great applause, 'Listen, listen 
to the voice of love' 

Lovely Nymph assuage my anguish, on the 
spiccato, by 

By desire, the popular song of the 'Heaving of 
the lead', with all the original parts, as per- 
formed at the Convent Garden Theatre by 
Shield 

To conclude with La Grand Chasse 1 ) 

Compared with this, a program like that of Mrs. Sully and Mr. Collet 
at Concert Hall on September 13, the last concert in 1796, shrinks into 
insignificance 2 ): 



Haydn 
Mrs. Arnold 



Mr. Leaumont 
Mrs. Arnold 
Messrs. Anderson and 
Granger 



Mrs. Arnold 
Mr. Shaffer 



Mrs. Arnold 



1) K. Stamitz. 

2) Columbian Centinel, Sept. 10, 1796. 



305 

ACT I. 

Symphony of Haydn 
Sonata of Pleyel, on the Forte Piano by .. Mrs. Sully 

Ariet Mrs. Pick 

Concerto of Jarnowick on the violin .. .. Mr. Collet 
Rondo of Pleyel 

ACT II. 
Grand Overture 

Ariet by Mrs. Pick 

Concerto of Herman on the Piano Forte 

The celebrated Trio of Felix, song, by .. .. Mr. Mallet, Mr. Pick 

and Mrs. Sully 

Concerto on the Clarinet by Mr. Dubois 

Finale. / 

It was said towards the end of the chapter on New York that the 
Van Hagens moved to Boston late in 1796. Remembering how actively 
they were engaged in concert-work at New York, it will seem strange that 
both P. A. Van Hagen sen. and junr. taught music at their Musical Academy, 
played in the theatre orchestra, became organists of the best churches, 
opened a flourishing music store under the name of 'Musical Magazine' 
and otherwise became prominent in the musical affairs of Boston but, to 
my knowledge, did not announce a single benefit concert between 1797 and 
1800. This alone would go far to prove that in Boston, as in New York 
and Philadelphia, for reasons not wholly on the surface, concert-life was 
at a very low ebb during the last years of the eighteenth century. And if 
further proof is needed, we need but examine the newspapers. For instance, 
I found but one concert advertised in 1797. It took place on September 14 *) 
at the Columbian Museum with this indifferent program: 

ACT FIRST 

1. An Overture 

2. A Quartette on the French horn. By Messrs. Rozier, etc. 

3. A French Song, accompanied with the grand Piano Forte. By Mr. Mallet 

4. A Quartette on the German flute. By Messrs. Stone, etc. 

5. A Grand Symphony 

ACT SECOND 

1. An Overture 

2. A Symphony on the Grand Piano Forte. By Messrs. Mallet, etc. 

3. A Quartette on the Violin. By Messrs. Leaumont, etc. 

4. An English Song, accompanied with the Grand Piano Forte. By Mr. Mallet 

5. To conclude with a grand Symphony, full orchestra. 

Mr. Brown respectfully informs . . . that the Museum will appear to great advan- 
tage on that evening. 

Slightly less meagre was the output of the year 1798 and if the proposals 
of Messrs. J. B. Baker and S. Powell to erect a 'Columbian Vauxhall', at the 
estimated cost of 10 000 dollars, "a species of Summer entertainment", 



1) Columbian Centinel, Sept. 13, 1797. 
Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 20 



306 

combining "salubrity with amusement and novelty with taste" 1 ) if these 
proposals met with sufficient encouragement then Bostonians had at least an 
opportunity to enjoy open-air concerts as did Americans in other cities. But 
before the Columbian Vauxhall could have been opened, almost all the con- 
certs, to my knowledge given in 1798, had taken place. First in order and 
importance was that announced by Mrs. Graupner for March 14 J ) at Bo wen's 
Columbian Museum. The program escaped me, but it is safe to say that 
Gottlieb Graupner, her husband, assisted. It was not to be his last appea- 
rance before the public of Boston, for, just as William Selby had been the 
musical center of the city during the years 1782 1792 so Gottlieb Graupner 
became the musical oracle of Boston from now on until the foundation of 
the Handel and Haydn society in 1815, of which he, too, was an original 
member 2 ). The concert of Mrs. Graupner was followed on April 2 3 ) at 
Mr. Vila's Concert Hall by a joint benefit for Messrs. Pick and Rosier, when 
F. Schaffer, the clarinetist, was to play a concerto of his own: 

ACT I 

A Grand Symphony of , Pleyel 

The celebrated Song 'O Richard by my love' Mrs. Pick 

A French Duet Mr. and Mrs. Rosier 

Concerto on the Clarinet, composed and per- 
formed by Mr. Shaffer 

A Duet in the Siege of Belgrade*) Mr. and Mrs. Pick 

A French Song Mr. Rosier 

A Concert and Symphony Messrs. Von Hagen, sen. and jun. 

ACT II 

A Concert on the French horn Mr. Rosier 

A French Song Mr. Pick 

A Concerto on the flute Mr. Stone 

The favorite Song 'Whither my love' .. .. Mrs. Pick 

Trio for two horns and a clarinet Mr. and Mrs. Rosier and Shaffer 

Concerto on the Violin Mr. Von Hagen, sen. 

Quartette on the French Horn Messrs. Rosier, 

Von Hagen, sen. and jun. . 

A Song "The Black bird's a sweet whistle' .. Mrs. Pick 
Finale 



1) Columbian Centinel, March 7, 1798. 

2) Not in 1798, as has been generally accepted, but early in 1797 did Gottlieb 
Graupner settle in Boston. He came there as oboist in the Federal Street Theatre 
orchestra and advertised in March his services as teacher of the oboe, German flute, 
violin etc. According to the several accounts of his life in Perkins and Dwight, Jones, 
and other books, Graupner was born about 1740, became oboist in a Hanoverian regiment 
and went to London in 1788 where he played under Haydn. From London he went 
to Prince Edwards Island whence he arrived at Charleston, S. C. in 1795 where he 
married. With some friends he later on, in 1810 or 1811 founded in Boston a 'Phil- 
harmonic Society' which existed until 1824. About 1800 Graupner opened a music 
store. He also engraved and published music. The year of his death seems to be un- 
known. Mrs. Catherine Graupner, before her marriage known as Mrs. Hellyer, was a 
prominent vocalist on the American stage. She is said (by Jones) to have died in 1821. 

3) Columbian Centinel, March 21, 1798. 

4) Storace. 



307 

Then came R. Leaumont, leader of the theatre orchestra and subsequently 
to be traced at Charleston, S. C. in the same capacity, with a benefit on 
April 20 1 ) and F. Schaffer on May 2 2 ) when he was to introduce a new in- 
strument invented by him, possibly his spiccato, though the name is not 
given. On May 15 3 ) the Columbian Museum was "opened" (tickets half 
a dollar, children 25 cents) for the benefit of Peter Dolliver who was to 
perform several pieces on the grand pianoforte assisted by Miss Amelia 
Dolliver who by particular request of her brother "accompanied for that 
evening the pianoforte with her voice". Then followed the last and only 
really important concert of the year on May 31*), a 'Spiritual Concert', also 
called an 'Oratorio', at the New South Meeting House in Summer Street. 
It was to be for the benefit of Francis Mallet, the organist of Rev. Kirkland's 
congregation, who had procured the first vocal and instrumental performers 
of Boston and who respectfully solicited the patronage of those ladies and 
gentlemen who united to a love of the liberal art of music, the disposition of 
alleviating real misfortune. The performance was to begin at 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon and the price of tickets was "first seat 75 cts. ; second, 50 cts. ; 
and third 25 cts."; perhaps the first instance in Boston's musical history of 
a graduation of prices beyond two. The pillar of the program was Haendel 
by whom Mr. Trille La Barre's 'Latin Oratorio' probably was placed in an 
embarrassing position: 

ACT 1st. 

Overture of Esther, composed by Handel 

A Chorus 'Before Jehovah's awful throne' 

A Song 'Bright Seraphim' (by Handel) .. .. Mrs. Graupner 

A Quintetto, (a French horn and hautboys, 

principals) M. M. Rosier and Graupner 

A Duet 'Lovely Peace' (by Handel) Mr. Pick & Mallet 

A Latin Oratorio (by desire) composed by Trille La Barre 

ACT 2d. 

A grand Symphony, composed by Pleyel 

A chorus 'When all thy mercies', adapted by Mallet 

A Song 'Comfort ye my people' (by Handel) Mr. Ray 

A Sonata on the organ Mr. Mallet 

A Chorus 'Hallelujah' (by Handel) 
Finale, Handel's Coronation 

The concerts of 1799 were still fewer. First we notice a benefit for Peter 
Dolliver at the Columbian Museum on Jan. 24 5 ). Again, "by the request 



1) Columbian Centinel, April 14, 1798. 

2) Col. Cent, April 25, 1798. 

3) -See Brooks, p. 102 where the date of "Tuesday evening next 1st of May" is 
obviously an error, the more so as Mr. Brooks copied the announcement from the 
"Columbian Centinel, [Wednesday] May 9, 1798". 

4) Columbian Centinel, May 9, 26, 1798. 

5) Columbian Centinel, January 23, 1799. 

20* 



308 

of her brother", Miss Amelia assisted. She sang a song, accompanied by 
Peter on the clarinet, and played a voluntary on the organ. Indeed, as 
Peter Dolliver and Mr. Linley, who had kindly offered his co-operation, also 
performed several pieces on the organ, this concert may be classed as one 
of the first organ recitals given at Boston. The organ, together with some 
musical clocks, formed one of the main attractions of Mr. Bowen's 
Museum and, when on Feb. 8 the public was invited to admire 
among a variety of new additions "a large cat of the mountain", 
together with "the likenesses of President Adams and General Washington", 
the organ was again brought into prominence by a performance of "that 
much admired solemn march, which was played by the band of music in 
France, when Louis 16th suffered under the guillotine" 1 ). But Mr. Bowen 
was still more progressive and, though he was not an organist but merely 
a clever business man, those among our organists who delight in turning 
their vaunted king of instrument, as I have said elsewhere, into a kind of 
orchestrion for which anything will do from a fugue to an operatic pot- 
pourris, may see in Mr. Bowen a pioneer. 

In the summer of 1799 2 ) Mr. Bowen notified the public that beginning 
with July 30 there would be performances of his Concert Organ every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Friday evenings and as a specimen program he 
inserted that for the opening night: 

The music will commence precisely at 8 o'clock with the Battle of Prague ; Within 
a mile of Edinburgh ; Dead of the night ; Fal la la ; The topsail shivers in the wind ; Heaving 
the lead; Sailor's journal; Tom Bowling; You gentlemen of England and Little Sally; 
On Board the Arethusa; Lullaby; Old Towler; Bachelor's hall; Pleasures of the chase; 
How sweet in the woodland ; Listen to the voice of love ; Sweet little girl that I love ; 
Lilly's of the valley; and the Woodman, 

Dutch fishmonger; British grenadier; Freemason's song; Meg of Wapping; Dolly 
Thimble ; Delights of the chase ; Fault and wearily ; Drink to me only ; Kate of Aberdeen ; 
Freemason's march. 

In the meantime Gottlieb Graupner had announced under the heading 
of 'Subscription Assembly' that, encouraged by the very flattering marks 
of approbation on Mrs. Graupner's concert of 1798, he intended giving a 
benefit concert for himself which, he promised, would be one of the most 
brilliant performances ever produced in Boston as soon as the subscrip- 
tion was adequate to the expense. This announcement appeared as early 
as April 17 in the Columbian Centinel but the subscriptions were so slow 
coming in that the concert did not take place until May 20 3 ). A condition, 
highly significant for the state of concert affairs in Boston at the end of the 
century! Whatever the program was presumably it was worthy of a 

1) Col. Cent. Feb. 6, 1799. 

2) Columbian Centinel, July 27, 1799. 

3) Columbian Centinel, May 18, 1799. The program is not mentioned. 






309 

man who had played under Haydn it cannot but have differed from that 
offered by William Kendall by permission of the Universal Society in Mr. 
Murray's Meeting House on December 12 for his "exclusive benefit" 1 ): 

1. Ode, Descend ye Nine 

2. do. Introductory 

3. Voluntary on organ 

4. Solo, Italy 

5. Ode, 'Tis thine sweet power 

6. Chorus, Vital spark of heavenly flame 

7. Voluntary on organ 

8. Solo, Hail sacred art 

9. Chorus, Drundon 

10. Duet, Anesbury 

11. Voluntary 

12. Duet, Beneficence 

13. Chorus, Angels toll the rock away 

14. Solo, Let the bright Seraphim 

Merely mentioning Mr. Bates' "Medley entertainment in three parts, 
called 'Fashionable variety'; or, Characters drawn from life, consisting of 
various descriptions, moral reflections, comic songs", the latter sung by 
Mrs. Graupner, on March 20, 1800 2 ) and on June 26, 1800 the appearance 
of those phenomena of musical abilities, a boy of seven and an infant of 
four years, whose acquaintance was already formed at New York 2 ), I close 
this chapter with an advertisement which proves that, however insignificant 
the musical life of Boston had become in public, in private circles the love 
of music had not died out. We read in the Columbian Centinel, April 6, 
1799: 

Philharmonic Society 

A general and punctual attendance of the members is requested this evening, as 
business of importance will be laid before the society. By order 

W. H. M'Neill, Secretary. 

Of this Philharmonic Society nothing further is known. It is not even 
mentioned by other historians but certainly the supposition will not be 
considered violent that Gottlieb Graupner was one of the founders. Is it 
possible, after all, that the Philharmonic Society which Perkins and Dwight 
claim to have been founded by Graupner and his friends in 1810 or 1811 
and which gave its last concert on November 24, 1824, was identical with 
that existing in 1799? 

* 

On Dec. 15, 1790 the Essex Journal of Newburyport informed its readers 
that according to a late enumeration in the county of Essex with a total of 
57908 the town of Newburyport contained 4837, Salem 7921, Marblehead 

1) Columbian Centinel, Dec. 11, 1799. 

2) The father closed the announcement with this NB "If the children do not 
perform what is in the bills [marches, airs, hornpipes, duets, etc.] those who come 
shall have their money back"! 



310 

5660, Glocester 5317, Ipswich 4562, Beverly 3290 and so on down to Methuen 
with 1293 inhabitants. This curious bit of statistics strikingly illustrates 
one important point : the difference between the States commonly comprised 
under the collective name of New England and for instance the States of 
New York and Pennsylvania. When thinking of cities or towns as they 
thrived in the Middle States about 1790 our memory begins to fail after 
having mentioned New York, Albany, Philadelphia, Bethlehem, Lancaster. 
It is entirely different with New England. While most of the towns men- 
tioned above were insignificant enough yet it would reveal a very limited 
knowledge of general history if besides Boston, at least, Salem, Newport, 
Worcester, Newburyport, Providence, New Haven, Hartford were not taken 
into consideration. Undoubtedly Boston had by this become the center 
of gravitation in these relatively thickly settled States but she had not yet 
hopelessly out-distanced other towns, once her rivals, and (mutatis mutandis) 
this struggle against her supremacy has continued ever since. Especially 
in intellectual matters! W~e need but think of the many learned societies 
and institutions, of the net of well-equipped and well-managed libraries 
spread over New England and the neighboring States to recognize the 
truth of this observation and to understand how the mighty and general 
intellectual development of New England resulted from the absence of ab- 
solute centralisation of intellectual forces. The same observation holds 
true if applied to the history of music in New England and more particularly 
during the formative period. But the early musical history of New England 
is peculiar. Undeniably the interest taken in music by the Yankees was 
keen, earnest and sincere but outside of Boston it moved predominantly 
in the narrow channel of what we call psalmody, cultivated by the innume- 
rable singing schools and singing societies. For instance, where we find 
sjn the newspapers one advertisement of a dancing master or a musician 
anxious to teach the German flute, harpsichord, violin etc. we run across 
a dozen advertisements of singing schools, or of the publication of the psalm- 
tune collections (now so scarce) compiled by Stickney, Billings, Jocelyn, 
Read, Holyoke, Law, Holden and others. It would be a thankful task for 
a historian interested more in the history of our early sacred than secular 
music to rigidly apply the projective method more difficult, may be, 
but also more correct and fruitful than the mere critical or esthetic method 
to this phase of our country's musical development. It would be seen how, 
even in the field of psalmody, England was taken as the model with a full 
knowledge and an enthusiastic imitation of the standards of psalmody pre- 
vailing in the mother country and how the New Englanders added to this 
literature in a fashion peculiar to their own needs and requirements. One 
important lesson would be learned and it is this that, if psalmody in America 



311 

was crude and amateurish, it was not very much more so than in England 
as represented by Tansur, Williams etc., that Billings was a character, a 
personality more than a pioneer, that his and the tendencies of his rivals 
and imitators were working with tremendous force for the good of the future 
of choral music, in short that it is easier to ridicule the technical short- 
comings of these "singing teachers" than to give them credit for their actual 
musical abilities and to ascertain their real historical importance. 

To what extent sacred music dominated the interests of music lovers 
outside of Boston may further be illustrated without difficulty. There 
existed at Cambridge in 1789 a 'Singing Club of the University' and though 
undoubtedly the Harvard boys knew strains very much more secular and 
even profane than those contained in the 'Harmonia Americana' compiled 
by their fellow- student Samuel Holyoke, the manner in which the members 
of the club publicly endorsed this collection proves that the 'Singing Club' 
was devoted mainly if not exclusively to the study of psalmody, "this im- 
portant part of divine worship" 1 ). There also existed a musical club about 
1786 at New Haven 2 ) called 'The Musical Society of Yale College' and the 
same inference as to its tendencies may be drawn from the elaborate ad- 
vertisement in which Amos Doolittle and Daniel Read solicited subscriptions 
for their 'American Musical Magazine' in which no piece not previously 
examined and approved by said society was to be published 3 ). However, 
sacred music did not predominate in the provincial cities of New England 
to the exclusion of secular music. Such a pre-conceived theory without actual 
proofs deducted from available data would be an absurdity, for, where 
toasts are drunk to the king, to the United States, to the Presidents to 
popular tunes of the day, where the lads woe the lasses, where mothers rock 
their babies to sleep, where the courtly minuet alternated with the sprightly 
jig, where the "martial band" sets the soldiers marching, where the harp- 
sichord, the violin, the guitar, the German flute are advertised for sale, and 
where patriotic songs are sung to the strains of Anacreontic airs, there, of 
necessity, must have existed an inherited and replenished store of secular 
music and consequently a vivid interest in secular music, at lea'st during 
six days of the week. Moreover, with all the ethical arguments and legal 
restrictions against theatrical entertainments, the Beggar's Opera and other 
ballad operas invaded New England at an early date and when finally in 
the last decade of the eighteenth century the barriers against theatrical 
entertainments collapsed, the people of Providence, Salem, Hartford, New- 
port and elsewhere enjoyed, and what means more, were prepared to enjoy 



1) Massachusetts Spy, Worcester, June 25, 1789. 

2) Population in 1800 only 4049 inhabitants! 

3) Connecticut Journal, New Haven, March 29, 1786. 



312 

English opera just as much as the Bostonians or New Yorker. But in the 
realm of concerts and this is peculiar New England, Boston excepted, 
does not furnish much of interest to the historian. It would he more accurate 
to say outside of Boston and her immediate vicinity, for such towns like 
Salem, Charlestown, Cambridge naturally partook of everything offered at 
Boston in the form of public entertainments, and vice versa. 

Thus, for instance, Bostonians were duly notified through the columns 
of the Massachusetts Gazette of a concert to be given by a Mr. Coleman in 
the Court House at Cambridge on Commencement day, July 15, 1772 and 
those who cared to attend the "grand" concert of vocal and instrumental 
music with Mrs. Spencer, Mrs. Berkenhead, Mr. T. Spencer and Dr. Berken- 
head as principal performers at Warren's Tavern on January 15, 1798 or 
Peter Dolliver, the organist's concert of sacred music at the Meeting House 
in Charlestown on June 13, 1799 found the announcements in the Columbian 
Centinel. Since it was no longer necessary as of yore to use a rude ferry- 
boat plying between the North End of Boston and Charlestown, as Cox 
had gained an international reputation by spanning Charlesriver in 1786 
by a bridge, the short trip to Charlestown possessed the incidental features 
of a pleasant outing. It took somewhat longer to drive or ride to Salem, 
but, as the Salem Gazette printed advertisements of concerts to be given 
at Boston and the Boston papers such of concerts to be given at Salem, it 
is clear that the musical intercourse between the two cities must have 
been feasible and frequent. For many years Salem depended almost entirely 
on the offerings of Boston but it is interesting to note that towards the 
close of the century Salem possessed a concert-life independent of Boston. 
As private singing societies were established at Salem as early as 1772, 
(according to Brooks), it is possible that more or less public concerts with 
programs made up of hymns and anthems were given there before the war, 
but the first real public concert held at Salem seems to have been the one 
at Concert Hall [!] on January 17, 1783. The interesting announcement in 
the Salem Gazette, January 16, reads: 

The Massachusetts Band of Musick being at home a few days on furlough, propose, 
with permission, to perform at Concert Hall, in Salem, to-morrow evening. This band 
belongs to Col. Crane's Artillery, is complete, and will have the assistance of two or 
three capital performers. 

The Musick will consist of Overtures, Symphonies, Harmony and Military Musick, 
Solos, duets on the horns, and some favourite songs by the band. To begin at six o'clock 
and end at half past nine. 

Tickets at six shillings each, to be had at the Printing Office to-morrow. 

The Massachusetts Band "performed to so great acceptance" that a 
few days later, on January 24, it was engaged to assist in a Concert for the 
Poor at Concert Hall 1 ). 

1) Salem Gazette, January 23, 1783. 



313 

Next we notice a Concert of Sacred Musick, Vocal and Instrumental 
planned for November 25, 1790 in St. Peter's Church for the purpose of 
repairing the organ of the church 1 ). This time it was "the Band from 
Boston" which did the musical honors and William Selby was to play on 
the organ. Tickets for the ground floor were to cost 1 s. 6 and for the gal- 
lery 9d. For July 10, 1792 2 ) was announced a concert but as between its 
parts was to be delivered "the tragic and moral lecture, called Douglas with 
various songs", the hybrid entertainment does not call for much attention 
here. It is different with the concert advertised for September 9, 1794 3 ) 
at the Assembly Room for the benefit of Mr. and Mrs. Jacobus Pick, Messrs. 
Louis Boullay, Francis Mallet and Frederick Granger, as the program was 
as substantial as any offered at Boston during those years: 

FIRST PART. 

1. Blaise and Babet Overture*) full orchestra 

2. Song of Jordany [!], sung by Mrs. Pick 

3. Quartetto on the flute, by a amateur, Messrs. Boullay, Pick and Mallet 

4. French Song, by Mr. Pick 

5. Overture in the 'Two Misers' 6 ) full orchestra 

6. A favorite new Song, by Mrs. Pick 

7. The Chasse of Stamitz, the horn part by Mr. Pick 

8. A favorite Italian duet, sung by Messrs. Mallet and Pick 

SECOND PABT. 

1. Grand Overture in Rosiere de Salenci, composed by Gretry 

2. A Comic Italian Song, by Mr. Mallet 

3. Violin Concerto, by Mr. Boullay 

4. A favorite new Song, by Mrs. Pick 

5. Quartetto on the Clarinet, by Messrs. Granger, Boullay, Pick and Mallet 

6. English Duett, sung by Mr. and Mrs. Pick 

7. Grand Symphony of Pleyel. 

Then we notice an organ recital given by William Blodgett at St. Peters' 
on December 7, 1796 6 ), Mrs. Tubbs' song recital at Washington Hall in 
March 1797 7 ) and on April 13, 1797 8 ) a curious miscellaneous entertain- 
ment called 

"Just in Time or Such things have been Such things may be Such things 
are. Mirth, Song and Sentiment by Chalmers and Williams from the Theatres, Boston, 



1) Salem Gazette, Nov. 23, 1790. This must have been the organ made by Tho- 
mas Johnston of Boston for St. Peter's in 1754 but which was not erected there until 
1770 when the church made an exchange with Johnston, giving him their old organ, 
purchased in 1743 by subscription from Mr. John Clark. For further information 
consult Brooks, p. 65. 

2) Salem Gazette, July 10, 1792. 

3) Salem Gazette, Sept, 2, 9, 1794. 

4) Dezede. 

5) Dibdin. 

6) Salem Gazette, Dec. 6, 1796. 

7) Salem Gazette, March 10, 1797. 

8) Salem Gazette, April 11, 1797. 



314 

consisting of pieces, serious, comic, moral and entertaining in readings, recitations 
and songs. Performed at Dibdin's Vauxhall and the theatres in Europe." 

In the following year, sometime in February, Washington Hall was the 
scene of a triumph for Mr. Spencer, the vocalist, and in connection with 
this concert was used, to my knowledge, for the first time in our musical 
history, the term encore. Said a correspondent in the Columbian Centinel, 
Boston, February 21, 1798: 

Dr. Berkenhead and Co. entertained the inhabitants of Salem with a "Concert" 
on Thursday evening. Washington Hall was well filled. Mrs. Berkenhead, though 
indisposed, sang with feeling and taste; Mrs. Spencer with emphasis and correctness; 
and Mr. Spencer was loudly applauded and repeatedly encored, by the gallery boys! 
The Bastile, by the Doctor, was admirably played on an elegant harpsichord, belonging 
to a respectable family in that town. 

About this time, Salem came into possession of a 'New Concert Hall', 
in Marketstreet and it was here that Gottlieb Graupner with the assistance 
of "the best musicians from Boston" gave what he promised to be "more 
pleasing than any performance of the kind hitherto offered to the inhabi- 
tants of Salem" 1 ). The memorable event took place on May 15, 1798 with 
a program in which chamber music figured pre-eminently: 

PART 1st. 

Grand Symphony by Pleyl 

Song 'On by the spur of valour goaded', Mr. Collins .. Shield 
Clarinet Quartette, Messrs. Granger, Laumont, Von Hagen 

and Graupner Vogel 

Song 'He pipes so sweet', Mrs. Graupner Hook 

Concerto on the French horn, Mr. Rosier Ponton [Punto?] 

A favourite new Song 'Little Sally's wooden ware', Miss 

Solomon Arnold 

Full piece Hayden 

PART 2d. 

Quartette 'Who shall deserve the glowing praise', Mrs. 

Graupner, Mr. Granger, Mr. Collins, and Mr. Mallet Linly 

Concerto on the Clarinet, composed and performed by 
Mr. Shaffer 

A new favourite Echo song 'How do you do', Mrs. Graupner, Hook 
accompanied on the hautboy by Mr. Graupner 

Concerto on the violin, Laumont Foder [Fodor] 

A comic Irish Song 'Boston news', Mrs. Collins 

Concerto on the Hautboy, the composition of the cele- 
brated Fisher, Mr. Graupner. 

Duet, 'Hey dance to the fiddle and tabor', from the much 

admired opera of Lock and Key 2 ), Mrs. Graupner and Mr. Collins 
Finale Pleyl 

Number of performers 12 Doors to be opened at 6 o'clock and the performance 
to begin precisely at half after seven. In consequence of the advice of some friends, 
Mr. Graupner has reduced the price of tickets to half a dollar each . . . 



1) Salem Gazette, May 11, 15, 1798. 

2) Shield. 



315 

This concert should have been followed on May 29 *) by Mr. and Mrs. 
Hosier's benefit, but first Mr. Hosier's "public duties on Election Day" 
obliged him to postpone it to June 5 and then "his engagements to the 
Boston Cavalry" once more to June 7. Of course the Hosiers were very 
profuse in their apologies for those alterations. 

The statement was made in the preceding pages that the Van Hagens 
do not seem to have risked a possible loss by giving benefit concerts at 
Boston. For this reason it is all the more interesting that young Peter 
A. Van Hagen since they moved to Boston the Van became a Von 
resolved to give a concert at Salem, his temporary residence, in the summer 
of 1798. That really the thrifty Van Hagens cared less for the glory of 
public appearance at Boston than for an actual benefit may be inferred 
from the fact that the Salem concert was only "to commence as soon as the 
subscription [was] found adequate to the expences" which he hoped to 
cover by his "terms A subscriber for a ticket to admit a lady and 
gentleman, 1 dollar 50 cents; do. for one person 88 cents [!]; a non-subscriber, 
1 dollar" 2 ). It does not appear whether or not the inhabitants of Salem 
agreed to these odd 88 cents. It would almost seem that young Van Hagen 
postponed his concert by fully half a year as he again announced a concert 
for his benefit under almost literally the same terms on January 25, 1799, 
the only difference being that "a subscriber for a ticket for one person" 
received a rebate of 25 cents instead of 12. This change must have pleased 
the Salemites for the concert actually took place on February 5, 1799 with 
the assistance of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Graupner. and "several of the 
best performers in Boston" 3 ). Unfortunately the program was not men- 
tioned, but probably it was arranged on very much the same lines as that 
presented on June 25, 1799 by Mrs. Graupner at the Concert Hall, Market 
Street for her benefit with Mr. Van Hagen, [sen.] as leader of the band "from 
Boston" 4 ). 

PART 1st. 

Overture, composed by Pleyel 

Song by Mr. Munto Dr. Arnold 

A Sonata on the Grand Forte Piano Kozeluch 

for 4 hands, by Mrs. Von Hagen and Mr. Von Hagenjun. 

'By my tender passion', a favourite song in the Haunted 

Tower, by Mrs. Graupner Storace 

Solo on the Clarinet, by Mr. Granger Vogel 

Lullaby, a favourite Glee for four voices, Mrs. Graupner, 

Mr. Granger, Mr. Mallet and Mr. Munto Harrison 

Concerto on the Violin by Mr. Von Hagen Jearnowick 

1) Salem Gazette, May 18, May 22, June 5, 1798. 

2) Salem Gazette, Aug. 14, 1798. 

3) Salem Gazette, January 25 and Feb. 5, 1799. 

4) Salem Gazette, June 25, 1799. 



316 

PART 2d. 

Concerto on the Piano Forte, by Mrs. Von Hagen .. .. Haydn 
Columbia's Bold Eagle, a patriotic song, words by a gentle- 
man of Salem. Music by Mr. Graupner and sung by 

Mrs. Graupner 

Concerto on the Hautboy, by Mr. Graupner Le Brun 

The Play'd in Air, a much admired Glee in the Castle 

Spectre 1 ), by Mrs. Graupner, Mr. Granger, Mr. Mallet 

and Mr. Munto 
Quartetto by Messrs, von Hagen, sen. and jun., Mr. Lau- 

mont, and Mrs. Graupner. 
'To Arms, to arms', a new patriotic song, written by Thomas 

Paine, A. M. sung by Mrs. Graupner and music by 

Mr. von Hagen, jun. 
Finale Haydn 

For this concert 'A Citizen' addressed to Mr. Gushing, the owner of the 
Salem Gazette, on June 25 a curious advance-criticism, highly flattering 
to the participants. Said the citizen: 

Mr. Gushing, 

I observe that a Concert of Music is advertised in your last paper, to be performed 
on this evening for the benefit of Mrs. Graupner. It is to be hoped that, as the com- 
pany expressed a great satisfaction for the last excellent Concert which was given 
by Mr. Graupner, they will receive no less pleasure from this. To render the enter- 
tainment more complete, we are informed, that there will be added to the other instru- 
ments an excellent piano forte. The beauties of this instrument will be displayed in 
the brilliant execution of Mrs. Von Hagen whose taste and talents procured her, when 
in Holland, the admiration of the Court at the Hague, as they have since in America 
commanded the applause of all who have heard her perform. 

To the claim which Mr. Graupner's abilities give him to the public patronage, 
his misfortune in being burnt out of his house by the late fire at Boston will, it is hoped, 
be duly considered by every human mind. Those that attend this concert, will have 
added to the enjoyment of music, the satisfaction resulting from aiding those who 
have suffered from a calamity which they themselves, as inhabitants of a wooden 
town, are peculiarly exposed to. 

A Citizen. 

Finally "the excellent organ made by the celebrated Avery" for Rev. 
Dr. Prince's Meeting House was to be "opened with several voluntaries by 
an eminent master" during an afternoon-concert of sacred vocal and in- 
strumental music on Sept. 19, 1800, for which, as usual, the best performers 
in Boston had been engaged, but on account of the indisposition of one of 
them the concert was unavoidably postponed and does not seem to have 
taken place 2 ). - 

"The Want of instruments, together with the Niggardliness of the People of this 
Place, and their not having a Taste of Musick, render it impossible for any one of my 
Profession to get a competent Maintenance here; and their Feuds and Animosities 
are so great concerning their Government, that a Man can take but little Satisfaction 
in being among them: so that, it is no better than burying one's self alive ..." 



1) Michael Kelly. 

2) Salem Gazette, Sept. 16, 19, 1800. 



317 

Certainly this was anything but a compliment which John Owen Jacobi, 
the organist of Trinity Church, paid to the inhabitants of Newport, R. J. 
in a letter to Peter Evans of Philadelphia in March 1739 1 ). Nor can it 
be maintained that the interest taken in music at Newport in after-years 
was very lively. Still, a few concerts are on record. Possibly the first given 
at Newport was the "grand" concert announced by a "number of the first 
performers from Boston, etc." for May 5, 1772 at the Court House 2 ). In 
the following year, as will be remembered, William Selby became the organist 
of Trinity Church and he announced a benefit concert for August 3, 1774 3 ). 
A few days later he resigned his position and a Mr. Knoetchel became his 
successor 4 ). This gentleman then gave an afternoon-concert in the Colony 
House on September 18, 1774, the price of tickets being three pounds each, 
but, as Mr. Brooks who unearthed the announcement remarks, this fabulous 
sum was in depreciated currency and the price of the ticket would now be 
about fifty cents in silver. No other concert, it seems, was advertised until 
long after the war, when the announcement in the Newport Mercury, 
March 25, 1793 undeniably proves that Newport then possessed a Concert 
Hall where on "Tuesday Evening in Easter Week" The St. Caecilia Society 
granted to one of the members a benefit concert. Whether this society 
cultivated sacred vocal music only or both sacred and secular or instrumental 
music, does not appear. This possibly was the last concert of the century 
recorded by the press, unless we admit Mr. Tubbs' Concert and Reading 
at Mr. Penrose's Hall on May 2, 1797. It was called "Oddities, or a Certain 
cure for the spleen. After the manner of Dibdin consisting of singing and 
comic readings from eminent authors" 5 ). 

Newport's rival, Providence 6 ), was not blessed with overly many con- 
certs. To be sure, as early as August 1762 "Concerts of musick" were ad- 
vertised in the Boston Evening Post (!) to take place there at the new School- 
house but these were daily performances of such tragedies as Cato and 
the pantomime of Harlequin Collector, the acts separated by music, 



1) Reprinted under the heading 'Music in Rhode Island, 1739' in the Publ. of the 
R. I. Hist. Soc., New Ser., VII. Jan. 1900. The organ had been presented by Dean 
Berkeley in 1733 and Mr. Jacobi was induced to come over from England in 1736 as 
organist. The expenses of his voyage, 18, 15 s. were paid, and he was given a salary 
of j^ 25 per annum. The organ was set up with the assistance of Charles Theodore 
Pachelbel of Boston, who was also the first organist. (See Brooks, p. 52.) 

2) Newport Mercury, April 27, 1772. 

3) Newport Mercury, August 1, 1774. 

4) This Mr. Knoetchel must have been a relative, perhaps the son of the John 
Ernest Knoetchel who was organist of Trinity Church in the sixties at a salary of 
30 and who died in October 1769. (Mason's Annals of Trinity Church, Sec. Ser. 
1894, p. 313.) 

5) Newport Mercury, May 2, 1797. 

6) Population: 17906380; 18009451 inhabitants. 



318 

called concerts merely to evade the restrictions against theatrical entertain- 
ments. The first concert proper seems to have been given at Providence 
early in August 1768 under the direction of a Mr. Dawson 1 ). It was announced 
as a concert of instrumental music during which by particular desire Mr. 
Dawson "presented the company with a hornpipe and Mr. Tioli [was to] 
perform a tambourin dance in Italian taste". This was followed on Sep- 
tember 26, 1768 2 ) by a concert under the direction of Mr. Tioli at Mr. Hacker's 
Room. Shortly afterwards, business urged Mr. Tioli's immediate departure 
and he "quitted with reluctance a place, the inhabitants of which are justly 
remarked for their politeness and affability towards strangers". Then we 
notice a concert of vocal and instrumental music given by William Blodgett 
with the assistance of "a number of masters from Boston" on Sept. 2, 1772 3 ). 

Not until after the war did I run across another concert announcement, 
when on June 28, 1784 4 ) was to be given 

A Concert of Instrumental Music (consisting of clarinetts, flutes, French horns, 
bassoons etc.) at the State House . . . beginning at early candle light. 

This evidently was a band concert and there is reason to believe 
that it was given by a Mr. Hewill who in April had informed the young 
ladies and gentlemen of Providence that he had opened "a school of instru- 
mental music in College street [where he taught] the German flute, 
clarinet, bassoon, French horn, etc." 5 ). Presumably Mr. Hewill simply 
gave an exhibition of the abilities of his pupils acquired under his tutorship. 
During the last decade of the eighteenth century the inhabitants of Pro- 
vidence received a taste of legitimate opera and drama and naturally the 
members of Mr. Harper's company sought to add to their income by offering 
entertainments when not on duty at the theatre. Thus Mr. and Mrs. Harper 
gave an 'Attic Entertainment' in December 1794 6 ) but real concerts none. 
In fact the only entertainment presented during this and the following 
years which might deserve the name of concert was the one held on April 27, 
1797 7 ) by Mrs. Tubbs at the theatre for her benefit prior to leaving town. 
On this evening "the best selection of the most popular songs and duets 
[were to] be sung by Mrs. Tubbs and Miss Arnold, a young lady of 10 years 
of age. The songs to be accompanied on the Forte Piano by Mr. Tubbs". 

Now Mrs. Tubbs, odd as this may seem at first reading, was the mother 
of Miss Arnold for, when announcing in the Eastern Herald of Portland, 



1) Providence Gazette, July 30 1732. 

2) Providence Gaz. Sept. 11, 1768. 

3) Providence Gaz. Aug. 22, 1712. Subsequently, in 1714, W. Blodgett proposed 
to open a dancing school. 

4) Providence Gazette, June 26, 1784. 

5) Providence Gazette, April 24, 1784. 

6) Providence Gazette, Dec. 6, 1794. 

7) United States Chronicle, April 27, 1797. 



319 

Maine, Nov. 17, 1796 her intention of having at the Assembly Room there 
on November 21 a concert "to consist of the most popular songs sung last 
season at Covent Garden", she called herself "Mrs. Tubbs, late Mrs. Arnold 
of the Theatre Royal Covent Garden, London" incidentally remarking that 
after the concert Mr. Tubbs intended setting up a theatre. Without prying 
to closely into her family relations, it is clear that Mr. Tubbs cannot have 
been the lucky husband of such an accomplished artist for very long as the 
Oracle of the Day, Portsmouth, N. H. 1 ) informed its readers on July 21, 
1796 that Mrs. Arnold would give a concert at the Assembly Room on Au- 
gust 3d. The following was to be part of the selection for the occasion 2 ): 

Song 'The Bonny Bold Soldier' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'The Market Lass' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'Ellen, or the Richmond primrose girl, as sung by 
Mrs. Arnold repeatedly at the Boston theatre, with 
universal applause, accompanied on the Forte Piano Mrs. Arnold 
Voluntary pieces. 

Song 'Henry's cottage maid' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'By moonlight on the green' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'The heaving of the lead' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'O listen, listen to the voice of love' Mrs. Arnold 

Song 'Mary's dream, or Sandy's ghost, by particular de- 
sire, accompanied on the Forte Piano Mrs. Arnold 

But this song recital is not the first concert on record at Portsmouth 
as "the band of music belonging to Col. Crane's regiment of artillery" gave 
a Public Concert at the Assembly Room on February 17, 1783 3 ). How 
erroneous the popular belief is that the bands in the Continental Army 
consisted merely of a few fifes and drums and were incapable of playing 
none but fife and drum music may again be seen as this artillery band per- 
formed on said occasion 

"several overtures, simphonies, military music, several songs, and several duettos 
on the French horn" 
as it did about the same time at Salem, when on furlough. 

Between this and the concert of 1796 we further notice one for the benefit 
of Horatio Garnet, composer of an 'Ode for American Independence', on 
September 28, 1789 4 ) at the Assembly Room. And as "the musick, enter- 
tainment, etc. [was to be] the same as the assemblies last winter" it must 
be inferred that Portsmouth had occasion to enjoy concerts also in 1788. 
Indeed, it is more than probable that concerts, though perhaps private and 
interspersed with readings, etc., were given at the singing schools and As- 
semblies of all the different small cities mentioned and elsewhere very much 
more frequently than an examination of the extant newspaper files would 

1) Population: 1790 4720; 1800 5339 inhabitants. 

2) Copied from Brooks, p. 162. 

3) New Hampshire Gazette, February 15, 1783. 

4) New Hampshire Gazette, Sept. 24, 1789. 



320 

allow us to prove. A fitting illustration of how perhaps such affairs looked, 
may be found in a communication to the Columbian Centinel, Boston, from 
Concord, N. H. on September 23, 1797 : 

MUSICAL SOCIETY 

On Tuesday the 12th inst. was the anniversary meeting of Concord Musical Society. 
At 2 o'clock, the members of the Society met at the Town House; and at 3 o'clock 
they moved in procession to the Meeting House, preceded by a number of musical per- 
formers, belonging to the society, playing on instruments and accompanied by a nume- 
rous crowd of spectators belonging to this and adjacent towns. The Rev. Mr. Parker, 
of Canterbury, introduced the exercises of the day by a most ingenious, excellent and 
sublime prayer, perfectly adapted to the occasion, addressed to the throne of the great 
author of "Harmony Divine". Several pieces of music, vocal and instrumental, were 
performed. A really classical Oration on Music, neat in composition, ingenious in 
design, was delivered by Philip Carrigan, jun. A. M. in which he gave a brief but en- 
lightening view of music in general, from the earliest ages to the present day; stated 
the general principles of the nature of the art; delightfully describing its pleasing cap- 
tivating charms; tracing its astonishing and beneficial influence over the mind, and 
its various socialising effects upon the heart of man, both in his native ferocious and 
more civilized state, justly ascribing to the powers and influence of music, not a little 
of the glory of the triumphs of our veteran armies over the minions of tyrants, in our 
late contest for liberty with Great Gritain, in which Americans were made freemen, 
and led to glory and honor by a Washington and attributing to it much of the un- 
precedented courage and bravery of the numerous legions of Bunaparte, whom he has 
conducted to immortal fame, rendered invulnerable by the extatic inspirations of 
this heavenly science, every nerve beating time to the music of 'Marseilles Hymn' 
and other popular songs. In the style and delivery of this oration we observed with 
pleasure those traces of genius and gesticulations characteristic of the refined 
orator, which truly deserve and must ever command respect ; and which gained Carrigan 
the liveliest testimonials of public applause, from a most brilliant ,respectable and very 
numerous and learned audience. He closed with a moral apostrophe, addressed to the 
auditory, in which (after a neat comparison of the human frame to a musical instru- 
ment) he enchantly invited all so to attune their hearts and lives, that they might 
meet in unison in the great Musical Society above. This is but an inadequate Comment 
on the worth of this oration. We hope to see it soon in print, when it will gain from 
the lovers of the Belles Lettres the eulogiums it deserves. 

Perhaps there were never seen so many people together in this town, where all 
appeared so well satisfied; and where such unanimous applause was given the perfor- 
mances the tribute was warm, general and hearty. Great thanks are due Mr. Flagg 
for his attendance, and the complaisant Mr. Maurice and the obliging Messrs. Longs 
for their assistance in the musical exercises. All was harmony and a brilliant ball 
graced the evening of the festive day. 

This letter affords a curious glimpse into the activity of these provincial 
musical societies and proves at least that they were sincere, enthusiastic 
exponents of the musical art, fully aware of its importance as a factor of 
civilisation and not wholly addicted to psalmody. Nor were contests 
between the musical societies of neighboring towns missing, and as such 
contests must be classed with concerts, an opportunity arises to quote the 
delightful description Mr. Louis C. Elson gives of the one between the singers 
of the First Parish of Dorchester, Mass, and the famous Stoughton Musical 
Society, founded in 1786 and the first impetus towards Vhich was given 



321 

by the establishment of William Billings' singing class of forty-eight members 
at Stoughton in 1774. Says Mr. Elson in his History of American Music (p. 28) : 

Many clergymen, in following the good old fashion of "exchanging pulpits," had 
become familiar with the excellent church music of Stoughton, and sounded its praises 
abroad. The singers of the First Parish of Dorchester, Massachusetts, took umbrage 
at this, and challenged the Stoughton vocalists to a trial of skill. The gauntlet was at 
once taken up, and the contest took place in a large hall in Dorchester, many of the 
leading Bostonians coming out to witness it. The Dorchester choristers were male 
and female, and had the assistance of a bass viol. The Stoughton party consisted of 
twenty selected male voices, without instruments, led by the president of the Stoughton 
Musical Society, Elijah Dunbar, a man of dignified presence and of excellent voice. 
The Dorchester singers began with a new anthem. The Stoughtonians commenced 
with Jacob French's 'Heavenly Vision', the author of which was their fellow townsman. 
When they finally sang, without books, Handel's 'Hallelujah Chorus', the Dorchestrians 
gave up the contest, and gracefully acknowledged defeat." 

Occasionally several societies would form an association in lieu of con- 
tests and to one at least we possess a tangible clue. The Boston Athenaeum 
possesses (in 12, 12 p.): 

The Constitution of the Essex Musical Association. Established 28th March, 1797. 
Newburyport. Printed by Edmund M. Blunt. State Street 1798. 

The curious pamphlet is divided into twelve sections dealing mostly 
with the transaction of routine business, but a few articles are of interest in 
connection with my theme. Thus the association was to be limited to the 
County of Essex but an ink memorandum reads' "excepting the case of 
honorary members". The association was to meet quarterly, beginning 
from the foundation and after the first year a public musical exhibition was 
to be held annually. As "standard book" being mentioned Hans Gram's 
"Massachusetts Compiler" probably the association cultivated principally 
sacred music but it is expressly stated that the "Performances [were to be] 
vocal and instrumental" with "bass viols, violins and flutes" as "instruments 
used at present"! The annual meeting was held on the second Monday in 
September and quarterly meetings on the second Mondays in December, 
March and June at the "permanent" "place of meeting Mr. Parker 
Spoffords, Boxford". Possibly this pretty obscure town was selected be- 
cause about half of the forty-four members hailed from there, amongst them 
the "Director" Samuel Holyoke, born at Boxford in 1762, who also seems 
to have been the founder of the Essex Musical Association as he heads the 
list of "the names of the members in their order of admission". 

If public concerts were given at New Haven, Conn, they must have 
escaped my attention, but the city was inhabited by at least one musician 
capable of giving concerts. Said John Howe in his diary 1 ) under January 5, 
1768 that he spent the evening at Joseph Harrison's when 

1) Edited in extracts by Edward L. Pierce in the Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. 1895, 
X, p. 11108. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 21 



322 

"Mr. Mills of New Haven entertained us most agreeably on his violin; I think 
he plays the best of any performers I ever heard." 

On the other hand I am in a position to submit at least the odd program 
of a concert performed by the "musical family of Mr. Salter, organist of 
New Haven, late from England" and who has already attracted our attention 
in New Jersey and South Carolina, on February 2, 1797 1 ) at Mr. Poole's 
Hall in New London, Conn. : 

Act I. Master Salter, a boy of 10 years old, will play several beautiful airs, marches, 
minuets, etc. on the piano forte, accompanied by Mr. Salter on the violin. Miss Salter, 
a child of seven years old, will sing the Waxen Doll. 

Act II. Duett, by Master and Miss Salter on the pianoforte, accompanied by 
Mr. Salter. A Song by Miss Salter. Several airs on the piano forte by Mr. Salter. 
The Battle of Prague, a favourite musical piece on the same instrument. To conclude 
with a 

Sea Engagement 

Representing two fleets engaging, some sinking, others blowing up. Neptune 
drawn by two sea horses, emerging from the waves. Old Charon in his boat A 
mermaid and Delphin Between the music, Master Salter will speak the three warnings. 

To begin precisely at seven o'clock. Tickets may be had at the door. Price 
1 s. Qd. for grown persons, children 9 d. D. Salter having the misfortune to be afflicted 
with weakness of sight, will, he hopes, claim the attention of the public. 

Finally Hartford, Conn., then little more than a village 2 ), attracts our 
attention and it will be seen that the very few concerts given there during 
the last decade of the century were incidental to the energetic but ill-advised 
efforts of the Old American Company to include Hartford in their theatrical 
circuit from 1794 on. It would be interesting to know what the unsophisti- 
cated inhabitants thought when the vocalists and instrumentalists of the 
company forced the heavy music of those days on their ears on July 27, 
1795 3 ) at the Concert House, and on August 25, 1796 4 ) at the theatre for 
the benefit of Mr. Relain. The programs of these two Grand Concerts of 
Vocal and Instrumental Music read: 

JULY 27, 1795 

PABT I 
Grand Overture , Haydn 

By Messrs. Relain, Hodgkinson, Henri, Beran- 

ger, Laumont, Pelissier, Dupuis, Savarin, La 

Massue, and Rosindal 

Clarinet Concerto Mr. Henri 

Song Hunting cantata 'Hark the sweet horn' .. Mr. Prigmore 
Quartette. Messrs. Relain, Hodgkinson, Laumont, 

and Savarin 

Harp Solo Mr. Relain 

Grand Symphony By Messrs. Relain, etc. 



1) Connecticut Gazette, February 2, 1797. 

2) Population in 1810 only 3955 inhabitants. 

3) Connecticut Courant, July 27, 1795. 

4) Connecticut Courant, Aug. 8, 1796. 



323 

PAST II 

Grand Chasse. By Messrs. Relain, etc Stamitz 

Solo French horn Mr. Pelissier 

Song 'Tom Tackle' Mr. Hodgkinson 

Harp Solo Mr. Relain 

Clarinet Quartette, Mr. Henri, Relain, Laumont and 

Savarin 
Grand Symphony. By Messrs. Relain etc Pleyell 

AUGUST 25, 1796 

I ACT. 

Grand Symphony, composed by Haydn 

Hunting Song, by Mr. Tyler 

Harp Concerto, by Mr. Relain 

Song, accompanied by the harp Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Violin Quartette by Monsr's Relain, Henry, Siruo 
and Rosindal 

Song Mr. Tyler 

Grand Symphony, composed by Pleyel 

II ACT. 
Grand Overture 

Song, by Mr. Hodgkinson 

Clarinet Concerto by Mr. Henry 

Harp Solo, by Mr. Relain 

Song, by Mrs. Hodgkinson 

Quintette by Mons'rs Relain, Henry, Siruo, Abel 

and Rosindal 
The whole to conclude with that admirable Symphony 

La Chasse, composed by Stamitz 

That these were excellent programs, nobody with historical instincts 
will deny and if the inhabitants of Hartford did not journey home with 
the impression of having enjoyed "grand" concerts we should pardon them, 
knowing as we do that even to-day, at the beginning of the twentieth cen- 
tury, similar symphony programs if given in American cities of Hartford's 
size in 1796, would very probably cause some uneasiness. Indeed, it may 
be doubted whether an American manager of to-day would be bold enough 
even to attempt such a "heavy" symphony concert in a settlement of less 
than three thousand inhabitants. 



81' 



CONCLUSION. 



the inferences and deductions from the data filling this book 
JL have been drawn in their proper place, it will do no harm to recapitulate 
the most salient points. 

In the first place, I hope to have permanently crippled the current 
notion that secular music had a Cinderella existence in the curriculum of 
our musical life during the eighteenth century. In fact, the theory may 
be advanced that sacred music was cultivated in America, New England 
possibly excepted, neither so steadily no so intelligently and progressively 
as secular music. Then the observation forced itself on us that America 
joined the movement towards public concerts simultaneously with European 
countries 1 ). This would have gone without saying, had it not become custo- 
mary to deny the fact, indeed, its possibility. To compare our achieve- 
ments during the formative period of our musical history with the concert- 
life at London, Paris, Berlin and other musical centers of the Old World 
would be folly, yet, considering the vast difference in opportunities, popu- 
lation, travelling facilities, distances, etc. we may well feel proud of our record. 
Music in America was provincial but not primitive. 

Being an English colony, our country naturally took England as a model 
in musical matters, whether they pertained to repertory, customs, or details 
of management. The French Revolution interrupted this predominantly 
English current and visibly infused French blood into the musical body. 
With the tide of immigration, caused by the outcome of our War for In- 
dependence, the cosmopolitan channels gradually widened and soon sub- 
merged Colonial traditions. While the tide of immigration added many 
capable musicians to the ranks of performers, it also altered the character 
of our population in general. The emigrants of about 1800 certainly did 



1) To illustrate the point (p. 2, f. n.) that musical societies were founded in 

' 



Germany long before 1660 mention should have been made of W. Nagel's instruc- 
tive article on 'Die Niirnberger Musikgesellschaft (15881629)' in the M. f. M., 1895. 
Further data were brought to light by Sandberger in his essay on Hassler in the 
Bavarian Musical Monuments, 1905. 



325 

not possess the refinement of the Colonials and our musical life suffered 
accordingly. This change in the character and attitude of the public together 
with the double-edged effects of the expansion of opera undoubtedly pro- 
duced towards the end of the century a stagnation of the interest taken 
in concerts. How long this stagnation lasted, will have to concern the 
historian who attempts to span the bridge between the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. > 

Examining our early concert-life closely, we noticed how instrumental ' 
music was cultivated to the exclusion almost of choral. Efforts were made 
to draw the latter forth from the church choirs and singing schools but they 
were successful only temporarily or failed entirely. On the whole, vocal 
music was represented on the programs of the eightheenth century only by 
airs, duets, etc. from oratorios and operas, by popular songs or by catches 
and glees. Thus the vocal stars in combination with the "capital" instru- 
mentalists gradually gained the upperhand. The programs became more 
and more miscellaneous but what they won in variety they lost in solidity. 
Yet the symphonies of Haydn and Pleyel, his rival in popularity the world / 
over, remained the pillars and it cannot be denied that the American public 
had ample opportunity to form an acquaintance with their works and those 
of the composers of the Mannheim school and many others once in vogue. 
Finally, if those musicians who shaped the destinies of our concert -life, 
were to be pointed out, we would probably select Francis Hopkinson, James 
Bremner, Andrew Adgate, John Bentley, William Tuckey, Alexander 
Reinagle, James Hewitt, Josiah Flagg and William Selby. 



INDEX. 



A lovely rose 238. 

A sailor loved a lass 223. 

A smile from the girl of my heart 155. 

A soldier for me 295. 296. 301. 

Abel 245. 246. 262. 273. 323. 

Abel, K. Fr. 73. 85. 87. 90. 91. 100. 101. 

136. 137. 186. 219. 239. 
Abercromby 24. 

Abolition of the Bastille, see Demolition. 
Absence thou foe to love 54. 
Acis and Galatea 262. 
Adams and liberty 213. 216. 218. 219. 243. 

246. 

Adams, John 99. 
Adgate, Andrew 103120. 
Adieu, adieu, my only life 299. 
Adieu, thou lovely youth 75. 
Adieu to the sailor's delight 217. 
Adieu to the milage delights 95. 200. 210. 

233. 

Advice to the fair 288. 
Advice to the ladies of America 239. 
Advice to the ladies of Boston 295. 
Ah! how hapless 217. 
Ah, non sai 96. 

Ah, why confine the tuneful bird 29. 
Alas! I sigh 227. 
Albany, N. Y. 249. 
Alberti, Francis 57. 
Alexandria 6263. 
Alexis and Justine 148. 
Algerine captive 140. 
All in the downs 268. 
Alone by the light of the moon 213. 295. 
Amant jaloux 51. 135. 
Amant statue 51. 149. 
Amateur Society (Charleston) 27. 
Ambitious countryman 47. 
America, commerce and freedom 64. 
Amid a thousand sighing stvains 236. 
Amid a thousand singing silvains 146. 
Amidst illusions 51. 148. 
Amintor 42. 
Amizon 275. 
Anacreontic song 64. 
And all for my pretty Brunette 53. 
And hear her sigh adieu 211. 
Anderson 302. 304. 
Andre 82. 86. 132. 



Angels ever, bright 97. 

Annapolis, Md. 4143. 

Annotated programs 115. 

Answer to the mansion of peace 196. 

Anti-theatre laws 152. 289. 

Apollo 272. 

Apollo Society, N. Y. 201. 

Aretinian Society, Boston 288. 

Ariadne 194. 

Ariane 134. 

Armonica 23. 30. 57. 59. 69. 142. 237. 286. 

290. 293. 297. 
Armory 232. 
j Arne 68. 73. 84. 114. 133. 145. 151. 161. 

168. 172. 173. 180. 235. 240. 245. 268. 

275. 

I Arnold 302304. 318. 319. 
! Arnold, Dr. 51. 80. 114. 118. 202. 279. 

299. 300. 301. 314. 315. 
Artaxerxes 68. 114. 133. 145. 172. 235. 

240. 246. 268. 
As late I wandered 75. 
As sure as a gun 216. 
As the snow 47. 
As f other day 211. 
Asby 265. 
Ash, Gilfert 162. 
Ask ivhy a blush 151. 
Aston, Anthony 10. 
Atalanta 171. 
Atys 235. 
Audiences, behaviour, size etc. of 20. 25. 

26. 27. 116. 164. 260. 296. 
Audin 31. 

Auld Robin Gray 55. 145. 
Austin 304. 
Averdile, see Everdell. 
Avery 316. 
Avison 170. 
Aivake Eolian lyre 95. 
Aicay to the chase 219. 
Au-ay to the fields 22. 173. 
Axemia 134. 

Bach 47. 53. 62. 64. 73. 83. 84. 85. 88. 

89. 102. 132. 138. 151. 170. 184. 186. 

212. 222. 244. 262. 273. 276. 
Bach, C. 184. 
Bach. J. S. 6. 



- 327 - 



BaYf, J. A. dc 1. 

Baildon 95. 

Baily 82. 

Baltimore, Md. 4367. 

Band and band music, see Military music. 

Banister, J. 1. 4. 5. 7. 

Barbella 73. 

Barbier de Sevilla 142. 

Barett 245. 

Barnard, Ernst 70. 

Barron, Oliver 288. 

Bartlett 60. 62. 295. 298. 299. 300. 

Bataillc de Trenton 38. 

Bates 102. 143. 146. 218. 309. 

Bates and Barley 101. 

Baton 72. 

Battle of Debarrie 125. 

Battle of Icry, see Henry IV. 

Battle of Prague 49. 54. 59. 61. 147. 148. 

149. 150. 200. 240. 249. 292. 301. 308. 

322. 

Be never jealous 249. 
Be quiet, for Tm in haste 151. 
Beissel, Conrad 156. 
Belle Arsene 128. 134. 227. 
Bellsted 288. 
Bentley, John 78. 125. 
Beranger 49. 142. 144. 146. 322. 
Berault 215. 246. 
Bergman. B. 32. 35. 191. 196. 198. 235. 

237. 238. 301. 302. 
Berkeuhead, John L. 297-299. 300. 302 

-304. 312. 314. 
, Mrs. 312. 314. 
Bernard 151. 
Berno 246. 
Bertoni 33. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 156157. 
Bianchi 95. 
Biferi, Nicholas 175. 
Billings, William 107. 108. 114. 118. 259. 

281. 288. 303. 311. 321. 
Bingley 209. 
Black cockade 247. 
Black sloren 168. 170. 
Blagrove 119. 
Blaise et Bctbette 54. 147. 228. 240. 297. 

313. 

Blind musicians, see Berkenhead, Salter. 
Blodgett, William 313. 318. 
Bloir, blow thou icinter's wind 298. 
Blythe Collin 155. 
Blytlie Sandy 101. 
Boccherini 47. 91. 186. 
Bohrer, Morgan & Comp. 20. 
Bonnemort 304. 
Bonny bold soldier 220. 319. 
Bonny Charley 213. 
Bonny Jem of Aberdeen 216. 223. 
Bonny Will 300. 
Borchnv 184. 
Borghi'83. 127. 220. 
Boston 810. 250309. 
Boston nrics 314. 



Bottels wilier 221. 

Bouchony 144. 147. 

Boullay, Louis 50. 138. 139. 146. 150. 

154. 155. 286. 291297. 313. 
Boyce 151. 263. 
Boyer 44. 
Brabant 268. 
Bradford 186. 
Brattle, Th. 9. 
Brattle Square Church 9. 
Breitkopf & Haertel 156. 
Bremner, James 66. 67. 68. 70. 
Brenet, M. 1. 2. 4. 6. 
Breton 139. 

Brett 215. 219-223. 247. 
Breval 46. 
Breval, J. B. 81. 
Brewer 282. 283. 

Bright author of my present flame 173. 
Bright chanticleer 60. 217. 
Bright Phoebus 288. 
Brighton Sly 217. 
British fair 248. 
British Grenadiers 261. 308. 
Britton. Th. 4. 5. 
Broadhurst, Miss 51. 102. 143. 149. 150. 

151. 156. 199. 201. 209. 213. 241. 242. 

243. 

Brooke 56. 102. 

Brooks 13. 269. 270. 297. 313. 319. 
Brown, William 43. 80. 82-86. 91-93. 

108. 111. 123-132. 184. 185. 224. 
Brunette 36. 64. 
Buona Figliuola 132. 225. 278. 
Burney, Ch. 20. 23. 
Buron 48. 
Bush Hill, or Pennsylvania Tea Gardens 

101. 

Butho 75. 
Buxtehude 6. 
By moon light 303. 319. 
By my tender passion 315. 

Calcott 95. 

Caledonian laddie 102. 219. 

Calligan 304. 

Cambini 90. 91. 127. 129. 217. 223. 235. 

247. 

Cambridge, Mass. 311. 312. 
Cammas 227. 228. 
Campbell, Henry 11 ; Sarah 11. 
Campioni 129. 
Cannabich 212. 
Capocchio and Dorinna 42. 
Capron, Henri 80. 81-83. 8692. 125 

128. 129. 130. 132. 138. 186-189. 194. 

195. 196. 226-229. 234238. 
Capture 216. 

Caravane du Caire 29. 140. 
Carelia song 299. 
Carillion 237. 
Carr, Benjamin, 60. 94-96. 97. 102. 147. 

149. 151. 197. 198. 240. 241. 
Carr, Joseph 54. 



328 



Carrigan, Philip 320. 

Carter 296. 

Cassignard 137. 

Castella 23. 

Castle of Andulisia 80. 

Castle spectre 316. 

Gaze 174. 

Cease gay seducers 140. 196. 

Cezar, Joseph 137. 

Chailleau 52. 

Chalmers 313. 

Chambers 29. 39. 90. 138. 139. 154. 155. 

Champein, St. 49. 

Charity children 67. 161. 

Charleston, S. C. 10-40. 

Charlestown, Mass. 312. 

Chateaudieu (Chateaudun) 52. 149. 

Cheering rosary 218. 220. 241. 

Cherokee chiefs death song 137. 

Cherry girl 243. 

Cherubini 144. 145. 

Chimene 138. 302. 

Choral concerts 35. 63. 67. 102122. 176 

181. 227. 257. 263. 272. 274281. 

284. 288. 294. 298. 302. 307. 309. 312. 

313. 

Choral societies 103118. 
Chorus sung before Gen. Washington 187. 

188. 

Choruses, size of 110. 177. 179. 263. 
Cimarosa 38. 98. 141. 218. 
Circe and Ulisses 151. 
Clarinet, introduction of 73. 169. 269. 
dementi 37. 59. 220. 221. 222. 302. 303. 
Cleone 248. 
Clifford 29. 30. 299. 
Clubs, musical, see Societies. 
Cobham, William 161. 
Colemann 312. 

College, music in 66. 78. 118. 311. 
Collet 141. 142. 144. 147. 149. 242. 305. 
Collin and Nancy 304. 
Collins 295. 298. 299. 300. 314. 
Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise 294. 
Columbia, or, Harlequin shipicrecKd 26. 
Columbia Gardens, N. Y. 208. 214. 
Columbian Anacreontic Society, N. J. 

204207. 

Columbian Vauxhall, Boston 305. 
Columbians bold eagle 316. 
Come all noble souls 143. 
Come buy of poor Kate 216. 
Come, come my dear girl 75. 
Come kiss me 215. 219. 247. 
Come live ivith me 95. 200. 
Come rouse brother sportsman 173. 
Come thou goddes 299. 
Comely Ned 243. 
Composer's concert, first 13. 
Composition, theory of music, instruction 

in 23. 

Concert hall, Boston 253. 254. 259. 
Concert halls, size of 25. 93. 



Concertos 15. 16. 21. 22. 24. 29. 3033. 

35. 37. 38. 4547. 49. 5153. 56. 57. 

60. 61. 62. 64. 67. 72. 74. 8191. 94. 

95. 96. 97. 98. 100. 108. 114. 119. 121. 

127. 128. 129-139. 141151. 154- 

155. 162. 170. 171. 175. 181. 184. 186 

201. 209212. 215. 217. 225231. 

233-249. 262. 263. 268. 274-278. 281 

283. 286. 290306. 313 316. 322. 

323. 
Concerts, first public in Europe 1 9; 

in America 10. 250. 
Concord musical society 320. 
Conducting 72. 
Consort, history of term 11. 
Contests musical 321. 
Cooper, W. 303. 
Corelli 29. 81. 85. 128. 171. 194. 222. 

273. 

Cornell 219. 
Cornet 31. 
Corry 150. 
Cottage Boy 155. 
Cottage gate 304. 
Cottage maid 299. 
Cottage of the grove 241. 
Cottage on the moor 218. 
Cottager's daughter 215. 219. 
Could you to battle march au-ay 196. 
Country club 244. 246. 
Country courtship 281. 
Court one not to scenes of pleasure 199. 
Courtney 28. 

Courtship and matrimony 53. 
Courville, J. T. de 1. 
Cramer 38 81. 130. 131. 
Craxy Jane 221. 
Cries of Durham 54. 55. 143. 
Critics and criticism 12. 67. 87. 100. 110. 

116. 119. 155. 277. 279. 288. 314. 316. 320. 
Cromwell 3. 
Crumpto, Billy 72. 
Curtz 73. 

Cymbaline d'amour 77. 
Cymon and Iphigenia 172. 

Daguetty 32. 36. 64. 

Dalayrac 51. 52. 135. 149. 229. 

Danby, John 95. 

Dancing, dancing masters 9. 11. 12. 15. 

24. 41. 46. 74. 76. 
Barley 53. 97. 102. 143. 146. 149. 151. 

156. 

Daugel 50. 56. 57. 98. 144. 
Dauphin of France 288. 
Davaux, J. B. 28. 31. 38. 82. 83. 84. 85. 

87. 127. 129. 132. 134. 184. 211. 228. 
Davey, H. 1. 2. 5. 
Davezuc 60. 
Dawson 318. 
Dead of the night 308. 
Dear gentle Kate 95. 
Dear Nancy 299. 
Dearest youth 219. 



- 329 - 



Death stole my lad atcay 220. 

Decker 60. 

Declang 149. 

De Clary 102. 

De la coquette volage 52. 

De 1'Isle 45. 120. 134. 135. 

Demarque 38. 49. 50. 51. 95. 142. 144. 146. 

Demolition of the Bastille 298-300. 302. 

314. 

Demophon 144145. 243. 246. 
Deserter 128. 131. 134. 138. 189. 197. 227. 

297. 

De Seze 196. 212. 234236. 238. 247. 
Deux tuteurs 135. 
Deux Savoyards 229. 
Deverell 272. 278. 279. 282. 
Devienne 62. 149. 
De Villers 32. 33. 36. 37. 38. 
Devis 151." 
Dezede 54. 147. 197. 228. 236. 240. 297. 

313 

D'Hemard 50. 54. 58. 62. 147. 
Diana 218. 219. 
Dibble 211. 
Dibdin 55. 128. 131. 189. 234. 260. 297. 

313 

Dick/Elisha C. 62. 
Dickey Gossip 213. 
Dienval, Alexander Van 163. 170. 
Ding dong bell 140. 
Dinsmoor, Silas 122. 
Dipper, Thomas 254. 
Disdainful you fly me 236. 240. 
Dittersdorf 47. 90. 153. 188. 191. 217. 278. 

279. 

Dolliver, Peter 294. 302. 303. 307. 308. 312. 
. Miss Amelia 299. 302. 303. 307. 308. 
Dolly Thimble 308. 
Dcolittle, Amos 311. 
Douvillier 35. 60. 286. 291. 292. 
Down the bourne 216. 221. 
Drink to me only 64. 308. 
Drop a tear 217. 

Dubois 30. 31. 56. 147. 148. 149. 150. 305. 
Du Camp 234. 236. 
Du Champ 196. 
Duenna 81. 
Dunlap, W. 182. 244. 
Duplessis 93. 

Du Poids de la Vienesse 82. 
Du Ponceau 114. 
Duport, J. L. 88. 148. 
Duport, Louis 46. 64. 99. 134. 135. 136. 

155. 

Duport, Pierre Landrin 46. 64. 136. 
Dupuis 212. 322. 
Dussek 30. 52. 96. 219221. 
Dust last 22. 
Dutch fish monger 308. 
Duval 60. 61. 

Echoing horn 15. 
Eck(h'ard 30. 36. 38. 
Edelmann, J. F. 59. 134. 



Edgar 37. 

Eichner 81. 

Eickner 222. 

Eie, nay John 218. 

Eissenburg, George d' 70. 

Ellen 304. 319. 

Ellen arise 149. 223. 

Elson, L. C. 1. 8. 253. 321. 

Ely, John 118. 

Emanuel 45. 47. 58. 121. 134. 

Encore, term first used 314. 

English padlock 248. 

Enstone, Edw. 9. 

Ere I fly to meet 215. 

Erimbert 35. 

Essex Musical Association 321. 

Esther 33. 307. 

Euphrosine et Corradin 235. 

Euterpean Society, N. J. 203. 

Everdell, George "201. 210. 213. 214. 242. 

245. 
European opinion of music in America 

45. 65. 

Faint and wearily 308. 

Fair Flora decks 217. 

Fair Rosalie 303. 

Fair Rosaline 217. 

Fal la la 308. 

Fanatico burlato 141. 

Fare thee well 215. 

Father, mother and Luke 213. 

Father of Naney 219. 

Fausse magie 134. 238. 

Feckner 302. 304. 

Federal overture 60. 

Felix 227. S28. 

Felsted, Samuel 202. 226. 278. 283. 

Female cryer 211. 213. 217. 

Festivals, musical 34. 108. 275. 

Fialla 82. 130. 

Fille d Simonette 64. 

Filtz 221. 273. 281. 290. 

Fiorillo 81. 82. 132. 

First concert in America 10. 

First of my amours 213. 

Fis(c her, J. C. 33. 60. 86. 101. 184. 314. 

Fisher's minuet 153. 

Flagg, Josiah 261-264. 298. 

Flight of fancy 47. 

Floquet 138. 139. 

Flower girl 149. 

Flowing can 300. 

Fodor 45. 134. 137. 142. 314. 

For England, etc. 300. 

Forrage, Stephen 69. 75. 

Foucard 29. 32. 33. 36. 37. 38. 139. 155. 

286. 291. 292. 
Four hands, music for 38. 49. 58. 131. 

196. 201. 214. 246. 249. 315. 
Fox 56. 215. 219. 222. 223. 247. 
Fox chase 216. 221. 
Fraenzl 303. 
Fragrant chaplets 220. 



330 



Frauceschini 22. 24. 184. 

Francesquy 30. 

Franks, .Rebecca 78. 

Frederick the Great 85. 

Fredericksburg. Va. 5859. 

Free Masons 78. 161. 

French opera 27. 227. 

French Revolution, influence of 46. 48. 49. 

133. 227. 
Frescatana 218. 
Frobel 62. 227. 

From night till morn 64. 155. 299. 
From scenes of love 213. 
From the East breaks the morn 262. 
From the Eliza 212. 

Galley slave 146. 150. 

Garnet, Horatio 319. 

Garth 86. 

Gaudy tulip 248. 

Gaultier 144. 145. 146. 

Gay Strephon 42. 

Gee, Mrs. 47. 

Gehot, Jean 88. 89. 90. 91. 138. 154. 155. 

191. 230. 
Geib, Adam 201. 
Geminiani 67. 73. 
General lover 53. 
Generous wine 197. 
Gerin 141. 
Gfardini 73. 
Gilfert, C. H. 246. 
Gilfert, George 202. 212. 
Gillian of Craydon 5. 
Gillingham, Georges 54. 55. 56. 94. 95. 96. 

98. 142. 143. 144. 145. 147. 149. 151. 
Giordani 62. 84. 146. 151. 187. 228. 313. 
Giornovichi, see Jarnowic. 
Give the su-eet delight 215. 
Glees 30. 54. 55. 56. 81. 89. 95. 96. 97. 

128. 143. 149. 151. 154. 155. 200. 205. 

210212. 215. 217. 233. 238. 240. 245. 

274. 298. 299. 300. 316. 
Gloesch 191. 
Gluck 34. 37. 49. 134. 146. 147. 149. 246. 

292. 293. 294. 
God save the King 76. 179. 
Godwin 25. 
Corner, Joh. G. 6. 

Gossec 29. 85. 86. 186. 187. 188. 268. 
Gouy, J. de 4. 
Graff 102. 
Granger, Frederick 293. 299. 300. 302. 304. 

313-316. 

Grattan, Mrs. 37. 38. 9698. 147. 246. 
Graupner, Gottlieb 33. 60. 306. 308. 314 

316. 
, Mrs. Catherine (see also Hellyer) 60. 

306. 307. 309. 314316. 
Gray's Gardens 99. 
Gray Jane 247. 

Great North American Forte Piano 123. 
Green, Dr. 119. 282. 
Green Mountain farmer 215. 



Green Sleeves 5. 

Gretry 29. 45. 51. 61. 81. 82. 86. 134. 135. 

139. 148. 218. 228. 236. 238. 291. 292. 

300. 313. 
Grey 144. 
Grider, R. A. 157. 
Group of lovers 220. 222. 
Grunzweig, Frederick 14. 
Gualdo, Giovanni 66. 7074. 
Guenin 31. 138. 139. 142. 146. 149. 150. 154. 
Guglielmi 47. 85. 187. 218. 268. 
Guitar 22. 29. 32. 76. 86. 130. 131. 137. 

175. 188. 
Gyrowetz 30. 38. 56. 192. 198. 199. 219. 

232. 242. 244. 

Had I a heart for false-hood train' d 101. 
Handel 15. 33. 53. 60. 62. 73. 85. 95. 96. 

97. 109. 114. 138. 145. 151. 162. 168. 

171. 174. 180. 181. 184. 194. 201. 225. 

257. 262. 263. 273-279. 282. 283. 298. 

303. 307. 320. 

Hail Columbia 38. 55. 213. 219. 242. 
Hail social pleasure 212. 
Hale, Ph. 115. 

Hallam 16. 72. 168. 170. 173. 179. 215. 
Hanovertown 58. 
Hanslick,_Ed. 7. 
Hanston 53. 

Happy rencontre 239. 295. 
Happy shepherd and slicphcrdess 42. 
Harding 215. 223. 
Hardinge 55. 

Hark the hollow hills 211. 
Hark the lark 212. 233. 240. 
Hark the siceet horn 322. 
Harman 146. 173. 
Harmonia celesta (instrument) 232 
Harmonic Society, Charleston 28. ' 
Harmonic Society (Fredericksburg) 58. 
Harmonic Society, New York 166. 170. 

171. 174. 201. 

Harmonic Society, Phila. 122. 
Harmonica, see Armonica. 
Harmonical Society, N. Y. 207. 
Harmony Hall, Charleston 25. 
Harp 49. 50. 51. 55. 62. 137. 138. 141. 142. 

155. 196. 199. 234236. 238. 247. 322. 
Harper 132. 154. 155. 292. 318. 
Harris, J. H. 35. 
Harrison 315. 
Harrison, Thomas 169. 
Harrowgate, Phila. 100. 
Hartford, Conn. 322. 
Hartley, Thomas 21. 256. 260. 
Hasse 15. 162. 
Haunted toiver 315. 
Hawkins 3. 4. 
Haydn, J. 28-32. 34. 37. 38. 49. 51. 52. 

53. 55. 56. 57. 8186. 88. 89. 91. 94 

96. 98. 100. 128. 131. 137. 141. 142. 143. 

146. 147. 148. 151. 152. 154. 155. 184. 

186. 192196. 198201. 209 - 212. 215. 

217223. 225. 226. 230. 232-236. 238. 



331 



239. 241243. 247. 249. 290. 291. 293 
295. 298. 302. 305. 314. 316. 322. 323. 

Hay(e) 189. 229. 

He pipes so sicect 314. 

Heaving of the lead 249. 295. 304. 308. 319. 

Hedderly 102. 

Heim 120. 121. 

Heimberger 82. 83. 

Heinrichs, Job. 78. 

Heiress 216. 

Hellyer 300. 

Henderson, W. H. 71. 

Henri 141. 322. 323. 

Henry 24. 95. 96. 118. 186. 215. 218. 

242-244. 246. 247. 
Henry IV. 29. 32. 33. 36. 57. 141. 150. 

189. 197. 199. 227. 237. 243. 286. 290. 

292. 293. 300. 303. 
Henry lov'd his Emma 247. 
Henry's cottage maid 223. 304. 319. 
Here in cold grot 212. 
Here's a health, etc. 289. 299. 
Hennan 305. 

He's aye a kissing me 222. 
Heuss, A. 2. 
Hewill, 318. 
Hewitt, James 101193. 196. 197. 198. 

199. 200. 205. 209. 210212. 214. 215. 

217. 220. 230. 232-242. 246. 
Hey dance 314. 
Highborn queen 248. 
Highland laddie 213. 215. 237. 
Hill 97. 

Hill, E. B. 253. 271. 
Hipworth 298. 299. 300. 
Hoar 173. 248. 
Hodgkinson 87. 88. 89. 90. 138. 139. 140. 

192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 200. 

205. 214. 219223. 233. 234. 236. 237. 

240. 246. 247. 322. 323. 
Hoffmann 73. 244. 

Hoffmeister, Fr. A. 29. 218. 221 233. 239. 

286. 293. 295. 
Hogg 214. 
Holden, Oliver 303. 
Holt, Henry 14. 
Holy Lord 96. 
Holyoke, Samuel 321. 
Homann (Homman) 102. 144. 146. 
Honauer, L. 23. 
Hook 146. 151. 299. 314. 
Hoot aica ye loon 213. 
Hope 240. 

Hope thou balmy comfort shed 218. 244. 
Hopkinson, Francis 66. 68. 70. 75. 78. 106. 

109. 127. 
Horn 15. 22. 

How can I forget 211. 213. 
How charming the camp 223. 
How d'ye do 211. 212. 223. 314 
How great is the pleasure 210. 
How merrily we live 54. 55. 155. 211. 212. 
How shall we mortals 217. 
How sweet in the woodlands 151. 196. 308. 



How sweet is the breath of morn 196. 219. 
How sweet is the morning 151. 
Hudgson 173. 

Hulett, John Hamilton 201. 236. 
Hulett, WiUiam C. 76. 163. 165. 166. 170. 

171. 201. 
Humanity 197. 
Humphreys 21. 171. 263. 
Huntley, Miss 42. 47. 140. 145. 
Hupfeldt, (Hupffield) 56. 57. 98. 102. 
Hush every breexe 300. 
Hutter 156. 
Hyde 85. 184. 
Hymen's evening post 213. 

I attempt from love's, etc. 221. 

I can't for I'm in haste 53. 

/ dare to meet, etc. 227. 

/ die for no shepherd 216. 

I fly to meet my love 217. 

I never loved, etc. 210. 

/ iconder at you 151. 

// 'tis joy to wound a lover 184. 

Imprisonment of the rulers of France 51. 

In my pleasant native palms 216. 

In the bosom of a father 227. 

In vain I deck 221. 

Incitement to virtue 197. 

Independent Musical Society , Boston 283 

285. 

Independent we will be 245. 
Infancy, the cruel tyrant 75. 
Infant of Zamora 134. 
Instruction, music 9. 103106. 130. 181. 
Iphigenie (en Aulide] 34. 49. 134. 146. 

147. 149. 246. 292. 293. 294. 
Italian opera 27. 45. 

Jack at the windlass 218. 

Jack Junck 216. 

Jackson 73, 97. 129. 168. 169. 

Jacobi, John Owen 317. 

Jane of Aberdeen 216. 

Jarnowic, G. M. 29. 32. 35. 37. 46. 51. 

53. 56. 61. 84. 96. 142. 144. 150. 305. 315. 
Je ne scai quoi 51. 
Je ne vois 216. 
Jealous man 197. 

Jefferson 210. 213. 215. 223. 242-245. 
Jemmy of the glen 243. 296. 
Jephta 194. 
Joan, see Juhan. 
Jockey and Moggy 42. 
John Bull was a bumpkin born 213. 
John come kiss me 5. 
John loves Jane 218. 
Johnson 241. 
Johnston, Thomas 313. 
Jonah 202. 226. 278. 283. 
Jones 298. 299. 300. 
Joy of the chase 222. 
Judas Maccabeus 33. 174. 194. 
Juhan, Alexander 80. 82. 83. 108. 111. 112. 

113. 124. 127. 128. 130. 131. 265. 



332 



Juhan, (Joan), James 123.124.127. 130. 264 

265. 
Just in time 313. 

Kalkbrenner, G. 48. 

Kammel 81. 83. 84. 133. 137. 153. 184. 

202. 

Kate of Aberdeen 140. 308. 
Keefe 202. 

Keep your distance 209. 
Keiser, R. 6. 

Kelly, Lord 68. 72. 73. 82. 263. 268. 
Kendall William 309. 
Kenna 136. 

Killarney is a charming place 296. 
Kind Zephyr 199. 
King 238. 
King, Grace 64. 
King's Arms Garden 168. 
Kiss 213. 245. 

Klemm, Johann Gottlob 169. 
Knoet(s)chel 270. 317. 

, John Ernest 317. 

Knowing Joe 213. 

Kotzeluch 32. 53. 90. 141. 210. 211. 215. 

217. 219. 220. 222. 247. 315. 
Kotzwara 49. 54. 148. 149. 292. 301. 
Krehbiel, H. E. 115. 161. 169. 179. 
Kreutzer, R. 211. 219. 220. 221. 246. 
Krumpholtz 37. 98. 141. 142. 
Kuhn, Dr. 66. 
Kullin 58. 188. 228. 229. 

La Barre, Trille 304. 307. 

Labatut 38. 

Labbe, Anthony 19. 

Lachnith 81. 82. 86. 100. 190. 

Ladies' 1 new patriotic song 216. 

Lads of the milage 288. 

Lafar, Joseph 25. 27. 36. 

Lake of Killarney 221. 

La Massue 322. 

La Mausse, de 244. 

La Motte, de 30. 135. 

Lancaster, Pa. 156. 

L'Argeau, George James 41. 43. 

L'Arnaud 52. 

Lame 144. 

Lash'd to the helm 151. 

Lass ^oith one eye 248. 

Last shilling 223. 

Laughing song 223. 225. 

Law, Andrew 123. 

Leadbetter, James 169. 

Learned pig 223. 

Leaumont, R. 302. 304. 305. 307. 314. 316. 

322. 323. 
Le Brun 316. 

'Lectures, moral and entertaining' 152. 
Le Due 60. 
Lee 201. 210. 211. 215. 217. 218. 241. 242. 

244. 245. 
Lefevre 144. 146. 
Leffler 212. 



Legat 36. 

Le Moine 61. 

Leonard, Jacob 163. 166. 167. 169. 

L'Epouse 304. 

Le Roy 29. 32. 292. 

Lesire 83. 

Let fame sound the trumpet 217. 244. 

Let me wander 151. 

Letuz 60. 

Liberty song 263. 

Libeschesky 242-244. 

Life's a country dance 215. 220. 221. 

Lightly tread 155. 212. 

Linley, F. 308. 

Linley, Th. 62. 81. 95. 151. 314. 

Linnets 173. 

Lionel and Clarissa 259. 

Listen to the voice of love 39. 304. 308. 

Little farthing rush-light 213. 

Uttle Felix 301. 

Little Sally 212. 220. 308. 314. 

Little thinks the soldier's tvife 220. 

Little waist 222. 

Lock and key 314. 

Lodoiska 246. 

London 1 5. 

London buck 221. 

London sportsman 223. 

Loose were her tresses 39. 62. 

Louisa 102. 

Love, Charles 159. 

Love for Love 221. 

Love sounds an alarm 62. 263. 

Love thou teaming pleasing pain 235. 

Lovely lad of the lowlands 235. 

Lovely lass 272. 

Lovely man 39. 

Lovely Nan 211. 

Lovely nymph 304. 

Lover's petition 132. 

Luby 188. 

Lucy 147. 210. 

Lullier 142. 

Lute 49. 

Lyon, James 108. 114. 247. 

M'Donald 102. 151. 213. 215. 248. 

M'Lean, John 75. 174. 260. 

Madeira, L. C. 77. 91. 

Magic lantern 302. 

Mahoy 184. 

Major Andre's fareivell 288. 

Mallet, Francis 154. 155. 286. 291-294. 

297. 299. 300. 302. 304. 305. 307. 313 

316. 

Man and his wife 221. 
Management of concerts (special data) 19. 

20. 25. 26. 39. 58. 61. 67. 68. 73. 75. 

76. 79. 93. 94. 97. 109. 113. 117. 123. 

164. 183. 189. 191. 195. 224. 279. 307. 
Mandolin 73. 74. 76. 175. 
Mansion of peace 95. 196. 
Marc, S. 52. 53. 
March 244. 



- 333 



Maria 300. 

Maria's evening song 26. 

Mariners 97. 

Market lass 304. 319. 

Marpurg 6. 11. 35. 

Marseillaise 54. 59. 

Marshall 39. 51. 53. 55. 56. 143. 145. 146. 

148. 149. 

Martini J. P. E. 29. 32. 33. 36. 57. 68. 

82. 90. 94. 100. 101. 108. 114. 125. 131. 

141. 150. 189. 197. 199. 211. 226. 227. 

237. 243. 286. 290. 292. 293. 297. 300. 

303. 

Mary's dream 133. 319. 
Masquerade 222. 
Massonneau 37. 
Mattheson 6. 7. 179. 
Maxwell 302. 
May Day 248. 
May eve 173. 

May I never be married 218. 
Mazzanti 166. 174. 
Mechtler 141. 142. 190. 292. 
Meg of Wapping 245. 308. 
Mehul 235. 

Melmoth 232. 236. 240. 241. 
Melodramatic music 240. 
Melomanie 49. 
Menel 55. 56. 94. 95. 96. 98. 142. 143. 

144. 147. 148. 
Mersenne 2. 
Messiah 33. 53. 60. 109. 114. 118. 180. 

181. 184. 194. 200. 201. 225. 263. 274. 

275. 278. 279. 282. 283. 298. 303. 307. 

321. 

Mestrino 137. 
Mezger 82. 233. 
Michel (Michel Yost) 28. 32. 37. 57. 148. 

149. 150. 303. 
Milico 38. 

Military bands and music 39. 75. 95. 99. 

102. "161. 173. 182. 214. 218. 257. 260. 

261. 262. 268. 269. 273. 312. 318. 319. 
Miller, William 46. 48. 
Mills 322. 
Min(i)ere 220. 246. 
Minschini 222. 
Mitchell 245. 
Mittelberger, Gottlieb 65. 
Mizler, L. 6. 
Moggy Louder 59. 
Moller, John Christopher 87. 89. 90. 91. 

138. 142. 199. 200. 201. 211. 212. 214 

215. 217. 227. 241. 246. 

Mrs. 241. 

Moller, Lucy 89. 90. 136. 201. 210212. 

242. 

Monchausen 221. 
Monsigny 83. 128. 130. 131. 134. 138. 144. 

189. 227. 228. 297. 
Morel 102. 
Morgan, W. S. 256. 258. 262. 263. 265 

-268. 274. 
Morningtou 95. 96. 



Morris, Mrs. 47. 154. 155. 

Mount Vernon Garden, N. Y. 208. 214. 219. 

Mountaineers 300. 301. 

Mozart 37. 82. 188. 247. 

Mr. Spanker 143. 

Mrs. Thr ale's three learnings 151. 

Muck(e) 102. 304. 

Munto 315. 316. 

Murphy, William 44. 

Music stores 25. 36. 44. 54. 

Musical glasses, see Armonica. 

Musical Society (Baltimore) 56. 

Musical Society, Boston 275281. 282. 

Musical Society of the City of N. Y. 202. 

Musteropo 212. 

My dear Mistress 268. 

f Henry sivore 301. 
love's on shore 222. 
Poll and my partner Joe 154. 
My poor dog Tray 223. 
Myler 245. 

Nabob 296. 

Nagel, W. 324. 

Nails, iron, instrument of 227. 

National holidays, music on 101. 102. 215. 

216. 252. 294. 
Neering, Henry 169. 
Nef, K. 2. 
Negro boy 218. 243. 
Neighbor Sly 54. 
Nelson 64. 295. 
Newark, N. J. 248. 
New Haven, Conn. 321. 
New London, Conn. 322. 
New Minstrel 272. 
New Orleans 64. 
Newport, R. J. 13. 317. 
Neio somebody 149. 
New York 10. 168-247. 
Nic(h)ola(s) 201. 242. 245. 
Nicolai 59. 141. 
Nicol(a)i 213. 241. 
Nina 237. 

No more Til heave, etc. 210. 
No, not yet 247. 
No that tvill never do 211. 212. 
No fwas neither shape nor feature 132. 
Noel 246. 

None so pretty 234. 
Nong long paw 213. 219. 
Norfolk, Va. 5961. 
North, Roger 1. 2. 5. 
Nurnberger Musikgesellschaft 324. 
Nugent 302. 

come, sweet Mary 241. 

dearly I love 216. 

filii, o filiae 61. 

gentle maid 130. 

listen, etc. 319. 

Nancy wilt thou, etc. 199. 

Richard my love 306. 

0! Joung jockey 76. 



334 - 



Ode for the New Year 212. 

Ode in honour of General Washington 

271. 
Ode on his Excellency Gen. Washington 

288. 

Ode on musick 272. 
Ode on the restauration of peace 169. 
Ode to Columbia's favourite son 283. 
Ode to Independence 272. 294. 
Oh dear, what can the matter be 54. 
Oh! my Delia 268. 
Old Simon the King 5. 
Old Tom Day 299. 
Old Torvler 211. 218. 308. 
Old woman of eighty-three 42. 
Oldmixon, Mrs. 51. 63. 142. 143. 145. 

151. 210. 213. 215. 217. 
Olios 42. 47. 140. 
On board the Arethusa 308. 
On by the spur of valeur 154. 314. 
On the lake of Killarney 213. 
On the rapid whirlwind's icing 302. 
One short moment 211. 
Open-air concerts, see Summer concerts. 
Opera 10. 14. 24. 25. 26. 27. 45. 98. 122. 

135. 138. 163. 214. 260. 290. 311. 
Oratorios 33. 60. 121. 181. 192. 193. 194. 

203. 226. 275. 283. 307. 
Orchestras formation of 18. 34. 75. 100. 

102. 110. 120. 144. 177. 179. 263. 304. 

314. 
Organ and organists 9. 13. 15. 36. 40. 

53. 66. 77. 102. 159. 162. 169. 214. 

254. 257. 259. 262. 263. 269. 270. 294. 

297. 303. 307. 313. 316. 317. 322. 
Organ recitals, first 308. 313. 
Organized pianoforte 58. 
Orphaeus Society 21. 
Orpheus Club 66. 
Otho 95. 
Overtures 15. 16. 28. 29. 30. 32. 33. 35. 

37. 38. 45. 47. 49. 52. 53. 54. 56. 57. 

60. 61. 62. 67. 68. 7275. 81-91. 94. 

95. 96. 98. 100. 102. 108. 114. 118. 

119. 120. 121. 128. 129. 130-139. 141 

155. 170. 171. 186-202. 209212. 

215-223. 225-227. 229-233. 236- 

241. 243249. 262. 263. 263. 268. 274 

279. 281. 286. 290309. 313. 315. 

322. 323. 

Oicer of Glandower 218. 
Oxford 3. 
Oznabluth 102. 

Pachelbel, Charles Theodore 13. 158. 317. 

Packrow, William 21. 

Paderchi 212. 

Paine, Th. 316. 

Paisiello, 97. 134. 142. 144. 218. 

Palma, John 65. 

Panutge 95. 

Pastor Fido 263. 

Pat of Killarney 239. 

Pauvre Jacque 296. 



Pedal harp 62. 
Pelham, Peter 251. 

, Peter, jun. 251. 

Pelissier, Victor 90. 137. 138. 195. 196. 

235. 238. 239. 244. 322. 
Pellegrino 73. 
Pellier (de) 238. 239. 
Pelosi, Vincent M. 99. 
Penn. John 66. 70. 75. 
Pepys 2. 
Perdoni 212. 
Pergolese 45. 
Perkins 213. 245. 
Pesch 81. 

Peter de Great 218. 
Petersburg, Va. 59. 
Petit 29. 32. 33. 36. 37. 38. 102. 138. 

139. 164. 155. 290. 291-193. 
Petri. John S. 179. 
Philadelphia 65156. 
Phile, Philip 43. 94. 100. 114. 124. 132. 

133. 153. 202. 225. 
Philharmonic Society, Boston 309. 
Philharmonic Society, N. Y. 107. 204. 206. 

208. 

Philidor 6. 
Phil(l)ips 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 230. 

231. 

'Piano used', first instance of 228. 
Pianoforte , introduction of 81. 123. 127. 

129. 130. 225. 228. 265. 
Piccinni, N. 61. 132. 225. 235. 273. 278. 

279. 
Pichl 98. 138. 190. 198. 199. 200. 212. 

220. 221. 229. 286. 299. 327. 
Pick, Jacobus 30. 59. 286. 290294. 297 

302. 305307. 313. 
, Mrs. 30. 31. 59. 61. 63. 297. 305 

307. 313. 
Piercon 201. 
Pike, Thomas 15. 
Pipe upon the mountain 221. 
Pirates 96. 

Pity then my tortured heart 151. 
Placide, Alexander 36. 39. 
Placide, Mad. 31. 37. 38. 39. 292. 
Play'd in air 316. 
Pleasures of London 218. 
Pleasures of the chase 308. 
Pleval 199. 
Pleyel J. 28. 29. 30. 32. 37. 38. 47. 49. 

51. 53. 57. 56. 59. 60. 62. 89. 90. 91. 

95. 96. 97. 98. 102. 137. 138. 141. 

142. 143. 144. 145. 147. 148. 150. 155. 

189191. 193201. 209212. 215- 

217. 219-223. 227. 229231. 233 

235. 237. 239. 240-244. 246. 247. 290. 

201. 293. 295. 302. 303. 305307. 313 

315. 323. 

Ploughboys escape 300. 
Ploughman turned sailor 299. 
Poiteaux 34. 
Poition 29. 
Poll of Plymouth 238. 



335 



Poloniska 211. 

Polyhymnian Society, N. Y. 204. 

Poor female ballad singer 140. 

Poor Jack 295. 

Poor little gipsy 211. 218. 

Poor little negro 60. 

Poor Richard 197. 

Poor Soldier 84. 

Poor Thomas Day 64. 217. 295. 

Poor Tom Boiding 154. 165. 

Portland, Me. 319. 

Portsmouth, N. H. 319. 

Powell 290. 292. 294. 298. 305. 

Pownall, Mrs. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 138. 

139. 141. 192. 193. 195. 196. 197. 198. 

233-236. 238. 239. 295. 296. 301. 

, Felix 301. 

Prati 83. 85. 

President's march 52. 53. 102. 149. 187. 

301. 

Price 9. 

Prie, Mad. de. 6. 
Priest, William 144. 145. 156. 
Prigmore 60. 196. 197. 233. 322. 
Primrose girl 193. 217. 221. 304. 
Primroses deck 62. 95. 97. 140. 151. 217. 

296. 

Princeton, N. J. 248. 
Prithee fool be quiet 216. 219. 221. 
Procter 163. 
Prodigies 30. 40. 46. 49. 52. 54. 58. 59. 

72. 89. 99. 135. 136. 147. 150. 171. 227. 

228. 245. 299. 301. 309. 318. 322. 
Program music 89. 193. 198. 212. 230. 

233. 236. 238. 
Programs, printed 11. 34. 67. 68. 69. 72. 

107. 113. 129. 181. 268. 274. 
Propert, David 256-258. 265. 267. 269. 
Providence. R. I. 318. 
Ptolomy 262. 

Public opinion 87. 100. 164. 
Punto 146. 314. 
Purcell 161. 173. 
Puzzlestopper 222. 

Quartets 29-31. 38. 48. 49. 52. 62. 74. 

81. 83-91. 95-98. 121. 127. 132. 133. 

137. 138. 139. 141143. 149. 154. 155. 

184. 186. 188. 191194. 196. 198. 211. 

212. 217. 225227. 230. 232. 233. 235. 

238. 239. 241. 245. 291293. 297. 302 

305. 313. 314. 316. 323. 
Quin 159. 
Quintets 56. 57. 143. 146. 184. 212. 236. 

247. 290. 307. 323. 

Ranelagh Gardens 166. 213. 

Rankin 101. 

Rausch, Frederick 195. 196. 199. 200. 

203. 209. 235. 
Ray 278. 283. 307. 
Rea 279. 282. 307. 
Read, Daniel 311. 
Reeve, W. 145. 



Reeves 303. 

Rehine 132. 133. 

Reinagle. Alexander 46. 49. 56. 80. 82- 

95. 120. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 134. 

136. 143, 154. 155. 185-188. 225. 226. 

290. 

Relain 137. 199. 322. 323. 
Remembrance 197. 
Renaud d'Ast 52. 
Revolution, war of the 7678. 182184. 

287. 

Rhea, Alexander 63. 
Ricci, P. 262. 
Rice, John 159. 169. 252.^ 
Richard Coeur de Lion 45. 135. 
Richmond, Va. 6162. 
Rise, Cynthia rise 152. 
Ritter, F. L. 180. 181. 301. 203. 224. 

289. 

Robbin 60. 
Robins, 233. 238. 
Roeser 89. 
Rogerson 283. 

Rose et Colas 83. 130. 134. 144. 189. 
Rose of Sharon 107. 114. 118. 
Rosendall (Rosindal) 198. 322. 323. 
Rosetti 54. 84. 191. 193. 235. 
Rosier 146. 305-307. 314. 315. 
Rosiere (de Salenei) 61. 313. 
Rosina 82. 83. 129. 
Roth, Philip 75. 
Rousseau, J. J. 147. 
Rowe, John 257. 260. 271. 321. 
Rowson 152. 
Ruby Aurora 212. 
Rule Britannia 75. 169. 170. 
Rural retreat 272. 
Rustic courtship 140. 

Sacchini 37. 60. 97. 138. 147. 229. 302. 
Sacred music, concerts of, etc. 33. 44. 60. 

63. 67. 106-122. 161. 176-181. 184. 

192. 193. 144. 226. 257. 263. 274281. 

283. 284. 288. 294. 298. 303. 307. 309. 

312. 313. 316. 
Sailor boy 213. 219. 244. 
Sailor's journal 221. 308. 
Saino 220. 
St. Aivre 227. 228. 
St. Armand 302. 
St. Bride's bells 102. 

St. Caecilia Society, Newport, R. I. 317. 
St. Cecilia Society, N. Y. 190. 203, 
St. Crecilia Society, Charleston 1619. 22. 

23. 24. 27. 28. 40. 
St. George 134. 
Salem, Mass. 312316. 
Salieri 148. 
Saliment, George Edward 188190. 195. 

196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 210. 212. 

215. 217. 229. 231. 233-236. 238. 240. 

241. 246. 

Salter, D. 40. 59. 62. 248. 322. 
Salter, John 11. 12. 



336 



Sarnmjo 210. 245. 

Sandberger, Ad. 324. 

Sam(p]son 33. 145. 194. 225. 276. 278. 279. 

282. 283. 

Sanely's tale of love 223. 
Sarti 84. 86. 96. 131. 132. 
Saturday nigth at sea 152. 
Saul 171. 
Saunders 21. 
Savannah, Ga. 6364. 
Savarin 322. 

Say little foolish fluttering thing 248. 
Schaffer. Francis C., (Scheffer, Shaffer) 302. 

304. 306. 307. 314. 
Schetky, J. George, (Shetky) 50. 56. 85. 

86. 102. 144. 148. 149. 150. 240. 
Schmidt 193. 
Schmidt, J. H. 53. 249. 
JSchmitt 100. 

Schmittbauer 82. 191. 211. 
Schneider, John 70. 
Schroeter 84. 85. 86. 87. 186. 
Schultz 100. 133. 
Schwindl 262. 
Scornful lady 42. 
Seiffert, M. 2. 
Seilhamer 24. 36. 152. 155. 
Selby, William 263. 268-287. 293-295. 

313. 317. 

Sellenger's Round 5. 
Sembianie amabili 95. 
Servo, Padrona 45. 
Seventeenth century, music in America in 

the 7-8. 
Sewall 8. 

Sewell 187. 188. 226. 
Seymour 211213. 217-220. 242245. 
Sham concerts 25. 26. 153. 
Shapter 215. 217. 218. 
Shaw, Mrs. 54. 55. 60. 61. 95. 144. 145. 
Sheaf(e), William 252. 
Sheep in her clusters 248. 
Shepherd's boy 220. 
Shepherd's lottery 263. 
Shield 62. 82. 83. 84. 85. 129. 146. 148. 

151. 304. 314. 
Shiptons 201. 
Siege of Belgrade 95. 306. 
Siege of Gibraltar 52. 

Eof Valenciennes 51. 
no more ladies 39. 62. 95. 149. 154. 
r moon 215. 216. 
Singing girl 219. 
Singing schools 44. 103118. 122. 274. 

310. 320. 
Siruo 323. 
Sittard, J. 6. 180. 
Smith 75. 234. 288. 
Smith, J. Chr. 127. 136. 275. 
Snitzler, John 257. 
Societies, musical 19. 16. 21. 27. 23. 56. 

58. 66. 94: 166. 170. 171. 174. 190. 201 

208. 258. 275285. 288. 298. 309. 317. 

320. 321. 324. 



Society for promoting vocal music, N. Y. 

Society of the eons of Apollo 298. 

Sodi, Pietro 24. 76. 175. 

Soldier's adieu 218. 221. 

Solomon (Salomon, 137. 138. 146. 229. 289. 

314. 
Sonatas 22. 2931. 38. 47. 49. 51. 52. 56. 

59. 60. 68. 76. 8183. 85. 89. 90. 91. 

120. 128. 129-132. 136139. 144. 145. 

147. 149. 151. 154. 155. 175. 186189. 

196. 197. 199. 212. 225227. 234. 235 

237. 240. 241. 249. 286. 290. 292. 293. 

295. 305. 307. 315. 
Song recital, first 13. 
Sons of Columbia 312. 314. 
Spiccato 304. 307. 
Spicer, Ishmail 44. 
Spillane, D. 8. 
Spinning wheel 72. 
Spirits of the blest 150. 151. 
Spitta, Ph. 2. 
Stafford, Geoffrey 8. 
Stamitz 46. 60. 67. 81-87. 90. 91. 96. 100. 

127. 130. 132. 136. 137. 155. 184. 186. 

187. 193. 194. 197. 209. 211. 212. 217. 

219222. 226. 232. 236. 247. 249. 262. 

268. 296. 

Stamitz, J. 187. 188. 
Stamitz, Karl 32. 129. 188. 190. 191. 210. 

221. 227. 230. 297. 302-304. 313. 323. 
Stamper 269. 

Stanley 15. 73. 86. 87. 170. 262. 262. 275. 
Steibelt 59. 
Stephenson 288. 
Sterkel 217. 219221. 247. 
Stevens, John 63. 95. 
Stewart 144. 
Stieglitz 267-269. 
Stone 286. 290. 293. 395. 296. 298. 299. 

302-306. 

Storace 95. 96. 150. 306. 315. 
Storer, Maria 24. 173. 179. 225. 
Stotherd 22. 170. 181. 
Stoughton Musical Society 321. 
Stuart 95. 
Sully 29. 31. 39. 59. 61. 63. 64. 144. 145. 

305. 
Summer concerts 1921. 31. 39. 54. 57. 

98102. 166168. 208-223. 225. 239. 

305. 

Sweeny 304. 
Sweet content 51. 

Sweet echo 51. 220. 233. 236. 243. 295. 301. 
Sweet hope 227. 

Sweet is the breath of morn 223. 
Sweet lass of Richmond hill 211. 
Stceet lillies of the valley 236. 237. 308. 
Sweet little girl 308. 
Stceet Myra 217. 

Sweet Nan of Hampton Green 213. 
Sweet Nightingale 60. 
Sweet Poll of Plymouth 295. 296. 
Sweet Willy 75. 248. 



337 



Sylvain 135. 

Ogmpathetic echo 197. 237. 

Symphonies 2833. 37. 38. 45. 49. 51-53. 

57. 62. 64. 74. 76. 8191. 96. 98. 100. 

102. 127. 128. 130139. 141. 142. 146. 

147. 148. 153. 155. 175. 184. 188-191. 

193. 194. 196. 198. 199. 202. 209211. 

215. 217. 219223. 226 - 230. 232235. 

238242. 244249. 262. 268. 273. 274. 

282. 286. 290307. 314. 322. 323. 

Tablet 43. 

Tally ho 85. 101. 218. 222. 233. 236. 239. 
295. 

Tantivy 212. 216. 

Tar for all weathers 218. 

Taylor, Raynor 41-43. 47. 140. 144. 146. 
151. 

Teleman 6. 

Temple of Minerva 78. 

The bird when summers 216. 

The black bird's a sweet whistle 306. 

The bleak wind whistlers 197. 

The gray mare's the best horse 42. 

The lark's shrill notes 22. 101. 138. 184. 
296. 

The ling' ring pangs 95. 

The merry maids, etc. 222. 

The moment Aurora 219. 

The Soldier tir'd etc. '85. 145. 171. 184. 
213. 215. 233. 246. 268. 

The stag thro' the forest 299. 

The sweet little girl 211. 

The sword that's drawn 162. 

The topsail shivers 308. 

The traveller benighted 155. 

The Way worn traveler 51. 59. 142. 

Theory of music, instruction in, see com- 
position. 

They say there is echo here 233. 

Thibaut 142. 

Tho' by the tempest 199. 210. 212. 

Thomas and Sally 26. 

Three flutes 299. 

TJiree sweethearts I boast 210. 212. 

Thro icoodlands and forests 47. 

Tiesseire 52. 

Tilliere, (Tillier) 81. 82. 84. 

Time has not thinn'd my flowing hair 64. 
97. 216. 236. 237. 

Time ha-s thinn'd my flowing hair 51. 

Tina, tang, ta 243. 

Tiofi 318. 

'Tis beauty commands me 146. 148. 

'Tis in vain 211. 

'Tis not wealth 51. 

To arms Columbia 246. 

To arms, to arms 316. 

To the memory of Washington 219. 

To the sounds of the drums 227. 

To thee each joy possessing 221. 

Tobacco box 218. 

Toeschi 81. 84. 184. 211. 212. 

Together let iis range 151. 

Sonneck, Early Concert Life. 



Tom Bowling 308. 

Tom Tackle 220. 323. 

Tom Truelove's Kneel 243. 

Too happy when Edward was kind 243. 

Trade, music 9. 25. 156. 

Treller 211. 

Trenton, N. J. 248. 

Tricklir 83. 84. 

Trios 16. 56. 72. 74. 85. 186. 193. 217. 

227. 234. 249. 306. 
Trisobio, Filippo 52. 242. 
Tromba doppio con tympana 77. 
Tubbs 313. 317319. 
Tuckey, William 103. 108. 114. 160. 161. 

176-181. 

Tuneful lark 217. 222. 223. 
Turn fair Clora 51. 262. 
Turner, William 253. 256258. 266. 
'Twas within a mile, etc. 199. 
Twins of Latona 62. 223. 
Ttco bunches a penny 102. 152. 
Two grenadiers 45. 
Two misers 313. 

Two pianofortes, music for 49. 62. 
Tyler 200. 210212. 215-220. 241-245. 

323. 



Uhl 14. 

Unfortunate sailor 247. 

Upper Marlborough, Md. 41. 

Uranian Academy. Concerts, Society, Phila. 

103-117. 
Uranian (Musical) Society, N. Y. 203. 

Vachon 84. 

Vackner 304. 

Vain is beauty 73. 171. 

Val 30. 

Valton, Peter 15. 16. 21. 

Van Hagen, Peter Albrecht, sen. 23. 188 

190. 195. 197. 198. 199. 200. 227. 228. 

229. 231. 234. 236. 237. 240. 305. 306. 

314. 315. 316. 
Van Hagen, Mrs. 190. 195. 196. 197. 198. 

199. 200. 231. 236 237. 240. 271. 315. 
Van Ha*en, P. A., jun. 189190. 195. 

196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 227. 228. 229. 

231. 240. 271. 305. 306. 315. 316. 
Van Hagen, Miss 237. 
Vanderhagen 38. 
Vanhal see Wanhal. 
Vaudeville 21. 

Vauxhall Concerts 19-21. 31. 39. 168. 208. 
Vermonnet 48. 
Victor, H. B. 77. 
Victor, John 58. 
Vidal 76. 
Vienna 6. 7. 11. 
Village recruit 245. 
Villars 29. 32. 
Viola d'amour 23. 
Violin harmonika 227. 
Violin making 264. 



338 



Violin sonatas 59. 81. 83. 138. 139. 229. 

293. 

Viotti 30. 33. 52. 91. 137. 141. 
Vogel, James 49. 50. 61. 52. 57. 
Vogel, Joh. Chr. 145. 243. 246. 314. 
Vole a nos vote 52. 
Von Duelmim 221. 

Wainwright, Miss 16. 168. 173. 179. 

Waiter 213. 

"Waits" 4. 5. 

Wall, Miss 26. 

Wallace 14. 

Wanhal 38. 53. 8186. 90. 94. 127. 130. 

133. 136. 138. 144. 184. 186. 188. 193. 

194. 196. 202. 210. 211. 212. 219. 232. 

233. 241. 249. 300. 
Warrell 51. 53. 56. 146. 147. 151. 
Warwell 173. 

Washington, D. C. 6263. 
Washington, George 27. 57. 65. 98. 122. 

131. 187. 206. 219. 271. 277. 282. 284. 

288. 

Washington 107. 296. 
Washington and the Constitution 213. 
Washington's counsel 299. 
Waving -willow 213. 219. 241. 
Waxen doll 322. 
Webbe 95. 96. 
Webster, George 174. 
Weckmann, M. 2. 
Wedding day 213. 223. 300. 
Wedding ring 60. 
Weisbecher 249. 

Welcome, mighty chief! once more 187. 
Weldon 246. 

Were I a shepherds maid 248. 
West 30. 31. 35. 36. 37. 64. 233. 
Westray 210. 215. 217. 223. 
What can a lassie do 218. 
What is a woman like 222. 
What is love? 60. 
When Arthur first 95. 
When Phoebus, etc. 262. 295. 
When ruddy Aurora 221. 
When Sandy, etc. 247. 
When the men a courting came 222. 
When the mind is in tune 209. 
When the sails 217. 
When war begins 151. 
Where is the harm of that 213. 243. 
While over the mountain brorv 155. 



While successful proves the gale 148. 

White 245. 247. 

Whither my love 59. 233. 306. 

Who shall deserve etc. 314. 

William and Mary 221. 

Williams 313. 

Williams, A. 108. 114. 119. 282. 288. 

Williamsburg, Va. 57-58. 

Williamson 213. 

Willichius, J. 2. 

Wind gentle over-green 55. 

Wind instruments, music for see also 

Military bands) 95. 99. 149. 214. 218 

302. 318. 
Windling 81. 
Winsome Kate 212. 
Wish 209. 212. 
Wiska 212. 

With my jug in one hand 64. 
Wives and husbands 151. 
Wives and sweethearts 155. 
Wolf, A., (Wolff, Wolfe) 89. 90. 94. 98. 

100. 102. 120. 121. 133. 137. 138. 146. 

150. 153. 187. 188. 234. 
Wolfe 53. 56. 57. 99. 
Wolff 100. 

Women composers, see Po\vnall. 
Wood, Anthony 3. 
Woodward 202. 

Wools 73. 153. 168. 170. 172. 173. 179. 
Wounded hussar 222. 247. 
Wranitzky 56. 191. 199. 211. 215. 218. 219. 

220223. 244. 247. 
Wrighten 35. 36. 301. 

Yanda 52. 147. 

Yarn old, Benjamin 15. 

Ye sons of dull sloth 213. 

Yelloiv Stockings 5. 

Yes! I must go, etc. 227. 

Youge, N. 3. 

Yost, M. see Michel 

You gentlemen of England 308. 

You tell me 218. 

Young, William 89. 90. 191. 230. 

Young Sandy 216. 

Youngblut 89. 90. 

Zanetti 73. 

Zedtwitz, Hermann 166 170. 171. 175. 

Zemire and Aw 45. 134. 135. 



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