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Full text of "The early days of monasticism on Mount Athos"

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THE 
S OF MONASTICISM 
ON MOUNT ATHOS 



KIRSOPP LAKE 



GIFT OF 
JANE Ko^ATHER 




niSi!3WG9i 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/earlydaysofmonasOOIakerich 



THE 

EARLY DAYS OF MONASTICISM 
ON MOUNT ATHOS 



BY 



KIRSOPP LAKE, M.A. 

PROFESSOR OF EARLY CHRISTIAN LITERATURE IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1909 






HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OP OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK 

TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 



<^^,^.if^- \ 






PREFACE 

The following pages are the by-product of various visits 
to the Monasteries of Mount Athos for the study of Biblical 
and Patristic MSS. It is impossible for any one to visit 
these districts without becoming interested in the local 
history. I trust that Byzantine scholars will pardon my 
invasion of their province. 

It is also probably worth noting that the list of aneedota 
hagiographica could be enormously increased by the con- 
sistent cataloguing of the lives of Saints in the various 
libraries other than the Laura ; for the extraordinary wealth 
of Mount Athos in this respect is obscured by the fact that 
the Cambridge catalogue of Lambros does not as a rule 
do more than record the month to which a volume of j3lol 
belongs. It is of course a help to know which MSS. have 
)3toi, but the really valuable work of cataloguing the 
contents has still to be done. 

The pleasant duty is once more laid on me of acknow- 
ledging my indebtedness to the Trustees of the Revision 
Surplus, the Hort and the Hibbert Funds. This is the 
seventh book which I have had published, and of these 
seven five are entirely the result of grants made to me by 
some or all of these societies ; it is unnecessary for me to 
say more to prove that I have reason to be grateful for 
their help. 

KiRSOPP Lake. 

Leicieuy 1909. 



CONTENTS 

PAQS 

Introduction 5 

CHAPTER I 

Peter the Athonite 8 

Appendix : 

The Life of Peter the Athonite .... 18 

CHAPTER II 

Euthymius op Thessalonica 40 

Appendix : 

The Monastery of St. Andreas at Peristerai . 53 

CHAPTER in 

Johannes Kolobos, his Monastery, and the Her- 
mits OF Mount Athos 57 

Appendices : 

A. Extract from a ChrysobuU of Basil earlier 

than A.D. 881 76 

B. The TrpSfiy of the eTroTrrrjj, ©w/uia? Kao-Traf, as to 

the boundary between Erissos and the Monks 

of Mount Athos, A. d. 881-2 . . . 76 

C. The Agreement between the Monks and the 

Erissiotes 80 

D. Decision of KaraKdKoiv Kdaira^ as to the 

boundary, A.D. 882 82 

E. Chi-ysobull of Leo VI 84 

CHAPTER IV 

The Monks of Mount Athos, and the Coming of 

Athanasius 87 

Appendices : 

A. ChrysobuU of Romanus, &c 101 

B. Extract referring to a ChrysobuU of Basil 

Bulgaroktonos, a.d. 980 .... 102 

C. Settlement of part of the estate of Kolobou on 

the Monks of Mount Athos by Johannes the 

Georgian, a.d. 985 102 

Hagiographioal Manuscripts . . . . 109 



INTRODUCTION 

The history of Greek monasticism seems, in all 
the places in which it flourished, to afford examples 
of a development passing through three more or 
less clearly defined periods. 

There is first of all the hermit period, in which 
a desolate piece of country is selected by hermits 
as affording the necessary solitude for an ascetic 
life. Secondly, there is the period of loose organiza- 
tion of hermits in lauras ; that is to say, a collec- 
tion of hermits' cells, more or less widely scattered, 
grows up round the common centre provided by 
the cell of a hermit of remarkable fame, who has 
attracted, and in some degree become the leader 
of, the others. Thirdly, there comes a time when 
the loose organization of the laura is replaced by the 
stricter rule of a monastery, with definite buildings 
and fixed regulations, under the control of an 
rjyov^evo's or abbot. The passage from the previous 
stage to this was no doubt frequently hastened by 
the fact that the Byzantine authorities encouraged 
monasteries, but were not as a rule favourable to 
lauras. 

The present treatise on the early history of 
Mount Athos is an attempt to collect the few and 
scattered pieces of evidence which bear on the 



i6.: .:.>..'.. ; \; r INTEODUCTION 

first two stages— the hermit and the laura — on 
Mount Athos, and to show that no exception is 
afforded to the general rule of development. 
Although the evidence is scanty, it is sufficient to 
prove that there were hermits before there were 
lauras, and lauras before there were monasteries, 
on the Holy Mountain. 

It would therefore have been logical to divide 
the discussion into the three periods dominated by 
hermits, lauras, and convents; but in practice it 
has proved impossible to do this, for the same man 
often began life in a monastery, and afterwards 
became successively a hermit, the centre of a laura, 
and the founder of a monastery. This is especially 
the case, naturally enough, in the middle period, 
when the mountain was occupied partly by hermits 
and partly by monks in lauras, whom force of cir- 
cumstances compelled to adopt an increasingly more 
developed form of organization. 

In the following pages I have therefore divided 
the discussion according to the saints and monas- 
teries which play the chief part in the story. ^The 
first division is dominated by Peter the Athonite, 
who was a hermit, and nothing else, in the middle 
of the ninth century ; his life, the text of which I 
append, has never previously been published. The 
chief personage in the second division is Euthymius 
of Thessalonica, who was first a hermit, and after- 
wards the centre of a laura, on Mt. Athos. The 
third division is not connected with the name of 
a monk who lived on Mount Athos, but with that of 



INTEODUCTION 7 

Johannes Kolobos, who about 970 founded close to 
the mountain a monastery which played a con- 
siderable part in forcing the hermits and lauras 
of Mount Athos to adopt a more definite organi- 
zation. 

The fourth and last division deals with the 
position of affairs in the tenth century as revealed 
by various documents connected with Athanasius 
the Athonite, and includes the final decay of the 
laura system and its replacement by fully organized 
monasteries, together with the final absorption of 
the monastery of Kolobou by the monks of the 
mountain. For the sake of clearness I have as 
largely as possible kept the discussion free from 
any very long quotations from original documents, 
and have collected the evidence afforded by these 
in a series of jpieces justificatives forming appendices 
to each chapter. 



CHAPTER I 

PETEE THE ATHONITE 

In the Acta Sanctorum for June 12 (also in Migne's 
Patrologia Graeca, vol. 150, col. 989 ff.) is printed 
what claims to be the life of Peter the Athonite, 
as told in the fourteenth century by Gregorios 
Palamas, the famous opponent of Barlaam in the 
Hesychast controversy. No one, however, has ever 
tried to find in this document any serious history 
concerning Peter, and it was impossible to say 
whether it was the free composition of Gregory, 
or based on some earlier tradition from which he 
had selected the miraculous episodes which edified 
him, while omitting the historical details which 
would have interested us. 

Fortunately for history, in the Laura on Mount 
Athos and in other libraries there are preserved MSS. 
of an earlier life of Peter which was written (so 
at least it claims) by a certain Nicolaus, and was 
undoubtedly the source used by Gregory Palamas. 
This has never been published and, though not a 
document of the first rank, is worth studying. 

Research in menologies would probably reveal 
the existence of a fair number of MSS. At present, 
however, the only ones with which I am acquainted 
are as follows : — 



PETER THE ATHONITE 9 

(1) In the Laura on Mount Athos, Cod. A 79 (saec. 
XII. 36. 3 X 25. cm. 2 col. 33 11.), a beautifully 
written MS. containing the Hves of the Saints and 
encomia for April, May, June, July, and August. 
This MS. has been used by M. Louis Petit for his 
edition of the life of Michael Maleinos ; ^ he there 
ascribes the MS. to the thirteenth century, but 
although it is exceedingly difficult to date these 
large hagiographical hands, I doubt if it can be 
put so late. Indeed my own opinion is that it 
was written early rather than late in the twelfth 
century. The last page of the life of Peter is 
unfortunately missing, but the text can be supphed 
from the other MSS. 

(2) Also in the Laura,. Cod. E 190 (written at the 
expense of Simeon, proegoumenos of the Laura, 
e/c TTJ^ x^P^5 Kapv(TTov, and given by him to the 
library in 1646). This MS. is clearly a copy of 
A 79, and it was obviously not worth while to 
collate it : but it is valuable as giving the text of 
the lost page of A 79. 

(3) In Eome, Cod. Vat. 1190 (ff. 1003-1012), a 
MS. written in 1542 for * Georgius episcopus Siti- 
ensis et Hierapetrensis ' and given by him to Pope 
Paul V. 

(4) In Paris, Cod. Coislin. Paris 307 (ff. 398-410), 
a MS. which formerly belonged to the monastery of 
Castamonitou on Mount Athos and was obtained from 

^ Vie et Office de Michel Maleinos^ &c., par Louis Petit. 
Paris, Picard et fils, 1903 (in the Bibliotheque Hagiographique 
Orientale, editee par Leon Clugnet). 



10 PETER THE ATHONITE 

it (it is almost certain) for Seguier, the Chancellor of 
Louis XIV, by the famous Pere Athanase, whose 
story is told by M. Henri Omont in his Missions 
archeologiques fraufaises en Orient, aux XVII et 
XVIII siecles^ 

(5) Also in Paris, Cod. Coislin. 109, a MS. of the 
tenth century, which Seguier most probably also 
acquired from Pere Athanase, containing on fol. 
249vf. a short extract (in a later hand) from the 
life of Peter. This is important because the MS. 
itself came from tov evKTrjpiov r^? vTrepayCas SeoroKov 
Kol TOV oaiov Trarpos tjjjlcjv Hdrpov tov ^AOcovltov (on 
f. 266). 

No doubt further investigations would reveal 
more MSS., but the text of A 79 is not bad, and 
it is not probable that the collation of other MSS. 
'would give any results at all proportionate to the 
labour of collating them. 

In editing the text I have kept strictly to my 
copy of the MS. except in the insertion of iota 
subscript, and the treatment of enclitic accents. 
Where my copy attests a probably corrupt reading, 
and supports it by a sic, I have noted the fact 
with sic cod. Where I fear that I have made a 
mistake in copying, as the reading is apparently 
wrong, and is nevertheless not supported by a sic 
cod., 1 have noted the fact by sic without cod. Merely 
orthographical variations I have printed without 
comment. 

* Paris, Imprimerie nationaley 1902. 



PETEE THE ATHONITE 11 

The Story of Petef^s Life. 

The story told by Nicolaus is a typical example 
of the methods followed by the Greek hagiographers. 
All the emphasis is laid on the visions, miracles, 
contests with demons, and general asceticism of the 
saint during his life, and on the history and efficacy 
of his relics after his death. There is often a 
tendency to describe all this kind of narrative as 
unhistorical ; but it would be truer to say that it 
narrates certain abnormal psychological experiences 
and combines them with a * Weltanschauung ' which 
is entirely foreign to modem ways of thinking. 
The Acta Sanctorum would, I think, afford magni- 
ficent material to anyone who would treat the 
psychology of the later saints in somewhat the 
same way as that made famous by Prof. W. James 
in his Varieties of Beligious Experience. 

At the same time it is certainly true that this 
side of the narrative has no importance for fixing 
the historical facts connected with Peter. It is 
therefore probably expedient to tell over again in 
a few words the few purely historical parts of the 
story, as these afford the only foundation for any 
discussion of the date of Peter, and of the light 
thrown on the early history of the mountain by 
his life. 

Peter was originally a soldier (a crxoXapto? of 
the fifth (rxoX-q) who was captured by the Arabs 
in Syria and imprisoned at Samara — a misfortune 
which he regarded as the direct result of his neglect 



12 PETER THE ATHONITE 

to fulfil a vow to become a monk. He entreated 
St. Mcolaus to help him, and promised that if he 
obtained his liberty he would go to Rome, and there 
take monastic vows. After some difficulty, to over- 
come which the further intercession of St. Simeon 
was necessary, the help of the Saints proved 
effectual, and Peter obtained his liberty. In accor- 
dance with his vow he went to Rome and was 
ordained monk by the Pope. After a short stay 
in Rome he joined a ship bound for the Levant, 
but when he was close to Mount Athos the ship was 
miraculously delayed, and he thus recognized that 
this was the place in which, as St. Nicolaus had 
told him, he was to pass the remainder of his 
days as a hermit. On disembarking he found the 
mountain uninhabited and lived there for fifty 
years in a cave. Here he was tempted by devils 
and in danger from wild beasts, but ultimately was 
victorious over both. Towards the end of his last 
year he was accidentally discovered by a hunter, 
to whom he told his story, advising him to 
follow his example and adopt the ascetic life. His 
words had so much influence that the hunter 
promised to return after a farewell visit to his 
family ; but when he came back the following year, 
bringing with him his brother and some monks, 
he found that Peter was already dead. But since 
according to mediaeval ideas the corpse of a saint 
is worth even more than his living body, the two 
brothers proceeded to take away the relics in the 
boat in which they had come. They rowed and 



PETER THE ATHONITE 13 

sailed along the east coast of the mountain, but 
when they were opposite the monastery of Clementos 
(where the present Iveron^ stands), their boat stood 
still in spite of a favourable wind which filled their 
sail. So long were they stationary that the monks 
of Clementos put out to them, and made them land 
with the relics, the story of which they told very 
reluctantly, as they felt that it was improbable that 
they would be allowed to keep them. Nor were 
they mistaken : the relics were received with many 
honours and placed in the shrine of the Virgin 
* where they are accustomed to hold the annual cele- 
brations '. After this the hunter and his brother 
departed, but the monks who had accompanied 
them were not prepared to abandon the relics, and 
after diverting suspicion by professing a desire to 
join the foundation of Clementos, stole the body of 
Peter and sailed off at night to their own country. 
The monk Nicolaus, in whose name the book is 
written, says that he was an eyewitness of their 
departure. The monks who had taken the relics 
successfully escaped to Phocamin in Thrace, but the 
miraculous power of their burden becoming known, 
the bishop and clergy of the place forced them to sell 
it, and the reUcs remained permanently in that place. 
In this story there are three points which arrest 
attention as likely to supply material for dating the 
life of Peter. These are (1) the imprisonment at 
Samara, (2) the pilgrimage to Rome, (3) the monastery 
of Clementos. 

* i. e. the Georgian Monastery, — r/ fxovrj twv 'iprjpiDv. 



14 PETEE THE ATHONITE 

(1) Samara. This is the city which is officially 
known in Arabic history as Sarra-man-raa> on the 
Tigris above Baghdad. It was the capital of the 
Abbasid Caliphs from 836, when it was rebuilt by 
Caliph Mu tasim, to 892,^ with the exception of the 
year 865 when the Caliph Musta'in left it for Baghdad, 
but was pursued by Mu tazz who then assumed the 
Caliphate. The reference to Samara therefore fixes 
the years between 836 and 892 as the most probable 
for the imprisonment of Peter. Moreover, the fact 
that the intermittent war between the Greeks and 
the Arabs blazed up again in 838 — ^just previously 
there had been a breathing-space — enables us to 
say 838 instead of 836. 

(2) Pilgrimage to Bome. At most times it would 
be very improbable for a Greek monk to think 
of going to Rome to receive the tonsure, and 
it is certainly very improbable that any Greek 
writer, after the beginning of the tenth century, 
would have invented such a story. But during 
the Iconoclast movement it is not at all unlikely 
that a monk of the Iconolatric party went to Rome 
for this purpose. The Iconoclast movement ceased 
with the death of Theophilus in 842, so that the 
story of the pilgrimage to Rome is more probable 
if it were undertaken in consequence of a vow made 
before 842 than after that year. 

Thus this line of argument, combined with the facts 
connected with Samara, points to the years between 

* See Le Strange's Baghdad during the Ahhasid Caliphate, 
Oxford, 1900, especially pages 13 and 311. 



PETEE THE ATHONITE 15 

838 and 842 as the most probable for Peter's 
imprisonment and vow. 

(3) 2'he Monastery of Clementos, This gives less 
help : all that is known is that in the tenth century 
there was a monastery of Clementos, which was 
already decaying and was ultimately absorbed by the 
new foundation of Iveron. Judging from analogy 
these early monasteries had a period of about a 
century for their rise, decline, and fall. This argu- 
ment would of course be quite worthless by itself as 
a basis of chronological argument. But as we find 
that the monastery of Clementos was decaying in 
the year 980, when it was given to Johannes the 
Georgian by the Emperor Basil Bulgaroktonos,^ we 
should not be surprised to find that it was founded 
about the year 880. Now according to the life 
of Peter he was fifty years on Mount Athos : it is 
suggested by the previous argument that he came 
there about 840 : therefore he died about 890. So 
far as it goes this fits the other data very well,, 
for the suggestion made by the life of Peter is 
that the monastery of Clementos did not exist 
when he came to Mount Athos, and was flourishing 
at his death. 

There are no other points in the life which seem 
to afford chronological evidence, but the date 
suggested will enable us to make an easy correc- 
tion of a puzzUng statement at the beginning. The 
narrator says that Methodius of Patara had com- 
mended the example of Peter. This is clearly 
^ See p. 102. 



16 PETER THE ATHONITE 

absurd, for Methodius of Patara lived in the fourth 
century. But if we eject the words * of Patara' 
from the text as a gloss, the passage may be under- 
stood as a reference to the Methodius who became 
Patriarch of Constantinople in 842, in which case 
there is nothing improbable in the fact that he had 
heard of the escape of Peter and of the fulfilment 
of his vow. 

The result of this investigation is to show that 
Peter the Athonite is probably an historical person 
who lived the life of a hermit on Mount Athos in 
the ninth century. It remains to ask what is the 
date of the existing narrative. As the MS. in 
which it is found belongs to the twelfth century, 
and Peter himself belonged to the ninth, any date 
between these extremes is possible. It is equally 
obvious that the writer wishes to give the impres- 
sion that he was himself a younger contemporary 
of Peter, for he claims to have been an eye- 
witness of the theft of the relics. If one could be 
certain that the words * of Patara ' in reference to 
Methodius are merely a gloss and not due to the 
writer himself, there would not be much reason 
for questioning the truth of this impHcation. But 
if the confusion between Methodius of Patara and 
Methodius of Constantinople be really due to the 
writer, it is almost inconceivable that he belonged 
to the ninth century. In this case the tenth 
century is probably the date of the writing of the 
Life. It can hardly be much later in face of the 
reference to the monastery of Clementos, which 



PETER THE ATHONITE 17 

ceased to exist after 980. On the whole I think 
that the latter is the more probable view for two 
reasons : (1) Mount Athos is referred to as the Holy 
Mountain, a title for which I know of no evidence 
before the tenth century ; (2) it is suggested, though 
not clearly stated, that the monastery was dedicated 
to the Virgin, whereas Clementos was dedicated to 
the Baptist, though the foundation which absorbed 
it was really dedicated to the Virgin. These two 
points are not worth much in themselves, but are 
perhaps just sufficient to turn the scale in favour 
of the tenth century. In this case one must assume 
either that the writer wished to represent Peter as 
a contemporary of Methodius of Patara in the 
foui-th century, or, which is much more probable, 
did not know in the least when Methodius of 
Patara lived and simply mixed up two people of 
the same name. In either case the statement made 
above that the words * of Patara ' are a gloss must 
be taken to mean that they are a gloss on the 
tradition rather than on the text of the life of 
Peter. 



LAKE. a. A. B 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 

THE LIFE OF PETER THE ATHONITE 

B/oj Kol TToXireia tov ocriov koi Oeocpopov Trarpog rnxwv 
Tlerpov TOV 'AOcovltov, 

I, 1. To Tovg Tu>u dyiwv piovg koi Tr]v avTcov OeocpiXrj iroKiTeiav 

Introduc- iyypdcbm eKTiOecrOaiy kol roig uereTreiTa irpog (vSeXeiav 

tion. ( y-\ ^ ss' A^ ^^^' '^^^ 

Kai ^ijAov 0/J.010V Trapaoiooj'ai, Ka\ov kqi Aiav eTrwmeAe? 

Kai ueapecTToV TOig re yap aKOvouariv ovfjcrig of^ tj Tvy^ovcra 

yiverai, Kai rw ypacpovri fxiarOog cltto t^? wcpeXelag twu 

aKOVovTODv, oOev Kayoo 'TrarpiKt} TreiarOelg ivroXrj KeXevovcri] 

TOV TOV ixaKapiurraTOv iraTpog rjfxwv UeTpov ^lov dvaypa- 

TTToy yevecrQai, tov ev tw "AOco opei dyyeXiKcog TroXiTcvcra- 

/iievov, Kai aa-apKcog, 1v ovTcog eiirta, ^e/SKeKOTog, SUaiov 

€Kpiva air avTov tov eig avTov yevojuevov OavjuLaTog irapa 

TOV TpicrjULaKapog iraTpog ^/ulwv Nt/coXaou dTrdp^ao-Oai, Kai 

ovTOD KaO^ eip/uLov KOI oLKoXovQlav TOV dXXov avTOv Siacacpfjcrai 

2. /3iov. Ta 06 TOV QavfxaTog tovtov e^ei tov Tpoirov* wg 

Drison- ^^'^^^ ^ jneyag iraTrjp fjfJLcov Medociog o llaTapwv eiria-KOTrog 

ment at (rvveypdy^aTO " fiovaym " (fyrja-i " Tiveg twv iyKpiTcov Kai 

Samara. ^ravTa OecS eTriTfjSeuoiuievcov dpecTKeiv, /wera tcov dXXwv KaXwv 

Kai Trj aXfjOeia crTOi')(eioviuLevoiy tovto juloi yeyeveicrOai vtto 

NiKoXaov TOV irajULjULaKapog vecoarTl to Oav/uia SitjyopevcraV 

TLeTpog, XeyovTcg, 6 ev ixaKapia t^ l^vrnxri ixova-)(og diro 

a")(oXapLU)v yevofxevog tolovtw Tpoiria fiovacrai Sia/Se- 

/3aiu><raTo" ovTog yap avTOv ev T^j TrefiTrT^ (t^oX^ koi 

fjLCTa (TTpaTOTreoiav Siacpopcov eirl ^vplav aTTOcrTaXevTog 

irpog TToXefxov, eTV)(ev, oia iroXXaKig (piXei ev dvOpcoiroig 

yivecrOai, tcov ^ap^apiav eiriKpaTecTTepcov o(j)OevT(aVf Tpa- 

irrjvai fiev Tovg Pco/naiovg ev tw TroXefiw, ^coyptjOtjvai Se 

Trap^ avTwv TrXeia-TOvg, fieO^ wv koI ovTog 6 TleTpog al-^fxa- 

XcoTicrOeig eig tov Xeyofxevov ^a/mapav aTroa-TeXXeTai 

{jcatTTpov oe tovto cctti to?? *'Apa^iv o'^pwTaTov re Kai 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 19 

'TroXvavOpooTTOv), aTroSoOrjvai re t(S toiItwv cLp)(tjy^, rod 
iroXe/JLOV to? apirayixa. eirei Se eK€ivo9 6 Sua-a-e/BrjQ etV 
StjiuLoa-iav (pvXaKrjv avTov ivaTriOero, koi tov^ woSag avrov 
iv (TiSiipoig PapirroLTOi^ KaTija-cpaXia-aro, acocppovea-repog 
wcnrep tcov oikcimv yevo/JLCvo^ e^eTacrr^g, koi yvovg cog apa 
Sia TOVTO €19 irpovoixrjv icai SovXelav aTreSoOtj, oion 
'TToWaKig ev^cifievog tw Qew yevearOai fiova-^g kol toU 
Tov Koa-fiov airoTa^aa-OaL irpayimao-iv, eig irepag ayayeiv 
Ttt Trjg evyrjg ave^aWero, eiroTviaTO, ?cr;(aXXei/, eSucr^e- 
paivev, eavTOV Ttjg IBpaSvrrJTog Karefxe/ncpeTO, Ka), St] wg 
a^ia iraOcov €v-)(apicrT(jog virecpepe to, yevofieva. cog Se 3. 
Xpovog avT(p irapw-^^fiKei iv rrj (j)povpa TrXelarogy koi ovSefxia ^^^ "^^* 
aipopixf] tTcoTtjpiag eTrpojULrjOevero, ck iroW^g crvvrjOeLag rwv g. Nico- 
Tov aylov ^ikoXolov Qavixartdv irpovirap-^^wv, kol a/xa tovtov ^^.us. 
€v TOig OXi^epoig apwyov eiri^oaa-Om /uLeimeXeTijKcog, Trj e^ 
eOovg irapprjala y^pYia-aixevog " eyco" (prjcrlv, " ayie N^/coXae, 
olSa cog avd^iog eijuLL Trda-rjg a-coTriplag' TroXXaKig yap ixovacrai 
T(p Oecp virocT'^oiJ.evog, juLrj 'TrepaTuxrag Se oirep tjv^aimtjv tm 
wXacraPTi, SiKaicog kol Trjg evOdSe ^ocpcoSovg KaOeip^ecog gtv^ov. 
Sid TOi TOUTO irpog avrov ixev Triv iKecriav Trjg aTroXyrpcocecog 
ov ToXfjLw iroiria'acrQai, ctol Se wg (TvvrjQcog e-^^ovri ra rwv iu 
avdyKaig ir poa-oiKeiovadai pdprj, Ka\ ralg Serjcrea-L rcov 0Xf^o- 
fjiivcov Trpoa-CTriKafJiTrTea-Oati Oappcov irpocripevyco' Kai ere 
jJLecriTfjv Trpog avrov koi eyyvrirhv irpo^aXXoiMai, wg apa, 
Slol crov T? CKeivov iirivevcrei tcov wSe Sea-fxcov aTroXvTpoviuLevogy 
ovKeri Totg KOcrfiiKOig Oopv^oig eirifxevco, ovSe tJ oiKela 
irarpiSi efxavrov iyKaroiKicrco, aXX' iirl *Pco/j.fjv iropeva-ojixai, 
Ka) ev TftJ TOV Kopvcpaiov YlcTpov (rrjKw aTroKeipajmevog, ovtco 
SiareXecrco tov airavrd fxov Trjg l^co^g yjiovov, fAOvaG-Trjg avTi 
Koa-fxiKOv SeiKvvfJLevog, Ka\ evapecTTeiv Oew oartj Svvafxig eTriTij- 
SevofJievog" Tavra Ka) ra tovtcov irXelova Xeywv o avrip, 
Ka\ a/j.a vrja-TCLaig eavTOv eiriSiSovg Ka\ Serja-ea-iv, e^SojudSa 
^lULcpcov dcriTog SiereXecre, Trep] Se to Tfjg e^SofxaSog TeXog 
OTTTdverai avrw 6 Ta'^vg tcov eTriKoXovjuLevcov avTov eiriKovpogy 
6 Oepiiiog Trpoa-TdTrjg Ka] fxeyag ^iKoXaog, Kal (prjcri irpog 
avToVy " Ka\ Ttjg Sei^aeoog a-ov, dSeXcpe UeTpe, aKi^Koa, Kai 
TOV (TTevayiJLOV Trjg KapSlag arov ^KpoacrajJiriv, koi tov 
eva-TrXay^^yov koi (piXavOpcoirov Oeov virep aov eXnTaptjcTa. 

B 2 



20 PETEE THE ATHONITE 

a\\ eirenrep auro^ jBpaSvg rwv avrov evroXwv eKirXooprji ^ 

KaOeGTTrjKag, yvwOi, a^eX^e, cog ov fiovXeral ere tvov SearfjLcov 

aveOtjvai, KpeiTTOv rj KaO' ^j/m-ag Ttjv crcoTfipiav aov 7rpoiuLt]9ov'~ 

juLCvog, ojuLm S* ovv eirelirep avrov ecrriv evroX^ to ' aireiTe 

Koi ^oQrjo-erai, Kpovere koi avoiy^a-erai viJ-tv, fir] eKKaKi^a-coimev 

Tt]v avrov KaOiKeTeveiv ayaOoTijra Kal (piXavOpooTriaVf Kal 

oirep oloe a-v/jL(p€pop, tovto iravTUig Kal oiKOvofxricreL elq 

^/xa?. ravra cliroov 6 ayiog Nf/coXao? koi iyKaprepeiv 

avTOv eyKeXevcraiuLevog, yevcraa-Oal re rpoiprjg irpoTpe'^a.iiievog, 

4. air avTOv aveywprjcre, tov Se Herpov t6t6 (xev /uLCTaXa- 

, povTog Tpo(bng, eireLra oe Kai avuig eavTou eig LKecnav uera 
second r S -^ , , , , - ^ , « / 

prayer to vrja-reLag eTrireivovTog, (paiverai avTw iraKiv €K oevrepov o 

S. Nico* ayiog Nf/coXao?, crKvOpcoirw rivl ^Xeixixari, o)? SrjOev virep 
avTov iKCTevcov Kai irapaKOvoixevog, Ka\ Xeyei avrcp vcpei/ULevr] 
Kal irpaela t^ (pcovrj '* eyw /aev, aSeXcfye, irlcrTevcrov, ovk eirav" 
(rafjirjv irepl crov Trjv tov Oeov ayaOonjTa Kal (piXavOpcoirlav 
CK^Lai^ojuLevog, aXX ovk otSa oig Ticri Kpifxaa-LV rj irola 
oiKOvojUiia Ti]V airoXvTp(ii<JLV v/jlIv ava^aXXcTai, TrXrjv 
iireiSi^Trep clcoOev 6 iroXveixjirXay^^yog Trjv ava^oXrjj/ irpog to 
(Tv/uLipepov TjiJiOdv TrpayjuiaTevecrOai, *lva imr] Ta-)(€(j09 Xau- 
^avovreg KaTacppovcojUiev paSicog r?? -^dpiTog, OeXei Se fVft)? 
Kai Trap* erepcov virep crov a^i(joOrjvai toov evapecTTrjcravTcov 

" avTM, eyco ctol Trpog avTOV VTroSei^w Trpear^evrrjv a^icoTaTOv, 

Xal3(jt)juL€v ovv avTov avvriyopov afJiCJyoTepoi, jjlovov eirl a^/reu- 
cecTL TOig Tpayfiacriy Kal otSa cog einveva-eL 6 Qeog ^oO^vai 
tjluLiv Ta irpog crcoTr^plav aiT^imaTa" tov Se elpriKOTog "/cat 
Tig eirj apa, ayie SicriroTa, 6 irXiov crov to Oeiou IXaa-OtjcrO' 
fievog, crov yap Taig irpecr^elaig Kal Taig TrpocrTacriaig 6 
KoarjuLog airag irepicruoXeraL ; " vTrocpOacrag avTW 6 fieyag 
e<pr} Ni/coXaoj " olSag ^vjmecov tov SUaiov, og ev X^pf^l tov 
Kvpiov Te(Tcrapov6r]fxepov TrpoarSe^ajULevog ev tm vaw elcreKO- 
/uLtjcrev ; " " olSa," (j)i]cri, " clyie tov Oeov, Kal ovk ayvow tov 
avSpa, Toig yap dyioig evayyeXioig ccttiv dvdypaTTTog." 6 
Se (piXavOpcoTTOTaTog Nz/coXao? " tovtovJ' e(py], " d/mcpoTepoi 
eig Trpecrpelav Kivrjcrwixev, SvvaTai yap, cog tw Opovca tw 
SeoTTTOTLKw jiieTO, TOV UpoSpo/JiOv Kal Trjg QeoTOKov ael 
TrapiaraiMevog' Kai iravTcog ra airepavTa ^juliv irepag alcriov 
aTToXi^YOVTai." cog Se ravra eiTrcov^ 6 ayiog Nz/coXao? 
* sic cod. 2 g^^ 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTEE I 21 

aTTtjWaTTero. SivTrvta-Qeh ouv 6 avrip^ iraXiv eavrov ra?? 5. 

, ^ - /a ' ' '^ ^ ^ ' * ^a ^ - prayer to 

eiriKoKeicrvaL ovk aireKiire. Kai uea /not evravua ti]v rov g gy_ 

dylov (TviiiTraOelap, ttw? tou UeTriv aTroOepaTreva-ai ^ouXofJievog ineoii,and 

Ka\ Twv airrjcreciyv avTOv Trpo/mrjOevaaa-Oai to avfxirepaa-iJ.a, ^l^^^^^^ 

ov KaTWKVYjcrev eh tovto aru/ULTrpecrfievrrjv kol Suyuewi/ irapa- prison. 

Xa^elv rov SiKaiwrarov jmeO* ov irapacTra^ rrj TpLTfj 

€7ri(popa rrjg airoKaXv-^em, ore Srj koi Trjv Xvariv auTM rwv 

\v7rt]pu)v €-)(apl(7aT0, " Oapcrei " €(prj, " aSeXcpe Tlerpey Ka). 

T^9 aOvjUiiag to TroXy aTrocrKevaa-a/uLevoi;, tm koivw /JLearirt] Kal 

o-vjULTrpea-fievTrj l^vjULecov ra rtjg alrrjcreM's eTriOapprja-ov.^^ 

TOVTOV Se Tovg ocpOaXjULOv^ avarelvavTog, kol tov ixeyav 

^v/uLccov TrepicrKOTTi^a-avTO^, evrpofxov Se oXou yevo/uievov t(o 

Siei t5? opaceoog, 6 SiKai09 avrw TrapacrTag ^vjulcwv pajBSov 

y^pvcr^v juL€Ta->^eipi^6iJi€V0^, ecpovS Te Kal KiSapiv koi eTrco/miSa 

TTcpi^epXrjfjievog, roiovroig Trpog avrov aireyjprjaaTO priij.a(nv, 

^^ avTO^" (byitjlvj^^vTrapyei^ 6 tm aSeXcpw N(/coXaa) €vo')(\(jov, Kal 

a-vv€')^(Jog Seo/uievog aveOtjvai ere t?? irepieyova-ri^ ere OXly^ecog, 

Ka] T>y? evravOa (ppovpag, Kal tcov o-iStjpwv tovtcov Sea-jULcov ;" 

6 Se jJioXig TOV crT0/>caT09 avrov avoiyevrog " vat," (pWh 

" ayie rov Oeov, eyw eifxl 6 raireivog, 6 eyyvrjrtjv avrov eig 

Beov, Kal rr]v crtjv ayicoa-vvrjv jULecrlrrjv Kai Trpear^evrrjv irpo' 

^aXXoimevog.'^ " kol (pvXarreig,^' (prjcriv, " airo rov vvv 

a<T(pa}<w9 airep avrw KaOcofjioXoyrjcrag, /JLOva-^^og yevofxevos 

Kal evapercog (Biovv aTro rov 7rap6vro9 Sieyetpo/mevog ; " 

" j'a/ j" (pijcrlv, VTrocpOdcag 6 iKerrjg avre^rjcre^ Kal 6 SUaiog 

^v/uLeoov " eireL^rjirep " cjyrjcrlv " efXjULeveiv oh w/moXoytja'ag 

Sia^e/Batoig, e^eXOe aKcoXvra)? rwv evrq-vOa^ kol oirep ^ovXei 

Pd^iCe, ovSev yap (re rov Xoittov roov SoKOvvrcov KcoXvriKwv 

ejULTToSlcrat ^ irapaKaracT'^elv Svv^crerai" rov oe Tlirpov 

rovg 'TToSag roh ari^tjpoh KaOrjXcoimevovg viroSei^avrog, 

CKrelvag rr]v ev rrj \'^ipl pct^Sov 6 ayiog '^v/mewv, rwv re 

(TiSrjpcJov e(pay\/diuLevog, w? rrjKeraL Krjpog oltto rov irpoa-WTrov 

irvpog, ovr(iO£ avrd SiaXvarag irapay^priiJia tjcpavrjcrev, elra 

i^eXOwv rov Sea-fxcorrjplov 6 SUaiog Su^teoji/, Kal a-vvaKoXov- 

Owv avrcp 6 Tlirpog aixa ^ikoXclm tw OeojuiaKapi, rrjv 

TTopeiav e^ta t5? woXewg evpeOr] iroiov/uievog, yvoopicrag oe 

Tw Uerpw 0)9 OVK evvirviov ro opwfieovv {oyeiporrecrOai yap 

^ sic cod. 



33 PETEE THE ATHONITE 

avTog €o6k€1 tw irapaSo^M tov irpdyiuLaToij, tm fieyaXo) 
Nt/coXaft) eTrijueXeicrOaL avrw eireiTrcov, avrog jj-ev tj(pavTu>dri 

OLTTO TWV 6(p6a\lUL(J0V ttVTCOV, 6fX€lV6 Sc fJLOVO^ 6 avOpOOTTOS TW 

KrjSe/Jiovi TrJ9 avrov cr(OTr]pia<; Nf/coXaw Trapo/uLaprwu koi 
irpocravaKeljuLevog, 6 Se juieyag NtKoXao? to, irpos criricriuLOV 
auTw apaarOai SteKeXevero, tov Se elirovTO^ fitjSeu ey^etv o 
SiarpaipiiareTai, 6 tov Kvpiov yvrjcno^ OepaTrcov Ni/coXaoy 
Oappeiv avTw tov Xoittov SiaKeXevcra/ULevo^, eicreXOetv ev kv\ 
TWV CKeicre k^ttwv irapeyyvrja-aTO^ KOLKeiOev oara ^ovXoito 
TWV OTTCopcov cavTW airOKOfJila-aa-QaL' ovirep yevo/mevov, Kal 
tov avOpcoTTOV e/V SiaTpoiprjv eviroprjo-avTO's, ovk eiravcraTO 
6 fieyag ^eipaycoycov Nx/coXao? ew? eig 'Pwpiavlav a^Xa^rj 
II, 1. oieKOjULicrev. eTrel Se Trjg YpaiKcov eire^ri yrjg 6 avrjp 6 jmev 
His jour- ayio^ evOvg avTOv aTrrjXXaTTCTO, tovto julovov Trpog avrov 
Rome. eiTTCov, " Kaipog croi, aSeXcpe lleTpe, ra? a-vvOi^Kag cKTrXrjpcoarai 
Ta')(yTaTa, ei Se firj 'iraXiv tw ^ajuLapa aTroKOfJLi^rj w<} ^eV/xzo?." 
6 Se ajj-a jmev koi Trjg irpoTepag ava^oXtj^ SeSim to eTriTifJiiov, 
a/JLa Se koi tov ayiov Oepairevetv eKjuLtj)(av6fJLevog, ovSe ev T(S 
oiK€L(p oIkm aireXOcov, ovSe imev TOig tSloig rj yvcopi^/moig eavTov 
(pavepuxjagj cog dv fitj vtt' avTcov T^g cnrovSrig dvayaLTLaOri, 
Tayovg cog eT^e rrrpog ^Pco/ULrjv ^irelyeTO airoSovvai tw H^vplta 
Tag €i^^a9 [J^^t e^OjULoXoyi^arecog, dg SieaTeiXe to, \eiXij avTOV, 
2. Kal (TKOTrei (xoi evTavOa, w (piXoTijg toov opOoSo^cov, Tfjg tov 
laus ^and "^^^l^l^dKapog ^LKoXdov KrjSefxoviag to dcrvyKpiTOv, ircog coa-irep 
the Pope. TraTrip (piXocTTopyog Kal arv/uLTraOi^g, ^ wcnrep iraiSaycoyog 
apia-Tog tw avTM irpocrave'^riKOTL ^ arvjuLTrapofJiapTei, ovTcog 
avTw a-vvoSoiTTopei, eirtjKoXovOei, irpoeTpey^e, tcl ejULirpoa-Oev 
irpocofidXiCe, to. oiricrOev eTreppcovue, KaTevoSoov ev aTracri, 
Kai OVK direcTTri tovtov ecog av avTOV tw Oew Trpoo"^ 
rj£^ev cog eirej^eiptjcrev. dpTi yap Tore Trj 'Pw/jt^ eyyl^ovTog 
tov dvOpooTTov, Kal TOV TOTTOV dyvoovvTog, dyvoovjLievov Se 
Kal avTOVi TO ^ TtiviKavTa t59 'Pco/uiaicov eKKXrjo-lag irpo- 
eSpevovTL 6 fieyag avTov KaTdSrjXov Kal ejucpavfj Trapla-Ttja-i 
Nf/coXao9j vvKTCop T(p ITaTra eTricTTag, tov dvSpa eirl "veipag 
KpaTwv, avTcp tovtov vireSeiKwev, oircog jmev avTOv €k tov 
^afxapd dveppvcraTO, koI oiroog ev'^v e-^ei ev tm tov Kopv- 
cj)aiov Tcov airocTToXwv airoKelpaarOai (TrjKw KaOe^rjg TrpocrSii]' 
yov/mevog, yvcopicrag avTM djua Kal to tov dvOpooirov ovofxa, 
* sic. 2 sic cod. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTEE I 23 

Tlerpov avTov irpocrayopevea-Oat eiircop, CTTrevSeiv re ev tw 

avTu> Tw JlaTTCL vTroOe/uLevo^, cog av Ta'^iov tol Trjg ev-^rjg 

Treparwcrei. StuTrvtaOelg oivv 6 Wairag, kol irpog to tov 3. 

It / ^ f '^ \ <^f*s Peter in 

Kopvcpaiov TejuLcvog airicov, tjv yap KvpiaKtj tcov fjjmepcoVi g P t ' 

iravTag irepiea-Koirei Koi, tu)u 'TrpocrairaiTOovTOov Karevoei ra in Rome, 

irpoa-CDTra, el apa tov SeivOevTa avTco KaO' virvovg avayvoopiel ^^^ ^^ 

y a ' ^ jf^ ^ N-/1 ' ^ -^ ^interview 

Kai ueaa-€Tai. Kai otj to TrAtjuog Trpoaavea-^^tjKcog tov Aaov -^^h the 

opa TOV avOpcoirov fiecrov twv aWcov IcTTafjievov vevfiacri Se Pope. 

aira^ Koi Sh tovtov TrpocrKaXecrdfjLevog, cog elSe ixri vTraKovovTa, 

€^ ovofxaTog avTOV eiri^oav cire^elptjare, " TLcTpe " \eycov 

* o ttTTo 1 paiKiag cA^Avucog, ovk avTog €l ov o fxeyag 

l^^iKoXaog €K TOV ^afiapa twv Sear/uLcov koi T^g (pvXaKrjg 

aireXvTpuxraTO ; " tov Se eavTov elvai oixoXoyrjcravTog, kol 

Tw TrapaSo^o) Oa/uL/SijOevTog tov CLKOvarimaTog, 6 Hairag avTw 

^TTCKptvaTO " /uitjSev OaviLida-rjg, aSeXipe UiTpe," Xeycov, " otl 

i^ ovojmaTog ere cKaXea-ay ov ovSiiroTC TeOeajmar 6 yap 

TroXvg Kai [xeyag Nt/coXao? vvKTcop /moi eiriarag airavTa ra 

KaTa (76 evecpavrja-e, koi cog ^Kcig aTroOpi^o/uLcvog Kai Tag 

eu^a? (TOV Tw Kvplco aTTOirXrjpcoa-wv.^^ TavTa eiircov 6 IlaTra? Ill, 1. 

Kai TOV avopa airoKeipag, veco tovtov, cog tj viroa-yecng, ^^^» "« 
a f ^ t /' » ix f J » /- ♦ parture 

KaUiepcoare* Kai iroirjaag yjpovov ovk oAiyov /j.€t avTOv o from 

Toy Oeov ovTiiog dvOpooTrog, KaTriyjiQelg irap' avTOv tcl irpog Rome. 

(TcoTrjplav '^v^^tjg Kai c^cpeXeiav avvTelvovTa, dveycopria-ev ev 

eip^vrj Ttjg *Pu>iuii]g, elpijKOTog avTw tov juaKapicoTaTOv TlaTra 

" iropevovj tckvov, 6 Kvptog ecTTai ixera (rod Kai avTog evOvvai 

Trjv oSov crov, (TTtjpll^cov irpog irav epyov ayaOov, koI oia- 

(pvXoLTTCov ere diro tcov tov SialSoXov /ULeOoSicov.'' irea-wv ovv 6 

juaKapiog TleTpog eig Tovg TroSag tov Ilaxa Xeyei irpog avTOV 

'' arco^ovy rZ/xze iraTep, (toj^ou, fxaOtjTa tov ^piaTOv, Kai 

virriKoe tov eyyvriTOv Kai pvcrTOV julov tov dylov NiKoXdov, ' 

leaf CKTiracrd/jLevog avTov tov t€ KXrjpov airavTa e^rjXOe Ttjg 

iroXem, Seofxevog Oeov Ttjg dyaOtjg jULtj evSovvai^ irpoOecrecog, 

evpcov Se irXoiov elariXQev elg avTOV Kai direirXevcrev. ^v 2. 

^e o dvefxog eiriTnSeiog, Kai irXevcravreg fiixepag ed) iKavdg ^^^ ^^y* 
, 3, , y y ^ ^ ^ , age and 

KaTt]VTt](rav ev Ttvi ycopLCo, Kai ttjv vavv irpoa-opfJucravTeg miracle of 

e^rjXdov 01 vavTiKol tov oirTtjcrai dpTovg, direXOovTeg ovv healing. 

ev Tivi oiKia-Kw evpov iravTag TOvg ev avTM KaKcog e-^ovTag, 

6TrTri(TavTeg Se TOvg dpTovg, Kai KaOlcavTeg irpog eaTLaa-iv 

* sic cod. 



2i PETEE THE ATHONITE 

XeyovfTiv €v\ avrwv, " Xa^wv aprov ^eovra aTroKOjUKrov tco 
vavKXripod Koi tm a^^a rjfj.odvj'^ w? ovv yjKovcrev' 6 rod oUov 
Kupi09 TTcpl Tov a^Pa, Xeyei to?? vavraig ** Kvpiol /mov, 
eXOerw 6 iraTrjp, Kai eiiXoyricraTW e/me ere Kal tov vlov julov, 
OTL tjSrj Tw BavaTco Trpocreyyll^ojUiev rrj "^aXeTrrj Tavrrj, wg 
opare, appcoama TrepiTreorovregJ^ tovtwv CLKOVfravreg cKeivot 
aTreXOovTeg avi^yyeiXav tw a^^a' Ttjv aKpav Se TaTreivwcriv 
'jreplKeijULevog kg) /mr] OeXwv kavTov ejucpaviarac, TropevQrjvai 
ovv avTolg ouK e^ovXero' /maOwv Se on eig avrag Kan^vrrjcrav 
TOV Oavdrov TrvXag, KartjcpeiMv ajma koi crKvOpcoTrdl^oov jmer 
avTwv Sirjvv<Te rrjv oSov, wg Se rfj 6vpa tov o'ikov 'jrpoa-rjy' 
yiaraVi tov iraTpog to " X^upe " rw olKoSecriroTrj (pOey^ajuLevoUy 
evOvg KOI Trapaxp^HJia, wa-irep eK fiapvTaTOv Kapov elg eavTov 
yepojULevof;, aveOcope t?? KXivrjg 6 acrOevwv, Kal Trecrotiv irpog 
Tovg TToSag tov octov, koi tovtov^ ixeTo. SaKpvwv 7repi7rTV(T^ 
o-ojULevog, dvecrTrj eppco/uLevog koi vyi^g, irapaSo^ov Tvywv Trjg 
lacrecog. eTriXa/Sojuievog Se TtJ9 tov oariov yeipog, SieSpa/uie 
iravTa ra tmv acrOevovvTMv KXiviSia, Koi, TroiovvTog tov 
ocrlov Tyjv ev XpiarTW arcppayiSa, evOeoDg Icovto ot Trj voctm 
KaTiaryrifjievoi, lacraiixevog ovv iravTag Tovg ev tm oIkw 
appoocTTOvg av6i9 vireo-Tpe-^ev eh to TrXoloVj avrjyyeiXav Se 
'TTOLVTa Ta Trap avTov yevo/neva tw vavKXripw ol vhvraL, Ka\ 
SeScoKOTeg So^av tw Ocm^ Trea-ovTcg ajma irpocreKvvrjcrav avrw, 
6 ovv oiKoSea-TroTrjg, 6 Trjg Ida-em Tv^fj^v TravoiKi, Xa/3<t)V 
apTov Ka\ olvov Ka\ eXaiov, TrapeyeveTO elg to irXoiov, 
Tatg oiKelaig X'^P^'^ Sia^aarTdi^wv avrd' 6 Se fxeyag TraTrjp 
tj/jLwv TleTpog Trjv /mev avTOv irpoalvea-iv aireSe^aTO, Xa/Seiv 
Se avTO. ov irapeSex^ro, kol Treawv irpog Tovg iroSag avTOV 
ajULa TOig (TVveXOovcriv avTw cKXaiov o/ulov TriKpcog, XeyovTeg 
" SovXe yvr}(rie tov ^pta-Tov, el juLtj fjLiKpav TavTtjv evXoyiav 
€K Tbdv x^^P^^ ifJLwv X^y^r], ovSe avTOi TraXtvoo'TovjULev ev t^ 
oiKia ^lULwv'' lULoXig Se ireicrOeig 6 'jraTrjp, twv ev tw ttXoIw 
TravTWV Sva'MTrtja-avTCov irpog tovto, Xa^eiv avTa KaTeSe^aTO' 
Kai ^a/jOoi/re? virecrTpe^av eU tov oIkov avTwv evx^pi- 
3. (TTOvvTeg T(p Oew Ka\ tm tovtov OepairovTi, tovtmv ovtco 
+' nT^^^^^ 7ei/0yuej/ft)i', Kal tov Kvpiov So^dcravTog^ ev Tracri tov 'iSiov 
Theoto- oiKCTijv, twv eKetare eirapavTeg ol vavTiKol Trjg eyrl to irpocrte 
kos, and Tropelag e*ixovTO> ^v Se rj jnev Tpocprj tov fxaKaplov Trarpog 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 25 

€v T(f TrXofft), ott' ecTTrepa? €19 €(T7repav, ovyKia aprov ri Se the reve- 
'irocri^ airo tov OaXaTTiov vSarog evo9 jumcpov fiavKoXlov. Nation of 
Kai diairAeva-avre^ rjjULepa^ iKava?, Kai ev rivi rjcrv^^w totto) j^thos 
irpodopiJLoQevTe^,^ [xiKpov fieraarj^cov virvov 6 Oeoipopog Uerpog 
opa Trjv irava-^avTOV Ocotokov [xera tivo<s virep^aWovcrrj^ 
aiy\r]g (paveicrai/, koi tov fxeyav ^iKoXaov aiSoi koI (po/Ba) 
Ka\ arvcTToXr] 7r\t]<Tia^ovTa, Kai ikctikw^ Xeyovra aiW>] 
" Sea-TTOiva tov iravTOi koi Kvpla, eirelirep tov SovXov arov 
TOVTOv Trjg ^aXeTT^? cKcivijg al-)(jj.a\w(JLa^ iXevOepooo-ai ijOe- 
Xrjcra^, SvcrwTr^OtjTi VTroSei^ai tovtco kol toitov, ev w tov 
InroXoiirov Tr]9 ^ft)?? avTOv ^mreXecref -^povov, to, (piXa Beta 
SiaTTpaTTcov" Ka) a-Tpacpeicrd cj)r]G-L Trpbg avTOV rj OeoTOKog 
" ev T(S TOV *A^« opet ecTTai ri avairavcn^ avTOv, oirep et? 
Kkripov ejuLov aiTijcraiuLevr} e^Xtjipa irapa tov ejULov viov koI 
Oeovj OTTW? oc Tcov Koa-fxiKciov avaytopovvTC^ a-vyyixTewv, kol 
TMV TTvevjuLaTiKcov, o<rtj Svva/uLt?, avTC'^oiuevoi, Kai to ifjLOv 
oXrjOeia Kai Trlcrrei Kai SiaOiarei ylrv)(rjg eTriKaXov/Jicvoi ovofJia, 
Trjv Te Trapovarav l^corjv ajmepi/uLvov Siavvcoa-i, koI Tr]v juiiXXovcrav 
Si^ epywv OeapecTTCov KXtjpovo/ULwcri. iravv yap eTriTepTrclog 
€)(^ca TOVTOV,'^ KOI Xlttv fJLOv TO TTvevixa eir avTM iirevcppalveTat, 
Kai yap cra(pw9 otSa otl ea-Tai ttotc OTe irXtja-Qi^creTai tov 
TayjuLaTog twv ^ovaywv a7r' aKpoov ecog aKpoov avTOv, Kai to 
eXeog tov c/ulov viov Kai Oeov, el ye Kai avTol tcov a-coTtjpiwv 
ivToXwv avTeyovTai, eh tov arvjULTravTa alwva ctTr avTwv ov 
oiao'KeSaa'Oi^a'eTat, Kai irXaTvvw avTOvg eirl votov Kai 
Poppav TOV eiptjiuLevov opovg, Kai KaTaKvpieva-ovariv avTov 
airo OaXaa-cn]^ eo)? OaXaorcrtjg, Kai to ovo/ma avrcov ev Tracrrj 
Tri v(pr]Xi(p Trepi^orjTOV Otio-ci), Kai tcov SiaKapTepovvTcov ev 
avTM inrepaa-TTico.^^ aXX' opa juoi Trag 6 irapaTvy^avwv 
TwSe Tw ^LriyrjfjLaTL SeorTTOTOV fxev aKpav (piXavOpcoTrlav, 
SovXov Se crvjuLTrdOetav Kai CTOpyrjv irpog o/uloSovXov, Kai 
oeaTTOivijg ttjOo? oiKeTriv KijSejuLoviav Kai ir pocTTao'lav' evvoei 
Se fJLOL Kai Trjv TOV oarlov UeTpov aKpaicpvea-TaTriv TrlaTiVf 
rjTig iravTa ra Svcry^eprj KaTevfAapKre, koI t*]v evyjiv tjv 
tjv^aTO Tw Kvplco aTToSoOfjvai ireTTOitiKe. SivirvicrOeh ovv 6 
imaKapiog aKjULaiav cti Ttjv oirracriav e^wj' rjv^apia-Ttjcre Tip 
OeS, Kai Trj iravayvia tovtov jmtjTpl, Kai tm imeyaXcp iraTpi 
l!^iKoXdcp, ^v Se wpa cocrel TpiTtj, koi irvevfiaTog €7ri(j)6pov 
* sic cod. ^ sic cod. 



26 PETER THE ATHONITE 

4. TV^ovTeg eiropevovTO yalpovTe<;' eyyicravTcov Se tjotj tw tov 

, «.iii Aao) opovg aKOOTrjpiw, ai(pvtj<! ecrTrj to ttaoiov, tov aveixov 
yai at „ ', ' ^ ' x' , ', ^ ^ 5 ' < 

Mount ^Ti TTveoPTog Kai Ta la-Tia irAijpouvTO^f Kai oitjTropovv ol 

Athos. vavTiKol, ttjOO? aXXji\ou9 XeyovTeg " tI apd ccttl to cnj/uLeiov 

TOVTO, Koi T19 V TrapdSo^og auTrj KaivoTOiuLia, otl ev toctovtco 

"^dcrjuLaTi TreXayovg, dvefjcou eTriTrjScLOV 0VT09, to a^Kacpog ea-Ttj 

Trap' eXTrlSa t?? eirl to nrpocrw iropelag ; " TovTa diropovv- 

Twu avTwv imeya crTevd^ag 'i(pri irpog auTOvg 6 ayiog *' TCKvla 

OeXovTa fxaOeiv fxe koi epcDTOvvTa, eiiraTe fjLoi, 'Icrcog yap r?? 

SiaTTOpi^crecog vjjlwv CTTiXvTtjg ecro/xa/, t/? ^ KXfjcrig tov tottou 

TOVTOV ;" 01 Se etirov ^^to ayiov ecrTtv opog, TijULie iraTcp, 

oirep ap-^^riQev Trju tov "AO(a e^Xrjcpe Trpoa-fjyoplav.^' koi 

Xeyet avTOig " ra^a Si' e/xe to crrjineiov tovto yeyove 

(TYiixepov, Koi el jULt] ev tw toitw tovtw e^eveyKavTeg eaariTe 

fi€, TrepaiTepw Trpo^rjvaL ov SvvaarOe" ol Se SaKpvcri (Tva")(e' 

OevTeg, Ta la-Tia "^aXaaravTeg tJ yrj irpocrriyyicrav, Kai 

TOVTOV fieT oSvpixwv Ka\ Oprjvwv cK^aXXovTeg elacrav cKeicre, 

XeyovTeg avTM otl " fxeyaXrjg a-KeTrrjg Kai ^orjOelag vcrTepri-' 

Orifxev (Trjtxepov, cov SiaipeOevTog ^/jlcop" koI 6 ayiog irpog 

avTOvg " Ti ovTm dXoXu^ere, koi eavTOvg KaTaarirapdcrcreTe, 

TCKva, Si' efxe tov iracrrig djuiapTlag avairXeov ; 6 Oeog 6 

(piXdvOpcoTTOs, 6 '7ravTa-)(ov irapoov Kai Ta iravTa TrXtjpwV) 

avTog Kai v/uliv avvoSeva-et, Kai ev iraa-rj ayaOoepyia TripYjcreiy 

KOLjULol X^ipa ^orjOeiag ope^ei airap-^v woiovimevw iroXiTeiag 

OeocpiXovg" ovTCog eiircov, koi tov ev Kvplco SeSooKwg avTOig 

acnraa'fxov TpiTOv eireXa^eTO t5? vrjog^ Kai to) ti/hiu) a-Tavpta 

(Tcfypayi^a-ag, Kai eireiirwv " iropevecrOe aSeX<pol ev eipi^vrj, 6 

IV, 1. Kvpiog eir] (jieu vfjiwv, e^eTre/xyei/ eig ra loia, airo oe Trjg 

His cave aKpopeiag cKeivrig to avuxbeph t5? oSov Kai Svcr^aTOV 
on Mount ,5,' ^' n>- ? ^/i^ » ' ' i^/ » ' 

Athos full topwTi iroXXcp oieXowv Kai kottm, irpog ti ireoiov eyeveTO 

of vermin ofxaXov Kai evaepov, Kai fiiKpov toov iroviav aveOeig, iraXiv 

and 3/ y ^ ' ^ \ r ^ ^ t -> t 

d il tjp^cLTO oiep^ofievog irepicrKOTreiv tov tottov ev (p rj avairavcrig 

avTOv ecTTai, iroXXovg Se )(€ipaiJ.ovg Kai vdwag koi yrjXo- 

(j)ovg SieXOwv evpe a-irriXaiov irdvv [xev (TKOTeivov, vXrj Se 

fiaOeia irepiea-TOiyj.a'p.evov, ev w toctovtov epireTm ea-jmog 

§1/, 0)9 virep^aiveiv ovpavioav aa-Tepoov irX^Oog, Kai OaXaTTiav 

a/jLfJLOV, fxeO' wv Kai Sai/movcov evecpcoXevov irXrjQrj, 01 toctovtov 

^yeipav cfirivog Treipaa-jULcov Tip ay lip oog ^Te yXwa-aav 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 27 

^wpeiv cKptjyeicrOai, (JLrjre OLKorj Trapa^e-^efrdai. riva yap 

Twv Trjg oXtji €K€ivi]g Stare/jLoov a t^v OeoSjULtjTOv ea-KCTrov 

TOv (TTnjXalov Ovpav, KaTOJKrjcrev ev avTw ev^apiCTTOov Tip 

Kvplcp Kal e^o/ULoXoyovjULevog i/u/cto? kol ^fxepa^ koi rag ev^ag 

OepjULm OLvaTrejuLTTcov. ouiroD Se top Sevrepov rtjs e/BSofJidSog 2. 

TOV ayiov Kaipou oiavvaravTog, to KaoTepiKooTaTOv avTOv ,,'^ "^^'' 
X \ > ^ J. ' » ' ^ - ^ - » o f attempt 

Kai TOA/mripov /nrj (pepwv o aei TOig KaAoig exfpacTAcati/wi/ of the 

^aTOLv, apag Ttjv iravcTTpaTiav avTOv jmeTa ^eXcov Kal to^cov, devils. 

eKjeKTi juLovog ev tw cKeivip t(S cnrijXaKp, evOa 6 jmaKapiog 

TOV T^9 imapTvpiKtjg aOX^crecog Si^vvev aycova, ol Se aXXoi 

XiOovg iraiJLixeyeOeig, w(T7rep KvXiovTeg e^ooOev, /uera (pwvwv 

Kal Kpavywv eire/JLirov KaT avTou, warTe TavTa opwvTa tov 

ayiov Xeyeiv oti " iravTcog irecpOaKe /jlov to iripag Kai ovkcti 

TOig ^(Jo(riv api6jJLr}6ii(TOiuiai.'* Kal 6 jnev TrpocrTaTrjg tovtcov 

evSov ^v TOV cnrriXalov, rj Se aXXfj avTOv iravoTrXia to, ro^a 

KaTeyovTeg eSoKOvv Tre/jLireiv KaTO, tov ocrlov (povlcog* cog Se 

Trj avcoOev ')(apiTi aaivtjg SieTtjpeiTO, Xeyei ev eavTw 

*' e^eXevcrojjjiai tov (TirriXalov Kal yvuxrojULai Tig rj TOO'avTij 

juLavla, Kal t/ twv crvveiXey/uLevcov to crvvTayy^a^^ Kai e^eXOcov 

eiSe TCL Ttjg irovrjplag TrvevfxaTa kvkXw tov (nrrjXaiov eaTWTai 

Kal Kpavyaig acpopi^TOig Kal (jyo/Sepaig oy^ecrtv otl^rjSov KaT 

avTOv eiriovTa, koI to OfM/jia irpog ovpavov avaTcivag t^v 

OeoTOKOv eireKaXeiTO irpog a-vjuijuia^iav, eiprjKwg o'vTwg 

" ayla OeoTOKe, /Soi^Oei tm SovX(p crov.^* Kal a/xa to 

aKOvcrai Tovg evavTiovg to yXvKv Kal TrepiTroOtjTOv ^/miv Ttjg 

OeoTOKov ovofxa, evOvg Kal Trapayjpt]fxa yeyovaaiv a(pavTOi. 

e'l^cTO ovv TraXiv twv aycovcov 6 ayiog eavTOv cKSeScoKcog Tip 

(TirrjXaiip, Kal 'jrpo(rev)(o/uL€vog eXeye ficTa Kpavyrjg ia")(ypag 

" Kvpie 'Irjarov ^picTTei 6 Oeog [xov, inrj eyKaTaXiTTijg /ue," koi 

ovKCTi rjKovovTO (pcoval fJ^e-)(j)i Kaipov Tivog, [xera TavTa 3. 

TrevTi^KovTa TrapeXOovcrwv ^uepwv, 'irdXiv rw irpOTepip Ypiyca- Second 
r ^ "- r ' ' r , r; AT , attempt 

jiievoi o-^ixaTL ol TaXaLTrcopoi OTrXii^ovTai KaT avTOv, Kai of the 
Kivovari irav epirerov lo^oXov Kal irdvTa Ta Otjpia a rjv ev devils. 
Tip opetf Kai fJLer avTcov ay ovcriv ev Tip G^irrjXaiip. Kai Ta 
fjLev avTcov evOev KctKelOev Tpeyeiv iwoiovv oi aXiTtipLOi, Ta 
Se '^(aa'/uLaari yjyaa-Oai Kal XwvTa TreipacrOai KaTairielv tov 
SiKatov, aXXa Se epireiv Kal crvpiTTeiv Kal ^Xocrvpov opav 
irapea-Keva'Cpv, aXXa koi ttoXiv TovTovg Tovg acrOeveig Kal 



28 PETER THE ATHONITE 

€KV€V6Vpia-/jL€vovi Tw CTrjiuLeiM Tou (TTavpov, KOL Trj eiriK\r}(reL 

Tov ovofJLaTOi Tov Oeov kqI t?? ay^pavroois ^ tovtov TeKOvarrj^ 

4. fjLtjTOog iravTa^ ecbvyaSevare. ypovov ovv irXiipcoOii/Tog ei^o?, 

Third ^ » f ^ - ^ ^ r^ > ♦ - TT ' 

attemnt '^^^ rja-v^iav aa-Kovvrog tov jULeyaAov irarpog rjjjLwv lieTpov, 

of the Ka\ oartj Svvaiiiig avrw KaOaipovvTog ra tov e-^Opov v\\/(jojULaTa 
devils. ^^J Te-^vaarjuaTa, Seivop TroieiTai 6 oXaarTwp Tr}v tov irarpo's 
i^pejuiav Kai ovk aveKTOv. Kai opa oia avTw jmefirj-^avevTar 
IxeTaa-^rjlxaTiG-Qelg yap 6 Satiiiwv eig eva twv oiKeiaKwv 
TraiScov avTOv opo/nalcog epyeTai 'irpo<s to crTrtjXaiov , ical 
avaiSu)^ TrepiTTTv^djuiepog, avTOv cpiXeiv viroKpivo^xevog 6 tov 
/mliTovg ava-rrXeog, KaOlcrag rjp^aTO KXaietv Kal Xeyeiv ovTcoi' 
" OLKYiKoafiev, Kvpie rjijiwv. Tree? [lev ev tw iroXe/ULM KpaTr]6e]g 
Trpos TOU ^ajiiapav aTrtjve-^^Oeig, Ka\ Trj KaKrj Kai ^o(p(oSt] 
CKeivrj eipKTrj TrapeSoOi]?, Trwg Se 6 6eog ev-^aig tov irafjLp.a- 
Kapog TraTpog rj/jiwv ^iKoXaou tov (fypovplov cKelvov cocra- 
TToXvTO^ cK/SaXcop Ttj Twv ^IPcojULaiwu yri (76 a7roKaT€crTr](r€^ 
Sio Kal 'TrduTcg ol ev tS olkw crov, a/ma e/mo] rw jULoXiarTa 
rfrepiKaiojUiivM Tr}v KapSiav, crrjg Ocag Kal ofxiXiag eveKcv 
'KevdovcTLV aTraprjyoptjTa' TroXXdg Se iroXeig Kal Kco/mag oti 
TrXaVra? SiaSpa/movTeg ovk la-^va-a/ULev Tfjg ecpea-ecog eiriTV^ 
X<£LV, KOL TO irodovixevov ^juLtv KaTtSeiv irpoa-wirov, oLTropla Se 
(Tvar-^eOevTeg, SaKpvcri Kal Se^treci tov jmeyav eiriKaXovixeOa 
NiKoXaov, cKXiirapovvTeg, w yXvKVTaTe, aTroKaXuy^ai rjiJuv, 
OTTOvirep av ??, tov KeKpv/jLfxevov ae 6t]cravp6v* Kal ov 
'TrapeiSev ^/ulwv to dva^iov 6 ev iraari Oepfxos, aXV direKaXvylre 
Ta-^KTTa, TO, KttTa ere (pavepcocrag. vvv ovv, Kvpte julov, clkovctov 
fioVf Kal TTopevOcofiev eig tov oikov rjixwv (oiSag Se Kal avTog 
cog wpaiog Kal TrepiKoXX^g ecTi) koI 'iSoacn iravTeg to avTOig 
ere TToOovjULevov irpocrwirov, Kal So^acrOfj Oebg ev d/uiCpOTepoig 
6 aei So^ai^ofjLevog. irepl Se rjo-v^iag jultj eVrw croi (ppovTig, 
KaKei yap koI [xovacrTrjpLa eicri Trd/uLTroXXa Kal fiarvyacrTripia^ 
ev oig tov airavTa aov ^lov ^(TV)(a(rTiKwg Siavvaeig. aXXa 
Kal avTog irpog avTfjg r?? dXr]6eia9 Xeye jmoif tl twv Svo 
(jLoXidTa Oeog OepaireveTai ; ava-^^ooprjo-ei Kocr/xov Kal eprjfjLia 
Kai fjcrv^La, Trj re twi/ diroppwywv ireTpoov Kal (papdyywv 
TOVToov SiaTpij3^, ev oh cravTOV fiovoVy Taya S^ ovSe eavTOV 
fjKKTTa wcpeX^creiag, rj dvOpwirwv SiSaarKaXla Kal oSrjyla Kal 
Trjg irpog avTOV eiticrrpocpri e/c Trjg TrXavtjg ; eyw'ye olfxaL cog 
^ iic. * sic cod. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 29 

fjLiag '^v)(rig ck TrXdvtjg oSov avTtjg €7riarTpo<pri ttoWwi/ 
cptj/uLiKcov vTTepaKOVTicrei aycovag, Kai /napTupei /uloi to) Xoyo) 
6 Xeyayu ' 6 avdycov a^iov e^ ava^iou tog (rrofJia /ulov ecrTai,' 
TToXXa ^e irXriQri ev tw tottcc ^fjLwv eio-tv del iu /mvpiois 
TrdOea-i TrXavwjULeva, koI yjpriX^ovcrLV eiKorcos tou jULerd Oeoif 
avTOcg PorjQrjcTovTog' fJLvpiog ovv diroKela-eTai ctol fJucrOog, el 
ye Toug TrXavwfJiepovg eXOcov eTTidTpe^Yeiag irpog Oeov, Xoittop 
ovv Ti /miXXei ; rl rrjv fxerd tou oXoKapSlcog (piXovvrog ere 
OIK6TOV dvaSvr] oSov ;" ravTa tou oaiimovog Xeyovrog koI 
dXXa Tivd fjLerd SaKpvcov, tjp^aTO SiarapaTTecrOai koi 6 dyiog, 
KOI daKpua-i Ppe-^oov to irpocrooirov (prjcri irpog avTOV " ev tm 
TOTTft) TOVTU) ovK dyyeXog ovk avOpcoirog e(pepe /ue, aXX' 
avTog 6 Oeog, koi rj irava-^avTog aurov jmiiTrjp rj OeoroKog, 
Koi ei jULrj rrj eKelvoov yvoojurj Kal TrpoTpoirrj rcov wSe ')((t)picr6(a, 
dXXcog ov ■^copl^ofJLai" djuia Se to dKOvarai top Saifxova to 
Ttjg OeoTOKOV ovoixa evOem dcpavTog yeyove, koi Oavfiaa-ag 6 
ay tog Trjv a-Kaiwplav tov Sal/Jiovog, Ttjv ev ^piaTto crcppayiSa 
ireiroLrjKwg, irdXiv tjo'v^ao'e, vrjcTTeia Se "^^prja-ajmevog koi 5. 
eyKpaTela 'jroXXrj, Ka\ irpocrev^^alg dvevSoTOig cr^^oXdl^ooVi eig ^p^^'^ 
cLKpov ecpOaa-e Taireivwcrewg Kai fxeTpov dyairrjg elXiKpivovg of the 
Kal voog KaOapoTrjTa' Sio Ka\ <7(pdSpa i^Srj/uLoveL Kai ecnrevSev <ievil3. 
6 rnrajuLTTOvtjpog tov tovov avTOv -^aXacrai, Kal Trjg eirl to 
kpeiTTOv poTrvjg dvaa-TeiXai, Kal /xera 'irapaSpo/j.rjv ')(j)6v(t)v 
kiTTa elg dyyeXov (pcoTog iuLeTacr')(r]iuLaTi(r6e[g, edTraa-fxevrjv 
€)((iov ev T^ X^^P'- pojuiCpalav, ea-Trj 'jrXrjariov T^g tov aTrrjXaiov 
OTTijg, Kal KaXecrag avTOv e^ ovdjuaTog e(pij " UeTpe, Oepairov 
XpioTTOv, e^eXOe Kal dvayyeXco croi Xoyovg KaXovg." Kal 
Xeyei 6 dyiog " crv Tig et 6 Xoyovg fxoi dvayyeiXai VTria-^^vov- 
jLLevog aXpeXi^iuiOvg ; " koI 6 irovrjpog " ey(a eifxl Kvpiov 6 
dp-)(^L(TTpaTt]yog, Kal direcTTaXriv irpog ere, ic^x^^ ^^^ '^^^ 
dvSpll^ov Kal Xo.lpe Kal dyaXXia, otl Opovog Oeiog ^TOi/uLao'Tai 
Kal cTTecpavog d/mapavTivog. vvv ovv tov tottov tovtov 
KaToXiircov TropevQrjTi ev tw Koar/uLta elg crT^piyfia Kat 
(ocpeXeiav iroXXwv- Kvpiog yap 6 Oeog Trjv 'irtjyrjv e^ijpave 
TOV vSaTog Trjv irXijcrlov arov, Sid ra? twj/ Orjplwv koi epireTcov 
eviSpoiuLag Tag /cara aov yivoimevag, oircog diroyj/v^cocTLV l/SaTog ^ 

fjLt] jm,eT€')^ovTa" ^v Se 6 Trdv(TO(pog ev KaKia ovTog Trpo- 
airoarTeiXag SalfJiova KooXvovTa Kal SiaKaTe-^ovTa Thv tov 



30 PETEE THE ATHONITE 

vSarog pvijajv. rovrcov aKovcra^ 6 ayto? ecptj cu raireivwcrci 
** Ti? elfjit eyoi) 6 kvoov, Iva ayyeXo^ Kvplov eXOrj ttjOO? julc ; " 
KOt 6 oa//xa)y, " firi OaviJ.aa'rjg' iv yap roi^ Kaipoh Tovrot^ cru 
veviKtjKag koi M-wcrrjv koi 'HX/ai/ Koi. Aavii^X, koi /meyag 
€K\i^Or]^ €v ovpavoi^ Sia to TcXetov t?? viroiuLovtjs crou* tov 
yap 'HXlav vTrep^efitjKaff rfj aciTia, tou AavirjX to?? epTrerotg 
KOI Orjpioig, TOV 'Iwj8 Trj KapTepia* vvv ovv avacTTa^ Oeacai 
Ttjv TOV uSaTog Xeiy^iv, Ka\ Tayew<i e^eXOcov twv wSe aireXOe 
€v /ULOvaa^ripioig to?? ev tw Kocr/Jiw, kolkci eaofxai ixera aou, koi 
(^(peXrjcrod iroXXovg Sia crou, XeycL Kvpiog TravTOKpaTCdp." kol 
6 ayiog " eyw, yivaycTKe, eav /J-rj eX6r] tj ev iracn crvvepyovija 
/uLOi QeoTOKog, Ka\ 6 Oepjiibg twv ev avayKaig apcayog Nik6~ 
Xaog, Twv wSe ovk cKpia-Taimai" afxa Se to OLKovaraL Ttjg 
OeoTOKOv TO ovojxa evOug e^ oipOaXjUiwv eyeveTO tov aylov 6 
^ai/uLwv, KOI yvovg to, Teyya(TiJiaTa tov Sia/36Xov 6 ayiog 
Kai Ttjv"^ avTOV ev airaa-iv aa-Qeveiav, Trpocrjv^aTO Trpog Kvpiov 
Xeywv ovTcog '* 6 /nev e')(0p6g, Kvpie ^lr](rov XjOio-Te o Oeog 
fioVy (opvojULevog 7repiep-)^€Tai l^tjTWv KaTairielv fxe, aXXa crv Trj 
KpaTttia X^^jOi crou irepicppoupeig /j.e, tov SovXov crou, Slo koi 

6. ev^apiarTw croi, oti ovk aTrecrTtjg ax' e/mov." TavTa Xeywv ricrv" 
ffli X"^^> ^^^ ^^ e/cefi/>y9 tj/nepa^ vvktl a(pv7rvcooravTog avTOv, cog 

Theoto- eicoOei, jULiKpov, (paiveTai avTw ^ Ta^e?a twv ^pia-Tiavwiv ^orj- 
kos and Oeia, rj (biXdvOpwirog OeoTOKog, a/ota NiAcoXaw tw fxeyaXw^ Kal 
manna <p«o-i Trpog avTOV airo tov vvv jULt] oet Atao-i??, o yap ueog 
jULCTa^ (TOV ioTTi Kal avavTijp^Toog^ aupiov airoarTcXXeTat 
ayyeXog Tpo(pr]v ovpaviav KO^vQav (toi* tovto Se irpoTera- 
yixevog ecTTf KaTa Tea-crapaKOVTrjfuepov oltto Ttjg oevpo Troieiv, 
VTToSel^ei Se aoi Ka\ to fxavva irpog Tpo(pi^v" Kai TavTa 
eiTTOVTeg, KOI Trjv eipi^vrjv avTw SeScoKOTeg aveywpria'aV' 6 Se 
irea-tav irpocreKvvrja-e tov tottov evOa ol TroSeg avTcov larTavTO, 
Kal Trj €7ravpiov ep-^eTai 6 ayyeXog v>\ru3Qev €7ri(j)ep6juLevog 
Tag ovpaviovg Tpo<pag, Kal VTroSel^ag to fxavva, KaOcog rj 

7. deoTOKog virecr-^eTO, CLTrearTrj air* avTOv, ev-^apia-Tiiarag Se 
The last «^/J/^^«/ \ t / f ^ ^ 
fiff fli '^^ ^^ '^"^ '^^ TOVTOV /m-fjTpi fjcrv^acre KaTa/uLovag acTKcov, 

years of /^ct^ t«9 eu^a? tw Kvplw airoSiSovg eTfj nrevTriKovTa Tpla, 

his life, e^eXnrov Se Kal at TrvKval cj)avTa(TLai tov Sia^oXov Kal tcov 

ayyeXoov avTOv t^ tov Oeov a-vvepyela Kal crv/JLjULa-^la. ev 

Se TOig TOcrovTOig yjpovoig ov"^ ewpaKe dtvcnv avOpwirov, 

^ Kai TTjv vel w Ttjv {sine accent.) sic cod, ' sic cod. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 31 

ovK ^v avTM Tpocpr] irXrjv tou /xavva, ovk evSujua, ov a-KeTTfj, 

ovK aWo TL Tcov ocTtt XPV^^i TO Twv avOpwTTWv yevo9j aX\a 

fjLOvov TOP ovpavov e^cov <rT€yt]v, koi rrjv yrjv ayairwfxevov 

kXivlSiov, ouToog cTraveTravero 6 fiaKapiog' ev KavfiaTL julcv 

KaiojULevog, ev ave/mw Se koi Xtovi *v|/^u^o/>iei/o?, Koi Tavra 

iravra VTre/meivev vTrep avOpwirov ma Ttjv fxeWovcrav /ulktO" 

aTToSocriav. ore oiiv i^OeXtja-ev 6 J^vpiog (pavepcoa-ai avTov V, 1. 

Tor? avOpco'Troig oiKOvojuilav TOiovSe top rpoirov yevea-Qai ^^^ dis- 

/ /i , ^ 'y ' - » ^ y ' coveryby 

irapearKevaa-e. uripevrtjg m to to^oi/ avrou Kai rtjv (paperpav ^ imnter. 

\apwv e^^XOe Orjpeua-ai Kara to opo9' 'iroWag Se XoyjuLag 

(pdpay^i ^aOeiaig evairoKprnxvovg kol to;? vXwSeig ^a^^/a? 

TOU opovg irapaixei^aixevog, eyevero Kar CKeivo to jmepog, 

€vOa 6 ayiog Trjv ayyeKiKtjv ^airaCeTO iroXiTclav, Kal tou 

ovpdviov ^v €jUL7ropev6jui€VOs irXovTOV. koi ISov TraimiuLeyeOrjg 

eXacpog tov TrXtjarid^ovTog tm G-TrrjXalcp SpvjULOu e^eXOcou 

(TKipTOOv TTCog fjXaTO ivcoTTiov TOU OrjpcvTOv' iSwv Se CKeivog 

virepiueyeOt] tc ovTa kol crcpoSpa oopaiov, TciXXa iravTa 

KaTaXiTTcov tJKoXovOei tovto e^' oXtjv Ttju rjixepav, (acrirep 

Se €K irpovolag Tivog 6 eXacpog oSrjyovjmevog eXOcov ea-Tvj 

eirdvw TOV cnrrjXalov, KaTiyyog Se ^alvovTog tov QrjpevTOVy 

KOL TrepiCTKOTTOVVTOg TTo/o) TpOTTCp TTepiyeVilTai TOV ^WOV, 

(paiveTttL avTW ev Tolg Se^iolg ixepecn dTevicravTi avrjp ^aOvg 
fjLev Tr]v virrjvriv, kol Tag Trjg /ce^aX?? Tpij^ag t^^Xpi- ^5? 
IJLrjTpag KaOieiuLevag ey^odv, to Se Xoittov crcojua airav yeyvfxvos- 
jxevov Ka\ iravrog ea-Teprnmevov evSv/uLaTog' ov iSwv Kal tS 
irapaSo^w tov opd^aTog eKTrXtjKTog yeyovu>g, eSeiXiaare 
or(j)6Spa, KOL TO O^pajjLa KaTaXnrwv OTricrOopiuLrjTog e'ltj, kol 
(pevyeiv ocrr] Svva/iitg tjp^aTO, eaypaKwg Se tovtov 6 /maKapiog 
(pvyrj -^pijcrajUievov (prja-i irpog ainrov /uLeyaXrj Trj (pcovrj '* tl 
(po^rj ; TL TapcLTTtj ; tl ime (pevyeig, dSeX(j)e ; Kayto avOpcoTTog 
eifJii, wg KOL (71/, KOL ov (pdcriuLa Satjuioviov wg VTreXa^eg, Sevpo 
irpog jue, Ka\ eyyicrov, Kal avayyeXco aoi iravra Ta KaT 
eime, eig tovto yap airecTTeiXe ere 6 Kvpiog.^^ eficpo^ov Se 
TOV avSpog virodTpe^avTog Kal Odix^ovg irXripovg, ao'Traa-a- 
fievog 6 iraTrjp K:al Oappelv irpOTpeyp^d/JLevog, KaO^ eipjULOV Kal 
Ta^iv Kal aKoXovOlav 'iravTa to, a-vjUi^eptjKOTa avTM avi^yyeiXe 
T(S dvSpL* Ttiv Te KaOeip^iv avTov Ttjv ev tw ^aixapa, Kal 
T>]V avdppva-iv Trjv Sia tov (neyaXov 'iraTpog Nt/coXaoif 



32 PETER THE ATHONITE 

yevofxevtjv, Kai rw ttoiu) TpoTTW KarwKtia-ev ev rw opei, koI 

TTft)? irapa twv SaiimopCDv Siacpopoog e7roXeyu?}0j;, koI irwg 

€Tpe(p€TO VTTO Tou ayycXov, koI ttw? TrapeV^ej/ avrw to 

fjiavva 6 Kiy^/09, /cat ottw? Ttj tovtov koi juiovr] Tpocprj 

otiipKe<T€v ert] nrevTi^KovTa Tpia, koI aTrXw? iravra top ^lov 

2. avTOv Sie<Ta(pr](r6 t£ avSpi. CKirXayeh Se cKeivog iirl to?? 
The effect » ^ \ * r / >/ i « , / cc "^ v 

onth P^^^^^^^^ /fat evveog yevojuievog ecpij too ayiWy '^ vvv eyvcov 

hunter. otl Kvptog eTrecTKe'^aTO fie, Kal VTreSei^e juloi, w TraTep, 

KeKpvfjL/uievov ere tov avTOv Oepairovra, Kayw toIvvv ixera 

arov ecroiiiai airo tov vvv, SovXe tou Oeovy Kal avv cro\ tov 

(TWT^pLov Siavvarco aywva»^ 6 Se (j>i](rl Trpog avTov " ou^ 

ovTcog ea-Tai, T€Kvov, aXXa irpcoTOV aireXOe ev tw oIkw aov, 

Kal TO einXayyavov croi fiepog T>js TraTpuctjg KXtjpovofilag 

SiaSog TOii Seofxeuoi^, airoar-^ov re o'lvov, koi Kpewv, koi 

Tvpov Koi eXaiov, Kal irpo tovtwv t?? iSla^ yvvaiKog, Kal 

eTTiixeXriQrjTL eJ^^toi/, Kal '7rpO(TO')(rJ9, Kal '^v)^i]g o-uvTeTpiiniULevr]^ 

TOVTOV TOV yjpovov, Kal fieTa to TeXos avTOv eXOe irpog 

^te, Kal el, t/ ijlol Kvpios 6 0eo9 airoKaXvy^ei, tovto koi 

yevi^creTai" TavTa eiTrwv, Kal Ttjv evyriv avTOv o)? appa^wva 

Sovg T(j) OrjpevTpj, CLTrecrTeiXev elg to. 'ISia elprjKcos, " <tv /ulcv ev 

elprjvri iropevov, T€Kvov,to Se nivcrTrjpiov (pvXaTTe,6r}(Tavpo(f yap 

(pavepovjiievo^ evaXcoTog earTai KXeTrraig, /cat eueTTf^e/jO^yro?." 

3. Kai aireXOoov 6 OtjpevTtjg tov jnev yjpovov cKeivov eiroitjcre 

Ihe dis- KaOwg etirev 6 ay log, fieTa Se Trjv (rv/uLirXi^poocriv r?? ej/roX??, 
covery 0I^^^ m * ^«/ \ \ >>/« '^nj' 

the relics Xapcuv ixeK) eavTov ovo jmova^^ovs Kai tov lolov aoeAcpov, 

of Peter eTropevOrjarav a/uLa evpovTeg irXoidpiov, Kal Stj ev oXiycp 

hunter icaOcopiuLia-av ev tm aKpoOrjvlw, Kal Trjg oSov ttoOm ttoXXo) 

d^l/afievoL, dvepyovTai eh to crirrjXaiov, Kal Oea /moi, (o 

(plXoTt]?, TO Tt]9 Oelag OlKOVOJULia^ OLTrOpptJTOV, TTpoXa^oov 

yap Trai/ra? 6 OtjpevTtjg, are Srj Kal ^i^Xm OepimoTepa) kivov- 
juevog, evpe tov jmaKapLOV TeOveooTa, kol Tag ^eijOa? CTTavpoeiScog 
SeSeimevag e-^^ovTa, Ka\ Tovg 6(p6aXiiJLOvg evcrj^rjiuLovcog /ce/caXu/x- 
jmevovg, Kal to Xolttov o-oo/uLa arejuLvcog eirl yrjg Keifxevov Kai 
€(T)^tj/j.aTi(rjULevov. iSwv Se oi/tw? tov ay lov Kelfievov Trj Xvirtj 
cocrirep eKTrXfjKTog yeyovcog, ra?? %^p^l Kpovcrag to irpocrooTrov 
eirecre y^ajmai, oljuLCDyrj Kal KXavOjuLoig Kal oSvp/uLoig arvve-^^ojULevog* 
fieTa iJLiKpov Se Kal ol avveXOovTeg avTW juLOvay^ol KaToXa- 
^ovTeg €Kei(re, Kal to. irepl r?? SiSa-^g Kal vovOecrlag Kal 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 33 

€VTo\^9 Tov dytov Kai tov ^lov avTOv cittovto^ avroig /tiera 

SaKpvoov TOV 6r]p€VT0u, €K\av(rav Kal avrol TriKpm (rrepijOevrei 

rtJ9 avTOv ojLuXLag koi ev-)(t]g. 6 ovv tov OijpevTov aSeXcpbg 4. 

f t ' /I ' \ ff \ t The dpvil 

iTvwixaTi KaT€i')(€TO aKauapTcp, Kai a/ma to Trpoa-eyyicrai ? rr " 

Koi ay\ra(T6ai tov Xei'^avov ^v iSeiv (po^epwTaTOV dea/ULa* hunter's 

a-TrapayiuLo). yap avv€-)^eig to (rco/ULa avTOv KaTecrirapaTTOV, t>rother. 

oi T6 ocpOaXjULOi avTov vcpaijuLot eyeuovTO koi SidcrTpocpot, 

TO Se (TTOiJLa TrXrjpeg d(ppov, koi TpCCwv tov^ 6§6vTa<i i^od 

\eywv "w ITeVjOe, ovk dpKei croi twv irevTrjKovTa Tpiwv 

yjpovwv 6 Sicoyimog ov eTrolrjcrag elg e/ni, e^ewcra? /me tov 

aTTfikalov, ctXXa Koi vvv povXei fie kol TavTfj^ cKSico^ai 

Tt}9 KaTOiKiag fiov; ovk aKova-O) crov, ovS' ov juri e^eX^co." 

KOL fiXeirovTWv tcov ea-TiiKOTCov eyevero (patSpd Tig Kal 

TrepiKaXXrjg fj tov dylov o>\ng, kol TroXXa cnrdpa^av Ka\ 

SiaTapa^av avTou to Trjg KaKiag Satimoviov diricTTtj wcrei 

KaTrvo<5 diro tov crTOfxaTog tov dvOpwirov, og irearcov iirl Ttjg 

yrjg dcpaala KaTeij^CTO Kal dcpwvla, vcKpov fJLfjSev Siacpepcov, 

eTTiKaXea-aiuLevoov Se Tag eu^a? tov lepov yepovTog Kal Tr]V 

Si' avTwv poi^Oeiav tov Oeov iiyepOtj eppwjULevog Kal craxppovwv, 

eiTTODV Tw iSiw dSeXcpWj " evy^apicrTM oroi, Kvpie /jlov koI 

dSeX(j)e, oTi Sia (tov iv KaXw ^XOov wSe, Kal TavTrjg wg opag 

eTvyov lacreiag" X^P^ tolvvv Kal SaKpvcn to tIjuliov avTOv VI, 1. 

dpa/iAevoi XeiyJ/apov, eUcrav hrl to irXoiov Kal eicreXOovTcg ^"® J^V?*" 
. » -V ^ ^ ♦JJ^ , ^ ^ » ^ o - ^' neyofthe 

cv avT(a rjvvov Trjv oooi/ avTcov^ Trjv ctti poppav TrapairXeovTeg relic8 to 

TOV opovg irXevpav. KaT oiKOvofiiav Se Oeov ea-Trj to ttXoiov Clemen- 

''^•v''»/ / ^ ^7» / tOS. 

et/ TO) TreAayei ev ktm yevo/mevov Trjg ixovrjg, ijg tj Trpocrriyopia 
TO. KXi^/ixevTog, /mr] Oav/uLaarrjTe Se fjLovrjg aKovcravTeg, ^ yap 
T^g QeoTOKOv 'irpopptjcrig rjSrj Trpo^alveiv ijp^aTO, Kal to 
St] Xeyo/uLevov diro o'Tayovog vSaTog Trjg twv KaTOiKOvvTwv 
evSeiag evapiOjuLiiTOv Kal oXiyoTrjTogj eig ireXayog av^eiv 
aireipov Kal irXaTvar/mov Kal TrXtjOog to vvvl (paiv6p.evov 
fj TWV KaXcov crvvepyog (pKovo/mrjcre irpovoiav, oOev euKaipou 
ecTTiv enrelv Kal rjiJ^dg /meTa tov eiTrovTog '^ cog KaXoi crov 
01 oiKoi laKoojB, al (TKtjval cov 'IcrpatjX, ag e7rt]^€v 6 Kvpiog 
Kai OVK avOpcoTTog" airo wpag Se TpiTrig ewg wpag evvciTrjg, 
Kai Kwiraig yjpwfjievoL Kal icrrla ecpairXovvTeg, Kal avejuov 
eiriTrjSeiov eyovTeg fxeTaKivrjcrai tovto eKeWev ovk ^kt'^ov* 
opwvTeg Se oi Ttjg eiptjfxevtjg /movtjg iJ.ovaypl to T€ xXotoj; 

ZiAKE. M. A. 



U PETER THE ATHONITE 

firj fieraKivovjULevov Koi rovg ev avrw avayKrj koI (Sla X/^ft)- 
IUL€vou9 Tov irepaneptc irpoievai, kol aa-TO)(ovvTa^, eKQafx^oi 
eyevovTO, kol olkcIu) iropOfiLW ^rjaa/uLevoi airrjKQov jrpos 
avTOvg, Kai eirvvdavovTO irap* avrwv tl av OeXoi tovto eivat, 
ovK e^ovXovTO Se ovroi (pavepuxrai avToh to /ULV(rTiipiov, 
aXXa TrXacrraig koi ylreuSecri yjpwjJLevoi airoXoyiaig eaTrevSov 
Ta TOV Trpay/JLaTog SiacTKeSdarai, eiriyvovTeg Se oi [xova'^^ol 
0)9 OVK. a\t]6tj XeyovcTLV aXK eTriTrXao'Ta, /jlovov evevcrav to 
ttXoiov irpog T*]v ixovriVf Ka\ evOvg a(f)' cavTov eiropevdrj eiri 
2. Tfjv ytjv. eixPpLjjLYjo'afjLevo^ Se avToig 6 Trpoea-Tm, Koi. aTreiXatg 
j^^%F^ ^^^ (TCJioSpoTaTaig yjpria-aiJievo^, KaTo. Xctttov efxaQe iravra irapa 
mentos. '^^^ Otjpevrov, evOvg Se jmera Ktjpcov koi XafXTraSoov SpajmovTeg 
^pav TO Xelyp^avov, koi KaTeOevTO ev Trj eKKXrja-ia, koi ?i/ 
iSeiv Tracrav vocrov SpaTrcTevova-av twv t?? juLovrj? aSeXcfywv, 
Koi. Tovg KttKoog e)(0VTa9 avOwpov iwjuievovg' SiaSpafJiOva-a Se 
wcTTFep Tig Krjpv^ rj (piifjifj ov luiovov Tovg ev tw "AOw opei 
(TwrjOpoicre juLova-)(ovgj aXXa Stj koi TrXi^Stj aireipa Trjg 
irepLywpov, kol iravTeg icovto koi eOepairevovTO w SrjiroTe 
KaTel-^ovTO voa-riij.aTi, Kai ^v Xo.pa jULeyaXrj koi ay aXXiacrig 
ev Te Toig ev rw opei koi iracn TOtg e^coOev aOpoiaOeicri, 
Kai ixera TavTa ol KaTa tov Kaipov cKeivov ovTcg ixovayol 
Xa^ovTeg to ayiov Xel^^avov tjyayov ev tm vdpOtjKt tov 
•jravo'eTTTOv vaov T^g TravvjuLvrJTOv SeoTOKov, ev6a eiwOeicrav 
Tag €Tr}(riovg crvva^eig eiriTeXeiv, Kai iroirjo-avTeg dypvirvlag 
KCLL vjuvcoSiag aKaTairavcTTOvg fxe'^^pig ^jmepcov eTrrct, KaTcOevTO 
ev T(S Se^iw /mepei tov vaov Ttjg Secnrolvtjg ^julwv Ocotokov, 
aXdor} KOI (Timvpvtj koi Siacpopoig apcofiacn fxeTct KaOapag 
crivSovog eiXlcravTeg, el-^ov Se avTo ev juieyaXf] Tijuitj, otl Ka\ 
3. Tracrag avTwv Tag voarovg eOepaireve Ka\ /uLoXaKiag. ovtoo 
f +ii ^^^ ^^^^ '^^^ ay lov ev TOig airavTwv aTOfJiaa-iv oj/to?, Kai 

relics Sia^oi^Tov Toig OavjULaa-t yevojuevoVf 6 OrjpevTrjg OL/j-a tw iSi(p 
by the aSeX(j>M Tag evj^ag twv yepovTWV eig icpoSiov aLTt](TdiULevoi, 
monlS ^^'^ ^^^^ avTwv eiropevOtjcrav -^alpovTeg, ol Se ye ixovoXpvTeg 
CKeivoiy Ol T(S OtjpevTrj avvava^avTeg ev tw cnrriXaiu), /cXotto- 
(poptjcrai TO (TWfjLa tov fxeyaXov TIcTpou jBovXevadjULevoi, 
v(f)aX(p yvio/uLrj Kai KeKpvimnievu) irXacriuLaTi wpocnrea-ovTeg, 
Xeyova-i TOig iraTpacri " yviaa-Tov ea-TW vjuliv, Oeo(p6pot 
iraTepeg^ wg ovk oKpio'TajULeOa tov Otjcravpov ov 6 Kvpiog 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 35 

aircKaXv^ev r]^.tv, aWa fJLer avrov koI v/ulco}/ rag XotTra? 
ifjiepag rj/jiwv Siapvcrofjiev.^' koI tcov iraTepoov jULoXa Trepi-^apcog 
Se^afJLevMv top Xoyov, ^crav yap virep Tag aWag aperag 
TO) airXdcTTW Koa-jULOvimevoii fxiKpag eKelvoi 'Trpoar/uLelvavreg 
rifjiepag, eiSoTcg evOa TeOairro 6 iraTrjp, vvKTtXo^^ovg eveSpag 
TTOii^cravTeg, wtrirep Tiveg rvix^opv-^^oi, tm Tacpw irpoa-eSpaiuLOv, 
Ka\ TovTov ipopw KOI (TTTOvS^ Siavol^avTeg, to tlixlov eXafiov 
Xel'^fravov koI cruv uvtS SpojuLaioi top aiytaXbv irecpOaKOTeg, 
€V oLKaTiw irpocTTOiyrjQevTL ejUL^avTeg, tou opovg (pvyaSeg 
wyovTO. TOVTCov avTiKoog Kal avTOirTrjg 6 Taireivog eyw 
yeyovcog Nt/coXao? €a"7r€V(ra, el Ka\ jmrj iravTa, aW ovv 
oXiya TLva eKOicrOai, Kal tw irapovTi evTa^ai a-vyypdjUiiuLaTi, 
tog av eiSeiev ol /xereTrefra tov koct/jlov avaKe-^^copijKOTeg Kal 
T(S opei TOVTM TrpocropfjiiarOevTeg, Triiog Set TrepiTraTeiv avTOvg, 
Kal TTolag avTe-yea-Qai iroXiTeiag, Kal fxeO^ o^cov aywvMv Kai 
KajmaTcov Kal irovoov ri twv ovpavwv ^aa-iXcia KXrjpovojUieiTar 
o)? Of ye avaTreTTTWKOTeg, Kal KaT e/me paOvjuLovvTeg, Kai iJ.eya 
TOVTO jULovov ijyovjuLevot TO payrjvai tov koo-julov Kal twv iv 
Koa-jLKp, TCL S^ aXXa dSecog Stair paTTOVTcg, ^yovv eTriKTrjceLg 

(TKeVWV TTOlKlXwV Kal TToXuTljULCOV Kal dypUSV Kai KTtJfJLaTCOV 

Kal TCOV aXXcov, a TOig (piXoKociuLoig Kal (piXofiepifjivoig elcrl 

Trepio'TrovSaa'Ta, irpog to /uitjSev eavTOvg (io(peXrj(Tar koI Tovg 

aKovovTag Kai TOvg opwvTag ra /uLeyicTTa Trepi/SXaTTTOvcri, 

Kal fiXacrcprjiuLeicrOat Si' avTcov to tov Oeov ira paa-Kevat^ova-iv 

ovofxa, iroXvKTrjiJLOveg avTi aKTrnjLovwv ovojULa^ofxevoi, koi tov 

Trig yrjg irXovTov Kvpioi, Kal tov ovpavlov ttXovtov dXXoTpioi. 

aXXa fir] yevoiTO Tiva twv a^evSwg a.TroTacra'oiuievcov tm ^lio 

Ttjv evavTiav tcov evToXwv iropevearOai, Ttjv (TTevrjv Se juloXXov 

TrpoTifJLav Trjg irXaTeiag, koi Ttjv irevlav tov ttXovtov, Kal Trjg 

So^rjg Trjv aSo^iav, Kal Ttjg irapovartjg ')(apag Tr]v vojmi^oimevijv 

eiriirovov KapTepiav, Iva Kal T(p irapovTi ^Iw to (pcog avToov tov 

Plov Siavydcrj, koI ev tw jneXXovTi Trjv avacpalpcTOv KXrjpovo^ 

jjnicrwcri ^acrtXeiav, rjg ovSev tcov evTavOa iroQeivoTcpov rj tijuliw^ 

Tepovy TOig ye vovv e-)(ov(ji, Kal Trjv aXi^Oeiav irpoTiixwcTi tov 

y^evSovg. aXX' eiravaXrjTrTeov avOig tov XoyoVj Kal SitjyrjTeov VII, 1. 

TOL fieTCL Trjv KXoirrjv TOV Xeiyl/^dvov tov Oeocbopov TraTobg'^^^.^^^^^^ 

t Ci > »' ' « ' ' / /i> d outside 

yevoixeva UavfjiaTa, apavTeg toivvv oi iuLova-)(ot, Kau ov Mount 

elirov TpOTTOVi to <rwfjLa KaTi^xOrja-av eig to X'^plov ^wKOjuLiVy Athos. 

C 4 



3ft 



PETER THE ATHONITE 



camm. 



at Pho- TcXovu VTTO TO Oejuia OpaKtjv ^v Se irXijcrlov tovtov irtjyii, 

i^cimiu. ^^^^ ^^p ^j^^^ ^Q apKTTOv eroiiiiacravT€9f tt]v [xev irtjpav 

ev »7 TO aw/xa TeOi](Tavpi(rTO tov aylovy irapa (pvToO kXcxSoov 

airrjutpriarav eXa/aj, avTol Se avToa-^^eSlu) Kal \iTij -^rjo-djULevoi 

TpaireXri ev-^apia-Trjo-avTe^ tj(rOiov. ovirta Se to, /xecra tov 

aplcTTOV TovTcov e-^ovTwv, iSov Tra/uLTrXijOei ol t?? X^/^"^ 

OLKriTope^ /xera yvvaLKMv Koi TraiScov ep-^ovTai, eavTOvg 

crirapacrcrovTe^ kol aXa\a\pvT€<;, kol Tlerpov tov fxiyav 

2. ttTTO TOV A.6(a eXrjXvOoTa eTriKoXov/ULepoi. tov Se Tpoirop 

7. " 9, '^5? TOiavTr]^ auTftjj/ aXXoiwa-ecog ov KaTOKvna-co Sinyija-acrOar 
liarcli f ';^ •> , ^ , »/■.-?♦ N 

devil (TToa ti<! rjv apyaia Ttjs Kptjvtjg e'yyi;?, cv rj oi iJLOvaj(oi 

at Pho- eavTOv^ €'^v)(ov, ov julovov u"v|/-ef VTrcpcpept]^ koI TrXocTet virep' 

jiieyeOi]^, aXXa Kai VTrepiMrjKriq, tjTi^ tw XP^^V "^^ ^^V 

KaTaxcocrOeicra oiKriTripiov eyeveTO Saijuiovog -^LXLap-^pv, o? 

fxeTa Twv VTTO X^ipa TOcravTa eKeiae StewpaTTev, cog ixrj 

/j,6yov avOpcoTTOvg Siacj^Oelpeiv, koi Salfioari viro^aXXeiv, aXXa 

Kat ovovg Kai Kvvag Kal ^oag Kal Ta Xonra tcov KTtjvwv 

aTTOTTviyeiv kuI iroXXr] OXiy^ig ev Trj x^pa Kal aSrjfjLovia 

ijv irepL TOVTOV. ovtoi toIvvv ajuLa to TrXtja-idcrai avTOig 

TO Xei^j/avov tov dylov, ecpvyov ixev diro T^g oToa?, eireicr- 

eipprjcrav ^ Se ev Ttj KcojULrj eKeivrj Kal iravTag evOovcriaVf Kal 

SiaTapaTTea-Qai Tovg ev avTrj KaTOiKOvvTag eirolovv, wg Se 

T(p <pvT(p Kai Trj Trrjpa cnrapayiJiw Kal Kpavyrj irpoG-eTreXecrav ^, 

^v ISelv OavjULa tcov. iraXai OavjuLaToov irapaSo^OTepov' evOvg 

airoTravTa Ta SaijuLovia twv dvOpcoTrwv, Kal dprjvrjTiKoog 

oXoXvi^ovTa Tri<s irepix'^pov eKelvtjg eXavvecrOai. Tig Se 

KaTaXe-TTTOV e^diroi, t] ypacprj Siacracpi^cyoi tcov yevo/mevcov 

Tore OavfAaTcov Ta virep cljul/jlov irXrjQtj ; juivpov yap evcoSecrTa- 

TOV irXijpeg yevofxevov irap avTrjKa to Xei'^avov, ^v iSeiv 

T^ TOVTOV irpov^avorei SaijULOvicovTag aco(ppovovvTag, TV(pXovg 

opcovTag, Xeirpovg KaOaipo/uLevovg^ KvXXovg avopOcojULevovg, 

X(*>Xovg apTia ^aSi^ovTag, Kal dira^airXcog irdcrtjg TrdpTag 

ao-Qeveiag airtjXXayiuLevovg. ev olg Kai Tig dvrjp, ev oXoig 

eTecri oktco KXivrjprjg eiri Trjg oiKiag Kel[xevog, fxera KpavyTjg 

fjVTi/SoXei Tovg KaTo, to Xeaxpdpov TpexovTag eirl t^v 

OavjULaTOvpyov CKeivrjv irrjpav, Tr]v irapd iraa-iv dSofxevriv, 

TOVTOV dirayayelv, ol Se ixaXXov tov Spo/mov e'lxovTO, i] 



sic cod. 



SIC, 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER' I 87 

€K€ivov fjKOVov TTapaOewpoviuLevog Se /uloXXov Ka\ /maWov 

ijXyeL Koi e^vcryepaivev. wg Se tjStj airelptjKe T^ya ttjOo? 

oIktov ixrj eTncrTrofievog, iSov ol cltto tov oikov avrou 

ev€KT0vvT€9, VTrocTTpe'^avTeg kol crcocppovovvTeg airo t?? ixera 

T(jov aWwv €7r€\0ov(rrjg avTOig €7ri6e(re(iog tu>v SatfxovMv, ev 

Ta^^et Sia^aoTTaaravTes Tovtov (xera Trjg ArXtVi;?, irpog rf]v 

TTfjytjv iiropevovTO t^? vyeiar kou aixa to TrXtja-iou yevecrOaty 

jfXXaro T?? KXlvrjg evOv^j koi elg tcov oSotTropovPTcov cyepero, 

0U9 Koi TTpoXa^wv Kal tw dyiw irepi-^aplag ScLKpua-i irpocr- 

Trearwv, ttolvtcov eig avTov Oetopovvroov, apnog tov iSdcpovg 

tjyepOi] Kot vyiri9i ^Xov TLva (po^epov kol TpicriULov tcou 

apOpcov avTOv t? iyepcrei airoTeXea-avTMV kol TravTeg eScoKav 

So^av T(p Qew juLeTci twv dXXcov iSovTcg koi to (ppiKTOv tovto 

OeafJLa. (pi^jUL*]? Se KaO* oXt]g t?? irepiyjjopov SiaSpajULOvafjg, 

^v iSeiv TTOTa/ULTjSov arvppeovTa to, twv '7rXt]a-io)(^oopwv irXi^Otj, 

01 T0V9 dppwcTTOvg avToov iirl Kpa^^aTOig (pepovTcg, eppco- 

fxivovs KOI vyieig iSioig iroa-l ^aSi^ovTag eig to, oiKcia 

Siicwl^ov. yv(aa-TOV Se tu> Trjg TroXem eTricTKOTra) yevo/uevov, ^' 
•\ a ^ ' ^ \ ^ I'* ^/^ /' \ « The action 

Aapwv iravTa tov K\rjpov avTOV fieTa UvjUiiaiuiaTcov Kai Kfjpcov, Qf tj^e 

aTavpovg Tais X^P^^f '^^' '^^ aytov Sia^acTTal^ovTag evay- bishop. 

yeXiov, TO ')((iopiov KaTeXafiov, evOa to lajnaTOCpopov ^'^'ipx^ -^^ ^^^f 

TOV ocrlov Xel^^favoVf koj. w? otto cnj/ULelov euog, Tijmtjg eveKev the relics. 

'TTpocrriKOva-rjg, KeKpvjjLixivwg e^dSi^ov, eoog eXOovTes ecTTfja-av 

€v tJ KXivrj. KOI irOLficravTeg ev-^rjv eKTevtj, irepieirTv^aTO 

TO X€L>\ravov, TrpwTOV /JLCV 6 €7ri(TK07ro9, €i6^ ovTws 01 KaOe^^g. 

Ka\ wpag ovk oXlyas irporrKapTeprjoravTeg etSov OavjULOLToyv 

a^vcrarov irpoiova-aVy Kal e^eOajUL^iiOtja-av, koI S(XKpv(ri ^pe- 

^ovTCf Tag nrapeidg to " Kvpie eXetjcrov " cKpaXpv, Ka\ to 

" io^a a-oi 6 Oeog 6 ttoioov irapaSo^a Oav/maTa Sta tcov 

evapea-TOvvTcov crou' ficTo. Se TavTa irpog kavTov KaXecrag 

Tovg novayovg 6 eirlcrKOirog Xiyei irapaKXrjTLKwg avToig 

*' SeojULai vjULoop dSeXcjyol xaplaraa-Oai rjiuv tov Oeiov tovtov, 

Kai y^pvarov iravrog TijuiiwTepov 6r](ravp6v, koi oiKoSo/unicrag 

OlKOV eVKTripiOV €V ai^TW TOVTOV TTCplO'TeXw, eig IXVrj^tJV VjULUlV 

Kai XvTpov Toov ifjiov ircTrXfj/uLiuLeXtjiULevcov ev tm irapovTi ^Iw, 
Kai TavTrjg evcKev Trjg yapiTog Xtj^ea-Oe Trap* ejmov voixlcrfxaTa 
€KaTov, ov yap ave-^^ofxai toiovtov fxapyapiTtjv ttoXvtiiulov 
wSc KOtKcia-e irepiipyea-Oaii J tov Xxf^vov viro tov juloSiov 



38 PETER THE ATHONITE 

KpvTrrecrOaif kgl Tag aKTivag (rvcrTeWeiv t?? ^apiTog" oi 
Se /JLijSe CLKpoig wort Ta ptjOevra OeXi^a-avTeg TrapaSe^aarOaiy 
efxeivav avTiirlirTOVTeg Kai fxrj jmeO^areiv (pda-KovTe^y Kav 
yjyva-ov virocr^oiTO xiXta raXavra, wg Se Trj e^ovcria 
-^rja-aimevog Tovroig eve^pijULi^a'aTO 6 eTrlarKOTrog, afxa tw 
XofTTO) KaToXoyu) twv UpecDv, " eav ixij ravra iSovXijcrOe 
Xapeiv,^' eiprjKoreg, " airiXOere tcov wSe Kcvaig yepa-l^ Kara- 
TTciOetg yeyovacTL koi viroKXiveigy Kai to. cKarov eiXtjcporeg 
vofJLLarjuLaTa /xera Kai tivcov aXXcop eiScov eTropevOijcrai' irpog 
ra Trjs avaroXtjg fieptj, t^u juLev tov ocrlov (TTeprjcriv oSvpo- 
fxevoi, rri Se ttoctotijti tov y^pva-lov fiiKpov irapajULvOovimevoi. 

4. ava')((t)pijaravTCDV Se tovtoov, iSou Tig Sai/ixovcov cTpe-^e fiofj 
Ihe com- -^pufjiicpog avviroa-TaTW, Koi TLeTpov airo ^•^oXaplcov avaKa- 
the devils XoJ/xei/o?, " ovk apKCTOV ecpavij aroi to Ttjg eixrjg KaTa/movtjg 
and the koi tov opovg SicoPai, ev w dov ecTTrevSov TrXavav Tovg jULOvavovg 

attempt > \ r v '^ 'nn ^ ^ -p? / 

to burn '^«T« '^^^ koctjulov ep-^^ea-Uai, aWa Kai woe irapayeyovagy 
the relics. Ttjg lULiKpag TavTrjg ^ovXo^evog e^oplaai ^e KaTOiKiag koi 
avairavcreodg ; apTi crov to crooixa irvpiKavcrTOv iroiw iravToav 
opwvTooVi €1 lULi] edcrtjg ^te." ?i/ Se KaT€')((iov 6 avOpcoTrog 
XatuLirdSag irvpog ev cKaTcpaig Taig xepaii Ka\ ccg ixovov 
wpjULtjcre TaVTag ev tS X6fv|/-ai/ft) Orjvai, yeyove Tig '^6(pog 
Kai 5;(09 piatog, koi irapayjprjij.a, wg OLG-Tpairr] irvpog, direirTij 
TOV av6pu>7rov 6 SaljULcov, OprjviTiKcog tov aepa irepiep-^ofjievog. 

5. So^aa-dvTCOv Se irdvTcov kolv tovtw tov (piXdvOpooTrov Kvpiov 
he aepo- \ct/3wi/ to Xei^l^avov 6 eiria-KOTrog aixa Tta KXrjpoo ev t» 

sitionof , ^ , . J - - ^ A.' ^ a - jj 'A. ' 

the relics eTricrKoirem avrjyayov, KaKeicre oiacpopoov acrueveiwv oiacpopoi 

m the 7-^j/ crvppeovTcov CLTraXXayevTeg ev ttoXvtiixw XdpvaKi fxvpoig 

church. - ' ' ,rs , / ^ - » ^ / » / * \ 

TOVTOv KaraTiueaav^ Kai wpog Tt] eKKArjo'ia eKOjULicrav, Kai 

eirl Tpicr] vv^Orj/uLepoig So^oXoylag iroirjaravTegi ovToag cKacTTog 

(j)6l3(p Ka\ X^pa a-viuLiuLiKTOi eig to, *iSia tecrav, tJ.e')(pi Se tov 

vvv idcreig cKeicre eiriTeXovvrai iroXXai, elg So^av Ttjg iravayiag 

Kai 6juLoov(riov TpiaSog, koi TifJirjv tov oaiov iraTpog rjjiioov. 

6. TOVTWV oLKOvcravTeg, aSeX(po} koi iraTepeg, ev irXa^i KapSiag 

yuuoiuu iravTa ypaylroofjiev, Kai TroiTjo-wjULev, Kai twv nrpo tjjuLwv iraTepwv 
ingexnor- ^»^/5> ot ^ ^«-v \ -> f 

tation. '^^^ aKijAidcoTOV piov, Kai fxiKpov oeiv acrapKov Kai acrw/JLaTOV, 

Taig fjiieTepaig ^^rv^^alg evTViruxravTeg, KXavcrwpLev Ka\ Optjvtj' 

arwjuLev to ^(avvov rjixwv eiSoTeg, Kai irpog irav ayaObv jULoXaKov 

KOI dvaSvojULevov* cKeivoi yap aira^ Koo-fxov Ka\ twv ev 



^ sic. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTEE I 39 

KocTfJLO) airaWayevTe^, ovkcti irepi rag KOcriuLiKag jULaraiOTroviag 
eavTOvg airrjar'^oKovv, aW ocrtj/jLepa irvpi rirpocrXajuL^avovTegf 
Kal Tai9 ava^aa-ea-iv uxnrep Oeov/uievoi ra KaWr] toov opoojULevcov, 
KOI Tou piov Tt]v €vOr]vlav COS (TKiav irapeTpeypVi Kai rag 
fjLepifJLvag Koi (ppovriSag koi raXKa, oig ol (pikoKTriixoveg 
KOL (bikovXoi ^SovTai, cog ijULiroSiov tcov aperwv aTrecTTpicpovTO 
fiovoXoyta-TOv KeKTrjuxevoL Siaycoytjv koi fiovoTpoTrov, rrjv 
Sva-evperov koi (nravloig apri yivcocrKoiuLevrjv' ov yap Tpvcptjg 
CTreiuLeXcovTO, ov -^LTcodiv airciXoig eTrerepTrovTO, rj orca/ULaTiKrjv 
e^i^TOvu avairavcnv' ovSe KTiicreig eiroOovv Kai cTriKTiirreig Kai 
TrXaTvcriuLOvgj KaOdirep tj/uLcig, aXX* eig oarixtiv ixvpov €Tp€)(ov 
TOU vor]TOv, 6g ia-Ti XjOtcTTO? ^ l^corj KOI TO cjycog, Kai Trap* 
avTOv Tag ovpavlovg eSe^ovTO Tpv(pag, Kai TrapaKXrjareig, cov 
Kopog TOig yevcrafjLevoig ovk ecTTi' oQev Kai TOiavTag eiXi^cpaa-i 
•^apiTag^ Ka\ KaTO, iraQcov Ka\ Sai/movcov ra viKriTripia c^^ovaiv, 
iSe yap irag 6 tov Oeapca-Tov tovtov filov aKpoaTr]g oiov 
(pcocTTrjpa TrjXavyrj Ka\ TrayKoarfjuov to KaO vi^ag tovto 
Qelov opog i^rjveyKcv, og aypvirvia, Kai 7roi/6o, Kai yvfxvoTtjTi, 
Kal acriTia, Sirji/eKCi re irivOt] Kal awTpiPrj Kapoiag, ev oXoig 
€T€(ri irevTriKOVTa Ka\ Tpicriv eavTOV cKSovg, avurrepog yeyove 
KOI XoyicrjiicoVj koi TraOwv, Kal SaifJLOvcov, Kal eig avTO 
irecpOaKe to tcov opcKTcov €a")(aTOVf Tfju aKpav Xeyco irpog 
TOV Oebv ayaTTfjv, koi tviv irpcoTtjv koi jULOvrjv fjLaKapioTtjTa* 
§9 a^icoOeitjjUiev Kal ^jmeig epyco Trjv tovtov iroXiTciav fxifiov' 
fjL€voi, Kal Toig /cara Oeov nrpoTeprifji.aa-iv iyKaXXcowi^o^Aevoi, 
Iva Kal TCOV ofxoicov avTio yepcov eiriTV^^tafxev irapa Trjg 
aevvaov irtjyrjg tov (Turrrjpog ^fxcov w irpiirei iracra co^a, 
TifJLtjy Kai irpocrKWYja-ig^ auv too avapyco iraTpi Kai too 
'Cwoiroiia Kal iravaydOu) irvevfJiaTt, vvv Kal ael Kai eig Tovg 
aicovag aicovoov, 'A/ui/i/. 



CHAPTER II 

EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

The life of Euthymius really brings the monks 
of Mount Athos into the full light of history. It is 
a document of primary importance, and there is 
no reason to doubt that it was really written, as 
it claims to be, by Basil, a disciple of Euthymius, 
who afterwards became Archbishop of Thessalonica 
early in the tenth century. Various writers on Mount 
Athos have referred to its importance and have 
published extracts from it, generally in a modern 
Greek paraphrase ; but any reference to these has 
been rendered unnecessary by the excellent edition 
of Pere Louis Petit,^ which gives a text based 
on Cod. Athous Laur. A 79 (a MS. of the twelfth 
century of which, in ignorance of the projected 
edition of P. Louis, I took a copy in 1903 in- 
tending to publish it in the present book), with 
a partial collation of Cod. Athous Vatoped. 546 
(which was written in 1422, but in the opinion 
of Pere Louis Petit often has a better text than 
the earlier MS.), and with a complete collation of 
Cod. Athous Pantel. 207, a MS. of the nineteenth 
century. 

* vie et office de Saint-Euthyme le jeune, texte grec publie par 
le R. P. Louis Petit, A. A. Paris, A. Picard et fils, 1904, part 
of the Bibliotheque Hagiographiqtte Orientale, edited by Leon 
Clugnet. 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 41 

Euthymius was born in 823 at Opso (or Hopso), 
an unknown town near Ancyra, and was given by 
his parents the name of Nicetas. When he was 
seven years old (i.e. in 830-1) his father died, 
leaving his wife to bring up Nicetas and his two 
sisters, Maria and Epiphania. When he was sixteen 
years old he married a certain Euphrosyne, and 
became the father of a daughter, Anastaso. Two 
years later he felt increasingly drawn to the monastic 
life, and on Sept. 15, 841, deserted his family in 
that curious manner which forms the first stage 
in so many lives which have afterwards been 
canonized.^ From this time his life may be divided 
into six periods, (X) life on Mount Olympus, (2) life 
on Mount Athos as a hermit, (3) on Mount Athos 
as the head of a laura, (4) at Brastamou as the 
head of a laura, (5) at Peristerai as the head of a 
monastery, and finally (6) as a hermit on Mount 
Athos and on the Island Hiera. 

(1) Life on Mount Olympm,^ After leaving his 
family he went to the Mysian Olympus, and ap- 
proached the famous Johannicius,^ with whom he 
stayed for a time, and began to earn a reputation 
for virtue, but shortly afterwards moved on to a 
neighbouring monastery, presided over by a monk 
called Johannes, who may perhaps be identified 
with the Abbot of Antidius, frequently mentioned 
in the life of Johannicius. Here he took the 
monastic vows, receiving the name of Euthymius, 

» Petit, op. cit, pp. 16-19. '^ Op, city pp. 20-27. 

^ See the Acta Sanctorum for November, torn. 2, pp. 311-435. 
Johannicius died in 8i6« 



42 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

and soon afterwards was sent on to the convent of 
Pissadinon, presided over by a monk named 
Nicolaus.^ 

This seems to have been a regular monastery, 
not merely a laura, but it cannot be identified with 
any foundation mentioned in the Hfe of Johannicius. 
He wa» successively muleteer, cook, servant to the 
steward, and waggoner. In these occupations he 
behaved exemplarily, and employed his leisure in 
learning to read, and in religious exercises. But 
after fifteen years of this life the peace of the 
church was disturbed by the schism which arose 
in 858 owing to the rival claims of Ignatius and 
Photius to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and 
the monastery of Pissadinon was broken up, as 
the Abbot Nicolaus thought that Ignatius had 
been improperly driven out, and refused com- 
munion with Photius. Apparently this rendered 
the Abbot's position untenable, and he and the 
leading monks left the monastery. None of those 
who remained felt able to take the leadership, and 
Euthymius was attracted to the life of a hermit. 
He had heard of Mount Athos as a suitable place 
for solitary life, and decided to go there. But he 
had not yet received the * great Schema V ^^^ ^ 

^ In Cod. Vat. 672, f.97-98 ^ there are encomiums by Psellus on 
a monk named Nicolaus on Mount Olympus : but he is described 
as the KaOriyovfievov Trj<s iv T(p 'OXv/atto) fxovrjs r^s wpaias Trrjyrj^. 

^ It must be remembered that among the Basilican monks 
there are two grades, the fXLKpov <Txrj/xaj which is given with 
a tonsure, and the ftcya or ayyeXiKov a-xnfjia. At present the 
latter is frequently not taken until extreme old age, or even 
just before death. Both these grades are quite independent of 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 43 

the absence of Nicolaus, and owing to the death 
of Johannes who had given him the tonsure, he 
did not at first know how to obtain it. Ultimately, 
however, he turned to a hermit named Theodore, 
who is perhaps also mentioned in the life of 
Johannicius,^ and after eight days' preparation 
obtained ordination. He then started for Mount 
Athos with a companion named Theosterictus. 
On his way he passed through Nicomedia (not 
at first sight the most direct route to Mount 
Athos, but it was no doubt then, as it certainly 
is now, easier to go round by Constantinople), and 
then, for the first time since his departure from 
Opso, thought of his deserted family, and sent 
a message to them telUng them of his action, and 
recommending them to follow his example. 

The result of his message was that his mother, 
sisters, and wife embraced a monastic life, leaving 
only his daughter Anastaso, who remained * in the 
world ' in order to prevent the family from dying 
out, and became the mother of a son and three 
daughters. 

(2) Life on Mount Athos as a hermit.^ Euthymius 
and Theosterictus reached Mount Athos in safety, 
but the latter soon returned to Olympus, and 
Euthymius joined an Armenian named Joseph, 
whom he found already established as a hermit. 
With Joseph he began the usual ascetic life, and for 

sacerdotal rank : Euthymius, for instance, was not yet a deacon, 
nor did he become one for many years. 

^ Vita Johannicii, op. cit., pp. 366 ff. 

« Petit, op. ci^.,pp. 27-32. 



U EUTHYMIUS OP THESSALONICA 

forty days they tried to live as cattle, moving about 
on their hands and knees and eating the grass. ^ 

At the end of the forty days Euthymius proposed 
that they should live in a cave for three years. To 
this Joseph consented, but the opposition of the 
lower creation was so pronounced that at the end of 
a year he came out, leaving Euthymius to finish the 
three years alone. The result was that the fame of 
Euthymius's vow spread, and when he emerged 
from the cave a number of monks gathered round 
him, and he became the head of a laura. 

(S) The laura of Euthymius on Mount Athos^ 
There are no chronological data in the life of 
Euthymius to fix accurately the beginning of this 
period of his life, but the laura must have been 
founded about four years after Euthymius left 
Olympus ; this cannot have been earlier than 862, 
and probably was at least one year later. It seems to 
have been the usual type of a loosely knit together 
body of monks, gathered round a leader, and assem- 
bling for religious services, but not otherwise living 
in common, and possessing no monastic buildings. 

On two occasions Euthymius left the laura. The 
first time was in consequence of a message brought 

^ The reason given for this strange form of asceticism is 
a perverted interpretation of Ps. xlix. (LXX, xlviii.) 12, 20. 

* Man being in honour hath no understanding : he is compared 
to the cattle that have no intelligence, and is made like unto 
them * ; and the idea is that, by really living like cattle, they 
might perhaps recover the lost gift of the likeness to God 
(17 Kar iiKova x^pts), and SO, by being * made like unto ' the 
cattle and by having ^no understanding', they might come to 

* be in honour '. 

2 Op, cit, pp. 32-7. 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 45 

to him by Theosterictus from Theodore, the hermit 
who had given Euthymius the * great Schema', 
asking him to come and bring him to Mount Athos. 
Euthymius at once journeyed to Ol3anpus, where 
he found that Theodore was exceedingly ill. How- 
ever, he managed to bring him to Athos, and, when 
the life of the laura proved too severe, made him 
a cell at Macrosina, a locality which is now un- 
known, but is described by Basil, the writer of the 
Life, as * near the villages \ It was probably there- 
fore not far from the north end of the mountain. 
Shortly before his death Theodore moved to 
Thessalonica, and was buried there in the church 
of St. Sozon, and this induced Euthymius to leave 
his laura for the second time in order to visit the 
tomb. Here his fame had preceded him, and he 
became the centre of a crowd of admirers who 
tried to kiss him, expecting to derive from his 
touch some miraculous benefit. In order to avoid 
this annoyance he went a short distance out of the 
city, and took up his position on a pillar (in the 
way made famous by Simeon Stylites), on which 
he was * raised visibly nearer to God ' and he could 
preach his lessons separated by a safe distance 
from his admirers. His preaching met with success, 
but the life did not please him ; so he returned to 
Athos after commending the care of Theodore's 
tomb to the Archbishop of Thessalonica, who was 
also named Theodore. This Archbishop appears 
as a signatory of the Council of Constantinople in 
869, and was also present at the installation of 
Theopiste (daughter of St. Theodora) as Abbess in 



46 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

the previous year, but there is no evidence as to 
the year in which he became Archbishop; it 
would seem from the data in the life of Euthymius 
that his visit to Thessalonica must have taken place 
not earlier than 863, and more probably as late as 
865 ; it is therefore probable that Theodore ^ became 
Archbishop of Thessalonica at least as early as 865 
and perhaps earlier. Before leaving Thessalonica 
Euthymius was ordained deacon, and, it would seem, 
priest. M. Petit in his edition of the Life thinks 
that the ordination was in the first place only to the 
diaconate, and that priest's orders were given later. 
It is, however, surely more probable that they were 
given simultaneously, for the reason alleged is the 
difficulty of Communion in a desert place in the 
absence of a priest. 

On his return to Mount Athos Euthymius stayed 
for * some years ' in his laura, but after a time the 
love of solitude returned, and taking with him two 
companions, Symeon and Johannes Kolobos, he 
went to the island of Neon (now St. Eustratius), 
which can be seen in the distance from Mount 
Athos. Here, however, he can scarcely be said to 
have settled, for soon after reaching the island the 
monks were captured by Arabs. Either miraculous 
intervention or the superstitions ^ of the Arabs 

1 M. Louis Petit has a note on Theodore in the J&clws de 
VOrient (iv, 1901, pp. 2, 18 f.). 

* It must be remembered that Mohammedans are forbidden by 
their law to interfere with monks or priests. This fact, which 
is often forgotten by those who think of Islam as a persecuting 
religion, explains why monks were usually released, and why 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 47 

helped them : for the Arab ship made slow progress, 
and thinking that this was due to the malign 
influence of the monks, the Arabs took them and 
disembarked them on the island. The monks 
followed up their good fortune by demanding the 
return of their baggage (* implements, hair shirts 
and books ' says the writer), and in the end attained 
their object, as the baggage ship was also driven 
back to the island. This incident is an admirable 
example of the way in which the simplest incident 
assumed a miraculous character to monastic eyes. 
For there is no reason to doubt the substantial 
truth of the narrative ; there is nothing miraculous ^ 
in a shift of wind or a delaying current anywhere 
in the neighbourhood of Athos; and in releasing 
the monks and restoring their property the Arabs 
were only obeying the precepts of Islam, which they 
had been tempted to forget. But what is here 
obvious is not always so clear, and there is 
probably much history in the Acta Sanctorum irre■^ 
coverably concealed by the miraculous explanations 
which have been added to it. 

After their escape from the Arabs Euthymius and 
his friends had no desire to remain on the island, 
and returned to Mount Athos. But even here 
safety was no longer attainable : a raid was made 
on the mountain, and some monks were captured : 

the monasteries in Macedonia were not, as a rule, destroyed, 
unless they were too obviously used as fortresses. 

^ Experience has almost made me inclined to regard as 
miraculous a voyage round Mount Athos in a sailing boat 
which is not prolonged by these variations. 



48 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

Euthymius felt that it was unwise to remain, and 
the laura was disbanded. The monks who decided 
to leave Athos separated into three groups. One, 
headed by Symeon, went to Greece; another followed 
Johannes Kolobos to Siderocausia (probably not far 
from Athos) ; and the third went with Euthymius 
himself to Brastamou, the modern Brasta in 
Chalcidice near Polygorus. Of the first group 
nothing more is known; the second had a short 
but important history which is discussed in the 
next chapter ; and of the third we know only what 
is told us in the Life of JEuthymius. The date of 
these events cannot be fixed : it must lie some- 
where between 863, the earliest possible date for 
Euthymius' visit to Thessalonica, and 871, the date 
of the foundation of St. Andreas at Peristerai (see 
p. 50). As he was ' some years ' on Mount Athos 
after the visit to Thessalonica, 866 seems the earliest 
possible date for the foundation of the laura at 
Brastamou, and 867 or even 868 is perhaps more 
probable. 

(4) TJie laura of Euthymius at Brastamou.^ Euthy- 
mius' new foundation seems to have approached 
almost more nearly to the nature of a convent than 
to that of a laura. He built cells for the monks, 
and frequently visited them, but personally he pre- 
ferred to live in a ravine some distance away. His 
fame spread and attracted many visitors. Among 
them was a certain Onuphrius, who is mentioned 
as a distinguished ascetic. Of course this is not the 
Egyptian who is mentioned in the Acta Sanctorum, 
1 Qp. ci^., 37-8. 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 49 

and nothing more is known of St. Onuphrius of 
Athos, but that such a person really existed need 
not be doubted, for in the second * typicon ' of the 
mountain one of the signatories is that of the Abbot 
of Onuphrius, and Peter the Athonite is very often 
accompanied in the pictures on Mount Athos by 
Onuphrius. One may suspect that originally it was 
Onuphrius, the Athonite, not the Egyptian, who was 
thus celebrated, but the matter is complicated by 
the fact that the feasts of Peter the Athonite and 
Onuphrius of Egypt fall on the same day — June 12.^ 

Euthymius seems at this time to have led rather 
a restless life wandering about the ravines of Athos, 
and at intervals visiting his laura at Brastamou, 
among the monks of which was Joseph his old 
Armenian friend, whose reKcs, preserved in the cave 
in which he had died, the writer of the Life says that 
he had seen. This would seem to imply that Basil, 
the writer of the Life, was once a monk at Brastamou. 

During one of Euthymius' periods of retirement 
it was revealed to him that he should leave his 
laura and found a monastery on the site of an 
ancient church of St. Andrew at Peristerai near 
Thessalonica ; therefore taking with him his friends 
Ignatius and Ephraim from Brastamou he departed 
for Thessalonica. 

(5) Euthymius* monastery at Peristerai,'^ He had no 
difficulty in finding Peristerai, a village about four 
hours to the east of Thessalonica, and recognized 
a fountain as identifying it with the place which 
he had seen in his vision, and after some digging 

^ Did they always do so? ^ Op, cit, pp. 38-48. 

liAKS. M. A, I> 



50 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

at a spot which he indicated the remains of an old 
church were discovered. Aided by the money and 
labour of the pious, but hindered by demons who 
contrived frequent accidents, he built a monastery 
on the spot,^ and succeeded in finishing it in 871. 
The new foundation was liberally endowed and 
furnished by the neighbouring laity, and soon 
attracted many monks. Among them was Basilius,^ 
the writer of the Life, who, however, received the 
tonsure from Euthymius not in the monastery, but 
in the church of St. Demetrius at Servilia (now Or- 
mulia), on the peninsula Longos, where there seems 
to have been a kind of hermitage used by the monks. 
For fourteen years Euthymius ruled the monas- 
tery, and no doubt became a person of considerable 
importance, but the Life gives us no historical 
information, though it supplies interesting speci- 
mens of his progress, sermons, wonderful cures, 
and prophetic insight — foretelling, for instance, to 
Basilius that he would become a bishop. But 
towards the close of this time, either in 882 or 883, 
he seems to have taken some part in a settlement 
between the Erissiotes, the monastery of his old 
friend Johannes Kolobos, and the hermits of Mount 
Athos, for his name appears among the signatures to 
the agreement which was ultimately reached. A full 
account ^ of this agreement and the controversy to 
which it put an end will be given in the next chapter. 

* M. Petit mentions that Prof. Kinch, of Copenhagen, has 
found the ruins of this monastery : see Festskrift til J. L. Ussing i 
anledning hans 80 aarige fodselsdag, Copenhagen, 1900, and Byz, 
Zeitschr.y 1902, pp. 663 f. 

^ 0^, cit., pp. 46-7. « See pp. 68-70. 



EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 51 

About 883 Euthymius again began to be restless, 
and summoned to Peristerai his daughter's family 
(the date is fixed by the statement that it was forty- 
two years after he had left his family and wife), and 
made his grandson, Methodius, Abbot of Peristerai, 
and his granddaughter, Euphemia, abbess of a con- 
vent which he built on ground bought for the 
purpose. The relics and altars of these foundations 
were consecrated by Methodius, Archbishop of 
Thessalonica. The date of this archbishop's con- 
secration is not known, but it must have been after 
882, when Gregory (see p. 82) was in office. He 
seems to have died in 889. 

(6) Euthymius' last days as a Jiermit^ After thus 
settling his affairs Euthymius returned to his old 
ascetic life. First he went back to the pillar on 
which he lived during his first visit to Thessalonica, 
then he retreated to Mount Athos, but as he was 
constantly pursued by disciples he finally went on 
May 7 to the little island of Hiera, probably the 
modern Ginra, not far from Volo. He was accom- 
panied by only a single monk, Georgius, and died 
on the island on October 15. His relics were then 
brought to Thessalonica by the monks Paulus and 
Blasius, who went to Hiera for the purpose on 
January 13. The year of his death is difficult to 
fix. The writer says that it was in the second 
indiction that he went to Hiera. This ought to be 
either 884 or 898. The former seems rather early, 
for it was only in 883 that he summoned his 
family, but the latter seems equally too late, though 

* Op, cit, pp. 48-51. 
d2 



52 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

M. Louis Petit accepts it, and so allows fourteen years 
for his last period of Kfe as a hermit. Personally, 
I should prefer the early date, and suppose that the 
stay on the pillar and on Mount Athos only lasted 
a few weeks ; for the impression given by the Life 
is that Euthymius did not live long after leaving 
Peristerai. It is, however, of course possible that 
the * second indiction' is wrong. Perhaps it was 
originally ' eighth indiction ', as a confusion between 
)8 and t; is not uncommon. 

The importance of the information concerning 
Mount Athos contained in this story needs no 
emphasis. The most interesting points may be 
summed up as follows : (1) as early as 859 when 
Euthymius went first to Athos there were already 
hermits there — for instance, his Armenian friend, 
Joseph — and, as we know from other sources, Peter 
the Athonite was also living at the time ; but there 
is no reference to a convent or even to a laura of 
monks. (2) A few years later Euthymius himself 
was the centre of a definite laura. (3) Although 
Euthymius, Johannes Kolobos, and Symeon left the 
laura with some of the monks it is more probable 
than not that others remained, and, as the next 
chapter will show, there was a considerable number 
of monks or hermits on the mountain between 870 
and 880. (4) There is no reference to a definite 
monastery as distinct from a laura, and no mention of 
Clementos — the monastery which the Life of Peter 
the Athonite states to have been in existence c. 890. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTEE II 

THE MONASTEKY OF ST. ANDREAS 
AT PERISTERAI 

The foundation of Euthymius at Peristerai had not 
a very long or distinguished history. The last that 
we read of it in the life of Euthymius is that the 
saint, on leaving the monastery, appointed his grand- 
son Methodius to be abbot. Seeing that this Metho- 
dius must have been under thirty, and was probably 
not older than twenty-five, the wisdom of this act 
is open to question, but whether it led directly to 
bad results is unknown. What, however, is certain is 
that during the next eighty years the monastery fell 
into bad hands and became disreputable. This is 
proved by the Typicon of Athanasius the Athonite, 
in which it is stated that the monks had lived for 
a long time in an absolute disregard of monastic 
propriety. At this point the Emperor Nicephorus 
Phocas intei-vened ; he was the patron of Athanasius 
and had promised to endow his new foundation, the 
monastery now known as * the Laura'. He therefore 
seized the opportunity of suppressing a scandal and 
helping a friend by a single stroke of statesmanship, 
and transferred the control of St. Andreas to 
Athanasius. 

The effect of this transference is only known to 
us from one source — Athanasius' Typicon. He was 
entirely satisfied with the results achieved, though we 
may justifiably doubt whether the monks of Andreas 
would have endorsed his judgement. Exactly what 
he did is unknown, but at any rate in 970, when 
the Typicon was written, a certain Stephanus was 
Abbot of St. Andreas, and- enjoyed the complete 
confidence of Athanasius. We may surmise that h6 
had been sent from the Laura to carry out a plan of 



54 EUTHYMIUS OF THESSALONICA 

reform. It would seem, however, that the reforma- 
tion was somewhat superficial, for Athanasius was 
not prepared to recommend the appointment of any 
further abbot after the death of Stephanus. He 
directed that Stephanus should not be disturbed in 
his lifetime, nor be called upon for his accounts, 
but that after his death the management of the 
convent should devolve directly upon' the abbot of 
the Laura. 

It is easy to see that this arrangement boded ill 
for the future independence of St. Andreas;, and that 
the quiet and peace which Athanasius promised to 
the monks was merely that which the tiger offers 
to the lamb. 

There remained, however, one source of protec- 
tion — an appeal to the MetropoHtan of Thessalonica, 
to whom Euthymius had especially commended his 
foundation. We have no evidence as to the date 
when this appeal was made, but a ChrysobuU of Con- 
stantino IX, alluded to by Gerasimos Smyrnakes, 
seems to mark the end of a sti-uggle between the 
Lauriotes on the one hand, and the Peristeriotes 
supported by the Metropolitan of Thessalonica on the 
other, in which the emperor intervened. According 
to this the emperor removed the monastery of 
St. Andreas from the protection of the bishop, and 
handed it over absolutely to the Laura. 

This completed the work of Nicephorus and the 
ruin of the convent, which became merely a source 
of income for the Laura. 

Its further history is unknown: at present the 
Laura has no property in the district of Peristerai, 
so that it either lost it in one of the many periods of 
unrest in Macedonia, or sold it to some one else. 

I append the extract from the Typicon of Athana- 
sius and the statement of Gerasimos Smyrnakes, 
on which this reconstruction of the history of the 
monastery is based. 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTER II 55 



A. Extract from 'the Typicon of Athanasius* concerning 
THE Monastery of St. Andreas in Peristerai. [P. Meyer, 
Die Haupturkunden far die Geschichte der AthosUostery 
pp. 119-21.] 

^iSevai ovif XP^* ^'^' '^"^ Trepl twv JJepiarrepcov Jrot 
Tov dylou Koi KOpv(paiou roov lepwv airocTToXwv 'AvSpeov 
IJ-ovri^y t5? ^t^o rhv tifxerepav i^ova-lav re koi Sea-Troreiav 
reXova-rii Kara Trjv Twv Svo evcre^wv )(j}varol3ovWl(jov irepio'^v 
T€ KOI Sidra^iv tov T6 doi8iiJ.ov koi TptcrjuidKapog PaaiXeco^ 

TOV KVpOV ^lKr}(j)6pOV KOI TOV GTL TTCpiOVTOg €Va-e/3oVi ^jULWV 

jSacr/Xeco? tov Kvpov 'Iwavvov tov vvvl tu TrJ9 pacriXeLag 
'PoDjULaiwv crKtJTTTpa SieTTOVTog SiaTiOefjLevois rifilv outo)? eJo^e 
SiaTCi^aa-Oai' jBovXo/ULeOa toIvvv "Err€(^avov tov evXa^icTTaTOV 
fjLOvayov koi KaOrjyoviuLevov, KaOdog Kal irpovoeiTai Koi ap'^ei 
T^9 TOiavT^g fiovn^y jm-eveiv dSiao'eta'TOP koi dXoyaplao'TOv, 
wcTTe /jLt] €')(eiv eiraSelag Tiva twv julcO' ^l^dg jmeTaKiveiv 
avTOV rj irapaXveiv Trjg ciricrTaa-iag t?? TOiavTtjg jULOvrjg tcov 
UepKTTepoov, iv irdo'r} avTOV t^ v"^?j iireiSri koi eSovXevcrev 
^/uLiv oXrj Trj ia")(yi avTOV Kai KaTa to ey^^onpovv /uLeyaXcog 
dveTravcre koi Ttjv irpoa-r]KOV(rav TifJLrjv direveiiJ.e kol Ttjv 
dpiJLoCpvcrav viroTayrjv iveSei^aTO koi ^eXTiuxreig TroXXay 
Koi fxeydXag iv tJ I^ov^ TreTroirjKcvaL (palverar 6 Se ye 
iretpwixevog, jwera to rnxaq tov filov cnroXnreiVy t?? TOiavTtjg 
dp')(rjg (jLCTaKivrjcrai avTOv rj dXXwg ttw? KaO' otovSriiroTe 
Tpoirov 6Xiy\riv Trjv olavovv avTM iirayayeiv, dXXoTpiog 
ca-TCt) Trjg dyiag koi ^ot)ap')(iKr]g Ka\ ojuloovctIov TpidSog, €-)(€T(t) 
Se Trjv KaTdpav ^/uloov twv Taireivwv juloXXov fiev ovv 
evTeXXojmai Koi. /ULvrjiuiOvevea-Oai avTOV iv Taig iiriTeXovixevaig 
dSiaXeiTrTcog Oeiaig XeiTOvpylaig irapd twv Ttjg Aavpag 
irpea-^vTepwv kol 'CwvTag kol jULCTa OavaTOV avTOv koi 
irricrlwg jULvi^iuLtjv avrov iiriTeXeiaOai' /xera Se Ttjv diro 
TOvSe TOV piov ixerdcrTaa-iv tov eiprj/uievov iJ.ova-)(ov ^Tecpdvov 
TOV evXa^ecTTdTOV KaOtjyovfievov, i^ovXoiuLeOa Ka\ jueT iKcivov 
irapa tov Ttjg Aavpag irpoecrTWTog 7rpo^Xr]9i]vai Kat avOig 
^yovfxevov aXX' iTreiSr] irdvTri KaTtjimeXtjTai to. Trjg fJLOvaSiKrjg 
KaTacTTdcrewg iv t^ TOiavTrj julov^ irapa twv TrpOfjytjcrafAevwv 



66 EUTHYMroS OP THESSALONICA 

€K fxaKpov Tov yjpovov, Koi aSia(popia. iroWrj koi ajmeXla 
KaTeyovrai arye^ov airavreg ol t?? /JLOvrjg jiiova^^oi, a-vvelSoimev 
oiKOvojJila "Xfii^a-aa-dai irpog to irpbg eva ^Xeireiv kol vcft* 
€va TcXeiv, ijyovv tov Trpoearrwra t?? Aavpag, Trdvrag rovg 
€v Trj SrjXoviiievri ixovri, wcrre rrj iJLovap-)(la (TvveKaOtjvai ttjOO? 
TO irvevfxaTLKWTepov, ev re Toig irpoa-ev^^atg Koi y^aX/uLwSiaig 
KOI avayvcocreorip, ev re /BpcojuLacrL koi 'irojuLacriv, oog rj SovXeia 
KOL 6 KOirog, t} rj oSoiTTopla koi rj ^XiKia, t] tj vocrog eKacTTOV 
KOL rj vyieia /cara Katpov airaiTer irpo^dXXearOai Se Siopil^o^ 
fxeOa irapa tov T^g Aavpag TrpoecTTCOTog, e/c t?? Kavpag, 
oiKOvo/ULOvg re •^(jirja-iiuiODTaTOVi koi Trpecr^vTepovg, ^tao-^exj/^et 
KOI SoKifJLacrta iroXXrj avTOv T€ koI tcov (tvv avTtp koi v(j>' 
avTOV iJ.ovaywv, SxTTe TOig fxev SioiKovojuieia-Oai irpocrriKOVTwg 
TO, a-co/uLaTiKcoTepa, Toig Se KaTapTil^€<r6ai Ka\ (rvyKpOTelarOai 
Tovg arvv avTOig aSeXipovg ev TOig KaT apeTriv Xoyoig re 
KOt Tpoiroig Kai iraaaig Tolg kutu 6eov Trpd^ecri' tovtov 
yap yevrjcrofjievov, (tvv Oew (pavai, ireiroiOa TroXXrjv irap* 
oXXi^Xmv koi ev aXXi^Xoig ava(pavrjvai KoivcoviKcog koI imovapj^^i- 
Kwg Trjv eTTiSoa-iv tcov ayaOcov koi oScpeXeiav juniTe twv airo 
T^g A^avpag /xijre twv oltto t?? TroXXoiKig SrjXu)0€i<rt]g jULOvrjg 
€K Svap-^^Lag irpog aXXi^Xovg KaTO. jUirjSev Siacpepojiievoov, aXX' 
act TTpog Trjv Trjg ayairtjg arvvayojuievcov evcocnv koi 6juio(f)pO' 
(rvvijv Tw VTTO fiiav koi /jlov^v Trjv TrpcoTtjv apytiv acpopav, 
Koi ei Tig rifiwv Trjv eiroocpeXr} TavTtjv Kai tTWTrjpiov oiKOvojULiav 
ireipaOrj KaToXvcral ttotc, aXXoTpiog ecTft) T^g ayoLTrrjgi rj 
oe ayaiTYi ecrTtv o u€og» 



B. Extract from Gerasimos Smyrnakes, to *Aytov ^'Opos, 
p. 45. 

. . . KOL Sia fiev TOV ')(pv(TO^ovXXov [tov J^cova-TavTivov] 
irapeywpelTO Trj Aavpa to ev Oea-a-aXoviKrj (j-ovaaTripiov 
TOV dylov dirooTToXov 'AvSpeov tov irpwTOKXriTOv oXoog 
ave^apTtjTOv airo tov MrjTpoTroXiTOv Oecra-aXovlKtjg . . . 



i CHAPTER III 

JOHANNES KOLOBOS, HIS MONASTERY, 
AND THE HEEMITS OF MOUNT ATHOS 

It will be remembered that Johannes Kolobos, 
the friend of Euthymius, is mentioned in the life 
of the latter as leading away part of the laura of 
monks on Mount Athos and settling at Siderocausia. 
The life of Euthymius tells us no more about him ; 
but he, and a monastery which he founded, appear 
several times in a series of documents referring to 
Mount Athos, the interpretation of which affords 
almost the only clue which we possess to the history 
of the mountain during the period immediately 
after the dispersal of the laura of Euthymius. 

These documents, which will be found on pp. 76- 
86, are as follows : — 

(a) Part of a Chrysobull of Basil the Macedonian 
(before a. d. 881). (See Appendix A.) 

(h) The report of a Thessalonian official, named 
Thomas, on a boundary dispute between the Erissiotes 
and the Athonites (a. d. 881). (See Appendix B.) 

(c) The agreement arrived at in this dispute by 
the two parties (a. d. 881). (See Appendix C.) 

(d) The official decision, ratifying this agreement, 
by the Governor of the Thema of Thessalonica 
(a. d. 882). (See Appendix D.) 



58 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

(e) A ChrysobuU of Leo the Wise (? a. d. 900). 
(See Appendix E.) 

It is unfortunate that we only possess a little 
fragment of the ChrysobuU of Basil, which was 
probably given to Johannes Kolobos himself, but 
the greater part of its contents and the events which 
led up to its promulgation can be reconstructed 
from the ChrysobuU of Leo. The facts appear to 
be these: — 

After the separation of Euthymius and Johannes 
Kolobos and the partial dispersal of their laura on 
Mount Athos, the most important events on Mount 
Athos and the neighbourhood were (1) the founda- 
tion of a monastery by Johannes Kolobos near 
Mount Athos, and (2) the constant disturbance of 
the Athonite lauras and hermitages by the Erissiotes. 

The proof of the foundation of this monastery, to 
which I shall refer in future as Kolobou, is estab- 
lished by the direct references in the ChrysobuUs 
of Leo and Komanus. The date of its foundation 
and its exact position are less easily determined, 
and must be considered separately. 

The date of the foundation of Kolohou, The limits 
between which this date must be fixed are 866 and 
881. The former is the date before which the 
separation of Johannes from Euthymius cannot be 
placed, the latter is the date before which the 
ChrysobuU of Basil was given, and it is plain from 
the ChrysobuU of Leo that when this was given 
the monastery was in existence. It is obvious that 
neither of the extreme dates is probable. In dis- 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 59 

cussing the chronology of the life of Euthymius 
(p. 48) I have shown that 867 or 868 are prob- 
able dates for the separation of the two monks, 
and I think the impression gained by reading the 
documents referring to the boundary dispute which 
was closed in 881 (see Appendices B, C, D), and the 
allusions made in them to the Chrysobull, is that 
this had been given some time previously. 

There is some slight evidence for dating the 
Chrysobull a. d. 872 ^ or 875, and these dates seem 
to me not improbable. 

If then we allow two years for Johannes to 
establish himself in his new home and for a suffi- 
cient number of monks to gather round him, and 
accept 872-5 as the date of the Chrysobull, we can 
fix the foundation of Kolobou with fairness between 
869 and 873. The history of Johannes thus pre- 
sents a striking but quite natural parallel to that of 
Euthymius. Each left Mount Athos with a small 
following of monks who had belonged to the dis- 
persed laura, and each founded a new monastery with- 
in the course of the next few years. One wonders 
whether Symeon, the leader of the remaining party of 
monks from Mount Athos, did the same in Greece. 

^ Gerasimos Smyrnakes, op. city p. 22, gives this date. 
Kosmas Vlachos, op. city p. 19, gives 885, but this is probably 
an unacknowledged quotation from Gedeon, op, cit, p. 79, 
who also gives 885 — probably a misprint for 875 derived from 
MS. Panteleemon, 281, p. 203 (a nineteenth -century document), 
which gives 875, indiction 2. This cannot be right as it stands, 
but if we suppose the frequent confusion of minuscule p and rj 
the indiction would correspond to the year. 



60 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

The ^position of KqIoIou. The two Greek monks 
Gerasimos Smyrnakes ^ and Kosmas Vlachos ^ differ 
completely on this point. The former says that 
Kolobou was on the Megale Vigla (see map), and 
the latter that it was to the north of Erissos.^ 
Neither gives any reasons or discusses the point, 
but I think that the evidence for both views can 
be derived from the documents relating to the 
boundary dispute and from the Chrysobull of Leo. 

The evidence for a position on the Megale Vigla 
is as follows : — The decision of the Governor of the 
Thema of Thessalonica (see Appendix D) in describ- 
ing the boundary line between the Erissiotes and the 
Athonites says that it starts at the beginning of the 
AmmouHan gulf, runs up a ravine as far as the land 
of the monastery of St. Christina to a group of trees, 
then crosses over to another ravine, goes over the 
hill and comes down to Globutzista (the present 
Chromitza, according to tradition, which I see no 
reason to doubt), goes over the ravine to a clump 
of trees and straight on towards the sea as far 
as an old yvcrrepviv,^ then bends towards the 
neighbouring neck of the hill on which is the old 
wall of Kolobou which is within the land of the 
Athonites. 

To follow this boundary in detail is difficult. I have 

» Op. city p. 22. ^ Op. cit, p. 17. 

^ Or Hierissos : the latter is no doubt the original form, but 
I adopt Erissos because it is the name which is now always 
used — at least in my experience. 

* The Proegoumenos Chrysostomos tells me that yuo-repviv 
is a well ; the word is strange to me. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 61 

never been to the spot ; and the map does not give 
quite sufficient detail, but the general course which 
it implies is clear enough to show that the * old' wall 
of Kolobou was a little beyond Chromitza on the 
Megale Yigla. The obvious conclusion seems to be 
that the monastery stood within the wall. 

This suggestion finds a superficial support in the 
ChrysobuU of Leo, which confirms the right of the 
monks of Kolobou to graze cattle in the lands of 
the Kamena, not far from the Yigla, though, as will 
be shown, the real meaning of the Chrysobull 
probably points in another direction. 

The evidence for a position near Erissos, between 
it and Mount Athos, is to be found in the report of 
Thomas Kaspax in a.d. 881 (see Appendix B). The 
beginning of this document is unfortunately missing, 
but it is clear that the boundary between the lands 
belonging to the monastery and to the peasantry 
had been fixed, but not that between the peasantry 
and Mount Athos. That is to say that starting from 
the land side and going towards the mountain there 
was first the monastery of Kolobou, secondly the land 
of the peasantry, and thirdly the land of the monks 
of Mount Athos : the boundary between the first and 
the second had been fixed, but not that between 
the second and third. 

This view is confirmed by the statement of 
Thomas a little later that the Athonites had 
claimed that their jurisdiction began at the 
boundary of the Castrum of Erissos, not merely 
at the boundary of the district, so that their land 



62 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

began with the boundary of the monastery of 
Kolobou ; for this clearly implies that the boundary 
of the castrum and of the monastery were identical. 

As between the two views as to the locality of 
Kolobou, it therefore seems to me that the evidence 
is in favour of Erissos. The exact spot within the 
limits of Erissos seems impossible to define, but at 
all events the boundary of the monastery's juris- 
diction on the Athos side was the boundary of the 
castrum. 1 The monastery itself must have been 
either within or on the other side of the castrum. 

But, it may be said, what about the 'old wall 
of Kolobou' mentioned above as on the Vigla? 
Is it not possible to argue that the monastery itself 
was on the Vigla and that the castrum of Erissos 
was only under its jurisdiction? 

The answer to this suggestion is to be found in a 
consideration of the Chrysobull of Leo (see Appendix 
E). Here it is stated that the monastery of Kolobou 
possesses the control of the domain of Erissos, and 
the pasturage only of the Kamena with their vine- 
yards and orchards. The meaning, in the light of 
the documents of the boundary dispute, must be that 
the monastery has two sets of possessions, one in 
Erissos and the other near the Kamena (close to 
the Vigla), and that the monastery itself is near the 
first, not the second. Here we have the true ex- 
planation of the ' old wall of Kolobou ' in the decision 
of Katakalon Kaspax ; it was the wall, not of the 

^ This is, no doubt, what Kosmas Vlachos means by the 
northward part of Erissos. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 68 

monastery itself, but of the vineyards and orchards 
which belonged to it. 

Subsidiary evidence that this is the true solution 
of the problem of the locality of Kolobou may be 
found in the Chrysobull of Komanus, &c. (see Appen- 
dix A to the next chapter), and in the agreement 
between Johannes the Georgian and the Protos of 
Mount Athos (see Appendix C to the next chapter). 
In the former document, ratifying the Chrysobull 
of Leo, the pasturage, &c., of the Kamena is omitted 
and only the jurisdiction of Erissos mentioned. This 
may be of importance for the history of the monas- 
tery, or merely accidental, but in any case it suggests 
that the monastery was at Erissos rather than on the 
Vigla. In the latter document it is clear that the 
monks of Mount Athos had been in the habit of stay- 
ing in the monastery of Kolobou when they went to 
Erissos to buy necessities for themselves. This may 
possibly only mean that they stayed at Kolobou 
on the way, and so be compatible with a situation 
on the Vigla, but the plain sense is naturally that 
Kolobou was in Erissos. 

Siderocausia and Erissos, There is therefore not 
much danger of error if we say that between the 
years 869 and 875 Johannes Kolobos founded a 
monastery in or close to the castrum of Erissos. 
The question then arises as to the relation of this 
foundation to that of Siderocausia mentioned in the 
life of Euthymius. To this no definite answer can 
be given, as it is impossible to determine whether 
Siderocausia was a district or a village. The passages 



64 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

which bear on the point are (1) the reference in the 
life of Euthymius, cap. 26 ; ^ (2) the reference in 
the ChrysobuU of Leo,^ and I think that neither is 
quite decisive. 

In the Life of Euthymius, we are told that Symeon 
went to Greece, Johannes to Siderocausia, and 
Euthymius to Brastamou. The last named is now 
a village and perhaps was so then, but it is obvious 
that Euthymius' laura was not founded exactly in a 
village, even if it were near to one, so that even 
Brastamou probably means merely the district in 
which the village of that name was. The analogy 
of the use of the wide term Greece for the destina- 
tion of Symeon supports thi^ view, and according 
to it Siderocausia was probably a district and may 
have been a name given to that in which Erissos 
was situated. At the same time the possibility 
that there was a village of that name is certainly 
not excluded. 

In the ChrysobuU we are told that the monks 
of Kolobou forged a document entitling them to 
TOL -^wpla OLTTO T€ T(tiv Xeyofievcov XiSrjpoKavaLcoi/ /cat 
T(ov XXcofiovrXcov kol dWcov tlvcov. It does not seem 
plain whether Siderocausia and Chlomoutla are 
villages or districts. I incline to think that the 
latter may be the hilly district in Chalcidice at pre- 

^ Kat *luidwr]S /acv 6 fiaKoipio^ rois SiSr/poKavo-tois Xeyofxevoii 
TrpooroiKt^cTtti, 'Xvjxiwv 8' 6 6avfxai(no<s rrj *EA.Xa8t StaTrop^/xcverat, 
Ev^v/xios 8* 6 tcpos KOL ■qfxerepoq iv rots Bpao-ra/Aov Xcyo/xeVots tottois 
rovs eavTOv fieTarLOrja-tv. Petit, Op. dt.j p. 37. 

^ p. 85. Appendix E. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 65 

sent called Cholomondas, but this is not certain, and 
I fear that the exact identification of the localities 
in this neighbourhood could only be accomplished 
by somewhat prolonged wanderings from village to 
village. The local tradition ^ of Mount Athos does 
not appear to be unanimous. Gerasimos Smyrnakes 
thinks that Siderocausia is a name which was given 
to the whole district of Chalcidice because of its 
mines, Kosmas Vlachos asserts that it was a village 
near Erissos, and M. Petit {Vie de S, Euthyme, p. 80) 
says that it is * actuellement MaSe/xox^/ota, pres de 
Hierisso'. None give any reason for their views. 
The Proegoumenos Chrysostomus of the Laura told 
me that Siderocausia was a district just beyond 
(i. e. north of ?) Erissos, and that there are in exist- 
ence documents which prove this, but he never 
showed me any or quoted them. Still I think 
that the balance of probability is that he is 
right. 

If this be so the fomidation mentioned in the 
Life of Euthymius may be the same as that in 
the Chrysobull of Basil. If not, we must assume 
that Johannes did not stay long at Siderocausia. 
In any case the history of its foundation parallels 
that of St. Andreas at Peristerai by Euthymius. 
The enthusiasm of the Erissiotes was aroused by 
Johannes as that of the Peristeriotes was by Euthy- 

* If it be a tradition : my impression is that the monks 
claim the prestige of the * tradition of the mountain ' for the 
view which they happen to be supporting, for they rarely 
agree with each other, and still more rarely produce proof. 

LAKE. M. A. E 



66 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

mius, and land and other presents were showered 
on him by the pious. The crowning point was a 
gift from the emperor ratified by a Chrysobull. 

The Chrysobull given to Johannes Kolobos. Whether 
he went to the emperor primarily for the sake 
of obtaining endowment for his monastery must 
remain doubtful. At any rate he not merely 
succeeded in obtaining the gift of the domain of 
Erissos, but also pleaded the cause of the hermitages 
and lauras on Mount Athos so skilfully that the 
emperor's Chrysobull protected the Athonites 
against all aggression or intrusion, and appointed 
Johannes and his foundation as the protectors of the 
mountain. Such is the story given in the Chrysobull 
of Leo (Appendix E) which confirmed that of Basil. 
It appears from this that the hermits and monks of 
the mountain had been suffering from intrusion, 
obviously from the laity of Erissos, and this fact 
seems to dispose of a suggestion, first made by 
Uspenski,^ that the gift of the domain of Erissos 
implies that it was deserted at this time. The 
general tone of the Chrysobull of Leo also suggests 
that the primary reason of the Chrysobull being 
granted, and the possibiHty of its being asked for, 
was this aggression on Mount Athos by the 
Erissiotes. 



* This suggestion is rendered plausible by Uspenski owing 
to a mistake by which he dates the boundary dispute about 
934. Gerasimos Smyrnakes, not quite grasping this, has 
introduced two disputes, in which the same names occur, 
one in 881 and the other in 934. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 67 

The importance of the ChrysobuU to Johannes 

is obvious ; it at once made him the Hegoumenos 

of a rich and powerful monastery, and the protector 

of the whole of Mount Athos. Its value to the 

hermits and the monks of the lauras was no less. 

Previously their position had been anomalous : each 

little laura — to some extent each hermitage — implied 

some degree of clearing the land and cultivating the 

soil. But this also implied the creation of a more 

or less desirable property, and the question of the 

right to exclude others at once became important. 

No doubt there was a general tradition in favour 

of respecting hermits, yet this would not always 

go very far, and in the absence of documents they 

could scarcely appeal to the law for protection. 

But the ChrysobuU regularized their position, and 

they could now appeal for protection to the powerful 

Hegoumenos of Kolobou, who controlled the district 

from which alone aggression was geographically 

possible, or, if he proved unfaithful to his trust, 

they could invoke the imperial help, which was 

pledged to them by the deed of Basil. 

Thus the ChrysobuU was of enormous advantage 
both to the Athonites and to Kolobou. But it was 
less excellent for the Erissiotes who seem to have 
been shut out on both sides. The monks of Kolobou 
claimed control over the Castrum, and the monks 
of Mount Athos claimed all the rest. The exact 
division was perhaps not quite clear, but between 
the two sets of monks the Erissiotes were being 
squeezed out of existence. 

e2 



68 JOHANNES EOLOBOS 

It was probably this situation which gave rise 
to two boundary settlements, of which the second 
is extant, and contains a sufficient allusion to the 
first to enable us roughly to reconstruct it. 

The first boundary dispute^ between Kolobou and 
the Erissiotes. The question seems to have 
arisen very soon as to the exact meaning of the 
control of the territory of Erissos which had been 
given by Basil ; and when the matter came before 
Thomas Kaspax ^ of Thessalonica he found that the 
boundaries of Kolobou had already been settled 
by other people. This settlement he ratified. It is 
impossible completely to reconstruct it, but I think 
that the general sense of the broken lines at the 
beginning of his report (Appendix B) can only be that 
when he came to investigate the district he found 
that it consisted of two parts, the KkaorjjLaTLKrj yrj 
and the aTTOKk-qpoiOela-a yrj, of which the former lay 
between the latter and Mount Athos, clearly defined 
on the west (or land) side but not demarcated 
towards the mountain. 

This division he accepted, and ratified the 
arrangement by which Kolobou took all the western 
or landward part while the Erissiotes took all the 
rest. No statement is made as to what there was 
still further inland, or whether it was part of the 
domain of Erissos. 

^ This family seems to have been numerous and powerful in 
Thessalonica at this time ; we have in the * Decision ' (Appendix 
D) Katakalon the governor, Thomas the epoptes, and Stephanos 
of Bardanopulos, and Zoetes or Zoektes, and there was a 
monastery Kaspakos on Mount Athos. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 69 

The second dispute. The arrangement described 
above settled the boundary between Kolobou and 
the Erissiotes, but Thomas had not thought it neces- 
sary to define the boundary of the Erissiotes and 
the Athonites, who immediately began to com- 
plain, maintaining that according to the Chrysobull 
of Basil their territory ran up to the boundary of 
Kolobou. 

Judging from the fragment of the Chrysobull of 
Basil which remains, and from the references to 
it in that of Leo, the contention was technically 
not untenable. Basil says that the boundary of 
monks is to be the hopia of Erissos, and Leo says 
that his father Basil had given Kolobou the right 
'* Karix^iv TTjv ivopiav " of Erissos. Apparently 
Thomas Kaspax had decided that the ivopCa was 
the Castrum, not the whole district, when he was 
investigating the claims of Kolobou and the Eris- 
siotes. The Athonites probably argued that this 
definition of terms ought to hold good in consider- 
ing their claims, and that according to it they had 
the control of the whole district up to the Castrum 
itself. 

'The Erissiotes, on the other hand, claimed that 
the Athonite border was at the Zygos, the next 
ridge after the Vigla: we are not told whether 
they produced any evidence in support of their 
claim. 

Between these two claims Thomas Kaspax had 
to decide. Beading between the lines of his report 
one may, I think, see that he recognized the legal 



70 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

strength of the Athonite position, but felt that it 
was bad equity to leave the Erissiotes, as he says, 
without any property at all. 

He therefore sent the two parties away to agree 
on the general outline of a division of the disputed 
land, which was afterwards properly drawn up and 
ratified by the crTpaTrjXaTrjs Katakalon Kaspax. 

The division agreed upon roughly divided the 
disputed ground ; its general course has been 
already discussed (p. 60), but the mention of the 
monastery of Christina is noticeable. 

It may mean that there was a monastery or a 
laura there, but perhaps more probably it only 
means that St. Christina — wherever that may have 
been — had property at that point. 

It is interesting to notice that Euthjnmius appears 
to have interested himself in the matter, as his 
name appears among the signatures to the report 
of Katakalon Kaspax. What, however, did Johannes 
Kolobos do ? The name of his monastery does not 
appear among the signatories, but I suspect that the 
signature to the agreement, 'Icoawov rjyovixevov tov 
''A6(ovo^, is his, and that he assumed the title in 
virtue of the protectorate over the mountain given 
him by Basil. 

The settlement and its results. The position of 
affairs at the end of this settlement in 882 may 
therefore be defined as follows. 

The monastery of Kolobou had obtained control 
over the Castrum of Erissos, and had a protectorate 
over the monks of Mount Athos as against all 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 71 

intruders on the mountain ; between the Castrum 
and the domain of the Athonites was a piece of 
land which had been allotted for public use to the 
inhabitants of Erissos and to certain neighbouring 
monasteries. Kolobou also possessed some vine- 
yards and orchards on the Athos side of the 
boundary where the monastery of St. Christina 
also had some property, while on the other hand 
the Athonites had a spot called the KaOSpa tcov 
yepovTcop reserved for them in the territory of the 
Erissiotes. The whole arrangement was ratified 
by Katakalon Kaspax, the governor of the Thema 
of Thessalonica, and the Erissiotes paid the sum 
requisite to secure their property.^ 

The conclusion of the settlement is the last act 
of Johannes Kolobos^ (assuming that he is the 
Hegoumenos of Athos) of which we know anything. 
Probably, like Euthymius, he was now an old man 
and did not live much longer, but the history of his 
monastery can be traced for a little more than a 
century longer. 

* This payment has surely been misunderstood by Uspenski 
and others who follow him. They appear to think that the 
Athonites had sold land to the Erissiotes and then disputed 
the boundaries of what they had sold. It seems to me that 
the point of the dispute was that the Erissiotes had bought 
ground from the public authorities which the Athonites claimed 
in virtue of an earlier deed allotting it to them. 

' It is worth noticing that MSS. exist of a Life of Paisius 
written by him (inc. uxnrep to. repTrva Tov /3iov . . . desin. ravra 
€ip^(r6(o). See codd. Paris. 1093S 1547^ suppl. 759^ There 
is also a MS. in the Laura. 



72 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

It cannot be said that the conduct of the monks 
of Kolobou reflects credit on their training. They 
appear first as forgers, and secondly as oppressors 
of the hermits of Mount Athos and their other 
neighbours, and lastly as losing their property 
because of their inhospitality. 

The forgery of the Monks ofKolohou, The story of 
the forgery is related at the beginning of the Chryso- 
bull of Leo (Appendix E). It appears that the monks 
were not satisfied with the position in which the 
boundaries settlement of 882 had left them. They 
wished for the control, not merely the protectorate, 
of the mountain, and for further possessions inland. 

They found their opportunity at the accession of 
Leo in 886, and forged a document, apparently a 
map of some sort, which they took to the emperor 
together with the Chrysobull of Basil for confirma- 
tion. Leo, without looking into the matter closely, 
granted their request. By this means they secured 
control of nearly the whole mountain, and villages 
of (in?) Siderocausia and Chomoutla (Cholomondas?), 
the monasteries of Moustaconos, Kardiognostou, and 
Luka, together with the meeting-place of the hermits 
(Kadihpa Tcov yepovroiv). 

It is probably impossible to identify these places, 
but it is clear that the forgery was planned in the 
grand style, and gave the monastery of Kolobou 
the control of the whole of *the surrounding districts. 

The protest of the Athonites. As soon as the monks 
had obtained the imperial confirmation they began 
a career discreditable to themselves, oppressive to 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 73 

their neighbours, and ultimately disastrous to their 
foundation. 

They abused the hermits of the mountain, took 
the clearings for the benefit of their flocks, and 
treated the whole country as their own possession, 
until at last peasants and hermits made common 
cause and sent Andreas, 6 cvXa^ea-raro? ftora^^os 
Koi ^* TrpcoTos^^ r)av)(acrTr)<; tov avTov opovsj to inter- 
cede for them with the Emperor. 

The ^Frotos\ This reference to the Trpwros is 
of great importance for the history of the growth 
of the common organization of the monasteries on 
Mount Athos, and the question may be raised whether 
7rpa)To<s ought to be regarded as a title or as an epithet 
of rjcrvxoLo-TTJs. In his invaluable HaupturJcunde fur 
die Geschichte der AthosMOster, p. 29, Dr. Ph. Meyer 
assumes that the former alternative is correct, and 
regards this passage as the earliest reference to a 
Protos of the mountain, though he does not quote 
the text. I doubt, however, whether he is justified in 
doing this (grammatically irpcoTo^ is here so clearly 
adjectival), especially as there is no evidence that 
the title was used elsewhere before the tenth cen- 
tury, though later, as Gedeon has shown (6 ''A ^0)9, 
p. 85), it was used in Thessaly at Meteora and at 
Latros, and it seems to me probable that in the 
ChrysobuU of Leo irptaro^ is not the technical term 
which it had become by the third quarter of the 
tenth century (cf. Vita Athanasii Athonitae by 
Pomjalovski, pp. 20 fp.). 

In any case it is noteworthy that the title must 



74 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

have been quite recent, as it does not appear in the 
list of the signatures to the boundary settlement 
a few years previously. There the leader of the 
monks is called the rjyoviJievo's tov "AOcovos, and, as 
I have said, he is perhaps identical with Johannes 
Kolobos. 

It is, I suspect, probable that the origin 
of the title TrpcoTos may be found in this con- 
troversy of the Athonites with the monks of 
Kolobou. The former wished to appear before the 
emperor, and were not able to send their usual 
representative, the Abbot of Kolobou, for the very 
good reason that he was actually the person of 
whom they wished to complain. They therefore 
selected the most prominent hermit, and the adjec- 
tive by which they (or the emperor) described him 
was afterwards used as a title. The office, thus 
originated to meet a special need, was found so 
convenient that it was perpetuated, and was firmly 
established by the time of Athanasius.^ 

The victory of the Athonites over Kolobou. The 
mission of Andreas to the emperor proved success- 
ful ; Nicephorus, the Proto-Spatharios, held an 
inquiry which revealed the fraud of the monks 
of Kolobou; the forgery was destroyed, and the 
emperor gave a new Chrysobull protecting the 
Athonites, and tying the monks of Kolobou down 
closely to the original terms of the Bull of Basil. 
There is a significant lack of direct confirmation 

^ The later history of the office of Protos can be studied in 
Meyer, I, c. 



JOHANNES KOLOBOS 75 

as to the * Protectorate ' over the mountain, from 
which it might be assumed that the monastery lost 
their privilege, and nothing is especially said to the 
possession of the KadeSpa tcjv yepovrcov. 

With this incident the first chapter of the con- 
troversy between the monks of Kolobou and the 
hermits of Mount Athos was closed. For the 
history of the mountain its importance is to be 
found in the fact that it shows that at the begin- 
ning of the tenth century there was no definite 
monastery on the mountain; there were hermits, 
and, as we know from the life of Euthymius, some 
of these hermits were associated in lauras. More- 
over, the necessity of defending their interests from 
the encroachments of the monks of Kolobou had 
forced them to take common action under the 
leadership of the most prominent of their nmnber. 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTER III 

A. EXTEACT FROM A ChRYSOBULL OF BaSIL 
EARLIER THAN A. D. 881 

. . . Tou? Tov eprj/jLiKov /Slov eXojuLevovg kol ra? Kara/jLovas 
nai maTpi^a^ ev tw tov *'A6(dvo9 XeyojUievM opei iroitja-ajuLivov^, 
Kai ra^ evreXeig orKrjmg €K€i Trrj^aiuevovg, irapa toov eTnvwpia- 
i^OVTODV Kai TO) OpCL TOVTU) TTpOa-OjULOpOVl/TCOV CTTTjpeai^OfJLevovg, 

KOI fAT] (rvy')(MpoviJ.evov9 KaOapwg kuI arapa^w^: ra tov oiKeiov 
XoyicTfAov SieTTiTeXeiv, 6 OeocrvvepyjjTog ^julwu Paa-iXela SUaiov 
riyrjcraTO Sia TovSe rj^wv tov criyiXXiov tov Xoittov aOopv^ovg 
Ka] aTapd')(ovg SiayeiVj ev-^ecrQal re virep Tr]9 rnxwv yaXrivo- 
TrjTO^ Kai virep tov iravTO^ tov tcov ^picrTtavcov (Tva'TrjiJ.aTO<s, 
e^aa-cjyaXi^ofxeOa irdvTag otto re aTpaTtjywv, ^acriXiKcov 
avOpooTTCov Kai em earyaTOV dvOpwirov tov SovXeiav KaTa- 
wia-TevofJievov, cti Se koi iSiwTai koi ')^(t)pidTag Ka\ eco? tov 
€v Tw ixvXwvi aXrjQovTO^, tva /mr] VTrtjpeaarrj ti9 Tovg avTOvg 
/j,ova')(ovSf aXXd imrjSe KaOwg ecTTi tov 'Kpicrcrov ri evopla 
Kai Tfjv ecrco irpog to tov "A^Ocovos opog elcep-^ecrdai Tivag, 
IJ.^T€ TTOi/xej/a? ixera tuiv TroijuLviwv avTwv, tirjTe ^ovKoXovg 
jwera twv povKoXltov avTcov. . . . 

The text is taken from Porphyrius Uspenski 
(BocmoKZ XpucmiaHCKiu, Aeouz, Kiev, 1877, part 3, p. 295), 
who is quoting from a MS. which is found in the 
library of Philotheon. 

B. The 7rpa^L<s of the hroTTTq^, Sajfias Kdcnra^, AS 
TO THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN ErISSOS AND THE 

Monks of Mount Athos, a. d. 881-2 

. . . eireiSi] i} KXaa-fiaTiK*] ytj Tr]9 viroTayrj^ tov ^^pia-crov , . . 
icTTi, Ka\ crvv^vwTai tw opei tov "AOcovoSt Ka\ t] diroKXyjpW' 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE III 77 

Oeicra ytj rrj jw-ov^j rod KoXo/Soi; . , , tj fiev irapa Siacpopcov 
TTpoa-coTTCOv Si€-)(Ci)pia-6r], Kol avvopa avafxera^v avrrj^ re /ulov^9 
Ka] Tcov ywpiarwv iyevero, Kara tov avTOv SiaywpKTixov 
KariXiTTOV rrj jmovrj rov KoXojSou Soopeav rhv roiavTrjv yrjv, 

CLTTO Se TU>V TOIOVTWV (TUPOpCOV T?? aVTrjg jULOVrj^, KOI TTjOO? 

TOP '^AOwva, Karet-^ov ol ')(CDpiaTai Koi. ra Xolttu lULOvacmipia 
Koi ive/uLovTO, ov fxtjv irpoe^rj irpo tovtov ^m^cOjOfor/xo? 
fxera^v avrwv re koI tcov /JLOva'^wv tov opovg tou '^A.Ocovo^y 
Hva €K TOVTOV iSeiKvvTO ewf ttov ccttl jj tcov (xovaywv 
€iriKpaT€ia, KaKeiOev tj KXaa-juaTiKrj yrjy fi irapa tcov "^coplwv 
KOL TCOV Xoiircov ixovaa-Tfiplcov KaTeyoixivrj, aW ovTcog 
(TvyKe'^WfJievri kol aSidyvoocTTog V7ryjp')(€v rj cKacTTOv ^ecnroTeia 
Sia TO fJLTj yevecrOai I^G-^Qyt tov vvv eKeicre eiroiTTiKviv Sidyvcocriv 
KOI Trjv TOV /cXacr/xaTO? Siairpaariv, TavTtjv ovv Ttjv irapa 
TOV KacTTjOoy 'Eipia-a-ov oiKtjTopcov KaTe-^ofxevriv KXaa-juLaTiKrjv 
yrjv SicTrpacrav [1. SieTrpacra] eig avTOvg, irepl Se tcov jmeTa^v 
(TvvopcoVy avTcov T€ Twv e^covt](TavTCov Trjv TOV KXaorfxaTog 
yrjv Kol TWV fjLOva-)((Jov tov ''AOcovog Sia to TfjviKavTa fAtjSeniiav 
(piXoviKciav irapa Tivog KLvrjOrjvaiy ovt€ irap* ^fxcov irepi- 
epycoTcpov e^eTaa-Qrj ri eiroXvirpayiJLOvriQtj irepl tov Sia- 
j^copicrfAov avTcov. 

Airoa-TelXavTeg ovv /uera tovto ol fxova^^o). tov ''AOcovog 
eSerjOrjcrav Tovg fiacriXetg rjixcov tou? dylovs, Ka\ eSe^avTO 
o T€ SxpaTiyyoy Kal 6 T^ouXa?, tva Sta'^^copiarcoo'i to. SUaia 
avTcov airo tcov oiKrjTopcov tov Kao-Tjoou, airaiTi^crcoa-i Se 
€yypa(pov acrcpaXeiav tow? avTOvg oiKi^TOpag, eh to /uajKeTi 
irap€v6')(Xij(Tiv Tiva iirayeiv Totg jnovayolg, /cat airocTTelXavTeg 
tiyayov Tovg oiKi^Topag tov '^piararov koi evcoirtov diui.(j)co 
rijiicov ea-Ttjarav ficTa tcov fJLovay^wv* Kal ol fxev fJLOvayoi 
TOV AOcovog irpoe^dXXovTO Ttjv e^ dp-)(rjg SecriroTelav eig 
TO opog, KaOcog koi iv TOig tov /cXaa"/xaTO? kcoSi^iv avaypa- 
(p€Tat SrjjULoaria eig irpocrcoirov tcov /ULOvay^cov tov "AOcovogy 
ov imrjv aXXa Kai Trjv ^oi^Oeiav r?? aa-cpaXelag tov "^pvaro' 
^ovXXovTOv (SacTiXecog tov Js^vpov IBacriXelov irda-av dSeiav koi 
e^ovcriav irape')(0VT09 avTOig airo Tr]V evoplav{sic) tov '^picrcrou 
Kal Ttjv earco, Kal cog e/c tovtov evoplav ov ttjv viroTayrjv 
TOV TeXovg, aXXa t*iv tov J^acrTpov XeyovTeg, eireipcovTO 
fJi-^xpi T?? TOV KoXo/3ou KaTo-)^rjg etvai Trjv avTtjv airo 



78 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

Xpv(ToPovW(av PovOeiav, c^ wv crvviPaive iravra ra TOtavra 
KXaarfiariKa TOina ISiOTroieicrOai avrovg, Kal to crvvoXov 
/ULrjSeu evaTTO/uLeveiv roh oiKi^Topcn rod *Kpia-(rov, HaXiv 
o6 01 avTOi OLKi^Topcg evLCTTavto I^^XP^ '^^^ Zivyov etvai 
Ttjv KXaa^iaTLKriv yrjv Kai coos rov toiovtov tottov Sea-Tro^eiv 
avTOvs, Tovg Se 'AOcoviTag e^ovcrid^eiv airo rov Zvyov Kal 
TTJV ecTW, Kat, aTrXwj TroXAa (piKoviKrjo-avTe^ 7rep\ tovtov. 
TO yap Trap* afJLCJxa (TTacriaXp^evov tovto ?i/, tov opiaOrjvai 
tottov evOa efxeWov yevicrQai arvvopa to, Sia'^wpi^ovra ra 
afJL^OTepwv SUaia, 

T^eXevTaiov ouv oiKeia irpoOeaei i^ pea-Qrjcrav Sia to aipiXo- 
veiKov {to ttXgov Se Sia to crvyKeywixevov r?? viroOecrecog Kal 
a^iayvcoa-TOv) , Kal SioapLcravTO tottov evOa efxeWov yevecrOai 
TO, arvvopa to. Sia-)(u)pil^ovTa auTOvg. tov Se ^TpaTrjyov Kal 
TOV T^ouXa, ov /JLrjv aWa Kal tov ap-^^^LCTTia-KOTTOV, KpaTrj- 
(ravTcov julcv tov yevearOai €TriTOTTicog koi Sia'^^topLcrai avTOvs, 
KaOwg Kal ijpearOrjarav cTTiSovval re afKpOTepoi^ Kal Xi^eXXovg 
T?? T0iavT>]9 rjiJLwv TTpa^ecog, cocravToog Kal afKpoTepcov twv 
oiaoiKaXpiJievuiV eh tovto, ov jmrjv to OLTrepaTOV avrcov yivdotTKoov 
ov KaTevcvcra (xttXco^ koi cog cTV^ev oltto (pwvtjg avTwv i^eXOeiv 
. . . aXX* eiTTOv, eig OTTep ^p6crOt]T€, e^aarcpaXicraa-Oe a/JLCpOTepoi 
irpog /j.€, 7va a/AeTa/xeX»jTa)9 KaTaSe^rjo-Qe tovto, 

Ka« e^ipyovTO (sic) kol e^tja-cpaXla-avTo afKpOTcpoi 
€vopKco£, TOV apeoTKearOai avTOvg cKei yevea-Qai Ta fxeXXovTa 
^ia-)(wpLl^€iv afj,(pOT€povg crvvopa. e^acrcpaXia'aiULevwv Se avTcov 
SeSdoKacriv o t€ ^TpaTrjyog kol 6 T^ouXa? Kal vTTO/ULvtjuia 
Toh iiiova')(oi9 eiuLCpaivov Tr]v afXCpOTepcov apearKeiav Kal Trjv 
T?9 TTjOa^ew? jJjUtoi/ avavTipprjTOv ivepyeiav. T?? ToiavTtjg 
ovv aa-cpaXeiag Sia re t?? tov ap-^icTTicrKOTTOv VTToypa<prjg Kal 
Twv XoLTTcov pepai(s)0eL(Tr]9i e^^XOov cTTiTOTTLOog Kol OLeywpia-av 
(1, Ste^^wpia-a ?) KaTO. Trjv eyy pa(pov avTcov aa-cpdXeiav ei ov 
fipicrOria-av tottov, Kat oltto jmev r?? SiaKaTO-^rjg tov tottov 
T»js fJLOvrjg TOV KoXo/Sov fJie-)(j)i Twv TOiovTcov crvvopwVf TTaa-av 
Ttjv ficTa^v ovG-av yrjv^ ic<s KXacr/uLaTtKi^Vf SicTTpaa-a Toh 
oiKiiTOpcri TOV Kao-Tjoov, Kal rj pear6tj(rav Kal TTapiXa^ov 
avTrjv, Kou aveXapovTO Xl^eXov iTap rifjLwv TTcpl twv toiovtwv 
crvvoponv oltto Se twv toiovtcov avvopcov t^ la-oTtjTi, utto 
OaXacrarav eii OdXacra'av Kal TTpoi tov 'A^wi/a irapeSoOtj 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTER III 79 

TO/? /JiOva')(oi9 Tov avTOv opovg koi eireooOr} avroig vTrojuLvtjfMa 
KOI irepLOpicTiMog eig oiKeiav avrwv acr(j)aXeiav Kai ScpelXovariv 
€-^€tv afjiCpL^oXov 01 oiK^Topeg tov 'l^pia-a-ov ecos twv uvtwv 
(Tvvopwv, KaOdog koi 6 X//3eXo9 avrwv Trepii-^ei, wtravTwg Ka\ 
01 iuiova)(o). TOV ''AOcavog airo twv axrrwv a-vvopoov koi irpog 
TOV "A.Ou>va. 

JlXrjV TOVTO fJLOVOV KOI TTOpa TWV OlKf]TOpU)V TOV l^aCTTpOV 

Koi €Ti €\oyo/Jid-)(^f]To, irepl tov jult] KooXvea-Qai Tvy^ov tu 
KTrjvri avTwv cig Kaipov iOviKrjg icfyoSov t5 "Trpocpda-ei tov 
Sia^^copKrjULOv tov julvj eicrep-^ecrOai koi irepicrco^ea-OaL eig to 
TOiovTOv opog, Koi iTcpl TovTOv Iva oiKOvofiTjOrj , fiavSpeia 
Se fxtj iroielv [xtiTe juLeXiaaovpyeiaf aWa /JLrjSe aSeiag ovcrijg 
avev eiSi^areoog tcov fiova^wv elcrayeiv ra KTiivrj avTwv, ficyaXcog 
yap €ig TOVTO 01 jjiovayoi 'irapevo')(\ovvTO, eirei airo twv 
TOiovTwv crvvopwv Ka\ irpog tov ^A^Qwva Ka\ oKiyoaTri kol 
a^ela yrj vaTcpov aireKkripodOri TOig [xova-^olg, koi yap 
01 oiKtjTopeg TOV J^acTpov e'^^ovcri /mev koi ^v irap' rjinwv 
e^oavria-avTO y^v, eXa^ov Se koi eo-^aTco? ck Trpoa-Td^eong 
PaariXiKrjg Kot tov dyiov julov avOevTov, Ka\ ck t?? fiovrjg 
TOV KoXoj8oy wcrel y^^iXicov /JioSlcov, Kal ov SvvavTai Xiyeiv 
fxri e')(eiv avTOvg Tr]V avTapKciav avTwv* 

*H ^e XeyojUiivr] " KaOeSpa twv yepovToov " ev erepta juLepei 
ccttI tov 'EjOf (To-oy vtto [siCj I, diro ?] Triv yijv tov icXctcr^aTO? 
TOV }^aiuL€vov, direSoOrj Se Sia y^vcrolBovXXov TOig fJLOva'^^oig, 
Ka\ wpla-Qri Trap' rjfxwv Ka\ iv t(c virojuviiiuLaTi tj/mcov avTcypacptj, 
*Lva ovTco KaTG^^rjTai irapa twv fiova-^^wv KaOwg Kal irpo- 
KaTelyero. 

Tavra e/uof T(p SovX(p trov SUaia OLOiKtjo'ai dv€(pdvr]. 
6 Se ayiog [xov avQivTtig to SUaiov virep irdvTwv eTrenrdjjLevog, 
tog 6 Ocog oStjyi^araiTO. 

The text is taken from Porphyrius Uspenski, op, cit, 
pp. 315 ff. The writer says that his text is derived 
from a MS. in the library of the monastery of 
Coutloumousi on Mount Athos which bears the title : 
rpa/x/iara dp-^ala croitfipiivoiv tcov irpoiTOTVTTOiv iv T(p 
UpcDTaTcp, avTLypa(f)epTa Si alTija-ecos tov iravoa-LoXo- 
yLmraTov dp^ipLavhptTOv kol iirirpoTrov T7}9 lepa? fiovrj^ 
KoxjTXovp.ovarr) KvpCov TprjyopLov, With reference to 



80 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

the TT/jafts of ©ctjjLtag it says : r^ dpx^ Tf^^ irpuiTOTvirov 
8L€(f)6apfjL€vr), 

Gerasimos Smjrmakes, op, ciL, p. 23 f., quotes this 
document from i^acr(f)a\icra[jL€V(t)v 8e avTwv to the end. 
I have not noted his variations which do not affect 
the sense, because it seems less likely that they are 
derived from the original document at Caryes than 
that they are merely emendations of the text given 
by Uspenski. 

C. The Agreement between the Monks of Athos 

AND THE ErISSIOTES AS TO THE BOUNDARY 
BETWEEN THEIR DOMAINS 

^lyvov Tptjyopiov iuiova-)(ov, ^yovjuLcvov t?? jjLOvrjg tov 'OpOoyo- 

fxarov* 
^lyvov M.€6oSlov /ULOva-^oVf riyovfxevov fjLOvrjg rrjg dyiag 

l^pl(TTLVri<i. 

^lyvov ^A^vSpiov fjLOva'^oVi tjyovjiievov tov ^TrtjXaKorov, 

^[yvov fJLOva-^cov airo J^evrdpcov. 

^lyvov K.covo'TavTivov tov XaXou/Aa. 

^lyvov 'Icodvvov tov Topdl^Sov- » 

^lyvov . . . TravTWV, 

^lyvov Ba(T*Xe/ou. 

^lyvov iravToav fj.ova'^v tov 'A^ftjvo?. 

^lyvov IcoavvoVf ^yov/mivov tov '^A.Oojvo^. 

^lyvov J^vvtjyov tov ^cTrpo/BaSt}' 

^lyvov OeoScopov. 

^[yvov ^ApKaSiov fJiOva)(ov IA.6(jovitov, 

^tyvov irdvTCOv tov J^acTTpov* 

[In the original each of these signatures is written 
round a cross.] 

'El/ ovoixaTi -iraTpo*; vlov kol dylov Trvev/ULaTog. 'H/wef? 
ol TTpoyeypafJLiuLevoL Kal Toy? TijULiovg koi I^coottoiov^ (TTavpovg 
ioio)(eip(ji)? TTiJ^ai/Te? Tr]v irapovcrav eyypacpov da-cpaXeiav 
KOI TeXelav SiaXvcriv Troiov/mev ct? v/uLcig Qw/uid (BacnraOdprj 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE III 81 

aa-tjKplrr] eiroirrri Oea-a-aXoviKr}^. rjixet^ fxev ol rjyovfievoi 
imera toov ^(copiaTcov virep iraa-f]^ rtjg koiv6ti]to9 rrj^ ^copag, 
rifjL€i<i Se Ol 'AOcoviTaL jmova'^oi virep iravToov twv jULOva-^wv 
Tou A.O(evo^ Tov opou^. 

'EiTreiSrj irpo yjpovov rivos eTTwXrjcrav eig rovg '^oapiaTa^ 
Trjv nrap^ avrwv Kare-^^ojUiivrj]/ KXacriuLaTiKrjv yrjv, ov Sie'^^copicrav 
Se TO €(09 TTOu 6(peiXov(ri SearTro^eiv ot ayopaC^ovre^ Koi 
CKeWev 01 AOcoviraii Sia tovto eicniXOojiiev ev Oea-aaXoviKri, 
Koi evwiTLOv TOV iravevcprjijiov irpwTeiroTrTOV J^aTttKaXcov, /cat 
Yptjyoplov TOU dyiwTOLTOv ^juloov ap-^teTTKTKOTroUj Gw^a 
pacriraQapLOv tov T^ouXa, Ka\ ^wrjKTOV [?. Zoj/tov? cf. 
the Sia^oapLiJiJio^ of Kara/caXoJi'] jSacnraOapLOv KpiTOv, Kal 
(TOV TOV irpoeipYifxevov eiroiTTOv, ejKXrja-iv eirOLtjcrdiJLeQa 
eTTii^tjTOVPTeg yoopiarOrivai to. tov "A.Qwvo'i opia diro t?? 
SiaTrpaOeia-t]^ yrjg. 

Ka« tjiueh jmev ol TtJ9 X^P^^ eXeyojULev eivai Ttjv jj/ULeTepav 
oecnroTelav ecD^ tov Zivyov, eKelQev Se twv AOcovitwv. ^juLei^ 
Se OL A6(oviTai dvTeXeyo/uiev ttoXiv otl KaTO, TroXy juLepo^ 
dv^K€L TTpo's ^l^oig CK Trjg TTap* vfxwv e^covrjOelcnjg y^^. 

Tlepl TovTcov TToXXa (j)iXoviKricravT€(! crvveiSofJiev dfiCpOTepoi 
Kai (rvve^i^aa-OrjiuLev yeveaOaL ovtco^, — ^va diro to irXrjpwfxa 
Twv ywpacpiwv TOV J^vpov M-eOoSlov ^ Trpog tov Zvyov 
Koirovv Ta crvvopa diro OaXaarcrav €19 OaXatrcrav, Kal ra 
fJLeu irpog TOV Zivyov irdvTa x^pacpia re kgI yepcra Iva 
wai T^9 SecTTTOTeiag toov 'AOcovitcov, cltto Se tcl TOiavTa 
(Tvvopa KOI TTjOO? TOV 'EjOt(70-oi/ 'Iva oocL iravTa Trjg SeariroTela^ 
TWV dyopaaravToov koi tov KoXo^ou. Kal jun^Te ^fxeii ol 
'AOooviTai diro tcl TOiavTa crvvopa Kal irpog tov 'l^picrarov 
eyoiuLev e^ovariav to crvvoXov eTri^rjTeiv, ixrjTe ^jueig 01 t^s 
Xl^paq diro ra TOiavTa crvvopa koi Trpog tov "A-Qwva e^^iv 
Tiva clover lav. 

Kat et? TavTa (rviuL(p(jovi^<TavT€g Kal dpecrOevTeg e^rjacpaXi' 
crajUieOa irpog are tov eiroTTTriv Iva KaTavvyrjg Kal e^eXOi^g 
Kal Sia-)((*>plo'r]g ^fxag KaOdog Kal a-vve^i^dcrOrjiuLev, 

Olov Se fJLepog dvTiXoyricTeL Kal ovk dcrfievla-ei elg TavTa 

^ i. e. the monastery of S. Christina. Cf. signatories, and the 

8ta;(a)pto-/xos of KaraKaXwv. 

LAKE. M. A. P 



82 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

Ta 7rpoeipt]iuL€va, iv irpwTOi^ apvtjTi^g ia-ri . Ttjg ay/a? Kai 
ofioovrriov TpidSo^, Koi. ^evo9 t?? tcov ^piarriavcov TTiVreo)? 
Koi. t5? juLOva')^iKrjg Karaa-Tda-ewg, eireira Kal KaTaSiKdi^ea-Oat, 
SiKaicojUiivov Tou e/uLfievovi koi (rrepyovTog /mepov^ e(9 to. 
elprifxeva (Tv/uLCpcova, 

Ei^coOev 0€ TOVTCOv €^€iv ^/x«? 'fci' Tt]v KaOiSpav TWV 

VepOVTCOV TCOV €V TW ^pvCrOpOvWlu) /J.Vr]IULOV€VOIULeVt]V. 

Ef? ravTa irdvra dpecrOivTeg irpoerd^aixev rovg Ti/ULiovg 
Kai ^(jdOTToiovg (TTaupov^f ypa(pevTog tov v<pov9 Sia -^eipog 

AiJ/ULr]TpLOV KXfjpiKOU KOV^OVkXiWV Kol 6p(pai/OTp6(pOUi €V /JLtJvl 

Ma/ft) ^IvSiKTiovog Te, 

Tptjyopioi eXa^tcTTO? dpyieirlcTKoirog Oea-a-dXoviKtji 
fiaprvg Toh TrpoyeypafjLiuLevoig vireypa^a LSio')(€ipw9. 

'El/ ovo/maTi TraTjOO? ktX, Gw/xa? ^aa-TraOdprj^, vordpiog 
Twv KOjULcpKoov TTapei/uLi cTTi TTaori T019 irpoyeypafjL^evoL^ 
/ULaprvg viriypa^a ISio'^^eipcog, 

Bacr/Xe/o? KavSiSdrog 6 ^ipividprjg irdpeifxi ktK. 

'El/ ovoixaTL Trarpog ktX, Mt^a^X KXrjpiKog Trdpeifxi kt\. 

'El/ ovo/nari Trarpog kt\, Tptjyopiog ^aa"jraOdpfjg 6 
^ovcTKog irdpeifMi ktX, 

The text is taken from Porphyrius Uspenski, 
op, cit, p. 318. 

D. Decision of KaraKakcov Kdana^ as to the 

BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE MONASTIC LAND OF MoUNT 
AtHOS and THE TEREITORY OF HiERISSOS. A.D. 882 

Twi/ paa-iXicov ^/ulcov toov dylcov eSe^d/jieOa 7rp6<TTayiJ.a 
Iva a/xa YprjyopLip tw dyico dp'^ieTricrKOTrw Qeco'aXoviKtjg 
KOt ZcD^Tft) KacTTra/co? (sic) cttI tou oIkclov kol Kpirov tov 
Oe/maTog e^eXOwjULev eTnTOTrlws ev Trj evopia tou ^lepicrcrou 
Kal ^La'^^tapicTwiJ.ev Tr]V yn^ Twv re /ULova-^cov twv iu Tta 

"AOoiVl Koi TWl/ OLKIJTOpWV TOV KdcTTpOU ^lepLCTCrOU KaTOL TTJV 

irpa^LV QcojuLci Kao-xaico? koi iiroTTTOu tou /metpoKO^ouXou, 
Kal evSov cnrocrTaXeLG-rig irpog ^jmag t?? y^i^cpou K^ocrjuLa tou 
r/raveucprjiMOV ixaylcTTpov. Tovro ^e Kal ireiroiriKaixev Kal 
yevofxevoL /cara tottov afxa Toig ciprj/nevoig jjtoi tw dp-^ieTn- 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEK III 83 

G-KOTTM Ka) Tw StjXcoOivTi KacTTTa/cf a-v/uLTrapovTcov fjixlv 
^Iwavvov Tov ocritaTCLTOV eiricTKoirov ^^pKOvKwv, TiaptXov 
"Kda-iraKog, koi cttI tvov oiKeiaKcov ^Te(pavov, koi cyyia-ra 
Ttjs oiKciaK^g rpaTrel^tjg ^Avacrracrlov IS.acnraKOi kcll 'Jrpos 
T^9 7r6pT)]9 QecrcraXovlKtjg Av^peov J^acTTraKog koi yapTOV- 
Xapiov TOV OejuiaTO^i J^wvcrTavTivov KXrjpiKov koi KOV^ovKXrj- 
crloVf QeoScopov KXrjpiKov koi oikovojulov t?? dyiooraTtjg 
dp-)(i€7ri<rK0'n'rjs Qecra-dXovtKrjg, IEivOv/jllov fxova-)^ov koi tjyov- 
jmevov Trjg /UL0vt]9 TU>v JlepicrTepcop, Yprjyopiov jnova'^ov koi 
tiyovfiivov /jLovtjg tov ^Opcpavov,^ AvSpeov ixovaypv kol 
riyovixevov julov^s tov ^TrtjXaicoTOv, ^Tecpdvov KacrTrafco? tov 
IBapSavoTTOvXov, NZ/cov l^/uLavSvTOV, AfjiarjTpiov Sei"^, twv 
l^rjimapLCov Koi eir). avTwv ^le-^wpicraixev Trjv yrjv ajuL(pOT€pwv 
Tu>v fxepwv, ?TOf Twv 'AOcovtTwv KOI Twv oiKrp-opcov ^lepiartrov, 
iroiria-avTe^ Trjv kolt dp-^v Ttjg voTiag OaXacrcn^gj jjyovv diro 
Trjv KttT dp-^v TOV koXttov t?? A/ULjULovXiavr}g, 

K.ai ecTTiv 6 Sia-)((t)pia-iUL09 ovtco^* dirdp'^eTai fnev diro tov 
jBaOvv pvaKa tov KaTevavTi Keifxevov twv Xeyofxevcov nraXaiwv 
TraXaTLWv T^g 'AfA/movXiavrjg koi dvaTpi')(€i cog irpog ra 
ytapd^ia Trjg ixovrjg r?? dyiag XpicrTivrjg, iv w totto) Kai 
XtOoa-wpela *L(TTaTaL ck ttoXXoov XlOoov crvyKeifjievr] Kac 
VTTOKaTCO T^g Xi6o(rcop€Lag vog Trpog Trjv dvaToXrjv 'lo-TavTaL 
Spveg KaOe^rjg XavpaTWfJievai, Kal dTroSiSei Trj icroTriTL fie-)(pig 
€T€pov pvaKog, Kol dwo TOV pvaKa virep^alvei to pa-^wvi Kac 
KaT6p-)(€Tai €ig Tr}v YXofXTrovT^ia-Ta, Ka\ irepav tov pvaKog 
eicrt Spveg koi irTeXiai XavpaTco/uievai koi KaOe^rjg rj laoTijTi 
wg TTpog Trjv OdXacra-av dTroSiSei eig to iraXaiov yvcTTcpviv 
dvaKa/HTrei irpog to irapaKel/jievov aif^evLV iv w ea-Tiv to 
XiOofJiavSpLOV TO dp-^aiov tov J^oXo^oVj oirep €a-T\v ccrwOev 
TOV irepiopicriuLOv T^g yrjg twv AOcovltcov Koi diro to av'^iviv 
diroSiSei €ig TreSivov tottov ev w elcn. ^povXeai, kol diro tu>v 
TOiovToov TOTTCov KaOe^tjg dvaKajULTTTei irpog to dvTiKei/ULCvov 
av-^ivtv, KOI KaTepj^cTai Trj la-OTtjTi l^e)(pi Trjg OaXdaa-tjg Trjg 
^opeivrjg, 

OvToo ^la-^wplcravTeg kol avvopa irri^avTeg, KaOoog koc 6 
TOTTog Si€^u)pt(T€v ttVTOig, KOI €yypd(pwg Trjv irpd^LV tj/acov 

^ 1. 'OpOoyofxdrov ? Cf. signatories to the agreement on p. 80. 

f2 



84 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

aiTOcrrjixemcraixevoL eTriSeSdoKafxev a/uLCporepoig roig fjcepea-i — 
Kare^ova-L Se ol avro) fJLOva-)(o\ rov "AOcovoi Koi rrjv KaOi^Spav 
Toov TepovTCov, Ka6u)9 koi irpoKarei'^^ov avTrjv, /car a rriv 
SuvajULiv Tov X.pv(rpov\\ou avrcov — (TCppaylcravTeg oia 
jULoiXv^Sov Trj avvriQei cr(ppayiSL ^jmojVy fJLijvl AvyovcrTcp, 
ivSlktiwvo^ d, /TT^'^ [882 A.D.] 

+ KaTa/ca\a)j/ K.dcr7ra^, G-TpaTrjKaTri^ Qea-praXoviKtj^. 

+ Vpriyopiog, ap')(^L67rl(rK07r09 Oeara-aXoviKijg, 

+ Ei)0J/utO9, fxovaj^oi KOI ^yov/jL€voi t?? fJLOvrjg Tlepicrrepoov, 

And the others, whose names are given in the first 
part of the document. 

The text is taken from the Bv^dvTiva Xpoi/i/ca, vol. v, 
1898, pp. 485 f. [published in St. Petersburg and in 
Leipzig by K. L. Eickev] from a collection of docu- 
ments copied from a MS. in the Laura by the Pro- 
egoumenos Alexandres of that monastery. The 
original is said, I beHeve correctly, to be extant in 
the archives of the kolvottjs at Caryes. 



E. Chrysobull of Leo VI 

. . . nracTt]^ irapevoy^rjcreong . . . ekevOepiaXpvre^ -irepicnd- 
crewv . . . Tw o/njULaTL . . . rrjg ^acriXeiag VTrepev'^ovTO, tolvvv 
KOL roig acTKriTaLg aTracri . . . iraXai fiev 6 ev rrj Oela Xi^^cl 
nrarrjp ^julcov koi fiacriXevg criylXXiov e^ alrrjcrem 'Icoavvov 
TOV eTriXeyo/uLevov J^oXo^ov Xa^eiv iSiKalcoa-e rov irepKpvXaT- 
TearOai Travrag Tovg ev rw avrw opei a")(oXdl^ovTag Tovg 
Oelovg avSpag ev Sia<p6poi9 KaracrKvjvwa-eari^ kol Trpbg TOVTOig 
Kai Ttjv Trap avTOv 'Icoavvov veovpyrjOeia'av fiovrju r?? TOiavTtj<f 
nrpovolag KaraTroXaveiv, Kal Karey^eiv rtjv evoplav tov 
^^picra-ov Koi julovov. Kal t?? ToiavTtjg Oelag KeXevcrecug 
TOV ev tJ ixaKapia Xrj^eL TraTpog rumwv Koi. /Baa-iXecog cttI 
ypovovg Tivag KpaTtjcracrtjg' va-Tepov Se irpocreXOovTeg ol Tijg 
fiovrjg KoXo/3ou ev oLpy^ Trjg rjixeTepag avTOKpaTopiag, Ka\ 



^ Gerasimos Smymakes, 1. c, p. 23, quotes the last part of 
this document. He gives the same year, but the fifteenth 
instead of the first indiction. 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE III 85 

irXaylcog SiSd^avTC? oog ev rd^ei iiriKvpcoTiKOV tov iv Ttj 6eia 
\rj^€L irarpog rjjjLwv Koi ^acriXewg (riyiWlov hreCrjTrjcraVi iv 
w irapoKoyoog rrjg tov aiyiWiov fJieTev€)(6ePTe9 rd^ecog, 
'^apKTTiKrjg TVTTOv, oj? ovK (ocpeXcy Sicypdy^ravTOj Kal irepi- 
opLCTfiov eKOe/JLevoi (T')(€Sov tov oXov eig SecnroTelav kol 
KvpiOTtjTa KaTaKpaTi^(TavT€9 "AQcova^ koi irpog TOVTOig kol 
ywpla, airo re twv Xeyoixivtav ^iSrjpoKavcrioav koi twv 
^Xco/ulovtXwv koi aXXoov tivwv, Kai irpoi! TOVTOig koc 
jmovacrT^pLa airo re tov MoycrraACWi^o?, tov J^apStoyvcocTTOv, 
KOI TOV 'AOavaa-iov Kal tov AovKci, koi Ttjv twv yepovTwv ap- 
youav KaOeSpav. ^^TreiStj Se ck tov avTOv Trepicovvjixov opovg 
"AOwvog 'AvSpeag 6 evXa^eaTaTog iuL0va-)(09 koi irptioTog, 
^a-v^acTTijg tov avTOv opovg airo Trpocrwirov iravTwv twv 
€K€i(Te (T)(oXa^6vT(iov Oelwv avSpwVf Tr]v /BaanXevovcrav KaTa- 
Xa^wv, iSei^Orj Trjg rjfjLerepag jBaa-iXeiag avaSiSd^ag cog oi Tfjg 
fjiovrjg TOV KoXo/3ou Ttjg TOiairrrjg iTreiXruuL/iiivoi Trpocpacreoogy 
KOI eig SiKatcojULa Tfjg aSiKcog TtjviKavTa yevo/jLcvrjg /cara 
iravovpyio.v 'ircpiypacprjg tov avTov -^dpTrjv 'TrpoKOjixtl^ovTcg, 
KaTCKpaTtjcrav to oXov opog tov 'AOcovog, kol Tovg iv avTw 
a-)^oXaCovTag Qeiovg avSpag, m vtto iSiav TrapoiKiav, TroXXaxtg 
^lairXriKTiCpixevoL, airoc^alvovjaL kol air oSlcokciv, uoairep airo 
oiKeiwv KTtjfjLaTwv, la-yypwg SiaTcivovTai, koi irpog TOVTOig 
vofxaSiKov irpoaaTeiov tov oXov SiaKpaTovvTcg AOwva, Kai 
TWV irXrja-ial^ovcrwv ywpwv eicrdyovTeg to, ^oa-KrifxaTa koI 
TO, virep T^g tovtwv vop.rjg KOixiXpfxevoi, fiiKpov Seiv aire- 
Xavveiv avTOug cKeWev TravTcXwg eK^Lal^ovTai* nrpbg TOVTOig oe 
Kal €K TOV fxepovg twv elptjjmevwv xwpwv avvaveXOovTeg tw 
avTW evXajSea-TOLTW avSpl irepl Trjg TOiavTtjg TrXeove^lag koi 
irapaXoyov KaTacr-^^ea-ewg twv Trjg jULOvrjg tov J^oXo^ov KaTe- 
Porjcrav. Tlepl wv Se^dfievog 6 TrpwTOcnraOapiog NiKi](p6pog, 
w eirwvvfjiov tov ^virpd^rj, aKpi^wg Siepevviia-aarOai, Trjv 
aXrjQeiav ovTwg ^\clv Trj ^aa-iXeia ^julwv avrjviyKaTO, Kai 
Se^d/iAevog irapa Trig ^aanXeiag ^jnwv ajjiCpOTepa avTwv ra 
/JLeptjy Ttjv ^aariXevovaav KaToXa/Seiv irpoaeTa^ev. Kar 07, 
€7ri Trj irapovo'la tov irpwToarTraQaplov ^iKrjcpopoVj SoOevTog 
irapa tov rjyovixevov t?? iJLOvrig tov K.oXo^ov eig irporrwirov 
Ttjg oLKciag fiov^g Uay^w/JLiov Kal 'AOavaa-iov iuLova-)(wv, Kal 
aiui(f)0T€pwv TWV fiepwv Trapaycvoiuiivwv, Kal i^eTaa-QevTwv 



86 JOHANNES KOLOBOS 

KcXeva-ei rrjg pacriXela^ rj/jLcov cttJ ^recfxxvov /uLaylcTpou kol Kwi/- 
(TTavTLVOv Paa-iXiKOv irpcorocnraOapLov Kal irpwraa-iKpiTOVy 
Koi Ba(ri\€LOV irpwroa-iraOaplov kol eiri twv Serjcreoav eiri tou 
irepiuivvfxov creKperou roov acnjKpiTicoVj evpeOrjcrav raig a\r}^ 
Oeiai^ irapaXoycog Trpoypacpevra ra roiavra roiria iv T(S 
irapaXoyco^ yevofiei/M X'^P'^V '^^^ (BacnXeia^ ^juwv. oirep Srj 
Kai avTOi ol Trpoeiprjimevoi fxovaxpl rod jmepovg tov KoXo/3oi/ 
eiTL Trj irapovcTLa iravTWV crvvofAoXoyiiaravTeg KaTeOevTO* 
Tayra ovv rj OeoTrpo^Xrjrog ^julcov fiacriXela Trap' avrwv 
avaiMaQovcra Ka\ tol^ t?9 SiKaioa-vvrjg aKoag evjuevcos eTTf/cXt- 
vacTtti eTrera^aro tov tolovtov TrjviKavra TrapaXoycog yevo- 
fxevov yapTriv SiapprjxOtjvat, SiaipuXdrrecrOai Se Kara rrjv 
yvcojuLt]v TOV €V Trj Oeio. Xii^cL TraTpbg rjixwv kol ^aa-iXewg 
TravTag Tovg ev tm "AOmvl ar)(oXdi^ovTa9 ixova^ovg aTrapevoX' 
Xi^Tovg diro iravTolag eirripeiag Kal Trjg cog eiKog eyyivo/Jievijg 
Trapevo^Xi^crecogj ooa-avTcog Koi ra XJ^pla. Acare^efi/ dKaivoTO- 
jiirjTa TO. ^Sia SUaia, Tovg Se r?? fxovrjg tov KoXo/3ov 
apKeiarOai, /cara tov ^J^pTrjv tov ev Trj Oeia Xi^^ei iraTpog 
rjixodv KOL ^aa-iXecog elg Trjv Tfjg evoplag 'Kpiarcrov SiaKpdTr](nv, 
KaL Trjv KaTavo/txrjv /ULOvrjv twv J^a/mevtov crvv TOig tottois 
Tu>v afJLTreXcovcov KaL KtjTrovpLwv avTcov Ka\ (xovov. Ta ^e 
XoiTra xai/ra KXacr/xaTa twv re J^aimevcov koi twv Xoittcov, 
KaTa TOV TVTTOV Tcov KXaor/iiaTiicwv, eXevOepidl('€iv Kal vefxea-QaL 
avTa TravTag Tovg irapaKeiiJ.evovg. iXio Kai nrpog irepLO'a'O- 
T€pav d(T(paX€iav Kal Sit]V€Krj SiKalcocriv tov re jxepovg twv 
€v Tcp opei TOV *'A.Q(jovog do-KtjToov, Kal twv yjap'-^^ aTroXavcnv 
Kal KaTaSiKtjv tov /mepovg tov K.oXo/3ov to irapov rjixwv 
evcre^eg a-iyiXXiwSeg ev fiejuL^pdvaig ypdjULfxa eiriKvpcoTiKov 
TOV ev Trj Oeia Xrj^ei iraTpog ij/ulcov Kal ^aariXeayg eTriSoOfjvai 
T(p fJLepei Twv ev tw ^A.Qwvl acTKtjTwv €KeXev(raiui€v , yeyevrj/uevov 

KaTa TOV . . . jurjva . . . ivSikt i ^v (£> Kal to rifxeTepov 

evcre^eg Kal OeoTrpo^XtjTOV VTrecrrjimi^vaTO KpaTog . . . 

Taken from Porphyrius Uspenski, op. ciL, p. 296. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MONKS OF MOUNT ATHOS AND THE 
COMING OF ATHANASIUS 

The last chapter described the state of things at 
the beginning of the tenth century, when the monks 
of Mount Athos had triumphed over their oppressors 
and * protectors ', the monks of Kolobou, and were 
beginning to adopt something of the nature of a 
common organization. The next few years are 
blank. The only ray of light, and that a very feeble 
one, is afforded by the Chrysobull of Eomanus which 
ratified those of Basil and of Leo. As was pointed 
out, nothing was said in the Chrysobull of Leo as 
to the protectorate over the mountain or about the 
KaOSpa TOiv yepovTCJv; but both these points are 
mentioned in the Chrysobull of Komanus, which 
belongs either to the year 919-20 (or perhaps the 
year 934-5, only the indiction being given). A pos- 
sible interpretation of this fact is that the controversy 
between the monks of Kolobou and the hermits of 
Mount Athos still continued, and that the former 
insisted that the meaning of the Chrysobull of Leo 
was to confirm that of Basil, and thus to grant them 
a protectorate over the mountain, while the monks 
of Mount Athos insisted, more or less as a counter- 
claim, on their privileges in connexion with the 
KadeSpa tcov yepovrcov. If this be so it would 



88 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

appear that both parties succeeded in establishing 
their claim. 

If the tradition of the mountain be trustworthy, 
one other point of interest ought to be added. 
According to this Basileios, the writer of the life 
of Euthymius, who was Metropolitan of Thessalonica 
some time after 905,^ founded a monastery (or 
laura?) on Mount Athos. This monastery is further 
identified with the ruined foundation on the north 
coast of the mountain, and according to two MSS. 
of the book called 'AOcovids,^ in the Kussian con- 
vent on Mount Athos, was known as the monastery 
Tov Uvpyov, or as tov 'ZcoTrjpos ; it would also appear 
to have been dedicated to the Ascension, and 
perhaps the full name was r^s ava\rjxp€Q)<; tov 
tcoTTJpos, just as the full name of Pantocrator is 
Trjs ixeTaiJLOp(f)(ocr€cos tov wavTOKpaTopos. That this 
monastery existed is of course certain, but in the 
absence of corroborative proof it is far from being 
equally certain that it was founded early in the 
tenth century by Basileios of Thessalonica. It is 
interesting to note that according to the life of 
St. Bartholomew of Simeri^ it was early in the 
twelfth century the property of a Byzantine named 
KaUimeris, who gave it to Bartholomew. The 

* Of. Petit, Saint Euthyme lejetme, p. 6, and J^cJiosde V Orient, 
iv (1901), p. 221. 

^ Cod. Ath. Pantel. 5788 and 5789. For the facts concerning 
the book 'A^wvta?, see Gedebn, 6 "AOtaSj p. 69. It was written 
by Sophronios Kallijas, before 1855, and published at Smyrna 
after 1870. 

' Acta SS. Sept., vol. viii, p. 821 c. 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 89 

latter reformed it, and it is stated in his life that 
it therefore obtained the nickname of the monas- 
tery of the Calabrian. Of this name no trace can 
be found in any surviving tradition. Finally, in 
1281, according to the ^AOcomdsj it was absorbed 
by the neighbouring monastery of Chelandariou. 

After this we know nothing about the history of 
the mountain until the middle of the tenth cen- 
tury, when the various documents connected with 
Athanasius the Athonite give us some valuable in- 
formation as to the history of the mountain during 
the second half of this century. 

These documents are (1) the life of Athanasius 
the Athonite. This important document was written 
by a younger Athanasius who had been a monk at 
the laura under the saint, and wrote during the 
abbacy of Eustratius, the second abbot. The original 
MS. is said to be extant — I see no reason to doubt 
the fact — in the archives of the Laura, and there are 
several copies in various hbraries on Mount Athos 
and elsewhere. One of these copies, now in the 
Library of the Synod at Moscow (No. 398 in the 
catalogue of Vladimir), has been published, with use- 
ful indices, by J. Pomjalovski, St. Petersburg, 1895. 
It would no doubt be desirable to have this collated 
with the original, but for historical research the 
printed text is a sufficient basis of investigation. 

(2) The Typicon or Kanonicon of Athanasius. 
This is also probably still extant in the original 
document, but is not shown to visitors. It is 
pubHshed, from probably trustworthy copies, by 



90 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

Ph. Meyer in die Haujpturkunde fur die GeschicMe der 
Athoskldster, 

(3) The Typicon of the Emperor Johannes 'tzimis- 
ces, also published in the HaupturJcunde of Ph. Meyer. 

From these documents a tolerably good idea can 
be formed of the condition of the monks on the 
mountain in the second half of the tenth century, 
of the end of the history of the monks of Kolobou, 
and of the changes introduced by Athanasius. 

Athanasius the Athonite, Athanasius, whose name 
before he became a monk was Abraham, was the son 
of a rich and well-born family at Trebizond. He was 
born early in the tenth century, but his father died 
before his birth and his mother shortly afterwards, 
so that he owed his bringing up first to a friend of 
his mother and afterwards to relations in Constan- 
tinople. In this city he made the acquaintance of 
Michael Maleinos, the abbot from Mount Kymina, 
and his nephews Leo and Nicephorus Phocas, the 
latter being the future emperor. He followed 
Michael to Kymina to the monastery, which was 
based on the model of the Studium ; but after a time 
left it, and went to Mount Athos. Here he tried to 
escape the notice of Leo and Nicephorus Phocas, 
who were looking for him, by changing his name 
and feigning to be a peasant. There were on the 
mountain apparently a comparatively small number 
of monks, some Hving in communities and some as 
hermits, who acknowledged to some extent the 
supremacy of one monk, the Protos, who allotted 
hermitages or cells to those who desired them. 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 91 

They assembled for the three great feasts of the 
year at the laura^ at Caryes. One of these com- 
munities (or perhaps one of the hermits) lived on 
the hill known as the Zvyo?, and to this Athanasius 
attached himself. Mention is also made of another 
monk named Paul, who was called Sr)poiroTdfiLvo<;j 
probably because he lived (again either as the head 
of a laura or as a hermit) at the place called Xero- 
potamos, where there is now a monastery of that 
name. 

Athanasius could not keep his identity a secret. 
First, the Protos— at that time a monk named 
Stephanos — discovered him, but consented to keep 
his secret and gave him a hermitage three stadia 
distant from Caryes, and ultimately he was found 
by Leo (according to the Vita, p. 24) or by a monk 
named Methodius who was sent by Nicephorus 
(according to the Kanonicon, Haupturkunde, p. 104), 
and was persuaded to build a laura like that of 
Michael Maleinos at the expense of Nicephorus. 
This he did at the place called Melana where ' the 
Laura ' still stands. According to the Vita the church 
at Caryes was at the same time enlarged by the 
generosity of Leo. 

It is interesting to note that among the monks 
who joined Athanasius was Nicephorus, a Calabrian, 
who had formerly been a companion of Fantinus. 
It is further stated that when Nicephorus came to 
join Athanasius, Fantinus went to Thessalonica. 

^ Tke present Protaton : it has long lost the title of laura, 
which is now only given to the foundation of Athanasius. 



92 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

This corroborates the short account of Fautinus 
given in the Acta SS, Aug., vi, pp. 621 ff, which 
also states that Fantinus came to Thessalonica at 
the end of his life. There is in the Laura a MS. 
written, in a hand and style closely resembling the 
school of Nilus,^ the friend of Fantinus, in 970, by 
a scribe named Lukas. It is far from impossible 
that Nicephorus introduced the Calabrian style of 
writing into the Laura, or that Lukas like himself 
came from Calabria. 

The importance of this story for the history of 
the monks on Mount Athos is that it establishes 

(1) That Caryes had become, by the middle of the 
tenth century, the general centre of the monks. 

(2) That there was a generally recognized chief 
monk, called the Protos. (3) That there were three 
fixed times in the year — Christmas, Easter, and the 
Assumption of the Virgin — at which the whole 
body of monks used to assemble for the services in 
the Church at Caryes. (4) That there were dotted 
about the mountain various settlements of monks, 
varying from hermitages to lauras, and of these 
we can place one on the Zygos, one at Caryes, and 
one at Xeropotamos, while we know from other 
sources that there was another, called Klementos, 
on the site of the present Iveron. Thus the 
monastic development of the mountain, c. 950, may 
fairly be said still to belong to the * laura period '. 

The Chrysdbull given to Athanasius and the position 

* See Journal of Theological Studies 1903-4, 'The Greek 
Monasteries in South Italy.' 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 93 

it created. The coming of Athanasius and his friend- 
ship with Nicephorus introduced a new factor into 
the life of the monks. He obtained from the 
emperor money with which to build a new and 
magnificent foundation, and to this was granted 
a ChrysobuU giving it various valuable possessions 
and complete independence from all control by 
any except the imperial authority. Thus, whereas 
there was formerly only the monastery of Kolobou 
with the semblance of a protectorate (among monks, 
as elsewhere, often more advantageous to the pro- 
tector than valuable to the protected), there was now 
founded, on the mountain itself, a rich and powerful 
monastery containing over eighty monks, all of whom 
could go to Caryes, and take part in the affairs of 
the general commonwealth of monks, and at the 
same time could claim at any moment that, by the 
virtue of the ChrysobuU of Nicephorus, their own 
interests were immune from any interference by 
the other fathers. If we consider that the other 
settlements consisted of only a few monks each, 
the unfairness of this arrangement is obvious ; the 
new foundation could probably swamp all the others, 
if voting or discussion went by the numbers of 
monks and not by foundations. 

The appeal of the Athonites against Athanasius. That 
friction arose in this way between Athanasius and 
the other monks is certain, but we possess little 
knowledge of the details. So long as Nicephorus 
lived it was obviously impossible to appeal to him 
against the Athanasian monks ; but after his death 



94 THE MONKS AND ATHANASroS 

his successor, Johannes Tzimisces, was approached 
by the monks under the Protos Athanasius (who is 
not to be confounded with the saint) and the monk 
Paul (whether Paul of Xeropotamos or another is not 
certain) who drew attention to the quarrels between 
Athanasius and the other monks. Their accusation 
was that Athanasius interfered with and worried 
the others, and that no means of peace could be 
found. An imperial inquiry was therefore held 
under Euthymius, a monk of the Studium, who 
decided that the quarrel was chiefly due to the 
attempts of Satan to make mischief, reconciled the 
monks, and drew up a series of regulations for the 
future conduct of the mountain. Among these 
regulations the part of the enactment, which for the 
present purpose is important, is that the annual 
meetings at Caryes should be reduced from three to 
one, and strictly confined to abbots and hermits. 

The victory of Athanasius^ and the rule of the 
Studium, The general effect of this regulation was 
to give Athanasius more rather than less freedom, 
even though those of his monks who were neither 
KeWiSirai nor r^crv^aa-Tai could no longer come to 
Caryes. Moreover the choice of a Studite to con- 
duct the inquiry was itself practically a decision 
in favour of Athanasius, for the Laura — a laura 
only in name — was founded on the model of the 
Studium. Indeed it would not be too much to 
say that the real question at issue was whether 
Mount Athos should keep the loose organization of 
the old days or adopt the stricter regulations intro- 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 95 

duced by Theodore the Studite, adopted by Michael 
Maleinos on Mount Kymena, and brought thence 
by Athanasius to Mount Athos. Obviously the 
choice of Euthymius, himself a monk of the Studium, 
was practically the doom of the old life and the 
triumph of the Studite system. 

The result was the rapid foundation of other 
monasteries with the same or almost the same 
constitution as the laura. But with their founda- 
tion begins a new period in the history of Mount 
Athos, which falls outside the purpose of the 
present treatise. 

The end of Kolohou, It remains to trace the 
closing scenes in the history^ of Kolobou and its 
ultimate absorption by the monks of the mountain. 

The point on which friction arose in the second 
half of the tenth century between Kolobou and the 
monks of Mount Athos was the KaOeSpa tcjv yepov- 
TO)v to which reference was made in the Chrysobulls 
of Basil and Eomanus. It therefore becomes im- 
portant to inquire what this KaOiSpa really was. 

The view which is usually held by those of the 
monks who have ever heard of it is that it was 
the meeting-place of the monks under the presi- 
dency of the Protos, and that it was moved from 
Erissos to Caryes during the tenth century. Its 
position is fixed by one tradition at Purgoudia, by 
another at Proboli.^ I believe that the whole of 

^ I am not quite sure where Proboli is : it does not appear 
on any map which I have seen, but I understand from the 
monks that it is a little south of Xerxes' canal. 



96 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

this theory, including the identification of the site, 
is quite modern and of no intrinsic value. The most 
important evidence as to the site is that in the 
report of Thomas Kaspax it is apparently defined 
as not being in the neighbourhood of the boundary 
between the Athonites and the Erissiotes, from 
which I conclude that it was in or near the town 
itself. The idea that the monks used to come to 
Erissos for general meetings is bound up with the 
prevalent view that the early monasteries were all 
near the canal of Xerxes and that Athanasius the 
Athonite was the first to go to the mountain itself. 
If so, of course a general meeting-place at Erissos 
is more probable than one at Caryes, but I am 
inclined to combat the whole theory. It is true 
that the tradition which ascribed the foundation 
of the monasteries Xeropotamos and St. Paul to 
a certain Paulus, son of Michael the Emperor, is 
bound up with an obvious forgery (cf. Meyer, op, cit, 
p. 30), but this does not alter the facts that there was 
a Paulus of Xeropotamos in the time of Athanasius, 
that a monastery of some sort — Klementos — existed 
before the time of the latter close to the present 
site of Iveron, and that the monks were accustomed 
to meet at Caryes, long before the foundation of the 
Laura, and had a little church there, as the life of 
Athanasius explicitly states. Therefore I think 
that the theory which confines the monks to the 
canal end of the mountain and makes Erissos a 
convenient place for meetings is baseless. If so, 
the KaOeBpa tcop yepovTwv cannot have been used 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 97 

for the purpose of general meetings, and I suggest 
that it was merely a house at which the monks or 
hermits used to stay when they came to Erissos in 
order to buy provisions and clothes. It was, in fact, 
what the monks would now call a KovaKu in Erissos, 
belonging partly to Kolobou and partly to the 
Athonites, but chiefly to the former. 

If this theory be correct (it is, of course, quite as 
much a guess founded on general considerations of 
probability as the rival view), the next important 
stage in the history of Kolobou is connected with 
the last by the KaSihpa, 

It appears from the document given by the Protos 
Thomas to Johannes the Georgian in 985 (Appen- 
dix C) that there was a prolonged struggle between 
Kolobou and the Athonites as to the right which the 
latter had to hospitality in the monastery when they 
came to Erissos.^ It does not actually identify this 
with the KaOehpa, but it very nearly does so, and in 
the absence of evidence I think it is fairly safe to 
assume that this is the meaning of the passage. 
Otherwise we have the improbable theory that 
there were two spots in Erissos which were a 
source of contention between the Athonites and 
Kolobou, that they were both used by the same 
people, but that documents referring to the one 
never mention the other. 

^ . . . €i)(Ov ap)(rjO€V arvvT^Oetav . . . TrapaySaXctv iv avTw KOt fjicvecv 
Kttt i(r$L€LV . . . Trpoaoyrrd riva i/xcfjavrj tcov dp)^aL<jDp ycpovTwv Seems 
to me a paraphrase for the KaOeSpa, and i$epxofji.€vot eh 'lepura-bv 
o-Travtws 3ta riva ;(p€tav defines the use to which it was put — 
not consultation between nionks, but shopping in the village. 

XiAKE. U. A, G . • 



98 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

Assuming that my view may be correct, we can 
then easily reconstruct the history of the dispute 
up to the end of the separate existence of Kolobou. 

As the monks on the mountain increased in 
numbers the frequency of their visits to Erissos 
became greater, and the constant arrival of monks 
at the quarters set apart for the purpose became an 
intolerable nuisance to Kolobou. Originally, no 
doubt, the yepovre^ covered all the monks from the 
mountain, at least by courtesy, just as it does now, 
but strictly not every monk is a yepcop in the technical 
sense, and probably the first step of the monks of 
Kolobou was to enforce the distinction, and to in- 
quire carefully as to the bona fides of travellers who 
claimed to be Athonite yipovre'^. The procedure, 
though natural, must have given rise to constant 
friction, and at last the monastery refused to keep 
up the custom any longer. From the point of view 
of the monks of Kolobou this was the end of the 
matter, and it was reached about 975. 

It may be argued that the Chrysobull of Basil 
and Eomanus would have prevented this if the 
KaOeSpa to)v yepovTOiv had been the quarters in 
which the Athonites stayed at Kolobou, but it must 
be remembered that ChrysobuUs, though a good 
argument in a court of law, were of no value against 
an abbot who shut his doors, especially when the 
same Bulls had once made him in some way the 
Protector of the Mountain. 

But though the monks of Kolobou might regard 
the matter as settled, the Athonites, who were 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 99 

rapidly growing in numbers and importance, were 
naturally not disposed to leave it where it was. If 
Kolobou would not receive them as guests it must 
be made to acknowledge them as masters, and they 
made appeals to the emperor to give them the 
monastery. Athanasius of the Laura, * the Studite ' 
(probably Euthymius the Studite, cf. Meyer, op. city 
p. 31), and Johannes the Georgian petitioned John 
Tsimisces for this purpose, and two requests were 
addressed to Basil, one by the monks Sabas\ Malenas, 
and Thomas 2 Pitharas, and a second by Georgias 
Chalandare ; but none of these attempts were success- 
ful. Finally, however, in 980, Johannes the Georgian, 
who possessed monasteries in his own land, effected 
an exchange with the emperor, giving the monasteries 
of Iverissa in Constantinople and S. Phocas in Trebi- 
zond in exchange for the monasteries of Leontia in 
Thessalonica, of Kolobou in Erissos (see Appendix B), 
and of Clementos on Mount Athos. 

This, of course, completely altered the case, and 
Johannes, who was anxious to found a Georgian 
monastery (the present Iveron) in place of the little 
laura of St. John the Forerunner at Clementos, 
conceded the Athonites all that they wished in 
Erissos, purchased still more land for them, and 
built them a good house for their use when visiting 
the town. 

* Perhaps Sa^ySas /Aova^os Kttt r/yov/xcvos koI KOv^ovKX€L(no<Sf 
the last signatory of the TvTrtKoV of John Tsimisces (Meyer, 
op. cit.f p. 187). 

^ Perhaps the abbot who was afterwards the npoVros. 

g2 



100 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

This is the end of the known history of Kolobou ; 
I do not think that it is ever mentioned again in 
extant documents, and there can be Httle doubt 
but that it rapidly became merely a dependency 
of Iveron, little, if at all, differing from a farm. 

It only remains to sum up the broad results of 
this investigation. The life of Peter the Athonite 
and the first period of the life of Euthymius on 
Mount Athos seem to be the best attested proofs 
which exist for the hermit period on the mountain. 
No doubt there were many more whose names ^ 
have been forgotten. We have no right even to 
assume that Peter was the first hermit on the 
mountain : it is quite possible that he had many 
predecessors, and that he should rather be regarded 
as owing his fame to the fact that the end of his Hfe 
overlapped the beginning of the next period. On 
the other hand, there is no proof that this was the 
case; Peter and Euthymius remain as the two 
definite examples of hermits on Mount Athos in the 
ninth century, nor is there any historical proof that 
there were any earHer. 

After the hermit period comes that of the lauras 
— loosely organized bodies of hermits who met 
together at intervals and had a common centre in 
the cell of some one outstanding anchorite. This 
period is represented by the second part of the 
life of Euthymius and by the various scraps of 

^ Cf. the mention of Joseph the Armenian and Onuphrius 
in the life of Euthymius. 



THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS : Um 

evidence which cover the period from his leaving 
the mountain shortly before 870 to the founda- 
tion of the great Laura of Athanasius a century- 
later. So far as we can see, the most important 
incident in this period was the acquirement of 
privileges for the monks by Johannes Kolobos and 
the subsequent struggle between the monks of the 
monastery of Kolobou and those on the mountain 
for the advantages offered by these privileges. The 
most notable result of this struggle was a marked 
tendency to a more developed organization and 
the recognition of Caryes as a centre for the monks 
under the leadership of one of their number called 
the Protos. 

This type of loose organization and the period 
which it marked was closed by the triumph of the 
Studite system introduced by Athanasius, and with 
his triumph the present history of the mountain 
may be said to begin; for from that day to this 
it has represented the continuance of the Studite 
system, with developments and changes of detail, 
it is true, but with no essential or constitutional 
revolution unless the introduction of idiorhythmism 
be so regarded. The treatment of this long period, 
still unclosed, would be the worthy subject of much 
research, and could probably be carried out success- 
fully if the monks would open their archives, but it 
is outside the purpose of this treatise, which only 
professes to deal with the pre-Athanasian history of 
the mountain, and is closed by the triumph of that 
saint and the introduction of the Studite system. 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE IV 

A. Chrysobull of Eomanus, Constantine, 
Stephanus, and Constantine, a.d. 919. 

'Ej/ ovojuiaTL Tov Trarpbg koi tov vlov kol tov dyiov ttvcv- 

To Ta?9 ayaOaig irpa^ea-iv eiraKokovQelv Koi ravras 
eiriKvpovv ^acriXiKrjg iariv aXrjOcog Trpovolag Koi ayyjivola^, 
0)9 av IMOVL/JLOV rj TO ayaOov Kai apaXXolcDTOV e? aei, Sta 
TOVTO TU)v Trpo ^fJLwu ^e^acTiXeuKOTCOV '^varo/SovXXov eirt- 

SeSoOKOTCOU TO?? €V TW "A0(jOVL aCTKIJTahy TOVTO KOI tj rj/jLCTepa 

eiriCTKe^afxevri kol CLTrooe^ajmevt] ^aa-iXela, Sia tov irapovTO^ 
avTri9 €V(T€^ov<s cTTiKvpoi ')(^pv(ro/3ovXXiov Xoyov, TOV Trapa- 
(pvXoLTTea-Qai mravTag Tovg ev tw avTw opei o-^^oXd^ovTa^ 
Oeiovg dvSpag ev Sia(p6poi9 KaTacTKrjvooa-eari, koi tt/oo? TovTotg 
Ka] Tr]i/ irapa tov K.oXo^ov 'Icoavvov veovpytjOeicrav /uiovrjv 
Trjg TOiavTrj<! irpovola^ KaTairoXaveiv, ko). KaTe-^^eiv ttjv 
evoplav TOV 'ISipia-trov Ka) juovov, Kal dirXcog irdv ei ti cTepov 
ev T(p "^varo^ovXXiM dvaypdcj>eTai, dirapaTrolriTov Sia(f)v- 
XaTTecrOaif jULi^Te TrpocrOi^Ktjg [xriTe vcpaipecreoos rtjg oiaarovv 
yivojULevijg* UXrjv tovto Sioptl^o/uLeOa, 'Iva koi rj e/mcpepoiuievt] ev 
T(p avT(p "^varo^ovXXlw dp-^aia tcov yepovTcov KaOeSpa 
d'7rapev6-)(Xt]Tog SiaTfjp^Tai diro Trdcrtjg eTrrjpelag dyyapelag 
KOI 'QiiJiia^, Tvj9 ft>9 eiKo^ eyyivo/mevrj? irapa re eirLa-KOirwv 

KOL dp-^OVTCOV KOI oXXoV TTaVTO?, KuOcog ^V KOI e^ ^pX^^} ^? 

Pe^aiov Kal dar(paXovg yjptifjLaTLipvTO^ tov irapovTO^ rj/xuiv 
€V(Te^ovg ^uoroj^ouWiOu Xoyov yeyevrjixevov KaTa tov 
avyovcTTOv fxtjva Trj<: e^So/mrj^ eTTive/UL^aecog ev w koi to 
^/jLCTepov eva-e^eg kq] OeoTrpo/SXrjTOv vTrecn^/JirjvaTO KpaTog, 

Taken from Porphyrius Uspenski, op, cit, p. 299. 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE IV 103 



B. Extract from a Document at Iveron, referring 
TO a Chrysobull of Basil Bulgaroktonos, 
A.D. 980. 

. . . Kol Tou Trai/aoiSifJLov ^aaiXewg J^vp Ba<TiXe/ov tov 
n.op(f)vpoyevviiTOV "KpucrolBovWog yeyoi/ojg Kara to <r vtt rj 
[a. D. 980] €T09 Tw fjLova-)(w ^IcDavvf] Koi crvyKcWw rw 
'^ropvLKLWj Kara rpoirov avraXkayrig VTrayopevoov avrca 
ScDptjOrjvat Tijv jULoi'fjv Triv Aeoi/r/a? ev Trj OecrcraXoviKr] Kal Tr]v 
[jLovriv TOV KoXo/Bov ev 'Kpicra-S, irpog Se koi Ttjv fiovrji/ tov 
KXii|Uej/T09, tjTis eir* opojULaTi jmev tov TifAiov TrpoSpojuLov kol 
jSaTTTiarTov 'Icodvvov KaOvSpiTat, KaTO. Se to opo<s TOv"K0u)va 
SiaKeiTai, avO wv TrapriTtjcraTO Svco /jlovcov, Trjg re /uLOvijg t?? 
'I/Srjpicrcrrjg, T^9 ev Trj iSacriXl^L twv iroKewv Tvy^avovcrtjg, 
Ka\ Ttjg juLovfjg tov dyiov ^ooko. Tfjs ev Tpaire^ovvTi 
SiaKei/jievrjg, . , . 

The text is taken from Uspenski, op, cit, p. 333. 



C. Settlement of part of the Estate of Kolobou 
on the Monks of Mount Athos by Johannes 
the Georgian, a. d. 985. 

f Gw/ua? iuLova)^og 6 JJ pcoTog. "f'AOavda-iog ixova-^og 6 Trjg 
A.avpag rjyovjxevog. f ^Iwdvvrig /ixova-^og 6 ^aKivog. 

t AavirjX juiova-)(og Kal ^yov/mevog* f 'iwctvvrjg />toi^a;)(o? koi 
riyoiifxevog 6 'Ar^fTraj/o?. f '^Xaplcov fJLOva-^og Kai ^yov^evog. 
f ^Iwavvrig jULOva^og Kai i^yov/j-evog tov i^tjpoKaa-Tpov. 
f QeoSwpog iuLova-)(og Kal rjyovfxevog, f 'Apcreviog jULOva^og 
Kal rjyovfjLevog. f Aiowcr/o? fxova^og Kal 'irpecr^vTepog. 
t ^iKr](p6pog fjiovayog Kal 7rpea/3vT€pog. f AovKoig [Jiova-^og 
Kal riyovfievog* f ^Tecpavog [JLovayog Kai rjyovfxevog* 
f ^Ckd^eXcpog ixova-)(og Kal Trpecr^uTepog. f ^t^rjcpopog 
fjLova-^og Kal irpea-^vTepog, f Vewpyiog fJiova')(og Kat ijyov- 
/A€vog* t KujO/XXo? fxova-)^og Kal ^yovfxevog. f Kocr/xa? 



104 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

luL0va')(09 Koi riyovfievo^. "l^eocpvrog jULova-^og Ka\ ^yov/ULevog, 
t "ZiTccpavog jj-ovayog Kai TrpecrjBvrepog rod J^arl^dpij. 
f AwpoOeog /JLOva'^og /cat Trpear^vTepog koi ^yovjULevog. 
f TlavXog p-ovayog Kai ^yovp-evog. f Ni/coXao? p-ova-^g koi 
rjyovpevog tov IBaTeireSlov. 

'El/ ovopart TOV irarpog koi rod vlov koi tov dyiov 
TTvevpaTog, Gajpag ^toi/a^o? Upwrog koi ol peO^ rjujLcov tjyovpevoL 
ol TOv<5 Tiplovg (TTavpovg iSi0-)(€ip(t)g TTrj^avTcg, Tovrea-TL 
TTpOTCL^avTeg kol viroTat^avTeg arvv Tolg ovopacriv yjixwv, Ttjv 
nrapovcrav eyypa(pov aa-cpaXeLav Kai airevTevQev '/jSt] Sid\v(nv, 
TiOepeOa koi iroiovixev oiKeia. rjpwv Trj yvooprj kcu avro- 
irpoaipeTcp ^ovXrj, koi ovk €k Tivog dvayKrig rj /Slag rj p^pe/a? 
t] pera SoXov, aXX' bXwg oiKeia 'irpoOecrei Kai ^ovXtja-ei 
irdvTWv Tcov €P Tw ' Opei pova')(wi/, eig vpag tov evXa^ecTaTOv 
fxovayov Ka\ ^yovpevov tov Kvpiov 'Icodvvfjv rbv ^'I/Srjpa, Kai 
TTpog TOV pova^^ov Kai irpea-^vTepov evOupcov tov vlov crov, 
Kol eig Tovg peTOL TavTa Siaoo'^ovg vjulcov Tovg peXXovTag eig 
Trjv (Tvvepyia Oeov TroirjOeicrav A.avpav ^yepoveveiv, Trjv ctt' 
ovopaTi Tijg iravayiag Qcototov iSpvpevrjv Ka\ Xeyopevrjv 
TOV KXi^pevTog, eirl viroQea-ei TOiaSe : — 

'KireiSr] eig to tov K.oXo^ov povacTTrjpiov €l-)(ov dp')(rjO€v 
(Tvv^deiav 01 ev tw "Opei SiaTeXovvTcg pova-^oi ore iravTeXwg 
oXiyoL virrjpyov, e^ep^ouevog clg 'l€pi(T(rbv cnraviwg Sia Tiva 
yjpelav dvayKaiav irapaPaXeiv ev avTM Kai peveiv evlore 
Kai ea-QieiV koi tovto Tiveg e^ avTwv twv oXlywv Kai 
evapiOixrjToov Kai ov-^^l ^ovXoixevog eKaanog, dXXa irpocrMira 
TLva epcpavt] twi/ dp-)(ai(jov yepovTcov, Aio Kai yoyyvarpog 
TToXXdKig Kai (piXoveiKia peTa^v twv pova-^oov cKiveiTO, 
Treipw/ULevwv Kai cTepciov irapa/SaXeiv Kai prj (rvy^oDpovpivoov, 
cog ij^ri Kai tov KpaTOvvTog ^yovpevov Trjv imovrjv ptj 
povXopevov, eiTa Kai eig TrXrjOog i'lreKTaOevToov twv ev [tw] 
"Opel povaywv, eyoyyvXpv ol Ttjg povrjg Kai elg avTOvg cKeivovg 
Tovg iJLOvayovg Tovg Sia tov Trpbg avTOvg tov ^yovpevov 
(piXlav Trapa/BaXovTag oXiyaKig Trj povfj Sid tov yjpovov 
Kai opLwg direKOirriarav koi avTol Kai ovS^ dXXog Trape^aXXe 
Trj povrj pova'^g €K tov Qpovg pe)(pL tov vvv, irXeov twv 
OKTw rj SeKa cTwv irapeXrjXvQoTwv e^ otov Si]Xov6ti ovoelg 
TWV dpyalwv ovTe e^ ripwv twv vvv rrrepiovTwv cTV^e ev tJ 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTER IV 105 

lULOV^ olacrS^TroTe av air aver ew^. 'EttJ tovtw Se irpocrvTre- 
jjivricrafjiev tov^ evcrefieU rjfxwv ^acriXeig SoO^vai eig e^ovcrlav 
Ttjv TOiavTJjv ixovrjv T(j) KaO^ r}ijia<s "Opei. Kal eTrJ /jlcv tov 
Kvp ^litjavvov TOV jSacriXeco? ^ 'Trpoa-vwe/uLvrjcrev o re iuLOva-)(og 
6 ^TOvSiarcov Kal 6 iuL0vaj(09 'AOavdariog 6 t^9 Xavpag twv 
MeXai'ft)!/ rjjovijievo'S Koi 6 evXa^earaTO^ jULova^b? ^Icodvvi]^ 6 
"Ipijp a^icocravreg SoOtjvai rjfxlv tyjv elprj^evrjv fJLOvrjVj Koi 
ov KareSe^aro 6 ^acriXevg. Kat irdXiv eirl tov Kvp 
BacTfXe/ou ^ TOV vvv evcre^ovg iBacriXevoPTog cnrea-TeiXaiuLev 
fiera ypajUL/uLaTcov SerjTiKcov tov fj-ova-^^ov Ocofxav tov TliQapav 
Koi TOV fjiova-^ov ^d^^av tov ISlaXivav, aiTrjo-dixevoi irepl 
Ttji €iprjiuL€vr]g /jLovrjg' koI ovSe ^6t€ 6 ^aciXevg KaTevevcrev 
etff Tr}v otTtjo'tv riixwv. '0? ^e Koi irdXiv fiera tovto 
eypd^afxev Sia Tcwpylov tov Xeyoinevov ^eXavSdprj Trpbg 
TOV elprifxevov jSaariXea Ka) "Trpbg tov TrapaKOtjULw/uLevov 
ovooXcog ^K0VGr6i]/Ji€v aTrtjXTria-ajiiev TravTcXcog rJJ? TOiavTrjg 
viroOecrewg Kal ovS€]g ev Trj TOiavTrj fiov^ irape^aXXev 
€KTOTe. lovTOV 06 yevofJi€vov Ka\ Trjg ajULvSpag cKetvtjg 
(TvvrjOciag eKKOireiarjg Sid re to 7rXi]6vv0^vai Tovg juLOva'^^ovg 
w? e'lprjTai Ka\ Sid to ovk e/c Tivog evXoyov rj e^ovcriag 
yeyevrjcrOai Trjv crvvi^Oeiav €K€ivr]v, dXXa fxovov (j)iXiag tov 
KaOrjyov/ULevov vevovTog Tfjg /ULOvrjg wcttc koi cKp* otov irapi' 
XajBev avTrjv 6 fJ.ova')(^bg ^T6(pavog Koi. ^yov/jievog ovSe kuv 
ev TM irvXwvL a'vv€-)((oprjcre irapaKVTTTeiv Tiva e^ ^imwv koi 
€(pp6vTil^€v cKaoTTog avTOV KaOeog rjSvvdiJLeOa otc Sia -y^eiag 
eig 'lepia-abv Trape/SaXXo/Jiev, wg fxrjSe/uiiav Trpocfyacriv evXoyov 
ey(0VTeg tov ^yov/mevov cKTreipd^eiv ovSe ccog "^iXov p^fxaTog, 
Mera ^e TavTa irdvTa to. eiprj^xeva oiKOvofJuicravTog tov Oeov 
eSoOrj rj TOiavTt] /ULOvtj eig TcXeiav Kvpi6Tt]Ta koi dvacpaipcTOv 
SecTTTOTeiav koi irpoareKvpwOij Si^ evcre^ovg "^^vco^ovXXov 
TOV evae^ea-TaTOv ^aariXecog Kvp J^aaiXeiov Trj vfieTepa 
evayecTTaTrf Xavpa t^ Xeyoimevr] tov J^XiifievTog, EtVa 
KOI e^oSovg iroXXdg KaTa^aXovTeg koi Koirovg vTroa-TdvTeg 
Kai eig e/ncpaveiav koi eviropiav avT^v KaTaa-TrjcravTeg 
dvwKoSojULricrav eviropov airrriv CLTrepydcracrOaij koi eirel 
(Tvvrjpyria-ev 6 Geo? inro Ttjv v/neTepav e^ovcrlav koi SeariroTeiav 

^ Johannes Tzimisces. ^ Basil Bulgaroktonos. 



106 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

yeveaOai avrriv Oappj^cravTeg rjj v/miJov dyiwervvr] Karaycoyiov 
€v TW KaarrpM t^9 ^lepicrarov koi irpovoetcrOai rrj? ^fiiiov 
TaTreivwarewg' 1.va ore e^eXOrj rf? e/c rov "Opov's Trapa^dWeiv 
Kai /mevciv ev tw tolovtco Karaycoyiw, 'Yjueh Se ovk eh 
TovTO ei^are [xovov r^ TaTreivwa-ei tjjULoov aXXa koi ei? aWa 
jiieii^oi/a airep ovk ^XTrH^a/uLev ireiroLriKaTe kol eScopi^a-acrOe 
tjjj.wv irpwToi/ juLev avXrjv kg] oiK^/uLara iroWd re koi 
KaXXio'Ta airep ck tou ^iKt](p6pov tou TrpcoroTraira e^a>- 
vi^cracrOe eig X<r virepirvpa, ev oig Kara^evovTe^ ore Sta 
y^pelav irape^aXXoixev ev tw Kaa-rpw Kai dvairavofjievoi 
vwepev^^ofJieOa rrj^ vjuloov o&iOTtjro^, eireiTa Se KaTavvyevTe^ 
€K Tov Oeov KOI Tr]v oLvaTTavaiv rjfjLWv 0)9 oiKeiav Xoyi^ojmevoL 
a-WTfjplav "^vyji<s e^wpr}G-a<rOe kol d/uLTreXcova KdXXicrrov koi 
€u(j)opov virap-^ovra /mev t?? jULOVtjg, KaXXeepyrjOevTa Se koi. 
(pvTevdevTa irap vjulwv [xer e^oSwv Kai kottwv ov twv 
TV)(ovTcov, ovra 'rrXivOla wael X crvv tw tov TraXaiov 
djULTreXcovog koi tov 'Trap' v/awv cpvTevOevTog cKTijULrjOeh Sid 
yapayfJLaTO^ '^vcrov XiTpag ۥ At' a ev^apiaTOvvTeg exJ 
TovTOL^ Trdort Kai virepev^ofxevoi Trjg v/mwv ev X.piarT(p dpe- 
TtJ9 ical dyioTrjTO?, e^accpaXi^oiuLeOa ctTro t?? irapovatjif 
^jULepa? lULf] eyeiv e^ova-iav koi dSeidv Tiva toov d7rdvT(t)v, 
efre e^ ^/jlcov twv vvv irepiovTwv, e'iTe twv /ueO' ^yua? ev T(p 
Opet KaTaXifXTravo/uievcov t] eXevcrojuLevoov Kivtjcriv % dycoyrjv 
olavorjiroTe irpocpacriv eyovTwv evXoyov re Kai dXoyov 
iroLeiorOai irepl Trjg eiptj/mevrjg imovrjg, virep ?? ovSe TavTa 
ypa(peiv evXoyov, dXXd Sia Trjv avvi^Oetav tjv ol dp^atoi Kai 
oXiyocTTOi eiyov ev Trj fJLOV^ irapa^aXeiv tov KaTa tvjv 
rjixepav ^yovfxevov Sid (piXiav Kai Oecr^dv dyaTrtjg diroSe- 
"^Ofxevov avTOvg, Kai edv Tig (pcopaOrj ov julovov kivcov 
irepl T^g TOiavTrjg viroQeaewg, dXXd Kai ewg y^iXov prj/maTog 
€vo-)(Xeiv rj irapairiKpalveiv e'lTC v/udg avTOv^j ehe Tovg 
v/ULerepovg SiaS6-)(^ovg Trjg TOiavTfjg eveKa v'7ro6e<Teo)g, "iva eyij 
Trjv KaTapav twv dyiwv Kai 6eo(j)6poov iraTepwv ^/uLWVi twv 
dir* aiwvog evapecTrjcravTWV tw Yivplw, Kai ecTTi Ke'^wpicrimevog 
Trjg dyiag Kai o/jloovctlov TpiaSog Kai yevijTai ij jmeplg avTOV 
fiera twv apvrjcavTwv tov vlov tov Oeov Kai a-TavpojcravTWV 
avTov, Kai fJLvj aKOvcrOai tovtov t] 'Trap' eKKXtjcriaaTiKcov 
Kavovtav tj irapa ttoXitlkwv vo/jlwv, dXXa SiwKecrOai avTov 



APPENDICES TO CHAPTEE IV 107 

CK iravTO^ KpiTtjplov ft)? OL'^apicTTOv Koi ayv<ji)fJLOva Ka\ 
apvtjTrjv Tov viov tou Oeou. KaJ ov iulopov Se tovto aWa 
Koi oaag evepyearlag Kai evTroua? epyaa-aa-Oe eig »5/xa? 
eirKTrpecpecrOaL Si-^a vojulou koi epcoriinrewg Tvpog v/ma^ koi to 
KaO rjiJLa<s imepog /mera twv elprj^evwv olKrunaroov kol tov 
afXTreXwi/og Ka). etO^ ovrwg Icryypav Kai pe^alav koi appayrj 
Kai CLKivtjTOV elvai Trjv irapovcrav ^jmwv eyypa(p6v re koi 
evw6ypa<f)ov a.(T(pa\eiav, w? aTe e/c a-vfKpcovou irapa iravTWV 
rjfjLWv yeyovviav jULCTa irpoOecrecog Kai ayainjg koi ev'^apia-Tiag 
T^9 TTpoa-riKOvcrrig. 'Ear ^e yevijTai ttotc Katpw ^ XP^v(0 
Ttjv eiprjjueptjv jULOvrjv, oirep €(tt\v aSvi/aTOV, e^' vfxwv a(paipe- 
Orjvai KOL Tri ^acTiXiKrj araKKcXr] TrpoarKvpcoOtjvaif rj eig eTCpov 
(TCKpETOv, rj TLva irpoawTrov t6t6 koi ol TOV "Opovg [jiOva')(o\ 
arvv, TO) JJpcoTw, ^^X^ Traa-tjg €v\6yov rj aXoyov SiKaioXoyiag, 
tj olaaro^TTOTe irpofpaaewg 'iva aTToarTpe^coari Ta irpoeiprnxeva 
oiKfjixaTa, airep e/c tov TrpcoTOTraTrd i^coviia-aa'Oe kcu eScop^' 
cracrOe JjimiVf irpog to KaO' v/mag fxepog Kai Trjv evayecTTaTijv 
vfjLcov Xavpav Tr]i/ Xeyofieprjv tov J^X^/mevTog, *Qg av ^ter' 
eiprjviKrjg KaTacTaarewg Kai ayairr}g TrvevjUiaTiKrjg crv^fifxev 
aXXfjXoig Ka\ a-vvSiapKovimevoi iv toj KaO' tjf^ag "Opei, 
cKTroScov yevo/mevcov Trdcrtjg (piXoveiKiag Kai oiatrSi^TroTe e^Opag 
Kai yoyyvcTjULOv irpog aXXrjXovg, Tlepl Se twv KTtjvoov Trjg 
jULOvrjg ^Tov"] ¥ioXopov KaOoog cKiraXai tcov ^oVoji/ er^oi/ 
eOog TOV ve/uLccrOai iv Tip KaO' ^/mag '^Opei Ttjv avTrjv 
crvvrjOeiav OiXofxev (j>vXaTTe(rOaL Kai eig tov ael ypovov, /mrj 
e^oi/TO? Tivog i^ovcriav KaTaXveiv to toiovtov eOog. Kai 
TavTa iuL€v irepl tovtohv* . . . 

[Then follows permission to build a house near 
the common harbour of Galiagra or Kaliagra, without, 
however, any right to the ground being given.] 

TOVTa (rvve(pwvrjOrj Ka\ eypdcjyr] koi aveyvcoarOi] KaTevcoTriov 
riiJLOdV KaTa tov 'lavovapiov /uLtjva Trjg TpicTKaiSeKaTrjg ivoi- 
KTiwvog, Kai aTToSe^ajmevoi Kai apeorOevTeg KaTa iravTa 
TrpoeTa^a/mev Kai VTreTa^a/uLev Tovg Ti^iovg aTavpovg crvv 
TOig ovo/jLaa-iv vnxiav iSiox<^lpw9 fJifjvl Kai ivSiKTi(i)Vi t^ 



108 THE MONKS AND ATHANASIUS 

TTpoyeypa/uLimev^. '^ypdcprj Se Sia ')^€ipog ^avrlvou fiovaypv 
Koi riyovixevov /novrjg tov ^iKeXou [xovayov A^ovkol erov^ 

Copied from to "^ Ay lop "Opo?, pp. 37-9. Gera- 
simos Smyrnakes gives no clue as to whether the 
original exists or whence he has obtained it. 

The same text, but omitting the signatories at 
the beginning and inserting only as far as Sre(^ai/o9 
at the end, is given by Alexandres Lauriotes in the 
Bv^avTLva XpovLKoi, vol. V, pp. 489 ff. 



HAGIOGRAPHICAL MANUSCRIPTS 



The following lists call for but little explanation. List I contains 
the names and incipits of the lives of Saints found in the library of 
the Laura on Mount Athos. For convenience I have added the 
references to similar MSS. in Rome and Paris, and further research 
would no doubt add to the number, and would probably also show 
that some of my * lives ' have actually been published. It is a pity 
that it was not possible to give the references to the actual MSS. in 
the Laura, but the librarian Chrysostomus was not willing to allow 
me the use of his catalogue for this purpose, though he was kind 
enough to give the list of the unpublished items. A complete catalogue 
of the Hagiographical MSS. on Mount Athos is greatly to be desired, 
but until it can be produced the present list may be of interest. 
List II similarly gives the unpublished lives of Saints in the library 
of Prodromou near Serres ; this is in comparison with the Laura 
a small collection, but it has some fine MSSo which the courtesy of 
the librarian allowed me to study, and to extract the unpublished 
lives of Saints. I cannot absolutely vouch for its completeness, but 
I do not think that it is probable that there is much more unpub- 
lished Hagiographical material in the library. List III gives in 
alphabetical order the writers to which the authorship of various 
lives in the preceding lists is ascribed : when not otherwise stated 
the reference is to List I. 

LIST I 

Aoepsiuuas. Passio. inc. eV cret rpiaKoari^. . . [Vat. 807*, &c.] 
Adrianus et Natalia. Passio. inc. Ma^ifiiviavov tov Tvpdvvov ... 
Aecatherina. Passio. inc. tov jrapavofiov koX dae^ea-Tdrov . . . [Par. 

1180", &c.] 
Agathonicus. Passio. inc. Ma^ipiavos 6 ^ao-iXevs . . . 
Alexius (6 avOpatrros tov Beov). Vita. inc. eyevcTO dvqp elae^f): . . . 

[Vat. 866^«, &c.] 
Alypius. Vita. inc. kuXoI p,ev koL oi t5>v fiapTvpav . . . [Vat. 805^, &c. ; 

Par. 579^ &c.] 
Anastaaia. Vita. inc. kuto. tovs Kaipovs . . . [Vat. 866^^, &c.] 
Andreas Cretensis. Vita a Niceta Patricio, inc. ov Otpntov ea-n ... i' 
Anthimus. Passio. inc. ^aa-iXevopTos to TrjviKavTa . . . [Par. 1506'.] 



110 HAGIOGEAPHICAL MSS. 

Arsenius. Vita. inc. noWai tS)v (nrovbaiav . . . [Vat. 819' ; Par. 

1548S &c.] 
Artemius. Passio. inc. ^amXevovros'lovXiavov . . . [Par. 769^ &c.] 
Athenogenes. Passio. inc. enl AioK>.r)Tiavov . . . [Par. 1447 1^, &c.] 
Auxentius. 1. Vita a Psello. inc. apxn nev Tjfiip . . . [Vat. 672^] 

2. Vita. inc. Ka\o\ fiev koi ol 6^ aX\o8an^s . . , 
Basiliscus. Passio. inc. Kara tovs Kaipovs ttjs ^aariXeias Ma^ifiiavoij . . . 
Bendemianus. Passio. inc. t6 cap (})i\ov(nv . . . 
Blasius. Passio. inc. B\d<rios 6 fxdprvs . . . [Vat. 1245^ &c.] 
Cerycus et lulitta. Encomium a Niceta rhetore. inc. &<xir€p ovk 

?o-n... [Vat. 82020.] 
Charalampius. Passio. inc. ^aa-iXevotnos tov Kvpiov rjp.a)v . . . 

[Ottob. 92^2; Par. 1452".] 
Christina. Passio. inc. rr]v Xpia-Twwfiov ... 
ChristophoruB. Passio a Petro Italo. inc. AeKiov Trjv avroKparopa . . . 

desin. t« rris ^corjs aprco. 
Colntus. Passio. inc. arecfyavos fiev ovv . . . 
Conon. Passio. inc. ttoKiv 6 rrji Svao-ejSoiJy Triareeos ... 
Constantinus Imp. 1. Vita et inventio Crucis. inc. tov tov 

fiaKapi(OTdrov . . . [Vat. 974S &c. ; Par. 1453", &c.] 

2. Encomium a Constantino Acropolita. inc. apd ns fiae^eias 
CvXov avxS>v . . . [Par. 978".] 

3. Vita. inc. to. KdXKKTra tcov dirjyqfidTwv . . . 
Cosmas Acropolita. Vita. inc. vo/jlos eVrl TraXaiS? . . . 

Cosmas et Damianus. 1. Vita. inc. rov Kvpiov rjpav 'It/o-oD 

XpLO-TOV . . . 
2. Vita. inc. Kara tovs Kaipovs eKclvovs . . . 
Cyrus et lohannes. Vita. inc. 6 p.h acoTrjpios \6yos . . . 
Cyrillus ep. Alexandriae. Hypomnema ab lohanne Zonara. inc. 

apdr} fiiv 6 'no\v)(€vp.aiv . . . 
Cyrillus Philectus. Vita a Nicola Catasoepeno. inc. evXoyrjros 

6 6f6s . . . 
Demetrius. 1. Passio. inc. ore Ma^ipnavhs 6 ^aa-iXevs . . . 

2. Encomium ab lohanne Stauracio. [Vat. 1572*, &c. ; Par. 
148511, &c.] 

3. Encomium a Gregorio Palama. inc. e/xoi de Xiav. 
Dionyaius Areopagita. Encomium a Niceta Rhetore. inc. i^ opovs 

fiev . . . 

Dometius Persa. Passio. inc. rjveyKc p.h fj Uepaav ... 
Sleutherius. Passio. inc. dvaXva-avTos 'Adpiavov . . . 
Euphemia. 1. Vita. inc. ev ttj XaXKr^boveav . . . [Vat. 797^] 

2. Encomium a Theodoro Vestro (BeVrpou). inc. tls wttj rj dva- 
^aivova-a . . . 
Eupraxla. Vita ab lohanne Zonara. inc. yvpaUa dvBpeiav . . . 



HAGIOGRAPHICAL MSS. Ill 

Fausta, Euclasius, Maximinus. Passio. inc. kut eKclvov t6v 

Kaipov ... 

Georgius. 1. Encomium ab Arcadio Cyprio. inc. (rvyxaXfi TraXiv 

r]nas ... 

2. Encomium a Qeorgio Acropolita. inc. koL tU &v rrapadpdfioi . . . 

3. Nativitas, Vita et Passio. inc. ttoWoI fiev ovv dvbpSov dpia-Tcup . . . 
Gregorius Sinaita. Vita a Callisto Patriarclia. inc. ovtos 6 8ia(f)apf)s 

aarrjp . . . [Cf. BHG., p. 52.] 
Hilarion. Vita. inc. iv UaXaiarlvrj iroXis icrrXv . . . [Vat. 798^*, &c. ; 

Par. 1480^^ &c.] 
lacobus frater domini. Encomium a 19'ioeta Rhetore.^ inc. w? 

ykvKfla . . . [Par. 755^*, &c.] 
lacobus Persa. 1. Passio. inc. *ApKabiov ra *Pe>fiai<av . . . 

2. Passio. inc. rrjs t&v 'Payfiaioav y^s ... 

3. Passio. inc. kot' tKeivov t6v Kaipov . . . 

Isaacius, Faustus et Dalmatia. Vita. inc. 6 fi4yag ovtos koI 

Oavpaa-Tos . . . 
Isidorus. Passio. inc. Kara rfjv npiav koI evOeov . . . [Cf. Vat. 

2083l^ &c.] 
lohannes Apostolus. 1. Translatio. inc. tov Kvpiov rjpMv 'Ijjo-oO 

Xpiarnv . . . 
2. Encomium a Proclo. inc. ol p.€V aXXoi evayyeXiiTToi . . . [Vat. 

82r^ &c.] 

lohannes Baptista. 1. Encomium ab Aetio presbytero Constanti- 
nopolitano. inc. rroXXoi /xeV fjdT) ... 

2. Translatio manus a Theodoro Daphnopato. inc. Idoit koi 
ndXtv ^plv . . . [Vat. 823l^ &c. ; Par. 1449", &c.] 

3. Decollatio a Theodoro Ptochoprodromo. inc. KoKSis f<f)rip- 
pocrav . . . 

4. Decollatio. inc. kokov cotiv . . . 

5. a Simeone Logotheta. inc. ^ladwov t6 p.iya kXcos . . . 

6. Inventio. inc. 6 dyadorqn koL ^CXavBpoama . . . 

lohannes Climacus. Encomium a Niceta Rhetore. inc. ovdev 

Tipio)T€pov dp^Tris . . . [Par. 755^^.] 
lulianus. Passio. inc. ^ia dicaypov . . . [Vat. 1667^^.] 
Ijaurentius. Passio. inc. eldaXiKov ttotc xXuScoj/oy . . . desin. dyiararoi 

jxdprvpfs. 
Lazarus Galesiota. 1. Vita. inc. 6 nXdaas Kara p.6vas . . . desin. 

. . . aVTT] T] TToXlTCia, OVTOS 6 /3lOS. 

2. Vita a Qeorgio vel Gregorio Xiphilino. inc. 6 t5)v Kara 6ebv . . . 
desin. . . . kcu OeocfiiXcos bLavvaavTes. 

' This justifies the inscriptions in a later hand in cod. Par. 755. 
Cf. Catal. Gr. Paris., ad loc. 



112 HAGIOGRAPHICAL MSS. 

Ijuoas apostolus. 1*. Encomium a Niceta rhetore. inc. a> X«/i- 
irpoTTjs . . . desin. , . . evficvMs rovri rb ^paxy. 
1^. Encomium a Niceta Rhetore. inc. Z> XafiirpoTTjs^ 2> aw^a-is . . . 
desin. . . . rf} iv aoi tov 7rvevp,aT0S x^pf-T^- 

2. Vita. inc. rals p.v fiats Ta>v aylav . . . 

3. Encomium ab Hesychio Hierosolymitano presbytero. inc. (p6^(o 
TOV o-Kanav . . . 

TVTaTnas. Passio. inc. tovs rav dylav fiapTvpcov TTovovs . . . desin. 

, . . epapTvprjae de 6 ayios Mdfias. [Par. 772^, &C.] 
Marcianus et Martyrius. Passio. inc. eyevero /xtra t6 TfkeioiOrjvaL 

TOV fiaKapiaraTOv *A\€^av8pov . . . desin. . . . ereXerndqcrav ovv ol aytoi. 

[Par. 146828.] 
Maria Magdalena. Vita. inc. iyo> roiis efie <pi\ovvTas . . . desin. 

, . . (f)i\oTipr]s Karedero. 

Haria Junior. Vita et miracula. inc. eVi Ta>v Z^atOtv . •. . desin. 

. . . voaov dTTaWayrjV. [Vat. 800^] 
Marina. 1. Passio. inc. ovSeV ovtws ri^vuti . . , desin. . . . cx^i^ 

npfcr^evovaav. [Vat. 820^1 ; Coislin. 3078^] 
2. Encomium a Qregorio Cyprio. inc. K.a\ rrjv eKKkrja-iav apa . . . 

[Palat. 59*, &c. ; Par. 83P.] 
Martinianus. 1. Vita. inc. ov rpoTzov . . . desin. . . . rw Trdvrav 

d^aTTdTTj. [Vat. 800«, &c. ; Par. 1450'".] 
2. Vita. inc. eyyiara r^y ttoXccos HaXaKTTivrjs opos ecTTt KaXovfifvou 

TOTTos Ki^oiTov . . . [Vat. 866^''^ &c.] 
Martyres XL. 1. Passio. inc. Kara tovs Kaipovs , . . [Par. 1164^, &c.] 
2. Passio. inc. et^^f /xev rd 'Pafiaicov . . . [Vat. 1245'°, &c. ; Par. 

772'*, &c.] 
Meletius Galesiota. Vita. inc. biovrai fiep kuv toIs aXXoi? . . . 
Menas, Hermogenes, Eugraphus. Passio ab Athanasio Alexan- 

drino. inc. Trjs tov Xpiarov x^P^^of . . . [Vat. 821^^ &c. ; Par. 

Coisl. 368^ &c.] 
Menas in Cotnaeo. 1. Passio. inc. stovs devrepov t^s ^atrtXeias . . . 

[Vat. 803«, &c. ; Par. 1454".] 

2. Miracula. inc. ^v tis yvvq . . . 

3. Miracula, a Timotheo Alexandrino. inc. eyepcTo fxcTd tijv 
T€\evTf]v . . . [Vat. 79723, &c. ; Par. 1454^5, &c.] 

Menodora, Metrodora, Nymphodora. Passio. inc. ^8tj fih tov 

TfXe/ou , . , desin. , » . ipapTvpj](rav hk ai dyioi. 
Merciirius. 1. Passio. inc. Ackios fjviKa kuI BaWepiavos . . . desin. 

. . . Koi TOV avTov fidpTvpa MfpKovpiov. [Vat. 805^, &c. ; Par. 579^, &c.] 
•2. Passio. inc. Ackios rjviKa . . . desin. . . . kol 6f pandas dm'Ka^ov. 
Michael archangelus. Miraculum in Chonis a Pantoleone diacono. 

inc. peydXai Ka\ TroXXat . . . desin. . . . Kal KpoTTjaei ttJs de^ids. 

[Vat. 654*, &c.; Par. 50P, &c.] 



HAGIOGRAPHICAL MSS. 113 

Michael (laixariKos) Hypomnema. inc. ovros 6 fiaKcipios . . . desin, 

. . . ovTca do^d^fi 6 Bfos. 
Moses Aethiops. Encomium, inc. &(rmp abvvarov . . . desin. . . . o5 

rais oa-iais fvxait. [Par. 1453^*.] 
K ephon Halmyropolitanus. Vita. inc. fiva-rfipiov /SaortXcox Kpvtrrav . . . 

desin, fVeXcKodi; 6 oaios ^f](f>oiv. 
N'ephon {Ka>v<TTavTiavrjs), Vita (epitome?), inc. el fivarfjpiop /SaatXctf^ , . • 

desin. , » , iv roJ i/ac5 Ta)V &yl(ov dTrocrrdXcov. 
Nioephorus. Passio. inc. ovhcv eoiiceu dydirrjt . . . desin. , , . Koa-prf 

eijmi <TT€(t)dvois. [Vat. 1245», &c. ; Par. 1500^ &c.] 
M'ioetas. 1. Passio. inc. tup dylav jxaprvpav * . . desin. . . . <x'*'' 

\6yov ra viKtjrrjpia. [Par. 520^, &C.] 

2. Sermo a Theodoro Mousaloni. mc. peya n itiy/xa . . . desin. 
. . . Koi rjfJLWv de airap. 

3. Passio. inc. iv rali fjfiepais €K€ipms . . . desin. ... 17 fie Kora^eatr 
T^y TOiavTTjs nerpas. 

Nicolaus Myrensis. 1. Vita, itic, drrapras fiip . . . desin. , . . aypoiKot 

Tis rS>p rds €(r\aTid5 olKovprayp. 
2. Encomium a Basilio Lacedaemoniensi. inc. ol t&p dptrStp . . . 

desin. . . . top 6fbp iXecor. 
Onuphrius. 1. Vita. inc. dperrfs etraipos . . . desin. . . • koi pLep.prjpxpov. 

2. Vita. inc. Betas dydnrjs koi epcoros . . . desin. . . . rjpas atoaafiepovt. 
[Par. 1170M 

3. Vita (et Paphnutii). inc. tXeyop irepl rov dfi^a , . . desin. 
. . . Koii iroirjo-avres evxriP. 

PaohomiUB. 1. Vita. inc. 6 Kvpiot rjfiap *lrj(rovs Xpiarhs koi mfyfi . . , 

desin. . , . els (rjXop airrap epayoixeda. [Vat. 819*, &C. ; Par, 

88P, &C.3 
2. Vita et miracula. inc. opras dXrjB^s ^ BpvWofUpij . . . desin. 

, » , els pip.ifO'ip Koi axf>€\eiap. 
Paisius. Vita a lohanne Kolobo. inc. Sxrrrep ra repnpa rov fiiov . . . 

desin. . . . ravra elprjaSa). [Par. 1093*, &c.] 
Panteleemon. Encomium a Nioeta rhetore. inc. Bavpxurrbs 6 6e6s . . , 

desin ^Kyopos. [Vat. 679^* ; Par. 1180'°.] 

Paulus apostolus. Encomium a Nioeta rhetore. inc. iraa-a fiev 

eopTTj . , . desin. . . . koi ep ovpapois. [Par. 755*.] 
Paiilus et Petrus. Encomium a Qeorgio Acropolita. inc. olx 

diiKSiS fxep . . . desin. . . . onov rj Xapirpdrqs. 
Petrus apostolus. 1. Encomium a Nioeta rhetore. inc. ^fieta r^s 

TjfjJpas T) x^P^^ • • ' desin. . . . avp rj/xip e^ofxoXoyovfxai. 
2 (SKvais). inc. ofroi tw tov KOpv(t)aiov . . . desin. , . . Kal efieydikwas. 

[Vat. 817", &c. ; Par! 236^, &c.] 
Petrus et reliqui apostoli. Encomium a Nioeta rhetore. inc. ri KaXff 

TTJs eKKkrjaias rj rd^is . . . desin. . . . viro {^vyop epa. 

LAKE. II. A. H 



114 HAGIOGRAPHIGAL MSS. 

PhllemoQ. Vita. inc. tXeyov nepl tov d^^a *tX»)/xoi/os . . . desin. 
. . . TO KokovfXfvov fioKaKiov. 

Fhilippus Apostolus. Encomium, inc. anoaToXiKrjs fivT)(rdrjvai . . , 
desin. ... to fivijfioa-wd <rov navrjyvpi^ofitv. [Par. Coisl. 12P*.] 

Fhocaa. Passio ab Asterio Amasiae. inc. Ifp6s pLtv Ka\ Oecnrea-ios . . . 
desin KrjpirTovaa Kvpiov. [Vat. 79420, &c. ; Par. 1489", &c.] 

Probus, Taraohus, Andronicus. Epistola XI fratrum. inc. ndp.- 
0tXor Koi MapKicov . . . desin. . . , rfj €v6vtt]ti kol rov Kvpiov r]p,S»v 

*It](TOV XpKTTOV. 

Proolus et Hilarius. Passio. inc. eyivero enl Ma^ifuavoii . . . desin. 

. . . fiera tov dyiov LIpoKkov. 
Sabbas. Vita. inc. ov8h ovra Kp^a-ai . . . desin, . . , koi dpijvaiav 

diayuiyfjv. [Vat. 812^ &c. ; Par. 1195^ &c.] 
Sabbas Vatopedinus. Vita a Philotheo Constantinopolitano. inc. 

2aj3j3af 6 6avpud(Tios . . . desin. , . . Koi doTaa-iacrrov. 
Sadoth. Passio. inc. fxeTa t6 TeXfo-drjpai . . . desin. . . . iv n-dXtt 

KaXovfjJvT) BriBXaTrdr. [Vat. Ottob. 92'* ; Par. 1452".] 
Sergius et Bacchus. Passio. inc. €tos tjvv^to . . . desin. . . . irpoaTd" 

■yfuiTt Bfov, 
Silvester Romanus, Vita. inc. ol fih atTnol . . . desin. . . . iro\\S>p 

Kafxdroiv. [Vat. 81611; Par. Coisl. 3073.] 
Sophronius Hierosolymitanus. Encomium ab lohanne Zonara. 

inc. ol To7s $€ols Koi fxaKapioie . . . desin, . . . noda Trpatav. 
StephanuB Junior. Vita. inc. 6ti6v ti xp^P-^ V "P*'"'? • • • desin. ... 17 

Koi Tjfxfls napa(rTair}p.sv. [Vat. 505*^ &C. ; Par. 436', &C.] 
Stephanus protomartyr. 1. Hypomnema. inc. 8ta t^v tov <raTrjpos . . . 

desin. . . . fieTidrjKav to Xelyj^ava. 
2. Translatio a Psello. inc. 6 Kvpios f}fiav 'irjaovs Xptaros . . . desin. 

. . . Kai dpTtXrjTTTopos 2re</>avov. 
8. Passio. inc. fytPtTo Kara top Kaipop tKfipop . . . desin. . . . trfXiiotBrj 

df 6 ayios npandpiapTVi. [Vat. 679".] 
4. Translatio. inc. Kai irSig ap tis alTias . . . desin. . , . rov napdypov 

crov (TCifJiaTos. 
Stephanus Romanus. Passio. inc. <cara tovs xp^povs OvoKXepiapov . . . 

desin. . . . p.opds. [Par. Suppl. 241^] 
Symeon h t^ Bav/jLaar^ opei. 1. Vita a Claudio(?) Cyprio. inc. 

(vXoyrjTos 6 Bebs 6 ndpras BeXap . . . desin. . . . &vyKaTapiBp.r]Ba>fitp 

Tois evap€(TTrjcra(ri. 
2. Vita, inc, 'Iovo-tIpov tov TraXat . . . desin. . . . (PTvyxdpfi vTrep 

fjixSiP. 
Symeon Junior Theologus. Vita. inc. XP^H^ Bfpp.op dpcT^ . . . desin. 

. . . fmdeiKPvaip iKKXijcria. [Par. 1610 ; cf. Combefis, Bibliotheca 

graecorum Patrum auctarium novissimum, ii, 119-29.] 
Symeon Stylites. Vita ab Antonio, inc. $€pop koI TrapdSo^op . . . 

desin. . . . eVtTfXoCi/Ta* toIs ma-To'is. [Vat. 797', &c. ; Par. 760*, &c.] 



HAGIOGEAPHICAL MSS. 116 

Theodorus Stratelates. 1. Passio. inc. Aikivim t^ /Sao-tXet . . . [Vat. 

820\&c.; Par. 976', &c.] 
2. Encomium ab Buthymio. inc. to toO Oeov hStpov . . . 
Theodorus Tyro. 1. Passio. inc. Ma^ifxiavos koI Ma^tnivos ol ^aai' 

X«ff... [Par. 520^*?] 
2. Passio (?) [(Is TO TTpSnTov "Sd^fiarov tS>v titjaretSiv^. inc. Ma^tiuava 

Kal Maiifia . . . [Vat. 12458.] 
Theodosia encomium a Staurioio Chartophylaci Thessalonicensi, 

inc. 6 \6yos rrjs 6pdo8o^ias . . . 
Timotheus Apostolus. Encomium a Niceta rhetore. inc. ri bai 6 

TifioSfos . . . desin. . . . elp^vrjs koi arwTTjpias, [Par. 755*^] 
Trypho. Passio. inc. 6 ^lo$■ toC dyiov p.dpTvpos . . . desin. , , , koi 

KXavBiov 'AkvXivov. [Vat. Ottob. 92'.] 
Xene Rom ana. Vita. inc. naarai ai jroXiTelat . . . desin. . . . dfKJMTfpoi 

dyaX\6p€voi. [Vat. 866^°«; Par. 1219^'>.] 
Xenophon. Vita. inc. Sirjy^a-aTo ns pu^yas yepoav . . . desin. . . . Ipa 

/ii) rfi a/ieXf/a icai paOvyiia. [Vat. 866^", &C. ; Par. 1313', &C.] 



LIST II 

Alypius. Nov. 26. [A. 35.*] inc. KaXol fieV koi oi rav paprvpmv 

affKoi . . . desin. . . . rov tovs avrov depdnovras bo^dCopra . . . kt\. 

[Codd. Vat. 805', &c. ; Par. 579«.] 
Andreas Cretensis. Encomium. Jul. 4. [A. 40.] inc. Mcya av$payrros 

Kal ripiov dvrjp . . . desin. . . . Xijieva (TfOTrjpiov . . . 
Anna. Sermo in conceptionem S, Annae ab Euthymio monacho et 

syncello. Dec. 9. [A. 36, A. 37.] inc. Irjpfpov 6 aKardXi/TTTOff . . , 

desin. . . . TrpoeXOouros Xpiarov rov dXrjBivov . . . ktX. 
Barbara. Encomium. Dec. 4. [A. 36.] inc. IloXXai fiev ai Kara 

rdvde TOP fiiop . . . desin. . . . koi tovs poaovs i^darafre Koi xmkp rjpiSiu 

pepaXdKicrTai. 

Constantinus Imp. Hypomnema. Mai. 21. [A. 40.] inc. "Oa-oi pxv 
Ta>v dp9pa>7r(OP to apx€ip . . . desin. . . . naPTaxov yi]S dvr]y(p6r](rap, 

£piphanius. Mai. 12. [A. 40.] inc. tS>p ip ovpapols dnoypayfrapfpoip . . . 
desin. . . . dpTiKciptpap avroi alpfTiKoip. Apparently a late docu- 
ment based on the accounts of lohannes and Polybius (B. 1 and 
B. 2). 

Tebronia. lun. 25. [A. 40.] inc. Olbh r^r npos Gcov dydirrjs . . . 
desin. . . . ToiavTa to. vnep avT^s ye pa ktX. 

laoobus Persa. Nov. 27. [A. 35.] inc. 'ApKablov to. 'Fcopaiap hUiropTos 
(TK^TTTpa . . , desin. . . . nap* avTov tS>p ^paPelcop d^ioj^ijo-erm. 
[Codd. Vat. 805", &c.; Par. 5791^] 

1 The shelf-number in the library of Prodromou. 

h2 



116 HAGIOGEAPHICAL MSS. 

lohannes Calybita. Jan. 14. [A. 39.] inc. TvpawiKov n xplf^ 
TfKovTOiv . . . desin, , , . to devbpov o-KoXovOou Tca Kapir^ els do^av kt\. 
[Codd. Vat. 793", &c. ; Par. 236^ &c.] 

MaximUB Aug. 13. [A. 40.] inc. 'HpaicKeiov rav a-tcffTrrpcov . . . desin. 
. . . avaBtfiari, xmo^oKei ktX, 

MercuriuB. Martyrium. Nov. 26. [A. 35.] tnc. Ackios rjvUa Ka\ 
Ba\€ptav6s 6 p.ev cm ratv aKrinrpav . , , desin. . . . n/xivrcff 8t Kai rov 
avTov pApTvpa MepKovpiov , . . <crX. [Codd. Vat. 805^, &c. ; Par. 
579», &c.] 

Michael archangelus. Narratio Pantoleonis diaconi. Nov. 8. 
[A. 34.] inc. MfydXai koi noiKikai koi ttoWoX . . . desin, , . . x^P'-ti- 
Kal (fiikavdpcoTria. tov Kvpiov. Contains stories relating to Satan, 
Adam, Abraham, Balaam, the body of Moses, Joshua, Gideon, 
Goliath, Sennacherib, Constantine, the Argonauts, &c. [Codd. 
Vat. 654*, &c. ; Par. 501«, &c.] 

Onuphrios Jun. 12. [A. 40.] inc. 'Apfnjs enaivos . . . desin. 

. . . fJ.€fJLVr)p.tVOVS (TOV , . . ktX. 

FaohomiuB. Encomium. Mai. 15. [A. 40.] inc. To ttjs dKovofuas 

6vTas fivarrjpiop , . . desin. . . . Kara tS>v daifxavtop apiarevfrnra ktX. 
Fetrus. \6yos ds rfjv 7rpo(TKvvr](riv rrjs rifiias dXixreas rov dy. koi Kopvcjy. 

r. diroar. 11. Jan. 16. [A. 39.] inc. 'Oaot rep rov Kopv<f)aiov . . . 

desin. . . . biaviapifv ^iov do^dCovTfs . . . ktX. [Codd. Vat. 817®, 

&c. ; Par. 236", &c.] 
Phocas hortulanus. Sept. 22. [A. 31, A. 32, A. 33.] inc. 'Up6s fiev 

Koi 6e(T7r€<Tios arras 6 tS>v yevvaioiv finprvptav KaraKoyos . . . desin. as 

the text in Acta SS. Sept. vi. 294-9. Apparently only a divergent. 

text of the ordinary encomium of Asterius. 
Saba. Dec. 5. [A. 86.] inc. Ovdev ovra Kivrjirai, yf/vx^jv , . . desin. 

. . . elprjvaiov diayioyfjv x^P^'^^ • • • 'f'"^* [Codd. Vat. 812^*, &c. ; Par. 

1195^°, &c.] 
Stephanus Junior. Nov. 28. [A. 35.] inc. Oelov n xPVf^ h ^p^rrj Kal 

iro\\S>v a^ia . . . desin. ... ,7 koI vpas napiarair}p€v «u;(aiy avrov , . . 

kt\. [Codd. Vat. 805", &c. ; Par. 4361] 
ThomaB. Hypomnema. Oct. 6. [A. 33.] inc. Tldkai pep ras Kara 

yrjp . . . desin. . . . rov poijtov fjXiov KaOapats fneXdpyjraTo. [Codd. 

Vat. 798', &c. ; Par. 774^^ &c. ; Begin. 56* ; Ottob. 399*.] 



HAGIOGRAPHICAL MSS. 117 



LIST III 

Aetius lohannes Bapt. 

Antonius Symeon Stylites. 

Arcadius Cyprius Georgiua. 

Asterius Phocaa. 

Athanasius Alexandrinus Menas. 

Basilius Lacedaemoniensis Nicolaus Myrensis. 

Callistus Patriarcha Gregorius Sinaita* 

Claudius Cyprius Symeon iv ra OavfiatrTa opet, 

Constantinus Acropolita Constantinus Imp. 

Euthymius Theodorus Stratelates, Anna 

(Prodromou). 

Georgius vel Gregorius Xiphilinus . . Lazarus Galesiota. 

Georgius Acropolita Georgius, Paulus at Petrus. 

Gregorius Cyprius Marina. 

Gregorius Palamas Demetrius. 

lohannes Kolobos Paisius. 

lohannes Stauricius Demetrius. 

lohannes Zonara Eupraxia, Cyrillus Alex., 

Sophronius. 

Nicetas Patricius Andreas Cretensis. 

Nicetas Rhetor Cerycus et Iulitta,Iacobu8Fr. 

Dom., Dionysius Areopa- 
gita, lohannes Climac^s, 
Lucas Apost., Pantelee- 
mon, Paulus Apost., Petrus 
Apost., Petrus et reliqui 
apostoli, Timotheus. 

Nicolas Catascepenus Cyrillus Philectus. 

Pantoleo Diaconus Michael (in both libraries). 

Petrus Italus Christophorus. 

Philotheus Constantinopolitanus . . Sabbas Vatopedinus. 

Proclus lohannes Apost. 

Psellus Auxentius, Stephanus. 

Simon Logotheta lohannes Bapt. 

Stauricius Theodosia. 

Theodorus Daphnopatus lohannes Bapt. 

Theodorus Mousalon Nicetas. 

Theodorus Ptochoprodromus .... lohannes Bapt. 

Theodorus Vestrus Euphemia. 

Timotheus Alexandrinus Menas. 



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